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Full text of "History of the town of Flushing, Long Island, New York"

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HISTORY OF FLUSHING 



HISTOEY 



OF THE 



TOWN OF FLUSHING 



LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK 



By 

HENRY D. WALLER 



FLUSHING 

J. H. RIDENOUR 
1899 

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Copyright, 1899 

By J. H. RIDENOUR 

Flushing, N. Y. 



Press of the Flushing Evening Journal 
Flushing, N. Y. 



PREFACE 



In this age of many books one feels inclined to apologize 
for adding to the number. A history -of Flushing has 
never been published. This fact has seemed to the author a 
sufficient excuse for the present undertaking. Mandeville's 
Flushing Past and Present contains some valuable material ; 
but that material has not been digested, and has not been 
arranged in chronological order. The book cannot be called 
a history. 

The plan pursued by the author of the following pages 
has been, to tell the story of our town as simply and briefly 
as possible, avoiding the introduction of long quotations 
from old documents, and in foot notes referring the reader 
to the authority for every statement. Only so much of the 
history of the Province has been introduced as was deemed 
necessary to explain -events in the town. Without this 
occasional broader vision, our history would in many places 
be but a series of disconnected and meaningless entries. 

The author is indebted to many persons for kind assist- 
ance. The flies of local newspapers have frequently been 
referred to, in preparing the chapter on modern Flushing. 
To his friend, Mr. E. A. Fairchild, the author again 
acknowledges his indebtedness for valuable assistance and 
suggestions in the correction of proofs. 



CONTENTS 



Part I— New Netherland 

CHAPTER I. PAGE. 

Discoveries and Disputes, - . . . i 

CHAPTER II. 

Establishing the Colony of New Netherland - 7 

Part II— The Dutch Colonial Period 

CHAPTER III. 
The Settlement of Flushing, - - - 14 

CHAPTER IV. 

Troubles with New England. Captain Underhill 

Banished, - - ----29 

CHAPTER V. 
Anabaptists and Quakers, - - - - 37 

CHAPTER VI. 
Trouble with Connecticut. Captain John Scott, 48 



vi CONTENTS 

Part Ill—The English Colonial Period 

CHAPTER VII. 
The Duke's Laws. Sedition Among Flushing's 

Militiamen. George Fox's Visit, - - 59 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Another Year of Dutch Rule, - - - 72 

CHAPTER IX. 
Revolutions and New Laws, - - - - 76 

CHAPTER X. 
Quakers in Flushing, ----- 84 

CHAPTER XI. 
The Church of England in Flushing. Governor 

Clinton, - - - - - - 98 

Part IV— The Revolutionary Period 

CHAPTER XII. 
Men of the Time, - - - - -112 

CHAPTER XIII. 
Beginnings of the Revolution, - - - 121 

CHAPTER XIV. 
The British Occupation of Flushing, - - 130 



CONTENTS vii 

Part V— The American Period 

CHAPTER XV. 
Manners and Customs, - - - - -154 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Reconstruction, - - - - - - 162 

CHAPTER xvn. 
Flushing's New Life, - - - - - 1 7*2 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Modern Flushing, - - - - - 184 

Appendix 

I. 
The Charter - - - - --231 

II. 

Signers or the Remonstrance, - - - 235 

III. 
List OF THE Inhabitants IN 1698, - - - 237 

IV. 

Provisions IN Flushing IN 1 71 1, - - 249 



viii CONTENTS 

V. 

Muster Roll of Captain Jonathan Wright's Com- 
pany, 1 71 5, - - - - - - 253 

VI 

Sufferings of the Friends in Flushing, During * 
THE Revolutionary War, - - - 255 

VII. 

Additional Notes Relating to the History of 

Flushing, - - ----259 

VIII. 
The Trees of Flushing, - - - - 269 

IX. 

Titles of Books Quoted or Referred to, in this 

History, - - - - --273 

Index, ---... 277 



THE 
HISTORY OF FLUSHING 



PART I— New Netherland 



CHAPTER I 

DISCOVERIES AND DISPUTES 
To tell our story properly, we must begin at the begin- 
ning. Without a clear idea of the oonflioting claims to 
jurisdiction in New York, advanced by the English and the 
Dutch, or without a general knowledge of Colonial history 
prior to the settlement of Flushing, many of the references 
to our town, that may be found in the Colonial Documents, 
would not be understood. 

Jean and Sebastian Cabot, sailing under a commission 
from Henry VII of England, claimed the whole of North 
America for their sovereign. They passed the coast of Long 
Island, and were the first Europeans to do so. There is, 
however, no evidence that they saw the New York coast. 
They certainly did not land on its shore. 



1498 



2 HISTORY OF FLUSl^ING 

1524 Early in the nex* century, Jean de Verrazzano, a Flor- 

entine in the service of Francis I of France, entered the 
" most beautiful bay" of New York. In his report to 
Francis, he says : ' ' After proceeding one hundred leagues, 
we found a very pleasant situation among some steep hills, 
through which a very large river, deep at its mouth, forced 
its way to the sea. . . We would not venture up in our ves- 
sel, without a knowledge of the mouth ; therefore we took 
the boat, and, entering the river [i. e. the Narrows], we found 
the country on its banks well-peopled, the inhabitants . . . 
being dressed out with feathers of birds of various colours. 
. . . We passed up this river about half a league, when we 
found it formed a most beautiful lake, three leagues in 
circuit. . . A violent, contrary wind . . forced us to return 
to our ships, greatly regretting to leaSve this region which 
seemed so commodious and delightful, "i 

Thus the French were the first Europeans that visited 
New York. Plans for colonization were frequently discussed 
by these first discoverers, but nothing was done. Nearly two 
centuries later, James I of England granted a charter for the 
colonization of ' ' that part of America, coromonly called Vir- 
ginia, and other parts and territories in America either ap- 

1 Letter to Francis I, dated July 8, 1524. If. Y. H. 8. 
Coll., I (second series), lt5, Jf6. Brodhead's New York. 1, S. 



1606 



DISCOVERIES 3 

pertaining to us, or which are not actually possessed by any 
Christian prince or people. ' ' The country described in this 
charter, extended from Cape Pear to Nova Scotia. None of 
the colonies organized under this charter, came to New York. 

In the meantime, a rival in exploration and coloniza- 
tion appeared. After a long and bitter struggle, Spain was 
compelled to acknowledge the independence of the United 
Provinces of the Netherlands. The energy and dauntless 
courage of these, now independent, Netherlanders soon caused 
them to push their enterprising commerce into many lands. 
The legend on their earliest coinage (1562), borrowed from 
Holy Scripture, "Thy way is in the sea and Thy paths in 
many waters," was not only a description of their Father- 
land : it was, as well, a prophecy of their achievements 
abroad. 

It had long been a favorite theory in Europe, that a 
passage to the East Indies could be found by sailing to the 
northwest. Henry Hudson, an Englishman, had already, in 
1607 and in 1608, made two unsuccessful attempts to find this 
northwest passage. The London Company, under whose 
patronage he had sailed, declined to make further attempts. 
Not discouraged by his failures, Hudson sought, in Holland, 
assistance for another expedition. In response to his ap- 
peals, the Bnst India Company fitted out the Half-Moon, 



4 HISTORY OF PLSUHING 

and placed him in command. The Half-Moon is described 
as a Vlei boat of eighty tons burden. It was a two-masted 
vessel and was a fast sailer. It was Inanned by a crew of 
twenty, Dutch and English, sailors. The commander, Hud- 
son, was an Englishman; the "under-skipper" was a 
Dutchman. To Hudson's clerk, Robert Juet, we are in- 
debted for an account of the expedition. After an eventful 
voyage, Hudson entered the Narrows, Sept. 3, 16>09. He had 
first attempted to enter the Rockaway inlet to Jamaica Bay. 
As he sailed up the majestic river that now bears his name, 
he felt confident that he had at last discovered the long- 
sought northwest passage to the Indies When he reached 
the head of navigation, he was compelled to change his 
mind. But he had discovered a country rich in fur, and 
"the finest land for cultivation that ever in my life I have 
trod. "2 

The Dutch were not slow to avail themselves of 
the opportunity offered for trade in this new country. For 
a time, this trade was carried on by private enterprise. 

loll Hendrick Christiaensen and Adrian Block made a voyage to 
the Mauritius River, as the Hudson was then called, two 

1612 years after Hudson's visit. During the following year, some 

2 Hudson's Journal, quoted by De Leat. Flint's Early 
Long Island, p. 5. 



DISCOVERIES 5 

influential merchants of Amsterdam equipped two vessels, 
the Fortune and the Tiger, and dispatched them, under the 
command of Christiaensen and Block, to trade with the 
natives at the Island of Manhattan. One of their vessels 
was burned at Manhattan. The Onrust 3 was built to take 1614 
its place. In this, the first vessel built by a European at 
Manhattan, Block passed through the dangerous strait of 
"the Hell Gate," and sailed up Long Island Sound, explor- 
ing the bays on either side. It is probable, "therefore, that 
he was the first European to enter Flushing Bay. Block 
returned to Holland, during the same year. To the Am- 
sterdam merchants, who had inaugurated this trade with 
the Indians, a charter was granted, securing to them the 
exclusive right to trade in the regions they had explored. 
In this charter, granted by the States General, Oct. 11, 
1614, the name New Amsterdam appears for the first time. 
The charter gave the grantees no power of government. It 1615 
was to be in force for three years from June 1, 1615. At 
the expiration of that time, the States General refused to 
renew the charter. 

During the summer of the following year, an English -i e-i q 
vessel, commanded by Captain Thomas Dermer and owned 
by Sir Ferdinando Gorges, sailed through Long Island 

3 Restless. 



6 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Sound. Dermer, in his description of Long Island, said 
that the island had been "hitherto taken for main. " This 
was five years after Block's voyage in the Onrust. Dermer 
passed through Hell Gate — "a most dangerous cataract, 
among small, rocky islands" — and sailed as far south as 
Virginia. On his return, he met some Dutch traders at 
Manhattan, and warned them to quit the place, as it was 
English territory. This, it will be noticed, was ten years 
after Hudson's exploration, and eight years after the Dutch 
had established trade with the Indians at Manhattan. 



CHAPTER II 

ESTABLISHING THE COLONY OF NEW NETHERLAND 

The Dutch soon realized the value of Manhattan, and 
the necessity of making definite arrangements for defending 
and governing this new-world possession. A charter was 
granted to the West India Company, empowering it to col- 
onize, defend and govern New Netherland. This was the 
beginning of a new era. The charter provided that, for the 
next twenty years — from July 1, 1621 — no inhabitant of the 
United Netherlands should sail to any part of America, 
without the consent of the West India Company. The Com- 
pany was empowered to build forts, to appoint and discharge 
governors and civil and military officers, to administer 
justice and to promote trade. The appointment of governors 
and the instructions issued to them, were subject to the 
approval of the States General. All superior officers were 
required to take an oath of allegiance to the States General, 
and to the Company. The States General promised to protect 
the Company in the enjoyment of its rights, and to assist it 
with a grant of a million guilders — about $500,000. 



1621 



8 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Sir Dudley Carleton, the British ambassador at the 
Hague, protested against the West India Company's occu- 
pation of territory granted by James, to Englishmen. No 
attention was paid to this protest. England, in her contro- 
versies with Spain concerning papal grants, had always 
maintained that occupation conferred title, and that 
"prescription without possession is of no avail. " 

The Company was not fully organized, until two years 

i.D.<so after the date of the charter. Cornelius Jacobson May was 
the first Director-General. To assist him, in the govern- 

1626 ment of the colony, a Council was appointed, in which was 
vested all local authority — legislative, judicial and executive 
— subject to revision by the Amsterdam Chamber. The 
Council could fine and imprison. It could not inflict capital 
punishment. Persons convicted of capital offences were to 
be sent to Holland. Next in authority to the Director- 
General and his Council, was the Koopman, or Book-keeper 
of the Company, who acted as Secretary of the Province. 
Then came the Schout, whose office combined the duties of 
Public Prosecutor and of Sheriff. He was not a member of 
the Council, but was the Council's executive officer. 

The Company reserved Manhattan Island for its own 
possession. To immigrants the Company offered as much 
and as they were able to improve. To any member of the 



NEW NETHERLAND 9 

Company who would plant a colony of fifty adults, would be 
granted the title and authorities of a Patroon — or feudal 
chief. A Patroon had civil and judicial authority, within 
his colony. In cases involving more than fifty guilders, an 
appeal might be made from the Patroon 's court to the 
Council of New Netherland. 

It is somewhat strange, to say the least, that the New 
England Puritans protested strongly against the Hollanders' 
right to settle in New Netherland. It is well known that 
the Puritans had been treated with great kindness by the 
Dutch, in Holland. It may not be so well known that, 
when the Puritans first thought of coming to America, they 
asked the Prince of Orange and the States General to allow 
them to come as Dutch subjects — ' ' All under the order and 
the command of your Princely Highness and of the High 
and Mighty Lords States General. ' ' They sought protection 
especially against the English, who were — the Puritans 
asserted — 'inclined to deprive this state of its rights to 
these lands. ' ' ^ The States General were not able to grant 
this petition for armed protection, but it seems strange that 
these Puritans should deny the right of the Dutch to settle 
in unoccupied territory, after they had asked the Dutch to 
protect them in their right to do so, and had even desired to 

1 Historical Documents I, 22 et sq. 



1627 



10 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

come as subjects of these same Dutch. The friction be- 
tween the New Englanders and the New Netherlanders, so 
early begun, never entirely ceased. The Cavalier colonists 
of Virginia were always more friendly to the Hollanders in 

1633 ^^^ Netherland, than were their more austere neighbors at 
the north. There is land enough ;"— said Sir John Harvey, 
Governor of Virginia, to De Vries — "we should be good 
neighbors. You will have no trouble from us^if only those 
of New England do not approach too near you. ' ' 2 

The English never relinquished their asserted right to 
dispose of the whole of North America, from Nova Scotia 
to Cape Fear. 3 One of the last acts of the Plymouth Com- 

fcqc pany was, to convey to William, Earl of Sterling, "part of 
New England, and an island adjacent, called Long Island. ' ' * 
This act gave the Director-General and the Council of New 

1638 Netherland, no little trouble. Lord Sterling gave to James 
Farret, a power of attorney, to dispose of any of his prop- 

2 De Vries, p. UO. Brodhead I, 221. 

3 To complicate matters still further, Charles I granted 
to Sir Edmund Plowden and eight other petitioners (June 
21, 1634), the whole of Long Island and forty leagues square 
of the adjoining continent, to form a county Palatine, to be 
known as New Albion. Plowden was created Earl Palatine 
of New Albion. He spent the remainder of his life in trying 
to make his title good. He died in 1659. His descendants 
claimed the title until the close of the eighteenth century. 

4 Documents III, 43. Brodhead I, S59. 



NEW NETHEKLAND 11 

erty on Long Island or in its neighborhood. Farret selected 
for his own use Shelter Island and Robins Island, in Peconic 
Bay, confirmed Lion Gardiner's title to the island that still 
bears his name, and induced a colony from Lynn, Mass., to 
settle on Cow Bay. He next appeared at Manhattan and, in 
the name of Lord Sterling, claimed the whole of Long Is- 
land. ' ' His pretention was not much regarded, and so he 
departed, without accomplishing anything, having influ- 
enced only a few people. ' ' ^ The colony at Oow Bay was 
broken up. Thus ended the first attempt to plant an Eng- 
lish oolony within the present limits of Queens County. 

GoTernor Kieft had already, at the beginning of the 
previous year, (Jan. 15, 1639), secured, from the Indians, 
a title to what is now Queens County. The land was sold 
"for, and in consideration of, a party of merchandise, which 
they acknowledge to have received into their hands and 
power, to their full satisfaction and content. ' ' The chief 
sachem reserved the right, "with his people and friends, to 
remain upon the aforesaid land, plant corn, fish, hunt, and 
make a living there as well as they can, while he himself 
and his people place themselves under the protection of the 
said Lords. ' ' 6 

5 Thompson's Long Island I, 117, 305. Brodhead 1. S98. 

6 Historical Documents XIV, 15. 



1639 
1640 



1639 



1643 



12 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Kieft had, since 1640, been carrying on an unjust war 
against th.e Indians on the main land, but the Long Island 
Indians remained friendly to the Dutch. The Colonists, on 
the west end of the Island, desired to extend this war to 
the friendly tribes about them. The Council prevailed on 
Kieft to withhold his consent. This he did for two reasons ; 
viz. , the Marechkawieks had always been friendly, and they 
would be ' ' hard to conquer. ' ' Nevertheless, he added, after 
this commingling of gratitude and prudence, that every col- 
onist was authorized to defend himself, should the Indians 
show signs of hostility. It was not difficult to induce the 
Indians to exhibit the desired signs of hostility. A forag- 
ing expedition was set on foot and the unsuspecting Indians 
were robbed of two wagon-loads of grain. In the attempt to 
protect their property, three Indians were killed. ^ A 
general uprising and a cruel war followed. One of the suf- 
ferers, in this war, was the Rev. Francis Doughty, who had 
settled at Mespat. We shall refer to him again. 

Having begun the war, the Dutch found it difficult to 
make peace with the Indians. "Are you our friends?" said 
the Indians to Kieft, when he sought peace. ' ' You are corn 
thieves." 

7 Historical Documents I, I84. 



NEW NETHERLAND 13 

Peace was, however, at last secured. The ways of the 
strangers seemed inexplicable to the Indians. A number of 
them attended a religious meeting, held by the pious 
Domine Magapolensis. They stood about, with pipes in 
their mouths, regarding this strange procedure. They asked 
the good Domine what he wanted, standing there alone, 
making so many words, and not allowing the others to speak. 
He replied : "I admonish the Christians that they must 
not steal, nor drink, nor commit lewdness and murder." 
The Indians solemnly gave their approval of such instruc- 
tion, and wonderingly added : ' ' Why do so many Christians 
do these things?" 8 



8 iV. T. B. S. Coll., {second series) III, 149-ieO. 
Broadliead I, 375, et sq. 



1644 



PART II— The Dutch Colonial Period 



1645 



CHAPTER III 

THE SETTLEMENT OP FLUSHING 

The spring of 1645 saw an end of the Indian wars that, 
for five years, had harassed the colonists. During these five 
years, they had enjoyed scarcely five months of peace. A 
day of Thanksgiving was proclaimed, and was observed, 
with great joy, on the sixth of September. 

The restoration of peace, encouraged the planting of new 
colonies in New Netherland. The liberal policy of the Grov- 
ernment caused many colonists in New England to look to 
New Netherland for the freedom of conscience which they 
had failed to find among the Puritans. Francis Doughty 
was, by no means, the only person who found that he "had 
got from the pan into the fire, ' ' ^ when he went from Eng- 
land to New England. ' ' In Massachusetts, ' ' says Judge 
Story, "the arm of the civil government was constantly 

1 The Representation of New Netherland, p. SI. 



THE SETTLEMENT 15 

employed in support of denunciations of the Church ; and, 
without its forms, the Inquisition existed in substance, with 
a full share of its terrors and its violence." 2 The Holland- 
ers, in New Netherland, were not always so tolerant in fact, 
as their laws required ; still they offered a brilliant contrast 
to their Puritan neighbors. 

Among the many other English colonists, who sought 
the protection of the Dutch colony of New Netherland, were 
the incorporators of the town of Vlissigen. The name 
appears in many different forms ; we shall hereafter use the 
modern spelling, except when quoting from old documents. 
There appears to be no authority for the tradition, that the 
incorporators chose the name, because they had at one time 
found refuge in the Holland town of the same name. The 
creek was evidently called Flushing Creek, before the arrival 
of the English settlers, for the charter describes the bound- 
ary in these words : ' ' To begin at ye westward part thereof, 
at the Mouth of a Creeke upon the East River, now com- 
monly called and knowne by the name of fflushing Creeke" 
etc. 3 The patentees, or incorporators, were : Thomas 
Farington, John Townsend, Thomas Stiles, Thomas Saull, 



2 Miscellanies, p. 66. 

3 The date of the Charter is Oct. 10, 1645. See Ap- 
pendix I. 



16 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

John Mai-ston, Robert Field, Thomas Applegate, Thomas 
Beddard, Laurence Dutch, John Laurence, William Lau- 
rence, William Thorne, Henry Sautell, William Pigeon, 
Micheall Milliard, Robert Firman, John Hicks, Edward 
Hart. The original draft of the charter conveyed to these 
men all the land between the east and west limits of 
Flushing, from the sound to the ocean. A memorandum 
affixed to the charter before it was signed and sealed, 
placed the southern limits of the town ' ' as far as the Hills. ' ' 
This rather indefinite boundary was, in later years, the 
cause of much dispute with Jamaica. William Thorne had 
come to Flushing — or rather to the region that now became 
Flushing — three years before, and had settled at Thome's 
Neck. John Lawrence was one of the incorporators of 
Hempstead, in 1644. He now joined his brother William, as 
an incorporator of Flushing. John Lawrence repeatedly 
held important offices under both the Dutch and the Eng- 
lish. He was several times Mayor of New Amsterdam, and, 
at the time of his death, in 1699, was Judge of the Supreme 
Court. William Lawrence was a magistrate of Flushing, 
under both the Dutch and the English, and held other 
offices of importance — civil and military. He died in 1680.* 
The original inhabitants of the region, now incorporated 

4 Tlwmpson' s Long Island II, 36S. 



THE SETTLEMENT 17 

as Flushing, were the Matineeock Indians. They sold the 
land to the Dutch, at the rate of fifty acr^s for an axe. The 
Long Island Indians "were a seafaring race, mild in tem- 
perament, diligent in the pursuits determined by their 
environment, skilled in the management of canoe, of seine, 
or spear, and dextrous in the making of sea wan, or wam- 
pum. "5 The shores of the Island supplied abundance of 
shells, from which this Indian currency was made. This 
fact gave the Island its earliest name — Sewan-hacky, i. e. 
the Land of Shells. Sewan, or wampum, was the common 
currency among the Indians and was extensively used by 
the colonists, s The black wampum was made from the 
purple part of the quohang shell.'' One bead of this black 
wampum was equivalent to an English farthing, and had 
twice the value of the white wampum, which was made 



5 Flint's Early Long Island, p. i6 et sg. 

6 The following tradition, concerning the scarcity of 
silver money, is taken from a note on a fly-leaf of an old 
vestry book of St. George's parish. The date of the writing 
is about 1797. "Even as late as 1670, an English shilling 
being found in the road, a mile east of the landing, it was 
immediately concluded to belong to one Lawrence, who kept 
a few articles to sell, as they could not think of any other 
person in the town who had such a thing as a silver shilling. ' ' 

7 "The Quohang, or whelk, was the Buccinum JJndu- 
latum. As that became rare, the common clam, Venus 
Mercenaria, was \xs&A.'\ Flint. 



18 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

of the periwinkle Bhell. s Long Island became the colonial 
mint ; and the manufacture and exportation of wampum 
became the source of considerable profit. But even at this 
early date, the problem of a depreciated currency, circula- 
ting side by side with one of standard value, troubled the 
Dutch. In 1641, an ordinance was passed setting forth the 
fact that "bad wampum is at present circulated here, and 
payment is made in nothing but rough, unpolished stuff . . . 
and the good, polished wampum is wholly put out of sight 
or exported. ' ' The ordinance, therefore, provided that the 
inferior wampum should be accepted for only three-fourths 
of the value of good wampum. " 

The government, provided by the Charter, was very sim- 
ple. The pantentees were to "enjoy the liberty of conscience 
according to the custom and manner of Holland, without 
molestation or disturbance from any magistrate, or mag- 
istrates, or any other ecclesiastical minister. ' ' They were to 
elect a Sohout, or Sheriff, whose duty it should be to pre- 
serve order and arrest offenders. The offenders were to be 
taken before the Director-General for trial. At the end of 
ten years, the inhabitants of the town were to pay to the 

8 Turbo Littoreus. 

9 Laws and Ordinances of New Netherland, p. 26. 



THE SETTLEMENT 19 

general government a tax of one tenth of their product for 
that year. 

The colony at Flushing appears to have prospered from 164g 
the beginning.!" Director-General Stuyvesant said that 
when he took charge of New Netherland, one year after the 
settlement of Flushing: "The Flatland [was] stripped of 
inhabitants to such a degree that, with the exception of the 
three English villages of Heempstede, New Flushing and 
Gravesend, there were not fifty bouweries or plantations on 
it [i. e. on Long Island] and the whole Province could not 
muster two hundred and fifty, at the most three hundred, 
men capable of bearing arms, "n 

The little village was only two years old, when it was -i r>irj 
drawn into the dispute, between England and Holland, 
concerning the ownership of Long Island. Lord Stirling, 
to whom the Plymouth Company had deeded the Island, 
died, leaving his title to his wife. She appointed a Scotch- 

10 Prom contemporary documents we may learn the 
prices current, about the time of the settlement of Flushing. 
The prices are given in florins and stivers. There were 
twenty stivers in a florin ; a florin was equivalent to forty 
cents. An ax was worth about 2 fl. ; a scythe or spade, 2 fl. 
10 St. ; a plough, 28 fl. 16st. ; a ploughshare, 25 fl. ; wheat 
brought 2 fl. 10 st. per schepel (3 pecks) ; Indian corn, 1 fl. 
lOst. ; oats, 1 fl. ; a horse, 160 fl. ; a cow, from 50 fl to 120 
fl. — Account Books of Bensselaersvsyck. 0^ Callaglum's New Neth- 
erland I, 4.77. 

11 Documents, II, 365. 



20 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

man, named Andrew Forrester, 12 to be Governor of Long 
Island, and gave to him a power of attorney. Forrester 
appeared in Flushing, in Sept. , 1647, and proclaimed him- 
self, Governor of Long Island. He exhibited his commision, 
to which was attached an old broken seal, but which bore 
no signature. He was also armed with a power of attorney, 
signed by "Mary Steerling. " The Schout notified Stuyves- 
ant of Forrester's arrival and of his claims, and asked for 
instructions. Forrester was arrested, and sent as a prisoner 
to Holland, that he might plead his cause before their High 
Mightinesses, the States General. The vessel, on which he 
sailed, put in at an English port, on its way to Holland, 
and Forrester made his escape. i3 

During the same year, the Rev. Francis Doughty came 
to Flushing, as its first minister of the Gospel. He had 
been a Church of England clergyman, and was silenced for 
non-conformity. 1* In 1637, he emigrated to Massachusetts, 
and settled at Cohannet, now Taunton. Here he gave 
utterance to what was considered heretical doctrine. In a 



12 Some historians speak of Forrester and Parret, who 
came as Lord Stirling's agent in 1639, as one and the same 
person. I can find no reason for this. The surnames are 
similar, but one is called James and the other Andrew. 

13 Documents, I, SS6. 

14 FlinWs Early Long Island, p. 163. 



THE SETTLEMENT 21 

public address, he said he thought Abraham's children 
should have been baptized. This statement greatly scandal- 
ized Mr. Hook, the Pastor of the town, and his assistant, 
Mr. Street. They reported the matter to the magistrates, 
who ordered Doughty 's arrest. He was brought for trial 
before Wilson, Mather, and other ministers, and "was 
forced to go away from thence, with his wife and chil- 
dren. ' ' IS This was in 1642. He went first to Rhode Island, 
and then, with a company of friends, came to Long Island, 
"in order to enjoy freedom of conscience, "is New Nether 
land granted to Doughty and his company a patent for 13,.S32 
acres of land at Mespat, now Newtown. Here they settled, 
Doughty acting as their minister. But the Indian war, 
already referred to, broke out. The colonists were scattered 
and their property was destroyed. For two years. Doughty 
preached to the English residents at New Amsterdam. At 
the restoration of peace, about 1645, Doughty and his com- 
panions returned to their land in Newtown, but not to the 
harmonious possession of it. Doughty desired to play the 
Patroon, whereas his companions regarded him as one of a 
number of equal pantentees. The case was referred to the 

15 Plain Dealings or News from New England, Thomas 
Leehford, London I64.S, p. 41. Mass. Hist. Coll. Third Series, 
in, 96. 

16 Biker^s Annals of Newtown, p. 17. 



22 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Director-General and Council, at Manhattan. It was de- 
cided that Doughty had control over no land but his own 
farm. He refused to recognize the jurisdiction of the court, 
saying he would appeal to Holland. For this he was 
arrested, imprisoned, and fined twenty-five guilders. The 
matter was happily settled, for Newtown and for the 
Director-General, by Doughty's receiving a call to Flushing. 
It came out later, that Flushing's representatives had not 
acted from their own free will in this matter, but under 
intimidation by Stuyvesant. The Director-General took 
them, one by one, into a room, and, by threat, compelled 
them to sign the articles of agreement with Doughty. What 
arguments or threats were used, we are not told. The 
Director-General seemed to be very desirous to provide for 
Doughty — whether in order to relieve himself of a trouble- 
some person, or because he had exceeded his authority in 
punishing Doughty, it is hard to say. The agreement, 
however, was signed ; and Doughty was settled in Flushing, 
at a salary of 600 guilders a year. ^^ 

17 Doughty was apparently not popular, as witnesses 
the following record; "June 10, 1647, Wm. Garretse sings 
libelous songs against the Rev. Francis Doughty, for which 
he is sentenced to be tied to the May-pole. " On the first 
of Feb., 1648, "William Harck, sheriff and associates, ap- 
pear in council, and request that the Hon. Director-General 
and Council would favor them with a pious, learned and 
reformed minister, and then order that each inhabitant 



THE SETTLEMENT 23 

Flushing's only legal oflBoial, thus far, had been a Ig^g 
Schout. 18 In the third year after the settlement of the 
town, the Director-General and Council consented to make 
certain improvements in the formi of the local government 
(April 27, 1648). Hereafter a Schout, three Schaepens and 
a Clerk were to be elected by the freeholders, and confirmed 
by the Director-General and Council. These officials were 
to take an oath of allegiance to the colonial government and 
pledge themselves to obey and enforce "rules and articles" 
issued by that authority. The people were commanded "to 
respect said persons, each in his quality, and to lend them 
a helping hand, in the execution of their office. ' ' ^^ The 
first officials, chosen under this enlargement of the Charter, 
were : John Underbill, Schout ; John Townsend, John 
Hicks, William Thome, Schaepens ; John Lawrence, Clerk. 

should contribute to such godly work, according to his 
ability, and that an end bo put to the present differences in 
a manner that shall promote peace, quietness and unanimity 
in said town. ' ' — Siatorical Documents XIV, 8S. 

It is difficult to say whether this was during Doughty's 
incumbency or after his expulsion. We take it to be the 
former for it was when Harck was Sheriff, Underbill was 
evidently Sheriff when Doughty was expelled, for he it was 
who closed his church. 

18 He was sometimes spoken of as Sheriff. On April 8, 
1648, Thomas Hall, of Flushing, was fined twenty-five 
guilders for preventing the Sheriff from arresting Thomas 
Heyes. Mandmille, p. 4S. 

19 Xaws of New Netherland, p. 96. 



24 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

These officials were to constitute a court, before which were 
to be tried all suits not involving more than fifty guilders. 20 
The first recorded official act of Flushing's new Schout — 
Capt. John Underbill — was ecclesiastical in its nature. He 
did not approve of the Rev. Mr. Doughty's preaching. The 
minister was probably still sore from his treatment at the 
hands of the Director-General, and was not so guarded as 
he should have been, in his references to that official. 
Captain Underbill ordered the church closed, because the 
minister "did preach against the present rulers, who were 
his masters." 21 Doughty now gained permission to leave 
the colony and to go to Virginia. We find him again in 
Flushing, five years later, and after that, in Maryland. 
What finally became of him, is not known. Before leaving 
Flushing, he authorized bis son, Francis Doughty Jr. , to 
collect from the town his year's salary. Another son, Elias 
Doughty, later became a magistrate of Flushing. His 
daughter, Mary, married Adrian Von der Donck, a promi- 
nent man in the affairs of New Netherland. Van der Donck 



20 Laws of New Netherland. The functions of a Schout 
were those of a Sheriff and a Public Prosecutor. The Shaep- 
ens were magistrates. Together, they constituted a court of 
civil and criminal jurisdiction ; and also formed an assembly 
with legislative powers, for municipal purposes. O' CaUaghan'' s 
New Netherland II, Sll et sg, 

21 Riker^s Annals of Newtown, p, S3. 



THE SETTLEMENT 25 

was Patroon of a colony above the "Sj)yt den Duyvel. " 
The colony was commonly called "de Jonkheer's Landt, " 
i. e., the nobleman's estate. This name survives in the 
corrupted form of Yonkers. 

We cannot pass over this appearance of Underhill as an 
official of Flushing, without some allusion to that remark- 
able person. Captain John Underhill has been called "one 
of the most romantic persons in our early history. ' ' We 
first hear of him, as an officer in the British forces in 
Holland. He emigrated to Massachusetts in 1630, with Win- 
throp, and became the Captain and Instructor of the military 
force of the colony. 22 The colony frequently employed him 
as a leader in expeditions against the Indians. He was a 
man of energy, determination and great bravery. He was 
also a religious enthusiast, much given to sanctimonious 
expressions in his writings, but a man of vile impurity of 
life. About 1637, he got into difficulty with the theologians 
of Massachusetts ; was cashiered and disfranchised, because 
of his association with Anne Hutchinson and the Rev. Mr. 
Wheelwright — the leaders of the antinomian enthusiasts. 
In 1638, we find him in England again, where he published 
an account of his Indian wars, under the title of "Newes 

22 Mass. Eist. Ooll Fourth Series, VTI, 170. 



26 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

from America. "23 The next year he returned to Mas- 
sachusetts, only to fall again into trouble with the Church. 
One witness testified, that Underhill had been heard to say : 
"He had lain under a spirit of bondage and a legal way five 
years, and could get no assurance, till, at length, as he was 
taking a pipe of tobacco, the Spirit set home an absolute 
promise of free grace with such assurance and joy, as he 
never since doubted of his good estate, neither should he, 
though he should fall into sin." "The Lord's day follow- 
ing, he made a speech in the assembly, showing that, as the 
Lord was pleased to convert St. Paul, as he was a persecu- 
ting, so He might manifest Himself to him as he was taking 
the moderate use of the creature tobacco. "24 Underhill 
was banished from the colony and went to New Hampshire, 
where he became Governor of Exeter and Dover. But he 
had not gone beyond the reach of the Church. Friction 
with the ecclesiastical authorities still continued. In 1640, 

23 In this account, Underhill relates how his life was 
saved on Block Island, by a helmet turning aside an arrow 
which otherwise must have pierced his forehead. His wife 
had pursuaded him to wear the helmet. ' ' Therefore, ' ' he 
said, ' ' let no man despise the advise and counsel of his 
wife, though she be a woman. It were strange to nature to 
think a man should be bound to fulfil the humour of a 
woman, what arms he should carry, but you know Grod will 
have it so, that a woman should overcome a man. ' ' 

24 History nf New Englaiid, J. O. Palfrey, 1,578. Mass. 
Hist. Coll. Second Series. VI, 351. 



THE SETTLEMENT 27 

the Church at Boston, of which he was still a member, sent 
for him to answer charges of gross immiorality — which, it 
was alleged, he had committed before leaving for Exeter 
and Dover. 25 He admitted his guilt, and confessed that he 
had perpetrated his base immorality under the guise of 
religion. He appeared "before a great assembly in Boston, 
upon a lecture day, and, in the court house, sat upon the 
stool of repentance, with a white cap on his head, and with 
a great many deep sighs, a rueful countenance, and abun- 
dance of tears, owned his wicked way of life, his adultery 
and hypocrisy, with many expressions of sincere remorse, and 
besought the Church to have compassion on him and deliver 
him out of the hands of satan. "2« The sentence of excom- 
munication and banishment, which had been passed against 
him, was removed after this act of humiliation. But he left 
Massachusetts and for a time settled at Stamford. While 
here, in 1641 and 1642, he was employed by the Dutch on 



25 Underhill's manuscripts show that he was an illiter- 
ate man. Here is an extract from a letter, written at this 
time, to Governor Winthrop : " I am trobeld that chuch 
hard reportes should gooe out agaynst me, and my slfe not 
thorroli vnderstand mense displesure, tel this morning: I 
came simpli to satisfi the choch, not thincking to haf herd 
reportes agaynst me, thogh som smale ingling I had before. ' ' 
Mass. Hist. Coll. Fmirth. Series, VII, 181. 

26 Thompson's Long Island. II, 357. Mass. Mist. Coll., 
Second Series VI, 358 et sq. 



28 HISTORY OP FLUSHING 

Long Island in their Indian wars. In 1648, he appears as the 
Schout of Flushing, acting as censor of the pulpit. We shall 
hear of him again. He married, in Flushing, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Robert F-i&id — one of the original patentees of 
the town. She was his second wife. His first wife was a 
Dutch woman. 27 

The appeal for "a pious, learned, and reformed minis- 
ter", already referred to in a note, was not answered. 
Flushing had still to pass through many religious com- 
motions. 
1649 The village, however, continued to prosper, in a material 

sense. An official document, sent to Holland, speaks of 
"Flushing, which is an handsome village, and tolerably 
stocked with cattle. "2s The only tavern on the Island, 
except the one at the ferrry, was a"t Flushing. This we 
learn from the excise report. 29 



27 Mass. Hist. Coll., Second ISeries, VI, 365. 

28 Documents I, 285. 

29 Documents I, 435. 



CHAPTER IV 

TROUBLE WITH NEW ENGLAND— CAPTAIN UNDER- 
BILL BANISHED 

The political disturbances in Europe were always, to 1651 
some extent, naturally reflected in the colonies. William 
II, Prince of Orange, had married the daughter of Charles 
I, of England. When Charles was put to death, in 1649, his 
son, Charles II. , fled to Holland, where he was received with 
many expressions of sympathy. The popular sentiment, in 
Holland, following that of the beloved and heroic Prince of 
Orange, was always against Cromwell and the English Par- 
liament. The States General made repeated attempts to 
conclude a treaty with the English Commonwealth, but all 
efforts seemed to miscarry. The Trade and Navigation Act, 
passed by the English Parliament in 1651, struck, with 
great severity, at the Dutch, who were the common carriers 
of Europe. The strained relations and the constant friction lg52 
resulted in an open engagement, between the Dutch and 
the English fleets, in the straits of Dover. This was in May, 
1652. The States General, thereupon, wrote to Director- 



30 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

General Stuyvesant, to -warn him of possible trouble with 
the English, in these words: "Although we flattered our- 
selves with the hope that some arrangement would have 
been made, between our government and the commonwealth 
of England, we have been disappointed . . . This unexpec- 
ted rupture, which we have not courted, induced many 
merchants, trading to New Netherland, to solicit us to send 
an express to your Honor, so that you and the colonists 
might be informed of this state of things." After expres- 
sing the hope that the boundary disputes with New England 
had already been settled, "so that we have nothing to fear 
from New England," the letter adds: "We consider it, 
nevertheless, an imperious duty to recommend you to arm 
and discipline all freemen, soldiers and sailors . . . We 
warn you not to place an unbounded confidence in our Eng- 
lish inhabitants, but to keep a watchful eye on them, so 
that you may not be deceived by a show of service, through 
their sinister machinations, as we have been before deceived. 
If it happen, which we will not suppose, that those New 
Englanders did incline to take a part in these broils, and 
injure our good inhabitants, then we should advise your 
Honor to engage the Indians in your cause, who, we are 
informed, are not partial to the English, "i 

1 O' VaUagan's New Netherland, II, 204 et sq. DocwrwnU, XIV, 186. 



TROUBLE WITH NEW ENGLAND 31 

The reoommendation concerning the employment of In- 
dians, in case of an attack, was unfortunate. But the 
authorities in Holland regarded the Indians as subjects, and 
they had the example of the New Englanders, who had used 
Indians as soldiers in the Pequot war. Besides, it was to 
be done only in case of an attack. The vessel, bearing these 
instructions, was captured by the English, who thus learned 
the plans of the Dutch. 

On the feast of Candlemas, Feb. 2, of the following 1653 
year, a more popular form of government was inaugurated 
at New Amsterdam, modeled after the government of the 
parent city, in Holland. One of the first acts of the new 
government, was to send letters to Virginia and New Eng- 
land, expressive of esteem and of hopes for continued 
friendly intercourse. 2 But rumors had become current, in 
New England, that Stuyvesant was inciting the Indians to 
an attack on the English. A meeting was held, in Boston, 
to consider the subject. Indians were interrogated, but they 
denied all knowledge of such a plot. Stuyvesant wrote 
letters, denying the charges and courting an investigation. 
The Commissioners of the United Colonies of New England 
appointed Francis Newman, Capt. John Leverett and Lieut. 
William Davis, to go to New Amsterdam and investigate. 

2 OWallagan^s New Nefherland, II, 8I4. 



32 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

At the same time, five hundred troops were ordered to take 
the field, 'if God called the colonies to make war against 
the Dutch. ' ' Capt. Leverett was appointed Commander of 
this force, because "of the opportunity he now hath to view 
and observe the situation and fortifications at the Manhat- 
toes. ' ' Thus Leverett was to act as spy, as well as ambas- 
sador. The three delegates reached New Amsterdam, on the 
twenty-second of May. Stuyvesant offered every opportunity 
for an impartial investigation, but all his projMisals were 
rejected. It was plain that the New England committee 
came as inquisitors and not to make an impartial investi- 
gation. They came to demand satisfaction for wrongs which 
they claimed had been committed, not to ascertain, by 
impartial investigation, whether these charges were true. 
They concluded the conference, by demanding satisfaction 
for affronts offered "in former and later times. "^ 

As might have been expected, Capt. John Underhill was 
found to be in the thick of the trouble. By him, Flushing 
was made the headquarters of sedition. He had been in 
correspondence with the Commissioners of New England. 
When the three delegates left New Amsterdam, they came 
directly to his house, in Flushing. Here they met the Rev. 
Francis Doughty and his daughter, Mr§. Van der Donck. 

3 O'GaUagan's New Netherland, II, Z^Z et sq. 



CAPTAIN UNDERHILL BANISHED. 33 

Doughty said, "he knew more than he durst speak." Mrs. 
Van der Donck said, she knew that the Maquaas were 
"ready to assist the Dutch, if the English fell upon them. "* 
"Underhill openly charged the Fiscal, Van Tienhoven, 
with plotting against the English. He was therefore, 
arrested at Flushing, and conveyed to New Amsterdam 
under guard, "s He was not long detained, and was dis- 
missed without trial. Returning to Flushing, he committed 
open treason, by raising the Parliament's colors, and by 
issuing a seditious address. In this address, he states what 
had caused the insurgents ' ' to abjure the iniquitous govern- 
ment of Peter Stuyvesant over the inhabitants living and 
residing on Long Island. ' ' He declared, that the wrongs 
endured were "too grievous for any brave Englishman and 
good Christian to tolerate any longer," and called upon "all 
honest hearts, that seek the glory of God and their own 
peace and prosperity, to throw off this tyrannical yoke. ' ' 
' ' Accept and submit ye then to the Parliament of England' ' 
— he adds — "and beware ye of becoming traitors to one 
another, for the sake of your quiet and welfare. "^ 

i Brodhead's Mew York, I, 555. 

5 Brodhead''s New Ym-k, I, 556. 

6 Brodltead^s New York, I, 556. This address, though 
inspired by Underhill, was evidently not written by him. 
His manuscript letters prove that he was incapable of such 
a composition, crude as it is. 



34 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

This much may be said in justification of Underhill's 
address ; Stuyvesant was tyrannical ; he was greatly disliked 
by both the Dutch and the English inhabitants. He would, 
in all probability, have been removed from office before this, 
had not the unexpected war with England come on. Un- 
derhill's appeal met with no response. He was ordered to 
quit the Province. He went to Rhode Island, and appealed 
to that colony for assistance to save the English. The 
Colony of Providence Plantations gave, under seal, "full 
power and authority to Mr. William Dyer and Captain John 
Underhill to take all Dutch ships and vessels, as shall come 
into their power, and to defend themselves against the Dutch 
and all enemies of the Commonwealth of England. "^ Under- 
hill afterwards settled at Oyster Bay, where he died in 1672. 

In November, of this year, 1653, Director-General Stuy- 
vesant received instruction from Holland, directing him, be- 
cause the English inhabitants of Hempstead and Flushing 
had allowed the English flag to be raised "by some free- 
booters, " " not to trust to any of that nation residing under 
our jurisdiction." Immigration was to be restricted, "that 
we may not nourish serpents in our bosom, who finally 
might devour our hearts."* 

7 Hazard II, 2Jt9. Broadhead I, 557. 

8 Documents, XIV, SI6. 



CAPTAIN UNDERHILL BANISHED. 35 

In those days of small vessels, Flushing was not an 
unimportant seaport. News was received, at New Amster- 
dam, about the middle of December, that several English 
privateers had been seen hovering about, near Flushing. 
The Hon. Jean de La Montagne was sent to pursue and 
attack them. 9 With what success the expedition met, we 
are unable to state. Thus closed an eventful year. 

Flushing's Charter provided that, at the expiration of -i ase 
ten years, one tenth of the revenue, that should "arise by 
the ground, manured by the plough or hoe," should be 
paid to the government of New Netherland. i" The Council, 
therefore, issued instructions to the tithe-commissioners, 
concerning the manner of collecting the tithes. The town 
was "either to make an agreement regarding the tithes to 
be this year, or to leave the crops, mowed, sheaved, and in 
shocks, upon the fields, ' ' that the commissioners might 
"count off the tenth, as it is done in the Fatherland." 
The town authorities wrote to the Council, by their Clerk, 
Edward Heart, that they were "willing to do that which 



9 Ducument, XIV, S37. 

10 During the summer of this year, Aug. 6, 1655, the 
first cargo of slaves came, directly from Africa, to New 
Netherland, on the ship Witte paert. An ordinance was 
passed, levying a tax of ten per cent, on all negroes exported 
to other places beyoad New Netherland. Laws of New 
Netherland, p. 191. 



