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By C. D. YONGE, B. A. 








• &■ 




ThePhagesia — Fish — Epicures — Cooks — Sharks — Fish — 6laucus — Eels 
—The Tunny-fish— Fish— Pike— Fish— The Polypus . . 433—521 


Aquatic Animals — Fish — ^Eeoommendations to present Enjoyment- 
Fish — Hyperides — Epicures — Stratonicus — Aristotle — Aristotle's 
Natural History — Fish — The Swallow — Ephesus— Names of Feasts 
—Feasts— The Dole-basket 523—576 

The words ToKcpJs and Xlmn — The word Jlapoiliis — Turnips — Cabbage- 
— Leeks — ^Poultry — Anaxandrides — Pigs — Cooks — Use of particular 
Words — Learned Cooks — Cooks — Use of particular Words — ^Made 
Dishes— Pheasants — The Porphyrion — Partridges — The Bustard — 
Sparrows — Quails — Pigeons — Ducks — Sucklings — Attic form of 
Nouns in as — Loins — Hares — The word 'Siaypos — Dinners — Cookery 
— Chamseleou— Bean Soup — Soap— Towels 676—648 

Ulysses — Voracity of certain Persons— Of Mithridates— Of the Boe- 
otians — Of the Thessalians — Menedemus — Praise of Temperance — 
Stilpo — Mixing Wine — Cupbearers— Drinking — The Proportions of 
Mixed Wine — Drinking — Wine — Lacedaemonian Fashions — Thirst — 
Philip of Macedon — ^Arcadion — Dionysius — Antiochus Epiphanes — 
Demetrius — Female Drinkers — The lUyrians— Evils of Drunkenness 
Forms of Ulva — Tp7(poi — ^Eiddles — Fpi^oi — Euripides — TpTfot — Enig- 
matical Sayings — Capping Verses— rpTcfot 648—725 

Cups— Drinking Pledges— Athenian Banquets — Drinking.cnps— The 
Pleiades — Meaning of particular Words— Drinking-cups — Plato. 


C. 2.] THE PHAGBSIA. 433 


1. And when the Banquet was now finished, the cynics, 
thinking that the festival of the Phagesia was being cele- 
brated, were deUghted above all things, and Cynulcus said, 
— While we are supping, O Ulpian, since it is on words that 
you are feasting us, I propose to you this question, — In what 
author do you find any mention of the festivals called Pha- 
gesia, and Phagesiposia ? And he, hesitating, and bidding 
the slaves desist from carrying the dishes round, though it 
was now evening, said, — I do not recollect, I you very wise 
man, so that you may t«ll us yourself, in order that you may 
sup more abundantly and more pleasantly. And he rejoined, 
— If you will promise to thank me when I have told you, I 
will teU you. And as he agreed to thank him, he continued ; 
— Clearchus, the pupil of Aristotle, but a Solensian by birth, 
in the first book of his treatise on Pictures, (for I recollect 
his very expressions, because I took a great fancy to them,) 
speaks as follows : — " Phagesia — but some caU the festival 
Phagesiposia — but this festival has ceased, as also has that of 
the Ehapsodists, which they celebrated about the time of the 
Dionysiac festival, in which every one as they passed by sang 
a hymn to the god by way of doing him •honour." This is 
what Clearchus wrote. And if you doubt it, my friend, I, 
who have got the book, will not mind lending it to you. And 
you may learn a good deal from it, and get a great many 
questions to ask us out of it. For he relates that CaUias the 
Athenian composed a Grammatical Tragedy, from which 
Euripides in his Medea, and Sophocles in his (Sidipus, derived 
their choruses and the arrangement of their plot. 

2. And when all the guests marvelled at the literary 
accomplishments of Cynulcus, Plutarch said, — In like manner 
there used to be celebrated in mj own Alexandria a Flagon- 
bearing festival, which is mentioned by Eratosthenes in 
his treatise entitled Arsinoe. And he speaks as follows : — 
" When Ptolemy was instituting a festival and aU kinds of 



sacrifices, and especially those which relate to Bacchus, Arsinoe 
asked the man who bore the branches, what day he was cele- 
brating now, and what festival it was. And when he replied, 
'It is called the Lagynophoria ; arid the guests lie down 
on beds and so eat aU that they have brought with them, 
and every one drinks out of his own flagon which he has 
brought from home;' and when he had departed, she, looking 
towards us, said, ' It seems a very dirty kind of party ) for it 
is quite evident that it must be an assembly of a mixed mul- 
titude, all putting down stale food, and such as is altogether 
unseasonable and unbecoming.' But if the kind of feast had 
pleased her, then the queen would not have objected to pre- 
paring the very same things herself, as is done at the festival 
called Choes. For there every one feasts separately, and the 
inviter only supplies the materials for the feast." 

3. But one of the Grammarians who were present, looking 
on the preparation of the feast, said, — In the next place, how 
shall we ever be able to eat so large a supper ? Perhaps we 
are to go on " during the night," as that witty writer Aris- 
tophanes says in bis ^olosicon, where however his expression 
is " during the whole night." And, indeed. Homer uses the 
preposition Sta in the same way, for he says — 

He lay Trithiu the cave stretch'd o'er the sheep (Sick /jiiiXav) ; 

where Sta /f^Xcuv means "over all the sheep," indicating the size 
of the giant. And Daphnus the physician answered him; Meals 
taken late at night, my friend, are more advantageous for 
everybody; For the influence of the moon is well adapted to 
promote the digestion of food, since the moon has putrefying 
properties; and digestion depends upon putrefaction. Accord-' 
ingly victims slain at night are more digestiHe; and wood 
which is cut down by moonlight decays more rapidly. And 
also the greater proportion of fruits ripen by moonlight. 

4. But since there were great many sorts of fish, and 
those very difierent both as to size and beauty, which had 
been served up and which were still being constantly served 
up. for the guests, Myrtilus said, — Although all the difierent 
dishes which we eat, besides the regular meal, are properly 
called by one generic name, oij/ov, still it is very deservedly 
that on account of its delicious taste fish has prevailed over 
everything else, and has appropriated the name to itself; 

c. 5.] FISH. 435 

because men are so exceedingly enamoured ;of this kind of 
food. Accordingly -we speak of men as oipoffxiyoL, not meaning 
people who eat beef (such as Hercules -vras, who ate beef and 
green figs mixed together); nor do we mean by such a term 
a man who is fond of figs; as was Plato the philosopher, 
according to the account given of him by Phanocritus in his 
treatise on the Glorious : and he tells us in the same book 
that Arcesilas was fond of grapes : but we mean by the term 
only those people who haunt the fish-market. And PhUip of 
Macedon was fond of apples, and so was his son Alexander, as 
Dorotheus tells us in the sixth book of his history of the 
Life and Actions of Alexander. But Chares of Mitylene 
relates that Alexander, having found the finest apples which 
he had ever seen in the country around Babylon, filled boats 
with them, and had a battle of apples from the vessels, so as 
to present a most beautiful spectacle. And I am not igno- 
rant that, properly speaking, whatever is prepared for being 
eaten by the agency of fire is called oi^ov. For indeed the 
word is either identical with efov, or else perhaps it is derived 
from orrrati), to roast. 

5. Since then there are a great many different kinds of fish 
which we eat at different seasons, my most admirable Timo- 
crates, (for, as Sophocles says — 

A choms too of voiceless fish msb'd on, 
Making a noise witli their quick moving tails. 

The tails not fawning on their mistress, but beating against 
the dish. And as Aohaeus says in his Fates — 

There was a mighty mass of the sea-bom herd — 
A spectacle which fill'd the wat'ry waste, 
Breaking the silence with their rapid tails ;) 

I win now recapitulate to you what the Deipnosophists said 
about each : for each of them brought to the discussion of 
the subject some contribution of quotation from books ; 
though I wiU not mention the names of all who took part in 
the conversation, they were so numerous. 
Amphis says in his Leucas: — 

Whoever bays some irfiop for his supper. 
And, when he might get real genuine fish, 
Contents himself with radishes, is mad. 

And that you may find it easy to remember what was said, 

I wiU arrange the names in alphabetical order. For as 

F F 2 


Sophocles, in his Ajax Mastigophorus, called fish iXXot, 

• He gave him to the iWol txSves to eat ; 
one of- the company asked whether any one before Sophocles 
ever used this word j to whom Zoilus replied, — But I, who am 
not a person 6i/'o^ayioTaTos [exceedingly fond of fish], (for 
that is a word which Xenophon has used in his Memorabilia, 
where he writes, " He is 6ij/ocj)ayuTTaTOi and the greatest fool 
possible,") am well aware that the man who wrote the poem 
Tit-anomachia [or the Battle of the Giants], whether he be 
Eumelus the Corinthian, or Arctinus, or whatever else his 
name may chance to have been, in the second book of his 
poem speaks thus — 

In it did swim the gold-faced 4\\ol IxBies, 
._ And sported in the sea's ambrosial depths. 3 

•And Sophocles was very fond of the Epic Cycle, so that he 
composed even entire plays in which he has followed the 
stories told in their fables. 

6. Presently when the tunnies called Amite were put oa 
the table, some one said, — Aristotle speaks Of this fish, and 
says that they have gills out of sight, and that they have 
■very sharp teeth, and that they belong to the gregarious and 
carnivorous class of fishes : and that they have a gall of 
equal extent with their whole intestines, and a spleen of cor- 
responding proportions. It is said also that when they are 
hooked, they leap up towards the fisherman, and bite through 
the line and so escape. And Archippus mentions them in 
his play entitled the Fishes, where he says — 

Bat when you were eating the fat amise. 
And Epicharmus in his Sirens says — 

A. In the morning early, at the break of day. 

We roasted plump anchovies, 
Cutlets of well-fed pork, and polypi; 
And then we drank sweet wine. 

B. Alack ! alack ! my silly wife detain'd me. 

Chattering near the monument. 
A. I'm sorry for you. Then, too, there were mullets 
And large plump amise — 
A noble pair i' the middle of the table, 

And eke a pair of pigeons, 
A scorpion and a lobster. 

And Aristotle, inquiring into the etymology of the name, 
says that they were called amise, Trapd to a/^a ievai rats jrapa- 

c. 8.] FISH. 437 

irXria-uus (from their going in shoals with their companions of 
the same kind). But Icesiiis, in his treatise on the Materials 
of Food, says that they are full of a wholesome juice, and 
tender, but only of moderate excellency as far as their diges- 
tible properties go, and not very nutritious. 

7. But Archestratus, — that writer so curious in all that 
relates to cookery, — in his Gastrology (for that is the title of 
the book as it is given by Lycophron, in his treatise on 
Comedy, just as the work of Cleostratus of Tenedos is called 
Astrology), speaks thus of the amia : — 

Bat towards the end of autumn, when the Pleiad 
Has hidden its light, then dress the amise 
Whatever way you please. AVhy need I teach yon ? 
For then you cannot spoil it, if you wish. 
But if yon should desire, Hoschus my friend. 
To know by what recipe you best may dress it ; 
Take the green leaves of fig-trees, and some marjoram. 
But not too much ; no cheese or other nonsense, 
But merely wrap it np in the fig leaves. 
And tie it round with a small piece of string. 
Then bury it beneath the glowing ashes, 
Judging by instinct of the time it takes 
To be completely done without being burnt. 
And if you wish to have the best o' their kind. 
Take care to get them from Byzantium ; 
Or if they come from any sea near that 
They'll not be bad : but if yon go down lower. 
And pass the straits into the .Sgaean sea. 
They're quite a different thing, in flavour worse 
As well as size, and merit far less praise. 

8. But this Archestratus was so devoted to luxury, that he 
travelled over every country and every sea, with great dili- 
gence, wishing, as it seems to me, to seek out very carefully 
whatever related to his stomach j and, as men do who write 
Itineraries and Books of Voyages, so he wishes to relate every- 
thing with the greatest accuracy, and to tell where every kind 
of eatable is to be got in the greatest perfection ; for this is 
what he professes himself, in the preface to his admirable 
Book of Precepts, which he addresses to his companions, - 
Moschus and Cleander ; enjoining them, as the Pythian 
priestess says, to seek 

A horse from Thessaly, a wife from Sparta, 
And men who drink at Arethusa's fount. 

And Chrysippus, a man who was a genuine philosopher, and 
a thorough man at all points, says that he was the teacher of 


jEpicurtis, and of all those who follow his rales, in everything 
which belongs to pleasure, which is the ruin of everything. 
For Epicurus says, without any concealment, but speaking 
with a loud voice, as it were, " For I am not able to, distin- 
guish what is good if you once take away the pleasure arising 
from sweet flavours, and if you also take away amatory 
pleasures." For this wise man thinks that even the life of the 
intemperate man is an unimpeachable one, if he enjoys an 
immunity from fear, and also mirth. On which account also 
the comic poets, running down the Epicureans, attack them 
as mere servants and ministers of pleasure and intemperance. 
9. Plato, in his Joint Deceiver, representing a father as 
indignant with his son's tutor, makes him say — 

A. You've taken this my son, and ruin'd him, 
You scoundrel ; you've persuaded him to choose 
A mode of life quite foreign to his nature 
And disposition ; taught by your example, 

He drinks i' the morning, which he ne'er was used to do. 

B, Do you blame me, master, that your son 
Has learnt to live ? 

A. But do you call that living] 
B. Wise men do call it so. And Epicurus 
Tells us that pleasure is the only good. 

A. Indeed; I never heard that rule before. 

Does pleasure come then from no other source ? 

Is not a virtuous life a pleasure now 1 

Will you not grant me that 1 — Tell me, I pray you, 

Did you e'er see a grave philosopher 

Drunk, or devoted to these joys you speak of? 

B. Yes; all of them. — All those who raise their brows, 
Who walk about the streets for wise men seeking, 
As if they had escaped their eyes and hid : 

Still when a turbot once is set before them, 
Know how to help themselves the daintiest bits. 
They seek the head and most substantial parts, 
As if they were an argument dissecting, 
So that men marvel at their nicety. 

And in his play entitled the Homicide, the same Plato, 
laughing at one of those gentle philosophers, says— 

The man who has, a chance to pay his court 

To a fair woman, and at eve to drink 

Two bottles full of richest Lesbian wine. 

Must be a wise man ; these are real gooda. 

These things I speak of are what Epicurus 

Telia us are real joys ; and if the world 

All lived the happy life I live myself. 

There would not be one wicked man on earth. 

C. ll.J EPICURES. 439 

And Hegesippus, in his Philetairi, says — 

That wisest Epicurus, when a man 
Once ask'd him what was the most perfect good 
Which men should constantly be seeking for. 
Said pleasure is that good. Wisest and best 
Of mortal men, full truly didst thou speak: 
For there is nothing better than a dinner. 
And every good consists in every pleasure. 

10. But the Epicureans are not the only men who are 
addicted to pleasure ; but those philosophers are so too who 
belong to what are called the Cyrenaio and the Mnesistratean 
sects ; for these men delight to live luxuriously, as Posidonius 
tells us. And Speusippus did not much differ from them, 
though he was a pupil and a relation of Plato's. At all events, 
Dionysius the tyrant, in his letters to him, enumerating all the 
instances of his devotion to pleasure, and also of his covetous- 
ness, and reproaching him with having levied contributions 
on numbers of people, attacks him also on account of his love 
for Lasthenea, the Arcadian courtesan. And, at the end qf 
aU, he says this — " Whom do you charge with covetousness', 
when you yourself omit no opportunity of amassing base 
gain? For what is there that you have been ashamed to do? 
Are you not no^ attempting to collect contributions, after 
having paid yourself for Hermeas aU that he owed?" 

11. And about Epicurus, Timon, in the third book of his 
SUli, speaks as follows : — 

Seeking at all times to indulge his stomach, 

Than which there 's no more greedy thing on earth. 

For, on account of his stomach, and of the rest of his sensual 
pleasures, the man was always flattering Idomeneus and Me- 
trodorus. And Metrodorus himself, not at aU disguising this 
admirable principle of his, says, somewhere or other, " The 
fact is, Timocrates, my natural philosopher, that every inves- 
tigation which is guided by. principles of nature, fixes its tilti- 
mate aim entirely on gratifying the stomach." For Epicurus 
was the tutor of all these men j who said, shouting it out, as I 
may say, " The fountain and root of every good is the pleasure 
of the stomach : and all wise rules, and all superfluous rules, are 
measured alike by this standard." And in his treatise on the 
Chief Good, he speaks nearly as follows; "For I am not able 
to understand what is good, if I leave out of Consideration the 
pleasures which arise from delicately-flavoured food, and if I 


also leave out the pleasures whicli arise from amatory indul- 
gences j and if I also omit those which arise from music, and 
those, too, which are derived from the contemplation of 
beauty and the gratification of the eyesight." And, proceed- 
ing a little further, he says, " All that is beautiful is natui-aUy 
to be honoured; and so is virtue, and everything of that sort, 
if 'it assists in producing or causing pleasure. But if it does 
not contribute to that end, then it may be disregarded. 

12. And before Epicurus, Sophocles, the tragic poet, in his 
Antigone, had uttered these sentiments respecting pleasure — 

For ■when a man contemns and ceases thus 
To seek for pleasure, I do not esteem 
That such an one doth live ; I only deem him 
A breathing corpse : — ^he may, indeed, perhaps 
Have store of wealth -within his joyless house j 
He may keep up a kingly pomp and state; 
But if these things be not with joy attended. 
They are mere pmoke and shadow, and contribute, 
STo, not one jot, to make life enviable. 

And Philetserus says, in his Huntress, — 

For what, I pray you, should a mortal do. 

But seek for all appliances and means 

To make his life from day to day pass happily? 

This should be all our object and our aim, 

Eeflecting on the chance of human life. 

And never let us think about to-morrow. 

Whether it will arrive at all or not. 

It is a foolish trouble to lay up 

Money which may become stale and useless. 

And the same poet says, in his CEnopion, — 

But every man who lives but sparingly, 
Having sufficient means, I call and think 
Of all men the most truly miserable. 
For when you're dead, you cannot then eat eels ; 
M"o wedding feasts are cook'd in Pluto's realms. 

13. And Apollodorus the Carystian, in his Stirrer-up of 
Law-suits, says; — 

men, whoe'er you are, why do you now 

Scorn pleasant living, and turn all your thoughts ■ 

To do each other mischief in fierce war f 

In God's name, tell me, does some odious fatfe, 

Eude and unlettered, destitute of all 

That can be knowledge call'd, or education. 

Ignorant of what is bad and what is good, 

Guide all your destiny?— a fate which settles > 

C. 14.J EPICURES. 441 

All your affairs at random by mere chance 1 
I think it must be so : for else, what deity 
Who bears a Grecian heart, would ever choose 
To see Greeks by each other thus despoil'd, 
And falling dead in ghastly heaps of corpses. 
When she might see them sportive, gay, and jesting. 
Drinking full cups, and singing to the flute 1 
Tell me, my friend, I pray, and put to shame 
This most unpolish'd clownish fortune. 

Aud, presently afterwards, he says — 

Does not a life like this deserve the name 

Of godlike ? — Think how far more pleasant all 

Affairs would be in all the towns of Greece 

Than now they are, if we were but to change 

Our fashions, and our habits, and our principles 

One little bit. AThy should we not proclaim, 

" Whoe'er is more than thirty years of age. 

Let him come forth and drink. Let all the cavalry 

Go to a feast at Corinth, for ten days, 

Crown'd with chaplets, and perfumed most sweetly. 

Let all who radislies have got to sell 

Come in the morning here from Megara. '^ 

Bid all th' allies now hasten to the bath, 

And mix in cups the rich Euboean wine ? " — 

Sure this is real luxury and life. 

But we are slaves to a most clownish fortune. 

14. The poets say that that ancient hero, Tantalus, was also 
greatly devoted to pleasure. At all events, the author of the 
book called The Ketum of the Atridse says " that he, when he 
had arrived among the gods, and had begun to live among 
them, had leave given him by Jupiter to ask for whatever he 
wished ; and that he, being a man quite insatiable in the gra- 
tification of his appetites, asked that it might be granted to 
him to indulge them to their full extent, and to live in the 
same manner as the gods. And that Jupiter was indignant 
at this request, and, according to his promise, fulfilled his 
prayer; but still, that he might not enjoy what he had before 
him, but be everlastingly tormented, he hung a stone over 
his head, on account of which he should be unable to get at 
any of the things which he had before him." Some of the 
Stoics also were addicted to this^ kind of pleasure. At aU 
events, Eratosthenes the C3rrenean, who was a pupil of Ariston 
the Chian, who was one of the sect of the Stoics, in his trea- 
tise which is entitled Ariston, represents his master as subse- 
quently being much addicted to luxury, speaking as follows : 


" And before now, I have at times discovered him breaking 
down, as it were, the partition wall between pleasure and 
virtue, and appearing on the side of pleasure." And ApoUo- 
phanes (and he was an acquaintance of Ariston), in his Aris- 
ton (for he also wrote a book with that title), shows the way 
in which his rhaster was addicted to pleasure. And why need 
we mention Dionysius of Heraclea? who openly discarded his 
covering of virtue, and . put on a robe embroidered with 
flowers, and assumed the na,me of The altered Man; and, 
although he was an old man, he apostatized from the doc- 
trines of the Stoics, and passed over to the school of Epi- 
curus ; and, in consequence, Timon said of him, not without 
some point and felicity — 

When it is time to set (Siveiv), he now begins 
To sit at table (^Sweo-flai). But there is a time 
To love, a time to wed, a time to cease. 

15. Apollodorus the Athenian, in the third book of his 
treatise on a Modest and Prudent Man, which is addressed to 
those whom he calls Male Buffoons, having first used the 
expression, " more libidinous than the very Inventors them- 
selves (oA^Tjo-rat)," says, there are some fish called aX^r^orat, 
being all of a tawny colour, though they have a purple hue in 
some parts. And they say that they are usually caught in 
couples, and that one is always found following at the tail of 
the other ; and therefore, from the fact of one following close 
on the tail of the other, some of the ancients call men who 
are intemperate and libidinous by the same name. But Aris- 
totle, in his work on Animals, says that this fish, which he 
calls alphesticus, has but a single spine, and is of a tawny 
colour. And Numenius of Heraclea mentions it, in his trea- 
tise on Fishing, speaking as follows : — 

The fish that lives in seaweed, the alphestes, 
The scorpion also with its rosy meat. 

And Epicharmus, in his Marriage of Hebe, says— ^ 

Mussels, alphestse, and the girl-like fish. 
The dainty coraciuus. 

Mithsecus also mentions it in his Culinary Art. 

16. There is another fish called Anthias, or Callicthys } and 
this also is mentioned by Epicharmus, in his Marriage Ox 
Hebe ; — 

0. 17.] FISH. 443 

The sword-fish and the chromius too, 

Who, as Ananius tells us. 
Is far the best of all in spring ; 
But th' anthias in the winter. 
And Ananius speaks as follows : — 

For spring the chromiug is best ; 

The anthias in winter : 
But of all fish the daintiest 

Is a young shrimp in fig leaTes. 
In autumn there's a dainty dish, 

The meat of the she-goat ; 
And when they pick and press the grapes. 

Young pigs are dainty eating. 
Then, too, young puppies you may eat. 

And hares, and also foxes. 
But when the grasshopper does sing, 

Just at the height of summer. 
Is the best time for mutton fat ; 
Then, too, the sea-born tunny 
Will many a savoury dish afford, 

And beats his compeers all 
With garlic seasoning richly drest ; 

Then, too, the fatted ox 
Is sweet to eat both late at night, 
And at a noon-day feast. 
And I have quoted this piece of Ananius at length, think- 
ing that it might give some suggestions to the present' race of 

17. But Aristotle, in his treatise on the Habits of Animals, 
says — " They say that -wherever the anthias is found, there 
there is no beast or fish of prey ever seen ; and accordingly 
the collectors of sponge use him as a guide, and dive boldly 
■wherever he is found, and call him the sacred fish." And 
Dorion also mentions him in his book on Fishes, saying, 
" Some caU the anthias by the name of callicthys, and also 
by that of caUionymus and ellops." And Icesius, in his 
treatise on Materials, says that he is called wolf by some 
authors, and by others caUionymus : and that he is a fish 
of very solid meat, and full of delicious juice, and easy of 
digestion ; but not very good for the stomach. But Aristotle 
says that the callicthys is a fish with serrated teeth, carni- 
vorous and gregarious. And Epicharmus, in his Muses, 
enumerates the ellops among the fishes, but passes over the 
the callicthys or caUionymus in silence as being identical 
with it j and of the ellops he speaks thus, — 
And then the high-priced ellops. 


And the same poet says, subsequently — 

He was the fish of which great Jupiter 
Once bought a pair for money, and enjoin'd 
His slaves to give him one, and Juno t'other. 

But D Orion, in his treatise on Fish, says that the anthias 
and the callicthys are different fish ; and also that the cal- 
lionymus is not the same as the ellops. 

18. But what is the fish which is called the Sacred fish? The 
author of the Telchinian History, whether it was Epimenides 
the Cretan, or Teleolides, or any one else, says, — " What are 
called the sacred fish, are dolphins and pompili." But the 
pompilus is a very amorous animal ; as being sprung him- 
self, at the same time with Venus, from heavenly blood. And 
Nicander, in the second book of his CEtaica, says — 

The pompilus, who points the safest road 
To anxious mariners who burn with love, 
And without speaking warns them against datiger. 

And Alexander the iEtolian, in his Crica, if indeed it is a 
genuine poem, says — 

Still did the pompilus direct the helm, 
Swimming behind, and guide it down the gulf, 
The minister of the gods, the sacred pompilus. 

And Pancrates the Arcadian, in his work entitled " Works of 
the Sea," having first said — 

The pompilus, whom all sea-faring men 
Do call the sacred fish ; 

proceeds to say, "that the pompilus is not held in great 
esteem by Neptune only, but also by those gods who occupy 
Samothrace. At all events that some old fisherman once 
threatened to punish this fish, when the golden age still 
flourished among men ; and his name was Epopeus, and he 
belonged to the island of Icarus. He therefore was one day 
fishing with his son, and they had no luck in their fishing, 
and caught nothing but pompili, and so did not abstain from 
eating them, but he and his son ate every one of them, and 
not long afterwards they suffered for their impiety; for a 
whale attacked the ship, and ate up Epopeus in the sight of 
his son." And Pancrates states, " that the pompilus is an 
enemy to the dolphin ; and even the dolphin does not escape 
with impunity when he has eaten a pompilus, for he becomes 
unable to exert himself and tremulous when he has eateu 

c. 20.] FISH. 445 

him ; and so be gets cast on shore, and is eaten himself by 
the gulls and cormorants ; and he is sometimes, when in this 
state, caught by men who give themselves up to hunting such 
large fish. And Timachides the Ehodian mentions the pom- 
pih in the ninth book of his Banquet, and says — 

The tench o' the sea, and then the pompjli, 
The holiest of fish. 

And Erinna, or whoever it was who composed the poem which 
is attributed to her, says — 

pompilus, thou fish irho dost bestow 

A prosp'rous voyage on the hardy sailor. 

Conduct (Tro/iircwrois) my dear companion safely home. 

19. And Apollonius the Rhodian or Naucratian, in his 
History of the foundation of Naucratis, says, " Pompilus was 
originally a man ; and he was changed into a fish, on account 
of some love afiFair of Apollo's. For the river Imbrasus flows 
by the city of the Samians, — 

And join'd to him, the fairest of the nymphs. 
The young and noble Chesias, bore a daughter. 
The lovely maid Ocyrhoe — her whose beauty 
Was the kind Hours' heaven-descended gift. 

They say then that Apollo fell in love with her and endea- 
voured to ravish her; and that she having crossed over to 
Miletus at the time of some festival of Diana, when the 
endeavour was about to be made to carry her off, being afraid 
of such an attempt being made, and being on her guard, 
entreated Pompilus, who was a seafaring man and a friend 
of her father, to conduct her safe back again to her own 
country, saying this, — 

Pompilus, to whose wse breast are known 
The rapid depths of the hoarse roaring sea. 
Show that your mind doth recollect my sire, 
Who was your friend, and save his daughter now. 

And they say that he led her down to the shore, and cori- 
ducted her safely across the sea : and that Apollo appeared 
and carried off the maiden, and sunk the ship with stones, 
and metamorphosed Pompilus into a fish of the same name, 
and that he made 

The Pompilus an everlasting slave 

Of ships that swiftly pass along the sea. 

20. But Theocritus the Syracusan, in his poem entitled 


Berenice, calls the fish which is called leucus the sacred fish, 

speaking thus — 

And if a mortal seeks the gods with prayer 
For a successful hunt, or plenteous gold, 
A man who lives by the sea, whose nets he makes 
His ploughs to raise his crops ; then let him come, 
And just at nightfall sacrifice with prayer 
To this same goddess the most sacred fish. 
Which men call leucus, (loveliest he of fish,) 
Then let him bend his nets ; and soon he shall 
Draw them back from the waters full of prey. 

liut Dionysius, who was surnamed the Iambic, in his treatise 
on Dialects, writes thus — "We have heard accordingly an 
Eretrian fisherman, and many other fishermen, too, of other 
countries, call the pompilus the sacred fish. Now the pom- 
pUus is a sea fish, and is very commonly seen around ships, 
being something like the tunny called pelamys. However, 
some one spoken of by the poet catches this fish; — 

Sitting upon a high projecting rock 
He caught the sacred fish. 

Unless, indeed, there be any other kind which is hkewise 
called the sacred fish. But Callimachus in his Galatea calls 
the chrysophrys the sacred fish, where he says — 

Or shall I rather say the gold-brow'd fish, _ 
That sacred fish, or perch, or all the rest 
WKeh swim beneath the vast unfathom'd sea. 

But in his Epigrams the same poet says — 

The sacred sacred hyca. 
But some understand by the term sacred fish, one let go and 
dedicated to the god, just as people give the same name to a 
consecrated ox. But others consider that sacred is here only 
equivalent to great, as Homer speaks of 

The sacred might of Alcinous. 

And some think that it is only called lepos as U/jlcvo^ it/jos tov 
povv (going down stream)." 

21. But CUtarchus, in the seventh book of his treatise on 
Dialects, says — " The nautical people call the pompilus the 
sacred fish, because it conducts ships out of the open sea into 
harbour, on which account it is called tto/aitiAos from Tripmia, 
being the same fish as the chrysophrys." And Eratosthenes 
in his Mercury says — 

c. 22.] PISH. 447 

They left a share of all their booty there ; 
Still living centipedes, the bearded mullet, 
The sea-thrush, with dark spots embroider'd o'er, 
Or the swift sacred fish with golden brows. 

Now after all this discussion of ours about fish, the excellent 
Ulpian may ask why Archestratus, speaking in those excellent 
suggestions of his of the cured fish on the Bosphorus, says — 

Those which do come from the Bosphoric seas 
Are whitest ; only let there be no sample 
Of the hard meat o' the fish which grow around 
The Late llseotis ; not in verse can I 
That fish correctly name. 

What is^the fish, which he says it is not proper to mention in 
poetry 1 

22. Anchovies must be next considered. And, indeed, 
Aristonymus uses the word in the singular number, in his 
Shivering Sun — 

So that there really is not one anchovy. 
But of the anchovies there are many kinds, and the one 
which is called aphritis* is not produced from roe, as Aristotle 
says, but from a foam which floats upon the surface of the 
water, and which collects in quantities when there have been 
heavy rains. There is also another kind called cobitis, and 
that is produced from some httle worthless, gudgeons which are 
generated in the sand ; and from this anchovy itself another 
kind is produced, which is called the encrasicholus. There is 
also another anchovy which is the ofispring of the sprat ; 
and another which comes from the membras ; and another 
still which comes from the small cestris, which is engendered 
in the sand and slime. But of aU these kinds the aphritis is 
the best. But Dorion, in his treatise on Fishes, speaks of a 
fish called the cobites, as good boUed, and also of the spawn 
of the atherina ; and atherina is the name of a fish ; and some 
also call the triglitis an anchovy. But Epicharmus, in his HAie's 
Marriage, enumerates the anchovies among the shrimps or 
membrades ; making a distinction between this and what is 
called the seed. And Icesius says, "Of the anchovy, there is 
one sort which is white and very thin and frothy, which 
some people also call the cobitis. And there is another 
which is not so clean as that, and which is larger ; but the 

1 From aippbs, foam. 


clean and thin one is the better of the two." And Archestratus 
the contriver of delicate dishes, says, — 

Use all anchovies for manure, except 

The Attic fish ; I mean that useful seed 

Which the lonians do call the foam ; 

And take it fresh; just caught within the bays, 

The sacred bays of beautiful Phalerum. 

Good is it too, when by the sea-girt isle 

Of Rhodes you eat it, if it 's not imported. 

And if you wish to taste it in perfection. 

Boil nettles with it — nettles whose greL>n leaves 

On both sides crown the stem ; put these in the dish 

Around the fish, then fry them in one pan. 

And mix in fragrant herbs well steep'd in oil. 

23. But Clearchus the Peripatetic, in his treatise on Pro- 
verbs, speaks of the anchovy, and says — " Because they want 
very little fire for the frying-pan, Archestratus recommends 
people to put them into a pan which is already hot, and to 
take them oif as soon as they hiss. And they are done, and 
begin to hiss in a moment, like oil; on which account it is 
said, ' Anchovy, look at the fire.' " And Chrysippus the 
philosopher, in his treatise on the Things which deserve to 
be sought for their own Sakes, says, " The anchovy which is 
found in the sea at Athens, men despise on account of its 
abundance, and say that it is a poor man's fish; but in other 
cities they prize it above everything, even where it is far 
inferior to the Attic anchovy. Moreover some people," 
says he, " endeavour to rear the Adriatic fowls in this place, 
which are much less useful than our own kinds, inasmuch as 
they are smaller. But the people in the Adriatic, on the con- 
trary, send for our breed from hence." Hermippus, too, uses 
the word dtjivr], in the singular number, in his Demotse, where 
he says, — 

You seem not now to move even an anchovy. 
Ai^ Calcias, in his Cyclops, says — 

In preference to the best anchovy. 
And Aristonymus, in his Shivering Sun, says — 

So that there is not really one anchovy. 
But Aristophanes uses the diminutive form, and calls thorn 
a^uSia in his Friers, saying — 

Nor these little Phaleric atpiiia. 

'2i. But Lynceus the Samian, in his letter to Diagoras, 

C!. 26.] PISH. 449 

praising the Rhodian auchovies, and comparing many of the 
productions of Attica to those of Rhodes, says — " We may com- 
pare to the anchovies of Phalerum those which are called the 
.^niatides, and you may compare the ellops and the orphus 
with the glauciscus; and with the Eleusinian plaice and 
turbot, and whatever other fish there may be among them 
enjoying a reputation higher than that of Cecrops, Rhodes 
has the fox fish to compare." But the author of the Delight 
of Life, exhorts the man who is unable to purchase enough to 
satisfy his appetite, to get fish to eat by robbery, rather than 
go without it. But Lynceus calls Archestratus an epicure, 
who in that much celebrated poem of his speaks thus of the 
shark : — 

Arc you at Ehodes ? e'en if about to die. 

Still, if a man would sell you a, fox shark, 

The fish the Syracusans call the dog, 

Seize on it eagerly ; at least, if fat : 

And then compose yourself to meet your fate 

With brow serene and mind well satisfied. 

25. The achamus is mentioned by Callias in his Cyclops — 
A harp-fish roast, besides a ray, 

The head too of a tunny, 
And eel, some crabs, and this achamus. 
The great .fflnean dainty. 

2G. The ray, roach, or sea frog may also be mentioned. 
They are mentioned under the two former names by Aristotle 
in his treatise on Animals, where he classes them under the 
head of cartilaginous fish. And Eupolis, in his Flatterera, 

At Callias's house there is much pleasure, 
For he has crabs for dinner, rays besides, 
And hares, and women with light twinkling feet. 

And Epicharmus says, in his Marriage of Hebe — 
And there were rays and sea-frogs, sawfish, sharks, 
Camitos, roach, and lobsters with hard shells. 

And in his Megarian Woman he writes — 
Its sides were like a ray, 
Its back was altogether like a roach, 
Its head was long,. far more like a stag's. 
Its flanks were like a scorpion's, son of the sea. 

And Sannyrion says, in his Laughter — ■ 

O rays, dainty grayling. 
And Arjstotle in the fifth book of his treatise on the Parts of 

VOL. I. — ATH. G G 


Aiiimals, says that the following are cartilaginous fish J the 
ray,, the turtle; the sea cow, the lamprey, the sea eagle, the 
sea frog, and the whole of the shark tribe. But Sophron in 
his Faroes, gives one fish the name' of botis, saying, " The 
cestrea eat the botis," though it is possible that he may be- 
speaking of some herb. But with respect to the sea frog, th&' 
wise Archestratus gives us the following advice in his Apo- 
phthegms — 

Whenever you behold a frog, why roast him 

« « « • 

And .... prepare his stomach. 

And concerning the ray, he says — 

A boiled ray is good about midwinter. 

Eat it with cheese and assafoetida ; 

But all the sons o' the sea whose flesh is lean 

Should, as a rule, be dress'd in such a fashion ; 

And thus I recommend you now again. 

And Ephippus the comic poet, in his play called Philyra, 
(now Philyra is the name of a courtesan), says — 

A. Shall I first cut a ray in slender slices 

And boil it "i aye ? or like the cooks in Sicily 
Shall I prefer to roast it ? 

B. Copy Sicily. 

27. There are also fish called boaxes. Aristotle, in his 
treatise entitled Concerning Animals or Fish, says, "The follow- 
ing animals are marked on the back ; the boax and others — 
the following are marked transversely, the kind of tunny fish 
called colias " And Epicharmus in his Marriage of Hebe, 
speaks thus — 

And in addition to all these the hoax, 

The smarides, anchovies, crabs and lobsters. 

And Numenius, in his Art of Fishing, calls them boeces,, 

The -white synodons, the boeces, and trinchi. 

But Speusippus and the rest of the Attic writers call them 
boaces. Aristophanes in his play called The Women who- 
Qccupy Tents, says — 

But having had a bellyful of boaces, 
I tum'd my steps towards home. 

And they derived their nalne from the noise {fio-q) which they 
make, on which account it used to be said that the fish was 
sacred to Mercury, as the harp fish was to' Apollo. But 

c. 28.] FISH. 451 

Pherecrates in his Ant-Men, saying — " They saythatthere is no 
other fish whatever, which has any voice at all ■" adds after- 
wards, — " By Castor and Pollux, there is at least no other fish 
except the boax." And Aristophanes the Byzantian says — 
"That we are wrong to call the fish boax, when we ought to 
call it boops, since, though it is but a little fish, it has very 
large eyes, so that it might be called boops, having bulls' 
eyes." I5ut we may reply to him. If we are wrong in naming 
him as we do, why do we say coracinus, not corocinus ? For 
he derives his name from moving the pupils of his eyes (airo 
Tov Tas Kopas KLvav). And so too, why do we not call the fish 
<T€Lovpoi instead of o-tAovpos 1 for he has his name from con- 
tinually shaking his tail (aTro tov a-eietv rqv ovpa.v)t 

28. With respect to the small kind of anchovy called mem- 
bras, Phrynicus, in his Tragedians, says — 

golden-headed membrades, sons of the sea. 
But Epicharmus in his Hebe's Wedding, calls them bam- 
bradones, and says — 

Bambradones and sea-thrushes, and hares, 

And furious dragons. 

And Sophron in his Manly Qualities, says — " The bambradon, 
and the needle fish." And Numenius says, in his Treatise on 

Or a small sprat, or it may be a bembras, 

Kept in a well ; you recollect these baits. 

And Dorion in his book on Fishes, says — " Having taken off 
the head of a bembras, if it be one of a tolerable size, and 
having washed it with water, and a small quantity of salt, 
then boil it in the same manner as you do a mullet; and the 
bembras is the only kind of anchovy from which is derived 
the condiment called bembraphya; which is mentioned by 
Aristonymus in the Sun Shivering — 

The carcinobates of Sicily 

Eesembles the bembraphya. 
Still the Attic writers often call them bembrades. Aristomenes _ 
says in his Jugglers — 

Bringing some bembrades purchased for an obol. 
And Aristonymus in his Sun Shivering, says — 

The large anchovy plainly is not now, 

Nor e'en ,the bembras, quite unfortunate. 


And Aristophanes says in his Old Age — ■ 

Fed on the hoary bembrades. 
And Plato in his Old Men, says — 

Hercules, do just suiTey these bembrades. 
But in the Goats of Eupolis we may find the word written 
also with a fi (not ^eix^pai but /xe/^pai). And Antiphanes 
says, in his Cncesthis ; — 

They do proclaim within the fishmarket 

The most absurd of proclamations. 

For just now one did shout with all his voice 

That he had got some bembrades sweet as honey; 

But if this be the case, then what should hinder 

The honey-sellers crying out and saying, - 

That they have honey stinking like a bembras ? 
And Alexis in his Woman leading the Chorus, writes the 
word with a /a — 

Who to the young folks making merry, then 

Put forth but lately pulse and membrades. 

And well-press'd grapes to eat. 

And in his Protochorus he says — 

No poorer iiieal, by Bacchus now I swear. 
Have I e'er tasted since 1 first became 
A parasite ; I'd rather sup on membrades 
With any one who could speak Attic Greek ; 
It would be better for me. 

29. There is also a fish called the blennus, and it is men- 
tioned by Sophron, in his play entitled The Fisherman and 
the Countryman, and he calls it the fat blenmis. It is 
something like the tench in shape. But Epicharmus in his 
Hebe's Wedding speaks of a fish which he calls baiones, where 
he says — 

Come now and bring me high-backed mullets. 
And the ungrateful baionea. 

And among the Attic writers there is a proverb, " No baion 
for me ; he is a poor fish." 

30. There is also a shell-fish called buglossus. And 
Arohestratus, the Pythagorean, says, because of his temperate 

Then we may take a turbot plump, or e'en 
A rough buglossus in the summer time, 
If one ia near the famous Chalcis. 

And Epicharmus, in his Hebe's Wedding, says — ■ 

There were buglossi and the harp-fish there. 

c. 32.] FISH. 453 

But the fish called cynoglossus differs from the buglossus. 
And of them too Epicharmus speaks — 

There were the variegated plotides, 

And cynoglossi, and sciathides. 
But the Attic writers call the buglossus the psetta. 

■ 31. There are also fish called congers. Icesius says that 
these are coarser than the common eels ; and that their flesh 
is less firm and less nutritious, and that they are very defi- 
cient in palatable juice ; but still, that they are good for the 
stomach. But Nicander, the epic poet, in the third book of 
his Treatise on Dialects, says that they are also called grylli. 
But Eudoxus, in the sixth book of his Circuit of the Earth, 
sa3's that there are numbers of congers caught off Sicyon, each 
large enough to be a load for a man ; and some of them even 
big enough to be a load for a cart. And Philemon, the comic 
poet, himself mentioning the extraordinary congers at Sicyon, 
represents a cook as priding himself on his skill, and saying 
in the play entitled the Soldier, — 

32. How great a wish has now come over me 

To tell to heaven and earth the way in which 

I did prepare that supper. Aye, by Pallas, 

How sweet it is when everything goes right ! 

How tender was my fish ! and how I dress'd it ! 

Not done with cheese, or powder'd o'er with dyes, 

But looking as he did in life, though roasted. 

So mild and gentle was the fire which I 

Did to the fish apply, you'd scarce believe it. 

It was as when a hen does seize some food. 

And carries it away to eat at leisure : 

She rnns all round with care ; another sees her, 

And straightway follows her to take it from her. 

So here, the man who first found out the pleasure 

Of dainty eating, sprang up high and ran 

All round and round, with his dish in his hand. 

The rest pursued him — it was fine to see them : 

Some got a little, some got nothing, some 

Got all they wanted. Well, as I was saying, 

I took some river fish, eaters of mud. 

What if I'd had a scare, or blue-back'd fish 

From Attie waters, thou saving Jupiter ! 

Or boar from Argive woods, or noble conger. 

From Sicyon's bay, the conger which the god 

Of the deep sea doth bear aloft to heaven. 

Fit banquet for his brethren. Then no doubt 

The guests who ate would all have seem'd like gods ; 

I should have been immortal, since the dead 

By the mere smell of my meat I bring to life again. 


33. I swear by Minerva that Meaecrates the Syracusan 
himself would not have made such a boast as that, he ■v^ho 
was nick-named Jupiter — a man who gave himself airs as 
being, by his skill in medicine, the only person who could 
cause man to live. Accordingly he compelled all who came 
to be cured by him of what is called the sacred disease,, f o 
enter into a written agreement that if they recovered they 
would be his slaves. And they followed him, one wearing 
the dress of Hercules, and being called Hercules, (and the 
man who 'was so called was Nicostratus, an Argive, who had 
been cured 'Of the sacred disease, and he is mentioned by 
Ephippus, in his Peltast, where he says — 

Did not Menecrates call himself a god, 

And Nicostratus of Argos a second Hercules?) 

and another followed him in the dress of Mercury, having on 
a cloak and bearing a caduceus, and wings besides. As 
Nioagoras of Zelia did, who also became afterwards the 
tyrant of his country, as Baton relates in the history of the 
Tyrants at Ephesus. And Hegesander says that he called 
Aitycreon, who had been cured by him, Apollo. And another 
of those who had been cured by him, went about with him 
to his cost, wearing the dress of jEsculapius. But Jupiter 
Menecrates himself, clad in purple, and having a golden 
crown upon his head, and holding a sceptre, and being shod 
with slippers, went about with his chorus of gods. And once, 
writing to Philip the king, he began his letter thus-^ 

34. " Menecrates Jupiter to Philip greeting. 

" You, indeed, are king of Macedonia, but I am 'king of 
medicine ; and you are able, when you please, to put men to 
death, who are in health ; but I am able to save those who 
are sick, and to cause those who are in good health, if they 
only follow my advice, to live to old age without being 
attacked by disease. Therefore the Macedonians attend you 
as body-guards ; but all who wish to live attend me j for I, 
Jupiter, give them life." 

And so Philip wrote back to him as to a man out of his 
senses, — " Philip wishes Menecrates soundness." And he 
wrote in similar style to Archidemus, also the king of the 
Lacedsemonians, and to every one else to whom he wrote at 
all ; never omitting to give himself the name of Jupiter. 
And once Phihp invited him and all his gods to supper, and 

c. 36.] COOKS. ,45g 

placed them all on the centre coiicli, which was adorned in 
the loftiest and most holy-looking and beautiful manner. And 
he had a table placed before them on which there was an 
altar and first-fruits of the different productions of the earth. 
And whenever eatables were placed before the other guests, 
the slaves placed incense before Menecrates, and poured 
libations in his honour. And at last, the new Jupiter, 
with all his subordinate gods, being laughed at by every one, 
i-an away and fled from the banquet, as Hegesander relates. 
And Alexis also makes mention of Menecrates in his Minos. 

35. And Themiso the Cyprian, the fi-ieud of Antiochus 
the king, as Pythermus the Ephesian relates in the eighth 
book of his History, not only used to have his name pro- 
claimed in the public assembhes, " Themiso, the Macedonian, 
the Hercules of Antiochus the king;" but all the people of that 
country used to sacrifice to him, addressing him as Hercules 
Themiso ; and he himself woidd come when any of the nobles 
celebrated a sacrifice, and would sit down, having a couch to 
himself, and being clad in a lion's skin, and he used also to 
bear a Scythian bow, and in his hand he carried a club. 
Menecrates then himself though he was such as we have said;, 
never made such a preposterous boast as the cook we have 
been speaking of, — 

I am immortal, for I bring the dead, 

By the mere smell of my meat, to life again. 

"6. But the whole tribe of cooks are conceited and arro- 
gant, as Hegesander says in his Brothers. For he introduces 
a cook, saying — 

A. My friend, a great deal has been said already 
By many men on the art of cookery, 

So either tell me something new yourself, 
Uakuown to former cooks, or spare my ears. 

B. I'll not fatigue you ; know that I alone 

Of present men have sounded all the depths 

Of culinary science and invention ; 

Por I have not been just a short two years 

Learning my art with snow-white apron girt, 

Bat all my life I have devoted anxiously 

To the investigation of each point 

Of moment ; I have inquired into all 

jThe different kinds of herbs and vegetables ; 

I know the habits of the bembrades, 

I know the lentils in their various sorts ; 

In short, this I can say — Whene'er I am 


At a funereal feast as minister, 

As soon as men come back from the funeral. 

Clad in dark garments, I take off the lids 

Of all my saucepans, and the weeping guests 

I clothe with smiling faces in a moment ; 

And such a joy runs through each heart and frame 

As if they were a marriage feast attending. 

A. What! serving up lentils and bembradesi 

B. These are some accidental dishes only ; 
But when I've got my necessary, tools, 

And once have properly arranged my kitchen, 
That which in old time happen'd with the Sirens 
You shall again behold repeated now. 
For such shall be the savoury smell, that none 
Shall bring themselves to pass this narrow passage ; 
And every one who passes by the door 
Shall stand agape, fix'd to the spot, and mute. 
Till some one of his friends, who's got a cold 
And lost his smell, drags him away by force. 
A. You 're a great artist. 

B. Do not you then know 
To whom you speak ] I do declare to you 
I have known many of the guests, who have, 
For my sake, eaten np their whole estates. 

Now, I beg you, tell me, in the name of all the gods at once, 
in what respect this man appears to you to differ from the 
Celedones in Pindar, who, in the same manner as the Sirens 
of old, caused those who listened to them to forget their food 
through delight, and so to waste away ? 

37. But Nicomachus, in his Ilithyia, himself also introduces 
a cook, who in arrogance and conceit goes far beyond the 
artists on the stage. This cook then speaks to the man who 
has hired him in this way, — 

A. You do display a gentlemanlike taste 

And kind ; but one thing still you have omitted. 

B. How so! 

A. You never have inquired it seems 
How great a man I am. Or had you heard it 
From some one else who was acquainted with me. 
And so was that the reason you engaged me ? 
B. By Jove I never heard or thought about it. 

A. Perhaps you do not know how great the difference 
Is that exists between one cook and another \ 

B. If ot I, but I shall know now, if you tell me. 

A. To take some meat that some one else has bought, 
And then to dress it tolerably, is 
What any cook can do, 

B. Hercules! 

C. 38.] COOKS. 457 

A. A perfect cook is quite .inother thing. 
For there are many admirable arts, 

All of which he must master thoroughly 

Who would excel in this. He first must have 

A smattering of painting ; and indeed 

Many the sciences are which he must learn 

Before he 's fit to begin learning cootcry,— 

And you should know them ere you talk to me, — 

Astrology, and Medicine, and Geometry. 

For by these arts you'll know th^ qualities 

And excellences of the various fish. 

You '11 learn to guide your dishes by the seasons ; 

And when this fish is in, and this is out. 

For there is great variety in the pleasures 

That from the table spring. Sometimes, for instance, 

A hoax will be better than a tunny. 

B. Perhaps ; but what on earth has that to do 
With your geometry? 

A. Why this. We say 

The kitchen is a sphere ; this we divide, 

And take one portion, as may suit our art. 

Borrowing the principles of mensuration. 
£. I understand ; that's quite enough of that. 

Where does your medical skill display itself! 
A. Know there are meats hard, indigestible. 

Pregnant with flatulence, causing only torture 

To the unhappy eater, and no nourishment. 

Yet those who sop at other folks' expense 

Are always greedy and not temperate. 

For these and similar viands, remedies 

Must come from the resources of our art ; 

And how to marshal everything in order 

With wisdom and propriety, we learn 

By borrowing from the science of the General. 

To count the guests requires arithmetic. 

And no one else has all these parts of knowledge 

Except myself. 

S. Now in your turn, awhile 

Listen to me. 

A. Say on. 

B. Give no more trouble 

To me nor to yourself: but just keep quiet, 

And rest j'ourself all day for all I care. 

38. And the cook in the Younger Philemon wishes to be a 
sort of tutor, and speaks in this fashion — 

There, let things be as they are. Only take care 

The fire may not too small be or too slow 

To roast the joints. (As a fire like that 

Makes meat not roast but sodden.) Nor too fierce. 

(For that again does burn whatc'er it catches. 


And yet is far from cooking^the meat through.) 
It is not every one who has a. spoon 
And knife about him that we call a cook, 
Nor every one who puts his fish in a pan j 
There is more wit and reason in the business. 

39. And the eook in Diphilus's Painter tells us also to 
whom he thinks it worth his while to hire himself, saying — 

A. I will not use your meat, nor give my aid 
Unless I'm sure th^t I shall have all means 
Which needful are to make a proper show ; 
Nor do I e'er go anywhere till first 
I know who 'tis who makes the sacrifice, 
Or what the 'cause may be which prompts the banquet, 
Or who the guests are who have been invited. 
For I have got a regular list at home 
' Of where I choose to go, and where I don't. 
As first, to speak of the commercial class ; 
Some captain of a ship may make a sacrifice 
Just to discharge some vow, made when he lost 
His mast, or broke the rudder of his vessel. 
Or, having sprung a leak, threw overboard 
His cargo. I'll have nought to do with him : 
For he does nothing willingly, but only 
Just so much as he thinks he cannot help. 
And every time a cup is fill'd with wine. 
He makes a eslculation of the sum 
Which he can charge his owners or his passengers. 
And thinks that what his guests do eat and drink 
Is his own flesh and blood. Another came. 
But three days since, from the Byzantine port. 
Safe and successful ; joyful in a profit 
Of ten or twelve per cent ; talking of nothing 
But freight and interest, spending all his love 
On worn-out panders. Soon as he did quit 
The ship and set his foot upon the land, 
I blew my nose, gave him my hand, and utter'(J 
Audible thanks to saving Jupiter, 
And hasten'd forth to wait on him. For this 
Is always my way ; and I find it answer. 
Again, an amorous youth will feast and squander 
His sire's estate ; to him I go at call. 
But those who feast in shares, and throw together 
Into one dish their petty contributions. 
Though they may tear their clothes, and cry aloud, 
" Come, who will cook us our new-purChased supper t " 
I let bawl on. For if you go to them. 
First there is language hard and blows to bear ; 
Secondly, one must slave the livelong night ; 
And when at last you ask them for your pay, 
" First bring the pot," say they. " There v,'as no vinegar 

C- 41.] COOKS. 459 

In all that salad." Ask again. " Aye, you 
Shall be the first to be well beaten here." 
I could recount ten thousand facts like this. 
B. But where 1 take now is a rich brothel, 
Where a rich courtesan with other friends 
Desires to celebrate with great abundance 
A joyous feast in honour of Adonis, 
And where you may enjoy yourself in style. 

40. And Archedicus, in his Treasure, another philosophical 
cookling, speaks in this way — 

In the first place the guests invited came 

While still the fish lay on the dresser raw. 

" Give me some water." " Bring the fish up quick." 

Then placing all my pans upon the fire, 

I soak'd the ashes well with oil, and raise 

A rapid heat. Meantime the fragrant herbs 

And pleasant sharpness of the seasonings 

Delight my master. Quickly I serve up 

Some fish exactly boil'd ; retaining all 

His juice, and all his unextracted flavour ; 

A dish which any free-born man must know 

How to appreciate rightly. In this manner 

At the expense of one small pot of oil 

I gain emplojTnent at full fifty banquets. 

And Philostephanus, in his Dalian, gives a catologue of the 
names of some celebrated cooks in these lines, and those 
which follow them — 

In my opinion you. Daedalus, 

Surpass all cooks in skill and genius. 

Save the Athenian Thimbron, call'd the Top. 

So here I 've come to beg your services, 

Bringing the wages which I know you ask. 

41. And Sotades, not the Maronite poet, who composed 
Ionian songs, but the poet of the middle comedy, in the play 
entitled The Shut-up Women, (for that was the name which 
he gave to it,) introduces a cook making the following 
speech, — 

First I did take some squills, and fried them all ; 
Then a large shark I cut in slices large, 
Eoasting the middle parts, and the remainder 
I boil'd and stuffd with half-ripe mulberries. 
Then I take two large heads of dainty grayling. 
And in a large dish place them, adding simply 
Herbs, cummin, salt, some water, and some oil. 
Then after this I bought a splendid pike, 
To boil in pickle with all sorts of herbs. 
Avoiding all such roasts as want a soit, 


I bought too some fine mullet, and young thrushes, 

And put them on the coals just as they were, 

Adding a little brine and marjoram. 

To these I added cuttle-fish and squills. 

A fine dish is the squill when carefully cook'd. 

But the rich cuttle-fish is eaten plain. 

Though I did stuff them all with a rich forced meat 

Of almost every kind of herb and flower. 

Then there were several dishes of boil'd meats. 

And sauce-boats full of oil and vinegar. 

Besides all this a conger fine and fat 

I bought, and buried in a fragrant pickle ; 

Likewise some tench, and clinging to the rocks 

Some limpets. All their heads I tore away, 

And cover'd them with fiour and bread crumbs over. 

And then prepared them as I dress'd the squills. 

There was a widow'd amia too, a noble 

And dainty fish. That did I wrap in fig-leaves. 

And soak'd it through with oil, and over all 

With swaddling clothes of marjoram did I fold it, 

And hid it like a torch beneath the ashes, 

With it I took anchovies from Phalerum, 

And pour'd on them one cruet full of water. 

Then shredding herbs quite fine, I add more oil. 

More than two cotylae in quantity. 

What next? That's all. This sir is what I do. 

Not learning from recipes or books of cookery. 

42. However, this is enough about cooks. But we must 
say something about the conger. For Archestratus, in his 
Gastronomy, tells us how every part of it should be treated, 

In Sicyon my friend you best can get 

A mighty head of conger, fat, and strong, 

And large ; and also take his entrails whole, 

Then boil him a long time, well-soak'd in brine. 

And after this he goes through the whole country of Italy, 
saying where the congers are best, describing them like a 
regular writer of an Itinerary, and he says — ■ 

There too fine congers may be caught, and they 

Are to all other fish as far superior 

As a fat tunny is to coracini. 

And Alexis, in his Seven against Thebes, says — 
And all the parts of a fine conger eel 
Well hash'd together, overlaid with fat. 

And Archedicus, in his Treasure, introduces a cook speak- 
ing of some iish which he has been buying in the following 
terms — ■ 

C. di.] SHARKS. 461 

Then for three drachmas I a grayling Tjoiight. 

Five more I gave for a large conger's head 

And shoulders. (Oh, how hard a thing is life !) 

Another drachma for the neck. 1 swear 

By Phoebus, if I knew where I cotrld get 

Or buy another neck myself, at once 

I 'd choke the one which now is on my shoulders, 

Eathcr than bring these dishes to this place. 

For no one ever had a harder job 

To buy so many things at such a price ; 

And yet if 1 have bought a thing worth buying 

May I be hang'd. They will devour me. 

What I now say is what concerns myself. 

And then, such wine they spit out on the ground ! 

Alas ! Alas ! 

43. There is a kind of shark called •yoAcos, which is eaten. 
And Icesius, in his treatise on Materials, says that the best 
and tenderest kind of galei are those called asterise. But 
Aristotle says that there are many kinds of them — the thorny, 
the smooth, the spotted, the young galeus, the fox shark, and 
the file shark. But Dorion, in his Book on Fishes, says that 
the fox shark has only one fin towards his tail, but has none 
along the ridge of his back. But Aristotle, in the fifth book 
of his Parts of Animals, says that the centrines is also a kind 
of shark, and also the notidanus. But Epjenetus, in his 
Cookery Book, calls the latter the enotideus, and says " that 
the centrines is very inferior to him, and that it has a bad 
smell j and that the one may be distinguished from the othfir 
by the fact of the centrines having a sort of spur on his first 
fin, while the rest of the kinds have not got such a thing." 
'•' And he says that these fishes have no fat or suet in them, 
because they are cartilaginous." 

And the acanthias, or thorny shark, has this peculiarity, 
that his heart is five-cornered. And the galeus has three 
young at most ; and it receives its young into his mouth, and 
immediately ejects them again ; and the variegated galeus is 
especially fond of doing this, and so is the fox shark. But the 
other kinds do not do so, because of the roughness of the 
skins of the young ones. 

44. But Archestratus, the man who lived the life of Sarda- 
napalus, speaking of the galeus as he is found at Ehodes, says 
that it is the same fish as that which, among the Eomans, is 
trought on the table to the music of flutes, and accom- 
panied with crowns, the slaves also who carry it being 


crowned, and .that it is called by -the Romans accipesius. 
But the accipesius, the same as the acipenser, or sturgeon, is 
but a small fish in comparison, and has a longer nose, and is 
more triangular than the galeus in his shape. And the very 
smallest and cheapest galeus is not sold at a lower price thaa 
a thousand Attic drachmee.' But Appian, the grammarian, in 
his essay on the Luxury of Apicius, says that the accipesius 
is the fish called the ellops by the Greeks. But Archestratus, 
speaking of the Rhodian galeus, counselling his companions 
in a fatherly sort of way, says — 

Are you at Khodes 1 e'en if about to die. 
Still, if a man would sell you a fox shark, 
The fish the Syracusans call the dog, 

Seize on it eagerly; at least, if fat : 

And then compose yourself to meet your fate 

With brow serene and mind well satisfied. 
Lynoeus, the Samian, also quotes these verses in his letter to 
Diagoras, and says that the poet is quite right in advising the 
man who cannot aiford the price for one, to gratify his appe- 
tite by robbery rather than go without it. For he says that 
Theseus, who I take to have been some very good-looking 
man, offered to indulge Tlepolemus in anything if he would 
only give him one of these fish. And Timocles, in his play 
called The Ring, says — 

Galei and rays, and all the fish besides 
t Which cooks do dress with sauce and vinegar. 

45. There is also the sea-grayling. Epicharmus, in his 
Hebe's Wedding,' says — ■ 

There is the variegated scorpion, 

The lizard, and the fat sea-grayling too. 
And Numenius, in his Treatise on Fishing, says — 

The hycca, the callicthya; and the chromis, 

The orphus, the sea-grayling too, who haunts 

The places where seaweed and moss abound. 
And Archestratus, praising the head of the glaucus, says^- 

If you 're at Megara or at Olynthus, 

Dress me a grayling's head. For in the shallows 

Around those towns he's taken in perfection. 
And Antiphanes, in his Shepherd, says — 

Boeotian eels, and mussels too from Pontua, 

Graylings from Megara, from Carystua shrimps, 

Bretrian phagri, and the Scyrian crabs. 

' An Attic drachma was as near as may be 9fd. So that a thousand 
will amount to something over iOl. . 

0. 46.] Fisu. 463 

And the same -writer, in his Philotis, speaks thus — 
A. What shall be done with the grayling 1 

B. Why 
Now, as at other times, boil him in brine. 
A. What with the pike? 

B. Why roast him whole, and dish him. 

A . What with the galeus ? 

B. Do him up with stuffing. 
And serve him hot. 

A . How will you have the eels ? 

B. Cook them with salt, and marjoram, and water. 

A . The conger 1 

B. Do the same. 

I 4. The ray t 

B. Take herbs 
And season him with them. 

A. There ia besides 
Half a large tunny. 

B. Boast it. 

A . Some goat's venison. 

B. Koast that. 

A. How will you have the rest o' the meat ? 
B. All boil'd. 

A. The spleen? 

B. StufiFthat. 

A. The paunch and trail? 
46. And Eubulus says, in his Campy lion, — 

There was a beautiful dish of the sea-grayling. 
And a boil'd pike served up i' savoury pickle. 

And Anaiandrides, in his Nereus, says — 

The man who first discover'd all the good 
Of the most precious head of a large grayling. 
And then how dainty was the tunny's meat. 
Caught where the waves are by no tempests tost. 
How good in short is the whole race of fish, 
Nereus his name, dwells in this place for ever. 

And Amphis, in his Seven against Thebes, says — 
Whole graylings, and large slices of the head. 

And in his Philetssrus, he says — 

Take & small eel, and a fine grayling's head. 
And slices of a pike fresh from the sea. 

And Antiphanes, in his Cyclops, out-heroding even ,the 
epicure Archestratus, says — 

Give me an Hymettian mullet. 

And a ray just caught, a perch 

Split open, and a cuttle-fish. 

And a well-roasted synodon ; 


A slice of grayling, and a head 
Of mighty conger, luscious food ; 
A frog's inside, a tiinny's flank, 
A ray's sharp back, a cestra's loin, 
Sea-sparrows, and sea-thrushes too. 
Sprats, and anchovies, let me not 
Complain of any want. 

47. And Nausicrates says, in his Captains of Ships, — 

A. They say there are two kinds offish most tender 
And beautiful to see, which oft appear 

To sailors wandering o'er the spacious plains 
Of ocean. And they say that one foretells 
To mortals all the evils which hang o'er them. 

B. You mean the grayling. 

A. You are right, I do. 

And Theolytus, the MethymnEean, in his Bacchic Odes, says 
that Glaucus the deity of the sea became enamoured of 
Ariadne, when she vas carried off by Bacchus in the island 
of Dia j and that he, attempting to offer violence to her, was 
bound by Bacchus in fetters made of vine-twigs ; but that 
when he begged for mercy he was released, saying — 

There is a place, Anthedon is its name. 
On the sea-side, against th' Eubcean isle, 
Near to the stream of the still vext Euripus— 
Thence is my race; and Copeus was my sire. 

And Promathides of Heraclea, in his Half Iambics, traces 
the pedigree of Glaucus as being the son of Polybus, the son 
of Mercury, and of Eubcea, the daughter of Larymnus. But 
Mnaseas, in the third book of his history of the Affairs of 
Europe, calls him the son of Anthedon and Alcyone ; and says 
that be was. a sailor and an excellent diver, and that he was 
surnamed Pontius; and that having ravished Syme, the 
daughter of lalemus and Dotis, he sailed away to Asia, and 
colonised a desert island near Caria, and called that Syme, 
from the name of his wife. But Euanthes, the epic poetj in 
Lis Hymn to Glaucus, says that he was the son of Neptune 
and the nymph Nais; and that he was in love with Ariadne, 
in the island of Dia, and was favoured by her after she had 
been left there by Theseus. But Aristotle, in his Constitu- 
tion of the Delians, says that he settled in Delos with the 
Nereids, and gave oracles to all who wished for them. But 
Possis, the Magnesian, in the third book of his Amazonis, says 
that Glaucus was the builder of the Argo, and that he was 

c. is.] GLAUCus. 465 

her pilot when Jason fought the Etrurians, and was the only 
person uuwounded in that naval battle ; and that by the will 
of Jupiter he appeared in the depths of the sea, and so bo- 
came a sea deity, but was seen by Jason alone. But Nicanor 
the Cyrenaean, in his Changes of Names, says that Melicerta 
changed his name and assumed the name of Glaucus. 

48. Alexander the ./Etolian also mentions him in his poem 
entitled the Fislierman, saying that he 

First tasted grass, 
(and then was immersed in the sea and drowned,) 

The herb which in the islands of the blest. 

When first the spring doth beam upon the earth. 

The untill'd land shows to the genial sun. 

And the sun gives it to his weary steeds, 

A most refreshing food, raised in the shade. 

So that they come in vigour back renew'd 

Unto their daily task, and no fatigue 

Or pain can stop their course. 

But jEschrion the Samian, in some one of his Iambic poems, 
says that Glaucus the sea-deity was in love with Hydna, the 
daughter of Scyllus, the diver of Scione. And he makes par- 
ticular mention of this herb, namely, that any one who eats 
of it becomes immortal, saying — 

And you found too th' agrostls of the gods. 
The sacred plant which ancient Saturn sow'd. 

And Nicander, in the third book of his Europe, says that 
Glaucus was beloved by Nereus. And the same Nicander, in 
the first book of his history of the Affairs of ./Etolia, says that 
Apollo learnt the art of divination from Glaucus ; and that 
Glaucus when he was hunting near Orea, (and that is a lofty 
mountain in Mtdlia,,) hunted a hare, which was knocked up by 
the length of the chace, and got under a certain fountain, and 
when just on the point of djang, rolled itself on the herbage 
that was growing around ; and, as it recovered its strength 
^by means of the herbage, Glaucus too perceived the virtues 
of this herb, and ate some himself. And becoming a 
god in consequence, when a storm came, he, in accordance 
with the will of Jupiter, threw himself into the sea. But 
Hedylus, whether he was a Samian or an Athenian I know 
not, says that Glaucus was enamoured of Melicerta, and 
threw himself into the sea after him. But Hedyle, the 
mother of this poet, and daughter of Moschine of Attica, a 

VOL. I. — ATH. H H 


poetess who composed Iambics, in her poem which is entitled 
Scylla, relates that Glaucus being in love with. Scylla came to 
-her cave — 

Bearing a gift of love, a mazy shell. 

Fresh from the Erythrean rock, and with ii; too 

The offspring, yet unfledged, of Alcyon, 

To win th' obdurate maid. He gave in vain. 

Even the lone Siren on the neighbouring isle 

Pitied the lover's tears. For as it chanced, 

.He swam towards the shore which she did haunt, 

ITigh to th' unquiet caves of ^tna. 

49. There is also a fish called the fuller. Dorion, in his 
treatise on Fish, says that the juice which proceeds from the 
boiling of a fuller will take out every kind of stain j and 
Epsanetus also mentions it in his Cookery Book. 

50. The eel is well known : and Epicharmus mentions sea- 
eels in his Muses ; but Dorion, in his treatise on Fishes, men- 
tioning those which come from the lake Copais, extols the 
Copaic eels highly ; and they grow to a great size. At all 
events, Agatharchides, in the sixth book of his history of the 
Affairs of Europe, says that the largest eels from lake Copais 
are sacrificed to the gods by the Boeotians, who crown them 
like victims, and offer prayers over them, sprinkling them 
with meal ; and that once, when a foreigner was astonished at 
the singular kind of victim and sacrifice, and asked a Boeotian 
whence it originated, the Boeotian answered. That he only 
knew one thing ; that it was right to maintain the customs of 
one's ancestors, and that it was not right to make any excuses 
for them to foreigners. But we need not wonder if eels are 
sacrificed as victims, since Antigonus the Carystian, in his 
treatise on Language, says that the fishermen celebrate a fes- 
tival in honour of Neptune when the tunnies come in season, 
and they are successful in their pursuit of them ; and that 
they sacrifice to the god the first .tunny that is caught ; .and 
that this sacrificial festival is called the Thunnaeum. ' 

51. But among the people of Phaselis, even salt-fish are 
offered in sacrifice. At all events, Heropythus, in his Annals 
of the Colophonians, speaking of the original settlement of 
Phaselis, says that "Lacius, having conducted the colony, 
gave as the price of the ground to Cylabras, a shepherd who 
fed sheep there, .some salt-fish, as ihat was what he asked for. 
For when Lacius had proposed to him to take as a, price for 

c. 52!] EELS. 467 

the soil either barley-cakes, or wheat-cakes, or salt-fish, Cj-la- 
■bras chose the salt-fish. And, on this account, the people of 
Phaselis eveiy year, even to this day, sacrifice salt-fish to 
Cylabras." But Philostephanus, in the first book of his trea- 
tise on the Cities of Asia, -writes thus : — " That Lacius the 
Argive, being one of the men who had come with Mopsus, 
whom some say was a Lindian, and the brother of Anti- 
phemus who colonized Gela, was sent to Phaselis by Mopsus 
with some men, in accordance with some directions given by 
Manto the mother of Mopsus, when the sterns of their ships 
came in collision ofi^ the Chelidonise, and were much broken, 
as Lacius and the vessels with him ran into them in the 
night, in consequence of their arriving later. And it is said 
that he purchased the land where the city now stands, iu 
obedience to the prophetic directions of Manto, from a man 
of the name of Cylabras, giving him some salt-fish for it ; for 
that was what he had selected from all the ships contained. 
On which account, the people of Phaselis sacrifice salt-fish to 
Cylabras every year, honoming him as their hero." 

52. But concerning eels, Icesius, in his treatise on Mate- 
rials, says that eels have a better juice in them than any 
other fish ; and in the quality of being good for the stOmach, 
they are superior to most, for they are very satisfying and veiy 
nutritious : though he classes the Macedonian eels among 
the salt-fish. But Aristotle says that eels are fond of the 
very pui-est water ; on which account, the people who feed eels 
pour clean water over them ; for they get choked in muddy 
water. For which reason, those who hunt for them make 
the water muddy, in order that the eels may be choked ; for, 
having very small gills, their pores are almost immediately 
stopped up by any mud or disturbance in the water: on 
which account, also, they are often choked during storms, when 
the water is disturbed by heavy gales. But they propagate 
theh- species being entwined together, and then they discharge 
a sort of viscous fluid from their bodies, which lies iu the 
mud and generates living creatures. And the people who 
feed eels say that they feed by night, but that during the day 
they remain motionless in the mud; and they live about 
eight years at most. But in other places, Aristotle tells us 
again, that they are produced without either their progenitors 
laying eggs or bringing forth living offspring, and also that 


they are not generated by any copulation, but that they are 
propagated by the putrefaction which takes place in the mud 
and slime — as it is said of those things which are called the 
entrails of the earth. From which circumstance, he says that 
Homer distinguishes between their nature and that of other 
fish ; and says — 

The eels and fish ■within the briny deep, 
Were startled at the blaze. 

53. But a certain Epicurean,' who was one of our party, 
when an eel was served up, said, — Here is the Helen of the 
feast ; I therefore will be the Pa-is ! And, before any one 
else could stretch out a hand towards it, he seized hold of it 
and split it up, tearing off one side down to the backbone. 
And the same man, when presently a hot cheese-cake was set 
before him, and when all refused it, cried out, 

I will attack it were it hot as fire; 
and then, rushing upon it eagerly, and swallowing it, he was 
carried out severely scalded. And Cynulcus said, — The cor- 
morant is carried out from his battle of the throat ! 
Moreover, Archestratus thus speaks of the eel : — 

» I praise all kinds of eels ; but far the best 
Is that which fishermen do take in the sea 
Opposite to the strait of Rhegium. 
Where you, Messenius, who daily put 
This food within your mouth, surpass all mortals 
In real pleasure. Though none can deny 
That great the virtue and the glory is 
Of the Strymonian and Copaic eels. 
For they are large, and wonderfully fat ; 
And I do think in short that of all fish 
The best in flavour is the noble eel. 
Although he cannot propagate his speciea, 

54. But, as Homer has said, 

The eels and fish were startled, 

Archilochus has also said, in a manner not inconsistent with 
that — 

And you received full many sightless eels. 
But the Athenians, as Tryphon says, form all the cases in the 
singular number with the v, but do not make the cases in the 

' The Greek is 'EKiKoipetos elftaSurrfis, which last word was an epithet 
of the Epicureans, because they celebrated the death of their founder ou 
the twentieth day of the month Gamelion. Vide L. & S. in voc. 

c .55.] EELS. 469 

plural ill a similar manner. Accordingly, Ai-istophanes, iu 
his Acharnensians, says — 

Behold, boys, the noUe eel {tyx^f^"'') i 
and, in his Lemnian Women, he says — 

'£7x6^'"' Boiartay : 

but he uses the nominative case in his Daitaleis — 

And smooth too ISxnr^p ^7xeAw. 
And Cratinus, in his Pluti, says — 

The tunny, orphus, grayling, eel, and sea-dog. 
But the Attic ■writers do not form the cases in the plural 
number as Homer does. Ai'istophanes says, iu his Knights — 

For you have fared like men who 're hunting eels (^7x='^«'s) ; 
and, in his second edition of the Clouds, he says — 

Imitating my images of the eels {iyx^^^"") > 
and in his Wasps we find the dative case — 

I don't delight in rays nor in 67xeAe<r"' 
And Strattis, in his Potamii, said — 

A cousin of the eels {iyx^f^iav). 
Simonides, too, in his Iambics, writes — 

Like an eel {iyx^^"^) complaining of being slippery. 

He also uses it in the accusative — 

A kite was eating a Mseandrian eel (e7xe^"''), 
But a Jieron saw him and deprived him of it. 

But Aristotle, in his ti-eatise on Animals, writes the word with 

an I, ly^eKis. But when Aristophanes, in his Knights, says — 

Your fate resembles that of those who hunt 
For mud-fed eels. For when the lake is still 
Their labour is in vain. But if they stir 
The mud all up and down, they catch much fiah. 
And so you gain by stirring up the city ; 

he shows plainly enough that the eel is caught in the mud, 
{« Trji IXvos,) and it is from this word iXvs that the name 
f.-p(e\vs ends in us. The Poet, therefore, wishing to show that 
the violent effect of the fire reached even to the bottom of the 
river, spoke thus — The eels and fish were troubled ; speaking 
of the eels separately and specially, in order to show the very 
great depth to which the water was influenced by the fire. 

55. But Antiphanes, in his Lycon, jesting on the Egyptians 
after the manner of the comic poets, says — 


They say in other things the Egyptian race 
Is clever also, since they think the eel 
On a level with the gods j or I may say- 
By far more valuable. For, as to the gods, — 
Those we gain over by our prayers alone ; 
Bat as for eels, without you spend at least 
Twelve drachmas you can scarce get leave to smell them. 
So it is altogether a holy beast. 

And Anaxandrides, in his Cities," directing what he says to the 
Egyptians, speaks as follows — 

I never could myself your comrade be, 

For neither do our manners nor our laws 

Agree with yours, but they are wholly different. 

You do adore an. ox ; I sacrifice him 

To the great Gods of heaven. You do think 

An eel the mightiest of deities ; 

But we do eat him as the best of fish. 

You eat no pork ; I like it above all things. 

You do adore a dog ; but I do beat him 

If e'er I catch him stealing any meat. 

Then our laws enjoin the priests to be 

Most perfect men ; but yours are mutilated. 

If you do see a, cat in any grief 

You weep ; but I first kill him and then skin him. 

You have a great opinion of the shrew-mouse ; 

But I have none at all. 

And Timooles, in his Egyptians, says— ^ 

How can an ibis or a dog be able 

To save a man I For where with impious hearts 

Men sin against the all-acknowledged Gods, 

And yet escape unpuuish'd, who can think 

The altar of a cat will be more holy. 

Or prompter to avenge itself, than they 1 

56. But that men used to wrap eels up in beet, and then 
eat them, is a fact constantly alluded to in the poets of the 
old comedy; and Eubulus says in his Echo — 

The nymph who never knew the joys of marriage, 
Clothed with rosy beet will now appear. 
The white-flesh'd eel. Hail, brilliant luminary. 
Great in my taste, and in your own good qualities. 

And in his Ionian he says — 

And after this were served up the rich 
Eutrails of roasted tunnies ; then there came 
Those natives of the lake, the holy eels, 
Boeotian goddesses ; all clothed in beet. 

And in his Medea he says — 

c. CO.] EELS. 4Vr 

The sweet Boeotian Copaic virgin ; 
For I do fear to name the Goddess. 

And that tlie eels of the river Strymon were also celebrated, 
Autiphanes tells us in his Thamyras, saying — 

And then your namesake river, far renown'd 
In all the mouths of men, the mighty Strymon, 
Who -waters the rich warlike plains of Thrace, 
Breeds mighty eels. 

And Demetrius the Scepsian, in the sixteenth book of his, 
Trojan Array, sa^-s that there were eels of surpassing excel- 
lence produced iu the neighbourhood of the river Euleus 
(and this river is mentioned by Antimachus iu his work 
entitled The Tablets, where he says — 

Arriving at the springs 

AVhere Euleus with his rapid eddies rises). 

57. With respect to the ellops, some mention has already 
been made of him. But Archestratus also speaks in this way 
of him — 

The hest of ellopes which you can eat 

Come from the bay of famous Syracuse. 

Those eat whene'er you can. For that's the place 

'Whence this great fish originally came. 

But those which are around the islands caught,. 

Or any other land, or nigh to Crete, 

Too long have battled with the eddying currents, 

And so are thin and harder to the taste. 

58. The erythrinus, or red mullet, has been mentioned too. 
Aristotle, in his book on Animals, and Speusippus both say 
that the fishes called erythrinus,' phagrus, and hepatus are all 
very nearly alike. And Dorion has said much the same in 
his treatise on Fish. . But the Cyrenseans give the name of 
ei-ythrinus to the hyca; as Clitarchus tells us in his Dialects. 

. 59. The eucrasicholi are also mentioned by Aristotle as. fish 
of small size, in his treatise on What relates to Animals. But 
Dorion, in his book on Fishes, speaks of the enerasicholi 
among those which are best boiled, speaking in the following- 
terms — " One ought to boil the enerasicholi, and the iopes, and 
the atherinse, and the tench, and the smaller mullets, and thei 
cuttle-fish, and the squid, and the different kinds of crab or 

60. The hepsetus, or boiled fish, is a name given to several 
small fish. Aristophanes, in his Anagyrus, says — 

There is- not one dish of hepseti. ' ' 


And Archippus says in his Fishes — 

An hepsetus fell in with an anchovy 

And quick devour'd him. 
And Eupolis, in his Goats, says — 

Ye graces who do love the hepaeti. 
And Eubulus, in his Prosusia or Cycnus, says — 

Contented if just once in each twelve days 

He sees an hepsetua well boil'd in beet. 

And Alexis, in his Apeglaucomenos, says — 
There were some hepseti besides served up 
In a (Isedalean manner. For they call 
All clever works by the name of Dsedalua ; 

and presently afterwards he continues — 

Will you not now then try the coracini 3 

Nor trichides, nor any hepseti ] 
But this word is always used in the plural, ifip-ol, because 
they are only served up in numbers. Aristophanes, in his 
Dramata or Niobus, says — 

I will say nothing of a dish of hepseti. 
And Menander, in his Perinthian Woman, says — 

The boy came in bringing some hepseti. 
But Nicostratus uses the word in the singular number, in his 
Hesiod — 

A bembras, an anchovy, and a hepsetus. 

And Posidippus, in his Woman shut up, says — 

She's gone to buy a hepsetus. 
But in my country Naucratis, what they call hepseti are little 
fish left in the drains or ditches, when the Nile ceases its 

61. The hepatus or lebias is the next fish to be noticed. 
Diodes affirms that this is one of those fish which stick to 
the rocks ; but Speusippus says that the hepatus is the same 
as the phagrus. But it is a solitary fish, as Aristotle declares, 
carnivorous, and with serrated teeth; black as to its flesh, 
and having eyes large, out of all proportion to the rest of its 
size ; and its heart is triangular and white. But Arches- 
tratus, the marshal of banquets, says — 

Eemember that the lebias is best, 

As also is the hepatus, in the waves 

Which wash the Delian and the Tenian shores. 

O. 64.] THE THNNY-FISn. 473 

62. Then come the elacatenes, or spindle fish. Muesima- 
chus, in his Horsebreeder, classes together in one line — 

The turbot, tunny, tench, elacateue. 
But they are a cetaceous fish, very good for curing. Menander, 
in his Colons, says — • 

The tench, th' elacatene, and the tail-fin of 

The sea-dog are the best for pickling. 

And Mnaseas of Patra says, " Of Ichthys and Hesychia, his 
sister, were bom the galene, the lamprey, and the elacatene. 

63. The tunny must also not be forgotten. Aristotle says 
this fish swims into the Black Sea, always keeping the land 
on the right ; but that he sails out again, keeping the 
land on the left. For that he can see much best with his 
right eye, but that he is rather blind with his left eye. And 
under his fins he has a sort of gadfly ; he delights in heat, 
on which account he comes wherever there is sand ; and he is 
most eatable at the season when he gets rid of that fly. But 
he propagates his species after his time of torpor is over, as 
we are told by Theophrastusj and as long as his offspring are 
little, he is very difficiilt to catch, but when they get larger, 
then he is easily caught, because of the gadfly. But the 
tunny lies in holes, although he is a fish with a great deal of 
blood. And Archestratus says — 

Around the sacred and the spacious isle 

Of Samos you may see large tunnies caught. 

The Samians call them horcyes, and others 

Do name them cetus. These 'tis well to buy, 

Fit offering for the Gods ; and do it quickly, 

Nor stop to haggle or bargain for the price. 

Good too are those which fair Byzantium, 

Or the Carystian marble rocks do breed. 

And in the famous isle of Sicily, 

The Cephaloedian and Tyndariau shores 

Send forth fish richer still. And if you come 

To sacred Italy, where Hipponiums cape 

Frowns on the waves which lave the Bruttian coast. 

Those are the best of all. The tunnies there 

Have gain'd the height of fame and palm of victory. 

Still those which there you find have wander'd far, 

Cross'd many seas, and many a roaring strait, 

So that we often catch them out of season. 

64. But this fish was called the tunny {6vwoi) from rush- 
ing (diro Tov 6veiv), and moving rapidly. For it is an im- 
petuous fish, from, at a particular season, having a gadfly in its 

474 THE DEiPNOSorniSTS. " [b. VII.. 

head ; by which Aristotle says that it is driven about, writing 
thus—" But the tunny iish and the sword fish are driven 
to frenzy about the time of the rising of the dogstar ; for both 
of them at that season have under their fins something Uke a 
small worm, which is called 03strus, resembling a scorpion, and 
in size something similar to a spider, and this makes them 
leap about in leaps as large as those of the dolphin." And 
Theodoridas says, — 

The tunnies bend their furious course to Gades. 
But Polybius of Megalopolis, in the thirty- fourth book of his 
History, speaking of the Lusitanian district in Iberia, says, 
"That in the sea, in these parts, acorn-bearing oaks grow, 
on the fruit of which the tunnies feed, and- grow fat ; sO' 
that a person who called the tunny the pig of the sea would 
not err, for the tunnies, like the pigs, grow to a great size on 
these acorns." 

65. And the intestines of this fish are highly extolled, as 
Eubulus also tells us, in his Ionian, — 

And after this the luscious intestines 
Of roasted tunnies sail'd upon the table. 

And Aristophanes, in his Lemnian Woman, says — 

Despise not thou the fat Boeotian eel, 

Nor grayling, nor the entrails of the tunny. 

And Strattis, in his A.talanta, says — 

Next buy the entrails of a tunny, and 
Some pettitoes of pigs, to cost a drachma. 

And the same poet says in his Macedonians — 

And the sweet entrails of the tunny fish. 

And Eriphus says in his Meliboea — 

These things poor men cannot afford to buy. 
The entrails of the tunny or the head 
Of greedy pike, or conger, or cuttle-fish, 
Which I don't think the gods above despise. 

But when Theopompus, in his Callseschrus, says, 

The imoyixTTpiov of fish, Ceres, 
we must take notice that the writers of his time apply the 
term vTroyacrrpiov to fish, but very seldom to pigs or other 
animals ; but it is uncertain what animals Antiphanes' is 
speaking of, when he makes use of the term vTroyda-Tpiov ia 
his Ponticus, where he says — 

C. 66.] THE TUNNT-FISII. 475 

Whoever has by cliance bought dainty food 
For these accursed and abandon'd women, 
Such as Inroyaffrpttt, which may Neptune 
Confound for ever ; and who seeks to place 
Beside them now a dainty loin of moat. . . . 

And Alexis, in his Ulysses weaving, praises the head of the 
tunny; and says — 

A. And I wilt throw the fishers headlong down 
Into the pit. They only catch for me 
Food fit for freed men ; trichides and squids. 
And partly fried fish. 

B. But not long ago. 
This man, if he could get a tunny's head, 
Thought he was eating tunnies whole, and eels. 

They praised also that part of the tunny -which they called 
'•the key," as Aristophon does, in his Peirithus : — 

A. But now the dinner is all spoilt entirely. 

B. Here are two roasted kej's quite fit to eat. 
A . What, keys to open doors 'i 

B. 'So, tnnny keys ; 
A dainty dish. 

A. There is the Spartan key too. ^ 

66. But Antigonus the Carystian, in his treatise on Lan- 
guagp, says that the tunny is sacrificed to Neptune, as we 
have already mentioned. But Heracleon the Ephesian says 
that the Attic writers call the tunny the orcynus. And Sos- 
tratus, in the second book of his treatise on Animals, says 
that the pelamys is called the thunnis, or female tunny-fish ;, 
but that when it becomes larger, it is called thunnus ; and 
when it gets to a larger size still, it is called the orcjmus; 
and that when it has grown to a size which is quite enormous, 
then it is called cetus. And ./Eschylus likewise mentions the 
tuimy, saying — 

I bid you take up hammers now, and beat 

The fiery mass of iron, which will utter 

No groan, but bear in silence like the tunny. 

And in another place he says — 

Taming his eye aside, just like the tunny; 
because the tunny cannot see well out of his left eye, as 
Aristotle has- said. Menander, in his Fishermen, says — 

And the disturbed and muddy sea which breeds 

The largest tunnies. 

And in Sophron we find the word 6vwo9ipa<; (a hunter of 


tunnies) ; but the same fish which is usually called Omvos, the 
Attic writers call Bvwi's. 

67. But as to the thuunis, Aristotle says that this is the 
female, diifering from the male thunnus in having a fin under 
the belly, the name of which fin is the " ather." But in his 
treatise on the Parts of Animals, he again distinguishes the 
thunnis from the thunnus ; saying, that " in the summer, 
about the month Hecatombseon, it drops something like a 
bag, in which there are a great number of small eggs." And 
Speusippus, in the second book of his Similitudes, distin- 
guishes the thunnis from the thunnus ; and so does Epichai- 
mus, in his Muses. But Cratinus, in his Pluti, says — • 

For I 'm a thunnis, a melsenas, or 

A thunnus, orphos, grayling, eel, or sea-dog. 

And Aristotle, in his treatise' on Fishes, says that the thunnis 
is a gregarious fish, and also a migratory <?ne. But Arches- 
tratus, who is so fond of petty details, says — 

And then the thunna's tail, which I call thunnis, 

That mighty fish, whose home 's Byzantium. 

Cut it in slices, and then roast it all 

With accurate care, strewing on nought but salt. 

Most thinly spread ; then sprinkle a little oil ; 

Then eat it hot, first dipping it in brine. 

Or if yoa like to eat them dry they 're good ; 

Like the immortal gods in character. 

And figure too ; but if you once forget. 

And vinegar add to them, then you spoil them. 

And Antiphanes, in his Psederastes, says — 

And the middle slices take 

Of the choice Byzantiau tunny. 
And let them bo neatly hidden 

Under leaves from beet-root torn. 

Antiphanes also praises the tail of the thunnis, in his Couris, 
where he says — 

A. The man who 's country bred likes not to cat 
Food from the sea e.^traeted ; unless indeed 
It comes quite close in shore. Such as some conger, 
Some ray, or tunny's . . , 

S. Which part of the tunny l 
A. The lower part. 

B. Well, you may eat that safely. 
,A. All other fish I reckon cannibals. 
J}. Do not you eat those fish with the ugly backs ] 
A. Which? 

B. The fat eels which haunt Copais' lake. 

c. 69.] FISH. 477 

A. Aye, like a ploughman. For indeed I have 
A farm not lar from that most dainty lalce. 
But I impeach the eels now of desertion, 
For none at all were there the other day. 

And some of these iambics may be found in the Acestria, and 
also in the Countryman, or Butalion. And Hippouax, as 
Lysanias quotes him in his treatise on the Iambic Poets, 
says — 

For one of them with rapid extravagance 

Feasting each day on tunnies and on cheese-cakes. 

Like any eunuch of rich Lampeacus, 

Ate up his whole estate. So that he now 

Is forced to work and dig among the rocks,' 

Eating poor figs, and small stale loaves of barley. 

Food fit for slaves. 

And Strattis also mentions the thunnis, in his Callipides. 

68. There is also a fish called the hippurus, or horsetail. 
Aristotle, in the fifth book of his treatise on the Parts of 
Animals, says that the hippuri laj' eggs, and that these are 
small at first, but come to a great size, like those of the lam- 
prey ; and that they bring forth their young in the spring. 
But Dorion, in his book upon Fish, says that the hippurus is 
also called the coryphjena. But Icesius calls it the hippuris ; 
and Epicharmus also mentions them in his Hebe's Wedding, 
saying — 

The sharp-nosed needle-fish. 

And the hippurus, and bright chrysophrys. 

But Numenius, in his treatise on the Art of Fishing, speaking 
of the natm-e of the fish, says that it keeps continually leap- 
ing out of the Tvater ; on which account it is also called the 
Tumbler. And he uses the following expressions about it : — 

Or the great synodons, or tumbler hippurus. 
And Archestratus says — 

Th' hippurus of Carystus is the best. 

And indeed all Carystian fish are good. 

And Epa3netus, in his Cookery Book, says that it is called 
also the coryphsena. 

G9. There is another fish called the horse ; and perhaps it 
is the same which Epicharmus calls the hippidion, or little 
horse, when he says — 

The coracinus colour'd like a crow. 

Fat, well-fed fish ; the smooth hippidion, 

The phycae, and the tender squill . . . 


And Numenius, in his Art oi Fisliing, says — 

The char, the mighty tench of size enormous, 
The channus, and the eel ; and he who roves 
By night, the wary pitynus ; the mussel, 
The horse-fish, or the sea-green corydulis. 

And Antimachus the Colophonian mentions it in his Thebais, 

'where he says — 

The hyca, or tie horse-fish, or the one 

Which they do call the thrush. 

70. There is a fish, too, called the ioulis, concerning which 
Dorion says, in his treatise on Fishes, " EecoUect that if you 
boil the ioulis, you must do it in brine ; and if you roast 
them, you must roast them with marjoram." And Numenius 

And ne'er neglect the medicine which keeps off 
To a great degree tlie greedy fish ioulis. 
And scolopendrus that doth poison dart. 

But the same writer calls them ioidus, and the entrails of the 
earth, in the following lines : — 

Moreover do not then the bait forget, 
Which on the highest hills that fringe the shore 
Shall soon be found. And they are called iouli, 
Black, eating earth — the entrails of the earth ; 
Or the long-footed grasshopper, what time 
The sandy rocks are sprinkled with the foam 
Of the high-rising tide. Then dig them up, 
And stow them carefully within your bag. 

71. There are also fish called KU)^r], the sea-thrush, and 
Koo-oTx^os, the sea-blackbird. The Attic writers call the first 
Kif^ri, with an r) ; and the reason is as follows : — All the 
feminine nouns which end in \a have another A before the 
Xa ; as SkwAAo, (TidWa, KoWa, fiSiXXa, a/i(XAa, S.fx.aWa : but 
those which end in Xrj do not require a A to precede the A?; j 
as 6/w,()(Ai7, (fivrXy], jividXr], aiyXrj, TpwyXrj, and, in like manner, 
T/DtyAr/. Cratinus says — 

Suppose a man had eaten a red mullet (rplyKriy), 
Would that alone prove him an epicure? 

And Diodes, in the first book of his treatise on Wholesomes, 
says, "Those fish which are called rocky fish hare tender 
flesh; such as the sea-blackbird, the sea- thrush, the perch, 
the tench, the phyca, the alphesticus." But Numenius says, 
in his treatise on Fishing — 

o. 73.] FKH. 471) 

The sea-born race of grayling or of orplius, 

The black-flesh'd blackbird, or the dainty sea-thrush 

Sporting beneath the waves. 

And Epicharmus, in his Hebe's Wedding, says — 

Bambradones, sea-thrushes, and sea-hares; 
And the bold dragon fish. 

And Aristotle, in Ms treatise on Wliat concerns Animals, 
says, " And the fishes with black spots, hke the sea-blackbird ; 
and the fishes -with variegated spots, like the sea-thrush." But 
Pancrates the Ai-cadian, in his Works of the Sea, says that 
the sea-thrush is called by many names : — 

Add now to these the sea-thrush red, which they 
Who -seek to snare the wary fish with bait 
Do call the saurus, and th' seolias, 
-idd too th' orphiscus ivith his large fat head. 

And Nicander, in the fourth book of his Transformed People, 
says — 

The scams or the thrush with many names. 

72. There is also the sea-boar and the cremys. Aristotle, 
in his treatise on Animals, says, "But some fish have no teeth 
and smooth skins, like the needle-fish ; and some have stonj^ 
heads, like the cremjs; and some are harsher, with rough 
skins, like the sea-boar ; and some are marked down the back 
with two Hues, like the seserinusj and some are marked with 
many lines and with red spots, like the salpe." And both 
Dorion and Epsenatus mention the sea-boar ; and Arches- 
tratus says — • 

But when you go to Acta's favour'd land, 

If you by chance should see a rich sea-boar, 

Buy it at once, and let it not escape you, 

Not if you buy it at its weight in gold ; 

Else will the indignation of the gods 

O'erpower you ; for 'tis the flower of nectar. 

But 'tis not all men who can be allow'd 

To eaf this dainty, no, nor e'en to see it ; 

Unless they take a strongly-woven mesh 

Of marsh-bred rush, and hold it in their hands, 

AVell used to ply the floats with rapid mind, 

And with these dainties you must offer up. 

Thrown on the ground, some gifts of lamb and mutton. 

73. There is also the harp-fish. Aristotle, in his treatise 
on Animals, or on Fish, says, " The harp-fish has serrated 
teeth, is a fish of solitary habits, he lives on seaweed ; he has a 


very loose tongue, and a white and broad heart." Pherecrates, 

in his Slave-Tutor, says — 

The harp-fisli is a good fish ; be you sure 
To buy him when you can. He really is good ; 
But, I by Phoebus swear, this does perplex me 
Exceedingly which men do say, my friend. 
That there is secret harm within this harp-fish, 

Epicharmus says, in his Marriage of Hebe — 

There were hysenides, 

And fine buglossi, and the harp-fish too 

And ApoUodorus has said that, on account of his name, he 
was considered to be sacred to Apollo. And Callias, or 
Diodes, whichever was the author of the play, says in the 

Cyclops — 

A roasted harp-fish, and a ray, 
And the head of a well-fed tunny. 

And- Archestratus, in his Luxurious Way of Living, sajs — 

I counsel you always to boil a harp-fish 

If he is white and full of firmish meat ; 

But if he 's red and also no great size. 

Then it were best, when you have prick'd him o'er 

AVith a new sharpen'd knife, to roast him gently. 

Sprinkle him then with oil and plenteous cheese. 

For he does like to see men liberal, 

And is himself intemperate. 

74. There is also the cordylus. Aristotle calls this fish an 
amphibious animal, and says that it dies if it is dried by the 
sun. But Numenius, in his book on the Art of Fishing, calls 
it the courylus : — 

All things are ready. First I strip the thighs 
Of courylus, or pirene, and treat too 
In the same way the marine grasshopper. 

He also speaks of the fish called the cordylis, in these lines — 

Mussels, searhorses, or the sea-green cordylis. 

75. There is also a fish called cammorus. Epicharmus, in 
his Marriage of Hebe, says — 

Then after this there are boaces and 
Smarides, anchovies, also cammori. 

And Sophron, in his Female Farces, mentions them. But 
they are a species of squill, and this name was given them by 
the Romans. 

76. There is also a fish called the carcharias. Numenitis 
of Heraclea, in his Art of Fishing, says — 

c. 77.] FISH. 481 

At times yon may too a caroharias catch, 
At times a psamathis who loves the surf. 

And Soptron, in his Tunny-hunter, says, " But if your 
stomach happens to have swallowed a carcharias." But 
Nicander the Colophonian, in his essay on Dialects, says that 
the carcharias is also called the lamias and the squill. 

77. There is also the cestreus. Icesius says, "Of the fish 
which are called by one general name of leucisci there are 
many sorts ; for some are called cephali, and some cestres, 
and some chellones, and some myxini. But the cephali are 
the best both in flavour and juiciness ; the next to them are 
those called the cestres ; the myxini are inferior to either. 
But the worst of all are the cheUones, which are called bacchi ; 
and they are all full of wholesome juice, not very nutritious, 
but very digestible." And Dorion, in his essay on Fish, men- 
tions the sea cestreus, but does not approve of the river one. 
And the sea cestreus he subdivides into two species — the 
cephalus and the nestis. But the cestreus, which is like the 
sea-urchin about the head, he calls sphondylus. And he says 
" that the cephalinus differs from the cephalus, and that this 
last is also called the blepsias." But Aristotle says, in the fifth 
book of his treatise on the Parts of Animals, " But of the dif- 
ferent kinds of cestreus, the chellones begin to be pregnant in 
the month Poseideon; so does the sargus and the fish called the 
myxus ; and so does the cephalus : and they go thirty days 
with young. But some of the cestres are not generated by 
copulation, but are produced by the slime and the sand." 

