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Full text of "Biographical and historical memoirs of Mississippi, embracing an authentic and comprehensive account of the chief events in the history of the state and a record of the lives of many of the most worthy and illustrious families and individuals"

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Mrs. Mack Swe;5ringen 


3 1924 066 295 209 


Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

1 ' *' y'' TO, :. . '77;//:iT"/''//f 



Vol. II 









Tt)e QoodspoQd Publishjirig ©orqpar(y 












- ', ^'S '- 





Confederate monument, Jackson Frontispiece 

Indian cession map 27 

Cliarles B. G-alloway 43 

E. C. Walthall 59 

Mrs. H. B. Theobold 75 

Edmund Richardson 91 

J. Z. George 133 

Insane asylum, Jackson 155 

Mississippi mills, View of 203 

J. M. Stone 235 

Siege of Vickshurg, Map of . . , 251 

William Oliver , -367 

Edward Mayes 315 

Robert Lowrj' 331 

W. A. Percy 368 

Insane asylum, Meridian 379 

D. B. Seal 411 

R. Seal 427 

H. S. Van Eaton 443 

Jackson, Battle of 459 

Tupelo, Battle of 459 

J. McC. Martin 475 

Charles Clark 491 

John Hopkinson 507 

William Starling 523 

E. S. Wilson 539 


Stephen Thrasher 555 

Agricultural college 571 

Robert H. Peel " 587 

L. T. Baskett 619 

J. A. Payne 651 

John P. Richardson 667 

H. L. Taylor 683 

W. W. :\loon' 699 

Helena, Battle of 715 

Raymond, Battle of 715 

Brice's Cross Roads, Battle of 715 

E. T. Clark 731 

J. J. White 763 

Fred Beall 779 

R. P. Beck 811 

J. H. Jamison 827 

Corinth, Battle of 843 

('. Williams 859 

B. F. Ward 891 

M. G. Davis ', . . , 907 

Thomas W. East 923 

T. D. Isom 939 

John Clark 955 

E. F. Lowe 971 

Blind asylum, Jacksou 987 

©ABLE OP (Contents. 

Post-bellum organization - 11 


Later legal and judicial history 23 

j|fl^"^7^---^vs?:v CHAPTER in. 
Institutions and societies 37 


Water transportation, levees, etc ,i 60 


Kailway transportation, etc . : •. . . 77 


Growth and development 90 


Political history J ; 137 


Citi«B, towns and villages 147 


The press of Mississippi with a cursory glance at the literature of the state 242 


Physicians and their associations 252 


Educational history 300 


Religious history of Mississippi 348 


Records of ramilies and individuals, M °°^ 


Citizens' private memoirs, N ^"° 


Records of a private nature, O ' '^^^ 


Sketches of individual life, P 547 


Memoirs of a few families, Q 



Other prominent persons, R ~ "i , ' ^^^ 


Selected memorials, S -. '''1''' 


Conspicuous residents of the state, T 876 


A few special notices, TJ 937 


A glance at individual records, V 941 


Brief notices of prominent persons, W 962 


Concluding individual and family notices, Y 1083 

ERRATA : 1091 


POPULATION OF 1880-1890 1094 

INDEX '. nil 

Biographjical anb Ristorical UleTTioirs 





HEN Mississippi came under the military law of the United States by the surrender 
of General Taylor's forces to General Canby, on April 9, 1865, Governor Clarke 
called a special session of the legislature — a legislature elected under the laws and 
constitution of the convention of 1861. It is not the province of this sketch to decide which 
idea of the status of the state at that time was the correct one; the purpose here is to show 
the actual changes in organization. The state, as far as actual power was concerned, was 
under the laws of war; this legislature, however, was the only means the people had of 
expressing themselves, and they forthwith passed acts providing for the appointment of com- 
missioners to Washington to confer on the new status, and also provided for the calling of a 
convention to remodel the constitution to suit the new order. Even while this legisla- 
ture was in session, the war department telegraphed General Ganby to disperse it as unlaw- 
ful, but before the new order was received the session had adjourned. The next day General 
Canby notified Governor Clarke that the president could not recognize any state government 
made since the ordinance of secession, and demand was immediately made for the turning 
over of all state property, archives, etc., to the officer of the army in charge. This was done 
at the capitol on May 22, over a month after General Taylor's surrender. However, the 
commissioners, Sharkey and Yerger (William), appointed by the governor, went on to Washing- 
ton in an unofficial capacity and presented the situation to the president. They found that 
the national government and the people back of it were themselves still undecided as to the 
next step to pursue. There were many plans afloat; the Southern states, in the opinion of 
some, were simply to repeal their secession constitutions, resume their old ones with amend- 
ments forever forbidding slavery and secession — the two points secured by war; a few even 
thought that slavery would still be held constitutional by the Supreme court — these few, how- 
ever, seemed unable to realize the laws of the war. At another extreme there were those who 



determined not to admit a Southern state to its old footing until the negroes should be held 
by them as political and even social. equals— these, a large num)»er, too, seemed totally to for- 
get that in no part of this or any other country are |>eoplo all on an ecjual social footing. 
There were those, too, who held that slavery was a diseas;! [wlitic that required strong meas- 
ures, and that now was the time to forever root out its iufiueucw by seeing to it that every 
state which had held it should freely and fully allow the former slave all the political rights 
enjoyed by any other citizens, now and forever, and that this should be the power claimed on 
the laws of war. This latter seemed to be the one destined to prevail, although the presi- 
dent held the first view presented, when he received Messrs. Sharkey and Yerger, for on May 
29 he issued his amnesty proclamation, and a few days later appointed, June 13, the first of 
these visitors, the Hon. William L. Sharkey, provisional governor. 

On July 1 Governor Sharkey issued a proclamation recognizing the exigencies of the 
situation and clearly pointing out what the war meant to the conquering power, and calling 
a convention for August 14 to prepare a constitution. This convention met and organized 
with one hundred delegates, seven of whom had been in the convention of 1861, and six of 
the seven voting against secession. It is interesting to note that, while the convention of 
18G1 had eighty-four democrats and twenty-five wbigs, this one had seventy whigs, eighteen 
democrats and fi\'B conservatives. The officerfs of the convention were: president, J. S. 
Yerger, and secretary, J. L. Power. By the 24th of August amendments to the constitution 
were made striking out the slave article and inserting article !S, acknowledging slavery 
abolished forever, and making the twelfth item of the bill of rights provide for dispensing 
with grand jury action in certain cases. Ordinances were passed declaring all the acts per- 
taining to secession and rebellion null and void, and legalizing non-conflicting legislation 
since 1861, and providing for an election according to the constitution. On October 16 fol- 
lowing Gen. B. G. Humphreys was elected governor, and reorganization was effected under 
this amended constitution of 1832, as provisional only, for the state was not admitted to rep- 
resentation, and the whole territory of which the state was a part was under military power. 

On June 13, after Governor Humphreys' election, the famous "fourteenth amendment" 
was passed by congress to effect the enfranchisement of the newly-made freedmeu. It 
became a part of the national constitution on January 31, 1867, and in February Mississippi's 
legislature passed resolutions refusing to ratify it. Forthwith, on March 2, congress passed 
" an act to provide for the more efficient government of the rebel states," and on the 23d of 
the same month acts were passed by congress providing for an election to be held under mili- 
tary authority, to decide whether or not a convention should be called for the purpose of 
establishing a constitution and civil government for the state, loyal to the Union.'' These 
acts are known as the " reconstruction acts," and wise or unwise, they were considered by the 
controlling power the legitimate fruits of war. The results of the election were announced 
by genrral orders No. 42, from Holly Springs, the headquarters of Major-Geueral Ord, of 
the fourth military district, on December 16 of that year. The total registered vote of the 
state was one hundred and thirty-nine thousand three hundred and twenty-seven; votes cast 
seventy-six thousand and sixteen; "for convention," sixty-nine thousand seven hundred and 
thirty-nine; "against convention," six thousand two hundred and seventy-seven. At this 
point the feelings on both sides were probably more rancorous than even during the war, and 
neither side could consider the other as anything less than venomous. Whether fair or 
unfair, it was done, and that is the only fact with which this sketch has to deal. These orders 
indicated by name the persons who were elected, and on January 7, 1868 — exactly six years 
after the convention of secession — the delegates met ^ at Jackson and continued in session 


until May 18, with B. B. Eggleston, of Lowndes - county, as president. A new constitution 
was adopted on May 15, and an ordinance passed to siibmit it to the registered voters for 
ratification, and to provide for the election of state officers, as it called for. This election 
took place on the 22d, and some days following, under the direction of the commanding- 
general. The election ordinance also provided that the legislature elected should meet on 
the second Monday after election was decided, and, before enacting any law, should adopt the 
fourteenth amendment. These provisions were carried out by general orders No. 19, of May 
19, 1868, issued by command of Maj.-Gen. A. C. Gillem, with headquarters at Vicksburg. 
Provision was also made for meeting again in case of defeat of the constitution. This con- 
stitution was chiefly characterized by franchise provisions that would have excluded all who 
had voted either directly or indirectly for secession. The result was that it was defeated, 
and the convention proceeded to amend it by striking out those sweeping particulars. Con- 
gress ordered a new election and the commanding general removed Governor Humphreys in 
July, replacing him with a military governor — Gen. Adelbert Ames. On December 1 
(1869), over a year later, this amended constitution was ratified by the people, and James L. 
Alcorn was elected governor, and the lieutenant-governor chosen was E. C. Powers. On the 
following February 23 (1870), congress passed an act of admission to representation, on 
condition that state officers and legislators take prescribed oaths that would exclude from 
those positions men who had held any of them at any time before they took part in rebellion 
and because the three national amendments were ratified. Governor Alcorn was elected to 
the national senate, and was succeeded as governor by Lieutenant-Governor Powers in 1871. 

Practically five years had elapsed since the surrender of General Taylor before Mississippi 
resumed her former official status in the Union, during which time she was practically under 
military power, although part of the time formally a civil state. Such an unfortunate con- 
dition is always one of strife and abuse, and the great mass of ignorant, newly enfranchised 
negroes, with exaggerated ideas of their newly found powers, made a complication of diificulties 
almost unparalleled in history, and a situation peculiarly humiliating to the high-spirited 
white citizens who had until then been the sole arbiters of the state's action. It is hardly 
possible that so great an accession of ignorant voters, with all the susceptibility to manipula- 
tion that ignorance implies, should not cause a weak, if not disastrous, financial and other 
management of the affairs of state. Intelligence in the majority of voters is an acknowledged 
fundamental condition of successful self-government; there can not be success without it; 
without it monarchy is better. It maybe, however, that out of the bitter experiences of. that 
period lessons have been learned by all concerned that will make the path for the future more 

Since the enfranchised population in this state embraced so large a proportion of the 
whole, it is probable that the situation here was aggravated above that of other states, and 
thus gave more force to the demand for white supremacy, which might be justly interpreted 
the supremacy of intelligence, which is demanded everywhere. But mass and ignorance and 
intelligence with less numbers when pitted against each other from natural or artificial causes, 
furnish one of the worst conditions in which humanity can find itself. It is a condition that 
stimulates the worst powers on both sides, and apparently, like a disease, must run its course. 
Just such a strife continued during the first five years imder the new constitution and restored 
status of the state. The impeachment of Governor Ames, who was elected in November, 
1873, was only an incident of the struggle, although the leading one, and led to his resigna- 
tion and the succession to that office of John M. Stone, the present governor of the state, 
then president of the senate in 1876. Governor Ames, in his message, charged the successful 


movement with intimidation of the negro vote by an unlawful military organization and for 
the mere purpose of feeling their old mastery over the negro; while the legislature, charging 
Governor Ames and two other executive officers with corruption in office, began impeachment 
proceedings, which were dismissed uiion assurances of his resignation. 

This struggle reached its climax in the election of November, 1875, when, in what is 
known in political parlance as " the great revolution" occurred, which was a hotly-contested 
election, resulting in white supremacy or the supremacy of intelligence and property in the 
affairs of state. It is not the province of this sketch to determine whether the charges of 
intimidation are true, or if true a wrong; it is a matter of public knowledge, however, that 
these charges are the basis of the recently agitated national election bill. True or untrue, 
the charge was made, and involved the withdrawal of the large numbers of colored men who 
had been in prominent positions in the state and even in congress. It also resulted in the 
quiet and more economic administration which has since followed, and a growing prosperity 
that has given the state time to recuperate her wasted powers and take on the vigor of the 
new order. This is even more true of the condition of the colored population than the whites. 

During about twenty years under the constitution of 1868-9 few amendments were 
made, but many causes contributed to make a demand for a new constitution whose franchise 
provisions would eliminate a large mass of ignorant votes, and thus remove any basis that 
might remain of the long-standing charge. The constitution of 1868-9 was not that of 1832 
revised, but a new instrument made by a part of the population of the state, almost entirely 
different from that which made the constitution of 1832 or the present one. A large propor- 
tion of the convention were of the then newly enfranchised race, while the white element was 
largely of a class not identified with the hitherto ruling element in the state. One fact will 
illustrate: A prominent republican club of New York city sent to the convention copies of all 
the state constitutions then in existence, to aid them in forming one with, if possible, the best 
elements of all. Whether they succeeded is not for this sketch to determine. It is but 
natural from the nature of the case that this assembly should be considered by the then 
opposition as a burlesque on conventions, and so it was dubbed by them the "Black and Tan 
convention," a cognomen that will probably indefinitely attach to it. On the other hand, 
the convention itself, amidst all its difficulties of composition and opposition, was ablaze with 
that enthusiasm which the newly enfranchised freedmen felt on assuming a part in self- 
government for the first time, however crude the part might be. The sight could not have 
been otherwise than almost outrageous and ludicrous to the eyes of those who beheld their 
former slaves posing as their lawmakers. 

The constitution made, however, was largely, if not entirely, the product of white men. 
While its phraseology and arrangement difi'ered from that of 1832, and its leading features 
had regard to securing the new order of things, its provisions were not very dissimilar, except 
in a few particulars, one of the most prominent of which was an elaborate system of public 
schools, which, while intended for all classes, was especially directed to the education of the 
colored race. The system provided for state and county supervision, a system now so com- 
mon and so costly, too, but one upon which its advocates believe the welfare of the state and 
nation both rest. The franchise was confined simply to all males of age, with the usual 

After twenty years under this constitution, and about fifteen years after the " great revo- 
lution " of 1875, there was approved, on February 5, 1890, "An act to provide for calling a 
convention to amend the constitution." On March 11 Governor Stone ordered an election 
to be held for delegates on July 29 following. The composition of the convention was to 


be the same as that of the house of representatives as to numbers, and fourteen delegates-at- 
large were to be elected. On August 12 they assembled at Jackson, and were called to 
order by Hon. George M. Govan, secretary of state. Hon. S. S. Calhoon, of Hinds, was 
chosen president, and Mr. E. E. Wilson, of the same county, was made secretary. There were 
one hundred and thirty-four members, of whom it is interesting to note the large proportion 
of lawyers and farmers; and that all were democrats, with the exception of four, two of whom 
were republicans, one a conservative and one a greenbaoker. The convention continued 
in session until November 1 (1890), when the new constitution was adopted. " Our mission 
here," said President Calhoon in his closing address, " has been accomplished as best it could 
be upon adjustment of the various opinions and interests of the different sections of Missis- 
sippi. Restricted by the Federal constitution, we have tried to secure a more elective fran- 
chise without race discrimination or injustice. We knew when we assembled what the nation 
will yet learn — that it is hardly possible for any two of the distinct types of mankind to 
co-exist with divided political sovereignty. The hopelessness of the complete success of such an 
experiment is illustrated by all history and proved by all reasoning from natural laws. Still, it 
falls to our lot to repeat the effort. We will do our part in good faith, and the failure, if it shall 
come, will not be the fault of either race, but will result from the laws of our being, which impel 
each to combine to achieve or resist the domination of the other. Apprehending that harmonious 
political cooperation of diverse races is extremely doubtful, if not impossible, we must, neverthe- 
less, do the best we can ; and we may congratulate ourselves that it is the negro who dwells among 
us, as his race more readily than any other takes on the semblance of the manners, customs, 
religion and civilization of our own. We tax ourselves more heavily in proportion to prop- 
erty values than, perhaps, any other people, to educate him, and this we shall continue to do, 
but with faint hope of obtaining any real political homologation. In the exercise of the right of 
suffrage it was to be expected that there would be occasional disturbances and local conflicts 
between the two races. These have occurred in the past, but in fewer instances, no doubt, 
than would have taken place under like circumstances in any Northern state. We hope to 
see none in the future. Political partisanship has naturally prevented an impartial view of 
our situation. This we can not avoid. We can only say to our sister states that, doing the 
best we can, we sit patiently under the flag and await events. To that flag we are all true, 
because we have aided in garlanding it with that glory which hangs about its folds. To the 
Union we are true, bsiause the cement of the whole is the blood of our ancestors. It is a 
union of strength, and should be a union of love to all its states and sections. We say to our 
brethren of the North, East and West, that we are willing to bear cheerfully our full share of 
the public burdens, to pour out our blood in equal measure for the common defense, to share 
in the misfortunes and rejoice in the welfare of our sister states; even willing, at their 
behest, to try the dangerous, and probably impracticable scheme of dividing political power 
with another and outnumbering race; willing to do all things except to yield up the 
common civilization of our common country, which civilization was constructed, has been 
maintained and can be continued only by the white race. There is but one sovereign by 
divine right. That sovereign is mind. I look in vain for any instance of African contribu- 
tion to the disclosure of undiscovered truths tending to ameliorate the individual or the social 
condition of man. The race up to this time has shown no science, no literature, no art, no 
enterprise, no progress, no invention. It sometimes develops a reflected light of civilization, 
but never yet the life-giving heat from internal fires of intellect and energy which impel to 
intelligent and systematic activities. I hope better things from it in future. Withdrawn 
from the envelopment of white civilization, the negro race seems unable to maintain even its 


own imitative acquiremtnits. 11 seems unfit to rule. It seems to mean, as it always has 
meant, stagnation, the enslavement of woman, the brutalization of man, animal savagery, uni- 
versal ruin. Yet, confronted with this sad trial, it is our duty under the constitution of the 
United States to undertake the great task of carrying on intelligent republican government 
in Mississij^pi with his full cooperation, and with his rights and franchises, as guaranteed by 
the organic Federal compact, not only unimpaired, but fully protected. 

" Aside from the suffrage, gentlemen," continued the speaker, " you have perfected a 
judiciary system, the best I know where there prevails a dual system of law and equity pro- 
cedure. The limitations you have placed on legislative power in reference to local measures 
and other matters will soon, of themselves, largely overpay the cost of this constitutional con- 
vention, and will enforce a wiser and juster exercise of that power, and thus contribute greatly 
to the welfare and happiness of the masses of our people." 

Further on he said: " In my judgment the material interests and moral advancement and 
the people of both races here depend on the predominance, in government, of that virtue of 
intelligence which, for the present at least, can come only from that race which in the past 
has shown a capacity for the successful administration of free institutions. That race alone 
can now safely exercise the function of ruling with moderation and justice, and accomplish 
the great purpose for which governments are established. Your article on corporations has 
emancipated the people from the thralldom of combined capital incorporated by and under 
the sanction of the state. You have made the creature subject to its creator. Your article 
on education reflects the generosity for which our state is justly famed, and if erroneous, is 
along the lines of noble and magnanimous endeavor. If the pockets of our impoverished 
people can bear the draft, you are right and they will never complain. Viewing the instru- 
ment in all its parts and as a whole, I do not hesitate to declare the opinion that there is 
nowhere a better constitution than the one you establish." 

This instrument is practically a new constitution in provisions, arrangement and phra- 
seology. It is simply arranged in fifteen articles and a schedule, distributed under the following 
subjects: 1, Distribution of powers; 2, Boundaries of the state; 3, Bill of rights; 4, Legis- 
lative department; 5, Executive; 6, Judiciary; 7, Corporations; 8, Education; 9, Militia; 
10, The penitentiary and prisons; 11, Levies; 12, Franchise; 13, Apportionment; 14, General 
provisions; and 15, Amendments to the constitution. It is most elaborate and detailed in its 
provisions, and indeed seems to have adapted the best fruits of the experience of this and 
other states to Mississippi's present and probable future needs. The leading features have 
been indicated above by the address extracts, and more detailed account must here be con- 
fined to the franchise article. This feature requires an elaborate time condition of residence 
and registration to be complied with, and that all taxes required must be paid, a part of which 
is a poll tax for school purposes. Besides these provisions, another is added that, after the 
first day of 1892, every voter must be able to read, or sufficiently interpret when it is read to 
him, the state constitution. 

Several ordinances were passed by the convention, among which was one providing that 
the system of balloting known as " the Australian system," now so generally in use, shall be 
used until January 1, 1896, to which time the terms of the leading state executives have been 
extended by a second ordinance. Others are incidental to the convention itself, in regard to 
penitentiary farm, the election of a land-commissioner in 1895, in regard to doubtful swamp- 
land claims, to issue $500,000 of bonds for levee purposes, in regard to the complete estab- 
lishment of Pearl river county, and one to exempt from taxation for ten years all permanent 
factories hereafter located in the state before the year 1900. Such is the present constitu- 


tional condition of Mississippi after a little over a quarter of a century's existence of a new 
epoch in her career. 

The state capital has been at Jackson so many years that it might iiroperly be supposed 
to always have been so located, for he is a man older than the state itself who can remember 
its location elsewhere. The successive removals of the provincial and territorial capitals 
have been indicated. By the constitution of 1817 the first session of the legislature was to be 
held at Natchez and thereafter as determined by law. Ver}- soon afterward, February 20; 
1819, a grant of two sections of public land was made by the United States in any portion 
where the title of the Indians had been secured, and which was to be located by the state. 
Almost two years later (February 12, 1821), at the time the monster county of Hinds was 
created to include the new Choctaw cession, a commission was chosen by the state to locate- 
their grant of two sections " within twenty miles of the true center of the state." Those com- 
missioners were Gen. Thomas Hinds, Dr. William Lattimore and James Patton, who reported 
their choice, and on November 28 following, provision was made for the survey and laying out 
of the present capital, " the town so laid out to be called and known by the name of Jackson, 
in honor of Major-General Jackson." Peter A. Van Dorn succeeded James Patton, and it is 
interesting to note the progress of the work in reserving lots or "greens" for the capitol, court- 
house, college or academy, executive mansion, and the sale of lots, one incident of which was 
to secure the immediate building of residences by giving ten preferred lots to those purchasers 
who would, within a year, build a representative log or frame house, " not less than thirty feet 
in length." On June, 30, 1822, the plans of the commissioners were ajaproved and the town 
established, whereupon the temporary state buildings were ordered and future sittings of the 
assembly were ordered there. We ma}' imagine the commissioners viewing the bare landscape 
and pointing to this hight and that as the most commanding one above which was to rise the 
dome of a future stately capital, finally deciding upon one that would overlook the ferry and 
valley of Pearl river, and as the map lay before them, afterward choosing the names Capitol, 
State, President, Congress and others for the streets. 

A decade passed, however, before the state was ready to grace the sites chosen with suit- 
able architectural stnictures to represent the dignity and power of the state as well as furnish 
the government a home. On February 26, 1833, measures were taken to effect this by pro- 
viding for the sale of lots and otherwise to grant §95,000 for the capitol and ?10,000 for the 
executive mansion. As is common in such cases the completion of the buildings was delayed 
several years, and the cost rose to several hundred thousand dollars in the end. William 
Nichols was the architect chosen to complete the buildings, and was made state architect in 
1836. A commissioner of public buildings was appointed in 1838 and Charles Lynch was 
chosen, at which date also provision was made for the reservation of a commons or park. In 
1841 the office of keeper of the capitol was created and William Wing appointed to it. On 
January 29, 1842, the apartments of the capitol were distributed as follows: In the basement 
story. No. 1 was given to the governor; No. 2, the secretary of state; No. 3 to the clerk of the 
high court of errors and appeals; No. 4 to government stationery; No. 5 to the keeper of the 
capitol; No. 6 to the adjutant- general; No. 7 to the chancery court; No. 8 to the chancellor; 
No. 9 to the archives; No. 10 to the attorney-general; No. 11 to the clerk of chancery court; 
No. 12 to the state treasurer; No. 13 to the state auditor. 

On the first floor, No. 1 was assigned to the senate; No. 2 to the senate committee; No. 3 
to the secretary of the senate; No. 4 to the senate committee; No. 5 to the enrolling clerk of 
the senate; No. 6 to the high court of errors and appeals; Nos. 7 and 8 to the house com- 
mittee; No. 9 to the enrolling clerk of the house; No. 10 to the chief clerk of the house, and 


No. 11 t(i the house of representatives itself. On the second floor, No. 1 was given to the 
state agricultural society; No. 2 to the senate committee; No. 3 to the librarian; No. 4 to 
the library; No. T) to the judges of the high court of errors and appeals, and Nos. 6 and 7 to 
the house committee. Of course some changes have since occurred, among which may be 
mentioned the removal of the library to the basement facing in the rotunda. 

The capitol, now showing the effects of age and rough usage, is still a chaste and dig- 
nified piece of Greek architecture, with an Ionic face of six columns, looking down Capitol 
street, the main building being of a severe and somewhat earlier form, and all surmounted 
by a dome and extension, from which is gained a broad, picturesque view of the city, spread 
out in gently-rolling proportions on all sides except the east, where spreads the winding 
Pearl valley. Here have been enacted the varied experiences of the state for nearly three- 
quarters of a century, with the exception of a brief period during the war, when Columbus 
was the temporary capital; and in commemoration of that great tragedy of war in which was 
spilled much of the best blood of the state, the south part of the oblong grounds, neatly 
inclosed and extending along two blocks of State street, has been adorned by an elaborate 
and stately monument, on whose white marble one may read this legend: " To the Confeder- 
ate Dead of Mississippi." This was unveiled with splendid ceremonies, on June 3, 1891, 
before multitudes from every part of the South, as the results of five long years of earnest 
effort by the ladies of Mississippi, organized on June 1 5, 1886, as the Confederate Monu- 
ment Association of Mississippi. The piece is sixty-four feet high from the ground line, and 
is composed of four main parts : the die, a castled chamber thirteen feet high by fourteen 
feet wide, fitted to contain a life-size statue of Jefferson Davis, which is now in preparation; 
the plinth of four Egyptian columns, supporting an entablature, and seven feet square by 
nine feet high ; the spire shaft, three feet eight inches square at the base, tapering thirty 
feet to a top two feet square, and surmounted by a statue in Italian marble, of a Confederate 
soldier and gun in parade rest, six feet ten inches in hight. The first public suggestion for 
such a monument was made by Mrs. Luther Manship, of Jackson. 

Passing down Capitol street, one finds the third square on the right slightly elevated, and 
amidst its luxuriant foliage and lawn rises an elegant structure of Greek simplicity where the 
state's governors have long resided. To the north the executive mansion, first occupied by 
Governor Tucker in 1842, looks out upon the pleasing proportions of the public park, which 
occupies a square. 

The governors of Mississippi have usually been among her ablest sons, and not a few 
among them those whom the people delight to honor. The territorial governors began with 
Winthrop Sargent, in the summer of 1798. His unfortunate administration has already 
been referred to. It closed on the 22d of November, 1801, on the arrival of the second 
governor, William C. C. Claiborne, after a term of about three years. 

The second administration was the first really successful one, and resulted in the satis- 
faction of all classes. Governor Claiborne not only had to handle the affairs of the territory 
wisely, but kept so wisely in hand the complications due to proximity to the Indians and 
Louisiana that on December 2, 1803, leaving Col. Cato West, secretary of the territory, in 
charge, he went to New Orleans after two years of successful efforts, and became governor of 
that new territory in October, 1804. 

On January 26, 1805, Eobert Williams, of North Carolina, arrived at Washington, the 
capital, and succeeded Governor Claiborne. His was an administration notable for the state's 
prosperity and his own unpopularity. It was in this period that the famous experiences of 
Aaron Burr occurred, that part which occurred in this territory being due to the action of his 


secretary, Cowles Mead, acting as governor in his absence. It was then too that the people 
first elected their delegate to congress instead of the legislature. Alter four years he was 
replaced by a new appointment made by President Madison. 

Governor David Holmes, a native of Virginia, was the third executive, whose long 
administration of over eight years began in March, 1809, and closed with the career of the 
territorial form of government in December, 1817. These were the eventful and trying years 
of the Creek wars, the British war and the evolution of statehood, and successfully did the 
governor guide affairs through them. 

The state of Mississippi under its new constitution chose to honor Governor Holmes by 
election to the office he had held so long by presidential appointment; and he served during 
its organization for two years until 1819. 

The second governor was George Poindexter, who served one term to 1821, one of the 
ablest men that ever graced a gubernatorial chair anywhere. His codification and revision of 
the state laws is a masterpiece in that line. 

Governor Walter Leake served with ability during two quiet administrations (1821-5), 
his death occurring a few weeks before his second term closed, which period the lieutenant- 
governor, Gerard C. Brandon, acted as his successor. He was the first to be honored by 

The fourth governor, elected in 1825, was Mr. Leake's lieutenant-governor, Mr. Brandon, 
who was also the first governor and was a native of Mississippi. His four years of service 
as executive covered the period of agitation over the noted Planter's bank bonds, and that for 
a new constitution. 

Gov. Abram M. Scott entered upon the duties of his office in January, 1832, but 
died in November, 1833, before hia term was finished, Lieutenant-Governor Fountain serving 
the unfinished period. His administration was successful and marked chiefly by the adop- 
tion of the new constitution. 

The sixth governor, serving one term during 1834-5, was Hiram G. Runnels, whose 
able but quiet administration was uneventful. 

The administration of 1836-7 was that of Gov. Charles Lynch, the seventh governor. 

Alexander G. McNutt, the eighth man who had been elected to the office of chief executive, 
was one of the strongest men the state has produced. His two terms covering the years 
1838-42 were agitated by not only national financial trials, but the famous struggle over the 
Union bank bonds, whose repudiation his bold efforts secured probably more than any other 
one influence. It was in 1840 that Gen. Andrew Jackson was so enthusiastically received as a 
guest by the state. 

The ninth governor, serving for 1842 to 1844, was Tilghmau M. Tucker, whose adminis- 
tration was quiet and successful. One incident of interest was the defalcation of the state 
treasurer, Eichard S. Graves, for about $50,000. 

Gov. Albert G. Brown was another of Mississippi's stalwart statesmen, whose adminis- 
tration (1844-8) was chiefly marked by the state's action in the Mexican war. His wisdom 
is indicated among other things by his efforts to secure to the state a public-school system on 
an adequate scale. 

The administration of the eleventh governor of Mississippi, Joseph Mathews, was une- 
ventful and covered the years from 1848 to 1850. 

Another prominent figure is the twelfth governor, Gen. John A. Quitman, who entered 
on his duties in 1850. His administration is complicated by his resignation, whereupon two 
successive presidents of the senate filled the unexpired term, namely, John I. Guion and 

20 nioauArirrcAi. and iiitiTOiinjAL 

James Whitfield. Tlie rosignntion was for llio puri^se of trial fi)r complicity in the Lopez 
expedition against Cuba, bnt he was acqiiittiHl. This administration is marked by the anti- 
compromise convention of IS,")!. 

Gov. Henry S. Foote succeeded as the thirtetuith chief executive in 18-"):^, and was one 
of the brilliant men of the state. The repudiation of the Planter's bank bonds at the polls, 
after the senate had unanimously declared them legal and binding, and the decision of the 
high court of errors and appeals that the Union bank bonds were valid, were the two promi- 
nent events of his administration. 

The fourteenth governor served two terms, covering the years 1854-8, quiet but success- 
ful. This was Gov. John C. McRae. 

Gov. William Mc Willie's administration was also a quiet one of one term, 1858-60. 

In 1860 the sixteenth governor, John J. Pettus, was inaugurated, and under this vigorous 
executive the well-known events of the war were precipitated. He served two terms. 

Gov. Charles Clarke's administration began in 1864 and ended with military control; the 
incidents of this period are mentioned elsewhere. 

Judge William L. Sharkey was provisional governor in 1865. 

Gov. Benjamin C. Humphreys entered upon the duties of his office in October, 1865, and 
served until removed by the military forces. 

Gen. Adelbert Ames was made military governor, as has been indicated. 

On March 10, 1870, Gov. James L. Alcorn was inaugurated as an elected executive, but, 
as has been mentioned, he was succeeded by Lieut. -Gov. R. C. Powers, on his election to the 
national senate. 

Gov. Adelbert Ames was inaugurated in January, 1874. His administration was noted 
for confusion, proceedings of impeachment against him, his resignation, and " the great revo- 
lution," all of which belongs to the chapter on politics. 

The president of the senate. Col. John M. Stone, succeeded to the office of chief execu- 
tive by virtue of this office in 1876, and was elected in 1877, serving until 1882. Since his 
induction into this office the state has entered upon a career of quietness and prosperity in 
marked contrast to the years since 1861. The founding of the Agricultural and Mechanical 
college was accomplished during his term. 

Gov. Robert Lowry's administration was the longest in years that the state had witnessed; 
it was but two terms, but their length was four years instead of two, covering the years 1882 
to 1890, a period of vast recuperation and development to the state. The establishment of 
the Industrial institute for girls, the East Mississippi insane asylum, and the Railroad 
commission, as well as the unprecedented construction of railways and increase in manufact- 
ures and other industries, place this period among the most remarkable ones in the career of 
the state. 

The present administration presents the unique and highly complimentary circumstance 
of the recall of a former governor to the executive chair after an interval of two terms. 
Gov. John M. Stone, having served six years so successfully in times of trial, entered upon 
his duties again in January, 1890. The adoption of the new constitution is the most promi- 
nent event so far in his administration. 

The present epoch, covering the last thirty years and characterized chiefly by the new 
political status of the negro, presents from a governmental point of view practically three 
periods— the first or military period, from 1861 to 1868-9; the second period under the con- 
stitution of 1868-9, from that date to 1890, and the present period under the constitution of 
1890. The first period may fall into two sections, the one under secession and that part, from 

MEMOIlif< OF MIS.STSSim. 21 

1865 to 1869, under military power. The divisions of the second period may be made on the 
basis of the predominance of races, the colored race previous to 187"', ;ind the white race 
afterward, the former covering about eight years of the constitutional period mentioned, and 
the latter about fourteen years. This division is, however, less governmental than political 
or partisan. As a constitutional epoch its periods are necessarily based on its relations to 
the national constitution as well as on its internal forms. Few governments of the world 
present more striking evolutions in the course of a little less than two centuries, or evolutions 
more worthy the interest of the most profound student of governments, than does the career 
of the people and the boundaries known as the state of Mississippi. But more pregnant with 
interest and mystery than all the past is the problem that confronts her at this moment — 
fortunately a problem whose magnitude no one realizes more than her own citizens, and one 
whose solution seems so far to bafile the best minds of the civilized world. It is a question 
which involves so many elements — elements so elusive, too — elements totally misunderstood to 
those not on the field, and elements almost equally distorted by the prejudices and passions 
aroused in one in the midst of them. Fortunately — a tame word in this case — it has been 
lifted out of dense and hideous depths of ignorance and passion by over a quarter of a cen- 
tury of that great purifier — Time; but it has not wholly escaped either the ignorance nor the 
passion and prejudice yet. No one, however, who has investigated the situation at all fairly, 
can doubt that all concerned are manfully setting themselves to its solution. All concerned 
includes the civilized world; for all are interested in the capacity of republican or democratic 
institutions to meet every condition; but those more immediately concerned may be named, 
without regard to order, as the white people of this state, the colored people, the national 
government, and those in all lands who have especially at heart the civilization of the African 
race. All these have plans to offer from their own view points more or less excellent, but 
none wholly satisfactory to the four interested nor to themselves in all respects. 

The conditions are: A population over half of which is colored and with all the ignorance 
and incapacity of ex-slaves as to the mass; an outnumbered white population with all the 
intelligence in it, refinement and culture, the product of years under a regime of aristocratic 
wealth; a forced political equality; the consequent struggle for mastery, because of numbers 
on the one hand and of intelligence on the other; both determined to stay in the state, the 
one because of home and property, the other because of home, inertia and climatic fitness; 
both bound by a certain dependence to the other, the white on the labor of the negro, appar- 
ently so necessary in this climate, and the negro on the intelligence and capital of the white 
people; and yet both separated by that peculiar and mysterious race instinct so beyond our 
grasp, and that too intensified by an irritated past. 

The alternatives are: A stumbling, blundering, ignorant and inexperienced government 
by a colored majority; or a skilled and able government by the minority white population, 
with some form of suppression of the ignorant majority. 

The point of issue seems to be that one race is determined to grow in self-government 
by blundering experiment involving the more intelligent race in the confusion, but is not 
strong enough to effect it; while the other race is strong enough, and is determined, by virtue 
of its intelligence, to govern the best for both, and let the negro grow in self-government the 
best he may under tutelage. It is a case in which "of two evils choose the less," and even 
many negroes, as well as the white race, believe the latter to be the less, and seem to be 

Meanwhile, as said above, plans of solution are rife. Among those of every land espe- 
cially interested in the civilization of the colored race, there are those that believe our colored 


population should be Hont to Africa or to somo givc^n region like the Indians in Indian terri- 
tory and colonized, but, with ihe exce|ition of a few educated or aggressive colored people 
interested in Siberia and the evangelization of Africa, the colored people receive this coldly, 
many insisting that the v?hole world shall Ixs free to thein, and that such a course would cut 
them off from the civilization gained by the European races. "Besides, how long would it be 
before white people would be so numerous in Africa that the question would simply be revived 
there?" they say. The plan is held as merely speculative, even by the white people. 
Another class hopes and believes that, whatever happens, another generation of education and 
a purer religious teaching, along with the possession of property and perfected family life, 
will find a silent but effective solution. 

The national government, when in the hands of those watchful for the infringement of 
the fourteenth amendment to the constitution, has proposed to resort to the measures of 
reconstruction, at least as far as the election of national officers is concerned, by a law that 
would ajjply equally all over the union, but, for many reasons, not the least being the fear of 
the precedent of introducing the army to the poles anywhere, this has not been effected. 
There is no doubt, too, that increasing general knowledge of the difficulties of the situation by 
the whole nation has also tended to discourage it. There are few, probably, who have really 
seen the situation but would look doubtfully uj^on such a measure. Besides, it would not be 
a solution, but only a return to the second alternative. 

The colored people's solution has been described, as held by many of them. Others pro- 
pose some joint divisioa of offices between the two races on a compromise ticket, as has been 
secured in places where the negroes are less agricultural than in this state and more largely 
educated and owners of property, and where the white people, in consequence no doubt, are 
more inclined to concession, and the negroes prompted less by a feeling of might and right in 

Finally, the white people of the state have undertaken what they hope to be an ultimate 
solution by an educational and tax qualification for franchise, which, while it may disqualify 
a few white men, will sift out large numbers of ignorant and shiftless negroes until the hith- 
erto legal colored majority will no longer be a menace to intelligent government. This will 
also make a class of conservative colored voters, and constantly impress the value and respon- 
sibility of franchise upon the rest, while holding out encouragement and inducement to that 
education and property responsibility, the former of which, at least, is the rock of safety upon 
which alone successful self-government can rest. 


(©HAPTSr^ II. 


(5 I HE war got itself finished and done with at last, and nothing was left to the shattered 
' I state except to pull itself together as best it might and try to get oyer the dreadful 
~^ wreck. 

On the 6th of May, 1865, Governor Clarke issued a proclamation to the people, in which, 
among other things, he informed them that he had called the legislature to convene at Jack- 
son on the 18th of that month. But he was not allowed to proceed. The legislature was 
forbidden to assemble by the Federal authorities, the governor was imprisoned in Fort 
Pulaski, the courts were all closed, the archives and public records of the state were 
seized, the administration of the laws was suspended, the civil government was totally over- 
thrown and all of its functionaries removed from their offices. The military power reigned 

What was the condition of the laws during this very critical period ? This question has 
received judicial consideration. On the 30th of May, one John Harlan stole a gun; he was 
afterward indicted and convicted; he moved an arrest of judgment on the ground that at the 
time of the commission of the offense the constitution and laws of the state were sus- 
pended or overthrown and destroyed by J;he military power of the United States, and that 
no such sovereignty then existed or was recognized as the state of Mississippi. Of this the 
supreme court said: " We entertain no doubt that the laws of the state, civil and criminal, 
as they stood at the date of the secession ordinance, continued in force afterward, precisely 
as before, unafpected by that ordinance, or by the war, or by the deposition of the state 
magistrates in the month of May, 1865. The laws themselves were not suspended during 
the administration of General Canby and Provisional Governor Sharkey, but only their 
administration was temporarily suspended." 

On the 1 3th of June President Johnson issued a proclamation, in which, declaring that 
the Eebellion had, in its revolutionary progress, deprived the people of the state of all 
civil government, he appointed the Hon. William L. Sharkey to be provisional governor of 
the state, defining some of his powers and duties. 

Governor Sharkey's first act was the issuance of a proclamation, dated July 1, 1865, by 
which he appointed in every county the judges and clerks of probate courts, boards of police, 
justices of the peace and all other county officers. No provision was made for the circuit and 
chancery courts. Two days later he issued an order that the " act in regard to the action of 
replevin, and the amendments thereto passed by the legislature of Mississippi since the 9th 
day of January, 1861, be and the same is hereby declared to be in full force from this date." 
This act was one approved December 3, 1863, making provision for the speedy recovery of 

24 jiToaitAi'irroAL and niKTOmOAL 

personal property wrongfully taken or detained, by a summary replevin before two justices of 
the peiice. This was the only judicature created by the governor for the assertion of legal 
rights. All other rights of that character wore left, for the time being,wholly without redress. 
On July 1 'i was established a system of courts unknown to the constitution either of the 
state or of the United States. It was created by commissions, of which the material parts 
are as follows: "I, W. L. Sharkey, provisional governor of the state of Mississippi, do 
hereby appoint the said (George T. Swann) to the office of special judge,with equity jurisdic- 
tion in all contfacts for cotton or other personal property in this state, with power to proceed 
in a summary way on petition to enforce specific performance or rescind contracts on notice to 
parties." The judge was empowered to issue process, to punish for contempt, and to appoint 
a clerk; and it was made the duty of sheriffs to execute this process and enforce its decrees. 
On the 25th of the month a supplementary commission was issued to the effect that " in 
decreeing specific performance of contracts in reference to cotton, or other property, he 
(Swann, or other judge) has power to make his decrees in the alternative for the cotton or 
other property, or for its value, if the property itself can not be had." These courts, specially 
organized for the sole purpose of enforcing or rescinding contracts for personal property, left 
all other equity jurisdiction unprovided for. They completed, with those already mentioned, 
the system of jurisprudence which the provisional governor thought proper to put in opera- 
tion during his administration. 

In the case of Scott vs. Billgerry, 40 Miss., 119, it was objected to the special courts 
described last above that the governor had no power to create such tribunals, and that their 
actions were coram non judice and void; but our supreme court decided that we were a 
conquered territory, and in that respect, as in others, subject to the power of the conquerer, 
and that the president might delegate the authority. The court, however, said: " The 
governor was a Federal officer, appointed to administer the Federal rule over the state, and 
the war-making power of that government was the source of all his authority." This 
tribunal, as created by the provisional governor, was not a state, but a Federal court, deriving 
its existence and all its powers from the Federal government. 

In July also, Governor Sharkey, by proclamation, called a constitutional convention to 
meet in Jackson on August 14, to be composed of delegates who were loyal to the United 
States, for the purpose of "altering or amending the constitution,'' so as to enable the state 
to " resume its place in the Union." That body (the fourth in the state's history) met 
accordingly. It consisted of seventy whigs and twenty-eight democrats. J. Shall Yer- 
ger was elected president. Its membership included James T. Harrison, of Lowndes- David 
W. Hurst, of Amite; James S. Hamm, of Kemper; Locke E. Houston, of Monroe; George 
L. Potter, William Yerger and Amos B. Johnston, of Hinds; Hugh A. Barr, of Lafayette; 
James S. Bailey, of Tallahatchie; Thomas A. Marshall, of Warren; Will T. Martin, of Adams- 
Ephraim G. Peyton, of Copiah; John W. C. Watson, of Marshall; Eobert A. Hill, of Tisho- 
mingo; Hampton L. Jarnagin, of Noxubee; Robert S. Hudson, of Yazoo, etc. 

The convention did not frame a new constitution, but confined itself strictly to the pur- 
pose for which it was called — alteration and amendment, and the undoing of the work of the 
convention of 1861. The ordinance of secession, and all others intended to make it effectual 
were annulled. Slavery was abolished. All legislative enactments, and all official acts of 
officers, not in conflict with the constitution and laws of the United States, or the constitution 
of the state as it was on January 1, 1861, were validated, with a few minor exceptions, as also 
were the proceedings of the courts, and all marriages celebrated, since the secession. ' 

The provisions in regard to the judiciary were these: 


The special courts of equity theretofore, and thereafter to be, established by the prqyis- 
ional governor (it seems that none were in fact afterward established) were recognized, and 
provision made for appeals to be taken from their judgments to the high court; but it was 
provided further that when the courts known to the constitution and laws of this state should 
be established, such special courts should be no further recognized than to allow them to 
conclude the cases then pending. 

The twelfth section of the declaration of rights in the constitution of ,1832 ran thus: 
" No person shall, for an indictable offense, be proceeded against criminally by information, 
except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service, or 
by leave of the court for misdemeanor in office." The convention added the proviso, which 
has continued in substance to this day, " That the legislature, in cases of petit larceny, assault, 
assault and battery, afEray, riot, unlawful assembly, drunkenness, vagrancy, and otjier misde- 
meanors of like character, may dispense with an inquest of a grand jury, and may authorize 
prosecutions before justices of the peace, or such other inferior court or courts as may be 
established by the legislature, and the proceedings in such case shall be regulated by law." 
This proviso has been considered to apply to all offenses below felonies, and to empower the 
legislature to dispense in such cases with any trial by jury. 

Section 18 of article TV was extended so as to confer on the probate courts jurisdiction 
in minors' business. Theretofore its jurisdiction of this class had been limited to orphans' 
business, and it could not, for instance, appoint a guardian of the estate or person of a child 
whose father was living. 

The legislature was empowered to direct sessions of the high court to be held at other 
places than Jackson; reserving to Jackson, however, the right to at least one session per 

A general election was ordered for the first Monday in October for representatives in 
congress and all state officers and members of the legislature; also, a special election at the 
same time for all county, district, judicial and ministerial officers, all terms to begin on the 
third Monday. The legislature was directed to convene on that day. 

The validity of the convention itsel:^was in doubt, and, of course, that doubt attached to 
all of its measures. In the case of Thomas vs. Taylor, 42 Miss., 651, this question was 
raised, but the supreme court waived it so far as the point of the excess of power by the presi- 
dent in organizing the provisional government was concerned, "inasmuch as the congress of 
the United States have recognized the existing government of the state as a provisional one." 

The legislature met in October, as directed. They passed quite a number of statutes, in 
the effort to adjust the laws of the state to conditions so embarrassing and unprecedented. 
The most noteworthy feature of their work was that in reference to the newly emancipated 
f reedmen, and which, meeting the disapproval of many of the Northern people, earned for the 
laws of that session the unfavorable appellation of the Black Code. Generally speaking, the 
statutes regulated the right of the negroes to the acquisition and enjoyment of property, their 
power to sue and be sued and to prefer criminal charges, their marriages, their contracts and 
the performance of them, the apprenticing of negro children, their carrying or owning arms, 
and their breaches of the peace. The legislature of 1867 repealed most of the objectionable 
features of the acts of 1865; thereby abolishing the distinctions made in respect to the power 
to acquire property, the criminal laws, the apprenticing of children, etc., but left them still 
incompetent as jurors. 

The act of November 24, 1865, established county courts, to be held once a month in each 
county, by the probate judge, as president, with two associates chosen by the justices of the 


peace for the county from their own number. The criminal jurisdiction, concurrent with the 
courts ah-eady invested therewith, extended to all offenses less than felonies; and it was 
empowered to inflict, not only the jjunishments already prescribed by law, but also suspension 
by the thumbs. The civil jurisdiction, concurrent also, embraced all civil suits at law or 
equity, including ejectments, where the value in controversy did not exceed $250; except that 
replevins were without any limit of value ; and except that the jurisdiction over forcible entries 
and unlawful detainers was exclusive. The writ of habeas corpus could be issued and heard 
in all cases of crimes within their jurisdiction. Crimes were prosecuted by information; and 
they were authorized to employ county attorneys. Special courts of the same powers, and 
going under the anomalous names of " the county court of (Grenada, for instance) " were 
established in the towns of Jackson, Okolona, Grenada, Meridian and Corinth. Appeals from 
the judgments of justices' and mayors' courts were to be taken to the county courts, instead 
of the circuit courts; and the decisions of such courts thereon were final. Suits and prosecu- 
tions originating in the county courts might be appealed, under conditions, to the circuit 

An act of October 30, 1866, amended the foregoing as follows: The probate judges were 
made the sole judges of these courts, even for those of the towns; the county attorney was 
made elective; certain concurrent criminal jurisdiction in small offenses not previously 
cognizable by them was conferred on justices of the peace, and the terms were fixed at differ- 
ent intervals in different counties, ranging from one to six months. 

In October, 1865, also, the election ordered by the convention took place. Judges A. H. 
Handy, William L. Harris and Henry T. Ellett were elected to the high court bench, and the 
first term of that tribunal since the war (a special one) was in January, 1866. Judge Handy 
was made chief justice. The circuit and other courts resumed work in November. In organ- 
izing the circuit court of De Soto county, on the 19th of February, 1866, Judge Trotter pref- 
aced his charge to the grand jury by the remark that " It is upward of four years, I believe, 
since a court was organized and holden in De Soto county." 

In February, 1866, occurred an interesting conflict between the courts and an officer of 
the Freedman's bureau. The case of one Charles Uitard, a negro apprentice, was before the 
county court of Madison county, apparently on a charge against him of running away from 
his master. The master was charged with using him badly. The matter coming to the ears 
of Lieut. -Col. R. S. Donaldson, acting assistant commander of the bureau, he addressed to the 
probate judge a letter, enclosing an order of Lieutenant- General Grant, then recently made, 
which gave to the military authorities the power to interfere for the protection of freedmen 
of all ages in cases of prosecutions for offenses and punishments where they were not treated 
in equal manner and degree with the whites. Besides the inclosure of this order, Colonel 
Donaldson undertook to instruct the judge as to what he should do in the premises. This 
communication was referred to Governor Humphreys, who sent it to the major-general com- 
manding, with a letter in which he pointed out the fact that, so far as the differences in the 
laws of apprenticeship were concerned, the advantages were with the black children. He 
concluded: " Why the legislature has discriminated thus in favor of the freedman is not for 
the executive to inquire, but to avoid collision between the military and civil authorities, it is 
important for the civil officers to know, with certainty, whether these laws are to be nullified." 
The matter ended with a letter from Colonel Thomas, the assistant commander, to Lieutenant- 
Colonel Donaldson, in which these passages occur : " Nothing but the most convincing proof that 
the child was inhumanly treated should have caused you to take any step for his release, and 
then, only after the refusal of the judge of probate to release him on the presentation of the 


facts, as they were before you. It is the policy of the bureau to recognize the civil power of 
the state to the fullest extent, and infuse into the minds of the freedmen respect for the civil 
oflScers and government under which they must live at no distant day. It is not desired to 
nullify any state law, but to soften the application of those parts that may seem oppressive, 
and to interfere for the protection of freedmen only in individual cases, when local prejudices 
may cause the executive or judical officers of the state to deny the freedmen the rights which 
we are here to secure them. If you will examine the decision of Judge Campbell, attached 
to this paper, you will see that he is willing to give the law an interpretation that is liberal 
and just. It would be wrong for the bureau to assume any attitude that would injure this 
officer's influence. It is my opinion that the larger number of judges in the state would 
render the same decisions, and that only isolated cases occur where the law is interpreted 
oppressively. It is but treating them with due respect to make an effort to correct an evil 
through them, before any other method is. adopted. You will see on reflection that it was not 
proper to write a letter of instructions to any officer of the civil government. You will 
therefore, in the case of Charles Pitard, write a letter to the judge of probate at Canton, Miss., 
saying that you withdraw your letter of instruction,' ' etc. No fuller vindication of the 
impartiality of the judiciary during this trying period could be desired than is made in this 
" official " order of the Freedman's bureau. 

The legislature met in called session on October 15, 1866, continuing, with two recesses, 
through February following. 

An act was passed creating four high court districts, and requiring the court to be held 
in each district, for that district, once in each year, at the towns of Oxford, Jackson, Macon 
and Mississippi city. This act, however, the high court, in the case of M. & O. K. E. Co. vs. 
Mattan, 41 Miss., 692, decided to be unconstitutional in this: the business of the court held 
in a district was limited to the district, instead of embracing that of the entire state. So 
that the court continued, as before, to hold two terms in Jackson only. 

"An act for the encouragement of agriculture," passed at this session, and approved 
February 18, 1867, is worthy of note. The country was in a greatly distressed condition, 
because of the destruction of values through the war and its ending. All of the ordinary 
bases of credit were destroyed or nearly so, and it became necessary to devise something to 
serve that purpose. The act provides that all debts for money, supplies, utensils, work-stock 
or other necessaries for the farm, shall constitute a prior lien on the crops not exempt, and 
on the animals and implements used; that advances of money, clothing or provisions, made 
by any owner or lessee of lands to his laborer working for a share of the crops, should con- 
stitute a lien on the share of such laborer until paid; that such liens shall be enforced by a 
bill in chancery, with sequestration; that mortgages might be given on crops to be produced 
within fifteen months; and that crops shall not be levied on or sold by any process until 
matured and gathered. 

This statute is the origin of our present law on this important subject. It has been 
altered in many respects; but under various modifications it has been introduced into the 
codes of 1871 and 1880. The remedy has been much simplified, and is now by a summary 
seizure (on affidavit and warrant), much like the old distress at common law. If litigation 
arises, it is in the law courts, not in chancery. 

In January the legislature unanimously refused to ratify the fourteenth amendment to 
the constitution of the United States, proposed by congress. 

In March the congress passed, over the president's veto, the " Act for the more efficient 
government of the late insurrectionary states." It provided " that said rebel states shall be 


divided iuto military districts, and made stibject to the military authority of the United 
States;" that " it shall be the duty of each officer assigned (to the command of such dis- 
tricts) to protect all persons in their rights of person and property, to suppress insurrection, 
disorder and violence, and to punish or cause to be punished all disturbers of the public 
peace and criminals; and to this end he may allow local civil tribunals to take jurisdiction 
of and. try offenders; or when in his judgnitnt it may be necessary for the, trial of offenders, 
he shall have power to organize military committees or tribunals for that purpose, and all 
interference under color of state authority with the exercise of military authority under this 
act shall be null and void," etc. Mississippi was placed in the fourth district, and Gen. 
E. O. C. Ord made military commander. And thus, for a second time, the state was placed 
under a bayonet rule. In July another act of congress was passed over the piesident's veto, 
declaring that it was the true intent and meaning of the act of March that the district com- 
manders might remove all civil and military officers claiming under authority of the states, 
and fill their places by appointment; and that no such commander, nor any of his appointees, 
should be bound by any opinion of any civil officer of the United States. 

Moved by this legislation and the action inaugurated thereupon. Judges Handy, Harris 
and EUett, being the entire high court bench, resigned on the 1st of October. They were 
just in time. Had they held on but a little longer they might have shared with Governor 
Humphreys the honor of ejection at the points of bayonets. General Ames, having been 
made military governor of the state June 15, 1868, made root-and-branch work of it. Every- 
thing was removed. For months there were no incumbents of many of the offices; not even 
appointees. In many of the counties even a marriage license could not be obtained so late 
as the spring of 1869. The clergy subjected themselves to liabilities to fines, as for violation 
of the law, in celebrating the nuptials of their youth. Nevertheless the marriages went on. 

Two cases illustrative of the practical working of the military tribunals are those of 
McCardle and of Yerger. 

About the 1st of November, 1867, Col. William H. McCardle, a distinguished editor, of 
Vicksburg, was arrested by the military authorities, under charges of, first, disturbing the 
public peace; second, inciting to insurrection, disorder and violence; third, libel; fourth, and 
impeding reconstruction. He sued out a habeas corpus before the Federal court at Jackson, 
but was by that court remanded to the military authorities. He then prayed an appeal to the 
Supreme court of the United States. The right of appeal was placed on a certain act of con- 
gress, passed February 5, 1867. The supreme court of the United States itself, shall now 
tell the remainder of the discreditable story: "A motion to dismiss the appeal was made 
here and denied. The case was then argued at the bar, and the argument having been con- 
cluded on the 9tljL of March, 1868, was then taken under advisement by the court. While the 
cause was thus held, and before the court had time to consider the decision proper to be made, the 
repealing act under consideration (that of March 27, 1868), was introduced into congress. It 
was carried through both houses, sent to the president, returned with his objections, repassed 
by the constitutional majority in each house, and became a law on the 27th of March, within 
eighteen days after the conclusion of the argument. The effect of the act was to oust the 
court of its jurisdiction of the particular case then before it on appeal, and it is not to be 
doubted that such was the effect intended. Nor will it be questioned that legislation of this 
character is unusual and hardly to be justified except upon some imperious public exigency' ' 
(75. U. S., 85). It was perhaps well for the supreme court which had been subjected to an 
indignity so great to speak of it in measured terms, but there is, and should be, no real 
measure for the scorn meted to a congress which, in time of profound peace, could prostitute 


the legislation of the United States in a conflict with the editor of a village newspaper, and 
that at the expense of the credit of the highest judicial tribunal of the nation. 

Yerger's case arose later. On June 8, 1869, Col. E. N. Yerger slew Capt. J. G. Crane, 
mayor of Jackson by military appointment. A military commission was promptly organized 
to try him for murder. Objection was made to the competency of the mode of trial, but over- 
ruled. Pending the trial, Yerger sued out a habeas corpus in the Federal court at Ja,okson, 
under a special agreement made between his counsel and the attorney-general of the United 
States, in order that the important questions involved might be submitted for the consideration 
of the supreme court. He was remanded by the lower court to the military authorities, and took 
his appeal. At the December term, 1869, the case was argued specially on the point of juris- 
diction, and the court held that the jurisdiction existed notwithstanding the repeal of the act 
of 1867, for the reason that other acts still in force gave it the power to revise the decisions 
of the inferior courts of the United States in such cases. 

But while this important question of whether there was or was not in the United 
States any judicial power which could, in time of peace, revise the work of a military court in 
the trial of citizens was being settled, the necessity for such remedies was passing away. The 
constitution of 1869 had been adopted, and the state restored to its rights. 

When the judges of the high court resigned in October, 1867, there was no election of 
their successors by the people, but by the military commandant, Thomas G. Shackleford, of 
Madison county, Ephraim G. Peyton, of Copiah county, and E. JefEords, of Issaquena county, 
were appointed. Judge Shackleford was made chief justice. The first term under this bench 
was a special term in April, 1868. In 1869 Judge Jeffords was succeeded by George F. 

At the October term, 1869, the important case of Thomas vs. Taylor, 42 Miss., 651, was 
decided. It involved the question whether the state was liable for the payment of about 
$5,000,000 of treasury notes, commonly called " cotton money,'' issued during the war, under 
the act of December 19, 1861. The court held that while, of course, the war and the acts 
leading thereto, did not abolish the state considered either as territory or as people, yet still, 
the government in charge of the state was not legal; it was a usurping power, revolutionary, 
and never recognized by the United States; that while the convention of 1865 had ratified most 
of its legislative acts, it had not ratified those in furtherance of the rebellion, and the issuance 
of the notes in question was an act of that character. The notes were void. 

In the year 1867 an election was held by the military authorities, in accordance with 
the reconstruction act cited above, and a supplementary act of March 23, on the question 
whether a constitutional convention should be held, and for the choice of delegates in case it 
should be ordered. At this election a large number of the best and most intelligent white 
citizens were excluded from voting, by test oaths, penalties, etc. ; while the negroes, ignorant 
and marshaled by unscrupulous adventurers, were allowed to vote without any pretense of a 
statute or constitutional provision of the state conferring that privilege on them. The quali- 
fication for suffrage was dictated by congress. Such was the foundation of the constitution 
of 1869. 

The "Black and Tan " convention met in Jackson, January 7, 1868. It comprised a number 
of able, patriotic and true men, but the majority of its members were ignorant blacks and reckless 
white plunderers. Their work was finished on the 15th of May, 1868, and was submitted to 
the people for ratification as directed by the act of congress. The election resulted in its 
rejection. The white people of the state were deeply incensed at the whole conduct of the 
convention, and were especially indignant at certain clauses in the proposed constitution 


whicli disfranchised some of the best citizens. Thoy therefore accomplished its defeat, 
ulthough the election was held under military control, with troops stationed at as many as 
sixty different (juarters in the state. The matter was brought to the attention of congress 
by a message of President Grant's on the 7th of April, 1809, and on the lOth a bill was 
approved, which authorized the president to resubmit the constitution to the electors, and, in 
his discretion, to submit separately any provision or provisions thereof. This was done. 
The election, held on the 30th of November and the 1st of December, resulted in the ratifi- 
cation of the constitution, except that section 5 of the article on franchise, and sections 4 
to 13 inclusive of the schedule, were rejected. At this election state officers and members of 
congress were also voted lor, by direction of the act of 10th of April. 

It is to be observed that these reconstruction acts and the proceedings under them, 
introduced into our election system the practice of registering voters. It was incorporated 
into the constitution, and has been retained until now. 

The most striking new features of this constitution are these: The office of lieutenant-gov- 
ernor is restored; imprisonment for debt is forbidden unqualifiedly; property qualifications 
are forbidden for any purpose; the right of secession is disclaimed forever; simple manhood 
qualification for suffrage, regardless of color, is established; a system of free schools is 
ordered to be established; the pledging of the state's credit in aid of any association, corpo- 
ration or person, is forbidden, as also is the taking of stock by the state in any corporation or 
association; the assumption or payment of any obligation contracted in aid of the Rebellion 
is prohibited, as also is the making of any demand against the United States for emancipa- 
tion of the slaves ; the legislature is ordered to provide for the sale of delinquent tax lands, 
and the courts required to apply the same liberal principles in favor of such titles as in sales 
by execution. This extraordinary provision, generally understood as designed to enalsle the 
party in power to prosecute more successfully such white citizens as should be charged with 
political offenses, appears: "The legislature shall provide by law for the indictment and 
trial of persons charged with commission of any felony, in any county other than that in 
which the offense was committed, whenever, owing to jirejudice, or any other cause, an 
impartial grand or petit jury can not be impaneled in the county in which the offense was 
committed." This provision, it is believed, was never put into practical operation. 

Another interesting provision is section 22 of article XII: " All persons who have not been 
married, but are now living together cohabiting as husband and wife, shall be taken and held, 
for all purposes in law, as married, and their children . . shall be legitimate." This 

was intended to legalize the relations of negroes, who had married while they were slaves, 
and were therefore incapable of making any binding contract. In the case of Dickerson vs. 
Brown, 49 Miss., 357, and in two others it was held that iinder this provision, while even 
those who had been previously living in unlawful relations could become husband and wife 
without any nuptial ceremonies, yet still their consent and acceptance of the legal relation must 
appear. Not even a constitution can marry two together witliout their consent; and the mere 
continuance of their intimacy after the constitution became operative was not sufficient. 

The constitutional provisions in regard to the judiciary were of great importance : First, 
the name of the high court of errors and appeals was changed to that of the supreme 
court, and the terms of the judges extended to nine years; second, the circuit courts were 
retained, and their minimum jurisdiction raised to $150; third, chancery courts, with a 
distinct judiciary, were established in each county, the chancellors being assignable by law 
to convenient circuits, and with full jurisdiction in all matters of equity, divorce, alimony, 
testaments, administrations, minors' business, idiocy, lunacy and dower; chancellors and 


circuit judges to hold their offices four and six years, respectively; fourth, the civil juris- 
diction of justices of the peace was extended to cases of $150 value of principal; fifth, the 
name of the board of police was changed to that of board of supervisors; sixth, the judges 
and chancellors alike were to be appointed by the governor, by and with the concurrence of 
the senate. 

The effect of these provisions, and of certain statutes shortly passed in furtherance of 
them, was to abolish the probate courts and transfer their jurisdiction to the chancery 
courts; also, to abolish the county courts, and distribute I heir jurisdiction between the Circuit 
and the magistrate's courts. Existing terms were ended, and new appointments were to be 

The legislature was required to meet annually, and the first session began January 11, 
1870. That body ratified the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments to the constitution of the 
United States, passed elaborate statutes on the subjects of public education (a full account 
of which and of its results will be found in the chapter on education), of apprentices, the 
supreme, circuit and chancery courts, justices of the peace, besides many others of impor- 

By act of June 9 it was ordered that three commissioners should be appointed to revise, 
digest and codify the laws, and to propose such amendments, alterations and new laws as 
they might deem advisable. Accordingly, J. A. P. Campbell, Amos R. Johnston and Amos 
Lovering, were appointed. The result of their labors revised, changed in many particulars 
and finally adopted by the next legislature, was the revised code of 1871, in sixty-six 

Judge Johnston was a native of Tennessee. He came to Mississippi about 1830 and 
settled in Hinds county, living in Clinton, Raymond and Jackson at different times, as busi- 
ness called. Until 1839 he was an editor. In 1836 he was a member of the legislature. He 
was elected circuit clerk in 1839, and while in that ofSce studied lav?. He served two terms, 
and then, in 1845, was elected probate judge. He was a member of the convention of 1851, 
in which he advocated acquiescence in the compromise measures, and the preservation of the 
Union. The fact that he was a Union man and a whig kept him out of political office, but 
indeed he seemed to care little for it. He was a member of the constitutional convention of 
1865, and in 1875 of the state senate. He was a dignified, courteous and sympathetic gen- 
tleman; a studious, painstaking, thorough and successful lawyer. He died in 1879. 

Under the direction of the new constitution, it became necessary to reorganize the judi- 
ciary. The supreme judges elected were Ephraim G. Peyton, Horatio P. Simrall and Jona- 
than Tarbell. They were installed about April, 1870, and their first term of court was the 
special May term of that year. Judge Peyton was chosen chief justice. This organization 
continued until May, 1876, when Judge Peyton resigned, and on the 1st Hamilton H. Chal- 
mers was appointed, while Judge Tarbell's term expired, and on the 10th J. A. P. Campbell 
succeeded. Judge Simrall was then made chief justice. Judge Simrall's term expired on 
the 9th of May, 1879, and he was followed by James Z. George, who was made chief justice. 
On the 19th of February, 1881, Judge George resigned, and was succeeded by Timothy E. 
Cooper, Judge Chalmers becoming chief justice, under the rule of the code of 1880, to the 
effect that he shall be chief justice whose term is to expire first. Under this rule Judge 
Campbell became chief justice on the 10th of May, 1882, and Judge Cooper on the 11th of 
May, 1885. On the 7tli of January, 1885, James M. Arnold succeeded Judge Chalmers, 
deceased, becoming chief justice on May 11, 1S8S. On the 1st of Octoljer, 1889, Thomas H. 
Woods was appointed, vice Judge Arnold, resigned, and became chief justice. In May, 1891, 


Judge Woods was reappointed, and Judge Campbell became chief justice for the second time. 
Cooper and Woods associates. 

Judge Ellett began his public life in Claiborne county. He was there a successful 
lawyer. In November, 1846, he was elected to succeed Col. Jefferson Davis in the United 
States congress, and served until March, 1847. Declining reelection, he returned to the 
practice. He represented his county in the state senate continuously from 1854 to 1862. He 
was one of the commissioners who framed the code of 1857. When he resigned from the 
high court bench in 1867, as related, he went to Memphis, and there engaged in the practice 
of law until his death, which occurred in 1887. He was an enlightened, thoughtful and 
judicious legislator and judge, a dignified and deeply learned lawyer, a graceful and accom- 
plished gentleman, a pure, genial and kind man. 

Charles C. Shackleford was probably a Kentuckian. At all events he took a law degree 
at Transylvania university, and then came to Mississippi. When appointed to the high court 
bench he was a citizen of Madison county. He served several years as circuit judge after his 
retirement from that position. He did most of the work of the court while on the bench, and 
his opinions are very respectable. 

Ephraim G. Peyton was born in Kentucky, October 29, 1802. He came to Mississippi at 
seventeen, and was admitted to the bar in 1825. Settling in Copiah county, he was elected 
district attorney in 1839. He was reelected several times, but finally resigned in order to 
devote himself to a more settled practice. He was violently opposed to secession, and a life- 
long antagonist to the democratic party. After the war he afiiliated with the republican 
party, and was appointed to the supreme bench. He died in Jackson, September 5, 1876. 
Judge Peyton was a profound and accomplished lawyer with extraordinary assiduity in his 
studies. He was, too, a sincere, honest, courageous, refined, cultured and kind man. His 
opinions as a judge are of the finest type. 

Judge Chalmers was bom probably in Halifax county, Va., about the year 1833. He 
graduated at the University of Mississippi in 1853, and engaged in the practice of law in 
De Soto county. He was devoted to his profession and quickly took high rank in it. Raised 
to the supreme bench in 1 876, he was reappointed on the expiration of his term, and died in 
office, January 4, 1885. Judge Chalmers was unusually gifted. Accessible, genial and even 
jovial, in his bearing, he still had great personal dignity. His was the fortunate talent for 
winning warm friends. As a lawyer, he was industrious, dexterous, faithful and successful. 
His speech was fluent, attractive and sometimes eloquent. He was a learned, careful, inde- 
pendent and conscientious judge, and his opinions are exceedingly clear and satisfactory, 
sometimes a little ornate. His sudden death was generally felt to be a great loss to the state, 
and the reputation which he left is most enviable. 

Judges Simrall, Campbell, George, Cooper, Arnold and Woods are still living, and for 
that reason no effort will be made to enumerate their individual characteristics. Let it suffice 
to say that their labors have illustrated the legal literature of the state, and have placed its 
supreme court on a plane as high as that occupied by any state court in the Union. 

The attorneys-general of the state since the war have been these: Hon. Charles E. Hooker 
(since, for several terms, a member of congress) was elected in the fall of 1865 and held 
until October, 1868. There was then a period during which the office was vacant and the 
state was represented by different lawyers, usually by Jasper Myers, described in the reports 
as "acting attorney-general." In the election of 1869 Joshua S. Morris was chosen, and held 
the office until the year 1874, when he was succeeded by George E. Harris, an ex-member of 
congress. Thomas C. Catching, afterwards and now a member of congress, followed Gen- 


eral Harris in 1878 and peuding the October term 1877. In January, 1885, Thomas S. Ford 
was appointed, vice Catchings, resigned; and in 1886 he was succeeded by Hon. T. Marshall 
Miller, the present incumbent. 

The circuit judges of the period between the war and the reconstruction were James 
M. Smiley, James F. Trotter, Alexander M. Clayton, William Cothran, John Watts, J. A. P. 
Campbell, J. Shall Yerger, W. H. Killpatrick, W. D. Bradford, H. W. Foote, John E. Mc- 
Nair, William M. Hancock, Thomas Shackleford, James S. Hamm and B. F. Trimble. The 
judges for the period between the inauguration of the reconstruction and the political revo- 
lution of 1876 were James M. Smiley, W. D. Bradford, William M. Hancock, — Vance, 
— GifEord, — Thigpen, B. B. Boone, Jonathan Tarbell, Green C Chandler, A. AldersoUj 
Uriah Millsaps, Robert Leachman, Jehu A. Orr, Orlando Davis, Charles C. Shackleford, 
Ephraim S. Fisher, Jason Niles, W. Cunningham and George F. Brown. Those who have 
served since the year 1875 are James M. Smiley, James A. Green, John W. C. Watson, Samuel 
Powell, B. F. Trimble, William Cothran, James M. Arnold, James S. Hamm, A. G. Mayers, 
Sol S. Calhoon, J. B. Chrisman, Upton M. Young, Ralph North, Charles H. Campbell, Joseph 
W. Buchanan, Winfield S. Featherston, A. T. Roane, Samuel H. Terral, Warren Cowan, W. 
M. Rogers, James H. Wynn, Locke E. Houston, George Winston, J. D. Gilland and James 
T. Fant. 

The chancellors appointed by Governor Alcorn and Governor Ames under the act of 1870 
were William G. Henderson, G. S. McMillan, Wesley Drane, Thomas Christian, Theodoric 
C. Lyon, O. H. Whitfield, Austin Pollard, Arthur E. Reynolds, DeWitt Stearns, J. Fred Sim- 
mons, Dallas P. Coffey, J. J. Hooker, Samuel Young, Edward Hill, E. Stafford, E. W. 
Cabinniss, G. R. Gowen, D. N. Walker, J. W. Ellis, E. G. Peyton, Jr., W. A. Drennan, J. R. 
Galtney, R. Boyd, J. J. Dennis, C. A. Sullivan, William D. Frazee, C. C. CuUins, L. C. Abbott, 
J. N. Campbell, Peter P. Bailey, Thomas Walton, William Breck, H. R. Ware, R. B. Stone, 
E. H. Osgood and Hiram Cassidy, Jr. In 1876, when the democratic party came into power, 
the chancery districts were reduced from twenty-six to twelve, and from that time until now 
the chancellors have been Lafayette Haughton, A. B. Fly, Joseph C. Gray, Charles Clark, 
Robert W. Williamson, L. Brame, George Wood, T. B. Graham, E. G. Peyton, Jr., T. Y. 
Berry, Upton M. Young, Ralph North, J. Bright Morgan, W. G. Phelps, H. S. Van Eaton, 
Frank A. Critz, James G. Hall, Lauch McLaurin, Warren Cowan, Baxter McFarland, 
B. T. Kimbrough, Sylvanus Evans and W. R. Trigg. In 1888 the chancery districts 
were reduced to six, but increased to seven in 1890. In 1876 and 1878 the counties of War- 
ren and Adams, respectively, were made separate circuit- court and chancery districts, the 
offices of judge and chancellor being held by the same person. This arrangement was termi- 
nated in 1884, those counties and Sharkey being made a district of the usual kind. 

In the spring of 1866 the Hon. Robert A. Hill, of Tishomingo county, was appointed 
district judge of the United States for Mississippi, and the court for north Mississippi 
removed from Pontotoc to Oxford. In the year 1882 an eastern division of the northern dis- 
trict was established, the court to be held at Aberdeen, and in 1887 a western division of the 
southern district, the court to be at Vioksburg, and in 1888 a southern division of the southern 
district was established, the court to be held at Mississippi city. In 1889 the northern dis- 
trict was incorporated into the fifth circuit. Theretofore it had been in none, the district 
court exercising circuit court powers. 

The literature of the legal profession, other than statutes and codes, shall now engage 
the attention for a period. 

The first series of reports issued after the war were those of Reuben O. Reynolds — the 


40th to 42d Mississippi. They embrace all of the decisions made subsequent to the war and 
prior to the reorganization of 1 S70. 

The reporter, Colonel Reynolds, was born in Morgan county, Ga., and reared in Monroe 
county, Miss. He took an A. B. at the University of Georgia, and a B. L. at the University of 
Virginia. Entered upon the practice in Aberdeen, in 1856. In the army he lost an arm 
and rose to be lieutenant-colonel of the Eleventh Mississippi. In 1 875 he was elected to the 
state senate, and served in that capacity for twelve years. He died in 1887. Colonel Eey- 
nolds was an accomplished, gallant and chivalric soldier, an exact, painstaking and satisfactory 
reporter, a most disinterested, vigilant, able, untiring and patriotic legislator, an adroit, 
ingenious, thorough and brave lawyer. He was a man of great versatility. Quick-tempered 
and impulsive, yet self-controled and generous, his varied virtues were crowned by an unob- 
trusive but genuine piety. Altogether it would be difficult to find his superior in the combi- 
nation of graces which go to make a strong, honorable and attractive man. 

His successor as reporter was Joshua S. Morris, the attorney-general. Coming into office 
in 1870, Judge Morris published six volumes — 43d to 48th Miss. — the last terminating with 
the April term, 1873. The legislature of 1870 had ordered, by act approved July 18, 1870, 
a compilation of the criminal cases in all the volumes of Mississippi reports to date, anno- 
tated, to be called " Mississippi state cases." General Morris did this work, and the book 
issued in two volumes, not embraced in his regular series. General Morris was a lawyer, 
especially a criminal lawyer, of considerable ability. He died at Natchez in the year 1890. 

He was succeeded as reporter in 1875 by Harris & Simrall, composed of George E. 
Harris, the attorney-general, and G. H. Simrall. They published four volumes — 49th to 
52d Miss. — ^the last ending in the midst of the October term, 1876. 

Their successors were Joseph A. Brown and J. B. H. Hemingway, who published thir- 
teen volumes, 53d to 65th Miss.; the last terminating in the October term, 1888. This series 
is not a work of collaboration, strictly speaking. The reporters parceled out the work, except 
Vol. 53. Mr. Brown alone reported 54, 57 and 59 ; while 61 was reported almost entirely by 
J. Bowmar Harris, Esq., for him. The other volumes were reported by Mr. Hemingway 

The next reporters are the present incumbents, Messrs. L. Brame (the ex-chancellor) and 
Charlton H. Alexander. The gentlemen have published two volumes, 66th and 67th Miss. 

In 1872 a digest of the Mississippi reports, from Walker to 44th Miss., inclusive, by 
James Z. George, Esq., in which, however, the title of limitation of estates was prepared by 
Judge Clayton, and that of criminal law by William E. Barksdale, Esq. This digest does 
not include the two chancery reports of Freeman and Smedes & Marshall. These two 
volumes seem to have been omitted from all digests since Smede's. 

In 1881 Garnett Andrews, Esq., of Yazoo city, published a digest, embracing 45th to 
56th Miss., and intended as a supplement to George's digest, and in 1888 Daniel W. Heidel- 
berg, Esq., of Shubuta, Miss., pu])lished a digest, also intended as a supplement to George's, 
embracing from 45th to 64th Miss. 

In 1883 Marvin E. Sullivan, Esq., of Water Valley, issued the Mississippi citations, 
being a table of all Mississippi cases which have ever been mentioned in the opinions of the 
high court and the supreme court of Mississippi, from the organization of the state, includ- 
ing all the chancery and law reports down to Vol. 59, inclusive. Quite a useful book for 
briefing, but not so useful as it would have been had it included the citations of cases from 
other states. 

On the 27th of February, 1878, by an act of that' date, the legislature authorized the 


Hou. J. A. P. Campbell to revise and codify all the laws of the state of a general nature, 
and to submit the same at their next regular meeting. This was done, and the new code was 
considered by the legislature, amended in some respects, and adopted on the 5th of March, to 
become operative (except where otherwise provided in itself) on the first of November follow- 
ing, and from that date it repealed all acts and parts of acts, the subjects whereof were 
revised, consolidated and reenacted therein, or were repugnant to its provisions. 

This code is made more available by foot-notes citing the Mississippi cases in which the 
several statutes have been construed or applied. It is a very conservative revision. As the 
distinguished compiler says in the preface, " the main body of the existing statutes was pre- 
served, and no change was made merely for the sake of change. Where alteration was not 
deemed important, the existing law was preserved." The most striking changes were tlie 
abolition of the estates of dower and of tenancy by courtesy, of the rule in Shelley's case, 
and of the use of private seals. 

During the period from 1880 to 1890 there was little of general interest in this branch 
of state history. But on the r2th of August, 1890, pursuant to the act of February 5 
previous, a constitutional convention (the sixth in the state's history) met in the city of Jack- 
son. It elected Hon. Sol S. Calhoon president, and after a session of seventy-two days, 
adjourned on the 1st of November, after adopting, without submission to the people for rati- 
fication, the constitution of 1890. Some of the most noteworthy general features of this 
instrument are these: 

Ability to read any section of the constitution, or to understand the same when read, or 
to give a reasonable interpretation thereof, and the payment of taxes, are made additional 
conditions to the right to vote. The regular sessions of the legislature are fixed at intervals 
of four years, with special sessions (also at four year intervals) between, and at the latter, 
nothing is to be considered except appropriation and revenue bills, and such other matters as 
may be acted on at an extraordinary session called by the governor. No appropriation-bill 
thereafter passed shall continue in force more than six months after the next regular meeting 
of the legislature. The legislature is directed to pass laws to accomplish a number of objects 
of general interest, such as, to regulate the acquisition and holding of lands in this state by 
non-resident aliens, or by corporations, etc. Quite a number of prohibitions is laid upon the 
legislature; e. g. : it is forbidden to pass special or local laws, for the benefit of individuals 
or corporations, in cases which are or can be provided for by general law, or where the relief 
sought can be given by any court of the state; or to pass special or local laws on any of 
twenty-one designated subjects (such as granting divorces, etc.), or to make donations of the 
public lands to individuals or incorporations. The governor is forbidden to exercise the par- 
doning power before conviction, and he is empowered to suspend from office any alleged 
defaulting state or county treasurer, or tax collector, pending the investigation of his accounts, 
and to make temporary appointments to fill the offices meanwhile. The governor, lieutenant- 
governor, auditor, treasurer, sheriffs and county treasurers, are all made ineligible as their 
own successors. All state executive officers are to be elected by votes of counties and repre- 
sentatives' districts, after the manner of the electoral college, but the electors themselves are 
dispensed with in this scheme. County officers, both executive and judicial, are to be selected 
in such manner as the legislature shall direct, but legislators are to be elected by the people; 
nor shall the legislature elect any other than its own officers, state librarian. United States 
senators, and presidential electors. The terms of all elective and county officers are fixed at 
four years. The leasing of convicts from the penitentiary is prohibited after January 1 , 1 89'". 
Corporations shall be created only by general laws, and none granted a charter for private 


gain longer than ninety-nine years, and their property shall be taxed to the same extent as 
that of individuals. Public education is guaranteed for four months in each year, out of the 
public treasury. Devises of lands or money, direct or indirect, to charities or religious associa- 
tions, are forbidden. The prohibitions against property qualifications, contained in the con- 
stitution of 1869, are omitted. 

Not much change was made in the judiciary provisions. The supreme judges must be 
chosen from their respective districts as well as for them. The terms of chancellors and cir- 
cuit judges are fixed at four years. If suits are brought into the circuit court, when they 
should have been brought into the chancery court, they shall not be dismissed, but transferred, 
and vice versa. The chancery court is given jurisdiction to decree possession, rents, improve- 
ments and taxes in all suits to try title and remove clouds, and in all eases in which it had 
jurisdiction auxiliary to courts of common law, it may exercise such jurisdiction, although the 
legal remedy may not have been exhausted or the legal title established by a suit at law, and 
it may entertain suits on the bonds of fiduciaries or public officers for property received, or 
wasted, or lost by neglect or failure to collect, or suits involving inquiry into mutual accounts. 
The jurisdiction of justices of the peace is raised to $200. 

An ordinance was adopted, introducing the Australian ballot system, with Dortch's 
modifications, in all elections except those for congress, irrepealable before January 1, 1896. 

Section 278 of this constitution provided that the governor should appoint three suitable 
persons as commissioners, "whose duty it shall be to draft such general laws as are contem- 
plated in the constitution, and such other laws as shall be necessary and proper to put into 
operation the provisions thereof, and as may be appropriate to conform the general statutes 
of the state to the constitution." The governor accordingly appointed on this commission 
Hons. Robert H. Thompson, George C. Dillard and Robert B. Campbell, all of whom were 
members of the convention. These gentlemen came to the conclusion that, in order to do 
properly the work exacted of them, it is necessary to prepare a new code, and they are now 
engaged in that duty. The draft will be submitted to the legislature of 1892 for its action. 

The legal and judicial history of Mississippi is now narrated to this date. But it would 
not be proper to end this chapter without some notice of certain gentlemen whose names have 
not yet been mentioned, or else mentioned so briefiy as not to indicate their merit. They held 
no judicial offices in this state, or but humble ones, and yet they made legal and judiciary 
history. The names of Fulton Anderson, Roger Barton, Walter Brooke, William F. Dowd, 
Wiley P. Harris, James T. Harrison, Joseph Holt, Lucius Q. C. Lamar, Daniel Mayes, John 
T. McMurran, James Phelan, Sargeant S. Prentiss, George L. Potter, John B. Sale, Harvey 
W. Walter, Edward C. Walthall, John W. C. Watson, George S. Yerger and others of similar 
genius, constitute a galaxy which any Mississippian will regard proudly. - Not all of them 
were gifted after the same manner. Some wielded the keen and glittering scimetar of Saladin, 
others the ponderous ax of Richard, but all were powerful. Nearly all are dead, yet their 
work remains, and with it, themselves. When the dull, cold days of winter have settled on 
the earth, and the glowing sunlight, the plashing and vivifying showers, the musical and 
strengthening breezes of summer are gone, who shall say that those beneficent and joyful 
agents have in truth passed away ? Have they not stored themselves in a rich fruitage, in 
corn and wine, and more than all, the possibility of renewed life ? So, the honored names 
above, even of those who are dead, are more than memories. They have illuminated our 
annals; they have enriched our jurisprudence; they have left us a noble legacy of lofty 
aspiration and high achievement. Let their posterity remember them lovingly and gratefully. 


(% BC 



BODY of men acting as a state passes through experiences that are much like the 
emergence of a half-savage hunter into the highly organized life of an educated and 
^cultured gentleman. The simply organization with a constitution, a state eapitol 
and executives is but the hunter's eyes, arm and gun compared with the power of educated 
men with laboratory, library, and machinery. The state begins to develop. It provides for 
its sustenance in its revenue, a financial basis that grows more complex and extensive as the 
state develops, a history of which in any state would form a volume of marvelous interest to 
the thoughtful reader, but which can only be touched upon in a sketch of these limits. 
Almost as soon it provides for protection both from without and within by a militia organ- 
ization, sometimes official and sometimes unofficial or voluntary, and this prospers or becomes 
weak, like a muscle, according to the varying need for its use. Protection from individuals is 
provided for in prisons, and as the state develops, these take on a penitentiary and reforma- 
tory character, when they fall more or less under the list of those institutions for the 
deformed, morally and otherwise. The deformed, as to speech, hearing, vision, or mind and 
often in body, are in earlier years of the state cared for by relatives and friends, but soon the 
people determine to share the support and aid of these under the state in schools, hospitals 
and asylums. At an early date the state provides itself a memory in the form of a library, 
which at first preserves only its necessary records made by its scribes or printers, and as the 
state enlarges its interests become a store of rich information, not only covering all its own 
affairs, but the thought and action of all states, wherein it takes continual stock of the 
resources of all ages. But this larger interest depends on the people individually, and so a 
system of public education is early begun, at first more or less primary, then slowly 
extending its scope to academies, high schools, normal or teachers' schools, colleges, 
training schools for occupations, professional schools, and universities for original inves- 
tigation, the success of all which efiForts is most marked when the population is homo- 
geneous. As the state enlarges in population and becomes complex in action and interests, a 
more or less elaborate system of regulation is organized; easy movements through, and in 
and out of the state become necessary, and flat-boat, raft, sail or steam vessel regulation 
becomes necessary on river or ocean, or boards for the construction and care of levees to hold 
the streams to a fixed course, while on land the pack-horse, and stage, giving way to rapid 
railways, make an organization necessary to regulate the varied interests of the state in 
these new complications for the movement of products and people. The occupation and 
development of waste and unoccupied lands is another interest important enough to place in 


special hands; and this gives risf to the emergencies incident to an influx of population, an 
interest large enough to require the attention of one or more special officers. Increased 
population and greater intelligence usually lead to provision of officers or boards for the 
regulation of sanitary conditions, especially where epidemics are dangerous possibilities. In 
time the state advances to aggressive investigation of its ovs'n resources in various lines by 
bureaus or like agencies, in investigating its geological resources, in collecting information on 
its agricultural needs and possibilities, in studies of its wage-earners' conditions, its manufact- 
uring powers, in periodical stocktaking oftener than the national census, and so on ad infi- 
nitum. So far as Mississippi has undertaken any of these lines, the most important will be 
indicated, some in this chapter, and others, such as the systems of public education, sanitation 
and the judiciary, are assigned separate chapters. 

Many things are undertaken by the people associated in an unofficial or voluntary capac- 
ity, however; such as for mutual aid, social advantages, improvement, investigation, agitation, 
and the like. Such are the various fraternities and benefit associations, the state medical and 
•bar associations, the press association, the various political organizations, the temperance 
union of women, the association of teachers, all of which are treated in separate or allied 
chapters, while the historical society, the Conf^erate veterans' association and a few others 
will be given brief mention here. 

It is needless to say that the white race is referred to in speaking in this general line, 
for the intelligence and experience that is required for successful work in an organized 
capacity, at least any but the most crude and elementary, seems rot to have been reached to 
an appreciable degree yet among the colored race in this state. 

The militia has had a varied experience. Always provided for bylaw, both under the 
territorial governors and by every constitution, it has from the first been largely made up of 
volunteer companies. Many causes, both from conditions and sentiment, have contributed to 
make a considerable pride in excellent military companies, some of which, like the Natchez 
Fencibles, have had a remarkably long and well-known career. This fact in part explains 
the state's prompt response to calls upon it. From 1799 to 1836 the legislature passed about 
seventeen fragmentary acts, which were replaced by Fray's systematic act of May 5, 1837. 
Since then the militia has been systematically provided for in full in later constitutions. 

During the period immediately succeeding the war, the militia was composed largely of 
colored men, but since the change of administration in 1875 they have been chiefly drawn 
from the white population and always in excellent training. Great care is given to this 
because of the liability to race conflict. Still, there is not the very general attention given to it 
that there was in ante-bellum days, when, under the act of 1837, there were fifty-four regiments, 
while there are now but three under the name Mississippi National Guard actually main- 
tained by the state. The last report of the adjutant-general (1889) gives a roster of seven- 
teen hundred men of infantry, artillery and cavalry, in three regiments and two battalions, 
who meet in annual encampment. The permanent camj^-grounds are at Fort Henry near 
Pass Christian. The general headquarters are at Jackson, and the division headquarters at 
Biloxi, Joseph R. Davis, major-general commanding. The northern division. Brig. -Gen. J. 
S. Billups, headquarters at Columbus, with First infantry regiment. Col. E. M. Levy, center- 
ing at West Point, and the second. Col. C. L. Lincoln, at Columbus. The First cadet bat- 
talion (infantry), Maj. W. N. Hardee, headquarters at Agricultural and Mechanical college. 
Jackson is the rendezvous of the Third regiment, southern division. Col. George S. Green, and 
Biloxi of the First artillery, lieutenant-colonel commanding, E. W. Morrill. Other detached 
companies are the Gillsburg Eifles, Ealeigh Eescues and Prairie Eifles (Okalona). 


The Mississippi state penitentiary's red brick walls may be seen on an elevation in Jack- 
son, nearly enclosing the third square north of the executive mansion. It has been nearly 
fifty-six years since this institution was established, the act passed being approved February 
26, 1836, and directing its location within two miles of Jackson with an appropriation of 
$ / 5,000 to secure its erection. By its last report it now has within its walls fifty white males, 
three hundred and ninety-eight black males and twenty-four black females, a total of four 
hundred and seventy-two prisoners on December 4, 1SS9. During that year one hundred and sev- 
enteen had been discharged, fifty-one had escaped, twenty -five had been pardoned, nineteen had 
died, three were returned for new trial, and three hundred and niuet}' had been let out to 
contractors. In charge of these, under the board of control, are these paid officers: general 
manager, physician, bookkeeper, chaplain, two camp sergeants, a farm sergeant, a traveling 
sergeant, a wall sergeant, two gate men, two night watchmsn and eight wall guards. That 
year showed at the close a net income of $26,278.56, which shows the institution in an excel- 
lent financial condition, the board of control then consisting of J. F. Sessions, Walter McLaurin 
and J.C. Kyle. Measures are on foot to relocate the prison on a prison farm. The superinten- 
dent in 1887 was W. L. Doss and the general manager M. L. Jenkins. In its policy the 
reformatory and humane principles now so. insisted upon have placed it in line with the best 
managed institutions elsewhere. Its career before the war was marked more by a character 
of punishment, before the more humane, and possibly ultra-sentimental, teachings of later 
days had begun. The convict-lease system has been greatly abused at times, but public senti- 
ment has reacted against it. The labor of the convicts was used in building the Gulf-Ship 
Island railway to a large degree, and their use at the discretion of the governing powers in 
reconstruction days was a source of public dissatisfaction. This institution, like every other, 
suffered greatly during the war. The practice of leasing labor out through the state has 
found many opponents. As an illustration of the extent to which this subleasing system 
has been carried, take the situation in 1885, when about seven hundred convicts were sub- 
leased in as many as twelve different sections of the state in " camps," and on various kinds 
of labor. Many improvements were made during that year, however, some of which were a 
return to the policy of ante-bellum days when a cottonmill was in operation. It is probable that 
the new movement for the penitentiary farm will secure the abandonment of outside leasing. 

The first institution anything like an asylum was the Natchez hospital, incorporated 
January 18, 1805, and made a state institution. Vicksburg hospital received state aid in 
1846. In 1848, March 4, an act was approved establishing an asylum for the insane at 
Jackson. This was not completed until 1854, however, and now embraces a property worth 
about §500,000, and located about two miles north of Jackson. At the beginning of 1889 
there were one himdred and ninety-one male and two hundred and fifty female, a total of 
four hundred and forty-one inmates. During the year one hundred and twenty-five more 
were admitted, making five hundred and sixty-six. There were fifty-one discharged recov- 
ered, eleven improved, eight unimproved, two not insane, one escaped and thirty-three died, 
leaving four hundred and fifty -nine at the beginning of 1890. The large proportion of 
women is noticeable. The total admissions since 1854, however, equalizes the sexes, there 
having been thirteen hundred and eighty-seven males and thirteen hundred and two females 
received, a total of two thousand six hundred and eighty-nine. To show the work of the 
institution during its career, note still farther: Of two thousand six hundred and eighty-nine 
received, five hundred and five males and four hundred and sixty-one females have been dis- 
charged recovered, a total of nine hundred and sixty-six; one hundred and sixty were 
improved, two hundred and twelve remained stationary, seventy- six eloped, thirty proved not 


insane; four hundred and nineteen males and three hundred and sixty-seven females, a total 
of seven hundred and eighty-six, died. It is interesting to note that five of the present 
inmates were among those admitted the first year, 1855. The disbursements for'1889 were 
157,143.18, and its farm products reached 112,797.55. This institution is under the control 
of a board of trustees, those of 1889 being J. B. Harris, D. P. Porter, P. Fairly, James 
Tripp and Marcellus Green. The able superintendent is Dr. Thomas J. Mitchell. 

The demands on the Jackson institution led to an act in 1882 for the founding of the 
East Mississippi insane asylum, which was secured by Meridian, the city donating five hun- 
dred and fifty-six acres to it. This institution was completed in 1884, and by January, 1890, 
had received three hundred and sixty-one males and two hundred and eighty-four females, a 
total of six hundred and forty-five patients, nineteen per cent, of which were epileptics. Out 
of one hundred and thirty-eight deaths since the beginning one-third were from epilepsy. 
In 1889, beginning with two hundred and fourteen, there were one hundred admitted, twenty- 
three were discharged recovered, fourteen improved, two unimproved, two not insane, two 
eloped and twenty-two died, due largely to an epidemic of dysentery and typhoid fever; and 
two hundred and forty-nine remained at the close of the year. The board of trustees in 
1889 were Gov. Kobert Lowry, W. P. Brown, S. B. Watts, George S. Covert, H. M. Street 
and John Stinson. Dr. C. A. Rice was the superintendent, under whom the institution was 
organized and so ably conducted. The present incumbent of that office is Dr. J. W. 
Buchanan, whose management is preserving the well-known excellence of this younger of the 
state's two excellent means of caring for the most unfortunate and heavily afflicted of her 

The institution for the instruction of the blind was established in 1848, and is now in 
new quarters — a handsome structure at the north end of State street, Jackson, completed in 
1 882 at a cost of over 140,000. It is a well-known fact that the number of blind are always 
far less than the number of insane and less than the number of deaf. In 1883 there were 
fifteen male and nineteen female pupils, a total of thirty-four; in 1889 there were thirty- 
nine. It undertakes literary, musical instruction and certain forms of suitable manual train- 
ing for both sexes, such as the manufacture of chairs, brooms, etc. The board of trustees in 
1889 were C. H. Manship, H. H. Hines, J. A. Kausler, James R. Yerger and E. M. Parker. 
For many years Dr. W. S. Langley was superintendent, but on his death his daughter. Miss 
M. M. Langley, succeeded him, and Dr. P. Fairly, the present incumbent, became her suc- 
cessor at her death. He has a faculty of five teachers. 

The Mississippi institution for the education of the deaf and dumb greets the eye of the 
passer-by on North State street, Jackson, as one of the most beautiful grounds in the state. 
An act of 1854 founded the institution, and up to 1861, when the buildings were destroyed, 
it grew prosperously. The state secured the admission of pupils to the Louisiana institute 
for a few months. Prof. A. K. Martin was superintendent at this time. It was reorganized 
in 1871 under Dr. J. L. Carter with about fifteen pupils, and in October, 1877, he was suc- 
ceeded by Mr. Charles H. Talbot, at which time there were about forty-five pupils. In 1881, 
when the present superintendent. Prof. J. R. Dobyns, assumed the duties of that office, and 
with marked ability, there were fifty-four pupils. In 1882 several marked advances were 
made, among them the teaching of articulation, printing, carpentry and cabinet-work, and 
the establishment of a colored branch about one and a half miles in the country, where farm- 
ing is taught to pupils of both races also. The total enrollment is now eighty-five and the 
school is in high favor with people and law-makers. The value of buildings and grounds is 
estimated at 175,000, and in 1888 the average cost per capita was but $141.17. The trustees 


in 1889 were Eev. John Hunter, D.D., D. N. Barrows, S. S. Carter, H. M. Taylor and Judge 
S. S. Calhoon. A force of several able instructors are employed. 

The state library, in its tasteful alcoves opening into the rotunda of the capitol, is said 
to l)e "the second in value of its kind in the Union, the Massachusetts library only outrank- 
ing it."* By this is meant, as a legal reference library. This condition is largely due to the 
efforts of a woman, Mrs. Mary Morancy, the first woman to hold a state ofiice in Mississippi, 
although she was elected by proxy, during the period she held office, namely, fourteen years. 
The library was established by an act of February 15, 1838, with the leading state officers as 
trustees. The institution improved up to the war, when it suffered serious injury, and only 
began to be rehabilitated in 1876 under Mrs. Morancy's care. As an illustration of its pro- 
gressive management the latest report, 1888-9, states that for that period two hundred 
volumes were added by purchase and six hundred and two by exchange, making a total of 
eight hundred and two volumes added in two years. Its list of its own laws, journals and 
reports, and the laws and reports of other states are remarkably complete. The state libra- 
rian is also keeper of the capitol. The present incumbent is Miss Rosa Lee Tucker, of 

This library may be called a part of the memory of the state. Here the state recalls her 
acts and the names of her servants. Let her call over the names of some of the leading lives 
of her public servants. 

The congressmen of Mississippi have been generally her pride. In the senate, from 
December, 1817, to March, 1821, was Walter Leake, who resigned, to become a guberna- 
torial candidate, and was succeeded by David Holmes, who served by reelection to March, 
1825, when he resigned. Thomas H. Williams served from December, 1817, to March 3, 
1821. Powhatan Ellis was appointed to succeed Mr. Holmes, and served by election until 
March 3, 1832, when he resigned, and was succeeded by John Black, appointed, who, by elec- 
tion, served to March, 1838. He resigned, and James P. Trotter was appointed to serve 
until March, 1839. Thomas B. Eeed served from December, 1826, until his death, in Novem- 
ber, 1829, when Eobert H. Adams was elected to his place, but died in July, 1830. George 
Poindexter was then elected, and served to March 3, 1835, when Eobert J. Walker was elected, 
and by reelection served to March, 1845. In January, 1839, John Henderson began a full 
six-year term, and was succeeded, March 4, 1845, by Jesse Speight, who died May 3, 1847, 
and, by appointment, was replaced by Jefferson Davis. Mr. Davis resigned in the fall of 
1851, but in 1857 was reelected, and on January 12, 1861, with all this state's congressmen, 
withdrew. John J. McEae served by appointment from 1851 to March, 1852, and Stephen 
Adams served by election to March, 1857. The other senator in January, 1847, was Henry 
S. Poote, whose term of service extended to January, 1852, when Walker Brookes' election 
followed, and covered the period between the months of March, 1852 and 1853. Here Albert 
Q. Brown's service began, that ended by his withdrawal with Mr. Davis. It was not until 
April 11, 1870, that the next senator took his seat — Adelbert Ames, who was succeeded by 
Henry E. Pease, the latter serving from February, 1874, to March 3, 1875, when the term of 
Blanche K. Bruce, colored, began, covering the period to March, 1881. In February, 1870, 
the first colored senator, Hiram E. Eevels, was elected, but was succeeded in 1871 by James 
L. Alcorn, whose service extended to March 3, 1877. Lucius Q. C. Lamar succeeded him, 
and served by reelection until March, 1885, when, by appointment, election and reelection, 
Edward C. Walthall entered a service whose present term will terminate March 3, 1895. In 
1881 James Z. George succeeded Mr. Bruce, the colored senator, and by election and reelec- 
tion, is holding a term at present which closes in 1893. 

*New Tarli World, 1891. 


In the house of representatives, George Poindexter heads the list, from December, 1817, 
to March 3, 1819. Christopher Eankin then served until his death, at Washington, in Majj 
IM'iC), Mfhen his successor's election followed. This was William Haile, who, by reelection, 
served until his resignation in 1828, when Gen. Thomiis Hinds succeeded him, in a term 
covering the time to 1831. His successor, Franklin E. Plummer, served from 1831 to 1835. 
A second representative was elected in 1833 — Harry Cage, his term ending in 1835. Dr. 
David Dickson and John F. H. Claiborne were elected in 1835, but the former died in July, 
1836, and his term was filled by Samuel J. Gholson, and he, with Mr. Claiborne, on their 
return' to the twenty-fifth congress, found their seats contested by Sargent S. Prentiss and 
Thomas J. Word, whereupon the house decided that neither was entitled to the seats, Jan- 
uary 31, 1838. A new election returned Messrs. Prentiss and Word, who served to 1839. 
Albert G. Brown and Jacob Thompson succeeded them in November, 1839, the former serv- 
ing to 1841, declining reelection, and again serving from 1848 to 1851, and the latter serving 
continuously to 1851. The interval between 1841 and 1848 above mentioned was covered by 
Dr. William M. Gwin, to 1843, declining reelection, and Robert W. Roberts to March 3, 
1847; twro other representatives, William H. Hammet and Tilghman M. Tucker, in Novem- 
ber, 1843, serving to 1845. Jefferson Davis was elected in November, 1845, but resigned in 
May, 1840, to take command of his regiment, and Henry T. Ellett succeeded him, serving to 
1847, and declining reelection. Patrick W. Tompkins and Winfield S. Featherston were 
elected in November, 1847, the former serving to 1849 and declining reelection, and the latter 
to 1851, in which year the service of William Mc Willie, the successor of Mr. Featherston, 
closed. In 1851 John D. Freeman and Benjamin D. Nabors were elected, and served two 
years. In 1853 were elected Daniel B. Wright, Otho R. Singleton, William S. Barry and 
Wiley P. Harris, the last three serving to 1855, and the first to 1857; Mr. Singleton, not 
declining reelection like the last two, was defeated by William A. Lake, but reelected in 1857, 
and served by reelection until the withdrawal in 1861. In 1855 ex-Gov. John A. Quitman 
and Henly S. Bennett were chosen, the former's service closing in 1857, and the death of 
the latter breaking his second term on July 17, 1858. John J. McRae was chosen to com- 
plete the unexpired term, and served by reelection to the withdawal of January 12, 1861. 
Reuben Davis and Lucius Q. C. Lamar were elected in 1857, and withdrew, the former in 
1861, and the latter on December 20, 1860, to become a candidate for the state secession 
convention from his county. When representation began again after the war, those chosen 
in 1870 were George C. McKee, Jason Niles, L. W. Perce, Henry W. Barry and George E. 
Harris, all serving to 1873, except General McKee and Mr. Barry, who continued to 1875. 
In 1871 the service of Albert R. Howe, John R. Lynch (colored) and Joseph L. Morphis 
began, and closed in 1875. In 1873 L. Q. C. Lamar was elected, and served to his election 
to the senate in 1877. At the great revolution in 1875, he and Mr. Lynch, the colored repre- 
sentative, were the only ones reelected. Hernando D. Money, Charles E. Hooker, G.' Wiley 
Wells and Otho R. Singleton were elected at this date, Mr. Singleton serving by reelection 
to 1887, Mr. Wells to 1877, Colonel Hooker to 1883, and again to his present term, and Mr. 
Money to 1885. Mr. Lynch served in the forty-fourth congress, and also from 1882 to 1883, 
unseating James R. Chalmers. In 1877 Van H. Manning, James R. Chalmers and Henry L. 
Muldrow were elected. Mr. Manning served until unseated by James R. Chalmers, June 25, 
1884, Mr. Chalmers until unseated by Mr. Lynch, April 29, 1882, and Mr. Muldrow by 
reelection until 1885. In 1882 Ethelbert Barksdale, Henry S. Van Eaton and Elza Jeffords 
were elected, the first two serving to 1887, and the last to 1885. In 1884 were chosen 
Thomas C. Catchings, James B. Morgan, John M. Allen and Frederick G. Barry. Mr. 