S6 HISTOEY OF FLUSHING 

is reasonable and honest," although "the insufferable in- 
solence of the Indians" prevented them from enjoying the 
' ' land in peace, according to the pattent. ' ' They agreed to 
pay, "fiftie scipple of peas and twentie-five of wheat, "n 



11 BocumeuU, XIV, 361, et 



CHAPTER V 

ANABAPTISTS AND QUAKE&S 

Flushing's religious experience, thus far, had not been 1656 
altogether satisfactory. Since the Rev. Mr. Doughty's 
forced resignation, the village had been without the regular 
services of a minister. When, therefore, William Wicken- 
dam, a cobbler from Rhode Island — who did not stick to his 
last — essayed to minister to the religious wants of the 
people, he was by many kindly received. The Sheriff, 
William Hallet, offered his house as a place of meeting. 
Wickendam was not content with exhorting his neighbors 
and leading them in prayer. He undertook to administer 
the Sacraments. He "went with the people into the river 
and dipped them. ' ' The Dutch ministers, the Rev. John 
Megapolensis and the Rev. Samuel Drisius, sent to the 
classis of Amsterdam an account of Flushing's religious 
condition : "At Flushing, they heretofore had a Presbyte- 
rian preacher! who conformed to our Church, but many of 
them became imbued with divers opinions, and it was with 

1 The Rev. Francis Doughty. 



38 HISTORY OP FLUSHING 

them quot homines tot sententiae. They absented -themselves 
from preaching, nor would they pay the preacher his prom- 
ised stipend. The said preacher was obliged to leave the 
place, and to repair to the English Virginias. Now they have 
been some years without a minister. Last year a fomenter 
of error came there. He was a cobbler from Rhode Island, 
in New England, and stated that he was commissioned by 
Christ. He began to preach at Flushing and then went, 
with the people, into the river and dipped them. This 
becoming known here, the Fiscaal proceeded thither and 
brought him along. He was banished the Province. "^ 

We have, also, an official account of the trial. It states 
that William Hallet, born in Dorsetshire, age about forty, 
"has had the audacity to call and allow to be called con- 
venticles and gatherings at his house, and to permit there 
in contemptuous disobedience of published, and several 
times renewed, placats of the Director-General and Council, 
an exegesis and interpretation of God's Holy Word, as he 
confesses, the administration and service of the Sacraments 
by one William Wickendam, while the latter, as he ought to 
have known, had, neither by ecclesiastical nor secular 
authority, been called thereto. "^ 

2 Documentary Mittory of New York, III, 71. 

3 Documents XIV, 369. 



ANABAPTISTS AND QUAKERS 39 

As the result of the trial, Hallet was degraded from 
office, fined £50 Flemish, and banished from the Province ; 
Wickendam was fined £100 and banished. When it was 
discovered that Wickendam was a poor man, with a family, 
and was a cobbler by trade, "to which he does not properly 
attend," his fine was remitted. He was, however, ban- 
ished, and so passes beyond our field of view. Hallet 
pleaded for mercy. His sentence of banishment was re- 
mitted, and he was allowed to remain in the Province as a 
private citizen, if he should pay his fine at sight. 

In the summer of the following year (Aug. 6, 1657), I657 
the ship Woodhouse brought to New Netherland, several 
members of the Society of Friends. * Many of them went to 
Rhode Island, "where all kinds of scum dwell" — said Dom- 
ine Magapolensis. Some, however, came to Long Island, 
under the leadership of Robert Hodgson, and settled in 
Jamaica and Flushing. The Friends of Jamaica and Flush- 
ing, for a time, held their meetings in Jamaica, at the 
house of Henry Townsend. Townsend was arrested, fined 
£8 Flemish, and ordered to leave the Province within six 
weeks. A proclamation was issued, imposing a fine of £50 
on any one who sheltered a Quaker for one might, one half 



4 Flings Early Long Island, p. 175- Brodkead^s New 
Yorh, I, 636. 



40 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

of the fine to go to the informer. ' ' Any vessel, bringing 
Quakers to the Province, was to be confiscated, "s This 
cruel law called out the famous and noble remonstrance of 
Flushing, which was signed by twenty-eight freeholders of 
Flushing, and two from Jamaica. « The Remonstrance said : 
"Ye have been pleased to send up unto us a certain prohi- 
bition, or command, that we should not retaine or entertaine 
any of those people called Quakers. . . We cannot condemn 
them. . . neither stretch out our hands against them, to 
punish, banish or persecute them. . . We are commanded by 
the Law to do good to all men . . . That which is of God 
will stand, ''and that which is of man will come to nothing 
. . . Our only desire is not to offend one of these little 
ones, in whatsoever form, name or title hesappears, whether 
Presbyterian, Independent, Baptist or Quaker, but shall be 
glad to see any thing of God in any of them, desiring to do 
unto all men, as we desire that all men should do unto us, 
which is the true Law both of Church and State . . . 
Therefore if any of these said persons come in love unto us, 
we cannot in conscience lay violent hands upon them, but 
give them free egresse or regresse into our town and houses 
. . . This is according to the Patent and Charter of our 

5 Laws of New Netherland. 

6 Appendix II. 



ANABAPTISTS AND QUAKERS 41 

town . . . which we are not willing to infringe or violate. "7 
This Remonstrance, dated Dec. 27th., was written by Ed- 
ward Heart, the town Clerk, and carried to New Amster- 
dam, early in January, by Tobias Feake, the Sheriff, who 1658 
had succeeded William Hallet in that office. Feake and 
Heart, together with Edward Farrington and William Noble, 
Magistrates and signers of the Remonstrance, were arrested 
and imprisoned. Noble and Farrington humbly craved 
pardon "for acting so inconsiderately," and, promising to 
offend no more, were pardoned on the tenth of January. 
About two weeks later, January 23rd. , Heart also weakened 
and pleaded for mercy. He said: "My humble request is 
for your mercy, not your judgment ; and that you would be 
pleased to consider my poor estate and condition, and relieve 
me from my bonds and imprisonment, and I shall endeavor 
hereafter to walk inoffensively unto your Lordships. ' ' He 
was pardoned, on condition that he paid the costs. On 
Sheriff Feake, fell the weight of Stuyvesant's wrath. The 
Sheriff had given lodging to ' ' that heretical and abominable 
sect called Quakers, ' ' and had been foremost in securing 
signatures to "a seditious and detestable chartabel. " For 
this he was degraded from ofBce, and sentenced to pay a fine 
of two hundred guilders, or to be banished. 

7 Documents XIV. 40S. 



42 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

As the result of this disturbance, an ordinance was 
passed, March 26th., which stated that for this "seditious 
and mutinous" remonstrance, the town richly deserved "to 
be corrected and punished by the annulment of the privi- 
leges and exemptions granted ... by patent and by the 
enlargement thereof." Therefore, "in order to prevent in 
future the disorder which commonly arises from general 
town-meetings, or village assemblies," no such meetings 
should be held, without the consent of the Director-General 
and the Council. Instead of town-meetings, seven persons 
should "be chosen and appointed out of the best, most 
reasonable and most respectable inhabitants, who shall be 
called Tribunes or Town'smen, to be employed by the 
Schout and Magistrates as counselors on and about any Town 
matters. ' ' Whatever was decided by the Schout, Magis- 
trates and Tribunes, the inhabitants should obey, "on pain 
of arbitrary correction. ' ' The ordinance further stated, 
that, "for the want of a good, pious and orthodox minister, 
. . . the inhabitants had fallen into disregard of Divine 
worship, and profanation of the Sabbath . . . into heresy 
and indecent licentiousness. ' ' The town was, therefore, 
ordered, "to look out and inquire for a good, honest and 
orthodox minister. ' ' Each landholder was to be required to 
apply for a special patent and henceforth to pay an annual 



ANABAPTISTS AND QUAKERS 43 

tax of twelve stivers for each Dutch morgan of land, for the 
support of the minister— the deficit to be made up, by the 
Director-General, from the tithes. All persons who were 
unwilling to submit to these requirements, were ordered to 
dispose of their goods and, within six weeks, to quit the 
Province. All others, and all new comers, were to sign a 
pledge of obedience, s 

In the midst of this attempt to stamp out Quakerism, IggO 
there came to Flushing a number of French Huguenots, 
who introduced the industry of horticulture, for which the 
town has ever since been famous. » 

Among the influential inhabitants of Flushing, at this 1661 
period, was John Bowne, who is described as "a plain, 
strong-minded, English farmer, "lo He was born at Mat- 
lock, Derbyshire, England, in 1627. In 1649, he emigrated 
to Boston. Two years later, he visited Flushing, with his 
brother-in-law, Edward Farrington. Later, we find him 
settled in Flushing. Here, in 1656, he married Hannah, 
daughter of Robert Pieldn (or Feke, as the name sometimes 

8 Laws of New Netherland, p. 338-42. 

9 Flint's Early Long Island, p. 183. 

10 Brodhmd's New Tork, I, 70S. 

11 Underhill writes to John Winthrop, Jr., April 12, 
1656: "Sir, I wase latli at Flushing. Hanna Feke is to be 
married to verri jentiele young man, of gud abilliti, of a 
louli fetture, and gud behaflor. ' ' Mass. Hist. Coll. Fourth 

' :s, VII, 183. 



M HISTOBY OF FLSUHING 

appears), and sister to Captain John Underhill's second 
wife. Bowne's house, built in 1661, still stands on the 
avenue that bears his name, and presents a quaint and 
beautiful picture of early Flushing. Bowne's wife was a 
member of the society of Friends. Meetings at this time 
were held secretly in the woods. Bowne attended these 
meetings with his wife, at first out of curiosity, but he soon 
becam.e interested, and invited the Quakers to meet at his 
house. Later, he became a member of the society. The 
magistrates of Jamaica notified the Director-General, that 
Bowne's house had become a "conventicle" for the Quakers 
of all the neighboring villages. Bowne was arrested, fined 
£25 Flemish, and threatened with banishment. 12 He re- 
fused to pay the fine. After three months imprisonment, 
' ' for the welfare of the community, ' ' he was told that he 
would be transported ' ' in the first ship ready to sail, ' ' 
should he continue obstinate. Bowne remained firm. On 

12 An ordinance was passed, in September of this year, 
ordering, that "beside the Reformed worship and service, 
no conventicles or meetings shall be kept in this Province, 
whether it be in houses, barnes, ships, barkes, nor in the 
woods, nor fields, under forfeiture of fifty guldens, for the 
first time, for every person present, and twice as much for 
every person who exhorted or taught, or who shall have lent 
his house, barn or other place." "Seditious and erroneous 
books, writings and letters" were to be confiscated, and the 
importer and distributer of such writings wag to be fined 
100 guldens. Laws of New Netherland, p. 4S8 



ANABAPTISTS AND QUAKERS 45 

the ninth of January, of the following year, he was sent to 
Holland, on the Guilded Fox. He stated his case to the 
Directors of the West India Company, who set him at lib- 
erty, and rebuked Stuyvesant. They wrote to the latter : 
"Although it is our cordial desire that similar and other 
sectarians may not be found there, yet as the contrary seems 
to be the fact, we doubt very much whether vigorous pro- 
ceedings against them ought not to be discontinued ; unless, 
indeed, you intend to check and destroy your population, 
which, in the youth of your existence, ought rather to be 
encouraged by all possible means . . . The conscience of 
men ought to remain free and unshackled. Let every one 
remain free, as long as he is modest, moderate, his political 
conduct irreproachable, and as long as he does not offend 
others or oppose the government. '^ Bowne returned to 
Flushing after two years' absence. At this early period, 
Quaker meeting was held at different houses ; viz. , those of 
John Bowne, John Farrington, Hugh Cowperthwaite, Ben- 
jamin Field and Dr. John Rodman, i* 

It must not be supposed that the Dutch were exceptional 
in their treatment of the Quakers. The Church of England 
colony in Virginia had similar laws; Puritan _ New England 

13 Brodhead's New York I, 705 et sq. 

14 Onderdonk^s Friends on Long Island, p. 94. 



1663 



1665 



46 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

had worse ones. In Massachusetts, Quakers were not only 
fined and imprisoned ; they were whipped, their ears were 
cut off, their tongues were bored with hot irons, and some 
of them were put to death, is Nothing can be said in justi- 
fication of persecution for religious belief ; but, in this cruel 
treatment of the Quakers, something may be said by way of 
explanation. The early Quakers were not all the quiet, 
orderly persons whom we to-day are apt to associate with the 
name. Many of them were the wildest fanatics. To read, 
for instance, that certain persons were arrested, fined and 
imprisoned for "bearing testimony," gives one the impres- 
sion that the civil authorities were altogether cruel and 
unreasonable ; but the action of the authorities does not 
appear so unreasonable, when we know that ' ' to bear tes- 
timony" frequently meant that women went through the 
streets, stark naked, crying: "Woe! Woe!" and called down 
curses on all who differed with them. If persons, of any 
name, should, to-day, thus destroy the peace and shock the 
sense of modesty of any community, they would, without 
doubt, be punished. The Quakers' disregard of titles and 
offices, we are inclined to consider a harmless idiosyncrasy, 
but in those days it not infrequently amounted to contempt 
of court, and open insult to officials. In New England, 

15 EllioWs History of New England J, S89 et sg. 



ANABAPTISTS AND QUAKERS. 47 

Quakers had been guilty of many excesses. '^ Some of the 
first Quakers that arrived in New Netherland, came from 
New England. The sect, therefore, had a bad name, before 
any of its members appeared among the Dutch. As stated 
above, all this is said by way of explanation, and not in 
justifioation of religious persecution. The injustice com- 
mitted was, in punishing a whole sect for"the misconduct of 
some of its members. The more reasonable Quakers, them- 
selves, condemned the excesses of these fa,natics; It is not 
generally remembered, that it was Charles II who compelled 
the Puritans to cease persecuting the Quakers. For the 
excessively religious New Englanders to be taught toleration 
by such a master, is one of the strange things in history. 



16 Elliot's New England IT, S99. 



CHAPTER VI 

TROUBLE WITH CONNECTICUT— CAPTAIN JOHN 
SCOTT. 

lijrQ The line of division, between New Netherland and the 

colonies of New Haven and Connecticut, had, from the 
beginning, been the subject of much dispute. As early as 
1650, a treaty, known as the Hartford treaty, was signed, 
which gave all of Long Island east of Oyster Bay, and that 
part of the main land east of Greenwich Bay, to the "United 
Colonies of the English," "until a full and final determin- 
ation be agreed upon in Europe, by the mutual consent of 
the two states of England and Holland." This treaty was 
ratified by the States General, but not by England. Six 
years after the treaty had been signed, the English en- 
croached upon Long Island, west of the line that had been 
agreed upon, and extended their settlements far into West 
Chester, i 

1 The inhabitants of Flushing were also troubled by 
Indians. On April 13, 1662, Messrs. La-wrence, Noble and 
Hallet were sent to notify the Director-General that the 
Indians were demanding pay for the land in Flushing. They 
asked that the Indians' "mouthes may bee stopped and our 
selves preserved from any danger." Documents, XIV, 51S. 



TROUBLE WITH CONNECTICUT 49 

Advice was finally received from Holland that all hope 1663 
of settling the dispute in Europe must be abandoned. = 
Encroachment on the land of West Chester continued. 
Agents were sent from Connecticut to the English towns 
on Long Island, to stir up discontent. The Director- 
General, therefore, went to Boston, with the hope of settling 
the dispute. Nothing, however, was accomplished. The 
New Englanders denied that the Dutch had any right to 
lands in the new world. It was all the King's land : the 
Dutch were intruders. Stuyvesant was compelled to return 
empty-handed to New Amsterdam. 

In the meantime, the English towns on Long Island 
became restless. A petition, signed by certain inhabitants 
of Jamaica, Middleburgh and Hempstead, was sent to Hart- 
ford, praying that colony, ' ' to cast over us the scurts of your 
government and protecktion. ' ' 

In October, Stuyvesant sent a delegation to Hartford, 
to make one more attempt to settle the boundary question. 
In vain an appeal was made to the treaty of 1650: the 
Hartford men declared it void. After much debate, the 



2 Edward Fisher was Clerk of Flushing during this 
year. Richard Cornell was sent to New Amsterdam to make 
arrangements for the tithes, being authorized to offer 100 
schepel of grain — half of pease and half of wheat. Docu- 
ments XIV, 531. 



50 HISTORY OP FLUSHING 

Hartford deputies announced, as their ultimatum, that West 
Chester must be given up to Connecticut, and that the Eng- 
lish towns on Long Island be allowed to occupy a position of 
quasi -independence — Connecticut agreeing to exercise no 
authority over them, if the Dutch would refrain from 
coercing them. 

New disturbances, which arose among the inhabitants 
of the English towns on Long Island, in November, com- 
pelled Stuyvesant to agree to these terms, Anthony Waters, 
of Hempstead, and John Coe, a "miller of Middleburgh, " 
with a force of nearly a hundred men, went to Flushing and 
the other English towns, declared that the country belonged 
to the King, removed the magistrates, and appointed others. 
To make the revolution complete, new names were given to 
several towns. Jamaica (or, as it was then written, 
Gemego) became Crafford; Flushing became Newarke; 
Newtown (or Middleburgh) became Hastings. Stuyvesant 
realized that he was powerless, and hastened to accept the 
terms offered by the Hartford convention. 
1664 '^^® villages were now in the anomalous position of 

quasi-independence. They proceeded, therefore, to form a 
' ' Combination. ' ' Prominent in this agitation was Captain 
John Scott. 3 Scott was one of the many restless English 

3 O'Callaghan's Nev Netherland II, 497 et sq. 



CAPT. JOHN SCOTT 51 

adventurers to whom the unsettled state of affairs in Amer- 
ica offered an attractive field of operation. He had been 
an officer in the army of Charles I, and was banished to New 
England by the Commonwealth. Thence he came to Long 
Island, and, according to his own statement, purchased 
about one third of the island. On receiving news of the 
Restoration, he returned to England. He asked the King 
to appoint him Governor of Long Island, or to authorize the 
people to elect a Governor and an assistant. Charles II was 
disposed to grant Scott's request, and referred the matter to 
the Committee on Foreign Plantations. Scott laid his 
claims, and his complaints against the Dutch, before this 
Committee. He then departed for America, armed with 
a royal letter, recommending him to the = protection of the 
New England governors. Connecticut invested him with 
magisterial powers, granted him a stipend for his services, 
and sent him to Long Island to bring the western towns 
under Connecticut's control. But many of the inhabitants 
of the Long Island towns had left New England because of 
persecution, and were not anxious to return to that affili- 
ation. They preferred independence, and invited Scott to 
assist them in maintaining it. The towns of "Heempstede, 
Newwarke, Crafford, Hastings, Folestone and Gravesend, ' ' 
therefore, formed a ' ' Combination. ' ' Scott was elected to 



52 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

act as their President, ' ' until his Royal Highness the Duke 
of York, or his Majesty, should establish a government 
among them. ' ' The towns further agreed to elect deputies 
to make laws for this new ' ' Combination. ' ' Efforts were 
made to induce the Dutch towns to join them, but without 
success. The action of Scott, in taking part in this com- 
bination, soon brought down upon him the hostility of both 
New Netherland and Connecticut. Stuyvesant sent dele- 
gates to Jamaica (or Crafford, as it was then called) to con- 
fer with Scott. He was at the time in Newwarke* (Flush- 
ing). On his return to Jamaica, it was agreed to allow the 
old order to prevail for the time being. This was in Jan- 
uary. Scott said he would return in the spring. He warned 
the Dutch delegates that the king had granted the whole of 
New Netherland to the Duke of York, who would certainly 
take possession of it — by force, if necessary. In March, 
Stuyvesant went, with a military escort, to Hempstead, to 
meet President Scott and the delegates from the English 
towns. It was agreed that the English towns should remain 
under the King for twelve months, or until the whole ques- 
tion should be settled in Europe, and that the Dutch towns 
should remain under the States General, for the same time. 
Scott's action on Long Island, naturally, did not please 

4 Documents, II, S99. 



CAPT. JOHN SCOTT 53 

the Connecticut authorities. They considered him a traitor 
to their interests. In the disturbance that followed, Flush- 
ing was visited by two distinguished men. John Winthrop 
Jr. , Governor of Connecticut, accompanied by deputies from 
Hartford, came in June. He removed the magistrates 
appointed by Scott, and put others in their places. Help 
was promised the magistrates and inhabitants, against all 
who might disturb them. Next came Director-General 
Stuyvesant. A contemporary document tells us: "The 
General, accompanied by Secretary Van Ruyven, Burgo- 
master Cortlandt and some other principal Burghers, as an 
escort, went thither himself in person, to protest against 
such irregularity. "5 The Dutch declared that they would 
be guiltless of the mischief and bloodshed that would cer- 
tainly follow. The protest was, however, in vain. ^ 

5 Documents, II, 407, et sq. 

6 During these troubles, the inhabitants of Flushing 
endeavored to secure the support of the Indians by again 
paying them for the land. Tapansagh, Chief of the Long 
Island Indians, and Rompsicka, appeared before the Direc- 
tor-General and Council, and stated that they had been 
summoned to Flushing by William Lawrence. There they 
met Noble, Robert Terry, Doughty and a houseful of 
others. They told the Indians that the land was really 
theirs and offered to buy it of the Indians. They also told 
the Indians that three ships were coming from England and 
would drive out the Dutch. The Indians replied that they 
had already, in 1635, sold the land to the Dutch and hence 
could not sell it again. Documents, XIV, 540- Calendar of 
Historical Manuscripts, I, SS8. 



54 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

The General Assembly of ConnectiGut then drew up 
charges against Captain Scott, ^ and called on all civil officers 
to arrest him. This document declared that Scott was 
guilty of "sundry hainous crimes and practices," "sedi- 
tions," "the disturbance of the peace of his Majesty's 
subjects, " " gross and notorious profanation of God's word, ' ' 
' ' forgery and violation of solemn oath, ' ' and treachery to 
Connecticut. Scott was arrested, at Setauket, and taken to 
Hartford. Flushing stood by him in his trouble. A re- 
monstrance, signed by one hundred and forty-four inhabi- 
tants of Flushing, was sent to Hartford, stating that Scott 
had acted in accordance with the will of the people, and that, 
' ' in their silence, the very stones might justly rise to pro- 
claim his innocence. "8 Scott addressed "A humbell 
petition to the Court at Hartford," in which he confessed 
his wrong-doings, and begged for mercy. He was released, 
and afterwards lived at Ashford, now Brookhaven, where 
he was the proprietor of the "Manor of Hope." Later, he 
had trouble with the English colonial officials, and emi- 
grated to the Barbadoes. 

In taking leave of the Dutch Colonial period, it may be 

7 Thompson's Long Island, II, 321. 

8 O'Callaghan's New Netherland, II, 5S2. 



CAPT. JOHN SCOTT 55 

well to say something about the general condition of society 
at that time, and of the influence which society received 
from the Hollanders. ^ 

In the absence of shops, every farmer was, to a great 
extent, his own mechanic — carpenter, mason, wheelwright, 
blacksmith. His home was simple, but comfortable. White 
sand, sprinkled on the floor, took the place of carpets. 
High-backed chairs, ornamented with brass-headed nails 
around the cushioned seats and leather backs, were con- 
spicuous articles of furniture. Plates and dishes of pewter 
and wood furnished the table. In the more wealthy fam- 
ilies, silver plate, in the form of large trays, bowls and 
tankards, was not uncommon. 

Both Negro and Indian slavery prevailed. A species of 
white slavery was also common. Indigent immigrants, in 
return for the payment of their passage money, sold their 
service for definite periods, during which time they could be 
bought and sold like any other slaves, lo A public official 

9 Furman's Antiquities of Long Island. Below is given 
a list of Flushing officials, during the Dutch period, and for 
a short time after : 

SCHODT-FISCALS (OR SHBKIFFS) 

1647, William Hark 1657, Tobias Peake 

1648, John Underhill 1658, John Mastine, 

(Town constable) 

1655, John Hicks 1673, William Lawrence 

1656, William Hallet 1674, Francis Bloodgood. 



56 



HISTORY OF FLUSHING 



known as "the negro whipper, " or "the town whipper, " 
was appointed for each town. The slaves, in Flushing, 
generally received very kind treatment from their masters. 
Nearly all the marriages were performed under the 
Governor's license. ^^ There was a special officer in New 
York, whose jurisdiction extended to Long Island, known 
as: "The First Commissary of Marriage Affairs." It was 
his duty to determine all matrimonial disputes. 



MAGISTRATES 

1662, 



William Lawrence 
William Noble 
William Hallet 
William Hallet 
William Noble 
(appointed by Connecticut) 



1664, 



1673, John Hinchman 
Francis Bloetgoet 
Richard Wildie 



1648, John Tousend 
John Hicks 
William Toorn 

1651, John Underbill 
Thomas Saul 
Robert Terri 

1652, John Hicks 
( other two not recorded 

1655, Thomas Saul 
William Lawrence 
Edward Farrington 

1656, William Lawrence 
Edward Farrington 
William Noble 

(same names until 1662) 

TOWN CLERKS 

1648, John Lawrence 1657, Edward Heart 

1662, Edward Fisher 

Register of New Nelherland, p. 44, SS, 105. 

10 Aug. 13, 1678. Indenture, Katharine Jeffreys to 
serve Chas. Bridges and Sarah his wife, Df Flushing, Long 
Island, for five years, in payment for her passage from Eng- 
land. Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, II, 73. 

11 William Harck, Sheriff of Flushing, was fined 600 
Carulus guilders and deprived of his office, April 3, 1648, 



CAPT. JOHN SCOTT 57 

At funerals, a cold collation, with wines and liquor, was 
provided for the guests, and linen-scarfs and gloves were 
often distributed among them. Funerals became very ex- 
pensive affairs, and often very nearly resembled joyous feasts. 

Where the Dutch influence prevailed, Sunday -afternoon 
visiting was a common custom. To the Dutch we are in- 
debted for Santa Klaas, and for the custom of hanging up 
stockings at Christmas. New Year's day was celebrated with 
noise and hospitality. A group of men would assemble 
before the door of a neighbor and salute him with the 
discharge of guns. The person thus saluted would invite 
his friends into his house, to partalie of refreshments, and 
would then join them in saluting others. The company 
would thus go from house to house, until .all the men of a 
neighborhood were collected together, when they would 
proceed to some rendezvous, and pass the day in athletic 
sports and shooting at a target. St. Valentine's day was 
also celebrated with great hilarity. The whole of Easter 
week was a time of merry making, and was marked by the 
custom of presenting colored eggs to one's friends. 



for solemnizing the marriage of Thos. Nuton, widower, and 
Joan, the daughter of Richard Smith, without the consent 
of the bride's parents and contrary to the law of the Prov- 
ince. The parties were legally married on the 16th of the 
same month. Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, 1,115. 



58 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Money was very scarce. Trade was carried on by the 
exchange of different kinds of produce, at prices fixed by 
law, or the Indian wampum was used as a circulating 
medium. 

Punishment for different misdemeanors was inflicted 
by whipping, branding, putting in stocks, banishing from 
the Province, or hanging. ^^ 



12 "September 15th., 1733, Edward King, a tinker, was 
hanged for killing William Smith on the road near Flush- 
ing. " History of Queen's County, p. 51. 



PART III— The English Colonial Period 



CHAPTER VII 

THE DUKE'S LAWS— SEDITION AMONG FLUSH- 
ING'S MILITIAMEN— GEORGE POX'S VISIT. 

While Flushing was thus torn by three contending fac- 1664: 
tions, things were hastening to an end in Europe. On the 
twenty-second of March, Charles II gave to his brother 
James, the Duke of York, a patent for Long Island and that 
part of the main-land lying between the Connecticut river 
and the Delaware Bay. Lord Sterling's heirs surrendered 
their claims for a stipulated amount, though it does not 
appear that the price was ever paid. Colonel Richard 
Nicolls, a devoted Royalist, was appointed Governor of the 
Province, and Commander of the fleet that was sent against 
New Netherland. New Amsterdam was surrendered to the 
English, on the eighth of September, i New Amsterdam 
became New York ; and Fort Amsterdam became Fort 

1. Brodhead's New York. I, 74S. O'Callaghan's New Nether- 
land, II, 536. 



60 HISTOEY OF FLUSHING 

James. Director-General Stuyvesant surrendered, because 
compelled to do so by his own people, the burghers of New 
Amsterdam. 

Peter Stuyvesant, though arbitrary and quick-tempered, 
was a brave and patriotic man. After the surrender, he 
went to Holland to give an account of his action, and then 
returned to New York. There he lived, for a few years, on 
his farm. He was buried beneath a chapel which he had 
built on his estate. This chapel — St. Mark's in the Fields — 
has since been replaced by the present St. Mark's Church. '^ 
Beneath this church, no longer in the fields, rest the bones 
of the most illustrious Governor of New Netherland. 

Under the rule of Governor Nicolls, Long Island, Staten 
Island, and West Chester were united to form the district, 
or county, of Yorkshire. The present Suffolk county be- 
came the East Riding ; Staten Island, Kings County, and 
Newtown constituted the West Riding ; West Chester and 
Queens County, except Newtown, made the North Riding. 
Thus Flushing (the name Newwarke was dropped, without 
j^ggg official action) was in the North Riding of Yorkshire. An 
assembly of delegates from the various towns met in Hemp- 
stead, early in the next year, and adopted the Code of laws 

2. Flint's Long Island, p. g97, 



THE DUKE'S LAWS 61 

that are known as the "Duke's Laws. "3 The Duke's Laws 
were intended, ultimately, for the whole Province, but many 
of the provisions were evidently applicable to Yorkshire 
alone. A high-sheriff over Yorkshire was to be appointed, 
annually, by the Governor and Council. An under-sheriff 
was to be appointed for each riding. Justices of the peace 
were to be appointed, in each riding, and were to continue 
in office during the Governor's pleasure. These justices of 
the peace were to hold a "Court of Sessions," three times 
a year, in each riding . The "Court of Assizes" was to be 
held, once a year, in New York. Each town was to elect, 
annually, a constable and eight overseers. The constable 
and six of the overseers were to constitute a local court, for 
the trial of cases not involving more than £5. From this 
court of the constable and overseers, an appeal might be 
made to the Court of Sessions. The jurors of the Court of 
Assizes were to be chosen from the town overseers. 

The Church of England was not established in the 
Province by the Duke's Laws. These laws required that 
every town was to build and maintain a church. No minis- 
ter was to be allowed to officiate, who "had not received 
ordination either from some Protestant Bishop or minister," 



3. The delegates from Flushing, were Elias Doughty 
and Richard Cornhill. Brodhead, II, 68. 



62 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

within his Majesty's dominion, or within the dominion of 
some foreign prince of the Reformed Religion. The overseers 
in each town were to act as assessors. Two of them were 
to be chosen to "make the rate," for the support of the 
Church and clergyman.* 

William Wells, of Southold, was the first High Sheriff 
of Yorkshire. Captain John Underhill appears again, as 
the Deputy-Sheriff of the North Riding. Elias Doughty, 
son of the Rev. Francis Doughty, was appointed Constable 
of Flushing. Doughty now brought suit against John 
Hicks, Captain William Lawrence and Captain John Under- 
bill, for the year's salary due his father. Why this matter 
had been allowed to rest for eighteen years, we are unable 
to say. The contract between the town and the Rev. Mr. 
Doughty could not be found. It had been destroyed a year 
before. Captain Lawrence's wife confessed that she had 
' ' put it under a pie in an oven. ' ' Doughty recovered six 
hundred guilders. Each party was to ^ay its own costs. It 
came out in the trial that the sum now awarded to Mr. 
Doughty had already been offered to him, and that he had 
declined to accept it as the full amount due him. 
1666 There was much dissatisfaction on Long Island, because 

the new laws made no provision for a representative form of 
4. Brodhead's Neir York, II, 70, 71. 



SEDITION AMOKG FLUSHING'S MILITIAMEN 63 

government. Several persons were arrested and fined for 
seditious utterances. Among them, was William Lawrence, 
of Flushing, who was fined £5, and required to make public 
acknowledgment of his fault. ^ 

Governor NicoUs came to Flushing, July 3, 1667, accom- 1667 
panied by Captain Betts, to inspect the militia and put it 
into an effective condition. The militiamen were assembled 
and were addressed by the Governor and Captain Betts. 
Then occurred the following scene, according to the depo- 
sition of Captain Betts : ' ' After the Governor, among other 
matters, had told the people met together, that he would 
furnish them with powder for their present occasions, and 
would be content to receive fire-wood for it : he heard Wil- 
liam Bishop speak these words aloud, (vizt. ) 'That there 
was another cunning trick!' Upon which, the said Capt. 
Betts told the said Bishop, that if he had anything to say 
in answer to what had been proposed by the Governor, he 
was best to speak it to the Governor himselfe who was hard 
by, and not to mutter such words among the people — to 
which he made answer : ' It is very like that he hath sett 
ye here to hearken to what we say, that you may tell him? 
Whereunto Capt. Betts replied, ' It was not so, but since he 
thought so, he should take further notice of what he said. ' 

5. Srodhead's New York II, 108. 



64 HISTOEY OF FLUSHING 

Then Bishop returned answer, 'What have I said? I said 
nothing, but there is another cunning trick.' "s 

For these "seditious words spoken at Flushing," Bishop 
was senDGnced "to be made fast to the whipping-post, [in 
New York] there to stand, with rods fastened to his back, 
during the sitting of the Court of Mayor and Aldermen, 
and from thence to be conveyed unto the Common Goale till 
further order. "^ 

There must have been other evidence of disloyalty on 
that memorable third of July. The Governor sent orders 
that a town meeting be summoned, and that, at the meeting, 
an accompanying letter be publicly opened and read. This 
was done. The letter, which was addressed to the inhabi- 
tants of the town, stated that the Governor had, on the 
third of July, spoken, at the head of the militia company, 
of the necessity of cheerful and ready support. ' ' I did very 
much wonder," — he proceeds — "and am not lesse troubled 
at your absurd returns which have given me just cause to 

6. Mandeville, page 44, cites this as 9,n instance of the 
persecution of Quakers. There is no evidence that Bishop 
was a Quaker. That he was a militiaman and, after his 
punishment, volunteered to serve again, is evidence that he 
was not a Quaker. The occurrence had nothing to do 
with Quakerism. It was apparently part of the general 
discontent with what was regarded as an arbitrary form of 
government. 

7. Mandeville, p. 45. Brodhead, II, IZ4. 



SEDITION AMONG FLUSHING'S MILITIAMEN 65 

call back my former favours to you and not to qualify you 
hereafter to receive from mee the civilityes truly intended. 
Now, because you have given me just reason to suspect your 
fidelities and your courage, at a season when a true English- 
man is most zealous, and seeks the first occasion to serve 
the king and country . . . You are to expect all the scorne 
and disdaine that lyes in my power against such meane 
spirited fellowes. ' ' After these bitter words, follow the 
orders which the local authorities were to enforce. The 
commissioned and non-commissioned officers are to be 
suspended: the colors, presented to the company by the 
Governor, are to be returned ; twelve matchlocks are to be 
returned to his Majesty's store, at the fort ; none of the 
company is to presume to appear in arms, without a special 
warrant ; ' ' none of that company which I saw stand in 
arms, under his Majesty's colors (whose names are enclosed) 
shall presume, upon any private occasion, to resort to New 
York for three months, under penalty of being arrested as a 
spy, unless he first report to the officer of the guard in the 
fort, state his business, and the length of time he desires 
to stay, "s 

The offence must have been grave that caused the 
Governor thus to humiliate the inhabitants of Flushing. 

8. DocAiments XIV, 597. 



66 HISTORY OF FLSUHING 

His action, however, seems to have put an end to all sedi- 
tion, during his administration. That some of the militia 
repented is evident from the fact that, on the twelfth of 
August, fourteen men sent their names to the Governor, 
stating that they were "ready to serve him on all occa- 
sions. ' ' In the list was the name of William Bishop. The 
others were : John Elce, Aaron Foreman, Edw. GrifBn, 
Jos. Hedger, Richard Long, William Noble, Nich. Parcell, 
Thos. Sadler, George Tippetts, Jos. Thorn, Jno. Thome, 
Geo. Wright, Jonathan Wright. ^ The Governor directed 
Mr. Cornhill to form them, and others "sensible of their late 
error, ' ' into a company, and forward the list to him. Later 
in October, a town-meeting was called, to elect two men each 
for the positions of captain, lieutenant, and ensign. From 
these, the Governor appointed the officers of the company, i" 
Some time during the next year, Elias Doughty and 
William Noble, overseers of the town of Flushing, were 
summoned before the Court of Sessions, at the Sessions 
House in Jamaica, for neglecting to pay the public rates of 
the town, and for failing to make an assessment for building 
a Sessions House, ii 

9 Documents XIV, 59S. 

10 Documents, XIV, 609. 

11 Documents, XIV, 60S. 



SEDITION AMONG FLUSHING'S MILITIAMEN 67 

About the middle of August, Governor Nicolls, who had 
for some time desired to be relieved of his duties in New 
York, surrendered the government of the Province to Colo- 
nel Francis Lovelace, who was a brother of John, Lord 
Lovelace, and a favorite of the king. Nicolls embarked, 
August 17th., amid many demonstrations of respect and 
regret on the part of those whom he had governed. It was 
said of him, at the time, that he had "kept persons of 
different judgments and diverse nations, in peace and 
quietness, during a time when a great part of the world was 
in wars. "12 

The agitation for a representative form of government, 
which had met with no success during Nicolls's term of 
office, was resumed shortly after the arrival of Governor 
Lovelace. At the November Assizes, a petition was presented 
from Flushing, asking for privileges similar to those enjoyed 
by his Majesty's other subjects in America — "which priv- 
ileges, " said the petition, "consist in advising about and 
approving of all such laws, with the Governor and his 
Council, as may be for the good and benefit of the common- 
wealth ... by such deputies as shall be yearly chosen by 
the freeholders of every town or parish, "i^ Similar petitions 

12 Maverick's letter to Lord Arlington. Brodhead, II, US. 

13 Srodhead, II, 160. 



68 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

were sent in from the other Long Island towns, but Lovelace 
had no authority to grant such requests. 
1670 We have still preserved for us, a description of this part 

of the Island, as it appeared to a writer of that period 
which we have now reached in our history. Daniel Denton, 
the son of the Eev, Richard Denton, of Hempstead, was at 
one time Clerk of Hempstead, and later held the same office 
in Jamaica. He published, in London, in 1670, ' ' A Brief 
Description of New York," in which much space is given 
to Long Island. Hell Gate, he says, at flood tide, "contin- 
ually sends forth a hideous roaring, enough to affright any 
stranger from passing any further. " " The fruits natural to 
the Island are Mulberries, Posimons, Grapes, great and 
small. Huckleberries, Cramberries, Plums of several sorts, 
Roseberries and Strawberries, of which last is such abundance 
in June, that the Fields and Woods are dyed red: Which 
the Countrey-people perceiving instantly arm themselves 
with bottles of Wine, Cream and Sugar, and instead of a 
Coat of Male, every one takes a Female upon his Horse 
behind him, and so rushing violently into the fields, never 
leave till they have disrobed them of their red colour, and 
turned them into the old habit ... In May you shall see 
the Woods and Fields so curiously bedeicke with Roses, and 
an innumerable multitude of Flowers, not only pleasing the 



SEDITION AMONG FLUSHING'S MILITIAMEN 69 

eye, but smell, that you may behold Nature conteoding 
with Art, and striving to equal if not excel many Gardens 
in England. " Denton reported the "Indians few and harm- 
less, ' ' in his day. ' ' It hath been generally observed, ' ' he 
says, "that where the English come to settle, a Divine Hand 
makes way for them, by removing or cutting off the Indians, 
either by Wars one with the other, or by some raging mortal 
Disease, "i* 

An examination of the palisades around Port James, 
revealed the fact that they were in a bad siate of decay. 
The Court of Assizes, therefore, ordered that a tax be levied 
on the towns of Long Island, to furnish means for the 
necessary repairs. This met with such violent opposition 
that the order was never enforced. Two years later, the 
Governor asked for a voluntary contribution, or "benev- 
olence, ' ' from each of the towns. To this request Flushing 
promptly responded and forwarded a contribution of £20 
15 s. 6 d. The Council, thereupon, ordered that thanks be 
given to the inhabitants, for their "forwardness, "is 

It was in June of this same year, that George Fox, the 
founder of the Society of Friends, visited Flushing. He 
describes his visit, in these words: "From Oyster Bay, we 

14 A Brief Desenption of New York, etc., p. 2, 4, 7. 

15 Documents, XIV. 



1672 



70 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

passed about thirty miles to Flushing, where we had a very 
large meeting, many hundreds of people being there ; some 
of whom came about thirty miles to it. A glorious and 
heavenly meeting it was (praised be the Lord God !) and the 
people were much satisfied, "i^ This "glorious and heavenly 
meeting" was held in the open air, the speaker standing 
under the great oaks that ever afterwards bore his name. 
The Fox Oaks were two in number and stood near each 
other. One of them fell on the twenty-fifth of October, 1841, 
and the other, in the year 1863. A stone, near the side- 
walk, on the west side of Bowne avenue, opposite the 
Bowne house, marks their site. Gabriel Furman describes 
the oaks, as they appeared in 1825. "Among other ancient 
remains, ' ' he says, ' ' may be reckoned the two venerable oak 
trees at Flushing, under the shade of which the famous 
George Pox preached, in 1672. I visited these trees, Aug. 
4, 1825, in company with Messrs. Spooner and Bruce, and 
assisted Bruce in measuring them, which we did around the 
trunk, six feet from the ground. We found one to be thir- 
teen feet in circumference, and the other twelve feet, four 
inches, in circumference, "i^ 

16 Fox's Journal, p. 453. 

17 Lcng Island Antiquities, p. 78. 



SEDITION AMONG FLUSHING'S MILITIAMEN 71 

During Fox's visit in Flushing, he was the guest of John 
Bowne. The couch on which Pox rested, after his exhaust- 
ing labors, is still to be seen in the Bowne house, together 
with many other quaint articles of furniture belonging to 
those olden days. 



CHAPTER VIII 

ANOTHER YEAR OF DUTCH RULE 
The war which broke out between England and Hol- 
land in 1672, had its effect on the American colony of New 
1673 York. The Governor, Francis Lovelace, had gone to Hart- 
ford, to confer with Governor Winthrop about a post-offlce 
scherne which had for some time claimed much of Love- 
lace's thought. On his way home, he heard, at Mamaroneck, 
that the Dutch had taken New York. He at once crossed 
to Long Island to raise troops. At Justice Cornwell's, near 
Flushing, he met Secretary Matthias Nicolls. It was agreed 
that Nicolls should go on to the fort and that the Governor 
should keep out of the way of the enemy, and attempt to 
raise troops for the recapture of New York. Lovelace was, 
however, induced, by one of the Dutch ministers, to revisit 
his old quarters in New York. On his arrival he found 
that his house had been plundered, and he was arrested for 
debt. He was told that he could leave the country, if he 
would pay his debts. The Orange flag again waved over 
Manhattan ; New York Province again became New Nether- 



ANOTHER YEAR OF DUTCH RULE 73 

land, and the city became New Orange. Flushing and the 
other English towns were compelled to submit to the Dutch. 
These towns were ordered by the Council "holden in Fort 
William Hendrick, " Aug. X3th. , "to send hither immedi- 
ately their Deputies, together with their Constables' staves 
and English flags, when they would, as circumstances per- 
mit, be furnished with Prince's flags instead of those of the 
English. "1 The deputies of Flushing appeared, on Aug. 
22nd. , and surrendered "one English flag and one Constable's 
staff. ' ' They expressed a willingness to submit to the 
Dutch. The inhabitants of the town were, therefore, par- 
doned, and to them were promised "the same privileges and 
rights which are given to the inhabitants and subjects of 
the Dutch nation. ' ' The deputies were, however, warned 
that any further acts of disloyalty would certainly result in 
the ruin of the town. 

William Lawrence was appointed Schout, and Carel Van 
Brugge, 2 Secretary, for the five towns of Flushing, Jamaica, 
Middleburgh, Oyster Bay and Hempstead. Captain Wil- 
liam Knyff and Lieutenant Jeronymous de Hubert, 
accompanied by Ephraim Hermann, were sent to these 

1 Mandemlle^ p. 30. 

2 Van Brugge died at Flushing in 1682. New Nether- 
land Register, p. S7\ 



74 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

towns to administer the oath of allegiance. 3 They reported, 
on the first of September, that there were sixty- seven men 
in Flushing. Fifty-one of these had taken the oath of 
allegiance ; the others were not at home. Of these sixty- 
seven, twenty were Dutch. Before the middle of September, 
all the men in Flushing had taken the oath of allegiance to 
the States General. The magistrates were instructed to 
' ' take care that the Keformed Christian Religion be main- 
tained, in conformity to the Synod of Dordrecht, without 
permitting any other sects attempting anything contrary 
thereto,"* Thus the Dutch Reformed Church was estab- 
lished in Flushing, but the village was not provided with a 
resident minister. "Cases relating to security of peace and 
justice, between man and man, ' ' were to be settled by the 
magistrates, without the right of appeal, when the amount 
involved did not exceed sixty florins. The Schout and 
Schepens were to settle such matters as laying out roads, 
disposing of lands, enforcing the observance of the Sabbath, 
and erecting churches and school houses. Francis Blood- 
good was appointed a special officer, to guard the interests 
of the Dutch inhabitants of Flushing and the neighboring 
towns. He was to instruct them to be always ready, on the 

3 Documents, II, 589. 

i Laws of New Netherland, p. 476. 