And in other places Aristotle says, " The cestreus is a fish 
with serrated teeth, but he does not eat other fishes ; and, 
indeed, he is in no respect carnivorous. But of these fish there 
are several kinds — the cephalus, the chellon, and the pherseus. 
And the cheUon feeds close to land, but the pherseus does 
not; and they use the following food — ^the phereeus uses the 
mucus which proceeds from itself, and the cheUon eats slime 
and sand. It is said, also, that the spawn of the cestreus is not 
eaten by any other fish, just as the cestreus also eats no other 
fish." But Euthydemus the Athenian, in his treatise on 
Cured Fish, says that the spheneus and the dactyleus are both 
different species of cestres ; and also that there is a species 
which are called cephali, because they have very large heads. 
And those which are called spheneus,' are called so because 
• From <r<p)iv, a wedge. 

VOL. I. — ^ATH. I I 


they are thin and fcnlr-oornered ; and the dactyleis are not so 
thick as two fingers. But the most excellent of the cestres 
are those which stre caught near Abdera, as Archestratus has 
told US; and the second-best are those which come from 

78. But the cestres are called by some writers plotes, as 
Polemo says, in his treatise on the Elvers in Sicily. And 
Epicharmus, in his Muses, gives them this name — 

.^olians, and plotes, and cyuoglossi. 
There also were sciathides. 

And Aristotle, in his treatise on the Dispositions and Way of 
Living of Animals, says that " the cestres live even if they are 
deprived of their tails. But the cestreus is eaten by the pike, 
and the conger is eaten by the turbot." And there is an 
often-quoted proverb, " The cestreus is fasting," which is ap- 
plied to men who live with strict regard to justice, because 
the cestreus is never carnivorous. Anaxilas, in his Morose 
Man, attacking Maton the Sophist for his gluttony, says — 

Matou seized hold of a large cestreus' head, 
And ale it all. But I am quite undone. 

And that beautiful writer, Archestratus, says — 

Buy if you can a cestreus which has come 

From the seargirt jEgina ; then you shall 

For well-bred men be fitting company. 
Diodes, in his Sea, says — • 

The cestreus leaps for joy. 

79. But that the nestes are a kind of cestreus, Archippus 
tells us, in his Hercules Marrying : — 

Nestes cestres, cephali. 
And Antiphanes, in his Lampon, says— 

But all the other soldiers which you have 
Are hungry (u-fiff-rets) cestres. 

And Alexis, in his Phrygian, says — 

So I a nestis cestreus now run home. 
Ameipsias says, in his Men playing at the Cottabus— 

A. And I will seek the forum, there to find 
Some one to take my work. 

B. I wish you would. 
You would all have less time to follow me. 
Like any hungry (v^o-tis) cestreus. 

And Euphron says, in his Ugly Woman — 
Midas then is a cestreus — see, he walks 
Along the city fasting (vVri*). 

c. 80.] PISH. 483 

And Philemon says, in his Men dying together 

I bought me now a nestis cestreus roasted 
Of no great size. 

Aristophanes, in his Gerytades, says — 

Is there Tf ithin a colony of man cestres 1 
For that they all are r^imSes you know. 

Anaxandrides says, in his Ulysses — 
He usually goes supperlees about, 
Like a cestrinus nestis. 

And Eubnlus, in his Nausicaa, says — 

Who has been drowu'd 'tis now four days ago, 
Leading the life of a sad nestis cestreus. 

80. When all this had been said, about this nice dish of 
fish, one of the cynics_ coming late in the evening said, i" My 
friends, are we, too, keeping a fast, as if this were the middle 
day of the Thesmophoria, since we are now fasting like 
cestres ? For, as Diphilus says, in his Lemnian Women — 
These men have supp'd, but I, wretch that I am, 
Shall he a cestreus through th' extreme of fasting. 

And MyrtUuB answering, said — 

But stand in order — 
as the Hedychares of Theopompus says- 
hungry band of cestres, 

You who are fed, like geese, on vegetables. 

For you shall not take a share of any of these things before 
either you, or your fellow-pupil Ulpian, tell me why the ces- 
treus is the only fish which is called the faster. And Ulpian 
said, — It is because he never takes any living bait ; and when 
he is caught, it is neither eflfected by any meat nor by any 
living animal; as Aristotle tells us, when he says "perhaps his 
being hungry makes him lazy/' and also that "when he is 
frightened he hides his head, as if by so doing he concealed 
his whole body." But Plato, in his Holidays, says — 

As I was going out I met a fisherman, 
And he was bringing me some cestres, and 
He brought me all those worthless starving fish. 

But do you tell me, you Thessalian wrestler, Myrtilus ! 
why it is that fish are called by the poets lAAoTrcs ? And he 
said, — It is because they are voiceless ; but some insist upon 
it that, by strict analogy, the word ought to be iXAo^es, 
because they are deprived of voice ; for the verb iXX-eadmi. 


means to be deprived, and oi/' means voice.' And are you 
ignorant of this, when you are an €XXo\p yourself? But I, as 
the wise Epicharmus says, when this dog makes me no 
answer, — 

Am by myself enough well to reply 

To what two men have lately said before me. 

And I say that they are called eXXoTres from being covered 
with scales, [the word coming from the same root, and being 
equivalent to AeTrtStoros]. But I wiU tell you (though that is 
not a question which has been asked) why the Pythagoreans, 
who do touch other living creatures, though sparingly, and 
who allow themselves even to sacriiice some, absolutely ab- 
stain altogether from fish alone. Is it because of their silence? 
for they think silence a very divine quality. Since, then, 
you, you Molossian dogs, are always silent, but are still not 
Pythagoreans, we will now go on to the rest of the discussion 
about fish. 

81. There is a fish called the coracinus. The coracini, 
which are caught at sea, says Icesius, contain but little nour- 
ishment ; but they are easily secreted, and have a moderate 
supply of good juice. But Aristotle, in the fifth book of his 
Parts of Animals, says that " it happens to nearly aU fish to 
have a rapid growth, and this is the case, in no small degree, 
with the coracinus ; and he lays his eggs close to the land, in 
places full of weeds and moss." But Speusippus, in the 
second book of his treatise on Similitudes, says that the black- 
tail and the coracinus are much alike. But Numenius, in 
his Treatise on the Art of Fishing, says — 

It easily would attract the spotted coracinus. 
And perhaps the seolise mentioned by Epicharmus, in his 
Muses, may be the same as coracini. For Epicharmus says— 

iEolisB, plotes, cynoglossi too. 

But, in his Hebe's Marriage, he speaks of the seolise as a dif- 
ferent fish ; for he says — 

There there were mussels, and the alphastic fish. 
And coracini like to coriander seed, 
jEolise, plotes too, and the cynoglossi. 

But Euthydemus, in his essay on Cured Fish,' says that the 
coracinus is by many people called the saperda. And Hera- 

' SchweighaeuBcr thinks that something has dropped out of the text 
here ; and proposes to insert, " And Ulpian said." 

c. 83.] FISH. 485 

cleon the Ephesian has said much the same thing; and so has 
Philotimus, in his Cookery Book. But that the saperdas and 
the coraciaus are both called the platistacns is affirmed by 
Parmeno the Ehodian, in the first book of his Culinary Doc- 
trine. But Aristophanes, in his Telmessians, uses the ex- 
pression " black-tinned coraoini." 

Pherecrates also uses the word in its diminutive form, in 
his Forgetful Man, where he says — 

Being with your KopmtivtSta and ixaiviSia. 
And Amphis says, in his lalemus — 

Whoever eats a sea-born coracinus 

When he may have a grayling, is a fool. 

But the coraciniof the Nile are very sweet and delicious in 
their flesh, as those who have tried them know ; and they 
have got their name from continually moving their eyes (Bta 
TO Ttts Kopas Kiviiv), and never ceasing. But the Alexandrians 
call them plataces, which is, more correctly speaking, the 
name of the whole genus. 

82. There is also a fish called the cyprinus, or carp. He 
also, as Aristotle tells us, is a carnivorous and gregarious fish ; 
and he has his tongue, not in the lower part of the mouth, 
but in the upper part. But Dorion, mentioning him, in his 
list among the lake and river fish, writes thus : " A scaly fish, 
whom some people call the cyprinus." 

83. There is also the tench. " The tench is very juicy," as 
Icesius says, " exceedingly attractive to the palate, veiy easily 
secreted, not .very nutritious, nor is the juice which they give 
very wholesome. But, in delicacy of flavour, the white kind 
is superior to the black. But the flesh of the green tench is 
more dry, and devoid of fat ; and they give a much smaller 
qxiantity of juice, and what they do give is thinner. Still 
they are more nutritious, on account of their size." Diodes 
says that those which are found in rocky situations are very 
tender. But Numenius, in his treatise on Fishing, calls them, 
not Ku>PiOL, but kZOoi. 

A char or tench (kSBos) of mighty size and bold. 
And Sophron, in his Countryman, speaks of " The cothons, 
who bathe in mud ;" and perhaps it was from the pame of 
this fish that he called the son of his Tunny-catcher, ia the 
play, Cothonias. But it is the Sicilians who call the tench 
KiaBw, as Nicander the Colophonian tells us, in his book on 


Dialects; and ApoUodorus confirms the statement, in his 
treatise on the Modest and Temperate Man. But Epichaji- 
mus, ia his Hebe!a Marriage, names the tench, calling it 

The turtle with their ating hehind, and then the tender tench. 
And Antiphanes, in his Timon, praising the tench, tells us in 
what places they are to be found in the greatest perfection,, in 
these lines :— 

I come, but I have been to great expense 

In buying viands for this marriage feast. 

I've bought a pennyworth of frankincense 

To offer to the gods and all the goddesses , 

And to the heroes I will offer cakes. 

But when I bid that rascally house-breaking 

Seller of fish to add a dainty dish, 

" I'll throw you in," says he, " the borough itself, 

For they are all Phalericans." The rest 

I do believe were selling our Otrynicans.' 

Menander, in his Ephesians, says — 

A . There was a fishmonger not long ago, 

Who asked four whole drachmas for his tench. 

B. A mighty price indeed. 

And Dorion mentions river tench also, in his book on Fishes. 
84. There is also a fish called the cuckoo-fish. Epichar- 
mus says — 

And the beauteous cuckoos 

Which we split, in twain, 

Then we roast and season them. 

And then with pleasure eat them. 

And Dorion says that one ought to roast them, first having 
split them down the back; and, having seasoned them with 
herbs, and cheese, and spice, and assafoetida, and oU,. then 
one ought to turn them round, and oil them on the other 
side, and then to sprinkle them with a little salt ; and, when 
one has taken them from the fire, to moisten them with 
vinegar. But Numenius gives it the epithet of red, from 
the facts of the case, saying — 

Eating sometimes the cuckoo red, sometimes 
A few pempherides, or else a lizard; 

, 85. There is also a fish called the carcharias (or sharp- 

• The burgh of Otryna was one of the most obscure ones, while the; 
Phaleric burgh was one of those of the highest reputation. 

c. 86.] FISH. 487 

toothed dog). And Arcbestratus, whom we may call the 
Hesiod or Theognis of Epicures, speaks of this fish; for 
Theognis himself was not indifferent to hvxury, as he admits, 
speaking of himself in these words : — 

But when the sun, driving his coursers fleet 
With solid hoofs along the heavenly road, 
Guides them at mid-day in the centre path, 
Then let us eat whate'er our heart may prompt, 
And gratify our appetite with dainties. 
Then let a Spartan maid with rosy hands. 
Bring water, and fresh garlands for our brows. 

Nor indeed was that wise man indifferent to the charms of 
boys ; at all events, he speaks thus on the subject :— 
Academus, would you now but sing 
A tuneful hymn, while in the midst should stand 
A beauteous boy, in flower of his youth, 
A prize for you and me to combat for. 
Then you should know how far the mule excels the ass. 

And Arcbestratus, in these beautiful suggestions of his, ex- 
horts his friends in this way — 

In fair Torone's town 'tis best to cook 

The hollow entrails of the sharp-tooth'd dog. 

Then strew the fish with cummin, sparing be 

Of salt, then roast him, and add nothing else 

Saving some sea-green oil. Then -vihen 'tis done, 

Serve him up with some little seasoning. * 

And if you boil a part of it within 

The hollow of some flat dish, then add 

No water, add no wine-made vinegar, 

But pour on oil alone, and cummin dry, 

And add what Vagrant herbs the garden gives. 

Then put the saucepan on the ashes hot. 

And boil it ; let no flame too quickly bum, 

And stir it often lest the meat should catch. 

And spoil your dinner so, before you know it. 

'Tis but few mortals know this wondrous food ; 

And those who have thick stupid heavy souls,, 

Eefase to taste it, but are all alarm'd. 

Because they say this dog 's a cannibal, 

And feeds on human flesh. But there is not 

A fish that swims which does not like man's flesh 

If he can only chance to come across it. 

There is a part of this fish which the Eomans call thursio, 
and which is very delicious, and much sought for as an article 
of luxury. 

86. There is also the pike. These, as Aristotle reports, 
are a solitary and carnivorous fish ; and they have a bony 


tongtie, adhering to the mouth, and a triangular heart. But, 
in the fifth book of his Parts of Animals, he says that they 
bring forth their young, like the cestres and chrysbphiyes do, 
chiefly in those places where rivers fall into the sea; and they 
bring forth in winter, and they also bring forth twice in the 
season. But Icesius says that the pike is very juicy, and 
not very nutritious ; and that it is also not very easily se- 
creted ; but for delicacy of flavour it is accounted the very 
first of fish. And this fish has his name, Xdfipai, from his 
voracity (XajSponjs). It is said, also, that in shrewdness he is 
superior to other fish, being very ingenious at devising means 
to save himself; on which account, Aristophanes the comic 
poet says — 

The pike, the wisest of all fish that swim. 
And Alcseus the lyric poet says that he swims very high in 
the water. But the wise Archestratus says — 

Take the large cestris cephalus from Gseson, 

When you do come to fair Miletus' city. 

Take too the pike, the offspring of the gods. 

For in those waters both these fish are best. 

Such is the natural character of the place. 

But there are many places where they grow 

More fat and large ; in famous Calydon, 

And in the opulent Ambraoia, 

And at the Bolbe lake ; but there they want 

The fragrant fat which here surrounds their belly ; 

Nor have they such a pungent taste, my friend. 

Those which I speak of are most admirable. 

Take them and roast them without scaling them. 

Soften with salt, and serve them np with brine. 

And let no Syracusan, no Italian 

Break in upon you while you dress this dish : 

For they have no idea of dressing fish. 

But spoil them all by seasoning them with cheese. 

By sprinkling them with too much vinegar. 

And strongly scented assafoetida. 

They are good cooks enough to dress the vile 

Fish which they take while clinging to the rocks ; 

And there are many kinds of season'd dishes 

Which they can dress quite well enough ; but they 

Have no idea of dressing good fish plain. 

87. And Aristophanes, in his Knights, speaks of the pike 
taken in the neighbourhood of Miletus as surpassingly good, 
when he speaks thus : — 

But you shall not disturb me thus 
Feasting on Milesian pike. 

c. 88.] PIKE. 489 

And in his Lemnian Women he says — 

He would not buy a pike's head, nor a locust : 
speaking because the brain of the pike is a great delicacy, as 
is also that of the seargrayhng. And Eubulus, in his Muses, 

Do not be too expensive, still not mean, 
Whate'er you do ; not for decency's sake. 
Get some small cuttle-fish, or squids, some nestis, 
Some small fry of the polypus, some tripe, 
And beestings and black-puddings ; get besides 
A noble head of the Milesian pike. 

But the Gaeson, which is mentioned by Archestratus, means 
the lake Gsesonis, which is between Priene and Miletus, con- 
nected with the sea, as Neanthes of Cyzicus tells us, in the 
sixth book of his Hellenics. But Ephorus, in his fifth book, 
says that the Gseson is a river near Priene, which flows into 
the lake Gfesonis. And Archippus, in his Fishes, mentioning 
the pike, says — 

Hermes th' Egyptian is the greatest rogue 

Of all the fishmongers ; he skins by force 

The sharks and rhinfes, and takes out the entrails 

Of the Milesian pikes, before he sells them. 

88. There is also a fish called the latus ; and Archestratus 
says that the best fish of this kind is that which is taken olf 
the coast of Italy, and he speaks thus concerning them : — 

Near the well-treed Italia's verdant shores. 
Fierce Scylla's strait the famous latus breeds, 
Most marvellous of dainties. 

But the lati which are found in the river Nile grow to such a 
size that they weigh more than two hundred pounds ; and 
this fish is exceedingly white, and very delicious, dress it in 
whatever way you choose. And it is like the fish called the 
glanis, which is found in the Danube. The Nile produces also 
many other kinds offish, and they are all very delicious; but 
especially does it produce all the difierent coracini (for there 
are many different kinds of this fish). It also produces the 
fish called the mseotes, which are mentioned by Archippus, in 
his Fishes, in these words : — 

MiEotse, and saperdse, likewise glanides. 
And this fish is found in great numbers in Pontus ; and they 
derive their name from the Palus Maeotis. But the following, 
as far as I can recollect, from having been a long time absent 


from the country, are the names of the chief fish found in tiie 
Nile. The sweetest of all is the ray; then there is the sea-pig, 
the snub-nose, the phagrus, the oxyrhynchns, the allabes, the 
silurus, the synodontis, the elecoris, the eel, the thrissa, the 
abramis, the blind-fish, the scaly-fish, the bellows-fish,, and 
the cestreus. And there are ailso a great number of others. 

89. There is also a kind of shark, called the leiobatus, 
■whose other name is the rhinS j and he is a white-fleshed fish, 
as Epsenetus tells us in his Cookery Book. Plato says, in his 
Sophists — 

The galeus, the leiobatus, the eel. 

90. There is also the lamprey. Theophrastus, in the fifth 
book of his treatise on those Animals which can live on dry 
Land, says that the eel and the lamprey can exist for a long 
time out of the water, because they have very small gills, and 
so receive but very little moisture into their system. But 
Icesius affirms that they are not less nutritiotis than the eel, 
nor even, perhaps, than the conger. And Aristotle, in his 
treatise on the Parts of Animals, says that from the time 
that they are little they grow very rapidly, and that they 
have sharp serrated teeth; and that they keep on laying 
small-sized eggs every season of the year. But Epicharmus, 
in his Muses, calls them not trfivpaiva, but fvipaiva, without 
the o- ; speaking in this way of them : — 

No congers fat were wanting, and no lampreys {nipaivai). 
And Sophron, too, spells the word in the same manner. But 
Plato or Cantharus, in his Alliance, spells the word with the <r, 

The ray, the lamprey {fffdpaiva) too, is here. 

Dorion, in his treatise on Fishes, says that the river lam- 
preys have only one spine, like the kind of cod which is called 
gallarias. But Andreas, in his treatise on Poisonous Animals, 
says that those lampreys which are produced by a cross with 
the viper have a poisonous bite, and that that kind is less 
round than the other, and is variegated. But Nicander; in 
his Theriacus, says — 

That is a terrible deed the lamprey does. 
When oft its teeth it gnashes and pursue* 
Th' unhappy fishermen, and drives them headlong 
Out of their boats in haste, /vrhen issuing forth 
From the deep hole in which it long has lain : 

c. 92.] FISH. 491 

If that the tale ia true that it admits 
The poisonous viper's love, when it deserts 
Its pastures 'neath the sea, for food on land. 

But Andreas, in his treatise on Things which are believed 
erroneously, says that it is quite a mistake to suppose that 
the lamprey ever breeds with the viper when it comes on 
marshy ground ; for that vipers do not themselves feed in 
marshes, as they are fond rather of sandy and desert places. 
But Sostratus, in his books on Animals (and there are two 
books of his on this subject, and with this title), agrees with 
those who assert that the lamprey and the viper do breed 

91. There is another kind of eel also, called the myrus. 
But the myrus, as Aristotle says, in the fifth book of his trea- 
tise on the Parts of Animals, differs from the lamprey ; this 
latter being a variegated fish, and less powerful than the 
other ; while the myrus is a fish of one uniform colour, and 
strong, and its whole colour is like that of the wryneck, and 
it has teeth both within and without. And Dorion says, that 
the myrus has no small bones running through its flesh, but 
that it is in every part eatable, and exceedingly soft; and that 
there are two kinds of it, for some are black, and some are 
of rather a fiery colour, but those which are Jark are best. 
And Archestratus, the voluptuary philosopher, says — 

Between th' Italian and Sicilian shore, 
Where the strait parts them with its narrow waves. 
Whenever that most dainty fish is caught 
Which men the lamprey call, be sure to buy it ; 
For in those waters 'tis the best of food. 

92. There is. a fish, too, called the msenis, or sprat; and 
Icesius says that they are more juicy than the tench, but that 
they are inferior in delicacy of flavour, and also in the extent 
to which they facilitate the secretions of the stomach. But 
Speusippus, in the second book of his treatise on Things 
similar to one another, says that both the boax and the 
smaris resemble the sprat; and these two fishes are men- 
tioned by Epioharmus, in his Earth and Sea, in the following 
manner : — 

When you see many boaces and smarides. 

And Epsenetus, in his Cookery Book, says, " The smaris, which 
some people call cynoseuna." But Antiphanes) in his Coun- 
tryman, or Butalion, calls the sprats the food of Hecate, on 


account of their diminutive size; and the following is the 

A. Why, I did think that all these monstrous fish 
Were cannibals. 

B. What can you mean, my friend ? 

A . Why, cannibals : so how would any man eat them ? 

B. That's true. But these are food of Hecate, 
Which he is speaking of, just sprats and mullets. 

There is also one kind which is called the lencomaenis, or 
white sprat, which some people call the boax. Poliochus, in 
his Corinthiastes, says — 

Let no man, in God's name I beg, persuade you. 
Come when he will or whence, so to mistake 
As to call leucomEenides boaces. 

93. There is also the melanurus, or black-tail ; and con- 
cerning this fish Numenius says, in his Art of Fishing : — 

The scorpion or melanurus black. 
The guide and leader of the perch. , 

But Icesius says that he is very like the sargus, but that he is 
inferior to the latter in the quantity and quality of his juice, 
and also in dehcacy of flavour ; but that he is rather exciting 
food, and very nutritious. And Epicharmus mentions him in 
his Hebe's MaiTiage : — 

There were sargini, there were melanuri. 
Aristotle too, in his treatise on Animals, writes thus : " There 
are some fish which have barred or spotted tails, among which 
are the melanuri, and the sargi or sardine ; and they have 
many lines on their skin, dark hnes. But Speusippus afifirms, 
in the second book of his treatise on Things similar to one 
another, that the fish called psyrus resembles the melanurus ; 
but Numenius calls the psyrus, psorus, with an o, saying — 

The psorus, or the salpe, or the dragon-fish 
Which haunts the shore. 

94. There is also a fish called the mormyrus, a most nutri- 
tious fish, as Icesius says. But Epicharmus, in his Hebe's 
Marriage, calls it the myrmes, unless, at least, he means a 
different fish by this name. But his expression is — 

The searswallow, the myrmes too, 

And they are larger than the colias tunny. 

But Dorion, in his book upon Fishes, calls them mormylusf, 
with a X. But Lynceus of Samos, in his treatise on the Art ; 
of buying Fish, which he addressed to some friend of his, who; 

c. ^5.] FISH. 493 

was very difficult to please -when making his purchases, says, 
" But it is not a useless plan, with reference to men who are 
obstinate, and who wiU not abate their price, when you are 
standing by to disparage their fish, quoting Archestratus 
(who wrote the book called The voluptuous Life), or some 
other poet, and repeating this verse : — 

' The mormyrus that haunts the pebbly shore, 

Is a bad, good-for-nothing, worthless fish. 
And again you may quote — 

Buy an amia in the autumn .... 
' But now 'tis spring.' And again you may proceed, if it 
should be the proper season — 

How good the cestreus is when winter comes. 
' But now,' you will say, ' it is summer.' And you will go on 
in this way for some time ; and in this way you will drive 
away a good many of those who are standing about, and who 
might become purchasers. So when you have done this, 
you wiU by this means compel the man to take whatever 
price you choose to give." 

95. There is also the torpedo. Plato, or Cantharus, says, 
in the Alliance — 

A boil'd torpedo is delicious food. 
But Plato the Philosopher says, in the Meno, " You seem very 
much to resemble the sea-torpedo ; for that fish causes any 
one who comes near it to become torpid." And an allugioa 
to the name occurs also in Homer, where he says — 

His hand was torpid (yop/ojo'c) at the wrist. 
But Menander, in his Phanus, uses the termination a, and 

A certain torpor {vipxa) creeps o'er all my skin ; 
though no one of the ancient writers ever used this form of 
the word. But Icesius says that it is a fish without much 
nutriment or much juice in it, but that it has some cartilagi- 
nous sort of substance difiused all over it, very good for the 
stomach. And Theophrastus, in his book on Animals which 
live in Holes, says that the torpedo works its way under- 
ground because of the cold. But in his treatise on Poisonous 
Animals, and on Animals which sting, he says that the tor- 
pedo can send the power which proceeds from it through 
wood, and through harpoons, so as to produce torpor in those 


. wlio have them in their hands. But Clearchus the Solensian 
has explained the cause of this in his treatise on Torpor; but, 
since his explanation is rather a long one, I do not recollect 
his exact words, but will refer you to the treatise itself. 

But the torpedo, says Aristotle, is one of the cartilaginous 
and viviparous fish ; and, to provide itself with food, it hunts 
after little fish, touching them, and causing them all to 
become torpid and motionless. And Diphilus of Laodicea, in 
his essay on the Theriaca of Nicander, says that it is not 
every part of the animal which produces this torpor, but only 
some particular parts of it ; and he says that he has arrived at 
this fact by a long series of experiments. But Archestratus 
speaks of — 

A boil'd torpedo done in oil and wine, 

And fragrant herbs, and some thin grated cheese. 

Alexis, in his Galatea, says — 

I counsel you to season Tvell and stuff 

Torpedos whole, and then to roast them thoroughly. 

And in his Demetrius he says — 

Then I took a torpedo, calculating 

If my wife touch 'd it with her tender fingers 

That they would get no hurt from its backbone. 
96. There is also the sword-fish. Aristotle says that this 
fish has its lower jaw short, but its upper one bony, long, and 
in fact as large as all the rest of the body of the fish ; and 
this upper jaw is what is called the sword ; but that this fish 
has no teeth. And Archestratus says — 

But take a slice of sword-fish when yon go 

To fair Byzantium, and take the vertebrse 

Which bend hia tail. He 's a delicious fish, 

Both there and where the sharp Pelorian cape 

Juts out towards the sea. 
Now, who is then so great a general, or so great a critic in 
dishes and banquets, as this poet from Gela' (or, I should 
-rather say, from Catagela), who, for the sake of his epicurism, 
sailed through those straits ; and who also, for the sake of the 
same epicurism, investigated the different qualities and juices 
of each separate part of every fish, as if he had been laying, the 
foundation of some science which was useful to human life ? 

' This is a pun on the similarity of the name Gela to 7eAais, laughter, 
the compound KardyeKois meaning derision. And it is probably bor- 
rowed from Aristophanes, who says, Acharn. 606 : — 

rails 5' iv Kaimpirri K^v Ti\!f k^h KarayiXa, 

G. 98.] FISH. 495 

97. There is also a fish called the orphos (op<j(>(os) ; but the 
word is also spelt with an o (op<^os), as Pamphilus tells us. 
But Aristotle, in the fifth book of his Parts of Animals, where 
he says that the growth of most fish is very rapid, says, " The 
orphos also grows to a large fish from a little one with great 
rapidity; but he is a carnivorous fish, with serrated teeth, 
and of a solitary disposition. And there is this peculiarity in 
him, that it cannot be ascertained what means he has of pro- 
pagating his species, and that he can live a long time after he 
has been cut in pieces. He is also one of those fish which 
bury themselves in holes during the winter season, and he is 
fond of keeping close to the land, rather than of going into 
the deep sea; but he does not live more than two years. And 
Numenius, speaking of this fish, says — 

Now with such baits as these it is not hard 
To draw the lengthy scorpion from his bed. 
Or the rough orphus : for they're easily caught. 

And in another place he says — 

The grayling, or the sea-bom race of orphi. 
Or the dark flesh'd sea-blackbird. 

But Dorion says that the young orphus is called by some th& 
orphacines. And Archippus says, in his Fishes, — 

The orphus came to them, the priest o' the god. 
And Cratinus says, in his Ulysses, — 

A hot slice of the newly taken orphus. 
And Plato, in his Cleophon, says — 

For he has brought you here, old dame, to dwell, 

A rotten food for orphi and for phagri, 

And other gristly boneless fish around. 

And Aristophanes, in his Wasps, says — 
If a man be inclined to purchase orphi, 
And likes to leave alone the membrades. 

Now this word 6p4>wi, in the nominative case singular, is: 
accented with an acute on the ultima by the Attic writers; 
so Archippus writes the word, in his Fishes, in the lines which 
I have already quoted ; and Cratinus also, in his Ulysses, as 
I have above quoted it, writes — 

98. There is also a fish called orcynus. Dorion, in his 
treatise on Fishes, says that the orcyni come from the sea 
near' the Pillars of Hercules to the waters on our coasts ; on 


which account, a great number are taken in the Iberian and 
Tyrrhenian seasj and that from thence they are dispersed- over 
the rest of the sea. But Icesius says that;those -which are 
caught near Cadiz are the fattest, and next to 'them those 
which are taken near Sicily. But that those which are taken 
at any great distance from the Pillars of Hercules have very 
little fat on them, because they have swum a vay.great dis- 
tance. Accordingly, at Cadiz, it is only the shoulders by 
themselves which are dried and cured; as also.itiis only the 
jaws and palate of the sturgeon, and that part which is called 
the melandryas, which is cured. But Icesius says that the 
entrails are very rich, and very different in flavour from the 
other parts; and that the parts about the shoulders are 
superior even to these. 

99. There is also the cod and the hake. The cod, says 
Aristotle, in his work on Living Animals, has a large wide 
mouth hke the shark, and he is not a gregarious fish ; and he 
is the only fish which has his heart in his stomach, and in his 
brain he has stones like millstones. And he is the only fish 
who buries himself in a hole in the hot weather, when the 
Dog-star rages ; for aU others take to their holes in the winter 
season. And these fish are mentioned by Epicharmus, in his 
Hebe's Wedding : — 

And there are channEe witti their large wide moutlis, 
And cod with their huge bellies. 

But the cod is different from the hake, as Dorion tells us, in 
his work upon Fish, where he writes thus : " The ovos (cod), 
which some call yaSos." There is also the gallerides, which 
some call a hake, and some a maxinus. But Euthydemus, in 
his work on Cured Fish, says, " Some caU this fish the bac- 
chus, and some call it the gelaria, and some call it the hake." 
But Archestratus says — 

Anthedou's famous for its cod, which some 

Do call gallerias ; there its size is great, 

But the flesh spongy, and in many respects 

I do not think it good, though others praise it. 

But this man likes one thing, and that another. 

100. There is the polypus, declined iroXuVovs, ttoXvVoSos ; 
at least this is the way the xVttic writers use the word, and so 
does Homer : — 

As when a polypus {rovXiirodos in the genitive) is dragged 
from out his lair : 

c. lOl.j FISH. 497 

keeping the analogy to the noun rois, from which it is do- 
rived. But in the accusative case we find the form ttoX-uwow, 
just as we find 'AXkivow and OiStVow. iEschyhis, too, has the 
form-TptTTow, as an epithet of a caldron, in his Athamas, from 
Trow, as if it were a simple noun like vous. But the form 
•jTwAuTTos is ^olic. For the Attics always say ttoXvitovs. Aris- 
tophanes, in his Dsedalus, says — 

■When then I had this polypus (irovKinTovs) and cuttle-fish. 
And in another place he says — 

He put before me a polypus {irov\vjravv). 
And in another place he has — 

They are the blows of a polypus press'd tight. 
And AlcEeus says, in his Adulterous Sisters, — 

The man's a fool and has the mind of a polypus (TrouXwroSos). 
But Ameipsias, in his Glutton, says — 

I want, it seems, a heap of polypi {irovhvTruy). 
And Plato, in his Boy, writes — 

First of all you like the polypodes (tous TrouAwroSos). 
Alcseus in another passage says — 

I myself eat like any polypus (irouAuirous). 

But others use the accusative case TroXviroSa, in strict analogy 
with TToiJs, TToSos, :ro8i, TToSa. Eupolis, in his Demi, has — 

The man 's a fellow-citizen of mine, 
A very polypus in disposition. 

101. Diodes, in the first hook of his treatise on Wholesome 
Things, says — " The molluscous fish are calculated to give plea- 
sure, and to excite the amorous propensities ; especially the 
polypi (ot ttoXuVoSes)." And Aristotle relates that the polypus 
has eight feet, of which the two highest and the two lowest are 
the smallest, and those in the middle are the largest; and 
they have also two feelers, with which they bring their food 
to their mouth. And they have their eyes placed above their 
two upper feet ; and their mouth and teeth are between their 
feet. And when the polypus is dissected, he has a brain 
divided into two parts ; and what is called his ink is not 
black, like the cuttle-fish, but of a reddish colour, in that part 
of him which is called, the poppy ; but the poppy lies above 
the stomach, like a bladder: and it has no intestines, like 
other fish. But for food it uses at times the flesh of small 
shell-fish, and casts the shells outside its body; by which the 

VOL. I. — ^ATH. K K 


hunters know where to' find it. Add it propagates its species 
by becoming intertwined with the female, and is a long time 
about it, because it is .destitute of blood: and it ejects its 
young through the orifice which is called the spiracle, which 
is the only passage for its body; and it lays eggs in clusters, 
like bunches of grapes. 

102. They say, also, that the polypus, when it is in want 
of food, win eat even itself. And among those who relate this 
fact is Pherecrates the comic poet ; for he, in the play entitled 
The Countryman, says- — 

They live on green antlirysca, and on bracana. 
And snails and slugs. And when they 're very hungry, 
Then, like the polypus, they e'en at night 
Nibble their fingers. 

An&.Diphilus, in his Merchant, saj'S — 

A polypus with all his feelers 
And limbs unhurt ; whose wicked tooth 
Has not devbur'd himself, my friend, 
Is ready for our supper. 

But all this is a mistake ; for the fact is, that he is pursued 
by the congers, and has his feet hurt in that manner. And it 
is said that if any one strews salt over his hole, he imme- 
diately comes out.- It is also affirmed, that when he flies in 
alarm, he changes his colour, and becomes like the places in 
which he conceals himself. As also Theognis of Megara says, 
in his Elegies — 

Eemark the tricks of that most wary polypus. 
Who always seems of the same colour and hue 
As is the rock near which he lies. 

And Clearchus makes a similar statement in the second book 
of his treatise- on Proverbs, where he quotes the following 
lines, without saying from whose writings they come — 

My son, my excellent Amphilochus, 
Copy the shrewd device o' the polypus, 
And make yourself as like as possible 
To those whose land you chance to visit. 

103. And the same Clearchus says that, in olden time, 
about Troezen, it was considered impious to try to catch 
either the polypus, which was called sacred, or that one which 
was called the rower. And it was contrary to law to eat 
either that or the sea-tortoise. But the polypus is a fish very 
apt to decay, and also very stupid ; for it goes towards the 
haiid -of the people who are pursuing it : and sometimes even 

C. 104.] THE POLYPUS. 499 

■when it is pursued, it does" not attempt to get out of the way. 
Their females waste away after laying their eggs, and get 
po\yerless ; by reason of which they are easily talien. And 
sometimes they have been seen leaving the sea, and going on 
dry land, especially towards any rough or rugged ground ; for 
they shun smooth places ; and of all plants they especially 
delight in the olive, and they are often found embracing the 
trunk of an dive with their feelers. They have also been 
discovered clinging to such fig-trees as grow near the sea- 
shore, and eating the figs, as Clearchus tells us, in his treatise 
on those Animals which live in the Water. And this also is 
a proof that they are fond of the oUve, — that if any one 
drops a branch of this tree down into the sea, in a place where 
there are polypi, and holds it there a little time, he without 
any trouble (taws up as many polypi as he pleases, chnging 
to the branch. And all their other parts are exceedingly 
strong, but their neck is weak. 

104. It is also said that the male has something corre- 
sponding to the parts of generation in one of his arms, in 
which there are his two lai-ge feelers ; and that it is a limb fuU 
of nerves, sticking to the arm all along as far as the middle. 
But, in the fifth book of his treatise on the Parts of Animals, 
Aristotle says — " The polypus propagates his species in the 
winter, and brings forth in the spring; and it lies in its hole 
for about two months : and it is a very prolific animal. But 
the male diifers firom the female, both in having a longer 
head, and also in having what the fishermen call its parts of 
generation in one of its feelers. And when it brings forth, it 
sits on its eggs, on which account it is worse' to eat at that 
season ; and the polypus lays its eggs either in its bed, or in 
any potsherd, or hollow place or vessel of that sort. And, 
after fifty days, the little polypi come forth out of the 
egg in immense numbers, like young spiders. But the female 
polypus sometimes sits upon the eggs, and sometimes -clings 

'to the mouth of the bed, holding on with one of its feelers." 
Theophrastus, in his treatise "on those Animals which change 
their Colour, says that the polypus generally becomes like 
only to those places which are rocky, doing this both out of 
fear and for the sake of protecting itself. But, in his book on 
those Animals which live on dry Land, he says that the 

, polypi are not fond of sea-water. But, in his treatise on those 
Things which are different according to the Differences of their 



Situation, Theophrastus says that there are no polypi about the 
Hellespont ; for that that sea is cold, and. not very salt, and that 
both these circumstances are unfavourable to the polypus. 

105. "But the fish called the nautilus," says Aristotle, "ig 
not a polypus, though it resembles a polypus in its feelers. And 
the back of the nautilus is covered with a shell ; and it rises 
up out of the bottom of the sea, having its shell upon its 
back, in order that it may not catch the water. But when it 
has turned round, then it sails on, putting up two of its feelers, 
which have a thin membrane growing between them, just as 
the feet of some birds are which have a membrane of skia 
between their toes. And their other two feelers they let down 
into the sea, instead of rudders ; but when they see anything 
coming towards them, then out of fear they draw in those 
feet, and fill themselves with salt water, and so descend to the 
bottom as rapidly as possible." But, in his treatise on Ani- 
mals and Fishes, he says — " Of the polypi there are two sorts; 
one, that which changes its colour, the other the nautilus." 

106. Now, on this nautilus there is an epigram quoted of 
Callimachus of Gyrene, which runs thiis ; — 

I was a shell, Venus Zephyritis,' 

Now I'm the pious offering of Selena, 

The gentle nautilus. When balmy winds 

Breathe soft along the sea, I hold my course. 

Stretching my sails on their congenial yards. 

Should calm, the placid goddess, still the waTes, 

I row myself along with nimble feet. 

So that my name suits rightly with my acts. 

Now have I fallen on the lulian shore, 

To be a pleasant sport to Arsinoe, 

No more shall Halcyons' dew-besprinkled eggs, 

My dainty meal, lie thick within my bed 

As formerly they did, since here I lie. 

But give to Cleinias's daughter worthy thanks ; 

]?or she does shape her conduct honestly. 

And from yEolian Smyrna doth she come. 

Posidippus also wrote this epigram on the same Venus which 
is worshipped in Zephyrium : — ■ 

Oh, all ye men who traffic on the streams. 
Or on the land who hold a safer way, 

^ Venus Zephyritis was the name under which Arsinoe was wor- 
shipped ; and the next line refers to the custom of the maidens on the 
occasion of their marriage making a sportive oflfering of their toys to 
Venus, Arsinoe was the wife and sister of Ptolemy Philadelphus. 

C. 109.] THE POLYPUS. 501 

Worsliip this shrine of Philadelphus' wife, 
Venus Arsinoe, whom Callicrates, 
The naval leader, first did firmly place 
On this most beautiful Zephyrian shore. 
And she will on your pious voyage smile, 
And amid storms will for her votaries 
Smooth the vex'd surface of the wide-spread sea. 

Ion the tragedian also mentions the polypuSj in his Phoenix, 

I hate the colour-changing polypus. 

Clinging with bloodless feelers to the rocks. 

107. Now the different species of polypus are these : the 
eledone, the polypodine, the bolbotine, the osmylus ; as both 
Aristotle and Speusippus teach us. But, in his book on Ani- 
mals and their Properties, Aristotle says that the polypus, 
the osmyliis, the eledone, the cuttle-fish, and the squid, are all 
molluscous. Epicharmus, in his Hebe's Wedding, saya — 

A polypus, a cuttle-fish, and quickly-moving squid, 
A foul-smelling bolbitine, and chattering old woman. 

And Archestratus says — 

The Carian and the Thasiau polypi 
Are far the best ; Corcyra too can breed 
Fish of large size and very numerous. 

But the Dorians spell the word with an w, TrwKvTrov^; as, for 
instance, Epicharmus. Simonides too has the expression, 
TTokvirov Si^^/icvos. But the Attics spell the word iroXijirovs, 
with an o : and it is a cartilaginous fish ; for x<"'8/«<'8'?s and 
(jcXa^wSi?? have the same meaning ; — 
The polypodes and the dog-shark. 
Moreover, all the fish belonging to the species of the cuttle- 
fish are called molluscous. But the whole tribe of ,. ... is 

108. There is also a fish called the pagurus ; and it is 
mentioned by Timocles or Xenarchus, in his Purple, thus — 

But I, as being a skilful fisherman, 

Have carefully devised all sorts of arts 

To catch those vile paguri, enemies 

To all the gods and all the little fishes. 

And shall I not without delay beguile ' 

An old buglossusi That would be well done. 

109. There is also the pelamys. Phrynichus mentions it 
in his Muses ; and Aristotle, in the fifth book of his treatise 
oil the Parts of Animals, says the pelamydes and the timnies 


breed in the Black Sea, but not anywhere else. Sophocles 

also mentions them, in his Shepherds : — 

There, too, the foreign pelamys does winter. 
The stranger from the Hellespont. Eor she 
Doth come with many of her kind in summer 
To these cool waters of the Bosphorus. 

110. Then there is the perch. He also is mentioned by' 
Diodes ; and Speusippiis, in the second book of his treatise, 
on Things Eesembling one another, says that the perch, the 
canna, and the phycis are all nearly alike. And Epicharmus 
says — 

The comaris, the sea-dog, and the cestra 
And variegated perch. 

And Numenius, in his treatise on the Art of Fishing, says — 
At one time perch, and at another strophades. 
Which keep around the rocks. The phycis too, 
Th' alphestes, and the red-flesh'd scorpion. 

There is also the phycis. This also is mentioned by Epichar- 
mus, in his Hebe's Wedding; and by Speusippus, in the 
second book of his treatise on Things Eesembling one another; 
and by Numenius : all whose testimonies are at hand. Aris- 
totle, in his book upon Animals and their Properties, says 
that the phycis is surrounded with prickles and spotted. But 
the perch is marked with lines, and with bars running in aa 
obhque direction. And there is a proverb also, " The perch 
follows the black-tail." 

111. We have also the needle-fish. This also is mentioned 
by Epicharmus, who says — 

The oxyrhynchi, and the needle-fish. 
And the hippuri. 

But Dorion, in his work on Fish, says — " The belone, which 
they also call the needle-fish." Aristotle too, in the fifth 
book of his Parts of Animals, calls this fish the belone., 
Biit, in his book on Animals and their Properties, or else in 
his work on Fishes, he caUs it the needle-fish ; and says that 
it has no teeth. And Speusippus calls it the belone. 

112. There is also the rhinS. Dorion, in his book on 
Fishes, says that the rhinls are best at Smyrna; and that all 
the cartilaginous fish are especially good in the gulf of 
Smyrna. And Archestratus says — 

And the far-famed Miletus does produce 
All cartilaginous fish in high perfection. 

e. 113.] FISH. 503 

But first of all one ought to take account 

Both of the rhina and leiobatus, 

Known for his spacious back. Still before all 

Give me a roasted crocodile to eat, 

Fresh from the oven, a most dainty dish 

For all the children of Ionia. 

113. There is next the fecarus, or char. Aristotle says 
that this fish has serrated , teeth, and is a solitary fish, and 
carnivorous ; and that it has a small mouth, and a tongue 
■which does not adhere closely to the mouth, and a triangular 
heart of a whitish colour and -with three lobes; and that its 
gall and spleen are black, and that of its gills one is double 
and one single ; and that it alone of all fish chews the cud. 
And that it delights in seaweed for food, on which account, 
the fishermen use seaweed as a bait to catch it with. And it 
is in season in the summer. And Epicharmus, in his Hebe's 
Wedding, says — 

We fish for spari, and for scari too, 
Whose very dung may not be thrown away. 

But Seleucus of Tarsus, in his treatise on Fishing, says that 
the scarus is the only fish which never sleeps ; by reason of 
which it is not easUy caught, even by night. But this may be 
the case on account of its timid nature. And Archestratus 
says, in his Gastronomy, — 

Seek now a scarus, fresh from Ephesus, 
And in the winter season eat a mullet 
Caught in the waves of sandy Teichioussa, 
A village of Miletus, near the Carians, 
The crooked-footed Carians. 

And in another part he says — 

Wash and then roast the mighty scarus which 
Comes from the sea that laves Chalcedon's walls : 
That too is good which near Byzantium swims, 
With back as broad as a large oval shield. 
Take him and cook him whole as I shall tell you. 
Sprinkle him o'er with oil and grated cheese, 
Then place him in the oven hanging up, 
So as to escape the bottom, and then roast him, 
And sprinkle him with silt and cummin seed 
Well mix'd together ; and again with c''l, 
Pouring out of your hand the holy stream. 

Nicander of Thyatira says that there are two kinds of 
acari; and that one is called the onias, and the other the 


114. Then there is the sparus. Icesius says that this is a 
more juicy fish than the sprat, and more nutritious than most 
other fish. And Epicharmus says, in his Hebe's Wedding,—, 

Neptune then arives himself 

Laden with most beauteous nets 
In the boats of fair Phoenicia, 

Then we all do spari catch, 
And scari too, that sacred fish, 

Whose very dung may not be thrown away. 

And Numenius says, in his treatise on Fishing, — - 

The sparus or the hycas fond of company. 
And Dorion mentions this fish, in his treatise on Fishes, 

115. There is also the scorpion. Diodes, in the first hook 
of his treatise on Wholesome Things, addressed to Plistar- 
chus, says — " Of fresh fish, the following have drier meat : the 
scorpions, the sea-cuckoo, the sea-sparrow, the sargi, and the 
rough-tail. But the mullet is not so dry as these are ; for aU 
fish which keep near the rocks have softer flesh." And Icesius 
says — " There are two kinds of scorpion; one of which lives in 
the sea, and the other in marshes. And the one which hves 
in the sea is red, but the other is rather black. But the sea- 
mullet is superior to the other, both in taste and in nutritious 
qualities. But the scorpions have purging qualities, are easy 
of secretion, very juicy, and very nutritious ; for they are 
a cartilaginous fish." The scorpion brings forth its young 
twice a-year, as Aristotle tells us, in the fifth book of his 
Parts of Animals. But Numenius says, in his treatise on 
Fishing, — 

The phycides, the alphestes, and besides 

The red-flesh'd scorpion, and the black-tail quick. 

Which guides the perch all through the stormy sea. 

But that he is a fish which has the power of stinging, Aris- 
totle tells us, in his book about Fishes or Animals. And 
Epicharmus, in his Muses, says that the scorpion is a varie- 
gated fish : — 

The variegated scorpion, the grayling,! 
The fat and well-fed lizards. 

The scorpion is a solitary fish, and feeds on seaweed. But, 
in the fifth book of his Parts of Animals, Aristotle speaks of 
scorpions and scorpides in different places ; but it is uncertain 
whetlier he means the same fish ; because we ourselves have 
often eaten the scorpsena and the scorpion, and there is no 

c. 117.] FISH. 605 

one -who does not know that both their juice and their meat 
are quite different. But Archestratus, that skilful cook, in 
his Golden Words, tells us' — 

When you're at Thaso8 buy a scorpion, 

But let him not be longer than one cubit ; 

Avoid the larger sizes. 

116. Then there is the scombrus, or tunny, which is 
mentioned by this name by Aristophanes, in his Gerytades. 
Icesius says that that species of tunny called scombrus is 
smaller in size, but more nutritious, than the species called 
colias ; and also more juicy, though not more easily digested. 
Epicharmus, in his Hebe's Wedding, mentions them thus : — 

Sea-swallows, and mormyri, both of which 
Are larger than the coliae and the scombri, 
But less than those whose name is thyunides. 

117. The sargus is another fish. He (as Icesius tells us) is 
a fish of very exciting and astringent properties, and more 
nutritious than the melanurus, or blacktail. But Numenius, 
in his treatise on Fishing, says that the sargus is a very 
cunning fish as respects the catching him : — 

The rich sea-blackbird, or the thrush who sports 
Beneath the waves ; the sargus too who rushes 
Now here with sudden movement, and now there. 
The greatest enemy to the fisher's nets. 

And Aristotle, in the fifth book of his treatise on the Parts of 
Animals, says that the sargus brings forth its young twice in 
the year; once in the spring, and once in the autumn. And 
Epicharmus, in his Hebe's Wedding, says — 

The sargus, and the chalcis, and the . . . 
But he speaks of the sarginus, or sargus, as an excellent fish, 
in the following lines — 

There the sarginus was, the melanurus, 

And the dear taenia, thin but delicious. 

And in a similar manner Dorion, in his treatise on Fishes, 
speaks, calling them sargini and chalcides, on this very ac- 
count. But the wise Archestratus says — 

Now when the bright Orion's star doth set. 
And the fair mother of the vinous grape 
Doth shed her hair, then take a roasted sargus, 
Well sprinkled o'er with cheese, of mighty size. 
Smoking, and softeu'd with sharp vinegar. 
For he is hard by nature. And remember 
This is the way all hard fish should be cook'd. 


But those -Whose meat is good and soft ty nature, 
It is enough to sprinkle well with salt, . 
And lightly to anoint with oil.* For they 
Have virtue and delights within themselves. 

118. There is tlie salpe, too. Epicliarmus, in his Hebe's 
Wedding, says — 

The aon, and the phagrus, and the pike. 
And the dung-eating, bloated, dirty salpe, 
Which still have a sweet flavour in the summer. 

And Aristotle, in the fifth book of his Parts of Animals, says. 
that the salpe has young once a-year only, in the autumn ; and 
that his skin is covered with numerous red lines. Moreover, he. 
has serrated teeth, and is a solitary fish. And he says that it 
is stated by the fishermen that he may be caught with a 
cucumber, being very fond of that kind of food. And Ar- 
chestratus says — 

I always do account the fish eall'd salpe 
A worthless fish. But it is least tasteless 
When the wheat ripens. And the choicest kinds 
Are caught at Mitylene. 

And Pancrates, in his Works of the Sea, says — 

There is the salpe too, of the same size. 
Which the seafaring fishermen do call 
The ox, because he grinds within his teeth 
The stout seaweed with which he fills his belly. 

He also is a spotted or variegated fish ; on which account his. 
friends used to nickname Mnaseas the Loorian (or, as some 
call him, the Colophonian), — the man who wrote the poem 
called The Sports,^Salpe, on account of the variety of things 
in his collection. But Nymphodorus the Syraousan, in his 
Voyage round Asia, says that it was a Lesbian woman, named 
Salpe, who wrote the book called The Sports. But Alcimus, 
in his Affairs of Sicily, says that in Messene, in Sicily, there 
was a man named Botrys, who was the author of some "Sports" 
Very like those which are attributed to Salpe. But Archippus 
uses the word in' the masculine form, Salpes, saying — , 

Tlie ceryx shouted out, 

The salpes trumpeted and fetch'd seven obols. 

And there is a similar fish produced in the Red Sea, which is 
called the stromateus ; and it has gold-coloured lines running 
along the whole of his body, as Philo teUs us, in his book on 

c. 120.] FISH. 507 

119. There is also the synodon and the synagi-is. They 
also are mentioned by Epicharmus, when he says — 

Synagrides, and mazi, and the synodons, 

With red spots varieg&ted. 
And Numenius, in his treatise on Fishing, writes the word 
with an v, odvoSovs ; and says — 

Then the white synodon, and boax, and triccus. 
And in another place he says — 

Fish -w^th these baits then, if you wish to eat 

The mighty synodon, or diving horsetail. 
But Dorion writes the word o-tvo'Sous, with an t ; and so does 
Archestratus, in the following lines : — 

But try to catch a well-fed sinodon, 

And you will find the best in narrow straits. 

All this advice to Cyrus I have given. 

And now to you, Clesenus, I impart it. 
And Antiphanes says, in,Jiis Archistrata, — 

But who would eat an eel, or sinodon's head. 

120. There is also the saurus, or lizard. Alexis mentions 
tliis fish, in his Leuce. It is a cook who is speaking : — 

A. Do you know how you ought to dress a lizard? 

B. I shall, when you have taught me. 

A. First of all 

Take off the gills, then wash him, then cut off 

The spines all round, and split him open neatly ; 

Then when you 've laid him flat, anoint him well 

And thoroughly with assafcetida ; 

Sprinkle him then with cheese, and salt, and marjoram. 
And Ephippus, in his Cydon, gives a list of many other fishes, 
and among them he mentions the lizard, in the following 
lines : — 

Slices of tunny, and of glanis, 

Of shark, and rhinfe, and of conger, 

Cephalus, perch, and lizard too. 

And phycis, brinchus, also mullet, 

Sea-cuckbo, phagnis, myllus, aparus, 

Lebias, seolias, and sea-swallow, 

Thritta, and squid, and cuttle-fish, 

Sea-sparrow, and dracaenides. 

The polypus, the squid, and orphus. 

The tench, th' anchovy, and the cestres, 

And last of all the needle-fish. 
And Ijinesimaehus, in his Horse-breeder, says — 

Of fish with teeth serrated, yon may eat 

The grim torpedo, the sea-frog, the perch. 

The lizard, and the trichias, and the phycis, 

The brinchus, and the mullet, and sea-cuckoo. 


There is also the scepinus ; and this fish is mentioned by 
Dorion, in his treatise on Fish ; and he says that it is also 
called the attageinus, or sea-woodcock, 

121. There is also the scisena. Epicharmus, in his Hebe's 
Wedding, says — 

iEolise were there, and plotea too, 
And cynoglossi and Bciathides. 

But Numenius calls this fish the Seiadeus, saying — ^ 
Use then this bait, and you perhaps may catch, 
If such your wish, a mighty synodon. 
Or the quick leaping hippurus, or the phagms 
Proud with his high-raised crest, or in a shoal 
Of trusty comrades, the fresh seiadeus. 

There is also the syagris ; and this fish is mentioned by 
Epicharmus, in his Hebe's Wedding, and also in his Earth 
and Sea. 

122. Then there is the sphursena, or hammer-fish; and 
these fish, Icesius says, are more nutritious than the congers, 
but very unpleasant and unpalatable to the taste ; and, as to 
their juicy qualities, they are tolerable. But Dorion says — 
" The sphursena, which they call the cestra." And Epicharmus, 
in his Muses, having named the cestra, does not after that 
mention the sphursena, thinking them the same fish — 

The chalcides, the sea-dog, nnd the cestra. 
And perch with variegated back. 

And Sophron, in his Male Farces, says — " The cestrse, which 
eat the botis." But Speusippus, in the second book of his 
treatise on Things which resemble one another, puts down the 
cestra, the needle-fish, and the sea-lizard as very nearly like 
one another. And the Attic writers in general caU the 
sphurxna the cestra, and do not so often use the name of 
sphursena. Accordingly, Strattis, in his Macedonians, when 
some Athenian asks the question, as being ignorant of the 
name, and saying, 

But what is the sphureena 1 
The other replies, 

You, Athenians, do call it the cestra. 
And Antiphanes, in his Euthydicus, says — 

A. The sphuraena is a common fish. 

B. Tou should say cestra, in strict Attic Greek. 

And Nicophon, in his Pandora, says — ■ 
The cestra and the pike. 

0. 124.] FISH. 509 

And Epicharmus, in his Hebe's Wedding, says — 
The cestra and the variegated perch. 

123. The cuttle-fish is often, mentioned, Aristophanes 
says, in his Danaides, — 

And when I have the cuttle-fish and polypus. 
And the penultima of this word has the acute accent, like that 
in the word ah-ia, as Philemon tells us ; like these words, 
■TratSto, Tttivia, oIkm. But Aristotle says that the cuttle-fish 
has eight feet, of which the two lowest are the largest ; and 
that it has two proboscises, and between them it has its eyes 
and mouth placed. And it has two teeth, one above and one 
below; and what is called a shell on its back. And the ink 
is contained in what is called the mutis, which answers to the 
liver; and it lies near its mouth, being something hke a 
bladder. Its belly is wide and smooth, like the paunch of 
an ox. And the little cuttle-fish feed on small fish, extend- 
ing their proboscises like fishermen's lines, and catching their 
prey with them. It is said, too, that when a storm comes, 
they seize hold of the rocks with their proboscises, as if they 
were anchors, and so fix themselves firm. And when the 
cuttle-fish is pursued, it discharges its ink, and is hidden in 
it, making it appear as if it were flying forwards. And it is 
also said, that when the female is struck by a harpoon, the 
male fish come to its assistance, dragging it on; but if the 
male fish be taken, the female fish flees away. But the cuttle- 
fish does not live more than a year, as neither does the poly- 
pus. But, in the fifth book of his Parts of Animals, Aristotle 
says — "The cuttle-fish and the squids swim together, being 
united together at the mouths, and also touching one another 
with their feelers, so as to join in that manner; and they also 
join proboscis to proboscis. But of all the molluscous fish, 
the cuttle-fish is the earliest in the spring to bring forth its 
young; and they do not bring forth at every season. But 
they go with young fifteen days; and when they lay their 
eggs, the male follows the female, and breathes upon the eggs 
and makes them firm. And they move in pairs; and the male 
is more variegated than the female, and blacker on the back." 

124. And Epicharmus, in his Hebe's Wedding, says — 

The polypus, likewise the cuttle-fish, 
And the swift-moving squid. 

And we must also take notice of this, with reference td Speu- 


sippus, who -Bays that the cuttle-fish and the squid are the 
same fish. But when Hipponax, in his Iambics, uses the words 
.OTjjTwys vw6(T^ayif.a, the interpreters have explained the ex- 
pression as meaning "the ink of the cuttle-fish." But the 
word mr6a-4>ayixa is, properly speaking, equivalent to vtto- 
rpifx-fjia, a dish compounded of various ingredients, as Erasis- 
•tratus tells us, in his Cookery Book. And he writes as fol- 
lows — " But mr6a-<fiayfia is made with roast meat and blood 
stirred up and compounded with cheese, and salt, and cum- 
min, and assafoetida ; but the meat may also be boiled." And 
Glaucus the Locrian, in his Cookery Book, writes as follows — 
^' 'Y7r6<T<jiay[jLa is blood boiled, and assafoetida, and boiled lees of 
wine ; or sometimes honey and vinegar, and milk and cheese, 
and sweet-smelling herbs are shred and mixed together in it." 
And Archestratus, that man of the most varied learning, says — 

The cuttle-fish of Abdera and the middle of Maronea-. 
And Aristophanes, in his Thesmophoriazusee, says — 

Haa any fish or cuttle-fish been bought 1 
And in the Danaides he says — 

Osmulia, mcenidea, and cuttle-fish. 
Theopompus, in his Aphrodite, says — 

. . . But eat, my friend, 

This- cuttle-fish, and this small polypus. 
Bat concerning the boiling of the small polypus, Alexis, in his 
Wicked Woman, introduces a cook speaking as follows — 

Now these three cuttle-fish I have just bought 
For one small drachma. And when I "re cut off 
Their feelers and their fins, I then shall boil them. 
And cutting up the main part of their meat 
Into small dice, and rubbing in some salt, 
After the guests already are sat down, 
I then shall put them in the frying-pan. 
And serve up hot towards the end of supper. 

125. The next fish is the mullet; and rptyXij is like kix^, 
ending in 17. For the feminine nouns which end in Xa require 
another A before the Xa; as crKvXka, TeXicnXXa.. But all the 
words which have y united to X end in 1; ; as rpdyXr], aiyXij, 
^evyXrj. But Aristotle, in the fifth book of his Parts of Ani- 
mals, says that the mullet brings forth three times in the 
year-; and states that the fishermen have adopted this opinion 
from the spawn being seen three times a-year in certain lo- 
caUties. And perhaps it is from the word rpis (three times) 
that it has its name; just as the fish called a/xCa has its name 

c. 126.] PISH. ;6H 

from its beiug a fish which does not go about by itself, but in 
shoals (3./j.a). And the o-xapos is so called from cr/catpw (to 
leap); as also is the xapts. And the d^ivrj is so named as 
being axjiv^, which is equivalent to Suo-^in)?, that is to say, 
slowly propagated. Then 8vvvos has its name from 6voi (to 
rush), because it is an impetuous fish, from being driven about 
by its fly in the head at the time of the rising of the Dog- 
star, But it is a fish with seiTated teeth,, gregarious, and 
spotted aU over, and also carnivorous : and when it has had 
young three times it becomes barren; for some little worms 
are engendered in its womb, which devour the young as soon 
as they are conceived. And from the actual facts, Epichar- 
mus calls them hump-backed, in his Hebe's Wedding, where 
he says — 

He brought the hump-back'd mullet too. 

And the ungrateful baeones. 

But Sophron, in his Male Farces, speaks of a fish which he 
calls rpiyoXri, saying, 

The trigola which cuts the navel string. 
And in another place he says — 

The trigola which loves calm weather. 
And in his play called Paedica he says — 

trigola .... 

But, in his Affairs of Women, he says — 

The bearded mullet (rpiyAi)). 
But Diodes, in his books addressed to Plistarchus, says that 
the mullet is a fish of hard flesh ; and Speusippus says that 
the sea-cuckoo, the sea^swallow, and the mullet are all alike ; 
on which account Tryphon says, in his treatise on Animals, 
that some people think that the trigola is the sea-cuckoo, 
from its likeness to it, and from the dryness of its hind- 
quarters ; which Sophron indicates, when he says^ 

The fat mullets and the hinder parts of the trigola. 
126. But Plato, in his Phaon,. says — 

The mullet is not wholesome for the nerves. 

For it is sacred to the chaste Diana, 

And all excitement hates. 

But the mullet is attributed to Hecate as her fish, on account 
of the common derivation of their names ; for Hecate is called 
T/DioSn-t9, as presiding over places where three roads meet, and 
Tpiy\r]vo's, as having three eyes ; and also they provide her a 
banquet on the thirtieth day of each month (rais rpta/cao-i). 


And, on similar principles, ttey assign to Apollo the fish xCOapo^, 
from Kiddpa (the harp) ; and the /3oa^ to Mercury, from ^odm 
(to speak) ; and the kittos to Bacchus, from kuto-o^ (ivy) j and 
the c^Aapts to Venus, as Aristophanes in his Birds says, from 
the similarity of its name to the word ^aXXo's. And so the 
bird called the vrja-a-a (or duck), they call Neptune's bird; and 
the sea production which we call d<l>va., and others d^pva, and 
which is more generally called a^pos (foam), they also give to 
him ; though they say that this also is very dear to Venus, 
because she herself was born of foam. But ApoUodorus, in 
his books concerning the Gods, says that the mullet is sacri- 
ficed to Hecate on account of the resemblance of their names; 
for that the goddess is Tpt/iop^os, of a triple form. But 
Melanthus, in his treatise on the Eleusinian Mysteries, says 
that both the TpuyX-q and the /xaivis (or sprat), are sacred to 
Hecate, because Hecate is also a goddess of the sea. But 
Hegesander the Delphian says that the mullet is accustomed 
to be carried about in the Artemisia, because it is accustomed 
diligently to hunt out and destroy the sea-hares, which are 
poisonous animals ; on which account, as it does this to the 
great benefit of mankind, the mullet as a huntress is con- 
sidered sacred to the goddess who is also a huntress. And 
Sophron has called the mullet " bearded," because those which 
have beards are better flavoured than those which have not. 
And there is a place at Athens called TptyXa, and there there 
is a shrine to 'EKai-ij TpiyXavOlvr] ; on which account Chari- 
clides, in his Chain, says — 

mistress Hecate, Trioditis, 

With three forms WpiiJiopqye) and three faces {Tpmpoaann), 

Propitiated with mullets (Tpfy^nis). 
127. And if the mullet, while alive, be choked with wine, 
and then a man drinks the wine, he will no longer be able to 
indulge in the pleasures of Venus, as Terpsicles tells us in his 
book on Amatory Pleasures, And if a woman drinks this 
same wine, she never becomes pregnant. Birds, too, are 
affected in the same manner. But Archestratus, that very 
learned man, after he has praised the Milesian muUet which 
are found at Teichius, proceeds to say — ■ 

If you at Thasos are, then buy a mullet j 

You ne'er will get a worse, unless indeed 

You go to Tins; but even those are fair : 

Bui at Erythras they are caught in shore 

And are most excellent. 

0. 130. J FISH. 513 

And Cratinus, in his Trophonius, says — 

And do not eat a red-flesh'd mullet hard, 
Brought from jExona ; nor of any turtle, 
Or mighty melanurus from those seas. 

But Nausicrates, the comic poet, praises the mullets from 

^xona, in his Captains of Ships, saying — 

Phose yellow fleshed fish, -which the high wave 
That beats ^Exona brings towards the shore, 
The best of fish ; with which we venerate 
The light-bestowing daughter of great Jove ; 
When sailors offer gifts of feasts to heaven. 
B. You mean the mullet. 

128. There is, too, the taenia; and this is mentioned by 
Epicharmus : — 

The most belovfed t£enia, which are thin. 
But highly flavour'd, and need little fire. 

And Mitheecus, in his Cookery Book, says — "Having taken out 
the entraUs of the tsenia, and cut off its head, and washed it, 
and having cut it into shoes, sprinkle over it cheese and oil." 
But this fish is found in the greatest number and in the finest 
condition off Canopus, -which is near Alexandria ; and also oif 
Seleucia, which is close to Antioch. But when Eupolis, in his 
Prospaltii, says — 

His mother was a Thracian woman, 

A seller of tsenise ; 

he then means by the word raivia, not the fish, but those 
pieces of woven work and girdles with which women bind 
their waists. 

1 29. Another fish is the trachurus, or rough-tail. Diodes 
mentions this as a dry fish. And Numenius, in his Art of 
Fishing, says — 

The aconia and the wagtail too, 
And the .... trachurus. 
There is also the taulopias. Concerning this fish, j4.rches- 
tratus says — 

When it is summer buy a good-sized head 

Of fresh taulopias, just when Phaethon 

Is driving his last course. Dress it with speed, 

Serve it up hot, and some good seasoning with i|;, 

Then take its entrails, spit and roast them too. 

130. There is also the t£u6W, [which is a kind of ojittle-fish, 
difierent from the ot^ttic] Aristotle says that this also is a 

VOL. I. — ATH. L L 


gregarious fish, and that it has a great many things in com- 
mon with the sepia ; such as the same number of feet, and 
the two proboscises : but of this kind the lower feet are the 
smaller, and the upper feet the larger; and of the proboscises, 
that on the right side is the thickest : and the whole body is 
delicate, and of a more oblong shape than the sepia. And the 
teuthis also has ink in its mutis, which, however, is not black, 
but of a pale colour. And its shell is very small, and carti- 

There is also theteuthus; and the only difference between 
the teuthus and the teuthis is in size : and the teuthus is of the 
size of three spans ; and it is of a reddish colour. And of its 
two teeth, the lower one is the smallest, and the upper one is 
the largest; and both of them are black, and like a hawk's 
beak. And when it is slit open, it has a paunch like a pig's 
paunch. Aristotle, in the fifth book of his Parts of Ani- 
mals, says that both the teuthus and the sepia are short-lived 
fish. And Archestratus, who travelled and sailed over the 
whole earth, for the sake of gTatifying his greedy appetite, 

The beat of all the teuthides are those 
Caught near Pierian Dium, near the stream 
Of Baphyras. And in Ambracia's port 
You will see mighty shoals of this same fish. 

And Alexis, in his Eretrian, introduces a cook speaking in 

this way — 

Teuthides, thornbacks, rays, and fat 
Anchovies, lumps of meat, and paunches too. 
I took the teuthides, cut oif their fins, 
Adding a little fat ; I then did sprinkle 
Some thin shred herbs o'er all for seasoning. 

There is also a sort of cake or confectionary called reuffis, 
which is mentioned by latrooles, in his book on the Art of 
making Bread, as Pamphilus quotes. 

131. Then there is the sea-pig. Epicharmus, in his Hebe's 
Wedding, says— 

There were hysenides, buglossi, 

There was the harp-fish too in numbers. 

And he also calls them not only uaiviScs, but also fe in the 
following hnes — 

There were too chalcides and sea-pigs (iles), 

And sea-hawks, and the fat sea-dog. 

c. 133.] FISH 515 

Unless, indeed, when he uses the word vs here, he means the 
same animal which is also called Kairpos, the sea-boar. But 
Numenius, in his Art of Fishing, enumerates plainly enough 
some sort of vaLva or plaice, when he says — 

The cantharis, hyaena, and the mullet. 
And Dionysius, in his Cookery Book, also speaks of the hyasna 
or plaice. And Archestratus, that prince of cooks and epi- 
cures says, — 

At jEnus or at Potus buy the sea-pig, 
Which some men call the digger of the sand, 
Then boil his head, adding no seasoning, 
Bnt only water, stirring it full often, 
And add some pounded hyssop ; if you want 
Anything more, pour on some pungent vinegar ; 
Steep it in that, then eat it with such haste 
As if your object were to choke yourself. 
But roast its neck, and all its other parts. 

And perhaps it is the sea-pig which Numenius, in his Art 
of Fishing, calls the psamathis, or sand-fish, when he says — 

Sometimes the fierce careharias, and sometimes 
The psamathis, delighting in tlie surf. 

132. Then there is the hyces. CalHmachus, in his epi- 
grams, calls the hyces the sacred fish, in these lines — 

And he does deem the sacred hyces god. 

And Numenius, in his Art of Fishing, says — 

The epar, or the gregarious hyces ; 

Or phagrus, ever wand'ring near the rocks. 

And Timseus, in the thirteenth book of his Histories, speak- 
ing of the town in Sicily, (I mean the town of Hyccara,) says 
that this town derived its name from the circumstance of the 
first man who arrived at the place finding abundance of the 
fish called hyces, and those too in a breeding condition ; and 
they, taking this for an omen, called the place Hyccarus. But 
Zenodotus says that the Cyrenseans call the. hyces the erythri- 
nus. But Hermippus of Smyrna, in his essay on Hipponax, 
when he speaks of the hyces, means the iulis ; and says that it 
is very hard to catch ; on which account Philetas says — 
Nor was the hyces the last fish who fled. 

133. There is also the phagrus. Speusippus, in the second 
book of his Things resembling one another, says that the 
phagrus, the erythrinus, and the hepatus, are very much 


alike. And Numenius also, has mentioned it in the lines which 
have been quoted not long ago. But Aristotle says that he 
is a carnivorous and solitary fish ; and that he has a heart of 
a triangular shape, and that he is in season in the spring. 
And Epicharmus, in his Hebe's Wedding, speaks of the 

Aones, and the phagri, and the j)ikes. 
And Metagenes also mentions them in his Thurio-Persse. And 
Ameipsias says in his Connus — 

A food for orphi and selachia, 

And for the greedy phagri. 

And Icesius says— ^" The phagrus, and the chromis, and the 
authias, and the aoharnanes, and the orphi, and the syno- 
dons, and the synagrides, are aU very nearly akin to one 
another ; for they are sweet and astringent, and nutritious, 
but in the same proportion they are hard of digestion. And 
those of them which are fleshy, and which are caught nearer 
land, are the most nutritious, and those also which have the 
least fat." But Archestratus says — 

'Tis when the dogstar rises in the sky 

That you should eat the phagrus ; specially 

If yon in Delos or Eretria are, 

Or other favouring harbours of the sea ; 

But, if you can, purchase his head alone, 

And tail ; and bring no more within your doors. 
Strattis also mentions the phagrus in his Lemnomeda — 

Eating a number of large phagri. 
And in his PhUoctetes he says — 

Then, going to the market, they will buy 

A great abundance of large phagri, and 

Slices of tender round Copaic eel. 

There is also a kind of stone called the phagrus. For the 
whetstone is called so among the Cretans, as Simmias 

134. There is also the channa. Epicharmus, in his Hebe's 
Wedding, says — 

The channa, with large mouth, and then the cod, 

With deep and spacious belly. 

Numenius, in his Art of Fishing, says — 

The channas and the eel, and pidnus, 
"Who only roams by night. 

Dorion also mentions him in his treatise on Fishes. But 
Aristotle, in his book on Animals, calls the channa a fish 

c. 137.] FISH. 517 

variegated -with red and black ; and he calls it also ttou-iXo- 
ypa/x/ios, because it is marked with black lines. 

135. There is the chromis ; this also is spoken of by Epi- 
chaxmus, who says — 

There is the airord-fish and the chromias, 

Who, in the spring, as Ananius says, 

Is of all fish the daintiest. 
And Numenius, in his Art of Fishing, says — 

The hyces, or the beautiful ealliothys, 

Or else the chromis, and sometimes the orphus. 
And Archestratus says — 

Ton may catch noble chromises in Pella, 

And they are fat when it is midsummer ; 

And in Ambracia likewise they abound. 

136. There is also the chrysophrys. Archippus says in 
his Fishes — 

The chrysophrys, sacred to Cytherean Venus. 
And Icesius says that these fish are the best of all fish in 
sweetness, and also, in dehcacy of flavour in other respects. 
They are also most nutritious. They produce their young, 
as Aristotle says, in a manner similar to the cestres, wher- 
ever there are flowing rivers. Epicharmus mentions them 
in his Muses ; and Dorion also, in his book on Fishes. And 
Eupohs, in his Flatterers, says — 

I spent a hundred drachmas upon fish. 

And only got eight pike, and twelve chrysophryes. 
But the wise Archestratus, in his Suggestions, says — 

Pass not the chrysophrys from Ephesus 

Unheeded by ; which the Ephesians call 

The ioniscus. Take him eagerly. 

The produce of the venerable Selinus ; 

Wash him, and roast him whole, and serve him up, 

Though he be ten fall cubits long. 

137. There is a fish, too, called the chalcis; and others 
which resemble it, namely, the thrissa, the trichis, and the 
eritimus. Icesius says, the fish called the chalcis, and the 
sea-goat, and the needle-fish, and the thrissa, are like chafi) 
destitute alike of fat and of juice. And Epicharmus, in his 
Hebe's Wedding, says — 

The chalcides, the sea-pig too, 
The sea-hawk, and the fat sea-dog. 
But Dorion calls it the chalcidice. And Numenius says, — 
But you would thus harpoon, in the same way, 
Tbat chalcis and the little tiny sprat. 


But the xo^KEiJs is different from the x^^k's ; and the xoXkcus 
is mentioned by Heraclides, in his Cookery Book ; and by 
Euthydemus, in his book on Cured Fish, who says that they 
are bred in the country of the Cyzicenes, being a round and 
circular fish. 

But the thrissa is mentioned by Aristotle in his book on 
Animals and Fishes, in these words — " The following are sta- 
tionary fish : the thrissa, the encrasicholus, the membras 
anchovy, the coracinus, the erythrinus, and the trichis." And 
Eupolis mentions the trichis in his Flatterers ; — 

He was a stingy man, who once in his life 

Before the war did buy some trichides ; 

But in the Samian war, a ha'p'orth of meat. 

And Aristophanes, in his Knights, says — 

If trichides were to be a penny a hundred. 
But Dorion, in his treatise on Fishes, speaks also of the river 
Thrissa ; and calls the trichis trichias. Nicoohares, in his 
Lemnian Women, says — , 

The trichias, and the premas tunny too, 

Placed in enormous quantities for supper. 

(But there was a kind of tunny which they used to call 
premnas. Plato, in his Europa, has these lines — 

He once, when fishing, saw one of such size 
A man could scarcely carry it, in a shoal 
Of premnades, and then he let it go, 
Because it was a boax.) 

And Aristotle, in the fifth book of his Parts of Animals, calls 
it a trichias also, but in the book which is entitled Zwikov, he 
calls it trichis. And it is said that this fish is delighted with 
dancing and singing, and that when it hears music it leaps up 
out of the sea. 

Dorion also mentions the eritimi, saying, that they are 
much the same as the chalcides, and that they are very nice 
in forced meat. And Epsenetus, in his book upon Fishes, 
says — " The sea-weasel ; the smaris, which some call the dog's- 
bed ; the chalcides, which they also call sardini ; the eritimi, 
the sea-hawk, and the sea-swallow." And Aristotle, in the 
fifth book of his Parts of Animals, calls them sardines. And 
CaUimachus, in his Names used by different Nations, writes 
thus — " The encrasicholus, the eritimus, are names used by 
the Chalcedoniansj the trichidia, the chalcis, the ictar, the 

c. 138.] FISH. 519 

atherina.'' And in another part, giving a list of the names 
of fishes, he says — " The ozsena, the osmylnion, are names 
used by the Thurians ; the iopes, the eritimi, are names used 
by the Athenians." And Meander mentions the iopes in his 
Boeotian, — 

But as when round a shoal of newly born 

Iopes, phagri, or fierce scopes roam. 

Or the large orphus. 
And Aristophanes, in his Ships of Burden, says — 

wretched fish, the first of trichides 

To he immersed in pickle. 
For they used to steep in pickle all the fish which were 
proper to be dressed on the coals. And they called pickle, 
Thasian brine ; as also the same poet says in his Wasps, — 

For before that it twice drank in the brine. 
138. There is also a fish called the thratta. And since we 
have brought the discussion to this point, and have also dis- 
cussed the thrissa ; let us now examine what the thrattse are, 
which are mentioned by Archippus, in his play called the 
Fishes. For in that play, in the treaty between the Fishes 
and the Athenians, he introduces the following sentences — 

And it is agreed on further 

That both the high contracting parties 

Shall restore all they now do hold 

Of each other's property. 

We shall give up thus the Thrattee, 

And the flute-playing Atherina, 

And Thyrsus's daughter Sepia, 

And the mullet, and EucUdes, 

Who was archon t'other day, 

And the coraciontes too, 

Who from Anagyms come ; 

And the offspring of the tench, 

Who swims round sacred Salamis ; 

And the frog who 's seated near, 

Prom the marshes of Oreum. 

Now in these lines, perhaps a man may ask what sort of 
thrattse among the fishes are meant here, which the fish agree 
to give up to the men. And since I have got some private 
things written out on this subject, I will now recite to you 
that portion of them which bears most on the subject. 

The thratta, then, is really a genuine sea-fish ; and Mnesi- 
machus, in his Horse-breeder, mentions it; and Mnesimachus 
is a poet of the middle comedy. And he speaks thus — 

520 THE DBlPNOSOPHISia. [b. vil 

The mullet, and the lebias, and the sparus, 

The bright aeolias, and the thratta too, 

The sea-swallow, the caris, and the cuttle-fish. 

But Dorotheus of-Ascalon, in the hundred and eighth book 
of his Collection of Words, writes this name Oena, either be- 
cause he fell in with a copy of the drama with an incorrect 
text, or because, as he himself was unused to the word, he 
altered it so before he published it. But the name thetta does 
absolutely never occur in any Attic writer whatever. But 
that they were used to call a sea-fish by the name of thratta, 
that Anaxandrides estabhshes, speaking in this manner in his 
play called LycurgTis, — 

And sporting -with the little coracini, 
With little perches, and the little thrattse. 

And Antiphanes says in his Etrurian — 

A. He is of the Halasa borough. This is all 
That now is left me, to be abused unjustly. 

B. Why so ? 

A . He will (you '11 see) bestow on me 
Some thratta, or sea-sparrow, or some lamprey. 
Or some enormous other marine evil. 

139. We come now to the sea-sparrow. Diodes enume- 
rates this fish among the drier kinds. But Speusippus, in 
the second book of his Things resembling one another, says 
that the sea-sparrow and the buglossus and the tsenia are 
very much alike. But Aristotle, in the fifth book of his 
Parts of Animals, writes — " And in the same manner the 
greater number of the small fish have young once a year; 
such as those which are called ohyti, which are surrounded by 
a net, namely, the chromis, the sea- sparrow, the tunny, the 
pelamys, the cestreus, the chalcis, and others of the same sort." 
And in his treatise on Animals he says — " These fish are 
cartilaginous, the sea-cow, the turtle, the torpedo, the ray, the 
sea-frog, the buglossa, the sea-sparrow, the mussel." But 
Dorion, in his book on Fishes, says — " But of flat fish there 
is the buglossus, the sea-sparrow, the escharus, which they 
also call the coris." The buglossi are mentioned also by 
Epicharmus in his Hebe's Wedding — 
Hysenides, buglossi, and a citharus. 
And Lynceus the Samian, in his Letters, says that the finest 
sea-sparrows are procured near Eleusis, in Attica. And 
Arshestratus says — 

c. 140.] FISH. 521 

Remember then to get a fine sea-sparrow, 
And a roHgh-skinn'd buglossus, near the port 
Of sacred ChaK-is 

But the Romans call the sea-sparrow rhombus ; whiph, how- 
ever, is a Greek uame. And Nausicrates, in his Sea Captains, 
having first mentioned the sea-grayling, proceeds in this 
manner — 

A. Those yellow-fleshed fish, which the high wave 
That beats JExuaa, brings towards the shore, 
The best of fi>b ; with which we venerate 
The light-bestowing dau^'hter of great Jove ; 
When sailors offer gifts of feasts to heaven. 

B. You mean the mullet, with its milky colour. 
Which the Sicilian multitude calls rhombus. 

140. So now, having given you, Timoorates, the whole of 
the convei-sation which took place among the Deipnosophists 
on the subject of fish, we may conclude our book here ; and 
unless you want some other kind of food, we will end by 
setting before you what Eubulus has said in his Lacedse- 
monians, or Leda; — 

Besides all this you now shall have 

A slice of tunny, a slice of pork, 

Some paunch of kid. some liver of goat. 

Some ram, the entrails of an ox, 

A lamb's head, and a kid's intestines ; 

The belly of a hare, a pudding, 

Some tripe, black-puddings, and a sausage. 

Being sated, therefore, with all this, let us now take due care 
of our bodies, in order to be able to feed comfortably on what 
is coming next. 



1. PoLTBius the Megalopolitan, speaking of the great hap- 
piness which exists in Lusitania (and that is a district of 
Iberia, which the Romans now call Spania), most excellent 
Timocrates, in the thirty-fourth book of his Histories, says 
that in that country, on account of the excellent temperature 
of the air, both animals and men are exceedingly prolific ; and 
the ftnits, too, in that countiy never degenerate. " For there 
are roses there, and white violets, and asparagus, and other 
flowers and fruits like them, which last nine months in the 
year; and as for sea-fish, both in abundance, and in excel- 
lence, and in beauty, it is very superior to that produced in 
our seas. And a siclus (this is equal to a medimnus) of barley 
costs only a drachma ; and one of wheat costs nine Alexan- 
drian obols J and a measure of wine costs a drachma; and a 
moderate-sized kid costs an obol, and so does a hare. And of 
lambs, the price is three or four obols ; and a fat pig, weigh- 
ing a himdred minse, costs five drachmae j and a sheep costs 
two. And a talent weight of figs costs three obols ; and a calf 
costs five drachmse, and a draught-ox ten. And the meat of 
wild animals is scarcely ever valued at any price at all ; but 
people throw that in to purchasers into the bargain, or as a 
present." But to us, whenever we sup with our excellent 
friend Laurentius, he makes Rome another Lusitania,— ^filling 
us with every sort of good thing every day, receiving ns in 
a most princely manner with the greatest liberality, while 
we bring nothing from home as our contribution, except oiu: 
arguments. ' 


2. Now, as a long discussion had taken place about fish, it 
was plain that Cynulcus was annoyed at it ; and so the excel- 
lent Democritus, anticipating him, said — But, you men 
fish, as Archippus says, you have omitted (for I too must 
throw in a little contribution of my own) those which ai-e 
called fossil fishes, which are produced at Heraclea, and near 
Tium, in Pontus, which is a colony of the Milesians, though 
Theophrastus gives us an account of them. And this very same 
philosopher has also told us about those that are congealed 
in ice the whole winter, so that they have no feeling whatever, 
and make not the slightest motion, until they are put into 
the saucepans and boiled. And these fish have this especial 
peculiarity, which also belongs in some degree to the fish 
which are called fossil fish in Paphlagonia. For it is said that 
ditches are dug in those places to an exceeding depth, where, 
no overflow of rivers ever reaches, nor of any other waters 
whatever; and yet in those ditches there are found living 

3. But Mnaseas of Patra, in his Periplus, says that the fish 
in the river Clitor are not dumb ; though Aristotle has stated 
in writing that the only fishes which have any voice are the 
scams and the river-hog. And Philostephanus, who was a 
Cyrensean by birth, and a friend of CaUimachus, in his treatise 
on Extraordinary Elvers, says that in the river Aroanius, 
which flows through Pheneum, there are fish which sing like 
thrushes, and that they are called the poicilise. And Nympho- 
dorus the Syracusan, in his Voyages, says that there are pike 
in the river Helorus, and large eels, so tame that they take 
bread out of the hands of any who bring it to them. And I 
myself, and very likely many of you too, have seen cestres 
tamed to the hand in the fountain of Arethusa, near Chalcis; 
and eels, having silver and golden earrings, taking food from 
any one who ofiered it to them, and entrails from the victims, 
and fresh cheese. And Semus says, in the sixth book of his 
Delias — " They say that a boy once dipped a ewer into the 
well, and brought water to some Athenians who were sacri- 
ficing at Delos, to wash their hands with ; and he brought up, 
as it happened, some fish in the ewer along with the water : 
jand that on this the soothsayers of the Delians told them that 
they should become the lords of the sea." 

4. And Polybius, in the thirty-fourth book of his Histories, 

0. 5.] AQUATIC ANIMALS, 525 

says that behind Pyrene, as far as the river Narbo, the whole 
country is a plain, through which the rivers Illiberis and 
Rhoscynus proceed, flowing through cities of the same name 
as themselves, which are inhabited by some of the Celtaj ; and 
in this plain he says that the above-mentioned fossil fish 
are also found. And he says that the soil of that plain is 
light, and that a great quantity of the herb agrostis grows 
in it; and that beneath it, as the soil is sandy for a depth of 
two or three cubits, the water flows, which wanders away from 
these rivers ; and so the fish, too, leaving the rivers, and pro- 
ceeding underground, in the course of these erratic under- 
flowings, in quest of food (for they are exceedingly fond of the 
root of the agrostis), have caused the whole plain to be fall of 
subterranean fish, which people catch when they dig up the 
plain. " And among the Indians," says Theophrastus, " there 
are fish which go forth out of the rivers over the land, and 
then, leaping back, return again to the water, just like frogs ; 
being in appearance very like the fish which are called 

5. But I am not ignorant of what Clearchus, the Peripa- 
tetic philosopher, has said about what he calls the exocoetus 
fish, or fish which comes out of the water to sleep, which he 
mentions in his work entitled A Treatise on Aquatic Animals. 
For he has said, (and I think that I recollect his exact words, 
■which are as follows,) " The exocoetus fish, which some people 
call Adonis, has derived its name from constantly taking his 
rest out of the water. He is rather of a red colour, and 
from his gills down to his tail he has on each side of his body 
one white stripe reaching the whole length of his body. And 
he is round, but not being broad, he is equal in size to the 
cestrinisci which are found near the shore; and they are 
as near as may be about eight fingers in length. Alto- 
gether he is very like the fish called the sea-goat, except that 
the latter has a black place under his stomach, which they 
call the beard of the goat. And the exocretus is one of the 
fish which keeps near to the rocks, and spends his life in 
rocky places. When it is calm weather he springs up with 
the waves and lies on the rocks for a considerable time, 
sleeping on the dry land, and turning himself so as to bask 
in the sun : and then, when he has had sufficient rest, he 
rolls towards the water again, until the wave, taking him 


again, bears him with the reflux back into the sea. And when 
he is awake on the dry land then he is on his guard against 
those birds which are called pareudistse, such as the halcyon, 
the sandpiper, and the helorius, which is a bird like the raU. 
For these birds in calm weather feed on the dry land, and often 
attack the exoccetus ; but when he sees them at a distance he 
flies, leaping and panting, until he dives beneath the water." 
6. Moreover, Clearchus says this also more plainly than 
Philostephanus the Cyrensean, whom I have previously men- 
tioned. " There are some fish which, though they have no 
throats, can utter a sound. Such are those which are found 
near Cleitor, in Arcadia, in the river called Ladon. For they 
have a voice, and utter a very audible sound." And Nico- 
laus, of Damascus, in the hundred and fourth book of his 
History, says — " In the country around Apamea, in Phrygia, 
at the time of the Mithridatio wars, there were some earth- 
quakes, after which there appeared in that district some lakes 
which previously had no existence, and rivers, and other 
springs which had been opened by the earthquake. Many 
also which had previously existed disappeared. And such a 
Quantity of additional water, which was brackish and of a sea- 
green colour, burst up in that district, though it is at a very 
great distance from the sea, that all the neighbouring country 
was filled with oysters andlfish, and aU. other productions of 
the sea." I know also that it has very often rained fishes. At 
all events, Phsenias, in the second book of his Eresian Magi- 
strates, says that in the Chersonesus it once rained fish un- 
interruptedly for three days; and Phylarchus, in his fourth 
book, says that people had often seen it raining fish, and often 
also raining wheat, and that the same thing has happened 
with respect to frogs. At aU events, Heraclides Lembus, 
in the twenty-first book of his History, says — " In Pseonia and 
Dardania it has, they say, before now rained frogs ; and so 
great has been the number of these frogs that the houses and 
the roads have been full of them ; and at first, for some days, 
the inhabitants, endeavouring to kiU them, and shutting up 
their houses, endured the pest; but when they did no good, 
but found that all their vessels were filled with them, and the 
frogs were found to be boiled up and roasted with everything 
they ate, and when besides all this, they could not make use 
of any water, nor put their feet on the ground for the heaps 

0. 8.] PISH. 527 

of frogs that were everywhere, and were annoyed also by the 
smell of those that died, they fled the country." 

7. I am aware, too, that Posidonius the Stoic makes this 
statement about the abundance of the fish : — " When Tryphon 
of Apamea, who seized upon the kingdom of Syria, was at- 
tacked by Sarpedon, the general of Demetrius, near the city 
of Ptolemais, and when Sarpedon, being defeated, retired into 
the inland parts of the country with his own troops, but the 
army of Tryphon, having been victorious in the battle, were 
marching along the shore, on a sudden, a wave of the sea, 
rising to a great height, came over the land, and over- 
whelmed them all, and destroyed them beneath the waters, 
and the retreating wave also left an immense heap of fish 
with the corpses. And Sarpedon and his army hearing of 
what had happened, came up, and were delighted at the sight 
of the corpses of their enemies, and carried away an enor- 
mous quantity of fish, and made a sacrifice to Neptune who 
puts armies to flight, near the suburbs of the city." 

8. Nor wiU I pass over in silence the men who prophesy 
from fish in Lycia, concerning whom Polycharmus speaks, in 
the second book of his Afiairs of Lycia ; writing in this man- 
ner : — " For when they have come to the sea, at a place where 
there is on the shore a grove sacred to ApoUo, and where 
there is an eddy on the sand, the persons who are consulting 
the oracle come, bringing with them two wooden spits, having 
each of them ten pieces of roast meat on them. And the 
priest -sits down by the side of the grove in silence; but he 
who is consulting the oracle throws the spits into the eddy, 
and looks on to see what happens. And after he has put the 
spits in, then the eddy becomes full' of salt water, and there 
comes up such an enormous quantity of fish of such a de- 
scription that he is amazed at the sight, and is even, as it 
were, alarmed at the magnitude of it. And when the prophet 
emunerates the different species of fish, the person who is 
consulting the oracle in tins maimer receives the prophecy 
fi:om the priest respecting the matters about which he has 
prayed for information. And there appear in the eddy orphi, 
and sea^grayling, and sometimes some sorts of whales, such 
as the phalsena, or pristia, and a great many other fish which 
are rarely seen, and strange to the sight." 

And Artemidorus, in the tenth book of his Geography, 


says that — " It is said by the natives that a fountain springs 
up in that place of sweet water, to which it is owing that 
these eddies exist there; and that very large fish are pro- 
duced in that eddying place. And those who are sacrificing 
throw to these fish the firstfruits of what they ofier, piercing 
them through with wooden spits, being pieces of meat, roasted 
and boiled, and cakes of barley and loaves. And both the 
harbour and the place is called Dinus." ' 

9. I know, too, that Phylarchus has spoken, somewhere oi: 
other, about large fish, and about fresh figs which were sent 
with them ; saying that Patroclus, the general of Ptolemyj 
sent such a present to Antigonus the king, by way of a riddle, 
as the Scythians sent an enigmatical present to Darius, when 
he was invading their country. For they sent (as Herodotus 
relates) a bird, and an arrow, and a frog. But Patroclus (as 
Phylarchus tells us, in the third book of his Histories) sent 
the before-mentioned fishes and figs; and the king, at the 
time that they arrived, happened to be drinking with his 
friends, and when all the party were perplexed at the mean- 
ing of the gifts, Antigonus laughed, and said to his friends 
that he knew what was the meaning of the present; "for," 
says he, " Patroclus means that we must either be masters of 
the sea, or else be content to eat figs." 

10. Nor am I unaware that all fishes are called by one 
generic name, camasenes, by Empedocles the natural philoso- 
pher, when he says — 

How could the mighty trees and sea-born camasenes . . . 
And the poet, too, who wrote the Cyprian poems (whether he 
was a Cyprian or a man of the name of Stasinus, or whatever 
else his name may have beenl, represents Nemesis as pursued 
by Jupiter, and metamorphosed into a fish, in the following 
lines : — 

And after them she brought forth Helen third, 

A marvel to all mortal men to see ; 

Her then the fair-hair'd Ifemeeis did bear, 

Compell'd by Jove, the sovereign of the gods. 

She indeed fled, nor sought to share the love 

Of that great father, son of Saturn, Jove ; 

For too great awe did overpower her mind : 

So Nemesis did flee o'er distant lands. 

And o'er the black and barren waves o' the sea ; 

' From Slin], an eddy. 

.c. 12.] FISH. S39 

But Jove pursued her (and with eagerness 
His soul desired her). In vain she took 
The foiin of somS large fish who bounds along, 
Borne on the vast high-crested roaring wave ; 
Sometimes she fled along the ocean, where 
The earth's most distant boundaries extend ; 
Sometimes she fled along the fertile land ; 
And took all shapes of every animal 
Which the land bears, to flee from amorous Jove. 

11. I know, also, what is related about the fish called 
apopyris, which is found in the lake Bolbe ; concarning which 
Hegesander, in his Commentaries, speaks thus :—" Around 
Apollonia of Chalcis two rivers flow, the Ammites and the 
Olynthiacus, and they both fall into the lake Bolbe. And on 
the riTcr Olynthiacus there is a monument of Olynthus, the 
Bon of Hercules and Bolbe. And in the months Anthesterion 
and Elaphebolion, the natives say that Bolbe sends Apopyris 
to Olynthus; and that about this time a most enormous 
number of fish ascend out of the lake into the river Olynthii)^ 
cus : and this is a shallow river, scarcely deep enough to wet 
a man's ankles; but for all that there does not the less come 
a great number of fish, so that all the people of the district 
get enough cured fish for their use for the year. And it is a 
wonderful fact that they never pass above the monument of 
Olynthus. They say, in eiplanation of this, that the people 
of Apollonia did formerly, in the month Elaphebolion, cele- 
brate sacrifices to the dead, but that they do so now in the 
month Anthesterion; and that on this account this ascent is 

made by the fish in those months alone in which the natives 
are accustomed to pay honour to their national heroes." 

12. And this is the state of the case, men fish; for you, 
having collected together every kind of thing, have thrown 
Tis out to be food for fishes, instead of giving them as food for 
Tis, — making such long speeches as not evenlchthys, the phi- 
losopher of Megara, nor Ichthyon (and this also is a proper 
name), who is mentioned by Teleclides in his Amphictyons, 
would make to ns. And, on your account, I will give this 
advice to the Bervant, as it is said in the Ant Men <)f Phere- 
crates : — 

Mind that yon never, Deucalion, 
(Even if I bid you,) set a fish before me. 
.For in Delos, as we are told by Semus the Delian, in the 
second book of the Delias, when they sacrifice to Bmo, — and 

M M 3 


she is a deity who prophesies to people asleep (for the ancients 
used /Bpi^o) as s3monymous with KaOe^Sw, to sleep, saying — 
Then sleeping {awo0pi^avTis) there we waited for the dawn) — 

so, when the Delian women sacrifice to this deity, they bring 
her, as their offering, boats full of all kinds of good things, 
except fish; because they address prayers to her on every 
subject, and especially for the safety of their vessels. 

13. But, my friends, though 1 admire Chrysippus, the 
leader of the sect of the Stoics, on many accounts, I also 
praise him especially for having always classed Archestratus, 
that man who is so famous for his treatise on Cookery, witli 
Philaenis, to whom that indelicate composition about Amatory 
Pleasures is attributed ; which, however, .^schrion, the iambic 
poet of Samos, says was written by Polycrates the sophist, 
and attributed to Philsenis for the sake of calumniating her, 
when she was a most respectable woman. And the iambics, 
in which this is stated, run as follows : — ■ 

I am Philsenis, famous among men ; 

And hire I lie, o'erwhelm'd by long old age. 

Do not, foolish sailor, pass this cape 

Laughing and scorning and reproaching me. 

For. now I swear by Jove, and by the gods 

Who reign below, I never lustful was, 

I never made myself a sport to man. 

But one Polycrates, of Attic race, 

A trashy chatterer, and a false accuser. 

Wrote what he wrote ; I know not what it was. 

Therefore that admirable Chrysippus, in the fifth book of hi* 
treatise on Honour and Pleasure, says — " The books, too, of 
Philsenis, and the Gastronomy of Archestratus, and all the 
drugs calculated to provoke appetite or sensual desires, and 
also all the servants who are skilled in such motions and such 
figures, and whose occupation it is to attend to these things." 
And again he says— " That they learn such things, and get 
hold of the books written on such subjects by Philsenis and 
Arcliestratus, and by those who have written similar works." 
And in his seventh book he says—" Just as it would not be 
advisable to study the writings of Philsenis or the Gastronomy 
of Archestratus, as tending to make a person live better." 

14. But you, who are constantly making mention of this 
Archestratus, have made this entertainment full of intem- 
perance ; for what of all the things which could imduly excite 


men has this fine epic poet omitted 1 — ^he, the only imitator 
of the life of Sardanapalus the son of Anacyndaraxes, who, 
Aristotle says, is made more obscure still by adding the name 
of his father ; on whose tomb, Chrysippus says, the following 
inscription was engraved : — 

Knowing that you are mortal, feed your soul 

On banquets and delights ; for in the grave 

There's no enjoyment left. I now am dust 

Who once was king of mighty Nineveh ; 

The things which I did eat, the joys of love. 

The insolent thoughts with which my wealth did fill me, 

Are all I now have left ; for all my power 

And all my happiness is gone for ever. 

This is the only prudent rule of life, 

I never shall forget it, let who will 

Hoard boundless treasures of uncounted gold. 