Allen's service closed in 1885, Mr. Barry's in 1889 and Mr. Morgan's in 1891. Mr. Catch- 
ings' service has extended to the present term, which closes in 1893. In 1 886 Chapman L. 
Anderson and Thomas R. Stockdale's election occurred, the former's service closing in 1891, 
and that of the latter extending to the present term, which closes in 1893. Clark Lewis was 
elected in 1888, and was reelected to his present term. 

The members elected to the first Confederate congress were seven in number; J. W. 
Clapp, Reuben Davis, Israel Welsh, H. C. Chambers, O. R. Singleton, Ethel Barksdale and 
John J. McRae. 

The governors of the state have already been mentioned in a preceding chapter. It is 
most unfortunate that the records of the state and the library branch of it should have been 
so despoiled during the war, that a connected list of very many lines of detail are thus ren- 
dered impossible to historical writings, and often, where apparently possible, wholly unre- 
liable. It is only those who have attempted historical work under such circumstances that 
will appreciate its difficulties. 

It may be of interest to note how Mississippi compares with other states as regards the 
salaries of her public servants, and to illustrate let one example be taken — that of the guber- 
natorial salary. The terms of governors in this country vary from one year, as in the case 
of Massachusetts, to four years, as in the case of about half the states of the Union, includ- 
ing Mississippi. The annual salaries also vary from |1,000, as in Rhode Island, Michigan, 
New Hampshire and Vermont, to the generous proportions of $10,000, as only the great and 
wealthy states of New York and Pennsylvania seem able to afford. Mississippi takes a stand 
midway and alongside of Massachusetts, Iowa, Ohio, Tennessee, Texas, Louisiana, Mary- 
land, North Carolina and Washington, paying 14,000 per annum to her governor. 

It may show her relative public spirit, too, to compare her legal holidays with those of 
other states, omitting Sundays and labor day, the latter a recent institution. Of fourteen 
such days recognized in all or parts of this country are: New year's day, January 1; 
anniversary of the battle of New Orleans, January 8; Washington's birthday, February 
22; anniversary of Texan independence, March 2; fireman's anniversary of New 
Orleans, March 4; mardi-gras; anniversary of the battle of San Jacinto (Texas), April 
21; Good Friday; memorial day, April 26 in Oeorgia; decoration day. May 30 in most 
Northern states; July 4; independence day; general election day; thanksgiving day and 
Christmas day; of which Mississippi makes legal holiday new year's day, independence 
day, thanksgiving and Christmas. 

This state's position politically among her sister states has always been a prominent one. 
It has rarely been that, like Indiana or New York, the term "doubtful" could be applied to 
her. As a general chapter on politics elsewhere in these volumes deals with this subject, only 
presidential majorities will be given here, and that only since 1824. In 1821 the state joined 
the era of good feeling and voted for Monroe and TopapMns, but in 1824 she turned out 
a democratic majority of one thousand four hundred and twenty-one for her idol, in whose 
honor, only a short time before, she had named her capital city — Jackson. In the next cam- 
paign she increased her democratic majority to five thousand one hundred and eighty-two for 
him, when the ticket was Jackson and Calhoun in 1828, while in 1832, with still increasing 
ardor for the doughty old general who whipped Indians, the money-king Biddle, the Brit- 
ish and most other enemies he atta6ked, Mississippi gave Jackson and Van Buren a demo- 
cratic majority of five thousand nine hundred and nineteen. In the thirties, however, they 
fell upon days of financial, disturbance and whig predominance, and in 1836 the democrats 
began to waver and the whigs to rejoice. These were the days of the great whig, Daniel 

u jnui^uAi'iiiaAi. AND nrsTomoAL 

Webster, and the popular old Hoosier, Gon. William Henry Harrison, and the big democratic 
majority of 1832 was, in IS36, cut down to the narrow margin of two hundred and ninety-one 
majority for Van Buren and Johnson. The financial troubles of the great panic of 1837 
caused great popidar dissatisfaction all over the Union, as such times always do, and the 
whigs grew and waxed strong all over the broad land, emd with especial strides in Mississippi 
under the influence of the famous " hard cider " campaign, when, in 1 840, they did what has 
rarely been done in the entire career of the state of Mississippi — broke her democratic major- 
ity and gave the whig candidates, Harrison and Tyler, two Ihousand five hundred and 
twenty-three majority. This was destined to be but an incident, however, for the revival of 
financial confidence and the ominous mutterings of the fifteen or sixteen years' distant civil 
war led Mississippi to spring back with a bound, as if to her normal condition, with a demo- 
cratic majority in 1844 almost exactly to a figure the same as that of 1832 (five thousand nine 
hundred and nineteen), this of 1844 being five thousand nine hundred and twenty for Polk 
and Dallas. These were the years of the great compromises and compromisers, and the 
whigs made another stupendous effort in 1 848 with the great hero of the Mexican war. Gen- 
eral Taylor, and Mississippi, whose soldiers did such noble service rmder their old commander 
of Buena Vista, as if to do him honor, dropped their democratic majority of five thousand 
nine hundred and twenty to only six hundred and fifteen majority for the democratic candi- 
dates, Cass and Butler. The campaigns of the fifties witnessed the increasing welding pow- 
ers of the slavery agitation which swept Mississippi votes more and more into democratic 
lines. Of course these figures must be considered in connection with the fact of increased 
population — an increase in this style in round thousands by decades beginning with the year 
1800: seven thousand, thirty-one thousand, seventy-five thousand, one hundred and thirty-six 
thousand, three hundred and seventy-five thousand, six hundred and six thousand, and seven 
hundred and ninety-one thousand in 1860. This shows almost doubling by decades, so the 
majorities must be interpreted by this fact. The first campaign of the fifties, that is in 1852, 
rose again to democratic majorities, state and national. Pierce and King receiving Missis- 
sippi's majority of nine thousand three hundred and twenty-eight, the largest so far ever 
given. In 1856 the increase is still greater, giving to Buchanan and Breckinridge a majority 
of eleven thousand two hundred and fifty-one. The heat of the campaign of 1860 raised the 
political thermometer still higher, and a majority of twelve thousand four hundred and sev- 
enty-four was given for Breckinridge and Lane, whose entire vote was only eight hundred 
and forty-five thousand seven hundred and sixty-three, the great mass of the democratic party 
of the country having gone for Stephen A. Douglas, with one million three hundred and sev- 
enty-five thousand one hundred and fifty-seven, while the republican candidate, Lincoln, went 
in with one million eight hundred and thirty-eight thousand one hundred and sixty-nine. 
The actual vote of this state was forty thousand seven hundred and ninety-seven for Breck- 
inridge; twenty-five thousand and forty for Bell, and two thousand two hundred and eighty- 
three for Douglas. This was when the free population was three hundred and fifty-three 
thousand nine hundred and one, and the slaves four hundred and thirty-six thousand six hun- 
dred and thirty-one, this state and South Carolina being the only states having an excess of 
slave population over free. 

This condition led to Mississippi's attempted withdrawal from the Union by unanimous 
vote, and the campaign of 1864 found her, with ten other states, jjractically defeated, and 
with no political status in the Union. Even the campaign of 1868 found her outside the pale 
when all the other of the eleven states were readmitted except herself, Texas and Virginia. 
Meanwhile preparations were making that provided an influx into her legal vote of the great 


mass of her slaves of a few years ))efore. In 1860 the votes v^ere drawn from a white popu- 
lation of three hundred and fifty-three thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine, whose slave 
population was nearly a hundred thousand greater — four hundred and thirty-seven thousand 
four hundred and four — and the voters from these were all republicans. In 1870 both 
were increased, but bore somewhat similar proportions — that is, three hundred and eighty- 
two thousand eight hundred and ninety-six white to four hundred and forty-four thousand 
two hundred and one colored. Of course in the campaign of 1872, although for once only, 
the republican majority, which means practically the colored majority, was thirty-four thou- 
sand eight hundred and eighty- seven for Grant and Wilson. The great revolution of 1876, 
for white supremacy, however, threw the state into the democratic ranks as of yore, with 
fifty-nine thousand five hundred and sixty-eight majority for Tilden and Hendricks, and she 
has continued democratic and under white control ever since, with immaterial variation. In 
the campaign of 1880 the majority for Hancock and English was thirty-five thousand and 
ninety-nine; the plurality for Cleveland and Hendricks, in 1884, was thirty-three thousand 
and one; and Cleveland and Thurman's majority, in 1888, was fifty- five thousand three hun- 
dred and seventy-five. The relative population of 1890 was five hundred and thirtj'-nine 
thousand seven hundred and three whites and seven hundred and forty-seven thousand seven 
hundred and twenty colored, the latter, however, representing a great mass of ignorant votes, 
which the new constitution makes less of a menace to intelligent government, ))y providing 
both an educational and property qualification, somewhat as Rhode Island and Delaware has 
long had. 

The war has left many other scars and monuments in the state besides in its politics. 
As monuments to the tearfulness of the struggle are the all too-full cemeteries of the dead 
of both sides; the Confederate dead in multitudes of cemeteries throughout the state, and, the 
Federal dead in three of the seventy-nine national cemeteries scattered throughout the Union, 
all but twelve of which are in the South. These three are at Vicksburg, Natchez and Corinth ; 
that at Yicksburg containing sixteen thousand six hundred, of whom twelve thousand and 
thirty-two are unknown. These cemeteries are increasing somewhat in the number of their 
dead, especially on account of the deaths of colored men, of whom seventeen thousand eight 
hundred and sixty- nine out of Mississippi served in the Federal army. 

One of the greatest interests of the state, however, is its financial basis and its methods 
in dealing with the subject. It seems strange to the present generation that the state which 
now receives and disburses over $1,000,000 annually for current expenses should have at one 
time been the property of an individual in private life, but such it was, although it scarcely 
amounted to more than a technicality. In 1630 it was part of a grant made by the king of 
Great Britain to Sir Eobert Heath, and was transferred seven years later by Heath to Lord 
Maltravers. It afterward became the property of plain Dr. Daniel Coxe of the province of 
New Jersey. Now, however, a man is one of wealth if he but own a small share of this 
great state. Even in 1811, six years before the period of statehood began, the taxes col- 
lected for that year were $31,845.46, and economy was so well before the minds of territorial 
managers of the state's finances that the expenditures for that year were but little over half 
this amount, or $17,911.43, leaving a balance of $9,690.38. These were not the days of 
great state institutions, however. In 1817, the year statehood began, and but two years 
after the exhausting wars of the earlier half of that decade, the receipts reached a few thou- 
sand more — $45,836.66, while a balance of nearly the same proportions as above was still 
kept — namely, $8,269.92, after the disbursement of $37,506.74 for current expenditures. 
Aljout eight years after this the receipts rose considerably above this to the sum of $77,925.00, 


but the expenditures rose only to $41,475. This was the year 1825, and in all these con- 
siderations of finance the remarkable increase of population, nearly or quite doubling by 
decades, must be taken into account. About a dozen years later, in 1838, the receipts of 
the treasury were the round sum of $157,198.41, and these were the days of the great panic 
and the bank explosions that play so large a jjart in Mississippi's financial history. 

Let us see what state banking facilities there were in 1836. First there was that stu- 
pendous concern, the Planters' bank of Natchez, whose capital reached the, for those days, 
fabulous sum of $4,000,000. It was what would now be counted a syndicate of banks, however, 
for it had branches at Manchester, Vicksburg, Port Gibson, Woodville, Monticello, Jackson and 
Columbus. Its president was James C. Wilkins. Then there was another company with a 
like capital of $4,000,000, one of those numerous companies that arose during the years when 
railroad building was in the raw exuberance of an overgrown boyhood. This was the Mis- 
sissippi & Alabama Railroad & Banking Company of Brandon, which also had a branch 
at Paulding. There were several institutions of a capitalized power of $2,000,000, and these 
were the Agricultural bank of Natchez, with a branch at Pontotoc; its president was Mr. A. 
Pisk; the Commercial bank of Natchez, president, L. E. Marshall; the Grand Gulf Railroad 
& Banking Company, president, Joseph Johnson, with a branch at Gallatin ; the Commer- 
cial & Railroad bank of Vicksburg, president, J. M. Taylor, with its branch at Vernon, and 
the Commercial bank of Manchester. Those of $1,000,000 capital were the West Feliciana 
Railroad & Banking Company of Woodville, president, Joseph Johnson; the Commercial 
bank of Rodney, president, Thomas Freeland, and the Aberdeen and Pontotoc Railroad & 
Banking Company; one other was the Princeton & Deer Creek Railroad & Banking Com- 
pany, president, Z. K. Fulton, and capital $600,000. This was in 1836, but in 1840, only 
four years later, there were twenty banks in the state with aggregated resources of $28,989,- 
090.62, while the total capital incorporated for these purposes, between 1832 and 1838 reached 
the princely proportions of $53,750,000. This might indicate wealth in abundance through- 
out this great state, but in reality it was the most rank inflation and insolvency. The only 
railroad that resulted from it was a few paltry miles at Natchez, and scarcely fifty miles of the 
Vicksburg & Brandon route. Speculation ran riot, and it is said that the wild revelry of it 
was stimulated by a class of speculative adventurers who afterward left the state. These 
banks dealt in real estate too, dealt in bonds, exchange and bills of credit, made loans and issued 
their own notes for circulation The crash that began in 1836 seemed to make it all the more 
reckless, and men seemed to lose their heads and grasp at straws in their despair, and in 
1837 the hue and cry led to another great bank of a capital of $1,500,000, and this was the 
famous ill-fateli Union bank of Mississippi, which led to the greatest stain upon the escutch- 
eon of this state, in the eyes of the world at large, that ever soiled it. The people of the 
state themselves were divided on the question for many years. 

A glance at the banking career of the state will explain this: Organized in territorial 
days the Bank of Mississippi was enlarged in 1818 with its location at Natchez, the 
metropolis of the state. The greatly increasing need of the growing young state for banking 
facilities led to the incorporation of the Planters' bank of the state of Mississippi on April 
10, 1830, with $3,000,000 capital. The state was to take two-thirds of the capital stock and 
issue bonds on the market for it, the rest to be taken by individuals. The faith of the state 
was pledged to secure all losses either from principal or interest, and each and every stock- 
holder was made individually liable to make good all losses of any character. The bonds 
were to be sold by the governor for specie only, and almost every section emphasized the 
pledging of the faith of the state to recoup all possible losses. The state was to choose seven 


of the thirteen members of the directory. The bonds were sold in 1830 to the amount of 
$500,000, and in 1833 the remaining $1,500,000 as the law directed, and the prosperity of the 
bank was unquestioned until the crash of 1837 throughout the union. Its bonds had " sold 
at a premium of thirteen and one-fourth per cent," says a writer in De Bow's Review in 1853, 
" so that after paying the bank two millions the state had left a net of $250,000 which was 
placed in the bank as a sinking fund, to which was to be added the dividends, and from which 
the interest was to be paid. As the dividend averaged ten per cent, for years the interest was 
kept up to September 1, 1839, when the state stock was transferred to the Natchez Railroad 
Company. At this time the balance sinking fund was about $800,000. This belonged to the 
state, but a large part of it was lost in the crash of 1836-9. A commission held the 
remainder, about $60,000 in 1851 — what next? By calculation, on paying $250,000 annually 
it would take twenty-two years to liquidate — about 1876." The result was, however, that in 
1854 the debt of this bank was $3,518,080, as far as the state was concerned. 

The new constitution of 1832, however, put the following limit on the state's financial 
action: " No law shall ever be passed to raise a loan of money upon the credit of the state, or 
to pledge the faith of the state for the payment or redemption of any loan or debt, unless such 
law be proposed in the senate or house of representatives, and be agreed to by a majority of 
the members of each house, and entered on their journals with the yeas and nays taken thereon, 
and be referred to the next succeeding legislature, and published for three months previous 
to the next regular election, in three newspapers of this state; and unless a majority of each 
branch of the legislature so elected, after such publication, shall agree to and pass such law, 
and in such case the yeas and nays shall be taken, and entered on the journals of each 
house; provided, that nothing in this section shall be so construed as to prevent the legislature 
from negotiating a further loan of one and a half million of dollars, and vesting the same in 
stock reserved to the state, by the charter of the Planters' bank of the state of Mississippi." 

This was the condition of affairs on January 21, 1837, when the governor approved the 
Union Bank act " so far as the action of this legislature is recognized." This act provided 
that only citizen real estate owners of Mississippi could become stockholders, with privilege 
of transfer to other Mississippi real estate owners only after five years, with the especial 
stipulation that well-secured mortgages should be given even in that case. The faith of the state 
was pledged to secure both the capital and interest, and that she should issue seven thousand 
five hundred bonds of $2,000 each, eighteen hundred and seventy-five payable in twelve 
years, eighteen hundred and seventy-five in fifteen years, the same amount in eighteen years, 
and the same again in twenty years, bearing interest at five per cent. These were transfer- 
able to anyone by the governor, and special provision was made for payment of both capital 
and interest when due. A most elaborate security was hedged around the subscription to 
stock so that the certainty of its payment seemed absolute, even from that source. Of the 
thirteen directors, five were to be chosen by the legislature, and three commissioners were to 
be elected to see to the thoroughly solid condition of would-be subscribers. 

All the forms of law having been carried out, in 1838 the legislature repassed it as the 
limitation provided, and Gov. Alexander G. McNutt, who afterward loved to be called '' the 
great repudiator," approved it on February 5, (1838). Ten days later (15) a supplementary 
act was approved to clinch the bargain all the more firmly, so that, while these bonds were 
made as a loan to the bank the state was to take fifty thousand shares of the bank's stock and 
pay for it out of the proceeds of the bond sales, aud the profits of it were to go to the state 
funds for internal improvement and educational purposes. Its most marked provision, 
however, was that in the sales of bonds no sale was to be made uuder their par value, 


The bonds, to the amount of $5,000,000, were put by the bank into the hands of the 
following gentlemen to negotiate sale: James C. Willdus, of Natchez; W. M. Pinckard, of 
Vicksbvirg; and E. 0. Wilkinson, of Yazoo city, who succeeded in disposing of them by 
August 18 to Nicholas Biddle, president of the United States bank of Pennsylvania, pay- 
ments being made in $1,000,000 amounts on November 1, 1838, and January 1, March l,May 
1, and July 1, 1839. About $2,000,000 of these bonds were afterward resold by Mr. Biddle, 
tlirough the agency of the United States bank in Europe, and the remainder, with other state 
stocks, placed as security for money borrowed in England, France and Holland. " To the 
thinking, cool, clear-headed people, and there were many such at that day," says a recent 
writer, " the Union bank was foredoomed to a disastrous and ignominious failure. The 
entire banking system of that period was radically defective, but the theory upon which 
the Union bank was founded, that of 'relieving' people who were hopelessly insolvent, 
was a grotesque absurdity. The system of loans on mortgages of real and personal property, 
prescribed in the act of incorporation, for twelve months, renewable for eight years upon the 
payment of the interest and one-eighth of the principal, at the end of every twelve months, 
would have wrecked the Bank of England. The payment of the bonds as they fell due, and 
the interest thereon, which the bank was required to pay from the funds in its vaults, was a 
sheer impossibility. By the terms of the charter, the fifteen and a half millions of bonds, to 
be delivered to the bank, were made payable in four installments. The first installment was 
made payable in twelve, the second in fifteen, the third in eighteen, and the fourth in twenty 
years. In other words, the legislators of that period were insane enough to pledge the faith 
of the state for the payment of the enormous amount of fifteen and a half millions of dollars 
in the brief space of twenty years, together with the annually accruing interest, which 
amounted yearly to more than three-quarters of a million of dollars. And all this was to be 
the result of the profits of the Union bank in the course of t\\ o decades. Nothing can better 
expose the blind fatuity of the legislators of that day, or the mad, reckless temerity of the 
so-called financiers of the times."* 

Gov. Alexander G. McNutt had somewhat of the temper of the great enemy of the 
United States bank, Andrew Jackson, and "in his annual message of January 7, 1 840, he 
sounded the alarm for a general onslaught on the Ijanks of the state — Union, Planters' and 
all. He says: " I am induced to believe that a large portion of the property accepted as 
security for that stock is incumbered by judgments, mortgages and deeds of trust; that the 
valuations of the appraisers were generally very extravagant; that, in many instances, the titles 
to the property offered are yet imperfect, and that the whole management of the afi'airs of 
the bank has been disastrous to its credit, destructive to the interests of the state and ruinous 
to the institution. The cotton advanced upon by the bank, in some instances, has been 
attached and the suits decided against the institution. Many of the cotton agents and con- 
signees are defaulters, and great loss on the cotton account is inevitable. The post notes, 
issued in violation of law, have greatly depreciated, and if the decisions of several of our 
circuit judges are affirmed by the high court of errors and appeals, actions can not be main- 
tained on a large portion of the bills receivable of the bank. I signed and delivered to the 
managers last summer bonds to the amount of $5,000,000. The president of the 
l^ank was dispatched eastward to make a sale, but was unable to effect it. On the 1 8th of 
November, 1889, I received a letter from the cashier of the bank, together with two resolu- 
tions of the directors, one of which informed me that the remaining five million and a half of 
bonds were ready for my signature. Believing that there was no immediate prospect of sale 

f " Ilistory of MJssissiiipi," Ijowry & McCariUe, 


of the bonds, and that further legislation might be required, I determined not to execute the 
remaining bonds.'' After showing the bank to have a debt due within a year of over 
SJt,000,000, he says: "To pay the residue the bank has 15,000,000 of state bonds, and 
exchange, bills receivable, etc., to make the amouut of $9,000,000. The state bonds can not be 
sold, and a sufficient smn can not be realized in time out of the other assets of the bank to pay 
the post notes due next April and May. It will take more than |250,000 of the available 
funds of the bank to pay in London the interest on the state bonds previous to the 1 st of 
September next. It is our duty to place the institution either in liqiiidation, or to repeal 
all that portion of the charter giving to private individuals stock in the bank and privileged 
loans. The state debt already amounts to about $7,500,000. The interest on $7,000,000 is 
payable abroad, and amounts to $375,000 annually. The rights of the stockholders are yet 
inchoate, and until the residue of the bonds are sold they can have no peculiar claims. 
Influenced by no motive save that of the public good, anxious to protect the rights of all, 
and to advance the interests of the state, I am bound to recommend that the $5,000,000 of 
the state lionds last issued shall be called in and canceled, and that no more shall be here- 
after issued for the Mississippi Union bank." Said he: " The existing banks can not be 
bolstered. Destitute as tliey are of credit and available means, it would be folly in us to 
attempt to infuse vigor and stability into their lifeless forms. They are jDowerless to do 
good, but callable of inflicting injuries irreparable." The facts afterward j^roved him right. 
The agitation begun Ijy the governor spread during the year, and in 1841 he struck 
another blow — this time at the validity of the bonds: "The situation and affairs of the Mis- 
sissippi railroad company, the Planters' bank of the state and of the Mississippi Union 
bank will demand your calm consideration. All those institutions are insolvent, and neither 
of them can resume specie payment for several years or make further loans. I submit, here- 
with, copies of my letters to those banks, calling for specific information in relation to their 
condition, and the answers and statements furnished. The Union bank has $4,349 in specie 
on hand. Her suspended debt in suit is $2,698,869; susjaended debt not sued on $1,777,337; 
resources, chiefly unavailable, $8,033,154; immediate liabilities $3,034,154; capital stock 
$5,000,000. The bank has been irretrievably ruined by making advances on cotton, issuing 
post notes, and loaning the principal portion of her capital to insolvent individuals and 
comjjanies. The situation of the Mississippi railroad company and the Planters' bank is 
equally bad." Therefore he plead that, because the Union bank bonds had been practically 
sold below par by sale on credit, and by the bank of which Mr. Biddle was president, whose 
charter made the action unlawful, except for those authorized by the Keystone state or the 
nation, therefore they ought to be repudiated. Both senate and house disagreed with him, 
however, and placed themselves plainly on record in favor of paying the bonds of both banks 
for which the faith of the state was pledged. The campaign of 1841 was on this issue — the 
whigs taking a stand against repudiation, but after a hard fight they were defeated and the 
repudiation of the Union bonds ensued at once — and the Planters' bonds, although practically 
repudiated, were not formally so until eleven years later. The total debt of the two, due in 
1854, aggregating over $12,000,000, was thus repudiated — technicalities which were to prove 
more costly than the payment would have been, although the total revenue of the state at 
that time would not exceed $225,000. "That the suicidal act of Mississippi has killed the 
credit of the slave states in Europe," says a writer in De Bow's Eeview in 1853, "does not 
admit of a doubt; and what has been the effect ?" After showing that the East was getting 
all the credit necessary to bridge over the crash of 1837 and succeeding years, the writer 
continues, " The South has been forced into inaction and liquidation by the suspicion of capi- 


talists, here and abroad, though wielding the greatest power on earth— cotton." All Southern 
securities were held in suspicion. On account of the trials of these years " some of the finest 
portions of Mississippi became partially depopulated," says a writer in 1849. "Thus in the 
breaking up of our miserable banking system many unhappy consequences followed, the bale- 
ful effects of which have pursued the state, kept down its natural growth and prosperity, and 
are yet seen and daily felt in our courts of justice and halls of legislation." The last two 
banks of this system to suspend were the Northern bank of Mississippi and the Commercial 
bank of Manchester, both of which did so in 1857. This action in regard to these bonds, 
ever since the governor was ordered to proclaim it on February 20, 1842, has had to be 
reiterated in successive constitutions; the present one says: "The credit of the state shall 
not be pledged or loaned in aid of any person, association or corporation; and the state shall 
not become a stockholder in any corporation or association, nor assume, redeem, secure or 
pay any indebtedness or pretended indebtedness alleged to be due by the state of Mississippi, 
to any person, association or corporation whatsoever, claiming the same as owners, holders or 
assignees of any bond or bonds, now generally known as Union bank bonds and Planters' 
bank bonds." 

The close of the fifties saw the state in good financial condition. The total tax of 1860 
was $740,276, and the disbursements of 1861 were $762,470. The two great sources of the 
state's wealth were cotton and slaves, and it was on these that the state expected to find a 
source of credit to carry on the war. The finance of the state was to be based on cotton 
reserves, and when it is considered that in 1859 alone Mississippi produced 145,000,000 worth 
of cotton, the course seemed eminently plausible. It is said that emancipation of slaves was 
a loss to the owners of about $600,000,000. It is natural that the war measures of the 
enemy should be directed to the destruction of these sources of power.* Confederate money 
came in use, too, and although at first at a slight premium, its depreciation was disastrous. 
In June, 1861, a dollar was worth ninety cents; December 1, it was eighty cents, and on the 
15th, seventy -five cents; February 1, 1862, it was sixty cents; February, 1863, it fell to twenty 
cents; June, 1863, to eight cents; January, 1864, to two cents; November, 1864, it rose to 
four and one-half cents; January, 1865, it fell to two and one-half cents; April, 1865, to one 
and one-half cents, and after that it took $800 to |1,000 of Confederate money to equal a 
greenback dollar, and now it is sold as a curiosity. These circumstances will be seen by even 
the most uninformed observer to have been in themselves a fearful blow to this state. Then, 
too, the repairs of a public character during reconstruction days, together with the unskillful 
legislation of that time, as well as abuses, make an immense debt in 1872 a matter of no 
surprise. Add to this condition the $10,000,000 or thereabouts that was collected as a gov- 
ernment cotton tax within the space of three years, and the reader is prepared for this condi- 
tion in 1872. The state debt was then $2,377,342.38; the receipts in 1871 were $1,338,150.49, 
which, with funds, mostly of a worthless nature, in the treasury, of $828,114.16, gave a total 
of $2,166,264.65, from which was disbursed $1,326,161.57, leaving a nominal balance of 
$840,103.08; but, as the uncurrent proportion of this was $795,936.48, the current balance 
was but $44,166.60. The public school system was one great source of expense, too, and the 
increase in the state levy on the assessed valuation of land was startling. It was ten cents 
on a dollar in 1869, and in the successive years of 1871, 1872 and 1874 it became respect- 
ively, four times, eight and one-half times and fourteen times as great as in the first- 
mentioned year. The uprising of 1875-6 was a taxpayers' movement as well as a racial one. 

*It Is said that if the total cost ot the Civil war was dlviaed by the number of slaves set free it would make emanci- 
pation cost about $700 per slave. 


In 1876 the state debt proper was $1,100,685.22, while the total debt, permanent and other- 
wise, was $3,226,847.42, distributed as follows: Due to the Chickasaw school fund, $814,- 
743.23; interest on the same, $20,671.86; due the common-school fund, $878,572.67; interest 
on the same, $65,327.63; outstanding warrants, $590,368.52; certificates of indebtedness. 
$26,882; bonds due on January 1, of 1877, 1878, 1879 and 1896, $690,300.00; interest on 
the same, $32,189.50; railroad tax, $8,579.35; interest on insurance deposits, $14,476.67, and 
interest on bonds, $84,736. In 1882 the total debt was reduced to $2,974,832.06, and after 
deducting the permanent debt and cash, the debt proper was only $341,275.06. This is an 
excellent showing when it is recalled that from 1871 to 1875 property valuation had decreased 
$42,000,000, and about twenty-seven per cent, of the total area of the state had been for- 
feited for taxes. Taxation was reduced from nine and one-half mills in 1875 to two and one- 
half mills in 1883, and lands had been redeemed or purchased with the exception of seven 
hundred thousand acres. 

In his message in 1890, Governor Lowry said: " There was cash in the treasury on the 
1st day of January, 1890, $555,450.02. There can be no doubt that in the course of four 
years, with the present rate of taxation and the natural increase of values, the payable debt 
of the state can be anticipated and the bonds retired." The bonded debt of the state in 1890 
was $902,437 and the floating debt $2,600,571, making a total of $3,503,008 in 1890, as 
against $3,324,084 in 1880, any sinking fund being deducted in both cases. As the popula- 
tion has increased (13.96) thirteen-and-ninety-six-hundredths per cent, during this decade, 
however, the per capita rate of indebtedness (less any sinking fund) has been reduced from 
$2.94 in 1880 to $2.72 in 1890. If the total county debt of the state be added to the totals 
of these two years, making a grand total (less any sinking fund in both cases) in 1880 of $4,- 
456,847 and $4,709,807 in 1890, the per capita rate has been reduced from $3.94 in 1880, to 
$3.65 in 1890. 

Comparing this with other states in the Union may make her standing more clearly evi- 
dent. Including county indebtedness, the state having the largest total indebtedness, less any 
in 1890, was Virginia, with nearly thirty-three millions ($32,874,672), and that having the 
smallest was Vermont, with only ($153,524) a little over one hundred and fifty thousand; the 
per capita in these two cases however, are respectively $19.85 and forty-six cents, neither the 
highest nor the lowest in the Union, and, if the territories are included, Utah falls to the 
lowest place with a total debt of only $49,859, and the lowest per capita of only twenty-four 
cents. In total debt Mississippi ranks nearest to New Jersey, almost a million below Min- 
nesota, Nebraska or Colorado, but above such states as Maine, New Hampshire, and nineteen 
other states and territories. In per capita rate she is likewise midway, the lowest in 1890 
being Utah with twenty-four cents and the highest being the District of Columbia with 
$85.86, or omitting that, Arizona with $46.35, or again omitting all but states — Nevada with 
$28.89, Oregon with one cent, as the lowest; aild Iowa with thirteen cents, coming next near- 
est to it, and Virginia with $18.76, as the highest among the states, is the status, excluding 
county indebtedness. In per capita rate the state ranks along near Ohio, New Jersey, 
Florida, Illinois and Michigan, if county indebtedness is included, or, if not included, with 
Idaho, South Dakota, Michigan and Florida. 

Compared with other Southern states, however, her state per capita rate is almost the 
lowest, Texas being the extreme, with $1.93, and Florida only ten cents lower than Missis- 
sippi ($2.72), while Virginia, with $18.76, and Louisiana, with $14.31, are the highest two. 
But, including the county debt, the per capita of Mississippi is not even surpassed in lowness 
by Texas, and only Florida falls below her, and that only sixteen cents less. 


This excellent fiiuiuoial condition has not pr(n-ent((il the state from embarking in geolog- 
ical stock-taking at times, or in milking efforts to develop the resources by investigating 
them and making them known to the outside world. But these can only be, with many other 
subjects of interest, tonched upon or altogether omitted in a sketch of these limits. 

Among the many unofficial associations covering the state, a few, not elsewhere mentioned, 
may be noticed in this sketch. 

The Confederate veterans of Mississippi was organized as a grand camp on October 15, 
ISS!), at Aberdeen, this state, with these officers: Gen. E. C. Walthall, grand commander, 
Grenada; Gen. W. S. Featherston, first lieutenant grand commander, Holly Springs; Gen. S. 
D. Lee, second lieutenant grand commander, A. & M. college; Gen. Will T. Martin, third 
lieutenant grand commander, Natchez; and appointed officers of staff, Maj. E. T. Sykes, 
adjutant-general, Columbus; Maj. L. W. Magruder, Vicksburg, Capt. T. C. Carter, Meridian, 
aides-de camp. Beginning with but three local associations, it has increased to fourteen, with 
a grand total membership of between fifteen hundred and two thousand veterans, these camps 
being located at Meridian, Aberdeen, Columbus, West Point, Vicksburg, Natchez, Lake, 
Hickory, Hattiesljurg, Fayette, Holly Springs, Jackson, Crystal Springs and Tupelo, all 
organized and numbered in this order. General Walthall was succeeded in command on 
October 15, 1890, by Gen. W. S. Featherston, who served until his death on May 28, 1891. 
The present officers are Gov. John M. Stone, first lieutenant grand commander, Jackson ; Gen. 
J. A. Smith, second lieutenant grand commander, Jackson; Capt. E. O. Sykes, third lieuten- 
ant grand commander, Aberdeen; Maj. E. T. Sykes, adjutant general, Columbus; Capts. W. 
H. Hardy, Meridian, and Fred J. V. Le Cand, Natchez, aides-de-camp; Gen. Joseph R. 
Davis, inspector- general; K. P. Lemans, quartermaster general; Dr. C. A. Rice, surgeon- 
general, and Rev. Louis Ball, chaplain general. The general scope of the association is indi- 
cated by the following: "Shall be strictly social, literary, historical and benevolent, and its 
labors shall be directed to cultivating the ties of friendship between all survivors of the 
armies and navies of the late Confederate states; to keep fresh the memories of our comrades 
who gave up their lives for the lost cause, in battle or in other fields of service, or who have 
died since the war; to the perpetuation of the records of their deeds of heroism, by the collec- 
tion and dis2iosition in the manner they judge best, of all materials of value for future histo- 
rians; to aiding and relieving to the extent of its ability all members, their widows and 
orphans, in extreme cases of sickness and want, and to providing homes for them when neces- 
sary." Their headquarters are at Columbus. The Sons of Veterans also have an organiza- 
tion, of which R. K. Jayne is chief. 

The Mississippi Historical society, whose object is "to discover, collect, preserve and 
perpetuate facts and events relating to the natural, aljoriginal, civil, political, literary and 
ecclesiastical history of the territory and state of Mississippi and the territory adjoining 
thereto," was but recently chartered, although it has shown such vigor that its archives in 
the library building at the state university, its headquarters, are already of great valixe. Its 
first meeting was held at the chancellor's office, university, on May 1, 1890, the charter 
members being Robert Lowry, R. H. Thompson, John Hunter, A. B. Learned, W. H. Sims, 
T. A. McWillie, J. T. Fant, R. B. Pulton, Edward Mayes, and William R. Sims. Professor 
Mayes was chosen president. Professor Fulton keeper of archives, and Prof. W. R. Sims 
secretary and treasurer. Measures were at once taken toward gathering files of old news- 
papers, war relics, Indian relics, pamphlets, books, etc., in which they have been most 
successful. They have the earliest files in the state, except a collection owned by Mr. Stuart, 
of Natchez, a descendant of the first editor in the state. Its membership now embraces in 

MEMOIRS OF Mrssrssrppf. r.3 

the honorary list: Hon. C. C. Jones, Jr., Atlanta, Ga ; Hon. E. C. Walthall, Gen. A. P. 
Stewart, St. Louis, Mo.;, Prof. W. H. N. Magruder, Baton Eouge, La.; Dr. John N. Waddell, 
Clarksville, Tenn. ; Mrs. V. Jefferson Davis, Beauvoir; Hon. Charles Gayarre, New Orleans; 
Gen. Charles W. Darling, Utica, N. Y. ; and in the active list: Hon. T. J. Wharton, E. 
Mayes, W. P. Harris, R. W. Jones, J. L. Alcorn, R. H. Thompson, William R. Sims, E. H. 
Dial, J. B. Stratton, Fred Beall, H. S. Halbert, A. G. Mayers, L. T. Fitzhugh, G. T. Mc- 
Gehee, C. B. Galloway, J. S. McNeilly, A. H Stone, G. D. Shands, C. Firman Smith, S. D. 
Lee, R. B. Fulton, F. K. Henderson, G. R. Hill, J. G. Deupree, Jackson Reeves, Schuyler 
Poitevent, R. M. Leavell, J. A. Orr, W. T. Martin, T. D. Isom, H. P. Simrall, Miss Mollie 
Duvall, W. T. Lewis, C. B. Howry, J. W. Johnson, A. H. Whitfield and P. H. Eager. Its 
funds are partly derived from slight membership fees and annual dues. The society ought 
to be earnestly supported in aggressive efforts. 

Among the extensive farmers' organizations are: The State grange, of which S. L. 
Wilson is master; T. L. Darden, overseer ; and J. P. Dearing lecturer. The State alliance, 
with R. C. Patty, of Macon, president;; and C. T. Smithson, of Newport, secretary; and the 
Patrons' union, with headquarters at Lake, and of which J. B. Bailey is president; J. T. 
Hamilton vice president; J. S. Scott, secretary; and J. I. Robinson, treasurer. These are 
all extensive and well-organized associations, characterized by purposes of improvement in 
the science and art of agriculture, agitation and combination to secure legal and commercial 
advantages, and for social and experimental purjaoses. The growth of these societies has 
been coordinate with the general movement throughout the United States since the war. 
Detailed information seems unobtainable. 

The State Horticultural society is the product of an agitation for the scientific prosecu- 
tion of all branches of horticulture in Mississippi, and its success has been marked. Dr. H. 
E. McKay, of Madison station, is its president, and W. H. Cassell, of Canton, its secretary. 
It met at Jackson on January '.iTi, 1883, and organized with a constitution. Its work will 
be noticed elsewhere. 

The labor organizations are represented by the Knights of Labor, the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen, and various trade societies too numerous to mention. 

Among religio-fraternal societies may be noticed that of the Jewish people, and the 
twelve branches of Catholic Knights of America, at Macomb City, Jackson, Vicksburg, 
Natchez, Canton, Meridian, Holly Springs, Columbus, Bay St. Louis, Greenville and Scran- 
ton, with a total membership of three hundred and seventy-two in the state. 

The first lodge of the time-honored order of Free Masons* established in Mississippi was at 
Natchez, in October, 1801, the Grand lodge of Kentucky having chartered Harmony No. 7, 
on the 16th of that month. The Grand lodge of Tennessee chartered Andrew Jackson lodge 
No. 15, also at Natchez, August 13, 1826, and Washington lodge No. 17, at Port Gibson, 
April 19, 1817. The officers of these lodges, with several past masters, and other members 
of the craft, assembled in convention at Natchez July 27, 1818, and resolved that it was 
expedient and highly necessary to form a Grand lodge for the state of Mississippi. Henry 
Tooley was chosen grand master; Christopher Rankin, deputy grand master; Israel Loring, 
senior grand warden; Edward Turner, junior grand warden; Henry Postlethwaite, grand 
treasurer; Chilion F. Stiles, grand secretary; Christopher Miller, senior grand deacon; John 
Corn, junior grand deacon; Joseph Newman, grand tyler. 

A committee was appointed to prepare a constitution, which was reported and adopted 
August 28. 

♦Contrilmted by J, L, Power, 


Those who have filled the station of grand master are; Henry Tooley, 1818; Christopher 
Eankin, 1819; Edward Turner, 1820-21; Israel Loring, 1822-5; John A. Quitman, 1826-37- 
40-5-6; Robert Stewart 1838-9-41; George A. Wilson, 1842-3; S. W. Vanatta, 1844, died 
during term and succeeded by Deputy Grand Master Harvey W. Walter; Benjamin S. Tap- 
pan, 1847; Charles Scott, 1848-50; Charles A. Lacoste, 1849; William H. Stevens, 1851; 
James M. Howry, 1852; Joseph W. Speight, 1853; Carnot Posey, 1854; Giles M. Hillyer, 
1853-4; William R. Cannon 1857; William Cothran, 1858; William P. Mellen, 1859; 
David Mitchell, 1860; Richard Cooper, 1861-3; William S. Patton, 1864-5; George M. 
Perkins, 1866; John T. Lamkin, 1867; Thomas S. Gathright, 1868-9; George R. Fearn, 
1870-71; W. H. Hardy, 1872; Richard P. Bowen, 1873; A. H. Barkley, 1874-5; John Y. 
Murry, 1876-7; Charles T. Murphy, 1878; Prank Burkitt, 1879; William French, 1880; 
John F. McCormick, 1881; Frederic Speed, 1882; P. M. Savery, 1883; Robert C. Patty, 
1884; J. B. Morgan, 1885; B. T. Kimbrough, 1886; E. George DeLap, 1887; M. M. Evans, 
1888; WiUiam G. Paxton, 1889; John Riley, 1890; John M. Ware, 1891. Of these David 
Mitchell, George R. Fearn, W. H. Hardy, A. H. Barkley, John Y. Murry, Frank Burkitt, 
John F. McCormick, Frederic Speed, P. M. Savery, J. B. Morgan, B. T. Kimbrough, E. 
George DeLap, M. M. Evans, William G. Paxton, John Riley and John M. Ware are still 
living (in 1891). 

Some of the other stations have been filled by citizens eminent in the various walks of life, 
and whose memory will ever be cherished by the craft. William P. Mellen served as grand sec- 
retary for eighteen years. The present grand secretary, J. L. Power, was elected in 1869, and 
is now (1891) serving his twenty-second year. On the completion of his twentieth year he sub- 
mitted a retrospective sketch of the twenty years, giving the following interesting figures: 
Initiated, eight thousand seven hundred and ninety-two; passed, eight thousand four hundred 
and ten; raised, eight thousand one hundred and twelve; total degrees conferred in all the 
lodges for that period, twenty-five thousand three hundred and fourteen; affiliated, five thou- 
sand six hundred and seventy-three; reinstated, four thousand and twenty-two; dimitted, 
eight thousand seven hundred and two; suspended for non-payment of dues, eight thousand 
one hundred and thirty-nine; suspended for unmasonic conduct, three hundred and eighteen; 
expelled for unmasonic conduct, two hundred and thirty; died, three thousand five hundred 
and one. Received and accounted for in the way of dues, 1186,927.87; special relief funds, 
178,298; total, $265,225.87. 

The Grand lodge has issued four hundred and thirteen charters. The total in force 
(1891) is two hundred and seventy-three. Quite a number of lodges were organized during the 
war period, and were known as " Army lodges." These, of course, ceased to work on the restora- 
tion of peace. Others have become consolidated, and others became extinct by the removal 
of members from the country to railroad towns. The numerous beneficial orders, with life 
insurance features, have also attracted many who might otherwise have united with the 
Masonic fraternity. During and immediately after the war, there was a great rush to the 
lodges, so that at the close of the year 1868 the total membership was twelve thousand three 
hundred and eight. The total membership at the close of 1890 was eight thousand three 
hundred and ninety, a net gain of three hundred and eighty-eight on the preceding year. 

The Grand lodge meets annually, during the second week in February, and for several 
years it has been " on wheels." There are usually about two hundred and twenty-five lodges 
represented, whose delegates, with grand and past grand officers, make a total of nearly 
three hundred. The business is usually transacted in two days. The representatives are 
paid mileage and per diem from the funds of Grand lodge, which are derived from an assess- 


ment on each lodge of seventy-five cents per member, and SI on each degree conferred — 
aggregating about |8,000 per annum. In addition there is a charity tax of ten cents per 
capita, which realizes about $800, and |5()() of this is annually appropriated toward the 
support of the Protestant orphan asylum, at Natchez. 

The principal topics that have occupied the attention of the Grand lodge of late years 
are the saloon question and the establishment of a Masonic widows and orphans' home. A 
regulation has been adopted that no saloonkeeper can become a member of a Masonic lodge. 
A fund of several thousand dollars has already been collected toward establishing and endow- 
ing a home, and the interest in that behalf is steadily increasing. The Masons of Mississippi 
have not only the will, but the ability to thus provide for the shelter and support of the des- 
titute widows and orphans of their brethren. 

The officers of the Grand lodge for 1891 are: John M. Ware, grand master; J. L. 
Spinks, deputy grand master; W. A. Roane, senior grand warden; Isaac T. Hart, junior 
grand warden; Rev. J. A. Bowen, grand chaplain; R. B. Brannin, grand lecturer; A. P. 
Barry, grand treasurer; J. L. Power, grand secretary; C. N. Simpson, senior grand deacon; 
W. R. Woods, junior grand deacon; John Y. Murry, Jr., grand marshal; S. G. Stern, grand 
sword bearer; A. G. Wood, grand pursuivant; Henry Strauss, grand tyler. 

The standing committees are: Law and jurisprudence, Frederic Speed, John P. McCor- 
mick, M. M. Evans; complaints and appeals, Frank Biirkitt, John Y. Murry, James T. 
Harrison; finance and printing, William G. Paxton, E. G. DeLap, James H. Duke; state of 
the craft, P. M. Savery, chairman; foreign correspondence reporter, Rev. A. H. Barkley. 

Pursuant to dispensation issued by the deputy general grand high priest of the General 
Grand chapter of the United States, dated at Baltimore March 12, 1846, the representatives 
of four chapters assembled in Vicksburg May 18, 1846, and organized the Grand chapter of 
Mississippi. Vicksburg chapter No. 3 was represented by Thomas J. Harper, Thomas Rigby 
and James Trowbridge; Columbus No. 4, by N. E. Goodwin; Wilson No. 5, by J. B. Day; 
Jackson No. 6, by A. Hutchinson, William Wing and Robert Hughes. The grand ofiBcers 
elected were: B. S. Tappan, grand high priest; A. Hutchinson, deputy grand high priest; 
Charles H. Abert, grand king; William F. Stearns, grand scribe; William Wing, grand secre- 
tary; Thomas J. Harper, grand treasurer; T. C. Thornton, grand chaplain; J. Trowbridge, 
grand marshal. 

The first chapter organized in Mississippi was at Port Gibson, chartered September 15, 
1826. A charter was issued for a chapter in Vicksburg September 17, 1841, atid dispensations 
for chapters in Holly Springs October 30, 1841, Columbus February 7, 1842, Jackson August 
28, 1843, which were chartered September 12, 1844. 

The Grand chapter, like the Grand lodge, moved serenely along until its labors were 
interrupted by the Civil war. There were no sessions in 1862 or 1883. The convocations of 
1864 and 1865 were held at Columbus, and the proceedings were printed on " Confederate'' 

There have been one hundred and fourteen charters issued by the Grand chapter. The 
number in force in 1890 was forty-four, embracing a membership of eleven hundred and 
eighty. Its highest membership was in 1869 — twenty-five hundred and sixty-five in seventy- 
six chapters. 

The grand high priests from 1846 to 1891 are as follows: Benjamin S. Tappan, 1846-7; 
Walker Brooke, 1848; William H. Stevens, 1849; T. C. Tupper, 1850; Charles Scott. 
1851; Charles S. Spanu, 1852; A. V. Rowe, 1853; William S. Patton, 1854; William R, 
Cannon, 1855; William Cothran, 1856; James M. Howry, 1857; Amos R. Johnston, 1858; 


M. S. Ward, 1859; Giles M. Hillyer, 1800; S. H. Johnson, 1861-4; George T. Stain- 
baok, 1865; William S. Patton, 1866; William D. Ferriss, 1S67; J. O. Lusher, 1868; George 
D. Fee, 1869; K. B. Mayes, 1870; Charles T. Bond, 1871j H. 0. Eobinson, 1872; George E. 
Fearn, 1873-4; John Y. Murry, 1875; Harvey W. Walter, 1876-7; John S. Jones, 
187X; Robert B. Brannin, 1879; Frederic Speed, 1880-81; William Eichards, 1882; B. T. 
Kimbrough, 1883; William French, 1884; S. C. Conley, 1885; Eichard P. Bowen, 1886; 
Charles T. Chamberlain, 1887; N. W. Bouton, 1888; A. D. Bailey, 1889; W. E. Trigg, 1.S90; 
P. M. Savery, 1891. 

The Grand chajiter and Grand council adopted what has been termed "the Merger," 
or " Mississippi plan," by which the cryptic degrees were transferred to and conferred in the 
chapter. This created some disturbance in the General Grand chapter and General Grand 
council — the coiirse of the Mississippi companions having been ably vindicated in the General 
Grand bodies by Companions Harvey W. Walter, James M. Howry and Frederic Speed. 
After an experience of twelve years, the "Merger" was a generally admitted failure, and, by 
common consent, the Grand council was reorganized in February, 1889, the Grand chapter 
resigning all control of the degrees of royal and select master. 

The officers of the Grand chapter for 1891 are: P. M. Savery, grand high priest; J. K. 
McLeod, deputy grand high priest; Frank Burkitt, grand king; William Starling, grand 
scribe; Eev. J. A. Bowen, grand chaplain; A. P. Barry, grand treasurer; J. L. Power, grand 
secretary; G. A. Logan, grand captain of the host; G. J. Bahin, grand principal sojourner; 
James T. Harrison, grand royal arch captain; Hiram Hood, grand master third vail; M. M. 
Evans, grand master second vail; S. E. Lamb, grand master first vail; Henry Strauss, grand 
sentinel The present grand treasurer has been in office since 1 869, and grand secretary since 

A convention of Councils of Eoyal and Select Masters was held at Natchez, January 2, 
1856, by the mandate of the Grand Council of the Princes of Jerusalem of the state of Missis- 
sippi. This convention drafted a constitution, which was approved by the said Grand Council 
of Princes of Jerusalem. 

The councils represented in the convention were: Natchez No. 1, E. Craig; Vicksburg 
No. 7, B. Springer, William Middleton; Cayuga No. 10, William E. Lackey; Lexington No. 
26, ^\'illiam P. Mellen, William A. McMillion. 

The convention adjourned to meet at Vicksburg, January 18, 1856, adopted the consti- 
tution, and on the day following organized the Grand Council of Eoyal and Select Masters 
of the state of Mississippi by the election and installation of grand officers. 

On January 26, 1856, the Grand council held an adjourned convention, when the formal 
ratification and confirmation of the above proceedings by the Grand Council of the Princes 
of Jerusalem, of the state of Mississippi, and their grant and conveyance of jurisdiction of 
these degrees, dated at their Grand Orient in Natchez, January 23, 1856, were presented, 
received and filed. 

A pamphlet of thirteen pages, printed in 1855, gives the proceedings of a meeting of 
Eoyal and Select Masters, held in the Masonic hall, at the city of Jackson, January 10, 1854, 
when a Grand council of Eoyal and Select Masters was formed. The councils at Jackson, 
Lexington and Holly Springs were represented, and twenty- six other Eoyal and Select Mas- 
ters were present, several of them very prominent in the craft of that day: Howry, Brooke, 
Cannon, Tupper, Barrows, Foute and others. The officers elected were T. C. Tupper, thrice 
illustrious grand master; Walker Brooke, illustrious deputy grand master; William E. 
Cannon, principal conductor of the work; William H. McCargo; captain of the guard; L. V. 
Dixon, recorder; Burton Yandel, treasurer; G. W. Johnson, sentinel. 


The next assembly was held in Jackson, January 11, 18')."). Seven councils were i 
sented. A constitution was adopted. Amos R. Johnston was elected thrice illustrious j 

This appears to be the last of this organization, which was superseded l\v the ( 
council formed in January, 1856, under the auspices of the Grand Council of Prin( 

The most puissant grand masters, from organization to 1891, are: Benjamin Spr 
1850; William P. Mellen, 1857; Jacob P. Foute, 1858; Daniel Eosser, 1859; William 
ran, 1860; Jacob P. Foute, 1861; William S. Patton, 1864-5; James M. Howry, 1866; 
Lusher, 1867; Giles M. Hillyer, 1868; Morris Cook, 1869; B. S. Trice, 1870-72; E. G 
De Lap, 1873; Harvey W. Walter, 1874-5; P. M. Savery, 1876 [merged alter 1876]; 
iam Richards, 1889; Frederic Speed, 1890-91. There were no sessions in 1861 and 
The highest membership was reached in 1866, nine hundred and eighty-live in fort 
councils. The total membership, December 27, 1890, was one hundred and eighty-u 
seven councils. The rite has beauties that will not fail to enlist the zealous and intel 
of the royal craft in its dissemination. 

There are, at this writing, seventy-eight thousand eight hundred and eighteen Ki 
Templar in eight hundred and forty-three commanderies in the Vnited States. The ( 
commandery of Massachusetts and Rhode Island is the senior grand body, having 
organized May 6, 1805. Mississippi ranks twelfth as to age, having been organized Ja: 
21, 1857, under letters of authority from Grand Master W. B. Hubbard, dated Coin: 
Ohio, December 22, 185(3. Three commanderies were represented, as follows: Missi 
No. 1, Sirs Thomas Palmer, E. P. Russell, Thomas W. Caskey; Magnolia No. 2, Sirs G 
P. Crump, Benjamin S. Tappan, Christopher A. Manlove; Lexington No. 3, W 
H. Dyson, William A. McMillion, A. V. Rowe. A constitution was adopted on th« 

There were no grand conclaves in 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865. In January. 1866, whc 
Grand commandery assembled in Yicksburg, Grand Commander Tappan made appro 
and ])athetic reference to the four years of pilgrimage that severely tested the fait 
constancy of those who endured it; and after fitting reference to the chivalrous and kn: 
dead, he said: ' We once more, knights and companions of our order, set our watclie 
pitch our tents around the hallowed temjjle of Zion. The civil convulsions and the i 
conflicts through which we have passed have but proved the constancy of our faith i 
great principles upon which that temple is founded, and that which will make it as perm 
as the religion it represents, and upon which, in every great and rmlooked-for emerc 
like that which has so long suspended the functions of our Grand commandery, it is our 
ilege to look for aid." 

The grand commanders, from organization, are: William H. Stevens, 1857; Geoi 
Crump, 1858; Giles M. Hillyer, 1859; Harvey W. Walter, I860; Benjamin S. Tappan, 
Edward Lea, 1866; Christopher A. Manlove, 1867; Fleet C. Mercer, 1868; John K. F 
1S69; Charles T. Bond, 1870; William S. Patton, 1871; E. George DeLap, 1872; 
Henry, 1873; P. M. Savery, 1874; Gideon W. Cox, 1875; Oliver Clifton, 187(5; Willi; 
Fairchild, 1877; William G. Paxton, 1878; Charles M. Erwin, 1879; William G. Benl 
1880; William French, 1881; James T. Meade, 1882; H. M. Romberger, 1883; W. P. T( 
1884; JohnH. Gordon, 1885; B. A. Vaughan, 1886; N. S. Walker, 1S87; Frederic S 
1888-9; James J. Hayes, 1890; J. E. Leigh, 1891. 

The annual conclaves are held at the same place as Grand lodge, and on the Tu 


The officers for .1891 are: J. E. Leigh, grand commander; W. A. Bodenhamer, deputy 
grand commander; S. W. Ferguson, grand generalissimo; J. C. French, grand captain of the 
guard; Kev. William Cross, grand prelate; James H. Gunning, grand senior warden; Frank 
Burkitt, grand junior warden; G. J. Bahin, grand treasurer; J. L. Power, grand recorder; 
King Dorwart, grand standard bearer; J. E. Mcintosh, grand sword bearer; T. A. Teasdale, 
grand warder; C W. Bolton, grand captain of the guard. 

There are ten commanderies, with a membership of three hundred and twenty. 

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows, on December 31, 1889, had a total lodge mem- 
bershij) in the United States of six hundred and thirty-four thousand three hundred and 
thirty-five, an increase over the previous year of thirty thousand seven hundred and ninety- 
eight; and the relief distributed amounted to nearly $3,000,000. It is one of the great 
benevolent forces of the world, and, including the " Manchester Unity " in England, and 
membership of the order in other parts of the world, makes a grand fraternal host of nearly 
one and one-half million. In some of the Eastern and Western states it exceeds all other 
fraternal associations in numbers, but it has not been so popular or prosperous in the South- 

Pursuant to a charter granted by the Grand lodge of the United States to Past Grands 
M. Euffner, William Dale, E. P. Pollard, S. L. Goddard, William Cannon, Joseph B. 
Robinson and William S. Robinson, contributing members of Mississippi lodge No. 1, and 
Washington lodge No. 2, both at Natchez, the Grand lodge of Mississippi was organized in 
that city on May 6, 1836, when Mr. RuflPner was elected grand master. The organization 
was conducted and the officers installed by Past Grand Sire Thomas Wildey, who founded 
the order in the United States on February 26, 1819. He appears to have taken a special 
interest in planting the order in Mississippi, and that his fostering care was appreciated by 
the Grand lodge is shown by the fact that he was its "permanent " grand representative for a 
number of years. He communicated frequently with the Grand lodge, and his recommenda- 
tion always had great weight. 

The Grand lodge, for several years, indulged in quarterly communications, but the 
quarterlies were discontinued as new lodges were established throughout the state. The 
order appears to have attained its greatest strength in the second term in 1860, when there 
were fifty-seven working lodges, a total membership of seventeen hundred and ten, two 
hundred and eighty-one initiations, and a total revenue of $14,127.69. There were no sessions 
in 1863, 1864 or 1865, so that the session in Meridian in May, 1891, was the fiftieth session 
and the fifty-third year of the order in Mississippi. On December 31, 1890, there were 
twenty-eight working lodges, with a total membership of nine hundred and ninety-four, but 
when the Grand lodge met in May following, the membership exceeded one thousand, so that 
the Grand lodge was again entitled to two representatives in the Sovereign Grand lodge. The 
order was greatly revived in the state in 1890, through the efforts of Grand Master Wiley 
N. Nash. 

Its grand masters have been; M. Euffner, William Doyle, Benjamin Walker, S. Halsey, 
George J. Dicks, Richard Griffith, S. B. Newman, J. E. Stockman, William H. Brown, 
Thomas Reed, D. N. Barrows, C. H. Stone, William Crutcher, A. M. Foute, N. G. 
Bryson, J. K. Connelly, W. A. Strong, A. H. Arthur, L. K. Barber, John L. Milton, 
H. L. Bailey, William Wyman, A. E. Love, J. P. Hawks, R. B. Mayes, C. Parish, O. 
T. Keeler, S. C. Cochran, George Torrey, G. K. Birchett, Ira J. Carter, Isaac T. Hart, J. S. 
Cain, H. S. Van Eaton, D. P. Black, R. L. Saunders, A. B. Wagner, J. H. McKenzie, Joseph 
Hirsh, T. J. Hanes, W. J. Bradshaw, J. L. Power, G. W. Trimble, Isaac D. Blumenthal, H. 




C. Eoberts, James C. Lamkin, William M. Strickland, Amos Burnett, Eobert C Patty, Wiley 
N. Nash. Most of these have joined the " great majority," a few have been dropped, and 
fifteen remain affiliated with the order. The grand master for 1891 is J. T. Thomas, of 
Grenada, and the grand secretary is Hon. George G. Dillard, of Macon. The session of 1892 
is to be held at Holly Springs, May 3. 

The saying, " Tall oaks from little acorns grow," has been forcibly illustrated in the 
remarkable history of the great and growing fraternity, the Knights of Honor. Organized in 
the city of Louisville, Ky., on June 30, 1873, with seventeen members, it had a total strength 
on April 1, 1891, of one hundred and thirty-eight thousand and twenty-nine; the number of 
subordinate lodges being two thousand five hundred and seventy, and thirty-six grand lodges. 
The death benefits paid during its first year amounted to $1,093.65; the death benefits paid 
for the year 1890 amounted to S3, 848, 500; the total benefits paid from organization to 
June 1, 1891, $34,787,034.26; the value of certificates outstanding, $256,045,000. 

At the fourteenth annual session of the Grand lodge of Mississippi, August 25, 1891, the 
total membership in the state was six thousand and forty, a net gain of three hundred and 
thirty-eight on preceding year. Number of lodges, one hundred and twenty-four, six 
having been instituted during year. There were sixty-eight deaths during the year and 
the benefits paid families amounted to $135,000. Total deaths in Mississippi since organi- 
zation of Grand lodge, April, 1891, seven hundred and eighty-three; total benefits for same 
period, $1,566,000. It is fair to presume that within the next five years the membership will 
reach ten thousand. It is claimed that the order is stronger in Mississippi, in proportion to 
white population, than in any other state in the Union. There were more applications filed 
at the office of the supreme reporter for the month ending July 11, 1891, than from any 
other state, except New York and Texas. 

Hon. George G. Dillard, of Macon, is grand dictator; E. W. Smith, Hernando, grand 

The order of the Knights & Ladies of Honor was organized in 1878. Its membership 
on June 30 of that year was nineteen hundred and twenty-five. Its membership 
December 31, 1890, reached sixty-seven thousand five hundred and forty-eight; benefits 
paid to September 1, 1891, $5,875,714.62. The benefits are from $500 to $3,000, according 
to division. Females are admitted on same terms as men, and it has been demonstrated 
that females are better risks than males. It is not necessary now, as formerly, that a person 
should be a Knight of Honor, or the female relative of such, m order to become a member of 
the Knights and Ladies of Honor; and hence the rapid growth of the order during the last 
few years. Mississippi had a total membership of one thousand eight hundred and eighty- 
one on July 1, 1891. There were twenty-eight deaths during the year ending that date, and 
the beneficiaries received the sum of $47,000. 

The Grand lodge meets annually, in July, and the representatives and grand officers 
numbered at last session about seventy gentlemen and ladies. Hon. Thomas J. Wood, of 
Starkville, is grand protector for 1891-2; Mrs. O. A. Hastings, Port Gibson, grand secretary. 

The great beneficial order, the American Legion of Honor, was organized in 1878, had a 
membership on January 1, 1891, of sixty-two thousand five hundred and seventy-four, and 
paid benefits to that date to the amount of $17,956,278.21. The benefits range from $500 
to $5,000. It has twenty-seven councils in Mississippi, with a membership of about twelve 
hundred. It is among the most prompt of the benevolent orders in paying death losses. It 
has, as yet, no state organization. 

The very popular benevolent order, the Knights of Pythias, is growing rapidly in Mis- 



sissijipi. On December 31, 1S90, its total membership was three thousand one hundred and 
eleven; lodges, fifty-six. The endowment rank has about one thousand two hundred mem- 
bers, carrying an insurance of over 13,200,000. The order in the state has paid to the endow- 
ment rank 1387,491.10, and received in death benefits $456,107. This order, on December 
31, 1889, had a total membership in the United States of two hundred and sixty-three thou- 
sand eight hundred and forty-seven; subordinate lodges, three thousand seven hundred and 
twenty-four. The amount paid for relief during that year reached the magnificent sum of 
$789,455.53. Rev. William Cross, Greenville, grand chancellor; Joseph L. Maganos, Vicks- 
burg, grand keeper of recorc^s and seals for 1891-2. 

The Ancient Order of ijnited Workmen is also being introduced into the state, and has 
strong lodges in Jackson and other places. 

. (§HAPTBI^ ly. - 


(5 I HE friction of mind against mind is one of the greatest sources of our civilization, and 
* I nothing produces this friction so much as facile means of transportation, and nothing 
-^ intensifies it so much as any means of greater rapidity in such intercommunication. 
This feature of rapidity and the other of mere facility may each be easily marked, by the 
most casual student of civilizing influences, as the chief characteristics that distinguish our 
country and our century from other countries, and centuries now past. The amazing 
growth of "the great republic" and the century that has been called the "age of steam," "the 
age of electricity," "the railway age," "the age of iron and steel," "the age of invention," 
"the age of rapid transit," "the century of ocean greyhounds," and what not, springs from 
this one source of rapid transportation to a far greater degree than from any other direct 
cause. A great story of civilization lies in the simple and homely facts : A man walks about 
three miles an hour; a horse trots about seven miles an hour; a steamboat averages about 
eighteen miles an hour ; and a railway train reaches near to sixty miles an hour. Civiliza- 
tion has moved in like manner. 

But if variations in rapidity of transport make such stupendous differences in immediate 
results, variations in facility are equally great. The most cursory glance at the several 
continents will show this feature of facility of intercommunication, when climate does not 
interfere, to be a very practical measure of the civilization of that continent; the greater the 
facility of intercommunication — natural, especially — the greater the civilization. Indeed, 
the two continents most widely separated in degree of civilization, Europe and Africa, are 
also the best and worst illustrations of facility of intercommunication, although adjoining 
one another, and the latter even having centuries of advantage in seeds of advancement. 
Whatever difference of views may be held as to the bearing of race qualities on the subject, 

ME3I0IR8 OF MItitilSSIPPI. 61 

there can be no doubt that the number and depth of the water inlets into Europe, and the 
practical absence of them in Africa, the small continent of Europe having the longest coast 
line, and the vast continent of Africa having the smallest, has led to Africa being the last 
continent to be opened up, and that, too, by artificial means, while Europe has been advanc- 
ing with an excellence and rapidity unequaled in the history of continents before the rail- 
way age. 

It is Mississippi's good fortime, in this respect, that not only gave her an exceptional 
Indian civilization, but makes her one of the earliest to begin in that larger one of Europe. 
It was her ocean coast -line of magnificent harbor advantages that gave her her first settle- 
ment; her river coast-line on the longest waterway of the globe, reaching over four thousand 
miles from the delta to the mountains, that gave her an early and wealthy metropolis long 
before many of the trans-Mississippi commonwealths were deemed a possibility. Her coast-line, 
including the islands which are a part of the state, aggregates five hundred and twelve miles; 
but it must be remembered that the Mississippi allows the travel of large steamers for two 
thousand one hundred and sixty-one miles, while for small boats her branches in the state 
reach a navigation of as high as two hundred and twenty-eight miles on the Yazoo; and 
other branches having an easy course of over fifty miles, are the Sunflower, with two hundred 
seventy-one, the Tallahatchie with one hundred seventy-five, the Issaquena with one hundred 
sixty-one, not counting the several rivers of the sound, which are quite equal in their pro- 

It is needless to repeat here how these watercourses determined settlement in Missis- 
sippi, like such courses have in all countries before the railway age, as it is needless to 
show that the most advanced settlements have the best waterways. Settlements were even 
described by the waterway: a man lived " on the Yazoo," " over on the Big Black," "upon 
the Tombigbee," or " down on the Pascagoula." 

It was on foot that De Soto's caravan entered this state's territory in 1540, and over a 
hundred years later (1690) that horses were first known to the Chickasaws. Canoes were 
used by those early explorers from the French posts above, and the British adventurers of 
the Northeast. The ocean ships of Iberville and Bienville were the first to touch her harbors 
on the sound, in 1699, "because of the sheltered bay or roadstead, where small vessels could 
come and go in safety at all times," wrote Iberville in his report. 

It was not until 1736 and 1739 that bateaux or barges ascended the Mississippi river, 
when Bienville did so to prosecute the Chickasaw war. This was the best means then 
known, and these voyagers were the first. "Tuesday, the 9th, Mons. de Nouaille also set out 
in a separate transport," says a journal of one of his officers. "Wednesday, the 10th of June 
(1739), we set out at break of day, and moved with might and main to stem the terrible cur- 
rent of the Mississippi; a storm coming up from the northwest at about 7 a. m., we made a 
second landing, having gone three leagues of our route." On the 14th, when they stopped 
again, they were sent to barracks to rest from the fatigues of heat "and the swift currents 
of the river, which we had been compelled to stem." "On the 23d of September," he says, 
"we found ourselves engaged at the dinner hour among the three channels of the river, 
which are comprised within the limits of the 'Natchez' settlements. We took the middle 
one, fearing the currents in that on the left. We found here from three and one-half to four 
feet of water, and so fierce a current that half our boats were driven aground, the rest in the 
meantime having proceeded to encamp at the head of the channels on the right bank of the 
river." On the 10th of October they reached the mouth of the "Hyazous," in which one 
readily recognizes the Yazoo, which they could not ascend, because of the drift wood. They 


"coutinned to encountoi- very rapid currents, which placed several of our boats under the 
necessity of hauling themselves up along the shore by means of ropes." His journal illus- 
trates the difficultio.-i of transportation up the river at that time so v?ell that it is here given 
entire, up to his arrival iit the mouth of the Arkansas river; 

"The 13th found lis aboard at daylight, when we took the channel to the right, having 
on our left a small isle which lies at its head, and along which we were compelled to be towed, 
owing to the strength of the current. After much difficulty, we were compelled to sleep in 
our boats, two leagues above a channel called ' Couroit,' or ' Kourois,' so named from its being 
frequently visited by that nation. 

"On the 14th we disembarked at daylight, to take breakfast at the foot of a small cliff. 
Each of the boats here provided itself with some ashwood, with which to shape some oars, 
which we all were more or less short of. Having, after dinner, taken up our route in the 
channel of a bank on the left, we found at the end that there was not sufficient water to pro- 
ceed, and were compelled to retrace our course. Having then succeeded in clearing the bar, 
we crossed to spend the night on the opposite side of the river, having merely landed a strong 

"On the 15th took all aboard as soon as there was sufficient light to permit it, and having 
gone three and three-fourths leagues that day. slept in our boats at the lower end of the 
island farthest toward the north, it being one of three which we had found on our course, 
and where we were joined by a boat coming down from our depot to meet Mons. de Bienville. 

" On the 16th, having gotten aboard at the usual hour, we proceeded. One hour after- 
ward one of the boats sprung a considerable leak, a hidden stump having stove in the star- 
board bow. I immediately went to its assistance with another of our boats. We passed 
several hawsers beneath it to keep it afloat, and having discharged it of its load, I directed 
my boatswain to replace its side planks by new ones, which being done with but little delay, 
we reloaded it and pursued our course. We encamped in a grove at the extremity of a 
lengthy island, opposite that called ' Isle a la tete des morts ' (the island with the heads of 
tlie dead). 

"On the 17th October, all being embarked at dawn, we spent the subsequent nio-ht in our 
boats near the first island we had encountered that day, having made four leagues. 

" On the 18th we set out with the early morn, and in the afternoon were compelled to make 
use of the tow-lines whilst rounding an extensive sand bank in a southerly direction, owing 
to the fierceness of the current. We crossed the end of the bar at sunset towards the right, 
and again passed the night aboard, at a distance of half a league above what is called ' the 
small Pointe Coupee.' 

" On the 19th we set out before day, and having passed to the left of the islands, we 
encamped upon a large bank on our left for a short stay. 

" On the 20th, being stationed on a bank over which there flew a large number of geese 
and ducks, we dispatched a large number from daybreak until seven in the morning, in 
which time we were met by a conveyance going down to New Orleans from the depot. From 
it we learned that our first convoy had arrived there on the 12th, the day after the arrival of 
the Canadians, who, including the Indians among them, were to the number of four hundred 
men. We also learned, from the same source, that the second convoy had lost six soldiers 
and one ensign. 

" The 21st, after roll-call, we embarked one hour before day, and having passed to the left 
of the first island on our route, we slept in our boats that night one-half league beyond the 
island, no one having lauded, owing to the fact that the landing was muddier than any previ- 


ously met. We had observed, during all that day, that the waters having gone down from 
nine to ten feet, had caused a large diminution in the force of the current. 

" The 22d we departed one hour before day, the river still falling, and encamped five in 
the afternoon on a bank to the right. Here we discovered the pirogue of four Arcanoas 
Indians, who were on a hunting expedition, such being the sole occupation of all the nations 
in this vicinity. 

" On the 23d we decamped one hour before day, and were joined soon after by a 
pirogue belonging to the convoy of Mons. de Bienville, from which we learned that the latter 
was only two leagues distant, on his way up to Arcanqas, in the center channel of the three 
which we had discovered and was now ascending. We finally moored our vessels ashore, 
one-half a league further up to the left, each boat arriving separately and at intervals, owing 
to the violent currents which we had encountered. At ten o'clock at night we were joined by 
several boats belonging to the convoy of Mons. de Bienville, which soon left us to regain the 
latter on the opposite shore and a little above us. 

" On the 24th we continued on our journey at five of the morning, and overtook Mons. de 
Bienville at eight o'clock. The wind being north, and the weather rainy and very threatening, 
both convoys set out together only after twelve. We slept two leagues further, in our boats 
near each other, with a separate guard on shore, of which our own was to the right. 

" On the 25th, at three in the morning, the roll was beat separately, and Mons. Bienville 
having started, we embarked, but, half an hour afterward, taking to the channel on the left 
of the first island on our course, we encamped to the number of twelve boats at the first 
mouth of Arcaneas river. 

" On the 26th we were overtaken at five in the morning by one of our boats which had 
been unable to keep up with the rest on the preceding day, and were, consequently, unable 
to proceed before eight o'clock. We passed the mouth of the ArcanQas river on our left. This 
river appeared to me to run in a north-northwest direction. The lodges of the Arcanqas 
nation are distant seven leagues from the Mississippi. It is of considerable size, and can 
furnish four hundred warriors, who have ever been much attached to the French. Passing 
to the left of two islands, we encamped on a bank on our left, one-quarter of a league from 
the last of the two." 

This was in 1739, when no better means was known the world over. Besides these 
barges or bateaux were the flatboats and keelboats, the latter the more pretentious of the 
two, and more or less permanent, while the flatboats were made for one trip and used for 
lumber at the end, of the route, for they were used on the down-stream voyage. The craft 
used for both directions were the keelboats and barges. The keelboat, the more common 
one, was long, narrow and pointed at the ends, with a gangway along the gunwale for 
boatmen, as they poled or warped up the stream, the oars being available only when in 
eddies. This kind of boat only needed to have added to it a long, low, house-like structure 
between the gangways to be the finest boat then afloat, and bearing the more luxurious name 
of barge. All these vessels had immense oars for steering, the flatboats having them 
fixed on the sides on pivots. These were the means of transportation, not only during the 
days before 1798, when Mississippi was made a territory of the United States, but all the 
rest of that and for ten years into the present century. It must be remembered that it was 
only in 1753 that the first steam motor of any kind appeared in this country, and it was only 
ten years before Mississippi was admitted into the Union, that Eobert Fulton first succeeded 
in applying it to boat movement as a mere experiment on the Hudson river. It is difficult 
for us to realize that up to 1811 no steam craft of any kind had ever floated on the thickly 
dotted waters before Natchez and Vicksburg, but so it was. 


Two years after the success of Mr. Tulton's Hudson river exploit, his friends began to 
consider its adaptability to Western streams, and especially the Mississippi, between New 
Orleans and Natchez, the latter being the only considerable settlement below the Ohio. It 
was proposed to build a boat at Pittsburgh for this purpose, and Nicholas J. Roosevelt, the 
inventor of the boat's vertical wheel, undertook the necessary investigation of the river, 
which, if favorable, would determine the building of it by Chancellor Livingston, Mr. Fulton 
and Mr. Roosevelt, the latter to superintend the building of the boat and engine and the oth- 
ers to furnish the capital. "He accordingly repaired to Pittsburgh in May, 1809," says a dis- 
tinguished Baltimore lawyer in an address before the historical society of his state. "The 
only means of conveyance to New Orleans, where his investigations were to terminate, were 
the keelboats, barges and flatboats," which have been described above. "None of those then 
in use were suited to Mr. Roosevelt's purpose, and as the accuracy of his examinations, rather 
than the speed of his voyage, was important, he determined to build a flatboat which should 
contain all necessary comforts for himself and wife, and float with the current of the Ohio and 
Mississippi from Pittsburgh to New Orleans. This he accordingly did, and with the excep- 
tion of some three weeks passed on the shore at Louisville, and some nine or ten days in a 
rowboat between Natchez and New Orleans, the flatboat was the home of Mr. and Mrs. Roos- 
evelt for the next six months. Cincinnati, Louisville and Natchez were then the only places 
of even the smallest note between Pittsburgh and New Orleans." 

His difficulties and the remarkable incidents connected with the birth of steam power in 
this great valley, and for Mississippi's metropolis first, are so striking that the extract is con- 
tinued: "Furnished with letters of introduction to their leading men, the travelers were most 
kindly received and most hospitably entertained. Mr. Roosevelt's explanations were listened 
to respectfully, as he stated his purpose in visiting the West, and narrated what steam had 
accomplished on Eastern rivers. But he was evidently regarded as a sanguine enthusiast, 
engaged in an impracticable undertaking. From no one individual did he receive a word of 
encouragement. Nor was this incredulity confined to the gentlemen he met in society; it 
extended to the pilots and boatmen, who, passing their lives on the Ohio and Mississippi, 
possessed the practical information he wanted. They heard what he had to say of the expe- 
rience of Fulton and Livingston, and then pointed to the turbid and whirling waters of the 
great river as a conclusive answer to all his reasoning. That steam could be made to resist 
them they could not be made to understand. Nothing, however, shook the confidence of Mr. 
Roosevelt. He had made up his mind that steam was to do the work of the Western world, 
and his present visit was but for the purpose of ascertaining how best the work could be done 
upon its streams. The Ohio and Mississippi were problems that he had undertaken to study, 
nor did he leave them until he had mastered them in all their bearings. He gauged them; 
he measured their velocity at different seasons; he obtained all the statistical information 
within his reach, and formed a judgment with respect to the future development of the coun- 
try west of the Alleghanies that has since been amply corroborated. Not only did he do this, 
but finding coal on the banks of the Ohio, he purchased and opened mines of the mineral; 
and so confident was he of the success of the project on hand, that he caused supplies of the 
fuel to be heaped upon the shore, in anticipation of the wants of a steamboat whose keel had 
yet to be laid, and whose very existence was to depend upon the impression that his report 
might make upon the capitalists, without whose aid the plan would, for the present at least, 
have to be abandoned. 

"Arriving at New York in the middle of January, 1810, Mr. Roosevelt's report, bearing 
on its face evidence of the thoroughness of his examination, impressed Fulton and Livingston 


with his own convictions, and in the spring of that year he returned to Pittsburgh, to super- 
intend the building of the first steamboat that was launched on the Western waters. 

"Pittsburgh, when Mr. Roosevelt took up his residence there in 1811, had but recently 
commenced the career which has now entitled it to the name of the Birmingham of America. 
On the Allegheny side, which was liable to overflow, there were but few buildings in ISll. 
Close by the creek, and immediately under a lofty bluff, called Boyd's hill, was an iron 
foundry, known as Beelen's foundry, and in immediate proximity to this was the keel of Mr. 
Eoosevelt's vessel laid. The depot of the Pittsburgh & Connellsville railroad now occupies 
the ground I am speaking of. 

"The size and plan of the first steamboat had been determined on in New York, and had 
been furnished by Mr. Fulton. It was to be one hundred and sixteen feet in length, and 
twenty-foot beam. The engine was to have a thirty-four-inch cylinder, and the boiler and 
other parts of the machine were to be in proportion. 

" The first thing to be done was to obtain the timber to build the boat, and for this pur- 
pose men were sent into the forest, there to find the necessary ribs and knees and beams, 
transport them to Monongahela, and raft them to the shipyard. White pine was the only 
material for planking that could be obtained without a delay that would be inadmissible. 
The sawing that was required was done in the old-fashioned and now long-forgotten saw-pits 
of 1811. Boat-builders, accustomed to build the barges of that day, could be obtained in 
Pittsburgh, but a ship-builder and the mechanics required in the machinery department, had 
to be shipped from New York. Under these circumstances, Mr. Roosevelt began the work. 
One of the first troubles that annoyed him was a rise in the Monongahela, when the waters 
backed into his shipyard, and set all the materials that were buoyant afloat. This occurred 
again and again, and on one occasion it seemed not improbable that the steamboat would be 
lifted from its ways and launched before its time. At length, however, all difiiculties were 
overcome, by steady perseverance, and the boat was launched, and called, from the place 
of her ultimate destination, the New Orleans. It cost in the neighborhood of $>iS,0( )(). 

" As the New Orleans approached completion, and when it came to be known that Mrs. 
Roosevelt intended to accompany her husband on the voyage, the numerous friends she had 
made in Pittsburgh united in endeavoring to dissuade her from what they regarded as utter 
folly, if not absolute madness. Her husband was appealed to. The criticisms that had been 
freely applied to the boat by the crowds of visitors to the shipyard were now transferred to 
the conduct of the builder. He was told that he had no right to peril his wife's life, however 
reckless he might be of his own. But the wife believed in her husband, and in the latter part 
of September, 1811, the New Orleans, after a short experimental trip up the Monongahela, 
commenced her voyage. 

"There were two cabins, one aft for ladies, and a larger one forward for gentlemen. In 
the former were four berths. It was comfortably furnished. Of this Mrs. Roosevelt took 
possession. Mr. Roosevelt and herself were the only passengers. There was a captain, an 
engineer named Baker, Andrew Jack (the pilot), six hands, two female servants, a man waiter, 
a cook and an immense Newfoundland dog. Thus equipped, the New Orleans began the 
voyage which changed the relations of the West — which may almost be said to have changed 
its destiny. 

" The people of Pittsburgh turned out en masse, and lined the banks of the Mononga- 
hela, to witness the departure of the steamboat, and shout after shout rent the air, and hand- 
kerchiefs were waved and hats thrown up by way of God speed to the voyagers, as the 
anchor was raised, and, heading up stream for a short distance, a wide circuit brought the 


New Orleans on lier proper course, and, steam and current aiding, she disappeared behind 
the first headland, on the right bank of the Ohio. 

" Too much excited to sleep, Mr. Roosevelt and his wife passed the greater part of the 
first night on deck, and watched the shore, covered then with an almost unbroken forest, as 
reach after reach and bend after bend were passed at a speed of from eight to ten miles an 
hour. The regular working of the engine, the ample supply of steam, the uniformity of the 
speed, inspired at last a confidence that quieted at length the nervous apprehensions of the 
travelers. Mr. Jack, the pilot, delighted with the facility with which the vessel was steered, 
and at a speed to which he was so little accustomed, ceased to express misgivings and became as 
sanguine as Mr. Roosevelt himself in regard to the success of the voyage. The very crew of 
unimaginative men were excited with the novelty of the situation ; and when the following 
morning assembled all hands on deck to return the cheers of a village whose inhabitants had 
seen the boat approaching down the long reach in the river, and turned out to greet her as 
she sped, it probably shone upon as jolly a set as ever floated upon the Ohio. 

" On the second day after leaving Pittsburgh, the New Orleans rounded to opposite Cin- 
cinnati, and cast anchor in the stream. Levees and wharfboats were things unknown in 1811*. 
Here, as at Pittsburgh, the whole town seemed to have assembled on the bank, and many of the 
acquaintances came off in small boats. 'Well, you are as good as your word; you have 
visited us in a steamboat,' they said; ' but we see you for the last time. Your boat may 
go down the river; but, as to coming up; the very idea is an absurd one.' This was one 
of those occasions on which seeing was not believing. The keelboatmen, whose shoulders 
had hardened as they pressed their poles for many a weary mile against the current, shook 
their heads as they crowded around the strange visitor, and bandied wit with the crew that 
had been selected from their own calling for the voyage. Some flatboatmen, whose ungainly 
arks the steamboat had passed a short distance above the town, and who now floated by with 
the current, seemed to have a better opinion of the new comer, and proposed a tow in case 
they were again overtaken. But as to the boat's returning, all agreed that that could never 

"The stay at Cincinnati was brief, only long enough to take in a supply of wood for the 
voyage to Louisville, which was reached on the night of the fourth day after leaving Pitts- 
burgh. It was midnight on the 1st of October, 1811, that the New Orleans dropped anchor 
opposite the town. There was a brilliant moon. It was as light as day almost, and no one 
on board had retired. The roar of the escaping steam, then heard for the firnt time at the 
place where now its echoes are unceasing, roused the population, and, late as it was, crowds 
came rushing to the banks of the river to learn the cause of the unwonted uproar. A letter 
now before me, written by one of those on board at the time, records the fact, that there were 
those who insisted that the comet of 1811 had fallen into the Ohio and produced thehubub! 
"The morning after the arrival of the vessel at Louisville, Mr. Roosevelt's acquaintances 
and others came on board, and here the same things were said that had been said at Cincin- 
nati. Congratulations at having descended the river were, without exception, accompanied 
by regrets that it was the first and last time a boat would be seen above the falls of the Ohio. 
Still, so far, certainly, Mr. Roosevelt's promises had been fulfilled, and there was a public 
dinner given to him a few days after his arrival. Here any number of complimentary toasts 
were drank, and the usual amount of feeling on such occasions was manifested. Sed revocare 
gradum, however, was still the burden of the song. 

" Not to be outdone in hospitality, Mr. Roosevelt invited his hosts to dine on board the 
*rievees were knowa la New Orleaas almost a Imndred years befoi-e. 


New Orleans, which lay at anchor opposite the town. The company met in the forward or 
gentlemen's cabin, and. the feast was at its hight, when suddenly there were heard unwonted 
rumblings, accompanied by a very perceptible motion in the vessel. The company had but 
one idea. The New Orleans had escaped from her anchor, and was drifting toward the 
falls, to the certain destruction of all on board! There was an instant and simultaneous rush 
to the upper deck, when the company found, that, instead of drifting toward the falls of the 
Ohio, the New Orleans was making good headway up the river and v?ould soon leave Louis- 
ville in the distance down stream. As the engine warmed to its work, and the steam blew off 
at the safety valve, the speed increased. Mr. Roosevelt, of course, had provided this means 
of convincing his incredulous guests, and their surprise and delight may readily be imagined. 
After going up the river for a few miles, the New Orleans returned to her anchorage. 

" It had been intended, on leaving Pittsburgh, to proceed as rapidly as possible to New 
Orleans, to place the boat on the route for which it was designed, between that city and 
Natchez. It was found however, on reaching Louisville, that there was not a sufficient depth 
of water on the falls of the Ohio to permit the vessel to pass over them in safety. Nothing 
was to be done, therefore, but to wait, as patiently as possible, the rise in the river. That 
this delay might, as far as practicable, be utilized, to the extent, at least, of convincing the 
incredulous Cincinnatians, the New Orleans returned to that city, where she was greeted 
with an enthusiasm that exceeded even what was displayed on her descent from Pittsburgh. 
No one doubted now. In 1832," continues the address, "I was detained for several days in 
Cincinnati, on my return from a visit to the South. There were numbers, then alive, who 
remembered the first advent of steam, and from some of these I learned what is here stated 
in regard to the public feeling at the time — the universal incredulity at the first visit — the 
unbounded confidence inspired by the second. •" 

" Keturning to Louisville, the greater interest of all on board the New Orleans centered 
in watching the rise in the Ohio. Rain in the upper country was what was wanted, and of 
this there seemed small promise. There was nothing in the aspect of the heavens that indi- 
cated it. On the contrary, there was a dull, misty sky, without a cloud, a leaden atmosphere 
that weighed upon the spirits, and the meaning of which would have been better understood 
at Naples, under the shadow of Vesuvius, than on the banks of the Ohio. The sun, when it 
rose, looked like a globe of red-hot iron, whose color brightened at noon, to resume the same 
look when it sank below the horizon. All day long one might have gazed on it with unflinch- 
ing eyes. The air was still heated, and a sense of weariness was characteristic of the hours 
as they wore slowly by. At last, and when a nervous impatience affected every one on board, 
it was announced one morning that there had been a rise in the river during the night. 
Morning after morning the rise in the river during the night was reported, and finally, in the 
last week in November, it was ascertained that the depth of water in the shallowest portion 
of the falls exceeded by five inches the draught of the boat. It was a narrow margin, but 
the rise had ceased. There was no telegraph in those days to tell hourly what was the weather 
in the country drained by the Ohio, and Mr. Roosevelt, assuring himself, personally, of the 
condition of the falls, determined to take the responsibility and go over them if he could. 
It was an anxious time. All hands were on deck. Mrs. Roosevelt, whom her husband would 
willingly have left behind to join him below the falls, refused to remain on shore, and stood 
near the stern. The two pilots — for an extra one had been engaged for the passage through 
the rapids — took their places on the bow. The anchor was weighed. To get into the Indi- 
ana channel, which was the best, a wide circuit had to be made, bringing her head down 
stream, completing which, the New Orleans began the descent. Steerage way depended upon 


her speed exceeding that of the current. The faster she could be made to go the easier it 
would be to guide her. All the steam the boiler would bear was put upon her. The safety 
valve shrieked; the wheels revolved faster than they had ever done before, and the vessel, 
speaking figuratively, fairly flew away from the crowds collected to witness her departure 
from Louisville. Instinctively each one on board now grasped the nearest object, and with 
bated breath awaited the result. Black ledges of rock appeared only to disappear as the 
New Orleans flashed by them. The waters whirled and eddied, and threw their spray upon 
the deck, as a more rapid descent caused the vessel to pitch forward to what at times seemed 
inevitable destruction. Not a word was spoken. The pilots directed the men at the helm by 
motions of their hands. Even the great Newfoundland dog seemed affected by the appre- 
hension of danger, and came and crouched at Mrs. Roosevelt's feet. The tension of the 
nervous system was too great to be long sustained. Fortunately the passage was soon made, 
and with feelings of profound gratitude to the Almighty, at the successful issue of the advent- 
ure, on the part of both Mr. Roosevelt and his wife, the New Orleans rounded to in safety 
below the falls. There was still the same leaden sky, the same dim sun during the day, the 
same starless night; but the great difficulty had been overcome, and it was believed that there 
would now be nothing but plain sailing to the port of destination. It was yet to be seen how 
far the expectation of those on board, in this respect, would be realized." 

This birth of steam in the great valley was so great an event that even the stars and the 
pent-up fires of the depths of the earth were destined to celebrate it. The great comet of 1811 
had now disappeared; then came the great earthquakes of that year, which, like the legend- 
ary dragons that threaten to devour, become the slave of and do obeisance to its conqueror's 
bravery, as the great convulsion of New Madrid seemed to do to the audacious little firecraft 
of Mr. Roosevelt. Says Tilr. Latrobe still farther: "The first shock that was observed was 
felt on board the New Orleans while she lay at anchor after passing the falls. The effect was 
as though the vessel had been in motion and had suddenly grounded. The cable shook and 
trembled, and many on board for a moment experienced a nausea resembling sea-sickness. It 
was a little while before they could realize the presence of the dread visitor. It was wholly 
unexpected. The shocks succeeded each other during the night. When morning came the 
voyage was resumed, and while under way, the jar of the machinery, the monotonous beating 
of the wheels, and the steady progress of the vessel prevented the disturbance from being 

" It has already been mentioned, that, in his voyage of exploration, Mr. Roosevelt had 
found coal on the Ohio, and that he had caused mines to be opened in anticipation. Their 
value was now realized, and when he reached them on his way down the river, he took on 
board as much coal as he could find room for. 

" Some miles above the mouth of the Ohio, the diminished current indicated a rise in the 
Mississippi. This was found to be the case. The bottom lands on either shore were under 
water, and there was every sign of an unwonted flood. Canoes came and went among the 
boles of the trees. Sometimes the Indians attempted to approach the steamboat, and, again, 
fled on its approach. The Ghickasaws still occupied that part of the state of Tennessee lying 
below the mouth of the Ohio. On one occasion a large canoe, fully manned, came out of the 
woods abreast of the steamboat. The Indians, outnumbering the crew of the vessel, paddled 
alter it. There was at once a race, and for a time the contest was equal. The result, how- 
ever, was what might have been anticipated. Steam had the advantage of endurance, and 
the Indians with wild shouts, which might have been shouts of defiance, gave up the pursuit, 
and turned into the forest from whence they emerged. 


" While the crew was more amused than alarmed at this incident of the voyage, Mr. Eoose- 
velt, who had not forgotten the visit to the flatboat on the preliminary exploration, was not 
sorry, now, when he lost sight of the canoe. That he bestowed a second thought on the mat- 
ter, illustrates the nervous excitement that prevailed on board. Mrs. Koosevelt and himself 
were still discussing the adventure when they retired to rest. They had scarcely fallen 
asleep, when they were aroused by shouts on deck, and the trampling of many feet. The 
idea of the Indians still predominant, Mr. Eoosevelt sprang from his bed, and seizing a sword 
— the only weapon he had — hurried from the cabin to join battle, as he thought, with the 
Chickasaws. It was a more alarming enemy that he encountered. The New Orleans was on 
fire, and flame and smoke issued from the forward cabin. The servant who attended them, 
had placed some green wood too close to the stove, in anticipation of the next day's wants, 
and, lying down beside it, had fallen sound asleep. The stove, becoming overheated, this 
wood had taken fire; the joiner's work close by had caught, and the entire cabin would soon 
have been in flames, had not the servant, half suffocated, rushed on deck and given the alarm. 
By dint of great exertion,' the fire, which by this time was making rapid headway, was extin- 
guished, but not until the interior woodwork had either been destroyed or grievously defaced. 
Few eyes were closed for the remainder of the night, nor did the accident tend to tranquillize 
the nerves of the travelers. 

"A supply of provisions had been taken on board the New Orleans, at Louisville, amply 
suiEcient for the voyage to Natchez, and this was occasionally supplemented by purchases 
at settlements along the river. These, however, were few and far between, and not at all to 
be relied upon. The crew, accustomed to the simple fare of boatmen on the Mississippi, 
were easily provided for. The commissariat of the voyage, therefore — longer than a voyage 
to Europe now — gave no trouble. 

" Early in the afternoon of each day the steamer was rounded to and fastened to the 
bank, the crew going ashore to cut the wood required, after the coal was exhausted, for the 
next day's consumption. On some of these occasions, squatters came on board with tales of 
their exjjerience upon the land, which they insisted shook and trembled under their feet. At 
New Madrid, a great portion of which had been engulfed, as the earth opened up in vast chasms 
and swallowed up houses and their inhabitants, terror-stricken people had begged to be taken 
on board, while others, dreading the steamboat even more than the earthquake, hid them- 
selves as she approached. To receive the former was impossible. The would-be refugees had 
no homes to go to; and ample as was the supply of provision for Mr. Roosevelt and his wife, it 
would have been altogether insufiicient for any large increase of passengers, and as to obtain- 
ing provisions oil the way, the New Orleans might as well have been upon the open sea. 
Painful as it was, there was no choice but to turn a deaf ear to the cries of the terrified 
inhabitants of the doomed town. 

" One of the peculiar characteristics was the silence that prevailed on board. No one 
seemed disposed to talk; and when there was any conversation it was carried on in whis- 
pers, almost. Tiger, who appeared, alone, to be aware of the earthquake while the vessel was 
in motion, prowled about, moaning and growling; and when he came and placed his head on 
Mrs. Roosevelt's lap, it was a sure sign of commotion of more than usual violence. Orders 
were given in low tones, and the usual cheerful 'Aye, aye, sir,' of the sailors, was almost 
inaudible. Slesplessness was another characteristic. Sound, continuous sleep was appar- 
ently unknown. Going ashore for wood was the event of each twenty-four hours, and was 
looked forward to by the crew with satisfaction, notwithstanding the labor it involved. And 
yet the men, if not sullenly, toiled silently; and if the earth shook, as it often did, while 


they were at work, the uplifted axe was suspended, or placed quietly on the log, and the men 
stared at each other until it ceased. Nor was this depression confined to the steamer. Flat- 
boats and barges were passed whose crews, instead of bandying river wit, as they had done 
when met on the voyage from Pittsburgh to Louisville, uttered no word as the New Orleans 
went by. Before the travelers had been many days on the Mississippi, they fancied, as they 
looked at each other, that they had become haggard. Mrs. Roosevelt records ' that she lived 
in a constant fright, unable to sleep, or sew, or read.' 

" Sometimes Indians would join the woodchoppers, and occasionally one would be able to 
converse in English with the men. From these it was learned that the steamer was called 
' Penelore,' or ' fire canoe,' and was supposed to have some affinity with the comet that had 
preceded the earthquake, the sparks from the chimney of the boat being likened to the 
train of the celestial visitant. Again they would attribute the smoky atmosphere to the 
steamer, and the rumbling of the earth to the beating of the waters by the fast revolving pad- 
dles. To the native inhabitants of the boundless forest that lined the river banks, the com- 
ing of the first steamboat was an omen of evil ; as it was the precursor of their own expul- 
sion from their ancient homes, no wonder they continued, for years, to regard all steamboats 
with awe. As late as 1834, when the emigration of the Chickasaws to their new homes, 
west of the river, took place, hundreds refused to trust themselves in such conveyances, but 
preferred making their long and weary pilgrimage on foot. 

"One of the most uncomfortable incidents of the voyage was the confusion of the pilot, 
who became alarmed, and declared that he was lost, so great had been the changes in the 
channel caused by the earthquake. Where he had expected to find deep water, roots and 
stumps projected above the surface. Tall trees that had been guides had disappeared. 
Cut-offs had been made through what was forest when he saw it last. Islands had changed 
their shape. Still there was no choice but to keep on. There was no place to stop at. 
There was no possibility of turning back. 

"In the first part of the voyage when the steamboat rounded to at night she was made 
fast to the river bank, but when it was seen that these would occasionally topple and fall over, 
as the ground beneath them was shaken or gave way, it was thought safer to stop at the foot 
of an island, which might serve as a breakwater, taking care the trees were far enough from 
the boat to obviate apprehension from them. Once, however, when such a fastening had been 
made and a plank carried ashore, and the woodchopping had been finished at an hour earlier 
than usual, a new experience was had. No shock had been felt during the day, and Mrs. 
Roosevelt anticipated a quiet rest. In this, however, she was disappointed. All night long 
she was disturbed by the jar and noise produced by hard objects grating against the plank- 
ing outside the boat. At times severe blows were struck that caused the vessel to tremble 
through its entire length. Then there would follow a continuous scratching mingled with 
the gurgling sound of water. Driftwood had caused sounds of the same sort before, and it 
was thought that driftwood was again busy in producing them. With morning came the true 
explanation. The island had disappeared; and it was the disintegrated fragments sweeping 
down the river that had struck the vessel from time to time and caused the noises that Mrs. 
Roosevelt had been disturbed by. At first, it was supposed that the New Orleans had been 
borne along by the current, but the pilot pointed to landmarks on the banks which proved 
that it was the island that had disappeared while the steamboat had kept its place. Where 
the island had been, there was now a broad reach of the river, and when the hawser was cut, 
for it was found impossible otherwise to free the vessel, the pilot was utterly at a loss 
which way to steer. Some flatboats were hailed, but they, too, were lost. Their main effort was 


by dint of their long oars to keep where the current was the strongest. This was evidently 
the best place for the New Orleans. It was not without its peculiar risks, however. In the 
bends, where the rushing waters struck the shore to whirl around the curve, and glance off 
and form a bend in the opposite direction, the deepest water was immediately under the bank, 
and here the trees, undermined by the current, would be seen at times to sink into the stream, 
often erect until the waters covered their topmost twigs, sometimes falling against each other, 
interlacing their great arms, as strong men might do struggling for life when drovming. 
Sometimes they fell outward into the water, and then woe to the vessel that happened to be 
near them in the bend. This danger, however, steam enabled the New Orleans to avoid. 
Referring to it all, it is not wonderful that the survivor still speaks of it as ' one of anxiety 
and terror.' 

"As the New Orleans descended the river, it passed out of the region of earthquakes, and 
the principal inconvenience was the number of shoals, snags and sawyers. These were all 
safely passed, however, and the vessel came in sight of Natchez, and rounded too, opposite 
the landing place. Expecting to remain here for a day or two, the engineer had allowed his 
fires to go down, so that when the boat turned its head up stream it lost headway altogether, 
and was being carried down by the current, far below the intended landing. Thousands were 
assembled on the bluff and at the foot of it; and, for a moment, it would have seemed that 
the New Orleans had achieved what she had done, so far, only that she might be overcome 
at last. Fresh fuel, however, was added, the engine stopped that steam might accumulate; 
presently the safety-valve lifted — a few turns of the wheel steadied the boat — a few more 
gave her headway; and, overcoming even the Mississippi, she gained the shore, amid shouts 
of exultation and applause." 

To this vivid account of Natchez' great contribution to our great valley's civilization, it 
may be added that Samuel Davis, who was the first to ship cotton by this boat on this trip, 
was standing among the spectators, when a colored drayman exclaimed: "By jolly, mass' 
Sam, ole Mississippi got her massa dis time ! ' ' Other steam vessels were built, the next ones 
being the Vesuvius and .^tna, and the great Father of waters has been dotted with 
them in increasing abundance ever since. It was only eight years later that the steamer 
Savannah did for the Atlantic what the New Orleans did for the Mississippi. The London 
Times of May 18, 1819, said: " Great experiment: — A new steam vessel of three hundred tons 
has been built at New York, for the express purpose of carrying passengers across the Atlantic. 
She is to come to Liverpool direct." 

In 1820 local steamers were put on, the Mississippi being one of the first owned 
locally, as the most of the business was done by through steamers until nearly 1840. About 
the first regular packet between Vicksburg and New Orleans was the Sultana under Cap- 
tain Tufts, whose son-in-law, Captain Pease, afterward ran a second Sultana, which was 
built by Abijah Fisk, of New Orleans. These old river captains were noted characters, many 
of them, one of the earliest being Capt. John W. Kussell, on one of the through steamers. 
Capt. Abram Auter, of Vicksburg, whose life has extended into the decade just closed, was a 
contemporary of these old commanders, and in 1842 built and ran the Mazeppa to New 
Orleans, and later on ran the first steamer run above Yazoo city, even running twenty-five 
miles up the Yalobusha. This latter craft bore the suggestive appellation The Bully Woods- 
man. It was in 1843 that the floating palaces were introduced with their high style of liv- 
ing, by Capt. St. Clair Thomasson with his Concordia. Only a few years later he put on 
the Magnolia, between Vicksburg and New Orleans, and this was the passenger queen of 
ante-bellum days. She was sunk by a collision early in the fifties. Among other well-known 


captains were, C. J. Brenham, John W. Cannon, James M. White and Commodore Thomas 
P. Leathers, the commodore's boats almost always bearing the name Natchez. 

The marvelous increase and supremacy of the shipping interests in the carrying trade 
from those days on, until the rise of railroads, is a matter within the memory of those now of 
middle age. 

But Natchez distinguished herself in this line still more, late in the thirties. Not content 
with being the inland metropolis of the lower Mississippi, she agitated for becoming an ocean 
port with direct trade with Liverpool. The result was that in 1839 the legislature incorpor- 
ated the Port Gibson & Grand Gulf Shipping Company and the Mississippi Importing Com- 
pany. The scheme was so successful that by 1840 ships were ascending the river as high as 
Vicksburg, but on account of the financial disasters of those panicky times, and possibly for 
other reasons, the plan was not long after abandoned. 

Instead of the leading river ports continuing as Natchez and Vicksburg, they have 
become Vicksburg and Natchez, one great reason for this, no doubt, being the construction of 
the old Southern, now the Alabama & Vicksburg railway. 

Now, as an illustration only of river traffic, let us note the principal lines of steamboats 
touching at Vicksburg: The St. Louis & Vicksburg Anchor line, with several fine boats; 
the Vicksburg & Greenville Packet Company, owned at Vicksburg; Merchants & Planters' 
line to Skipwith; Vicksburg & Natchez Packet Company; Vicksburg and Davis Bend line; 
New Orleans & Vicksburg steamboat T. P. Leathers; New Orleans, Vicksburg & Greenville 
steamboat Pargoud; New Orleans & Ohio River line — a large freight line; the steamboat 
Headlight, up the Sunflower river; the Parisot line, up the Yazoo; the Mulhollands line, 
up the Yazoo, besides the steam ferry line and numerous highwater lines. 

Intimately connected with the Mississippi river transportation is its levee system, which 
may be considered before turning attention to the coast and land transportation, especially 
because not a little of the railway system has been dependent on the building of levees. Only 
the lowland portions, of course, have any dependence on levees or dykes to protect them from 
overflow in times of highwater, thus rendering them cultivable and inhabitable. In the 
case of Mississippi, the portion of such a low level as this indicates is an immense oval- 
like region, formed by the river making a vast detour from Memphis to the west, and 
curving back on Vicksburg, and the bluffs, back of the lowlands, debouching in a similar 
vast curve to the east between those two cities. This vast oval is about one hundred and 
eighty miles long and about seventy-five miles wide, and, containing a vast area of over four 
million acres, about half of which is woodland, and all of which, subject to the overflows and 
accumulation of decayed vegetation of centuries, is of literally inexhaustible richness. To 
protect this from overflow was to not only make the river a better channel for transport, but 
practically create a country which would develop both new river and new railway transpor- 
tation; but to protect a river frontage of such stupendous proportions on the greatest water- 
course in the world was an undertaking so vast that it had to await a late day of greatly 
increased population. Of course there were local lines; even in 1811 a company was incor- 
porated for one at Warrenton. So many, however, had settled in the higher unoverflowed 
lands of this Mississippi- Yazoo delta, as it is called, that in 1840, before it was leveed, it 
produced thirty-nine thousand bales of cotton, and by 1850 a total of forty-two thousand 
annually. But after some meager leveeing had been done, the production increased, so that 
in 1860 the crop was one hundred and thirty-six thousand bales! The land, unsalable before 
became at once salable. 