ANOTHER YEAR OF DUTCH RULE. 75 

receipt of notice of the arrival of an English ship, to repair, 
with arms, to New Orange, The magistrates were compelled 
to give up all arms furnished by former Governors of the 
Province. ^ 

Thus Flushing again became a Dutch town. But the 
Dutch government, and Dutch customs, did not long con- 
tinue. Before the close of the following year, the Province 1674 
passed finally into the hands of the English. The record of 
an oflBcial act, during this second period of Dutch supremacy, 
helps to give us a picture of the times. On the twenty-second 
of February, 1674, James N. , of Flushing, was brought to 
trial for "divers evil deeds and actions, using force in 
breaking doors open, beating women and children, burning 
houses and threatening further acts of arson. ' ' The court 
decided that the prisoner was "not in possession of his 
right reason. ' ' He was, therefore, pardoned and sent to 
Staten Island, where he was to be put to work by the mag- 
istrates, who were "empowered to punish him if he behave 
badly. "6 



5 Documents, II. 

6 Documents, II, 689. 



CHAPTER IX 

EEVOLUTIONS AND NEW LAWS 
1 fi7J. Peace between England and Holland, was declared. 

The treaty of Westminster restored the Province of New 
York to England. The English quietly took possession, on 
the tenth of November. New Orange again became New 
York. A day of thanksgiving was proclaimed. But it was 
not observed by all of the inhabitants of Flushing, as wit- 
nesses the following record: "On the twenty-first of 
November, Daniel Patrick and Francis Coley were arrested, 
for "contemptuously working on Thanksgiving Day and 
giving reproachful language to the magistrates that ques- 
tioned them. ' ' They were sent to the New York Court of 
Sessions, by Justice Cornell and Mr. Hinchman. 

Major Edmund Andros was appointed Governor of New 

- ._„ York, by the Duke of York. He was not a popular Governor, 
ioTo 

and had much trouble with the rather contentious population 

at the east end of Long Island. Andros visited Flushing, 

on September 15, 1675. There were indications that the 

Indians were becoming restless ; and the white inhabitants 



REVOLUTIONS AND NEW LAWS 77 

began to fear a general uprising. The Governor, to quiet 
the Indians and to reassure his white subjects, sent an 
armed sloop to cruise in the Sound, and wefit, himself, in 
his pinnacle, "as farre as Mr. Pell's, to the Indyans there, 
and from thence to fflushing, and home by land, the better 
to settle the People's mindes. "i 

During the first thirty years of its existence, Flushing 
passed through many and great changes. The English were 
now secure in their possession of the province. Public and 
private affairs moved along in a quiet and orderly manner 
and left few marks in history. 2 

Colonel Thomas Dongan, succeeded to the governorship 
of New York, in August, 1683. The instructions given to 



1683 



1. Documents^ XIV. 

2. The taxes collected in Flushing, in October of this 
year, 1675, amounted to £18.3.10. The taxable property, 
of the town, consisted of " Negeres, Landes, Madoes, 
Horses, three yer olds, to yere olds, yerlinges, oxen and 
boles, cowes, thre yer oldes, yerlinges, swine and shepe. " 
The collector of taxes, appends this note at the close of his 
report: " Cap. Thoms hikes hath not yet prought in a list 
of his estate. ' ' The tax returns for 1683 amounted to 
£26. 15. 10. Documentary History of New York, II, 363, 300. 

In 1680 Henry Willis and John Bowne protested to the 
Governor and Council against the action of the Court of 
Sessions in fining them £10 for allowing marriages con- 
trary to the laws. When Willis and Bowne refused to pay 
the fines, Joseph Lee, Under-sheriff, seized a barn of corn 
from Willis and took from Bowne five milch cows. Docti- 
ments, V, 753. 



1684 



78 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

him, by the Duke of York, provided for a General Assembly 
to consist of eighteen representatives of the freeholders of 
the Province. Laws passed by this body were to be subject 
to the approval of the Governor. Even after receiving his 
approval, they might be rejected by the Duke. Yet they 
were to be "good and binding," pending his action. The 
first meeting of this first representative body in New York, 
under English rule, was held in New York, October 17, 1683. 
Among the other laws passed, was one which divided the 
Province into counties. This abolished Yorkshire, with its 
three ridings, and established the county lines on Long 
Island as they exist to-day. All towns were required to renew 
their patents. Flushing and Hempstead made large grants 
of Land to Governor Dongan and thereby obtained advantage- 
ous patents. Flushing conveyed to him four hundred acres of 
land, extending south of Success Pond to the edge of Hemp- 
stead Plains. Hempstead gave him two hundred acres. This 
splendid property constituted the Manor of Queens Village. * 
The last Indian deed for land in Flushing, is dated 
April 14, 1684. The deed is made by Saokapowsha and other 
Indians, who are described as "the true owners and propri- 



3 When Dongan resigned the governorship, he retired 
to his farm on Long Island. On the usurpation of office by 
Leisler, Dongan was compelled to leave the country. He 
afterwards became Earl of Limerick. 



REVOLUTIONS AND NEW LAWS 79 

etors of all the land," These Indians " sell, ; for good rea- 
sons, " this land, "unto Elias Doughty, Thomas Willett, 
John Bowne, Matthyas Harvey, Thomas Hickes, Richard 
Cornell, John Hinchman, Jonathan Wright and Samuel 
Hoyt — who were the agents of the freeholders of the town. 
The Indians reserved "the priviledge of cutting bulrushes 
forever, within said tract."* 

The Duke of York became King James II. New York, 1 gft5 
therefore, became a royal province, under the supervision of 
the Committee on Foreign Plantations. The General Assem- 
bly was abolished. On the twenty-third of April, James 
was proclaimed sovereign of the Province. New instructions 
were issued to Governor Dungan. These instructions gave 
the Church of England the same position in New York, that 
it had always occupied in the mother country. "Ye shall 1686 
take special care," — said the Governor's instructions — "that 
God Almighty be devoutly and duly served throughout your 
Government ; the Book of Common Prayer, as it is now 
established, read each Sunday and holiday ; and the Blessed 
Sacrament administered according to the rites of the Church 
of England ; . . . that no minister be preferred by you to 
any ecclesiastical benefice, in that our Province, without a 
certificate from the most Reverend, the Lord Archbishop of 

4 Mandevitk, p. ^9. 



80 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Canterbury, of his being conformable to the doctrine and 
discipline of the Church of England, and of good life and 
conversation. " 3 While the Church of England thus became 
the established Church of the Province, liberty of conscience 
was secured to persons of all creeds. The Governor was 
directed, to "permit all persons, of *hat religion soever, 
quietly to inhabit within your government, without giving 
them any disturbance or disquiet whatever, for or by reason 
of their differing opinions in matters of religion ; Provided 
they give noe disturbance to the public peace, nor doe dis- 
quiet others in the exercise of their religion, "e 

The new militia law made all men, who refused to train, 
liable to a fine. A refusal to pay this fine was punishable 
by a seizure of goods. The Quakers refused to train, re- 
1687 ^^^^ ^° P^y *^® ^^^- When their goods were seized to 
satisfy the fines, they complained that they were deprived 
of the liberty of conscience that had been promised them, 
by the Royal Instructions. ^ This explains the many cases 
of Quakers' being mulcted of their property. They were not 
cases of unreasonable cruelty, but of enforced payment of 
fines. A militia was necessary for the protection of life and 

5 Documents, III, 36, 3~2- 

6 Documents, III, 318, 359, 373. 

7 Ducumentary History, III, 607 et sg. 



REVOLUTIONS AND NEW LAWS. 81 

property. The authorities thought all the colonists should 
contribute to its maintenance. 

James II. had already united all the New England col- 
onies under one Grovernor — Sir Edmond Andros, New York's 
former Governor. This policy of consolidation was now 
extended to New York, New Jersey and all the territory 
between Passamaquoddy Bay and Delaware Bay, except 
Pennsylvania. These united colonies became the "Territory 
and Dominion of New England in America. ' ' Andros was 
now appointed Governor of this enlarged New England.* 
He was assisted in the government by a Council of forty- 
two, appointed by the King from the several colonies. No 
seat of government was named; the Governor and seven 
members of the Council could, at any time and at any 
place, make laws. ^ In these new instructions, nothing was 
said about the ecclesiastical supremacy of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury or the Bishop of London. 

But the reign of James was short. William, Prince of 
Orange, invaded England, in the autumn of the year 1688. 
On the twenty-third of February, 1689, William and Mary 
were formally proclaimed King and Queen of England. 
This revolution in England threw the American colonies 

8 Brodhead II, 501. 

9 Brodhetid IT, 505. 



1688 



1689 



82 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

into confusion. An insurrection broke out in Boston, which 
resulted in the imprisonment of Andros. In New York 
Lieutenant Governor Nicholson and other officials appointed 
by James were accused of being Papists. Nicholson 
declined to proclaim the new king, until he should 
receive orders to do so. The people became impatient and 
mutinous. 

Jacob Leisler, a native of Germany, had come to New 
Netherland, as a soldier, about thirty years before this date. 
He was now a rich merchant, and Captain of the militia. 
In him was found a ready leader of the insurrection against 
Nicholson. Fort James was seized and its name was 
changed to Fort William. Nicholson, deprived of power, 
sailed for England. William and Mary were proclaimed 
King and Queen, in New York, on June twenty-second. Six 
days later, Leisler summoned a convention. Flushing sent 
two representatives, though the majority of the inhabitants 
of Queens County appear to have opposed his usurpation. 
This convention appointed Leisler "Captain at the Fort at 
New York" and thus started him on his short but despotic 
reign, i" 
1690 The inhabitants of the towns of Flushing, Hempstead, 

Jamaica, and Newtown directed Capt. John Clapp to write 

10 Brodhead II, S64-591 



REVOLUTIONS AND NEW LAWS 83 

to the King's secretary an account of their piiserable con- 
dition, stating that Leisler and his officials had been seizing 
and selling their property because they declined to obey 
him ; that these same officials had stripped their wives and 
daughters of their apparel, had shot and wounded English- 
men, and then sequestered and sold their estates." 

Colonel Henry Sloughter was appointed Governor of New 
York. He arrived in New York, March 19, 1691. Leisler 1691 
was arrested, convicted of treason and murder, and was 
executed on May sixteenth. I'- 



11 Brodheadll, 636. 

12 Gov. Sloughter, died June 16, 1691, and was suc- 
ceeded by Colonel Benjamin Fletcher, in August, 1692. 
Fletcher was recalled in 1695, and Richard Earl of Bellomont 
was appointed to succeed him, in 1698. Among the Council 
of Bellomont we find the names of Thomas Willett and 
John Lawrence — presumably from Flushing. Bellomont 
died March 5, 1701. 

Governor Bellomont wrote to the Lords of Trade, in 
1699, that "a great many men in that county (Queens) 
pretend themselves Quakers to avoid taking the oaths," 
but that these same pretended Quakers "got very drunk 
and swore and fought bloodily. ' ' 



CHAPTER X 

QUAKERS IN FLUSHING. 

1692 Peace being once more restored, the inhabitants of 

Flushing had an opportunity to turn their attention to re- 
ligious affairs. Up to this date, there had been no building 
in Flushing devoted to public worship. The Friends were 
the only people who held regular services, and they met in 
private houses. The society had now become large enough 
to justify it in building a public meeting-house. Three 

1694 acres of land, together with a dwelling-house, were pur- 
chased for £40 : and the Meeting-House was built, i 



1 Following are the principal dates and facts connected 
with the Friends' meeting-house : 1692, the ground was pur- 
chased ; 1694, the meeting-house built ; 1696, the first yearly 
meeting was held in the new meeting-house ; 1704, the 
meeting-house was shingled, plastered and repaired ; 1707, a 
complaint was recorded that the monthly meetings were 
"cumbered with people having no business there," and 
that "children and young people disturbed the meeting by 
frequently running in and out;" 1716, orders were given for 
a new meeting-house ; 1719, the new meeting-house was 
completed ; 1707, Samuel Haight made the remainder of the 



1699 

to 



QUAKERS IN FLUSHING 85 

The census, which was taken toward the close of the Jggg 
seventeenth century, reveals the fact that the town of 
Flushing had, at that time, five hundred and thirty white 
inhabitants and one hundred and thirty negroes. 2 Among 
the inhabitants, at that early date, may be found names of 
families that are to-day represented by many descendants 
in Flushing. 

In the journals of Roger Gill and Thomas Story — travel- 
ling Quaker preachers — we find frequent mention of visits 
to Flushing, where they were hospitably entertained and 

where they held satisfactory meetings. Thus Roger Gill X703 

i 

front fence, hung the gate and provided a lock for it ; 
during the same year John Farrington was engaged, 
at £2 a year, to make fires ; 1748, Samuel Bowne and 
John May sat in the gallery, during the yearly meeting, 
to keep order ; 1752, complaint was recorded that the 
yearly meeting was much disturbed by "the rude and 
unchristian practice" of many who attended; 1760, "Thomas 
Franklin got an iron stove for the meeting-house ;" 1763, the 
gallery was taken down, the second story was built and 
divided into two rooms ; school was kept in one of these 
upper rooms ; 1773, Rebecca Walsh was engaged to build 
fires, at £1.10 per annum, and John Eagles was paid three 
shillings for mending the bellows ; 1776, the meeting-house 
was occupied by the Royal army as prison, barracks, hospi- 
tal, store-house ; the fence was used for fire wood ; 1783, the 
meeting-house was repaired and restored to its original use ; 
the ground was rented for £3 a year, the grass being 
reserved for the horses of Friends who attended yearly meet- 
ing ; 1794, yearly meeting was transferred to Westbury. 
OnderdonK's Friends on Long Island and in New York, pp. 94, 95. 

2 Appendix, III. 



86 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

writes: "June 24, 1699. Lodged at John Rodman's. 3 Next 
day we went down the sound, in a sloop of John Rodman's, 
to Flushing . . . We lodged that night at Thomas Steven- 
son's. Aug. 25, we lodged at Samuel Bound's. So Friends 
received us very joyfully, and were glad that we were come. 
. . . Aug. 31, From thence to Flushing (5th day) to Samuel 
Down's. This day we held a meeting at Flushing. A good 
and large and lively meeting it was. " 

From the journal of Thomas Story, we cull the follow- 
ing ; "Aug. 30, 1699. After this we went with Samuel 
Bowne and his wife to Flushing, where we had a glorious 
meeting next day . . . Jan. 28, 1700. We went by water to 
Flushing, where the Iiord gave us a good and comfortable 
meeting ; and then rested at Samuel Bpwn's until the 
30th . . . Feb. 1, 1700. I was at the monthly meeting at 
Flushing, where several marriages were presented, and the 
countenance of the Lord was over us for good . . . July 29, 
1702. Returned to Flushing ; the next day I was at their 
week-day meeting, which was hard and shut up, at first, 
but ended comfortably ; and on the 31st, I visited several 
families and returned in the evening to Samuel Bowne's 

3 John Rodman was a physician and Quaker preacher 
in Flushing for about forty years. He died October 7, 1713, 
aged 78 years, "He did abundance of good ... A man 
beloved by all sorts of people. ' ' Record of Men's Meeting. 



QUAKEES IN FLUSHING 87 

where, nest day, I wrote divers letters. Thence crossed the 
Sound . . . March 16, 1703. I was at Flushing week day 
meeting, to which came some strangers. The meeting was 
very open and bright, and many truths of the Gospel were 
declared in the authority of it, to their satisfaction. "* 

Edward Hyde, Lord Cornbury, was appointed Governor 
of New York in 1702. s Cornbury was probably the most 
thoroughly disliked of all the Governors of New York. He 
was conspicuous for his zeal for the Church of England ; 
but was more conspicuous for his unjust extortion and 
reckless expenditure of the colonists' money. ^ It was 
sometimes doubted whether he was entirely sane. He was 
fond of masquerading in women's clothes, and "was fre- 
quently seen in the evening in this costume, strolling about 
on the ramparts of the fort, with a fan in his hand. ' ' A 
portrait of him, which represents him in this dress, is still 
preserved in England. ^ 

The first year of Lord Cornbury 's term of office was 
marked by the first appearance in Flushing of a Church of 

4 OnderdonW s Quakers of Hempstead. Onderdonk's Quakers 
on Long Island and in New York. 

5 King William died in 1702. His queen, Mary, was 
already dead. Mary's sister, Anne, succeeded to the throne 
of England. She appointed Cornbury, who was her uncle. 

6 Roberts' New York, /, SS8-SS1. 

7 Men, Women and Manners of Colonial Times, II, 104, 105. 



1702 



88 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

England clergyman. He was the Rev. George Keith, a 
missionary sent out by the "Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts." Keith had formerly been 
a Friend and, as a travelling minister, had visited the yearly 
meetings of the Friends in Flushing. He, hovpever, became 
dissatisfied with the doctrines of the Friends and took 
orders in the Church of England. The recently organized 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, sent him as a 
missionary to the American colonies. The Rev. John Tal- 
bot, chaplain of the war-ship which brought him to Amer 
ica, became his travelling companion and assistant, s 

Keith's journal, published four years later, gives us an 
account of his visit to Flushing, on September 24, 1702. 
Arriving in the village, he proceeded to the Quaker meeting 
which was in session. "After sometime of silence, " he 
stood up "in the gallery, where their speakers use to stand 
when they speak," and began his address. He was recog- 
nized, and his presence was resented. H« says: "I was 
so much interrupted by the clamour and noise that several 
Quakers made, forbidding me to speak, that I could not 
proceed." One of the Quakers spoke for an hour. His 
discourse, in the judgment of Keith, "was a ramble of non- 
sense and perversion of Scripture, with gross reflections both 

8 History of St. George's Parish, p. 5, 6. 



QUAKERS IN FLUSHING 89 

on the Church and the Government." Keith was accused 
of violating the Act of Toleration and was ordered out of 
the house. He maintained that it was a house for public 
religious meetings, and that all had a common right to it ; 
if the Quakers should put him out, he could prosecute 
them. Moreover, since they appealed to the Act of Toler- 
ation, he inquired whether they had fulfilled the require- 
ments of that act, by having their meeting-house licensed. 
The Act further required their preachers to sign thirty- 
four of the Thirty-nine Articles. Had they done this? 
They changed their line of argument and accused him of 
preaching for money, not for love. He replied that travel- 
ling Quaker preachers received pay, both from Friends in 
London and from the meetings they visited. He himself 
had received pay from that very meeting. He was then 
accused of misappropriating money entrusted to him. This 
he denied. 

On the third of December, Keith returned to Flushing, 
armed with a letter from Lord Cornbury, and protected by 
two justices of the peace. He read the letter, without effect, 
in the meeting-house. The Quakers again brought up the 
Act of Toleration, and Keith again turned it against them. 
They then said it did not apply to the American colonies. 
The Quakers tried to talk him down. He remained to hear 



90 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

three of their speakers, though, he says : "It was very 
grievous to us to hear such nonsense. "8 

Whether the Church of England service was at this 
time established in Flushing, as a result of the visit of 
Keith and Talbot, it is impossible to state. 

Between these two visits of Keith and Talbot^viz., on 
the 29th of November, 1702 — the meeting-house in Flushing 
was the scene of another disturbance. Samuel Bownas, a 
Quaker preacher from England, was accused by William 
Bradford^*' of having, at a meeting recently held in Hemp- 
stead, spoken with contempt of the Church and her Sacra- 
ments. Bradford's deposition was suppbrted by a similar 
one, made by Richard Smith. A warrant was issued for 
Bownas's arrest. This was accomplished in Flushing. We 
shall allow Bownas to tell his own story. "On the twenty- 
ninth of the same month, [November, 1702] I was at Flush- 
ing on Long Island, it being the Half yearly Meeting, which 

9 Journal of Travels. 

10 William Bradford came to America with William 
Penn, in 1658, and set up a printing press in Philadelphia. 
He was a Quaker, but left the Society and joined the Church 
of England. This threw him out of sympathy with the 
authorities in Philadelphia. In 1693, he was invited to 
come to New York. Here he set up the first press in the 
Province, and was appointed public printer. In 1725 he 
established the New York Gazette, the first paper published 
in the Province. He died in 1752 and was buried in 
Trinity Churchyard. 



QUAKERS IN FLUSHING 91 

was very large, Keith being expected there. When the 
meeting was fully set, the High Sheriff came with a very 
large company, who were all armed ; some with guns, others 
pitchforks, others swords, clubs, halberts, etc. as if they 
should meet with great opposition in taking a poor harmless 
sheep out of the flock. The Sheriff, stepping up into the 
gallery, took me by the hand, and told me I was his pris- 
oner. 'By what authority?' said I; he pulled out his 
warrant and showed it me. I told him that warrant was to 
take up Samuel Bowne, and my name was not Samuel 
Bowne, but that Friend's name is so, pointing at the 
Friend by me. 'We know him,' said he, 'this is not the 
man, but you are the man : pray then what is your name?' 
'That is a question which requires consideration, whether 
proper to answer or not, for no man is bound to answer to 
his own prejudice ; the law forces none to accuse himself. ' 
Thus we pro'd and con'd a little time, and I got up from my 
seat, and John Rodman, Samuel Bowne, and sundry other 
Friends, walked out of the meeting, it not being proper to 
discourse there at that time ; and they, on conversing with 
the Sheriff, who in his nature was a very moderate man, 
having known Friends in England, easily prevailed on him 
to stay the meeting, with all his retinue, and afterwards 
they would consider what was best to be done. They will- 



92 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

ingly laid down their arms on the outside of the door, and 
came in, which increased the throng very much, "i^ 

Bownas was allowed to remain undisturbed, until the 
days of the Half-yearly Meeting had passed. He was then 
taken to Jamaica for examination. Refusing to give bond, 
or to allow any of his friends to do so, he was commmitted 
to jail. Among others, one of the justices of the peace 
offered to be surety for him, but Bownas would not allow 
it — preferring to go to jail. To follow the fortunes of Bow- 
nas, would take us too far afield. During his imprisonment, 
he supported himself by making shoes. After a year's im- 
prisonment, he was set at liberty. ^^ 

The Friends took the initiative in Flushing, in two 
great works of beneficence, i. e. education, and the freeing 
of slaves. In 1703, 5th. of 6th. mo. , the meeting decided : 
"A schoolmaster being judged necessary for the town of 
Flushing, it is thought fit by this meeting that Samuel 
Hoyt and Francis Doughty do seek out for a convenient 
piece of ground, to purchase it and build a school-house 
thereon, for the use of Friends, about Richard Griffin's lot 



11 Life of Samvel Bownas, in tlie Friend^ Library, III, 25. 

12 Bownas again visited Flushing, in 1726, "The meet- 
ing of ministers and elders was of good service, among them 
were some young ministers ; and at this Quarterly Meeting 
we had a solid time, a large appearance of young Friends 
of both sexes being there. ' ' Life, p. 56. 



QUAKERS IN FLUSHING 93 

upon the cross way, which is near the centre of the town. " i3 
This school-house was probably built, though we find no 
record of the fact. Six years later, however, we find this 
record: "Thomas Makins, schoolmaster hath signified to 
this meeting his willingness to sit with his scholars in the 
meeting and take care of them, which the meeting think 
well of, and desire him as much as may be to bring all 
Friends' children with him on Fifth day, and also unto the 
meeting-day appointed for the youth's meeting, "i* These 
youth's meetings were held on the last Tuesday in Febru- 
ary, May, August, and November, is Though not held on 
Sunday, these youth's meetings seem to be the beginning of 
the modern Sunday School idea, i. e. a special season for 
the religious instruction of the young. The first school 
held on Sunday was also conducted by Friends. It began 
about 1819 and was devoted to the education of negro 
children, in the elementary branches of secular learning, is 
The first agitation of the subject of slavery appears to 
have been at a meeting held in Flushing, in 1716, when the 

LS Minutei of Meetings, 7, S. 

14 Minutes of Meetings, I, 54. 

15 Manusm-ipt History of the Society of Friends in Queens 
Gounty, H. Onderdonk, Jr., p. 139. 

16 Mandeville, p. 713. 



94 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

subject was brought up by John Farmer. It occupied the 
attention of Friends for four subsequent yearly meetings. 
In 1718, William Burling, of this meeting, published an 
address on slavery, which is probably the first anti-slavery 
publication in this country, i^ 

The traditional history of the Flushing Meeting-House 
does not agree with that to be gathered from the original 
records. On the third day of the ninth month, 1693, orders 
were given to cut the timber and have it ready for "raising" 
in the next first month, i. e. January 1694. The first meet- 
ing was held in the Meeting House on the fourth day of the 
eighth month, 1694. is This is one year earlier than the tra- 
ditional date. But the Meeting-House then built was not 



17 Manuscript History, p. 153-155. The Friends in Flush- 
ing had not always opposed slavery. We have at least one 
instance of the meeting's raising money to enable an impe- 
cunious Friend to buy a slave. In 1684, John Adams 
bought a negro and was not able to pay for him. His "neces- 
sity" was laid before the meeting, on the 14th. of 8th. mo. 
"The meeting did appoint and desire John Bowne of iflush- 
ing and William Ricardson of West Chester to take ye 
charge in behalf of ye meeting, to procure the sum of money 
. . . the meeting doeth promise and Engage to Relmburs 
and pay the said sumb soe procured. ' ' Minutes of Meetings. 

18 On the 28th of 9th. mo. 1702, Samuel Haight was 
paid £50 for the money he had ' ' layd out' ' in building the 
Meeting-House. 



QUAKERS IN FLUSHING 95 

the one which now stands. It is sad thus to disturb a fond 
tradition, and to deprive our Meeting-House of its claim to 
so great antiquity, but the records seem to show that the 
present building was not erected until 1718 or 1719. We 
give in full the entries concerning this subject: "At a 
Quarterly Meeting at ye meeting-house at Westbury ye 23d. 
12mo. , 1716-7. It is Concluded at this meeting. Unani- 
mously, that ye meeting house proposed to be built at 
flflushing upon friends land there, neare ye Ould Meeting, 
be left to Hugh Cowperthwait, Samuel Bowne, francis 
Dowtey, James Jackson ; for Westbury : William Willis, 
Nathaniell Jonson, John Titus, Jeremiah Williams, Thomas 
Percon ; for Newtown : Robert ffeald ; for New Yorke : Joseph 
Lathem ; for West Chester : Jeremiah Hunt ; and that the 
men above said shall have power to form ye said house and 
agree with workmen and carrey it on, according to their 
discression and Receave ye seaverall subscription to pay said 
workmen." This building was completed sometime before 
the close of 1719. At the Quarterly Meeting held on the 
28th of 9th month, 1719, the following minute was recorded : 
"Inasmuch as mention hath bene mad that severall men are 
out of what may be dew them about building of ye meeting 
house at fflushing, there for ye meeting hath appointed 
James Jackson, Francis Dowtey, Robert flfeld, William Bur- 



96 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

ling, Nathanael Simens and John Rodman to in spect ye 
accoumpts a bout ye dis bursement and what Remains yet 
Unpaid, and give accoumpt to ye next Quarterly Meeting, "is 

The present Meeting-house was not originally a two- 
storied building. A gallery occupied the position of the 
present upper floor, until 1763. 

The meeting kept a very close supervision over the con- 
duct of Friends, and never hesitated to enforce its rules of 
discipline. Penitents were compelled publicly to "condemn" 
their action. If offenders refused to do this, after being 
"tenderly dealt with," they were "disowned." Here in a 
sample (1705) of many similar entries. '"William Thome 
condemns his disorderly and evil action in accompanying 
William Ford and Mary Hait, his cousin, in their rebellious 
endeavor to accomplish marriage without and altogether 
against the consent of her parents. The meeting advise him 
to give Samuel Hait satisfaction by desiring his forgiveness, 
and to make his paper of condemnation public, as far as his 
action was known ; That truth may be cleared, a committee 
visit Thomas Ford who was concerned in assisting his 
brother William with great endeavor to perform a disorderly 



19 Minutes, I, I4, 39 No further reference to the subject 
can be found. 



QUAKERS IN FLUSHING 97 

marriage by a priest. Thomas condemns his outrunning in 
going to New Rochelle about his brother's disorder in 
attempting to get married, "^o 



20 Many similar cases of discipline may be gathered 

from the records. 1739, 7th of 12mo. , R L condemns 

himself for consenting to his daughter marrying outside of 
meeting, and for being with her where there was "fiddling 
and dancing." Another offence was, giving her a dinner at 

his own home. 1782, E L is disowned. He plays 

cards, is extravagant in dress and address -uses vain com- 
pliments. 1781, E daughter of S D is disowned 

' ' for superfluous, and extravagance in, dress and address. ' ' 

1775, "O W was at a horse race, attended with a 

fraudulent circumstance. He now condemns it and returns 
what he had so obtained." In 177i, it was reported; 
"Friends are clear of chewing tobacco in meeting, not clear 
of sleeping, no buying or importing of negroes. " Maimacript 
History, p. 139, 173, 175, ISl. 



CHAPTER XI 

THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN FLUSHING— GOV- 
ERNOR CLINTON 

1704 Two years after the visit of Keith "and Talbot, the serv- 

ices of the Church of England were regularly held in Flush- 
ing, if not at an earlier date. The first Rector of Jamaica, 
the Rev. Patrick Gordon, who had come out from England 
with Keith and Talbot, died of yellow fever before he had 
begun his work. Until his successor should be appointed, 
the Rev. James Honeyman was licensed, by Lord Cornbury, 
to conduct services at Jamaica, Flushing and Newtown. 
He spoke of Flushing as " famous for being stocked 
with Quakers. ' ' The regularly appointed Rector of these 
three towns, the Rev. William Urquhart, was inducted in 
July, 1704. Of the inhabitants of Flushing, he wrote : 
"Most of the inhabitants thereof are Quakers, who rove 
through the county from one village to another, talk 
blasphemy, corrupt the youth, and do much mischief." 
He visited Flushing once a month, and held services in the 



CHURCH OF ENGLAND 99 

Guard House, which stood near the corner of Broadway 
and Union street, i 

Mr. Urquhart lived in Jamaica. He held services in 
Flushing twice a month — once on Sunday, and once on a 
week day. He died in 1709. His controversies with the 1709 
Nonconformists, conceruing the possession of the church and 
glebe, belong to the history of Jamaica. 

Lord John Lovelace, who succeeded Cornbury as 1708 
Governor of New York, arrived on Dec. 18, 1708. He came 
down the Sound, on the Kingsale, and landed at Flushing. ^ 
Thence he proceeded to New York, where he was cordially 
received by the people. He died in the following year, and 1710 
was succeeded, 1710, by Robert Hunter. 

The same year brought to the three united parishes of 
Jamaica, Newtown, and Flushing, a new Rector, in the 
person of the Rev. Thos. Poyer. Mr. Foyer was a native of 
Wales. He sailed for America, in December, 1709. After a 
voyage of over three months, he was shipwrecked on the 
coast oH Long Island, about a hundi-ed miles from his par- 
ish. Mr. Poyer proved to be a faithful and hard working 1711 
pastor. In his report to the Society, May 3, 1711, he 

1 Hiitory of 8t, George's Parish, si, 22. Antiquities of the 
Pariah Church of Jamaica, p. 16-20. 

2 Documents, V, 67. 



100 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

wrote : "I thank God the Church of England increaseth, 
for among the Quakers at Flushing ... I have seldom so 

1713 few as fifty hearers." Again, two years later: "The 
Churches increase beyond expectation, and among the 
Quakers in Flushing ... I seldom have so few as fifty, and 
often more than a hundred hearers. ' ' Mr. Poyer received 
£50, a year from the Society, and very little from any other 
source. The friction between the Church of England and 

1717 the Nonconformists continued. Mr. Poyer wrote, in 1717 : 
"They make it their constant endeavour to tire me with 
their ill usage and to starve me. "3 The shop-keepers would 
not sell him provisions ; the miller would not grind his corn. 
The miller told him to eat his corn whole, as the hogs do. 

1731 In 17,31, Mr. Poyer asked to be relieved of his duties, that 
he might return home ; but he died of small-pox, in the 
same year, and was buried in Jamaica. Two manuscript 
sermons, preached by Mr. Poyer in Flushing, are still pre 
served in St. George's Church. 

1733 '^^^ Rev. Thomas Colgan succeeded Mr. Poyer, in 1733. 

He had been an assistant minister in Trinity Church, New 
York. His wife was the daughter oi John Reade. Mr. 
Colgan 's conciliatory methods did much to overcome the 
opposition to the Church of England. The first Episcopal 

3 Documentary History of New York, III, 171. 



CHURCH OF ENGLAND 101 

Church, in Flushing, was built during his rectorship. He 

wrote, in 1746, that they were "in a very likely way of 

1746 
having a church erected in the town of Flushing, a place 

generally inhabited by Quakers, and by some of no religion 
at all. "4 He expressed the hope, that the church would be 
ready for service in three months. The Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel sent, for use in the new church, 
a copy of the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer, bound 
together, which may still be seen in St. George's Church. 
"A Quaker gave some money, at the opening of the new 
church" — Mr. Colgan writes — "and afterwards thought he 
had not put enough in the plate, and gave more to the col- 
lector. " The churchyard was the gift of Capt. Hugh 1749 
Wentworths and Mary his wife. Capt. Wentworth was a 
merchant in the West Indian trade. The deed is dated, 

April 7, 1749 — three years after the completion of the Church. 

"I7CQ 
It was during the rectorship of Mr. Colgan, that Flush- ' "'^ 

ing became the temporary residence of Sir George Clinton, 

4 Documentary Histn-ry of New Torh\ III, 194. 

5 The New York Post Boy, of October 25, 1756, contains 
the following: "Capt. Wentworth, being at St. Thomas, 
mustered as many New Yorkers as he could find (twenty- 
four hands in all), and in his own vessel, indifferently 
mounted with great guns, put to sea in pursuit of a French 
Privateer cruising off the harbor and chasing New York 
vessels. The Privateer thought best to disappear. ' ' 



102 HISTORY OP FLUSHING 

the Governor of the Province. ^ How long the Governor lived 
in Flushing, we are unable to say. It is certain that he 
was here in 1753.'' On May .3, 175.S, the Provincial Council 
met in Flushing— present : the Hon. Jas. Alexander, 
Speaker, Archibald Kennedy, and Edward Holland. An 
address was presented to his Excellency, the Governor, who 
responded, in these words ; ' ' Gentlemen ; I thank you for 
this kind address, as it is a great satisfaction to me to have 
my conduct and administration meet with your appro- 
bation. ' ' 

One of Governor Clinton's letters to the Lords of Trade, 
is dated: "Flushing upon Long Island, ye 30 June, 1753." 
In this letter, he speaks of his lack of health, and expresses the 



6 Sir George Clinton was the youngest son of the sixth 
Earl of Lincoln, He became Commodore in the navy, and 
later, in 17,32, Governor of Newfoundland. He was ap- 
pointed Governor of New York, in 1743, and retired in 1753. 
Returning to England he was appointed Governor of Green- 
wich Hospital; later, in 1757, Admiral of the Fleet; finally, 
a second time. Governor of Newfoundland, where he died, in 
1761. 

7 "He committed the error of secluding himself in the 
fort, or at his country seat, where he spent his time over 
his bottle, with a few dependents, who played billiards 
with his lady and lived on his bounty. He seldom went 
abroad ; many of the citizens never saw him ; and he did 
not attend Divine worship more than three or four times 
during his whole administration. ' ' New T<yrk Gazetteer, 
p. 5S. 



CHURCH OF ENGLAND 103 

desire to return to England. » He also speaks of the threat- 
ening movements of "the French and their Indians, " and 
states that he had sent notice of this danger to Governor 
Hamilton of Pennsylvania. It was probably in conse- 
quence of this notice, that Governor Hamilton sent Conrad 
Weiser, an interpreter, on a mission to the Mohawks. 
Weiser arrived in New York, on the first of August, on his 
way north. Being unwell, he sent his "son Sammy, with- 
one Henry Van den Ham, to Flushing, on Long Island, to 
wait on Governor Clinton, and deliver Governor Hamilton's 
letter to him. Governor Clinton being gone to the plains, 
they left the letter with his lady and returned the next 
day. ' ' Weiser proceeded on his journey, and returned to 
New York, August 24th. Mr. Kennedy, a member of the 
Council, who was going to Flushing on the following day, 
ofiered to notify his Excellency of Weiser's return. Mr. 
Kennedy, however, found "that all the horses and chairs 
over the river were employed, and that he could get none, 
which prevented his going to Flushing. "9 Two days later, 
Weiser was able to reach Flushing. "I went" — he says — 
"to Flushing, on Long Island, seventeen miles from New 
York, to wait on Governor Clinton — he happened to be from 

8 Documents, VI, 778. 

9 Documents VI, 795-798. 



104 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

home, but came in by one o'clock. I paid him my compli- 
ments at his door— he called me in and asked me how far I 
had been, and signified to me that it was a wrong step in 
me to proceed to Albany before I had his directions. I 
asked pardon, and told him my reason why I proceeded. 
His Excellency said it was well; he did not disapprove so 
much of my proceeding, as of my son's not staying for an 
answer. His Excelleney seemed well enough pleased with 
my return, and of my not proceeding to Onondago, and was 
pleased to tell me that he intended to be in New York next 
Wednesday, and would then have me to wait on him and 
take a letter to Governor Hamilton, and so dismissed me, 
but would have me stay and eat a bit of victuals first, and 
ordered his attendance accordingly to get it for me and my 
companion. After dinner, I left Flushing and arrived in 
New York the same evening, "i" 

Weiser did not see the Governor again. Clinton sent 
him his compliments, wished him a safe journey, and re- 
quested Weiser to present his compliments to Governor 
Hamilton. 

These, not important, incidents are cited to enable the 
reader to gain something like a correct picture of the times. 



10 Documents, VI, 798. 



CHURCH OF ENGLAND 105 

and to realize how Flushing entered into the life of the 
whole Province. 

The French and Indian war broke out, two years later. 1755 
William Johnson, in command of the expedition against 
Crown Point, wrote, in October, to thank the inhabitants 
of Queens County for "sixty-nine cheeses and two hundred 
sheep, being part of one thousand raised in Queens County, 
on Long Island, as a present to the army, "n 

The Rev. Mr. Colgan died during this troublous year, 
' ' lamented and respected by all who knew him. ' ' He had 
done much toward accomplishing the work he laid out for 
himself, when he wrote, in the second year of his incum- 
bency : "We are at peace with those several sectaries that 
are round about us, and I hope that, by God's help, peace 
will subsist among us. To sow the seeds thereof shall be my 
endeavor : to be of a loving, charitable demeanor to all men, 
of whatever persuasion, in matters of religion, shall be, by 
God's help, my practice, that so discharging my duty 
therein, I may contribute my mite to the good of the 
Church of Christ. "12 

Peace among the Churches was not, however, perma- 
nently secured. At the death of Mr. Colgan, the old feud 



11 Mandeville^ p. 55, 56. 

12 Documentary History of New Y&rk, III, 191. 



106 HISTOEY OF FLUSHING 

again broke out. The dissenters secured a majority in the 
vestry at Jamaica, and elected a Presbyterian Minister to 
the rectorship of the three parishes. Governor Hardy would 
not allow his induction. The vestry declined to elect any 
one else. After waiting some time, the Governor "was 
pleased to collate to the care of the parish, the Rev. Samuel 
Seabury Jr. ' ' 
1 irrjR The unwillingness on the part of the Quakers to serve 

in the militia, or in any way to assist in warfare, probably 
accounts for the fact that fines are recorded against many 
of them at this time, i^ 

"Nine neutral French" »* were sent to Flushing, in 
May, to be cared for by the magistrates. On Nov. 29, the 
General Assembly paid Christopher Roberts £4.2.1 for their 
support. 



13 John Thorn, James Burling, James Bowne, Benj. 
Doughty, Stephen Hedger, Dan'l. Bowne, James Parsons, 
Dan'l Lathum, Sam'l. Thorn, Caleb Field, John Thorne, 
were finea £2 each, except the last-named, whose fine was 
1£. Documentni'y History of New York, III, 6SS. 

14 These so-called "neutral French" were the residents 
of Nova Scotia who were drawn from their homes by the 
British, because, it was alleged, they, under the guise of 
neutrality as non-combatants, had given aid to the enemy. 
A great number of them were distributed throughout the 
Island. 



CHURCH OF ENGLAND 107 

Quebec fell on Sept. 13, 1759. is The current number of 
the New York Mercury tells us how the event was celebrated, 
on the ninth of November. "The inhabitants of Flushing 
celebrated the reduction of Quebec, that long dreaded sink 
of French perfidy and cruelty. An elegant entertainment 
was provided, at which the principal person's of the place 
were present. . After dinner, the paternal tenderness of our 
gracious Sovereign for these infant colonies, the patriotism 
and integrity of Mr. Pitt, the fortitude and activity of our 
generals and admirals, etc., with every other toast that loy- 
alty and gratitude could dictate, were drank. Each toast 
was accompanied by a discharge of cannon — in all, about 
one hundred. The evening was ushered in with a large 
bonfire and an illumination. "'6 

One year later, Sept. 8, 1760, Canada passed into the 
hands of the English. Peace was once more established. 
The inhabitants of Flushing again turned their attention to 



1759 



1760 



15 One of the heroes at Quebec was Lieutenant Colonel 
Isaac Corsa. He, with the Long Island men, "volunteered to 
erect a battery under the fire of the enemy, during the night 
of August 26th. This battery was chiefly instrumental in 
the capture of Fort Frontenac. After the war, he returned 
to his farm in Flushing and resigned his commission. 
During the Kevolution, he was arrested as a British sym- 
pathizer and released on parole. He died in 1807, aged 80 
years. 

16 Queens County in Olden Times, p. 31. 



108 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

religious affairs. The Rev. Samuel Seabury, the Rector of 
the Church of England, does not give a flattering picture 
of the spiritual condition of the town. He writes: "Flush- 
ing, in the last generation the ground seat of Quakerism, 
is in this, the seat of infidelity." Again: "Quakerism 
has paved the way" for "deism and infidelity. "''^ 

The Charter of St. George's Church is dated June 17, 

1761 ^'^^^ — *^^ fi'^^* year of the reign of George III.i* 

Mr. Seabury was assisted in his work, in Flushing, by 
John Aspinwall, Thomas Grennell, and a Mr. Treadwell. 

1762 George Harison writes, in 1762: "Mr. Aspinwall, i9 a friend 
of the Church, a man of fortune and 'public spirit, has re- 
ti red from business in New York, and settled in Flushing, 
where he found the inhabitants, chiefly Quakers, almost 
void of all sense of religion, a total dissolution of all man- 
ners, and a horrid contempt of the Sabbath. He immedi- 



17 Documentary Histoi-y of New Vork, III, 195, 196. 

18 The petition for the charter was signed by the fol- 
lowing residents of Flushing: John Aspinwall, Thomas 
Grennell, Daniel Thome, Joseph Bowne, Joseph Haviland, 
Jacob Thome, Francis Brown, Foster Lewis, William 
Thorne, Charles Cornell, John Morrell, Benjamin Thome, 
John Dyer, Jeremiah Mitchell, Nathaniel Tom, Benjamin 
Fowler, John Marston, Charles Wright, Isaac Doughty, 
Christopher Robert, John Wilson. 

19 Mr. Aspinwall lived in a house which still stands 
on the south side of Broadway, between Union street and 
Bowne avenue. 



CHURCH OF ENGLAND 109 

ately set about a reformation. The first step was to engage 
Mr. Treadwell to come and settle there as a teacher of the 
Latin tongue, and on Sundays to perform the service of the 
Church. His next step was to finish what was only the 
shell of a church. 20 He built a handsome steeple and gave 
a very fine bell. It is now one of the neatest churches in 
America, for its bigness ; all of which was done at an ex- 
pense of £600 currency to himself. He and Mr. Treadwell, 
by their good example, have brought over many Quakers 



20 On Oct. 6, 1760, Mr. Seabury wrote : ' ' They are now 
linishing the Church, which before was only enclosed so as 
to keep out the weather, and I hope in my next letter to 
acquaint the Society of its being completed." 

March 26, 1761 ; ' ' The severe cold weather, the past 
winter, obliged them to suspend the work some months, but 
they have now resumed it and are likely to complete it in a 
short time, together with a handsome steeple, which was 
begun last autumn. The principal expense of this work is 
defrayed by Mr. John Aspinwall and Mr. Thomas Grenall, 
two Gentlemen who have recently retired thither from New 
York. Mr. Aspinwall has besides made them a present of a 
very fine bell of about 500 pounds weight, and I hope the 
Influence and example of these gentlemen in their regular 
and constant attendance on Divine service will have some 
good effect on the people of that town. Thro' Mr. Aspin- 
wall's means also, the church has been constantly supplied 
the last half year with a lay-reader, one Mr. Tredwell, a 
young gentleman educated at Yale College, in Conn. , of an 
amiable character and disposition, and who intends to offer 
himself for the service of the Society and with their per- 
mission to go to England next Autumn." Doeumentary 
History of New Yoi-k, 19ft, 197. 



1763 



110 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

and Calvinists, so that I myself have been a joyful witness 
of a numerous congregation in a church, wherein, within 
three or four years, seldom assembled above ten or twelve 
persons. "21 

Prom the above, we learn that the church, built during 
Mr. Colgan's rectorship, was not, at that time, finished : 
and that the congregation collected by him had lost interest 
and become scattered. While both Mr. Seabury and the 
writer of this letter seem, justly or unjustly, to hold the 
Quakers responsible for the irreligious condition of the in- 
habitants of Flushing, we are not to understand that they 
accused the Quakers themselves of having lost ' ' all sense of 
religion," or having fallen into dissolute manners or 
having a "contempt for the Sabbath. " 

Mr. Treadwell, the school master and lay-reader, went 
to England for ordination, and returned to this country in 
1763. He was stationed, by the Society, at Trenton, New 
Jersey. An unsuccessful effort was made, at this time, to 
separate St. George's Church from the other two neighbor- 
ing parishes, and to secure Mr. Tredwell as the Rector of 
Flushing. 22 Mr. Seabury resigned the rectorship of the 

21 Onderdonk^s Antiquities of the Parish Church of Jamaica, 
p. 63 

22 This caused an estrangement between the Rev. Mr. 
Seabury and John Aspinwall. Mr. Seabury wrote to the 



CHURCH OF ENGLAND 111 

three parishes, in 1765, and removed to West Chester. 23 
After the resignation of Mr. Seabury, the three parishes iyck 
were without a Rector for more than three years, when the 
Kev. Joshua Bloomer was inducted to the rectorship. He 
was to receive from the Society in England, ^20 per annum, 
and £30 per annum from each of the three parishes. The 
new Rector wrote, in 1770 : " I preach at the three churches 
of Jamaica, Newtown and Flushing, alternately, and gener- 
ally to crowded assemblies, who behave during Divine 
service with the utmost decency and decorum. The 
churches are neat, well-finished buildingSj but those of 
Newtown and Flushing, rather small for the congregations. "^* 



Secretary of the Society, March 26, 1763, complaining of Mr. 
Treadwell's intrusion into the parish, and of his forcing an 
entrance into the Flushing Church. "I am utterly unable 
to guess at the motive of Mr. Tredwell's conduct, unless he 
acted under the Influence and direction of Mr. John Aspin- 
wall of Flushing, a man of low Birth and strong passions 
and violent in his resentments, who, having acquired a great 
fortune by privateering, removed thither from New York, 
and who has really done very considerably towards finishing 
the church and gave a good Bell. ' ' Documentary History/ 0/ 
Jfew York, III, 198. 

