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Full text of "Tamil self-taught : (in roman characters) with English phonetic pronunciation"

ASIA 

PL 

4753 

W63 

1905 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tliis book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924068360191 




TAMIL 



'^^-TA\y^^ 



This system teaches you the essentials 
of a language (for travel and en)oynient) 
without the drudgery of prolonged study 



3^6 



NET 



By 
Don M. de ZILVA WICKREMASINGHE 

Author of 

Tamil Grammar Self-Tau{ht 

Sinhalese Self-Tau{ht 

Mala/alam Self-Taught 

London : E. MARLBOROUGH & CO. LTD. 



Marlborough's 

Self-Taught Series 

of 
European and Oriental Languages 



DESIGNED primarily for TOURISTS and TRAVEL- 
LERS in Foreign lands who, without previous 
knowledge of the Language, desire to express themselves 
sufticiently to be understood, these books also form a good 
foundation for the more seriously minded student. 

The Method followed throughout the Series is to give 
Classified vocabularies and Conversational Phrases under 
Subjects, arranged in three columns giving first the English 
word or phrase, second the Foreign equivalent, and third 
the English phonetic pronunciation. This latter column 
makes correct pronunciation a simple matter. A section 
an Elementary Grammar is included in most cases and 
deals with the construction of sentences and any special 
peculiarites of the language, such as Genders, Tenses, Con- 
jugation of Verbs, etc. For the more important languages 
a separate volume on Grammar is published containing, in 
addition to a thorough treatise on Grammar, Exercises for 
translation. 



These books can be obtained through any bookseller. 
FOB COMPLETE UST OF LANGUAGES SEE PACE 4 OF COVEK 



MARLBOROUGH'S SELF-TAUGHT SERIES. 



Tamil SelMaugl\t. 

(IN ROMAN CHARACTERS.) 
WITH ENGLISH 

PHONETIC PRONUNCIATION. 



CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




3 1924 068 360 191 



Don M.de ZILVA WICKREMASINGHE,Hon.M.A.(Oxon.) 

Epigraphist to the Ceylon Oovernment; 

Lecturer im, Tamil and Telugu in the UnwersUy of Oxford ; 

Author of Tamiij Gbammab SoLF-TAuaHi. 




Second Edition, Revised. 



••UNTED IN GREAT BRITAIN. 



LONDON: 
E. MARLBOROUGH & CO., LTD. 

[All rights reserved.] 




PL 



CORNELL UNIVERSnY 

LIBRARY 

riHACA, N. Y. 14853 




LETCHWORTH 
^EN CITY PRES;. LTD. 
PRINTERS 



gUh Impression 



South Asia Collection 
KROCK T BEARY 



Printed and Made in Great Britain 



PEEFAOE. 



TPHIS volume of Tamil ia issued with a two-fold object, viz., as cm 
independent manual of spoken Tamil, and as a supplementary and 
companion volume to Tamil Qbammab Self-Tauoht (Marlbokoogh'b 
Sslf-TaugU Series, No. 19). 

It is primarily intended to supply a working and practical knowledge 
di the language, for the beneSt of those who have not the time or the 
Inclination to master the grammar, and yet require to use the spoken 
tongue for purposes of business or pleasure. With this in view many 
vocabularies are supplied, carefully selected to suit the needs of the Tamil 
countries and classified according to subject, and also a large number of 
colloquial phrases and sentences of a practical character, similarly classi- 
fied. Throughout these sections of the volume the pronunciation of the 
Tamil words is added, according to Marlborough's system of phonetics — 
a system which has grown out of long experience, and is of so simple a 
nature that, by means of it, a stranger to the language who knows 
English only, can read off the words at a glance and thus easily make 
himself understood amongst Tamil-speaking people. At the same time 
the Gbammab forms a useful book of reference on any point of construc- 
tion, etc., which may arise. 

To the student who has set himself to master the fifst volume — 
Tamiii Gbammab Self- Tauoht— this book offers a large amount of 
additional matter of an extremely useful kind. He can add largely to 
his stock of words by means of it, and the conversations furnish abundant 
material for exercise in writing and reading as well as in speaking TamU. 
The English-Tamil alphabetical Vocabulary is a most useful supplement 
to the classified lists of words in the earlier portion of the book, and 
forms the counterpart of the Tamil-English Vocabulary supplied in the 
Gbammab. 

Bach of these volumes is, therefore, the complement of the other, 
and together they suffice to give an excellent grounding in Tamil. In 
view of the importance of the problems of government now engaging 
attention in India, it is hoped that, by facilitating the acquisition of one 
of the principal tongues of the Indian Empire, these books may assist in 
strengthening the ties which bind British and Indian feUow-subjeots 
together. 

M. DE ZILVA WIOKREMASINGHE. 
The Indian Institute, 

Oxford, December, 1906. 



CONTENTS. 



ALPHABET, with English Phonetic Pronunciation 6 

Consonants 8 

Syllabic Characters 10 

Vowels ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ■.. 7 

Preliminabt Notes — Pronunciation, Accent, etc 12 

VocABniiABrEB (Classified). — Pages 13 to 43. 
Animals, Vegetables, etc. : — 

Animals, Birds, Fishes and Insects 16 

Trees, Fruits, Flowers, Vegetables, etc 17 

Colours 19 

Commercial and Trading Terms 35 

Fishing 40 

House and Furniture, The ... ... ... ... ... 31 

Land and Water ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 13 

Mankind: Belations ... ... ... ... ... ... 22 

Body, The Human 23 

Cooking and Bating Utensils 27 

Dress and Dressing ... ... ... ... ... ... 28 

Food and Drink 26 

Health 24 

Washing List 30 

Minerals and Metals 14 

Numbers, Cardinal 41 

Ordinal 42 

CoUective 43 

Post Office and Telegrams 39 

Professions and Trades 32 

Shooting and Fishing 40 

Times and Seasons 19 

Town and Country 21 

Travelling 34 

World and its Elements, The 18 



CONTENTS. 



CoNVBBSATioNAL Pheases AND SENTENCES — Pages 44 to 68 
Ohanging Money ... 
Commercial and Trading 
Expressions and Phrases, Useful and Necessary Idiomatic 

Expressions of Emotion 

Fishing 

Health 

Hotel, The 

Meals 

Breakfast 

Dinner ... 

Tea 

Money, Changing 

Tamil-American and American-Tamil Values 

Tamil-English and English-Tamil Values ... 

Tamil Money 

Notices 

Planting 

Postal Bates 

Post Office and Telegrams 

Public Works 

Railway, The 

Shooting 

Shopping 

Telegrams 

Time, The 

Town, In 



68 
62 
44 
47 
61 
54 
51 

52 
53 
54 
68 
95 
95 
96 
48 
67 
96 
56 
64 
49 
60 
59 
56 
55 
57 



English-Tamil Vocabulaet (alphabetical). — Pages 69 to 95. 

MoNRT, Weights and Measures. — Pages 95 and 96. 

Postal Bates 36 



TAMIL SELF-TAUGHT. 



THE ALPHABET AND PRONUNCIATION. 



The Tamil Alphabet contains thirty letters, viz., twelve 
vowels and eighteen consonants. 

From these are formed 216 syllabic characters, which are 
combinations of the consonants with the vowels in which the 
consonantal character is in some cases slightly modified in form 
and has a vowel-sign joined to it. 

In addition, there are a number of conventional abbreviated 
characters, etc., found in official documents and manuscripts. 
For these, the student is referred to Tamil Gbammab Sbu'- 
Taught — Volume No. 19 of this series, pages 18-14. 

In the Tamil language there are five primary vowel sounds, 
viz., a, i, u, e, o. Each of these, however, is represented by two 
characters which stand for the long and the short sound of the 
vowel respectively, and there are in addition two characters 
representing the diphthongs ai and au. 

There are thus twelve characters in the Tamil alphabet 
which stand for vowel sounds. These are used in two different 
ways, that is to say : 

(a) Initially, when they are represented separately by regular 

letters ; 
(6) Medially, or following and joined to a consonant to form 
a syllable, when the vowel is represented by a sign (in 
certain instances variable) attached to the consonantal 
character, excepting in the case of the vowel a, which 
is inherent in the consonant and not indicated by any 
sign, its absence being generally shown by a dot or a 
small circle over the consonant (see pages 10-11). 

In the following tables — pp. 7 to 9 — the initial and medial 
forms of the Tamil vowels are given, followed by the consonants, 
and to all are added their transliterative (Eoman) characters, 
and the phonetic signs by which the Tamil sounds are repre- 
sented in the third column throughout the classified Vocabularies 
and Conversations of which this volume chiefly consists. 

On pages 10 and 11 are the syllabic characters, also in the 
Tamil and Eoman types. 



1. Vowels or uyir-eruttugal ("life-letters"):- 



Tamil Characters. 


k 


Pronunciation. Phonetic 

Signs.* 


Initial. 


Medinl. 


s^ 


JH 




at 


Like 


It in cw<, or a in America u, ii 


-& 


ir, o 


a 


„ 


a in m<Aer or car ah 


@ 


9 


it 


»> 


iia ait i 


T or^ 


f» 


it 


»» 


i in routine, or ee in meet ee 


e. 


O. 1. -^ 


u 


If 


It in put, or 00 in good... ii 
When final, it is pro- 
nounced very slightly, 
and often like i. 


SM. 


O' e*> -=^' ■^ 


u 


„ 


u in rwfo, or 00 in /oo/... oo 


SI 


o 


ei 


»i 


e in elbow e 


sr 


G 


n 




a iu able, pane ay 

When initial, the short 
and long e are pro- 
nounced like ye in 
yee and yea respec- 
tively y«.yay 


§3 


ea, t 


ai 
ai 


f> 


ai in aisle, or ei in AeijrAt « 
When final, it is invari- 
ably pronounced like ei 
ia veil ay 


S» 


Q IT 





f» 


n pot 


» 


Q IT 


6 


tt 


in Tioble oh 


|P«rr 


Q <sir 


au 


ji 


ow in now ow 



* The notes on pronunciation on p, 12 serve to emphasize the 
distinctive character of the phonetic signs. 

f ^ a before rr r, 6U {, efr f , ^ r, ek n, and eissT if, at the end of a 
polysyllabic word, is pronounced somewhat like e in pen. 

i Before the cerebrals tl d, assr n, ifi r, err I, and p) i, these vowels 
are pronounced with some modification, as a "modified vowel" (umlaut) 
in German. 



2. Consonants or mey-eruttvgal (" body-letters ") : — 



Trans- 
literation. 



it 



Pronunciation. 



Phonetic 
Si"n8. 



Like ik in Tcite when initial, doubled, mute, 

or immediately after iL f or p t ... t 
Like g in regard in all other instances ... g, gb 
When interlocal, in Ceylon h 

Like ng in song ng 

When doubled, or after tl or jb, it has 
the sound of cfe in c^MrcA eh 

After @ w it is pronounced like j j 

JxL the case of words borrowed from San- 
skrit, it generally retains the sound of 
the original letter. 

In all other instances it is between e in 

sun emd sh in short sh 

Like ny in Bunyan (the Spanish n) ... nj 
When followed hj j, like ng in sponge ... ng 

Ab din door d 

When mute or doubled, it has the sound 
ot t in but t 

Cerebral* n uttered with the tij) of the 
tongue turned up and drawn back so 
as to touch the roof of the dome cf tlie 
palate n 

When initial, mute, or doubled, it has a 
sound between that of th in Thames 
and th in thick tli 

In all other instances it is pronounced 
like the Latin d, or the English th in 
these th 

In Sanskrit derivatives it more or less 
retains the sound of the orislnal. 



'Cerebral" indicates sounds made high up in the roof of the 



mouth. 



TrftTiB- 
literation. 



Pronunciation. 



Phonetic 
Signs. 



Lilce n in nut 

Like^ when initial, mute, or dmililed ... 

Li ice b when intervocal 

(In Sanskrit derivatives' it often retains 
the sound of the original letter.) 

As in English 



do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 



A wrebral having tin' combinL'J sound of 
r aid soft I, and pronounced by turn- 
ing up the tip of the tongue as far 
back as possible 

In Ceylon, however, it is pronounced like 
an ordinary English ? 

In the Tamil country it has often the 
sound of the s ia pleasure (the French y) 

A cerebral Z 

A hard, vibrating, half-palatal, half- 
cerebral r 

When mute or doubled, it is pronounced t 

Nearly the English n 

sir/D nra is pronounced ndra 

This letter is called the dydam, and is 
pronounced like ch in the Scotch word 
loch. It is used in poetry, when 
necessary for the metre 



P 
b 



ry 



n 
ndra 



8. The following table shows how the twelve medial-vowel 
signs are attached to the foregoing eighteen consonants, 
thereby producing 216 syllabic characters : — 



10 



COH- 
BOKAKTB. 


Absence 
of dot = 

a 


a 


i 


i 


u 


a 


A k 


a lea 


«/r ka 


BU 


S hi 


@ /cit 


aL izi 


lb li 


IB na 


iBir na 


ffifl ni 


ffif ni 


lE^ nu 


© nu 


#f 


# ga 


■g=ir fo 


9fi 


& ft 


# f M 


© f M 


© n 


(g5 na 


(gj/T" iid 


(s§l ni 


igf ni 


^$1 nu 


^5/r »i« 


1^4 


L- da 


i_(r rfa 


If di 


us. di 


® du 


® dM 


sm n 


earn na 


(6^ /2a 


6saf) ni 


«!!# ni 


emii na 


^aj nu 


^t 


^ ta 


;9ir <a 


fi ti 


^ ti 


J5) <M 


^ tu 


^ n 


js na 


;F/r nd 


jS ni 


/ rai 


JP MM 


^ nu 


up 


u pa 


uir pa 


iS pi 


iS pi 


q^M 


SstP^ 


u> m 


ua ma 


Larr md 


uS mi 


lB ml 


(LP mtt 


gp OTM 


iL y 


lu ya 


luir yd 


uS yi 


aS yi 


lij ^M 


e z'" 


/r r 


ST ra 


iriT rd 


(fl ri 


/f ri 


(Tj rw 


es ru 


eu 2 


su la 


eoir Id 


eSli 


eSli 


£1!) lu 


eoir lu 


a/ t; 


eu va 


exiiT vd 


s9 vi 


sS vi 


eif vu 


^ vu 


ipr 


Lp ra 


jfiir rd 


yS' ri 


Lfi n 


Of. ru 


(Lfi ru 


str / 


err la 


err IT Id 


grfi /i 


sif /i 


(§5 fu 


^ lu 


pr 


fl> t°' 


as v<^ 


flS ri 


/ ri 


j3/ ru 


jpr ru 


est n 


esr na 


igo) nd 


eah ni 


asF «i 


CT) nu 


epir nu 



u 















Coiriio- 


e 


5 


ai 


r 





au 


ITAHTB. 


Qa Tee 


Qs Ice 


si!)« Icai 


Qsir ko 


QsfT ko 


Oaerr hau 


A k 


QiB ne 


Qia ne 


ero/H nai 


Qiarr no 


QiBir no 


QiEieir nau 


IB n 


0# fe 


Q^ fe 


eaiff fai 


Qfir QO 


Qs=ir^o 


QiFeir Qau 


ff f 


0@ iie 


Q(^ iie 


«ro^ nai 


Oq/t Ho 


^(Sj/r no 


0®®ff Haw 


© » 


GiL.de 


Ql. de 


ssiL- dai 


Qi—ir do 


Ql-it do 


Qi-en dau 


L- d 


Qsmsr ne 


Qeasr ne 


Sssjr nai 


0(6OT) no 


(?iOT) no 


Qemeivnaii 


^T n 


Q/S te 


Q^te 


ea^ tai 


QfitT to 


Q^IT to 


Glfisir tau 


^t 


QjB ne 


Qjs ne 


aBjB nai 


QjEir no 


Qpn no 


QjB eir nau 


^ n 


Qu pe 


Qu pe 


eau pai 


Qurr po 


Quit po 


Queir pail 


up 


Gia me 


(Sld me 


eiBLD nun 


QiMiT mo 


Qmir mo 


Otcsrr mau 


(i TO 


Oiu ye 


Qtu ye 


eauj yai 


Qiuir yo 


Qiuir yd 


Oiueir yau 


ih y 


Qir re 


QjT re 


esjT rai 


QjTfT ro 


QjriT ro 


Queir rau 


/r r 


Oeu le 


Qeo le 


Ssu lai 


Qeoir lo 


QeoiT Id 


Qevm lau 


EU 2 


Qeu ve 


Qeu ve 


easii vai 


Qeuir vo 


Qeuir vo 


Offljstr vau 


aj V 


Qifi fe 


Qifi re 


eatfi rai 


QifiiT ro 


Qjfiir fo 


Qtfim rau 


ifi r 


Oeir le 


Qeir fe 


8sir lai 


Qetrir lo 


Qeirir lo 


Qsireir lau 


eir I 


Qp re 


Qpre 


eap rai 


QqP ro 


Qqij ro 


Qpeir rau 


pr 


QsBT ne 


Qenr ne 


^' nai 


0@i no 


(?(eB) no 


Offlsrstr nau 


eir It 



12 
PRELIMINARY NOTES, 



Pronunciation. — The student is- recommended to master 
the pronunciation at the outset. The precise use and value of 
each phonetic sign are shown on pages 7 to 9, which should be 
studied carefully. The following additional explanations will 
be of service : — 

*The principles on which Marlborough's system of phonetics 
is based are : (1) the employment of English characters with 
their ordinary pronunciation (or one of their sounds, where more 
than one), with as sparing a use as possible of diacritic signs; 
and (2) one sign, one sound. Where, therefore, a " sign " (i.e., 
letter or letters) might be variously sounded — and this applies 
to each of the English vowels and some of the consonants — its 
particular use in the scheme of phonetics should be carefully 
noted, and each sign must always be sounded in the same manner 
wherever it occurs [one sign, one sound) ; any letter or combina- 
tion of letters printed in italics or with any mark added has a 
special use which must be learnt. Thus : — 

u represents (always and only) the sound of u in bun, turn. 

u „ the sound of e in other, filbert, &o. 

u „ ,, ,, M in pull, or oo in foot. 

00 „ „ „ u in rude, or oo in boor. 

i >• i> X ' or 2/ in. pity. 

i (ital.) „ „ ,, i in mine or I (i.e., a diphthong). 

e ,, ,, ,, « in men, merry. 

ay „ ,, ,, a iu able, pane (i.e., a simple sound, 

not diphthongized), 
ayiitaX.) „ „ „ ay (diphthong) in day, play, 

ch (ital.) „ „ „ ch in the Scotch word loch, 

gh is written for g before e and i to preserve the hard sound of g as 

in regard. 
ow represents the sound of ow in cow, now. 
rr „ one strong sound, the two r's not to be sounded 

separately. 
th ,, the sound of th in with, both, 

th (ital.) ,, „ ,, th in they, breathe. 

For the cerebrals n and I, also for ng, ny, and ry, see Alphabet. 
Tonic Accent. — It should be noted that the first syllable 
of a Tamil word has, as a general rule, a fuller intonation than 
the remaining syllables of the word. 

• This paragraph ia adapted from Tamil Qrammar Self-Taught (Marlborough's 
BeK-Taught Series.) 



VOCABULARIES.* 



The World and its Elements. 

( Ulagam-um adan putangal-um.) 



English. 


Tamil (romanized). 


Pronunciation. 


Air 


vdyu 


vahyu 


cloud 


megam 


maygum 


cold 


kuUr 


kii^ir 


darkness 


irul 


iruJ 


dew 


pani 


puni 


earth 


pumi 


boomi 


East 


kirakku 


ki-ryukka 


lire 


neruppu 


neriippu 


fog 


mudu-pani 


moodu-puni 


hail 


dldnkatti 


ahlahng-kutti 


heat 


qudu 


shoodu 


light 


oli 


oil 


lightning 


minnal 


minnul 


moon 


qandiran 


shuntMriin 


moonlight 


nila 


nil ah 


nature 


gubdvam, iyalbu 


shubahvum, iyulbu 


North 


vadakku 


vudukku 


rain 


mardi 


muryay 


rainhow 


vdna-vil 


vahnuvil 


shade 


niral, e&ydi 


ni-ryul, ohahyay 


shadow, refleotion 


pirativimbam 


piruthivimbum 


sky 


vdnam 


vahnum 


South 


tetku, ten 


thefku, then 


sun 


guriyan 


shooriyun 


thunder 


idi 


idi 


water 


nlr, tannir 


neer, thunneer 


West 


metku, mil 


mayfku, mayl 


wind 


kaku 


kahttu 



2. Land and Water. 

karai 
kadat-karai 



Bank (of a river 
coast [or lake) 

foam 
hiU 



nnrai 
mal'di 



{Nilam-tan nir-um.) 

kurai/ 

kudut-kuray 
maay 
TQMlay 



• For the absence of Abtiolbb in Tamil, and for Gskdeb, see Tamil Grammar 
Self-Taught, page 25. 



14 



Bngllsh. 


Tamil (romantzed). 


Pronimclfttion. 


ice 


iirai-nir 


lirray-neer 


island 


dlvu 


tAeevu 


lake 


Sri 


(y)ayri 


land 


nilam 


nilum 


mountain 


maldi 


ravXay 


mud 


qeru 


shayrru 


plain 


veli 


veZi 


pond 


kulam 


kuMm 


river 


aru 


ahrru 


rook 


pardi, kan-maldi 


pahrray, kuu-mula^ 


sand 


manal 


munul 


sea 


kadal 


kudiil 


shore 


kardi, tirain 


kuray, theeriim 


star 


tdragdi 


thahrii-gat/ 


storm 


puyal 


puyul 


stream 


nir-ottam 


neer-ohfctum 


tank 


kulam, eri 


kuZum, (y)ayri 


tide (high, low) 


etiam, vattam 


(y)ayitum, vufium 


valley 


pallattdkku 


puMiith-thahkku 


water (fresh) 


nalla-tannir 


nullu-thuwneer 


— (salt) 


uppu-t-tannlr 


upputh-thu«?!eer 


waterfall 


aruvi 


uruvi 


wave 


aldi, tirdi 


ulay, thiray 


well 


kinaru 


kinurru 



3. Minerals and Metals. {Niraqa-c 


Brass 
bronze 


pittaldi 
venyalam 


cement 
chalk 
clay 
coal 


paqdi, pattu 
gimdic-cunndmhu 
kali-man 
kari 


copper 
coral 
diamond 
emerald 


qembu 
pavalam 

vajjira-mani, vayi- 
maragadam [ram 


glass 


kannadi 


gold 

granite 

gravel 


pon, tangam 
karu n-gal 
parunianal 



•astugal-vm uldgangal-um.) 

piththuZaj/ 

venguliim 

pushay, pu'ttu 

sheemai/oh chuwnahmbu 

kuZi-mun 

kuri 

shembu 

puvuZum 

vujjiru-muMi, vuyirum 

murugu«/tum 

kurenahdi 

pon, thung-gum 

kurung-Kul 

puru-muwul 



15 



Bnglish. 



iron 

lea') 

lime 

maible 

mercury 

pearl 

plumbago 

ruby 

sappbire 

silver 

soda 

steel 

stone 

tin 



Tamil (ronmnlzed). 


PronaDeiatlOB 


irumbu 


irumbu 


iyani 

qunndmbu 
ven-gal, mak-kal 


eeyum 
shuwwahmba 
vew-gul, mahk-kul 


ira^am 
muttu 


irusbum 
muttu 


kar-iyum 
mdnikkam 


kahr-eeyum 
mahwikkum 


nila-mani 


neela-muwi 


velli 


ve/i!i 


uvar-man 


uvur-muw 


ehku, urukku 


ecAku, urukku 


kal 


kul 


tagaram 


tbugfirum 



4. 



Anima' 

ant 

barking 

bear 

bird 

bleating 

braying 

bull 

a calf 

cat 

cattle 

cock 

cow 

crab 

crow 

dog 

donkey 

duck 

eagle 

eel 

elephant 

feather 

fish 



Animals, Birds, 

(Miruyam, patci, 

mirugam 

erwnbu 

kuldippu 

karadi 

kuruvi, para, 

kadarudal 

kanaippu 

erudu, kdldi 

kanrii 

pimdi 

adivmadu 

geval, kori 

pagu, madu 

nandu 

kdkkdi 

nay 

karuddi 

tdr$ 

karugu 

malaHgu 

anai 

iragu 

min 



Fishes and Insects. 

mm, pucci ddigal.) 

mirughum 

(y)errumbu 

kula^ppti 

kurudi 

kuruvi, purruvay 

kutAurrut/iul 

kunayppu 

(y)eruf/iu, kahZay 

kundru 

poonay 

ahdumahdu 

shayyfil, koh-ryi 

pushu, mahdu 

nundu 

kahkkay 

nahy 

kn-Tj^thay 

thahrah 

ku-ryQgu 

mulung-ga 

(y)fkhnay 

irdigu 

meen 





16 




English. 


Tamil (romanized). 


Pronanciation. 


fox 


nari 


nuri 


goat 


vellddu 


veZJahdii 


he-goat 


vellattuk-kadd 


veZZahttukkudah 


she-goat 


velldttii-mari 


veZZahttu-murri 


goose 


vdttii, iierun-tdrd 


vahththu, perun-thahrab 


hair 


mayir 


muyir 


hare 


muqal 


mushul 


hen 


pettdik-kori 


pettaykkoh-ryi 


herd 


manddi 


vaxaithay 


hoof 


kulambu, kuram 


kuZiimbu, kuram 


horn 


kombu, kodu 


kombu, kohdu 


horse 


kudirdi 


'kvithiray 


lamb 


attukkutti 


ahttukkutti 


hon 


(jingam 


shing-giim 


mane 


pidar-mayir 


pidiir-muyir 


monkey 


kurangu 


kuriing-gu 


mosquito 


koqugu 


koshu-gu 


mouse 


qund'eli 


shuredeli 


mule 


koveru-karuddi 


kohvayrru-kuryu^/tai, 


mungoose 


kiri 


keeri 


owl 


dnddi 


ehwthay 


ox 


mddu, eritdu 


mahdii, erutAu 


oysters 


qifipi, ippi 


shippi, ippi 


parrot 


kili 


kiZi 


paw 


nagam 


nugum 


peafowl 


mayil 


muyil 


pig 


panri 


pundri 


pigeon 


purd 


purrah 


prawn 


irdl 


irrahl 


quail 


kdddi 


kahday 


rat 


eli 


(y)eli 


salt fish 


uppu-min 


uppu-meen 


(dried) 


karuvddu 


kuruvahdu 


salt-pan or pit 


vpp'alam 


upp'uZum 


shark 


gurd-min 


shurrah-meen 


sheep 


ddu 


abdu 


shrimp 


iravu 


(y)irruvu 


silkworm 


pattu-nut-pucd 


puttu-noot-poooh-chj 


snake 


pdmbu 


pahmbu 


snipe 


uUdn-kuruvi 


uZZahn-kuruvi 



17 



English. 



sparrow 

spider 

squirrel 

stork 

swallow 

swan 

tail 

teal 

tiger 

trout 

turkey 

turtle (tortoise) 

vulture 

whiting 

wing 

wolf 

woodpecker 

wood-pigeon 



Tamil (romanized). 



urkkuruvi 

qilandi 

anil 

ndrdi, kokku 

tukkanan- kuruvi 

anna-p-patci 

vdl 

giragi, kiluvdi 

puli 

attu- (or kula'-) mln 

vdn-kori 

dmdi 

irdjdli 

kirangdn-min 

qiragu 

ondy 

taccan-kuruvi 

kdttup-ptird 



PronaQclation. 



oork-kuruvi 
shiluntAi 

UMil 

nahray, kokku 

thookkiiTCung - kuruvi 

unniip-putchi 

vahl 

shirrughi, kiiuvay 

puli 

ahtfu- (or kuZa'-) meen 

vahn-koh-ryi 

ahiaay 

irahjahZi 

kiryung-gahn-meen 

shirriigu 

ohnahy 

thu ch - chun - kuruvi 

kahttup-purrah 



5. Trees, Fruits, Flowers, Vegetables, &o. 

(Marangal, parangal, pugal, klrdigal, mudaldnavdigal.) 



Apple (wood-) 

— (custard-) 

— pujube-) 

— (rose-) 
banana (fruit) 
bark 
beans 
bouquet 
branch 
cabbage, 
chilli 
cinnamon 
cloves 
cocoanut 
cocoanut-palm 
oucumber 
ebony 
fern 

Tamil B.-T. 



(See Shopping, p. 6S.] 

vildm-param \nund 
^ttdp-param, ani- 
ilanddip-param 
janibu -ndvai-param 
vdraipparam 
pattdi 
avardi 
pun-qendu 
kombu 
cauli- kovis-kirdi 
[flower milagdy 

karuvdp -pattdi 

kirdmbu 

tengdy 

tenna-maram 

kakkari, vellarikkdy 

karungdli 

nirvembu 



vilahm-puryiim [inunah 

sheeth-thahp-puryum,u»- 

ilunthayp-puryum 

jumbu nahvut-puryiim 

vah -ryayp -pury iim 

puttay 

uvuray 

poofip-shewdu 

kombu 

gohvis-keeroy 

miZugahy 

kurruvahp-puttay 

kirahmbu 

thayng-gahy 

thennii-murum 

kukkuri, veZZiirikkahy 

kurung-gahli 

neervaymbu 



18 



EngUsh. 


Tamil (romanlzed). 


fig 


attip-param 


fig-tree 


atti-maram 


— (banian) 


dla-maram 


fir-tree 


tevaddru 


flower 


pu 


garlic 


velldi-vengdyam 


gjoger 


inji 


— (dried) 


qukku 


grapes 


mundirigdip -param 


kernel 


kottdi, paruppu 


leaf 


ildi 


lemon 


elumiccdi 


lily (water-) 


tdmardi 


lime 


elumiccan-gdy 


mace 


gddipattiri 


mango 


mdngdy, mdm- 


melon 


kommatti [param 


mulberry 


mtigukkattdiccedi 


nut 


kottdi 


nutmeg 


qddikkdy 


oak-tree 


karuvdli- mar am 


olive 


oUva-maram 


opinm 


abin 


orange 


ndrattam-para m. 


palmyra palm 


pandi 


peas 


payaru 


pepper 


milagu 


pineapple 


anndqip-param 


plantain 


vdrdip-param 


plum 


tirdtcap-param 


pomegranate 


mddaldi 


poppy 


kagakagd 


potatoes 


uru Idik-kirangu 


rape-seed 


ellu 


reed 


ndnal 


root 


ver, kirangu 


rose 


mutcewandi, rogd 


saffron 


manjal 


sago 


javvari^ 


tea-leaf 


te-yildi 



Pronanciatlon. 



uththip-puryum 

uththi-murum 

ahlu-murum 

*Aayviitfeihrn 

poo 

veZZay-veng-gahyiim 

ing\\ 

shukkii 

mtintAirigayp-puryiim 

kottai/, puruppu 

(y)ilay 

(y)eluniioh-cliay 

thahmuray 

(y)elumich-chung-gahy 

jahi/iiputh-thiri 

mahng-gahy, mahm- 

kouimutti [puryum 

mushukkuttaych-chedi 

kottai/ 

jahtMkkahy 

kuruvahli-muriim 

oleevii-murum 

ubin 

nahruth-thum-puiyim 

punay 

puyurru 

miZugu 

unnahsbip-puryum 

vahryayp-puryum 

thirahtchup-puryujr 

mahtMiej^ 

kushukushah 

uruZaj/k-kiryunggu 

(y)eZZu 

nahwul 

vayr, kiryiinggu 

mutchevvuntAi, rohshah 

mungjuZ 

juwurishi 

thay-yilay 



19 



English 


Tamil (romanlzed). 


