(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency"

•A. 










THE GIFT OF 



/S..U1%1±... 



^piillL.. 



CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




3 1924 070 623 677 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924070623677 



GAZETTEER 



OP THB 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 



VOLUME XVIII. PART I. 



POONA. 



Under Government Orders. 



FEINTED AT TBB 

GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS, 

1885. 



The names of contributors are given in the body of the book. 
Special acknowledgments are due to Messrs. J. G. MoorCj C.S., 
A. Keyser, O.S., John McLeod Campbell, C. S., W.M.Fletcher, 
Superintendent Revenue Survey, and to Rdv Saheb Narso 
Rdrndhandra, Secretary Poona City Municipahty. The papers 
written by the late Mr. G. H. Johns, 0. S. on the Places of Interest 
were of the greatest value. 

Much help was also received from Mr. H. E. Winter, C. S., 
Colonel C. D'U. LaTouche, Cantonment Magistrate, and Messrs. 
W. H. A. Wallinger, District Forest Officer, A. H. Plunkett, City 
Magistrate, and S. Kyte, Police Inspector. 

JAMES M. CAMPBELL. 
October 188^. 



CONTENTS. 

♦ 

POONA. 

Chapter I.— Description. page 

Position and Area ; Boundaries ; Sub-Divisions j Aspect . . 1-2 

Hills ; Rivers ; Lakes 3-8 

Geology 9-12 

Climate : 

Seasons ; Rainfall ; Temperature ; Barometric Pressure ; 

Vapour J Cloudiness ; Fogs ; Winds 13-28 

Chapter II.— Production. 

Minerals . . 29-30 

Forests ; Trees 31-53 

Domestic A nimalg : 

Oxen ; Caws ; Buffaloes ; Horses ; Asses ; Mules ; Sheep ; 

Goats ; Camels ; Dogs and Cats ; Fowls ; Pigeons . . . 54-68 

wad Animals ; Game Birds 69-70 

Snakes 71-86 

Fish 87-93 

Chapter III.— Population. 

Census Details; Houses ; Villages ; Communities ; Movements . 94-98 
Hindus : 
Bbahuaks 

ChitpAvans 99 - 158 

Deshasths ; Devrukhes ; Dravids ; Govardhans ; Gujardtis ; 
Javals ; Kanojs ; Elarhdd^ ; Kasths ; Marwdris ; Shenvis ; 

Tailangs ; Tirguls ; Vidurs 159 - 184 

Weitebs 

Dhruv Prabhus ; Kayasth Prabhus 185-192 

P^tdne Prabhus 193-255 

VeUUs ... 256-260 

Tbadegs 
Agarvals ; Hangars ; BhdtyAs ; Brahma^Kshatris ; Eirads ; 
Komtis ; Lingdyats ; Loh^ds ; TAmbolis ; Gujardt Vanis ; 

Marwdr Vims ; Vaishya Vdnis 261 - 279 

Hdsbandmen 

Bdris ; Kichis 280 - 283 

Kunbis 284-308 

Milis ; Pahadis 309-313 

Craftsmen 
Badhais ; Beldars ; Bhadbhunjds ; Bhavsdrsj Buruds ; Chdm- 
bhars ; Gaundis ; Ghisidis ; Halvdis ; Jingars ; Kaohdris ; 
Kasars; Katdrisj Ehatrisj Koshtis; Eumbhilrs; Lakheris; 



ii CONTENTS. 

Lohdrsj Londris; NirAlis; Otaris; Pdtharvats; Rduls ; page 
Sails ; Sangars ; Shimpis ; Sondrs; SulMnkars ; Tdmbats ; 

Telis ; Zdrekaris . 314-377 

Musicians 

Ghadses ; Guravs 378 - 37 & 

Servants 

Nhavis ; Parits . . . . ; 380-383 

Shepherds 

Dhangars ; GavHs 384-386 

Fishers 

Bhois ; KoKs 387-392 

Labourers 
Bhanddris ; Chhaparbands ; KAmdthis ; KaMls ; Lodhis ; 

Rajputs ; Raddis 393-405 

Unsettled Tribes 
Berads; Bhils; Kaikddis; Kathkaris; Phasepdrdhis . . .406-408 

Rdmoshis 409-424 

Thdkurs ; Vadars ; Vanjdris 425 - 430 

Depressed Classes 

Dhors ; Halalkhors ; Mhars ; Mdngs 431-443 

Beooars 

Aradhis ; Bhdmtas ; Bharddis; Bhto; Bhutes; Chitrakathis ; 

Gondhlis ; Gosavis ; Holars ; Jangams ; Jogtins ; Joharis ; 

Kanphates ; KoLhatis ; Manbhdvs ; Panguls ; Sarvade 

Joshis ; Sahadev Joshis ; Tirmdlis ; Uchlids ; Vaglies and 

Murlisj Vaidus; Vasudevs ; Virs 444-480 

MusalmIns 481 - 505 

Bene-Israels 506 - 535 

Cheistians ; Paesis ; Chinese 536 - 538 



Appendix A- 

Spirit basis of the rule in favour of child-marriage ..... 539 

Appendix B' 

Spirit basis of the rule against widow-marriage ..... 540 - 542 
Appendix C. 

Traces of polyandry 543-546 

Appendix D- 

Origin of ornaments 547 . 552 

Appendix £■ 

Spirit-possession 553 . 559 

Appendix F- 

Special Funeral Rites ggO . 555 



INDEX 567-576 



POONA 



POOI^A. 



CHAPTER I. 

DESCRIPTION.^ 

- Poona, lying between 17° 64' and 19° 22' north latitude and 
73° 24' and 75° 14' east longitude, has an area of about 5350 square 
miles, a population adcording to the 1881 census of 900,621 or 
about 168"40 to the square mile, and a realizable land revenue of 
about £115,350 (Es. 11,53,500). 

In the west, along the Sahyidris, Poona has a breadth of seventy 
or eighty miles. From this it stretches about 130 miles south-east, 
sloping gradually from about 2000 to 1000 feet above the sea, and 
narrowing in an irregular T^edge-shape to about twenty miles in the 
east. It is bounded on the north by the sub-divisions of Akola, 
Sangamner, and P£mer in Ahmadnagar ; on the east by Pdrner, 
Shrigonda, and E[ar]at also in Ahmadnagar, and Karmdla in 
ShoMpur; on the south by Mdlsiras in Sholdpur, and Phaltan, Wai, 
and Bhor in Satdra ;- and on the west by Roha iu Kolaba, Bhor in 
Satd,ra, Pen in KoMba, and Karjat and Murbad in Thd,na. Except 
two isolated blocks of the Bhor state, a block in the west and a 
smaller in the) south, the whole area within these limits belongs to 
Poona. 

For administrative purposes, exclusive of the city of Poona 
which forms a separate sub-division, the district is distributed over 
eight sub-divisions. These, beginning from the north-west and 
working east, are, Junnar, Khed including Ambegaon, Maval, Haveli 
including Mulshi, Sirur, Purandhar, Bhimthadi including Bardmati, 
and Inddpur. These eight sub-divisions have on an average an area 
of about 670 square miles, 150 villages, and 112,600 people. 

Poona AoitimsTRATirE Details, 1881-82. 



SnB-DmBioN. 


i 


VllLAOES. 


Popula- 
tion, 
1881. 


i 

1 

g 

- H 




GOVBBNMBNT. 


Alienated. 


Total. 


ViUages. 


Ham- 
lets. 


Yillaged. 


Ham- 
lets. 


1 
1 


1 


1 


I 


I 
1 


1 


1 


13 


i 


I 


B11 


153 


3 


124 


7 




16 


166 


7 


163 


102,273 


167 


£ 

14,714 


Khed 


888 


193 




282 


51 




68 


m 


51 


244 


141,890 


160 


15.887 


Mival 


385 


137 


a 


69 


26 




12 


142 


26 


168 


62,383 


162 


7686 


Baveli 


813 


179 


4 


156 


58 


1 


32 


183 


59 


242 


287,062 


353 


20,494 


Sirur 


578 


60 




48 


16 


.... 


US 


60 


16 


76 


r2,nB 


128 


13,769 


Furandhar 


470 


67 




66 


26 




IS 


«7 


26 


92 


76,678 


161 


9776 


Phimthadi ... 


1036 


114» 




76 


IH 




4 


1141 


151 


130 


110,428 


107 


22,935 


Indipur 

Total ... 


S66 


80 




63 


6 






80 


6 


86 


48,114 


85 


10,200 


6347 


9831 


12, 


873 


204i 


. 1 


153 


.996} 


20Si 


1201 


900,621 


168 


116,351 


* »' Prom mate 


rials B 


uppli 


3db 


vMr. 


J, M 


cL. 


Ciao.% 


bell, 


C. i 


i., an 


d Mr. 


W. F 


letcher^ 



Chapter I. 
Description. 



Bonndariea. 



Sub-DiviBions. 



•Superintendent of Survey. 
A-' b310— 1 



[Bombay Oaaetteer, 



Cliapter I. 
Description. 

Aspect. 



Western Belt. 



Central Belt. 



2 DISTRICTS. 

In the gradual change from the roiigi. hilly west to the bare opeosli 
east, the 130 miles of the Poona district form in thewest two more 
or less hilly belts ten to twenty miles broad and seventy to eighty : 
miles long. Beyond the second belt, whose eastern limit is roughly 
marked by a line passing through Poona north to Pabal and south 
to Purandhar, the plain narrows to fifty and then to about twenty 
miles, and stretches east for about ninety miles. 

The Western Belt, stretching ten to twenty miles east of the 
Sahyidris, is locally known as Maval or the sunset land. It is 
extremely, rugged, a series of steppes or tablelands cut on every 
side by deep winding valleys and divided and crossed by mountains 
and hills.^ From the valleys of the numerous streams whose waters 
feed the Ghod the Bhima and the Mula-Mutha, hills of various 
heights and forms rise terrace above terrace, with steep sides often 
strewn with black basalt boulders. Puring the greater part of the 
year most of the deep ravines and rugged mountain sides which 
have been stripped bare for wood-ash manure have no vegetation but , 
stunted underwood and dried grass. Where the trees have been 
spared they clothe the hill sides with a dense growth seldom more 
than twenty feet. high, mixed with almost impassable brushwood, 
chiefly composed of the rough russet-leaved hdrvi Strabilanthu| - 
grahamianus, the bright green karvand Carissa carandas, and ti;^. 
dark-lea-ved aTy'ani or iron-wood Memecylon edule. Here and ther^JI 
sometimes as at Londivali in the plain, but of tener on- hill-side ledgf a, * 
or in deep dells, are patches of ancient evergreen forest whose holiness 
or whose remoteness has saved them from destruction. During the 
rainy months from June to October, the extreme west is very chill 
and damp. The people in the northern valleys are !Ktilis and in 
the southern valleys Marfithds. They have a strong strain of hill 
blood, and are dark, wiry, and sallow. They live in slightly built 
houses roofed with thatch or tile, grouped .in small hamlets 
generally on some terrace or mound, and with the help of wood-ash 
manure grow rice in the hollows, and hill grains on terraces, slopes, 
and plateaus. 

The Central Belt stretches ten to twenty miles east of the 
western belt across a tract whose eastern boundary is roughly 
marked by a line drawn from Pabal, about twelve miles east o£ 
Khed, south through Poona to Purandhar. In this central belt,> 
as the smaller -chains qf hills sink into the plain, the valleys become - 
straighter. and wider and the larger spurs spread into plateaus m 
places broader than the valleys. With a moderate, certain, and 
seasonable rainfall, a rich soil, and a fair supply of water both from 
wells and from river-beds, the valleys yield luxuriant crops. Exceptt 



"■ These valleys are locally known as ners, mdvah, and Ickores, and are called eitheri 
after the streani or after some leading village. In Junnar all the valleys are neM, 
J5ladh,-ner, Kokad-ner, Bhim-uer, andMin-ner, called after the country-tOwB. of Madh 
and tlie Kukdi, Bhima, and Mina rivers. In Khed there is BhAmner the valley of the ' 
BhAma. The MAval aub-diviBion consists of Andhar-mAval, Ntoe-mival, and! 
Baun-mdval, called after the riVer Andhra, the country- town of Ndna, and the river 
Paiitna. Further jouth there is, Piiui-khore the valley of tjie country-town of Paijd, 
»hd MusA-khore the valley of the Musa a tributary of the Mutha,. 



DeccaaJ 



POONA. 



3 



towards the west where uj places is an extensive and valuahle 
growth oi small teak, the plateaus and hill slopes are bare and 
treeless. Bat the lowlands, studded with mango, banian, and 
tamarind groves, enriched with patches of garden tillage, and 
relieved by small picturesque hills, make this central belt one of 
the most pleasing parts of the Deccan. Near Poena the country 
has been enriched by the Mntha canal, along which, the Mutha valley, 
from Khadakvasala to about twenty miles east of Poena, is green 
with sugarcane and other garden crops. 

East of Poena the district gradually narrcfws from about fifty to 
twenty miles and stretches nearly ninety miles east, changing 
gradually from valleys and broken uplands to a bare open plain. 
Baring these ninety miles the land falls steadily about 800 feet. 
The hills sink slowly into the plain, the tablelands become lower 
and more broken often little more than rolling uplands, and the 
broader and more level valleys are stripped of most of their 
beauty by the dryness of the air. The bare soilless plateaus, 
yellow with stunted spear-grass and black with boulders and 
sheets of basalt, except in the rainy months, have an air of utter 
' barrenness. The lower lands, though somewhat less bleak, are also 
bare. Only in favoured spots are mango, tamarind, banian, and 
other shade trees, and exeept on river banks the bdbhul is too 
stunted and scattered to relieve the general dreariness. The 
garden area is small, and as little of the water lasts throughout 
the year, during the hot months most gardens are bare and dry. 
Though it is very gradual the change from the west to the east is 
most complete. Rugged wooded lulls and deep valleys give place 
to a flat bare plain ; months of mist and rain to scanty uncertain 
showers ; rice and ndgli to millet and pulse ; and thatched hamlets 
to waUed flat-roofed villages. 

The hills of the district belong to two distinct systems. One 
running, on the whole, north and south, forms the main range of 
the Sahyddris, about seventy-three miles in a straight line and 
', about ninety following the course of the hills. The other system 
of hills includes the narrow broken-crested ridges and the bluff 
flat-topped masses that stretch eastwards and gradually sink into , 
the plain. The crest of the Sahyadris falls in places to about 200O 
feet, the level of the western limit of the Deccan plateau.' In 
other places it rises in roun4ed bluffs and clear-cut ridges 3000 or 
4000 feet high. The leading peaks are : In the extreme north, 
Harishchandragad whose mighty scarps, nearly. 4000 feet high,, 
support a plateau crowned by two low conical peaks. About ten. 
miles to the south-west, at the head of the Kukdi valley and 
commanding the Nana pass, the massive roCk of Jivdhan, its 
fortifications surmounted by a rounded grass-covered top, rises 
about 1000 feet above the Deccan plateau. About three miles south 
of Jivdhan, the next very prominent hill is Dhd,k. From the east 
Dhdk shows only as a square flat tableland, but from the west it is 
one of the highest and strongest points among the battlements' of 
the Sahyddris. Ten miles south-west of Dhak, where the direction 
of the Sahyddris changes from about west to about south, is the 



Chapter I. 
Description. 

Aspect. 



Eastern Belt. 



HiUs. 
SahyddriB. 



[Bombay Q&zetteef , 



I 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter I. 

Sescription. 

Hills. 
Sahyddria, 



Minor Sangee. 



outstanding' bluff of Atupe. This rises from the Decoan plateau 
in gentle slopes, but falls west into the Konkan, a sheer cliff 
between 3000 and 4000 feet high. Eight miles south of Ahupe, 
and, like it, a gentle slope to the east and a precipice to the west, 
stands Bhimashankar, the sacred source of the river Bhima. About 
fourteen miles south comes a second Dhd,k, high, massive, and with 
clear-cut picturesque outline. Though its base is in Thdna it forms 
a noticeable feature among the peaks of the Poona Sahyddria, 
Five miles further south, at the end of an outlying plateau, almost 
cut off from the Deccan, rises the famous double-peaked fort of 
R4jmdchi. Ten miles south, a steep slope ends westwards in a sheer 
cliff known to the people as the Cobra's Hood or Ndg-phani, and 
to Europeans as the Duke's Nose. About six miles south of the 
Duke's Nose and a mile inland from the line of the Sahyddris, rises 
the lofty picturesque range known as the Jambulni hills. Further 
south the isolated rocks of Koiri and Mdjgaon command the 
Ambauni and Ainboli passes. Six miles further is the prominent 
bluff of Sdltar, and twenty miles beyond is Tdmhini, the south-west 
corner of Poona. 

, From the main line of the Sahyddris four belts of hills run 
eastwards. Of these, beginning from the northj the first and 
third consist of parallel ridges that fall eastwards till their line is 
marked only by isolated rocky hills. The second and fourth belts 
are full of deep narrow ravines and gorges cut through confused 
masses of hills with terraced sides and broad flat tops. The north 
belt, which is alwjut sixteen miles broad, corresponds closely with the 
Junnar sub-division. It has three well-marked narrow ridges, the , 
crests occasionally broken into fantastic p'eaks, and the sides sheer , 
rock or ste^p slopes, bare of trees, partly under tillage and partly 
under grass. The northmost ridge stretches from Harishchandragad 
along the Ppona boundary and On to Ahmadnagat. South of 
this ridge two short ranges of about twenty miles fall into the 
plain near Junnar. The chief peaks in the northern spur are: 
Hdtkeshvar, about five miles north of Junnar and more than 2000 
feet above the Junnar plain, a lofty flat-topped MH which falls 
east in a series of jagged pinnacles. It forms the eastern end of the 
spur that divides the Madhner and Kokadner valleys. About half 
way between Hatkeshvar and the Sahyadris, on a half -detached 
ridge at right angles to the main spur, is Hadsar, a great fortified 
mass, which with rounded top rises about 1200 feet from the plain, 
and ends westwards in a rocky fortified point cut off by a chasm 
from the body of the hill. About four njiles to the south-west, 
guarding the right bank of the Kukdi, CMvand rises about 700 
feet from the plain. It is a steep sldpe crested with a scarp sixty 
to a hundred feet high, whose fortifications enclose a rounded grassy 
head. Fourteen miles further east, Shivner, part of the broken 
ridge which separates the Kukdi and the Mina, rises from a 
three-cornered base about 800 feet from the plain and commands 
the town of Junnar, Its long waving ridge is marked for miles 
round by a flying arch, which stands out against the sky between 
the minarets of a mosque. Sixteen miles south-east, isolated, but 
Jike Ohavand and Shivner marking the line of water-partiBg between 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 5 

the Kukdi and the Mina, is the ruined hill-forb of Nfolyangad. 
It has a clear-cut double-peaked outline, the western and highei? 
peak being crowned by a shxiue. South of these, a spur, thirty-five 
miles long, forms the south wall of the Mina valley. South of the 
crest of this spur, for about fifteen miles, the second belt of eastern 
hills stretches a confused mass of uplands separated by abrupt gorges, 
their steep slopes covered in the west with evergreen woods,- and 
in the east with ■ valuable teak coppice. The slop'es are broken by 
terraces with good soil which are cultivated in places, and theif 
tops stretch in broad tilled plateaus which often contain the lands 
of entire villages. In this belt of hill-land the highest peak rises 
into a cone from the centre of a large plateau, in the village of 
Ndyphad, about ten miles west of Ghode. At the southern limit of 
this hill region, on the north of the Bhdma valley, two conical hills, 
Shinga and Khondeshvar, rise about 4000 feet high. 

The third belt like the first belt includes several spurs or ridges. 
Of these the five chief spurs are : the Tasobdi ridge, between the 
Bhama and the Andhra, passing east to within a few miles of 
Talegaon-Ddbhade ; Shridepathar, twenty mile|S long, dividing the 
valleys of the Andhra and the Kundali'j the Vehergaon spur ; the 
Sakhupathar plateau, from which an offshoot with the four peaks 
of Lohgad, Visapur, Batrasi, and Kudva, separating the valleys 
of the Indrayani and the Pauna, stretches east as far as the 
boundary of the Haveli sub-division j and further south, within 
Bhor limits in the Pauna valley, the spur from which rise the 
two peaks of Tung and Tikona. The fourth belt of east-stretching 
hills is further to the south, in the Mulshi petty division, where 
the Mula and its seven tributaries cut the country into a mass of 
hills and gorges. This is almost as confused as the second belt of 
hills, but has fewer trees and more tillage, the hill-sides being less 
terraced and the hill tops narrower. South of Mulshi, a belt of 
the Bhor state, about twenty miles broad, cuts off Poena from the 
main line of the Sahyadris. Though separated from the main line of 
the Sahyddris the south-west of the district is not without hills. 
Starting 2000 feet from the plain in the scarped flat-topped fort of 
Sinhgad, a range of hills stretches east for seven miles, and near 
the K^traj pass, divides in two, one branch keeping east the other 
turmng south-east. The eastern branch, with well-marked Waving 
outline, stretches about fifteen miles to the fortified peak ofi 
Malhdrgad. Prom Malhargad it passes nine miles to Dhavleshvar^ 
and from Dhavleshvar about six miles to the famous temple of 
Bholeshvar. Beyond Bholeshvar, for about fifty miles to near 
Inddpur, the line is still marked by low hills, rolling downs, and 
barren uplands. The second branch, after leaving the main range 
close to the Kdtraj pass, turns south-east for twelve miles, and with 
several bold spurs, centres in the fortified mass of PurandhaK 
Out of the same mountain mass rises, from the level of the lower 
Purandhar fort, the fortified peak of Vajragad which commands the 
lower and main fort of Purandhar. Beyond Purandhar the range 
forms the water-parting between the Karha and the Nira rivers, 
and, after stretching ten miles farther east, is prolonged in low bar© 
Mils and stoily ri^geS to near B^ramati. About fouisteen miles 



Chapter I, 
Description, 

Hills, 
Minor Ranges. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



6 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter I. 
Description- 
Rivers. 



Bhivfid, 



eaat of Pufandhar, above the villag© of Jejuri, at the end of' the last 
ridge, of any noticeable height, is the small plateau of Kh^repathar 
which is occupied by an- ancient much venerated temple of Khan- 
doba. 

Poena is crossed by many rivers and streams, which take theip 
rise in and near the SahyAdris, and, bounded by the east-stretohing 
spurs, flow east and south across the district. The chief river is 
the Bhima, which crosses part of the district and for more than a 
hundred miles forms its eastern boundary. The main tributaries 
of the Bhima are the Vel and the Grhod on the left, and the Bhdma, 
the Indrayani, the Mula or Mula-Mutha, and the STira on the right. 
Besides the Bhima and its feeders there are seven rivers, the Kukdi 
and the Mina tributaries of the Ghod, the Andhra a tributary of 
the Indrayani, and the Shivganga and Karha tributaries of the 
Nira. The Pushpavati with its feeder the Mdndvi is a minor 
stream which flows into the Kukdi, and the Pauna is a feeder of 
the Mula. During the rainy season all of these rivers flow with a 
magnificent volume of water and during the hot season shrink to a 
narrow thread in broad stretches of gravel. At intervals barriers 
of rock cross the beds damming the stream into long pools. 

The famous temple of Bhimdshankar ou the crest of the 
Sahyadris twenty-five miles north of Khandala, marks the source 
of the Bhima. Prom a height of about 3000 feet above the sea, 
the river falls over terraces of rock some 600 feet in the first five 
miles. Further east, with a general course to the south-east, it 
flows thirty-six miles through the very narrow and rugged valley 
of Bhimner, On its way it passes the large villages of Vdda, Ohds, 
and Elhed, and near the village of Pimpalgapn from the right 
receives the waters of the Bh^ma, and at Tuldpur the waters of the 
ladrdyani. Frgm Tulapur it bends to the south, skirting the Haveli 
sub^division> and after receiving from the left the waters of the Vel 
about five miles belowTalegaon-Dhamdhere,it turns again northreast 
to Mahdlungi, a point sixteen miles east of TuMpur. Then running 
south for about nine miles, at the vUlage of Ranjangaon it is joined - 
from the right by the Mula-Mutha. This point is 1591 feet above 
the sea level or 475 feet below the village of V^da. From 
Rdnjangaon the Bhima runs south-east with a winding course of 
about fourteen miles, till, on the eastern border of the district, it 
receives from the left the waters of the Grhod. After meeting the 
Ghod, the Bhima's course . is very winding, the stream at Diksdl 
flowing north-west for some miles. Finally at the extreme, south- 
east corner of the district, after a deep southward bend round the 
east of Inddpur, it, is joined from the right by the Nira. The banks 
of the Bhima are generally low and after its meeting with the 
Indrdyani are entirely alluvial. Here and there, where the winding 
stream has cut deep into the soft ^nould, are steep banks of great 
height, but in such places the opposite bank is correspondingly low. 
In places where- a ridge of basalt throws a barrier across- the stream, 
the banks are wild and rocky, and the water, dammed into a long 
deep pool, forces its way over the rocks in- sounding^ rapids. Except 
in such places the bed of the Bhima is gravelly and in- the fair 
eeason has but a slender stream. Here and there muddy deposits 



Decean.l 



POONA. 7 

yield crops of wheat or vegetables and even the Sand is planted 
with melons. 

The Vel rises at Dhdkle in a spur of the Sahy^dris near the 
centre of Khed. It flows south-east nearly parallel with the Bhima, 
andj about five miles below Talegaon-Dhamdhere, falls into the 
Bhima after a course of nearly forty miles. 

The Ghod rises near Ahupe on the crest of the Sahyadris, nine 
miles north of the source of the Bhima, at a height of about 2700 
feet above the sea. A steep winding course, with a fall of about 
800 feet, brings it sixteen miles east to Ambegaon. From Ambegaon 
it runs east-south-east, 'and passing the large villages of .Grhoda and 
Vadgaon on the north border of Khed, is joined from the left by 
the Mina. From here for about twenty»five miles till it receives 
the Kukdi, about six miles above the camp of Sirur, and for about 
twenty miles further till it falls into the Bhima, the Ghod with a 
very winding course keeps, on the whole^ south-east along the 
Poqna-Ahmadnagar boundary. Near the Sahy^dris the course of 
the. Ghod is varied and picturesque, the stream dashing over rooky 
ledges or lying in long still pools between woody banks. At Pargaon 
. where it is joined by the Mina about forty-five miles from its source, 
the valley changes into the level plaia of Kavtha, about ten miles 
wide, through which the Ghod flows over a rooky bed between bare 
banks. The water of the Ghod is famed for its wholesomeness^ a 
character which analysis bears out. 

The BhIma rises in the Sahyddris about six miles south of 
Bhimdshankar. It winds between banks 150 feet high down the 
valley to which it gives the name of Bhdmner, and after a south- 
easterly course of about twenty-four miles, falls from the right 
into the Bhima near the village of Pimpalgaon. The Bh£ma valley 
.'from its beginniiig about seven miles east of the SahyMris, continues 
level, and gradually widens eastward for fourteen miles. The stream 
flows 150 feet below the cultivated lands, which are on a higher 
terrace. 

The IndeItani rises near Kurvande village at the head of the 
Kurvande pass on the crest of the Sahyd.dris about three miles south- 
west of Lonavli, and flows on the whole east through the Nane-maval 
and past the village of Ndna till after sixteen miles it is joined on the 
left by the Andhra. It then enters the open country and passes 
twelve miles east to Dehu, a place of pilgrimage sacred to the Vani 
saint Tukaram. From Dehu it flows twelve miles south-east by the 
village of Alandi, a place of pilgrimage sacred to Dnydneshvar, and 
after keeping south-east fox about twenty niiles, turns north and 
meets the Bhima near Tulapur after a course of about sixty* miles. 

The Mtoa or Mtjla-Mtttha is formed of seven streams which rise 
at various points along the crest of the Sahyddris between eight 
and twenty-two miles south of the Bor pass. The united stream 
keeps nearly east to Lavla about five miles east of the village of Paud 
which gives the valley the name of Paud-khore.^ From Lavla, with 
:iaany windings, it passes east to Poena, receiving on the way the 
Fauna on the left, and art Poona the Mntha on ttie right, and then 



Chapter I. 
Description. 

Eivers, 
Yd. 

Ghoi. 



Bhdma. 



Mula-Muthn, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



8 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter I. 

Description. 

Kivers. 
Jfira. 



Kukdi. 



Mma. 



AncOira. 



MiUha. 



Under tlie name of Mula-Mutha winds east till at R^njangaon Sandas 
it readies the Bhima after a total course of about seventy uiiles. 

The NiEA has its source in the Bhor state in the spur of the 
Sahyadris which is crowned by the fort of Torna. It ;flows north-east 
till it reaches the southern border of Poena where it is joined from 
the north by the Shivganga. From this it turns east and forms the 
southern boundary of the district, separating it from Satdra, the 
Phaltan state, and ShoMpur. It finally falls into the Bhima at the 
south-east corner of the district, near Narsingpur after a course of 
ahout a hundred miles. 

The Kukdi rises at Pur, two miles west of Chdvand near the Nana 
pass in the' north-east comer of the district, and runs south-east by 
the town and fort of Junnar twenty-four miles to Pimpalvandi. 
From Pimpalvandi it flows south-east for thirty miles, passes into 
the Pdrner sub-division of Ahmadnagar, and falls into the Ghod six 
miles north-west of the Sirur camp on the eastern border of the Sirur 
sub-division. The valley of this river occupies greater part of 
Junnar. 

The MiNA rises on the eastern slope of Dhak in the west of Junnar 
and flows east through the rich vale known as Minner. In the rainy 
season, during the first two miles of its course, the river overflows 
its banks and causes much damage.. . In the lands of the Kusur 
village, about fifteen miles from its source, the river is crossed by 
a dam known as the Tambnala dam from which a canal formerly 
carried water to Vdglohore where there is at preseiit a grove of 
mango trees. From this the Mina. flows to N^rayangaon on the 
Poena and Nasik road, where there is another useful dam for irriga- 
tion. There is also a dam at Vaduj two miles south-east of Kusur. 
Past Ndrdyangaon, where it is crossed by a good modern bridge, 
the Mina joins the Ghod at Pargaon,. leaving the fort of Nard,yangad 
to its left. 

The Andhba rises in the SahyMris near the Sdvle pass, about 
2250 feet above the sea. Its source is at the head of a broad valley 
which runs west to the crest of a scarp whose base is in the 
Konkan. It flows south-east along a bed 100 to 150 feet below the 
cultivated land, through one of the openest valleys in the district, for 
eighteen miles, and joins the Indrdyani on its north bank near the 
village of Bd,jpuri. 

The MuTHA,. which gives its name to glen Mutha or Mutha-khore> 
rises in a mass of hills on the edge of the Sahyadris nearly 3000 
feet above the sea.. From the hill-side it enters a gorge or valley so 
narrow that the bases of the hills stretch to within forty ov fifty 
yards, of .the river-bank. During the first twenty miles of its course 
the Mutha flows through the territory of the Pant Sachiv. Imme- 
diately after entering the Poena district the current of the river 
is checked by the great Khadakvasla dam about ten miles further 
down. This dam has turned the valleys of the Mutha and of its 
feeders the two Musas into a lake about flfteen miles long and, 
half a mile to a mile and a half broad. Below the dam the Mutha ' 
^ows north-east past Parvati hill bj the north-west limit of the 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



9 



city of Poona, till it joins the Mula at a point known as the meeting 
or sa/ngam. 

' The Kaeha rises a few miles east of Sinhgad and with a south- 
easterly course of less than sixty miles through the Purandhar and 
Bhimthadi sub-divisions, falls into the Nira near Songaon in the 
Boutii-eastem comer of the Bdrdmati petty division of Bhimthadi, 

The Shiv^anga rises on the south slopes of Sinhgad and flows 
east for about six miles to Shivdpur and then south for about ten 
miles to the Pant Saohiv's village of Nasrdpur, where it is joined by 
the Khanind. From i^asrfipur, under the name of Gunjavni, it 
passes south-east for about six miles and falls into the Nira near 
Kenjal in Purandhar. 

The PtrsHPAvATi rises near the Malsej pass at the north-west 
corner of the Junnar sub-division. It flows down Madhner by the 
villages of Pimpalgaon-joga and tJdApur, nearly parallel to the 
Mina river, and joins the Kukdi at the village of Yedgaon, about 
eight miles east of Junnar. Near Uddpur the river is known by the 
name of Ad. 

The Patina rises on the crest of the Sahyadris south of the range 
of hills which forms the southern border of the Indrayani valley 
and includes the fortified summits of Lohogad and VisApur. It flows 
at first nearly east along the winding vale of Pauna or Paiind-maval, 
till, leaving the rugged westlands, it turns south-east, and, after a 
very winding course, joins the Mula from the north near Dapudi. 
At the village of Ambegaon, about six miles east of its source, the 
bed of the Pauna is about 1820 feet above the sea. 

The district has no natural lakes, but six artificial lakes provide 
a considerable supply of water. Of the six artificial lakes two are 
in Haveli, at Khadakvdsla and Kdtraj ; three are in Bhimthadi, at 
Kasurdi, Mdtoba, and Shirsuphal; and one is at BhddalvAdi in 
Inddpur. Details of these lakes are given in Chapter IV. under 
Irrigation. 

Besides these six main lakes there are considerable reservoirs at 
Baur, Ki,mbra, Khandala, Karanjgaon, Edrla, Mundharva, Talegaon- 
DdbhMe, Uksan, and Valvhan, in the Mdval sub-division; at Jejuri 
in Purandhar ; at Pdshdn in Haveli ; at Pdtas in Bhimthadi ; and ait 
Ind^pur. 

Almost the whole rock of Poona is stratified trap. Beds of basalt 
and amygdaloid alternate, whose upper and lower planes are strik- 
ingly parallel with each other, and, as far as the eye can judge,, 
with the horizon. Barometrical measurements, and the course of the 
rivers show a fall in level to the east-south-east and south-east. 

Like the rise from the Konkan the fall eastwards from the crest 
of the Sahyddris is by strata or terraces. These terraces occur at 
much longer intervals towards the east than towards the ^est, and 
are so much lower that, particularly in the east, they escape the eye 
of the casual observer. In the neighbourhood of Manchar on the 



Chapter I. 

Description. 

Rivers.' 
Karha. 

Shivganga. 



Pudhpdvati. 



Pauna. 



Lakes. 



Geology.' 



Terraces, 



1 Lieutenant-Colonel Sykes, Geological Papers on Western India, 89-115. 
B 310—2 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



10 



DISTBICTS. 



Chapter I. 
Description. 

Geology. 



Escarpments. 



Columnar Basalts, 



GhQd river, about fifteen miles north of Khed, five terraces ria^ 
above eaoli other from east' to west so distinctly marked that the r 
parallelisin of their plane&to each other and to the horizon seems 
artificial. Many insulated tablelands have also an artificial character, 
looking, like truncated cones when seen endways. Other insulated 
hills such as Tikona or the three-cornered in the Pauna valley, 
Shivner near Junnar, and Lohogad near Londvli are triangular in 
their superficial planes. 

Mighty scarps occasionally occur in the Sahyddris, the numerous 
strata instead of being arranged in steps forming an unbroken 
wall. At the Ahupe pass, at the source of the Grhod river, the wall _ 
or scarp is fully 1500 feet high. On the other hand, the strata or 
steps are sonxetimes worn into a sharp slope. This is , due to a 
succession of beds of soft amygdaloid without any intervening layers 
of basalt whose edges weather away and leave an unbroken slope. 
But as a rule three or four beds of the soft amygdaloid occur 
between two strata of compact basalt. The soft amygdaloid wears 
into a slope well suited for the growth of trees, while the hard black 
basalt, though its base may be buried in earth and stones from the 
amygdaloid above, rises from the wooded belt with majestic effect, 
its black front shining from the fringe of green. It is these girdles 
of smooth lofty basalt walls rising one within the other that make 
so many of the Deccan hills natural forts of amazing strength. 

In the alternation of strata th«re is no uniformity, but as in 
sedimentary rocks the general level, thickness, and extent of a 
stratum are preserved on both sides of a valley. The basalt and 
hardest apiygdaloids are traceable for miles in the parallel spurs or 
ranges, but the imbedded minerals and even the texture vary in 
very short distances. 

A great geological feature of the Deccan is its columnar basalts. 
The basalts and hardest amygdaloids run so much into each other 
that except the lines of horizontal stratification, the separation is 
not always distinct. Prismatic disposition is more marked and per- 
fect in the basalts than in the amygdaloids, and the more or less 
perfect development of determinate forms depends on the compact- 
ness and constituents of the rock. Basalts and amygdaloids, how- 
ever compact, rarely form columns if they have much imbedded 
matter. Perfect columns are generally small, of four five or six 
sides, but prismatic structure sometimes shows itself in basaltic and 
amygdaloidal columns many feet in diameter. On the low table- 
land of Karde near Sirur, between sixty and seventy miles east of 
^e Sahyadris, columnar basalt occupies an area of many square 
miles. Small columns occur in most of the slopes of the narrow 
winding valleys and on the flanks of the platforms. On many 
tablelands^ tops or terminal planes of columns form a pavement. 
The perfect columns in the flanks are generally small with four five 
or six sides, resting on a layer of basalt or amygdaloid. In some 
spots the columns are separate, in others they are joined together. 
In a mass of columns in the face of the tableland towards 
Sirur the columns are of different lengths, but spring from the same 
level, As the wash of monsoon torrents haa sw^pt away more 



Deccan,] 



POONA. 



II 



sections or articnlations di the outer colmnns than of the inner 
, columns, their tops form a natural flight of steps. The columns of 
this tableland are- for the most part upright, but some of them stand 
at various angles, usually at 45°. Near the village of Karde they lean 
from the east and west towards a central' upright mass. These are 
aboutfourteenfeetinlengthandarenotjointed. Inamassof columns 
facing the west, two miles south of the cavalry lines at Sirur, some 
are bent and not jointed. At Khadkdla, thirty miles north-west 
of Poena, between Talegaon and Lohogad, a cutting for the Bor 
pass road shows a pile of numerous small horizontal columns. 
Imperfect columns occur in the rocky banks of a stream two or three 
hundred yards west of the village of Yevat. On the right bank they 
are so marked and so strange that the people worship them and paint 
them with red lead. Columns also occur in the watercourses near 
Kadus, about ten miles west of Khed. The basalt is bluish grey and 
compact, vitrious in hue, and sharp in fracture. The rocky banks 
of the Kukdi at Jd,mbut in Sirur about twenty-six miles south-east 
of Junnar, show a strong tendency to form large columns. At the 
west end of Sinhgad top, aboat 4000 feet above the sea, is a sheet 
of rock paved with five-cornered slabs, no doubt the ends of basalt 
columns. A pavement of basalt columns occurs also in the hill-fort 
of Harishchandragad about seventy miles north of Sinhgad ; in the 
bed of the Mula river at Gorgaon; and in a scarp which runs into 
'the Konkan about three miles from the Nana pass. 

Another characteristic feature of the Poona rocks is the general 
diffusion of basalt balls, rounded or oval masses of compact basalt 
with concentric layers like the coats of an onion. These concretions 
are usually found at the base of hills, buried in the rubbish of 
decomposing Strata. But on the hill behind the rifle range at Poona 
they are scattered over a considerable area of tableland. They are 
abundant along, the edge of the plateau near PAbal in the west of 
Sirur, and fine specimens occur near the village of Khadkdla, thirty 
miles north-west of Poona, along with the level basaltic columns 
which have been already noticed.^ 

The basaltic dikes of the district are all upright, and do not seem 
to have caused any disturbance or dislocation in the strata of basalt 
and amygdaloid through, which they have passed. Two dikes run 
obliquely across the Indrdyani valley, thirty -five miles north-west of 
Poona, and intersect each other. They are about four feet thick and 
cut through amygdaloidal strata. A prismatic disposition is generally 
observable in the fracture, and from one of them was dbtained a 
square prism which lay at right angles to the dike.' The Bor paSs road, 
which runs through this valley to Panvel, is frequently crossed hf 
ridges which are presumed to be the outcrops of dikes. A dike may be 
seen itom the Poona cantonments on the southern slope of an insulated 



Chapter I. 
Description. 

Geology. 
Cohinmar Basalta. 



Basalt Ballsi 



Basalt Dikes, 



^ In making the i^utting, the balls were either left projecting or altogether removed. 
The vertical sections of the nuclei in which these baJls were embedded show ten to 
fifteen concentric layers of friable grey stone which in some instances is found 
to affect the needle. Specimens of i£e nuclei, were compared with a mass brought 
from the Solfatara at Naples and <juite similar in aspeet, ebldur, hardness aad trbi^t.;. 
.Geological Papers on Western India, 98. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



12 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter I. 

Description. 

Geology. 
Basali Dikes. 