But what were these levees ? The first levee on the Mississippi was begun at New 


Orleans in 1717, and not completed until 1727. The work extended, until by 1770 over fiftr 
miles were completed. Says a recent writer in the Memphis Commercial : '" There was a 
time, within the memory of men now living, when each man owning property on the great 
Mississippi built and kept up with his own effort the little ridges which, at that time, bore 
the name of levees. There were stretches of front owned by the state or government, or by 
non-resident land-grabbers, and these would have no protection whatever; and a levee system, 
above all things else, must have continuity. Its stability in all other places would be of no 
avail if there were gaps unfilled. 

" It was then that planters took upon themselves the task of systematizing the con- 
struction of these banks of dirt, which have grown to be scientifically constructed dikes, 
which in time will become magnificent pikes from the bluffs almost to the sea. At first they 
contributed so much labor per annum, which was generally called out in one big squad, with 
each planter or overseer commanding his own hands. Of course, as the country opened up 
for some miles back, the dwellers along the river front began to feel the injustice of being 
compelled to keep up levees to protect men who need not do anything unless they so desired. 
County boards were organized, which had powers of expending the funds which were raised 
by taxes levied by the county police jury. The powers of these boards were enlarged as the 
growing importance of the interests involved and the new condition constantly being met 
required, until levee boards were powerful corporations, vested by the legislature with power 
to tax and to have the lands in the district sold for its purposes." 

An act of December 2, 1858, organized a levee board, and a tax on all lands of the 
state was provided for levees, except on certain trust lands for school and other purposes, and 
about that time the government granted this land to the state for levee purposes. The delta 
people got in debt, too, in their efforts, and the oncoming war destroying levees, both as a war 
measure and by neglect, left the whole delta a wilderness as before. An act of 1865 reorgan- 
ized it, but became effective in the act of February 13, 1867. Other acts followed, and by 
1871 the levee district included the counties of Bolivar, Washington, Issaquena, Coahoma, 
Tunica, De Soto, Sunfiower, Yazoo, Tallahatchie and Penola. The total acreage then in 
account for levee taxes was 3,484,278; the bonds issued aggregated $670,000; the state 
auditor became ex-officio levee commissioner; and the debt crept up, by 1876, to the round sum 
of $923,666,58. By 1880 the debt had fallen to 1444,568.78 or nearly $500,000, and it was 
divided into two levee districts. By 1882 the debt had fallen to the small sum of §135,329.- 
06, and funds were available for clearing it all, but for a claim set up by the Mississippi & 
Vicksburg railway. The floods of 1882-3 caused such disaster that an additional board was 
organized, called ths Yazoo Mississippi Delta board, and the entire system was complete 
by 1886. Says the writer above quoted: 

" Amendments have been submitted to and passed by successive legislatures until to-day 
the board of Mississippi levee commissioners — embracing in its jurisdiction the great coun- 
ties of Bolivar, Washington, Sharkey and Issaquena — is one of the mightiest corporations 
on earth. It has six members who select its secretary and treasurer, engineer and cotton-tax 
collector from outside its membership. This body is empowered by law to tax, not only the 
lands and personality in these counties, but the very products of the soil. They may issue 
bonds without consulting any constituency to an amount that seems fabulous, and these are 
held sacred and binding for all time to come — in fact,- are a lien upon the taxable property 
in the district. No state court can enjoin this great corporation from taking private prop- 
erty for its use, and the just compensation is often necessarily ascertained after the appro- 
priation by the board. The very elaborate and perfect levee laws now in force in this dis- 


trict are the work of that able and untiring worker in tliis field, the late Col. W. A. Percy, 
whose efforts are being more and more appreciated as th(! years roll by. 

"For many years past this board has been constantly enlarging existing embankments, 
and raising tliem to a uniform grade, until now there is a line of levee which will hold any 
ordinary high water, and an extraordinary one, if it is not too prolonged nor the weather too 

"The work of laying out, enlarging and general supervision of a line of leaves fully two 
hundred miles long, is under the care of the chief engineer in this district, Maj. William 
Starling, one of the most accomplished engineers in the country. He looks the soldier and 
scholar and practical man of affairs all happily combined. His place is no sinecure at any 
time, but in high- water seasons it is one of the most exacting and onerous that can be imag- 
ined. People living on high hills can not imagine how one feels behind a piece of dirt which 
looks awfully large in summer and autumn, but is, oh, so frail when the chilly winds of 
March lash the waters into a seething, restless mass, seeking freedom from their artificial 
barriers. It is there that your chief engineer is a more important personage than governor 
or president. He must be apparently ubiquitous. The elements must not stand between 
him and any threatened point. Competent assistants are often unable to satisfy the popular 
demand for the chief. I have seen men after fighting for hours in mud knee deep, abandon 
all hope and quit;- utterly broken in spirits, resume work with renewed zeal at the bare sight 
of the martial-looking chief, whose nerve and energy seemed to have no limit. 

"A few facts in regard to the construction of levees may be of interest to your readers, 
many of whom have no proper idea of the subject. We shall take Skipwith as an example, 
as the crevasse at that point renders it a noted place. The levee, at the point which gave 
way, was an, old one, and had been enlarged within three years past, and no fear was felt for 
its safety. After the break it was remembered that there was too little berme to it, and a cur- 
rent had washed under it until the entire structure caved in. 

" It may not be understood what this berme is, and what its office in the levee may be. 
In all well-regulated levee building there is an unbroken strip of earth between the base of 
the levee and the barrow pits. This berme varies from ten to thirty feet in width, and adds 
greatly to the strength and length of life of the embankment. There is, of course, a very 
strong pressure of water against the under side of these structures, and the force is greatest at 
the bottom of the barrow pits on the end next to the levee, and this berme adds greatly to the 
power of the levee to resist the percolation of sipe water through it. Many breaks have 
occurred, no doubt, attributable to lack of berme in light, spongy soil. The muck ditch was 
at one time a very insignificant affair, which had no particular object, except the search for 
trees or holes in the center of the proposed embankment. Recent levee construction demands 
a muck ditch which will serve as a protection from sipe and crayfish. 

"The Skipwith levee has under it a muck ditch six feet deep, six feet wide at bottom, and 
twelve feet wide on top. The board has not stopped at the size of the ditch, but on every 
piece of new work there is an inspector appointed to see that this muck ditch is free abso- 
lutely from all vegetable matter of any kind, and that nothing but the purest buckshot dirt 
finds its way into it, no matter what the character of soil through which it passes, and this is 
often a work of great difficulty, as on one or two sections of the new levee at Mound Land- 
ing the contractors, Messrs. Carey & Bradburn, were compelled to haul dirt nearly a quarter 
of a mile to get the right material. 

"At this point the inspector is Judge J. L. Root, who is a levee man of great ability and 
experience, and whose practical knowledge of the subject makes him the terror of the con- 



tractor. The inspector sees that every shovelful of dirt that goes into the great muck ditch 
is thoroughly packed by boys on mules continually riding over it every fevy seconds. The 
result is a core as hard as concrete, which will add a hundredfold to the stre ngth of the 

"Levees are built now with six feet of base to every one foot of hight, and if there is 
variation from this rule it is on the side of wider base. The slope is gentle and will s taiid 
the greatest amount of wave-wash with the least amount of w ear. 

"These embankments are let to contractors by the cubic yard at prices ranging from ten 
cents to forty cents per yard. The cubic yard appears to be a very small lump of dirt until 
one begins to pull it with mules or push it with man -power up into the body of the work. 
There it looks and is of great bulk and weight. 

" Irishmen monopolize most of the barrow work, while the negro has the call for driving 
the gentle and innocent mule. The negro is as good a day man as the Irishman, but the lat- 
ter outdoes him in doing what is known as ' station work.' The colored man will not do any 
more by the job than by the day, and does not often tackle any sized stations. 

"In levee building, as elsewhere, one sees a great deal of human nature among the work- 
ers. The Irishman, for example, will quit a good place if his grub varies in the smallest 
degree from his standard, and there is no rhyme nor reason in his manner of quitting. ' I 
am going to quit; give me my toime,' is often all that is heard. The writer knew a con- 
tractor to lose one hundred Irishmen at the very rush of completing his contract in time, 
because the baker did not have light bread ready for breakfast. A worthy Irishman 
explained to me the other day that his countrymen went south ' wid de geese in winter and 
came back wid 'em in spring.' As a rule they seem to enjoy camp life until they get a notion 
to move on; then all power can't stop them — go they will. 

"There is a great deal of talk by outsiders about the amount of timber put in .levees and 
railroad beds by dishonest contractors — a great deal more than the facts warrant — simply 
because it would not pay to do it. That it is done occasionally is shown by the following 
story, which is told as gospel truth: A certain contractor was not content with beating the 
levee board, but would not pay his laborers unless forced to do -it. One of his men waited until 
the engineer was in easy hearing, then called out to the conductor: 'Say, now, if you don't 
pay me my wages, I'll set fire to your d n dump.' 

" The ' dump ' is the technical term for the body of an embankment in course of con- 
struction, deriving its name from the necessary dump of scrapers or wheelbarrows of their 
loads of dirt. Another story has it that an engineer, in taking up some levee completed, 
missed his dog, and after looking around everywhere, heard him barking in the ' dump,' and 
before he could have a hole dug in to rescue him, the dog bounded out one hundred feet or 
more away. Of course there can be no such thing under the present system, and no fears 
need be indulged on this score in future. 

"The taking charge of these great works by the national government will give a new 
impetus to the already rapid development of the country protected by them. They can and 
will be made to confine the great river in one safe, deep pathway to. the sea." 

But Mississippi has an ocean transportation, and a straight coast of over one hundred 
miles, with one of the most magnificent natural harbors in the world. So thought Bienville, 
in 1699, and now, after nearly two hundred years, it has four flourishing harbors — Pascagoula, 
Biloxi, Mississippi city and Shieldsburg. Unlike the levees, however, the states and nation 
have not seen fit to do much for it. Even in the year 1876 there were over seventy vessels 
entered and cleared for the coast- wise, and over a hundred for the foreign trade at Pascagoula 


alone, this being the largest shipping point at that time. Its great drawback has been its 
absence of direct railway connection with the center of the state, a struggle for which has 
been made since early in ante-bellum days, jand is identical with the career of the Gulf & 
Ship Island railway scheme,, that has lagged along in the history of the state. Thus far 
the lumber interests have had the bulk of the shipping, the proximity of New Orleans divert^ 
ing from it many lines that might otherwise enter. The state's desire regarding it can not 
be better shown than by a memorial on the subject in 1872: "For the last half century the 
state of Mississippi has encouraged by legislation the construction of a line of railroad that 
would place the different parts of the state in communication with the gulf coast, and for this 
purpose has granted charters to companies with immunities and privileges of a most liberal 
character. Having on her gulf coast a deep and safe harbor, that of Ship island, with a con- 
stant depth of water twenty-four feet, \^ith saife channels of ingress and egress, and in which 
was sheltered the British fleet in the war of 181 '2, and the Union fleet during the late war. 
Manifestly a wise policy dictates that this fine harbor should be made available, and the 
products of Mississippi's fertile soil should be transported to that point for shipment to the 
markets of the world. Mississippi is the largest producer of cotton of any of the Southern 
states, her annual crop averaging between eight and nine hundred thousand bales; and all 
this yield of natural wealth is carried without her borders, and pays tribute to cities beyond 
her limits. The mighty Mississippi flowing along lier western borders, bears upon its bosom 
the bounteous yield from the alluvial valleys of the Yazoo and its tributaries, and the valley 
of the Mississippi, to the city of New Orleans. The Chicago, St. Louis & New Orleans rail- 
road, running through the center of the state, gathers up from that portion of the state its 
products, and pours them into the crowded warehouses of New Orleans. The Memphis & 
Charleston railroad, skirting her northern line, carries to Memphis the cotton from that part 
of the state, and the Mobile & Ohio railroad, running along her eastern boundary, conveys to 
Mobile the product of that region of the state. Thus it will be seen that the state of Missis- 
sippi — rich beyond her sisters in the production of that great staple that brings so much 
national wealth — pays a large annual tribute to cities and communities foreign to her and her 
people; building them up and sustaining them in prosperity by that which should be con- 
trolled for her own benefit and the welfare of her people. Let us see what this annual rev- 
enue or tribute amounts to, that is reaped by the points hereinbefore designated. We can 
safely place it at 15 per bale; this includes storage, drayage, commission, labor, weighing 
and compressing; and by this amount let us multiply the minimum figure stated as the 
annual crop of Mississippi, say eight hundred thousand .bales, and we have the round sum of 
14,000,000 that Mississippi pays annually, a tribute to enrich cities of her sister states, when 
every dollar of this sum should remain with her and her people, to build up within her own 
territory a city that should rival those of her neighbors as a port of entry and shipment, and 
add to her revenues in the enhancement of the value of property subject to taxation. From 
the Potomac to the Rio Grande all the other sea-coast states have their port of entry and ship- 
ment, from which people derive profit and wealth and the state's increased yield of taxes. 
Texas has Galveston and other ports, and freights with her products vessels for all places of 
demand. Louisiana has New Orleans, at whose wharves are seen flying the flags of all 
nations. Alabama has Mobile, inviting to safe harbor and full-return cargoes the commercial 
marine of the world. Florida, Pensacola and San Augustine, where may be seen loading 
ships from all parts of the world with her cotton, sugar, timber and tropical fruit. Georgia 
has Savannah, and none have a better natural harbor than that of Ship island and Missis- 
sippi sound. The future is bound to make use of it." 




S valuable as Mississippi's water transport facilities have been in furnishing communi- 
cation with the outside world, she was for many years handicapped by a land trans- 
portation attended with unusual difficulties, incident to her heavy forests and 
numerous intercepting water courses. The difficulties attending the long route by national 
roads through the Chickasaw nation to the northeast settlements, and through the Choctaw 
country to the lower Tombigbee community have been noticed elsewhere. The long years of 
dependence on stage routes and horseback riding, tollroads and ferries are within the mem- 
ory of many now living, and no doubt the great plantations and the comparatively meager 
internal commerce it fostered had much to do with it. The vast predominance of agriculture 
and the minimum of commerce with its consequent meager offspring of cities, the natural 
product of commerce, all tended to discourage it no doubt, while incidentally the public 
finances of the state, elsewhere noticed, was no small ingredient in the final solution. Certain 
it is that railway development is confined largely to the last two decades, and that, too, by 
far the most vigorous in the one just closed. As water development was a characteristic of 
ante-bellum transportation in this state, so the development of railways has been the leading 
feature of post-bellum intercommunication, and has been the fruitful mother of a— for this 
state -numerous brood of fast-growing cities, towns and villages, which will be noticed else- 
where in these volumes. 

There is one marked difference between the two systems — the inflexibility and per- 
manence of the water courses made, in their days of predominance, no uncertainty as to the 
location of population. Not so with the railway; in certain ways far more powerful than 
water courses, their projectors determine their course, and their course determines the chief 
seats of inhabitance. 

No greater illustration of this new institution's power in this respect need be sought 
than in the early growth of railways in this state. We are wont to forget that the first loco- 
motive used in this nation was only in 1820; but it was as late as 1828 that the first actual 
railway was in operation, so that when it is known that three years later, 1831, the Wood- 
ville people incorporated the West Feliciana railroad company to build a road from Wood- 
ville to St. Francisville, or Bayou Sara, Mississippi is seen to be near the head of the line. 
Vicksburg & Jackson railroad was incorporated the same year, and in 1833 the Port Gibson 
& Grand Gulf company. The Jackson people proposed to connect themselves with Mobile, 
and incorporated the Mississippi & Alabama railroad, and the same year Natchez and Jack- 
son proposed a line joining them and extending to Canton and northward; this was the Mis- 


sissippi railroad company. By this time the proposition of railway construction became epi- 
demic in its proportions. Paper railways came thick and fast, as the sometime "leaves of 
Valombrosa," a total of twenty-two from 1831 to 1841: The Tombeckbee, from Columbus to 
the Jackson line; the Lake Washington & Deer Creek, the Benton & Manchester, the Gains- 
ville & Narkeeta; the Yazoo, from Leflore in C:irroll county; the Tallahatchie, from that river 
to Tillatoba; the Mississippi Sjirings & Clinton, and the Aberdeen & Pontotoc, all in 1836; 
the New Orleans & Nashville; the Hernando company, from Jefferson to the great river; the 
Pontotoc, Oxford & Delta; the Mississippi City company, the Grenada & Douglas, all in 1837; 
the Eagle & Pascagoula line, the Raymond & Bolton, the Paulding & Pontotoc, the Newton 
& Lauderdale, all in 1838; the Kosciusko & Canton, in 1839; the Brandon & Jackson, the 
Holly Springs & Tennessee, the Commerce, Hernando & East Port, and the Canton & Jack- 
son in 1841. It will be noticed that these were the years of Mississippi's great financial dis- 
tress; but they kept on; in 1846, the Southern railroad company, from Jackson toward Selma, 
Ala., and the Panola & Delta, and Locopolis & East Highlands, and in 1848 the Mobile & 
Ohio, the Hernando & Mississippi, Cold Water & Panola Hills, and the Deer Creek com- 
panies. With all this, however, we are much surprised to have a letter of 1849 sum up the 
state railway facilities with: "For several years we have had a railroad from Vicksburg to 
Jackson"! It was graded, also, to Brandon, but no tracks laid. 

The meaning of this was that the financial panic of those years caused all to collapse 
totally, not even allowing visible progress, except Natchez, which built about thirty-five miles 
of her line, and then sold out and allowed it to be abandoned, and the Vicksburg & Jackson 
line, the solitary instance of a permanent construction. The space allowed here will not 
permit of an entrance into the subject of the state's aid to railways, interesting as it would 
be; sufiicient to say that, besides money grants and loans at various times, land grants were 
made on the Jackson & Ship Island route, Jackson & Meridian and Mobile & Ohio, below 
Columbus. Neither can the connection of the railway and levee system be treated, and the 
mazy and numerous changes in names and combinations of railways of the state down to the 
present would be as uninteresting as they are inaccessible. No attempt will be made to do 
more than indicate the general growth to present conditions. 

Moving forward about a decade from the point last noticed, it will be seen that in 1857 
the Southern railroad had taken up the road east of Jackson to a junction with the new Mobile 
road, and was now graded to that junction, now so famous, but then scarcely named, and 
track laid to Brandon, with expectation of completion by January, 1 860 — three years. The 
Mobile & Ohio had grown rapidly during the decade, and was now complete to Crawfords- 
ville station, in Lowndes county, a distance of two hundred and twenty miles from Mobile, 
and prospects of being through the state in three years. The New Orleans, Jackson & Great 
Northern, incorporated when the fifties began, and destined to become the great Illinois Cen- 
tral, was rapidly nearing completion from the south to Canton. The Mississippi Central was 
now completed sixty-two miles south of the Memphis and Charleston junction, with eighty- 
two miles yet to join the Great Northern at Canton. The Mississippi & Tennessee had now 
reached sixty miles out from Memphis toward Grenada, and with prospects of completion to 
that point by January, 1859 — two years. But these were all. The Ship Island agitation, 
begun in 1837, came to an act of legislature by 1850, and resuscitation «as attempted Ijy 
another act in 1854, but so far in vain. 

As a mere indication ot the way the state had taken hold financially, by 1858, almost 
$20,000,000 had been invested within the state; over $10,000,000 iu stock was there held, 
although it was quoted at fifty per cent, below par. The state itself owned $743,571. 7*j in 
stock, and held the bonds of various companies aggregating $825,396.29. 


By 1859 the Great Northern had reached two hundred and six miles to Canton, and 
was rapidly grading toward Aberdeen. All but twenty miles of the Mississippi Central was 
completed, and that little gap was above Canton. The Mobile & Ohio and Mississippi 
& Tennessee had made large progress, but the southern tracks seemed inclined to halt at 
Brandon. The Memphis & Charleston had over thirty miles in the northeast corner, and the 
Gulf & Ship Island road had now achieved organization. This is practically the railway 
status of the state when the war began to paralyze the arts of peace. 

In 1860 the railway mileage of the state was put at eight hundred and sixty miles. The 
power of the railways as connection with base of supplies, made them one of the first things 
to be destroyed by the army whose enemy they served. Their vast destruction is a matter of 
national history; suffice to say that in 1864, while there were five hundred and forty -five 
miles left undestroyed, only three hundred and sixty-five were in operation*. By 1870, 
however, the old figure of 1860 was recovered, and increased upon to nine hundred and 
ninety miles in the state. In 1880 the increase had reached to a total mileage of one thou- 
sand one hundred and twenty-seven. Up to this point the growth had been comparatively 
slow, but the decade of 1880-90 made such strides that by its close, the year 1890 saw the 
grand total of two thousand three hundred and sixty six miles of railway in actual operation, 
and more in prospect. This was considerably over a double in mileage in one decade. Note 
the progress in the decade: Eleven hundred and twenty-seven miles in 1880; thirteen hun- 
dred and three in 188'2; eighteen hundred and forty-four in 1884; twenty-one hundred and 
nine in 1887, and twenty-three hundred and sixty-six in 1890, when the Georgia Pacific, the 
Ship Island, and the Fort Scott, Natchez & New Orleans were prospective. Compare the 
increase by decades in the United States: Twenty-three miles in 1830; twenty-eight hundred 
and eighteen in 1840 — but little more than the total in this state now: ninety hundred and 
twenty-one miles in 1850; thirty thousand six hundred and thirty-five in 1860; fifty-two 
thousand nine hundred and fourteen in 1870; ninety-three thousand two hundred and ninety- 
six in 1880, and in 1888 a total of one hundred and fifty-six thousand and eighty-two. This 
showing is very favorable to Mississippi, considering the great losses of war. 

This twenty-three hundred and sixty-six miles of railway is distributed among the fol- 
lowing lines: The Illinois Central, the largest, with 636.06 miles; the Louisville, New Orleans 
& Texas with 584.8 miles; the Mobile & Ohio with 306 miles; the Georgia Pacific with 202.2 
miles; the New Orleans & Northeastern with 153.42 miles; the Alabama & Vicksburg with 
143.39 miles; the Kansas City, Memphis & Birmingham with 142.89 miles; the Natchez, Jack- 
son & Columbus with 98.6 miles; the Louisville & Nashville with 73.83 miles; the Gulf & 
Chicago with 56.56 miles; the Memphis & Charleston with 33.4 miles; the Alabama Great 
Southern with 18.78 miles; the East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia with 7.73 miles, and the 
Gulf & Ship Island with 7 miles. Thus it will be seen that the Illinois Central is much the 
largest, a railway that in the season of 1882-3 carried to New Orleans nearly forty-eight 
thousand bales of cotton more than that carried by all the rivers and bayous carrying to that 
port together — a total of four hundred and twenty-six thousand eight hundred and thirty- 
nine bales. A little more detailed sketch of each road may be of interest, at least so far as 
materials are accessible. The Illinois Central railroad is the great central artery of the 
state. To this railroad the settlement and prosperity of Illinois, Iowa, western Kentucky, 
western Tennessee, Mississippi and eastern Louisiana are very largely indebted. So early 
in the history of Illinois as 1832, Senator A. M. Jenkins suggested a road from Cairo to 
Peru. In 1835 William S. Waite, of Bond county. 111., suggested the necessity of a rail- 

*TUe Confederate States Almanac, 1864, 


road, and in October of that year Judge Sidney Breese urged tlie construction of one from 
Cairo to Galena. Senator Stephen A. Douglas, Senator James Shields, Eepresentatives Bis- 
sell, Harris, McClernand, Eiohardson, Wentworth and Young, with other prominent econo- 
mists of that period, desired a central road connecting the territory of the great lakes with 
that of the Mississippi, and their desire was so manifestly in the interest of the state that 
the act of January 18, 1IS3G — special charter — incorporating a company to build a road from 
Cairo to the foot of the proposed Illinois & Michigan canal, was received with favor. Let 
us see what the harum-scarum legislature of 1836-7 aimed at. There were $250,000 appro- 
priated toward building the Great Western railroad from Vincennes to St. Louis; 13,500,000 
to build the Central from Cairo to La Salle, and thence to Galena; $1,600,000 to construct a 
road from Alton to Mount Carmel and Shawneetowu, to be kuown as the Southern Cross rail- 
road; $1,850,000 to build the Northern Cross railroad from Quincy, on the Mississippi, to the 
Indiana state line; $650,000 to build a branch from the Illinois Central toward Terre Haute; 
§700,000 for the Peoria & Warsaw railroad; $600,000 for the branch from the Illinois Cen- 
tral to Lower Alton; $150,000 to build a road from Belleville to a junction with the Alton & 
Mount Carmel railroad; $350,000 to construct a road from Bloomington to Mackinaw, and 
the Freemont & Pekin branch of that proposed line, all making the modest sum of $9,650,- 
000 at a time when the scattered citizens of Illinois had not the proper shelter from the 
inclement winter. Experience is a great school, but an expensive one. The next legislature 
repealed the act of the madmen and saved the state from irretrievable bankruptcy. In 1837 
an appropriation of $3,500,000 was made under the internal improvement act of February 27, 
1837 ; the construction of the road was entered upon in May of that year, but the credit of 
the state being unequal to her aspirations, she had to be content with the Northern Cross road 
from Menadosia to Springfield, as completed in February, 1M42, at a cost of $1,000,000. 
Further work was abandoned. On March 6, 1843, the Great Western Railway Company was 
granted a preemption right, and Darius B. Holbrook and his fellow members of the Cairo 
City & Canal Company of 1837, became identified with railroad history in the West. The 
work accomplished by the state on the Central railroad was to become the property of the 
new company at a stated price; but the company was bound to pay into the state treasury 
one- fourth of the total net income, after twelve per cent, per annum had been distributed 
among the stockholders. In December, 1843, this company, through Congressman Breese, 
petitioned congress for the right of preemption to a portion of the public lands; but Doug- 
las opposed the petition, and in 1 844 introduced a bill providing that the lands should be 
preempted to the state. It won little attention. Similar bills introduced in January and 
December, 1846, by Judge Breese, failed to obtain the approval of congress, and the question 
of building a railroad was exactly where Holbrook & Co. found it. The Great West- 
ern Railroad Company lost their charter March 3, 1845, and for a time the contest between 
Chicago, represented by Douglas, and Dubuque, represented by Breese, was closed. From 
February, 1842, to February, 1847, the cross roads proved a losing venture, and in 1847 
this $1,000,000 deal realized $21,000 in state indebtedness. The Great Western Railroad 
Company was revivified in 1848, and the legislature returned its charter April 13, 1849, and 
it may be said donated all the railroad work performed by the state in 1837, as well as right 
of way from Cairo to Chicago. The governor was appoined trustee in futuro to hold such 
lands as congress might donate to aid the construction of a central railroad, and altogether 
the Great Western Railroad Company appeared to be singularly well endowed with the friend- 
ship of the commonwealth. The return for the charter was foreshadowed by the technical 
defeat of Douglas' direct bills for aid to the Central railroad of 1848-9 by congressional 


action. On February 1, 1849, when Judge Breese introduced a general land grant bill pro- 
viding for the parceling out to the several states slices of the public domain, it was purely in 
the interest of this road, though general in character. The senate approved the measure, 
but the house rejected it, thus leaving the field open to Douglas and Shields. 

The senate, and, indeed, the house of representatives, saw at once the sincerity of the 
Little Giant and of the hero of the Mexican war, and received their direct land-grant bill of 
January, 1850, with favor. The promise made by the senators that the grant would not be 
used in the interest of speculators, as members of the Great Western railroad company, alias 
Holbrook & Co., were known to be, won support for this measure, and further, Alabama and 
Mississippi derived benefit, as the act of September 17, 1S5(\ approved September 20, pro- 
vided for the grant of lands in the states named, as well as in Illinois, as aid in the construc- 
tion of a great central railroad from La Salle, 111., to the Ohio river at Cairo (with branches 
to Dubuque, via Galena, and to Chicago), and thence to Mobile, Ala. Senator George W. 
Imes, of Iowa, urged the Dubuque clause; Thomas Childs, Jr., of New York, the Mobile clause, 
while Douglas and Shields watched Chicago's interests so closely that a great ovation was 
given to them on their return. On this occasion, each gave testimony to the work of John 
S. Wright in pointing out forcibly the advantages of such a grant and to the action of the 
congressmen from Illinois in their able support of the bill. 

The action of congress did not pass unnoticed by the moneyed men of New York. No 
sooner was the act approved than they considered its relation to themselves, and on December 
2S, lsr)0, signed a memorial to the legislature of Illinois, showing forth their plans for con- 
structing the Central road and its branches. This memorial was signed by Robert Schuyler, 
George Griswold, Governor Morris, Franklin Haven, David A. Neal, Robert Rantoul, Jr., 
Jona Sturges, Thomas W. Ludlow and John F. A. Sanford. The much-talked-of plan to 
give all control to the state and make the stock a basis for banking, as United States bonds 
are now in the system of national banks, opposed the plans of the Eastern men, but the people 
had little faith in the business qualities of this political machine, and on February 10, 1851, 
James L. D. Morrison's substitute for Asahel Gridley's bill, incorporating the Illinois Central 
railroad company, was passed. The names of the corporators were those given above as 
signers of the memorial, with Joseph W. Alsop, LeRoy M. Wiley and William H. Aspinwall, 
all of whom are gone to the dreamland of railroad builders, with the exception of Franklin 
Haven. On March 19, 1851, the special charter was accepted by the company, and in the 
shadow of former failures, work was commenced. Roswell B. Mason, of Bridgeport, Conn., 
was appointed chief engineer, March 22. and before May 20, he and staff were at Chicago, 
ready to enter upon surveying the route. In September, 1851, a mortgage for 117,000,000, 
on two million acres of the lands granted to secure the construction bonds, was executed. 
James F. Joy and Mason Brayman were employed to secure right of way in Chicago, and 
had their work countenanced by the ordinance of June 14, 1852, signed by Walter Smith 
Gurnee, mayor. John B. Calhoun, who named the original stations along the road, was 
accountant and financier. David A. Neal purchased eighty thousand tons of iron rails in 
England (at from $38.50 to S43.50 per ton, on board ship at Liverpool), and had them deliv- 
ered in Chicago early in 1852, through Clark & Jessup, and on May 20 of that year the 
fourteen miles of track from Thirteenth street to Calumet station, now Kensington, were com- 
pleted, and Michigan Central trains ran into the city on that day. Indeed, the Michigan 
Central railroad company made a loan to the Illinois Central to further the construction of 
this portion of the road. In February, 1852, charts of the road were placed before the com- 
missioner of the land office at Washington, D, C, and in March that olficial approved the 


selection of about two million acres of the public lands. The last construction contract was 
entered into October 13, 1852, and one year after the Michigan Central trains steamed into 
Chicago over the Illinois Central tracks, sixty-oue miles of the road between Bloomington and 
La Salle were in operation, and a temporary bridge erected over the Illinois river. In July, 

1854, the road between Chicago and Urbana (one hundred and twenty-eight miles) was 
opened for traffic; early in November, 1854, trains were running between Freeport and 
Galena, and later that month passengers for the South were brought to Cairo via the Chicago 
& Mississippi railroad to St. Louis, the Ohio & Mississipj^i to Sandoval, and thence one hun- 
dred and eighteen miles on the completed southern end of the Illinois Central to Cairo, 
William K. Ackerman, president of the company from 1877 to 1883, being one of the through 
passengers. The main line, La Salle to Cairo, three hundred and one miles, was not com- 
pleted until January 8, 1855; the track from Galena to Dunleith was completed June 11, 

1855, and from La Salle to Dunleith, on June 12; the Chicago branch, 249.78 miles, was 
completed September 2f), 1850, and on September 27, that year. Engineer Mason reported 
that the last rail on the 705.6 miles of road was placed, after a total expenditure of $35,110,- 
609.21, or over 118,000,000 above the estimate cost, and over the amount of the original 
capital stock. From September, 1856, to the beginning of the Civil war, little beyond rou- 
tine work was accomplished. The Peoria & Oquaka railroad was built from Gilman to 
El Paso in 1857, connecting the main line with the Chicago branch. During the Civil war, 
the road, in all its departments, was taxed to its greatest capacity. Many of its employes 
entered the army, thus reducing the number of experienced railroad men; the department of 
war required it to carry troops and military supplies gratuitously; refugee negroes and 
deserters looked upon it as an eleemosynary institution, constructed solely to haul them away 
from danger, while war prices exercised no small influence on the company's treasury, for 
they balanced, if they did not overbalance, the extraordinary earnings of those terrible years 
of war. The views of Congressmen E. B. Washburne and others led to the observance of the 
charter, but congress, recognizing the services of this railroad, decided that the roadbed, and 
not the equipped railway, was only subject to use by the United States, and appropriated a 
sum equal to the value of the train service rendered. 

In the fall of 1867 the Central company leased the Dubuque & Sioux City railroad and 
began the construction of the Dunleith-Dubuque bridge, which was completed January 1, 
1869, and the transfer ferry cast aside. Later, in 1869, the Cedar Falls & Minnesota rail- 
road (fifty-four miles in length) and the Iowa Falls & Sioux City railroad (forty-nine miles in 
length) were begun. They were completed in 1870, thus making the Iowa system four hun- 
dred and two miles. During the last-named year the Belleville & Southern Illinois railroad 
came into use as a connecting line between Cairo and St. Louis, and in 1871 the Gilman, 
Clinton & Springfield railroad was constructed, connecting the Chicago branch with Spring- 
field, December 3, that year. On November 17, 1874, the trains of the Baltimore & Ohio 
railroad company first entered the city over the tracks of the Central, and continued to use 
such tracks until 1891, notwithstanding the notice of 1884 and the order of the court, requir- 
ing that company to evacuate. 

The lake front act of 1869 was conceived in 1866 in the interest of local speculators, 
known as the Chicago Harbor & Improvement company. This improvement company did 
not succeed in obtaining legislative sanction for their designs. A similar measure was intro- 
duced in 1869 and passed, but was vetoed by the governor, John M. Palmer, April 14, 1869. 
Two days after the legislature passed the bill over the veto. 

This act of 1869 turned over to the Illinois Central, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 


and the Michigan Central (which used then the same depot) the three blocks of land between 
Randolph aind Monroe streets, they to pay therefor 1800,000 to the city. With the two 
northern blocks the state had nothing whatever to do, they having been given to the city 
direct by the general government for park purposes. The block between Monroe and Madi- 
son the city held under a different title. The land had passed from the general government 
to the canal commissioners, and had been dedicated by them to public uses. The railroad 
tendered $200,000 as first installment, but the city refused acceptance, and hence litigation. 
On July 3, 1871, the United States proceeded to stop the company from encroaching upon 
the lake, and on Ajiril 15, 1873, the peculiar act of repeal, abolishing the privileges given by 
the legislature in the act of 1869, was passed. Litigation of course resulted and the decision 
of United States Circuit Judges Harlan and Blodgett, given February 23, 1888, is awaiting 
final approval or disapproval by the United States supreme court. 

The year 1871 was an uneasy one for Illinois railroads, but more particularly for those 
entering Chicago, where the great fire destroyed buildings, rolling stock, grain and merchan- 
dise, as if they were so many tinder boxes. The direct loss was $300,000: but the insurance 
])eing carried by a trans-Atlantic company, who paid all policies, this loss was reduced to a 
nominal sum, leaving the heavy indirect losses only to be considered. The fire, after all, was 
only the echo of the earthquake. The granger legislature of that year enacted laws which, 
if left on the statute books, would have before this wiped out great enterprises in Illinois and 
left railroads, like some of the churches, to be operated according to one thousand different 
notions. The supreme court declared the foolish law unconstitutional, but mobs continued 
to interfere materially with the management and property of the road, causing heavy losses. 

Prior to 1878 the rude primitive sleeping cars built by the company were in use. That 
year the contract with the Pullman palace car company was perfected. On May 26, 1 880, 
the beginning of the town of Pullman was made, and later that year the Central company 
saw that the time had come to establish a thorough suburban service different in toto from 
that which obtained from 1856 to 1880. In 1882 two tracks for freight trains, two tracks for 
passenger trains, and two tracks for suburban trains were built from the Chicago yards south 
to the ruins of 1871, known as the Central depot, and in 1883 the South Chicago railroad, 
from a point near Seventieth street east to Yates avenue, and thence to South Chicago, was 
completed. The ordinance approving plans for a bridge over the main river, to be built by 
the company, was passed December 1, 1862, but not until 1879 was the bridge constructed. 
The St. Charles air line railroad bridge over the south branch meeting the requirements of 
the company up to that time. In 1 880 the Kankakee & Southwestern railroad was extended 
to the northern division at Minonk, and the independent connection with the Chicago branch 
created. The erection of the six-himdred-thousand-bushel elevator at Cairo, the Randolph 
street viaduct, two docks, and the extension of terminal facilities must be credited to 1882, 
while the building of the South Chicago branch dates to 1883. 

From 1866 to 1872 communication between the Northwestern and Southern states was 
mainly confined to the Mississippi. In the last mentioned year this company desired to 
establish a thorough line which, in a measure, would meet the spirit of the act of congress 
by bringing New Orleans, rather than Mobile, into direct communication with Chicago. A 
contract was made with the owners of the roads grouped under the title, the Mississippi 
Central railroad, the length of which system was two hundred and thirty-two miles, and the 
New Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern railroad, two hundred and six miles in length. 
Both systems were then under one management, and the owners not only agreed to an inter- 
change of traffic with the Illinois Central, but also for the extension of the first named road 


one hundred and eight miles north from Jackson, Tenn., to a point o|)posite Cairci, 111. The 
contract provided that the Illinois Central railroad comjjany should invest oiKveighth of the 
earnings from traffic to and from the roads named in their consolidated mortgage bonds 
for a decade at the rate of $100,000 per annum, but later an opportunity to purchase 
$200,000 of such bonds annually to the amount of 16,000,000, was given so as to enable 
the Southern men to build the one hundred and eight miles and impro\e the road generally. 
The gap was completed December 24, 1878, and Chicago and New Orleans, nine hundred 
and thirteen miles apart, were connected by iron rails. Later the Illinois Central company 
exchanged ¥'"1,000,000 worth of its five per cent, bonds for $5,000,000 worth of the seven 
per cent, bonds of the Southern roads and agreed to purchase the road under stated conditions, 
even in the face of a debt amounting to 118,372,834. On March 1(1, 1876, the Southern com- 
panies failing even to pay interest, the property was sold under foreclosure, passed into the 
receiver's hands, and on January 1, 1878, became an integral part of the Illinois Central' 
under the title Chicago, St. Louis & New Orleans railroad company. On January 1, 1882, 
the Southern lines — five hundred and forty-eight miles of main track, thirty-one miles of 
branches, one hundred and six locomotives, two thousand two hundred and forty-one cars, 
!? 1,000,000 five per cent., one thousand nine hundred and fifty-one bonds, ? 12."), 000 six per 
cent, bonds, and $623,043.70 in cash were surrendered to the Illinois Central company. 

The methodical system of James C. Clark, thoroughly inculcated in the minds of 
employes, also fell into the hands of the new proprietors and the bright day dreams of the 
railroad promoters of 1835-51 were fulfilled. During the seven years ending December 31, 
1890, this great central trunk line made progress imdreamed of before. The Canton, Aber- 
deen & Nashville railroad was begun in 1883; a controlling interest in the one hundred 
miles of road from Grenada to Memphis was secured; the Ohio river bridge at Cairo was 
constructed, and the old ferry transfer abolished; the South Chicago branch 4.76 miles in 
length, with double track, was built and equipped for heavy suburban and freight service; the 
middle division was extended to the main line near Bloomington, giving a total length of 
131.26 miles. In 1886 the work of constructing the Chicago, Madison & Northern railroad 
was entered upon, and in August, 1888, this road was opened from Chicago to Freeport, Mad- 
ison and Dodgeville, while in 1890 the right of way through Chicago was acquired. In 1887 
the Chicago, Havana & Western railroad (one hundred and thirty miles in length) was pur- 
chased from the sheriff, and the Kantoul narrow gauge, connecting West Lebanon, Ind., 
with Leroy, 111. (seventy-six miles in length), was acquired similarly. The gauge of the lat- 
ter road was changed subsequently. In 1885 the Chicago, Burlington & Northern railroad 
sought right of way between East Dubuque and Portage Curve, and had thirteen miles of the 
Illinois Central company's right of way condemned. The supreme court decided the con- 
demnation proceedings illegal, and the new road was purchased by the Illinois Central com- 
pany, who lease it to the original builders. In 1S8S the stock of the Dunleith & Dubuque 
bridge company was purchased by the Central company, who use it jointly with the Chicago, 
Burlington & Northern railroad and the Chicago, St. Paul & Kansas City railroad. The 
Cherokee & Dakota railroad (one hundred and fifty-three miles in length) extending from 
Cherokee, Iowa, to Sioux Falls, Dak., and from Cherokee to Onawa, was built, and also a road 
from Manchester to Cedar Eapids, Iowa. The securities of the Dubuque & Sioux City rail- 
road company (one hundred and forty three miles in length) and of the Iowa Falls & Sioux 
City railroad company (one hundred and eighty-three miles in length) were purchased, and 
those roads became practically the property of the company, Two grain elevators were 
erected, and pretentious depot buildings constructed, as at Jackson and Holly Springs, Miss,, 
and other important points on the road, 


In October, 1850, the company paid $45,000 under protest to the United States for the 
grant of the unused portion of the Fort Dearborn reservation. As has been stated the first 
depot was at Thirteenth street, and the first train to enter the city was one of the Michigan 
Central company's. This depot was used from May 20, 1852, to July, 1853. On June 14, 
1852, the city council granted permission to lay down tracks within the limits along the mar- 
gin of the lake, in accordance with the legislative act of February, 1852, authorizing a branch 
road from Twelfth street north to the south pier of the inner harbor, and this permission was 
accepted March 28, 1853. Lands for depot purposes were acquired north of Randolph 
street, from the United States, as shown above, or by purchase from private owners and, 
south of Twelfth street, by purchase. From Sixteenth street to Randolph street piles were 
driven in the lake bed and the track constructed thereon between 1852 and 1854. After the 
fire of 1871 individuals as well as the company made this piling the breastwork of a dump- 
ing ground for debris, and since that time a large area from a point northeast of Randolph 
street southward, has been filled in in like manner. The congressional grant to Illinois was 
two million five hundred and ninety-five thousand acres, and of the grant by the state to the 
railroad company, one hundred and seven thousand six hundred and fourteen acres were first 
conveyed to jsreemptors. By the close of 1856 over one million acres were sold, and up to Jan- 
uary 1, 1890, there were two million four hundred and fifty-six thousand eight hundred and 
twenty-nine acres sold, yielding a total of $28,742,002 or about three-fourths of the total cost 
of the road up to that time, 135,110,609. From 1856 to October 31, 1889, the company paid 
into the state treasury 111,873,337. 14, being the amount of the statutory seven per cent, on the 
gross income, or about $350,000 per year. The road withstood the Schuyler frauds of 
1853-4, the panic of 1857, the panic of 1873, the granger laws of 1871, the fire of 1871, the 
Iowa restrictions of 1876, the Valentine scrip of 1878, the great strike, and the latter day 
attacks on its Chicago right of way. Its progress in modern times is phenomenal, when its 
conservative policy is compared with the extension of the system and the introduction of 
improvements in permanent way, rolling stock and running schedules. Only on October 29, 
1889, the great bridge over the Ohio was opened, giving an all-rail route between the Gulf of 
Mexico and Chicago. This bridge is three miles and four thousand seven hundred and 
twenty feet in length, and was constructed at the cost of $2,700,000. The approaches, com- 
pleted in 1891, included the elevation of the tracks above flood level and entailed an extraor- 
dinary cost. By July 1, 1890, the system embraced 1,398.48 miles of Northern lines; 593.34 
miles of Western lines, and 896.65 of Southern lines, or a total of 2,888.47 miles. 

The presidents of the road were Robert Schuyler (deceased), March 19, 1851 to July 11, 
1853; William P. Burrall (deceased), .1853-4; John N. A. Griswold, January, 1855 to Decem- 
ber, 1855; William H. Osborn, December 1, 1855 to July 11, 1865; John M. Douglas, 1865 
to March 14, 1871; John Newell, April 14, 1871 to September 11, 1874; Wilson G. Hunt, 
September, 1874 to January 28, 1875; John M. Douglas, January, 1875 to July 17, 1876; 
William K. Ackerman, October 17, 1877 to August 15, 1883, and James C. Clark, August 15, 
1883 to May 18, 1887. Stuyvesant Fish elected May 18, 1887, is now president. 

The names of the pioneers of this now immense system are given in former pages. The 
directors elected February 10, 1851, all of whom except Franklin Haven, are deceased, were 
men prominent in building up the country in its infancy as they were in building railroads. 
In 1851 Morris Ketchum (deceased) was elected a director; in 1852, Gov. Joel A. Mat- 
teson (deceased); in 1853, William P. Burrall (deceased); in 1854, J. Newton Perkins 
(deceased); William H. Osborn, Frederick C. Gebhard (deceased), J. N. A. Griswold and 
James F. Joy; in 1855, Thomas E. Walker (deceased), and Ebenezer Lane; in 1856, Gov, 


William H. Bissell (di^ceased), and Abram S. Hewitt; in 1857, Pierre Ghoteau, Jr. (deceased), 
and Gustavus W. Smitli; in IS,")',), William Tracy (deceased); in 1H60, Gov. Eichard Yates 
(deceiised), and Nathaniel P. Banks; in ISfil, John M. DougJas; in 1862, James C. Fargo, 
William E. Arthur, H. H. Hunuewell, and Edwin H. Sheldon; in 1863, James Caird and 
Cunningham Bothwick; in IS64Gov. Eichard Oj^lesby, Henry Chauncey and William G. 
Hunt; in 1865, Ambrose E. Burnsid(^ (deceased), and E. D. Wolterbeck; in 1808, Gov. J. M. 
Palmer, and George Bliss; in 1871, J. Pierrex^ont Morgan, Louis A. Von HoflFman, John 
Newell, Lucius Tilton (deceased), and William H Gebhard; in 1872, William K. Ackerman; 
in 1873, Gov. John L. Beveridge, and L. V. F. Eandoph; in 1875, Abram E. Van Nest 
(deceased), Frederick Sturges, and Constantino Menelas; in liS76 Gov. Shelby M. CuUom; 
in 1877, A. G. Dulman, Stuyvesant Fish, Ben. F. Ayer, James C. Clarke and John Elliott 
(deceased); in 1S79, W. Bayard Cutting: in IS82, Sydney Webster; in 1883, Gov. John M. 
Hamilton; in 1884, Gov. E. J. Oglesby (second term), Walter Luttgen, Eobert Goelet and S. 
Van E. Cruger; in 1885, William W. Astor; in 1886, Oliver Harriman and Levi P. Morton; 
in 1888, John W. Auchincloss; in 1889, Gov. Joseph W. Fifer, J. C. Welling, Charles M. 
Da Costa (deceased), and George Bliss, and in 1 890, J. W. Doane and Norman B. Eeam. 

A biography of the directors of this great corporation would bring to light many 
points in its history and present to the reader subjects both interesting and instructive. A 
sketch of each of the presidents from 1851 to 1891 would in itself make a volume worthy of 
study, for in it would be found an exposition of all those executive principles which lead to 
failure or success. Fortunately for the Illinois Central, the men who held this responsible 
position were, with one exception, true and capable. To the present incumbent of the office 
success is credited in everything, and nothing succeeds like success. 

The road lines in this state are the main line, the Kosciusko branch, the Memphis divis- 
ion, the Canton, Aberdeen & Nashville (Kosciusko to Aberdeen), the Yazoo & Mississi})!:)! 
valley, and Jackson to Parsons. Its passenger earnings for this state in 1889 were $596,561,- 
65; its freight earnings $2,674,581.84, and its taxes for nine months of that year were 

The Louisville, New Orleans & Texas railroad is the great outlet of the Yazoo delta) 
running parallel to the great river. It was completed January 1, 1885, aad of course has a 
brief career, although it is the second line in the state. Its branches are: The Glendale & 
Eagle Nest, the Leland & Huntington, the Wilzcinski & Glen Allen, the Lamont & Eosedale 
and the Slaughter & Woodville. The general offices are at Memphis, and the officers are as 
follows: President, E. T. Wilson; general manager, James M. Edwards; secretary, C. H. 
Bosher; treasurer, F. H. Davis; comptroller, William Mahl; assistant general manager, 
A. M. Cooke; general superintendent, T. J. Nicholl; general freight and passenger agent, 
E. W. How; auditor, J. T. Penton, and general counsel, Yerger & Percy. Its passenger 
earnings for 18S9 were $721,085.53; freight earnings, $1,686,746.02, and taxes paid, 

The Mobile & Ohio railroad was completed April 22, 1861, and although a comparatively 
old road the facts of its career seem unobtainable. Its branches from the main line along 
the eastern border of the state are the Aberdeen & Muldon, Artesia & Columbus and Artesia 
& Starkville. Its passenger earnings in 18S9 — in every case for Mississippi — were $185,- 
317; its freight earnings, $883,0()9.57, and its taxes, $47,054.29. 

The Georgia Pacific railroad is another late arrival, and was completed only July 8, 
1889. Its branches are: Stoneville to Sharkey, and less than a mile at Columbus. Its pas- 
senger earnings for the year chosen were: $37,619.56; freight, $72,456.41, and taxes are 
exempt, except as to levees, 


The New Orleans & Northeastern railroad was chartered March 16, 1870, Adam Thomp- 
son being the first president and G. Ingram being the first chief engineer of the company. 
Surveys were made, but the project lay dormant for some time. In 1 881 surveys began for 
actual construction under -lohn Scott, president, and W. H. Hardy, of Meridian, vice presi- 
dent. Construction began at the close of 1881, and the road was completed through from 
Meridian to New Orleans in 1883. It was opened for traffic from Meridian toPachuta, 26.64 
miles, October 25, 1882, and to New Orleans November 1, 1883. The road is 195.9 miles 
long, of which one hundred and fifty-oue thousand five hundred and ninety-five miles are 
in Mississippi. The total cost was |5,61'2,278.24. Its earnings in 1889 were: freight, 
1631,774.35; passenger, $157,399.47, and taxes, $16,366.34 for 1888. 

The Alabama & Vicksburg railway, from Meridian to Vicksburg, was originally built to 
five-foot gauge, and changed in May, 1886. Deeds for right of way, in possession of the 
Alabama & Vicksburg Railway Company, date back to the year 1 835, and were made to the 
Commercial & Railroad bank of Vicksburg and to the Southern Railroad Company. The 
road was first built from Vicksburg to Jackson, and building of the road from Brandon to 
Meridian commenced in January, 1857, and was completed June 3, 1861, when the first train 
ran over the entire road from Vicksburg to Meridian. At this time the road was owned by 
the Southern Railroad Company. 

M. Emanuel, president, in his annual report to the board of directors dated March 1, 
1865, wrote as follows regarding the vicissitudes of the track and road bed during the 
war: " The first direct injury done to the read by the Federal army occurred at Newton 
station on April 24, 1863. Grierson's raid took it by surprise. The depot building, contain- 
ing the books and papers of that ofiice and some freight, was soon in' flames. A half mile of 
track was torn up near the station, and ten trestles destroyed. It took nine days to repair the 
road. The second time the road was damaged by the enemy was in May, 1863, daring the 
time that Grant's army occupied Jackson, previous to his march on, and investment of, 
Vicksburg. They then burned the Pearl river bridge and trestles, and partially destroyed 
the road for three miles west of Pearl river, and on their march to Vicksburg destroyed about 
seven miles of track between Jackson and Big Black river, including the bridge over that 
river and the long trestle connected with it; also Baker's Creek bridge and a number of other 
small ones. In July, 1863, a large army from Vicksburg, in pursuit of Gen. Joseph E. John- 
ston, to Jackson and thence to Brandon, again tore up the track and destroyed the bridges 
and trestles to such an extent, between Jackson and Brandon, and they could not run from 
Meridian farther west than Brandon before January 6, 1864. The last damaging blow that 
the road received from the enemy was in February, 1864, when General §herman marched 
his army from Vicksburg to Meridian on a parallel line with the railroad, and near enough to 
it for the cavalry to make sudden dashes at any station on the road that he wished to destroy. 
The station houses at Brandon, Morton, Lake, Newton and Meridian were burned. The 
machine shops and other company buildings were destroyed at Lake station, forty miles west 
of Meridian. The enemy reached Meridian on Sunday, the 14th of February, and remained 
there seven days, in the meantime doing a vast amount of damage to the several roads ter- 
minating and passing there. Seven miles of track of the Southern railroad was as effectually 
destroyed as ingenuity and labor could do it; seven thousand feet of bridges and trestles were 
also destroyed, including two Chunky bridges, Tallahatta, Okatibba, and several smaller ones ; 
also eighty-three trestles along the line of the road. The work of repair was comnwneed on 
March 29, and prosecuted with skill and energy. The repairs were completed by May 7, 
1864, when the trains resumed their regular business between Meridian and Jackson." In 


1867 the uame of the company was changed to the Vicksburg & Meridian railroad company. 
The road was sold under foreclosure February 4, 1889, and a new company organized March 
18, 1889, under the name of the Alabama & Vicksburg railway company. Its freight earn- 
ings in 1889 for four and a half months were $112,989. 66; its passenger earnings, $76,817, and 
its estimated taxes about $19,000. 

The Kansas City, Memphis & Birmingham Railroad Company was formed February 1, 
1 887, by the consolidation, in accordance with the laws of Tennessee, Mississippi and Ala- 
bama, of the Memphis & Birmingham Railroad Company, a corporation duly organized under 
the general laws of Alabama, with the Kansas City, Memphis & Birmingham Railroad Com- 
pany, a corporation existing under the laws of Tennessee and Mississippi, and which had 
been formed July 26, ISSf), by the consolidation, in accordance with the laws of said last two 
states, of the Memphis & Southeastern Railroad Company, a corporation organized under 
the general laws of Tennessee, with the Kansas City, Memphis & Birmingham Railroad Com- 
pany, a corporation existing under an act of the legislature of Mississippi entitled " An act 
to incorporate the Kansas City, Memphis & Birmingham Railroad Company," approved Feb- 
ruary 18, 1886. The original corporation was chartered by an act of the legislature, approved 
November 23, 1859, as the Holly Springs & Mobile Railroad Company. By an act approved 
February 20, 1867, the uame was changed to Memphis, Holly Springs, Okolona & Selma 
Railroad Company. By an act approved July 21, 1870, the name was again changed to the 
Selma, Marion & Memphis Railroad Company. In 1 874 the comf)any was reorganized as the 
Memphis, Holly Springs & Selma Railroad Company. In 1881 the name was again changed 
to Memphis, Selma & Brunswick Railroad Company. The name was again changed to the 
Memphis, Birmingham & Atlantic Railroad Company, and the same confirmed by an act 
approved January 22, 1886. 

The Kansas City, Memphis & Birmingham Railroad Company of Mississippi and Ten- 
nessee, above referred to, absorbed the Memphis, Birmingham & Atlantic by purchase in 
September, 1886. 

The main line was completed to Birmingham and opened for business on October 17, 
18S7; the branch to Aberdeen, Miss., January 1, 1888, and the branch to Bessemer, Ala., 
March 15, 1888. Its earnings for 1889 were: Freight, 51.6 per cent, of total, $719,593.15; 
passenger, 51.6 per cent, of total, $246,244.46, and taxes between January and September, 
1889, $258.96. 

The New Orleans, Mobile & Chattanooga Railroad Company, now the New Orleans, 
Mobile & Texas, leased by the Louisville & Nashville, was originally chartered in Alabama, 
in November, 1866; and on the 7th of November, 1867, an act was passed and approved by the 
state of Mississippi, recognizing the charter, as granted by the state of Alabama, and giving 
the road the same powers, privileges and franchises in the state of Mississippi. Under this 
charter the railroad between New Orleans and Mobile was completed, and has tended to 
build up numerous towns and villages on the lake coast, within the state of Mississippi. 
Such places as Scranton, Ocean Springs, Biloxi, Pass Christian and many other villages have 
been rapidly settled up and made accessible to New Orleans on the one side and to Mobile on 
the other, and through them both to all the world. This railroad, now known as the Louis- 
ville & Nashville railroad, runs five or six passenger trains daily through all of these towns 
on the Mississippi coast, is rapidly developing new industries in these towns, and 
large numbers of people from the North and West are making their homes there during 
the winter, finding a delightful and healthy climate. Much of the winter travel and sojourn- 
ing which accrued to Florida is passing to this lake and gulf coast, which presents many 


superior advantages to aiiytbing to be found in Florida or other localities. The soil is remark- 
ably productive when properly cared for ; the roads are good, the air exhilarating and health- 
ful. Ne\y Orleans is reached from these towns and villages in from one to three hours, 
according to the distance. The time made on the trains from New Orleans to Mobile is about 
four hours, a distance of one hundred and forty miles. The railroad company and the inhab- 
itants on the lake shore are in accord in their desire to develop new industries along the line 
and to invite immigration. 

Milton H. Smith, Esq., is now president of the Louisville & Nashville railroad com- 
pany. Its passenger earnings in this state were, |'212,504.C)9; freight earnings, 127)1,964.59: 
and taxes in 1887 were $9,619.07. 

The Gulf & Chicago railroad is a consolidation of August 1, 1889, of this road with the 
Ripley, Ship Island & Kentucky and the northern division of the Gulf & Ship Island, with a 
lease covering the rest of the last mentioned road. Its earnings for 1889 were, freight, 
117,748.90; passenger, 113,668.42; and taxes in 1888, $611.45. 

The Memphis & Charleston railroad, although so small iu mileage in this state, had 
passenger earnings in 18S1J of $59,836.62; freight, $103,917.29; and taxes of $4,271. 

The Alabama Great Southern railroad extends from Chattanooga, Tenn., through Ala- 
bama to Meridian, Miss., a distance of two hundred and ninety-five miles, only 18.781 of which 
are in Mississippi. The portion in Mississippi was built by the Northeast & Southwest 
Alabama railroad company, which was incorporated by the legislature of Alabama, December 
12, 1853. The Alabama & Chattanooga railroad company acquired the ownership of the 
Northeast & Southwest Alabama railroad company December 19, 1868, and on February 
11, 1870, the state of Alabama loaned its credit to the Alabama & Chattanooga railroad 
company for the purjDOse of expediting the construction of its railroad, " provided that the 
entire line between Meridian and Chattanooga be completed by March 1, 1871." In 1877, 
the Alabama Great Southern railroad company acquired the ownership of the Alabama & 
Chattanooga railroad. Its passenger earnings were, in 1889, ?33,534; freight, $79,188.00; 
and taxes estimated at $2,587.62. 

The Natchez, Jackson & Columbus, a narrow gauge road, was completed October 6, 
1882, with 98.6 miles. Its passenger and freight earnings were respectively, 862.405, and 
$1 16,249. This is known as the " Little J. " 

The East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia railway, with only 7.73 miles in this state, used 
the Mobile & Ohio tracks from Lauderdale to Meridian. This state's proportion of the earn- 
ings were, passenger, §10,163; and freight, $34,021; audits taxes in 1888 were 81,019.50. 

The people of Mississippi have generally been friendly to these railways, but the last 
decade had not progressed far when it seemed wisest for the state to exercise some regulative 
powers over them. Accordingly', on March 11, 1884, an act was passed providing means for 
this in a body called the board of railroad commissioners. After its organization the appre- 
hensions of the great railways were aroused, and all but seven, of the sinaller ones chiefly, 
enjoined them against further proceedings, and the oases were carried up to the state courts, 
the " Little J " even taking it into the Federal courts, but all received decisions favorable to 
the commission, and the work of this body has since been carried on with the best success, 
Sc'curing a common regulation of all the railway transportation of the state, and with no 
diminution in the increase of railway building certainly. 



EFOKE considering the growth of any one of the states not included in the old 
thirteen originals stretched along the Atlantic from New Hampshire to Georgia 
IN-'-' inclusive, one should recall that the other thirty-one are the creatures of the old 
thirteen in a measure, and get a clear idea of their relative periods of creation 
in order to fully appreciate the rapidity and magnitude of the growth of some of them. 
Mississippi may be called one of the old states, when we consider that in the century since 
" Little Rhody, " the last of the thirteen*, ratified the constitution, and during which the 
thirty-one have been admitted, about half were created in the first half or before 1840; 
but Mississippi is one of the oldest states — while not the oldest of the valley sisters, like 
Kentucky, she follows not many years later. Vermont, the first admitted, was a mere 
creation of convenience; Kentucky, the second, in 1792, was the first real creation. In the 
next twenty-five years came at due intervals Tennessee, Ohio, Louisiana, Indiana, and, a 
year later than the Hoosier state, the Bayou state of Mississippi. In these words are 
easily seen the advancing footprints of the giant valley, and Mississippi was the sixth, not 
counting Vermont. Now she is almost exactly three quarters of a century old — older than 
the great states of Illinois, Alabama, Maine, Missouri, Arkansas, Michigan — all born in the 
first half of our national career. As to the later states, she is nearly thirty years older 
than Iowa, and a half century older than Nebraska. She has witnessed the birth of 
twenty- four younger sisters of Uncle Sam's numerous progeny. 

In her relative progress in population, ever since her most unfavorable period began, 
namely, 1850, and with the disadvantage over the later trans-Mississippi states of few rail- 
ways until the present decade, she has more than kept her midway place, as these figures 
illustrate. In 1850, when there were thirty-three states, Mississippi was fifteenth in popu- 
lation; in 1860, with thirty-six states, she was fourteenth; in 1870, with thirty seven states, 
she was eighteenth; in 1880, with thirty-eight states, eighteenth; and in 1890, when the 
number sprang to forty-four, she was still on the larger side of the dividing line, and, as 
twenty-first in population, still counted among the larger states of the Union, there being 
twenty-three states with less and only twenty states with a greater population. 

Before noticing the state's actual growth in figures, it may aid in realizing its great- 
ness in size and population to compare it with some foreign countries. With an area of 
forty-six thousand eight hundred and ten square miles, Mississippi is about the size of 
Roumania; almost exactly the size of Guatemala; a little larger than Honduras; slightly 

*1790. ~~ '~~~~' 

Ci-y-JT? ^ C'; 'llC'alo 


smaller than Nicaragua, and some larger than Orange Free state. From these it varies 
comparatively little in area, while it is considerably over fonr times the size of Belgium; 
over three times the size of Switzerland; nearly four times the size of Denmark; nearly as 
large again as Bulgaria or Greece, and four and a half times the area of Hayti. But while 
Mississippi is about the size of Roumania, she has only about a fourth the population of 
her European sister; while almost exactly the size of Guatemala, considerably less; but as 
to Honduras and Nicaragua, which she approaches in area, the Bayou state is over four 
times their population, and Orange is so much less that it is not worth consideration. Its 
contrast with the other European states is more striking. Four times the area of Belgium, 
that country has nearly five times as many people; an area three times that of the Swiss 
republic, yet with less thaa half the inhabitance of the Alpine state; four times Denmark's 
area, but about three-fifths her population; nearly as large again as Bulgaria or Greece, but 
only about two-fifths and three-fifths their respective populations. Mississippi's counter- 
parts in number of inhabitants approach most nearly to Ecuador, Tripoli and Wurtemberg; 
but in relative area and population no country so nearly reaches her size in both these 
features as the five-year-old republic of Guatemala. It should be remembered, however, 
that the comparison extends no farther, as the simple fact of the 1884 railway mileage — 
twenty-six miles in Guatemala to one thousand eight hundred and forty- four miles in the 
Bayou state — will testify; while in other respects it might not be unlike a comparison of our 
times of popular education with those of 1215, when, of the twenty-six English barons who 
signed the great Magna Charta, only three could write their names instead of making their 
marks. Numbers and area have most significance only when associated with the precious 
elements of our civilization, and Mississippi, among our United States, is twenty-eighth in 
area and twenty- first in population, a population but very little larger than that of the 
great metropolis of this valley, Chicago, a name, by a curious coincidence, that this state 
came near to bearing as its own, for Vega's account of De Soto's discovery of it says the 
name of the great river was " Chucagua," and it was so called by many early European 

Mississippi's population is now one million two hundred and eighty-nine thousand six 
hundred souls, distributed between the races, giving the larger number, seven hundred 
forty- seven thousand seven hundred and twenty to the negroes, a less number, five hun- 
dred and thirty-nine thousand seven hundred and three to the whites, and a comparatively 
insignificant number, two thousand one hundred and seventy- seven to the Chinese, Japanese 
and Indians. 

The white population entered, in the handful of men at Biloxi, in 1699. Some took 
Indian women as wives, but in 1720, says a local writer, "thirty girls from the Saltpe- 
triere in Paris, arrived in the colony. The priests complain of the prospensity of the 
colonists, and especially the Canadians, for Indian wives. The dusky maidens of Missis- 
sippi, with their flashing eyes, and their voluptuous forms, and their delicate hands and 
feet, and their merry laugh, and their raven hair that brushed the dewdrops as they 
walked, modest, chaste, drooping their glances at the approach of a warrior, were pre- 
ferred to the pale-faced conventional women of Paris, and the simple-minded fathers 
were astonished." But this all changed, and only twenty years later, 1740, says a writer in 
De Bow's Review*, " The population of the French colony received a fresh accession in a 
large number of poor, but virtuous girls, transported from France at the royal expense, and 
endowed by royal bounty with a small tract of land, a cow and calf, a cock and five hens, a 

*De Bow's Keview, 1851, New Orleans. 


gun and ammunition, an ax and hoe, and a supply of garden seeds. Each of these girls, 
with her dower, was given by Vaudreuil in marriage to some one of the soldiers, who received 
an honorable discharge. This importation continued annually until the year 1751, and from 
this source have sprung many worthy families in Louisiana, and, doubtless, in Mississippi, 
too." So came the first white male and female population. 

The first cargo of negro slaves arrived in 1720 and a council ordinance declared a good 
adult negro should be rated at $176, to be paid for in three annual payments of tobacco and 

The census of 1721, when a considerable part of the colony was in Mississippi, gave five 
thoiisand four hundred and twenty whites and six hundred slaves. By 1785 the Natchez 
settlement alone contained over five thousand. Fifteen years later the present bounds of Mis- 
sissippi began the present century with a population all told of seven thousand six hundred, 
scarcely more than the present city of Jackson contains. In 1810 it had sprung up to thirty- 
one thousand three hundred and six, more tha,n quadrupled. Only two years later, 1812, 
it had reached forty thousand three hundred and fifty-two, of which twenty-three thousand 
two hundred and sixty-four were whites, owning seventeen thousand and eighty-eight slaves, 
and this population was all in Natchez and Washington, the two towns, and eleven 
counties of the Southwest, the rest being in the hands of Indians. In 1816, just before 
statehood, the total was forty-five thousand nine hundred and twenty- one, and four years more 
closed the decade with seventy- five thousand four hundred and forty-eight in 1820, more than 
doubling on the previous census. Of these, forty-two thousand one hundred and seventy-six 
were whites, four hundred and fifty-eight free blacks, and thirty-two thousand eight hundred 
and fourteen slaves, scattered over seventeen counties in the south and southwest, excepting 
Monroe county, and its largest city being Natchez, with two thousand one hundred and 
eighty-four inhabitants. Another decade passed with the usual doubling up of population, 
with most remarkable gains in slaves, so that it became a subject of great concern to pub- 
lic men, for heretofore the white majority had been considerable. The total population in 
1830 was one hundred and thirty-six thousand six hundred and twenty-one souls. 

The decade from 1830 to 1840 was marked by the opening up of Indian lands. 
The red race, even in 1721, had about thirty-six thousand in the state, but over a hundred 
years later, in this decade, the year 1834, there were resident in Mississippi twenty-three 
thousand four hundred Indians of the several nations. North Mississippi was an Indian 
wilderness, and its opening up was the signal for an influx that considerably more than 
doubled on the previous census, giving a grand total of three hundred and seventy-five 
thousand six hundred and fifty-one souls, of whom one hundred and ninety-two thousand 
two hundred and eleven were slaves, leaving of the whites and free blacks a minority of 
one hundred and eighty-three thousand four hundred and forty-one. Even the state cen- 
sus of 1837 gave a total of three hundred and eight thousand seven hundred and forty- 
four, with one hundred and sixty-four thousand three hundred and ninety-three slaves to one 
hundred and forty four thousand three hundred and fifty- one whites. 

From 1840 to 1850 the increase was still great, but most marked in the Indian lands. 
A writer of 1849 says of that region: " Fifteen years ago it was an Indian wilderness, and 
now it has reached and passed, in its population, other portions of the state of ten times 
its age." The census of 1850 nearly doubles on the previous one, with six hundred and 
six thousand five hundred and twenty- six, of which the entire colored population was three 
hundred and ten thousand eight hundred and eight, including free blacks and mulattoes. 
These figures tell a wondrous story, and will always be kept in view by the careful student 


of this state's history. They are the indices of her great power and her greatest weakness, 
and the explanation of multitudes of her characteristic traits. 

They developed in the next decade — 1850-60, and the year 1860 beheld a population 
of seven hundred and ninety-one thousand three hundred and five, with a wealth of cotton, 
and four hundred and thirty-seven thousand four hundred and four, practically all slaves — 
a number almost equal to the entire present population of Honduras, Nicaragua, or Para- 
guay. No wonder the name planter took on a significance of prince! 

The decade of the great tragedy seriously affected population. A powerful institution 
had turned over; slaves became citizens, and princely planters became poor. Soldiers were 
killed; the freedmen to the number of seventeen thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine 
became soldiers to fight their former masters, and also were thinned by death, while some 
left the country. Some from the invading army came in, it is true, but the population by 
census of 1866 showed a falling off to seven hundred and twenty-four thousand seven 
hundred and eighteen, there being still an excess of blacks — three hundred and eighty-one 
thousand two hundred and fifty- eight; and whites to the number of three hundred and forty- 
three thousand four hundred and sixty, showing a total loss of seventy-five thousand five 
hundred and eighty-five, or ten thousand four hundred and thirty-nine whites, and sixty-six 
thousand one hundred and forty-six blacks. After this the state advanced somewhat, so that 
the census of 1870 showed a population of eight hundred and twenty-seven thousand nine 
hundred and twenty-two, the colored part being four hundred and forty-four thousand two 
hundred and one, and the white three hundred and eighty-two thousand eight hundred and 
ninety-six, while eight hundred and twenty-five, a small showing of Mongolian and Indian 
races, appears, the great mass of the Indians, as mentioned elsewhere, having been removed 
in the thirties and forties. During this decade much of Mississippi had become a practical 
wilder Qess; the Yazoo delta, which had been partly reclaimed by levees during the previous 
decade, was again at the mercy of overflows, and only now began to be regained. The 
political troubles, and the prominence of the swamp delta region gave the state an unfor- 
tunate reputation, so that, for the first time in her history, an effort at distinctive advertising 
of her resources seemed necessary to attract immigration. 

An act of April 6, 1874, provided for representation in the centennial exhibition, and a 
later act appropriated 15,000 for that purpose. A building was built of sixty- eight varieties 
of the state's timber, and among her exhibits were forms of cotton and woolen stuffs, corn, 
rice, broomcorn, syrup, tobacco, etc. On July 10, 1876, Gen. A. M. West, president of the 
board of managers, made an historical address on Mississippi, which gave the state an 
improved status. Said he: "With these vast fields of enterprise, and inspired by such 
important coming events, Mississippi can not be idle, but must, of necessity, join the march of 
enterprise and improvement, which, now, like the waves of the ocean, are moving in every direc- 
tion, and pouring upon the globe a grand luminous array of the triumphs of mind over matter, 
as is so forcibly exemplified by this centennial exhibition; and by the rapidity with which the 
productions of human labor and skill are transported from farm to farm, from factory to factory, 
from city to city, from ocean to ocean, from county to county, exhibiting, to the amazement of 
the world, an activity in all the industrial pursuits of life commensurate with man' s capabilities. 
It is a noteworthy fact that, although the late war left more than one-half the population of 
Mississippi homeless and penniless, and the remainder greatly impoverished, and all without 
credit, and frenzied by political conflicts and social disturbances, society was rapidly reorgan- 
ized, domestic and social economy restored, and personal credit reestablished. Their commer- 
cial obligations, in this and other cities, have been more promptly met the past season, than 


hiive been the obligHtions of the people of many of the other states. As these sudden and 
rapid changes ufPecting, as Ihey did, society in all its varied, social, domehtic and political 
relations, are unprecedented in the history of communities and nations, impartial judges 
must conclude that the resources of Mississippi are extraordinarily great, and historians 
must give to white and colored races credit for marvelous capacity for adaptation to circum- 
stances, and for unparalleled recuperative powers." A considerable immigration came in 
up to 1880 from the northern part of the Mississippi valley, and by the close of the decade 
, — 1880 — the population had arisen from eight hundred and twenty seven thousand nine 
hundred and twenty-two, to the marked total of one million one hundred and thirty-one 
thousaud five hundred and ninety- seven; both races had increased in numbers, but the colored 
the most, the total blacks being six hundred and fifty thousand two hundred and ninety-one, 
and the whites four hundred and seventy-nine thousand three hundred and ninety-eight, 
with the increased showing — one thousand nine huudred and eight— of third and fourth 
races. These figures tended still more to impress the conviction that still greater efforts 
should be made to stimulate immigration of Northern whites and north European people. 

The decade from 1880 to 1890 witnessed strong efforts. Even Governor Alcorn had 
recommended efforts of this kind, and a bureau of immigration had been organized before 
the seventies began, and efforts were still continued during the seventies, but it remained 
for the reorganization of the eighties to effect the greatest results, under the commissioner- 
ship of a most able manager, Maj. E. G. Wall, in the first half of the decade. These 
efforts were systematic and effective, aiming not only to attract agriculturists, but lumber- 
men, manufacturer."!, tradesmen, capitalists and all that make for development and internal 
growth, and the vigor with which it was prosecuted receives abundant testimony in the 
excellent statistics that work has left, as well as the diffusion of more just ideas regarding 
the state among people of our own and foreign countries. An exhibit was made at Louisville, 
too, in 1883, and with little effort to make a strong showing, premiums were taken to the 
amount of over 13,000. At New Orleans also, in 1884, an excellent effort was made, under 
the direction of Com. S. A. Jonas, and this gave especial impetus to thelumber interests and 
manufactures. The railways took up the refrain, and began that sybtematic advertising of 
the country along their routes that has developed the entire nation so rapidly. The result 
has been that while the state has witnessed more growth and development materially in 
this decade than in others, the population also has increased, and the census of 1890 
shows an advance from one million one hundred and thirty-one thousand five hundred and 
ninety-seven to the total of one million two hundred and eighty- nine thousand six hundred. 
The race proportions are as follows: the larger part colored, seven hundred and forty- 
seven thousand seven hundred and twenty; and the whites numbering five hundred and 
thirty -nine thousand seven hundred and three; with two thousand and fifty-four Indians, 
one hundred and twenty-two Chinese and one Japanese. Thus it will be seen that while 
the per cent, of increase was only 4.6 from 1860 to 1870, and 36.7 from 1870 to 1880, the 
last decade has shown a good one of fourteen per cent. 

To view more closely, take the figures for successive decades beginning with the year 
1800: Seven thousand six hundred, thirty-one thousand three hundred and six, seventy-five 
thousand four hundred and forty-eight, one hundred and thirty-six thousand six hundred and 
twenty-one, three hundred and seventy- five thousand six hundred and fifty-one, six hundred 
and six thousand five hundred and twenty-six, seven hundred and ninety-one thousand three 
hundred and five, eight hundred and twenty seven thousand nine hundred and twenty- two, 
one million one hundred and thirty-one thousand five hundred and ninety- seven, and one 
million two hundred and eighty-nine thousand six hundred. 


But take the figures of the whites alone, begianiug with 1850: Two huQdred and ninety- 
five thousand seven hundred and eighteen, three hundred and fifty-three thousand eight 
hundred and ninety-nine, three hundred and eighty-two thousand eight hundred and ninety- 
six, four hundred and seventy-nine thousand three hundred and ninety-eight, and five hun- 
dred and thirty-nine thousand seven hundred and three. This shows a percentage of 
increase of 19.67, 8.19, 25.20, and 12.58, or an actual increase of fifty-eight thousand one 
hundred and eighty one, twenty-eight thousand nine hundred and ninety-seven, ninety six 
thousand five hundred and two, and sixty thousand three hundred and five. 

Compare the figures for the colored population alone during the same period, begin- 
ning with 1850: Three hundred and ten thousand eight hundred and eight, four hundred and 
thirty-seven thousand four hundred and four, four hundred and forty-four thousand two 
hundred and one, six hundred and fifty thousand two hundred and ninety-one, and seven 
hundred and forty-seven thousand seven hundred and twenty in 1890. This shows succes- 
sive increase as follows: One hundred and twenty- six thousand five hundred and ninety -six, 
six thousand seven hundred and ninety-seven; two hundred and six thousand and ninety, 
and only ninety-seven thousand four hundred and twenty-nine in 1890. Given in per- 
centages it is: 40.73, 1.55,46.40, and 14.98 in 1890. So it will be seen that while the 
whites increased 1 2. 58 per cent, in 1890 the blacks made a gain of 14. 98 per cent. ; but this 
is a far better showing for the white increase than the previous decade, when the per cents, 
were as 25. 2 to 46. 4 in favor of the negro. 

The fact that Mississippi is 41.85 per cent, white and 57.98 per cent, colored, is the 
great question of all questions in her social and political life. In this she stands alongside 
of but two other states — South Carolina and iVIississippi — but as Louisiana is so evenly 
balanced, being only 49.59 per cent, white to 50.32 per cent, colored. South Carolina is 
practically the only one to compare with her. That state is in a slightly worse condition, 
being 39.82 per cent, white and 60.16 per cent black. Other states hardly compare at all — 
Georgia is nearly fifty-three per cent, white, Alabama nearly fifty-five per cent., Florida over 
fifty-seven per cent. , Virginia over sixty-one per cent. , North Carolina nearly sixty-five per 
cent., Arkansas over seventy-two per cent., Tennessee over seventy-five per cent., Texas 
nearly seventy-eight per cent., and so on up. 

It will be of interest to notice what parts of Mississippi are characterized by this excess of 
blacks over whites. The state has seventy-five counties in all, and thirty-seven have white 
and thirty-eight black excess of population, almost equally divided. Those with black 
excess are: Adams, Amite, Bolivar, Carroll, Chickasaw, Claiborne, Clay, Coahoma, Copiah, 
De Soto, Grenada, Hinds, Holmes, Issaquena, Jefferson, Kemper, Lauderdale, Leflore, 
Lowndes, Madison, Marshall, Monroe, Noxubee, Oktibbeha, Panola, Pike, Rankin, Sharkey, 
Sunflower, Tallahatchie, Tate, Tunica, Warren, Washington, Wilkinson, Yalobusha and 
Yazoo, the greatest excess being in Washington county in the Yazoo delta, with thirty-five 
thousand seven hundred and three blacks to only four thousand six hundred and sixty-nine 
whites. It will be noticed that thete countries are chiefly either characterized by cities or 
lowlands, toward both of which the blacks tend to gravitate. 

Since this colored element has always been the pivotal point in this state's career, we 
may trace it by itself, ^s has been said, the first cargo of black slaves came in in 1720, 
just one hundred years after their first arrival in this country; and one hundred years later 
— 1820 — there were thirty-two thousand eight hundred and fourteen black slaves, and four 
hundred and fifty-eight free blacks in this state. This last item — four hundred and fifty- 
eight free blacks — indicates the widespread feeling against slavery and the numerous cases 


of voluntary emancipation by the Christian classes. This feeling was so strong in 1823 
that on the presentation and advocacy of the following police measure by Mr. Poindexter, 
the state's constitution maker, he was defeated because of its passage: 

" Section 1. Be it enmied hy the Senate and House of Jiepresentatives of the State of Mississippi in 
General Assembly convened, That If any master, overseer or employer shall knowingly permit any slave or 
slaves, not belonging to him or her, to be and remain in and about his or her house or kitchen, or upon 
his or her plantation, ahove four hours at any one time, without leave of the owner, overseer or employer 
of such slave or slaves, he or she so permitting shall forfeit and pay $10 for every such offense. 
And every master, etc., who shall, without such leave, permit or suffer more than jive negroes, or slaves, 
other than those in his or her own employment, to be and remain on his or her plantation or quarter, 
at any one time, shall forfeit and pay $10 for every such negro or slave, which said several for- 
feitures shall be to the informer, and recoverable with costs, before any justice of the peace of the 
county or corporation where such offense is committed. Birovided always, that nothing herein contained 
shall be construed to prohibit negroes or slaves of the same owner, though living at different quarters, 
from meeting, with their owner's or overseer's leave, upon any plantation belonging to such owner; nor 
to restrain the meeting of slaves on their master's or overseer's business, at any public place, nor on any 
other lawful occasion, by license or writing, from their master, employer or overseer. 

" Sec. 2. All meetings or assemblies of slaves or free negroes or mulattoes, mixing or associat- 
ing with such slaves, ahove the number of five, at any place of public resort, or at any meetinghouse or houses' 
in the night, or at any school or schools, for teaching them reading or writing, either in the day or night 
under whatsoever pretext, shall be deemed and considered an unlawful assembly, and any justice of the 
peace of the county or corporation wherein such assemblage may be, either from his own knowledge or 
the information of others, of such unlawful assemblage or meeting, may issue his warrant, directed to 
any sworn officer or officers, authorizing him or them to enter the house or houses where such unlawful 
assemblages or meetings may be, for the purpose of apprehending or dispersing such slaves, free 
negroes or mulattoes, and to inflict corporal punishment on the offender or offenders, at the discretion of 
such justice of the peace, not exceeding thirty-nine lashes, in the manner hereinafter directed. 

" Sec. 3. The said officer or officers shall have power to summon any person or persons to 
aid and assist in the execution of any warrant or warrants directed to him or them, for the purpose 
aforesaid, who, on refusal, shall be subject to a fine, at the discretion of any s\ich justice of the peace, 
not exceeding $10; Brovided, that nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to prevent the 
master, employer or overseer of any slave or slaves from giving permission in writing to his, her or 
their slave or slaves to go to any place or places whatever, for the purpose of religious worship, Bro- 
vided, that such worship be conducted by a regularly ordained or licensed white minister, or attended 
by at least two discreet and reputable white persons, appointed by some regular church or religious 

It is well known that efforts had been made long before to prevent importation of 
slaves, and in 1828 Governor Brandon urged this upon the legislature: "The Southern 
states generally, having passed laws to prevent the importation of slaves for the purposes 
of traffic, has left Mississippi almost the only receptacle for the surplus black population 
of the middle states, where their labor is not found so productive as in the Soulh; the vast 
number annually imported into our state has excited uneasiness in the minds of many of 
our fellow-citizens, and caused them to feel much solicitude that we should adopt the policy 
of our neighboring states. Slavery is an evil at best, and has invariably operated oppress- 
ively on the poorer class of every community into which it has been introduced, by destroy- 
ing that mutual dependence which would otherwise exist between the rich and the poor, 
and excludes from the state, in proportion to the number of slaves, a free white population, 
through the means of which alone can we expect to take rank with our sister states. With 
these reflections I submit it to the wisdom of the general assembly to say whether the period 
has not arrived when Mississippi, in her own defense, should, as far as practicable, prevent 
the further introduction of slaves for sale." 

It has been said, a little caustically, that "the French first introduced yellow fever and 


slaves, OQ the seacoast of Mississippi. The British afterward prosecuted the trade. And 
then our Northern brethren embarked in it, and by their superior energy soon monopolized 
the business of kidnaping Africans to sell to the Southern planter. And they received in 
payment indigo, tobacco, rice, sugar and cotton produced by the kidnaped slaves." Another 
however has spoken more truly, and truly because more fully: "They were kidnaped 
on their native shores by the North for money, sold to the South for money; the 
South bought them to make money, and kept them for money." But Mississippi aided the 
American Colonization society, and manumission became so frequent as to be a source of pos- 
sible disorder, due no doubt to the sight of the free by the bondsmen, so that the legislature 
forbade it, and in 1831 free negroes and mulattoes were ordered to leave the state unless special 
permission was granted to remain. In 1837, when there were one hundred and sixty-four 
thousand three hundred and ninety-three slaves in the state, about twenty thousand more 
than the whites, the importation of slaves into the state was forbidden. 

It was at this time that such events as the following not unf requently occurred. Isaac 
Ross, of Jefferson county, died in 1836, and among numerous similar provisions in his will a 
few may serve to illustrate. 

"First, To his granddaughter Adelaide Wade, he gave his cook, a woman named Grace, 
and all her children living at the time of his demise, unless the said Grace should elect of 
her own free will to go to Africa, in which case she and her children were to be transported 
there with his other slaves as hereinafter provided for. And then the said Adelaide, in lieu 
thereof, was to have an additional $2,000 besides her other bequests. 

"Second, His aforesaid granddaughter shall take charge of and maintain comfortably 
during their natural lives, testator's negro man Hannibal, and his three sisters, and he gave 
Hannibal $100, annually, for life, and to each of his sisters $50, annually. But should they 
elect to go to Africa, they shall be permitted to go with and on the same footing with the 
other slaves; and should he so elect he shall be paid when he embarks $500, in silver, in lieu 
of the aforesaid legacy. 

"Third, Enoch, wife and children were to be conveyed free of expense, in twelve months, 
to the free state they might prefer, there to be manumitted and receive $500, in coin, or to 
Africa if they chose, on the same footing with the others, and receive $500. 

" Fourth, Excepting Tom, William, Joe, Aleck and Henrietta and Jeffers (who are to be 
sold as hereinafter provided), all the slaves aged twenty-one and upward, within ten days 
after the growing crop shall be gathered, shall be called together by the executors and the 
provisions of the will be fully explained. Those electing to go shall be sent to Africa under 
the authority of the American Colonization society. And the remainder of his estate, real, 
personal and mixed (excepting always the negroes whose names are mentioned above), be 
offered for sale at public auction, one-half the purchase money to be paid in cash and the 
balance in twelve months. The proceeds of sale, and any money on hand or due, after 
deducting enough for the aforesaid legacies, to be paid over to the American Colonization 
Society, provided it will consent to appropriate it as follows, to-wit: First, To pay the 
expense of transporting to Africa to such of my slaves as may elect to go. Second, To 
expend the remainder for their suppDrt and maintenance while here. 

"Fifth, Should the slaves refuse to go there, they (except those that have been specially 
named) are to be sold, and the proceeds paid over to the American Colonization society, to 
be invested at six per cent., the interest to be employed for one hundred years in maintain- 
incf an institution of learning in Liberia, in Africa. If there shall be no government in 
Liberia, the said fund to be transferred to the state of Mississippi for a similar institution.' 


This will was contested under the anti-manumission laws of the state, but failed. Judge 
James Green, of Adams county, emancipated one hundred and fifty negroes and provided 
for their colonization at Greenland, Africa. A letter from a Presbyterian minister, also a 
slave-owner, to General Quitman, in 1831, may illustrate another feature by a short extract: 

"Honored and Bear Sir: I doubt not that you will excuse me for trespassing upon your attpntion 
for a few moments — especially when you learn the occasion. The church of Pine Ridge, within whose 
bounds you have a plantation, is now making an effort to give the gospel to every rational being under its 
care — the young as well as the old — the bond as well as the free. 

" In order to do this effectually, it is necessary to adopt the system of plantation preaching, which is 
now acknowledged to possess more advantages than any other. It requires, however, a greater number 
of preachers, than where all can be assembled in one place. 

" One minister can take charge of about nine plantations, giving them instructions, preaching and 
catechising every second or third Sabbath; preaching during the week when desired, celebrating mar- 
riages, visiting the sick and burying the dead. 

" There are already two assistants employed in my parish, and thus far the plan has succeeded 

" Nearlv all the planters here feel their responsibility for their servants so deeply, that they have 
united to provide regular and frequent religious instruction for them by good and competent teachers. 
In this way the servants are made accountable for themselves, and the master is relieved from his most 
solemn responsibility in this respect. 

" Nearly every plantation has adopted the plan, and by uniting, the expense is very trifling, about 
$1 per head, for all over four years of age. The services of an educated man (and none others are so 
well suited to the work), can not be obtained for a salary less than |500 or I 

In 1840 there were one hundred and ninety-six thousand five hundred and seventy- 
seven blacks and mulattoes, of whom over two thousand were free. The danger of rapid 
manumission as a menace to order was felt long before this, and with the forcing of the 
extremists North and South, a resistance to it arose, based on the old right of non-interfer- 
ence, and in 1846 the prohibition of slave importation was repealed. The rest is well 
known; the colored population at once arose in 1850 to three hundred and ten thousand 
eight hundred and eight, and in 1860 to four hundred and thirty- seven thousand four 
hundred and four. 

In 1866 there were three hundred and eighty one thousand two hundred and fifty-eight, 
a falling o£F elsewhere explained. Beginning with 1870, the figures by decades are: Four 
hundred and forty-four thousand two hundred and one, six hundred and fifty thousand 
three hundred and ninety-one, and seven hundred and forty-seven thousand seven hundred 
and twenty in 1890, when in all the United States there were but six million five hundred 
and eighty thousand seven hundred and ninety -three. 

Slavery, as a labor institution, has never yet been treated fully as it deserves, and the 
limits of such an article as this forbid more than an indication of a few of the features 
connected with its change to free labor. It will have been noted by this time that no efPort 
has been made to show up the abuses of slavery; this has been intentional, for the abuses 
have received plenty of public emphases in the last half century, while so very little has 
been said on the other side that a work in that line recently issued from a Tennessee press 
^has been hailed with surprise. It is the conscience side of a question that always wins, and 
an effort has here been made to show that side. 

Ex-Governor Alcorn will be admitted by all to be as fair a judge of the transition period 
as can be found, and his being governor in the midst of it might warrant his being called 
the transition governor, as Governor Pettus was called the war governor. Said he to the mixed 
legislature of 1871: " When it is remembered that you came together at the bidding of a 


revolution, that several of you had but just been inducted into freedom when you were called 
on to legislate; that very many of you, though free from birth, had had no experience in the 
affairs of government, and that but comparatively few of you had ever before sat in a deliber- 
ative assembly, you showed in the work of last session a moderation and wisdom highly 
creditable." In his treatment of comparative statistics of 1860 and 1870 in six representa- 
tive counties he says: "A new feature in the census of 1870 is that of wages. An outcrop 
amongst us of the new order of things, this head of national stock-taking is one of peculiar 
interest. According lo the forgoing table wages amounted, in six counties producing forty 
two thousand eight hundred and eighty bales of cotton, to a total of $1,355,203. This, be 
it understood, includes the value of board also. Now the aggregate value of farm products 
in those counties amounts to 16,262,144, and if this value is supposed to be the result of the 
wages paid for labor — be the falling off in the amount of our production what it may; be the 
crippling of our powers of production, for want of capital, what it may — we can congratu- 
late ourselves on a very early restoration of these shortcomings, in presence of the fact of 
an income on the farming of six counties in 1869-70 to an amount approaching $5,000,000." 
Again he says: " T was a slave owner. Apprehensive that the restraints of reason would 
have been insufficient in the case of a people who had been held under lifelong restraints of 
force, I did not accept the facts of reconstruction without some lingering doubts," and he 
goes on to show hopeful proofs of growth, with all the trials of the situation : Marriage 
licenses among the colored people were issued in thirty-one counties from 1865 to 1870 as 
follows in percentages of total colored population: .23, 1.53, 1.47, 1.17, 1.49, 1.43, prov- 
ing ' ' conclusively that the colored people are striving to rise to the moral level of their new 
standing before the law, to the extent of a strict adherence to, at all events, the formularies 
of sexual propriety." " Biit the marriage contracts of the negroes are not mere formularies," 
and he shows evidence of it. "Slavery is forever dead; though flowers may not be strewn 
upon its tomb, as they were on the tomb of Nero, freedom can well afford to bend over it to 
pay its memory a tribute of justice. The peculiar institution was in truth a tender nurse! 
Explain this by self-interest, as you will, the fact still remains. And that nursing care with- 
drawn by the proclamation of freedom, I feared, in my more despondent moments, that there 
was something in the bad prophecies which foretold of negro annihilation." He then shows 
the case of children to be hopeful even in their poverty, a fact in great contrast to results in 
Jamaica after freedom. Colored churches in six counties numbered from 1865 for a half- 
decade of years : One hundred and five, one hundred and twenty-five, one hundred and sixty- 
five, two hundred and one, two hundred and thirty-five and two hundred and eighty-three, 
while in twenty-two counties the report of colored preachers employed during these years 
were: seventy- three, one hundred and two, one hundred and thirty-four, one hundred and 
seventy-seven, one hundred and ninety-four, and two hundred and sixty-two; and schools, 
opened in twenty counties, ran: nineteen, fifty-three, eighty-one, ninety-two, one hundred 
and twenty-six, one hundred and forty-eight, with teachers in eighteen counties: eighteen, 
forty-seven, eighty-seven, one hundred and seven, one hundred and twenty-five, one hundred 
and seventy. The number of colored stores ran: Seven, twenty-seven, forty-three, thirty- 
four, sixty, sixty; of this he says: " The upward tendency of the colored people is still put 
in proof in the above table, and put in proof with some force when it is remembered that 
they enter into competition with the whites as traders, at a starting point which found them 
incapable of owning capital. But the number of stores other than whisky- shops is especially 
significant in the fact of their increase in five years of one hundred per cent, amongst the 
whites, for this increase points to the breaking down of the spirit of monopoly, over which 


comes in, with the rush of a flood, all the previously peut-up energies of the masses of the 
people. The hundred customers of the new order of things demand the competition that was cut 
off by the system which placed the demand of that hundred customers at the disposition of an 
individual. And thus does the regime of freedom in Mississippi appeal to the man of small 
means to spring into the field of that commercial activity from which he had been excluded pre- 
viously by a system that carried with it, as one of its coincident evils, a business of long credits. 
Because of its direct bearing on the increase of merchant stores, I ask you to glance back to the 
agricultural summary given above for that novelty in our industry, a system of wages. In six 
counties, containing at the present time a total population of seventy-six thousand eight hundred 
and forty, the amount of wages paid out for the crops of 1869 was $1,355,203; this would give 
an annual wage in the whole state to the amount of $11,000,000 or 112,000,000. Forty per 
cent, of this may be set down as offsetting the board which the returns of the census include. 
Deducting that, the balance placed in the hands of our laborers may be estimated, annually, 
at $6,000,000 or $7,000,000. The necessities of our present want of capital once superseded, 
we may look confidently for that activity of mercantile business, with the ' quick sales and 
light profits ' incident to cash custom, which is sure to follow wherever labor throws out into 
trade, as the heart throws out supplies of blood into the system, a weekly wage of from 
$120,000 to $140,000. And as we observe business growing in all the towns of the state 
to dimensions that are expanding those towns into cities, so we may look for a continued 
increase of the number of our merchant-stores until competition shall have pressed to the 
limits of a moderate profit all the energies placed at its service by a system of universal 
liberty. The freedom of the negro, throwing thus open new fields of investment and energy, 
has expanded largely the freedom of the whites." 

In mechanic trades two results of the transition were remarkable. Colored shoemaker 
shops for the five years beginning with 1865 in seventeen counties ran: Twenty-oue, twenty- 
eight, twenty-four, forty nine, fifty-four, sixty-three, and the blacksmiths: forty, sixty three, 
seventy-four, eighty-three, ninety-eight and one hundred and thirteen. Said he regarding 
these figures: "They show that the shoemaker that was the servant of an individual in 
1860 is now a servant of the public. The smith, who was confined in his usefulness to the 
demands of one great planter is, on the contrary, available now to shoe the horse and share 
the plow of a score of small farmers!" 

As to propertj' he says: "Tenant farming has expanded amongst the whites since 1860 
about one hundred per cent. In that year it was of course unknown amongst the negroes." 
The product in cotton on such farms for two years is given for twenty-three counties: In 
1869, whites, twenty-seven thousand and seventy-five bales, and blacks, forty thousand five 
hundred and sixty-one bales; in 1870, whites, twenty thousand eight hundred and ninety- 
three, and colored, fifty thousand nine hundred and seventy- eight. "While the industrial 
monopoly of the old system is seen, thus, in the act of partition amongst the masses of the 
people, the popularization of our production comes to us accompanied by the further grati- 
fying fact that the negro has advanced in four short years to the condition of employing, 
as a farmer, active capital of his own! From twenty counties I have received full returns 
of the amount of cotton grown by colored people as owners of the soil. While one hun- 
dred thousand six hundred and ninety-seven bales were grown in those counties by white 
landowners in 1869, the number grown by colored landowners in those counties in 1869 was 
four thousand six hundred and forty-five. The white owner of the soil produced in those 
counties one hundred and two thousand four hundred and ninety-one bales in 1870; the col- 
ored owner of the soil produced in them during the same period six thousand one hundred 


and forty-one bales! The surprise with which these facts will come in proof before you, 
gentlemen, can not be greater than that with which they have come in proof before me. 
And my pleasure in the case is hardly less than my surprise, for one of the most serious 
fears for the working of reconstruction lay in the absence of a middle class constituting a 
link between the masses of our property-holders on the one hand, and the masses of our 
ballot casting labor on the other. "In seven counties selected as an illustration of the 
results shown by the national census, I find the following surprising evidence of negro 
thrift:" Sixty-nine real estate colored owners' property valued at $30,680, three thousand 
seven hundred and ninety-eight holding personality of $630,860, and one hundred and 
seventy- eight holding both realty and personality to the amount of $220,700. "Amongst 
forty three thousand negroes of AVashington, Madison, Holmes, Rankin, Neshoba, Jones and 
Lauderdale, who had been plucked penniless four short years ago from the clutches of the 
unwise legislation of 1865, three thousand four hundred and forty-one accumulated wealth 
— what the economists hold to represent the political virtue of denial — to the enormous 
amount of $882,240!" The language is here quoted exact, '^verbatim et literatim et punc- 
tuatim," so it may be realized that what is now plainly evident was not so much so twenty 
years ago, and it may serve to illustrate the apprehensive feeling on all sides. It would be 
interesting to multiply studies of this kind, but enough has been given to illustrate, and 
that is all the limits of this article will allow. 

While the negro was the pivot of this transitional movement, and so becomes the center 
of the problem, and, may be, attracting from its students more than its share of attention 
and prominence, it is a fact that the results effected by the transition on the white popula- 
tion are pregnant with as great, if not greater, interest to the student of economics. This 
phase has hardly been touched upon yet, and so intricate a situation deserves more than 
the mere hints that can be made in limited space. 

The old regime developed planters who were princely and a very poor lower class whites; 
there was no great middle class, such as is now seen everywhere. The planters were, and 
had to be, men of large executive ability and far-seeing sagacity. Their wealth was chiefly 
in labor, their ownership of human labor; but they had great capital too, and the combination 
made, for them, remarkable resources. These gave them the opportunities and advantages, 
in a lavish degree, afforded by the whole earth. It enabled the women to become queenly 
and the men royal in all phases of life. Their hospitality is a matter of common fame. 
Their artistic, literary and like acquirements became their pride — and justly so. Political, 
military and professional careers were considered the fit courses for them to pursue. Their 
vast superiority over the masses of humanity nearest them gave them a sense of power that 
could brook little opposition, and the duel was natural; while in the minds of their inferiors 
a halo of hero-worship surrounded them, that is not common where a great middle class 

These conditions made a sentiment against manual labor. They made a dependence on 
another's labor, and the inferior, relieved of all responsibility, became childishly dependent 
on his master. They made a lofty pride in the one that was the parent of finest virtues as 
well as vices; and in the other a servility attended with like results. Every condition has 
its compensations. 

The overturning came. The loss of wealth and labor, while not tending to create those 
beautiful character products that we admire as we do a statue, yet awakened new powers 
and energies in these old families and a self-reliance in them, especially the younger gener- 
ation — which, grafted on to the old, are making the world tarn to look at the new South, 


and placing a new term in the literature of the day — " Southern writer" — that has become 
its most marked feature. 

But still more — a great njiddle class has arisen and is still rising, which loudly demands 
and secures recognition. Among others in this class may be found the sons and daughters 
of the once so-called poor whites, of which Mississippi had a less number than most 
Southern states. The rise of this class gives labor a new status in the sentiment of the 
public. But this change is only in the horizon of its progress. 

Two items at this point may serve to show this state's excellent condition in regard to 
all classes. The number of paupers in almshouses in the United States is a little over 
seventy- three thousand. New York has the largest number — ten thousand two hundred and 
seventy-two, and New Mexico the smallest — one. Mississippi comes along among the lowest 
states, with only four hundred and ninety-four, of which two hundred and five are whites 
and two hundred and eighty-nine colored. The number of county-jail prisoners in the 
United States on June 1, 1890, was nineteen thousand five hundred and thirty-eight. Penn- 
sylvania had the largest number — two thousand three hundred and eighty-six, and North 
Dakota the lowest, with but twenty-five; while Mississippi came below midway, with but two 
hundred and eighty-four — only forty-eight being white and two hundred and thirty-six 

From the people turn to the land development. "In one sense of the word," says 
Maj. A. B. Hurt, in a government report in 1884, "Mississippi is still a new state, with its 
immense natural advantages as yet mainly unappropriated. Its great forests of valuable 
woods have been comparatively little depleted; many of its numerous fine mill and manu- 
facturing sites await the power of skill and capital; more than one-half of its area remains 
untouched by the husbandman, while the part already in cultivation may be made double its 
productive power by improved methods of agriculture." And while the opening up, by 
various agencies before referred to, had changed this considerably since that date, the fact 
in general may still be used with some allowance. 

In June, 1845, there were ten million four hundred and nine thousand and thirty-four 
acres of unsold public land, out of a total state acreage of twenty-nine million nine hundred 
and fifty-eight thousand four hundred. Of this enormous amount one million and eighteen 
thousand one hundred and fourteen acres had been on the market five years; four hundred 
and fifty-one thousand three hundred and ninety had been offered for ten years; two million 
nine hundred and seventy-four thousand and ninety-seven acres in market for fifteen years; 
nine hundred and thirty-four thousand one hundred and thirty- one for twenty years; eight 
hundred and ninety-four thousand four hundred and twenty-four for twenty-five years; 
two million nine hundred and twenty-four thousand one hundred and seventy-two for thirty 
years; and one million two hundred and twenty-two thousand seven hundred and six for over 
thirty years — and all at the low rate of $1.25 an acre! Says Mr. Harper, the geologist, in 
1857 of the Yazoo delta: "It is still a wilderness, the retreat of the bear, wolf and panther. 
The prejudice of its unfitness for cultivation has only lately been removed from the minds 
of the inhabitants of our own and other states, and the ax of the woodman scarcely begun 
its ravages." 

Note what the war did. Says Governor Alcorn in 1871: "Our improved land has 
decreased in breadth one- ninth. This fact is very encouraging, seeing that we still retain, 
substantially, our conquests from the forest. The small decline of our improved land in 
farms, combined with the large decline in our areas of unimproved land in farms, points to 
the conclusion that our young ' settlements ' have been given up again to the bear and 


panther. But, though progress is seen thus to be, for the time, arrested, we still hold, in 
fact, the great mass of our landed wealth of 1860. It is true the value of agricultural 
estate now shows a falling off on that of 1800 of nearly seventy per cent., but the basis of 
that wealth still unchanged in its breadth, the restoration to be effected in that case is that 
mainly of the establishment of order and the elevation of labor.'' Then came the great for- 
feiture of land for taxes. Between 1871 and 1875, said Governor Lowry: " About twenty- 
seven per cent, of the total area of this state was forfeited for taxes;" hxithj 1883 all 
except about seven hundred thousand acres had been redeemed or purchased. Between 
1875 and 1885 about five million acres were restored to the tax rolls of the state; and 
between 1880 and 1885 the large amount of four million two hundred and three thousand 
one hundred and ninety acres of public land had been sold, of which five hundred and one 
thousand four hundred and fifty acres had been taken up under homestead laws. It should 
be recalled that since the congressional act of September 25, 1850, down to 1883 Mississippi 
had received about three million acres of swamp lands, and under the act of September 4, 
1841, about five million acres for internal improvement purposes. On the first day of 1890 
there remained unsold of the swamp land two hundred and twenty -seven thousand six 
hundred and thirty-two acres, and of the internal improvement lands only two thousand 
six hundred and eighty-three acres. In the two years preceding that date over twenty thou- 
sand acres of the former at a dollar an acre, and nearly ten thousand acres of the latter at 
fifty cents per acre show how fast available lands of all kinds have been taken up. In 
1888 there was still an area of seven million acres under cultivation, less than one-fourth, 
but extension in this direction has been rapid since that date. The census of 1890 wil] 
show, when made public, considerable change from these figures, for the opening up of lands 
in the delta and elsewhere, due to railway extension, has been remarkable as a leading 
feature of the decade of the eighties, and especially the latter half. Said George W. 
Carlisle, commissioner of immigration, writing in the year 1888: "In the past two 
years, about one million three hundred thousand acres of land have been sold by the 
commissioner of lands. Most of the lands were purchased by parties from beyond the limits 
of the state. During the same time the register of the United States land office, at Jackson, 
Miss. , sold in our state about one million acres of government lands. These large sales of 
lands prove conclusively that capitalists have confidence in our state and its prosperity. By 
an act of congress, approved May 16, 1888, all United States lands are withdrawn from sale 
by cash purchase in Mississippi; the only way by which these lands can be obtained from 
the government is under the homestead laws." 