Pronunciation. 


teak-tree 


tekku 


thaykku 


tobacco 


pugdi-yildi 


pugay-yllay 


tomato 


takkali 


tukkahZi 


tree -trunk 


adi-maram 


udi-murum 


vine 


tirdtcakkodi 


thirahtchuk-kodi 


walnut 


kadukkay 


kudukkahy 



6. Colours. {Nirangal.) 



Black 


karuppu 


kurruppii 


blue 


nllam 


neelum 


brown 


uda-niram 


oot/iah-nirrum 


crimson 


karun-givappu 


kurun^-shivuppu 


dark 


kar-niram 


kahr-nirrum 


green 


pacodi, paqxnndi 


puch-chay, pushnmay 


grey 


velirina-niram 


veHrrinu-nirriim 


light (pale) 


numganiram 


munggu'nirrum 


orange 


gembidam [lam 


shembee«Mm 


pink 


ilan-givappu, pata- 


iZuMgr-shivuppu, pahtulum 


purple 


indira-nilam 


int/iiru-neeliun 


tumira-varnam 


thoomiru-vurwiim 


red 


givappu, gemmdi 


shivuppii, shemmay 


violet 


nila-qemmai 


neelu-shemmay 


white 


vmmdi, velldi 


venmay, -vellay 


yellow 


manjal-niram 


vaangj uZ-nirrum 


7. Tin 


les and Seasons. 


{Edla-vagdi.) 




(Fop ConvereatlonB Bee pa 


ie ».) 


Afternoon 


pinneram, pitpagal 


pinnayriim, pitpugul 


birthday 


piranda-ndl 


pirruniM-nahZ 


Christmas 


Kiristu-piranda- 


kirristhu-pirruni/iu -puw- 


date 


tedi [pandigdi 


thayiAi [digay 


dawn 


vidiyat-kdlam 


vidiyut-kahluTTi 


day 


ndl, tinam 


nahZ, thhmm 


day-time 


pagal 


pugul 


day, to- 


inru, inrdikku 


indru, indraykku 


days of the week 


kiramdigal 


kiryiimayguZ 


Sunday 


ndyittuk-kiramdi 


nyahyittuk-kiryuTnay 


Monday 


tingat-kiramdi 


thinggut-kiryumay 


Tuesday 


qemidyk-kiramdi 


shewahyk- kiryumay 


Wednesday 


pudan-kirmndi 


putMn-kiryfimay 



20 



English. 


Tajnil (romanized). 


Pronunciation. 


Thursday 


viyarak-kirama i 


viyahryuk-kiryumay 


Friday- 


veUik-kiramdi 


veZZik-kiryumai/ 


Saturday 


ganik-kiramiii 


shunik-kiryuma?/ 


Easter 


Kiristu uyirtt' eruii- 


kirristhii uyirthtli'eryun 




da tirunal 


thu thirii-nahi 


evening 


gdyan-kdlaiii 


shahyung-kahlum 


fortnight 


irandu-kiraiiidi 


iruTidii-kiryumay 


Good-Friday 


peru-vellik-kiramdi 


peru-veWik-kiryiima!/ 


holiday 


vdvu 


vahvu 


hour 


ordi, mani-neram 


ohray, mu?ii-nayrum 


— , half-an- 


ardi-mani-neram 


urny-mu?zi-nayriim 


— , Tamil (24 


ndrigdi 


nah-ryigay 


mid day [minutes) 


mattiydnam 


muth-thiyahniim 


midnight 


nadurdttiri 


nudu-rahth-thiri 


Midsummer 


naduk-koddi 


nuduk-kohdoy 


minute 


mnddi, nimiQam 


vinahdi, nimishiim 


month 


mddam, mdt;aiii 


mahthnm, mahshum 


month by month 


m.dga-vidgam 


mahsha-mahshum 


months (the) 


mddaugal 


mahthung-gul 


April-May 


glttirdi 


shith-thira?/ 


May-June 


vaiydgi 


vigahshi 


June-July 


dni 


ahni 


July-August 


ddi 


ahdi 


August- Sept. 


dvani 


ahviini 


September-Oct. 


purattdqi 


puruttahshi 


October-Nov. 


aij)pagi 


tppushi 


November-Dec. 


kdrttigdi 


kahrth-thigay 


December-Jan. 


mdrgari 


mahr-guryi 


January-Feb. 


tai 


thi 


February- March 


magi 


mahshi 


March-April 


panguni 


pungguni 


morning 


kdlame, kdlni 


kahlumay, kahlay 


this morning 


inru-kdlame 


indrii-kahlumay 


to-morrow 


ndldi, ndldikku 


nahlay, nahlayhku 


night 


ird, irdttiri 


irah, irahth-thiri 


noon 


nadup-pagal 


nudup-pugul 


seasons : 


kdlanga I 


kahlunggiiZ 


Spring 


vaganta-kdlam 


vushiinthTi-kahlum 


Summer 


koddik-kdlam 


kohdayk-kahlum 


Autumn 


kani-kdlam 


kuni-kahlum 



21 



English. 

Winter 

rainy season 
second 
sunrise 
sunset 
week 
year 
yesterday 



Bridge 

cathedral 

church 

country 

ditch 

farm 

farmer 

fence 

field 

foot-path 

forest 

gate 

grass 

hut 

inn 

jungle 

log 

market 

meadow 

mile 

miU 

monument 

palace 

road 

school 

shepherd 

shop 

sign-post 



Tamil (romanized). 


Pronunciation. 


qitala-kdlam 


sheetuZu-kahlum 


mdri-kalam 


mahri-kahlum 


nimiqam 


nimishiim 


udayam 


ut/tuyum 


astamanam 


usthumunflm 


vox am, kiramdi 


vahrum, kiryumay 


varusham, andu 


vurushiim, ahwdu 


nettu 


nayttu 



8. Town and Country. (Ndttu-vagdi.) 



(For ConverBationB Bee page 57.) 



pdlam 

piraddnadevdlayam 
kovil, devdlayam 
nddu, deqam 
agar, pallam 
kambattam, kdni 
veldnmdikkdran, 

payir-geygiravan 
veil 

vayal, veli 
adippddu, qiru-pd- 
kddu, vanam [ddi 
vagal 
pul 

kudigdi 
qattiram 
hddu 
kattdi 
kaddi 
puttardi, paqumpun- 
mayil [nilam 

endiram, tirigdi 
ndbagakkurippu 
aranmandi, mdligdi 
vari 

pallikkHdaTn 
meyppan, iddiyan 
kaddi, qdppu 
vari-katti-tu"' 



pahlum 

pirudahnu t^ayvahliiyum 
kohvil, fAayvahluyum 
nahdu, t/iayshum 
ugiiry, puWum 
kumbuth-thum, kahni 
vayiahn-maj/kkahrun, 
puyir-sheyghiruvun 
vayli 

vuyiil, veil 

udippahdu, shiri5-pah- 
kahdu, vunum [thay 

vahshul 
pul 

kudishai/ 
shuth-thirum 
kahdu 
kuttaj/ 
kudaj/ 

puitura!/, pushum-pun- 
muyil [nilum 

aynf/iiriim, thirigay 
nyahbiigukkurrippu 
urujimunay, mahZigay 
vu-ryi 

puMikkoodiim 
mayp-pun, idoj/yiin 
kudaj/, shahppu 
vuryi-kahtti-thoon 



22 



Englisb. 


Tamil (romanized). 


Pronunciation. 


square 

straw 

street 

temple 

town 

town -hall 

university 

village 


(gatiikkam 

vaikkol 

tei'u, vidi 

kovil, devastdnam. 

nagaram, pattanam. 

nagara-mdligdi 

sarva-kald-qangarn 

ur, girdmam 


shuthiikkum 

vikkohl 

therii, veetAi 

kohvil, tAayviisthahnum 

nugiiriim, puttiiniim 

nugiirii-mahftgay 

survu-kulah-sung-giim 

oor, ghirahmiim 



9. Mankind : Relations. (Nara-vagdi : uravu-murdi.) 



Aunt ; mother-in- 
brother (elder) [law 

— (younger) 

— -in-law ; cousin 
cousin (f.J; sister- 
in-law 

daughter 
daughter-in-law 
father 

■'ather-in-law 
father's father 

— elder brother 

— younger do. 

— mother 

— sister 

— sister's husband 
grand-son ; -daugh- 
husbaud [ter 
husband's sister 
man 
mother 
mother's father 

— mother 
sister (elder) 

— (younger) 
son 

son-in-law 
stepmother 
uncle (mother's 
widow [broti- -n)' 



mdmi, audi 
awnan, tamdiyan 
tambi [nan 

maittunan, macci- 
maittuni, maccinicci 

magal, kumdratti 

marumagal 

tagappan, tanddi 

mdman 

tdtd, pdttan 

periya tagappan 

giriya tagappan 

pdtti 

attai 

ainmdn 

peran; pertti 

purugan 

ndtti 

manidan, dl 

tdy, avimd 

pdttan 

ammdyi 

akkdl 

tangni 

magan, puttiran 

manimagan 

viaru-tdy 

111 dman 

kaim-pen, mdariii 



mahmi, uth-thay 
unnnn, thuma?/yiin 
thumbi [nun 

mith-thiiniin, much-chi- 
mith-thiini, much-chi- 

nich-chi 
mugliZ, kiimahriith-thi 
murumugiiZ 
thugiippiin, thunthay 
mahmiin 

thah-thah, paht-tiin 
periyCi thuguppiin 
shirriyii thuguppiin 
pahtti 
uth-thay 
ummahn 

payriin ; payrth-thi 
puriishiin 
nahth-thi 
munitAun, ahZ 
thahy, ummah 
pahttiin 
ummahyi 
ukkahZ 
thung-gay 

mugfin, puth-thiriin 
muriimugiin 
murru-thahy 
mahmiin 
kim-pen, vitAiivay 



28 



jsngUsh. 


Tamil (romanized). 


Pronunciation. 


widower 
wife 

— (elder) 

— (younger) 
wife's sister 
woman 


daram-irandavan 

man'divi, pen^adi 

mutta-daravi 

ildiya-ddram 

koriindi 

Ktiri, pen 


i/ialirum-iryunt/iuvun 

munaj/vi, pensliahtAi 

mooth-thu-«/iahriim 

ilaj/yu-(/iahrum 

koryuntAi 

sthiri, pen 



10. The Human Body. (9 


arirdvayavahgal.) 


Ankle 


kanukkdl 


kunukkahl 


arm 


buyam, karam 


buy urn, kurum 


arm-pit 


kakkam, akkiil 


kukkum, ukkui 


back 


mtidugu 


mu^Mgu 


beard 


tddi, miqdi 


thahdi, meeshay 


blood 


irattam, udiram 


iruththum, ut/iirum 


body 


qarlram, vdambu 


shureerum, udumbfl 


bones 


elwmbu 


elumbu 


bowels 


kudal 


kudul 


brain 


muldi, buddi 


moolay, bGddi 


breast, chest 


mdrbu, nenju 


mahrbti, nengija 


cheek 


kannam 


kunnfim 


chin 


movdykkattdi 


mohvahykkntta^ 


complexion 


qanra-varnavi 


shureeru-vuumm 


ears (external) 


kddu, gevi 


kahthn, shevi 


elbow 


mura'Mcai 


muryung-ki 


eye; eyeball 


kan; kan-viri 


kuw; kun-viryi 


eyebrow 


nettippuruvam 


netfippuruviiin 


eyelid 


kan-mndnl 


kuw-mudul 


face 


mugam 


mugum 


fingers 


kai-viral, anguli 


ki-virul, ung-guli 


foot 


adi, pddam 


udi, pahthum 


forehead 


netti, nudal 


netti, nufAul 


groin 


atdipputtu 


ura^ppoottti 


hair 


mayir, uromam 


muyir, urohmum 


hand 


kai 


\i 


head 


taldi, qiragu 


thulay, shiriisha 


heart 


irudayam 


irutMyum 


heel 


kudikkdl 


kufMkkahl 


hip 


iduppu 


iduppu 


jaw 


tdddi, alagu 


thahdflsy, uliigii [ 


kidneys 


mdngdyiral, niriral 


mahng-gahy-eerfll, 



[eerul 



24 



English. 


Tamil (roiuanized). 


Pronuneiatiou. 


knee 


muran-kdl 




mtiryiing-kahl 


leg 


kdi 




kabl 


lip 


udadu 




utAudu 


liver 


iral, kalliral 




eeriil, kulleerul 


lung 


velUral, quvaqaqa- 


veZteerul, shuvahshah- 


moustache 


mlgdi 


[yam 


meeshay [shuyum 


mouth 


vay 




vahy 


nails 


nagam 




nugiim 


neck 


karuttu 




kuryuth-thu 


nose 


mukku, naqi 




mookku, nahshi 


ribs 


vila-v-elumhu 




vilah-v-elumbu 


shoulders 


tol, buy am 




thohZ, buyum 


side 


vild 




Yilah 


skin 


tol 




tohl 


skull 


talaiyodu, manddi 


thulaj/yohdu, mundai/ 


spine 


mudug' elumbu 




miii/iiig'elumbu 


stomach 


vayiru, irdikkudal 


vuyiru, iraj/kkudul 


temples 


kannappori 




kunnupporri 


throat 


tonddi 




thoMday 


thumb 


peruviral 




peruvirul 


toe 


kdl-viral 




kahl-virul 


tongue 


nd, ndkku 




nah, nahkku 


tooth 


pal 




pul 


wrist 


manikkattu 




muwikkuttti 



11. Health. (Qostattdi-k-kiirittu.) 

(For ConverBations see page 'i4.) 



Accident 


iddiyura 


ida//yoorru 


bandage 


kavanam, kdyakkat- 


kuvuMum, kahyukkuttu 


bile 


pittam [tu 


pith-thum 


bite 


kadi 


kudi 


— , snake- 


pdmbu-kadi 


pahmbu-kudi 


blindness 


kurudu 


kurudu 


blister 


koppulam 


kopptiZum 


bruise 


naqivu [kdyam 


nushivti [yun 


burn 


qudu, qud'unda- 


shoodu, shood'tiwdii-kah 


chemist's shop 


m arunduccdldi 


murun«/iuch-chahlai/ 


chill 


kulir 


ktiZir 


cholera 


vdndi-pedi 


vahnt/ii-payt/n 


contagion 


toUu-viyddi 


thot-tu-viyahtAi 



25 



English. 


Tamil (romanized). 


Pronunciatloii. 


corns 


ani, kdyppu 


ahni, kahyppu 


cough 


irumal 


irumul 


cramp 


vali, irppu 


vuli, eerppu 


cure 


parikdram 


purikahriim 


deaf 


gevidu 


shevidu 


dentist 


danta-vaittiijan 


t/sunthii-viththiyun 


diarrhoea 


vayiftuppdkku 


vittuppohkku [yum 


diet 


gdppddu, pattiyam 


shahppahdu, puth-thi- 


disease, illness 


viyddi, noy 


viyahtM, nohy 


doctor 


vaittiyan 


vtththiyun 


draught 


marunduk-kudippu 


murunthtik-kudippu 


dumb 


umdi, mugai [ram 


oomay , moogay [shahrum 


dysentery 


iratta-pedi, atiqd- 


iruth-thu-payt/d, uthi- 


exercise 


parakkam, payitci 


puryiikkum, puyitchi 


to faint 


mured 


moorch-chi 


fatigue 


ilaippu 


iZai/ppu 


fever 


kdyccal, juram 


kahych-chul, jurum 


— and ague 


nalir-jtiram 


nuZir-jurum 


— , enteric 


viga-juram 


vishu-juriim 


— , intermittent 


murdikkdyccal 


murraj/kkahych-chiil 


fracture 


uddivu 


udoyvu [rohgum 


gout 


guldi-noy, vdta-ro- 


shoolay - nohy, vahthu- 


headache 


taldi-novu {j/am 


thulaiz-nohvu 


ill, sick 


qugam-illdda, quga- 


shtigum-illahtM, shtigu- 


indigestion 


aqlranam \mna 


usheeruwum [veenu 


inflammation 


erivu 


erivu 


lame 


nondi 


nondi 


medicine 


marundu, auqadam, 


muruniM, owshu^Aum 


nurse 


tddi, kait-tdy, qevi- 


thahthi, kith-thahy, shevi- 


ointment 


tailam [littdy 


thiliim [lith-thahy 


pain 


novu, uldivu, vali 


nohvu, ulayvu, vuli 


paralysis 


timir 


tliimir 


pill 


mdttirdi 


mahth-thiray 


poison 


nanju,vigam[nd!iam, 


nuw^ju,vishiim [nahgum 


poultice 


pukkdi, pafiu, aba- 


pukkay, puttu, ubu- 


prescription 


vdgadamurdi 


vahgudfi m urray 


quinine 


kinin-marundu 


kinin-murun«/iu 


remedy 


parikdram 


purikahriim 


rest 


ilinppdHi. oyvu 


iZaj/ppahtti, oyvu 


scald 


venda-fjun 


ventM-puw 



26 



BngUsh. 


Tftmll (romanized). 


ProDunciation. 


scratch 


kiru, pirandu 


keerru, pirrahwdii 


lore 


pun 


pun 


sprain 


qulukku, ulukku 


shuZukku, uZCikku 


sting 


kodukku 


kodukku 


surgeon 


qattira-vaittiyan 


shuth-thirii-vtththiyun 


tonic 


balavirttiyauqadam 


bulu-virththi-yowshii- 


wound 


kdyam, pun 


kaliyum, puM [thum 


12. Food and Drink. 


(Annapdnam.) 


Bee also pages 15 to 10. For ConversatlonB see pages 53—64.) 


Bacon 


panri-yiraicci-vat- 


pundriyirraychohi-vnttiil 


beef 


mattirdicci [tal 


mahttirrayoh-chi 


bottle 


qittdi, putti, qiqa, 


shith-thay, butti, sliee- 


bread 


urotti, appam 


urotti, uppiim [siiah 


breakfast 


kdldiccappddu 


kahla!/ch-chahppahdu 


butter 


venney 


veMwey 


cake 


jmniydram 


puwiyaliriim 


cheese 


pdldddikkatti 


pahkhdaj/kkutti 


chocolate 


qokolet 


shokolayt 


claret 


kilarat 


kiMrut 


coffee 


kdppi 


kahppi 


cream 


dddi, pdledu 


ahday, pahlaydu 


curry 


kari 


kurri 


dinner 


tlni 


theeni 


egga 


muttai 


nmtiay 


fat 


koruppu, ney 


koryuppu, ney 


fish 


mln 


meen 


floui 


md 


mah 


honey 


ten, madu 


thayn, mutAu 


ice 


urainda nir [jam 


utraynthu neer 


jam 


inippukkurambii, 


inippukkuryumbti, jahm 


kidney 


mdngdyiral 


mahng-gahy-eeriil [chi 


lamb 


qemmariydttirdiic I 


shemmurriyahtt' irrai/ch- 


lemonade 


elumiccampara- 


eMmiohchiim-puryu- 




raqapdna 


rushiipahnii 


luncheon 


ttippin, qittund 


tiffin, shittunah 


meat 


irdicci [yatkari 


irraych-chi [kurr* 


— , boiled 


aviyalirdicci, avi- 


uviyulirraychchi, uviyut- 


— , roast 


quttavirdicci 


shuttu virraych - ohi 


milk 


pdl 


«abl 



27 



English. 


Tamil (romauized). 


Pronunciation. 


mustard 


kadugu 


kudugu 


mutton 


attiraicci 


ahttirraj/oh-chi 


oil 


enney, ney 


ewwey, ney 


onion 


vengdyam 


veng-gahyum 


pepper 


rrdlagu 


miZugu 


pork 


panriryirdicci 


pundri-yirraych-chi 


port -wine 


port vain 


pohrt-vin 


pudding 


pittu 


pittu 


rice, raw husked 


ariqi 


urishi 


— , boiled 


goru 


shohrru 


— cakes 


dppam 


ahppum 


salad 


qallddu-kkirdi 


shullah^Au-kkeeray 


salt 


uppu 


uppu 


sherry 


geri vain 


sherri vin 


soda-water 


uvar-nir 


uviir-neer 


soup 


kuranibu, Anaiii 


kuryumbu, ahnum 


sugar 


gini, garkkaidi 


sheeni, shurkkuraj/ 


supper 


irdbbojanam 


irahbbohj unn m 


tea (beverage) 


te-nir 


thay-neer 


tobacco 


pugdiyilai 


pugay-yi% 


under-done 


kurdiyacceyda, 


kiirrayyiich-cheytAu , 




kurdiyaccutta 


ktirrayyuch-chuttu 


veal 


kanr'irdicci 


kundr'irraych-chi 


vegetable 


■marakkari, pitdu 


murukkurri, poodu 


vinegar 


kadi 


kahdi 


water 


nlr 


neer 


— , cold 


tannlr 


thunneer 


— , hot 


vennir 


venneer 


well-done 


nanrdycceyda, 


nundrahych-chey«Au, 




nanrdyccvtta 


nundrahych-chuttu 


wine 


tirdtgd-ra^apdnam 


thirahtshah-rushupah- 

fnurn 


13. Cooking j 


md Eating Utens 

(Por Shopping see page 


ils. (Qatti-pdndigal.) 

59.) 


Basin 


kalagam 


kuliishum 


bowl 


kinnam, pdttiram 


kinnura, pahth-thirum 


coffee-pot 


koppip-poccu 


kohppi-p-pohch-ohu 


corkscrew 


kueddukki 


kuchch'idukki 


cruet-stand 


kuppittattu 


kuppith-thuttti 


cup 


koppdi, kinnam 


kohppay, kiwnum 



EnKllBh. 



Tamil (romanized). 



Pro 1 1 anciation. 



dish 


tattu, tdlam, vaitil 


fork 


mullu 


frying-pan 


porikkufiqatti 


glass (tumbler) 


palingukkinnam, 


grill 


giril \tamhalar 


kettle 


kettal, koppardi 


knife 


katti 


ladle 


agappdi, karandi 


lid 


mudi 


matches 


tlkkuccu, tiri 


oven 


aduppu, quduquldi 


pan 


gatti 


plate 


pingdn, tagadu 


— of leaves 


kalldi [ndi 


saucepan, pot 


dnaccatti, gdgujipd- 


saucer 


tdlam , pnris, tattu 


serviette 


kaikkuttdi, kaittuvd- 


spoon 


karandi [Idi 


— , dessert- 


arakkarandi 


— , table- 


dlakkarandi 


— , tea- 


uccik-karandi 


table-cloth 


meqaittuppatti 


tea-pot 


tckki'ndi, teppoccu 


tray 


tattu 


wineglass 


vayin gilds 


a. Dres 


iS and Dressing. 


(S 


ee alBO Vocabulary 16, and S: 


Boots 


nedun qappdttu, 




nedunjodu 


bracelet 


kanganam, kdppu 


braces 


kaccu 


brush 


kuccu, turigdi 


buttons 


kuwir, teri 


button-hook 


teripfittu 


calico 


paHjumltpudai-di 


cap (cloth) 


kulld, gim toppi 


cloak, cape 


porvdi, kuppdyam 


cloth 


pvdavdi 


clothes-brush 


udupputtuddippam 



thuttu, thahlum, vuttU 

mullu 

porikkun^sbutti 

puling-gukkiwnum, 

gireel [tbumbuliir 

kayttul, koppuray 

kuththi 

uguppaj/, kuriindi 

moodi 

theekkuch-chu, thiri 

uduppu, shudushooZaj/ 

shutti 

peeng-gahn, thugiidu 

kullay [pahna?/ 

ahwuch-chutti, shahshtip- 

thahlum, peeris, thuttu 

kikktittay, kiththuvablay 

kuriindi 

uriikkuriindi 

ahlukkuruwdi 

uchchik-kuriiKdi 

mayshaj/ththupputti 

thaykkewdi, thayppobch- 

thuttu [chfi 

vi'n ghiZahs 

( Uduppu-vagdi.) 

Shopping, p. 60. 1 

neduragrshuppahth-thti, 

nedun^johdu 
kung-gii?mm, kabppu 
kuch-chti 

kuch-chu, thoorigay 
kiimiry, therri 
therripoottu 
pu?? r/ j u-noot-pud u vay 
kullah, shirru thoppi 
pohrvay, kuppahyiim 
puduva?/ 
udtipputh-thudayppiim 



29 



English. 


Tamil (romanlzed). 


Fronun elation. 


coat 


nedun-^attdi 


nedu7i(/-shuttay 


comb 


qlppu 


sheeppu 


cotton 


■panjii-nul 


pung'ju-nool 


dress (clothing) 
flannel 


uduppu, vastiram 


uduppu, vustirum 


kambalippudavdi 


kumbuiipptiduvay 


gloves 


kai-yurdi 


ki-jurray 


hair-pin 


konddik-kuccu 


kowdayk-kuoh-chu 


hat 


toppi 


thoppi 


jewellery 


panidi, dbaranam 


Tpnnithi, ahbiirxireiim 


lace 


pinnal, garu/dl 


pinnul, shurigay 


linen 


qananidpiidavdi 


shuwiinoofpuduvay 


mirror 


kannddi 


kuwTOa,hdi 


muslin 


kavani, qalld 


kuvuni, shuUah 


necklace 


kovdi 


kohvay 


necktie 


karuttukkuttdi 


kuryuththuk-kutta?/ 


needle 


uqi 


ooshi 


overcoat 


metqattdi 


mayfshuttoi/ 


parasol 


giru-kuddi 


shirru-kuday 


pins 


kunduqi 


kuwdooshi 


pocket 


qattdiccdkku 


shuttai/oh- chahkku 


purse 


jianappai 


puwiippi 


razor 


qavarak-katti 


shuvuruk-kuththi 


ring (for finger) 


■modiram 


mohtAiriim 


scissors 


kattari 


kuth-thiiri 


shoe-lace 


qeruppin vdr 


sheruppin vahr 


silk 


pattu 


puttu 


skirt 


pdvdddi 


pahvahday 


slippers 


qeruppu, jodu 


sheruppu, johda 


soap 


qavukkdram 


shuvukkahrum 


thread 


nul 


nool 


tooth-brush 


patkurccu 


putkooroh-chu 


trousers 


kdtcattdi 


kahfchuttay 


umbrella 


ktiddi 


kniay 


veil 


mukkadu 


mukkahdu 


walking-stick 


pattukkol 


puttukkohl 


watch 


kadiydram 


gudiyahrum 


waterproof coat 


mardiccattdi 


muryaych-chuttajf 


wool 


kambaU 


kmubM 



80 



15. Washing List. {Karuvum. pudaidigal.) 

(Add gal to form the plural.) 



English. 


Tamil (romanixed). 


Pronunciation. 


Apron 


mun-tdnyi 


miin-thahng-ghi 


bathing-dress 


kuli-gildi 


kuZi-sheela)/ 


bed-clothes 


kattil-tuppatti 


kuttil-thupputti 


blanket 


kambalam 


kumbiiZiim 


bodice 


ravikkdi, qoli 


ruvikkai/, shohli 


cap 


qiru toppi, kiitld 


shirrii thoppi, ktillah 


chemise 


ulla-itgi 


uZZungghi 


collar 


karuttup-pattdi 


kuryuth-thup-puttai/ 


combinations 


magalir utgattdi 


mugiiZeer Htshuttai/ 


coverlet 


tuppatti, porppu 


thupputti, pohrppu 


cuff 


kaipattdi 


kiputtay 


drawers (a pair) 


jalladam, 
utkdtcattdi 


julludum, 
utkahtehuttay 


dress (gown) 


angi 


ungghi 


flannel waistcoat 


kambali - mdrbttcca t- 


kumbuZi - mahrbuchchut- 


handkerchief 


kaikkuttdi \tdi 


kikkattay [tay 


jacket 


araiccattdi 


ura!/ch-ohuttay 


napkin 


kaittuvdldi 


kittuvahlay 


necktie 


karuttiikkuUdi 


kuryuththuk-kiitta?/ 


night-dress 


ird-vdn,i 


irah-uday 


night-shirt [pair 


irdk-kamiiju 


irahk-kumishu 


pants (drawers), a 


utkdtcattdi 


utkahf-chuttay 


petticoat 


utpdvdddi 


utpahvahday 


pillow-case 


taldiyandi-y-urdi 


thulayjnnay-jnrray 


pinafore 


mun-tdngi 


mun-thahng-ghi 


pyjamas 


pajdmd 


pujahmah 


serviette 


kaikkuttdi 


kikknttay 


sheet 


tuppatti 


thupputti 


shirt 


kamiqu 


kumishu 


jocks (a pair) 


mejodu, kdlurdi 


mayjohdu, kahlurray 


stays „ 


kaccu 


kuchchu 


stockings „ 


periya mejddu 


periyii mayjohdu 


table-cloth 


meqdittuppatti 


mayshayth-thupputti 


towel 


tuvdldi 


thtivahlay 


trousers (a pair) 


kdtcattdi 


kahichuttay 


under-vest 


unmdrbuccattdi 


unmahrbuch-chuttaji 


vest 


mdrbuccatidi 


mahrbuch-chuttay 



81 



i 6. House and Furniture- ( Vidum adan ^dmdngalum.) 

(See also Vocabolary 13, page 27, and Shopping, page f>9.) 



Englisli. 


Tamil (romanized). 


Pronunciation. 