Iron-Clay. 



hill near the villages of Bosri and Dighi, seven and a half miles 
north of Poona, It is about four feet thick, has a transverse prismatic 
fracture, is compact, and runs from the bottom to the top of the south 
face of the hill, but does not show on the north slope. A similar dike 
occurs in a hill at Mabre, twenty miles north-west of Poona. The 
finest specimen is the dike which runs vertically from east to west 
through the hill-fort of Harishehandragad. It is first seen about 
4000 feet below the crest ofthe scarp of six or seven feet thick oil 
the way up the hill from Kirishvar on the south-east. It crosses 
the path and its prismatic fractures at right angles to its planes 
-form a few natural steps. It can be traced for about 800 feet of 
perpendicular height. On the top of the hill, within the fort^ 
about a mile to the westward, it appears at intervals cutting through 
basaltic and amygdaloidal strata; It passes west, but whether it 
appears on the western scarp is not" known. 

The next distinctive feature is the occurrence of layers of red 
iron-clay which underlie thick strata of basalt or amygdaloid, The 
rock makes a red streak on paper, aind does not affect the needle. 
It is found crumbled to dust near the basaltic columns at Sirur. ' In 
the 'scarps of the hill-fort of Harishehandragad and in Shivner near 
Junnar, famous for its rock-cut caves, red clay is found compact and 
homogeneous, and is, ' in fact, an earthy jasper. In these localities 
it lies under 300 to 600 feet of basalt. , In Harishehandragad it is 
about three feet thick j in Shivner one foot. 

Singular heaps of rocks and stones, twenty to seventy feet in 
diameter and about the same in height, occur at Patas in Bhim- 
thadi. These are found only in the open Deccan, never in the western 
hilly tracts. Especially in the western hilly tracts large areas of bare 
sheet-rock occur. Perhaps the most remarkable examples are at 
Ldkangaon about twenty miles from Junnar, in the Ghod valley, 
and in Harishehandragad. This sheet-rock abounds with narrow 
vertical veins of quartz and chalcedony. When of suflB.cient thick- 
ness, the vein splits in the centre, parallel to the surface of its 
walls, the interior being drusy with quartz crystals. The walls 
consist of layers of chalcedony, cachalong, hornstone, and semi-opal. 
These veins supply the majority of the siliceous minerals which are 
so abundantly strewed over the Deccan. 

The structure and mineral composition of the Poona trap vary 
exceedingly within short distances, even in the same stratum. Still 
the predominant character does not disappear, although the basalt 
in a continuous bed may pass from close-grained compact and almost 
black to gray amygdaloidal and externally decomposing. The same 
observation applies to the amygdaloids. A i^ariety of compact basalt 
of an intense dark colour is susceptible of a brilliailt polish. It is of 
great weight and remarkable hardness. The natives use it t6 work 
into idols, for pedestals to the wooden columns iii their mansions, 
and for inscription slabs. The bulls of the size of life, always 
placed before Shiv's temples, are cut out of this variety at the 
renowned Bholeshvar. Some of the pedestals in the gateway of the 
Md,nkeshvar . palace at Tembhurni in the adjoining Karm^la sub- 
division of ShoMpur shine like mirrors. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



13 



In Harishcliandragad quartz amygdaloid prevails. A small 
cellular and pisiform variety is found in the cave temples of K^la, 
Junnar, and the Nanaglid,t, all of which are excavated in basaltic 
or gimygdaloidal strata, and some of the sculptured figures appear 
as if marked by small-pox. The stilbite or heulandite amygdaloid 
is of very common occurrence. The stone usually selected for 
building is of various shades of gray or bluish grey, as hornblende 
disseminated in very small crystals works much easier than some 
of the compactor basalts and takes a good polish. The temple of 
Bholeshvar," with its innumerable figures and laboured ornaments 
in deep relief, is built .of this variety of trap, which is,- in fact, 
a green-stone although less crystalline than the European green- 
stone. One variety which is sometimes carelessly used for building 
has the structure and much of the external character of the last,' 
but in weathering peels off and the buildings fall to ruin. Such is 
the case with the great temple in Harishchandragad. 

Two other remarkable rocks have not been noticed by authors on 
European geology. The first is an amygdaloid in which compact 
stilbite is imbedded in a vermicular form. One of its localities is 
the insulated hiU. on which stands the temple of Parvati about a mile 
to the south of the city of Pooha. The otiier rock occurs as a thick 
stratum of amygdaloid at the height of 4000 feet in the hiU-forts of 
Harishchandragad and Purandhar, and at the height of 1800 feet 
in the bed of the Ghod river near Sirur. The matrix resembles that 
of other amygdaloids, but the mineral imbedded is a glassy felspar 
in tables resembling cleavelandite crossing each other at various 
angles and so abundant as to form one-half of the mass. 
; ; In digging wfeUs in the Poona cahtonment, splendid specimens of 
; ichthyophthalmite have been found and in and near the Mula-Mutha 
fine specimens of heliotrope and coloured quartz occur. Common 
salt aiid carbonate of soda are also recorded from several parts of the 
district. Some account of the deposits is given under minerals in 
the Production Chapter. 

Its height above the sea, its freedom from alluvial deposits, and the 
prevalence of westerly breezes, make the . climate of Poona dry and 
invigorating and better suited to European constitutions than most 
Indian climates. The air is lighter, the cold more bracing, and the 
heat less oppressive than in most parts of Western or Southern India. 

The Poona year may be divided into three seasons : the cold 
season from November to February,, the hot season from March to 
June, and the wet season from June to October. The cold season 
begins in November and ends in February. The coldest month is 
January which in 1872 showed a mean temperature of 70°. Cold 
land winds prevail with sea breezes mostly after sun-down. 

The hot season may be said to begin in the middle of March and 
end in June, though the hot winds and the chief characteristics ^ of 
the hot weather are over by the middle of May. At the beginning 
of the hot weather the wind. blows from the east in the morning 
and from the west in the afternoon. In the latter part of the hot 
weather, except during thunderstorms, there is no easterly or land 
wind. The sea breeze sets in about three in the afternoon and 



Chapter I. 

Description. 

Geology. 



Minerals. 



Natural Salts. 



Climate. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



14 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter I. 

Description. 

Climate. 
Seasons. 



MainfaU. 



somewhat earlier in the extreme west. At the beginning- of the hot 
weather the temperature rises suddenly with scorching variable 
winds from the north-west and west in the centre of the district, 
and from tbe east in the east of the district. Towards the end of 
April the temperatui'e at Poona sometimes rises over 100°, the 
sun's rays being then nearly vertical for weeks. Thunderstorms 
occasionally break the heat but they are generally accompanied 
by cloudy and sultry weather.^ During the hot season the air is 
darkened by a dry haze. April and May, though the hottest, are 
not the dryest months. The sun beating on the ocean in the 
middle of March raises large masses of vapour which continue to 
increase as the sun passes north. The westerly winds carry this 
vapour across the Konkan and over the west Deccan. In the 
western hills, from about the tenth of May, "the vapour begins 
to condense in the cool of the evening in heavy dews and 
refreshing mists, and over the centre and east it gathers in great 
thunderclouds. In the east and centre of the district, sometimes 
early in May, but as a rule not till towards the close of the month, 
after three or fonr oppressive days^ in the afternoon clouds gather 
in the east in great masses, and witii a strong blast from the north- 
east drive west with thunder and hea^y rain. 

Over the whole district the chief supply of rain iff from the south- 
west monsoon which begins about the middle of June and lasts till 
the end of September. The returns show such marked variations 
from year to year at the different rain stations and such great 
differences in the average fall at stations at no great distance apart, 
that it is difl5cult to divide' the district according to its rainfall.* 



' The iollowing acconfit of a storm which broke over Poona on the 22nd of May 
1847 is taken from the Transactions of the Bombay Oeographical Society, IX. 191, 
192 : There had been a thunderstorm the evening before, but on the 22nd the sky 
was clear though the air was hot and heavy. . At three in the afternoon a dense 
mass of clouds rose in the south-east and jiassed to the north-west bearing about 
north-east from the cantonment. At half -past four the sky was still clear in the 
west, but in the east an arch of cumulus clouds had gathered, and, though the air was 
deadly still, the clouds moved Jiapidly west shrouding the. country in gloom with 
unceasing lightning and thunder. Suddenly the stillness of the air was broken by a 
violent gust from the south-west as if the air was sucked in by the coming tempest 
whose front was now high overhead hurrying in a rapid scud to the west. . With the 
first movement of the air came a heavy fall of rain and hailstones. This lasted for ten 
minutes. Then followed a short cahn during which heavy masses of wild and broken 
clouds kept rolling from the north-east and drifting westward overhead. Ten or twelve 
minutes after the gust from the south-west had passed, thewind began anew with great 
force veering from the north to the north-east, then to the south-east, and flnaUjr in 
about twenty minutes turning back to the south-west. During these changes of wind 
the rain fell in torrents with very large hailstones so close that six or eight could be 
counted on a square foot. By a quarter to six the storm seemed nearly spent, and the 
sky to the east was clearing. In one hour an inch and a half of fain had fallen. Many 
of the hailstones were of the size of a musket-bSU or a pigeon's egg, the largest falling 
about the middle of the storm when the wind was blowing from the north and north- 
east. The shape of almost all was oblong and their structure concentric layers of frozen 
water. One was found an inch in diameter, and it must have lost some bulk in 
passing through the hot air near the surface of the earth. At the beginning of the 
itorm the thermometer was at 90° in the house, in half an hour it went down to 78°, 
and when the storm was over it stood at 72°. The dew_ point had been 74° in the 
- morning, it rose to 78° by four, and again fell to 68°. By six the tempestuous clouds 
had passed, but still hung across the western half of the heavens with unceasing 
lightning and thunder. 

» The rain returns must be received wlfhoautioii. In some stations little more than 
a. beginning of accurate registration has been made. 



Deccaa.] 



POONA. 



15 



During the five years ending 1881 tlie average rainfall at Bdrdjnati 
and at Inddpur in the extreme east has been as high as the fall in 
most parts of the district except close to the Sahy^dris. But the 
returns for a long series of years'show that, though in some seasons 
it is suflBcient and occasionally abundant, the fall in the east of the 
district is uncertain. This supports the usual local division of the 
district into three belts, a western belt varying from about twelve 
miles in breadth in the north to about twenty -four in the south, 
whose eastern limit passes through Junnar, Ghode, Khed, Talegaon- 
Dd,bhdde, and Singhad, with a heavy and certain rainfall ; a central 
belt, with an avei-age breadth of about twenty miles, the eastern' 
limit passing through Ana, Bela, P^bal, Loni, Sdsvad, Jejuri, and 
Valhi, with a moderate but regular rainfall ; and the long tongiie of 
land that stretches east from this line to Ind4pur with an uncertain 
and irregular rainfall. 

For the twenty-one years ending 1881 returns are available for 
KhadkAla and Paud in the western belt ; for Junnar, Ghoda, Khed, 
Poena, and Sdsvad in the central belt ; and for Sirur, Supa, 
Bar£mati, and Inddpur in tbe eastern belt. In the western belt, at 
'Khadkd.la, which is ajbout eleven miles east of the Sahyddris and 
twenty-five miles north-west of Poena, during the ten years ending 
1870 the fall varied from 95 inches in 1863 to 12 inches in 1861 
and averaged about 60 inches, and during the eleven years ending 
1881 it varied from 116 inches in 1875 to 36 inches in 1880 and 
averaged 60 inches j and Paud, which is about fifteen miles east 
of the Sahyddris and fifteen miles west of Poena, .during the 
ten years ending _1870 varied from 77 inches in 1861 to 36 
inches in 1867 and averaged 52 inches, and during the eleven 
years ending 1881 varied from 88 inches in 1875 to 37 in 1877 
and averaged 54 inches. In the central belt, Junnar, which is 
about twelve miles east of the Sahyadris and forty-five north of 
Poena, during the ten years ending 1870 varied from 10 inches 
in 1862 to 35 inches in 1861 and averaged 22 inches, and during 
the eleven years ending 1881 varied from 13 inches in 1873 to 39 
in 1878 and averaged 22 inches ; Ghoda, which is eighteen miles 
; from the Sahyadris and thirty-five north of Poona, during the ten 
years ending 1870 varied from 13 inches in 1862 to 39 in 1861 and 
averaged 23 inqhes, and during the eleven years ending 1881 varied 
from 12 inches in 1872 to 36 in 1878 and averaged 23 inches ; Khed, 
. which is about twenty-five miles east of the Sahyadris and twenty- 
five north of Poona, during the ten years ending 1870 varied from 
13 inches in 1864 to 33 in 1870 and avelfaged 22 inches, and during 
the eleyen_years ending 1881 varied from 15 inches in 1872 to 32 
in 1878 and averaged 23 inches; Poona, which is about thirty-two 
miles east of the Sahyadris, during the ten years ending 1870 .fipild 
from 17 inches in 1864 to 47 in 1861 and averaged 29 inches,'and 
during the eleven, years ending 1881 varied from 15 inches in 1876 
to 38 in ] 875 and averaged 27 inches j and Sasvad, which is about 
thirty miles east of the Sahyddris and fifteen south-east of Poona, 
during the ten years ending 1870 varied from 2 inches in 1863 to 
34 in 1869 and averaged 14 inches, and during the eleven years 
ending 1881 varied from 15 inches in 1880 to 38 in 1878 and 



Chafer I. 

Description. 

Climate.. 
Rainfall. 



[Bombay Gazetteer 



16 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter I. 

Description. 

Climate. 
■ Rainfall. 



Source of Bam 
Supply. 



averaged 21 inches. In the eastern belt, Sirur, which is aboui 
sixty-two miles east of the Sahyddris and thirty-six miles north- 
east of Poona, during the ten years ending 18/0 varied from IC 
inches in 1862 to 31 in 1861 and averaged 19 inches, and during 
the eleven years ending 1881 varied from 11 inches in 1876 to 24 
in 1878 and averaged 17 inches; Siipa, which is about fifty-five 
miles east of the Sahyadris and about thirty-five miles south-east ol 
Poona/ during the ten years ending 1870 varied from 5 inches in 
1863 and 1865 to 30 in 1861 and averaged 10 inches/ and^during 
the eleven years ending 1881 varied from 6 inches in 1876 to 26 in 
1878 and averaged 17 inches; Bdr^mati, which is about sixty 
mil^s east of the SahyMris and fifty south-east of Poona^ during 
the ten years ending 1870 varied from 2 inches in 1861 to 27 in 
1869 and averaged 16 inches, and in the eleven years ending 1881 
varied from 8 inches in 1876 to 29 in 1878 and averaged 19 inphes ; 
and Indapur, which is about ninety miles east of the Sahyi,dris and 
twenty-five south-east of Poona, during the ten years ending 1870 
varied from 3 inches in 1863 to 26 inches in 1869 and, averaged 13 
inches, and in the eleven years ending 1881 varied from 5 inches in 
1876 to 29 inches in 1878 and averaged 21 inches. 
The following are the details : 







Poona Rain Rbtviins, 1861 - 


1881. 












From 
























Station. 


THE , 

Sahya 

DEIS. 


1861. 


1S62. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


1867. 


1868. 


1869. 


1870. 


TBN 

TBABB. 




Miles. 


In. 


Tn. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In, 


In. 1 


EhadkSJa 


11 


' 12 


63 


95 


,60 


66 


66 


60 


77 


67 


66 


60 


Junnar 


12 


35 


10 


17 


16 


20 


24 


26 


25 


26' 


30 


22 1 


Paud 


IS 


77 


S3 


56 


44 


46 


69 


.S« 


61 


39 


61 


62 


Ghoda 


18 


39 


IS 


16 


14 


21 


24 


26 


23 


27 


29 


23 


Khed 


24 


28 


21 


16 


IS 


17 


20 


21 


26 


29 


33 


22 


SSsvad : 


30 


4 


,3 


2 


2 


4 


2B . 


21 


17 


34 


30 


11 


Poona 


32 


47 


27 


23 


17 


31 


19 


27 


31 


29 


41 


29 


Supa 


62 


80- 


14 


5 


8 


5 


6 


21 


10 


23 


26 


10 


BSr&mati 


62 


2 












21 


14 


27 


21 


16 


Sirar 


66 


31 


10 


17 


15 


• 21 


18 


20 


14 


18 


26 


19 


Indapur 


90 


23 


12 


3 


10 


6 


6 


20 


8 


26 


24 


13 



Statiok. 


1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1876. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


Elbvbm 

TEARS. 




In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. ' 


In. 


In. 


In. 


Khadk&la 


66 


79 


68 


92 


116 


77 


'51 


73 


57 


36 


• 68 


60 


Junnar 


27 


16 


13 


26 


34 


17 


17 


39 


36 


18 


22 


22 


Paud 


46 


61 


60 


67 


88 


61 


37 


66 


66 


46 ' 


47 


54 


Ghoda 


22 


12 


13 


28 


36 


17 


21 


36 


35 


16 


24 


23 


Khed 


24 


15 


22 


29 


31 


18 


17 


32 


39 


22 


22 


23 


Sasrad 


21 


15 


18 


31 


22 


18 


19 


88 


24 


15. 


19 


21 


Poona 


27 


22 


32 


38 


38 


16 


20 


33 


.H 


20 


26 


27 


Supa 


22 


19 


14 


26 


16 


6 


15 


26 


20 


16 


12 


17 '. 


BarSmati 


17 


21 


10 


26 


10 


8 


27 


29 


26 


19 


19 


19 


Sivur 


17 


22 


18 


15 


16 


11 


15 


24 


17 


19 


19 


17 


Indapur 


16 


26 


14 


27 


21 


5 


28^ 


29 


21 


18 


26 


21 



Special returns compiled by Mr. Moore, the Collector of Poona, foi 
the five years ending 1882, separate the three sources of rain supply 
the easterly thunderstorms in May, the south-west rain betweei 
June and the end of September, and rain from the northtcast ii 
October at the beginning of the north-east monsoon. The average 
supply from the easterly thund§rstoms in May varied' from 2'7t 



Seccan.] 



POONA. 



17 



in Poona to '1"06 at Khadkala and to 0*50 atLon^vla on the crest of 
tlie Sahyddris ; the south-west supply varied from 138'80 at Lonavla 
and 4991 at Khadkala to 9'83 at Kedgaon about thirty niiles east 
6i Poona ; and the October north-east supply varied from 5'96 inches 
at BdrAmati about fifty miles south-east of Poona, to 2'82 inches at 
Kdsurdi about twenty-four miles east of Poona.'^ These returns, 
which are fronl twenty stations/ seem to show that local causes, 
probably the neighbourhood of hiUs and rivers, greatly modify the 
general influences which would make the supply of south-west rain 
decline with, the increasing distance from the western .limit of the 
district and would make the east and north-east supplies decline with 
increasing distance from the east of the district. As regards the 
early or eastern rainfall in May, of the western stations Eonavla is 20 
or last in the list, KhadkAla is 19, and Paud 16 ; of the central 
stations Junnar is 14, Khadakvasla 12, Khed 10, Jejuri 9, Sisvad 4, 
Talegaon-Dabhade 2, and Poona 1 j and of the eastern stations 
Kasurdi is 18, Talegaon-Dhamdhere 17, Sirur 15, Indapur 13, 
Supa 11, Patas 8, Kedgaon 7, Bdrd,mati 6, Sirsuphal 5, and tJruli 3. 
As regards the south-west rainfall, of the western stations, Londvla is 
1, Khadkala 2, and Paud 8 ; of th^ central stations, Talegaon-Ddbhdde 
is 4, Khadakvasla 5, Junnar 6, Poona 7, Khed 8, Jejuri 10, and 
.Sasvad 12 ; and of the eastern stations, Inddpur is 9, Bdramati 11, 
P&tas 13, Sirur 14, Sirsuphal 16, Talegaon-Dham^ere 16, Supa 17, 
Uruli 18, Kasurdi 19 ; and Kedgaon 20. As regards the north- 
east October rain, of the western stations, Londvla is 3, Khadkdla 7, 
and Paud 17 j of the central stations, Poona is 5, Khadakvasla 6, 
Jejuri 10, Khed 12, Sasvad 13, Talegaon-DabhMe 16, and Junnar 19 ; 
and of the eastern stations, Bdrdmati is 1, Indapur 2, Sirur 4, 
:iEedgaon 8, Supa 9, Patas 11, Sirsuphal 14, Talegaon-Dhamdhera 
M5, UruH 18, and Kasurdi 20. The details are : 

Poona Main RETrrRnia^ 







1 


South-west 


Noeth-East 








East Bain. 


Bain. 


Bain. 






Station. 





- 






Total. | 




Mat. 


Jdbeto 


October to 












September. 


November. 








In. 


Ot. 


In. Ct. 


In. a. 


In. 


Ct. 


Lonivla 





60 


138 80 


6 64 


144 


94 


Khadkala 


1 


6 


49 91 


4 20 


55 


17 


Paud 


1 


26 


48 2 


3 9 


52 


36 


Talegaon-D&bMde 


2 


66 


31 2B 


3 27 


37 


18 


Ebadakv&sla 


1 


S4 


22 87 


4 23 


28 


64 


Foona 


2 


79 


19 20 


4 29 


26 


23 


Junnar 


1 


35 


21- 60 


2 97 


'■ 25 


92 


BSramati 


2 


15 


16 64 


B 96 


24 


76 


Ind&par 

Khed 


1 


60 


17 21 


B 77 


24 


48 


1 


69 


18 81 


3 96 


24 


36 


Jejuri 


2 


S 


17 20 


4 1 


23 


26 


S&svad 


2 


31 


16 Il- 


3 87 


22 


es. 


Pitas 


2 


6 


ls 1 


3 97 


22 


i 


Sirur 


1 


26 


14 24 


4 47 


19 


97 


Sirsuphal 


2 


83 


13 70 


3 61 


19 


64 


Supa 


1 


68 


12 49 


4 9 


18 


16 


UruU 


2 


47 


11 68 


3 3 


17 


8 


Talegaon-Dhamdhere 


1 


10 


13 30 


3 28 


17 


68' 


Kedgaon 


2 


11 


9 83 


4 19 


16 


13 


Kasurdi ..'. 


1 


B 


11 20 


2 82. 


IS 


11 



Chapter I. 

Description. 

Climate. 
Source of Main 



'':'- In the city of Poona during the twenty-six years ending 1881 the 
yearly rainfall has varied from 20 to 57 and averaged 29 inches. The 
details are : 



Poona Sainfall. 



[Bombay Gazeti 



Chapter I. 

Description. 

Climate. 
Poona Rainfall, 



TcTTvperature. 



18 



DISTEICTS. 



Poona City Yearly RAinrALLt 1856-1831, 



Tbab. 


Inches. 


Yeae. 


Inches. 


Tbaji. 


Inches. 


Tbab. 


Inches. 


1866 


21 


1863 


26 


1870 


37 


1877 . ... 
1878 


20 


1857 


23 


1864 


22 


1871 


28 


33 


1858 




1865 


84 


1872 


22 


1879 


34 


1859 


41 


18«6 


23 


1878 


26 


1880 


20 


1860 


89 


1867 


30 


1874 


39 


1881 


2f 


1861 


67 


1868 


38 


1876 


... 






1862 


33 


1869 


27 


1876 


•■■ , 







Information^ compiled by Mr. Chambers sbows tbatln Poona ci 
durijtig tie seventeen years ending 1872, the average. montHy fal 
rain varied from 0-29 in December to 6"89 in J.uly. The details are 

PooifA CiTT MosTBLT Rainfaix, 1856-187Z. 



MOSTH. 


Inches. 


Month. 


Inches. 


M0H3?H. 


Ihohea. 


Month. 


Inches. 


January ... 
Februaxy... 
March ... 


'43 
■06 
■31 


AprU ... 

May 
June 


■66 
1^66 
6-19 


July 

August ... 
.September. 


6-89 
5^09 
4-66 


October . ... 
Noyember.. 
December.. 


6^S4 

' -62 . 

■29- 



During the same period the average number of rain days var 
from 0'2 in February to 20"1 in July. The details are : 

PoohtaOity Bain Days, 1856- 187B. 



"Month. 


Days. 


Month. 


Days. 


MOUTH. 


Days. 


Month. 


Days. 


January ... 
February... 
March ... 


0-6 
0'2 
1-0 


April 
May 
Juna 


1^5 
3^6 
14 ^2 


July 

August ... 
September. 


20-1 
19^8 
lO'l 


October ... 
November.. 
December... 


7-4 
1^7 
0-9 



The greatest fall recorded in any one day in each month var 
from 7"90 inches in October to 0'66 inches in February .^ 1 
details are : 

Poona City Objbatest Sain Da rs, 1856 ■ 187.S. 



Month. 


Inches. 


Month. 


Inches. 


Month. 


Inches. 


Month. 


Inches. 


January ... 
February... 
March ... 


4^68 
■66 

■90 


April 

May 

June 


2-10 
3-16 
5-00 


July 

Augrust ... 
September. 


8-66 
2-80 
3 ■82 


October ... 
November. 
December.. 


7-90 
1^60 
1^08 



The two daily observations taken at the Poona observatory 
9-30 A.M. and 3-30 p.m. show for the nineteen years ending 187^ 
mean temperature of 79 "5°. The greatest excess of temperature i 
1-0° in 1869 and the greatest decrease was 1-0° in 1861. The deti 
are : 



1 These details at rainfall and temperature (18-^28) are taken from Cbaml 
Meteorology of the Bombay Presidency, 131-167, 



Decciui.] 



POONA. 



19 



PooNA. City Mean Tsxperatubm, 1856-1874. 







Above 






Above 






Above 


Tbar. 


Mean. 


General 
Metm. 


YUAB, 


Mean. 


General 
Mean. 


Ybak. 


Mew. 


General 
Mean. 


1856 ... 


80-1 


+0-8 


1863 ... 


78-7 


-0-8 


1870 ... 


. 79-2 


-0-s- 


1867 ... 


791 


-0-4 


1864 ... 


78-7 


-0-8 


1871 ... 


79-9 


+0-4 


1858 ... 






1866 ... 


79 8 


+n-S 


1872 ... 


80-2 


+0-7 


18S9 ... 


80-S 


+0-8 


1866 ... 


80-8 


+0-5 


1873 ... 


79-7 


+0-2 


1860 ... 


, 79-6 


+0-1 


186T ... 


79-6 


+0-1 


1874 ... 


78-8 


-0-7 


1861 ... 


78-5 


-1-0 


1868 ... 


80-S 


+0-8 








1862 ... 


79-0 


-0-5 


1869 ... 


80-5 


+1-0 









At the Poona observatory, which is in the hospital building to the 
south of the Vanavdi barracks, besides rainfall, thermometer and 
barometer readings have been recorded since 1851. The observa- 
tions are under the charge of the senior medical officer. The 
record comprises two sets of observations made every day at 
9-30 A.M. and at S'-SO p.m.j and a complete set of twenty-four hourly 
(observations for one day in every month. The instruments and 
phenomena noted at each observation include the barometer, dry and 
wet bulb, thermometers, the direction of the wind, the cloudiuess, and 
the rainfall. Once a day the maximum and miaimum thermometer 
readingsinthe shade, the maximum thermometer readings exposed to 
the sun'srays at day time, and the minimum thermometer readings laid 
upon grass exposed to the sky at night are recorded. The observa- 
tions are registered on printed forms which when filled are forward- 
ed by the head of the medical department to the Superintendent of 
the Coldba Observatory in Bombay where the calculations are checked 
and the results compiled. Once a year the registers and compilation 
are sent by the Superintendent to Governmedt to be forwarded to Her 
Majesty's Secretary of State for India. The Poona observatory has 
latticed doors at the north and south ends to admit the air. The 
thermometers are fixed on horizontal blocks of wood projecting 
from the wall with their bulbs about 1^ inches off the wall and 
about five feet from the ground. 

. . The adopted monthly and annual mean temperatures of the three 
Stations of Poona, Kirkeey and Purandhar, and the ranges between 
the greatest and least monthly means, are shown in the follo-^^ing 
table: 

Poona. Tsxperatubs. 



Station. 


a 


1 


1 


.■3 


1 


§ 

78-9 




1 


ID 
. DO ' 


1 

o 


1 
1 


:| 


1^ 


Range. 


Poona 


71-i 


76-0 


80-5 


84-6 


83-7 


75-6 


74-4 


76-0 


76-6 


74-6 


71-7 


76-8 


13-2 


Eirkee ... 


71-0 


750 


81-0 


81 '5 


82-5 


78-5 


77-0 


76-0 


75-0 


80-0 


77-0 


71-0 


77-0 


11-5 


Pnrandhar.. 


67-1 


71-7 


76-1 


77-0 


72-8 


70-3 


67 '3 


65-9 


67-2 


69-a 


67-7 


64-2 


69-7 


12'6 



. An examination of the temperature returns in the city of Poona 
for the nineteen years ending 1874 shows that during four months 
in the year, March April May and June, the temperature was above, 
and that during the eight rainy months the temperature was below 
the mean. 



Chapter I. 
Deseription. 

Climate. 



20 



DISTRICTS. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



Chapter I. 
■Description. 

Climate. • 



Adopting" the return corrected for the daily inequality, January ;2 
was the coldest month with an average of 5'4° below tlie mean, ■, 
December came next with 5-0°, A-ugust third with 2-4°, November 
fourth with 2-2°, September and February fifth and sixth with 
1-8° each, July seventh with 1-3°, and October eighth with 0-2°. Of 
the four hot months June is the coolest with 2'1° in excess of the 
mean ; March comes next with 3'7°, May next with 6-9°, and April is 
the hottest, being 7'8° above the mean. The details are : 
PovifA City Montmlt Tmmpebatubb, 1856-1874. 



Month. 


9-30 A.H. 

and 3-30 P.M, 


Corrected. 


-MONIS. 


9-30 A.II. 
and 3-30 p.m. 


Corrected. 


'January 
February 

March 

April 

Mw 

June 


-i-a 

—1-3 

-1-9-1 
-h8-l 
-H-6 


-1-8 
-^3•4 

+2-1 


July 

August... , ... 
September ... 
October 
November 
December 


-2-S 
-3-7 
-2-6 
-0-3 
-2-4 
-5-1 


-1-3 

-2-4 
-1-8 
-0-2 
-2-2 

-6-1 . 



The correctiona are found from the daily inequalities at the several hours in each month. They are 
the means of these inequalities lor the hours 9 A.K. and 10 A.M. and 3 p'.u. and i p.u. and are appUed 
subtractively. 

The following table shows for the! city of Poena, for each month, 
for the monsoon quarter June to August, and for the whole year, 
the excesses of the mean temperature at the several hours of the 
day above the mean temperature of the twenty-four hours ; also the 
number of complete days' observations which are generally not more " 
than one in each month of the year from which the meaiis are 
derived :. 

PoowA TxupBRATxms,! IN Local GiyiL Howrs, 18S6-1874. 



MONIH. 


6 


7 


8 


9 


,10- 


11 


12 


13 


14 IB 


16 


17 


January 


-7-6 


-7-1 


-6-1 


-3^9 


-1-0 


+2-1 


H-4-7 


-i-e-9 


-fS-1 


-1-8-7 


-1-8-3 


-1-7-0 


JFebruary 


-8-7 


-8-8 


-7-3 


-4-1 


-0-7 ■, 


-f2-6 


-f4-6 


-f«-& 


-1-8-2 


■1-8-B 


-1-8-6 


■fS-S 


March 


-8-2 


-7'7 


-6-2 


-3-5 


-0-2 


-f2-8 


+5-1 


-H-3 


+»-i 


-l-H-8 


-1-8-e 


-1-7-5 


April 


-7-7 


-fi-5 


-4-3 


-1-9 


H-l-l 


-^s■8 


-^B•2 


-I-7-9 


-f8-7 


-1-8-9 


-1-8-0 


-1-6-6 


May 


-6-6 


-5-6 


-S-9 


-1-6 


+V1 


+^6■^ 


-^6■7 


-H7-3 


-1-7-8 


-H7-9 


-1-7-8 


-1-6-1 


June 


-2-3 


-1-6 


-0-8 


-t-0-4 


-t-l-S 


■f2-7 


-1-3-5 


-I-3-8 


-t-4-1 


-1-3-6 


+i-i 


-^2-l 


July 


-1-6 


-1-4 


-0-5 


+0-2 


-H-2 


+2-0 


-h2-7 


-1-2-7 


+2-7 


■f2-6 


-f2-0 


-1-1-1 


August 


-2-1 


-1-7 


-1-1 


-0-3 


-I-0-6 


+ 1-4 


H-2-2 


-H2-7 


-1-3-1 


-fS-U 


-1-2-3 


-H-7 


September 


-3-2 


-2-6 


-1-7 


-0-4 


H-i-l 


-h2-2 


+3-2 


+4-1 


-t-4-0 


-1-8-6 


-f8-2 


-1-2-3 


October 


-5-7 


-6-3 


-4-0 


-1-6 


-^o•^ 


-)-2-6 


-K4-2 


+5-B 


-1-6-0 


H-6-0 


-1-5-6 


-1-4-4 


November 


-7-2 


-7-1 


-6-4 


-2-8 


0-0 


-(-2-8 


+5-0 


-I-5-9 


-1-6-9 


-1-6-7 


-1-6-3 


-1-6-6 


December 


-7-8 


-7-4 


-6-2 


-3-3 


-0-6 


-f2-6 


4-4-9 


+6-i 


H-V-l 


-1-7-B 


H-7-4 


+6-7 


June to 'August ... 


-2-0 


-1-6 


-0-8 


+0-1 


+ 1-2 


-H2-0 


-I-2-8 


-^3■l 


■fS-S 


-1-3-1 


-1-2-4 


-I-1-6 


Tear .. 


-6-8 


-B-2 


-4-0 ' -2-0 


-I-0-4 


-^2■5 


-1-4-3 


-t-B-sl -l-e-zl -1-6-3 


-1-6-8 


-1-4-9 





























Com- 


MaSTEt 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 





1 


2 


3 

-6-7 


4 


B 


plete 
Days. 


January ... 


-1-5-6 


+3-9 


+2-8 


+1-6 


+0-2 


-0-7 


-2-0 


-3-0 


-4-8 


-8-0 


-8-1 


-SO 


February.,. 


-^6•« 


+4-3 


+2-6 


+1-3 


+0-2 


-0-8 


-2-0 


-3-6 


-4-9 


-6-4 


-7-8 


-7-8 


20 


March ... 


+6-0 


+1-1 


+2-3 


+0-6 


-0-6 


-1-9 


-3'1 


-3-9 


.-4-7 


-5-9 


-7-1 


-7-7 


21 


April 


+4-5 


+2-1 


+0-4 


-0-6 


-1-3 


-2-3 


-3-3 


-4-4 


-5-1 


-e-0 


-7-2 


-7-6 


21 


May 


+8-6 


+1-5 


+0-7 


-1-0 


-1-6 


-2-4 


-3-8 


-4-2 


-i-8 


-6-7 


-6-6 


-6-7 


21 

2!> if 


June 


+ 0-8 


+0-1 


-0-7 


-1-2 


-1-3 


-1-6 


-1-9 


-2-0 


-2-6 


-2-8 


-Z-9 


-3-2 


July 


,+0-S 


0-0 


—0-6 


-0-8 


-0-9 


-1-2 


-1-3 


-1-4 


-1-6 


-1-7 


-1-9 


-1-8 


-^1 




+0-7 


+0-3 


-0-1 


-0-3 


-0-8 


-0-7 


-1-0 


-1-3 


-1-6 


-2-1 


-2-2 


-2-1 


September. 


+1-3 


+0-1 


--0'2 


-0-6 


—0-9 


-1-3 


-1-7 


-2-2 


-2-6 


-2-9 


-2-9 


-2-8 


^"1 


October ... 


+3-0 


+2-0 


+1-1 


+0-3 


-0-5 


-1-3 


-3-0 


-2-8 


-3-7 


-4-4 


^4-7 


-4-8 




November . 


+4-3 


+3-3 


+2-0 


+0-8 


+0-1 


-0-7 


-1-4 


-2-6 


-3-9 


-5-1 


-6-1 


-6-6 


18 % 


December . 


+6-3 


+4-3 


+2-9 


+1-8 


+0-8 


-0-2 


-1-8 


-3-2 


-4-9 


-6-6 


-7-4 


-7-9 


I 


Jv)ne to Aug. 


+,0-7 


+0-1 


-0-4 


-0-8 


--0-9 


-1-2 


-1-4 


-1-6 


-1-9 


-2-2 


-2-8 


-2-4 


Tear ... 


+3-4 


+ 2-1 


+1-0 


+ 01 


-0-6 


-1-3 


-2-1 


-2-9 


-3-8 


-4-7 


-6-4I-B-6 




























"^s^^a 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



21 



The average daily range of temperature for the year is about 
double the range for the wet months from June to August. The 
range during the cold half-year is generally large compared with the 
range of the hot and the wet half. The daily range for Poona is for 
the year 12'1° and for the wet months June to August 5 "7°. 

A comparison of the range of the mean temperatures of the 
different months for the same series of years, shows that the varia- 
tion is least 8-5° in July and August, September comes third with a 
range of 10-6°, June fourth with 12°, October fifth with 15-1°, 
November sixth with 18*4°, May seventh with 18"7°, December eighth 
with 19-3°, January ninth with 20-6°, April tenth with 20-7°, and 
February and March eleventh and twelfth with 21*2° each. The 
details are : 

Poona CiTT Daily Ransb, 1856 -187 Jf. 



' Month. 


Mean 
Maxi- 
mum. 


Mean 
Mini- 
mum. 


Range. 


Annual 
Variation 
of Eange. 


Month. 


Mean 
Maxi- 
mum. 


Mean 
Mini- 
mum. 


Bange. 


Annual 
Variation 
of liange. 


January ... 
February... 
March ... 

^f ■■::. 

June ... 
July 


81-8 
85-7 
90-9 
96-6 
94-3 
85-7 
80-3 


61-2 
64-5 
69-7 
74'9 
75-6 
73-7 
71-8 


20-6 
21-2 
21-2 
20-7 
18-7 
120 
8-5 


H-4-4 
-^5•0 
+i-Q 
-h4-5 
+2-6 
-4-2 
-7-7 


August 
September ... 
October 
November ... 
December ... 

Year... 


79-1 
80'7 
84-6 
82-9 
81-1 


70-6 
70 1 
69-6 
64-5 
61-8 


8-5 
10-6 
15-1 
18-4 
19-S 


-7-7 
-5-8 
—1-1 
+2-2 
-1-31 


85-2 


69-0 


16-2 


-, 



During the same period the highest recorded monthly mean 
temperature varied from 86*7 in September to 104'6 in May, and 
the lowest from 47'3 in December to 66"4 in June. The details are : 

Poona Oitt Hisesst and Lowbbt,Montblt Tempbratxtrb, 1856-1874. 



Mouth. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Range. 


Month. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Range. 


January ... 
February... 
March ... 
April 

May ... 
June 


88-7 
96-3 
100-8 
103-5 
104-6 
99-5 


49-4 
68-0 
66-0 
60 
66 
66-4 


89-3 
43-3 
45-6 
43-5 
38-6 
331 


July 

September '.'.'. 
October ... 
November ... 
December ... 


92-4 
87-6 
86-7 
92-3 
920 
87-6 


66-8 
64-2 
62-1 
67-4 
48-2 
47-3 


26-6 
23-4 
24-6 
S4'9 
43-8 
40-3 



For the five years ending 1881, the mean monthly thermometer 
readings at Poona show a mean maximum of 92 in May and June 

1880 and a mean minimum of 61 in December -1878, January 1879, 
and December 1880 ; at Bdramati a mean maximum of 100 in April 

1881 and a mean minimum of 60 in November and December 1879 
and in December 1881 ; at Talegaon-Ddbhd.de a mean maximpm of 
99 in April 1879 and a mean minimum of 59 in December 11878 ; at 
Sasvad a mean maximum of 94 in March 1880 and in April 1879, 
1880, and 1881, and a mean minimum of 50 in November 1879; 
at Indapur a mean maximum of 110 in May 1877 and a mean mini- 
mum of 61 in January 1 880 and in November 1879 ; at Jejuri a mean 
maximum of 99 in May 1877 and April 1880 and a mean minimum 
of 62 in November and December 1879 and in January 1880; and 
at Talegaon-Dhamdhere a mean maximum of 98 in May 1879 and a 
mean minimum of 52 in December 1881. The details are i 



Chapter X 

J)eB(;riptioii> 

Climate. 
Temperatwre. 



[Bomlbay Gazetteer, 



22 



Chapter I. 
Description. 

Climate. 
Tempm-aHre, 



DISTRICTS. 

PoosA DisiRiai Tembuoxetbu RsAmms, W7-1881. 



SlATIOir. 


January. 


Pobniary. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 1 




























Max. 


Mn. 


Max. 


MiTV 


Max. 


Mm. 


Ma,x. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Poona. 


























1877 ... s.. „ 


■ 76 


64 


78 


63 


90 


74 


86 


74 


91 


78 


86 


72 


1878 


77 


68 


83 


68 


90 


75 


89 


78 


91 


76 


91 


73 


1879 


69 


61 


70 


63 


83 


67 


90 


-77 


90 


74 


81 


73. 


1880 


69 


69 


69 


67 


90 


62 


91 


78 


92. 