23 During the Revolution, he was imprisoned as a 
British sympathizer. At the close of the war, March 25, 
1783, he was elected Bishop of Connecticut. On November 
14, of the following year, he was consecrated, in Aberdeen, 
Scotland, the first Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church. 

24 Hiatory of St. Oeoi-ge's Parish, p. 55. 



PART IV— The Revolutionary Period 



CHAPTER XII 

MEN OF THE TIME 

There were several Flushing men, identified with events 
of this period, who deserve more than a passing notice. 

The first to claim our attention is Col. Archibald Ham- 
ilton. Hamilton entered the British army in 1755. In 1757, 
he received his commission as a Lieutenant. He served 
against Louiaburg, in 1758 : was made Captain, in 1761 : 
served in America until 1774, when his r«ginient returned 
to England. He then left the army and settled in Flush- 
ing. He married Alice Colden, daughter of Alexander 
Golden and grand-daughter of Lieut. Gov. Cadwallader 
Colden. On June 5, 1776, he was arrested, as a British 
sympathizer, by order of the Provincial Congress of New 
York, but was soon released on parole, i In August, of the 



1 June 24, 1776. Archibald Hamilton gave parole that he 
would not, directly or indirectly, oppose or contravene 
measures of the Continental Congress or of the Congress of 
New York. 



MEN OF THE TIME 113 

same year, he was again arrested, brought before the Con- 
tinental Congress, and sent to New Brunswick. On Sep- 
tember 23rd. , he was allowed to return home to his family. 
He soon joined the Loyalists, and was made Colonel of the 
Queens County Militia and Aide-de-camp to Governor 
Tryon. 2 His headquarters were at "Innerwick," Flushing. 
Judge Jones, a contemporary, speaks of him as " a man of 
an opulent fortune, a supernumerary aide-de-camp to his 
Excellency — for which he received ten shillings a day, for 
doing nothing, with rations of all kinds for his family. "^ 

Hamilton was a man of an almost ungovernable temper, 
if we may judge from contemporary testimony. In October, 
1778, he beat Thomas Kelly with the but-end of his riding- 
whip, because Kelly did not take off his hat to him. John 
Willet, seeing a negro taking from his farm a load of rails 
by order of Col. Hamilton, asked Hamilton why he had 
given the order. Hamilton leaped from his horse and ran 
at Willet, with a cutlass in his hand. Willet defended 
himself with a stick. Col. Hamilton foil upon his knees, 

2 Gov. Tryon writes to Lord Germaine, Dec. 16, 1778 ; 
' ' I have been obliged, from the frequent duties the militia 
of Kings and Queens counties have been called on to per- 
form, to appoint Archibald Hamilton Aid-de-camp and Com- 
mandant of the Militia of Queens County. " Documents and 
Letters, p. 337. 

3 History of Ne%D York During the BewlutionaryWar, II, 46. 



114 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

and called God to witness that he would cut any one to 
pieces who opposed his orders. The same day, he fell upon 
James Morrell with a sword, and almost killed him. Walter 
Dalton also deposed, that Hamilton had twice knocked him 
down with a heavy weapon.* At least a dozen similar 
affidavits were sent to Governor Tryon, who appointed 
David Golden to investigate the charges. The result of the 
investigation is not known. At the close of the war, on the 
last day of December, 1783, Hamilton sailed for England. 
Twelve years later, he died in Edinburgh. His farm in 
Flushing became the property of John Hobgland. 

One of the most distinguished families in Flushing, at 
this period, was the Golden family. Cadwallader Golden 
was born in Scotland, Feb. 17, 1688. He graduated from 
the University of Edinburgh in 1705, and came to Phila- 
delphia three years later, where he practised medicine 
until 1715. He then spent a year in London, where he met 
many noted literary and scientific men, and returned to 
Philadelphia, in 1716. Two years later he came to New 
York, and was made Surveyor-General. In 1755, he received 
a patent for land near Newburg. In 1760, he became Pres- 
ident of the Provincial Council. In 1761, he was appointed 
Lieutenant-Governor of New York, and held the office 

4 Onderdonk''s Queens County in Olden Times, p. 54. 



MEN OF THE TIME 115 

until his death, in 1776. During this time, he was repeatedly 
placed at the head of the Government, by the death or 
absence of the various governors. In 1762, he purchased 
in Flushing, from John and Thomas Willet, for £200, an 
estate of 120 acres, known as Spring Hill. Reservation was 
made in the deed for this property, of "a certain antient 
burying Place, fenced in with a stone fence, or stone Ditch, 
(where the family of the Willets have hitherto been in- 
terred) to and for the use of the family of said Willets, to 
bury and deposit their dead henceforth forever, "s This 
estate has recently become the Cedar Grove Cemetery. The 
"antient burying Place" may still be seen, though sadly 
neglected. 6 Mr. Colden used Spring Hill as a summer home 
until 1775, when he retired hither to end his days. Here 
he died on Sept. 20, 1776, at the age of eighty-eight. He was 
one of the most learned men of his time, in America, and 
carried on a correspondence with most of the scientific men 
of Europe. He was especially interested in botany, and was 
the first to introduce the Linnaean system into this country. 
He furnished Linnaeus with descriptions of between 300 
and 400 American plants. Besides the History of the Five 

5 The Colden Family, H. P. Purple, p. 7. 

6 Mandeville says he carefully examined this burial- 
plot, in 1859, but could find nothing to mark the grave of 
Cadwallader Colden who was buried there, in 1776. 



116 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Indian Nations, Golden was the author of a number of 
medical and scientific treatises. 

David Colden, son of Cadwallader Oolden, inherited 
Spring Hill from his father. He marrfed, in 1767, Ann 
Willet, daughter of John Willet. Judge Jones says that 
David Colden was "a gentleman of the first character and 
reputation, as to honesty and veracity."' David Colden 
studied medicine, though he never practised it, except 
among his friends. He devoted most of his time to scien- 
tific pursuits. Like his father, he was an ardent Loyalist, s 
At the close of the war his property was confiscated, he was 
proscribed and sentenced, if found in any part of this state, 
to suiler death as a felon, "without benefit of clergy. "^ In 
vain Colden begged Gov. Clinton for protection. He was 
compelled to flee to England, where he died, July 10, 1784, 
and was buried at St. Ann's Church, Soho. His farm was 
sold ten days later, by the Commissioners of Forfeiture, to 
William Cornwell, for £1800. Colden was, for a number of 
years, a vestryman of St. George's Church. 

7 Hutory of New York During the Revolutionary War, I, S6S. 

8 David Colden was appointed, July 15, 1780, Assistant 
Master of the Rolls and Superintendent of the Police on 
Long Island. George Duncan Ludlow was the Chief. They 
acted as judges in all controversies, during the suspension 
of the civil government. Onderdonk's Documents and Letters, 
p. SS9. 

9 New York During the Betiolutionary War, II, 369. 



MEN OF THE TIME 117 

Cadwallader David Colden was a son of David Colden. 
He was born at Spring Hill, April 4, 1769. He began his 
studies at Jamaica, Long Island, and afterwards continued 
them in London. He returned to the United States in 
1785, after the death of his father, and began the practice 
of law in 1791. In the war of 1812, he was Colonel of a 
regiment of volunteers. In 1818, he was elected Mayor of 
New York, was sent to Congress in 1821, ^nd served in the 
State Senate from 1824 to 1827. He married a daughter of 
Bishop Provoost, and died in Jersey City, Feb. 7, 1834. He 
was the author of the Life of Pulton, and of several other 
works. 

Another distinguished Flushing family, at this period, 
was the Lewis family, lo They espoused the cause of the 
Colonies. The head of the family, Francis Lewis, was born 
in Wales, in 1713. His father was the Rector of Landaflf 
parish. His mother was the daughter of Dr. Pettingal, a 
Church of England clergyman. Francis was their only child. 
He lost both parents while young, and was educated under 
the care of his maternal uncle, the Dean of St. Paul's. 
When he reached the age of twenty-one, his first act was to 
convert his patrimony into merchandise and embark for New 

10 Biographies of Francis Lewis and Morgan Lewis, by Julia 
Delafleld. 



118 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

York. Here he formed a partnership with Richard An- 
nely, whose sister he afterwards married. When the 
French war broke out, in 1752, Lewis obtained a contract 
to clothe the British army. While at Os-s^ego, superintend- 
ing this business, he was taken prisoner by the French and 
committed to the care of the Indians, i' It is said that his 



11 Lewis's contemporaries do not give so flattering an 
account of him as does his descendant, Miss Delafield, 
whose biography has been followed in the text of this 
history. Among the manuscripts in the Library of the N. 
Y. Historical Society, is one endorsed "Annely v. Lewis, 
Instructions to draw a Bill." From this we learn that 
Richard Annely, of Bristol, England, came to New York, in 
1734, with goods advanced by certain Bristol merchants. In 
1739, Annely's consignors urged him to take Lewis as a 
partner. Lewis was at that time a shopman in the employ 
of Sydenham Shipway, at a salary of £15 a year. In 1743 
Richard Annely died, at Whitestone. After four years, 
Edward Annely came out to settle his brother's estate. In 
the document cited above, he accuses Lewis of defrauding 
the estate. The New York Gazette and Post-Boy, for 1849, 
also contains charges by Edward Annely against Francis 
Lewis. Lewis replies, by charging his late partner with 
taking large sums of money without accounting for the 
same. He adds: "I am ready upon Oath to lay all Books 
and Papers before any judicious Persons ; and nothing would 
be more agreeable to me than having the Accounte fairly 
adjusted, which have been so unaccountably perplexed by 
the Deceased. I only desire to be secured myself, which 
every judicious Man would think but reasonable." New 
York Gazette and Post Boy, Sep. 6, 1749. 

Judge Jones, another contemporary, says that Lewis 
failed in business three times before 1752. He then made 
two voyages to the Baltic as supercargo. Returning to New 
York, he opened a lodging house. In 1755, he left the lodg- 
ing house to be conducted by his wife, and went as sutler 



MEN OF THE TIME 119 

knowledge of Gaelic and Cymraeg enabled him to converse 
with the Indians and thus he saved his life. He was sent 
to France and afterwards exchanged. The Colonial govern- 
ment presented to him a tract of land, of 5000 acres, in ac- 
knowledgment of his military services. About the year 1765 
Lewis bought a farm of 200 acres, in Flushing. It was located 
where Whitestone now stands. In 1775, Lewis was chosen, 
with others, to represent New York in the Continental 
Congress. In July, of the following year, he was one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. He served in 
the vestry of St. George's Church, Flushing, when at home, 
between 1770 and 1790. In 1790, he removed to New York, 
where he died, in 1802. He was buried in Trinity ohnrch- 
yard. 12 During the Revolutionary War, his business capac- 
ity made him a valuable member of Congress. Lewis was 

with the army, on the expedition against Niagara. During 
the winter he remained at Oswego, where a large garrison 
was left. "By selling his tobacco, his pipes, his sugar, and 
his salt, at a most exorbitant price, he extorted a great deal 
of money from the poor soldiery. ' ' Returning to New York 
he entered into partnership for fraud with a corrupt Judge 
of the Admiralty, and made much money frorn privateering. 
During the Revolution, continues Jones, Lewis and his sons 
speculated in soldiers' certificates which they bought at the 
rate of 6 pence for 40s. With these certificates they bought 
confiscated lands. Jones's New York Zhoring the Revolution 
II, 367 et sq. 

12 When Lewis died, not a single obituary notice 
appeared in any New York City paper, so far as can be 
ascertained. 



120 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

a zealous supporter of Washington, when the attempt was 
made to supplant Washington and give the command of the 
Continental forces to General Gates. 

Francis Lewis, Jr., succeeded his father as owner of 
the Whitestone estate, when the latter removed to New 
York. He appears to have been a prominent man in local 
affairs, and was a warden of St. George's Church, from 1791 
to 1794, 

A more distinguished son of Francis Lewis was Morgan 
Lewis. He was born in 1754. It does not appear that he 
was in any way identified with Flushing, though it is prob- 
able that this was his home, until 1779, when he married 
Gertrude Livingston, a daughter of Judge Robert Living- 
ston. Morgan Lewis served in the Revolutionary War, as 
Captain, Major, and finally as Chief of General Gates's staff. 
He commanded the troops that met and escorted Washington, 
when Washington came to New York, in 1790, to be in- 
augurated as the first President of the United States. 
Morgan Lewis was elected Governor of New York, in 1804. 
He again served his country in the War of 1812. He died 
in 1844. 



CHAPTER XIII 

BEGINNING OF THE REVOLUTION 
The Stamp Act was passed in 1765. The Lieutenant 1765 
Governor, Cadwallader Golden, whose country home was in 
Flushing, was at the time acting Governor of the Province. 
He declared his intention of enforcing the act. On the 
evening of November 1st. , a torchlight procession came 
down Broadway, New York, from the fields, carrying images 
of Golden and the devil. The Lieutenant Governor's coach- 
house was broken open, and his best chariot was seized. 
The two images were placed in the chariot, and the proces- 
sion proceeded to Bowling Green. There chariot and 
images were burned. Not long after this, Zacharias Hood, 
a stamp officer, was pursued to Flushing, where the alarmed 
officer had taken refuge in Colden's residence. Hood was 
seized, taken to Jamaica, and compelled to swear loyalty to 
the colonies, i This is the extent of Flushing's connection 
with the detested Stamp Act. 

1 "Volunteer parties of the Sons of Liberty soon after 
went to Flushing by land and water, when fifty of them 



122 HISTORY OP FLUSHING 

The idea of appointing committees of correspondence in 
the various colonies originated at a Boston town meeting, 

1772 in 1772. It was soon adopted by other colonies. This was 
the beginning of the Union. It was a thing unknown to 
law, but it was not a violation of any law. 2 The object of 
these committees was to arrange for some concerted action 
to protect the colonists in their rights. The result of their 
conference was the call of the first Continental Congress, 

1774 which assembled in Philadelphia, Sept. 5, 1774. Local 
committees were appointed everywhere, to carry out the 
recommendations of Congress. With the exception of Suffolk 
County, Long Island opposed the assembling of a Congress, 
and declined to send delegates to co-operate with the New 
York Committee. Colden wrote, in October, to the Earl 

surrounded Hood's lodgings and forced him to resign. Then 
one hundred persons on horseback and in carriages, in regu- 
lar order, escorted him to Jamaica (Mr. Hood and another 
gentleman riding in a chair, in the centre) where he took 
the oath before Justice Samuel Smith. Mr. H. then 
thanked the company for their politeness, when he was 
complimented and huzzaed and invited to an entertainment, 
but he excused himself inasmuch as he was in such a frame 
of body and mind that he should be unhappy in company. 
Many constitutional toasts were drank, and next morning 
the company (except those who lived on Long Island) set 
out for New York, in several divisions, carrying the flag of 
liberty with the words Liberty, Property and No Stamps, in- 
scribed thereon. " iV. Y. Journal, Dee. -5, 1765. Queens Oounty 
in Olden Times, p. ST. 

2 Fiske^s American Revolution, I, 89. 



BEGINNING OF THE REVOLUTION 123 

of Dartmouth ; "In Queens County, where I have a house 
and reside the summer season, 3 six persons have not been 
got together for the purpose, and the inhabitants remain firm 
in their resolution not to join the Congress."''- But the 
Sons of Liberty, though few, were not idle. Early in Jan- 
uary, 1775, a funeral in Flushing brought together a large I775 
number of people, and gave the Patriots an opportunity of 
creating a local committee of twelve. ^ 

The New York Provincial Assembly met, "January 10th, 
1775. It refused to endorse the action of the Continental 
Congress, or to send delegates from New York to the next 
Congress, which was to meet on the tenth of May. The 
New York Committee, despairing of assistance from the 
Provincial Government, sent out, on March 16th, circulars 
to the different counties, requesting them to send delegates 
to a convention to be held in New York, on April 20th, for 
the purpose of electing delegates to the next Continental 
Congress. On April 3rd, the Provincial Assembly of New 
York, adjourned, never to meet again. Queens County 

3 "Saturday last, the Hon. Cadwallader Colden, Esq., 
Lieutenant-Governor of this Province, arrived here from his 
seat at Flushing, in good health." New Tm^k Journal, March 
2Ai mA- Queens County in Olden Times, p. 47. 

4 Flint, p. 350. 

5 Onderdonk^s Documents and Letters, p. 31. 



124 HISTORY OP FLUSHING 

voted against sending delegates to the New York Conven- 
tion, but four delegates, chosen by minorities or otherwise 
irregularly, were sent from the county. Among these was 
John Talman, chosen, April 4th, by the town meeting of 
Flushing. The delegates met at the Exchange, in New 
York, April 20th, and formed themselves into a Provin- 
cial Congress, thus usurping the powers of the Royal Govern- 
ment. The delegates from Queens County were allowed to 
attend the sessions of the convention and to offer advice ; 
but, because of the irregularity of their election, were not 
permitted to vote. Among the delegates chosen by this 
Provincial Congress, to represent New York in the next 
Continental Congress, was Flushing's patriotic citizen — 
Francis Lewis. The Provincial Congress adjourned, 
April 23rd. 

On the following day came the news of the battle of 
Lexington and Concord. Another Provincial Congress was 
at once called, to "deliberate on and to direct such measures 
as may be expedient for our common safety. ' ' Queens 
County still refused to choose delegates. However, on May 
22nd, delegates were chosen by Flushing ; viz. , Nathaniel 
Tom and Thomas Hicks, This second Provincial Congress, 
of New York, which met on May 24th, entirely ignored the 
Royal Governor and his Council, and assumed the functions 



BEGINNING OF THE REVOLUTION 125 

of the Provincial Government. It recommended the various 
counties to appoint committees, with sub-committees for the 
towns, to carry out the resolutions of the Continental and 
Provincial Congresses, The sub-committee for Flushing, 
chosen in accordance with this recommendation, was : John 
Talman (Chairman), John Eagles, Thomas Rodman, 
Thomas Thorne, Edmund Pinfold, Joseph Bowne (Clerk). 

In November, Queens County was again called upon to 
send delegates to the Provincial Congress. Every freeman 
in the County voted. An overwhelming majority (788 to 
221) voted against sending delegates. Soon after this. Con- 
gress published "A List of Queen's Co. Tories," known as 
"The Black List," who were suspected of having received 
arms and amunition from the British war-ship Asia, and of 
having formed a militia to oppose the Colonies. Among 
these Tories was John Willet, a prominent and respected 
citizen of Flushing. The persons whose names were on 
' ' The Black List' ' were cited to appear before Congress, on 
Dec. 19th, "to give satisfaction in the premises. "^ 

Queens County Tories became notorious. Their case 1 77(5 
was taken up by the Continental Congress. The pole list 
was forwarded to Philadelphia. Congress ordered that all 
who had voted against sending delegates to the New York 

6 Flint, p. 356 et sq 



126 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Congress should "be put out of the protection of the United 
Colonies and that all trade and intercourse with them 
cease."'' Col. Nathanael Heard, of Woodbridge, N. J., 
was ordered to take with him "five or six hundred minute- 
men, under discreet ofiB.cers, ' ' march into Queens County, 
disarm every man who had voted against sending deputies, 
and arrest all who resisted. Nineteen "disaffected" persons 
were carried away to Philadelphia. Among them was 
John Willet of Flushing. They were afterwards handed 
over to the mercies of the New York Congress and later 
released, under bond to appear "within siz days after sum- 
moning before any Provincial Congress or committee of 
Safety. "8 

Boston was evacuated by the British troops, March 17, 
1776. General Howe sailed with his forces to Halifax. 
Later he sailed west again, and, toward the end of June, 
appeared before New York. He had with him about 30,000 
soldiers, including 12,000 Germans, under General De Heis- 
ter. 9 Washington hurried toward New York. Flushing now 
became the refuge of two classes of persons ; viz. , the 

7 American Archivei, Ath Series, IV, 1630. 

8 Flint, p. 368. 

9 Losing^s Emvire State, p. 242. 



BEGINNING OF THE REVOLUTION 127 

Loyalists, 10 who sought protection among their many sym- 
pathiz=)rs, and certain poor families who were sent hither by 
the Provincial Congress, ii Among those of the former 
class, was the Rev. Chas. Inglis, Rector of Trinity Church, 
N. Y.12 The local committee considered the advisability of 
seizing him, but his friends removed him to more retired 
quarters, and he escaped further notice. How many of the 
second class came to Flushing, it is impossible to say. The 
Provincial Congress paid John Talman 16200, to defray 
the expense of their support. i3 

Governor Tryon, the Royal Governoi- of the Province 
had established his headquarters on one of the British 
ships. Thence he sent out a declaration from Lord Howe 
and General Howe, offering pardon to all who would submit 
to the authority of England. This declaration was published 
by Thomas Willet, in his capacity as Sheriff. Willet was 



10 "Long Island became an asylum for the Loyalists, 
to which they fled from all parts of the continent for safety 
and protection, to avoid oppression at least, if not murder. ' ' 
Hist. If. T Dxiring the Revolution, II, 116. 

11 Washington recommended that women, children and 
infirm people be removed from the city, because their 
shrieks and cries tended to dishearten the young and inex- 
perienced soldiers. Bocuments and Letters, p. 85. 

12 At the close of the war, 1783, Inglis went to Halifax. 
In 1787 he was consecrated Bishop of Nova Scotia. 

13 Documents and Letters, p. 85. 



128 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

arrested and, on admitting that he had caused the decla- 
ration to be published, was committed to "jail in New York, 
by authority of the Provincial Congress, i* The nearness of 
the English caused the committee-men of Flushing to 
organize a militia. Nathanael Tom was elected Captain 
and Jeffery Hicks, Lieutenant. i5 Nathanael Tom afterwards 

14 Journals of tlie Provincial Conyre/s^ I. 558. 

Willet's brother, Edward Wiliet, and Edward Willet, Jr., 
together with Lawson the schoolmaster of Flushing, who 
acted as the scribe, and Thomas Hicks, attorney at law, 
were also arrested. Queens Co. in Olden Times, p 51. 

15 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I, 335. 
Another company was organized at Flushing, July 27, 

1776, to become part of Col. Josiah Smith's regiment, which 
was used to protect the li?e stock on Long Island. Below 
is the muster roll. The lieutenants and sergeants received 
S8, pr. month ; the corporal and drummer, S7J.^ pr. month ; 
the fifer, S7J^ pr. month ; and the privates, S6^ pr. month. 
John Robert, 1st Lt. William Lowree, Corp. 

Isaac Hicks, M Lt. John Smith, Corp. 

Joseph Beesley, Sergt. James Doughty, Drummer. 

Lewis Cornwell, Sergt. Moses Fowler, Fifer. 

Privates. 
Benjamin Farrington John Moore 

John Mills Jarvis Dobbs 

John Smith Jacob Manuey 

Matthew Farrington Thomas Talman 

Stephen Wright Jacob Huber 

Thomas Fowler John Parker 

Oliver Thorne Jacob GrifEng 

William McDeane Robert Wilson 

John Hulsifer Daniel Hitchcock 

James White Robert Betts 

Malcomb McAuley George Miller 

Documents and Letters, p. 9S, et sg. 



BEGINNING OF THE REVOLUTION 129 

became Captain of a company of Continentals, raised at 
Kingston. He served through the war, and died at Kingston, 
aged 73 years. The Rector of St. George's Church was 
ordered to omit the prayers for the King and Royal family ; 
but, rather than do this, he closed his church tor five 
Sundays — until the British troops entered the town, i" 



16 "The courts were closed in Queens County, from 
September, 1773, until May, 1784. The Whig Committee of 
Safety served, in lieu thereof, until Aug. 27, 1776. Martial 
law then prevailed until the establishment of peace." 
Flint's Early Long Island, p. 449. 



CHAPTER XIV 

THE BRITISH OCCUPATION OF FLUSHING 

1776 '^^ *^® ^^*^ °^ August, occurred the battle of Long 

Island. On the 28th, the American army, under the direc- 
tion of Washington, retreated to New York and later to 

1783 Harlem Heights. New York fell into the hands of the Eng- 
lish. So did Flushing, i A company of light-horse galloped 
into "the town spot" of Flushing and inquired at the 
Widow Bloodgood's for her sons. On being told that they 
had fled, the soldiers threatened to burn her house, but 
were persuaded to desist. Thomas Thorne, the blacksmith 
and inn-keeper, was seized, and ended his days on one of 

1 The Rev. Joshua Bloomer, Rector of St. George's, 
wrote to the secretary of the S. P. G. , in London : "I feel 
myself happy to have it in my power to write to you from a 
land restored from anarchy and confusion to the blessings of 
order and good government . . . The principal members of 
my congregation who conscientiously refused to join in their 
[i. e. the Patriots'] measures excited their highest resent- 
ment. Their homes were plundered, their persons seized, 
some were committed to prison, others sent under a strong 
guard to the distant parts of Connecticut, where they were 
detained as prisoners for several months. ' ' Documentary 
Hiitory oj New Fork, III, SOS. 



BRITISH OCCUPATION 131 

the prison-ships. James Burling and John Vanderbilt were 
also carried away, but later came out .of prison alive. 
Cornelius Van Wyck, the member of Congress from Flush- 
ing, was imprisoned until October. 2 

A report of this raid being brought to the headquarters 
of the Continental army, at Kings Bridge, Gen. Heath 
commanded Col. Graham to confer with Messrs. Eagle and 
Pinfold, committee-men for Flushing, and, if the enemy 
were not more than a hundred, to go and scatter them. 3 
This expedition of relief was probably never undertaken, 
for, soon after the battle of Long Island, the 71st High- 
landers marched into Flushing.* On October 12th, the 1st, 
2nd, and 6th brigades of Howe's army passed through 
Flushing to Whitestone, where they crossed to the mainland, 
preparatory to the battle of White Plains. It required half 
a day for the troops to pass a given point, s 

Flushing was occupied by the English until the close 
of the war. s During the summer, there -were not so many 

2 Documents and Letters^ p. 109. 

3 American Archives^ Fifth Series, /, 1^16. 

4 They brought with them fifty or sixty head of cattle 
from Kings county. These were butchered about a mile east 
of the village, and cooked. Documents and Letters, p. 103. 

5 Id. 

6 The inhabitants of Flushing, as a class, were Loyalists. 
The only persons of property reported, in 1778, as being 
"now in actual rebellion," were: Francis Lewis, White- 



132 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

soldiers on Long Island ; but as winter approached, each 
year, the officers began to seek for protection for themselves 
and their men, among the farms and in the villages of Long 
Island. An officer, accompanied by a Justice of the Peace 
or some other prominent Loyalist, would go about to inspect 
the houses, and decide how many soldiers each house was 
capable of accommodating. The only notification was : 
"Madam, we have come to take a billet on your house." 
The rooms occupied by the soldiers was separated from the 
rest of the house by nailing up the connecting doors ; 
though the soldiers often mingled with the members of the 
family, and somietimes intermarried with them. ' 

The Quaker Meeting-house, in Flushing, was used as 
a prison, a hospital, and a hay magazine. Meeting was in 
session when the British officers came to take possession. 
They respectfully waited until the Friends rose to leave, 
before they carried their orders into effect. The Friends 
suffered in the confiscation of their property, from both 
sides, because of their refusal to contribute to the support 
of the armies. ^ Some of them were suspected of giving aid to 



stone, whose estate was valued at £4000; Joseph Robinson, 
Whitestone, £2000; —Cornell, Success Pond, £200. Steven's 
Manuscripts in European Archives. Document 12S4.. 

7 History of Queens Coimty, p. 38. 

8 Appendix. 



BRITISH OCCUPATION 133 

the Patriots, while professing strict neutrality. Colonel 
Hamilton issued the following order : ' ' Any of those people, 
commonly called Quakers, who were aiders or abettors of 
this unnatural rebellion, are to be constantly warned to 
appear, and to be fined for a non-compliance. At the same 
time every lenity will be shown to those few who held fast 
their integrity. "» 

West of the Meeting-house was a hospital, where small- 
pox raged. South of the Meeting-house was a parade 
ground. A guard-house, which stood west of the Aspinwall 
house, was pulled down by the soldiers for fire wood. The 
Aspinwall house was the headquarters for the oflSicers. Col. 
Hamilton's headquarters were in the Mitchell house, corner 
of Whitestone and Bayside avenues. The old Duryea house, 
south of the Cemetery was also used as headquarters. Many 
soldiers were at times encamped beyond this house, near 



9 Documents and Letters, Second Series, p. 31. 

One of the German officers, Lieut. Hinrich, writes thus 
about Long Island, Sept. 18, 1776: "Long Island is a beau- 
tiful island. It has a great number of meadows, orchards, 
fruit trees of all descriptions, and fine houses . . . The 
Quakers are not rebels : on the contrary they have publicly 
proclaimed in all their gatherings and churches that whoso- 
ever went armed would lose their membership . . . The 
whole island forms an exquisite picture . . . The ladies on 
this island are not ugly, and upon the mainland are even 
said to be pretty. ' ' Letters of Brunswick and Hessian Officers, 
p. ISS et sg- 



134 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Fresh Meadows. Camion were mounted on the ridge east of 
Whitestone avenue, between Broadway and State street. A 
beacon was erected on Washington street, east of Main 
street. It consisted of a pole wrapped with straw, and 
bearing aloft a tar barrel. This was one of a system of 
signals, extending from Norwich Hill to New York, via 
Flushing. ^ 

Flushing furnished comfortable quarters for both officers 
and men. The favorite toast was : "A long and moderate 
war. ' ' For amusement, the ofBcers played at fives against 
the Meeting-house, or rode to Hempstead plains to take part 
in the fox-hunting, horse-racing, bull-baiting and other 

10 ' ' Signals by day and night for Iiong Island and Kings 
bridge, to be made from Norwich Hill, Sutton's Hill and 
Flushing Heights. 

Mem. — Norwich Hill is two miles south of Oysterbay, 
Sutton's Hill is three miles from Cow Neck Point, Flush- 
ing Heights are near Ustick's house." General Order of 
William Tryon, Major General. Documents and Letters. 
Second Series, p. 36. 

There was a small fort at Whitestone, at Bogart's Point. 
The militia from Jamaica were sent over in squads of six 
or eight to man the fort. They stood guard for about a 
fortnight, and were then relieved by others. The fort was 
cold, and sentinels found the neighboring tavern more 
attractive. Col. Hamilton one day surprised Stephen 
Higbie, sergeant, smoking in the tavern. He knocked the 
pipe out of Higbie's mouth and, pointing a pistol at his 
breast, cried: "Are you a d — d old Presbyterian or not?" 
"No!" " 'Tis well you said no, or I'd blown your brains 
out. Now I've some hopes of you." Documents and Letters, 
p. 46. 



BRITISH OCCUPATION 135 

"good, old English sports." The soldiers also had their 
fun. They rolled large cannon-balls about a course of nine 
holes ; they ran races, tied in sacks ; they made wry faces 
for wagers : they tried to catch pigs whose tails had been 
soaped. 

"The Royal and Honorable Brigade of the Prince of 
Wales Loyal American Volunteers," was quartered at "the 
famous and plentiful town of Flushing," early in 1777. n 

Colonel Hamilton was appointed in command of the 
Queens County militia, and from his headquarters, "In- 
nerwick," issued many orders that are still preserved. 

At Whitestone stood the home of Francis Lewis, an un- 
compromising Patriot. A party of light-horse, under Col. 
Birtch, surrounded the house, seized Mrs. Lewis, and de- 
stroyed books, papers and furniture. Mrs. Lewis was sent 
to New York. Here she was imprisoned for several months. 
She would have been without the common necessaries of 
life, but for the faithful attendance of negro servants who 
followed their mistress, and ministered to her wants. She 
was finally released by the intervention of Washington, 
who ordered the wives of two British officials to be im- 
prisoned in Philadelphia, until Mrs. Levis was restored to 
freedom. 

11 Doeuments and Letters, p. I4S. 



136 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

The war did not stop the usual course of events in 
human life. ^^ People married, carried on their business, 
and died. Lieut. Col. Beverly Robinson, Jr. was married, 
in Flushing, Jan. 26, 1778, to "the amiable and accom- 
plished Miss Nancy Barclay, "i!* Henry Nicoll was married 
to Elsie Willet, of Spring Hill, June 21, 1779. The events 
of Nov. 27, 1780, must have caused no small stir in Flush- 
ing society. On that day, the Rector of St. George's 
solemnized three weddings : Capt. Jarvis Dobbs, of the 
sloop Abigail, was married to Miss HettieWorthman ; Capt. 
Heymen Clarke, of the Industry, to Miss Annatie Worth- 
man ; and Capt. Matthew Farrington, of the Nancy, to Miss 
Phebe McCullum. ift Thus Flushing surrendered to the 
British Navy. The newspaper comment on this tripple 
wedding was as follows: "The amiable accomplishments of 



12 "Long Island (from the Tour of which I am just re- 
turned) is the only peaceful and happy spot at present in 
this Part of America. The Inhabitants are exceedingly 
benefited by supplying the Army, and are, excepting a few 
Presbyterians to the Eastwai-d, eminent for their Loyalty, 
on which Account they suffered much while under the 
Terror of the Rebels. ' ' Ambrose Serle to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth, April 25, 1777. Steven's Maniiscripta in European 
Arahii)ea, Documents S0B7. 

13 Nancy Barclay was the daughter of the Rev. Henry 
Barclay, D. D., of New York. Doctor Barclay and his 
family were probably among the refugees in Flushing. 

14 Queenn County in Olden Times, p. S6. 



BRITISH OCCUPATION 137 

the young ladies presage the most perfect happiness that 
the marriage state can afford. ' ' 

William Prince advertised his "large 'collection of fruit 
trees, "and directed orders to be left at "Gaine's, or on 
board the Flushing boat, near Fly Market, Ferry Stairs, 
Oliver Thorne now Master, "is Houses and lands were 
bought and sold. So were negroes. David Golden adver- 
tised for sale a healthy man and woman, "neither in the 
least infatuated with a desire of obtaining freedom by 
flight. "16 "A likely negro wench, aged twenty-two, and 
her male child, aged twenty-two months, ' ' were offered for 
sale in New York, with the recommendation that the 
woman understood all kinds of house-work, and "was 
brought up in Flushing. ' ' The farmers found ready market 
for their crops and wood. It is true the sales were often 



15 William Prince established his nursery in 1737. It 
is supposed to have been the first nursery in America. 
When the British took possession of Long Island, Gen. 
Howe placed a guard to protect the Linnean Botanic Gar- 
dens, as the nursery was called. The war seriously affected 
Mr. Prince's business. He was compelled to sell a large 
number of grafted cherry trees for hoop poles. 

16 Documents and Letters, p. I46. 

"May 22, 1780. £5 Reward— Ran away from his master, 
David Golden, a negro named Kelso. He had eight days' 
leave of absence to find a purchaser. He speaks English 
only, and wore apple-tree buttons on his coat." 

Queens Co- in Olden Times, p. 66. 



138 HISTORY OF FLUSHIlSfG 

compulsory, but in most cases a fair price was paid, i^ 
For instance, an order was issued, April 23, 1778, notifying 
farmers from whom the soldiers had taken hay, that if they 
would present their claims "to Mr. Ochiltree, Deputy 
Commissary of forage at Flushing, with proper certificates, " 
they would be paid. ^^ 

Education appears not to have been neglected. Among 
the advertisements in a New York paper, we find one for ' ' a 
private tutor, to teach Latin, etc. , to go in a gentleman's 
family at Flushing. "i» 

Mixed in with these occasions of joy, and events in every 
day business life, were also occasions of sorrow. Mrs. 
Susanna Cornell, the wife of the Hon. Samuel Cornell, a 
member of His Majesty's Council, in North Carolina, came 
to Flushing as a place of safety, during the war. Here she 

17 The price of wood, per cord, was as follows : 

Oak Hickory 

From Flushing to Cow Neck £3 £4. 10 

From Cow Neck to Huntington ios. 70s. 

From Huntington to Setauket 35s. 45s. 

Hay and grain brought the following prices, in 1778 : 

Upland hay 8 s. per cwt. Rye 10 s. per bu. 

Salt hay is. per cwt. Buckwheat 7 s, per bu. 

Straw 3 s, per cwt. Wheat flour 80 s, per cwt. 

Wheat 26 s. per bu. Rye flour 30 s. f.er cwt. 

Corn 10 s. per hu. Buckwheat flour . 26 s. per cwt. 

Oats 7 s. pel- bu. Indian meal 28 s. per cwt. 

Flint, p. U7. 

18 History of Queens County, p. 38. 

19 Documents and Letters, Second Series, p. S8. 



BRITISH OCCUPATION 139 

died of small pox, Feb. 16, 1778, contracted by inoculation. 
She left five daughters. "The Hon. Mrs. Napier, lady of 
the Hon. Capt. Napier, of the 80th Grenadiers, ' ' died of 
consumption, at Mr. Vanderbilt's house, Jan. 10, 1780. She 
was but twenty-three years old. "Her remains were depos- 
ited in the Golden vault, at Spring Hill, attended by the 
officers of the 22nd, 38th, and 80th Regiments. "=» 

Religious services were uninterrupted. The Friends, 
though deprived of the use of their Meeting-house, held 
regular meetings in private houses and barns. Abel Thomas, 
a traveling Quaker preacher, testifies to the courteous 
treatment received at the hands of Col. Hamilton. Arri- 
ving at Flushing, Thomas was taken before Hamilton, as 
were all strangers. "We informed him," writes Thomas, 
"that we intended to hold meetings on the Island. His 
answer was that ' if that was our business, it was a pity to 
hinder us. ' He readily gave us a permit to travel through 
the Island. "21 Regular services were held at St. George's 



20 Documents and Letters, p. 145. 

"She left the world with the most perfect serenity and 
resignation ; her two daughters, one, three and the other, 
two years of age, are under the protection of Col. Archibald 
Hamilton, nearly related to the Hon. Capt. Napier, by the 
Marquis of Lothian's family." Boyal Gazette, New York, 
Jan. 15, 1780. 

21 Documents and Letters, Second Series, .p. 69. 



140 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Church. The Rector was, for a time, assisted by the Rev. 
John Sayre, a refugee from Fairfield, Conn. 

It is impossible to say just how many soldiers were 
quartered in Flushing, during the war. We have already 
mentioned the 71st Highlanders, and the Brigade of Loyal 
American Volunteers. 22 An advertisem.ent in Rivington's 
Gazette tells us that the 1st Bat. of Delancey's Brigade was 
in camp, at the head of the Fly, in January, 1778. 23 From 
similar sources and from the reports of American Spies, we 

22 Page 1.35 Col. Beverly Robinson was in command 
of the Loyal American Volunteers ; Lt. Col. , Beverly Robin- 
son, Jr. : Maj. , Thomas Barclay. Documents and Letters, 
p. 347- 

Col. Beverly Robinson was born in Virginia, 1723. He 
served, under Wolfe, against Quebec, in 1759. Though 
opposed to the action of England which brought on the war 
of the Revolution, he remained loyal to the English govern- 
ment. He was implicated in Arnold's plans of treason. He 
went with the commission, sent by Clinton, to plead for the 
life of Andre, and reminded Washington of their former 
friendship. At the close of the war, he went to New Bruns- 
wick, and subsequently to England, where he died in 1792. 
Beverly Robinson Jr. was born in New York state in 1755. 
He served in his father's regiment as Lt. Colonel through 
the war. In 1783 he went with the emigrants to Nova 
Scotia, and later to New Brunswick. He resided at St. 
John's and served as a member of the Provincial Council. 
He died in 1816 while on a visit in New York. 

23 "Sutler wanted for the 1st Bat. of General Delancey's 
Brigade, who is capable of furnishing a large mess. Apply 
to the gentlemen of the Reg. , at the camp, head of Flushing 
Fly, Bivington^s Gazette, Jan. 17, XT78, Doc. and Let., p. 143. 



BRITISH OCCUPATION 141 

gather the following information. It will be seen that it is 
impossible to state how many soldiers wei-e here at any 
given time, for frequently only the arrival or departure is 
noted, or from an advertisement we learn that a certain 
regiment was here on a given day. How long was its stay 
cannot be ascertained. 

"One regiment of Scotch" was in Flushing, in Feb- 
ruary, 1778. The 17th. Reg. of Foot, 2* and the Maryland 
Loyalists' Regiment, were in camp at the head of the Fly, 
In September of the same year. The 64;th2o was also some 
where in the town during the year. It embarked at White- 
stone, in September, and went into camp at Bedford. The 
1st Bat. of Hessians was reported at Flushing, in February, 
1779. 26 The 82nd was at Whitestone, 27 in July of the same 
year. The 3rd Bat. of Hessians was here early in 1780. 



24 Col. Moncton ; Lt. Col. Johnson ; Maj. Armstrong. 
Capt. Darby advertises for a strayed horse. Bivington's 
Gazette, Sept. 5, 177S. Doc. mid Let., pp. I43, 250. 

25 Col. Pomeroy; Lt. Col. Ed. Eyre; Maj. Brereton. 
Uniform — Red, faced with black. Rimngton^s Gazette, Sept. 
23, mS. Doc. and Let. , pp. I44, 251. 

26 Report of Spies. Doc. and Let. p. S60. 

There were 350 Hessian Chasseurs at Flushing on Feb. 
16, 1779. Queens Go. in Olden Times, p. 54. 

27 Col's. Gunning and F. McLean; Lt. Col. Craig; 
Maj. Robertson. Doc. and Let., pp. I44, 2B2. 



142 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

There is reason to believe that the 22nd, 38th, 28 and 80th, 
Grenadiers, also, were here, in January, 1780. 29 Simcoe's 
corps crossed the sound to Flushing, July 19th, and pro- 
ceeded to Huntington. On the 19th of August, 9000 troops 
were reported at Whitestone and "West Chester. Toward 
the close of the same year. General Sir Henry Clintonso 
returned from his campaign against Charleston, and went 
into winter-quarters on Long Island — "the main army of the 
British lay at Flushing, from Whitestone to Jamaica. ' ' 
During 1781, we find the 17th Dragoons — 300 men — near 
Fresh Meadows, and Benedict Arnold's Legion of Provin- 
cials— 200 men— near Black Stump. 3i The 38th and 54th 
were here in February, 1782. ^2 During the summer we find 
the King's American Dragoons, consisting of four troops 
mounted and two unmounted, under the command of Col. 

28 Col. Sir Robert Pigot ; Lt. Col. Henry Edw. Fox ; 
Maj. French. Uniform — Red, faced with yellow. The 
38th was near Fresh Meadows, with headquarters at Dur- 
yea's, during the summer of 1783, also. Hloc. and Let., p. 250. 

29 Page 139. 

30 Clinton's own regiment was the 84th. Koyal High- 
land Emigrants. Col. Sir Henry Clinton, K. B. ; Lt. Col. 
John Small, Maj's. Alex. Macdonald, Thos. Murray. 
Doc. and Let., p. 252. 

31 Report of Spies. Dot. and Let., pp. 244, 260. 

32 The oflScers of the 38th. have already been given. 
Those of the 54th were: Col. M. Frederick; Lt. Col. A. 
Bruce; Maj's. A. Foster and John Brees^. Doc. and Let., 
p. 251. 



BRITISH OCCUPATION 143 

Benjamin Thompson, encamped near Fresh Meadows. 
During the same year, 1782, the 1st Bat. Grenadiers was at 
"Ireland Heights, near Flushing, "sa Toward the close of 
the year, we find also Ludlow's corps, Fanning's corps, and 
Robinson's Loyal American Volunteers, at, or near, the 
head of the Fly. s* During the next year, 1783, the 34th, 
38th, 54th, 64th35 regulars, as well as Delancey's 3rd Bat. 
and Robinson's Loyal Americans, are reported at Flushing. 
With so many idle soldiers about, it is not surprising 
that we read of many cases of depredation, ^e Every effort 
was made by Gen. Delancey to restrain the soldiers and to 
protect the inhabitants from outrages. 37 Soldiers were not 

.33 Bivington's Gazette, July 3, 1782. Doc. and Let., p. 150. 

34 Doc. and Let., p. SGO. 

35 "Any persons having demands against the late Lt. 
Steadman, 64th. Reg. , are desired to send accounts to Lt. 
Htitchinson of the 64th. Gren. , near Flushing. ' ' Rivington'i 
Gazette, July 19, 1783. Doc. and Let., p. 151. 

36 Ambrose Serle writes to the Earl of Dartmouth, Sep. 
5, 1776, concerning the Hessians: "The injudicious Abuse 
and Menaces of the Rebels, and the Hope of Plunder (for I 
hear all the Hessian common Soldiers have a Notion of 
making their Fortunes), have stimulated them to Such a 
Degree, as by no Means inclines them to show Tenderness 
and Mercy. They are very expert in foraging, and have 
made great Use of their Time. ' ' Steven a Manuscripts in 
European Archives. Document SO4S. 