When this increased interest in lands began to be most marked, in 1881, Major Hurt 
showed the average value of land per acre was $17.79, while the averages in Illinois, Indi- 
ana and Iowa were respectively $38.65, $45.66 and $23.52, when the average acre-crop 
values were but a little more than half that of Mississippi's rate — $12.21 per acre. Said 
he: "It appears from the above, price of lands, or their market value, in Mississippi, bears 
no just proportion to their real intrinsic value. Lands that will average a money value prod- 
uct of $12.21 per acre should average a market value of at least $50 per acre, especially 
in such a temperate, healthy climate. Without discussing the cause of the low price of 
lands, it may be remarked that there is too much land for the population and capital. Land 
is plentiful, easy to obtain, and, therefore, cheap. If Mississippi could double or treble its 
population by the addition of thrifty, industrious immigrants, possessed of some capital, 
the price of lands would, no doubt, increase to something like their real value. This is now 
being accomplished, and it is stated, on the authority of the state commissioner of immigra- 


tion, that lands have advanced from fifty to one hundred per cent in the past two years. It 
is to be regretted that the state has so little stalistical data to illustrate in detail the progress 
made since the last census. Unfortunately, there is no statistical bureau in Mississippi." 

The foregoing will add new significance to the growth of Mississippi in wealth. This 
need not consider slaves after the consideration hereinbefore accorded that subject, and 
indicating that as the greatest source of wealth. Of the general subject it has been said 
that the emancipation of slaves was a loss of over $600,000,000 to their owners; and that, 
were the total cost of the civil war to be divided by the number of slaves set free, that 
freedom would cost $700 per slave. 

To illustrate the general wealth development, a glance at census matter for the years 
1812, 1840, 1857, 1870, 1880 and 1887 must suffice, as these dates indicate somewhat nearly 
the beginning, middle and close of the old labor system of slavery, and like periods in the 
new system. 

In 1812 there were one thousand three hundred and thirty private looms at work in the 
state, making annually three hundred and forty-two thousand four hundred and seventy-two 
yards of cotton cloth, four hundred and fifty yards of linen and seven thousand eight hun- 
dred and ninety- eight yards of woolen stuffs. There was one carding machine and twenty- 
two mills with eight hundred and seven spindles. Ten tanneries produced $39,595 worth 
of leathers, while the distilleries numbered six, and the tin-shops one. The largest number 
of looms were in Madison and Amite counties, while the woolens were entirely in Adams, 
Claiborne and Wilkinson. The tanneries were in Adams, Jefferson, Claiborne, Wilkinson 
and Washington, while Madison reveled in over half of the entire number of distilleries. 
This is no small showing, and is indicative of only one line, and that the least developed 
line of industry — manufactures. Its agriculture, cotton, slaves and stock were its great 
wealth. In the absence of statistics these must be inferred for the present. 

Nearly thirty years later, 1840, one hundred and thirty-nine thousand seven hundred 
and twenty-four whites were employed in agriculture, one thousand three hundred and three 
in commerce, four thousand one hundred and fifty-one in manufacture and trades, 
thirty-three were ocean and one hundred were river sailors, while the professions enrolled 
one thousand five hundred and six. In stock there were in the state one hundred and nine 
thousand two hundred and twenty- seven horses and mules, six hundred and twenty-three 
thousand one hundred and ninety- seven neat cattle, one hundred and twenty-eight thousand 
three hundred and sixty-seven sheep, one million one thousand two hundred and nine swine, 
and poultry to the value of $369,482. The granaries were full: One hundred and ninety- six 
thousand six hundred and twenty six bushels of wheat, eleven thousand four hundred and 
forty-four of rye, thirteen million one hundred and sixty-one thousand two hundred and 
thirty-seven of Indian corn, one thousand six hundred and fifty- four of barley, and six hun- 
dred and sixty eight thousand six hundred and twenty-four bushels of oats. Potatoes scored 
a total of one million six hundred and thirty thousand one hundred bushels; wax, six 
thousand eight hundred and thirty-five pounds; tobacco, eighty -three thousand four hundred 
and seventy- one pounds; rice, seven hundred and seventy- seven thousand one hundred and 
ninety-five pounds; wool, one hundred and seventy-five thousand one hundred and ninety- 
five pounds, and the great king product, cotton, J'ising to the immense proportions of one 
hundred and ninety -three million four hundred'and one tiitjustod live hundred and seventy- 
seven pounds — all showing wealth in these line's. " The dairy made a product of value 
$359,585, the orchard made $14,458, and lumber $192,794, while tar, pitch and turpentine 
rolled out two thousand two hundred and forty-eight barrels. Trade and manufactures 


loomed up too. There were seven commercial companies, sixty-seven commercial houses in the 
foreign trade with a capital of 1673,900; seven hundred and fifty-five retail dry goods 
stores, with a capital of 15,004,420: two hundred and eighty-eight in the lumber trade, with 
1132,175 capital; fifty-three cotton factories had three hundred and eighteen spindles 
employing eighty-one hands and capital to the sum of 16,420; 15,140 worth of hats and 
caps were made by thirteen persons on a capital of 18,100; one hundred and twenty eight 
tanneries employed one hundred and forty-nine hands and had a capital of .f70,870; forty- 
two other leather factories produced $118, 167 worth of goods on a capital of $41,945; one 
pottery had two hands producing wares to the amount of $1,200 on $200 capital; four drug 
and paint stores, with an aggregate capital of $500, sold $3,125 in profits; $10,500 worth of 
confectionery made in two places; machinery made to the amount of $242,225; brick and 
lime making was rewarded by $273,870 product on $222,745 capital; three hundred and 
twelve thousand and eighty-four pounds of soap were made; thirty-one thousand nine hundred 
and fifty-seven tallow and ninety seven pounds of wax candles were made; wagonmaking 
scored $49,693, with one hundred and thirty- two men on $34,335 capital; sixteen flourmills 
made one thousand eight hundred and nine barrels of flour, worth $486,864, on $1,219,845 
capital; $13,925 was spent in building vessels; forty-one men made furniture worth $34,450 
on a capital of $28,010; fourteen distilleries produced three -thousand one hundred and fifty 
gallons of liquor; two breweries, on a capital of $910, made one hundred and thirty-two gal- 
lons; the state boasted of one hundred and forty-four stone houses and two thousand two 
hundred and forty-four wooden ones, aggregating a value of $1,175,513; there were twenty- 
eight printing offices, one bindery, two dailies, one semi- weekly and twenty- eight weeklies, 
employing ninety-four men and $83,510 in capital. The total manufactured product was 
worth $1,797,727. There were three colleges, with two hundred and fifty students; seventy- 
one academies, with two thousand five hundred and fifty- three students; three hundred and 
eighty-two primary schools, with eight thousand two hundred and thirty-six pupils; and 
eight thousand three hundred and sixty whites over twenty years of age who could neither 
read nor write. These latter facts are given to indicate the general intelligence connected 
with this wealth. 

Seventeen years later, 1857, figures had grown larger: There was money at interest 
to the amount of $6,713,658, and merchants had a trade of the comely proportions of $15,- 
552,194. Bank stock was held to the amount of $615,100, and auctioneers had a business 
of $51,772. Such items as eleven thousaad four hundred and eighty- six carriages valued 
at $1,666,079, or thirteen thousand nine hundred and forty-one watches worth $815,140, or 
eighteen thousand five hundred and ninety-nine clocks worth $168,939, indicate a luxurious 
wealth over years then past, along with $223,178 in gold and silver plate, or two thousand 
two hundred and thirty-three pianos worth $494,628. Counting herds of cattle only above 
twenty head there were two hundred and twenty thousand six hundred and sixty-four, while 
six thousand four hundred and forty-three horses, worth $896,044, were taxable totals in 
that line. Taxable slaves numbered .three hundred and thirty-four thousand eight hundred 
and eighty-six to a total free white poll of fifty three thousand three hundred and one. 
The taxable land acreage was fifteen million nine hundred and thirteen thousand five hun- 
dred and twenty-two, worth $88,705, 203..- Now add to this a season product of cotton — 
taking that of 1859, two years later, for example — one million three hundred thousand bales 
worth $45,000,000, and the slave period «loses with striking figures in wealth. 

Governor Alcorn's comparison of 1860 and 1870 in six representative counties showed 
a decrease of melancholy proportions in everything save oats and molasses, both of which 


bad increased. The decrease in improved farm lands was eleven per cent. , in unimproved 
farm lands thirty-four per cent., farm values sixty-niue percent., farm implements sixty-one 
per cetit., stock values forty-six, cotton bales of four hundred and lifty pounds sixty- 
three per cent., corn sixty-five, slaughtered animals fifty-six, horses forty-nine, mules thirty- 
six per cent., cows twenty-seven per cent., a decrease of forty-seven per cent, in oxen, forty- 
three per cent, in other cattle, thirty-eight in sheep, sixty-five in swine, eighty-six per cent, 
in wheat, ninety-eight in rye, sixty in rice, thirty-nine in tobacco, eighty-nine in peas and 
beans, eighty-three per cent, loss in Irish potatoes, sixty-four in sweet potatoes, seventy- 
six in wool, sixty-three in butter, ninety-six in cheese, sixty-two per cent, loss in home 
manufactures, and eighty two in orchard produce. And these counties represented about 
an eighth or ninth of the state in wealth and population. 

Compare 1870 and 1880. Corn, fifteen million six hundred and thirty seven thousand 
three hundred and sixteen bushels in 1870 to twenty-one thousand three Jajndred and forty 
in 1880; cotton, five hundred and sixty-four thousand niae hundred and thirty-eight bales in 
1870 to nine hundred and sixty-three thousand one hundred and eleven in 1880; oats, four 
hundred and fourteen thousand five hundred and eighty- six bushels to one million nine hun- 
dred and fifty-nine thousand six hundrld ahxfiwenty; wheat, two hundred and seventy- four 
thousand four hundred and seventy-nine bushels to two hundred and eighteen thousand eight 
hundred and ninety, a fallfng off; hay, eight thousand three hundred and twenty-four tons 
to eight thousand eight hundred and ninety-four; molasses, two hundred and nineteen thou- 
sand six hundred and seventy-four gallons in 1870 to three hundred and thirty-six thousand 
six hundred and twenty-five in 1880; rice, three hundred and seventy-four thousand six hun- 
dred aad twenty-seven pounds to one million seven hundred and eighteen thousand nine hun- 
dred and fifty-one in 1880; Irish potatoes, two hundred and fourteen thousand one hundred 
and eighty-nine bushels in 1870 to three hundred- and three thousand eight hundred and 
twenty-one; sweet potatoes, one million seven hundred and forty-three thousand four hun- 
dred and thirty-two bushels in 1870 to three million six hundred and ten thousand six hun- 
dred and sixty-three; orchard values, $71,018 to $378,145, a remarkable gain full of signifi- 
cance; stock, one million seven hundred and twenty-four thousand two hundred and ninety- 
five head to two million three hundred and ninety-eight thousand nine hundred and thirty- 
four in 1880, a great gain; butter, two million six hundred and thirteen thousand five hun- 
dred and twenty-one pounds in 1870 to seven million four hundred and fifty-four thousand 
six hundred and fifty seven in 1880, right in line with the last; and wooT, two hundred and 
eighty-eight thousand two hundred and eighty-five pounds to seven hundred and thirty- 
four thousand six hundred and forty-three pounds in 1880, and the entire assessed valuation 
in 1880 was $110,628,129. 

At this writing the census returns for 1890 are not available. A comparison of 1880 
and 1886 will show to what an advance it may be expected to reach, however. Cotton rose 
from over nine hundred and sixty-three thousand bales in 1880 to over one million in 1883, 
and only fell to eight hundred and thirty-eight thousand six hundred and ninety -two bales in 
1886, valued at $37,120,000, a less variation than in most other Southera states. Corn rose 
from over fifteen million bushels in 1880 to twenty-five million five hundred and seven thou- 
sand in 1886. Wheat fell again from over two hundred and eighteen thousand bushels in 
1880 to one hundred and seventy three thousand bushels in 1886, but oats sprang up from 
over one million nine hundred and fitty-nine thousand in 1880 to three million three hundred 
and sixty-eight thousand bushels in 1886. Tobacco rose from over four hundred and fourteen 
thousand .pounds to about five hundred and twenty five thousand; Irish potatoes from over 


three hundred and three thousand bushels to about six hundred and thirteen thousand; sweet 
potatoes from over three million six hundred thousand bushels to about four million two hun- 
dred and eighty-five thousand in 1886; butter made the remarkable rise of from over seven 
million four hundred, and fifty-four thousand pounds in 1880 to about fifteen million eight 
hundred and twenty-five thousand pounds in 1886; hay, also, rose from eight thousand eight 
hundred and ninety four tons to fourteen thousand five hundred tons, and molasses from 
over three hundred and thirty-six thousand gallons in 1880 to about six hundred and fifteen 
thousand gallons in 1886. The acreage in farm products increased from five million two 
hundred and sixteen thousand nine hundred and thirty-seven acres in 1879 to five million five 
hundred and twelve thousand in 1886 as follows: In 1879 it was five million two hundred and 
sixteen thousand nine hundred and thirty-seven; in 1882 it was five million three hundred 
and two thousand; in 1883 it was five million three hundred thousand; in 1884 it was five 
million four hundred and sixty-five thousand; in 1885 it was five million four hundred and 
ninety-two thousand ; in 1886 it was five million five hundred and twelve thousand. The 
value of the yield for those years varied between about $62,000,000 in 1884 and about 169,- 
000,000 in 1883, the value, however, being less a measure of increase than the acreage, for 
the former often decreases in proportion to the increase of product. 

These items serve merely to illustrate the state's increase in wealth, not to indicate her 
varied sources nor totals of wealth. These must be considered separately, farther on, as 
far as results are obtainable. Her wealth was once largely in but two properties, slaves and cot- 
ton; or, at an earlier date only tobacco and cotton; or, at a still later date chiefly cotton 
without the slaves, but now it has become divided among numerous lines. Labor and capi- 
tal were once largely tied up in cotton production so in advance of all other industries as to 
throw them in the background, but now see the great wealth in lumber, in stockraising, in 
fruit culture, in manufactures, in trade, in dairy products, and numerous other lines. This 
is development as well as mere increase, and means a real wealth for which the past decade 
has been remarkable above all predecessors. Let this illustrate and prove it: The assessed 
valuation per capita in the state was $97.76 in 1880; in 1890 it was $122.15, an increase of 
42.39 per cent., and this too when the increase in population was only 13.96 per cent. 
This is a better showing than for the nation as a whole, for the United State.s' increase was 
only 48.46 percent, with 24.86 per cent, increase in population. These figures are for both 
personal and real pr.operty, and they mean comparative increase and development, not com- 
parative amount of wealth, for while Mississippi has surpassed many states, even the nation 
at large, in rate of development, she is still below many in amount of wealth. For example, 
the comparison with Massachusetts' total assessed valuation in 1890 of $2,154,134,626 with 
that of the Bayou state, $157,518,906 is almost as twenty to one. Mississippi's assessed 
wealth comes more nearly reaching that of Vermont, Nebraska, West Virginia, or South 
Carolina, being less than the first three and greater than the last mentioned state. Those 
who are working to advance Mississippi's manufacturing interests find abundant encour- 
agement in the contrast between this state and Massachusetts, the contrast of an agricultural 
with a manufacturing state. Mississippi's per cent, of increase, however, is almost the same 
to a figure as that of the wealthiest state in the nation, New York, whose assess sd valuation 
is $3,775,325,938, namely 42. 39 per cent, and 42. 36 per cent, respectively, a showing slightly 
more favorable to this state. 

But as this state probably never can be wealthy from mining, and is still only in its 
infancy in manufactures, it may be of interest to see to what degree it is an agricultural 
state. "The importance of agriculture to the people of Mississippi," said Maj. A. B. 


Hurt, ia his government report of 1884, "may be better appreciated when it is remembered 
that three hundred and thirty-nine thousand nine hundred and thirty-eight, or more than 
eighty-one per cent, of its entire working population, are engaged in agricultural pursuits. 
The distribution is as follows; All occupations, four hundred and fifteen thousand five hun- 
dred and six; agricultural laborers, two hundred and fifteen thousand four hundred and 
seventy-two; farmers and planters, one hundred and twenty-three thousand three hundred 
and eighty-two; gardeners, nurserymen and vine-growers, six hundred and twenty; stock- 
raisers, drovers and herders, ninety-three; turpentine farmers and laborers, two hundred 
and forty-eight, and others in agriculture, one hundred and twenty-three. Total, three 
hundred and thirty-nine thousand, nine hundred and thirty-eight." 

Since this is the case, let the progress of this department of industry be traced. 
"Several years elapsed after the establishment of the French colony at Biloxi," writes 
State Geologist B. L. C. Wailes, in 1854, ' ' before even the common vegetables of the gar- 
den were cultivated, and the sterile soil of the seashore was not calculated to invite a more 
extended culture, if the character and habits of the colonists, chiefly soldiers, deriving all 
their supplies from the mother country, had inclined them to such pursuits. It was, there- 
fore, not until the province came under the control of the Company of the Indies that the 
tillage of the earth became to any extent a fixed pursuit. The first impulse was then given 
to planting by the large grants to European capitalists, who sent out laborers to open and 
improve their lands. The most efficient of these were German redemptioners; but the 
nature of the climate and the heavy labor of removing the dense forests, rendered the prog- 
ress of improvement tedious and discouraging. It was soon found necessary to resort to 
Africa for suitable operatives for the prosecution of agricultural enterprise. These were 
introduced by the company from time to time, to a limited extent, and disposed of to the 
colonists at established and moderate rates, payable in annual installments in the product of 
the soil. These products were naturally confined, for a considerable period, to articles of 
necessity for home consumption, and notwithstanding some large grants were made near 
Natchez and on the Yazoo, ostensibly for the cultivation of tobacco and indigo; and, 
although some ' large plantations, with extensive improvements,' were established near 
the former place, it does not appear that anything beyond the spoils of the chase or the 
peltries procured by traffic with the Indian tribes, was exported from the country. By the 
massacre of the inhabitants by the Natchez, in 1729 and 1730, these establishments were 
broken up, and from this period the French were too much engaged in exterminating the 
Natchez and in hostile incursions among the Chickasaws, to reoccupy and cultivate, advan- 
tageously, their regained possessions. It was, therefore, under the occupancy of the 
country by the English that we trace the first germ of successful and systematic agriculture 
in Mississippi. The emigration which ensued, on the change of rulers, being chiefly from 
the Carolinas, Virginia, Jersey and New England, was from a class differing essentially in 
habits from their more volatile and restless predecessors, the French, who were more 
addicted to the chase and to trafficking with their Indian neighbors than to more laborious 
and settled pursuits. Many of these settlers were accustomed to agriculture, and being 
generally accompanied by their families, resorted at once to the tillage of the earth as a 
means of support. Their cultivation was necessarily rude, and their implements few and 
imperfect; yet their products were varied and, for the purpose of subsistence, ample. 
Almost every article of prime necessity which the soil could yield was produced by them to 
the extent of their wants," such as in 1775 Mr. Dunbar mentions — rice, tobacco, flaxseed, 
indigoseed, corn, buckwheat, barley, peas and other things. 


The account proceeds: "Cattle and swine required little other attention than protection 
from the bear and wolf of the forest, and were raised abundantly, whilst the small farms, 
frequently confined to a few acres, exhibited a variety of production that is now (1854) 
rarely found together in the county. Indian corn, wheat, oats, rye, rice and potatoes, cotton 
flax, tobacco and indigo, were almost universally cultivated, but rarely, if at all, for exporta- 
tion. In the early stages of the settlement of the colony, many of the common conveniences 
of life were necessarily dispensed with, or supplied with such substitutes as ingenuity or 
skill could devise or fabricate from the productions of the country. Not many years since, 
were to be seen the molds in which the head of one of the most respectable and wealthy 
families of the present day (1854) was wont to cast the pewter platters and spoons which 
constituted the only plate of himself and neighbors. The inventories of the confiscated 
efPects of some prominent, and, as then regarded, opulent persons, yet preserved among the 
Spanish archives, exhibit a simplicity of attire and furniture in strong contrast with that 
which would now (1854) satisfy those of very contracted means or humble station. The 
scarcity and high price of iron, and the consequent imperfection of agricultural implements 
was perhaps most felt and least easily remedied. At that period cut nails were not invented, 
and the wrought nail cost $1 a pound. Tools and all iron implements bore a corre- 
sponding price, owing in some degree to the high freight on heavy articles up the Mississippi, 
the voyage from New Orleans to Natchez, made by keelboats and barges, requiring several 
weeks. A set of plow irons was, therefore, an acquisition of no little value. Iron entered 
into the composition of few of the wagons or carts, and the wheels were often made of a 
transverse section or disk sawed and properly fashioned from the trunk of a tree of suitable 
diameter. These trucks constituted, to considerable extent, the only means of transportation 
of heavy articles. Even as late as after the introduction of Whitney's saw-gin, a now (1854) 
opulent planter, a venerable and highly respected citizen, a native of Adams county, states 
that in a wagon of this kind he hauled his crop of cotton for two years to a neighboring 
gin — a framework of cane serving in lieu of plank in the construction of the body. Not 
many years before the same gentleman was reduced to the necessity of fabricating his only 
plow by framing a common mattock to a beam, that being the only implement suited to the 
purpose left on his plantation by the depredating Indians. This was only about sixty-five 
years since (i. e. before 1854), and occurred within ten miles of Natchez, and to an individual 
belonging to one of the most opulent and influential families in that day. Flax was raised 
chiefly for shoe thread and similar uses, but in some families linen cloth was made. Leather 
was commonly tanned throughout the country in large troughs dug out of the trunks of 
trees. From the earliest occupancy by the English, cotton in small quantities, sufficient for 
domestic purposes, was habitually cultivated. It was of the black or naked seed variety, 
was planted in hills and cultivated with the hoe. Fifty or sixty pounds was the ordinary 
quantity gathered in a day. The seeds were picked out by the hand, or separated from the 
lint by means of the small roller gin. It was spun and woven at home, and constituted the 
chief apparel of the inhabitants; the small quantity of indigo then grown, and the numerous 
dyestuils the forests afforded, supplied all the coloring materials required for dyeing the 
cloth. Eice formed an important article of diet, supplying largely the deficiency of flour; 
the colonists, especially the French, accommodating themselves slowly and reluctantly to bread 
made from the Indian corn. It was prepared by pounding in common wooden mortars, and 
perhaps was not as fair as that which we now (1854) purchase, but of far richer flavor and 
more nutritious. In the absence of millstones, when they could not be obtained, the Indian corn 
was reduced to meal by pounding in the same way. Large herds of cattle were owned by 


the more opulent inhabitants, for which the garrison at Natchez afforded the chief market, 
and some were driven to New Orleans shortly previous to the change of government. The 
price of common stock cattle was about the same then as at this time" (1854). 

As this narrative so well shows both the early and closing years of the slave epoch, in 
contrast, it is continued freely: "When the country came under the dominion of Spain a 
market was opened in New Orleans; a trade in tobacco was established, and a fixed remu- 
nerative price was paid for it, delivered at the king' s warehouses. Tobacco thus became the 
first marketable staple production of Mississippi. The tobacco plant, indigenous to the 
county, soon came into general cultivation. The larger planters packed it in the usual way 
in hogsheads. Much of it, however, was put up in carrets, as they were called, resembling 
in size and form two small sugar-loaves united at the larger ends. The stemmed tobacco 
was laid smoothly together in that form, coated with wrappers or the extended leaf, enveloped 
in a cloth, and then firmly compressed by a cord wrapped around the parcel, and was 
suffered to remain until the carret acquired the necessary dryness and solidity, when, together 
with the surrounding cloth, it was removed, and strips of lind bark were bound around it at 
proper distances, in such a manner as to secure it from unwrapping and losing its propor- 
tions. The rope used for this purpose was manufactured by the planter, from the inner 
bark of the lind, or basswood, then one of the most common trees of the forest. In 
those days, when the roads were indifferent, and wagons and carts few, the tobacco hogsheads 
were frequently geared to a horse by means of a pair of rude temporary shafts, connected with 
the heading, and in this manner rolled to the shipping point, or to market at Natchez; much 
being transported in this way from the settlements on Cole's creek, and from greater dis- 
tances. To convey the tobacco to market in New Orleans, it was usual for several planters 
to unite and build a flatboat, with which one of the number would accompany the joint 
adventure, deliver the tobacco at the public warehouse, and, if it passed inspection, receive 
the proceeds, and return home by land, generally on foot; the payment being made on a 
written acknowledgment, or bon, as it was called, which entitled the holder to receive the 
amount from the governor or commandant at Natchez, thus obviating the labor and risk of 
packing the specie several hundred miles. The monopoly of the tobacco trade was retained 
by the king of Spain, and the price paid for all that passed inspection at his warehouses was 
uniform. The price was regarded as liberal, and yielded a fair return for its production, 
whilst the stability and certainty of a market encouraged an increased cultivation; the 
county began to prosper, and the planters were able to make purchases of slaves, the 
current price of which averaged about $350. There was no classification in the sale 
of tobacco. If the article passed inspection, it was taken, and the quality was generally 
such that for that cause it could not be rejected. Nevertheless, it sometimes happened 
that an unobjectionable article was left upon the planter's hands, if, from ignor- 
ance of established usage, he had omitted the customary douceur to the inspector. 
Whether these usages, reacting upon the producers, had any affect upon the quality or 
condition of the tobacco in the end, is not, perhaps, altogether clear, but it is certain that, 
from some cause, either from fraud in packing, the falling off in quality, or the competition 
of the Kentucky tobacco introduced into New Orleans, under General Wilkinson's contracts 
with the Spanish authorities, or by their connivance, the price was so reduced that the 
further cultivation of it in Mississippi, for exportation, was in a few years wholly abandoned, 
greatly to the injury and embarrassment of the planters, who had, for the purchase of slaves, 
contracted debts which they now found it difficult to discharge." 

Indigo had not been cultivated in the Natchez district as late as 1783, and until the 


failure of the tobacco business it was produced only for the seed, which was supplied to 
the various settlements below. Continuing the narrative: "The tobacco crop, being no 
longer profitable, indigo, which had been cultivated for some time in Louisiana, was now 
resorted to. This most ofPensive and unwholesome pursuit was, nevertheless, the most 
profitable one in which the planter could engage. Seed was obtained at the cost of about 
150 per barrel, and some of the small farmers engaged in cultivating the indigo exclu- 
sively for the seed to supply those whose larger means enabled them to erect the necessary 
fixtures, and to prosecute the cultivation and manufacture on a profitable scale. Indigo 
ferra tinctoria, from which the indigo pigment of commerce is prepared, said to have been 
introduced from India, flourishes luxuriantly in the Southern states, where a variety termed 
the atramentum anil is said to grow spontaneously. It was cultivated in drills, and 
required careful handling when young and tender, the subsequent cultivation being similar 
to that of the cotton plant. ^Yhen mature, in good land, it attained the hight of about 
three feet. It was then, previous to going to seed, cut with a reap-hook from day to day, 
tied in bundles in quantities suited to the capacity of the steeping- vats, to which it was 
immediately transferred." "The whole process was of the most disgusting character. 
Myriads of flies were generated in it, which overspread the whole country. The plant 
itself, when growing, was infested by swarms of grasshoppers, by which it was sometimes 
totally destroyed, and the fetor arising from the putrid weed thrown from the vats was 
intolerable. The drainings from these refuse accummulations into the adjacent streams killed 
the fish. Those in Second creek, previously abounding in trout and perch, it is said were 
destroyed in this way. It is not surprising, therefore, that the cultivation of indigo was 
abandoned in a few years, and gave way to that of cotton, so remarkable for its freedom 
from the disagreeable concomitants of tobacco and indigo cultui'e, and comparatively so 
light, neat and agreeable in its handling." 

Cotton is from the Italian word cotone, and so called because of its resemblance to 
the quince down or cotogni. Its botanical name is gossypium. It was well known to the 
ancients, and introduced in England so late as 1640, whence, in 1719, it was placed in 
South Carolina, whose first provisional congress, in 1775, " recommended to its people to 
raise cotton." Georgia led ofF, and the first cotton was shipped to Liverpool in 1784, and 
five years later the Sea Island variety was introduced from Jamaica. It is probable that 
the French introduced it into Mississippi, as it was growing in Katchez in 1722, and Bien- 
ville reports its cultivation in 1735. The Sea Island variety grew on the Eeaboard; the 
upland and Tennessee varieties were grown also; but the Mexican soon became the leader. 
This, it is said, was introduced from Mexico by General Wilkinson's special envoy — Walter 
Burling, of Natchez, who, wishing to secure some of the seed from the viceroy of Mexico, 
was told it was against the law, but, as Mexican dolls were not in the forbidden list, 
although stuffed with cotton seed, the friendly viceroy assured him he could carry all the 
dolls home he desired. This was in 1806. The first gin used was much like a clothes- 
wringer in principle and size; then a treadle was added, and so used about 1764. A few 
improvements were made, and bowing was used. It was on March 14, 1794, that a Yankee 
machine lifted the repressive difficulty of seeding off of cotton culture (Whitney's cotton- 
gin), and in a single decade the nation's crop was increased from about 1150,000 to at least 
18,000,000. In 1795 Daniel Clarke, near Fort Adams, had one of these gins made, and in 
1798 cotton was shipped from the gin on Pine Ridge, near Natchez, belonging to Thomas 
Wilkins. David Greenleaf became probably the first ginwright, and in 1807 Eleazer Car- 
ver began their manufacture near Washington. In 1838 he made excellent improvements 


on the original. Cotton culture received such an impulse that the ginmakers could not 
supply the demand, and this state became one of the leading manufacturers of it in the 
United States. The stalks and seeds were burned. About 1779 square bales were made in 
a rough lever press. In 1801 Mr. Dunbar secured an iron screw-press from Philadelphia 
for $1,000, and proposed to begin the manufacture of cottonseed oil. Soon the McComb 
and Lewis presses were invented by Mississippians. Said Mr. Wailes in 1854: " Hoop iron 
has been introduced of late years, but the use, as yet, is confined to a few large planters." 

Indian corn was seen by De Soto to be "of such luxuriant growth as to produce three 
or four ears to the stalk," and in 1854 Mr. Wailes said: "With us, as an article of food, 
it has become by far the most important that our soil produces. The varieties which seem 
best adapted to our climate are the Tuscarora, the gourd seed and the white and yellow 
flint." Again: ''Thirty bushels are accounted a very fair crop per acre and forty a large 
one. The total production of corn in the state in 1849 was stated at twenty-two million 
four hundred and forty-six thousand bushels, equal to about thirty-seven bushels to about 
each individual inhabitant." 

Wheat only reached a production of one hundred and thirty-eight thousand bushels in 
1849. It didn't pay to raise it when the product of the Northwest could be secured so much 
more easily. Oats was heavily grown, so that the year 1849 produced one million five hun- 
dred thousand bushels, chiefly spring and winter or black oats. Kye and barley were past- 
uring crops, and only produced ten thousand of the former and two hundred and twenty- 
nine of the latter in 1849. Chicken corn, broom corn and "Hebron corn" were grown also 
before the war. Eice was generally cultivated in the southeast, especially near Mississippi 
city, and produced two million seven hundred thousand pounds in 1849. Sugar cane 
reached a crop equal to three hundred and eighty-eight hogsheads and about eighteen 
thousand gallons of molasses. The latter was made as far north as Chickasaw county, and 
many planters in the south part of the state made all their own sugar. There were 
sugar mills in Pike, Amite, Marion and Perry counties. The sweet potato was cultivated in 
five varieties, and in 1849 made the stupendous crop of four million seven hundred and 
forty-two thousand bushels, worth morelhan $2,000,000 -the state taking fourth rank in 
this particular. The Irish potato was confined to the garden, and the crop of 1849 was 
only about two hundred and sixty thousand bushels. The cornfield pea was extensivelj' 
grown, the crop of 1849 reaching one million bushels. It was a splendid stock feed. 
The Bermuda and other grasses were grown, but none compared with the magnificent 

These were the chief agricultural products. In 1836 there were one million forty- 
eight thousand five hundred and thirty acres cultivated and three hundred and seventeen 
thousand seven hundred and eighty-three bales of cotton raised. In 1849 Mississippi was 
third, with four hundred and eighty-four thousand two hundred and ninety-three bales, and 
in 1859 she scored one million three hundred thousand bales, worth $45,000,000. In 1840 
and 1850 there were produced of corn thirteen million one hundred and sixty-one thousand 
two hundred and thirty-seven and twenty-two million four hundred and forty-six thousand 
five hundred and fifty-two bushels respectively, of wheat one hundred and ninety- six thou- 
sand six hundred and twenty-six and one hundred "and thirty-seven thousand nine hundred 
and ninety respectively, of rye and oats six hundred and eighty thousand and sixty eight 
and one million five hundred and fifteen thousand eight hundred and ninety- four bushels 
respectively; of sweet potatoes, one million six hundred and thirty thousand and one hun- 
dred, and four million seven hundred and forty- one thousand seven hundred and ninety-five 


bushels respectively; of rice, seven hundred and seventy-seven thousand one hundred and 
ninety-five, and two million seven hundred and nineteen thousand eight hundred and fifty- 
six pounds respectively; of horses and mules, one hundred and nine thousand two hundred 
and twenty-seven, and one hundred and seventy thousand and seven, one hundred and fifteen 
thousand four hundred and sisty of the latter being horses; of cattle, six hundred and 
twenty three thousand one hundred and ninety-seven to seven hundred and thirty-three 
thousand nine hundred and seventy in 1850; of sheep, one hundred and twenty-eight thou- 
sand three hundred and sixty-seven to three hundred and four thousand nine hundred and 
twenty-nine; and of swine, one million one thousand two hundred and nine to one million 
five hundred and eighty-two thousand seven hundred and thirty-four in 1850. 

These are sufficient to indicate the condition of agriculture in the closing years of the 
old regime. This is a view from the standpoint of 1854; let a view now be taken from the 
view-point of 1884, after about a quarter of a century of the new regime, in the midst of its 
best decade: 

" From the time when the first European settlement was established at the Bay of 
Biloxi, in 1699," wrote Major Hurt in 1884, "a variety of causes have intervened to retard 
that systematic, thorough, intensive cultivation of the soil, in connection with a variety of 
products which are required to develop to their full extent the natural advantages of an 
agricultural country. The system of agriculture which obtained in this state prior to the 
emancipation of the slave was not conducive to this end. It was an area of large estates, 
devoted almost exclusively to a single product, and this not with the idea to obtain the 
greatest results from a given area of land. Under the new order of things, after the Civil 
war, the farmers of Mississippi found themselves without capital with which to cultivate 
their lands — the only species of property, save a remnant of their stock, left to them. 
Millions of dollars' worth of their property had been swept away, and thus impoverished, they 
were compelled to invoke the yoke of debt, backed in many cases by mortgages on real 
estate, from which they are not yet entirely free. The system of large planting was quite 
extensively resumed after the war. Advance of supplies and money to make the crops were 
usually obtained from the local merchant, reaching the farmer after having passed through the 
hands of several middlemen, and compelling him to pay to them very liberal, not to say 
exorbitant, profits and rates of interest. The end of the year frequently found the farmer 
unable to meet his obligations for supplies obtained upon these terms, and in this way many 
fine estates were sacrificed under foreclosure of deeds of trust. Probably no other country 
except that of cotton production could have withstood, and even slowly prospered under, 
these adverse circumstances. The agriculture of Mississippi has run the course common to 
most states — improvident, careless farming on rich lands, exhaustion and restoration. It is 
now the period of restoration, and while the state has abundance of fertile land yet 
untouched, a great deal is being accomplished by the improvement of lands which have been 
heretofore impoverished by previous careless agriculture. There has been a marked 
improvement in the methods of culture, the treatment of the soil, and the diversification of 
crops in the past few years. A very encouraging advance has been made in agricultural 
methods, but much remains to be done to bring the state up to that high degree of agricult- 
ural prosperity which nature seems to have designed for its people to enjoy. New ideas 
are rapidly taking hold of the people. The obsolete agencies of the slave period have been 
discarded for methods better suited to the new regime. Improved implements, intensive 
cultivation, diversification of crops, fine stock, fruit and vegetable production, are the means 
which are quietly effecting a revolution in agriculture. The progress has been especially 


rapid in the last four years; lands have advanced in value, and there is a hopeful, cheerful, 
contented feeling abroad in the state." 

The causes of these changes are interesting. Not the least of them were agitation for 
them among the farmers themselves, smaller farms, competition, and educational efforts of 
all kinds. 

The State grange and similar societies represent the first movement mentioned. This 
was organized on March 15, 1872, at Kienzi, Miss., by O. H. Kelly, secretary of the National 
grange, and Gen. A. J. Vaughn was chosen master of the state organization. His successors 
have been: W. L. Hemingway, elected in 1874; Capt. P. Darden, in 1876, serving until his 
death in 1888; Dr. J. B. Bailey, serving from then until the election of the present incum- 
bent in 1890 — Hon. S. L. Wilson. Capt. W. L. Williams, of Alcorn county, served as 
secretary until 1880, since which date Mrs. Helen A. Aby of Claiborne has served. The 
successive annual meetings have been held as follows: Columbus, 1872; Jackson, 1873-4; 
Kosciusko, 1875; Jackson, 1876; Holly Springs, 1877; Okalona, 1878; Forest, 1879; Brook 
Haven, 1880; Durant, 1881; Jackson, 1882; Meridian, 1883; Jackson, 1884; Durant, 1885; 
Jackson, 1886-7; Newton, 1888; Forest, 1889; and Hickory, 1890. In March, 1872, there 
were but six local granges, with one hundred and twenty-three members; in December there 
were fifty-six, with one thousand six hundred and eighty members. The movement has 
enrolled from the first as high as thirty thousand members in the state, but it now has forty- 
six local granges, and about two thousand members. This is taken as an old and represent- 
ative illustration of similar movements in the state. These movements led to the establish- 
ment of agricultural schools as means of advancement. 

These schools — one for white and one for colored, with one for white girls — are treated 
at length in the proper place. It must suffice to say here that they are having in their 
respective spheres a success that proves the wisdom of their founding as powerful allies to 
these efforts to put all phases of agricultural life on the highest basis possible. 

The change in size of farms is another vastly important feature in developing and econ- 
omizing land resources. " One of the most encouraging features in the agriculture of MisT 
sissippi, " said a recent writer, " is that the large plantations are being gradually subdivided 
into smaller holdings. As before remarked, the system prior to the close of the late war 
was one of large estates, and there was a strong tendency among slave-owners to enlarge 
annually the size of their plantations with the increase of slaves. Today, just the contrary 
policy is pursued; the tendency is to contract the size of the larger plantations, intensify 
and improve the cultivation, and generally to obtain the highest results from a given area 
of land. The individual cultivation of fewer acres by improved methods is now the popular 
idea. The statistics of the census show that the progress in this direction is quite marked, 
a fact that will be gratifying to those who believe that the agricultural prosperity of the state 
and the value of lands will be increased by the subdivision of large plantations, and the 
acquisition of homesteads by an intelligent and industrious class of immigrants." From 
1850, when there were thirty- three thousand nine hundred and sixty farms with an acreage 
of ten million four hundred and ninety thousand four hundred and nineteen, and an 
improved acreage of three million four hundred and forty-four thousand three hundred and 
fifty-eight, and with an average size of three hundred and nine acres, to 1850, when there 
were forty- two thousand eight hundred and forty farms of fifteen million eight hundred and 
thirty-nine thousand six hundred and eighty-four acres, with an improved acreage of five 
million sixty-five thousand seven hundred and fifty -five, and an average farm size of three 
hundred and seventy acres, the gain in number of farms was only twenty-six per cent. 


Prom 1870, when there were sixty- eight thousand and twenty-three farms of thirteen mill- 
ion one hundred and twenty-one thousand one hundred aad thirteea acres, with an 
improved acreage of four million two hundred and seven thousand one hundred and forty- 
six, and an average size of only one hundred and ninety-three acres, to 1880, when there 
were one hundred and one thousand seven hundred and seventy-two farms of fifteen 
million eight hundred and fifty-live thousand four hundred and sixty-two acres, with an 
improved acreage of five million two hundred and sixteen thousand nine hundred and 
thirty-seven, and an average size of only one hundred and fifty-six acres, the gain in number 
of farms was within a small fraction of fifty per cent. It will be noticed that the average 
size was in 1880 two hundred and fourteen acres less than in 1860, a twenty years' interval. 
This is striking proof of the tendency to small farms. Said Colonel Power, writing in 1889: 
"Large farms will soon cease to be the rule in Mississippi," and adds that in 1890, " there 
will be fully one hundred and twenty-five thousand farms. Lands are still very cheap, 
because in larger tracts than they can be profitably cultivated under the present labor sys- 
tem, and hence necessity forces the sale of all that can not be held or cultivated." By acres, 
the distribution of number of farms was as follows in 1880: eighty-four farms were below 
three acres; two thousand three hundred and thirty-six farms between three and ten acres; 
eleven thousand nine hundred and thirty six farms between ten and twenty acres; twenty - 
six thousand eight hundred and thirty-six farms between twenty and fifty acres; nineteen 
thousand three hundred and eighteen farms between fifty and one hundred acres; thirty-five 
thousand four hundred and ninety-three farms between one hundred and five hundred acres; 
three thousand nine hundred and thirty-six farms between five hundred and one thousand 
acres; and only one thousand eight hundred and eighty-three farms of over one thousand 

In this connection it is important to note certain leading features of the labor system 
in agriculture, as having a most serious bearing on this greatest interest of the state. It 
can not be better done than by using the words of Major Hurt: " The problem of labor lies 
at tho very foundation of all agricultural prosparity. There can be no permanent advance- 
ment in agriculture when the labor by which the soil is tilled is indolent, uncertain and diffi- 
cult to control. Ever since the emancipation of the slaves, this great question has been 
anxiously and seriously considered by the planters of Mississippi. While it can not be said 
that a solution has been reached, the question is not discussed as extensively as formerly. 
The colored people, who form the great bulk of agricultural laborers in this state, have of 
late years manifested a deeper interest in their own material welfare; they have taken less 
interest in politics; they are no longer harassed by fears that their freedom is in peril; they 
realize that all the rights of citizenship are accorded them, and that as long as they live in 
the midst of the whites there is an interdependence of interests between the two races, to an 
extent that whatever promotes the welfare of their white neighbors must necessarily redound 
to their own advantage. They begin to understand and appreciate the full force of this 
mutuality of interests, and with this better understanding has come a marked improvement 
in their usefulness as laborers. Left to themselves, and free from the influences of design- 
ing politicians, it is but just to say that they afford perhaps the best class of laborers for the 
large cottonfields, especially in the Yazoo delta. Many planters, indeed, consider negro 
labor the only kind suited to the existing methods of cotton culture, with which long experi- 
ence has made them familiar. Frequent attempts have been made to introduce labor from 
abroad, especially from the European countries. But little success, however, has attended 
these attempts, probably owing to the fact that there was no systematic and organized effort 


to obtain and retain this class of laborers, and the further fact that they wore not introduced 
in sufficient numbers to overcome the objectionable competition with the colored labor 
already established. The difficulty was not one of climate, as has been erroneously sup- 
posed. There is no climatic bar, a fact which has been practically established. There are 
many instances of Swedes and others, from more northern latitudes, working successfully and 
without any great inconvenience throughout the hottest summer months. The main body 
of farm labor is, moreover, accomplished before the heated term comes fairly on, and besides 
there is generally a gulf breeze in Mississippi which greatly tempers the rays of the summer 
sun. Early corn is laid by before the hot season, while the attention whici cotton requires 
in midsummer may be given in the cooler portions of the day. Of course there is no diffi- 
culty of this kind in the way of native white labor, as more than one-third of the cotton prod- 
uct of the state is the result of white labor. ' ' 

As to systems of labor, he continues: "There are three systems of cultivation as 
respects labor in vogue among the landowners of Mississippi, each having its advantages 
and defects. They are the wages system, the share system and the rental system. The 
wages plan, under which the laborer receives a certain stipulated sum by the month or 
year, is preferred by many farmers, especially those who labor for themselves, for by tak- 
ing the lead and exercising close supervision they obtain better results than is possible 
under either of the other two systems. By this plan the farmer can control his labor, 
superintend the cultivation of the soil and hold in perfect discipline the forces with which 
to make and harvest the crops, and also to carry on the improvements necessary to keep the 
farm in good repair. It is not always, however, that laborers can be obtained on this plan. 
As a general thing, the colored people are adverse to working for wages, preferring a semi- 
proprietorship or partnership in the products of their labor. The share system, originat- 
ing soon after the war, is quite extensively adopted throughout the state. It is, however, 
considered by many objectionable, as under its operation the lands are allowed to deteriorate 
in value, the laborer caring little for their preservation and for future results. To this 
system, perhaps more than anything else, may be attributed the slovenly and unremunera- 
tive methods of agriculture sometimes met with in this state. When the share system is 
adopted the landowner furnishes the supplies necessary to make the crop to the laborer, 
he has a lien to that amount, without the formality of writing, on the laborer's share of the 
crop, under the provisions of the existing agricultural lien law, and in like manner the 
laborer has a lien for his wages. In other cases the laborer gives a mortgage to the mer- 
chant on his share of the crop to secure the value of supplies advanced. The rental system 
has grown quite popular wilih many landowners. By this method the farms are rented for 
a specific amount of money, or pounds of cotton, the tenants making their own terms for 
supplies and assuming all risks. Under existing law this plan is quite safe for the land- 
owner, for he is entitled to the crop, to the exclusion of all others, as fast as harvested, 
until his rent is satisfied. As to the earnings of the laborer, of course much depends 
on the character of the soil, season, markets and the prudence and energy exercised in 
cultivation. One thing, however, may be said of labor in Mississippi — the prudent and 
indubtrious laborer need not long remain simply a laborer, as the rewards of labor are 
nowhere more certain; land is cheap and easily secured, can be bought on long credit, and 
in a brief time the frugal and industrious laborer becomes himself a landed proprietor." 

Interesting as it would be to enter more in detail into these subjects, but one more 
feature can be noticed, namely, the restoration of land by the use of fertilizers of various 
sorts. Says a recent student of this subject: "The era of restoration of exhausted soils 


and the pr.eservatioa of the fertile lands of the state, too long delayed, is now fairly 
inaugurated, and it is expected that there will hereafter be a large annual increase in the 
use of these means, promising results of the highest practical importance. More attention 
is being paid to the care, collection and application of barnyard manure, which costs but 
little time and no money, and which, by itself, supplies the ingredients necessary to insure 
permanent and active fertility. It is said that European agriculturists consider that anyone 
who even sells the manure which accumulates on his land, instead of returning it to the soil, 
is fast ruining his estate. The agriculturists of Mississippi have not yet reached that point 
of appreciation for the materials necessary to keep their soil fertile and to restore already 
exhausted lands, but the improvement in this respect is notable, and promises well for the 
future. The materials for cheap and ready fertilizing are abundant throughout the state. 
There are many beds of marl, calcareous and gypseous, marsh and pond muck, lignitic 
clays and other substances suitable for composting, and, above all, is cottonseed and its 
product, cottonseed meal, which have no rivals as fertilizers. The valuable purposes to 
which cottonseed may be now applied are such that the seed is no inconsiderable part of 
the profits of the crop. Many years ago cottonseed was looked on as a nuisance, and often 
attempts were made to get rid of it by burning in a heap, the planters seeming to entertain 
no suspicion of its value as an application to the land. It is said to have been a common 
practice with the planters of the Mississippi bottom, with whom cottonseed was a drug, to 
get rid of it by hauling it to the bayous, where a part was eaten by the hogs and the rest 
washed away. The stalks also were generally pulled up or knocked down and burned on 
the field." This is all changed. Fertilizer manufacturers are now in almost every city in 
the state, and the trade is now recognized as one of the permanent ones. 

Let some of the results of the different lines of agriculture be considered. Take the 
great line of cotton. Says Prof. Eugene Hilgard: " There is no natural cause why Missis- 
sippi should ever cease to be what she has been for some time past, the banner state for cotton 
production. Texas, with its vast area, paay surpass Mississippi in total product by force of 
numbers as it were; but it would be difficult to cut out of that state an area equal to that of 
Mississippi which would equal the latter state as a whole in capacity of production. ' ' The 
product in 1883 was one million and fifty-two thousand one hundred bales, valued at 
$46,292,400, and other years of the past decade have approached that figure, and it is 
acknowledged that the yield of this state is safer and surer than that of other states. About 
one-third is raised by white labor. It is noticeable, too, that the state is beginning to con- 
sume a large amount of its cotton product, as is indicated by the fact that the last two years 
has witnessed the consumption of over thirty thousand bales within the state. 

Take the fruit-growing and vegetable lines. Truck farming on an improved scale was 
begun in Copiah county in 1874. Eev. J. W. McNeil and Mr. Stackhouse were pioneers at 
Crystal Springs. About twenty years since Mr. Cassel of Canton began advancements in 
horticulture, and in 1872 the McKay brothers — Dr. H. E. , John and W. T. McKay — began 
the present extensive strawberry culture. Said a writer in a New Orleans paper in 1887 : 

" In the central and southern portions of Mississippi fruit and vegetable production as a 
business has been found so profitable as to obtain a firm footing there within the past few 
years. This part of the state possesses many advantages for this, and is attracting the 
attention of market gardeners of the North and West. The winters are mild and short, and 
successive crops of a large variety of vegetables can be raised during the year with outdoor 
culture. It is claimed that in the extreme southern portions of the state, with reasonable 
attention, green peas, lettuce, radishes, and a number of other vegetables, can be raised 
every month in the year. 


' ' The most successful fruits in the state are the peach, apple, plum, pomegranate, 
pear, fig, orange, and of the smaller fruits, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, etc. 

"Of peaches there are shipped from Crystal Springs, Terry and Hazlehurst annually 
not less than one hundred and fifty thousand boxes, of one-third a bushel each, to New 
Orleans and Western markets. There are not less than two thousand acres cultivated in the 
peach belt, which extends about seventy-five miles along the Illinois Central. New orchards 
are being planted annually, and more interest has been shown during the last few years, 
owing to the profitableness of orchards and their not being killed as much as formerly by 
frosts. The most profitable varieties are the Early Rivers, May Beauty, Early Rose, Tillot- 
son, Thurber, Crawford' s and Picquet Late. The lands best adapted to peach culture are 
the black sandy piny woods and the deep red limy lands. Peaches which grow on this soil 
are noted for their beautiful red color and deliciousness, similar to those of the famous 
Michigan peach lands, which, before the yellows predominated, were valued at |],000 per 
acre. Peach culture is one of the growing industries of the state. Some attention has also 
been given to the cultivation of early varieties of apples, as the Astrachan, Carolina, June 
and Early Harvest varieties. They generally bring remunerative prices. The Le Conte pear 
is being successfully introduced. 

" Strawberries are also cultivated for the Northern markets, especially along the line of 
the Illinois Central railroad. Crystal Springs, Terry, Jackson and Durant being favorite 
localities. The area in strawberries at these points is two thousand one hundred and fifty 
acres. The most prolific varieties are the Charleston, Wilsons, Crescent Seedling and 
Sucker State. Strawberries have always paid well, because they get into market early. 
The crop this year has not been as profitable as in the past, the unseasonable spring having 
somewhat affected and delayed it. 

"The orange grows mainly on the coast of Mississippi. Those- produced there are 
pronounced equal to any in the market, and sell for |10 per thousand at the orchard. The 
severe winter of two years ago inflicted a heavy loss on the growers, killing a number of the 
young trees, but the industry is reviving. 

" Grapes of various kinds grow throughout the state, largely on the Gulf coast, and 
some wine is made there, but the industry has never reached the proportions it should. The 
Concord, several varieties of Ives Seedlings, and some of the table grapes of France succeed 
well, but the native grape, the Scuppernong, is the peculiar boast. It requires no parti- 
cular care and little or no pruning. 

"In Winston and other more northern counties the Black Scuppernong, Flowers, 
Tender Pulp, Thomas, and the Sugar of the Scuppernong varieties, also, the Hartford, Ives, 
Concord, Delaware, Martha, Lindley, Allen's Hybrid and others are cultivated. All do well, 
and a dry sweet wine is made from them. One vineyard, only twenty-four acres in extent, 
produced one thousand two hundred gallons of wine, which sells at $2 per gallon. Other 
farmers in the neighborhood have lately established vineyards. There are four hundred 
acres in Winston county alone under cultivation in grapes, all of which are doing well and 
proving profitable. 

' ' The vegetable business has assumed large proportions in Mississippi. From thirty 
thousand to forty thousand boxes of tomatoes are annually shipped from Crystal Springs. 
Melons, cucumbers, beans, peas, asparagus, egg-plant, pepper, squash, Irish potatoes and 
early sweet potatoes are also grown in large quantities to supply the increasing demand of 
Western cities. Sweet potatoes have proved to be a profitable crop, bringing $1 per bushel 
in the West. 


" Crystal Springs makes the largest shipments of fruits and vegetables of any point in 
the state, the most profitable crops being strawberries, cantaloupes and tomatoes. The aver- 
age yield of these is from $200 to $250 per acre. The shipments include radishes, aspara- 
gus, onions, potatoes, beets, beans, peas, strawberries, plums, peaches, tomatoes and 

''The Tiffany refrigerator cars, now used by the railroads, have given this early fruit 
and vegetable industry a great impetus. The fruit formerly sent by express paid such heavy 
freight charges that all the profits were eaten up, whereas now a large number of refriger- 
ator cars are run on the Illinois Central, Mobile & Ohio, and New Orleans & Northeast- 
ern roads, carrying the fruit to the Northern markets cheaply, and getting it there in good 

" The Illinois Central railroad transported of fruit, from points along its line in Missis- 
sippi, two hundred and fifty-nine thousand four hundred pounds in 1884, seven hundred and 
thirty-six thousand seven hundred pounds in 1885, and one million two hundred and thirty- 
one thousand six hundred pounds in 1886. No accoant is given of the vegetables trans- 
ported. The Louisville & Na'^hville railroad carried, during 1886, two hundred and fifty one 
thousand eight hundred pounds of fruit and vegetables raised in the state; the New Orleans 
& Northeastern, five million seven hundred and ninety-eight thousand pounds ; and the Vicks- 
burg & Meridian, two million seven hundred and fifty thousand pounds. 

" The total production of the state of fruits and vegetables for the past year has been 
$1,260,000, of which nearly two-thirds was shipped out of the state, New Orleans, Chicago 
and St. Louis being favorite markets. The production in 1880 was of fruit $378,145, of 
vegetables $61,735, so that some idea can be formed of the increase in this line and the 
wealth thus added to the state. ' ' 

But take^other lines, so well described in the article above referred to. 

"It is only within the present decade that the advantages of Mississippi for stock grow- 
ing and dairying have been fully recognized, and it has pushed forward and become the lead- 
ing dairy state of the South. It now boasts of more creameries than any of the Gulf or 
Southwestern states, more breeders of blooded cattle and more high grade-cows. Difficul- 
ties have been encountered and overcome, and the great advantages far more than compen- 
sate for these. 

"Mr. S. A. Jones, commissioner from Mississippi to the late World's industrial exposi- 
tion, in his report to the Times- Democrat^ calls attention to the fact that before the war 
almost every Mississippi farmer was a stockraiser and that thousands of blooded cattle then 
fed upon her prairies and luxuriated in the rich grasses of her valleys. 

' ' It was one of the theories of Western farmers that the South could not compete with 
that section in grasses. The idea is to-day thoroughly exploded. It is now proved that 
in Mississippi, particularly in the rich lime belt in the eastern portion of the state, and 
even in the piny woods, grasses of all kinds, cultivated as well as native, will grow. No- 
where does Kentucky blue grass do better than here, and clover yields from six thousand 
to nine thousand pounds of hay per acre when planted late in October, after the other crops 
have been harvested, improving the land at the same time. 

"Indeed, Mississippi hay has become so popular that the astonishing circumstance is 
seen of rich New Yorkers purchasing it in the New Orleans market for the purpose of using 
it in their fancy stables. 

"The exhibit of grasses made by the state at the World's exposition showed its stock 
and dairy possibilities. It demonstrated the fact that every county was well adapted to 


grass-growing and stock- farmiog. This exhibit consisted of fifty-two bales of hay, includ- 
ing timothy, Japanese clover, water grass, wild millet, white clover, red clover, buiT clovei-, 
crab grass, boar grass, Bermuda grass, chicken corn, red top, pea vine, Milo maize, velvet 
grass, all of the best quality. 

"Such a display naturally gave a new impetus to the dairy industry, and in central and 
eastern Mississippi the amount of land planted in grass has since increased with each year. 

"In consequence of the success in raising these grasses, Mississippians began improving 
the breed of their cattle and imported blooded stock. No state in the South has gone more 
extensively into the business, and every breed has been thoroughly experimented with and 
tested. The agricultural department, in its report on the condition of cattle in Mississippi, 
calculated the improvement in the standing of its stock by the importation of and crossing 
with better breeds, at thirty-five per cent. 

The following is the view taken of the cattle industry in Mississippi by the department 
in its last report, published but a few months ago: 

" The farmers are manifesting a determination, with a true spirit of progress, to make 
stockraising a success. They are improving their cattle, horses and mules by introducing 
fine blooded stock. A large number of counties report intense interest taken in raising 
horses and mules, and will, ere long, raise a sufficiency for home use. Correspondents 
report gi'eat improvement in building shelters for stock, and providing large quantities of 
hay for winter supply. They are fencing in large pastures for grazing purposes, and sowing 
grasses for early spring use. A very remarkable feature in the reports is, not one mentions 
disease of any kind among horses, mules or cattle. ' 

"Mississippi has the largest number of breeders of fine stock of any Southern state, the 
number of breeders of Jersey being two hundred and fifty, and the Jerseys registered and 
entitled to registration in the state being two thousand out of a total of seven thousand 
four hundred and twenty-five in the South. 

"There ia but one herd of Brittany cattle in the South — the largest in the country, and 
one of a very few herds owned at Starkville, Miss. One of the largest herds of Ayrshire, 
numbering about twenty, is also to be found in eastern Mississippi. Of Devons, there are 
several breeders in the state. Large importations were made of this cattle two or three 
years ago, but they did not do as well as other breeds and many of them died. The Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical college possesses the only herd of Herefords known to be in the 
state. The Holstein cattle are in great favor, and rank in point of numbers second 
in Mississippi; and in Holsteins and Jerseys Mississippi is far ahead of its neighbors. There 
are some thirty- five breeders of the former cattle, and the herds number one hundred and 
twenty-five, one or two being over twenty each. There are some Galloways around Stark- 
ville,- almost the only ones in the South. Of Shorthorns, there are one hundred and fourteen 
breeders in the state, and some six hundred cattle. 

"Creameries are springing up so fast in Mississippi that it is almost impossible to keep 
count of them. There §,re two at Starkville, around which there has been the greatest 
development in stockraising and dairy-farming — one belonging to the State Agricultural and 
Mechanical college, and- the first creamery established in the South (and it is to be noted 
that this college has the only professorship of dairying in the country), one at Meridian, and 
others near Bolton, Macon, Aberdeen, Corinth and West Point, and a separator at Vieks- 
burg, owned by a very eminent breeder of Jerseys — the first separator in the state. Since 
the success of these crearderies,. central and eastern Mississippi have been encouraged to 
embark in the dairy business, and creameries are now under way or proposed at Durant 


Holly Springs, Hernando, Crawford, Oxford, Flora, Clinton, Yazoo city, Jackson and Stan- 
ton. Macon and Aberdeen have cheese-making machinery. 

" The butter made at the State Agricultural college at Starkville has gone to many of 
the markets of the South. It outsells creamery Elgin, and is better. From Novem- 
ber to May, the milk of the college herd averages about one pound of butter to sixteen 
pounds of milk; and it has reached as high as a pound of butter to fourteen and one-half of 
milk — the highest average known. The herd from which this milk is taken is one-half native 
ca'^^tle, mixed with Jerseys and a few Holsteins. 

" The dairy products of Mississippi have now reached a very respectable figure. In 1870 
only two million six hundred and thirteen thousand three hundred and eleven pounds of 
butter were produced in the state; in 1880, seven million four hundred and fifty-four thou- 
sand six hundred and forty-three pounds; in 1885 and 1886, an average of fifteen million 
eight hundred and twenty-five thousand pounds, worth $3,800,000. This is a splendid 
growth for six years, and the promise is even better for the future. There has been a large 
increase in the number of milch cows in the state, and in their average yield. The hay crop, 
moreover, is steadily increasing, being fourteen thousand eight hundred and seventy-five 
tons now against eight thousand eight hundred and ninety-four in 1880. 

"In the matter of stoekraising, an average of ten acres of Mississippi land is sufiScient to each animal with ample grazing, making the cost of pasturing a steer only $2 per 
year, since nothing is paid for attendance on herds grazing at will on farms. This is less 
than one- quarter of the same item in Illinois. 

"The advantages enumerated in favor of cattle-growing and dairying in Mississippi, as 
compared with the Western states, are: The cheapness of the land; the excellent pasturage 
to be had through the year, requiring the cattle to be fed only one or two months at most 
during the winter; the natural grasses and canebrakes, which afford the cattle so much extra 
food; the climate, which allows them to run at large without any danger; the abundance of 
water, etc., needed for the stock; and the nearness to excellent markets. 

' ' Dr. W. E. Gates, of Warren county. Miss. , one of the most successful raisers of Jersey 
cattle in the South, says: 

'" After several years' experience in breeding and raising thoroughbred Jersey cattle, 
Southdown sheep, Berkshire and Poland China swine, I do not hesitate to say that Warren 
county, Miss., is equal, if not superior, in some respects, to the famous blue-grass region of 
Kentucky. It only needs the life-giving touch of the skilled husbandman to convert the 
hills and valleys into gardens of Eden. Clovers luxuriate in our soil. The Bermuda grass 
covers nearly all our hills and valleys, and it will pasture, acre for acre, more stock in sum- 
mer than the blue-grass lands of Kentucky. Its power to resist drought is greater, and anal- 
ysis places it, pound for pound, in value with blue grass. On our meadow land as much as 
three and a half tons per acre have been cut of very superior hay.' 

"The raising of sheep, the production of wool and of mutton, has met with several very 
serious blows lately, growing out of economic causes, principally changes in the wool tariff. 
In Mississippi, however, sheep-raising still continues a profitable industry, the smaller breed 
of sheep being in favor, as the animals are grown principally for their wool. The pastures 
of the state, abandoned by the cotton planters on account of the presence of the Bermuda, 
may be made far more profitable as a sheep walk than when under cotton culture, with less 
labor, worry and risk involved in planting. 

"It should be remembered that Mississippi took the first prize at the London world 
exhibit of thirty years ago for its wool, and that, at the World's industrial exposition, there 
were no less than fifty-one exhibits of wool from twenty-eight counties. 


" Hogs of any breeds do well in the state, but the white breeds are not much sought 
after. The Berkshires and Essex are popular, on account of the readiness with which they 
fatten at any age. The Poland China ranks next. The Jersey reds, Yorkshires and Sus- 
sex are also among the better breeds in favor. 

' ' The number and value of stock in the state is as follows : Horses, one hundred and 
thirty thousand one hundred and sixty, $9,187,566; mules, one hundred and fifty-three 
thousand four hundred and twelve, $12,953,958; milch cows, two hundred and eighty-three 
thousand and seventy-three, $4,076,251; oxen, four hundred and twenty-four thousand six 
hundred and sixty-two, $3,823,653; sheep, two hundred and forty-two thousand nine hun- 
dred and seventy-one, $348,664; hogs, one million one hundred and fifteen thousand one 
hundred and seventy-two, $3,345,516. Total, $33,735,608. As compared with $24,287,717 
in 1880, this shows an increase of thirty-eight per cent., the greatest improvement being in 
milch cows. 

"No one now disputes that Mississippi led the entire Union in the exhibits of woods at 
the World's industrial exposition in New Orleans. In nothing was the exposition so well 
represented as in the exhibits of the forest products of the Southern states, and in these 
Mississippi stood at the head of the list with one hundred and thirty- four varieties of wood. 
One specimen, a yellow poplar from Holmes county, showed a log more than twelve feet in 
diameter, while others were five, six and seven feet. 

"There are nineteen million nine hundred thousand four hundred and ninety- two acres 
of forest land in Mississippi, some sixty per cent, of the entire area of the state, and nearly 
all of it is in wood of valuable varieties, such as pine, gum, oak and cottonwood. 

" The timbers as yet most utilized in the state are pine, cypress and oak. Pine covers 
the southern half of the state, and constitutes about two-thirds of the lumber produced. 
The merits of the Southern pine need not be recapitulated here. It is one of the heaviest, 
strongest and most durable of woods, and is employed in all heavy edifices, in the construc- 
tion of cars, for beams, etc. It is now the principal lumber used in Latin America, and 
large quantities are shipped there. It has also grown in favor in the North and West, and 
is sold extensively in the Chicago and New York markets. While rather coarser than the 
white pine of Michigan, it is stronger and more durable, and offers a good substitute for it. 
Recognizing the fact that the yellow pine forests of Mississippi must soon come into use to 
supply the deficiencies caused by the destruction of the woodlands in the Western states, the 
'pine barons' of Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin have bought up large areas of these 
lands in Mississippi, estimated at one million five hundred thousand acres; but little of which 
has yet been cut or utilized, but is being reserved for the time when good pine lumber 
becomes scarce — a time not far distant. This land, which was bought at an average of $2 
per acre, has. standing on it, lumber worth $30 to $35, sawed on the place. 

"The following is the estimate of the pine still standing in the state: 

"Longleaf pine — standing west of Pearl river, six billion eight hundred million feet; east 
of Pearl river, seven billion six hundred million feet; region of mixed growth, three billion 
eight hundred million feet; total, eighteen billion two hundred million feet. Shortleaf pine 
— standing in the northwestern region, one billion six hundred million feet; standing in the 
northern portion of state, five billion one hundred and seventy-five million feet; total, six 
billion seven hundred and seventy- five million feet; grand total, twenty- four billion nine 
hundred and seventy-five million feet. 

" Along the Gulf coast and the Illinois Central and New Orleans & Northeastern railroads 
are many sawmills, including two of the largest in the South, which are extensively engaged 


in sawing lumber lor foreign market. Mississippi supplied all the lumber used in the con- 
struction of the buildings at the World's exposition, and now supplies a large portion of the 
yellow pine used in Chicago in the construction of heavy buildings, while the exports from 
Pearl river, Pascagoula, Moss Point and other towns on the coast, go to South America, 
Europe, and even to Africa. A considerable portion of the lumber used in the work on the 
Panama canal is from Mississippi, and within the past two months there have been heavy 
shipments from that state to the Canary islands. 

" The Yazoo valley is as abundantly wooded as the coast region, but in different varieties 
of timber, gum, oak, cypress and magnolia predominating. Its importance as a lumber 
region for the future, and the immense supply of available timber there, have only recently 
been recognized. As a result there have been large purchases by companies and syndicates 
of these woodlands, over one million two hundred thousand acres having been purchased in 
the last three years. 

' ' In this valley stands the largest area of sweet gum in the world, a timber that promises 
to take, in time and with the proper treatment, the place of black walnut as a cabinet wood. 
The gum grows to a large, straight tree, ninety feet high, furnishing a considerable amount 
of lumber. This lumber has been found to be eminently adapted for cabinet purpo=es. 
Polished, it attains a rich and elegant satiny gloss far superior to black walnut. The wood 
has only one inconvenience, it warps very badly, and, unless this evil can be corrected, it will 
not grow in favor. This defect, however, it is claimed, can be remedied. A considerable 
amount of gum is now being shipped to Cincinnati and other cities engaged in the manu- 
facture of furniture, and fine desks, armoires and tables have been made from it. It is also 
extensively used in house building, and lasts well. 

" The rapid disappearance of black walnut, nearly all of which has been destroyed in the 
Northern states, renders it necessary to discover some substitute for it, and it is suggested 
that the sweet gum will take its place. The supply of it is practically inexhaustible, and it 
grows in large clumps, and is generally easy of access. During the past few years several 
syndicates have made extensive purchases of lands in Mississippi, well wooded, largely in 
gum, with the intention of bringing this lumber into general use for cabinet purposes. Ex- 
periments have been made with it, whereby its defects have been, it is said, corrected. If 
this can be done, it will make gum the furniture wood of the country during the next twenty 

' ' One of the great advantages the timber lands of the Yazoo possess is that after the tim- 
ber is cut from them, they are even more valuable than when it was standing. The soil is 
fertile, unlike that of most other wooded sections, and land which when timbered, was worth 
only 110 to §25 an acre, becomes worth |25 to $50 when cleared and suitable for crops. 

' ' The other principal woods of the state are walnut, cypress, ash, red oak, white oak, red 
gum, white gum, black gum, tupelo gum, poplar, pecan and hickory. The red and other 
gums are used for furniture, and the Singer sewing machine company employes them 
almost exclusively for the woodwork of their machines. The white oak staves are sent to 
New Orleans and exported thence to Spain, France and other wine-producing countries, 
bringing at New Orleans from $75 to $140 per thousand. 

' ' The following figures will give some idea of the improvement that has taken place in 
the lumbering industry of the state: Number of establishments 1886, five hundred and ninety- 
eight; capita], $2,698,400; hands, three thousand one hundred and twenty-five; products, 
$3,975,000. Number establishments 1880, three hundred and ninety-five; capital, $922,595; 
hands, one thousand one hundred and seventy; products, $1,920,335. 


"It is iri ita manufactures that Mississippi is most backward. And yet it possesses all 
the advantages for leading in certain lines of industry. It ought to be one of the largest 
producers of cotton cloth in the world. It has the cotton within easy reach of the mills, 
and it has a fine market for the product. It ought to be the center of the lumbering indus- 
try of the country as it possesses the greatest variety of fine woods, and of furniture fac- 
tories, carriage and wagon factories, etc. It formerly paid little attention to these indus- 
tries, but it is now beginning to recognize the importance of greater diversification in its 
industries, to see that it does not benefit a state to devote itself wholly to agriculture. The 
towns which were formerly merely commercial and social centers are growing in population 
and anxious to increase their factories. 

"The good will of the people of Mississippi toward manufactures, the inducements they 
hold out, are shown in the act of the legislature passed in 1882, exempting from taxation, for 
a period of ten years, the machinery used for the manufacture of cotton and woolen goods, 
yarns or fabrics, etc. 

"As a consequence of the encouragement held out, the product of manufactures has 
almost doubled within the last seven years. The new industries established have been 
organized almost wholly with home capital. 

"As is natural, this manufacturing has been confined mainly to turning the raw products 
of the state into more valuable forms, making the cotton into cloth, the cottonseed into oil, 
the timber into planks, etc. 

"The cottonmills of Mississippi have been particularly prosperous, and the Mississippi 
mills at Wesson now turn out more goods than the whole state did in 1880. The cotton fac- 
tories now give employment to two thousand and twenty-three hands, with a total annual 
output of $1,686,000. The products are shipped to the Northeast and West, only a small 
proportion remaining at home. During the past two years four new cottonmills have been 
erected in the state. 

"Of the cottonseed oilmills that at Yazoo is the largest in the state, with an annual 
production of 1150,000. The bulk of this product is shipped to New Orleans, whence it 
goes to Europe, the oil to Italy and France, to return as olive oil ; the meal and cake to 
England for fattening cattle. Barely one-tenth of the product of the oilmills remains at 
home to fertilize the land and fatten stock. 

"There are foundries in Jackson, Columbus, Vicksburg, Meridian, Corinth, Natchez, 
Canton and other points. Most of the railroads also have repair shops for the repair and 
rebuilding of their engines, cars, etc. 

"Other industries are woolenmills, grist and flouringmills, pottery works, etc. 

"The chief manufacturing interests and the amount of their products are the following: 
Lumber, $3,975,000; flouring and gristmills, 12,136,000; cotton goods, $1,686,000; cotton 
seed products, $1,120,000; woolen goods, $815,000; all other industries, $4,424,000. 

"The following shows the increase in manufactures in the state in the past seven years: 
Number of establishments for the year 1886, two thousand three hundred and forty-two; 
value, $13,656,000. Number of establishments for the year 1880, one thousand four hundred 
and seventy-nine; value, $7,518,802. This is an improvement of seventy-nine per cent, 
in seven years. 

" The Baltimore Manufacturers' Record, in reviewing the new industries established in 
the South, shows that the amount of capital invested in manufactures in Mississippi during 
the first quarter of 1887 is five times as great as during the corresponding quarter of 1886. 

"Mississippi has never been regarded as much of a mineral state, and it is only 


■within the last few years that the discoveries in Alabama have caused any examination to 
be made. The result has been the discovery of some minerals of undoubted and immediate 
value, and others whose value has not yet been definitely determined, but from which there 
is every reason to hope for important returns. 

"The following are the most important of Mississippi minerals: 

" Iron, found at Duck Hill, Enterprise and generally throughout the eastern and north- 
ern portions of the state. The ore averages from forty to seventy-five per cent, of metallic 
iron, sufficient to work it with great profit. 

"Lignite or wood coal, underlying the entire yellow loam region in the northern portion 
of the state. 

" Hydraulic limestone of excellent quality exists in the northeastern portion of the state. 
Cement made from it sets almost as rapidly as plaster of Paris, and becomes very hard. 
Prof. W. D. Moore, after making an examination of this limestone, said : ' I need not 
enlarge upon the importance to the immediate district and to the whole state of such a 
mineral deposit of hydraulic limestone, sufficient to supply the entire Mississippi valley with 
cement for generations to come, which can be worked easily, and from its vicinity to the 
Tennessee river, be easily transported to every part of the South and Southwest.' 

" Limestone, for quicklime, building stones, grindstones and flagstones is also found in 
various parts of Mississippi. 

' ' Gypsum, of a pure quality, has been found in considerable quantities throughout 
Mississippi, especially near Cato, in Rankin county, and near Kosciusko, Clinton, West 
Hinds and other places. 

" The kaolin deposit in Tishomingo county is declared by Professor Harper to be the 
largest deposit of this mineral in the world. 

" White sand fit for glass-making is found along the coast, and, indeed, a glass factory 
was successfully carried on at Moss Point until burned. A very superior article of glass sand 
is also to be obtained along the branch of the Illinois Central railroad, between Kosciuako and 
Aberdeen. Professor Hilgard declared that the Pearl river and its tributaries furnish 
' drifts of white sand that often vie in purity with those of Ste. Genevieve in Missouri, 
whence the Pittsburg glassworks receive a large part of their supply. ' 

" Last bat not least are the marls of various kinds found throughout the state. They 
are found in all the lower half of the state, differiug somewhat in quality, but all well worth 

"Professor Hilgard, who examined them thoroughly, said: 'My deduction from all 
the examinations I have given these marls is that they are far superior to the green sand 
marls of New Jersey in potash, for which the latter are chiefly distinguished, and also 
contain many other valuable elements of food life that the New Jersey marls totally lack.' 

"A better manure can hardly be found. It is superior to all manure that the farmer can 
obtain from the farm, and is equal to guano and in some respects better, for while guano 
will produce a large crop the first year, its efPect is not felt subsequently, while marl will 
exert its influence on the crop for ten years to come. In the first year its efiPect is but 
slight; it is better the second, third and fourth years. While these marls do not compare in 
commercial value nor in their effect upon the soil with the celebrated phosphate rocks that 
now make South Carolina famous and add millions of dollars a year to its wealth, yet their 
abundance, accessibility and diffusion make them a vast, inexhaustible source of wealth to 
the country where they are found, and they insure its fertility for centuries to come. 

' ' The fisheries of the state are confined wholly to the gulf coast. Since the closing of 


Bonnet Carre crevasse, which formerly allowed the water from the MissiHsippi to run into 
Mississippi sound, there has been a great improvement in the oyster beds off the gulf coast, 
and the oysters are now shipped not only to New Orleans, but to the North as well, where 
they are much relished, five canning factories being engaged in canning and preparing 

"The fish caught off the coast are sent mainly to New Orleans and Mobile, few of them 
going North. The average annual catch of fish and oysters is now $225,000. 

"These streams, with the railroads, give the planters four thousand and twenty-seven 
miles of route to market. Some of them are not to-day in complete navigable condition, 
but can be made so at small expense. 

"The representatives of the United States statistical bureau estimate the traffic of Mis- 
sissippi as follows: 

"Cotton and cotton goods, $39,732,320; cottonseed oil and cake, $1,100,000; wool and 
woolen goods, $257,952; lumber, $8,940,000; fruit and vegetables, $250,000; fish and oysters, 
$235,000; cord wood, 11,500,000; total, $47,015,272. Of this $41,465,000 isexported from 
the state and represents its annual net earnings. Unfortunately most of this large sum 
goes for provisions brought from the West and manufactured goods, cottons, etc., from New 
England. If Mississippi raised these articles itself, as it is well able to do, it would keep all 
this money at home, and would soon become one of the richest states in the Union. 

"In consequence of the building of railroads and the erection of factories, there has 
been a decided increase in population and commercial and industrial activity in the towns. 
Vicksburg, Natchez, Meridian, Jackson, Holly Springs, Grenada, Starkville, Columbus, 
Yazoo city, Water Valley, Greenville, Canton, Macon, Wesson, Brookhaven, Summit and 
Enterprise are all growing and prosperous places." It is greatly to be regretted that the 
census of 1890 is not available to make a later exhibit, especially as other sources are 
incomplete and therefore unavailable. Enough has been given, however, to illustrate, if not 
measure, Mississippi's great growth under two different systems of labor." 


(©HAPTsr^ UII. 


IT is obvious to the reader that it would be impracticable to embrace within a single 
chapter in minute narrative and critical form a political history of the state of Missis- 
sippi, extending, as it does, through some of the most eventful periods of the general 
government, and covering a space of seventy-one years. It is, however, the design 
of the writer to state all of the important facts and interesting incidents properly belonging 
to such a history, accurately, uncolored by sectional prejudice or party-bias, for public infor- 
mation and USB. 

On June 12, 1797, President John Adams recommended the establishment of a govern- 
ment in the district at Natchez, and accordingly, by act of congress, approved April 7, 
1793, all that tract of country described as bounded on the west by the Mississippi river, 
on the north by a line to be drawn due east from the south of the Yazoo to the Chattahoochie 
river, on the east by this river, and on the south by the thirty-first degree of north latitude, was 
constituted one district and called the Mississippi territory, and the president authorized to 
establish a government therein. 

The territorial government, thus established, existed for fifteen years. Winthrop Sar- 
gent of Massachusetts; William Charles Cole Claiborne, of Virginia; Robert Williams, of 
North Carolina, and David Holmes, of Virginia, were the territorial governors. The most 
notable event which occurred at that time in the history of the territory and the United 
States, was the War of 1812. Maj. Thomas Hinds, for whom one of the most considerable 
counties in the state is named, and in which the capital is situated, with a battalion of Mis- 
sissippi dragoons, was ordered to report to General Jackson at New Orleans. Their prowess 
and valor displayed upon this celebrated battlefield in history won for them the following 
plaudits of congratulation and praise from the General, who, possessing in an eminent degree 
the quality of courage and spirit of patriotism, readily discovered and generously applauded 
their exhibition in others. By military order he said: " The cavalry from the Mississippi ter- 
ritory was always ready to perform every service which the nature of the country enabled 
them to execute. The daring manner in which they reconnoitered the enemy on his lines 
excited the admiration of one army and the astonishment of the other." 

Under Governor Williams' administration (extending from 1805 to 1809) of the terri- 
tory this interesting episode took place. Colonel Burr and his retinue of men arrived opposite 
the capital site Washington, at the mouth of the Bayou Pierre run, in January, 1807, with 
a grotesque flotilla of nine flatboats. He soon learned that the territorial authorities would 
oppose his descent. 

Colonel Burr in a letter to the governor " disavowed any hostile intentions toward the ter- 
ritory or the country; that he was en route to the Ouachita to colonize his lands and that any 
attempt to obstruct him would be illegal and might provoke civil war." A deputation of gen- 


tiemen, among them George Poindexter, was sent to interview Burr, with a letter from the 
governor. Colonel Burr, judging from all appearances, sneered at the idea of his having any 
hostile designs upon the country, saying that he would have gone direct to Natchez to see the 
governor (a point six miles distant from the capital) but for the information received at Bayou 
Pierre and the fear of assassination. Burr presented himself before Judge Rodney and gave his 
recognizance in the sum of $5,000, with sureties for his appearance at a called session of the 
supreme court to be held ou February 2. George Poindexter was then the attorney-general for 
the territory. He moved the discharge of the grand jury. This was on the ground that in the 
depositions submitted to him by the court, he found no testimony which brought the offense 
charged against Colonel Burr within the jurisdiction of the courts of the Mississippi ter- 
ritory. He asked for the conveyance of the accused to a tribunal competent to try and punish 
him if guilty, and asked for the discharge of the grand jury. Judge Bruin declared 
against the discharge of the grand jury unless Colonel Burr was also discharged from his recog- 
nizance. The grand jury presented no bill against Colonel Burr, after a session, and were dis- 
charged. Colonel Burr then demanded a release from his recognizance^^ which the court 
refused, and he fled, forfeiting it. 

At the close of the War of 1812, an exhaustive strain having been made upon the mate- 
rial conditions of the territory, they were appreciably stimulated with new life by increase of 
an enterprising population and influx of capital. The question of admitting the state into 
the Union was now canvassed with ardor and that pardonable sentiment o'f national pride 
which the American instinctively feels toward the government of the United States. 

On March 1, 1817, President Madison approved an act to enable the people of the ter- 
ritory "to form for themselves a constitution and state government, and to assume such 
name as they deemed proper, and the state, when formed, was to be admitted into the Union 
upon the same footing with the original states." Qualifications of freedom, color, residence, 
and payment of territorial or county tax, authorized a vote in selecting delegates to form a 

In accordance with this enabling act and the election held under it, the delegates, as 
chosen, assembled in the town of Washington in July, 1817, the convention adjourning on 
the 15th of August of that year. The qualifications prescribed by the constitution of 1817 
for the governor were: Residence of five years in the state, the age of thirty years, posses- 
sion of a freehold estate of six hundred acres of land within the state, or real estate of the 
value of 12,000. For the new lieutenant-governor the qualifications were the same. For a 
state senator: Twenty-six years of age, four years' residence in the state, to own in his own 
right one hundred and fifty acres of land or an interest in real estate of the value of 1500 
at the time of his election and for six months previous thereto. Every free white 
male of the age of twenty-one years or upward, a citizen of the United States, who had 
resided in the state one year, and the last six months in the county, city or town, and who 
had been enrolled in the militia, unless exempted by law from military service, and shall 
have paid a state or county tax, was declared to be an elector. The judicial and executive 
officers were made elective by the legislature. The first constitution of Mississippi was, there- 
fore, formed and put into operation in the forty-second year of the independence of the 
United States of America. The earlier governors of the state under the constitution of 1817, 
in their consecutive order of election to office, were as follows: David Holmes, of Virginia; 
George Poindexter, of Virginia; Walter Leake, of Virginia; Gerard C. Brandon, a native of 
the territory, and Abram M. Scott, a native of South Carolina. David Holmes, the last terri- 
torial governor, was fitted by experience and ability to put into operation the machinery of 
the government jn conformity with the provisions of the new constitution. 


George Poindexter, of Virginia, is of national reputation, having been a member of both 
houses of the Federal congress. He is the author of Poindexter' s Code of Mississippi, a work 
of high rank and great value in the judicial and legal annals of the state. In 1835, 
when Mr. Poindexter became a candidate for reelection to the United States senate, he was 
defeated by Eobert J. Walker, who was secretary of the treasury under President Polk. 

The administration of Walter Leake was rendered conspicuous by the assembling of the 
constitutional convention of 1832, the convention which changed the whole structure of the 
organic law of the state. 

The second term of Governor Brandon, covering the years 1830-31, is memorable in the 
state for the passage of two acts, one to establish the Planters' bank of the state of Missis- 
sippi and the other calling a convention to revise, modify or make a new constitution. Twelve 
years had elapsed, when the state had greatly increased in population; its agriculture had 
been extensively developed and the state was growing rapidly. The legislature of the state, 
at its annual session in 1830, determined, despite the exclusive privileges conferred upon the 
bank of the state of Mississippi, to incorpoiate an additional bank, to be known as the 
Planters' bank of the state of Mississippi, with a capital of $3,000,000. This act of incor- 
poration was approved February 10, 1830. Two-thirds of the capital stock was reserved for 
subscription by the state, and the governor was authorized to subscribe for twenty thousand 
shares of the capital stock in the name and on behalf of the state, aggregating $2,000,000. 
The second section of the act of incorporation pledged the faith of the state to make good 
all losses which might accrue from a deficiency of the funds of the said bank, or by other 
means, in proportion to the amount of the stock which the state should have therein. The 
governor was empowered to have prepared and issued the bonds of the state of Mississippi 
for the sum of 12,000,000, to be signed by the governor and countersigned by the auditor of 
public accounts, and when so signed and countersigned it was made the duty of the governor 
to deliver the said bonds to the president and directors of the Planters' bank in payment of 
the subscription of the stock made for and by the state. 

It was also made the duty of the president and directors of the Planters' bank to sell 
the bonds delivered to them by the governor for specie only. The said bonds were to be 
under the seal of the state, signed by the governor and countersigned by the auditor of pub- 
lic accounts, and made assignable by the endorsement of the president and cashier of the 
bank to the order of any person, or the bearer. The faith of the state was pledged for the 
payment of the principal and interest of these bonds upon their maturity, as well as the 
stock of the bank. It was also provided that if a dividend arising from the stock subscribed 
by the state, as specified, should be insufficient to meet the interest accruing on the bonds 
and the payment and extinguishment thereof when due, the bank was to supply such 
deficiency and charge the same to the account of the state, and for the payment thereof the 
faith of the state was pledged. Of the bonds of the state authorized to be delivered to the 
Planters' bank of Mississippi in payment of the stock subscribed for in the name of the 
state in that institution, $500,000 worth was sold in the year 1831 and the remaining 
$1,500,000 worth was disposed of in the course of the year 1833, and the money received 
therefor placed in the vaults of the bank. The constitution of 1817, unlike that of 1832, 
contained no clause prohibiting the state from pledging its face, and hence the legislature 
was clothed with plenary power in the premises. The bonds had been sold by the agent of 
the bank in strict conformity with the provisions of the law authorizing their issue, and for 
specie only, and the proceeds were properly paid over to the officers in charge of the insti- 
tution. The bank was conducted on what are usually regarded as sound business principles 


and was in a highly prosperous condition until the great financial distress of 1837 came, 
which involved the commercial prosperity of the whole Union. 

At this time the question of changing the constitution was debated, the state having out- 
grown the original constitution of 1817, and an organic law was demanded better calculated 
to meet the needs and conditions of a more prosperous and growing state. The question of 
the expediency and necessity of a constitutional convention was submitted by legislative act 
to the people, and a decided majority pronounced in favor of calling the proposed constitu- 
tional convention, which was accordingly done by legislative act passed and approved Decem- 
ber 16, 1831. The convention convened in pursuance of the act, the 10th day of September, 

The material change and distinguishing feature which characterized the constitution of 
1832 was the enlargement of the liberty and power of the people through the ballot-box, by 
conferring authority on them to elect their own public servants, without reference to a prop- 
erty qualification. The most radical change, however, was that made in the judicial depart- 
ment of the government, making judicial functionaries, from the highest to the lowest, elective by 
the people. A superior court of chancery was authorized to be established and the chancellor 
was made elective by the people. A high court of errors and appeals was provided for, composed 
of three judges. Circuit and probate courts were provided for and these judges were all elected 
by the people, as also the district attorney. 

The constitution of 1832 made Mississippi the pioneer state in embodying in her organic 
law the right of the people to select through the ballot box their judicial officers from those 
who presided over inferior tribunals to the court of last resort. At that time neither the 
constitution nor the laws of any state in the Union provided for a judiciary elected by the 
people, and in the interim, between 1832 and 1861, every state in the Union followed 
the example of Mississippi in this respect. 

The tenure of office prescribed by the constitution of 1832 was two years, prohibiting 
the same individual from holding the office more than four in any six consecutive years. 
The powers conferred and the duties imposed on the executive were copied, in the main, 
from the constitution of 1817, the material difference being that the latter provided for, and 
prescribed, the duties of lieutenant-governor, while these duties under the constitution of 
1832 were to be performed by the president of the senate when rendered necessary by 
reason of the death, resignation or removal from office of the governor. 

Alexander G. McNutt, a native of Virginia, was the third governor of Mississippi, 
under the constitution of 1832, having been nominated by the democratic party, which, at 
that time, in 1837, had a large majority in the state over the whig party. Under his admin- 
istration, the great era of the Flush Times existed, so inimitably described by Judge Bald- 
win in his interesting work of that name, and in his Party Leaders. The capital of the 
banks of the state incorporated by the legislature in less that six years after the formation 
of the constitution of 1832, aggregated the enormous sum of 153,750,000. To most of the 
railroads was given the privilege of banking; they were authorized to issue their own notes 
for circulation, to make loans and deals in exchange, bonds and bills of credit. The era of 
innumerable mushroom banks, inflated credit systems, and frenzied spirit of speculation 
produced an abundant harvest of distress and bankruptcy for the people of Mississippi. As 
this financial policy signally drew the line of division between the two prevailing parties of 
the state, the whigs and democrats, it will be somewhat disclosed in detail, giving rise, as it 
did, to a spirited and important political contest. -The people at that time seemed to im- 
agine that this species of legislature could provide substantial sources of revenue, and 


bring about permanent prosperity. They clamored for more banks and a still larger issue 
of worthless promises to pay. In obedience to this public demand for more money, the 
legislature early in the session of 1837 passed an act to incorporate the Union bank of 
Mississippi, with a capital of 115,500,000, which was approved January 21, 1837, "so far as 
the action of the legislature is recognized." In the original act of incorporation, in order 
to facilitate the said Union bank in its negotiation for this loan of $15,500,000, the faith 
of the state was pledged both for the security of the capital and interest, and ordered 
that there should be issued seven thousand five hundred bonds of |2,000 each, payable in 
four installments of twelve, fifteen and twenty years, and bearing interest at the rate of five 
per cent per annum, to be signed by the governor of the state to the order of the Mississippi 
Union bank, and countersigned by the state treasurer, and under the seal of the state. The 
bonds were made transferable by the endorsement of whomsoever or to the bearer, and the 
capital and interest of the bonds were payable by the bank at the time they severally fell due. 
The charter of the Union bank, as originally enacted, authorized the isibuauoe of the 
bonds of the state for 115,500,000, and their delivery to the bank as a loan. The bank 
was required to secure the payment of .these bonds, and the prompt payment of the accru- 
ing interest by mortgage upon the property of the stockholders of the bank, but this did not 
satisfy the legislators of that day. 

They passed an act to incorporate the subscribers to the Mississippi Union bank, requir- 
ing the governor to subscribe for, in behalf of the state, fifty thousand shares of the original 
stock of the bank, the same to be paid for out of the proceeds of the state bonds, as provided 
to be executed to the bank by the charter, and that the dividends and profits accruing and 
declared by the bank on stock subscribed for on behalf of the state, should be held by the 
bank subject to the control of the state legislature, for the purposes of internal improvement 
and promotion of education. 

The president and directors of the Mississippi Union bank, or the managers, had ample 
power to appoint three commissioners to negotiate and sell the state bonds, provided for in 
the act incorporating the subscribei's, in any market within the United States, or in any foreign 
market, under such rules and regulations as might be adopted by the president and directors, 
or managers, not inconsistent with the provisions of the charter of the bank providing against 
the sale of bonds under their par value. This supplementary act was approved by Governor 
McNutt on February 15, 1839, but a short time after the date of his approval of the 
original charter of the Union bank, after its passage by two successive legislatures, in 
obedience to the requirements of the constitution, during that year, bonds of the 
state to the amount of $5,000,000 were prepared, signed by the governor, countersigned 
by the treasurer of the state and delivered to the president and directors of the Union bank. 
The bank appointed three commissioners of integrity and purity of character to negotiate 
the bonds. They succeeded in disposing of the entire 15,000,000 worth of bonds to the honor- 
able Nicholas Biddle, then the president of the United States bank of Pennsylvania. When 
the intelligence of the consummation of this negotiation reached the people of Mississippi 
they were wild with excitement, and the event was celebrated by great rejoicing and public 

In the meantime. Governor McNutt had inaugurated an unrelanting war against the 
Union bank, as well as all the other banks in the state. Two years previously, he had 
approved a law providing for the election by the legislature of three bank commissioners, 
who were to examine once a year into rhe condition of the several banks in the state and 
ascertain their capacity to meet their obligatious, which, however, from many practical diffi- 


culties, was not productive of any good. In the governor's annual message to the legislature 
January, 1840, he recommended an immediate repeal of the charters of all the banks that 
were not able to meet promptly their obligations to their note-holders and depositors. In 
support of this proposition, he urged "the existing banks cannot be bolstered. Destitute as 
they are of credit and available means, it would be folly to attempt to infuse vigor and 
stability into their lifeless forms. They are powerless to do good, but capable of inflicting 
irreparable injuries. ' ' 

In his next annual message, bearing date January 5, 1841, the governor renewed his 
assaults upon the Mississippi Union bank with great vigor, calling attention to the insolvent 
condition of the Mississippi Railway company, the Planters' bank of the state and the Missis- 
sippi Union bank, and their inability to resume specie payments or to make further loans. 
He favored, like his party (the democratic), the repudiation of the Union bank bonds. He 
argued that they were sold on a credit, instead of for cash, at their par value; that they had 
been purchased in the name of an institution — the United States baijk of Pennsylvania — the 
charter of which absolutely prohibited that bank from buying or selling bonds or stocks 
other than issued by authority of the United States, or of the state of Pennsylvania. The 
legislature of that year, however, differed with the executive, and both houses, by decisive 
majorities, passed resolutions declaring that the honor of the state demanded that both the 
Union and Planters' bank bonds should be paid, both principal and interest. 

The subject now had reached the proportions of a tremendous party question, and the 
whole state was stirred upon it with great popular excitement and partisan zeal. The demo- 
cratic convention which assembled in January, 1841, nominated Tighlman M. Tucker for 
governor, and other ofiBcers, but made no reference in the platform adopted to the bond 
question. There was an ominous silence upon this point. A little later, the whigs met in 
convention and nominated a full ticket with Judge David O. Shattuck as governor, all in 
entire accord with the convention on the bond question, which had taken in its platform 
strong ground in favor of paying the state bonds. After one of the most exciting political 
campaigns in the state, the democratic party was successful in electing its whole state 
ticket, and a majority in both branches of the legislature. The largest taxpayers were of 
the opinion that the obligation on the part of the state thus created should be met honestly, 
basing their advocacy of payment upon the broad ground of equity and fairdealing. Leading 
citizens of the state at this day, survivors of that period, regard the policy of repudiation, 
then adopted, as a blunder of the magnitude which Talleyrand said was worse than a crime. 
It was a thrilling party fight. The ablest men of the time — and there were many in 
the state then — were engaged in it on either side of the great question. It was upon this 
question that the golden mouthed orator furnished by the great state of Maine to the youth- 
ful southwestern Commonwealth, then in the zenith of his fame, extending with the confines 
of the Union, shed the transcendent glory of his imperial genius upon that memorable con- 
troversy in behalf of the good name and honor of Mississippi. It has been well said that 
he was to the whig party of Mississippi then what Charles Fox was to the whig party of 
England in his day. Albert Gallatin Brown, of South Carolina, was the fifth governor of 
the state chosen under the constitution of 1832. He was elected for two terms. During his 
second administration war commenced with Mexico, and with the aid of his skill, judgment 
and patriotism the first regiment of Mississippi, under the call made for volunteers from the 
Federal government, was organized and sent to that historic scene of international warfare, 
contributing much of the renown, prowess and varor which the American arms shed upon the 
flag of the United States. Governor Brown was one of the most prominent men of the 


state, and a strong pillar of <he democratic party. He was essentially an ardent devotee to 
popular government and the principle of not tampering with the powers reserved to the 
people. He was for several terms in the national house of representatives, and from 185ri 
to '59 was a distinguished member of the United States senate. He and his colleague, Jef- 
ferson Davis, resigned their seats upon the receipt of the intelligence that the state had 
passed an ordinance of secession from the Union. His service as a member of the Confede- 
rate senate closed his public life. 

John A. Quitman, of New York, after returning from Mexico with the fresh laurels won 
as a major-general on that foreign battlefield in behalf of his country, became the nominee 
of the democratic party for governor, being easily elected, and was inaugurated in January, 

Under Governor Quitman's administration, the compromise measures pending in con- 
gress were the vital subject of public interest and discussion. The first legislature during 
the administration of Governor Quitman called a convention of delegates to meet in Sep- 
tember, 1851, to take measures for the "redress of grievances." California, with a consti- 
tution prohibiting the introduction of slaves into her territory, had just been admitted into 
the Union. Public opinion in the state was to the effect that this was the denial of an invi- 
olable right. A convention composed of delegates from several Southern states had assem- 
bled at Nashville in 1850, adopting inflammatory resolutions. Mississippi soon became 
precipitated into a wild scene of political excitement over the all-absorbing question. Old 
party ties were loosened, and new political organizations of the old ones formed. 

General Quitman had been renominated for election as governor by the democratic 
party, and his opponents, composed in great part of the old whig party, reinforced by a 
considerable contingent of democrats, and calling themselves the Union party, nominated 
for governor Henry S. Foote, then a United States senator from Mississippi. The canvass 
was a warm and heady contest and much bitter feeling and excitement was engendered. 
Each party had its candidate for the convention and the legislature in the field in every 
county in the state. The election of delegates took place in August, 1851, and resulted in 
an overwhelming triumph of the Union party. Governor Quitman, seeing that the people had 
pronounced against him by very decided action, abandoned the contest. This left the party 
resisting the policy of the compromise measure without a leader, and all eyes were turned 
to Jefferson Davis, with the confident hope that he would be enabled to stand the tide that 
had set in with such increasing momentum and fury against the old order of political 
thought and organization in the state. He entered upon the herculean task of seeking to 
overcome a majority of nearly seven thousand which the Union party had obtained at the 
August election of delegates to the convention, but succeeded only in reducing it to about 
nine hundred votes, the majority by which Senator Foote was elected. The convention which 
had been called had assembled in September and declared its unalterable fealty to the Union. 

Henry S. Foote, a native of Virginia, was elected governor in 1854, and was the eighth 
chosen under the constitution of 1832. As has been alluded to, he was a member of the 
United States senate when nominated for governor by the Union party. He was a doughty 
tighter in party warfare, and a very prominent figure in the politics of Mississippi a half 
century ago. During Governor Foote' s administration the legislature passed an act submit- 
ting the question to the people whether or not they should repudiate the bonds of the state, 
the proceeds of which had been used to p*y for the stock subscribed and owned by the state 
in the Planters' bank. The question was presented to the people at the presidential election 
of that year and the debt was repudiated, which had been unanimously pronounced by the 


senate as a legal and binding obligation, and to meet the payment of which the faith of the 
state had been repeatedly pledged. The high court of errors and appeals during Gover- 
nor Foote's administration affirmed the validity of the issuance and sale of the bonds of 
Mississippi sold to raise money with which to pay for the stock owned by the state in 
the bank. The court was unanimous and the opinion clear and emphatic that the state was 
justly indebted to the holders of the bonds, and that they should be paid; but the decision 
of the coui't was of no avail, as they remain to this day unpaid. 

Governor Foote removed, finally, to Tennessee, after the close of his term, which state 
he represented in the Confederate congress. He was appointed by General Grant superin- 
tendent of the United States mint at New Orleans, which position he held at the time of his 
death, in 1880. 

John J. Pettus, a native of Alabama, was nominated by the democratic party in 1859 
for governor, and was elected and installed iii office in January, 1860. In the second year 
of his administration the secession convention met on the 7th day of January, 1861, in pur- 
suance of an act of the legislature, directly representing the sovereignty of the people. 
Hon. William S. Barry was elected president. L. Q. 0. Lamar, who has been a member of 
both houses of congress since the war, secretary of the interior under Cleveland's adminis- 
tration, and now an associate justice of the supreme court of the United States, was a mem- 
ber of that memorable convention. He offered a resolution that a committee of fifteen be 
appointed by the president to prepare and report an ordinance for the withdrawal of the 
state from the Federal union, with a view to the establishment of a new confederacy to be 
composed of the seceding states. The committee consisted of L. Q. C. Lamar, "Wiley P. 
Harris, Samuel J. Gholson, James L. Alcorn, Henry T. Ellett, Walker Brooke, Hugh E. 
Miller, John A, Blair, Alexander M. Clayton, Alfred Holt, James Z. George, E. H. Sanders, 
Ben. King, George E. Clayton, and Orlando Davis. These were among the most lead- 
ing and prominent men in the state at that period. Mr. Lamar, from the committee, 
reported: "An ordinance to dissolve the union between the state of Mississippi and the 
states united with her under the compact entitled the 'Constitution of the United States,' 
recommending that it do pass." Jacob S. Yerger, a member of the convention, offered an 
amendment by way of substitute, providing "for the final adjustment of all difficulties 
between the free and slave states of the United States by securing further constitutional 
guarantee within the present union." This substitute was lost by a vote of seventy-eight to 
twenty-one. James L. Alcorn offered an additional section that, " The ordinance shall not go 
into effect until the states of Alabama, Georgia, Florida and Louisiana shall resolve to secede 
from the Union and resolve their sovereignty." This was lost by a vote of seventy-four to 
twenty-five. Walker Brooke offered an amendment, submitting to the qualified electors of 
the state the ordinance for their ratification or rejection. This amendment was likewise 
voted down. Mr. Lamar then reported the following ordinance of secession, which was 
passed by a vote of eighty-four to fifteen: "The people of the state of Mississippi, in con- 
vention assembled, do ordain and declare, and it is hereby ordained and declared as follows, 
to- wit: Section 1. That all the laws and ordinances by which the said state of Mississippi 
became a member of the Federal union of the United States of America, be, and the same 
are hereby, repealed, and that all the obligations on the part of said state or people thereof, 
to observe the same, be withdrawn, and that the said state doth hereby assume all the rights, 
functions and powers which by any of said laws or ordinances were conveyed to the govern- 
ment of the said United States, and is absolved from all the obligations, restraints and duties 
incurred to the said Federal union, and shall from henceforth be a fi ee, sovereign and inde- 


pendent state: Sec. 2. That so much of the first section of the seventh article of the 
constitution of the state as requires members of the legislature, and all officers, executive and 
judicial, to take an oath or affirmation to support the constitution of the United States, be, 
and the same is, hereby abrogated and annulled. Sec. 3. That all rights acquired and 
vested under the constitution of the United States, or under any act of congress passed, or 
treaty made, in pursuance thereof, or any law of this state, and not incompatible with this 
ordinance, shall remain in force, and have the same effect as if this ordinance had not been 
passed. Sec. 4. That the people of the state of Mississippi hereby consent to form a 
federal union with such of the states as may have seceded, or may secede, from the Union of 
the United States of America, upon the basis of the present constitution of the said United 
States, except such parts thereof as embrace other portions than such seceding states. 

" Thus ordained and declared in convention the ninth day of January, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one. 

"In testimony of the passage of which and the determination of the members of this 
convention to uphold and maintain the state in the position she has assumed in said ordi-. 
n.ince, it is signed by the president and members of this convention this the 15th day of 
January, A. D. 1861." 

There were ninety-seven members of this convention, chosen upon the representative 
basis of the counties in the legislature. Every member of the convention signed the ordi- 
nance except one — Dr. J. J. Thornton, of Rankin county. 

Mr. Lamar ofifered the following resolution in the convention : ' ' That the commissioners 
appointed by his excellency the governor, in pursuance of a resolution of the legislature of 
the state of Mississippi providing for the appointment of commissioners, approved November 
30, 1860, be furnished each with a copy of the ordinance of secession adopted by this 
convention, and that they be requested to submit the same to the conventions of the states to 
which they have been accredited and solicit the cooperation of said states with the action of 
South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida and Alabama." The following gentlemen were elected 
delegates to the Montgomery convention of the seceding states which formed the Confed- 
erate government: Wiley P. Harris, Walter Brooke, W. S. Wilson, A. M. Clayton, W. S. 
Barry, James T. Harrison and J. A. P. Campbell. The following were elected to the 
congi'ess of the new confederacy when it should be established: Jefferson Davis and Albert 
G. Brown to the senate; Reuben Davis (a brother to Jefferson Davis), L. Q. C. Lamar, 
William Barksdale, Otho R. Singleton and John J. McRae to the house. 

The governor of the state, charged with sending commissioners to several slave-holding 
states, asking them to cooperate with the state of Mississippi in seceding from the Federal 
union, appointed the following commissioners: To Tennessee, Thomas J. Wharton; to 
South Carolina, Charles Edward Hooker; to North Carolina, Jacob Thompson; to Louisiana, 
Wirt Adams; to Maryland, A. H. Handy; to Arkansas, George R. Fall; to Kentucky, W. 
S. Featherston: to Georgia, W. L. Harris; to Virginia, Fulton Anderson. 