74 


92 


74 


1881 


66 


68 


68 


64 


72- 


62 


88 


66 


88 


68 






Bdr&maU. 


























1S77 


84 


61 


88 


62 


93 


72 


96 


78 


97 


80 


92- 


> 


1878 ... 
















... 










1879 


82, 


ei 


8S 


68 


95 


74 


96 


■ 82 


98 


80 


88 


. 78 


1880 


80 


62 


85 


64 


96 


74 


98 


83 


98 


84 


89 


78 


1881 


81 


61 


86 


64 


91 


71 


100 


80 


59 


82 


94 


77 


TaUgaon-Ddihdde. 


























1877 


75 


61 


85 


65 






92 


80 


98 


-, 78 


90 


73 


1878 .. 


83 


65 


88 


66 


98 


78 


96 


:80 


94 - 


• 79 


97 


:78 .■ 


1879 .„ 


S3 


69 


84 


66 


97 


'66 


99 


^ 


98 


76 


97 


74 


1880 ..". 


79 


61 


86 


59 


.' 96 


70 


96 


iB 


• 96 


76 


90 


74 


1881 ... 


81 


61 


90 


62 


.?8 


68 


98 


Ti 


' 98 


79 


-96 


76 


Sdsvad. 


























1877 


80 


70 


82 


64 


32 


68 


88 


72 


90 


80 


86 


76 


187S 


S2 


66 


82 


64 


92 


70 


92 


74 


90 


74 


86 


70- 


1879 


79 


58 


80' 


62 


88 


66 


94' 


72 • 


92 


76 


82 


70 


1880 ... . 


83 


62 


84 


66 


94 


70 


94 


. 74 


92 


74 


86 


78 


1881 ... 


76 


88 


82 


60 


88 


66 


94 


74 


98 


76 


87 


■72 


Inddmir. 
1877 


93 


64 


-98 


65 


101- 


71 


104 


74 


110 


78 


104 


79 


1878 


9i 


64 


100 


68 


-106 


72 


107- 


78 


106 


80 


108 


81 


■ 1879 


81 


67 


84 


70 


94 


73 


97 


81 


99 


80 


89 


77 


1880 


79 


61 


89 


64 


96 


76 


97 


83 


97 


81 


94 


76 


,1881. 


76 


64 


86 


-67 


91 


72 _ 


99 


81 


98 


83 


93 


■76 


J'ejvri. 


















- 








1877 


83 


, 67 


87 


66 


91 


76 


95 


80 


99 


80 


94 - 


78 


1878 


82 


65 


90 


72 


98 


76 


98 


82 


97 


80 


94 


76 


1879 


84 


64 


86 


76 


95 


73 


97 


80 


98 


76 


84 


76 


1880 


S3 . 


62 


87 


69 


98 


73 


. 99 


80 


96 


78 


91 . 


73 


1881 


79 


67 


89 


67 


90 


74 


97 


79 


99 


81 


93 


72 


Talegapn-Dham- 


























dhere. 










_ 
















1877 ... :.. ... 


78 


68 


88 


62 


90 


68 


91 


73 


94 


80 


90 


79 


1878 


80 


67 


86 


65 


97 


68 


97 


76 


97 


82 


96 


82 


1879 


82 


' 66 


87 


62 


92 


66 ■ 


97- 


78 


98 


77 


87 


76 


1880 


79 


66 


84 


66 


95 


72 


93 . 


82 


92 


80 


91 


75 


1881 


81 


67 


87- 


69 


89 


60 


92 


73 


96 .. 


81 


87 


73 



Statioh. 


July. 


August. 


Septembei. 


October. 


November. 


December. 1 






























Min. 


Max, 


Miu. 


Max. 


[Min. 


Max. 


Min, 


Max. 


Min. 




Min. 


Poona. 










\ 
















1877 ... 


82 


74 


81 


■ 72 


86 


72 


83 


72 


82 


69 


76 


69 


1878 


83 


71 


84 


71 


: 86 


71 


86 


72 


84 


-68 


79 


61 


1879 ... ... ... 


77 


71 


76 


68 


78 


70 


, 80 - 


68 


76 


64 


68 


56 


1880 


77 


63 


76 


62 


75 


63 


77 


67 


77 


66 


69 


61 


1881 














... 




... 








Bdo'dmatt. 


























1877 


88 


80 


86 


79 


87 


80 


88 


74 


86 


70 


86 


58 


1878 






... 




















1879 


86 


80 


84 


75 


86 


78 


88 


72 


88 


60 


78 , 


60 


1880 


87 


78 


84 


80 


84 


78 


89 


76 


86 


68 


81 


63 


1881 


-89. 


,78 . 


88 


78 


86 


77 


88 


Ti 


82 


61, 


■82 


60 


Tidegaon-BdbhMe. 


























1877 


80 


75 


80 


73 


83 


74 


84 


68 


84 


67 


89 


60 


1878 


86 


73 


82 


74 


82 


76 


88 


70 


88- 


68 


84 


69 


1879 


79 


74 


77 


72 


78 


72 


81 


73 


84 


60 


78 


60 


1880 


82 


72 


81 


72 


82 


74 


86 


70 


84 


69 


82 


63 


1881 


80 


7S 


78 


73 


82 


70 


83 


70 


82 


62 


82 


64 



vd 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 23 

PooifA District TasmtousTSR BEADmm, 1877- f5«l— continued. 



Station. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November, 


December. 




























Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Sdsvad. 


























1877 


81 


74 


■86 


76 


79 


74 


82 


67 


82 


62 


84 


60 


1878 


76 


70 


76 


70 


78 


70 


82 


70 


76 


64 


74 


61 


1879 


78 


74 


74 


68 


78 


68 


82 


62 


84 


^0 


72 


62 


1880 


76 


72 


76 


71 


78 


70 


82 


70 


77 


62 


75 


61 


1881 .« 


78 


72 


76 


70 


80 


70 


82 


«8 


80 


66 


74 


65 


Tnd<tBur. 


























1877 


97 


78 


99 


78 


93 


76 


89 


73 


96 


72 


96 


70 


1878 


91 


73^ 


84 


76 


87 


76 


85 


70 


83 


69 


72 


63 


1879 


86 


78 


83 


76 


85 


76 


86 


71 


82 


61 


76 


67 


1880 


84 


78 


85 


77 


85 


76 


86 


75 


82 


71 


77 


66 


1881 


87 


74 


86 


rs 


85 


76 


84 


78 


83 


64 


78 


64 


J^jmi. 


























1877 ... 


86 


T6 


84 


75 


85 


74 


82 


72 


84 


72 


83 


66 


1878 


88 


72 


81 


74 


81 


77 


85 


75 


83 


76 


84 


65 


1879 


82 


74 


81 


73 


84 


73 


86 


73 


84 


62 


79 


62 


1880 


80 


74 


81 


78 


80 


74 


86 


70 


81 


70 


79 


68 


1881 


85 


74 


79 


73 


79 


73 


86 


73 


86 


67 


79 


67 


,~!ralega(airD7uimf 


























'■ dAore. 


























1877 ... .;. ... 


91 


79 


90 


77 


86 


77 


82 


75 


81 


68 


81 


61 


1878 


86 


-78 


84 


78 


84 


78 


84 


74 


82 ■ 


62 


76 


66 


1879 


92 


77 


79 


74 


80 


74 


82 


68 


81 


- 56 


76 


66 


1880 


72 


70 


82 


70 


80 


70 


85 


78 


85 


64 


85 


62 


1881 


82 


76 






... 


... 


80 


69 


82 


68 


83 


62 



TtermoBiete* readings at Taravda jail near Poona show that in 
1881 the yearly mean temperature was 72-7. May was the hottest 
month with an average temperature of 80*2 ; April was second with 
78-5 j June was third with 7 7' 3; March, Pebrnary, and October 
came close together with a fraction over 74°-j then came September, 
August, and July, all with a fraction over 72° or very near the 
~;annual mean. Below the annual mean were November with 68'1, 
January with 66'6, and December with 66"2. The highest point 
registered was 101"5 in April and the lowest 53'4 in December." 
The daily range varied from 34*4 in March to 11 in July, The 
details are : 



Taravda Thermombtbr Bsadinos, 1881 










Bxtreme Maximum ... 


Jan. 

8S'5 


Feb. 
90-7 


Mar 
96-4 


Apl. 
101-6 


May. 
101-3 


June 

90-5 


July 
80-9 


Aug 
81-8 


Sep. 
84-1 


Oct. 


Not 


Deo, 


An- 
nual 

Means 


89 -g 


84-6 


86-7 


89-S. 


Extreme Minimum ,. 


55'1 


57 -2 


62-1 


69-2 


.71-3 


72-4 


69-9 


69-8 


68-6 


65-7 


68-1 


63-4 


64-4 


Mean Daily Maxima... 


83-9 


68-1 


93-3 


96.-8 


96-6 


85-5 


76-9 


76-9 


78-7 


86-6 


81-9 


84-1 


857 


Mean Daily Minima ... 


49-3 


Bl-8 


56'8 


60'2 


63-9 


68-2 


67-8 


68-8 


66-6 


63-2 


54-4 


48-3 


59-7 


Mean Daily Eange ... 


30-4 


33-4 


34-4 


32-3 


30-0 


18-1 


10-9 


11-6 


15-6 


28-8 


26-6 


32-3 


?4-9 


Average Means 


66-6 


74-8 


74-B 


78-6 


80-2 


77-3 


72-3 


72-6 


72-6 


74-4 


68-1 


66-2 


72-7 



The mean barometric pressure for each year of complete observa- 
tions is shown for the city of Poona in the following table, the means 
being derived from iwo daily observations made at 9-30 a.m. and 
3-30 p.M : 



Chaj>ter I. 
Description. 

Climate. 



Taravda. 



Barometric 



24' 



DISTRICTS. 



[Bombay Gazetteer* 

% 



Chapter I. 
Description. 

Climate, 

Barometric 
Pressure. 





POOA 


'A OlTY 


Barometric Pressxtre, 


1856 -t87 4. 




Teak. 


Mean, 


Excess. 


Ybak. 


Mean. 


Excess. 


Tbab. 


Mean. 


Excess. 


1856 ... 


27-892 


+ -036 


1863 ... 


'27-856 


■000 


1870 ... 


27-837 


-•019 


1867 ... 


27-878 


+ -017 


1864 ... 


27-882 


+■026 


1871 ... 


27-866 


-■001 


1868 ... 




... 


1865 ... 


27'874' 


+ •018 


1872 ... 


27-834 


-■023 


1869 ... 


27-848 


—•008 


1866 ... 


27-867 


+ -001 


1873 ... 


27-844 


-■012 


1860 ... 


27-856 


■000 


1867 ... 


27-846 


-■010 


1874 ... 


27-841 


-■016 


1861 ... 


27-847 


-■009 


1868 ... 


27-852 


-•004 






* " 


1862 ... 


27*845 


-■Oil 


1869 ... 


■27-842 


--014 









The observations during the same series of years (1856-1.874) 
show that in the six months between October and April the 
barometric pressure is over the mean and in the six months between 
April and October the pressure is below the mean. The month of 
least pressure is June with 0"145 below the mean, July is next with 
0-142, August third with 0-096, May fourth with 0-063, September 
fifth with 0-043, and April sixth with 0-013. Of the six months of 
excessive pressure October is lowest with 0*029, March next with 
0-043, February third with 0-085, November fourth with 0-102, 
January fifth with 0-118, and December highest with 0-128. The 
details are : 

POONA CiTT MOSTBLY BAROXETRIO VARIATIONS, 18S6-1874. 



Month. 


9-80 A.M. 
and 3-30 

P.M. 


Correct- 
ed. 


MOSTH. 


9-30 A-ja. 

and 3-30 

P.M. 


1 
Correct- 
ed. 


MOHTH. 


9-30 A.M^ 
and 3-30 

P.M. 


Correct- 
ed. 


January 
February 

Marcli 

April 


+ ■120 
+ ■086 
+'■039 
-■015 


+ ■118 
+ -0§6 
+ -04S, 
-•013 


May .., ... 

Jmie 

July 

August 


-•065 
-■146 
-•141 
-■092 


-•068 

-■146 
-•142 
--096 


September... 
October ... 
N.ovember... 
December ... 


-■044 
+■029 
+ ■104 
+-129 


-•04B 
+■029 
+ -102 
+ -128 



In the following table is shown for Poena, for each month and for 
the whole year, the excesses of the mean barometric pressures at the 
several hours of the day above the mean barometric pressure for the 
twenty-four hours : 

PooNA Barometric Pressure in Local Civil ffovRS, 1858 -1874. 



Month. 


6 


7 


8' 


9 . 


10 . 


11 


12 


IS 


January ... •... 


+ -008 


+ •027 


+•049 


+ ■068 


+ -068 


+ •039 


+•007 


— -025 


Februaly 


+ •009 


+ •028 


+ •048- 


+ ■066 


+ •067 


+ -040 


+ -011 


— -017 


March 


+ •011 


+ •033 


+•060 


+ ■064 


+ -062 


+•034 


+ •008 


— -024 


April 


+ '018 


+ •037 


+•064 


+ ■06^ 


+-060 


+ -032 


+ ■004 


—•024 


May 


+ •015 


+ ■030 


+ •046 ■ 


+ ■065 


+ •063 


+ ■028 


+ •002 


—022 


June 


—•004 


+ •012 


+•024' 


+ '036 


+ •035' 


+ -016 


•000 


--014 


July 


-•006 


+•006 


+•021 


+ ■087 


+•036 


+ •021 


+ •005 


—•012 


August 


— •oos 


+ -013, 


+•026 


+ •043 


+ -044 


+ '024 


+ -008 


-■008 


September 


+■005; 


+-020 


+ ■035 


-h-060 


+ -046 


+ •029 


+ -007 


—■016 


October ... ... 


+ ■008 


+ -026 


+ ■043 


-+-068 


+ -068. 


+ -031 


+ -004 


—■022 


November 


+ •008 


+ ■027 


+ ■047 


+ •065 


+ ■068 


+•036 


+-006 


-•021 


December 

Tear 

June to August ... 


+ -p04 


+ •024 


+■046 


+ •062 


+ -063 


+ -036 


+-007. 


—■020. 


+■007 


+ •024, 


+•041 


+ -066 


+ -055 


+ -031 


+ •006 


—■018 


—■004 


+ •019 


+ ■023 


+ •039 


+ -038 


+ -020 


+-004 


-■Oil 



Deccan.1 



POONA. 



25 



■PpoirjL Baboxbtric Pressure jn Local Civil Hovrs, i556-i57.4— continued. 



MOHTH. 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


Januaiy 


—■051 


—■071 


—•070 


-■049 


-•027 


—•006 


+J016 


+ 036 


Febriiaa:y 


— -048 


—■070 


—'072 


—•065 


—•034 


—•on 


+ -013 


+•086 


March 


— -053 


—■075 


—■081 


—•069 


—■035 


-■069 


+ -015 


+ ■037 


April 


—^50 


-■073 


—■076 


—■052 


—■031 


—•007 


+ ■015 


+ ■034 


May 


—•048 


—■060 


—■067 


—■046 


,—■027 


—•007 


+ -017 


+ ■035 


June 


— -030 


—■043 


—■043 


—■029 


-•013 


+ ■004 


+•020 


+■03? 

+^(ai 


July 


—•026 


—■040 


—■039 


-■026 


—•009 


+ ■006 


+ •018 


August , 


—■026 


—■040 


-■041 


—■028 


—•Oil 


+ ■004 


+ •019' 


+ ■033 


September 


-•037 


—■066 


^■066 


-■038 


— ■020 


— -001 


.+•016 


+ ■036 


October 


—■046 


-•063 


—•064 


— ^04^ 


— 024 


— 004 


+•017 


+ ■038- 


November 


—■044 


—•066 


—•065 


—■047 


-.■028 


— -006 


+ ■016 


+ ■088 


December 

Year 

June to August 


-■043 


—•065 


— •06S 


—■049 


— ;028 


— -008 


+ ■008 


+ 03S 


—■041 


—•060 


-■061 


—■043 


—■023 


— -003 


+ ■016 


+ ■036 


—■027 


—•041 


—•041 


-■028 


-■■Oil 


+ -004 


+ ■019 


+ ■032 



Chapter I. 
Description. 

£)litnate. 

Barometric 
Pressure, 





















Com- 


Month. 


22 


23 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


plete 
Days. 


January - ... 


+ ■042 


+ ■026 


+ 010 


-■006 


— ■021 


-■OSS 


-■037 


-Oil 


20 


February ... 


+ ■042 


+ ■028 


+ -015 


■000 


-■019 


-033 


-■031 


-■013 


20 


March 


+ ■045 


+ •033 


+ -019 


+ ■001 


-016 


—030 


-■029 


-■006 


21 


April 


+ ■042 


+ •029 


+ ■012 


—003 


-■019 


-■034 


-■030 


-■Oil 


21 


May ... 


+ ■040 


+ ■026 


+ ■013 


—■002 


-016 


-■030 


-■026 


-■006 


21 


June ... 


+ ■035 


+ ■025 


+ ■011 


■000 


-■013 


-■026 


-•026 


-■008 


22 


July 


+ ■031 


+ ■019 


+ ■009 


-■003 


-■015 


^•027 


-•026 


-■013 


21 


August 


+ ■034 


+ •020 


+ ■005 


-■008 


-■022 


-■035 


-•035 


-■022 


21 


September ... 


+ ■038 


+ ■024 


. + ■012 


-■002 


— ■015 


-■029 


-•027 


-■013 


20 


Odtober 


+ ■041 


+ ■028 


+ 012 


-■003 


-•016 


—030 


-029 


-■Oil 


20 


"November ... 


+ ■040 


+■023 


+ ■008 


-■008 


-•022 


-■035 


-■030' 


-■014 


18 


ijeoember ... 

Year 

June to Aug. 


+ ■043. 


+ ■028 


+ ■013 


-■002 


--015 


-■027- 


-■026 


-■018 


20 


+ ■040 


+ ■026 


+ ■012 


-■002 


—017 


-■030 


-■0;!9 


-■Oil 
-■014 


+ ■033 


+ ■021 


+ ■008 


—004 


—■017 


—029 


-■029 



The following table shows for each month of the year the greatest 
and least values of barometric pressure observed at 9-30 am. or 
3-30 P.M.: 

PooNA. GiTT MoNTBLT Range of Baroxetbio Pbessukb, 185S-1874. 



MONTH. 


Max. 


Min. 


Eange, 


Month. 


Max. 


,Min. 


Eange. 


Januai'y 
February 

March 

April 

■May 

June 


28-263 
28-229 
28 096 
38-062 
28-005 
27-953 


27-769 
27-766 
27-69.5 
27-680 
27-492 
27'352 


-494 
-473 
-401 
-432 
-613 
■601 


July 

August 

September 
October 
November ... 
December 


27^915 

27 ■967 
28^039 

28 ■086 
28-161 
28^180 


27^491 
27^678 
27^617 
. 27^614 
27-729 
37^749 


■424 

■879 

■432 . 

■472 

■432 

■431 



The values of the pressure of vapour have been calculated by 

Glaisher's Hygrometrical Tables from the observed temperatures, of 

the dry and wet bulb thermometers. The annual variations give 

high values of the vapour pressure in the hot and wet months; that 

js from May to September, and low values in the cold. months. The 

month of maximum vapour pressure is June. The mean daUy 

variation for the year shows a minimum towards the end of the, 

tiiight hours and a' maximum near the beginning of the night hours 

i'with a fairly regular progress during the intervals, The variation 

during the wet months has high values during the day and low 

i'Valnes during the night. The daily range of the wet months is very 

small compared with the daily range of the cold months. ., 

B .slO-4 



Vapour. 



[Bombay Qazettei^r, 



Chapter I. 
Description. 

Climatei 
■ Vapour. 



, Cloiidmesa, 



M>g». 



M 



DISTRICTS. 



The following table shows for the nineteen years ending 1874 the 
mean pressure of vapour from ohservations taten at 9-30 a.m, and at 
3^30 P.M.: 

POONA ClTT PRESStmS OF Vafottr, 1866-1874. 



Tbab. 


Mean. 


ExoeBS. 


Tear. 


Mean. 


Excess. 


Tear. 


Mean. 


Excess. 




In. 


In. 




In. 


In. , 




In. 


In. 


1866 ... 


•674 


■-■007 


1863 ... 


•550 


— 081 


1870 ... 


•591 


+ ■010- 


1857 ... 


•652 


-•029 


1864 ... 


•649 


—•032 


1871 ... 


■616 


+ •034 


1858 ... 






1865 ... 


■602 


+ •021 


1872 ... 


•692 


+ •010 


1809 ... 


•612 


-^■03l 


1866 ... 


•691 


+ •010 


1873 ... 


■588 


+ •007 


1860 ... 


•570 


-■on 


1867 ... 


•600 


+ •019 


1874 ... 


■591 


+0^019 


1861 ... 


•560 


-•031 


1868 ... 


■684 


+-obi 








1862 ... 


•662 


-•019 


1869 ... 


•617 


-036 









The cloudiness of the sky is estimated in tenths of the celestial 
hemisphere, the unit being one-tenth of the whole, sky. The 
following table shows the average cloudiness of the sky in each 
month of the year, from observations taken at 9-30 a.m. and 3-30 p.m. 
during the nineteen years ending 1 874 : 

PooNA City Oloudinsss, 1856-1874. 



Month. 


Tenths. 


Month. 


Tenths. 


January 

February 

March 

AprU 

May 

June 

July 

August' 

Septomber , 


2^3 
18 
2^4 
2^9 
4^0 
7-9 
8^8 
8^6 
7^2 


October 

NoTembet 

December 

May to October 

November to April ... 

Tear 


4^6 
2-8 
2 1 


6-8 
2^8 


4^6 



Cloudiness is great during the wet months and small during the 
cold months. There is a slight excess in January above the 
cloudiness of the preceding and following months. 

Dews appear in the latter part of October and last till the end of 
February. Fogs are rare in the open east. They have been seen 
in the early mornings in October, November, December, January,' * 
and February, but disappear by half-past nine. In the western hills * 
mists are common from May to^ September. In May the cool night 
air condenses the watery vapour. Sometimes mists rise from the 
Konkan and fly east with great swiftness. At other times when the 
air is still the mist stretches over the Konkan like a sea of milk, the 
tops of the hills standing out like islands. After the monsoon sets 
in early in June, except during occasional breaks, the western hills 
are shrouded in drenching mists and rain clouds. 

Colonel Sykes has recorded the folbwing observations on the 
vapour in the Deccan air. The yearly mean dew point was higher 
at 9-30 A.M. than at sunrise or at 4 p.m. From June to' December 
1826, both inclusive, the mean dew point was QQ' 75', and the mean 
temperature 77° 23', a cubic foot of air containing 7*455 grains of 
water. The lo-vyest dew point was 44° at sunrise on the 4th of 
December, a cubic foot of air containing 3 673 grains of water at a 
tewperature of 56°. The moistest month was July, when the niean 
weight of water in a cubic foot of air was 8-775 grains. This was 



Deccau.] - 



POONA. 



27 



exceeded on the 13tE of June 1827 when at 4 p.m. the highest due 
point was 76°, the temperature of the air 72°, and a cubic foot of 
air contained 10'049 grains of water; On the 4th of January 1827 
the air was remarkably, dry, the dew point at sunrise being obtained 
three degrees below the congelation of water that is at 29°, the 
temperature of the air was 62°, and a cubic foot of air contained 
2" 146 grains of water. It might be supposed that the hottest 
months in the year, March April and May, would also be the driest. 
This is not the case. Observations taken on consecutive days in 
March 1828 establish the following comparisons between Bombay 
Khanddla, and Poona. At 4 p.m. in Bombay on the lObh of March 
a cubic foot of air held 11 "205 grains of water, while at Poona at the 
same hour on the 14th of March a cubic foot of air contained only 
2"273 grains of water ; on the 11th at Khandala, 1744 feetabovethe 
sea, at 9-30 a.m. the dew point was 40° equivalent to 3"004 grains of 
water in a cubic foot of air. The occasional extreme dryness of the 
air in December, January, February, and part .of March causes much 
inconvenience. Furniture cracks, doors shrink so that locks will not 
catch, tables and book-covers warp and curl, the contents of the 
inkstand disappear, and quill-pens are useless unless kept constantly 
moist. 

The chief feature in regard to the direction of the Poona winds is 
the commonness of easterly and westerly winds and the rareness of 
winds from the north and south. The period of strongest wind is 
during April and in May till the easterly thunderstorms begin. 
The easterly winds are extremely dry and dangerous to sleep in. 
Hot winds are rare as far west as Poona; in the centre of the 
district they blow chiefly from the north-west and west in the- 
months of March and April, and in the east of the district from the 
north-ea^t and east. 

The observations of direction of wind taken at Poona.at 9-30 A.m. 
smd 3-30 p.]!!. have been grouped together in months. Each group, 
includes for each month the observations of the nineteen years* 
ending 1874. The following are the results : 

Poona Out Monthly Table of Winds, 18S6-1874^ 



Chapter T. 
Description. 

Climate.' 



DlEBCTIOH. 


9-30 A.M. 1 
























' 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept, 


Oct., 


Hot. 


Deo. 


N. 


61 


67 


Wi 


loo 


70 


10 


3 


9 


87 


66 


14 


29 


N.N.B. ... 


8 


7 


8 


4 


6 


... 






3 


14 


16 


6 


N.K 


35 


sa 


29 


31 


1» 


4 


2 


2 


7 


4ft 


61 


29 


K.N.E. ... 


20 


22 


7 


3 


1 


1 




1 




32 


61 


38 


E. 


91 


40 


30 


17 


3 


2 






3 


70 


168 


136 


E.S.E. ... 


28 


13 


6 


6 


• 1 


1 






1 


21 


47 


68 


S.E. 


84 


31 


26 


22 


2 


7 




1 


1 


66 


100 


107 


B.S.E. ... 


28 


9 


7 


8 


4 


2 




• •< 


1 


16 


16 


20 


S 


88 


16 


10 


14 


12 


6 


11 


8 


6 


21 


18 


12 


s.s.w. ... 


13 


4 


1 


2 


4 


10 




1 


6 


7 


2 


2 


S.W. 


30 


39 


30 


32 


36 


116 


112 


96 


74 


26 


9 


17 


W.S.W. ... 


17 


14 


12 


8 


28 


86 


112 


98 


61 


21 


3 




w. 


46 


66 


99 


76 


185 


166 


216 


238 


169 


64 


6 


10 


W.NiW. ... 


- 4- 


26 


85 


49 


63 


21 


27 


27 


66 


28 




16 


N.W. 


31 


77 


104 


109 


138 


43 


35 


42 


98 


«0 


1 


16 


N.N.W. ... 
Btaaa 


11 


18 


26 


80 


17 


3 


4 


9 


11 


14 


2 




627 


174 


627 


610 


627 


480 


522 


527 


610 


627 


610 


496 



Windt^ 



[Bombay Gazetteer-,: 



Chapter I. 

Description. 

Climate, 
Wmda. 



28 DISTRICTS. 

PooNA City Monthly Table of Winds, i85e-;?57^— continued. 



DiBSOTION. 


3-36 P.M. V 




























Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


N. 


56 


66 


107 


140 


116 


26 


1 


10 


36 


76 


19 


26 


N.N.E. ... 


11 


. 18 


11 


10 


3 


4 


1 


1 


6 


9 


16 


3 


N.B. - ... 


81 


39 


50 


36 


16 


3 


1 


4 


11 


65 


61 


36 


E.If.E. ... 


• 18. 


21 


5 


11 


2 


2 






5 


25 


64 


31 


E 


83 


83 


21- 


15 


9 


1 






2 


73 


171 


■ 141- 


B.8.E. 


2T 


16 


5 


8 


1 


1 




... 




17 


34 


62 


S.E. 


• 93 


41 


25 


25 


4 


■ 10 




4 




61 


100 


109 


S^.E. 


30 


16 


7 


3 










1 


18 


18 


22 


S. 


40 


25 


19 


13 


8 


8 


16 


10 


5 


17 


19 


■ 14 


S,S.W. ... 


14 


6 


4 


3 


2 


7 


.<• 




3 


7 


3 


2 


8.W. 


32 


26 


33 


24 


31 


156 


123 


100 


76 


26 


8 


18- 


V-S.W. ... 


21 


15 


20 


17 


19 


60 


98 


94 


:44 


14 




1 


W. 


32 


60 


84 


53 


96 


116 


204 


193 


149 


34 


4 


10 


w>N.w: ... 


5 


12. 


31 


26 


46 


86 


26 


48 


71 


16 


1 


14 


N.W. 


26 


72 


82 


92 


130 


46 


66 


56 


94 


49 




15 


N.N.W. ... 
Soma 


8 


21 


23 


39 


44 


16 


1 


8 


7 


-23 


2 


1 


527 


481 


627 


510 


527 


480 


622 


627 


510 


627 


610 


496 



The coefficients and angles of formula representing the daily 
rariation in the duration of different winda are : 

PooNA City Duration OF Winds, 1856-1874. 



HOUKS. 


November to January. 


February to April. 


June to September. 


Year.' 


ol 


al 


C2 


a2 


cl 


al 


C2 


a2 


ol 


al 


C2 


a2 


01. 


■ al 


c2 


a2 






o / 




O ' 


O ' 




' 




o / 




o / 










6 


■98 


102 20 


■7^ 


184 54 


•77 


303 17 


•47 


302 


1^64 


260 32 


1-23 


160 6 


•58 


270 69 


■63 


186 26 


7 


■98 


90 66 


•6V 


178 17 


■78 


310 60 


•46 


307 7 


1^65 


259 31 


l-2fi 


1.57 31 


•56 


273 4 


•6S 


180 


8 


1-03 


101 12 


•72 


188 48 


■77 


311 20 


•40 


290 14 


1^63 


260 28 


V25 


1S6 65 


■65 


272 6 


•65 




9 


1^08 


97 69 


•V2 


184 46 


■66 


322 26 


•47 


277 16 


1^67 


261 23 


125 


159 49 


•50 


274 34 


•65 


188 


10 


1-0S> 


103 16 


•84 


193 42 


•81 


342 41 


•51 


277 49 


1^64 


264 3 


1-28 


159 62 


•41 


287 6 


•67 




11 


i^ia 


106 2 


•78 


202 37 


•85 


344 69 


•86 


274 64 


1-59 


•263 9 


ro2 


169 68 


■.S9 


284 46 


•60 


196 26 


12 


1^15 


110 19 


■74 


214 S3 


•SO 


357 a 


•18 


276 20 


1^62 


267 63 


I'M 


166 14 


■34 


292 46 


•54 


196 5 


13 


vn 


106 48 


•78 


213 29 


■71 


1 37 


•25 


274 34 


1'66 


268 32 


TflS 


160 41 


•34 


295 & 


•52 


193 14 


14 


1-16 


111 43 


■75 


218 32 


•59 


4 61 


•33 


828 44 


1^57 


269 38 


•89 


165 a 


•32 


288 26 


•43 




16 


1-12 


113 8 


•66 


229 18 


•62 


357 48 


•29 


319 11 


1-64 


265 33 


•85 


167 4 


•,32 


278 63 


•37 


203 48 


16 


1-06 


108 47 


•66 


210 4 


•68 


4 66 


•35 


348 22 


1^61 


266 69 


•9.i 


l.'i7 28 


•37 


287 27 


•37 


189 13 


17 


■92 


114 54 


•67 


200 61 


•56 


353 53 


•33 


313 47 


1^68 


271 22 


VOR 


175 41 


•44 


283. 6 


•46 


196 16 


18 


•94 


115 12 


■6.T 


197 63 


•65 


347 28 


•19 


326 29 


1^70 


271 1 


1^02 


175 31 


■47 


283 27 


•46 


189 a 


19 


■91 


114 2 


•68 


209 13 


•64 


340 43 


•25 


338 38 


1^92 


270 


1-08 


176 49 


■.50 


283 46 


•48 


195 47 


20 


■92 


108 26 


■64 


208 11 


•66 


328 44 


•17 


239 2 


1^72 


267 


1^13 


171 62 


■56 


279 IS 


•60 


194 30 


21 ..: 


■91 


107 3 


•66 


205 23 


•62 


328 63 


•24 


209 46 


1^72 


267 


M8 


171 52 


■56 


278-17 
276 28 


•66 


193 11 
196 26 


22 


■87 


107 6 


•76 


203 30 


■60 


326 36 


•28 


247 4 


1-67 


266 34 


1-06 


173 29 


■.-iS 


•64 


23 


■91 


108 1 


•73 


195 11 


■64 


327 K 


■30 


235 47 


166 


266 54 


1^06 


171 20 


•53 


274 19 


•64 


190 47 





■96 


105 2 


•66 


192 20 


•49 


310 61 


■34 


233 28 


1^«7 


264 30 


T04 


166 38 


■M 


271 4 


•61 


188 32 


1 


■90 


106 13 


•63 


191 61 


•56 


211 23 


■33 


226 13 


1^68 


266 66 


MO 


167 69 


•56 


274 6 


•63 


186 20 


2 


•87 


111 33 


•66 


202 17 


•52 


309 31 


•86 


222 43 


1^69 


264 13 


V15 


162 21 


■.58 


268 2 


•67 


185 58 


3 


-■94 


HI 66 


■m 


202 7 


'48 


318 22 


•35 


222 43 


1^67 


264 30 


I^IT 


164 50 


•54 


267 53 


•68 


187 39 


4 


•92 


109 37 


•75 


201 48 


•4b 


326 40 


•30 


216 52 


1^70 


264 66 


1 17 


166 8 


■.53 


268 56 


•69 


184 68 


5 

Means .. 


•91 


112 37 


•«« 


208 58 


•51 


326 23 




•25 


226 38 


1^68 


263 61 


113 


164 7 


■64 


267 63 


•63 

•58 


184 32 


•99107 42l •69l201 20 


•59 333 52l -25 '274 34 


l^e5 265 5oll-08 


165 36 


■47 


277 17 


189 67 


Complete 
Days. 


57 


59 


82 


-y • 

238 



Deccau.] 



CHAPTEE II. 



PRODUCTION.^ 

Except iron,^ which occurs in various places as hseroatite 
associated with laterite or iron-clay, the district produces no 
metallic ores. Grains of magnetic iron derived from the traps are 
frequently found in the beds of streams. 

The trap rock almost everywhere yields good building stone and 
road-metal. Specially good quarries are worked at Bh^mburda^ 
about a mile to the north-west of Poona j on the north-side of Yaravda 
hill^ about three miles^ north-east of Poona ; at Lonikand on the 
Ahmadnagar road, about fifteen miles beyond Yaravda ; at Hadapsar 
five miles east of Poona ; at LonikAlbhar, Urulij Tevat, and Patas^ 
between ten and thirty miles east of Poona on the SholApur 
branch of the Peninsula railway ; at Katraj, Kd,mthuri, Kdpurhol, 
and Kikvi, within twelve miles south of Poona on the new Sdtdra 
Foad I near Purandhar hill; and at SAsvad, nineteen miles south of 
Poona. There are also good stone-quarries alpng the Bombay mail 
road, near the villages of Pimpri, SheMrvddi, Kdla, Lond,vla, and 
Khanddla and in the neighbourhood of Poona. The best quarry in 
the district is on the southern outskirts of the city of Poona. The 
stone of this quarry has been used in building Government House 
, at Ganesh-khind and other large modern buildings in Poona., 
Where there are no good quarries trap boulders are used. The 
people of the district prefer trap boulders to any quarried stone 
and the wisdom of their choice is admitted by European builders 
as is ishown by the boulderless hill-sides near the great dam of 
Khadakvasla or Fife Lake. 

A variety of compact dark blue basalt, which is common in 
many places all through the trap distriqtSj is susceptible of high 
polish and is worked into idols, pedestals for wooden pillars, and 
•inscription-slabs.* It is obtained from. quarries worked atMuham- 
madvadi five miles south-east of Pooua and at TJruli eighteen miles 
east of Poona on the ShoUpur branch of the Peninsula railway. 
Quartz occurs throughout the trap in various forms either 
crystalline or amorphous. The most common form assumed by the 
crystalline quartz is the trihedral. Crystalline quartz of various 
colonrff is recorded from the hiU-fort of Harishchandragad and 



Chapter IL 

Production. 

Minerals, 

Stone. 



Basalt. 



Qua/rts). 



' This chapter owes much to additions and revision by Mr. J. G. Moore, C. S., 
Collector of Poona. 

' The mineral, section is contributed by Major A. R. Seton, E.B., Executive 
Engineer. ' Dr. T. Cooke, Principal, Science College, Poona. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



30 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Stone. 



StiWUe. 



ApophyUte. 



Road Metal. 



Natural Salts. 



Carbonate of 
Soda. 



LimeBtone. 



amethystine quartz is occasionally found in the interior of nodules. 
Amoi^hous quartz occurs in the form of agate, jasper, and heliotrope. 
Agates are generally found in large and small nodules and some 
finely banded agates are sent to Camlaay to be coloured by firing. 
The jasper and heliotrope bloodstone occurs chiefly in flat plates 
which appear to have been formed in the cracks of crevices in the 
trap. Specimens of heliotrope and coloured quartz are common in 
the bed of the Mula-Mutha.* Stilbite, though less common than 
qartz, is by no means rare. One magnificent variety consists of large 
orange or salmon coloured crystals two or three inches long. Three 
miles south-west of Chas at BrahmanvMi great masses of radiating , 
foliate stilbite occur imbedded in hard amygdaloid. The apophylite, 
which is commonly associated with stilbite, is the finest of all Deccan 
trap minerals. It generally occurs in four-sided prisrhs with terminal 
planes. The colour is white and more rarely pink or green. Some 
of the crystals are perfectly transparent. 

Road-metal is generally prepared from quarried stone. At the 
road-side it costs about, 7». (Rs. 3^^ the hundred cubic feet. Partially 
decomposed trap is known through the district as mwrjtm. 

Common salt is found in the bed of a rivulet at Kund Mdvli 
near the falls on the Kukdi river, between Sirur and Kavtha. A 
little common salt with a trace o£ carbonate of soda encrusts the 
rocky bed for a few feet near the water line. Carbonate of soda 
occurs in a few places occasionally forming an efflorescence on the 
surface. Washermen use earth impregnated with this salt for 
washing clothes. Soda is also found mixed with earth near Sirur 
where it is dug out and sold for washing. 

Colonel Sykes' attention was directed to the presence of carbonate 
of soda at Sirur by' observing washermen digging for earth in the 
banks of the rivulet. Finding that they used it to wash their 
clothes, he obtained a quantity, lixiviated the earth, boiled down the 
lixivium, and when it cooled obtained a large crop of crystals which 
the usual tests showed to be carbonate of soda. At Lonikdlbhar 
twelve miles east of POona and two miles south of the Mula-Mutha 
river, within an area- of 200 yards, a constant moisture and partial 
absence of vegetation is observed. An efflorescent matter appears 
on the surface every morning which is carefully swept up and sold 
to washermen.^ 

Good sand for mortar is found in the beds of allnost all rivers 
and streams. 

Limestone yielding useful lime occurs in several plaices. There 
are good quarries near the villages of Phursangi and Vadki at thfr 
foot of the Diva pass, about ten miles south-east of Poona ; also near 
Urnli, Yevat, Kedgaon, and Dhond in the Bhimthadi sub-division^. 
The lime produced from the stone of these quarries is of excellent 



"- Madras Journal of Science and Literature, VI. 363. The Od/e-Pw oi Quartz-Saint 
whose tomb is about 200 yards to the south-east of the Collector's office in Poona, 
takes its name from the large crystals which are heaped over the grave. 

' Geological Papers on Western India, 107. 



Deccan.]' 



POONA. 



31 



quality. Except at tte above places the lime in general use is m&de 
ol the lime-grayel or hanhar which occurs on ahd below the surface 
over almost the whole district. The nodules when carefully burnt 
make excellent cement. 

Near many of the district streams earth is found suitable for 
making bricks and tiles. Burnt country bricks cost about 7s, 
(Rsj 3J) the thousand, and English pattern bricks of a larger size 
12s. (Rs. 6). Tiles cost from 8s. to 10s. (Rs. 4-5) the thousand^ and 
the flat tiles in general use 7s. (Rs. 3|) . 

The area under forests in Poona is smaller than in most parts of 
the Presidency. Arrange'ments are still in progress for adding to the 
forest land which at present (October 1883) is estimated at about 
660 square miles or I2'14 per cent of the district. Of the area 
classed as forest land only a small fraction at present yields timber. 