Ante-room 


naddiyardi, edirardi 


nuday-yurrar/, ei/iir-urra^ 


arm-chair 


kaiyulla n&tkdli 


kiyullii nahfkahli 


basket 


kuddi, petti 


koodai/, petti 


bed 


padukkdi, kattil 


pudukkay, kuttil 


bedroom 


padukkdi-y-ardi 


pudukkajz-yurrai/ 


blind (window) 


jannal mudun tiriii 


junniil moodum thiray 


book-case 


pustagak-kudu 


ptisthugiik-koodu 


box 


pettagam, petti 


pettugum, petti 


broom 


tudaippam 


thudai/ppum 


candle 


merugu-tiri 


meryugu-thiri 


candlestick 


vilakkuttandu 


viZukkuth-thuwdu 


carpet 


gawukkdlam 


shumukkahZiim 


chair 


ndtkdli [mdngal 


nahtkahli [mahngti/ 


chamber utensils 


padukkdiyardi ja- 


pudukkayyurray shah- 


chest of drawers 


Idcoippetti [kiidii 


lahchchip-petti [koodu 


chimney 


puydi-vdyil, pugdik- 


pugayvahyil, pugayk- 


closet (w.c.) 


uUardi, qittardi 


ullurra)/, sinttTxcray 


clock 


kadiydram, oralogi 


gudiyahrum, orulohshi 


couch 


gdrmandi-k-kattil 


shahrmuway-k-kuttil 


cupboard 


bojanapdttirapidam 


bohj unii-pahththiriipee- 


curtain 


tirdi 


thiray [dum 


— (window) 


jannal tirdi-c-cildi 


junnfil thiray-ch-cheelaj, 


cushion 


mettdi 


meth-thay 


dining-room 


gdppdttardi, bojana- 


shahppahtturray, bohju- 


door 


kadaim [gdldi 


kutMvu [nu-shahlai/ 


door-bell (street-) 


terukkadavu-mani 


theruk-kutAuvu-muwi 


drawing-room 


virundardi 


virantAurray 


easy chair 


gdymdna ndtkdli 


shahymahnu nahtkahli 


electric light 


mirnqdra veliccam 


minshahrii vefich-chum 


fender 


tUtdngi 


theeth-thahng-ghi 


fire 


neruppu, tl 


neruppu, thee 


fireplace 


aduppu 


uduppu 


floor 


talam 


thuZum 


garden 


tottam, kolldi 


thohttum, kollay 


gaa 


vdyuveliccam 


vahyii-veZich-chum 


grate 


neruppuk-kirddi 


neruppuk - kirah t Ai 


hall (entrance) 


vagal- qdldi 


vahshul shahlay 



82 



Knglish. 


Tamil (romanized). 


Frommciatlon. 


key 


qavi 


shahvi 


kitchen 


kugini 


kushini 


— dresser 


kugini-me<;di 


kushini-mayshay 


lamp 


vilakku, tlbam. 


viZukku, theebam [idum 
irraych-chiyai/ vikkum 


larder 


irdiceiyai vaikkum 


library 


puttagaqalai [idam 


puth- thugu-shahlay 


lock 


puttu 


poottu 


looking-glass 


nilaikkannadi 


nilaykkunwahdi 


piano 


kinndran-kud 11 


kinnahrTing-koodu 


picture 


qittiram, padam 


shiththirum, pudum 


pillow 


taldiyandi 


thulayyunay 


poker 


tundu-kol 


thoondu-kohl 


'00 f 


kurdi 


kooray 


room 


ardi 


■aiiay 


shelf 


tattu 


thuttu 


sideboard 


^varp-palagdi 


shuviirp-pulugaj/ 


staircase 


padikkattu 


pudikkuttti 


stairs 


padigal 


pudigiiZ 


table 


nieqdi 


mayshflj/ 


table-cover 


meqdittuppatti 


m ay shayth - thuppu tti 


tiles 


odu 


ohdu 


tongs 


kuradu, idukki 


kurriidu, idukki 


vase 


pattiram 


pahth-thirum 


verandah 


viranda, tinndi 


virahntAah, thhmay 


wall 


quvar 


shuvur 


window 


jannal 


junnul 



17. Professions and Trades. (Torilgal.) 





(For Shopping sea p. 69.) 


Architect 

artisan 

baker 


qitpdqdri 

kamnidlan, qitpan 
rottikkdran 


shitpah-shahri 
kummahZiin, shifpun 
rottikkahriin 


banker 
barber 


gavagdri 
ambattan, ndvidan 


shahvagahri 
umbiittun, nahvif^iin 


blacksmith 


kollan 


kollun 


brazier 


kanndn 


kunnahn 


bookseller 
butcher 
carpenter 
chemist (druggist) 


pustaga-viydhdri 
irdiccikkdran 
taccan [viydbdri 
marunduccarakku- 


ptistugu-viyahbahri 
hiaych - chikkahrun 
thuch-chun [yahhahri 
murundtichohuruk ku- vi- 



83 



GqglUh. 

clergyman 

confectioner 

consul 

cook 

cycle-maker 

dentist 

doctor 

engineer 

farmer 

farrier 

— (veterinary) 

fencing-master 

fruiterer 

fisherman (by caste) 

florist 

goldsmith 

grocer 

hatter 

ironmonger 

jeweller 

laundress 

merchant 

miller 

milhner 

money-changer 

optician {seller) 

painter, decorator 

photographer 

policeman 

porter (carrier) 

postmaster 

printer 

saddler 

schoolmaster 

servant 

shoemaker 

shopkeeper 

singer 

Bmith 

Tamil 8.-T. 



Tamil (romanlfsed). 



pddiriydr 

mittayikkaran 

piratikavalan 

qamaiyatkdran 

qakkara-qeygiravan 

danta-vaittiyan 

vaittiyan, parigdri 

ijUpavallavan 

veldnmdikkdran 

ilddankat tugiravan 

kudirdi-vaittiyan 

gilamba-vittuvdn 

kani-viydhdri 

qempadavan 

puntottakkdran 

tattdn, potkollan 

palagarakku^viydbd- 

toppi-qeygiravan \ri 

iruppukkaruvi-viyd- 

nagiii-viydbdri \bdri 

va^ndtti 

varttagan, viydbdri 

tirigaikk&ran 

pengalin talaikko- 

lan-taippavan 
kdqu mdttugiravan 
kannddi viydbdri 
fittirak-kdran 
gdyal pidikkiravan 
pdlis-kdrofn 
gumdikkdran 
tapdl-taldivan 
aecadikkiravan 
qenan-taikkiravan 
uvdttiydr 
veldikkdran 
gemmdn, gakkiliyan 
kadaikkdran 
pddfogan 
kanimala^ 



Pronunciation. 



pahtAiriyahr 

mittahyikkahrun 

piruthikahvulun 

shumayyufkahrun 

shukkurii- sheyghirru vun 

dunthu-vith-tMyun 

vith-thiyun, purigahri 

shifpiivulluvun 

vayZahwmaykkahrun 

ilahdung-kuttughirriivun 

kut/dray-vtth-thiyun 

shilumbu-vith-thuvahn 

kuni-viyahbahri 

shempuduvun 

poou-thohttukkahrun 

thuttahn, pofkoMn 

pulushurukku - viyahbah- 

thoppi-sheyghirruvun [ri 

iruppukkuruvi-viyahbah- 

nugay-viyahbahri [ri 

vujTwahththi 

vurth-thugun, viyahbahri 

thirigaykkahrun 

pe?!,guZin thulaykkoh- 

liin-thippuvTin 
kahshu mahttughirruvun 
kunnahdi viyahbahri 
shiththiruk-kahrun 
shahyul pidik-kirruvun 
pohlees-kahriin 
shumaykkahrun 
thupahl-thulaj/vun 
nchchudikkirruvun 
shayniin-thikkirruvun 
uvahth-thiyahr 
vayloykkahrun 
shemmahn, shukkiliyun 
kudaykkahrun 
palidugun 
kummahJun 



84 



English. 


Tamil (romanized). 


Pronunciation, 


Boldier 


porccevagan 


pohrch-chayvugun 


student 


wdnakkan 


maliwahkkun 


surgeon 


qattira-vaittiyan 


shuth-thiru-viththiyun 


surveyor (land) 


nilam-alapjpdn 


nilum-uZuppohn 


tailor 


taiyatkdran 


thiyufkahrun 


teacher 


uvdtti, upa-degi 


uvahth-thi, upuf^ayshee 


tobacconist 


pugdiyildi-viydhari 


p VLgayyilay - viy ahbahri 


tradesman 


varttayan, vanigan 


vurth-thuguu, vuwigun 


washerman 


varman 


vuwwahn 


watchmaker 


kediydranqeyvon 


ghediyahrun^-sheyvohn 



18. TraYelling. [Pirayanam.) 

{For Conversations see pages 40 — 51.) 



Arrival 


varavu, varugdi 


arrive, to 


vandti qer 


bag 


pai, aqamhi 


bill 


kanakku, qittu 


box, trunk 


petti 


bridle 


kadivdlam 


cabman 


vandikkdran, kudi- 


carriage 


vandi \_rdikkdran 


coach 


iratam 


coachman 


irataqdrati, terppd- 


cushion 


mettdi [gan 


custom-house 


dyatturdi, revu 


custom-house offi- 


dyakkdran 


depart, to [cer 


purappadu, po 


departure 


purappddu, pokku 


engine 


iyantiram, qutti- 


expenses 


qelavu \ram 


fare (charge) 


payanakkuli 


guard 


kdvalan 


guide 


varikdtti \gam 


guide-book 


varikdttum-pusta- 


hat-box 


toppi-vaikkum-petti 


hotel 


otel, vidudi 


interpreter 


tuppaqi, quvabnavis 


key 


qdoi 


landlady 


otel-taldivi 


landlord (hotel) 


otel-kdran, -taldivan. 



vuruvu, vurugflty 
vundu shayr 
pi, ushumbi 
kunukkti, sheettu 
petti 

kudivahZum 

vuwdikkahrun, ktidira^/k- 
vundi [kahrun 

iruthiim 

iruthushahruthi, thayrp- 
meth-thay [pahgun 

ahyuth-thurray, rayvu 
ahyukkahrun 
purruppadu, poh 
purruppahdu, pohkku 
iyunthirum, shooth-thi- 
sheluvu [rum 

puyu7?ukkooli 
kahvulun 

vuryi-kahtti [gum 

vuryi-kahttum-pusthu- 
thoppi-vikkum-petti 
ohtel, vidutAi 
thuppahshi, shuvahb- 
shahvi [navees 

ohtel-thulayvi 
ohtel-kahrun, -thulayvun 



85 



English. 


Tamil (lomanized). 


Prommciation. 


lavatory 


ullardi 


xillxmay 


luggage 


qdman, tattumuttu 


shahmahn, thuttumuttu 


office 


toril-arai 


thoryil-urrmy 


payment 


koduttal, qamhalam, 


koduththiil, shumbulum, 


pier, bridge 


palam [qellu 


pahlum [sheila 


porter 


gumdikkaran 


shuma^kkahrun 


railway 


iruppuppdddi 


iruppupahi/iaj/ 


— -carriage 


reyilve-vandi 


rayyilvay-vandi 


— -station 


reyilve-stdnam 


rayyilvay-sthahniim 


receipt 


pattucclttu 


puttueh-cheettu 


reins 


kadivala-var 


kudivahZu-vahr 


road 


vari, mti, pdddi 


vuryi, veethi, pahi/iay 


saddle 


qenam 


shaywiim [gahrun 


station-master 


{reyilve) stdnddigd- 


(rayyilvay) sthahnahtAi- 


steamer 


pugdikkappal [ran 


pugaykkuppul 


strap 


kaccu, vdr 


kuch-chu, vahr 


ticket 


tundu, qittu 


thuwdu, sheettu 


tourist 


piayanakkdran 


puyunukkahrun 


train (railway) 


vandittodar 


vawdith-thodur 


voyage 


kappal-ydttirdi 


kuppiil-yahth-thira// 


waiter 


kaiydl, evatkdran 


kiyahZ, ayvutkahrun 


waiting-room 


katt'irukkum ardi 


kahthth'irukkum array 


whip 


qamikku, kaqdi 


shuvukku, kushay 



19. Commercial and Trading Terms. 

( Varttagattitkuriya qotkal.) 

(For ConversationB Bee pages 83 & 6S.) 



Account 

— , current 

— , joint 

— . to close 

— , to settle an 

— of sale 

acknowledgment 

advance (of money) 

advice, letter 

agency 

agent 

apprentice 



kanakku 
qellun-kanakku 
•poduk-kanakku 
kanakku-miidi 
kanakkut-tir 
rikkirayak-kanakku 
arikkdiyidugdi,kaig- 
mun-pianam \_qlttu 
arikkdippattiram 
karttattuvam 
kdriyakkdran 
torU-payila-v-udan 
pattavan 



kmiukku 

shellting-kuwiikku 
poi/iuk-kuwiikku 
kuniikku-mudi 
kuwiikkuth-theer 
vikkiruyuk-kuwukku 
urrikkayyidtigay, ki-ch- 
mun-punum [cheettu 
urrikkaj/pputtirum 
kurth-thuth-thtivum 
kahriyukkahrun 
thoryil-puyilu-v-udun 
puttiiviin 



86 



Englisb. 



arrangement 

arrears 

assets 

authorize, to 

average 

balance (remain- 

— -sheet [der) 
bank 

bearer 
bill 

— of exchange 

— of lading 
bond, in 
bonded goods 

book-keeper 

brokerage 

business 

buyer 

cargo 

carriage 

— (freight) 
cartage 
catalogue 
charter a ship, to 
claim 

clearing-house 
clerk [(customs) 
commercial travel 

ler 
company 
— , a limited 
complaint 
contract 
cost, insurance and 

freight (c.i.f.) 
credit balance 
creditor 

customs' duties 
damages 



Tamil (romaniied). 



tittani-paiinudal 

niluvai, pdkki 

porul, vastu 

adigdran-kodu 

Qardqari 

niluvai, kaiyiruppu 

pdkkittdl 

bdngu, kdgukkadiii 

kondu varugiravan 

kanakku-c-cithi 

undiyat-cittu 

vdrndmdccittu 
pandaqdldiyil 
pandaqdldiyil vaitta 
qdmangal, 0niap 
kanakkan [porul 
taragu [bdram 

veldi, kariyanijviyd- 
vildikku vdngugira 
kappatcarakku [van 
qumdi-kuli 
etttimadi, kehu 
vandiccattam 
attavandi, ddppu 
kelvukkukkodii 
todarcci, tdvd 
dyatturdi, irevu 
kumastd 
mydpdrattukku pi- 

raydnakkdran 
kuttam, qangam 
mattuppatta gangam 
murdippddu,pirddu 
udanpadikkdi 
vildiyum uttaravd- 

damum. kelvum 
kaiyiruppu 
kadan koduttavan 
tirvdi, dyam, qun- 
(jedattin vildi [gam 



Fronnnclation 



th i ttum -puMMtit Aiil 

niluvay, bahkki 

porui, rusttl 

uiAigahrung-kodu 

shurahshuri 

niluvaj/, kiyirtippu 

bahkkith-thahZ 

bahng-gii, kahshukkudai/ 

kowdu vuriighirruviin 

kuniikku-ch-cheettii 

ujidiyuJ-cheettu 

vahrnahmahch-cheettu 

puwdushahlai/yil 

pundushahlaj/yil vith-thti 

shahmahngiiZ, shay- 
buniikkun [miipporuZ 
thurugu [bahriim 

vaylay, kahriyam, viyah- 
vilaykkii vahnggughirru- 
kuppiitchurukku [viin 
shumoy-kooli 
&jttvimnth{, kayZvii 
vundich-chuth-thum 
uttiivunay, dahppu 
kayZvakktikkodu 
thodiirch-chi, thahvah 
ahyuth-thurraj/, irayvu 
gumusthah 
viyahpahrutli - thukku 

piriiyahniikkahriin 
koottum, shunggiim 
muttupputtu shunggum 
murrar/ppahdu, pirahtAu 
udunpudikkay 
vilayyum uth-thuriivah' 

t^iimum kayZvum 
ktyiruppu 

kudiin koduth-thnvun 
theervay, ahyum, shiing- 
shaytWththin vilay [giim 



31 



EngUsli. 


Tamil (romanlzed). 


Pronnncitttlon. 


damages, to claim 


qedaUin vilm kel 


shaytMth-thin vilay kayZ 


date, at three 


idu mudal muririi 


ithn muthnl moonru 


months' 


mddattukku 


maht^uththiikku 


debit and credit 


pattu-varavu 


putiu-vuriivu 


debtor 


kadan-karan 


kudiin-kahriin 


deed 


qadanam 


shahiAiinum 


deliver, to 


oppukkodu {kod/utta 


oppukkodu [koduth-tbu 


delivered free 


ilavaqamdy oppuk- 


iliivushumahy oppuk- 


demurrage 


padippanam 


pudippunum 


director 


evuvdn, taldivan 


ayvtivahn, thula^viin 


discount 


tallupadi 


thuWupudi 


-, to 


kurdi, kari 


kHrray, kuryi 


dividend [dues 


pacciyam 


pahch-chiyiim 


dock and harbour 


turdiinugattlrvdi 


thurraymtigath- the&rray 


drawer (of bill) 


qamhiradi, irdyaqan 


shumbiriiiAi, irahyiishiin 


duty, export 


eftnmadittwvdi 


ayMumut^ith-theervay 


free 


tirvdiyillddadu 


theervay-yillah^/iut^u 


— , import 


irakknmadittirvdi 


irrukkumutAith- theervoi/ 


— , liable to 


tirvdiydna 


theervflj/yahnii 


enclosed 


adiiitta, wllitta 


udayth-thii, uZ/ittu 


enclosure 


adaippu, adakkam 


udayppu, udukkum 


endorse, to 


qellu-vai 


sheliu-vt 


endorsement 


qellu 


ghellu 


exchange (of money) 


vattam 


vuttiam [shahlaj/ 


factory 


toril nadattun qdldi 


thoryil nudiith-thujigr 


the firm 


varttagar-kuttam 


vurth-thiigur-koottum 


forwarding 


anuppum 


unupptim 


— agent 


oppaddi-qeyvon 


oppuday-sheyvohn 


gross weight 


moftccmdna pdram 


moththumahnu bahriim 


guarantee 


uttavavddi 


tith-thfiruvaht/ii 


l.O.U. 


kadan qittit 


kudiin sheettii 


import and export 


irakkw/nadiyum et- 


irrukkumutMytim ayttii- 


income 


varavu [tumadiyum 


vuriivu [mut/dytim 


information 


qaimdqdram 


shumahshflihriim 


insurance 


uttaravddam 


uththuriivahtMm! [gun 


— broker 


uttaravdda-taragan 


uththuruvahtM-thurii- 


— company 


nashtapdlana qan- 


nashtupahlunii shung- 




gam [nam 


gu'm [tAunum 


— policy 


uttaravdda-qdda- 


uth thuriivaht/m - shah - 


— premium 


uttaravdda-panam 


uthfchuriivah«/iii - puwiiip 



S8 



English. 



Tftmll (romanlzed). 



Prontmclatlon. 



insure against, to 

interest 

lease 

— -holder 
liabilities 
load, to 
loss 

manager 
market 

— , foreign 
— , home 

— -day 

— dues 

— price 
negotiable, saleable 
order (for goods) 
packing 
partnership 
payable 
per cent, 
percentage 
price 

list 

— , net 

— , selling 

— , wholesale 

property 

quotation (of price) 

ready money 

receipt 

registered letter 

— tonnage 

registration fee 

rent 

representative 

retail 

— , to sell by 



uttaravddam pannu 

vatti 

pattd 

pattadar 

kadamai 

(jumattu, pdramettu 

nattam, kedu, pddu 

kdriyakkdran 

kaddi, ganddi 

paradegaccanddi 

gudeqaccanddi 

qanddi-kudu-ndl 

kaddi-tlrvdi [vildi 

nirakku, qanddi- 

qellat-takka, vifkak- 

kelvi [kudina 

kattudai 

kuttu, panguddimdi 

qelutta vendiya 

nuttukku [dam 

nuttukanakkwiffi- 

vildi, nirakku 

nirakku-ndmd 

kolvildi 

viikira vildi 

mottavildi 

uddimdi, dsti, pond 

vildikkuripim 

rokkam, kaippanam 

pattucmttu, 

kaippattu [dam 
padivu-qeyda kdr/i- 
ddppil erudi vaitta 

kappaLpdram 
ddppif cerkkdi-p- 

panam 
vddagdi 

dutan, piratikdran 
(jillardi 
qillardiyil vil 



uththiiruvaht^iim punntt 
vutti 
puttah 
puttahi/iahr 

kudiimay [ayiiu 

shiimuththu, pahrum- 
nuttum, kaydu, pahdti 
kaliriyukkahriin 
kuda^, shunthay 
pnruth&jsh.u.ohchnnthay 
shut/iayshiichchunt/iaj/ 
shuntAatz-koodu-nahZ 
kuday-theervay 
nirukku, shu.nthay--vilay 
shelliith-thukkii, viikiik- 
kayZvi [koodinu 

kutttiiAiil 

koottu, pungudaymai/ 
sheluth-thii vayndiyii 
nootJukku [thum 

nootJukuwiikku vighi- 
vilaj/, nirukku 
nirukku-nahmah 
kohilay 
vitkirrii vilay 
moththu-vilay 
udaymay, ahsthi, poru/ 
vilaykkurrippii 
rokkum, ktppunum 
puttuchcheettu, ktppuWu 
[thum 
put/iivu-sheyf/iu kahghi- 
dahppil eryutAi viththii 

kuppiil-bahrum 
dahppifchayrkkay - p - 

pumum 
vahdugay 

tAoothun, piruthikahrun 
shillurray 
shillurra//yil vil 



89 



BngllBh. 



salesman (seller) 
settling day 
share 
ship, to 

shipping charges 
— house 

solvent 

stock 

stock-broker 

trade (in general) 

underwriter 

wharf 

wharfage 
wholesale 



Tamil (romanized). 



vitldravan 

kadan tirkkira ndl 

paiigu 

kappalil ettu 

kappal qelavu 

kappalit qarakk'ettu- 

gira viydbdrigal 
kadantirkkakhudiya 
kaiyirukkira porul 
taragan 

viyabdram \yadi 
pindiyali, uttara- 
ett'irakkumadi-pan- 

nun turai 
karai-vddagdi 
mottamdy 



Pronunciation. 



vifkirruviin 

kudun theerkkirrii nahZ 

punggu 

kuppulil ayMu 

kuppul sheWva 

kuppiiliJ shuriikk'aytHl- 

ghirru viyahbahrigui 
kuduntheerkkiikkGodiyu 
kiyirukkirru poriiZ 
thuriigiin 

viyahbahrum [vahtAi 
piwayyahZi, uth-thurii- 
ayM'irrukkumu(Ai-pun- 

nun ihmay 
kuray-vahdiigay 
moth-thiimahy 



20. Post-oflBoe and Telegrams. (Tapdlaikkurittu.) 

(For ConversationB see page 56, and lor Postal Bates see page SO.) 



Book post 
cable (telegraph) 
cable, to 
letter post 
money order 
newspaper wrapper 
parcel post 
postage paid 

postage stamp 
postal (pillar-) box 
postman 
postmaster 
post-ofBce 
register (a letter), to 
reply paid 

telegraph form 
— messenger 
telephone 
to be called for 



pustagam-ancal 
mintapdl, tandi 
min-qeydi-y-anuppu 
kdgidattapdl 
tapdl-undiyal 
quttu 

qippattapai 
tapdlkuli kodukkap- 

pattadu 
tapal-muttirdi 
tapdl-peUi,-tun-peiti 
tapdt-{ancat-) kdran 
tapdl-talaivan 
tapdl-vidu, -kantor 
padivu vai 
marumoriccelavu 

kodukkappa Uadu 
mintapdl kaduddqi 
mintapdl qevagan 
turappequm yanti- 
ketkaDpada \ram 



pusthiigum-awjfchul 

min-thupahl, ihmxthi 

min-shhaytM-y-unuppu 

kahghitAuth-thupahl 

thupahl-undiyiil 

shiiMu 

shippiith - thupahl 

thupahlkooli kodukkup- 

puttiitAu 
thupahl mtith-thiray 
thupahl-petti, -thoo«petti 
thupaht- (uw(7chut-) kah- 
thupahl-thulayvun [riiii 
thupahl-veedu, -kunthohr 
pufMvii \i 
murrumoryich-clieliivii 

kodukkupputtiitAu 
minthupahl kudu</iahshi 
minthupahl shayviigun 
tooriippayshum yunthi- 
kaytkuppudu [riim 



40 



21. Shooting and Fishing. {Vettdi-g-gdmdngal.) 

(For GonverBatlonB see pages 00 — 02.) 

English. Tamil (romanized). Pronunciation. 



Axe (hatchet) 

bait ; to bait 

bank (of a river) 

basket 

bite, a 

boat 

boat-hook 

boatman 

boatman's pole 

breech (of a gun) 

bullet 

caps 

cartridge extractor 

cartridges 

cord (string) 

double-barrelled 

file 

fish 

fish, to 

fisherman 

fishing 

— -basket 

— -hook 

— -line 

— -rod 

— -tackle 
float 

fly 

game-bag 
gun 

— (in Ceylon) 

gun-case 

gunpowder 

hammer (of gun) 

knife 

matches 

nail 

net, casting- 



kaikkodali 

irai ; irdi podu 

kardi, tiram 

kuddi, pari, petti 

kadi 

odam, doni 

oclakkokkdi 

odakkaran 

odakkol 

tubdkkippidaAgu 

ktindu 

tubdkki-vartti 

tottayidukki, tottak- 

tottd [Icuradu 

kayiru 

irattdik-hiral 

aram 

min, maccam 

minpidi 

miiipidikkiravan 

minvettdi 

minpari 

tundil mul 

mlnpidikkirakayiru 

tundit-kol, -kambu 

minvettdikkaruvigal 

midappu [dil 

iyuruvam-uUa tun- 

vettdip-pai 

tuppdkki, tubdkki 

titvakku [-urdi) 

tuppdkkip-petti (or 

vedimarundu 

(tuppdkkiyin) kudi- 

katti [rdi 

tlkkuccu, tiri 

oni 

vucu-valdi 



kikkohdahli 

iray ; iray pohdu 

kuray, theeriim 

kooday, purri, petti 

kudi 

ohdum, thohni 

ohdukkokkay 

ohdukkahriin 

ohdukkohl 

thubahkkippidiing-gfl 

giindii 

thubahkki-vurth-thi 

thohttah-yidukki, thoht- 

thohttah [tahkkurriidfl 

kuyirru 

iruttayk-kuryul 

uriim 

meen, muchchfim 

meenpidi 

meenpidikkirruviin 

meenvayttay 

meenpurri 

thoowdil xnvil 

meenpidikkirru kuyirru 

thoowdit-kohl, -kumbu 

meenvayttayk-kuruvigni 

mit^uppu 

ee-yuruvum-uHa thoondil 

vayttayp-pi 

thuppahkki, thubabkki 
thtiviikku [ray) 

thuppahkkip-petti (-ur- 
vedimurun^Au 
(thtippahkkiyin) kui/uray 
kuth-thi 

theekkuchchu, thiri 
ah«i 

veeohchu-vulay 



41 



EingUsli. 

net, draw- 
— , fishing- 
— , large sea- 
pistol 
revolver 
saw (hand-) 
screw 

screwdriver 
sheath 
shot 
sport 

sportsman 
tools 



Tamil (romanizeJ). 



Pronnnclntlon. 



kardi-valai 

valdi 

kayittu-valdi 

pistol 

kaittubdkki 

kai-vdl 

tirug'ani 

tirukki 

urdi, kudu 

ravdi, ^annam 

vettdi 

vettdihkdran 

karuvi, $yudam 



kuray-vnlay 

\ulay 

hiyitta-valay 

pisthohl 

ktth-thubahkki 

ki-vahZ 

thirug'ah»i 

thirukki 

nrray, koodti 

ruvay, shunnum 

vayttay 

vayttaykkahrun 

kuruvi, ahyut/ium 



22. Cardinal Numbers.* {En-peyar.) 



One onru (vulg., onnu) 

two irandu ( „ rendu) 

three munru ( ,, mwiu) 

four ndlu, nangu 

five aindu (vulg., anju) 

six S/m 

seven eru 

eight ettu 

nine ' onhadu 

ten pattu 

eleven ' padin-onru 

twelve pan-n-irandii 

thirteen padin-munru 

fourteen padi'ndlu, padi'ncmgu 

fifteen padin-aindu 

sixteen padin-aru 

seventeen padin-eru 

eighteen padin-ettu 

nineteen patt'-onbadu 

twenty iru-badu, -vadu 

twenty-one iru-batt'-onru, iruvatV 

twenty-two irubatt' -irandu [-onmi, 

twenty-three irubattu-munru 

thirty muppadu 

• Foi the Tamil siKus 'or the numerarla see Tamil Orammar 3.-T., pp. S!M1. 



ondru (onwti) 

iruwdu (reradu) 

moondru (moonu) 

nahlu, nanngu 

inthu (uM^ju) 

ahrru 

ayryu 

ettu 

onbutAu 

puth-thu 

pui/(in-ondra 

pun-n-iruMdu 

puJ/iin-moondru 

putAi'nahhi, put/ii'nahngfl 

pu«/dn-tn(Au 

puJ^in -ahrru 

putAin- ayryu 

pufAin-ettu 

pathth'onbutZ/u 

irubufto, -vut/tu [th'oM?su 

irabuthth'ondru, iruv.uth- 

irubuthth'iruwdu 

irubuththu-moondru 

muppiitM 



42 



EugUsh. 


Tamil (romanized). 


Fronuuclatloti. 


forty 


ndt-padu 


naht-piiiM 


fifty 


aim-badu 


im-huthu 


sixty 


aru-badu 


urru-butAu 


seventy 


eru-hadu, -vadu 


eryu-bufM, -\nthu 


eighty 


en-hadu 


en-huthu 


ninety 


tomiuru 


thowwoorrti 


100 


tiuru 


noorrii 


101 


mitt' onru 


noott' ondru 


103 


nuttu munru 


noottu moondru 


200 


iru-nuru 


iru-noorru 


300 


mu-n-nuru 


mu-n-noorru 


400 


na'-nuru 


nah'-noorru 


500 


ain-nuru 


in-noorru 


600 


aru-nuru 


urrti-noorru 


700 


eru-nuru 


eryu-noorru 


800 


en iiuru 


ew-woorru 


900 


tol-l-dyiram 


thoZ-Z-ahyirum 


1,000 


dyiram 


ahyirum 


1,001 


dyiratt' onru 


ahyiruthth'ondrO 


1,100 


dyiratt' -oru-nUru 


ahyiruthth'oru-noorru 


2,000 


irand' dyiram 


irujid'ahyirum 


100,000 


ilatcam 


ilutchum 


1906 ... 1 


6r-dyirattu-t-tol-l- 


ohr-ahyiruththu-th -thol- 


ayiratf-dru 


Zahyirath th ' ahr ru 



23. 1 


Ordinal Numbers 


* 


[Ennu riyilakkam.) 