And the great poet has said of the Phjeacians — 
To dress, to dance, to sing, our sole delight. 
The feast or bath by day, and love by night. 

And another person, not unlike Sardanapalus in disposition, 
gives this advice and these rules to those who are deficient iu 
wisdom : — 

I to all mortals now give this advice : 
Live for the day with pleasure ; he who dies 
Is nought ; au empty shade beneath the earth : 
Man lives but a short space, and therefore should. 
While life remains, enjoy himself. 

And Amphis the comic poet, in his lalemus, says — ■ 
The man who knows that he is but a mortal. 
And yet seeks not enjoymenL while alive, 
Leaving all other cares, is but a fool 
In mine and all wise men's opinion. 
And most unhappy in his destiny. 

And, in his play entitled the Gynzecocracy, he says nearly 
the same — 

Drink and play, our mortal life 

On earth can but a brief opace last ; 
Death alone will last for ever. 

When once our too brief term is past. 

And a man of the name of Bacchides, who lived on the same 
principles as Sardanapalus, after he was dead had the follow- 
ing inscription placed on his tomb : — 

Eat, drink, indulge thy soul with all delights. 
This stono is all that now remains for Bacchides. 


15. Alexis, in his Tutor of Intemperate Men — (as Sotion the 
Alexandrian says, in his Commentary on the Silli of Timon ; 
for I myself have never met with the play, though I have read 
more than eight hundred plays of what ia called the Middle 
Comedy, and have made extracts from them, hut stiU I have 
never fallen in with the Tutor of Intemperate Men,, nor do I 
recoUect having seen any mention of it in any regular list of 
such plays ; for Callimaohus has not inserted it in his cata- 
logue, nor has Aristophanes, nor even those scholars at Per- 
gamus,, who have handed down to us lists of plays,) — how- 
ever^ Sotion says ■ that in that play a slave, named Xanthias, 
was represented as exhorting all his fellow-slaves to a life of 
luxury, and saying — 

Why do you talk sueh stnff, why run about 

To the Lyceum and the Academy, . 

To the Odeum's gates, hunting in vain 

For all the sophista' nonsense 1 there's no good in it ; 

Let us drink, drink, I say. Sicon, Sicon ! 

Let us amuse ourselves ; while time allows us 

To gratify our souls. — Enjoy yourself. 

My good friend Manes-! nothing is worth more • 

To you than your own stomach. That's your father ; ' 

That only is your mother ; — as for virtues, 

And embassies, and military commands, 

They. are but noisy boasts, vain empty dreams. 

Fate at its destined hour will come to chill you ; 

Take all that you can get to eat and drink ; 

Pericles, Codrus, Cimon, are but dust. 

16. But it" would be better, says Chrysippus, if the lines 
inscribed on the tomb of Sardanapalus were altered thus — 

Knowing that thou art mortal, feed thy soul 

On wise discourse. There is no good in eating. 

For I am now no good, who once did eat 

AH thai I could, and sought all kinds of pleasure. 

Now what I thought and learnt and heard of wisdom i 

Is all I now have left ; my luxuries 

And all my joys have long deserted me. 

And Timon says, very beautifully, — 

Of all.bad things the chief is appetite. 

17. But Clearchus, in his essay on Proverbs, says that 
Terpsion was the tutor of Archestratus, who was also the 
first person who wrote a book on Gastronomy; and he says 
that he gave precepts to his pupils as to what they ought to 

a 18.] FISH. 533 

abstain from; and that Terpsion once extemporised the fol- 
lowing line about a turtle : — 

Eiit noT a turtle, or else leave it alone ; 
■which, however, others read — 

Eat now a turtle's flesh, or leave it alone. 
18. But whence is it, you wisest of men, that Dorion, 
who wrote a list of fish, has been mentioned as if he were the 
•writer of some Taluable history t — a fellow who, I know, has 
been named a musician and a fish-devourer, but certainly not 
a historian. Accordingly Machon, the comic poet, speais of 
■him as a musician, saying — 

Dorion the musician once did come 

To Mylon, all in vain ; for he could find 

Ko resting-place which he could hire at all ; 

So on some sacred ground he sat him down, 

Which was by chance before the city gates. 

And there he saw the keeper of the temple 

Prepare a sacrifice. — " I pray thee, tell me, 

In chaste Minerva's name, and all the gods'. 

What deity ia it that owns this temple 1 " 

The keeper thus replied : " This is, stranger. 

Of Jupiter-Neptune the sacred shrine." 

" How then," said Dorion, " could any man 

Expect to find a lodging in a place 

Which in one temple crowds a pair of gods ? " 
And Lynceus the Samian, the pupil of Theophrastus, and the 
Irother of Duris, who wrote the Histories, and made himself 
-tyrant of his country, writes thus in his Apophthegms — 
" When a man once said to Dorion the flute-player, that the 
ray was a good fish, he said — ' Yes, about as good as if a man 
were to eat a boiled cloak.' And once, when some one else 
praised the entrails of tunny-fiah, he said — ' You are quite 
right, but then a man must eat them as I eat them;' and 
when the man asked him how that was, he said — ' How? why 
willingly.' And he said that crawfish had three good quali- 
ties, — exercise, good food, and eorttemplation. And once, at 
Cyprus, when he was supping with Nicocreon, he praiged a 
goblet that there was there; and Nicocreon said — 'What- 
ever there is here that you fancy, the artist will make you 
another like it.' ' Let him make that,' he replied, 'for you ; 
but do you give me this one.' " And this was a clever speech 
of the flute-player; for there is an old saying that — 

Tis not that God denies a flutist sense. 

But when he comes to blow it flies away. 



19. And Hegesander, in his Commentaries, says this of 
him — " Dorion, the great fish-eater, once, when his slave had 
neglected to buy fish, scourged him, and ordered him to tell 
him the names of the best fish; and when the boy had 
counted up the orphus, and the sea-grayling, and the conger, 
and others of this sort, he said — ' I desired you to tell me the 
names of fishes, and not of gods.' " The same Dorion, ridi- 
culing the description of a tempest in the Nautilus of Timo- 
theus, said that he had seen a more formidable storm in a 
boiling saucepan. And Aristodemus, in the second book of 
his Memorials of Laughable Circumstances and Sayings, says 
— " Dorion the musician was club-footed ; and once, in some 
entertainment, he lost the slipper of his lame foot ; on which 
he said, ' I will not wish anything more to the thief than that 
the slipper may fit him.' " But that this Dorion was notorious 
for his epicurism in fish, is plain from what Mnesimachus" the 
comic poet says in his drama called PhUip — 

No, bat all night Dorion the dish-piper 
Does stay in-doors with us. 

20. I know, too, the sportive sayings which Lasus of Her- 
mione has uttered about fishes ; which Chamaelepn of Heraclea 
has recorded in writing, in his book on this very Lasus, where 
he says — " They say that Lasus called raw fish owros (which 
means roasted or visible) ; and when many people wondered 
why he did so, he thus began to prove what he had said; 
arguing thus ; ' As whatever a person can hear (oKoGcrai) is 
properly called aKovardv, and as whatever a person can under- 
stand by his intellect (I'orja-ai) is properly called vorjrov, so what- 
ever any one can see {mrrecrOat) is clearly otttov; as therefore 
it was possible to see the fish, he evidently was otitos.' And 
once, in a joke, he stole a fish from a fisherman, and having 
taken it, he gave it to one of the bystanders ; and when the 
fisherman put him to his oath, he swore that he had not got 
it himself, and that he had not seen any one else take it; 
because, in fact, he himself had taken it, but some one else 
had got it. And then he prompted the other man, on the 
other hand, to swear that he had not taken it himself, and that 
he was not acquainted with any one else who had it ; for, in 
fact, Lasus had taken it, and he himself had it." And Epi- 
charmus jests in the same way ; as, in his Logus and Logina, — 

c. 22.] nsH. 535 

A. Jupiter 'tis who did invite me, giving 
A feast (7" ifavai/) to Pelopa. 

B. 'Tis a sorry food, 
That crane [yipavos), to my mind. 

A. But I did not say 
A crane (ylpavov), but a feast (ipav6v yi), as you might well have heard. 

21. And Alexis, in his Demetrius, ridicules, in his comic 
manner, a man of the name of Phayllus, as very fond of fish, 
in these lines : — 

First of all, whether the wind blew north or south. 

As long as it blew hard, it was not possible 

For anybody to get fish to eat. 

But now, besides that pair of stormy winds, 

Wc ve a third tempest risen in Phayllus ; 

For when this last storm bursts upon the market. 

He buys n-p all the fish at all the stalls. 

And bears it off; so that we are reduced 

To squabble for the vegetables remaining. 

And Antiphanes, in his Female Fisher, enumerating some 
people as exceedingly fond of fish, says — 

Give me some cuttle-fish first. O Hercules ! 

They've dirtied every place with ink ; here, take them 

And throw them back again into the sea, 

To wash them clean : or else they'll say, Dorion, 

That you have caught some rotten cuttle-fish : 

And put this crawfish back beside the sprats. 

He's a fine fish, by Jove. mighty Jove, 

you Callimedon, who now will eat you ? 
No one who's not prepared to pay his share. 
I've giv'n you your place here on the right, 
You mullets, food of great Callisthenes ; 
Who eats his patrimony in one dish ; 
Next comes the mighty conger from Sinope, 

With his stout spines ; the firet who comes shall have him ; 

For Misgolas has no great love for such. 

But here's a citfaarus, and if be sees him 

He never will keep off bis hands from him ; 

For he, indeed, does secretly adhere 

As close as wax to all the harp-players (Ki0af)iu5(iis).] 

1 ought to send this best of fish, this tench. 
Still all alive, and leaping in his dish. 

To the fair Pythionica, he's so fine : 
But still she will not taste him, as her heart 
Is wholly set on cured fish. — Here I place 
These thin anchovies and this dainty turtle 
Apart for Theano, to counterbalance her. 

22. And it is a very clever way in which Antiphanes thus 
jested upon Misgolas, as devoting all his attention to beautiful 


harp-players and lyre-players; for jEscMnes the orator, in 
his speech against Timarchus, says this of him — " Misgolas, 
the son of Nauorates, of Colyttus, men of Athens^ is a man 
in other respects brave and virtuous, and no one can find any 
feult with him in any particular ; but he is known to be 
exceedingly devoted to this kind of business, and always to 
have about him some harp-players, and people who sing to 
the music of the harp. And I say this, not by way of dis- 
paraging him, but in order that you may be aware what sort 
of person he is." And Timocles, in his Sappho, says — 

Misgolas is not seen to enter in, 
Excited as he is by blooming youti. 

And Alexis, in his Agonis, or the Little Horse, says— 

O mother, do not threaten me, I pray. 
With Misgolas, for I am not a harp-player. 

1 23. But Antiphanes says tbat Pythionica is fond of cured 
fish, since she had for lovers the sons of Chserephilu^ the 
seller of salt-fish; as Timocles says, in his Icarians, — 

When that stout Anytus to Pythionica 

Does come, to eat with her ; for she invites him. 

As people say, ■whenever she does get 

IVo noble tunnies from Chserephilns ; 

So fond is she of all things that are large. 

And again he says — 

And Pythionica Trill receive you gladly. 
And very likely will devour the gifts 
Which you have lately here received from ns, 
!Por she's insatia1)le. Still do you 
. Bid her give you a bastet of cured Bsh ; 
VoT she has plenty ; and she has indeed 
A couple of saperdse ; ugly fish, 
lU salted, and broad nosed. 

And before this she had a lover whose name was Gobius. 

24. But with respect to Calhmedon, the son of Carabus, 
Timocles, in his Busybody, tells us that he was fond, of fish, 
and also that he squinted : — 

Then up .came Carabus Oallimedon, 

And looking on me, as it seem'd to me, 

He kept on speaking to some other man. 

And I, as it was likely, nnderstanding 

JSTo word of what they said, did only nod. 

But all the girls do keep on looking at him. 

While they pretend to turn their eyes away. 

c. 24.] FISH. 537 

And Alexis, in his Crateua, or the Apothecary, says — 
A . I am now, these last four days, taking care of 
Tliese Kipai for Callimedon. 

B. Had lie then 
Any K6fai (damsels) for daughters % 

A . I mean mpai. 
The pupils of the eyes ; which e'en Melampus, 
Who could alone appease the raging Prcetides, 
Would e"er be able to keep looking straight. 

And he ridicules him in a similar manner in the play entitled 
The Men running together. But he also jests on him for his 
epicurism as to fish, in the Phsedo, or Phsedria, where he 
says — 

A . Yon shall be sedile if the gods approve, 
That you may stop Callimedon descending 
Like any storm all day upon the fish. 

B. You speak of work for tyrants, not for aediles ; 
For the man's brave, and useful to the city. 

And the very same iambics are repeated in the play entitled 
Into the Well ; but, in his Woman who has taken Man- 
dragora, he says — 

If I love any ptrangers more than you, 
I'll willingly be tum'd into an eel, 
That Carabus Callimedon may buy me. 

And in his Crateua he says — 

And Carabus Callimedon with Orpheus. 

And Antiphanes says, in his Gorgythus, — 

'Twould harder be to make me change my mind 
Than to induce Callimedon to pass 
The head of a sea-grayling. 
And Eubulus, in his Persons saved, says — 
Others prostrating them before the gods, 
Are found wiih Carabus, who alone of men 
Can eat whole salt-fish out of boiling dishes 
So wholly as to leave no single mouthful. 

And Theophilus, in his Physician, ridiculing his coldness of 
expression, says — " And the slave put before the young man 
himself with great eagerness a little eel : his father had a 
fine cuttle-fish before him. ' Father,' says he, ' what do you 
think of your crawfish V ' It is cold,' says he; ' take it away, 
— I don't want to eat any orators.' " ' 

And when Philemon says, in his Canvasser, — 

' There is a punning allusion here to KipaPos,a crawfish, and to Cal- 
limedon's nickname, Carabus 


' Jlgyrrius, wlieii a crawfish was before him, 
On seeing Mm exelaim'd, Hail, dear papa ! 
Still what did he do t He ate his dear papa ! 

And Herodicus the Cratetian, commenting on this in his Mis- 
cellaneous Commentaries, says that Agyirius was the name 
of the son of CaUimedon. 

25. The following people, too, have all been great epicures 
About fish. Antagoras the poet would not allow his slave ta 
touch his fish with oil, but made him wash it ; as Hegesander 
teUs us. And when in the army, he was once boiling a dish 
of congers, and had his clothes girt round him, Antigonus the 
king, who was standing by, said, " TeU me, Antagoras, do you 
think that Homer, who celebrated the exploits of Agamem- 
non, ever boiled congers 1 " And it is said that he answered, 
not without wit, " And do you think that Agamemnon, who 
performed those exploits, ever busied himself about inquiring 
who was cooking congers in his army?" A'^'i once, when 
Antagoras was cooking a bird of some kind, he said that he 
would not go to the bath, because he was afraid that the slaves 
might come and suck up the gravy. And when Philooydes 
said that his mother would take care of that, " Shall I," said 
he, " entrust the gravy of" game to my mother 1 " And An- 
<irooydes of Cyziciis, the painter, being very fond of fish, as 
Polemo relates, carried his luxury to such a pitch that he even 
painted with great care the fish which are around Soylla. 

26. But concerning Philoxenus of Cythera, the dithyram- 
bio poet, Machon the comic poet writes thus ; — ' 

They say Philoxenus, the ancient poet 
Of dithyrambics, was so wonderfully 
Attach' d to fish, that once at Syracuse 
He bought a polypus two cubits long. 
Then dress'd it, and then ate it up himself, 
All but the head — and afterwards fell sick. 
Seized with a sharp attack of indigestion. 
Then when some doctor came to him to see him. 
Who saw that he Vas greatly out of order ; 
" If," said the doctor, " you have any business 
!N"Gt well arranged, do not delay to settle it, 
For you will die before six hours are over." 
Philoxenus replied, " All my afifairs, 

doctors are well ended and arranged. 
Long, long ago. By favour of the gods, 

1 leave my dithyrambics all full-grown, 
And crown'd with many a prize of victory ; 

0. 27.] HTPBEIDES. 539 

And I commit them to the guardianship 
Of my dear foster-sist«rs, the Nine Muses, 
And join to them both Bacchus and fair Venus. 
This is my mil. But now, since Charon gives 
No time, but, as in the Niobe of Timotheus, ■ 
Keeps crying out, ' Now cross ;' and deadly fete 
Calls me away, who can't be disobey'd, 
That I may go below with all my goods, 
Bring me the relies of that polypus." 

And in another part he says — 

Fhiloxenus of Cythera, as men say. 

Wished that he had a throat three cubits long ; 

" That I might drink," said he, " as long as possible. 

And that my food may all at once delight me." 

And Diogenes the Cynic, having eaten a polypus raw, died of 
a swelling in the belly. But concerning Philoxenus, Sopater 
the parodist also speaks, saying — 

For, between two rich courses of fine fish. 

He pleased himself by looking down the centre 

Of Etna's crater. 

27. And Hyperides the orator was an epicure in fish ; as 
Timodes the comic writer tells us, in his Delos, where he 
enumerates all the people who had taken bribes from Harpa- 
lus : and he writes thus — 

A. Demosthenes has half-a-hundred talents. 
£. A lucky man, if no one shares with him. 
A. And Moerocles has got a mighty sum. 
S. He was a fool who gave them ; lucky he 
Who got them. 

A . Demon and Callisthenes 
Have also got large sums. 

B. Well, they were poor. 
So that we well may pardon them for taking them. 

A. And that great orator Hyperides. 

B. Why, he will all our fishmongers enrich ; 
An epicure ! Gulls are mere Syrians, 
Compared to him. 

And in the Icarians, the same poet says — 
Then cross Hyperides, that fishy river, 
Which with a gentle sound, bubbling with boasts 
Of prudent speeches, with mild repetitions 
• • • • • 

And hired, bedews the plain of him who gave it. 
And Philetserus, in his iEsculapius, says that Hyperides, be- 
sides being a glutton, was also a gambler. As also Axionicus, 
in his Lover of Euripides, says that Callias the orator was ; 


and his words are — " A man of the name of Glaucus came 
to this place, bringing from Pontus a kind of shark, a fish of 
extraordinary magnitude,— a great dainty for epicures in fish, 
and, in fact, for all men who are devoted to the pleasures of 
the table. And he brought it on his shoulders, and said, 
' Whom shall I instruct how to dress it, and how shall it be 
dressed ? Will you have it soaked in a sauce of green herbs, 
or shall I baste its body with basting of warm brine, and theu 
dress it on a fierce fire ?' And a man named Moschio, a great 
flute-player, cried out that he should like to eat it boiled in 
warm pickle-juice. And this was meant as a reproof for 
you, Calaides ! for you are very fond of figs and cured fish; 
and yet you will not taste a most exquisite fish which you 
have served up to you in pickle." Eeproaching him with 
the figs as if he were a sycophant; and perhaps concealing 
under the mention of the cured fish, some intimation of his 
having been implicated in discreditable conduct. And Her- 
mippus says, in the third book of his treatise on the Pupils 
of Isocrates, that Hyperides was in the habit of taking a 
walk, the first thing in the morning, in the fish-market. 

28. And Timseus of Tauromenium says that Aristotle the 
philosopher was a great epicure in respect of fish. Matron 
the sophist, also, was a great fish-eater : and Antiphanes, in 
his Harp-player, intimates this ; for that play begins thus — 

He telLs no lie ... . 

A man dug out his eye, as Matron does 

Tlie eyes of fisli when he comes near to them. 

And Anaxilas says, in his Morose Man, — 

Matron has carried off and eaten up 

A cestris' head ; and I am quite undone. 

It being the very extravagance of gluttony to carry a thing off 
while eating it, and Such a thing too as the head of a cestris ; 
unless, perhaps, you may suppose, that those who are skilful 
in such things are aware of there being some particular good 
qualities in the head of a cestris ; and if so, it belonged to 
Archestratus's gluttony to explain that to us. 

29. But Antiphanes, in his Eich Man, gives us a catalogue 
of epicures, in the following lines : — 

Euthymus too was tliere, with sandals on, 
A ring upon his finger, well perfumed, 
Silently pondering on I know not what. 

^- 3®- J EPICUEES. 541 

Phcenicidea too, and my friend Taureas, 
Such great inveterate epicures that they 
Would swallow all the remnants in the market; 
They at this sight seem'd almot like to die, 
And bore the scarcity with small good humour ; 

But gather'd crowds and made this speech to them : 

" What an intolerable ihing it is 
That any of you men should claim the sea. 
And spend much money in marine pursuits. 
While not one tin offish comes to this market ! 
What is the use of all our governors 
Who sway the islands? We must make a law 
That there should be copious importation 
Of every kind of fish. But Matron now 
Has carried off the fishermen ; and then 
There's Diogeiton, who, by Jove, has brought 
The hucksters over to keep back for him 
All the best fish ; and he's not popular 
For doing this, for there is mighty waste 
In marriage feasts and youthful luxury." 

But Euphron, in his Mioses, says, — 

But when at some fine banquet of young men 

Phcenieides perceived a smoking dish 

Full of the sons of Nereus, he held back 

His hands, with rage excited. Thus he spoke : — 

" Who boasts himself a clever parasite 

At eating at the public cost ? who thinks 

To filch the dainty dishes from the middle ] 

Where's Corjdus, or Phyromachus, or Nillus V 

Let them come here, they shall get nought of this." 

30. But Melanthus the tragic poet was a person of the 
same sort; and he also wrote elegies. But Leucon, in his 
Men of the same Tribe, cuts his jokes upon him in the fashion 
of the comic writers, on account of his gluttony ; and so does 
Aristophanes in the Peace, and Pherecrates in his Petale. But 
Archippus, in his play called The Fishes, having put him in 
chains as an epicure, gives him up to the fishes, to be eaten 
by them in retaliation. And, indeed, even Aristippus, the 
pupU of Socrates, was a great epicure, — a man who was once 
reproached by Plato for his gluttony, as Sotion and Hege- 
sander relate. And the Delphian wi-ites thus : — " Aristippus, 
when Plato reproached him for having bought a number of 
■Rth, said that he had bought them for two obols; and when 
Plato said, ' I myself would have bought them at that price,' 
' You see, then,' said he, ' Plato ! that it is not I who am 
trn epicure, but you who are a miser.' " And Antiphanes, in 


his Female Flute-player, or the Female Twins, laughing at a 
man named Phoinicides for his gluttony, says — 

Henelaus warr'd for ten whole years againBt 

The Trojan nation for one lovely woman. 

Phoinicides, too, attacks Taureas 

For one fine eel. 

31. But Demosthenes the orator reproaches Pherecrates, 
because, with the gold which he received for his treason, he 
bought himself courtesans and fish, and charges him with 
debauchery an(i gluttony. But Diodes the epicure, as Heges- 
ander says, when a man once asked him which of the two fish 
was the best, the conger or the pike, said — "The one when it 
is boiled, and the other when it is roasted." And Leonteus 
the Argive also was an epicure : he was a tragedian, and a 
pupil of Athenion, and a slave of Juba, king of Mauritania; 
as Amarantus relates, in his treatise on the Stage, saying that 
Juba wrote this epigram on him, because he had acted the 
character of Hypsipyle very badly : — 

If you should wish to see the genius 
Of that devoted artichoke-devourer 
Leonteus the tragedian, don't regard 
The sorrow-stricken heart of Hypsipyle. 
I once was dear to Bacchus, and his taste 
Is ne'er perverted by base bribes t' approve 
Untuneful sounds. But now the pots and pans. 
And well-fiU'd dishes have destroyed my voice. 
While I've been anxious to indulge my stomach. 

32. And Hegesander tells us that Phoryscus, the fish-eater, 
once, when he was not able to take exactly as much fish as he 
wished, but when a greater part of it was following his hand, 
as =he was helping himself, said, — 

But what resists is utterly destroy'd, 
and so ate up the whole fish. And Bion, when some one 
had been beforehand with him, and had already taken thfe 
upper part of the fish, having turned if round himself, and 
eating abimdantly of it, said, after he had done, — 

But Ino finish'd aU the rest o' the business. 
And Theocritus the Chian, when the wife of Diodes the 
epicure died, and when the widowed husband, while making' 
a funeral feast for her, kept on eating delicacies and crying all 
the time, said — " Stop crying, you wretched man ; for you 
will not remedy your grief by eating all that fish." And when 

0. 33.] EPicuEES. 543 

the same Diodes had also eaten up his land through gluttony, 
and was one day, while bolting down some hot fish, complain- 
ing that his palate (oupavos) was burnt, Theocritus, who waa i 
present, said to him — " Then it only remains for you to drink 
up the sea, and then you wiU have got rid of the three 
greatest things in the world, — earth, and sea, and heaven 
(ovpavo?)." And Clearchus, in his Lives, describing some 
person who was fond of fish, says — " Technon, one of the old 
flute-players, when Charmus the flute-player died, (and he, 
too, was very fond of fish,) sacrificed to the dead man a large 
dish of every sort of fish on his tomb." Alexis the poet, also, 
was a great epicure in fish, as Lynceus the Samian tells us ; 
and being once ridiculed by some chattering fellows on 
account of his epicurism, when they asked him what he hked 
most to eat, Alexis said, " Roasted chatterers." 

33. Hermippus mentions also Nothippus the tragic poet, 
in his Tales, tiius — 

Bot if such a race of men 

Were to wage a present Tear 
With those who now exist on earth, 

And if a roast ray led them on, 
Or a fine aide of well-fed pork, 

The rest might safely stay at home. 
And trust Nothippus by himself. 

For he alone would swallow up 
The whole Peloponnesus : — 

and that the man meant here was the poet, Teleclides shows 
plainly, in his Hesiods. 

Myniscus, the tragic actor, is ridiculed by Plato, the comic 
writer, in his Syrphax, as an epicure in respect of fish; where 
he says — 

■ A. Here is an Anagyiasian orphns for you, 

Which e'en my friend Myniscus the Chalcidean 
Could hardly finish. 

B. Much obliged to you. 

And for a similar reason, CaUias, in his Pedetse, and Lysippus, 
in his Bacchse, ridicule Lampon the soothsayer. But Crati- 
nus, in his Female Eunaways, speaking of him, says — " Lam- 
pon, whom nothing which men said of him could keep away 
from any banquet of his friends;" and adds, " But now agairu 
he is belching away ; for he devours everything which he can 
see, and he would fight even for a mullet." 


34. And Hedylus, in his Epigrams, giving a list of epicures 
in fish, mentions a man named Phsedo, in these lines : — 
Bat Phsedo, that great harpist, praises phyces. 
And sausages, he's such an epicure. 

And he mentions Agisoto, in these lines : — 
The fish is boil'd, now firmly bar the doors, 

Lest Agis, Proteus of the dishes, enter j 
For he'll be fire, water, — what he likes ; 

But bar the door 

For he, transfonn'd, like Jupiter, to gold 

Will hasten to this rich Acrisian dish. 

He also speaks of a woman named Clio, on a similar account, 

Clio's an epicure. Tjet's shut our eyes. 

I beg you, Clio, by yourself to feed. 
This conger costs a drachma ; leave a pledge, 

A band, an earring, or some ornament. 
But we cannot endure the sight of you ; 

You're our Medusa ; and we're turn'd to stone. 
Not by the Gorgon, but by that whole conger. 

35. And Aristodemus, in his Catalogue of Laughable Say- 
ings, says that Euphranor the epicure, having heard that 
another epicure in fish was dead from having eaten a hot slice 
offish, cried out, "What a sacrilegious death !" And Cindon 
the fish-eater, and Demylus (and he also was an epicure in 
fish), when a sea-grayling was set before them, and nothing 
else, the former took one eye of the fish, and then Demylus 
seized hold of Cindon's eye, crying, " Let his eye go, and I 
will let your's go." And once at a feast, when a fine dish of 
fish was served up, Demylus, not being able to contrive any 
way by which he might get the whole of it to himseK, spat 
upon it. And Zeno the Cittisean, the founder of the Stoic 
school, when he had lived a long time with a great epicure in 
fish, (as Antigonus the Carystian tells us, in his life of Zeno,) 
once, when a very large fish was by chance served up t6 them, 
and when no other food was provided, took the whole fish firom 
the platter, pretending to be about to eat it all himself; and, 
when the other looked at him, said — " What do you think, 
then, that those who live with you must suffer every day, if 
you cannot endure my being a glutton for a single day ? " 
And Ister says that Choerilus the poet used to receive four 
mina) every day from Archelaus, and that he spent them all 
on fish, of which he was so exceedingly foud. 

c. 36.] 


I am aware, also, that there have been boys who were- great 
fish-eaters, who are mentioned by Clearchus, in his book on 
Sands; which says that Psammitichus, king of Egypt, bred up 
some boys to eat nothing but fish, when he was anxious to 
discover the source of the Nile; and that he accustomed 
others to endure a gi-eat degree of thirst, who were to be 
employed in exploring the sands in Libya; of whom, how- 
ever, very few escaped in safety. I know, too, that the oxen 
around Mosynus, in Thrace, eat fish, which are given to them 
m their cribs. And Phoenicides, having set fish before men 
who had brought their contribution for a banquet, said that 
the sea was common, but that the fish in it belonged to those 
who bought them. 

36. And, my friends, the noun oYoiJiayos (an eater offish), 
and the verb 6\po<l>dy<a (to eat fish), are both used. Aristo- 
phanes, in his second edition of the Clouds, says — 

Not to eat fish (iifioipiyeiv) nor to giggle. 
And Cephisodorus, in his Pig, says — 

Not a fish-eater (ifoijxiyos) nor a chatterer. 
Machon, in his Letter, says — 

I am a fish-eater (mlioipiyos), and this is now 
The whole foundation of the art we practise. 
And he who wishes not to spoil the dishes 
Served up to others, should be pleased himself. 
For he who rightly cares for his own eating 
Will not be a bad cook. And if you keep 
Your organs, sense and taste, in proper order, 
You will not err. But often taste your dishes 
While you are boiling them. Do they want salt? 
Add some; — is any other seasoning needed? 
Add it, and taste again — till you've arrived 
At harmony of flavour ; like a man 
Who tunes a Ijto till it rightly sounds. 
And then, when cveiything is well in tune. 
Bring in a troop of willing damsels fair, 
Eqnal in number to the banqueters. 
In addition to these epicures in fish, my friends, I am aware 
also that Apollo is honoured among the Eleans, under the 
title of Fish-eater : and Polemo mentions this name of his in 
his letter to Attains. I am aware, also, that in Pisa there is 
a picture consecrated in the temple of Diana Alpheosa (and 
it is the work of Cleanthes the Corinthian), in which Neptune 
is represented as bringing a tunny to Jupiter in labour ; as 
Demetrius tells us, in the eighth book of his Trojan Array. 

ATH. — ^VOL. II. N N 


37. These, then, are the things, said Democritus, which I 
myself have brought in the way of my contribution, not 
going to eat fish, myself, for the sake of my excellent friend 
Ulpian; who, on account of the national customs of the 
Syrians, has deprived us of our fish, continually bringing 
forward one thing after another. And Antipater of Tarsus, 
the Stoic philosopher, in the fourth book of his treatise on 
Superstition, teUs us that it is said by some people that 
Gatis, the queen of the Syrians, was so exceedingly fond of 
fish, that she issued a proclamation that no one should 
eat fisb without Gatis being invited (ra-ep PaTiSos) ; and that 
the common people, out of ignorance, thought her name was 
Atergatis, and abstained wholly from fish. And Mnaseus, in 

■ the second book of his History of Asia, speaks thus — " But 
I think that Atergatis was a very bad queen, and that she 
ruled the people with great harshness, so that she even forbad 
them by law to eat fish, and ordered them to bring all the 
fish to her, because she was so fond of that food; and, on 
account of this -order of hers, a custom still prevails, when 
the Syrians pray to the goddess, to offer her golden or silver 
fish; and for the priests every day to place on the table 
before the god real fish also, carefully dressed, both boiled 
and roasted, which the priests of the goddess eat themselves." 
And a little further on, he says again — " But Atergatis (as 
Xanthus the Lydian says); being taken prisoner by Mopsus, 
king of Lydia, was drowned with her son in the lake near 
Ascalon, because of her insolence, and was eaten up by fishes." 

38. And you, perhaps, my Mends, have willingly passed by 
(as if it were some sacred fish) the fish mentioned by Ephip- 
pus the comic poet, which he says was dressed for Geryon, in 
his play called Geryon. The lines are these : — 

A. When the natives of the land 
Cateh a fish which, is not common, 
But fine, as large as the wtole isle 
Of Crete, he furnishes a dish 
Ahle to hold a hnndred such ; 
And orders all who live around, 
Sindi, and Lycians, and Paphians, 
Cranai, and Mygdoniotae, 
To cut down wood, becaiise the ting' 
Is boiling this enTO-mous fish. 
So then they bring a load of wood, 
EuQuglj to go all. round the city, 

c 39.] ■ EPICURES. 547 

And light the fire. Then they bring 
A lake of water to make brine, 
And for eight months a hundred carts 
Are hard at work to carry salt. 
And around the dish's edge 
Five fiye-oar'd boats keep always rowing ; 
And bid the slaves take care the fire 
Bums not the Lyeian magistrates. 
£. Cease to blow this cold air on us. 
King of Macedon, extinguish 
The Celts, and do not bum them more. 

But I am not ignorant that Ephippus has said the very same 
thing in his play called the Peltast ; in which the following lines 
also are subjoined to those which I have just quoted : — 

Talking all this nonsense, he 

Raises the wonder of the youths 

With whom he feasts, though knowing not 

The simplest sums and plainest iigures ; 

But drags his cloak along the ground 

With a most lordly, pompous air. 
But, with reference to whom it is that Ephippus said this, it 
is now proper for you to inquire, my good friend Ulpian, and 
then to tell us ; and in this inquiry — 

If you find aught hard and inexplicable, 

Repeat it OTer, understand it clearly, — 

For I have much more leisure than I like ; 
as Prometheus says in ^schylus. 

39. And on this Cynulcus exclaimed : — And what great 
subject of inquiry, — I do not say great fish, — can this fellow 
admit into his mind 1—a, man who is always picking out the 
spines of hepseti and atherinse, and even of worse fish than 
these, if there be any such, passing over all finer fish. 
For, as Eubulus says, in the Ixion, — 

As if a man at a luxurious feast, 

When cheese-cakes are before him, chooses nought 

But anise, parsley, and such silly fare, 

And ill-dress'd cardamums .... 
so, too, this Pot-friend, Ulpian, — to use a word of my 
fellow-Megalopolitan, Cercidas, — appears to me to eat nothing 
that a man ought to eat, but to watch those who are eating, 
to see if they have passed over any spine or any callous or 
gristly morsel of the meat set before them ; never once eon- 
sidering what the admirable and brilliant .lEschylus has said, 
who called his tragedies, "Kelics of the noble banquets of 
Homer." But ^schylus was one of the greatest of philoso- 
phers, — a man who, being once defeated undeservedly, as 

N N 2 


Theophrastus or Chamseleon (whichever was really the author 
of the book), in his treatise on Pleasure, has related, said that 
he committed his tragedies to time, well knowing that he 
should hereafter receive the honour due to him. 

40. But whence could Ulpian know what Stratonicus the 
harp-player said about Propis the Rhodian harp-player? For 
Clearchus, in his book on Proverbs, says that Stratonicus, 
when he had seen Propis, who was a man of great size, but a 
very inferior artist, with a mind much less than his body, 
said to some one who asked him what sort of player he was, 

OvSeU Kaxds /Uyas IxBls' 

speaking enigmatically, and saying, first of all, that he is 
ovSets, no one, or good for nothing ; secondly, that he is kkkos, 
bad; and, in addition to this, that he is /*eyas, great; and, 
lastly, ix^us, a fish, as having no voice. But Theophrastus, in 
his book on The Laughable, says that this was a proverb origi- 
nating with Stratonicus, but applied to Simmychas the actor; 
for that he uttered the proverb, dividing the words distinctly — 

Meyos ouSels travpAs txflw. 
And Aristotle, in his Constitution of the Naxians, speaks thus 
of this proverb — " Of the rich men among the Naxians, the 
greater part lived in the city, but the remainder lived scat- 
tered about in the villages. Accordingly, in one of these vil- 
lages, the name of which was Lestadse, Telestagoras lived, a 
man of great riches and of very high reputation, and greatly 
honoiured by the people in other respects, and also with daily 
presents which they used to send him. And whenever people 
from the city, going down to the market, wanted to drive a 
hard bargain for anything they wished to purchase, the sellers 
would say that they would rather give it to Telestagoras than 
sell it for such a price as was ofiered. So some young men, 
buying a large fish, when the fisherman made this speech, 
being annoyed at hearing this so often, having already drunk 
a good deal, went to his house to sup ; and Telestagoras 
received them in a very friendly and hospitable manner, but 
the young men insulted him, and his two marriageable 
daughters. At which the Naxians were very indignant, and 
took up arms and attacked the young men ; and there was a 
great sedition, Lygdamis being the leader of the Naxians, 
who, having got the chief command in this sedition, became 
the tyrant of his country," 

•il. And I do not think it unseasonable myself, since I 


have mentioned the harp-player Stratonicus, to say some- 
thing also concerning his readiness in repartee. For when ho 
was teaching people to play the harp, and as he had in his 
school nine statues of the nine Muses, and one of Apollo, and 
had also two pupils, when some one asked him how many 
pupils he had, he said, " Gods and all, twelve." And once 
when he had travelled to Mylassa, and saw there a great 
number of temples, but very few citizens, standing in the 
middle of the forum, he cried out — 

*AKotIeT6 vaoL^ 

And Macho has recorded some memorials of him in these 

lines : — 

Once Stratonicus travell'd down to Pella, 

And having heard from many men before 

That the baths of that city were alccustom'd 

To give the bathers spleen ; and finding, too, 

That many of the youths did exercise 

Before the fire, who preserved their colour 

And vigour of their body unimpair'd ; 

He said that those who told him so were wrong. 

But finding afterwards, when he left the bath, 

A man whose spleen was twice his belly's size, — 

" This man," said he, " appears to me here now 

To sit and keep the garments of the men 

Who go to bathe, and all their spleens beside, 

That all the people may have room enough." 

A miserable singer once did give 

A feast to Stratonicus and his friends. 

And, while the cup was freely going round. 

Exhibited his art to all the company. 

And as the feast was rich and liberal,' 

Poor Stratonicus, wearied with the song. 

And having no one near him he could speak to, 

Knock'd down his cup, and asked for a larger. 

And when he'd drunk full many a draught, he mada 

A last libation to the glorious sun. 

And then composed himself to sleep, and left 

The rest to fortune. Presently more guests 

Came, as good luck would have it, to the singer. 

To feast with him ; still Stratonicus slept, 

Heavy with wine ; and when they ask'd him why 

A man so much accustom'd to drink wine 

Had been so soon o'ercome by drink this day, 

" This treacherous, cursed singing man," said he, 

" Treated me like a bullock in a stall ; 

For first he fed me up, and then he kill'd me." 

■» This was a parody on the first words of the crier's usual proclami- 
ion, — 'AKoiere \ao\, — Hear, people. Nool means temples. 

5-5 0: THE DEIPN0S0PHI6TS. [B., VIII.> 

Once Stratonieus to Abdera went,'' 
To see some games which there were celebrated ; 
And seeing every separate citizen 
Having a private crier to himself. 
And each of them proclaiming a new moon 
Whene'er he pleased, so that the criers were 
Quite out of all proportion to the citizens, 
He walk'd about on tiptoes through the city. 
Looking intently on the ground beneath. 
And when some stranger ask'd him what had happen'd 
To his feet, to make him look so gravely at them : — 
He said, " I'm very well all over, friend. 
And can run faster to an entertainment 
Than any parasite ; but I'm in fear 
Lest I should tread by hazard on gome Krjpv^,'' 
And pierce my foot with its spikes and lame myself." 

Once, wheii a wretched flute-player was preparing 
To play the flute at a sacred festival, 
" Let us have only sounds of omen good," 
Said Stratonieus ; "lit ua pour libations 
And pray devoutly to the mighty gods." 

There was a harper, and his name was Cleon, 
But he was nick-named Ox ; he sang most vilely 
Without th' accompaniment of the lyre. 
When Stratonieus heard him, then he said, 
" I've often heard of asses at the lyre, 
But now I see an ox in the same case." 

The harper Stratonieus once had sail'd 
To Pontus, to see king Berisades. 
And when he'd staid in Pontus long enough. 
He thought he would return again to Greece. 
But when the king refused to let him go. 
They say that Stratonieus said to him — 
" Why, do you mean to stay here long- yourself 2" 

The harper Stratonieus once waS^taying 
Some time at Corinth ; when an aged woman 
One day stood looking at him a long time. 
And would not take her eyes off: then said he, 
" Tell me, I pray you, in God's name, good mother, 
What is't you wish, and why you look thus on me V 
" I marvell'd," said she, " how 'twas your mother 
Held you nine months, without her belly bursting. 
While this town can't endure you one whole day." 

Fair Biothea, Nicotlieon's wife. 
Once at a party with a handmaid fair 
Made some strange noise ; and after that, by chance, 
She trod upon a Sicyonian almond. 
Then Stratonieus said, " The noise is different." 
But when night came, for this heedless word. 
He wash'd out his free-speaking in the sea. 

} Kripv^ means, not only a crier, but also a prickly instrument 'of 

C. 42.] BTEATONICUS. 551 

Once, when at Ephesus, as rumour goes, 
A stupid harper was exhibiting 
One of his pupils to a band of friends ; 
Stratonicus, who by chance was present, said, 
" He cannot make himself a harp-player. 
And yet he tries to teach the art to others." 

42. And Clearclius. m the second book of his treatise on 
Friendship, says, — " Stratonicus the hai'p-player, whenever he 
wished to go to sleep, used to order a slave to bring him 
something to drink ; ' not,' says he, ' because I am thiraty now, 
but that I may not be presently.' " And once, at Byzantium, 
when a harp-player had played his prelude well, but had 
made a blunder of the rest of the performance, he got up and 
made proclamation, '• That whoever would point out the 
harp-player who had played the prelude should receive a thou- 
sand drachmse." And when he was once asked by some one 
who were the wickedest people, he said, " That in Pamphyha, 
the people of Phaselis were the worst ; but that the Sidetse 
were the worst in the whole world." Aud when he was asked 
again, according to the account given by Hegesander, which 
were the greatest barbarians, the Boeotians or the Thessalians, 
he said, " The Eleans." And once he erected a trophy in his 
school, and put this inscription on it — " Over the bad harp- 
players." And once, being asked by some one which was 
the safer kind of vessel, the long one or the round one, — 
" Those," quoth he, " are the safest which are in dock." And 
once he made a display of his art at Ehodes, and no one 
applauded; on which he left the theatre, and when he had 
got into the air he said, " When you fail to give what costs 
you nothing, how can I expect any solid pay from you?" 
" Let the Eleans," said he, " celebrate gymnastic contests, and 
let the Corinthians establish choral, and the Athenians thea^ 
trical exhibitions ; and if any one of them does anything 
wrong, let the Lacedaemonians be scourged," — jesting upon 
the pubhc scourgings exhibited in that city, as Charicles 
relates, in the first book of his treatise on the City Contests. 
And when Ptolemy the king was talking with him in an 
ambitious kind of way about harp-playing, " The sceptre," 
said he, "Oking, is one thing, and the plectrum another;" 
as Capito the epic poet says in the fourth book of his 
Commentaries addressed to PhUopappus. And once being 
invited to hear a flute-player, after he had heard him^ 
he said — 


, The father granted half his prayer, 
The other half denied. 

And when some one asked him which half he granted, he 
said, " He granted to him to play very badly, and denied him 
the ability to sing well." And once, when a beam fell down 
and slew some wicked man, " Men," said he, " I think (8ok£) 
there are gods ; and if not, there are beams (SoKot)." 

43. Also, after the before-mentioned witticisms of Strato- 
nicus, he put down besides a list of these things following. 

Stratonicus said once to the father of Chrysogonus, when 
he was saying that he had everything at home in great abun- 
dance, for that he himself had undertaken the works, and 
that of his sons, one could teach' and another play the flute; 
" You still," said Stratonicus, " want one thing." And when 
the other asked him what that was, " You want," said he, " a 
theatre in yom- house." And when some one asked him why 
he kept travelling over the whole of Greece, and did not 
remain in one city, he said — " That he had received from the 
Muses all the Greeks as his wages, from whom he was to levy 
a tax to atone for their ignorance." And he said that Phaon 
did not play harmony,'' but Cadmus. And when Phaon pre- 
tended to great skill on the flute, and said that he had a 
chorus at Megara, "You are joking," said he; "for you do 
not possess anything there, but you are possessed yourself" 
And he said — " That he marvelled above all things at the 
mother of Satyrus the Sophist, because she had borne for 
nine months a man whom no city in all Greece could bear for 
nine days." And once, hearing that he had arrived in Ilium 
at the time of the Ilian games, " There are," said he, " always 
troubles in Ilium." And when Minnacus was disputing with 
him about music, he said — " That he was not attending to 
what he said, because he had got in above his ankles." At 
another time he said of a bad physician — " That he made 
those who were attended by him go to the shades below the 
very day they came to him." And having met one of his 
acquaintances, when he saw his sandals carefully sponged, he 
pitied him as being badly off) pretending to think that he 
would never have had his sandals so well sponged if he 
had not sponged them himself And as it was a very mixed 

' There is meant here to be a pun on StSoir/cM, which means "to 
teach," and also " to exhibit a play." 
' There ia an allusion here to Harmonia the wife of Cadmus. 

C. 44.] STEATONICUS. 5-33 

race of people who lived at Teichius, a town in the Milesian, 
territory, when he saw that all the tomhs about were tliose of 
foreigners, "Let us begone, boy," said he; " fov all the 
strangers, as it seems, die here, and none of the citizens." And 
when Zethus the harper was giving a lecture upon music, 
he said that he was the only person who was utterly unfit to 
discuss the subject of music, inasmuch as he had chosen the 
most unmusical of all names, and called himself Zethus ' in- 
stead of Amphion. And once, when he was teaching some 
Macedonian to play on the harp, being angry that he did 
nothing as he ought, he said, "Go to Macedonia." 

44. And when he saw the shrine of some hero splendidly 
adorned, close to a cold and worthless bathing-house, when 
he came out, having had a very bad bath, " I do not wonder," 
said he, " that many tablets are dedicated here ; for every 
one of the bathers naturally offers one, as having been saved 
from drowning." And at another time he said — " In jEnus 
there are eight months of cold and four of winter." At 
another time he said, " that the people of Pontus had come 
out of a great sea" — as though he had said (great) trouble. 
And he called the Rhodians White Cyrenseans, and the city 
he called the City of Suitors; and Heraclea he caUed the Man- 
Corinth; and Byzantium he called the Arm-pit of Greece; 
and the Leucadians were Stale Corinthians; and the Ambra- 
ciotes he called Membraciotes. And when he had gone out 
of the gates of Heraclea, and was looking round him, when 
some one asked him what he was looking at, he said that 
" he was ashamed of being seen, as if he were coming out of 
a brothel." And once, seeing two men bound in the stocks, 
he said — " This is suited to the disposition of a very insig- 
nificant city, not to be able to fill such a place as this." And 
once he said to a man who professed to be a musician, but 
who had been a gardener before, and who was disputing with 
him about harmony, — 

Let each man sing the art in which he's skiU'd. 
And once at Maronea, when he was drinking with some 
people, he said, — " That he could tell in what part of the 
city he was, if men led him through it blindfold; " and then 
when they did so lead him, and asked him where he was, 
" Near the eating-house," said he, because all Maronea seemed 

» Zethus was the name of the brother of Amphion. 


a mere eating-lioiise. And once, when lie was sitting next to 
Telephanes, and he was beginning to blow the flute, he said, 
'^ Higher, like men who belch." And when the bathing-man 
in Cardia brought him some bad earth and salt water to 
cleanse himself with, he said that he was being besieged both 
by land and sea. 

45. And when he had conquered his competitors at Sicyoa, 
he set up a trophy in the temple of JEsculapius, and wrote 
upon it, " Stratonicus, conqueror of those who played badly 
on the harp." And when some one had sung, he asked what 
tune he had been singing; and when he said that it was 
an air of Carcinus,' " More like that," said he, " than the 
air of a man." He also said, on another occasion, that there 
was no spring at Maronea, only heat. And once at Phaselis, 
when the bathing-man was wrangling with his boy about 
the money, (for the law was that foreigners should pay 
more for bathing than natives,) "Oh, you wretched boy!" 
said he, " you have almost made me a citizen of Phaselis, to 
save a halfpenny." And once, when a person was praising 
him in hopes to get something by it, he said, " that he him- 
self was a greater beggar." And once, when he was teaching 
in a small town, he said, " This is not a city (ttoXis), but hardly 
one (jnoAts)." And once, when he was at PeUa, he came to 
a well, and asked whether it was fit to drink ; and when those 
who were drawing water from it said, " At all events we drink 
it;" " Then," said he, " I am sure it is not fit to drink :" for 
the men happened to be very sallow-looking. And when he 
had heard the poem of Timotheus, on the subject of Semele 
in Labour, he said, " But if she had brought forth an artisan, 
and not a god, what sounds would she have uttered!" 

And when Polyidas was giving himself airs, because his 
pupil Philotas had beaten Timotheus, he said, " That he won- 
dered at his being so ignorant as not to know that he makes 
decrees, and Timotheus laws." And he said to Areus the 
harp-player, who was annoying him, "Play to the crows." ^ 
And once he was at Sioyon, when a leather-dresser was abus- 
ing him, and he said to the leather-dresser (votKoSei/^i/s), " you 
KaKoSaiftov vaKoSat/Aov." And Stratonicus himself, beholding 
the Rhodians dissolved in luxury, and drinking only warm 
dirinks, said, "that there were white Cyrenaeans." And he 

' KopKiKor is also (Greek for a crab. 

^ '9iiK^.' h K6paKas, parodying the common execration, Bi^AA' esKopMos; 

C. '17.] ARISTOTLE. 555 

called Rhodes itself the City of the Suitors,' thinking that they 
■were in no respect different fi-om the Cyreucoans in debaucherj', 
but only in complexion ; and also because of the devotion to 
pleasure of the inhabitants, he compared Ehodes itself to the 
city of the Suitors. 

46. And Stratonicus was, in all these elaborate witticisms, 
an imitator of Simonides the poet, as Ephorus tells us in the 
second book of his treatise on Inventions; who says that 
Philoxenus of Cythera was also a great studier of the same 
pursuit. And Phtenias the Peripatetic, in the second book 
of his treatise on Poets, says — " Stratonicus the Athenian ap- 
pears to have been the first person who introduced the system 
of playing chords into the simple harp-playing ; and he was 
the first man who ever took pupils in music, and who ever com- 
posed tables of music. And he was also a man of no small 
brilliancy as a wit." He says also that he was eventually put 
to death by Nicocles, the Bang of the Cyprians, on account of 
the freedom of his witticisms, being compelled to drink poison, 
because he had turned the sons of the king into ridicule. 

47. But I marvel at Aristotle, whom these wise men, my 
excellent Democritus, are so incessantly speaking of and 
praising, (and whose writings you also esteem hi^ly, as you 
do those of the other philosophers and orators,) on account 
of his great acciiracy : and I should like to know when he 
learnt, or from what Proteus or Nereus who came up from 
the depths he found out, what fish do, or how they go to sleep, 
or how they live : for all these things he has told us in his 
writings, so as to be, in the words of the comic poets, "a 
wonder to fools; " for he says that the ceryx, and indeed that 
the whole race of shell-fish, are propagated without copulation ; 
and that the purple-fish and the ceryx are longhved. For 
how could he know that the purple-fish lives six years 1 and 
how could he know that the viper takes a long time to pro-- 
pagate his species? or that of all its tribe the longest at 
that work is the pigeon, the next the oenas, and the quickest 
is the turtle-dove 1 And whence did he learn that the horse 
lives five-and-thirty years, but the mare more than forty? 
saying, too, that some have lived even seventy-five years. 
And he also states that from the copulation of lice there are 

1 Alluding to Iho intemperance of the Bultors of Penelope, as de-: 
Bcribed in the Odyssey. 


born nits; and that from a worm, after its change, there is 
produced a caterpillar, from which comes the humble-bee, 
and from that the larva of the silk-worm. And he also says 
that bees live to six years of age, and that some live even 
seven years ; and he says that neither bee nor wasp have ever 
been seen in the act of copulation, on which account no one 
can ever tell whether they are male or female. And from 
what did he learn that men are inferior to bees? for these 
latter always preserve an equal condition of life, being subject 
to no changes, but employing themselves without ceasing in 
the collection of honey, and doing that without having been 
taught by any one to do so : but men are inferior to bees, 
and as full of fancy as bees are of honey : how, then, has 
Aristotle observed all these things ? And in his treatise on 
Long Life, he says that a fly has been seen which had lived 
six or seven years. But what proof is there of this? 

48. And where did he ever see ivy growing out of a stag's 
head? And again, owls and night-jars, he says, cannot see by 
day; on which account they hunt for their food by night, 
and they do this not during the whole night, but at the 
beginning of evening. And he says, too, that there are several 
difierent kinds of eyes, for some are blue, and some are black, 
and some are hazel. He says, too, that the eyes of men are 
of diiferent characters, and that the differences of disposition 
may be judged of from the eyes ; for that those men who 
have goats' eyes, are exceedingly sharp-sighted, and have the 
best dispositions. And of others, he says that some men have 
projecting eyes, and some have eyes deeply set, and some keep 
a mean between the two : and those whose eyes are deeply 
set, he says, have the sharpest sight, and those whose eyes 
project, must have the worst dispositions; and those who are 
moderate in these respects, are people, says he, of moderate 
dispositions. There are also some people whose eyes are 
always winking, and some who never wink at all, and some 
who do so in a moderate degree : and those who are always 
winking are shameless' people, and those who never wink at 
all are unstable and fickle, and those who wink in a moderate 
degree have the best disposition. 

' Schweigh., referring to the passage here alluded to, (Hist. An. i. 10,) 
proposes to transpose these characteristics, so as to attribute shameless- 
ness to those who do not wink, and fickleness to those who do. 

c. 49.] aetstotle's natural history. 557 

He says also that man is the only animal which has its 
heart on the left side; and that all other animals have it in 
the middle of the body. And he says that males have more 
teeth than females ; and he affirms that this has been noticed 
in the case of the sheep, and of the pig, and of the goat. 
And he says also that there is no fish which has testicles, and 
there is no fish which has a breast, and no bird either ; but 
that the only fish which has no gall is the dolphin. There 
are, however, some, says he, which have no gall in their liver, 
but they have it near their bowels; as the sturgeon, the 
synagi-is, the lamprey, the sword-fish, and the sea-swallow. 
But the amia has its gaU spread over the whole of its entrails : 
and the hawk and the kite have theirs spread both over 
their liver and their enti-ails; but the segocephalus has his 
gall both in his liver and in his stomach : and the pigeon, 
and the quaU, and the swallow have theirs, some in their 
entrails, and some in their stomach, 

49. Moreover, he says that all the molluscous fish, and the 
shell-fish, and the cartilaginous fish, and aU insects, spend 
a long time in copulation ; but that the dolphin and some 
other fish copulate lying alongside the female. And he says 
that the dolphins are very slow, but fish in general very quick. 
Again he says that the lion has very sohd bones, and that if 
they are struck, fire comes from them as from flint stones. 
And that the dolphin has bones, but no spine ; but that car- 
tilaginous fish have both gristle and spine. And of animals 
he says that some are terrestrial and some aquatic ; and that 
some even live in the fire ; and that there are some, which he 
caUs ephemera, which live only one day : and that there are 
some which are amphibious, such as the river-horse, and the 
crocodile, and the otter. And that all animals in general 
have two forefeet, but that the crab has four ; and that all the 
animals which have blood are either without feet at all, or 
are bipeds, or quadrupeds; and that all the animals which 
have more than four feet are destitute of blood : on which 
account every animal which moves, moves by what he calls 
foiir tokens, — man by two hands and two feet, a bird by two 
feet and two wings, an eel and a conger by two fins and two 
.joints. Moreovei", some animals have hands, as a man has, 
and some appear to have hands, as a monkey does; for there 
is no brute beast which can really give and take, and it is for 


tliose things that hands are given to men as instmments. 
Again, some animals have limbs, as a man, an ox, an ass; 
and some have no limbs, as a serpent, an oyster, the pulmo 
marinus. There are also many animals ■which are not always 
•visible, such as those which hide in holes; and those which 
•do not hide in holes are still not always visible, as swallows 
and cranes. 

5Q. And though I could repeat to you now a great deal of 
nonsense which the medicine-seller talked, I forbear to do so, 
although I know that Epicurus, that most truthful of men, 
■said of him in his letter a,bout Institutions, that he devoted 
himself to a military life after having squandered his patri- 
mony in gluttony; and that, turning out an indifferent 
soldier, he then took to selling medicines. Then, when the 
school of Plato was opened, he says, he changed again, and 
applied himself to philosophical disciissions, and as he was 
not a man destitute of ability, by little and little he became 
a speculative philosopher. 1 know, too, that Epicurus is the 
only person who ever said this of him; for neither did 
Eubulides nor Cephisodoms venture to say anything of the 
kind against the Stagirite, and that, too, though they did 
Write books against him. But in that same letter Epicurus 
says, that Protagoras alsoj who became a philosopher from 
having been a porter and a wood-carrier, was first promoted 
to be an amanuensis of Democritus ; who, wondering at the 
admu-able way in which he used to put the wood together, 
took him under his eye in consequence of this beginning; 
and then he began to teach the rudiments of learning in some 
village, and after that he proceeded on to the study of philo- 
sophy. And I now, fellow feasters, after aU this con- 
versation, feel a great desire for something to eat. And 
when some one said that the cooks were already preparing 
something, and taking care that the dishes should not be 
served up cold, on account of the excessive length to which 
the " feast of words" had been carried, for that no one could 
eat cold dishes, Cynulcus said, — But I, like the Milcon of 
Alexis, the comic poet, can eat them even if they are not 
served up warm — 

For Plato teaches us that what is good. 

Is everywhere on all occasions good ; 

Can you deny this % and that what is sweet 

Is always sweet, here, there, and ev'rywhere. 

■0. 51.] FISH. 559 

And it was not without some cleverness that Sphserus, who 
•was a fellow-pupil with Chrysippus in the school of Cleanthes, 
^hen he had been sent for to Alexandria by king Ptolemy ; 
when on one occasion birds made of wax were served up at a 
banquet, and he was putting out his hand to take some, but 
was stopped by the king, who told him that he was assent- 
ing to a shamj very appropriately answered, — "That he 
did not agree that they were birds at aU, but only that it was 
probable that they might be birds; and that an opinion 
which could be confirmed by the perception, is superior to 
that which is merely probable ; for that the one cannot be in- 
correct, but that what is probable may turn out contrary to 
•what was expected." And so it could not be a bad thing if' 
some waxen dishes were brought round to us too, according to 
our perceptive opinions, so that we might be beguiled at least 
by the sight of them, and so escape talking on for ever. 

51. And when they were now on the point of sitting down 
to eat again, Daphnus bade them stop, quoting this iambic 
out of the Mammacythus or Auri of Metagenes — 
As when we're feasting anywhere, 
Then we all talk and argue faster. 

And indeed, said he, I say that the discussion about fish is 
stUl defective in some points, since the sons of JEsculapiuB 
(such as Philotimus I mean, in his essay on Food, and Mnesi- 
theus the Athenian, and Diphilus the Siphnian) said a 
good deal about fishes, of which we have as yet taken no 
notice. For Diphilus, in his work entitled A Treatise on 
Food fit for People in Health and Invalids, says, — "Of sea-fish, 
those which keep to the rocks are easily digested, and juicy, 
and purgative, and light, but not very nutritious ; but those 
which keep in the deep water are much less digestible, very 
nutritious, but apt to disagree with one. Now, of the fish 
which keep to the rocks, the phycen and the phycis are very 
tender little fish, and very digestible ; but the perch, which is 
, like them, varies a little as to the places in which it is found. 
And the tench resembles the perch ; but the smaller tench 
, and th& white ones are tender, juicy, and digestible ; but the 
.green ones (and they are also called cauhnse) are dry, and 
devoid of juice. The channas also have tender meat, but stiU 
they are harder than the perch. Then there is the scarus, 
which has tender flesh, not very firm, sweet, light, digestible, 


not apt to disagree with one, and good for the stomach. But 
the fresh ones are less popular than the others, because they 
hunt the sea-hares and feed on them, owing to which their 
entrails are apt to produce cholera morbus. And the fish 
which is called ceris is tender, good for the bowels, and good 
for the stomach; but its juice has fattening and purgative 
qualities. The orphus, which some write d/x^os, and some 6p<j)ws, 
is very full of a pleasant juice, glutinous, indigestible, very- 
nutritious, diuretic. But the parts near his head are glutinous 
and digestible ; but the more fleshy parts are indigestible and 
heavy, and the part towards the tail is the tenderest part ; and 
he is a fish apt to generate phlegm, and indigestible. The sphy- 
rsense are more nutritious than the congers ; and the eel caught 
in lakes is not so nice as the sea-eel, but it is more nutritious. 
The chrysophrys is very like the melamirus; and the sea- 
scorpions, which are found in the deep sea, and are of a tawny 
colour, are more nutritious than those which are found in 
marshes, or than the large ones which are taken on the shores. 
52. " But the spams is harsh-tasted, tender, with no un- 
pleasant smell, good for the stomach, diuretic, and not indi- 
gestible j but when he is fried he is indigestible. The mullet 
is good for the stomach, very astringent, of very firm flesh, 
not very digestible, apt to bind the bowels, especially when it 
is broiled; but when it is fried in a frying-pan, then it is 
heavy and indigestible; and, as a general rule, the whole 
tribe of mullets has the property of causing secretions of 
blood. The synodon and the charax are of the same kind, 
but the charax is the better of the two. The phagrus is found 
both in the river and in the sea; but that which is found in 
the sea is the best. The capriscus is called also the mussel; 
but it has a strong smell, and very hard meat, and it is more 
indigestible than the citharus ; but its skin is very pleasant to 
the taste. The needle-fish, or belone, and it is also called the 
ablennes, is indigestible and moist, but good for the bowels. 
The thrissa, and those of the same kind, such as the chalcis 
and the eretimis, are very digestible. The cestreus is found 
in the sea, and in rivers, and in lakes. And this fish, says 
he, is also called the oxyrhynchus ; but the one which is 
taken in the Nile is called the coracinus. And the black 
kind is smaller than the white, and when boiled it is not so 
good as when it is roasted ; for when roasted it is good for 

c. 53.] FISH. 561 

the stomach and good for the bowels. The salpe is hard- 
fleshed, and unpleasant to the taste, but the best are those 
■which are caught at Alexandria, and those which are taken in 
the autumn. For it is white, full of moisture, and free from 
any unpleasant smell. The gryllus is like the eel in appear- 
ance, but it is not nice to the taste. Th e sea-h aak is harder 
than the sea-cuckoo, but in other respects "they are much 
alike. The ui-anoscopus, and also the fish called agnus, which 
is also called the callionymus, are heavy fish. The boax, 
when boiled, is very digestible, giving out a very whole- 
some juice, and is good for the stomach ; and that which is 
broiled on the coals is sweeter and more tender. The bacchus 
is full of abundant and agreeable and wholesome juice, and 
is veiy nutritious. The sea-goat is not very agreeable as to 
its juice, not very digestible, and has a disagreeable smell. 
The sea-sparrow and the buglossus are both nutritious and 
palatable, and the turbot is like them. The sea-grayling, 
the cephalus, the cestreus, the myxiuus, and the colon are 
all much alike as to their eatable properties; but the cestreus 
is inferior to the cephalus, the myxinus is worse, and the 
colon is the least good of all. 

53. " The thynnis and the thynnus are both heavy and 
nutritious; but the fish which is called the Acamanian is 
sweet, very exciting, very nutritious, and easily secreted. The 
anchovy is heavy and indigestible, and the white kind is 
called the cobitis; and the hepsetus, a little fish, is of the 
same genus. 

" Of cartilaginous fish, the sea-cow is fleshy, but the shark 
is superior to that, — that kind, I mean, which is called the 
asterias. But the alopecias, or sea-fox, is in taste very like 
the land animal, from which circumstance, indeed, it has its 
name. The ray is a very delicate fish to the taste ; but the 
stellated ray is tenderer still, and full of excellent juice ; but 
the smooth ray is less wholesome for the stomach, and has au 
Unpleasant smell. But the torpedo, which is hard of digestion, 
is in the parts below the head very tender, and good for the 
stomach, and, moreover, very digestible, but its other parts 
are not so ; and the small ones are the best, especially when 
they are plain boiled. The rhinS, which is one of the carti- 
laginous class, is very digestible and light ; but those of the 
largest size are the most nutritious; and, as a general rule,- 

AIH. — VOL. II. 


all the cartilaginous fish are apt to create flatulence, and. are. 
fleshy, and difficult of digestion, and if they are eaten in any 
quantity, they are bad for the eyes. The cuttlefish, when 
boiled, is tender, palatable, and digestible, and also good for 
the stomach; but the juice which comes from it has the pro- 
perty of making the blood thin, and is apt to cause secretions, 
by haemorrhoids. The squid is more digestible, and i& 
nutritious, especially the small-sized one; but when boiled 
they are harder, and not palatable. The polypus promotes 
amatiyeness,- but it is hard and indigestible; and those of 
the largest size are the most nutritious, and when they are 
much boUed, they have a tendency to fill the stomach with 
liquid, and they bind the bowels. And Alexis, in his Pam- 
phila, points out the useful properties of the polypus, speaking; 
as follows, — 

But if you are in love, Cteson, 

What is more useful than these fish I bring? 

Oeryces, cockles, (onions too, are here,) 

The mighty polypus, and good-sized turbot. 

"The pelamys also is very nutritious and heavy, it is alsot; 
diuretic, and very indigestible ; but when cured like the cal- 
lubium, it is quite as good for the stomach, and it has a 
tendency to make the blood thin:; and the large kind is- 
caUe'd the synodontis. The sea-swallow, or chelidonias, is 
also something like the pelamys, but harder ; and the chelidon 
is like the polypus, and emits juice which purifies the com^ 
plexion, and stirs up the blood. The orcynus is a fish who; 
delights in the mud ; and the larger kind is like the cheli- 
donias in hardness, but the lower part of its abdomen and 
its collar-bone are palatable and tender ; but those which are 
called costse, when cured and salted, are a middling fish.. 
The xanthias has rather a strong smell, and is tenderer thaa 
the orcynus." These are the statements of Diphilus, 

54, But Mnesitheus the Athenian, in his treatise on 
Eatables, says, — "The larger breed of fishes are ca!lled by some 
sectile, and by others sea-fish ; as, for instance, the chrysophrys, 
the sea-grayling, and the phagrus. And these are all difficult, 
of digestion, bu.t when they are digested they supply a grejat. 
deal of nourishment. And the whole class of scaly fish, such- 
as the thynni, the scombri, the tunnies, the congers, and all of' 
tjiose kinds, are. also gregarious. But those which are .not seen; 

a. 55.] PISH. 563 

by themselves, nor in large shoals, are the most digestible^ such 
as the congers, and the oarchariEe, and fish of that kind. But 
the gregarious kinds of fish of that sort are yery pleasant to 
the palate, for they are fat ; but they are heavy, and dif&oult 
of digestion, on which account they are very good for curing ; 
and, indeed, these kinds make the best cured fish of all; they= 
are also very good roasted, for by that process their fatty 
parts are got rid of. But those kinds which ai-e skinned 
before they are dressed, as a general rule, are those fish 
which have a rough outside to their skin, not of scales, but 
such as rays and rhinse have. And all these kinds are easily 
divided into small pieces, but they have not a sweet smell. 
And they supply the body with plenty of moist nourishment, 
and of all boiled fish they have the greatest effect on tha 
bowels ; but when they are roasted they are not so good. 
And the whole class of molluscous fish, such as polypi and 
cuttlefish, and others like them, are very indigestible, on 
which account they axe very serviceable in exciting the 
amatory passions. They are also calculated to cause flatu- 
lence; and the time of indulgence in amatory pleasures 
requires a flatulent habit of body. All these fish are better 
when boiled. For their juices are injurious, and yon may 
see what juices they emit when they are washed; and the 
boiling extracts all these juices from their flesh. For as the 
heat which is applied in boUiug is a gradual one, and con- 
joined with moisture, there is, as it were, a sort of washing of 
them. But when they ai-e roasted, that dries up the moisture, 
and moreover, as their flesh is hard by nature, it is natural 
that it should be made more so in this way. 

55. " But anchovies of all kinds, and membrades, and tri- 
chides, and all the other little fish which we eat backbones 
and all, make the digestion flatulent, and give a good deal of 
moist nutriment. And so, as the digestion is unequal, the 
flesh being digested with great rapidity, and the bones dis- 
solving slowly, for the anchovies are very bony of themselves, 
the digestion of the one part hinders the digestion of the 
other, and so flatulence arises from the digestion, and moisture 
comes from the quantity of nourishment. They are better 
when they are boiled, but still they have very unequal cffects_ 
On the bowels-. The- fish which keep close to the rocks, such as 
tench, and scorpions, svnd sea-sparrows, and others of the same 
kind, supply a dry kind of nourishment to- our bodies, but 



they are light and nutritious, and are easily digested, and 
leave nothing behind them, and are not apt to cause flatu- 
lence. And every kind of fish is more digestible when 
dressed simply, and especially those which keep near the rocks 
have a better flavour when dressed plainly. And the 
species which is called soft-fleshed is like them, namely, the 
sea-thrush, the sea-blackbird, and others which resemble 
them. And these contain more moisture than the others, 
and with respect to reireshing the strength of those who eat 
them, they have more ef&cacy. And if any one wishes to 
produce fin effect upon his bowels, he should eat them boiled ; 
but if he is in good health, then he will find them nutritious 
roasted. And as diuretic food they are equally useful cooked 
either way. 

56. " But the places of the sea where rivera and lakes fall 
into it, and also those where there are large bays and gulfs 
of the sea, are those where all the fish are more juicy, and more 
full of fat. They are also more palatable when caught in 
those places, but less nutritious and less digestible. And on 
the shore where it is exposed to the open sea, and where it is 
unprotected, then the fishes found there are for the most part 
hard and thin, beaten by the continued action of the waves. 
But where the sea is deep close in shore and less exposed to 
violent winds, especially if there are any cities near, then there 
is the greatest number of fish, and they are equally excellent 
in respect of pleasantness of flavour and ease of digestion, 
and also in the nourishment which they afford to the body. 
But of sea fish those are the most indigestible and the heaviest 
which migrate at certain seasons from the sea to the lakes and 
rivers ; such as the cestreus ; and as a general rule that is the 
character of every fish which can live in both salt and fresh 
water. But of those which live wholly in rivers and lakes, 
the river fish are the best ; for the water of lakes is more apt 
to putrefy. And, again, of river fish those are the best which 
are found in the most rapid rivers; and especially the trout; 
for those are never found except where the river is rapid and 
cold, and they are far superior to all other river fish in their 
digestible properties." 

57. This now, my friends, is my contribution, and I have 
brought you the wholesomest food with which it was in my 
power to provide you. For, as you may read in the Parasite- 
ei Antiphanes, — 

•c. 58.] FISH. yC5 

For I have never taken any great trouUc 
In buying fish ; * * 

• « » • * 

• ♦ So that others from rich banquets coming 
Should blame the gluttonous surfeits of their friends. 

And, indeed, I myself am not so violently fond of fish as the 
man in the Butalion of the same poet. (And that play is an 
amended edition of one of the Countryman's characters.) 
And he says — 

A. And I to-day will give a feast to all of you ; 
And take you money now, and buy the supper. 

B. Yes ; for unless I've money I should hardly 
Know how to buy discreetly. But i' the first place. 
Tell me what food, what dishes you prefer. 

./I. All kinds of food. 

B. But tell me separately. 
First now, should you approve of any fish % 

A . A fishmonger came once into the country 
With a good basketfuU of sprats and triglides. 
And, by Jove, greatly he pleased all of us. 

B. Well, tell me then, should you now like some fish 1 

A. Indeed I should, if they were very little. 
For all large fish I always fancy cannibals. 

B. What can you mean, my friend ? 

A. Why, cannibals ; — 
How can a man eat fish which eat up men t 
B. 'Tis plain enough that it is Helen's food 
This fellow means, just sprats and triglides. 

And in his Countryman he also calls sprats and triglides the 
food of Hecate. And Ephippus too, disparaging smaU fish, 
in his Philyra, speaks as follows — 

A. My father, would you like to go to market 
And buy some fish for me 1 

B. What shall I buy ? 

A . Some grown up fish, my father, no small babies. ] 

B. Do not you yet know all the worth of money 1 

58. And in the same poet, in his Spit-bearers, there is a very 
■witty young man who disparages everything connected witJa 
the purchase of fish. And he speaks thus — 

A . But while you buy, don't disregard economy. 
For anything will do. 

B. Just tell me how. 
A. Don't be expensive, though not mean or stingy ; 
1 Whatever you may buy will be enough ; 

Some squids and cuttle-fish ; and should there be 
Some lobsters in the market, let's have one — 
Some eels will look nice too upon the table — ' 


Especially if from the Tneban lake : 
Then let us have a cock, a tender pigeon, 
A partridge, and a few such other things ; 
And if a hare should offer, then secure it. 
B. Why how precise you are in your directions ! 

A. I'd need be, you are so extravagant ; 
And we are certain to have meat enough. 

B. Has anybody sent you any present ? 
A. No, but my wife has sacrificed the calf 

Which from Corone came, and we to-morrow 
Shall surely sup on it. 

And in Mnesimachus, the Morose Man, in the play of the 
same name, being a great miser, says to the extravagant 
young man in the play — 

.4 . I do entreat you, do not lecture me 
So very fiercely; do not say so much 
About the money ; recollect I'm your uncle ; 
Be moderate, I beg. 

B. How can I be 
More moderate than I am % 

A. At least be briefer, 
And don't deceive me ; nse diminutives ; 
Por fish say fishlings ; if you want aught more, 
Speak of your bits of dishes; and at least 
I shall be ruin'd with a better grace. 

59. But since, as fortune would have it so, in the before- 
quoted lines, — my excellent Ulpian, or you too, you sons of 
grammarians, just tell me what was Ephippus's meaning in 
what I have just repeated, when he said — 

The calf 
Which from Corone' came, and we to-morrow 
Shall surely sup on it. 

For I think there is here an allusion to some historical fact, 
and I should like to understand it. And Plutarch said, 
— There is a Ehodian tale, which, however, I can hardly 
repeat at the moment, because it is a very long time since I 
have fallen in with the book in which it occurs. But I know 
that Phoenix the Colophonian, the Iambic poet, making 
mention of some men as eoUecting money for the Jackdaw, 
speaks as follows — 

My friends, I pray you give a handful now 
Of barley to the jackdaw, Phoebus' daughter; 

^ Corone is not a woman's name, as some have fancied ; the allusion 
is to the custom of some beggars, who, pretending to be ashamed to beg 
for themselves, carried about a talking jackdaw {Kop^vri), and professed 
to be begging only for the use of the biid. 

C. 60.] THE SWALLOW. 5fl7 

Or else a plate of wheat ; or else a loaf, 
A halfpenny, or whatsoe'er you please ; 
Give, my good friends, whatever you can spare 
To the poor jackdaw; e'en a grain of salt ; 
For willingly she feeds on anything; 
And he who salt bestows to-day, to-morrow 
May give some honey. Open, boy, the door ; 
Plutus has heard, and straight a serving maid 
Brings out some figs. Gods, let that maiden be 
Por ever free from harm, and may she find 
A wealthy husband of distinguish'd name : 
And may she show unto her aged father 
A lusty boy, and on her mother's lap 
Place a fair girl, her daughter, to bring up 
A happy helpmate for some lucky cousin. 
But I, where'er my feet conduct my eyes. 
Sing with alternate melody at the gates 
Of him who gives, and him who rude denies. 
At present I'll leave ofiC, and say no more. 

And at the end of this set of iambics he says— - 

But you, my friends, who have good store at home. 
Give something. Give, king; give you too, housewife. 
It is the law that all should give their hand 
When the crow begs. And you who know this law, 
Give what you please, and it shall be sufficient. 

And those people who went about collecting for the jackdaw 
(Kopdivrj) were called Coronistse, as PamphUus of Alexandria 
tells us, in his treatise on Names. And the songs which are 
sung by them are called coronismata, as Agnocles the Ehodian 
tells us, in his Coronistse. 

60. There is also another collection made among the 
Ehodians, the making of which is called )(eX.iSovL^€iv ; and it 
is mentioned by Theognis, in the second book of his treatise 
on the Sacrifices in Rhodes, where he writes thus — " There is . 
a species of collecting which the Rhodians call j^cAiSovt^Eti', 
which takes place in the month Boedromion. And it derives 
its name of p^eXtSovi^ctv because the people are accustomed to 
utter the following song : — 

The swallow, the swallow (xeAiSwi') is come. 
Bringing good seasons and a joyful time. 
Her belly is white, her back is black. 

Bring, oh bring, a cake of figs 

Out' of your luxurious house. 

Bring a cup of wine, 

And a dish of cheese. 
And a bag of wheat. 


Those the good swallow will not despise, 

Nor a cake of eggs. 
Shall we now go, or shall we get something? 
Give something, and we'll go; if you give nothing 
We will not cease to pester you ; we'll force the door 
And carry it away, or th' upper lintel, 
Or e'en your wife who sits within the house. 
She is but little, we shall find her light. 
If you give something, let it be worth having. 
Open, then, open the door to the swallow,^ 
For we are not old men, but only boys. 

And Cleobulus the Lindian was the first man who introduced 
the custom of this collection, at a time when there was a 
great want in Lindus of a collection of money. 

61. But, since we have mentioned the Rhodian histories, I 
myself am now going to tell you something about fish, from 
the account given of the beautiful Ehodes, which that delight- 
ful writer Lynceus says is full of excellent fish. Ergias the 
Ehodian, then, in his Account of his own Country, having 
first made mention of the Phoenicians, who inhabited the 
island, says — " That Phalanthus, and his friends, having a 
very strong city in lalysus, called Achaia, and being very 
economical of their provisions, held out for a long time against 
Iphiclus, who besieged them. For they had also a prophecy 
given them by some oracle, that they should keep the place 
till crows became white, and till fish were seen in their gob- 
lets. They therefore, expecting that these things would never 
happen, prosecuted the war with less vigour. But Iphiclus, 
having heard from some one of the oracles of the Phoenicians, 
and having waylaid a highly-trusted adherent of Phalanthus, 
whose name was Larcas, as he was going for water, and 
having entered into a covenant with him, caught some fish at 
the spring, and putting them into the ewer, gave them to 
Larcas, and bade him carry the water back, and pour it into 
the goblet from which he was used to pour out wine for Pha- 
lanthus : and he did so. And Iphiclus also caught some 
crows, and smeared them over with gypsum, and let them fly 
again. But when Phalanthus saw the crows, he went to his 
goblet; and when he saw the fish there, he considered that 
the place no longer belonged to him and his party, and so he 
sent a herald to Iphiclus, demanding permission to retire, 
with all his troops, under the protection of a treaty. And 
when Iphiclus agreed to this, Phalanthus devised the follow- 

c. 62.] EPHESus. 569 

ing contriTance. Having slain some victims, and taken otit 
the entrails, he endeavoured to put in some silver and gold, 
and so to carry it away. But when Iphiclus perceived this, 
he prevented it. And when Phalanthus alleged against him 
the oath which he had taken, when he swore to allow them 
to take away whatever they had in their hellies, he met them 
with a counter device, giving them vessels to go away in, but 
taking away the rudders, and the oai-s, and the sails, saying 
that he had swom to give them boats, and nothing further. 
And as the Phoenicians were in great perplexity, they buried 
a great deal of their riches underground, marking the places 
where they buried it, that at some future time they might 
come and take it up again j but they left a great deal for 
Iphiclus. And so, when the Phoenicians had left the place in 
this manner, the Greeks became masters of it." And Poly- 
zelus has given the same account, in his History of Ehodian 
Affairs ; and says — " That the only people who knew the 
secret about the fishes and the crows were Phaces and his 
daughter Dorcia; and she, being beloved by Iphiclus, and 
having come to an agreement to marry him through the 
intervention of her nurse, persuaded the man who brought 
the water to bring the fish and put them into the goblet; 
and she herself whitewashed the crows, and let them go." 

62. And Creophylus, in his Annals of the Ephesians, says — 
" Those who colonized Ephesus, being much perplexed for 
want of a place where they could settle, sent at last to the ora- 
cle, and asked where they should build themselves a city ; and 
he told them to build a city in that place which a fish should 
show them, and to which a wild boar should guide them. 
Accordingly, it is said that some fishermen were breakfasting 
at the spot where the fountain called Hypelseus now is, and 
where the harbour is which is called the sacred harbour; and 
that one of the fish leaped up with a burning cinder sticking 
to him, and fell on some of the refuse; and that by this 
means a thicket was set on fire, in which there happened to 
be a wild boar ; and he, being disturbed by the fire, ran for 
some distance up the mountain which is called the Rough 
Mountain, and at last was transfixed by javelins, and fell 
where the temple of Minerva now stands. And the Ephe- 
sians, having crossed over from the island, occupied that for 
twenty-one years, and in the twenty-second year they founded 
Trachea and the towns around Coressus, and erected a temple 


to Diana in the market-place, and one to the Pythian Apollo 
overlooking the harbour." 

63. Now after this long conversation, aU of a sudden there 
was heard all over the city the music of flutes and the noise of 
cymbals, and^ also a great crash of drums, with singing at the 
same time. And it happened to be the time of a festival 
which used formerly to be called the ParUia, but which is 
now called the Eomana, in honour of the temple built to 
the Fortune of the City, by that most excellent and accom- 
plished sovereign Hadrian. And aU the inhabitants of Rome 
(and all the foreigners sojourning in the city) every year 
keep that day as a remarkable one. Accordingly, Ulpian 
said, — My friends, what is this 1 — 

Is it a supper or a marriage feast? 

For certainly there is no picnic held now. 

And when some one replied that every one in the city was 
dancing (using the verb /SakXi^w) in honour of the goddess, 
— My fine fellow, said Ulpian, laughing, what Greek in the 
world ever called this dancing paXKurfWi 1 You should have 
said KU)[x.dt,ovcnv or ^opevovcrLv, or, at aU events, some word in 
common use ; but you have bought us a name out of the 

And spoilt the wine ty pouring in this water.' 
And Myrtilus said — But I will prove to you, my dear Epiti- 
mseus,' that the word is a genuine Greek word ; for you, who 
want to stop eveiy one's mouth, have not succeeded in con- 
victing any one of ignorance, but have proved yourself to be 
emptier than a snake's cast-off skin. Epicharmus, my most 
excellent gentlemen, in his Theori, speaks of the /8aXA,icr/ios, 
and Italy is no great way from Sicily. Accordingly, in that 
play, the public ambassadors, surveying the offerings at Py tho, 
and mentioning each one separately, speak as follows : — 
Here there are brazen caldrons, brazen goblets, 
And spits. And then to see the men with .spits 
And flutes, too, dancing {^aWl^ovres), what a sigbt it was ! 

And Sophron, in his play which is entitled Nymphoponus, 
says — 

Then he did take it, and proceeded onwards ; 

The rest did follow dancing {ipdwi^ov). 

And again he says — 

Dancing {PaWi^ovra) they filled the entrance room with dung. 

' From ^iTi/taai, to rebuke. 

■ C. 64.] NAMES OF FEASTS. 571 

And Alexis, in his Curis, says — 

And now I see a multitude of men 

Hastening to a feast, as if a goodly company 

Were here invited. Jlay it be my luck 

To keep out of your way, my revellers, 

After your dancing (j3oA.\io-;uds) and your feasting both 

Have gone off well and are quite finish'd. 

For I should never bear my robe off safely, 

Unless my wings had grown. 

I know, too, that the word is found in other places, and when 
I recollect the exact passage, I will bring it forward. 

.64. But we have a right to ask of you, who have quoted 
to us these lines out of Homer, 

But say, yon joyful troop so gaily drest, 
Is this a bridal or a friendly feast ? — 

in what respect the different sorts of feasts, which he calls 
ilXairivT] and ipavo% diifer from one another? But, since 
you are silent, I will tell you ; for, as the poet of Syracuse 

I by myself am equal to the task 

Which formerly it took two men to answer. 

The ancients used to call sacrifices, and the more splendid 
kind of preparations, dkairivai; and those who partook of 
them they used to call elXaTTLvacrral. But those feasts they 
called epavoi, the materials for which were contributed by all 
who joined in them; and this name was derived from all the 
guests being friendly together (aTro Toi; trwepav) and contri- 
buting. And this same epavos is also called ^iWos, and those 
who partake of it are called Ipavicrrai and a-vvOLaaSrraL. The 
crowd, also, which follows Ba'cchus in his festivals is called 
^tWos, as Euripides says — 

I see three thiasi of women coming. 
And they gave them the name ftWos from the word ©cds : — 
■ and, indeed, the Lacedaemonian form of the word ®eos is vm. 
And the word etXamnj is derived from the preparation and 
expense gone to for such purposes ; for being destructive and 
extravagant is called Xa^ineiv koI XaTraieuy, from which words 
the poets have used the word dXarra^u) for to destroy. And 
the plunder which is can-ied off after the sacking of a city 
they call Xdcj^vpa. And accordingly jEschylus and Euripides 
have given to the more luxurious banquets the name of 
eiXainvai, from the verb Xaird^w. There is also a verb, Xixttt^ 

572 THE DEiPNOsoPHisTS. [b. vii;i. 

which means to digest one's food, and to become relaxed 
(Xayapcs) by becoming empty. And from this word Xayapos 
we get the word Xaywv (the flank), and also Xayavov (a thin, 
broad cake) ; and from the word XairdrTta we get Xajrdpa (the 
loins).. And the verb XcufivrTM means, with great freedom 
and abundance to evacuate and erupt oneself. And the word 
SoTravdui (to spend) is derived from Sdrrrui; and SaTrTto is akin 
to Saij/ihji ; on which account we find the verbs Sanrco and 
SapSaTTTU) applied to those who eat in a voracious and savage 
manner. Homer says — 

Him the fierce dogs and hungry vultures tore (KariSmf/av). 
But the word eviaxia, (a luxurious feast) is derived not from 
6x^, which means nutriment, but from everything going on 
well (aTTo Tov eu ^e'") in such a banquet, in which those who 
assemble honour the deity, and give themselves up to mirth 
and relaxation; and from this relaxation (aTro tov fie6L€vcu) 
they call wine /j-idv, and the god who gave them wine they 
call Methymnsaus, and Lyaeus, and Evius, and Icius; just as 
also they call a man who is not sullen-looking and morose 
IXapo's ; on which account, too, they pray the deity to be pro- 
pitious (iXems), uttering the ejaculation iy, iy. And from this 
again they call the place where they do this Upov. And that 
they meant very nearly the same thing by iXecos and lAapos 
is plain from the language used by Ephippus, in his play 
entitled Traffic; for he is speaking of a courtesan, and he 

Then too, when any one is out of humour, 

When he comes in she iiatters him discreetly, 

And kisses him, not pressing his mouth hard 

Like some fierce enemy; but just billing towards him 

Like some fond sparrow ; then she sings and comforts him, • 

And makes l\im cheerful (iXapds) and dispels all clouds 

From off his face, and renders him propitious (X\€as). 

65. But the ancients, who represented the gods under the 
form of men, arranged aU their festivals on a similar prin- 
ciple ; for, seeing that it is not possible to divert men from 
an eagerness .for pleasure, but that it is useful and expedient 
to accustom them to enjoy themselves with moderation and 
in an orderly manner, they set apart certain times, and, 
sacrificing first to the gods, they in this way permitted them 
relaxation and enjoyment, in order that every one, thinking 
that the gods had come among them, and were present at the 

C. 66.] TEASTS. 573 

firstfruits and libations, might enjoy himself with order and 
decency. Accordingly Homer says — 

There, too, was Pallas to partake the feast : 
and Neptune, too, is represented thus — 

The monarch of the main, a heavenly guest, 
In Ethiopia graced the genial feast, 
There on the world's extremest verge, revered 
With hecatombs and prayer in pomp preferr'd. 
Distant he lay :' — 
and of Jupiter he says — 

The sire of gods and all the ethereal train 
On the warm limits of the furthest main 
Now mix with mortals, nor disdain to grace 
The feast of Ethiopia's blameless race.= 

And if a man of more mature age, and devoted to wise and 
virtuous pursuits, is present, they are ashamed to say or do 
anything indecorous ; as also Epicharmus says, somewhere or 
other : — 

But when their aged superiors are present. 

Young men should silent be. 

Therefore, considering that the gods were near to them, they 
celebrated their festivals in an orderly and temperate man- 
ner ; on which account it was not the fashion of the ancients 
to lie at their meals, but, as Homer says, — 

Feasting they sate ; 
nor were they accustomed to drink to the extent of drunken- 
ness — 

But when they'd eaten thus, and drank their fill. 

Each to his room retired, not dreaming ill. 
66. But the men of modem times, pretending to be sacri- j 
ficing to the gods, and inviting their friends and nearest i' 
kinsmen to the sacrifice, vent imprecations on their children, ' 
and abuse their wives, and treat their slaves with indignity, 
and threaten the multitude, almost verifying the line of 
Homer : — 

But now with speed let's take a short repast. 

And well refresh'd to bloody conflict haste. 

Nor do they ever give a thought to what has been said by 
the poet who wrote the poem entitled Chiron, whether it is 
Pherecrates, or Nicomachus, the teacher of rhythm, or what- 
ever else his name may have been : — 

' Horn. OdysB. i. 22. ' Horn. Iliad, i. 424. 

574 / THE DEtPNOSOPHISTS. ' [a \lll.> 

/ When you have ask'd a friend to eome to supper, 
/ Do not be angry when you see him come ; 

/ That is the part of an unworthy man ; 

But give yourself to happy thoughts of joy, 
And study to amuse your friend and guest. 

But now men utterly forget all these rules, and they recollect 
only the lines which follow them, which are all written in 
imitation of the Great Eose which are attributed to Hesiod, 
and which are- also meant as a parody on his great work, 
Works and Days : — 

When any of us does celebrate 

A sacrifice, and bids his friends to th' feast. 

Still, if he come, we're vex'd and look askance. 

And wish him to depart without delay. 

And he his want of welcome soon perceives 

And reassumes his shoes ; when some one rises] 

Of the surrounding revellers, and says, 

'■■ Here, my friend, do not go ; why won't you drink % 

Take off your shoes." And then the host again 

Is angry with the guest who calls him back. 

And quotes some scraps of poetry against him, — 

" Eemember, always speed the parting guest. 

And when a man is sleeping let him rest." 

Do not we in this manner oft behave 

When feasting those we choose to call our friends ? 

And, moreover, we add this : — 

Let not a numerous party vex your mind," 

For more are pleased, and the cost's near the same. 

67. And when we are sacrificing to the gods, we spend as . 
little as possible upon our sacrifices, and give them the most" 
ordinary presents ; as the admirable Menander tells us, in his 
Drunkenness : — • 

We don't do other things as we perform 

Our duties to the gods. We sacrifice 

One sheep scarce worth ten or a dozen drachmae; 

But for our flute-women, our perfumes rich. 

Our harpers, Thasian and Mendaean wine, 

Eels, cheese, and honey to regale ourselves. 

We do not a whole talent think too much. 

'Tis vei7 well to spend a dozen drachmse 

AVhen wo are sacrificing to the gods. 

But if you much curtail that slight expense. 

Are you not thus dishonouring the gods ? 

I, if I were a god, would ne'er allow 

A scanty loin of beef to load my altars. 

Unless an eel were also sacrificed, ■ ^ 

Sb that Callimedon might die of rage. 

C; 68.] THE DOLE-BASKET. 575 

68. And the ancients call some feasts tiriSdo-i/ia, that is to 
say, given into the bargain, — the same which the Alexan- 
drians call ef hnBo/xaTiDv. Alexis, at all events, in his Woman 
at the AVell, says — 

A. And now the master here has sent a slave 
To bring to me a jar of his own wine. 

B. I understand ; this is 4wtd6(riiios, 

A gift into the bargain, as a makeweight ; 
I praise the wise old woman. 
And Crobylus, in his Supposititious Son, says — 
A. Laches, I come to you ; proceed. 

B. Which way 1 
A . How can you ask % Why, to my mistress, who 
Has a feast imd6<riiios prepared ; 
And in her honour only yesterday 
Tou made the guests drink down twelve glasses each. 

The ancients, also, were acquainted with the banquets which 
are now called dole-basket banquets ; and Pherecrates men- 
tions them in hi$ Forgetful Man, or the Sea, saying — 

Having prepared a small dole-basket supper 

He went away to Ophela. 
And this clearly points to the dole-basket supper, when a man 
prepares a supper for himself, and then puts it in a basket, 
and goes off to sup with some one. And Lysias has used the 
word oTJvSeiiiTOj' for a banquet, in his speech against Micinus, 
on his trial for murder ; for he says that he had been invited 
to a <jvvSei.irvov : and Plato says — " Those who had made a 
avv^a-nvov :" and Aristophanes, in his Gerytades, says- 
Praising great ^schylus in his aiviimva, 
on which account some people wish to write the title of 
Sophocl es's play in the neuter gender. SvySetTrvov. Some 
people also use the expression oTn/a-yoiyt/u.a Sem/a, picnic feasts ; 
as Alexis does, in his Man fond of Beauty, or the Nymphs, 
where he says — 

Come, sit you down, and call those damsels in ; 

We've got a picnic here, but well I know 

That your's is but a skin-flint disposition. 
And Ephippus says, in his Geryones, — 

They also celebrate a picnic feast. 
They also use the verb <rvva.y<a for to drink with one another, 
aiid the noun crwayiir/uiv for a drinking party. Menander, in' 
his Angiy Woman, says — 

And for this reason now they drink {awiyqvat) alone : 


and presently afterwards he says — 

And BO they ended the entertainment {ama-iiiyiov). 
And probably the crwayioytov is the same as that which was 
also called to airo avfi^oKw Scinrov. But what the oTi/u.^oXat, 
or contributions, are, we learn from Alexis, in his Woman 
who has taken Mandragora, where he says — 

A. I'll come and bring my contributions now. 

B. How, contributions % 

A. The Chalcidians 
Call fringes, alabaster, scent boxes. 
And other things of that kind, contributions. 

But the Argives, as Hegesander tells us in his Commentaries, 
(the following are his exact words) — " The Argives call the 
contributions towards an entertainment which are brought by 
the revellers, ;^Gv ; and each man's share they call aTo-a." 

69. And now, since this book also has come to a not 
unsuitable end, my good friend Timocrates, let us stop our 
discussion at this point, lest any one should think that we 
were formerly fishes oiirselves, as Empedocles says that he 
was; for that great natural philosopher says — 

For I myself have been a boy, a girl, 

A bush, a bird, and fish which roams the sea. 


1. But now let each becalm his troubled breast, 

Wash, and partake serene the friendly feast ; 
While to renew these topics we delay 
Till Heaven's revolving lamp restores the day, 
both to you and me, Timocrates. For when some hams 
were brought round, and some one asked whether they were 
tender, using the word Taxepd?, — In what author does 
TOKcpos occur ? said Ulpian : and is there any authority, 
too, for calling mustard o-iVajri instead of va-mi ? For I see 
that that condiment is being brought round in the dishes 
with the hams. And I see that the word kuXcos, a ham, is 
now used in the masculine gender, and not in the feminine 
only, as our Attic writers use it. At all events, Epicharmus, 
in his Megarian Woman, says — 

Sausages, cheese, and haras {Ka\to\), and artichokes, 
But not a single thing that's eatable : 


and in his Cyclops he says — 

Pig's tripe is good, by Jove, and so is ham {K<u\t6s). 
And leai-n this now from me, O you wise man, that Epiohar- 
mus, in this last passage, uses x°P^ ^^^ what, in every other 
place, he calls opva, tripe. And I see, too, that salt is used in 
seasoning in other dishes; but of salt which is not seasoned 
the Cynics are fuU, among whom we find, in the Corycus of 
Antiphanes, another Cynic saying — 

Of delicacies which the sea produces, 

We have but one, but that is constant, salt ; 

And then' 

I see, too, that brine is mingled with vinegar; and I know, 
too, that now some of the inhabitants of Poutus prepare the 
pickle which they call oxygarum, or vinegar pickle, by itself. 
2. Zoilus replied to this, and said — Aristophanes, my good 
friend, in his Lemnian Woman, has used the word ro/cepos for 
delicate, saying — 

Lemnus producing good and delicate (roKEpous) beans : 
and Pherecrates, in his Crapatalli, says — 

To make the vetches delicate (ro/trpoiis) : 
and Nicander the Colophonian has used the word aivam in 
his Theriacans, where he said — 

A brazen cucumber and mustard too (Wnpru) ; 
and in his Georgics he writes — 

The biting pungent seed of mustard {aiirfprvos} ; 
and again he says — 

Cardamnm and the plant which stings the nose, 

The blaclL-leav'd mustard {alvrprv). 

And Crates, in his treatise on the Attic Dialect, introduces 
Aristophanes as saying — 

He looked mustard {givatn) and drew down his brows, 
as Seleucus quotes it, in his books on Hellenism. But it is a 
line out of the Knights, and it ought to be read thus — 

Kifi\f^f v&irv, not Kol 0\eTr€ ffivdiru : 

for no Attic writer ever used the form a-ivawv, although 
there is a reason for each form. For vim] may be said, as if 
it were va<f>v, because it has no <^iio-«, or growth. For it is 
atjivh and little, like the anchovy, which is called a.<^vri, and 
is called aCvavv, because it injures the eyes (o-tVerat tovs onras) 
1 The fragment here given appears to be hopelessly corrupt. 
ATH. — ^VOL. II. P P 


by its smell, as the onion, has the name of Kpofjtptvw, because 
it makes us wink our eyes (ori ras Kopai /wo/xev). And 
Xenaxchus the comic writer says, ia his Soythiaws — 

This evil is no longer evil ; so 

My daughter is corrupted by the stranger; 

And that exquisite writer, Aristophanes, mentions salt and 
vinegar, saying, in the place where he speaks of Sthenelus the 
tragedian, — 

A. How can I swallow Stheuelus's words 1 

B. By soaking them in vinegar or wMte salt. 

3. We then, my good friend, have gone along with you in 
these inquiries. But we have a right to expect an answer 
from you, in what author the word wapoi/ris is used for a 
vessel. For when speaking of some victuals of various sorts, 
which were carefully dressed, and of some other things of 
this sort, I am aware that Plato, in his Festivals, has used the 
following expressions — 

Whence barley-cakes might be got, and irapo>\iiSes. 
And again, in his Eiiropa, speaking at considerable length of 
some exqiiisite dish, he has used the following expressions 
among others-^ 

A. The woman is asleep;- 

B. I am aware 
That she is doing nothing. 

A. The TrapoT^iSes 
Are all awake ; and there is not a thing 
More calculated to give pleasure always. 

B. But where are these rapoif/iSes, I pray you? 

And in the passage immediately following, he uses the word 
irapoij/h, as if it were equivalent to ■Trapoxj/iavrjijui., a delicacy > 
and in his Phaon he says — 

• Other men's things are like rapoiiies, 
They please a short time, and are quickly spent. ■ 

And Aristophanes, in his Dsedalus, says — 

All women have one set of principles. 
And have a lover, like a Trapotfiis, ready. 