For many years after the beginning of British rule, the 
comparatively small population and the limited area under tillage 
made any special measures for preserving forests, unnecessary. 
In the rainy west, as late as 1836, the two pressing evils were 
malarious fevers and the ravages of wild beasts.^ How to clear for 
tillage the large area under trees and brushwood was one of the most 
pressing administrative questions of the time. It was mainly with 
this object that when (1836-37) the revenue survey was introduced 
into the west of the district, almost all hiU-sides were divided intp 
plots and offered at littje more than nominal rents. About tw;enty 
years later, when population had greatly increased and after the 
railway was opened through the Bor pass the great demand for 
wood and the ease with which it could be sent to market were 
rapidly stripping the country of trees. To check this evil certain 
lands were set apart by Government as forest reserves. In 1 849 
a beginning of demarcation was made by Dr. Gibson, the father of 
Bombay forestry. He chose plots of tree-covered land which the 
people still call Ddhtari Ban or the Doctor's Forest. In 1854 at the 
survey settlement of the western sub-divisions some lands were set 
apart for forest conservancy or ran rakshan. 

In 1867 further measures were taken to add to the area of Govern- 
ment forests. In each sub-division the assistant collector examined 
all waste and unarable lands and marked ofE such plots as seemed 
likely to prove useful reserves. The work of demarcation was 
-'steadily carried on, and by 1876 the whole of the district had been 
. examined and tracts set aside as forest reserves. 

The failure of rain in 1876. and 1877 drew special; attention to the 
want of trees in Poona and other parts of the Deccan. At the same 
time the throwing up of arable land in Bhimthadi and Ind^pur, which 
accompanied and followed the "famine, gave a special opportunity for 
adding to the forest area. To increase the area as much as possible 
it was determined to notify waste lands as forest under Chapter X. 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Bricks and Tiles, 



Forests. 



Bh(ery. 



1 In 1855 General Davison shot bears and panthers within a few miles of Poona, 
In 1840 the boldness of the wild beasts made the road from Poona to Junnar dangerous 
to travel by night. The Peshwa hunted panthers on the hills thirty miles east of 
Poona. Mr. W. H, A. Wallinger, Deputy Conservator of Forests, Poona. 



32 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 

Production. 

Forests. 
History, 



Demarcation. 



of the Forest Act (X. of 1878) . With this object lists of all available 
lands were prepared and gazetted as forest land, a measure which 
raised the area of forest land.from about 242,000 to about 400,000 
acres. ^As these additions of waste lands to forest area were made 
without selection, both in the interests of the people and of the 
forest department, a thorough redis|;ributioh has since become 
necessary. A large area of arable waste scattered over the plains^, 
which was abandoned during or since the famine, had been ' 
needlessly included in the forest reserves. On the other hand the 
extent of hill or mountain land, which former demarcations had 
included under forest, was insufficient for protective purposes, 
especially in the westnear the sources and head-waters of the leading l 
rivers. To decide which of the existing forest lands should be kept 
and what additionalj#aste and' o'conpied lands should be added . 
required a fresh andj^mprehensive demarcation, of the entire tract. 
Early in 1881 an oflScer was appointed to carry out this duty.^ He 
was entrusted with large discretion in acquiring occupied lands 
either by purchase or by exchange. Since 1881 final forest bounda- 
ries have been fixed jn Bhimthadi, Indapur, Sirur, and Mdval and 
in the portions of Khed and Haveli which fall -within - the charges 
of the mdnilatdar of Khed and the mahdlkari'of Mulshi. In the 
sub-divisions of Junnar and Purandhar and in the petty divisioni of 
Ambegaon in Khed and of Mulshi in Haveli the work is still in 
progress. 

The net results of the new demarcation are : 

PooiTA Forest Duiarvation Dei ails, 1881-8Z. 



Sub-Division. 


Total 

Area 
bxclfdino 
alibnatbd 
villages. 


Area or 

EXISTING 

RESERVES 

TO BE 

riNALLT 

RETAINED. 


Additional ahea included ih 
THE new Demarcation. 


Total 

Area of 

peopobed 

Forest 

Eeseeves. 


Pbrcbst 

OF Forest 

TO TOTAL 

Area. 


Wasbe. 


Occupied. 


Total. 


Mival 

Sinir 

Ind&pur ... . 

Bhimthadi : 

(1) Mimlatd&r's Charge. 

^)MahSlltar,i'sChavge. 

M&mlatd&r's Charge ... 
Haveli; ' 
Kabiilkari'a Charge ... 


Acres. 

212,188 

- 303,210 

346,671 

351,236 
246,660 

296,436 

118,367 


Acres. 

61,230 

, 11,914 

20,456 

31,930 
10,656 

64,804 

24,895 


Acres. 

668 

2218 

. 25,-576 

11,073 
1437 

1267 

214 


Acres. 
26,172 
11,U2 
21,801 

17,244 
9466 

19,292 

27,505 


Acres. 
25,840 
13,324 
47,376 

28,317 
10,902 

20,669 

27,719 


Acres. 
77,070 
26,239- 
67,132 

60,247 
21,568 

76,363 

52,614 


36 

8 

19 

17 
- 8 ^ 

25 ' 

44 



iMr. G.W. Vidal, C.S. 

^ In 1867, Mr. 0. W. Bell, First Assistant Collector, began the work in the Mulshi 
petty division. His labours extended over the Haveli, Mdval, Junnar, and Sirur sub- ' 
divisions. The Inddpur and Bhimthadi forest lands were demarcated in 1875 by 
Mr. C, G. W. Macpherson, Assistant Collector, and Mr. TV. H. A. Wallinger, Deputy 
Conservator. Purandhar was demarcated by_ the same officers in 1877, and the , 
demarcation of the important forest sub-division of Khed occupied Mr. Johns, 
Assistant Collector, and Mr. Wallinger during the hot weathers of 1875 and 1876. 
Ih 1879, Mr. J, McL. Campbell, Forest Settlement Officer, submitted his report 
regarding the settlement of all the district forests. His successorsj Mr. G. W. Vidal 
demarcated the forest lands of Bhimthadi, MAval, and part of Ha;veli ; and Mn A. B. 
Steward those of IndSpur and Mulshi Petha in Haveli in 1880 and 1881. Mr. Vid"al» 
a second time appointed Forest Settlement Officer, has since demarcated the forest 
lands of Bfeilmati in Bhimthadi, Siruri part of Khed including some, villages of the 
Apibegaon Peta, Junnar, and Purandharl Parts of Haveli, Khed, and Ambegaon have 
still to be demarcated. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



33 



In the east the greater part of the occupied land marked for forest 
has been secured by purchase or by exchange. In the west or 
Sahyddri sub-divisionSj where the area of waste land available for 
exchange is more limited, progress must necessarily be slower. 
Many years must elapse before the whole area of mountain land 
included in ttiis demarcation can be brought under forest rules. 

In 1863, the forests of Poona, Satdra, and Ahmadnagar were the 
joint charge of one European officer whose office and exeCutiye 
establishment for Poona consisted of two clerks, six inspectors, thirty- 
five foresters, and four messengers, representing a total monthly cost 
of £57 (Rs. 570). In 1870 Poona was formed into a separate forest 
charge and the establishment considerably increased. 

In 1881-82 the district forest establishment included the 
settlement officer ; the deputy conservator of forests ; twelve range 
executives, five of them rangers on £5 to £10 (Rs. 50-100) a month 
and seven foresters on £2 to £4 (Rs. 20-40); thirty-six round- 
guards, six on £1 10s. (Rg. 15), fifteen on £1 4s. (Rs. 12), fifteen on 
£1 (Rs. 10); and 194 beat-guards, twenty of them on IBs. (Rs. 9), 
Tiwenty-eight on 16s. (Rs. 8), and 146 on 14s. (Rs. 7). Besides these 
establishment charges, £110 (Rs. 1100) were in 1881-82 paid as 
shares to rakhvdlddrs who are bound under written agreements to 
protect the forests of certain villages. 

^The Poona forest lands may be roughly grouped into three classes, 
hill, river bank, and upland reserves. Except in the Sinhgad range 
the hill reserves are chiefly found in the west. They are of two kinds, 
mixed evergreen woods and teak coppice. The mixed evergreen 
woods are found chiefly on the sides and plateaus of the main 
SahySdri range, on the minor lines and offshoots which run parallel 
to the main range, and on the western ends of the spurs that stretch 
east at right angles to the main range. In these woods the chief 
trees are, the mango dmba Mangifera indica, the ain Terminalia 
tomentosa, the nana and the ionddra Lagerstraemia laneeolata and 
parvifolia, which are so closely alike that they are generally grouped 
as ndifo-bondara, the hedu Nauclea cordifolia, the kalamb Nauclea 
parvifolia, the dsdn Bridelia retusa, the sair Bombax malabaricum, 
the dhdvda Conocarpus latifolia^ the teak sag Tectona grandis, 
the jdmbhul Eugenia iambolana, the yela -Terminalia bellerica, the 
ihdman Grrewia tihsefolia, the myrobalan harda Terminalia 
chebula, and the bamboo. These evergreen woods yield little timber. 
The second kind of hill forests are the teak coppices. They are 
found chiefly on the slopes and terraces of the spurs that run east 
from tbe main range of the Sahyadris. The teak does not occur 
throughout the whole length of these eastern hills; it is found 
>hiefly in a belt which begins about ten and continues to about 
iwenty-five miles from the main range of the Sahyddris. In the 
mportant Sinhgad and Purandhar ranges in the south of "the district, 
;he teak passes further east than in the smaller spurs in the centre 
md north, valuable teak rafters being cut on the slopes of Sinhgad 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Forests. 



EstablMment, 



B 310^5 



1 Contributed by Mr. J. McL. Campbell, C. S. 



[Bombay Oazetteer, 



34 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Forests. 



Junnar. 



Khed. 



and as far east as Purandhar about forty-five miles from the line of 
the Sahyddris. 

The second class of forest reserves are the river-side gropes. 
These are found along the banks of almost all the larger rivers 
wherever there is land suited to the growth of trees. In almost all 
of these reserves the soil is a deep alluvial deposit, and most of the 
plantations are of well grown trees, chiefly bdbhuls Acacia arabica. 

• * - . * 

The third class of forest reserves, the upland or mdl reserves are 
found in every sub- division, but chiefly in the Sirur, Bhimthadi, and 
Inddpur sub-divisions. , These uplands at present yield only grass, 
but they are being gradually covered with a growth of brushwood 
and saplings. 

The different reserves may be most conveniently, arranged in the 
following order : Junnar, Khed, Mdval, Haveli, Sirur, Purandhar, 
Bhimthadi, and Ind^pur. , 

The Junnar forest reserves extend over about 112 square miles. 
Beginning from the north, the hill reserves are ChilhevAdi with 491' 
acres and Ambegavan with 1442 acres, on the slopes of a range 
which runs east from Harishchandragad. - These reserves contain 
valuable teak. Khireshvar with 4228 acres is in the north-west on 
the southern slope of Harishchandragad. It forms with Khubi the 
head of the valley of Madhkhore, and from its laiids the Md,lsej pass 
leads into the Konkan. It is a mixed evergreen forest. The trees 
are of many varieties, but none are particularly large or of much 
market value. To the east of Khireshvar are the reserves of Kolvddi 
1593 acres, Sangnore 1964 acres, and Pimpalgaon-Joga 1268 acres, 
and to the south are Khubi 355 acres, Karanjdle 182 acres, and 
Pdrgaon 273 acres. These lead to the next important group of 
Sahyddri reser'^es, Talerdn 1510 acres, and Nimgir 1072 acres, 
between the Mdlsej and Ndna passes. Following the line of the 
Sahyddris andcrossing the Kukdi valley, at the top of which there 
are the evergreen reserves of Gh^tghar 1405 acres and Phangulgavd,n 
785 acres, there is an important forest group at the head of the 
Mina valley comprising the reserves of Dhak 2103 acres and Amboli 
694 acres. Of river-bank habhul groves, which do not include more 
than 500 acres, the chief are along the Kukdi and the Mina. At 
Hivre-Budrukh, seven or eight miles east of Junnar, is the botanical 
garden of eighteen acres which was started by Dr. Gibson, the first 
Conservator. It is now treated as an ordinary forest reserve. The 
upland or mdl reserves, which include about 3400 acres of inferior 
soil, yield nothing but spear-grass. This is now being • covered 
with nutritious pasture and saplings. The chief steps taken to grow 
nutritious grass on tracts which formerly yielded nothing but spear- 
grass are the broadcast sowing of seeds of the hardier trees and 
brushwood with the object of giving shade and of increasing 
moisture, and the shutting of the land against grazing during the 
rainy season and thus allowing new grasses to seed. 

Khed, with about 164 square miles of reserves, is the chief forest 
tract in Poena. Except the alifenated village of VirhAm the whole 
crest of the Sahyd,dris is one stretch of reserved forest comprising the 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



85 



reserves of Don 512 acres, Pimpargane 1009 acres, Ahupe 4754 
acres, Kondhavale 6493 acres, Terungan 641 acres, Nigdale 2578 
acres, Bldvegaoii 1392 acres, Bhovargiri 2604. acres, Velhavli 2990 
acres, Bhomdle 1188 acres, Kharpud, 2735 acres, Vandre 1799 
acres, and Torne-Khurd 859 acres. Except occasionally in sacred 
groTes which have been untouched for generations, the trees in 
these forests, though green and fresh, are of moderate size. 
Earda Terminalia chebula, which produces the valuable myrobalan 
of commerce, is abundant throughout the Khed forests, and there 
is an extensive and valuable growth of bamboo in the Velhavli and 
Bhomdle reserves. Besides the reserves along the edge of the 
Sahyddris Khed possesses large and most valuable teak coppice in 
a belt which begins ten miles east of the Sahy^dris and stretches 
about fifteen miles further inland. The most important teak forests 
are in the Ghod valley, Qangapur 1440 acres, Giravli 921 acres, 
Amondi 1193 acres, Ghode,2442 acres, and Sil 44 acres. Besides 
these, there are Dhdkale 909 acres on a tableland between the 
Ghod and Bhima valleys, and Ghas 2100 acres and Kamdn 782 
acres adjoining each other in the Bhima valley. The hill reserves 
to the east of this belt of teak are Bare or have only a sprinkling 
of thorn-bushes. They are being sown broadcast with seeds of the 
following trees: bor Zizyphus jujuba, Arngfara Balanites egyptiaca, 
'sdrphali Boswellia thurifera, khair Acacia catechu, hiva/r Acacia 
leucophloea, hinai Albizia procera, maruk Ailanthus excelsa, sitdphal 
Anona squamosa, bel ^gle marmelos, tamarind, dpta Bauhinia 
racemosa, shami Prosopis spicegera, and dvla Phylanthus emblica-. 
The river-side bdbhul groves, which include about 30O0 acres along 
the Bhima and its iributaries, are fairly stocked with trees. The 
upland or mdl reserves, which have an area of about 4000 acres, are 
bare and dry. They are being sown with the seed of such harcfy 
plants as tarvad Cassia anriculata and shami Prosopis spicegera^. 

The Maval forest reserves extend over about eighty-one square 
miles. Except a few small bdbhul groves along* the Pauna, and 
some waste lands near the railway between Londvla and Talegaon, 
.the M^val reserves are all hill reserves on the main line of the 
'tSjahyadris and on the chain of hills which stretches east from 
Siskhupathar near Lonavla. The Maval forests are l^e the Junnar 
forests and are less extensive and vigorous than those of- Khed. 
The best are Mdlegaon-Khnrd with 569 acres, Malegaon-Budrukh 
with 2943 acres, Pinipri with 530 acres, Kune-Khurd with 405 
acres, and Kune-Budrukh with 678 acres. These are on the main 
range of the Sahy^dris a continuation of the Khed forests. South 
• of the alienated.village of S^vle, which breaks the line of the Sahyadii 
reserves, come Khand with 551 acres, Kusur with 2328 acres, Jamboli 
with 1542 acres, Thoran with 2017 acres, Yalvande with 1788 acres,. 
IJndhevadi with 1887 acres, K^re with 1181 acres, and Khandala.with. 
1215 acres. South of Khanddla comes Kurvande with 3077 acres,, 
which, beginning with the slopes of the well known Duke's Nose 
or Cobra's Hood, stretches south along the face of the Sahy^dris, 
and with portions of Bhushi 316 acres, Kusgaon-Budrukh 557 acres, 
.Gevdhe 1543 acres, and Atvan 774 acres, forms the platean of 
Saikhupathdr. The chief trees are the same as those mentioned as 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Forests. 
Khed. 



Mdvah 



[Bombay Gazetteer 



36 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Forests. 

Haveli, 



Sirur. 



Purandhar. 



forming the mixed evergreen woods of the Sahyddris. A growth of 
bamboo is also springing up on the Sakhupathd^ plateau. The forest 
lands on the other eastern spurs are exceedingly bare, as the prices 
which firewood and charcoal fetch along the railway line have tempted 
the holders of hill-land to strip them of timber. 

The Haveli forest lands occupy about 100 square miles. The Mujshi 
hills have been brought more under tillage than any other part of 
the Poena Sahy^dris. The only forest reserves are Tamheni-Budrukh 
with 5042 acres, Sdltar with 1 053 acres, Yekole with 9&6 acres, 
Pimpri with 2534 acres, Nive with 1789 acres, -and Ambavne with 
1057 acres. The hills round Sinhgad yield- teak, the best areas 
being Sinhgad with 4519 acres,^ and Donje with 1011 acres. The 

' trees are most healthy and the nearness of the Sinhgad reserve to 
the Poona, market gi-eatly adds to its value. In theXdtraj reserve 
of 1900 acres, fifteen years of careful protection have clothed the 
hill-sides with a young growth of many varieties of timber. But 
the other hill reserves which are mostly east of Sinhgad towards 
Dhavleshvar are either bare or have only a sprinkling of thorn 
bushes. The chief river-side reserves are along the Mala-Mutha 

' from M^njri six miles, to Koregaon-Mul sixteen miles east of Poona. 

Sirur has little forest land.- There are no hill reserves, and the 
whole forest area does not cover more than twenty-five square miles. 
Before 1879, the Sirur forest area amounted to 3470 acres out of a 
total area of 303,210 acres. Additions in 1879 raised the forest area 
to 19,234 acres. As in the rest of the district, a thorough redistri- 
bution of the waste lands notified in 1879 was necessary both in 
the interests of the people and of the forest department. The 
settlement and demarcation oflScers for various reasons have found 
it necessary to disforest 7320 acres, reducing the forest area to 11,914 
acres or eight per cent of. the sub-division. Sirur is mudi more 
fertile than the other eastern sub-divisions and has a much, smaller . 
area of unproductive land. The chief forest reserves are, Alegaon 
1869 acres, P^bal 1288 acres, Kavdhe 629 acres, Kanur 504 acres, 
Karandi 712 acres, and Sirur 500 acres. 

The Purandhar forest reserves include about thirty-seven square 
miles. The chief forest areas, 18,996 acres^ are on the range of hills 
which stretches southeast fromSinhgad to Purandharand twentymiles 
further east. The largest forest areas are, Jejuri with 692 acres,. 
Kdmra with 759acres, Mandhar with 1205 acres, Sakurde with 1223 
acres, Parinche with 1292- acres, Bhongavli with 159j3 acres, Kikvi 
with 1793 acres, Vdlhe with 2223 acres, and Ghei-a Purandhar with 
3697 acres. Except small teak, chiefly in Shivra, K^™!**? Kikvi, and 
Bhongavli, these forest lands contain nothing but scrub. The forest 
area of 2202 acres on the range separating the Karha valley in 
Purandhar. from the Mula-Mutha valley in Haveli, includes 366 
acres in Bhivdi, 376 in Bopgaon, 800 in Gurholi, 214 in Tekavdi, 
and 446 in P^nde. These lands contain little but poor scrub. There 
is a small area of river-side groves at Kenjal and elsewhere on the 
Nira. The remaining 4000 acres is poor upland or mdl. The villages . 
with the largest areas of uj^and are RdjevAdi with 246 acres, Hivre 
with 280, P^rgaon with 286^ and RAjuri with 319. 



Deccan.] 



poo:na. 



37 



Bhimthadi has a forest area of about sixty-nine square miles. 
About 4402 acres are commanded by tbe Mutba canal and will 
probably be given back for tillage, and 1499 acres have been declared 
unfit for forest. On the other hand a considerable area of arable 
waste will probably be taken for forest land. Of the demarcated 
axea of 18,585 acres, the most valuable parts are the river groves on 
the Bhima, Nira, and Karha, the best being near Rahu and Pimpal- 
gaon on the Bhima. The details are, Rahu 1610 acres, Pimpalgaon 
685 acres, Daiitne 684 acres, Miravde 468 acres, Valki; 467 acres, 
and Delavdi 214 acres. The rest of the forest land is poor up- 
land, bare or with a sprinkling of stunted scrub. The details are, 
Yevat 448 acres, Undavdi-Karepathdr 1043 acres, Varvand 1575 
acres, Supa 2838 acres, Vadhane 1084 acres, Pandare 889 acres, 
Karange 1281 acres, and PAtas 2143 acres. 

The Indapur forests include about seventy-two square miles. Be- 
fore the 1st of March 1879, when all the waste assessed or unassessed 
lands were declared forest reserves, the entire forest area was 10,804 
acres out of 345,571 acres, the total area of Indapur. Subsequent 
additions during 1879 raised the' total area to 13,649 acres. Since 
1879 a large portion of the arable area which had passed out of 
tillage during and after the famine of 1876 and 1877 has been taken 
for forest. During the famine and succeeding bad years, except the 
rich banks of the Nira in the south, the sub-division lost a large 
number of its people. Advantage was taken of this opportunity to 
increase the forest area after making provision for such of the 
husbandmen as might return and apply for land. The result of the 
settlement officer's enquiries has been to raise the Inddpur forest 
area to 65,300 acres or about eighteen per cent of the entire 
ijnb-division. The villages which have now the largest forest area 
are Bhelgaon with 6684 acres, Palasdev with 5513 acres, and Kalas. 
with 5574 acres. The IndApur forest lands, though most of them 
are at present bare, are well suited for habhul plantations. 

In 1881-82 £92 (Rs. 920) were spent in ploughing land and 
dibbling in seed in more than 250 reserves. Besides thirty tons (40 
hhandis] of mixed seeds collected by forest guards^ ninety-six tons 
(129 hhandis) of seeds of many kinds were collected in the western 
sub-divisions at a cost of £81 (Rs. 810). The system of sowing seed 
broadcast continues to yield good result in certain localities. The 
forest reserves are protected by a system of fire lines and by close 
supervision.. Still in 1881-82 about ten square miles of forest were 
burnt. £1 73 (Rs. 1 730) were spent on planting. 

Except Kd.tkaris, who come from the Konkan into the west of 
the district when forest work is to be had and when the wild fruits 
are ripe, there are no forest tribes. The Kunbis and Marathas 
who fprm the bulk of the people near the Sahyadris, in Junnar, 
Mdval, and Haveli, and the Kolis who are numerous in Khed and 
round Sinhgad and Purandhar, are husbandmen rather than 
woodsmen. Nor can the Rdmoshis be called a forest tribe. They are 
chiefly found in the open country to the east and south, though a 
few are settled as hereditary guards of the hill-forts" of Sinhgad and 
Purandhar. The classes most employed in forest-work are the 



Chapter II. 

Production. 

Forests. 
Bhimthadi, 



Inddpur. 



Forest Tribea> 



liiomDay uazeueer, 



38 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter 11. 

Frodnctiou. 

Forests, 
Forest Tribes, 



Offences. 



Eeceipti. 



Timber Trade. 



ordinary field-labourers, Kunbis, Marathas, and Mhars, and to a 
less extent,, Kolis, Ka.tkarisj TMkurs, Dhangars, and Ramosliis. 
The daily wage of. the unskilled labourers employed in forest-work 
is 4Jc?. (3 as.) for a inan, Sd. (2 as.) for a woman, and 2\d. (1^ as.) for 
a boy. During the season (September -November) of wood-felling 
about 140 men with carts are employed for about three months, 
and during the season (December- February) of seed-gathering, 
sowing, and planting, about 200 men are employed for three months. 
The bidders at the auctions of timber and minor forest produce are 
chiefly husbandmen and Maratha timber-dealers. Grass is cut and' 
-carried by purchasers who employ hundreds of labourers and carts. 

In 1881-82 there were 306 forest prosecutions against 827 in 
1880. Of the whole number 199 were cases of theft, thirty-five of 
mischief, and seventy-two other cases. Of the prosecution^ 57 or 
18'6 per cent failed. About £75 (Rs. 750) were recovered as fines 
and £5 (Rs. 50) were realized by the confiscation of property'. 

As the chief object of forest conservancy in Poona is to, 
increase the forest area, and as a few of the reserves have' any 
considerable supply, of timber fit for the market, the forest receipts 
are small. In 1870-71 they amounted to £7633 (Rs. 76,330). 
During the four years ending 1874-75 they ranged between £5718 
(Rs. 57,180) in 1874-75 and £3827 (Rs. 38,270) in 1871-72 and/ 
averaged £4714 (Rs. 47,140); In 1875-76 they fell fi-om £5718 
to £4318 (Rs. 57,180-43,180), and during the five years ending 
1879-80 continued to fall to £2290 (Rs. 22,900), and averaged £3381 
(Rs. 33,810). In 1880-81 they rose to £3397 (Rs. 33,970), in 
1S81-82 to £5912 (Rs. 59,120), and in 1882-83 to £8935 (Rs. 89,350). 

In consequence of the additional establishment required to protect ■; 
the increased forest area, the charges rose from £3745 (Rs. 37,450)-;i 
in 1870-71 to £6446 (Rs. 64,460) in 1881-81 and 1882-83 and' 
averaged £4430 (Rs- 44,300). These charges include, besides the 
allowances of forest officers on leave in Poena, a sum of from £1000 
to £1800 (Rs. 10,000 -'18,000) on account of the pay and allowances 
of the Conservator of Forests Northern Division and his establish- , 
ment. The following are the details : 

PpoNA Forest Smysnus, 1870-188^. 



Year. 


> Re- 
ceipts. 


Charges. | 


Year. 


Re- 
ceipts. 


Charges. [ 


Conser- 
vancy and 
Worlfs. ' 


Establish- 
ments. 


Total. 


Conser- 
vancy and 
Worlcs. 


Establish- 
ments. 


Total. 


1870-71 ... 
1871-72 ... 
1872-73 ... 
1873-74 ... 
1874-76 ... 
187S-76 ... 


£ 

7633 
3827 
4815 
4498 
6718 
4318 


« . 
1261 
1813 
1394 
1841 
1350 
1256 


£ 
2484 
2805 
2643 
1649 
1679 
1797 


£ 
3745 
4618 
4037 
3390 
3029 
3053 


1876-77 ... 
1877-78 ... 
1878-79 ... 
1879-80 ... 
1880-81 ... 
1881-82 ... 


£ 
4084 

2290 
3397 
5912 


£ 
1160 
' 1310 
1631 
2373 
SOOl 
2871 


£ 
1732 
2026 
2918 
4812 
3486 
3675 


£ 

2882 
3336 
4444 
7185 
6186 
6446 



As much timber and firewood as the impoverished reserves can 
supply and as will command a sale is brought into the market by 
the forest department and is sold to the highest bidder. There is 
little if any export of timber ; all of the produce is used in the 
district. Throughout the district there is a good demand for bdhhul 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



39 



timber, teakwood rafters, and firewood. The best markets are, 
Poona, Khed, Sdavad, and Junnar. Teak, timber is brought up the 
Bor pass in carts from Th^na and by rail from Bombay. Hithertp 
the Pant Sachiv's state in North Satd>ra has met most of the Poona 
demand for tipaber. But its stores of firewood and timber have 
been lavishly spent, and the supply is so much reduced that to a 
considerable extent the Bhor people now depend on the Poona 
forests. In 1881-82 departmental cuttings were confined to 62,817 
teak trees from th« forests chiefly of Khed, Haveli, Junnar, and 
Purandhar, producing about 664 tons (897 khandis) or equal to about 
12^ cubic feet each and yielding a revenue of £1852 (Rs. 18,520) at 
a cost of £142 (Rs. 1420)j about 1217 tons (1643 khandis) from 
Junnar, Ind^pur, Sirur, Bhimthadi, Haveli, and Mdval, yielding a 
revenue of £472 (Rs. 4720) at a cost of £31 (Rs. 310) ; and 59,500 
bamboos from Khed and Haveli, yielding a revenue of £54 (Rs. 540) 
at a cost of £13 (Rs.130). 

Myrobalana or hardas, of which about thirty-nine tons (53 khandis) 
worth about £157 (Rs. 1570) were collected in 1881 at a cost of 
about £46 (Rs. 460) are the fruit of the Terminalia chebula. They 
are Collected departmentally and sold at temporary stores outside 
the forests by auction or by tender. Central stores for groups of 
villages are established at Bhushi, Uksdn, Kusur, and Kurvandi in 
Mdival; at Ambegaon,Rdjpur,Kushere, Vdndre, Tokavde, Amboli,and 
Bhavargiri in Khed ; and at Pimpalgaon, Rajur, and Inglun in Junnar. 
The people are invited to gather the fruit and bring it to the stores. 
The price varies from £6 to £8 (Rs. 60-80) a ton. It increases as 
the season advances because as less fruit is left on the trees the 
work of collection gross heavier. The longer the fruit is allowed to 
remain on the tree the heavier and the more valuable it becomes. 
Shikekdi are the pods of the Acacia concinna. The tree flowers in 
October and November, the pods appear in December, and are ready 
for picking in February and March. They are much used by the 
people as a hair-wash and have also healing properties. Other 
minor produce are, the bark of the chilldri Csesalpinia sepiaria and 
shemb Csesalpinia diggna ; the pods of the hdhva Cassia fistula, the 
leaves of the dpta and ti/mru used for making cigarettes ; palm-leaves 
and teak-leaves used in thatching; moha flowers used in distilling; 
, gum ; and honey, all of which are brought into the Poona, Khed, 
Junnar, and Talegaon markets and produce a yearly revenue of 
about £50 (Rs. 500). There has been a great increase in the 
quantity of grass in the forest reserves. Fifteen years ago nearly 
the whole of the important river-side grazing reserves were choked 
with prickly pear, the whole of which has been removed. Grass and 
grazing are becoming a considerable source of revenue. Exclusive 
of the grass supplied to the Commissariat at Poona of the valiie of 
£1100 (Rs. 11,000), and the grazing free of charge from the re- 
served .forests of the value of £927 (Rs. 9270) to the Government 
cattle farm at Aligaon, the grass and grazing revenue was £141 
(Rs. 14,170) in 1877-78, £525 (Rs. 5250) in 1878-79, £727 (Rs.'7270) 
in 1879-80, £1570 (Rs. 15,700) in 1880-81, £3198 (Rs.31,980) in 
1881-82, and £3941 (Rs. 39,410) in 1882-83. 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Forests. 
Timber Trade, 



Minor Produce. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



40 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Forests. 
Roadside Trees. 



^ The commonest roadside trees are, the bdbhul, pimpal, vad, 
ndndruk, pimpri, karanj, tsLmarind, limb, mango, jdmbhul, and umbar. 
The vad,^ ncmdrujc, pimpcbl, pimpri, and umbar, all belong to the fig 
tribe, and as with the exception of the pmpal they can be propagated 
by cuttings they are the 'commonest of Poona roadside trees. 

In growing roadside trees the planting of cuttings is the system 
which has been most generally adopted. ' Young branches full of sap 
and with air-roots are chosen. They have generally been about five 
feet in length, but during the last three years very much longer 
cuttings varying from twelve to sixteen feet long have been planted. 
The interval between each cutting is about twenty feet. The cuttings 
do not require hedges as a protection and so far they are more 
economical than seedlings. A bundle of thorns is tied round the 
pole about four feet from the ground to prevent horned cattle ' 
rubbing against them. The cuttings are planted with about three 
feet in the ground. In the western and central belts they are watered 
once a weiek from January till the monsoon breaks early in June, 
and in the east for about nine months. After easterly storms, and so 
long as their moisture lasts, watering is discontinued. Cuttings can be 
planted at any time of the year. If they are planted in the interval- 
between two south-west monsoons (October- June) they must be 
regularly watered, while if they are planted at the' beginning of the 
Bouth-west monsoon (June l8t-25th) they can do without water for six 
months. Latterly the seedling system has been tried but with very - 
doubtful success, except where recourse has been had to artificial 
watering. The plan is to procure a large number of pots, to fill them 
with earth, and as soon as the first rain falls to plant them with seeds 
of -nxsmgo, jdmbhul, limb, ha/ranj, pimpal, and tamarind. The pots are 
placed in nurseries at carefully chosen sites where there is a fair shade 
with water close at hand. The seedlings remain in the nursery for 
twelve months, care being taken to shift the pots from time to time 
so that the roots may not strike into the ground. Meanwhile pits 
are dug at intervals of twenty feet on either side of the roads, and- 
living hedges of milk-bush or of the handa nivdung Condelchra 
cactus are planted round the pits. After exposure for ten or eleven 
months the pits are filled with good earth and are ready to receive 
the seedlings. At the beginning of the south-west 'monsoon the 
seedlings are planted pot and all, the pot being first broken. They 
thus get four or five months' rain and they are then supposed to 
thrive without any artificial moisture. In the western and central 
belts about forty per cent thrive, but in the eastern belt the plan is ; 
an utter failure, owing to the uncertain and scanty rainfall, and resort | 
must be had to artificial watering. The watering of young trees 
srequires constant care. It is essential that the soil round the roots : 
should be constantly loosened so as to allow the water to pass to the 
root ; otherwise after one or two waterings the soil becomes as baked ,: 
as a sun-dried brick. No moisture can pass, and the cutting or i 
sapling either withers or.its roots instead of going into the soil come 



' Contributed by Mr. J. G. Moore, C.S. 



DeccanJ' 



POONA. 



41 



to tlie surface and having no hold the plants are blown over. To bury 
a porous earthen vessel close to the tree so that its throat is on a level 
with the surface is an economical way of watering. If filled weekly 
the water gradually soaks into the soil and keeps it moist. The top 
of the vessel m.ust be covered to prevent evaporation and the vessel 
must be btfried deep or the roots will come too near the surface. 

The following is a list pf the chief Poena trees.^ Ain or sddada, 

Terminaha ibomentosa, is a straight and high growing forest tree. 

It yields good timber and fuel. The bark is astringent, yields a 

black dye, and is used in tannings The bark ashes produce a kind 

of cement which is eaten with betel-leaf in the Madras Presidency. 

It is one of the commonest trees on the Sahyadris, and on the 

wooded hills and uplands in the west of th6 district. Boma, also 

called ain, Terminalia glabra, is equally plentiful with the ain, and 

differs from it only in having a smoother bark. T. bellerica is one 

of the largest and finest looking trees in the Poena forests. All%, 

Vanqueria spinosa, a wild fruit tree, is found on the western 

hills. Its fruit is often brought to the Poona market. The stem is 

covered with large thorns and the wood has no special value. 

Amha, Mangifera indica, the Mango, is found in gardens and fields 

both in the hilly west and in the level east. The mango grows 

sixty or seventy feet high, has a straight trunk and a dark rough 

bark, and gives excellent shade.^ It flowers at the end of January 

or the beginning of February and fruits in May and June. The 

wood, which is coarse-grained and suffers from the attacks of 

white-ants and other insects, is much used for planks and building 

and as firewood. The flowers are held sacred and are offered to Shiv. 

Especially in years of scarcity the mango is a valuable addition 

to the food supply of the district. Besides when it is ripe, the fruit 

is used unripe in pickles and relishes and the kernel is boiled 

and eaten. Poona mangoes go in large quantities to Bombay and 

other places from the gardens at Shivdpur near Poona where the 

shekda or handred contains three hundred and twelve mangoes. The 

fruit can be greatly improved by grafting. Awhguli, Elaeagnus, 

a wild tree, which grows largely on the western hills, yields 

A palatable fruit, in taste like a gooseberry. The fruit is cooked 

and used in curries and relishes and also as a vegetable. Amhada, 

Spondias mangifera, is a cultivated fruit tree found chiefly in the 

west of the district and on the SahyAdri slopes. The wood which 

is soft is burnt as fuel. The fruit is eaten wheir ripe and is used 

in curries and pickles. It also yields a saleable gum. Anjir, Picus 

carica, the Fig, is largely grown, especia,lly in the Haveli, Purandhar, 

Junnar, and £hed sub-divisions. It is raised almost always from 

duttings which when four or five feet high are planted in garden 

land. It requires a richly manured and freely watered soil. The 

crop is apt to suffer from blight and other diseases. There are no 



Chapter IL 
Froductioii.' 



Treetf. 
Ain or Sddada. 



AUu. 



Arriba. 



Ambdda. 



' Contributed by Mr. W. H. A. Wallinger, District Forest Officer; 

2 In 1837 Colonel Sykes noticed a mango tree at Bbim&shanker called the Bdja,. 
which was fully eighty feet high and from which boards could be cut thirty feet lona 
and three or four feet wide. Keport of the British Association for 1837, 255. 

b310— 6 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



42 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Trees. 



VUdyati A via. 



Asi 



Apta. 



Bdhhul, 



grafted figs in the district, and an attempt to introduce graft figs 
failed. November and December and April and May are tbe bearing 
seasons and it is only during these months that the fig requires 
frequent watering. It begins to bear in its fourth year, is in its 
prime from its sixth to its tenth year, and continues bearing until it 
is fifteen years old. The ripe fruit is used locally and is sent to 
Bombay. Poena figs are never dried. Anlo,, Phyllanthus emblica, is 
a wild tree which is found throughout the' district, growing thirty or 
forty feet high. It is useful in planting bare hill-sides. It is also 
raised in the east of the district in gardens and round temples. 
Its healing qualities have made it sacred- ' Krishna wears a necklace 
of dvla berries and with tamarind and sugarcane dvla is offered to 
Krishna in October- November when he marries the tulsi plant. The 
sacredness of the fruit is probably the reason why stones deep 
grooved like a dry dvla berry are so favourite an ornament in Hindu 
temples. As the wood is hard and somewhat brittle it is little used. 
The fruit which ripens in the cold weather is in size and appearance 
much like a gooseberry. It is ribbed like a melon and is of a 
semi-transparent yellow. It is very spur and astringent.^ It is 
cooked or preserved and used in pickles. In a dried state it is called 
dvalkdthi and is considered an excellent cure in bilious complaints. 
It is also used in making ink. The bark which is used in tanning 
is very astringent. The vildyati or foreign dvla, Caretonia siliqua, 
is a low spreading tree, bearing large fruit which contains much 
sugar and is valued as cattle fodder. The tree thrives in irrigated . 
land. It begins to fruit when five years old. Asan, Briedeliat 
retusa, ig a forest tree common in the hilly west. B. spinosa,, 
which is" also plentiful, differs from B. retusa in being more 
thorny. The leaves aroused as a cure for worms. Apta, Bauhinia 
racemosa, is found both on the western hills and in the eastern 
plains. B. alba or the white Mnchan and the B. acuminata or the red 
kdnchan, which differ little from B. racemosa, are also plentiful. 
Ropes _ are made of the bark of B. racemosa and the leaves are 
much used for native cherqots. The dpta is worshipped by Hindus 
on Dasara Day in October. The bark \a applied to swellings of the 
limbs and its juice is given internally as a remedy for jaundice, 
Bauhinia tomentosa is also fairly plentiful. The roots are prescribed 
in certain cases of fiux and for inflammation of the liver. Bdhhvl, 
Acacia arabica, is the commonest and most generally useful tree 
in the district. It is found in all the sub-divisions, but sparsely 
towards the west. It is very hardy and grows rapidly in black soil 
and on the banks of rivers. It grows to a considerable size and 
has excellent, hard, close-grained, and lasting wood; but the 
tiniber is generally crooked, and straight pieces of any length 
are seldom found. The wood is used as cart-axles, ploughs, and 
sugarcane-rollers, as well as for fael. It also makes excellent 
charcoal. The bark is valuable in tanning and yields a good yellow 
dye, and its sap is a useful gum worth about M. a pound (6 pounds 
the rupee) in the local markets. The long seed pods are eagerly, 
eaten by sheep, goats, and cattle. At Manchar, about fourteen miles 
north of Khed, in 1837, Colonel Sykes noticed a bdbhul whose trunk 
eighteen inches from the ground measured nine feet round. Its 



Oeccan.] 



POONA. 



43 



head was branchiag, and, with a vertical 9un, shaded nearly six 
thousand square foet. A variety known as vedi or wild hdbhul. 
Acacia farnesiana, is found chiefly in the eastern and central plains. 
It yields sweet flowers from which a perfume is distilled. The wood 
is used for fuel but not for building, as it is soon attacked by insects. 
The bark contains tannin and is made into the tassels which adorn 
bullocks' heads on Pola or the Bull-day. The gum is also useful.^ 

Baddm, the Almond, Prunus amygdalus, is grown in gardens but 
is not common. It gives good shade and the fruit when ripe is 
eaten by children and the lower classes, bat it is never dried and 
has no trade value. The kernel of the fruit is wholesome and 
pleasant to eat. Ba/iua, Cassia fistula, is largely found on the central 
and western hills and uplands j in the east it is scarce. It is one of 
the most ornamental of forest trees, throwing out in the hot weather 
long tassels of beautiful pimrose-yellow flowers much like the 
laburnum. Its long hanging pods are also easily recognized. The 
wood though <jlose-grained and hard is not much used. The bark 
serves in taiming, the roots yield a purge, and the seeds are 
embodied in a pulp which is used as an aperient both in India and 
in Europe. Bel, ^gle marmelos, a highly ornamental tree, twenty 
to forty feet high, is common all over the district both, wild and in 
gardens. It has an excellent hard wood which is used for making 
native drums, but the tree is seldom cut as it is sacred to Shiv, it is 
said, on account of its fragrant flowers and aromatic leaves. Its 
fruit, which is about the size of an orange, has a woody shell and a 
sticky pulp. It is seldom eaten raw but it makes a delicious syrup 
and a pleasant preserve and pickle, and has valuable healing 
properties. Prepared in certain ways it acts as an aperient, in others- 
as an astringent, and is useful in cases of dysentery or diarrioea. The 
root, bark, and leaves, are also used in making cooling applications. 
The aromatic leaves are offered to Shiv, especially in the month of 
Shrdvan that is August, and on the Makdshivardtra in February. 
The wood is sometimes burnt with the dead and the fruit made into 
snuff-boxes. The seeds yield a varnish. 