First 


mudal-dm, 






mui/ml-ahm, 




mudal-dvadu 




mutMl-ahvuthu 


second 


irand'-dm, 


irand' - 


dva- 


irured'-ahm, irund'-ahvu 


third 


munr' -dm 




[du 


moondr'-ahm [thi 


fourth 


ndl'-dm 






nahl'-ahm 


fifth 


aind'-dm 






inth'-ahm 


sixth 


df-dm 






ahrr'-ahm 


seventh 


er'-dm 






ayry'-ahm 


eighth 


ett'-dm 






ett'-ahm 


ninth 


onbad'-dm 






onbufA'-ahm 


tenth 


patf-dm 






pnthth'-alim 


eleventh 


padin-or-dm 




puf/iin-ohr-ahm 


twelfth 


pannirand' 


-dm 




punnirujid'-ahm 



• For Orammatlcal Notes, see Tamil Qrammar S.-T., page 40, para. 



48 



English. 


Tamil (romanlzed). 


thirteenth 


padin-miinr' -dm 


fourteenth 


padi'ndl'-dm 


fifteenth 


padin-aind' -dm 


sixteenth 


padin-dr' -dm 


seventeenth 


padin-er'-dm 


eighteenth 


padin-ett' -dm 


nineteenth 


patt' -onbad' -dm 


twentieth 


irubad'-dm 


twenty-first 


irubatt' -or-dm 


twenty-second 


irabatt'-irand'-dm 


thirtieth 


muppad'-dm 


fortieth 


ndipad'-dm 


fiftieth 


aimbad'-dm 


sixtieth 


arubad'-dm 


seventieth 


erubad'-dm 


eightieth 


enbad'-dm 


ninetieth 


tonnur'-dm 


100th 


nur'-dm 


101st 


nutt'or-dm 


102nd 


niitt' -irand' -dm 


200th 


iru-nur' -dvi 


800th 


munnUr' -dm 


1000th 


dyiram-dm 


1001st 


dyiratt' -&r-dm 



Proumiclatlon. 



putAin-moon dr' -ahm 

puiM'nahl'-ahm 

puiAin-mi/i'-ahm 

pu<7iin-ahrr'-ahm 

pu^Ain-ayry'-ahm 

puf/iin-ett'-ahm 

puthth'-onbui/i'ahm 

irubui^'-ahm 

irubuthth'-ohr-ahm 

irubuthth' -iru«d ' -ahm 

mupputA'-ahm 

nahtpuf^'-ahm 

imbiitA'-ahm 

urrubutA'-ahm 

eryubu//t'-ahm 

ewbutA'-ahm 

tho»noorr'-ahm 

noorr'-ahm 

nooft'ohr-ahm 

noott'-iruwd'ahm 

iru-noorr'-ahm 

mun-noorr'-ahm 

ahyirum-ahm 

ahyiriithth'-ohr-ahm 

24. Collective Numbers, etc. {Togudippeyargal.) 

johdu, inay, ihunay 

iruttayyahnu, irukahi 

punnirundu 

nahngti-mah 

ixithil ondru 

uray 

oru-vishay, orumurray 

kahl 

irubuf/iu 

oitay 

moondril ondru 

mukkahl 

irunduray 



A couple, pair 
double, twice adj. 
dozen 

one-fifth I 

half 

once 

quarter 

score 

single 

one-third 

three-quarters 

two and a half 



jodu, indi, tundi 

irattdiydna, irukdl 

pannirandu 

ndngu ma* 

aindil onru 

ardi 

orii-vigdi, onimurdi 

kdl 

irubadu 

ottdi 

munril onru 

mukkdl 

irand' ardi\ 



* Be* Grammar, Bee. 29. 



t Bee Grammar, sec. 32, note. 



CONVbRSATIONAL PHRASES AND 
SENTENCES. 



Useful & Necessary Idiomatic Expressions & Phrases. 

(PirayojanamuUa varakkanaddiyana vdrUdigalum vdkkiyangalum.) 

Tamil (romaiiized). Prouunoiation. 



EngllBli. 



I 



Thank you ; 
(To servants) 
(To equals and | 
superiors) \ 

I thank you 

Have the goodness 

Yes, sir 
No, madam 

Yes, miss 

Bring me 

Doyou understand? 

Excuse me 

Give me 

Send (it) to me 

Tell me 

Will you tell me? 

Do you speak 

English ? 
Does anyone here 

speak English? 

Can you read 

English ? 
Have patience 
What do you say? 
I beg your pardon 

What did you ask? 
Speak louder 



nalladu 

umakku-t-tottiram 
umakku vandaiiam 
umakku nanri qol- 

lugiren 
nanmdiydy irukka- 

vum; tayavu-pan- 
dm, aiyd [num 

illdi, ammd (turdi- 

qdwi) 
dm, turdimagal 
enakku-k-kondu vd 
luiakku-t-teriyum-df 
enndi manniyum 
enakku-k-kodu 
enakku (addi) an up- 
enakku-e-collu \^pu 
enakku- c-oollumr-d? 
ingilish pegugirir- 

d? 
ing'irukkum evar- 

dgilum ingilish 

pegngirdr-d ? 
unakku ingilish vd 

fikka-k-kudvmd 1 
porumdiydy iru 
ni enna qollugiruy ? 
umadu maiinippu 

vendiigiren 
ni enna kettdy? [fw 
innam urakka-p-pe 



nullu(Au 

timukkuth-thohththiriim 
umiikku vunfAiinum 
umiikku nundri shollti- 

ghirrayn 
nunmayyahy irtikkuvum; 

thuyuvti punnum 
ahm, tyah 
illay, ummah (thmay- 

shahni) 
ahm, thura^-mugiiZ 
enukku-k-kondu vah 
uniikku-th-theriyum-ah ? 
ennay munniytim 
enukku-k-kodu 
enukkti (uday) unuppu 
enukku -eh-chollu 
eniikku-ch-cholluveer-ah ? 
ingghilish payshughir- 

reer-ah ? 
inggh'irukktim eviir ah- 

ghiliim ingghilish pay- 

shughirrahr-ah ? 
tinukku ingghilish vah- 

shikkiik-koodum-ah ? 
porrumay-yahy irti? 
nee ennii sholliighirrahy? 
umiifAu munnippti vayn- 

dughirrayn 
nee ennu kayttahy? 
innum urukku-p-payshu 



46 



Engllsb. 



What dc«a it sig 

nify? 
It doesn't matter 
It is all the same to 
Never mind [me 
What is to be 

done? 
Do you hear ? 
I understand 

I don't understand 

Carry this 
Take this 
Take this away 
Why are you so 

slow? 
Make haste I 
Come along I 
Take care t 
Look out I 
Listen I 
Come in I 
Come here I 
Come back I 
Call my servant 
Take this note 
Bring an answer 
Stand still 
Go away 1 
That way 
This way 
Too soon 
Too late 
Very well 
What do you want? 

Will you do me a 

favour ? 
What is it ? 



Tamil (romanized). 



adm ennattdi-k- 

karudugiradu ? 
adu kariyam alia 
elldm enakku-c-cari 
kariyam illai [tan 
enna qeyya vendi 

yaduf 
ketkinr-a ? 
enakku-t-teriyum ; 

arigiren 
enakku-t-teriyadu ; 

ariyen 
iddi-k-kondu po 
iddi-y-edu [du po 
iddi-y-eduttvo-k-kon- 
nl Sn appadi man- 

damdy irukkirdy': 
virdiv 'dkku ! 
kuda vdt neduga vd! 
kavanamdy iru ! 
eecarikkdiydy iru ! 
uttu-k-kel ! 
ulle vd ! 
inge vd ! 

tirumbi vd! [pidu 
en qevagandi-h-hup 
inda qlttdi-y-edu, 
uttaram kondu vd 
amdidiydy nil 
pay vidu ! [di 

anda variydy; appa- 
indavariydy; ippadi 
mikka 0,kkiramdy 
miga-p'pindi 
nmgavum nalladu 
unakku enna ven- 

dum? 
nir enakku oru qa- 

hayam geyvir-d 1 
adu enna ? 



Pronimciation. 



uthn ennuthtbayk-kurii- 

t^ughirrut/m ? 
nthn kahriyum ullu 
ellahm enukku-ch-churi 
kahriyum ilky [thahn 
ennii sheyyu vay?idiyu- 

«Aa? 
kaytkirreer-ah? 
enukku-th-theriytim ; 

urrighirrayn 
enukku-th-theriyahfAu ; 

urriyayn 
khay-k-koftii^ poh 
i*/ia^-y-edu [poh 

itAay-y-eduththu-k-kondu 
nee ayn uppudi muntM- 

mahy irukkirrahy? 
virayv'ahkku I 
koodu vah 1 nedtigu vah ! 
kuvunumahy iru 1 
echchurikkayyahy iru I 
tiiiu-k-kayZ ! 
uWay vah 1 
ing-gay vsuhl 
thirumbi vah I [pidu 
en shayvugiinay-k-koop- 
inf/ia sheettay-yedti 
uththurum kowdti vah 
umaytMyahy nil 
pohy vidu I [di 

untM vuryiyahy ; uppu- 
inthu vuryiyahy ; ippudi 
mikku sheekkirumahy 
migu-p-pintM 
miguvum nullutM 
unukku yennu vay«dum? 

neer enukku oru suhah- 

yum aheyveer-ah ? 
ufAii ennu? 



46 



English. 



I am very much 
obliged to you 

I shall be much 
obliged to you 

I am sorry to 
trouble you so 
much 

No trouble at all 

What is the matter 

with you ? 
What is the matter? 
Nothing 
Who is there ? 
It is I 
What is the news ? 
Have you any 

news? 
I have heard 

nothing 
Are you quite 

certain ? 
What has hap- 
pened ? [that ? 
What temple is 
Begone ! or Go I 
Go away from here 
Go on (continue) 
Go home 
Go to the post-office 

and bring me the 

letters 
Show me the house 

of the Consul 
Let us start 
Get everything 

ready 



Tamil (romanized). 



nan umakku adiya 
kadamaiyullava- 
nay irukkiren 

7idn umakku miga- 
mim kadamdiyul- 
lavandy iruppen 

umakku ivvalav'dy 
tondaravu pannw- 
giradatku enakku 
tukkam undu 

tondaravu konja- 
mum illdi 

unakku enna varut- 
tam (or kariyam)? 

enna kdriyam ? 

onrum illdi 

ange ydr 1 

ndn tail 

^angadi enna ? 

unakku ediim geydi 
unda ? 

ndn onrum keW 
irukka-v-illdi 

unakku murudum 
niccayam-d ? 

enna gavibavitf 
irukkiradu ? 

ad a enna kovil? 

po '. \yidu 

ivvidam vittu-p-poy 

iddi viddmal gey 

vlttukku-p-pd 

tabdl qdvadikku-p- 
poy en kdgidan- 
galdi-k-kondu vd 

stdndpati-vlttdi 
enakku-k-kdttu 

purappaduvom 

elldm dyattam pan- 
nu 



Pronunciation. 



nahn umiikku uf/ugii 

kudumaj/uWiiviinaby 

irukkirrayn 
nahn umukku migiiviim 

kudumayuZZiiviinahy 

iruppayn 
umiikku ivviiluvahy thon- 

f/iiiruvu punntighirru- 

tMfku (y)eniikku tuk- 

kiim undu 
thont/iuriivu kojif/jumiim 

iWay 
uniikku ennu vuruth- 

thiim (kahriyiim)? 
ennii kahriyum ? 
ondrum illay 
unggay yahr? 
nahn thahn 
shunggiifM ennu ? 
uniikku ayf/tum shey«/ii 

Undah ? 
nahn ondrum kaytt'iruk- 

kii-v-illay 
iiniikku muryut^um 

nichchiiyiim-ah ? 
ennii shumbiivithth'- 

irukkirruf Au ? 
ut/iu ennii kohvil? 
poh I [vidu 

ivvidiim vittu - p - pohy 
iday vidahmiil shey 
veettiikku-p-poh 
thubahl shahvudikku-p- 

pohy kahghifMnggu- 

Zayk-kondu vah 
sthahnahputhi-veettay 

(y)enTikku-k-kahttu 
parruppudtivoh m 
ellahm ahyuththiira 

pujinu 



47 



English. 



Wait; (stay) 

Here I am 

Be good enough to 

tell me 
Hear what I tell 

you 

Bring me my horse 
[terpreter 
Speak with the in- 
Speak to him 
What does this 



mean ? 



Tanui (lomninized). 



kdtt'iru; (poru) 
nan inge irukkiren 
enakku-c-colla nan 

mdiyay irum 
nan unakkurC-collu- 

giraddi-k-kel 
en kudirdiydi -k- 

kondu vd [gu 
tuvibdshiganodu pS 
avanukku-p-pegu 
idu ennattdi-k- 

karudugiradu I 



FrononolaUon. 



kahthth'iru; (porru) 
nahn inggayyirukkirrayn 
enukkti-oh-chollu nun- 

mayyahy irum 
nahn unukku-ch-chollu- 

ghirruiAay-k-kayZ 
(y)en kuthiiayyay-k-kon- 

du vah [sha 

t^uvibahshigunohdu pay- 
uvunukkti-p-payshu 
ithu ennuththay-k-ku^.'U- 

tMghirriitAu ? 



Expressions of Emotions. 

{Manogalanam kdttugira vdrttdigal.) 



What? 

Is it possible ? 

Indeed I 

That is impossible 

That cannot be 

You surprise me 
Don't touch 
My fault 
Oh 1 it's nothing 
I am sorry for it 



I am quite 
about it 



vexed 



What a pity I 
It is a sad thing 
Bravo I 
Well done 1 
How fortunate 1 
How beautiful I 
All right ! 
I am very glad 

How shocking I 



ennat 

elumd 1 

meyydgave ! 

adu elddu 

adu irukkamdttadti 

(or kudddii) 
nl enndi atiqayip- 
toddde [pikkirdy 
en kuUam ; en tappu 
d! adu kdriyam alia 
ndn adatkdga tuk- 

kamdy irukkiren 
nan addi-k-kurittu 

murudum aldiccal 

paW irukkiren 
evvalavu irakkam ! 
adu tukkamdna kd- 
gabdgu ! [riyam 

nanrdy mudindadu! 
evvalavu atishtam! 
ewalavu aragu! 
elldn qari! 
ndn migavum ganto 

gamdy irukkiren 
ewalavu kodumdi! 



ennu? 

(y)aylumah ? 

meyyahguvay I 

ufAu (y)aylahf^u 

utM irukkii mahttahtAu 

(koodaht/m) 
nee ennay uthishuyippik- 
thodahf^ay [kirrahy 

en kuMum ; en thuppti 
ah I utM kahriyum uUii 
nahn utMfkahgu «Mk- 

kiimahy irukkirrayn 
nahn u«^ay-k-kurriththu 

mtiryut/ium ulayoh- 

chul putt'irukkirrayn 
evviiZiivu irukkum ! 
VLthvi tAukkumahnii kah- 
shubahshu I [riyum 

nundrahy mudintMf Au ! 
evviiiuvu utheeshtum I 
ewiiiiivu uryiigu I 
ellahn^ shuri I 
nahn migiivum shunthoh- 

shiimahy irukkirrayn 
evviiZuvu kodumaj/ 1 



48 



BngliHh. 



Tamil (romanized). 



He is very angry 

What a shame 1 
How could you do 

so? 
I am ashamed of 

you 
For shame I 
You are very much 

to blame 

Hold your tongue I 



Apartments 

Entrance 

Exit 

Fire alarm 

Furnished rooms 

Keep off the grass 

Knock ; ring 
No admittance 

No smoking al- 
lowed 
No thoroughfare 
Please do not touch 
Please wipe your 
feet 

Private 

Public notice ! 
Pull ; push 
Refreshments 
To be let, to let 

To be sold 
Unfurnished rooms 
Walk in 



avan migavum. Icopa- 
may irukkiran 

evvalavu vetkakkedii! 

ni avvidam eppadi- 
c-ceyday ? 

nail unndi-k-kurittu 
vetka-p-padugiren 

qi qi ! 

nl migavum kuttat 
tukk' utpattavan 
ay irukkirdy 

un vdy mudu ! 



Pronunciation. 



uvun migiivum kohpfi- 
mahy irukkirrahn 

evvuZuvu vetkiikkaydii ! 

nee uvvit/mm eppudi-ch- 
ehay«/iahy ? 

nahu unnay-k-ktirriththu 
vetkii-p-pudughirrayn 



nee migiivum kuftuth' 
thukk'utputtiivunahy 
irtikkirrahy 

tin vahy moodii I 



Notices. (Arikkdigal.) 



vittin ardigal 
vagal ; duvaram 
purappadum vari 
ti-y-accakkurippu 
joditta ardigal 
pullandi-mel vara- 

mal nada 
tattu; mani-y-adi 
utpiraveqikka utta- 

rav' illdi 
pugdi-y-ildi kudik- 
kiradatku uttarav' 
vari-y-illdi [illdi 
todddeyum 
umadu padangaldi 

tuddikka-t - taydi 

geyyiim 
ira ha qiyamdna 
piragitta vilamba- 
irti ; tallu [ram 
dhdram 
vddagdikku vida-p- 

pada 
vitka-p-pada 
jodiydda atdigal 
ulle nada 



veettin -aivaygtl 
vashiil ; f Auvahrum 
purruppudum vuryi 
thee-y-uchchiikkurrippu 
johdiththii urrayguZ 
pullnway-mayl vurahmul 

nudii 
thuttu; mum-y-udi 
utpiriivayshikkii iittur 

uv'illay 
pugay-yilay kudikkirrfi- 

«M«ku uththiiruv'illaj/ 
vuryi-y-illay 
thodaht^ayyum 
umiiiAu pahfMnggiiJay 

thudaykkii-th-thuyay 

sheyytim 
iruhiishiy u mahnu 
piriishiththii viZumbii- 
iryu ; thuZZu [rum 

ahhahrum 
vahdiigaykku vidu - p 

pudii 
vi(ku-p-pudu 
johdiyahtAu urraygiiZ 
OWay nudfl 



49 



Englisb. 



The Railway. {Iruppu-p-podai.) 

(flee Vocabalary 18, page 34.) 
Tamil (romaDlzed). FTonnnclatlon. 



To tbe station 

Here is my lug- 
gage 

Take it to the 
cloak-room 

I wish to regis 
tei my luggage 
for... 

The luggage is 

over weight 
Get my luggage; 

here is the 

ticket 

Wbare is the 
waiting-room ? 

— is tlie booking- 

office? 

— is the buffet ? 

— is the lavatory? 

[fot...? 

— is the train 
Are you going by 

the express ? 

Show me a time- 



When does ti 
train start? 

Can I book through 
to...? 

A first- (second-) 
class single 
ticket to... 

Beturn tickets 

Tamil 8.-T. 



reyihe gtanattukku 
en payanae-cdman 
inge-y-irukhiradu 

gOfindn-ardikku adai 
eduttu-k-kondu-po 

nan en ftayana-c- 

eam&nm hu^ 

p-padivu qeyya 
virumbugiren 

payana-c-camdn 
nitdikk'adigam 

en qdmmnai eduttu 
k-kondu vd ; idu 
tan tundu (or 
tikket inge) 

kdtt' irukkwm ardi 
gnge? 

padivu geyyum (or 
( payana-t-tundu 
vitkum) qdldi enge? 

dhdra stdnam enge? 

karuVugira ardi en- 
ge? [enge J 

. ..-kku vandi-t-todar 

vigeshagati vandi-t- 
todar-variydy-p- 
pogiinrdl 

enakku neram-atta- 
randi-k-kdttu 

reyil vandi-t-todar 
eppo purappad/umf 

... -kku nerdy paya- 
nam poga tundu 
vdnga-k-kudum-d ? 

,..-kku mudal (iran- 
ddm) vaguppu tani- 
i-tiindu [dugal 

tirumbi varum tun 



[ku 

reyilvay sthahnuthtbak- 
en puyiinu-cb-cbahmahn 
inggay-y-irukkirrutAu 
shahmahn-urraykku nth- 
ay eduthtbu-k-kondu pob 
nahn en puyuwu-cb- 
chah-mahna^ ... ku-p- 
putMvu sheyyu virum- 
bugghirrayn 
puyunu - cb - chahmahn 

mrr«j/kk'at/iigum 
en shahmahuai/ eduth- 
thti-k-kowdu vab ; ithn 
thahn tbuwdu (tikket 
inggay) 
kahtbth' irtikkum vai-ay 

enggay ? 
putAivti sheyyum (puyu- 
OTathtbuwdu vitkum) 
shahlay enggay? [gay? 
abhahru stbabnum eng- 
kuryuvughirru urray eng- 
gay ? [enggay? 
...-kku vundi-th-thodur 
vishaysbuguthi vundi-th- 
thodur - vuryiyahy - p- 
pobghir-reerab ? 
enukku nayrum-uttuvii- 

nay-k-kahttu 
reyil vuwdi-tb-tbodur ep- 

poh purruppudum? 

...-kku nay-rabypuyuwum 

pohgu thundu vahng- 

gu-k-koodum-ah ? 

...-kku mutAul (irum- 

dahm) vuguppti thunt- 

th-thuwdu [gnl 

tbirfirabi vurum thundu- 



60 



English. 



How much is it? | 

We want a sleep- 
ing carriage 

A corridor carriage 
A carriage for 

ladies 
A non- smoking 

compartment 
Is this the train 

for...? 

Do I change any- 
where on the 
journey ? 

Where must I 
change for ... ? 

Is this seat en- 
gaged ? 

There is no room 

Call the guard 

The train is just 
going to start 

Open the door 
— the window 
Here is the station 

Do we stop here ? 

Do we alight here? 

Do we change 
carriages here ? 

How long do we 
stop here ? 

Five minutes 



Tamil (romanized). 



adu ewalavu ? 
vildi enna ? 
namakku nittirdi 

qeygira vandi 

venum [di 

oru qaUuccaldivan- 
tardiqdnigalukku 

oru vandi 
quruttu-k-kudiyada 

vandi 
...-kku-p-pocfira 

vandi-t-todar idu 

tana '! 
payanattil ewidat- 

tilenum mdra 

vendumd ? 
... -kku ewidattil 

mdra vendum ? 
inda dqanam etpatt' 

irukkiradd ? 
idam illdi 
kdvatkdrandi-k-kup- 

pidu 
randi-t-todar ippo 

purappada ■ p - 

pogiradu 
kadavdi-t-tira 
janaldi-t-tira 
tangal atdnam inge- 

y-irukkiradu 
inge tangugiromd f 

ndngal inge irangu- 



giroma.' 
inge ndngal vandi 

maUugiromd ? 
ndngal ewalavu 

neram iwidattil 

tangi-y-irukkirom 
aindu nimiqam 



FTODonoiatlon. 



nthvi ewuiiivu? 
vilaj/ ennii ? 
numukku niththiraiy 

sheyghirrii vu«di 

vaynum [vuredi 

oru shiittuchchahla!/ 
thurayshahniguZukku 

oru vundi 
shiiruttu-k-kudiyahtM 

vuwdi 
...-kku-p-pohghirru vun- 

dith-thodur ithn thah- 

nah? 
puyunuththil evvidiith- 

thilaynum mahrrii 

vaywdtimah ? 
-kku ewidiiththil 

mahrrii vayndum? 
inthu ahshiiniim aytputt' 

irukkirrii^/iah ? 
idiim illoi/ 
kahvTitkahriinay - k-koop- 

pidii 
vuwdi-thodiir ippoh ptir- 

ruppudii - p - pohghir - 

riitM 
kuthnvay - th - thirru 
j unulay - th-thirru 
thunggiil sthahniim 

inggay-y-iriikkirru«Au 
inggay thunggughirroh- 

mah? 
nahnggiiZ inggay irrung- 

gughirrohmah? 
inggay nahnggii/ vuwdi 

mahttughirrohmah 
nahnggiiZ ewiiZiivii nay- 
riim ivviduththil thuug- 
ghi-y-iriikkirrohm ? 
inthfL nimishiim 



61 



English. 



My luggage is lost 



When it arrives, 
forward it on 
to... 

Give me your ticket 

Here it is 



Tamil (romanlzed). 



en payana-c-caman 
tavari-p-p6y iruk- 
kiradu 

adu vandu gerum 
podu ...-kku addi 
anuppu [k-kodu 

un tunddi enakku 

adu inge (irukkira 
du) 



Frononclation. 



en puyu»u-ch-chahmahn 
thuvurri-p-pohy iruk- 
kirrufAu 

uthu vunt/iu shayrum 
pohiM ... - kku nthay 
unuppii [kodu 

tin thunday enukku-k- 

Tithu. inggay (irukkir- 
ruthn) 



The Hotel, {Qdvadi.) 

(See Vooabalarles 12—16, pages 28—32. 



Which is the best 

hotel ? 
Let us have supper 

soon 

Are our rooms 

ready ? 
I want a bedroom 

Let me see the 
room 

What is the price 
of this room ? 

That is too dear 

I want a cheaper 
one 

Have you a double- 
bedded room ? 

Are there any 

letters for me? 
Where is the w.c. ? 
Can I have a warm 

bath? 
Give me the key of 

my room 
Bring me some 

warm water 



xittamamana qavadi 

edu ? 
engalukku ira-c-cdp- 

pddu gikkiramdy 

kodu 

engal ardiga I dyatta- 

may irukkinrand? 

enakku oru paduk- 

kai-y-ardi vendum 
ndn ardiydi-p-pdrk- 

kattiim 
inda ardikku vildi- 

y-enna ? [ki 

adu migavum kirdk- 
enakku malivdnad' 

onru venum 
irattdi-p-padukkdi- 

y-ulla ardi -y - 

irukkiradd? 
enakku kdgidangal 

undd? [eiige 
dabilyu gi ullardi 
vennir sndnam 

kiddikkumd ? 
en ardi-c-cdviydi-k- 

kodu 
enakku konjam ven- 
nir kondu vd 



shah- 



uththumumahnu 

vudi efM? 
engguZukkti irahchchahp- 

pahdu sheekkirumahy 

kodu 
enggul uiraygnl ahyuth- 
thumahy irukkind runah 
enukku orti pudukkay- 

y-urray vayradum 
nahn urra?/yai/-p-pahrk- 

kuttum 
inthu urraj/kku vilay-y- 

ennu? 
nthn miguvum kirahkki 
enukku mulivahnuiA' 

ondru vayntim 
iruttaj/'p-pudukkay-yuZZu 

urray-y-irtikkirruiAah? 

enukku kahgliiiMngguZ 
tiridah ? [eiiggay ? 

dubilyu shee ulluriay 

venneer snahnum kid- 
ay kkumah ? 

en urray-ch-chahviyai/k- 
kodii? 

enukku kow^jum venneer 
kondu vah 



62 



English. 

Take my luggage 
down 

Give me a candle, 
please 

We leave early to- 
morrow morning 

Gall me at seven 



Tamil (romanlzed). 



en payana-c-cdmd 

ndi-k-kire edu 
tayavdgaenakku oru 
meriigu vartti kodum 
ndlcii atikalaiyil 

pogirom 
eru manikku ennai- 
k-kuppidu 



Prononciatlon. 



en puyuKU-cli-cliahmah.- 

nay keeryay edu 
<Auyuvahgu eniikku oru 
merytigu vurththi kodum 
naMay nthikalilai/yil 

pohghirrohm 
(y)ayryu munikku ennay- 
k-kooppidu 



Breakfast. (Edldiccdppddu.) 



Is breakfast ready? 

Breakfast is ready 
Is the tea made ? 

Do you drink...? 
This cream is sour 

Will you take...? 
These eggs ar( 

hard 
Give me the salt 
Pass me... 
This butter is not 

fresh 
Bring some more 
Is the coffee strong 

enough ? 
We want more 

cups 

Take some more... 
A piece of toast 

A rasher of bacon 
Coffee with milk 
Coffee without milk 

or cream 
Remove the things] 



(See VocabnlarieB 13 & 13, pages 26— 2S.) 

kdldi bojanam dyat- 

tappattadd ? \du 

dyattappatta 

te-nlr mudind' 

irukhiradd? 
nl... kudikkirdyd ? 
inda-p-pdldddi pu- 

lippdy irukkiradu 
nl... ^dppiduvdyd ? 
inda muttdigal kadi 

nam 
uppu enakku-k-kodu 
. . . enakk' anuppu 
inda venney pudid 

alia [du vd 

konjam adigam kon- 
inda-k-kdppi podiya 
pelamdy irukkiradd? 
engalukku innum 

adigam kappi 

pdttiram vendum 
innum konjam, edu 
oru tundu gUdu-kdt 

Una rotti [tundu 
uppitta panri-vaUal 
pdlodu kdppi 
pal, pdldddi-y-illd- 

da kdppi 
porutkaldi nikku 



kahlay bohj unum ahyuth- 

thupputtiiiAah ? 

ahyuththupputtii^/m 

thay-neer mudini/i' iruk- 

kirrut^ah ? 
nee. . .kudikkirrahy-ah ? 
indu-p-pahlahdffy puZip- 

pahy irukkirriit/tu 
nee. . . shahppidtivahyah ? 
mthu Tcmiiaygul kudi- 

niim 
tippu enukku-k-kodu 
...enukk' unuppu 
inthxi venney ptif^itA' 

ullu [vah 

Vongjum utAigum kowdti 

infM-k-kahppi pohtAiyu 

peliimahy irukkirrutAah 

engguZukku innum ut^ii- 

gum kuppi-pahththi- 

rum vayjidum 
innum kom^um edu 
oru thundu shoodu-kaht- 

tinu rotti [thundu 
uppittii pandri-vuttiil 
pahlohdu kahppi 
pahl, pahlahday.y-illah- 

thn kahppi 
porutkiiZay neekku 



English. 



Dinner. {Tini.) 

(8ea Vocabularies U & IS, pages 2 

Tamil (romanlzedi). 



Pronunciation. 



Show me the bill 

of-fare 
What have you 

ready ? 
What soup will 

you have ? 
Have you any...? 

May I give you 

some fish? 
Fried soles 
What vfine will 

you have ? 
Here is the list 

We shall dine at 
three o'clock 

Are you hungry or 
thirsty ? 