4. So when Ulpian made no reply, — But I, .said Leonidas, 
have a right to speak, since I have been silent a long time. 
But as Evenus the Parian says — ■ 

Many men make a point of contradicting 
On every subject equally ; but care not 
Whether they rightly contradict or not. 

C. 5.] XHE WOBD nAP0*I2. 579 

But for such men there's an old answer fitting, 
" That may be your opinion, this is mine." 
But with good arguments one may persuade 
The wise Trith ease : lor always man of senso 
Do prove the easiest pupils. 

5. And my excellent firiend Myrtilus, — ^for I have taken the 
words out of your mouth, Antiphanes, — in his Boeotian, has 
used this word wapmjn'i for a vessel, where he says — 

After she has invited yon to supper. 

She sets before you a jrapo^)s full of ... . 

And Alexis, in his Hesione, says — 

But when he saw two men well loaded with 
The tabl? and conveying it in-doors, 
Groaning beneath a number of 5rapoi^(5«, 
Looking no more at me, he said .... 

And the man who was the author of the plays which are 
attributed to Magnes, says in his first Bacchus — 

These things are now TropoijiiSes of ill to me. 
And Achseus, in his Mfhon, a satyrie drama, says — i 

And let these savoury boil'd and roasted meats 
On the Trapo<fiiSes be carved in pieces. 

And Sotades the comic writer says, in his Man wrongly 
Eansomed — 

I a iropo>|(ls seem to Crobylus. 

Him he devours alone, but me he tates 

But as a seasoning to something else. 

But the word is used in an ambiguous sense by Xenophon, in 
the first book of his Cyropsedia,. For the philosopher, says, 
" They brought hira ?rapoi/'t8as, and condiments of all sorts, 
and food of all kinds." And in the works of the author of 
Chiron, which is usually attributed to Pherecrates, the word 
Trapotj/k is used for seasoning; and not, as Didymus, in his 
treatise on Words used in a Corrupted Sense, asserts, for a 
vessel. For he says — 

By Jove, as irapo^lSes are praised or blamed 
Because of the way in which they flavour meat, 
So Caletas esteems these people nothing. 

And Nicophon, in his Sirens, says — 

Others may fight the iropoflj for their seat. 
And Aristophanes says, in his Daedalus,— 

All women have one set of principles. 

And have a lover, like a wapotfils, ready. 


And Plato says, in his Festivals, — 

Whence barley-cakes may be got, and iropoil/i'Ser, 

But he is speaking here of cooking and seasoning onions. 

But the Attic writers, my Syri-Attio friend Ulpian, use 

ili.pajj.jjLa also in this sense; as Theopompus says, in his 

Peace : — 

Bread's a good thing ; but flattery and tricks, 
"When added as a seasoning (iiiPamm) to bread, 
Are odious as can be. 

6. When speaking of hams, they use the two forms kcoA^ 
and KitiXijv. Eupolis, in his Autolycus, says — 

The legs and hams {Ka\iji>es) out of the soup. 
And Euripides, in his Sciron, says — 

I^or hams {KaKTJves) of kids. 
But the word kwX^ is contracted from KiaXia, as avKij from 
(rvKox, X.(ovT^ from Xeovrea j so KU)kq from KuiXia, Aristo- 
phanes, in his second Plutus, says — 

Alas the ham (kojX^s) which I have just devour'd! 

And in his Daitaleis he says — ■ 

And the fat hams (koiAoI) of tender little pigs 

And dainty tit-bits swift to fly. ' 

And in his Storks he says — 

The heads of Iambs, the hams {Ka\h) of kids. 
And Plato, in his Griffins, says — 

Fish, and hams (xuXiis), and sausages. 

And Ameipsias, in his Connus, says — 

The ham (k»\5) from off the victim, and the ribs. 
And the left side o' th' head are usually given. 

And Xenophon, in his book on Hunting, says — " The ham 
(KoArj) is fleshy, and the loins moist." And Xenophanes the 
Colophonian, in his Elegies, says — 

For having sent a ham (k<o\^) of kid, you won 

A mighty leg of carefully fatted bull. 

An honourable present for a man. 

Whose glory shall pervade all Greece, and never 

Cease while the poets and the songs of Greece 

Survive in memory and the mouths of men. 

7. And as immediately after this a great quantity of food 
of all sorts was brought in, we will just mention those dishes 
which seem most worthy of being remembered ; for there 

C. 3.] TURNIPS. 581 

was a great quaMity of birds, and of geese, and aJso of young 
birds (which some people call mVot), and of pigs, and of those 
highly-esteemed birds the pheasants. And after I have told 
you about the vegetables, I will then enumerate to you the 
other dishes also. 

8. First of all, there were turnips; and Apellas, in his 
treatise on the Cities in Peloponnesus, says that turnips are 
called -yaorepes by the Lacedaemonians : and Nicander the 
Colophonian, in his Dialects, says that among the Boeotians it 
is cabbages which are called •yaoTEpes, and that turnips are 
called in Boeotia fcxeXTtSes. But Amerias and Timachidas 
affirm that it is gourds which are called faKtXTiScs. And 
Speusippus, in the second book of his treatise on Things 
resembling one another, says — " The radish, the turnip, the 
rape, and the nasturtium all resemble each other." But 
Glaucus, in his Cookery Book, spells the word pa^us (rape) 
with the lene tt,— paTrus. But these vegetables have nothing 
else like them, unless, indeed, it be the plant which we call 
bounias : but Theophrastus does not use the name of bou- 
nias, but calls it a sort of male turnip ; and perhaps the 
plant which he means is the bounias. And Nicander, in his 
Georgics, mentions the bounias — 

Sow turnips on a well-roU'd field, that they 

May grow as large as the flat dish that holds them. 

• « * « 

For there are two kinds 

Which from the radish spring : one long, one firm. 
Both seen in well-till'd beds in kitchen gardens. 

And the turnips which grow on the banks of the Cephisus 
are mentioned by Gratis, in his Orators, thus — 
And wholly like the turnips of Cephisus. 

But Theophrastus says that there are two kinds of turnips, 
the male and the female, and that they both come from the 
same seed; but Posidonius the Stoic philosopher, in the 
twenty-seventh book of his Histories, concerning Dalmatia, 
sa^s that there are some turnips which grow without any 
cultivation, and also some carrots that grow wild. But Diphi- 
lus the physician, of Siphnos, says — " The turnip has atte- 
nuating properties, and is harsh and indigestible, and more- 
over is apt to cause flatulence: but the vegetable called 
bounias is superior to that; for it is sweeter in taste and 


more digestible, in addition to being whole'^me for the sto- 
mach and nutritious. But the turnip," he says, "when 
Toasted, is more easily digested, but in this state it attenuates 
the blood still more." This vegetable is mentioned by Eubu- 
lus, in his Ancylion, -where he says — 

I bring this turnip to be roasted now. 
And Alexis, in his Enthusiast, says — 

I speak to Ptolemy, roasting slices of turnip. 
But the turnip, when pickled, is more attenuating in its 
effects than when boiled, especially when it is pickled with 
mustard, as Diphilus says. 

9. Then there was the cabbage. Eud«mus the Athenian, 
in his treatise on Vegetables, says that there are three kinds 
of cabbage — ^the kind called the salt-cabbage, and the smooth- 
leaved-cabbage, and the parsley-cabbage : and that the salt- 
cabbage is reckoned the finest of all in respect of its delicacy 
of taste ; and it grows in Eretria, and Cyme, and Ehodes, and 
also in Cnidos and Ephesus : but the smooth-leaved kind 
is found in every country; and the parsley-cabbage has its 
name from the curly nature of its leaves, for it Is like parsley, 
both in that respect and in its general thickness. But Theo- 
phrastus writes thus — " But of the pai^aros, — I mean the cab- 
bage,— there is one kind with curly leaves, and another with 
smooth leaves, and a third which is wild." And Diphilus the 
Siphnian says — " The finest and most delicious cabbage grows 
in Cyme: in Alexandria it is bitter; and the seed which is 
brought from Ehodes to Alexandria produces sweet cabbage 
for one year, after which time it degenerates again, from the 
natm-e of the soil." And Nicander, in his Georgics, says — 

The smooth-leaved cabbage sometimes wild is found, 

And then the curly many-leaved plants 

Are often sown in beds^ , . , 

There is another kind, of reddish colour, 

Like frogs in draught ; some of bad colour too 

Do come from Cyme, like the dingy soles 

Which cobblers often sew on worn-out boots ; 

And these the ancients do the Prophets call. 
But perhaps Meander calls the cabbage Prophet, as being 
sacred; since in iTippanax, in his Iambics, we find some such 
lines as these, — 

He falling down worshipp'd the seven-leaved cabbage. 

To which, before she drank the poison'd draught. 

Pandora brought a cake at the Thargelia. 

C. 10.] CABBAQE. 583 

And Anaoius savs — 

And, by the cabbage do I swear, I love thee 
By far the most of mortal men. .... 

And Teleclides, in his Prytanes, uses the oath, " Yes, by the 
cabbages!" and Epichannus has the same exclamation in 
his Earth and Sea ; and so has Eupohs, in his Dyers ; and it 
appears to haye been an Ionian oath : and there is nothing 
very strange in the feet of some people having sworn by the 
cabbage, since Zeno the Cittisean, the founder of the sect of 
the Stoics, imitating the oath of Socrates, " by the bitch," was 
■used himself to swear "by the caper," as Empodus relates in 
his Memorabilia. 

10. And at Athens the cabbage used to be given to women 
who had just been delivered, as a sort of medicine, having a 
tendency to add to their nourishment. Accordingly, Ephip- 
pus, in his Geryones, says — 

What shall next be done 1 
There is no garland now before the doora, 
No savoury emell strikes on my nostril's edge 
From Amphidromian festival, in which 
The custom is to roast large bits of cheese. 
Such as the Chersonesus furnishes. 
And then to boil a radish bright with t)il, 
And fry the breasts of well-fed household lamb. 
And to pluck pigesns, thrushes too, and finches, 
And to eat squids and cuttle-fish together. 
And many polypi with wondrous curls. 
And to quaff many goblets of pure wine. 

And Antiphanes, in his Parasite, speaks of the cabbage as an 
economic^, food, in the following lines, where he says — 

And what these things are, you, my wife, know well ; 
Garlic, and cheese, and cheese-cakes, dainty dishes 
Tit for a gentleman ; no fish cured and salted, 
No joints <rf lamb well stnflTd with seasoning, 
No forced meat of all kinds of ingredients ; 
No high made dishes, fit to kill a man ; 
But they will boil some cabbage sweet, ye gods ! 
And in the dish with it some pulse of pease. 

And Diphilus says, in his Insatiable Man, — 
All sorts of dainties now come round us here, 
All of their own accord. There's cabbage fresh. 
Well boil'd in oil ; and many paunches, and 
Dishes of tender meat. No .... by Jove, 
Nor are they like my platters of bruised olives, 

584 THE DEIPN030PHISTS. [c. IS. 

And Alcseus, in Lis Palsastra, says — 

And now she's roasted a large dish of cahbage. 

And Polyzelus, in his Birth of the Muses, names cabbages; 

and says — 

The close-grown cabbage 'wltli its lofty leaves. 

11, The next thing to be mentioned is beet-root. Of beet- 
root (according to the opinion of Theophrastus), the white is 
more juicy than the black, and it contains less seed, and it is 
the kind which is called the SicUian beet. But, says he, 
the beet called crevrXh is a different kind fi'om the revrXov. 
On which account, Diphilus the comic poet, in his drama 
called the Hero, reproaches some one for speaking incorrectly, 
and for calling TeurXa, TeuTXiSas. And Eudemus, in his trea- 
tise on Vegetables, says that there are four kinds of revrXa : 
there is the kind which may be pulled, the kind with a stalk, 
the white kind, and the common kind ; and this last is of a 
brown colour. But Diphilus the Siphnian says that the beet 
which he calls a-evrXiov is more juicy than the cabbage, and 
is also, in a moderate degree, more nutritious ; and it ought 
to be boilfed and eaten with mustard, and that then it has a 
tendency to attenuate the blood, and to destroy worms ; but 
the white kind is better for the stomach, while the black is 
more diuretic. He says, also, that their roots are more pleas- 
ing to the palate, and more nutritious. 

12. Theu there is the carrot. " This vegetable," says Di- 
philus, "is harsh, but tolerably nutritious, and moderately 
good for the stomach; but it passes quickly through the 
bowels, and causes flatulence : it is indigestible, diuretic, and 
not without some influence in prompting m*i to amatory 
feelings ; on which account it is called a philtre by some 
people." And Numenius, in his Man fond of Fishing, says — 

Of all the plants which grow in fields unsown, 
Or which take root in fertile plough'd-up lands 
In winter, or when flowering spring arrives. 
Such as the thistle dry, or the wild carrot, 
Or the firm rape, or lastly, the wild cabbage. 
And Nicander, in the second book of his Georgios, says- 
Then there is also the deep root of fennel, 
And of rock-parsley, and the carrot too. 
Which loves dry soils, the sow-thistle, the myrrh plant, ' 
The dog-tongue and the chicory. And with them bruise 
The tough hard-tasted leaves of arum, and 
The plant which farmers do entitle bird's-milk. 

C. 13.] LEEKS, 585 

Theopkrastus also mentions the carrot ; and Ph^nias, in the 
fifth book of his treatise on Plants, speaks as follows ;— " But 
as to the nature of the seed, the plant which is called cnjij/ 
and the seed of the caiTot are much alike." And in his first 
book he says — " The following plants have seed in pods of 
umbellated form : the anise, fennel, the carrot, the bur- 
parsley, hemlock, coriander, and aconite (which some call 
mousekiller)." But, since Nicander has mentioned the arum, 
I must also add that Phsenias, in the book which I have just 
mentioned, writes thus : — " The dracontium, which some call 
arum or aronia." But Diodes, in the firet book of his treatise 
on the Wholesomes, calls the carrot, not orac^vXTvos, but 
dora^uXtvos. There is also another kind which is called 
Kaptmov, which is a large and well-grown carrot, more juicy 
than the ora^uXu/os, and more heating, — more diuretic, very 
good for the stomach, and very easily digested, as DiphUus 
assures us. 

13. Then there is the Kit^xiXunov, or leek, which the same 
Diphilus says is also called irpaxnov ; and he says that it is 
superior to the kind called the sliced-leek, and that it has 
some effect in attenuating the blood, and is nutritious, and 
apt to cause flatulence. But Epsenetus, in his Cookery Book, 
says that the leeks are also called yrjftiXXtSts ; and I find this 
name occurring in Eubulus, in his Pornoboscus, where he 
says — 

I cannot now eat any other loaf, 

For I've just had one at Gnathsenins', 

Whom I found boiling up •ynSvWlSfs. 

But some say that the yT^fiuXXis is the same as the peculiar 
kind of leek called yipoov, which Phrynichus mentions in his 
Saturn. And Didymus,- interpreting that play, says that the 
yr)&vov resembles the leek called the vine-leek, or d/juTreXoTrpa- 
(Tov ; and he says that they ai-e also called i-iriOyXXiSe's. And 
Epicharmus also mentions the gethyllides in his PhUoctetes, 
where he says — 

Two heads of garlic, two gethyllides. 
And Aristophanes, in his second .iEolosicon, says — 

Some roots of leeks {■ynSiuy), which taste almost like garlic. 
And Polemo the geographer, in his book on Samothrace, 
says that Latona had a longing for the gethyllis, writing 
as follows: — "Among the Delphians, at the festival which 


ttey call the Theoxenia, there is a rule that wlioever 
brings the largest gethyllis to Latona shall receive a por- 
tion of food from off her table ; and I myself have Been a 
gethyllis as big as a turnip or as the round rape. And men 
say that Latona, when she was pregnant with Apollo, longed 
for the gethyllis ; on which account it is treated with this 

14. IJert comes the gourd. But as gourds were served 
round to us in the winter season, every one marvelled, 
thinking that they were fresh gourds j and we recollected 
what the beautifid Aristophanes said in his Seasons, praising 
the glorious Athens in these lines : — 

A. There you shall at mid-wiateT see 

Cacumbers, gourds, and grapes, and apples, 
And wreaths of fragrant violets 

Cover'd with dust, as if in summer. 
And the same man will sell you thrashes. 

And pears, and honey-comb, and olives. 
Beestings, and tripe, and summer swallows. 

And grasshoppers, and bullock's paunches. 
There you may see full baskets pack'd 

With figs and myrtle, crown' d with snow ; 
There you may see fine pumpkissjcuii'd 

To the round rape and migihty turnij) ; 
So that a stranger well may fear 

To name the season of the year. 
J?.'_That's a fine thing if all the year 

A man can have whate'er he pleases. 

A. Say rather, it's the worst of evils j 

For if the case were diflFerent, 
Men would not cherish foolish fancies 

Nor rush into insane expenses. 
But after some short breathing time 

I might myself bear off these things .; 
As indeed in ether cities, 

Athens excepted, oft I do : 
However, as I tell you now, 

Tlie Athenians have all these things. 
BsGMise, as we may well believe, 

They pay due honour to the gods. 

B. 'Tis well for them they honour you. 

Which brings them this enjoyment, since 
You seek to make their city Egypt, 
Instead of the immortal Athens. 

At all events, we were astonished eating cucumbers in the 
month of January j for they were green, and full of their own 
peculiar flavour, and they happened to have been dressed by 

C. 13.] POULTRY. 587 

cooks who above all men knew how to dress and season such 
things. Laurentius, therefore, asked whether the ancients 
were acquainted with this vegetable, or with this way of 
dressing it. And;Ulpiaii said — Nicander the Colophonian, 
in the second book of his Georgics, mentions this way of 
dressing the vegetable, calling the gourds not koXokuvtcu, but 
o-t/cuoi; for, indeed, that was one of their names, as we have 
said before. And his words are : — 

First cut the gourds in slices, and then run 

Threads through their breadth, and dry them in the air; 

Then smoke them hanging them above the fire ; 

So that the slaves may in the winter season 

Take a large dish and fill it with the slices. 

And feast on them on holidays : meanwhile 

Let the cook add all sorts of vegetables. 

And throw them seed and all into the dish ; 

Let them take strings of gherkins fairly wash'd, 

And mushrooms, and all sorts of herbs in bunches. 

And curly cabbages, and add them too. 

15. The next thing to be mentioned is poultry. And 
since poultry was placed on the gourds and on other scraped 
((cj/ia-Ta) vegetables, (and this is what Aristophanes in his 
Delian Woman says of chopped up vegetables, " kvuttcl, 
or pressed grapes,") MyrtUus said, — But now, in our time, 
we have got into a habit of calUng nothing Spvtdas or opvidia 
but pullets, of which I see a quantity now being brought 
round. (And Chrysippus the philosopher, in the fifth book 
of his Treatise on what is Honourable and Pleasant, writes 
thus — " As some peojfle insist upon it that white pullets are 
nicer than black ones.") And the names given to the male 
fowl are oXtKTpvoves and dXcKToptScs. But anciently, men 
were accustomed to use the word opvvs, both in the mascuhne 
and feminine gender, ajnd to apply it to other birds, aad not 
to this species in particular to the exclusion of others, as is 
now done when we speak of buying birds, and mean only 
poultry. Accordingly, Homer says. 

And many birds {ifviies voKKoX) beneath the sun's bright rays. 

And in another place he uses the word in the feminine gender, 
and says — 

A tuneful bird (ifviBt Kiyvfy^). 

And in another place he says — 


As the bold bird her helpless young attends, 
From danger guards them, and from if ant defends ; 
In search of prey she wings the spacious air. 
And with untasted food supplies her care,' — 

again using opws in the feminine gender. But Menander in 
liis first edition of the Heiress, uses the word plainly in the 
sense in which it is used at the present day; saying — 

A cock had loudly crow'd- — " Will no one now," 

He cried out, " drive this poultry {rhs upviBas) from our doors? " 

And again, he writes — 

She scarcely could the poultry {rtts ipveis) drive away. 
But Cratinus, in his Nemesis, has used the form opviOiov, 

And all the other birds {opylSia). 
And they use not only the form opviv, but also that of opviOa, 
in the masculine gender. The same Cratinus says in the 
same play — 

A scarlet winged bird (SpviBa (poiviKSitrepov). 

^nd again, he says — 

You, then, must now become a large bird (^pviBa fiiyav). 
And Sophocles, in his Antenoridse, says — 

A bird (ipviBa), and a crier, and a servant. 
And ^schylus, in his Cabiri, says — 

I make you not a bird (ipviBa) of this my journey. 
And Xenophon, in the second book of his CyropEedia, says — 
" Going in pursuit of birds (toiis opviBa.'s) in the severest 
winter." And Menander, in his Twin Sisters, says — 

I came laden with birds (upvus). 
And immediately afterwards he has 

He sends off birds (ipvtias oiroirTeKKci). 
And that they often used opvets as the plural form we have 
the evidence of Menander to prove to us : and also Alcman 
■says somewhere or other — 

The damsels all with unaccomplish'd ends 

Departed ; just as frighten'd birds {ipvas) who see 

A hostile kite which hovers o'er their heads. 

And Eu polls, in his Peoples, says — 

Is it not hard that I should have such sons. 
When every bird {ipv^is) has offspring like its sire] 
16. But, on the other hand, the ancients sometimes also 
' Hom. Iliad, ix. 323, Pope's translation. 

C. 16.] ANAXANDRIDEB. 58& 

used the word aXeKTpviiv in the feminine gender for a hen. 
Cratinus, in his Nemesis, says — 

This is your work, Leda. Take you care 
To imitate tlie manaers of a lien {aKfKTpvivos) 
And sit upon this &ggf that so you may 
Show us from out this shell a noble bird. 

And Strattis, in his Men Fond of Cold, says — 

And all the hens {at S* a\€KTpv6ves oircwai). 
And all the pigs are also dead, 
And all the little birds around. 

A.nd Anaxandrides says, in his Tereus — 

They saw the boars their species propagate 

With joy, and likewise all the hens (toj aXim-pvSvas). 

And since I have mentioned this comic poet, and as I know, 
too, that this play of his, namely Tereus, is not reckoned one 
of his best, I will also bring forward, my friends, for youi 
judgment, what Chamseleon of Heraclea has said about him in. 
the sixth book of his treatise on Comedy; where he uses 
the following language : — " Anaxandrides once, publishing a 
dithyrambio poem at Athens, entered the city on a horse, and 
recited some lines of his Ode. And he was a very fine, hand- 
some man to look at ; and he let his hair grow, and wore a 
purple robe with golden fringes, but being a man of a bitter 
disposition he was in the habit of behaving in some such 
manner as this with respect to his comedies. Whenever he 
did not get the victory he took his play and sent it to the 
frankincense market to be torn up to pack bunches of 
frankincense in, and did not revise it as most people did. 
And in this way he destroyed many clever and elegant plays ; 
being, by reason of his old age, very sulky with the spectators. 
And he is said to have been a Rhodian by birth, of the city of 
Camirus : and I wonder therefore how it was that his Tereus 
got preserved, since it did not obtain the victory; and I feel 
the same wonder in the case of others by the same author. 
And Theopompua, in his Peace, also uses the word aXfKrpvtov 
for hens, speaking thus — 

I am so vex'd at having lost the ben {d\eKTpv6va^ 

Which laid the finest eggs in all the yard. 

And Aristophanes, in his Dredalus, says — 

She laid a noble egg, like any hen (ahtKrpuiv). * 

590- THE DiaPNOSQPmSTS. [b, IX. 

And in another place he says — 

Sometimes we find that hens {aKejcrpvayes) when driven about, 
And frighten'd, lay wind eggs. 

And in the Cloiids, where he is explaining to the old man the 
difference between the names, he says — 

A. Tell me then, now, what name I onght to give them. 

B. Call this, the hen, d\fKrpiaivau, thus. 
And call her mate, the cock, ci\4KTopa. 

And we find the cock called oXeKTopls and dXinTtap. And 
Simonides writes — 

tuneful voiced dxiKrap, 

And Cratinus, in his Seasons, says — 

Like the Persian loud-voiced cock (oKiieTap), 
Who every hour sings his song. 

And he has this name from rousing us from our beds 
(XeKTpov). But the Dorians, who write SpvK with a f, opvi^, 
make the genitive with a ^i opvixo's. But Aleman writes the 
nominative with a <t, saying — 

The purple bird (ipyis) of spring. 
Though I am aware that he too makes the genitive with a Xi 


But yet by all the birds {hpvixaiv). 

17. The next thing to be mentioned is the pig, under the 
name of SiX.<j>oi4' Epioharmns calls the male pig SeX<j>a^ in 
his Ulysses the Deserter, saying — 

1 lost by an unhappy chance 

A pig (S^\</)oKa) belonging to the neighbours, 
■Which I was keeping for Eleusis 
And Ceres's mysterious feast. 
Much was I grieved ; and now he saya 

That I did give it to th' Achseans, 
Some kind of pledge ; and swears that I 
Betray'd the pig {rim Se\(paKa) designedly. 
And Anaxilus also, in his Circe, has used the word SeKifta^ in 
the masculine gender ; and moreover has used it of a full- 
grown pig, saying — 

Some of yon that dread goddess will transform 
To pigs (SiXifaKas), who range the mountains and the woods. 
Some she will panthers make ; some savage wolves, 
And terrible lions. 
But Aristophanes, in his Fryers, applies the word to female 
pigs," and says — 

The paunch, too, of a sow in antumn bom (SE\<fiaKas mtapivrts). 

^- I''-] PISS. 591 

And in his Achamians he saya — 

For she is young {via), but when she is a sow {SeKfjummitim), 

You'll see she'll have a large, fat, ruddy taU ; 

And if you keep her she'll be a noble pig (xo'pos icaha). 

And Eupolis, in his Golden Age, nses it as feminine; and 

Hipponax wrote — 

And, indeed, it is the female pig which is more correctly 
called by this name, as having SeAijtuas, for that word S£\<^vs 
means a womb. And it is the word from which dSeXc^os is 
derived. Bnt respecting the age of these animals, Cratinus 
speaks in his Archilochi, saying — 

These men have Si\(paKes, the others xoipot* 
And Aristophanes the grammarian, in his treatise on Ages, 
says — " Those pigs which are now come to a compact form, 
are called SeX^jyaKe^; bnt those which are tender, and are 
full of juice, are called xoTpoi ;" and this makes that line of 
Homer intelhgible — 

The servants all have little pigs (xotpea) to eat, 
But on fat hogs {cries) the dainty suitors feast.' 

And Plato the comic poet, in his Poet, uses the word in the 
masculine gender, and says — 

He led away the pig {riv 3i\<paKa) in silence. "" 
But there was ancient custom, as Androtion tells us, for the 
sake of the produce of the herds, never to slay a sheep which 
had not been shorn, or which had never had young, on which 
account they always ate fall-grown animals : 

But on fat hogs the dainty suitors feast. 
And even to this day the priest of Minerva never sacrifices a 
lamb, and never tastes cheese. And when, on one occasion, 
there was a want of oxen, PhUochorus says, that a law was 
passed that they should abstain from slaying them on account 
of their scarcity, wishing to get a greater number, and to in^ 
crease the stock by not slaying them. But the lonians use 
the word xo'pos also of the female pig, as Hipponax does, 
where he says — 

With pure libations and the offer'd paunch 

Of a wild sow {ayp'uu xoip""). 
And Soptfiocles, in his Taenarus, a satyric drama, says — 
Should you then guard her, like a chain'd up sow Oco'/'i"' S&rftiav) ] 

' Horn. OdysB. sir. SO. 


And Ptolemy, the king of Egypt, in the ninth boot of his 
Commentaries, says — " When I was at Assus, the Assians 
brought me a pig (xoipov) two cubits and a half in height, 
and the whole of his body corresponding in length to that 
height; and of a colour as white as snow: and they said that 
King Eumenes had been very diligent in buying all such 
animals of them, and that he had given as much as four 
thousand drachmae a piece for one." And .^schylus says — 

But I will place this carefully fed pig 
Within the crackling oven ; and, I pray. 
What nicer dish can e'er be given to man 1 

And in another place he says — 

A. Is he a white one 1 

B. Aye, indeed he is 
A snow white pig (xoTpos), and singed most carefully. 
A. 'Sow boil him, and take care he is not burnt. 

And again in another place he says— 

But having kill'd this pig (xoipov rovSe), of the same litter 
Which has wrought so much mischief in the house. 
Pushing and turning ev'rything upside down. 

And these lines have all been quoted by Chamseleon, in his 
Commentary ou ^schylus. 

18. But concerning Ihe pig, that it is accounted a sacred 
animal among the Cretans, Agathocles the Babylonian, in 
the first book of his account of Cyzicus, speaks as follows — 
" They say that Jupiter was bom in Crete, on the mountain 
Dicte; on which mountain a mysterious sacrifice used to take 
place. For it is said that a sow allowed Jupiter to suck its 
udder. And that she going about with her constant grunting, 
made the whining of the infant inaudible to those who were 
looking for him. On which account all the Cretans think 
that that animal is to be worshipped ; and nothing, it is said, 
can induce them to eat its flesh. And the Praisians also 
sacrifice to a sow ; and this is a regular sacrifice among that 
people before marriage. And Neanthes of Cyzicus gives 
a similar account, in the second book of his treatise on 

Achseus the Eretrian mentions fiill-grown sows under the 
name of TrcTaXi'Ses res in Mthon, a satyric drama, where h6. 

And I have often heard of full-grown sows 
Under this shape and form. 

c- 20.] HQS. 593 

But he has given the name of ireToXiSw by a metaphor from 
heifers. For they are called TrerrjXoi, or spreading, from their 
horns, when they have spreading horns. And Eratosthenes 
has spoken of pigs in the same way as Achseus has in his 
Anterinnys, and has called them Xapivoi, using this word 
metaphorically, which properly belongs to fatted oxen ; which 
were called so from the verb Xoptveuo/iat, which is a word of 
the same meaning as o-m^oy*at, to be fed up. And Sophron. 
uses the word — 

fi6es Se Kaptveiovraf 

or perhaps it comes from Larina, a small town of Epirus, or 
fi'om the name of the herdsman, which may have been 

19. And once when a pig was served up before us, the half 
of which was being carefully roasted, and the other half boiled 
gently, as if it had been steamed, and when all marvelled at 
the cleverness of the cook, he being very proud of his skill, 
said^And, indeed, there is not one of you who can point out 
the place where he received the death wound ; or where his 
belly was cut so as to be stuffed with all sorts of dainties. 
For it has thrushes in it, and other birds ; and it has also in 
it parts of the abdomens of pigs, and slices of a sow's womb, 
and the yolks of eggs, and moreover the entrails of birds, with 
their ovaries, those also being full of delicate seasoning, and 
also pieces of meat shred into thin shavings and seasoned 
with pepper. For I am afraid to use the word ia-iKia before 
Ulpian, although I know that he himself is very fond of the 
thing. And, indeed, my favourite author Paxamus speaks of 
it by this name, and I myself do not care much about using 
no words but such as are strictly Attic. Do you, therefore, 
show me now how this pig was killed, and how I contrived 
to roast half of him and to boil the other side. — And as 
we kept on examining him, the cook said, — But do you 
think that I know less about my business than the ancient 
cooks, of whom the comic poets speak? for Posidippus, in 
his Dancing Women, speaks as follows — and it is a cook 
who is represented as making the following speech to his 
pupils — 

20. My pupil Leucon, and the rest of you, 
You fellow aervants— for there is no place 
Unfit to lecture upon science in j 

ATH. — VOL. 11. Q Q 


Enow that in the cookeiy no seasoning 

Is equal to the sauce of impudence. 

And, if I must confess the whole o' the tnitn, 

You'll find this quality of great use everywhere. 

See now, this tribune, who displays a breast-plate 

All oyer scales, or dragon wrought in steel. 

Appears some Briareus ; but when th' occasion 

Calls for his might, he proves a very hare. 

So when a cook with helpers and attendants 

Comes to some stranger, and his pupils brings. 

Calling the servants of the house mere humbugs. 

Mere cummin splitters, famine personified ; 

They all crouch down before him : but if you bear 

Yourself with honesty and spirit towards him. 

He'll fly half flay'd with fear. Do you remember. 

And, as I bade you, give fair room for boasting. 

And take you care to know the taste of the guests ; 

For as in any other market, so 

This is the goal which all your art should seek, , 

To run straight into all the feasters' mouths 

As into harbour. At the present moment 

We're busied about a marriage feast — 

An ox is ofier'd as the choicest victim ; 

The father-in-law is an illustrious man. 

The son-in-law a person of like honour ; 

Their wives are priestesses to the good goddess, 

■Corybantes, flutes, a crowd of revellers 

Are all assisting at the festival. 

Here's an arena for our noble art. • 

Always remember this. 

And concerning another cook (wliose name is Seuthes) the 
same poet speaks in the following manner — 

Seuthes, in the opinion of those men. 

Is a great bungler. But I'd have you know. 

My excellent friend, the case of a good cook 

Is not unlike that of a general. 

The enemy are present, — the commander, 

A chief of lofty genius, stands against them. 

And fears not to support the weight of war : — ■ 

Here the whole band of revellers is the enemy. 

It marches on in close array, it comes 

Keen with a fortnight's calculation 

Of all the feast : excitement fires their breasts. 

They're ready for the fray, and watch with zeal 

To see what will be served up now beforethem. 

Think now, that such a crowd collected sits 

To judge of your performance. 

21. Then you know there is a cook in the Synephebi of 
Euphron; just hear what a lecture he giveg — 

c. 22.] COOKS. 595 

When, Carion, you a supper do prepare, 

For those who their own contributions bring, 

You have no time to play, nor how to practise 

Por the iirst time the lessons you've received. 

And you were yesterday in danger too ; 

For not one single one of all your tenches 

Had any liver, but they all were empty. 

The brain was decomposed too. — ^But you must, 

Carion, when at any future time 

You chance a iband like this to thus encounter, 

As Dromon, Cordon, and Soterides, 

Giving you all the wages that you ask'd. 

Deal with them fairly. Where we now are going 

To a marriage feast, there try experiments. 

And if you well remember all my rules. 

You are my real pupil ; and a cook 

By no means common : 'tis an opportunity 

A man should pray for. Make the best of it. 

The old man is a miser, and his pay 

Is little. If I do not find you eating up 

The very coals, you're done for. Now go in ; 

For here the old man comes himself, behold 

How like a skin-flint usurer he looks ! 

22. But the cook in Sosipater's Liar is a great sophist, and 
in no respect inferior to the physicians in impudence. And 
he speaks as fiallows — 

A . My art, if you now rightly do consider it. 
Is not, Demylus, at all an art 

To be consider'd lightly ; — ^but alas, 

'Tis too much prostituted ; and you'll find 

That nearly all men fear not to profess 

That they are cooks, though the first principles 

Of the great art are wholly strange to them ; 

And so the whole art is discredited. 

But when you meet an honest, genuine cook. 

Who from his childhood long has learnt the art. 

And knows its great efifects, and has its rules 

Deep buried in his mind ; then, take my word. 

You'll find the business quite a different thing. 

There are but three of us now left in Greece j 

Boidion, and Chariades, and I ; 

The rest are all the vilest of the vile. 

B. Indeed? 

X.I mean it. We alone preserve 
The school of Sicon : he was the great teacher 
Of all our art : he was the first who taught us 
To scan the stars with judgment : the great Sicon 1 
Then, next to this he made us architects : 
He open'd too the paths of physical knowledge ; 
And after this he taught us all th« rules 
Q Q 2 


Of military science ; for all these 
Were but preliminaries accessory 
To the preeminent, god-like art of cooking. 
B. I think you mean to choke me, my good friend. 

A . Not I ; but till the boy comes back from market 
I'll stir you up a little with some rules 

About your art, since we can never have 
A more convenient time for talking of it. 

B. Oh, by Apollo, you're a zealous man. 

A. liisten, my friend. In the first place, a cook 
Must the sublimer sciences have learnt : 

He must know when the stars do set and rise. 
And why. Moreover, when the sun returns. 
Causing the long and short days on the earth ; 
And in what figures of the zodiac 
He is from time to time. For, men do say 
All fish, and every meat and herb we eat. 
Have difi'erent qualities at different seasons 
Of the revolving year; and he who knows 
The principles and reasons of these things 
Will use each meat when it is most in season ; 
And he who knows them not, but acts at random, 
Is always laugh'd at most deservedly. 
Perhaps, too, you don't know wherein the science 
Of th' architect can bear on this our art. 

B. Indeed I wonder'd what it had to do with it. 

A. I'll tell you : — rightly to arrange the kitchen. 
To let in just the light that's requisite, 

To know the quarter whence the winds blow most. 
Are all of great importance in this business — 
For smoke, according to which way it goes, 
Makes a great difference when you dress a dinner. 

B. That may be ; but what need is there, I pray. 
For cooks to have the science of generals 1 

A. Ordej iia prevailing principle 

In every art ; and most of all in ours : 
For to serve up and take away each dish 
In regular order, and to know the time 
When quick t' advance them, and when slowly bring. 
And how each guest may feel towards the supper. 
And when hot dishes should be set before him, 
When warm ones, and when regular cold meat 
Should be served up, depends on various branches 
Of strategetic knowledge, like a general's. 

B. Since then you've shown me what I wish'd to know. 
May you, departing now, enjoy yourself. 

23. And the cook in the Milesians of Alexis is not very 
different from this, for he speaks as follows — 

A. Do you not know, that in most arts and trades 
'Tia not th' artificer who alone has pow'r 

c. 24.] COOKS. 597 

O'er their enjoyment? Those who use them too 

Contribute all their partj if well they use them. 
B. How so 1 Let me, stranger, understand. 
A. The duty of the cook is but to dress 

And rightly season meat ; and nothing more. 

If, then, the mau who is to eat his meat, 

And judge of it, comes in proper time, 

He aids the cook in that his business. 

But if he come too late, so that the joint 

Already roasted must be warm'd again. 

Or if he come too soon, so that the cook 

Is forced to roast the meat with undue haste. 

He spoils the pleasure which he might have had 

Prom the cook's skill by his unpunctuality. 

I class a cook among philosophers ; 

You're standing round ; my fire is alight ; 

See how the numerous dogs of Vulcan's pack 

Leap to the roof; 

You know what happens next : 

And so some unforeseen necessity 

Has brought on us alone this end of life. 

24. But Eiiphrou, whom I mentioned a little while ago, 
judges, (for I do not hesitate to caU you judges, while 
awaiting the decision of your sense,) in his play called the 
Brothers, having represented a certain cook as a well-educated 
man of extensive learning, and enumerating all the artists 
before his time, and what particular excellence each of them 
had, and what he surpassed the rest in, still never mentioned 
anything of such a nature as I have frequently prepared for 
you. Accordingly, he speaks as follows — 

I have, ere this, had many pupils, Lycus, 
Because I've always had both wit and knowledge ; 
But you, the youngest of them all. are now 
Leaving my house an all-accomplish'd cook 
In less than forty weeks. There was the Rhodian 
Agis, the best of cooks to roast a fish ; 
Nereus, the Chian, could a conger boil 
Fit for the gods : Charides, of Athens, 
Could season forcemeat of the whitest hue : 
Black broth was first devised by Lamprias j 
Sausages rich we owe to Aphthonetus ; 
Euthunus taught us to make lentil soup ; 
Aristion made out whole bills of fare 
For those who like a picnic entertainment. 
So, like those grave philosophers of old. 
These are our seven wisest of all cooks. 
But I, for all the other ground I saw 


Had been pre-occupied by former artists, 
ITirst found out how to steal/ in such a way 
That no one blamed me, but all sought at once 
T' engage my aid. And you, perceiving too 
This ground already occupied by me. 
Invented something new yourself — 'tis this : — 
Five days ago the Tenians, grey old men. 
After a tedious voyage o'er the sea. 
Did hold a sacrifice : a small thin kid : 
Lycus could crib no portion of that meat, 
Nor could his master. Yon compell'd the mea 
To furnish two more kids. For as they long 
And oft survey'd the liver of the victims, 
You, letting down one unperoeived hand. 
Were impudent enough to throw the kidneys 
Into the ditch : you raised a mighty tumult : 
" The victim has no kidneys," they exolaim'd, 
And all look'd downcast at th' unusual want. 
They slew another, and again I saw 
You eat the heart from out this second victim. 
You surely are a mighty man ; you know it — 
For you alone have found a way to hinder 
A wolf (\vKov) from opening his mouth in vain. 
And I yesterday you threw some strings of sausages 
(Which you had sought all day) into the fire, 
And sang to the dichordon. And I witness'd 
That play of yours ; but this is merely sport. 

■25. I wonder if it was any of these second seven wise men 
who contrived this device about the pig, so as to stuff his 
inside without cutting his throat, and so as to roast one side 
of him and boil the other at the same time. And as we now 
urged and entreated him to explain this clever device to' us, 
he said, — I will not tell you this year, I swear by those who 
encountered danger at Marathon, and also by those who 
fought at Salamis. So when he had taken such an oath as 
that, we all thought we ought not to press the man ; but all 
began to lay hands on the different dishes which were served 
up before us. And TJlpian said, — I svrear by those who 
encountered danger at Artemisium, no one shall taste of any- 
thing before we are . told in what ancient author the word 
Trapacjjepia is used in the sense of serving up. For as to the 
word yeuimra, I think I am the. only person who knows 
anything about that. And Magnus said, Aristophanes in hit. 
Proagon says — 

^ This is very obscure and corrupt. Casaubon suspects the genuine- 
ness of the last four lines altogether. 


^Vhy did yon not desire liim to place 

Tlie goblets on tlie board {vapa<j>4peiv) t 
And Sophron, iu Ms Female Actresses, uses the word in a 
more general sense, where he says — 

Cocoas, bring {irajdipfpe) me now a goblet full. 
And Plato, in his Lacedsemonians, says — 

Let him bring forward (irapaipepeTa)). 

And Alexis, in his Paraphila, says — 

He laid the table, then he placed on it {irapapipav) 
Good things in wagon loads. 

But concerning the word ycvfiara., meaning anything which is 
tasted, food, the exclusive knowledge about which you have 
claimed for yourself, it is time for you now to tell us, 
Ulpian, what you do know. For as to the verb yeva-ai, we 
have that in EupoUs, in his Goats, where he says — 

Take now of this, and taste (yedffcu) it. 
And Ulpian said, Ephippus in his Peltastes says — 

There there were stations for the horses and asses. 
And wine to drink (yevfiwra olvwv). 

And Antiphanes, in his Twins, says — 

Now he drinks wine {olvoyevarst) and walks about in splendour. 
Wreathed with flowery garlands. 

26. On this the cook said— I, then, will relate to you 
now, not an ancient contrivance, but a device of my own, in 
order that the flute-player may escape being beaten; (for 
Eubulus, in his Lacedaemonians or Leda, says — 

But I have heard of this, I swear by Vesta, 
That when the cook at home makes any blunder. 
The flute-player is always beaten for it. 

And Philyllius, or whoever the poet may have been who wrote 

the play of The Cities, says — 

Whatever blunders now the cook may make. 
The flute-player receives the stripes for them.) 

And I mean the device about the pig half-roasted, half-boiled, 
and stuffed, without having had any apparent incision made 
in him. The fact is, the pig was stuck with a very short 
wound under his shoulder; (and he showed the wound.) Then 
when the gi-eater part of the blood had flowed from it, all 
the entrails, with the intestines, I washed (and the word 
efatpeo-ls, you revellers who think so much of words, means 


not only a taking out, but also the entrails themselves) care- 
fully in wine several times, and hung the pig up by his 
feet. Then again I washed him in wine ; and having boiled 
up beforehand all the seasonings which I have spoken of 
with a good deal of pepper, I pushed them in at his mouth, 
pouring in afterwards a quantity of broth very carefully 
made. And after this I plastered over one-half of the pig, as 
you see, with a great quantity of barleymeal, having soaked 
that in wine and oil. And then I put it in an oven, 
placing under it a brazen table, and I roasted it at a gentle 
fire, so as not to burn it, nor, on the other hand, to take it 
away before it was quite done. And when the skin began to 
get roasted and brown, I conjectured that the other side was 
boiled enough. And so then I took off the barleymeal, and 
brought it up in that condition and set it before you. 

27. But as to the word iiaCpecrK, my excellent friend Ulpian, 
Dionysius the comic poet, in his drama called Things having 
the same Name, speaks thus, representing a cook speaking to 
his pupils- 
Come now, Dromon, if you anght do know. 

Wise or accomplish'd in your business. 

Or fit to charm the eyes, reveal it straight 

To me your master. For I ask you now 

For a brief exhibition of your skill. 

I'm leading you into an enemy's country ; 

Come gaily to the charge. They'll weigh the meat 

And count the joints they give you, and they'll watch you: 

But you, by boiling them to pieces, will 

Not only make them tender, but confuse 

The number of the pieces, so as quite 

To upset all their calculations. 

They bring yon a fine fish ; — his trail is yours. 

And if you filch a slice, that, too, is yours. 

While we are in the house : when we've got out 

It then belongs to me. Th' i^atptaea, 

And all the other parts, which can't be counted, 

In which you cannot easily be found out. 

Which may be class'd as parings and as scrapings. 

Shall make a feast for you and me to-morrow. 

And let the porter share in all your spoils. 

That you may pass his gate with his good-will. 

Why need I say much to a prudent manl 

You are my pupil, I am your preceptor, 

Eemember this, and come along with me. 

28. And so when we had all praised the cook for the 


readiness of his discourse, and for the exceeding perfection of 
his skill, our excellent entertainer Laurentius said — And how 
much better it is for cooks to learn such things as these, than 
as they do with one whom I could mention of our fellow- 
citizens, who having had his head tm'ned by riches and 
luxury, compelled his cooks to learn the dialogues of the 
incomparable Plato, and when they were bringing in dishes 
to say, " One, two, three, but where is the fourth, most 
excellent Timseus, of those who were guests yesterday, but 
who are hosts to-day V Then another made answer, " Aa 
illness has overtaken him, Socrates," — and so they went 
through the whole dialogue in this manner, so that those 
who were at the feast were very indignant, and so that that 
all- accomplished man was laughed at and insulted every day, 
and that on this account many most respectable men refused 
all invitations to his entertainments. But these cooks of ours, 
who are perhaps just as well instructed in these things as he 
was, give us no little pleasure. And then the slave who had 
been praised for his cleverness as a cook, said, — Now what 
have my predecessors ever devised or told us of a similar 
kind to this? and is not my behaviour moderate enough, since 
I do not boast myself ? And yet Coroebus the Elean, who was 
the first man who ever was crowued as victor in the Olympic 
games, was a cook ; and yet he was not as proud of his skill 
and of his art as the cook in Straton in the Phoenioides, con- 
cerning whom the man who had hired him speaks thus — 

29. 'Tis a male sphinx, and not a cook, that I 
Seem to have introduced into my house. 
For by the gods I swear there's not one thing 
or all he says that I can understand. 
So full is he of fine new-fangled words. 
For when he first came in, he, looking big, 
Ask'd me this question — -" How many ^e'poires' now 
Have you invited here to dinner? Tell nie." — 
"How many yufpinrei have I ask'd to dinner?" — 
"You're angry." — " Do you think that I'm a man 
To have acquaintance with your /upores'i 
It is a fine idea, to make a banquet 
And ask a lot of /tepoires to eat it." 
" Then do you mean there'll be no Sairifiav (guest) ? " 
" No Dsetymon that 1 know of." — Then I counted— 

' Me'poirts means properly men speaking articulately, in contradis- 
tinction to brutes. It is a favourite word with Homer. 



There'll be Philinus, and Niceratue, 
And Moschion, and this man too, and that — 
And so I counted them all name by name ; 
But there was not a Dsetymon among them. 
"No Dsetymon will come," said I. " What ! no one?" 
Eeplied he in a rage, as though insulted 
That not a Dsetymon had been invited. 
" Do you not slay that tearer up of tb' earth," 
Said he, " the broad-brow'd ox ] " " In truth, not I ; 
I've got no OS to kill, you stupid fellow." 
" Then you will immolate some sheep 1 " " Not I, 
By Jove ; nor ox, nor sheep, but there's a lamb." 
" What ! don't you know, said he, that lambs are sheep ? " 
" Indeed," said I, " I neither know nor care 
For all this nonsense. I'm but country bred ; 
So speak more plainly, if you speak at all." 
" Why, don't you know that this is Homer's language ? " 
" My good cook. Homer was a man who had 
A right to call things any names he pleased ; 
But what, in Vesta's name, is that to us 1 " 
" At least you can't object when I quote him." 
" Why, do you mean to kill me with your Homer ? " 
" Wo, but it is my usual way of talking." 
" Then get another way, while here with me." 
" Shall 1," says he, " for your four dirty drachmas. 
Give up my eloquence and usual habits ? 
Well, bring me here the oi\6xi'Tai." " Oh me ! 
What are oiSAcxutoi ? " " Those barley-cakes." 
" You madman, why such roundabout expressions ? " 
" Is there no sediment of the sea at hand ? " 
" Sediment % Speaik plain ; do tell me what you want 
In words I understand," " Old man," says be, 
" Tou are most wondrous dull; have you no salt? 
That's sediment, and that you ought to know ; 
Bring me the basin." — So they brought it. He 
Then slew the animals, adding heaps of words 
Which not a soul of us could understand, 
Mf(m/AAo, fxoipaSf dlirrvy^, o^eAoiJs^ — 
So that I took Philetas' Lexicon down. 
To see what each of all these words did mean. 
And then once more I pray'd of him to change. 
And speak like other men ; by earth I swear. 
Persuasion's self could not have work'd on him. 
30. But the race of cooks are really very curious for the 
most part about the histories and names of things. Accord- 
ingly the most learned of them say, " The knee is nearer than 
^ These are words applied by Homer to sacrifices. — Mo7ptt is a portion, 
and oiSeAis a spit ; but /iiffrvWa is only a word derived from Homer's 
verb luarixxai, (from which .fimilianus, a friend of Martial, called'his 
cook Mistyllus,) and, S'mrvxa is used by Homer as an. adverb; 

o- 32.] C00K3. 603 

the leg," — and, " I have travelled over Asia and Europe :" 
and when they are finding fault with any one they say, " It is 
impossible to make a Peleua' out of an CEneus." — And I once 
marvelled at one of the old cooks, after I had enjoyed his skill 
and the specimens of his art which he had invented. And 
Alexis, in his Caldron, introduces one speaking in the follow- 
ing manner — 

A. He boil'd, it seem'd to me, some pork, from off 
A pig who died by suffocation. 

B. That's nice. 

A. And then he scorch'd it at the fire. 
-B. Never mind that ; that can be remedied. 
A. How so? 

B. Take some cold vinegar, and pour it 

Into a plate. Dost heed me? Then take up 

The dish while hot and put it in the vinegar ; 

Tor while 'tis hot 'twill draw the moisture tip 

Through its material, which is porous all ; 

And BO fermenting, like a pumice-stone, 

'Twill open all its spongy passages. 

Through which it will imbibe new moisture thoroughly. 

And so the meat will cease to seem dried up. 

But will be moist and succulent again. 

A. O Phoebus, what a great physician's here ! 

Glaucias ! — I will do all you tell me. 

B. And serve them, when you do serve them up, 
(Dost mark me ?) cold ; for so no smell too strong 
Will strike the nostrils ; but rise high above them. 

A. It seems to me you're fitter to write books 

Thau to cook dinners ; since you quibble much 
In all your speeches, jesting on your art. 

31. And now we have had enough of cooks, my feasters ; lest 
perhaps some one of them, pluming himself and quoting the 
Morose Man of Menander, may spout such lines as these — 

No one who does a cook an injury 
Ever escapes unpnnjsh'd ; for our art 
Is a divine and noble one. 

But I say to you, in the words of the tuneful Diphilus — 

1 place before you now a lamb entire. 

Well skewer'd, and well cook'd and season'd ; 
Some porkers in their skins, and roasted whole ; 
And a fine goose stuff'd full, like Dureua. 

32. We must now speak of the goose. For as many geese 
were served up very excellently dressed, some one said, Look 
at the fet geese (o-weurot x^ve's). And Ulpian said. Where do 
you ever find the expression ottoitos x^v 1 And Plutarch 


answered him : — Theopompus the Chian, in his History of 
Greece, and in the thirteenth book of his History of the Affairs 
and Exploits of Philip, says that the Egyptians sent to Agesi- 
laus the Lacedsemonian, when he arrived in Egypt, some fatted 
(a-iTevTovs) calves and geese {xv^o-'s): -^^ Epigenes the comic 
poet says in his Bacchanalian Women — 

But if a person were to take me like 

A fatted goose {xn'"^ ffirevrov). 

And Archestratus, in that celebrated poem of his, says — 

And at the same time dress tlie young of one 

Fat goose (o-itcutoC xv""!), and let him too be roasted thoroughly. 

But we have a right now, Ulpian, to expect you to tell 
us, you who question everybody about everything, where this 
very costly dish of the livers of geese has been mentioned by 
any ancient writer. For Cratinus is a witness that they were 
acquainted with people whose business it was to feed geese, 
in his Dionysalexander, where he says — 
Geese-feeders, cow-herds .... 
And Homer uses the word ^iji' ia both the masculine and 
feminine gender ; for he says — 

Aleros apy^v XV""^ <f>epav — An eagle carrying off a lazy goose. 
And again he says — 

And as he seized a fine home-fatten'd goose (x^y a-riTaWoiieriiv). 

And in another place he says — 

I've twenty geese, fond of the lucid stream, 
Who in my house eat wheat, and fatten fast. 

And Eupolis mentions the livers of geese (and they are 
thought an excessive delicacy at Eome), in his Women Selling 
Garlands, where he says — 

If you hare not a goose's liver or heart. 
33. There were also heads of pigsTsplit in half and sei-ved 
up as a dish. And this dish is mentioned by Crobylus, in 
his Son falsely held to be Supposititious — 

There came in half a head of a young pig, 
A tender dish ; and I did stick to it 
So close, by Jove, that I left none of it. 

After these things there was served up a haricot, called 
Kpc<uKaKKa/8os. And this dish consists of meat chopped up 
with blood and fat, in a sauce richly sweetened : and Aris- 
tophanes the Grammarian says that it was the Achseans who 


gave this name to the dish. But Anticlides, in the seventy- 
eighth book of his Returns, says, " Once when there was a 
design on the part of the Erythreans to put the Chians to 
death by treachery at a banquet, one of them having learnt 
what was intended to he done, said — 

Chians, wondrous is the insolence 
Which now has seized the Erythreans' hearts. 

Flee when you've done your pork — don't wait for beef. 
And Aristomenes, in his Jugglers, makes mention in the fol- 
lowing terms of boiled meat, which he calls avaftpacna. Kpia. — 

• • • • * 

They used also to eat the testicles of animals, which they 
called vi(^poi. — Philippodes, in his Renovation, speaking of the 
gluttony of Gnathsena the courtesan, says — 

Then, after all these things, a slave came in, 

Bearing a large dish fiill of testicles ; 

And all the rest of the girls made prudish faces, 

But fair Gnathsena, that undoer of men, 

Laughed, and said, " Capital things are testicles, 

1 swear by Ceres." So she took a pair 
And ate them up : so that the guests around 
Fell back upon their chairs from laughing greatly. 

34. And when some one said that a cock dressed with a 
sauce of oil and vinegar (ofuXtVapov) was a very good bird, 
Ulpian, who was fond of finding fault, and who was reclining 
on a couch by himself, eating little, but watching the rest of 
the guests, said — What is that 6i^iXura.pov you speak of? 
unless indeed you give that name to the small figs called 
Konava and lepidium, which are both national food of mine. 
— But Timocles, he replied, the comic poet, in his play 
called The Ring, mentions oi;v\iirapov, saying — 
And sharks and rays and all the other lish, 
Which may be dressed in sauce of o^vXiirapov. 

And Alexis has called some men oKpcXUapoi, fat on the siur- 
face, in his Wicked Woman, sajdng — 

Fat on the surface, but the rest of their body 

Is all as dry as wood. 
And once when a large fish was served up in sour pickle 
(piaXp-rj), and somebody said that every fish (oi/raptov) was 
best when dressed in this kind of pickle, Ulpian, picking 
out the small bones, and contracting his brows, said, — Where 
do you find the word 6^a.\p.i}% And as to oipdpiov, I am quite 
sure that that is a word used by no living author. However, 


at that time the guests all desired him to setde that as he 
pleased, and themselves preferred eating; ■while Cymilcus 
quoted these lines out of the Breezes of Metagenes — 
But, my friend, now let us dine. 

After that ask what you choose ; 
For at present I'm so hungry, 
I can't recollect a thing. 
But Myrtilus in a pleasant manner declared that he suh- 
scribed to Ulpian's sentiments, so as to be willing to hate 
nothing to eat, as long as he might talk ; and said ; — Cratinus, 
in his Ulysseses, has mentioned 6^6Xix,r], in the following 
lines — 

And in return for this I now will take 

All you my brave companions ; and will pound. 

And boil, and broil, and roast you thoroughly, 

In pickle, sour pickle (d|oX;ii7)), garlic pickle. 

Soaking you thoroughly in each by turns. 

And that one which does seem most fairly roasted 

I'll do the honour to devour myself. 

And Aristophanes, in his Wasps,^ 

Breathe on me, and then put me in hot pickle (otfLKjui). 
35. And of living people we ourselves use the word oipdpiov. 
Plato does so too; speaking of fish in his Pisander, he 

A, Now eating .... 

B. What on earth? . . . 

A. Why, all there is ; 
Eish {orjliipiov). 

B. Tou were sick, and did they give you this ? 
A. But I, the other day, eating a crab .... 

And Phereerates, in his Deserters, says — 

Some one has served us up this dish of fish {t o<\idptoy}. 

And Philemon, in his Treasure, says — 
It is not right to cheat us in this way, 
Nor^to have worthless fish {otfidpia). 

And Menander, in his Carthaginian, says — 
I offered Boreas much frankincense. 
And yet I did not catch one single fish (oifiopioy). 
So I must now cook lentils for my supper. 

And in his Ephesian he says — 

Having some fish (oi|/^piov) for breakfast. 

And then he goes on to say — 

Some fishmonger 
Sold me some tench for four drachmas, a-piece. 

•C. 36.] MADE DISHES. 607 

And Auaiilaa, in his Hyacinthus the Pander, says — 
I now, Dion, will buy you some fish {o^^dpiov). 

And a few lines afterwards he writes — 

Now dress, boy, the fish (Toii^dpioi/) for us. 

And in the Anagyrus of Aristophanes we read — 

Unless on all occasions you do soothe me 
With dainty dishes offish (otliaplov). 

Where, however, perhaps we must take oij/dpia as used synony- 
mously with Trpoa-oij/unrqiJ.aTa, for made dishes in general. For 
Alexis, in his Woman Sitting up all Night, represents a cook 
as speaking in the following terms : — 

A. Do you prefer your high made dishes hot, 
Or cold, or something just between the two) 

B. Cold. 

A . Are yoa sure, my master 1 only think ; 
The man has not one notion how to live 1 
Am I to serve you everything up cold 1 
-B. By no means. 

A. Will you, then, have all things hot? 

B. Phoebus! 

A. Then, if neither hot nor cold. 
They surely must be just between the two ; 
And none of all my fellows can do this. 
B. I dare say not, nor many other things 
Which yon can do. 

A. I'll tell you now, for I 
Give all the guests an opportunity 
To practise a wise mixture of their food. 
Have you not, I adjure you by the gods, 
Just slain a kid 1 

B. Don't cut me, cut the meat : — 
Boys, bring the kid. 

A. Is there a kitchen near ? 
B. There is. 

A. And has it got a chimney too 1 
For this yon do not say. 

B. It has a chimney. 

A . But if it smokes, it will be worse than none. 

B. The man will kill me with his endless questions. 

36. These passages I have quoted to you on the part of us 
■who are still alive, my well-fed friend Ulpian. For you too, 
as it seems to me, agree so far with Alexis as to eat no living 
animals. And Alexis, in his Attic Woman, speaks in the 
following manner — 

The man who first did say that no philosopher 

Would eat of living things, was truly wise. 


For I am just come home, and have not "bought 

A living thing of any kind. I've bought 

Some fish, but they were dead, and splendid fish. 

Then here are joints of well-fed household Iamb, 

But he was kill'd last week. What else have 1 1 

Oh, hero's some roasted liver. If there be 

A man who can this liver prove to have 

Or soul or voice or animation, 

I will confess I've err'd and broken the law. 

So HOW after all this let us have some supper. For just see, 
■while I am talking to you, all the pheasants have flown by 
me, and are gone out of reach, disregarding me, because of 
your unseasonable chattering. But I should like you to tell 
me, my master Myrtilus, said Ulpian, where you got that 
■word oK^LoydtTTiap, and also whether any ancient author men- 
tions the pheasant, and I — 

Rising at early morn to sail .... 
not through the Hellespont, but into the market-place, will 
buy a pheasant which you and I may eat together. 

37. And Myrtilus said, — On this condition I will tell you. 
Amphis uses th§ word oX/Bioydcrriisp in his Gynseoomania, 
where he speaks as follows : — 

Eurybates, you hunter of rich smells, 

You surely are the most well-fed {oKfiioyaffrap) of men. 

And as for the bird called the pheasant, that delicious writer 
Aristophanes mentions it in his play called The Birds. There 
are in that play two old Athenians, who, from their love ot 
idleness, are looking for a city where there is nothing to 
do, that they may live there; and so they take a fancy 
to the life among the birds. And accordingly they come to 
the birds : and when all of a sudden some wild bird flies 
towards them,' they, alarmed at the sight, comfort one 
another, and say a great many things, and among them they 
say this — 

A. What now is this bird which we here behold 1 

Will you not say J 

B. I think it is a pheasant. 
And I also understand the passage in the Clouds to refer to 
birds, arid not to horses as many people take it — 

The Phasian flocks, bred by Leogoras. 
For it is very possible that Leogoras may have bred horses 
and pheasants too. And Leogoras is also turned into ridi- 
cule as a gourmand by Plato in Ms Very Miserable Man. 

C- 38.] PHEASANTS. 609 

And Mnesimachus, in his play called Philip, (and Mnesi- 
machus is one of the poets of the Middle Comedy,) says — 
And as the proverb runs, it is more rare 
Than milk of birds, or than a splendid pheasant 
Artistically pluck'd. 

And Theophrastus the Eresian, a pupil of Aristotle, mentions 
them in the third book of his Treatise on Animals, speaking 
nearly as follows — " There is also some such difference as this 
in birds. For the heavy birds which are not so well suited 
for flying, such as the woodcock, the pai-tridge, the cock, and 
the pheasant, are very well adapted for walking and have 
thick plumage." And Aristotle, in the eighth book of his 
History of Animals, writes thus : — " Now of birds there are 
some which are fond of dusting themselves, and some which 
are fond of washing, and some which neither dust nor wash 
themselves. And those which are not good flyers, but whicli 
keep chiefly on the ground, are fond of dusting themselves ; 
such as the common fowl, the partridge, the woodcock, the 
pheasant, the lark." Speusippus also mentions them in the 
second book of his treatise on Things Resembling one 
another. And the name these men give the pheasant is 
^axruivos, not (jioxrvaviKm. 

38. But Agatharchides of Cnidos, in the thirty-fourth book 
of his History of the Afiairs of Europe, speaking of the river 
Phasis, writes as follows : — " But the great multitude of the 
birds called pheasants (<^a(rtavot) come for the sake of food 
to the places where the mouths of the rivers fall into the sea." 
And CaUixenus the Rhodian, in the fourth book of his Account 
of Alexandria, describing a procession which took place in 
Alexandria, when Ptolemy who was sumamed Philadelphus 
was king, mentions, as a very extraordinary circumstance con- 
nected with these birds — " Then there were brought on in cases 
parrots, and peacocks, and guinea-fowl, and pheasants, and 
an immense number of .Ethiopian birds." And Artemidorus 
the pupil of Aristophanes, in his book entitled The Glossary 
of Cookery, and Pamphilus the Alexandrian, in his treatise on 
Names and Words, represents Epsenetus as saying in his 
Cookery Book that the pheasant is also called raTu/oa?. But 
Ptolemy Euergetes, in the second book of his Commentaries, 
says that the pheasant is called rc'rapTos. Now this is what 
I am able to tell you about the pheasant, which I have seen 

ATH. — VOL. 11. B B 


brought up on your account, as if we all liad fevers. But 
you, if you do not, according to your agreement, give me to- 
morrow what you have covenanted to, I do not say that I 
will prosecute you in the public courts for deceit, but I will 
send you ' away to live near the Phasi, as Polemon, the 
Describer of the World, wished to drown Ister the pupil of 
Calhmachus, the historian, in the river of the same name. 

39. The next thing to be mentioned is the woodcock. 
Aristophanes, in his Storks, says — 

The woodcock, most delicious meat to boil, 
'Fit dish for conqueror's triumphal feast. 

And Alexander the Myndian says that it is a bird a little 
largw than a partridge, and spotted all over the back, about 
the colour of earthenware, but a little more ruddy. And it 
is caught by the hunters, because it is a heavy flyer in conse- 
quence of the shortness of its wings ; and it is a bird fond of 
dusting itself, and very prohfic, and it feeds on seeds. ' But 
Socrates, in his treatise on Boundaries, and Places, and Fire, 
and Stones, says, — " The woodcock having been transported 
into Egypt from Lydia, and having been let loose in the 
woods there, for some time uttered a sound hke a quail : but 
after the river got low, and a great scarcity arose, in which a 
great many of the natives of the country died, they never 
ceased uttering, as they do to this day, in a voice more dis- 
tinct than that of the very clearest speaking children, ' Three- 
fold evils to the wicked doers.' But when they are caught 
it is not only impossible to tame them, but they even cease 
to utter any so\md at all; but if they are let go again, they 
recover their voice." And Hipponax mentions them thus — ■ 

Not eating woodcocks or the timid hare. 
And Aristophanes, in his Birds, mentions them also. And 
in his Achaxnians he speaks of them as being very common 
in the district about Megara. And the Attic writers circum- 
flex the noun in a manner quite contrary to analogy. For 
words of more than two syllables ending in as, when the final 
a is long, are barytones; as for instance, aKa/;(,as, Sa/coSas, 
aSa/xas. And we ought also to read the plural drrdyai, and 
not arrayTjvesi 

' I have translated drraySs the woodcock, because that is always con- 
sidered to be the bird meant, but it is plain that the description here 
given does not apply in the least to the woodcock. In some particulars 
it is more like the landrail. 


40. There is also a bird called the porphyriou. And it is 
well known that this bird is mentioned by Aristophanes. 
And Polemo, in the fifth book of his treatise addressed to 
Antigonus and Adseus, says that the bird called the pprphy- 
rion, when it is kept in a house, watches those women who 
have husbands very closely ; and has such instantaneous per- 
ception of any one who commits adultery, that, when it 
perceives it, it gives notice of it to the master of the house, 
cutting its own existence short by hanging itself. And, says 
he, it never partakes of food before it has walked all round 
the place seeking for some spot which may suit it ; and then 
it dusts itself there, and washes itself, and after that it feeds. 
And Aristotle says that it has cloven feet, and that it is of a 
-dark blue colour, with long legs, with a beak of a scarlet 
colour beginning at its very head; of about the size of a cock 
of the common poultry breed; and it has a small gullet, on 
which account it seizes its food with its foot, and divides it 
into, diminutive morsels. And it drinks greedily; and it 
has five toes on each foot, of which the middle one is the 
largest. But Alexander the Myndian, in the second book of 
his treatise on the History of Birds, says that the bird comes 
originally from Libya, and that it is sacred to the gods of 

There is also another bird called the porphyris. CaUi- 
machus, in his treatise on Birds, says that the porphyris is 
different from the porphyriou, and enumerates the two birds 
separately. And he says that the porphyrion takes its food 
while hiding itself in darkness, so that no one may. see it ; 
for it hates those who come near its food. And Aristophanes 
also mentions the porphyris in his drama entitled The Birds. 
And Ibycus speaks of some birds which he calls lathipor- 
ph3rrides, and says ; " There are some variegated ducks with 
purple necks which frequent the highest branches of the 
trees; and the birds called lathiporphyrides with variegated 
necks, and king-fishers with extended wings." And in another 
place he says — 

You're always tearing me aloft, my mind, 

Like some told porphyris, with out-stretch'd wings. 

41. The next bird is the partridge. A great many authors 
mention this bird, as also does Aristophanes, And some of 

E E 2 


them in the oblique cases shorten the penultima of the noan ■ 
as Archilochus does where he writes — 

irrdiffffovfrav &s re ircpSjfKa, ^ 

in the same way as oprvya and yoiviKa have the penultima 

short. But it is usually made long by the Attic writers. 

Sophocles, in his Camici, says — 

A man arrived, who iu the famous hills 

Of Attica is a namesake of the partridge (vepSlKos). 

And Pherecrates, or whoever it was who wrote the Chiron, 

He goes against his will, like any partridge {wepSiKos Tp6irov). 
And Phrynichus, in his Tragedians, sayS — 

And Cleombrotus the son of Perdix (TIepilKos), 
(for the bird is sometimes cited as a model of lasoivious- 

Nicophon, in his Handicraftsmen, says — 

The hepseti, and all those partridges (ircpSi/cas). 
But Epicharmus, in his Eevellers, uses the word with the 
penultima short, where he says — 

They brought in cuttle-fish, who swim the deep, 
And partridges (ircpSruos) who fly in lofty air. 

And Aristotle gives the following account of the bird 

"The partridge is a land bird, with cloven feet; and he 
lives fifteen years: but the female lives even more. For 
among all birds the female lives longer than the male. It 
lays eggs, and hatches its young itself, as the common hen 
does. And when it is aware that it is being hunted, it comes 
away from its nest, and rolls near the legs of the huntsman 
giving him a hope that he may catch it; and so it deceives 
him, until its young have flown away, and then it flies away 
itself also. 

42. "But it is a very ill-disposed and cunning animal; and 
moreover it is much devoted to amatory enjoyments; oa 
which account it breaks the eggs . of its hen, that it may not 
be deprived of her while she is hatching them ; and therefore 
the hen, knowing this, runs away and hides her eggs." And 
Callimachus gives the same account in his treatise on Birds. 
And the single birds fight with one another, and the one 
which is defeated becomes the mate of the conqueror. But 
Aristotle says that they all in turn use the bird which 
has been defeated as their mate, and that the tame birds also 


take the wild ones for their mates. And the bird which is 
defeated by the other patiently allows itself to be treated 
by him as his mate. And this happens at a particular time 
of the year, as is also stated by Alexander the Myndian. And 
they lay their eggs on the ground, both the cocks and the 
hens making themselves separate nests. And the leader of the 
■wild birds attacks the decoy partridge, and when he is takei^ 
another comes forward to fight the decoy bird; and this is\ 
done whenever the bird used for the decoy is a cock bird; ' 
but when a hen is employed for the purpose, then she crows 
till the leader of the wild birds meets her, and the rest of 
the wild birds assemble and drive him away from the hen, 
because he is attending to her and not to them ; on which 
account sometimes he advances without making any noise, 
in order that no other bu-d may hear his voice and come to 
fight him. And sometimes the hen also checks the crowing of 
the cock as he comes up :' and very often when she is sitting 
on her nest she gets off it on perceiving the cock approach- 
ing the decoy bird, and remains there to receive his embraces 
in order to draw him away from the decoy bird. And so 
very eager to propagate their species are both quails and par- 
tridges, that they fall into the hands of the hunters on that 
account, sitting on the tiles. They say, too, that when hen 
partridges are taken out to hunt, even when they see or smell 
a cock standing or flying down the wind, become pregnant, 
and some say that they immediately begin to lay eggs. And 
about breeding time they fly about with their mouths 
open, putting out their tongues, both hens and cocks. And 
Clearchus says, in his treatise on Panic Fear, — "Sparrows and 
partridges, and also the common barn-door fowl and the 
quail, are eager to propagate their species, not only the 
moment that they see the hen, but even as soon as they hear 
her voice. And the cause of this is the excessive impression 
made on their minds by amatory pleasures and proximity. 
And you may see more easily all that takes place with 
respect to the propagation of their species if you put a 
looking-glass opposite to them. For they run forward, being 
deceived by the appearance, and behave as if they saw a hen, 
and so are caught. Only the common poultry cock does not 

' Schweighaeuser thinks, with apparent reason, that there is some cor- 
ruption in the text here. 


do SO. But the perception of -tte reflected image operates on 
them only so far as to make them wish to fight.'' And this is 
the statement of Clearchus. 

43. Partridges are by some people called KOKKapai, as, 
for instance, by Alcman, who speaks as follows — 

Alcman, too, began the strain ; 
And he introduced into the language 
The compound name of xaKKaPiSes : 

showing plainly enough that he had learnt to compound the 
word from the noise made by partridges. On which account 
also ChamsBleon of Pontus said that the discovery of music 
was originally made by the ancients from the birds singing in 
desert places; by imitation of whom they arrived at the art 
of music; but it is not aU partridges who make the noise 
called KaKKaP!Z,av, or cackling. At all events, Theophrastus, 
in his treatise on the Different Noises made by Animals of 
the same Species, says — "The partridges in Attica, near Cory- 
daU-us, on the side towards the city, cackle ; but those on the 
other side twitter." And Basilis, in the second book of his 
History of India, says — " The diminutive men in those coun- 
tries which fight with cranes are often carried by partridges." 
And Menecles, in the first book of his Collectanea, says—" The 
pygmies fight both with partridges and with cranes." But 
there is a different kind of partridge found in Italy, of a dark 
colour on its wings, and smaller in size, with a beak inchning 
in the smallest possible degree to a red colour. But the par- 
tridges about Cirrha are not at all nice to eat as to their 
flesh, on account of the nature of their food. But the par- 
tridges in Boeotia either do not cross into Attica at all, or 
else, whenever they do, they are easily recognised by their 
voices, as we have previously mentioned. But the partridges 
which are found in Paphlagonia, Theophrastus says, have two 
hearts. But those in the island of Sciathos feed on" cockles. 
And sometimes they have as many as fifteen or sixteen young 
at a time ; and they can only fly short distances, as Xenophon 
tells us in the first book of his Anabasis, where he writes, — 
" But if any one rouses the bustard suddenly it is easy to 
catch him ; for they can only fly a short distance, like par- 
tridges, and they very soon tire; but their flesh is very- 

44. And Plutarch says that Xenophon is quite correct 

C. 45.] THE BUSTAED. 615 

about the bustard ; for that great numbers of these birds are 
brought to Alexandria from the adjacent parts of Libya ; 
being hunted and caught in this manner. The animai is 
a very imitative one, the bustard ; being especially fond of 
imitating whatever it sees a man do j and accordingly it does 
whatever it sees the hunters do. And they, standing opposite 
to it, anoint themselves under the eyes with some ung-uent, 
having prepared other different unguents calculated to close 
up the eyes and eyelids ; and these other unguents they place 
in shallow dishes near the bustards. And so the bustards, 
seeing the men anoint themselves under the eyes, do the 
same thing also themselves, taking the unguents out of these 
dishes; and by this means they are quickly caught. And 
Aristotle writes the following account of them : — " It is a 
migratory bird, with cloven feet, and three toes ; of about 
the size of a large cock, of the colour of a quail, with a long 
head; a sharp beak, a. thin neck, large eyes, a bony tongue, 
and it has no crop." But Alexander the Myndian says that 
it is also called kaytaSias. And he says, also, that it rumi- 
nates, and that it is very fond of the horse ; and that if any 
one puts on a horse's skin he can catch as many as he pleases ; 
for they come up to him then of their own accord. And 
presently, in another passage, Aristotle tells us, " The bus- 
tard is something like the owl, but it is not a bird which 
flies by night ; and it has large feathers about its ears, on 
which account it is called wtos, from Srra; and it is about 
the size of a pigeon, and a great imitator of mankind ; and 
accordingly it is caught by dancing opposite to them." And it 
is in shape something like a man, and it is an imitator of 
whatever man does. On which account the comic poets call 
those people who are easily taken in by any one whom they 
chance to meet, a bustard. Accordingly, in hunting them, 
the man who is cleverest at it, stands opposite to them and 
dances ; and the birds, looking at the man dancing, move 
like puppets pulled by strings ; and then some one comes 
behind them, and, without being perceived, seizes on them 
while they are wholly occupied with the delight they derive 
from the imitation. 

45. They say, also, that the screech-owl does the same 
thing : for it is said that they also are caught by dancing. 
And Homer mentions them. And there is a kind of danee, 


which is called o-Kui/f, or the screech-owl, from them ; deriving 
its name from the variety of motion displayed by this animal. 
And the screech-owls also delight in imitation, and it is from 
their name that we say that those men o-Kuwrroucrt, who keep 
looking at the person whom they wish to turn into ridicule, 
and mock all his conduct by an exact imitation, copying the 
conduct of those birds. But all the birds whose tongues are 
properly formed, and who are capable of uttering articulate 
sounds, imitate the voices of men and of other birds ; as 
the parrot and the jay. The screech-owl, as Alexander the 
Myndian says, is smaller than the common owl, and he has 
whitish spots on a leaden-coloured plumage ; and he puts out 
two tufts of feathers from his eyebrows on each temple. Now 
Callimachus says that there are two kinds of screech-owls, 
and that one kind does screech, and the other does not — on 
which account one kind is called o-kSttes, and the other kind 
is called aeitrKuires, and these last are of a grey colour. 

But Alexander the Myndian says that the name is written 
in Homer, kSttes without the cr, and that that was the name 
which Aristotle gave them ; and that they are constantly 
seen, and that they are not eatable ; but that those which are 
only seen about the end of autumn for a day or two are 
eatable. And they diifer from the dfi'o-KojTres in their speed, 
and they arC' something like the turtle-dove and the pigeon 
in pace. And Speusippus, in the second book of his treatise 
on Things Resembling one another, also calls them kuttes 
without the a-. But Epicharmus writes a-Kunras, epopses and 
owls. And Metrodorus, in his treatise on Custom and 
Habituation, says, that the screech-owl is caught by dancing 
opposite to it. 

46. But since, when we were talking of partridges, we men- 
tioned that they were exceedingly amorous birdsi we ought also 
to add, that the cock of the common poultry fowl is a very amo- 
rous bird too ; at all events Aristotle says, that when cocks 
are kept in the temples as being dedicated to the Gods, the cocks 
who were there before treat any new comer as a hen until 
another is dedicated in a Smilar manner. And if none are 
dedicated, then they fight together, and the one which has 
defeated the other works his will on the one which he has 
defeated. It is related, also, that a cock, whenever he goes 
in at any door whatever, always stoops his crest, and that 

c. 47.] SPARROWS. 617 

one cock never yields to another ■without a battle; but 
Theophrastus says, that the wild cocks are still more amorous 
than the tame ones. He says, also, that the cocks are most 
inclined to pursue the hens the moment they leave their perch 
in the morning, but the hens prefer it as the day advances. 

Sparrows, also, are very amorous birds ; on which accoimt 
Terpsicles says, that those who eat sparrows are rendered 
exceedingly prone to amorous indulgences; and perhaps it 
is from such an idea that Sappho represents Venus as being 
drawn by sparrows yoked in her chariot ; for they are very 
amorous birds, and very prolific. The sparrow has about 
eight young ones at one hatching, according to the statement 
of Aristotle. And Alexander the Myndian says that there are 
two kinds of sparrows, the one a tame species, and the other 
a wild one ; and he adds that the hen-sparrow is weaker in 
other respects, and also that their beaks are of a more homy 
colour, and that their faces are not very white, nor very 
black ; but Aristotle says that the cock-sparrow never appears 
in the winter, but that the hen-sparrows remain, drawing his 
conclusions as to what he thinks probable from their colour ; 
for their colour changes, as the colour of blackbirds and of 
coots does, who get whiter at certain seasons. But the people 
of Elis call sparrows SeCprp-ai, as Nicander the Colophonian 
tells \is in the third book of his treatise on Different Dialects. 

47. We must also speak of the quail ; they are called 
opnryes. And here the rearises a general question about words 
ending in vi, why the words with this termination do not all 
have Qie same letter as the characteristic of the genitive case. 
I allude to ofnv^ and 6vv^. For the masculine simple nouns 
ending in f when the vowel v precedes f, and when the last 
syllable begins with any one of the immutable consonants or 
those which are characteristic of the first' conjugation of 
barytone verbs, make the genitive with k ; as Kripv^ K-^pvKo^, 
TTiXvi TrikvKOi, "Epu^ efWKos, Be/Spvi, Bt/Spuxos ; but those 
which have not this characteristic make the genitive with a y, 
as o/DTuf opTvyos, KOKKv^ KOKKvyos, opv^ opvyos ; and there is 
one word with a peculiar inflexion, ovuf oru^os ; and as a 
general rule, in the nominative case plural, they follow the 
genitive case singular in having the same characteristic of the 

' Athensens here does not arrange his conjugations as ire do ; nor is 
U very plain wliat he mean.s by an immutable consonant. 


last syllable. And the case is the same if the last syllable 
does not begin with a consonant at all. 

But with respect to the quail Aristotle says, " The quail is 
a migratory bird, with cloven feet, and he does not make 
a nest, but lies in the dust ; and he covers over his hole with 
sticks for fear of hawks; and then the hen lays her eggs in 
the hole." But Alexander the Myndian says, in the second 
book of his treatise on Animals, "The female quail has a 
thin neck, not having under its chin the same black feathers 
which the male has. And when it is dissected it is found 
not to have a large crop, but it has a large heart with three 
lobes ; it has also its liver and its gall-bladder united in its 
intestines, but it has but a small spleen, and one which is not 
easily perceived; and its testicles are under its liver, like those 
of the common fowl." And concerning their origin, Phano- 
demus, in the second book of his History of Attica, says : — 
" When Erysiohthon saw the island of Delos, which was by 
the ancients called Ortygia, because of the numerous flocks 
of quails which came over the sea and settled in that island 
as one which afforded them good shelter . . . . " And Eudoxus 
the Cnidian, in the first book of his Description of the Circuit 
of the Earth, says that the Phoenicians sacrifice quails to 
Hercules, because Hercules, the son of Asteria and Jupiter, 
when on his way towards Libya, was slain by Typhon and 
restored to life by lolaus, who brought a quail to him and 
put it to his nose, and the smell revived him. For when he 
was alive he was, says Eudoxus, very partial to that bird. 

48. But Eupolis uses the word in its diminutive form, and 
in his play called Cities, calls them oprvyia, speaking as 
follows : — 

A. Tell me now, have yon ever bred any Sprvyes 1 

B. I've bred some small oprvyia. "What of that 1 

And Antiphanes, in his play called The Countryman, speaks 
as follows, using also the form opruyiov : — 

For what now could a man like you perform. 
Having the Boul of a quail {dprvylov) 1 

It is an odd expression that Pratinas uses, who in his Dymsenae, 
or the Caryatides, calls the quail a bird with a sweet voice, 
unless indeed quails have voices in the Phliasian or Lace- 
daemonian country as partridges have; and perhaps it is 
from this, also, that the bird called o-ta\is has its name, as 

c. 49.] QUAILS. 619 

Didymus says. For nearly all birds derive their names fi-om 
the sounds wMch they make. 

There is also a bird called the dpruyo/i^po (which is men- 
tioned by Crates in his Chirons, where he says, 

The dpTvyop.'liTfm came from Ithaca.) 
And Alexander the Myndian also mentions it, and says that 
in size it is nearly equal to a turtle-dove ; that it has long 
legs, a slender body, and is very timid. And with respect to 
the hunting for quails, Clearchus the Solensian mentions 
some very singular circumstances, in his book which is en- 
titled " A Treatise on those things which have been asserted 
on Mathematical Principles in Plato's Polity," where he writes 
as follows — " Quails, about breeding time, if any one puts 
a looking-glass opposite to them, and a noose in front of it, 
run towards the bird which is seen in the looking-glass ; and 
so fall into the noose." And about the birds called jackdaws 
he makes a similar statement, saying — " And a very similar 
thing happens to the jackdaws, on account of their naturally 
affectionate disposition towards each other. For they are a most 
exceedingly cunning bird ; nevertheless when a bowl full of oil 
is placed near them, they stand on the edge of the bowl, and 
look down, and then rush down towards the bird which 
appears visible in the liquid. In consequence of which, when 
they are soaked through with the oil, their wings stick 
together and cause them to be easily captured." And the 
Attic writers make the middle syllable of the oblique cases of 
Ojoruf long, like SoiSvKa, and KijpvKa ; as Demetrius Ixion teUs 
us, in his treatise on the Dialect of the Alexandrians. But 
Aristophanes, in his Peace, has used the word with the penul- 
tima short for the sake of the metre, writing — 
The tame domestic quails (opriJ-yes olxoyivih). 

There is also a bird called yhn/tav, which is a small kind of 
quail, which is mentioned by Cleomenes, in his letter to Alex- 
ander, where he expresses himself in the following manner — 
" Ten thousand preserved coots, and five thousand of the kind 
of thrush called tylas, and ten thousand preserved ■^(ewia." 
And Hipparchus, in his Egyptian Iliad, says — 

I cannot fancy the Egyptian life, 

Plucking the chennia, which they salt and cat. 

49. And even swans in great plenty were not wanting 


to our banquets. And Aristotle speaks in the following 
manner of this bird — " The swan is a prohfic bird, and a 
quarrelsome one. And, indeed, they are so fond of fighting 
that they often kill one another. And the swan will fight 
even the eagle ; though he does not begin the battle himself. 
And they are tuneful birds, especially towards the time of 
their death. And they also cross the seas singing. And they 
are web-footed, and feed on herbage." But Alexander the 
Myndian says, that though he followed- a gi-eat many swans 
•when they were dying, he never heard one sing. And Hege- 
sianax of Alexandria, who arranged the book of Cephalion, 
called the History of Troy, says that the Cycnus who fought 
with Achilles in single combat, was fed in Leucophrys by the 
bird of the same name, that is, by the swan. But Boius, or 
Boio, which Philochorus says was bis proper name, in his 
book on the Origin of Birds, says that Cycnus was turned 
into a bird by Mars, and that when he came to the river 
Sybaris he was cooped with a crane. And he says, also, that 
the swan lines his nest with that particular grass which is 
called lygsea. 

And concerning the crane (yepavos), Boius says that there 
•was among the Pygmies a very well known woman whose 
name was Gerana. And she, being honoured as a god by her 
fellow-countrymen, thought lightly of those who were reaUy 
gods, and especially of Juno and Diana. And accordingly 
Juno, being indignant, metamorphosed her into an unsightly 
bird, and made her hostile to and hated by the Pygmies who 
had been used to honour her. And he says, also, that of her 
and Nicodamas was born the land tortoise. And as a general 
rule, the man who composed all these fables asserts that aU 
the birds were formerly men. 

50. The next bird to be mentioned is the pigeon. Aris- 
totle says, that there is but one genus of the pigeon, but five 
subordinate species; writing thus — " The pigeon, the cenas, 
the phaps, the dove, and the turtle-dove." But in the fifth 
book of his treatise on the Parts of Animals, he makes no 
mention of the phaps, though ^schylus, in his tragedy called 
Proteus, does mention that bird in the following line — 

Feeding the Tvretelied miserable phaps, 
Entangled as to its poor broken sides 
Within the winnowing spokes. 

C. 50.] PIGEONS. 621 

And in his Philoctetes he uses the word in the genitive case 
plural, <^ay8(ov. " The cenas, then," says Aristotle, " is some- 
thing larger than the pigeon, and it has a puce-coloured 
plumage ; but the phaps is something between the pigeon 
and the oanas. And the species called phassa is about as large 
as the common cock, but of the colour of ashes ; and the turtle- 
dove is less than all the other species, and is of a cinder- 
colour. And this last is only seen in the summer, and during 
the winter it keeps in its hole. Now, the phaps and the 
common pigeon are always to be seen, but the cenas is only 
visible in the autumn. And the species called the phassa is said 
to be longer lived than any of the others; for it lives thirty 
or forty years. And the cock birds never leave the hens to 
the day of their death, nor do the hens ever desert the cock : 
but when one dies the other remains solitary : and crows, 
and ravens, and jackdaws all do the same thing. And in 
every kind of the genus pigeon, both male and female sit on 
the eggs in turn ; and when the chickens are hatched, the 
cock bird spits upon them to prevent their being fascinated. 
And the hen lays two eggs, the first of which produces a cock 
and the second a hen. And they lay at every season of the 
year ; so that they lay ten or eleven times a year ; and in 
Egypt they lay twelve times ; for the hen conceives again 
the very next day to that in which it lays." And further on, 
in the same book, Aristotle says that the kind called irepiaTepa 
differs from the TreXetas, and the ireXetas is the least of the two. 
And the TreXems is easily tamed; but the ■trepinTepa is black, 
and small, and has red rough legs; on which account no one 
keeps them. But he mentions a peculiarity of the species 
called TTepLirrepa,, that they kiss one another when courting, 
and that if the males neglect this, the hens do not admit their 
embraces. However, old doves do not go through this for- 
mality ; but omit the kisses and stiU succeed in their suit, 
but the younger ones always kiss before they proceed to 
action. And the hens, too, make love to one another, when 
fliere is no cock at hand, kissing one another beforehand. But 
still, as there are no real results, the eggs which they lay 
never produce chickens. The Dorians, however, consider the 
•n-eXetds and the irepiaTipa as identical ; and Sophron uses the 
two words as synonymous in his Female Actresses. But CaUi- 
machus, in his treatise on Birds, speaks of the pyrallis, the 


dove, tlie wood-pigeon, and tlie turtle-dove, as all different 
from one another. 

51. But Alexander the Myndian Bays, that the pigeon 
never lifts up his head when it drinks, as the turtle-dove does; 
and that it never utters any sound in the winter except when 
it is very fine weather. It is said, also, that when the species 
called oenas has eaten the seed of the mistletoe, and then leaves 
its droppings on any tree, mistletoe after, that grows upon that 
tree. But Daimachus, in his history of India, says that 
pigeons of an apple-green coloiu" are found in India. And 
Charon of Lampsacus, in his history of Persia, speaking of 
Mardonius, and of the losses which the Persian army sustained 
off Mount Athos, writes as follows — " And that was the first 
time that white pigeons were ever seen by the Greeks ; as 
they had never existed in that country." And Aristotle says, 
that the pigeons, when their young are born, eat a lot of 
earth impregnated with salt, and then open the mouths of 
their young and spit the salt into them ; and by this means 
prepare them to swallow and digest their food. 

And at Eryx in Sicily, there is a certain time which the 
Sicilians call The Departure, at which time they say that 
the Goddess is departing into Africa : and at tins time all 
the pigeons about the place disappear, as if they had accom- 
panied the Goddess on her journey. And after nine days, 
when the festival called KaTay<oyta, that is to say The Eetum, 
is celebrated, after one pigeon has first arrived, flying across 
the sea like an avant-courier, and has flown into the temple, 
the rest foUow speedily. And on this, all the inhabitants 
around, who are comfortably off, feast; and the rest clap 
their hands for joy. And at that time the whole place smells 
of butter, which they use as a sort of token of the return of 
the Goddess. But Autocrates, in his history of Achaia, says 
that Jupiter once changed his form into that of a pigeon, 
when he was in love with a maiden in iEgium, whose name 
was Phthia. But the Attic writers use the word also in the 
masculine gender, ireptorepos. Alexis, in his People Runniifg 
together, says — 

For I am the white pigeon [vepurr^pis) of Venas ; 
But as for Bacchus, he knows nothing more 
Than how to get well drunk ; and nothing cares 
Whether 'tis new wine that he drinks or old. 

9- 52.] DUCES. 623 

But in his play of the Ehodian, or the Woman Caressing, he 
uses the word in the feminine gender; and says in that 
passage that the Sicilian pigeons are sviperior to all others — 

Breeding within some pigeons from Sicily, 
Tlie fairest shaped of all their species. 

And Pherecrates, in his Painters, says — 

Send ofiF a pigeon (irepiorepiv) as a messenger. 
And in his Petale he uses the diminutive form TrepicnepLov, 
■where he says, — 

But now, my pigeon, fly thou like Callisthenes, 
And bear me to Cythera and to Cyprus. 

And Nicander, in the second book of his Georgics, mentions 
the Sicilian doves and pigeons, and says, — 

And do you in your hall preserve a flock 
Of fruitful doves from Sicily or Dracontium, 
For it is said that neither kites nor hawks 
Incline to hurt those choice and sacred birds. 

52. We must also mention ducks. The male of these birds, 
as Alexander the Myndian says, is larger than the female, and 
has a more richly coloured plumage : but the bird which is 
called the glaucion, from the colour of its eyes, is a little 
smaller than the duck. And of the species called boscades 
the male is marked all over with lines, and he also is less 
than the duck; and the males have short beaks, too small 
to be in fair proportion to their size : but the small diver is the 
least of aU aquatic birds, being of a dirty black plumage, and 
it has a sharp beak, turning upwards towards the eyes, and 
it goes a great deal under water. There is also another 
species of the boscades, larger than the duck, but smaller 
than the chenalopex : but the species which are called phas- 
cades are a little larger than the small divers, but in all other 
respects they resemble the ducks. And the kind called vxia. 
are not much smaller than the duck, but as to its plumage 
it is of a dirty earthenware colour, and it has a long and 
narrow beak : but the coot, which also has a narrow beak, is 
of a rounder shape, and is of an ash colour about the stomach, 
and rather blacker on the back. But Aristophanes, in his 
Achamians, in the following lines, mentions the duck and 
the diver, from whose names {vrjrra and Ko\vfi.pas) we get the 
verbs vrp(piJM.i, to swim, and koXv/i/Sixm, to dive, with a great 
many other water birds — 


Ducks too, and jackdaws, woodcocks too, and coots. 
And wrens, and divers. 

And Callimachus also mentions them iu his treatise on 

53. We often also had put before ns the dish called para- 
statse, which is mentioned by Epsenetus in his Cookery Book, 
and by Semaristus in the third and fourth books of his 
treatise on Synonymes. And it is testicles which are called 
by this name. But when some meat was served up with a 
very fragrant sauce, and when some one said, — Give me a plate 
of that suffocated meat, that Dsedalus of names, Ulpian, said — 
I myself shall be suffocated if you do not tell me where you 
found any mention of meat of that kind; for I wUl not name 
them so before I know. And he said, Strattis, in his Mace- 
donians or Cinesias, has said — 

Take care, and often have some suffocated meat. 

And Eubulus, in his CatacoUomenos, says — 

And platters heap'd with quantities of meat 
Sofibcated in the Sicilian fashion. 

And Aristophanes, in his Wasps, has said — 

Some suffocated meat in a platter. 

And Cratinus, in his Delian Women, says — 

And therefore do you take some meat and pound it. 
Having first neatly suffocated it. 

And Antiphanes, in his Countryman, says — 

And first of all 
I bring you the much-wish'd-for barley-cake, 
"Which the all-genial mother Ceres gives 
A joyful gift to mortals ; and besides, 
Some tender limbs of suffocated goats 
Set round with herbs, a young and tender meat. 
B. How say you? 

^. I am going through a tragedy 
Of the divinest Sophocles. 

54. And when some sucking-pigs were carried round, and 
the guests made an inquiry respecting them, whether they 
weie mentioned by any ancient author, some one said — Phe- 
recrates, in his Slave turned Tutor, says — 

I stole some sucking-pigs not fully grown. 
And in his Deserters be says — 

Are you not going to kill a sucking-pig ? 

C. 55.] SUCKLINGS. 625 

And AlcsEus, in his Palsestra, says — 

For here he is himself, and if I grunt 

One alom more than any sucking-pig .... 
And Herodotus, in his first book, says that in Babylon there 
is a golden altar, on -which it is not lawful to sacrifice any- 
thing but sucking-pigs. Antiphanes says in his Philetserus — 

There's here a pretty little cromaciscus 

Not yet wean'd, you see. 
And Heniochus, in his Polyeuctus, says — 

The ox was brazen, long since past all boiling, 
But he perhaps had taken a sucking-pig. 
And slaughter'd that. 
And Anacreon says — 

Like a young sucking kid, which when it leaves 
Its mother in the wood, trembles with fear. 

And Crates, in his Neighbours, says — 

For now we constantly have feasts of lovers. 
As long as we have store of lambs and pigs 
Kot taken from their dams. 

And Simonides represents Danae as speaking thus over 
Perseus — 

my dear child, what mis'ry tears my soul ! 
But you lie sleeping. 

You slumber with your unwean'd heart. 

And in another place he says of Archemorus — 

Alas the wreath ! They wept the unwean'd child. 
Breathing out his sweet soul iu bitter pangs. 

And Clearchus, in his Lives, says that Phalaris the tyrant had 
arrived at such a pitch of cruelty, that he used to feast on 
sucking children. And there is a verb Grjcrdai, which means 
to suck milk, (Homer says — 

Hector is mortal, and has suck'd the breast ;) 
because the mother's breast is put into the mouth of the 
infant. And that is the derivation of the word tiV^os, breast, 
from nBrjiJii, to place, because the breasts are thus placed in 
the children's mouths. 

After she'd lull'd to sleep the new-bom kids, 

As yet un weaned from their mother's breast. 

55. And when some antelopes were brought round, Pala- 

medes of Elea, the collector of words, said — It is not bad 

meat that of the antelopes (SopKuvts). And Myrtilus said 

to him — The word is only Sop/caScs, not SopKtuve^. Xenophon, 

ACH. — VOL. 11. S S 

626 THE DEIPNOSOPfllSTS. [b. IX.' 

in the first book of his Anabasis, says, " And there were in 

that part bustards and SopKaSes." 

56. The next thing to be mentioned is the peacock. And 

that this is a rare bird is shown by what Antiphanes says in 

hi& Soldier, or Tyohon, where his words are — 

And then some man brought in one' single pair 
Of peacocks to the city; 'twas a sight 
Wondrous to see ; now they're as thick as quails. 

And Eubulus says in his Phoenix — 

The peacock is admired for his rarity. 
"The peacock," says Aristotle, " is cloven-footed, and feeds on 
herbage; it begins to breed when it is three years old, at 
which age it also gets the rich and varied colours of its 
plumage; and it sits on its eggs about thirty days, and once 
a-year it lays twelve eggs, and it lays these not all at once, 
but at intervals, laying every third day. But the first year 
of a hen's laying she does not lay more than eight eggs ; and 
she sometimes lays wind eggs hke the common. hen, but 
never more than two ; and she sits upon her eggs and hatches 
them very much in the same way as the common hen does." 
And Eupolis, in his Deserters from the Army, speaks of the 
peacock in the following terms — 

Lest I should keep in Pluto's realm, 

A peacock such as this, who wakes the sleepers. 

And there is a speech extant, by Antiphanes the orator, which 
is entitled. On Peacocks. And in that speech there is not 
one express mention of the name peacock, but he repeatedly 
speaks of them in it as birds of variegated plumage, saying — 
"That Demus, the son of Pyrilampes, breeds these birds, and 
that out of a desire to see these birds, a great many people 
come from Lacedsemon and from Thessaly, and show great 
anxiety to get some of the eggs." And with respect to their 
appearance he writes thus — " If any one wishes to remove 
these birds into a city, they wiU fly away and depart ; and if 
he cuts their wings he takes away their beauty. For their 
wings are their beauty, and not their body." And that 
people used to be very anxious to see them he tells us subse- 
quently in the same book, where he says ; " But at the time of 
the festival of the new moon, any one who likes is admitted, 
to see them, but on other days if any one comes and wishes 
to see them he is never allowed to do so ; and this is not &■ 


custom of yesterday, or a recent practice, but one which has 
subsisted for more than thirty years." 