37 The Orderly Book of the Maryland loyalists Begiment 
contains the following: "Flushing Fly, Sep. 4, 1778. The 
Geni Expects The Commanding Officers of Corps will use 
their utmost Exertion to Pertect the Property of the Inhab- 



Ui HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

allowed to go more than half a mile from camp. After sun- 
down, they were not allowed to leave the camp at all, 
without a pass. The roll was called several times a day, to 
assist in the enforcement of this order. When -John Willet 
was attacked and robbed, on June, 1778, General Delancey 
offered a reward of $10 to the person who would discover 
and report the offender to Major Waller. 38 When James 
Hedger was murdered, Col. Hamilton offered a reward of 
150 guineas for the arrest of the criminal. 

Still, in spite of every precaution, many depredations 
were committed. They cannot, howeva-, be all charged 
against the British soldiers. Flushing, like all other places 
on the North Shore, suffered from the bands of piratical 
plunderers known as "whaleboat men." These infested 



itants and not Suffer the Corn-fields Orchards, gardens or 
fences to be Destroyed or Damaged without Severely 
punishing the offender. " 

"The soldiers not to be Allowed to Stray from the 
Incampment, and if any are found 1 Mile from Camp They 
will Be taken up and Deamed as Disserters. " 

"Flushing Fly, Sep. 23, 1778. It is again Possitefly 
Ordered That No Wood is Cutt or fences Destroyed on any 
Pertenc whatever or any other Injury Done to the Property' 
of Late widdow Waters in the Rare and Left of the Incamp- 
ment. ' ' Pages 84 and 100. 

38 Major Waller died in 1780 and was buried at Jamaica, 
on the 24th of October. 



BRITISH OCCUPATION 145 

the waters of the sound and robbed Whigs and Tories alilre. 
Nor did they hesitate to commit murder, ^s 

Judge Jones, a resident of Long Island during the 
Revolutionary war, complains bitterly of the conduct 
of officers and soldiers. He says that Clinton's men 
"robbed, plundered and pillaged the inhabitants of their 
cattle, hogs, sheep, poultry, etc. "^o Farmers were com- 

39 Game's Mercury and RivingUiri's Gazette gi>re accounts 
of the raids of these whaleboats at Bayside and Little Neck. 
Several houses were robbed at Bayside, among others that 
of John Thurman, a New York merchant. At Little Neck, 
Thos. Hicks was robbed of his law books and other property. 
Documents and Lett&i's, p. I46. 

David Haviland and Robert Lawrence offered a reward 
of ten guineas, Aug. 4, 1783, for the recovery of thirty-four 
sheep, which had been taken away in a boat at Abraham 
Lawrence's Point. 

Documents and Letters, p. I5I. 

10 "David Golden, Esq., an inhabitant of Flushing, a 
gentleman of the first character and reputation as to honesty 
and veracity, told me that when the troops left that place, 
in the spring of 1781, there was not a four-footed animal 
left in the town (a few dogs excepted) nor a wooden fence 
standing within the township. ' ' Jones /, 368. 

Holt's Journal, Aug. 10, 1778, contains information fur- 
nished by a "gentleman who left Flushing, last Lord's 
Day. ' ' He stated : ' ' Bread was very scarce, pease and oatmeal 
being served out instead. Commissary rations were entirely 
stopped. Soldiers' wives were allowed quarter, instead of 
half rations. The Long Island people were selling off their 
small cattle and poultry, as they were daily robbed of them 
by the soldiery. Our friends on the island, since the battle 
of Monmouth, are in high spirits, and the formerly active 
Tories now begin to hang their heads and cry, peecavi. 

Documents and Letters, p. 14S. 



146 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

pelled to put their turkeys, geese and chickens in the 
cellars at night, and keep strict watch over them in the tields 
during the day. "It was no uncommon thing for a farmer, 
his wife and children, to sleep in one room, while his sheep 
were bleating in the room adjoining, his hogs grunting in 
the kitchen, the cock crowing, hens cackling, ducks quack- 
ing and geese hissing, in the cellar. ' ' Horned cattle were 
locked up in barns. But, in spite of lock and bar, they 
were not always safe. David Golden had a fine stall-fed ox, 
which he was reserving for New Year's, but the barn was 
broken open and the ox was driven away. "This robbing 
was done," adds Jones, "by people sent to America to pro- 
tect Loyalists against the persecution and depredations of 
rebels. To, complain was needless ; the ofHcers shared in 
the plunder. "*i 

The murder of James Hedger, already referred to, 
occurred in April, 1782. *2 He was living in the house of 

41 Jones's History of New York During the Revolutionary 
War, I, 2&3. 

This history was written between 1783 and 1788. 

42 This was Hedger's second encounter with robbers. 
Some time before this he found two men choking his sister. 
He ran for his gun. They, thinking he was trying to escape, 
ran around the house to intercept him. Hedger killed one of 
them and wounded the other. The body of the dead man, who 
was named Sibly, was hanged on a gibbet, on the Hempstead 
plains, and the regiment paraded before it. The wounded man 
received 1,000 lashes, save one. Documents_and Letters, p. 147. 



BRITISH OCCUPATIO.N 147 

his sister, the "Widow Talman, at the mill, four miles east 
of Flushing. ' ' Hearing a noise, Hedger went to the door 
to call his dog, and was shot dead. The murderers secured 
property valued at £200, in specie, clothing and plate. 
They were afterwards discovered to be members of the 38th 
and 54th regiments of Grenadiers. One of them, named 
Perrot, confessed. Five others fled. Three of them were 
captured and taken to Bedford, whither the regiments had 
gone. There, two, named French and Porter, were hanged. *» 
Ten days after the murder, an address, signed by forty- 
seven inhabitants of Flushing, was presented to Lieut. Col. 
A. Bruce, of the 54th, commanding the 38th and 54th, 
thanking him for the quiet and security enjoyed by the 
community, for the politeness of the officers and the orderly 
and decent behavior of the soldiers. The address stated 
that, during the winter, there had been no occasion for 
murmuring or complaining.*''' Though this was after the 
murder, it must have been before the culprits had been 
discovered. 

Samuel Skjdmore, near Black Stump, was shot, while 
in his house — the ball having passed through the window. *5 

43 Documents and Letters, p. J47. 

44 Documents and Letters, p. I48. 

45 HUtory of Queens County, p. S3. 



148 HISTOEY OP FLUSHING 

The house of B. Areson, at Fresh Meadows, was robbed. 
One of Simcoe's men came and asked for cider. While Mr. 
Areson went to draw it, the soldier stole $10. He returned 
at night and carried away property valued at SIOO. Mr. 
Areson had a new, unfinished house. It and his barn were 
torn down by the Jagers. *^ James Bowne was awakened 
one night by a disturbance in his barn-yard. Going to the 
window to discover the cause of the noise, he received a 
musket ball through his arm. His son Walter, a lad about 
ten years old, in company with his cousin William Bowne, 
the son of Willet Bowne, went through the woods for Dr. 
Belden, to dress the wound. Willet Bowne also had an ex- 
perience with lawless marauders. His house was entered at 
night, and he was aroused by a company of partially dis- 
guised men who demanded his money. On his refusing to 
give it up, they tied his hands to the bed-post and applied 
a lighted candle to the ends of his fingers. But the old man 
loved his gold more than his fingers. The would-be robbers, 
being unable to discover his treasure, were compelled to go 
away empty-handed. Bowne recognized them, in spite of 
their disguise, or at least thought he did ; but magnani- 
mously declined to prosecute them. 

46 Documents and Letters, p. 150. 



BRITISH OCCUPATION 149 

On Christmas Eve, 1779, the house of Col. Hamilton 
took fire, and was burned to the ground. Everything in the 
house was destroyed — "elegant furniture, a stock of provis- 
ions and various sorts of wines, spirits, intended to regale 
his numerous friends, the military and other gentlemen of 
the neighborhood, at this convivial season. "*7 

On the first day of August, 1782, Flushing was honored 
by a visit from His Royal Highness William Henry, the 
Prince of Clarence, who was afterwards King William IV. 
While in Flushing, the Prince was the guest of William 
Prince. His Royal Highness came to present a stand of 
colors to the King's American Dragoons, then in camp about 
three miles east of the village, on ground afterwards owned by 
James Lawrence. Col. Benjamin Thompson, afterwards 
Count Rumford, was in command. The regiment, consist- 
ing of four mounted and two unmounted troops, was formed 
in front of the encampment, with two pieces of light artillery 
on the right. About sixty yards in front of the regiment 
was a canopy, twenty feet high, supported by ten pillars. 
East of this was a semi-circular ^bower, for the accommo- 
dation of spectators. The standard was planted under the 
canopy. At one o'clock, the Prince arrived, accompanied 

47 Royal Gazette, JV, Y., Jan. 5, 1780. Documents and 
Letters, p. I44. 



150 HISTORY OP FLUSHING 

by Admiral Digby, General Birch, the Hon. Lieut. Col. 
Fox, of the 38th, Lieut. Col. Small, of the 84th, and other 
officers of distinction. He received the usual salute, the 
trumpets sounded, and the band played "God save the 
King. ' ' The Prince and his attendants took their places 
under the canopy. The regiment passed in review before 
the Prince, dismounted and formed in a semi-circle before 
the canopy. The Chaplain, the Rev. Mr. Odell, delivered 
an appropriate address. After this, the whole regiment 
kneeled, laid their helmets and arms on the ground, held up 
their right hands, and took the solemn oath of allegiance to 
their sovereign, and fidelity to the standard. After the Chap- 
lain had pronounced the benediction, the soldiers arose, re- 
turned to their former position, and fired the royal salute. 
They then mounted and saluted the standard. The standard 
was consecrated and placed in the hands of the Prince. He, 
with his own hands, presented it to Col. Thompson, who in 
turn delivered it to the senior cornets. At a signal, all the sol- 
diers and spectators gave three cheers, the band played "God 
save the King, ' ' and the artillery fired the royal salute. Thus 
closed the impressive ceremony. A feast was then prepared for 
the soldiers. An ox was roasted whole, "spitted on a hickory 
sapling supported on crotches and turned by handspikes. ' '*» 

48 Boyal Gazette, iV. F., 178S. Documents and Letters, p. I49 



BRITISH OCCUPATION 151 

One of the most serious, indirect results of the Revolu- 
tion, which fell upon the farmers of Flushing, was the 
"almost total destruction of the wheat crop by the ravages 
of the Hessian fly." It was believed that this pest was 
brought from Germany, in grain imported for the British 
army. The price of wheat flour advanced from 35s. , per 
ewt. , in 1777, to 80s. , per cwt. , in 1779. It was an inhab- 
itant of Flushing, named Underhill, a farmer and miller, 
who discovered the remedy that saved the wheat crop, not 
only of Flushing, but of a large part of the country. The 
New York Packet tells the story thus : ' ' The insect that 
has destroyed the wheat many years past continues to spread, 
but it has no effect on the white-bearded wheat raised on 
Long Island. This wheat was brought here from the south- 
west during the war, and a few bushels sown by a Flushing 
farmer, grew well, and afforded a fine crop. He kept on, 
and has supplied his neighbors. It grew twenty bushels to 
the acre, and weighs over sixty pounds. It is of a bright 
yellow color, and makes fine flour. The straw is harder, 
and resists the poison of the fly, and supports the grain, 
while bearded and bald wheat were cut off. "*9 Farmers 
from different parts of the state sent to Flushing for seed, 
and found the result to be all that had been promised. 

49 New York Packet, July 20, 1786. 



152 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

The war came to an end, and New York was evacuated 
in November, 1783. The exit from Flushing is thus de- 
scribed by a contemporary: "In the morning there were 
thousands of soldiers around. In the afternoon they were 
all gone, and it seemed lonesome. " ■''» 

Although the Friends of Flushing refused to take part 
in the war of Independence, they were at the same time 
engaged in efforts to accomplish another sort of freedom — 
the freedom of slaves from bondage. Samuel Underhill of 
New York is "dealt with," by the meeting held at Flushing, 
5th of 6th mo. , 1765, for importing negroes from Africa. He 
acknowledges his fault and hopes to conduct himself more 
agreeably to the Friends' principles, ^i In 1775 a committee 
is appointed "to visit such Friends as hold negro slaves, to 
inquire into the circumstances and manner of education of 
the slaves, and give such advice as the nature of the case 
requires. "52 In the next year the committee reported that 
many Friends had slaves, but seemed disposed to free them. 
Some had already done so ; others justified slavery. Later 
in the same year, a committee is appointed "to labor with 
Friends who keep these poor people in bondage, in the 

50 Flint's Early Long Island, p. 455. 

51 Minutei^ V, 59. 

52 Minutes, VI, S4. 



BRITISH OCCUPATION 153 

ability that truth may afford, for their release." It was 
further decided that Friends could "have no unity" with 
those who held slaves, and that the meeting would receive no 
collections from slave-holders. 53 it was at another meeting 
ordered, that Friends should do nothing that involved an 
acknowledgment that slavery was right. 



53 Minutes, VII, 4 et i 



PART V— The American Period 



CHAPTER XV 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 
1783 Before entering upon this, the last, period of Flushing's 

history, it may be well to stop long enough to take a brief 
survey of the condition, habits and customs of the people at 
the beginning of our nation's life. It is hard to realize that 
scarcely one of the inventions and discoveries which we 
today regard as the marks of modern civilization, had then 
been made. There was then no railroad, no steamboat, no 
telegraph. In going from Flushing to New York one had 
either to take passage in one of the sloops, which sailed 
from Flushing several times a week, or had to drive over the 
country road which led him to Brooklyn, by the head of the 
Fly, through Jamaica and Bedford— a distance of about 
seventeen miles. The passage across the river, from Brook- 
lyn to New York, was not without danger, and was attended 
by frequent and annoying delays. The ferry-boats were 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 155 

either clumsy row-boats ; flat-bottomed, square-ended scows, 
with sprit-sails; or two-masted boats, called perlaguas. i 
"When the wind blew with the tide, the passengers con- 
sidered themselves fortunate, if they were landed on the 
other side within an hour. In winter, the boats were 
frequently held fast for hours in an ice-jam. Boats thus 
situated often went to pieces under the pressure of the ice. 
In January, 1784, a boat was thus crushed and sunk, 
within a few feet of the New York shore. There were eight 
passengers on board. One was drowned ; the others took 
refuge on a cake of ice, and were carried down to the Nar- 
rows before they were rescued. 2 During the same year, a 
ferry-boat went down with five horses on board. Persons 
driving in from the country would sometimes wait two or 
three days for favorable weather to cross to New York. 

There was no postoffice on Long Island at this time. 
People at the west end of the Island were supposed to 
receive their mail in New York ; but, as early as 1775, a 
Scotchman, named Dunbar, rode once in two weeks through 
the Island, with the mail. Dunbar was not a public ofBcial, 
but had undertaken the work of post-rider as a private 
enterprise. He would go east by the North Shore, and 

1 McMaster^s People of the United States, /, 47. 

2 New York Packet, Jan. SS, 1784. 



156 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

return by the South Side. The day on which he was due at 
any place was called "post-day." Half the village would 
assemble at the inn to meet him. In addition to the few 
letters and the newspapers, a week old, he brought all the 
news of the road over which he had travelled. Persons who 
were unwilling to have the contents of their letters known 
to the post-rider, corresponded in cypher, for he did not 
hesitate to amuse himself, on his long and lonesome ride, 
by reading the letters he carried. 

A gentleman of the period, ^ if he was a person of means, 
wore a three-cornered hat, heavily laced. His hair was 
powdered and done up in a cue. His coat was light-colored, 
with a diminutive cape, a marvellously long back, and 
silver buttons. His small-clothes came scarcely to his 
knees ; his stockings were striped ; his shoes were pointed, 
and fastened with large buckles ; his vest had flap-pockets ; 
his cuffs were loaded with lead. When he bowed to a lady, 
he took up half the sidewalk, as he flourished his cane and 
scraped his foot. The lady, in returning his salutation, 
courtesied almost to the ground. She was gorgeously 
attired. Her gown of heavy brocade or taffeta was spread 
out over huge hoops, which extended two feet on each side. 

3 McMaster's People of the United States, I, 66. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 157 

Her hat loomed up like a tower, or she wore a muskmelon- 
bonnet. 

The farmer* had his one suit of broadcloth, which he 
wore on Sundays and on state occasions. It lasted him a 
lifetime, and was bequeathed to his son. His every-day 
suit of clothes was made from homespun. He had none of 
the agricultural implements used today. He plowed his 
land with a wooden bull-plow, sowed his grain broad cast, 
cut it with a scythe, and threshed it out on his barn floor 
with a flail. His house was never painted, and had no car- 
pets. He lighted his fire in the huge open fireplace with a 
flint, for there were no matches in those days. The 
spinning wheel and the loom were important and conspicu- 
ous articles in the house of the well-to-do farmer. His food 
was simple and coarse, and varied little, from day to day, 
throughout the year. 

The day laborer^ wore a pair of yellow buckskin, or 
leathern breeches, a checked shirt, a red flannel jacket, a 
rusty felt hat, cocked up at the corners, a pair of heavy 
shoes with huge brass buckles, and a leathern apron. If he 
fell into debt to the extent of a few dollars, he was liable to 
be cast into one of those filthy prisons, where men and 



4 McMaster's People of the United States. I, 19. 

5 McMaster's People of the United States, J, 97. 



158 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

women herded together — the lowest criminals and the unfor- 
tunate debtors. There he might stay until his clothes 
rotted on his back, or until he died. In those prisons, no 
clothes were provided for the naked, and such a thing as a 
bed was rare indeed. 

We who know but one unit of value, can scarcely con- 
ceive of the difficulties encountered by our ancestors in their 
money transactions, s In every state there were two units of 
value — the State pound, and the standard Spanish dollar. 
These state pounds, shillings and pence had no existence 
outside of the account books. They were not coins, but 
units of value. The pounds were divided into shillings and 
pence in the usual way. It required eight New York shil- 
lings, or ninety -six pence, to make a dollar; in South Caro- 
lina and Georgia, four shillings and eight pence had the 
same value ; in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and 
Maryland, people counted seven shillings and six pence of 
their money to a dollar. Thus in New York State a customer 
would pay a Spanish quarter for an article marked at two 
shillings ; in Georgia, he would probably pay the same 
price, but the article would be marked one shilling and 
two pence. 

6 McMmter's People of the United States, J, SS. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 159 

The school houses were small, unpretentious buildings. 
They were not painted, outside or inside ; nor were the walls 
ceiled or plastered. A Dutch wood-stove was used to raise 
the temperature in. the school-house somewhat above the 
freezing point. The parents of the pupils carted the wood, 
the older boys out it, and the younger ones carried it in. 
The first pupil to arrive in the morning started the fire 
with live coals brought from the nearest house. The larger 
boys attended school only in the winter, the larger girls only 
in the summer. The girls swept the school-room once a 
week, and occasionally scrubbed it. On these latter occa- 
sions, the boys assisted by carrying the water. 

Dilworth's speller was a standard text-book. After the 
Revolution, it was gradually supplanted by Webster's spel- 
ling-book. The master was generally the only person who 
had an arithmetic. He wrote the "sums" in the pupils' 
"ciphering books," into which books the pupils copied the 
correct solutions after their work on the slates had been 
approved. 

The masters were generally single men, were engaged 
for a quarter, and would go from one school to another. 
They did not spare the rod. There were no steel pens, in those 
days, no ready-made writing books, there was no ruled paper. 
The school-master made and mended the quill-pens, and 



160 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

ruled the paper for writing-books, with a piece of lead. Ink 
was made by mixing Walkden's ink-powder with vinegar 
and water. ' 

The population of the town of Flushing was about 1600, 
at the close of the Revolutionary war. ^ There were not more 
than fifty houses in the village. Main street and Broadway 
were the principal thoroughfares. The village pona, about 
seventy-five feet wide and two hundred feet long, occupied 
the place where the park now is. East of the pond, and in 
front of the Friends' Meeting-house, arose a perpendicular 
bank of earth about eight feet high. It has been graded 
down to give the gradual incline of Broadway. The grade 
of Main street rose to the top of the wall in front of the 
Garretson property, at that point. 

The Quaker Meeting-house, sadly desecrated by the 
war, was, in outward appearance, about as it is to-day. St. 
George's Church was a small wooden building, with a 
slender spire, and occupied the site of the present church. 
John Holroyd was proprietor of the Queen's Head tavern. 
The Guard House, which was built as a means of defence, and 
afterwards used as a town jail, and which stood east of the 
Meeting-house, near the corner of Union street and Broad- 

7 Alden J. Spooner, in History of Queens County, p. 55. 

8 Mandeville, pp. S7, 75, 76. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 161 

"way, had been destroyed during the war. The whipping- 
post stood in front of what is now the Flushing Hotel. The 
Bowne House, the Garretson House, the .Aspinwall House, 
the Duryea House, and a few other buildings, belong to this 
period. The localities known by the names of Head of the 
Tly (or Vleigh), Fresh Meadows, Black Stump, Bayside, 
'Whitestone,9 had the same names at the close of the Revolu- 
tionary War. The neck of land occupied by College Point 
was then known as Lawrence's or Tew's Neck, lo 

All elections were held at Jamaica, until 1799. All 
voting was mva voce, until after the Revolution, when secret 
ballots were cast for Governor and Lieutenant-Governor. 
The vote for assemblymen was viva voce, until 1787. 



9 A part of Whitestone for some time bore the name of 
Cookie Hill. The village was first called Clintonville ; but 
in 1854, when the postofEce was established, the old name 
Whitestone was restored. 

10 Tew's Neck was later known as Stratton Port. Its 
present name of College Point owes its origin to the fact that 
St. Paul's College was established there by Dr. Muhlenberg 
in 1846. 

Other local names, such as "Quarrelsome Lane" and 
""Lonely Barn," have long disappeared. 



1779 



CHAPTER XVI 

EECONSTEUCTION 

New York was not evacuated until Nov. 25, 1783 ; but 
the work of reconstruction and of the punishment of Loyal- 
ists began four years earlier. The Act of Attainder and 
Confiscation was passed in 1779. By this act, fifty-eight of 
New York's best inhabitants were adjudged and declared 
guilty of felony, and were sentenced "to suffer death as in 
cases of felony, without benefit of clergy, for adhesion [to 
the enemies of the State. ' ' Among this number was David 
Golden, of Flushing. The act was supposed to have origin- 
ated with Sir James Jay. His brother, John Jay, wrote 
from Madrid, concerning this act : ' ' An English paper con- 
tains what they call, but I can hardly believe to be, your 
Confiscation Act. If truly printed, New York is disgraced 
by injustice too palpable to admit even of palliation, "i 
This act could, of course, have no effect until after the 
declaration of peace. It was then relentlessly enforced, 
though clearly opposed to Article Fifth of the treaty. The 

1 Flint, p. 453. 



RECONSTRUCTION 163 

emigration of Loyalists to Canada began as early as 1782. 1782 
Negotiations for peace were then being carried on, and the 
end was plainly seen. The emigration that affected Queens 
County was the one which took place in the following 1783 
spring, when "The Spring Fleet," consisting of twenty 
square-rigged ships, carried more than 3000 persons to New 
Brunswick, Canada. 2 These emigrants from Queens County 
founded the city of St. John's and gave the city its first 
mayor — Gabriel G. Ludlow, whose farm lay partly in North 
Hempstead and partly in Flushing. ^ 

Early in the next year, Congress sent copies of the 1784 
Fifth Article of the treaty to the several state legislatures, 
with the note : "It was the desire of the Congress to have 
it communicated to them for their consideration. ' ' New 
York was especially bitter against the Loyalists. The city 
and the surrounding country had been occupied by the 
British throughout the whole time of the war, and the 
Patriots had been driven from their homes. On their return, 
they determined that the Loyalists must go. They declared 
that if the Loyalists were allowed to remain they would 

2 Flint, p. 493. 

At the election for assemblymen, in 1786, there were 
only 25 votes cast in Flushing and 359 in the whole county. 
The majority of the voters had been disfranchised. 

3 Ludlow's farm was confiscated and sold to Captain 
Berrien and Isaac Ledyard, of Newtown, for £800. 



164 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

depart themselves. The New York legislature replied to the 
note of Congress: "That while this legislature entertain 
the highest sense of national honor . . . they find it incon- 
sistent with their duty to comply with the recommendation 
of the said Congress."* 

1785 ^^^ courts, which had been closed during the war, 

were again opened. The county seat was established at 
Jamaica, and Willet Skidmore and others, of Flushing, 
signed a petition for the erection of a new Court-house. 
Cadwallader D. Golden, the Assistant Attorney General, 
writes thus of the court, a few years later: "The Court of 
Queens County is at all times the least orderly of any court 
I ever was in. The entry to the Court-house is lined, on 
court days, with stalls of dram-sellers and filled with 
drunken people, so as to be almost impassable. ' ' 

The Constitution of the United States was signed, Sept. 

1788 17, 1787. It was ratified by New York, July 26, 1788. On 
August 8th the adoption of the Constitution was celebrated 
in Flushing by a large gathering of people from different 
parts of the country. A colonade, constructed of evergreens, 
was erected on the green. Above the colonade were the 
standards of the states that had ratified the Constitution. 
At the east end of this enclosure stood a canopy of white 

4 Flint, p. 467. 



RECONSTRUCTION 165 

linen, about which were curtains caught up with blue rib- 
bons. Across the front of the canopy were the words : 
"Federal Constitution, September, 1787." Under the 
canopy, on a platform covered with a rich carpet, stood the 
president's chair. The day was ushered in with a salute by 
the artillery. At three o'clock, in the afternoon, the dis- 
charge of guns announced that the banquet was served. 
The president, Uol. William S. Smith, was conducted to the 
chair, "and the gentlemen sat down with that hilarity 
usual on such an occasion. ' ' Many patriotic toasts were 
drunk, and Mr. John Mulligan, a student of "Columbia Col- 
lege, delivered an oration.* 

Washington was inaugurated, in New York, as the first 
President of the United States, April 23, 1789. On the 1789 
tenth of the following October, he came to Flushing to see 
the Linnean Gardens of William Prince. "Pursuant to an 
engagement formed on Thursday last, ' ' says Washington, in 
his diary, "I sett off from New York, about nine o'clock, 
in my barge to visit Mr. Prince's fruit gardens and shrub- 
beries, at Flushing, on Long Island. The Vice President, 
Governor of the State, Mr. Izard, Colonel Smith and Major 

5 "This unexpected exhibition to the auditory, the 
graceful manner and interesting subject, excited the ad- 
miration of the hearers and commanded loud plaudits to the 
youthful orator." New York Daily Advertiser, Aug., 13, 1788. 



166 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Jackson accompanied me. These gardens, except in the 
number of young trees, did not answer my expectations. 
The shrubs were trifling and the flowers not numerous. The 
inhabitants of the place showed us what respect they could, 
by making the best use of one cannon to salute. "^ 

Mandeville states that, in 1858, thfere still lived in 
Flushing an old negro, James Bantas, who remembered the 
visit. He said : "A large tent, made of cedar bushes and 
other evergreens, was erected and extended diagonally from 
Alfred C. Smith's corner toward the Flushing Hotel. In 
this were tables abundantly spread, and dinner was served. 
When the people were shouting and swinging their hats, 
Washington, who wore a three-cornered hat, raised his and 
bowed in recognition of their approbation."'' 

The party crossed to the mainland and stopped, on their 
way to the city, at the country seats of General and Gouver- 
neur Morris, in Morrisania. At Harlem they were met by 
Mrs. Washington, Mrs. Adams, and Mrs. Smith. They 
dined with the ladies at a small tavern kept by Captain 
Mariner, s 

Shortly after Washington's visit, October 22nd, the 
house of Jeremiah Vanderbilt, the town Clerk, was burnt 

6 Washington's Diary, Saturday, Oct, 10, 1789, p. 17 ei sq. 

7 Mandeville, p. 64. 

8 Washington^ Diary, p. 18. 



RECONSTRUCTION 167 

and the town records were destroyed. That event has made 
the writing of the history of Flushing no easy task. Nellie, 
a slave of Capt. Daniel Braine, and Sarah, a slave of Van- 
derbilt, were the incendiaries. ^ They were brought to trial, 1790 
September 8th, of the following year, convicted and sen- 
tenced to be hanged, on October 14th. Sarah, because of her 
youth, was afterwards reprieved. Judge Robert Yates pre- 
sided at the trial and Aaron Burr, as Attorney-General, was 
the'prosecutor. 

During this year* Washington made a second visit to 
Flushing. There was much discussion about the selection 
of a permanent seat of government. The President took 
great interest in the question and inspected many places 
proposed, lo Harlem Heights, Westchester, and various places 
on Long Island were proposed. "Washington, having pre- 
viously sent over his servants, his horses and carriage, 
crossed to Brooklyn and drove through Flatbush, New 
Utrecht, Gravesend, Jamaica, and beyond. ' ' He spent 
nearly a week on the island. On his way back, he break- 
fasted at Henry Onderdonk's in Roslyn and dined at Flush- 
ing. From Flushing, the party drove to Newtown, thence 
to Brooklyn. Concerning this part of his trip, the President 

9 New York JournM, October^ 1789. 
10 LamVi History of New York, II, S7S. 



168 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

said: "The road is very fine and the Country in a higher 
state of cultivation and vegetation of Grass and grain, for- 
warder (?) than any place also, I had seen, and occasioned 
in a great degree by the Manure drawn from the City of 
New York — before sundown we had crossed the Ferry, and 
was at home. "11 
1791 The inhabitants of Flushing and of the neighboring 

villages now turned their attention to the subject of provi- 
ding themselves with better educational facilities than they 
had hitherto enjoyed. A number of residents of Flushing 
and of Jamaica met at the residence of Mrs. Joanna Hinch- 
mau, in Jamaica, March 1, 1791, to make arrangements for 
building an academy in Jamaica. A committee of twelve 
was appointed to solicit subscripitons. The academy was 
completed, and was opened for students, May 1st, of the 
following year. It was called Union Hall, because built by 
the united efforts of Flushing, Jamaica and Newtown. The 
opening of the academy was the occasion of much rejoicing, 
and was celebrated by a dinner at Hinchman's inn, 
Jamaica. 12 Maltby Gelston was the first Principal. The 
academy did good work for many year§. It was closed in 
1873. 

11 Washington's Diary, p. 1S6. 

12 Queens County in Olden Times, p. 79 et sq. 



1792 



RECONSTRUCTION 169 

The freeholders of Flushing, who had already secured 
patents from the Dutch and the English, were now com- 
pelled to have their rights confirmed by the authorities of 
the State of New York. This was done, Feb. 24, 1792, by a 
lengthy document, called: "Exemplification of Flushing 
Patent. ' ' It rehearses the Patent granted by Governor 
Dongan, and adds: "All which we have oatised to be ex- 
emplified by these presents. In testimony whereof we have 
caused these our Letters to be made patent, and the Great 
Seal of our State to be hereunto affixed. Witness our truly 
and well-beloved George Clinton, Esquire, Governor of our 
Said State, General and Commander in Chief of all the 
Militia and Admiral of the same, at our City of New York, 
the twenty-fourth day of February, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand seven hundred and ninety-two, and in the six- 
teenth year of our Independence, "is 

In the summer of 1798 Congress passed two laws, com- 1798 
monly called the Alien and Sedition Laws, which caused 
great discontent and excitement throughout the country. 
They were occasioned by the trouble with -France. They 
gave the President power to send out of the country all 
aliens who were thought to be dangerous or who were sus- 
pected of plotting against the Government. If such sus- 

13 Mandemlle, p. 2S. 



170 HISTORY OP FLUSHING 

pected persons did not leave the country, they were liable to 
imprisonment and would never be allowed to become 
citizens. Writing or speaking false, scandalous or malicious 
things against the Government, the President, or Congress, 
were made punishable offences. These acts threw the 
country into great eicitement. The people were divided 
into two factions. The Federalists, who were accused of 
being under British influence, wore black cockades on their 
hats, demanded the orchestras in the theatres to play the 
' ' President ' s March, " " Yankee Doodle, ' ' and ' ' Stony 
Point," They tore down the French liberty-cap from poles 
and put the American Eagle in its place. The Republicans 
were termed Jacobins. They were French sympathizers. 
They wore the tricolor cockades, tried to drown the sounds 
of "Yankee Doodle" in the theatres with demands for 
"Ca-ira" or the "Marseillaise" hymn. They waylaid 
young men at night and tore off their black cockades. 
Musicians in the theatres were pelted, and fiddles were 
smashed, because the music did not suit one or the 
other faction. Meetings were held all over the country, 
protesting against the Alien and Sedition Laws, or endors- 
ing them. 1* 

14 McMoiter^s People of the United States, II, 308-4I6. 



RECONSTRUCTION 171 

Newtown declared against the laws, "and called upon 
Flushing to cooperate with them in petitioning for the 
repeal of the laws. A meeting was called in Flushing. It 
was held some time in December, at the inn kept by John 
Bradwell. Lewis Cornwall was chosen chairman and David 
Gardner, clerk. Flushing declared for the Federalists and 
the black cockade. The meeting resolved that : ' ' We place 
the utmost confidence in the wisdom, patriotism and 
integrity of the President of the United States and both 
houses of Congress, and cannot believe they would pass an 
act contrary to the Constitution or the interest of these 
States . . . We shall use our endeavors to assist the Govern- 
ment in the execution of these laws and all others. "i5 



15 Queens County in Olden Times, p. 89. 



CHAPTER XVII 

FLUSHING'S NEW LIFE 

1800 Up to the beginning of the present century the road to 

New York ran through Jamaica to Brooklyn, where the 
river was crossed by means of a ferry. In 1800, a company 
was formed in Flushing, to build a bridge over the creek. 
William Prince was President of the company. The bridge, 
then erected, was washed away two years later ; but it was 
- soon rebuilt. Since then, several bridges have been erected 
at the same spot. Before the construction of this bridge, 
foot-passengers were taken across the creek in small row- 
boats. James Rantas and Thomas Smith, two colored men, 
acted as ferrymen for many years. The construction of the 
bridge was soon followed by the opening of a road from the 
bridge to Newtown. This was accomplished only after 
much opposition on the part of the farmers. William Prince 
and John Aspinwall were especially active in securing this 
improvement. A stage was now established by William 



FLUSHING'S NEW LIFE 173 

Mott, to run between Flushing and Brooklyn, by way of 
Newtown and Bedford, i 

Union Hall, in Jamaica, does not appear to have satis- 1803 
fied the educational needs of Flushing. St. George's parish, 
therefore, built, and for a short time maintained, an aca- 
demy in Flushing. It stood on the church property, at the 
corner of Main and Locust streets. After two years' ex- 
periment, the parish conveyed the academy to a board of 
trustees, for the term of nine hundred ninety-nine years, 
"at the annual rent of six cents when legally demanded." 
The trustees were : William Prince, Thomas Philips, 
David Gardner, Samuel H. Van Wyck, Daniel Bloodgood. 2 
They called the academy Hamilton Hall. The prospectus of 
the school stated that it was "situated at the pleasant and 
healthy village of Flushing," with a Principal who had 
been "regularly educated in the University of Gottingen;" 
and describes the curriculum as embracing "Greek, Latin, 
French and English languages — German and Hebrew if 
required — also the various branches of Mathematics, Eead- 

1 Mott was on the road for seven years. He was suc- 
ceeded by Carman Smith, Greenwall, Kissam, John Boyd 
and others. Boyd drove for seventeen years. His was the 
first stage from Flushing that crossed the ferry to New 
York. His route was across the Grand street ferry, up 
Grand to the Bowery, and down the Bowery to Chatham 
square. Mandeville, p. 71. 

2 History of St. George's Parish, p. 75. 



1810 



174 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

ing, Writing, Arithmetic, English Grammar, Bookkeep- 
ing." The patrons were assured that attention would be 
given to "the health and morals of young persons sent for 
education. "^ 

Hamilton Hall was not successful. It was returned to 
the vestry of St. George's Church, in 1810, for $1,125. The 
vestry again attempted to maintain the school ; but, after a 
few years' struggle, abandoned the undertaking and con- 
verted the building into a Sunday School. The building 
was subsequently removed to the southwest corner of Wash- 
ington and Garden streets, where it still stands. 
1811 Up to this time, the Quaker meeting and St. George's 

Episcopal Church were the only religious organizations in 
the town. The next to appear was the African Macedonian 
Church. The Rev. Benjamin GrifBn, a white preacher, 
officiated for this negro congregation in his circuit. There 
were at this time no Methodists among the white people of 
Flushing. * 

3 Queens County in Olden Times, p. 94. 

4 The African Methodist Church was not built until 
1837. MandeviUe,p. 165. 

Following are the Pastors, with the dates of their com- 
ing to Flushing : Rev. Henry Hearden, 1821 ; Rev. Stephen 
Dutton, 1823; Rev. William Quim, 1824; Rev. Jacob 
Mathias, 1826 ; Rev. Samuel Todd, 1826 ; Rev. Israel Scott, 
1828; Rev. Jeremiah Miller, 1829; Rev. Israel Scott, 1831; 
Rev. Edward C. Afrioanus, 1850 ; Rev. Japheth P. Camp- 
bell, 1853; Rev. William H. Ross, 1854; Rev. J. R. V. 



FLUSHING'S NEW LIFE 175 

To the "Flushing Female Association" is to be awarded IglA 
the honor of having established the first free school in 
Flushing. This Association, organized Feb. 12, 1814, was 
composed of a number of public-spirited women, most if not 
all of whom were members of the Society of Friends, who 
banded together to further the interests of education. Each 
member paid $2,00 a year into the treasury. Contributions 
soon began to come in from the outside, to assist the Asso- 
ciation in its work. 5 The school was opened April 6, 1814, 
in a dwelling in Liberty street, near the site of the building 
now owned by the Association. For a few months the 

Thomas, 1855; Rev. George Wier, 1856; Rev. James M. Wil- 
liams, 1857 ; Rev. Leonard Paterson, 1858 ; Rev. William 
Moore, 1860; Rev. Geo. W. Johnson, 1862; Rev. D. Dorrell, 
1864; Rev. William H. Ross, 1866; Rev. Edward B. Davis, 
1867; Rev. Henderson Davis, 1868; Rev. Abraham C. 
Crippen, 1871 ; Rev. Benjamin Lynch, 1872 ; Rev. Chas. H. 
Green, 1874; Rev. Jas. M. Williams, D. D., 1875; Rev. E. 
T. Thomas, 1876; Rev. John Prisby, 1877; Rev. Edw. B. 
Davis, 1878 ; Rev. T. C. Franklin, 1879 ; Rev. J. G. Mobray, 
1880; Rev. William F. Townsend, 1882; Rev. Chas. N. Gib- 
bons, 1885; Rev. T. B. Reed, 1888; Rev. Israel Derricks, 
1890; Rev. Jas. J. Moore, 1891; Rev. William Heath, 189.3; 
Rev. Peter E. Mills, 1894 ; Rev. Jas. W. Fishburne, 1897 ; 
Rev. William H. Bryant, 1898. 

5 The following bequests were received : Thomas Tom, 
$250 : Thomas Lawrence, $100 ; Matthew Franklin, £150, 
"the interest to be applied to the use of finding poor negro 
children books, and also toward paying their schooling, 
them that their parents did belong among the people called 
Quakers"; Nathaniel Smith, $500; James Byrd, $200. 
Charles and Scott Hicks furnished wood for the school for 
eleven years. Mandeville, p. 1S8. 



176 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

members of the Association served in turn as teachers. The 
pupils, white and black, were admitted free of charge, ex- 
cept in the cases of a few whose parents were able and wil- 

1815 ling to pay. Mary McMannus was engaged as the first 
teacter, at a salary of $15 per quarter, and with an allow- 
ance of 826, per quarter, for her board. The income of the 
Association, for the first year, was $570. 51. ^ 

1 Q-i y This charitable work in behalf of the negro population 

of Flushing, was soon followed by a more comprehensive act 
in their behalf by the State of New York. On March 31, 
1817, an act was passed, freeing all slaves who had been 
born after July 4, 1797, so soon as they should reach the age 
of twenty-eight, for males, and twenty-five for females. 
Every child born in slavery after the passage of the act, 
should be set free on reaching the age "of twenty-one. The 
slaves in Flushing had always, as a rule, been kindly 
treated. The Quakers had been working for nearly a hundred 
years for the abolition of slavery. Their sympathy for 
the slaves and their interest in the negroes' education and 
general well-being were widely known. Flushing became 
the rendezvous of freedmen, who hoped to secure the bless- 
ings of freedom without its responsibilities. A very unde- 
sirable element was thus added to the population of the 
6 Treasurer's Book of the Flmhing Female Association. 



FLUSHING'S NEW LIFE 177 

village. These negroes became so numerous, so aggressive, 
so lawless, that the peace and quiet of the community were 
greatly disturbed. They filled the streets at night ; they 
held out-of-door dances and barbecues, which generally 
degenerated into drunken brawls. Town ordinances and the 
mild influence of the Quakers were without avail. The 1825 
apprentices and other young men of the village took matters 
into their own hands. They formed a sort of vigilance 
committee and attacked with volleys of rotten eggs, these 
noisy gatherings which made sleep impossible. A few at- 
tacks of this sort had the effect of breaking up the gather- 
ings, or at least of transferring the orgies from the public 
square to the shanties on Crow Hill and Liberty street.'' 

Some ten years or more after the Rev. Mr. Griffin began 1822 
his ministrations among African Methodists, a group of 
white people organized a Methodist Church, They wor- 
shipped for a time in a private house adjoining Garretson's 
seed store, in Liberty street. Their first Pastor was the 
Rev. Samuel Cockrance. Their church was built in 1822. 
It stood on the south side of Lincoln street, about midway 
between Main and Union streets, s 

7 MandeviUe, p. 67. Sislory of Queens County, p. 91. 

8 A new church was built, in 1843, on the east side of 
Main street, just north of Washington. In 1875, the church 
was removed to its present site in Amity street. In 1834 the 



178 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

The first post-offlce in the town was located at the Alley. 
It was in this year moved to the village. This change met 
with much opposition, even on the part of people living in 
the village. While the postoffice was at the Alley, they 
said, the mail was left at the Flushing hotel which was 
open at all hours. The post-office, they feared, would be open 
only at certain hours, and would not furnish the accommo- 
dation then enjoyed. » 



Methodist Church in Flushing was separated from the cir- 
cuit and became a station with a resident Pastor. Follow- 
ing are the names of the resident Pastors, with the dates of 
their coming to Flushing : Rev. Alexander Hulin, 1834 ; 
Rev. David Plumb, 1835; Rev. John L. Gilder, 1836; Rev. 
■William Thatcher, 1837; Rev. Daniel Wright, 1839; Rev. 
George Brown, 1840; Rev. Elbert Osborn, 1841; Rev. John 
J. Matthias, 1842; Rev. Benjamin Griffin, 1843; Rev. David 
Osborn, 1845; Rev. John W. B. Wood, 1847; Rev. John B. 
Merwin, 1848 ; Rev. Samuel W. Law, 1850 ; Rev. Abraham S. 
Francis, 1851 ; Rev. Ira Abbott, 1852 ; Rev. William F. Col- 
lins, 1854; Rev. Thomas H. Burch, 1856; Rev. J. L. Peck, 
1858 ; Rev. R. H. Hatfield, 1860 ; Rev. Horace Cooke, 1864 ; 
Rev. G. R. Crooks, 1866 ; Rev. G. Taylor, 1869 ; Rev. W. H. 
Simonson, 1872 ; Rev. George Stillman, 1875 ; Rev. Levi P. 
Perry, 1877 ; Rev. Alvine C. Bowdish, 187& ; Rev. Robert W. 
Jones, 1880 ; Rev. C. C. Lasby, 1883 ; Rev. Thomas S. Poul- 
son, 1886 ; Rev. Harvey E. Burnes, 1889 ; Rev. John W. May- 
nard, 1891 ; Rev. George L. Thompson, 1893 ; Rev. Theodore 
S. Henderson, 1896 ; Rev. A. H. Wyatt, 1898. 

9 Mandeville, p. 73. 

The first Postmaster was Curtis Peck, who kept the 
office in the Pavilion. Then followed in office : William 
Peck, Dr. Joseph Bloodgood, Dr. Asa Spalding, Francis 
Bloodgood, Charles W. Cox. 



FLUSHING'S NEW LIFE 179 

The year that brought the post-oflBce to the village was 
also marked by the experiment of running a small steam- 
boat between New York and Flushing. In the following 
year, a boat built expressly for the route began regular daily 
trips, She was the Linnaeus, commanded by Capt. Jona- 
than Peck. 10 

St. Michael's Roman Catholic Church had its beginning 
in 1826. There were then but twelve members of that 
Church in Flushing. They invited the Rev. Father Farn- 
ham, of Brooklyn, to visit Flushing and minister to their 
spiritual needs. He came and celebrated the first Mass in 
October of this year, in a building in Main street. Some 
time after this, in 1835, a house in Liberty street was pur- 
chased, and fitted up for public worship. The Rev. Michael 
Curran and the Rev. Felix Larkin, of Astoria, held service 
here once a month. This building was twice enlarged, and 
answered the needs of the congregation for a number of years. 

This year was also an important one for Flushing's edu- 
cational interests. In the fall of this year, the Rev. Wil- 
liam A. Muhlenberg became the Rector of St. George's 

10 The Linnaeus ran for ten years. She was followed 
by the Flushing, Capt. Curtis Peck ; the Statesman, Capt. 
Elijah Peck ; the Star, Capt. Elijah Peck ; the Washington 
Irving, Capt. Stephen Leonard ; the Island Star, Capt. 
Silas Reynolds ; the Enoch Dean, Capt. William Reynolds. 
Mandemlle, p. 7S. 