I am very thirsty 

What shall I help 
you to? [fer 

Which do you pre- 

No, thank you 

Help yourself 

I prefer it well- 
done 

It is excellent 

Change the plates 

Give me a clean 
fork 

A clean knife 

Bring me a glass 
of water 

Give me something 
to drink 

This wine is flat 



gdppattukku iddppu 

kdttu 
unmdam ayattamay 

irukkirad' enna ? 
unakku enna qup 

mruppam ? 
unnidam yddenum 

. . .irukkiradd ? 
nan wmakku konjam 
min kodukkaldmdf 
poritta ndkkur-min 
enna uvayinumakku 

mruppam •? 
iddppu inge {irukki- 

radu) 
munru manikku-c- 

cdppiduvdm 
pagiydy alladu da- 

hamdy irukkirlra? 
enakku metta ddham 

edukkiradu 
nan unakku enna 

kodukka vendum? 
unakku edupiriy ami 
venddM, umakku 
wmakke edum [stuti 
nanrdy dkkinadu 

enakku piriyam 
adu meldnadu 
pingdndi mdttu 
enakku, guttiydna 

mullu kodu 
guttiydna katti 
enakku oru gild. 

tannvr hondu vd 
kudikka edenum. 

kodu \jj-attadu 
inda uvayin-guvdi 



shahppahttukku idahppu 

kahttu 
unnidum ahyuththu- 

mahy irukkirruiA' ennu? 
unukku ennu shoop vi- 

ruppiim ? 
unnidum yah/Aiaynum... 

irukkirriit/iah ? 
nahn umukku kowg^iim 

meen kodukkulahmah? 
poriththu nahkku-meen 
ennu uvuyin umukku 

viruppum? 
idahppu inggay (irukkir- 

rufto) 
moondru munikku-ch- 

chahppiduvohm 
pushiyahy uliut/tu thah- 
huhmahy irukkirreerah? 
enukku meththii t/iah- 

hiim edukkirrutAu 
nahn Oniikku ennu ko- 

dukkii vaywdtim ? 
tiniikku efAu piriyum ? 
vaywdahm, umukku 
umukkay edum [sthuthi 
nundrahy ahkkinuiAu 

enukku piriyum 
Titlm maylahnii^/m 
peenggahna^ mahttii 
eniikku shuththiyahnfl 

mallu kodu 
shuththiyahnu kuththi 
eniikku orii ghiiahs thun- 

neer kowdu vah 
kudikkii et^aynum Itodu 
{uttuthu 
iathu uvuyin-shuvay-y- 



54 



English. 



Tea. [Te-nlr.) 

(B«a Vooabularles 18 A 13, pages -26- 
Tamil (romanized). 



Tea is ready 

Will you come ? 
Pour out the tea 
Bring a saucer 

Ring, if you please 
A little more milk 
More bread 

A slice of bread 

and butter 
Will you take some 

cake? 
A small piece 
Make more toast 

This is excellent tea 



How are you ? 
I am very well 

ill 

not very well 

I hope you will 
soon be better 

Do you sleep well ? 

Pretty well, thank 

you 
I have caught a 

chill 
I feel sick 



Frononciatlon. 



te-nlr dyattamdy 

irukkiradu 
varuvlrd? 
te-nlr uttu 
oru tattciippattira) 

kondu vd [y-adi 
nl virumbindlviani- 
konjam adigam pdl 
innam adigam urot- 

ti (kodu) 
oru tundu rottiy-um 

venney-um 
konjam paniydram 

gdpjiiduvlrd ? 
oru qiru tundu 
innam. adiga rotti 

qud' dkku 
idu m igavxim nallate 



thay-neer ahyuththu- 

mahy irukkirrui/iu 
vuruveerah ? 
thay-neer oottu 
oru thuttaj/ppahththirum 

kowdu vah [y-udi 

nee virtimbinahl muwi- 
kong^xnn ufAigum pahl 
innum uf/iigum urotti 

(kodu) 
oru thundu rottiyum 

veraweyum 
konijrjiim puniyahrum 

shahppiduveerah ? 
oru shirru thuwdu 
innum uf/ugu rotti shood' 

ahkku 
ifAu miguvum nullu thay 



Health, (Qaukkiyam.) 



<See Tocabalary 11, page '24.) 



qugam eppadi / 
migavum qugamay 

irukkiren [Idi 
enakkii-c-cugam il 
enakku migariim 

gugam illai 
gikkiramdy giigam 

addimr eijrunatii,- 

hiigiren 
nanrdy - 1 ■ tungu 

girlid 1 
konjam nanrdy, 

umakku randanam 
enakku knlir piditt' 

irukkiradu 
viyddiydy unaru 

giren 



shugum eppudi ? 
miguvum shugumahy 

irukkirrayn 
enukkuch-chtigiim illay 
enukku miguvum shu- 
gum illai/ 
sheekkirumahy shugum 

iid«^veer endrti num- 

bugghirrayn 
nundrahy - th - thoongu- 

ghirreerah ? 
kongjuva nundrahy, 

umukku vun«/iunum 
enukku kuZir pidithth' 

irukkirruiAu 
viyahf/iiyahy unurughir- 

rayn 



66 



BngUsh. 



Send for a doctor 

I want to see a ... 
She has a cough 

Where is there a 
chemist's shop ? 

How much is the 
doctor's fee for 
a visit ? 

Have this prescrip- 
tion made up 

One tablespoonful 

three times 

day 

To be taken after 

each meal 
Shake the bottle 
Outward applica 
Poisoi) [tion only 



Tamil (romanized). 



Pronauclatlon. 



vaittiyanukku dl 

anuppu 
. . . pdrkka vendum 
avalukku irumal 

pidittiikkondadu 
ra qayanakkara nu- 

ddiya kaddi en- 

ge-y-irukldradu? 
vaittiyanuddiya oru 

varuyd.ikkii gam-\ 

balam enna ? 
inda vdgadamurdi- 

yin padi marundu 

kondu vd 
oru ndldikku munru 

murdi oru megdi 

k-karandi nirdiya 
ovvoru gdppdttin pin 

utkolla vendum 
pottaldik-kulukku 
velippuccu mdttiram 
vigam 



vjththiyunukku ahl un- 

uppu 
... pahrkku vayndtim 
avuZukku iriimul pidith- 

thukkowduf/tu 
rushahyunukkahruwu- 

dayyu kuAay enggay- 

y-irukkirrutM ? 
YuhihiyunxL&ayyu oru 

vuruga!/kku shumbu- 

Zum ennii ? 
infM vahgudumurrflT/yin 

pudi murun*/iu ko7zdu 

vah 
oru nahlaykku moondru 

murray oru mayshaj/k- 

kurujidi nirrar/yu 
ovvoru shahppahttin pin 

utkoHu vay«dum 
pohththuta^k-kulukku 
veZippoochohu mahththi- 
vishum [riim 



The Time. {Neram.) 

(See Vooabulaiy 7, page 10.) 



Please tell me the 

time 
What time is it ? 
Ten minutes past 

seven 
It has just struck 

nine [ing... 

The clock is strik- 
A quarter past one 
It is past one 
Half-past four 
Twenty minutes to 

six 
A quarter to eight 



enakku neram qolla 

tayavii geyyum 
mani neram enna,? 
eru mani pattu nim- 

iqam qenradu 
ippo onbadu marbi 

adittadu [du 

... mani-y-adikkira 
onre kdl mani 
onr' dyittu 
ndlardi m,ani 
dru manikku iru 

badu nimiqam 
ettukku kdl mani 

irukkiradu 



enukku nayrum shoUu 

thuyuvu sheyyum 
muni nayruiu ennu ? 
eryti muwi puththu nim- 

ishiim shendrutM 
ippoh onbu^Au muni 

udiththuiAu 
. . .murii-y-udikkirruf Au 
ondray kahl muni 
ondr'ahyiiiu 
nahlurat/ muni 
ahrru munikku irubut/til 

nimishum 
ettukku kahl muni iruk- 

kirriitAu 



66 



English. 


Tamil (rotnanlied). 


By my watch 
Exactly 3 o'clock 
At what time ? 


en gadiyarappadi 
qariydy munru, mani 
enda neraUil ? 


9.0 a.m. 


mut-pagal onbadu 
manikku [ku 


7.0 p.m. 

It is not late 


pit-pagal eru manik- 
neran gella-v-illdi 


It is early 


(or fenrad' illai) 
neram mundi - y ■ 
irukldradu 



Pronunciation. 



en gudiyahiu-ppudi 
shuriyahy mooudru muni 
eni/iu nayruththil ? 
muf-pugul onbiitAu mu»- 

ikku 
pi<-pugiil ayryn muwkku 
nayriin^ sli«llu-v-illai/ 

(shendrut/i' Wlay) 
nayrum munt/ii-y-iruk- 

kirruf^u 



Post-office and Telegrams. (Tajialai-k-kurittu.) 

(See Vocabulary 20. page 39. For Postal Kates, see page 06J 



Where is the tele- 
graph {or post-) 
office? 

Have you any let- 
ters (telegrams, 
newspapers) for 
Mr. ...) 

Will this letter go 
to-night ? 

I wish to send . . . 
What is the post 
age of this letter? 
To register a letter 

What is the charge? 
For the iirst ten 

words 
For every addi 

tional word 
Name and address 

of sender 

Eeply paid 

When is the next, 
delivery ? j 



m.in tapdl (;dvadi 
enge-y-irukkiradu? 

kdgidam {tandi, qa- 
mdgdrapattirigdi) 
edenilm . . . turdikku 
irukkiradd? 
mda-k-kdgidam irdt- 
tirikku pogunid ? 
[rumbugiren 
. . . kku anuppa vi- 
inda-k-kdgidattukku 
tavdt gelavu enna? 
kdgidam padivu qey- 
ya (tdkkal panna) 
gelavu enna? 
mudal pattu-c-cot- 

kalukku 
idil adiga-c-cotkal 

owonrukku 
anuppuvanuddiya 
peyar um vakkandi- 
y-um iyildqam-iim) 
piratiyiittara-qelavti 

kodutta 
adutta tapaX-oppa- 
ddi eppo ? 



min thupahl shahvudi 
enggay-y-irukki ri-fif /lii? 

kahghit/mm (thuntii, 
shumahshahrftpaththi- 
ligay efAaynum...thu- 
tayVku irukkirriitAah? 

infM-k-kahghit^um 
irahththirikku poh- 
gumah ? [ghirrayn 

...kku unuppii virumbCi- 

infAu-k-kahghi?Mththuk- 
ku thuvaht sheliiTU ennii 

kahghit^iim pudivii shey- 
yu (thahkkul punwu) 

sheluvu ennii? 

mutMl puththii-oh-chot- 
kuZukku 

it/ul uiAigii-ch-chotkiii 
ovvondrukku 

unuppuyiiniidai/yu pey- 
iir-tim vukkuwo^yum 
(vilahshum-um) 

piriithi-y-uththiiru-shel- 
iivu koduththii 

uduththn thupahl-oppti- 
doy eppoh ? 



57 



Eagltsh. 



Tamil (romanlzed.) 



Pronnnclatdon. 



When does the 

post-ofiSoe close? 
I want a money 

order for... 
Payable at. . . 
Is the English mail 

in yet ? 
The latest delivery 

is at... 



tetpal qavadi eppo- 

rudu nmdugiradu} 

...-kku mani ddar 

vindum 
..,■41 kodukkum padi 
ingilish tetpdl innum 

irakMradd 1 
kadaigiydna tapdl 

oppaddi ...kku 



thupahl shahvudi eppo- 
ryvLthn. moodughirrufM? 
...kku muni ahdur vayw- 

dum 
...il kodukkum pudi 
ingghilish thupahl in- 
num irukkirrfif/tah ? 
kudayshiyahnu thnpahl- 
oppiiday ...kku 



In Town. {Nagarattil.) 

(Bee VooabululeB 8 ft 18, pages 91 ft U.) 



Where shall we go? 
Let UB go 

[to...? 
Which is the way 
Where does this 

road lead to? 
Go up the Street 
Is it far from here? 

How far is it to...? 
Show me the way 
Turn to the right 
Go quickly 

— slowly 

— straight on 
Keep to the left 
Seoomd turning to 

the right 
Take the first to 
the left and the 
second tO' the 
right 



Gross the road 
In what street 
is...? 

Please directme the 
nearest way to. 



enge povom ! 

povom (nam pogat 
turn) 

,..ku vari yedu? 

inda vari enge po- 
giraduf 

vitikku mel po 

adu ing' irundu 
duramd ? [ram 

. . .kM ewalavu du- 

vari kattu \bu 

vmhceppakka/m, tirum- 

gurukkdy-p-p6 

melloi mella po 

nerdy-p-po 

ida-p-pakkamdy-p-po 

valappakkattil iran- 
ddm kwrukku-vari 

idappakkattil mvdal 
karukku-vari eduU 
tti valappakkattil 
iranddm kurukku 
variydy tirumbi po 

m,ti kurukke po 

...enda vitiyil iruh 
kiradu ? 

...kku kittiija vara 
enndi-k-kattitngal 



enggay pohvohm ? 
polivohm (nahm pohgut- 

ttim) 
...ku vuryi yefM? 
int^u vuryi enggay poh- 

ghirrut^u ? 
veethikkti mayl poh 
uJAu inggh' itxmth^ thoo- 

rumah ? 
...kku evvuZiivu tAoorum 
vuryi kahttu 
vuluppukkum thirtinibu 
shurrukkahy-p-poh 
mellu mellu poh 
nayrahy-p-poh 
idu-p-pukkumahy-p-pob 
vuMppukkuthtbil iru7i- 

dahm kurrukku-vuryi 
iduppukkiiththil mvithnl 

kurrukku-vuryi eduth- 

tbu vuluppukkuththil 

iruMdahm kurriikku- 

vuryiyahy tbirumbi poh 
veetbi kurrukkay pob 
...enfAu veethiyil iruk- 

kirriit^u ? 
...kku kittiyii vuryi en- 

naj/k-kahttunggtii 



63 



English. 



Tamil (romftnlzed). 



Is this the way 
to...? [F. ? 

Do you know Mr. 

I don't know any- 
one of that name 
[well 

I know him very 

Who is he ? 

He is an old friend 
of mine 

Where does he 
live? 

Close by (me) 

Can you take me 
to a good hotel ? 

Is Mr. F. (Mrs. F.) 
at home ? 

Good morning 
How do yau do ? 
Very well 

I am very well 

I must go 
Good-bye, farewell 

I wish you good 

morning 
Good evening 
Good night 
What is the name 

of that village ? 
What sort of a 

road is it? 
Which way am I 

to go? 
You are in the 

right way 



...kku vari-y-idu ta- 
na ? \rird f 

F. turdiydi arirji- 

anda-p-peyar konda 
evaraiyiiin nan art 
yen [t-teriyum 

avar enakku. nalldy- 

avar ydr ? 

avar eiiakku-p- 
pardiya qincgidan 

avar enge kudi-y 
irukkirdr ? 

[enakku-k-) kitta 

nalla vidudikku 
enndi-k-kiltti-k- 
kondu povlrd? 

F. turdi {turdi- 
qdni) arargal 
vlttil irukkirdrd? 

kdldi vandanam 

qiigam eppadi ? 

metta nanrdy iruk 
kiradu 

nan migavum quga 
may irakkiren 

ndn poga vendum 

vandanam, poyittn 
varuven 

umakku kdldi van 
danam tarugiren 

qdyankdla \ vanda- 

irdttiri ) nam 

anda urukku peyar 
enna ? 

adu enna vagdiydna 
vari 1 

nan enda variydy 
p-poga vendum? 

mr qariydna vari- 
yil pogirir 



Pronunciation. 



...kku vuryi-y-i(Au thah- 

nah ? [rah ? 

F. ihmayyay urrighiree- 
unJ/iu - p - peyiir kondu 

evara(/yum nahn urri- 

yayn [theriyum 

uviir eniikku nuUahy-th- 
uvur yahr ? 
uvur enukku-p-puryayyu 

shin-ayghif/iun 
uviir enggay kudiyiruk- 

kirrahr? 
(eniikku-k-) kittii 
nullu vidtitAikku enna^- 

k-kootti-k-kondu poh- 

veerah ? 
F. thurai/ (thurayshahni) 

uviirgiii veettil iruk- 

kirrrahrah ? 
kahlay vunt^uniim 
shugiim eppudi ? 
meththu nundrahy iriik- 

kirriiJ/tu 
nahn migiivum shugu- 

mahy irukkirrayn 
nahn pohgii vaywdum 
vunt/iiiniim, pohyittti 

vuruvayn 
umiikku kahlay vun^Aii- 

niim thurtighirrayn 
shahyiingkahlu) vunf/iu- 
irahththiri ) num 
un</m oorukku peyur 

ennu ? 
MthvL ennu vugaj/yahnu 

vuryi ? 
nahn ent/iu vuryiyahy-p- 

pohgu vayndum ? 
neer shuriyahnii vuryiyil 

pohghireer 



69 



English. 



You are quite out 

of the way 
Have you a card? 

Give him my card 

I will call again 

Does he expect 
you? 

He is expecting 
you 

I have an engage- 
ment with him 



Tamil (romaniied). 



nlr muttum vari 

tappi-p-pogirlr 
unnidam un peyar- 

qltV irukkiradd? 
avarukku en peyar- 

(fittaik-kodu 
marupadiyum poyk- 

kdnben 
avar unndi-k-kdtt' 

irukkirdrd ? 
avar unndi-k-kdtt' 

irukkirdr 
avarodu enakku or 

aluval undu 



Pronunciation. 



neer mutttlm vuryi thup- 

pi-p-pohghirreer 
unnidum un peyur- 

sheett' irukkirrufAah ? 
uvurtikku en peyur- 

sheettay-k-kodu 
murrupudiytim pohyk- 

kahnbayn 
uvur unnay-k-kahthth' 

irukkirrahrah ? 
uvur unnay-k-kahthth' 

irukkirrahr 
uvurohdu enukku ohr 

uluviil uwdu 



Shopping. (Kolvandi.) 



Vocabularies 4—8, 12—17, pages 15—19, Sft— 84. For Weights t Measures, see page 09.) 



How much ? 
That is too much 
What is the price ? 
Will you send them 

at once ? 
I wish to buy... 

I will take this 
Send them to... 
I want some calico 

I should like to see 
some ribbons 

This colour is too 
dark — light 

Have you any nar 
rower ? — broader 



What is 
yard? 



this 



evvalavu? 
adn miyacum adi 
vildi enna ? [gam 
avdigaldi udane 

anuppumrd ? 
. . . vdnga virumbu- 

giren 
iddi eduppen [uppu 
avdigaldi... kku an- 
enakku kdlikkopuda- 
vdi konjam renum 
gila nddd-p-pdrkka 

vSnum 
inda niram metta 

irundadu — veliri- 

nadu 
ummidam odungi- 

yadu irukkiradd? 

■ — agalaiiidnadu 

irukkiradd 
idu enna, oru ga 

jamd (oru yard) f 



evTuZuvu ? 

nthn miguvum uf/agum 

vilay ennu ? 

nvaygalay udunay unup- 

puveerah ? 
... vahnggu virumbu- 

ghirrayn 
ithay eduppayn 
nyaygulay...kku unuppn 
enukku kahlikkoh pudu- 

vay kowgrjum vaywum 
shilu nahdah-p-pahrkku 

vayntim 
inthn nirrum meththu 

irunduiM — veZirrinu- 

thu 
timmidum odungghiyu- 

thu irukkirrufAah ? — 

ugulumahnutAu iruk- 

kirrufAah 
ithu ennu, oru gujiimab 

(oru yahrah) ? 



60 



English. 



It is faded 
Not so fine 

This will do 

A skein of sewing 

silk 
What are they a 

pair? 
It is too dear 
Try on these 

They fit you very 

well 
I will take them 

with me 
Make out my bill 



Tamil (romanlied). 



Pronunciation. 



adil niran kettadu 
appadi nettiydnadu 

rendam 
idti podum 
taikkira pattu-nut 

pandu onru ' 

avdiijal enna, oru\ 

jodiyd ? 
adu metta kirdkki 
ivaigalai-y-ittu-p- 

par 

avdigalumakku niiya 
nanrdy-p-porundum 
ndn avdiyaldi-k- 

koiidii poven 
en kanakku-k-kodu 



utAil nirrung kettiifAu 
uppudi nayththiyahnu- 

tha. vaywdahm 
itlm pohfMm 
thtkkiriu puttti-noof- 

pun(/su ondru 
uvayguZ ennii, oru joh- 

diyali ? 
uthu meththu kirahkki 
ivai/guZai/-y-ittu-p-pahr 

uvai/guZ umukku migu 
n undrahy-p-porun^/iu m 

nahn uva^fl/ay-k-koradu 
pbhvayn 

en kuniikku-k-kodu 



Shooting, {(^ikdri.) 



Have I to obtain 
permission to 
shoot here? 

To whom must I 
apply ? 

What kind of game 
can I get here ? 

Elk, deer, hare, wild 
buffalo, boar, fox, 
tiger, elephant, 
&o. 

Can I obtain the 
exclusive right 
over the shoot- 
ing ? 

What rent must I 
pay ? 



(See Vocabulary 21, page 

ifige vediccuda nan 
nttarava per a ven 
dumdf 

drukku ndn pirdt 
tippuc-ceyya ven- 
duin ? 

ndn ivvida**,il enna 
vettdi - ' , dda- k - 
kudum / 

maidi, n-^m, muyal, 
kdtf erumdi, kdttu- 
p-panri, nari,puli, 
ydndi mudaldnavdi 

ndn vedi-c-cududa- 
lukku - p - pura - 
ningaldna urimdi 
pettu - k-kolla-k- 
kudumd 1 

ndn enna van (or 
vfidngdi) kodukka 
lenuin t 



inggay vediehchudu nahn 
uththuriivu perrii vayw- 
dtimah ? 

ahrukku nahn pirahth- 
thipuch -cheyyu vay?i- 
dum ? 

nahn ivviduththil ennu 
y&yiiay - y- ahdii - k - 
koodum ? 

murai/, mahn, muyul, 
kahtterumay, kahttu- 
p-pundri, nuri, puli, 
yahnay mut/tulahnuvay 

nahn vedich-chudu</m- 
lukku-p-purii - neenggu- 
lahuu urimay petiti-k- 
koMu-k-koodumab ? 

nahn ennii vuri (vahdii- 
gay) kodukku vaywum ? 



61 



EngllBh. 



Tamil (lomanlzed). 



FronaDclation. 



Can I get one 
or two experi- 
enced men to 
go out shooting 
with me ? 

How much must 
I pay each of 
them per day 
(week) ? 

How many dogs will 
you. let me h&ve ? 

Are the dogs prop- 
erly trained ? 



Keep the 

back 
Load my gun 



dogs 



Carry my gun 

[ridges 
Grive me some cart 
Do not firel 
Let me Jiave a shot 
with your gun 

To cock a gun 



Is there any fiah 
ing to be had 
near here? 
Must I first obtain 
permission to 
fish? 
What is the rent for 
fishing in this ri-rer 
(lake) (pond)? 



ennodu kuda vedi-c- 

cuda-p-poga onru al 
ladu irandu parak- 
kamdna algal ki- 
daikkork-kildumd i 

avargal-oworuva- 
rukkum, ndl onrit- 
ku {vdram onril 
few) ewalavu ko 
duhka vendum ? 

ettandi nay enakku- 
k-kodu.ppird ? 

anda naygal qari- 
ydy-p-parakkap- 
pattavdigald ? 

ndygaldi-p-pinne 
•aaittu-k-kol 

en tuppdkkikku 
marundu podu 

en tuppdkkiydi-y- 
eduttti-k-kmdu p6 

enakku qila tottd-k- 

quddde ! [kodu 

tcmadu tuppdkkiydl 
ndn oru gudu 
qudattum 

tuppdickik-hudirdi- 
ydi iruttu vida 



ennohdu koodii vedich- 
chudu-p-pohgu ondru 
ull'lfrAu irundu puryuk- 
kumahnu ahlgal ki- 
daykku-k-koodumah ? 

uvurgui owortiviiruk- 
kum, nahZ ondritkt 
(vahriim ondritku) 
ewuiiivu kodukku 
vaywdum ? 

eththunaj/ nahy enukku- 
k-koduppeerah ? 

untM nahyguZ shuri- 
yahy-p-puryukkup-p- 
puttiiva^guZah ? 

nahyguZat/-p-pinnay vith- 
thtikkoZ 

en thuppahkkikku mu- 
runiAu pohdu 

en thuppahkkiyay-y- 
eduththu-k-,koMdu poh 

enukkti shilii thohttah- 

shudahtAay ,[k-kodu 

umutM thuppahkkiyahl 
nahn oru shoodu shu- 
duttum 

thuppahkkikkutAirayyay 
iryuththu vidu 



Fishing. (Min-vettdiJ) 

{See Yocabularr 21, page 40.) 



ivvidattukku-k-kitta 
mm pidikka-k- 
kudumd ? 

mln pidikka nari, 
rrmdal uttaravu 
per a vendumd? 

inda dUii {eriyiV) 
{kukittil) ruin pi- 
dikka vari-y-enna? 



ivvidiiththukku-k-kittii 
mean pidikku-k-koodu- 
mah? 

meen pidikkii nahn mu 
thvX uththiiruvu perru 
vaywdumah ? 

intM ah«il (ayiiyil) 
(ku2uththil) meen 
pidikka vuri-y-ennii ? 



62 



BngllBh. 



Can I get the sole 
right of fishing ? 

Can I have a boat 
and man ? 

What do you 

charge for the 

hour (day) ? 
Are you an experi 

enced fisherman? 
Can I depend on 

you? 
The oar 
Have you brought 

some bait ? 
What bait must I 

use ? 
Will you bring bait? 
Give me a hook 
Will you bait my 

line? 
Give me my rod 
Row gently 

Donotmakeanoise 

Make haste ! 

The fishing is good 

here 
How much does 

this fish weigh? 
Will you weigh it ? 



Tamil (romanized). 



mm pidikkiradathu 

nan tani urimdi 

pera-k-kudumd ? 
enakku oru vallam- 

um (or doniyum) 

dl-um kiddikkumd? 
oru manikkv, (nd- 

lukku) evvalavu 

kuli ketkirdy? 
nl parakkamdna 

nnn-pidi-kdrana ? 
nan xmnil nambik 

kdi vaikka-k-kudu- 
tandu; tuduppu[^nid: 
koiljam irdi kondu 

rand' irukldrdyd/ 
enna irdi upayoyik- 

ka veildumi [yd? 
irdi kondu varuvd- 
oru tUndil kodu 
en tundilukku irdi 

poduvdyd ? [kodu 
en koldi enakku-k- 
meduvdy tandu vali 

(or (javal vali) 
gandadi panndde 
qikkiram pannu! 
mln-pidippu ivvi- 

dattil nalladu 
inda min evvalavu 

nirukkiradu ? 
addi niruppdyd? 



Pronunciation. 



meen pidikkirriiiAufku 

nahn thuni urima^ 

perru-k-koodumah ? 
enukku oru vuiZiim-unj 

(tA,ohniyum) ahiiim 

kidai/kktimah ? 
oru munikku (nahiukkti) 

evvuZiivii kooZi kayt- 

kirrahy ? 
nee puryukkiimahnii 

meen-pidi-kahrunah ? 
nahn unnil numbikkaj 

vikkukkoodtimah ? 
thundu ; thudiippu 
kongixnn hay kondu 

vuntA'irukkirrahyah ? 
ennu vcay upuyohghikkii 

vaywdum ? 
iray kojidu vuruvahyah ? 
oru thoondil kodu 
en thoomdilukkti iray poh- 

diivahyah ? 
en kohlay eniikku-k-kodu 
mejAuvahy thundii vuli 

(shuvul vuli) 
shunf/iudi punnahiAay 
sheekkiriim puwwu ! 
meen-pidippu ivviduth- 

thil nuUuiAu 
int/m meen ewuZiivil 

nirrukkirru*/(u ? 
uthay nirruppahyah ? 



Commercial and Trading. (Viyapdram.) 

(See Yooabulnry 19, page 35.) 



Send in my account 
I am leaving to 

morrow 
You have over 

charged me 



en kanakkdi anuppu 
nan ndldikku-p- 

pogiren 
ni adiga vildi pott' 

irukkirdy 



en kuwiikkai/ unuppu 
nahn nahZaykku-p-poh- 

ghirrayn 
nee nthigu vilay pohtt' 

irakkirrahy 



m 



BngUsh. 



Give me a receipt 
The firm has failed 

What are the 

assets ? 

[sheet 
Show me a balance 
What are the 

liabilities ? 
There is an error 

in your account 
My samples are 

delayed 

I want to get them 
through the 
Custom House 

I want a detailed 
statement 

I shall send in a 
claim 

Can I insure my 
luggage ? 

What is the rate ? 
What is the charge? 
Will you accept a 

bill? 
At three months 
Send by fast train 

They can go by 
goods train 

What dividend is 

declared ? 
Your luggage is 

liable to duty 



Tamil (roiioanized). 



Pronunciation. 



pattuc-cUtu enaklcu- 

k-kodu 
inda varttagar kut- 

tam murindu poy- 

irukkiradu 
kadan irukka-p- 

podumdna porul 

evvalavu ? [kdttu 
pdkkittal enakku-k 
kadan (or uttara 

vddam) ewalavu ? 
un kanakkil oru tap- 

pidam irukkiradu 
enadu mddiri-qd- 

mdngal tdmadap- 

patt' irukkinrana 
tirvdi - vittu - variyd- 

ga nan avdigaldi 

addiya vendum 
enakku oru vivarac- 

cittu venum 
nan oru todarcci 

pannuven 
en paijana-c-cdmdn- 

gal uttaravddam 

panna-k-kUdumd ? 
vidaiii. enna? 
vildi (or qelavu) enna 
oru undiyal ettu-k- 

koUuvird ? 
munru mddattil 
kadi vandit-todar 

mulamdga anuppu 
avdigal qdmdn-van- 

dit-todar mulam- 
dga pogum 
enna pdgam arivik- 

ka - p-padugiradu ? 
un payana-c-cdmdn 

tirvdikku eduvdy 
[irukkiradu 



puMuch-cheettu yeniikku- 

k-kodu 
intM vurththugur koot- 

turn murrinfM pohy- 

irtikkirriifAu 
kudun irrukku-p-poluAti- 

mahnu poruZ evvuZuvu? 
[kahttu 
bahkkiththahZ enukku-k- 
kudiin (uththuruvah- 

thma) evvuZuvti? 
un kunukkil oru thuppi- 

thtxa irukkiri'u</(U 
enui/m mah«Mri-shah- 

mahnguZ thahmut/iup- 

putt' irukkindrunii 
theervaj/-veettu-vuryi- 

yahgu nahn \XNayg\day 

udayyu vayndum 
enukku oru vivuru-ch- 

cheettu vaynum 
nahn oru thodurohchi 

punreuvayn 
en puyuj(u-ch-chahmahn- 

gul uththuruvahi/mm 

punnu-k-koodumah ? 
veetAum ennu ? 
vilaj/ (sheluvu) ennu ? 
oru uwdiyul aytfuk-koZ- 

Zuveerah 
moondru maht/iuththil 
kutAi vuwditli-thodur 

mooluiTiahgu unuppu 
wwaygul shahmahn-vu«- 

dith-thodur moolumah- 

gu pohgtim 
ennu pahgum urrivik- 

kup-pudushirrdtAu ? 
un puyiiwu-ch-chahmahn 

theervaj/kku ayiAuvahy 
[irukkirriit/iu 



64 



English. 