Governors Pettus and Charles Clark, a native of Ohio, presided over the destinies of 
the state during the war. In May, 1865, Governor Clarke issued the following executive 
order: " General Taylor informs me that all Confederate armies east of the Mississippi river 
are surrendered, with all government cotton, quartermaster, commissary and other stores. 
Federal commanders will only send such troops as may be necessary to guard public prop- 
erty. All officers and persons in possession of public stores will be held to a rigid account- 
ability and all embezzlers certainly arresteH. Arrangements will be made to issue supplies 
to the destitute. I have called the legislature to convene at Jackson on Thursday, the 18th 


instant. They will doubtless order a convention. The officers of the state government will 
immediately return with the archives to Jackson. County officers will be vigilant in the 
preservation of order and the protection of property. Sheriffs have power to call out the 
posse comitatus and the militia will keep armed and obey orders for that purpose as in times 
of peace. The civil laws must be enforced as they now are until repealed. If the public 
property be protected and the peace preserved the necessity for Federal troops in your 
county will be avoided. You are therefore urged to combine to arrest the marauders and 
plunderers. The collection of taxes should be suspended, as the laws will doubtless be 
changed. Masters are responsible, as heretofore, for the protection and conduct of their 
slaves, and they should be kept at home as heretofore. That all citizens fearlessly adhere 
to the fortunes of the state, aid the returned soldiers to obtain civil employment, maintain 
law and order, contemn all twelfth-hour vaporers and meet stern facts with fortitude and 
common sense." 

By order of the president Governor Clarke was imprisoned at Fort Pulaski and William 
L. Sharkey, an old-line whig and a prominent Union man in the secession contest, appointed 
by President Johnson provisional governor in 1865. Governor Sharkey issued a proclama- 
tion calling a convention, to be composed of delegates who were loyal to the United States, 
for the purpose of "altering or amending the constitution to enable the state to resume its 
place in the Union. ' ' 

The convention which assembled in response to the proclamation adopted the policy 
suggested by it and so framed the amendment as to be in full accord with the constitution 
of the United States. The convention was composed of ninety-eight delegates, seventy 
whigs and twenty-eight democrats. The convention adopted an amendment to the constitu- 
tion recognizing the abolition of slavery and providing that " Neither slavery or involuntary 
servitude, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, shall hereafter exist in the state, and 
also declared the ordinance of secession passed by the convention of 1861 null and void." 

The amendments to the coastitution fully recognized the abolition of slavery and that 
the negroes were to be citizens of the state and that they would at least for some time reside 
there, and that it was not only necessary to provide such legislation for their protection and 
education, but also to throw all possible moral influences around them. 

Benjamin G. Humphreys, a native of the state, was the first governor elected by the 
people after the war. He was installed in October, 1865. In his inaugural address he said: 

' ' It has been reported from some quarters that our people are insincere and the spirit 
of revolt is rampant among us. But if an unflinching fidelity in war gives evidence of 
reliable fidelity in peace, if the unvarying professions that spring from private and public 
sources furnish any evidence of truth, it is sufficiently demonstrated that the people of the 
South, who so long and against such terrible odds maintained the mightiest conflict of 
modern ages, may be safely trusted when they professed more than a willingness to return 
to their allegiance. 

" The South, having ventured all upon the arbitrament of the sword, has lost all save 
her honor, and now accepts the result in good faitli." 

At this session of the legislature Judge William L. Sharkey and James L. Alcorn were 
elected United States senators. They were both leading old-line whigs before the war, both 
gentlemen of high character, education and refinement. Judge Sharkey had been chief 
justice of the supreme court of the state for many years. He was eminent as a jurist of 
commanding and imperishable fame among Missjtsippians. The admirable equipoise of 
judgment, well-tempered views and safe confllusions which distinguished his course always 


ia the politics of the state when called upon for advice made him the oracle of the people, 
without party distinction, in time of public trial, peril and calamity. General Alcorn was 
a leader of his party. With his enlarged views of governmental polity and attachment to 
American institutions and to his own state, with a trained intellect and the grasp of mind 
of the philosophic statesman, the state was fortunate in having his services in the executive 
department of the government, as well as in the national senate, where he was afterward 
seated during the "reconstruction era." 

These gentlemen, having opposed the secession of the states, were, from the considera- 
tion of their conservatism and unquestioned abilities, selected because it was thought there 
would be no objection offered to their being admitted to seats in the senate, and that they 
would exercise a wholesome influence toward restoring the state to her former relations in 
the Union. 

A committee had been appointed by the convention, in August, to submit to the 
approaching legislature such new laws and changes in existing statutes as they deemed 
expedient to meet the" changed domestic relation, and secure obedience to law and order. It 
was necessary to clothe the negroes with civil rights. At the session of the legislature, 
Governor Humphreys, in his special message, recommended the enactment of statutes con- 
ferring upon freedmen the right to testify in all cases in court. In October, 1866, Governor 
Humphreys convened the legislature in extra session. In his message to the body he took 
the ground that the proposed amendment to the constitution of the United States would 
destroy the rights of the state, and referred to the antagonism existing between the presi- 
dent and congress. 

It was at this session that the fourteenth amendment to the constitution of the United 
States was submitted to the legislature for its action. The joint standing committee on 
state and Federal relations recommended that the state refuse to ratify the amendment to 
the constitution of the United States, which was adopted without a dissenting vote. Judge 
H. F. Simrell was the chairman of this committee, who has since sat upon the supreme 
court bench of the state, appointed by a republican executive. Mississippi had not yet been 
restored to the Union. Her senators and representatives were refused seats in the national 
congress. The states of Mississippi and Arkansas were made a military district, with Gen. 
Edwin Ord in command, who issued an order in March, 1867, for an election of delegates to 
a convention to revise or make a new constitution of the state. This convention, on account 
of the many negroes of which it was in great part composed, was dubbed ' ' the black and tan 
convention." The constitution of 1868 was submitted to the people for their ratiiication or 
rejection, and it was defeated. It was contended by the republican party, which was now 
thoroughly organized in the state, that the result was accomplished by intimidation and 
fraud. It was sought, when President Grant was elected, to invoke the power of the Fed- 
eral government to consummate an effort which was made to save the constitution as 
submitted. General Grant thought, however, that it would be just and proper to recom- 
mend to congress to provide for the holding of another election, and allow the people the 
privilege of voting for or against the disfranchising clauses which it contained, separately, 
as well as for state officers, representatives in congress and in the legislature, which had 
been denied in the former election. 

This provision, as submitted, embraced the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments to the 
constitution of the United States, which provided for the right of suffrage without regard 
to race, color or previous condition of ^rvitude. The election was held in 1869, and the 
white people of the state accepted the constitution as modified and recommended by the 


president. This constitution has existed for sixteen years of democratic administration of 
the state government, and when it was changed, many leading democrats in t&e party of 
to-day, among them Gen. Edward Walthall, now in the United States senate from Mississippi, 
opposed it. 

After the adoption of the constitution of 1868, a republican convention met and nomi- 
nated B. B. Eggleston for governor and a full republican ticket. The democrats nominated 
B. G. Humphreys. Humphreys and Charles E. Hooker, who had been nominated as attor- 
ney-general on the democratic ticket, made a vigorous canvass of the state, as there was an 
estimated republican majority of twenty thousand to contend with, including the whites, then 
disfranchised. General McDowell, who was then in command of the military district, issued 
an order removing Humphreys and Hooker and other state officers, as obstructive to the 
reconstructive policy, and appointed Adelbert Ames as military governor of the state. The 
democratic canvass was made under the direction of John D. Freeman, chairman of the 
democratic state executive committee. Humphreys refused to obey the military order of 
McDowell, and continued to hold the oiHce of governor, from which he was ejected by a mili- 
tary company under the order of Governor Ames. On the 15th of January, 1870, Governor 
Ames transmitted to the legislature copies of the fourteenth and fifteeth amendments to the 
constitution of the United States, which the two houses ratified, according to the prescribed 
terms of a resolution of congress. 

James L. Alcorn was elected governor of the state in 1869, as the candidate of the 
republican party, and was thus the nineteenth chief magistrate of the commonwealth, and 
the first chosen under the constitution of 1868. It may be here remarked that the only 
material change in this constitution from that of 1832 was making the judiciary appointive 
by the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate. The office of lieutenant- 
governor was also reestablished. 

In Governor Alcorn's first inaugural address, he said: " The military government which I 
have the happiness to bow this day out of the state, was no more a subject of pleasure to 
me than it was to any other Mississippian whose blood glows with the instinct of self-govern- 
ment." He also said that "The ballot-box, the jnry box and the offices of the state 
should be thrown open to the competent and honest, without distinction of color." Previ- 
ously to his accession to the gubernatorial office he had been elected United States senator, 
and therefore he did not remain in the office of governor long. 

Ames and Alcorn were now the United States senators, and both of them, from some 
antagonism engendered upon the floor of the senate, decided to become candidates for gov- 
ernor of the state at the next election. The conservative republicans favored Alcorn, and 
the extreme wing of the party supported Ames. The democratic party, in convention, deter- 
mined by resolution that it was "inexpedient in the approaching state election to nominate a 
state ticket. " This left the contest to be determined between the republican candidates, 
and Ames was elected and installed in office in January, 1874. During his administration 
there was considerable race trouble and prejudice engendered through the politics of the 
time, the negroes then being induced to take an interest in public afPairs. They, however 
soon discovered that without some probationary training for this exercise of a new right, 
which was once suggested by President Grant, that it was a fruitless field for them, as they 
did their voting at the will of others, who reaped the spoils of office, and they have mani- 
fested a marked indifference to politics from that day to the present time. 

In December the governor called an extra sessien of the legislature, which was based 
upon alleged disorders in Warren county. The people, who paid now a state tax of $1.40 on 


the dollar of assessed value of land and exorbitant levies in the counties, had insisted that the 
sheriff and other officers should execute new and sufficient bonds, or surrender their trusts. 

Taxpayers' conventions were held all over the state. The democratic state convention 
assembled on August 3, 1875. It was largely attended, and gray-haired men, who had not 
been to the state capital for years, or participated in any political scene for a quarter of a 
century, were there. L. Q. C. Lamar addressed the convention, depicting with his vivid 
eloquence the depressed condition of the state, and the oppressive policy of taxation which 
had been pursued, but inspiring hope for the ultimate survival of peace, order and good 
government. Senator J. Z. George was elected chairman of the democratic state executive 
committee. The platform demanded the reduction of taxation, honest, impartial and 
economical government, biennial session of the legislature, an able and competent judiciary, 
a discontinuance of special and local legislation, protests against the arming of militia in 
times of peace and the encouragement of agriculture. Ex-Governor and ex-Senator A. G. 
Brown, then an old man, retired from the conflict of public life, at a public meeting in his 
county, offered the following resolution: "That, without equivocation or mental reservation, 
we intend to carry out the principles enunciated in the platform of the democratic party, 
and to this we pledge our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor." 

At this time Judge Wiley P. Harris, an eminent lawyer of the state, and democrat, 
addressed a club of his party, suggesting a union of the Southern people with the liberal 
republicans of the North, who deprecated the gross mismanagement of the Southern states 
under reconstruction laws, but who thought it right and wise that the constitution of the 
Southern states should rest on the basis of impartial suffrage. 

The campaign of 1875 was organized with great spirit and skill. Clubs were formed 
all over the gtate, which was soon converted into a perfect blaze of political excitement. 
General George, the chairman of the democratic state executive committee, wired the 
attorney-general of the United States that there were no disturbances in Mississippi, and no 
obstruction to the execution of the laws. General Grant, though importuned to interfere, 
refused to do so. There were some spasmodic collisions between the leaders of the respec- 
tive parties, which led to bloodshed of both whites and blacks, but there was no race conflict 
in the state. The public speeches delivered by the democratic orators were temperate and 
conservative in tone, but fi.rm and not to be mistaken, thousands of negroes concluding at 
last that it was better to cast their destinies with the white leaders of public opinion, whom 
they had always known and could confide in. A democratic legislature was elected and an 
entire democratic delegation returned to congress. 

Notwithstanding the charge which had been made against Governor Ames for his 
numerous, repeated and flagrant violations of the constitution, almost immediately after the 
election a democratic meeting held in one of the counties of the state passed the following 
resolution, showing the temper and spirit of that party, to bring about peace and harmony 
and satisfactory government under existing conditions, if possible: 

' ' Eesolved, That we desire that Governor Ames will persevere in the measures of 
retrenchment and reform heretofore recommended by him, and calculated to lighten the 
burdens of the people, and we hereby respectfully request our representatives, in both 
branches of the legislature, to give to him their confidence and support in all matters of 
state policy, desiring to advance the true and permanent interests of the state; and, further- 
more, and as the sense of this meeting, it is right that the past be forgotten, and that the 
chief executive of the state, the legislature and all others of the state, act henceforth in 
union and harmony, and with an eye single to the public good." 



The governor's message to the legislature unfortunately was not in this spirit, as he 
indulged to some extent in traducing the white people of the state. 

In pursuance of a resolution oEFered to inquire into the official conduct of Adelbert Ames, 
a committee was appointed to make an investigation accordingly. On the 22d of February, 
its report was submitted, recommending the impeachment of the governor for official mis- 
conduct, on eleven separate and distinct charges. The substance of these was that he had 
in several specified instances refused to remove certain officials as required by law, and had 
in other cases made removals without cause; that he had caused a conflict between races, 
attended by bloodshed, at Vicksburg, in December, 1874, by directing Peter Crosby's return, 
in violation of law, and sustaining him in taking possession of the sheriff's office of Warren 
county, and that he had attempted to incite a war of races in Hinds county, in October, 1875, 
by causing a company of colored militia, which had taken part in the Clinton riot, to parade 
the streets of that town, armed and defiant. The report and the resolution of impeachment 
were adopted by the house February 25, by a vote of eighty-six to fourteen, all the repub- 
licans present, and two democrats voting in the negative. Twenty-three articles of impeach- 
ment were prepared and adopted. On the 13th of March, all the preliminary proceedings 
of the court were taken, and the trial was to begin on the 29th of March, when the follow- 
ing letter, addressed by the governor to his counsel, was submitted to the house: "Gentle- 
men : In regard to your suggestion, I beg leave to say that in consequence of the election of 
last November, I fouad myself confronted with the hostile legislature and embarrassed 
and baffled in my endeavors to carry out my plan for the welfare of the state and of my 
party. I had resolved, therefore, to resign my office as governor of the state of Mississippi. 
Bat meanwhile, proceedings of impeachment were instituted against me, and of course I 
could not, and would not retire from my position under the imputation of any charge affect- 
ing my honor or integrity. For the reasons indicated, I still desire to escape burdens which 
are compensated by no possibility of public usefulness; and if the articles of impeachment 
presented against me were not pending, and the proceedings were dismissed, I should feel at 
liberty to carry out my desire and purpose of resignation. I am very truly yours, Adelbert 

The house then passed the following resolution: " That the managers on the part of 
this house, in the matter of the impeachment of Adelbert Ames, governor of said state, be, 
and they are hereby directed to dismiss the said articles against the said Adelbert Ames, 
governor, as aforesaid, which were heretofore exhibited by them against him at the bar of 
the senate. ' ' 

The proceedings were accordingly dismissed in the senate by a vote of twenty-four to 
seven. Governor Ames immediately resigned, and Col. J. M. Stone, president pro tern, of 
the senate, was at once installed in the office of governor, in joint convention of the two 

Articles of impeachment had also been presented against the colored lieutenant-governor 
of the state, Alexander K. Davis, charging him, while acting as governor in the absence of 
Governor Ames, with receiving a bribe as consideration for granting a pardon to a man con- 
victed of murder. He was tried and convicted, by a vote of thirty-two to four, six republi- 
cans, one of them colored, voting guilty. The four voting not guilty were all colored 
republicans. Sentence was passed on the 23d of March, by a vote of twenty-five to four, 
removing Mr. Davis from office, and disqualifying him from holding any office of profit, 
honor or trust in the future. 

Articles of impeachment were also pending against T. W. Cardoza, a colored superin- 


teadent of public education, for coavertiug to his own use funds of a colored normal school 
of the state, while treasurer of the institution; for obtaining money from the state for 
unnecessary books for the public schools, a portion of which was for his own benefit; and 
with proposing with another to divide and convert to their own use a portion of the school 
teachers' funds of Warren county. Mr. Cardoza asked permission to resign his otfice, and 
have the proceedings dismissed, which was accordingly done. 

Two amendments to the constitution of the state were adopted. One of these abolished 
the office of lieutenant-governor, and the other provided for a biennial session of the legis- 
lature, beginning in January, 1878. 

The republican party of the state held a convention at Jackson on the 30th of March, 
1876, to appoint delegates to the national convention at Cincinnati, to nominate candidates 
for the presidential election, and choose a state executive committee. The following were 
some of the clauses of the platform adopted: 

We adopt the sentiment of General Grant: "Let no guilty man escape," and we further say. Let 
every guilty man be brought to punishment. In view of these sentiments, we arraign the democratic 
leaders of Mississippi, and charge them with prosecuting impeachments for partisan purposes, and to 
consolidate power obtained by violence, intimidation and fraud. They charged the late governor, and 
the late superintendent of education, with high crimes and misdemeanors. If guilty, they should be 
punished; if innocent, justice and truth ha%'e been wantonly violated; whether guilty or innocent, could 
only be known upon a full, fair and impartial trial. This the accused parties were not onlj- entitled to, 
but justice demanded it. lustead, assuming their charges to be true, democrats have compounded 
felonies, and have thus added another serious crime to the long catalogue of high crimes and misde- 
meanors on their part. We, the republicans of Jlississippi, therefore arraign the democratic party of the 
state before an enlightened public sentiment, and charge that party with corruption in order to secure 
public offices for partisan purposes. The history of impeachment shows this, and nothing less. 

They have usurped the power from the people, first by violence, intimidation and fraud, and thereby 
providing that a senator, elected as such, shall be governor, thus refusing to let the people say who shall 
'be governor. 

Themselves illegally elected, the}' seek to maintain power by unheard-of legislation in the interest 
of the democratic party, without regard to the rights or will of the people, and in disregard of both. 

The}' have gerrymandered the state by most outrageous, unj ust and partisan alteration of the con- 
gressional districts. 

As important and vital as are the great principles in the foregoing, we present to the people of the 
state and of the whole country, as underlying and overriding all other issues, as containing all that is 
dear to us, as one that will invade the North and West if not arrested and crushed out, the question of 
the freedom of the ballot. Violence at elections is a blow at free institutions, and these, with us, are 
practically a mockery. This violence will destroy all other interests, social, educational, financial, 
business and religious. 

The democratic state convention, for similar purposes, was held at Jackson on the 14th 
of June, and put in their answer and defense to the indictment against it, contained in the 
republican platform, as follows: 

Resolved, That the democrats and conservatives, in convention assembled, iiroclaim their heartfelt 
gratitude for the complete victory which was won by the advocates of reform, in the election of 1875, 
liver the incompetent, corrupt and prescriptive political organization which had held unlimited control 
of the state government for six years, and that the}- emphatically repelled the imputation that their 
triumph was won by any other than the legal, honest and sincere efforts which the justice of their cause, 
and their duty as freemen to maintain unimpaired their inalienable rights, demanded them to make. 

That in proof of the sincerity of the pledges of the victorious party in that election to reduce ex- 
penditures to an honest and economical standard and elevate the scale of official qualifications, we point 
with pride and pleasure to the acts of its late session, to which body the thanks of the whole people are 
due, for its faithful discharge of duty in correcting the abuses of the public service; in diminishing the 
burden of taxation; in dismissing the supernumerary officials from the various branches of the public 


service, who consumed the earning of labor without rendering an equivalent; in dispensing the blessings 
of just laws without distinction of race, color or class; in holding faithless public officials to strict 
accountability for their misconduct; and especially does the popular branch of the legislature standing 
as the grand impress of the commonwealth deserve thanks for investigating the acts of the guilty 
officials whom it arraigned for malfeasance, corruption and usurpation of unconstitutional powers, and for 
driving them by the perils of the ofEeude<l law into obscurity from the public trusts which they had 

Resolved, That in addition to the foregoing, we proclaim the following principles as the rule and 
guide of our political faith and conduct: 

1. The doctrine of local self-government, the surest protection of personal liberty; fidelity to the 
constitution of the United States, and all the obligations imposed upon iis as citizens of a common 

8. Free schools, free suffrage, equal rights. 

3. Equal and exact justice to all citizens of every race and clime, native and foreign born, and no 
discriminating legislation for the benefit of favored classes or corporations. 

4. No proscription for opinion's sake; no sectional lines; no resurrection of dead issues for partisan 
success, and as a pretext for vindictive legislation. 

5. The sacred maintenance of the public faith, and the strict performance of all obligations, state 
and national. 

6. Retrenchment and economy in all of the departments of public service, and adherence to the time- 
honored JefEersonian standard of qualification for office, "Is he honest, is he capable, is he faithful to the 

With these declarations, we cordially invite all men to cooperate with us in establishing the 
permanent supremacy of the principles which they embody in the administration of public affairs. 

The democrats were thoroughly organized in this canvass, but the republicans displayed 
little activity. At the election in November following, the whole number pf votes cast for 
presidential electors was one hundred aud sixty-four thousand seven hundred and seventy- 
eight. Of these, one hundred and twelve thousand one hundred and seventy-three were for 
the democratic, and fifty-two thousand six hundred and five for the republican ticket, 
making the democratic majority fifty- nine thousand five hundred and sixty- eight. The six 
members of congress then chosen were all democrats. The legislature of 1877 consisted of 
twenty-six democrats and eleven republicans in the senate, and ninety- six democrats and 
nineteen republicans in the house. 

A committee of the United States senate was in the state for several weeks during the 
summer of 1876, makiag an iovestigation of the circumatances of the election of 1875. 
Majority and minority reports were made to the senate early in the session of 1876 and '77. 

The administration of Robert Lowry, who was chief executive for two terms, covering 
the years 1881-9, succeeded by John M. Stone, the present governor of the state, brings 
the political history of Mississippi down to this day. Governor Stone had also been the 
immediate predecessor of Robert Lowry. 

The most important question which was considered in the legislature of January, 1888, 
was that which contemplated calling a convention to revise the constitution of 1869. The 
act providing for it, after a warm discussion, was passed, but Governor Lowry vetoed it. 
The constitution of 1869, notwithstanding the motley composition of the convention of 1868, 
which adopted it, turned out to be a good one. The effort to change it was based in some 
degree upon the elemental self-governing idea that, as it was not altogether a genuine home 
product, being the handiwork of a party supposed to be hostile and alien to the state in 
a measure in its structure, it ought to be changed for this reason, if no other. Quite a notion, 
too, had taken root in the agricultural communities, nurtured by the fraternizing mood of 
aspiring candidates for office, that the state should return to the good old days and popular 
policy of the constitution of 1832, and make the judiciary elective directly by the people. 


Again it was contended, with better reasofi than either of these, and in a straightfor- 
ward spirit to deal fairly and wisely with a difficulty which was rather racial than political, 
that the people of the state were living under two constitutions — one of the government of 
the United States, and the other, of the state, and that the former was paramount and 
required an impartial suffrage without reference to color or race, and guaranteed the 
existence of a republican form of government in the states; that some positive effective 
method by public law must be adopted by which ignorance and incompetency should be 
restrained and fitted by compliance with certain constitutional requirements for the exer- 
cise of the elective franchise. 

The objection chiefly urged unfavorable to the calling of the convention was that in view 
of the fifteenth amendment to the Federal constitution inhibitory of denial or abridgment 
of the right of citizens of the United States to vote, by any state on account of race or color, 
and that, therefore, some 15,000 ignorant whites in the state would be put in the same 
category with the blacks to become eligible as electors according to the design proposed in 
the new organic law. 

However, at the next biennial legislature of .1890, another act was passed providing for a 
constitutional convention, which was approved by Governor Stone. It convened in August, 
1890, at the capital. Sol S. Calhoun, a prominent lawyer and democrat of Hinds county, 
was chosen president. He made a speech in acknowledgment of the honor conferred, 
abounding in good sense and a full appreciation of the delicate and responsible duties de- 
volved upon the convention. "Wiley P. Harris was a member of this body, who, on account 
of his large experience in public affairs and his intellect, prudence and sagacious judgment, 
was always looked to for safe counsel by the party in emergencies. James Z. George, one 
of the United States senators from the state, was especially requested to leave his place of 
duty at Washington, congress then being in session, to become a member of this convention, 
as the people had great confidence in his capacity to cope satisfactorily with the more im- 
portant objects had in view. 

James L. Alcorn and Judge Simrall, both republicans, venerable and honored citizens of 
the state, were also members, chosen as delegates by both democrat and republican votes. 
Isaiah V. Williamson, a colored delegate from the densely black county, voted for by both 
races, an educated negro and property -holder, took a large and enlightened view of the situ- 
ation, co-operating with the convention in its delicate and grave work of piloting the ship of 
state upon a narrower pathway than that in which the course of Ulysses lay between Scylla 
and Charybdis. 

A franchise committee of fifteen was appointed, Wiley P. Harris, James Z. George, 
James L. Alcorn and H. F. Simrall, being among the number. 

The committee brought in their report after sitting about a month and giving the sub- 
ject matter confided to them profound thought and examination. As it is of importance, 
extracts from the report as substantially adopted in section 24 of article 12 of the constitu- 
tion will be given, as follows: 

Section 241. "Every male inhabitant of this state, except idiots, insane persons and 
Indians not taxed, who is a citizen of the United States, twenty-one years old and upwards, 
who has resided in this state two years and one year in the election district, or in the incor- 
porated city or town in which he offers to vote, and who is duly registered as provided in this 
article, and who has never been convicted of bribery, burglary, theft, arson, obtaining money 
or goods under false pretenses, perjury, forgery, embezzlement or bigamy, and who has paid 
on or before the first day of February of the year in which he shall offer to vote, all taxes 


which may have been legally required of him, aad which he has had an opportunity of pay- 
ing according to law, for the two preceding years, and who shall produce to the ofQcers hold- 
ing the election satisfactory evidence that he has paid said taxes, is declared to be a qualified 

Then followed a section providing by law for the registration of all persons entitled to 
vote at any election and prescribing the form of oath or affirmation to be taken. The section 
243 provided for the payment of a uniform poll tax of |2 to be used in the aid of common 
schools, the tax to be a lien only on taxable property. 

Section 244 was in the following language: "On and after the first day of January 
A. D. 1892, every elector shall, in addition to the foregoing qualifications, be able to read 
any section of the constitution of this state; or he shall be able to understand the same when 
read to him, or give a reasonable interpretation thereof. A new registration shall be made 
before the next ensuing election, after January 1, A. D. 1892." 

Section 244 gave rise to animated discussion, not only in the convention, but by the 
people and press all over the state, and there developed decided opposition to its adoption in 
some quarters. 

It was contended that it was a contradiction in terms, and not in the frank spirit in 
which the convention was called and had set out upon its labors; that it would not operate 
impartially for the reason that the judges of the qualifications there enumerated were not 
provided for, this having been left to the registrars of election. It was even by an extreme 
expression of individual democratic opinion called a fraud. 

But as a frank interchange of views and a more calm, dispassionate and analytical reflec- 
tion succeeded to the impulsive impressions first taken, it was finally assented to as a fair 
and rational solution of the problem involved in the provision thus made from the peculiar 
situation of the state of Mississippi. 

An amendment was offered, also proposing female suffrage. It was treated seriously 
and ludicrously by turns, and then dismissed rather summarily when the curious novelty of 
the suggestion was shorn by the robust sense of the convention of its sentimental attraction. 

A scheme after the type of the Australian ballot-system was provided for, the voters re- 
ceiving an official ballot containing all the names of candidates and going alone, one at a 
time, into compartments arranged as a voting-place, and marking, with the exercise of his 
own choice and discretion, the person, or persons for whom he desires to vote. 

The legislature was given power to alter, annul or repeal any charter of incorporation 
now existing and revocable, and any that may hereafter be created whenever in its opinion 
it might be in the public interest to do so. This constitution finally put a quietus on the 
question of the Planters' and Union bank bonds which the decision of the supreme court 
had still left open, saying they never should be paid. 

Decided restrictions were laid upon the rather liberal corporate legislation which had 
heretofore obtained, this action being taken responsive to the demands of the people upon 
this subject. 

The constitution is a rather full and comprehensive one. As was facetiously remarked 
by a distinguished member of the convention, " They hardly left the legislature room to 
turn around in." 

An ordinance was proposed looking to cutting up the liquor traffic, root and branch, in 
Mississippi, but the convention declined to go that far, the subject not having entered into 
the canvass for election of delegates to the convention. 

The constitution was itdopted November 1, 1890, the couveotiou having been in suasion 
nearljr three jnontbs, 


Practically, sioce 1875, there has been but one organized party in the state, the demo- 
cratic party. 

This party has always been strong and controlling in the state from its early history. 
Prior to the Civil war, Mississippi voted at each election for the democratic candidates for 
the presidency and vice-presidency, the sole exception being in 1840, when it went for Har- 
rison. After the war, when Mr. Greeley was a candidate for the presidency, the state sup- 
ported him. 

A few years ago a diverging effort was made to popularize a greenback theory of 
finance and form a party upon this basis, but it soon became apparent that the hope was as 
unsubstantial as a dream. 

In some localities now upon the temperance question, prohibition and anti-prohibition 
proclivities enter as a factor in elections, but have made no impression upon the general 
politics of the state. A recent state prohibition convention which assembled at the capital 
declared in the platform adopted the positive determination of the temperance organization 
of the state to place no ticket in the field at any general election, or take any part in 

With but one political party in the state, therefore, the methods of executive commit- 
tees are simply confined to declaring the manner of making nominations, supervising the 
agencies and providing and directing the instrumentalities in the conduct of campaign, and 
settling questions which grow out of this action, and disputed points of elections, such as 
may be properly cognizable under their management in the premises. In 1873-5, when 
the republican party was defeated in the state, to 1880, when a greater degree of generalship 
was needed, the three chairmen of the state democratic executive committee were James Z. 
George, John D. Freeman and Capt. Frank Johnston, a distinguished lawyer of the state. 

Generally, a nomination is equivalent to an election. 

The negroes, as a rule, take no interest in politics. In what are known as the black 
counties, in accordance with the fusion movement, which took place some years ago as be- 
tween the negroes and the democrats, there is still a division made of the offices, negroes in 
many counties being sent to the senate and house of representatives, and elected circuit 
and chancery clerks and magistrates, and appointed teachers in the public schools. They 
serve on juries throughout the state. 

There is a strong sense of the blessing derivable from the prevalence of law and order, 
and peace and harmony now existing between the races, and a wise and economical govern- 
ment in the state, which pervades every class and condition of the people. All morbid public 
feeling and any step taken to bring about unrest or prejudice and hurtful agitation, is rep- 
robated by common consent. The people are willing to trust both the state and national 
govelfnment for protection, and the best advancement of their public interests and security, 
while they pursue the even tenor of their private vocations and industries. 

At the juncture at which this chapter is written, the absorbing question of political 
interest in the state, and which has become a vital subject of controversy within the demo- 
cratic party, is the subtreasury scheme, as proposed and defined in the bill of Mr. Piekler, 
introduced in the national house of representatives at the last session of congress, and 
familiar to the people of the United States siuce its object and purpose has been incorporated 
in the platform of the National Farmers' Alliance at Ocala, Fla. 

This question was first presented distinctly in the politics of the state in the congress- 
ional election of the year 1890. In the seventh congressional district, now and then 
represented in congress bj^ Charles E- Hooker, it vyas made a pregnant and controlling issue 


by Maj. Ethel Barksdale, who became a candidate for the nomination against Colonel Hooker, 
Major Barksdale then being a member of the state alliance. 

It was at first thought by reason of the alacrity with which the agricultural interest, 
somewhat depressed in the state for several years, seized the new and facile idea of borrow- 
ing money from the government on the products enumerated in the bill, including cotton, that 
Major Barksdale would have, in political phraseology, a "walkover." 

However, Colonel Hooker was renominated, Major Barksdale having withdraw from the 
canvass when the county of Madison pronounced against him in the primaries held there. 
In this county the question has been thoroughly ventilated by discussion pro and con in the 
various precincts. Many intelligent and influential farmers reside in this county. 

Hooker's consistent political record, fervid oratory and great popularity, together with a 
masterly sounding of the issues of the campaign, turned what at one time seemed inevita- 
ble defeat into a brilliant victory. 

Since that time, however, the adoption by the Ocala convention of the subtreasury 
scheme in its platform, the question has been freshly stimulated in Mississippi. Major 
Barksdale this year again entered the field as candidate for the United States senate upon this 
issue, against Senator J. Z. George, who had become a candidate for re-election, his colleague. 
Senator Edward Walthal, not entering the canvass in contemplation of retirement from the 

That campaign is still pending. Most of the leadiug men of the state are upon the 
hustings with the political slogan — " straightout democracy and George." General George 
having been always closely identified with the people through a sympathy from early struggles 
extending to every stratum of the social organization, and steadfastly devoted to the prin- 
ciples of the democratic party, believing that by it the well being of the people of Mississippi 
can best be subserved, it was not thought that there was any necessity for substituting 
another in his place, professing the same party ethics, but difPering with him simply upon 
the expediency of the general government's adopting the economical policy proposed. John 
M. Allen, now in congress, the inimitable humorist and gifted politician, and a great favorite 
with the people, is actively engaged in the canvass in behalf of George, and Col. Charles E. 
Hooker is on the scene again fighting over the same battle with the same combatant of the 
year 1890. 

Several prominent and very able alliance men of other states have taken some part 
in the campaign. The latest reliable intelligence of the action of the counties in choosing 
senators and representatives to the next legislature is, that General George's re election is 
assured, the result being finally determinable by the legislature, which assembles in January, 

It is obvious that the financial policy as proposed to be adopted by the national govern- 
ment has gained some ground in the state under the influence of the alliance organization, 
but still its members are democrats for the most part, and they have not tolerated any sugges- 
tion of the formation of a third party, believing that their condition can best be ameliorated 
within the ranks of the political party to which they have always adhered, and under a 
Federal policy of low taxation. The preponderating public sentiment of the state is, that 
while as a matter of course a logical and essential ratio should be made to exist between the 
expanded interstate commercial operations and increased business of the country and the 
volume of circulating medium, still they are not disposed, they reason, to substitute a self- 
evident proposition (always urged by the democracy in its advocacy of the bimetallic system 
of gold and silver) for the subject matter — the tariff — which has constituted the definite issue 
between the two great political parties of the country for an unbroken space of thirty years. 


(©HAPTEf^ yiiL 



ICKSBUKG is situated on the plateau overlooking the Mississippi in north latitude 
V(5) thirty-two degrees, twenty-one minutes, thirty-three seconds and west longitude 
'^ thirteen degrees, fifteen minutes. A series of terraces mark the approach to the 
Hill city from the Mississippi bottom and from the bayous, giving it natural drainage in 
four general courses. The delta country stretching northward and the rich agricultural 
regions to the east and south are tributary to the city, while her railroad and steamboat facil- 
ities place her on a plane with the prosperous city of Memphis further north, bringing her 
within six hours' distance of the Red river country of Louisiana, Shreveport, one hundred 
and seventy-two miles; within seven hours' distance of the Texan cotton-fields, Marshall, two 
hundred and eleven miles; within twenty-four hours of Chicago, 111., seven hundred and 
forty- eight miles; and Cincinnati, Ohio, seven hundred and nineteen miles; thirty hours of 
Washington, D. C, one thousand and fifty-four miles, and forty hours of New York city, 
one thousand, two hundred and eighty-two miles. The population in 1850 was two thousand 
six hundred and seventy-eight, in 1860, four thousand five hundred and ninety-one, in 1870, 
twelve thousand four hundred and forty-three, in 1880, eleven thousand and in 1890, thir- 
teen thousand two hundred and ninety-eight. 

In the matter of the sanitary condition of the city, Dr. Brisbane's report, made a few 
years ago, contained important points, among which are the following: 

" Second to no other attraction or element of importance is the health of a town and the 
advantages or otherwise of its sanitary features and condition. The prospective citizen, with 
children to educate, is particular to estimate the educational advantages ; the manufacturer 
and investor inquire as to taxes, encouragement offered and water or other facilities; the 
artisan and mechanic are specially intei'ested in the number of factories and industries; but 
all alike, with one voice, demand the proof of health and sanitary guarantees of any com- 
munity that invites his presence. The health of cities and growing towns, competing for 
attention and development, is the constant theme with their respective editors and public- 
spirited citizens. The sanitary condition and advantages of a community are prominent bases 
on which its merits and attractions are pushed and heralded with all the energy of modern 
booms. With any of them, in this respect particularly, Vicksburg eagerly invites comparison. 
The sanitary committee is one of the most important and active committees of the board of 
mayor and aldermen. There is a health officer, a salaried official, who acts in conjunction 
with the sanitary committee, and also a board of health, composed of prominent local 

*For adcUtioaiil matter couceruiag cities, towns aail villages, see CUaptei-s \'"HI to XII inclusive, \'oI. I. 


physiciaus. During the summer months, sanitary inspectors are employed, and as a rule a 
special sanitary officer is regularly appointed by the city council. In addition, the regular 
police are also required to make sanitary reports, and even the fire department is not exempt 
when called upon to do sanitary duty. The whole is governed by a series of carefully drawn 
ordinances and regulations, which show to what a high degree this important part of careful 
municipal government has received attention. Vicksburg, like every center, has a large 
tloating population, attracted by the construction of railroads, levees and other works of like 
character, and the sick and dying from this large class find an asylum in the state hospital, 
located at Vicksburg. The causes of death given in the records show to the discerning 
mind certain facts worthy of notice. For instance, there is a notable absence of the malig- 
nant forms of malaria so generally attributed to this section of country as a cause of death. 
There is also a comparative absence of deaths caused by typhoid fever, and likewise a very 
limited number of deaths under the head of contagious and infectious diseases." 

The temperature of winter seldom descends to seven degrees, and that of summer 
seldom exceeds seventy degrees. The change of seasons is so gradually accomplished that 
there is a spring and a fall distinct in character from such imaginative seasons in the North. 

Vicksburg may be said to date its beginning to 1783, when the Spaniards completed 
Fort Nogales, garrisoned the post and armed the redoubts known as Fort Mount Virgie, Fort 
Gayoso and Fort St. Ignatius. For almost a century before, the site was known to Canadian 
and French travelers and prior to 1729 to the first colonists of the Natchez district, whose 
farms spread out to the Yazoo and to Walnut hills. 

On March 23, 1798, the commander received orders from the governor at New Orleans 
to evacuate the position and return to Natchez. A few days later a company of United 
States troops, under Major Kersey, took possession of the works and changed the name to 
Fort McHenry. Its occupation was continued for a short time, when it was allowed to be 
used for civil purposes and became the home of Anthony Glass, Sr. Its location, ten thou- 
sand feet above the courthouse of Warren county, is to-day known as Fort Hill. The 
national government recognized the historic character of the place and there located the 
national cemetery. 

The open woods, six miles east of Vicksburg, beyond the great cauebrake, were selected 
by Newet Vick about 1811 as a homestead farm; but preferring to cultivate the land on the 
river front, he built a cabin for his negroes at the intersection of Washington and Belmont 
streets of the present city, and opened a plantation there that year. Foster Cook came before 
him in his interest, but can not be said to have preceded him as a settler. It was Mr. Vick 
who conceived the idea of planting a town on Walnut hills; but dying in 1819, his plans were 
not carried out until 1821, when his son-in-law. Rev. John Lane, a Methodist preacher, like 
the pioneer himself, had a plat of the village made. Immediately after the land was sur- 
veyed and the United States land office opened at Washington, Miss., in January, 1816, the 
Vicks entered the site of Vicksburg in regular form, and twenty years after the place was 
chosen as the seat of justice for Warren county. The first store was started at Vicksburg by 
Hartwell Vick, a son of Newet Vick, the proprietor of the place, in about 1820. He con- 
tinued about four years, and was then succeeded by Foster Cook and partner, George Wyche, 
under the firm name of Cook & Wyche. They did a large business and supplied planters in 
many adjoining counties. 

Several years ago a number of prominent citizens and capitalists of Vicksburg obtained 
a charter from the legislature of the state of Mississippi and organized under it the Vicks- 
burg Wharf and Land company, This company acquired by purchase for cash all the lands 


south of Vicksburg, covering a river front of over a mile and a half and controlling what is 
known as the lower landing. This property consists of several hundred acres of land and 
covers as large an area as that at present occupied by the city of Vicksburg. As the growth 
of the city has been for years in a southerly direction, and has already reached the estate of 
the company, it naturally follows that in the event of Vicksburg increasing to double its pres- 
ent size and population — and there are strong indications of such a happening — then the 
property of the Wharf and Land company would become the site of a city as populous as 
Vicksburg nqw is. In 1880 Vicksburg had a population of twelve thousand, and in 1886 
of eighteen thousand, thus showing a healthy and steady growth. The building of the 
Louisville, New Orleans & Texas railroad has given new impetus to the city, and that road 
is now erecting immense construction and repair shops immediately adjoining the lands 
of the Vicksburg Wharf and Land company, which must materially increase the demand 
for the company's lots. The transfer across the Mississippi river of the cars of the Cin- 
cinnati, New Orletius & Texas Pacific system is also made over the property of the company, 
and at this landing the various boats plying on the Mississippi and Yazoo and their 
tributaries connect with the Vicksburg & Meridian, Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific, and 
Louisville, New Orleans & Texas railroads. 

The Vicksburg Wharf and Land company have laid out their property as an addition 
to the city of Vicksburg, and are at work having an electric street railroad built to it. In 
the meantime little or no effort is being made to dispose of the lots, the company realizing 
that at an early day these lots will command very liberal prices, owing to the various advan- 
tages possessed by their location both for business and residential purposes. A few lots have 
been sold at prices ranging from $1,500 to $2,000 each, and residences are now being 
erected on them. The stock of the company is not on the market. The secure position of 
the company, the cash value of its lands, and the stolidity with which the stockholders have 
held on to their shares from its earliest inception have obviated the necessity of running the 
capital into the millions. This amounts to $300,000 only. It is understood that this stock 
has never changed hands from the original holders, who have been so satisfied with the 
investment that they have never cared to part with it. The exceptional situation of this 
property, its numerous advantages for residential purposes, commanding as it does a mag- 
nificent view of the river and the surrounding country for miles, while it has in addition to 
the landing every railroad centering in Vicksburg immediately at its base, must make it at an 
early day the most sought-for and the best tract of land in and around Vicksburg. The 
stochkolders of the company are all subtantial business men. Among them are: Thomas 
Eigby, ex-president of the Vicksburg and Meridian railroad; A. D. Mattingly, coal mer- 
chant; J. B. Mattingly, mill owner; Thomas M. Smedes, and Eugene Martin, all of Vicks- 
burg; Colonel Wooldridge, Lexington, Ky. ; the German Security bank of Louisville, Ky. 
The late Col. A. B. Pittman, of Vicksburg, was also a stockholder. 

The surrender of Vicksburg, July 3, 1863, to the troops under Grant, and the defeat of 
Lee's army at Gettysburg on the same date, by the troops under Meade, abolished doubt in the 
minds of impartial observers. North and South, and pointed to the fact that, were the Federal 
authorities inclined to end the war, every division of the Confederacy could be garrisoned by 
their troops before the close of that summer. Early in the struggle the imjDortance of 
Vicksburg as a strategic point was recognized by both sides. The fall of New Orleans, in 
1862, gave the Federals virtual possession of the Mississippi river up to Vicksburg, down to 
which operations had also cleared the way from above. On the 18th of May a portion of 
Farragut's fleet, nodei' Capt. S. P. Lee, appeared before the oit^ and demanded its surren 


der, which was promptly refused. Every effort was made by the Confederacy to retain a 
strong force here. Ten thousand troops garrisoned Vicksburg at this period. On the 28th 
of May, General Williams, who had occupied the opposite side of the river, attempted, by 
means of a dug canal, to leave the city high and dry, but the uncertain stream declined to 
desert the city, and the scheme was a failure. 

After a vain bombardment, on the 28th of June Farragut's Heetwas compelled, by fall- 
ing water, to descend to New Orleans. General Sherman's operations from the Yazoo 
quarter were equally fruitless. Grant's attack, on the 19th of May, 1863, was gallantly 
repulsed, but he invested the city with an overwhelming force of seventy thousand men, while 
the fleet co-operated from the river. 

On July 3, 1863, after enduring for forty-seven days and nights the horrors of bom- 
bardment, and menaced by the pangs of hunger, Vicksburg, through General Pemberton, in 
command of the town, was allowed honorable terms of capitulation, and the brave struggle 
of the inhabitants against the inevitable was at an end. Rather less than seventeen years 
later, on April 12, 1880, Grant again entered Vicksburg — not this time at the head of a 
victorious army, but amid the plaudits of the citizens, as their invited guest, they having 
chivalrously forgotten the bitterness of the past and joined the whole South in welcoming 
the great Federal captain. 

After the siege, Vicksburg struggled manfully to regain its prosperity. The recon- 
struction period was successfully passed through, but a disastrous fire in 1866 caused great 
loss of property. In 1876 the Mississippi river, most fickle and inconstant of its kind, vol- 
untarily accomplished the task in which the Federal engineers had failed. It reached across 
the narrow isthmus opposite, which has ever since remained an island, while Vicksburg now 
stands on the borders of a lake, two miles from the main current and only reached directly 
by navigation during the four or five months of high water each year. Two years later, in 
common with other Southern cities, Vicksburg had a terrible visitation of yellow fever. 
Another great fire in 1883 laid a portion of the town in ruins, and as a fitting climax to this 
series of misfortunes, the collapse of the Mississippi bank the same year took from luckless 
depositors a million dollars of hard-earned money. However strange it may seem, there is 
a gleam of satisfaction in recalling these unhappy incidents, for they serve to set forth more 
eloquently than volumes of argument the strength and elasticity of the town and the uncon- 
querable will of the people. Vicksburg has been tried in the crucible and has come out of 
the dread ordeal better in every way. 

With the possible exception of Arlington Heights at Washington, no national cemetery 
in the United States can compare with that of Vicksburg, situated about two miles north of 
town. All that nature and art could do has been here accomplished to afford a noble resting 
place for over sixteen thousand Federal soldiers. Until the building of the Valley road there 
was a splendid wide drive from £he city to the cemetery. The railroad somewhat affected 
ed the drainage and caused a slight caving in of the sides. Congress appropriated 110,000 
for restoring this road in 1880 and it was made a beautiful boulevard with shade trees on 
each side. 

The Convent and Academy of St. Francis Xavier, opened in 1860, was converted into an 
hospital for soldiers in 1861, and the teachers became hospital nurses there and in the prin- 
cipal military hospitals throughout the state. In 1863 the Federals took possession of the 
buildings, but they were restored to the sisters after peace was insured. 

A movement was inaugurated at Vicksburg in May, 1889, to hold a reunion of Federal and 
Confederate veterans in May, 1890. Prominent men of the state were asked to serve upon 


tbe executive committee, such as Governor Lovpry, Gen. Stephen D. Lee, Col. Charles E. 
Hooker, Gen. E. C. Walthall, Gen. J. Z. George, Ex-Gov. John M. Stone, Hon. T. M. 
Miller, Private John Allen, John R. Cameron, Gen. W. T. Martin, Gen. S. W. Ferguson, 
Col. Stockdale, and also distinguished ex- Federal soldiers, then citizens of the state. Their 
action insured success, and the Northern Decoration day of 1890 was solemnly celebrated at 
Vicksburg, the Blue and Gray uniting in extolling the valor of their soldiers. 

The history of the part taken by the people of Warren county and Vicksburg in the 
Mexican and Civil vpars is portrayed in the general history of the state, and there also is related 
much of their social, religious and commercial progress. In thebrief sketch of Warren county, 
the character of the country, the names of its pioneers, and other facts of local interest are 
given, so that it is unnecessary to refer to such names and events in the sketch of the city. 

The building of the county courthouse in 1858, twenty-tvro years after the people 
declared Vicksburg to be the seat of justice, and thirty-seven years after the town was sur- 
veyed, may be considered the beginning of her commercial progress. That courthouse was 
erected in 1858 and completed in 1861, after plans by William Weldon. It is a two-story 
brick (in stucco) building, which cost over $100,000. It holds the position of an ancient 
citadel, and like such old buildings is classic in style, the Ionic columns giving it a beauty 
which the colonial cupola cannot destroy. The site is terraced, and bounded by heavy stone 
walls. Within, the prevailing ideas of antebellum days in the South are exemplified; for 
the high ceilings and large rooms tell of the disposition of the people to seek light, air and 
space — a disposition now made subservient to economy. 

The Federal building is a Florentine- Romanesque study, authorized by the last con- 
gress. The Convent and Academy of St. Francis Xavier is a great square palladium house, 
with a Gothic frontal or central pavilion, and is considered one of the finest educational 
buildings in the whole South. The Main Street public school building is a semi-Gothic 
house, with central tower and lantern. As a house where light and ventilation are the first 
objects it is a success, but from an architectural point of view the style should never show 
itself in the United States. There is something definite in the form of St. Aloysius' Com- 
mercial college. It is an adaptation of the Florentine school, and retains many of those 
features which the master, Palladio, proclaimed to be necessary. The quoin stones in the 
piers of the corner pavilions or projections, the pilaster strip, the Italian voussoirs and key- 
stones are all definite, and the construction substantial. 

The residences are rather in the Queen Anne style than in the classic, and in this respect 
Vicksburg differs materially from the sister city of Natchez. 

There are eight white churches here. The Catholic church of St. Paul's has a very 
rich interior. There are three priests, of whom Father Petre is the chief, while among the 
congregation many of the best families of the city are always to be seen. The Catholic 
population of Vicksburg is over four thousand. The two Episcopalian churches, Holy Trin- 
ity, and Christ's, are fine specimens of ecclesiastical architecture, the tall spire of the former 
being greatly admired. The Methodists, Presbyterians and Baptists have also convenient 
places of worship, while the Hebrew fraternity possesses a well-appointed synagogue. The 
colored people pay their devotions in six churches of different denominations. St. Paul's 
church is a large, gothic structure, with central tower, surmounted by a small spire, spring- 
ing from within an arcade or parapet. The tower corners and buttresses are capped and 
each carries a pinnacle. Some years before the war a chime of ten bells was placed in the 
bell-tower and the interior decorated. The building suffered, of course, during the bom- 
bardment in 1863, but all damages were repaired and the decorations of the interior 


improved. The Baptist cburch presents a style of semi-gothic architecture which obtained 
about the middle of the first half of the century, when the sects increased in wealth and 
influence, as they did in numbers. A central tower with brooch, Gothic only in the forma- 
tion of doors and windows, leaves it an independent architectural conception of 1879. The 
Church of the Holy Trinity is a Norman Gothic house, with tower, including finial or cross, 
two hundred and eleven feet in hight. Pilaster strip and corbel tables are extensively used, 
giving it a Tudor appearance. Christ church was erected in 1841-2, after the Elizabethan 
idea of the Gothic style. It is the same in style as those buildings erected in the United 
Kingdom and the British colonies in the eighteenth and in the first half of this century by 
the British government. The Methodist church, built in 1850, is a very independent con- 
ception of Architect Thomas Hackett. It is a combination of the Roman, Gothic and 
colonial — a strange combination, of course, but evidently in accord with the ideas of those 
who worshiped in it forty years ago. The Presbyterian building is Gothic of the Tudor 
school, as has all the unfinished character of that school, the buttress merging into a pilaster 
and vice versa. The synagogue is altogether too uncertain in its architectural features to be 
credited to any known style. 

The Cotton exchange, organized in 1874, was incorporated in 1886. The Exchange 
building was purchased from the Mississippi Valley bank representatives in 1886 for 
120,000. This is an Italian house with a well-proportioned Corinthian colonnade or portico, 
entablature, parapet, caiTying statuary. The receipts of cotton are estimated at from 
sixty thousand to eighty- five thousand bales annually, including the greater part of the long 
stapled cotton produced in the tributary territory. 

The first term of the United States court opened in July, 1887. The city is largely 
indebted for this to the Hon. T. C. Catchings, who represented the district in congress. It 
not only effects a great saving in the expense and inconvenience hitherto involved in the 
journey to Jackson, but will bring more people and more money to Vicksburg. On a hill 
close to the town the water-works contractors erected in 1887 a standpipe one hundred and 
forty feet high, twenty feet in diameter, with a capacity of three hundred and twenty-five 
thousand gallons. Just outside the city thirty or forty four-inch drove wells were sunk to a 
depth of three hundred feet. Eighty hydrants were supplied to the city, each capable of 
throwing a stream fifty feet high. Twelve miles of piping were laid in the streets that year, 
the main pipes being sixteen inches in diameter. Besides the immense boon to the 
general public, the improvement in sanitary arrangements, and the advantages that accrue 
to the manufacturers, it is estimated that the water-works effect a reduction of nearly one- 
half in the rates of insurance. The capacity of the pumping machinery is stated to be 
four million gallons. 

The Hill City Electric Light company erected a plant in 1889, at a cost of 128,000, for 
lighting the city and private buildings, and added to the arc an incandescent system, at a 
cost of over $20,000 additional. The Thomson-Houston system is used, and furnishes 
excellent illumination for public and private purposes. Fifteen miles of wire were laid at 
once, and one hundred and five arc lights introduced; but one thousand incandescent lights 
were subsequently added and the foundations of electrical light established. 

The Vicksburg Hotel company selected plans presented by Sully, Toledano & Patton, 
which called for a five story commercial building, with romanesqne ornament, an octagonal 
tower one hundred and thirty feet high, at the northeast corner, and the hight for the 
building proper of one hundred feet. The estimated cost of the building alone is $70,000, 
and of the building and site, $110,000. No commercial building in the state compares 


with it either in beauty or appropriateness of design, and its erection marks a new era in 
Vicksburg's architecture. All the requirements of light and ventilation are perfectly met. 
The first floor contains the main rotunda, 41x64 feet, six stores fronting on Clay street, 
and the bar and billiardroom in the rear, fronting on an alley twenty-five feet wide ; also 
the office, baggageroom and laundry. On the right side of the main entrance are the 
elevator and grand stairway. The office or rotunda is lighted from a dome two stories high. 
On the second floor the entrance is into a large hall or receptionroom looking into the office 
below. Immediately in the rear of the dome on this floor, the dining hall, 39x82 feet, is 
located, as well as the ladies' ordinary, children's diningroom, kitchen and servants' rooms. 
The third, fourth and fifth floors are devoted entirely to the one hundred bedrooms, many 
of them en suite. 

Many other new buildings have been erected on historical sites, and throughout the city 
the hum of the builders is heard. Old dwellings and stores have been remodeled within the 
last few years, and in all things the inactivity of the old town of a few years ago is compen- 
sated for by the activity of the people of the present city, who are determined to raise 
Vicksburg to that position which its location and the resources of the adjacent country fit 
it to occupy. 

Bovina and New Town are other towns in Warren county. 

Meridian, the county seat of Lauderdale county, is situated at the junction of the Vicks- 
burg & Meridian, East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia, Alabama, Great Southern & New 
Orleans and Northeastern railroads with the Mobile & Ohio railroad, one hundred and thirty- 
five miles north of Mobile, one hundred and forty miles east of Vicksburg and one hundred 
and ninety-six miles northeast of New Orleans, near the eastern border of the state. Besides 
the railroads above mentioned, there are three other roads certain of early completion in the 
next two years. These are the Warrior Coal Fields railroad, the Pensacola & Memphis rail- 
road and the Brookhaven & Meridian railroad. Without these railroads Meridian is already, 
next to Atlanta, the greatest railroad center in the South. With these railroads, that are 
certain to be built, it will be the equal of Atlanta in railroad facilities, for these three lines, 
added to the present, will afford immediate connection in ten different directions. 

The city of Meridian is a wonder! Of commercial expansion and business activity; of 
business pluck, as well as of increase of population, she is a great and growing wonder ! 
Scarce a quarter of a century back an even one hundred people were the population of her 
limits. To-day about eleven thousand have their daily existence within her confines, while 
twice that number are interested in the rise and progress of this busy inland mart. 

The past few years have witnessed wonderful progress in city-building in this magic city 
of the South. With no spasmodic boom, but as a result of self-confidence, the growth 
and development of Meridian have really been astonishing, and, if it had no prospect of fur- 
ther railroad facilities, her people might say to the world, without incurring the charge of 
vanity, nor seeming to be vainglorious: " Come to us, ye who are manufacturers and work- 
ers in every known art, and make your home with us, for we are great and growing and 
growing greater!"' No place in the South is more favorably situated for cloth factories, 
furniture factories, wagon factories, implement factories and factories of every kind, than 
this bustling, driving, wideawake city of Meridian. 

As a manufacturing center the city is now taking prominent place. Already she has 
recorded some fine triumphs in this direction, among which are the following: The Sash 


and Blind factory, the Southern Standard Press company, the Meridian Oil Mills and Manu 
facturing company, the Progress Machine works, the Stanford & Son's Boiler and Sheet Iron 
works, the Williams & Briggs Machine shops, the New Orleans & Northeastern shops. 
Covert's Meridian Furniture factory, the East Mississippi Cotton mills, Love & Co. and 
Stevenson's gristmills, Hoffer's Phcenix Iron works, the Meridian Carriage and Pump Man- 
ufacturing company, Eobinson & Co. ' s Terra Cotta and Brick works, the Woodward Liver 
Renovator company, the Meridian Phosphate company, the Meridian Planing mills, the 
O'Neill Marble works, the Meridian Ice factory, the Meridian Fertilizer company and the 
Meridian Cigar factory. 

The educational interests of Meridian are extensive, and in their appointments quite as 
complete as may be found elsewhere, thus reflecting great credit upon this wideawake 
Southern city. The Meridian Female college (Baptist), the east Mississippi Female college 
(Methodist), the St. Aloysius Female academy (Catholic), are all notable institutions of learn- 
ing, well attended and capably conducted. 

The pride of Meridian is her excellent public schools. Although they were organized 
but five years ago, they are rapidly being recognized as among the best city schools in the 
state. During the last session more than fourteen hundred children matriculated. The 
citizens of Meridian have been aroused to the necessity of supporting these schools liberally; 
rapid progress is being made. The colored school has six hundred and fifty pupils enrolled, 
and it is prosperous. For the whites there are four large buildings, located in the different 
wards of the city. They have been, for four years, under the excellent superintendency of 
Prof. A. A. Kincannon, a native Mississippian, and one of the best known educators in the 
South. There is, in cormection with the schools, an industrial department, where stenogra- 
phy, telegraphy, typewriting and architectural and mechanical drawing are taught. The 
main or industrial building is a magnificent structure, and was erected at a cost of $40,000. 

Meridian has three strong banking institutions. The Citizens' Savings bank has a cap- 
ital of $27,000. George W. Meyer is its president; J. S. Solomon, vice president; W. A. 
Brown, cashier. Its correspondents are the Chase National bank, New York, and the Union 
National bank, of New Orleans. The First National bank has a capital of $130,000, and 
large surplus and undivided profits. Its correspondents are the United States and National 
Park banks, New York, and the Union National bank. New Orleans. Charles A. Lyerly is 
its president, W. W^ George, its vice president, C. W. Robinson, its cashier, H. L. Bard- 
well its assistant cashier. The Meridian National bank has a capital of 1100,000, a surplus 
of $50,000, and undivided profits amounting to $25,000 more. Its officers are T. Wistar 
Brown, president; G. Q. Hall, vice president; J. H. Wright, cashier; E. B. McRaven, assist- 
ant cashier. Correspondents, Seaboard National bank, New York; State National bank. 
New Orleans. 

Building and loan associations have had much to do with the extension of Meridian's 
visible limits. The eighth annual statement of the Mechanics' Aid, Building' and Loan as- 
sociation was issued September 2, 1890. It showed that the total earnings of six series was 
$54,628.30; the total resources of all series were $304,973.55; the total expenses for rent, 
licenses, etc., were $2,601.50, remarking: "In the matter of expenses we compare favorably 
with the most economically conducted associations in the land; less than five per cent, of the 
net savings including salaries, rent, stationery, etc." This association has the following 
officers: George S. Covert, president; H. F. Broach, vice president; L. A. Duncan, secre- 
tary; E. E. Spinks, treasurer. Miller & Baskin, attorneys. Directors: George. S. Covert, 
H. F. Broach, J. C. Lloyd, A. B. Wagner, W. S. Lott, C. W. Robinson, H. M. Threefoot, 



*• z 


The second annual statement of the Savings, Building and Loan association, rendered 
January 6, 1891, was as follows: 

" The first series of the association closes its second year, and the second series its first, 
with the December report. In the former the net earnings have been fully twenty per cent., 
and the latter something more, at an expense of less than five per cent, on profits. 

' ' There is a growing disposition to hold the old and borrow in the latest series, which 
may cause a call for shares in the first series, to be retired at surrender value. This will 
not retard the liquidation materially beyond the five years estimated. 

"Statement: Seventeen hundred shares, first series, assessed dues, 120,400; three 
hundred and thirty-four shares in loans, assessed interest, $3,582; shares in loans, assessed 
premiums, $3,362.55; fines collected, $33.40; uapaid last year, brought forward, $202.65; 
two hundred and fifteen shares retired during year, dues collected, $1,390; sixty-five shares 
loans raised during year, returned, $7,800; total enrolled, $36,770.60; uncollected, as per 
December, 1890, report, $591.35; net collections, 1890, $361,79.25. Gross earnings of year, 
$7,093.60; expenses, $478.45; net earnings, $6,615. 15; resources, in loans, $40,080; invest- 
ments, $8,350; unpaid balance, $910.90; total, $49,340.9). Value of shares, twenty-four 
months, paid, $29; surrender value, $28.65; eighteen hundred shares in force, second series, 
dues assessed, $21,600; two hundred and three shares in loans, interest assessed, $1,223; 
shares in premiums, $1,550.15; fines collected during year, $4.85; total enrolled, $24,378; 
uncollected, December report, 1890, $378; net collections, 1890, $24,000. Gross earnings 
for year, $2,778; expenses, $448.45; net earnings, $2,329.55; resources, in loans, $24,360; 
less advanced loans, $721.95; total, $23,638.05. Value of shares, twelve months, paid, 
$13.50; surrender value, $13.20. 

" Shares are estimated to reach par value in a little over five years, say $120. Loans 
are made on the basis of running five years, monthly payments being heavier than on the 
$200 share plans, but premiums are not deducted, being payable in equitable installments, 
vyithout interest. The third series opened with this month." The officers are: H. F. Broach, 
president; J. H. Wright, vice president; L. A. Duncan, secretary; Charles S. Covert, 
treasurer; Miller & Baskin, attorneys; directors: H. F. Broach, J. C. Lloyd, W. S. Lott, J. 
H. Wright, A. B. Wagner, S. B. Holt, T. B. Lamb. 

The Meridian cotton exchange and board of trade was organized in 1873. Its officers 
are president, vice president, secretary and treasurer, and its affairs are in charge of a com- 
petent board of directors. There are the following standing committees: Inspection and 
classification, finance, quotations, manufactures and mechanical industries, information and 
statistics, membership and transportation. 

The Meridian street railroad company was chartered in April, 1883. 

The city fire department consists of Mechanics' steam fire company No. 1, organized in 
June, 1882; Clinch steam fire company No. 3, organized in June, 1886; Excelsior No. 4 
hose-truck company, and Phoenix No. 2 (colored) hose-truck and hand-engine company. 

Religious denominations are represented here by the following church organizations: 
St. Patrick's Roman Catholic, Methodist, West End Methodist, First Baptist, Calvary Bap- 
tist, Presbyterian, Cumberland Presbyterian, Protestant Episcopal, Beth Israel (Jewish), and 
the following colored churches: Baptist, Pilgrim's Progress Bethel, Methodist Episcopal 
Academy, African Methodist Episcopal, First Congregational and Mount Zion. 

The list of local associations and societies is as follows^ The Standard club. Young Men's 
Christian association. Meridian Temperance Reform club, Montefiore Social club, St. Joseph's 
Branch No. 105 C. K. of A., Lauderdale lodge No. 308 A. F. & A. M.,King Solomon's lodge 


No. 333 A. F. & A. M., Meridian lodge No, 80 I. O. 0. F., Mount Barton lodge No. 13 K. 
of P., Mississippi lodge No. 525 K. of H., Palmetto lodge No. 320 K. & L. of H., East 
Mississippi council No. 1100 A. L. of H., Order of Railway Conductors, Stephenson division 
No. 230 B. of L. E. , Knights of the Golden Rule, Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, 
Knights of Labor, Asaph lodge No. 286 I. O. B. B., Meridian lodge No. 109 I. 0. F. S. of I. 

The Meridian Land and Industrial company is one of the potent factors in the improve- 
ment and upbuilding of Meridian. It vpas organized November 1, 1888, with the following 
officers: J. C. Loyd, president; A. J. Weems, vice president; C. W. Robinson, secretary and 
treasurer. The company owns twenty hundred lots in all parts of the city and ten hundred 
acres of land adjacent to the city. Lots are being improved and sold on long time with a 
small cash payment. There is now a paid-in capital of $250,000, and since date of organi- 
zation the company have sold over $160,000 worth of property, and by giving exceedingly 
liberal terms it has materially assisted in the upbuilding of the city. 

The horoscope of Meridian appears to have been cast amid the signs of war and the 
rumors of war. 

This city was settled by John T. Ball, and was formerly known as Ball's Log Store. It 
was rechristened by Mr. Ball, Meridian, and a postoffice was obtained under that name in 
1854. The Mobile & Ohio railroad company, when it reached this point with the first track, 
in 1855, called it Sowashee station. The first railroad train arrived at this point, then the 
McLemore Oldfield, October, 1855. Mr. Ball erected a plain plank stationhouse, at his 
personal expense, aided by such individual subscription of material as could be obtained, the 
Mobile & Ohio railroad naming the station Sowashee, and agreeing as a special favor to grant 
depot privileges, provided the house according to their specifications should be furnished 
free, but for nearly two years afterward the place was treated as a mere flag station, and denied 
ordinary flag-station accommodations, while the- expense of keeping up the station was borne 
locally. By these means the starting of a town here was prevented, the Mobile & Ohio 
railroad at the same time giving assistance and influence to start towns on their line on either 
side of and adjoining this place. 

May 1, 1861, at a public barbecue at Meridian, the Meridian Invincibles were mustered 
into the Southern service, sixty-three strong, the Pettus guards being present. May 28, 
the Meridian Invincibles, eighty in number, started from Meridian northward over the Mobile 
& Ohio railroad at 4 p. m. , three other volunteer companies starting with them. The next 
day the first train over the Southern, now Memphis & Vicksburg railroad, arrived at Merid- 
ian at 6:45 p. M., drawn by a handsome little engine, theMazeppa. The train brought as pas- 
sengers the volunteer company "Vicksburg Southrons," one hundred and eleven strong, and 
other passengers. June 3, the first train left Meridian for Vicksburg at 8 :45 a. m. It is 
easy to imagine the flutter occasioned among the inhabitants whose places of abode lay near 
the line of the iron highway that placed them in direct and speedy connection with Mobile 
and the world beyond, through the fleet of vessels that lined the bustling wharves of the 
Gulf city — it is easy to imagine; but the power to depict the- picture as it was, and to tell of 
the scenes and discussions that followed the arrival of the first train, rests only with those 
who were in Meridian on that day. It is not so far in the past, either, that there should 
not now be living those who witnessed this important event. 

Hon. W. C. Smedes, the president and father of the Southern railroad, when he reached 
here with his track adopted the name given by Mr. Ball, and accepted by the citizens, and 
suggested its adoption by the Mobile & Ohio Railroad company, and from that date it has 
borne the name — Meridian. 


It was not until the breaking out of the war that opportunities were ailorded to buy 
property here, and during the war the uncertainty was so great as to the safety of property 
that nothing but inferior houses was put up, and in 1864 General Sherman reached the 
place and burned all of the town he could find; so that the close of the war found scarcely a 
vestige of what was once the town, and the people were too poor to do much in the way of 
improvement for a long time. 

By great exertion and heavy sacrifice the owners of the property succeeded in giving 
the town a second start in 1866. The first manufactory established in Meridian was the 
foundry and machineshops of Messrs. Sellars, Murphy & Lister. They were located just above 
the railroad crossing north of the town. The senior partner in this firm was Mr. L. H. 
Sellars, now president of the Memphis & Pensacola railroad. The second was the Kewanee 
planingmills, located near where the Planters' compress now stands. This plant was moved 
from Kewanee, this county, to Meridian, by the Whiffle Brothers. Out of this beginning 
has grown one of the largest sash, door and blind factories in the Southwest. 

In those days cotton brought fifty cents a pound, flour $14 to $16 a barrel, bacon sides 
twenty-five cents and hams thirty cents, whisky was twenty-five cents a drink, while the sup- 
ply was unlimited. An air of prosperity pervaded the town which attracted general 
attention. The cessation of war seemed but to add renewed vigor to growth, and within 
a year the newspapers of the state had already begun to devote considerable space to the 
wonderful stories about Meridian. These attracted business men here from all directions. 
Substantial business houses had gone up, and the increase in wealth and population had 
exceeded anything of the kind that had ever before been known in the state. A village 
had within twelve months expanded into a town of one thousand five hundred. 

This was before the days of the mushroom towns of the Pennsylvania oil districts and 
of the far West, which grew to their full stature and decayed before finishing touches 
could be put on the homes of the populace. It was something new for the South, espe- 
cially following so closely upon the ending of a four years' war. There is little wonder that 
the growth of the town was considered magical. " It now numbers two thousand five hundred 
souls," was enthusiastically written in May, 1866, " and bids fair to become an interior com- 
mercial city. The grand advantages of the place was a phrase which found a lodgment in 
the heart of every Meridianite, and it was their staff of hope whenever anything happened 
to check the forward pace of their town. In 1870 it had a population of two thousand 
seven hundred and nine, and had as many handsome two and three-story brick stores and 
blocks as many of the large cities of the state of ten times its age, and its growth and im- 
provement have been rapid and steady since. In 1880 the population was four thousand 
and eight; in 1890, ten thousand eight hundred and eighty-nine. 

During the first half of the period from 1865 to 1875, Meridian was substantially dead, 
many of her most enterprising citizens having lost their all during the closing years of the war, 
which rendered them unable to contribute anything toward the development of the town. In 
the latter half of this decade Meridian passed successfully the point of doubt and uncertainty. 
Railroads projected were constructed, and Meridian's rivals reluctantly conceded its pre- 
eminence. In 1870 the Memphis Avalanche said: " Meridian is the most rapidly growing 
town in the state of Mississippi, and its future still brighter. Sherman burned it up in 1864, 
but it now has a population greater than that of any town in the state except Vicksbarg. 
The Mobile & Ohio and the Vicksburg & Selma railroads cross there, and the most important 
road she has projected will be completed this year. This is the direct line to Chattanooga, up 
the Wills valley, and it is the air line from New Orleans to New York, passing by Meridian, 


Chattanooga, Knoxville, Lynchburg and Washington. A bill has been introduced in the 
legislature at Jackson, Miss., to extend the Chattanooga & Meridian road to New Orleans; 
and a like bill has already passed the legislature of Louisiana. The same Boston capitalists 
that now have the construction of the road from Chattanooga to Meridian propose to make it 
directly to New Orleans, on an air line, and they want no help. This means that they know 
it will pay its stockholders, as it is the shortest line that will ever be built between New 
Orleans and New York. This is the future of Meridian; and another road will be built 
there; we allude to that from Grenada. Such a line can not long remain unoccupied; and 
its extension to Pensaoola will soon follow, thus placing Memphis as near the Gulf as she 
now is to Louisville. " 

A letter to the Clarion from Baldwyn dated March, 1870, has the following allusion to 
this thriving young city: "The growth of Meridian is truly wonderful. The latest and 
most noticeable improvement is a large and handsome brick hotel, which will be ready for 
guests this summer. It presents a truly metropolitan appearance. It is being erected bj' a 
stock company and will be an ornament in its line. With the location of the courthouse, 
the establishment of gas works, and the converging here of so many railroads. Meridian may 
yet be the Chicago of the South. She should not be ambitious, however, to attain to the 
distinction which the latter enjoys in the way of morals." From this time on Meridian's 
progress was great. The period from 1875 to 1880 witnessed still greater progress in 
Meridian's commercial and financial growth than even the last decade had done. Notwith- 
standing the draft upon her resources caused by the Civil war, her advance was rapid and 
substantial, and some of the city's fine buildings were 3rected during that period, and some 
of its large manufactories and other enterprises were started about this time. The impetus 
that Meridian has acquired during the past ten years is certainly accelerating. Since the 
census of 1880 the population has increased nearly seven thousand, and, with extended rail- 
road facilities, the future outlook for Meridian is tinted with a rOseate hue, with every pros- 
pect that another year will see her population fully doubled, and the busy hum of machinery 
heard upon every side. Never in the history of Meridian was there such a need of houses 
as exists at present, and there are a great number in process of erection. 

Other towns of this county are Marion, which was the county seat until 1866, when the 
courthouse was removed to Marion Station, where it remained until the establishment of the 
seat of justice at Meridian in 1870; Lockhart, Lauderdale Station (near old Lauderdale 
Springs, a popular resort in the ante-bellum days), Toomsuba, and Daleville. 

Summit is distant one hundred and eight miles from New Orleans and seventy-five 
miles from Jackson, the state capital. It stands on one of the highest points in the state, 
four hundred and twenty feet above tide-water. The business portion of Summit is almost 
entirely of brick, several fire experiences having taught the advisability of such construction. 
About thirty stores are here in full operation, the principal of these being on a very exten- 
sive scale. The cotton trade of the town is a weighty item, the average receipts being from 
thirteen thousand to fifteen thousand bales each season, as large in comparison to the size 
of the place as that of any town on the Illinois Central road. A compress will doubtless be 
built ere long. The shipment of country produce is becoming more and more important. 
Chickens and eggs are being sent in quantities to New Orleans. 

Summit's location, in the heart of the pine belt, offers advantages in timber well worth 
notice. There is within four miles, just the other side of McComb city, one of the most 


complete sawmill, planing, drying establishments in the state. J. White is the proprietor. 
The business gives employment to about one hundred and fifty men. Three miles north of 
Summit Messrs. Johnson & Whitney have another complete mill, while still more are 

To the advancement of this place the admirable religious and educational institutions 
of the city have largely contributed. The churches, five in number, are in every respect 
commodious, thoroughly fitted places of worship. The colored race have also three good 
churches. This is the seat of Lea Female college, and has first-class public schools for 
whites and blacks. 

Natchez was visited by La Salle and party in 1682, but did not receive its first white 
settlers until 1698, when Pere Davion, who shortly after located where Port Adams now is,- 
and Pere St. Cosme, who remained among the Indians at that point and remained until the 
year 1707 arrived. The latter was killed by the Chittimaches near Donaldsonville, 
La., while en route to that Indian town. On February 11, 1700, Lemoyae d'Iberville and 
Lemoyne Bienville, accompanied by Henri de Tonti, who visited them at Biloxi, arrived at 
Natchez and were welcomed by Pere St. Cosme. The proposition to establish a post there 
was well received and the name La Ville de Rosalie aux Natchez was bestowed upon the 
site. The cabin of the chief and the temple of the sun were soon given neighbors in the 
shape of stately log huts and the foundations of a city were made. In 1716 a fort was 
constructed at that point, and in 1718 the plantation of M. de la Houssaye, on St. Cath- 
erine' s creek, was opened, and a house for the owner erected in the village. The farms of 
Pellerin and Bellecourt were opened close by in 1819, and in 1820 the great plantation of 
Hubert was cleared on that creek, the gristmill, the forge, the armory and the machine-shop 
were erected and equipped, and the Montplaisir tobacco farm, within a half-myriameter, or 
about three miles of the village, established. No sooner was this settlement made than 
British intrigue introduced trouble, and the disagreements between the colonists and 
Indians, leading up to the massacre of 1729, were commenced. The history of this terrible 
affair is given in the second chapter of the general history of the state. Enough here to 
state that the French colony at Natchez was exterminated, and, in turn, the Natchez them- 
selves were blotted off the face of the earth by the French colonial troops and Choctaws in 
1732. In 1745 there were eight white males (soldiers), two negro families, and fifteen 
negro slaves at Natchez. In 1751 there were fifty soldiers in garrison there. In 1772 the 
British ventured in, and their leader, Col. Anthony Hutchins, located lands on St. Catherine's 
creek. Five years later the British purchased the Natchez district from the Choctaws for a 
few presents, although they had parceled it out to favorites in 1772, Hutchins being given a 
large tract, including the White Apple village and twenty-five thousand acres to Amos 
Ogden. In 1772 Richard and Samuel Swayze of New Jersey purchased nineteen thousand 
acres from Captain Ogden at twenty cents per acre, and in the fall settled where is now 
Kingston, in Adams county. Samuel was a Congregational preacher, and as his own and 
other families who came with them to settle here were members of this society, he had 
little trouble in organizing the first protestant religious association in the Natchez country, or 
even in the whole South. In 1780 fears of Indian attack drove those settlers to Natchez 
post, where Samuel took up lands on the east bank of St. Catherine's bayou. They selected 
lands on the Homochitto. Four years later (1776) the new town of Natchez boasted of 
twenty houses, log and frame, located under the bluff. The merchants were James Willing, 
an American; Captain Bloomart, a British pensioner; Thomas Barber and Hanchett & New- 


man. The planters in the neighborhood had almost reached that stage of prosperity which 
the French planters were enjoying when the massacre of 1729 wiped them out. The new 
British colonists of Natchez were not to be exempt, their unreasonable exhibition of tory 
proclivities, their professed preference for British rule and the opportunities to aid the 
British soldiery attracted the attention of the fathers of the republic, and James Willing, 
who resided among and knew them, was commissioned to win them over to the Revolution or 
crush their power to help the enemy. How well he succeeded is part of the national 
history as it is of that of the state. In 1779-80 the Spanish troops drove the British from 
west Florida and placed Colonel Grand Pre in charge of a small garrison at Natchez. In 
April, 1782, colonists made a demonstration against the Spanish, and by the use of a forged 
letter urged the Spanish officer to surrender Fort Panmure (named so by the British in 
.1764), then the name of the post. The Britishers took possession and sent the garrison under 
guard to Loffus hights. Arrived at that point a Spanish force was observed ascending the 
river. The captors released the captives and fled. The commander of the Spaniards was 
Major Mulligan, and he, without delay, went in pursuit, came up with the fugitives, killed 
fourteen, and captured many. The colonists fled in mortal fear, among the first to go being 
the Hutchins, D wights, and Lymans, leaders of the opposition; but the Spaniards exercised 
the greatest moderation and there was little or no loss inflicted upon the miserable sec- 

On March 29, 1798, the Spanish garrison evacuated Natchez, and Captain Gruion 
installed a garrison of United States troops. 

The population of Natchez in 1785 was one thousand five hundred and fifty, and in 
1788, two thousand six hundred and seventy-nine; in 1812, one thousand and twenty-one 
whites, four hundred and fifty-nine slaves, and thirty-one others, numbering one thousand 
five hundred and eleven; in 1820, one thousand four hundred and forty-eight whites, and 
seven hundred and thirty-six negroes; in 1837, three thousand seven hundred and thirty-one; 
in 1870, nine thousand and fifty-seven; in 1880, seven thousand and fifty-eight; and in 
1890, ten thousand one hundred and forty-nine. 

An act to incorporate the city of Natchez was passed by the territorial legislature 
March 10, 1803. The first meeting of the common council was held April 9, 1803, with 
Samuel Brooks, mayor; Lewis Kerr, recorder; and Samuel Neil, an alderman. Samuel 
Brooks was mayor a long time; but as the record books were destroyed nothing is certain 
regarding his immediate successors. The mayors and presidents of the council from 1815 to 
the present time are named as follows: Edward Turner, 1815; William McComas, 1818; 
Eobert W. Wood, 1855; John Hunter, 1859-63; William Dix, 1866; John W. Weldon, 1869; 
EobertH. Wood, 1871-4; Henry C. Griffin, 1874-83; I. Lowenberg, 1883-7; William H. 
Mallery, 1887-9, and W. G. Benbrook, 1889-91. 

The first postmaster appointed for Natchez by the United States was Abijah Hunt, 
commissioned July 1, 1800. This was the first pbstoffice established in Mississippi by the 
United States, that at the Chickasaw agency, in charge of James Mcintosh, being the 
second, January 1, 1802, and that at Greenville, established September 10, 1803, with John 
Shaw master, the third. 

Natchez in 1812 was no unimportant place. There was nothing to interfere with the 
prosperity, save the threatened invasion and subjection of the United States by the British. 
Marchalk's almanac of that year paints the town in words and figures thus : 

"Four tailor shops, three blacksmiths, four saddlers, six carpenters,- five cabinetmakers, 
one coach and sign painter, three hatters, two tinners, four boot and shoemakers, one 


trunkmaker, one bookbinder, one wagonmaker, one chairmaker, one nail factory, three 
barbers, four brickyards, one butcher, four bakers, one brushmaker, three gold and silver- 
smiths, one confectioner and distiller, four bricklayers, one horsemill (corn), one plasterer, 
twelve vratercarts, eight physicians, seven lawyers, three English schools, one incorporated 
mechanics' society, one Free Mason lodge, four magistrates, three printing offices, with weekly 
papers, two porterhouses, six public inns, five warehouses, one readingroom and coffee- 
house, twenty-four drygoods stores, four groceries, two wholesale stores, seventeen catalenes, 
one commission store, one bank of Mississippi, capital $500,000, managed by thirteen 
directors, with Stephen Minor president. Under the ' Hill ' were two blacksmith shops, one 
tavern and thirteen catalenes." 

Among the giants of the old Natchez bar were: ^\'m. B. Griffith; Robert Walker, 
United States senator from Mississippi, and secretary of the treasury under Polk; Felix 
and Eli Houston; John A. Quitman, governor of state and member to congress, and a dis- 
tinguished general in the Mexican war; Thomas B. Eeed; George Winchester; John T. 
McMurrain; S. S. Boyd; William Vannerson, who died in 187], and is spoken of as the 
Nestor of the Mississippi bar; Alexander Montgomery; G. M.Davis; Grafton Baker; Aylett 
Baker; Ralph North, ex-circuit judge, and Gen. Wm. T. Martin. Among these might be 
mentioned Hon. S. S. Prentiss, though he practiced here but a short time. 

Church societies of nearly all denominations are represented in Natchez. The Catholic 
church dates its foundation here to 1698, when Father John B. Buisson de St. Cosme, 
Father Davion, and other priests established missions among the Natchez. In 1885 St. 
Mary's cathedral was dedicated. The erection of this magnificent church edifice was begun 
in 1841 and completed in 1885 at a total cost of $78,241. St. Mary's cathedral is a hand- 
some Gothic structure of brick, the most graceful building in the state. It has a beautifnl 
and well proportioned spire, one hundred and ninety-six feet high, surmounted with a cross. 
In this steeple there was placed in 1881, the result of a provision in the will of P. H. 
McGraw, a fine clock with four large dials, one of which is illuininated. The Protestant 
churches date to a period early in the eighteenth century; indeed, the Methodists had mis- 
sionaries or itinerants here in 1799. A Presbyterian church was organized at Pine Ridge 
February 25, 1807, by Rev. J. Smylie. This church is still in existence, and is the oldest 
Presbyterian church in Adams county. 

The organization of the Presbyterian church at Natchez was practically effected in 1817 
liy the enrollment of eight persons as members. The Rev. Daniel Smith, a clergyman from 
New England, who had been laboring as a domestic missionary in the community for more 
than a year, was invited to minister to it as a stated supply ; and John Henderson, Joseph 
Forman, Richard Pearce and William B. Noyes were ordained as its bench of ruling elders. 
To this body Samuel S. Spencer was added in 1818. Steps had been taken as early as 1810 
for the erection of a Presbyterian house of worship, and in 1812 the corner-stone of the 
building was laid. It was a brick structure, located on the spot where the present church 
stands. It was dedicated ia February, 1815. The engagement with the Rev. Mi'. Smith 
having terminated in 1819, the Rev. William Weir, a native of Ireland, was elected pastor, 
and on the 31st of March, 1820, was installed by the Mississippi presbytery. This gentle- 
man, therefore, was the first regular pastor of this church. He is remembered by some few 
aged citizens, and is spoken of as a man of learning, of great purity of character, and emi- 
nently zealous in his work. His period of labor, however, was a short one, his death having 
occurred on the 25th of November, 1822. The square marble tomb which marks the spot 
of his sepulture may still be found in a neglected lot which belongs to the church in the city 


The second pastor of the church was the Rev. George Potts, who first visited Natchez 
as a licentiate of the presbytery of Philadelphia. Having been subsequently ordained by 
the presbytery, he was installed pastor by the presbytery of Mississippi in December, 1823. 
The number of communicants at this time was forty-nine. The first donations reported to 
have been made by this congregation were in the year 1825, -and consisted of |20 
to the missionary fund, and $30 to the educational society. In the beginning of 1825 
Samuel Postlethwaite was ordained as a ruling elder — a man distinguished for his 
urbanity as a gentleman and for his integrity as a Christian, and a fine type of that 
band of merchants who, in the earlier times of Natchez, made their class noble. In 1828, 
the church edifice originally erected being found inconvenient, the trustees resolved to erect 
a new one, which work was in the course of the next two years successfully effected. This 
second building was the original of the one now occupied, a large and handsome brick edifice, 
and was dedicated on the first Sabbath of January, 1830. The pastorate of Mr. Potts ter- 
minated in November, 1835, having continued thirteen years. His removal from Natchez 
was occasioned by his acceptance of a call from the Duane Street church. New York. He 
left a communion list of one hundred and thirty-five persons. During his incumbency 
another addition had been made to the ruling eldership in the person of Dr. Andrew 

The successor of Mr. Potts was the Rev. Samuel G. Winchester, a native of Balti- 
more, and previously pastor of a church in Philadelphia. His installation took place on 
December 24, 1837. The bench of elders having been reduced by deaths and removals to 
two members — -the venerable John Henderson and Dr. Macrery — the congregation elected 
to that office Thomas Henderson, William Pearce and Franklin Beaumont, who were ordained 
February 25, 1838. In the year following the church building was repaired, and its means 
of accommodation enlarged by the introduction of the galleries which are at present stand- 
ing. About the same time the very neat and commodious parsonage belonging to the church 
was purchased for the use of the pastor. Mr, Winchester's labors were brought to a close 
unexpectedly by his death, in August, 1841, while he was absent at the North, whither he 
had gone as commissioner of the general assembly, which met that year in Philadelphia. 
He was succeeded by Rev. Joseph B. Stratton, whose pastorate has been a successful one. 

The Baptist church was organized in Natchez in January, 1837. Rev. Ashley Vaughn 
was the first pastor. This society never erected a church and soon after the society became 

The Wall Street Baptist church was organized in 1850, by Rev. T. J. Freeman. A 
tasty and commodious brick church was erected at once at a cost of about $15,000 and was 
dedicated April 6, 1851. 

The introduction of Methodism into Natchez occurred in 1798, and Tobias Gibson, of 
South Carolina, was the first minister. Their large and handsome church, corner Jefferson 
and Union streets, is supplemented by Wesley chapel for the benefit of the factory operatives 
and citizens of the north part of the city, and also a commodious brick structure on Pine 
street, occupied by the colored Methodists. 

The conception of the English Protestant Episcopal church of Natchez dates back to 
1821, and on May 10, 1822, Rev. James Pilmore was installed as the first rector. A church 
was erected in 1823; alterations and improvements were instituted later, and now they have 
an elegant house of worship which cost some $35,000. 

The Temple B'Nai Israel is a brick house presenting some architectural features and 
good interior decoration. The one Methodist and two Baptist churches of the negro societies 
are commonplace structures. 

MEMOIRS OF MiaaiSaiPPl. 163 

Of benevolent institutions there are the following: St. Mary's Orphan home, for girls, 
and D'Evereaux hall, an orphan asylum for boys, both of them being conducted under the 
auspices of the Catholic church. A Protestant orphan home, for boys and girls, is also well 

D'Evereux Hall, the Catholic home for orphan boys, is possessed of a line property, 
including many acres of valuable land, thirty-four of which are cultivated by the boys, pro- 
ducing a handsome income. In the midst of this, and surrounded by lawn, grove and flower 
garden, stands D'Evereux Hall, a substantial brick structure of two floors, handsome in 
design and well adapted to the purpose for which it is employed. This institution is under 
the immediate management of the Christian Brotherhood, and is presided over by Brother 
Gontran, whose fine executive ability, expeiience, economic management, energy and devo- 
tion to the undertaking, have rendered the establishment partially independent of outside 
support. This institution was chartered January 25, 1858, by Et. Rev. Bishop Elder, then 
bishop of Natchez, and a number of Catholic gentlemen. Fiom limited operations in a small 
wooden building, the institution has been enlarged until it Las called into requisition a fine 
and valuable estate. From fifty to sixty orphans form the average charge of the establish- 
ment, whose maintenance costs some $4,500 jier year. Its income is derived from the follow- 
ing sources: One half proceeds annual orphans' fair, $1,400; proceeds market garden, 
11,800; from guardians and friends of orphans, $600; Christmas collections in church, $250; 
a total of $4,050 per annum. This is the reliable income of the establishment, the difl'er- 
ence between this and the expenditure being met by various means. The Hall is a per- 
fect model of domestic economy. The garden, of between thirty- four and thirty -live acres, 
is worked by the boys, one hour per day being all of this description of labor required from 
each individual. 

St. Mary's orphan asylum has been in existence a great number of years and is under 
the excellent management of the Sisters of Charity, an order whose glorious services amid 
the horrors of the battlefield and among the sickening scenes of the dreadful epidejpic are 
indelibly inscribed upon the heart of hearts of the people of the South. This establish- 
ment maintains at present sixty-six orphan girls at a yearly cost of about $4,500. The 
income of the asylum is derived in part from the following: From proceeds annual Catholic 
fair, $2,000; from bequest late Dr. O'Riley, of Canton, Miss., $250; from Christmas and 
other collections, $608; total, $2,858. 

The needles of the girls assist somewhat toward their maintenance. The receipts from 
this source, however, consequent on. the extensive and increasing employment of the sewing- 
machine, lessen every year. The asylum occupies a substantial and commodious brick 
building on the corner of Rankin and Jefferson streets, with vegetable and flower gardens 
attached, the former of which, worked by the orphans, supplies the table with excellent 
vegetables the year round. The children are comfortably clothed, receive a good English 
education, and in all the domestic duties are thoroughly qualified, and so excellently trained 
they are eagerly sought for for adoption and service, and many a girl whose career has 
started in the chilling shadows of the most distressing auspices has, thanks to the beneficence 
of St. Mary's, been ushered into a womanhood surrounded with all the comforts and refine- 
ment of independence. The house is presided over by Sister Tatiana, who is assisted by a 
community of sisters and a board of trustees composed of Catholic gentlemen. After look- 
ing over the books of both these Catholic orphan asylums it is found that fully one-third of 
the children for whom they provide are either of Protestant or non-Catholic parentage. 

The Protestant orphan asylum dates back to March 12, 1816, when a few ladies of 


Natchez met together and organized an aaaociation for providing a home for the friendless 
children of the state, the result of which was the establishment of the Protestant orphan 
asylum, an institution which, through all these years, a period marked with the calamities 
of plague, bankruptcy, devastations by storm and ravage of war, has offered a roof for the 
roofless, meat for the hungry and friendship for the friendless. The history of this estab- 
lishment is a relation of everything pleasant to remember of the former and present genera- 
tion of amiable Protestant ladies of Natchez, a recital of which, I regret, is not within the 
province of the present undertaking. The asylum occupies a substantial and roomy building 
on "Union street, in the northern outskirts of the city and in the midst of a delightful grove. 
At pre.sent there are some forty inmates, principally female, though the asylum admits chil- 
dren of both sexes, the support of which cost last year $2,559.95. The receipts from 
various sources, principally from voluntary subscription of the citizens of Natchez, and a 
donation by the grand lodge of Masons amounted to $3,055. 35, leaving a balance in the 
treasury of $445. For some time past the citizens of Natchez have experienced a burden in 
the chief support of this institution, and one too, unfairly imposed upon them, when it is 
oonsidared that the city furnishes but one-tenth of the children here provided for, while 
nine tenths are waifs from all quarters of the state. Considering it the duty of the state at 
large to contribute to the support of the establishment the lady managers a short time ago 
called in the advice of a committee composed of members of all the Protestant churches and 
Hebrews, the latter of whom, though they have derived no benefit from the asylum, have 
both by their purse and influence done much in assisting it. They called in the aid of this 
committee, as I have stated, to advise as to the most effective means to arouse the Protest- 
ants of the state to a sense of their duty in the premises. The result of this was the issuing 
of an appeal to the churches. Masonic and other bodies, Protestant, Christian and Hebrew, 
for contributions. The response exceeded expectation. 

Harmony lodge No. 33 (now Harmony lodge No. 1), A. F. & A. M. was chartered by 
the grand lodge of Kentucky in 1801. On August 25, 1818, it was rechartered by the 
grand lodge of Mississippi as Harmony No. 1. The first officers were: Seth Lewis, W. M. ; 
James Farrell, S. W. ; William Brooks, J. W. ; David Lattermer, treasurer; John Girault, 
secretary; St. James Beauvis, S. D. ; Israel E. Trask, J. D.. Joseph Newman, S. ; William 
Mitchell, Tyler. This lodge is now in a flourishing condition, with E. G. De Lap, W. M. 

Jackson lodge No. 15 (now Andrew Jackson lodge No. 2), was chartered under the 
grand lodge of Tennessee, October 8, 1816. This lodge was rechartered by the grand lodge 
of Mississippi in 1818. It now has a large membership, and J. Peoples is W. M. 

The grand lodge of Mississippi, A. P. & A. M., was organized at Natchez July 27, 1818, 
when Henry Tooley was elected M. W. grand master. 

Lock lodge, A. F. & A. M. , No. 52, of Natchez, was chartered by the grand lodge of Mis- 
sissippi February 9, 1842, with John M. Duffield, W. M. The charter of this lodge was 
surrendered November 29, 1849, the members joining other lodges in Natchez. 

Natchez E. A. chapter No. 1 is in flourishing existence here, with Dr. J. C. French high 

Rosalie commandery No. 5, K. T. of Natchez, is at present presided over by W. G. 
Benbrook, E. C. The other officers of the commandery are: J. C. French, M. D. , general; 
J. Peebles, C. G. ; E. G. De Lap, prelate; C. T. Chamberlin, S. W.; F. S. Shaw, J. W. ; 
Geo. W. Kuntz, treasurer; John E. Bledsoe, recorder; E. J. Guice, standard-bearer; W. B. 
Irwin, sword-bearer; C. H. Keirn, warder; C. M, Sawyer, captain-general. 

The cornerstone of the old Masonic temple was laid June 25, 1827. It was quite an impos- 


ing stone edifice, and was used till 1889, when it was torn down and its site utilized for the 
erection of a new Masonic temple and operahouse now in course of erection. It will be a most 
imposing structure, five stories in hight, built with brick and stone trimmings. The ground 
plan is 119x60 feet, with a sixteen-foot L architectural design, modern and stately; interior 
decorations artistic. The building would be a pride to any city. 

Mississippi lodge No. 1, Odd Fellows, was established in Natchez in 1836. Marion 
RufPner was the first noble grand. 

The grand lodge of Odd Fellows was established here in 1838, and Marion Euffner was 
the first grand master. Thomas Reed, of Natchez, is now the oldest surviving grand 

Natchez lodge No. 3, Knights of Pythias, was organized October 7, 1873, with Allison 
H. Foster past commander. 

Knights of Honor lodge No. 1145, was organized a few years ago and won to its ban- 
ner a large membership. 

The Catholic Knights is a new and widespread order, similar in its plan to the Knights 
of Honor. Though not a secret order, it is well established here, in St. Martin's branch 
No. 88, and includes in its membership many of the influential and prominent Catholic 

Ezra lodge No. 134, I. O. B. B., includes in its membership the majority of the 
Hebrews of Natchez. 

St. -Joseph's -Total Abstinence and Benevolent society and many literary and benevolent 
associations are doing effective work. 

In the thirties, Natchez, Vicksburg and Woodville began railroad building. The first 
two towns reached out to connect with Jackson, the state capital — the town of Woodville 
desiring to reach the Mississippi at Bayou Sara. The financial crisis of 1836-40 put a 
damper upon railroad interests and checked operations in that line almost entirely. After 
building only thirty-five miles of their road the Natchez company sold out to parties who, in 
turn, abandoned the project and disposed of the locomotives, iron, etc. Unfortunate mistake 
was this, and one that cost the town a large portion of the traffic that had hitherto been her 
own, but which now went to Vicksburg and Jackson. Again, the New Orleans, Jackson & 
Great Northern (now the Illinois Central) might have been induced by proper efforts to run 
their line through Natchez, and much valuable business territoiy might have thus been saved 
to her merchants. Yet a third time Natchez slept upon her opportunity and permitted the 
Louisville, New Orleans & Texas road to pass to the east of her when it was in her power 
to secure the important connections offered by this great railway. 

But, these mistakes aside, Natchez is to-day one of the most promising cities of the 
South. Always conservative, her merchants are doing business with their own eajiital and 
upon a solid financial basis. The railroad to Jackson has been constructed by her own means 
and its final completion to Columbus is one of the certainties of the near future. Another 
improvement in this road will be the broadening of the gauge to the standard width. At 
last awakened to the importance of railroads and finally realizing their great value, the busi- 
ness men of the town are working with energy and perseverance to secure the New Orleans, 
Natchez & Fort Scott railroad, which will doubtless prove one of the most important rail- 
ways ever built upon American soil. From present indications the running of this line 
through Natchez seems a matter of fact. 

The Natchez, Jackson & Columbus railroad, or the Little J, as it is called, has done 
a world of good to the town of Natchez, and its value is appreciated. General Martin, the 


hraiay and energetic president of this line, is indefatigable in his efforts to secure the exten- 
sion and broadening of his road and its equipment as a first-class highway. A recent visit 
to New York in the interest of the road was highly satisfactory and the General was able to 
say to the directory upon his return that the future of the road would be all that could be 
wished. The management of the Little J road has been exceptionally good. The offi- 
cers of the company are capable, courteous officials, and take pleasure in consulting the 
public weal while faithfully performing the duties of their several departments. Major 
Williams, the general superintendent (a New Orleans gentleman), is an official whose fitness 
for the important office he holds is a matter of record, while his urbanity is known to all 
business men, rendering him a general favorite both in railroad and business circles. In 
lS8'2-3 the growth of the business interests of the city was so great that it became necessary 
to connect the wharves, the railroad depots and the mills by rail; so the Bluff City railway 
was organized for the purpose. Right of way was obtained from the city, the track was 
laid and an incline was constructed from the general level of the town to the water's 
edge. This railway has proved a valuable institution and more than justifies the expenditure 
necessary to its construction. The street railway was built in 1S85-6 to connect the business 
I^art of the city with the ferryboat that plies between the city and Vidalia, La. The city is 
supplied with an excellent quality of gas from the city gas works, located in the northern 
part of the town. As the demand for extra supply is created it is promptly met by the 

The cotton exchange was commenced early in 1886, and on the 20th of May, 1886, a 
charter was obtained from the Jegislature. The organization started out under the most 
auspicious conditions and has been steadily maintained, while daily growing in popular 
favor. The objects and purposes of the exchange, as set forth in the charter, are the same 
as those of similar institutions in the cities throughout the country. Cotton has met with a 
ready sale here at remunerative prices, which have been satisfactory to all parties concerned. 
There is a large and efficient corps of buyers in the town, who will compare favorably in all 
respects with those of any town in the South. A large portion of the cotton bought in Natchez 
has been bought for export. The river or bend cotton is not surpassed by any section on 
the Mississippi, and has always been in excellent demand at good prices. The sales of staple 
cotton have also been large at prices equal to the best markets in the South. As a cotton 
market Natchez has taken a prominent stand, and it is confidently predicted by those com- 
petent to judge that she will handle about fifty thousand bales per annum. 

A new cotton compress was erected in 1886 at a cost of about 175,000. With improved 
machinery and in the hands of live, go-ahead business men, this important adjunct to 
the business of the town has proved a valuable factor in the increase of trade. Perhaps no 
single institution of the city speaks more unerringly of her future. 

No city of its size in the Southwest has built as many manufacturing establishments as 
Natchez. The first of these was the Natchez cottonmills, a factory occupying a space of 
fifty feet front by a depth running the entire square, three stories high and fitted with the 
most improved machinery for the manufacture of cotton in the various grades of yarn, bat- 
ting, cloth, etc. This mill employs over three hundred looms, ten thousand spindles and 
three hundred people, whose wages aggregate about $4,000 monthly. Between three and 
four thousand bales of cotton are consumed annually in producing the sheetings, shirtings, 
drills and brown cottons that the factory turns out. 

Another important institution of the kind is the Eosalie mills, the products of which are 
similar to the other, and the capacity of which is almost as great. Both of these mills are 
being operated profitably, and find markets for all the goods they can manufacture. 


Two cottonseed oilmills, tbe Carpenter-Dickens company (Lee oilworks) and the Adams 
manufacturiug company, are engaged in the manufacture of cottonseed oil, cake, meal, cot- 
ton batting and fertilizers. These companies employ a number of operatives and are import- 
ant institutions of the town. They were under the control of the Oil Trust company, as 
are most of the similar institutions in the South. An iron and brass foundry meets an 
important demand in this direction and employs skilled workmen. The work executed at 
these foundries is said to be very superior, while the charges are very reasonable. The ice 
factory, public cottongins and lumbermills are all large industrial concerns. 

The press of the city has played an important part in the whole drama of progress. 
The Daily Democrat and The Banner have always inculcated the opinions and ideas of 

In the northern portion of the city is the National cemetery, under the sod of which are 
interred the remains of the Federal dead who fell in the conflicts in which they were 
engaged on the soil of Mississippi and Louisiana, as well as those who died in the service at 
the various hospitals and upon the tented fields. The number of graves in this beautiful 
cemetery is very large. From a central mound, all carpeted with greensward, a tall flagstaff 
rises heavenward. This spot, sacred to the memory of the Union soldiers, is one of the 
loveliest in the state, which abounds in attractive locations. The National cemetery is Justly 
a favorite resort for equestrians and drivers in equipages. 

The City cemetery is likewise a most attractive spot of this unusually attractive city on 
the bluff. Massive structures of marble and granite commemorate the virtues of many of 
the honored dead of the town, while the graves of others are traced by less pretentious 
tombs and slabs — all combining to indicate in one solemnly beautiful segregation, within the 
city of the living, this sacred and honored city of the dead. 

The churches, public buildings and residences of Natchez point out the spirit of the 
Renaissance, which took possession of her people long before it dawned on the inhabitants 
of the North Atlantic states. The Doric and Ionic orders, witb entablatures in Greek and 
Roman form, prevail here. The Gothic cathedral speaks of thirteenth century glories and 
the colonial style is not wanting in the architectural panorama. The streets of Natchez are 
well drained and kept clean. The residences in the city and throughout its suburbs are 
many of them palatial. The drives about the town are among the most delightful to be 
found in the county. Fragrant blossoms greet the senses at every turn, while in many gar- 
dens is seen a wealth of floral productions that is simply intoxicating. Natchez is especially 
noted for its picturesque landscapes, its luxurious homes and its delightful climate. Here 
the Northerner may find health and comfort in the winter months, and almost perfect free- 
dom from the severity and harsh frigidity of his ice-clad home. The grand old hill, selected 
first by the Roman missioners and secondly by the French officer, Bienville, commands a 
view of the Mississippi. While wanting in the primitive grandeur of 1698, it has raised up 
a beautiful civilization which breathes harmony around and renders it what Maryland was in 
early years. It is a typical Southern city, where much of the old manners and social forms 
still obtain and one where the educated citizen of the Republic finds much to admire and lit- 
tle to condemn. 

Washington, in Adams county, was important in the earlier history of Mississippi. "The 
town of Washington, six miles east of Natchez, in a rich, elevated and picturesque country, 
was then the seat of government," wrote Colonel Claiborne. " The land office, the surveyor- 
general's office, the office of the commissioner of claims, and the courts of the United States, 


were all there. In the immediate vicinity was Fort Dearborn, and a permanent cantonment of 
United States troops. The high officials of the territory made it their residence, and many 
gentlemen of fortune, attracted by its advantages, went there to reside. There were three 
large hotels, and the academical department of Jefferson college, established during the 
administration of Governor Claiborne, was in successful operation. The society was highly 
cultivated and refined. The conflicting land titles had drawn there a large crowd of lawyers, 
generally young men of fine attainments and brilliant talents. The medical profession was 
equally well represented, at the head of which was Dr. Daniel Rawlings, a native of Calvert 
county, Md., a man of high moral character and exalted patriotism, eminent in his profession 
and who, as a vigorous writer and acute reasoner, had no superior and few equals. The 
emigration from Maryland, chiefly from Calvert, Prince George and Montgomery counties, 
consisted, for the most part, of educated and wealthy planters, the Covingtons, Chews, Cal- 
vits, Wilkinsons, Graysons, Freelands, Wailes, Bowies and Magruders; and the Winstons, 
Dangerfields and others from Virginia, who for a long time gave tone to the society of the 
territorial capital. It was a gay and fashionable place, compactly built for a mile or more 
from east to west, every hill in the neighborhood occupied by some gentleman's chateau. 
The presence of the military had its influence on society; punctilio and ceremony, parades 
and public entertainments were the features of the place. It was, of course, the haunt of 
politicians and office hunters; the center of political intrigue; the point to which all persons 
in the pursuit of land or occupation first came. It was famous for its wine parties and its 
dinners, not unfrequently enlivened by one or more duels directly afterward. Such was this 
now deserted and forlorn looking little village during the territorial organization. In its 
forums there was more oratory, in the salons more wit and beauty than we have ever wit; 
nessed since, all now moldering, neglected and forgotten in the desolate graveyard of the 
ancient capital of Mississippi. ' ' 

Greenville is the courthouse town of the county, as well as the capital of the levee dis- 
trict. Its population is six thousand six hundred and fifty-five. In 1880 it was twenty-five 
hundred. Old Greenville was burned during the war by the Federal naval authorities. 
A postoffice was established there September 10, 1803, with John Shaw as postmaster. 
The present town was laid off in 1865, though it was not incorporated until 1870. K. it. 
Wilson, a young man of New Jersey birth, who had come to Mississippi in 1858, and had 
served in company D of the Twenty- eighth Mississippi cavalry, returned from the war, and 
in May built a crude warehouse at Greenville, which was used for shipping and receiving 
purposes. This was on Blantonia plantation, and was the first thing in the way of a busi- 
ness house at Greenville. L. L. Alexander and M. Weiss built the first store, and were the 
first merchants. Following them were B. Cohn, Selig&Co., A. B. Finlay & Co., Cox & 
Bverman. B. Hanway was an early merchant. 