1823 



1826 



180 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Church. 11 He took rooms in the Pavilion hotel. One day 
at dinner he overheard some gentlemen discussing the sub- 
ject of building a boys' school in Flushing. He joined in 
the conversation and quite without premeditation said that if 
they would put up a suitable building, he would undertake 
the management of the school. He thought little more 
about the subject, and was surprised to receive a visit from 
the gentlemen that evening. They came to accept his pro- 
position. The Flushing Institute was incorporated, the 
corner-stone was laid, Aug. 11, 1827, and the school began 
1828 its first session in the spring of the following year. The 
Institute was a success from the start. Mr. Muhlenberg 
was unusually happy in his management of boys and had 
the faculty of soon winning their confidence and respect, i^ 

11 Some of our well-known hymns — such as "Like 
Noah's weary dove," "Saviour who Thy flock art feeding," 
and probably "Shout the glad tidings" — were written loy 
Mr. Muhlenberg, during the first few months of his resi- 
dence in Flushing. Muhlenberg's Life, p. S3. 

12 "In their griefs, who so tender and sympathizing as 
he ! One of the younger boys, son of Francis S. Key, author 
of the 'Star Spangled Banner,' was under Mr. Muhlenberg's 
care when his father died. Tidings of the event came late 
in the day, with a request for the boy to be sent home the 
next morning. 'Never, if you can help it, tell bad news at 
night, ' was a life-long maxim with Mr. Muhlenberg, and 
the little fellow was allowed to retire undisturbed with the 
rest, while the devoted school-father attended himself to the 
arrangements necessary for an early morning start." 

"He could exercise a little muscular Christianity at 
need. One of the students attempted a practical joke upon 



FLUSHING'S NEW LIFE 181 

He pursued the policy of trusting the boys and placing them 
on their honor. It is said that he always wore rather heavy 
and creaking boots, that he might not appear at any time 
to steal upon the boys unawares. 

At this stage of our history we must refer to the split 
that occurred in the Friends' Meeting. It is not within the 
scope of this work to discuss the causes that led to it. 
Suffice it to say that at the yearly meeting, in 1829, certain -i qqq 
members of the meeting separated themselves from the 
others and established the "Orthodox" Meeting. The old 
Meeting-house was retained by that portion of the society 
which was henceforth known as the "Hioksites. " At a* 
monthly meeting held in Flushing, 7th day, 3rd month, 
1829, the committee that had been appointed to collect the 
names of all the members belonging to the meeting, i. e. the 
Hicksite meeting, reported that there were seven men, 
sixteen women, and eleven minors, in all thirty-four, "who 
have attached themselves to the society that separated 

himself, by walking into his chamber at midnight, in the 
regulation, long, white bed gown, as a somnambulist. Mr. 
Muhlenberg instantly penetrated the disguis6,-and springing 
out of bed grappled the youth tightly and drew him to the 
wash-stand, where stood a large ewer full of water, the 
whole contents of which he discharged upon his head. 
The discomfited lad slank away as he could. He had 
anticipated great fun in telling his comrades the next 
morning how finely he had scared the Rector." Muhlen- 
berg''s Life, pp 106. 122. 



182 HISTOEY OF FLUSHING 

during the yearly meeting. ' ' Two men and one woman were 
undecided to which meeting they would attach themselves. 
Twenty-seven men, forty-two women, forty-two minors, in all 
one hundred and eleven remained "attached to this monthly 
meeting. "13 The Orthodox Quakers built a Meeting-house 
just east of the old Meeting-house. The Orthodox meeting 
is now extinct ; the Hicksite meeting ife very small. 

1835 The Institute continued to flourish, but Dr. Muhlenberg 
— he received his degree about this time — was of a restless 
disposition, and was always planning something new. He 
now entertained visions of a thoroughly equipped college. 
To realize these, he bought one hundred seventy-five acres 

1836 °* ^^^^ ^t Strattonport and on Oct. 15, 1836, laid the 
corner-stone of what was designed to be an extensive struc- 
ture, to cost about $50,000. But the building never rose 
above the basement story. The panic of 1837 deprived him 
of the assistance of friends on whom he had relied. A 
wooden building was put up, in which the Grammar School 

1 S^S ^^® opened in 1837. Temporary buildings were erected for 
the College, and St. Paul's College was opened, with a full 
corps of professors, in 1838. The school at the Flushing In- 
stitute was now moved to College Point, as that locality 
was thereafter called. 

13 Becords of the Monthly Meetings. 



FLUSHING'S NEW LIFE 183 

The same home-like sympathy between Eector and 
pupils, that marked the school life of the Institute was 
maintained at St. Paul's College. The Doctor wrote hymns 
and carols, composed music for them and led the pupils in 
singing. The well-known Christmas carol, "Carol, brothers, 
carol, ' ' was composed at this time, i* 

The college flourished until 1844, when Dr. Muhlenberg 
moved to New York to become Rector of the Church of the 
Holy Communion. 



14 The following statistics of the college were reported, 
Jan. 13, 1840 : ' ' Number of students, 105 ; volumes in Libra- 
ries, 7,000; value of property, $70,000; annual cost of 
salaries of professors and instructors, $9,000." 

Muhlenberg^s Life, p. I4I. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

MODERN FLUSHING 
We are now approaching the end of our story, and shall 
1837 hereafter confine ourselves to the Village of Flushing. The 
Village was incorporated, April 15, 1837. The Gazetteer of 
the State of New York, published the year before, describes 
Flushing as a village of about one hundred and forty dwel- 
lings, "some of which are neat and several magnificent." 
There were then in Flushing : one Episcopal Church ; two 
Methodist Churches, "one for whitp and the other for 
colored worshippers ;" two Quaker Meetings; "the Flush- 
ing Institute ; a respectable Seminary for ladiesi ; six ox- 
tensive stores ; three hotels ; one tide grist-mill ; the exten- 
sive and celebrated garden and nursery of Messrs. Prince, 
known as the Linnean Garden. ' ' Two sloops belonged to 
the village ; a steamboat ran twice a day to New York ; 
stages ran to Brooklyn. The Gazetteer adds : ' ' The facility 
of conveyance, the attractiveness of the Linnean Garden, 

1 Kept by Joshua Kimber, who had succeeded Lindley 
Murray Moore in 1827. Mr. Kimber's school occupied the 
house that still stands just west of the old Meeting-house. 



MODERN FLUSHING 185 

the delightful voyage, whether by land or water, make this 
a favorite place of resort to citizens of New York. "2 

The village boundary line began at the creek, just 
beyond the bridge on the College Point causeway, and ran 
east, crossing Whitestone avenue about three hundred feet 
beyond Bayside avenue — just including the Osgood property. 
At a point near the junction of Bayside avenue and Parsons 
avenue, the line turned south, and ran to the corner of San- 
ford avenue and Long Lane (now S. Parsons avenue). From 
this corner, which marked the farthest limits of the village 
in that direction, the line ran west to the creek, forming an 
acute angle with Sanford Avenue, and crossing Jamaica 
avenue just south of the Jaggar homestead (now Captain 
Hinman's). Sanford avenue was not open below Jamaica 
avenue. Bowne avenue was the street farthest east. Long 
Lane began at the village limits, and ran south. Jaggar 
avenue was a private lane leading from Main street to the 
Jaggar house ; Lincoln street was then called Liberty street ; 
Amity street was not opened, neither was Locust street east 
of Main, s A tide mill, kept by William Hamilton, stood at 

2 Gazetteer of tlie State of New York, p. 635. 

3 North Prince street was not opened until 1841. It 
was first called Linnean street. Furman says : "In the 
month of July, 1841, eleven human skeletons were unearthed, 
in excavating the ground to run a road through the Linnean 
Garden. . . The place where they were found has been for 



186 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

the bridge on the College Point causeway. There were no 
houses northeast of the Park, except a few which stood in 
large country places, such as those of Walter Farrington and 
Samuel B. Parsons, on Broadway, and Silas Hicks, Henry 
Mitchell and Howard Osgood, on Whitestone avenue. On 
the west side of Main street, the Redwood property extended 
from the L. I. Railway Station to Amity street. On the 
east side, the Wright property was on the corner of Madison 
street ; next came the Institute ; then the Leggett property 
and the Garretson property. The lower part of Main street 
was more thickly settled, but even there the houses stood 
apart from each other, with gardens between. The Pavilion, 
once a famous hotel, stood on the corner of Bridge street 
and Lawrence avenue, where the old electric power house 
now stands. The Town Hall stood where the fountain now 
stands, facing on Main street;* the school house was on the 
lot now occupied by the Empire Hose Company's building, 
in Lincoln street. The population of the village was less 
than two thousand. 

fifty years used as a horticultural nursery. They were 
within a circle of thirty feet, their heads all lay to the east, 
and some nails and musket balls were found with them. ' ' 
Long Island Antiquities, p. 98. 

4 The old Town Hall was removed to Bridge street after 
the erection of the new Town Hall, in 1864, and has since 
been used as a shop. It is now occupied by Joseph Crooker. 



MODERN FLUSHING 187 

Soon after Dr. Muhlenberg had moved his school to 
College Point, a girls' school was established at the Flush- 
ing Institute, and the name of the building was changed to 
St. Ann's Hall. The Rev. Dr. Frederick Schroeder was the 
Principal of this new school. Among other attractions, St. 
Ann's Hall was provided with "a gymnasium, with a great 
variety of alluring calesthenic exercises, a hippodrome for 
horsemanship, nine hundred feet in circumference, and 
archery grounds extending the whole length of the garden 
and the hippodrome. ' ' 

St. Thomas's Hall — a school for boys— was built this 
same year. It stood where St. Joseph's Academy now 
stands. The Rev. Francis L. Hawks, D. D. , was the Prin- 
cipal and Proprietor. He was assisted by ^fourteen instruc- 
tors. The school had accommodations for one hundred and 
twenty pupils. The chapel was spoken of as "one of the 
most beautiful in the country. ' ' 

Flushing was busy at this time not only with educa- 
tional matters ; religious affairs also claimed the attention 
of the people. A new Church, the Protestant Reformed 
Dutch Church was organized, with seven members. Services 
were held, after the organization, in the school house in 
Church street, the Rev. William R. Gordon, of Manhasset, 
oflBciating. Mr. Grordon was afterwards settled here as the 



1839 



1842 



188 HISTOEY OF FLUSHING 

first Pastor of the Church. Two years later, the congrega- 
tion built a very attractive stone church, on the corner of 
Washington and S. Prince streets, at a cost of $12,000.5 

This year witnessed the beginning of Flushing journal- 
ism. To Charles R. Lincoln is due the credit of beginning 
this important work. The first periodical printed in Flush- 
ing was the Monthly Journal of the Institute, issued by the 
Institute during Dr. Muhlenberg's time, but this had no 
connection with subsequent journalism in Flushing. Mr. 
Lincoln came to Flushing, in 1840, to publish the Reposi- 
tory, edited by the students of St. Thomas's Hall, and The 
Church Record, edited by the Rev. Dr. Hawks in the in- 
terest of the Episcopal Church. The Repository was pub- 
lished about a year and a half. The Church Record con- 
tinued about six months longer. Then Mr. Lincoln estab- 
lished the Flushing Journal. The first number appeared in 
October, 1842. This was a specimen number. Its regular 
weekly issue, did not appear until March of the fow- 

5 The corner stone was laid, Aug. 16, 1843. There were 
present on this occasion and taking part in the service the 
Rev. Drs. De Witte and Brownlee, of New York, and the Rev. 
Dr. Garretson of Newtown. Mr. Gordon's successors in the 
Pastorate of the Church were ; Rev. G. H, Mandeville, 1851 ; 
Rev. William W. Holloway, 1859; Rev. E. S. Fairchild, 
1865; Rev. O. E. Cobb, D.D., 1872; Rev. James Demarest, 
D.D., 1890; Rev. Rockwell H. Potter, 1898. The new Re- 
formed Church, at the corner of Amity street and Bowne 
avenue, was built in 1892. 



MODERN FLUSHING 189 

lowing year. The Journal was the only newspaper in 
Flushing until 1852, when George W. Ralph, started the 
Public Voice. The Public Voice continued about a year 
and a half. In 1855, Walter R, Burling, a compositor on 
the Journal, established the Long Island Times as a weekly. 
Thomas H. Todd, who afterwards established the Long 
Island Star (of Long Island City), and Eugene Lincoln, the 
founder of the Glen Cove Gazette, were also compositors on 
the Journal at this time. Burling issued the first daily in 
Flushing in 1865, when the Flushing Daily Times appeared. 
The two papers continued without further change, the 
Journal as a weekly and the Times with a slight change of 
name as a daily and weekly, until the death of Mr. Lincoln 
in 1869.6 After Mr. Lincoln's death, the Journal was con- 
tinued by his estate under the editorship of Joseph E. 
Lawrence, at one time editor of the Golden Era of San 
Francisco. In 1870 the Journal was purchased by E. B. 
Hinsdale, and William H. Gibson became the editor. Five 
years later, C. W. Smith purchased the Journal. In 1878 

6 Charles Richmond Lincoln, was born in Dorchester, 
Mass., in 1806. He learned his trade as printer in New 
York. Here he began the publication of a daily paper called 
The Star. A fire destroyed his printing oflBce shortly after 
the commencement of this enterprise. In 1836, he went to 
Greece with the Rev. Dr. Hill to act as printer to the Epis- 
copal mission established in Athens. After his return from 
Greece he came to Flushing. 



190 HISTOEY OF FLUSHING 

the Times became the property of the Rev. E. S. Fairchild, 
who edited it for about a year, when Walter R. Burling 
again became editor and proprietor. In 1879, Mr. Smith, 
proprietor of the Journal issued the first number of the 
Evening Journal. Thus Flushing had two dailies. The 
next change came in 1881, when the Long Island Times 
Publishing Company purchased the Times and engaged 
George R. Crowley as editor. About a year later the Times 
became the property of L. E. Quigg. Robert Wilson, the 
foreman of the Times, severed his connection with the paper 
at the time of its sale, and in 1883 established the Long 
Island News. Mr. Quigg was editor of the Times until 
1886, when the paper was purchased by C. W. Smith of the 
Journal. Mr. Smith published both the Journal, and the 
Times until the following year, when he suspended the Daily 
Times and sold the Weekly Times to James H. Easton. 
Three years later, in 1890, the Journal was sold to J. H. 
Kidenour, the present editor and proprietor. In 1897, Mr. 
Easton sold the Long Island Times to the Flushing Pub- 
lishing Company, C. W. Smith returned to Flushing to 
become its editor, and the daily edition was revived. The 
Journal has within the last few years established a well- 
equipped job printing department, and has turned out some 
fine specimens of book making. 



MODERN FLUSHING. 191 

Dr. Hawk's school had a short life. After four years, 
it was closed because of financial difficulties. The property 1 qaq 
was purchased by Gerardus B. Docherty, L L. D. , and Dr. 
Carmiohael. Dr. Carmichael withdrew after a year.' In 
1845, Ezra Fairchild, who had conducted a boys' school in 1845 
New Jersey since 1816, made arrangements with Dr. 
Docherty to take possession of St. Thomas's Hall, and 
bring his school from New Jersey to Flushing. Mr. Fair- 
child and his school came to Flushing, but Dr. Docherty, 
for some unknown reason, did not carry out his agreement 
concerning the surrender of St. Thomas's Hall. The school 
was forced to take refuge in the Pavilion. Here it was 
established for a year. Mr. Fairchild then took from 
Dr. Schroeder his unexpired lease of St. Ann's Hall. Later .l-o^O 
the property was purchased, and the old name of Flushing 
Institute was restored. The school and the name remain 
to-day. Under Mr. Fairchild and under his son, E. A. 
Fairchild, the present proprietor, s Flushing Institute has 

7 Dr. Docherty continued until 1848, when the Rev. 
William H. Gilder purchased the property and opened the 
Flushing Female College. Mandeville, p. 126. 

8 The relationship between Master and pupils, at the 
Institute, is well illustrated by the following unique 
announcement of the opening of the fall term, which 
appeared in the New York dailies, Aug.- 10, 1868: "Dear 
Boys— Trouble begins Sept. 15. E. A. Fairchild." This 
advertisement was copied far and wide. Harpers Monthly 



192 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

had a long and useful career. There are Institute boys all 
over the United States and in most of the Central and South 
American countries." 

The game year that brought the Fairchilds to Flushing 
to re-establish the Institute, saw the opening of Sanford 
Hall, as a private asylum. Sanford Hall had been erected 
in 1836 by the Hon. Nathan Sanford, as a private resi- 

reprinted it, with the note: "Is there extant a boy — be he 
boy of fifty or boy of ten — who will not appreciate the grim 
humor of the following advertisement. " Mrs. SpofTord, in 
the Galaxy, commented on it. 

9 Many prominent men in these southern countries 
made their acquaintance with the English language at the 
Institute. Their initial efforts, preserved by the Principal, 
furnish some rare specimens of composition. Here is an 
essay on Divine Providence. "God has observing the order 
more maravilloua and exact in life and death of man ; both 
are measure and regular of best way ; and nothing is more 
evident than the wisdle of God in the poblation of world. 
In a number give of years, die a proportional number of 
lives of all ages. By thirty fifeth and thirty sixth, persons 
lives die one every one year ; but the proportion of birth is 
great. For tenth year in the same space and time and 
between the same number of individuals are birth twelve. 
In the fierst year about third children die generally one : in 
the fifeth one of every twenty fifeth ; and so forth decrease 
the number of death till the age twenty fifeth, to another 
time begin increase. How evident is the -care of the divina 
providence extend upon his creature till the same moment 
in which enter in the world, she watch and protect withou 
any distinction between the poor and rich, the great and 
small. The life is in extreme uncertain allthou by the 
strong of the physical constitution some individual there 
are none subject to sickness, they can however strong he 
may safe by a contagion of one epidemic. ' ' 



MODEEN FLUSHING 193 

dence. 10 It is said to have cost nearly $130,000. Mr. San- 
ford died soon after its completion. In 1844 it was bought 
by Dr. James Macdonald and his brother Gen. Allan Mac- 
donald. In the following year they moved their institution 
for the treatment of nervous diseases from New York, and 
established themselves in Sanford Hall, n 

Contemporary with the interest in education, was the 
development of agricultural interests. The Queens County 
Agricultural Society was organized in 1841, with BflBngham -'^~*" 
Lawrence as its first President. The fifth Fair of the Society 
was held in Flushing. "The American Institute, of New 
York, held a plowing and spading match. There was a band 
of music from Governor's Island. The performers and dele- 
gates rode through the village in a wagon tastefully deco- 
rated, and drawn by thirty-six yoke of oxen. The exhibition- 
tent was decked with flowers from Flushing's far-famed 

10 Sanford was elected U. S. Senator, 1815 : in 1823, he 
succeeded Jas. Kent as Chancellor of the State of New 
York ; in 1826, he was again elected U. S. Senator. He 
died in Flushing, Oct. 17, 1838. 

11 Dr. McDonald died, in 1849. "His funeral took 
place on May 8th. . . The shops in the village were closed, 
and it was a day of sincere and general mourning. . . Thus 
passed away from the earth, one of God's noblest men, be- 
loved in life and lamented in death by all who knew him. ' ' 
MandeviUe, p. 13S. 

Dr. Barstow was resident Physician of- Sanford Hall 
for forty-one years He moved to New York in 1895. 



19i HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

nurseries. Dr. Gardener gave the address in the Keformed 
Church." 
1848 The Board of Education was organized under an act 

of Legislature, in 1848. The first Board consisted of Ef- 
fingham W. Lawrence, Edward E. Mitchell, Samuel B. Par- 
sons, William H. Fairweather, and Thomas Leggett, Jr. 
But the history of Flushing's public schools goes back 
at least to 1843. In that year we find a Board of Trustees 
comprised of John W. Lawrence, John Wilcomb, William 
W. Valk, M. D., and Samuel Willet, Clerk, in charge of 
school district No. 5, which comprised the whole of the 
village and some additional territory. About this time, 
1843, a new school-house was erected at a cost of 8950. 
This school-house stood at the corner of Garden and Church 
streets, on what is now part of the lawn in the rear of 
Henry A. Bogert's house. Some time before 1844, the school 
established by the Flushing Female Association had re- 
ceived assistance from public funds. In that year this help 
was withdrawn, and the money was devoted to the school 
directly under the care of the trustees. Now came a critical 
period in the history of our public schools. To the wis- 
dom and perseverance of Samuel B. Parsons and Thomas 
Leggett, Jr. , Flushing is indebted for the impetus given at 
that time to the interests of education. A larger and better 



MODERN FLUSHING 195 

school-house and better provisions for education were 
needed. But it was difficult to overcome the indifference of 
the people and their unwillingness to submit to a slight 
increase in the tax rate. Many stormy meetings were held. 
Finally, at a public meeting held Dec. 26, 1847, ' ' it was re- 
solved, by a vote of thirty-seven to five, to raise three 
thousand dollars by tax, and to authorize the Trustees 
to sell the old building, to contract for a new one on 
the plan of the New York public schools, and to pro- 
pose a suitable site." In the next year (1848) many 
meetings were again held, and much discussion ensued 
concerning a site for the new school. The Legislature 
authorized "the Board to raise $6,500 by tax or mort- 
gage for the erection of a building, limiting the annual 
assessment to one-fifth of one per cent, on all taxable 
property in the District. ' ' The lot on Union street was 
purchased, and the school-house was built which was 
torn down in 1897. The school opened in November, with 
seven teachers and three hundred and eighty-one pupils. 
Thomas F. Harrison was the first Principal. From that 
time to the present there has been a constant growth in the 
size and efficiency of the schools. 

The Village of Flushing did not grow rapidly at this igci 
period of its history. In 1851 it had a population of about 



196 HISTOEY OF FLUSHING 

2,000 — not many more than it had at the time of its incor- 
poration. It, however, still maintained its reputation as a 
desirable place residence. Barbour's Historical Collections, 
published this year, speaks thus of our village: "Its 
various attractions, with great facility of communication 
with New iTork, have induced many wealthy citizens to 
locate in its immediate neighborhood. Some of the private 
residences are among the most imposing and splendid edi- 
fices in the State. The Village of Flushing contains a num- 
ber of flourishing literary institutions for both sexes. This 
place is also distinguished for its excellent nurseries of fruit 
and other trees. "12 

The year 1851 witnessed the establishment of another 
Church in Flushing, i. e. the First Congregational Church. 
The Council that was convened to accomplish its organiza- 
tion met in the school-house in Church street, July 1st. 
The Rev. D. C. Lansing, D. D. , was chosen Moderator and 
William C. Oilman, Scribe. Among those present and taking 
part in the proceedings were the Rev. Dr. R. S. Storrs and 
the Rev. Dr. Henry Ward Beecher. The organization 
effected consisted of eighteen members, three of whona were 
received on profession of faith, eleven by letters from the 

12 Historical Collections, p. S91 et sg. 



MODERN FLUSHING 197 

Reformed Church of Flushing, four by letters from other 
places. The first Pastor was the Rev. Charles O. Reynolds. 
The first Church-building of the society was dedicated, Jan. 
29, 1852. It stood on the east side of Union street, south 
of the corner of Washington street. ^^ 

On September 29th, of this year, the County Fair was 
again held in Flushing. "The delegation from the American 
Institute and invited guests rode from the steamboat wharf to 
the Pair grounds in a wagon drawn by fifty-six yoke of fine 
oxen, with music, under the escort of Bragg's horse guards 
and the Hamilton Rifles. . . There was a plowing match and 
a fine display of flowers and fruits. The horses . . . were 
of truer form and points than those at the State Fair. ' ' 

Before another County Fair was held in Flushing a rail- 1854 

road had been constructed between Hunter's Point and 

Flushing. It began operations in 1854. |The Flushing 

station was the present Main street station — then at the 

13 The present Congregational Church was built in 
1856. The old building was then moved to the rear of the 
new Church, and was used for a Sunday school. There it 
stood until a few years ago. Following is the list of 
Pastors of the Congregational Church : Rev. Charles O. 
Reynolds, 1851; Rev. S. Bourne, 1854; Rev. Henry T. 
Staats, 1860 ; Rev. Henry H. McFarland, 1863 ; Rev. Martin 
L. "Williston, 1870 ; Rev. Albert C. Reed, 1873 ; Rev. James 
O. Averill, 1879; Rev. John Abbot French, D. D., 1881. 
Dr. French was not a stranger in Flushing when he was in- 
stalled as Pastor. He had some years before, from 1866 to 
1868, served the Church as "Stated Supply." 



198 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

outer edge of the -village. It was at first intended to run 
the road to Williamsburg, but this route was afterwards 

1855 abandoned. 1* The effect of the'railroad on the attendance at 
the next Fair, which was held in September, 1855, was very 
perceptible. The ten o'clock train brought nearly four 
hundred people. E. A. Lawrence, the Supervisor of the 
Town, met the guests, and made a speech of welcome, 
which was responded to by George W. Clinton, the orator of 
the day. They all then proceeded to the Fair grounds on 
Sanford avenue and Union street. The New York Times, 
in its account of the Fair, said: "There was one other 
production, however, which eclipsed everything else, both 
in number and beauty of the specimens — a production 
which, though by no means indigenous to Queens County, 
is nevertheless brought to a perfection there that one but 
seldom sees so general elsewhere. We mean, of course, the 
lovely women. Such a collection of elegant, well-bred, 
handsome, intelligent-looking, fascinating young ladies was 
surely never seen before. ' ' 

1857 In 1857 the village limits were extended by removing 

the southern boundiry, which formerly crossed Jamaica 

14 The first Board of Directors : Wm. Smart, David S. 
Williams, Samuel B. Parsons, James Strong, Aaron C. Un- 
derhill, James W. Allen, Isaac Peek, John D. Locke, Jona- 
than Crane, Thomas Leggett, Jr., William H. Schermerhorn, 
George W. Quimby, D. S. Duncombe. 



MODERN FLUSHING 190 

avenue, just south of Sanford avenue, to HiHside avenue — 
then called Ireland avenue. There was little, if any change 
made at this time in the other boundary lines. 

The next Fair in Flushing was held Sept. 22, 1858. The 1858 
invited guests, in a carriage drawn by fifty-six oxen, accom- 
panied by "Sheldon's splendid band," drov'e through the 
principal streets. Fully seven thousand persons attended this 
Fair. The Fair was held on a ten-acre lot, belonging to 
Thomas Legett, Jr. , is which was enclosed by a high board 
fence. "Simon R. Bowne exhibited twenty of his fine 
horses ; and E. A. Lawrence, a fat ox weighing 2500 pounds. 
Gabriel Winter contributed a floral temple. . . The pick- 
pockets reaped a harvest in a small way. ' ' In 1866, the 
Town of Hempstead gave to the Agricultural Society, for a 
nominal sum, the ground at Mineola where the County 
Fairs have since been held. 

The year 1854 saw the completion of the present St. 1854 
George's Churohis and the beginning of St. Michael's. 

15 Back of the Town Hall, between Farrington street 
and Congress avenu6. 

16 This is the third Church built by St. George's 
parish. The second, now used for a Sunday school, was 
built in 1821. Grace Church, Whitestone, was part of St. 
George's parish until 1858, when it became an independent 
parish. St. Paul's Chapel, College Point, was built in 1860. 
All Saint's, Bayside, was built in 1892, and the district was 
set apart as a separate parish. Following are the Rectors of 



200 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

The former was consecrated, June 1st., by the Rt. Rev. 
Jonathan M. Wainwright, Provisional Bishop of New York. 
It cost $33,000. The corner stone of St. Michael's Church 
was laid June 24th. The Church was far enough advanced 
towards completion to admit of its being used for public 
worship on Christmas Day. It was not finished until two 
years later, when it was dedicated by the Rt. Rev. Dr. 
Loughlin, Bishop of Brooklyn, i'' 

Within the same year the First Baptist Church of 
Flushing was organized, with the Rev. Howard Osgood as 
its Pastor. There were, at the time of the organization, 

St. George's Church and the dates of their induction : Rev. 
William Urquhart, 1704; Rev. Thomas Poyer, 1710; Rev. 
Thomas Colgan, 1733; Rev. Samuel Seabury, 1757; Rev. 
Joshua Bloomer, 1769 ; Rov. William Hammell, 1790 ; Rev. 
Elijah D. Rattoone, 1797; Rev. Abram L. Clarke, 1803; 
Rev. Barzillai Buckley, 1809; Rev. John V. E. Thome, 
1820 ; Rev. William A. Muhlenberg, 1826 ; Rev. William H, 
Lewis, 1829 ; Rev. J. Murray Forbes, 1833 ; Rev. Samuel E. 
Johnson, 1834; Eev. Robert B. VanKleeok, 1835; Rev. 
Frederick J. Goodwin, 1837 ; Rev. George Burcker, 1844 ; 
Rev. J. Carpenter Smith, 1847 ; Rev. H. D. Waller, 1898. 

17 The lot on which St. Michael's Church stands was 
purchased in 1841. A wooden building was erected in the 
same year, and used until the present Church was built, in 
1854. St. Michael's parochial school was organized in 1851. 
The first school-house stood between the Church and rectory. 
In 1854, it was moved across the street. In 1880 the present 
school-house was built. The resident Pastors of St. Mich- 
ael's Church are as follows : Rev. Dennis Wheeler, 1848 
Rev. John McMahon, 1851; Rev. James O'Beirne, 1853 
Rev. Henry O 'Loughlin, 1873; Rev. John McKenna, 1877 
Rev. Eugene J. Donnelly, 1892. 



MODERN FLUSHING 201 

nine members. The first Church-building of this society 
was erected in the following year. It stood in Washington 
street, between Union street and Bowne avenue. In 1872, 
this building was moved to the corner of Jamaica avenue and 
Jaggar avenue, where it still stands, and is now used for a 
Public Library. The present Baptist Church, at the 
corner of Sanford avenue and Union street, -was built in 
1890. In the same year, the Park Branch of the Baptist 
Church was built. It is a neat chapel standing in Bowne 
avenue, Hitchcock Park. is 

The school property which had been known as St. 1860 
Thomas's Hall, and later as the Flushing Female College, 
was purchased, in 1860, by the Rev. James O'Beirne for the 
Sisters of St. Joseph. This has since been the Mother 
House of the order. St. Joseph's Academy— a school for 
girls — was established by the Sisters, and has been in suc- 
cessful operation ever since. Its commanding location, its 
fine buildings and beautifully-kept grounds, make St. 



18 Following are the Baptist ministers who succeeded 
the Rev. Howard Osgood : Rev. Frederick Graves ; Rev. 
John Bray ; Rev. C. W. Nichols ; Rev. John Higgs ; Rev. 
D. Meason; Rev. Harvey Alley; Rev. R. T. Middleditch, 
D.D. ; Rev. L. F. Moore, 1875; Rev. A. S. Burrows, 1881; 
Rev. William Morrison, 1886 ; Rev. D. Powell Chockley, 1892 ; 
Rev. Charles E. Knowles, 1891. 



202 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Joseph's Academy one of the very attractive features of the 
village. 19 
1861 When the war of Rebellion broke out, it found in 

Flushing a well-organized company, ready to answer the 
call for troops. 20 The Flushing Guard was organized, about 
1839, as Light Infantry, and was attached to the 93rd Regi 
ment, N. Y. S. M. At its first parade, in 1840, it had 
twenty-six uniformed men. In 18i3, the company was 
changed to Artillery ; in 1845, it was again changed to 
Light Horse Artillery, and was attached to Storm's famous 
First Brigade. At that time it was commanded by Capt' 
William A. Mitchell, and was attached to Col. Hamilton's 
Regiment. The Battery offered its services at the outbreak 
of the Mexican war, but they were not accepted. In 1848, 
the Battery had won a reputation throughout the State, in 
Light Horse evolutions. Its drill called together many 
celebrated tacticians. It became known as the "Incom- 
parable" and was called "Bragg's Battery," in honor of the 
hero of Buena Vista. 

19 The central portion of the Academy was built in 
1868 ; the west wing, in 1872 ; the Chapel, in 1879. The 
school has about 130 pupils. 

20 Another military organization in Flushing was the 
Hamilton Rifles, organized 1849. They made up Company 
A, in the 15th Regiment, N. Y. S. M. The 15th Regiment 
was made up of Queens County men and was commanded by 
Col. Charles A. Hamilton. Mandemlle, p. 83. 



MODEEN FLUSHING 203 

At the outbreak of the war, the Battery was commanded 
by Capt. Thomas L. Robinson, and was attached to the 15th 
Regiment, N. Y. S. M. When the call came for troops, in 1861, 
the regiment failed to offer its services. A committee of 
Flushing's citizens, therefore, proposed to the officers of the 
Battery that, if the Battery would enlist, the committee would 
equip the soldiers with all things needed. Permission having 
been received from Washington, the officers began recruiting 
to fill the ranks ; and the Flushing Battery was ready to march 
to Washington, Dec. 2, 1861, with five commissioned officers 
and one hundred and fifty men. 21 This was th^ only company 
organized in the county. Other volunteers joined companies 
and regiments elsewhere. Flushing furnished in all about 
two hundred and fifty volunteers during the War. 

The Flushing Battery returned to the village, June 7, 
1864, and was received with great enthusiasm. The company 

21 The officers were : Capt. Thos. L. Robinson ; First 
Lieuts. Jacob Roemer and William Hamilton ; Second 
Lieuts. Henry J. Standish and William U. Rawolle. 
Captain Robinson was dismissed from service, March 4, 
1862 ; Lieutenant Roemer, was promoted Captain and com- 
manded the Battery (known as Battery L. ) throughout the 
war. He was commissioned Bvt. Maj. Deo. 2, 1864. Lieu- 
tenant Standish resigned, in 1862. The following officers 
also served in the Battery at different times during the war : 
First Lieuts. Moses E. Brush, Thomas Heasley ; Second 
Lieuts. William Cooper, J. Van Nostrand, Chas. R. Lin- 
coln, Alonzo Garretson, J. J. Johnson, William E. Balkie, 
George H. Durfee. Major Roemer' n Reminiscences. 



1864 



20i HISTOEY OF FLUSHING 

marched down Main street to the Flushing Hotel, where a 
bountiful feast had been prepared for oiEcers and men. On 
June 21st. , the company was mustered out of service. 22 

Flushing's first railroad ran through Winfield to Penny 

1869 Bridge, leaving Woodside to the north. From Penny 

Bridge the road followed Newtown Creek to Hunter's 

Point. Conrad Poppenhusen and associates laid out a road 



22 ' ' The reception, given to the Battery by the citizens of 
Flushing, was an overwhelming one, and, doubtless, there 
are many still living in the village who will remember that 
joyful day. I can yet see the crowds filling the street, and 
cheering at the top of their voices as the brave boys of the 
34th New York Battery entered the village. ... I know 
we marched down Main street to the hotel, where a splendid 
dinner was waiting for us, but how I reached the place I 
hardly know. Conducted by Mr. C. R. Lincoln, who took 
me by the arm, we marched through what seemed to me a 
sea of faces on either side, while the assembled multitude 
shouted, hurrahed, and showered us with flowers. We 
finally reached the hotel and were put in charge of my be- 
loved pastor, the Rev. Dr. J. Carpenter Smith. He led me 
to the head of the table in the dining room, and then, in 
behalf of the citizens of Flushing, bade=my command and my- 
self partake of what they had provided for Flushing's heroes. 

Near the close of the banquet, the following brief re- 
sume of the Battery's doings was given: 'This Battery has 
taken part in 57 different engagements, has marched 18,758 
miles, and thrown from its guns during this time over 56 
tons of iron. The whole number of enlisted men that have 
belonged to it during its four years' career is 271, of whom 
19 yielded up their lives in the service of their beloved 
country, and 47 have been discharged for disabilities in- 
curred in the field, through wounds or disease. ' ' ' 

Roertwr^i Meminitcences, pp. SOS et sq. 



MODERN FLUSHING 205 

from Hunter's Point through Woodside, and thence directly 
to Bridge street. Before this road was built, the Poppen- 
husens purchased the old road east of W infield. They then 
built the road from Hunter's Point through Woodside to 
Winfield, and also the College Point and Whitestone 
branch. This was in 1869. Later they completed their 
original line by running a road from Woodside directly to 
Bridge street. This road left Corona, Newtown, and Win- 
field some distance to the south. Thus the trains from 
Main street and the trains from Bridge street ran on two 
distant roads from Flushing to Woodside. This combina- 
tion of roads, now under the control of the Poppenhusens, 
was known as the Flushing and North Shore Railroad, 

In 1872 the Central Railroad of Long Island was 
built. This was commonly known as the Stewart road. It 
was run in harmony with North Shore road, branching off 
from that road just below Lawrence avenuH, and running 
through Garden City and Hempstead to Babylon. The Pop- 
penhusens were becoming a very influential element in rail- 
road interests on Long Island. They came into competition 
with the Long Island Railroad on the South Side. By way of 
retaliation, Oliver Charlick, President of the Long Island 
R. K. , built a road parallel to the North Shore road from 
Woodside to Flushing. This road was opened in 1873. The 



1872 



1873 



1870 



206 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

old station still stands on Jaggar avenue, just south of Brad- 
ford avenue. The Charlick road, or the White Line as it v?as 
called, put down the price of an excursion ticket to Long 
Island City to fifteen cents. The North Shore road was com- 
pelled to do the same thing in the following spring. Two 
years later, in April, 1875, Oliver Charlick lost the Presidency 
of the Long Island ft. R. The Poppenhusens had been buying 
stock in this road wherever they could find any for sale. In 
1876 they were found to be in full control ; Conrad Poppen- 
husen was elected President of the Long Island R. R. ; the 
fare on both the Charlick road and the North Shore road 
was advanced ; and on April 17th of the same year, all 
trains were discontinued on the Charlick road. The Cen 
tral, or Stewart road never paid, and was abandoned in 1878. 
The Woodside branch was abandoned about tne same time. 
This, in brief, is the history of Flushing's railroads. 

In 1870, the subject of supplying the village with a 
water system began to be agitated. Two years later, the 
Trustees were authorized to proceed with the work. The 
question of a site for the pumping-house and of the source 
of water supply caused much discussion. Douglass Pond, Kis- 
sena Lake, and Spring Lane were proposed. The Trustees 
were equally divided between Douglass Pond and Kissena 
Lake. The State Legislature was asked to change the number 



MODERN FLUSHING 207 

of Trustees from six to seven, that the question might be set- 
tled. This change was made, and Douglass Pond was selected. 

The system was completed and put into dperation, Dec. 1874 
3, 1874, The event was the occasion of a great celebration. 
Houses were decorated ; a procession marched through the 
streets ; a dinner was served at the Flushing Hotel ; and a 
public meeting, with speeches, was held in the Town Hall 
in the evening. The water in the pond did not prove to be 
satisfactory. Wells were dug which have since supplied the 
village with an abundance of pure water. In 1886, mains 
were laidtoWillets Point. The stand-pipe was erected in 1897. 

In 1883 the area of the village was considerably en- - „„„ 

iooo 
larged. The community had grown beyond the old limits. 

The boundary lines at that time established were those in 

force when the village became a part of New York City. 

An intelligent notion of the extent of the village will best 

be gained by stating where these boundary lines crossed 

the principal thoroughfares leading out of the village. On 

Whitestone avenue the village extended to the limits of 

Whitestone village, just beyond the residence of J. F. B. 

Mitchell; the union of Broadway and Sanford avenue 

marked the limits of the village toward the east; the line 

running south included the corner of the Flushing Cemetery 

near the entrance ; the southern line crossed Jamaica ave- 



1884 



208 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

nue at the bridge over the outlet of Kissena Lake ; the 
western line followed the creek. 

In the winter of this same year, 1883, the Art Class of 
Flushing was organized with seven members, for the pur- 
pose of aiding in the establishment of a hospital. 23 The 
by-laws of the Art Class limited the membership to twenty- 
five. This number was soon reached, and constituted the 
class for years. Sales of fine needle-work were held by the 
class, in New York and Flushing, just before Christmas and 
Easter. In this way the class earned, and paid to the trus- 
tees of the Hospital about S300 a year, for many years. 2* 
Early in the year following the organization of the Art 
Class, i. e. on February 4, 1884, the Flushing Hospital and 
Dispensary was incorporated. Soon after the incorpora- 
tion of the Hospital, on April 3rd, the trustees elected a 
Board of Lady Managers. 25 This board for three years did 

23 The original members of the Art Class were : Miss 
Marie Bramwell, President ; Mrs. Eugene T. Lynch, Secre- 
tary ; Mrs. R. S. Bowne, Mrs. John Gihon, Miss Constance 
V. Bramwell, Mrs. E. M. Travers, Mrs. E. F. Thompson. 

24 The class was disbanded in 1896, having contrib- 
uted to the Hospital about 14000. 

25 The first board was composed of Mrs. J. L. Hicks, 
Mrs. E. T. Lvnch, Mrs. R. S. Bowne, Mrs. Abram Bell, 
Mrs. W. B. Worrall, Mrs. A. K. P. Dennett, Miss F. Bur- 
dett. Mrs. Hicus was for years First Directress. Of the Lady 
Managers, Mrs. Hicks, Mrs. Bowne and Mrs. Lynch after- 
wards became Trustees of the Hospital, and served many 
years. 



MODERN FLUSHING 209 

the work of the Hospital. The managers visited the sick 
poor in their homes, supplied them with medical attend- 
ance, with medicines and nourishing food, and when neces- 
sary with the care of a nurse. Cases that could not be 
properly treated at home were sent to hospitals in New York 
and Brooklyn. During the winter of 1884-85, the Board of 
Lady Managers rented a house at No. 41 Congress avenue, 
and established there a temporary hospital. The work grad- 
ually widened, and the interest in it increased until 1887, 
when the Hospital at the corner of Forest and South Par- 
sons avenues was built. The ground was given by John 
Henderson, who also loaned the Trustees $3000 toward 
building the Hospital. When Mr. Henderson died, in 1890, 
he diTected that this debt be cancelled, but his estate was 
not able to pay all of his bequests, and his Executor has de- 
clined to release the Hospital. Soon after the erection of 
the Hospital, in February 1888, the Trustees elected as their 
successors members of the Board of Lady Managers. From 
that date until 1895 the Trustees of the Hospital were 
women. In the latter year men were again elected, includ- 
ing all the members of the medical board. Since then the 
hospital has been entirely under the care of male Trustees. 
In addition to the Art Class, the Hospital has had the 
assistance of the Green Twigs — a society of young ladies. 



210 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Besides helping the Hospital in other ways, this last- 
named organization has given the Hospital an ambu- 
lance, surgical instruments and case, and furniture for 
certain rooms. 

The work of the Hospital has grown from year to year. 26 
The training-school for nurses was started in 1890; the 
Babies' Ward, the gift of Charles H. Senflf, was built in 
1893, at a cost of $4000. Since 1895, the Hospital has re- 
ceived an annual appropriation from the town. This source 
of revenue was lost when Flushing became a part of New 
York City. In 1897, Charles H. Senff gave the Hospital 
$10,000 for a new surgical ward, and F. Augustus Scher- 
merhorn gave $4000 for a new kitchen and laundry. In this 
same year a legacy of $500 was received from the estate of 
Anton Eoesingh, and one of $2500 from the estate of Han- 
nah Willets. 

The Flushing Hospital is the only "institution of its 
kind in Queens County outside of Long Island City. It has 
from the start received the cordial support of the physicians 
of the town, and has thus been enabled to do a good and 



26 In 1894, the Hospital treated 257 indoor patients at 
an expense of $7800 ; in 1895, 242 patients, expense $8700 ; 
in 1896, 273 patients, expense $11,000; in 1897, 393 patients, 
expense $12,555. The property of the Hospital, in 1897, was 
estimated to be worth $25,000. 



MODERN FLUSHING 211 

much needed work. It is an ingtitution of which Flushing 
may wel) be proud. 

To attempt to give a detailed account of all of Flush- 
ing's institutions would carry us beyond the scope of the 
present work. ^7 We must content ourselves, therefore, with a 
brief survey of the village as it is to-day, and so bring our 



27. The Athletic Club has a gymnasium on Jaggar 
Avenue, and Golf Links on Whitestone avenue. The Nian- 
tic Club House stands at the corner of Sanford and Parsons 
avenues. The Young Men's Christian Association, organ- 
ized in 1895, occupies a house in Locust street. The Good 
Citizenship League, a woman's club, was organized and in- 
corporated in 1891. The United Workers, organized in 
1893, is a society for the improvement of the condition of 
the poor. Connected with this organization are the Wom- 
an's Exchange and the Day Nursery. The United Workers 
was the outgrowth of the work of the Good Citizenship 
League. The Business Men's Protective Association began 
its work in 1893. Its object is to cooperate in the collec- 
tion of bills and in determining the financial standing of 
customers. The Association has shown its public spirit in 
encouraging public improvements. The officers are : George 
Pople, President ; John J. Trapp, Secretary and Attorney; 
D. H. Van De Water, Treasurer. 

In addition to the older schools of Flushing, whose 
history we have followed, should be mentioned the Flushing 
Seminary and Kyle's Military Institute. The former is a 
school for girls. Hans Schuler, B. D. , Ph. D. , is the Prin- 
cipal. Dr. Schuler purchased the school kept by Mrs. Mas- 
ters, in 1888, and organized the Flushing Seminary. Mrs. 
Masters' predecessor was Miss S. O. Hofifman, who estab- 
lished the school in 1874. Miss Hoflfman's school was at 
first for day scholars only. In 1876 a limited number of 
boarders were received. Kyle's Military Institute, a board- 
ing school for boys, Paul Kyle, Principal, was first estab- 
lished in College Point. It came to Flushing in 1892, and 



212 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

history to a close. The Village of Flushing has always 
been a place of residence. Those institutions have been 
fostered that would render the village attractive to persons 
seeking homes ; manufacture has not been encouraged. 28 
The village streets are macadamized, well-shaded with fine 
trees of many varieties, lighted by gas and electricity, and 
swept and sprinkled at public expense. =9 The side- walks 
are paved with stone flagging. A complete system of sewers 
extends throughout the village. The steam and electric 
cars make frequent trips between Flushing and the city. 
These conveniences and improvements have made Flushing 



located in its present building at the corner of State and 
Farrington streets. 

Flushing has two banks — the Flushing Bank and the 
Queens County Savings Bank. 