57. " But the Athenians call the word tows," as Tryphon 
tells us, " circumflexing and aspirating the last syllable. And 
they read it spelt in this way in the Deserters from the Army 
of Eupolis, in the passage which has been already quoted, 
and in the Birds of Aristophanes — 

Are you then Tereus t are you a bird or a peacock (tuSs) ■! 
And in another passage he writes — 

A bird then ; iv-hat kind ? is it not a peacock (toZs) f 

But in the dative they say rawvi, as Aristophanes does in the 
same play. But it is quite impossible in the Attic or Ionic 
dialects that, in nouns which have more than one syllable, the 
last syllable beginning with a vowel should be aspirated; for 
it is quite inevitable that it should be pronounced with a 
lene breathing, as ve&s, Xc&s, TWSapccJ?, MeveXeds, Xairwcds, 
£W€(is, NctXcds, wpSos, itos, Keios, Xtds, Sids, ■xpeio^, TrXeids, Aeids; 
Aaios, PauK, (jtai.o'S, injo?, yoos, Boos, pods, ^(uoj. For the aspi- 
rate is fond of beginning a word, and is by nature inclined to 
the lead, and is never included in the last part of a word. 
And the name raiSs is derived from the extension (roo-ts) of 
the wings." And Seleuous, in the fifth book of his treatise on 
Hellenisms, says : " The peacock, toSs : — but the Attics, con- 
trary to all rule, both aspirate and circumflex the last syllable ; 
but the aspirato is only attached to the first vowel when it 
begins a word in the simple pronunciation of the word, and 
there taking the lead, and running on more swiftly, it has the 
first place in the word. Accordingly, the Athenians, in conse- 
quence of this arrangement, observing the inherent character 
of this breathing, do not put it on vowels, as they do often 
accents and breathings, but put it before them. And I think 
that the ancients used to mark the aspirate by the character H, 
on which account the Eomans write the letter H at the begin- 
ning of all aspirated nouns, showing its predominant natiu'e ; 
and if this be the proper character of the aspirate, it is plain 
that it is contrary to all reason and analogy that the word 
TOWS has any breathing at all marked upon it by the Attic 

58. And as at the banquet a great many more discussions 
arose about each of the dishes that were served up ; — But I, 



said Laurentius, according to the example of our most ex- 
cellent friend TJlpian, will myself also say something to you 
(for we are feeding on discussions). What do you think of the 
grouse 1 And when some one said, — He is a species of bird ; 
(but it is the custom of the sons of the grammarians to say 
of anything that is mentioned to them in this way, It is a 
species of plant, a species of bird, a species of stone ;) Lau- 
rentius said — And I, my good friend, am aware that the 
admirable Aristophanes, in his Birds, mentions the grouse in 
the following lines — 

With the porphyriou and the pelican. 

And pelecinnus, and the phlexis too, 

The grouse and peacock. 
But I wish to learn from you whether there is any mention of 
the bird in any other author. For Alexander the Myndian, 
in the second book of his treatise on Winged Animals, speaks 
of it as a bird of no great size, but rather as one of the smaller 
birds. For his words are these — " The grouse, a bird about the 
size of rook, of an earthenware colour, variegated with dirty 
coloured spots, and long lines, feeding on fruit ; and when it 
lays its eggs it cackles (rCTpa^ci), from which it derives its 
name (jerpai)." And Epicharmus, in his Hebe's Wedding, 

For when you've taken quails and sparrows too, 
And larks who love to robe themselves in dust. 
And grouse, and rooks, and beauteous fig-peckers. 
And in another passage he says — 

There were the herons with their long bending necks, 
A numerous flock ; and grouse, and rooks besides. 

But since none of you have anything to say on the subject 
(as you are all silent), I will show you the bird itself; for 
when I was the Emperor's Procurator in Mysia, and the super- 
intendent of all the affairs of that province, I saw the bird in that 
country. And learning that it was called by this name among 
the Mysians and Pseonians, I recollected what the bird was by 
the description given of it by Aristophanes. And believing 
that this bird was considered by the all-accomplished Aristotle 
worthy of being mentioned in that work of his worth many 
talents (for it is said that the Stagirite received eight hundred 
talents from Alexander as his contribution towards perfecting 
his History of Animals), when I found that there was no 
mention of it in this work, I was delighted at having the 

c. 60.] LOINS. 629 

admirable Aristophanes as an unimpeacliable witness in the 
matter. And while he was saying this, a slaye came in 
bringing in the gi-ouse in a basket; but it was in size larger 
than the largest cock of the common poultry, and in appear- 
ance it was very like the porphyrion; and it had wattles 
hanging from its eai-s on each side like the common cock ; 
and its voice was loud and harsh. And so after we had admired 
the beauty of the bird, in a short time one was sei-ved up on 
the table dressed ; and the meat of him was like that of the 
ostrich, -which we were often in the habit of eating. 

59. There was a dish too called loins (ijmai). The poet 
■who wrote the poem called The Eetum of the Atridse, in the 
third book says — 

And with his rapid feet Hermioneus 

Caught Nisus, and his loins with spear transGx'd. 
And Simaristus, in the third book of his Synonymes, writes 
thus : " The flesh of the loins which stands out on each side is 
called ifrvaL, and the hoUows on each side they call kvPoi and 
■yoAAtai." And Clearchus, in the second book of his treatise on 
The Joints in the Human Body, speaks thus : " There is 
flesh full of muscle on each side; which some people call 
ifnai, and others call oAoVcKts, and others veuponryrpai." And 
the admirable Hippocrates also speaks of tpvai ; and they get 
this name from being easily wiped (airo tov paBlui'; o7roi/>ao-^ai), 
or as being flesh lightly touching (hru^aiovda) the bones, and 
lying lightly on the sm-face of them. And Euphron the comic 
poet mentions them in his Theori — 

There is a lobe and parts, too, called y^iai ; 

Learn to cut these before you view the sacrifice. 

60. There is a dish too made of udder. Teleclides, in his 
Eigid Men, says — 

Since I'm a female, I must have an ndder. 
Herodotus, in the fourth book of his Histoiy, uses the same 
term when speaking of horses ; but it is rare to find the word 
(ovdap) applied to the other animals; but the word most com- 
monly used is viroyaarpLov, as in the case of fishes. Strattis, 
in his Atalanta, says — , 

The iTToyiffrpiov and the extremities 

Of the large tunny. 
And Theopompus, in his Calteschrus, says — j 
A. And th* vnoydarpia of fish. 

B. 0, Ceres ! 


But in the Sirens lie calls it not OToyaorpta, but vTnjrpia, 
saying — 

Th' Myrpia of white Sicilian tunnies. 

61. We must now speak of the hare; concerning this 
animal ArchestratuSj that author so curious in his dishes, 
speaks thus — 

Many are the ways and many the recipes 
For dressing hares ; but this is best of all. 
To place before a hungry set of guests, 
A slice of roasted meat fresh from the spit, 
Hot, season'd only with plain simple salt, 
J^ot too much done. And do not you be vex'd 
At seeing blood fresh trickling from the meat, 
But eat it eagerly. All other ways 
Are quite superfluous, such as when cooks pour 
A lot of sticky clammy sauce upon it. 
Parings of cheese, and lees, and dregs of oil, 
As if they were preparing cat's meat. 

And Naucrates the comic poet, in his Persia, says that it is 
an uncommon thing to find a hare in Attica : and he speaks 
thus — 

For who in rocky Attica e'er saw 

A lion or any other similar beast. 

Where 'tis not easy e'en to find a hare ? 

But Alceeus, in his Callisto, speaks of hares as being plentiful, 

and says — 

You should have coriander seed so fine 

That, when we've got some hares, we may be able 

To sprinkle them with that small seed and salt. 

Qi. And Tryphon says, — "Aristophanes,inhis Danaides,Tises 
the form Xa-ymv in the accusative case with an acute accent on 
the last syllable, and with a v for the final letter, saying — 

And when he starts perhaps he may be able 

To help us catch a hare [Xaydiv). 
And in his Daitaleis he says — 

I am undone, I shall be surely seen 

Plucking the fur from off the hare fy.ayiy). 

But Xenophon, in his treatise on Himting, writes the accusa- 
tive Xayui without the v, and with a circumflex accent. But 
among us the ordinary form of the nominative case is Xayds; 
and as we say mds, and the Attics veibs, and as we say Xaos, 
and the Attics Xcws ; so, while we call this animal Xayos, they 
call him Xayms. And as for our using the form Xayov in the 
accusative case singular, to that we find a corresponding 

0. 63.] HAEE3. 631 

nominative plural in Sophocles, in his Amyous, a satyric 
drama; where he enumerates — 

Cranes, crows, and owls, and kite?, and hares {MyoC). 
But there is also a form of the nominative plural correspond- 
ing to the accusative kaywv, ending in u, as found in the 
Fiatterere of Eupolis — 

Where there are rays, and hares (Aayi), and light-footed women. 
But some people, contrary to all reason, circumflex the last 
syllable of this form XaytL; but it ought to have an acute 
accent, since all the nouns which end in os, even when they 
are changed into <ds by the Attic writers, stUl preserve the 
same accent as if they had undergone no alteration ; as i/aos, 
vEcosj KoXtK, KoXos. And so, too, Epicharmus used this noun, 
and Herodotus, and the author of the poem called the Helots. 
Moreover, Xayos is the Ionic form — 

Eouse the sea-hare {Kayos) before yon drink the water ; 
and Xayws the Attic one. But the Attic writers use also the 
form Xayos; as Sophocles, in the line above quoted — 

Cranes, crows, and owls, and hares (Kayoi). 
There is also a line in Homer, where he says — 

fl TTTuKa \a.yoi6v. 

Now, if we have regard to the Ionic dialect, we say that u is 
interpolated ; and if we measure it by the Attic dialect, then 
we say the o is so : and the meat of the hare is called Xayfia 

63. But Hegesander the Delphian, in his Commentaries, 
says that in the reign of Antigonus Gonatas, there were such 
a number of hares in the island of Astypalsea, that the natives 
consulted the oracle on the subject. And the Pythia an- 
swered them that they ought to breed dogs, and hunt them; 
and so in one year there were caught more than six thousand. 
And all this immense number arose from a man of the island 
of Anaphe having put one pair of hares in the island. As 
also, on a previous occasion, when a certain Astypalsean had 
let loose a pair of partridges in the island of Anaphe, there 
came to be such a number of partridges in Anaphe, that the 
inhabitants ran a risk of being driven out of the island by 
them. But originally Astypaltea had no hares at all, but only 
partridges. And the hare is a very proMo animal, as Xeno- 
phon has told us, in his treatise on Hunting; and Herodotus 


speaks of it in the following terms — " Since the hare is 
hunted by everything — man, beast, and bird — it is on this 
account a very prolific animal; and it is the only animal 
known which is capable of superfetation. And it has in its 
womb at one time one litter with the fur on, and another 
bare, and another just formed, and a fourth only just* con- 
ceived." And Polybins, in the twelfth book of his History, 
says that, there is another animal like the hare which is called 
the rabbit (kovvikXos:) ; and he writes as follows — " The 
animal called the rabbit, when seen at a distance, looks like a 
small hare ; but when any one takes it in his hands, there is a 
great difference between them, both in appearance and taste : 
and it lives chiefly underground." And Posidonius the phi- 
losopher also mentions them in his History; and we our- 
selves have seen a great many in our voyage from Diceearchia' 
to Naples. For there is an island not far from the mainland, 
opposite the lower side of Dicsearchia, inhabited by only a 
very scanty population, but having a great number of rabbits. 
And there is also a Idnd of hare called the Chelidonian hare, 
which is mentioned by Diphilus, or CaUiades, in his play 
called Ignorance, in the following terms — 

What is this? whence this hare who hears the name 
Of Chelidonian 1 Is it grey hare soup, 
Mimarcys call'd, so thick with blood? 

And Theophrastus, in the twentieth book of his History, says 
that there are hares about Bisaltia which have two livers. 

64. And when a wild boar was put upon the table, which 
was in no respect less than that noble Calydonian boar which 
has been so much celebrated, — I suggest to you now, said 
he, my most philosophical and precise Ulpian, to inquire 
who ever said that the Calydonian boar was a female, and 
that her meat was white. But he, without giving the matter 
any long consideration, but rather turning the question off, 
said — But it does seem to me, my friends, that if you are not 
yet satisfied, after having had such plenty of all these things, 
that you surpass every one who has ever been celebrated for 
his powers of eating, — and who those people are you can find 
out by inquiry. But it is more correct and more consistent 
with etymology to make the name cris, with a <r; for the 
animal has its name from rushing (a-evo/jMi) and going on 
' The same as Puteoli. 

0. 65.] THE WORD 2TArP02. 633 

impetuously ; but men have got a trick of pronouncing the 
word without the <r, Js ; and some people believe that it is 
•called <7vv, by being softened from &ov, as if it had its name 
from being a fit animal to sacrifice (ftJav). But now, if it 
seems good to you, answer me who ever uses the compound 
word like we do, calling the wild boar not (n)s aypios, but 
oTjaypos ? At all events, Sophocles, in his Lovers of Achilles, 
has applied the word miaypos to a dog, as hunting the boar 
(ttTTo Tov (Tus dypcvav), where he says — 

And you, Syagre, child of Pelion. 
And in Herodotus we find Syagrus used as a proper name of 
a man who was a Lacedfemonian by birth, and who went on 
the embassy to Gelon the Syracusan, about forming an 
aUiance against the Modes; which Herodotus mentions in the 
seventh book of his History. And I am aware, too, that 
there was a general of the .iEtolians named Syagrus, who is 
mentioned by Phylarchus, in the fourth book of his History. 
And Democritus said — You always, Ulpian, have got a habit 
of never taking anything that is set before you until you 
know whether the existing name of it was in use among the 
ancients. Accordingly you are running the risk, on account 
of all these inquiries of yours, (just like Philetas of Cos, who 
was always investigating all false arguments and erroneous 
\ises of words,) of being starved to death, as he was. For he 
became very thin by reason of his devotion to these inquiries, 
and so died, as the inscription in front of his tomb shows — 

Stranger, Philetas is my name, I lie 
Slain by fallacious arguments, and cares 
Protracted from the evening through the night. 

65. And so that you may not waste away by investigating 
this word irvaypos, learn that Antiphanes gives this name to 
the wild boar, in his Ravished Woman : — 

This very night a wild boar (aiaypov) will J seize, 
And drag into this house, and a lion and a wolf. 

And Dionysius the tyrant, in his Adonis, says — 
Under the arched cavern of the nymphs 
I consecrate .... 
A wild boar {a-iaypoy) as the first-fruits to the gods. 

And Lynceus the Samian, in his epistle to Apollodoru.s, writes 
thus — " That you may have some goat's flesh for your chil- 
di-en, and some meat of the wild boar (rd avdypia) for your- 


self and your friends." And Hippolochus tlie Macedonian, 
■whom we have mentioned before now, in his epistle to the 
above-named Lynoeus, mentioned many wild boars (avdypaiv). 
But, since you have turned off the question which, was 
put to you about the colour of the Calydonian boar, and 
whether any one states him to have been white as to his 
flesh, we oui'selves wiU tell you who has said so; and you 
yourself may investigate the proofe which I bring. For some 
time ago, I read the dithyrambics of Cleomenes of Khegium ; 
and this account is given ia that ode of them which is entitled 
Meleager. And I am not ignorant that the inhabitants of 
SicUy caU the wild boar (which we call (riaypos) dax^Suipos. 
And .dEschylus, in his Phorcides, comparing Perseus to a 
wild boar, says — 

He rush'd into the cave like a wild boar {dffxfSapos Ss). 
And Sciras (and he is a poet of what is called the Italian 
comedy, and a native of Tarentum), in his Meleager, says — 

Where shepherds never choose to feed their flocks, 
Nor does the wild boar range and chase his mate. 

And it is not wonderful that .(Eschylus, who lived for some 
time in Sicily, should use many Sicilian words. 

66. There were also very often kids brought round by the 
servants, dressed in various ways ; some of them with a great 
deal of assafcetida, which afforded us no ordinary pleasure ; 
for the flesh of the goat is exceedingly nutritious. At all 
events, Clitomachus the Carthaginian, who is inferior to no 
one of the new Academy for his spirit of philosophical in- 
vestigation, says that a certain Theban athlete surpassed aU 
the men of .his time in strength, because he ate goait's flesh; 
for the juice of that meat is nervous and sticky, and such as 
can remain a long time in the substance of the body. And 
this wrestler used to be much laughed at, because of the 
unpleasant smeU of his perspiration. And all the meat of 
pigs and lambs, while it remains undigested in the system, is 
very apt to turn, because of the fat. But the banquets spoken 
of by the comic poets rather please the ears by sweet sounds, 
than the palate by sweet tastes; as, for instance, the feast 
mentioned by Antiphanes, in his Female Physician — 

A. But what meat do you eat with most delight? 

if. What meat ? — why if you mean as to its cheapness, 
There's mutton ere it bears you wool or milk. 
That is to say, there's lamb, my friend j and so 

C. 67.] DINNERS. 635 

There's also meat of goats ■which give no milk, 

That is to say, of kids. For so much profit 

Is got from these when they are fully grown, 

That I put up with eating cheaper kinds. 
And in Ms Cyclops he says — 

These are the animals which the earth produces, 

Which yon will have from me : the ox of th' herd, 

The goat which roves the woods, the chamois which 

Loves the high mountain tops, the fearless ram, 

The hog, the boar, the sucking-pig besides, 

And hares, and kids .... 

Green cheese, dry cheese, and cut and pounded cheese, 

Scraped cheese, and chopp'd cheese, and congeal'd cheese 
67. And Mnesimachus, in his Horse-breeder, provides the 
following things for dinner — 

Come forth, Manes, from the chamber 

Deck'd with the lofty cypress roof; 

Go to the market, to the statues 

Of Maia's son, where all the chiefs 

Of the tribes meet, and seek the troop 

Of their most graceful pupils, whom 

Phidon is teaching how to mount 

Their horses, and dismount from them. 

I need not tell you now their names. 

Go ; tell them that the ^sh is cold. 

The wine is hot, the pastry dry. 

The bread dry, too, and hard. The chops 

Are burnt to pieces, and the meat 

Taken from out the brine and dish'd. 

The sausages are served up too ; 

So is the tripe, and rich black puddings. 

Those who 're in-doors are all at table. 

The wine cups all are quickly drain'd. 

The pledge goes round ; and nought remains ] 

But the lascivious drunken cordax.^ 

The young men all are waxing wanton. 

And ev'rything's tum'd upside down. 

Eemember what I say, and bear 

My words in mind. 

Why stand you gaping like a fool ? 

Look here, and just repeat the message 

Which I've just told you ; do, — I will 

Kepeat it o'er again all through. 

Bid them come now, and not delay, • 

Nor vex the cook who's ready for them. 

For all the fish is long since boil'd. 

And all the roast meat's long since cold. 

' The cordax was a lascivious dance of the old comedy; to dance it 
off the stage was considered a sign of dninkenness and indecency. 


And mention o'er each separate dishj — 
Onions and olives, garlic too. 
Cucumbers, cabbages, and broth. 
Fig-leaves, and herbs, and tunny cutlets, 
Glanis and rhinfe, shark and conger, 
A phyxicinus whole, a tunny, 
A coracinus whole, a thunnia, 
A small anchijvy, and a tench, 
A spindle-fish, a tail of dogfish, 
A caroharias and a torpedo ; 
A sea-frog, lizard, and a perch, 
A trichlas and a phycis too, 
A brinchus, mullet, and seorcuckoo. 
A turtle, and besides a lamprey, 
A phagrus, lebias, and grey mullet, 
A sparus, and seolias, 
A swallow, and the bird of Thrace, 
A sprat, a squid, a turbot, and 
DracEenides, and polypi, 
A cuttle-fish, an orphus too ; 
A crab, likewise an escharus, 
A needle-fish, a fine anchovy. 
Some cestres, scorpions, eels, and loaves. 
And loads of other meat, beyond 
My calculation or my mention. 
Dishes of goose, and pork, and beef. 
And lamb, and mutton, goat and kid ; 
[ Of poultry, ducks and partridges. 
And jays, and foxes. And what follows 
Will be a downright sight to see, 
So many good things there will be. 
And all the slaves through all the house 
Are busy baking, roasting, dressing. 
And plucking, cutting, beating, boiling, 
And laughing, playing, leaping, feasting. 
And drinking, joking, scolding, pricking. 
And lovely sounds from tuneful flutes. 
And song and din go through the house. 
Of instruments both wind and string'd. 
Meantime a lovely scent of cassia. 
From Syria's fertile laud, does strike 
Upon my sense, and frankincense, 
And myrrh, and nard ♦ ♦ » 


Such a confusion fills the house 
With every sort of luxury. 

68. Now, after all this conversation, there was brought in 
the dish which is called Rhoduntia; concerning which that 
wise cook quoted numbers of tragedies before he would teU 
us what he was bringing us. And he laughed at those who 

C. 68.] COOKERY, G37 

professed to be such admirable cooks, mentioning ■whom, ho 
said — Did that cook in the play of Anthippus, the comic poot, 
ever invent such a dish as this 1 — the cook, I mean, who, in 
the Veiled Man, boasted in this fashion : — 

A. Sophon, an Ararnanian citizen, 

And good Democritiis of Ehodes, were long 

Fellow-disciples in this noble art. 

And Labdacus of Sicily was their tutor. 

These men effaced all vulgar old recipes 

Out of their cookery books, and took away 

The mortar from the middle of the kitchen. 

They brought into disuse all vinegar, 

Cummin, and cheese, and assafoetida, 

And coriander seed, and all the sauces 

Which Saturn used to keep within his cruets. 

And the cook who employ'd such means they thought 

A humbug, a mere mountebank in his art. 

They used oil only, and clean plates, father. 

And a quick fire, wanting little bellows : 

With this they made each dinner elegant. 

They were the first who banish'd tears and sneezing, 

And spitting from the board ; and purified 

The manners of the guests. At last the Khodian, 

Drinking some pickle by mistake, did die ; 

For such a draught was foreign to his nature. 
£. 'Twas likely so to be. 

A. But Sophon still 

Has all Ionia for his dominions, 

And he, father, was my only tutor. 

And I now study philosophic rules, 

Wishing to leave behind me followers. 

And new discover'd rules to guide the art. 
S. Ah ! but, I fear^ you'll want to cut me up. 

And not the anunal we think to sacrifice. 
A. To-morrow you shall see me with my books. 

Seeking fresh precepts for my noble art ; 

Not do I differ from th' Aspendian. 

And if you will, you too shall taste a specimen 

Of this my skill. I do not always give 

The self-same dishes to all kinds of guests ; 

But I regard their lives and habits all. 

One dish I set before my friends in love, 

Another 's suited to philosophers. 

Another to tax-gatherers. A youth 

Who has a mistress, quickly will devour 

His patrimonial inheritance ; 

So before him I place fat cuttle-fish 

Of every sort ; and dishes too of fish 

Such as do haunt the rocks, all season 'd highly 


With every kind of clear transparent sauce. 
For such a man cares nought about his- dinner. 
But all his thoughts are on his mistress fix'd. 
Then to philosophers I serve up ham, 
Or pettitoes ; for all that crafty tribe 
Are wonderful performers at the table. 
Owls, eels, and spars I give the publicansi 
When they're in season, but at other times 
Some lentil salad. And all funeral feasts 
I make more splendid than the living ones. 
For old men's palates are not critical ; 
At least not half so much as those of youths. 
And so I give them mustard, and I make them 
Sauces of pungent nature, which may rouse 
Their dormant sense, and make it snuff the air ; 
And when I once behold a face, I know 
The dishes that its owner likes to eat. 

69. And tlie cook in the Thesmophorus of Dionysius, my 
resellers, (for it is wortli while to mention him also,) says — 

You have said these things with great severity, 

(And that's your usual kindness, by the Gods) ; 

You've said a cook should always beforehand 

Know who the guests may be for whom he now 

Is dressing dinner. For he should regard 

This single point — whom he has got to please 

While seasoning his sauces properly j 

And by this means he'll know the proper way 

And time to lay his table and to dress 

His meats and soups. But he who this neglects 

Is not a cook, though he may be a seasoner. 

But these are different arts, a wondrous space 

Separates the two. It is not every one 

That's called a general who commands an army, 

But he who can with prompt and versatile skill 

Avail himself of opportunities. 

And look about him, changing qniefc his plans, 

He is the general. He who can't do this 

Is only in command. And so with us. 

To roast some beef, to carve a joint with neatness. 

To boil up sauces, and to blow the fire. 

Is anybody's task ; he who does this 

Is but a seasoner and broth-maker : 

A cook is quite another thing. His mind 

Must comprehend all facts and circumstances : 

Where is the place, and when the time of supper; 

Who are the guests, and who the entertainer ; 

What fish he ought to buy, and when to buy it. 

For all these things 

You'll have on almost every occasion ; 

But they're not always of the same importance. 

C. 70.] COOKEKY. 639 

Nor do they always the same pleasure give. 
Archestratua has written on this art, 
And is by many people highly thought of. 
As having given us a useful treatise ; 
But still there's nrach of which he's ignorant, 
And all his rules are really good for nothing, 
So do not mind or yield to iJl the rules 
Which he has laid down most authoritatively. 
For a more empty lot of maxims you 
Will hardly find. For when you write a book 
On cookery, it will not do to say, 
" As I was just now saying ; " for this art 
Has no fix'd guide but opportunity, 
And must itself its only mistress be. 
But if your skill be ne'er so great, and yet 
You let the opportunity escape. 
Your art is lost, and might as well be none. 
B. man, you're wise. But as for this man who 
You just now said was coming here to try 
His hand at delicate banquets, say, doe^ he 
Forget to come ? 

.4. If I but make you now 
One forced meat ball, I can in that small thing 
Give you a specimen of all my skill. 
And I will serve you up a meal which shall 
Be redolent of the Athenian breezes. 
» » » « * 

Dost fear that I shall fail to lull your soul 
With dishes of sufficient luxury's 

70. And to all this .iEmilianus makes answer — 

My friend, you've made a speech quite long enough 
In praising your fav'rite art of cookery ; — 

as Hegesippus says in his Brethren. Do you then — 

Give us now something new to see beyond 

Your predecessor's art, or plague us not ; 

But show me what you've got, and tell its name. 

And he rejoins — 

You look down on me, since I am a cook. 
But perhaps — 

What I have made by practising my art — 
according to the comic poet Demetrius, who, in his play 
entitled The Areopagite, has spoken as follows — 

What I have made by practising my art 
Is more than any actor e'er has gain'd, — 
This smoky art of mine is quite a kingdom. 
I was a caper-piokler with Seleucus, 
And at the court of the Sicilian king. 


Agathocles, I was the Teiy first 

To introduce the royal dish of lentils. 

My chief exploit I have not mention'd yet : 

There was a famine, and a man named Lachares 

Was giving an entertainment to his friends ; 

Whom I recovered with some caper-sauce. 

Lachares made Minerva naked, who caused him no incon- 
Tenience ; but I will now strip you who are inconveniencing 
me, said jSlmilianus, unless you show me what you have 
got with you. And he said at last, rather unwillingly, I call 
this dish the Dish of Eoses. And it is prepared in such a 
way, that you may not only have the ornament of a garland 
on your head, but also in yourself, and so feast your whole 
body with a luxurious banquet. Having pounded a quantity 
of the most fragrant roses in a mortar, I put in the brains of 
birds and pigs boiled and thoroughly cleansed of all the 
sinews, and also the yolks of eggs, and with them oil, and 
pickle-juice, and pepper, and wine. And having pounded all 
these things carefully together, I put them into a new dish, 
applying a gentle and steady fire to 'them. And while saying 
this, he uncovered the dish, and diffused such a sweet perfiime 
over the whole party, that one of the guests present said with 
great truth — 

The winds perfumed the balmy gale convey 

Through heav'n, through earth, and all the aerial way ; 

so excessive was the fragrance which was diffused from the 

71. After this, some roasted birds were brought round, and 
some lentils and peas, saucepans and all, and other things of 
the same kind, concerning which Phsenias the Eresian writes 
thus, in his treatise on Plants — " For every leguminous cul- 
tivated plant bearing seed, is sown either for the sake of 
being boUed, such as the bean and the pea, (for a sort of boiled 
soup is made of these vegetables,) or else for the sake of 
extracting from them a farinaceous flour, as, for instance, the 
aracus ; or else to be cooked like lentils, as the aphace and the 
common lentil ; and some again are sown in order to serve as 
food for fourfooted animals, as, for instance, the vetch for cattle, 
and the aphace for sheep. But the vegetable called the pea is 
mentioned by Eupolis, in his Golden Age. And Heliodorus, 
who wrote a description of the whole world, in the first book 
of his treatise on the Acropolis, said — "After the manner in 

C- 72.] CHAMJELEOK. 64l 

-which to boil wheat -was discovered, the ancients called it ttuovov, 
but the people of the present day name it oXomipov." 

Now, after this discussion had continued a long time, 
Democritus said — But at least allow ua to have a share of 
these lentils, or of the saucepan itself, lest some of you get 
pelted with stones, like Hegemon the Thasian. And Ulpian 
said, — What is the meaning of this pelting (JSakXifrvs) with 
stones? for I know that in my native city, Eleusis, there is a 
festival celebrated which is called jSoAXtttiis, concerning which 
I will not say a word, unless I get a reward from each of you. 
But I, said Democritus, as I am not a person who makes 
speeches by the hour for hire, like the Prodeipnus of Timon, 
will tell you all I know about Hegemon. 

72. Chameleon of Pontus, in the sixth book of his treatise 
concerning ancient Comedy, says — " Hegemon of Thasos, the 
man who wrote the Parodies, was nicknamed The Lentil, and 
in one of his parodies he wrote — 

While I revolved these counsels in my mind, 

Pallas Minerva, with her golden sceptre, 

Stood by my head, and touched me, and thns spake — 

thou ill-treated Lentil, wretched man, 

Go to the contest : and I then took courage. 

And once he came into the theatre, exhibiting a comedy, 
having his robe full of stones ;. and he, throwing the stones 
into the orchestra, caused the spectators to wonder what he 
meant. And presently afterwards he said — 

These now are stones, and let who chooses throw them ; 
But Lentil 's good alike at every season. 

But the man has an exceedingly high reputation for his 
parodies, and was exceedingly celebrated for reciting his 
verses with great skill and dramatic power; and on this 
account he was greatly admired by the Athenians. And in 
his Battle of the Giants, he so greatly delighted the Athe- 
nians, that they laughed to excess on that day ; and though 
on that very day the news of all the disasters which had 
befallen them in Sicily had just arrived, stiU. no one left the 
theatre, although nearly every one had lost relations by that 
calamity; and so they hid their faces and Wept, but no one 
rose to depart, in order to avoid being seen by the spectators 
from other cities to be grieved at the disaster. But they 
remained listening to the performance, and that too, though 
ATH. — VOL. II. T V 


Hegemon himself, when he heard of it, had resolved to cease 
his recitation. But when the Athenians, being masters of 
the sea, brought all the actions at law concerning the islands 
or the islanders into the city, some one instituted a prosecu- 
tion against Hegemon, and summoned him to Athens to 
answer it. And he came in court, and brought with him all 
the workmen of the theatre, and with them he appeared, 
entreating Alcibiades to assist him. And Alcibiades bade 
him. be of good cheer, and ordered all the workmen to follow 
him; and so, he came to the temple of Cybele, where the 
trials of prosecutions were held ; and then wetting his finger 
with his mouth, he wiped out the indictment against Hegemon. 
And though the clerk of the court and the ma^strate were 
indignant at this, they kept quiet for fear of Alcibiades, for 
which reason also the man who had instituted the prosecu- 
tion ran away." 

73. This, Ulpian, is what we mean by pelting (/JoAATpris), 
but you, when you please, may tell us about the /SaXXjjrus at 
Eleusis. And Ulpian replied, — But you hare reminded me, my 
good friend Democritus, by your mention of saucepans, that 
I have often wished to know what that is which is called the 
saucepan of Telemachus, and who Telemachus was. And 
Democritus said, — Timocles the comic poet, and he was also 
& writer of tragedy, in his drama called Lethe, says — 

And after this Telemaclius did meet him, 

And with great cordiality embraced him, 

And said, " Now lend me, I do beg, the saucepans 

In which you boil'd yonr beans." And scarcely had 

He finish'd saying this, when, he beheld 

At some small distance the renowned Philip, 

Son of Ohserephilus, that mighty man, 

Whom he accosted with a friendly greeting, 

And then he bade him send some wicker baskets. 

^ut that this Telemachus was a citizen of the borough of 
Acharnse, the same poet shows us in his Bacchus, where 
he says — 

A. Telemachus th' Achamian still is speaking, 
And he is like the new-bought Syrian slaves. 

B. How so, what does he do i I wish to know. 
A. He bears about with him a deadly dish. 

And in his Icarians, a satyric drama, he says — 

So that we 'd nothing with us ; I myself. 
Passing a miserable night, did ■first 

C 75.] BEAN SOUP. 643 

Sleep on the hardest bed ; and then that Lion, 
Thudippus, did congeal ns all with fear ; 

Then hunger pinch'd us 

And BO we went unto the fiery Dion. 

But even he had nought with which to help us ; 

So running to the excellent Telemachus, 

The great Acharnian, I found a heap 

Of beans, and seized on some and ate them up. 

And when that ass Cephisodarus saw us, 

He by a most unseemly noise betray'd ns. 

From this it is plain that Telemachus, being a person -who 
was constantly eating dishes of beans, was always celebrating 
the festival Pyanepsia. 

74. And bean soup is mentioned by Heniochus the comic 
wiiter, in his play cfdled the "Wren, where he says — 

A. I often, by the Gods I swear, consider 
In my own mind how far a fig surpasses 
A cardamum. But you assert that you 
Have held some conTcrsation with this Panson, 
And you request of me a difficult matter. 

S. But haying many cares of divers aspects, 
Just tell me this, and it may prove amusing ; 
Why does bean soup so greatly fill the stomach. 
And why do those who know this Pauson's habits 
Dislike the fire 1 For this great philosopher 
Is always occupied in eating beans. 

75. So after this conversation had gone on for some time, 
water for the hands was brought round; and then again 
Ulpian asked whether the word x«P'";S°'') ''^hich we use in 
ordinary conversation, was used by the ancients; and who 
had met with it; quoting that passage in the Ihad — 

He spoke, and bade the attendant handmaid bring 
The purest water of the living spring, 
(Her ready hands the ewer (x^pvi^ov) and "basin held,) 
Then took the golden cup his queen had fill'd. 

But the Attic writers say yepvi^tov, as Lysias, for instance, 
in his speech against Alcibiades, where he says, " With all his 
golden wash-hand basins (xepvijStois) and incense-burners ;" but 
Eupolis uses the word yiipown-Tpov, in his Peoples — 

And he who runs np first receives a basin (xfip6vnrrpov), 

But when a man is both a virtuous man 

And useful citizen, though he surpass 

In virtue all the rest, he gets no basin (xeipfowTpoj'). 

But Epicharmus, in his Ambassadors for a Sacred Purpose, 
uses the word x«povt/3ov in the following lines : — 
T T 2 


A harp, and tripods, chariots too,-and tables 
Of brass Corinthian, and wash-hand basins {x^ip6vifia). 
Cups for libations, brazen caldrons too. 
But it is more usual to say Kara ;:^£tpos v^tap (water to be 
poured over the hands), as Eupolis does say in his Golden 
Age, and Ameipsias in his Sling, and Alcseus in his Sacred 
Wedding : and this is a very common expression. But 
Philyllius, in his Auge, says Kara x^V^^i ^^^ X"P°5, in these 
lines : — 

And since the women all have dined well, 
'Tis time to take away the tables now. 
And wipe them, and then give each damsel water 
To wash her hands (kot4 x^'P''")- ^^^ perfumes to anoint them. 
And Menander, in his Pitcher, says — 

And they having had water for their hands (Korct x"/""" AaySoVrcs], 
Wait in a friendly manner. 

76. But Aristophanes the grammarian, in his Commentary 
on the Tablets of Callimachus, laughs at those who do not 
know the difference between the two expressions, Kara x^i-po^ 
and oKovupaa-diu.; for he says that among the ancients the 
way in which people washed their hands before breakfast 
and supper was called xam x"poS) hut what was done after 
those meals was called oTrovLyj/acrOai. But the grammarian 
appears to have taken this observation from the Attic writers, 
since Homer says, somewhere or other — 

Marshall'd in order due, to each a sewer 

Presents, to bathe his hands (vi\ffiurdai), a radiant ewer; 

Luxuriant then they feast. 
And somewhere else he says— 

The golden ewer a maid obsequious brings, 

Eeplenish'd from the cool translucent springs, .. 

With copious water the bright vase supplies, 

A silver laver of capacious size ; 

They wash {vSap 4tI x«pas ex^vav). The tables in fair order spread. 

They heap the glittering canisters with bread. 

And Sophron, in his Female Actresses, says — ■ 

hard-work'd Csecoa, give us water for our hands (koto x^'P^')> 

And then prepare the table for our food. 
And among both the tragic and comic writers the word 
Xepvi/Sa is read with an acute accent on the penultima. By 
Euripides, in his Hercules — 

Which great Alcmena's son might in the basin (x^pvlfia) dip. 
And also by Eupolis, in his Goats — 

Here make an end of your lustration (x^pi/lfia). 

c. 77.] SOAP. 645 

And xipvi.\^ means the water into which they used to dip a 
firebrand which they took from the altar on which they were 
offering the sacrifice, and then sprinkling the bystanders with 
it, they purified them. But the accusative xtpw/Sa ought to be 
written with an acute accent on the antepenultima ; for all 
pompound words like that, ending in i/», derived from the 
perfect passive, preserve the vowel of the penultima of that 
perfect tense. And if the perfect ends its penultimate syllable 
with a double /i/i, then the derivative has a grave on the 
ultima, as XeXafifi-ai aiytXii/', TerpijXfiai olKoTpiij/, KiKXe/jL/jiai 
ySooVXei^ (a word found in Sophocles and applied to Mercury), 
fie/iXeiifmi Karw^Xetj/ (a word found in Archelaus of the 
Chersonese, in his poem on Things of a Peculiar Nature : 
and in the oblique cases such words keep the accent on the 
same syllable. And Aristophanes, in his Heroes, has used 
the word ^^epvipiov. 

77. And for washing the hands they also used something 
which they called cr/i-^/ta, or soap, for the sake of getting off 
the dirt ; as Antiphanes mentions in his Coiycus — 

A. But while I'm listening to your discourse, • 
Bid some one bring me water for my hands. 

B. Let some one here bring water and some a-nrj/M. 

And besides this they used to anoint their hands with per- 
fumes,' despising the crumbs of bread on which men at ban- 
quets used to wipe their hands, and which the Lacedfemonians 
called KwaSes," as Polemo mentions in his Letter on Mean 
Appellations. But concerning the custom of anointing the 
hands with perfumes, Epigenes or Antiphanes (whichever was 
the author of the play called the Disappearance of Money) 
speaks as follows : — 

And then you'll walk about, and, in the fashion. 
Will take some scented earth, and wash your hands. 

And Philoxeuus, in his play entitled the Banquet, says — 

And then the slaves brought water for the hands (viwrpa kot4 x^'P"")' 

And soap (<r/i?/<o) well mix'd trith oily juice of lilies. 

And poured o'er the hands as much warm water 

As the guests wish'd. And then they gave them towels 

Of finest linen, beautifully wrought. 

And fragrant ointments of ambrosial smell. 

And garlands of the floVring violet. 

As being thrown to the dogs; from kv^v, a dog. 


And Dromo, in his Febiale Harp-player, says — 
And then, as soon as we had breakfasted, 
One handmaid- took away the empty tables. 
Another brought us water for our hands.; 
We wash'd, and took our lily wreaths again, 
And crown'd our heads with garlands. 

78. But they called the water in which they washed either 
their hands or their feet equally aTroviTrrpov ; Aristophanes 
says — 

Like, those who empty slops (airivnTTpov) at eyentide. 

And they used the word. XeKcivrj, or hasin, ia the same way as 
they used xeupovnrrpov (a wash.-hand basin); but the word 
aTToviUfm. is used in a peculiar sense by the Attic writers only 
for the water used to do honour to the dead, and for purify- 
ing men who have incurred some religious, pollution. As also 
Clidemus tells us, in his book entitled Exegeticusj. for he, 
having mentioned the subject of. Offerings to the Dead, writes 
as follows : — " Dig a trench to the west of the tomb. Then 
look along the side of the trench, towards, the west.. Then 
pour down water, saying these words, — 'I pour this as a 
purifying water for you to whom it is right to ponr it, and 
who have a right, to expect it.' Then after that pour per- 
fume." And Dorotheus gives the same instructions ;. saying, 
that among the hereditary national customs of the people of 
Thyatira, these things are written concerning the purification 
of suppliants, — "Then having washed your hands yourself, 
and when all the rest of those, who have joined, in disem- 
bowelling the victim have washed theirs, take water and 
purify yomrselves, and wash off aU the blood from him who 
is to be purified : and afterwards stir the purifactory water,, 
and pour it into the same place." 

79. But the cloth of unbleached hnen withj which they 
used to wipe their hands was called xe'po/u.oKTpoi', which also, 
in some verses which have been already quoted, hy Phfloxenus 
of Cythera, was called ocrpt/i/ia.. Aristophanes, in his Cook's 
Frying, says — 

Bring^ quickly, slave, some water for the hands (Kara x«l?is), 
And bring at the same time a towel (jceip6yaKTfiov) too. 

(And we may remark here, that in this passage he Tises the 
expression Kara y^upo^s with reference to washing the hands 
after eating; not, as Aristophanes the grammarian says, that 

c. 80.] TOWELS. 647 

the Athenians used the expression Kara xapo's before eating, 
but the word vu^axTOaj. after eating.) Sophocles, in his 
(Enomaus, says — 

Shaved in th« Scythian manner, while his hair 
Served for a towel, and to wipe his haods in. 

And Herodotus, in the second book of his History, speaks in 
a similar manner. But Xenophon, in the first book of his 
Cyropeedia, -writes — " But when you have touched any one of 
these things, you immediately wipe your hands in a towel, as. 
if you were greatly annoyed at their having been polluted 
in such a manner." And Polemo, in the sixth book of his. 
books addressed to Antigonus and Adseus, speaks of the 
difference between the two expressions xara ;)(«pos and vti^a- 
(tBoli. And Demonicus, in his Achelonius, uses the expres- 
sion Kara x"posj of water used before a meal, in these lines : — 

But each made haste, as being about to dine 

With one who 'd always a good appetite, 

And who had also but Bceotian manners. 

And so they all neglected washing their hands (Korct xeipiis). 

Because they could do that when they had dined. 

And Cratinus also mentions towels, which he calls &jL6\a/ov, 
in his Archilochi, — 

With her hair cover'd with a linen towel. 
Token of slovenly neglect 

And Sappho, in the fifth book of her Melodies addressed to 
Venus, when she says — 

And purple towels o'er your knees HI throw, 

And do not you despise my precious gifts 

l! * * * * * 

speaks of these towels as a covering for the head; as Heeatseus 
shows, or whoever else it was who wrote those Descriptions of 
the World in the book entitled Asia, — " Auid the women wear 
towels {■xeipofw.KTpa) on their heads." And Herodotus, in his 
second book, says, " And after this they said that this king , 
descended down alive into the lower regions, which the Greeks 
call At8?js, and that there he played at dice with Ceres, and 
that sometimes he won and sometimes he lost| and that after 
that he returned to earth with a gold-embroidered towel, 
which he had received as a present firom her." 

80. And HeUanicus, in his Histories, says that the name 
of the boy who, when he had given Hercules water to wash 
his hands, and poured it over hia bajids from the basin, was 


afterwards slain by Hercules with a blow of his fist, (on which 
account Hercules left Calydon,) was Archias; but in the 
second book of the Phoronis he calls him Cherias : but Hero- 
dorus, in the seventeenth book of his account of the Exploits 
of Hercules, calls him Eunomus. And Hercules also, with- 
out intending it, killed Cyathus, the sou of Pyles and brother 
of Antimachus, who was acting as his cupbearer, as Nicander 
relates in the second book of his History of GEta ; to whom 
also he says that a temple was dedicated by Hercules in the 
Proschium, which to this day is called the Temple of the 

But we will stop this ■ conversation at this point, and begin 
the next book with an account of the voracity of Hercules. 


1. But a wise poet Bhould behave 

Like one -who gives a splendid feast ; 
And so iC he is wise should he 

Seek the spectators to delight, 
So that each one, when he departs. 

May think that he has drunk and eaten 
Exactly what he'd most have wish'd ; 

Kot that there should have been but one 
Dish for all sorts of appetites. 

Or but one kind of writing for all tastes. 
These, my good friend Timocrates, are the words of Asty- 
damas the tragedian, in his satyric drama of Hercules. Come, 
let us now proceed to mention what is consistent with what 
we have said before, to show how great an eater Hercules 
was. And this is a point in his character mentioned by 
nearly all poets and historians. Epicharmus, in his Busiris, 
says — 

For if you were to see him eat, you would 
Be frighten'd e'en to death ; his jaws do creak. 
His throat with long deep-sounding thunder rolls. 
His large teeth rattle, and his dog-teeth crash. 
His nostrils hiss, his ears with hunger tremble. 
And Ion, in his Omphale, having mentioned his voracity, 
adds — 

And then, excited by th' applause, he rose 
, And swallow'd all the logs and burning coals. 

C- 3.] ULTSSES. 649 

But Ion bon-owed all this from Pindar, who said'— 
* « * « » 

And they say that he was a man of such esoessive voracity, 
that they gave him the cormorant, amongst birds which should 
be sacred to him, which is called the oi-eater, on account 
of its voracity. 

2. And Hercules is represented as having entered into a 
contest with Lepreus in respect of their mutual powers of 
eating, Lepreus having been the challenger : however, Her- 
cules gained the victory. But Zenodotus, in the second book 
of his Epitomes, says that Lepreus was the son of Caucon, 
who was the son of Neptune and Astydamia; and that he 
ordered Hercules to be thrown into prison, when he demanded 
of Augeas the reward which was due to him for his labours. 
But Hercules, when he had completed his labours, came to 
the house of Caucon, and at the entreaty of Astydamia, he 
became reconciled to Lepreus. And after this Lepreus con- 
tended with Hercules in throwing the quoit, and in drawing 
water, and also as to which would eat a bull with the greatest 
rapidity ; and in all these things he was defeated. And after 
that he armed himself, and challenged Hercules to single 
combat, and was slain in the battle. But Matris, in his 
panegyric on Hercules, says, that Hercules was also challenged 
by Lepreus to a contest as to who could drink most, and 
that Lepreus was again defeated. And the Chian orator, 
Caucalus, the brother of Theopompus the historian, relates 
the same story in his panegyric on Hercules. 

3. Homer, too, represents Ulysses as a great eater, and a 
very voracious man, when he says — 

What histories of toil I could declare. 

But still long-wearied nature wants repair. ' 

Spent with fatigue and shrunk with pining fast, _ 

My craving bowels still require repast ; 

Howe'er the noble suffering mind may grieve. 

Its load of anguish, and disdain to live, 

Necessity demands our daily bread j 

Hunger is insolent and will be fed. 
For in these lines his gluttony appears prodigious, when it 
induces him on so unseasonable an occasion to utter apoph- 
thegms about his stomach. For he ought, if he had been 
ever so hungry, to have endured it, or at all events to have 

' The passage from Pindar is hopelessly corrupt. 


been moderate in his food. But this last passage shows the 
extreme voracity and gluttony of the man — 

For all my mind is overwhelm'd with care, 

Bat hunger is the worst of griefs to bear ; 

Still does my stomach bid me eat and drink, 

Lest on my sorrows I too deeply think. 

Food makes me all my sufferings forget, i 

And fear not those which may surround me yet. 

For even the notorious Sardanapalus -would hardly have ven- 
tured to give utterance to such sentiments as those. More- 
over, when Ulysses was an old man — 

Voraciously he endl«ss dishes ate,. 

And quafifd unceasing cups of wine. . . . 

4. But Theagenes of Thasos,, the athlete, ate a buU single- 
handed, as Posidippus tells us in his Epigrams. 

And as I'd undertaken, I did eat 

A TlM-acian bull. My oim poor native land 

Of Thasos could not hare purvey'd a meal 

Sufficient for the hunger of Theagenes. 

I ate aU I could get, then ask'd for more. 

And, therefore, here you see, I stand in brass, 

Holding my right haiid forth; put something in it. 

And MUo of Crotona, as Theodoras of HierapoKs tells us in 
his book lipon Games,, ate twenty minse^ weight of meat, and 
an equal quantity of bread, and drank three ehaes.^ of wine. 
And once at Olympia he took a four year old Dull on his 
shordders, and carried it aU round the coui-se, and after that 
he kUled it and cut it up, and ate it all up by himself in one 
day. And. Titormus the .^tolian had a contest with him as 
to which could eat an ox with the greatest speed, as Alexander 
the .(Etolian relates. But Phylarchus, in the third book of 
his Histories, says that Miloj while lying down before the 
altar of Jupiter, ate a buU, on which account Dorieus the 
poet made the following epigram on him : — 

Milo could lift enormous weights from earth, 
A heifer four years old, at JoTe!s high feast. 

And on his shoulders the huge beast he bore. 
As it had been a young and little lamb. 

All round the wondering crowd of standers by. 
But he did still a greater feat than this. 

' A mina was something less than a pound. 
' A xuei's was something under three quarts., 


Before the altar of Olympian Jove ; 

For there he bore aloft an untamed bull 
In the procession, then he cut it up. 

And by himself ate every bit of it. 

But Astydamas the Milesian, having gained the victory at 
Olympia three times in the pancratium, being once invited 
to supper by Ariobarzanes the Persiaji, when he had come, 
offered to eat everything that had been prepared for the 
whole party, and did eat it. And when, Theodoras relates, 
the Persian, entreated him to do something suitable to his 
enormous strength, he broke oflf a large brazen ornament in 
the shape of a lentil from the couch and crushed it ia his hand. 
And when he died, and when his body was burnt, one urn 
would not contain his bones, and scarcely two could do so. 
And they say that the dinner which he ate by himself at 
Ariobarzanes's table had been prepared for nine persons. 

5. And there is nothing unnatural in such men as those 
being very voracious ; for all the men who practise athletic 
exercises, learn with these gymnastic exercises also to eat a 
great deal. On which account Euripides says, in the first 
edition of his Autolycus — 

For when there are ten thousand ills in Greece, 

There's none that's worse than the whole race of athletes. 

For, first of all, they learn not to lire well, 

Nor could they do so ; for could aay man 

Being a slave to his own jaws and appetite 

Acquire wealth beyond his father's riches! 

How could a man Uke that increase, his substance % 

Kor yet can they put up with poverty. 

Or e'er accommodate themselves to fortune ; 

And so being unaccnstom'd to good habits, 

They quickly fall into severe distress. — 

In youth they walk about in fine attire, i 

And think themselves a credit to the city ; 

But when old age in all its bitterness 

O'ertakes their steps, they roam about the- streets, 

Like ragged cloaks whose nap is all worn ofif. 

And much I blame the present fashions, too. 

Which now in Greece prevail ; where many a feast 

Is made to pay great honour to such men, 

And to show false respect to vain amusements. 

For though a man may wrestle well, or run. 

Or throw a quoit, or strike a heavy blow. 

Still Where's the good his country can expect 

From all his victories and crowns and prizes I; 

WilLthey fight with their country's enemies 


With quoit in hand f Or irill their speed assist 
To make the hostile bands retreat before them ? 
When men stand face to face with th' hostile sword 
They think no more of all these fooleries. 
'Twere better to adorn good men and wise 
With these victorious wreaths ; they are the due 
Of those who govern states with wisdom sound. 
And practise justice, faith, and temperance ; 
Who by their prudent language ward off evils. 
Banishing wars and factions. These are the men, 
Who're not alone a grace and ornament 
To their own land, but to the whole of Greece. 
6. Now Euripides took all this from the Elegies of Xeno- 
phanes the Colophonian, who has spoken in this way — 
But if a man, in speed of foot victorious. 
Or in the contests of the pentathlum. 
Where is the sacred grove of Jupiter, 

Near to the sacred streamlets of Olympia ; 
Or as a wrestler, or exchanging blows 

And painful struggles as a hardy boxer. 
Or in the terrible pancratium. 
He surely is a noble citizen. 
And well he does deserve the honours due 

Of a front seat at games and festivals. 
And at the public cost to be maintain'd ; 
And to receive a public gift of honour, 
Which shall become an heirloom to his children. ' 

And such shall be his honours, even if 
He wins by horses, not by his own strength. 

And still I think he does not equal me ; 
For wisdom far exceeds in real value 

The bodily strength of man, or horses' speed ; 
But the mob judges of such things at random ; 

Though 'tis not right to prefer strength to sense : 
JFor though a man may a good boxer be. 

Or pentathlete, or never-conquer'd wrestler. 
Or if he vanquish all in speed of foot — 

Which is the most important of all contests — 
Still for all this his city will enjoy 

No better laws through his great strength or speed ; 
And 'tis small cause for any lasting joy. 

That one of all her citizens should gain 
A prize on Pisa's banks; for such achievements 
Fill not the country's granaries with com. 
And Xenophanes contends at great length, and with great 
earnestness and variety of argument, in favour of the superior 
advantage of his own wisdom, running down athletic exercises 
as useless and unprofitable. And Achseus the Eretrian, speak- 
ing of the good constitution of the athletes, says — 


For naked they did wave their glistening arms, 

And move along exulting in their youth, 

Their valiant shoulders swelling in their prime 

Of health and strength; while they anoint with oil 

Their chests and feet and limbs abundantly. 

As being used to luxury at home. 
7. But Heraclitus, in his Entertainer of Strangers, says 
that there was a woman named Helena, who ate more than 
any other woman ever did.' And Posidippus, in his Epigrams, 
says that Phuromachus was a great eater, on whom he wrote 
this epigram : — 

This lowly ditch now holds Phuromachus, 
Who used to swallow everything he saw. 

Like a fierce carrion crow who roams all night. 
Now here he lies wrapp'd in a ragged cloak. 

But, O Athenian, whoe'er you are, 
Anoint this tomb and crown it with a wreath. 

If ever in old times he feasted with you. 
At last he came sans teeth, with eyes worn out. 

And livid swollen eyelids ; clothed in skins. 
With but one single cruse, and that scarce full ; 

For from the gay Leniiean games he came. 
Descending humbly to Calliope. 
But Amarantus of Alexandria, in his treatise on the Stage, 
says that Herodorus, the Megarian trumpeter, was a man 
three cubits and a half in height; and that he had great 
strength in his chest, and that he could eat six choenixes ' of 
bread, and twenty litrse of meat, of whatever sort was pro- 
vided for him, and that he could drink two choes of wine ; 
and that he could play on two trumpets at once ; and that 
it was his habit to sleep on only a lion's skin, and when 
playing on the trumpet he made a vast noise. Accordingly, 
when Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, was besieging Argos, 
and when his troops could not bring the helepolis against the 
walls on account of its weight, he, giving the signal with his 
two trumpets at once, by the great volume of sound which 
he poured forth, instigated the soldiers to move forward the 
engine with great zeal and earnestness ; and he gained the 
prize in all the games ten times ; and he used to eat sitting 
down, as Nestor teUs us in his Theatrical Eeminisoences. And 
there was a woman, too, who played on the trumpet, whose 

' It is not quite certain what was the size of the chcenix ; some make 
it about a pint and a half, while others make it nearly four pints. The 
Airpo is only the Greek form of the Roman libra, and was a little more 
than three-quarters of a pound. 


name was Aglais, the daughter of Megacles, who, in the first 
great procession which took place in Alexandria, played a 
processional piece of music ; lia-ring a 'head-dress of .■fe.lse hair 
on, and a crest upon her hfiad, as Poadippus proves by his 
epigrams on her. And she, too, could eat twelve litrse of 
meat and four choenixes of laread, .and drink a choeus of 
wine, at one sitting. 

8. There was, besides, a man of the naime of Lityerses, a 
bastard son of Midas, the king of CelsenEe in Phrygia, a man 
of a savage and fierce aspect, and an enormous glutton • and 
he is mentioned by Sositheus the tragic poet, in his play 
called Daphnis or Lityersa j where he says — 

He'll eat three aeses' panniere, freight and all. 
Three times in one brief day ; and what lie calls 
A measure of wine is a ten-amphoriE cask ; 
And this he drinks all at a single draught. 

And the man mentioned by Pherecrates, or Strattis, which- 
ever was the author of the ^ilay called The Good Men, was 
much such another ; the author says — 

A. I scarcely in one day, unless I'm forced, 
Can eat two bushels and a half of food. 

B. A most unhappy man ! how have you lost 
Tour appetite, so as now to be content 
With the scant rations of one ship of war ? 

And Xanthus, in his Account of Lydia, says that Gambles, 
wlio was the king of the Lydians, was a great eater and_ 
drinker, and also an exceeding epicure ; and accordingly, that 
he one night cut up his own wife into joints and ate her ; 
and then, in the morning, finding the hand of his wife still 
sticking in his mouth, he slew himself, as his act began to get 
notorious. And we have already mentioned Thys, tlie kmg 
of the Paphlagonians, saying that he too was a man of vast 
appetite, quoting Theopompus, who speafe of him in the 
thirty-fiftli iDook of his History ; and ArcTiilochus, in his Te- 
trameters, has accused CharUas of the same fault, as the comic 
poets have attacked Cleonymxis and Pisander. And Phoeni- 
cides mentions Ohserippus in his Phylarchus in the following 
terms — 

And next to them I place Chserippns third ; 

He, as you know, will without ceasing eat 

As long as any one will give him food, 

Or till he bursts, — such stowage vast has he. 

Like any house. 


9. And Mcolaus the Peripatetic, in the hundred and third 
book of his History, says that Mithiidatee, the king of Pontus, 
once proposed a contest in great eating and great drinking 
(and the prize was a talent of silver), and that he himself 
gained the victory in both ; but he yielded the prize to the 
man who was judged to be second to him, namely, Calomo- 
drys, the athlete of Cyzicus. And Timocreon the Ehodian 
a poet, and an athlete who had gained the victory in the 
pentathlum, ate and drank a great deal, as the epigram on 
his tomb shows — 

Mnch did I eat, much did I drink, and much 
Did I abnse all men ; now here I lie ; — 
My name Timocreon, mj country Rhodes. 

And Thrasymachus of Chalcedon, in one his Prefaces, says 
that Timocreon came to the great king of Persia, and being 
entertained by him, did eat an immense quantity of food; 
and when the king asked him, Wlmt he would do on the 
strength of it? he said tha± he would beat a great many 
Persians ; and the next day, having vanquished a great 
many, one after another, taking them one by one, after 
this, he beat the air with his hands ; and when they asked 
him what he wanted, he said that he had all those blows 
left in him if any one was inclined to come on. And 
Clearchus, in the fifth book of his Lives, says, that Cantiba- 
ris the Persian, whenever his jaws were weary with eating, 
had his slaves to pour food into his mouth, which he kept 
open as if they were pouring it into an empty vessel. But 
HeUanicus, in the first book of his Deucalionea, says that 
Erysichthon, the son of Myrmidon, being a man perfectly 
insatiable in respect of food, was called .ffithon. And Polemo, 
in the first book of his Treatise addressed to Timseus, says 
that among the Sicihans there was a temple consecrated to 
gluttony, and an image of Ceres Sito;' near which, also, 
there was a statue of Himalis,^ as there is at Delphi one of 
Hermuchus,' and as at Scolum, in Boeotia, there are statues 
of Megalartus* and Megalomazus. 

' Sito is from ctitoj, food. ' 

- It is uncertain what this name means, or how it should be spelt. 

Some write it Simalis. 

I ' This name appears to mean, "having unexpected gain," ?p;i«Ho>'ex<'"'' 
* Megalartus, from /ieyas, large, and Uprus, a loaf. Megalomazus, 

from fifyas, great, and /uiijo, a barley-cake. 


10. And Alcman the poet records himself to have been a 
great eater, in his third book of Odes, when he says — 

And presently I -will ■bestow- 
On you a large round dish well fiU'd ; 
And even now 'tis on the fire, 
Full of pulse-broth, which e'en the glutton 
Alcman would like to feast on warm. 
After the wintry solstice sets in ; 
For he for dainties does not care, 
But loves the common people's dishes. 
As long as they are full enough. 

And in his fifth book he also displays his love of eating, speak- 
ing thus — 

God has bestow'd on man three various seasons. 
The summer, and the winter, and the autumn ; 
And a fourth too, the spring, when men can dance, 
But scarce arc able to get much to eat. 

And Anaxilas the comic poet, speaking in his play called 
Chrysochous of a man named Ctesias, says — 

You now have nearly all things, save the art 
Of Ctesias himself; for wise men say. 
That he does recognise nought but the beginning 
Of a rich banquet, and denies the end. 

And in his Rich Men he says — 

A. Others may also burst when fed too well 

Not Ctesias alone. — 

B. What should hinder it? 
A. Foi; he, as wise men say, loves the beginning 

Of any feast, but ne'er can make an end of it. 

And in his play called The Graces he includes a man called 
Cranaus in his list of great eaters ; saying — 

Men do not come and ask at random now. 

Does Cranaus eat less than Ctesias ? 

Or do they both keep constantly devouring? 

And Philetserus, in his Atalante, says — 

If it were needful, I could run more stadia 
Than e'er were run by Sotades ; I surpass 
E'en Taureas himself in these my labours; 
And out-run Ctesias himself in eating. 

And Anaxippus, in his Thunderbolt, says — 

A. For now I see Damippus here approaching 
From the palEStra. 
' -B. What ! that man of stone ) 


Him whom your friends e'en now, from his great strength, 

Surname the Thunderbolts 

A. Most probably; 

For I think he will overturn all tables 

Which he once strikes with his consuming jaw. 
And in these lines the comic poet shows that it was from this 
man that he had given his play the title of The Thunderbolt. 
And Theophilus, in his Epidaui-us, says — 

There was a Mantinean centurion, 

Atrestides his name ; who of all men 

That ever lived could eat the greatest quantity. 

And, in his Pancratiast, he introduces ' the athlete as eating 
a great deal, where he says — 

A. Of boil'd meat about three minaj weight. 

B. Now mention something else. 

A. A fine pig's face; 
A ham ; four pettitoes ; — 

B. Oh, Hercules ! 

A. Three calves' feet, and one hen. 

B. Oh, Phcebus, oh ! 
What elsel 

A. Two minsB weight of figs : that's all. 

B. And how much did you drink 1 

A. Twelve measures only 
Of unmix'd wine. 

B. Oh, Bacchus ! oh, Sabazius ! 

11. And whole nations also have been ridiculed by the 
comic poets for their gluttony ; as the Boeotians, for instance. 
Accordingly, Eubulus says, in his Antiopa — 

We are courageous men to toil and eat, 
And to endure sharp pain ; the Attic race 
Is quick and eloquent, and they eat little ; 
But the Boeotians eat enormously. 

And in his Europa he says — 

Go now and build up the Boeotian city. 
Where the men eat all day and never tire. * 

And in his Ionian he says — 

He is so thorough a Boeotian 

In all his manners, that, like them, 'tis said 

He's never tired nor content with eating. 

And in his Cercopes he says — 

And after that I came to Thebes, where men 
Spend the whole night in feasts and revelry ; 
And each man has a privy at his doors. 
Which is a great boon to an o'er-fed man ; 
ATH. — VOL. II. U U 


For men -who have got a long way to go. 

And who eat much and bite their weary lips, 

Are some of the most ludicrous of sights. 
And in his Mysians he represents some one as making the 
following speech to Hercules — 

You leaving, as you say, the Thehan plain, 
Where valiant men sit eating all the day. 
Being all throat, and close beside the privy. 

Diphilus, in his Boeotian, says — 

That man can eat, beginning before dawn, 
Or come again and eat till the following day. 

Mnesimachus, in his Busiris, says — 

For I am a Boeotian, 

Who do not eat much else, except these things. 

Alexis, in his Trophonius, says — 

And now that you may not be found out thus, 

And spoken of as men of Bceotia, 

By those whose wont it is to run you down. 

As men uneqnall'd in creating noise, 

And knowing nothing else save how to eat 

And drink unceasingly the whole night long ; 

Strip yourselves quick, and aU prepare for action. 

And Aohseus, in his Contests, says — 

A . Are you now speaking to the spectators here. 

Or to the body of competitors? 
S. To those who eat much, as men training do. ^ 

A . Whence do the strangers come from 1 

B. They're Boeotians. 

And very likely it is because of aU this that Eratosthenes, 
in his Epistles, says, that Pempelus, when he was asked, " What 
sort of people the Boeotians appeared to him?" answered, 
" That they only spoke just as vessels might be expected to 
speak, if they had a voice, of how much each of them could 
hold." And Pofybius of Megalopolis, in the twentieth hook 
of his Histories, says that " the Boeotians, having gained great 
glory at the battle of Leuctra, after that relaxed their courage 
again, and turned to feasting and drunkenness, and to making 
parties for eating among friends ; and many of them, even of 
those who had children, spent the greater part of their sub- 
stance on their feasts ; so that there were a great number of 
Boeotians who had more invitations to supper than there were 
days in the month. On which account the Megarians, hating 


such a system as that, abandoned their alliance, and joined' 
themselves to the Achseans. 

12. The people of Pharsalus also are ridiculed by the comic 
poets as being enormous eaters; accordingly Mnesimachus, 
in his PhiUp, says — 

A. Has any man of the Pharsaliaas come, 
That he may eat up e'en our very tables ? 

B. There's no one come at all. 

A. So much the better; 
Perhaps they hare all gone somewhere else to eat 
Some city of Achala ready roasted. 

And that it was a general imputation on all the Thessalians, 
that they were great eaters, Crates teUs \is in his Lamia, 
saying — 

Great words three cubits long. 
Cut into huge Thessalian slices thus : — 

and he by this alludes to the Thessahans as cutting their meat 
into overgrown pieces. And Philetserus, in his Lampbearers, 
says also — 

And a huge piece of pork, enough to break 
One's arm, cut in the coarse Thessalian fashion. 

They used to speak also of a Thessahan mouthful, as 
som^ething enormous. Hermippus says in his Fates — 

But Jupiter, considering nought of this, 
Wink'd, and made up a huge Thessalian mouthful. 

And such great bits of meat Aristophanes, iu his Men 
Frying, calls Capanic, saying — 

What is all this 
To the great Lydian and Thessalian banquets 1 

And presently he says — 

More splendid (Kcmavmiirepd) far than the Thessalian : 
meaning big enough to load a wagon. For the Thessalians 
use the word Kairavr] as equivalent to oTr^vq. Xenarchus, in 
his Scythians, says — 

A. They kept to seven Capanse for the games 
At Pisa. 

B. What do you mean % 

A. In Thessaly 
They call their carts Capanse. 

B. I understand. 

13. And HecatEeus says that the Egyptians were great 
bread-eaters, eating loaves of rye, called KuXK-qcmi's, and 

TJ u 2 


bruising barley to extract a drink from it ; and on this 
account Alexis, in his treatise on Contentment, says that 
Bocchoris and his father Neochabis were contented with a 
moderate quantity of food; as Lycon of lasus relates in his 
treatise on Pythagoras. But he did not abstain from animal 
food, as Aristoxenus tells us ; and ApoUodorus the Arithme- 
tician says, that he even sacrificed a hecatomb when he found 
out that in a right-angled triangle, the square of the side 
subtending the right angle is equal to the squares of the 
two sides containing it — 

When the illustrious Pythagoras 
Discover'd that renowned problem ■which 
He celebrated with a hecatomb. 

But Pythagoras was a Tery sparing drinker, and lived in 
a most frugal manner, so that he often contented himself 
with honey by itself. And nearly the same thing is told us of 
Aristides, and of Epaminondas, and of Phocion, and of Phor- 
mio, the generals. But Manius Curius, the Eoman general, 
lived on tiurnips all his life j and once, when the Sabines sent 
him a large sum of gold, he said he had no need of gold 
while he ate such food as that. And this story is recorded 
by Megacles in his treatise on Illustrious Men. 

14. And there are many people who approve of moderate 
meals, as Alexis tells us in his Woman in Love — 

But I am content with what is necessary, 

And hal^ superfluous things ; for in excess 

There is not pleasure, but extravagance. 

And in his Liar he says — 

I hate excess ; for those who practise it 

Have only more expense, but not more pleasure. 

And in his Foster Brothers he says — 

How sweet all kinds of moderation are ! 
I now am going away, not empty, but 
In a most comfortable state, — for wise 
Mnesitheus tells us that 'tis always right ' 
T' avoid extravagance in everything. 

And Ariston the philosopher, in the second book of his 
Amatory Similitudes, says that Polemo, the Academic philo- 
sopher, used to exhort those who were going to a supper, to 
consider how they might make their party pleasant, not only 
for the present evening, but also for the morrow. And 
Timotheus, the son of Conon, being once taken by Plato from 

C. 15.] MENEDEMUS. 661 

a very sumptuous and princely entertainment to one held at 
the Academy, and being there feasted in a simple and scholar- 
like manner, said that those who supped with Plato would be 
well the next day also. But Hegesander, in his Commen- 
taries, says that on the next day Timotheus, meeting with 
Plato, said, " You, Plato, sup well, more with reference to 
the next day than to the present one ! " But Pyrrho the 
Elean, when on one occasion one of his acquaintances received 
him with a very sumptuous entertainment, as he himself 
relates, said, " I wiU for the future not come to you if you 
receive me in this manner; that I may avoid being grieved 
by seeing you go to a great expense for which there is no 
necessity, and that you, too, may not come to distress by 
being overwhelmed by such expenses ; for it is much better 
for us to delight one another by our mutual companionship 
and conversation, than by the great variety of dishes which 
we set before one another, of which our servants consume tha 
greater part." 

15. But Antigonus of Carystus, in his Life of Menedemus;. 
relating the way in which the banquets of that philosopher 
are managed, says, that he used to dine with one or two com- 
panions at most ; and that all the rest of his guests used to 
come after they had supped. For in fact, Menedemus's supper- 
and dinner were only one meal, and after that was over they 
called in all who chose to come ; and if any of them, as 
would be the case, came before the time, they would w^alk up 
and down before the doors, and inquire of the servants who 
came out what was being now served up, and how far on the 
dinner had proceeded. And if they heard that it was only 
the vegetables or the cured fish that was being served up, 
they went away; but if they were told that the meat was 
put on the table, then they went into the room which had 
been prepared for that purpose. And in the summer a rush 
mat was spread over each couch, and in the winter a fleece. 
But every one was expected to bring his own piUow; and the 
cup, which was brought round to each person, did not hold 
more than one cotyla. And the dessert was lupins or beans 
as a general rule ; but sometimes some firuits, such as were in 
season, were brought in; in summer, pears or pomegranates j 
and in spring, pulse; and in winter, figs. And we have a 
witness as to these things, Lycophron the Chalcidian, who 


wrote a satyric drama entitled Menedemus, in 'which Silenua 
says to the satyrs — 

cursed sons of a most excellent father, 

I, as you see, have quite a fancy for you : _ 

J'or, by the gods I swear, that not in Caria, 

Nor in fair Ehodes, nor royal Lydia, 

Have I e'er eaten so superb a supper ; 

Phoebus Apollo ! what a feast it was. 

And a Kttle further on, he says — 

And the boy brought us round a scanty cup 
Of wine that might be worth fiye pence a bottle — 
Awfully flat ; and then that cursed thing, 
That hang-dog lupin, danced upon the hoard, 
A fitting meal for parasites and beggars. 

And presently afterwards, he says that philosophical disqui- 
sitions were carried on during the entertainment — 

And for dessert, 
"We had some learned conyersation. 

It is also related that those who met in this way very often 
kept on conversing to such a, time that " the bird which calls 
the mom still caught them talking, and they were not yet 

16. But Arcesilaus, when giving a supper to some people, 
when the bread feU short, and his slave made him a sign 
that there were no loaves left, burst out langhing, and clapped 
his hands ; and said, "What a feast we have here, my friends! 
We forgot to buy loaves enough ; run now, my boy :" — and 
this he said, laughing ; and all the guests who were present 
burst out langhing, and great amusement and entertainment 
were excited, so that the very want of bread was a great 
seasoning to the feast. And at another time, ArcesUaus 
ordered Apelles, one of his friends, to strain some wine ; and 
when he, not being used to doing so, shook some of the wine 
and spilt some, so that the wine appeared much thicker "than 
Tisual, he laughed, and said, "But I told a man to strain the 
wine who has never seen anything good any more than I 
myself have .; so do you now get up, Aridices ; and do yon go 
away and tap the casks that are outside." And this good- 
humour of his so pleased and excited the mirth of those 
present, that they were all filled with joy. 

17. But those of the present day who give entertainments, 
especially the inhabitants of the beautiful Alexandria, cry out, 


and make a noise, and curse 1316 cup-bearer, the steward, and 
cook ; and the slaves are all crying, heing beaten -with fists 
and driven about in every direction. And not only do the 
guests who are invited sup with great discomfort and annoy- 
ance, but even if there is any sacrifice going on, the god him- 
self would veil his fece and go away, leaving not only the 
house, but even the entire city, in which such things take 
place. For it is absurd for a maji, proclaiming that people 
should aU confine themselves to words of good omen, to curse 
his wife and his children ; and such a man as that would say 
to the guests — 

And now then let us hivsten to the feast, 

That we may plan the movemente of the war; — 

for such a man's house — 

la redolent of frankincense. 
And pseans too, and groans at the same time. 

Now, when all this had been said, one of the guests who were 
present said, — ^We ought, then, when we consider these things, 
to guard against indulging our appetites too much ; 

For a frugal supper breeds no drunkenness, 
as Amphia says, in his Pan : nor does it produce insolence 
or insulting conduct ; as Alexis testifies in his Ulysses Weav- 
ing, where he says — 

For many a banquet which endures too long. 
And many and daily feasts, are wont t' engender 
Insult and mockery; and those kind of jests 
Give far more pain than they do raise amusement. 
For such are the first ground of evil-speaking ; 
And if you once begin t' attack your neighbour. 
Ton quickly do receive back all you bring, 
And then abuse and quarrels surely follow ; 
Then blows and drunken riot. For this is 
The natural course of things, and needs no prophet. 

18. And Mnesimaehus, in his Philip, on account of the 
immoderate indulgence in suppers of people of his time,, 
introduces an entertainment which professes to be a prepara- 
tion for war, and which really is what that admirable writer 
Xenophon calls a workshop of war. And he speaks thus — 
Know you now with what men you must fight? 
With us, who sup upon well-sharpen'd swords, 
And swallow lighted firebrands for dainties : 
And then, for our dessert, our slaves bring in. 
After the first course, Cretan bows and arrows; 


And, 'stead of vetches, broken heads of spears, 
And fragments of well-batter'd shields and breastplates ; 
And at our feet lie slings, and stones, and bows, 
And on our heads are wreaths of catapults. 

And Phoenix the Colophonian says — 

A cask of wine shall be our sword — a cup 
Shall be our spear — our hair shall arrows be ; • 

Goblets shall be our enemies — wine our horses — 
Ointments and perfumes our war-cry "fierce. 

And in the Parasite, Alexis, speaking of some very voracious 
person, says — ■ 

And all the younger men do call him parasite. 

Using a gentler name ; but he cares not. 

And Telephus in speechless silence sits. 

Making but signs to those who ask him questions ; 

So that the inviter often offers praj'ers 

To the great Samothracian gods o' the sea. 

To cease their blowing, and to grant a calm'; 

Por that young man's a storm to all his friends. 

And Diphilus> in his Hercules, speaking of some similar kind 
of person, says — 

Do you not now behold me di-unk and merry. 

Well fiU'd with wine, and all inflamed with anger 3 

Have not I just devour'd a dozen cakes, 

Every one larger than a good-sized shield f 

On which account, Bion of the Borysthenes said, cleverly 
enough, that " A man ought not to derive his pleasures from 
the table, but from meditation ;" and Euripides says — 

I pleased my palate with a frugal meal ; 
signifying that the pleasure derived from eatiiig and drinking 
is chiefly limited to the mouth. And iEschylus, in his Phi- 
neus, says — 

And many a most deceitful meal they snatch'd 

Away from hungry jaws, in haste t' enjoy 

. The first delight of the too eager palate. 

And in his Stheneboea, Euripides speaks of frugality thus — •■ 

A life at sea is a much troubled life, 
Not reinforced with pleasures of the table. 
But like a stable on the shore. The sea itself 
■ Is a moist mother, not a nurse on land ; 
'Tis her we plough; from this our food, procured 
With nets and traps, comes daily home to us. 

19, For the belly is a great evil to man; concerning 
which Alexis speaks, in his Men Dying together — 

C- 20.] BTiLPO, 665 

And hence you well may see how great an evil 
The belly is to man ; what lessons strange 
It teaches, and what deeds it forces on us. 
If there were any power which could take 
This part alone from out our bodies, then 
No one would any more do injury 
Or insult to his neighbour. But from this 
Flow all the ilia that harass human life. 

And Diphilus, in his Parasite, says — 

Well did that wise Euripides oft speak, 

And this does seem his wisest word of all — 

" But want compels me and my wretched belly ;" 

For there is nought more wretched than the belly : 

And into that you pour whate'er you have, 

Which you do not in any other Tessel. 

Loaves you perhaps may in a wallet carry, — 

Not soup, or else you'll spoil it. So again, 

You put cakes in a basket, but not pulse ; 

And wine into a bladder, but not crabs ; 

But into this accursed belly, men 

Put every sort of inconsistent thing. 

I add no more ; since it is plain enough 

That all men's errors are produced by it.| 

And Crates the Cynic, as Sosicrates tells us in his Successions, 
reproached Demetrius Phalereus for sending him a wallet of 
bread with a flagon of wine. " I wish," said he, " that the 
fountains bore bread." And Stilpo did not think himself- 
guilty of intemperance when, having eaten garlic, he went to 
sleep in the temple of the Mother of the Gods; but all who 
eat of that food were forbidden even, to enter into it. But 
when the goddess appeared to him in his sleep, and said, " 
Stilpo, do you, though you are a philosopher, transgress the 
law?" he thought that he made answer to her (stiU being 
asleep), " Do you give me something better to eat, and I will 
not eat garlic." 

20. After this, Ulpian said, — Since we have feasted (ScSet- 

TTva/jLcv) And Alexis, in his Curis, has used this 

expression, where he says — 

Since we have long since supp'd {SeSelirvafiti/) ; 
and so has Eubulus, in his Procris — 

But we have not yet supp'd (!f SeJirvo/tev) ; 
and in another passage he says — • 

A man who ought long since to have had supper {ieSfiirycuicu)^ 


And Antiphanes, in Ms Leonidas, says — 

He will be here before we've flnish'd supper {SeSeiirvdmi). 

And Aristoplianes, in his Proagon, says — 
It's time for me to go now to my master, 
For by this time I think they all liave supp'd {SeiecTivtimi). 

And in his Danaides he says — 

Ton now are insulting me in a drunken manner 
Before you're supp'd (SeSenrvdvai). 

And Plato, in his Sophist, and Epiorates of Ambracia (and 
this last is a poet of the middle comedy), in his Amazons, 

For these men seem to me to have bad their supper {SeSimfdvai) 
In capital season. 

And, on the same principle, Aristophanes has given us the 
form rfpun-afiev, in his Men Frying — 

We've drank our fill, my men, and well have dined {iipiaTa.ii.iv). 
And Hermippus, in his Soldiers, says — 

To dine (apurToyoi), and comij to this man's house. 
And Theopompns, in his OaHeesohrus, says — 

We've dined (^p(o-TO/iey) ; — for I must this 'discourse cut sliort. 
But, in his Politician, Antipho has used the word Karapiarav, 

When any one has all consumed in dimiers (Kca-riflirTiiKev) 

His own estate, and that of all his &,mily. 

And Amphis has used the word irapaSeSenrvrjfi.a'os, in his 
"Vagabond, saying — 

The boys who long ago have lost their dinner (7ropoScSenryi)|U6»oi). 
21. "Let us, then, now," as Plato says in his Philebus, 
" pray to the gods, and pour libations to them, whether it be 
Bacchus, or Vulcan, or whoever else of the gods it may be, 
who has had the honour of having our cups mixed for his 
sake. For there are two fountains by us, as if we were cup- 
bearers to mix the wine : and a person might compare a 
fountain of pleasme to honey; but the foTintain of wisdom, 
which is a sober and wine-eschewing spring, to that of some 
hard but wholesome water, which we must be very earnest to 
mis as well as possible." It is, then, time for us now to drink 
wine ; and let some one of the slaves bring us goblets from 
the sideboard, for I see here a great variety of beautiful and 
variously-ornamented drinking-oups. Accordingly, when a 

0. 22.] MIXING WINE. 667 

laxge cup had been given to him, he Baid, — But, boy, draw 
out and pom- into my cup a Uquor with not quite so much 
water in it; not hke the man in the comic poet Antiphanes, 
who, in the Twins, says — 

He took and brought me an enormous cup, 

And I pour'd into it unmixed wine, 

Not to the honour of a hoy, but all 

My cups, and they ivere numberless, I quaff'd 

To all the gods and goddesses of heaven. 

Then, after them, I drank twice as much more 

To the great goddess and the noble king. 

So do you now, boy, pour me out something stronger ; for 
I do not prescribe to you the exact number of cyathi.' But 
I will show you that the words KvaOo^ and oKpaTicrrepev (wine 
with less water in it) are both used : and then, too, I will 
give you a lecture about cupbearers. 

22. But, first of all, I will speak about the habit of drink- 
ing strong drinks, with reference to which we find the word 
(mporepov. Antiphanes, in his Milanion, says — 

I think this man does drink the cup of health, 
Making his cupbearer shun too much water {(aporiptp Xfiiit- 
vov oivox^tc). 

And in his Lampon be says — 

My friend lapyx, mix it somewhat stronger {li^apliTTepov). 

And Ephippus, in his Ephebi, says — 

He gave him in each hand a brimming flagon, 
Mixing in strong wine {^o>p6repov)j in Homer's fashion. 

And you find some people say that the expression in Homer — 

Take care and give less water (faprfTEpo:/ Kepaipe), 
does not mean that there is to be less water, but that the 
draught is to be hot; urging that ^topos is derived from 

• The cyathns held the twelfth part of a sextarius, which was about a 
pint ; and the Romans who wished to preserve a character for moderar 
tion used to mix their wine in the proportion of nine cyathi of water to 
three of wine. Poets, who, according to Horace, were good for nothing 
till they were inebriated, reversed these proportions : — 
Tribns ant novem 
Miscentur cyathis pocula comnu)ddB. 

Qui Muaas amat impares, 
Temos ter cyathos attonitus petit 

Vates. Tres prohibet supra 
Bixamm metuens tangere Gratia, 
Uudis juncta eororibus. — Hor. iii. 19. 11. 


t.wTiKo's (giving life), and from fcW (boiling) ;— for that, as 
there were companions present, it would have been absurd to 
begin mixing the cups of wine over again. But some say that 
the word is to be understood as equivalent to evKpaTov (weU- 
mixed); just as we find the form Se^urepov used instead of 
SefioV. And some say that, since the year is called wpos, and 
since the particle ^a- indicates magnitude or number, ^Spos 
means merely what has been made many years. And Diphi- 
lus, in his Psederastse, says — 

Pour me now out a cup of wine to driuk ; 
Give it, by Jove ! ei(ap6Tepoy than that ; 
For wat'ry things are ruinous to the stomach. 

And Theophrastus, in his treatise on Drinking, says that 
^uiporepov means mixed; quoting the following lines of Em- 
pedocles ; — 

And soon the things which formerly they learnt 
Immortal were, did mortal now become, 
And things unmix'd before became now mix'd (fapo,) 
Changing their previous ways and habits all. 

23. And Plato has used the word Kvados iu the sense of a 
ladle, in his Phaon, where he says — 

Taking up thus the ladle (kvoSos) in their months. 
And in his Ambassadors he says — 

He stole the ladles' (Ki'/ofloi) every time he could. 
And Arohippus, in his Fishes, says — 

I bought a ladle (/cuafloj) there from Daesias. 
And there is a similar use of the word in the Peace of Aris- 
tophanes : — 

All having fought till they had got black eyes. 

Lying all on the ground around the KiaBoi ; 

for black eyes are reduced by having kvclOoi (cupping glasses) 
applied to them. Xenophon also spealis of the KvaOos in the 
first book of his Cyropsediaj and so does Cratinus; and, be- 
sides, so does Aristophanes in many places, and Eubulus in his 
Orthanna; and Pherecrates, in his Triflers, has spoken of a 
Ku'a^os made of silver. But Timon, in the second book of his 
History of the Silli, has called KVadoi, dpvo-avai; speaking 
thus : — 

And dpvaavai, hard to fill wit^ wine ; 
naming them so from the verb apioitm, to draw. And they 
are called also dpvirrTJpes andap-iorixot- Simonides says — 

0- 24.] CUPBEAEERS. 669 

And no one gave me even one dpvariij) 

Of the mere dregs and lees. 
And Ai-istophanes, in his Wasps, says — 

For 1 had these dpiaTixoi near me. 
And Pkrynichus, in his Weeding Women, says — 

(A cup) k6\ik' dpianxov 
and from this comes the word aprnawa. They also called this 
vessel 'i^riP<K, as Xenophanes did in his Kelationship j and 
Polybius, in the ninth book of his Histories, says that there 
is a certain river called the Cyathus, near Arsinoe, a city in 

24. But the word axpaTearepov, meaning the same as ftopo- 
Tepov, is used by Hyperides in his oration against Demos- 
thenes ; where he writes thus — " If any one drank any wine of 
much strength (ccKpareWepov), it grieved you." And a similar 
form i? dvLaptKTTepov, and also the expression in the Heliades 
of jEschylus — 

d<p8otfsaTepov \i$a. 

And Epicharmus, in his Pyrrha, has the word evwviarcpov 
(cheaper) ; and Hyperides, in his Oration against Demades, 
has used the expression — 

And as for the word Kepawvia (to mix), that is used by Plato 
in his Philebus — " Let us, Protarchus, pray to the gods, 
and mingle cups (^Kepawviop-ev) to pour libations to them." 
And Alcaeus, in his Sacred Marriage, says — 

They mix the cups {Kipavviovaw) and drink them. 
And Hyperides, in his Delian Oration, says — " And th( 
Greeks mix {Kepawvova-i) the Pauionian goblet all together." 
And among the ancients they were the most nobly born 
youths who acted as cupbearers; as, for instance, the son of 
Menelaus ; — 

And the king's noble sou pour'd out the wine. 
And Euripides the poet, when he was a boy, acted as cup- 
bearer. Accordingly, Theophrastus, in his treatise on Drink- 
ing, says — " But I hear that Euripides the poet also acted as 
a cupbearer at Athens, among those who are called the 
dancers: and these men were they who used to dance 
around the temple of the Delian Apollo, being some of the 
noblest of the Athenians, and they were clothed in garments 


of the Thereeans. And this is that Apollo in whose honour 
they celebrate the Thargelian festival; and a writing concern- 
ing them is kept at Phylse, in the Daphnephoriiam." And 
Hieronymus the Rhodian gives the same account, who was 
a disciple of Aristotle, and that too in a book of his en- 
titled a Treatise on Drunkenness. And the beautiful Sappho 
often praises her brother Larichus, as having acted as cup- 
bearer to the Mitylenaeans in the Prytaneum. And among 
tlie Eomans, the most nobly born of the youths perform this 
office in the public sacrifices, imitating the ^olians in every- 
thing, as even in the tones of their voices. 

25. And so great was the luxury of the ancients in "respect 
of their sumptuous meals, that they not only had cupbearers, 
but also men whom they called oenoptse (inspectors of wines). 
At all events, the office of oenoptse is a regular office among 
the Athenians ; and it is mentioned by Eupolis, in his play 
called The Cities, in the following lines — 

And men whom heretofore you'd not have thought 
Fit e'en to make oenoptse of, we now 
See made commanders.. But oh, city, city ! 
How much your fortune does outrun your sense. 

And these cenoptse superintended the arrangement of ban- 
quets, taking care that the guests should drink on equal 
terms. But it was an office of no great dignity, as Philinus. 
the orator teUs us, in his debate on the Croconidse. And he 
tells us, too, that the cenoptse were three in number, and that 
they also provided the guests with lamps and wicks. And 
some . people called them " eyes ;" but among the Ephe- 
sians, the youths who acted as cupbearers at the festival of 
Neptune were called " bulls," as Amerias tells us. And the 
people of the Hellespont call the cupbearer iireyxvnjs, or the 
pourer out; and they call carving, which we call Kpew>ofi,la, 
KpeuSatona, as Demetrius of Scepsis tells us, in the twenty- 
sixth book of his Arrangement of the Trojan Forces. And 
some say that the nymph Harmonia acted as cupbearer to 
the gods ; as Capito the epic poet relates (and he was a native 
of Alexandria by birth), in the second book of his Love Poems. 
But AlcEeus also represents Mercury as their cupbearer; as 
also does Sappho, who says — 

And with ambrosia was a goblet mix'd. 
And Mercury pour'd it out to all the gods. 

C. 26.] DRINKING. 6T1 

26. But the ancients used to call the men -who discharged 
this office, heralds (icifpu/ces). Homer says — 

Meanwhile the heralds through the crowded town 
Bring the rich wine and destined victims down. 
Idseus's arms the golden goblets prest. 
Who thus the venerable king addrest. 

And a few lines further on he says — 

On either side a sacred herald stands ; 

The wine they mix, and on each monarch's hands 

Pour the fuU urn. 

But Clidemus says that the cooks used to be called heralds. 
And some people have represented Hebe as acting as cup- 
bearer to the gods, perhaps because their banquets were called 
Hebeteria. And Ptolemy, the son of Agesarchus, speaks of 
a damsel named Cleino as the cupbearer of Ptolemy the 
king, who was sumamed Philadelphus, mentioning her in the 
third book of his History of PhUopator. But Poly bins, in the 
fourteenth book of his History, adds that there are statues of 
her in Alexandria, in many parts of the city, clad in a tunic 
alone, holding a cup in her hand. 

27. And so, after this conversation, Ulpian drinking a 
goblet of wine, said — 

I drink this cup, a pledge of friendship dear. 
To all my kinsmen, naming them. 

And while he was still drinking, one of those who were pre- 
sent quoted the rest of the passage — , 

When I have drunk, I'll say 
The rest ; for I am choked : but now drink this. 

And Ulpian, when he had drunk it up, said, — Clearchus has 
these Unes in his Harp Player ; but I, as is said in the Wool- 
spinners of Amphis, recommend — 

Let the boy wait on all with frequent goblets. 
And again — 

Tou fill for me, and I will give you drink ; 

So shall the almond with the almond play : 

as Xenarchus says, in his Twins. And accordingly, when 
some of the guests asked for more wine, and others wished to 
have it mixed half-and-half, and when some oue mentioned 
that Archippus, in the second edition of his Amphitryon, 
said — 

Wretch, who has mix'd for you this half-and-half 1 


and that Cratinus had said — 

Giving him half-and-half; but I'm undone; 
eveiy one seemed to agree to speak of the way of mixing 
•wine among the ancients. 

28. And when some one mentioned that Menander, in his 
Hero, said — 

Here is a measure of well-temperd wine ; 

Take it, and drink it up ;— 

Demooritus said — Hesiod, my friends, recommends men 

To pour three parts of water in the cup, 
And let the fourth part be the vinous juice. 

And, perhaps, it was on account of Hesiod that Anasilas said, 

in his Nereus, — 

And this is much more pleasant ; for I'd never 
Have drunk one part of wine to three of water. 

And Alexis, in his Nurse, recommends even a more moderate 

mixture than this — 

See, here is wine. Shall I, then, give to Criton 
Equal proportions'! This is better far, 
One part of wine to four of limpid water : 
Perhaps you'll call that weak ; but still, when you 
Have drunk your fill of this, you'll find your head 
Clear for discussion, — and the drink lasts longer. 

And Diodes, in his Bees, says — 

A. In what proportions should the wine be mix'd ? 
£. Pour parts of water to two parts of wine. 

■And this mixture, as it is not that in ordinary use, put the 
questioner in mind of the well-known proverb, — 

Drink waters three or five ; but never four. 
What they mean is. You had better take two parts wine with 
five of water, or one of wine to three of water. But, concerning 
this mixture. Ion the poet, in his book on Chios, says that 
Palamedes the soothsayer discovered and prophesied to the 
Greeks, that they would have a favourable voyage if they 
drank one portion of wine to three of water. But they, ap- 
plying themselves to their drink very vigorously, took two 
pints of wine to five of water; — accordingly Nicochares in his 
Amymone, playing on the name, says — 

Here, you CEuomaus, — ^hare, you two and five, — 

Let you and I now have a drink together. 

And he said nearly the same in his Lemnian Women : and 
Ameipsias, in his Men Playing the Cottabus, says — 


But I (it IB Bacchus who is represented as speaking) am five 
and two to all of you. 
And Eupolis says, in his Goats, — 

Hail, my friend Bacchus, are you two to five t 
And Hermippus says, in his Gods, — 

A . Then, when we drink, or when we thirsty are, 
We pray our wine may be in due proportion. 

B. I do not bring it from a roguish wine-vault. 
Meaning to mock you : this which I do bring 
Is, as before, the proper two and five. 

29. But in Anacreon we find one measure of wine to two of 
water spoken of — 

Come, my boy, and bring to me 

Such a cup as I may drink 

At one easy draught : pour in 

Ten cyathi of water pure, 

j\nd iive of richest Chian wine ; 

That I may drink, from fear removed, 

And free from drunken insolence. 
And going on presently, he calls the di-inking of unmixed 
wine, a Scythian draught — 

Come hither, now, and let us not 

Give way to vulgar shouts and noise, 

Indulging in the Scythian draughts 

While o'er our wine ; but let us drink, 

Singing well-omen'd, pious hymns. 

And the Lacedsemonians, according to the statement of Hero- 
dotus, in his sixth book, say that Cleomenes the king, having 
lived among the Scythians, and got the habit of drinking un- 
mixed wine, became perfectly mad from his habit of drunken- 
Eess. And the Lacedsemonians themselves, when they take it 
into their heads to drink hard, say that they are Episcythising. 
Accordingly, Chamseleon of Heraclea, in liis book on Drunken- 
ness, writes thus concerning them : — " Since the Lacedsemo- 
nians say also, that Cleomenes the Spartan became mad from 
having lived among the Scythians, and there learnt to drink 
unmixed wine ; on which account, when they take a fancy to 
drink unmixed wine they desire their slaves to pour out in the 
Scythian fashion." And Achseus, in his jSIthon, a satyric 
drama, represents the Satyrs as indigpant at being compelled 
to drink their wine watered, and as saying — 
Was the whole Achelous in this wine ] 
But even then this race would not cease drinking, 
For this is all a Scythian's happiness. 
ATH. — VOL. II. X X 


30. But the habit of potiring libations of pure wine, as 
Theophrastus says, in Ms treatise on Drinking, was not 
ancient ; but originally libations were what is given to the 
Gods, and the oottabus, what was devoted to the object of 
one's love. For men practised throwing the cottabus with 
great care, it being originally a Sicilian sport, as Anacreon 
the Teian says — 

Throwing, mth Ms well-bent arm 
The Sicilian cottabus. 

On which account those songs of the ancient poets, which are 
called scolia, are full of mention of the cottabus.' I mean, 
for instance, such a scolion as Pindar composed — 

And rightly I adore the Graces, 
Njmphs of Venus and of Love, 
While drinking with a loving heart 
This sounding cottabus I pour 
To Agathon, my heart's delight. 

And they also consecrated to those of their friends who were 
dead, all that portion of their victuals which fell from their 
tables. On which account Euripides says of Sthenoboea, when 
she thinks that BeUerophon is dead — 

Nothing escaped her from her hand which fell, 

But in a moment she did couple it 

With the loved name of the Corinthian stranger. 

31. But the ancients were not in the habit of getting 
drunk. But Pittacus recommended Peiiander of Priene not 
to get drunk, nor to become too much addicted to feasting, 
" so that," says he, " it may not be discovered what sort of a 

' The cottabus was a Sicilian game, much in vogue at the drinfcing- 
parties of young men in Athens. The simplest mode was when each 
threw the wine left in his cup so as to strike smartly in a metal basin; 
at the same time invoking his mistress's name. If all fell in the basin,. 
and the sound was clear, it was a sign that he stood well with her. The 
basin was called KorTapetov, the action of throwing diroKOTTapi^eiv, and 
the wine thrown \drayes, or KaTnyfi. The game afterwards became 
more complicated, and was played in various ways ; sometimes a num- 
ber of little cups {o^i$a<pa) were set floating, and he who threw his cot- 
tabus so as to upset the greatest number, in a given number of throws, 
won the prize, which was afto called KoTTa^uov. Sometimes the wine 
was thrown upon a scale (TtXdimQ, suspended over a little image (lidtTis) 
placed in water : here the cottabus was to be thrown so as to make the 
scale descend upon the head of the image. It seems quite uncertain 
what the word is derived.from. — Vide L. & S. Qr. Eng, Lex. v, Kdrrafios. 

C. 32.] DRINKING. 675 

person you really are, and that you are not what you pretend 
to be." — 

For brass may he a mirror for the face, — 

Wine for the mind. 

On which account they were wise men who invented the 
proverb, " "Wine has no rudder." Accordingly, Xenophon 
the son of GryUus, (when once at the table of Dion} sius the 
tyrant of Sicily, the cupbearer was compelling the guests to 
drink,) addressed the tyrant himself by name, and said, " Why, 
Dionysius, does not also the confectioner, who is a skilful 
man in liis way, and one who understands a great many dif- 
ferent recipes for dressing things, compel us also, when we are 
at a banquet, to eat even when we do not wish to ; but why, on 
the contrary, does he spread the table for us in an orderly 
manner, in silence?" And Sophocles, in one of his Satyric 
dramas, says — 

To be compell'd to drink is quite as hard 

As to be forced to bear with thirst. 

From which also is derived the saying — 

Wine makes an old man dance against his will. 

And Sthenelus the poet said very well — 

Wine can bring e'en the wise to acts of folly. 

And Phocylides says — 

It should be a rule for all wine-bibbing people 

Not to let the jug limp round the board like a cripple. 

But gaily to chat while enjoying their tipple : 

and to this day this custom prevails among some of the 
Greeks. But since they have begun to be luxurious and 
have got effeminate they have given up their chairs and taken 
to couches ; and having taken indolence and laziness for their 
allies, they have indulged in drinking in an immoderate and 
disorderly manner; the very way in which the tables were 
laid contributing, as I imagine, to luxury. 

32. And it is on this account that Hesiod, in his Eose, 
has said — 

What joys and also what exceeding pains 
Has Bacchus given to mortal men who drink. 
Indulging in excess : for to such men 
Wine is an insolent master, binding fast' 
Their feet and hands, their tongues and intellects, 
With chains unspeakable, unnoticeable ; 
And tender sleep loves on their eyes to fall. 
X X 2 


And Theognis says — 

I come like wine, tlie sweetest drink of men, — 

I am not sober, nor yet very drunk ; 

But he who goes to great excess in drink 

Is no more master of his mind or senses ; 

Then he talks unintelligible nonsense. 

Which seems to sober men a shameful thing ; 

But he, when drunk, is not ashamed of anything. 

E'en though at other times a modest man 

And gentle-minded. Mind you this, my friend. 

And don't indulge in drinking to excess, 

But rise from table ere the wine begins 

To take effect ; nor let your appetite 

Eeduce you to become its daily slave. 
But Anacharsis the philosopher, -wishing to exhibit the power 
of the vine to the king of the Scythians, and showing him 
some of its branches, said that if the Greeks did not prune 
it every vear it would by this time have reached to Scythia. 