This cheque needs 

endorsing 
Have you declared 

the value ? 
I will prepay the 

carriage 
I have a letter of 

introduction 
Give me your esti 

mate 
Quote me a price 



Tamil (Toinanlzed). 



mda-c-cekkukku mil 

oppam venum 
perumadi (or vilai) 

goUi-y-irukkirlra 1 
ettukkuli mun gelut 

tuven 
iitpaduttum kagi- 

dam enakku undu 
un madippdi enak- 

kvrk-kodii [collu 
OTU viliii enakkxi-c 



Pronunciation. 



in<M-oh-chekkukku mayl 

oppiim vaywQm 
perrumut/ti (vilay) sholli- 

y-iriikkirreerah 
ayMukkooli mun sheluth 

thuvayn 
utpuduththum kahghi 

tlmm. enukku uwdu 
un mut^ippay enukku-k. 

kodu 
oru vilai/ eniikkuch-cholli 



Come here 
your hoe 
Bring (it) here 
Don't dig there 



Dig wider 

How many men are 

wanted to cut 

the jungle? 
Six men are wanted 

for road work 
Send three men to 

help the carpen- 
ters 
Take six men to 

build the bridge 
What kind of soil 

is there at that 

place? 
Very sandy 
Where was this stiff 

olay got ? 

[hard ground 
This is exceedingly 
The hoe will break 
A pickaxe will be 

required here 



Public Works. 

with un mam 
inge vd 
inge kondu va 
ange tonda venddm 
[vettu 
innam agalamdy 
kddu vetta ettanai 
at tenai 1 



[Kattu-veldi.) 

un mumvettiyohdu ing- 

gay vah 
ing-gay kondu vah 
ung-gay thohndu vayw- 

dahm 
inniim uguliimahy vettu 
kahdu vettu (y)eththii- 

nay ahl thayvay? 



rottu veldikku aru 

dl vmdum 
taccargalukku udavi 

qeyya munru perdi 

anuppu 
pdlan kattugiradai- 

ku aru perdi edu 
anda idattil enna 

vidamdna mannu 

irukkiradu ? [am, 
migavum manal nil 
inda-t- tadippdna 

man enge kiddit 

tadu ? [tardi 

idu mettavum kadun 
manvetti uddiyum 
inge oru kodali ven- 

diyadu 



rohttu vaylaykku ahrru 

ahl vaywdum 
thuchchiirgiiZukku ufM- 

vi sheyyii moondrti pay- 

Tay unuppu 
pahlung kuttughirriitAut- 

ku ahrrti payray (y)edu 
xmthii idiiththil eunii vi- 

tAiimahnu munnii iruk- 

kirrut/iu ? 
miguvum muwiil niliim 
intM-th-thudippahnu 

mun enggay kidayth- 

thiif Au ? [thniay 

ithu meththiivlim kudtin 
munvetti udayyum 
inggay oru kohdahli 

vayTOdiyu*Au 



65 



Englisb. 



Remove the stones 
with a crowbar 

Blast out the rock 
Put aside all stones 

suitable for the 

foundation 

[sufficient 
The space is not 
Measure a foot and 

a half 
Level thirty feet 

further back 

The ground is very 
soft ; you must 
therefore lay 
down a plank 

Come this way ; 
this ground is 
harder 

Bring the line and 
pegs to mark out 
the foundation 

Must this work be 
done to-day ? 

How do you ar 
range the bricks 
in this kiln ? 

I want to build a 
house 

When will you bring 
me the estimate? 

Your estimate is 
too high 

I shall come fre 
quently and see 
how the work is 
progressing 

Tamil &-T. 



Tamil (romauized). 



ka Uappdrdikkond u 
Itallugalai eduttu 
p-podu [yungal 
paraikku vedi vai- 
astivdrattukku nda- 
vum katkaldi ellam 
oru pakkattil podu 

idam podddu 
onrarai adi ala 

innam pinnukku 
muppadu adi ga- 
mam dkku 

nilam metta gadup- 
pu ; dgaiyal nl 
oru palagai poda 
vendum 

inda variydyvd ; in 

danilammettakadu- 
mdiydy irukkiradu 

astivdrattdi-k-kitrik- 
kum padi kayir'- 
um muldi-y-um 
kondu vdrungal 

inda veldi inrdikku 
geyya vendumd ? 

ningal inda-c-culdi- 
yil qengal ep-padi 
adukkuginrgal ? 

enakku oru vittdik- 
katta vendum 

madippu epporudu 
kondu varuvay? 

un madippu-t-togdi 
adigam 

veldi-y-eppadi na- 
dand' eri varugi- 
rdd' enru adikkadi 
vandu pdrppen 



Fronun elation. 



kuttTippahraylikondu 
knllugulay eduththu-p- 
pohdu m [gnl 

pahrrai/kku vedi viyung- 

usthivahruththukkii 
uthuvum. kntkulay el- 
lahm oril pukkuththil 
pohdti 

idiim poht/iahtAu 

ondr'uraj/ udi nln 

inniim pinnukku mup- 

pii*/tu udi shumiim 

ahkku 
nilum meththii shut/mp- 

pu; ahgayyahl nee orti 

Tpxilngay pohdii vayw- 

dum 
inthu vuryiyahy vah ; in- 

thu niliim meththukudu- 

mayyahy irukkirriif^u 
ustbivahriiththa.!/ - k-kur- 

rikkum pudi kuyirrum 

mulayytim kowdii vah- 

runggiiZ 
infM vaylai^ indraykku- 

sheyyu vaywdtimah ? 
neengguZ intAu-cli-choo- 

layyil shenggul (y)eppu- 

di udukktighirreergguZ? 
(y)eniikku oru veettayk- 

kattii vayndtim 
muifeippu (y)epporyuS/iu 

kowdu vuruvahy ? 
un mufAippu-th-thoga?/ 

ui^igum 
vaylaiz-yeppfldi nudunt^' 

ayrri vurughirruiA' en- 

dru udikkudi vunfM 

pahrppayn 



6ft 



EkigHsh. 



There is not enough 
sfmd in this mortar 

The foundation 
must be com- 
pact and strong 

You are wasting 
lime 

Let the doors and 
windows be well 
fitted 

The plastering of 
the wall must be 
done neatly 

White ants wiU at 
tack the timber ; 
tar it [good 

These tiles are not 

If a heavy shower 
of rain falls, 
many of the tiles 
will be destroyed 

Thatch the roof 

Is the thatch 
ready ? 

Fasten it firmly 

Tar the floor 

Put cement over it 
Lay large stones 

across 
Bring the chain 
Hold your pole in 
a line with the 
theodolite and 
the other pole 
Take the chain and 
iron pegs, arid go 
there ^ q 

'[pegs? 
Where are the iron 



Tamil (romanized). 



indaccunndinbil ma- 

nal podddu 
astivdram kettiydy- 

um, palamdy-um 

irulcka vendum 
qunndmbdi vindy-c- 

celavarikkir^y 
kadavugalum qan- 

nalgalum qariydy 

porundiirukkaUmn 
quvarukku nettiydy 

c-candu pUgappada 

vendum 
karaiydn marattil-e 

pidikkum ; tdru. 

pugu [alia 

inda odu nallad' 
periya mardi peyddl 

anega pdy, qeda 

mdy-p-p6gum (or 

pom) 
kurdi mey 
ku rdikku-p -p ul 

dyattamd 1 \kati(U 
addi urudiydy-k- 
talattukku - k-Jnl 

puqu [gu 

adinmel gimanti pu- 
perun katkaldi ku- 

rukke podu 
gangili kondu va 
un kambdi tiyoda- 

laittukkum matta- 

k-kambukk'um ne- 

rdga-p-pidi 
gan.giliydi-y-um 

iruppu muldigaldi- 

y-um eduttu-k-kon- 

du ange po [qe i 
ir muldigal en- 



Pronunciation. 



intAu-ch-churmahmbil 

muwul pphf/iahf/iu 
usthivahrum kettiyahy- 

um buliimahyum irukka 

vayndum 
shuwTOahmbay veenahy- 

ch - chelavury ikkirrahy 
kui/tuvugiiZum shunnul- 

gulnm shuriyahy porun- 

thi irtikk'uttum 
shtivurukku nayththi- 

yahy-ch-chahntAu poo- 

shuppudu vayndufn 
kurraj/yahn muriiththil- 

ay pidikkum ; thahru 

pooshu 
intAii ohdti nullufA' ullu 
periyu maryay pgytAahl 

unfbyggu ohdft shayrtii- 

mahy-p-pohgtim (pohm) 

kooray mayy 

kooraj/kku-p-pul ahyuth- 
thumah ? [til 

uthay urrut/dyahy-k-kut- 

thuZiiththukku - k - keel 
pooshu [pooshu 

utAin-mayl shimunthi 

perung kuikuZai/ kurruk- 
kay pohdu 

shungghili kondu vah 

un knmhay thiyodulit- 
tukkum muftu-k-kum- 
bukkum n^iyrahgii - p- 
pidi 

shungghiliyayyum irup- 
pu raulaygnlayyma 
eduththti-k-kowdu ung- 
gay poh 

iruppu mulaygul enggay? 



67 



English. 



Tamil (romanizedi. 



You go ill the direc 
tion of that flag 
and put down pegs 



How many coolies 

have you ? 
How many of tliem 

are women and 

children ? 
How long have 

they been with 

you? 

Are they good 
workers ? 

If you work for 
me, you must be 
diligent, orderly, 
and obedient 



Call in the ejpolies 

Muster them near 
thie bujQgalow 

On acGouttt of the 
rain you have 
done only half 
a day's work 

I did, not see you in 
the working-place 

Take all the tools 

Go to the, hill 
Each man must 

dig forty holes a 

day 
Do not puU up the 

plants 
Majk the, place 
where you. must dig 



ni anda-k-kodikkn 
nere jioij miiliii- 



galai adi 



Pronnuciatiou. 



nee un«M-k-korlikku 
nayray pohy vanlay- 
gvlay udi 



Planting. (Tottavelai.) 



unakku ettandi kuli- 

ydl undii 1 
avargalil pengal- 

um, pilldi(jal- 11)11. 

ettanai? 
avargal evvalavu 

koilamay unnidat- 

til irukkirdrgal ? 
avargal nalla ve- 
, Idikkarara / 
ennidattil veldi qey- 

vdy anal ni guru- 

quruppay-um,, orun- 

gay-urrif klrppani- 

vdy-um irukka ven- 

dum [pH^i' 

kuUkkdrardi-k-kilj- 
bangald kitta tiratti 

vai 
mairdiyVrdmittam 

ardi ndl veldi 

mdttiram geydlr- 

gal 
unndi veldi-t-talat 

tile kdna-v-illdi 
elld dyudangaldi- 

yum edungal 
maldikku -p-pongal 
owor dl ndtpadu 

kuri oru ndldiyil 

vetta vendum 
ndttugaldi-p-pidun. 

gdde 
ni vetta vendiya 
idattai-h-kuti 



unukkii eththiinai/ kooli- 

yahZ undu ? 
uviirgiiHl pengiiZum, 

Tpillayqulum eththunai/? 

uviirgiiZ evvuWvu kahlu- 
maliy unnidiithtliil iruk- 
kirrahrgiiZ ? 

uviirguZ nullrl vaylaj/k- 
tihriirah ? 

eniiidiiththil vaylay shey- 
vahy ahnalil nee shur- 
rtishurruppahyum, ory- 
ung-gahyum, keeryppu- 
Mivahyum irukku vayra- 
dum [pidu 

koolikk;,,hriiray-k-koop- 

bunggulaii kittii thirutti 
vi 

muryaj/yi'nimiththiim 
uray nahZ ya.ylay 
mahththirum sliey- 

. tAeergiiZ 

unna^ vayiaj/th-thuluth- 
thilay kahwu-v-illat/ 

ellah ahjut/mnggnlay- 
yum edunggiiZ 

mulaykku-p-pohnggiiZ 

ovYohr ahZ nahtputAu 
kiiryi oru nahZaj/yil 
vettii vayKdusa 

xiaiiUvigaiay j^Kdung- 
gahf'/iay ^^F 

nee vettu vaywdiyi 
iduththay-k-kuuri 



68 



English. 



Tamil (romanized). 



Pronnnclatlon. 



Triimple Llie eartl 

down 
The dug-out earth 

is useless; put in 

only new earth 
Go and fetch th 

plants from the 

nursery 
Take up the plants 

with the earth 



wanniii viidittn-p- 
podtt 

vettina man uda- 
vddu ; pudu man 
mdttiram podu 

nattwnedaikhi(-j)- 
poy ha 11 r 11 editttii- 
k-kondii varungal 

kanriKjaldi manno- 
du edit 



mxinnay mi(Aith-thup- 

pohdii 
vettinu raun u^/mvaht/iu ; 

pui/ju mun mahtlitlii- 

rnm pjhdfi 
nahttumaydaykku-p-pohj 

kundru eduththu-k-ko7i- 

du vahrunggiiZ 
kundrtiguZai/ munnohdu 

edu 



Changing Money. {Pa?iam-mattu.) 

(For Tables of Money, Bee pages 05 and 06.) 



Where can I get 
money changed ■ 

Where is the 
bank (a money- 
changer)? 

[ want changi 
for a five-poun(i 
note 

Will you give me 
Indian money ? 

What is the 
exchange on 
English money 

Will you change 
me a sovereign ? 

Will you cash this 
cheque for me ? 

Please give me gold 
and silver, not 
paper money 

A. bill of exchange 



It is payable 

sight 
Give me the 



at 



nan enr/e panam 
matta-k-kudum 1 

vangu-qdldi [panam 
mdttum idam) 
enge-y-irukkiradu/ 

enakkn aindu pa- 
fund nottukku 
matt II venmn 

I ijakku indiydp- 
panam koduppirdf 

iiigilisli panattil 
mdttum vattam 
enna ? 

enakku oru qavar'din 
mdttuvird ' 

inda-c-cekkdi enak- 
ku kdg' dkkuvlrd ? 

pon, velli ndnaya- 
mdy - k - kodukka - 
vum ; kaditddgi 
panam venddm 

undiyal (or panam 
mdttum, qittu) 

kdttina podu mdita 
vendiyadu 

enakku anda togdi- 



amount in rupees! ydi rObdyil kodu 



nahn enggay puniim 

mahftii-k-koodum ? 
vungu-shahlay (punum 

mahftum idum) eng- 

gay-y-irukkirriif/tu ? 
eniikku inthu puvuwd 

nohttukku mahtiu vay- 

wum 
eniikku ini/iiyahppureum 

koduppeerah ? 
ingghilish puniiththil 

mahttHm vuttum ennu? 

enukku oru snyiiiayn 

mahiiuveerah ? 
int/m-ch-ehekka?/ enukku 

kahsh' ahkkuveerah ? 
pon, velli nahniiyiimahy- 

k-kodukkiivtim ; kudti- 

f/uihshi punum vayn- 

dahm 
uwdiyiil (puwiim raaixt- 

<um sheettti) 
kahttinii pohthu m&httu 

vayndiyuf/iu 
(y)enukku nnthn thogay 

jay roobahyil kodu 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY.* 



Note.— 1. This Vocabulary Ib intended to be merely supplementary to the classified 
lists of words in the first part of the book. 

2. Only the base-forms of verbs are given. For their conjugation, the 
student must consult Tamil Qraiyvmar Self-Taught and the Tamil-English 
Dictionary, 

3. If eny English word cannot be found hore, try the nearest synonym. 

4. n. = noun; v. = verb; a. = adjective; adv. « adverb; prep. = preposition; 
tr. E= transitive ; intr. = intransitive. 



A 

A, an, oru, or. 

abandon, mttuvidu, kai-vidu. 

able, vallamdi-y-ulla. See 

also " can." 
about, prep., kurittu, kitia 
above, mel-e. 

absent, a., illada ; vardda. 
absurd, paittiyamana. 
abundance, migudi, tiral. 
abundantly, tiraldga. 
abuse, n., tushavm, eqal. 
abuse, v., vai, tittu, egu. 
accept, ettukkol. 
accident, iddiyuru, vikkinam. 
accommodation, ragadi. 
accompany, kuda-p-po. 
according to, padi. 
account, n., kanakku. 
account-book, kanakku-p- 

pustagam. 
accountant, kanakkan. 
accumulate, kuvi, ger, kuttu. 
accuracy, iittam. 
accuse, v., kuttan-gdttu. 
accused (person) , kuttan- 

qattappattavan, edirali. 
accustomed, paragina. 
accustomed (to be), paragu. 



AGE 

ache, n., vali; novu. 
ache, v., no, vali, idi. 
acknowledge, ottiikkol. 
acquaintance, ariinugam. 
acre, ekkar. 
act, n., geygdi ; kiriydi. 
active, gdkkiraddiyana. 
actually, in reality, uUapadi. 
acute, kurmdiydna. 
address (on a letter), n., mel 

vildgam. ^jnutjiana^n. 

advance(money) ,n. , aggdram ; 
advance, v., mundip-pd. 
advocate, n., attuvakkdttu, ni- 

ydya vddi; v., parindu pe- 
affair, gangadi, kdriyam. [gu. 
affection, anbu, negam. 
after, pinbu, pinndle. 
again, marupadiyum tirum- 
against, virodamdy. [bavum. 
age (of a person or animal), 

vayagu, dyugu. 
age (period), kdlam, yugam. 
aged, vayadu genxa, 
ago, mvnne. 
agree, gammati, amdi. 
agreement (compact), iidan- 

padikkai. 



* For Tamll-EngliBh Vocabulary, see Tamil Qramumar Self-ICaught. 



70 



AGE 

B.griculture, neldnmdi. 
aid, n., tundi, ottaqdi. 
alarm, v., paijaypaduttu,tiijai ; 

n., tigdippu. 
alight, v., irangu. 
all, elldm; ellarum, 
allow, idan kodu. 
almost;, konjan hurdiya. 
alms, piccdi, ddnain 
alone, taniye. 
along, nediuja. 
along with, kilda. 
aloud, gattamdy, urakla. 
already, munname. 
also, urn; kuda. 
alter, mdttu. 
alternately, mdri mdri. 
always, epporudum. 
amid, nadnvile. 
among, ul. 
amount, togdi. 
an, oru. 
and, um. 
anew, pudiddy. 
anger, ericcal, kobam. 
angry, kobamuUa. 
annual, varushdntara. 
another, innoru. 
answer, n., uttaravu; waru- 
anvil, addi-kal. \rnori. 

any, a., yddoru. 
apart, veiuerdy, pirlvdy. 
appear, tonru. 
appearance, tdttam, Ciqar. 
appetite, paqi. 
appoint niyami. 
approach, v., $er, kittappo. 
arch, n., valdivu. 
arise, erund'irii. 
around, (^utti ; t^dra. 
arrack, qarayam. 



BEA 

arrive, vanihi-q-cfir. 

as, "pol; padi. 

ascend, ern. 

aside, oru pakkattil. 

ask, kel. 

asleep, nittirdiyay. \(}ey. 

assist, udavi-gey, udavu, tundi- 

attempt, n., pirayattanam. 

attend, kuda-p-p6; kavani. 

attention, kavanam. 

auction, elam. 

authority, adigdram. 

awake, a., virippana. 

awake, to, (tr.) eruppu; (intr.) 

away, tura. [vifi, erund'ini. 

Baby, kuranddi. 

back, adv., pinne ; tiuiniba. 

bad (evil), ketta. 

bag, pai. 

bait, n., irdi. 

balance in hand, kai-y-inippu. 

ball (globe), ttnddi, panJn. 

bamboo, mungil. 

band (of persons), kuttam. 

bandage, kattu. 

bar (of a door), tarppal: 

(obstacle) taddi. 
bare, niruicuja, vern. 
bark, n. (of tree), pattdi; (of 

dog) kuldittal ; v., kiddi. 
barrenness, par. 
base, n., (bottom) adi; a., 

klrdna, nlqa. 
battle, n., por, yaddam. 
bazaar-man, kadliiklidran. 
be, irii. 
bear (support, endure), tdngu: 

QHiiia, 
beat, v., adi. 
beauty, aragu. 



BEC 

because, en-enral. 
beckba, ^aigiii kattu, 
become, agii. 
before, rtvdn, munne. 
beg alms, piggdi kSl. 
begin, todangu, ttivakku. 
beginning, &c., ddimudal. 
behind (time), piragu. 
behind, pinne. 
behold I ido pWr, 
belief, viguvaqam. 
belong, ^&r, adu. 
belonging to, a,., adutta,uriya. 
below, hire; pdniya. 
bend, v., valdi, kottu. 
besides, aruge, pakkattil : 
best, uttamairn. [tavira,. 

betel, veUildi. 
betweeh, naduvS, ilde. 
beyond, appSl, dppurattil. 
bid (a price), v., vltdi kel. 
bid (order), v., kattaldi-y-idu. 
big, periya; paruita. 
bind, v., katiu. 
bird, kuruvi, pattfi. 
birth, pifappti. 
birthday, janma-varam,. 
bite, n. & v., kadi. 
bitter, kaqanda; kaqappwAa. 
blade (Weapon), dlaiju. [qdttu. 
blame, n., kuttdm ; v., kuttafi- 
bleed, V. intr., irdttdm Vadi; 

tr., irattan kuttivangU. 
blessing, n., dglrvddam, 
block, n., kattdi. 
blossom, n., pu; malar; v., 

alar, pushpi. 
blow, v., udk; n., adi, kiittu. 
bluntness, marungal. 
boil, v., kodi; avi: kayqqu. 
boil,n., paru, katti 



71 



BUR 

boiled rice, qdru. 

bolt, n., tdrppdl; tirdftgu. 

bond (of debt), kadanqittu. 

book, pastagam. 

borrow, iraval (or kadan) 

vdngu. 
bottle, pottal ; putti. 
bottom, n., adi; kkrppdkkani. 
boundary, elldi. 
bow (weapon), n., ml; \., valdi; 

(salute) vanangu. 
box, n., petti, 
bran, tavidu. 
branch, kombu. 
brand, v., kuriquM ; n., kolli, 
breadth, agalam. 
break, v., muri; uddi. 
breath, qiiUdqam ; iv uqqil. 
breathe, qiivdqam-idu. 
breeze, ilankdUd. 
bribe, n., kaikkuli. 
brick, qerigal. 
bride, manavdli. 
bridegroom, mdppilldi. 
bridesmaid, i6ri. 
bridge, pdlam. 
bridle-path, kudirai-p-pdddi. 
bright, piragdqamdna. 
bring, kondu vd. 
bring fortt, peru, Inu, 
brink, vilimbu; Oram. 
broad, agaldmdna. 
brook, qittdru. 
brother, qagodaran, 
bud, n., tulir, pH-mottu. 
build, v., kattu. 
bund (of a tank), kardi. 
bundle, pottanam; kattu. 
bungalow, hangald. 
burn, v.intr., ve, aralu ; tr., 
burst, uddi, vedi. [qudu. 



72 



BUE 

bury, puddi; adahkam pannu. 
bush, qedi : pudar. 
bushel, buqal, pushal. 
business, veldi, aluval. 
but, andlum ; (except) tarira. 
butt, v., muttu, tdkku. 
butter-dish, venney pdttiram. 
buy, vildikku vdtigu. 
by, -dl, kondu. 

Cage, kudu. 

calamity, dhattu. 

calculate, ennu, kanakk' idu. 

call, v., kuppidu ; ariii. 

camphor, karppuram. 

can, v., kudum. 

cane, n., pirambu. 

cannot, kudddu; elddu. 

capital (money), kaimudal. 

captive, qirdi, adimdi. 

car, iratam, ter. 

card, pttu. 

care, n., vagam, pattiram, 

kavanam, kariqandi. 
carry away, qumandu po ; 

kondu p6. 
cart-road, karattai rottii or 
cartridge, tdttd. [vldi. 

case (box), petti; (cover) tiria. 
— (in law), varakku. 
cash, kdgu : qalli. 
cash-box, kdqup-petti. 
cask, pippd. 
cast forth, eri, vlgu. 
caste, gddi fjdti), kulam. 
catch, v., pidi, pattu. 
cattle, ddnmddu. 
cattle-keeper, mdttukkdran. 
cattle-shed (or fold), mdttu- 

p-patU. 
cause, n., kdranam. 



OIT 

cave, kebi; kugdi, 
cease, aru; oy ; ori; ninrupo, 
centre, nadu ; matti. 
cereals, tdniya vagdi. 
ceremony, gadangii. 
certain, niccayamdna. 
certainty, niccayam, nigam. 
chaff, padar, gdii. 
chain, gangili; todarcci. 
chalk, giyndic-cunndmbu. 
change, n., verupddu, mdrudal; 

v.intr., mdru, tiri; v.tr., 

mdttn. 
chapter, adigdram. 
charge, n.&v. (accuse), kuttan 

gdttu. 
charge (care), n., vagam, 

poruppu. 
charge (a price), v., vildi qol. 
cheap, a., malivdna, nayamd- 
cheat, v., mogam pannu. [na. 
check, v., tadu. 
cheerful, gandoshamdna. 
chess, gaturangam, gokkattdn. 
chew, v., mellu. 
chief, a., piraddna ; n., muda- 

Idli, piraddni. 
chief justice, nltiyadipati. 
chili pepper, kocoik-kdy,paccdi- 
chill, n., kulir. [mila-kdy. 

chip, n., qim.hu, qirdy. 
chisel, n., uli. 
cholera, visha pedi. 
choose, terind' edu. 
chop, v., vettu; tari. 
cigar, quruttu. 
cinder, taral. 

cinnamon, karavd-p-pattdi. 
circle, vattain ; viruttam, 
cistern, totti. 
city, nagaram. 



civil case, gitil-varakkti. 

civility, mariyddai. 

claim, n., urimai. 

class, n., vagal, vaguppu. 

clay, kali-man. 

clean, guttamdna. 

clear, a., telivdna, 

clearly, telivdy. 

cleave, v., pila. 

cleft, n., pilappu. 

clever, kettiydna. 

climb, v., eru. 

cling, v., ottik-kol, pattijipidi. 

clip, v., kattari. 

close, adv. (densely), adartti- 

oloae, w., mudu ; addi. [ydy. 

close (near), a., Mtta, adutta. 

closet, ullardi; cittardi. 

clothe, v., udu; uduttu. 

club (wooden), tadi, dandu. 

coarse, parumpadiydna, mu- 

raddtM, ifiv&na. 
coffee bush, koppi^g-gedi. 
coffee estate, koppi-t-tottam. 
coffin, gavappetti. 
coin, n., nanayam, panam; 

V. (coin money), kdg'adi. 
cold, a., kulircciydna. 
collect, v.intr., kudu, tiralu; 

v.tr., kuttu, ger. 
college, kalvi-g-gdldi. 
colt, kutti. 
come, vd. 

comfortable, vagadiydna. 
command, n., kattaldi, eval, 

uttaravu ; v., kattaldi^y-idu. 
commencement, todakkam, 

arambam. 
commerce, n., viydpdram, 

varttagam. 
common, poduvdna. 



is 



COR 

commotion, kalakkam. 
compact, adj., adakkamdna, 
companion, kuttdli. 
compare, ottu-p-pdr. 
compartment, ardi. 
complain, murdiyidu. 
complainant, vddi. 
complete, v., mudi, tlr, nirai. 
completely, muttilum, muru- 

vadum. 
completeness, puranam. 
completion, nirdivu, tlrppu. 
condition, tanmdi, nildirndi. 
conduct, n., nadakkdi. 
conduct, v., nadattu, (escort) 

tundi po. 
confidence, nambikkdi. 
confusion, kalakkam, kurap- 
congregation, gabdi. [pam. 
connection, gamhandam. 
conscience, mamig-gdtci. 
consent, n., igdivu, anumadi; 
consider, ninai. [v., igdi. 
consign, oppuk-kodu. 
consult, .ugdvu. 
consultation, aloqandi. [yam. 
contentment, mana-rammi- 
contents, adakkam, pofippu. 
continually, adikkadi, nitti- 

yamum, 
contract, n., udanpadikkdi, 

poruttam ; v. (shrink), 

kurdi, qurungu. 
contractor, poruttakkdran. 
c,anix9.di\oi,m.aru,edirttu-p-pegu 
cook, n., kuginikkdran, kokki. 
cook, v., gamdi, pdgam pannu, 
coolie, kulikkdran ; kuliydl. 
cork, kuccu. 
correct, v., tiruttu. 
correct,a. , tittamdna,gariydna. 



74 



COS 

cost, kiraijuiii; vilai; qelavu. 

cottage, kadiqdi. 

cough, v., irumu; n., ivimnl. 

count, v., ennu. 

country, riadu, deqam. 

court, korttu, nitistalam. 

cover, v., mudu; n.,mudi,urdi. 

criminal, kuUavdli. 

cripple, (;appani, nondi. 

crooked, konalana. 

cross, a. (athwart) & n., ku- 

rukku. 
crowbar, kadappdrdi ala- 
orowd, qanakkuitam. \ydnriu, 
cruelty, kodumdi, kunlram. 
cry, v., qattam-podu ; arti. 
cultivate, payir-idu. 
culvert, madagu, vdravadi. 
cunning, n., agadavigadam. 
cunning, a., tandiramdna. 
cure, v., qugappaduttu. 
current, a., qelkim. 
current (month), ndladu. 
current (stream), ottam. 
curry, kari. 

curse, v., qabi; n., qdbam. 
custom, varakkam. 
cut, v., ari : vettu. 
cut (reap), aru. 
cut down, tari. 
cutting, n., arivn., retUv. 

Daily, ndl torum l^iiddorum). 
damage, n., qedam. 
damp, ii-am. 

dance, v., ddu. [tevadiydl. 
dancing girl, naclanamddii, 
dangerous, moqanidna. 
dark, to become, inittu. 
darkness, irul. 
date, tedi. 



DIR 

dawn, v., ndi; n., vidii/fi/_ 

kdlam. 
day and night, allumpagalam. 
deafness, qevida. [mdiydna. 
dear (costly), vildiyitlla, aru- 
dear, piriyamulla. 
death, maranam, irappu, 
debt, kadan. 
decay, v., arugip-po. 
deceit, vanjandi. 
decide, tir ; tirmQ,ni. 
decrease, v., kurdi, kurdinJu- 
deduct, kari. [p-/'0. 

deep, a., dramdna. 
defendant, piradivddi; edirdli. 
defraud, vanji, abagan. 
delay, n., tdmadam. 
delight, n., inb/fm- 
deliver, tappuvi ; iratci. 
dense, qtrivuUa, ganattp, 
derjy, maru. \_adarttiyQ,ya. 
depart, purapp«du, poy vidu. 
depth, dram, pallam. 
descend, irangu. 
desert (wilderness), vandnta- 
desire, dqdi. [ram, pdrnilam. 
desire, v., dqdi-p-padu, virum- 
destitute pejrson, agadi. [bu 
destroy, kedu, ari. 
destruction, arivu, ke§u. 
detain, wi^j^, tadu. 
devour, patci ; virungu. 
die, qd : qettu-p-p6 ; ira. 
difference, bedam, vittiydqam. 
dig, tondu. 
digest, v., qami, 
diligently, quruquruppay. 
diminish, kurdi. 
dip, v., toy. 
direct, v. (order), kattaldiyidu; 

(guide) vari kdt'tu. 