In addition to the Churches referred to in the foregoing 
pages, Flushing has a German Lutheran Church, incorpo- 
rated in 1893, the Rev. Dr. R. Mekler, Pastor ; and a Baptist 
Church for colored people — the Ebenezer Baptist Church. 
The Church building of the Lutheran societj was built in 1894. 

The 17th Separate Company of the N. Y. S. M. was or- 
ganized in 1876. The Armory, located in Amity street, be- 
tween Main and Union streets, was built in 1894. 

28. The principal manufacturing establishments in 
Flushing are — the machine shops of J. L. Bogert, the Sash 
and Blind Works of C. W. Copp, the De Bevoise Waist Co., 
Heinrich Franck Sohne & Co. Coffee Addition Works, the 
Harway Dye-wood Co., B. & W. B. Smith's Glass Works. 

29. This at least was the condition of Flushing in the 
year 1897. 



MODERN FLUSHING 213 

an attractive home for business and professional men of 
New York. Here they find pleasant homes amid rural sur- 
roundings, within easy reach of their plaCBS of business. A 
number of artists have been attracted to "Flushing by its 
quiet beauty. The annual exhibition of their work is one 
of the pleasant events in the village life. 

It is interesting to note how many of the improvements 
and conveniences that are to-day enjoyed by the inhabitants 
of Flushing were unknown ten years ago. In this respect, 
however, our village is not different from many other com- 
munities, so rapid has been the development of those things 
which add to the comforts of life. 

Among the older institutions of Flushing that have not 
been already described, are the Fire Department, the Gas 
Works, and the Public Library. The earliest legislation on 
the subject of our Fire Department was a law, passed March 
24, 1809, entitled: "An Act for extinguishing fires in the 
Village of Flushing, in Queens County." This law created 
a Board of Trustees, to consist of not less than three or more 
than five members, who were to constitute "The Fire Com- 
pany of the Village of Flushing. ' ' These Trustees were to 
be elected annually, by "certain persons . . . who have 
associated for the purpose of purchasing a fire-engine, and 
such other inhabitants as may be proprietors of the said 



214 HISTORY OP FLUSHING 

engine, when purchased for the use of the said village. ' ' 
The Trustees were authorized "to appoint a sufficient num- 
ber of firemen (willing to accept) not exceeding eighteen, to 
have the care, management, working, and using the said 
flre-engine. " The first Captain of the Fire Company seems 
to have been a man named Stansbury. He was succeeded 
by Treadwell Sands, who served twenty years. The engine- 
house stood on Main street, where Van Siclen and Towns- 
end's green grocery now stands. Before the purchase of the 
fire-engine, the only means of fighting a fire was by pouring 
on water from buckets which were passed along a line of 
men extending from the nearest pump to the fire. The pres- 
ent Fire Department was organized in 1854.30 Public 
cisterns, located in different parts of the village, supplied 
the water. When the present water system was established, 
in 1874, fire-engines gave place to hose-carriages, and the 
cisterns were filled up or covered over, ^i 

The Gas Company was incorporated Oct. 16, 1855, with 
a capital of $20,000, and the exclusive right of supplying 

30. Mandeville, p. 80. 

31. Officers of the Fire Department, 1897 : James H. 
MoCormick, Chief Engineer ; John Carrahar, First Assist- 
ant ; George Townsend, Second Assistant ; Geo. W. Worth, 
Treasurer. Names of the various companies : Empire Hose 
Co. No. 1, Rescue Hook and Ladder Co., Young America 
Hose Co. , No. 2 ; Mutual Engine Co. , No. 1 ; Flushing Hose 
Co., No. 3; Murray Hill Hose Co., No. 4. 



MODEKN FLUSHING 215 

gas to the village for twenty years. Gas was turned on in 
January, of the following year. Five years later the Com- 
pany reported two and a half miles of pipe, one hundred 
metres, eighteen street lamps, and a monthly consumption 
of 100,000 cubic feet of gas. In 1868, new works were built 
with a greater capacity. 3^ 

The Flushing Library Association owes its origin to 
Edw. L. Murray, L. Bradford Prince, 33 Joseph K. Murray, 
F. A. Potts, and other public spirited men. It was organized 
in 1858, and incorporated in the following year. The first 
oflacers of the Library were : E. A. Fairchild, President ; 
L. B. Prince, Secretary; J. Milnor Peck, Treasurer. 

The library was at first open only to members of the 
Association, who paid an annual fee of one dollar. In 1884 
it became a free library. To-day it has 7,000 books, and an 
annual circulation of 19,608. The library, when first organ- 
ized, was located in a room at the northeast corner of 
Bridge and Prince streets ; then it was moved to a room over 

32. MandeviUe, p. 79. History of Queens County, p. 109. 
The first officers of the Gas Company were ; Jamea K. 
Lowerre, President ; Gilbert Hicks, Treasurer ; Charles A. 
Willets, Secretary. 

33. L. Bradford Prince was born in Flushing, in 1840. 
He was elected a member of the Assembly five years in suc- 
cession, 1870-1875 ; a member of the Senate in 1875 ; ap- 
pointed naval oflSoer of New York, 1878 ; Chief Justice of 
Mexico, 1879 ; Governor of New Mexico, 1889. 



216 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

the drug store at 51 Main street ; then to the southwest 
room in the Town Hall. Later we find it in the Savings 
Bank building, in a building on the north side of Amity 
street, east of Main street, and in the store room at 129 
Main street. In 1891, the present building was purchased 
from the Baptist Church. 3* 

But the past ten years have brought to the village a 
greater number of improvements than any previous period 
of five times the length, ss Ten years ago the streets vrere not 
macadamized. They were not sprinkled, except in certain 
localities where individuals, by private subscription, sought 
to protect themselves from dust. There was no means of 
protection against the discomforts of mud; The streets were 
poorly lighted by an insufficient number of gas lamps. There 

34. The present officers of the Library are : President, 
William Elliman ; Secretary, Walter L. Bogert. 

35. The names of the Trustees who have served within 
this period should be recorded. They are : E. V. W. Ros- 
siter, James T. Chapman, James A. Renwick, John H. 
Wilson, Nicholas Mehlen, Samuel Berrien, Francis F. Kee- 
ler, M. J. Quirk, Patrick R. Brogan, Ernest Mitchell, Fred- 
erick P. Morris, John D. Hashagen, John Hepburn, James 
F. Connor, James A. Macdonald, John W. Crawford. E. V. 
W. Rossiter was President of the Village for six years. He 
declined the nomination for re-election, in December, 1894. 
Henry Clement served as Treasurer of the Village for 
twenty-five years. He resigned in January, 1891. Mr. 
Clement died Sep. 8, 1895. Clinton B. Smith was Clerk of the 
Board of Trustees from 1889 to 1898. Edward E. Sprague 
was for many years Corporation Counsel. 



MODERN FLUSHING 217 

were no electric lights ; there were no electric fire signals. 36 
Cows were allowed to run at large. When the Village Trus- 
tees passed an ordinance, in 1890, forbidding cattle to run 
loose on the streets, the measure met with no little opposi- 
tion. A liberty-loving correspondent of the Evening Journal 
asked i ' ' Whether the craze for the removal of fences is to 
be indulged in at the expense of our personal liberty?" 
The ordinance was enforced, the President of the Village 
personally assisting in its enforcement. The result has been 
that fences, being no longer necessary, have been gradually 
removed, to the great improvement of the appearance of the 
streets. "Within the past ten years, the free delivery of the 
mail has been established, two electric roads have been 
built, 37 the steam road has completed the change from a 

36. The electric fire signals were established in 1893 ; 
the electric street lights in 1896. 

37. The Flushing and College Point Electric Road was 
incorporated in 1887 ; the track was laid in 1888 ; the first 
car was run on Thanksgiving day, 1889. The motive power 
was a storage battery. This system was found to be im- 
practicable. In 1890 the Trustees gave consent to use over- 
head wires. Early in 1891 cars began to make regular trips. 
In 1894 the road passed into the hands -of a Receiver. In 
1895 the electric road from Long Island City was built to 
Flushing. The company operating this road purchased the 
Flushing and College Point road. The system is now known 
as the New York and Queens Co. Railroad. In 1896 the 
Brooklyn Heights Electric Railroad was built to Flushing. 
The first through cars were run on October 24th, of that 
year. 



218 HISTOEY OF FLUSHING 

single to a double track. Ten years ago Murray Hill, now 
covered with block after block of pleasant homes, was a nur- 
sery ; Ingleside and Bowne Park were farms. 

The greatest advantage that Flushing has enjoyed over 
many other localities, an advantage that has made these 
many improvements possible, has been an honest govern- 
ment. Party politics have not entered into the election of 
Village Trustees. Voters have never been notified of the 
party affiliations of candidates. Very few, if any, of the 
Trustees have sought office from other motives than a desire 
to serve the public interests. In their efforts to improve 
the village and to protect it from threatened evils, the Trus- 
tees have been ably supported and assisted by the Flushing 
Village Association. 88 

The subject of better streets began to be agitated in 
1890 1890. The Village Association at once took up the subject, 
and secured the consent of a sufficient number of tax-payers 
to empower the Trustees to issue bonds to pay for the con- 
templated improvement. From that time, the work went 
steadily on until the close of the year 1897, when, with few 
exceptions, all of the streets were macadamized and in per- 
fect order. 



38. The Flushing Village Association was organized 
in 1886. 



MODERN FLUSHING 219 

In 1894 a great danger threatened the community. The 
Flushing Jockey Club, organized and backed by a number 
of pool-room men of New York, leased the Flushing race- 
track, and inaugurated a season of races. The great evil of 
this institution was, that it was established to "make for- 
eign books, "i.e. the races run on the Flushing track were 
of secondary importance, and were simply an excuse for 
opening booths where bets were placed on races all over the 
country. This brought to Flushing a great crowd of disrep- 
utable characters, and threatened to destroy the peace and 
quiet, and to corrupt the morals of the community. The 
Trustees passed an ordinance making the practice unlawful. 
The Village Association called a mass meeting to protest 
against the evil. The Association appointed a committee 
to co-operate with the Trustees, and authorized the com- 
mittee to draw upon the treasurer of the Association for 
any money in his possession that might be needed to carry 
out its work. Certain "boon-makers" were arrested on 
warrants sworn out by John D. Hashagen and Ernest 
Mitchell, Village Trustees. The defendants were brought 
before County Judge Garretson, and convicted of violating 
the Ives law, the very law under which they claimed pro- 
tection. An application was made to Supreme Judge 
Bartlett for a stay of proceedings, on a writ of certiorari. 



1894 



1896 



220 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

This was denied, and the fines were paid. Being thus 
deprived of the privilege of making books on foreign tracks, 
the Jockey Club began to lose money. After its one season, 
it did not return to Flushing. 

The Village Association did not content itself with 
merely opposing the Flushing Jockey Club. The State 
Constitutional Convention was in session at Albany during 
that summer. A committee of the Village Association con- 
sisting of Joseph K. Murray, Foster Crowell, James T. 
Franklin, L. M. Franklin, G. Webster Peck, sent a petition 
to the convention begging that the article of the Constitu- 
tion which prohibited lotteries might be so amended as to 
include a prohibition of pool-selling and all forms of gam- 
bling. The amendment was adopted by the Constitutional 
Convention, and ratified later by popular vote. 

At the November election, 1894, the question whether 
Flushing should be consolidated with New York CJity, was 
submitted to the people. Flushing voted against the prop- 
osition — 1,407 to 1,144. In spite of this vote, the work 
preparatory to the extension of the limits of New York City, 
so as to include the town of Flushing, went steadily on. 
Flushing opposed this measure at every stage of its progress. 
While the bill was before the Senate's Committee on Cities, 
March, 1896, a delegation from the Village Association con- 



MODERN FLUSHING 221 

sisting of John W. Weed, Foster Crowell, Albert S. Thayer, 
William Bunting, Jr., George W. Hillman, Jr., G. Webster 
Peck, appeared before the committee to protest against the 
proposed legislation. Mr. Weed was the spokesman for the 
committee. Later, a memorial, addressed to Governor Mor- 
ton and the State Legislature, and signed by more than 
seven hundred residents of Flushing and Jamaica, protest- 
ing against the measure, was forwarded to Albany. But the 
bill was passed, signed by the Governor, and sent to the 
Mayors of New York, Brooklyn and Long Island City. The 
Village Trustees and the Village Association appointed com- 
mittees to appear before the Mayors and show why the 
measure should be vetoed. 39 The Mayor of New York and 
the Mayor of Brooklyn vetoed the bill ; but it was re-passed 
by the Legislature, signed by the Governor, and became a 
law, in April. 

The Village Association did not, however, relax its 
efforts in behalf of Flushing. Consolidation was inevit- 
able ; the next question was to secure as fevorable provision 
for Flushing as possible. The work of framing a charter 



39. The committee from the Village Trustees was : 
James A. Macdonald, Ernest Mitchell, James A. Renwick, 
John Hepburn. Frederick Storm, Assemblyman, assisted 
the committees from Flushing, in various ways, during the 
flght against consolidation. 



1897 



222 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

for the enlarged city was placed in the hands of a commis- 
sion.*" The Village Association appointed a committee to 
look after the interests of Flushing, While this work was 
going on. The committee consisted of S'oster Crowell, Albert 
S. Thayer, John W. Weed, James A. Macdonald, and Wil- 
liam Bunting, Jr. The proposed charter was published in 
December, 1896. The Charter Commission offered to grant 
public audiences, for twelve days in January, on ques- 
tions connected with the charter. The Village Association's 
committee asked to be heard on the following subjects ; 
(1) "The basis of representation, and the method of choos- 
ing representatives in the municipal assembly, to be chosen 
from the more sparsely inhabited boroughs, especially 
Queens; (2) Provision for direct means of public inter-com- 
munication between portions of the city separated by 
water. ' ' The Commission granted a hearing on the first 
question, January 6th, and on the second question, three 
days later. John W. Weed spoke for the committee. The 
original draft of the charter gave the Borough of Queens 
two oouncilmen out of thirty- five, and three aldermen out 
of one hundred and one. These oouncilmen and aldermen 
were to be chosen from the Borough at large. The commit- 

40. Judge Harrison S. Moore, a resident of the Town 
of Flushing, (his home is at Little Neck) was a member of 
the Charter Commission. 



MODERN FLUSHING 223 

tee sought to secure for Queens a larger representation in 
the municipal assembly, and a provision that the representa- 
tives be chosen from sections of the Borough rather than 
from the Borough at large. As the result of the first hearing, 
the charter was amended so as to provide that there be one 
alderman for each assembly district ; and three councilmen, 
instead of four, for each Senatorial distirict except Rich- 
mond and Queens, which should each have two. The char- 
ter was further amended so as to provide that in Queens 
one councilman should be chosen from Long Island City 
and Newtown, and one from Flushing, Jamaica, and Hemp- 
stead. Thus the efforts of the Association Committee 
secured for the Borough of Queens a larger representation 
in the municipal assembly, and for the old towns of the 
county something approaching local representation. 

The committee appeared before the Commission, January 
9th, on the subject of inter-communication between differ- 
ent portions of the city, with the result of securing a 
change in the charter allowing the city to construct, 
own, maintain and operate a department of public docks 
and ferries. 

The Board of Education, represented before the Charter 
Commission by Joseph Fitch and John Holley Clark, also 
secured a change in the charter giving the Borough of 



224 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Queens two assistant superintendents, in addition to tlie 
one superintendent as originally provided. 

Though the Village Association had been able to effect 
several important changes in the city charter, still the docu- 
ment was far from being all that was desired. As a last 
effort, therefore, the Association's committee addressed a 
communication to Governor Black, in April, 1897, stating 
many objectionable features in the charter, and requesting 
him to veto it. The charter received the Governor's ap- 
proval, and on the first of January, 1898, the Town of 
Flushing became a part of New York City. 

The Village Association, in addition to the service 
above referred to, did much to defeat the scheme for con- 
necting Newtown Creek and Flushing Bay by a ship canal. 
An exhaustive report on the subject was submitted to the 
Secretary of War, who, in making an unfavorable report to 
Congress, used many of the arguments originally advanced 
by the Village Association. 
1895 While Flushing was beginning this struggle for exist- 

ence, the town passed the 250th anniversary of its settle- 
ment. 

It is to be regretted that the year was allowed to pass 
without due commemoration. The Society of Friends, how- 
ever, arranged and carried out in the same year, viz., on 



MODERN FLUSHING 225 

May 29, 1895, a celebration of the 200th anniversary of the 
building of their Meeting-house. For this enterprise they 
are to be commended, but if their own records are to be 
relied on, their gathering was one year too l&te to celebrate 
the 200th anniversary of the opening of their first Meeting- 
house, and at least twenty-two years too early to celebrate 
the bi-centennial of the present Meeting-house. However, on 
the day above named nearly two thousand Quakers 
and their friends assembled in Flushing, from New York, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio and Indiana. 
Old friends exchanged greetings, places of interest were 
visited, speeches were made. *i 

On the First Sunday in November, 1897, the Rev. J. 1897 
Carpenter Smith, S. T. D. , completed his fiftieth year aa 
Rector of St. George's Church. The anniversary was ap- 
propriately celebrated by his congregation; and the older 
residents of the village, of every creed, joined in presenting 
their congratulations. 

Within the limits of the Town of Flushing are also the 
villages of College Point, Whitestone, Bayside, Douglaston 

41. Programme of the public meeting : Historical 
Sketch, James Wood ; Position of Woman in the Society of 
Friends, paper by Marianna W. Chapman ; What the Soci- 
ety of Friends has Accomplished for the World, paper by 
Aaron M. Powell ; poem by Mary S. Kimber. 



226 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

and Little Neck. College Point, before it was taken into the 
city, was an incorporated village ; so was Whitestone. Col- 
lege Point is a manufacturing place ; its population is mainly 
German. It has a fine water front and many beautiful 
homes. The development of College Point's business 
interests was mainly due to the enterprise of Conrad Pop- 
penhusen, who settled there, in 1854, and erected a large 
factory for the manufacture of hard-rubber goods. The 
Poppenhusen family were instrumental in extending the rail- 
road to College Point. The village has good schools, 
churches of various denominations, a fine water system, and 
many social and charitable organizations. The first means 
of communication between Flushing and College Point, 
across the meadows, was a plank walk, built by Dr. 
Muhlenberg. The causeway was built in 1855. The trains 
of the Long Island Railroad and the electric cars now 
furnish frequent communication between Flushing and 
College Point, 

Further east on the North Shore is Whitestone. It has 
a fine water-front, many pleasant homes, good schools and 
churches. 

Still further east is Willets Point, a Government Post. 
This point of land, at the narrows which are generally 
regarded as the dividing line been the East river and Long 



MODERN FLUSHING 227 

Island Sound, was fomerly a part of the Willets farm. In 
1861, it was purchased by the United Stktes, and fortified 
as a military post. It later became the headquarters of the 
Engineer corps of the army. 

Beyond Willets Point is Little Neck Bay, in early times 
known as Matthew Garretson's Bay. On the western side of 
the Bay is situated the Tillage of Bayside, with its many 
large and comfortable country places ; on the other side 
are the villages of Douglaston and Little Neck. 

On the first of January, 1898, the town of Flushing, with 
all its villages, became a part of New York City. 
THE END. 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX. 



THE CHARTER, OCTOBER lo, 1645.1 

Know all men, whom these presents may any wayes con- 
cerne, That We WiUiam Sieft, Eaqr. Gtovernr Genii of the 
Province called JV^cw Netherlands, w'li ye Counoill of State 
there established, w'li ye Virtue of a Commission under the 
hand and Seale of the High and Mighty-Lords, the Estates 
Genii of the United Belgick Prminces, His Highness, Frederick 
Hendrick, Prince of Orange, and the Right Honoi>le Lords, 
the Lords Bewint Hebbers, of the West India Company, 
Have given and graunted, And by virtue of these p'nta, do 
give, graunt and confirm unto Thomas ffarington, John Towns- 
end, Thomas Stiles, Thomas SauU, John Marston, Robert ffidd, 
ThortMs Applegate, Thomas Beddard, Laurence Dutch, John Lau- 
rence, WiUiam Laurence, William Thome, Senry Bautell, William, 
Pigeon, Micheall Milliard, Bobert ffirman, John Hicks, Edward 
Han't, their heires, Excors Adrnt's Assignes, Successors or 
Associates, or any they shall joyne in Associacon with 
them, a certaine quantity or parcell of Land, with all the 
Havens, Harbors Rivers, Creekes, Woodland, Marshes, 
there unto belonging, and being upon the Northside of Long 
Island, to begin at y« westward part thereof, at the Mouth 
of a Oreeke upon the East River, now commonly called and 
knowne by the name of fflushing Oreeke, and so to run East- 
ward, as farr as Mathem Oarretsons Bay ; Together w'li a Neck 

1 Laws and Ordinances of New Netfierland. New York Deed 
Book, n, 178. 



232 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

of Land commonly called Tues Neck, being bounded on the 
Westward part thereof, with the Land graunted to Mr. 
Francis Doughty and Astoaiatea, and to the Eastward part 
thereof, with the Land graunted to ye Plantacon and Towne 
of Sempsteed, and so to rune in two direct lines, unto the 
South of ye Island, that there may be the same Latitude in 
breadth, on the South side, as on the Northside, for them 
and their Patentees, Actually, really, aiid perpetually to 
'enjoy, and Possesse, as their owne free Land of Inheritance, 
for them and the said Patentees, their Associates, heires. 
Successors and Assignes to Improve and Manure at their 
own best advantage according to their discretion. Always 
Provided ye said Patentees or Associates, shall settle such 
a competent Number of ffamilyes, w'^in the space of two 
yeare, after the date hereof, as the Governor Gen'l of this 
Province, for the time being, or any hee shall appoint, shall 
think convenient, may be accommodated, within the said 
Limitts ; 

Alwayes Provided the first Settlers, to be sufficiently 
accommodated, excepting for and to the use of the above 
said Right HonoWe the Lords Bewint Hebbers, a certain 
Parcell of Land, within the Towne of ffliishing, for their own 
use; 

flurther giving and graunting. And by virtue of these 
pr sents. We do give and Graunt, unto the said Patentees, 
their Associates, Heires, Executors Admtoi"s Successors and 
Assignes, upon the said Land to build a Towne, or Townes, 
w'li such necessary 'ffortifications, as to them shall seeme 
Expedient; and to have and Enjoy the Liberty of Con- 
science, according to the Custome and manner of Holland, 
without molestacon or distvtrbance, from any Magistrate or 
Magistrates, or any other Ecclesiasticall Minister, that may 
extend Jurisdiccon over them, with Power likewise, for 



APPENDIX I 233 

them the said Patentees, their Associates and Successors to 
Nominate, Elect, and Choose, a certain Officer over them, 
who may bears the name or Title, of Scout or Constable, 
Wee do hereby give graunt and Confirme, as large and ample 
Power and Authority, as, 'is usually given to the Scout of 
any Village in Holland, or Constable in England, for the 
apprehencon of any Malefactor, or any that shall go about 
to diaturbe the Publique Peace and tranquility of the said 
Towne of fflushing. And him or them to bring before the 
Governor Genii of this Province, for the time being, and 
there to make Proces ag^' such delinquents ; 

flfurther giving and graunting, And by virtue of these 
P' nts, we do give and graunt unto the said Patentees, their 
Associates and Successors to have and enjoy the free Liberty 
of Hawking, Hunting, fflshing, ffowling within their 
abovesd Limitts, And to use and Exercise all manner of 
Trade and Commerce, according as ye Inhabit'^ of this 
Province may or can by virtue of any Priviledge or Graunt 
made unto them, indueing all and singular the said Paten- 
tees, their Associates and Successors wth all and singular 
the immunityes of the Province, as if they were Natives of 
the United Belgiek Provinces ; 

Alwayea Provided, the said Patentees, their Associates 
and Successors shall reverendly respect the above named 
High and Mighty Lords for their superior Lords and Pat- 
rons, so long as they shall continue within the Jurisdiction of 
this Province, and at ye expiracon of ten yeares to begin 
from the day of the date hereof, to pay or cause to bee paid 
to an Officer, thereunto deputed by the GovernC Genii of 
this Province, for the time being, the tenth part of the 
Revenue, that shall arise by the Ground manured, by 
Plough or Howe, in case it be demanded, to be paid to 
ye sd Officer, in the ffield, before it bee Housed, Gardens, 



234 HISTOEY OF FLUSHING 

or Orchards, not exceeding one Holland Acre, being ex- 
cepted; And in case any of ye sd Patentees, their Asso- 
ciates, Heires, Executes Admtors Successors and Assignea 
shall onely improve their Stocks, in Grassing or Breeding of 
Cattle, Then the Party so doing, shall at the expiracon of 
the ten yeares aforesaid. Pay or cause to be paid, such 
reasonable Satisfaction in Butter or Cheese, as other Townes 
shall do in like Cases ; 

Likewise enjoyning the said Patentees, their Associates, 
Successors and so forth, in the dating of all Publick In- 
strumta to upe the New Stile, together with the Weights 
and Measures of this place. 

In Witnesse whereof, we have here unto sett our hand 
and Seale of this Province, dated this tenth day of October, 
1645, stilo novo, in the Jfovt AmaUrdam. 

Memorandum, before the Ensealing hereof. It was 
Agreed, and Ordered by the Governor ^ the Land should 
rune North and South, but as farr as the Hills. 

Willem Kieft 

Ter Ordinnantie, &C. 
Cornelius Van Tienhoven, SeereU. 



II 

SIGNERS OF THE "REMONSTRANCE 

OF THE Inhabitants of Flushing. L. I. , Against the Law 
Against Quakers. "2 

[Dec. 27, 1657.] 

Edward Heart Olericus. 
Tobias Feake 

The Marke of William Noble 
William Thome, seignior 
The marke of William Thome Junior 
Edward Tarne(?) 
John Storer 
Nathaniel HefEerd 
Beniamin Hubbard 
The marke of William Figion 
The marke of George Clere 
Elias Doughtie 
Antonie Feild 
Richard Stocton 
Edward Griffine 
Nathaniell Tue 
Nicholas Blackford 
The marke of Micah Tue 
The marke of Philipp Ud 
Edward ffarington 
Robert ffield, senior 
Robert field, junior 
Nick Colas Parsell 
Michael Milner 
Henry Townsend 

2 Historical Documents XIV, 403. 



236 HISTORY OP FLUSHING 

George Wright 
John Foard 
Henry Samtell 
Edward Heart 
John Mastine 
John Townsend 



Ill 

AN EXACT LIST 
OF ALL Ye Inhabitants Namks Wti^iN Ye Towne off 

FFLUSHING AND P'ciNCTS OF OlD AND YoUNG FFREE- 
MEN AND SeRUANTS WhITE & BlACKE &C, I 698. 3 

Coll : The Willett and Mtrs 
Alena his wife 
Elbert 1 
Cornelius 



9-^ 



Abraham { ^"""^^ 



John 
ilLTbeth (Daughters 

John Clement : Servt 

Negros flrancis | 

Jeffrey Hary Jack )-7 

and Dick Mary ) 

Justice Tho: Hukes and 

Mrs Mary his wife 
9 -j Isaac : Benjamin — Charles I a„„„„ 

Wm Stephen Charely f fones 

Mary ; daught 

Negros: Will Cuflee Ig 

Sherry ffreegeft and Jane ) 

Majr. Wm Lawrense 

and Deborah his wife 

William Richard 

Obadiah Darnell 
11 Samuel John 

Adam Debo : Sarah 

Negros James Tom I „ 

Lew Bess 2 child ) 



3 Documentary History of New York, I, 43S. 



238 HISTORY OP FLUSHING 

Richard Cornell 

and Sarah his wife 

Sone Richard 
( Sarah ) 
6 i Elizabeth V Daug 
( and Mary ) 

Negros Tom ) 

Lewi Toby V6 

Sarah and Dina ) 
' John Esmond and 

Elizab : his wife 

John and Mary 

Wm Jewell serut 
' Samll : Thome and 

Susana his wife 

Benjamin ) 
8 -! Samuel and > Sone 

Nathan ) 

Jane Kesia I -j-j . 

and Deborah j 

Negros Coffe ) 

Dina Kate >-5 

Charles Tony ) 

James Clement 

and Sarah his wife 

Thomas 

Jacob 
12 Joseph and two [ Sones 

Samll and 

Nathan 

Mary ] 

Hannah tx 

Margarett f ^*"S 

Bridgett J 

Negros Toby 

Dutch Inhcbbita/KU 



Cornelius Barn ion 
and Anna his wife 
Johannis sone 



APPENDIX III 239 



Alke Anna 



Elizabetli and [ Da : 
Arante ) 

Negros Antony ] 
Jack Corose >-6 
Mary Isabella ) 
Martin Wiltsee and 
Maria his wife 

6 Cornelius Hendriok 
Johannis and Margarett 
Elbert Arinson and 
Cataline hia wife 

5 Rem and Elbert sones 
Anneke — negro Dick'r 
Garratt Hanson and 
J anneke his wife 
Hance Rem Jan ) „ 

10 Peter Danll Jores ( ° 
Janake Cattaline Dau 
Negro Jeffrey 1 
Lorus Haff 
Canuerte his wife 
Jewrin Peter I Sones 

11 Johannis and Jacob j 
Stinchee Maria J 
Tuntee Margaretta > Dau 
Sauta ) 
Edec : Van Skyagg and 
Ebell his wife 

7 Cornelius ffrancis 
and Arian 
Elizabeth Rebecca 
Poulas Amarman 

3 and Abiena his wife 
Abena : Daughter 
Bam Bloome and 

4 ffammily his wife 
Garratt, Johannis 
Eliz Bloodgood 

5 Wm and Elizabeth 
one negro Will 



240 HISTOEY OP FLUSHING 

Dirick Poules 

and Sarah his wife 
8 Peter Thynis 

Rich'd: Wm Jon 

Charles Sarah 

one negro Tom 
2 John Bloodgood 

and Mary his wife 
2 Powell Hoff and 

Bachell his wife 

2 John Jores and 
Maria his wife 
Deriok Brewer and 

3 his wife Hannah 
1 child 

French Inhabits 

John : Genung 
3 and Margreta his wife : 

John : sone 

negros 2 

ffrancis Burto and 

Mary his wife 
5 John ffrancis 

Abigal : Daug 

Sarah Doughty 

'^aTfSones 

Sarah Seruant 
Negros : Okee and Mary 
2 Mary Perkins 
Abigale Daug 
Bess : Robin Maria I o 
Hanes S 

2 Ann Noble 
Abigale Serut 
Negros : Jack Jan 2 

3 Mary Bowne 
Annis Ruth ; Daugh 
Negros : James and I « 
Nell f ^ 



APPENDIX III 241 



Arther powell and 
4 Margrett his wife 

Richard Arther sonea 

John Hinchman 

and Sarah his wife 
7 John James 

Mercy Mary and 

Sarah 

Negroo Hetchtor 1 

Richard Chew and 

ffrances his wife 

7 Rioh'd Henry Tho 
Hannah Charely 
Mary Elizabeth 
Thomas Runley and 

4 Mary his wife 
Thomas sone 
Hannah 

flranoia Doughty 
and Mary his wife 

8 Elias palmer 
ffrancis Obadiah 
Sarah Charely Mary 
Negros Vaster Rose 2 
John Talman and 
Mary his wife 

7 John James peter 
Mary Elizabeth 

Charles Tom 
Sarah 2 oh 5 
John Thorne Senr and 

5 Mary his wife 
Hannah and Sarah Wm 
Negros Alex wo : 2 
■William ffowler Carp 
and Mary his wife 

8 William John 
Joseph Benj 
Mary Rebeca 
Negro Jack 1 
John Thorne Jun'r 



242 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

6 Katherin his wife 
John Mary 
Eliz : Deborah 
Henry Taylor and 

5 Mary Sarah his wife 
Sarah phebe 
Negro Tonny 1 
Edward Greffln ju 

4 Deborah his wife 

Edward Mary 
2 William Owen and 

Mary his wife 
2 Hugh Cowperthawt 

Mary Southick 

Negro Anthony — 1 

2 Henry flranklin 
and Sarah his wife 

1 negro 

3 Patience Cornelius 
Elias: Mary— 
Tho : ffarrington 
and Abigale his wife 
Thomas Kobert 
Benjamin — 

8 Elizab : Bridgett 
Abigale 

Negros — Mingo In 
Winnee ( 

Harman Kinge 

6 and Mary his wife 
John Joseph 
Benj. Ifranois 

Toby 1 

William ffowler wea 
3 and Judith his wife 

William sone 

Thomas Willett 
3 and Sarah his wife 

Sarah — Daughter 

Negro Lay — 1 

Thomas Hinchman 



APPENDIX III 243 



i and Meriam his wife 

Thomas and Sarah — 
2 George Langley and 

Rebeca his wife 

Mary and Sampson — 2 

Matt flarington 
5 and Hannah his wife 

Matthew Sarah and 

Edward 

John Man ton 

ffrances John 

5 Cornelius 
Deborah Ebell— 
Thomas Yeates 
and Mary his wife 

6 Mary ye mother 
Wm Benj Jane 
Elias Doughty 
Elizabeth his wife 

5 Elias Eliz : Thomas 
Negro : Jack — 1 
Charles Doughty 

and Elizabeth his wife 

6 John Charles — 
Sarah Elizabeth 

1 negro black boy 1 
John Harrington 
and Elzbth his wife 
John Edward Matthew 
13 Thomas Sam'll Robert 
Mercy Margrett 
Dorythy Anna — 
Elizabeth 
Sam'll Bowne 
and Mary his wife 

6 Samll Thomas 
Ellmer Hannah 
Negros Simon 
Nany mingo 3 
Joseph palmer 

6 and Sarah his wife 



244 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Dani'll Esther 

Kic'h pricilla 

Tho : Hedger and 

Elizabeth, his wife 

Eliakim Thomas 
11 Mary Hannah — 

Jane Sarah Deborah 

Elizabeth 

Joseph Thome and 

Mary his wife — 

Joseph William 
11 Thomas John- 
Benjamin Abraham 

Hannah Mary Susan 

1 Negro Tom : — 1 
Sam'll Haight and 
Sarah his wife — 

10 Nicholas Jonathan 

David John Sarah Mary 
Hannah phebe — 
and 1 negro 1 
Thomas fford and 
3 Sarah his wife — 
Thomas Child 

2 Esther fford 
William 

Negro Anthony — 1 
John Embree and 

6 Sarah his wife 
Robert John Samll 
Sarah 
Hatham'U Roe and 

3 Elizab'th his wife 
David 

Charles Morgan 

and Elizabeth his wife 

7 Charles James Thomas 
Sarah Ephraim Sophy 
Negros : peter James 
John Cornelius and 
Mary his wife — 



APPENDIX III 245 



10 John Dani'll Sam'll 
Joseph. Deborah 
Mary phebe Sarah 
Negro : Zambo : 1 
Jona Wright Senr 
and Sarah his wife 

9 Sam'll Richard Charles 
Job : Mary Hannah 

John 
Henry Wright and 

4 Mary his wife 
Hannah Sarah 
Jona : Wright Ju 

4 and Wine his wife 
Jonathan Elizabeth 
Dauid Wright and 

4 Hannah his wife 
Dauid phebe 
Joseph Lawrense 
and Mary his wife 

4 Richard Thomas 

1 Negro Jack — 1 

2 John Hopper Peintr 
and Christopher 

2 John Hopper Jun 

and Margarett his wife 
John Harrison 
and Elizabeth his wife 
7 William Edward 
Henry Eliz Ann 
Negros Hechtor ) q 
Kate r 

Margery Smith 

3 Judeth Hannah 
Samuel Tatem and 
Elizabeth his wife 

6 Sam'll Eliza patience 
Mary negro — 1 
Benj Havileind and 

5 Abigaile his wife 
Adam Benj John 



246 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Abigale Bethia 
William Benger and 

5 his wife Elizabeth. 
John Jacob Eliz 
John Jeauiland and 

3 Sarah his wife 
John 

Thomas Wildee 
and Elizabeth his wife 

8 Edward Rioh'd 
Tho Obadiah 
Isaaih Eliz'bth 
Edward Greffein Se 

3 and Mary hib wife 
Deborah 
Negro ; Jack : — 1 
John Rodman 
and Mary his wife 

9 John Samuell — 
Joseph William 
Thomas An Eiliz : 
Negros — 11 

John Lawrence and 
his wife Elizab'th 
7 William Richard 
Eliz : Mary Deborah 
Negros James Rose 
Bess Robin Moll — 5 
Benj ffeild and 
Hannah his wife 

6 Benj John Antho 
Sam'll 

Negros Jo : Betty — 2 

John Greffin and 

Elizabeth his wife 
5 John Benj Isaac 

Joseph Elizab'th 

Rich'd Greffin and 
5 Susan his wife 

Sam'll Sarah Rich'd 

Dauid Roe Mary 



APPENDIX III 2i7 



his wife 

Mary : Negro Sam 1 
Rebecca Clery 
Athelena Rebecca 
phebe Negro : 1 
Philip Odall and 
his wife Mary 
Philip Mary 
John Elizab'th 
Deborah 
Joseph Hedger 
and Hannah his 
wife — Joseph 
Margrett 
Uriah Sarah 
Hannah 

Antnody Badgley 
Elizab'th his wife 
Anthony George — 
phebe : 1 Negro 1 
Dan '11 Patrick and 
Dinah his wife 
Sarah James fifeke 
One Negro 1 
John Ryder and his 
wife, John Robert 
Hettie Wintie 

One negro 1 
Dennis Holdrone 
Sarah his wife 
Josiah Genning 
and Martha his wife 
one child 
Edee Wilday 
Rebecca and Mary 

ffreemen — men 
Tho : Lawrense 
James Clement Ju'r 
John Clement 
John Huker 
Jacob Cornell 



248 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Thomas fleild 

Joseph ffeild 

Derick Areson 

John Areson 

John Yeates 

John Man 

James ffeke 

Robert Snelhen 

Tho: Steuens 

John Dewildoe 

Abraham Rich 

Robert Hinchman 

Inhabitants 530 

Negros 113 
According to ye best of our Knowledges 

Jonathan Wright 
James Clement 
[Endorsed. ] a trew Lest as it is returned to us by the above 
constable and Clerk the Last of augost 1698. 

Tho. Hicks 
Danl'l White 
Jolin Smith 
Edward White 
Samuel Mowett 
John Tredwell 
William Hallett 



IV 

AN ACCOUNT 
OF Each Inhabitant of fflushings Prouisions as ffol- 

LOWET.4 
[A. D. 1711.] 



Bacon Wheat Indian Cheese Butter 

lb. bu3h. bushels 

Jus. William Bloodgood. . . .120 13 30 180 

Jus. David Wright 55 10 6 18 

Benj:ffleld 160 130 20 240 

James Clement Junr 20 6 12 

John Eodman 90 80 210 

Mary Talman 40 18 127 

flfrancis Doughty 40 20 100 

Thomas Rushmore 50 15 

Thomas Weekes 198 190 48 300 

Margret Powell 30 

Joseph Hedges 15 5 15 

Joseph Van Cliff 130 10 1 54 

Joseph Eodman 150 60 20 100 

Phillip Udall 18 25 2 24 

Obadiah Lawrence 40 6 10 60 

Samll Haight Junr 36 6 70 

JewrinEyder 12 4 5 16 

Tho Hinchman 6 6 5 

4 Copy of Document in New York State Library^ LV, 1S9. 



250 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Bacon Wheat Indian Cheese Butter 
lb. bush, bushels 

Matthew flfarington li 110 20 186 

Sarah ffranklin 45 13 3 230 

Thomas ffield 40 100 2 70 

John Marston 80 35 25 28 

Jon Bloodgood 13 1 

Jacob Doughty 70 70 8 75 

Stephen Ryder 17 10 20 35 

Samuell Talem 65 40 64 

John Baldwin 45 10 

John Mann 27 4 12 

Richard Dachy 40 5 24 

Anthony Badgley 23 6 1 

Eliakim Hedges 86 80 2 24 

Benj: Thorne 25 20 3 42 4 

Samll Thorne 90 75 2 75 3 

John Essmond 10 30 

Jacob Heaviland 12 

Benj Heaviland 10 15 34 

John Hickes 25 30 10 

John Van Wyck 95 6 12 170 

Charles Hickes 40 22 2 36 

Thomas Hickes 60 20 150 

Hugh Cowperthwt 96 1 81 

Wm Doughty 45 6 

Sarah Doughty 30 4 

Henry Wright 70 20 

John Yeats 48 

John ffarington 45 98 

Elias Cornelius 30 2 

Samll Bowne 170 15 15 60 

Mary Bowne 45 9 9 15 4 

Thomas flord 38 6 



APPENDIX IV 251 



Bacon Wheat Indian Cheese Butter 
lb. bush, bushels 



Samuell Haight 45 40 12 125 

Joseph Thome 125 20 10 140 

ffrancis Burto 6 1 

John Hopper 15 

Christopher Hopper 20 2 45 

Stephen fEord 30 4 36 

John Genunge 90 5 6 65 

John Embree 85 80 2 65 

Sarah Wright 22 1 

Charles Wright 20 

Richard Greffin 75 24 

Maj. Wm Lawrence 220 200 50 200 

Joseph Lawrence 90 5 1 130 

Edward Greffin 18 18 2 18 

Nathaniell Roe 140 140 3 90 

John Greffin 28 4 3 72 

Elizeth Wilday 40 

Wm Lawrence Junior 50 4 1 32 

John Lawrence 40 10 2 30 

Thomas Parmitter 70 

Henry Taylor 43 3 30 

Jonathan Wright 48 40 2 30 

John Ryder 40 8 25 3 

William flowler 120 10 84 

Joseph Thome 140 20 20 128 

John Taylor 24 

William Thorne 185 140 5 115 

Mary Thorne 84 9 2 

John Washborne 3 1 8 

Richd Cornell 23 6 5 322 

Richd Cornell Junr 5 4 36 

Jacob Cornell 83 8 60 



252 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Bacon Wheat Indian Cheese Butter 
lb. bush, bushels 

Samll Thome Junr 40 7 3 80 10 

Nicholas Haight 12 3 9 

Charls Doughty 50 6 3 48 

James Jackson 50 20 6 

Elias Doughty 57 8 2 

Peter Stringam 12 

Peter Haff 15 2 2 

Thomas Clement 20 2 

John Burto 8 2 80 

Cornels Hoglant 38 20 16 

Barn Bloome 30 14 25 

Dirck Brinker 68 20 2 80 35 

Tho Acreson 15 11 

Peter Mefor 35 50 7 

Lawre HafE 46 6 6 

Joseph Palmer 18 4 

Anthony Glean 50 6 

Wm Burling 55 30 3 

Tho Rattonne 30 

Jon Lowcie 6 3 

Tho Willett Junr 90 7 20 75 

Coll Tho Willett 250 80 25 156 

Samll Ketcham 25 1 

Tho Chambers 6 12 

Jerim Genung 50 1 40 

John Clement 28 1 20 

John Vanleiw 50 5 2 

James Clement 90 4 2 50 

Joseph Thome 13 

Danill Lawrence 12 

John Serls 12 

Endorsed, "Accot of Provisions in flushing, July 1711." 



V 

A LIST 

OF THE Officers and Souldiers Belonging to the Com- 
pany OF Jonathan Wright, Captn. 5 

[A. D. 1715.] 

Willm Thorne, Lieutenant Anthony Badgeley j q • ^ 

John Tallman, Ensign Tunis Covert i 

John Taylor ) Corporals 

James Lewis, Junr ) Thom Gleane, Drummer. 

Johanus Van Wick Wilm Burlihg 

Nathl Roe Steven fEoard 

Steven Ryder Thom : Clement 

Christopher Hopper John Baalding 

Samll Clemment Benjamin Afield 

Joseph Lawrence John Embree 

Joseph Hedges John Hix 

Thom : Rattoone ffrancis Doughty 3 unr 

Wm Hix Steven Hix 

Elikiam Hedges Thom : Hix 

James Talman Joseph ffield 

5 This is to certify that the above, with the copy on 
sheet No. 1 is a correct copy, and of the whole thereof, of a 
document on page 59 of a manuscript volume, in the custody 
of the Regents of the University of the State of New York 
in the State Library, entitled New York Colonial Manu- 
scripts, vol. 60. 

George Rogers Howell, 

Archivist. 



254 



HISTORY OF FLUSHING 



Cornelius Mastou 
John Bloodgood 
Samll Embree 
Thorn : Eacason 
John Washbon 
Ram Oderyonson 
Samll Bowne Junr 
John flfarington 
John Griffen 
Richard Griffen 
Charles Doughty 
Elias Doughty Senr 
Thom : ffoard Senr 
John Esmund Senr 
Joseph Thorne, Bay Side 
Thom ffield 
James Clement 
John Yeats 
Nicholas Haight 
John Ryder 
fErancis Yeats 
Thom : Bowne 
Willm Smith 
Jacob Griffen 
Thom: Carle 
Adam Lawrence 
Samll Stringam 
Thom: Stringam 
John Doughty 



Samll flield 

Thom: Hedges 

Benjmn ffowler 

Harculus Ryder 

Richd Willdey 

Isaiah Willdey 

Thom : Willdey 

John Coe 

Richd Lawrence 

Abraham Gray 

Samll Griffen 

Richd Lawrence of ye Neck 

Thom : Lawrence 

David Roe 

Thomas Thorne 

John Bowne 

Thom : ffarington, Bay Side 

Thom : flarington of ye Towne 

Samll flarington 

James Cromell 

Elias Doughty 

Danll Lawrence 

Samll Lawrence 

Cornelius Van Wick 

Garret Bloome 

Thom : Jaxson 

Uria Hedges 

Thom : Hinchman Junr 



VI 

SUFFERINGS OF THE FRIENDS 

IN Flushing During the Revolutionary War. 6 

Taken from Daniel Bowne, for refusing military service, 
by Captain Hoogland's warrant, a silver watch, worth £1, 1776 
and a looking glass, worth £Z. 