33. But those men do not act wisely who represent and 
describe Bacchus in their statues or pictures, and who also 
lead him through the middle of the market-place on a waggon, 
as if he were drunk ; for, by so doing, they show the beholders 
that wine is stronger than the god. And I do not think that 
even a good and wise man could stand this. And if they have 
represented him in this state because he first showed us the 
use of wine, it is plain that for the same reason they should 
always represent Ceres as reaping corn or eating bread. And 
I should say that iEschylus himself erred in this particular ; 
for he was the first person (and not Euripides, as some people 
say,) who introduced the appearance of drunken people into a 
tragedy. For in his Cabiri he introduces Jason drunk. But 
the fact is, that the practices which the tragedian himself used 
to indulge in, he attributed to his heroes : at all events he used 
to write his tragedies when he was dnink ; on which account 
Sophocles used to reproach him, and say to him, " .^Eschylus,' 

' Schlegel gives a very different interpretation to this story. He 
says — " In JEschylus the tragic style is as yet imperfect, and not 
unfrequently runs into either unmixed epic or lyric. It is often abrupt, 
irregular, and harsh. To compose more regular and skilful tragedies 
than those of JJsohyluswas by no means difficult ; but in the more than 
mortal grandeur' which he displayed, it was impossible that he should 
ever be surpassed, and even Sophocles, his younger and more fortunate 
rival, did not in tijis respect equal him. The latter, in speaking of 
.fflschylus, gave a ^toof that he was himself a thoughtful artist ; — 
' .Eschylus does what is right, without knowing it.' These few simple 

C. 34.] DRINKING. G77 

even if you do what you ought, at all events you do so ■without 
kuowing it;" as Chamaskon tells us, in his treatise on.(Esch}'- 
lus. And they are ignorant people who say that Epicharmus 
was the first person who introduced a drunken man on the 
stage, and after him Ci-ates, in his Neighbours. And Alcjeus 
the lyric poet, and Aristophanes the comic poet, used to write 
their poems when they were drunk. And many other men have 
fought with great gallantry in war when they were drunk. But 
among the Epizephyi-ian Locrians, if any one drank untem- 
pered wine, except by the express command of his physician for 
the sake of his health, he was liable to bo punished with death, 
in accordance with a law to that effect passed by Zaleucus. 

And among the people of MassUia there was a law that the 
women should drink water only. And Theophrastus say% 
that to this day that is the law at Miletus. And among the 
Romans no slave ever drank wine, nor any free woman, nor 
any youth born of free parents till he was thirty years of age. 
And Anacreon is very ridiculous for having referred all his 
poems to the subject of drunkenness ; for, owing to this, he is 
found fault with as having in his poems wholly abandoned 
himself to effeminacy and luxury, as the multitude are not 
aware that while he wrote he was a sober and virtuous man, 
who pretended to be a drunkard, when there was no necessity 
at all for his doing so. 

34. And men who are ignorant of the power of wine, say 
that Bacchus is the cause of madness to men ; in saying which 
they abuse wine in a very senseless manner. On which 
account Melanippides says — 

All men have detested water 

Who did not before have wine ; 

And though some have enjoy'd their cups. 

Others have turn'd to ravings wild. 

And Aristotle, in his treatise on Drinking, says, " If the wine 
be moderately boiled, then when it is drunk, it is less apt to 
intoxicate ; for, as some of its power has been boiled away, it 
has become weaker." And he also says, " Old men become 
drunk more quickly on account of the small quantity of 
natural warmth which there is in them, and also of the weak- 
words, exhaust the whole of what we understand by the phrase, powerful 
genius working unconsciously." This is the comment of a man of real 
sense, learning, taste, and judgment. — Dramatic Literature, p. 95. 
(IBohn's Standard Library.) 


ness of what there is. And again, those who are very young 
get drunk very quickly, on account of the great quantity of 
natural warmth that there is in them; for, in consequence, 
they are easily subdued by the warmth proceeding from the 
wine which is added to their natural warmth. And some of 
the brute beasts are also capable of becoming intoxicated; 
such as pigs when they are fiUed with the husks of pressed 
grapes; and the whole race of crows, and of dogs, when they 
have eaten of the herb called oenussa : and the :monkey and 
the elephant get intoxicated if they drink wine; on which 
account they hunt monkeys and crows when the former have 
been made drunk with wine, and the latter with oenussa. 

But to drink unceasingly — 
as Crobylus says, in his Woman who deserted her Husband — 

Can have 

ITo pleasure in it, surely ; how should it. 

When it deprives a living man of power 

To think as he should think ? and yet is thought 

The greatest blessing that is given to man. 
And Alexis, in the revised edition of his Phrygian, says — 
■ If now men only did their headaches get 

Before they get so drunk, I'm sure that no one 

Would ever drink more than a moderate quantity : 

But now we hope t' escape the penalty 

Of our intemperance, and so discard 

Eestraint, and drink unmixed cups of wine. 
And Aristotle says, that the wine called the Samagorean 
wine was so strong that more than forty men were made 
drunk with a pint and a half of it after it had been mixed 
with water. 

35. Democritus having said this, and having drunk, said, — 
Now if any one can gainsay any of these statements let him 
come forward: and then he shall be told, as Evenus says — 

That may be your opinion ; this is mine. 
But I, since I have now made this digression about the mix- 
tures of the ancients, will resume the thread of my original 
discourse where I let it drop ; considering what was said by 
Alcseus the lyric poet. For he speaks, somewhere or other, 
in this way — 

Pour out, in just proportion, one and two. 
For in these words some people do not think that he is 
alluding to the mixture of wine and water at all; but that, 
being a moderate and temperate man, he would not drink 

C- 35.] DRINKING. C.7s) 

more than one cyathus of pure wine, or perhaps, at the 
most, two. And this is the interpretation given to the 
passage by Chamseleon of Pontus, who was ignorant how fond 
of wine Alcseus had been. For this poet will be found to have 
been in the habit of drinking at every season and in every 
imaginable condition of affairs. In winter he speaks thus — 

Now the storm begins to lower, 

And Jove descends in heavy snow, 

And streams of water stand congeal'd 

lu cruel ice : let's drive away 

The wintry cold, and heap up fire. 

And mingle -with unsparing hand 

The honied cup, and wreathe our brows 

With fragrant garlands of the season. 
And in summer, he writes — 

Now it behoves a man to soak his lungs 

In most cool wine ; for the fierce dogstar rages, ' 

And all things thirst with the excessive heat. 
And in spring, he says — 

Now does the flowery spring return, 

And shed its gifts all o'er the land ; 
and he continues — 

Come then, my boy, and quickly pour 

A cup of luscious Lesbian wine. 

And in his misfortunes he sings — 

One must not give one's thoughts up wholly 

To evil fortune ; for by grieving 

We shall not do ourselves much good. 

Come to me, Bacchus ; you are ever 

The best of remedies, who bring 

Us wine and joyous drunkenness. 

And in his hours of joy he says — 

Now is the time to get well drunk. 
Now e'en in spite of self to drink. 
Since Myrsilus is dead at last. 

And, giving some general advice, he says — 

Never plant any tree before the vine. 
Hovf, then, could a man who was so very devoted to drink- 
ing be a sober man, and be content with one or two cups of 
wine t At all events, his very poem, says Seleucus, testifies 
against those people who receive the line in this sense. For 
he says, in the whole passage — 

Let us now drink, — why put -we out the light 1 

Our day is but a finger : bring large cups, 


Fill'd with the purple juice of various grapes ; 

For the great son of Semele and Jove 

Gave wine to men to drive away their cares. 

Pour on, in just proportion, one and two, 

And let one goblet chase another quickly 

Out of my head. 
In which words he plainly enough intimates that his meaning 
is, that one cup of wine is to be mixed with two of water. 

36. But Anacreon likes his liquors stronger stiU; as is 
shown by the verses in which he says — 

Let the cup ■well be clean'd, then let it hold 

Five measures water, three of rosy wine. 
And Philetoerus, in his Tereus, speaks of two measures of 
water to three of wine. And he speaks thus, — 

I seem to have druuk two measures now of water, 

And only three of wine. 
And Pherecrates, in his Corianno, speaks even of two measures 
of water to four of wine, and says — 

A, Throw that away, my dear; the fellow has 
Given you such a watery mixture. 

B. Nay rather, 'tis mere water and nought else. 

A . What have you done 1 — in what proportions, 
You cursed man, have you this goblet mix'd? 

B. I've put two waters only in, my mother. 
A. And how much winel 

B. Four parts of wine, I swear. 
A. You're fit to serve as cupbearer to the frogs. 

And Ephippus, in his Circe, says — 

A. You will find it a much more prudent mixture, 
To take three parts of one, and four of th' other. 

B. That's but a watery mixture, three to four. 

A. Would you, then, quite unmix'd your wine prefer 1 

B. How say you ? 

37. And Timocles speaks of half and half in his Conisalus, — 

And I'll attack you straight with half and half. 

And make you tell me all the truth at once. 
And Alexis, in his Dorcis, or the Caressing Woman, says — 

I drink now cups brimming with love to you. 

Mixed in fair proportions, half and half. 
And Xenarchus, or Timocles, in his Purple, says— 

By Bacchus, how you drink down half and half ! 
And Sophilus, in his Dagger, says, — 

And wine was given in unceasing flow, 

Mix'd half and half; and yet, unsatisfied. 

They ask'd for larger and for stronger cups. 

c. 38.] -WINE. 681 

And Alexis, in his play entitled The Usurer, or Liar, says — ■ 

A. Don't give him wine quite drown'd in water, now ; — 
Dost understand me ] Half and half, or nearly : 
That's well. 

B. A noble drink : where was the land 
That raised this noble Bacchus ? by itfi flavour, 
1 think he came from Thasos. 

A. Sure 'tis just 
That foreigners should foreign wines enjoy, 
And that the natives should drink native produce. 

And again, in his Supposititious Sou, he says — 

He drank and never drew his breath, as one 

Would quaff rich wine, mix'd half and half with care. 

And Menander, in his Brethren — 

Some one cried out to mingle eight and twelve. 
Till he >vith rivalry subdued the other (KoTtVeio-c). 

And the verb KaTacraa> was especially used of those who fell 
down from drinking, taking its metaphor from the shaking 
down fruit from the tree. 

And Alexis, in his Man cut off, says^ 

He was no master of the feast at all. 
But a mere hangman, Chasreas his name ; 
And when he'd dnmk full twenty cups of wine, 
Mix'd half and half, he ask'd for more, and stronger. 

38. And Diodorus of Sinope, in his Female Flute-player, 

■When any one, O Crito, drinks ten cups. 
Consider, 1 do beg you, whether he 
Who never once allows the wine to pass 
Is in a fit state for discussion. 

And it was not without some wit that Lysander the Spartan, 
as Hegesander relates in his Commentaries, when some vint- 
ners sold wine which had been much watered in his camp, 
ordered some one to supply it properly tempered, that 
his men might buy it with less water in it. And Alexis 
has said something which comes to nearly the same thing, 
in his ^sop ; thus — 

A. That is a good idea of yours, Solon, 
And cleverly imagined, which you have 
Adopted in your city. 

S. What is that? 
A. You don't let men drink neat wine at their feasts. 
S. Why, if I did, 'twould not be very easy 
For men to get it, when the innkeepers 


Water it ere it comes out of the waggon. 

No doubt they do not do so to make money, 

But only out of prudent care for those 

Who buy the liquor ; bo that they may have 

Their heads from every pang of headache free. 

This now is, as you see, a Grecian drink ; 

So that men, drinMng cups of moderate strength, 

May chat and gossip cheerfully with each other: 

For too much water is more like a bath 

Than like a wine-cup ; and the wine-cooler 

Mix'd with the cask, my friend, is death itself. 

39. " But to drink to the degree of drunkenness," says 
Plato, in his sixth book of the Laws, is neither becoming any- 
where — except perhaps in the days of festival of the god who 
gave men wine for their banquets, — nor is it wholesome : and, 
above all, a man ought to guard against such a thing who 
has any thoughts of marriage ; for at such a time, above 
all other times, both bride and bridegroom ought to be in 
full possession of their faculties'; when they are entering 
upon what is no small change in the circumstances of their 
life; and also they ought to be influenced by anxiety that 
their offspring shall be the offspring of parents in the fuUest 
possible possession of aU their faculties ; for it is very uncer- 
tain what day or what night will be the originating cause of 
it." And in the first book of his Laws he says — " But re- 
specting drunkenness it may be a question, whether we ought 
to give way to it as the Lydians do, and the Persians, and 
the Carthaginians, and the Celtse, and the Spaniards, and the 
Thracians, and other nations like them ; or whether like you, 
O Lacedsemouians, one ought wholly to abstain from it. But 
the Scythians and the Thracians, who indulge altogether in 
drinking unmixed wine, both the women and aU the men, 
and who spill it all over their clothes, think that they ai-e 
maintaining a very honourable practice, and one that tends 
to their happiness. And the Persians indulge to a great 
extent in other modes of luxury which you reject; but stiU 
they practise them with more moderation than the Scythians 
and Thracians. 

40. And a great many of the guests were drinking, and 
putting lumps of meal into their wine, a custom which 
Hegesander of Delphi mentions. Accordingly Epinicus, 
when Mnesiptolemus had given a recitation of his history, in 
which it was written how Seleucus had iised meal in his 


■wine, having written a drama entitled Mnesiptolemus, and 
having turned him into ridicule, as the comic poets do, and 
using his own words about that sort of drink, represents him 
as saying : — 

Once I beheld the noble king Seleucus, 
One summer's day, drinking ■with mighty pleasure 
Some wine with meal steep'd in it. (So I took 
A note of it, and show'd it to a crowd. 
Although it was an unimportant thing, 
Yet stiU my genius could make it serious.) 
He took some fine old Thasian wine, and eke 
Some of the liquor which the Attic bee 
Distils who culls the sweets from every flower ; 
And that he mingled in a marble cup. 
And mix'd the liquor with fair Ceres' com. 
And took the draught, a respite from the heat. 

And the same writer tells us that in the Therades islands 
men mash lentils and pease into meal, instead of ordinary- 
corn, and put that into the wine, and that this drink is said 
to be better than that in which the meal is mixed. 

41. Now it was not the fashion among the Lacedsemonians 
to practise the system of pledging healths at their banquets, 
nor to salute one another with mutual greetings and caresses 
at their feasts. And Critias shows us this in his Elegies : — 

And this is an old fashion, well establish'd. 

And sanction'd by the laws of noble Sparta, 

That all should drink from one well-fiU'd cup ; 

And that no healths should then be drunk to any one, 

Naming the tender object : also that 

The cup should not go round towards the right. 

The Lydiau goblets 

* » ■ * » 

And to drink healths with skill and well-turn'd phrase, 
Kaming the person whom one means to pledge. 
For, after draughts like this, the tongue gets loose, 
And turns to most imseemly conversation ; 
They make the body weak ; they throw a mist 
Over the eyes ; and make forgetfulness 
Eat recollection out of the full heart. 
The mind no longer stands on solid ground ; 
The slaves are all corrupted by licentiousness. 
And sad extravagance eats up the house. 
But those wise youths whom Laced semon breeds 
Drink only what may stimulate their souls 
To deeds of daring in th' adventurous war, 
And rouse the tongue to wit and moderate mirth. 
Such draughts are wholesome both for mind and body. 


And not injurious to the pocket either : 
Good, too, for deeds of love ; authors of sleep. 
That wholesome harbour after toil and care : 
Good, too, for health— that best of goddesses 
Who mortal man befriend : and likewise good 
For piety's best neigbour telnperance. 
And presently afterwards he goes on — 

For fierce, immoderate draughts of heady i\-ine 
Give momentary pleasure, but engender 
A long-enduring pain which follows it. 
But men at Sparta love a mode of life 
Which is more equal ; they but eat and drink 
That which is wholesome, so that they may be 
Fit to endure hard pains, and do great deeds. 
Kor have they st-ated days in all the year. 
When it is lawful to indulge too much. 
42. And a man who is always ready for wine is called 
^iXoivos. But he is called ^iXottottj? who is always ready to 
drink anything ; and he is called (fnXoKtaOuivta-Trj's who drinks 
to the degree of drunkenness. And of all heroes, the greatest 
drinker is Nestor, who lived three times as long as other 
men ; for he evidently used to stick to his wine more closely 
than other people, and even than Agamemnon himself, whom. 
Achilles upbraids as a man given to much drinking. But 
Nestor, even when a most important battle was impending, 
could not keep away from drinking. Accordingly Homer 
says — 

But not the genial feast or flowing bowl 

Could charm the cares of Nestor's watchful soul. 

And he is the only hero whose driuking-cup he has described, 
as he has the shield of Achilles ; for he went to the war with 
his goblet just as he did with that shield, the fame of which 
Hector says had reached to heaven. And a man would not be 
very wrong who called that cup of his the Goblet of Mars, 
like the Ca3neus of Antiphanes, in which it is said — 
The hero stood and brandish'd Mars's cup. 
Like great Timotheus, and his polish'd spear. 
And indeed it was on account of his fondness for drinking 
that Nestor, in the games instituted in honour of Patroclus, 
received a drinking-cup as a present from Achilles ; not but 
what Achilles also gave a cup to the competitor who was 
defeated : for victory does not commonly attend hard drink- 
ers, on account of their usual inactivity j or perhaps it is 
owing to their thirst that boxers usually fail, from being 

<-'• 44.] THIRST. 685 

fatigued with holding out their hands too long. But Eumelus 
receives a breastplate after having run a course with great 
danger, and having been torn, the breastplate being a service- 
able piece of defensive armour. 

43. But there is nothing more covetous than thirst ; cu 
which account the poet has called Argos thirsty, or rather 
causing great thirst, as having been much desired on account 
of the length of time the person of whom he is speaking had 
been absent from it. For thirst engenders in all men a violent 
desire for abundant enjoyment ; on which' account Sophocles 

Though you were to unfold unnumber'd treasures 

Of wisdom to a thirsty man, you'd find 

You pleased him less than if you gave him drink. 

And Archilochus says — 

I wish to fight with you, as much as e'er 
A thirsty man desired to quench his thirst. 

And one of the tragic poets has said — 

I bid you check your hand which thirsts for blood. 

And Anacreon says — 

For you are kind to every stranger. 
So let me drink and quench my thirst. 

xVnd Xenophon, in the third boot of his Cyropsedia, repre- 
sents Cyrus as speaking in this manner : — " I thirst to 
gratify you." And Plato, in his Polity, says — " But if, as 
I imagine, any city which is governed by a democracy, thirst- 
ing for its liberty, should have evil-disposed cupbearers to 
wait upon it, and should be intoxicated to an improper degree 
with unmixed wine . . . . " 

44. Proteas the Macedonian was also a very great drinker, 
as Ephippus tells us in his treatise on the Funeral of Alex- 
ander and Hephaestion : and he had an admirable consti- 
tution, and he had practised drinking to a great degree. 
Accordingly, Alexander, having once asked for a cup con- 
taining two choes, and having drank from it, pledged Proteas ; 
and he, having taken it, and having sung the praises of the 
king a great deal, di-ank it in such a manner as to be ap- 
plauded by every one. And presently Proteas asked for the 
same cup again, and again he drank and pledged the king. 
And Alexander, having Uken the cup, drank it off in a princely 
manner, but he could not stand it, but leaned back on the 


pillow, letting the cup fall from his hands ; and after this he 
fell sick and died, Bacchus, as it is said, being angry with 
him because he had besieged his native city of Thebes. And 
Alexander drank a great deal too, so that he once, after a 
drunken bout, slept without interruption two days and two 
nights. And this is shown in his Journals, which were com- 
piled by Eumenes the Cardian, and Diodotus the Erythraean. 
But Menander, in his Flatterer, says — 

A. My good friend, Struthias, I thrice have drunk 
A golden cup in Cappadocia, 
Containing ten full cotjlse of -wine. 

St. Why, then you drank more than king Alexander. 

A. At all events not less, I swear by Pallas. 

St. A wondrous feat. 
But Nicobule, or whoever it was who wrote the books 
attributed to her, says that " Alexander, once supping with 
Medeus the Thessalian, wlien there were twenty people 
present at the party, pledged every one of the guests, 
receiving a similar pledge from aU of them, and then, rising 
up from the party, he presently went off to sleep." And 
CaUisthenes the Sophist, as Lynceus the Samian says in his 
Commentaries, and Aristobulus and Chares in their Histories, 
when in a banquet given by Alexander, a cup of unmixed 
wine came to him, rejected it ; and when some one said to 
him. Why do you not drink ? I do not wish, said he, after 
having drunk the cup of Alexander, to stand in need of the 
cup of ^sculapius." 

45. But Darius, who destroyed the Magi, had an inscrip- 
tion written on his tomb, — " I was able to drink a great deal 
of wine, and to bear it well." And Ctesias says, that among 
the Indians it is not lawful for the king to get drunk ; but 
among the Persians it is permitted to the king to get drunk 
One day in the year, — the day, namely, on which they sacriiice 
to Mithras. And Duris writes thus, with respect to this 
circumstance, in the seventh book of his Histories : — " The 
king gets drunk and dances the Persian dance on that 
festival only which is celebrated by the Persians in honour of 
Mithras ; but no one else does so in all Asia ; but all abstain 
during this day from dancing at all. For the Persians learu 
to dance as they learn to ride; and they think that the 
motion originated by this sort of exercise contains in it a 
l&od kind of practice tending to the strength ".of the body. 


But Alexander used to get so drunk, as Carystius of Perga- 
mus relates in his Historic Commentaries, that he used even 
to celebrate banquets in a chariot drawn by asses ; and the 
Persian kings too, says he, did the same thing. And perhaps 
it was owing to this that he had so little inclination for ama- 
tory pleasures; for Aristotle, in his Problems of Natural 
History, says, that the powers of men who drink to any great 
excess are much weakened. And Hieronymus, in his Letters, 
says, that Theophrastus says, that Alexander was not much 
of a man for women ; and accordingly, when Olympias had 
given him Callixene, a Thessalian courtesan, for a mistress, 
who was a most beautiful woman, (and all this was done with 
the consent of Philip, for they were afraid that he was quite 
impotent,) she was constantly obliged to ask him herself t» 
do his duty by her. 

46. And Philip, the father of Alexander, was a man very 
fond of drinking, as Theopompus relates in the twenty-sixth 
book of his History. And in another part of his History he 
writes, " Philip was a man of violent temper and fond of 
courting dangers, partly by nature, and partly too from 
drinking ; for he was a very hard drinker, and very often he 
would attack the enemy while he was drunk." And in his 
fifty-third book, speaking of the things that took place at 
Chseronea, and relating how he invited to supper the ambas- 
sadors of the Athenians who were present there, he says, 
" But Phihp, when they had gone away, immediately sent 
for some of his companions, and bade the slaves summon the 
female flute-players, and Aristonicus the harp-player, and 
Durion the flute-player, and all the rest who were accustomed 
to drink with him ; for Philip always took people of that 
sort about with him, and he had also invented for himself 
many instruments for banquets and drinking parties; for 
being very fond of drinking and a man intemperate in his 
manners, he used to keep a good many buffoons and musi- 
cians and professed jesters about him. And when he had 
spent the whole night in drinking, and had got very drunk 
And violent, he then dismissed all the rest, and when it was 
day-break proceeded in a riotous manner to the ambassadors 
of the Athenians. And Carystius in his Historical Commen- 
taries says, that Phihp, when he intended to get drunk, spoke 
in this way : " Now we may drink ; for it is quite sufficient 
if Antipater is sober." And once, when he was playing 


at dice, and some one told him that Antipater was coming, 
he hesitated a moment, and then thrust the board under the 

47. And Theopompus gives a regular catalogue of men 
fond of drinking and addicted to drunkenness ; and among 
them he mentions the younger Dionysius, the tyrant of Sicily, 
whose eyes were a good deal injured by wine. And Aristotle, 
in his Polity of the Sj^acusans, says that he sometimes was 
drunk for three months at a time together, owing to which he 
had got somewhat weak in the eyes. And Theophrastus says 
that his companions also, who were flatterers of the supreme 
power, pretended not to see weU, and to be led by the hand 
by Dionysius, and not to be able to see the meat that was 
served up before them, nor the cups of wine, on which 
account they got the name of Dionysiocolaces, or flatterers of 
Dionysius. Nysseus also, who was tyrant of Syracuse, drank 
a great deal, and so did ApoUocrates; and these men were the 
sons of the former Dionysius, as Theopompus tells us in the 
fortieth and forty-first books of his History ; and he writes 
thus about Nysseus : " Nysseus, who was afterwards tyrant of 
Syracuse, when he was taken for the purpose of being put to 
death, and knew that he had only a few months to live, 
spent them wholly in eating and drinking." And in his 
thirty-ninth book he says : " ApoUocrates, the son of Diony- 
sius the tyrant, was an intemperate man, and addicted to 
drinking ; and some of his flatterers worked upon him so as 
to alienate him as much as possible from his father." And he 
says that Hipparinus, the son of Dionysius, who behaved 
like a tyrant when dnmk, was put to death. And about 
Nysseus he writes as follows : " Nysseus, the son of the elder 
Dionysius, having made himself master of Syracuse, got a 
four-horse chariot, and put on an embroidered robe, and 
devoted himself to gluttony and hard drinking, and to 
insulting boys and ravishing women, and to all other acts 
which are consistent with such conduct. And he passed his 
life in this manner." And in his forty-fifth book the same 
historian, speaking of Timolaus the Theban, says : " For 
though there have been a great many men who have been 
intemperate in their daily life, and in their drinking, I do not 
believe that there has ever been any one who was concerned 
in state affairs, more intemperate, or a greater glutton, or a 
more complete slave to his pleasures than Timolaus, whom I 

C. 48.] AHCADION. 689 

have mentioned." And in his twenty-third book, speaking of 
Charidemus of Oreum, whom the Athenians made a citizen, 
he says : " For it was notorious that he spent every day in the 
greatest intemperance, and in such a manner that he was 
always drinking and getting drunk, and endeavouring to 
seduce free-born women ; and he carried his intemperance to 
such a height that he ventured to beg a young boy, who was 
very beautiful and elegant, from the senate of the Olynthians, 
who had happened to be taken prisoner in the company of 
Derdas the Macedonian." 

48. A man of the name of Arcadion, too, was a very great 
di'inker, (but it is uncertain whether this is the same man 
who was at enmity with Philip,) as the epigram shows which 
Polemo has preserved in his treatise on the Inscriptions exist- 
ing in different Cities — 

This is the monnmcnt of that great drinker, 
Arcadion ; and his two loving sons, 
Dorcon and Charmylus, have placed it here. 
At this the entrance of his native city : 
And know, traveller, the man did die 
From drinking strong wine in too large a cup. 

And the inscription over some man of the name of Erasixenus 
says that he also drank a great deal. 

Twice was this cup, full of the strongest wine, 

Drain'd by the thirsty Erasixenus, 

And then in turn it carried him away. 
Alcetas the Macedonian also used to drink a great deal, as 
Aristos the Salaminian relates; and so did Diotimus the 
Athenian : and he was the man who was sumamed the Funnel. 
For he put a funnel into his mouth, and would then drink 
without ceasing while the wine was being poured into it, accord- 
ing to the account of Polemo. And it has been already men- 
tioned that Cleomenes the Lacedsemonian was a great drinker 
of unmixed wine ; and that in consequence of his drunkenness 
he cut himself to pieces with a sword, is related by Herodotus. 
And Alceeus the poet also was very fond of drinking, as I 
have already mentioned. And Baton of Sinope, in his essay 
on Ion the poet, says that Ion was a man fond of drinking 
and amorous to excess ; and he himself, too, in his Elegies, 
confesses that he loved Chrysilla the Corinthian, the daughter 
of Teleas, with whom Teleclides, in his Hesiods, says that the 
Olympian' Pericles also was in love. And Xenarchus tho 
' This was a name given to Pericles hy Aristophanes, Acham. 531. 


Ehodian, on account of tbe excessive -way in -wiich he used to 
drink, was surnamed " The Nine-gallon Cask; " and Eupho- 
rion the Epic poet mentions him in his Chihades. 

49. And Chares the Mityknsean, in his History of Alex- 
ander, speaking of Calanus the Indian philosopher, and say- 
ing that he tlu-ew himself on a funeral pile that had been 
raised, and so died, says also that Alexander instituted some 
gymnastic games at his tomb, and also a musical contest of 
panegyrics on him. — " And he instituted," says Chares, 
" because of the great fondness of the Indians for -wine, 
a contest as to who should drink the greatest quantity of 
unmixed wine ; and the prize was a talent for the first; and 
thirty minse for the second, and ten minse for the third. 
And of those who entered for the prize and drank the wine, 
thirty-fiye died at once by reason of the cold ; and a little 
afterwards six more died in their tents. And he who drank 
the greatest quantity and won the prize, drank four choes of 
unmixed wine, and received the talent; and he lived four 
days after it; and he was called the Champion." And 
Timseus says that " Dionysius the tyrant gave, at the festival 
of the Choes, to the first man who should drink a choeus, a 
golden crown as a prize :" and he says also that " Xenocrates 
ihe philosopher was the first person who drank it ; and that 
he, taking the golden crown, and departing, offered it up to 
the Mercury who was placed in his vestibule, on which statue 
he was always accustomed on every occasion to offer up 
the garlands of flowers which he had, every evening as he 
returned home ; and he was much admired for this eon- 
duct." And Phanodemus says, that the festival of the Choes 
was established at Athens by Demophoon the king, when 
he was desirous to receive Orestes in hospitality on his 
arrival at Athens. And that, as he did not like him to come 
to the temples, or to share in the libations offered to the 
gods, before his trial was decided, he ordered all the temples 
to be shut, and a choeus of wine to be set before everybody, 
saying that a cheesecake should be given as a prize to the 
•first person who drank it up. And he bade them, when they 
had finished drinking, not to offer up the garlands, with which 
they had been crowned, in the temples, because they had been 
under the same roof with Orestes ; but he desired each man 
to place his gailand round his own cup, and so to bring them 
to the priestess at the temple which is in the Marshes, and 

■C- 50.] DIONYSIUS. 691 

after that to perform the rest of the sacred ceremonies in the 
temple. And from thence it was that this festival got the 
name of the Choes. But on the day of the festival of the 
Choes, it is customary for the Athenians to send presents 
and pay to the sophists, -who also themselves invite their 
acquaintances to a banquet, as Eubulides the dialectician 
shows us in his drama entitled the EeveUers, where he says — 

You're acting like a Bophist now, you wretch, 

And long^ for the pay-giving feast of Choes. 
• • • • 

50. But Antigonus the Carystian, in his essay on the Life 

of Dionysius of Heraclea, who was called the Turncoat, says 

that Dionysius, when he was feasting with his slaves at the 

festival of the Choes, and was not able, by reason of his old 

age, to avail himself of the courtesan whom they brought him, 

turned round and said to those who were feasting with him — 

I cannot now, so let another take her. 
But Dionysius, as Nicias of Niosea tells us in his Successions, 
liad been from the time he was a boy very furious in the 
indulgence of his amorous propensities ; and he used to go to 
all the common women promiscuously. And once, when 
walking with some of his acquaintances, when he came near 
the house where the girls are kept, and where, having been 
there the day before, he had left some money owing, as he 
happened to have some with him then, he put out his hand 
and paid it in the presence of all of them. And Anacharsis 
the Scythian, when a prize for drinking was proposed at the 
table of Periander, demanded the prize, because he was the 
first man to be drunk of all the guests who were present ; as 
if to get to the end were the goal to be aimed at, and the 
victory to be achieved in drinking as in running a race. 
But Lacydes and Timon the philosophers, being invited to 
an entertainment which was to last two days, by one of their 
friends, and wishing to adapt themselves to the rest of the 
guests, drank with great eagerness. And accordingly, in the 
first day, Lacydes went away first, as soon as he was quite 
satiated with drink. And Timon, seeing him as he was 
departing, said — 

Now have we gain'd immortal praise and fame, 

Since we have slain great Hector. . . . 

But on the next day Timon went away first because he could 


not drink up the goblet in which he had been pledged, and 
Laoydes seeing him departing, said — 

Wretched are they who dare encounter me. 

51. And Herodotus, in his second book, relates that Myce» 
rinus the Egyptian, having been told by the soothsayers that 
be was fated to live but a short time, used to light a great 
number of lamps when night arrived, and spend all his time 
in drinking and luxury, relaxing neither by day nor by night ; 
and when he withdrew into the marshes and into the groves, 
or wherever he heard that there were meetings of young people 
to amuse themselves, he always got drunk. And Herodotus 
tells us that Amasis also, who was another of the Egyptian 
kings, was a very hard drinker indeed. And Hermeas the 
Methymnsean, in the third book of his History of Sicily, says 
that Nicoteles the Corinthian was a man greatly addicted to 
drinking. And Phsenias the Eresian, in the book entitled, 
The Slaying of Tyrants out of Revenge, says that Scopas the 
son of Creon, and the grandson of the former Scopas, was 
throughout his whole life very fond of drinking ; and that he 
used to return from banquets at which he had been present, 
sitting on a throne, and carried by four palanquin-bearers, 
and in that way he used to enter his house. And Phylarchus^ 
in the sixth book of his Histories, says that Antiochus the 
king was a man very fond of wine ; and that he used to get 
drunk, and then go to sleep for a long time, and then, as 
evening came on, he would wake up, and drink again. And 
it was very seldom, says he, that he transacted the affairs of 
his kingdom when he was sober, but much more frequently 
when he was drunk; on which account there were two men 
about him who managed all the real business of the state as 
they pleased, namely Aristos and Themiso, Cyprians by birth, 
and brothers; and they were both on terms of the greatest 
intimacy with Antiochus. 

52. And Antiochus the king, who was sumamed Epiphanes, 
was also a great drinker, — the one, I mean, who had been a 
hostage among the Eomans, whom Ptolemy Euergetes men- 
tions in the third book of his Commentaries, and also in the 
fifth ; saying that he turned to Indian revellings and drunken- 
ness, and spent a vast quantity of money in those practices ; 
and for the rest of the money which he had at hand, he spent 


a part of it in his daily revels, and the rest he would scatter 
about, standing in the public streets, and saying, " Let who- 
ever chance gives it to, take it:" and then, throwing the 
money about, he would depart. And very often, having a 
plaited garland of roses on his head, and wearing a golden 
embroidered robe, he would walk about alone, having stones 
under his arm, which he would throw at those of his friends 
who were following him. And he used to bathe also in the 
public baths, anointed all over with perfumes ; and, on one 
occasion, some private individual, seeing him, said, "You 
are a happy man, king; j-ou smell in a most costly man- 
ner : " and he, being much pleased, said, " I will give you as 
much as you can desire of this perfume." And so he ordered 
an ewer containing more than two choes of thick perfumed 
unguent to be poured over his head; so that the multitude of 
the poorer people who were about all collected to gather up 
what was spilt ; and, as the place was made very slippery by 
it, Antiochus himself slipped and fell, laughing a gi-eat deal, 
and most of the bathei-s did the same. 

But Polybius, in the twenty-sixth book of his Histories, 
calls this man Epimanes (mad), and not Epiphanes (illus- 
trious), on account of his actions. " For he not only used to 
go to entertainments of the common citizens, but he also 
would drink with any strangers who happened to be sojourn- 
ing in the city, and even with those of the meanest class. 
And if," says Polybius, " he heard that any of the younger 
men were inaking a feast anywhere whatever, he would come 
with an earthen bowl, and with music, so that the greater 
part of the feasters fled away alarmed at his unexpected 
appeai-ance. And very often he would put off his royal robes, 
and take a common cloak, and in that dress go round the 

53. And in the thirty-first book of his Histories, the same 
Polybius tells us " that when Antiochus was celebrating some 
public games at Antioch, he invited all the Greeks and any 
of the multitude who chose to come to the spectacle. And 
when a great many people came, he anointed them all in the 
gymnasia with ointment of saffron, and cinnamon, and nard, 
and amaracus, and lilies, out of golden vessels: and then, 
inviting them aU to a feast, he filled sometimes a thousand 
and sometimes fifteen hundred triclinia with the most 


expensive preparations ; and he himself personally attended to 
■waiting on the guests. For, standing at the entrance, he 
introduced some, aud others he placed upon the couches ;, 
and he himself marshalled the servants who brought in the- 
different courses ; and, walking about among, the guests, at 
times he sat down in one place, and at times he lay down in 
another. And sometimes he would put down what he was 
eating, and at other times he would lay down his cup, and 
jump up, and change his place^ and go all round the party, 
standing up himself, and pledging different people at different, 
times ; and then, mingling with the musicians, he would be 
brought in by the actors,' entirely covered up, and laid down 
on the ground, as if he had been one of the actors himself;; 
and then, when the music gave the signal, the king would 
leap up, and dance and sport among the actors, so that they 
were all ashamed. To such absurdities does a want of educa- 
tion, when joined with drunkenness, reduce iniserable men." 
And his namesak;e, the Antiochus who carried on war in 
Media against Arsaces, was very fond of drinking; as Posi- 
donius of Apamea relates in the sixteenth book of his History. 
Accordingly, when he was slain, he says that Arsaces, when he> 
buried, him, said — "Your courage and your drunkenness 
have ruined you, Antiochus ; for you hoped that, in your 
great cups, you would be able to drink up the kingdom of 

54. But the Antiochus who was sumamed the Great, who 
was subdued by the Eomans (as Polybius relates in his twen- 
tieth book), having arrived at Cbalcis, in Euboea, celebrated a 
marriage when he was fifty years of age ; and after he had 
undertaken two most enormous and important affairs, namely^ 
the liberation of the Greeks (as he himseK professed) and the. 
war against the Eomans. At all events, he, being smitten with 
love for a damsel of Chalcis, was very anxious to marry her 
at the very time that he was engaged in this war, being a man 
very fond of drinking and delighting in drunkenness. And 
she was the daughter of Gleophanes, one of the nobles, and 
superior to aU the maidens. of her country in beauty. Accord- 
ingly, he celebrated his marriage in Chalcis, and remained 
there all the winter, not once giving the smallest thought to 
the important affairs which he had in hand. And he gave 
the damsel the name of Euboea. Accordingly,, being defeated 

C. 56.] DBMETMDS. 695 

in the war, he fled to Ephesus, with his newly-married bride. 
And in the second book, the same Polybius relates that 
Agron, the king of the Illyrians, being delighted at having 
gained a Yictory over the haughty jEtolians, being a man 
much addicted to drinking, and to drunkenness, and ban- 
queting, fell iU of a pleurisy, and died. And the same his-- 
torian says, in his twenty-ninth book, that Genthion, the 
king of tiie Illyrians, on account of his great fondness for 
drinking, did a gi-eat many intemperate things during his 
life, being incessantly drunk, both night and day ; and having 
murdered Pleuratus, his brother, who was about to marry the 
daughter of Menunius, he married the damsel himself, and 
treated his subjects with great cruelty. And he says, in the 
thirty-third book of his History, that Demetrius, when he 
fled after having been a hostage at Eome, and became king 
of the Syrians, became a great drinker, and was drunk the 
greater part of the day. And he also, in his thirty-second 
book, says that Orophemes, who was for a short time king of 
Cappadocia, disregarded all the customs of his country, and 
introduced the artificial luxury of the lonians. 

55., On which account, that divinest of writers, Plato, lays 
down admirable laws in his second book — " That boys, till 
they are eighteen years of age, should absolutely never taste 
■wine at all ; for that it is not well to heap fire on fire : that 
men up to thirty years of age may drink wine in moderation ; 
and that the young man should wholly abstain from much wine 
and from drunkenness. But that a man, when he arrives at 
forty years of age, may feast in. large banquets, and invoke 
the other gods, and especially Bacchus, tO' the feasts and 
amusements of the older men ; since he it is who has given 
men this means of indulgence, as an ally against the austerity 
of old age, for which wine was the best medicine j so that, 
owing to it, we grow young again, and forget our morose- 
ness." And then he proceeds to say — " But there is a report 
and story told that this god was once deprived of his mind 
and senses by his mother-in-law, Juno ; on which account he 
sent Bacchic frenzy, and all sorts of frantic rage, among men, 
out of revenge for the treatment which he had experienced; 
on which account also he gave wine to men." 

56. But Phalsecus, in' his Epigrams^ makes mention of a 
woman, whose name was Cleo, as having been a very hard 
drinker — 


Cleo bestow'd tliis splendid gift on Bacchus, 
The tunic, fringed with gold and saffron hues, 
Which long she' wore herself ; so great she was 
At feasts and revelrj' : there was no man 
Who could at all contend with her in drinking. 

And it is a well-known fact that all the race of women is fond 
of drinking. And it was not without some wit that Xenarchus 
introduces, in his Pentathlum, a woman swearing this most 
horrible oath : — 

May it he granted me to pass from life 
Drinking abundant draughts of wine, while you. 
My darling daughter, live and prosper here. 

But among the Eomans, as Polybius says, in his sixth book, 
it was forbidden to women to drink wine at all. However, 
they drink what is called Passum; and that is made of 
raisins, and when drank is very like the sweet ^gosthenite 
and Cretan wine, on which account men use it when oppressed 
by excessive thirst. And it is impossible for a woman to 
drink wine without being detected : for, first of all, she has 
not the key of the cellar ; and, in the next place, she is bound 
to kiss her relations, and those of her husband, do^vn to 
cousins, and to do this every day when she first sees them ; 
and besides this, she is forced to be on her best behaviour, as 
it is quite uncertain whom she may chance to meet ; for if 
she has merely tasted wine, it needs no informer, but is sure 
to betray itself." 

And Alcimus the Sicilian, in that book of his which is 
entitled the Italian History, says that all the women in Italy 
avoid drinking wine on this account : " When Hercules was 
in the district of the Crotoniatae, he one daj' was very thirsty, 
and came to a certain house by the wayside and asked for 
something to drink ; and it happened that the wife of the 
master of the house had privily opened a cask of wine, and 
therefore she said to her husband that it would be a shameful 
thing for him to open this cask for a stranger ; and so she 
bade him give Hercules some water. But Hercules, who was 
standing at the door, and heard all this, praised her husband 
very much, but advised him to go indoors himself and look 
at the cask. And when he had gone in, he found that the 
cask had become petrified. And this fact is proved by the 
conduct of the women of the country, among whom it is 
reckoned disgraceful, to this day, to drink wine, on account 
of the above-mentioned reason." 

*>• 58-] FEMALE BKINKERS. G07 

o7. And what sort of women those among the Greeks aio 
who get drunk, Antiphancs tells us, in his Female Darter; 
where he says — 

There is a certain neighbouring Tictualler, 
And he, whenever I arrive, being thirsty. 
Is th' only man who knows the proper way 
In which to mix my wine ; and makes it not 
Too full of water, nor too strong and heady : 

1 recollect that once when I was drinking 

And, in his "Woman Initiated, (and it is women who are con- 
versing,) he writes — 

A. Would you now like, my dearest friend, to drink? 
£. No doubt I should. 

A. Well come, then, take a cup; 
For they do say the first three cups one takes 
All tend to th' honour of the heavenlj- gods. 
And Alexis, in his Female Dancer, says — 

A. But women are quite sure to be content 
If they have only wine enough to drink. 

B. But, by the heavenly twins, we now shall have 
As much as we can wish ; and it shall be 
Sweet, and not griping, — rich, well-season'd wine, 
Exceeding old. 

A. I like this aged sphinx ; 
For hear how now she talks to me in riddles. 

And so on. And, in his Jupiter the Mourner, he mentions a 
certain woman named Zopyra, and says — 

Zopyra, that wine-cask. 
Autiphanes, in his Female Bacchanalians — 

But since this now is not the case, I'm sure 
He is a wretched man who ever marries 
Except among the Scythians ; for their country 
Is the sole land which does not bear the vine. 

And Xeuarchus, in his Pentathlum, says — 
I write a woman's oath in mighty wine. 
58. Plato, in his Phaon, relating how many things happen 

to women because of wine, says — 

Come now, ye women, long ago have I 

Pray'd that this wine may thus become j-our folly; 

For'you don't think, as the old proverb goes. 

That there is any wisdom at a vintner's. 

For if you now desire to see Phaon, 

You first must all these solemn rites perform. 

First, as the nurse of youths, I must receive 

A vigorous cheesecake, and a pregnant mealcake, 

And sixteen thrushes whole, well smear'd with honey, 

698 THE DEIPN080PHISTS. [b. X. 

Twelve hares, all taken when the moon was full ; 
But all the other things may be got cheaply. 
Now listen. Three half-measures of fine onions ; 
These for Orthanna. For Conisalus 
And his two mates, a plate of myrtleherries, 
Pluck'd with the hand :. for the great Gods above 

Dislike the smell of lamps 

■ . for the dogs and huntsmen. 

A drachma for Lordon ; for Cybdasus, 
Three obols ; for the mighty hero Celes, 
Some hides and incense. Now if you bring 
These things, you'll certainly obtain admittance ; 
But if you don't, you'll knock in vain, and long 
In vain to enter, and get nothing by it. 

And Axionicus says, in his Philinna — 

Just trust a woman to drink only water. 
59. And -whole nations are mentioned as addicted to 
drunkenness. Accordingly, Boston, the measurer of distances 
for Alexander, in his book which is entitled Stations of the 
March of Alexander, and Amyntas also, in his Stations, says 
that the nation of the Tapyri is so fond of wine that they never 
use any other unguent than that. And Ctesias tells the same 
story, in his book Concerning the Revenues in Asia. And 
he says that they are a most just people. And Harmodius 
of Lepreum, in his treatise on the Laws in force among the 
people of Phigalea, says that the Phigaleans are addicted to 
drinking, being neighbours of the Messenians, and being also 
a people much accustomed to travelling. And Phylarchus, in 
his sixth book, says that the Byzantians are so exceedingly 
fond of wine, that they live in the wine-shops and let out their 
own houses and their wives also to strangers : and that they 
cannot bear to hear the sound of a trumpet even in their 
sleep. On which account once, when they were attacked by 
the enemy, and could not endure the labour of defending their 
walls, Leonidas, their general, ordered the innkeepers' booths 
to be erected as tents y.pon the walls, and even then it was 
with difficulty that they were stopped from deserting, as 
Damon tells us, in his book on Byzantium. But Menander, 
in his play called the Woman carrying the Mysterious sacred 
Vessels of Minerva, or the Female Flute-player, says — 

Byzantium makes all the merchants drunk. 

On your account we drank the whole night long. 

And right strong wine too, as it seems to me, — 

At least I got up with four heads, I think. 


And the Argives too are ridiculed by the comic poets as 
addicted to drunkenness; and so are the Tirynthians by 
Ephippus, in his .Busiris. And he introduces Hercules as 

A. For how in the name of all the gods at once, 
Do you not know me, the Tiijnthian Argive? 
That race fights all its battles when 'tis drunk. 

B. And that is why they always run away. 

And Eubulus, in his Man Glued, says that the Milesians are 
very insolent when they are drunk. And Polemo,. in his trea- 
tise on the Inscriptions to be found in Cities, speaking of 
the Eleans, produces this epigi'am : — • 

Elis is always drunk, and always lying : 

As is each single house, so is the city. 
60. And Theopompus, in his twenty-second book, speaking 
of the Chalcidians in Thrace, says : " For they disregarded all 
the most excellent habits, rushing readily with great eagerness 
to drinking and laziness, and every sort of intemperance. And 
all the Thracians are addicted to drinking ; on which account 
Callimachus says — 

For he could hardly bear the Thraciau way 

Of drinking monstrous goblets at one draught ; 

And always did prefer a smaller cup." 

And, in his fiftieth book, Theopompus makes this statement 
about the Methymnaeans : " And they live on the most sump- I 
tuous kind of food, lying down and drinking — and never doing ' 
anything at aU worthy of the expense that they went to. So 
Cleomenes the tyrant stopped all this ; he who also ordered 
the female pimps, who were accustomed to seduce free-born 
women, and also three or four of the most nobly bom of 
those who had been induced to prostitute themselves, to be 
sewn in sacks and thrown into the sea." And Hermippus, in 
his account of the Seven Wise Men, says Periander did the 
same thing. But in the second book of his History of the 
Exploits of Philip he says, " The lUyrians both eat and drink 
in a sitting posture ; and they take their wives to their enter- 
tainments; and it is reckoned a decorous custom for tho 
women to pledge the guests who are present. And they lead 
home their husbands from their drinking parties ; and they 
all live plainly, and when they drink, they girdle their stomach 
with broad girdles, and at first they do so moderately ; but 
when they drink more vehemently, then they keep contracting 


their belt. And the Ariaeans," says he, '■' have three hundred 
thousand slaves whom they call prospelatse, and who corre- 
spond to the Helots ; and they get drunk every day, and 
make large entertainments, and are very intemperate in their 
eating and drinking. On which account the Celtse when 
making war upon them, knowing their intemperance, ordered 
all the soldiers to prepare as superb a feast as possible in the 
tent, and to put in the food some medicinal herbs which had 
the power to gripe and purge the bowels exceedingly. And 
when this had been done .... And so some of them 
were taken by the Celtae and put to death, and some threw 
themselves into the rivers, being unable to endure the pains 
which they were suffering in their stomachs." 

61. Now, after Democritus had uttered all this long unin- 
terrupted discourse, Pontianus said that wine was the metro- 
polis of all these evils; and it was owing to this that 
drunkenness, and madness, and all sorts of debauchery took 
place ; and that those people who were too much addicted to 
it were not unappropriately called rowers of cups, by that 
Dionysius who is sm-named the Brazen, in his Elegies, 
where he says — 

And those who bring their wine in Bacchus' rowing, 
Sailors through feasts, and rowers of large cups. 

And concerning this class of men, (for it is not extinct,) 
Alexis, in his Curia, speaking of some one who drunk to 
excess, says — 

This then my son is such in disposition 

As you have just beheld him. An CEnopion, 

Or Maron, or Capelus, or Timoclees, 

For he's a drunkard, nothing more nor less. 

And for the other, what can I call him 1 

A lump of earth, a plough, an earth-born man. 

So getting drunk is a bad thing, my good friends ; and the 
same Alexis says, with great cleverness, to those who swallow 
wine in this way, in his Opora, (and the play is called after a 
courtesan of that name,) — ' 

Are you then full of such a quantity 

Of unmix'd wine, and yet avoid to vomit t 

And in his Ring he says^ 

Is not, then, drunkenness the greatest evil. 
And most injurious to the human race t 


And in his Steward he says — 

For much wine is tfie cause of many crimes. 

And Crobylus, in his Female Deserter, says — 

What pleasure, prithee tell me, can there be 
In getting always drank? in, while still living. 
Yourself depriving thus of all your senses ; 
The greatest good which nature e'er has given! 

Therefore it is not right to get drunk ; for " A city whicli 
has been governed by a democracy," says Plato, in the eighth 
book of his PoUty, " when it has thirsted for freedom, if it 
meets with bad cupbearers to help it, and if, drinking of the 
desu'ed draught too deeply, it becomes intoxicated, then 
punishes its magistrates if they are not very gentle indeed, 
and if they do not allow it a great deal of licence, blaming 
them as wicked and oligarchical; and those people who 
obey the magistrates it insults." And, in the sixth book 
of his Laws, he says — " A city ought to be like a well- 
mixed goblet, in which the wine which is poured in rages ; 
but being restrained by the opposite and sober deity, enters 
into a good partnership with it, and so produces a good and 
moderate drink." 

62. For profligate debauchery is engendered by drunken- 
ness. On which account Antiphanes, in his Arcadia, says — ; 

For it, father, never can become 
A sober man to seek debauchery, 
Nor yet to serious cares to give his mind. 
When it is rather time to drink and fea^t. 
But he that cherishes superhuman thoughts. 
Trusting to small and miserable riches, 
Shall at some future time himself discover 
That he is only like his fellow-men. 
If he looks, like a doctor, at the tokens. 
And sees which way his veins go, up or down. 
On which the life of mortal man depends. 

And, in his J3olus, mentioning with indignation the evil 
deeds which those who are great drinkers do, he says — 

Macareus, when smitten with unholy love 
For one of his own sisters, for a while 
Kepress'd the evil thought, and check'd himself ; 
But after some short time ho wine admitted 
To be his general, under whose sole lead 
Audacity takes the place of prudent counsel, 
And so by night his purpose he accomplish'd. 


And well, therefore, did Aristophanes term wine the milk of 
Venus, saying — 

And wine, the milk of Venus, sweet to drink ; 
because men, after having drunk too much of it, have often 
conceived a desire for illicit amours. 

63. But Hegesander the Delphian speaks of some men as 
cioivoi ; by which term he means, overtaken with wine ; 
speaking thus : — " Comeon and Ehodophon being two of the 
ministers who managed the affairs of Ehodes, were both 
drunk; and Comeon attacking Ehodophon as a gambler, 
said — • 

you old man, the crew of youthful gamblers 

Beyond a doubt are pressing hard upon you. 

And Ehodophon reproached him with his passion for women; 
and with his incontinence, abstaining from no sort of abuse." 
And Theopompus, in the sixteenth book of his Histories, 
speaking of another Ehodian, says — "When HegesUoohus had 
become perfectly useless, partly from drunkenness and gam- 
bling, and when he had utterly lost all credit among the 
Ehodians, and when instead his whole course of life was 
found fault vrith by his own companions and by the rest of 
the citizens." Then he goes on to speak of the oligar- 
chy which he established with his friends, saying — "And they 
violated a great number of nobly-born women, wives of the 
first men in the state ; and they corrupted no small number of 
boys and young men ; and they carried their profligacy to such 
a height that they even ventured to play with one another ' 
at dice for the free-born women, and they made a bargain 
which of the nobly-born matrons he who threw the lowest 
number on the dice should bring to the winner for the pur- 
pose of being ravished ; allowing no exception at all ; but 
the loser was bound to bring her to the place appointed, in 
whatever way he could, using persuasion, or even force if 
that was necessary. And some of the other Ehodians also 
played at dice in this fashion ; but the most frequent and 
open of all the players in this way was HegesUochus, who 
aspired to become the governor of the city." 

And Antheas the Lindian, who claimed to be considered a 
relation of Cleobulus the philosopher, as Philodemus reports, 
in his treatise on the Sminthians in Ehodes, being an oldish 
man, and very rich, and being also an accomplished poet, 


celebrated the festivals in honour of Bacchus all his life, 
wearing a dress such as is worn by the votaries of Bacchus, 
and maintaining a troop of fellow-revellers. And he was 
constantly leading revels both day and night ; and he was the 
first man who invented that kind of poetry which depends 
upon compound words, which Asopodorus the Phliasian 
afterwards employed in his conversational Iambics. And he 
too used to write comedies and many other pieces in the same 
style of poetry, which he used to recite to his phallus-bearers. 
64. "When Ulpian had heard all this he said, — Tell me, 
my good Pontianus, says he, in what author does the word 
TTOLpoivo? occur? And he replied — 

You ■will undo me with your questions . . 
(as the excellent Agatho says) — 

.... and your new fashion, 
Always talking at an unseasonable time. 

But since it is decided that we are to be responsible to you 
for every word, Antiphanes, in his Lydian, has said — 
A Colchian man drunken and quarrelsome {rrdpotms). 
But you are not yet satisfied about your wdpoLvoi, and 
drunkards ; nor do you consider that Eumenes the king of 
Pergamus, the nephew of Philetserus, who had formerly been 
king of Pergamus, died of drunkenness, as Ctesicles relates, 
in the third book of his Times. But, however, Perseus, whose 
power was put down by the Komans, did not die in that way; 
for he did not imitate his father Philip in anything ; for he 
was not eager about women, nor was he fond of wine j but 
when at a feast he was not only moderate himself, but all his 
friends who were with him were so too, as Polybius relates, in 
his twenty-sixth book. But you, Ulpian, are a most im- 
moderate drinker yourself {appvOfioTroTr)?), as Timon the Phha- 
sian calls it. For so he called those men who drink a great 
quantity of unmixed wine, in the second book of his SiUi — 

Or that great ox-goad, harder than Lycurgus's, 

Who smote the d^^v6fulwoTai of Bacchus, 

And threw their cups and brimming ladles down. 

For I do not call you simply ttotikos, or fond of drinking ; 
and this last is a word which Alcseus has used, in his Gany- 
mede. And that a habit of getting drunk deceives our eyesight, 
Anacharsis has shown plainly enough, in what he says where he 
• shows that mistaken opinions are taken up by drunken men. 


For a fellow-drinker of his once, seeing his wife at a banquet, 
said, " O Anacharsis, you have married an ugly woman." 
And he replied, " Indeed I think so too, but however now, 
give me, boy, a cup of stronger wine, that 1 may make her 
out beautiful." 

C5. After this Ulpian, pledging one of his companions, 
said, — But, my dear friend, according to Antiphanes, who 
says, in his Countryman — 

A. Shut now your eyes, and diink it all at once. 

B. 'Tis a great undertaking. 

A . Not for one 
Who has experience in mighty draughts. 
Drink then, my friend ; and — 

A. Let us not always drink 
(as the same Antij)hanes says, in his Wounded Man,) 

Full cups, but let some reason and discussion 
Come in between, and some short pretty songs ; 
Let some sweet strophes sound. There is no work, 
Or only one at least, I tell you true, 
In which some variation is not pleasant. 
B. Give me, then, now at once, I beg you, wine, 
I Strengthening the limbs (dpKialymov), as says Euripides — 

A. Aye, did Euripides use such a word? 

B. No doubt — who else? 

A. It may have been Philoxenus, 
'Tis all the same ; my friend, you now convict me, 
Or seek to do so, for one syllable. 

And he said, — But who has ever used this form irWi. 1 And 
Ulpian replied, — Why, you are all in the dark, my friend, 
from having drunk such a quantity of wine. You have it 
in Cratinus, in his Ulysseses, — 

Take now this cup, and when you've taken, drink it (TrTfli), 
And then ask me my name. 

And Antiphanes, in his Mystic, says — 
A. Still drink (irTSi), I bid you. 

B. I'll obey you, then, 
For certainly a goblet's figure is 
A most seductive shape, and fairly worthy 
The glory of a festival. We have — 
Have not we ? (for It is not long ago) — 
Drunk out of cruets of vile earthenware. 
May the Gods now, my child, give happiness 
And .ill good fortune to the clover workman 
For the fair shape that he bcstow'd on thee. 

And Diphilus, in his Bath, says — 

c 67.] FORMS OF niNn. 706 

Fill the cup full, and hide the mortal part. 
The goblet made by man, with godlike wine : 
Drink (irWi) ; these are gifts, my father, given us 
By the good Jove, who thus protects companionship. 

And Ameipsias, in his Sling, says — 

When you have stirr'd the sea-hare, take and drink (irifli). 

And Menander, in his Female Flute-player, says — 

Away with you; have you ne'er drunk, Sosilas? 
Drink (irTfli) now, I beg, for you are wondrous mad. 

66. And in the future tense of rnvw, we should not read 
TTLov/jLai, but ■TTiofiaL without the v, lengthening the i. And 
this is the way the future is formed in that hue of Homer — 

(jri6iiiv Ik PoTvurrts) Drank after feeding. 
And Aristophanes, in his Knights, says — 

He ne'er shall drink (rUrai) of the Eame cup with me : 
and in another place he says — 

Thou shalt this day drink (iri'ei) the most bitter wine ; 
though this might, perhaps, come from irioviuu. Sometimes, 
however, they shorten the t, as Plato does, in his Women 
Returning from Sacrifice — 

Nor he who drinks up (Imrlerai) all her property : 
and in his Syrphax he says — 

And ye shall drink (Tr/to-fle) much water. 
And Menander uses the word Tte as a dissyllable, in his 

A. Drink (■•tie). 

B. I will compel this wretch. 

This sacrilegious wretch, to drink {irieTv) it first : 

and the expression t^ ttU, take and drink, and -itlvc, drink. 
So do you, my friend, drink ; and as Alexis says, in his 
Twins, — 

Pledge yon (irpomSi) this man, that he may pledge another. 
And let it be a cup of comi-adeship, which Anacreon calls 
iTTumos. For that great lyric poet says — 

And do not chatter like the wave 
Of the loud brawling sea, with that 
Ever-loquacious Gastrodora, 
Drinking the cup Mirrios. 

But the name which we give it is dvuT<Dv. 

67. But. do not you be afraid to drink; nor will you be in 

ATH. VOL. II. z z 


any danger of falling on your hinder parts; for the people who 
drink what Siinonides calls — 

Wine, the brave router of all melancliolyj 
can never suffer such a mischance as that. But as Aristotle 
says, in his book on Drunkenness, they who have drunk beer, 
which they call irivos, fall on their backs. For he says, " But 
there is a peculiarity in the effects of the drink made from 
barley, which they call mvos, for they who get drunk on other 
intoxicating liquors fall on all parts of their body ; they fall 
on the left side, on the right side, on their faces, and on 
■their backs. But it is only those who get drunk on beer who 
fell on their backs, and lie with their faces upwards." But 
the wine which is made of barley is by some called jSpvros, as 
Sophocles says, in his Triptolemus — 

And not to drink the earthy beer {ppirov). 
And Archilochus says — 

. And she did vomit wine as any Thracian 
Might vomit beer (fipirov), and played the iranton stooping. 
And JEschylus, also, mentions this drink, in his Lycurgus— 
And after tliis he drank his beer (0pirov), and much 
And loudly bragg'd in that most valiant house. 
But Hellanicus, in his Origins, says that beer is made also 
out of roots, and he writes thus : — " But they drink beer 
ifipvTov) made of roots, as the Thracians drink it made of 
barley." And Hecatseus, in the second book of his Descrip- 
tion of the World, speaking of the Egyptians, and saying that 
they are great bread-eaters, adds, " They bruise barley so as 
to make a drink of it." And, in his Voyage round Europe, 
he says that " the Pseonians drink beer made of barley, and 
,a liquor called irapa^nj, made of millet and conyza. And they 
anoint themselves," -adds he, "with oil made of milk." And 
this is enough to say on these topics. 

68. But in our time dear to the thyrsus-bearers 
Is rosy wine, and greatest of all gods 
Is Bacchus. 
As Ion the Chian say^ in his Elegies — 

For this is pretext fit for many a song ; 
The great assemblies of th' united Greeks, 

The feasts of kings, da from this gift proceed. 
Since first the vine, with hoary bunches laden, 
Push'd from, beneath the ground its fertile shoots,, 
■ _ ■ . Clasping the poplar in its firm embrace, 

Atid from iti buds burst forth a numerous race, 

.0.-6B.] rpwoi. 707 

Crashing, as one upon the other presa'd ; 

But when the noise has ceased they yield their juice, 
Divinest nectar, ivhich to mortal men 

Is ever the sole remedy for care, 
And common cause of joy and cheerfulness. 

Parent of feasts, and laughter, and the dance. 
Wine shows the disposition of the good. 

And strengthens all their noble qualities. 
Hail ! then, O Bacchus, president of feasts, 

Dear to all men who Iotc the wreathed flowers ; 
Give us, kind God, an age of happiness. 

To drink, and play, and cherish just designs. 
But Amphis, in his PhUadelphi, praising the life of those 
■who are fond of drinking, says : — 

For many causes do I think our life. 
The life of those who drink, a happy one ; 
And happier far than yours, whose wisdom all 
Lies in a stem and solemn-looking brow. 
For that slow prudence which is always busy 
In settling small affairs, which with minuteness, 
And vain solicitude, keeps hunting trifles. 
Fears boldly to advance in things of weight; 
But our mind, not too fond of scrutinising 
Th' exact result of every trifling measure. 
Is ever for prompt deeds of spirit ready. 

69. And when Ulpian was about to add something to this 
^milianus said, — It is time for us, my friends, to inquire in 
some degree about ypitjioi, that we may leave our cups for 
a little while, not indeed in the spirit of that work which is 
entitled the Grammatical Tragedy of CaUias the Athenian : 
but let us first inquire what is the definition of what we call 
a yp2<l>os. .... And we may omit what Cleobuhna of Lin- 
dus has proposed in her Epigrams; for our companion, 
Diotimus of Olympia, has discussed that point sufficiently ; 
but we must consider how the comic poets have mentioned 
it, and what punishment those who have failed to solve it 
have undergone. And Laurentius said, — Clearchus the Solen- 
sian defines the word thus : " Tpi<f>o^," says he, " is & sportive 
problem, in which we are bidden to seek out, by the exertion 
of our intellect and powers of investigation, what is proposed 
to us, which has been uttered for the sake of some honom* 
or some penalty." And in his discussion on these griphi, 
the same Clearchus asserts that "there are seven kinds of 
griphi. In the letter, when we say that there is a eertain 
name of a fish or plant, beginning with a. • -And similarly, 
zz 2 


when he who proposes the griphus desires us to mention 
some name in which some particular letter is or is not. 
Such are those which are called sigma-less griphi ; on 
which account Pindar has composed an ode on the <t, as 
if some griphus had been proposed to him as a subject for 
a lyric poem. Then griphi are said to be in the syllable, 
when we are desired to recite some verse which begins 
with the syllable ;8a, as with /SatnXeiis, for instance, or which 
ends with vaf, as T/LaWiava^, or some in which the syllables 
Aeu)v take the lead, as Acmot'Sijs, or on the other hand close 
the sentence, as ©pacruXeW. They are in the name, when we 
utter simple or compound names of two syllables, by which 
some tragic figure, or on the other hand some humble one, is 
indicated ; or some names which have no connexion with 
anything divine, as KXewvu/nos, or which have some such con- 
nexion, as Aiojt;o-6os : and this, too, whether the connexion be 
with one God or with more, as 'Ep/ia^poStros ; or whether the 
name begins with Jupiter, as AiokX-^s, or with Mercury, as 
'Ep/idSwpos ; or whether it ends, as it perhaps may, with vikos. 
And then they who were desired to say such and such things, 
and could not, had to drain the cup." And Clearchus de- 
fined the word in this way. And now you, my good friend 
TJlpian, may inquire what the cup to be drained is. 

70. But concerning these griphi, Antiphanes says, in his 
Cnoethis, or the Pot-bellied Man — 

A. I thought before that those who while at meals 
Bade me solve griphi, were the silliest triflers, 

, Talking mere nonsense. And when any one 
Was bade to say what a man bore and bore not, 
I laugh'd and thought it utter childishness ; 
And did not think that truth did lie beneath. 
But reckon' d them as traps for the unwary. ; 

But now, indeed, I see there is some truth in them ; 
For we, ten men, contribute now for supper, 
But no one of them all bears what he brings. 
So here's a case where he who bears beai-s not, 
-\nd this is just th? meaning of a griphus. 
So surely this may fairly be excused ; 
But others play tricks with the things themselves. 
Paying no money, as, for instance, Philip. 

B. A wise and fortunate man, by Jove, is he. 

■ And in his Aphrodisian he says — 

A. Suppose I want to say now " dish" to yon. 
Shall I say " dish," or shall I rather say. 

c. 71.] rpi*oz. 709 

A hollow-bodied vessel, made of earth, 

JTorni'd by the potter's wheel in rapid swing. 

Baked in another mansion of its mother, 

Which holds within its net the tender milk-fed 

Offspring of new-born flocks untimely choked ? 
B. By Hercules, you'll kill me straight if you 

Do not in plain words say a " dish of meat." 
A. 'Tis well. And shall I speak to you of drops 

Flowing from bleating goats, and well compounded 

With streams proceeding from the yellow bee, 

Sitting on a broad receptacle provided 

By the cha.ste virgin bom of holy Ceres, 

And now luxuriating beneath a host 

Of countless finely-wrought integuments ; 

Or shall I say " a cheesecake?" 

B. Prithee say 

A cheesecake. 

A . Shall I speak of rosy sweat 

From Bacchic spring 1 

B. I'd rather you'd say wine. 

A. Or shall I speak of dusky dewy drops? 

B. tfo such long paraphrase, — say plainly, water. 
A. Or shall I praise the cassia-breathing fragrance 

That scents the air ? 

B. No, call it myrrh, — forbear 
Those sad long-winded sentences, those long 
And roundabout periphrases ; it seems 
To me by far too great a labour thus 
To dwell on matters which are small themselves, 
And only great in such immense descriptions. 

71. And Alexis, in his Sleep, proposes a griphus of this 
kind — 

A. It is not mortal, nor immortal either. 
But as it were compounded of the two. 
So that it neither lives the life of man, 
Nor yet of God, but is incessantly 

New born again, and then again deprived 
Of this its present life ; invisible. 
Yet it is known and recognised by all. 

B. You always do delight, lady, in riddles. 

A. No, I am speaking plain and simple things. 

B. What child then is there which has such a nature % 
A ■ 'Tis sleep, my girl, victor of human toils. 

And Eubulus, in his Sphingocarion, proposes griphi of this 
kind, himself afterwards giving the solution of them — 

A. There is a thing which speaks, yet has no tongue ; 
A female of the same name as the male ; 
The steward of the winds, which it holds fast ; 
Bough, and yet sometimes smooth ; full of dark voices 


Scarce to be understood by learned men; 
Producing haimony after harmony; 
'Tis one thing, and yet many ; e'en if wounded 
'Tis still invulnerable and unhurt. 
B. What can that be? 

A. Why, don't you know, Callistratus? 
It is a bellows. 

S. You are joking now. 
A. No ; don't it speak, although it has no tongue ] 
Has it not but one name with many people 3 
Is 't not unhurt, though with a wound i' the centre? 
Is it not sometimes rough, and sometimes smooth 1 
Is it not, too, a guardian of much wind 1 
Again : — 

There is an animal with a locust's eye. 

With a sharp mouth, and double deathfnl head ; 

A mighty warrior, who slays a race 

Of unborn children. 

{'Tis the Egyptian ichneumon.) 

For he does seize upon the crocodile's ^gs, 
And, ere the latent of&pring is quite form'd. 
Breaks and destroys them : he's a double head. 
For he can sting with one end, and bite with th' other. 

Again: — 

I know a thing which, while it's young, is heaiy. 
But when it's old, though Toid of wings, can fly 
With lightest motion, out of sight o' fii' earth. 

This is thistledown. For it — 

While it is young, stands solid in its seed. 
But when it loses that, is light and flies, 
Blown about every way by playful children. 

Listen, now, to this one — 

There is an image all whose upper part 

Is its foundation, while the lower part 

Is open ; bored all through firom head to feet ; 

'Tis sharp, and brings forth men in threefold war, 

Some of whom gain the lot of life, some lose it : 

All have it ; but I bid them aU beware. 

And you yourselves may decide here, that he means the box 

into which the votes are thrown, so that we may not borrow 

everything from Eubulus. 

72. And Antiphanes, in his Problem, says — 
A. A man who threw his net o'er many fish. 
Though full of hope, after much toil and cost. 
Caught only one small perch. And 'twas a cestreis^ 
Deceived itself who brought this perch within. 

G. 73.] rPi*oi. 711 

For the perch foUoweth the blacktail gladly. 
B. A ceatrflus, blacktail, perch, and man, and net, — 
I don't know what you mean ; there's no sense in it. 

A. Wait while I clearly now explain myself: 
There is a man who giving all he has, 

When giving it, knows not to whom he gives it, 
Nor knows he has the things he does not need. 

B. Giving, not giving, having, and not having, — 
I do. not understand one word of this. 

A. These were the very words of- this same griphus. 
For what you know you do not just now know, 
What yon nave given, or what you have instead. 
This was the meaning. 

B. Well, I should be glad 
To give you too a griphus. 

A. Well, let'sTiave it. 

B. A pinna and a mullet, two fish, both 
Endued with voices, had a conversation. 
And talk'd of many things ; hut did not say 
What they were talking of, nor whom they thought 
They were addressing ; for they both did fail 

In seeing who it was to whom they talk'd. 
And BO, while they kept talking to each other, 
The goddess Ceres came and both destroy'd. 

73. And in his play called. Sappho, Antiphanes represents 
the poetess herself as proposing griphi, -which we may call 
riddles, in this manner : and then some one else is represented 
as solving them. For she says — 

S. There is a female thing which holds her young 
Safely beneath her bosom ; they, though mute, 
Cease not to utter a loud sounding voice 
Across the swelling sea, and o'er the land, 
Speaking to every mortal that they choose ; 
But those who present are can nothing hear. 
Still they have some sensation of faint sound. 

And some one, solving this riddle, says — 

B. The female thing you speak of is a city; 
The children whom it nourishes, orators ; 
They, crying out, bring from across the sea. 
From Asia and from Thrace, all sorts of presents : 
The people still is near them while they feed on it. 
And pour reproaches ceaselessly around. 
While it nor hears nor sees aught that they do. 

S. But how, my father, tell me, in God's name, 
Can you e'er say an orator is mute. 
Unless, indeed, he's been three times convicted ? 

B. And yet I thought that I did understand 
The riddle rightly. Tell me then yourself. 


And so then he introduces Sappho herself solving the riddle, 

thus — 

S. The female thing you speak of is a letter. 
The young she bears about her is the writing : 
They're milte themselves, yet speak to those afar off 
Whene'er they please. And yet a bystander. 
However near he may be, hears no sound 
From him who has received and reads the letter. 

74. And Diphilus, in his Theseus, says that there were 
once three Samian damsels, who, on the day of the festival of 
Adonis, used to delight themselves in solving riddles at their 
feasts. And that when some one had proposed to them this 
riddle, " What is the strongest of all things ?" one said iron, 
and alleged the following reasons for her opinion, because 
that is the instrument with which men dig and cut, and that 
is the material which they use for all purposes. And when 
she had been applauded, the second damsel said that a black- 
smith exerted much greater strength, for that he, when he 
was at work, bent this strong iron, and softened it, and used 
it for whatever pvirposes he chose. And the third said, they 
were both wrong, and that love was the strongest thing of all, 
for that love could subdue a blacksmith. 

And Achseus the Eretrian, though he is usually a very 
clear poet as respects the structure of his poems, sometimes 
makes his language obscure, and says many things in an enig- 
matical style ; as, for instance, in his Iris, which is a satyric 
play. For he says, " A cruet of lithai'ge full of ointment was 
suspended from a Spartan tablet, written upon and twisted 
on a double stick ;" meaning to say a white strap, from which 
a silver cruet was suspended ; and he has spoken of a Spartan 
written tablet when he merely meant the Spartan scytale. 
And that the Lacedsemonians put a white strap, on which 
they wrote whatever they wished, around the scytale, we are 
told plainly enough by Apollonius Ehodius, in his Treatise 
on Archilochus. And Stesichorus, in his Helen, speaks of 
a footpan of litharge ; and Ion, in his Phcenis or Cseneus, 
calls the birdlime the sweat of the oak, saying — 

The sweat of oaks, and a long leafy branch 
Cut from a bush supports me, and a thread 
Drawn from Egyptian linen, clever snare 
To catch the flying birds. 

75. And Hermippus says, that Theodectes of Phaselus, in 

O. 76.] RIDDLES. 713 

his book on the Pupils of Isocrates, was a wonderfully clever 
man at discovering any riddles that might be proposed to 
him, and that he too could propose riddles to others with 
great acuteness. As that riddle about shade, for instance ; — 
for he said that there was a nature which is greatest at its 
birth and at its decease, and least when at its height. And 
he speaks thus : — 

Of all the things the genial earth produces. 

Or the deep sea, there is no single one, 

Nor any man or other animal 

Whose growth at all can correspond to this : 

For when it first is born its size is greatest; 

At middle age 'tis scarcely visible, 

So small it's grown ; but when 'tis old and hastens 

Nigh to its end, it then becomes again 

Greater than all the objects that surround it. 

And in the (Edipus, which is a tragedy, he speaks of night 

and day in the following riddle : — 

There are two sisters, one of whom brings forth 
The other, and in turn becomes its daughter. 

And Callisthenes, in his Greek History, teUs the following 
story, that "when the Arcadians were besieging Cromnus, 
(and that is a small town near Megalopolis,) Hippodamus 
the Lacedsemonian, being one of the besieged persons, gave 
a message to the herald who came to them from the Lacedae- 
monians, showing the condition in which they were by a riddle, 
and he bade him tell his mother — ' to be sure and release 
within the next ten days the little woman who was bound in 
the temple of Apollo ; as it would not be possible to release 
her if they let those days elapse.' And by this message he 
plainly enough intimated what he was desirous to have under- 
stood ; for the little woman meant is Famine, of which , 
there was a picture in the temple of Apollo, near the throne 
of Apollo, and it was represented under a woman's form ; so 
it was evident to every one that those who were besieged 
could hold out only ten days more because of famine. So 
the Lacedaimonians, understanding the meaning of what had 
been said, brought succour with great speed to the men in 

76. There are also many other riddles, such as this: — 
I saw a man who by the means of fire 
Was glueing brass unto another man 
So closely that they two became like brothers. 


And tliis expression means the application of a cupping- 
glass. And a similar one is that of Panarces, mentioned by 
Clearchiis, in his Essay on. Griphi, that " A man -who k not 
a man, with a stone which was not a stone, struck a bird 
which was not a bird, sitting on a tree which was not a tree." 
For the things alluded to here are a eunuch, a piece of 
pumice-stone, a bat, and-a narthex^. And Plato, in the fifth 
book of his Laws,^ alludes to this riddle, where he says, that 
those philosophers who occupy themselves about minute arts, 
are like those who, at banquets, doubt what to eat, and re- 
semble too the boys' riddle about the stone thrown by the 
eunuch, and about the bat, and about the place from which 
they say that the eunuch struck down the bat, and the engine 
with which he did it. 

77. And of this sort also are those enigmatical sayings of 
Pythagoras, as Demetrius of Byzantium says, in the fourth book 
of his treatise on Poets, where, for instance, he says, " A man 
should not eat his heart ;" meaning, " a man should cultivate 
cheerfulness." " One should not stir the fire with a sword ;" 
meaning, "one should not provoke an angry man;" for anger 
is fire, and quarrelsomeness is a sword. " One should not 
step over a yoke ;" meaning, '■' one should avoid and hate all 
kinds of covetousness, but seek equality." " One should not 
travel along the high road ;" meaning, " one should not fol- 
low the opinions of the multitude, (for the common people 
approve of whatever they take in their heads without any 
fixed principle,) but one should rather go on the straight 
road, using sense as one's guide." " One should not sit down 
upon a bushel;" meaning, "one should not be content with 
merely considering what is sufficient for the present day, but 
one should always have an eye to the future " * * « 
* * * * * * 3 « Yox death is the 
boundary and limit of life ;" and this saying is meant to forbid 
us approaching the subject with anxiety and grief. 

78. And Dromeas the Coan used to play at riddles in. 

' " Ntipfljjl, a tall umbelliferous plant, (Lat. ferula,) with a slight 
knotted pithy stalk, in which Prometheus couTeyed the spark of fire 
from heaven to earth." — L. & S. Gr. Bng. Lex. in voc. vdpdiii. 

^ This is a mistake of Athenseus. The. passage referred to occars in 
the fifth book of the De Republica. 

' A line or two is lost here, containing probably the enigmatical 
sentence subsequently referred to. 

0. 79.] rpi*0L 715 

much the same -way as Theodectes, according to the state- 
ment of Clearchus : and so did Aristonymus, the player on 
the harp, without any vocal accompaniment : and so did 
that Cleon who was surnamed Mimaulus, who was the best 
actor of Italian mimes that ever appeared on the stage with- 
out a mask. For in. the style of play which I have mentioned 
akeady, he was superior even to Nymphodorus. And 
Ischomachus the herald was an imitator of his, who used to 
give his representations in the middle of a crowd, and after 
he had become celebrated, he altered his style and used to 
act mimes at the jugglers' shows. And the riddles which 
these men used to propose were of the following kind : — A 
clown once had eaten too much, and was very unwell, and 
when the physician asked him whether he had eaten to vomit, 
No, said he, but I ate to my stomach. And another was, — 
A poor woman had a pain in her stomach, and when the phy- 
sician asked her whether she had anything ' in her stomach, 
How should I, said she, when I have eaten nothing for three 

And the writings of Aristonymus were fuU of pompous ex- 
pressions: and Sosiphanes the poet said to Cephisocles the 
actor, reproaching him as a man fond of long words, " I would 
throw a stone at your loins, if I were not afraid of wetting the 
bystanders." But the logical griphus is the oldest kind, and 
the one most suited to the natural character of such enig- 
matical language. " What do we aU teach when we do not 
know it oiu^lves?" and, "What is the same nowhere and 
everywhere?" and also, "What is the same in the heavens 
and on the earth and in the sea?" But this is a riddle arising 
from an identity of name; for there is a bear, and a serpent, 
and an eagle, and a dog, both in the heavens and on the earth 
and in the sea. And the other riddle means Time ; for that 
is the same to aU people and everywhere, because it has not 
its nature depending on one place. And the first riddle 
means " How to hve :" for though no one knows this himself, 
he teaches his neighbour. 

79. And CaUias the Athenian, whom we were discussing 
just now, and who was a little before Strattis in point of 
time, wrote a play which he called Grammatical Science; apd 
the plot of it was as follows. The prologue consists of the 

1 The Greek is iv yiiTTpt ex"< which also signifies to be pregnant. 


elements, and the actor should recite it, dividing it into para- 
graphs, and making the termination in the manner of a 
dramatic" catastrophe, into " Alpha, beta, gamma, delta, eta, 
theta. For et is sacred to the God ; iota, cappa, lambda, mu, 
nu, xu, the diphthong on, pi, rho, sigma, tau, the present n, phi, 
chi, -which is next to psi, all down to omega." And the chorus 
consisted of women, in pairs, made of two elements taken 
together, composed in metre and lyrical odes in this fashion ; 
— " Beta alpha ba, beta ei be, beta eta be, beta iota bi, beta ou 
bo, beta upsUon bu, beta omega bo." And then, again, in the 
antistrophe of the ode and of the metre, " Gamma alpha, 
gamma ei, gamma eta, gamma iotei, gamma omicron, gamma 
upsilon, gamma omega." And in the same way he dealt with 
aU other syllables — all which have the same melody and the 
same metre in the antistrophes. So that people not only 
suspect that Euripides drew all his Medea from this drama, 
but they think that it is perfectly plain that he drew the 
system of his choruses from it. And they say that Sophocles, 
after he had heard this drama, endeavoured to divide his 
poem in respect of the metre, and did it thus, in the 
CEdipus, — 

I shall not grieve myself nor you, 
Being convicted of this action. 

On which account, all the rest admitted the system of anti- 
strophes from his example, as it should seem, into their 
tragedies. Then, after this chorus, Callias introduces another 
speech of vowels, in this manner : (and this also the reciter 
must divide into paragraphs in the same way as the pre- 
vious portions, in order that that delivery may be preserved 
which the author originally intended) — 

Alpha alone, -woman ; then one should 
Say El alone in the second place : next. 
Still by itself you will say, thirdly, Eta; 
Pourth, still alone. Iota; fifthly, Ou. 
In the sixth place, Upsilon by itself. 
The last of all the seven vowels is 
The slow-paced Omega. The seven vowels 
In seven verses ; and when you've recited 
All these, then go and ponder by yourself. 

80. CaUias was also the first man who taught the elements 
of learning by iambics, in a licentious sort of language, 
described in the following manner — 

C. 80.] EUKIPIDES. 7 17 

For I'm in labour, ladies; but from shame, 
I will, my dear, iu separate lines and leltei-s. 
Tell you the name of the child. There i.s a line 
Upright and long ; and from the middle of it 
There juts forth on each side a little one, 
With upward look : and next a circle comei!, 
On two short feet supported. 

And afterwards, following this example, as any one may- 
suspect, Mseandrius the prose writer, turning away a little 
from the usual pronunciation in his descriptions, wrote those 
things which are found in his Precepts, in a less polished 
style than the above-mentioned CaUias. And Euripides 
appears to have followed the same model when he composed 
those verses, in his Theseus, in which the elements of writing 
are described. But the character is an illiterate shepherd, 
who is showing that the name of Theseus is inscribed in the 
place in this way — 

For I indeed do nothing know of letters. 

But I will tell you all their shapes, and give 

Clear indications by which you may judge. 

There is a circle, round as though 't had been 

Work'd in a lathe, and in its centre space 

It has a visible sign. Then the second 

Has first of all two lines, and these are parted 

By one which cuts them both across the middle. 

The third 's a curly figure, wreathed round. 

The fourth contains one line which mounts right up. 

And in a transverse course three others hang 

From its right side. The letter which comes fifth 

Admits of no such easy explanation ; 

For there are two diverging lines above. 

Which meet in one united line below. 

The letter which comes last is like the third. 

[So as to make H^ E Y C] 

And Agathon the tragic poet has composed a similar 
passage, in his Telephus ; for there also some illiterate man 
explains the way of spelling Theseus thus : — 

The letter which comes first is like a circle. 

Divided by a navel in the middle ; 

Then come two upright lines well join'd together ; 

The third is something like a Scythian bow : 

Next comes a trident placed upon its side ; 

And two lines branching from one lower stem : 

The last again the same is as the third. 
And Theodectes of Phaselus introduces an illiterate clown, 
who also represents the name of Theseus in his own way — 


The letter which comes first a circle is. 
With one soft eye ; then come two npright lines 
Of equal and exact proportions, 
United by one middle transverse line ; 
The third is like a wreathed curl of hair ; 
The next a trident lying on its side ; 
The fifth two lines of equal length above. 
Which below join together in one base; 
The sixth, as I have said before, a curl. 

And Sophocles has said something like this, in his Amphia- 
raus, which is a satyric drama, where he introduces an actor 
dancing in unison with his explanation of the letters. 

81. But Neoptolemus the Parian, in his treatise on Inscrip- 
tions, says that this inscription is engraved on the tomb of 
Thrasymachus the sophist at Chalcedon — 

My name is Theta, ro, alpha, and san, 
tJpsilon, mu, alpha, chi, ou, san again : 
Chalcedon was my home, wisdom my trade. 

And there is a poem of this kind upon Pan, by Castorion the 
Solensian, as Clearchus says: every foot' consists of one 
entire word, and so every line has its feet in pairs, so that they 
may either precede or foUow each other ; as for instance — 

ere rhy jBtiAots vt^otcTineoLs SutrxeijtAepoi' 
vaiovS' eSos, 67]pov6fie Xlav, x^^^ 'ApKdiSav, 
KKiiffot ypcuf>^ T^S* iy ffoip^, irdyKheLT* ^irij 
(TvvBels, &va^, Zvtryvteffra fi^ (ro<j>o7s KKveii', 
Mou(roTr(jA6 fl^p, iCT]p6xvTov '6s iielKiyp,* Uis, 

[Which may be translated thus — 

thou that dwellest on the lofty plain. 
Stormy with deep loud-sounding falls of snow, 
Th' Arcadian land, — lord of the forest kinds. 
Thee, mighty Pan, will I invoke in this 
Sagacious writing, carefully compounding 
Words difficult for ignorant men to know. 
Or rightly understand. Hail, friend o' the Muse, 
Who pourest forth sweet sounds from waxen flute.] 

And so on in the same manner. And in whatever order you 
place each of these pairs of feet it will give the same metre ; 
as you may, for instance, transpose the first Hne, and instead 

o-e, rdv /3<f\ois vupoKrirois Svax^l/ispov, 

you may read it — . 

yujioicTvTois <Te rdv $il\ois Svirx^iH^pof- 

' There is probably some coTfnption in the text here. " 

c- 83.] rpi*oi. 719 

You may also remark that each pair of feet consists of ten' 
letters ; and you may produce the same effect not in this way, 
but in a different one, so as to have many ways of putting 
one line ; for instead you may read — 

lifrpov <ppi<Tov /lot, ruv iroSSv fierpoy Ka^iv 

"Dr this way — 

\a^iiv fi€Tpov fjLOi ray ttoBqJi', ft,4rpov (ppdffov. 

[And you may take this line too — ] 

oi $ov\Ofiai yhp r£v iroSwv fiirpov \a^(iv, 

[and transpose it thus — ^] 

Xa^etv fierpov yhp ruv woSuv ov fiov\ofiai. 

82. But Pindar, with reference to the ode which was com- 
posed without a o- in it, as the same Clearchus tells us, as if 
some griphus had been proposed to him to be expressed in a 
lyric ode, — as many were offended because they considered it 
impossible to abstain from the tr, and because they did not 
approve of the way in which the idea was executed, uttered 
this sentence — • 

Before long series of songs were heard, 

And tlie ill-sounding san from out men's mouths. 
And we may make use of this observation in opposition to 
those who pronounce the sigma-less ode of Lasus of Hermione 
to be spurious, which is entitled The Centaurs. And the ode 
which was composed by Lasus to the Ceres in Hermione, has 
not a (T in it, as Heraclides of Pontus says, in the third book 
of his treatise on Music, which begins — 

I sing of Ceres and her daughter fair. 

The bride of Clymenua. 

83. And there are great numbers of other griphi. Here is 
one — 

In a conspicuous land I had my birth, 

The briny ocean girds my country round. 

My mother is the daughter fair of Nimiber. 
By the conspicuous land {(fiavepa) he means Delos (as S^Xos is 
synonymous with <^avepos), and that is an island surrounded 
by the sea. And the mother meant is Latona, who is the 
daughter of Coins, and the Macedonians use koios as synony- 
mous with apiOixoi. And the one on barley-water (ima-cair]) — 

Mix the juice of peel'd barley, and then drink it. 
A^d the name Trruj-dvTj is derived from the verbs Trrurarui, to 
' There is some mistake here, for they consist of eleven. 


pound, and avco, to bruise. There is also the one on the 
snail, which is quoted in the Deiinitions of Teucer — 

An animal destitute of feet and spine 

And bone, whose back is clad with homy shell. 

With long, projecting, and retreating eyes. 

And Antiphanes, in the Man who admires himself, says — 

Coagulated, tender-bodied milk. 

Dost understand me not 1 I mean new cheese. 

And Anaxandrides, in his Ugly Woman, says — 

He's lately cut it up ; then he confined 
The long, unbroken portions of the body 
In earthen vases, ivrought in crackling fire, — 
A phrase, my men, invented by Timotheus, 
Who meant to say in dishes. 

And Timocles, in his Heroes, says — 

A. And when the nurse of life was taken away. 
Fierce hunger's foe, sweet friendship's guardian. 
Physician of voracious hunger, which 
Men call the table .... 

B. How you tire yourself. 
When you might say " the table" in a word. 

And Plato, in his Adonis, saying that an oracle was given to 
Cinyras concerning his son Adonis, reports it in these 
words — 

Cinyras, king of hairy Cyprians, 

Your son is far the fairest of all men, 

And the most admirable : but two deities 

Lay hands upon him ; one is driven on 

By secret courses, and the other drives. 

He means Venus and Bacchus ; for both of them loved Adonis. 
And the enigma of the Sphinx is reported by Asclepiades, in 
his essay on the Subjects on which Tragedies have- been 
written, to have been such as this — 

There is upon the earth an animal 

With two feet, and with four, and eke with three. 

And with one voice ; and it alone, of all 

The things which move on earth, or in the heavens. 

Or o'er the boundless sea, doth change its nature ; 

But when its feet are of the greatest number. 

Then is its speed the slowest, and strength least. 

84. And there are also some sayings partaking of the 
character of griphi, composed by Simonides, as is reported 
by Chamseleou of Hei-aclea, in his treatise on the Life and 
Writings of Simonides — 


The father of a kid which roves for food, 
And a sad fish, had their heads near together ; 
And when they had received beneath their eyelids 
The son of Night, they did not choose to cherish ', 
The bull-slaying servant of the sovereign Bacchus. 
But some say that these verses were inscribed on some one 
of the ancient offerings which were dedicated at Chalcis ; and 
that on it were represented the figures of a goat and a dolphin ; 
to which animals allusion is made in the aboTe lines. And 
others say that a dolphin and a goat were embossed in that 
part of a psaltery where the strings are put in, and that they 
are what is meant here; and that the bull-slaying servant 
of Bacchus is the dithyrambic. And others say that the ox 
which is sacrificed to Bacchus in the town of lulis is struck 
with an axe by some one of the young men : and that the 
festival being near, the axe had been sent to a forge, and 
Simonides, being then a young man, went to the smith to 
fetch it ; and that when he found the man asleep, and his 
bellows and his tongs lying loosely about with their fore parts 
touching one another, he then came back, and told the before- 
mentioned problem to his friends. For the father of a kid 
he called the bellows, and the sad fish the tongs (which is 
called KapKLvos, or the crab). The son of Night is sleep, and 
the bull-slaying servant of Bacchus is the axe. And Simo- 
nides composed also another epigram which causes perplexity 
to those who are ignorant of history — 

I say that he who does not like to win 
The grasshopper's prize, will give a mighty feast 
To the Fanopeiadean Epeus. 
And it is said, that when he was sojourning at Carthea he 
used to train choruses ; and that the place where these 
exercises took place was in the upper part of the city, near 
the temple of Apollo, a long way from the seaj so that all 
the rest of the citizens, and Simonides himself, went down to 
get water, to a place where there was a fountain ; and that an 
ass, whose name was Epeus, used to carry the water up for 
them; and they gave him this name, because there was a 
fable that Epeus himself used to do this ; and there was also 
represented in a picture, in the temple of Apollo, the Trojan 
fable, in which Epeus is represented as drawing water for the 
Atridae ; as Stesichorus also relates — 

For the great daughter of Jove pitied him 
Bearing incessant water for the kings. 
ATH. — VOL. II. 3 A 


And as tMs was the case, they say that it was a burden im- 
posed on every member of the choruses who was not present 
at the appointed time, that he should give the ass a choenix of 
barley ; and that this is stated by the same poet ; and that 
what is meant by not Kking to win the grasabopper's prize, is 
not liking to sing ; and that by Panopeiadean is meant the 
ass, and the mighty feast is the chcenix of barley. 

85. And of the same kind is the epigram of Theognis the 

For a sea-corpse has call'd me now bade home, 
Wiich, though dead, speaketh with a living mouth. 

Where he means the cookie. And we may consider of the 
same character those sentences in which we use words which 
resemble men's names, as — 

Ka^^v apiffroviKOV iv foixp Kpdros' 
He gain'd in battle a glorious victory ; 

where o^icn-owKog sounds like the name of a mam, Aristonicus. 
And there is also that riddle which is so frequently repeated — 

Twe men came to one place in vessels ten, 

And fought mth stones, but might not lift a stone. 

And died of thirst while water reach'd their chins. 

86. And what punishment had the Athenians who could 
not solve this riddle when proposed to them, if it was only to 
drink a bowl of mixed wine, as Clearchus has stated in his 
Definition 1 And, in the first book of his treatise on Proverbs, 
he writes thus — " The investigation of riddles is not uncon- 
nected with philosophy ; for the ancients used to make a 
display of their erudition by such things; for they used at 
their entertainments to ask questions, not such as the men of 
the present day ask one another, as to what sort of amorous 
enjoyment is the most dehcious, or what kind of fish is nicest, 
or what is most ia season at the moment ; or again, what fish 
is best to eat at the time of Arcturus, or what after the rising 
of the Pleiades, or of the Dogstar. And then they offer 
kisses as prizes for those who gain the victory in such ques- 
tions ; such as are hateful to men of liberal sentiments ; and 
as a punishment for those who are defeated they enjoin them 
to drink sheer wine; which they drink more willingly than 
the cup of health. For these things are well adapted to any 
one who has devoted his attention to the writings of Phiisenis 
and Archestratus, or who has studied the. books called Gastro- 

O, 87.3 CAPPING VEESES. 723; 

logies. They preferred such plays as these ;^— when the first 
person had recited a verse, the othei^s were bound to quote 
the verse following; or if any one had quoted a sentence 
from some poet, the rest were bound to produce a sentence 
from some other poet expressing the same sentiments. After 
that, every one was bound to repeat an iambic. And then, 
each person was to repeat a line of such and such a number' 
of syllables precisely; and so on with everything that rela,ted 
to any acquaintance with letters and syllables. And in a- 
similar manner they would be bound to repeat the names of 
all the commanders in the army which attacked Troy, or of 
all the Trojan leaders : or to teU the name of some city in 
Asia beginning with a given letter; and then the next person 
was to tell the name of a city in Europe : and then they were 
to go through the rest according as they were desired to give 
the names of Grecian or barbarian cities ; so that this sport, 
not being an inconsiderate one, was a sort of exhibition of 
the ability and learning of each individual. And the prizes 
given were a garland and applause, things by which love for 
one another is especially sweetened." 

HI. This, then, was what Clearchus said; and the things. 
which he says one ought to propose, are, I imagine, such as 
these. For one person to quote a line in Homer beginning 
with Alpha, and ending with the same letter, such as — 

'Ayxov S" itTTO/ievTj eireo impSevra irpotrTjuSa. 
'AAA* dyf vvv fidfrriya koX ijvia <nyaK6ev7a, 
'AffTTiSos evKixKovs KtuaTiai t€ arTeptJecTo. 

And, again, they quoted iambics on a similar principle' — 

^KyaQ6s ayr\p AeyoiT* iv, 6 <pipav t* dya9(L 
^AyaBbs (Lv eij] Kcd 6 (pepwv kaKus KaKa. 

Or lines in Homer beginning and ending with e, as — 

Etpe hvKiovos vtov d/ivfiovd ts KpaTep6v re. 
^Zv n6\eL vfierepri eirei oiiK &f^ i^T\Kop eytiiye. 

And iarabics on the same principle — 

EvKarcuftpovriTSs effrt ir^via, A4pKv\e' 
'EttI rois irapoSffi r6y filoV' StciirAcKe. 

And lines of Homer beginning and ending with 1/, as-^ 

'H fifv op' (is e'nrova' dveSn yXavKoSiris 'ABivif 
'H 5' iv yoivaai -niTm Auivris Si 'AfpoSirri. 

And iambics — 

'H tSv <t>i\ii!y <roi irlcrTis tmat KexptfUpTii 



Lines in Homer beginning and ending with i, as — 

'VmriKoxos Si I'-' eriKxe kbI t/c toD ipriid yivvrBai. 

Beginning and ending with <r, as — 
And iambics as — 

^otpos iffriv 6 ip4puy rdiri rrjs rix^s koXws, 

And beginning and ending with w, as — 

'CIS S' ot' <Jjr' OiKvfCirov yi<j>os tpx^Tcu ovpavov etira. 

And iambics as — 

'npBaiaeir/iv irpis awayra t^k 'fiixv ^X"- 

Sometimes too, it is well to propound lines without a sigma, 

as — 

Hdv't' i64\a) ^ofievcUf Kal er' oixoBev &\\' GirtBeiytu' 

and again, to quote lines of Homer, of which the first syllable 
when connected with the last, wiU make some name, such 
as — 

'AIos'S' lie 'Sa^a/iivos dyev Sio koL Seko >^AS" 
*TAei57js Sv TtKTe Ait ^i\os hirora *uXET2. 
'l7}T^p 8* dyaO^s TloSaKeipios ^Se Mffx^^N, 

There are also other lines in Homer expressing the names of 
vessels from the first and last syllable, such as — 

which makes 'OA,/xos, a mortar; 

MTfleiTKi KUTct iiotpav airep k' oIoito koI oAAOS, 

which makes MiJXos, a millstone ; 

ATypoS il^V fJL^ TTOU Tl KOKOV Kol ft-U^OIf ^TTtt^PH, 

which makes \v(nj, a lyre. 

And other hnes, the first and last syllables of which give 
some eatable, as — 

'APyvp6veQi &4tis Ovyarilp d\loio yipoT/TO^j 

which makes opros, bread; 

MHti ffi Tttvra eKoffTO Sielpeo, fiJ) 5^ juet((\AA, 

which makes /i-^Xa, apples. 

88. And since we have made a pretty long digression about 
griphi, we must now say what punishment those people 
underwent who failed to solve the griphus which was pro- 
posed to them. They drank brine mingled with their drink, 
and were bound to drink the whole cup up at one draught; 
as Antiphanes shows in his Ganymede, where he says — 

c. 1.] rpi*oi. 725 

A. Alas me ! what perplexing things you say, 

master, and what numerous things you ask me. 

B. But now I will speak plainly : if you know 
One circumstance about the rape of the child. 
You must reveal it quick, before you're hang'd, 

A . Are you then asking me a riddle, master. 
Bidding me tell you all about the rape 

Of the child ? What 's the meaning of your words ? 