BhoJcar, Gordia latifolia, is grown as a frnit tree in the west of the 
district. It is usually small seldom more than thirty feet high. It 
has valuable white wood which is used in boat-building and makes 
excellent fuel. The bark is made into ropes and fuses and the 
leaves are used as plates. The young leaves and unripe fruit are 
eaten as a vegetable. The fruit is pickled and is eaten when ripe ; it 
is greedily devoured by birds. Its sticky pulp is used as birdlime 
and is considered a valuable remedy in lung-diseases. Bibba, the 
Marking-Nut, Semecarpus anaoardiu-m, is a wud tree common on the 
central and western hills. The calyx or covering and the kernel of 
the nut are eaten. The green fruit when pounded makes good bird- 
lime. The oil of thfe nut is used for marking linen, the colour being 
made fast by mixing it with a little quicklime water. It acts as a 
bhster and some drops given in milk or butter are useful in diarrhoea. 

' In 1839-40, Govenunent ofiEered land free of rent for planting bdbhul trees in 
Ind^por. By 1842-43 the plantations extended over 2200 acres and contained 19,0031' 
frees. Bev. Bee. 1241 of 1841, 83 and 1568 of 1844, 90, 



Chapter II. 
Froductiou. 

Trees. 



Baddm. 



Bahva. 



Bel. 



Bfioiar, 



Bibha.. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



U 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 
Froductioiti 

Trees. 
Bonddra. 

Bor. 



Bakul. 



Bartondi. 



Chakotar. 



Ohandan. 



It is applied as oil to the axles of country caribs. The juice is so 
harsh and bitter that woodcutters bum the bark before they cut the 
tree, 

Bonddra, Lagerstrsemia lahceolata, is abundant in the western 
hills. It differs from ndria in having smaller leaves. The wood is 
light brown close-grained and elastic ; in the west it is much used 
for house-building. Bor, Zizyphus jujuba, is common in cultivated 
lands and over nearly all the centre and east of the district. The 
tree is of spreading habitj coppices readily, and sometimes grows 
thirty feet high. It is very thorny, The fruit which ripens in the ^ 
cold weather resembles the crab-apple in flavour and appearance. It 
is never larger than a gooseberry and is much eaten. The bark is 
used in tanning and is a great favourite with the lac insect! 
Grafting greatly improves the taste and size of the fruit. It is 
dried and pounded by the natives and eaten with vegetables, the 
dried powder being called horlcut. The wood, which is used for 
cabinet work, for saddle-trees, for field-tools, and for wooden shoes 
is tough and lasting, and as it is not affected by insects, might prove 
useful for railway sleepers. Bdnbor, Zizyphus vulgaris-, is a variety 
with a smaller fruit found on the eastern hills and tablelands. 
Ghotbor, another variety, is common in the west and is occasionally 
found in the east. It seldom grows to be more than a shrub. The . 
wood is used for torches, and the burnt fruit by shoemakers to 
blacken leather. 

Bakul, Mimusops elengi, is found throughout the district and is 
specially common in gardens and near temples. Its sweet-smelliug 
cream-coloured flowers yield an oil which is used in perfumery ; the 
fruit is eaten by the poor, and the bark is an astringent and tonic^,: 
The wood is very hard and lasting, and is used for house-building 
and for furniture. Probably from the sweetness of its flowers and 
its healing properties, the bakul is sacred. It was under a bakul tree 
that Krishna played tp the milkmaids, and its sweet flowers, which 
are called the flowers of paradise, are offered both to Vishnu and to 
Shiv. Bartondi, Morinda citHf olia, is common in the east and centre 
of the district, but is rare in the west. It is a small tree seldom 
more than twenty to twenty-five feet high. Manjishta, M. tinctoria, 
which differs little from the bartondi, also occurs in the- district. 
The root of both varieties yields a valuable dye which is much used 
in colouring turbans and carpets. Its close-grained, light, and tough 
wood makes good wooden shoes or khaddvds. Ghahotar, the Citron, 
Citrus deoumana, is largely cultivated throughout the district. It. 
grows thirty or forty feet high. The fruit is large pale-yellow 
and pear-shaped, with a thick rind and a pink or crimson and swee^t , 
or acrid pulp. The leaves are used for flavouring dishes and the 
rind of the fruit yields an oil which is used in perfumery. The 
rind is also an aromatic stimulant and tonic. The juice of the fruit 
forms a refreshing drink. Chandan, the Sandal tree, Santalum album, 
is occasionally found throughout the district, both cultivated in 
gardens and near temples, and wild. It grows readily from seed but. 
suffers much by transplanting. The heartwood is famous for its 
scent. When rubbed t& powder, with or without other ingredients, 



Deccau.1 



POONA. 



46 



it is used as a cooling unguent and in preparing Hindu sect-marks. 
Trees grown on rocky and poor soils yield muoli more heartwood 
than those on rich alluvial land. The oil distilled from the wood is 
a medicine and perfume. The wood is used by the rich to burn the 
dead, the poor and middle classes contenting themselves by throwing 
a log or two on the funeral pyre. The wood and the saw-dast are 
burnt as incense in Hindu and PArsi places of worship. The wood 
is also made into beautiful fancy articles. The ripe fruit, chandan 
eharoli, is eaten by the poor. GkcM; Buchanania latifolia, is a wild 
fruit tree found on highlands both in the east and in the west of 
the district. The wood is tough and the bark is used for making 
ropes and gondds or ornaments tied to the necks and horns of 
bullocks. The bark is used by tanners. The stones of its cherry-like 
fruit or chdroli, which abound in oil, are eaten roasted or pounded and 
are used in confectionery and other cooking. Ohinch, the Tamarind 
tree, Tamarindus indicus, both in the hilly tracts and in the plains, is 
commoner than any other large cultivated tree except the mango. 
It grows sixty or seventy feet high and. gives abundant shade. Its 
tough and lasting wood is used for cart-wheels and oil-mills and is 
valued for burning bricks and tiles. It makes excellent charcoal for 
gunpowder. The fruit, which ripens in February, is salted and 
stored in almost every house. The pulp of the frhit when preserved 
in sugar makes a cooling drink. The seed is fried and eaten by 
the lower classes ; in seasons of famine it is ground to flour and 
made into bread. Prom the seed is also prepared a size which 
is used by wool- weavers, saddlers, and book-binders. Chdpha, 
Michelia champaca, is common throughout the district- on wooded 
hills and tablelands and is also grown in gardens and near temples. 
The leaves are used as dining plates or patrdvalis and the wood is 
used as fuel. The milky juice is valuable in certain skin-diseases. 
Ddlimb, the Pomegranate, Punica granatum, of two kinds, is grown 
in gardens throughout the district and is valued for its fruit, and 
for the healing properties of its root, leaves, bark, flowers, and fruit 
rind. The bark of the root is used as a cure for worms and the juice of 
the fruit forms a pleasing and cooliag drink. It bears in November- 
December and again in April -May, and only when bearing does it 
require much watering. During the rest of the year an occasional 
watering is enough. The tree begins to bear in its fourth year ; it 
is in its prime from its sixth to its tenth year ; and under favourable 
circumstances continues to fruit till it is fifteen years old. 

Bhdman, Grewia tiliaefolia^ which flourishes near the sea, is also 
found in Poena. It is common in the forest lands in the centre 
and west, and is occasionally found on the eastern uplands. Its 
tough and elastic wood is_ used in house-building and is good for 
bows and for ciarriage-shafts. The berries have an agreeable bitter 
taste, the bark makes cordage, and the leaves are good fodder. 
Dhdvda, Conocarpus latifolia, one of the commonest and most useful 
timber trees, is plentiful in the west and centre and is occasionally 
found in the east. Its tough wood is much used in house-building 
and for field-tools and cart-axles. If not properly seasoned it is apt 
to be attacked by white-ants. Gehela, Randia dumetorum, a shrub 
rather than a tree, is plentiful in the western hills .and valleys, but 



Chapter it. 

production. 

Trees. 



CMr. 



Ohinch. 



Chdpha. 



DdMmbf 



Dhdman. 



Dhdvda. 



Gehela, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



46 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 

Productioii. 

Trees. 
Gorakh-chmch. 



Harda. 



Hallian, 



Hedu. 



Hivar. 



Hura. 

Jdypkal^ 
Jdntb, 



is not found in the east. The wood is used as fuel and the fruit as 
an emetic and a fish poison. Oondhan, Oordia rothii, is plentiful in 
gardens and forests. It differs from the bhohar in having narrower 
leaves rand red fruit. Goralch-chinoh, the Baobab, Adansonia digitata, 
occurs in a few gardens. The seeds are surrounded by a starchy pulp 
with an acid flavour which forms a wholesome and agreeable article of 
food, and is regarded as a specific in putrid and pestilential fevers and 
a valuable medicine in dysentery. The powdered leaves applied to 
the skia are used to check excessive perspiration. The bark is also 
an antidote to fever, and its fibres are used in making cordage. 
The tree is remarkable for the enormous size of its trunk. 

Sarda or Mr da, Terminatia ohebula, is plentiful on the western hills; 
From its value in tanning and dyeing the nut is in great demand in 
Europe. Of late years, since the demand has become constant, the 
people in the west preserve their harda trees and refrain from lopping 
them for ash-manure. A rise in the price of harda nuts would do more 
than almost any measure to clothe the sides of the western hills. A 
decoction of bruised myrobalans is a safe and effective aperient. It is 
also useful in skin-diseases. Hallian, Eriodendrum aiifractuosum, 
though not plentiful, is found in the thicker forests on the western hills. 
The light and soft wood is used in tanning leather and for making 
toys. The fine soft silky wool which surrounds the seeds is used for 
inaking cushions.. It yields a gum called hallianhe gond which is 
valued in bowel-complaints. Hedu, Nauclea cordifolia, is found 
only in the west and even there is seldom of any size. Its soft, 
yellow, close-grained wood is used in house-building and for other 
domestic purposes. The leaves are a valued remedy for children's 
stomach complaints. The yellow flowers of the Nauelea kadamba 
are sacred to Krishna who is said to have played with the milkmaids 
under a hadalmh tree. The flowers are imitated in native jewelry. • 
Hinganbet, Balanites egyptiaoa, is a thorny wild tree often growing 
thirty feet high. It is common in the east, in wooded hills, plains,, 
and tablelands. Its bitter leaves are used in medicine, and its 
wood as fuel and for making shoe-moulds. The unripe fruit is 
bitter and purgative. The ripe fruit is eaten by the poor. The 
seeds yield an oil and the bark a juice with which fish are 
poisoned. Hivar, Acacia leuoophlcea, is found in the centre and still 
more commonly in the east of the district. Its hard but somewhat 
brittle wood makes good posts and excellent fuel. The bark 
supplies a tough and vailuable fibre for fishing-nets and ropes. 
Brdhmans do not touch this tree as they believe it is haunted by an 
evil spirit who. occasioned the quarrel between Dasharath, king of 
Ayodhya, and his wife, which led to the banishment of Dasharath's 
sons Edm and Lakishman. 

Hura, Symplocos racemosa, is a small wild tree seldom more than 
twelve or fifteen feet high. It is found in the deeper forests of the 
western hills. Its yellowish strong and compact wood is much 
used in cabinet work. The bark is used in dyeing and as a 
mordant, and yields the well known scented abir powder-. Jdyphal, 
the wild-nutmeg, Myristica dactyloides, is sometimes grown in 
gardens. It has much less stimulant and narcotic power than the Java 
nutmeg, Jdmb, the Eose-apple, Eugenia jambos, is a garden tree. 



Decean.]- 



POONA. 



47 



It is of two kinds red and white, of which, the white is the commoner 
and at the same time the more highly esteemed. The bark 
yields a gum. Jdmhhul or Jdmbhal, Syzigium jambolanum, is a very 
common tree both cultivated and wild. It is found throughout 
the district but chiefly in and on the borders of the hilly west. It 
bears a small purple plum-like fruit which ripens in May and June 
and is much eaten. The tree grows twenty to fifty feet high with 
straight clean stem and glossy deep-green leaves. Its hard and 
reddish wood is valued for its power of resisting the action of 
water. It is much used in native house-buildings and for cart-frames 
and field-tools. The ba^k yields an excellent brown dye and is used 
as an astringent in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery. Khandul, 
Sterculia urens, is rare in the east and is not common in the wesfc. 
It yields a. gum like the tragacanth. and the leaves and twigs are used 
in cattle-disease. Its soft spongy wood is of no special value* The 
bark supplies excellent fibre for ropes. 

Karanj, Pongamia glabra, is a forest as well as a road and river- 
side tree. It is fairly plentiful throughout the district, thriving 
best on river-banks and near water. The tree sheds its leaves at 
the end of the cold season. It is almost at once reclothed in a 
beautiful covering of fresh pale green, and when the fresh leaves are 
mature it comes into flower, and fruits at the end of the year. The 
wood is light tough and fibrous of a yellowish brown, and if not 
properly Sfeasoned is soon attacked by insectsr Its fruit yields an oil 
which is used for lamps and valued as a cure for rheumatism and for 
itch and other skin-diseases. The rind or pend ot the bark is 
pressed and rolled by Pinjaris or cotton-teazers into a felt. 
Grass grows well under the shade of the haranj. Kalamb or hadamba, 
Nauclea parvifolia, is common in wooded lands both in the east 
and west. Its strong dark and close-grained wood is used in 
house-beams. Edmrak, better known as country gooseberry, 
Averrhoa karambola, is of two sorts sweet and bitter. The bitter 
variety is chiefly used in pickles and preserves. The ripe fruit ia 
yellow about two inches by one inch broad, and is so deeply indented 
that its cross section has the shape of a four-rayed star. Two crops 
may be produced by watering during the year. Kdju, Anacardium 
oceidentale, is found in the western hills. The wood makes excellent 
charcoal. The walls or pericarp of the seed contain a bitter oil which 
has powerful blistering properties. The enlarged crimson or yellow 
fruit-stem is also eaten and has a pleasant sour flavour. The raw 
kernel is unpleasantly bitter, but "when fried it is much prized in 
confectionery. In the Konkan a medicinal drink is made from the 
enlarged peduncle of the fruit. The trunk yields a transparent gum 
which is used as a varnish and is said to keep off insects. 

Karvand, Carissa earandas, is a large evergreen shrub found in 
the 'wooded parts of the central and western hills. The half ripe fruit 
is made into tarts, jellies, and pickles, and the ripe berry is largely 
eaten. Ectvath or Eut, the Wood-apple, Feronia elephantum, is 
found throughout the district both in forests and in gardens. It 
grows forty or fifty feet high and has beautiful dark-green leaves. 
It yields a large quantity of sweet gum which is used as a tonic. 
The fruit is round, three to four inches* ia diameter,- with, a hard 



Chapter II. 
Frodnction. 

Trees. 
JdmbhuL 



Khandul. 



Kalanib^ 



Kdmrah. 



Kdju, 



Karvand. 



Kavath. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



48 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 
Production, 

Trees. 

KhajuH or 
Shindi, 



Kel. 



woody stell, and yellow palp containing the seeds. When ripe it is 
eaten with sugar, and when green it is made into relishes and 
pickles. The pulp also makes excellent jelly. The wood is lasting' 
and useful and the leaves are used in children's bowel-complaints. 
Ehajuri or Shindi, the Wild Date, Phoenix montana and sylvestris, is 
plentiful in the western hills and is also found in gardens. It grows: f 
thirty to forty feet high. The fruit when ripe is of a reddish yellow : 
and has a sweetish and astringent pulp. Mats, baskets, and brooms 
are made of the leaves which are also used in thatching, and the 
juice drawn from the young shoots is either fermented or boiled 
into sugar and molasses. The wood is used for building, for water-- 
pipes, and for other purposes. Kel, the Plantain, Musa paradisiacay 
is perhaps commoner than any fruit except the mango. They are 
planted in gardens at any time of the year and require a rich soil 
and water once in ten or twelve days. They fruit only once and after 
twelve months are cut down, Fresh shoots spring from the root and, 
again fruit. The trees are generally removed when they have once 
sent up shoots and borne fruit. • The flower, the unripe fruit, and, 
the young shoots are all eaten as vegetables. Hindus use the leaves 
as dining plates and for making native cheroots or hidis. Thay 
are also valued for dressing blisters. The fruit, of which there are 
three varieties, a small yellow, a large yellow, and a large red, is 
an important article of food and the juice is sometimes inade into a 
fermented liquor. The stem fibres are use>ful to gardeners in 
budding and grafting and are also used in making paper. The wild 
plantain, chavad, grows freely iu the Sahyd,dris. 

Eenjal, Terminalia alata, is a common tree. The bark contains 
tannin and the wood which ig^ very good is supposed to be improved 
Kadu Khdrih. by keeping it under water. Kadu Kha/rih, Solamen jacquini, is found 
only in the western hills and uplands. Its heartwood yields a 
jpedicinal oil and its fruit is used as a cure for children's bowel- 
complaints. Khair, AcaCia catechu, is fairly plentiful on wooded, 
uplands and hills. It has a dark red wood, somewhat brittle but of 
great strength which is not attacked by insects and takes a good 
polish.. It is useful for all house and field purposes, especially in 
making ploughs, pestles, and cart-frames. From its heartwood 
is «xtracted the powerful astringent called hat which is so much ^ 
eaten with betel-leaf and used in medicine, dyeing, and painting. It 
is made by the Kdtkaris and Thdkurs of the petty division of 
Ambegaon. In making catechu, chips of the heartwood are boiled 
in earthen pots, the clear liquor is strained off,- and when of sufficient 
consistence is poured into clay moulds. Kdt is made to a very 
small extent in the Poona district Limbu, the Lemon, Bitens 
limmoun, is common in gardens.. It is grown in much the same 
Way as the guava and the fig. It is seldom, more than fifteen feet 
high. The fruit is to be had all the year round and is in great 
demand for its juice which is used in making drinks and in all kinds 
of cookery. The unripe fruit is often pickled and the rind and juice 
are used medicinally. The Sweet Lime, sdkhar-limhu, Citrus lamiata, 
is much larger than the common lime and though insipid is a great 
favourite with the people. It sometimes grows twenty or twenty- 
five feet high. The rind, yields an oil which is used in perfumery.. 



Khair, 



Linibu, 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



49 



Laldi, Albizzia amara, is largely found througliout the district on 
wooded hills and in plantations. The wood is dark -brown, strong, 
and fibrous, and is commonly used as fuel and in making plftnghs 
and- carts. The leaves are ttsed as a hair- wash. Makar Nimhon, 
the Wild Citron, Attantia monophylla, is found near the SahySdris. 
It is a handsome tree, but the cultivated fruit is so abundant that 
the wild variety is not used. The wood is white, very "Sue, and 
close-graiped; it is useful for. cabinet purposes. Maruh, Ailanthus 
excelsa, not unlike th.e English ash, is found both in the west and 
east of the district but is not plentiful. The wood is soft but 
close-grained, and is used for water-pipes, drums, sheaths, spears, 
and swofds. Mdhlung, Citrus medica, is much grown in gardens 
throughout the district. Its fruit which is as large as a cocoanut 
is used in medicine. The kernel is eaten and preserved, The 
leaves are used in flavouring and the rind is an aromatic stimulant 
and tonic, and yields an oil which is used in perfumery. The juice 
of the fruit is a refreshing and agreeable beverage. Mqha, Bassia 
latifolia, is found in the west and central hills and uplands. Though 
a forest tree, it is sometimes grown in gardens, especially near 
the Sahyddris. Its .young ruddy rbronze leaves are one of the 
greatest ornaments of the western forests at the beginning of the 
hot season. Its chief value lies in the thick fleshy bell-shaped 
flower which when dried is eaten and distilled into spirit. Almost 
every animal, wild or domestioj eats the fresh flowers ; the fruit is 
chiefly used as a vegetable. The wood, though easily attacked by 
white-ants is hard and lasting, but the tree is too valuable to be 
cut for timber. It is used for naves of wheels, frames of doors and 
windows, and other purposes. The seed when allowed to form is 
enclosed in a tbick walnut-like pod. It yields an excellent oil, 
good for food and burning and also for skin-diseases, and is used in 
making candles and sofkp. It is also used in adulterating clarified 
butter. The leaves and bark are useful in fomenting a wound. The 
bark yields a brown dye, and the leaves are made into plates, or 
patrdvalis which are used chiefly at religious feasts. 

Ndgch&fha, the Cobra Champa, Mesna ferea, is found in some of the 
western hills and uplands. The reddish wood which is known as 
iron-wood is said to b^ the heaviest and hardest timber in India. . 
>The dried anthers or fertilizers are fragrant; the flowers are used 
to deck women's hair, and the flowers and leaves as antidotes to 
poison. Nana, Lagerstrsemia parviflora, is abundant in the western 
hills. It is a straight-growing tree which yields a much used 
timber. Ndral, the Cocoa-Palm, Cocos nuoifera, is sometimes grown 
in gardens as an ornamental tree. Though in the Deccan it is 
seldom vigorous, in 1837, Colonel Sykes found a flourishing palm 
garden at Mdhd,lunge near Chdkan, and clumps of cocoa-palms at 
P£bal eighteen miles west of Sirur, and in other places. The 
cocoanuts, kernel, and oil Used in the district all come from the coast. 
Ndrmg, the Orange," Citrus aurantium, is grown in garden lands in 
considerable quantities and in much the same way as the pomegranate 
and the fig. The chief varieties are the mosamb or Mozambique and 
the santra from Cintra in Portugal. The orange tree is remarkable for 
the enormous number of fruit it yields, one tree sometimes bearing as 



(jhapter 11. 
Production. 

Trees. 

Makar 
Nimbori. 

Maruk. 



Moha. 



NdgcM^ha. 

Ndna. 
Ndrai. 



Ndriag. 



IA/U*UMMI^ 



50 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 

Frodnctioii. 

.Itees. 
■Iiimb. 



Pdngdra, 



Palo*. 



Papai, 



Paptuu. 



Ptscu. 



many as 1000 oranges a year. The leaves are used for flavouring and 
tlie rind of the fruit yields an essential oil valued in perfumery and as 
an aromatic stimulant and tonic. The juice of the fruit is a refi'esh- 
ing and agreeable beverage. Limb, Azadifachta indica, known as 
the. Indian Lilac, is found throughout the district. It is one of the 
commonest of garden and road-side trees, being grown chiefly for 
shade and ornaments- The wood is hard, lasting, and useful for 
furniture. The heartwood of bid trees has a fragrance, like sandal- 
wood and is used "for building. Its boiled leaves and fruit yield a 
bitter and cooling drink useful in fevers and, small- pox. The 
leaves are also used as a poultice and are eaten by Hindus with 
gram and molasses/ on the Shalivahan New- Year's D8.y, the 1st of..^ 
Chaiira-m April. . The bark is used as a medicine and oil pressed - 
from the seed in rheumatism. Pdngdra, Brythrina indica^ is plentiful' ■ 
in the western and central woods and is grown in gardens as a prop 
;for the betel-vine-. . Its soft spongy wood is used for making toys 
and moulds of shoes. The flower is_ supposed to have been stolen 
Jby Krishna out of Indra's heaven and is now under a curse and is 
never used for worship. 

Polos, Butea frondosa, is common in the west and centre and is 
'Ddcasionally found in the east. At the beginning of the ,hot^ season ' 
it is a mass of bright scarlet blossoms. ~ The leaves are much used 
as plates and the young shoots' are «aten by camels and other ■ 
animals. The wood is strong and tough and makes excellent char- 
coal. The stem yields kino gum which is valued in diarrhoea and 
"dysentery and for tanning, the flowers yield a valuable dye, and the 
root and bark excellent tough fibre.- The juice is also used in 
medicine. The paZas is a favourite, with the lac insect and the 
•best lac is found oil it. The seed-nut is given, to horses as a purge 
and to free them from worms. Papai, Carica papaya, is fairly 
common in gardens both in the plains and in the north-west of the 
district. The tree has much of the general appearance of. a palm,, 
'the fruit. and leaves clustering at the top of a straight bare stem. 
With water and manure it bears three times in the year.. The fruit 
is eaten both raw and cooked. The juice of the unripe fruit and the 
powdered seed are valued as a cure for worms. The. tree has the- 
. power of quickening the decay of flesh and newly killed meat is hung 
on. it to make it tendei*. ■ Papnas, the .Pomelo or Shaddock, Citrus 
'deoumana,'is not common except near large markets. Ifc is grown j 
only in gardens and requires a rich soil and constant watering. It 
grows fifteen feet high and if constantly watered bears twice a year. 
'Per"M, -the Guava, Psidium guava, is growii throughout the district 
in garden lands and thrives best in light soil. It is of two kinds 
red and white, the white, being the mors esteemed. It is common 
throughout the plain' country and on the boirders of the hilly west, ■ 
Noveniber and December, and April and May are its bearing 
seasons, and it is only in these months that it requires frequent 
watering. During the rest gf the year 'an occasional watering is : 
enough. The tree begins to bear in its fourth year ; it is in its prime 
from its sixth to its tenth year ; and under favourable circumstances '^ 
goes on bearing till it is fifteen years old. It is seldom over fifteen - 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



51'. 



leet high and is of a.spreading bushy habit. The frpitis much 
eaten both raw and in seyeral kinds of preserves and jellies. The 
bark is astringent, and the wood, hard strong and, lasting.. It is 
asefal for cabinet purposes. 

Phanas, the Jack, Artocarpus integrifolia, is not a common tree.- 
It is grown in gardens- and is. found wild near the hilly .west. It 
grows forty or fifty feet high, has dark glossy - foliage, and yields 
valuable timber. It is of two kinds, ftap a a superior variety, and 
harlca, which yields a kind of cake called phanaspoli. Stripped of 
its thorny cover the unripe fruit is eaten as a vegetable, and when 
ripe, as a fruit. It is also valued as a poultice, for guinea-worm. 
The leaves are used as plates. The seeds are eaten parched or 
mixed with vegetables, and the juice makes good birdlime. The 
heartwood yields a yellOw dye. Pila DhotrUj the Mexican Poppy, 
Argemone mexicana, is found throughout the district in .fields 
and near villages. The seeds are narcotic, and their oil which is an 
aperientis used as a cholera remedy and to cure skin-diseases. Pimpai^ 
Ficas religiosa, - is sacred, perhaps from its smooth ghost-wiite 
stem and branches and the windless rustling of its leaves. Among 
Buddhists it is the symbol of Gautama the last Buddha. . It is- 
commonly believed to be the abode of a mvnja or Brdhman youth 
who has been girt with the sacred-thread but has not been married 
and so is uneasy and feared. It is also apparently worshipped as a 
Img. It is girt with the sacredrthread and is surrounded by a, stone 
plinth, and Hindu women often walk many times round it to get rid 
of the evil spirit of barrenness. Its leaves are a favourite food for 
camels and elephants . and . are much liked by the lac insect. Its 
rapid growth and thick shade make it a useful roadside tree. 
■Except as fuel the wood is of no value. 

Pimpri, Ficus comosa, is found throughout the district. It is much 
like the pimpal and as it grows easily from cuttings is a useful 
ro&dlBiie tree.. Mdmphal, the Bullock's-Heart frnit, Anona reticulata, 
a; larger variety of the ous,tard-apple, is common in the western and 
central sab-divisions^ chiefly in gardens, and is niuoh value.d for its 
fruit. In good soil it sometimes' grows, forty feet high. The full 
grown fruit is as big as a cocoanut and has a sweet smell. The 
leaves have a fetid odour and when beaten, to pulp are used to kill 
lice on cattle. Its aromatic flowers are offered to the gods. 
Bdmhinta, the BrOom Babhul, Acacia, ramkanta, is a tall tree in shape 
like a huge broom. Though less abundant than other varieties of 
hdbhul it is common all over the district except in the far west. 
The wood ia much used, for cart-yokes and as fuel,, and the bark iij 
tanning. Rdtamhi, Garcinia purpurea, is a large- tree which is found 
occasionally near the Sahy^dris. The fruit which is offered for sale 
in most markets is used as an acid. Edy-dvla, Cicea disticha, is a 
cultiva-ted tree. The fruit is eaten as a pickle. Bui^ Galotropis 
gigantea, is found throughout the district on wooded hills and in 
•"plantationB. It ia valued foi^ the medicinal properties of its root 
'bark and leaves. The bush ia sacred, its flowers and leaves being 
offered to the gods and used in certain rejigioua ceremonies. The 
.^ .Wood makes excellent gunpowder charcoal. 0. procera, a similai; 
species, is also plentiful. 



Chapter II;. 
P^:odllctio4^ 

Treea* 
Phanas. 



JBila Dkofra., 



Pimpal. 



Pimpri. 
Udmphal.,. 



RdmJidnta. 



.I{<iiambi._ 

Rdy-dvla^ 
Rui, 



[Bombay Gagietteer, 



62 



DISfBIOTS. 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Trees. 



Sdgargota. 



Salai. 



Sarphali. 



Sdvri. 



Shevga. 



Shivan. 



Sawndad or 
Shami. ' 



8mu. 



8a,g, the Teak^ Tectona grandis, is found only in the Konkan near 
the Sahyadria and in the belt of country between about ten and 
twenty-five miles east of the Sahyddris in Junnar, Khed, Mavalj Haveli 
and Purandhar. It is easily raised from seed and in a moist climate 
is of rapid growth. As a timber tree it is unrivalled and is much 
valued- The wood is very Hard but easily worked, and though 
porous is very strong and lasting. In colour it varies fj-otn yellowish 
to white-brown. It is very oily -when fresh, yielding a good oil 
somewhat like linseed-oil which is ased as a va,rnish. The large 
leaves are used for lining roofs under thatch; Sdgargota, Oaesalpinia 
bonduoella, is a wild tree Which is specially pientiful in the west. 
Its bitter seed and the bark are used in intermitent - fevers as a 
tonic and its wobd as fuel. Salai, Boswellia tburifera, one of the 
frankincense trees, is common on all trap hills, and is easily knowi 
by its white scaly bark. The wood, which- is- full of resin, burns 
readily and is used for torches. The flowers and seed-nutS are eaten 
by the people, and the tree yields the gum olibanlim. Sarphali, 
is common throughout the district on wooded hills and mountains. 
It seldom grows to be more than a bush. A gum called kavcK 
ud, obtained from the b'ark, is used as incense, and is said to 
possess stimulant and diaphoretic properties. It also forms a part 
of some ointments, and its wood is used as fuel. This tree is well 
suited for covering bare hills as small cuttings thrown • on the 
dry soil strike root. Sdvri, the Silk-Cotton, Bombax malabarioum, 
is found chiefly in the west and central hills and uplands and on 
river banks. It is a large tree with a beautifully straight trunk, 
bright red flowers, and a soft down which malies excellent pillow 
stuflBng. Its whitish wood though soft is close'-grained and is said 
to make good packing cases. , It is also much used for water- 
channels and sword-scabbards. It yields a useful resin, the root 
when boiled gives a gummy substance which is valued as a 
tonic, and the bark is used as an emetic ' Shevga, Moringa ptery- 
•gosperma, is found throughout the district in gardens and near 
villages. It bears pods which' together with the leaves and flowers 
are eaten as vegetables. The seeds give a pure sweet oil Which is 
valued by watch-makers as it does not freeze except at a very low 
temperature» The wood is soft and the bark is useful in medioine. 
A gum from cuts made in the trunk, is used in rheumatism, 

Shivan, Gmelina arborea, is a beautiful flowering tree. It is abun- 
dant in the western woods and is occasionally found in the east where 
vegetation is fairly plentiful. The wood, which is like teak, takes 
a good polish, and is used in house-btiilding and for making wooden 
images and furniture. The fruit is a medicine. Saundad or Shatni, 
Prosopis spicegera, is largely found throughftut ' the district on 
Vfoody hills, plains, plantations, and tablelands j the tended fruit is 
used as a vegetable.. The wood, which yields a gum, is. hard, strong, 
and lasting, and is much used in making chuifning-staves or ravis. 
According' to the MahabhS,rat it was on the sJiami tree that the 
Pdndavs stored their arms during their thirteen years' exile. Sisu, 
Blackwood, Dalbergia latifolia, is scarce and of small size. It is 
occasionally found in the western and central hills. The timber, 
which is heavy, strong, and fibrous, takes a fine polish and is one of 



Deccau.] 



POONA. 



63 



the best of furniture woods. It springs readily from seed, but ia 
of very slow growth. The tree flowers in March and April. Siras, 
Albizzia lebbek, is a good roadside tree and is found throughout 
the district. It is oi rapid growth and takes well from cuttings. It 
yields a "gum. The wood is a light reddish brown, with dark veins; 
it is not liable to crack. It is well fitted for wheel naves, and 
for pestles and mortars ; the heartwood makes excellent charcoal. 
Sitdphal, the Custard- Apple, Anona squamosa,, grows readily on bare 
hill-sides, and in the cold weather yields a sweet and much valued 
fruit. It is common in gardens in the west and centre of the district 
and is grown in the same way as the guava. The tree is seldom 
more than fifteen feet high. The leaves have a fetid odour and 
when reduced to powder are used to kill lice on cattle. 

8upom, the B^l-Palm, Areca catechu, is found in some gardens, 
- but the nuts sold in the Poona markets are imported. The nut is 
eaten with betel-leaf and holds an important place in Hindu 
religious ceremonies. An extract made from the nut is used as 
catechu and the charcoal as tooth-powder. The wood, which is 
strong and lasting, is used as water-pipes, ■ Tdd^ the palmyra-palm, 
Borassus flabelliformis, which thrives best near the coast, is 
scarce in Poona. The fibre of its leaves is strong and useful, for 
house purposes. Toran, Syziphus rugosa, is a wild shrub which 
groiws freely in the western hills. The fruit when ripe is eaten. 
The wood is hard, strong, and close-grained, Tirli, Capparis 
rythocarpus, is a small tree which is common in the east. Its strong 
and porous. wood is not used for any special purpose. Tut, the 
Mulberry, Morus indica, is found in some gardens and near temples. 
There are many trees on the fort of Purandhar. Its fruit is Used 
as a refrigerant and laxative and the roots to cure worms. The 
leaves are the favourite food of the silkworm. Three species are 
mentioned, the white and the red which grow to a considerable 
size, and a smaller variety called chnnchu iy,t. Temhhurrli, 
Diospyros mdanoxylon, is found throughout the district on wooded 
hills and in plain plantations. The wood is jet black, hard, 
and heavy and is well suited for ornamental work. The 
heartwpod rubbed with water is used by Brdhmans to mark their 
foreheads. Tivas, Dalbergia oogeinensis, is fairly plentiful in the 
western and central hills. The wood is much valned being well 
suited for building and for making ploughs, wheels, and carriage 
poles. Umbar, Ficus glomerata, is a large spreading tree common 
in the SahysLdri forests, and though, often found in gardens and 
fields and near temples, is not a cultivated fruit tree. The leaves 
are usually covered with galls. The spittle produced by chewing 
umbar leaves mixed with cumin-seed or jira is considered excellent 
for inflamed eyes. The fruit, which is almost always full of flies, is 
eaten by the poor. When unripe it is taken as a vegetable, and io 
seasons of scarcity, is mixed ^|^th flour and made into cakes. The 
wood not beingr liable to split, is well suited for panels and drum^, 
and as it lasts under water it makes valuable well-frames. • The tree 
yields much milky joice, which, together with the leaves bark and 
fruit, is used medicinally and made into birdlime. The leaves are a 
good cattle and elephant fodder, , The tree is considered sacred to 



Chapter II, 
Production. 

Trees.. 
Sitas. 



Sitdphal. 



Supdii. 

Tdd. 

Torcm. 

Tira. 

Tut. 



Tembhumi. 



Tivcu. 



Umhwr. • 



[Boml9ay Gazetteer, 



54 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 

Productioii. 

Trees. 
Vad. 



Varas. 



Domestic Animals, 



the three-lieaded god Datt^traya who is supposed aLways to be present 
near its roots. 

Vad, the Banian tree, Ficus indioa, is common' both in the hilly 
west and in the eastern plains. As large cuttings when set in the 
ground grow readily/ it is a favourite roadside tree. "Its sap is 
sometimes used to reduce inflammation.' The timber is of little value, 
and as the tree is held sacred by the Hindus it is seldom felled or 
turned to any- use save for shelter and shade. The friiit is much 
eaten by birds but- is said to be poisonous for horses. Its leaves 
are used as plates or patrdvalis. In 1837, at the' village of Mhow 
in the Andhra valley,- Colonel Sykes noticed a banian tree with 
sixty-eight stems,- most of them thicker than a man's body; all 
except the parent stem were formed from air-roots'. With a vertical 
sun, it could. shade 20,000 men.^ Faras, Bignonia. quadrilocularis,., 
gives excellent wood for furniture and for planks and beams. It is 
fairly abundant in the central and western hills. 

^The Domestic Animals of Popna are the same as those found in 
other parts of the Deccan. The pasturage is uncertain. In a few 
seasons it is abundant, in many it is scanty or precarious, and in 
times of drought it fails. When the grass fails the cattle have to 
be sent to distant pastures in the higher hills and' large numbers 
perish. The 1876-77 famine reduced the number of all domestic 
animals, but the ' returns seem to show that the stock bf ■ horned 
cattle has nearly regained its former strength.^ The district has no 
class of professional cattle-breedeirs. But Kunbis who form the bulk 
of the husbandmen own large numbers of cattle, rear them with 
care, and sometimes deal in cattle. The 1881-82 returns show a 
total of about 200,000 oxen and 140,000 cows. Deccan cattle are 
hardy little animals, inferior in size and appearance to those ' of 



1 Report of the British Associatipn for 1837, 25S. ~ ' 

'From materials supplied by K£lo S^heb Nilkanth Bhagvant Mule, Mdmlatd&r, 

and Major G. Coussmaker. ■ 

^ The following statement sho-w:s the returns of cattle and horses during the seven 

years ending 1881-82. These and other returns of animals cannot claim any great>. 

accuracy : 

PoOTMCattle and Horses, ISfS-lSSB. 



Ybar. 


Bullocks. 


Cows. 


She- 
buffaloes. 


He- 
buSaloes. 


Horses. 


Mares. 


1876-76 ... 


205,123 


158,988 


. 50,148 


12,436 


5389 


6070 


1876-77 ... 


189,741 . 


117,684 


. 39,338 


9817 


4706 


3417 


1877-78 ... 


202,403 


112,444 


39,509 


9716 


4620 


3452 


1878-79 ... 


202,323 


116,024 


37,586 


10,184 


4650 • 


3633 


1879-80 ... 


210,027 


l-il,9r8 


36,634 


10,796 


4228 


3803 


1880-81 ... 


218,795 


130,371 


40,242 


11,714 


4166 


3876 


1881-82 ... 


206,632 


139,793 


41,055 


12,068 


5022 


4106 



Year. 


Colts. 


Asses. 


Sheep and 
.Goats. 


Total. 


, Decrease 
compared 








- 


with 1876-76. 


1875-76 


2466 


7137 


273,584 


720,640 • 




1876-77 


1429 


5584 


233,266 


. 604,982 


116,S68 


1877-78 


1236 


6021 


236,370 


, 615i771 


104,769 


1878-79 


- 1638 


6106 


245,4i'l 


. 626,685 


93,905 ' 


1879-^0 


1987 


5230 


261,847 


. 866,470 


64,070 . 


1880-81 


2177 


677fl 


242,646 


. 6i)5,757 


64,788 , 


1881-82 :.. 


1774 


6936 


285,200 


702.676 ' 


17,863 • 



Oeccan.l 



POONA. 



55 



Gujarat. -Of their breeds it is diflBcult to say anything definite. 
Few natives take intelligent notice of varieties of breed. They only 
recognize certain distinguishing marks or characteristics, the pos- 
session of which may be said to constitute a certain- breed. They 
seldom take the trouble to keep the breeds pure or to improve 
them. They pay little attention to the animaVs cleanness or 
comfort.: Every village has its public grazing grounds, inferior waste 
lands free- oE Government assessment, the resort of almost all the 
village cattle. The mixing of the cattle in the grazing grounds does 
much toinjure the breed and to spread disease. 