Such, in brief, is the early commercial history of this bright and attractive Mississippi 
city. In front of it the Father of Waters flows majestically, acting as the great regulator of 
freight rates by rail, and is of incalculable benefit to all classes doing business in this mar- 
ket. Of railways there are three ; the Lake Washington and Bolivar loop lines of the Louis- 
ville, New Orleans & Texas railway, and the main line of the Georgia Pacific railway, and 
others will be built in the near future. That the Illinois Central will construct a line to 
Greenville during the next eighteen months is now an open secret; in fact, in ord§r to protect its 
valuable carrying trade from and to the great delta region, that company sees and appreci- 
ates the necessity for paralleling the Georgia Pacific. Surveys have already been made and 


the favored roate will doubtless be the one directly through that section, via Grenada. It 
will thus be noticed how complete and comprehensive Greenville's transportation facilities 
are, and that it must always retain a commanding position as a distributing center. That 
Greenville, therefore, reasonably may aspire to become a city of the magnitude of Memphis 
is by no means extravagant, particularly as, in connection with all the natural advantages, 
its citizens are imbued with such enterprise, push and progress that they do their utmost to 
advance its interests upon all occasions. The streets are wide, beautifully graded, well 
guttered and kept clean ; consequently it is a healthy city, and free from all local diseases 
liable to become epidemic. The business streets present a fine and imposing appearauce, 
the buildings being principally constructed of brick, having iron and plate-glass fronts, while 
some of their occupants transact fully $750,000 worth of business per annum. Good 
sidewalks have also been laid in every portion, and a good street car line furnishes excellent 
transit facilities between the business and residence quarters. At night the city is ilhi- 
minated by means of electricity, the streets presenting a thoroughly metropolitan appear- 
ance. A system of waterworks is being constructed, calculated to supply a city of twenty- 
five thousand inhabitants, about the size Greenville fully, and with reason, expects to 
attain in less than a decade. A fine telephone exchaoge is also another modern feature 
enjoyed by this modern ideal community. Large and costly business houses, residences 
and cottages are being constructed in all portions of the city, and improvements of a sub- 
stantial character are being made in every direction, plainly indicating the prosperity 
and enterprise of the inhabitants who are widely known for their hospitality, kindness, cult- 
ure and refinement. Very creditable educational facilities also existing have a tendency 
to draw to Greenville a very superior citizenship. The city is provided with a good opera- 
house and a large number of churches, while the different leading civic societies are well 
represented. Real estate is steadily advancing in value, and heavy deals are being made 
almost every day, often involving large sums. Some very fine additions to the original site 
have been laid out, and the city seems to be visibly growing and becoming more of a cosmo- 
politan metropolis every day. It boasts of four banks, with a combined capital of 1690,000, 
and a line of deposits averaging $750,000. There are also two large and first-class com- 
presses and two cottonseed-oil mills, representing a total investment of $495,000. 

The cornerstone of the new Washington county courthouse was laid recently. N. Gold- 
stein was master of ceremonies, and delivered an address in opening the proceedings. 
Rev. Stevenson Archer invoked God's blessing. Mayor J. H. Winn delivered an address of 
welcome. Judge W. R. Trigg spoke as the orator of the occasion, in place of Capt. W. W. 
Stone, who could not possibly be present. Rev. William Cross directed the Masonic cer- 
emonies. The following is the record of the contents of the stone: Holy Bible, laws of 
Free Masonry and constitution of the grand lodge, proceedings of the grand commandery 
of 1891, names and officers of the grand lodge, names of acting officers of the grand lodge, 
order of procession, program of ceremonies, names of Washington county' s officials, names 
of Greenville's municipal officials, copies of the Greenville Times and Democrat, copies 
of daily and weekly Clarion-Ledger, history of Greenville, United States coins. The inscrip- 
tions upon the stone are as follows: Dedicated to justice, October '20, 1891, A. L. 5891. 
John M. Ware, grand master. Laid by William Cross, D. D. G. 

As yet, Greenville depends for its commerce almost wholly upon the cotton, of which 
staple it receives some one hundred thousand bales per annum, and the receipts are rapidly 
and very largely increasing each season, as new railroads are built and new plantations 
opened. An active cotton exchange aids very materially in making of this so important a 


cotton market and a Liverpool rate of Hixty-five cents per hundred pounds has been 

There is naturally a limit to the growth of any town or city wholly supported by its sur- 
rounding agricultural country, and knowing this, the people of Greenville believe in foster- 
ino' and encouraging industrial enterprises, and local capitalists will cheerfully and liberally 
cooperate with the outside men of means and practical knowledge of manufacturing, and 
invite their attention to their city. Its present industries comprise two large cotton com- 
presses, costing $165,000, two oilmills, costing 1325,000, one of which is the largest and 
finest plant in the South, its cost having been $250,000. The electric light plant represents 
an investment of $65,000. There are two large saw and one planingmill, a sash, door and 
blind factory, an ice factory, one foundry, two cistern or tank factories, and a steam bottling 
works. One large brick works, conducted by a strong stock company, produces millions of 
lirst-class bricks for local nse as well as export. Besides these, there are a number of smaller 
establishments of various kinds, every one being prosperous and busy, all of which shows 
plainly that manufacturing pays well in Greenville, if practically prosecuted. By means of 
Greenville's splendid railway system, every important market and consuming center in the 
Union is made readily accessible by routes and at rates as low as are enjoyed by any other 
Southern city. The attention of practical manufacturers is therefore specially directed to 
Greenville as being in all respects a most favorable location for industries. A large cotton 
and woolen mill could not be located elsewhere to better advantage, this being King Cotton's 
capital realm, the product of which is eagerly sought and well paid for in every cotton manu- 
facturing center in the United States and Europe. 

The press is creditably represented in Greenville by three first-class weekly newpapers, 
one of which runs its presses by an electric motor, having been the first and for some time 
the only office thus equipped in the state, or, as far as is known, in the South. The Demo- 
crat now in its thirteenth volume, is an eight-page paper, all home print, well edited, and 
the advertising columns are an index to the character of its constituents. Enterprise and 
prosperity are plainly visible on every page. 

The Times was established as the Washington County Times in 1868, is ably edited 
and well supported by all classes throughout the city and country. In politics it is demo- 
cratic. John W. Ward, its former publisher, sold the paper to J. S. McNeily, who gave it 
its present title. 

The Spirit is a successful candidate for public favor, and was established February 18, 
1889, by John W. Ward. It is a four- page folio, and its circulation is growing rapidly. 

All these journals may be taken with profit by anyone intending to locate in the Delta, 
as they are full of information concerning that desirable country. 

The Greenville Republican, H. T. Plorey, proprietor, was published by John W. Ward 
during the administration of Governor Alcorn. 

In 1880, James E. Negus and Henry T. Iries opened a private bankinghouse. After 
some time Mr. Iries withdrew and Mr. Negus continued the business some time under the 
name of the Merchants' bank. In 1887 it was merged into the First national bank. This 
institution has a capital of $100,000, and a surplus of $30,000. James E. Negus is its pres- 
ident, and Thomas Mount, cashier. 

The Bank of Greenville was organized in 1869 by W. A. Pollock, and in 1887 was incor- 
porated under the state laws. This, the first bank in the Delta, was a private bank operated 
by Mr. Pollock at first. At the time of incorporation the concern was capitalized at $250,- 
000, with Mr. Pollock as president and A. S. Olin as cashier. This bank is the pioneer in 
this part of MissisBippi. 


September 15, 1888, the Mercbaats and Planters' bank was organized by James Rob- 
ertshaw with a capital of $100,000. J. S. Walker was president, W. E. Hunt vice presi- 
dent and J. Eobertshaw cashier. The present officers are J. S. Walker, president; W. E. 
Hunt, vice president; S. C. Lane, cashier, and George Wheatley, assistant cashier. 

The Citizens' bank of Greenville was organized December 1, 1888, with $50,000 capi- 
tal. Its president was A. P. Keesecker and J. S. McDonald was cashier. Its present offi- 
cers are J. A. Deaton, president; W. S. Hamilton, cashier. The capital is now 185,000. 

In 1868 the Greenville Compress company was established with a capital of 1100,000; 
W. A. Pollock, president; T. J. Irwine, secretary and treasurer. 

The Planters' Compress company was incorporated in 1887 with 150,000 capital; James 
E. Negus, president; Joseph Uhl, secretary and treasurer. 

The Greenville oil works is a branch of the great oil interest. The investment in its plant 
and realty is $150,000. Jos. Allison, of Memphis, is president, and King Dowarth, secre- 
tary and treasurer. 

The Planters' cottonseed crushing association has a home capital of $100,000. C. H. 
Smith is president, George Alexander superintendent. 

Nearly all religious denominations are represented in Greenville, among them the Pres- 
byterian, Baptist, Methodist Episcopal, Protestant Episcopal, Catholic and Jewish. They 
all have substantial frame edifices and most of them have good membership and are in a 
prosperous condition. 

The Young Men's Christian association has its own building, a fine brick structure, 
erected in 1890, which with the lot and fixtures cost $12,000. It is well supported and is 
doing much good. It was organized in 1878, after the yellow fever epidemic, and incorpor- 
ated a few years later. 

The Greenville cemetery association was incorporated in 1887. 

Greenville lodge No. 94, I. O. O. F. ; Mississippi Valley lodge Knights of Honor No. 
723, C. P. Huntington council No. 973 Legion of Honor, the Benevolent Protective order of 
Elks No. 50 and Hebrew union are among the societies that have good membership here. 

Delta Commandery No. 16, Hillyer Royal Arch Chapter, No. 113 and Greenville lodge 
No. 206, represent the Masonic order at Greenville, and are all in a flourishing condition and 
have a good membership. 

The Knights of Pythias have two strong lodges at Greenville — Stonewall Jackson lodge 
No. 7, and W. A. Percy lodge No. 57. There are a number of social clubs in Greenville, 
having elegantly furnished rooms, equal to many found in large cities. The citizens are 
generally speaking, social in their habits, and take special delight in entertaining strangers. 
The Greenville Rifles is a splendid militia company, handsomely uniformed, well accoutered 
and perfect in the manual of arms. 

Greenville's leading industries and notable features may be thus summarized: two oil 
mills, two cotton compresses, a land and improvement company, an ice factory, an electric 
power and light company, the Greenville street railway company, the Greenville brick and 
improvement company, the Delta land and improvement company, thirteen miles of electric 
wire, and about seven miles of street railway. 

Leland is situated east from Greenville about ten miles, on the banks of Deer creek, 
and has a population of six hundred. The main line of the Louisville, New Orleans & 
Texas railway passes through Leland, which is also the diverging point for the Greenville, 
Arkansas City, Lake "\^'ashington and Bolivar Loop branches of that road, while the Georgia 


Pacific railway crosses the main line one half mile from the town. Leland is surrounded 
by a well -settled and rich cotton and corn growing section. Within the past few years 
some twenty thousund acres have been put into cultivation near Leland. Leland is sub- 
stantially built of brick and presents a fine appearance. The merchants carry large stocks 
and are doing a prosperous business, while not less than ten thousand bales of cotton are 
handled. The annual business of the town will aggregate fully $1,000,000. The Louis- 
ville, New Orleans & Texas railway company has erected there one of the finest hotel build- 
ings in the state, having accommodations for over one hundred guests, which station at 
Clarksdale, conceded to be one of the finest, was opened by Mr. Blake in 1887. 

A large sawmill, a large stove factory and two gins are in operation at Leland, and not 
less than thirty-two business houses, representing every line of trade. There are two hand- 
some, well equipped schoolhouses, affording excellent educational facilities for both races. 
Three good church buildings have been erected, while several secret societies are represented 
by flourishing lodges and well appointed halls. 

The streets are wide, graded, and good sidewalks have been put down and improve- 
ments of a substantial character are visible on every hand. 

Leland is the end of two divisions of the Louisville, New Orleans & Texas railway, 
and that company has large workshops and lumber yards there, employing a large force of 
men. Capt. J. A. V. Feltus, the father of Leland, founded the town in 1884, having ever 
fostered its interests to the extent of his by no means limited ability. 

Jackson City was established November 28, 1821, and named in honor of Andrew Jack- 
son, the hero of New Orleans. A road from Vicksburg to that point was completed about 
the same time, and this faint gleam of civilization was first shed on that section of the Pearl 
river wilderness. It was the same road over which Jackson was carried in triumph in 1840 
to a capital of a state whose people aided him a quarter of a century before in opposing 
British occupation. Jackson lies on Ihe western bank of the Pearl river, a beautiful stream 
flowing into the gulf of Mexico, navigable for small boats above and below the city for eight 
months in the year, and furnishing at all times a never failing and abundant supply of the 
purest water. Being situated about the geographical center of the state it was naturally 
made the capital city. It is also one of the county sites of Hinds county, one of the most 
fertile and productive counties in the state, being second only to the best delta landsin cotton 
production. The advantages of Jackson are not factitious; they are natural, real and per- 
manent, and are unaided by any adventitious circumstances, auguring it a prominence and 
prosperity which can not be forced down. Jackson has never been boomed as some towns 
are; it has never been pushed forward by any aggregated or concerted efforts of its citizens; 
such things, so far, are unknown to it. Its growth and development are but the nominal 
results of the natural course of events, and it may be truthfully said that in spite of itself 
nature has made it what it is; a prosperous and growing city of over six thousand inhabi- 
tants, with a brilliant and promising future of illimitable possibilities. The advantages of 
the place cannot be overestimated; and in considering what it is to-day it must be remem- 
bered that Jackson is a city which was practically destroyed by and rebuilt since the war. The 
Jackson of to-day is to all intents and purposes a city dating from the surrender, and it has 
attained its present importance in spite of certain obstacles, now removed, which would have 
forever prostrated any less favored locality. No town in the state suffered by the war as 
Jackson did. It was subjected to the ravages of a friendly as well as hostile army. And 
during the tedious years of reconstruction which followed, the city, more than any in the 


state, felt the depressing blight of unsettled political affairs. All this is now happily a thing 
of the past. A new era has been entered upon; nature has again asserted itself, and Jack- 
son is marching to the front steadily and surely. 

The population in 1870, was four thousand two hundred and thirty-four; in 1880, live 
thousand two hundred and four; and in 1890, six thousand and forty -one. The editor of the 
Clarion- Ledger, speaking of her progress under date May 11, 1891, says: " It is usually 
adnoitted that no town of its size in Mississippi equals it in its industrial life or the general 
hospitality of its citizens. Far and wide it is noted for its push, and the late census shows 
a marked progress in every branch of industry, as well as a large increase in population. In 
1880 the census gave the population of the town at live thousand, while she to-day boasts of 
nine thousand." Under date October 21, 1891, the same paper says: "The census of 1890 
may be a true and correct estimate of the population of Jackson, but the Clarion-Ledger 
does not believe it, and the people do not believe it. And, another thing, Jackson has a pop- 
ulous suburb that is, in point of fact, a part and parcel of the city. Mercerville and West 
End are as much a portion of Jackson as if they were located within the sacred precinctsof the 
corporation line. ' Several of the leading and most substantial business men of the city have hand- 
some residences and valuable lots in that suburb, and byrightshould be included not only in the 
census of Jackson, but on 1 he city assessment rolls, and pay their quota of the expenses. The 
board of trade could not turn its attention to a more important matter than the annexation of 
that part of Jackson known as West End or Mercerville. The corporation line should be 
extended one mile on the other side of the depot. At present it is not a quarter beyond 
the railroad, and thus some of the most valuable properties of the city escape city taxes and 
at the same time enjoy the many privileges and conveniences of city life. It is only a matter 
of time when the annexation will be made, and why not now ? The board of trade should 
move in the matter. Let it be one of the subjects for discussion at the next meeting, and a 
committee appointed to properly lay the subject before the legislature in January next. 
Jackson has now a population of ten thousand or more, and is increasing at the rate of live hun- 
dred per annum. The fact of the business is, Jackson is a prosperous and growing city in 
point of size, business and numbers. " 

The acts relating to the incorporation of Jackson are those of December 25, 1833, Feb- 
ruary 14j 1839, and February 22, 1840. On March 5, 1846, the act authorizing a bridge 
over Pearl river was approved; in 1846 acts relating to schools; in 1846, also, one providing 
for the forfeiture of vote in the case of the non-payment of street tax, and in 1848 one 
extending the limits and one regulating bridge affairs. The city records, prior to 1854, 
could not be found, but from unofficial documents it is learned that John P. Oldham was 
mayor for nine years prior to that date and that Joseph Spengler served as a member of the 
old council. 

The mayors of the city since 1854 are named as follows: Richard Fletcher*, 1854; 
William H. Taylor, 1855-7; James H. Boyd*, 1858; W. A. Purdon,* 1859; R. 0. Kerr, 
1860-1; C. H. Manship, 1862-3; D, N. Barrows, 1864 to May, 1868, (removed by military 
authorities); Thomas H. Norton, from May 8, 1868, to July 9, 1868, (removed by military 
authorities); James Biddle, from July 9, to July 31, 1868, (removed by military authorities); 
James P. Sessions*, from July 31, 1868, to January 12, 1869, (removed by military authori- 
ties); Rhesa Hatcher*, from January 12, 1869, to April 2, 1869, (removed by military 
authorities); Joseph G. Crane* from April 2, 1869, to June 8, 1869, (killed); F. A. Field, 
from June 16, to July 16, 1869, (removed by military authorities); A. W. Kelly, from July 


16 to November 5, 1869, (removed by military authorities); E, W. Cabaniss*, from Novem- 
ber 9, 1869, to June 22, 1870, when Governor Alcorn appointed Oliver Clifton. The latter 
resigned October 17, 1871, and ten days later Ehesa Hatcher* was appointed and served 
until January 3, 1872, when the days of appointments passed away and Marion Smith was 
elected mayor; John McGill was elected January 5, 1874, and served until January, 1888, 
when the present mayor, William Henry, was elected. 

The aldermen in 1854 were C. R. Dickson*, C. A. Moore*, Stephen P. Bailey*, R. M. 
Hobson* W. D. Bibb* and J. W. Shaw*. Bailey* was reelected in 1855-6 and 7; E. M. 
Avery*, 1855-6; W. H. Donnell*, 1855-7 and 1862; Rhesa Hatcher*, 1855-6 and 1870-1; 
W. W. Langley*, 1855-6; James T. Ruck=,*, 1855-6 and 1858; O. Barrett* 1857; L. V. 
Dixon* 1857; Thomas Green* 1857-67; Hiram Hilzheim* 1857 and 1871; Jo. Bell* 
] 858-60-2; C. H. Manship, 1858-9-60; D. N. Barrows, 1858-9-62-3; W. M. Estelle*, 
1858-9-60; T. W. Caskey, 1858; L. Julienne* 1859-60; C. A. Moore* 1859-60; H. Speng- 
ler, 1859 and 1876-84; J. H. Bowman, 1860; M. \V. Boyd* 1861; W. M. Patton* 1861; 
C. S. Knapp* 1861; J. O. Stevens, 1861-6; M. C. Russell* 1861; John H. Echols* 1861; 
G. H. Sutherland*, 1862-3; J. H. Boyd*, 1862-7; R. M. Hobson*, 1862-3, R. O. 
Edwards*, 1863; W. W. Hardy, 1863; J. W. K. Lucy* 1864, (killed by Deputy United 
States Marshal Winders); A. Virden, 1864-9; Samuel French, 1864; M. McLaughlin* 
1864-73; Ned Farish, 1864; James Tapley*, 1865-9; John Nelson*, 1865-7 and 72; Angelo 
Miazza* 1867-70 and 1872-3; Marcus Hilzheim*, 1867-9; Rufus Arnold, 1867-9 (appointed 
by military authorities to fill vacancy, October 8, 1867); Thomas Green*, and John Nelson*, 
(resigned October 4, 1867); John Burns* 1869-70; E. Bloom, 1869; Charles Williams, 
1869-70; Thomas Palmer, 1869-70; James Lynch* 1869-71. The five last named were 
appointed May 15, 1869, by the military authorities mce Virden, Tapley, McLaughlin, 
Arnold and Hilzheim, removed, and served until March 28, 1870, when Samuel Lemly*, 
Henry Musgrove*, E. A. Peyton*, James Lynch* (colored) and G. Richards* were appointed 
by Governor Alcorn. Musgrove, Peyton and Lynch served in the council in 1871, with R. 
Hatcher and M. McLaughlin, the latter being appointed vice Lemly. On July 6, 1871, the 
six last named councilmen were removed, when A. N. Kimball*, James Peachey, E. D. 
Fisher (later postmaster), James R. Yerger and T. Anderson were appointed. In 1872 
George H. Clint succeeded McLaughlin and I. Strauss succeeded Clint in June, 1872. 
John McGill (who took J. J. Rorhbncher's place in February, 1873), P. O. Leary, Jacob 
Kausler (who took A. Miazza' s place in June, 1872) and Harris Barksdale*, all were mem- 
bers of the aldermanic board. In 1874 C. B. Smith (killed by accident), Thomas Ander- 
son (colored), Charles Williams, D. Ward, W. Q. Lowd and M. Stamps (colored) were mem- 
bers. Messrs. Anderson, Lowd, Ward and Williams were reelected in 1876 and H. Speng- 
ler and L. Kavanaugh* elected. In 1878 Spengler, Williams, Lowd and Anderson, 
with J. S. Hamilton and J. W. Harrington*, were aldermen. In 1880 S. E. Virden 
replaced Hamilton, and J. W. Clingan took the place of Harrington, the other members 
being reelected. The elections of 1882 resulted in the choice of H. Spengler, J. S. Ham- 
ilton, F. B. Hull, W. Q. Lowd, W. H. Taylor and Ben Jones. The two last named were 
reelected in 1884, with E. Watkins, W. H. Gibbs, J. Braun and H. K. Hardy. In 1886 
W. S. Lemly took the place of Gibbs and the other members were reelected. E. Wat- 
kins, W. S. Lemly and W. H. Taylor, with L. F. Chiles, H. M. Taylor and George Lemon, 
were elected in 1888, and in 1890 Messrs. Chiles, Lemon and H. M. Taylor, with B. W. 
Griffith, E. Von Seutter, L. Manship and James Ewing, formed the board of aldermen. 


So early as February 20, 1819, congress donated one thousand two hundred and eighty 
acres to the state, to be selected by the legislature, and made the site of the state capital. 
Two years after, the legislature named Thomas Hinds, James Patton and William Lattimore 
commissioners to locate such capital town within twenty miles of the geographical center of 
Mississippi. For some reason, William Lattimore did not take part in the final action of 
the commissioners, for on November 28, 1821, the first and last named, with Peter A. Van 
Dorn, were directed expressly by the legislature to locate the capital land grant on the 
east half of sections three and ten, and the west half of sections two and eleven, in town 
five north, and range one, east of the Choctaw meridian, to name the land so selected Jack- 
son, and to have a temporary building for legislative sessions erected thereon before Decem- 
ber, 1822. The sale of lots in the new town was authorized June 30, 1822, and the terms of 
sale placed at ten per cent, cash, and the balance in three years. The particulars are given 
in page ninety-nine, Hutchinson's Mississippi code. On February 26, 1833, the act for the 
erection of the capitol and executive mansion was approved and 1105,000 appropriated. 
Three years later, William Nichols was appointed state architect (office abolished in 1842), 
and Kichard Davidson, Perry Cohea, and Henry K. Moss commissioners of public buildings. 
In February, 1836, the act to establish a penitentiary was approved; in 1848, that establish- 
ing the institute for the blind; in 1853 the state lunatic asylum was authorized, and in 1854 
the institute for the deaf and dumb. Work on the statehouse was commenced in 1838, the 
contract for woodwork being entered into by E. S. Farish. 

Of the pioneers of the city very few remain. David Shelton settled here in 1836; 
Herbert Spengler came about 1837, and in October, 1838, laid the foundation of the busi- 
nesses, which he has built up within the last fifty-five years; William J. Brown, who was a 
printer here in 1836; Charles H. Manship, a settler of 1836, and Alexander Virden, who also 
came in 1836, George Langley, Edward Virden, Thomas Helm, Jacob Kausler, and John 
Clinghen are still residents of the city. In 1844, D. N. Barrows established an insurance 
.office; in 1850, Isadore Strauss came; in 1850 or 1851, E. Von Seutter; in 1853, E. D. Patton; 
in 1855, H. BI. Taylor, and in 1858, L. Fraggiacoma. They are to-day among the most 
enterprising men of the commercial circle. Many children of the pioneers of the county and 
state reside at Jackson, and are found in all branches of trade and in the professions. Many 
of the old settlers, men and women who were here before the war, and passed through the 
trials of the city's occupation by opposing armies, are now witnessing the extraordinary pro- 
gress of a new city under a new idea of civilization. Some landmarks of the original town 
have survived time, as well as the large public buildings completed within the decade ending 
in 1860, and a few of the principal residences of antebellum days, but the hand of the 
modernizer is more manifest and architectural styles and conveniences undreamed of even 
twenty years ago exist od every side. The last decade, which did so much for civilization 
in the Northern states, has not overlooked the Southern country, and in the advance Jackson 
city has been foremost. 

The old frame house known as the Eagle hotel, forty rooms, stood where the Brown resi- 
dence now is. The brick hotel of one hundred rooms erected on this site in 1854, and 
known as the Bowman house, was burned during the war. George Langley, now a resident 
of the city, was a prime mover in urging the erection of a large hotel, and suggested the 
purchase and donation of the ground. 

Jackson is the railroad center of the state, and one of the most important in the South. 
The great Illinois Central railroad, from Chicago to New Orleans, divides the state north 
and south, and at Jackson intersects the Vicksburg & Meridian, running east and west 


from Vicksburg on the Mississippi and forming a link in the chain of roads connecting the 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Jackson is the present terminus of the Yazoo & Mississippi 
Valley railroad, a line operated by the Illinois Central and extending northwest from Jack- 
son through the world-renowned Yazoo and Mississippi delta, the most fertile and productive 
body of land in the world, to a point on the Mississippi river opposite Helena, Ark. , where 
it connects with the Great Western and Northwestern systems of railroads. The Natchez, 
Jackson & Columbus railroad, with its present termini at Jackson and Natchez on the 
Mississippi river, runs southwest from Jackson, and will be completed beyond Jackson 
northeast, to the coal iields of Alabama. The Gulf & Chicago railroad, now rapidly 
approaching completion, will give Jackson as direct and quick connection with the Gulf 
of Mexico as it has now with New Orleans. A branch of the Queen & Crescent railroad 
from a point near the Pearl river bridge to Pearl street, in the rear of State street, was 
completed October 22, 1891. Jackson has now within its corporate limits between seven 
thousand and nine thousand inhabitants, including a large and rapidly increasing suburban 
population. The streets are all named and houses numbered, and a free postal delivery system 
is in operation. At least five hundred buildings have been completed in the last five years, 
and more are constantly going up. It has one of the largest cotton compresses in the 
world, being the same which was awarded the first premium at the World's exposition in 
New Orleans. It has gas and street railways, two prosperous banks, an ice factory with 
a daily capacity of fifteen tons, three steam foundries and small factories of agricultural 
implements running to their full capacity; two large brick factories, two fertilizer factories, 
one furniture factory, one broom factory, ten churches, six newspapers (five weeklies and one 
daily), and three large hotels. Being the capital of the state, nearly all the important state insti- 
tutions and buildings are located here. The State library in the capital building is the 
third largest state law library in the Union. The miscellaneous library, being also large 
and well selected, is free to the public. At Jackson are held the state supreme, chancery, 
and circuit courts; also the circuit and district courts of the United States. At Jackson 
also assemble the legislature and all the important conventions. In 1887 the Illinois Cen- 
tral company built at Jackson a passenger depot unsurpassed by any in the South, 
and early in 1891 designed a grander building for this important railroad center. 

The Jackson Land and Improvement company, organized in 1886-7, is a joint stock com- 
pany, gotten up exclusively on home capital, and has for its object the advancement and gen- 
eral improvement of the material interests of the city. It is composed of gentlemen of standing 
and respectability. Its charter gives it full power to conduct and operate all branches of 
business which will tend to increase the comfort and business prosperity of the city. This 
company now owns the most desirable siiburban property to be found near Jackson, lying 
just in the jsath of its present growth. This land is divided into lots and offered as cheap 
homes for persons desiring to locate permanently here. One of the main objects of the com- 
pany, by means of co-operation, is to make known to the outside world the many substantia] 
attractions of their city; to correspond with outside capitalists seeking investments, and to show 
to them the many reasons why Jackson is the most desirable and eligible place in the state 
or the South for the establishment of any and all kinds of industries which manufacture 
wood or cotton or wool. Few places can show such inducements in these lines as this offers, 
with its rivers and railroads and cheap and accessible adjacent forests abounding in the finest 
lumber of multiplied varieties, in addition to being in the very center of the largest cotton- 
producing state. 

The educational advantages of Jackson, for both sexes and all colors, are excellent, 


There is also a lirst-class commercial college here, a convent school and classical schools. The 
churches are well administered and exert a most beneficent influence upon the people of the 

The secret and benevolent societies are thoroughly organized, while social and literary 
associations attain a rare excellence. The newspapers of the city, past and present, are 
referred to in other pages. 

The Capital State bank is the oldest bank in Jackson.- It was founded by Col. Thos. E. 
Helm, in 1872-3, the reorganization taking place in January, 1888, with the following officers : 
R. W. Millsaps, president; Thos. E. Helm, vice president; B. W. Griffith, cashier, and E. M. 
Parker, assistant cashier. The directors are: R. W. Millsaps, Thos. E. Helm, C. A. Alex- 
ander, E. Virden and I. Strauss, of Jackson, Walter Heilman, of Clinton, and W. H. Tribette, 
of Terry, all of whom are gentlemen of the highest financial, commercial and social standing 
in this state. The bank operates with a capital of $100,00(_), and has a surplus and undi- 
vided profits amounting to $15,733.00 additional. 

The First National bank was established May 1st, 1885. Its capital is §100,000, to 
which has been added a surplus of $30,000. The officers are: Samuel S. Carter, president; 
Charles A. Lyerly, vice president; O. J. White, cashier, and A. C. Jones, assistant cashier. 
These are also directors, together with E. L. Saunders, Byron Lemly, S. S. Oalhoon, P. W. 
Peoples and C. W. Robinson. These uames will be recognized as being borne by the most 
substantial men of central Mississippi. 

The Jackson bank was organized December 19, 1889, with a casli capital of $100,000; 
the officers are: P. W. Peeples, president; R. L. Saunders, vice president; A. M. Nelson, 
cashier ; J. W. Cooper, assistant cashier, and directors P. W. Peeples, John McDonnell, G. Y. 
Freeman, W. W. Stone, W. J. Davis, R. Griffith, E. H. Anderson, R. L. Saunders, J. B. 
Ross, Wirt Adams and A. M. Nelson. 

State Building and Loan association was organized April 22, 1890, but incorporated 
February 2lBt of that year, with an authorized capital stock of $3,000,000. The following 
well-known citizens of Mississippi form the directory: J. M. Lambert, Natchez, Geo. M. 
Govan, MeComb City; R. K. Jayne, Jackson; D. D. Boyd, Jackson; T. M. Miller, Vicksburg; 
A. H. Jayne, Jackson; A. B. Watts, Meridian; John H. Odeneal, Jackson; J. M. Lambert, 
president; Geo. M. Govan, vice president, R. K. Jayne, secretary and D. D. Boyd, trustee; 
T. M. Miller and A. H. Jayne, general attorneys; John H. Odeneal and A. B. Watts, 

One of the most valuable improvements is the water system, completed in 1889. 
The water works are owned by the Light, Heat & Water company, of which R. L. 
Saunders is president, P. W. Peeples vice president and M. Green secretary and treas- 
urer, who are also directors, together with C. W. Robinson, S. S. Carter, R. W. Millsaps, 
S. S. Calhoon and B. Lemly, all business men and capitalists of the city. The cap- 
ital stock is $100,000. The system employed is gravity pressure for domestic and 
direct pressure for fire service. A steel stand pipe one hundred and twenty feet in 
hight, twenty-four feet in diameter, with a capacity of two hundred and eighty thousand 
gallons, has been constructed upon a hill about one and one-half miles from the city limits, 
the elevation being seventy-three feet above the ground where the capitol stands. The water 
is obtained from Pearl river, some three miles above the city, and also the same distance along 
mains. The pumping plant consists of two duplex double-acting Deane steam pumps, one 
compound and one high pressure, each having a daily capacity of one million gallons. The 
Iwilers are of steel, fifty-four inches in diameter. The piimps are set in a circular well. 



twenty- one feet deep, the lift from low water being eleven feet. The pumphouse is built 
of brick, and of sufficient size to admit of the doubling of the capacity at any time. Th 
plant is entirely above the high water mark and five hundred feet above low water. 
In addition to the direct suction, an independent suction admits water being taken from 
a well excavated near the pumphouse for tiltering purposes. Tlie stand pipe is one 
and one-quarter miles from the pumps and one hundred and twenty feet above them; an 
electrical call, by which the engineer can turn the water oil from the stand pipe and apply 
direct pressure in case of fire, is a part of the apparatus. The mains range from twelve to 
four inches in diameter, and eight miles are laid within and three without the city limits for 
supplying the various state institutions, which require twenty-one hydrants in addition to the 
number required by tlie city. These works have been constructed in the most thorough and 
systematic manner by Moffitt, Hodgkins & Clarke of Watertown, N. Y., while all the material 
and machinery used are of the very best, latest and most highly improved patterns. The 
gas works preceded the water works, and even the electric light was introduced before 
the boon of a good water supply was given. 

The Mississippi Compress & Warehouse company owns and operates one of the largest 
and finest cotton compresses in the entire South, its plant representing an outlay of fully 
$60,000. The press is a ninety-inch Morse, the same vs'hich was on exhibition at the expo- 
sition in New Orleans, where it carried off all the honors. The press, warehouses, platforms, 
sheds, etc., cover an area of five acres, having storage capacity of ten thousand bales, located 
upon the tracks of the different railways entering Jackson, having a frontage on the Illinois 
Central railroad of three hundred feet, and on the Vickburg & Meridian railroad of two hun- 
dred feet. Every facility and all late improvements have been added and exist for the rapid 
and effective work required in this business, and the press has a record of loading one hun- 
dred compressed bales into one oar. 

The Capital City Oil works were built in the summer of 1889, and commenced operation 
ifi the fall of the same year. The following citizens are the officers: John A. Lewis, presi- 
dent; E. T. George, secretary and treasurer; John W. Todd, general agent. Since the date 
of the establishment of this concern its volume of business has grown to an immense degree 
and to-day it takes front rank with all similar industries. It is located in West Jackson on 
a plat of ground covering about five acres. There are ihree distinct buildings: The mill, 
which is built of brick, 270x40 feet; the seedhouse, 400x50 feet; and the office building, a 
handsome two-story brick house. The engineroom is 50x60 feet, and the boilerroom, 40x50 
feet. Two switches of the Illinois Central and one of the Little J run through the yards, 
thus furnishing excellent shipping facilities. The mill is fitted throughout with most im- 
proved machinery, and contains eight (Buckeye) presses, with a capacity of crushing seventy- 
five tons of seed per day. The company have their own dynamo, and during the busy season, 
when they are compelled to run both night and day, furnish lighting material. The oil 
manufactured is sent to the North, where it goes through a process of refining. 

A number of manufacturing industries, such as the Enoch's Lumber and Manufacturing 
company, the sawmills, planingmills, foundries, etc. , are in operation, each one worked to 
its full capacity. 

The mercantile houses are large, prosperous concerns, always telling of business princi- 
ples in their conduct, and in the manners of merchants and employes. 

The cotton market of the city is, of course, an interesting point, as it is in all such 
Southern cities. 

The board of trade was cliartered April 18, 1888, the following named being among its 


first officers: Dr. P. W. Peeples, president; Maj. E. W. Millsaps, first vice president; E. Vir- 
den, second vice president; A. Virden, Jr., secretary; and Dr. S. S. Carter, treasurer. The 
board of directors is made up as follows: E. W. Millsaps, J. A. Shingleur, E. L. Saunders, 
Dr. B. Lemly, Isadore Strauss, John McDonnell and J. H. Odeneal. 

The Edwards house, the Lawrence and the Spengler are the principal hotels of the city. 
The first named is one of great old houses of the state, speaking of days before its institu- 
tions were overturned by war. A modern brick addition ;ind interior decoration bring it into 
harmony with the present. The Lawrence house, established in 1858, is undoubtedly the 
leading commercial hotel of central Mississippi. The owner established himself at Jackson 
in 1858, served with the Confederate troops during the war, and resuming the business 
raised the business of hotel keeping to a profession. The addition to the house was com- 
pleted in 1890. The Spengler house, opposite the capitol, occupies one of the finest busi- 
ness sites in the city. Eemoved from the railroad depot, it is on the borders of the principal 
business and residence districts. The improvements completed in January, 1891, including 
the important brick addition, render it a modern house. The owners are among the pio- 
neers of Jackson, and connected closely with the building of the city. The large hotel at 
Cooper's well, three and one-half miles from Eaymond, is the property of the Spenglers. 
Mrs. T. B. J. Hadley, a daughter of the Indian fighter, David Smith, after whom Smith 
county was named, and the wife of Auditor Hadley, of Wilkinson county, kept the 
leading boardinghouse at Jackson in 1837. She was a great admirer of the Indian la\\'s 
providing for the protection of married women's proi^erty, and was instrumental in urging 
the adoption of such a law by Mississippi. 

The capitol, governor's residence, city hall, deaf and dumb institute. Federal building, 
state school for the blind, insane asylum and state penitentiary are the public buildings of 
the city. The four first named buildings show adherence to definite architectural forms, the 
Federal building is an adaptation of the Palladian, and the penitentiary building a mi.\ture 
of the Tudor and Colonial, with the finer jiarts of each style ignored. The church buildings 
are Gothic, the Illinois Central depot Queen Anne, and the modern residences partake, in a 
measure, of the last-mentioned style, or are decidedly French of the suburban type. 

Throughout the city brick or wooden sidewalks and macadamized streets prevail, street 
cars traverse the principal streets, gas or electricity lights up the thoroughfares, and the 
water system extends through every ward. In the residence portion the parkways, while 
not as wide as they should be, are well kept, but to large grounds surrounding each residence 
credit must be given for being faultless in the arrangement of shruljbery and lawn. It is a 
garden city, boasting of all the light and air of the country and all the advantages of a 
modern city. 

At the meeting of the board of trade October 20, 1891, several topics of practical inter- 
est to the city were considered. Dr. Peeples, as chairman of a committee, reported some 
progress in the matter of securing the arrival of morning trains on the Little J and Yazoo 
branch roads. He called attention to what was manifestly a discrimination against Jackson 
in the matter of rates on cotton from Flora to Jackson and from same point to Yazoo City. 
Flora is nearer Jackson than Yazoo City, and yet the freight is seventy-five cents to Jackson, 
and only forty cents to Yazoo City. A member suggested that perhaps the Illinois Central 
owned or had an interest in the Yazoo City Compress. The committee was continued to press 
the matter of morning trains, and to interview the railroad commission, if necessary, for 
removal of the discrimination stated. General Henry reported that 1500 in cash had been 
subscribed for the repair of the turnpike, and that contracts would be let on Saturday next. 


The matter of incessant switching at and near the railroad junction, the delays to vehicles and 
persons desiring to cross the numerous tracks, the danger to life, and the accidents occurring, 
was a subject of earnest and protracted conversation. Mr. Montgomery said the railroad 
people were anxious to provide a remedy, but it could only be done by removal of freight 
depots out of town, which would result in great inconvenience to the business community. 
The opening of more streets from East to West Jackson, above and below the city, it was sug- 
gested, would solve the problem. Mr. Odeneal thought a bridge over the Capitol street cross- 
ing would be a great relief, that it was now very dangerous for school children to cross the 
track, and that wagons were provokingly delayed in coming to and going from town. Colonel 
Power suggested that the school population of West Jackson seemed to require a public 
school building in that part of the city, and that the children over there should not be sub- 
jected to the dangers mentioned by Mr. Odeneal. General Henry remarked that the neces- 
sity for a West End school was becoming very apparent. The removal of the penitentiary 
was the special topic of discussion. Colonel Hooker, Captain Stone, Colonel Hamilton, Dr. 
Peeples and Major Millsaps all spoke earnestly in that behalf, and finally it was ordered that 
the president of the board should, at his convenience, appoint a conjmittee of nine to prepare a 
memorial to the legislature urging the early removal of the prison, which was a continual men- 
ace to the health, and an obstacle to the growth of the city. Dr. P. W. Peeples, chairman; W. 
W. Stone, J. L. Power, B. W. Griffith, Oliver Clifton, R. L. Saunders, John McDonnell, M. 
Green, L. F. Chiles, R. W. Millsaps, were appointed a committee to wait upon the legislature 
to urge the removal of the penitentiary from the city limits. 

The following brief city directory of Jackson's municipal, fraternal, judicial, religious 
and other interests was compiled in October, 1891 : 

William Henry, mayor; W. R. Harper, police justice; J. B. Harris, city attorney; John 
T. Buck, city clerk and collector; Isadore Strauss, treasurer; A. G. Lewis, chief of police; 
Henry Taylor, white sexton; Alex. Wilson, colored sexton. 

Aldermen — North ward, B. W. Griffith, Luther Manship; South ward, H. M. Taylor, 
L. F. Chiles ; West ward, George Lemon, James Ewing. Regular meetings of the board on 
Wednesday after first Tuesday each month. 

Fraternal societies — Pearl Masonic lodge No. 23, first Saturday night each month; Jack- 
son Royal Arch chapter No. 6, fourth Monday night each month; Mississippi commandery 
No. 1, Knights Templar, second Monday night each month; Capitol lodge No. 11, I. O. O. F. , 
every Thursday night; Central lodge No. 764, K. of H., first and third Tuesday nights in 
each month; Jackson lodge No. 163, K. and L. of H., every third Monday; Pearl lodge No. 
23, Knights of Pythias, second and fourth Tuesday nights in each month; Manassah lodge 
No. 202, I. 0. O. B., second and fourth Sundays, 10 a. m., in lodge room. Temple basement; 
Capitol lodge No. 11, A. O. of U. W., first and third Monday nights in each month; United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America meets every Friday night, at 7 :80, in 
Richardson building. West Jackson; Capitol Light guards, regular meetings first Thursdays, 
regular drill every Monday night. 

The firemen — Jackson Fire department, L. B. Moseley president, Oliver Clifton chief; 
Jackson No. 1, first Monday night in each month; West Jackson No. 1, second Tuesday night 
in each month; Gem No. 2, second Tuesday night in each month; Pearl Hook and Ladder 
No. 1, first Thursday night in each month; Hope No. 3, second Tuesday night in each 

Supreme court — J. A. P. Campbell, chief justice. Third district; Thomas H. Woods, 
associate justice. Second district; T. E. Cooper, associate justice, Fourth district; Oliver 


Clifton, clerk. Semi-annual terms commence on third Monday of October and first Monday 
of April. 

United States court — Circuit and chancery courts, first Monday in May and November, 
Henry C. Niles, judge; R. H. \^' inter, clerk; F. H. Collins, marshal. 

Circuit court, Hinds county — First district, Jackson, first Monday in January and June 
(eighteen days); Second district, Raymond, fourth Monday in January and June (twelve 
days). J. B. Chrisman, judge; W. H. Potter, clerk; R. J. Harding, sheriff. 

Chancery court. Hinds county — First district, Jacksou, first Monday in March and Octo- 
ber (tvrelve days); Second district, Raymond, third Monday in February and September 
(twelve days). H. C. Conn, chancellor; W, W. Downing, clerk. 

Hinds county supervisors — Meetings on first Monday in each month, alternately at Ray- 
mond and Jackson. In Raymond, January, March, May, July, September and November; 
Jackson, February, April, June, August, October and December. W. W. Downing, clerk, 
office in Raymond; Ramsey Wharton, deputy, office in Jackson. 

The churches — "West Jackson Methodist, B. F. Lewis, pastor; preaching 11 a. m. and 8 
p. M. ; Sunday school 9:30 a. m. ; J. T. H. Laird, superintendent; prayer-meeting Thursday, 
8 p. M. Baptist church, H. F. Sproles, pastor; preaching 11 a. m.' and 7:30 p. m. ; Sunday- 
school 9:3(t A. M. ; B. W. Griffith, superintendent; prayer meeting Wednesday, 7:30 p. m. 
Presbyterian church, John Hunter, pastor; preaching 11 a. m. and 7:30 p. m. ; Sunday 
school 9 A. M. ; W. S. Lemly, superintendent; prayer-meeting Wednesday night, 7:39; West 
Jackson Sunday school 9 a. m. , Dr. B. H. Cully, superintendent. Methodist church, Rev. 
W. C. Black, D. D. , pastor; preaching every Sabbath at 11 a. m. and 7:30 p. m. ; prayer- 
meeting Wednesday night at 7:30; Sabbath-school 9:30 a. m., W. L. Nugent, superintendent. 
St. Peter's Catholic church, Rev. Louis A. Dutto, pastor; services every Sunday; early mass 
7:00 a. m. ; high mass, 10 a. m. ; vespers 4 p. m. Episcopal (St. Andrew's) church, Sunday 
service 11 a. m. and 7 p. m. ; Sunday school 9:30 a. m., M. Green, superintendent. Chris- 
tian church, M. F. Harmon, pastor; preaching every Sunday, 10:47) a. m. and 7:15 p. m. ; 
Sunday school 9:30 a. m. Beth Israel congregation, no pastor at present; services every 
Friday night at 7:30, conducted by laymen. 

The monument erected at Jackson to perpetuate the memory of those who gave their lives 
to the Southern cause during the Civil war was unveiled June 4, 1891, with appropriate cer- 
emonies in the presence of t^^enty thousand people. It stands in the southern portion of the 
capitol enclosure, on grounds donated by the legislature for the purpose, in full view of the 
principal street of the city. 

The hight of the monument from the ground line to the soldier on top is sixty feet and 
four inches. It stands upon a solid concrete foimdation twenty- four feet square and two 
feet and eight inches thick. The base of the monument at Jackson, Miss., is almost a dupli- 
cate in miniature of the temple at Pandrethan. The three platform stone bases are built of 
white limestone from the quarries at Bowling Green, Ky. Each is eight inches thick and the 
lower is twenty-four feet long by twenty feet wide. On the outside of these bases there is a 
granolithic stone pavement four feet wide, extending entirely around the monument. The die 
resting on these stone bases represents the wall of an old castle, and is thirteen feet high by 
fourteen feet wide. The walls above the receding buttresses or plinths are equally divided 
and cut up into seventy-four blocks. It was originally intended to have each of these blocks 
represent one of the seventy-four counties of the state (the number in the state at that time) 
with the name of the county chiseled thereon and number of soldiers it furnished the Con- 
federacy. This, however, for the present has been, abandoned and the blocks are perfectly 


plain. On the uorth and soulh sides of the die there is an inscription on raised marble, 
extending two-thirds across the monument, containing these words: " To the Confederate 
Dead of Mississippi." On the west and east sides are the doorways, about seven feet high 
and two feet and eight inches in width. They are ornamented by beautiful and heavily 
molded doorjams, extending to the sides and tops of the openings and resting .upon orna- 
mental scroll buttresses. Curving to the outside and securely fastened to the doorjams are 
heavy vault doors of malleable galvanized iron. The pattern of this is scroll and flower work. 
There are no bars. " Each of the doors is provided with locks, so that the vaulted chamber 
containing Jefferson Davis' statue and the inscriptions, can be secured from intrusion. Each 
of these doorways is further ornamented and protected by an arched portico, projecting five 
feet from the face of the die and about ten feet high. Each of these arched canopies of the 
portico is supported by two highly polished red beech granite columns. Crowning the arch 
of these appears the monogram, C S. A. (Confederate States of America), raised in heavy 
bold letters and gilded. They form the approach to the vault, immediately in the center of the 
monument. The vault is octagonal in shape and iias a red and white marble floor, seven feet 
two inches in diameter. In the center is the corner, or more appropriately speaking the 
centerstone, which was laid with imposing Masonic ceremonies three years ago. This stone 
is of Italian marble, beautifully polished, and projects six inches above the floor. Eesting 
upon this as a pedestal, is to stand the life-sized statue of Jefferson Davis, president of the 
Confederacy. This piece of work was executed by one of the finest artists in Italy, and 
represents Mr. Davis standing with left hand extended in the attitude of delivermg a speech. 
In his right hand he has a roll of manuscript and at his feet lays a pile of books. The sides of 
this chamber are wainscoted with Italian marble six feet in hight. Including the doors there 
are eight sides to the chamber, the doors forming two sides. On the six marble slabs there 
are engraved the following inscriptions in beautifully gilded letters. 

Officers of the Confederate Monument association of Mississippi, A. D., 1890: Miss Sallie B. Mor 
gan, president; Mrs. Belmont Phelps Manship, vice-president; Mrs. Blenor H. Stone, treasurer; Miss 
Sophie D. Langley, secretary; Mrs. Virginia P. McKay, corresponding secretary. 

"All lost ! but by the grave 
"Where martyred heroes rest, 
He wins the most who honor saves — 
Success is not the test." 

"It recks not where their bodies lie. 
By bloody hillside, plain, or river; 
Their names are bright on fame's proud sky; 
Their deeds of valor live forever." 

Tht' noble women of Mississippi, moved by grateful hearts and loving zeal, organized June 15, A. D. 
1886, the Confederate Monument association; their efforts, aided by an appropriation of the state of Missis- 
sippi, were crowned with success in the erection of this monument to the Confederate dead of Mississippi, 
in the year 1891. 

The men to whom this monument is dedicated were the martyrs of their creed; their justification is 
in the holy keeping of the God of history. 

God and our consciences alone 

Give us measures of right and wrong. 
The race may fall unto the swift 

And the battle to the strong; 
But the truth will shine in history 

And blossom into song. 


From the top of the marble slabs springs a balled arch canopy to the highth of nine 
feet six inches, making an octagonal arch chamber. Among the battlements of the die arise 
the bases of the plinth of the spire, of which the plinth proper is the most attractive, being 
seven feet square and nine feet high. Four Egyptian columns on the corners support the 
marble entablatures, on which are cut in bold relief on the west side the eagle and coat of arms 
of Mississippi; on the north side a piece of artillery with Confederate flags; on the east side 
crossed cavalry sabers and belts; on the south side crossed Enfield rifles within a shield 
on which is inscribed: "Mississippi Volunteers.'" Above the plinth starts the spire, which is 
three feet and eight inches square at the bottom, tapering gradually to two feet square on the 
top, the shaft proper being thirty feet high. The top of the shaft is surmounted with a 
statue of a Confederate soldier, his feet and the butt of his gun being in the position of parade 
rest, his head depressed and his left arm resting on the muzzle of his gun in an easy and 
graceful position. The statue is six feet and ten inches high and was sculptured at the monu- 
ment by J. T. Whitehead, from a rough block of Italian marble. Excepting the material 
mentioned, the monument is built of calcareous limestone from Bedford, Ind. 

The first public suggestion for the monument was made by Mrs. Luther Manship, of 
Jackson. So that the scheme may be said to have originated and culminated at the capital. 
In the spring of 1886 there appeared in the Clarion an article announcing a concert to be 
given by Mr. and Mrs. Luther Manship to raise a nucleus fund for this purpose. In the 
next issue a delicate and beautiful appeal to patriotism and Confederate memories from the 
pen of the young and gifted Charles Hooker attracted the attention of the ladies of the com- 
monwealth to the holy cause. The united press came to their aid with everything beautiful 
in poesy, song and prose. Friday, May 28, 1886, the concert was announced, the following 
being the program: 


Piano Accompaniment Miss Florence Bowmar, Mrs. A. L. Julienne, and Prof. Doe. 

Selection Gem Band. 

Sound of Harps Chorus. 

Our National Banner Recitation. 

Willie Nugent. 

Address Col. C. E. Hooker. 

f Conquered Banner, by Father Ryan Luther Manship. 

The Spell Solo Lurine. 

Miss Bessie Claris. 

After the Battle Recitation. 

Mrs. Luther Manship. 

Erin on the Rhine .- Solo. 

Mr. Oram. 

Ernanl Solo. 

Mrs. Bella McLeod Smith. 


Come Rise with the Lark Quartette. 

Messrs. Julienne, Doerr, Zehnder and Ligon. 

Bird Prom O'er the Sea Solo. 

Miss Lyda Terrell. 

Selected Prof. Borneman. 

Miss Hulda's Offer Miss Annie Manship. 

See the Pale Moon Duet. 

Misses Wolfe. 

The Dutch Volunteer Luther Manship. 

Tantum Ergo Duo. 

Mrs. Smith and Prof. Borneman. 

Suwanee River Chorus. 

Misses Langley, Wolfe, Manship, Fletcher, Clarice, Jlrs. Julienne, and Messrs. 
Julienne, Ligon, Oram, Skellenger, Zehnder, Schulze and Manship. 


A small fund was the result, and thus the monument was inaugurated. The 16th of 
June following, responding to a call of Miss Sophie Langley, nine ladies met in the senate 
chamber and organized the Confederate Monument association. They were Mrs. Luther 
Manship, Miss Sophie Langley, Mrs. A. L. Brunson, Mrs. V. P. McKay, Miss Mary Andrews, 
Miss Jennie Fontaine, Miss Rebecca Smith, Miss Mary Lou Langley, Miss Mary Belle Mor- 
gan, Miss Sallie B. Morgan. The last named lady was called to the chair, and an organiza- 
tion was effected, pledging themselves to work for the cause. Mrs. C. E. Hooker, though 
not present, was elected president, afterward declining for satisfactory reasons. Mrs. A. L. 
Brunson was vice president; Mrs. Manship, corresponding secretary; Miss Sophie Langley, 
assistant corresponding secretary. Miss Fontaine, then a girl scarcely fourteen, was made 
local secretary, and held the place with assiduity and energy until her removal from Jack- 
son, after most of the work was accomplished. Miss Anderson was treasurer of the associa- 
tion, which she held also until her parents moved from Jackson. 

Moving on without a president, the association gained strength and membership, reor- 
ganizing in the fall of 1886 under a cliarter prepared by Capt. D. P. Porter. February 24, 
1887, Mrs. Manship resigned the office of corresponding secretary and was elected president, 
and at the same meeting Mrs. W. W. Stone was elected treasurer of the monument fund, 
which position she holds still, being reelected from term to term. At the meeting March 3, 
1887, a letter of encouragement was received from Gen. Stephen D. Lee, containing a hand- 
some contribution, the first donation to the monument. Mrs. Hooker, Mrs. Stone and Mrs. 
John Dunning were appointed a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws for the govern- 
ment of the association. They met November 10, 1887, and adopted the constitution and 
by- laws as reported, and the following officers were elected: Mrs. Manship, president; Mrs. 
A. L. Brunson, vice president; Miss Jennie Fontaine, secretary; Mrs. V. P. McKay, corres- 
ponding secretary; Miss Sophie Langley, assistant corresponding secretary; Mrs. W. W. 
Stone, treasurer monumental fund, and Miss Mary Anderson, treasurer of association. Capt. 
D. P. Porter and Capt. W. W. Stone were made honorary members. In the annual election 
of 1S88 the same officers were mostly elected. Miss Kate Power becoming local treasurer, 
and Mrs. C. C. Campbell being chosen vice president. 

The ladies struggled on in so many ways that it is impossible to go into detail. A bill 
to aid them was passed by the senate in 1888. It was drafted by Judge Thrasher, of Clai- 
borne, and introduced and warmly advocated by Senator Binford; Senators Wilson, Yerger 
and others made speeches in its favor. The house defeated it by a small majority, Messrs. 
Sharp, Magruder, Watkins and Jones warmly supporting it. Finding legislative aid failing, 
the ladies signed a contract for a modest, but endunjng monument, to be built by Mr. J. 
T. Whitehead, an ex-Confederate soldier. The cornerstone was laid with well- remembered 
Masonic ceremonies. May 25, 1888. It was not to be costly, because hope from other than 
little sources had failed. Mrs. C. C. Campbell, aided by Mr. Luther Manship, got up a 
kirmess, to which call the people of Jackson nobly responded. One thousand dollars was 
the result, the largest sum from any one source donated. The towns of Greenville, Green- 
wood and Yazoo City each gave the proceeds of an entertainment given for the purpose. 
Mrs. C. E. Hooker and Mrs. J. H. Dunning made an afghan that brought a considerable sum. 
A bazar and restaurant at the fair, and a table conducted by Mrs. Dunning and Mrs. 
Brougher and Miss Rebecca Smith, on the occasion of the laying of the cornerstone, added 
greatly to the fund. Again Judge Thrasher drafted the bill for the ladies, asking 110,000 
to complete the monument. The senate listened to the advocacy of Gen. J. H. Jones and 
others patiently, and v\ith but five against the bill they sent it to the house. Those senators 


who opposed it did not do so for want of feeling. The house received the bill most kindlj' 
and passed it, despite some violent opposition not engendered by any bad feeling. Various 
were the reasons for this opposition, but none of them were for the want of a proper Con- 
federate feeling or an appreciation of the cause. Many donations came in small sums from 
the citizens and soldiers and the Confederate organizations. The contract called for an 
artistic and endurable work, and it has been faithfiilly filled.* 

Mississippi presented to the Washington monument a white marble rock, with the 
inscription "The State of Mississippi to the Father of his Country;" the grand Masonic 
lodge of Mississippi, a gray marble rock, with emblems and words inscribed; Oakland 
college, a coarse-grained sandstone, and the grand lodge of Odd Fellows, a gray stone with 
three links in bas-relief. 

Eaymond was established as the seat of justice of Hinds county January 17, 1829, in 
accordance with the report of locating commissioners appointed February 4, 1828. The pop- 
ulation in 1890 according to the census was five hundred; but on May 11, 1891, the Clarion- 
Ledger claimed for it one thousand more, or a total of fifteen hundred. Each year, as it is 
numbered with the past, shows a large increase of population. It has good schools, good 
society, good water; and the ministers look after the spiritual affairs of the people. The 
business men, as a class, are spirited, enterprising and progressive, well disciplined in the 
best way of trade, carry unusually large stocks, classify and handle them by metropolitan 
methods, are sagacious and public spirited merchants, and a more generous or wholesouled 
class was never gathered in one city of its size. They have an elegant $60,000 courthouse 
and a $40,000 jail and many fine buildings, evidences of thrift and prosperity. It would 
seem as though the citizens of Eaymond had adopted the word Excelsior for their motto. 
The famous Cooper's wells are but a few miles from the city. During the summer an 
immense number reside in Raymond on account of the proximity of these wells. 

The history of the old settlers of Hinds county contains many references to Raymond, 
Mount Salus, or Clinton, and other towns of historic interest; while in the first chapter of vol- 
ume I the physical characteristics of these neighborhoods are noted. Courts for this county 
are held at Jackson also. 

Bolton, twenty miles east of Jackson, on the Queen & Crescent railroad, as described by 
the Clarion-Ledger of May 11, 1891, is located in that portion of Hinds county which is 
attracting the attention of citizens. Its elements of wealth surpass Persia of old. Bolton 
has always been a favored little town, and by the enterprise and liberality of its citizens it is 
growing rapidly in wealth, culture and education. It is .surrounded by a fertile country, 
with its fields of snowy cotton and orchards, and settled by an industrious population. Bolton 
is a live center, and all the influences which characterize refined life are found here. It 
became the nucleus of a city in 1847. Naught could be seen then but a few cleared fields, 
around which basked the June sun ; the dense forest, as up into the clear blue sky wreathed 
lazily, or swayed fantastically in the evening breeze, the pale blue smoke from the wooden 
chimneys of the few log huts that then comprised the embryo village, clothed in all her 
natural grandeur. The Indian hunted lazily through the forest, while the dark- eyed damsel 
made love to the brave, as the wild flowers kissed the morning dew, or as the luminary of 
the universe cast its scintillant rays o'er forest and departing day. But behold the change. 
The iron horse carries the products of the plantations and the orchard to the markets in the 

•Largely from the Ctariun-Ledger. 


great world beyond. Fine buildings are filled with varied stocks which attract the eye. 
Church and school buildings send forth morality and education, which sow the crop of genius 
in future great men. Large moneyed interests and young industries are here, working for- 
ward steadily to place the town where ambition points, and good hotels afford entertainment 
to the traveler. Terry is fifteen miles south of Jackson, on the Illinois Central railroad. It 
is in the midst of a great fruit country, and boasts of a few industries. Other towns in this 
county are Clinton, Edwards, Utica, Learned, Adams, Oakley, Byram, and a few more. 

Columbus, the county town of Lowndes county, has a population of four thousand five 
hundred and fifty-two. . Th^ Columbus of Mississippi is one of at least thirty towns in dif- 
ferents parts of the Union to which the bold navigator who landed in the West Indies less 
than four hundred years ago has given his name. If unable to claim originality of nomencla- 
ture this Columbus can proudly take a pedestal by itself in respect of its many unique 
advantages. It is a dignified, substantial and cultured city, more conspicuous even inrespeet 
of its educational, sanitary and social claims than by reason of its other attributes. It is ope 
of the largest and most progressive in its way of Mississippi towns. It is characterized by 
wide rectangular streets, solid brick buildings devoted to business, and an almost unequaled 
wealth of costly and luxurious homes. Even beyond these are its schools and churches, the 
former headed by the famed Columbus Industrial institute and college, a state institution 
which, in many respects, stands peerless in the South. The city lies on the east bank of the 
Tombigbee river, two miles above its confluence with the Luxapalila and on the Mobile & 
Ohio and the Eichmond & Danville railroads. Columbus has an area of about one and 
one-half miles north and south, by one mile east and west. Situated upon a level plateau, it 
has an admirable drainage on either side. It lies upon a range of hills which bluff up to the 
Tombigbee river on the west to a hight of over one hundred feet, sloping gradually eastward 
to Luxapalila plateau, about sixty feet above low water mark. Columbus has thirty-five 
miles of excellent macadamized gra,vel roads, shaded for the most part by innumerable live oak 
trees on either side. Gas has been used to light both residences and streets. The works cost 
upwards of |25,000. An electric light company has been just organized. The telephone system 
is one of the most complete in the state. The Columbus Street Railroad company was organ- 
ized under an amended charter, originally granted in 1882. Its capital of $20,000 was subscribed 
for in less than an hour. The city has about one hundred business houses, and an estimate of the 
business transacted places it at $2,750,000. There are six real estate agents, four merchan- 
dise brokers, three hotels and some good local newspapers. Of the latter, the Dispatch weekly 
and (tri-weekly) is owned and edited by Mrs. S. C. Maer. It has stamped itself as one of the 
brightest and most intelligently conducted papers in the state. The Index is another well- 
conducted weekly and tri-weekly paper, ably edited by Miss Lucile Banks. The Sunday 
Morning Telegram was started at Columbus in 1887, by Martyn & Johnson. There is a 
large and prosperous oilmill, admirably managed; an extensive sawmill, five gristmills, a 
flouring mill, a foundry, a carriage and wagon factory and a broom manufactory ; while among 
the most valued institutions of the town must be placed the Columbus Ice company, which 
is well situated on ground belonging to the company and on the same square with the Gil- 
mer hotel. The daily capacity of the factory is about five tons of clear, merchantable ice, and 
with ample room in the large building to increase the output if it should be necessary. The 
company is incorporated by state charter; its president and manager, Mr. L. M. Tucker, is 
the largest stockholder. The local cotton trade is large, and an important adjunct to it is the 
compress. The oldest financial institution here is the Columbus Banking and Insurance 


company, which has a capital paid up of $300,000. This is a splendid and substantial bank, 
with very perfect premises and vaults. The First National bank, dating back to April, 1882, 
was the first national bank organized in the state. It has a'paid up capital of $75,000 and 
a large cash surplus, and has returned its stockholders ten per cent, every year. Its deposits 
average between $250,000 and ■f300,000, and it has one of the most costly steel vaults in the 
South. There are two fire companies, with a hook and ladder company, and a superb steam 
fire engine, with an ample water supply, to protect the city from the ravages of fire. Colum- 
l)us has private academies of great merit, such as Professor Belcher's high school for boys, 
one of the best in Mississippi. The city schools are three in number, two white and one 
colored. The schools have a handsome balance on hand. ' In efficiency and completeness the 
schools are unsurpassed. The term is nine months in the year. The county schools number 
seventy-six, of which twenty-nine are for the white and forty-seven for the colored children. 
There are nine thousand four hundred and twelve educable children and a total enrollment 
of four thousand five hundred and two; number of teachers, seventy-nine. As in the city 
schools, everything is in an eminently satisfactory condition. Columbus is equally well 
endowed with churches. Seven of all denominations are open to -the whites, most of them 
being ornate internally and externally. The colored people have five good churches. The 
crowning feature of the city's educational attractions, however, 'is the Industrial institute 
and college for the education of white girls of Mississippi. 

The institute was established by authority of an act approved March 12, 1884. In 
December of the same year Hon. James T. Harrison, Hon. J. J. Thornton and R. W. Jones, 
the president of the college, were appointed a building committee, with instructions to 
enlarge and improve the unfinished brick dormitory which was upon the grounds .when 
donated to the state by the city of Columbus. The committee entered vigorously upon the 
work, and succeeded in bringing the buildings to that state of approximation to completeness 
which enabled the opening of the college under the most favorable auspices on October 22, 
1886. The building is one of the handsomest to be seen anywhere. It is massive and beau- 
tiful in design and finish, being of presssed brick and stone, and surrounded by handsome 
grounds, with greensward, marked with graveled walks leading to every entrance to the 
building and all parts of the spacious grounds, with just enough of well-cared-for trees to 
lend picturesqueness to the scene. The dormitory is a massive brick structure three stories 
and a mansard high, one hundred and siBventy-five feet front and running back one hundred 
and seventy feet — large, well arranged, well lighted and ventilated diningroom, with all modern 
improvements and conveniences for the three hundred pupils, besides matron, housekeepers 
and teachers lodging there. Connected with this building by a covered passage is the chapel 
building, three stories in hight, containing assemblyroom, president's office, secretary's 
office, eight recitation rooms, chemical and physical laboratories and several storage rooms. 
A building in the rear of the chapel, connected by passageway and containing twenty-five 
rooms, is devoted to music, painting and the industrial arts. 

None but Mississippi girls are admitted, although applications are received daily from 
Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Alabama and other states. The charter defines the design of 
the college to be to confer a thorough general education; to give the best normal training, 
together with teaching and practice in the kindergarden and to train pupils in the various 
industrial arts, by which to enable them to more readily earn a' living and make woman a 
significant factor in the modern problem of material progress. The course of study is 
divided into four departments: collegiate, normal, industrial and the department of music 
and fine arts. There is a marked advance upon the usual course of study in girl's colleges, 


especially in elements of a solid education and in the mathematical and scientific studies. 
Tuition is made free to Mississippi girls in the collegiate, normal and industrial departments. 
Students are paid for work, many of them being dependent upon it to continue in the course 
of instruction. Tliere is no disposition to disparage those who work. The dignity of labor 
is respected, and the daughters of the rich, of those of moderate means, and of the poor, are 
together in one harmonious body. There earnestness and excellent deportment impresses 
every visitor. Thf>y have formed among themselves two organizations: a Young Woman's 
Christian association and a literary society. The institute has thus far cost the state 190,- 
000, and, it is claimed, has recompensed it a thousand fold. A. H. Beals, president, took 
charge of the institute June 14, 1890. John A. Nelson is the proctor. 

The town of Columbus was incorporated in 1822, and William L. Moore was the first 
mayor. The first house erected on the present site of Columbus was a small split log hut, 
built by Thomas Thomas in 1817. There was nothing like a settlement till about the middle 
of June, 1819, when Thomas Sampson (who was afterward probate judge), William Vizer- 
spirous Roach and William Poor came to the place, and a short time afterward the citizens 
of the neighborhood had a meeting, and at the suggestion of Silas McBee, Esq., the town was 
called Columbus. About this time came Thomas Townsend, Green Bailey, Dr. B. C. Barry, 
Silas Brown, Hancock Chisholm, William Conover, William Fernandes, John H. Leech and 
several others. In September, 1 830, the treaty of Dancing Rabbit creek was held by the 
United States and the Choctaws, whereby they were required to remove during the falls of 
1831-3. In 1832 the government made a treaty with the Chickasaws at Pontotoc creek, 
and both nations were removed by 1833. This threw open an immense body of the finest 
lands in the South for settlement, and the county rapidly filled with a wealthy and enter- 
prising population. The Columbus Whig and Columbus Democrat were two of the first 
newspapers of the town. The former was edited by W. A. Short and William P. Don- 
nell, and the latter by Worthington & Thompson. The first death in Columbus was that 
of Mrs. Keziah Cocke, wife of William Cocke and stepmother of Hon. Stephen Cocke. 
In 1837 occurred the hanging of the gamblers at Vicksburg and Natchez. This caused a 
stampede of large numbers of those who congregated in Columbus. They were all well 
dressed and fine looking men. They turned every room they could get into a gambling 
resort, and in every part of the public streets could be heard the rattling dice and poker 
chips. The mayor (Squire Donald) was determined to get rid of them, and notified them that 
they must leave, at which they were very defiant, and proceeded to arm themselves, buying up 
all the ammunition and arms that they could get and fortifying themselves in up-stair rooms. 
The mayor gave them one week to leave and ordered two companies of volunteers to report 
to him with am uunition and arms on the following Monday. The gamblers held out until 
Friday, when nine of them applied to Dr. T. H. Mayo, then stage manager, for seats, paid 
for them and left at dark. The next morning several more applied, and in the next few 
hours all the vehicles that could be had were carrying the gamblers out of town, and by 
Monday all had disappeared. 

Tombigbee Cottonmills company was organized in 1887, with H. Johnston president, 
W. C. Richards vice president and W. Johnston secretary and treasurer. The building, 
which is a four- story brick 50x200, with two wings, was completed in 1888 at a cost of about 
$44,000. It is well equipped with modern machinery at a cost of about $75,000. The mill 
is in operation the year round and employs about one hundred men and women. They 
manufacture shirting, sheeting, osnaburgs and B drilling. 

Columbus lodge No. 5, A. F. & A. M., was organized February 24, 1821. The first 


officers were: Thomas Sampson, W. M. ; William Cocke, S. W. ; B. C. Barry, J. W. ; William 
W. Bell, treasurer; E. D. Haden, secretary; Titus Howard, S. D. ; Edward Kewen, J. D. ; 
Samuel Cowell, secretary and treasurer. The lodge did not get its charter until January 8, 
1822, when it was granted to the following charter members: Gideon Lincecum, W. M. ; E. 

D. Haden, S. W. ; John H Morris, J. W. ; Oyid P. Brown, Silas Brown, B. C. Barry, Thomas 
Sampson, John Pitchlyn, Thomas Townsend, David Folsom, William Cooke, William W. Bell, 
Littlebury Hawkins, John Bell, D. Lawrence. The present officers are: T. B. Franklin, W. 
M.; J. H. Stevens, S. W.; W. H. Coburn, J. W.; C. L. Lincoln, treasurer; C. S. Franklin, 
secretary; E. S. Donald, S. D. ; A. J. Owings, J. D. ; Charles Calhoun, tyler. The lodge 
meets on the first Friday night of each month. The membership is ninety five. For the 
year 1890 it conferred about two hundred and fifty degrees in the different ranks of its order. 

Covenant lodge No. 20, I. O. O. F., was organized October 1, 1846, with William Cady 
as noble grand. McKendree lodge No. 32, I. O. O. F., was organized October 7, 1847. 
From these two lodges emerged Union lodge No. 35, I. O. O. F. They consolidated in 1868 
and the new lodge received its charter August 5, 1868. The first officers were: W. C. Heam, 
N. Gr. ; G. T. Stainback, V. G. ; J. P. Krecker, secretary; H. Hale, treasurer. The present 
officers are: J. D. Hutchinson, N. G. ; H. M. Lanier, V. G. ; J. H. Stevens, secretary; C. L. 
Lincoln, treasurer. The lodge meets Monday night each week. The membership is fifty- 
five. This organization owns its hall and three-story building with store and offices, all of 
which are rented. The property is valued at $15,000. The lodge has also a fine cemetery 
consisting of thirty acres, known as Friendship cemetery, a portion of which was purchased 
in 1848. The first person buried therein was Mrs. Elizabeth St. Clair. 

Joachim lodge I. O. O. B. No. 181, was instituted October, 1871, belonging to districts 
Nos. 7 and 6. In November, 1872, district No. 7 was made independent, with headquarters 
at Memphis, Tenn. At the same time an endowment law was enacted which gave $1,000 
to the widows of deceased brothers. The first officers were: S. Liohenstadter, president; J. 
Bluhm, vice president; Charles Schuster, secretary; L. Fleishman, financial secretary; J. 
Hirshman, treasurer. The present officers are: S. Wolff, president; Mr. Loeb, vice president; 
S. Schwab, secretary; L. Fleishman, treasurer. The lodge meets first and third Sundays of 
each month. Its membership is twenty- one. 

Columbus lodge No. 26, K. of H, was organized on March 20, 1877, with thirteen 
charter members. Its officers were composed of W. B. Bryan, past dictator; J. W. Worrell, 
dictator; George Whitfield, vice dictator; C. H. Worrell, assistant dictator; A. J. McDowell, 
reporter; S. Lichenstadter, financial reporter; E. E. Spiers, guide. The time of meeting is 
on first and third Thursday nights in each month. The membership is fifty-eight. 

Tombigbee lodge No. 12, K. of P., was instituted July 10, 1889. Its first officers were 
W. L. Kemp, C. C; W. A. J. Jones, V. C; H. A. Osborne, prelate; C. S. W. Price, M. of Ex.; 
George F. Shattuck, M. of F. ; S. Schwab, K. of E. & S. ; E. E. Spiers, M. at A. Its present 
officers are W. A. J. Jones, P. C. ; D. P. Davis, C. C. ; A. A. Wofford, V. C. ; W. L. Jobe, 
prelate; S. Schwab, K. of E. & S.; Mr. Loeb, M. of F.; George F. Shattuck, M. of Ex.; E. 

E. Spiers, M. at A. The lodge meets on the first and third Tuesdays in each month. The 
membership is forty-four. 

The last election for mayor and council in Columbus occurred December 1, 1890. There 
was no opposition to the democratic ticket. Captain Moore has been elected mayor three 
times, and his administration of affairs has given great satisfaction. E. T. Sykes, J. M. 
McGown, D. M. Eichards, W. W. Westmoreland, J. M. Street and C. S. Franklin con- 
stitute the board of councilmen. Among the several villages of this county are Crawford, 
Arteria and Caledonia. 


Aberdeen, the seat of justice of Monroe county, and one of the oldest towns in the northern 
part of the state, is situated on the west bank of the Tombigbee river, and has a population 
of about three thousand four hundred and forty-five. It is beautifully located and has a 
good trade, although it is not as extensive as formerly, as only branch lines are built to Aber- 
deen. The Mobile & Ohio, Kansas City, Memphis & Birminghan and the Illinois Central 
lines all have branches terminating at Aberdeen. The United States courthouse and post- 
office building cost in the neighborhood of $100,000, and is a beautiful and imposing struct- 
ure. The town has a cotton campus, an ice factory, a spoke factory and other manufactures, 
and two flourishing banks; The First National, organized May 1, 1887, with a capital of 
175,000, formerly the private bank of Jinkins Bros., and the bank of Aberdeen, organized 
October 10, 1888, with a capital stock of $50,000. The city has one of the finest and most 
complete public school buildings in the state, and several elegant church buildings. 

Aberdeen possesses many advantages as a manufacturing and distributing center, and 
will in the course of time develop into an important city. The present conspicuous 
advantages of Aberdeen will be greatly improved with the completion of prospective rail- 
roads, which, besides giving increased transportation facilities, will also place it in direct 
communication with the great coal and iron districts of Alabama, located within a reasonable 
distance, and giving access to the great forests of valuable timber which form one of the 
most valuable, while least appreciated, of the resources of the Southern states. 

Prof. Lawrence C. Johnson, of the United States Geological survey, recently expressed 
himself as follows, concerning Aberdeen and its surroundings: 

" At the head of navigation, this is the natural and nearest outlet to a large territory of 
both Mississippi and Alabama. It should control the coal and iron regions of at least Lamar 
and Marion counties, Ala., and have an equal chance at the grand coal fields of Walker. With 
your population and position you already possess two kinds of capital necessary to enter 
the lists in the great iron industries of what we may term the New South. Your position, 
geologically considered, is advantageous. Situated at the eastern edge of what the books 
call the Eutaw formation of the cretaceous group, you have behind you all the wealth of the 
calcareous soils of the prairie. Beyond the Tombigbee you have thin soils, it is true, in the 
sharp hills of what we call the Tuscaloosa formation; but these hills are clothed with the 
finest timber, and when that is removed it becomes the land of the mulberry, grape, peach, 
and all the fruits of our climate. In this formation let it be understood that you have 
no gold, no silver, no lead, nor any coal; do not waste your time upon them; but you have 
an abundance of iron ores, carbonates and limonites of various grades. In Lamar county, 
from ten to fifteen miles of the Mississippi line, there are many deposits of limonite ore. 
The old Hale & Murdock mines are well known. This is not an accidental, sporadic case 
of the occurrence of ore, but belongs to a system — belongs to the lower division of the 
Tuscaloosa formation, which we have traced from Autauga county, Ala., to Tishomingo 
county, Miss. It may not be discovered as a continuous iron belt, because erosion 
has played a big part here, and has cut many gaps in it; and another later formation, 
called the Orange sand, has in many places covered up, and now conceals the older 
strata. The Tuscaloosa formation has another in its upper division; not as rich, perhaps, 
as the lower, and is still more interfered with by erosions and by Orange sand deposits, 
but of much importance to Aberdeen, because it lies up and down the headwaters of your 
river and approaches quite near to your city. This might well be called the Greenwood 
springs belt, for it appears in Monroe county in greatest force in that vicinity. It is two 
or three miles in breadth, extending to the high hills east of Buttahatchie river, opposite 


the mouth of Sipsey, and southeastward from that point; on the west of the Buttahatchie 
it tends northward, up Sipsey. This belt exhibits two classes of ore: one superficial, found 
only on the tops of the ridge, as well as seen in two of the cuts of the Kansas City, Mem- 
phis & Birmingham railroad, east and west of Wise's gap; the other ore springs from a 
different source, and is found in the foot hills near Greenwood springs. This last is a 
limonite that is formed from a change of the carbonate; a carbonate I did not actually see, 
but know its presence, not only from the resultant ziodic chambered ore seen there, but 
from the abundance of springs charged with bicarbonate of iron. Of these the chief is 

Aberdeen commandery, U. D.. was organized in 1891. Frank P. Jinkins is eminent 
commander. Wildy lodge No. 21, I. O. 0. F., is an old lodge, of which W. S. Lindamood 
is noble grand. 

Eureka lodge No. 719, Knights of Honor, organized about 1875, with Dr. William G. 
Sykes as dictator, is in a prosperous condition. It has about one hundred members, and 
J. M. Acker is the dictator. Castle Gray lodge No. 198, Knights of the Golden Eule, 
organized December 21, 1881, by Deputy Supreme Commander J. E. Hodges, has about one 
hundred members. Apollo lodge No. 14, Knights of Pythias, established in 1878, with 
William Howard as chancellor commander, now has a membership of about forty-five, and 
Kirby Laun is its chancellor commander. 

Aberdeen lodge No. 32, A. F. & A. M., was organized iu 1837, with J. H. Lawson as 
worshipful master, and the following members: David Hall, Nathaniel W. Walton, T. B. 
Pollard, John Franks, James G. Williams, Daniel Burnett, Thomas J. Ford, George Weight- 
man, Parker Alexander, A. R. Hunter, A. J. HoUiday, John Abbott and Alex Baker. Dr. 
William G. Sykes is now worshipful master. In 1884 the lodge erected a magnificent three- 
story brick temple at a cost of about $38,000. This beautiful structure, which also contains 
the operahouse, has a seating capacity of six hundred. 

Amory lodge No. 165, A. F. & A. M. , at Amory, organized with Hon. Wright Cun- 
ningham as worshipful master. W. A. Griffith is now worshipful master. This lodge was 
formed by the consolidation of lodges Nos. 165 and 178. 

Buphemia Royal Arch chapter No. 13, at Aberdeen, was organized in 1847, with R. H. 
Dalton as high priest. Frank P. Jinkins is the present high priest. 

Aberdeen council, E. & S. M., No. 28, was organized iu 1860, with B. B. Barker, 
J. N. Walton and W. S. Vestal as first officials. Present officers are R. B. Brannin, C. N. 
Siinpson and S. H. Berg. 

Other towns in this county are Amory, Smithville, Quincy, Gattman, Strongs, Reynolds, 
Prairie and Muldon. 

Water Valley is situated on the Illinois Central railroad, about ninety miles southeast of 
Memphis, midway between Jackson, Tenn., and Canton, Miss. Water Valley has risen from 
a heap of ashes since the war and grown to a population of two thousand, eight hundred and 
twenty-eight and in wealth to several millions. The Indians still roamed the forest in the 
neighborhood in 1840, while some rude habitations indicated the thrift with which a live pop- 
ulation were beginning to enter upon the work of reducing to civilization an unbroken wil- 
derness. The first house in or near the town was built about this time by a Mr. Ragland, 
and is now occupied by Dr. Askew. It was a stage stand along a public highway between 
Oxford and CofPeeville. About 1847 Capt. P. D. Woods built near the same spot a rude 
storehouse and kept a stock of goods which would not now compare with the most unpreteu- 


tious house in the city. The goods were brought by chance wagons from Memphis and other 
points. Capt. William Oarr had already built a log house which now stands near the center 
of the business portion of town, east of the railroad. Mr. Rasha Robinson settled about a 
half-mile north. The town was incorporated in 1848 and B. H. Collins was the first mayor. 
About 1850 there had sprung up two or three business houses near the present site of the 
town. In 1856 the Mississippi Central railroad was complete to this point, and the little 
town of a half-dozen business houses began to assume the airs of a railway station. In 1861 
there were perhaps a dozen places of business. A company was raised in the town and sur- 
rounding country which for gallantry and courage stand prominent in the history of the lost 
cause. The Federal army pushed its way to the city in the winter of 1862-3 and burned the 
little wooden village, and its people returned to find the rewards of their industry a heap of 
ashes. In 1865 there were left from the ravages of war two or three business houses. Oxford 
and Holly Springs suffered also, and at the latter place the car shops of the railroad were 
burned. Inducements were offered to the railway company to rebuild its shops in Water 
Valley, which was determined upon in 1867. Now began an era of prosperity, and hand- 
some buildings sprang up like magic. With the meager facilities merchants were scarcely 
able to handle the immense business which crowded upon them, but it seemed well nigh im- 
possible to overtax the resources and tact of those who guided the destinies of the young city. 
Buildings sprang into existence every day and the population increased faster than industry 
could furnish shelter; yet the spirit of improvement never flagged, and in 1874 the popula- 
tion had grown from two hundred to twenty-five hundred. Already the city had overshad- 
owed her plucky little neighbor. CofEeeville had wrung from her a division of the courts, 
and was fast absorbing the trade that formerly went to that place and Oxford. Other causes 
tended to cause a cessation of growth for some years; but her plucky business men faced the 
storm of depression and maintained a brave front, and now have finally overcome all difficul- 
ties and are on a solid financial basis. 

Within the past three years many handsome buildings have gone up. Real estate has 
nearly doubled in value. The population is increasing. 

Water Valley bank was chartered in 1888. The company is successor to Bryant & 
Shackelford, who began business in 1882. Mr. G. D. Able, formerly of Oxford, is the cashier, 
and Mr. John Wagner bookkeeper, the latter the son of Mr. D. R. Wagner. Both of them 
are native Mississippians. The bank does a daily business of about $15,000. 

The cotton factory enterprise was begun by a joint stock company about 1870. The build- 
ing was nearly completed by the company when itfailed,and it stood idle for some years, when 
Mr. D. R. Wagner determined that an enterprise so important to the city should be enlivened 
by the hum of machinery. He, with his associates, purchased the property and imported the 
machinery at once. The value of this property to the city may easily be estimated when it 
is known that seven hundred and fifty thousand pounds of cotton are consumed yearly, and the 
gross earnings amount to nearly $40,000, a large part of which is paid to operatives, and the 
surplus of profit on the capital invested, goes into investment here. The Water Valley 
Manufacturing company, which began operations in 1866, was later merged into the concern 
controlling the mills. 

Around Water Valley, imbedded under the soil, is the best of clays for the manufacture 
of earthenware. The factory commenced operations a little more than two years ago, and 
has demonstrated the fact that a profitable enterprise is open for development here. 

The planingmill and sash, door and blind factory is doing a good business. 

Water Valley lodge No. 132, A. F. & A. M., was chartered in 1847. Valley City lodge 


No. 402 was organized July 5, 1888. St. Cyr commandery No. 6, K. T., was organized 
January 25, 1867. Water Valley lodge No. 82, I. O. O. F., was chartered January 23, 1867; 
Grand Eacampment No. 22, March 1, 1887. Knights of Honor loige No. 1062, is a pros- 
X^erous organization. Lochinvar lodge No. 55, K. of P. , was organized May 14, 1890. 

The Water Valley Courier was established April 5, 1867, by E. A. Goodland, editor and 
proprietor. It was afterward sold to W. B. Yowell, who changed its name to the Southern 
Eagle. About one year later it was sold to P. W. Merrin, who called it The Vallonian, and 
afterward restored to it its original name. In 1882 he moved the plant to Plant City, Fla., 
where the paper is published as the South Florida Courier by S. W. Merrin & Son. 

The Mississippi Central was founded in 1869 by Capt. E. M. Brown and A. V. Rowe. 
In 1875 it was purchased by S. B. Brown. In 1881 it was published by Johnson Ater, with 
E. A. Garland as editor. In 1885 it was changed to the F'ree Churchman, and edited by M. 
B. Fly. In 1887, as the People's Friend, it was published by G. Ayoock. In 1888 it was pur- 
chased by McFarland & Lee, and published as the North Mississippi Herald. 

The Progress was founded in 1882 by S. B. Brown as editor and publisher, with his 
son, T. D. Brown, as assistant editor. 

The Cumberland Presbyterian church of Water Valley was organized October 14, 1843. 
Rev. Angus Johnson was first pastor, with James M. Morrison and Robert Nickle as elders. 
The organization was originally known as the Otuckaloffe church, but its name was soon 
after changed to Water Valley church. W. V. Johnson had charge in 1848-59; E. C. David- 
son, 1860-78; J. W. Roseborough, 1878-80; S. I. Reid, 1881-2; H. M. Sydenstricker, 
1883-5; J. T>. Lester, the present pastor, came in 1886. The church now has a member- 
ship of one hundred and ninety-three, and the house of worship was completed in 1868 at 
a cost of $8,000. Mr. Lester, the present pastor, is a native of Union county, Tenn., and 
was ordained in 1883 at Memphis, Tenn. He is stated clerk of the synod of Memphis, and 
clerk of the North Mississippi presbytery. The elders of the church and the dates of their 
ordination are: J. C. Mury, 1859; A. G. Butord, 1861; W. E. Benson, 1883; R. R. Pate, 
1 883, and Baron Leland, 1883. Elder T. J. Price, ordained in 1887, died in 1890. 

Methodist Episcopal church of Water Valley was organized in 1858, by Rev. Robert 
Martin, with a membership of twenty. Services were held in the Masonic building. In 1859 
the church erected a house of worship, completed in 1861, which was replaced by the present 
building in 1870, at a cost of |6,000. Rev. Mr. Martin was succeeded by Revs. M. D. Fly, 
W. S. Harrison, J. M. Boone, J. W. Honnol, J. W. Price, J. S. Oakley, J. M. Wyatt, and the 
present pastor, Rev. T. W. Dye. The church has a membership of three hundred and fifty, 
and its Sunday-school numbers three hundred. The church received its largest accession of 
membership during the labors of Rev. Harrison, a most noble man, now of Starksville, Miss. 

Missionary Baptist church of Water Valley was organized August 19, 1859, with a 
membership of five, all of whom are now deceased except Mr. and Mrs. Shaw, of Natchez, 
Miss. The present membership is about one hundred and fifty. Rev. E. L. Wesson is pas- 
tor. There are other religious organizations represented here. 

CofEeeville is one of the goahead cities on the Illinois Central, and has a population of 
eight hundred. It is one of the county seats of Yalobusha, located in the southwestern por- 
tion of the county, and is surrounded by a rich country and was incorporated in 1836. It 
has no boom, but each year shows a large increase of population. It has good schools, good 
society, and many churches. The business men, as a class, are spirited, enterprising, pro- 
gressive, sagacious and public- spirited merchants, and a more generous or wholesouled class 


was never gathered in one city of its size. Ttie new and elegant courthouse and many fine 
stores and buildings are evidences of thrift and prosperity. 

The Coffeeville high school has qviite recently moved into new buildings. The number 
of pupils enrolled has greatly increased during the current year. By the introduction of all 
the many branches taught in the higher schools, the advantage to be derived from attending 
this school has been greatly increased. An endeavor is being made to make the school so 
thorough that it will not be necessary for students to go from home to receive an education. 
The school has been brought to such a standard that it has few rivals in Mississippi. The 
Wynu and Preston institute, with a large two-story building, was founded in 1890. 

Coffeeville was a very popular and flourishing city in the antebellum days, and had 
among its citizens some of the highest men of the South. 

The first paper published at Coffeeville was the Yalobusha Pioneer. The pioneer editor 
was E. Percy Howe. Beginning about 1850, the Southern Appeal was published for some 
years. Coffeeville Masonic lodge No. 83 was founded in 1818. 

The first merchants of Coffeeville were D. M. Eayburn, Bridges & Shaw, and James 
Jones. The first white child born in Yalobusha county was James D. Haile, now bookkeeper 
for Herron & Co., of Coffeeville. S. McCreles built the first house in Coffeeville some time 
in 1830, and gave the place its name. 

The Methodist church was probably the first religious body formed here'. It now has a 
neat building and a membership of about eighty-five. 

The Cumberland Presbyterian church was organized by Rev. W. S. Burney, of Oxford, 
Miss., in 1845. Eev. Mr. Burney was succeeded by Dr. J. C. Provine, now of Nashville, Tenn., 
and he by Dr. E. S. Thomas, the present pastor, for over forty years in charge of the church. 
When he came in 1848 the church had only eight members. The present membership is 
sixty-five. The first building was erected in old Coffeeville in 1850, the present brick struc- 
ture in 1877. 

The Baptists have a building here. Their pastor is Eev. Mr. Farris. 

The Coffeeville academy was founded by Dr. Thomas in 1850, and flourished until the 
war. The Coffeeville institute, founded in 1867, flourished about ten years. 

Other towns and villages in this county are Torrance, Oakland, Garner and Tillatoba. 
Ceffeeville, Water Valley and Torrance are on the Illinois Central railroad; the other places 
mentioned, on the Mississippi & Tennessee railroad. Pine Valley is an old and well-known 
business point. Tabernacle lodge No. 340 was organized there with thirty members. Taber- 
nacle Methodist Episcopal Church South was organized in 1840. It now occupies its third 
house of worship, a lai>ge structure, with a Masonic hall in connection. 

Corinth, the seat of justice of Alcorn county, is the most prominent city in northern 
Mississippi, and has a population of twenty- five hundred. It is situated on the Memphis 
& Charleston and Mobile & Ohio railroads, ninety-three miles from Memphis. During 
the Civil war it was occupied successively by the Federal and Confederate forces, it hav- 
ing been regarded as a point of much strategic importance. The Confederate army fell 
back on Corinth after the battle of Pittsburg landing. Upon its evacuation by Beauregard, 
Corinth was invested by Halleck. General Eosecrans made his headquarters at Corinth 
while in command of the district. General Van Dorn attacked Corinth later and made 
determined battle, directing his troops in person, but was driven back and pursued by Gen- 
erals Harlbut and Ord, but escaped beyond the Hatchie river. 

Corinth has grown steadily and substantially since the war. It has ten churches, is 


amply supplied with good public schools and other institutious of learning, and has numer- 
ous commercial, manufacturing and financial institutions. 

Jacinto, the former seat of justice, is a small place but the center of considerable local 
trade. Other towns are Danville, Rienzi, Wenasoga and Gleudale. Eienzi has a popula- 
tion of three hundred and seventy-five. Its first plat was near its present site, where at the 
outbreak of the war quite a village had grown up which had considerable prestige until the 
division of Tishomingo county. In 187-") Rienzi was visited by a destructive storm by which 
it was destroyed and a number'of its citizens were killed. The Methodists, Baptists and Cum- 
berland Presbyterians all have good houses of worship; they now meet in the Methodist 
church and in Mason's hall. 

Grenada, the capital of Grenada county, is a bustling, thriving little city of twenty- 
three hundred inhabitants, beautifully located on a level plateau at the head of navigation of 
the Yalobusha river, and on the main line of the Illinois Central railway, and is the terminus 
of the Mississippi & Tennessee railroad, a branch of the Illinois Central from Memphis to 
Grenada. Grenada has four churches: Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian and Episcopal. 
Each has a good congregation and a flourishing Sunday-school. 

The Grenada Collegiate institute, costing S40,000, for the education of young ladies, 
and under the supervision of the North Mississippi conference, is located here and has about 
two hundred students. There is a high school for boys, and several smaller schools, besides 
two free schools (one white and one colored), with large attendance, presided over by com- 
petent teachers. Two public-school buildings, one for each race, have been erected, costing 

In the management of the corporate affairs the strictest business rules are observed, 
and everything is done upon a cash Isasis. There are in successful operation a cotton com- 
press, a cottonseed oilmill, a steamgin and gristmill, a collar factory, a tannery, a cream- 
ery, ice factory and cold storage warehouse and other smaller enterprises. Other enterprises 
could be opened with profit, and the people of Grenada will advance means to worthy and 
comjjetent persons coming here to engage in creditable enterprises. There is a bank here 
with a paid-up capital of $60,000, and deposits of over §100,000, and a building and loan 
association which has proven a benefit to the community. The assessed value of the property 
in the city is over 1650,000. All branches of the mercantile business are represented. Grenada 
is one of the largest receivers of cotton on the Illinois Central railway, the average receipts 
being about fifteen thousand bales. The various secret orders are represented, and flourish- 
ing lodges of Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, and Knights of Honor are here. 

The city proper is just one mile square, and is laid off into beautiful lots and wide streets. 
The stores are handsome, and the residences comfortable and convenient. Many of the 
houses are of the latest styles of architecture. 

The cotton trade is extensive and growing, two thousand bales being handled each year. 
The town has the additional advantages of a cotton compress, which was erected in 1SS5. 
The business portion of Grenada lies about half a mile from the railroad. It comprises 
between forty and fifty stores. Every branch of business is well represented, some of the 
houses doing a very heavy trade. There are three good hotels and two lively newspapers. 
In banking facilities the city is well to the front. The Merchants' bank has a paid up 
capital of $40,000, and a large support from the district. A handsome new building has 
been erected for it on the public square. Grenada is not as yet rich in manufactories, biit 
there are a successful oilmill and gristmill and gin. 


The trade which supports thin active^ town is drawn from a circuit of seventy to eighty 
miles, and extends over five counties. There is a fair jobbing trade, and in some branches, 
notably hardware, dry goods and drugs, Grenada merchants launch out far beyond the limits 
of their territory. I<3xcellent freestone water is supi)lied by wells and pumps, and there is 
good natural drainage. Tlie system of sidewalks is complete and commendable. The most 
prominent building is the courthouse, an ornate structure of brick, erected in 1884 at a cost of 
$25,000. There is also a large public hall, with a capacity of eight hundred. 

Grenada has had some rough experiences. The town is older than the railroad. In 
1847 it was devastated by a cyclone. In 1855 it was partially burnt. Early in 1884 the 
sudden failure of a bank sadly demoralized the business of the town. On the 16th of 
August, in the same year, a disastrous fire laid one side of Grenada in ruins, doing damage to 
the extent of more than if '250,000. To crown all these misfortunes the remaining bank closed 
its doors before the end of the year. The stores were rebuilt more substantially than ever; 
money was forthcoming; a sound financial system replaced the erratic methods of the broken 
institutions, and Grenada is to-day in every way, stronger, healthier and more prosperous 
than at any period of its existence. All the buildings on the public square are now of 
brick, with metal roofs. Property is increasing in value, and mauy new enterprises are in 

Grenada lies in the mineral district of which Duck hill is the most prominent expo- 
nent. It is notable, also, that Grenada capitalists are largely interested in Duck hill's min- 
eral land company. 

The town is located on the land which John Donly, a mailcarrier for the Choctaw 
Indians, obtained by the Dancing Rabbit treaty. On this land, which lies on the left bank of 
Yalobusha river near the center of what is now Grenada county, sprang ujj the thriving vil- 
lage of Pittsburg, and on an adjoining tract of land and only a short distance away grew up 
the village of TuUahoma. They were rivals for some years, neither surrendering its name 
to the other, and they finally compromised on the name of Grenada, under which it was 
incorporated in 1836. 

In 1882 Grenada Female college was transferred to the north Mississippi conference, and 
has since been known as Grenada Collegiate institute, with Eev. Thomas J. Newell, a gradu- 
ate from Emory and Henry college, Virginia, aspresident. There are five instructors besides the 
president, and the school has a dormitory for about eighty boarding pupils, and a chapel with a 
seating capacity of about three hundred. The Methodist is probably the oldest church society 
in Grenada county, it having had an organization in Grenada as early as 1836. It erected a 
building about 1837, and in 1852 built its present house of worship. The Presbyterians 
organized about 1837 and built a house soon after. The Baptists came next, and built about 
1845, but their house was destroyed in 1846 by a tornado. They at once built another struct- 
ure and occupied it till 1891; they have just completed a handsome brick building. The 
old Baptist church is now owned by the Cumberland Presbyterians, who organized a society 
in 1891. 

In 1851 the Baptists founded Yalobusha female institute at Grenada, and began the 
erection of a large four-story brick building, which was completed about 1857 at a cost of 
147,000. Some time afterward the name was changed to Mercer institute, owing to a liberal 
endowment by a Mrs. Mercer. During the war the building was used as a hospital for the 
Confederate soldiers, and sometime after the war the institution fell into the hands of private 
individuals, and later into the possession of a Mr. Radsdale, who expended about $10,000 in 
improving the building, etc. 


Grenada lodge No. 31, A. P. & A. M., was iucorporated iu 1838. 

The Graysport lodge No. 289, A. F. & A. M. , was organized a few years after the war, 
and was in existence some ten years, when it surrendered its charter. 

Grenada lodge No. 6, I. 0. 0. P., was chartered about 1840, with Mr. Tyler as uoble 
grand; has a membership of about fifty, and owns a fine brick hall, and is in a flourishing 
condition. L. P. Doty is noble grand. Grenada lodge, K. of H., No. 983, was organized iu 
1878 with A. V. B. Thomas as dictator. The membership is about sixty. J. Ash is the 

Grenada lodge No. 158, K. & L. of H., was organized iu 1879. The membership is 
about forty-five. 

Ivanhoe lodge No. 8, K. of P., was organized in March, 1876, and has about fifty mem- 
bers. W. P. Pergusou is chancellor commander. 

Calumet encampment, I. O. O. P., No. 16, first organized about 1853, and surrendered 
its charter about 1880. It was chartered in 1891), and ha.s aboat fifteen members. Julius 
Ash is chief patriarch. 

Protection lodge No. '2, A. O. U. W., chartered about 1877, in 1878 paid out aboiit 
!f4tl,<'00 as a result of the yellow fever. It has about twelve members, and Rias Carl is mas- 
ter workman. 

The Orenada Bulletin was doubtless the first newspaper published iu what is now 
Grenada county, having been issued as early as 1836, by Wiiliam McClellan. Other papers 
that were published from time to time were the South Rural Gentleman, by Jerry Da^'is, 
followed by the Whig, the Grenada Republican, the Locomotive, the Grenada Gazette, after- 
ward the New Em, and the Grenada New South. The Grenada Sentinel succeeded the 
Locomotive in 1855, and is now the only paper in the county. Volume XXXVI is the cur- 
rent volume. J. W. Buchanan is the editor and proprietor. Other towns in this county 
are Elliott, Graysport and Hardy. 

Holly Springs, the beautiful and attractive seat of justice of Marshall county, dates back 
as far as the year 1836. Long before the war it was a prosperous town. Unfortunately, 
in the course of events Holly Springs suffered terribly. It was almost entirely destroyed 
during the war, and has never yet thoroughly recovered its status. Holly Springs is famous 
historically as the scene of Van Dorn's raid on the Federal stores. Many interesting 
incidents of the raid are told by the old residents. The old courthouse was burnt 
by Grant and most of the rest of the city by Van Dorn. Soon after the war the 
present courthouse was erected. It is a large two-story brick building, surrounded by 
an unusually well-kept grass lawn, at whose edge shade trees in great and rare variety 
give an additionally charming effect. Holly Springs is the market town of a varied and 
productive district. Cotton is the chief item of trade. A prominent druggist of Holly Springs 
has a very complete creamery near at hand, with fifteen Jersey cows and fifteen graded. 
He ships milk and cream to Memphis, besides supplying a portion of the home demand. 
Holly Springs also boasts of the only Holstein registry in the state. This is under the 
direction of Capt. Buchanan, and is doing excellent service. Trotting horses are being 
raised to quite an extent. There are some superb Kentucky stallions here. The farmers 
are devoting much attention to the breeding of horses and mules. Holly Springs is an 
injportant station on the Illinois Central railroad. The railroad company have established 
here an excellent hotel. The Memphis & Birmingham branch of the Kansas City, Port 
Scott & Gulf road also runs through here. This road connects the West with the Ala- 
bama mineral district. The public schools of Holly Springs are of a high grade of 


excellence, and this is the site of the State Normal Colored school, the Maury Institute 
for girls, the Franklin Female college and the Bethlehem academy. 

Holly Springs has a population of two thousand two hundred and thirty-two. It is 
built on the west side of the ridge that divides the state on a north and south line, and 
Memphis is only fifty miles away. The soil round about, very much like the famous 
Mississippi swamp lauds, is fertile in the extreme, and the surface of the county is beauti- 
ful. From the beginning there it was patent that the town would become one of importance, 
and it soon left other towns in the territory far behind in the race for commercial and muni- 
cipal supremacy. The stream of immigration was then flowing southward and it bore to 
Holly Springs many well known planters, eminent lawyers and talented and scholarly 
physicians, who at once identified themselves with its interests, and were instrumental in 
[)lacing it upon a solid foundation conducive to future growth and prosperity. With the 
early history of Holly Springs such names as Roger Barton, Hon. Joe Chalmers, Gen. 
Alexander Bradford and John W. Watson are inseparably connected. From an early day 
the average population of the county was refined and educated, and down to the present 
time no community has stood higher than that of Holly Springs. Its business men as a 
class have been noted for the most rigid commercial integrity. Its banks have been strong 
and reliable. Its professional men have stood high at the bar of the county and state and 
upon the roll of those who elevate their lives to the alleviation of the suffering of their 
fellow- men. Its churches have been strong numerically and of farreaching spiritual influence, 
its preachers, some of them, among the most noted divines of the South. Its educational 
institutions, including its excellent public schools, have been thorough, efficient and popular, 
some of the men and women having oversight of them distinguished in literature and art. 
Holly Springs is a pushing, enterprising, advancing city, full of enterprise and ambition, 
and in the highest degree typical of the progressive spirit of the new South. 

Byhalia, Redbank, Victoria and Potts' Camp on the Kansas City, Memphis & Birming- 
ham railroad, and Waterford and Hudsonville on the Illinois Central railroad, are small 
railroad towns of growing importance. The following villages and trading points in the 
county have no railroad facilities: Early Grove, Mount Pleasant, Bainesville, Oak Grove, 
Cornersville, Bethlehem, Chulahoma Watson and Wall Hill. 

The city of Canton is situated almost in the center of Madison county, upon the main 
line of the Illinois Central railroad, at an altitude of three hundred and twenty feet above 
the Gulf. The site is a very desirable one, and Canton does not without good cause claim 
to be the prettiest city in the state. 

The streets are wide, and well graded and guttered, aggregating some twenty miles. 
The principal business center is the public square, around whose four sides the merchants 
have erected their establishments, many of which are large, ornamental and costly brick 
structures, while the immense stocks carried indicate that a very large and flourishing trade 
is enjoyed in every line. In the residence portion are found many large and ornate homes, 
indicative of wealth and a cultivated taste, while an air of solidity is everywhere observable 
that is both refreshing and confidence-inspiring to the stranger. One of the pleasing features 
of Canton is the large numbers of noble trees by which its streets and private grounds are 

The county courthouse occupies the center of the public square, and is a beautiful and 
imposing brick, stone and iron structure, which was erected in 1852, but is in a splendid 
state of preservation. It stands in the center of a four-acre plat, surrounded by stately trees. 


and the ground is covered with a thick carpet of grass. Both the brick and stone of which 
this building was constructed are products of Madison county. 