76 



DIR 

dirt (filth), aruhku. 
disappear, marai. 
disgrace, n., avamdnam. 
disgust, n., rerupjiii ', v., rrrii. 
dishonesty, kapadam, tirut- 

tuttanam. 
disuiiss, talli-vidu. 
disobedience, Inrppadiydiniii. 
dispute, n., varakku, vadam; 

v., tarkki. 
dissolve, unigu, kardi. 
distance, turam, toldi. 
distinctly, telivdy. 
distress, varuttam; tunbam. 
distribute, pangidu. 
distrust, n., qamuqayam, ava- 

nambiklcai. 
ditch, pallani, agar. 
(live, v., mukkuli, murgu. 
diver, kulikdran, 
divide, pang'idu; piri. 
division, pirivu, pangu, pagu- 
do, ^ey, pannu. [di 

doubt, n., qandegam. 
down, adv., /are; paniya. 
drain, kdlvay ; twmbu. 
drain, v., vadi. 
drama, nddagam, vild^am. 
draw, v., ij-u. 

dream, n., qoppanam, kanavu. 
drink, v., ku^i. 
drive, v„ ottu. 
driver, pagan, oUugiravan. 
drizzle, tuttal. 
drop, n. & v., tuli. 
drop, v., W,re vidu. [varatci 
drought, marai illdmdi, 
drum (tom-tom), tamukku, pa- 
drunk, veritta, veriydna. [rdi. 
drunkard, veriyan, kudiyan. 
dry, kdynda. 



ENO 

dry (to become), kdy, ularu. 
due, kadandna, vriija, ta;/iinda. 
dull, mandani-ulla, marunga- 
dumb, a., untciiydna. [Zdjia. 
durable, urudiydna. 
during, vardiyil, porudu. 
dust, till, tuqi. 
duty, kadamdi. 
dwell, kudiyiru. [qdyan-toy. 
dye, n., qdyam,, niram; v., 

Each, oworu. 
early, kdlame. 
earn, qambddi. 
earthquake, pumi-y-adircci. 
easy, ileqdna. 
eat, qdppidu, tin, un. 
edge, oratn; kur. 
educate, padippi; kaipi. 
effort, muyaici, utcdgam. 
either... or, dvadu. 
elder (man), mUttavan. 
— (woman), muttaval. 
elevate, uyarttu, ettu- 
elsewhere, verengS-y dvadu. 
embark, kappal eru. 
embezzle, kavar, kalavu qey. 
embrace, taruvu, andi. 
empire, irdjjiyam. 
employ, \.,0tpadMttu, veldi kol. 
employment, veldi; aluval. 
empty, verumdiydna. [uUidu. 
enclose, adakkaii qey ; addi ; 
enclosure wall, quitu-q-qurar. 
end, v., mudi. [arudi. 

end, n., mudivu; kaddiqi; 
endeavour, v., pirayattanam 

paniiu. 
enemy, virodi, qatturu. 
engage (for service), veldikku 
enough, podum. [amarttu. 



76 



ENQ 

enquire, viqari. 

enter, piraoegi ; pugu. 

entirely, nvurudum, muUiluw . 

envy, n., pordmai. 

equal, a., qamdnamana, gama. 

erect, v., nimirttu. 

err, ta varu. 

error, pirdi. 

escape, v., tappi-k-kol, vila- 

establish, stdbi. [gi-p-po. 

estate (riches), dsti. 

estate (land), nilam, tottam. 

et csetera, ddi, mvdaliya. 

event, qangadi, nadanda kdri- 

every, ovvoru. [yow- 

evidence, vdkkumUlam, gdtci. 

evident, pirattiyatcamana, 

telivdna. 
evil, n., tlmdi, dOsham; a., 

tlya, ketta. 
exact, a., tittamdna. 
exaggerate, pdrdttu. 
txamine, gOdi, paritci. 
example, mddiri, uddranam. 
excavate, kuddi. 
Bxcept, prep., tavira. 
exclude, vilakku, 7ilkki vidu. 
excuse, n., pdkku, qdkku; v., 

manni, pirdi poru. . 
exercise, n., appiydgam, par- 

akkam. 
expect, edirpdr, nambu. 
expense, qelavu. 
expert, a., paragina, camart- 

tiyamulla. 
explain, vistari, vilakku. 
extend, nittu. 
extent, alavu, vigdlam. 

Fable, kaddi, kattukkaddi. 
fact, mey, unmai. 



FIR 

fade, vddi-p-po. 

fail, piqagu. 

faint, qomdu-p-po. 

faith, viquvdqam, hatti. 

fall, v., viru; n., virvu. 

fall o£f (as leaves), udiru. 

false, poyydna. 

falsehood, poy. 

famine, panjam, karuppu. 

fan, n., viqiri; v., viqirii. 

fast, a. (swift), virdivdna ; 

(firm) tidamdnd. 
fasten, puttu. 
fat, a., pushtiyuUa, korutta. 
fatigue, n., ildippu ; v., ildi. 
fault, tappu, kutiam, 
favour, n., dayavu. 
fear, n., pay am ; v., payappa- 

du, aAju. 
feast, n., virundu, pandigdi. 
feather, iragu. 
fee, kUli, qambalam. 
feeble, noyya, balavinamdna. 
feed, \.,tin; meyfidjanankodu . 
feel, unar. 
feeling, unarvu, fljru. 
fertile, qerippulla. 
fetch, poyi-k-kondu vd. 
few, qila, konja. 
fiddle, kinnaram, vindi. 
fight, v., qanddi qey, por-ddu; 

D., qanddi. 
file, n., a ram. 

fill, v.tr., 7iirappu ; y.intt., ni- 
find, kandu pidi. [rambu, 
fine, a., melliya, nSrttiydna. 
fine, n. (penalty), tandam. 
finish, v.tr., mudi, iHr ; n., 

mudivu, muttu. 
fire (a gun), v., vedi qudu. 
firm, nildiycma, stiramdna. 



FIT 

fit, a., takka, etta. 

fit, v.intr., porundu; v.tr., 

iqai, poruttu. 
fitness, tagudi. 
fix, nattu, niruttu. 
flag (banner), kodi. 
flat, tattaiyana. 
flea, tetlu. 

flesh, taqai; mdmigam. 
float, v., mida, nmdu. 
flood, vellam. 
flow, v., dcZw, uru. 
flow (of the tide), SUam. 
fly, v., para ; n., *. 
fold (cattle) , attukkiddi. 
fold, v., madi. 
follow, pin gel or todar. 
fool, inudan, madaiyan. 
forbid, vilakku, tadu. 
force, n., palam. [tdndu. 

ford, n., kadakkira turai : v., 
foreign, anniya, purawbana. 
forget, mara. 
forgive, manni. 
forgiveness, mannippu. 
form, n., uruvam; Y.,pad/ii, 

uruvdkku. 
former, mundina, purva. 
forth, adv., veliye. 
fortress, kottdi. 
forward, adv., munne. 
foundation, astivdram. 
fountain, uttu. 
fresh, a., pudiya ; paccdi. 
friend, ginegidan. 
front, mun. 
fry, port. 
fuel, viragu. 
full, nirdivdna. 
funeral, iiavu, adakkam. 
Jurnace, gUldi ; kugdi. 



11 



GEO 

further, adv., vielum, innam. 
future, inimel, varunkdlam. 

Gain, dddyam. 

gain, v., qambadi, dddyam 

gamble, gud'ddu. [}mnnu. 

gambling, gudxi. 

gang, kuttam, gangam. 

gardener, tottakkdran. 

gather, kuUu ; ger. 

gem, mani. 

general, a., poduvdna. 

gentle, gdduvdna. 

gentleman, turdi. 

get, gambddi, peru, odruju. 

gift, indm, igai. 

gimlet, turappanam. 

give, i, idu, kodu. 

glad, gandoshamdna. 

glass (substance), palinijii, 

gnaw, kadi ; art, \kannddi. 

go, p5. 

good, nalla. 

goods, cdmdn, garakku. 

government, garkkdr. 

gradually, padippadiydy. 

grain, ddniyavi. 

grand, perumdiydna. 

grant, v., arulu,kodu; n.,igai, 

grasp, n. & v., pattu, pidi. 

gratis, ilavagamdy. 

grave, n., piredak-kuri. 

graze, mey. 

grease, n., koruppu. 

great, periya. 

grief, dukkam, kavalai. 

grey, narditta. 

grind, v., ardi. 

grindstone, ammi, gdnai. 

ground, nilam; tardi. 

grove, goldi; topp-u 



78 



GEO 

grow, valar. 

growl, v., urumu. 

grumble, muriimuru. 

guard, v., kd ; n., Itdoal. 

guardian, kdvalan. 

guest, rirundan. 

guide, v., varikdttu; n., vari- 

guilt, kuttani. [kdlti. 

gum, iru, i-ii(;in. 

gun, tubdkki, i-editokka. 

gunpowder, vedi-marnmlii. 

Habit, varakkam. 

half, ar'di. 

hall, n., qaldi. 

hamlet, qittur, kuppam. 

hammer, quttiyal. [tilkku. 

hang, v.intr., tongu ; v.tr,, 

happen, nSridu ; nada . 

happily, adittamdy, anukida- 

happiness, pdkkiyam. [may. 

happy, pdkkiyamdna. 

hard, kadinamdna. 

harm, n., tingu ; kedudi. 

harvest, ariippu. 

haste, gurukku, turidam. 

hatchet, kai-k-koddli. 

have, vaitt' iru ; adahid' iru. 

hawker, poUanikkdran. 

he, avan. 

heal, qugap-paduttu. 

heap, v., aditkku; n.ykuviyal. 

hear, kel. 

hearing, kelvi. 

heavy, pdramdna. 

hed.'^e, reli. 

heifei', kiddri. 

height, uynraiii. 

heir, ■urimiiikkdran. [iidavu. 

help, n., uttdqdi, ruUivi; v., 

hemp, fanal; qanappu. 



HOW 

hence, inge yirnndu. 
henceforth, iilumudal, inimel. 
herd, manddi. 
here, iiige. 
hereafter, inimel. 
hereabout, indappakkattile, 

innanam, kitta. 
herb, pundu, kirdi. 
hereby, idindl. 
herewith, ittiidan, idodii. 
hesitate, aiyappadu. 
hew, %'ettu ; tari. 
hide, v., inardi ; n., tol. 
high, uyaramdna, meldna. 
hinge, kll. [vdngn 

hire, n., kfdi ; v., kulikki 
hitherto, iduvardikkum, im> 

inattum. 
hive (bee-), terikudu 
hold, v., pidi; knl. [mdna, 
hollow, a., kuraldna ; palla 
hollow, n., kural, pallam. 
holy, tiru, pariqudda. 
home, mdu. [ydaa. 

honest, nermdiyuUa, unmdi- 
honesty, unmdi ; nermdi. 
honey, ten. 

honour, mdnam, pUjdi. 
honourable (in addressing), 

irdyastiri; kanam-ulla. 
hook, n., timdil, koluvi ; v., 

mdttu, koluvu. 
hope,n., nambikkdi; v.,nainbu. 
horn, kombu. 

horsekeeper, kudirdi-k-kdran. 
horse-shoe, Iddam. 
hospital, dspattiri. 
hot, quddna ; kdramdna. 
hot season, koddi-k-kdlam. 
how, eppadi. 
how many, ettandi. 



HOW 

how much, evvalamt. 

hunger, pagi. 

hungry, pa^yulla. 

hunt, n., vettdi ; v., rettdiya- 

hurt, nogappannu. [du. 

husk, umi;ddu, 

hut, kudigdi. 

I, nam. 

idea, ahippirayam. 

idiot, payittiyakkdran. 

idle, fombdna. 

idleness, qomhal ; dlagiyam. 

if, ajtaZ. 

ignorance, am/ndnam. 

image, qdyal, qurWpam. 

imitate, p6la-g-qey. 

immediately, udane. 

immovable7 aqdivatta. 

impatience, pordmdi. 

imperfect, kurdivdna. 

important, piraddna. 

improper, tagdda. [Uruttu. 

improve, v.intr., tirundu; -v.tT., 

impudent, tudukkdna. 

impurity, agtiddam. 

incessant, oydda. 

inch, angulam. 

income, varavu, ddayam. 

increase, v., adigari; perugu. 

incurable, aqdttiya. 

indebted, hadari patta. 

india-rubber, rappar. 

indigo, avuri. 

industry, mvyaiqi, ukkam, 

infant, kuranddi. 

inform, teriyappaduttu. 

inhabit, kudiyiru. 

inhabitant, kudiydnavan. 

injustice, aniydyam. 

inquire, vigdri; kel. 



79 



KIC 

insensible, unarcciyilldda. 
insert, iddiyile ger. 
inside, utpuram. 
inspect, godi. 
inspection, parigodandi. 
instead, padildga. 
instruct, podi ; padippi. 
instrument, dyudam ; karuvi. 
insubordinate, kirppadiydda. 
insufficient, poddda. 
insult, n., avamdnam, ninddi. 
intention, ginddi, nokkam. 
interpreter, tuppdgi. 
invite, ardi. 
inward, ulldna. 
iron, a., iruppu ; n., iruni.hu, 
irrigate, mr pdyccu. 
is, undu. 
it, adu. 

Jackal, nari. 

jail, mariyal-vidu ; girdi^g- 
jar, jddi. [gdlai. 

jealousy, ericeal, erivu. 
jest, parigdgam, keli. 
jewel, nagdi; dbaranam. 
join, v.tr., qer, indi; v.intr., 

ger, kudu, porundu. 
joint, n., poruttu; kanu; kti- 
joy, kalippu. [Idiccu. 

judge, n., nitipati; nUivdn. 
judgment (decision), tlrppu. 
juice, gdram. [naduttirvdi. 
jump, kudi. 
junction, gandi. 
jungle, kddu. 

jury, yurimdr; pangdyattar 
justice, niydyam. 

Keep, vai; kd. 
kick, V. &n., uddi. 



80 



KIL 

kill, koliii gey; kol. 
kiln, cfddi. 

kind, n. (sort), inam, vaydi. 
kind, a., daydiyulla. 
kindle, v., mulu, tippaftu. 
kindness, dayavu ; patcam. 
king, irdjd, araqan. 
kingdom, irdjjiyam ; araqu. 
kite (hawk), parundii; (toy) 

pattam. 
kitten, pundik-kxitti. 
knock, v., adi; tattu. 
knot, mudiqqu. 
know, v., ari. 
knowledge, arivu. 

Labour, veldi ; pirayaqam. 

labourer, kuliydl. 

lad, podiyan. 

ladder, eni. 

ladle, agapjpdi. 

lady, turdi-qdni. 

lameness, mudam. 

language, bdshdi. 

lantern, lantar; dlpakkudu. 

lap, modi. 

lap, v., nakku. 

large, periya ; parutta. 

last, a., kaddiqiydna. 

last, v., tanyu, ndtpadu. 

latch, kadavu mdtti. 

late, adv., pindi. 

late, pindina ; (deceased) 

mdji, irandu pona. 
lath, variccu. [rippu. 

laugh, v., qiri; nagdi; n., qi- 
law, kattaldi, vidi, nlti; qat- 
lay, v., vai. [tav'i. 

lead (metal), n., iyam. 
lead, v., mundi-p-po; nadattu. 
leaf, ildi. 



LIT 

leak, n., orukku. 

lean, a., melinda. 

lean, v., qdy, gar. 

leanness, melivu. 

leap, v., pay ; kudi. 

learn, ;jadi, kal. 

leave, v., vittuppo ; n., viddi, 

leech, attdi. [uftaravu. 

left (side), idadu. 

leisure, qdvagdqam. 

lend, iraval kodu. 

length, nllam. 

lessen, kurdi. 

lesson, pddam. 

let, v., vidu. [p., mattam. 

level, v., niravu, qamam-dkku; 

liberty, vidndaldi. 

lick, v., nalika. 

lie down, v., padu. 

lie (to speak falsehood), poy- 

life, uyir, jivan. [qol. 

lift, v., tukku; edu. 

light, a., ileqdna. 

like, a., pol ; otta. 

lime (slaked), qunndmbu. 

lime (fruit), teqik-kdy: elumio 

cam-param,. 
lime-squeezer, teqikkdyidukki. 
limestone, qukkdn kal. 
limit, n., mattu, elldi. 
line (row), nirdi; (stroke) 

irekdi, klru, vari; (cord) 

kayiru; (thread) nul. 
linger, tdmadappadu. 
link (of a chain), qangili- 

valdiyam ; v., pindi. 
lintel, nial nlldi. 
list (schedule), n., qdbida, 

attavandi. 
listen, uUu-k-kel. 
little, qinna qiru. 



LIV 

live, a., uyirtdla. 

live, v., glvi; pirdi; vagi. 

load, n., pdram, gumdi; v., 

pdrameMu, gumattu. 
loam, pagalai-man. 
locust, vettukkili. 
long, a., nilamdna, ninda, 

nedu; v., dgi, icci. 
longing, dgai. 
look, v., nokku, par. 
loop, kurdiccu. 
loose, avirnda ; talarttiydna. 
loose (untie), v., avir. 
lop, v., tan, vettii. 
lord (master), dndavar. 
lose, ira ; irandu po. 
loss, iravu, pddu. 
lot (share), pangu, vidatn. 
lotus, tdmardi. 
loudly, urattu, vrakka. 
love, n., anfcw, negam; v., areiw 

vai, meji, virumbu. 
low, kirdna, tdrnda. 
lower, v.tr., irakku; intr., tar. 
lump, n., A;aiii. 

Mace (spice), qddippattiri. 
machine, guttiram. 
mad, payittiya ; unmatta. 
madam, ammdi, egamdni. 
magistrate, niyayddipati. 
maim, v., unappaduttu. 
make, v., pannu. 
— (cause to become), dkku. 
Maldive fish, vidgi. 
male, n. & a., an. 
mallet, kottdn. 
manage, kaiydlu, nadappi. 
mango tree, mdmaram. 
mango fruit, mdm parani, 
manliness, dnmdi. 



81 



MID 

manner, mddiri,vidam ; vagdi. 
manners, good, nallornkkam. 
mansion, mMigdi. 
manufacture, kaittoril. 
manure, n., eru, uram. 
many, anega, pala, vegu. 
map, dega-p-padam. 
mare, pettdi-k-kudirdi. 
margosa, vembu. 
margosa leaves, vepp'ildi. 
mark, kuri ; addiydlam. 
mark, v., addiydlam pddu. 
marriage, kaliydiiam. 
master, egamdn, vdtti. 
matter, n., porul; gangadi. 
mattock (mamatty), manvetti. 
mature, v., paru. 
maturity, pakkuvam. 
meal (flour), md. 
mean (low), niga, atpamdnd. 
mean, v., karudu. 
meaning, karuttu ; aruttain. 
meanness, nigam, pigunam. 
measure, n., alavu. 
measure, v., ala. 
meet, v., gandi, edirppadu. 
meeting, kattam, ; gangam. 
melt, kardi ; urugu. 
member (of the body, etc.), 

avayavam. 
memorandum, iydddstu. 
memory, ndbagam ; yddi. 
mend, parudu par. 
mention, gol, arivi. 
merchandise, viydbdram; ga- 

rakku. 
merchant, varttagan;viydbdri, 
mercy, irakkam. 
method, orungu; vidam. 
middle, nadu. 
midst, n., nadu; maiyam. 



T»mU S.-T. 



82 



MID 

midway, adv., ulmvaHifU. 

mildness, gdndam. 

mind, n., wianam. 

mine, n., guranffam, kani. 

mineral, niraqa vastu. 

mingle, kala, toy. 

minute (tiny), nutpamana. 

mischief, kurumbu; tingti. 

misery, nirppandam. 

misfortune, iddiyuru, dbattu. 

miss, v., piqagu. 

mistake, n., pirdi, tappidam, 

mistress, eqamdtti. 

mix, v., kala. 

mixture, kalappu. 

model, n., mddiri. 

moisture, paqdi, iram. 

more, adiga; innam. 

mortar, ural ; (cement) qandu. 

mosque, pallivaqal. 

moss, paqi. 

moth, pucci, puru. 

motive, kdranam, nokkam 

mould, n., accu, karu. 

mound, viedu, tidal. 

mount, v., eru. 

mourn, v. , tukkan kondddu. 

move, v., aqdi; ddu. 

mow (cut), aru ; vettu. [ba. 

much, adigam; migudi; rem- 

mud, qeru ; qagadi. [agan. 

Mohammedan, tulukkan, qon- 

multiply, v.tr., perukkv, adi- 

gari; intr., perugu. 
murder, koldi. 
music, qangldam. 
must, vendwm. 
myself, ndnS. 

Nail, dni ; (finger-) nagam. 
name, n., per; v., peyar-idu. 



NUM 

narrowness, idukkam. 

native, n., fudeqi. 

nature, iyalbu. 

near, kitta. 

near at hand, anddiyil, 

nearly, konjan kurdiya. 

nearness, qamibam. 

necessity, avaqiyam, tevdi. 

needle, Uqi. 

neglect, n., aqattdi; kavaldi- 

neighbour, ayaldn. [yinam. 

neighbourhood, ayal. 

nest, kudu. 

net, valdi. 

never, orukkalum illdi. 

new, pudu. 

news, qeydi. 

next, a., adutta; aAv.,adukka. 

nibble, n., ari. 

nip, v., killu. 

no, illdi. 

noise, qattam; irdicial. 

nonsense, puttiyinam. 

noose, gurukku, pdgam. 

nor, dvadu. 

north, n., vadakku. 

north wind, vdddi. 

north-east monsoon, jiirir-mdri- 

kdlam ; piqdna kdlam. 
nostril, mukku-t-tuvdram, 
not, illdi; alia. 
note (memo), kurippu; (letter) 
note, v., karittu vai. [qittu. 
nothing, onrum illdi. 
notice, arivittal; arikkdi. 
notice, v., kavani ; par. 
notion, ennam. 
now, ipporudu; ippo. 
nowadays, inndtkalil. 
nowhere, oridattilum illdi. 
number, ilakkam. 



NUM 

number, v., eitnu. 
nut, kottdi. 

Oar, tandii, tuduppu. 
oath, andi. 

obedience, kirppadidal. 
object, vi^ayam, ndkl,am. 
object, v., tadu ; atcebi. 
objection, atcebam; taddi. 
obsetvanee, dgdram. 
obstruct, vari'y-addi, mari. 
obstruction, adaippu. 
obtain, addi, peru, kiddi. 
occasion, veldi ; tarunam . 
occasionally, iddikkiddiye. 
occupation, v&ldi, toril. 
occupy, kudhjiru, vaqam pmmii 
odour, vdqandi ; manam. 
off, tura ; rilaga. 
offence, kutfam, kurdi. 
offend, anaqdram pannu. 
office (room), dpiqu; uttiyoga 

qdldi. 
office (berth), nttiyoriarn. 
often, adikkadi. 
oil, mindi. 
old, pardiya. 
old man, kiravan. 
old woman, kiravi. 
omit, vittu vidu. 
on, mele. 

once, orutaram; oriiviqdi. 
only, mdttiram, 
open, v., tira. 
order (command), kattaldi ; 

(regularity) variqdi ; orun- 
order, v., dkkiydM. [gu. 

origin, mulam. 
ornament, ani ; alangdram. 
orphan, pettdr illdda pilldi. 
other, maru, maita. 



88 



PAY 

ought, vendum, 
out, purambi. 
outward, purambdna. 
oval, a., miittdi vadivand, 
over, mel, [podu. 

overcharge, v., adiga-vildi- 
overflow, tadumbu; kardipu- 

rand'odu. 
overlook (neglect), pdramal 

vidu; (look over) melnqdri. 
overseer, kangdni, 
overtake, todarndu pidi. 
owe, kadan patt'iru. 
own, a., tan, qonda. 
own, v., urimM-y-dkku. \yan, 
owner, condakkd/ran, uddiya- 

Pace (step), nad&i. 

pack (sack), podi. 

pack, v., adukku. 

pack-bullock, podi-madu. 

package, kattu. 

page (of a book), pakkam. 

paint, n., varnam. 

paint, v., varni ; varnam puqu. 

pane of glass, kawnddit tattu. 

panel, addippalagdi. 

pardon, n., mannippu. 

parents, pettdr. 

part, n., pangu. 

part, v., pang'idii; pirindupo, 

partiality, patcapddam. 

party, n., kUttam; patqattdr. 

pass (away), kari, ningu. 

pass (current), v., qel. 

pass over, v., hadandu po. 

passenger, varippokkan. 

pasture, nteyccal. 

pat, v., tattu. 

patience, porumai, 

pave, kaipdvu. 



PAW 

paw, kal kai. \adagu vai. 
pawn (pledge), n., adagu ; v., 
pay, v., geliittu, gambalam kodu; 

n., (jambalam. 
peace, camdddnam. 
pea-fowl, niayil. 
peculiar, viqeqamana. 
peel, peel off, v., uri. 
peep, v., etti-p-par; otti-p-pdr. 
peg, n., niulai, dppu. 
pen al ty , dandam. 
people, janam. 
perceive, v., Mnu ; art. 
perception, terind'aridal. 
perfection, qampuranam. 
peril, avadi, ahattu, mogam. 
period, kdlam. 
perish, ari; ndga-p-padu. 
perjury, poyydnai. 
permanent, nildimdiydna. 
permission, uttarani, vidiii. 
permit, n., uttaravuggittu ; v., 

ottu, vidu. 
perseverance, viddmnyafci. 
person, dl;peyar. 
perspiration, verrdi. 
persuade, inakkappaduttu , 

gammadappaduttu. 
pestle, ulaklidi. [/mm. 

petition, arji; manu, riimaji- 
phial, kuppi. 
pick (peck), v., kottu, /a- 

duni/u: (choose) terind'cdu. 
piece, tiindu. 
pierce, kuttu. 
pile (h eap) , n, iwviyal; (stake) 

palan-tdnyi. 
pile up, v., aditkku. 
pillar, tun. 
pin, kundugi. 
pincers, idukki. 



64 



POS 
pinch, v., killu. 
pipe (tube), kural. 
pipe (tobacco-), gungdn, 
pistol, kdi vedi. 
pit, kari, kidangu. 
pitch (tar), kil. 
pity, n., pariddbam. 
place, idam. 
place, v., vdi ; podu. 
plaintiff, vddi ; varakkdli. 
plan (method), drungu, upd- 
plane, civuli. [yam 

plane, v., givu, irdi. 
plant, v., ndttu ; unru. 
plaster, n. (medicine), paf±u. 

gervdi ; (mortar) gdndii , 
plaster, v., pilgu. [puccu. 
platform, meclai. 
play, v., vildiyddu. 
plead for, parindu pegu. 
pleasant, iniya. 
pleasantness, inimdi, inham. 
plenty, miyudi ; nirdivu. 
plough, v., uru ; n., kalappdi. 
pluck, v., pari, pidungu. 
plunge, v., aiiiirn'dii. 
pocket, geppu; gattdi-c-cdkku. 
pod, lu'ftn. 
point, n., nuni. 
point out, v., gutti-k-kdttu. 
poison, nanjii ; vigam. 
pole, kambam. 

polish, v., minukku. [ram. 
politeness, mariydddi, upagd 
poll-tax, taldivarippanam. 
pool, kuttdi ; taddgam. 
population, kudi-janam. 
portion, pangu. 
position, idam. 
positive, urudiydna tirkka- 

mdjia. 



P08 

possession, udamdi, urimdi ; 

(lordship) dtci. 
post (mail), tajMl. 
post (pillar), tun ; Ml. 
post (letters, &e.'), v., tapalil 
postpone, kadattii. [podit. 
pot, kalam, pdndi ; kopjicii. 
potter, kugavan. 
pouch, gdkku ; pai. 
pound (weight), irattal. 
pound, v., kuttU; idi. 
pour, vdr. 

poverty, tarittiram; vaiumdi. 
powder, tul, podi. 
power, pelan ; vallamdi. 
practice, appiydqam; payitci. 
practise, v., apply aqampannu. 
praise, n., pugarcci; Uiti. 
praise, v., pugaru. 
prayer, n., qeham,, pira/rttandi. 
preach, piraqangi. 
precious, arumaiyana. 
prefer, terindu kol. 
preparation, dyattam,ettanam. 
prepare, dyattam pannu. 
presence, mugada; mun. 
present (now), nigarugira, 

nadakkira. [dqar. 

present (being), mvnirukkira; 
present (gift), vegumdnam ; 

qantosham. 
present, v., kodu, oppuvi. 
preserve, v., kdppdttu. 
press (wine-, &c.), dldi. 
press, v., amukku ; nerukku. 
press out (by hand), v., piri, 

adukku. 
pretend, pdvandi kdttu ; pd- 

qdngu pannu. 
prevent, tadu; mari. 
previous, mn 



86 



PUB 

prey, irdi. 
price, vildi. 
prick, v., kuttu ; tai. 
prickly, mullulla. 
pride, dngdram, perumdi. 
prince, irdja-kumdran. 
princess, irdja-kumdratti. 
principal, a., piraddna ; (of 

money), mudal. 
print, v., accadi. 
prison, kdoatkudam. 
prisoner, kaidi, mariyatkdran. 
private, irahaqiya. 
prize, pandayam, ottam. 
proceed, nada, purappadu. 
proceeds, varumdnam. 
produce, n., palan; vildiccal. 
produce, v., palan kodu; vildi. 
product, palan ; vildivu. 
profession, veldi, uttiyogam. 
profit, n., ildbam; v., pali. 
promise, n., vdkkuttattam. 
promise, v., vdkkuttattam (;i'y. 
pronounce, uccari. 
proof, attdtci; uruqu. 
prop, muttu. 
proper, tagudiydna. 
property, uddimdi; dsti. 
proportion, piramdnam , alavu 
proprietor, uddiyavan. 
prosecute, todar. 
prosper, qitti, varu. 
protect, kdppdttu. 
protection, pdlanam, kdppu. 
prove, oppi; meyppi. 
provide, qambddi, qegai-i. 
province, nddu. 
provoke, kobamuttu. 
prune, narukku, kavdttu qey. 
pruning-kiiife, kavdttuk katti. 
public, piraqittamdna. 