B. Here, some one, bring me out a halter quickly. 
A. What fori 

B. Perhaps youll say you do not know. 

A. Will you then punish me with thaf! Oh don't ! 
You'd better make me drink a cup of brine. 

B. Know you then how you ought to drink that up % 

A. Indaed I do. 

B. Howl 

A. So as to make you pledge me. 

B. No, but first put your hands behind your back. 
Then drink it at a draught, not drawing breath. 

So when the Deipnosophists had said all this about the griphi, 
since it has taken us till evening to recollect all they said, we 
wiU put off the discussion about cups till to-morrow. For as 
Metagenes says in his Philothytes — 

I'll change my speech, by way of episode. 
So as to treat the theatre with many 
If ew dishes rich with various seasonings ; 

taking the discussion about cups next. 


1. Come now, where shall our conversation rise ? 

as Cephisodorus the comic poet says, my good friend Timo- 
crates; for when we were aU met together at a convenient 
season, and with serious minds, to discuss the goblets, 
TJlpian, while every one was sitting still, and before any one 
began to speak at aU, said, — At the court of Adrastus, my 
friends, the chief men of the nation sup while sitting down. 
But Polyidus, while sacrificing on the road, detained Peteos as 
he was passing by, and while lying on the grass, strewing 
some leaves which he had broken off on the ground by way 
of a table, set before him some part of the victim which he 
had sacrificed. And when Autolycus had come to the rich 


people of Ithaca, and wMle lie -was sitting down, (for the men 
of that time ate their meals while sitting down,) the nurse 
took Ulysses, (as the poet says — 

His course to Ithaca the hero sped 
When first the product of Laertes' bed 
Was new disclosed to birth ; the banquet ends 
When Euryclea from the queen descends. 
And to his fond embrace the babe commends :) 

and placed him on his knees, not near hia knees. So let us 
not waste time now, htit let us lie down, that Plutarch may 
lead the way in the lecture which he promised us on the 
subject of goblets, and that he may pledge us all in bumpers. 

2. But I imagine that Simonides of Amorgus is the iirst 
poet who has spoken of drinking cups (ironfpia) by name in 
hia iambics, thus — 

The cups away did Jead him from the table. 
And the author of the poem called the Alcmseonis says — 

He placed the corpses lowly on the shore 
On a broad couch of leaves ; and by their side 
A dainty feast he spread, and brimming cups, 
And garlands on their noble temples wreathed. 

And the word iror^piov comes from iroo-ts, drink, as the Attic 
word £KTtt)/m also doesj but they form the word with «, as 
they also say uSpoTrtorao, to drink water, and olvoirorriio, to drink 
wine. Aristophanes, in his Knights, says — 

A stupid serpent drinking deep of blood {atiummdrris). 
But he also says in the same play — 

Much then did Baeis use the cm {iroT^piov), 
And Pherecrates, in his Tyranny, says — 

One ia better than a thousand cups {iror-Zipia), 
And Anacreon said — 

I am become a wine-blbber {olymcliTris). 
And the verb occurs also in the same poet, for he says oivoirb- 
Ta.t.w. And Sappho, in her second Ode, says — 

And many countless cups (iroTifpio), beauteous Iphis. 
And Aleseus says — 

And from the cups (iroTijpfe) ; 

And in Achaia Ceres is honoured under the title of Ar/fnfnyp 
7ron;pio^opos, in the territories of the Antheans, as Autocrates 
■informs us in the second book of his History of Achaia. 

c. 4:.] CUPS. 727 

3. And I think it right that you should inquire, before Tre 
tegin to make a catalogue of the cups of -which this sideboard 
(/cuXucBov) is full, — (for that name is given to the cupboard 
where the cups are kept, by Aristophanes, in his Farmers — 

As a cloth is placed in front of a sideboard {Kv\Metav) ; 
and the same word occurs also in Anaxandrides iu his Meli- 
lotus ; and Eubulus in his Leda says — 

As if lie had been offering a libation, 

He's broken all the goblets in the sideboard {«v\tKe!ov). 
And in his Female Singer he says — 

And he found out the use of sideboards (/cuAiKeia) for us. 

And in his Semele or Bacchus he says — 

Hermes the son of Maia, polish'd well 
Upon the sideboard 

And the younger Cratinus, in his Chiron, says — 

But, after many years, I now have come 

Home from my enemies ; and scarce hare found 

Relations who would own me, or companions 

Of the same tribe or borough. I enroll'd 

My name among a club of cup-collectors (KuAiKeioc) : 

Jupiter is the guardian of my doors — 

Protector of my tribe. I pay my taxes.) 

4. It is worth whUe, I say, to inquire whether the ancients 
drank out of large cups. For Dicaearchus the Messenian, 
the pupil of Aristotle, in his Essay on Alcseus, says that they 
used small cups, and that they drank their wine mixed with 
a good deal of water. But Chamaeleon of Heraelea, in his 
essay on Drunkenness, (if I only recollect his words correctly,) 
says — " But if those who are in power and who are rich pre- 
fer this drunkenness to other pleasures, it is no great wonder, 
for as they have no other pleasure superior to this, nor more 
easy to obtain, they naturally fly to wine : on which account 
it has become customary among the nobles to use large 
drinking-CTips. For this is not at all an ancient custom 
among the Greeks ; but one that has been lately adopted, and 
imported from the barbarians. For they, being destitute of 
education, rush eagerly to much wine, and provide themselves 
with all kinds of superfluous delicacies. But in the various 
countries of Greece, we neither find in pictures nor in poems 
any trace of any cups of large size being made, except indeed 
in the heroic times. For the cup which is called pvrdy they 


attributed only to the heroes, which fact -will appear a per- 
plexing one to some people; unless indeed any one should 
choose to say that this custom was introduced because of the 
fierceness of the appearance of these demigods. For they 
think the heroes irascible and quarrelsome, and more so by 
night than by day. In order, then, that they may appear 
to be so, not in consequence of their natural disposition, but 
because of their propensity for drinking, they represent them 
as drinking out of large cups. And it appears to me not to 
have been a bad idea on the part of those people who said 
that a large cup was a silver well." 

In all this Chamseleon appears to be ignorant that it is not 
a small cup which in Homer is given to the Cyclops by 
Ulysses; for if it had been a small one, he would not have 
been so overcome with drunkenness after drinking it three 
times only, when he was a man of such a monstrous size. 
There were therefore large cups at that time ; unless any one 
chooses to impute it to the strength of the wine, which Homer 
himself has mentioned, or to the little practice which the 
Cyclops had in drinking, since his usual beverage was milk ; 
or perhaps it was a barbaric cup, since it was a big one, form- 
ing perhaps a part of the plunder of the Cicones. What 
then are we to say about Nestor's cup, which a young man 
would scarcely have had strength enough to carry, but which 
the aged Nestor lifted without any labour ; concerning which 
identical cup Plutarch shall give us some information. How- 
ever, it is time now to lie down at table. 

0. And when they had all laid themselves down ; — But, said 
Plutarch, according to the Phliasian poet Pratinas — 

Not ploughing ready-furrow'd ground, 

But, seeking for a goblet, 

I come to speak about the cups {Kv\iKriyopi\<rav). 

Nor indeed am I one of those KvXiKpavoL whom Hermippus, 
the comic poet, ridicules in his iambics, where he says — 

I've come now to the vineyard of the Cylicraues, 

And seen Heraclea, a beauteous city. 

But these are Heracleans who live at the foot of Mount 
CEta, as Nicander of Thyatira says ; saying that they are so 
named from a certain Cylix, a Lydian by birth, who was one 
of the comrades of Hercules. And they are mentioned also 
by Scythinus the Teian, in his work entitled The History, 

c. 7.] oups. 7-20 

"where he says, "Hercules, having taking Eurytus and his son, 
put them to death for exacting tribute from the people of 
Euboea. And he laid waste the territory of the Cylicranes 
for behaving like robbers; and there he built a city called 
Heraclea of Trachis." And Polemo, in the first of his books, 
addressed to Adseus and Antigonus, speaks thus — " But the 
inhabitants of the Heraclea which is at the foot of Mount 
CEta, and of Trachis, are partly some Cylicranes who came 
■with Hercules from Lydia, and partly Athamanes, some of 
whose towns remain to this day. And the people of Heraclea 
did not admit them to any of the privileges of citizenship, 
considering them only as foreigners sojourning amongst them ; 
and they were called Cylicranes, because they had the figure 
of a cup (Kvkii) bi-anded on their shoulders." 

6. I am aware, too, that HeUanicus says, in his treatise on 
the Names of Races, that "Some of the Libyan nomades 
have no other possessions than a cup, and a sword, and a 
ewer, and they have small houses made of the stalks of 
asphodel, merely just to serve as a shade, and they even carry 
them about with them wherever they go." There is also a 
spot amongst the Illyrians, which has been celebrated by 
many people, which is called KuAikes, near to which is the 
tomb of Cadmus and Harmonia, as Phylarchus relates in the 
twenty-second book of his Histories. And Polemo, in his 
book on Morychus, says that at Syracuse, on the highest spot 
of the part called the Island, there is an altar near the 
temple of Olympia, outside the walls, from which he says 
that people when putting to sea carry a goblet with them, 
keeping it until they get to such a distance that the shield in 
the temple of Minerva cannot be seen ; and then they let it 
fall into the sea, being an earthenware cup, putting into it 
flowers and honeycombs, and uncut frankincense, and all sorts 
of other spices besides. 

7. And since I now see your banquet, as Xenophanes tlio 
Colophonian says, full of aU kinds of pleasure — 

For now the floor and all men's hands are clean. 

And all the cups, and since the feasters' brows 
Are wreathed with garlands, while the slaves around 

Bring fragrant perfume in well-suited dishes ; 
And in the middle stands the joyful bowl, 

And wine's at hand, which ne'er deserts the guests 
Who know its worth, in earthen jars well kept. 

Well flavour'd, fragrant with the sweet fresh flowers ; 


And in the midst the frankincense sends forth 

Its holy perfume; and the water's cold. 
And sweet, and pure ; and golden bread's at hand, 

And duly hononr'd tables, groaning under 
Their weight of cheese and honey ; — then an altar, 

Placed in. the centre, all with flow'rs is erown'd. 
And song and feasting occupies the house. 

And dancing, and all sorts of reyeliy : — 
Therefore it does become right-minded men 

First with well-omen'd words and pioua prayers 
To hymn the praises of the Gods ; and so. 

With pure libations and well-order'd tows, 
To win from them the power to act with justice — 

For this comes from the favour of the Gods ; 
And yon may drink as much as shall not hinder 

Yon &om returning home without assistance. 
Unless, indeed, you're very old : and he 

Deserves to be above his fellows landed 
Who drinks and then says good and witty things. 

Such as his memory and taste suggests, — 
Who lays down rules, and tells fine tales of virtue ; 

Kot raking up the old Titanic fables. 
Wars of the Giants, or the Lapithse, 

Figments of ancient times, mere pleasing trifles. 
Full of no solid good ; but always speaking 

Things that may lead to right ideas of God. 

8. And the exquisite Anacreon says — 

I do not love the man who, 'midst his cups. 

Says nothing but old tales of war and strife. 
But him who gives its honour due to mirth, > 

Praising the Muses and the bright-&ced Yenus. 
And Ion of Chios says — 

Hail, our great king, our saviour, and our &thcr ! 

And let the cupbearers now mix us wine 
In silver jugs : and let the golden bowl 

Pour forth its pure libations on the ground. 
While duly honouring the mighty Jove. 

First of the Gods, and first in all our hearts. 
We pour libations to Aicmena's son, ' 

And to the queen herself, — to Procles too. 
And the invincible chiefs of Perseus' line. 

Thus let us drink and sport ; and let the song 
Make the night cheerful ; let the glad guests dance ; 

And do thou willingly preside among us : 
But let the man who's a &ir wife at home 

Brink &r more lustily than those less happy. 

Those also who were called the seven wise men used to 
make drinking parties ; " for wine comforts the natural mo- 
roseness of old age," as Theophrastus says, in his treatise on 

C. 10.] DRISK.1SO FLEDGES. 731 

9. On which account, when we are met together in these 
iJionysiac conversaziones, no one, as is said in the Tarentines 
of Alexis — 

y one can find a jast pretence to grudge ng 

Oar harmleffi pleasure, since we never injure 

One of onr neighbours. Know yoo noty my friend. 

That That is called Ulc ig but a name. 

Well soften'd down (to make it palatable), 

For homan iate t And whether any one 

Thinks that I'm right or wrong in what I say, 

1 cannot change a word ; for well I know. 

And long have I congider'd the whole matter. 

That all th' affairs of men are full of madness. 

And we who lire are only sojourners, 

Like men who go to some great festival. 

Starting from death and d^kness to a pastime. 

And to this light which we behold before ng. 

But he who laughx and drinks most cheerfully. 

And most enjoys the charming giftg of Tenns, 

And most attends on feasts and festiTals, 

He goes through life, and then departs most happily. 

And, in the words of the beautiful Sappho, — 
Come, Tenns, hither come. 
Bringing us thy goblets fair, 
Mingled with the merry feast ; 
And poor ont sparkling wine, I pray. 
To your and my companions gay. 

10. And we may add to all this, that different cities have 
peculiar feshions of drinting and pledging one another; as 
Critias mentions, in his Constitution of the Lacedsmonians, 
where he says — " The Chian and the Thasian drink out of 
large cups, passing them on towards the right hand; and the 
Athenian also passes the wine rotuid towards the right, but 
drinks out of small cups. But the Thessalian uses large cups, 
pledging whoever he pleases, without reference to where he 
may be ; but among the Lacedaemonians, every one drinks 
out of his own cup, and a slave, acting as cupbearer, fills up 
again the cup when each has drained it." And Anaxandrides 
also mentions the feahion of passing the cup round towards 
the right hand, in his Countrymen, speaking as follows : — 

A. In what way are yon now prepared to drink 1 

Tell me, I pray. 

B. In what way are we now 

Prepared to drink ? Why any way you please. 
A. Shall we then now, my father, tell the guesu 


To push the wine to the right 1 

B. What ! to the right] 
That would be just as though this were a funeral.' 

11. But we may decline entering on the subject of goblets 
of earthenware ; for Ctesias says — " Among the Persians, that 
man only uses an earthenware who is dishonoured by the 
king." And Choerilus the epic poet says — 

Here in my hands I hold a wretched piece 
Of earthen goblet, broken all around, 
Sad relic of a band of merry feasters ; 
And often the fierce gale of wanton Bacchus 
Dashes such wrecks with insult on the shore. 

But I am well aware that earthenware cups are often very 
pleasant, as those which are imported among us from Coptus ; 
for they are made of earth which is mixed 'up with spices. 
And Aristotle, in his treatise on Drunkenness, says — " The 
cups which are called Khodiacan are brought into drinking 
parties, because of the pleasure which they afford, and also 
because, when they are warmed, they deprive the wine of 
some of its intoxicating properties; for they are fiUed with 
myrrh and rushes, and other things of the same sort, put 
into water and then boiled; and when this mixture Is put 
into the wine, the drinkers are less apt to become intoxi- 
cated." And in another place he says — " The Rhodiacan 
cups consist of myrrh, flowery rushes, safiron, balsam, spike- 
nard, and cinnamon, all boiled together; and when some 
of this compound is added to the wine, it has such effect in 
preventing intoxication, that it even diminishes the amorous 
propensities, checking the breath in some degree." 

12. We ought not, then, to drink madly, looking at the 
multitude of these beautiful cups, made as they are with 
every sort of various art, in various countries. " But the 
common people," says Chrysippus, in the introduction to liis 
treatise on what is Good and Evil, "apply the term madly to 
a great number of things; and so they call a desire for women 

' " The following is the note of Dalecampius on this line :— While 
the corpse of a dead person was being burnt, those who attended the 
funeral, going round the funeral pile, in order to see the face of the 
corpse from all sides, walked round as the undertaker bade them, some- 
times turning tVi Sejii, sometimes ^ir' apurrfpi. The writers on Greek 
antiquities have observed that those who were following a corpse to the 
tomb went round the funeral pile from right to left, and when the 
funeral was over, returned going from left to lighV—Schweig. 


yvvaiKOfiavia, a fondness for quails dpnryo/iavia; and some also 
call those who are very anxious for fame Solo/tavtisj just as 
they call those who are fond of women ywaiKo/iavtis, and 
those who are fond of birds opviOoftavii^: all these nouns 
having the same notion of a propensity to the degree of mad- 
ness. So that there is nothing inconsistent in other feelings 
and circumstances having this name applied to them ; as a 
person who is very fond of delicacies, and who is properly 
called <^tXoi/'os and oi/foi^ayos, may be called oi/'o/aoi^s; and a 
man very fond of wine maybe called oiVo/^iaviJs; and so in similar 
instances. And there is nothing unreasonable in attributing 
madness to such people, since they carry their errors to a very 
mad pitch, and wander a great distance from the real truth. 

13. Let us, then, as was the custom among the Athenians, 
drink our wine while listening to these jesters and buffoons, 
and to other artists of the same kind. And Philochorus speaks 
of this kind of people in these terms — " The Athenians, in 
the festivals of Bacchus, originally used to go to the spectacle 
after they had dined and drunk their wine ; and they used to 
witness the games with garlands on their heads. But during 
the whole time that the games were going on, wine was con- 
tinually being offered to them, and sweetmeats were con- 
stantly being brought round ; and when the choruses entered, 
they were offered wine ; and also when the exhibition was over, 
and they were departing, wine was offered to them again. . 
And Pherecrates the comic poet bears witness to all these 
things, and to the feet that down to his own time the specta- 
tors were never left without refreshment." And Phanodemus 
says — "At the temple of Bacchus, which is in the Marshes 
(ev Ai/ivats), the Athenians bring wine, and mix it out of the 
cask for the god, and then drink of it themselves; on which 
account Bacchus is also called Ai/ivatog, because the wine was 
first drunk at that festival mixed with water. On which 
account the fountains were called Nymphs and the Nurses of 
Bacchus, because the water being mingled with the wine 
increases the quantity of the wine. 

Accordingly, men being delighted with this mixture, cele- 
brated Bacchus in their songs, dancing and invoking him 
Tinder the names of Euanthes, and Dithyrambus, and Bac- 
cheutes, and Bromius." And Theophrastus, in his treatise on 
Drunkenness, says — " The nymphs are reaUy the nurses of 


Bacctus; for the vines, -whsa. cut, pour forth a great deal of 
moisture, and after, their own nature weep." On which ac- 
count Euripides says that one of the Horses of the Sun is 
^tliops, who with his fervent heat doth ripen 
Th' autumnal vines of sweetly flow'ring Bacchus, 
From which men also call wine .ffithops {aXBma dlpov). 

And Ulysses gave 

Twelve large vessels of nnmix'd red wine; 

MelBfluoiis, undecaying, and divine. 

Which now (some ages from his race conoeal'd) 

The hoary sire in gratitude reveal'd. 

Such was the wine, to quench whose fervent steam 

Scarce twenty measures from the living stream 

To cool one cup sufficed ; the goblet crown'd, 

Breathed aromatic fragrancies around.^ 

And Timotheus, in his Cyclops, says — 

He fiU'd one cup, of weU-turn'd iv'ry made. 
With dark ambrosial drops of foaming wine ; 
And twenty measures of the sober stream 
He poured in, and with the blood of Bacchus 
Mingled fresh tears, shed by the weeping nymphs. 

14. And I know, my messmates, of some men who were 
proud, not so much of their wealth in money as of the pos- 
session of many cups of silver and gold; one of whom is 
Pytheas the Arcadian, of the town of Phigalea, who, even 
when dying, did not hesitate to enjoin his servants to inscribe 
the following verses on. his tomb ;■ — 
This is the tomb of Pytheas, a man 

Both wise and good, the fortunate possessor 
Of a most countless number of fine cups, 

Of silver made, and gold, and brilliant amber. 
These were his treasures, and of them he had 
A store, surpassing all who lived before him. 

And Harmodius the Lepreatian mentions this fact in his 
treatise on the Laws and Customs subsisting in Phigalea. : 
And Xenophon, in the eighth book of his Cyropsedia, speak- 
ing of the Persians, writes as follows — " And also they pride 
themselves exceedingly on the possession of as many goblets 
as possible ; and even if they have acquired them by notorious - 
malpractices, they are not at all ashamed of so doing ; for 
injustice and covetousness are oai-ried on to a great degree 
among them.'' But CEdipus cursed his sons on account of 
some drinking-cups (as the author of the Cyclic poem called' 
' Odyss. il 2&9. 

O. 15.] DEINKING-CUPa. 73 J 

the Thebai's says), because they set before him a goblet wliich 
he had forbidden ; speaking as follows : — 

But the divine, the golden-hair'd hero, 

Great Polyuices, set before his father first 

A silver table, beautifully wrought, 

"Whilome the property of th' immortal Cadmus ; 

And then he fiU'd a beauteous golden cup 

Tip to the brim with sweet and fragrant wine ; 

But (Edipus, when with angry eyes he saw 

The ornaments belonging to his sire 

Kow set before him, felt a mighty rage. 

Which glow'd within his breast, and straightway pour'd 

The bitterest curses forth on both his sons, 

(Nor were they by the Fury all unheard,) 

Praying that they might never share in peace 

The treasures of their father, but for ever 

With one another strive in arms and war. 

15. And Csecihus the orator who came fcom Cale Aote, in 
Lis treatise on History, says that Agathocles the Great, when 
displaying his golden drinking-cups to his companions, said 
that he had got all these from the earthenware cups which he 
had previously made. And in Sophocles, in the Larissseans, 
Acrisius had a great many drinkmg-cups ; the trage- 
dian speaks as follows : — 

And he proclaims to strangers from all quarters 
A mighty contest, promising among them 
Goblets well wrought in t)rass, and beauteous vases 
Inlaid with gold, and silver drinking-cups, 
Full twice threescore in number, fair to see. 

And Posidonius, in the twenty-sixth book of his Histories, 
says that Lysimachus the Babylonian, having invited Himerus 
to a banquet (who was tjrrant not only over the people of 
Babylon, but also over the citizens of Seleucia), with three 
hundred of his companions, after the tables were removed, 
gave every one of the three hundred a silver cup, weighing 
four minse ; and when he had made a libation, he pledged 
them all at once, and gave them the cups to carry away with, 
them. And Anticlides the Athenian, in the sixteenth book 
of his Eetums, speaking of Gra, who, with other kings, first 
led a colony into the island of Lesbos, and saying that those 
colonists had received an answer from the oracle, bidding- 
them, while sailing, throw a virgin into the sea, as an oflFering 
to Neptune, proceeds as follows : — " And some people, who 
treat of the history and afikirs of Methymna, relate a fable 


about the virgin who was thrown into the sea ; and say that 
one of the leaders was in love with her, whose name was 
Enalus, and that he dived down, wishing to save the damsel; 
and that then both of them, being hidden by the waves, dis- 
appeared. But that in the course of time, when Methymna 
had now become populous, Enalus appeared again, and related 
what had happened, and how it had happened ; and said that 
the damsel was still abiding among the Nereids, and that he 
himself had become the superintendent of Neptune's horses ; 
but that a great wave having been cast on the shore, he had 
swam with it, and so come to land : and he had in his hand a 
goblet made of gold, of such wondrous workmanship that the 
golden goblets which they had, when compared with his, 
looked no better than brass." 

16. And in former times the possession of drinking-eups 
was reckoned a veiy honourable thing. Accordingly, Achilles 
had a very superb cup as a sort of heirloom : — 

But, mindful of the gods, Achilles went 
To the rich cofiFer in his shady tent, 
(There lay the presents of the royal dame ;) 
Prom thence he took a bowl of antique frame, 
Which never man had stain'd with ruddy wine, 
Nor raised in offerings to the pow'rs divine. 
But Peleus' son ; and Peleus' son to none 
Had raised in offerings but to Jove alone.' 

And Priam, when offering ransom for his son, amid all his 
most beautiful treasures especially offers a very exquisitely 
wrought cup. And Jupiter himself, on the occasion of the 
birth of Hercules, thinks a drinking-cup a gift worthy to be 
given to Alcmenaj which he, having likened himself to 
Amphitryon, presents to her : — 

And she received the gift, and on the bowl 
Admiring gazed with much delighted soul. 

And Stesichorus says that the sun sails over the whole ocean 
in a bowl ; in which also Hercules passed over the sea, on the 
occasion of his going to fetch the cows of Geryon. We are 
acquainted, too, with the cup of Bathycles the Arcadian, 
which Bathycles left behind him as a prize of wisdom to him 
who should be pronounced the best of those who were called 
the wise men. 

And a great many people have handled the cup of Nestor; 
" Iliad, xvi. 226, Pope's version. 


for many have written books about it. And drinking-cups 
were favourites even among the Gods ; at all events — 

They pledged each other in their golden cups.' 
But it is a mark of a gentleman to be moderate in his use of 
wine, not driuking too greedily, nor drinking large draughts . 
without drawing one's breath, after the fashion of the Thra 
cians; but to mingle conversation with his cups, as a sort of 
wholesome medicine. 

17. And the ancients affixed a great value to such goblets 
as had any story engraved upon them; and in the art of 
engraving cups in this manner, a high reputation was enjoyed 
by Cimon and Athenocles. They used also drinking-cups 
inlaid with precious stones. And Menander, somewhere or 
other, speaks of drinking-cups turned by the turning-lathe, 
and chased ; and Antiphanes says — 

And others drain with eager lips the cnp, 
Full of the juice of ancient wine, o'ershadow'd 
With sparkling foam, — the golden-wrought rich Cup, 
Which circled round they raised : one long, deep draught 
They drain, and raise the bottom to the skies. 
And Nicomachus says to some one — 

O you, who ..... and vomit golden .... 
And Philippides says — 

Could you but see the well-prepared cups. 
All made of gold, my Trophimus ; by heaven, 
They are magnificent ! I stood amazed 
When I beheld them first. Then there were also 
Large silver cups, and jugs larger than I. 
And Parmenio, in his letter to Alexander, summing up the 
spoils of the Persians, says, " The weight of goblets of gold 
is seventy-three Babylonian talents, and fifty-two minse.^ The 
weight of goblets inlaid with precious stones, is fifty-six 
Babylonian talents, and thirty-four minse." 

1 8. And the custom was, to put the water into the cup 
first, and the wine afterwards. Accordingly, Xenophanes 
says — 

> Iliad, iv. 3. 

' The Attic talent weighed within a fraction of fifty-seven pounds, 
and the Babylonian talent was to the Attic as seven to six ; but Boeckh 
considers the Babylonian talent as equal to the iEginetan, which was 
about eighty-two pounds and a quarter. The Attic mina was not quite 
a pound ; the .3!ginetan not quite one pound six ounces, being always 
one-sixtieth part of a talent. 

ATH. — VOL. II. 3 B 


And Eever let a maa a goblef take, 

And first pour in the wine ; but let the water 

Come first, and after that, then add the wine. 

And Anacreon says — 

Bring me water— bring me wine, 

Quick, boy ; and bring, besides, • 

Garlands, rich with varied flowerB ; 

And fill the cup, that I may not 

Engage in hopeless strife with love. 
A.nd before either of them Hesiod had said — 

Pour in three measures of the limpid stream, 

Pure from an everflowing spring ; and then 

Add a fourth cup of sacred rosy wine. 
And Theophrastus says — "The ancient fashion of the mixture 
of "wine was quite opposite to the way in which it is. managed 
at the present' day; for they were not accustomed to pour 
the water on the wine, but the wine on the water, in order, 
when drinking, not to have their hquor too strong, and in 
order also, when they had drunk to satiety, to have less 
desire for more. And they also consumed a good deal of 
this liquor, mixed as it was, in the game of the cottabus." 

19. Now of carvers of goblets the following men had 
a high reputation,^— Athenocles, Crates, Stratonicus, Myrme- 
cides the Milesian, Callicrates the Lacedaemonian, and Mysj 
by which last artist we have seen a Heraclean cup, havir^ 
most beautifully wrought on it the capture of Troj, and 
bearing also this inscription — 

The sketch was by Parrhasius, — by Mys 

The workmanship ; and now I represent 
The lofty Troy, which great Achilles took. 

20. Now among the Cretans, the epithet /cXctvos, illustrious, 
is often given to the objects of one's affection. And it is a 
matter of great desire among them to carry oflf beautiful 
boys; and among them it is considered discreditable to 
a beautiful boy not to have a lover. And the name given to 
the boys who are carried off in that manner is ■n-apaxrraBevTe's. 
And they give to the boy who has been carried off a robe, 
and an ox, and a drinking-cup. And the robe they wear 
even when they are become old, in order to show that they 
have been KkewoL 

21. You see that when men drink, they then are rich ; 
They do whate'er they please, — they gain their actions. 
They're happy themselves, and they assist their friends. 

c. 23.] DRiKKisG-cups. 739 

For amusing oneself with wine exalts, and cherishes, and 
elevates the mind, since it inflames and arouses the soul, and 
fills it with lofty thoughts, as Pindar says — 

When tlie sad, laborious cares 

Flee from the weary hearts of men, 

And in the wide, expansive ocean 

Of golden wealth -we all set sail. 

Floating towards the treacherous shore. 

E'en he who is poor, is rich when he 

Has fill'd his soul with rosy wine ; 

And he who's rich 

And then he goes on — 

becomes elated 

Beneath the glad dominion of the vine. 
212. There is a kind of drinking-cup also called ancyla, or 
curved ; a kind especially useful for the play of the cottabus. 
Cratinus says — 

'Tis death to drink of wine when water's mix'd : 

But she took equal shares, two choes full 

Of unmix'd wine, in a large ancyla : 

And calling on her dear Corinthian lover 

By name, threw in his honour a cottabus. , 

And BacchyUdes says — 

When she does throw to the youths a cottabus 
From her ancyla, stretching her white arm forth. 

And it is with reference to this ancyla that we understand 
the expression of jEschylus — 

The cottabus of th' ancyla (o7ku\^toi;s Korriifiovs). 
Spears are also called dyKuXrira, or curved ; and also /iecrayKwXa, 
held by a string in the middle. There is also the expression 
Jtt' d-y/cu'Xiys, which means, from the right hand. And the cup 
is called a.yKvX.r], from the fact that the right hand is curved, 
in throwing the cottabus from it. For it was a matter to 
which great attention was paid by the ancients — namely, that 
of throwing the cottabus dexterously and gracefully. ' And 
men in general prided themselves more on their dexterity in 
this than in throwing the javeUn skUfolly. And this got its 
name from the manner iu which the hand was brandished in 
throwing the cottabus, when they threw it elegantly and 
dexterously into the cottabium. And they also built rooms 
especially designed for this sport. 

23. In Timachides there is also .a kind of drinking-oup 
mentioned, called the seacis. 



There is another kind also, called the oKaTo^, or boat, being 
shaped like a boat. Epicrates says — 

Throw down th' acatia, 
(using here the diminutive form,) 

and take instead 

The larger goblets ; and the old woman lead 

Straight to the cup ; . . . the younger maiden .... 

fill it ; have your oar 

All ready, loose the cables, bend the sails. 
Among the Cyprians there is also a kind of cup called the 
aotus, as PamphUus tells us : and PhUetas says, this is a cup 
which has no ears (arrous)'. 

There is also a kind of cup called aroclum, ■which is men- 
tioned by Nicander the Colophonian. 

24. The cup called aXeurov, is the same as that called 
Sirraq. Homer, in his Odyssey, speaking of Pisistratus, says — 

In a rich golden cup he pour'd the wine ;' 
and proceeding, he says, in the same manner — 

To each a portion of the feast he bore, 

And held the golden goblet (&\euroi/) foaming o'er; 
and presently afterwards he says — 

And gave the goblet (Sc'iras) to Ulysses' son. 
And, accordingly, Asclepiades the Myrlean says — " The Soras 
appears to me to have been much of the same shape as the 
<fiiaX-rj. For men make libations with it. Accordingly, Homer 
says, 8e7ra9 — ThVcup which Peleus' son 

Had raised in offerings to Jove alone. 
And it is called SeVas, either because it is given to all (SiSorat 
■n-aa-i) who wish to make libations, or who wish to drink ; or 
because it has two ears (Svo Swas), for wttes must be the same as 
wTa. And it has the name of akeurov, either from being very 
smooth (ayav A.etov), or because the liquor is collected (aXit,erai) 
in it. And that it had two ears is plain — 

High in his hands he rear'd the golden bowl 

By both its ears. 
But when he applies the word a//,^tKvjreAAov to it, he means 
nothing more than diJL<j)LKvpTov, curved on both sides." But 
SUenus interprets the word a/i</)iKv7reAAov to mean devoid of 
ears, while others say that d/x^i here is equivalent to Trepl, 
and that it means a cup which you may put to your mouth 
all round, at any part of it. But Parthenius says that it 
] Odyss. iii. 40. 

C. 26.] DKINKING-OUPS. 741 

means that'the ears are curved (TrcpiKeicvpTwarBai), for that is 
synonymous with (oiprds. But Anicetus says that the kuitcAAov 
is a kind of cup [(ftlakri), and that the word afxijiLKinreXXov is equi- 
valent to vKf.p<\>LaXov, that is to say, superb and magnificent ; 
unless, indeed, any one chooses to interpret the word aXucrov 
as something very highly ornamented, and therefore not at all 
smooth (a, Xerov). And Pisander says, Hercules gave Telamon 
a cup (oA.ctcroi') as the prize of his preeminent valour in the 
expedition against Troy. 

25. There is also a kind of cup called the horn of Amal- 
thea, and another called ei/iawos, or the year. 

There is also a kind of cup made of wood, called afx^jxiyn^, 
which Philetas says that the countrymen use, who milk their 
cattle into it, and then drink the milk. 

There is also a kind of drinking called a/iuoTts, when 
any one drinks a long draught without taking breath and 
without winking (fx-q /jMravra). And they give the same name 
to the goblets from which it is easy to drink in this manner. 
And they also use a verb (eK/ivcrrt^o)) for drinking without 
taking breath, as Plato the comic poet says — 
And opening a fair cask of fragrant wine, 
He pours it straight into the hollow cup ; 
And then he drank it sheer and not disturb'd, 
And drain'd it at one draught (efe/iiiffTi(re). 
And they also drank the o/iDcn-is draught to an accompani- 
ment of music ; the melody being measured out according ta 
the quickness of the time ; as Ameipsias says — 
Gentle musician, let that dulcet strain 
Proceed ; and, while I drink this luscious draught, 
Play you a tune; then you shall drink yourself. 
For mortal man has no great wants on earth, 
Except to love and eat;— and you're too stingy. 

26. There is also a kind of cup called Antigonis, from the 
name of king Antigonus : like the Seleucis from king Seleu- 
cus ; and the Prusis, from king Prusias. 

There is also a kind of cup known in Crete, and called 
anaphsea, which they use for hot drinks. 

There is also a kind of cup called aryballus. This kind of 
cup is wider at the bottom, and contracted at top like a 
purse when it is drawn together ; and, indeed, some people 
call purses ^v^aXkoi, from their resemblance to this kind of 
cup. Aristophanes says, in his Knights — 


He ponr'd upon his head 

Ambrosia from a holy cup {api$aXAos). 
And the aryballus is not very different from the arystichus, 
being derived from the vei'bs dpvTui and ^aXXw ; they also call 
a jug ap-uoTts. Sophocles says — 

You are most accursed of all women. 

Who come to supper with your apva-rfis. 

There is also a city of the lonians called arystis. 

There is another kind of cup called argyris, which is not 
necessarily made of silver. Anaxilas says — 
And drinking out of golden argyrides. 

27. Then batiaoium, labronius, tragelaphus, pristis, are aU 
names of different kinds of cups. The batiaoa is a Persian 
goblet. -And among the letters of the great Alexander to the 
Satraps of Asia there is inserted one letter in which the follow- 
ing passage occurs : — " There are three batiacse of silver gilt, 
and a hundred and seventy-sis silver condya; and of these 
last thirty-three are gilt. There is also one silver tigisites, 
and thirty-two silver-gilt mystri. There is one silver vege- 
table dish, and one highly wrought wine-stand of silver orna- 
mented in a barbaric style. There are other small cups from 
every country, and of every kind of fashion, to the number of 
twenty-nine : and other small -sized cups called rhyta, adba- 
tia, and Lycuigi, all gilt, and incense-burners and spoons." 

There is a cup used by the Alexandrians named hessa, 
wider in the lower parts, and narrow above. 

28. There is also a kind of cup called baucalis : and this, 
too, is chiefly used in Alexandria, as Sopater the parodist 

A baucalis, with four rings mark'd on it. 

And in another passage he says — 

'Tis sweet for men to drink {KaTaPavm\i<Tai) 
Cups of the juice by bees afforded. 
At early dawn, when parch'd by thirst, 
Caused by too much wine overnight. 

And the men in Alexandria, it is said, have a way of working 
crystal, forming it often into various shapes of goblets, and 
imitating in this material every sort of earthenware cup 
which is imported from any possible country. And they say 
that Lysippus the statuary, wishing to gratify Cassander, 
when he was founding the colony of Cassandria, and when he 

C 30.] DRINKING-CUPS. 7 13 

conceived the ambition of inventing some peculiar kind of 
utensil in earthenware, on account of the extraordinary quan- 
tity of Mendean wine which was exported from the city, 
took a great deal of pains with that study, and brought Cas- 
sander a great number of cups of every imaginable fashion, 
all made of earthenware, and taking a part of the pattern of 
each, thus made one goblet of a design of his own. 

29. There is also a kind of cup called bicus. Xenophon, in 
the first book of his Anabasis, says : — "And Cyrus sent him 
a number of goblets (/Juous) of wine half full ; and it is a cup 
of a flat shallow shape, like a ^LoXr], according to the descrip- 
tion given of it by Pollux the Parian. 

There is another kind of cup called the bombylius ; a sort 
of Ehodian Thericlean cup ; concerning the shape of which 
Socrates says, — " Those who drink out of the phiale as much 
as they please wiU very soon give over ; but those who drink 
out of a bombylius drink by small drops." There is also an 
animal of the same name. 

There is also a kind of drinking-cup called the bromias, in 
form like the larger kind of scyphus. 

30. There is another kind called the lettered cup, having 
writing engraved round it. Alexis says — 

A. Shall I describe to you the appearance first 

O' the cup you speak of? Know, then, it was round; 

Exceeding small ; old, sadly broken too 

About the ears ; and all around the brim 

Were carved letters. 

B. Were there those nineteen 

Engraved in gold, — To Jupiter the Saviour?' 
A. Those, and no others. 
And we have seen a lettered cup of this kind lying at Capua 
in Campania, in the temple of Diana ; covered with writing 
taken from the poems of Homer, and beautifully engraved; 
having the verses inlaid in golden characters, like the drinking- 
cup of Nestor. And Achseus the tragic poet, in his Omphale, 
himself also represents the Satyrs speaking in the following 
manner about a lettered drinking-cup — 

And the god's cup long since has cali'd me, 

Showing this writing,-— delta, then iota, 

The third letter was omega, then nu, 

1 The Greek has ivtiKa, eleven, being the number of letters in Aiis 
Scerrjpas. I have altered the number to make it correspond to the letters 
in " To Jupiter the Saviour." 


Then u came next, and after that a sigma 

And omicron were not deficient. 
But in this passage we want tlie final « which, ought to have 
ended the word. Since all the ancients used the omicron 
not only with the power which it has now, but also when 
they meant to indicate the diphthong mi they wrote it by n 
only. And they did the same when they wished to write the 
vowel e, whether it is sounded by itself, or when they wish to 
indicate the diphthong €t by the addition of iota. And 
accordingly, in the above-cited verses, the Satyrs wrote the 
final syllable of the genitive case Aiovvaov with o only ; as 
being short to engrave : so that we are in these hues to 
understand the final upsilon, so as to make the whole word 
Aiovvcrcrv. And the Dorians called sigma san ; for the musi- 
cians, as Aristoxenus often tells us, used to avoid saying 
sigma whenever they could, because it was a hard-sounding 
letter, and unsuited to the flute ; but they were fond of using 
the letter rho, because of the ease of pronouncing it. And 
the horses which have the letter S branded on them, they 
call samphoras. Aristophanes, in his Clouds, says — 

Neither you, nor the carriage-horse, nor samphoras. 
And Pindar says — 

Before long series of songs were heard. 

And the lU-sounding san from out men's mouths. 
And Eubulus also, in his Neottis, speaks of a lettered cup as 
being called by that identical name, saying — 
A. Above all things I hate a letter'd cup. 

Since he, my son, the time he went away. 

Had such a cup with him. 

B. There are many like it. 

31. There is a kind of cup also called gyala. Philetas, in 
his Miscellanies, says that the Megarians call their cups 
gyalsB. And Parthenius, the pupil of Dionysius, in the first 
book of his Discussions upon Words found in the Historians, 
says — " The gyala is a kind of drinking-cup, as Marsyas the 
priest of Hercules writes, where he says, ' Whenever the king 
comes into the city, a man meets him having a cup (yvaXrjv) 
fall of wine; and the king takes it, and pours a libation 
from it.'" 

32. There is another sort of cup called the deinus. And 
that this is the name of a cup we are assured by Dionysius 
of Sinope, in his Female Saviour, where he gives a catalogue 

C. 33.] DRINKING-OnPS. 745 

of the nnmes of cups, and mentions this among them, speak- 
ing as follows — 

And as for all the kinds of driuking-oupa, 

Lady, all fair to see, — dicotyli, 

Trieotyli besides, the mighty deimis, 

Which holds an entire measure, and the cymbion. 

The scyphus and the rhytum ; on all these 

The old woman keeps her eyes, and minds nought else. 

And Cleanthes the philosopher, in his book on Interpretation, 
says, that the cups called the Thericlean, and that called the 
Deinias, are both named from the original makers of them. 
And Seleucus, saying that the deinus is a kind of cup, quotes 
some lines of Stratis, from his Medea — 

Dost know, Creon, what the upper part 
Of your head doth resemble t I can tell you : 
'Tis like a deinus turned upside down. 

And Archedicus, in his Man in Error, introducing a servant 
speaking of some courtesans, says — 

A. I lately introduced a hook-nosed woman, 

Her name Nicostrata; but surnamed also 

Scotodeina, since (at least that is the story) 

She stole a silver deinus in the dark. 
S. A terrible thing (Semdy), by Jove ; a terrible thing ! 

The deinus is also the name of a kind of dance, as ApoUo- 

phanes tells us in his Dalis, where he says — 

A strange thing (Setviv) is this deinus and calathiscus. 

And Telesilla the Argive calls a threshing-floor also Seii/os. 

And the Cyrenseans give the same name to a foot-tub, as 

Philetas tells us in his Attic Miscellanies. 

33. There is also a kind of drinking-cup caUed Si-n-aarpov. 

Silenus and Clitarchus,in their Dialects, say that this is a name 

given to drinking-cups among the Clitorians ; but Antima- 

chus the Colophonian, in the fifth book of his Thebais, says — 
And carefully they all commands obey'd 
AVhich wise Adrastus laid on them. They took 
A silver goblet, and they pour'd therein 
Water, and honey pure, compounding deftly; 
And quickly then they all distributed 
The cups (SiircuTTpa) among the princes of the Greeks, 
Who there were feasting; and from a golden jug 
They pour'd them wine for due libations. 

And in another place he says — 

Let others bring the bowl of solid silver, 

Or golden cups (Seircurrpa), which in my halls are stored. 


And immediately afterwards lie says — 

And golden cups {Seircurrpa), and a pure untouch'd vessel 

Of honey sweet, which, ■will be best for him. 
34. There is also a kind of cup called SaKTvXairov, Tvith finger- 
like handles ; and it is called so by Ion, in the Agamemnon — 

And you shall have a gift worth running for, 

A finger-handled cup, not toueh'd by fire. 

The mighty prize once given by Pelias, 

And by swift Castor won. 

But by this expression Epigenes understands merely having 
two ears, into which a person could put his fingers on each 
side. Others, again, explain it as meaning, having figures 
like fingers engraved all round it; or having small projections 
like the Sidonian cups ; — or, again, some interpret the word as 
meaning merely smooth. But when he says, untouched by 
fire, that has the same meaning as Homer's phrase — • 

dirvpov /caTe0ijK6 Ke^tyTa, 

meaning a caldron fit fijr the reception of cold water, or 
suitable for drinking cold drinks out of But by this ex- 
pression some understand a horn ; and about the Molossian 
district the oxen are said to have enormous horns ; and the 
way in which they are made into cups is explained by Theo- 
pompus : and it is very likely that Pelias may have had cups 
made of these horns ; and lolcos is near the Molossian dis- 
trict, and it was at lolcos that these contests spoken of were 
exhibited by Pelias. — " But," says Didymus, in his Explana- 
tion of the play here spoken of, " it is better to say that Ion 
misunderstood Homer's words, where he says — 

And for the fifth he gave a double bowl, 

Which fire had never toueh'd ; 
for he fancied that this meant a drinking-cup, while it was 
in reality a large flat vessel made of brass in the form of 
a caldron, suitable to receive cold water. And he has spoken 
of the dactylotus cup, as if it were a goblet that had a hollow 
place aU round the inside of it, so as to be taken hold of 
inside by the fingers of the drinkers. And some, say that the 
cup which has never been touched by fire means a cup of 
horn ; for that that is not worked by the agency of fire. 
And perhaps a man might call a <^taXi; a drinking-cup by a 
metaphorical use of the word." But Philemon, in his treatise 
on Attic Nouns and Attic Dialects, under the word KoXms says, 
" The' dactylotus cup is the same as the two-headed fcup into 

C- 37.] DRIKKING-CUPS. 747 

■which a person can insert his fingers on both sides. But 
some say that it is one which has figures in the shape of 
fingers carved all round it." 

35. There is also the elephant; and this was the name of a 
kind of cup, as we are told by Damoxenus, in the Man who 
laments himself — 

A. If that is not enough, here is the boy 
Bringing the elephant. 

B. In God's name tell me, 
What beast is that 1 

A. 'Tis a mighty cap, 
Pregnant ■with double springs of rosy ■wine. 
And able to contain three ample measures ; 
The work of A Icon. When I Tvas at Cypseli, 
Adseus pledged me in this selfsame cup. 

And Epinicus also mentions this cup, in his Supposititious 
Damsels ; and I will quote his testimony when I come to, 
speak of the rhytum. 

36. There is another kind of cup called the Ephebus. And 
Philemon the Athenian, in his treatise on Attic Nouns and 
Attic Dialects, says that this cup is also called the embasi- 
coitas ; but Stephanus the comic poet, in his Friend of the 
Lacedfemonians, says — 

Sos. The king then pledged him in a certain village. 

B. A TTondrous thing. What can you mean ? Is this 
A kind of goblet "i 

Sos. No ; I mean a village 
Near Thyria. 

B. Why, my ■whole thoughts were borne 
Off to the Ehodian cups, Sosia, 
And to those heavy bowls they call ephebi. 

37. There are also some cups which are called ■^SinronSe's. 
" These," says Lynceus the Samian, " were made by the 
Ehodians in emulation of the Thericlean goblets which were 
in use at Athens. But as the Athenians, on account of the 
great weight of metal employed in them, only made this shape 
for the use of the richer classes, the Ehodians made theirs 
so light that they were able to put these ornaments within 
the reach even of the poor. And Epigenes mentions them, in 
his Heroine, in these words — 

A psycter, and a cyathus, and cymbia, 
Four rhyta, and three hedypotides, 
A silver strainer, too. 
And Sermus,.in the fifth book of his Delias, says that there is 


among the offerings at Delos a golden hedypotis, the gift of 
Echenioa, a woman of the country, whom he mentions also, in 
his eighth book. And Cratiuus the younger says, using the 
diminutive form, — 

And Archephon had twelve T^SmriTta. 

38. There was another kind of cup called the Herculeum. 
Pisander, in the second book of his Herculead, Says that the 
cup in which Hercules sailed across the ocean belonged to the 
Sunj and that Hercules received it from Oceanus for that 
purpose. But, perhaps, as the hero was fond of large cups, 
the poets and historians jesting because of the great size of this 
one, invented the fable of his having gone to sea in a cup. 
But Panyasis, in the first book of his Herculead, says that Her- 
cules obtained the cup of the Sun from Nereus, and sailed even 
to Erythea in it. And we have said before that Hercules was 
one of the inordinate drinkers. And that the sun was borne on 
towards his setting in a cup, Stesichorus tells us, where he says— ^ 

And then the Sun, great Hyperion's offspring, 

Embarked in his golden cup, that he 

Might cross the ocean's wide expanse, and come 

To the deep foundations of immortal Night ; 

To his fond mother, and his virgin hride. 

And his dear children. And the son of Jore 
Came to the grove 
Shaded with laurels and with bays. 
And Antimachus speaks thus — 

And then the most illustrious Brythea 

Sent the Sun forth in a convenient cup. 
And ^schylus, in his Daughters of the Sun, says — 

There in the west is found the golden cup, 

Great Vulcan's work, your father's property, 

In which he's borne along his rapid course 

O'er the dark waters of the boundless sea. 

When, his work done, he flies before dark Night, 

Borne on her black-horsed chariot. 

39. And Mimnermus, in his Nannus, says that the Sun 
when asleep is borne round to the east, lying on a golden bed 
which was made for this express purpose by Vulcan; by 
which enigmatical statement he indicates the hollow form of 
the cup; and he speaks thus — 

For the Sun labours every day, nor ever 
Do he or his fleet steeds know pleasing rest 

From that bright hour when the rosy Morn, 
Leaving her ocean-bed, mounts up to heaven. 

<^- 41.] BEINKING-CUP3. 749 

For all across the sea, a lovely bed 

Of precious gold, the work of Vulcan's hands, 
Conveys the god ; passing on rapid wings 

Along the water, while he sleeps therein. 
From the bright region of th' Hesperides, 

To th' Ethiopian shore, where his swift car 
And fiery horses wait within their stalls 

Till bright Aurora comes again and opes 
Her rosy portals. Then Hyperion's son 

Ascends again his swift untiring car. 

But Theolytus, in the second book of his Annals, says 
that the Sun crosses the sea in a cup, and that the first 
person who invented this statement was the author of the 
poem called the Battle of the Titans. And Pherecydes, in 
the third book of his Histories, having previously spoken 
about the ocean, adds — " But Hercules drew his bow against 
him, as if he meant to shoot him : and the Sun bade him 
desist, and so he, being afraid, did desist. And in return for 
his forbearance, the Sun gave him the golden cup in which he 
himself used to travel with his horses when he has set, 
going all night across the ocean to the east, where he again 
rises. And so then Hercules went in this cup to Erythea. 
And when he was at sea, Oceanus, to tempt him, appeared to 
him in visible form, tossing his cup about in the waves ; and 
he then was on the point of shooting Oceanus; but Oceanus 
being frightened desired him to forbear." 

40. There is also a cup of the name of ethanion. Hella- 
nicus, in his account of the History and Manners of the 
Egyptians, writes thus — " In the houses of the Egyptians 
are foimd a brazen tfnaXri, and a brazen icua^os, and a brazen 
rjOdvLOv. ' 

There is another kind called hemitomus ; a sort of cup in 
use among the Athenians, so called from its shape ; and it is 
mentioned by Pamphilus, in his Dialects. 

41. Then there is the cup called the thericlean cup ; this 
kind is depressed at the sides, sufficiently deep, having short 
ears, as being of the class of cup called kijAi|.' And, perhaps, it 
is out of a thericlean cup that Alexis, in his Hesione, repre- 
sents Hercules to be drinking, when he speaks thus — 

' Liddell and Scott say the word kiJai| is " probably from the samo 
root as KvKlvSa, KvMvSpos, from their round shape, for the B Is against 
any connexion with kvoj or koTaos." 


And when he had, though scarcely, come t' himself, 
He begg'd a cup of wine ((ciiXiKa), and when he'd got it. 
He drank down frequent draughts, and drain'd it well ; 
And, as the proverb says, the man sometimes 
Is quite a bladder, and sometimes a sack. 

And that tlie thericlean cup belongs to the class kv\i£ is 
plainly stated by Theophrastus, in Ms History of Plants. For 
speaking of the turpentine-tree, he says — "And thericlean 
cups (KvXiKe's B-qpiKkeioC) are turned of this wood, in such 
a manner that no one can distinguish them from earthenware 
ones." And Thericles the Corinthian is said to have been the 
first maker of this kind of cup, and he was a potter origin- 
ally, and it is after him that they have their name ; and he 
lived about the same time as Aristophanes the comic poet. 
And Theopompus speaks of this cup, in his Nemea, where 
he says — 

A. Come hither you, you faithful child of Thericles, 
Tou noble shape, and what name shall we give you 
Are you a looking-glass of nature ? If 

You were but full, then I could wish for nothing 
Beyond your presence. Come then — 

B. How I hate you. 
You old Theolyta. 

A. Old dost thou call me, friend 1 

B. What can I call you else ? but hither come. 

Let me embrace you ; come to your fellow-servant : 

Is it not so % 

A you try me. 

B. See here I pledge you in fair friendship's cup. 

A. And when you've drunk your fill, then hand the cup 

Over to me the first. 

But Cleanthes, in his treatise on Interpretation, says — " And 
as for aU these inventions, and whatever others there are 
of the same kind, such as the thericlean cup, the deinias, the 
iphicratis, it is quite plain that these, by their very names, in- 
dicate their inventors. And the same appears to be the ease 
even now. And if they fail to do so, the name must have 
changed its meaning a little. But, as has been said before, 
one cannot in every case trust to a name." But others state 
that the thericlean cup has its name from the skins of wild 
beasts {&qp'uav) being carved on it. And Pamphilus of Alex- 
andria says that it is so called from the fact of Bacchus 
distui-bing the beasts (toijs Orjpa.^) by pouring libations out of 
these cups over them. 

C. 43.] DRINKINQ-CUPS. 751 

42. And Antiphanes mentions this kind of cup, in his 
Similitudes, saying — 

And when they had done supper, (for I wish 
To put all things that happen'd iu the interval 
Together,) then the theri clean cup 
Of Jove the Saviour was introduced. 
Full of the luscious drops which o'er the sea 
Came from the isle of the delicious drinks, 
The sea-girt Lesbos, full, and foaming up, 
And each one in his right hand gladly seized it. 

And Eutjulus, in his Dolon, says — 

I never drain'd a cup more carefully, 
For I did make the earthen cask more clean 
Thau Therides did make his well-tum'd cups 
E'en in his youth. 

And, in his Dice-players, he says — 

And then they drain'd the valiant cup yclept 
The thericlean ; foaming o'er the brim. 
With Lacedaemonian lip, loud sounding 
As if 'twere full of pebbles, dark in colour, 
A beauteous circle, with a narrow bottom. 
Sparkling and brilliant, beautifully wash'd. 
All crown' d with ivy ; and the while they call'd 
On the great name of Jove the Saviour. 

And Arams, or Eubulus, whichever it was who was the author 

of the Campylion, says — 

O potter's earth, you whom great Thericles 
Once fashion'd, widening out the circling depth 
Of your large hollow sides ; right well must you 
Have known the natures and the hearts of women. 
That they are not well pleased with scanty cup^ 

And Alexis, in his Horseman, says — 

There is, besides, a thericlean cup. 
Having a golden wreath of ivy round it. 
Carved on it, not appended. 

And in his Little Horse he says — 

Ho drank a thericlean cup of unmix'd wine, 
Eight full, and foaming o'er the brim. 

43. But Timffius, in the twenty-eighth book of his History, 
calls the cup thericlea, writing thus: — " There was a man of 
the name of Polyxenus who was appointed one of the ambas- 
sadors from Tauromenium, and he returned having received 
several other presents from Nicodemus, and also a cup 
of the kind called thericlea." And Adeeus, in his treatise 


on Descriptions, considers that the thericleum and the car- 
chesium are the same. But that they are different is 
plainly shown by Callixenus, who, in his Account of Alex- 
andria and its customs, says — " And some people marched 
in the procession, bearing therielea (and he uses the mascu- 
line iorm'.Grjpi.KXdciv';), and others bearing carchesia." And 
what kind of cup the carchesium was, shall be explained 
in due time. There is also another kind called the thericlean 
bowl {dripLKXiios Kparrip), which is mentioned by Alexis, in 
his Cycnus — 

And in the midst a thericlean bowl 

Resplendent stood ; full of old clear white wine, 

And foaming to the brim. I took it empty, 

And wiped it round, and made it shine, and placed it 

Firm on its base, and crown'd it round with branches 

Of Bacchus' favourite ivy. 

Menander also has used the form BripUXao's as feminine, in 
his Fanatic Woman, when he says — 

And being moderately drunk, he took 
And drain'd the thericleum (ti)!/ e^jpiKXeioy). 

And in his Begging Priest he says — " 

Drinking a thericleum of three pints. 

And.Deoxippus, in his Miser, says — 

A . I want now the large thericlean cup (tjJj $ripiK\elou t^j neyaKris). 

B. I know it well. 

A. Likewise the Ehodian cups ; 
^ For when I've pour'd the liquor into them, 
I always seem to drink it with most pleasure. 

And Polemo, in the first book of his treatise on the Acropolis 
at Athens, has used the word in the neuter gender, saying — 
" Neoptolemus offered up some golden thericlean cups (ra 
B-rjpiHXcia) wrought on foundations of wood." 

44. And ApoUodorus of Gela, in his Philadelphi, or the 
Man who killed himself by Starvation, says — 

Then there were robes of fine embroidery, 
And silver plate, and veiy skilful chasers 
Who ornament the thericlean cups. 
And many other noble bowls besides. 

And Aristophon, in his Philonides, says — 

Therefore my master very lately took' 
The well-turn'd orb of a thericlean cup. 
Full foaming to, the brim with luscious wine, 
Mix'd half-and-half, a most luxurious draught. 

C. 45.] DETNKING-CUPS. 753 

And gave it me as a reward for virtue ; 
1 think because of my tried honesty; 
And then, by steeping me completely in it, 
He set me free. 
And Theophilus, in his Boeotia, says-^ 
He mixes beautifully a large cup 
Of earthenware, of thericlean fashion. 
Holding four pints, and foaming o'er the brim ; 
Kot Autocles himself, by earth I swear, 
Could in his hand more gracefully have borne it. 

And, in his Proetides, he says — 

And bring a thericlean cup, which holds 

More than four pints, and 's sacred to good fortune. 

There is also a cup called the Isthmian cup : and Pamphilus, 
in his treatise on Names, says that this is a name given to a 
certain kind of cup by the inhabitants of Cyprus. 

45. There is also a kind of vessel called cadus ; ■which 
Simmias states to be a kind of cup, quoting this verse of 
Anacreon — 

I breakfasted on one small piece of cheesecake. 

And drank a cadus full of wine. 

And Epigenes, in his Little Monument, saya — 

A. Craters, and cadi, olkia, and crunea, 

B. Are these crunea % 

A. To be sure these are, 
Luteria, too. But why need I name each 1 
Per you yourself shall see them. 

B. Do you say 
That the great monarch's son, Pixodarus, 
Has come to this our land ? 
And Hedylus, in his Epigrams, says — 

Let us then drink ; perhaps among our cups 
We may on some new wise and merry plan 
With all good fortune light. Come, soak me well 

In cups (koSois) of Chian wine, and say to me, 
" Come, sport and drink, good Hedylus ;" I hate 
To live an empty life, debarr'd from wine. 
And in another place he says — 

From morn till night, and then from night till mom, 

The thirsty Pasisocles sits and drinks. 
In monstrous goblets (/coiSoij), holding quite four quarts. 

And then departs whatever way he pleases. 
But midst his cups he sports more mirthfully. 

And is much stronger than Sicelides. 
How his wit sparkles I Follow his example. 
And ever as you write, my friend, drink too. 
ATH. — VOL. II. 3 C 


-But Clitarclius, in Lis treatise on Dialects, says that the 
lonians call an earthenware cask koSos. And Herodotus, in 
his third boot, speaks of a cask (koSos) of palm wine. 

46. There is also the koBlo-kos. Philemon, in his treatise 
before mentioned, says that this too is a species of cup. And 
it is a vessel in which they place the Ctesian Jupiters, as 
Anticlides says, in his Book on Omens, where he writes, — 
" The statuettes of Jupiter Ctesius onght to be erected in this 
manner. One ought to- place a new cadiscns with two gar? 
.... — and crown the ears with white wool ; and on the- 
right shoulder, and on the forehead .... and pnt on it 
what you find there, and pour ambrosia over it. But am- 
brosia is compounded of pure water, and oil, and all kinds of 
fruits ; and these you must pour over." Stratis the comic 
poet also mentions the cadiscus, in his Lemnomeda, where 
he says— 

The wine of Meromy, whicli some draw forth 
Prom a large jug, and some from a cadiseus, 
Mix'd with pure water, half-and-half. 

47. There is also the cantharus. Now, that this is the 
name of a kind of boat is well known. And that there is a, 
kind of cup also called by this name we find from Ameipsias, in 
his Men Playing at the Cottabus, or Madness, where he says — 

Bring here the vinegar cruets, and canthari. 
And Alexis, in his Creation (the sentence refers to some one 
■drinking in a wine-shop), says — 

And then I saw Hermaiscue turning over 
One of these mighty canthari, and nea» him 
There lay a blanket, and his well-fill'd wallet. 

And Eubulus, who often mentions this cup by name, in his 
Tamphilus, says — 

But I (for opposite the house there was 

A wine-shop recently establish'd) 

There watch'd the damsel's nurse ; and bade the vintner 

Mix me a measure of wine worth an obol, 

And set before me a full-sized cantharus. 

And in another place he says — 

How dry and empty is this cantharus ! 

And again, in another place — 

Soon as she took it, she did drink it up, — 

How much d'ye think? a most enormous draught; 

And drain'd the santharus completely dry. 

C- 48.] DEINKING-CUPS. 755 

And Xenarchus, in his Priapus, says this — 
Pour, boy, no longer in the silver tankard. 
But let us have again recourse to the deep. 
Pour, boy, I bid you, in the cantharus, 
Pour quick, by Jove, aye, by the Cantharus,' pour. 

And Epigenes, in his Heroine, says-^ 

Bat now they do no longer canthari make, 
At least not large ones ; but small shallow cupa 
Are come in fashion, and they call them neater. 
As if they drank the cups, and not the wine. 

48. And Sosicrates, in his Philadelphi, says — 
A gentle breeze mocking the curling waves, 
Sciron's fair daughter, gently on its course 
Brought with a noiseless foot the cantharus ; 

where cantharus evidently means a boat. 
And Phrynichus, in his Kevellers, says — ; 
And then Chserestratus, in his own abode. 
Working with modest zeal, did weep each day 
A hundred canthari well fiU'd with wine. 

And Nicostratus, in his Calumniator, says — 
A. Is it a ship of twenty banks of oars, 
Or a swan, or a cantharus 1 Por when 
I have learnt that, I then shall be prepared 
Myself t' encounter everything. 

B. It is 
A cycnocantharus, an animal 
Compounded carefully of each. 

And Menander, in his Captain of a Ship, says — 
A. Leaving the salt depths of the ijgean sea, 
Theophilus has come to us, Strato. 
How seasonably now do I say your son 
Is in a prosperous and good condition, 
And so 's that golden cantharus. 

B. What cantharus? 

A. Tour vessel. 

And a few lines afterwards he says — 

B. Ton say my ship is safe ? 

A. Indeed I do. 
That gallant ship which Callicles did build. 
And which the Thurian Euphranor steer'd. 

And Polemo, in his treatise on Painters, addressed to Anti- 
gonus, says — " At Athens, at the marriage of Pirithous, 

1 The cantharus was also a kind of beetle worshipped in Egypt, and 
as such occasionally invoked in an oath. 



Hippeus made a wine jug and goblet of stone, inlaying its edges 
with gold. And he provided also couches of pinewood placed 
on the ground, adorned with coverlets of every sort, and for 
drinking cups there were canthari made of earthenware. And 
moreover, the lamp which was suspended from the roof, had 
a number of lights all kept distinct from one another. And 
that this kind of cup got its name originally from Can- 
tharus a potter, who invented it, Philetserus tells us in his 
Achilles — 

Peleua 1 — but Peleus ' is a potter's name, 
The name of some dry wither'd lamp-maker, 
Known too as Cantharus, exceeding poor. 
Far other than a king, by Jove. 

And that cantharus is also the name of a piece of female 
ornament, we may gather from Antiphanes in his Boeotia. 

49. There is also a kind of cup called carchesium. Cal- 
lixenus the Ehodian, in his History of the Affairs and 
Customs of Alexandria, says that it is a cup of an oblong 
shape, slightly contracted in the middle, having ears which 
reach down to the bottom. And indeed, the carchesium is a 
tolerably oblong cup, and perhaps it has its name from its 
being stretched upwards. But the carchesium is an ex- 
tremely old description of cup; if at least it is true that 
Jupiter, when he had gained the affections of Alcmena, gave 
her one as a love gift, as Pherecydes relates in his second 
book, and Herodorus of Heraclea teUs the same story. But 
Asclepiades the Myrleau says that this cup derives its name 
from some one of the parts of the equipment of a ship. For 
the lower part of the mast is called the pterna, which goes 
down into the socket; and the middle of the mast is called the 
neck ; and towards the upper part it is called carchesium. 
And the carchesium has yards running out on each side, and 
in it there is placed what is called the breastplate, being four- 
cornered on aU sides, except just at the bottom and at the 
top. Both of which extend a little outwards iri a straight 
line. And above the breastplate is a part which iS called 
the distaff, running up to a great height, and being sharp- 
pointed. And Sappho also speaks of the carchesia, where sha 
says — 

' There is a pun. here on the name, as if Peleus were derived from 
vrjAos, clay. 


And they all had well-fiU'd carchesia, 
And out of them thej pour'd libations, wishing 
All mauner of good fortune to the bridegroom. 
And Sophocles, in his Tyro, says — 

And they were at the table in the middle, 

Between the dishes and carchesia ; 
saying that the dragons came up to the table, and took up a 
position between the meats and the carchesia, or cups of wine. 
For it was the fashion among the ancients to place upon the 
table goblets containing mixed wine ; as Homer also represents 
the tables in his time. And the carchesium was named so from 
having on it rough masses hke millet (KeyxpoeiSri^), and the a 
is by enallage instead of c, Kapxqcriov for Kepxijcriov. On which 
account Homer calls those who are overcome by thirst xap- 
XoXcow. And Charon of Lampsacus, in his Annals, says that 
among the Lacedsemonians there is still shown the very same 
cup which was given by Jupiter to Alcmena, when he took 
upon himself the likeness of Amphitryon. 

There is another kind of cup called calpium, a sort of Ery- 
thrsean goblet, as PamphUus says ; and I imagine it is the 
sam^e as the one called scaphium. 

50. There is another kind of cup called celebe. And this 
description of drinking-cup is mentioned by Anacreon, where 
he says — 

Come, boy, and bring me now 

A celebe, that I may drink 

A long deep draught, and draw no breath. 

It will ten measures of water hold, 

And five of mighty Chian wine. 

But it is uncertain what description of cup it is, or whether 
every cup is not called celebe, because one pours libations 
into it (otto tov x"'" ^i-P^v), or from one's pouring libations 
(Xufieiv). And the verb XeL^io is applied habitually to every 
sort of liquid, from which also the word Xi^rji; is derived. 
But Silenus and Clitarchus say that celebe is a name given 
to drinking-cups by the JEolians. But Pamphilus says that 
the celebe is the same cup which is also called thermopotis, 
a cup to drink warm water from. And Nicander the Colo- 
phonian, in his Dialects, says that the celebe is a vessel used 
by the shepherds in which they preserve honey. For Anti- 
machus the Colophonian, in the fifth book of his Thebais, 


He tade the heralds bear to them a bladder 
rui'd -vrith dark wine, and the most choice of all. 
The celebea in his house iphich lay, 
Fill'd with pure honey. 
And in a subsequent passage lie says — 

But taking up a mighty celebeum 

In both his hands, well fiU'd with richest honey, 

Which in great store he had most excellent. 

And again lie says — 

And golden cups of wine, and then besides, 

A celebeum yet untouch'd by man. 

Full of pure honey, his most choice of treasures. 

And in this passage he very evidently speaks of the celebeum 
as some kind of vessel distinct from a drinking-cup, since 
he has already mentioned drinking-oups under the title of 
Siiraarpa. And Theocritus the Syracusan, in his Female 
Witches, says— 

And crown this celebeum with the wool. 

Well dyed in scarlet, of the fleecy sheep. 

And Euphorion says — 

Or whether you from any other stream 

Have fill'd your celebe with limpid water. 
And Anacreon says — 

And the attendant pour'd forth luscious wine. 

Holding a celebe of goodly size. 
But Dionysius,' surnamed the Slender, explaining the poem of 
Theodoridas, which is addressed to Love, says that celebe is a 
name given to a kind of upstanding cup, something like the 
prusias and the thericleum. 

51. There is also the horn. It is said that the first men 
drank out of the horns of oxen; from which circumstance 
Bacchus often figured with horns on his head, and is more- 
over called a buU by many of the poets. And at Cyzicus 
there is a statue of him with a bull's head. But that 
men drank out of horns (KEpara) is plain from the fact that to 
this very day, when men mix water with wine, they say that 
they (cepao-at (mis it). And the vessel in which the wine is 
mixed is called Kpa-rqp, from the fetct of the water being 
mingled (ouyKipvacrfci) in it, as if the word were Keparrjp, from 
the drink being poured eh to Kepai (into the horn); and 
even to this day the fashion of making horns into cups con- 
tinues : but some people call these cups rhyta. And many 

C. 51.] DEINKING-HOENS. 759 

of the poets represent the ancients as drinking out of horns. 
Pindar, speaking of the Centaurs, says — 

After those monsters fierce 

Learnt the invincible strength of luscious wine ; 

Then with a sudden fury, 

With mighty hands they threw the snow-white milk 
Down from the board, 
And of their own accord 

Drank away their senses in the silver-mounted horns. 
And Xenophon, in the seventh book of his Anabasis, giving 
an account of the banquet which was given by the Thracian 
Seuthes, -writes thus : " But when Xenophon, with his com- 
panions, arrived at Seuthes's palace, first of all they embraced 
one another, and then, according to the Thracian fashion, 
they were presented with horns of wine." And in his sixth 
book he says, when he is speaking of the Paphlagonians, " And 
they supped lying on couches made of leaves, and they drank 
out of cups made of horn." And iEschylus, in his Perrhsebi, 
represents the Perrhtebi as using horns for cups, in the follow- 
ing lines : — 

AVith silver-mounted horns. 

Fitted with mouthpieces of rich-wx'ought gold. 

And Sophocles, in his Pandora, says — 

And when a man has draia'd the golden cnp, 
She, pressing it beneath her tender arm, 
Eetums it to him fulL 

And Hermippus, in his Fates, says — 

Do you now know the thing you ought to do ? 
Give not that cup to me ; but from this horn 
Give me but once more now to drink a draught. 

And Lycurgus the orator, in his Oration against Demades, 
says that Philip the king pledged those men whom he loved 
in a horn. And Theopompus, in the second book of his 
history of the AfRiirs and Actions of Philip, says that the 
kings of the Pseonians, as the oxen in their countries have 
enormous horns, so large as to contain three or four choes of 
wine, make drinking-cups of them, covering over the brims 
with silver or with gold. And Philoxenus of Cythera, in his 
poem entitled The Supper, says — 

He then the sacred drink of nectar qnaff'd 
From the gold-mounted brims of th' ample horns. 
And then they all did drink awhile. 

And the Athenians made also silver goblets in the shape of 


torns, and drank out of them. And one may ascertain that 
by seeing the articles mentioned in writing among the list of 
confiscated goods on the pillar which lies in the Acropolis, 
which contains the sacred offerings — " There is also a silver 
horn drinking-cup, very solid." 

62. There is also the cernus. This is a vessel made of 
earthenware, having many little cup-like figures fastened to 
it, in which are white poppies, wheat-ears, grains of barley, 
peas, pulse, vetches, and lentils. And he who carries it, like 
the man who carries the mystic fan, eats of these things, as 
Ammonius relates in the third book of his treatise on Altars 
and Sacrifices. 

53. There is also the cup called the cissybium. This is a 
cup with but one handle, as Philemon says. And Neoptole- 
mus the Parian, in the third book of his Dialects, says that 
this word is used by Euripides in the Andromache, to signify 
a cup made of ivy (kiWivoj') — 

And all the crowd of shepherds flock'd together. 
One bearing a huge ivy bowl of milk, 
Befreshing medicine of weary toil ; 
Another brought the juice o' the purple vine. 

For, says he, the cissybium is mentioned in a rustic assem- 
bly, where it is most natural that the cups should be made 
of wood. But Clitarchus says that the .^olians called the 
cup which is elsewhere called scyphus, cissybium. And Mar- 
syas says that it is a wooden cup, the same as the K-innXKov. 
But Eumolpus says that it is a species of cup which perhaps 
(says he) was originally made of the wood of the ivy. But 
Nicander the Colophonian, in the first book of his History of 
^tolia, writes thus : — " In the sacred festival of Jupiter 
Didymeeus they pour libations from leaves of ivy {kio-o-ov), 
from which circumstance the ancient cups are called cissybia. 
Homer says — 

Holding a cup (Kiaai^iov) of dark rich-colour'd wine. 
And Asclepiades the Myrlean, in his essay on the cup called 
JSTestoris, says, " No one of the men in the city or of the men of 
moderate fortune used to use the o-;cv(^os or the KurirvpLov, 
but only the swineherds and the shepherds, and the men in 
the fields. Polyphemus used the cissybium, and Eumseus the 
other kind." But Callimachus seems to make a blunder in 
the use of these names, speaking of an intimate friend of his 


■who was entertained with him at a banquet by Pollis the 
Athenian, for he says — 

For he abhorr'd to drink at one long draugM 

Th" amystis loved in Thrace, not drawing breath : 

And soberly preferr'd a small cissybium : 

And when for the third time the cup {&Keurov) went round, 

I thus address'd him 

For, as he here calls the same cup both kutctvPlov and SXeurov, 
he does not preserve the accurate distinction between the 
names. And any one may conjecture that the Kio-trv/Siov was 
originally made by the shepherds out of the wood of the ivy 
(kio-o-os). But some derive it from the verb x™/*<*') ^sed in 
the same sense as xoipeo), to contain; as it occurs in the fol- 
lowing line : — 

This threshold shall contain (xflcfTai) them both. 
And the hole of the serpent is also called xf"/, as containing 
the animal; and they also give the name of k-ijOiov, that is, 
yrfTiov, to the box which holds the dice. And Dionysius of 
Samos, in his treatise on the Cyclic Poets, calls the cup which 
Homer calls kutotj/Siov, k.v\k^wv, writing thus — " And Ulysses, 
when he saw him acting thus, having filled a kv/j-JScov with 
wine, gave it to him to drink." 

54. There is also the ciborium. Hegesauder the Delphian 
says that Euphorion the poet, when supping with the Pry- 
tanis, when the Prytanis exhibited to him some ciboria, which 
appeared to be made in a most exquisite and costly manner, 

And when the cup had gone round pretty 

often, he, having drunk very hard and being intoxicated, took 
one of the ciboria and defiled it. And Didymus says that it 
is a kind of drinking-cup ; and perhaps it may be the same 
as that which is called scyphium, which derives its name 
from being contracted to a narrow space at the bottom, like 
the Egyptian ciboria. 

55. There is also the condu, an Asiatic cup. (Menander, 
in his play entitled the Flatterer, says — 

, Then, too, there is in Cappadocia, 

Struthion, a noble golden cup, 
Call'd condu, holding ten full cotylse. 

And Hipparchus says, in his Men Saved, — 

A. Why do you so attend to this one soldier? 
He has no silver anywhere, I know well ; 
Bat at the most one small embroider'd carpet, 


(And that is quite enough for him,) on which 
Some Persian figures and preposterous shapes 
Of Persian griffins, and such beasts, are work'd. 
B Away with you, you wretch. 

A. And then he has 
A condu, a wine-cooler, and a cymbium. 

And Nicomaclius, in the first book of his treatise on the 
Egyptian Festivals, says — " But the cdndu is a Persian cup ; 
and it was first introduced by Hermippus the astrologer.' . . 

, on -which account libations are poured 

out of it." But Pancrates, in the first book of his Conchoreis, 
says — 

But he first pour'd libations to the gods 

From a large silver condu ; then he rose, 

And straight departed by another road. 

There is also the cononius. Ister, the pupil of CaUima- 
chus, in the first book of his History of Ptolemais, the city in 
Egypt, writes thus : — " A pair of cups, called cononii, and a 
pair of thericlean cups with golden covers. 

56. There is also the cotylus. The cotylus is a cup with 
one handle, which is also mentioned by Alcseus. But Dio- 
dorus, in his book addressed to Lycophron, says that this cup 
is greatly used by the Sicyonians and Tarentines, and that it 
is like a deep luterium, and sometimes it has an ear. And 
Ion the Chian also mentions it, speaking of " a cotylus fuU 
of wine." ! And Hermippus, in his Gods, says — 

He brought a cotylus first, a pledge for his neighbours. 
And Plato, in his Jupiter Afflicted, says — 

He brings a cotylus. 
Aristophanes also, in his Babylonians, mentions the cotylus; 
and Eubulus, in his Ulysses, or the Panoptte, says — 

And then the priest utt'ring well-omen'd prayers, 
Stood in the midst, and in a gorgeous dress, 
Pour'd a libation from the cotylus. 

And Pamphifets says that it is a kind of cup, and peculiar to 
Bacchus. But Polemo, in his treatise on the Fleece of the 
Sheep sacrificed to Jupiter, says — " And after this he cele- 
brates a sacrifice, and takes the sacred fleece out of its shrine, 
and distributes it among all those who have borne the cemus 
in the procession : and this is a vessel made of earthenware, 
having a number of little cups glued to it j and in these little 
1 This quotation from Nicomachus is hopelessly corrupt. 

C. 57.] DRINKING-CTIPS. 763 

cups there is put sage, and white poppies, and ears of whea,t, 
and grains of barley, and peas, and pulse, and rye, and lentils, 
and beans, and vetches, and bruised figs, and chaff, and oil, 
and honey, and milk, and wine, and pieces of unwashed 
sheep's-wool. And he who has carried this cernus eats of aU 
these things, like the man who has carried the mystic fan." 

57. There is also the cotyle. Aristophanes, in his Cocalus, 
says — 

And other women, more advanced in age, 
Into their stomachs pour'd, without restraint, 
From good-sized cotylse, dark Thasian wine. 
The whole contents of a large earthen jar, 
TIrged by their mighty love for the dark wine. 

And SUenus, and Clitarchus, and also Zenodotus," say that it 
is a kind of Kvh4, and say — 

And all around the corpse the black blood flow'd. 

As if pour'd out from some full cotyle. 

And again — 

There is many a slip 

'Twixt the cup (kottJatjs) and the lip. 
And Simaristus says that it is a very smaU-sized cup which is 
called by this name ; and Diodorus says that the poet has 
here called the cup by the name of cotyle, which is by others 
called cotylus, as where we find — 

TTTjpyoi' (bread) koI kot^Ktjv; 

and that it is not of the class icvXi^, for that it has no handles, 
but that it is very hke a deep luterium, and a kind of drink- 
ing cup (Trorrjpiov) ; and that it is the same as that which by 
the .^tolians, and by some tribes of the lonians, is caOed 
cotylus, which is hke those which have been already described, 
except that it has only one ear : and Crates mentions it in 
his Sports, and Hermippus in his Gods. But the Athenians 
give the name of KorvXr/ to a certain measure. Thucydides 
says — " They gave to each of them provisions for eight 
months, at the rate of a cotyla of water and two cotylse of 
com a-day." Aristophanes, in his Proagon, says — 

And having bought three choenixes of meal. 

All but one cotyla, he accounts for twenty. 

But ApoUodorus says that it is a kind of cup, deep and 
hollow; and he says — " The ancients used to call everything 
that was hollow kotvXtj, as, for instance, the hollow of the 
hand; on which account we find the . expression KorvXijfyvrov 


al/Aa — meaning, blood in such quantities that it could be 
taken up in the hand. And there was a game called iyKOTvXrq, 
in which those who are defeated make their hands hollow, 
and then take hold of the knees of those who have won the 
game and carry them." And Diodorus, in his Italian Dialects, 
and Heraclitus (as Pamphilus says), relate that the cotyla is also 
called hemina, quoting the following passage of Epicharmus: — 

And then to drink a double measure. 

Two heminse of tepid water full. 
And Sophron says — 

Turn up the hemina, boy. 
But Pherecrates calls it a cotylisca, in his Corianno, sayings 

The cotylisca? By no means. 
And Aristophanes, in his Achamians, uses a stiU more 
diminutive form, and says — 

A cotyliscium {KorvXiffKtov) with a broken lip. 
And even the hollow of the hip is called kottjXij; and the 
excrescences on the feelers of the polypus are, by a slight 
extension of" the word, called Korvk-qhiiv. And iEschylus, in 
his Edonians, has called cymbals also KoruXai, saying — 

And he makes music with his brazen kJtuXoi. 
But Marsyas says that the bone of the hip is also called 
aXiixTov and KvAtf. And the sacred bowl of Bacchus is called 
KorTv\I.a-Ko% and so are those goblets which the initiated use 
for their libations; as Nicander of Thyatira says, adducing 
the following passage from the Clouds of Aristophanes : — 

Nor ■will I crown the cotyliscus. 
And Simmias interprets the word KoriXtj by SXaa-av. 

58. There is also the cottabis. Harmodius of Lepreum, 
in his treatise on the Laws and Customs of Phigalea, going 
through the entertainments peculiar to different countries, 
writes as follows : — " When they have performed all these 
purificatory ceremonies, a small draught is offered to each 
person to drink in a cottabis of earthenware; and he who 
offers it says, ' May you sup well.' " But Hegesander the 
Delphian, in his Commentaries (the beginning of which is 
" In the best Form of Government"), says — " That which is 
called the cottabus has been introduced into entertainments, 
the Sicilians (as Dicsearchus relates)' having been the first 
people to introduce it. And such great fondness was ex- 

"• ^9-] DRINKING-CUPS. 765 

hibited for this amusement, that men even introduced into 
entertainments contests, which were called cottabian games; 
and then cups of the form which appeared to be most suitable 
for such an exercise were made, called cottabides. And 
besides all this, rooms were built of a round figure, in order 
that all, the cottabus being placed in the middle, might 
contest the victory, all being at an equal distance, and in 
similar situations. For they vied with one another, not only 
in throwing their liquor at the mark, but also in doing every- 
thing with elegance ; for a man was bound to lean on his left 
elbow, and, making a circuit with his right hand, to throw 
his drops (ttjV Xaraya) over gently — for that was the name 
which they gave to the liquor which fell from the cup : so 
that some prided themselves more on playing elegantly at the 
cottabus than others did on their skill with the javelin." 

59. There is also the cratanium. But perhaps this is the 
same cup, under an ancient name, as that which is now called 
the craneum : accordingly, Polemo (or whoever it is who 
wrote the treatise on the Manners and Customs of the 
Greeks), speaking of the temple of the Metapontines which is 
at Olympia, writes as follows : — " The temple of the Meta- 
pontines, in which there are a hundred and thirty-two silver 
phialae, and two silver wine-jars, and a silver apothystanium, 
and three gilt phialse. The temple of the Byzantians, in 
■which there is a figure of Triton, made of cypress-wood, hold- 
ing a silver cratanium, a silver siren, two silver carchesia, a 
silver culix, a golden wine-jar, and two horns. But in the old 
temple of Juno, there are thirty silver phialse, two silver cra- 
tania, a silver dish, a golden apothystanium, a golden crater 
(the oifering of the Cyrenaeans), and a silver batiaoium." 

There is also the crounea. Epigenes, in his Monument, 
says — 

A. Cratere.% cadi, holcia, crounea, 

B. Are these crounea 1 

A- Yes, indeed these are. 

There is the cyathis also. This is a vessel with a great 
resemblance to the cotyla. Sophron, in his play entitled the 
Buffoon, represents the women who profess to exhibit the 
goddess as present, as saying — 

Three sovereign antidotes for poison 
Are buried in a single cyathis. 


60. Then there is the KuXif. Phereerates, in his Slave 
Tutor, says — 

TSow Trash the KtiAif out ; I'll give yon then 
Some wine to drink : put o'er the cup a strainer, 
And then pour in some wine. ' 

But the KvXi£ is a drinking-cup made of earthenware, and 
it is so called from being made circular (o?ro rov KvXiecrdai) by 
the potter's wheel ; from which also the kvXikeiov, the place 
in which the cups are stored up, gets its- name, even when the 
cups put away in it are made of silver. There is also the 
verb KukLKtjyop&a, derived from the same source, when any one 
makes an harangue over his cups. But the Athenians also 
call a medicine chest kuXikI^, because it is made round in a 
turning-lathe. And the /cvAtKes, both at Argos and at Athens, 
were in great repute ; ^nd Pindar mentions the Attic kuXikes' 
in the following hues — 

Thrasybulus, now I send 

This pair of pleasantly-meant odes 

As an after-supper entertainment for you. 

May it,' I pray, be pleasing 

To all the guests, and may it be a spur 

To draw on cups of wine. 

And richly-fill'd Athenian KiXiKes. 

61. But the Argive Kvh.Ke'; appear to have been of a 
different shape from the Athenian ones. At all events, they 
tapered towards a point at the brims, as Simonides of 
Amorgos says — 

But this is taper-brimm'd {(po^ixftXas), 
that is to say, drawn up to a point towards the top ; such as 
those which are called a/xjSiKes. For they use the word ^o^os 
in this sense, as Homer does when speaking of Thersites — 

His head was sharp at top. 
And the word is equivalent to ^aofos, — it being perceived to 
be sharp (o^s) in the part where the eyes (to ^aiy) are. 

And very exquisitely wrought kvAikcs are made at Nau- 
cratis, the native place of our companion Athenseus. For 
some are in the form of phialse, not made in a lathe, but 
formed by hand, and having four handles, and being widened 
'considerably towards the bottom : (and there are a great 
many potters at Naucratis, from whom the gate nearest to 
the potteries (Kepa/jnimv) is called the Ceramic gate :) and 
they are dyed in such a manner as to appear like silver. The 

g; 62.] DMNKING-OUPS. 767 

Chian kAikcs also are Mghly extolled, which Hermippus 
mentions in his Soldiers — 

And B, Chian kiJai| hung on a peg aloft. 
But Glaucon, in his Dialects, says that the inhabitants of 
Cyprus call the cotyle culix. And Hipponax, in his Syno- 
nymes, -writes thus — " The aleisum, the poterium, the cupel- 
lum, the amphotis, the soyphus, the culix, the cothon, the 
cai-chesium, the phiale." And Achseus of Eretria, in his 
AlcmEeoD, instead of kvXikcs, has lengthened the word, and 
written /cvXt^tSes, in these lines — 

But it is best to bring, as soon as possible. 

Dark wine, and one large common bowl for all. 

And some kuAixw'Sss besides. 

And Alcaeus says — 

Let us at once sit down and drink our wine, 

Why do we wait for lights ? Our day is but 

A finger's span. Bring forth large goblets (KiKixmi) now 

Of various sorts. For the kind liberal son 

Of JoTB and Semele gave rosy wine, 

"Which bids us all forget our griefs and cares ; 

So pour it forth, and mix in due proportion. 

And in his tenth Ode he says— 

Drops of wine (hdrayes) fly from Teian culichnse, 
Eiiowing, by this expression, that the KijXt/ces of Teos were 
exceedingly beautiful. 

63. Pherecrates also says, in his Corianno — 
A. For I am coming almost boil'd away 

From the hot bath ; my throat is parch'd and dry ; 
Give me gome wine. I vow my mouth and all 
My iawB are sticky with the heat. 

B. Shall I 
Then take the Kvxlffiai, damsel, now ? 
A. By no means, 'tis bo small; and all my bile 
Has been stirr'd up since I did drink from it, 
STot long ago, som« inedicine. Take this cup 
Of mine, 'tis larger, and fill that for me. 

And that the women were in the habit of using large cups, 
Pherecrates himself expressly tells us in his Tyranny, where 
he says — 

And then they bade the potter to prepare 

Some goblets for the men, of broader shape, 

Having no walls, but only a foundation. 

And scarcely holding more than a mere shell. 

More like to tastingcupa; .but for themselves 


They order good deep KiiAiices, good-sized, 

Downright wine-carrying transports, wide and round, 

Of delicate substance, swelling in the middle. 

A crafty order ; for with prudent foresight 

They were providing how, without much notice, 

They might procure the largest quantity 

Of wine to drink themselves ; and then when we 

Reproach them that 'tis they who've drunk up everything. 

They heap abuse on ub, and swear that they. 

Poor injured dears, have only drunk one cup. 

Though their one 's larger than a thousand common cups. 

63. Then there are cymbia. These are a small hollow 
kind of cup, according to Simaristus. But Dorotheus says, 
"The oymbium is a kind of deep cup, upright, having no 
pedestal and no handles." But Ptolemy the father of Aris- 
tonicus calls them "curved goblets." And Nicander of 
Thyatira says that Theopompus, in his Mede, called a cup 
without handles oymbium. Philemon, in his Vision, says — . 

But when fair Rhode came and shook above you 
A cymbium full of mighty unmix'd wine. 

But Dionysius of Samos, in the sixth book of his treatise on 
the Cyclic Poets, thinks that the klo-o-v/Siov and the kv/j-Plov 
are the same. For he says that Ulysses, having filled a 
cymbium with unmixed wine, gave it to the Cyclops. But 
the cup mentioned in Homer, as having been given to him 
by Ulysses, is a good-sized cissybium; for if it had been 
a small cup, he, who was so enormous a monster, woxild not 
have been so quickly overcome by drunkenness, when he had 
only drunk it three times. And Demosthenes mentions the 
cymbium in his oration against Midias, saying that he was 
accompanied by rhyta and cymbia : and in his orations 
against Euergus and Mnesibulus. But Didymus the gram- 
marian says that is a cup of an oblong shape, and narrow in 
figure, very like the shape of a boat. And Anaxandrides, in 
his Clovras, says — 

Perhaps large cups (iror^pia) immoderately drain'd. 

And cymbia full of strong unmixed wine. 

Have how'd your heads, and check'd your usual spirit. 

And Alexis, in his Knight, says — 

A. Had then those cymbia the faces of damsels 
Carved on them in pure gold 1 

B. Indeed they had. 
A. Wretched am I, and wholly lost .... 

0. 64.] DRINKING-CUPS. 769 

64. But Eratosthenes, in his letter addressed to Ageton the 
Lacedcemonian, says, that the cymbium is a vessel of the 
shape of the cyathus, writing thus — " But these men marvel 
how a man who had not got a cyathus, but only a cymbium, 
had, besides that, also a phiale. Now it seems to me, that be 
had one for the use of men, but the other for the purpose of 
doing honour to the Gods. And at that time they never 
used the cyathus nor the cotyla. For they used to employ, in 
the sacrifices of the Gods, a crater, not made of silver nor 
inlaid with precious stones, but made of Goliad clay. And as 
often as they replenished this, pouring a libation to the Gods 
out of the phiale, they then poured out wine to all the com- 
pany in order, bailing out the newly-jnixed wine in a cym- 
bium, as they do now among us at the phiditia. And if 
ever they Wished to drink more, they also placed on the table 
beside them the cups called cotyli, which are the most 
beautiful of all cups, and the most convenient to drink out 
of. And these, too, were all made of the same earthenware." 
But when Ephippus says, in his Ephebi — 

Chseremon brings no culicea to supper, 

Nor did Euripides with cymbia iight, 
he does not mean the tragic poet, but some namesake of his, 
who was either very fond of wine, or who had an evil reputa- 
tion on some other account, as Antiochus of Alexandria says, 
in his treatise on the Poets, who are ridiculed by the comic 
writers of the Middle Comedy. For the circumstance of 
cymbia being introduced into entertainments, and being 
used to fight with in drunken quarrels, bears on each point. 
And Anaxandrides mentions him in his Nereids — 

Give him a choeua then of wine, messmate, 

And let him bring hia cymbium, and be 

A second Euripides to-day. 
And Ephippus, in his Similitudes, or Obeliaphori, says — 

But it were well to learn the plays of Bacchua, 

And all the verses which Demophoon 

Made upon Cotys ; and, at supper-time, 

To spout the eclogues of the wise Theorus. 

« » • « ♦ « 

And let Euripides, that banquet-hunter, 

Bring me his cymbia. 
And that the Kv/ifiri is the name of a boat too we are shown 
by Sophocles, who, in his Andromeda, says — • 

Come you on horseback hither, or in a tioat (Ki^ifiauri) 1 
ATH.— VOL. II. 3d "i^l^^Tn^s^' 


And ApoUodorus, in his PapWans, says there is a kind of 
drinting-cup called Kufi^a. 

65. Then there is the kiotcXXov. Now, is this the same as the 
aXacrov and the 8«ros, and dififerent from them only in name? 

Then riaing, all with goblets (icwireAA.ois) in their hands. 
The peers and leaders, of the Achaian bauds 
Hail'd their return. 

Or was their form different also i For this kind has not the 
character of the amphicupellum, as the depas and aleison have, 
but is only of a curved form. For the KOTeAAor is so called 
from its curved shape, as also is the a;n<^iKU7reX\or. Or is it 
so called as being in shape like a milk-pail {-n-iXXa), only con- 
tracted a little, so as to have an additional curve ? And the 
word d/ii^tKvn-eAAa is equivalent to d/j^iicvfna, being so called 
from its handles, because they are of a curved shape. For the 
poet calls this cup — 

Golden, two-handled. 
But Antimachus, in the fifth book of his Thebais, says — 
And heralds, going round among the chiefs. 
Gave each a golden cup {KiireWov) with labour wrought. 

And Sileniis says, the KiOTcXXa are a kind of cup resembling 
the (TKv<j}a, as Nicander the Colophonian says — 

The swineherd gave a goblet {KuireWov) fuU to each. 
And Eumolpus says that it is a kind of cup, so called from 
its being of a curved shape (iokjiov). But Simaristus says that 
this is a name given by the Cyprians to a cup with two 
handles, and by the Cretans to a kind of cup with two 
handles, and to another with four. And PhUetas says that 
the Syracusans give the name of KvireXKav to the fragments of 
barley-cakes and loaves which are left on the tables. 

There is also the Ku/i/3?;. Philemon, in his Attic Dialect, 
calls it " a species of icuXif." And Apollodorus, in his treatise 
on Etymologies, says, that the Paphians call a drinking-cup 

66. Then there is the KioOoiv, which is mentioned by Xeno- 
phon, in the first book of his Cyropsedia.. But Critias, in his 
Constitution of the Lacedsemonians, writes as follows — " And 
other small things besides which belong to human life ; such , 
as the Lacedsemonian shoes, which are the best, and. the 
Lacedaemonian garments, whick are the most pleasant to 
wear, and the most useful. There is also the LacedEemonian 

C. 66.] DRINKING-CUPS. 771 

K<i$av, ■Winch is a kind of drinking-cup most convenient 
when one is on an expedition, and the most easily carried in 
a knapsack. And the reason why it is so peculiarly well- 
suited to a soldier is, because a soldier often is forced to drink 
water which is not very clean ; and, in the first place, this cup 
is not one in which it can be very easily seen what one is 
drinking; and, secondly, as its brim is rather curved in- 
wards, it is likely to retain what is not quite clean in it." 
And Polemo, in his work addressed to Adeeus and Antigonus, 
says that the Lacedaemonians used to use vessels made of 
earthenware; and proceeds to say further — "And this was 
a very common practice among the ancients, such as is now 
adopted in some of the Greek tribes. At Argos, for instance, 
in the public banquets, and in Lacedsemon, they drink out of 
cups made of earthenware at the festivals, and in the feasts 
in honour of victory, and at the marriag'e-feasts of their 
maidens. But at other banquets and at their Phiditia ' they 
use small casks." And Archilochus also mentions the cothon 
as a kind of cup, in his Elegies, where he says — 

But come now, with your cothon in your hand, 

Move o'er the benches of the speedy ship. 
And lift the covers from the hollow casks, 

And drain the rosy wine down to the dregs ; 
For while we're keeping such a guard as this, 
We shan't be able to forego our wine ; 
as if the kvXi$ were here called KtiOav. Aristophanes, in his 
Knights, says — 

They leapt into th' horse-transports gallantly, 
Bnying cothones ; but some bought instead 
. Garlic and onions. 

And Heniochus, in his Gorgons, says — 

Let a man give me wine to drink at once. 
Taking that capital servant of the throat, 
The ample cothon, — fire-wrought, and round, 
Broad-ear'd, wide-mouth'd. 
And Theopompiis, in his Female Soldiers, says — • 
Shall I, then, drink from out a wiyneck'd cothon. 
Breaking my own neck in the hard attempt I 

' Thia was the name given to the Spartan syssitia ; apparently de- 
rived from <l>eiSoiuu (to spare), but probably being rather a corruption pf 
<pi\lTta (love feasts), a term answering to the Cretan iToipeTa, from which 
they were said to be borrowed. Anciently they were called drSpeSa, as 
in Crete,— .Ftcie Smith, Diet. Ant. v. Syssitia. 



And Alexis, in his Spinners, says — 

And then he hurl'd a four-pint cothon at me. 
An ancient piece of plate, an heirloom too. 

And it is from this cup that they call those who drink a great 
deal of unmixed wine {oKparov) oKpaTOKuiOuivei, as Hyperides 
does in his oration against Demosthenes. But Callixenus, in 
the fourth hook of his History of Alexandria, giving an account 
of the procession of Ptolemy Pljiladelphus, and giving a cata- 
logue of a number of drinking-cups, adds these words : " And 
two cothons, each holding two measures of wine." 

67. But with respect to drinking, (which from the name 
of this kind of cup is sometimes called in the verb KcaOwvi- 
Co/iai, and in the substantive Kb>6o>vuTjx6^,) that occasional 
drinking is good for the health is stated by Mnesitheus the 
Athenian physician, in his letter on the subject of Drinking 
{KOidoivuT/jLos), where he speaks as follows : " It happens that 
those who drink a great quantity of unmixed wine at ban- 
quets often receive great injury from so doing, both in their 
bodies and minds ; but still occasional hard drinking (Kwdm'i- 
iea-Stu) for some days appears to me to produce a certain 
purging of the body and a certain relaxation of the mind. 
For there are some little roughnesses on the surface, arising 
from daily banquets ; now for getting rid of these there is no 
easier channel than the wine. But of all modes of purging, 
that which is caused by hard drinking is the most advan- 
tageous ; for then the body is as it were washed out by the 
wine ; for the wine is both liquid and heating : but the wine 
which we secrete is harsh ; accordingly, fullers use it as a 
cleanser when they are cleaning garments. But when you 
axe drinking hard, you should guard against three things, — 
against drinking bad wine, against drinking unmixed wine, 
and against eating sweetmeats while you are drinking. And 
when you hjive had enough, then do not go to sleep, untU 
you have had a vomit, moderate or copious as the case may 
be; and when you have vomited, then go to sleep after 
ha,ving taken a slight bath. And if you are not able to empty 
yourself sufficiently, then you must take a more copious bath, 
and lie down in the bath in exceedingly warm water." But 
Polemo, in the fifth book of his treatise addressed to Auti- 
gonus and Adseus, says— "Bacchus being full grown, sitting 

C- 70.] DRINKING-CUPS. 773 

on a rock, and on his left hand a satyr, bald, holding; in his 
right hand a cothon of striped colours, with one handle." 

68. There is also the labronia. This is a species of Peraian 
drinking-cup, so named from the eagerness (Xa/Spdnjs) with 
■which people drink : and its shape is wide, and its size large, 
and it has large handles. Menandei-, in his Fisherman, says — 

We are abundantly well off at this time 
For golden cylinders ; and all those robes 
From Persia, all those quaintly carved works, 
Are now within, and richly-chased goblets, 
Figures and faces variously carved, 
Tragelaphi and labronia. 