The Illinois Central railroad runs through the corporation in the western portion, and 
Canton is conceded to be one of the greatest cotton and live stock shipping stations between 
Durant and New Orleans. Near the depot are seen a large cotton seed oilmill, several large 
cotton warehouses, icehouses, etc., which give the place an air of activity. The local man- 
ufacturing establishments are the oilmill, two steam gristmills and gins, two carriage and 
wagon shops, a planingmill and a number of minor shops, including a fruit and vegetable 
box factory. A large cotton factory was in operation some time ago. 

Canton, being situated on an altitude of three hundred and twenty feet above the Gulf, 
on a rolling, well-drained site, which guarantees immunity against epidemics and infectious 
diseases generally, besides having a rich, well settled tributary country, which insures cheap 
living for employes, is certainly well adapted for the location of large factories, from these 
material and important standpoints. Being also located on a great trunk line railroad, its 
transportation facilities for reaching all the important markets and consuming centers of the 
country are most excellent, while the near future will doubtless witness the building of one 
or more competing lines, notably one from Canton to Vicksburg, to connect with the Missis- 
sippi river and the railroad systems centering at that point. Several miles of this road have 
already been graded, and there is no doubt of its ultimate completion. 

Socially, Canton is a delightful place, and its people are widely known tor culture, intel- 
ligence and their many accomplishments. This is made apparent by the city's educational 
facilities, both public and private, which are of the very highest order, placing the benefits 
of a thorough and practical education within the reach of all. Six church buildings, repre- 
senting the leading denominations, are found, while the colored portion of the population 
worship in not less than five separate edifices. The civic societies, as Masons, Odd Fellows, 
Knights of Pythias, and others, are represented by strong and fiourishing lodges. A large 
and well arranged hall serves for the reception of dramatic companies, who frequently con- 
tribute to the social pleasure of the citizens. The city government is vested in a mayor and 
six aldermen, city clerk, treasurer, marshal and taxcollector. These offices are held by 
citizens of probity and integrity, who manage the city's affairs wisely and well. 

Real estate values have an upward tendency, although nothing resembling a boom has 
ever occurred to inflate them, the increase and advance being rather of a steady and sub- 
stantial kind, which, after all, is the safest and best in the end. There are two substantial 
and amply capitalized bankinghouses in Canton, which, as yet, are all that its commerce 
demands. Some little jobbing business is transacted in a few lines, but the retail trade forms 
the principal industries among the merchants, who, as a general thing, are strong, solvent 
and rated high in commercial circles. 

The press is well rfspresented by one daily and two weekly publications, which evince 
more than the ordinary editorial ability of journals published in towns of this size. Out- 
side of Vicksburg, Natchez and Meridian, this city is the only one in the state that supports 
a daily paper, which speaks well for the enterprise and liberality of its citizens. The Picket, 
daily and weekly, is a progressive, live journal, alily conducted by a gentleman widely and 
favorably known among, as well as outside, of the profession, Capt. Emmett L. Ross. This 
journal, as well as the Citizen, may be taken with profit to themselves by Northern peo- 
ple who contemplate immigrating to Mississippi, as they always contain many items of interest 
concerning the city, county and state. 

Canton's population does not exceed twenty- five hundred souls, resident therein, but it 


is a nucleus around which will gradually gather new and fresh elements, which will eventually 
result in the upbuilding of a large, prosperous and wealthy commercial and industrial city, 
a distinction to which its geographical position, rich tributary country, excellent transporta- 
tion facilities and the enterprise of its citizens clearly entitle it to aspire. 

The Canton cotton warehouse was built during 1888 by a company organized for that 
purpose. Over $6,200 have been invested in a fine brick and iron building, 62x120 feet, 
fitted up with sliding doors, and all the features which go to make up a standard warehouse 
according to insurance rules. Its capacity is fifteen hundred bales. Platforms and office 
))uilding8 have also been erected, and a large business has been developed. 

A new bridge across Pearl river was built a few years ago at a cost of $4,000 by the 
county and private subscriptions combined. This serves to largely increase Canton's trade 
territory from the counties lying east, whose people have heretofore gone to other markets. 

Madison and Flora are prosperous railroad towns in Madison county of large and increas- 
ing business. 

Bay St. Louis, the seat of justice of Hancock county, is located in the southeastern 
part of the county, on the Louisville & Nashville railway, and on the shore of Mississippi 
sound. It has a population of twenty -two hundred, and is a prosperous and pleasant little 
city, popular among health and pleasure seekers of the South. 

Pearlington, on Pearl river, was intended liy its founders to become a place of much 
commercial importance, and they dedicated a large area of land for the purpose of build- 
ing up a city. That was in the old territorial days, and Pearlington for a time had a small 
boom. Its population is now eight hundred and fifty. 

Gainesville, farther tip the Pearl river, has a population of two hundred and twenty- 

The town of Macon, the seat of justice of Noxubee county, was laid out by Charles W. 
Allen in April, 1 834. It was called Macon in honor of Nathaniel Macon, one of the first 
settlers of the place. It is located on the line of the Mobile & Ohio railroad, and has a 
population of twenty-two hundred. Early in the forties a two-story brick courthouse was 
built there. Just before the war the present courthouse was built, at an expense of $60,000. 
The town has five churches where white people worship : Methodist, Presbyterian, Baptist, 
Episcopal and Catholic; and two for colored people: Methodist Episcopal and Baptist. 

Stockman lodge No. 19, I. O. O. F., is one of the oldest lodges in the state. Its 
charter and records were destroyed by fire in 1 878, and the lodge was granted a new charter 
July 22, 1879. 

Macon lodge No. 40, A. F. & A. M., was instituted February 7, 1840. The first 
officers were: F. C. Ellis, master; E. D. Barker, S. W. ; Samuel Moore, J. W. The present 
ofacers are: C. C. Sessions, master; J. L. Ford, S. W. ; W. S. Farmer, J. W.; W. T. Hodges, 
treasurer; \\. P. Minor, secretary; J. W. Halbrook, Sr. D. and P. M.; F. W. Bransby, J. D. ; 
Jacob Faser, S. and T. This lodge has a total membership of sixty-eight, owns its hall 
and has money at interest. It meets on the second Friday night of each month. 

Macon chapter No. 11, K. A. M., was organized in 1849, with F. G. Ferguson as 
high priest. Its membership is now thirty-nine, and it meets on the third Friday night 
of each month. 

Mauldin lodge No. 2937, K. of H, was instituted April 6, 1883, with twenty-six char- 
ter members. The first officers were: George D. Dillard, P. D. ; Jacob Holberg, D. ; J. S. 
Scott, V. D.; J. J. Callaway, A. D.; E. E. Jeffries, reporter; W. G. Sellick, F. E.; J. W. 


Patty, Jr., treasurer; W. M. Jones, guide; Thomas Foote, sentinel; trustees, A. Klaus, W. B. 
Barker, E. K. Wooten. The present officers are: J. W. Patty, D. ; M. L. Wells, V. D.; A. 
Klaus, A. D. ; J. S. Scott, reporter; W. M. Jones, F. R. ; Jacob Holberg, treasurer; T. J. 
O'Neill, guide; T. T. Patty, guard; Lewis Luclis, sentinel; trustees: C. M. Carter, J. L. 
Griggs, G. D. Dillard. The lodge meets on the second and fourth Tuesday nights of each 
month. The membership is twenty-eight. 

Noxubee lodge No. 63, K. of P., was instituted June 19, 1890, with twenty-six charter 
members. The first officers were: H. F. Van Kohn, P. C. C. ; T. J. O'Neill, C. C; W. S. 
Farmer, V. C; J. L. Patty, prelate; W. T. Hodges, M. E. ; L. M. Scales, M. F. and K. E. S.; 
J. W. Holt, M. A.; G. A. Freeman, I. G. ; L. Ludi, O. G. The present officers are: T. J. 
O'Neill, P. C. C; C. C; F. W. Bransby, V. C. C; S. J. Feibeman, K. E. S. and M. F. ; 
George A. Freeman, prelate; W. Xi. Hodges, M. E. ; J. W. Holt, M. A.; Luther Freeman, 
I. G. ; L. Ludi, O. G. The membership is forty-four. The lodge meets on the first and 
third Tuesday nights of each month. 

Besides Macon the towns in Noxubee county are Brookville, Shuqualak, Summerville 
and Cooksville. 

Mississippi City, the seat of justice of Harrison county, is located on the Louisville & 
Nashville railroad near the Mississippi sound, and has a population of three hundred. This 
city; Biloxi, population two thousand; Pass Christian, population one thousand; Handsboro, 
population six hundred and ten, and Beauvoir are dotted along the coast, with ample hotel 
accommodations at Mississippi City, Pass Christian, Biloxi and Handsboro, which are fre- 
quented the year round by visitors from north, east and west as well as by thousands of 
Mississippians. Beauvoir is noted as having been long, and until his death, the residence of 
Hon. Jefferson Davis. Handsboro is the seat of Gulf Coast college. Stonewall, Long Beach 
and De Lisle are flourishing towns in this county. 

Public schools are maintained throughout the county for a term of four and five months 
during each year, and in Pass Christian and Biloxi for eight months. The Catholic churches 
of Pass Christian and Biloxi are in the lead in Mississippi, next is the Episcopalian, next the 
Methodist, next the Presbyterian, and then the Baptist. 

The leading industries are the planting of oysters, canning of the oysters and vegetables, 
milling and truck farming. 

Starkville, the county town of Oktibbeha county, is located at the intersection of the 
Mobile & Ohio, Illinois Central and Georgia Pacific railway lines, and has a population of 
two thousand. It is the largest town and principal shipping point of the county. 

Ihere are in this town live congregations of the following named religious denomina- 
tions, all of whom own good houses of worship: Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Associate 
Eeformed Presbyterian, Cumberland Presbyterian and Episcopalian. There are three colored 
churches, two Methodist and one Baptist, all with substantial buildings and large congre- 

The Starkville Female institute, a chartered institution opened in 1NS9 by Eev. T. G. 
Sellers, D. D., provides a complete collegiate course for young ladies. The average attendance 
for the past seventeen years has been nearly two hundred pupils. This school takes first rank 
among the seminaries of the South. Starkville high school, founded in 1880 by its present 
principal, Mr. W. E. Saunders, prepares its students for practical business lives or to enter 
college. This school has an average attendance of one hundred and fifty. There are also 
several private schools, besides two colored schools. The Agricultural college of Mississippi 


was opened in 1880; it is pleasantly situated just outside the city limits, and has an average 
attendance of three hundred and fifty students. This college is ably managed by its presi- 
dent, S. D. Lee, and a large faculty of the best men that can be secured in the country. It 
has enjoyed iinusiial prosperity, is popular with the people of the state, and takes first rank 
with the agricultural colleges in the country. $325,000 have been expended in the equip- 
ment and support of this college. The curriculum embraces technical training of students 
in agriculture, and to carry out this work a large farm has been equipped as a model farm, 
on which the breeding and feeding of stock, the growing of all crops adapted to the climate, 
fruits, vegetables, nursery stock, etc., is pursued in a skilled manner. Among other things 
the college carries on a creamery, from which butter and cream are shipped daily through 
the year to towns in this and other states. The influence of the college is felt in the sur- 
rounding country, and is shown by the attention being paid to stockgrowing and the improve- 
ment of the lands, which is carried to a greater extent than will be found in any other portion 
of the state. 

Three papers are published in Starkville, The Southern Live- Stock Journal, devoted 
specially to the live-stock interests of the South, a well edited paper, and having a wide cir- 
culation. It is the leading stock and agricultural journal of the Southern states. The East 
Mississippi Times and Oktibbeha Citizen, political and general newspapers, both have a 
good circulation in the eastern portion of the state. 

Abert lodge No. 89, A. F. &. A. M. (formerly Oktibbeha lodge), was organized under a 
dispensation granted in 1847 and was chartered 1848. O. L. Nash, past master; William R. 
Cannon, W. M. ; Simeon Muldrow, S. W. ; S. W. Easley, J. W. ; Moses F. Westbrook, treas- 
urer; William G. Lampkin, secretary; John T. Freeman, S. D. : Alex Walker, J. D. ; Charles 
Dibrell, S. and tyler. Other lodges A. F. &. A. M. in this county are Big Creek lodge No. 
204, Double Springs lodge No. 251, and Whitfield lodge No. 365, the last at Sturgis. 
Ridgeley lodge No. 23, I. O. O. F., was organized December 23, 1846, with A. J. Maxwell as 
N. G. E. L. Tarry is the present N. G. Starkville lodge No. 783, K. of H., was oi'ganized 
October 29, 1 877, with W. E. Saunders as dictator. T. M. Cummings is the present dictator. 
Starkville council No. 900, A. L. of H., was established April 1, 1882, with C. E. Gay as 
commander. The original membership was twenty-seven; the present membership is fifty- 
seven. Oktibbeha lodge No. 38, K. of P., was established November 23, 1883, with Simon 
Field as C. C, and a membership of twenty-five. The members now number twenty-six, and 
T. J. James is C. C. 

Whitfield, Salem and Montgomery are other towns in Oktibbeha county. 

Hazlehurst, the seat of justice of Copiah county, is favorably located a little east of the 
center of the county and has a population of one thousand five hundred and fifteen. It is 
•A station on the Illinois Central railway, has much business activity and commands a good 

There is perhaps no point on the line of the Illinois Central railroad of more interest to 
the agricultural and farming communities than Wesson, Miss, (population two thousand), the 
point at which the celebrated Mississippi mills are located. This cotton and woolen manu- 
factory employs a large number of hands, furnishing not only work for many men and women, 
but it necessarily creates a local demand for all kinds of farm produce which is felt in all 
that section of country. We quote from an address of Gen. A. M. West, of Holly Springs, 
delivered before the international exhibition at Philadelphia, Penn., July 10, 1878, the fol- 
lowing concerning the great enterprise at Wesson: "In 1847 Col. J. M. Wesson, of Geor- 



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gia, organized a company for manufacturing cotton and woolen goods, cornmeal and flour, 
and located in the same year in Mississippi, and commenced operations in 1848. This 
enterprise was eminently successful. It commenced with a capital of 150,000, and within 
a few years increased the same to $300,000. It was destroyed by the Federal army in 1864. 
Colonel Wesson, encouraged by previous success, located, after the war, in a vast pine forest 
in Copiah county, and named the place Wesson, and entered at once upon the erection .of 
suitable factory buildings, which he soon furnished with machinery and put into operation. 
These mills were destroyed by fire and were then rebuilt by Mr. E. Richardson." The 
further history of this great industrial enterprise is given elsewhere in this volume. Quite 
a large town is growing up around the mills. There is a demand for all the goods they 
can make, and they are unable to keep up with orders for styles. Large sales are made 
in the Western states, in New York, and what is better they have a large local and home 
patronage; thus demonstrating that cotton can be more economically manufactured in the 
immediate vicinity of its production than elsewhere. 

The town of Wesson has never had a saloon, deeds for the lots containing a clause 
which prohibits forever the sale of intoxicating liquors on them. There are three white 
churches, Methodist, Baptist and Presbyterian, all handsome structures, and one colored 
church, though the population is made up almost exclusively of white people, there being 
not more than a score of negroes living within the corpoi'ate limits. 

The town is well supplied with water for protection from fire through the public spirit 
of the mill company in placing fire plugs at convenient points, the supply coming through 
the company's pumps at a creek and reservoir a mile distant. There are lodges of Masons, 
Odd Fellows, Knights of Honor and other like organizations. The banking business of the 
place is transacted through the Mississippi mills. The town raised 110,000 bonus and the 
site to secure the location of the state female college which, however, went to Columbus, not- 
withstanding Wesson was the home of one thousand four hundred young ladies, drawn 
thither from various counties by the prospect of employment in the mills. There is a large 
and successful free school in session the entire year, besides several private schools. 

Wesson was visited on April 22, 1883, by a cyclone, the most destructive ever known in 
the state. Its track was one-fourth of a mile wide and thirty miles long, sweeping away in 
its course two tovms, Beauregard and Georgetown — Wesson, however, suffering severely. 
The storm cloud came from the southwest, at about three o'clock in the afternoon, and with 
a frightful roar carried away houses, trees, fences, human beings, and all manner of debris in 
indescribable confusion. There were one hundred and ninety persons wounded and seventy- 
six killed, while hundreds were left homeless and destitute. An associate society of Bed 
Cross for Copiah county was formed at Wesson, and over five hundred and fifty destitute 
people received aid in this vicinity, exclusive of aid given by agents of the society along the 
track of the storm. The society received and disbursed $7,943, exclusive of large supplies 
of food and clothing. 

Other towns in this county are Crystal Springs and Beauregard. Crystal Springs has 
a population of one thousand one hundred and twenty-five, and is a flourishing station on the 
Illinois Central railroad. It is a well built and handsome place, widely known for its exten- 
sive garden truck and fruit-growing interests. Beauregard, on the same railway line, has a 
population of six hundred and three. It was almost totally destroyed by a cyclone in 1883 
and has been only partially rebuilt. 

Hazlehurst lodge No. 25, A. F. & A. M., consolidated in 1870 with Gallatin lodge No. 
25, has twenty-six membersj and D. B. Low is worshipful master. Quitman lodge, A. F. & 



A. M., is located at Rockport postoffice, near Pearl river, and has twenty- nine members, its 
worshipful master being M. D. L. Crawford. Charles Scott lodge No. 136, A. F. & A. M., 
is located east of Crystal Springs. J. M. Wesson lodge No. 317, of Wesson, has sixty-seven 
members, and Miles Cannon is worshipful master. 

Copiah lodge No. 1422, Knights of Honor, was organized in 1879. Its first dictator 
was Judge T. E. Cooper. It now has about sixty-six members and Hon. Geo. L. Dodds is 
dictator. Excelsior lodge No. 365, Knights and Ladies of Honor, of which Capt. J. L. Ard is 
protector, has about thirty-five members. There is a Knights of Pythias lodge in the county 
known as Copiah lodge No. 60. Signal Assembly No. 5739 Knights of Labor, has a goodly 
membership, and there is a lodge of A. L. of H. The following lodges are located at 
Crystal Springs: Knights of Pythias No. 21, established about 1880, which has about fifty- 
one members. Knights of Honor No. 1420, established about 1879, and has about one 
hundred and five members. At Wesson are Harmony lodge Knights of Honor No. 1851, a 
Knights and Ladies of Honor lodge, an I. O. 0. F. lodge, and a Good Templars lodge. 

West Point, the seat of justice of Clay county, on the Illinois Central & Mobile & Ohio 
railroads, has a population of twenty-two hundred, and is a trading point of growing 
importance. West Point has a fine brick public school building. Its churches areas follows: 
Missionary Baptist, Christian, Methodist, Cumberland PresbyteriaD, Old School Presbyterian 
and the Protestant Episcopal. The Baptists were the first to organize here. Secret societies 
are represented thus: Cannon lodge No. 159, A. F. & A. M., of which Moses Jordan was the 
first worshipful master, and J. H. Shipman is the present one, and which has surrendered its 
charter twice, and been twice revived; Star lodge No. 84, I. O. O. F., established January 
1869, with W. J. Howell as noble grand, and of which Tol. Hobbler is present noble 
grand; West Point lodge No. 527, Knights of Honor, organized March, 1877, with nine 
members, J. H. Shipman first dictator, and now having one hundred and sixty-one members. 
West Point lodge No. 224, Knights and Ladies of Honor, which was organized January, 1880, 
with thirty-four members, I. W. Foster first protector, and now has sixty-one members; 
Fred Daggett being protector. Prairie lodge No. 42, Knights of Pythias, which was organ- 
ized in June, 1885, with W. E. Motford as chancellor commander, and Security lodge No. 
254, Knights of the Golden Eule. 

Tibbee, Palo Alto and Siloam are several small towns in this county. 

The village of Abbott is situated near the geographical center of Clay county, eleven 
miles northwest from West Point, the county seat, and eight miles from Muldon on the Mo- 
bile & Ohio railroad, which is the nearest railroad point. That a railway will be built 
here at an early day seems probable. There has been a line surveyed from Muldon station, 
and an excellent route, affording easy grades and but few bridges, has been located. It is 
believed that the Mobile & Ohio railroad company will recognize the necessity of building 
this important branch soon. When it is borne in mind that at least two-thirds of the twenty 
thousand bales of cotton annually shipped from West Point come from the country around 
and naturally tributary to Abbott, some idea of the importance of a feeder into this district 
becomes apparent. 

At present the population of Abbott scarcely reaches two hundred. There are three mer- 
cantile houses doing an annual business of 135,000, a saddlery and harness shop, a wagon 
shop and blacksmith shop, gristmill and gin. There is also a double daily mail. 

Abbott was named in honor of Capt. F. M. Abbott, its founder, a native of the state of 
Pennsylvania, who located here immediately subsequent to the war, has since that time devoted 


himself to making a home worthy of the name, and to proving by living witnesses that not 
only can a Northern man live, be respected and prosper here, but also that improved modes 
of farming and diversified agriculture can be carried on as successfully, and even carried to 
a higher point of perfection, than ia any of the Northern or Eastern states. 

Winona, the county seat of Montgomery county, is situated on the Illinois Central rail- 
road, at its intersection with the Richmond & Danville road, two hundred and seventy-one 
miles from New Orleans and two hundred and seventy-nine from Cairo. It has a population 
of twenty-one hundred people, contains between twenty and thirty substantial stores, and 
does a trade of over half a million dollars a year. Winona has a good bank with ample cap- 
ital, which moves the extensive cotton business of the town, which amounts to over two thou- 
sand bales yearly, the bulk of which goes East. 

Winona is said to be the name given by an Indian chief to his first-born female child. 
The building of what is now the Illinois Central railroad caused a small town to spring into 
existence within two miles of Middleton, then the educational center of Mississippi. The 
new town was christened Winona, and it soon distanced its older neighbor. Middleton is 
now a place of the past; its famous schools have been scattered over the state, but Winona 
lives and grows. Winona has two banks. Its railroad facilities make it a very desirable 
location for mills and factories of any kind, and such enterprises would receive great encour- 
agement and support in the town. At present there are here two carriage and wagon facto- 
ries and a gristmill. A compress has been talked of, and will soon be built if it has not been 
already. Among the other institutions of Winona is the rifle corps, of which it is justly 
proud, an exceedingly well-drilled body. The town also has a brass band and a capacious 
public hall. 

Winona is in no respect lacking in educational facilities. There are three very well 
organized public schools, largely attended. Two private academies of a high order are also 
located here. Winona is in the mineral district in which Duck Hill is the most conspicuous 
point, and must profit by the general development of the district, some of its capitalists being 
interested in Duck Hill's mineral land company. 

Winona has the following named churches: Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian, Baptist 
and Christian, all strong of membership and having good houses of worship; and Methodist, 
Baptist and Presbyterian colored congregations all have adequate buildings. Here are two 
Masonic lodges, one of white men, the other of blacks. The business buildings in Winona 
are mostly of brick, and with few exceptions they are large and in every way creditable to 
their owners and to the town. The Winona Times is published by Walter N. HurJ. It is in 
its ninth volume, in size a five column quarto. The Winona Democrat was published for a 
time under that name and was afterward known as the Advocate. 

Duck Hill is the name given to a pleasant little town in Montgomery county, and situated 
on the Illinois Central railroad between Winona and Grenada, at a distance of two hundred 
and eighty-two miles from New Orleans, ninety-nine miles from Jackson, and two hundred 
and sixty-eight miles from Cairo, 111. Duck Hill lies in one of the most beautiful valleys in 
the state, which extends for miles up to the road. Near the town towers the real hill called 
after the Indian chieftain Duck, while on either side, for miles up the valley, and running 
back for miles on ridges — on either side lie the hills lately discovered to be rich in ores. 
Almost within a stone's throw of the town in its rear there appears to be a solid mountain of 
iron. Professor Johnson, the well-known United States geologist, has distinctly located these 
ores. A strong company of local and outside capitalists has been formed under a state 
charter to purchase and to operate these mineral lands. 


Other towns in Montgomery county are Lodi, Mayfield, Sawyers and Kilmichael. 

Tupelo, the seat of justice of Lee county, is a town of on6 thousand five hundred and 
twenty-five inhabitants, at the junction of the Kansas City, Memphis & Birmingham and 
Mobile & Ohio railroads, two of the greatest trunk line railways on the continent. During 
the past three years over one hundred new residences, about fifteen elegant brick store- 
houses, four factories, and a number of other substantial improvements were made. The 
trade has been largely increased, and prosperity is evidenced on every hand. The citizens 
are wideawake, enterprising and progressive. They intend that Tupelo shall, with her 
superior advantages, be the leading cotton and manufacturing town in northeast Mississippi. 
With a 115,000 public school building, a splendidly equipped operahouse, three excellent 
hotels, five factories, two solid firms of cotton buyers, a number of the wealthiest merchants 
in the state, an immense cottou compress and cotton warehouse, a fine dairy farm, and one of 
the richest agricultural sections on the globe to support the town, there seems no reason to . 
doubt that their expectations will be realized. The cash cotton buyers, representing eastern 
mills, Liverpool and Manchester, England, located in Tupelo, have the means to pur- 
chase all the cotton produced in the state of Mississippi, and are determined to handle large 
quantities of the fleecy staple in this section of the state if the highest cash prices will buy. 
The leading merchants, Messrs. Clark, Hood & Co., J. J. Rogers, Greener Bros. & Co., F. 
Elliott, and others, purchase all the cotton brought to Tupelo by wagons, and sell it to the 
exclusive cottou buyers representing the Eastern mills. 

Besides its commercial advantages, Tupelo is one of the healthiest places of its size in 
the state. Within her limits are twenty-seven sparkling and free-flowing artesian wells, pro- 
viding pure water. Tupelo has one splendid banking institution — B. C. Clark, president; 
John Clark, vice president; H. A. Kincannon, cashier, T. M. Clark, assistant cashier. Its 
capital stock is $80,000, and deposits about 1100,000. 

Tupelo has to-day one thousand five hundred and twenty-five people, seven churches, 
thirty business firms, two splendid hotels, one 115,000 schoolbuildiiig, two jewelers, one fur- 
niture factory, one spoke factory, one livery stable, one fine operahouse, one photograph gal- 
lery, one tin shop, five superior physicians, one extensive dairy, twelve lawyers, two meat 
markets, four painters, six brickyards, one cotton compress, two first-class railroads, two 
newspapers, one bank, six boardinghouses, one colored school, one ice factory, one chair 
factory, one broom factory, two barber shops, three blacksmith shops, o-ie excellent bakery, 
one small graveyard, three firms of exclusive cotton buyers, thirty-seven artesian wells, 
twenty-five brick masons, one bakery and lunchhouse, a number of contractors and builders, 
fifty mechanics, one large cotton warehouse. 

An institution that will add much to Tupelo's prosperity is the handsome two-story 
brick public schoolbuilding now in course of erection in Freeman's grove at West End. This 
building will be a monument to the progressive spirit of its enterprising citizens for years to 
come. The old schoolhouse was incapable of accommodating the pupils of the town. 

Tupelo lodge No. 318, A. F. & A. M., was organized in 1869 with twenty members. 
Royal Arch chapter No. 7 has forty-three members, the Royal Arch commandery fifty-one 
members, the local organization of Knights of the Golden Rule has fifteen members. 

Tupelo Methodist Church South was organized in 1868, with about twenty members, 
with Rev. Mr. Plummer as pastor. A frame house, 40x60 feet, was built in 1872, on Church 
street. The church has about one hundred members. Rev. A. G. Augustus is pastor. The 
Presbyterian church of Tupelo has a membership of eighty-five, and a fine brick house of 
worship. It is in charge of Rev. G. H. Steen, pastor, formerly of Okolona, Miss. The Cum- 


berlaud Presbyterian church has a membership of sixty and a good frame house. The pastor 
is Rev. T. H. Padgett, from Bowling Green, Ky., who began his ministerial career in Missis- 
sippi, and subsequently continued it for a time in Missouri. 

The Baptist church of Tupelo, Miss., was organized August 19, 1850, at a place called 
Hickory Grove, then Pontotoc county, in a loghouse about three miles west of its present site, 
by Elders E. Smith, C. C. Malon and Elijah Moore, with eleven members. Elder E. Smith 
was the first pastor chosen, and served the church until 1853. J. O. R. Word first church 
clerk. At the December meeting 1850, B. Jenkins, Burrell Jackson and Robert Fears were 
chosen deacons. In 1851 the Hickory Grove Baptist church was admitted into the Chickasaw 
association. The membership of the church increased gradually under the pastorate of Eldor 
E. Smith until 1853, when he was succeeded by Elder A. L. Stovall. In 1S53 the congregation 
built a nice frame meetinghouse a short distance from the old loghouse in which they organ- 
ized. The church increased her membership rapidly under the ministrations of Elder 
Stovall, and in connection with a few other churches organized the Judson association in 
October, 1853. The membership of Hickory Grove continued to increase, and in eight years 
from her organization numbered one hundred and sixty-three members, eighty-seven having 
been received by baptfem. 

December, 1859, Elder A. L. Stovall resigned the pastoral care of the church, after having 
ser\'ed them faithfully and acceptably for six years, and Elder William Young succeeded him 
as pastor, and continued in charge until the breaking out of the Civil war, in 1861. At night, 
on April 4, 1860, the Hickory Grove church house was fired by an incendiary, and burned 
down. In August, following, the church decided in conference to build a new house of wor- 
ship, and selected Tupelo for its location, since which time it has been known as the Tupelo 
Baptist church. Elder A. L. Stovall was again called to the pastorate of the church in Octo- 
ber, 1861, and continued to serve them as pastor continuously, escept the year 1866, up to 
the time of his death, which occurred July 4, 1872. From the year 1872 to April, 1891, the 
following pastors have supplied the Tupelo Baptist church: G. W. Potter, J. T. Freeman, 
J. T. Christian, of Kentucky; then J. T. Freeman, L. R. Burress, J. L. Tumage, J. R. Sum- 
ner and S. G. Cooper, the present pastor. 

Saltillo, Lee county, is a place of two hundred and fifty, and a station on the Mobile & 
Ohio railroad. It was settled by James Kyle, but little business was done there until after 
the completion of the railroad. After the county was organized the first grand jury met here 
previous to meeting at Tupelo. 

The town has five church organizations. The Presbyterian church was organized about 
1850, the Methodist church in 1868, the Baptist church in the early seventies. These three 
denominations had a union church erected about 1875. The Christian church owns a build- 
ing valued at $1,000, erected in 1876. The Catholic church has an adequate building. 

Saltillo was incorporated about ten years ago. James Heidleberg was its first mayor. 
The present incumbent of the office is J. D. Barton. The town has seven stores and a gin 
and a sawmill. There is here a good public school, of three departments, with an average 
attendance of ninety. Saltillo lodge No. 294, A. F. & A. M., was organized in 1868, and 
has a membership of fifteen. 

The growing village of Nettleton was named in honor of George H. Nettleton, the Kan- 
sas City railroad magnate, and is situated in Lee and Monroe counties, about half in each 
county, on the Kansas City, Memphis & Birmingham railroad. It was laid out in the fall 
of 1887. Dr. M. M. Davis & Co. built the first storehouse. Soon after another was built by 


Mullens, Frances & Co. The town now has two churches and two more are being built. 
The Nettleton Hardwood Manufacturing company, organized in 1890 with a capital of $50,- 

000, has an extensive sawmill with a capacity of forty thousand feet per day, which gives 
employment to eighty hands. Providence college, situated near by, was charterd in the spring 
of 1886. It was ;i frame building, built by subscription, 40x100 feet in size, with a capacity 
for seating five hundred students. The average attendance is about three hundred, and five 
teachers are employed. Nettleton Missionary Baptist church, knovni as the Town Creek church, 
was organized about 1855, with Rev. William Hood as pastor, with only five or six members. 
In 1858 a frame church was built. At that time there were about forty members. In 1880 
the church declined, and had preaching only occasionally, till 1888, when it reorganized, with 
Rev. W. F. Davis as pastor, with about seventeen members. At the end of 1 888 it had fifty 
members. Rev. D. J. Austin is the pastor at this time, and the church has about fifty-three 
members. Nettleton Christian church was organized in 1888, with Rev. Patterson as pastor 
and twenty-five members, increased now to thirty. The house of worship, a 40x60 frame 
structure, was built in 1889, at a cost of |1,500. It has a seating capacity of about three 
hundred and fifty. Rev. Armont is pastor. Two other organizations hold meetings in the 
same house, the Methodist Episcopal Church South and the Cumberland Presbyterian 
church. Rev. M. E. Tumbin is pastor of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and Rev. 
Blanton of the Presbyterian church. 

Baldwyn is situated in Lee and Prentiss counties, about equally divided between the 
two, but the postoffice is in Lee county, on the Mobile & Ohio railroad. It was named in 
honor of Mr. Baldwyn, who was one of the principal projectors of the Mobile & Ohio railroad. 
Its first storehouse was built in 1860 by Col. Robert Lowry. E. Oliver, Zebedee Williams, 

1. E. Wallis all built before the war. Since the war the population has grown to five hun- 
dred. The town has four churches, a gristmill, sawmill and cottongin all combined, and a 
gristmill and cottongin combined. 

Masonic lodge No. 108, of Baldwyn, was organized in 1849 at old Carrollville, with only 
seven members. It was moved to Baldwyn in 1860, and now has thirty-six members. 

Cumberland Presbyterian church, at Baldwyn, was first organized at old Carrollville in 
an early day, and moved to Baldwyn in 1860, when a frame house, 35x60, was built. At 
that time all Christian denominations of the community worshiped in it. The first pastor 
was Rev. William Wear. The church now has about thirty members, and a good Sunday- 
school, with Rev. J. E. McShan now as pastor. 

The Missionary Baptist church at Baldwyn was organized about 1862, with Rev. L. R. 
Burress as pastor. The congregation built a frame house in 1870, 50x90 feet, with a seating 
capacity of about four hundred, well finished and elegantly appointed. Since its foundation 
various ministers have been employed by the church, but at present has its first pastor, Rev. 
L. R. Burress. The membership is about forty-five, and there is a good Sunday-school, with 
J. W. Burress as superintendent. 

The Methodist Episcopal church at Baldwyn was established about 1851 at old Carroll- 
ville, and moved to Baldwyn just after the war. A frame house was built about 1869 with a 
seating capacity of four hundred. That house vyas torn down and a new one built about 
1876. The church now has about fifty members, with Rev. K. M. Harrison as pastor. It 
has a successful Sunday-school. 

The Christian church of Baldwyn was organized about 1869. An early, if not the first, 
pastor was Rev. E. B. Trimble. The church was erected in 1873 and cost about $3,000. 
The membership is seventy-five. Rev. H. M. Armor is pastor. 


The Presbyterian church of Baldwyn was organized November 23, 1872. The constitu- 
ent members were A. Cox, Mrs. N. T. Cox, Mrs. M. A. Stevenson, A. G. Weseott, John Stev- 
enson and W. M. Cox. The present membership is about fifty. The pastor is Rev. J. H. 
Gaillard, who is concerned in the organization of the church. 

Shannon, Lee county, was laid out in 1858, by G. F. Simonton, and named in honor of 
Col. E. G. Shannon, and is favorably situated on the line of the Mobile & Ohio railroad. 
The first building was erected for a store, by John M. Simonton, and goods were sold from 
it by Simonton & Buchanan, general merchants. Soon afterward other stores were built, 
and Shannon became quite a trading point. The population is four hundred and fifty. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church South, at Shannon, was organized about 1869, with 
Rev. E. B. Plummer as pastor. The members numbered seventeen — seven males and ten 
females. The house of worship was erected about 1872, at a cost of about §1,000. The 
present pastor is Rev. C. P. Barnes. The members number seventy- five. 

The Baptist church at Shannon was organized about 18G7, with about seventy members, 
with Rev. William Thomas as pastor. A frame church was built about 1873, and dedicated 
by Rev. J. R. Graves. It has a seating capacity of five hundred. The church numbers about 
sixty-five members, and is under the pastoral care of Rev. T. H. Padgett, of Tupelo. 

The Cumberland Presbyterian church at Shannon was organized at an early day, at a 
place near by, and soon after moved to Shannon and erected a frame building with a seating 
capacity of five hundred. 

Palmetto Lodge No. 152, A. P. & A. M., organized at Palmetto Church, west of Verona, 
before the war, and transferred to Shannon about 1868 or 1869. It has a membership of 

Shannon Graded institute was chartered in the spring of 1890, has a frame building 40x80 
feet, two stories high, employs five teachers, and has an attendance of from one hundred to 
one hundred and twenty -five students. The house is situated on a beautiful hill, is well ven- 
tilated and is the best seated and equipped school building in the county. It was built by 
subscription through the efforts of Prof. W. T. Poster, the principal. This gentleman is a 
native of Tennessee, and has been a successful educator for thirteen years. 

Five miles southwest of Baldwyn is Bethany, a small trading point. Here was organized 
the Associate Reformed church of Bethany, on Saturday, June 5, 1852, agreeable to an order 
of the Associate Reformed presbytery of Alabama, by Revs. H. H. Robison and J. L. Young, 
assisted by ruling elders Maj. Robert McBryde, Alexander Poster and Hugh Wiseman. The 
following persons became members of the church by certificate: Thomas Bryson and wife, 
Mrs. Martha Bryson, Miss Jane Bryson, Miss Elizabeth A. Bryson, Miss Mary Bryson, Miss 
Eliza Bryson, Miss Emily Bryson, Hampton Bryson, Samuel Bryson and wife, Mrs. Jane 
Bryson, David Lemmon and wife, Mrs. Martha Jane Lemmon, Mrs. Margaret 0' Shields, and 
Mrs. Margaret I. Young, from Providence church, Laurens district, S. C. ; James Turner and 
wife, Mrs. Nancy C. Turner, John Watt and wife, Mrs. Sarah Watt, and Mrs. Martha E. 
McGee, from Generostee church, Anderson district, S. C. ; John K. Crockett and wife, Mrs. 
Rachel Crockett, from Ebenezer church, Tippah county. Miss. Besides these white persons, 
four colored members were at the same time received, viz.: Lunnon, Patience and Joseph, 
servants of Rev. J. L. Young, from Providence church, Laurens district, S. C, and Nelly, 
■servant of John Watt, from Generostee church, Anderson district, S. C. There was at that 
time a total membership of twenty-five persons, twenty-one being whites and four colored. 
Thomas ^ryson, Samuel Bryson and John K. Crockett were elected ruling elders. Thomas 


Bryson had been ordained a ruling elder at Providence, S. C. Samuel Bryson and John K. 
Crockett were ordained on June 5, 1852. 

During the war, Tupelo and other points in Lee county witnessed many exciting scenes. 
Early in 1862 the war drew nearer and nearer to them. The battle of Shiloh was fought 
April 6 and 7, 1862. Corinth became a military camp, commissaries scoured the country, 
gathering up all the beeves and forage they could obtain. Hospitals were established at 
Gun town, and citizens brought sick soldiers to their homes and nursed them. This state of 
excitement continued till the last of May, when General Beauregard evacuated Corinth, and 
moved the Southern army to Tupelo. The retreat then became a visible reality to the people. 
Many of the blacks fled to the Federal lines. General Chalmers had a picket line at the 
church and along the Pontotoc road, and no one was permitted to pass without permission of 
the military authorities. And, to add to the troubles of the time, in January, 1863, the 
smallpox was brought into the neighborhood, and several good citizens died, among whom 
was Dr. Washington Agnew. The year 1 863 may be termed the year of raids. As soon as 
the spring opened, raids from Corinth became common. There was a cavalry fight at Bir- 
mingham, on April 24, 1863. The next week another raid passed down the railroad, burn- 
ing the Guntown steammill. May 4, 1863. From that time on, raids were reported every few 
weeks in some part of the country. In consequence of them, the citizens were compelled to 
hide their stock and valuables, to prevent them from falling into the hands of a foe as ruth- 
less as the Vandals of the middle ages. June 10, 1864, a battle was fought immediately 
around Bethany, which has been variously designated as the battle of Guntown, the battle of 
Tishomingo creek, the battle of Brice's crossroads and Sturgis' defeat. In the official 
medical history of the war the losses on both sides in this engagement are given as follows: 
Federals killed, two hundred and twenty- three; wounded, three hundred and ninety-four; 
missing, one thousand six hundred and twenty-three. Confederates killed, one hundred and 
thirty-one; wounded, four hundred and seventy-five. 

Guntown, in Lee county, on the Mobile & Ohio railroad, has a population of three hun- 
dred. Shortly after the Revolutionary war an heir to a baronetcy in England, possessing 
the warlike name of Gunn, proved himself a tory of the most notorious stripe. Bather than 
live in commune with the creatures of a republic, he joined the Chickasaw Indians and 
becam^e a chief. He married a fair daughter of the tribe, and by the marriage a lovely child 
was born, and Okalallah became the pride of the Chickasaw nation and was noted for her 
beauty, comeliness and modesty. Hence the name of Guntown. 

In the early fifties a village was started on nearly the highest point between Cairo and 
Mobile, and in 1855 D. N. Cayce arrived, bought a plantation, opened a store and made 
things hum. There were two stores on his arrival, and Guntown grew until about half a 
dozen establishments were doing business, when the war clarion sounded. D. N. Cayce was 
a Tennesseean, who located at Fulton, Miss., in 1842, and moved therefrom merely to invest, 
and maintained his home at Fulton, where he died about three years ago, deeply regretted. 
He had been a power in the land, owning several plantations and several stores, but always 
eschewed official ambition. 

His son, J. M. Cayce, was born in Lawrence county, Teun., and studied at the celebrated 
Emory and Henry college, Virginia. When his father purchased the Guntown properties he 
was made overseer, and with this region he has been prominently identified ever since. 

The town of Fayette, the seat of justice of Jefljerson county since 1825, was incorporated 
in 1842, Its first mayor was J. B, Carpenter, its first clerk G. A. Guilminot, its first council 


M. C. Dixon, E. H. Truly, Thomas Devenport. Its present mayor is W. F. Faulk, its pres- 
ent clerk Henry Key, its present council George D. Forman, James McClurg, Jr., S. Hirsch. 

The town contains three churches, viz. : Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian and Chris- 
tian. Its schools are the Fayette female academy, the boys' high school and the public or 
free school. There are within its borders the following brick buildings: The courthouse 
and jail, three churches, the female academy and five business houses. The courthouse was 
erected in 1881 at a cost of S]r),000. The jail cost S10,000. 

The Fayette academy was chartered in 1827 through the efforts of Gov. Cowles Mead. 
The Rev. Mr. Sanford and wife were the first principals. In 1858 the charter was amended 
and collegiate power given, its name being changed to the Fayette Female college. This 
institution has a large two-story brick building, nicely located on a rise of ground in the 
eastern part of the city. 

The first Baptist church in Jefferson county was established by Rev. Richard Curtis, Jr., 
near the south fork of Coles creek in 1798. It was called Salem. He (Rev. Curtis) was at 
one time with one of the members of his church, named Stephen De Alvo, a converted Span- 
iard, banished from the territory by Gov. Gayoso De Lemos. The Fayette Methodist Epis- 
copal church was organized about 11S25 by Rev. John C. Johnson. The present pastor is 
Rev. Ralph Bradley. The number of members is eighty-five. The denomination had an 
organization in the county as early as 1802, meeting at the old Spring Hill church, four 
miles south of Fayette. The organization was effected by Rev. Tobias Gibson, and is still 
kept up. The society at Fayette has a large and commodious house of worship, a brick 
building erected in 1829. The first Presbyterian church in the county was organized in 1804 
by Rev. Joseph BuUen, of Vermont, who was sent as a missionary to the Chickasaw Indians 
in the year 1800. The Fayette Presbyterian church was organized December 9, 185-1; its 
first pastor, Henry McDonald; first clerk, J. H. Darden. The original membership was 
thirty- three. The present pastor, W. B. Bingham; the present clerk, P. K. Whitney; the 
present membershij), fifty-eight. A good Sunday-school is kept up. The house of worship 
is a good brick structure. There is regular preaching twice each month. The Christian 
church of Fayette was organized March 29, 1851, by Rev. J. T. Johnston, of Kentucky, and 
has a brick house of worship. Among the original members were David Darden, John P. 
Darden, James Stowers and John D. Burcli. The present pastor is Rev. Philip Vawter. 

The physicians of Jefferson county, in the order of their advent, have been Drs. J. H. 
Duncan, Key, Thomas H. Young, Farrar, B. F. Fox, James Brown, William C. Walker, 
Thomas Walton, Peuquite, E. J. H. White, A. K. McNair and R. C. Love. 

Jefferson lodge, I. 0. O. F., No. 14, was chartered in 1821. Among the charter mem- 
bers were Thomas Reed, J. C Fletcher and others. The present noble grand is James 
McClure, Jr. J. A. Donald is secretary. The membership is twenty-five, and the lodge is in 
a good financial condition. 

Thomas Hines lodge No. 5S, F. & A. M., was chartered April 12, 1843. John H.' Dun- 
can was first worshipful master, the first senior warden was Philip O. Hughes, the first junior 
warden Isaac Dunbar.' The charter members were Philip O. Hughes, J. H. Duncan, Isaac 
Dunbar, S. B. McLeod, Charles, Thomas M. Nash and Chesley S. Coffey. 

The officers of this lodge in 1890 were: Charles Cooper, W. M. : G. D. McNair, S. W. : 
C. E. Robertson, J. W. ; J. J. Robertson, S. D. ; James McClure, Jr., J. D. ; James McClure, 
treasurer; Henry Key, secretary; T. J. Key, S. & T. The membership was forty- one. The 
organization is .strong financially, owning a hall and lot and having money in the treasury. 

Fayette lodge No. 1389, Knights of Honor, was chartered in October, 1879. The charter 


members were: Ben Eiseman, Henry Key, William Thompson, 0. M. Eiseman, W. L. 
Stephen, O. H. McGinty, P. Krauss, C. Cooper, S. Heildron, I. B. Stewart, E. M. Keyes, 
W. L. Guice, E. H. Truly, G. W. Rembert, M. Eisman, N. Eilbott. 

Fayette lodge No. 404, Knights and Ladies of Honor, was chartered April 9, 1889. The 
official members were: W. D. Torrey, protector; T. L. Darden, past protector; William 
Gohazen, vice protector; Mrs. M. I. Key, secretary; L. R. Harrison, treasurer; C. W. 
Whitney, guide. 

The old childhood home of Jefferson Davis was at old Greenville, the old county seat of 
Jefferson county, where he lived with an elder brother. Aaron Burr was arrested on the 
banks of Coles creek, in this county. Buena Vista plantation, owned by General Taylor 
at the time of his election to the presidency, is located on the Mississippi river, eight miles 
below Rodney. General Jackson was married at the residence of and by Thomas Green, 
near old Fort Gayoso. General Gayoso first resided in this county. 

The Rodney Gazette, published at Rodney by Thomas Palmer, Thomas J. Johnson 
editor, politically whig, was established in 1830. The Fayette Watch Tower was estab- 
lished at Fayette in 1839 by William B. Tebo, editor and proprietor. The Fayette Times 
was published in 1858 by J. H. King. The Jefferson Journal was started in 1862 by 
Andrew Marschalk, Jr. The Fayette Chronicle was established by W. A. Marscbalk in 
1865. In 1870 he sold the paper to B. B. Paddock and F. H. Cully, and Mr. Paddock 
became its editor. In 1872 he sold it to R. H. Truly. 

Flora McDonald, celebrated in romance as the savior of Charles Edward after the bat- 
tle of Culloden, resided at Fayette for a time. 

Harriston, located at the junction of the Louisville, New Orleans & Texas, the Natchez, 
Jackson & Columbus railroads, northeast of Fayette, contains six general stores, one 
drug store, two hotels, one newspaper, three saloons, two livery stables, three lodges and 
one church building, a frame structure now in course of erection, to cost 12,000. The secret 
societies mentioned are the Knights of Pythias, the American Legion of Honor and the Order 
of Railroad Sectionmen. The postoffice was established in January, 1885; Mrs. M. L. 
Jones was first postmistress. The office is now in charge of Mrs. E. B. Hammond. Griffin & 
Ration are the publishers of a bright and newsy local paper, which was established in the fall 
of 1890. The town was incorporated in 1886 with James M. Love as mayor and John Gillis 
and C. H. Gates as members of the town board. 

July 4, 1864, a fleet under General Ellett, landing at Rodney, sent a detachment of 
troops through this county in search of cotton. They met four companies of Confederate 
cavalry at the crossroads near Dr. Coleman's place, now known as Clifton. A brief but 
sharp engagement took place and the Federals were driven to their boats, with slight loss. 
The Confederates lost four killed and several wounded. Major Morman led the Confed- 

Harriston, near Fayette, is a thriving village. Greenville, once the seat of justice, 
is now a cotton field, but there are those who can still point to the locality of the county 
buildings, the gallows and other landmarks. 

Lying almost in the center of Claiborne county, occupying an advantageous and beauti- 
ful location in the midst of a fine cotton, corn, fruit, vegetables and grass-growing section, 
is found the pretty little city of Port Gibson, one of the state's oldest municipalities, as 
the county also is one of the oldest, having been organized in the beginning of the present 
century, or in 1802, on January 27. Port Gibson, the beautiful county seat of Claiborne 


county, was first f(5uiided and laid out by Samuel Gibson, Esq. ; who was a native of South 
Carolina, born August 1, 1748. Mr. Gibson came to Mississippi in 1772, at the age of 
twenty- four, and first settled in what is now known as Jefferson county. The records in the 
national land olfice at Washington, D. C, show that in October, 1777, he obtained from 
the British authorities, then in power here, a grant of land on Boyd's (now Cole's) creek. 
He also acquired two tracts of land on St. Catharine's creek, in Adams county, one 
tract bearing date of 1784, the other 1788. He obtained from the Spanish government then 
established at Natchez, which had supplanted the British, a grant of eight hundred and 
fifty acres on the waters of Bayou Pierre. This tract covered the site of Port Gibson, since 
the first settlement of which, therefore, over ninety-nine years have passed. Mr. Gibson 
was the second man to penetrate so far from the river into the untrodden forest and wil- 
derness. All around him, and for an unknown distance to the east, stretched a trackless 
forest, inhabited only by savages and wild animals. 

The pioneer who preceded Mr. Gibson to this neighborhood was Jacob Cobun (in all 
probability his father- in law), who the year before, January 11, 1787, had located a Spanish 
grant of eight hundred acres near here, which land was subsequently held by Elizabeth and 
Ann Cobun, sisters of Mrs. Samuel Gibson, and lay three or four miles south of Port Gib- 
son, on Eed Lick road. 

When Mr. Gibson settled on the beautiful plateau of country now the site of Port Gib- 
son, it was an almost impenetrable forest, with a huge undergrowth of cane. Port Gibson 
was in its early days known as Gibson's Landing, but in 1803 an act was passed by the leg- 
islature, declaring the name should be changed to Port Gibson. At the same time the 
above act was passed by the legislature Messrs. Thomas White, Daniel Burnet, G. W. 
Humphreys and John McCaleb were appointed commissioners to buy two acres of land from 
Samuel Gibson, and to contract for the erection thereon of a courthouse, jail, stock, pillory 
and whipping-post. Accordingly two acres of land were purchased, the site of the present 
courthouse and jail, aod Joseph Davenport iindertook the erection of the public buildings. 
They were completed that winter, and in February, 1804, the justices held their first meet- 
ing in the new courthouse. 

The first license to keep a public house (tavern) in Port Gibson was granted in July, 
1803, to Moses Armstrong and Robert Ashley. Immediately after, Gibson's Landing, or 
Port Gibson, was chosen by the legislature as the county seat, people began to purchase lots 
from Mr. Gibson and to build. 

The first sale was made July 10, 1803, to Frederick Myers, and the price paid was 
$115. It was lot No. 3, in square No. 8, and soon there was a brisk demand for lots, and 
by November, 1804, the village contained thirt}- houses, with a total population of about 
one hundred souls. In the early history of Port Gibson the pseudonym Gibson's Landing 
clung to it, but in the course of twelve to fifteen years the former name prevailed. 

The first tire company in Port Gibson, so far as known, was a chartered organization 
incorporated by an act of the legislature passed January 26, 1821. The charter members 
were as follows: Amos Whiting, James Burbridge, Harvey Bradford, James Hughes, Orran 
B^aulk, Tobias Gibson, Horace Carpenter, Cornelius Haring, John H. Esty, Benjamin Shields, 
George Lake. Alfred Faulk, A. G. Cage, W. R. McAlpine, Thomas Cotton, John L. Buck, 
Fieldner Offutt, James Maxwell, Joseph Briggs, David D. Downing. 

The Bank of Port Gibson was incorporated in May, 1836. A company was organized 
under the name of the Grand Gulf & Port Gibson Exporting company, in 1829. 

Previous to the war Port Gibson was noted far and wide for the wealth and culture of 


its inhabitants, as it was the home of a large number of Mississippi's most wealthy cotton 
planters. It still retains the reputation of being the home of a cultivated, refined and hos- 
pitable population, and is indeed one of the most charming little cities in the state, being a 
seat of learning of no mean importance, and containing a very superior citizenship, among 
which the social graces and amenities are assiduously cultivated. 

The advent, a few years ago, of the Louisville, New Orleans & Texas railroad had 
the efPect of placing Port Gibson in direct communication with the outside world, and served 
to stimulate its commercial and industrial activity to a gratifying extent, and since then its 
growth has been marked, steady and substantial. Its population in 1890 was one thousand 
six hundred, and new accessions are being received. The municipality embraces something 
more than one-half mile square, the streets being regularly laid out and well improved, while 
good sidewalks prevail. A profusion of ornamental trees shade the streets, giving the place 
a charming, home-like appearance, whilei the many beautiful residences indicate the wealth 
and cultivated tastes of the inhabitants. la the business portion are seen many large, sub- 
stantial mercantile houses, some being modern structures of elegant architectural design; 
their heavy stocks showing plainly that a large and lucrative business is transacted. Inves- 
tigation only confirms this, and the merchants, as a class, are regarded as far above the aver- 
age in point of solvency and reliability. The corporation is also out of debt, and its warrants 
are worth their face value. The town handles, annually, from twelve thousand to fifteen 
thousand bales of cotton, and the receipts are increasing each season. The citizens have dis- 
played the most commendable zeal and activity in the efforts to locate industrial enterprises, 
and have now two very important ones in operation, namely, a cottonmill and a cottonseed 
oilmill, which are successfully conducted and add largely to the commercial and economical 
prosperity of the place. 

Trade is principally confined to Claiborne county, and the cotton receipts reach fifteen 
thousand bales per annum. Some thirty-seven business houses, of different kinds, constitute 
the commercial world at present, and no line is, we learn, overdone; hence the merchants are 
prosperous and rate high in commercial circles. 

As an educational center Port Gibson occupies a commanding position among Misissippi 
towns, and its female college and male academy are educational institutions which attract 
pupils from all parts of the state, as well as other states. There are also two public 
schools which afford ample educational facilities for the youth of both races, the scholastic 
term extending over a period of six months. In the important matter of educating its youth, 
"Claiborne county is by no means remiss, as is shown by its seventy-nine public schools, and 
the 110,000 annually paid for their support by the taxpayers. 

That a Christian and moral people comprise the population is well attested by the fact 
that there are five white and three negro churches, the former Methodist, Episcopalian, 
Presbyterian, Catholic and Christian, the latter being Methodist, Baptist and Christian. 
The principal civic societies are also represented and have flourishing, well attended lodges 
and well equipped halls. A very good and well arranged hall serves to accommodate 
dramatic troupes who visit the place during the theatrical season. 

The location is a healthy one, the town site being rolling and allowing of perfect natural 
drainage. Water of excellent quality is obtained from wells and cisterns, and is abundant 
and pure at all seasons. As a consequence of these advantages, there is no danger of the 
outbreak of dangerous fevers and epidemics, and such ordinary diseases as prevail are easily 
controlled by the resident physicians. The city government is a safe and conservative one, 
and is vested in a mayor and five aldermen. 


The First Methodist Episcopal church in Claiborne county, Miss., was organized in 1828; 
Hebron Methodist Episcopal in February, 1830; the Presbyterian church was organized in 

The Masonic order was organized in Port Gibson, 1818, and was known as Washington 
lodge No. 17. Its charter was surrendered and a new charter was granted to Washington 
lodge No. 3, under which name the lodge still exists. Grand Gulf lodge No. 41 was char- 
tered February 6, 1840, under a dispensation granted January 10, 1839. Franklin lodge 
No. 5, I. O. O. F., was organized at Port Gibson January 12, 1848. 

The first academy in the neighborhood of Port Gibson was the Madison academy. It 
was situated about three miles from Port Gibson, on land belonging to ^^'illiam Lindsay. 
The tract was afterward owned by Dr. Dorsey and now is the property of Mrs. Clara Pur- 
nell. On the 5th of December, 1809, the territorial legislature passed an act of incorpora- 
tion whereby "the school on the north fork of Bayou Pierre, in the neighborhood of Port 
Gibson, now under the direction of Henry C. Cox, is erected into an academy, hereafter to 
bear the name of Madison academy." By the same act the following trustees were 
appointed: Samuel Gibson, Thomas White, Stephen Bullock, Peter Lyon, Thomas Barnes, 
Ralph Regan, Allen Barnes, Waterman Crane, Daniel Burnet, Samuel Cobun, Edan Bra- 
shear, Andrew Mundell and Hezekiah Harman. The act provided that students of all 
denominations should enter the institution on an equality and be admitted to the same advan- 
tages. The trustees were authorized to raise by lottery, for the benefit of the academy, a 
sum not exceeding $2,000. In 1810 Mr. Lindsay gave the academy twenty-four acres of 
land, including the buildings in which the institution was established. It would seem, 
however, that it did not prosper, owing probably to the fact that its situation between the 
two forks of Bayou Pierre rendered it difficult of access during the frequent occurrence of 
high water. It is likely that there were a few boarders, but its chief patronage must have 
been from day scholars. At any rate, whatever the reason may have been, the legislature 
in 1814 authorized the trustees to remove the academy to a "more eligible site, not to be 
more than three miles from Port Gibson." There are no means of learning to what place — 
whether to Port Gibson or elsewhere — the school was removed, nor what its after- fortunes 
and fate were. 

St. James' church, Port Gibson, dates its history from the 9th of _^ April, 1826, when the 
Rev. Albert A. Muller visited Port Gibson and organized a parish of the Protestant Episco- 
pal church, under the name of St. John's church. On the 17th of May in the same year 
eleven clerical and lay delegates, representing this newly -organized parish and three others, 
met in convention in Trinity church, Natchez, for the purpose of organizing a diocese of the 
Protestant Episcopal church in the state of Mississippi. St. John's church was represented by 
the Rev. John Wurts Cloud, rector-elect, and the Hon. Joshua G. Clarke, chancellor of the 
state, and Mr. I. W. Foote, lay delegates. 

In 1848 a reorganization of the parish was effected under the Rev. F. W. Boyd, and its 
present name of St. James' church was adopted. Under a succession of rectors services 
were held in the courthouse and in hired rooms. In 1860 a further and final reorganization 
was effected and the sum of $5,000 was promptly subscribed toward the purchase of land 
and the erection of a church edifice. A lot was selected and partly paid for, but during the 
Civil war which ensued, although the organization was kept alive, the results of the previous 
efforts to secure a place of worship were engulfed in the general disaster. The amount 
subscribed was not realized and the purchased lot was lost. After the war a ladies' aid 
association was organized and incorporated. Its energy was soon rewarded by success in 


raising |2,500, with which a plat, of ground on the corner of Church and Jackson streets 
was purchased. It contained a dwellinghouse (a small portion of which, said to have been 
originally built of logs and more recently clapboarded, is, as is claimed, the oldest building 
in Port Gibson,) which being removed so as to front on Jackson street, was converted into a 
rectory, leaving ample space for the erection of a church upon the corner. In the meantime 
the congregation worshiped in the brick building (now used by a colored congregation) on 
Church street, in the northern part of the town. At this time (1869 to 1876) the rector of 
the church was the Rev. James S. Johnston, now bishop of western Texas. 

In 1881, under the energetic administration of the Eev. Nowell Logan (now rector of 
Holy Trinity church, Vicksburg), the work of raising funds for the building of a church was 
renewed, and with success. On the 30th of October, 1884, the cornerstone of a handsome 
brick church, designed by W P. Wentworth, architect, Boston, was laid by the grand lodge of 
F. & A. M. of Mississippi. The building was completed early the following year, and 
presents a very attractive appearance, both without and within, being one of the most 
prominent of the few striking architectural features of the town. The total cost was 
15,600. Of its stained-glass windows, the triple lancet over the altar is a memorial of the 
late Rev. Charles B. Dana, D. D., who was rector of the parish (1861-1866) throughout the 
gloomy period of the Civil war. One of the side windows is a memorial of Mr. Charles A. 
Pearson, a devout layman of the parish who died in 1878. A fund has been raised by the 
Sunday-school guild toward the purchase of a peal of bells, which will be placed as soon as 
sufficient tower room can be erected. 

The parish received its charter in 1882 and the Ladies' Aid association deeded the prop- 
erty, church and rectory to the incorporated parish. But the association has continued its 
existence and still renders efficient service in the parochial work. The parish made material 
progress during the reotorate of the Rev. Mr. Logan (1881 to 1888). It now reports seventy 
communicants. Its present vestry is composed of Dr. W. Myles and Capt. N. S. Walker, 
wardens, and Capt. W. W. Moore, Capt. A. K. Jones, chancery clerk, John A. Shreve and Sen- 
nator Stephen Thrasher vestrymen. The present rector, the Kev. Arthur Howard Noll, entered 
upon his duties in October, 1889. He is a New Jerseyman by birth, and was called to the bar 
of that state in 1876. He was engaged in railways in Mexico 1882-5, and then prepared for 
the ministry. He entered upon his missionary work a deacon in 1887 in western Texas. 
He was ordained a priest in Eagle Pass, Tex., in 1888, by the Rt. Rev. James S. Johnston, 
bishop of western Texas, wholly unconscious that in a year's time he was to become the 
successor of that prelate in his first parish. 

Ministers of the Methodist church preached occasionally at Port Gibson before 1820, 
but no regular organization was made until 1827, when Rev. Thomas Griffin gathered some 
persons into the church. Port Gibson at that period was considered quite an irreligious 
community, and Mr. Griffin met great opposition. Among the early members were the 
Humphreys and Jeffries families, Joshua Kelley and his wife, Mrs. Isabella Kelley, Thomas 
Loury and Mrs. Susan Loury, James S. Mason and J. L. Foote. Of these, Mrs. Kelley, 
Mrs. Loury and Mr. Foote still survive. In the early history of the church it was favored 
with the ministrations of those eminent men, Dr. William Winans, Dr. Bill Drake, Rev. 
John G. Jones and Rev. Elias Porter. For a time the congregation, as all others, worshiped 
in the courthouse. A church was erected in 1830, which was in a few years destroyed by 
fire. Another was then built on the same spot. This was removed, and the present impos- 
ing brick structure was completed on the old site in 1859, costing |20,000. The church now 
numbers one hundred and fifty. Rev. E. H. Moureger is the present pastor (1890). 


Besides Port Gibson, the towQS of Claiborne county are Grand Gulf, Eocky Springs, 
St. Elmo, Hermanville, Carlisle, Tillman and Martin, all, except Kocky Springs and Grand 
Gulf, on the Louisville, New Orleans & Texas railroad. The history of Grand Gulf is inter- 
esting in its way. It was once a bustling little river city and handled forty thousand bales 
of cotton every year. Its first and a subsequent location caved into the river; it was three 
times visited with destructive fires, the last time burned by Federal troops; a cut- off of the 
Mississippi placed it two miles from the river, and its only railway, extending from Grand 
Gulf to Port Gibson, was not only abandoned, but taken up, and Grand Gulf is little more 
than a memory. 

The city of Brookhaven is located on the Illinois Central railroad one hundred and 
twenty-nine miles north of New Orleans, fifty-five miles south of Jackson, the state capital, 
and seven hundred and eighty-six miles south of Chicago. It is five hundred feet above tide- 
water and is the highest point on the Illinois Central railroad between New Orleans and 
Holly Springs, Miss. It is the county seat of Lincoln county, where all county business is 
transacted. The corporate limits embrace a square mile, of which the railroad depot is the 
center. The first settlement of the place was in the fall of 1856 and spring of 1857. John 
Storm, who closed a useful and well-spent life a few years ago, after having raised a large 
family who are now among Brookhaven' s most active and respected citizens, and Mr. Jesse 
Warren, who also raised a large family and was long circuit clerk of the county, were among 
the first settlers. Messrs. Warren and Storm were also the first regular merchants of the 
town; what few shops existed before they opened business in the spring of 1857 having been 
of a very inferior and unpretentious order. 

For a year or two the railroad extended no farther from New Orleans than Summit, 
which was its northern terminus and the distributing point for freights for all of the sur- 
rounding towns and counties. Finally, however, the road was completed to this point, and 
in May, 1857, the first train reached Brookhaven. It was a freight, and Mr. A. O. Cox, 
ex-sheriff of the county, who was the first station agent of the railroad, stated that the tariff 
on the cargo for delivery at this place was $1,350. 

For eight or ten months Brookhaven continued as the northern terminus of the railroad, 
and during this time its growth was very rapid and its business large. The first year it was a 
railroad town, the shipment of cotton amounted to eighteen thousand bales. But the railroad 
was soon completed to Beauregard, Hazlehurst and other points farther north, thus dividing 
the business, and from that time its growth was more gradual and business settled down to 
the permanent basis which it has since maintained. The population has increased steadily 
and is now fifteen hundred. 

The business of Brookhaven is of a stable and promising character. The record will 
show that there have been fewer failures among her business men than in any other town of 
like size in the state. It is the market and trading point of a majority of the people of the 
county, as well as a very large proportion from Franklin, Jefferson and Lawrence counties. 
The building of the Meridian and Northeastern and the Mississippi Valley railroads has no 
perceptible effect toward drawing away trade, nor is it feared that it will, as this will only 
take off a few from the outskirts of Brookhaven' s trade territory and will be more than offset 
by the constant development that is going on. The twenty-seven sawmills of the county, 
with their hundreds of employes and dependents, and the sturdy agricultural population will 
sustain and continually increase its commercial importance. 

The city is under the direction of a board of mayor and aldermen and a marshal (who 
is also ex-officio taxcolleeter), elected every two years. 


Brookhaven has ever been uoted for the beauty of her women and the gallantry 
of her men, and in point of intelligence, culture and animation her society circles will com- 
pare favorably with those of any other community. \Vith schools the city is peculiarly 
favored. First and foremost among these is the now famous Whitworth Female college. 
In addition to this a male academy of high grade is conducted, and several competent 
and experienced teachers; each conducts a mixed school for small boys and girls. The 
public schools of the city are also run four months of each year. 

The Presbyterians, Catholics, Methodists, Baptists and Episcopalians all have commo- 
dious and comfortable churches, and all except the latter have regular religious services and 

Though owning no synagogue the Jewish citizens also maintain a religious organization 
and hold worship at stated periods. The colored population likewise display .a creditable 
interest in raligious matters, and support one Baptist and two Methodist churches with very 
comfortable houses of worship. 

Secret societies are represented by lodges of I. O. O. F. , Masons, Knights of Honor 
and Knights and Ladies of Honor, which meet in a large and commodious hall built and 
owned by the Masonic fraternity. Heuck's hall, capable of seating six hundred persons 
and equipped with a well arranged stage and fine scenery, furnishes accommodation to 
various excellent traveling combinations during the winter months, and amusement to lovers 
of the drama. 

Other towns in this county are. Bogue Ohitto, Montgomery and Caseyville. 

Bogue Chitto, about ten miles south of Brookhaven on the. Illinois Central railroad, is 
situated on the Bogue Chitto river. It is one of the oldest towns along the road, having 
been in existence ever since the railroad was built. Owing to various causes, the growth of 
this town has been very slow. Its buildings being entirely wooden structures, it has been 
twice destroyed by fire and until within the past few years iias had a hard struggle for 
existence. The population of Bogue Chitto is two hundred ancOwgnty-five, nearly double 
what it was a few years past, and is increasing rapidly and steOTiHy. Its volume of busi- 
ness has swelled until it is ten times greater. There are five dry goods and grocery stores. 
Messrs. B. E. Brister & Co. pwn two large saw and planingmills, besides doing a flourish- 
ing mercantile business. J.'M. Tyler also owns a fine watermill and gin about a half-mile 
from town. The lumber manufacturing interests of Bogue Chitto are equal to those of any 
and superior to those of a great many places of much greater pretensions. There are seven 
mills for manufacturing rough and dressed lumber in the vicinity of the place. The annual 
shipment of lumber is about $40,000 to $50,000. Messrs. Wesson & Money own one of 
the finest bodies of pine timber in the country, with a narrow gauge railroad and locomotive 
running through it to a distance of eight miles east, and there is a probability that the road 
will be extended to Pearl river. The Natchez, Bogue Chitto & Ship Island railroad will 
possibly become a fixed fact in the near future, though it may take a different name, and 
in view of that fact the value of property in and around Bogue Chitto is increasing. The 
corporate limits of the town include about a mile square. There are some very sightly resi- 
ences and very fine sites for many more. The school facilities are fine. There are two 
churches, one white (Methodist) and one colored (Baptist); one Masonic and town hall. 

Woodville (population one thousand) the seat of justice for Wilkinson county, is one of 
the oldest towns in the state, and prior to its incorporation (which dates back to about 1808) 
was one of the earliest settlements in the then Natchez district. Peopled by one of th 


proudest races on earth, its population comprised men whose sense of honor was the most 
exalted, and whose chivalry, exhibited whenever occasion presented, led them to deieds of 
valor and heroism. 

It would be difficult to point out a location for a town that would combine more advan- 
tages than that of Woodville. Situated upon an elevation four hundred aiid fifty feet above 
the river level at Bayou Sara, the breezes of the gulf are here distinctly felt and enjoyed. 
The topography of Woodville and its immediate environments is one that is admirably, 
adapted to thorough drainage and perfect sanitation. The watershed of the town is four- 
fold, and drainage occurs at the four cardinal points of the compass. The inevitable conse- 
quence of all this is that Woodville is one of the most healthful spots in the country, and 
enjoys unusual immunity from the ills that flesh is heir to. 

Woodville is supported wholly by the trade afPorded by its surrounding agricultural 
country, whose inhabitants raise principally cotton, corn, oats, hay and live stock for the 
market, the county being specially adapted to the successful cultivation and growing of. 
either. Wilkinson county contains twenty-five townships, ^nd has a population of about 
seventeen thousand five hundred and sixty-foar, the principal portion of which is engaged 
in agricultural pursuits. Were its arable lands wholly occupied it could, with ease, sustain 
a population of from sixty thousand to seventy-five thousand souls. It will thus be seen that 
excellent opportunities exist for the acquirement of land and homes by immigrants from 
other states and countries. Quite a number of large, well supplied stores provide the agri- 
cultural population with all needful supplies, and during the busy cotton season this town 
wears an aspect of thrift and bustle that would be creditable to much larger business places. 
The enterprise and promptness of her business men are proverbial. 

Perhaps no town in the state takes greater pride in her secret organizations than Wood- 
ville. The Masons have a lodge, a Royal Arch chapter and council, all of which have large 
membership and are in first-rate financial condition. The Odd Fellows have a lodge and 
encampment in like excellept^standing. This latter order is in a flourishing state financially. 
The Knights of Honors-have a large membership and a flourishing lodge, the order being 
justly popular here. .*^4ie American Legion of Honor is also represented in a lodge num- 
bering about forty-five members. 

The Protestant Episcopal church (St. Paul's) is one of the oldest churches in the town, 
and has its pulpit regularly supplied. This church has a fine organ and a choice choir. 
The Catholic congregation of Woodville has an attractive, commodious house of worship, 
where services aTe held every fourth Sunday in each month. The Methodists have a large 
congregation and a handsome church edifice, where they worship every Sunday. The Bap- 
tist church is likewise a very handsome building. This denomination is also a large one. 
They have services on the first and third Sundays in each month. The Presbyterian con- 
gregation worship in a large and comfortable church in the town, and number among their 
worshipers a goodly list of the old residents of the town and county. The Hebrew popula- 
tion of Woodville numbers about twenty families, who hold their regular weekly services in 
the Jewish temple, Beth Israel, which was built in 1878. The congregation wasorganized 
a few years prior to the construction of the temple. Rabbi Henry Cohen, formerly of 
Kingston, Jamaica, and London, England, is the spiritual head of the congregation. Besides 
filling the pulpit at the synagogue here, his labors extend to Bayou Sara, where he has a 
large Sabbath-school, and to other neighboring localities. There is also a Jewish cemetery 
here, which was dedicated about twenty years ago. 

There is a large public school for whites in Woodville, in a most satisfactory and flour- 


ishing condition. There is also a public school for colored people in the town. This is 
perhaps one of the best colored schools in the South. The late Judge Edward McGehee 
donated, during his life, a handsome sum of money toward the education of the youth of 
Woodville, which was one of the many generous benefactions bestowed by this big-hearted 
philanthropist. The donation is represented in a fine building and ample grounds, in the 
corporate limits of Woodville, and is under the management of the conference of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal qhurch. Though controlled by the Methodist church the school is in no wise 
sectarian. The public schools throughout the county are sufiBciently numerous to meet the 
requirements of the school population, and here, as elsewhere in the South, there are ample 
educational advantages for all. 

Woodville has only one direct connection by rail with Bayou Sarah, via the West Feliciana 
railroad, over which trains leave Woodville at 7 a. m., on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays 
and Saturdays; returning, arrive here at 4:30 the same day. A mail is carried over this 

There is also a regular hack line (conducted by Mr. G. M. Petty), which connects 
Woodville with the Mississippi Valley railroad. The hack leaves Woodville every morning 
at 7:30 o'clock, making close connection with the south-bound train at Centerville, Miss. 
The hack lays over and connects also with the north-bound train, and, returning, arrives 
here at 4:30 p. m. This gives Woodville a daily mail from New Orleans, as well as from 
the North. 

The Woodville Republican is the name of the local paper, whose editor and proprietor, 
Mr. J. S. Lewis, devotes himself assiduously to its publication. The Republican is a hand- 
some county paper and deserves to be well supported. 

The patriotic ladies of Wilkinson county organized themselves into a Confederate mon- 
umental association, and through their noble efforts, ably seconded by the veterans of the 
lost cause in the town and county, erected a beautiful monument in a square lot opposite 
the south side of the courthouse, "In memory of the Confederate soldiers of Wilkinson 
county — 1861 to 1865." • The foregoing inscription appears upon one side of the shaft, near 
the base, and just above the word "Confederate." Upon another side appears the Confed- 
erate battle-flag, and just beneath a private soldier wearing the gray, his musket held at 
rest. On a third surface is the coat of arms of the Confederate states, and upon the front 
a Confederate cavalryman, mounted and equipped for battle. Above this figure a second 
battle-flag is unfurled. The shaft is sixteen feet high and surmounts a mound covered 
with an evergreen sward. It is a very handsome monument, and the entire work reflects 
credit upon the dutiful daughters of patriotic old Wilkinson. A suitable iron railing to 
inclose the monument square completes the work. 

Fort Adams was settled by Wilkinson's army in 1798, when the soldiers were in canton- 
ment until about 1807. Fort Adams was named in 1800, in honor of the president. Pinck- 
neyville, the original seat of justice, was founded in the first settlement of the territory. It 
was platted in 1805 by Thomas Dawson, and its plat was recorded in 1806 by Jamea Johnson, 

Jackson academy, incorporated in 1814, was located in what is now John A. Eedhead's 
yard, where the site is still to be seen. The school flourished for a number of years, and 
afterward the place was known as a stand for physicians. The Wilkinson lodge No. 10, 1. 
O. O. F., was started in 1846. Asylum lodge No. 63 was chartered about the same time. 

The Baptist church in Woodville was incorporated in 1824; the Presbyterian church at 


Cold Spring in 1825; St. Paul's Episcopal church in 1825; Consolation church below old 
Mount Pleasant, in this county, in 1831; Bethel church, at the old camping grounds near 
Thompson creek, the present site of Bethel church, was first built of logs by Edward 
McGrehee, William James and friends, and was dedicated by Rev. Lewis Hobbs in 1813. 
Some years after this building was replaced by a frame church, that later by a brick 
building, which stands as a monument to the honor of Judge Edward McGehee. The 
Methodists had a church at Pinckaeyville some years before this, and another at Loftus 
Heights. The next oldest church was at Midway, first known as Grave's church, founded 
by the Bowman family and established about 1815 or 1817 by Mark Moore, afterward moved 
to Centerville, where there is a flourishing organization with a membership of one hundred. 
The Presbyterian church of Centerville has a neat frame building and a membership of fifty. 
The Baptist church at same place numbers about thirty-five members. 

In the western part of Wilkinson county, Miss., is a stream running almost due north 
and south. It runs through an alluvial country and in many places has high banks. With 
almost every overflow, like the Mississippi river, it changes its current and causes large 
caving of the banks. For many years these caving banks have brought to light remains, 
such as bones, tusks and teeth, of some extinct animal, said to be the mastodon. In one 
instance a tusk was found measuring five feet, from the point, in length, and six inches in 
diameter at the largest part. Unfortunately this specimen was neglected and gradually 
crumbled away from the action of the air. If varnished with common copal varnish these 
specimens may be preserved indefinitely, otherwise they soon crumble and perish. There 
are in the county many valuable specimens, such as jaw teeth, front teeth, points of tusks 
and larger bones, which have been treated with varnish and are well preserved. One spec- 
imen consists of the jawbone with the teeth all in good state of preservation. The negroes 
gather up these remains after an overflow, and for a consideration bring them to the curi- 
ous in such matters. The supply seems to be inexhaustible. 

Oxford, the seat of justice of Lafayette county, is a flourishing town of two thousand 
population on the line of the Illinois Central railroad. The city was almost totally destroyed 
by the Federal army during the war. 

The legal bar of Oxford has always ranked high, and in the biographical department of 
this work will be found sketches of the leading lawyers of the past as well as the present day. 

The Bank of Oxford was organized February 1, 1872, with a paid-up capital of 
133,333.33, and an authorized capital of $100,000. W. L. Archibald was the first presi- 
dent, and W. A. West its first cashier. 

A. T. Owens is the present president, and Ben Price cashier. It is one of the sound 
and prosperous banking institutions of the state. Another bank at Oxford is the Merchants 
& Farmers, which was established in September, 1889, with a capital of $50,000. Charles 
Roberts was its first and he is its present president, and W. A West is cashier. 

Other towns in Lafayette county are Taylor, Springdale and Abbeville. 

Scranton, the seat of justice of Jackson county, is a growingly important town of one 
thousand one hundred and fifty inhabitants, on the Southern border of the county and state 
on the shore of the Mississippi sound, and on the Louisville & Nashville railroad. 

Other towns in this county are East Pascagoula, West Pascagoula and Ocean Springs. 
The two Pascagoulas depend on Scranton for mail facilities. Ocean Springs, which is noted 
chiefly for the extensive pecan culture of Col. W. R. Stuart, has a population of five hundred. 

Pascagoula lodge No. 202, A. F. & A. M. , is situated at Moss Point, and has seventy- 


five members. It was organized at East Pascagoula in 1855. Its charter members were 
Thomas L. Sumrall, W. M. ; A. E. Lewis, S. W. ; W. G. Elder, J. W. ; J. E. Sarozin, 
secretary; Cheri Sarozin, treasurer; W. Griffin, S. D. ; Lyman Kandall, J. D. ; Bernard 
Gillsley, tyler. The lodge was cordially supported, and grew and prospered till 1862, when 
the environments of war became too great for it, and in common with nearly all other interests it 
was compelled to succumb. Nothing is found of its work till it was reorganized in 1866 by 
H. B. Griffin, senior warden, holding over from 1862, H. L. Houze, a past master of Wilson 
lodge No. 72, acting as W. M. ; J. M. Mclnnis, J. W. ; A. H. Delmas, secretary; H. Krebs, 
treasurer; W. G. Elder, J. D. ; J. B. Delmas, tyler. After its reorganization the lodge took 
on its old-time vigor and prosperity, and speedily took high rank among the Masonic insti- 
tutions of the state. About this time it was removed to Moss Point, where a suitable build- 
ing awaited it. It soon numbered among its members nearly all the leading citizens of the 
vicinity, and has for many years impressed itself upon the morals of the community, as well 
as contributed largely to all charitable enterprises. Its charities reach away up into the 
thousands. In each of the yellow-fever epidemics of 1874 and 1878, this lodge dispensed 
hundreds of dollars indiscriminately to initiated and profane alike. In the Masonic councils 
of the jurisdiction of Mississippi, Pascagoula lodge No. 202 has not been without her honors. 
In 1881 one of her past masters, J. W. Morris, was appointed senior grand deacon, and 
another, M. M. Evans, district deputy grand master, in 1880 and 1881. The same individ- 
ual was appointed deputy grand master by the lamented Grand Master Patty, in 1884, and 
was elected junior grand warden in 1886, senior grand warden in 1887, and grand master in 
1888; was appointed on the committee of complaints and offenses in 1889 and 1890, and on 
the committee of law and jiiri.sprudence in 1891. J. K. McLeod, another past master, was 
appointed on the committee on complaints and offenses in 1886 and 1887. The lodge at 
this writing is occupying its accustomed position among the lodges in the state, and will 
doubtless continue to write itself in the history of Free Masonry in Mississippi. Its wor- 
shipful masters were: Thomas L. Samrall, two years; A. E. Lewis, five years; W. G. Elder, 
one year; H. B. Griffin, one year; H. L. Houze, seven years; S. A. Mclnnis, three years; M. 
M. Evans, three yeais; J. K. McLeod, six years; J. W. Morris, one year; T. A. Coulson, 
two years; W. AVatkins, one year; J. H. Rolls, one year; J. AV. Stewart, present incumbent. 

H. L. Houze R. A. chapter No. 108, situated at Moss Point, was organized January 17, 
1876. with the following charter members: H. L. Houze, H. P. ; D. M. Dunlap, king; Nel- 
son Wood, scribe; W. H. Eolls, C. Of host; J. W. Griffin, P. S. ; W. C. Morrow, R. A. C. ; 
George Wood, M of third V. ; D. A. Yates, M. of second V. ; C. W. Calhoun, M. of first V. ; 
H. C. Horens, treasurer. This chapter was named in honor of its first high priest, a patri- 
arch in Masonry. One who had devoted much of his life to its service, and who has always 
loved Masonry for its pure and elevating infiuence, his life has been an exemplification of 
Masonic tenets and principles. It was therefore but a just tribute to call the chapter which 
he did so much to < stabli.^h and maintain after his name. H. L. Houze chapter No. 108 has 
contributed its share toward charitable enterprises, always joining with Pascagoula lodge for 
that purpose. Among the leading members of the grand chapter, she has her representative 
in the person of J. K. McLeod, one of the past high priests, who was installed grand prin- 
cipal sojourner in 1887, grand captain of host in 1888, grand scribe in 1889, grand king in 
1890 and deputy grand high priest in 1891. 

Pride of Moss Point lodge No. 1913, grand united order of Odd Fellows in America, 
composed exclusively (>t colored persons, was organized in 1879, with the following as charter 
members: D. Anderson, C. S. Colland, A. Haskins, B. J. Mayo and W. W. Mclnyon. 


It now has thirty members, and is devoted to the care of the sick and destitute of its mem- 
bers. It expends considerable in this direction. 

Scranton lodge No. 45, I. O. 0. F., was instituted April 5, 1886. Its charter members 
were W. F. A. Parker, J. H. Eolls, E. P. Blalack, S. J. Armstrong, J. S. Blalack, W. K. 
Mead and J. W. Mead. It has at present writing eighty members, and is a thrifty 
and prosperous lodge, embodying most of the prominent citizens of Scranton and vicinity 
among its members. It annually dispenses large amounts in charity, and is a useful, moral 
agent. Its members are liberal in its financial views, having built a very imposing edifice 
for the occupancy of the lodge, with several rooms and halls for rent for offices and other 
purposes. This building cost upward of $5,000 and is a beauty in architecture. Scranton 
lodge No. 45, stands in the front rank of Odd Fellows' lodges in the state, and will doubt- 
less impress itself upon the history of that order. 

Gulf lodge No. 2884, Knights of Honor, situated at Moss Point, Miss. , was organized 
June 8, 1881, with the following charter members: AV. D. Bragg, W. E. Bingham, A. 
Blumer, S. J. Bingham, George N. Cook, Burton Goode, AV. Fred Herrin, John W. Morris, 
E. C. Woods and D. A. Yates. It numbers at present seventy-five members, including 
most of the leading persons of the community. It has always been a useful adjunct to the 
moral and financial forces of the county, having in its brief existence contributed largely 
not only to the healthy, moral sentiment of the town and vicinity, but has dispensed to the 
widows and orphans of its deceased members amounts aggregating $18,000. 

Escatawpa lodge No. 3115, Knights of Honor, was organized in 1884 with sixteen 
charter members. It now has thirty-two. It has paid out 16,000 in benefits. 

Gulf lodge U. D. , A. F. & A. M. , is in process of organization at Scranton, Miss. Its 
charter members are S. T. Hariland, M. C. Pankey, W. M. Denny, R. D. Smith, J. A. 
Miller, M. C. Allman, W. A. Chapel, C. P. Bowman and 0. H. Alley. They are all weU- 
known gentlemen and will doubtless conduct this new lodge successfully. 

Greenwood, the county seat of Leflore county, is located on the left bank of the Yazoo 
river about three miles below where that river is formed by the confluence of the Yalobusha 
and Tallahatchie rivers and has a population of one thousand souls. Here also the Yazoo 
& Mississippi Valley railroad has an incline for the ready transfer of fieights from steam- 
boats, a number of which ply daily carrying on a lucrative business up and down the river 
from this point. The growth of the town in the past six years has been almost phenom- 
enal, it having grown in that time from a village tt about five hundred inhabitants. 
Beside a large local trade there are several large wholesale establishments located at Green- 
wood and a number of cotton buyers and it is a lively business point. It has three churches, 
Methodist, Presbyterian and Episcopal, for the whites, and a large Methodist church for the 
colored population, besides two public schoolhouses one for each race, also an elegant opera- 
house and ample lodgerooms for the various secret and benevolent orders. A number of 
manufacturing companies have been incorporated and facilities will be supplied to handle 
the immense amount of cotton shipped from this and adjacent points. Here too a packery 
of beef could find the material necessary for carrying on that business, since a large number 
of cattle are raised in this and adjoining counties. 

South of Greenwood, on the line of the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley railroad, is the 
thriving village of Rising Sun, at which place the railroad taps the Yazoo river, and there is 
probably the best dirt road in the country leading from there to the hill country on the east. 

Ten miles south fi-om Greenwood on the same railroad where it taps the river is the 


town of Sidon, second in size and importance in the county which has kept proportionate 
pace in improvements with the county seat, and where a number of roadscoming in from the 
hill country make a desirable trading point where are ample church and school facilities and 
a live whole-sonled people. 

Going north from Greenwood ten miles is found the third town of size and importance 
in the county, Shell Mound, on the right bank of the Tallahatchie river, which is the entre- 
pot of supplies for a large territory embracing the farms on the McNutt lake and Quiver 
river, where is raised the finest staple of cotton in the world. McNutt, situated on a lake of 
the same name, was once the county seat of old Sunflower county, and while the march of 
improvement has turned aside from this once thriving inland town, it still boasts of its school 
and church and is noted for the hospitality of its people. 

Emmaville is a pretty village on the right bank of the Tallahatchie. Railway facilities 
which are promised will cause Red Cross, Shannondale and Minter city, three beautiful 
little villages on the Tallahatchie river, to develop into towns of some size. 

Sheppardtown, ten miles south from Sidon, on the right bank of the Yazoo river, is 
another thriving village having the rich land of Bear creek from which to draw its trade 
and still farther down the Yazoo at stated intervals can be found large storehouses where 
clever merchants do a good business. Between Sidon and Rising Sun, on the right bank 
of the river, is Roebuck landing, one of the best trading points in the county, where an 
immense business is done Going west from there around Roebuck lake, a cutoff of the 
Yazoo, are to be found several stores, and at Itta Bena, where the line of the Georgia 
Pacific railroad crosses that lake, quite a village has been built. Fort Loring, where the 
same railroad crosses the Yazoo river three miles west from Greenwood, has attained 

Besides Greenwood, this county has the following towns and villages: Itta Bena, Sidon, 
Shell Mound, Minter city, Sunnyside, Old McNutt, Rising Sun and Red Cross. 

Friar's Point, the seat of justice of Coahoma county, is located on the Mississippi river 
and on the Louisville, New Orleans & Texas railroad, and has a population of seven hundred 
and seventy-six. Coahoma county was established February 9, 1836, and its courthouse and 
public offices have been located at various times at Delta, Port Royal, again at Delta and at 
Friar's Point, where good county buildings have been erected. Since the construction of 
the railroads, of which several lines intersect the county. Friar' s Point has greatly improved, 
and is now, with a good hotel, several manufacturing eslablishraents and the bank of Friar's 
Point, Friar's Point Improvement company, and the Friar's Point Building & Loan associa- 
tion, and many large mercantile houses, one of the busiest towns of its size in any state. 

Clarksdale is a new town, having been built up since the advent of the railroad in 1884, 
but is now the metropolis of the county, with eight hundred. It is a railroad junction of 
importance, and its site is well chosen, beautiful and advantageous, on high ground above 
overflow at the head of navigation of Sunflower river. Clarksdale, Coahoma county, has 
grown up since 1884. Until then its site was occupied by only the store of John Clark, the 
owner of a plantation including the site. The advent of the Louisville, New Orleans & 
Texas railway, about that time, caused the beginning of the growth of a town which now has 
a population of eight hundred and is incorporated. Clarksdale lies in the very heart of the 
great delta region, one hundred and seventy-seven miles from Memphis and three hundred 
and eighty-three miles from New Orleans. The amount of cotton handled reaches fifteen 
thousand bales per season, with good prospects for from eighteen thousand to twenty thou- 


sand bales during the present one, based upon the increased acreage and unusually fine crop 
prospects. Clarksdale has recently been made an interior town by the New York cotton 
exchange, something unusual for a place of its population. One among the largest and 
most complete cotton- seed oilmills in the South is located there, and a cotton compress has 
been built. There are also a large sawmill, public gin and gristmill in Clarksdale, and a 
substantial banking house, the Clarksdale Bank & Trust company, the successors of the 
Central City bank, organized in 1888. The civic societies, Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of 
Pythias, Knights of Honor and others, have flourishing lodges and strong memberships. 

About fifty-five years ago the wife of a Choctaw chief gave her name to Attala county, 
and the settlement known then as Bedbud was rechristened after the illustrious Polish hero. 
Kosciusko, in its early days, must have been a wild place. It was the haunt of robbers and 
desperadoes of all kinds, but it has undergone a very radical change, so that at present 
Mississippi knows no more orderly, peaceable or proportionately solid constituency. The 
county seat of Attala is a cotton town of one thousand six hundred and fifty inhabitants. 
Kosciusko enjoys the trade of three adjoining counties — Leake, Winston and Neshoba. It 
also draws a little from Choctaw and Montgomery counties. The country around is almost 
entirely in the hands of white small farmers, and a large proportion of the colored people 
own their own lands. 

About twelve years ago Kosciusko became a railroad town, and is now one of the most 
prominent stations on the Canton, Aberdeen & Nashville branch of the Illinois Central rail- 
road. The coming of the railroad naturally helped to develop the place. 

The Yockanowkaney river, one and a half miles from the town, affords a wonderful nat- 
ural water power, which would be invaluable for mill purposes. Kosciusko would, in fact, 
be a first-rate location for a mill or factory. Already two wagon factories are in full opera- 
tion here and are supplying all the home demand. All except the wheel timber is of l^cal 
growth. Other industries here are a barrel factory, a furniture factory, two sawmills, a 
gristmill and gin and an extensive flouringmill. 

Kosciusko is a well-governed, orderly, breezy little city. It boasts of a cozy little opera 
house, has good public schools, open ten months in the year, and its churches are eight in 
number, of which three belong to the colored people. The denominations represented are 
Presbyterian, Methodist, Cumberland Presbyterian and Baptist. Eev. Dr. J. H. Alexander 
has been pastor of the Presbyterian church since 1855. The town was named Pekin in 1833, 
was later called Paris, and since about 1830 has been known as Kosciusko. 

Trinity lodge No. 88, A. F. & A. M., Eoyal Arch chapter No. 20, the local lodge K. & 
L. of H. , and Farmers' Alliance No. 105 are flourishing societies at Kosciusko. 

Other towns in this county are Ethel, named in honor of a daughter of Capt. S. B. Mc- 
Connies; Sallis, named in honor of Dr. James Sallis, and McCool, named in honor of Hon. 
James F. McCool. The Methodists and Presbyterians have good houses of worship at Sallis. 

Quitman, the seat of justice of Clarke county, was named in honor of Gen. John A. 
Quitman. The land upon which the town is built was owned and laid off into town lots by 
Gen. John Watts, afterward for many years judge of the circuit court. The population is 
four hundred and ten. 

Enterprise, Miss., lies in the northwestern portion of Clarke county, and has both 
the Mississippi & Ohio and New Orleans & Northeastern railways to carry its products to all 
the great markets of the country. It also lies at the junction of Chunkey and Tibbee creeks, 
which here form the important Chiokasawhay river, which in times gone by was navigable 


to the gulf, and from this place alone was wont to transport sixty- five thousand bales of cotton 

This place was founded by John J. McRae, afterward governor of the state. Its popula- 
tion, one thousand one hundred and thirty, and its annual cotton shipment amounts to four 
thousand bales. It has a number of substantial business houses, a cottonmill, gristmill 
and gin and the Wanita woolenmills a short distance from the corporation limits. There is 
also a line of street railway which connects the two depots, furnishing transit between the 
east and west ends, as the river divides the town. Schools, churches, and civil societies are 
found here, and as a place of residence it is highly spoken of. An excellent agricultural 
country surrounds the town, and its trade is largely drawn from adjoining counties, whose 
people find a good market. 

Take the agricultural and timber resources of the county alone and they will, when fully 
developed, serve to support a place of ten thousand inhabitants, but when to these be added 
inexhaustible deposits of the richest iron ores, it will rightly be conjectured that Enterprise 
has a magnificent future before it, and that a second Birmingham will soon be found here. 

From the explorations already made, it has been determined that heavy deposits of 
liminite ores exist in this vicinity, covering an area of country four miles wide by ten long, 
the trend being from northwest to southeast, ajid the dip of the strata being about thirty 
feet to the mile. From the analyses given farther along, it will be observed that being 
exceedingly rich in quartz, clay and lime, it will require little if any other additional flux; 
but if it should, there exist in close proximity, great ledges of the finest limestone, which 
will yield an abundance of flux for centuries. The ore stratum is solid and well defined, and 
runs in an average depth of twelve and one- half feet, although it often reaches a depth of 
twenty feet and more. Another peculiarity of this ore is that it is easily mined, and it is 
loose as a gravel bed almost, and can in many places be mined with a steam shovel. That it 
is exceedingly rich in iron and is easily reduced, the analyses show and furnace tests will 
confirm this. It now only remains for some one to erect a blast furnace between the two 
lines of railway, northeast of the city, right in the heart of the ore beds, where excellent 
water is abundant, and where charcoal can be made in the great forests surrounding. There 
is a most excellent site In the locality mentioned that ought, and doubtless will be, utilized 
for that purpose. But in the event that charcoal should not be found desirable for reduction 
purposes, it is but a short distance to the Warrior coal fields and great coke arms at and 
near Birmingham, with a line of road directly to them, or to the Patton mines reached via 
the Mississippi & Ohio and Grand Pacific railways, either of which could lay the coke down 
here at rates that would render the smelting at this point profitable. The Alabama Land 
& Development company has more than one hundred thousand acres of land in Clarke county. 

The following analysis of the iron ore found at Enterprise will prove conclusively that 
the deposits of iron in this section, while inexhaustible, are also of remarkable richness and 
very easy of reduction, besides containing the requisite flux without the addition of lime- 
stone. Of a specimen of iron ore received from Mr. L, B. Brown for Dr. Moore, Enterprise: 
Carbonate of protoxide of iron, 37.5; peroxide of iron, 17.14; sulphuric acid, 1.52; phos- 
phoric acid, 1.4; carbouate of lime, 5.5; quartz, sand, clay and organic matter, 36.; 
metallic iron in ore, 30.12; phosphorous in phosphoric acid, .62; sulphur in sulphuric acid, 
.61. Extract from a letter from Joseph Albrecht, analytical chemist, New Orleans, accom- 
panying the above analysis: "The ore contains no manganese and no other deleterious 
matters except those stated in the analysis; it must be roasted before it can be melted, but it 
is of easy reduction, wants no addition (in my opinion), as the quartz, clay and lime will form 


the necessary flux or slag required. ' ' Report of analysis by Charles Mohr & Son, analytical 
chemists, Mobile: "The material sent to us has been submitted to chemical analysis with 
the following results: Volatile matter (moisture and combined water and organic matter), 
24.3; oxide of iron, 45.4; other metallic oxides, principally alumina, 7.8; silica (sand), 22.5. 
The 45.4 per cent, ferric oxide represents 35.58 per cent, metallic iron." 

Pontotoc, the seat of justice of Pontotoc county, was long the second town in North 
Mississippi in population and importance. The location of the land offices for the Chickasaw 
Indians, it early became a favorite field for commerce and speculation, and was the scene of 
busines transactions involving goodly amounts for the time. Among its early men of promi- 
nence were: William Y. Gholson, Charles Fontaine, Thomas J. Word, Judge R. Miller, 
William and James Davis and others equally well known. In point of intelligence the men 
and women of Pontotoc have always ranked above the average, and many of them amassed 
good fortunes and lived lives of leisure, devoted to the pursuit of art, literature and science. 
The United States court was held here for some years. The town was incorporated in 1837, 
and now has a population of about one thousand. It is located on the Gulf & Chicago 
railroad, being the terminus of the Pontotoc & Middleton branch of that system, and is the 
only place in the county except Cherry Creek (population one hundred and seventy-five) 
that has railroad facilities. Its business men are enterprising and progressive, and it is the 
center of a good country trade. 

Ripley, the seat of justice of Tippah county, has a population of seven hundred and fifty, 
which ranks high for refinement, intelligence and enterprise, and is an important station 
of the Gulf & Chicago railroad. It is the center of a growing trade, and has attracted the 
attention of manufacturers. Its merchants, lawyers, physicians, and business men generally, 
are noted for their integrity and their ability. Other towns in Tippah county are, Dumas, 
Falkner, Brooklyn, Ruckenville, Guyton, Tiplersville, Cotton Plant, Blue Mountain, Lowrey, 
Silver Springs and Brigaba. 

luka, the seat of justice of Tishomingo county, has over one thousand inhabitants and 
is situated on the Memphis & Charleston railroad. One hundred and fifteen miles east of 
Memphis, six miles from Alabama line, seven miles from the Tennessee river, upon one 
of the most elevated sections of Mississippi; readily accessible by the Memphis & Charles- 
ton railroad and its connections. The country around is hilly, and has been termed "The 
Switzerland of Mississippi." The corporation is one mile square. Every house is sur- 
rounded by ample grounds of orchard, park and garden. There are five churches, all with 
active, earnest membership, and a flourishing normal school. Cordial, hospitable, wide- 
awake, and energetic, the inhabitants of luka are pleasant people with whom to cast one's 
lot. Its people are educated and refined, and its business is flourishing and growing. Other 
towns in the county are Bay Springs, Cartersville, Eastport and Burnsville. 

The site of Yazoo City, the justice seat of Yazoo county, was an Indian reservation, 
entered by Greenwood Le Fleur in 1827, under the provisions of the treaty of Washington, 
concluded January 20, 1825, with the Choctaw Indians. Yazoo City was first called Han- 
non's Bluff and afterward incorporated as Manchester, and subsequently as Yazoo City, the 
name having been changed about 1845. This town, the gem city of the world-famous Yazoo, 
Miss., delta country, is situated upon the eastern bank of the Yazoo fiver. The site is a 
well- chosen and wonderfully advantageous one, gently sloping back to the bluffs in the 
rear. A better or prettier site for a city could not have been selected. At its wharves are 


always seen steamboats loading and unloading, while along the levee run the tracks of the 
Illinois Central railroad, its depot, freight and warehouses presenting an equally busy scene. 
Along its principal business street are large, substantial brick business houses, fronted with 
iron, stone and plate glass, presenting a metropolitan appearance, giving the stranger an 
agreeable impression of its commercial importance. The streets are broad, beautifully 
graded, macadamized with gravel and well guttered. 

Its population is five thousand two hundred and forty-seven, and its growth is steady, 
it having more than doubled since the close of the war. During the past few years improve- 
ments have been more rapid and of a much superior nature. Owing to its splendid navi- 
gation and railroad system it should, and doubtless will, become Mississippi' s greatest indus- 
trial city. Its present industries consist of one large sawmill, a cotton seedmill, containing 
all the latest improved machinery, a large, first-class compress, a mill and gin, one ice 
factory and four substantial brick cotton warehouses. There are also brickyards, making an 
excellent quality of brick, used locally and shipped to other points. Two creameries are in 
operation, turning out large quantities of fine butter. Two amply capitalized banking houses 
furnish satisfactory facilities. 

Two steamboat lines run regular packets from Yazoo City. The river navigation extends 
north over two hundred miles, and to the Mississippi river south, connecting with the Big 
and Little Sunflower rivers, and Lake George, etc. Some twelve hundred and fifty miles of 
navigable rivers, penetrating the South' s greatest cotton and corn regions, are made acces- 
sible and tributary to Yazoo City, which, by reason of its comprehensive railroad and river 
navigation system, should naturally develop into a great jobbing center, as well as an indus- 
trial city. 

In the "matter of public schools, Yazoo City is well supplied, there being not less than 
three, with a large enrollment of pupils. Thd1-e are also private schools, notably, the con- 
vent or Catholic school. There are also five white churches in the city, some of whose edi- 
fices of worship are noble and imposing specimens of architectural beauty. The principal 
civic societies are also represented by flourishing lodges, while a public library and social 
club are attractive and pleasing features. There is an operahouse with a seating capacity of 
seven hundred. 

The city limits extend one mile north and south, and a mile and a half east and west. 
The sidewalks are usually of brick. Another attractive feature is the great number of orna- 
mental trees by which the streets are shaded, as well as the evergreen shrubbery and semi- 
tropical exotics adorning the grounds of the different residences. The city has an efficient 
and well-equipped fire department, having two engines and one hook and ladder company. 

The county courthouse, a beautiful and imposing structure, was erected at a cost of 
$80,000. A substantial city jail has also been built at an outlay of $12,500. A fine iron 
bridge has been built across the Yazoo river, in order to facilitate trade from the west, at 
a cost of 130,000. 

Socially, as well as in a business sense, the people of Yazoo City are a very superior 
class, being noted for enterprise and progressive tendencies. They have full faith in the 
future of their charming little city, and are ever ready to further its interests by all means 
within their power. The city government is vested in a mayor and board of aldermen, 
numbering eight, a clerk, treasurer, assessor and collector, attorney and city marshal. It is 
a popular administration, and is made up of men who guard the interests of the public with 
conservative care. 

The local capitalists are not averse to engaging in new enterprises, and will meet out- 


side men of means half way in the matter of sites for manufacturing establishments or taking 
stock in the same. But Yazoo City has something better to offer the manufacturer and capi- 
talist than a mere subsidy of money or land, and that is location, which, after all, is what 
insures the success of every industrial enterprise. By its railroad system not less than thirty 
counties in Mississippi and six different states and territories are reached, while its fine nav- 
igable river makes tributary the most fertile and productive portion of the lower Mississippi 
valley, with all the tributary streams of the Father of Waters. The raw material can be 
floated to its factory doors, almost without cost, while the same highway, aided by the rail- 
road, serves to distribute the product to every great consuming center in the country. The 
First National bank was organized in September, 1886, with a capital paid up of $50,000, 
to which has since been added a large surplus. It is located in a new building at the corner 
of Main and Bridge streets, specially arranged for the business, the interior being arranged 
in modern style, while tire and burglar-proof vault and safes effectually guard the treasure. 
A general banking, exchange, deposit and collection busine&s is transacted by this bank, 
and any one requiring the services of a reliable correspondent in this section will do well to 
engage its services. The officers of the First National are: L. Lippman, president; Charles 
Mann, vice president; and E. L. Bennett, cashier, under whose careful and conservative 
management its affairs have thriven and the business widely extended. The di"rectoryis made 
up of L. Lippman, Charles Mann, L. B. Warren, J. H. D. Haverkamp, John Lear, E. A. 
Jackson and E. Drenning, who are all well known as leading capitalists, merchants and pro- 
fessional men of Yazoo City. The bank's correspondents are the Mercantile National, New 
York; Union National, New Orleans; Kentucky National, Louisville; and the Prairie State 
National, Chicago. The establishment of this bank was the outgrowth of Yazoo City's 
urgent demand for increased banking facilities. 