29th of 8th month. Taken from John Bowne, by the 
Major of the Light Horse, for the use of the army, 21 old 
sheep, at 13 shillings each, and 15 lambs, at 11 shillings each ; 
and 9th of 9th month, taken by Captain Moxome, 31 
bushels of oats, at 3 shillings per bushel. 

Distresses made upon the goods of Ebenezer Beaman, 
by order of the militia officers : A dictionary^ worth 12 shil- 
lings ; two large pewter basins, 16 shillings ; diaper table- 
cloth, and pewter funnel, 28 shillings ; looking-glass, £3 ; an 
iron-shod cart and tackling, £14 ; a horse, £18, 14 s. 

Taken from John Lawrence by the militia Sergeant, for 
not appearing under arms, a warming-pan, to the value 
of £1. 

Taken from Ann Field, by order of Captain Hoogland, 
being to serve military purposes, a watch worth £8 ; 2J^ I'm 
bushels of wheat, £1. 10 s. ; a horse, £25. 

Taken from John Bowne, for not appearing with the 
militia, a fat hog, £5. 

6 Onderdonk's Documents and Letters, Second Series, p. 59. 



1778 
1780 



256 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Taken from John Bowne, by Captain Hoogland, for not 
appearing under arms when required by the militia officers, 
household goods, worth £2. 3s. 6d. 

Taken from John Farrington, a gun, worth £2 ; a table, 
£3 ; 2 hogs, £8. 10 s. 

April 3. Isaac Underhill and Thomas Willett, being 
desired by the British commanding officers at Flushing to 
view the damages, or quantities of timber cut off a certain 
tract of timber-land, consisting of about 35 acres, belonging 
to John Bowne, conclude that there has been taken 5 stand- 
ard cords for the use of His Majesty's troops. 

David Golden certifies the above appraisers to be men 
of fair character, and well qualified to make the estimate. 

1781 Jacob Lawrence, with three others, took from Ebenezer 

Beaman, a riding saddle, worth £5. 

Three turkeys, worth 50 shillings, taken from Ann 
Field, on a demand of 24 shillings for guarding the fort at 
Whitestone. 

Taken from John Bowne, on demand of 39 shillings, to 
defray the charge of guarding the fort at Whitestone, a pair 
of boots, £2. 8 s. 

12th of 2d month. Jacob Lawrence, Sergeant, with 
others, took away from James Bowne, 11 fowls, worth £3, on 
a demand of 39 shillings for guarding the fort. 

24th of 2d month. David Rowland, Sergeant, came to 
Isaac Underhill 's, and demanded £4 for money advanced for 
a horse to go to the King's service, and for expenses in 
guarding the fort, etc. , and on his refusing to pay it, went 
into his mill and took 8 bushels of Indian corn, worth £4. 

3d month. There came to John Farrington's house, 
David Rowland, a Sergeant under Captain Hoogland, for a 



APPENDIX VI 257 

demand of £3. 8s. , took away a piece of linen, worth £3. 
6 s, being levied by way of tax, as was said, to defray the 
expense of guarding the fort at Whitestone. 

Taken at sundry times, from John Burling, jr., for 
fines, by order of Captain Hoogland, to answer militia pur- 
poses ; A pewter dish, worth 8 shillings ; 6 pewter plates, 12 
shillings ; a pair of tongs, 12 shillings ; a tablecloth, £1. 
10a. ; 7 pewter plates, 14 shillings ; a copper sauce-pan, 8 
shillings ; a pair of andirons, £2 ; 6 silver tea spoons, £1. 10s. 

Taken by Philip Husted, 2J^ bushels of corn and bag, 
to defray the expense of guarding the fort at Whitestone, 
£1. 10s. 

Jacob Lawrence took, on demand of 27 shillings, an 
overcoat and a dunghill fowl, worth 50 shillings. 

Taken from Willet Bowne, at sundry times, by order of 
Captain Hoogland, being fines to answer military purposes, 
a geography, worth 14 shillings ; 6 pewter plates, 12 shil- 
lings ; 2 bushels of wheat and the bag, £2 ; 9 bushels of 
corn, £3. 12s. ; a watch, £8 ; 2 bushels of corn and the bag, 
£1. 4 s. 

4th of 3d month. Then came Moses Fowler, and de- 
manded of Phebe Cornell £4. On her refusal to pay, he 
searched her closet and found money to the value of £3. 
18s., being levied by way of tax, as was said, for defraying 
the expense of guarding the fort at Whitestone. 

29th of 6th. month. Philip Husted, Sergeant, and Jacob 
Lawrence with him, demanded 25 shillings of Solomon 
Underhill, for guarding the fort, and took wheat to that 
value. xioZ 

Taken from John Parrington goods worth £3. 11 s. 4 d. 



258 HISTORY OP FLUSHING 

Total amount of distraints of Friends in Flushing, from 
1776 to 1782, was £194. lis. lOd. 7. 



7 The Friends who escaped oppression by the military 
authority suffered at the hands of their co-religionists : 

' ' 1776. Samuel Cowperthwait assisted at the fortification 
in New York, and is not priiicipaled against defensive war- 
fare. He is disowned." "Jonah Hallet is disowned for 
bearing arms. ' ' 



VII 

ADDITIONAL NOTES 

Relating to the History of Flushing. 

"As for freedom and pleasure to hackl, hunt, fish and 
fowle, theare is great varietie, and all daynties of fruits 
that Ittaley or the Gardens of Spaine affordeth, may be had 
out of those ritch grounds, for it is as hbtt as Spaine ore 
Italley and as full of pleasure and comforte. " Tfw Commod- 
ities of the Island Called Maniti ore Long lale which is in the Con- 
tinent of Virginia, for sale at the Sign of the Two Storks, no date. 

1647, Thomas Eobertsen deeds a house and plantation, 
in Flushing, to George Wolsey. 

1648, Jan. 17. Order issued by Council to John Tonsen 
and others of Flushing, to appear before the Council, and 
show cause why they refuse to contribute to the support of a 
minister, and oppose the nomination of a sheriff. Inhabi- 
tants ordered to proceed to a nomination of such an ofiBcer. 
Calendar I, 116. 

1649, Aug. 14. Anneke van Beyern, widow of the late 
Daniel Patrick, now the wife of Tobias Feci, of Flushing, 
L. I., gives power of attorney to Adriaen van der Donck, 
who is about to depart for Fatherland, to investigate the 
state of her affairs there, and collect whatever may be com- 
ing to her. Calendar I, 4S. 

1652, March 11. Mark Menloff is compelled to confess 
the guilt of stealing and killing a hog. March 25. Maria de 
Truy, wife of Jan Peeok, testified that she had heard certain 



260 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Indians speak about the above. March 25. MenlofE and 
his whole family banished. GaUndar 1 1^5 et sg. 

1654. Goodman Harck's wife complains against Richard 
Pontum, who is suspected of having burnt her barn. Calen- 
dar , 141. 

1655, June 1. Divorce granted to John Hicks from his 
wife Harwood Long. Calendar I, 14-9. 

1658, Nov. li. Widow of William Hajck is ordered to 
render an account, to Robt. Terry, John Tonson, William 
Palmer and John Coo, for certain cattle belonging to Thos. 
Farrington, a minor. Calendar I, S02. 

1661, Oct. 20. Jacob Kip complains that Jno. de Sweet 
has taken his canoe. Calendar J, S30. 

1662, Jan. 12. Roelof Jausen, collector of excise, brings 
suit against Samuel Edsal for buying liquor from Manhat- 
tans, without a permit. Judgment for the defendant. 
Calendar I, 2SS. 

1662, July 2, Complaint is entered against William 
Bentfield for exporting liquor from Flushing to New Eng- 
land, without paying duty. GaUndar I, S39. 

1677, Oct. 9. Governor Andros employs John Thompson 
of Seatalcott "to goe to Flushing and other parts upon Long 
Island, to search for sea coal mines, of which he had prob- 
able information." 

1676, "We are informed that a person belonging to 
Flushing, that formerly made a profession of truth has been 
taken with the Ranters, and that of late has signified that 
he sees the evil of his outrunnings, yet doth not frequent 
the assembly of the Lord's people, so Francis Cooley and 
John Adams are desired to speak to the party. Manxiscript 
History^ p. 109. 



APPENDIX VII 261 

1680. Town of Flushing is charged " To hew & cryes, " 
£1. Is. 

1680, Feb. 20. Little Neck at this date is called Corn- 
bury. Calendar II, 85. 

1682, Feb. 16. Christian Dean and Thos. Robinson give 
information that the magistrates of Flushing do not prevent 
wheat being shipped in Cornbury Bay. Calendar II, 98. 

1690, Oct. 30. Commissions issued to Samuel Edsall, 
Thomas Williams and Hendrick Ten Eyck, or to one of 
them, to command a sloop, with volunteers, and proceed to 
Flushing Bay and secure the persons and papers of sus- 
pected rebels. Calendar II, 199. 

1692, Sep. 10. "Jno Bowne, Hew Coperthwait and Jno 
Rodman having spake, in behalf of fEriends with miles 
(foster ; about their dissatisfaction with him in his sarving 
George Keith boockes to ye greef of flfriends. Minutes of 



[Keith attacked the Quakers, charging them with 
heresy. His books therefore appear to have been on the 
Quakers' Index Expergatoriits. ] 

1702, Sep. 28. Flushing meeting of Friends sends an 
address to Lord Cornbury, "setting forth ye Late Sufferings 
of friends, haveing their votes being Refused and their 
Goods Distrained on, for Building a Dwelling house for the 
Nonconformist Preacher in Newtown and elsewhere." 
Minutes of Meetings. 

[It was reported at the next Quarterly meeting that the 
Governor had restored the goods which had been taken 
from Friends. ] 

1703, May 20. John Embree, inhabitant and freeholder 
of the town of Flushing, petitioned for an injunction 



262 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

against William Lawrence, restraining him from trespassing 
on his land. Calendar II, 313. 

1703, Aug. 2. William Lawrence complains that John 
Embree has trespassed on his estate, called Tews Neck. 
Calendar II, 315. 

1704, April 4. Thos. Worden, of New York, pipe maker, 
asks for license to dig clay on Island of Nassau, between 
high and low water mark. Referred to Justices of Queens 
County, to report whether the locality be within the bounds 
of the patent of Flushing. Calendar II, 323. 

1711. Great scarcity of provisions on Long Island, vide 
appendix IV. 

1715, Aug. 12. Anthony Gleane of Flushing, black- 
smith, asks for letters of administration on the estate of 
Jas. Bettersby, school master of the same place. Calenda/r 
II, JfiT. 

1719, May 28. Thos. Hinchman of Flushing gave afll- 
davit that he had heard Justice Whitehead say, that it was 
as lawful to play cards as it was to read the Bible. 
Calendar II, /^O. 

1726, June 17. Patent granted to Charles and Francis 
Doughty and others, to establish a ferry between the east 
side of William Thome's Neck and the west side of Deborah 
Lawrence's Neck, on the mainland. Calendar, II, 495. 

1736, March 3. "Last Thursday night, about 10 or 11 
o'clock, the house of Benjamin Lawrence, of Flushing, was 
burnt to the ground and nothing of his goods saved. The 
man and woman were abroad about their afEairs, and at 
that time, the man, coming home, saw the house all in a 
flame, and ran in and pulled his four small children out of 
their bed, and threw them naked upon the snow, and 



APPENDIX VII 263 

attempted to fetch out some of his goods, but the fire was 
so far advanced, that he could not get the least rag to cover 
them from the piercing cold of that night, but all was 
burnt. N. Y, Gazette, March 3, 1736, ( Onderdonk. ) 

' ' The same day, Thos. Willet had occasion to drive his 
cattle over a creek, on the ice, which breaking in, he lost 
eight cows." 

1736, Sept. 27. "On the 6th inst. , the house, ware-house 
and all the goods and merchandizes of Mr. John Foster, at 
Flushing, at midnight, were consumed to ashes, and little 
or nothing saved, but his books, papers and the Scriptoir 
which they were in. ' ' 

1751, March 13. Edmorid Annely advertises his pottery 
at 'Whitestone — "he having set up the potter's business by 
means of a German family that he bought, who are sup- 
posed by their work to be the most ingenious that ever 
arrived in America. ' ' 

lp59. "It was reported at this meeting that Benjamin 
Thome has hired a man to go in the Army to War in his 
Son's Stead, also, that John Rodman has hired a man to go 
in his Eum. ' ' 

A few months later: "It appears to this meeting, by 
the persons appointed to speak to Benjamin Thorne, as also 
his owne mouth that he still continews unwilling to con- 
demn his Miss conduct in Hireing a man to goe to War in 
his Son's Stead, or to give Friends Satisfaction for the 
Same, it is the Judgment of the Meeting that we can have 
no younity with such Practices, nor with him untill hee 
both condemn and leave the same. ' ' 

The report concerning Rodman : ' ' Hireing a Man in his 
Koome for the Expedition was not unadvised, but the result 



264 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

of Mature consideration, and if the like occasion offered, he 
should doe it again. ' ' Mimites of Friends^ Meetings ( Flint, 
18S.) 

1786, Oct. 12. " Died at Moorfields, Flushing, on Sunday 
evening, aged 34, Mrs. Gertrude Onderdonk, the amiable 
consort of Lambert Moore, Esq. , formerly comptroller of His 
Majesty's customs. The funeral sermon was preached by his 
nephew, the Rev. T. L. Moore, the Episcopal Minister of 
S. Hempstead. ' ' 

"Died at Flushing, Sunday, se'nnight, Gerard G. 
Beekman, Esq., aged seventy-seven, a citizen of New York, 
whose hospitality and good old wine endeared him to many 
friends. He had retired from business, to pass the remain- 
der of his life in quiet and enjoy those rational amusements 
which the delightful plains of Long Island afforded him." 
New York Journal, Sept. 5, 1796. 

1878, May 7, Judge Murray Hoffman died at his resi- 
dence in Flushing. He was buried in St. Mark's Church- 
yard, New York City, May 10th. Judge Hoffman was born 
in New York City, Sept. 29, 1791 ; he graduated from Co- 
lumbia College, 1809 ; was admitted to the Bar ; was Assist- 
ant Vice-Chancellor, 1839-43 ; elected Judge of the Superior 
Court, in 1853, and held the position of judge until 1861. 
Among his published works are: OfiBces and Duties of 
Masters in Chancery (1824) ; Treatise on the Practice of the 
Court of Chancery (3 vols., 1840-43) ; Treatise on the Cor- 
poration of New York as Owners of Property, and Compila- 
tion of the Laws relating ot the City of New York, Vice- 
Chancery's Reports (1839-40) ; Treatise on the Law of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States (1850) ; 
Ecclesiastical Law in the State of New York (1868) ; The 
Ritual Law of the Church, etc. (1872). 



APPENDIX VII 265 

Judge Hoffman took a lively Interest in the affairs of 
his Church, and was often a member of her conventions. 
He was a man who "will long be remembered in the annals 
of the Bar of this country as a distinguished member of the 
profession, and whose memory will be bept green in the 
hearts of Churchmen for the contributions he has from time 
to time made to its canonical literature" — (New York Times.) 
His funeral was attended by a large number of distin- 
guished men — bishops and clergymen, judges and lawyers. 

1885, October 23. "Morris Franklin, President of the 
New York Life Insurance Company, died at his home in 
Flushing, yesterday. He had been ill several weeks with a 
severe cold. He was born, Oct. 20, 1801, on Broadway, near 
Leonard street, this city. Morris Franklin was educated by 
Goold Brown, studied law with Benjamin Clark, and was 
admitted to practice almost upon reaching his majority. 
His interest in politics was always great, and he was an 
enthusiastic Whig. When the Board of Aldermen was com- 
posed of leading men of the city, he was one of its directing 
members, representing what was then the Seventh Ward. 
For two years he was its President. He was elected an 
Assemblyman, serving three terms, and was in 1842 sent to 
the State Senate. Later, he became the Whig candidate 
for Mayor, but the day before the election the result of the 
contest was so doubtful that he yielded to the advice of his 
friends, and permitted a Whig coalition with the Know- 
Nothings, James Harper being elected. Mr. Franklin was 
a member of the Volunteer Fire Department, and for many 
years its foreman. During the great fire of 1835, he held a 
hose in Wall street all night. Just forty years ago, the 
Nautilus Life Insurance Company was bought out by a 
newly organized corporation, calling itself the New York 
Life Insuarance Company, and Mr. Franklin abandoning 



266 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

the practice of law became its first President. This ofiBce 
he retained till his death. Mr. Franklin was a Director of 
the Central National Bank and of the Empire City Fire In- 
surance Co. , and a Trustee of the House of Kefuge. He 
moved to Flushing in 1863, and has held the offices of Trus 
tee and President [of the village] several times. ' ' — (New York 
Tribune.) Mr. Franklin was also a Warden of St. George's 
Church, and took an active interest in all affairs that 
affected the well-being of Flushing. 

1888, December 20, The Hon. John W. Lawrence died 
at Willow Bank, in Flushing. Mr. Lawrence was born in 
Flushing in 1800 ; at the age of sixteen he entered the mer- 
cantile house of Hicks, Jenkins & Co. ; at the age of twenty- 
one he became a partner in the firm of Howland & Law- 
rence in the shipping and commission business. Mr. Law- 
rence was for fifteen years President of the Queens County 
Savings Bank, for some years President of the Seventh Ward 
Bank of New York, for a third of a century President of the 
Lawrence Cement Company, and for some time he held a 
similar position in the Rosedale Cement Company. For 
fifteen years he was President of the village of Flushing and 
for many years Warden of St. George's Church. In 1840, he 
was elected a member of the Assembly ; in 1845 he was 
elected a member of Congress. He declined to accept a re- 
nomination for Congress. He also declined the nomination 
for the office of Lieutenant Governor of the State. 

1894, August 14, James Strong, S. T. D., LL.D,, 
D.D., was buried in Flushing cemetery. Dr. Strong 
was born in New York City, Aug. 14, 1822 ; graduated at 
Wesley an University, Middletown, Conn., 1844; teacher of 
ancient languages in Troy Conference Academy, West Poult- 
ney, Vt. , 1844-46 ; professor of Biblical literature and acting 



APPENDIX VII 267 

President of Troy UniYersity, 1858-61; then professor of 
exegetical theology in Drew Theological Seminary, Madi- 
son, N. J. Dr. Strong was also one of the company of Bible 
revisers. He was the author of Harmony and Exposition of 
the Gospels (1852) ; Harmony in Greek (1854) ; Scripture His- 
tory, etc. (1878) ; Irenics, (1883) ; one of the editors of Lange'a 
Commentaries and of McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia 
of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Dr. 
Strong resided in Flushing some time between 1846 and 
1858, and proved himself a public-spirited citizen. He did 
much for the interests of public education in the crisig of 
1848 ; he was one of the first Directors of the Flushing's 
first railroad, in 1854; and assisted in establishing the 
Flushing Cemetery where he was buried. 

1894, December 3, Benjamin W. Downing died. Mr. 
Downing was born at Glen Head, L. I., in 1835. He began 
life as a school teacher. He later studied law, and opened 
an ofiBce in Flushing. In 1864, he was elected District 
Attorney of Queens County. He held the ofiBce of District 
Attorney for many years, and secured the conviction of a 
number of notable criminals. He was removed from office 
by Governor Cleveland for receiving money from the rela- 
tives of a murdered man to assist in the prosecution of the 
murderer. Mr. Downing protested that none of this money 
remained in his hands, but was at once paid to detectives. 
Mr. Downing was twice a candidate for the office of County 
Judge, but was both times defeated. During Mr. Down- 
ing's residencce in Flushing he was closely identified with 
local interests ; he served as Trustee of the Village for sev- 
eral terms and was at one time President ^of the Board ; he 
was a member of the Board of Education for about twenty 
years and at one time President of that body ; he was largely 



268 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

interested in Flushing real estate, Mr. Downing removed 
from Flushing in 1882. 

Population of the Town and Village of Flushing : 
Year. Village. Town. 

1790 1,607 

1800 1,818 

1810 2,230 

1814 2,271 

1830 2,820 

1840 4,124 

1850 about 2,000 5,376 

1860 10,188 

1870 6,223 14,650 

1880 6,683 15,906 

1890 8,436 19,803 



VIII 

THE TREES OF FLUSHINGS 

Flushing has long been noted for the great number, rare 
beauty and unusual variety of its trees. The nurseries have 
given Flushing this advantage. The Huguenots began 
horticulture here in the seventeenth century. As late as 
1839, there were still fruit trees standing, of the varieties 
introduced by the French. William Prince began his nur- 
sery, in 1737. It increased in size, until, in 1860, the gar- 
dens and nursery of W. R. Prince & Co. comprised 113 
acres. The Bloodgood nursery was established in 1798, by 
James Bloodgood. The Commercial Garden and Nursery, 
of Parsons & Co., were established in 1838. The Kissena 
Nurseries are the successors of the Parsons nurseries. These 
are the oldest and most extensive of Flushings nurseries. 
Until 1840, Flushing had practically the monopoly of this 
industry. 

Flushing can boast of one hundred and forty genera of 
trees, with from three to twenty species to each genus. 
Thus there are about two thousand varieties of trees standing 
within the limits of the town. 

Of specimen trees, i. e. as nearly perfect examples of 
their kinds as possible, we have many. Of Tulip trees we 
may mention two magnificent specimens, in the grounds of 
Bobt. B. Parsons. These trees are seventy-five feet high, 

8 Condensed from a Lecture delivered, by Dr. J. W. 
Barstow, before the Good Citizenship League, in 1893. 



270 HISTORY OP FLUSHING 

and more than three feet in diameter at the base. With- 
out doubt, they are the finest Tulip trees on Long Island. 
A fine specimen of the European Linden is to be found in 
the grounds of Jos. K. Murray. It is a perfect cone, a 
beautiful object to the eye, and a striaing feature of the 
landscape. In the adjoining nurseries of Keene & Poulk is 
a Cut-leaf, Drooping Birch of exceptional size and beauty — 
probably the finest specimen of its kind in the United 
States. There are many varieties of Beeches in Flushing. 
There are some native Beeches still standing on the hillside 
across the Creek and in the rear of the old Remsen place, 
but the greater number of our Beeches came from England 
and Norway. The finest specimen of the English Beech 
stands in the S. B. Parsons property on Broadway. A 
noteworthy specimen of the Cut-leaf Beech stands not far 
from it. In the same enclosure is a choice specimen of the 
Drooping Beech. But the largest and most perfect specimen 
of the Drooping Beech is in the grounds of Mrs. Jackson, in 
Washington Place. Some years ago, Sir Joseph Hooker, 
Director of Kew Gardens, pronounced this tree the finest of 
its kind in the world. Another perfect specimen, though 
smaller, is in the grounds of Jas. W. Renwick. Maples, in 
all their many varieties, constitute the larger part of Flush- 
ing's shade trees. Of these, six varieties are native. Of 
imported Maples, the Japanese Maples are the most con- 
spicuous. Though dwarfed in size, the exquisite shapes 
and colors of their leaves have made the Japanese Maples a 
valuable and popular group. They were first introduced by 
the Parsons Bros., in 1854. Until about fifteen years ago 
Flushing could boast of English Elms, second only to those 
on the Boston Commons. Since the appearance of the Elm 
Beetle, the English Elms have all but disappeared from 
Long Island. There are still some good specimens of the 



APPENDIX VIII 271 

American Elm in the village. We have certain trees, inter- 
esting because of their rarity. A beautiful row of the 
Southern Cypress stands in Broadway, in front of the S. B. 
Parsons place. They were planted by Mr. Parsons about 
fifty years ago. Especial attention is drawn to the double 
row of the Chinese Taxodium on Parsons Avenue, just south 
of Broadway. These trees were planted by Robt. B. Parsons 
about fifty years ago. There is no such group of these rare 
trees in the United States. Two magnificent specimens of 
the Cedar of Lebanon are among our most prized trees. 
One of these stands in the door-yard of the Prince House, on 
Bridge street and Lawrence Avenue, and the other is within 
the limits of the old Bloodgood Nursery, on Bayside Ave- 
nue, opposite the Wickham place. These trees are nearly a 
hundred years old. 

Of nut trees, besides our native Chestnut, Walnut and 
Hickories, we have the Spanish and Japanese Chestnuts, 
the Butternut, Madeiranut, Pecan, Bitter Almond, and 
English Filbert. Nearly all of these produce their fruit 
yearly. 

To our native Dogwood are to be added other flowering 
trees of rare and beautiful varieties, e. g. the exquisite Japan- 
ese flowering Apple, Peach and Cherry. But among the 
flowering trees, the chief glory belongs to the Magnolias, of 
which we have five native varieties and others chiefly 
Japanese and Chinese. 

Our evergreens — in great and bewildering variety — some 
from all parts of the world, from Maine, from Oregon, from 
the Colorado Canons, from the slopes of the Himalayas. 
They cannot be matched by any similar collection on earth. 

Two specimens of Primaeval Oaks still stand, one in 
State street and one in the Hicks place, on Whitestone 
Avenue. They belong to the same group as the old Fox 



272 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Oaks. The old Oak that, until two years ago, stood in the 
middle of Parsons Avenue, was estimated by the late Prof. 
Asa Gray, in 1872, to be about six hundred forty years old. 



IX 

TITLES OF BOOKS 

Quoted, or Referred to, in This History. 

[The many other books "consulted" do not appear in this list. ] 

History of the State of New York, John R. Brodhead 
2 vols., New York, 1859, 1871. 

History of New Netherland, E. B. O'Callaghan, 2 vols., 
New York. 

Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the 
State of New York, E. B. O'Callagan, Editor, 14 vols., Al- 
bany 1856-1883. 

Representation of New Netherland, Adriaen Von der 
Donck, 1650. Translated by Henry C. Murphy, 1849. 

History of Long Island, Benjamin F. Thompson, 2 
vols., 1843. 

Laws and Ordinances of New Netherland, Albany. 

Massachusetts Historical Collections, 41 vols., Boston, 
1806-1871. 

Documentary History of New York, E. B. O'Callaghan, 
4 vols. , New York, 1850. 

The Annals of Newtown, James Eiker, Jr. , New York, 
1852. 

New England History, Chas. W. Elliott, 2 vols, New 
York, 1857. 

History of New England, J. G. Palfrey, 5 vols., Bos- 
ton, 1858. 

Newes from America, John Underhill, London, 1638. 



274 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Flushing Past and Present, Rev. G. Henry Mandeville, 
Flushing, 1860. 

Early Long Island, Martha Bockee Flint, New York, 
1896. 

A Brief Description of New York, Daniel Denton, 
London, 1670. 

Journal of George Fox, Philadelphia, -1832. 

Long Island Antiquities, Gabriel Furman. 

Register of New Netherland, E. B. O'Callaghan, Al- 
bany, 1865. 

Quakers on Long Island and in New York, Henry 
Onderdonk Jr. 

Quakers of Hempstead, Henry Onderdonk Jr. 

New York. The Planting and Growth of the Empire 
State, Ellis H. Roberts, Boston and New York, 1887. 

Men, Women and Manners in Colonial Times, Sidney 
George Fisher, Philadelphia, 1898. 

A Journal of Travel from New Hampshire to Oaratuck, 
on the Continent of North America, George Keith, London, 
1702. 

History of St. George's Parish, Flushing, J. Carpenter 
Smith, Flushing, 1897. 

Antiquities of the Parish Church, Jamaica, including 
Newtown and Flushing, H. Onderdonk, Jr. , Jamaica, 1880. 

The Friends' Library, 6 vols. , Philadelphia, 1839. 

History of New York During the Revolutionary War, 
2 vols. , Thomas Jones, New York, 1879. 

Genealogical Notes of the Colden Family, E. P. Purple, 
New York, 1873. 

Biographies of Francis Lewis and Morgan Lewis, Julia 
Delafleld, 2 vols.. New York, 1877. 

The American Revolution, John Fiske, 2 vols.. New 
York, 1896. 



APPENDIX IX 275 

American Archives, 9 vols. , Washington, 1837-1851. 

The Empire State, B. Lossing, New York. 

Journals of the Provincial Congress, 2 vols., Albany, 
1842. 

History of Queens County, New York, 1882. 

Queens County in Olden Times, H. Onderdonk, Jr., 
Jamaica, 1865. 

Documents and Letters to Illustrate Revolutionary Inci- 
dents of Queens County, H. Onderdonk, Jr., New York, 
1846. Second Series, Hempstead, 1884. 

Gazetteer of the State of New York, Thos. G. Gordon, 
Philadelphia, 1836. 

Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, 4 vols., Albany, 
1865-1868. 

Orderly Book of the Maryland Loyalists Regiment Kept 
by Capt. Caleb Jones, Brooklyn, 1891. 

Letters of the Brunswick and Hessian Officers During 
the American Revolution, Albany, 1891. 

B. F. Steven's Facsimiles of Manuscripts in European 
Archives Relating to America, 25 vols. , London. 

A History of the People of the United States, John 
Bach McMasters, 5 vols., (5th unpublished). New York, 
1892-1895. 

History of the City of New York, Mrs. Martha J. Lamb 
and Mrs. Burton Harrison, 3 vols. , New York. 

Diary of George Washington, Richmond, 1861. 

Life and Work of William Augustus Muhlenberg, Anne 
Ayres, New York, 1881. 

Reminiscences of the War of the Rebellion, Bvt. Maj. 
Jacob Roemer, L. A. Furney, Editor, Flushing, 1897. 

Manuscript History of the Society of Friends in Queens 
County, H. Onderdonk, Jr. In the Archives of the West- 
bury Meeting. 



276 HISTORY OF FLUSHING 

Minutes of Friends' Meetings, Previous to 1805, In the 
Archives of the Sixteenth street Meeting House, N. Y. 

Minutes of Friends' Meetings, since 1805, In the Ar- 
chives of the Westbury Meeting. 

Historical Collections of the State of New York, J. W. 
Barber, New Yorli, 1851. 



INDEX 



This Index contains references to the notes and the Ap- 
pendix, as well as to the History. 

A 
Additional Notes, 259 
African Macedonian Church, 174 
Agricultural Society, 193 
Alien and Sedition Laws, 169 
Andros, Governor, 76, 81, 82 
Applegate, Thomas, 15 
Areson, B. , robbed, 148 
Art Class, 208 
Artists' Exhibition, 213 
Athletic Club, 211 
Attractions of Flushing, 212 
Aspinwall, John, 108, 111 

B 
Banks, 211 

Baptist Church, 200 ; Pastors of, 201 
Baptist Church, African, 212 
Barclay, Rev. Henry, 136 
Barstow, Dr. J. W., 193, 269 
Bayside, 199, 227 

Beacons during the Revolution, 134 
Beddard, Thomas, 15 
Beekman, Gerard G. , 264 
Bishop, William, seditious words of, 63 
Block, Adrian, enters Flushing Bay, 5 
Bloomer, Rev. Joshua, 111, 130 
Board of Education, 194, 223 
Bownas, Samuel, arrested, 90 
Bowne, John, 43, 44 
Bowne, Joseph, 125 
Bowne House, the, 71 
Bowne, Willet, tortured, 148 



278 INDEX 

Bradford, William, 90 

British troops enter Flushing, 131; occupy Flushing, 132- 

153 
Bridge over Flushing Creek, 172 
Burling, William, publishes anti-slavery address, 94 
Business Men's Association, 211 

C 
Cabot, Jean and Sabastian, 1 
Census, in 1698, 85 ; at different times, 227 
Charter of Flushing, 14, 231 ; enlarged, 23 ; restricted, 42 ; 

exemplified, 169 
Charter of New York modified, 221-223 
Christiaensen, Hendrick, 4 
Christmas customs, 57 
Church of England, under the Duke's Laws, 61 ; established 

in New York by law, 79 ; introduced into Flushing, 98 
Clarence, Prince of, in Flushing, 149 
Clinton, Gov. George, in Flushing, 102 
Coal mines, sought for, 260 
Court records, extracts from, 260 
Coin, scarcity of, 17 
Coldeu, Cadwallader. 114-116 ; connection with Stamp Act, 

121 ; writes to Earl of Dartmouth, 123 
Colden, David, 116, 145 
Colden, Cadwallader David, 117 
Colgan, Rev. Thomas, 100, 105 
College Point, 182, 226 
Combination of English towns, .50 
Commodities of Long Island, 259 
Committee Men, 123, 125, 131 
Confiscation Act, 162 

Congregational Church, 196 ; Pastors of, 197 
Connecticut, trouble with, 48-54 
Conscience, freedom of, among the Puritans, 14 ; secured 

by the Charter of Flushing, 14, 18 
Consolidation with New York opposed, 220-224 
Constitution, U. S., adoption of celebrated, 164 
Cornell, Richard, 49 
Cornbury Bay, 261 
Cornbury, Lord, 87 



INDEX 279 

Corsa, Col. Isaac, 106 
Courts, Queens County, 164 
Oowperthwaite, Hugh, 45 
Customs during Dutch supremacy, 57 

D 

Davia, Lieut. William, 31 

Debts, imprisonment for, 157 

Denton, Daniel, description of Long Island, 68 

Depredations by soldiers, 145-148 

Dongan, Governor, 77 ; Flushing gives a farm to, 78 

Douglaston, 227 

Downing, Benjamin W. , 267 

Doughty, Rev. Francis, 12, 14, 20-22, 24, 32 

Doughty, Elias, 24 ; brings suit for his father's salary, 62 

Duke's Laws, 61 

Dutch, liberal government of, 14 ; recapture New York, 73 ; 

administer oath in Flushing, 74 ; customs of, 57 
Dutch, Laurence, 15 

Dutch Reformed Church, vids Reformed Dutch Church 
Dress at time of Independence, of gentleman, 156 ; of lady, 

156 ; of farmer, 157 ; of laborer, 157 
Drisius, Rev. Samuel, on religious condition of Flushing, 37 

E 

Eagles, John, 125 

Easter customs, 57 

Education, encouraged by Friends, 92 

Electric railroads, 217 

Episcopal Church, vide. Church of England and St. George's 
Church. 

Exemplification of Patent, 169 

English, the, not trusted, 30, 34 

English towns seek alliance with Connecticut, 49; Com- 
bination of, 50 

Evacuation of New York, 162 

F 
Fair, County, at Flushing, 193, 197, 199 
Fairchild, Ezra and E. A. , 191 
Farret, James, 10, 20 
Farrington, Thomas, 15 



280 INDEX 

Parrington, John, 45 

Farrington, Edward, 41 

Peake, Tobias, 41, 259 

Perry-boats, 154, 262 

Field, Robert, 15 

Field, Elizabeth, 28 

Field, Benjamin, 45 

Firman, Robert, 16 

Fire Department, 213 

Fires, 262-63 

Fisher, Edward, 49 

Flushing, origin of name, 15 ; limits of town, 16 ; called 
Newarke, 50; a refuge during the Revolution, 125, 126; 
condition during the Revolution, 132-153 ; in 1836, 184 ; 
village incorporated, 184 ; boundaries of village, 185, 198, 
207 ; condition in 1851, 196 ; condition in 1897, 212 

Flushing Female Association, 175 

Flushing Guard, 202 

Flushing Battery, 203 ; ofBoers of, 203 ; returns home, 204 

Flushing Journal, 188 

Flushing Times, 189 

Flushing Seminary, 211 

Flushing Village Association, 218-224 

Flushing Jockey Club, 219 

Flushing Female College, 191 

Flushing Institute, 180, 182 ; becomes St. Ann's Hall, 187 ; 
re-established. 191 

Flushing Hospital, 208-211 

Forrester, Andrew, 20 

Fox, George, visits Flushing, 69 

Fox Oaks, 70 

Franklin, Morris, 265 

Free Schools, 175, 194 

Friends, arrive in Flushing, 39; laws against, 40; early 
meetings of, 44 ; why persecuted, 45-47 ; fined, 77, 80 ; dis- 
sipated men personate, 83 ; Meeting-house, 84, 94 ; influ- 
ence on education, 92; anti-slavery agitation, 93, 94; dis- 
cipline of, 96, 97, 261, 263 ; Meeting-house during Revolu- 
tion, 132 ; suffering of, 132, 255 ; efforts to free slaves, 152 ; 
Orthodox and Hicksite, 181 ; celebrate 200th anniversary 
of Meeting-house, 224 



INDEX 281 



French and Indian War, 105 
French, neutral, 106 
Funeral customs, 57 

G 

Garretson, Matthew, Bay of, 227, 231 

Gas Company, 214 

Gill, Roger, Journal of, 85 

Good Citizenship League, 211 

Gordon, Rev. Patrick, 98 

Government, honest, 218 

H 

Hamilton, Col. Archibald, 112-114; house burned, 149 

Hamilton Hall, 173 

Hamilton Rifles, 202 

Half-Moon, enters N. Y. Bay, 4 

Hall, Thomas, 23 

Hallet, William, 38 

Hark, William, 22, 23 

Hart, Edward, 16, 35, 41 

Hartford Treaty, 48 

Hashagen, John D. , 219 

Hawks, Dr. Francis, 187 

Hedger, James, 146 

Hessian Fly, 151 

Henderson, John, 209 

Heyes, Thomas, 23 

Hicks, John, 16, 23, 260 

Hicks, Thomas, 124 

Hodgson, Robert, 39 

Holland and the English Parliament, 29 

Hoffman, Miss S. O. , School of, 211 

Hoffman, Judge Murray, 264 

Honeyman, Rev. James, 98 

Hood, Zacharias, 121 

Hospital, Flushing, 208-211 

Howe, General, before New York, 126 

Hudson, seeks northwest passage, 3 

Huguenots, 43 



K 



282 INDEX 

I 

Indians, give title to Queens Co. , 11 ; war with, 12, 13 ; 
their character, 17 ; to be employed in war, 30 ; trouble 
inhabitants of Flushing, 36, 48 ; attempts to buy land 
from, 53 ; last deed, 79 

Institute, vide. Flushing Institute. 

Inhabitants in 1698, list of, 237 

Ives Law, 219 

J 

Jones, Judge, 118, 145 

Journalism, 188-190 

Keith, George, 88, 98 
Kieft, Governor, 11 
Kvle's Institute, 211 

L 
Lawrence, John, 15, 16, 23 
Lawrence, William, 15, 16, 63 
Lawrence, John W. , 266 
Lawrence, Mrs. William, burns contract with Rev. I 

Doughty, 62 
Leisler, John, Flushing complains against, 83 
Leverett, Capt. John, 31 
Lewis, Francis, 117-120, 135 
Lewis, Francis, Jr., 120 
Lewis, Morgan 120 
Library Association, 214 
Lincoln, Charles R. , 188, 189 
Little Neck, 227 ; called Cornbury, 261 
Long Island, description of, 68 ; opposed to Congress, 122 
Long Island Sound, explored by Block, 5; by Dermer, 5 
Lovelace, Governor Francis, 67 ; in Flushing, 72 
Lovelace, Governor John, in Flushing, 99 
Loyalists, 131, 136, 163 
Ludlow, Gabriel G. , 163 
Lutheran Church, 212 



Maodonald, Dr. J., 193 
Maedonald, Gen. Allan, 193 
Magistrates of Flushing, 56 



M 



INDEX 283 

Manners and Customs at close of the Revolution, 154-161 

Manufacturing establishments, 212 

Marriage laws, 56, 77 

Marriages in Flushing, 136 

Marston, John, 15 

Matinecock Indians, 16 

May, Cornelius Jacobson, 8 

Meeting-house, Quaker, 84, 94, 95, 132 

Megapolensis, Dominie, and the Indians, 13 ; on the relig- 
ious condition of Flushing, 37 

Methodist Church, African, and Pastors, 174 

Methodist Church and Pastors, 177, 178 

Milliard, Michaell, 16 

Militia of Flushing humbled, 64 

Minister, Reformed, 28, 42 ; inhabitants refuse to support, 
259 

Mitchell, Ernest, 219 

Money, 158 

Moore, Mrs. Lambert, 264 

Muhlenberg, Dr. William A. , 179 

Muster Roll, 127 

N 

Napier, Capt. and Mrs. , 139 

Negroes in Flushing, 176 

New Albion, 10 

New Amsterdam, 5 ; becomes New York, 59 

New England, trouble with, 10, 31, 48, 49 

New Netherland, 7, 8 

Newarke, Flushing named, 50 

New Year's customs, 57 

New York, discovered by French, 2 ; claimed by English, 8 ; 
ceded to English, 59 

Nicolls, Governor, 59 ; visits Flushing, 63 ; leaves for Eng- 
land, 67 

Noble, William, 41 

O 

Officials of Flushing, 55, 56, 216 

P 

Patent of Flushing, vide Charter 

Patent, each landholder required to apply for, 42 



284 INDEX 

Patentees, 15, 16 

Patroon, power of, 9 

Pigeon, William, 16 

Pinfold, Edmund, 125 

Pipe-clay, 262 

Plowden, Sir Edmund, 10 

Population of town and village, 268 

Post-office, first, 178 

Post-rider, 155 

Poyer, Rev. Thomas, 99 

Prince, William, Nursery of, 137 

Prince, L. Bradford, 215 

Prices, in 1645. 19 ; during the Kevolutiorii 138 

Prisons, 157 

Privateers, 35, 138 

Prosperity of Flushing, 19, 28 

Provisions in Flushing in 1711, 249 

Public Schools, 194, 195 

Puritans object to the Dutch's occupying'New York, 9 

Q 

Quakers, mde Friends, 

Quebec, capture of, celebrated, 107 

Queens County Loyalists, 123-125 

R 

Railroads, 197, 204, 205 

Reconstruction, 162 

Records of town burned, 167 

Roemer, Major Jacob, 203, 204 

Roesingh, Anton, 210 

Reformed Dutch Church established by law, 74 ; organized 

in Flushing, 187 ; Pastors of, 188 
Religious condition of Flushing, 37, 107, 110, 139 
Remonstrance against religious persecution, 40 ; signers of, 

235 
Representative government desired 67 
Revolutionary War, Flushing in the, 121-153 
Roman Catholic Church, vide St. Michael's Church, 
Robinson, Beverly, 136, 140 
Rodman, John, 45, 86, 263 
Rodman, Thomas, 125 



INDEX 285 

S 

Sanford, Nathan, 193 

Sanford Hall, 192 

Saint Ann's Hall, 387 

Saint George's Church, 108, 199, 225 ; Rectors of, 200 

Saint John's, N. B. , settled by Queens Co. Loyalists, 163 

St. Joseph's Academy, 201 

St. Michael's Church, 179, 199 ; Pastors of, 200 

Saint Paul's College, 182 

Saint Thomas's Hall, 187, 191, 201 

Saull, Thomas, 15 

Sautell, Henry, 16 

Scott, Oapt. John, 50-52, 5i 

Schools, 159, 186, 194, 195, 211 

Schroeder, Dr. Frederick, 187 

Schermerhorn, F. A., 210 

Sohuler, Hans, 211 

Seabury, Rev. Samuel, 107, 110, 111 

Senflf, Charles H. , 210 

Sessions House, tax for, 66 

Settlement of Flushing, 15 

Sheriffs of Flushing, 55 

Skidmore, Samuel, 147 

Slaves, first importation of, 35 

Slavery, Indian, negro and white, 55 ; encouraged by 
Friends, 94 ; in Flushing, 137 ; Friends oppose, 152 ; aboli- 
tion of in New York, 176 

Smith, Col. Joshua, recruits for regiment of, 128 

Smith, Dr. J. Carpenter, 225 

Society, condition of in 1664, 55-58; at close of the Revolu- 
tion, 154-160 

Sports during Revolution, 134 

Stamp Act, 121 

Stages to New York, 173 

Steam-boats to New York, 179 

Stiles, Thomas, 15 

Sterling, William Earl of, 10, 19 ; his claims settled, 59 

Story, Thomas, Journal of, 86 

Streets improved, 218 

Strong, Dr. James, 266 

Stuy vesant, Peter, 30 ; character, 34 ; persecutes Friends, 40, 
41 ; rebuked, 45 ; visits Flushing, 53 ; death of, 60 



286 INDEX 



Talman, John, 124, 125 

Tavern in Fushing, 28 

Taxes, 77 

Tithes, 19, 35, 49 

Thanlisgiving Day, 76 

Thorne, William, 16, 23 

Thome, Thomas, 125, 130 

Thompson, Col. Benjamin, 149 

Tom, Nathanael, 124, 128 

Tories, vide Loyalists, 

Town meetings forbidden, 42 

Townsend, Henry, shelters Friends, 39 

Townsend, John, 15, 23 

Treadwell, Mr., 108, 110 

Trees in Flushing, 269 

Troops in Flushing, during Revolution, 140-143 

Trustees of the Village, 216 

U 

Underhill, Captain John, Schout of Flushing, 23 ; account 
of, 25-28; guilty of sedition, 32; his address, 33; turns 
against the Dutch 34 ; letter of, 43 ; Deputy Sheriff of 
North Riding, 62 

Union Hall, 168 

United Workers, 211 

Urquhart, Eev. William, 98 



Van Beyern, Anneke, 259 
Van Brugge, Carel, 73 
Vanderbilt, John, 131 
Vanderbilt, Jeremiah, 166 
Van Wyck, Cornelius, 131 
Verrazzano, Jean de, 2 
Village Association, 218-224 

W 
Wampum, 17, 18 

War of Rebellion, 202 ^ 

Washington, George, in Flushing, 165, 167 



INDEX 287 

Water system, 206 

Weed, John W. , 221, 222 

Weiser, Conrad, visits Gov. Clinton in Flushing, 103 

Wentworth, Capt. Hugh, 101 

Whitestone, 161, 226 

Wickendam, William, 37 

Willet, John, 125, 126 

Willet, Thomas, 127 

Willeta Point, 226 

Willets, Hannah, 210 

Winthrop, Gov. John, in Flushing, 53 

Wright, Capt. Jonathan, militaTj company of, 258 

Y 
Yorkshire, Flushing in North Biding of, 60; abolished, 78 
Young Men's Christian Association, 211 



m