Bullocks, returned at 206,632, and cows at 139,793, are, as far as 
has, been ascertained, of ten kinds, Khilari, Malvi, Ghir, Dangiy Deshi, 
Arabi, Naghoris, Varhddi; Akulkhdshi, and Hanams. Khilari cattle, 
balled after the cattle-breeders of th&,t name who are found in West 
Khdndesh, • are the most valuable draught animals in the Deccan. 
They are of good size, active, strong, and fairly teachable. 
They are & little, slighter, but much resemble the famous Amrit 
Mahdl breed of Hanshr in Maisur. They have clean limbs, fine 
bones, sloping shoulders, round barrel, high hind quarters, and 
smallshard and tough hoofs. One of the favourite breeding grounds 
of the Khilari cattle is the hilly country between Sd.tdra and 
Pandharpur whence they are generally brought. A pair of these 
bullocks will travel in a riding cart day after day at a steady pace 
of six miles ■ an hour. The colour of the cows is almost always 
creamy white;. of the bulls the same with reddish grey fore- 
quarters. The horns are long and upright, thin and irregularly 
curved in the case of the cows, and in the case of the bulls handsome 
aaid aiassiye, close together at the base, sloping back with a slight 
outward curve opening. to,a span- of a foot, and ending in sharp and 
strong points. The ears are of medium size pointing backwards 
with the opening expose/i;- they rarely droop or turn upwards. Oxen 
of this breed cost £3 to £20 (Es. 30> 200) and cows£2 10«. to £9 
(Rs. 25-90) each.' Gowsare seldom sold as the owners are unwil- 
ling to , part with them, and when a promising calf _ is bom allow it 
to drink the whole of its. mother's milk. Mdlvi cattle come from 
the extensive grazing grounds of Malva, being brought by Vanjdris 
and Lamdnis with. whom they are gr&at favourites.^ The bullocks 
are good-tempered steady workers and teachable. - The Mdlva breed 
includes two varieties, a short-horned' and a long-horned.- The 
short-homed Md,lva bullock differs greatly from the Khildri,' being 
formed for steady plodding rather than for speed: • "They^have a long,' 
square, level frame, with short.curvedhorns'pointing forwards j"th&' 
face is rather short and straight ; the ears slightlyjbenfaiid not' 
very large ; the colour white with a bluish grey above the fore-quarters ■ 
of young animals and bulls. The cows are fine milkers. - The long-- 
homed variety is larger and" more loosely made; its horns are turned 
upwards at tbe base, and then upwards and backwards, giving the 



Chapter II. 

Production. 

Boinestic Animals. 



Oxen and, Cowi, 



■ 'The Lam^nis come from Khdndeah and'MAlva and sell cattle on credit, returning 
after harvest to receive payment. . They go from village to village. The Lamdnia are 
locally known as Hedes from hed a bulloofe. This word is applied. to all Mnhammadans 
a)id Hindus who deal in bullocks. Mr. J. G. Moore, C.S. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



56 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter IL 
Production. 

Domestic AnimEds. 
Oxen and Cowsi 



animal a more stately appearance. The colour, as a rule, is darker, 
the grey being often spread. oTer the whole body. As they are taller 
than the others, husbandmen generally put the long-horned Mdlras 
next the plough, for the higher the plough yoke is lifted the deeper 
the share enters the earth.. The cows are good milkers ; even when 
more than eighteen years old, within a fortnight after calving, they 
give about twenty-two pints (11 Poona sAer^s) of milk. Malva oxen 
cost £2 10s. to £10 (Rs. 25-100), and M41va cows £2 to £7 ]0«. 
(Rs. 20-75). 

The Ghir or Sorthi, that is the South Kdthi^wfir breed, is noble 
and stately, but the specimens met in the Deocan are seldom the 
best of their kind and are probably of mixed blood, some from 
K^thidwdr and others from Surat and Baroda. They are heavy and 
loosely made. They have a long stride and can draw very heayy and 
bulky loads, but their feet and -hoofs are not suited to the stony 
Deccan and they soon become lame. They are also headstrong and 
difficult to turn. They are mostly used as pack animals and are 
much prized for the heavy work of. garden cultivation. This 
breed varies much in colour, but its other characteristics are very 
marked: great height, a large massive head, short blunt curled 
horns, a round jutting forehead, large limpid eyes, and very 
long pendulous ears with a half twist so as to bring, the opening 
in front. The cows are long of yielding profit, but after calving 
they give about twenty-five pints (12-13 shera) of good milk a day. 
The breed is imported by Xamdnis. Sorthi oxen cost £5 to £30 
(Rs. 50-300) and Sorthi cows £3 to £12 (Rs. 30-120). The Dd,ngi, 
thatis the Kolvan or North Thana breed, is common in the Akola 
sub-division of Ahmadnagar and presumably in similar localities 
along the Sahyadris. As they roam freely in large herds over the 
forest-clad hills, these cattle become hardy, and indifferent to the 
weather. They feed on all sorts of fodder and thrive as well on rice 
straw as on millet stalks. They are neither large nor well-made, are 
very ordinary workers, but useful and hardy. Their colour is marked^ ' 
a dirty white with spots and blotches, of black or dark-brown. 
They have small black horns, for the most part curly, but the 
curliness is not sufficiently marked to be taken as a characteristic 
of the breed. The cows, which are good milkers. and well tempered, 
sell at £2 to £5 (Rs; 20 - 50). The bullocks generally fetch much the 
same price as the cows except in the more distant markets where 
their, price varies from £4 to £15 (Rs. 40- 150). The Deshi or 
local breed to which the largest number of cattle belong, is too 
mixed to be definitely described. They vary in every particular. The 
oxen, some of whom will work in the same team with well-bred 
oxen, 'cost £1 10s. to £9 (Rs. 15-90), and the cows, which when 
well fed clean and kindly treated yield ton to eighteen pints (5-9 
shers) oi milk a day, cost £1 to £5 (Rs. 10-50). The Arabi or Aden 
cattie are the best cattle in the district. They are small, between 
3 J and four feet at the hip, gentle, and docile, moderate feeders, and 
good milkers. The colour is either white or grey gradually changing 
to blue grey or black on the fore and hind quarters with blacker 
points, and a white ring^ above the coronet of the hoof, or fawn- 



Oxen and Oows. 



DeccanJ 

POONA. 57 

coloured deepening into a reddish brown more or less dappled. Chapter II. 

The horns are small and w&ak, often deficient ; the hump is well Production. 

developed ,■ the eyes are large and full ; the face short and straight ■ a ■ 1 

with a small square muzzle ; the ears small erect or pricked forward, """^^ '" °'°** 

never hanging ; the body square with a full dewlap ; the skin fine 

and thin ; "tlie hair very short and smooth ; and the tail thin and 

whip-like ending in a moderate tuft. The breed is attractive and 

the cows command £5 to £12. (Rs. 50 - 120). The bulls are strong, 

docile, and active, and can be used for draught and stud purposes. 

The cows come early into profit, and are most valualjle for dairy 

purposes.^ There are four other varieties, Naghoris of which an ox 

costs £5 to £12 10s. (Rs. 50-125) and a cow £2 to £6 <Rs. 20-60) ; 

Varhddisor Berar cattle of which an ox costs £5 to £10 (Rs. 50-100) 

and a cow £2 to £6 (Rs. 20-60); and Akulkhdshis costing £5 to £12 

lOs. (Rs. 50-125). Finally there is the breed called Hanams which 

are brought from Nemd,d and the Mahddev hills south of Phaltan. 

They are generally used as cart-bullocks for which they are better 

suited than for the plough. They are rarely employed in carrying 

packs. -As they sometimes fetch as much as £20 (Rs. 200) a pair few 

Kunbis can afford them. 

Oxen are generally used in field-work,- for drawing water from 
wells and carrying it in skin-bags or pakhdls, for drawing carts, for 
pressing oilseed, and sometimes for riding. Except that barren 
cows are used hj Vanjdris as pack-animals no cows are made to 
work. Working bullocks are fed with grass chaff, cotton-seed, oil- 
cake, and sometimes millet ears, also with whatever green produce 
the husbandmen do not take to market, as the haulm of sweet 
potatoes and groundnut. When out of work the bullocks are sent 
with the cows to the village grazing lands under the charge of a 
cowherd or gurakhi? At night they get nothing to eat but grass. 
During the rains when there is no field-work some of the oxen are 
taken to the hills and lefb at large to graze. As regards the 
feeding of cows there is diversity both of opinion and of practice ; 
but millet stalks, both Indian millet or jvdri and spiked millet or 
hdjri, are considered 'the best food.^ Kulthi, Doliehos biflorus, 
cotton-seed or sarki, and wheat bran, mixed with a little salt, 
increase the supply of milk ; kulthi is sparingly given as it is apt to 
bring on abortion. Of the different kinds of oil-cake that produced 
from the earthnut is considered the best ; linseed til Besamum 
indicum is also valued, and khurdsni Verbesina sativa and 

' ' Lady', belonging to Major G. Coussmaker, had her second calf when 4^ years old 
and before the calf was four months old gave eleven Poona ehers (22 pints) of. milk 
daily. When the calf was a year old the mother was still giving about nine pints a 
day and did not dry for three months more. The heifer calf came into season when 
scarcely a year old. 

* The cowherds are generally small boys and girls. They take the cattle to the 
pasture-ground between six and seven in the morning. They water them at some stream 
or pond thrice a day, in the morning, at midday, and in the evening. At midday 
they gather the cattle round them and sit under some tree playing the flute. In the 
afternoon the cowherds again take the cattle to the pasture-ground and bring them 
home in the evening. Though often very young, the cowherds, by the use of stones, 
Hticks, and abuse, have their cattle completely under control and sometimes amuse 
themselves by riding oh the backs of buUookS and she-buffaloes. 

B 310-8 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



58 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 

Production. 

Domestic Animals. 
Oxen and Cows. 



Cattle Diitaae. 



safflower are used, but their bitterness is apt to taste the milk.' 
According to some authorities oil-cake of all kinds lessena the 
quantity of milk but increases the amount of butter and cream. 
Ofeww*, that is the husk and broken grain oitur pulse stewed in 
water, is &, favourite food which keeps, the cow quiet at milking 
time. Three pounds of chuni, thtee . pounds of cotton-seed, two 
pounds of oil-cake, twelve pounds of millet stalks, ten pounds of 
lucern or other green fodder, and two handfuls of wheat bran, and 
one handful of salt given in each of the three pails of drinking water, 
are a liberal allowance for a cow. Generally eight pounds of grain 
and twelve pounds of dry fodder are considered ample rations. 
When cows are kept only for m&k, it is usual to milk three of the 
four teats, leaving the fourth for the calf. When it is meant to be 
reared for field-work or for other purposes the calf is allowed to 
drink the whole of the milk. The following items represent the 
cost to Europeans in .Poona of keeping a cow in full milk. 
The daily allowance of food is about two pounds (one Poona sher) of 
millet, tur bran or chum, and cotton-seed ; fifteen pounds of millet 
stalks ; and five pounds of green grass or lucern. A little salt is 
mixed with the gram and some handfuls of bran with the water. 
At the following average rupee prices, cotton-seed sixty pounds, tur 
bran thirty-two, millet thirty-eight, millet stalks twenty-eight 
bundles or about 160 pounds, and lucern about 170 pounds, the 
quantities mentioned above give for grain a monthly cost of .abottfc 
9s. 44d (Rs. 4^), for millet stalks 6s. (Rs. 3), for lucern 2s. (Re.l),' 
and about 7|d. (5 annas) for salt and bran, that is a total monthly 
cost of sibout 18s. (Us.. 9). In addition to the grains given to cows, 
a buffalo gets two pounds (1 sJier) a day of oil- cake, twenty instead 
of fifteen pounds of millet stalks, and ten instead of five pounds of 
green grass. • The monthly cost of a buffalo's keep maybe estimated 
at about £1 4s. (Rs. 12). Of this about 12s. (Rs. 6) are on grain 
and oilcake, 8s. (Rs. 4) on millet stalks, 3s. 6d. (Rs.lf) on lucern^ 
and 7^d. (5 annas) on salt and bran. If fed in thjs way a cOuntry 
cow will give eight to twelve pints (4-6 Poona slier s) a day, and a 
Kdthidwdr or Aden cow sixteen to twenty- two pints (8-11 sAers), 
A buffalo gives fourteen to twenty -four pints (7-12 Poona s/iers). 
Oien which are being prepa,red for sale or are extra fed to make 
them stronger and more useful in the field, are kept at home day and 
night and fed largely on ground or bruised pulse, groundnut, 
cottonseed, seaamum, ieeah. jvdri stalks, 6a/n' flour, and sometimes a. 
small quantity of oil. Bullocks are guided by a string called vesan 
which is passed throflgh the nose. 

The chief forms of cattle disease are tiva a disease of the stomach, 
Idl a disease of the mouth, susM a disease of the bowels, Tthurkut a 
disease of the hoofs, dhenddl a fatal diarrhoea, and phdshi a disease 
of the tongue.' Buve, caused by gas in the stomach after imprudent 
feeding, is easily cured by an aperient of hot linseed-oil, peppermint, 
and ginger or epsom salts. The Indian form of the foot and mouth, 
disease is easily cured with cleanliness, carbolic acid, and careful 
feeding. 

Except Ghirs or Sorthis, which live for more than thirty years, the age 



Deccan,] 



POONA. 



59 



of a ballock or cow varies from twenty to twenty-five years. The bull 
has a sacred character as the carrier or vdhan of Shi v. The cow also 
is sacred, but the bullock, except that his flesh is never eaten but by 
the lowest classes, is not treated with any special respect. Butchers 
who are all Musalm^ns kill cows and bullocks for the use of the non- 
Hindu population. Cattle which die from disease or accident become 
the property of the village servants, the Mhdrs and Mangs. They 
eat the flesh and dispose of the hides to the tanners or Ohambhdrs 
and of the bones to Musalmdn dealers who send them to Bombay for 
export to England or to the coffee plantations in Ceylon, where they 
are used in making manure. A bullock or cow with one horn turned 
up and the other turned down or akshapdtdl, a snorer or ghorndra, 
a reeler or dulndra, and one with small white spots phulalela, are 
considered likely to cause loss or damage to the owner. Mangs 
castrate bullocks by applying butter to the testicles and rubbing 
ajud squeezing them for about half an hour between two smooth 
cylindrical rods called musals. After the operation the bullock is 
allowed to rest for about a fortnight during which he is well fed 
and cared for. In very many cases the bulls are not castrated 
before they are five or six years old, as by that time they are full 
grown and their humps and horns are well developed. In front of 
many temples of Shiv is a sitting stone image oi nandi or the bull, 
the carrier of the god. In entering one of these temples a Hindu 
worshipper places his hand on the testicles of the ball and bows to 
the ling taking care to see the ling between the bull's horns. The 
cow is the most sacred of animals. Its five products or panch-gavya, 
urine, dung, milk, curds, and butter, are taken on the Shrdvahi 
Day to purify the soul from sin.i They are also drunk on the 
eleventh day after a death or, birth by all the members of the 
family. . A cow, or more correctly her nominal value which ranges 
from 6d. (4 annas) upwards, is given in charity to Brahmans.'' 
Every year on the last oi Ashddh, Shrdvan, or Bhddrapad (Jnly- 
September) Kunbis or Marathd,s keep a holiday called yoZa or the bull- 
feast, from pol a bull, in honour of their cattle. On the pola or bull 
day the bullocks are washed and painted with red earth. Their 
horns are covered with tin-foil or begad, hemp tassels are tied to 
the horn tips, a necklace of bells is fastened round their necks, 
coloured clothes are thrown over their backs, and they are fed with 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Domestic Animals 
Oncen and Cows. 



1 The mantra or sacred verse repeated on the occasion is 
pdpam ddie tiahthati mdmahe, prdsfmuU panchagavyocsya daJudyagnirivendhanam, 
that is, By the drinking of the fire products oi the cow the sin which has penetrated 

" into my skin and bones is burnt, like fuel by fire. 

2 Cow-gifts or gopraddns are made to Brdhmans . on the occasion of an eclipse or 
of a death. The dying man or some near relation generally makes a cow-gift to 

' Brihmans. Of the four cows which are given to Br^hmans after a death, one forms 
part of the ten prescribed charities or dosha ddnas; the second is called the vaitami 
as she draws the dead man across the Vaitama river in the lower world ; the third is 
called pdpakshaya-dhenu or the sin-deetroying cow ; and the fourth is called mohsha- 
dhenu or the salvation-givipg cow. . When a man cannot give four cows he gives only 
one, the vaitarnii Besides these a male and a female calf called vafsa and tari, with a 
bell tied round the neck of each, are set loose at one of the funeral rites. The male 
calf is branded on the blade of the thigh bone with a red-hot three-pointed iron pike 
01 trishul. Since the Cattle Trespass Act has come into force these calves are given to 
K'unbis wlio take them to their fields. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



60 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 

Production. 

Domestic Animals. - 
Oxen and Cows. 



malida, tliat is wheat or millet flour and molasses. In the evening 
all gather near the village office or chdvdi and form a procession with 
music. The pdtil or some other rich villager tak-es the lead and the 
procession passes outside of the village gates. The day ends with 
a rich supper. People generally of the- Trimdli caste from the 
Karndtak teach bulls, to dance and balance themselves on their 
masters' thigh and belly, and answer a few set questions by shaking 
their heads, recognizing and approaching a particularly dressed 
individual, and grunting in. a peculiar manner. The owners get corn, 
money, and old clothes. The custom of ke&ping a sacred bull or pol 
free from work and fed by all is still kept in many villages. But as 
young bulls are seldom castrated till they are four or five years old 
and as till then they graze with the other cattle, the advantage of 
the village' bull is to- a great extent lost. 

Buffaloes, returned at 53,123 in 1881-82, are common over the 
whole of the district. The cow-buffaloes (41,055) provide most of the 
milk. They are considered hardier and thrive on coarser food than 
other cattle. Many male calves are allowed to perish, but especially 
in the western rice-fields some are used in the plough. They are of 
special value in the rainy season when the sun. is not oppressive. 
A cow-buffalo is not made to work except when she gets fat and 
unmanageable. Eleven kinds of buffaloes are found in the district': 
Shindan or Sindh buffaloes, costing £2 to £20 (Rs. 20 - 200) ; Kachhan 
or from Dutch, worth £3 to £20 (Rs. 30-200.); Jafari of from 
Jafarabad in KAthidwd,r, worth £5 to £20 (Rs. 50-200); Bhesri, worth 
£2 to £12 10s. (Rs. 20-125); Surti or from Surat, worth £5 to £20 
(Rs.50-200); Varhddi or from Berdr, worth £2 to £12 lOs. 
<Rs. 20-125); Nemddi or from Nem^d, worth £1 10s. to £10 (Rs. 15- 
100); Gdvthi or local, worth£l 10s. to £8 (Rs.15-80); Gavldn or Gavli, 
worth £2 to £10 (Rs. 20-100) ; Mdhu%i or from Mahur, worth £1 10s. 
' to £7 1 Os. (Rs. 15-75); and Bhang ari or JDhangar, worth £2 10s. to £10 
(Rs. 25-100). The Gtavlis or Dhangars are jprofessional buffalo- 
breeders and earn their living by selling milk, curds, and fresh and 
clarified butter. In order to get a larger quantity of milk they often 
destroy the young calf as soon as it is born, taking care to prevent the 
mother seeing it by folding a piece of cloth round her eyes as other- 
wise she would not give her milk unless the calf was by her side. 
Most rich and middle-class people keep she-buffaloes for their milk. 
The male buffaloes (12,068) are in such little esteem in the Decoan 
that few people keep them. When a male calf is born, it is either 
thrown away or taken to some distance and deserted, when it is 
killed by wild animals, dogs; or low-caste natives. Buffaloes are fed 
with grass, millet stalks or saram, and chaff. In the rainy season they 
are sent to graze in fields or on hill-sides. Cow-buffaloes, when in 
milk, before or at the time of milking, receive a mash of crushed 
pulse and oil-cake, cotton-seed, and rice bran. She buffaloes are almost 
always stall-fed and well cared for. A cow-buffaloe calves once 
every two years, and usually gives milk for a year after calving. 
Buffaloes cannot bear the heat of the sun and are very fond of 
water and shade. When not at work they are taken to a river 
stream or pond^ where thej' lie for hours all under water except their 



Dcccan.] 



POONA. 



6i 



heads or even their noses. She-buffaloes are washed daily and are 
shaved once or twice a year. Buffaloes live from twenty to twenty- 
five years. He-buffaloes used in field-work are castrated either by 
stone-breakers or by husbandmen. As a rule it is only in working 
rice-fields that the buffalo is preferred to the bullock. That a he- 
buffalo may not get mischievous, or when his neck wants strengthen- 
ing, a string or vesan is passed through his nose. To strengthen his 
neck he is tied by the head for a few hours every day. This is to 
prepare him for the yearly buffalo-fight on Dasara Day ( September - 
October) in which the winner is the buffalo who forces the other 
back. A bull-buffalo . is offered as a sacrifice to -Devi or Durga in 
every Poona village on Dasara Day (September-October) . The village 
headman cuts off the head if possible with a single stroke of his 
sword. The flesh of the sacrificed buffalo, as well as of buffaloes who 
die from sickness or a.coident, is eaten by Mhdrs and Mangs. The 
hides are used for making water-bags and buckets, and the horns 
which are useful for making glue are exported in large quantities. 
That fat and beautiful cattle may not suffer from the evil eye, a black 
thread with a cowry shell or a marking-nut, or sometimes an old 
shoe, is tied round its neck or leg. 

^Of Horses, mares, and foals, the 1881-82 returns showed a total of 
10,992. The horse requires more care than any other domestic animal. 
The district has long been famous for its ^horses, and there are few 
villages in East Poona without one or two brood mares. Horses are 
used for riding, driving, and carrying loads. Eight breeds of horses 
are found in the district: Deshis, including Bhimthadis or Bhivarthadis 
that is of the valley of the Bhima, and Nirthadis that is of the valley 
of the Nira, cost £6 to £60 (Rs. 60-600) each; Kdthi^wadis cost £10 
to £100 (Rs. 100-1000) ; Iranis or Persians, £1.5 to £100 (Rs. 150- 
1000) > RangddiS of North India with prominent noses, £10 to £50 
(Rs. 100-500) ; Australians, wrongly calledTOape horses, £30 to £300 
(Rs. 300 - 3000) ; Pahadis or Yabus, £10 to £100 (Rs. 100 - 1 000) ; 
- Pegus £20 to £100 (Rs. 200 - 1000) ; Arabs, including those imported 
from Arabia and the Deccan produce of Government stallions, £10 
to£200 (Rs. 100-2000) j and Chd,rghoshas, literally four that is slit- 
eared, of which there are very few, about £50 (Rs. 500).^ Of these 
the local or Deshi horses, which are bred on the banks of the Bhima 
and Nira, were most esteemed by the Marathas. They were of a 
middle size, strong, and rather handsome, generally dark bay with 
black legs.^ The Dhangar or Khilari pony deserves notice. He is 



Chapter II. 
Production. 
Domestic Anima 



Hortes. 



' The details regarding horses owe much to additions by Mr. W. Lamb, Supeiin- 
teudent Horse Breeding Operations. ' 

' The Persian chdr four and ghosha ear. 

" As it does now to the Government Arab and English stallions the Bhimthadi or 
Decoan horse formerly owed much to foreign sires, to Arab and Persian horses 
brought by sea to the Konkan ports and to Turki horses brought by laud from Upper 
India and Afghanistan. The import of horses probably dates from very early times. 
But there is no evidence that it was an important trade until the Muhammadan 
conquest of Upper India between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. At thp 
close of the thirteenth century Marco Polo notices that large numbers of horses were 
brought from Arabia and Persia into South India. The climate did not suit horses 
arid the people did not know how to treat them ; they lived only a few years 
(Yule's Marco Polo, II. 277-278). Shortly after Marco Polo's time (1297 -1327) repeated 



LiJomDay uazetteer, 



62 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 

Production. 

Domeatic Animals. 

Horses. 



thick-set, sliort-Ieggedj and strong, very unlike the ordinary village 
pony though really of the same breeds The difference is chiefly due 
to early castration and the perfect liberty which in consequence it is 
possible to give thetn. Each family or tribe of wandering Dhangars 
keeps five to twenty or thirty poniesj most of them geldings and the 
rest mares. Most are bought from villagers but some are bred by 
the Dhangars. As they have no stallions their mares are. generally 
covered by chance village ponies. The Dhangar ponies were the 
best of the thousands that in 1879-80 were sent from the Deccan 
as baggage carriers in the Afghan campaign. It is the fashion to 
say that the breed of valuable Deshi ponies is either extinct or 
degraded. Still many first-class ponies can be seen on the mail cart 
line between Poona and Belgaum, and excellent pony hacks can 
often be bougkt in Poona. Although there are no professional 
breeders in the district, the headmen and other well-to-do villagers, 
especially in the eastern sub-divisions, keep mares both with the- 



inroads of Musalmdns from the noTth showed the Hindu chiefs of the south that their 
only hope of success la/ in improving their cavalry. From the middle of the fourteenth 
century, when the great MusaJm^ dynasty of the Bahmanis (1347-1526) was estab- 
lished at Kulburga in the Deccan and the great Hindu dynasty of the Yijayanagar 
kings was established (1330-1565) in the Earn^tak, to secure a large supply of 
horses became one of the chief cares of the state. As during that time the Deccan 
was ciit off from North India the bulk of the horses were brought by sea through the 
Konkan ports. In the sixteenth century the Portuguese found that their chief 
influence with Indian powers lay in their control over the import of horses. Scarcely 
a treaty with GujarAt, Ahmadnagar, or Vijayanagar is without a horse clause, the 
promise on< the part of the Portuguese that horses shall be brought to their allies 
and shall,be prevented from reachingthe ports of their allies' rivals, Under the 
Marithd,s in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the import of horses through 
the Konkan continued. It was less important than formerly, apparently because 
communications with North India were open and easy and large numbers of horses 
came to the Deccan' from the north. The Mar4th4s also had learned how to breed • 
and rear horses in the Deccan. Moor (Little's Detachment, 95), writing about 1790, 
says : ' The Mardth^s certainly breed many horses and procure others from Arabia and 
Persia and from Kandahdr and the noiithern parts of Hindustan.' The two chief 
breeds were the Arab and the Turki. The Turki was a heavy horse which would 
have crossed well with the Arab. But the Mar^thda objected to crossing breeds. 
They /put Arab to Arab and Turki to Turki and thought that if the blood was kept 
pure the foal would have all the virtues- of its parents. The Deccani ponies 
which Otme (Fragments, Note IV.) calls ' so diminutive and naughty that no one 
owns them,' Moor thought a most contemptible breed though' not so despicable as 
Orme made them. They were serviceable and hardy and were often used instead of 
bullocks for carrying loads. They were worth 10«. to 30s. (Bs. 5-15). Horses of 
ordinary size bred in the country sold for £20 to £60 (Es. 200 -600) and northern 
horses up to £100 (Rs. 1000) which was reckoned a hi^h price. Horses were fed on 
gram and hvUhi, favourites sometimes being indulged with sheep's head broth, rice and 
milk, and other dainties. Their medicine for all forms of sickness was masdkaj spices 
mixed with flour and clarified butter. Except when they were vicious horses were 
seldom gelt. Their trappings were a bridle with one bit like a snafle, a horse-hair 
cloth with.a leather girth and stirrups or a peaked saddle, and ornamented martin- 
gals and cruppers. At the sides of the horse tails of the white wild-cow were hung 
sometimes six a side ; the mane was plaited in small braids with poloured silks and 
hanging silver knobs, and there was a necklace over the horse's chest of plates of 
silver or of silver coins. They carried with them the head and heel ropes and the 
leather feeding bag. The MardthSs deserved to have the best horses, such care did 
they bestow on them. When dismounted a MarAtha was always shampooing his 
horse, rubbing him violently with his elbows and wrists, and bending the animal's 
joints backwards and forwards. With .this careful grooming a MarAtha's horse on a 
pound and a half (1^ aher) of grain looked as well as a European's horse on four oiv : 
five pounds. Little's Detachment, 89-9iS. Some details of the horse trade betweenfi 
A.D. 635 and 1567 are given in the KAnara Statistical Account, pp. 49-51, 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



63 



object of ridiagf and breeding. The number of horaes has doubtless 
diminished. This is generally attributed to the great drain on 
the stock of horses for service in the Persian campaign of 1856-57, 
the Abyssinian campaign of 1867-68, and the Afghan campaign of 
1879-80. As only males were taken on those occasions the mares 
would soon have replenished the numbers if the regular demand 
was as great as formerly. ■ The true explanation seems to be that 
the extension of made roads and railways and the gi-eat reduction 
in the mail cart service have combined to lower the demand and 
therefore to reduce the supply.- Though the Mardthds cling to 
the name Bhimthadi and will often maintain that a mare is of pur& 
Bhimthadi breed, it is impossible to prove and difficult to believe 
in pure local descent.' The fa,ct that the best Bhimthadi mares are 
in many cases fifteen hands high raises a strong presumption of 
English or Arab blood. Government for many years maintained a 
large horse-breeding establishment al} Aligaon on the Bhima. . This 
was abolished about forty years ago ; and in its stead at various 
central stations imported English and Arab stallions were posted for 
the fi-ee use of horse-breeders. 

• In recent years increased attention has been paid to the improve- 
ment of the Deccan breed of horses. About 1864 a yearly horse 
show was established at Sirur, and in 1872 a second show on a much 
larger scale was started at Poona. The number of Government 
stallions has been gradually increased as more and more work was 
found for them. In 1881 a separate department for horse breeding 
was organized. The prizes at Poona and Sirur shows vary from 
10s. to £20 (Rs. 5-200), the aggregate amount spent being £60 
(Rs. 600) at Sirur, and £600 (Rs. 6000) at Poona. These shows and 
the use -of the Government stallions have greatly improved the 
breed of Poona horses. The present establishment of Government 
stallions in the Poona district is nine horses and six ponies. They 
are^-posted, six at Sirar, four at Supa, three at Baramati, and two at 
Ind^pur. Three of the horses are English; the rest are Arabs. 
Most of the colts are sold as yearlings, the majority finding their 
way to the yearly fair at Malegaon in the Nizam's territory. Some 
fillies are also sold at the Malegaon fair ; but most are kept by the 
breeders to be used as brood mares. At Malegaon the yearlings 
fetch £5 to £20 (Rs. 50-200). Th^ are bought chiefly by a tribe 
called Hatkars who live in the neighbouring villages. They feed 
these young animals well for a year or two and bring them again to 
the fair, where they are sold, as two three and four year olds at 
£15 to £70 (Rs. 150-700). The chief purchasers are dealers from 
Haidarabad and officers from native cavalry regiments. Yearlings 
are sold because the breeders are generally too poor to meet the 
cost of bringing them to maturity, and colts are sold in preference to 
fillies because, not being castrated, they become very troublesome. 
One of the chief objects of the new horse-breeding department is 
to introduce the practice of castrating colts, for which purpose 
skilled operators are provided by Government who perform without 
fee or charge. When the practice becomes general it is hoped that 
breeders w5l keep their colts and that many remounts may pass into 
the army direct from the breeders. 



Chapter II. 

Frodactton. 

Domestic AnimalE 

fforse*. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 

Production. 

Domestic Animals. 
Horiea, 



After they are a year old colts are fed with haridli Cynoden 
dactyloh, lucern, and pond grass, millet straw or Jcadbi, wheat husk, 
gram, maize, math Phaseolus aconitifolius, and millet flour. Weak 
and thin animals are given fresh and clarified butter, sugar, the 
flesh of a goat or sheep, eggs, and gram and young millet plants. 
Phadi, a preparation of wheat flour and molasses boiled in water 
and made into balls, is also sometimes given. Small ponies, ■ 
which are generally used for carrying loads, are hobbled and allowed 
to graze after the crops are removed. In Bhimthadi,^ horses are 
sometimes let loose in fields with standing jvdri, a treatment 
which soon strengthens and fattens them. Oilcake is sometimes 
given as a tonic, but the people dislike it as they believe it affects 
a horse's speed and makes it more difficult for him to recover 
from a broken joint or bone. Horses are not generally 
broken to the saddle before they are two years old though 
they sometimes begin work a^ eighteen months. They are shod 
once every one or two months. The people are very fond of having 
gaily dressed horses led in their marriage and other processions. 
The chief forms of horse disease are: pdlkida, believed to be 
strangles ; shemba or sina, glanders in its worst stage, a disease 
of the head produced from cold j chdndani or tetanus, producing 
shivering of the body ; gljidtsa/rp or throat-snake, laryngitis, which 
afEects the inside of the throat so that the animal cannot eat or drink 
and generally dies. The cure for this disease is to make the horse 
inhale the smoke of .the middle part of the kevda Pandanus 
odoratissimus flower for three days or swallow pills of the ashes of 
snake's slough mixed with honey. Thdsi, probably glossitis, is a disease 
of the mouth, which swells and blackens the lower part of the tongue. 
Munga or lampass is a disease of the upper lip. Pdshdn canker in the 
feet and bhenda which is a grease in the heels, or in its worst form 
grapes, are diseases of the leg. Kurkuri or colic, including enteritis 
or inflammation of the intestines, produces pain in the stomach and 
generally proves fatal. Fever and a disease called chdkrdval or 
ring-bone, though not fatal, makes the animal incurably lame. 
Barsdti, haddibddi, and berhadi are also diseases to which horses 
are subject. Zhairbadi and Indiana or anthrax fever though not 
commoii is known in Poena, and is very fatal. Horses' feet if 
allowed to remain damp or badly cleaned are 'apt to breed worms. 
The Poena district is very healthy for horses who live twenty to 
thirty years. On Dasara Day in September -October horses are 
washed and decked with flowers and ornaments, and a beautiful cloth 
or silk cover is thrown across their backs. They are worshipped, 
have a new saddle set on their backs, and are ridden in procession to 
the sound of drums. 

Seventy-two peculiarities in a horse are considered unlucky for 
his owner. The chief of these are : utarand or three rings of hair on 
the forehead one above the other ; basing or three rings of hair 
forming three angles, on the forehead ; chimata or two ring^ of hair 
in a line on the forehead j asudhdl {ashrudhdiy or watering of the 
eyes ; bhoda rings of hair near the corners of the eye ; kriddval 
or a ring of hair on the breast ; and gom which is of different kinds 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



65 



is a line of hair on the neck or chest. A horse which remains quiet 
in the stable is called khimte-gdd or fastened to the peg and is 
considered lacky, while a restive horse called hhwnte-upat or peg- 
lifting is considered unlucky. Each of these unlucky marks has a 
jabdh or counterbalancing good mark. The knowledge of and the 
belief in these bad and good signs is said of late years to have greatly 
declined. 

Of Asses the 1881-82 returns showed a total of 6936. The 
asses are used by BeldArs and Vadars both of whom are stone- 
cutters, and by Lonaxis or Hme-burners, Kumbh^rs or potters, 
and Parits or washermen, for carrying loads and sometimes for 
riding.^ They are also used to carry bricks and sand, grain and 
road sweepings. Asses are of two kinds, country or Deshdlu, costing 
£1 to £6 (Rs. 10-60), and Arab, Persian, and Italian asses, costing 
£30 to £60 (Rs. 300-600) which have been imported by Govern- 
ment for use as stallions for mule-breeding. The country ass is 
small and generally frightf ally cowhocked^ but they are as hardy, 
enduidng, and easily fed as any of their race. They Are generally 
bred by the wandering tribe of Kolhd,tis. In the country they are 
seldom groomed and are let loose to graze and pick up their food 
near village dunghills. In towns they are fed with grass, millet 
stalks or saram, and rice-husk, and sometimes with grain and 
gram. The ends of the nostrils, generally the false nostrils, are 
sometimes slit half-way across to enable the animal to breathe freely 
when heavily leaden. The ass is careful to drink only pure water. 
If it cannot get clean water it will remain without drinking for two 
or three days at a time. Asses suffer from htirhuri a disease of the 
abdomen, and rasTca a cough. They live twenty to twenty-five 
years. Ass's milk is used as a medicine for children and as a 
tonic. The urine is drunk by persons suffering from venereal 
diseases and the dung is used as a poultice and in cases of dysentery 
and fever. On the first of KdrUk (October -November) asses are 
washed, decorated, and feasted. 



Mules are proverbially strong and are used by Londris, 
charcoal-burners, in carrying loads and in drawing carts. None of 
these mules are bred in the district. They are either cast from 
the Commissariat Department or they were sold at the end of, the 
Abyssinian campaign.- With the object of introducing the practice 
of mule-breeding Government have posted two donkey stallions at 
Sirur for the free use of those who will bring pony mares to them. 
Prizes are given for the mares so covered and for young mules at 
the Poena and Sirur horse shows. The people are averse from the 
practice and take to it very slowly. 

Of Sheep and Goats, the 1881-82 returns showed 285,200. Large 
flocks of sheep are found in all good-sized villages and goats are 
common everywhere. The city of Poena offers a ready market for as 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Bomestic Animali 



Atsea. 



Muks. 



1 Riding an ass is considered a disgrace by the higher classes, and was formerly a 
punishment. Belinquents were paraded through the town seated on an ass's back. 
People may still he seen riding on asses with their face tail-wards in some parts of 
the district as part of the meriy -making in the Shimga holidays in March -April, 
b310— 9 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 
66 DISTRICTS. 

Cliapt3r IL many sheep as tTie district can produce. Slieep brokers and mutton 
Production butchers come regularly from Bombay and buy goats, kids, sheepj 
and lambs, paying 2s. to 8s. (Rs.1-4) a head. There are two kinds 
Domestic Animals, ^f sheep, country or desdlu costing 2s. to £1 (Rs.1-10) and dumba 
Sheep, (from dum a tail) long broad-tailed sheep, costing %s. to £2 IDs. 

(Rs.4-26). The long-tailed sheep include three varieties: Yaipuri, 
long- tailed and white with a black patch or two ; Kdbtdi, broad-tailed, 
short -legged, and white or white and black ; and Yelga from the 
Bombay Karpdtak, tall, broad-tailed, and of many colours. In 
many Poena and Ahmadnagar villages it is the exception to find 
sheep the property of a Dhangar or an individjjal of the shepherd , 
caste, and the keeping of a flock of breeding ewes is not usual 
except among well-to-do Kunbis. Every Kunbi who tills garden 
land tries to have his own flock of sheep, and most villages have 
three or four husbandmen with flocks of their own. Sheep for 
«tock are bought by the score, the price varying from £1 16s. to £6 
,(Rs. 18-60). The price is sometimes as high as £8 (Rs.80) when , 
.the buyer chooses each sheep picking one ram and nineteen ewes 
all between three and four years old and of good colour. A 
Ifavourite custom among Kunbis is to buy an old ewe with her 
■sixth lamb, kill the mother as soon as the lamb can shift for itself^ 
and bring up the young one as a pet ior the children. The pet 
is kept till it begins to be troublesome when it either follows its 
mother or is sold to a broker. Ewes go with lamb five months, and 
though known to yean in every season of the year, November and 
June are the favourite times. It is not known how long a ewe will 
go on bearing. The Dhangars think it advisable to sell them after 
they have had five lambs. The age of the mother when the first 
lamb is born varies from 400 to 600 days, and the intervals at which., 
the lambs are dropped vary from six to 14^ months. As a rule 
only one lamb is yeaned at a birth, a couple being a very rare 
occurrence. Male lambs are castrated and sold when a year and a 
half old to butchers or other dealers. A ewe or ram till it is shorn 
is called saoli, and after it is shorn a ram is called halinga and a 
<ewe is called sakore. A castrated sheep or wether is called varip. 
Forty .per cent are castrated between the age of six and twelve 
jtBonths, never before six and never after twelve. The object of 
castration is to make them fat. A two or three year old wether 
fetches 13s. (Rs. 6J), an ordinary sheep 6s. to 7e. (Rs. 3-3^), and a 
lamb 3s. (Rs. 1^) . Unless well fattened the ordinary Deccan sheep 
does not. become very heavy; After they are six months old they 
may be killed weighing when clean twenty pounds, and rarely more 
than thirty pounds. As the feeding of sheep is neglected, and as 
they are not sheltered against rain or sun, the Deccan sheep seldom 
lives more than seven years. If looked after and cared for they 
might live three years longer. If the flock is large, Kunbis generally 
engage a Dhangar or a man of any other labouring caste to tend 
them, paying him £2 10s. (Rs. 25) a year, besides food and clothing. 
The surplus milk of the ewes is also his. In the early rnorning 
sheep are driven in flocks of 100 or 120 to the grazing land where : 
they nibble grass and eat fresh &d.&AMMeaves and pods. If sheltered 
from the midday sun and from rain they thrive hettet, have more 



Beccaa.] 



POONA. 