The Bank of Yazoo City, the pioneer banking house of Yazoo City, was established 
in the year 1876, with a paid-up capital of $100,000, to which has since been added 
a large surplus. This bank has the handsomest and most attractive building on Main street. 
The interior is fitted up in elegant style, such as prevails in metropolitan banking houses, 
and is equipped with fireproof vaults, steel safes and time lock. The building was erected 
at a cost of $10,000. This institution does a general Ijanking business in all its branches, 
and is regarded as one of the safest banks in the state. Its correspondents are the National 
Park bank. New York, and the Louisiana National bank, of New Orleans. The officers are 
R. C. Shepherd, president; Charles Roberts, vice president, and S. R. Berry, cashier, men 
of extensive expejience as bank managers, who are well known and stand high in financial 
circles. The directors are R. C. Shepherd, J. H. D. Haverkamp, J. J. Fouche, J. N. Gilruth, 
J. F. Powell, William Hamel, W. C. Craig and Louis Wise, all of whom will be recognized as 
being among Yazoo City's leading capitalists, largest and most successful business men and 

Walthall is the seat of justice of Webster county. It is located near the center of the 
county and has a population of two hundred and fifty. It was named in honor of Senator 
AValthall. This is a good interior trading point, which, though remote from railroads, has 
attained to some local commercial importance. 

Among the secret orders represented in Webster, as elsewhere, the Masonic order is 
prominent. Among the A. F. & A. M. lodges organized here are the following: Adelphi 
]od»e No. 174 of Walthall, which was chartered January 17, 1853, and for many years 
held its meetings at BBllefontaine; Eldorado lodge No. 184, at Cumberland; New Hope 
lodge, which for some years met at New Hope church, now meets at Maben, Oktibbeha 


county, and Groensboro lodge No. 49, which was chartered early in the forties, and is the 
oldest lodge in the county. 

Eupora, on the Richmond & Danville railroad, is a point of growing importance. 

Waynesboro, the seat of justice of Wayne county, is situated northwest of the center 
of the county, on the Mobile & Ohio railroad, and has a population of three hundred. The 
first county seat of this county was Winchester, five miles south of Waynesboro, and on the 
Mobile & Ohio railroad. About 1822 the courthouse at Winchester was destroyed by 
fire. It was rebuilt and is now standing. The old jail also yet stands at Winchester, built 
in the forties, with walls three feet thick of heavy hewed pine, by John McDonald, at a cost to 
the county of $400 or $500. The county seat was located at Waynesboro in 1870. Schools 
were introduced in this county by itinerant teachers. One of them, Samuel M. Dickson, 
taught a classical school three miles and a half south of Winchester, on the Mobile road. 
Patterson taught on the Ridge next; Jacob Collins taught also on the Ridge east of Win- 
chester; General Falconer and John A. Edwards alternated at the Ridge about 1828. 

Among early churches in Wayne county were: Zion (Baptist), on the Ridge, of which 
William Powell and Nathan Clay, Jr., were early pastors; Salem (Baptist), in the present 
town of Waynesboro, though it stood at first on the Winchester road, William Morris, noted for 
his arbitrary rulings, acting as pastor in the twenties. Rev. Mr. Chambers was another early 
Baptist preacher here. The Methodists preached in the old Winchester courthouse in early 
days. Rev. William A. Cotton was a noted early circuit rider, and is said to have been 
something of a fighter when occasion demanded. _ 

Magnolia, on the Illinois Central railroad, is the seat of justice of Pike county. It had 
its start upon the completion of the railroad to that point in 1856. The county seat was 
located here in 1875. Among Magnolia's early business men were: L. R. Jones, carpenter, 
who built the first business house in the town; Robert L. Carter, W. H. Joyner, W. H. B. 
(Jrosswell, Joseph Evans and Abraham Hiller, merchants; L. Gournly, first postmaster, and 
E. M. Bee, the first depot agent, who served nineteen years. The population is seven hun- 
dred and fifty. 

Holmesville was the first incoi'porated village of the county. It was incorporated in 
1817. Osyka was the next, and for two years was the terminus of the Illinois Central rail- 

Meadville, the seat of justice of Franklin county, is located near the center of the county, 
and has a population of two hundred and fifty. The Franklin Journal was the first newspaper 
published in this county. It was issued in the summer of 1866 by one Crawford, who was a 
deaf mute. After several changes in ownership it became known as the Franklin Banner, 
and was published under that name by a son of Judge McGee for three years, until the 
death of the publisher. The Franklin Herald was established at Hamburg in 1886. In 
. 1890 P. C. Thompson bought the material and took it to Knoxville, and there published the 
Southern Progress until the latter part of that year, when it was removed to Garden City, 
where it is still issued, with C. P. Thompson as editor, and P. C. Thompson as manager. 
Hamburg, on the Louisville, New Orleans & Texas railroad, in Franklin county, has a popu- 
lation of one hundred and fifty. Roxie, south of Hamburg, on the same line, dates its 
history from 1885, and has a population of two hundred and twenty-five. Knoxville, on the 
railroad still farther south, has a population of one hundred and fifty. The county seat 
was at first located at Franklin, which was two and a half miles west of the site of Mead- 
ville. Early churches of this county are mentioned elsewhere. 


Indianola, the seat of justice of Sunflower county, is a thrifty and prosperous little 
town on the Georgia Pacific railroad, in close proximity to some plantations and farms, and 
has grown steadily since the date of its location. Its population at this time is three 
hundred and seventy-five. It was incorporated in 1886, and its fi.rst mayor was I. C. W. 
McLeod. The first seat of justice of this county was at McNutt, later it was removed to 
Johnsonville, on Sunflower river, and thence, a few years after, to Indianola. 

De Kalb, the seat of justice of Kemper county, is located as nearly as maybe in the geo- 
graphical center of the county, and has a population of three hundred and four. It has 
no railway facilities, but is the trading point for a considerable area round about and is 
prosperous in all its interests. 

The Free-Will Baptist church was founded in Kemper county in 1882 by Kev. C. F. 
Johnson, a sketch of whose life appears in this work. The doctrine of the church indicates 
salvation free to all and obedience and faith in Christ, also free communion at the Lord's 
Supper with all orthodox Christians, and baptism by immersion exclusively. The govern- 
ment is congregational. The church consists of about thirty members. 

The courthouse in Kemper county, with the county records and public documents, was 
burned in 1881. 

Other towns in this county are Oak Grove, Scooba, Wahalak, Moscow and Kellis 

Neshoba county is remote from railroads and has never felt the iniluence of railway 
facilities upon its development. Hence its towns, though enjoying a good local trade and 
peopled by a sturdy, enterprising and intelligent class, have none of them attained to any 
considerable size. Philadelphia, the seat of justice, has a population of about one hundred. 
Other villages within the borders of the county are Dowdville, Laurel Hill, Dixon, New 
Hope, Java, North Bend and Milldale. 

Booneville, the seat of justice of Prentiss county, is a thriving station on the Mobile >*fc 
Ohio railroad, and has a population of eight hundred. It is the center of a good trade, and 
has good schools, ample church accommodations and an intelligent, well-educated, progres- 
sive class of citizens. Other towns in this county are Marietta, Carrollsville, Elma, Baldwyn 
(See Tupelo, Lee county, etc.), old Cairo and Beulah. 

Monticello, Lawrence county's seat of justice, was incorporated in 1818. Monticello 
academy was established in 1836 with John E. McNair as its first principal. Mr. McNair 
was afterward a circuit judge of great popularity. One of the first papers was the South- 
ern Journal, edited by John R. Chambers. Among local papers well known in this part 
of the state may be mentioned the Monticello Advocate, by S. W. Dale, and the Sunny 
South, by C. N. Jones. The Lawrence County Press, by Joseph Dale, son of S. W. Dale, 
is an able journal, and the only paper now published in the county. The first church in 
the county was established at Monticello. It was of the Methodist denomination. The ' 
Baptists organized a few years afterward. Silver Creek Baptist church was organized in 
1815, and has a membership of two hundred. Bethany church (Baptist), on White Sand, 
was organized in 1819, under the labors of Elder John P. Martin, one of the leading pioneer 
ministers of the state, who was succeeded by Norvel Eobertson for more than forty years. 
A branch of the Planters' bank was established at Monticello soon after 1830. Monticello 
at one time did a large and extensive business, and had an able bar, comprising some of 
the best talent in the South. The superior court was held at this place for some years, 


and the vice chancery court until 1854. It was here that the lamented S. S. Prentiss 
received his license to practice law. Monticello vs^as selected as the site of the state capi- 
tal at a session of the legislature convened at Columbia — just before Jackson was made the 
capital of the state — when Mr. Runnels was in the senate and Mr. Cooper in the house of 
representatives. They were both prominent citizens of Monticello and leaders in selecting 
Monticello as the state capital, and by their efPorts it was located here. After they had 
secured the vote in favor of Monticello, they returned to their home to bear the news of 
their success to their constituents, and in their absence a motion was made to reconsider the 
vote, and Jackson was then given the honor thus unfairly wrested from Monticello. 

Following is Monticello' s church and society directory: Churches: Baptist — Third 
Sunday and Saturday in every month at 11 o'clock a. m. ; Sunday-school every Sun- 
day at 3 p. M. ; Rev. R. W. Hall, pastor. Presbyterian — First Sunday in every month at 
11 o'clock A. M. and 7:30 p. m. ; Sunday-school every Sunday at 10 a. m. ; Rev. George G. 
Woodbridge, pastor. Methodist — Fourth Sunday in each month at 11 a. m. and 7:30 p. m. ; 
Rev. R. Havers, pastor. A. F. & A. M. lodge — Third Saturday in every month at 10 
o'clock A. M. ; Z. P. Jones, W. M. Menticello Farmers' Alliance — First Saturday in every 
month at 3 o'clock p. m. ; Will C. CannoD', president. 

Sardis, one of the two seats of justice of Panola county, was incorporated in 1857, and 
Dr. S. F. Dunlap was its first mayor. The town was named by Mr. W. H. Alexander, who 
was the first postmaster and is now proprietor of the town of Mastodon in the western part 
of the county. The church houses in Sardis are Methodist (South), Presbyterian, Baptist, 
Episcopal and Catholic. Other denominations have organizations but no house of worship. 
Sardis has a population of one thousand, and is an enterprising station on the Illinois 
Central railroad. 

Batesville, farther south on the same line, is the seat of justice of the second judicial 
district of Panola county. It has a population of six hundred and twenty-five. 

Belen and Marks are the towns of Quitman county. Belen, the seat of justice, has a 
population of about one hundred and twenty-five. There are in this county good public 
schools and quite a number of churches of different denominations. 

Brandon, the county town of Rankin county, is a station on the Alabama & Vicksburg 
railroad and has a population of six hundred. It was named after Gov. Gerard C. Brandon 
and was early known as the seat of the famous Brandon bank, of which Col. William H. Shelton 
was president. Situated on the highest point between Vicksburg and Jackson, this place is 
exceptionally healthy. For years it was the terminus of the Vicksburg & Meridian railroad 
and the trading point for several adjacent counties. For more than twenty-five years the 
Brandon Female college has been in charge of Miss Johnston, one of the most celebrated 
teachers in Mississippi, who has perhaps done more to enrich the culture and intelligence of 
the town and its vicinity than any one else. Other towns in this county are Steen's Creek, 
Cato, Fannin, Pelahatchee and Armistead. 

Paulding, the county seat of Jasper county, has a population of two hundred and thirty. 
It is situated a little east of the center of the county and has no railway communication. It 
has a good country trade, however, and is the center of a considerable business. 

It was in Jasper county that Dr. J. N. Waddell, who afterward became chancellor of 
the University of Mississippi and later of the Southwestern university at Clarksville, Tenn., 
began his career as a teacher. The Clarion Ledger was first edited here under the name of 
the Eastern Clarion. 


Garlandsville, Heidelbiirg, Lake Como and Vosburg are other towns in this county. 

Louisville, the county seat of Winston county, has a population of three hundred and 
seventy-five, and is a thriving and progressive inland town with no railroad connection. It 
contains several good store buildings, some sightly church edifices and a creditable court- 
house. The land on which the county buildings are located was donated to Winston county 
by Jane Dodson. 

The first newspaper issued in Winston county was the Times- Tablet and Mississippi. 
Gazette, published in 1844, at Louisville. The next paper was the Chronicle, established prior 
to the war, and after the war came the Bulletin, and later the Banner, followed by the Index 
and the Signal. The last mentioned paper was started by W. J. Newsom, present editor 
and proprietor. 

Louisville lodge No. 75, A. F. & A. M. , was organized under a dispensation granted in 
1845, and was chartered January 10, 1846. Other lodges in the county are Webster lodge 
No. 205, Winstonville lodge No. 277, and Perkinsville lodge No. 331. 

In Winston the Masonic society. Odd Fellows, Grange, Alliance, etc., are represented. 
There are several normal and low-grade schools throughout the county. At Louisville, 
Plattsburg and Betheden there are churches of the Methodist, Baptist, old style Presby- 
terians, Cumberland Presbyterians, Catholic, Lutheran and Campbellite or Christian denom- 

The county seat of Scott county, in 1836, was established at Hillsboro, which was 
well located and has grown to a prosperous little town of about one hundred and seventy 
five. Thirty years later it was removed to Forest, on the Vicksburg & Meridian rail- 
road, a good trading point, which has six hundred and three inhabitants, with good schools, 
a number of churches, several stores and manufactories, and other claims to growth and 
prosperity. Other towns in this county are Lake, Raworth and Morton. 

Charleston, the county seat of Tallahatchie county, is a flourishing trading point of 
four hundred and seventy-five population, situated east of the center of the county, in the 
forks of the Tillataba. Sharkey and Graball are small trading points. Harrison station 
on the Illinois Central railroad has a population of three hundred. 

Churches abound all over Tallahatchie county, the prevailing denominations being Bap- 
tist, Presbyterian and Methodist. The educational advantages afPorded are equal to those in 
other counties, except in those having cities and large towns. The common-school system is 
well sustained. There are in this county thirty-two free white schools and thirty eight col- 
ored. The white educable children number one thousand four hundred and forty- one — 
seven hundred and thirteen males and seven hundred and twenty eight females; two thou- 
sand one hundred and six colored; of these, one thousand and ninety-two males and one 
thousand and fourteen females. There are two high schools in the county, each with a com- 
modious and handsome building, one at Spring Hill (the Cascilla Male and Female high 
school, established in 1889), and the other at Cascilla (the Tallahatchie high school, estab- 
lished in 1889). The school at Charleston is also of high grade and prospering. 

George Washington lodge No. 157, A. F. & A. M., at Charleston, is the oldest lodge in 
the county. It was chartered in 1851 and James W. Rhew was its first worshipful master. 
Glasgow lodge No. 354, at Harrison Station, has a good membership. Cascilla lodge No. 
411 was established in 1890, with Thomas Denman as worshipful master. Tallahatchie 
lodge once flourished. Sycamore and Hood lodges have a healthy existence. A. Mason 
Leigh lodge No. 3233, K. of H. , at Charleston, was organized in 1886. Charleston lodge No. 


108, I. O. O. F., was establiaheil March 4, 1880. T. W. White was its first noble grand. 
Eebecca degree No. 3 was established in 1891. Sam Lawrence lodge No. 110, I. 0. O. F., 
at Cascilla, was established in April, 1890, with H. M. Moore as noble grand. Rebecca 
degree No. 2 was chartered in 1891. 

Westville, the seat of justice of Simpson county, was named in honor of Col. Cato 
West. It is located a little south and west of the center of the county and has a population 
of two hundred. Aa a business point it draws a good trade from the surrounding country, 
and it is peopled with an educated and intelligent population and well provided with churches 
and schools. Jaynesville and Harrisville are other towns in this county. 

Raleigh, the county seat of Smith county, received its name in honor of the dashing but 
ill-fated Sir Walter Raleigh. It is located a little west of the center of the county, and has 
a population of two hundred. Its churches and schools are adequate to its needs, and its 
people are refined, educated and intelligent. It has a good variety and number of business 
places, and its merchants and professional men take high rank for integrity and talent. 
The first seat of justice was four miles distant from Raleigh, and was called Fairfield. 
In this county Parkville grew up on the west side of Strong river more than forty years 
ago, and Trenton, on the east side, had its beginning a few years later. Other towns and 
trading points are Sylvarena, Pineville, Taylorsville and Bunker Hill. 

Carrollton, on the Richmond & Danville railroad, is the seat of justice of Carroll 
county, and has a population of four hundred and seventy-five. It has a good local trade, 
and its future is as promising as that of any town of its size in that part of the state. 
A Baptist church was organized ten miles from Carrollton, in 1833, with nine members, and 
was moved to Carrollton in 1839 and named Carrollton church, afterward growing rapidly. 
Its first pastor was Rev. Joseph Morris. About 1839 Rev. S. S. Lattimore, one of the 
first and most prominent preachers in the state, served one year as pastor. In all, the 
church has had nineteen pastors, some of them very talented men. The Presbyterian church 
was established here about 1836, and the church house was built about 1837. The Method- 
ist Episcopal and the Protestant Episcopal churches were established before the war. 
Carrollton lodge No. 36, A. F. & A. M., was organized about 1837, Judge Blanks, V. M. 
Butler and O. L. Kimbrough being among the early members. This lodge had at one time 
about seventy-five members, and has now abQut twenty-eight. Its present master is G. S. 
Fox. Benjamin Roach has been secretary, since 1856. 

Vaiden, on the Illinois Central railroad, is a flourishing town of nine hundred popula- 
tion. Black Hawk and Shongaloo are other towns in Carroll county. 

When the Mississippi Central railroad was built the people of Carrollton projected two 
large enterprises: The factory and the Carrollton Female college. They erected a massive 
structure for manufacturing, covering an acre of ground. The Carrollton Female college 
building they made ample and commodious. It has been under the management of some 
fine educators, among whom, worthy of especial mention, are Rev. Mr. Colmery and Captain 
Belcher. Under its present management, that of Rev. Z. T. Leavell, its success has been 
remarkable. The, faculty is not excelled by any institution for young ladies in the state, for 
thoroughness and conscientious work. The friends of the college are now very sanguine as 
to its future. 

Senatobia, the seat of justice of Tate county, is located on the Illinois Central railroad 
a little south of the center of the county, and has a population of one thousand one hundred 


and twenty-five. This town is one of the most enterprising of the smaller important towns 
of the state, is handsomely located and well sustained in its every interest, business, profes- 
sional, religious, educational and social. It is a cotton-shipping point of prominence and 
has a large general trade. Other towns in this county are Coldwater Depot, Arkabutla, 
Independence, Looxahoma, Tyro and Strayhorn. 

Houston, the seat of justice of Chickasaw county, is an attractive town of six hundred 
and fifty population, located near Chico creek, west of the center of the county. It was 
incorporated in May, 1837. 

Okolona, the metropolis of Chickasaw county, on the Mobile & Ohio railroad, has a pop- 
ulation of nineteen hundred and fifty, and is a good business point. The town is forty odd 
years old, and the post office was formerly Hose Hill, about one mile west of where the town 
now is. It has Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist and Catholic churches. There is a tine 
brick public school building erected in 1890, at a cost of about 118,000. 

M . . 

Prof. H. B. Abernethy, founder of the Mississippi Normal college, Houston, is a native 

of Mississippi, born near Troy, Pontotoc county, in 1854. His father, J. T., and his mother, 
Emmaline (Porter) Abernethy, were natives of Alabama and South Carolina, respectively. 
They reared a family of eight children, of whom Professor Abernethy is the eldest. The 
father, who was a farmer, and was for a number of years bailiff of the county, died in 1875; 
the mother is yet living. No educational advantages, other than those afforded by public 
schools, were given our subject up to the time he was grown ; such school he attended not 
less than four months in the year. At eighteen years of age he began teaching, and followed 
that occupation four years, and during the vacations in which there were no schools he con- 
ducted a farm. He married, in 1876, Miss SallieL. Gossett, a native of Pontotoc county, a 
graduate of the Baptist Female college, and at the time of her marriage a teacher. Four years 
later they attended the National Normal university at Lebanon, Ohio, where they remained 
two years, graduating in 1882, Mr. Abernethy with the degree of B. S., Mrs. A. with the 
degree of A. B. Immediately upon their return they opened a school at Troy. At its start, 
in 1882, that now noted school, the Mississippi Normal college, the first of its class in Missis- 
sippi, was located at Troy, Pontotoc county. It was opened with four teachers: Prof. H. B. 
Abernethy, the founder, was principal; Mrs. S. G. Abernethy, assistant; J. U. Abernethy, 
in charge of the preparatory class; Miss Dora Abernethy, teacher of music. The school 
was the private enterprise of Professor Abernethy. The buildings used were Professor 
Abernethy' s one building, 30x60, two stories high, with six recitation rooms and a large hall. 
There was a separate boardinghouse, with a capacity for forty boarders. This was for ladies 
only; gentlemen boarded at private houses. The first year the school had one hundred and 
seventeen pupils, principally local, only about twenty-five being boarders. The succeeding 
five years, during which the school was located at Troy, were marked by steady growth, 
until the last year three hundred and twenty pupils were enrolled, twelve teachers were 
employed, and the institution had primary, preparatory, teachers,' commercial, scientific, 
classical, music (instrumental and vocal) and art departments. Mr. and Mrs. Abernethy 
have a son named Jene, born in 1878. 

Okalona, the seat of the second judicial district, where the circuit and chancery courts 
are held, is a town of about two thousand inhabitants on the Mobile & Ohio railroad near the 
eastern border of Chickasaw county. It is surrounded by a fertile prairie and has consider- 
able commercial importance and the best of educational and religious advantages. 


Palo Alto, Buena Vista and Sparta are flourishing interior villages having good local 

The founders of the Buena Vista Normal college, appreciating the great need of an 
institution where a liberal education could be obtained at a minimum cost, organized that 
institution in 1885, and the state legislature chartered it in 1886. The great advantages 
ofPered by this institution have been recognized from the beginning. Its magic growth 
rests on the fact that it offers superior advantages and facilities for obtaining an educa 
tion at less cost than any school of equal merit in the South. Neither money nor labor has 
been spared in maintaining the elevated position of the Buena Vista Normal college. 
Young men and young women who want an education, and are willing to study and work 
for it, can find here all the advantages and aids wanted. The charges for board and tuition 
have been placed at the smallest figures that can be afforded. Board, 17 to $10; tuition, 
12 to $4; music and use of piano, 14; art, $2 to |4 per month. Prof. W. S. Burkes, the 
president of this institution, is an active, energetic, industrious and thoroughly equipped 
educator. The college is under the supervision of the following board of directors: Dr. J. 
T. Murdock, J. T. Parker, M. D., Capt. J. L. Pulliam, Dr. U. S. Williams, Maj. L. C. Sugg, 
G. T. Stillman, A. J. Aycock, A. A. Thompson, J. Y. Ball, J. C. Williams. 

Prairie lodge No. 87, A. F. & A. M., was chartered in 1848, with Isaac Mullen as worship- 
ful master. Okolona chapter No. 27 is a flourishing institution, with W. J. Lacy as high 
priest. Ivanhoe commandry No. 10 was chartered about 1872, with P. M. Lavery as com- 
mander. W. A. Bodemhimer is the present commander. Okolona lodge No. 37, I. O. O. F. , 
and Eva Clara lodge No. 5, Knights of Pythias, have large lists of members. Chickasaw 
lodge No, 720, Knights of Honor, was chartered in 1877, with J. S. Dugger as dictator. 
Victor lodge No. 199, Knights of the Golden Rule, was established in 1888. Atlanta lodge 
No. 362, A. F. & A. M., at Atlanta, is a popular institution of that place. 

Tunica, the seat of justice of Tunica county, is a town of four hundred and fifty inhab- 
itants, on the Louisville, New Orleans & Texas railroad, which is a shipping point for much 
cotton and has a large general trade. Its churches and schools are adequate to its needs, 
and its inhabitants are intelligent and well educated as a class. It has numerous stores and 
other business enterprises. Other towns in the county are Austin, Hollywood. Evansville 
and Eobinsonville. 

Chester, the seat of justice of Choctaw county, has a population of two hundred. It is 
an interior trading point which is gaining in importance. French Camp has two hundred 
and seventy- five inhabitants and a good local trade. 

Oneof the best schools in the state is at French Camps, Choctaw county, under the man- 
agement of the Central Mississippi presbytery, and is in two divisions: first, the Central 
Mississippi institute for females, established in 1886, Rev. A. H. Macklin being president 
of the faculty; second, the French Camps academy for males, established in 1887, of which 
J. A. Macklin is president. Each has commodious buildings and boardinghouses, and a 
beautiful campus, about $15,000 having been expended on these improvements. These insti- 
tutions have a high course of study, including the languages, arts and sciences, fitting 
students in some branches to enter the state university. 

Among the societies of Choctaw county m^y be mentioned: Snowsville lodge No. 119 
A. F. & A. M., which met for some time at Bankston, then at different places, and afterward 
for a time at Chester, now meets at Ackerman; Bankston lodge No. 296, A. F. & A. M. which 
was organized and for some years met at Bankston, and at Chester since 1889; La Grange 


lodge No. 263, A. F. & A. M., at La Grange; Ackerman lodge No. 1290, K. & L. of H., 
which was established in 1888 with E. R. Seward as protector; French Camp lodge No. 
1312, K. & L. of H., at French Camp, and lodge of K. of H. , which was recently organized 
at Ackerman. 

Hartford, the original seat of justice of Calhoun county, is now extinct. It was origi- 
nally an old Indian settlement. In its prime it had several stores and other business and 
small manufacturing interests. Hartford lodge, A. F. & A. M., No. 155, was organized there 
ia 1850, and in 1853 was removed to Pittsborough, where it became known as Pittsborough 
lodge No. 155. Early in the settlement there a Methodist church was organized and a house of 
worship was erected, and a large membership secured. The religious and all other interests 
here later clustered around Pittsborough. 

Pittsborough was first settled in 1850. The Methodist Episcopal church was organized 
there in 1852, and the house of worship was erected in 1858. The Baptists erected their 
church in 1860. Thomas Odom put up the^tirst building in the place for a grocery; Mr. 
Johnson the first hotel. Judge D. N. Bessy was the oldest settler. The town now has a 
population of three hundred and twenty five. 

Benela, originally an old Indian settlement, was settled by whites about 1840 by James 
McCright, and Richard Griffin came soon after. Capt. T. T. Enochs was the first merchant 
there. Benela lodge No. 140, A. F. & A. M., was organized in 1840; had at one time six 
hundred members, and is the oldest lodge in the county. The Methodist Episcopal church 
was organized soon after 1850 and has a large two-story building, which was built in 1886 
at a cost of $1,000. Bentley was settled in 1844 by the Bentley family. The postoffice 
was established in 1878, and the first store was opened in 1879 by Patterson & St. Clair. 
Bethlehem Methodist Episcopal Church South was organized by the first settlers, and had at 
one time about eighty members. A good building was erected in 1880. There is here a 
good graded school conducted in a fine two -story building. Slate Spring was settled about 
1857. The first house was built by Joseph Fox. This is the seat of one of the best 
graded schools in the county, with three hundred pupils, under the principalship of Prof. 
J. J. Higgins. Bethany church was organized in 1857 and has a membership of one hundred 
and fifty. The Methodist Episcopal church was organized in 1887. Slate Spring has a 
population of two hundred and fifty. 

The first store at Sabougla was built by Stevens & Holden. The postoffice was estab- 
lished in 1878. The Cumberland Presbyterian church is the oldest organization in the 
place and was organized in 1884. It was a fine church building that cost $1, 500. The 
Baptists have a church of small membership. 

Big Creek was settled by Henry and James Bounds and D. A. Covington. J. J. Ramsey 
built the first store in 1846 and was succeeded as merchant here by J. R. M. Du Barry. 
The present village site was settled by the Boland family, and M. M. Boland began merchan- 
dising there in 1871. Chapel Hill lodge No. 227 was organized in 1857. The Methodist 
Episcopal Church South erected its house of worship in 1856 and has a membership of one 
hundred and fifty. Cole's Creek was settled by Samuel F. Provine in 1838. R. N. Provine 
established the first store in 1868. The postoffice was established in 1870. Shiloh Baptist 
church was organized in 1870, but a Baptist organization had existed here since 1840. 
There is a membership of one hundred. The school known as Cole's Creek academy was 
founded by B. N. Provine. 


At Baaner, William Redvyiae started a cooper shop, the first enterprise on the ground 
Brower & McOord were the first merchants. Banner lodge, A. F. & A. M., No. 329 was 
organized in 1870. 

The Methodist Episcopal church was organized in 1858, and has a membership of fifty. 
The Banner academy was founded in 1886 by C. P. Gilmore. A. M. Arnold is its oldest 
settler now living in the place. Spring Creek Missionary Baptist church was organized by 
some of the first settlers, and has a membership of one hundred and fifty. Turkey Creek 
Missionary Baptist church was organized in 1840, and has a membership of one hundred and 
twenty-five. Sarepta was settled early. Theodosia lodge, A. F. & A. M., No. 182, once 
flourished here, but is now extinct. The Baptist church here has a membership of forty. 
The Methodists organized soon after 1830. Mr. A. McDonald is the oldest merhant and 
settler now living in the place. 

The seat of justice of Union county is New Albany, which is located at the intersection 
of the Gulf & Chicago and Kansas City, Memphis & Birmingham railways, and has a popula- 
tion of eleven hundred and twenty-five. It is the center of a growing local trade, and a 
shipping point of importance. Its schools and churches are numerous, and its business and 
professional men and citizens generally are of a class unusually intelligent, well educated 
and refined. Wallerville, Ellistown, Blue Springs, Keownville, Baker, Ingomar, Rocky 
Ford and Myrtle are the other towns and trading points in Union county. 

Poplarville, the seat of justice of the newly created Pearl River county, is located near 
the center of the county on the New Orleans & Northeastern railway, and has a population 
of about two hundred. Derby and Hillsdale are railway trading and shipping villages. 

Rosedale, the seat of justice of Bolivar county, was incorporated in 1882. Ten years 
after it became the county seat, whichin 1872 was removed from Beulah, six miles 
southwest, this point affording many advantages over the latter. Outside of the new addi- 
tions recently laid out, the corporation contains fifty-two acres, the site being particu- 
larly well chosen and thoroughly protected from the encroachments of the river by the splen- 
did levees of the lower levee district. 

The river does not flow directly up to the city, but about three fourths of a mile distant, 
a great advantage in itself, while Rosedale is at the same time the only river point 
touched by the Louisville, New Orleans & Texas railway (Bolivar loop) between Friar's Point 
and Greenville, a fortunate circumstance, as it is thus made a competitive point between river 
and rail transportation lines, and insures favorable rates to eastern and European markets. 

Until the completion of the Bolivar loop line from Greenville, in December, 1888, 
Rosedale did not show any signs of ever becoming anything beyond a river town of one or 
two hundred inhabitants, and made little if any progress after the excitement attendant 
upon the county seat removal had died out; so that whatever of improvements one sees at 
present dates from that time. These improvements are many, and of a very creditable and 
substantial character indeed, and new buildings, public and private, representing an outlay 
of over 175,000, have been erected since the railroad entered the corporation limits, among 
them the new county courthouse, a beautiful and imposing structure of pressed brick, 
trimmed with white stone, which occupies the square in the center of the city. This is one of 
the handsomest courthouses in the state, and was erected at a cost of more than $30,000. In 
its rear has been built a handsome brick jail, which cost $16,000. The building occupied by 
the Bank of Rosedale also attracts much attention. The business of Rosedale is represented 
by four general stores, one drug store, one hotel, a number of liquor stores, restaurants, liv- 


ery stable, two blacksmiths, a public gianery, an ice house, one butcher, barbers, two news- 
papers and one bank, which has a paid-up capital of $100,000. There are also eleven attor- 
neys, one insurance agent, three physicians and two real estate agents. 

Carthage, the county town of Leake county, is located near the geographical center of 
the county and has a population of four hundred and twenty-five. It is an enterprising and 
progressive town and its citizens are ambitious and pushing. The former name, Leakeville, 
was superseded by the present name of Carthage, July 31, 1834. Other towns in this county 
are Ofahoma, Thomastown, Edinburgh, St. Anne, Good Hope, Lena, Grove and Madden, 
all small places, but each the center of a good local trade. 

Augusta, the seat of justice of Perry county, is situated on the Pascagoiila liver north 
of the center of the county, and is a good local trading point. The one hun- 
dred and twenty-five. 

Hattiesburgh, with a population of six hundred and fifty, is the only important town 
in Perry county. Perry lodge, Enon lodge and Hattiesburg lodge and chapter (at Hatties- 
burgh) are the Masonic bodies of Perry county. Crescent lodge No. 47, Knights of Pythias, at 
Hattiesburgh, is the only Pythian lodge. There was one lodge of Grangers of quite a mem- 
bership which formerly existed; there are several lodges of the Farmers' Alliance, and there 
was formerly a lodge of the K. of L. The only pretentious schools in Perry county are at 
Hattiesburgh, Augusta and Central. The Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian and Catholic 
denominations are all represented, the Baptist and Methodists having the larger memberships, 
the Presbyterian churches numbering two and the Catholic one. 

Rolling Fork, the county seat of Sharkey county, is located west of the center of the 
county, and is a junction station on the Louisville, New Orleans & Texas railway. * It has 
four hundred inhabitants and does a good local and shipping trade. Other towns in 
the county are Egremont, Smedes, Anguilla, Nitta Yuma and McKinneyville. 

The Methodists were the first to hold religious services within the present limits of 
Sharkey county. In 1840 Rev. John FuUerton preached in a log schoolhouse on the Rolling 
Fork plantation, built by Thomas Y. Chaney for his private use as a schoolhouse. Here, 
in 1840, Mr. Fullerton founded the first Methodist society in the county, known as Union 
church. This society afterward held services in the Masonic hall till 1888, when it erected 
a frame building of its own on Race street, Rolling Fork, the first church house in the 

Soon after the war, under the influence of Colonel Ball, the Baptists organized a society 
at Rolling Fork, and they held services in Masonic hall. 

In 1886 J. C. Burruss organized a society of Universalists at Vickland church, which 
now has a membership of twenty-five. 

In 1874 Bishop W. H. Green organized an Episcopal church at Rolling Fork, where 
services are still held. ■ 

Decatur, the seat of justice of Newton county, was named in honor of Commodore 
Stephen Decatur, and has about two hundred inhabitants. Hickory, on the Alabama & 
Vicksburg railroad, has a population of two hundred and ninety-four; Newton, on the same 
line, has a population of five hundred. Lawrence is a smaller railroad station. A good 
local trade is done at all these points. 

In Newton county Masonic lodges are established at Newton, Decatur, Conehatta, New 
Ireland, Pinckney, Chunkey and Hickory; Masonic Royal Arch chapters at Newton and 
Decatur; one lodge of K. of P. at Newton, one of K. of H. at Newton. 


There are three academies or high schools for white boys and girls at Newton, Conehatta 
and Hickory. The county supports eighty free schools, four months each year, forty-six 
white and thirty-four colored. The churches of this county are as follows: Baptist, regu- 
lar white churches, twenty-four; colored, twelve; primitive white, five; members white 
regular Baptists, one thousand six hundred; colored, one thousand two hundred; white 
primitive, one hundred and fifty; total, three thousand nine hundred and fifty. Methodist 
white churches, ten; colored, six; white members, about eight hundred; colored members, 
about six hundred. Presbyterian white churches, four; members, two hundred and fifty. 
The first Baptist church was instituted in 1836. The first Baptist members conducting the 
churches and living in the county at that time were Revs. James Merchant and Cuder Price. 
The great citilizer and missionary of east Mississippi, Rev. N. L. Clarke, of the Regular 
Baptist church, now in his four-score years, lives at Newton, edits the Mississippi Baptist, 
supplies his churches and travels to the neighboring country when called to preach the Word. 

Liberty, the seat of justice of Amite county, has a population of four hundred and twenty- 
six. It is a handsome village and has always supported and encouraged schools. Its college 
hall was burned by Federal soldiers during their occupancy of the town in 1863. The build- 
ings that were spared were later acquired by Prof. C. F. Manales, a native Amite countian 
and an educator of successful experience. 

Other towns in the county are Gloster and Gilliaburg. The educational institutions at 
Bast Fork and Ebenegon are liberally patronized. 

Hernando, the seat of justice of De Soto county, on the Illinois Central railroad, has a 
population of six hundred and twenty. It is a busy town full of men of vigorous enterprise, 
and was incorporated in 1839. E. W. Caldwell was its first mayor. Joseph Payne its first 
marshal. It has five churches for whites and two for colored people. The Methodist 
Episcopal South, JBaptist, Episcopal, Presbyterians and Cumberland Presbyterians have 
houses of worship. There is a good school for white and another for colored pupils. The 
town has twenty business houses and an ax-handle factory. 

Ashland, the seat of justice of Benton county, was named in honor of the home of Henry 
Clay. It has a population of two hundred and twenty-seven, and does a good local trade. 
Other towns in this county are Lamar, Michigan City and Hickory Flat. 

Rosedale, the seat of justice of Bolivar county, is a prosperous and^attractive town of 
three hundred and fifty inhabitants. It has fine public buildings, and its financial and mer- 
cantile concerns are substantial and adequate to the demands of its trade. Benoit, Bolivar, 
Shaw, Huntington, Shelby, Cleveland, Alligator, Duncan, Australia, Concordia and Beulah 
are all business points of local importance. 

Willi am sburgh, the seat of justice of Covington county, had a population of one hun- 
dred and twenty-four in 1890. It is located about in the geographical center of the county, 
and though it has no railway facilities as yet, has a good local trade. Its bar is able, and its 
business men are enterprising and successful. Mount Carmel and Jaynesville are trading 
points in this county. 

Leakesville, the seat of justice of Greene county, has but a small population and no 
railway advantages, but its school, church and other interests are well promoted and its 
prospects are improving. It was named in honor of Hon. Walter Leake, formerly governor 
of the state. State Line, in the southeast corner of the county, on the Mobile & Ohio rail- 
road, is a local trading point, 


Mayersville, the seat of justice of lasqueua, was named ia honor of David Mayer, an exten- 
sive cotton planter, formerly of that county, novy of Vicksburg, is located on the Mississippi 
river and is a shipping point of importance, veith good educational and religious institutions 
and a progressive class of business men and citizens. 

Lexington, the seat of justice of Holmes county, is a town of ten hundred population, on 
the Illinois Central railroad, which has long been noted for the refinement and intelligence 
of its people and commands a fair trade. 

Holmes county has churches of the Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Episcopalian and 
Catholic denominations, all strong and owning houses of worship. There are colored Meth- 
odist and Baptist churches, two of them with buildings. The Masonic order, the Knights of 
Pythias and the Knights of Honor are all represented in this county. 

Durant is a junction town with a population a little larger than that of Lexington, in which 
business of all kinds is flourishing. Tchula Junction is also a town of some importance in its 
relations to the surrounding country. 

Fnlton, the seat of justice of Itawamba county, is located about the center of the 
county north and south, and a little west of the center east and west, and is the only town in the 
county, though there are stores at different points in all directions. The population was two 
hundred and seventy-nine in 1890. It has no railway facilities, but is in the center of a sub- 
stantial country trade, and has good educational and religious institutions. 

Ellisville, the seat of justice of Jones county, is situated as nearly as may be in the geo- 
graphical center of the county, and has a good trade with the township round about. Other 
small towns in the county are Laurel, Sandersville, Estabutchee and Tuscaloma. All of the 
points above mentioned are stations on the New Orleans & Northeastern railroad. 

Carthage, the seat of justice of Leake county, is situated in the geographical center of 
that county and has a population of four hundred and twenty-five. It is a prosperous 
town, the center of the local trade of near portions of the Pearl river valley, peopled with 
enterprising, progressive business men and farmers and their families and possessed of 
ample church and school facilities. Its progress has been measurably restricted by its 
remoteness from railways, and a line from Macon to Jackson, which is the natural order of 
development, will be constructed almost inevitably, would do much to advance the interests 
of this pretty inland county town. Other towns and trading points in this county are 
Ofahoma, Edinburgh, Thomastown, Good Hope, St Anne, Madden, Grove and Lena. 

Columbia, the county seat of Marion county, was long the only town within its borders. 
Kichburgh, Purvis and Piotona, on the Northeastern railroad have developed within the past 
few years and are advancing with much rapidity. Purvis has three hundred and twenty- 
five population, Columbia about two hundred. The latter has no railway facilities, but is 
pleasantly situated on the west shore of the Pearl river a little north of the center of the 
eastern half of the county. Its business and professional men take high rank and it is 
well supplied with churches and schools. 





HE press of Mississippi, in a most remarkable manner, has kept in advance of the actual 
* I wants and necessities of the people, and the enterprise, progress and stability of the 
state. The publishers, printers and editors, from the very year of the introduction of 
the first wooden hand printing press to the present day, with all its rapid, complicated and 
ponderous hand and steam printing machinery, and telegraph and railroad facilities, have 
been men of a very high order of intellect, genius and perseverance, men of remarkable 
sprightliness, patriotism, determination and courage, men who have adorned in all the walks 
of life the communities in which their lots have been cast, men who have contributed most 
wonderfully to the onward march of the state and its rapid advancement in all that consti- 
tutes true greatness and nobility. 

At the early period (we may say, indeed, from 1800 to 1860) the village and town printer, 
or editor, as he was usually termed, was a man of all work in and about the newspaper print- 
ing office. That is to say, he was, almost invariably, jjrinter, publisher, reporter, business 
manager and editor, all combined. The cities were the only exceptions to this rule. In the 
cities, the editors were usually resident lawyers, temporarily called to lead a -campaign, or 
prospective or actual candidates for official positions ; but it is true that the best equipped 
and most successful editors of the early times were from the ranks of the men who came into 
the state from other sections of the Union, and worked their way from the printing office 
proper to the editorial room and into the editorial harness. We assert it as a truth, and, in 
our judgment, the statement must be admitted as a truth by all who passed through any 
number of the years of the early times, that there was a something about the old-time news- 
paper printing office which suddenly transformed the intelligent, observing, industrious and 
conscientious youth connected therewith, however slight may have been his previous oppor- 
tunities, into the accomplished, self-reliant and successful editor, the most useful and valued 
citizen, the highly popular and most substantial public servant. 

The first printing press introduced into what is now known as the state of Mississippi, 
was brought here by Mr. Andrew Marschalk, between the years 1790 and 1800. Mr. Mars- 
chalk was a Marylander by birth, and as an ensign, came down the Mississippi river with the 
first detachment of United States troops that appeared after the withdrawal of the Spanish 
authorities. The detachment to which he belonged was on duty for some years, we believe, 
on the river at and between the first rude forts constructed by our government at the points 
now known as Vicksburg and Natchez. The press was quite diminutive, and was made of 
mahogany, and came originally from London, England. Its first work in this country was 


turned out at Walnut Hill, or Fort Nogales (now the city of Vicksburg), and was. a song, 
printed at the full capacity of the press, which was -1x6 inches. Soon after this, say in 1800, 
Mr. Marsckalk himself built a press, a larger press, no doubt using a part of the London 
press in its construction — one capable of printing a foolscap sheet, 11x14 inches, and upon 
this large, Mississippi manufactured press was printed at Natchez the territorial laws soon 
after the organization of Mississippi territory. At no distant day Mr. Marschalk sold this 
press to one B. M. Stokes, who at once commenced the publication at Natchez, on a foolscap 
sheet, of the first newspaper published and printed in what is now known as the state of Mis- 
sissippi, and it was called the Mississippi Gazette. 

The Mississippi Gazette proved quite a success supplying " a want long felt," and the 
field enlarging, and there being a demand for a larger sheet, and the facilities having increased, 
Robert Green reached Natchez, from Baltimore, Md.,with a printing press, and another paper 
was soon established, but its life was short. Then, as now, the business could be overdone, 
and newspaper enterprises, however deserving, could not in e\ ery case be crowned with suc- 
cess. With the declining fortunes of Mr. Green's journal, Mr. Marschalk again entered the 
field, and with largely increased facilities, and issued at Natchez, the Mississippi Herald, in 
the year 1802 or 1803 — say about five years after the organization of the territory, and four- 
teen years before the admission of Mississippi as a state into the Federal Union. And 
soon after the appearance of the Herald, came the Halcyon, the Messenger, and other papers, 
all manifesting industry and talent; in almost every instance, however, they proved unsuccess- 
ful ventures, but they supplied the famishing people with what they craved, viz. : Political 
reading as well as the news not only about their homes but from the old states from which 
they had come. 

In 1810, or thereabouts, John A. Winn, a man of education and business energy, estab- 
lished the Chronicle at Natchez, and a year or two later appeared a paper, also at Natchez, 
under the management of Peter Isler, who, years afterward, established a paper at Jackson. 
Then came the Ariel, then the Natchez, and others followed, not only in Natchez, but in the 
towns in the adjacent counties. The Woodville Republican, if we are not mistaken, was 
established about 1812. A paper is still published carrying that name. 

From 1810 to 1820, as from the first, very nearly all the j)rinters, as well as very nearly 
all the printing material in the territory, remained at Natchez, which was then, as for many 
subsequent years, the overshadowing and ruling locality — the center of intelligence, wealth, 
political power and influence — and then and there commenced the fierce political battles for 
which Mississippi has ever been noted. 

The Natchez, a journal under the management of James H. Cook, soon after its estab- 
lishment became a power in the state, bringing to its political views many of the most 
prominent, influential and wealthy men of what was then known as the Natchez countrj', 
which embraced perhaps a half dozen of the counties which now constitute the extreme 
southwestern corner of the state. In time it became the champion of what was known as 
the John Quincy Adams party — the forerunner of what was subsequently known as the whig 
party — and, consequently, the opponent of Gen. Andrew Jackson. There were then but few, 
very few, native Mississippians, the population consisting almost exclusively of enterprising 
and ardent young men, immigrants from the states north and east; some of them mere 
adventurers, and men of desperate fortunes, but for the most part true men, and uieu of 
unblemished character and great intelligence and brilliancy. The two political parties were 
well arrayed against each other as early as 1822, and very soon the Statesman appeared as 
the exponent and defender of the Jackson party, established by Mr. Marschalk (the same 


who brought into the country the first printing press), with distinguished and able gentlemen 
presiding over the editorial columns. The political fight was very warm and decided from 
the beginning, and all intelligent citizens at once became jjoliticians. As years rolled along 
Col. I. F. H. Claiborne (afterward a member of congress) became its editor, and again Bobert 
J. Walker (afterward United States senator, secretary of the treasury, etc.). 

During this interesting period (1820 to 1830) the newspaper press commenced pushing 
its way with surprising rapidity into the interior of the state, north and east, keeping pace 
with, if not leading, the tide of immigration as it appeared in those early times. The delight- 
ful climate, the virgin soil of unequaled virtue for cotton and other agricultural productions, 
the multiplicity of navigable streams (for the small flat boats of the early times) and the very 
superior class of men who were pushing forward and making settlements in every part of the 
state, combined to bring Mississippi to the front in a most enviable light, and soon the state 
commenced filling up with wonderful rapidity for those early times, and with highly intelli- 
gent, wealthy and substantial men from all the old states, east to the Atlantic and north to 
the lakes, and especially from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee, Kentucky, etc., who, with 
their slaves, at once commenced opening up the wilderness, removing impediments, organiz- 
ing new counties, building courthouses and establishing newspapers of the most sprightly 
character. The newspapers were, without exception, political journals, all specially charged 
with politics, personal, state and Federal, outspoken and defiant for Jackson or Adams, for 
Clay or Van Buren, whig or democratic. There was no Northern or Southern party then, no 
talk of anti-slavery or secession. It is true, at a great distance there was a cloud, about the 
size of a man's hand, which threatened nullification, but the idea found no lodgment among 
the then Union-loving people of Mississippi. 

At an early day the Mississippi Free Trader was established at Natchez, by Besaucon 
and others, with Colonel Claiborne and Forbes as editors, and at once assumed the position 
as the leading Jackson or democratic paper of the state, and continued to hold that proud 
position for many years. And with the Free Trader came very soon the Natchez Courier, as 
the exponent of the gallant old Henry Clay or whig party. And very soon other bright, 
influential and forcible journals followed, always political, with eminent men as editors 
among whom were Black, Mellen, Van Winkle, Baldwin, Risk, Duffield, Prewitt, Hillyer, etc, 
Like the B\'ee Trader the Courier remained a power in tlie state until about 1860. 

The press assumed its proper position at Vicksburg during this period. Here the first 
press was planted (the wooden one brought from England by Mr. Marschalk), and here was 
received and operated many years afterward the first power press introduced into the state. 
The Republican, the Advocate, the Mississippian, the Sentinel, the Register, the Sun, and 
others, led the Jackson or democratic hosts, with such editors as Fall, Hagan, Green, 
Jenkins, Jones, Roy, Wood, McCallum and others; while the grand old party led by Henry 
Clay was represented at different times by papers of very superior ability and nerve and of 
wonderful resources and vitality. The Whig continued from its establishment (by Marma- 
duke Shannon), one of the leading journals of the state, if not of the Southwest, until the 
entire establishment was destroyed by fire in 1863. Shannon and Henderson were its founders, 
and Shannon continued as its publisher to its last isssue. It was for a considerable period, 
between 1840 and 1860, the only daily paper in the state, and its influence was always very 
great. It had as its editors, at different times, some of the brighest editorial lights of the 
Southwest, some of whom we may name: Griffin, Tyler, McCardle, Hammet, A. H. Arthur, 
R. Arthur, Carnes, Brooks, Partridge, etc. 

Between 1830 and 1840 came the Vicksburg Mississippian, with Gen. H. S. Foote (after- 


ward governor and United States senator), and his brother-in-law, F. H. Catlett, as editors 
and publishers. They were both Virginians, and both lawyers, having little, if any, previous 
knowledge of the publishing business. In a year or two they moved their paper to Clinton, 
Hinds county, and from there it soon found its way to Jackson, which had become the state 
capital, and soon it became one of the leading democratic papers of the state, which position 
it continued to hold until 1862. The Southern Intelligencer, the True Issue, the Constitution- 
alist, the Southern, and sundry other creditable journals appeared at Vicksburg during the 
same period, with McCreery, Hurst, Miller, Buck, McCardle and others as editors, but their 
existence was temporary. 

Jackson, now the state capital, sprang into existence and importance long after the set- 
tlements made at Natchez and Vicksburg. Indeed, for years after the first printing jsresses 
were operated at the points named, the country where Jackson now stands in all its beauty, 
prosperity and importance, was a howling wilderness and the property of the red man, and 
the red man was its occupant. The Anglo-Saxon put in his appearance there between 1820 
and 1830, and true to his character and customs, he brought with him the great civilizer and 
christianizer, the political newspaper. Many were the journalistic ventures, which came with 
its early history, and which continued until about the time of the Civil war. The Mississippian 
as the organ of the democratic party, with Foote, the Howards, Price, Fall, Barksdale and 
perhaps others, as editors, was ever a vigorous and popular journal and ever enjoyed the 
patronage of the democratic party. It ever gave a hearty support to McNutt, Brown, Jeffer- 
son Davis, McEae and the other leaders of the party, and ever enjoyed a large patronage, 
which must have been highly remunerative. 

The Southern, the Flag of the Union and two or three other journals, under the editorial 
management of A. R. Johnston, Thomas Palmer, Dr. Pickett, H. V. Barr, Colonel Purdom 
and others, ever commanded the admiration and generous support of the old whig party, 
giving their support to Prentiss, Guion, Tompkins, Bingaman and a host of other leaders in 
opposition to General Jackson. While the Reformer, under the control of the Smythes, with 
the brilliant John Marshall as editor, stood very high in the affections of both of the political 
parties of its day. 

The first power printing press in Jackson was brought in by Price & Fall, about 1848 ; 
and another was introduced in January, 1852, by Thomas Palmer, for the purpose of execut- 
ing public work (The Flag of the Union, Mr. Palmer's paper at that time), having been elected 
state printer by the union- whig legislature of that year. 

The Eastern Clarion was established at Paulding, Jasper county, between 1830 and 
1840, with John I. McEae (afterward governor and member of congress) as editor. Soon, 
however, it passed into the hands of Simeon E. Adams, who made it a power, not only in 
east Mississippi, but throughout the state, drawing not only a tremendous circulation, for 
that period, but an influence which was coextensive with the state, and freely acknowledged 
at all hands. Under the leadership and superior tactics of the Clarion east Mississippi 
became the political power of the state, and for some years had but to assert its wants and 
they were cheerfully accorded. Upon the death of Mr. Adams, about the year 1859 or 1860, 
the Clarion was bought by Col. J. J. Shannon, who removed it to Meridian about 1 8(i2, and 
in 1865 or 1866 it was removed to Jackson, where it is now, as a part of the Clarion-Ledger, 
under the control of Messrs. I. L. Power and R. H. Henry. Mr. Shannon continues his 
editorial labors in east Mississippi. 

Port Gibson was settled at a very early period, and was a growing and thriving town 
when Mississippi territory was admitted into the union as a state, in 1817, and when by far 


the larger portion of the territory was inhabited by the red mau. The printing press was 
put in motion there before the state was organized, and first-class papers have been issued 
there from the first, conducted by Marschalk, Mason, Morris, etc. 

The first paper at Macon, Noxubee county, on the Alabama border, was established in 
1836 and was called the Mississippi Star. It was established by A. Gr. Horn, afterward of 
the Meridian Mercury, a gentleman of very superior literary attainments and wonderful per- 
severance. He died but a few years ago. 

The three decades which we are now endeavoring to trace (1830 to 1860) were prolific of 
political papers. They appeared as it by magic, in every village, town and city in every 
part of tlie state from the great river to the Alabama line, and from the Tennessee border to 
the galf. The mania for banking, the excitement as to railroads, the building of new towns 
(real as well as visionary towns), the purchase of the land itora the Chickasaws and Choc- 
taws, the creation of new counties, the demand throughout the world for more cotton, the 
rapidly increasing population through emigration from the old states as well as from 
Europe, the opening of the delta of the Mississippi with its virgin lands of truly wonderful 
productiveness, with the extraordinary political contests of 1840, 1850, 1851 and 1860, no 
doubt combined to cause the extraordinary increase in the number of public journals, and to 
build up and strengthen those already long established. During the bank period, especially, 
from 1836 to 1840, the wildest schemes for villages and towns and cities were planned, and 
every one had its newspaper, while the whole state resounded with the woodsman's ax and the 
plowman's merry song. No other people on the continent, perhaps, were ever so prosperous 
as were the people of Mississippi from 1845 to 1860, and it was a substantial and solid pros- 
perity ; and the press was in its glory. 

Holly Springs, Columbus, Aberdeen, Coffeeville, Canton, Hernando, Oxford, Yazoo City, 
Carrollton and Lexington, in the northern part of the state, and Liberty, Woodville, Monti- 
cello, Fayette and various others, then mere villages, in the southern counties, came to the 
front, and in each was planted one or more printing presses, and from them were issued 
creditable journals, brimful of political matter, state and Federal. There was no use for 
neutral or independent papers in those stirring times, for the public appetite craved politics, 
politics only, in good column articles, at the hand of the newspaper. 

Among the towns hewn out of tlie high hills and dense pine forests at this period (be- 
tween 1830 and 1840), was Raymond, for the county seat of Hinds county. The geograph- 
ical center of the county was found, and there a courthouse was to be built, and Raymond 
was the name taken, and Raymond at once assumed an air of importance, and a very con- 
siderable town arose from the thick forest, as if by magic, and to the prospective city at 
once removed a number of the ablest young lavfyers of the state. Among them were H. S. 
Foote, Anderson Hutchison, A. R. Johnston, T. J. Wharton, E. W. F. Sloan, John Shelton, 
William M. Rives, etc., and for a decade or more the sessions of the court in Raymond had a 
bar from abroad, consisting of S. S. Prentiss, Powhattan Ellis, Governor McNutt, P. W. 
Tompkins, W. A. Lake, John I. Guion, Judge Sharkey, and other men of like repute. Before 
a house was fully completed a printing press was brought in, and the Public Echo, by S. T. 
King, a 10xl2-inch sheet, was issued, which was succeeded, in 1836, by the Raymond Times, 
by King & Dabney; which gave place, in 1841, to the Southwestern Farmer, by King, North, 
Jenkins & Phillips; which gave place, in 1844, to the Raymond Gazette, by George W. 
Harper and S. T. King. In 1852 King retired, and Harper continued as publisher and 
editor until 1884 — making an uninterrupted editorship of forty years by George W. Harper 
— when he turned the establishment over to his son, SamuelD. Harper, who had been engaged 


in the office since 1870, by whom it is still edited and published — perhaps the oldest con- 
tinuously published paper in the state. During its publication the office was once destroyed 
by fire (1859), and once by General Grant's invading army (1863). Within the same time 
Raymond had the Comet, the Snag Boat, the Fencible, and the Young Christian, all of 
which were short lived. 

Brandon, Rankin county, came to the surface as a progressive town about the year 1830. 
Andrew Harper established a creditable newspaper there, which in 1852, became the prop- 
erty of A. J. Prantz, who continues its publication to this day, having breasted triumphantly 
all the storms which have howled so fiercely and so unmercifully around him. A number of 
other papers have appeared in Brandon since the establishment of the Republican, some 
before the Civil war, and some since the war, but they have fallen by the wayside. 

During the war period, 1860 to 1865, the fortunes of the newspaper press in Mississippi 
were most trying and overwhelming. The first great difficulty that presented itself was the 
want of practical printers — men to set the type, work the press, and manage the office. 
Printers, of all classes of American citizens, are eminent when the country needs friends 
and protection, when patriotism calls, when honor is at stake. It is not strange, then, that 
when the drums beat for volunteers in 1861, that very nearly every able-bodied printer was 
anxious to enroll; that the printers, almost to a man, shouldered muskets and fell into line, 
announcing their readiness and anxiety to march instantly for the hottest of the fight. Very 
nearly every printing office in the state was at once without a working force, while many 
were left utterly prostrate — editors, printers, pressmen, devils, and all, having taken up 
arms in defense of their beloved Southland. And very soon a greater difficulty presented 
itself. Females and children could in time acquire some knowledge of type-setting and the 
routine work of the small printing office — but paper, paper on which to print — was soon the 
great overshadowing want. It could not be obtained. It was not in the Confederacy in 
anything like a sufficient supply — it could not be manufactured here, for the material was 
wanting and the machinery was not within reach. It could not be brought from abroad, for 
the North would not supply it, nor would the Northern gunboats allow it to be brought from 
foreign countries. Frequently were papers seen in 1863 and 1864 printed on coarse brown 
wrapping paper, on common wall paper, on sheets torn from large blank books, etc. The 
invading armies, too, contributed largely to the suppression of the newspapers. The print- 
ing offices, as the invading armies came upon them, were pretty generally destroyed, some 
by fire and some by ordinary means of destruction. We do not now remember that, when 
the war closed, April, 1865, there was a legitimate newspaper in the state in regular publi- 
cation. The invaders had swept the field, had blotted out the newspaper press, and in a 
manner before unheard of in the annals of civilized warfare. For instance, an Iowa regi- 
ment was quartered for a day or two (in 1868) in Raymond. Some of its men proceeded at 
once to the village printing office, which they found utterly unprotected. They used the 
material for their own purposes, and then dumped it into an adjacent well, forty feet deep! 
Other printing offices, as they encountered them on their onward march, were treated even 
more harshly. 

With the brushing away in 1866 of the terrible and fearful effects of the war, no people 
in the state went to work more energetically and efficiently than the journalists, editors, pub- 
lishers and printers, and no industry was guided by more skillful hands, more earnest desire, 
or was more successful. The old papers, for the most part (at least in name), were permitted 
to slumber, and new papers came bristling forth from almost every town and city of the state, 
north, south, east and west. New type, new and improved printing machinery, and new edit- 


ors (for the most part), had the field, and patriotically and well did they improve the oppor- 
tunity afforded. Jackson, Vioksburg, Natchez, Meridian, and the other cities of the state, 
especially, at once came up abreast with the cities of the surrounding states, issuing sheets 
which, in their contents, compared most favorably with any in the land, and for a time all 
were highly successful as literary, political and pecuniary ventures. At Jackson, there was 
the Mississippian, by Yerger; the Clarion, by Shannon; the Standard, by Power, Hamilton 
and Jones, with A. R. Johnson as editor, and others. At Vicksburg, there was the Herald, by 
Swords and Partridge; the Times, by McCardle, Manlove and H. Shannon. At Natchez, there 
was the Democrat, \)j Botto; the Courier, by Hillyer, and others; at Meridian, the Mercury, 
Tropic, etc. And in every other part of the state the press was up with, if not far ahead of, all 
other enterprises, and gallantly battling for the rights of the people, for the rights of the 
state, and for its favorites for the public offices. 

In June, 1866, some of the editors and publishers met for the purpose of organizing a 
press association. The meeting was held at the capitol in Jackson, and J. M. Partridge, of 
the Vicksburg Herald, presided. The following was the membership roll at this first 
meeting : 

Jackson Clarion and Standard — J. J. Shannon, Jones S. Hamilton, B. F. Jones, J. L. 
Power. Jackson Mississippian — E. W. Yerger; Christian Watchman, A. N. Kimball, H. M. 
Aikin. Brandon Republican — A. J. Prantz. Meridian Tropic — Jere Gibson. Vicksburg 
Herald — J. M. Partridge, J. M. Swords. Vicksburg Journal — T. B. Manlove. Handsboro 
Democrat — P. K. Mayers. Lexington Ad,vertiser — J. D. Houston. Canton Mail — Singleton 
Garrett. Brookhaven Journal — S. W. Dale. Panola Star — M. S. Ward. Natchez Demo- 
crat — J. P. Mead. Mississippi Conservative — J. L. McGullum, P. T. Cooper. 

Journalism had assumed its proper business proportions and its proper attitude when 
the 1870 decade was ushered in. Almost every county in the state had its newspaper journal 
or journals, and its well-known editor or editors, and the Mississippi was marching on in the 
faithful discharge of its duty. There was the Jackson Clarion, with Power & Barksdale; 
the Natchez Democrat, with Thomas Grafton; the Goodman Star, with McCullum & Wal- 
pole; the Brookhaven Citizen, with Cassidy; the Hazlehurst Copiahan, with Vance; the 
Port Gibson Reveille, with J. S Mason; the Handsboro Democrat, with Mayers; the Winona 
Democrat, with Boothe; the Oxford Falcon, with Thompson; the Vicksburg Herald, with 
Spears & Jewel; the Crystal Springs Herald, with Stackhouse; the Canton Herald, with 
Garrette; the Water Valley Central, with Brown; the Charleston News, with Hall; the 
Brandon Republican, with Prantz; the Eaymond Gazette, with George W. Harper; the Holly 
Springs Reporter, with Falconer; the Panola Star, with Eandolph; the Senatobia Times, 
with Shands; the Summit Times, with Cooper; the luka Gazette, with Davis; the Scooba 
Spectator, with Woods, etc. It is true that at this period the Federal government was 
holding Mississippi by the throat, but the newspapers, with but here and there an exception, 
were outspoken, bold and defiant. Indeed, as shown by the press, there was fire in the air, 
and they were but awaiting a favorarble opportunity to restore the proud state of Mississippi 
to the custodianship of the Anglo-Saxon people vi'ithin its borders. 

The Press association organized in 1866, was revived in 1874, and on its rolls were 
entered not only the business and practical men of the press, but the editors, publishers and 
reporters. In 1875 it was in its prime, and its ranks contained the following heroic list: 
Jackson Clarion, E. Barksdale, J. L. Powers; Jackson Sunburst, S. R. Jones; Jackson Vin- 
dicator, E. G. Wall, D. Denneit, E. Elliott; Jackson Banner, Rev. C. B. Galloway; Vicks- 
burg Herald, W. H. McCardle; Brandon Republican, A. J. Prantz; Yazoo Herald, J. L. 


McCuUum; Summit Sentinel, H. S. Bonney, N. P. Bonney; Mississippi Democrat, J. D. 
Burke; Crystal Springs Monitor, J. S. Harris, C. N. Harris; Raymond Gazette, George 
W. Harper, Samuel D. Harper; Southern Homestead, J. J. Shannon; Enterprise Courier, 
W. J. Adams; Forest Register, S. Davis; Calhoun Democrat, I. T. Blount; Columbus 
Index, G. C. Tucker; West Point Citizen, D. L. Love; Winona Advance, H. D. Money, 
B. r. Jones; Canton Mail, E. L. Eoss; Holly Springs Reporter, W. J. L. Holland; 
Holly Springs South, H. C. Myers; Oxford Falcon, I. M. Howry; Rural Gentleman, 
J. M. Davis; Durant Advertiser, J. S. Hoskins; Central Star, R. Walpole: Nev?ton Ledger, 
R. H. Henry; Hernando Press, Ira D. Oglesby; Handsboro Democrat, P. E. Mayers; Talla- 
hatchie News, L. G. Polk; Yazoo Democrat, Frank Campbell; Aberdeen Examiner, H. R. 
Dixon; Carthagenian, L. W. Garrett; Panola Star, J. A. Pope; A^'inona Pioneer, C. M. 
Erwin; Water Valley Courier, F. M. Merrin; Senatobia Times, G. D. Shands. 

In 1875 occurred the grand overthrovr of carpetbag and negro rule in the state, which 
had prevailed for five or six years, and the reestablishment of white supremacy, and it may 
be justly said that the battle was fought, on the part of the white race, by the journals and 
journalists enumerated above. Great credit was awarded them at the time and the recollec- 
tion of their efforts in behalf of the white people and their rights under the Federal constitu- 
tion are not yet forgotten. 

The press of Mississippi to-day is infinitely stronger and more commanding in its 
influence than ever before, and its number is greater. The papers are, in the main, larger, 
better printed, better edited and better arranged than ever before, and it is reasonable to 
conclude that they are better supported, that is to say, have a better paying and more com- 
manding patronage than at any former period. Besides, the association and other causes, 
have brought about a better understanding among the business managers and editors, and 
to-day a better feeling exists among the newspaper journals and journalists, than ever before. 
And hence it is, tBat the newspaper press now commands a respect from the educated and 
patriotic people, and has a pecuniary support, in and out of the state, never before enjoyed. 
A half century ago there were two magnificent newspaper journals at Washington city, whose 
political utterances controlled the newspapers of the country, and in turn the newspapers out- 
side of Washington formed the political sentiments of the two grand parties of the country 
of those years. One was the National Intelligencer, the national organ of the old whig party; 
the other, the Globe, the organ of the old democratic party. The two old parties received 
their orders through the two magnificent papers named, and there were none to object — none 
to rebel. Now, however, Washington city and its newspapers do not inspire the people of 
distant states — have really no influence whatever in molding public opinion or controlling 
public sentiment — certainly not in Mississippi. The public men and newspapers of the state 
now mold and control public sentiment here; and hence it is that more care is observed in 
the conduct of the state press, and that more patronage is bestowed. It is safe to say that 
the seventy-four counties of the state have to-day more than one hundred daily, weekly and 
monthly journals, and that all are well conducted and apparently prosperous. It is true, 
that now, Claiborne, Marschalk, McCardle, Price, Adams, Prewitt, Mason, Johnston, Hillyer, 
Botto, Grafton, Jenkins, Cooper, Barksdale, Watson and a host of others, who were magnifi- 
cent editors in past years, are gone from the press — gone, as to the most of them, to that land 
whence no traveler returns, yet the press of the state to-day stands out in all its grand- 
eur, purity and strength, challenging the admiration of all intelligent and patriotic men 
of every race and nationality. 

Mississippi, a rural state, without other publishing houses than„ those controlled by the 


county newspaper press, has offered few temptations and little encouragement to bookmakers, 
and yet if time was afforded — and considerable time would be needed — to assemble the facts 
the commonwealth would make quite a presentable showing. 

In the matter of history, Col. J. H. F. Claiborne, of Natchez, in his story of the settle- 
ment and progress of the commonwealth, has left to chroniclers an amount of data that is 

Hon. Jefferson Davis, of Beauvoir, has given the world in his memoirs, — completed by 
his wife— a work that is destined to hold a lasting place in literature. 

Gen. Reuben Davis, of Aberdeen, in his recollection of Mississippians written in his old 
age, has given the world a book of generally conceded power and merit. 

Ex-Governor Lowry and Col. William H. McCardle, of Jackson, have just issued from the 
Clarion-Ledger press, of that city, a history of Mississippi that in addition to being exhaust- 
ive in its reach and scope is a work exhibiting literary excellence, and is soon to be followed 
by a school history from the same pens and press. 

Miss Duval, of Sardis, has published a school history of Mississippi that possesses great 
merit and has been adopted as a text book in several counties. 

Chancellor Edward Mayes, of the state university, has just completed — to be published 
under the auspices of the United States Bureau of Education — a history of education and 
educational institutions in the territory and state of Mississippi that will take rank as among 
the ablest books of the kind ever given to the American press. 

Capt. John R. Lynch, of West Point, published, a few years ago, a book on the bar and 
bench of Mississippi that had an extensive sale and possessed great merit. He also pub- 
lished in book form a history of the thrilling events that occurred in Kemper county during 
the days of military reconstruction, that has been regarded as an important addition to the 
literature of that stormy period. 

In general history, the rector of St. James (Protestant Episcopal) chui*h of Port Gibson, 
Rev. Arthur Howard Noll, has written a small work of original research, bearing the title, A 
Short History of Mexico. Mr. Noll is also a magazine writer. 

Several books of poems have been published by ladies of West Point since the war, 
chiefly meeting local demand. 

Col. Holt, of Natchez, deceased, was the author of several works of fiction of rare 

Prof. E. W. Hilgard, while a member of the faculty'of the state university, v^rote and pub- 
lished a work upon the geology of Mississippi that has ever since been regarded as an 
authority upon the subject. He was followed in the same line by Prof. Harper, with a valua- 
ble publication. 

Miss Ellen Martin, of Vicksburg, has written a novel of considerable power, and has 
written much in other lines. 

Miss Poitevant, of Pearlington, Miss., Johnnie Hunt, of Vicksburg, and many others 
whose names I can not hastily recall, have published charming collections of poems, and from 
the earliest days of Mississippi her local journals and those of Mobile, New Orleans and 
Memphis, have contained poems from the pens of Mississippi's sons and daughters that would 
be regarded as gems wherever published or read, and you can seldom open an issue of New 
Orleans Sunday paper, without finding in some poem or other writing of merit over a 
Mississippi name and date. 

Magazine writing has largely engaged the attention of our people, and as we have no such 
publications within our bounds, the little waifs have generally found auditors among strangers, 

May 25 to July 4,1863. 

CON FEDERATES... Z7^\V//=\\ 


The very hilly condition of 
the country is not shown on 
the map. 



and the authors have been content to accept pecuniary compensation in lieu of local fame 
and neighborhood praise. 

It is the vicinity of the factory and machine shop that prompts mechanical research and 
encourages inventing or at least patenting. It is the vicinage of publishing houses and mag- 
azine offices that encourages literary production and stimulates ambition to appear as authors 
or bookmakers. A iew years ago, Maj. K. M. Bradford, of Aberdeen, wrote a most charming 
and beautiful fairy tale. Had a publishing house been convenient, he vyould probably have 
sought an audience, but being very poor and forced to work hard for a livelihood, he delayed 
sending forward his production, and it is probably now moldering among other hoarded 

Prof. G. M. Lovejoy, of Aberdeen, has recently written an epic poem that will make a book 
of several hundred pages, and probably create a decided sensation when given to the world. 
Men and women in various parts of this state are taking out a livelihood by receipts from 
prominent publications for stories, essays and poems. In dialect stories and poems — Negro 
dialect — many of our people have obtained entry to leading journals and magazines, and 
many a " prose poem " has come from pens, the world ought to know — in the way of news- 
paper communications — that were of very high and rare literary excellence. 

In the lecture field and in the matter of contributions to medical journals and associa- 
tions, we have heard and read many wonderful Mississippi productions. Among the authors 
at this writing the following names occur: Dr. Hill, of Macon; Dr. Ward, of Winona; Drs. J. 
M. Greene, E. P. Sale, John T. Lowe and W. G. Evans, Jr., of Aberdeen; A. H. Whitfield 
and Edward Mayes, of Oxford; P. G. Barry, of West Point; E. H. Bristow, of Aberdeen; 
Major Magruder, of Vicksburg; Bobert Mcintosh, of Meridian; E. L. Bussell, of Tupelo; Gen. 
S. D. Lee, of Starkville. 

Among the writers who have published books in Mississippi upon practical or progres- 
sive themes, one may recall Dr. D. L. Phares, of Woodville, whose work upon the grasses 
and herbage plants of the gulf states is exhaustive upon those subjects and regarded in all 
quarters as standard authority. Dr. Phares has also published a work of great merit upon 
the diseases of domestic animals. 

In the progressive line Mr. A. B. Hurst, of Winona, under commission from the agri- 
cultural department, a few years ago compiled and published a very valuable book in 
regard to the resources and productions of Mississippi. 

In the field of statistics we have had many able writers, while finance and tariff have 
supplied texts that have given Mississippians great audiences through the magazines and 
metropolitan press. Among these writers in olden times was Eobert J. Walker, whose pen 
won him the Federal treasury portfolio. 

Lacking other fields, the tendency of Mississippi writers has been toward the newspaper 
press, and to-day one finds them mainly filling the Memphis " sanctuaries," and upon lead- 
ing journals in all large American cities, while in our state there are many obscure country 
journals whose columns in each succeeding issue contain as able editorials as the American 
press can anywhere exhibit. These people if invited into a broader field would win fame 
and fortune, but literature is timid as a general rule, and its true devotees are wofully lack- 
ing in all of the aggressive attributes of the pioneer. They do not know their own power, 
as a general rule, and where knowing it doubt their ability to obtain acknowledgment from 




(5 I HE repeated references lo the old physicians of Miseissippi, made in other chapters 
* I of this work, leaves little to be written here. In all the principal American settle- 
ments of the state the physician was then found, but the sparse population and com- 
parative freedom from dangerous diseases, afPorded him but little opportunity to exhibit 
those high qualities of mind and body which are manifested daily by his brother of modern 
times. There is scarcely a necessity for him to think; for he felt that 

" God takes the good, too good on earth to stay, 
And leaves the bad, too bad to take away." 

In 1828 some exception was taken to their views. Dr. Reuben Davis disagreed with 
their method of treatment pursued by Drs. Gray and Holland during the pneumonia epi- 
demic of that year. Their patients dying daily, even Dr. Davis confessed to a man named 
Harall that he killed one of his negro boys by the same treatment that Gray and Holland 
observed. Davis' bold confession and his advocacy of whisky and Peruvian bark, attached 
the people to him, and he was very successful. In 1838 he moved to Aberdeen from Athens. 
The rebellion against old methods has been carried on from that time down to 1870, when 
the whole system appears to have been revolutionized, and new ideas of cause, effect and 
remedy installed. Dr. Wirt Johnston, in his address to the medical association, in April, 
1883, reviewed the profession in Mississippi as it stands to-day. He pointed to the progress 
made by the professon, and credited the association of physicians with that progress. 
He said: 

"The association together of the members of a learned and liberal profession is not 
purposeless. The advancement of medical knowledge, the elevation of the character and 
standing of the profession and the enlargement of its sphere of usefulness to the public, 
and, incidentally, the enjoyment of social pleasures, are among the definite and practical 
objects in view. I dare say there is not one among us who does not return to his home 
after these annual meetings with a consciousness that something has been learned, with a 
more elevated opinion of his profession, and with freshly-aroused interest in the work before 
him. It is true that by individual efPort one may acquire' distinction and wealth, but it is 
to be expected that well-directed organized work alone will result in general and permanent 
good to the whole profession. I am proud to-day to be able to congratulate you upon the 
success and standing of this association. It is strong in numbers and intelligence, and upon 
its roll of members are the names of many of the most learned and eminent of the medical 
profession in the state. It can be said to be on a sure and permanent foundation, and it 


is safe to predict for it a future of great usefulness. Its scientific papers will compare 
favorably with those of kindred organizations, and have received favorable comment from 
the medical press of the country. This, while gratifying, should only serve to stimulate 
us to greater improvement. 

"Scientific contributions, original in character, while being those most desired, receive 
the largest share of attention, and are calculated to reflect the greatest amount of credit 
upon their authors. But to originate, it is evident that the most patient research and 
investigation and careful observation are necessary. There are, however, broad, unculti- 
vated fields before us into which all earnest workers would be welcomed and which give 
promise of a rich harvest. The profession to-day seeks eagerly for every original contribu- 
tion and is ready to honor the author of every new discovery. We constantly encounter 
diseases v?hose etiology and pathology are imperfectly understood and whose treatment is 
not based upon sound principles. The list is long, and soine time would be required to even 
enumerate them. 

"There is one cause of disease especially, however, whose influence is so widespread 
and whose manifestations in their protean forms are so often encountered that it deserves 
and should receive a large share of our attention. To ascertain what malaria is would 
immortalize any one. To ascertain the exact pathology of and proper treatment for hsema- 
turic and other forms of hemorrhagic malarial fever, and malarial continued fever, would 
surely bring distinction. I venture to suggest to the association, as a means of encour- 
aging original investigation and research among our members, that prize essays be invited. 
A commendable spirit of competition might thus be aroused, which would, no doubt, 
result in the production of papers that would add to the reputation of their authors and 
reflect credit upon the association. The essays should be original in character and upon 
some practical subject. At each annual meeting a sum of money could be appropriated 
out of the treasury for the procru-ement of a suitable prize, a subject selected and a com- 
mittee appointed to decide between the competitors and award the prize. The prize essay 
and such of the others as may be deemed worthy and of sufficient interest could be read 
before the association. A number of interesting and valuable contributions to the literature 
of the profession might by this means be obtained. 

"For the elevation of the character and standing of the medical profession and to enlarge 
its sphere of usefulness, this association, while it has already done much, is capable of doing 
more. Through it the physicians of the state are brought together annually for interchange 
of views, to place upon record such information of value as they may have acquired, and 
for the discussion of matters of interest to the profession with a view to the advancement of 
its interests. By it also the public are made aware that the physicians of the state are not 
behind in the inarch of progress, but are active in their efforts to advance science and are 
desirous, as citizens, of discharging the duty to the state for which they are peculiarly fitted 
by virtue of their calling. 

"It was through your efforts that a law was enacted by the last legislature to regulate 
the practice of medicine in this state. A law which, if it should continue in operation, and 
is wisely administered, is sure, in the course of time, to elevate the character of the profes- 
sion. It will not only accomplish this, but will also result in even more good to the people 
of the state, as by it they will be protected in life from the ignorance of the incompetent, and 
in purse from the cupidity of quacks. Section seventeen of the law is liberal in its spirit, 
and was so construed by the attorney-general, and under its provisions some obtained 
, license, it is true, who fall short of the standard erected by this association for the admission 


of its members and who are not physicians in accordance with a strictly technical definition 
of the term. This section became inoperative after June 30, 1882, at which time the pros- 
pective operation of the law commenced. Now only two kinds of licenses are provided for, 
one of which serves a temporary purpose only, as it becomes void at the time of the first 
meeting of the censors succeeding its issuance, aud which, under the rules of the board of 
health, can only be issued to graduates; the other can only be procured after passing a sat- 
isfactory examination before the censors. It seems to me that the standard thus erected is 
high enough, and that the only point in the law as it now stands upon which there could be 
any difference of opinion among the members of the regular profession, is the requirement 
that those holding diplomas from medical colleges of good standing shall also undergo an 
examination. It was doubtless thought by the authors of the law that it would be proper 
in urging its passage to give to the legislature the assurance that regular graduates were 
willing to be subjected to the same test as to competency as it was asked should be applied 
to those who hold no diplomas. 

"As it may be of some interest to those present to learn something of the number and char- 
acter of the licentiates, as well as the result of the examinations by the censors, the follow- 
ing statement is made: , Number of licenses issued under the provisions of section seventeen 
of the law, 1,785; number issued after examination by the censors, 55; making a total of 
1,840 licentiates. This, it is fair to presume, approximates closely to the number of practi- 
tioners of medicine in this state. Taking the last census of the state it shows that there is 
one licentiate to about every 615 of population. There are, as shown by the applications, 
1,180 graduates, 149 non-graduates, and 511 who fail to state whether or not they are grad- 
uates, and whom it is fair to suppose are not graduates, or they would have so stated in their 
applications. The licentiates belong to the different schools of practice as follows: Eegular 
and allopathic, 158; eclectic, 84; homeopathic, 11; botanic, 7; botanic and eclectic, 4; allo- 
pathic and mineral, 5; eclectic and allopathic, 8; mineral, 11; allopathic and botanic, 2; 
eclectic or reformed, 1; hydropathic, 1; eclectic, allopathic and homeopathic, 1; dosimetric, 
1; physio-medical, 1; idiopathic, 1; herb doctor 1; root doctor, 1; and 119 who either state no 
school or use obscure expressions. The censors have examined 60 applicants, of which 55 
received a favorable endorsement and 5 were refused license. 

' 'In another particular, gentlemen, you are not only up with the times, but occupy a posi- 
tion in the front of the army of progress. It was with you that the idea of a state board of 
health originated, and through your efforts that it came into existence. At first, it is true, 
it was created without power and pecuniary means, but by your assistance it is now clothed 
with ample power, has abundant resources at its command, and is in a position to render 
efficient service to the state. 

' ' Preventive medicine, yet in its infancy, has made wonderful progress in late years, and 
has already been of incalculable benefit to mankind, but it is reasonable to assume that 
future investigations, conducted with the same precision that has characterized them in the 
past, will elucidate much that is now obscure in the etiology of disease, and as a consequence 
lead on to accurate methods of prevention. Let me suggest that this subject presents an 
inviting field for investigation and is worthy of the attention of every one who is desirous of 
contributing to science or who has the good of mankind at heart. That the public are not 
fully informed of the great protection that proper sanitation offers to their health and lives 
is but too evident. It is a subject which does not receive the share of attention it deserves, 
and upon us especially it devolves to inform the people of its importance." 

In the early years of the state Dr. Samuel Brown, Dr. William M. Gwin, Dr. Stephen 


Duncan, who was also president of the Bank of Mississippi, and other physicians, directed 
the profession along the Mississippi front. Dr. Eobert Dalton, who came from North 
Carolina to Aberdeen, Dr. John Clopton, Dr. Hatch, Dr. John M. Tindall, the Sykes 
brothers, all of Aberdeen; Dr. Green, of Pontotoc, Dr. Higgason and Dr. Reuben Davis, of 
AtheUp; Drs. Gray and Holland and a few younger men controlled the profession in the 
eastern counties. Sixty years ago their rulings on medical and sanitary subjects were laws 
to be observed. Today physicians wonder how any one escaped from their hands alive. 
Changed conditions of life did necessarily suggest changes in practice, so that the youngest 
physician in the state to-day knows a thousand methods and remedies which were hidden 
from the pioneers of the profession here. 

The roll of members of the Mississippi State Medical association in 1891 is as fol- 

William Aills, Steen's Creek, Rankin; W. N. Ames, Starkville, Oktibbeha; W. H. 
Anderson, Pickens, Holmes; J. A. Alexander, Bolton, Hinds; M. J. Alexander, Austin, 

John Brownrigg, Columbus, Lowndes; J. L. Baskin, Itta Bena, Leflore; J. W. Ben- 
nett, Brookhaven, Lincoln; T. G. Birchett, Vicksburg, Warren; O. C. Brothers, West Point, 
Clay; J. H. Blanks, Nashville, Tenn. ; H. P. Brisbane, Vicksburg, Warren; W. H. 
Barr, Starkville, Oktibbeha; T. T. Beall, Vicksburg, Warren; G. P. Blundell, Yazoo City, 
Yazoo; J. M. Buchanan, Meridian, Lauderdale; J. C. Brooks, Bolivar, Bolivar; F. A. 
Brizzell, Areola, Washington; E. L. Buck, Jackson, Hinds ; A. J. Borroum, Corinth, Alcorn; 
J. B. Bailey, Conehatta, Newton; J. T. B. Berry, Brandon, Rankin; G. M. Barrier, 
Alsatia, La. ; W. D. Bragg, Moss Point, Jackson; H. D. Butler, Wilzinski, Washing- 
ton; T. E. Butler, Glen Allen, Washington; E. R. Bragg, Moss Point, Jackson; A. S. 
Baugh, Polkville, Smith; J. D. Barfield, Mayfield, Montgomery; J. P. Bailey, Bailey's, 
Lauderdale; E. S. Beadles, Water Valley, Yalobusha; Patton R. Brown, Liddell, Mont- 
gomery; William Ball, Greenville, Washington; C. W. Bufkin, Vosburg, Jasper; W. T. 
Bolton, Perkinston, Harrison; W. C. Brooke, Meridian, Lauderdale; Mimms Blewett, 
Meridian, Lauderdale; J. A. Barber, Meridian, Lauderdale; E. M. Bishop, Corinth, Alcorn; 
M. Britt, Como, Panola. 

J". A. Crisler, Livingston, Madison; C. P. Conerly, Summit, Pike; N. G. Carter, Rip- 
ley, Tippah; N. L. Clarke, A. S., Meridian, Lauderdale; Matthew Clay, Vicksburg, War- 
ren; J. T. Chandler, V. P., Oxford, Lafayette; A. P. Champlin, Bay St. Louis, Harrison; 

B. B. Carson, Durant, Holmes; G. M. D. Chester, Free Run, Yazoo; B. L. Culley, Jack- 
son, Hinds; B. D. Cooper, Mansfield, La.; Henry Christmas, Tchula, Holmes; J. M. Catch- 
ings, Georgetown, Copiah; A. L. Cannon, Indianola, Sunflower; P. M. Catchings, George- 
town, Copiah; S. K. Coleman, Canton, Madison; L. M. Clark, Newton, Newton; J. G. 
Cherry, Lumberton, Pearl river; H. L. Crook, Pelahatchie, Rankin; H. C. Cook, Augusta, 

J. D. Dabney, Tchula, Holmes; Chesley Daniel, Holly Springs, Marshall; M. G. Davis, 
Greenwood, Leflore; R. L. Dunn, Yazoo City, Yazoo; B. F. Duke, Lake Como Jasper; G. 
T. Darden, Blanton, Sharkey; B. A. Duncan, West Point, Clay; J. C. Denson, Ludlow, 
Scott; S. R. Dunn, V. P., Greenville, Washington; J. W. Dulaney, Rosedale, Bolivar; D. 
M. Diggs, Black Hawk, Carroll; S. T. Dunning, Utica, Hinds; J. L. Dodge, Bolivar, Boli- 
var; S. R. Deans, Abbott, Clay; John E. Davis, Ben Lomand, Issaquena. 

*Throughout the list the letter P. denotes service as president; V. P., vice president; E. S., recording secretary: 

C. S., corresponding secretary; A. S., assistant secretary; T., treasurer; 0., orator; *, removed from the state. 


C. C. Ewing, Aberdeen, Monroe; W. A. Evans, Jr., Aberdeen, Monroe; J. W. Elliott, 
Lake City, Yazoo; L. C. Elliott, Yazoo City, Yazoo; J. D. Egger, Caledonia, Lowndes. 

J. M. Farrish, Satartia, Yazoo; J. S. Featherston, Brooksville, Noxubee; T. W. Fulli- 
love, Vaiden, Carroll; F. B. Forbes, Othello, Tunica; T. B. Ford, Columbia, Marion; F. 
L. Fulgham, Jackson, Hinds; T. W. Foster, Zeiglerville, Yazoo; Frank Ferrell, Asl^and, 

Harris A. Gant, Water Valley, Yalobusha; W. P. Gatlin, McComb City, Pike; W. R. 
Greenlee, Harriston, Jefferson; S. C. Gholson, Holly Springs, Marshall; W. F. Gresham, 
Durant, Holmes; N. C. Gulledge, Durant, Holmes; T. H. Gordon, Oakland, Grenada; N. 
L. Guice, P. Natchez, Adams; F. H. Gulledge, Jackson, Hinds; H. S. Gully, Meridian, 
Lauderdale; J. M. Greene, V. P., P., Aberdeen, Monroe; J. B. Gresham, V. P., P., West 
Point, Clay; D. M. Gardner, Oxford, Lafayette; R. W. Gulledge, Durant, Holmes; F. L. 
Gipson, Pelahatchie, Rankin; D. W. Goodman, Matherville, Wayne; J. W. Gilbert, 
Verona, Lee; Walton S. Greene, Aberdeen, Monroe; J. C. Gathings, Prairie Station, 

S. H. Howard, Tchula, Holmes; A. C. Halbert, Cobb Switch, Lowndes; J. D. Harrell, 
De Soto, Clarke; C. R. Henderson, Deasonville, Yazoo; A. B. Holder, Memphis, Tenn. ; 
C. M. Henderson, Sardis, Panola; J. J. Harralson, Conehatta, Newton; George W. Howard, 
Vicksburg, Warren; W. F. Hyer, T., V. P., P., Meridian, Lauderdale; J. C. Hall, Anguilla, 
Sharkey; William Preston Hughes, Port Gibson, Claiborne; George K. Harrington, Jackson, 
Hinds; H. H. Harralson, Forest, Scott; O. A. Harrison, Meridian, Lauderdale; J. E. 
Halbert, V. P., Mound Landing, Washington; W. W. Hamilton, Brooksville, Noxubee; 
R. E. Howard, Durant, Holmes; C. S. Hudson, Yazoo City, Yazoo; T. R. Henderson, 
Greenwood, Leflore; T. A. Heath, Hays' Landing, Issaquena; J. P. Hamer, Kilmichael, 
Montgomery; J. M. Hicks, Goodman, Holmes; J. F. Hunter, T., Jackson, Hinds; G. S. 
Hunter, A. S., Bolton, Hinds; W. W. Hall, Meridian, Lauderdale; W. R. Harper, Rolling 
Fork, Sharkey; D. S. Humphreys, Leota Landing, Washington; A. G. Hall, Natchez, 
Adams; R. M. Hand, Shubuta, Clarke; H. B. Hunter, Decatur, Newton. 

Thomas D. Isom, Oxford, Lafayette; T. G. Ivy, West Point, Clay; B. W. Inman 
Woodville, Wilkinson; Henry Izard, Meridian, Lauderdale; George Izard, Meridian, 

Wirt Johnston, R. S., P., Jackson, Hinds; R. B. Johnson, Kirkwood, Madison; Charles 
H. Jones, Greenville, Washington; C. W. Jordan, West Point, Clay; R. E. Jones, Crystal 
Springs, Copiah; W. T. Johnson, Black Hawk, Carroll; J. W. Jordan, Black Hawk, Carroll; 
E. P. Jones, Herman ville, Claiborne; L. H. Jones, Phoenix, Yazoo; L. C. Jones, Madison 
Station, Madison; J. O. Jones, Beulah, Bolivar; W. W. Johnson, Melvin, Choctaw. 

R. S. Knox, Enterprise, Clarke; Carroll Kendrick, Corinth, Alcorn; B. F. Kittrell, 
V. P., O., P., Black Hawk, Carroll; D. A. Kinchloe, Star Place, Panola; A. C. Kuykendall, 
Grenada, Grenada; W. G. Kiger, Brunswick, Warren; J. G. Knox, Toomsuba, Lauder- 
dale; W. T. Kendal], Meridian, Lauderdale; W. S. Kent, Sharon, Madison. 

W. B. Loyd, Myles, Copiah; T. P. Lockwood, Crystal Springs, Copiah; John H. Lucas, 

* Greenwood, Leflore; W. C. Lawrence, Crawfordsville, Lowndes; Robert Lowry, Canton, 

Madison; M. J. Lowry, Meridian, Lauderdale; John Long, Coffadeliah, Neshoba; J. H. 

Love, Newport, Attala; George W. Luster, Cayuga, Hinds; Buford Larkins, Oakdale, 


M. V. B. Miller, Meridian, Lauderdale; C. M. Murry, Ripley, Tippah; S. A. Morris, 
Belzonia, Washington; H. C. McLaurin, Brandy wine, Claiborne; W. H. Miller, Okolona, 


Chickasaw; J. H. Murfee, Okolona, Chickasaw; D. McCallum, V. P., Westvil]e, 
Simpson; P. J. Maxwell, Columbus, Lowndes; Thomas H. Mays, Columbus, Lowndes; 
L. M. Mays, Graysport, Grenada; P. J. McCormick, Yazoo City, Yazoo; T. J. Mitchell, 
Jackson, Hinds; J. P. Moore, V. P., Yazoo City, Yazoo; T. H. Marselis, Nunnery, 
Amit% George H. McNeil, Newton, Newton; A. G. McLaurin, Trenton, Smith; J. F. 
Moore, Enterprise, Clarke; W. Myles, Port Gibson, Claiborne; William McSwine, Grenada, 
Grenada; R. C. Mylea, New York; H. A. Minor, Macon, Noxubee; E. L. McGehee, Wood- 
ville, Wilkinson; L. W. Mabry, Goodman, Holmes; Aurelius Martin, Hardy, Grenada; 
Daniel M. McGehee, Shell Mound, Leflore; D. D. Montgomery, Greenville, Washington; 
J. Y. Murry, Eipley, Tippah; Joseph L. Murrell, Benoit, Bolivar; W. H. McParland, 
Vaiden, Carroll; J. S. McCain, Lexington, Holmes; J. L. McLean, Winona, Montgomery; 
A. McCallum, Edwards, Hinds; A. K. McNair, Fayette, Jefferson; James L. Minor, Mem- 
phis, Tenn. ; M. D. Morgan, Jackson, Hinds; G. M. Mott, Ellisville, Jones; A. L. Morris, 
Lena, Leake; J. H. Maddox, Concordia, Bolivar; E. D. Miller, Clinton, Hinds; Anthony 
Miller, Rosedale, Bolivar; J. W. Malpus, Meridian, Lauderdale; F. McCormack, Vosburg, 
Jasper; W. J. McNair, Quitman, Clarke; J. L. Myers, Meridian, Lauderdale; W. O. McNeill, 
Eucutta, Wayne. 

R. Anderson New, Rodney, Jefferson; E. A. Neely, Memphis, Tenn.; N.Y. Nelson, Myles, 
Copiah; J. O. Newman, Vicksburg, Warren; J. E. Noble, Fannin, Rankin; F. B. Nimocks, 
Lawrence, Newton. 

J. L. Owen, Bonoit, Bolivar; J. F. O'Leary, Shreveport, La. ; T. T. Orendoff, Rolling 
Fork, Sharkey; C. E. Oatis, Hazlehurst, Copiah. 

A. B. Pitts, Hazelhurst, Copiah; K. P. Perkin, Batesville, Panola; J. H. Plunkett, 
Flora, Madison; W. O. Porter, Meridian, Lauderdale; W. M. Paine, Aberdeen, Monroe; 
Joseph B. Perkins, Choctaw Agency, Oktibbeha; J. R. Priace, Summerville, Noxubee; 
Isaac P. Partin, Meridian, Lauderdale; E. B. Poole, Clinton, Hinds; George C. Phillips, 
Lexington, Holmes; G. L. Pope, Stoneville, Washington; B. J. Pate, Sidon, Leflore; C. S. 
Priestley, Canton, Madison; D. L. Phares, Madison Station, Madison; J. B. Pease, Con- 
cordia, Coahoma; W. W. Payne, Meridian, Lauderdale; E. E. Patrick, Lynwood, Rankin. 

R. A. Quin, T., Vicksburg, Warren; D. H. Quin, McComb City, Pike; O. B. Quin, 
McComb City, Pike. 

P. W. Rowland, Coffeeville, Yalobusha; S. D. Robertson, Dover, Yazoo; W. D. Redus, 
Port Gibson, Claiborne; S. M. Rainey, Osborne, Oktibbeha; C. A. Rice, Meridian, Lauder- 
dale; J. H. Rhodes, Learned, Hinds; J. C. Roberts, Centerville, Wilkinson; W. B. Rogers, 
Memphis, Tenn. ; E. W. Rowland, Flora, Madison; S. D. Robbins, Vicksburg, Warren; E. A. 
Rowan, Wesson, Copiah; L. S. Rogers, West, Holmes. 

B. A. Sheppard, Lexington, Holmes ; H. Shannon, V. P. , Nashville, Tenn. ; J. S. Sizer, 
Fort Stevens, Yazoo; E. G. Southall, Jr., Areola, Washington; Z. Y. Scott, Crystal Springs, 
Copiah; S. O.Smith, Ellisville, Jones; A. H. Smith, V. P., Meridian, Lauderdale; J. Mell 
Smith, Coffeeville, Yalobusha ; 'John W. Spellman, Columbus, Lowndes; S. D. G. Scruggs, 
Grenada, Grenada; A. B. Smith, Hatton, Yalobusha; Nolan Stewart, Fort Apache, Ariz.; 
A. P. Sims, Morton, Scott; L. Sexton, Wesson, Copiah, Newton C. Steele, Chattanooga, 
Tenn.; H. L. Sutherland, Bolivar, Bolivar; W. J. Sykes, P., Aberdeen, Monroe; Rob- 
ert Smith, Kosciusko, Attala; A. J. Sanderson, Vaiden, Carroll; E. P. Sale, V. P., P., Mem- 
phis, Tenn.; W. B. Sanford, Corinth, Alcorn; O. J. Sherman* Harrison, Tallahatchie; J. D. 
Staples, Huntsville, Montgomery; J. M. Shivers, Sidon, Leflore; J. M. Shamburger, Toom- 
suba, Lauderdale; W. J. Stevenson, Lauderdale, Lauderdale; J. D. Smythe, Greenville, 


Washington; E. F. Shuler, Greenville, Wasbington; J. A. Shackleford, Greenville, Wash- 
ington; G. A. Spivey*, Texas; C. C. Stockard, Columbus, Lowndes; A. G. Sinclair, Mem- 
phis, Tenn.; Owen Stone, Stoneville, Washington; John Seay, Glenora, Washington; O. H. 
Spence, Utica, Hinds; W. S. Sims, Meridian, Lauderdale. 

J. M. Taylor, V. P., P.; Corinth, Alcorn; R. S. Toombs, P., P. P.; Greenville, Wash- 
ington; T. R. Trotter, Duck Hill, Montgomery; G. W. Trimble, O. P.; Grenada, Grenada; 
J. E. Talbert, Memphis, Tenn.; W. E. Todd, R. S., S. ; Jackson, Hinds; W. A. Taylor, 
Booneville, Prentiss; M. J. Thompson, Meridian, Lauderdale; J. F. Taylor, Anguilla, Shar- 
key; George A. Teunisson, Montioello, Lawrence; B. F. Travis, Heidelburg, Jasper; J. C. 
Terrell, Leland, Washington; M. H. Turner, Brownsville, Hinds; E. S. Turner, Ashland, 
Benton; R. L. Turner, Ellisville, Jones; J. R. Tackett, Pickens, Holmes. 

B. A. Vaughan, V. P., C. S., P., Columbus, Lowndes; G. W. Vassar, Carrolltou, 

J. D. Walker, Kings, Rankin; W. E. Whitehead, Greenwood, Leflore; R. G. Wharton, 
V. P., Port Gibson, Claiborne; John Wright, Sardis, Panola; T. L. Wilburn, Winona, 
Montgomery; S. L. Wynne, Looxahoma, Lea Williamson, Como, Panola; B. F. Ward, O., 
P., Winona, Montgomery; A. A. Wheat, Harrison, Tallahatchie; William H. White, V. P., 
Brandon, Rankin; C. Weathersby, Clarksdale, Coahoma; T. W. Wright, Pickens, Holmes; 
J. D. Weeks, Ackerman, Choctaw; Edwin Wright, Sardis, Panola; J. L. Walker, Nicholson, 
Hancock; J. H. Watson, Thornton, Holmes; F. L. Walton, Quitman, Clarke; W. H. Whit- 
tle, De Soto, Clarke. 

H. Yandell, Yazoo City, Yazoo; J. W. Young, Grenada, Grenada. 

The honorary members of the Mississippi State Medical association are: Hon. E. Barks - 
dale, Jackson; Hon. F. G. Barry, West Point; T. J. CrofEord, M. D., Memphis; W. Y. Cad- 
berry, Yazoo City; Frank Johnston, Esq. , Jackson; J. C. Longstreet, Grenada; Ex-Gov. 
Robert Lowry, Jackson; A. H. Smith, M. D. , Meridian; W. D. Powell, M. D., Torrance; 
Gen. J. S. Sharp, Crawford; L. M. South worth, Carrollton; D. Sutton, M. D. , Lexington; 
John Tackett, M. D. , Richland. 

Throughout the state are many local associations; all organized on the principles of the 
state society. The Columbus and Lowndes association of 1872, the Marshall county of 1872, 
the Lee county, of 1878 ; the Copiah county, of 1878, and the Grenada Medical association, 
of 1876, are represented in the state society. 

The Mississippi State Medical association was organized in 1866-7, and the first annual 
meeting held in 1868. An old roll of membership credits P. T. Baley of Jackson, L. P. 
Blackburn of Natchez, M. S. Craft of Jackson, A. H. Cabaniss of Jackson, S. C. Farrar of 
Jackson, W. Y. Gadberry of Yazoo City, J. F. Harrington of Jackson, W. B. Harvey of 
Canton, W. B. Williamson of Edwards, with joining the association in 1866; D. W. Booth, 
William H. Baird, James R. Barnett, E. G. Banks, T. G. Birchett, W. M. Compton, John 
S. Featherston, C. B. Galloway, A. J. Curtiss, W. D. Bragg, J. H. Gibbs, J. M. Hunt, E. 
T. Henry, S. V. D. Hill, J. R. Hicks, J. D. Harrell, Thomas D. Isom, J. R. Kirkland, John 
D. Kline, Edward Lea, James M. Lewis, A. A. Lyon, W. L. Lipscomb, John D. McConnell, 
W. E. Monette, C. J. Mitchell, Frank Nailer, J. Nailer, D. B. Nailer, N. Pettit, B. B. 
Palmer, Robert A. Quinn, D. H. Quinn, George E. Redwood, J. L. Reilly, H. Shannon, J. 
W. M. Shattuck, James Steinriede, A. H. Smith, J. C. Spinks, L. Shackleford, J. S. Sizer, 
C. Y. Thompson, J. M. Taylor, Z. T. Woodruff, P. F. Whitehead, B. H. Whitfield, M. F. 
Wakefield and E. M. Alexander became members between April, 1869, and December, 1871. 

It appears that no permanent organization was effected until 1868, but as the minute 


books for 1866, 1867, 1868, 1869, 1870 and 1871 can not be found, nothing can be stated with 
certainty respecting meetings or officers. 

The fifth annual meeting was held at Holly Springs in April, 1872, Dr. W. M. Gomp- 
ton, the outgoing president, presiding with Dr. J. W. M. Shattuck, secretary. The election 
of officers took place April 4, when Dr. C. B. Galloway of Canton was chosen president; D. 
W. Booth, W. M. Lea, J. D. Burche and L. Shackleford, vice presidents; J. W. M. Shat- 
tuck, recording secretary; P. F. Whitehead, corresponding secretary, and W. G. Sykes, 
treasurer. The delegates to the American Medical association then appointed were J. R. 
Hicks, W. Y. Gadberry, W. L. Lipscomb, Thomas D. Isom, Lee Shackleford, W. M. Comp- 
ton, J. M. Taylor and S. C. Gholson. A motion by Dr. Capers to refuse affiliation with the 
national association, owing to "legislation partisan in its course" being on their record 
books, was not entertained. The motion of Dr. Gadberry, to publish the proceedings of the 
fifth meeting of the association with names of members, constitution, laws and papers on 
special subjects, was adopted and the work therein outlined cariied out in the Excelsior book 
and job office at Columbus, Miss., under the supervision of Drs. A. A. Lyon, J. W. M. 
Shattuck, and C. B. Galloway. 

The roll of members of 1872 presents the following names: 

*E. M. Alexander, Ripley; *William H. Baird, Vicksburg; *P. T. Baley, Jackson; 
*W. T. Balfour, Vicksburg; E. G. Banks, Clinton; *J. R. Barnett, Vicksburg; T. G. Bir- 
chett, Vicksburg; *D. W. Booth, Vicksburg; W. D. Bragg, Garlandsville; J. D. Burche, 
Yazoo City; J. F. Butler, Holly Springs; *A. B. Cabaniss (1873), Jackson; A. H. Cage, 
Canton; *L. G. Capers, Vicksburg; J. L. Carter, Jackson; * William M. Compton, 
Jackson; *M. S. Craft, Jackson; A. J. Curtiss, Meridian; F. W. Dancy, Holly Springs; J. 
R. Dougherty, Holly Springs; Chesley Daniel, Holly Springs; J. S. Davis, luka; K. C. 
Devine (moved in 1872), Madison county; W. J. Dulaney, Madison county; R. L. Dunn, 
Yazoo county; J. C. Pant, Macon; J. S. Featherston, Macon; Frank Ferrell, Salem; 
*C. B. Galloway, Canton; *W. A. Galloway, Canton; W. Y. Gadberry (first president), 
Yazoo City; S. C. Gholson, Holly Springs; J. H. Gibbs, Meridian; J. W. Gray, Hud- 
sonville; J. D. Harrell, De Soto; J. F. Harrington, Jackson; W. B. Harvey, Canton; *E. 
T. Henry, Vicksburg; *J. R. Hicks, Vicksburg; *S. V. D. Hill, Macon; J. M. Hunt, 
Vicksburg; W. F. Hyer, Chulahoma; Thomas D. Isom, Oxford; *Robert Kells, Jackson; 
H. B. Kidd, Yazoo county; V. O. King, Black Hawk; J. R. Kirkland, Meridian; B. F. 
Kittrell, Black Hawk; John D. Kline, Me