86 



PUB 

publish, arivi, piraqittam pan- 
pull, v., iru; n.jiruppu. [nu. 
pulley, kappi. 
pulp, (fuldi; taqdi. 
pulse, n,, nddi. 
punctual, nevan-tararada. 
punish, tandi. 
pupil, ifishan, mdndkkan. 
purchase, v,, vildikku vdiigu. 
push, v., tailu. 
put, idii, vai ; jiodu. 
putrid, arugaldna. 
putty, makku ; patti. 

Quality, gunam. 
quantity, alavu. [dam. 

quarrel, n., qanddi; vdkkurd- 
quarter (■^), kdl, kdlvdgi; 

(direction) digdi. 
queen, irdjaUi, irdiastiri. 
quench, midi, avi. 
quench thirst, ddhan tir. 
question, v., kel; n., kelvi. 
quick, (jiklnramdna. 
quickly, qlkkiramdy ; guriik- 
quietness, amdidi. [Jtdy. 

quill, iragu. 
quite, mutfilum. 

Rail, kir&di. 
rain-coat, viariii-c-cattdi. 
rainy seasgn, mdrikdlam. 
raise, tukku;ettu. 
rake (tool), kuppdi vari. 
rank, n. (o der), laiiqdi, an- 
dastLi ; (dignity) menmdi, 
rap, v., tattu. 
rapid, virdivdnfi. 
rasp (file), n., ararr>- 
rasp, v., ardvu. 
rate (ratio), vidam, faram. 



EEP 

raw, paced iijana. 

razor, qavarakkatti. 

reach, v., ettu. 

read, vdci ; padi. 

readiness, dyattam. 

real, ulla, meyydna. 

reap, aru ; ari. 

rear, v., volar. 

reason, yutti; mugdndiiam. 

receipt (note), pattucclttu , 

iragittu. 
receive, etiukkol; pattu; vdngu. 
reckon, kanakk'idu, eiinu. 
recognise, ari. 
recover (get back), tiriimba 

addi. \^padu. 

recover (from illnesg) , qugap- 
rectify, qarippaduttu; tiruttu. 
redeem, mlttu-k-kol, 
Redeemer, niUpar. 
reduce, kurdi. 
reed, ndnaL. 

refresh one's-self, muqippdttu. 
refuse, v., nuiru : n,, karivu. 
register, n., attarandi, ddppu, 
regret, n., manastdbam ; v. 
regular, orungdna. [tukhi, 
regulate, tittappaduttu. 
reject, tallu. 
relate, qoUu ; vivari. 
relationship, uravu. 
release, v., niduvi. 
relieve, udavu. 
remain, tangu; nildi; tari. 
remainder, miccam; mldi. 
remember, nindivu kur. 
remove, ediittu-p-p6du ; peyar. 
renew, puduppi. 
vent, n., vddaiidi. 
rent, v., vadagdikku edu. 
repair, v., papudu par. 



REP 

report (inform), v., ariri; 

terivi; n., kelvi, arikkiii. 
resign, oppukkodu ; idttuvidu. 
resin, kungiliyam. 
resolve, v., twma/id, [nu. 
respect, v., m^i; kat^ffm-pan- 
respect (homage), n., mariya- 

dai, vanakkam. 
rest, ildipparufial. 
rest, v., ildippary, ; oy. 
restor.e, pirujtkboi-k-kodu, 
restrain, adcikku ; tadu. 
result, p., palan- mu^ivu. 
retail), vfiiftukkfll, 
retire, pilg^u, pf^nidit. 
return, v., tirumbu.' 
reveal, velippaduttu. 
revenue, varumanam. 
reverence, n., vaiiakkam, van- 

danarn; y., rnadi, vananffu. 
reward, n., poXap, vegumadi. 
ride, v., ku4irai erippp; n., 

qavdri. 
ridge (of a house), mp,gadii; 

(of a field) vara/mhu ; (of a 

hill) ucgi. 
riglit (lawful, porrect), niya- 

yamdna; qciriydno- 
right (oorr.ectness), ^ari, niti. 
right (si<Je), valam. 
ring (for fipger) , mcdiram. 

— (circle), vattam. 

— (the bell), v., mani-y-adi. 
ripe, parftffa. 

rise, v., frwtbu, [yoMi. 

rivet, v., Vaddpu; p., kaddi- 

roam, Uri. 

roar, y., irdi; kereei; muraiiyu. 

rob, tirudu, JfoUdiyidu. 

robbery, kolldi. 

rod, mildru, Jfol ; k<f,mi>yf 



87 



SAL 

roll (scroll), n., qa,ul. 

roll, v.intr., puralu, urulu ; 

tr., uruttu, cuf^ttu. 
wot, kprfingu; ver. 
rop.e, kayi'jru. 

rough, muraddna. {ydvQi. 
round, a., rattamfiiia; i4,j],ddi- 
round, prep., (jufii ; qy/ro,. 
rouse, v.tr., eruppu; tundu, 

intr., erumbu. 
row, v., tflfidu vali. 
row (line), n., nirdi; varigdi. 
royal, irdjarigama^. 
rub, v.tr., tudM, fey; intr., 

ur^ilju. 
rude, tadinaifidng, ; murattu. 
rug, kambali ; qHl. [afi. 

ruin, n., arivu, kedu ; v. k«dy,, 
rule (as fopt-njle), kol. 
rule (regulation), orungu, 

gattam, vidi. 
rule, v., adigdran qey; dlu. 
ruler (governor), aniiaran, 

adipati; (instrument) rul- 

kambu. 
rumour, omgl, peccp. 
run, v., odu. 
riipee, rubdy. 
rush, v., pdy. 
rust, p., tvrtt. 

Sack, gdkkii: pai- 
sackcloth, ijattu. 
sacred, tiru ; tiwiyfi. 
sacrifice, pali. 
sadpess, iukkam; tuyaram. 
safe, a., pattiramdna ; qugfmid- 
saffron, manjal. \na. 

sailor, Ifaippatkdrff^n. 
salary, gamhalam. 
sale, vitpandi. 



88 



SAL 

saleable, vilkaUakka. 

salt, adj., uppdna. 

salt-pan, alam. 

salutation, vandanatn, upaqa- 

salvation, iratcippu. [ram. 

same, ore. 

sample, mustar, mddiri. 

sandal- wood, gamlana-maram. 

sandals, geriippu. 

sap, qaram. 

satisfaction, tiratti. 

savage, a., kodiya. 

save, iratci. 

saviour, irtcagar. 

saw, n., vdl; v., vdldl ari. 

sawyer, vdi-kdran. 

say, gol ; en. 

scales, tardgu. 

scarcity, ktiraiccal. 

scatter, v., qidaru. 

school, pallikkudam. 

science, gdstiram, kalvi. 

scissors, kattarikkol. 

scold, v., kobittu-p-pegu; kandi. 

scorpion, tel. 

scrape, gurandu. 

scratch, v., kiru, gori. 

scream, n., kadarugdi; v.,vlr- 

screw, tirui/dni. [idu. 

screw, v., tirugdni yidu : mu- 

rukku. 
scrub, v., tSy, tuddi. 
sculpture, gittaravittdi. 
scurvy, gori karappan. 
scythe, viccarirdl. 
search, v., Udii; drdy, tigdri; 

n., godandi. 
secret, n., iragagiyam. 
section, pangit, pirivu. 
security, pindi, jdmin. 
see, par. 



SHO 

seed, vittu ; vidai ; loWii. 
seedling, kanru, ndttu. 
seem, tonru. 
seize, pidi;pari. 
seldom, adv., ariddy. 
select, v., terind'edu. 
self, tdn. 
sell, vil. 
send, anuppu. 
sense, butti. [vatta 

senseless, buttiyilldda; unar- 
sensible, butiiynUa. 
sentence (decision), tirppii. 
— (gramm.), vdkkiyam. 
separate, adj., tanitta ; vev- 

verdna. 
separate, v., piri. 
set (place), v., vai; (plant)^ 

ndttu; (as the sun) antarnk 
set out, purappadu. 
set down, irakki vidu. 
settle, v.tr., tlrttu-p-podu. 
severe, kadinamdna. 
sew, tai. 
shadow, niral. 
shake, agdi ; udaru. 
shallow, a., dramatta ; n., 
shame, vetkam. [kalam 

shape, vadiou ; uruvavi. 
share, n., pangu,pdgam. 
sharp, kurmdiydna. 
shave, gavaram pannu. 
she, aval. 

shed, v., cindu, gori. 
shed, n., kudigdi, gdgdi. 
sheet, tuppatti. 
shelf, tattu. 

shell, qippi; odu, gangu. 
shelter, v.tr., odukku; n., tan- 
shoe-laoe, gappdttu vdr. [jam. 
shoot (with gun), vedi vai. 



SHO 

shop, kadai. 

short, kuttai yana ; kittina. 

shout, v., qattam podu, drp- 

show, v., kdttu. [pari. 

shrink, qurungu. 

shut, addi; qattu. 

sickle, arivdl. 

sickness, viyadi ; ndvu. 

side, pakkam ; (of body) vila. 

sieve, qalladdi; qnlagu; 

sift, tellu ; qali. [muram. 

eight, parvdi. 

sign, n., addiydlam. 

sign, v., kaiyoppam vai. 

silence, maunam 

similarity, oppu, qamdnam. 

simple, peddimdiydna. 

sin, pdvam. 

since, adv., adumudal ; tottu, 

padiydl. 
sincere, unmdiyulla. 
sing, pddu. 
single, ottdiydna. 
sink, v., amir ; amirttu. 
• sir, aiyd. 
sit down, utkdru, 
site, idam. 
size, alavu. 
skill, gdmarttiyam. 
slab, kal-tagadu, palagdi, 
slacken, negir. 
slavery, adimdi. 
sledge-hammer, qammatti. 
sleep, tukkam ; urakkam. 
sleep, v., tungu ; nittirdi gey ; 

urangu. 
slender, melivdrui. 
slice, v., ^vu. 

slide, v.tr., qan; intr., naruvu. 
slip, v., tavaru; n., piqagu, 

tappu. 



89 



SOW 

slit, klru. 
slow, tdmadamdna. 
slowly, meduvdy. 
sluice, tannir-k-kadavu. 
email, qinna. 
small-pox, ammdi, 
smash, v., neri ; norukku. 
smell, v., mo, mana; n., 

manam, gandam. 
smoke (a cigar), v., quruttu- 
smoothness, oppam, [k-kudi. 
snare, n., kanni. 
snipe, ulldn. 
so, appadi ; ippadi. 
soak, v.intr., uru. 
soak, v.tr.., iira vai; toy. 
sober, veriyilldda, telivdna. 
soft, meduvdna, miriidu. 
soil, v., kardippaduttu. 
soldier, porqqevagan. 
solitary, tanimdiydna. 
some, cila; koiija. [oruvan 
somebody, ydrdvadu, yard 
somehow, eppadiyo. 
something, edo. 
sometimes, adv., qila veldi. 
somewhat, adv., qatte. 
somewhere, engeyo. 
song, pdttu. 
Boon, qikkiramdy. 
soothe, dttu. 

sop (soak), v.tr., toy, tuvdi. 
sorrow, tukkam; tunbam. 
sound, n., qattam ; oqai. 
sour, pulippdna. 
source (of a river), uttu. 
south, n., tetku. 
south wind, tenral. 
south-west monsoon, mun- 

mdrikdlam. 
sow, v., riddi. 



90 



SPA 

space, idam ; Teli. 

span, jan; gaM-alavu. 

speak, pegu ; gollu. 

spear, Itti. 

special, viqeqamdna. 

spectacles, IwUkkukkalinadi. 

speed, iiirdivu. 

spend, v., gelavari. 

spill, v., pndu. 

spin, v., nunul. 

spirits (alcohol), qdrayam. 

split, v., pild. 

spoil, v., kedu ; art; n., 

(plunder) koUdi. 
sport (jesting), pagadi, keli. 
spot, pulli. 
spdtlt, n., piU. 
spread, v.intr., parambu; tr., 

parappu; viri. 
spring (of water), mWm; (trap) 

vicdi. [pdy. 

spring (forth), v., •uru; (leap) 
sprinkle, tfivu, teli. 
sprout, n., muldi; tulir. 
square, n., gaturam. 
squirrel, anil. 
stable, n., kudirdi-ldyam. 
stain, n., kardi, mdgu. 
stain, v., kardppaduttu. 
stalce, n., vagi, kattuttari. 
stamp (trample), v., midi ; 

(imprint) padi. 
stand (stop), nil ; ( — erect), 

iiimir. 
start (set out), v., purappadu. 
state, v., gol ; vivari. 
state (condition), n., nildimdi, 

tan m Hi. 
statue, pdvdi, gildi. [ruttii. 
stay, v.intr., tangu ; tr., ni- 
steal, kalavu gey. 



SUB 

steam, n., nlrdvi ; v., pvfjdi. 
steep, a., ge'kguUava; v., uttu, 

toy. 
stem (stalk), kambu ; tandu. 
steps, padi. 
sticky, pagdiydna. 
stiff, virditia; valdiyddd. 
still, adv., innam. 
stillness, amdidi, tndmtnam. 
sting, n., kodukku; v., kottu. 
stii", v.tr., kalakku, tUndu; 

intr., agdi. 
stirrup, antjapadi. 
stock (of tree), adi maram. 
stop, v.intr., nil, tari; tr., 

niruttu, tddu; n., taddi, 

addippu. 
store-room, kidaAgu. 
story, tattu; mettdi. 
story (tale), kaddi. 
stout, a., pariitta ; piishtiyulla. 
straight, nerdna. 
strange, anniya ; navamana. 
strap, kaccu; vdr. 
street, vidi, teru. 
strength, gatti, vallamdi. 
stretch, v., nittu; viri; nitu. 
strict, kandippdnd. 
strike, adi; ardi. 
string, n., nUl; kayiru. 
strip, v., elldm pidungu; nri. 
strong, palamulla,valla,vatiya 
struggle (•Wtestle), v., 'malhik- 

kattu. 
stumble, idaru, tuvaru. 
stupid, mildamdna. 
subject, n., porul, kdriydm; 

a., ktrppatta, adangiya. 
subdue, klfppaduttu, adakku. 
submit, adangu. 
substance, porid ; vastu. 



SUB 

Bubtract, kari. 

succeed (prdsper), gitti; 

(follow) pintodar. 
success, vdyppu, qitti. 
such, appadippatta. 
suddenly, qadudiyay. 
suffet, padu; qagi. 
sufficient, tirattiyana. 
sugar-cane, karuwhu. 
suitable, tagudiydna. 
sultty, purukkamana. 
sum, togai. 

summons, kattaldi, gittagi. 
sunshine, veyiL 
superintendent, periyu tur&i ; 

adigdri. 
superior, "a,., tnelanii. 
superior, n., weldnavan. 
support, n., tangi; ddaravu. 
support, v., tdiign : d'Jari. 
suppose, nincii, etlitu. 
sure, niqqayaiiidna. 
surprise, n., dccMiyam. 
surround, quttu, taliii. 
survey (land), nildm-ala ; 

(look oVer) nukku. 
suspect, qmidcf/a/ipadu. 
swarm, n., tiral, kutlam. 
swarm, v., tiralu, moy. 
sweep, v., p&rukku ; kuttii . 
sweeper, totti, (fern.) lotticci. 
sweet, tittippdna, iniya. 
swell, v., vingu ; penigu; adai. 
swim, nlndu. 
sword, pattayam, vdl. 
sympathy, pariddbam. 
symptom, kuri. 
system, oriingu; kiramam. 

Tail, vdl. 

take, edu: vdri^u. 



91 



THE 

tialk, v., pS'qu ; ■qambdsM. 

tall, nediya nettdiydna. 

tamarihd, puli. 

tame, qaduvdna. 

tank, kulani. 

tape, nddd. 

tapioca, erildik-kifangu md. 

tar. Ml; tar. 

target, ilakku. 

task, kuriVta 'oeldi. 

taste, n., uruqi; quvdi. 

tax, n., gtingam; vari; tirvai, 

tea (leaf), teyildi, 

teach, podi; padippi. 

teacher, n., uvdtti ; podagar. 

teak, tekku-maram. 

teal, qiragi. 

tear (drop), kanni'r. 

tear (»?eiid), v., iciri; pnru. 

tell, qol ; arivi. 

temper (disposition), 'gunam. 

temperance, icc&i-y-aaakkam. 

temple, kovil. 

tempt, qodi. 

temptation, qodandi. 

tenant, kudi, purakkudi. 

tend (cattle), v., ddu mddu 

mSy. 
tender (ybung), ilu; ilagand. 
tent, kuddram. 
term, tavandi. 
terms, oppanda vivardngal. 
than, pdrkkilum. 
that, pron., adu ; a., mida. 
that, conj., enru, ena. 
thatch, n., pullu; v., vey, mey. 
theft, kalnvu; tiruttu. 
then, apporudtl, appodu: anru. 
thence, adilirnndu; adumudal 
there, ange ; avvi'dattil. 
therefore, dgdiydl. 



THI 

thick, kanatta; (dense) ad- 

arnda. 
thief, kalavdli ; tirudan. 
thigh, toddi. 
thin, melliya ; olli. 
thing, vastu,porul; kdriyaiii. 
think, nindi; (deliberate), 

dloqi. 
thirst, n., tagam. 
this, pron., idu; a., inda. 
thorn, mul. 
thorough, tittamdna. 
thoroughly, tlrkkamdy; mutta. 
thou, nl. 

thought, nindivu; qintandi. 
thread, niil. 
threaten, payam vruttu. 
threshing floor, kalam. 
thiive, ^eri, gemamdy iru. 
throne, gimmdganam. 
through, ude ; uruva. 
throughout, engum ■.murudum. 
throw, eti. 
thnist, tallu; nettu. 
thus, ippadi ; indavagdiyil. 
thyself, nl tdne. 
tie, v., kattu ;' mudi. 
tile, odu. 

till (until), vardikkum; mattiiin. 
tillage, uravu. 
timber, maram. 
time, kdlam. 
timid, kordiyulla. 
tire (become tired), ilaittup 
title (rank), pattap-pcr. [po. 
together, kuda; ormvikka. 
toll (duty), dyam, qungam. 
tom-tom, pardi. 
too, kuda ; um. 
tool, karuvi ; dyiidam, 
top, meipakkam. 



m 



TKU 
torch, tivatti. 
toss, v., eri; aldi. 
total, n., togdi. 
touch, v., todu. 
tough, uraimilla. 
toward, nerdga. 
tower, gopuram, turukkam. 
town, paUanam. 
trace, n., guvadu, vari-k-kuri. 
trace, v., pin todar. 
track, n., tadam ; guvadu; 

kdttup pdddi. 
train, v., parakku, vagakku, 
trample, midi. [padippi. 

transfer, v., koduttu vidu, gdttu. 
translate, tiruppu. 
transplant, peyarttu nadu. 
transport, v., peyar. 
trap, pori. 
travel, v., piraydnam pannn, 

payanam po. 
tray, tattu. 
treachery, turogam. 
tree, maram. 

tremble, v., adir, nadungu. 
trench, vdykkdl, agar. 
trespass, v., elldikada, tavarit. 
trial (examination), vigdiandi: 

godandi. 
triangle, mvkkonam. 
tribe, jdti, gottiram. 
tribute, iidi, kappam. [yam. 
trifle, n., gotpam ; atpakkdri- 
trigger, rigdi ; poruppu. 
tioop, n., padai, gendi. 
trouble, n., (laiigadain; tunda- 
trough, totti : pattal. [ravu. 
trowel, karandi. 
trumpet, ekkdlam, tCirai. 
trunk (of a tree), adimaram; 

(of elephant) tumbikkdi. 



98 



TRU 

trust, namhikkdi. 

trust, v., namhu. 

truth, mey. 

try, v.intr., piraydqap-padu ; 

tr., paritci, qodi. 
tube, kural. 
tune, iragam. 

turban, taldippa. [tiruppu, 
turn, v.intr., tirumbu ; tr., 
tusk, kombu, dantam. 
twins, irattdippillaigal. 
twine (string), nut l;ayiru. 
twist, v., tiri; murukka. 
twofold, a., irumadangana. 
type (print.), aceu. 

Ugly, avalatcanamdna, 
unable, kuddda; iyaldda. 
uncommon, varangdda; apur- 

vamdna. 
uncover, nnldal edu ; tira. 
under, kire. 

undergo, padu, [kirdna. 

underground, a., pimikkuk- 
understand, ari;vilangu;teri. 
undertake, etpadu; kaiyidit. 
underwood, dru kddu. 
undo, avir. 

undress, uduppuk-karattu. 
undulating, medu-pallamdna. 
unequal, vittiydgamdna. 
uneven, karadu-muraddna. 
unfair, aniydyamdna. 
unfold, viri, tira. 
unfortunate, ptti perdda. 
unfit, dgdda; iagdda. 
unfruitful, icani kod&da. 
ungrateful, nanri maranda. 
union, aikkiyam. [poruttii,igdi. 
unite, v.intr., porundu; tr., 
OBivoisal, engum idUt. 



VER 

unjust, amtiyuUa. [nam. 

unkindness, abaydram, kadi- 
unknown, ariydda. 
unlawful, nltikku virodamdna. 
unlike, ottirada. [mdna. 

unnatural, iyalbukku viroda- 
unpaok, v., tirand'idu; avir. 
unroll, viri. 

unsaddle, qenan-karattu. 
unsafe, pattiram-illdda. 
unscrew, tirugdni karaftu. 
unusual, varakkam illdda. 
up, adv., uyara; mele. 
upon, mele. 
upper, meldna. 
upside down, Hradu mela- 
urge, evu. [dd^a. 

usage, varakkam. 
use, v., varangu, kaiydlu, 
useful, pirayqjanam-ulla. 
utmost, kadaiqiydna. 
utmost, n., iyanra-mattum. 
utter, v., qol. 
utterly, muttum. 

Yacancy, idiiiveli: kdli. 
vain, vindna. 
value, n., vildi; kirayam. 
vanish, mardi. 
vapour, dvi, kdnal. 
various, ndndvida. 
vast, viqdlaiiidna. 
vehicle, bandi,vdhanam. 
veil, mukkddu. 
vein, narambu. 
venom, visham. 
ventilate, tuttu. 
verandah, virdnda, 
verdict, tirppu. 
verdure, paqumdi. 
veise, qulogam; kavi. 



94 



VER 

very, migavum ; metta. 
vessel, pattiram; (ship) kappqbl 
vex, varuttap-paduttu. [rdvi. 
vice (blacksmith's), piditti- 
'view, n., toUam, kaicL, 
vile, irivdna, pollada. 
violence, balavantam ; kodu- 
virtue, aram; qatkuriam. [wdi. 
visit, v., gandi. 
vivid, ailigap-pira^dqamdna. 
voice, qattam ; kural. [v., ner. 
vow, n., ppruttandi ; nercci ; 

Wager, ottam, pandaiyam 

wages, kuli, gambalam. 

wraist, idM, ardi. 

wait, v., kdtt'iru. 

wake, v.intr., viri, erumbu. 

wake, v.tr., eruppu. 

walk, v., nada; n.,naddi. 

wall, guvar. 

wander (stray), aldi. [n., tevdi. 

want, v., tevdiydy iru; v^ndutn; 

war, yuUam; qaTiddi- 

warehouse, panda-qdldi. 

warm, analulla. 

warm, v., kdyccu; kdy. [Idi 

warrant, n., vdrdndu, kaiia- 

wash, v.tr., karuvu; intr., 

kardi, karuvu. 
washerman, vanndn. 
wasp, kulavi. 
waste, v., mndyccelokvari : a. , 

par. [(guard), kdvcd. 

watch (iinieTpieoe),gtidfydram; 
watch, v., kdvaikg.; viri. 
watchman, kdvatkdrcin. 
water, v., mrp-pdycqu. 
water-pot, kudam. [yantiram. 
water-wheel, mr-wddii nir- 
was, araldfu; tfi^rugu. 



WIR 

way (road), vari, dim (man- 
ner), vidam, vagdi. 

weak, balavhm. [fey. 

wear, v.tr., udutti-k-kol; intr., 

weave, ney. 

wedge, n., dppu. 

weed mattock, pitl-vetti, 

weep, v., kannir-vidu ; aru. 

weigh, v., niru. 

weight, nirdi ; pdram. 

well, a., nanrdy. 

west, n., metku. [v., nandi. 

wet, a., iramdna, nandinda; 

what, pron., eryna; edu. 

when, eppodu. 

whence, engirundu. 

whenever, epporuddndlum. 

where, enge ; ewidattil. 

wherever, engeydgilum. 

which, pron., yddu; edu. 

while, porudu: 

whisper, v., kddukkul qollu. 

whistle, n., qlrkkdi ; v., q'.rh- 
kdi-vidu. 

who, pron., dr ;, ydr, evan. 

whoever, ydrdndlum. 

whole, n., elldm ; m.uruiiuii. 

wholly, mitrudumdy ; miiili- 

why, en, ennattukku. [luyn-. 

wick, tiii. 

wicked, j'oHuda. 

wide, agalamdna; viqdlamd- 

widow, kairrirpen. [na 

widower, tdvtvn irandava7i. 

width, agalam. 

wUd, kdttn- ; dushta, kdddna. 

will (mind), n., qitiam; manam., 

win, kdi, vel. [tuUu, pudai. 

winnow,, qulagu, muram; y., 

wipe, tudd,.L,. 

wire, kqfnbi: 



WIS 
wisdom, nanam. 
wish, v., virumbu. 
with, kuda. 
within, y,l ; ulle. 
without, illamal; oHya; inri. 
witness (person), (S^iAs^Mraw. 
witness, v., qatd gollu; par. 
woodcutter, kddu-vetti, 
word, gol, v^fttdi. 
work, n., veldi; v„ v^ldi gey. 
worth, n., arumdi, menmcii. 
worthy, pattiramana ; taqudi- 
wound, n., kayam. [y4i}a. 
wrap, v., gi^tu; por; uduttu. 
wring, v., piri. 



86 



YOU 
writ, gddanam. 
write, erudii. {kuiUmmUa. 
wrong, a., tappidamdrpa; 
wrong, n., ttjigru, tappidam. 

Yam, Mrangu. 

yard (courtyard), muUam; 

(pleasure) yaru, gajam. 
yawn, kottdvi vidu. 
yet, diiMum ; innam. 
yiej^i v., kgdu ; vildi; inahgu. 
yopdei^i awidattil. 
young, a., ildiya. 
yo^ng (of 9,iiimals), n., kutU; 

Jeunju ; kniiru. 



MONEY, WEIQHTS * i^EASURES, 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VALUES. 

fid. 

1 anna (6J centi6mes)= 1 

i rupee (8 annas) = 8 
12 annas (75 o.) = 10 

1 rupee (16 a. or 100,c.= 1 4 

3 rupees := 4 

i ,, == 5 4 

5 = 6 8 

7 „ = 9 4 

8 , = 10 8 

10 „ = 13 4 

15 =10 

50 , =368 

100 „ ... ... = 6 13 4 

1,000 rupees ... = 66 13 4 

100,000 „ (1 lac) = G,666 18 4 

TAIVIIL-AMtRlCAN VAI-UES. 
1 anna (6^ ceutifemes) = $0-2 
J rupee (8 annas) = 

(16 „ ) 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VALUES. 



1 
3 
5 

10 
100 



0-16 
0'.33 

\m 

1-66 

8-3SI 

33-33 



1 
2 
2 
4 
5 
7 
9 

10 

10 

10 

100 6 

1,000 



1 anna (6Jo.) 



4 := 4 annas (25i 



6 

12 



(374e.) 

(7^0.) 
Ir. 8a 
Ir. 14a 
8r. Oa 
3r. 12a, 
5r. 4a, 
12a 



= 6r, 
= 7r. 
= 15r. 
= 150r. 
= i,500r 
=15,000r 



AMERICAN-TAMIL VALUES. 

«0-l 

0-5 

0-20 = 10 

0-50 

1-00 ... = 3r. 2p,. 

10-00 ... = Sir. 4a. 

100-00 ... = 312r. 8a. 



i anna (3 cents) 
2^ annas (15Jo.) 
(62^0.) 



Note.— The exchange valup Qf tl»B rapes ia suWep' to slight fliioVflfition. 



96 

TAMIL MONEY. 

8 piea (paiga) ... =1 thuttu (tuUu) 

12 pies (4 thiittus) ..." = 1 anna {and) or 1 fanam 

16 annas ... ... ) i , . - \ [(panam) 

ID auiiab ... . _ 1 rupee (rwpai/) "-v.^ . / 

100 centiemes [gatam) ) r \ j- ^i 

Note. — Gentumes or cents are copper coins used in Ceylon. 



WEIGHT. (Niriii.) 

Troy. Avoirdupois. 

1 manjadi ... = 3 to4'15gr. (about) 

2 manjadis = 1 fanam (panam) = 6 gr. „ 

9 fanams = 1 pagoda (vardhan) = 54 gr. ,, 

10 pagodas = 1 pollum [palam) = 540 gr. „ 

40 pollums = 1 Tiss. {viqdi) ... ... = 31b. 2oz. 

8 viss = 1 maund (man) ... ... = 25 lb. 

1 Bengal maund ... ... ... = 82|lb. 

20 maunds = 1 candy (/canc^i) or baram ... =500 lb. (about) 

100 pollums = 1 tulam (in some places) 
12 tulams = 1 podi or bullock-load 

LINEAR MEASURE. {NUtal-alavu.) 
12 fingers' breadth {viral kaddi)— 1 span (jdn) 

2 spans (about 18 inches) = 1 moolum (murarn) or cubit 
2 moolums or 8 feet = 1 gajam (yard) 

2 gajams (yards) ... =1 tandam (fathom) 

2000 taijdams (fathoms) = 1 coss [kogu or huroqam) or 3 Indian 

4 coss ... ... = 9'09 miles [miles 

MEASURE OF CAPACITY. (Mugattal-alavu.) 
8 ollocks (drdkku) or 9uijqIu = 1 puddy {padi) , ndri, or kottu 

(about 100 cub. in. capacity) 
8 puddles ... ... =1 marcal (marakkdl) or kuruni 

5 marcals (according to some) = i parrah [pardi] 
24 seers {qer) ... =1 parrah 

12 marcals ... ... = 1 kalam 

400 marcals = 1 garce {karaqdi or karigu) or 194 eft. 768 c. in. 



POSTAGE. 

The postal rates from India (British) and Oeylon to the United 
Kingdom are as follows: For Letters, from India, 1 anna per J oz.; from 
Ceylon, 6 cents per J oz. Postcards, from India, la.; Oeylon, 6 cents. 
Newspapers, from India, J anna per 50 grammes; Ceylon, 3 cents for 
first 50 grammes, and 2 cents per 2 oz. afterwards. 

P.O8.148F 




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