67 



wool and milk, and are more useful. At the end of the hot season, 
when food is scarce and water is bad, the sheep fall into very poor 
condition and the Jane lambs are very weakly. The rank vegetation 
which in their half-starved state they greedily devour brinira on 
scouring and many die from that disease, or from the, fly which is 
ver^ virulent during the rainy season. In the evening the sheep are 
brought back and shut in their folds, which are generally surrounded 
by a hedge thick enough to keep outwolVes but giving no protection 
against wind and rain. Great numbers of lambs and half-grown, 
sheep are carried ofE by wolves, who, where the grass and the crops 
are long, are very boldcatching stragglers both by day and night. 
One or two wolves haunt most villages. The shepherd has a large 
dog and while out keeps his sheep constantly moving for, fear of the 
wolf who is generally hid behind a big stone or bush or in the long 
grass watching for the chance of picking off a lamb. The rams 
generally remain in the flocks and miscarriages are not uncommon. 
Old rams get very ill-tempered and without any provocation attack 
and knock down the other sheep. 

The dung and urine of sheep are so valued as manure that owners 
of flocks are engaged to graze their sheep in fields for twaor three 
nights. The Dhangars usually wander from village to village in a 
regular yearly circuit in the plains during the rains and cold weather 
and in the west during the hot months. They are paid by the 
husbandmen to fold their sheep in their fields. In some places they 
only get their food. In others where gardens abound as much as Is. 
or 2«. (8 annas or Re. 1) is paid for one night for a hundred sheep. 
Sheep's blood is given to horses to drink and is rubbed on their 
chests when they are exhausted. 

Sheep are sheared twice a, j ear in Ashddh or June -July and in 
Kartik or October -November. Bach sheep on an average gives one 
pound of wool at each shearing worth 4^(1. to 6d. (3^4 as.). The loss 
in carding, spinning, and weaving amounts to twenty-five per cent. 
Sometimes Dhangars are called to shear the sheep and are paid at 
the rate of 4s. (Rs. 2) the hundred. The wool is bought by the 
_ Dhangars whose women card it by means of a bamboo bowstring 
with gut twist, and spin it either fine with the help of the ordinary 
spinning wheel or coarse using the spindle. The threads ar© 
stifEened with a paste of tamarind stones pounded in the rough stone, 
mortars which are generally to be seen outside of Dhangars* houses;. 
The paste is applied with a large stiif brush. After the warp-, 
threads have been placed and stretched the Dhangar takes two days> 
to weave a blanket about eight feet long and 2^. feet wide, the price, 
of which varies from 2s. to 10s. (Rs. 1-5) according to the colour, 
and fineness of the texture. White blankets and seats or a&aws.used 
while performing religious ceremonies, have a special value, being 
considered more sacred. 

Croats costing 8s. to £1 4». (Rs. 4-12), belong-to fourclasses : khuri, 
ghodsTieli, hoi or surti, and savH. The khuri are Kamatak goats ; 
they are small and have short ears. The ghodsheli, said to come 
from ghoda. horse and sheli a she-goat, is a large goat. The Icbi op 
surti. go&iM give the largest supply of milk and are kept and, fed at 
home J their flesh is said to be aard and coarse. The sdvti goftts ar^ 



Chapter II: 

Production. 
■JDomesiic Animals 
Sheep. 



Oo(U»., 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 

Production. 

Domestic Animals. 

Ooati. 



EhphmttB and 
Camels, 



Dogs and Oats. 



Fowls. 



taller and larger bat give less milk. They are sent into the forests 
to graze. Their flesh is said to be tender and they are generally kept 
for food. There are no special goat-breeders. Dhangars, Kunbis, and 
Musalmans are the classes who own the largest number, andBrahmans 
and other high-caste Hindus have sometimes a she-goat or two in 
their houses. Goats are tended in the same way as sheep. They eat 
the fresh leaves of trees and shrubs but are fed at night with jvdri 
stalksj tur and gram, sJievri Umh and harvand leaves, and hdbhui 
leaves and pods. Dhangars keep their goats with -their sheep in the 
field at night. A she-goat bears every ten months and each time 
gives birth to two or more kids.. Her daily yield of milk varies 
from half a pint to eight pints (J- 4 shers). Goat's milk is used as a 
tonic for children and is sometimes made into butter. The flesh 
both of sheep and goats is eaten by all classes except Brahmans and 
Gujarat Vanis. Goats suffer from the same diseases as sheep and live 
five to ten years. . The sheep and the goat are offered as sacrifices 
to village gods and demons. The blood of the offered animal is spilt 
over the idol and the flesh is cooked and shared among the 
worshippers and the members of the village community. 

Elephants and Camels were common in Poena when it was the 
capital of the Peshwas. Camels used to be bred in the Mdn and 
MAlsiras sub-divisions of Sdtdra and Sholdpur. At present the 
number of both is small. ~ Those that remain belong either to the 
Commissariat Department or to petty chiefs. 

Except in cantonments the Dog and Cat are often without owners 
and neglected. The only sporting dogs are greyhounds of two breeds 
lut and paligar. The lut is most esteemed, but both are rare and 
still more rarely pure bred. 

Cocks and hens are the only poultry reared in the country parts 
pf the district, though turkeys, geese, and ducks are found in large 
towns. Domestic fowls are more often kept by Musalmans and 
Mhdrs, Mdngs, and Dhangars than by Kunbis. They are of three 
kinds : the common fowl like to but much smaller than the English 
bam door fowl, known as savU, gujdi, or teni ; the Pegu, asil or surati ; 
and the Malay of English poultry books, called by Europeans kalam} 
very much larger than the ordinary fowl and laying larger better 
and more costly eggs. Among fowls is occasionally found- an 
uphrdtya pardchi or fowl with ruffled feathers, the Frizzled Fowl 
of English poultry books.^ A cock costs 2s. to 10s. {Es.1-5); a 
hen Is. to £1 4s. (8 as.- Es. 12) j a half fowl 6df. to Is. (4- 8 as.)} 
and a chicken 2^d. to 4^d. (1 J-3 as.). They are left to pick what 
they can find near their owner's house, chiefly worms and insects. 
They are also sometimes fed with corn and bread. The flesh and eggs 
are eaten by almost all classes except Brdhmans and Gujardt Vilnis. 
Hens lay for about six weeks ten or twenty eggs and then stop. 



' The word halam seems as in the case of the kahm crane, Anthropoides virgo, to be 
a corruption of the Persian kulang that is big fowl. Mr. Fazl Lutfullah. 

' Though this frizzle is a spoi:t or freak of nature rather than a distinct breed, 
judicious mating would perpetuate the characteristic. It is an ordinary-sized fowl 
of all colours, with" many feathers .curled awa^ from, instead of towards, the body, 
somfi feathers haying no web, only the' naked shaft. Major Couesmaker, 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



69 



Hens are very capricloiis in their laying; those thathave no inclination 
to sit, unless they get fat, stop every few days and begin to lay again, 
whereas those that are determined ^o sit or are very fat only lay a few 
eggs and then stop for a month or more. Eggs are usef ulin preparing 
fireworks. The chief diseases to which domestic fowls are subject 
are mdnmodi or the neck-breaker, hopa a fatal kind of piles, and 
roup which first shows itself by running from the nostrils and 
eyes, an accumulation of saliva in the mouth, eruptions on the 
head, and diphtheric ulcerations in the mouth and throat like a 
yellowish white fungus. Fowls also suffer from disease of the Uver 
and inflammation of the bowels. It is difficult to define the symptoms 
of the two last diseases ; sluggishness, indigested food in the crop, 
great thirst, want of appetite, leg weakness, and a yellow tint in the 
ba,re skin of the head and face, are all more or less apparent. Fowls 
live three or four years. Hens and chickens are offered as sacrifices 
to village gods and spirits and are waved round the head to remove 
sickness and the influence of the evil eye, either when a man. is 
overtaken by calamity, or in consequence of vows made, when 
enterprizes are undertaken, or male children are born. As a rule the 
birds which are sacrificed are eaten by the persons who offer them. 

Many Musalmdns and a few Hindus breed Pigeons for amusement. 
They are of four kinds : lakhia, lotan, and girrebdj, all costing Is, to 2s. 
(as.8-Re. 1) a head, and sddhe or common, costing 6d. to Is. (4-8 as.). 
Pigeons take so little room, breed so persistently, and are so easily 
kept that every town has its three or four families of pigeon-fanciers 
who constantly play with their birds, and teach them tricks which 
after a few years become characteristics of certain breeds. They 
are generally fed with bdjri, hardi, wheat, peas, and other grain, and, 
when in want of fattening, with bread, sugar, butter, and flesh. 
These are spread in the quadrangle of a house where the pigeons 
are let loose. Pigeons are kept in small cots either in walls or on 
wooden stands. They are made to fly between ten and eleven in 
the morning and between five and six in the evening. They rise 
from two hundred to five hundred feet in the air and return to their 
cots at the sound of a whistle. Pigeons sometimes leave their homes 
and do not return for six months at a time. Small silver or brass 
ornaments, called painjans, are sometimes tied round their feet. 
They live for twenty years and are subject to two chief diseases : 
8uka m which a sticky matter passes from the mouth, and tuJehdma 
an outbreak of small tumours. Pigeons are eaten by some classes 
of Hindus and by Musalmans and Europeans. 

Wild Animals.^ The spread of tillage and the increase in 
population eonstantlyreduce the number of Wild Animals. The Tiger, 
:vdgh, Felis tigris ; the Panther, bibla, Felis pardus; the Leopard, 
ckitta, Felis jubata ; and the Bear, dsval, Ursus labiatus, are found 
only in the Sahyddri8,-and even there in very small numbeirs.^ During 



Chapter II. 

Production. 

Domestic Animals. 

Fowls, 



Pigeons. 



Wild Animals, 



' Contributed by Mr. A. Keyser, C,S. 

^ The bear is sometimes tamed and taught to dance by men of the wandering tribe 
of Mnsalmto Darveshia, who lead their bear from door to door and ask for alms. A 
few hairs from a bear's back are kept in lockets and hung from the necks of children 
to guard them against the evil eye^ Children are also for the same reason made tcr 
ride on bears' backs. 



[Bombay Gaietteer, 



n 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Wild Animals. 



Game Birds. 



the eight years ending 1882 four human beings and 175 cattle; 
were killed by tigers, and fifteen tigers and sixty-eight panthers 
were slain, for which rewards were given by Government.^, 0£ the 
Deer tribe, the Stag, samfear, Rusa aristptelis ; and the Spotted Deer, 
chital, Axis maculatus, are rare, but are still found in the Sahyddris. 
The Bison, gava, G-avsBus gaurus, is found in the Sahyadris but is 
also very rare. The Wolf, Idndga, Canis pallipes, although not 
common, occurs over the whole district and causes much loss of 
sheep and, goats. In 1877, 110, in 1879, 584, in 1880, 370, and in 
1882, 265 sheep and goats were registered as killed by wolves, and 
twenty-four wdlves were slain between 1877 and 1882. The 
Hyaena, taras, Hysena striata, is also found in the hills and 
occasionally in the interior of the district. 

Other game animals, which though not namerous are found in 
various parts of the district, are, the Boar, rdndukkar,. Sua indicua,, 
whose favourite haunts are the bdbhul groves that abound close to the- 
Bhitna and Ghod rivers and also in the hill forests in the west. In, 
the neighbourhood,of Poena, since the opening of the Mutha canals,. 
(1873), there has been a very large increase of wild pig. The. 
people complain loudly of their ravages. They come dowu in the 
evening from the Sinhgad range, and, after eating sugarcane and 
earthnuts, either return to the hills early in the morning or remain- 
in the cane. The cultivation of earthnuts has been discontinued in 
the neighbourhood of Poona owing to the ravages of these animals, ; 
The Antelope, kdlvit, Antelope bezoartica, and the Indian Gazelle, 
chinkdra, Gazella benettii, are chiefly found in the hills, and a third 
variety of small deer, the Hog-deer, Axis porcenus, occasionally 
falls to the shot of an unusually fortunate sportsman in theSahyddris, 
The animals which abound all over the Presidency and which ~ 
require no special mention are the Jungle Cat, rdnmdnjar, Felis; 
chauS ; the Jackal, kolha, Canis aureus ; the Pox, khokad, Vulpes 
bengalensis, which has its home chiefly in the rocky hills and ravines 
abounding all over the district; the Ichneumon, mungus, Herpestea, 
grisseus ; the Bandicoot rat, ghus, Moesa bandicota ; and the Grey 
and Red Squirrels, khdr, ScixxrvLS palmaruul. The S. elphinstonei ia,, 
occasionally seen. 

.Game Bieds.^ The district is poorly supplied with Game Birds. 
Of Quail, the Grey Quail, Coturnix communis, is found over most of 
the district between November and March, and the Bustard Quail, 
Tumix taigoor, also an immigrant. The Rain or Black-breasted 
Quail, Coturnix coromandelica, and the smaller variety which can 
hardly be considered a game bird, the Rock Bush Quail, Perdiculst 
argoondah, aie natives of the district and are found all the year round^. 
The Bustard, Bupodotis edwardsi, jsyeryrareandso is the Plorican, 
Sypheotides aurita, but both are occasionally shot./ Duck and 
Snipe are found in the various rivers and artificial lakes and ponds 



' The details. are: 1875, two tigers and nine panthers ; 1876, one tiger and six, 
panthers ; 1877, one tiger and seven panthers ; 1878, eight tigers and five panthers ;• 
1879, two tigers a,nd six panthers ; 1880, six panthers,; 1881, sixteen panthers ; and- 
1882,' one tiger and thirteen panthers, ^ Contributed by Mr. A. Keyser, C.S'< 



Deccan.l 



POONA. 



71 



during the cold months. The common Grey . Paxtridge, Ortygornis 
p'onticeriana, aboundsj and both the Black, Francolinus vulgarisj 
and the Painted, Francolinus pictus, are to be found. The Rock 
Grouse, 29aA;(trdi, abounds on the low stony hill ridges with which the 
district is full . Pea Fowl, Pavo oristatus. Grey Jungle Fowl, Gallua 
sonneratij and Spur Fowl, Galloperdix spadiceus, inhabit the forests 
in the west. Half-tame pea-fowl are found near many villages, as 
the people look on them as sacred. The Green Pigeon, Grocopus 
chlorigaster, is rare, but the Blue Pigeon, Oolumba intermedia, ia 
found in flocks in nearly every well. Except of quail, and on rare 
occasions of duck and snipe, no large bags are made in the district, 
and even good quail shooting is not to be had every year. 

^ Snakes are numerous throughout the district, particularly in and 
about the cantonment of Poena. All except three kinds, of which 
one ia rare and another is doubtful, are harmless. The Cobra in 
fact is the only venomous species which need be taken into account. 
The small Viper or phursa, Echis carinata, which is so plentiful and 
so destructive in the narrow strip of littoral between the Sahyadris 
and the sea, creeps up to the summit of the Sahyadri range, but 
is not common in any other locality in the Poona district. A few 
stragglers may be found in the plains to the east of the range, 
but they are rare. The Large Chain Viper, ghonas, Daboia russellii, 
which occurs very sparingly in the Konkan, may also be expected 
in the Sahyadri range ; but there appears to be no authentic record 
of its occurrence. The Hamadryad, the Banded Bungarus, the 
Krait, and the Green Tree Vipers are equally unknown. 

As might be expected the mortality from snake bite in the Poona 
district is insignificant, and for the past; five yea,rs has shown a 
satisfactory decrease. In 1876, twenty-four deaths were attributed to 
this cause ; in ! 877, twelve ; in 1878, nine ; in 1879, five ; and in 1880 
only four. This comparatively low rate is, no doubt, due to a great 
extent to the scarcity of the Echis, which is the chief agent of 
destruction in Western India generally. The bite of the Cobra, 
although far more dangerous, is more easily avoided. On the other 
hand the Echis, though it "may only cause death once in five times, 
finds many more opportunities of biting, from its small size, ita 
fierceness, and its perverse reluctance to move out of the way to avoid 
being trodden on. This conclusion is amply borne out by the 
annual returns of mortality from snake bite for the Bombay Presi- 
dency; for in the tracts where the Echis,is especially abundant, in 
Sifldj Batnigiri, and Thdna, the mortality is greatly in excess of 
that of all the other districts put together. 

The harmless snakes are numerous, though the number of species 
represented is not large. Besides the- Chequered Water Snake, 
pdnadivadf Tropidonotus quincunciatus, which is abundant throughout 
the well-watered tracts, the species most commonly seen in and 
about Poona are the Thickbodied jjarac?, Gongylophis conicus, and 
the Grass^green Ground Snake, Tropidonotus plumbicolor, the 
young broods of which make their appearance in the rainy season. 



Chapter II. 
Production. 
Game Birds. 



Snakes. 



1 Contributed by Mr. G. W. Vidal, C.S. 



[Bombay Gazetteer 



72 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Snakes, 



Typhhphidce. 



Uropeltidce, 



Both these species are commonly supposed by Europeans and natives 
alike to be venomous. In the more rural parts the commonesi 
species is perhaps the Indian Rat Snake, dhdman, Ptyas mucosus. 

The following is a Ust of the various species which are known tc 
occur. The list, except in thei case of one species^ which is entered 
on the authority of Mr. W. Theobald as. occurring in Poena, has beer 
compiled exclusively from specimens obtained and procured by the 
writer. For the descriptions, which have been given in as populai 
a form as possible, the writer is greatly indebted to the works ol 
Dr. Gunther and Mr. Theobald. The following books are referred 
to in the list: Russell's Indian Serpents; Grunther's Reptiles ol 
British India ; Theobald's Descriptive Catalogue of the Reptiles of 
British India; Pairbank's Bombay Reptiles published for the Bombay 
Gazetteer ; and Destr action of Life by Snakes and Hydrophobia, in 
Western India, bj*^ Ex-Commissioner. The classification follows 
that adopted by Dr. Gunther and Mr. Theobald. The writer is also 
much indebted to Dr. Nicholson for much information contained in 
his work on Indian Snakes. 

The family of Typhlophidae, the so-called Blind Snakes with 
rudimentary eyes, is represented by the Typhlops braminus (Daud). 
This little burrowing ' reptile, whose head without a magnifying 
glass is with difficulty distinguished from its tail, bears a strong 
superficial resemblance to a common earth worm, and is probably 
frequently passed by as an earth worm. It is not often seen above 
ground, except after a shower of rain. It belongs to the lowest type 
of snake, and is also perhaps the smallest of the Ophidia, its maxi- 
mum length being only eight inches. It is held in needless dread 
by natives. According to Dr. Russell, the father of Indian herpeto- 
logy, the Blind Snake progresses either end foremost, but this 
peculiarity has not been noticed by later writers. 

A very closely allied species of slenderer form, the Typhlops 
pammeces or tenuis of Gunther, is included in Dr. Fairbank's list of 
Bombay Reptiles, as also is another species of the same gi'oup, the 
sharp-nosed Onyoephalus acutus (Dumdril et Bibron), whose 
occurrence in the Deccan has been noted by Dr. Gunther. The 
latter will probably be found in this district, but the occurrence of 
the former which is a Ceylonese species seems doubtful. 

The Short Tails, Tortricidse, with rudimentary hind limbs, and 
the Xenopeltids without limbs, are not represented in this district. 
Of Rough Tails, Uropeltidse, at least two species have been found, 
Silybura macrolepis (Peters), which is distinguished from its many 
congeners by having fifteen instead of seventeen scales in a row, has 
been obtained on one occasion, but is very rare. This Rough Tail 
is black with very bright steel-blue reflections when fresh. Each 
hexagonal scale is margined with waxy white, giving the skin a 
honeycombed appearance, while a broad bright yellow zigzag 
band runs along each side from mouth to neck, succeeded by a few 
broken spots of the same colour. A similar yellow band adorns 



' See note 1 at foot of page 76. 



Deccan.} 



POONA. 



78 



each side of the tail below. The latter appendage, as in all the 
snakes of this group, is abnormally short. It looks as if it had been 
severed obliquely like the joint of a fishing-rod and then scraped 
with a rasp. The caudal disk acquires this rough appearance from 
a double row of keels thrown out from each scale. At the extremity 
of the tail, as if the cut had left a jagged edge, are a pair of minute 
horny spines. The scales of the body are smooth. The Rough Tail 
Snakes are seldom seen above ground, but are occasionally exposed 
in making deep cuttings for roads. That they labour hard in making 
their burrows is shown by the fact that specimens of this family are 
sometimes found with the head displaced from its direct axis, 'as 
though' writes Theobald ' it had been dislocated during some effort 
of the snake to penetrate the soil.' The head in all these Rough 
Tails is smaller than, and not distinct from, the neck. S. macrolepis 
grows to about ten inches in length, the tail being less than half an 
inch. Like all other snakes with thick tails, this species is called 
dutondi by the natives. 

An allied species, Silybura bicatenata (Gnnther), has been 
obtained in excavations made at the Amba Pass between Ratndgiri 
and Kolhd,pur, and occurs also within the limits of the Poena district. 
S. macrolepis is not included in Dr. Fairbank's List of Bombay 
Reptiles, but a third species of Rough Tail, S. elliotti (Gray), which 
is said by Theobald to inhabit Madras and the Deccan, is entered. 
S. elliotti, which may be distinguished by the yellow band which 
completely encircles the_ tail, has not yet been recorded from the 
Poena district, and does not probably extend so far north. 

The Dwarf Snakes, Oalamaridse, of diminutive size and found 
chiefly in the "East Indian Archipelago and the Malayan peninsula, 
do not occur in the Deccan districts, though one species of the 
genus Geophis is found near Madras. 

The prettily marked Short Tooths or Filleted Ground Snakes, 
comprising the genera Oligodon and Simotes, are represented by 
Gunther's Oligodon fasciatus. This species is distinguished by having 
an irregular series of brown dots on the ventral shields, seven upper 
labial shields, and scales in rows of fifteen. The markings on the 
head are symmetrical, but less distinct than in other species of the 
same genus. The back is adorned by a series of brown black-edged 
cross bands. It grows to fourteen infches in length. Other represen- 
tatives of this family, both of the genus Simotes as well as Oligodon, 
probably occur, but have not as yet been satisfactorily discriminated. 
Dr. Fairbank includes in his List of Bombay Reptiles the Pretty Short 
■Tooth, Simotes venusta (JerdiDn). Another species, Simotes russellii 
(Daud), has also been found in Ratndgiri, though omitted frotti 
Dr. Fairbank's list. The Short Tooths are active little reptiles, and 
the conspicuous V-markings on their heads often cause them to be 
mistaken for Vipers by the casual observer. They are, as might be 
expected, thought highly venomous by the natives, and a specimen 
of Oligodon fasciatus was once gravely presented to the writer by a 
conjuror and snake-charmer as the young of the Chain Viper, Daboia 
elegans. In the Konkan, the Short Tooths are generally known as 
haeJicha nags or young cobras. It i$ probable also that the tradition 



Chapter II. 

Production. 

Snakes. 

UropeUidce. 



CaUmaricUe. 



■a 51 n in 



[Bombay Oazetteei 



74 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II, 
Production, 

Snakes. 



Colvhridm. 



handed down by the Portuguese of a diminutive snake to whid 
they gave the name of Cobra de Morte, from the supposed deadlj 
nature of its poison, had its origin in the dread in which these 
innocent Short Tooths were once popularly held. Possibly- the beliei 
in such a small but poisonous species was strengthened by Cuvier's 
description in his Eigne Animal of a ' petite vip6re.' Dr. Russell also 
may have furthered this belief by recording several cases where 
natives had died from the bites of diminutive but unrecognized 
snakes. Two sepoys in Captain Gowdie's battalion at Ei,]amahendri 
were bitten in the night by the same snake, which was described as 
being ' scarcely six inches long, about the size of a large goose- 
quill, of a dark straw colour, a flat head with two very small eyes 
which shone like diamonds, and behind each eye was a black streak 
about three-fourths of an inch long.' The first man bitten died 
after six hours, and the second, who was bitten within a minute 
after the first, died within eleven hours. Neither man suffered 
visible pain or convulsions, but passed away in a kind of stupor. 
Similarly, according to Dr. Russell, ' the porter of Mr. Bourcluer, 
Governor of Bombay, a very' stout Arab, was bitten - by ^a^ small 
serpent, and expired almost instantaneously, after exclaiming. that 
a snake had bit him.' Dr. Russell's information was got from the 
Governor's son, Mr. James Bourchier, who spoke from memory, and 
added, ' that the snake, to which the man's death was imputed, was, 
by, the Portuguese, called Cobra de Morte ; that in the course of 
twenty years in India he had only seen two of them, one in the island 
of Bombay, the other in his own house at St. Thomas' Mount near 
Madras ; that the length of the snake was from six to nine inches, 
its thickness' that of a common tobacco pipe ; the head black with 
white marks, bearing some resemblance to a skull and two cross 
bones ; the body alternately black and white, in joints the whole 
length ; that its venom is of all others the most pernicious.' 

There can be little doubt from the descriptions given, and from 
the fact that no diminutive poisonous snake has yet been discovered 
, by naturalists in India, that both the snakes above described were 
referable to some species of Oligodon. If so, death in each case must 
be attributed to excessive fright, asit is beyond doubt that none of 
the snakes of this family are provided with poison fangs and glands. 
The Cobra de Morte, like the mythical Bis Cobra or poisonous lizard, 
has no real existence; but, whereas the latter name is still applied to 
various species of lizards known to be harmless, the Cobra de Morte 
is now, whatever it once was, a name and nothing more. 

Of the Ground Colubrides belonging to the Coronellina group, 
three species, of whose occuiTence within the limits of this district 
there seems to be no authentic record, are included in. Dr. Fairbank's 
list. These are (1) Humbert's snake, Ablabes Humberti (Jan) 
which is known to occur in Ceylon, Madras and Peninsular India ; 
(2) the Large-nosed Cycloph, Cyclophis nasalis (Gunther), and (3) 
the Eastern Coronella, Coronella orientalis (Gunther). Humbert's 
snake is entered as doubtful by Dr. Fairbank, and may have been 
wrongly discriminated. The distribution of the Cycloph is also not 
known with certainty. A single specimen of the Eastern Coronela, the 



Deccan.]. 



POONA. 



75^ 



sole species of this genus ever found in India^ is said to have been 
obtained by Colonel Sykes in the Deccan. There is no other record 
of its occurrence, and the species was founded on this single 
specimen, which was transferred from the collection of the East 
India Company to that of the British Museum, 

Of the snakes of the group Colubrina, three genera, Cynophis, 
Ptyas, and Zamenis are represented. The following species occur : 

Cynophis helena (Daud) is a rather formidable looking snake, 
which grows to about forty inches, the tapering tail being about a 
fifth of , the total length. It is distinguished from its congener 
C. malaljaricus, which is said to be common on the AnamaUi hills, by 
having twenty -seven instead of twenty-five scales in each row. The 
markings of C. helena are somewhat peculiar. A narrow black line 
marks the occipital suture. A broadish black band runs on each side 
of the neck, bfelow which is a similar oblique band. The anterior 
part of the back is covered with numerous black cross bands, each 
enclosing two white ocelli on either side, the white spots being more 
distinct in the forepart of the trunk than behind. The cross bands 
disappear about half way down the trunk and are replaced by a broad 
dark band running laterally on each side to the tip of the tail. As in 
some of the Tropidonoti, there is a conspicuous black streak running 
obliquely from the back of the orbit to the gape. The scales are very 
slightly keeled. This species appears to be rare in the Poena dis- 
trict, -and is not included in Dr. Fairbank's List of Bombay Reptiles. 
Ptyas mucosus (Lin.), the dhdman or Indian Rat Snake, is very 
common throughout the tract and is too well known to need descrip- 
tion. It is an active powerful snake, growing to seven feet in length. 
It strikes fiercely if pursued or brought to bay, and with its powerful 
jaws .and sharp teeth can inflict a painful bite. From its size and 
comparative fearlessness, and its diurnal habits, it is perhaps more 
often seen than any other species, and its size and colour not 
nnfrequently causes it to be mistaken for a cobra. It feeds on rats, 
mice, frogs, and young birds, and often comes into houses and huts 
in search of its prey. It is very commonly exhibited by snake- 
charmers, who show their skill in recapturing it after letting it loose 
a feat which requires both nerve and practice, as the dhdman is 
never tamed by captivity. 

The bite of this species is not generally considered venomous by 
natives; but many superstitions are current respecting it. Pop 
instance, in the Konkan the bite is said to be poisonous on a Sunday, 
but harmless on other days. Both in the Konkan and Deccan it ia 
believed that if a buffalo is in the same field with a dhdman 
whichever sees the other first will survive, while the one who is first 
seen will die. In the Deccan also the dhdman is suspected of 
milking the she-buffaloes under water, when the latter take their 
daily bath in the rivers or pouds. The similar superstition which in. 
England gave the name of Goatsucker to the common nightjar, from 
its supposed nocturnal raids on the milch goats, will occur to all.^ 

,.':_ 1 In parts of the Madras Presidency the dhdman {Siwdi Pdmhu, Tamil) is. popularly 
■ believed to be the male of the cobra (Ndga Pdmbu, Tamil), All cobras are consequent- 



Chapter II. 
Froduction. 



Colubridee. 



[Bombay Gazetteer 



76 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 

Production. 

Snakes. 
ColubridoB. 



Natrkina. 



Zamenis fasciolatus (Shaw) is common in the Poona districtj a! 
also in the Konkan, where it is called ndgin by the nativeSj and is 
popularly believed to be the female of the cobra. It is- frequently 
seen in the baskets of snake-charmers, aind is an active reptile oJ 
somewhat slender form. The colour of the body is usually ai 
olive-brown. Young specimens are mai'ked with numerous whit« 
cross bars, from the neck to the tail. With age the white bars 
disappear gradually, the posterior ones being the first to become 
obsolete. In old specimens no trace of the cross bars remain. Tht 
species grows to about forty inches in length, of which the tail covers 
nine inches. It is one of the numerous harmless species which arc 
locally thought venomous. 

Zamenis brachyums (Gunther), the Short-tailed Cowry Snake 
is found (teste Theobald) in the Poona district and South-Easi 
Berar, and Dr. Pairbank, presumably on this authority, has enterec 
the species in his List of Bombay Reptiles. The writer has not, 
however. Succeeded in obtaining a specimen.^ It is described as 
growing to 21*5 inches of which the tail measures only three inches 
The colour is olivaceous above and whitish beneath, while in some 
specimens, probably immature, irregular yellow-edged brown spots 
are found on the head and forepapt of the trunk. 

In addition to the above, Dr. Pairbank includes in his list as 
inhabiting the Deccan Zamenis gracilis (Grunther), or the slendei 
Cowry Snake, so called from the similarity of the large black-edgec 
brown spots on the anterior part of the trunk to the cowry shells usee 
as money by the natives. This species probably occurs in Poona 
but if so, it must be far from common. 

The group of Natricina, or fresh-water Colubrines, is representee 
by three species of the genus Tropidonotus, whjch are unaccountably 
omitted from Dr. Pairbank's hst. Tropidonotus quincunciatui 
(Schl.) the Chequered Water Snake, the pdnadiv ad oi the Mardthda 
is too well known to need description. It is abundant every wher 
in or near rivers, pools, marshes, and canals, wherever frogs and fisl 
are procurable. It differs, however, from the true fresh wate 
snakes (Homalopsidse), which live more exclusively in the watei 
in having the nostrils situated on the side instead of on the uppe 
surface of the head. This species swallows its prey directly it i 
seized, and never overpowers it by constriction. The pdnadiva 
is perhaps the commonest and most widely spread snake in Indie 
and although fierce and active, is one of the very few harmles 



ly believed to be females ! It is interesting to compare with this the converse 'id( 
maintained in the Konkan, that all cobras are males, their female partners being tl 
harmless colubrine snakes of the species Zamenis fasciolatus. The dlidman is all 
in many parts of Indi* credited by local tradition with having a sting attached to i 
tail, a blow from which is said to cause the part struck to mortify. 

' Since the above was in type, a specimen obtained by the writer in Poona, ai 
sent for identification to the Calcutta Museum, has been found to agree wii 
Dr. Gunther's original description of the species as published in the Annals ai 
Magazine of Natural History, 1866, vol. XVIII. p. 27. pi. VI. fig. A A', The sing 
type specimen on which the species was founded also came from Poona, and the snail 
now deposited in the Calcutta Museum appears to be the only other specimen of tl 
species yet known. 



Deccau.] 



POONA. 



77 



snakes which local tradition rightly acknowledges to be. The 
colouration of the Chequered Water Snake is very variable, ranging 
from blackish grey to greenish olive, with from three to seven rows 
of black spots down the body in quincuncial order. In some 
specimens the sides are ornamented with orange red spots with 
dark bars between, which, as nsual, are more conspicuous in young 
than in old specimens. Adults of this species measure up to 
fifty-one inches in length. . 

Tropidonotus stolatus (L.), the common little halhallia of Bengal, 
the ndneti of the Mardthd,s, the rath of snake-charmers, is also 
comparatively common. It is of a brownish olive colour with irre- 
gular pale-edged dark-brown cross bars, and is easily distinguished 
by a pale bufi streak running longitudinally on each side of the 
back from neck to tail. At some seasons the head, neck, and sides 
acquire a bright red tinge. Its maximum length is two feet. It 
is more terrestrial in" its habits than the Chequered Snake and is 
of a milder disposition j nevertheless it is wrongly believed to be 
venomous by the natives. 

Tropidonotus plumbicolor (Cantor), the common Green firass 
Snake, is also abundant in the Poena district, especially in the rains 
when the young broods make their appearance. Young specimens 
have a broad bright yellow collar, pointed in front and forked pos- 
teriorly, behind a black collar of corresponding shape. The body is 
also marked with about a dozen narrow black cross bars. The bright 
collar and cross bars disappear with age^ and adults are a uniform 
dull green above and white below. The under-parts in the young 
snakes are steel blue. The species grows to about twenty-five inches 
and is of thick make, with a broad head and a short tail. Its food 
consists of frogs, which it catches in the wet grass during the rainy 
season, often pursuing them into houses. It is of course harmless. 

HoMALOPSiDffi. The true Fresh-water or Bstuarine Snakes Homa- 
lopsidse, have no representatives in this district. 

PsAMMOPHiDJ). Nor have any species of the family of Desert 
Snakes (Psammophidae) been found. The best known example of 
this family, Eussell's Condanarouse (Psammophis condanarns, Merr) 
occurs in parts of the Madras Presidency. 

Dendeophidj!. Of the Tree Snakes of this family no species have 

. been recorded from this district. 

Detiophid^. Of the family of Whip Snakes consisting of the 

-genera Tragops and Passerita, the only species hitherto found in the 
Poena district is the well-known green whip snake (Passerita myc- 
terizans, L.), which is found on trees in and near the Sahyadri range. 
This is evidently the species to which Dr. Pairbank alludes in his 
list as a Dendrophis; but the long flexible snout and excessively 

-slender form of this species at once distinguish it from any species 
of the Dendrophidse. In colour this snake is bright grass-green 
lighter beneath, with a yellow lateral line along each side of the 
abdomen. Large specimens grow to six feet in length, of which the 

' tail occupies rather more than one-third. The natives name this 
Whip Snake sarptoli and it is popularly believed to hang on the 

-boughs of trees with its tail, and dart at the eyes of passers-by. In 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Snakes. 
. Natiicina. 



Dendrophidee, 



DryiophidcE. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



78" 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter 11. 
Production. 

Snakes. 



Zycodontidce. 



rfeality it is a very inoffensive reptile, which, bites only under severe 
provocation. Its chief food consists of small birds and lizards. 

DiPSADiDj;. This family of Tree Snakes, characterised by a 
strongly compressed body and a short triangular head, is represented 
by at least one species, Dipsas trigonata (Boie), which is found in , 
well-wooded tracts near the Sahyddri range. . The short viper-like 
head of this snake often causes it to be mistaken for a venomous 
species, but like all tJie snakes of this family it is harmless, although 
fierce and remarkably active. The ground colour is olive brown. 
The crown of the head is marked with two dark black-edged bands 
convergent behind, while a yellowish zigzag and irregular band, 
edged broadly with black, runs down the median line of the back. 
Underneath it is white or sometimes salmon-coloured mottled with 
brown specks. It grows to at least forty inches, the tail being 
about one-fourth of the total length, A closely allied species, Dipsas 
gokool (Gray) is comparatively common in the Ratnagiri district, 
where, like numerous other harmless species, it bears the name of 
manydr and is believed to be very deadly. D. gokool probably 
occurs also above the Sayhadris. Another tree snake of the same 
genus, but of considerably larger dimensions, Dipsas forsteni (D. 
and B.), is entered in Dr. Fairbank's list as being found in the 
Sahyadri range ; but as both Dipsas trigonata and gokool are 
omitted from this list, it is possible that one of these latter- species 
has been taken for Dipsas forsteni. 

LTOODONTiDiB. Of this family the common Lycodon, L. aulicus 
(L.), is the sole representative. It is frequently found in houses, 
which it enters in pursuit of the skinks or snake-lizards (Mahr... 
sdpsarali) which form its chief food. It also preys on the little house 
geckos so common on the walls of bungalows. As a rule any 
species of snake which is discovered in a dwelling house, other than 
a cobra or a dhdman, is vaguely termed a Carpet Snake by Euro- 
peans in India whose knowledge of snakes is usually very limited. 
But the name of Carpet Snake is probably more often applied to 
this sppcies than to any other. The Lycodon, thoiigh fierce and 
active, is perfectly harmless and is usually nocturnal in its habits. 
Its colouration however, in some specimens, rather closely resembles 
that of the venomous Krait, Bungarus coeruleus (Schn.), which is 
common in Bengal, Assam, and the peninsula of Southern India, 
but is not found, fortunately, iii the Bombay Presidency, except in 
the province of Sind, where it is called the pioni according to 
Dr. Fairbank,, from its supposed habit of sucking the breath of 
sleepers; The bad reputation borne by the Lycodon is doubtless 
due to its resemblance to the really dangerous Krait. The Lycodon 
is rather variable in colour. The commonest type is a reddish brown 
ground, barred with numerous dark-edged white or faintly yellow 
cross bands, the first of which forms a broadish dull white collar.- But 
the ground colour and' pattern of the bars vary much in different 
specimens. The darkest coloured individuals are those which most . 
resemble the Kraits. In old specimens the white cross bars 
disappear, and the yellow tinge sometimes seen in the cross bars 
quickly fades in spirits. It grows to about two feet of which the tail. 



J}eccan.] 



POONA. 



79 



measures one-sixth. The eye of the Lycodon is small and very 
black, with a vertical pupil, whereas the Krait has a round pupil. 
The latter may also be readily distinguished from the harmless 
Lycodon by a glance at the vertebral scales, which in the Krait are 
much broader than the other scales of the body and hexagonal in 
shape, forming a conspicuous ridgfr on the median line of the back ; 
whereas in the Lycodon the vertebral series of scales is no larger 
than the other rows. The dentition of the Lycodon is peculiar, as, 
unlike most other harmless species, each maxillary is furnished with 
two enlarged fangs in front, placed in a transverse line, the outer 
being much larger than the iuner. But no snakes of this family 
have posterior grooved teeth, and, as Gunther has pointed out, the 
use of the fangs in front of the jaws is to pierce and hold iasi th& 
hard smooth scales of the lizards on which it preys. In the Konkan 
the Lycodon is one of the many harmless species to which the name 
of manydr is applied, and which are popularly believed to cause 
death by a touch of ^e tongue or by castiug their shadows over 
their victims. 

Ambltcephalidj!. The Bluntheads (Amblycephalidse) have no 
representatives in this district. 

Pythonid^. Of this family, numbering two species, the well 
kaown Indian Rock Snake, Python molurns (L.), is found 
occasionally throughout the district, and called by the natives in 
different localities ajgar, a/r, and chitai. It inhabits thick forests 
and groves, usually in the neighbourhood of water or swampy 
ground, where it finds a regular supply of food in the animals which 
come to drink. Birds of all kinds, squirrels, rats and mice, and even 
young deer and sheep contribute to its support. It is one of the 
largest of living reptiles, but its size and power have no doubt been 
:occasionally much exaggerated. Specimens of twenty feet long have 
been frequently obtained^ and as specimens of its congener of the 
Malayan Peninsula, Python reticulatus (Schn.), have been recorded 
as measuring about thirty feet, it is "probable that P. molurus may 
occasionally attain the same length. The majority of specimen^ 
however exhibited by snake-charmers seldom exceed twelve feet. 
' Rock Snakes from fifteen to twenty feet long' writes Gunther* 
' have the thickness of a man's thigh, and wiU easily overpower & 
small deer, a sheep, or a good-sized dog. But although able to kill 
these animals, the width of their mouth is not so large that theif 
can swallow one larger than a half -grown sheep. The way in whica 
they seize and kill their prey is the same as that observed id 
numerous smaller snakes : after having seized the victim, thei)' 
smother it by throwing several coils of the body over and round it. 
In swallowing they always begiil with the head ; and, as they 
live entirely on mammals and birds, the hairs and feathers offer A 
considerable impediment to the passage down the throat. The 
process of deglutition is therefore slow, but it would be much 
slower except for the great quantity of saliva discharged over the 
body of the victim. During the time of digestion, especially when 



Chapter Il^i 
Froductioii. 