And in his Philadelphi he says — 

And now the drinking of healths began, and now 
LabroniiE, iolaid with precious stones, 
Were set upon the board ; and slaves stood round 
With Persian fly-flappers. 

And Hipparchus, in his Thais, says — 
But this labronius is an omen now. 
O Hercules ! it is a cup which weighs 
Of standard gold more than two hundred pieces. 
Just think, my friend, of this superb labronius. 

And Diphilus, in his Pithraustes, giving a catalogue of other 
kinds of cups, says — 

A. The tragelaphus, and likewise the pristis. 
The batiace, and labronius too. 

B. These seem to me to be the names of slaves. 
A. By no means; they are all the names of cups; 

And this lambronius is worth twenty pieces. 

And Didymus says that it resembles the bombylium and the 

69. There is also the lacaena. And this is a kind of cup 
so called either from the potter, as the Attic vessels usually 
are, or from the form which is usual in that district, on the 
same principle as the thericlean cups derive their name. 
-Aristophanes, in his Daitaleis, says — 

He gladly shared the Sybaritic feasts. 

And drank the Chian wine from out the cups 

Called the lacaenae, with a cheerful look. 

70. Then there is the lepaste. Some mark this word 
Xen-aarri with an acute accent on the last syllable, like KoXif ; 
but some mark the penultima with an acute, as ixeydkr}. And 
this kind of cup derived its name from those who spend a 


great deal of money on tlieir drinking and intemperance, 
whom men call Xa^vxrat. Aristophanes, in his Peace, says — 

What -will you do, then, -when you've drunk 
One single lepaste full of new wine ? 

And it is from this word Xeiracrn} that the verb Xaimo comes, 
which means to swaUow aU at once, having a meaning just- 
opposite to the bombylinm; for the same author says, some- 
where or other, — 

You've drunk up all my blood, king, my master ! 
which is as much as to say, you have utterly drained me. 
And in his Gerytades he says — 

But there was then a festival ; a slave 
Went round, and brought us all a lepaste, 
And pour'd in wine dark as the deep-blue sea ; 

but the poet means here to indicate the depth of the cup. 
And Antiphanes, in his ^sculapius, says — 

He took an agfed woman, who had been 

A long time ill, sick of a ling'ring fever, 

And bruising some small root, and putting it 

Into a noble-sized lepaste there, 

He made her drink it all, to cure her sickness. 

PhilyUius, in his Auge, says — 

* For she was always in the company 

Of young men, who did nothing else but drink ; 

And with a lot of aged women too, 

Who always do delight in good-sized cups. 
And Theopompus says in his Pamphila — 

A sponge, a dish, a feather; and, besides, 

A stout lepaste, which, when full, they drain 

To the Good Deity, raising loud his praises, 

As chirps a grasshopper upon a tree. 

And in his Mede he says — 

Callimachus, 'tis stated, once did charm 
The Grecian heroes by some promised gain. 
When he was seeking for their aid and friendship. 
The only thing he fail'd in was th' attempt 
To gain the poor, thin-bodied Khadamanthus 
Lysander with a cothon, ere he gave him 
A full lepaste. 

But Amerias says that the ladle with which the wine is poured 
into the cups is called lepaste; but Aristophanes and Apollo-' 
dorus say that it is a sort of cup of the class xuXtf. Phere- 
crates, in his CrapataUi, says — 


If there was one of the spectators thirsty, 
He would a full lepaste seiBe, and drain 
The whole contents. 

But Nicander the Colophonian says that "the Dolopians give 
the name of XcTracm) to the KvXt^; but Lyoophron, in the 
ninth book of his treatise on Comedy, quoting this passage of 
Pherecrates, himself also asserts the lepaste to be a kind of 
Kvki$; but Mosehus, in his Interpretation of Rhodian Words, 
says that it is an earthenware vessel resembling those which 
are called ptomatides, but flatter and wider: but Artemi- 
dorus, the pupil of Aristophanes, says that it is some sort of 
drinking-cup. And Apollophanes, in his Ciretans, says— 

And the lepasta, fill'd with fragrant wine, 

Shall fill me with delight the' livelong day. 

And Theopompus says in his Pamphila — 

A stout lepaste, which, well-fiU'd with wine, 
They drain in honour of the Happy Deity, 
Eousing the village with their noise and clamour. 

But Nicander of Thyatira says it is a larger kind of kvXi^, 
quoting the expressions of Teleclides out of his Prytanes — 

To drink sweet wine from a sweet-smelling lepaste. 
And Hermippus, in his Fates, says — 

If anything should happen to me when 

I've drain'd this promising lepaste, then 

I give my whole possessions unto Bacchus. 

71. There is also the loibasium. This, too, is a kvXl^, as 
Clearchus and Nicander of Thyatira say; with which they 
pour libations of oil over the sacred offerings and victims. 

Spondeiim is the name given to the cup out of which they 
pour libations of wine. And he says that the spondea are 
also called loibides, by Antimachus of Colophon. 

Then we have the lesbium. This also is a kind of cup, as 
Hedylus proves in his Epigrams, where he says — 
Callistion, contending against men 

In drinking, ('tis a marvellous thing, but true,) 
When fasting, drank three whole choeis of wine ; 

And now her cup, fashion'd of purple glass, 
Adom'd with bands fragrant of luscious wine. 

She offers here to you, Paphian queen. 
Preserve this first, that'so your walls may bear 
The spoils of all the love excited so. 

There is also the luterium. Epigenes, in his Tomb, where 
he gives a catalogue, of cups of different kinds, says-:- 


Crateres, cadi, holcia, crunela — 
Are they cruneia 1 aye, and luteria. 
But why need I each separate article 
Enumerate 1 for you yourself shall see them. 

72. There is also the Lyciurges. The things which are so 
called are some kinds of phialse, which derive their name from 
Lycon who made them, just as the Cononii are the cups made 
by Conon. Now, Demosthenes, in his Oration for the Crown, 
mentions Lycon ; and he does so again, in his oration against 
Timotheus for an assault, where he says — "Two lyciurgeis 
phialse." And in his speech against Timotheus he also says 
— " He gives Phormion, with the money, also two lyciurgeis 
phialse to put away." And Didymus the grammarian says 
that these are cups made by Lycius. And this Lycius 
was a Boeotian by birth, of the town of Eleutherse, a 
son of Myron the sculptor, as Polemo relates in the first 
book of his treatise on the Acropolis of Athens; but the 
grammarian is ignorant that one could never find such a 
formation of a word as that derived from proper names, but 
only from cities or nations. For Aristophanes, in his Peac^ 
says — 

The vessel is a TfSaliovpyiis cantharus ; 
that is to say, made at Naxos. 

And Critias, in his Constitution of the Lacedsemonians, 
has the expressions, kXivtj MiX-rja-Lovfrp]?, and again, 8t^/)os Mt- 
Xr/cnovfrft^'s : and kXivi) 'Xiovpyrj's, and rpan-il^a 'V-qvixtepyq's- made 
at Miletus, or Chios, or Rhenea. And Herodotus, in his 
seventh book, speaks of "two spears, Au/coepyees." But perhaps 
we ought to read Au/ciocp-yees in Herodotus as we do in De- 
mosthenes, so as to understand bj"^ the word things made 
in Lycia. 

73. There is also the mele. This is a name given to some 
cups which are mentioned by Anaxippus in his Well, where 
he says — 

And you, Syriscus, now this mele take, 

And bring it to her tomb — do you understand % 

Then pour a due libation. 

There is also the metaniptrum. This is the kind of cup 
which is offered after dinner, when men have washed their 
hands. Antiphanes, in his Lamp, says — 
The metaniptrum of the Fortunate God ; 
Feasting, libations, and applause . . . 

C. 75.] DRINKINO-CUPS. 777 

And Diphilus, in his Sappho, says — 

Archiloohiis, receive this metaniptris, 
The brimming cup of Jupiter the Saviour. 

But some people say that this is rather the name of the 
draught itself which was given to the guests after they had 
■washed their hands ; as, for instance, Seleucus says in his 
Dialects. But Callias, in his Cycloi)s, says — 

Receive this metaniptris of Hygeia. 
And Philet«rus, in his .^Esculapius, says — 

He raised aloft a mighty metaniptris, 
Brimful! of wine, in equal portions mix'd, 
Repeating all the time Hygeia's name. 

And Philoxenus the Dithyrambic poet, in his ode entitled 
the Sujjper, pledging some one after they have washed their 
hands, says — 

Do you, my friend, receive 

This metaniptris full of wine. 
The sweetly dewy gift of Bacchus. 

Bromius gives this placid joy. 
To lead all men to happiness. 

And Antiphanes, in his Torch, says — 

Our table shall now be this barley cake, 

And then this metaniptrum of Good Fortune . . . . • 

Nicostratus, in his Woman returning Love, say^r- 
Pour over him the metaniptrum of health. 

74. Then there is the mastus. Apollodorus the Cyrenseau, 
as Pamphilus says, states that this is a name given to drink- 
ing-cups by the Paphians. 

There are also the mathalides. Blsesus, in his Saturn, says — 

Pour out for us now seven mathalides 
Full of sweet wine. 

And Pamphilus says, " Perhaps this is a kind of cup, or is it 
only a measure like the cyathus ?" But Diodorus calls it a 
cup of the kvXj4 class. 

75. There is also the manes, which is a species of cup. 
Nicon, in his Harp-player, says — 

And some seasonably then exclaim'd. 
My fellow-countryman, I drink to you ; 
And in his hand he held an earthenware manes, 
Of ample size, well able to contain 
Five cotylse of wine ; and I received it. 
And both Didymus and Pamijhilus have quoted these iambics. 


But that is also called manes wliicli stands > upon the cotta- 
bus, on which they throw the drops of wine in that game, 
which Sophocles, in his Salmoneus, called the brazen head, 

This is a contest, and a noise of kisses ; 

I give a prize to him who gains the victoiy 

In elegantly throwing the cottabus, 

And striking with just aim the brazen head. 

And Antiphanes, in his Birthday of Venus, says — 

A. I then will show yon how : whoever throws 
The cottabus direct against the scale (rxdany^), 

So as to make it fall 

B. What scale 1 Do you 
Mean this small dish which here is placed above 3 
A . That is the scale — he is the conqueror. 
jS. How shall a man know this? 

A. Why, if he throw 
So as to reach it barely, it will fall 
TJpon the manes,' and there'll be great noise. 
S. Does manes, then, watch o'er the cottabus. 
As if he were a slave 1 
And Hermippus says in his Fates — 

You'll see, says he, a cottabus rod, 
Wallowing round among the chaff; 
But the manes hears no drops, — 
And you the wretched scale may see 
Lying by the garden gate. 
And thrown away among the rubbish. 

76. There is the Nestoris also. Now conceruing the shape 
of the cup of Nestor, the poet speaks thus — 

Next her white hand a spacious goblet brings, 
A goblet sacred to the Pyliau kings 
From eldest times ; the massy, sculptured vase. 
Glittering with golden studs, four handles grace, 
And curling vines, around each handle roU'd, 
Support two turtle-doves emboss'd in gold. 
On two firm bases stood the mighty bowl, 
Lest the topweight should make it loosely roll : 
A massy weight, yet heaved with ease by him. 
Though all too great for men of lesser limb. 

Now with reference to this passage a question is raised, 
what is the meaning of " glittering with golden studs :" — and 
again, what is meant by " the massy, sculptured vase four 
handles grace." For Asclepiades the Myrlean, in his treatise 
on the Nestoris, says that the other cups have two handles. 
» The manes was a small brazen figure. 

C. 77.] DEINKING-CUPS. 779 

And again, how could any one give a representation of tm1;le- 
doves feeding around eaab of the handles 1 How also can he 
say, " On two firm bases stood the mighty bowl !" And this 
also is a very peculiar statement that he makes, that he could 
heave it with ease, " though all too great for men of lesser 
hmb." Now Asclepiades proposes all these difficulties, and 
especially raises the question about the studs, as to how we 
are to understand that they were fastened on. Now some 
say that golden studs must be fastened on a silver goblet 
from the outside, on the priQciples of embossing, as is men- 
tioned in the case of the sceptre of Achilles — 

He spoke, — and, furious, hurl'd against the ground 
His sceptre, starr'd with golden studs around ; 

for it is plain here that the studs were let into the sceptre, 
as clubs are strengthened with iron nails. He also says of 
the sword of Agamemnon — 

A radiant haldric, o'er his shoulder tied, 
Sustain'd the sword that glitter'd at his side : 
Gold were the studs — a silver sheath encased 
The shining blade. 

But ApeUes the engraver, he says, showed us on some articles 
of Corinthian workmanship the way in which studs were put 
on. For there was a small projection raised up by the chisel, 
to form, as it were, the heads of the nails. And these studs are 
said by the poet to be fixed in, not because they are on the 
outside and are fixed by nails, but because they resemble naUs 
driven through, and project a little on the outside, being 
above the rest of the surfece. 

77. And with respect to the handles, they tell us that this 
cup had indeed two handles above, like other cups ; but that 
it had also two more on the middle of its convex surface, one 
on each side, of small size, resembhng the Corinthian water- 
ewers. But ApeUes explained the system of the four handles 
very artistically in the following manner. He said, that from 
one root, as it were, which is attached to the bottom of the 
cup, there are diverging lines extending along each handle, at 
no great distance from each other : and these reach up to the 
brim of the cup, and even rise a httle above it, and are at 
the greatest distance from each other at the point where they 
are furthest from the vessel itself ; but at the lower extremity, 
where they join the rim, they are again united. And in this 


■way there are four handles ; but this kind of ornament is not 
seen in every cup, but only on some, and especially on those 
■which are called seleucides. But -with respect to the question 
raised about the two bases, how it can be said, " Ou two firm 
bases stood the mighty bowl," some people explain that line 
thus : — that some cups have one bottom, the natural one, 
being ■wrought at the same time as, and of one piece with, 
the whole cup ; as for instance, those which are called c3Tnbia, 
and the phialse, and others of the same shape as the phialse. 
But some have two bottoms; as for instance, the egg-shaped 
cups called ooscyphia, and those called cantharia, and the seleu- 
cides, and the carchesia, and others of this kind. For they say 
that one of these bottoms is wrought of the same piece as the 
entire cup, and the other is attached to it, being sharp at the 
upper part, and broader towards the lower end, as a support 
for the cup; and this 'cup of Nestor's, they say, was of this 
fashion. But the poftt may have represented this cup as 
having two bottoms; the one, that is to say, bearing the 
■whole weight of the cup, and having an elevation propor- 
tionate to the height, in accordance^ with its greater cir- 
cumference; and the other bottom might be smaller in 
circumference, so as to be contained within the circum- 
ference of the larger circle, ■where the natural bottom of the 
cup becomes shaiper ; so that the whole cup should be sup- 
ported on two bases. 

But Dionysius the Thracian is said to have made the 
cup called Nestor's, at Rhodes, all his pupils contributing 
silver for the ■work ; of -which Promethidas of Heraclea, ex- 
plaining the way in -which it was made on the system of 
Dionysius, says that it is a cup having its handles made side 
by side, as the ships with two prows have their prows made ; 
and that turtle-doves are represented sitting on the handles ; 
and that two small sticks, as it were, are placed under 
the cup as a support to it, running transversely across in a 
longitudinal direction, and that tliese are the two bottoms 
meant by Homer. And we may to this day see a cup of that 
fashion at Capua, a city of Campania, consecrated to Diana ; 
and the Capuans assert that that is the identical cup which 
belonged to Nestor. And it is a silver cup, having on it the 
lines of Homer engraved in golden characters. 

78. " But I," said the Myrlean, " have this to say about 

C- 79.] DMNKING-CUPS. 781 

the cup: — the ancients, -who first brought men over to a 
more civilized system of life, believing that the -world was 
spherical, and taking their ideas of form from the visible fonns 
of the sun and moon which they beheld, and adapting these 
figures to their own use in the daily concerns of life, thought 
it right to make all their vessels and other articles of furni- 
ture resemble, in shape at least, the heaven which surrounds 
everything : on which accoimt they made tables round ; and 
so also they made the tripods which they dedicated to the 
Gods, and they also made their cakes round and marked with 
stars, which they also call moons. And this is the origin 
of their giving bread the name of afn-os, because of aU figures 
the circle is the one which is the most complete (dmJpTiaTai), 
and it is a perfect figure. And accordingly they made a 
drinking-cup, being that which receives moist nourishment, 
circular, in imitation of the shape of the world. But the cup 
of Nestor has something peculiar about it, for it has stars 
on it, which the poet compares to studs, because the stars are 
as round as the studs, and are, as it were, fixed in the heaven ; 
as also Ai-atus says of them — 

There do they shine in heaven, — ornaments 
Pix'd there for ever as the night comes round. 

But the poet has expressed this very beatitifully, attaching 
the golden studs to the main body of the silver cup, and so 
indicating the nature of the stars and of the heaven by the 
colour of the ornaments. For the heaven is like silver, and 
the stars resemble gold from their fiery colour. 

79. " So after the poet had represented the cup of Nestor as 
studded with stars, he then proceeds on to the most brilliant 
of the fixed stars, by contemplating which men form their con- 
jectures of what is to happen to them in their lives. I mean 
the Pleiades. For when he says 8vo 8e ireXaaSes were placed 
in gold around each handle, he does not mean the birds 
called TreXetoScs, that is to say, turtle-doves ; and those who 
think that he does use -ireXeuiSes here as synonymous with 
■jrepurrepal are wrong. For Aristotle says expressly that the 
TreXeiaj; is one bird, and the ireptxrrepd, another. But the poet 
calls that constellation weXetoSes which at present we call 
wXeuiSes ; by the rising of which men regulate their sowing 
and their reaping, and the beginning of their raising their 
crops, and their collection of them ; as Hesiod says : — 


When the seven daughters of the Libyan king 

Rise in the heavens, then begin to mow; 

And -when they hid-e their heads, then plough the ground. 

And Aratus says — 

Their size is smsill, their light but moderate. 
Yet are they famous over all the world ; 
At early dawn and late at eve they roll, 
Jove regulating all their tranquil motions ; 
He has ordain'd them to give signs to men, 
When winter, and when summer too begins, — 
What is the time for ploughing, what for sowing. 

And accordingly it is with great appropriateness that the poet 
has represented the Pleiades, who indicate the time of the 
generation and approach to perfection of the fruits of the 
earth, as forming parts of the ornaments of the cup of that 
wise prince Nestor. For this vessel was intended to contain 
any kind of food, whether solid or liquid ; on which account 
he also says that the turtle-doves bring anibrosia to Jupiter : — . 

No bird of air, nor dove of trembling wing. 

That bears ambrosia to th' ethereal king. 

But shuns these rooks. 

For we must not think here that it is really the birds called 
turtle-doves which bring ambrosia to Jupiter, which is the 
opinion of many; for that were inconsistent with the ma- 
jesty of Jupiter j but the daughters of Atlas, turned into 
the constellation of Pleiades or doves. For it is natural 
enough that they who indicate the appropriate seasons to the 
human race should also bring ambrosia to Jupiter, on which 
account also he distinguishes between them and other birds, 
No bird of air, nor dove of trembling wing ; 
and that he considers the Pleiades as the most famous of aU 
fixed stars is plain, from his having placed them in the first 
rank when giving a list of other constellations : — 

There earth, there heaven, there ocean he design'd, — 
Th' unwearied sun, the moon completely round, — 
The starry lights, that heaven's high convex crown'd, — 
The Pleiads, Hyiids, with the Northern Team, 
And great Orion's more refulgent beam ; 
To which, around the axle of the sky, 
The Bear, revolving, points his golden eye ; 
Still shines exalted on th' ethereal plain. 
Nor bathes his blazing forehead in the main, — 
The Bear, whom trusting rustics call the Wain. 

C. 80.] THE PLEIADES.' 78S 

" But people in general have been deceived by fancying the 
■TreXciaSes here spoken of to be birds, first of all from tho 
poetical form of the word, because of the insertion of the 
letter e ; and secondly, because they have taken the word 
rprjpm/^'s, 'trembling,' as an epithet only of doves; since, 
owing to its weakness, that is a very cautious bird ; and when 
he calls it Tp-qpw, this word is derived from rpiw, and rpeco 
is the same as euXajSeo/uai, to be cautious. But still there is 
a good deal of reason in attributing the same characteristic 
also to the Pleiades : for the fable is, that they are always 
fleeing from Orion, since their mother Pleione is constantly 
pursued by Orion. 

80. "And the variation of the name, so that the Pleiades 
are called both Ylekeuu and HeXetaSe?, occurs in many poets. 
First of all, Myro the Byzantian admirably caught the feel- 
ing of the Homeric poems, saying in her poem entitled 
Memory, that the Pleiades convey ambrosia to Jupiter. But 
Crates the critic, endeavoiu-ing to appropriate to himself the 
credit due to her, produces that assertion as his own. Simon- 
ides also has called the Pleiades TreXetoSes, in the following 
lines : — 

And may great Mercury, whose protecting pow'r 

Watches o'er contests, Maia's mighty son, 

Grant you success. But Atlas was the sire 

Of seven dark-hair'd daughters, beautiful. 

Surpassing all the maidens upon earth, 

And now in heaven they're call'd Peleiades. 

Here he distinctly calls the Pleiades neXtJoSc?, for they it 
was who were the daughters of Atlas ; as Pindar says — 
And it is natural 
That great Oarion should advance 
Not far from the seven Pleiades, at the tail (apias). 

For, in the arrangement of the ' stars, Orion is not far from 
the Pleiades ; from which circumstance has arisen the fable 
about them, that they, with their mother Pleione,' are always 
fleeing from Orion. But when he calls the Pleiades ^lat here, 
he means ovpuu, only he has left out the v, because the 
Pleiades are close to the tail of the Bull. And .iEsohylus has 
spoken still more plainly, playing on their name on account 
of the resemblance of its sound, where he says — 

The seven celebrated daughter of 

The mighty Atlas, much bewail'd with tears 


Their father's heaven-supporting toil ; where they 
Now take the form of night-appearing visions. 
The wingless Peleiades. 

For he calls them here wingless on account of the similarity 
of the sound of their name to that of the birds TreXetaScs. 
And Myro herself also speaks in the same manner — 

The mighty Jove was nourish'd long in Crete, 

Nor yet had any of the heav'nly beings 

E'er recognised their king ; meanwhile he grew 

In all his limbs ; and him the trembling doves 

Cherish'd, while hidden in the holy cave, ' 

Bringing him, from the distant streams of ocean, 

Divine ambrosia : and a mighty eagle, 

Incessant drawing with his curved beak 

Nectar from out the rock, triumphant brought 

The son of Saturn's necessary drink. 

Him, when the Grod of mighty voice had cast 

His father Saturn from his unjust throne. 

He made immortal, and in heaven placed. 

And so, too, did he give the trembling doves {iTeXiiiffLv) 

Deserved honour ; they who are to men 

Winter's and summer's surest harbingers. 

And Simmias, in his Gorgo, says — 

The swiftest ministers of air came near, 
The quivering peleiades. 

And Posidippus, in his Asopia, says — 

Nor do the evening cool irfAetoi set. 
But Lamprocles the Dithyrambic poet has also expressly and 
poetically said that the word weXciaSes is in every sense 
synonymous with Tripia-repal, in the following lines — 

And now you have your home in. heaven. 

Showing your title with the winged doves. 

And the author of the poem called Astronomy, which is attri- 
buted to Hesiod, always caUs the Pleiades HekeuiSes, saying — 

Which mortals call Peleiades. 
And in another place he says — 

And now the Peleiades of winter set. 
And in another passage we find — 

Then the Peleiades do hide their heads ; 
so that there is nothing at all improbable in the idea of 
Homer having lengthened the name IlXetaSes by poetic 
licence into UekeiaSe?. 

81. "Since, then, it is demonstrated that it is the Pleiades 


who were embossed on the goblet, we must understand that 
two were affixed to each handle, whether we choose to fancy 
that the damsels were represented under the form of birds or 
under human form; — at all events they were studded with 
stars : and as for the expression, " Around each there were 
golden peleiades," we ai'e not to understand that as meaning 
around each separate one; for that would ijiake eight in 
number : but as each of the handles was divided into two 
sections, and as these again were united towards the bottom, 
the poet has used the word eKaaro^, speaking as if there were 
four sections of handles; but if he had said iKorepov, that 
would have applied to the fact of their again becoming united 
at the highest point which they respectively reach. And 
accordingly, when he says — 

And curling vines, around each handle roU'd, 
Bear two Peleiades emboss'd in gold ; 
On two firm bases stood the mighty bowl ; 

we are by that to understand one Peleias to each section of 
the handles. And he has called them Soids, as being united to 
one another and grown together as it were. For the word 
Soioi, Soiat, signifies simply the number two, as in the 
passage — 

Two tripods (5oio4f Se rphoSas), and ten golden talents ; 

and again — 

Two attendants (Soiol Sepdirorres): 

and it also at times intimates a natural connexion subsisting 

between the two things spoken of, as well as that they are 

two in number ; as in these lines : — 

There grew two (Soiol) olives, closest of the grove. 
With roots entwined and branches interwove, 
Alike their leaves, but not alike they smiled 
With sister fruits, — one fertile, one was wild : — 

and accordingly this calculation will give altogether four 
Peleiades upon the handles. 

82. " And, then, when he adds this — 

And curling vines, around each handle roU'd, 

Bear two Peleiades emboss'd in gold ; 

On two firm bases stood the mighty bowl ; 

we are to tm.derstand not two actual separate bases, nor 
indeed ought we to read vtroTrvd/jLevfi as two words, like Dio- 
nysius the Thracian, but we ought to read it as one word, 

ATH. — VOL. II. 3 E 


woTTO^Evcs, m order to understand it with reference to the 
Peleiades, that there were four Peleiades on the handles, and 
two more wottu^/ao'cs, which is equivalent to vtto tw irvOfiiifi, 
that is to say, under the pedestal, as if the word were vTrowO- 
/neciot. So that the goblet is supported by two Peleiades 
» which lie under the bottom, and in that way there are alto- 
gether six Pleiades in all, since that is the number which are 
seen, though they are said to be seven in number, asAratus 

Tkey are Indeed declared by mortal man 
To he in number seven ; jet no more 
Than six; have e'er been seen by mortal eyes. 
Not that a star can e'er have disappear'd 
' Unnoticed from the pure expanse of heaven 
Since -we have heard of its existence ; but 
The number has been stated carelessly. 
And therefore they are usually call'd seven. 

Accordingly, what is seen in the stars the poet has very suit- 
ably described among the ornaments made on the occasion. 
And many fancy that the poet is here referring to Jupiter, 
when he says — 

No bird of air, nor dove of trembling wing. 
That bears ambrosia to th' ethereal king, 
But shuns these locks. In vain she cuts the skies, 
They fearful meet, and crush her as she flies. 

Meaning in reahty, that one of the Pleiades was destroyed 
by the sharpness of the rocks and their smooth edgCj find 
that another i? substituted in her place by Jupiter for the 
sake of keeping the number undiminished. Expressing by 
the enigmatical figures of speech common to poets, that, 
though there are only six Pleiades seen, stUl their real number 
is not actually diminished; but there are said to be seven in 
number, and also the names of the seven are distinctly given. 
83. But as for those people who contend that there is no 
appropriateness in embossing the Pleiades on this cup, as they 
are rather indicative of dry food, we must state that this 
kind of cup is calculated to receive both solid and liquid 
food ; for KVKem>^ is made in it; and this is a kind of potion, 
having mixed in it cheese and meal ; and the . poet tells us 

' KvKeiiy, a mixture, especially a refreshing draught, made of barley- 
meal, grated cheese, and Pramnian wine (II. xi. 62i), to which Circe 
jidds honey (Od x. 234), and when it is ready puts in magical drugs. — 
Vide Liddell & Scott, in voc. 


that both these ingredients are stirred up (laiKij/xo'o) together 
and so drunk : — 

The draught prescribed fjir Hecamede prepares, 
Arsinous' daughter, graced with golden hairs 
(Whom to his aged arms a royal slave 
Greece, as the prize of Nestor's wisdom, gave) : 
A table first with azure feet she placed, 
Whose ample orb a brazen charger graced ; 
Honey, new press'd, the sacred flour of wheat. 
And wholesome garlic crown'd the savoury treat. 
Next her white hand a spacious goblet brings, 
A goblet sacred to the Pylian kings ; 
Tem'per'd in this, the nymph of form divine 
Pours a large portion of the Pramnian wine ; 
With goats'-milk cheese a flavorous taste bestows, 
And last with flour the smiling surface strews. 
This for the wounded prince the dame prepares ; 
The cordial beverage reverend Nestor shares. 

84. And as for the lines — 

A massy weight, yet heav'd with ease by him. 
Though all too great for men of smaller limb ; 

■we are not to understand this as referring only to Machaon 
and Nestor, as some people think, who refer os to Machaon, 
taking it as if it were o, and say, 

'AAA' fix fjL^if fioydvy a/iroKiv^tuTKC rpcore^T^s, — 

thinking that "heaved with ease by him" is said of Machaon, 
as he was the person for whom the cup has been mixed, as he 
had been wounded; but we shall show hereafter that Machaon 
is never represented in Homer as wounded. But these men 
do not perceive, that when' Homer says oXAos, he is not 
speaking of Machaon and Nestor alone (for these two are 
drinking of the cup), for in that case he would have said 
erepos. For ercpos is the proper word for the other of two, 
as in this line — 

olffere S' &py'' enpov KevK^Pf eTepTjy Se fiiKaivav, — 

And bring two lambs, one male, with snow-white fleece, 
The other black, who shall the breed increase. 

Besides, Homer never uses os for the demonstrative pro- 
noun o ; but, on the contrary, he sometimes uses the demon- 
strative o for the relative os, as in the line — 

ivBa Be 'iUrv'pos eiTKev t KfpSiffTos •yevi-r' hvipSv,—^ 
There Sisyphus, who of all men that lived 
Was the most crafty, held his safe abode. 

78i> THE DEIPN0S0FHI8TS. [b. XI. 

" But still, in this line, tis is wanting, for the sentence, 
when complete, should run — 

fiXAos ^ev ris jxoyitav atroKtirfiffatTKe Tpajre^tjs 
nXfTov idvj N4ffrwp 5* 6 y4pci}v dfioyTjrl aeipef 

SO that the meaning would be, that there is no man who 
could lift the cup up from the table without an effort, but 
that Nestor raised it easily, without any labour or distress. For 
the cup is' described as having been large in size, and very- 
heavy in weight; which however Nestor, being very fond of 
drinking, was easily able to lift, from his constant practice. 

85. "But Sosibius, the solver of' questions, quoting the 
lines — 

iXXos fiev fioyitov diroKiviiffaffKe Tpairt^ris 
irKiiov 46v' NeffTap 5' b yepiav d/jLoyTirl &€ipeyf 

writes on this expression — 'Now, the poet has been often 
reproached for making that the rest of the men could only 
lift this cup by a great effort, but that Nestor alone could do 
so without any extraordinary exertion. For it appeared un- 
reasonable, that when Diomede and Ajax, and even Achilles 
too were present, Nestor should be represented as more vigorous 
than they, when he was so far advanced in years. But though 
these accusations are brought against him, we may release 
the poet from them by transposing the order. For in that 
hexameter — 

ir^fLov f6v, NeffTOjp 8* 6 yipav &}ioyT)j\ &iip9V, 

if we take yepu>v out of the middle, we shall unite that to 
the beginning of the preceding line, after oAAos [nev, and then 
we shall connect the words as before — 

2iAAos fiep ySpuv tioyeuy diroKtviiffaffKe rpair^fiis* 
TrAeibv i6v, o' 5e Neffrup dnoyijrl S^etpey. 

Now then, when the words are arranged in this way, Nestor 
only appears to be represented as the only one of the old 
men who could lift the cup without an extraordinary effort.' 
" These are the observations of that admirable solver of ■ 
difficulties, Sosibius. But Ptolemy Philadelphus the king 
jested upon him with some wit, on account of this and other 
much talked-of solutions. For as Sosibius received a royal 
stipend, Ptolemy, sending for his treasurers, desired them, 
when Sosibius came to demand his stipend, to tell him that 
he had received it already. And when, not long after, he did 
come and ask for his money, they said they had given it to 
him already, and said no more. But he, going to the king. 

c. 87.] DniNKiNG-cnP8. 789 

accused the treasurers. And Ptolemy sent for them, and 
ordered them to come with their books, in -which were the 
lists of those who received those stipends. And when they 
had arrived, the king took the books into his hands, and 
looking into them himself, also asserted that Sosibius had 
received his money ; making it out in this way : — These 
names were set down, — Soter, Sosigenes, Bion, Apollon, Dion ; 
and the king, looking on these names, said — My excellent 
solver of difficulties, if you take Su from Xumjp, and o-t from 
'Siuxnyevrji, and the fii-st syllable ^i from BtW, and the last 
syllable from 'A-TrdAAoji'os, you wiU find, on your own prin- 
ciples, that you have received your stipend. And you ai'e 
caught in this way, not owing to the actions of others, but by 
your own feathers, as the incomparable ^schylus* says, since 
you yourself are always occupied about solutions of diffi- 
culties which are foreign to the subject in hand." 

86. There is the holmus also. This, too, is a drinking-cup, 
made in the fashion of a horn. Menesthenes, in the fourth 
book of his Politics, writes thus — " A twisted albatanes and 
a golden holmus. But the holmus is a cup wrought after the 
fashion of a horn, about a cubit in height." 

87. There is also the oxybaphum. Now common usage 
gives this name to the cruet that holds the vinegar ; but it 
is also the name of a cup ; and it is mentioned by Cratinus, 
in his Putina, in this way : — 

How can a man now make him leave o£f this 
Excessive drinking? I can tell a way ; 
For I will break his jugs and measures all. 
And crush his casks as with a thunderbolt, 
And all his other vessels which serve to drink : 
Nor shall he have a single oxybaphum left, 
Fit to hold wine. 
But that the oxybaphum is a kind of small kvXl^, made of 
earthenware, Antiphanes proves plainly enough, in his 
Mystis, in the following words.^ There is a wine-bibbing old 
' This refers to a line of the Myiauidons of .^schylus, quoted by- 
Aristophanes — 

ToS* ovx ^' &Wuy dWa rols oaitSv irTepois 
and (perhaps) imitated by Waller — 

" That eagle's fate and mine are one. 
Who on the shaft that made him die. 
Espied a feather of his own. 

Wherewith he wont to soar so high." 



■woman praising a large cup, and disparaging the oxybaphum 
as small. So when some one says to her — 

Do you, then, drink ; 
she answers — 

There I will obey you. 

And, by the gods, the figure of the cup 

Is quite inviting, worthy of the fame 

Of this high festival ; for have we not — 

Have we not, and not long ago, I say. 

Drunk out of earthenware oxybapha I 

But may the gods, my son, give many blessings 

To him who made this cup — a noble cup, 

As to its beauty and its good capacity. 

And also in the Babyloiaians of Aristophanes we hear of the 
oxybaphum as a drinking-cup, when Bacchns speaks of the 
demagogues at Athens, saying that they demanded of hira 
two oxybapha when he was going away to trial. For we 
cannot think that they asked him for anything bnt cups. 
And the oxybaphum, which is .put before the people who 
play at the cottabus, into which they pour their drops of 
wine, can be nothing else but a flat cup. Eubulus also, in 
his Mylothris, mentions the oxybaphum as a cup — 

And besides, I measure out for drinking 
An oxybaphum all round ; and then he swore 
The wine was nothing but pure vinegar. 
And that the vinegar was wine, at least 
Superior to the other. 

88. There is. the oinisteria too. The young men, when 
they are going' to cut their hair, says Pamphilus, iiU a large 
cup with wine, and bring it to Hercules; and they call this 
cup an oinisteria. And when they have poured a libation, 
they give it to the assembled people to drink. 

There is the ollix also. Pamphilus, in his Attic Words, 
describes this as a wooden cup. 

89. There is also the panathenaicum. Posidonius the 
philosopher, in the thirty-sixth book of his History, mentions 
some cups called by this name, speaking thus — "There were 
also cups made of an onyx, and also of several precious 
stones joined together, holding about two cotylse. And very 
large cups, called panathenaica, some holding two choes, and 
some even larger." 

There is the proaron too. This was a wooden cup, into 

C. 91.] DRINKING-OUPS. 791 

which the Athenians used to pour mixed •nine. " In hollow 
proara," says Pamphilus. 

90. Then there is the pelica. CaUistratus, in. his Com- 
mentary on the Thracian Women of Cratinus, calls this a 
KvXii. But Crates, in the second book of his treatise on the 
Attic Dialect, writes thus : — " Choes, as we have already, said, 
were called pelicae. But the form of this vessel was at first 
like that of the panathenaica, when it was called pelica ; but 
afterwards it was made of the same shape as the cenochoe, 
such as those are which are put on the table at festivals, 
which they formerly used to caU olpte, using them for infus- 
ing the wine, as Ion the Chian, in his Sons of Eurytus, says — 
You make a noise, intempcrately drawing 
Superfluous wine from the large casks with olpse. 

But now a vessel of that sort, which has been consecrated-in 
some feshion or other, is placed on the table at festivals 
alone. And that which comes into every-day use has been 
altered in form, being now generally made like a ladle, and 
we call it choeus." But Clitarchus says that the Corinthians, 
and Byzantians, and Cyprians call an oil-cruet, which is 
usually called lecythus, olpa; and the Thessaliaus caU it 
prochous. But Seleucus says that the Boeotians call a K-iXti 
pelichna; but Euphronius, in his Commentaries, says that 
they give this name to a choeus. 

91. There is the peUa. This is a vessel resembling the 
scyphus, having a wider bottom, into which men used to 
milk the cattle. Homer says — 

Thick as beneath some shepherd's thatch'd abode, 

The pails {wiWai) high foaming with a milky flood. 

The buzzing flies, a persevering train, 

Incessant swarm, and chased, return again. 

But Hipponax calls this peUis; saying, — 

Drinking from pellides ; for there was not 

A enlix there, — the slave had fallen down. 

And broken it to pieces ; 
showing, I imagine, very plainly that the peUis was not a 
drinking-cup, but that on this occasion they used it as one, 
from want of a regular culix. And in another place he says — 

And they at diflerent times from out the pella 

Did drink; and then again Arete pledged them. 

But Phoenix the Colophonian, in his Iambics, interj)retfl this 
word as identical with the phialaj saying, — 


Pot Tbales, — lionestest of all the citizcnB, 
And, aa they say, by far the best of men 
Who at that time were living upon earth, — 
Took up a golden pellis. 

And in another part he says — 

And with one hand he pours from out the pellis. 
Weak as he was in all his limbs and fingers, 
A sharp libation of sour vinegar, 
Trembling, like age, by Boreas much shaken. 
But Clitarehus, in his Dialects, says that the Thessalians and 
^olians call the milk-pail pelleter ; but that it is a drinking- 
cup which they call pella.. But Philetas, in his Miscellanies, 
saj's that the Boeotians give the name of pelleter to a culix. 

92. There is also the pentaploa. Philochorus mentions 
ttis, in the second book of his treatise on Attic Affairs. But 
Aristodemus, in the third book of his Commentary on Pindar, 
says that on the third day of the Scira, games are cele- 
brated at Athens, in which the young men run races ; and 
that they run, holding in their hands a branch of the vine 
loaded with fruit, which is called osohus. And they run 
from the temple of Bacchus to the temple of Minerva Sciras ; 
and he who has gained the victory takes a cup of the species 
called pentaplous, and feasts with the rest of the runners. 
But the cup is called pentaplous, as containing five (xerre) 
ingredients ; inasmuch as it has in it wine, and honey, and 
cheese, and meal, and a httle oil. 

There is the petachnum. This is a cup of a flat shape, 
which is mentioned by Alexis, in his Dropidas ; and the pas- 
sage has been already cited. And Aristophanes also mentions 
it in his Dramas, where he says — 

And every one in-doors drinks out of petaehna. 

93. There is the plemochoe, too. This is an earthenware 
vessel, shaped like a top, not very steady ; and some people 
call it the cotyliscus, as Pamphilus tells us. But they use it 
at Eleusis on the last day of the Mysteries, which day they 
call Plemochoai, from the cups. And on this day they fill 
two plemochose, and place one looking towards the east, and 
the other looking towards the west, saying over them a 
mystic form of words; and the author of the Pirithous names 
them (whoever he was, whether Critifis the tyrant, or Euri- 
pides), saying,— 

That with well-omen'd words we now may pour 
These plemochose into the gulf below. 


There is a vessel, too, called the pristis ; and that this is a 
species of cup has been already stated in the discussion on 
tiie batiaoium. 

94. There is the prochytes, too. This is a kind of drinking- 
cup, as Simaristus says, in the fourth book of his Synonymes. 
But Ion the Chian, in his Elegies, says — 

But let the cupbearing maidens fill for us 

A crater with their silver prochytae ; 
and Philetas, in his Miscellanies, says it is a wooden vessel, 
from which the countrymen drink : and Alexander also men- 
tions it in his Tigon. And Xenophon, in the eighth book of 
his Cyropsedia, calls some kinds of culices, prochoides, writing 
thus (and it is of the Persians that he is speaking) : — " But 
it was a custom among them not to bring prochoides into 
their banquets, evidently because they think that not drinking 
too much is good both for the body and the mind. And even 
now the custom prevails that they do not bring them ; but 
they drink such a quantity of wine that, instead of carrying 
in their cups, they themselves are carried out, when they can 
no longer go out themselves in an upright attitude." 

There is also the Prusias ; and it has been already said that 
this is an upright kind of cup, and that it derived its name 
from Prusias king of Bithynia, who was a man very notorious 
for his luxury and effeminacy ; as is mentioned by Nicander 
the Chalcedonian, in the fourth book of his History of the 
Events of the Life of Prusias. 

95. There are also rheonta; for this was a name given to 
some cups : and Astydamas mentions them in his Mercury, 
speaking thus : — 

First of all were two silver craters large, 
And fifty phialse, and ten cjmbia, 
And twelve rheonta, two of which were gold, 
The others silver; — of the gold ones, one 
Was like a griffin, one like Pegasus. 

There is also the rhysis. This is called a golden phiala by 
Theodorus; and Cratinus, in his Laws, says — "Pouring a 
libation from a rhysis." 

96. There is also the Rhodias. Diphilus, in his Stormer of 
Walls (but Callimachus calls the play The Eunuch), speaks 
thus — 

And they intend to drink more plenteously 
Than rhodiaca or rhyta can supply. 


Dioxippus, too, mentions this cup, in his Miser; and so does 
Aristotle, in his treatise on Drunkenness; and so also does 
Lynceus the Samian, in his Letters. 

97. There is also the rhytum — pvrov. The v is short, and 
the word has an acute accent on the last syllable. Demos- 
thenes, in his speech against Midias, speaks of " rhyta, and 
cymbia, and phialse." But Diphilus, in his Eunuch, or The 
Soldier, (and this play is a new edition of his Stormer of 
Walls,) says — 

And they intend to drink more plenteously 

Than rhodiaca or rhyta can supply. 

And Epinicus, in his Supposititious Damsels, says — 

A. And of the large-sized rhyta three are here ; 
To-day one will ~be forced to drink more steadily, 
By the clepsydra. 

B. This, I think, will act^ 
Both #ays. 

A. Why, 'tis an elephant ! 

B. Yes, he 
Is bringing round his elephants. 

A. A rhytus. 
Holding two choes, such as e'en an elephant 
Could hardly drink ; but I have drunk it often. 

B. Yes, for you're very like an elephant. 
A . There is besides another kind of cup, 

Its name a trireme ; this, too, holds one choeua. 
And, speaking of the rhytum, he says — 

A. Bellerophon, on Pegasus's back, 

Fought and, subdued the fire-breathing Chimsera. 

B. 'Well, take this cup. 

But formerly a drinking-horn was also called a rhytum ; and 
it appears that this kind of vessel was first made by Ptolemy' 
Philadelphus the king, to be carried by the statues of Ar- 
sinoe : for in her right hand she bears a vessel of this kind, 
full of all the fruits of the season; by which the makers of it 
designed to show that this horn is richer than the horn of 
Amalthea. And it is mentioned by Theocles, in his Ithyphal- 
lics, thus — 

For all the journeymen to-day 
Hare sacrificed Soteria ; 

And in their company I've drunk this cup, 
And now I go to my dear king. 

But Dionysius of Sinope, in his Female Saviour, giving a list 
of some cups, has also mentioned the rhytus, as I have said 

0. 99.] DRINKING-CUPS. 795 

before ; but Hedylus, in his Epigramsi mentioning the rhytum 
made by Ctesibixis the engineer or machinist, speaks thus — 
Come hither, all ye drinkers of sheer wine, — 

Come, and within this shrine behold this rbjtus. 
The cup of fair Arainoe Zephyritis, 

The true Egyptian Besa, which pours forth 
Shrill sounds, what time its stream is open'd wide, — 

No sound of war ; but from its golden mouth 
It gires a signal for delight and feasting, 

Such as the Nile, the king of flowing rivers, 
Pours as its melody from its holy shrines, 

Dear to the priests of sacred mysteries. 
But honour this invention of Ctesibius, 

And come, O youths, to fair Arsinoe's temple. 

But Theophrastus, in his tre9,tise on Drunkenness, says 
that the cup called the rhytum is given to heroes alone. 
Dorotheus the Sidonian, says that the rhyta resemble horns, 
but are perforated at both ends, and men drink of them at 
the bottom as they send forth a gentle stream; and that 
it derives its name from the liquor flowing from them (airo 
T^s putreifls). 

98. There is the sannacra too. Crates, in the fifth book of 
his treatise on the Attic Dialect, says that it is a drinking- 
cup which bears this name, but it is a Persian cup. But 
Philemon, in his Widow, mentioning the batiacia, and jesting 
on the ridiculousness of the name, says — 

The sannacra, and hippotragelaphi. 
And batiacia, and sannacia. 

There is also the Seleuci ; and we have already stated that 
this cup derives its name from king Seleucus ; ApoUodorus- 
the Athenian having made the same statement. But Polemo, 
in the first chapter of his treatise addressed to Adseus, says 
these goblets are very like one another, the Seleucis, the 
Rhodias, and the Antigonis. 

Then, there is the scalhum. This is a small cup {kuXUuiv), 
with which the ^olians pour hbations, as Philetas tells us, in 
his Miscellanies. 

99. There is also the scyphus. Now some people form 
the genitive of this word o-kv^ios with a o- invariably j but they 
are mistaken : for sometimes a-Kv<l)os is masculine, like A.v;j(i'09, 
and then we form its genitive case without o- ; but when 
(rKv<fios is neuter, then we must decline with the o-, a-Kvtjjo's 
o-KvcfMyvs, like reixos reixous. But the Attic writers use the 


nominative case in both the masculine and neuter genders. 

And Hesiod, in the second book of his Melampodia, writes 

the word with a ir, a-Kvw<f>oi — 

To him came Mares, a swift messenger, 

Straight from his house ; he fill'd a silver cup {aK\nr<j>os), 

And brought it in his hand, and gave it to the king. 

And in another place he says — 

And then the prophet in his right hand took 
The chain that held the bull ; and on his back 
Iphiclus laid his hand : and following then. 
Holding a cnp {(Tkvtt^os) in one hand, in the other 
Raising a staff, brave Phylacus advanced) 
And, standing amid the servants, thus he spoke. 

And in the same manner Anaximander in his Heroology 
speaks, where he says, " But Amphitryon, when he had divided 
the booty among his allies, and having the cup (o-kw<^os) 
which he had selected for himself, ..." And in another 
place he says — " But Neptune gives his o-kutt^os to Teleboas 
his own son, and Teleboas to Pteselaus; and he when he received 
it sailed away." And in the same manner Anacreon has said — • 

But I, in my right hand holding 

A (TKiJir^os full of wine. 

Drank to the health of the white-crested Erxion. 

(And in this last line he uses the verb i^anvav instead of 
Trpohnvov. For properly speaking irpcnrLvui means to give to 
some one else to drink before yourself And so Ulysses, in 
Homer, — 

Gave to Arete first the well-fiU'd cup. 
And in the Iliad he says — 

' And first he fill'd a mighty cup of wine, 
Then pledg'd the hero, Peleus' son divine ; 

for they used, when they had filled their cups, to pledge one 
another with a friendly address.) Panyasis, in the third book 
of his Heraclea, says — 

This wine he ponr'd into an ample bowl, 

Badiant with gold, and then with frequent draughts 

He draiu'd the flowing cup. 

Euripides, in his Eui'ystheus, uses the word in the masculine 
gender — 

And a long cup l<ricu<t>os re juoutpo's). 
And so does Acheeus, in his Omphale — 

The goblet of the god invites me (rf 5t irKi/^ot fit toE fleoC imKiT). 

G. 99.] DRINKING-CUPS. 797 

And Simonides too, speaking of a cup with handles, says, 
ovaTocvra a-Kv(f>ov. But Ion, in his Omphale, says — 

There is no wine in the cup (ofi/ci ouk (yi ty riy trKvfft), 
forming a-KwfM, regularly from <tkwJ30's, as a neuter noun. And 
in the same way Epicharmus, in his Cyclops, says — 

Come, pour the wine into the cup (is ri aniipos}. 
And Alexis, in his Leucadia, says — 

And with his aged lips he drank 

A mighty cup Oit^yo (rKu<(>os) of fragrant wine. 

And Epigenes, in his Bacchea, says — 

I rejoiced when I received ri axitfios. 

And Phaedimus, in the first book of his Heraclea, says — 

A mighty cup (eiipi inciifMs) of well-grain'd timber framed. 
And fiU'd with honied wine. 

And also in Homer, Aristophanes the Byzantian writes — 

But having fiU'd a cup (irm!<()os), he gave it him. 
Having himself drunk from the same. 

But Aristarchus in this line writes <tkv<I>ov, not o-ku(^os. 

But Asclepiades the Myrlean, in his treatise on the Nestoris, 
says that none of those who lived in the city, and none of the 
men of moderate property, used the scyphus (™ (rKv<f>ti) and 
the cissybium ; but only the swine-herds, and shepherds, and 
men in the fields, as Eumaeus, for instance, 

Gave him the cap ((Tkui^os) from which he drank himself. 

Well fiU'd with wine. 

And Alcman says — 

And often on the highest mountain tops, 
When some most tuneful festival of song 
Is held in honour of the Gods, you hold 
A golden vessel, — a fine, ample cup {vKvipov), 
Such as the shepherds, pasturing their flocks 

On the high hiUs, delight in, 

have made cheese 

Most delicate and white to look upon. 

And .^schylus, in his Perrhsebians, says — 

Where are my many gifts and warlike spoils, — 
Where are my gold and silver cups {aKvijiuinaTa) 1 

And Stesichorus caUs the cup on the board of Pholus the 
Centaur <rKv<f)eun' ScTras, using a-KvfJKiov as synonymous to 
aiaxjioaSie. And he says, when speaking of Hercules — 

And taking a huge scyphus-shaped cup (aKJnr<pfioy Siiras), 
Holding three measures, to his lips he raised it. 


!PaU of rich ■wine, -which Pholus wisely mix'd 

And gave him ; and at one good draught he drank it. 

And Archippus, in his Amphitryon, has used the word in the 
neuter gender. 

100. But as for the word Xdywov, they say that that is the 
name of a measure among the Greeks, as ^o are the words 
p(oos and KorvX.rj, And they say that the Xdym/ov contains 
twelve Attic KorvXai. And at Patrse they say that there is a 
regular measure caUed ■^ Xdywov. But Nicostratus, in his 
Hecate, has used the word in the masculine gender, o Aaywos, 
where he says — 

A. And yet among the flagons into which 

We pour'd the wine out of the casks, now tell me 

What is the measure some of them contain (TtiiKiKot nvls) 1 

B. They hold three choes each. 
And again he says — 

Bring us the full flagon {rbv //.e&Tiv hAyvvov). 
And, in the play entitled The Couch, he says — 

And this most odious flagon's (Xayvvos ouros) full of vinegar. 
Diphilus, in his People Saved, says — 

I have an empty flagon, my good woman, 

And a full wallet. 
And Lynceus the Samian, in his letter to Diagoras, says, 
— " At the time that you sojourned in Samos, Diagoras, 
I know that you often came to banquets at my house, at 
which a flagon was placed by each man, and filled with wine, 
so as to allow every one to drink at his pleasure." And 
Aristotle, in his Constitution of the Thessalians, says that 
the word is used by the ThessaUans in the feminine gender, 
as ?; Xd.yvvo's. And Ehianus the epic poet, in his Epigrams, 

This flagon (3Sf Kiyvyos), Archinus, seems to hold 
One half of pitch from pines, one half of wine ; ^ 

And I have never met a leaner kid : 
And he who sent these dainties to us now, 

Hippocrates, has done a friendly deed, 
And well deserves to meet with praise from all men. 

But Diphilus, in his Brothers, has used the word in the neuter 
gender — 

conduct worthy of a househreaker 

Or felon, thus to take a flagon now 
Under one's arm, and so go round the inns ; 
And then to sell it, while, as at a picnic. 

C. 101.] DEINKING-CUPS. 799 

One single vintner doth remain behind, 
Defrauded by his wine-merchant. 

And the line in the Geryonis of Stesichonis — 

A measure of three flagons (imierpov i>s TpiSdyvyov), 
leaves it quite uncertain under what gender the word is to be 
classed as far as respects that line. But Eratosthenes says 
that the words Trerao-os and ora/ivos are also used as feminine 
nouns by some authors. 

101. But the name o-kv<^os is deriVed from a-Ka^l^, a little 
boat. And this likewise is a round vessel made of wood, in- 
tended to receive mUk, or whey ; as it is said in Homer — ■ 
Capacious chargers all around were laid, 
Full pails (trrai^fSEj), and vessels of the milking trade. 

Unless, indeed, o-kui^os is quasi cr/cu5os, because the Scythians 
were in the habit of drinking more than was decent. But Hie- 
ronymus the Ehodian, in his treatise on Drunkenness, says 
to get drunk is called <rKv6Ct,m ; for that 6 is a cognate letter 
to if>. But at subsequent times scyphi were made of earthen- 
ware and of silver, in imitation of the wooden ones. And 
the first makers of cups of this kind were the Boeotians, who 
obtained a high reputation for their manufacture ; because 
Hercules originally used these cups in his expeditions. On 
which account they are called Heraoleotici by some people. 
And they are different from other cups ; for they have on their 
handles what is called the chain of Hercules. And Bacchy- 
lides mentions the Boeotian scyphi in these words, (addressing 
his discourse to Castor and Pollux, and invoking their attend- 
ance at a banquet) — 

Here there are no mighty joints 

Of oxen slain, — no golden plate, 

No purple rich embroidery ; 

But there is a cheerful mind, 

And a sweetly-sounding Muse, 

And plenty of delicious wine. 

In cups of Theban workmanship ifioumlouriv iv (rniipounv). 

And next to the Boeotian scyphi, those which had the highest 
reputation were the Ehodian ones, of the workmanship of 
Damocrates. And the next to them were the Syraousan 
cups. But the o-Kuc^os is called by the Epirotes XvpToi;, as 
Seleuous reports; and by the Methymnseans it is called 
a-Kvdos, as Parmeno says, in his book on Dialects. And 


Dercyllidas the Lacedsemonian was nicknamed %kv6ois, as 
Ephorus relates in his eighteenth book, where he speaks as 
follows : — " The Lacedaemonians sent Dercyllidas into Asia 
in the place of Thymbron, having heard that the barbarians 
were in the habit of doing everything by deceit and trick ; on 
which account they sent Dercyllidas, thinking that he was 
the least likely of all men to be taken in ; for he was not 
at all of a Lacedsemonian and simple disposition, but exceed- 
ingly cunning and fierce ; on which account the Lacedse- 
mouians themselves used to call him 'Sikv6ov." 

102. There is the tabaitas also. Amyntas, in the first book 
of his treatise on the Stations of Asia, speaking of what 
is called aerial honey, writes as follows : — " They gather it 
with the leaves, and store it up, making it up in the same 
manner as the Syrian cakes of fruit, but some make it into 
balls ; and when they are about to use it for food, they break 
pieces off these cakes into wooden cups, which they call 
tabaitse, and soak them, and then strain them off and drink 
the liquor ; and the drink is very like diluted honey, but 
this is much the sweeter of the two." 

There is also the tragelaphus. And this is the name given 
to some cups, as Alexis mentions, in his Coniates — 

Cymbia, phialae, tragelaphi, culicea. 
And Eubulus, in his Man Glued on, says — 

But there are five phialaB, and two tragelaphi. 
And Menander, in his Fisherman, says — 

Tragelaphi, labronii. 

And Antiphanes, in his Chrysis, says — 

And for this rich and sordid bridegroom now, 
Who owns so many talents, slaves, and stewards, 
And pairs of horses, camels, coverlets, — 
.Such loads of silver plate, such phialae. 
Triremes, tragelaphi, carchesia, 
Milkpails of solid gold, vessels of all sorts; 
For all the gluttons and the epicures 
Call casks brimful of wine mere simple milkpails. 

There is also the trireme. And that trireme is the name 
of a species of drinking-cup Epicurus has shown, in his Sup- 
posititious Damsels; and the passage which is a proof of 
this has been already quoted. 

There is also the hystiacum, which is some sort of drink- 
ing-cup. Khinthon, in his Hercules, says — 

C. 103.] DRINKINQ-CUFS, 801 

You swallow'd, in one small hystiacum, 

A cheesecake of pure meal, and groata, and flour. 

103, There is the phiale too. Homer, when he says- 
He placed a phiale upon the board, 
By both hands to be raised {dijupleeroy), untouch'd by fire ; 

and s^in, when he says — > 

A golden phiale, and doubled fat ; 

is not speaking of a drinking-cup, but of a brazen vessel of a 
flat shape like a caldron, having perhaps two handles, one on 
each side. But Parthenius the pupil of Dionysius understands 
by d)x<f>iderov a phiale without any bottom. But Apollodorus 
the Athenian, in his short essay on the Crater, says that it 
means a cup which cannot be firmly placed and steadied on 
its bottom, but only on its mouth. But some say, that just 
as the word dix<j>L<l>opevs is used for a cup which can be lifted 
by its handles on both sides, the same is meant by the 
expression ajx^LOero^ <f>iaXrj. But Aristarchus says that it 
means a cup which can be placed on either end, on its mouth 
or on its bottom. But Dionysius the Thracian says that the 
word o^tjiLdeTos means round, running round (a^m^i^cW) in a 
circular form. And Asclepiades the Myrlean says, — " The 
word <f>iaXr], by a change of letters,'becomes ttioXti, a cup which 
contains enough to drink (Trtetv oXts) ; for it is larger than the 
TTonjptoi'. But when Homer calls it also mrvpurro^, he means 
either that it was wrought without fire, or never put on 
the fire. On which account he calls a kettle which may be 
put on the fire liiTrupip-^^, and one which is not so used 
anvpcys. And when he says — 

An ample charger, of unsullied frame, 

With flowers high wrought, not blacken'd yet by flame, 

he perhaps means one intended to receive cold water. So 
that the phiale would in that case resemble a flat brazen 
vessel, holding cold water. But when he calls it ap.'fiidero^, 
can we understand that it has two bases, one on each side ; or 
is ajx^l here to be taken as equivalent to irepi, and then again 
is TTipl to be taken as equivalent to irepvrrov, so that in fact 
all that is meant by the epithet is ' beautifully made ;' since 
BiivaL was often used by the ancients for ' to make?' It may 
also mean, ' being capable of being placed either on its bottom 
or upon its mouth ;' and such a placing of cupa is an Ionian 

ATH. — VOL. II. 3 P 


and an ancient fasMon. And even now the Massilians often 
adopt it, and set their goblets down on their mouths." 

104. But as Cratinus has said, in his Female Runaways — 
Eeceive from me these round-bottom'd phialas, 

EratostheneSj in the eleventh book of his treatise on Comedy, 
says that Lycophron did not understand the meaning of the j 
word (j8aXaveto/x,^aXos), for that the word o/a^oiXos, as applied 
to ii phiale, and the word 66Xo's, as applied to a bath, were, 
nearly similar in meaning ; and that, in the word, allusion 
is neatly enough made to the umbihoal form. But Apion 
and Diodorus say, " There are some kinds of phialae of which the 
boss is similar to a strainer." But Asclepiades the Myrlean, 
in his Essays on Cratinus, says — " 'BaXava6fi,<f>aXx>i are the 
phialss called, because their bosses and the vaulted roofs of 
the baths are much alike." And Didymus, saying the same 
thing, cites the words of Lycophron, which run thus: — 
" From the bosses in the women's baths, out of which they 
ladle the water in small cups." But Timarchus, in the 
fourth book of his Essay on the Mercury of Eratosthenes, 
says, — " Any one may suppose that this Word contains a 
secret allusion in it, because most of the baths at Athens, 
being circular in their shape, and in all their fomiture, have' 
slight projections in the middle, on which a brazen boss is 
placed. Ion, in. his Omphale, says — ■ 

Go quick,. damsels ; hither hiing the cups. 
And the mesomphali ; — 

and by /xa7dju,<^a\oi here, he means the same things as those 
whick Cratinus calls /SoXaveto/u.^.oXoi, where he says — 

Eeceive from me these round-bottom'd phialae. 
And Theopompus, in his Althaea, said — 

She took a golden round-bottom'd (ii&r6nita?Lar) phiale. 
Brimful of wine ; to which Telestes gaye 
The name of acatos ; 

as Telestes had called the phiale an acatos, or boat. But 
Pherecrates, or whoever the poet was who composed the 
Persse, which are attributed to him, says, in that play — 
J Garlands to all, and well-bosfl'd chrysidea (o;i^a\aTai xp'iC'Scs). , 

105. But the Athenians call silver phialae opyupiScs, and 
golden ones they call xp«<rt8cs. And Pherecrates mentions: 
tie silver phiale in the following words in his Persee — ■ 

C: 106.] ■ DRINKING-CXJPS. 803 

Here, you sir j where are you now carrying 

That silver phiale (tV dpyvplSa rnvSl) t 
And Ciutinus mentions the golden one in his Laws — ■ 

Making libations with a golden phiale (jcpva-iSt), 

Be gave the serpents drink. 
And Hemiippus, in his Cereopes, says — 

He first completely drain'd an ample cup, 

Golden (xpwrlSa) and round, then carried it away. 
There was also a kind of cup called the ^aXavurnj phiale, 
under the bottom of which were placed golden feet. And 
Teneus says, that among the offerings at Delos there was 
a brazen palm-tree, the offering of the Naxians, and some 
golden phialse, to which he gives the epithet Kapvwrcu. But 
Anaxandrides calls eups of this fashion the phialse of Mars. 
But the iEolians call the phiale an aracis. 

106. There is also the phthois; these are wide-shaped 
phialae with bosses. Eupolis says — 

He pledged the guests in phthoides, 
writing the dative plural ^ouri ; but it ought to have an acute' 
on the last syllable ; like Kapa-i, Trauri, tjideipa-i. 

There is the philotesia also. This is a kind of kvXl^, in which 
they pledged one another out of friendship, as Pamphilus 
says; And Demosthenes says, " And he pledged him in the 
philotesia." And Alexis says — 

We, in our private and public capacity. 

Do pledge you now in this philotesian culix. 
But, besides being the name of a cup, a company feasting 
together was also called ^lAonfo-iov. Aristophanes says — 

Now does the shadow of the descending sun , 

Mark seven feet : 'tis time for supper now. 

And the philotesian company invites me. 
But it was from the system of pledging one another at these 
banquets that the cup got the name of philotesia — ^as in 
the Lysistrata; — 

thou Persuasion,, mistress of my sonl ! 

And you, philoiesian cup of wine. 
There are also chonni. Among the Gortynians this is th&, 
name given, to a species of cup resembling the therieleum, 
made of brass, which Hermonax says is given by lovers to the 
objects of their affection. 

There are also Chalcidic goblets, having their name and 
reputation perhaps from Chalcis in Thrace. 


107. There are also xurptSes ; Alexis, in his Supposititious 
Child, says — 

I, seeking to do honour to the king, 

To Ptolemy and to hi? sister, took 

Four xwTpfSia of strong, untemper'd wine, 

And drank them at a draught, with as much pleasure 

As any one ever swallow'd half-and-half : 

And, for the sake of tliis agreement, why 

Should I not now feast in this splendid light? 
But Herodotus, in the fifth book of his History, says " that 
the Argives and iEginetans made a law that no one should ever 
use any Attic vessel of any kind in their sacrifices, not even 
if made of earthenware ; but that for the future every one 
should drink out of the xi'TpiSes of the country." And Me- 
leager the Cynic, in his Symposium, writes as follows — " And 
in the meantime he proposed a deep pledge to his health, 
twelve deep xvrpcSux full of wine." 

108. There is also the i/firyeus or ijwKnjp. Plato, in his 
Symposium, says, — " But, boy, bring, said he, that psycter 
hither (for he had seen one which held more than eight 
cotylse). Accordingly, when he had fiUed it, first of aU 
he drank it himself, and then he ordered it to be filled 
^ain for Socrates ..... as Archebulus was attempting 
to be prolix, the boy, pouring the wine out at a very sea- 
sonable time, overturned the psycter." And Alexis, in his 
Colonist, says — 

A psygeua, holding three full cotylse. 

And Dioxippus, in his Miser, says — ■ 

And from Olympicus he then received 
Six theiiclean cups, and then two psycters. 

And Menander, in his play entitled The Brazier's Shop, 

And, as the present fashion is, they shouted 
For more untemper'd wine ; and some one took 
A mighty psycter, giving them to drink. 
And 80 destroy'd them wretchedly. 

And Epigenes, in his Heroine, giving a list of many cups^ 
among them mentions the psygeus thus — 

Now take the boys, and make them hither hring 

The thericlean and the Khodian cups ; 

But bring yourself the psycter and the cyathus, 
■ Some cymbia too. 

And Strattis, in his Psychastse— ' 

"^- 109.] DEINKINQ-CUPS. 805 

And one man having stolen a psyctev, 

And his companion, who has taken away 

A brazen cyathus, both lie perplex'd, 

Looking for a choenix and a cotylia. 
But Alexis, in his Hippiscus, uses the diminutive form, and 
calls it a i/ruffnyptStop', saying — 

I went to see my friend while at his inn, 

And there I met a dark-complexion'd man, 

And told my slaves, for I brought two from home, 

To put in sight the well-clean'd drinking-cups ; 

There was a silver cyathus, and cups 

AVeighing two drachmas each ; a cymbium. 

Whose weight was four ; a \fivKTitptSioy, 

Weighing two obols, thinner than Philippides. 
109. But Heraoleon of Ephesus says, " The cup -which we 
call \jnjyevs some name the xfnjKTqpLa, but the Attic -sviiters 
make jokes upon the xjwyev';, as being a foreign name." 
Euphorion, in his Woman Eestoring, says — 

But when they call a ^vyevs a i^tcnjpia, 

And ire^Kiov tcutAk, and the ^ainj ipaKeiis, 

What can one do? For I rightly said, 

Give me, I pray, Pyrgothemis, some change 

For this your language, as for foreign money. 
And Antiphanes, in his Knights, says — 

How then are we to live? Our bedclothes are 

'A saddlecloth, and our well-fitting hat 

Only a psycter. What would you have more 1 

Here is the very Amalthean horn. 
And in the Cama he declares plainly that, when pouring out 
wine, they used the psycter for a cyathus. For after he had 
said — 

And putting on the board a tripod and cask. 

And psycter too, he gets drunk on the wine ; 
in the passage following, he represents his man as saying — 

So will the drink be fiercer : therefore now, 

If any one should say it is not fit 

T' indulge in wine at present, just leave out 

This cask, and this one single drinking-cup. 

And carry all the rest away at once. 
But Dionysius the pupil of Tryphon, in his treatise on 
Names, says — " The ancients used to call the psygeus dinus." 
But Nicander of Thyatira says, that woods and shady places 
dedicated to the gods are also called tjniKTijpes, as being places 
where one may cool oneself (dvafviai). .^Esohylus, in his 
Young Men, says — 

And gentle airs, in the cool, shady places {'fivKTiipluts) ; 

'806 THE deipnosophiSts. {b. XL 

and Euripides, in his Phaethon, says — 

The trees, affording a cool shade (ij/werijpia), 
Shall now embrace him in their loving arms ; 

and the antkor of the poem called iEgimius, wiietlier it 
really was Hesiod, or only Ceorops of Miletus, says — < 

There shall my cool shade (if/uKTij/jioc) be, king of men. 

110. There is also the oidos. This was the name of a 
drinking-oup, as we are told by Tryphon, in his Ononiastioon ; 
a cup given to him who sang the scolia — as Antiphanes 
shows in his Doubles — ■ 

A. What will there be, then, for the gods? 

JB. Why, nothing, some one mixes wine for them. 
A. Stop; take this.^S^j, and abandon all 

Those other worn-out fashions ; sing no more 

Of Telamon, or Pseon, or Harmodias. 

There are also the ooscyphia. Now respeotmg the shape of 
these cups, Asclepiades the Myrlean, in Ms Essay on the 
Nestoris, says that it has two bottoms, one of them wrought 
on to the bowl of the cup, and of the same piece with it ; but 
the other attached to it, be^ning with a sharp point, and 
ending in a broad bottom, on which the oup stands. 

There is also the uov, or egg-cup. Dinon, in the third 
book of his Affairs of Persia^ speaks as follows : — There is also 
a bread called potibazis, made of barley and roasted wheat; 
fuad a crown of cypress leaves; and wine tempered in a golden 
oon, from which the king himself drinks." 

111. Plutarch having said this, and being applauded by 
every one, asked for a phiala, from which he made a libation 
to the Muses, and to Mnemosyne their mother, and drank 
the health of every one present, saying,- — As if any one, 
taking a cup in his hand, being a rich man, were to make 
a present of it, foaming over with the jtiice of the yine ;" — 
and drinking not only to the young bridegroom, but also to 
aU his friends ; and he gave the cup to the boy, desiring him 
to carry it round to every one, saying that this was the 
proper meaning of the phrase kwXoi ttlvuv, reciting the 
verses of Menander in his Perinthian Woman^ . 

And the old woman did not leave tmtou<&'d 
One single cup, but drank of all that came. 

And again, in his Fanatical Woman, he says — 

C- 112.] DEINKING-CtJPS. 807 

And thea again she carries round to all 
A cup of unmix'd wine. 

Aud Euripides, in his Cretan Women, says — 
Farewell all other things, as long 
As cups of -wine go freely round. 

And then, when Leonidas the grammarian demanded a 
larger cup, and said, — Let us drink hard (Kpa-nypi^cD/xc), my 
friends, (for that was the word which Lysanias the Cyrenean 
says that Herodorus used to apply to di-inking parties, when 
he says, " But when they had finished the sacrifice they 
turned to the banquet, and to craters, and prayers, and 
paeans ;" and the poet, who was the author of the poem called 
the Buffoons — a play which Duris says that the wise Plato 
always had in his hands — says, somewhere, lKiKpa-njpi)(7]fi.i%, 
for "we had drunk;") But now, in the name of the gods, 
said Pontianus, you are drinking in a manner which is 
scarcely becoming, out of large cups, having that most de- 
lightful and witty author Xenophon before jovx eyes, who 
in his Banquet says, — " But Socrates, in his turn, said. But it 
seems to me now, O men, that we ought to drink hard. For 
wine, in reahty, while it moistens the spirit, lulls the griefs . 
to sleep as mandragora does men; but it awakens all cheerful 
feeUngs, as oil does fire. And it appears to me that the 
bodies of men are liable to the same influences which affect 
the bodies of those things which grow in the ground ; for the 
very plants, when God gives them too much to drink, cannot 
hold up their heads, nor can they expand at their proper 
seasons. But when they drink just as much as is good for 
them, and no more, then they grow in an upright attitude, 
and flourish, and come in a flourishing state to produce fruit. 
And so, too, in our case, if we take too much drink all at 
once, our bodies and our minds rapidly get disordered, aud ■ 
we cannot even breathe correctly, much less speak. But if 
our slaves bedew us (to use Gorgias-like language) in small 
quantities with small cups, then we are not compelled to be 
intoxicated by the wine ; but being gently induced, we pro- 
ceed to a merry and cheerfiil temperament." 

112. Now, any one who considers these expressions of tho 
accomplished Xenophon, may understand how it was that the 
brilliant Plato displayed such jealousy of him. But perhaps 
the feet may partly be because these men did from the very 


beginning feel a spirit of rivalry towards one toother, each 
being aware of Ms own powers ; and perhaps they began very 
early to contend for the preeminence, as we may conjecture 
not only from what they have both written about Cyrus, but 
also from other writings of theirs on similar subjects. For 
they have both written a piece called the Banquet ; and iii 
these two pieces, one of them turns out the female flute- 
players, and the other introduces them; and one, as has been 
already said, refuses to drink out of large cups, but the other 
represents Socrates as drinking out of a psycter till morning. 
And in his treatise concerning the Soul, Plato, reckoning up 
all who were present, does not make even the slightest men- 
tion of Xenophon. And concerning Cyrus,, the one says that 
from his earliest youth he was trained up in aU the national 
practices of his country:; but Plato, as if in the express spirit 
of contradiction, says, in the third book of his Laws, — " But 
with respect to Cyrus, I consider that, as to other things, he 
was indeed a skilful and careful general, but that he had 
never had the very least particle of a proper education, and 
that he had never turned his mind the least in the world to 
the administration of afiairs. But he appears from his earliest 
youth to have been engaged in war, and to have given his 
children to his wives to bring up." And again, Xenophon, 
who joined Cyrus with the Ten Thousand Greeks, in his expe- 
dition into Persia, and who was thoroughly acquainted with 
the treachery of Meno the ThessaUan, and knew that he was 
the cause of the murder of Clearchus by Tissapbernes, and 
who knew also the disposition of the man, how morose and 
debauched he was, — has given us a fidl account of everything 
concerning him. But the exquisite Plato, who all but says, 
" All this is not true," goes through a long panegyric on him, 
who was incessantly calumniating every one else. And in his 
Polity, he banishes Homer from his city, and all poetry of the 
theatrical kind ; and yet he himself wrote dialogues in a thea- 
trical style, — a manner of writing of which he himself waa 
not the inventor ; for Alexamenus the Teian had, before him, 
invented this style of dialogue, as Nicias of Nicsea and Sotion 
both agree in relating. And Aristotle, in his treatise on 
Poets, writes thus : — " Let us not then call those Mimes, as 
they are called, of Sophron, which are written in metre. 
Discourses and Imitations; or those Dialogues of Alexamenus 

C. 113.] PLATO, 809 

of Teos, -which were written before the Sooratic Dialogues ;" — 
Aristotle, the most learned of all men, stating here most 
expressly that Alexamenus composed his Dialogues before 
Plato. And Plato also calumniates Thrasymachus of Chalce- 
don, saying that he was a sophist in a way consistent with 
his name.' And he also attacks Hippias, and Gorgias, and 
Parmenides ; and in one dieilogue, called Protagoras, he attacks 
a great many ; — a man who in his Republic has said, " When, 
as I think, a city which has been governed by a democracy, 
feels a thirst for liberty, and meets with bad cupbearers, and 
BO it gets intoxicated by too untempered a draught , . , ." 

113. And it is said also, that Gorgias himself, when he 
read the dialogue to which Plato has given his name, said to 
his friends, " How well Plato knows how to write iambics'" 
And Hermippus, in his book on Gorgias, says, — " When 
Gorgias was sojourning at Athens, after he had oflfered up at 
Delphi the golden image of himself which is there now, and 
when Plato said when he had seen it, The beautiful and 
golden Gorgias is come among us, Gorgias replied. This is in- 
deed a fine young Archilochus whom Athens has now brought 
forth." But others say that Gorgias, having read the dialogue 
of Plato, said to the bystanders that he had never said any 
of the things there attributed to him, and had never heard any 
such things said by Plato. And they say that Phsedo also 
said the same when he had read the treatise on the Soul, ou 
which account it was well said by Timon, respecting him, — 

" How that learned Plato invented fictitious marvels ! " 
For their respective ages will scarcely admit of the Socrates 
of Plato ever having reaUy had a conference with Parmenides, 
so as to have addressed him and to have been addressed by 
him in such language. And what is worst of all is, that he 
has said, though there was not the slightest occasion for 
making any such assertion, that Zeno had been beloved by 
Parmenides, who was his fellow-citizen. Nor, indeed, is it 
possible that Phsedrus should have lived in the time of 
Socrates, much less that he should have been beloved by him. 
Nor, again, is it possible that Paralus and Xanthippus, the 
sons of Pericles, who died of the plague, should have con- 
versed with Protagoras when he came the second time to 

> @pairifuixos, an audacious disputant ; a name derived from epacrhs, 
audacious, and /utfx"/"") ^ contend. 


Athens, as they had died before. And we miight mention 
many other particulars respecting his works to show how 
whoUy fictitious his Dialogues are. 

114. But that Plato was ill-natured to everybody is plain 
from what he says in his dialogue entitled Ion; in which first 
of all he abuses aU the poets, and then aU those who have 
been promoted to the highest dignities by the people, such as 
Phanosthenes of Andros, and ApoUodorus of Cyzicus, and 
also Heraclides of Clazomense. And in his Menon he abuses 
those who have been the greatest men among the Athe- 
nians — Aristides and Themistocles ; and he eitole Menq, 
who betrayed the Greeks. But in his Euthydemus he attacks 
this same Meno and his brother Dionysiodorus, and calls them 
men slow to learn any good thing, and contentious people, 
reproaching them with their flight from Chios, which was 
their native place, from which they went and settled in 
Thurii. And, in his essay on Manly Courage, he attacks 
Melesias, the son of that Thucydides who headed the opposite 
party to Pericles, and Lysimachus, the son of Aristides the 
Just, saying that they both fell far short of their fathers' vir- 
tues. And as to what he said about Alcibiades, in his Ban- 
quet, that is not fit to be produced to hght ; nor is what he 
says in the first of the Dialogues which go by his name. For 
the second Alcibiades is said by some people to be the work 
of Xenophon ; as also the Halcyon is said to be the work of 
Leon the Academician, as Nicias of Nicsea says. Now, the 
things which he has said against Alcibiades I will pass over; 
but I cannot forbear to mention his calling the Athenian 
people a random judge, guided only by outward appearance. 
And he praises the Lacedsemonians, and extols also the Per- 
sians, who are the enemies of all the Greeks. 

And he calls Cleinias the brother of Alcibiades a madman; 
and the sons of Pericles he makes out to be fools ; and Mei- 
dias he calls a man fit for nothing but killing quails ; and of 
the people of the Athenians he says, that it wears a fair mask, 
but that one ought to strip the mask off, and look at it then; 
for he says that it wUl then be seen that it is only clothed with 
a specious appearance of a beauty which is not genuine. 

1 15. But in the Cimon he does not abstain from accusing 
Themistocles, and Alcibiades, and Myronides, and even Cimon 
himself; and his Crito contains an invective against Sopho;- 

C 116.] PLATO. 811 

cles ; and his Gorgias contains an inTective not only against 
the man from whom it is named, but also against Arohelaus, 
king of Macedon, whom he reproaches not only with his 
ignoble birth, but also with having killed his master. And 
this is the very same Plato whom Speusippus represents as 
having, while he professed to be a great fi-iend of Archelaus, 
assisted Philip to get possession of the kingdom. At all 
events, Carystius of Pergamus, in his Historical Commen- 
taries, writes as follows : — " Speusippus, hearing that Philip 
used calumnious language respecting Plato, wrote something of 
this sort in his letter to him : ' Just as if men did not know 
that Philip originally obtained the kingdom by the assistance 
of Plato.' For Plato sent Euphrseus of Oreum to Perdiccas, 
who persuaded him to apportion a certain district to Philip ; 
and so he, maintaining a force in that country, when Perdiccas 
died, having all his forces in a state of preparation, seized the 
supreme power." But whether all this is true or not, God 

But his fine Protagoras, besides that it contains attacks on 
many poets and wise men, also shows up the life of Callias 
with much greater severity than Eupolis does in his Flatterers. 
And in his Meneienus, not only is Hippias the Elean turned 
into ridicule, but also Antipho the Ehamnusian, and Lam- 
prus the musician. And the day would fail me, if I were 
inclined to go through the names of all those who have been 
abused by that wise man. Nor indeed do I praise Antis- 
thenes; for he, having abused many men, did not abstain 
even from Plato himself, but, having given him the odious 
name of Sathon, he then published a dialogue under this 

116. But Hegesander the Delphian, in his Commentaries, 
speaking about the universal ill-natvu-e of Plato towards 
everybody, writes as follows : — " After the death of Socrates, 
when a great many of his friends, being present at a banquet, 
were very much out of spirits, Plato, being present; taking 
the cup, exhorted them not to despond, as he himself was 
well able to lead the school; and, so saying, he pledged 
ApoUodorus : ^nd he said, ' I would rather have taken the 
cup of poison from Socrates than that pledge of wine from 
you.' For Plato was considered to be an envious man, and 
to have a disposition which was far from praiseworthy; for he 


ridiculed Aristippus when he went to visit Dionysius, though 
he himself had three times sailed to Sicily, — once for the 
purpose of investigating the torrents of lava which flow from 
Mount ^tna, when he lived with the elder Dionysius, and 
was in danger from his displeasure; and twice he went to visit 
the younger Dionysius." 

And again, though iEschines was a poor man, and had but 
one pupil, Xenocrates, he seduced him from him; and he 
was also detected in instigating the commencement of a pro- 
secution against Phsedo, which, if successful, would have 
reduced him to slavery; and altogether he displayed the 
feelings of a stepmother towards all the pupils of Socrates. 
On which account, Socrates, making a not very unreasonable 
conjecture respecting him, said in the presence of several persons 
that he had had a dream, in which he thought he had seen 
the following vision. " For I thought," said he, " that Plato 
had become a crow, and leaped on my head, and began to 
scratch my bald place, and to take a firm hold, and so to 
look about him. I think, thiarefore," said he, " that you, O 
Plato, wiU say a good many things which are Mse about my 
head." And Plato, besides his Hi-nature, was very ambitious 
and vainglorious ; and he said, <' My last tunic, my desire of 
glory, I lay aside in death itself — ^in my will, and in my 
funeral procession, and in my burial ;" as Diosoorides relates 
in his Memorabilia. And as for his desire of founding cities 
and making laws, who will not say that these are very ambi- 
tious feelings ? And this is plain from what he says in the 
Timeeus — " I have the same feehngs towards my constitution 
that a painter would have towards his works; for as he would 
wish to see them possessed of the power of motion and action, 
so too do I wish to see the citizens whom I here describe." 

117, But concerning the things which he has said in his 
Dialogues, what can any one say ? For the doctrine respect- 
ing the soul, which he makes out to be immortal, even after 
it is separated from the body, and after the dissolution of this 
latter, was first mentioned by Homer; for he has said, that 
the soul of Patroclus — 

Fled to the shades below. 

Lamenting its untimely fate, and learing 

Its vigour and its youth. 

If, then, any one were to say that this is also the argument of 

«• i^S.] PLATO. 813 

Plato, still I do not see what good we have got from him; for 
if any one were to agi-ee that the souls of those who are dead 
do migi-ate into other natures, and do mount up to some 
higher and purer district, as partaking of its lightness, still 
what should we get by that theory ? For, as we have neither 
any recollection of where we formerly were, nor any perception 
whether we really existed at all, what do we get by such an 
immortality as that ? 

And as to the book of the Laws composed by him, and the 
Polity which was written before the Laws, what good have 
they done us? And yet he ought (as Lycurgus did the 
Lacedsemonians, and as Solon did the Athenians, and Zaleu- 
cus the Thurians), if they were excellent, to have persuaded 
some of the Greeks to adopt them. For a law (as Aristotle 
says) is a form of words decided on by the common agree- 
ment of a city, pointing out how one ought to do everything. 
And how can we consider Plato's conduct anything but ridi- 
ctdous; since, when there were already three Athenian law- 
givers who had a great name, — Draco, and Plato himself, and 
Solon, — the citizens abide by the laws of the other two, but 
ridicule those of Plato ? And the case of the Polity is the 
same. Even if his Constitution is the best of all possible 
constitutions, yet, if it does not persuade us to adopt it, what 
are we the better for it? Plato, then, appears to have written 
his laws, not for men who have any real existence, but rather 
for a set of men invented by himself ; so that one has to look 
for people who will use them. But it would have been better 
for him to write such things as he could persuade men of; 
and not to act like people who only pray, but rather like 
those" who seize hold of what offers itself to them. 

118. However, to say no more on this point, if any one 
were to go through his Timseus and his Gorgias, and his other 
dialogues of the same character, in which he discusses the dif- 
ferent subjects of education, and subjects of natural philosophy, 
and several other circumstances, — even when considered in 
this light, he is not to be admired on this account; for one 
may find these same topics handled by others, either better 
than by him, or at all events not worse. For Theopompus 
the Ghian, in his book Against the School of Plato, says — 
" We shall find the greater part of his Dialogues useless and 
false, and a still greater number borrowed from other people; 


as some of tliein come from the sbhool of Aristippus, and 
some from that of Antisthenes, and a great many from that 
of Brjson of Heraclea." And as to the disquisitions which 
he enters into about man, we also seek in his arguments for 
■what we do not find. But what we do find are banquets, and 
conversations about love, and other very unseemly harangues, 
which he composed with great contempt for those who were 
to read them, as the greater part of his pupils were of a 
tjrannical and calumoious disposition. 

119. For Euphr«uSj when he was sojourning with king. 
Perdiccas in Macedonia, was not less a king than the other, 
being a man of a depraved and calumnious disposition, who 
managed all the companionship of the king in so cold a 
manner, that no one was allowed to partake of his enter- 
tainments unless he knew something about geometry or 
philosophy ; on which account, after Philip obtained the 
government, Parmenio, having caught Mm in Oreum, put 
him to death; as Carystius relates in his Historical Com- 
mentaries. And Callippus the Athenian, who was himself a 
pupil of Plato, having been a companion and fellow-pupil of 
Dion, and having travelled with him to Syracuse, when he 
saw that Dion was attempting to make himself master of 
the kingdom, slew him ; and afterwards, attempting to usurp- 
tiie supreme power himself,, was slain too. And Euagon 
of Lampsacus (as Eurypylus says, and Dicseocles of Cnidus, 
in the ninety-first book of his Commentaries, and also 
Demoehares the orator, in his argument in defence of 
Sophocles, against Philo), having lent his native city money 
on the security of its Acropohs, and being afterwards- 
unable to recover it, endeavoured to seize on thfi tyranny,. 
tmtU the Lampsaoenes attacked him, and repaid him the 
money, and drove him out of the city. And Timseus of' 
Cyzious (as the same Den^ochares relates), having given- 
largesses of money and corn to his fellow-citizens, and being 
on this account believed by the Cjrzieenes to be an excellent ; 
man, after having waited a little time, attempted to overturn 
the constitution with the assistance of Ari(ksus; and being 
brought to trial and convicted, and branded with infamy, he 
remained in the city to an extreme old age, being always, 
however, considered dishonom'ed and in&mous. 

And such now 5tre some of the Academicians, who live in. 

C. 120.] PLATO. 815 

a scandalous and infamous manner. For they, having by- 
impious and imnatural means acquired vast wealth by 
trickery, are at present highly thought of; as Chasron of 
PeUene, who was not only a pupil of Plato, but of Xenoorates 
also. And he too, having usurped the supreme power in his 
country, and having exercised it with great severity, not only 
banished the most virtuous men in the city, but also gave the 
property of the masters to their slaves, and gave their wives 
also to them, compelling them to receive them as their 
husbands; having got all these admirable ideas from that 
excellent Polity and those illegal Laws of Plato. 

120. On which account Ephippus the comic poet, in his 
Shipwrecked Man, has turned into ridicule Plato himself, and 
some of his acquaintances, as being sycophants for money, 
showing that they used to dress in a most costly manner, and 
that they paid more attention to the elegance of their persons 
than even the most extravagant people among us. And he 
speaks as foUowa — 

Then some ingenious young man rising up, 

Some pupil of the New Academy, 

Brought up at Plato's feet and those of Bryso, 

That bold, contentious, covetous philosopher, — 

And urged by strong necessity, and able. 

By means of his small-wages-seeking art. 

To speak before th' assembly, in a manner 

Not altogether bad ; having his hair 

Carefully trimm'd with a new-sharpen'd razor. 

And letting down his beard in graceful fall, 

Putting his irell-shod foot in his neat slipper. 

Binding his ancles in the equal folds 

Of his well-fitting hose, and well protected 

Across the chest with the breastplate of his cloak. 

And leaning, in a posture dignified, 

CTpon his staff; said, as it seems to me. 

With mouthing emphasis, the following speech. 

More like a stranger than a citizen, — 

" Men of the land of wise Athenians." 

And here let us put an end to this part of the discussion, my 
friend Timocrates. And we will next proceed to speak of 
those who have been notorious for their luxury. 




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8 vols. ■^s. 6d. each. 

Vol. I.— Cricket, by Hon, and Rev. E. 
Lyttelton; Lawn Tennis, by H. W, W. 
Wilberforce ; Tennis, Rackets, and Fives, 
by Julian Marshall, Major Spens, and J. A. 
Tait ; Golf, by W. T. Linskill ; Hockey, 
by F. S. Creswell. 

Vol. II. — Rowing and Sculling, by W. 
B. Woodgate ; Sailing, by E. F. Knight ; 
Swimming, by M. and J. R. Cobbett. 

Vol. III.— Boxing, by R. G. Allanson- 
Winn ; Single Stick and Sword Exercise, 
by R. G. Allanson-Winn and C. Phillipps- 
Wolley ; Wrestling, by Walter Armstrong ; 
Fencing, by H. A. Colmore Dunn. 

Vol. IV.— Rugby Football, by Harry 
Vassall ; Association Football, by C. W. 
Alcock ; Baseball, by Newton Crane ; 
Rounders, Field Ball, Bowls, Quoits, Curl- 
ing, Skittles, &c., by J. M. Walker, M.A., 
and C. C. Mott. 

Vol. v.— Cycling and Athletics, by H. H. 
Grifl&n ; Skating, by Douglas Adams. 

Vol. VI, — Practical Horsemanship, in- 
cluding Riding for Ladies. By W. A. 
Kerr, V.C. 

Vol. VII. — Driving, and Stable Manage- 
ment. By W. A. Kerr, V.C. [Preparing: 

V0I.VIII. — Gymnastics, by A. F. Jenkin; 
Clubs and Dumb-bells, by G. T. B. Cobbett 
and A. F. Jenkin. [/« ike press. 

BOHN'S Handbooks of Games. New 

Edition, entirely rewritten. 2 volumes. 
3 J. td. each. 

Vol. I. Table Games. 
Contents :— Billiards, with Pool, Pyra- 
mids, and Snooker, by Major-Gen. A. W. 
Drayson, F.R.A.S., with a preface by 
W. J. Peall— Bagatelle, by ' Berkeley '— 

Chess, by R. F. Green— Draughts, Back- 
gammon, Dominoes, Solitaire, Reversi, 
Go Bang, Rouge et noir. Roulette, E.O.i 
Hazard, Faro, by ' Berkeley.' 
Vol. II. Card Games. 
Contents :— Whist, by Dr. William Pole, 
F.R.S., Author of 'The Philosophy of 
Whist, &c.'— Solo Whist, by R. F. Green ; 
Piquet, Ecartfi, Euchre, B^zique, and 
Cribbage, by * Berkeley ; ' Poker, Loo, 
Vingt-et-un, Napoleon, Newmarket, Rouge 
et Noir, Pope Joan, Speculation, &c. fi:c., 
by Baxter- Wray. 

CHESS CONGRESS of 1862. A col- 
lection of the games played. Edited by 
J. LSwenthal. New edition, 5^. 

MORFHY'S Games of Chess, being 

the Matches and best Games played by the 
American Champion, with explanatory and 
analytical Notes by J. Ldwenthal. With 
short Memoir and Portrait of Morphy. 5; . 

STAUNTON'S Cbess-PIayer's Hand- 
book. A Popular and Scientific Intro- 
duction to the Game, with numerous Dia- 
grams. 5J-. 

Chess Praxis. A Supplement to the 

Chess-player's Handbook. Containingthe 
most important modem Improvements in 
the Openings ; Code of Chess Laws ; and 
a Selection of Morphy's Games. Annotated. 
636 pages. Diagrams. 5^ , 

Chess-Player's Companion. 

Comprising a Treatise on Odds, Collection 
of Match Games, including the French 
Match with M. St. Amant, and a Selection 
of Original Problems. Diagrams and Co- 
loured Frontispiece. 5^ . 

Chess Tournament of 1851. 

A Collection of Games played at this cele> 
brated assemblage. With Introduction 
and Notes. Numerous Diagrams. 5;. 


Price IS. each. 

A Series of Complete Stories or Essays, mostly reprinted from Vols, in 

Bohn's Lih'aries, and neatly bound in stiff paper cover, with 

cut edges, suitable for Railway Reading. 

ASCHAM (Roger). Scholemaster. 

By Professor Mayor. 

CARPENTER (Dr. "W. B.). Physi- 

ology of Temperance and Total Abstinence. 

EMERSON. England and English 

Characteristics. Lectures on the Race, 
Ability, Manners, Truth, Character, 
Wealth, Religion, &c. &c. 

- Nature : An Essay. To which are 
added Orations, Lectures, and Addresses. 

Representative Men : Seven Lec- 
tures on Plato, Swedenborg, Mon- 
taigne, Shakespeare, Napoleon, and 

— ~ Twenty Essays on Various Sub- 
The Conduct of Life. 

FRANKLIN (Benjamin). Autobio- 
graphy. Edited by J. Sparks. 

HAWTHORNE (Nathaniel), Twice- 
told Tales. Two Vols. 

Snow Image, and Other Tales. 

•^— Scarlet Letter. 

House with the Seven Gables. 

Transformation ; or the Marble 

Fawn. Two Parts. 

HAZLITT fW.). Table-talk: Essays 
on Men and Manners. Three Parts. 

Plain Speaker : Opinions on Books, 

Men, and Things. Three Parts. 

Lectures on the English Comic 


Lectures on the English Poets. 

• — Lectures on the Characters of 

Shakespeare's Plays. 

Lectures on the Literature of 

the Age of Elizabeth, chiefly Dramatic. 

Lives of 

IRVING (Washington). 

Successors of Mohammed, 

Life of Goldsmith. 


Tales of a Traveller. 

Totir on the Prairies. 

Conquests of Granada and 

Spain. Two Parts." 

Life and Voyages of Columbus. 

Two Parts. 

Companions of Columbus : Their 

Voyages and Discoveries. 

Adventures of Captain Bonne- 
ville in the Rocky Mountains and the Far 


York, from the beginning of the World to 
the End of the Dutch Dynasty. 

Tales of the Alhambra. 

Conquest of Florida under Her- 
nando de Soto. 

Abbotsford & Newstead Abbey. 

Salmagundi ; or, The Whim-Whams 

and Opinions of Launcelot Lakgstaff, 

Bracebridge Hall; or, The Hu- 

_ Astoria ; or, Anecdotes of an Enter- 
prise beyond the Rocky Mountains. 

Wolfert's Roost, and other Tales. 

LAMB (Charles). 

With a Portrait. 

Essays of Elia. 

Last Essays of Elia. 

Eliana. With Memoir. 

MARRTAT (Captain). Pirate and 

the Three Cutters. With a Memoir of 
the Author. 

Bohn's Select Library of Standard Works. 

Price i^. in paper covers, and is. 6d. in cloth. 

1. Bacon's Essays. With Introduction and Notes. 

2. Lessing'S Laokoon. Beasley's Translation, revised, with Intro- 

duction, Notes, &c., by Edward Bell, M.A. With Frontispiece. 

3. Dante's Inferno. Translated, with Notes, by Rev. H. F. Gary. 

4. Goethe's Faust. Part I. Translated, with Introduction, by 

Anna Swanwick. 

5. Goethe's Boyhood. Being Part I. of the Autobiography 

Translated by J. Oxenford. 

6. Schiller's Mary Stuart and The Maid of Orleans. Trans- 

lated by J. Mellish and Anna Swanwick. 

7. The Queen's English. By the late Dean Alford. 

8. Life and Labours of the late Thomas Brassey. By Sir 

A. Helps, K.C.B. 

9. Plato's Dialogues : The Apology — Crito—Phaedo— Protagoras. 

With Introductions. 

10. MOLIERE'S Plays : The Miser — Tartuffe — The Shopkeeper turned 

Gentleman. Translated by C. H. Walt, M.A. With brief Memoir. 

Goethe's Reineke Fox, in Enghsh Hexameters. By A. Rogers. 
Oliver Goldsmith's Plays. 

Lessing'S Plays : Nathan the Wise — Minna von Barnhelm. 
Plautus'S Comedies : Trinummus — Menaechmi — Aulularia — 


Waterloo Days. By C. A. Eaton. With Preface and Notes by 

Edward Bell. 

Demosthenes — On the Crown. Translated by C. Rann 


The Vicar of Wakefield. 

Oliver Cromwell. By Dr. Reinhold Pauli. 

The Perfect Life. By Dr. Channing. Edited by his nephew, 

Rev. W. H. Channing. 

Ladies in Parliament, Horace at Athens, and other pieces, 

by Sir George Otto Trevelyan, Bart. 

Defoe's The Plague in London. 

Irving's Life of Mahomet. 

Horace's Odes, by various hands. [Oui of Pritit. 

Burke's Essay on 'The Sublime and Beautiful.' With 

Shart Memoir. 

Hauff's Caravan. 

Sheridan's Plays. 

Dante's Purgatorio. Translated by Cary. 

Harvey's Treatise on the Circulation of the Blood 

Cicero's Friendship and Old Age. 

Dante's P.\radiso. Translated by Cary. 

Chronicle of Henry \'III. Translated by Major M. A. S. 



An entirely New Edition of Webst£r's Dictionary, thoroughly 
Revised, considerably Enlarged, and reset in New Type from 
beginning to end. 

Demy /^to. ziiS pages, 3500 illustrations. 

Prices: Cloth, £1 lis. 6d.; half-calf, £2 as.; half-russia, £2 5s.; 
calf, £2 8s. Also in 2 vols, cloth, £1 14s. 

In addition to the Dictionary of Words, with their pronunciation, ety- 
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and numerous vfoodcuts, there are several valuable appendices, comprising a 
Pronouncing Gazetteer of the World ; Vocabularies of Scripture, Greek, Latin, 
and English Proper Names ; a Dictionary of the noted Names of Fiction ; a 
Brief History of the English Language ; a Dictionary of Foreign Quotations, 
Words, Phrases, Proverbs, &c. ; a Biographical Dictionary with 10,000 
Names, &c. 

This last revision, comprising and superseding the issues of 1847, 1864, 
and 1880, is by far the most complete that the Work has undergone during 
the sixty-two years that it has been before the public. Every page has been 
treated as if the book were now published for the first time. 


' We beUeve that, all things considered, this will be found to be the best 
existing English dictionary in one volume. We do not know of any work 
similar in size and price which can approach it in completeness of vocabulary, 
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' The most comprehensive and the most useful of its kind.' — National 

' A magnificent edition of Webster's immortal Dictionary. ' — Daily 

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'A special feature of the present book is the lavish use of engravings, 
which at once illustrate the verbal explanations of technical and scientific 
terms, and permit them to remain readably brief It may be enough to refer 
to the article on " Cross." By the use of the little numbered diagrams we are 
spared what would have become a treatise, and not a very clear one. . . . 
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likely to be posed at an unfamiliar or half-understood word or phrase.' — 
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London : GEORGE BELL & SONS, York Street, Covent Garden.