Snakes. 
Lycodontiioli 



Ambtj/cephoMte, 
Pythonidce, 



•■ The Reptiles of British India, p. 329. 



[Bombay Gazetteei 



80 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapt«r II. 

Production. 

Snakes. 
Pyfhomdm. 



the prey has been a somewhat large animal, the snake become 
very lazy : it moves but slowly when disturbed, or defends itsel 
with little vigour when attacked. At any other time the Rock Snake 
will fiercely defend themselves when they perceive that no retrea 
is left to them. Although individuals kept in captivity becom 
tamer, the apparent tameness of specimens brought to EJurope if 
much more a state of torpidity caused by the climate than an actua: 
alteration of their naturally fierce temper.' Notwithstanding tht 
above, however, the tame Pythons exhibited in this country bj 
snakemen, whether, from overfeeding or other causes, are usually 
very gentle creatures, and, unlike the restless dhdmans, can b( 
easily and safely handled. One peculiarity of the Pythons is thai 
they incubate their eggs,, and the temperature of the body at this 
seSison has been observed to be higher than at other times. 

The ground colour of the Indian Rock Snake is usually a greyisl 
brown. The crown and nape of the head are marked with a browi 
spot Hke the head of a lance. The back and tail are adorned with e 
vertical series of large brown quadrangular spots, with an oblong 
spot on each side of the central line. The sides of the body havf 
another series of irregular pale centred brown spots. The snout if 
long and depressed, and in adult individuals a rudimentary hind 
limb, hidden between the muscles, may easily be discovered on eacl 
side of the root of the tail. 

Betcid^. The family of Sand Snakes or Brycidse has two repre- 
sentatives in this district, both of which are comparatively common. 

The parad, Gongylophis conicus (Schn.), is frequently seen 
within cantonment limits at Poena, and is common elsewhere in the 
district. Ifc is a very thick clumsily made brown snake marked on 
its back with large brown blotches, which frequently unite and forn 
a broad zigzag band, and on each side is a row' of smaller irregulai 
brown spots. The tail is very short and tapering, and the head 
which is scaled not shielded, except at the lips and forepart of the 
snout, is flat, oblong, and scarcely distinct from the neck. The 
general character of the markings resembles that of the Python, 
and the pa/rad like the latter has i^udimentary hind limbs. Paradt 
are indeed often exhibited by snake-charmers as young Pythons 
The maximum length of the parad is about twenty-five inches. In 
young specimens the markings are very distinct, ancl the underparts 
which are white in the adult, are suffused with a pale salmon tinge. 

The Two-headed Snake, the dutonde of the Mardthas, Erys 
johnii (Russ.), is also common in the Poena district in dry stonj 
fields where it preys on mice. Its colour is Usually reddish browr 
irregularly dotted with black, while young specimens have a series oJ 
brown rings distinct on the hind part of the body and getting f aintei 
towards the neck. The lower parts are pale, marbled with dark in 
the adults, and in young specimens steel-blue spotted with salmoE 
colour. Like the parad it is thick and heavy and very slow- in itf 
movements. Its chief characteristic is its short thick rounded tail 
which the snake-charmers frequently mutilate in order to give ii 
the appearance of a second head. The real head resembles thai 
of the parad in being covered with scales instead of shields, anc 



Seccan.] 



POONA. 



81 



in not being distinct from the neck. It grows to about four feet, 
of whicb tbe tail only occupies four inches. This species, like the 
other members of the family, has the conical prominences in the 
place where the hind limbs ought to be. The dutonde is perfectly 
inofEensive, and cannot be made to bite under any provocation. It 
avoids wet ground and prefers sandy plains, where it can burrow 
with ease. In the Deccan this snake is generally called the mdndul. 

AcEOCHOEDiDis. The Wart Snakes or Acrochordidae with small 
tubercular or spi^iy scales are not found in this district. 

Of the Elapidae embracing the genera Naja, Ophiophagus, 
Bungarus, Xenurelaps, and Callophis, the only representative in 
this district is the well known Cobra, nag, Naja tripudians (Merrem.). 
Cobras are no doubt abundant in the Poena district ; but as they 
are chiefly nocturnal in their habits, by no means aggressive, and 
from their large size easily seen and avoided, the mortality attri- 
butable to their deadly bite is fortunately very low. At least eight 
varieties of this species have been enumerated by Gunther, all 
referable to the same species, but the type usually seen in the Deccan 
is of a uniform brownish olive colour above, with a pair of conspi- 
cuous white black-edged spectacles on the dilatable neck or hood. 
The length of Cobras is a subject of almost as much dispute amongst 
Europeans in India as the length of tigers, and the natural tendency 
in such cases is to exaggerate the size. Specimens of over five feet 
in length are decidedly rare, and the limit of seventy inches given 
by Theobald is probably correct. The fables relating to the Cobra 
handed down by local tradition would fill a volume. Although, 
however, it is popularly credited with a sagacity and cunning of 
which it_ is entirely innocent, it is unfortunately impossible to 
exaggerate the deadly effect of its bite, for which no reliable 
antidote has as yet been discovered. The Cobra impartially feeds 
on birds, rats, squirrels, lizards, frogs, and sometimes fish. It 
climbs trees and roofs of houses in search of prey, and although 
generally terrestrial, swims well, and readily takes to the water. It 
has occasionally been caught at sea at a considerable distance from 
land. The Hamadryad, Ophiophagus ela,^s(Schl,), the gnahn of the 
Burmese, which from its greater power and fierceness is even more 
dangerous than the Cobra, is luckily not found in Western India. 
The Krait, Bungarus coeruleus (Schn.), occurs in Sind, but probably 
nowhere else in the Bombay Presidency. The long slender venomous 
snakes of the genus Callophis, which feed on the Dwarf. Snakes 
(Oalamaria), and have the same geographical distribution, have not 
yet been observed in the Deccan, though one species, Callophis 
nigregcens (Gunther), inhabits the Nilgiris and the Wainad. 

The Sea Snakes or Hydrophidae, which are found in salt water 
exclusively, and which are without exception venomous, are not 
found in any of the inland tracts. 

The true vipers which have no pit in the loreal region are repre- 
sented in India by the genera Daboia and Bchis, having each one 
species. Of these one only, the phursa, Bchis oarinata (Merrem.), is 
known with certainty to occur in the Poena district. It is extremely 
abundant in the coast districts of Ratndgiri, Thana, and Koldba, and 



Chapter II. 

Production. 

Snakes, 



AcrochordidoB. 



ffydrophidce. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



82 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 

Frodntition. 

Snakes. 
Viperidce. 



is found more sparingly in the barer portions of the summit of the 
Sahyddri range or Konkan Ghdt MAtha. East of the Sahyadrig 
it is seldom seen. The comparative immunity of the Poona 
district from deaths by snake-bite is no doubt due to the scarcity 
of the Bchis, which is the chief .agent of destruction in other 
districts where it is plentiful. Gunther was strangely in error when 
he wrote that no case was known of its bite haying proved fatal. The 
Echis has a wide distribution. It is found in Sind and the Panjdb, 
North- Western, Central, and Southern India, and is exceptionally 
common on the Western coast ; but it is absent or very scarce in 
Lower Bengal,- and it is rare in the Deccan. In Sind it is-known as 
the hapar ; and at Delhi as the aphai. , The Echis is a little brown 
snake seldom exceeding twenty inches in length, with a series of 
dark-edged pale ovate spots on the body, with a very conspicuous 
undulating pale line down each side. The head is. covered with 
keeled scales and the pupil is vertical. -The phursa is most often 
iound in rocky hill-sides and plains, living under the shelter of large 
boulders, and feeding on centipedes j but it occasionally enters 
houses, and has an awkward habit of taking its siestas oh roads and 
footpaths, whence it will not stir on the approach of man, but" will 
suffer itself to be trodden on rather than move. This peculiarity 
makes it especially dangerous to bootless travellers, should they * 
tread on it unawares in the dark. Once roused it is fierce and ' 
active, and will, defend itself with great vigour and courage. Of all 
the venomous snakes in Western India this httle viper is undoubted- '• 
ly by far the most destructive. Its bite is not probably attended by ' 
fatal results more than once in five times ; but its diminutive size 
and obstinate immobility give it far more frequent opportunities of = 
biting than has any other species of venomous snake. The symptoms ;a 
of phursa bite are also peculiar and may be readily distinguished. 
The venom, unlike that of the Cobra, liquifies the blood, and induces 
excessive hemorrhage^ at the bitten part, and in severe cases bleeding "i 
at the gums and from" the pores of the skin, followed by lockjaw. 
The action of the virus is, however, very slow, and in fatal cases 
the average interval between the bite and death is about 4J days, i 
The application of ammonia has been found after trial to aggravate 
rather than reduce the hemorrhage which is the chief source of 3 
danger. For some yeafs past a native remedy, the root of the 
pdngla shrub, Pogostemon purpuricaulis, has been used at the | 
Eatridgiri Civil Hospital, with some apparent success in stopping * 
the troublesome bleeding. The root is given -both internally and as : 
a paste for outward application ; but its property as a styptic does 
not yet appear to be known to Indian dealers in drugs. The results j 
obtained with its use for this purpose are however sufficiently I 



^ The peculiar hemcgrrhage induced by the bite of this viper seems to have been 
noted by old writers. In his work on Destruction of Life by Snakes in Western 
India, Ex-Commissioner quotes a passage from the Physician Johnstonus, which 
evidently refers to the Echis,: 'Is enim in eo tractu quo Alexander Porum per-; 
.sequebatur iuventos fuisse serpentes parvos quidem, ad eorumque morsum toto corpore 
sanguineum sudorem dimanaase' , That is, For he (says) that in the country in which 
Alexander followed after Poms certain small snakes were found at whose bite a 
bloody sweat oozed from the whole bodvi 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



83 



encouraging to justify a careful and exhaustive analysis of the plant 
by competent authority. The Pogostemon purpuricaulis is a plant 
of the labiate order, nearly allied to the Patchouli shrub, aaid is 
found abundantly in the Konkan and in the western sub-divisions 
of the Poena district.^ 

The Chain Viper or Daboia, the Cobra Manilla (Coluber monileger) 
of the Portuguese, the Uc polonga of Ceylon, the ghonas and Jcdndor 
of Konkan Mar^thds, Daboia russellii. (Shaw), has a wide distribu- 
tion in India, ranging from Ceylon to the Himalayas; but if it 
occurs at all within the limits of the Poona district, it must be very 
rare. It is known, however, to occur in the Southern Konkan, as 
well as in Cutch and Gujardt in the Bombay Presidency, and it is 
probable that it will be found in or near the Sahyddri range. It 
grows to about sixty inches and is handsomely marked by three 
chains or necklaces of large black white-edged rings, the middle 
series being oval in shape, and the outer circular. The head is 
marked with two yellow lines converging on the snout, and is pecu- 
liarly repulsive. The Daboia is thickly built and sluggish, and like 
the phursa shows great reluctance to move on the approach of man. 
It is nocturnal in its habits, and feeds on rats and mice and sometimes 
attacks sitting hens. It is fierce and fearless, and on this account, 
as well as from its long powerful fangs and its deadly venom, is 
perhaps more to be dreaded even than the Cobra or the Hamadryad. 

The Pit Yipers, Crotalidae.'so called from the deep pit in the loreal 
region, of which the American Rattle Snakes are the best known 
examples, are represented in India by the genera Trimeresnrus, 
Peltopelor, HaJys, and Hypnale. One species of the Trimeresnrus 
or Tree Vipers with prehensile tails, Trimeresurns strigatua (Grey), 
is said by Gunther and Theobald to inhabit the Deccan" or the 
Nilgiris. Another, T. anamallensis, occurs in the Anamalli Hills, as 
does Peltopelor macrolepis (Beddome). One species of Halys, 
H. himalayanus, is restricted to the Himalayan region, while 
another, H. elliotti, has been found on the Nilgiris. Hypnale nepa,. 
the ' Carawala,' also occurs in the mountains of Southern India. As 
far, however, as can be ascertained, there is no authentic record of 
the occurrence of any species of Pit Vipers within the limits of the 
Bombay Presidency. The Indian Pit Vipers are usually of small 
size, and though venomous are much less dangerous than their 
cousins of the new world. 

The small gangs of professional jugglers who frequently visit 
Poona and other large towns in their wanderings, exhibiting snakes, 
and performing conjuring, tricks, belong to the tribe of MadAri 
G^radis. They are Muhammadans, said to be of Arabian descent. 
Like other Musalm^ns the Gdrudis are distinguished among them- 
selves as belonging' to one or- other of the four main tribei^ and are 
known accordingly as Madari Syeds, Madd.ri Shaikhs, Maddri 
Moghals, a,nd Madari Pathana. They speak a corrupt Hindustani, 



Chapter II 

Production. 

Snakes. 
Viperida. 



Orotalidce. 



Snake 
CharmerB. 



' Farther information as to the Echis, with a more detailed account of the symptoms 
induced by ita bite, will be found at pages 51 -52 of Vol, X;. of the Gazetteer of the. 



[Bombay Gazettee 



84 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 

Frodaction. 

Snake 
Charmers. 



and are worsbippers of Samna Mi/ra} They circumcise their boys 
obey the K&rA, and marry only among the four tribes of Madai 
Garudis. 'The Garudis have no fixed homes, but wander from tore 
to town wherever their performances are likely to attract spectator 
and bring money. No one party appears to have any exclusive beai 
though the same gang frequently revisits the same towns. Th 
males only, of all ages, take part in the performances. Whil 
trevalling from place to place they occupy their time in hunting fo 
snakes, ichneumon, and scorpions, practising their tricks, and trainin 
the boys. The snake-charmers are quiet and inoffensive, and are no 
reckoned among the criminal tribes like the more turbulent Hind 
Mang Gdrudis, with whom they have nothing in common except th 
name of Garudi. 

The stock in trade of a family of Garudis includes, firstly, a fust 
but capacious bag, well worn and patched all over, containing i 
very heterogeneous collection of odds and ends, and rude apparatu 
used in their various juggling tricks ; secondly, two or more fla 
circular bamboo baskets for holding the snakes and slung on a pol 
for greater convenience in transport ; thirdly, the pungi or double 
pip& made of a gourd with two hollow bamboo . tubes, inserted a 
mouth-pieces ; and lastly, a diminutive drum or tom-tom, shaped lik 
an hour-glass, with a button loosely attached by a string tied roun( 
the middle, which is made to strike the drum on each face in sue 
cession, by a smart turn of the wrist. Add to these an ichneumon, 
hubble-bubble or cocoanut pipb, which serves at once for tobaoc 
smoking and holding fireballs, and a few black scorpions with th 
stings extracted, and one or two small harmless snakes carried i] 
pieces of hollow bamboo, anci the Garudi's outfit is complete. 

The snakes usually kept for exhibition are Cobras, Pythons, an 
Eat Snakes, with occasionally a Sand Snake, or so-called two-header 
snake with the tail mutilated so as to resemble the head. A ie^ 
specimens of common harmless snakes, such as the chequered ^Wate 
Snake and the fasciolated Cowiy Snake, are also kept to be sacrifice 
to show the skill of the ichneumon, when the occasion does nc 
demand the more exciting fight between the ichneumon and the cobr 
Vipers are seldom found in the snake-charmer's collections, being to 
sluggish and ill-tempered for exhibition. The poison fangs of th 
Cobras are invariably extracted as soon as they are caught, and th 
fang matrix is sometimes cauterised as an additional precaution t 
prevent possible danger by the development of new fangs to replac 
the old. 

Mosb of the snakes exhibited can be fed in captivity withou 
difficulty ; a hungry Python is always a good excuse for demandin 
a chicken to appease his appetite after being exhibited, while frog 
are always easily obtained and gratefully accepted hj the greedi* 
dhdmana. Cobras are said to persistently refuse food in confini 
ment, and have either to be crammed or let loose at intervals of 



■There is a tomb of Samna Mira at Tdsgaon in the Sitira District, in who 
honour a fair is held annually in Mdgh (February-March), 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



85 



month or so to find their own food, and be recaptured, if possible, 
after repletion. 

The capture of wild Cobras is a comparatively easy task to those 
who know their habits, and have nerve to handle them. When a 
Cobra frequents a rat-hole, as it generally does, it betrays its occu- 
pancy by wearing the mouth of the hole smooth and leaving 
thereon a httle slimy deposit. The Garudis, on finding such evi- 
dences of the snake's haunts, dig quietly into the hole, until the tail 
of the Cobra is exposed to view. Seizing the tail with one hand, 
the snake-catcher rapidly draws the- Cobra through the other hand, 
up to the neck, where it is firmly grasped on each side by the finger 
and thumb in such a way as to render the snake powerless to bend 
its neck in either direction. The fangs are then as soon as possible 
extracted with a pair of pincers, and the Cobra is carefully secured 
in an empty basket. Dhdmans are sometimes caught in holes in a 
similar manner, but more often are pursued and captured in open 
ground.- To catch a large dMma?i in this way is a feat requiring 
great dexterity and some courage ; for, this snake, although not 
venomous, is very fierce and active, bites sa-v'agely, and often wounds 
with a smart stroke of fts powerful tail. The length oi si dhdrruan 
moreover frequently makes it impossible to draw it with one hand 
through the other lat one stroke, from tail to neck. In such cases, 
the man, seizing the snake by the tail, eventually gets a grip of its 
neck by a quick hand-over-hand movement, while at the same time 
the snake is prevented from turning on its captor by being violently 
swung from side to side with each movement of the hand. But in 
so doing the snake- catcher, if not very dexterous, is very liable 
to be bitten, especially in the face. As the Eat Snakes never lose 
all their fierceness in captivity the same process has to be repeated 
on each occasion that they are let loose, and the recapture of a 
savage dhdman is one of the most skilful feats performed by the 
exhibitor. Chequered Water Snakes are also fierce, active, and 
untameable, but are easily caught in a gorged state, in the shallow 
streams and canals, which they frequent. The smaller snakes are 
generally caught by the aid of a bamboo stick split into two pieces 
at one end, and thus forming a rude forceps. Of the snakes usually 
exhibited the Cobra is perhaps the only species which can be really 
tamed. Pythons, fierce by nature, are probably kept in a state of 
, lethargy by frequent feeding. Cobras on the other hand are naturally 
gentle in disposition, and, after a few lessons, are easily made to 
stand with hood erected, by rivetting their attention on some object 
kept constantly moving before them, from side to side. 

The pungi or gourd-pipe is invariably played as an accompaniment 
to the Cobra's dance, as it is called^ as well as to every juggling 
trick performed by the GArudis. But the dismal monotone of this 
weird instrument is an accessory and nothing more. Snakes hear 
imperfectly, and according to Dr. Nicholson, the Burmese snakomen 
put their Cobras through exactly the same performances without 
any musical accompaniment. The pungi has probably no more 
i effect on the movements of the Cobra than it has in causing the 
magic growth of the mango tree, through all its stages, from seed 
to fruit, or the marvellous disappearance of the little boy in the 



Chapter II. 

Production. 

Snake 
Charmers. 



[Bombay Gazetteei 



86^ 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter II. 

Production. 

Snake 
CharmerB. 



well-known basket trick. The GAriidis profess indeed to charm 
Cobras from their holes by the sound of the pungi, a,nd. it is possible 
that a tame Cobra, which has been placed by its keeper in a hole 
to simulate a wild one, may be sufficiently aroused by the familiar 
droniag of the pipe to show itself at the mouth of the hole. It is 
extremely doubtful, however, whether a wild snake would be 
similarly attracted by the noise. It is.a very common trick amongst 
the Gdrudis, on visiting a compound where they are likely to obtain 
an audience, to secretly place a tame Cobra in any hole that may 
suit the purpose, and then, pretending to have discovered a wild one, 
show their skill in catching it. This very simple ruse answers 
admirably if the snake-charmer is allowed to conduct his pretended- 
search where he pleases. In this case he has only to lead the 
spectators gradually to the spot selected, examining a few holes by 
the way, which he confidently pronounces to be empty, and finally 
stopping at the right hole, with an air of triumphant mystery ,- 
produce his tame snake after much ceremony and gesticulation to 
the usual accompaniment of slow music. Sometimes, it happens 
that one of the audience knows or ■ pretends to know of- some parti-; 
cular hole frequented by a Cobra, and desires the snakemen to 
charm and catch it. In this case the snake-charmer has no opportu- 
nity of placing a tame Cobra beforehand in the hole, with intent to 
deceive. But he is generally equal to the occasion ; for one of the 
party, with an eye to this contingency, nearly always carries a tame 
Cobra cunningly concealed in the folds of his waistcloth, which 
by very ordinary sleight of hand he can, unseen by the spectators, 
gradually insinuate into the hole, while pretending to examine 
the entrance. Stories are indeed told of these men being carefully 
stripped and searched beforehand, to satisfy the spectators that 
they have no snake concealed about them, and then taken to some 
holes, of which they could have had no previous knowledge, whence 
they have notwithstanding produced Cobras. But in all such cases 
it will generally be found on inquiry that although the spectators 
may have satisfied themselves by previous search that no snak& 
was concealed about the performer, no subsequent examination 
has been made of the snake itself to ascertain, by the presence 
or absence of fangs, whether it was a wild or a tame one. If the 
siiakeman shows a decided reluctance, as he usually does, to the 
captured snake being" killed or examined, it may be safely inferred 
that, whether subjected to previous search or not, he has somehow 
contrived to produce in the exact nick of time one of the fangless 
specimens in his collection. 

The Gdrudis know well the difference between venomous and 
harmless species of snakes, and will handle the latter fearlessly. But 
if they have credulous listeners, they delight in telling exaggerated 
and fanciful tales as to the dire consequences of the bite of an earth 
worm, or an innocent" Rough Tail. It is not known whether these 
snakemen, if accidentally bitten by a Cobra, and they seldom meddle 
with other venomous snakes, have recourse to anything as a supposed 
a;ntidote. Johnson, the author of Indian Field Sports, who em- 
ployed a party of Kanjurs in Calcutta to catch snakes for him fOr 
a-year, writes of these people, that ' whenever they attempt to catch 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



87 



snakea there are always more than one present, and a second person 
carries mth him a gudgudi which is a smoking machine, made 
generally of a cocoanat below, with an earthen funnel above^ 
containing fireballs ; in the fire they have always secreted a small 
iron instrument about the size of a prong of a table-fork, curved 
into the shape of a snake's tooth, tapering from above, and when- 
ever they are bitten they first put on a light ligature above the bite, 
then suck the part, and as soon as blood appears they introduce this 
instrument red-hot into the two orifices made by the teeth, and take 
some bazar spirits, if they can procure any, in. which they ihfuse a 
small quantity of bhdn^.' As far as this author could learn, these 
were the only remedies ever adopted. The Gdrudis frequently carry 
with them the so-called snake stones, but probably profit more by 
their sale than by their use. These stones, found on analysis to be 
made of calcined bone, are black, highly polished, and shaped like 
almonds. Similar stones appear to be manufactured in other parts 
of the world, as in Mexico, where the material used is charred stag's 
horn. These snake-stones have the property of absorbing liquid 
up to a certain point, and if applied to a wound will adhere and 
draw out the blood, until saturation prevents further absorption.^ 
Besides the ordinary black snake stones the Gdrudis occasionally 
offer for sale as charms small transparent beads of the size and shape 
of acidulated lemon drops, which they audaciously profess to have 
extracted from the palates of very old male Cobras. It is not known 
how or where these beads are obtained, or of what substance they 
are composed. In their general consistence they appear to be like 
pieces of pale amber. In some parts of India the snake-charmers 
use the root of a plant to stupefy snakes and scorpions. A few 
pieces of root are placed in a bag in which the snakes or scorpions, 
as the case may be, are kept, and in a few minutes the patients are 
said to become comatose. Possibly the root used may be that of 
the Aristolochia indica, or Indian birthwort {isharmal. Hind.), well 
known as a supposed antidote in cases of snake-bite. The roots of 
allied species of birthworts are used in other countries, both as 
antidotes to the poison and for stupefying snakes. In North America 
the well known Virginian snake-root, Aristolochia serpentaria, is 
used as an antidote, while in South America the * Guaco,' a similar 
root, is employed for the same purpose and also for stupefying 
snakes, the juice extracted from the root being dropped into the 
snake's mouth. Similarly, the Egyptian snake-charmers are said to 
use an African species of birthwort to make their snakes docile 
during exhibition. In Western India the GArudis appear to have 
recourse to no such expedients, and, as far as can be judged, the 
snakes exhibited by them never show any symptoms of having been 
drugged. 

^The Poena rivers and streams are fairly stocked with fish. From 
the middle of June, when the south-west monsoon sets in, until 



Chapter II. 

Production. 

Snake . 
Charmers. 



Fish, 



' An interesting account of the manufacture and properties of snake-stones will be 
found in Wood's Natural History, III. 144. 

^, Contributed by Mr. Henry Wenden, District Engineer, Qreat Indian Peninsula 
Railway. 



[Bombay Gazetteei 
88 DISTRICTS. 

Chapter II. the end of October, the rivers and streams are in full volume. Wit] 
Frodoction. *^® close of the rains their waters gradually subside, and, by March 
they form a series of pools connBotedby long reaches of feebly running 
^^^" stream. Some of the .pools are long, deep, and rocky, saf" 

sanctuaries for fish j others are shallovi', easily netted or emptied ii 
sections with the help of temporary dams. By the^end of April th( 
shallow pools have been plundered of all their fish-life. 

During the rains, every hig'hland stream is beset with basket'trap 
or mintite bag-nets which efEectually present the return to the mail 
waters of fish that have run up the small streams to breed. Verj 
few of the fry escape. In the lower reaches are numerous natura 
or artificial dams or narrowings of the water-way, in which, during 
breaks in the rainfall and in the final shrinking of the rainy-seasoi 
floods, are set immense bag-nets with meshes varying from twc 
inches at the mouth to a quarter of an inch at the tail- or ba^. Thes( 
nets are usually set for ten to twelve hours, and taken up morning aiii 
evening. As much as 300 pounds weight offish are frequently takei 
from one such net, composed of specimens varying from an inch t( 
eevferal feet in length. Fry predominate to a painful extent ; manj 
of the mature fish are heavy with spawn and milt j and all are erushec 
into one mass by the force of the stream. 

No private rights to fisheries exist, but each village cMims thi 
river within the limits of its own land. In some sacred dohs or pool 
the priests prevent the people from fishing. In the absence of anj 
legislation ior the protection of fish, t^pse sacred breeding place 
are the only safeguard for the preservation of the supply j it woulc 
be an incalculable gain to the mass of the people if they were mori 
numerous.^ 

The chief fishing classes are Mardthi Bhois and Koli Bhois, bu 
few of either class live solely by fishing. Where not forbidden the; 
catch fish at all seasons and by every means in their power. Thi 
following account from ♦Dr. Day's Fishes of India describes thi 
devices for catching fish which are in use throughout the Pooni 
district : As soon as the young fish are moving, that is shortly afte 
the rains set in, men women and children catch myriads of fry ii 
rice-fields and in every sheltered spot to which the fish have retire( 
for shelter. Nets are employed which will not allow a mosquito t 
pass, and, so, fares human ingenuity can contrive it, the sides of thi 
rivers are stripped of fish. Husbandmen make wicker-work traps 
baskets, and nets, and first set them so as to trap the breeding fishe 



' The chief sacred pools or dohs where fish are never killed are : In the Haveli sul 
division, Tuk4r4mb4v4's pool in the IndrAyani at Dehu, and Moraya GosAvi's po< 
in the Fauna at Chinchvad ; in Bbimthadi, Bhivai's pool in the Nira at Kdmbleshvar 
in Purandhar Holkar's pond at Jejuri J in Sirur, SantbivA's pool in the Bhima a 
iUnjangaon ; in Indipur, Ojhrdidevi's pool jn the Nira"at Ojhre and SonhobA's pool i 
the Bhima at Narainhpur ; in,Khed, a pool near the ferry-at Kashekhed, MahSdev 
pools at ChAndoli Vet4le and Pingri, the Vriuddvan pool atDonde, MAcUiaveshvar 
pools at Sdygaon and Mohokol, the Umbar pool at Kadhe, MhasobA's pool at Bib: 
Gadad Niriyan's pool at Kahu, the Pimpal pool in Koyali in Vide, Avli in KdshevAd 
Dham in Sarkun(£, Bhand in Tiphanv&di and Goregaon, Mand in Valadh, Kand i 
Shiroli, Gajrdi at Nimbgaon, all in the Bhima ; and TukdrdmbivA's pool at Yelvdd 
and Chakra-tirth at Alandi . 



Deccan.^ 



POONA. 



89 



on their way up stream to their spawning grounds, and afterwards 
turn the traps so as to catuh the fish in their down-stream jonmey. 
Streams are strained to capture the fry, and no irrigation channel is 
without its wioker-work irap. 

The minimum size of the mesh of the fresh-water nets is shown in 
the following return which is compiled from ninety-one reports : 
Frbsh-watsr Fishinb Nets, 



She op Mbbh in Inchbs. 


I 


Below 
1 


i 


h 


4 


1 

T 


I 


i 


h 


h 


^ 


^ 


5 


5 


18 


5 


24 


1 


5 


18 


4 


2 


3 


1 



In fifty-three of seventy more returns the size of the mesh is com- 
pared to a grain of wheat, pearl, Indian maize, gram, split pulse, oil 
seed, barley, tamarind seed, a small pea, a pepper-corn, to a hole large 
enough for a big needle a bodkin or a qiiill or to the openings in coarse 
muslin.^ 

The mesh of the nets varies with the season of the year and the 
size of the fisli. Rivers are dammed and diverted for fishing, and 
the still more wasteful system of poisoning water is sometimes 
practised. Fish are poisoned by" the leaves, bark, or juice of various 
^ants, chiefly the k-mbla or TiaQra Strychnos nux-vomica, the rdmet 
Lftsiosiphon speciosus, the supti Tephrosea suberosa, and the hingan 
Balanitis roxburghii. Mr. Thomas in The Rod in India also mentions 
among fish poisons, Croton tiglium, Anamirta cocculus. Capsicum 
frutescens, and kd/re kdi (Tulu) Posoqueria nutans or longispina.^ 

Occasionally dead or night lines are systematically set. What 
is known as the Indian Trimmer is a favourite device. A stout 
pliant bamboo rod eight to twelve feet long is stuck in the bank in 
a sloping position, or sometimes in shallows several bamboos are 
set stretching in a line across the river at intervals of a few yards. 
From the point of the rod is hung a line with the hook passed 
through a cord tied round the waist of a frog so that it may paddle on 
the surface of the water. At times the line is dropped from the bough 
of an overhanging tree. This device is very effective, especially in 
turbid water, and large fish and water-snakes are often taken. 

True angling with a hand-rod is practised in an unscientific, almost 
childish, manner by idlers or pot-hunters. 

A few meii labour day after day with the pdgir or hhorjdle that is 
the light casting net with poor results. But as a rule the methods 
whick involve the minimum of labour are most in favour. The 
malai or basket-trap, the khabri or bag-net, the hhuse or tivri which 
may be described as floating entanglements, and the trimmer, take 
btit a short time to set and gather in, and may be left to themselves 
for twelve hours or more. These may therefore be looked on as the 
commonest means of catching fish. The nets chiefly used are : 



Chapter II. 
Production. 

Fish. 



' Day's Fishes of India, XI. 



Fish. 



[Bombay Gazettee 
90 DISTEICTS. 

Chapter II. 1. A liglit casting net called' pagiiV or WtorjdZe. 

Production. 2. A heavy casting net called sark, of strong cord and large met 

used in catching large fish in fast water. A cord is pass( 
through the meshes at the outer diameter of the net, which, on beii 
drawn tight, closes the mouth and the fish are, as it were, caught 
a closed bag. After being thrown and closed this net is drawn : 
mouth foremost. 

3. Bag-nets called khabris are fixed in strong currents general 
produced by building rough stone dams with openings. 

4. A net called bhuse varying in length, but often 500 feet lor 
and two feet broad, of fine cord and large mesh, are so floated alon 
the upper and lightly weighted along the lower edges that it remaii 
at or near the surface. It is left stretched across a pool forhonr 
usually for a whole night, and fish attempting to pass are entangle 

5. Another net called, tivri differs from the feAwse. in having largi 
meshes and in being so weighted as to lie near the bottom of ,tl 
pool. It takes large fish. 

6. Drag-nets called pandis, six feet to eight feet deep and i 
varying length, are floated at the top and weighted at the botto: 
where there is a bag or pocket. , 

7. A net called jhile or pelui is fastened to a triangular frame ( 
bamboo, and is used in much the same way as the Europe* 
shrimping net. 

8. A plunge net, called ahoba, is a bag-net fixed to an -iron ( 
bamboo I'ing, from which rise three bamboo rods which are fastene 
togfether'at or near the tail of the bag. The fisherman wades in tl 
shallows, and plunges the net to the bottom ; and passing his ham 
through the hole .at the tail of the net, catches any fish that ai 
imprisoned by it. 

9. The lavTcari' can only be described as a bag-drag net. It 
often seventy to eighty feet long with a diameter of thirty feet i 
the mouth. As it requires as many as fifty men to work and costs i 
much as £20 (Rs. 200) it is not commonly used. 

Many simple modifications of these nets are called by differei 
names. 

The nets are mostly designed for the capture of very small fr 
Except the bhuse and tivri which may be termed entanglementi 
though they are exceedingly fine and light, a fish is rarely able t 
burst through these nets. A fin is sure to catch and the fish in i1 
efforts to get free wraps itself in the net. 

Most of the people of the district eat fish. About thirty kinds ( 
fish are offered for sale in the Poena market at prices varying froi 
l^d. to Igd a pound (2-2^ annas a sher^. Fiv^ kinds are commonl 
eaten by Europeans, vdmbat Mastacembalus armatus, ahir AnguiD 
bengalensis, three marals Ophiooephalus marulius, 0. leucopunctatus 
and 0. striatus, shivada or pari Wallago attu, and shengal or shingdl 
Macrones seenghala. These fetch-4fl!. to 4|c?. a pound (5% -6 annas 
sher). 



Fish. 



Iteccan.! 

POONA. 91 

basket-traps and bag-nets of minute mesli and cease poisonmg pools. Chapter It 

Were netting stopped between the 1st of Septembei" and the 30th Production. 

of November, mature breeding fish would not be destroyed, and the 

fry would increase. And if, frpm the 1 st of December to the end of 

March, no nets with a smaller mesh than one inch were used, the 

supply of food would be largely increased. The fry would grow 

until March between which afld June, as in early life fish increase 

in weight with astonishing rapidity, they would yield an infinitely 

greater supply of food than if, as at present, they were destroyed in 

infancy. It is believed that though the supply of fish were increased 

twentyfold it would not exceed the demand. 

Many pools, ponds, and lakes in the district are well suited for 
the systematic rearing of fish. It is possible to cultivate water 
as profitably as land. Indeed, in China, where fish-rearing has been 
a science for thousands of years, an acre of water is considered 
more valuable than an acre of land. In the Poona district, an acre 
of water, if not used for irrigation, is worth nothing. Any pond 
within fifteen mUes by road or thirty miles by rail of a European 
settlement might be made a source of considerable revenue. In 
Poona coarse tasteless fish cost 4|d. to i^d. a pound (5^-6 annas a 
sher), a price, double the price of good beef and a quarter to a half 
more than the price of good mutton j and even at this price the 
supply of fish is uncertain and scanty. If the gaurami orOsphromenus 
olfax and some other non-predatory fish were introduced, the outlay 
would be trivial and the produce would find a ready market. But the 
outturn of water is limited in the same degree as the yield of land, 
and, to make it pay, fish-rearing would have to be conducted in a 
carefiil and systematic manner. 

According to Dr. Day, between eighty and ninety species of fish 
are known to be more or less common throughout the fresh waters 
of India. These may occur, though it does not follow that all do 
occur, in the rivers and ponds of the Deccan. Of the eighty or 
ninety species only between thirty and forty are more than twelve 
inches long. The rest are chiefly species of small size, though almost 
all are valued by the people as food. 

. A collection recently made for the International Fisheries 
Exhibition in London included forty-four species. These were, 
Ambassis nama gdnde-cMri, Gobius giuris hharpa, Mastacembelus 
armatus vdmbat or bam, Ophiocephalus striatus dakhu, O. leuco- 
punctatus or O. marulius maral, Channa orientalis (?), Macrones 
seenglaalai'eMnfghdla or shengal, Macrones corsula ? hala skehgut,- 
Macrones cavasius shingata, Rita pavimentata ghogra, Rita hastata 
kurdu, Pseudeutropius taakree vaidi or vdyadi, Callichrous 
bimaculatns gugli, Callichrous malabaricus kala gugli, Wallago attu 
shieada or pari, Bagarius' varrelli^ muldnda or tharota; Belone . 
caJicila kutra, Discognathus lamta malavya, Lepidocephalicthys 
thermalis chikani or mura, Nemacheilus sinuatus, N. aureus or 
N. botia teli mura, N. savona mura, Nemaeheilus ? mura or sondd, 

' Grows to an enormous size. The writer has lately stuffed two of 93J and 66 



Fish. 



[Bombay Gazetteer:, 
92 DISTRICTS. 

Chapter II. Labeo fimbriatus tdmhda, L, calbasu MnOshi, L. potail royddi or 
Production. tambtij L. boggHt sdnde, L. nakta nakta or nakta shendoa, L. ariza 
or kawrus kavdasha, Labeo ?Xunidentified), Cirrhina fulungee loli, 
Kasbora daniconms ddndvan, ^ajchua sarana kudali or pUule, Barbus 

dabsoni pdngat, Barbus jerdoni ? khadchi or masla, B. ? 

khudra, B. parrab kudali, B. kolus koolis or kolashi, B. ambassis 
hhondgi, B. ticto bhondgi,, ^ohtee cotio or alfrediana gud-ddrdj 
E. vigorsii pheh, Chela cliipeodies alkut, Notopterus kapirat chdlat 
or chambari, and Anguilla bengalensis ahir.^ 

Tbe European fisberman'may get fair sport if he uses light bnt 
strong tackle. Maral, shengdl, gugli, pari, and khadchi all freely 
take the spoon or natural fish-bait. 

Maral and shengal have been killed up tt» 14 pounds weight ; par,i 
up to 21pounds> khadehi to 34 pounds; and the g^ugr/i, though seldom 
over 15 inches in length, ^'e exceedingly voracious and relieve the 
tedium of waiting for bigger fish. These fi^ve kinds of fish abound 
in almost all large river pools, whose rocky sanctuaries or retreats 
cannot be thoroughly netted audit is neartheSe rocky parts that the 
best sport is usually found. They can be caught by spinning fi-om 
the bank, but it is far better sport to troll for them from a boat. 
In Lake Fife at Khadakvdsla khadchi and pari have been killed 
by trolling with the spoon and natural bait. With khadchi the best 
sport is gained by spinning with natural bait in the rapids when 
the water is clear during long breaks in the rainy months and 
during the cold weather. The khadchi is commonly called mahasir 
by Europeans. This is not the celebrated maAasiV Barbus tor. Still 
it has very much the habits of the true .mahasir and gives splendid 
sport being very powerful, and very game. According to The Rod 
in India, wTiose thoroughly sound hints no fisher can do better than 
study and follow, the Labeo affords capital bottom fishing, and, as 
Labeos abound in the Pdona rivers, good sport should be obtainable 
by those who are adepts in this style of anghng. 

At Dev, on the Indrdyani, some fifteen miles north-east of Pooha, 
there is a celebrated sacred doh or pool containing a vast number 
of exceedingly large khadchi.^ The priest prevents natives from 
netting the pool, but does not, forbid Europeans to fish for sport. 
Specimens of 38 pounds weight have been caught by Europeans, and 
there is no doubt that some fish in the pool are double this size. 
If, as seems probable, these Dev khadchis are the same species as 
those caught at other places with spoon and natural bait, they must 
be a degenerate or educated race, for they no longer delight in the 
rapid waters in which our wrongly called mahasir is generally found, 
nor will they take live or imitation baits. For ages they have been 
fed by the priests of the shrine on the river-bank on groundnuts" 
Hypogcea arachis, until, unlike other members of the Barbus tribe, 
they have become strict vegetarians. Of numbers which have 

' The writer is not absolutely certain of the accuracy of his identification in all 
cases. 

^ The writer has been unable to detect any difference between these fish and those, 
also called by the natives khadchi, which he has killed in other paters, excepting as 
regards their habits and food. _ l 



Deccao.] 

POONA, 93 

been captured and dissected, not one has been found with a trace of Chapter II. 
any food but groundnuts, white grain, berries, grass, and water- Frodaction. 
weeds ; while specimens, it is believed of the same species in other ^0^ 

pools on the same and other rivers in the district, have been found 
to have fed chiefly on animal life, fish, insects, grub's, worms, and 
snails. During the heat of the day it is a wonderful sight to see the 
khadchis sailing about the Dev pool in large shoals, with their fins 
above the surface, like so many sharks. The bait for them is the 
groundnut, and they want fine but very strong hooks and tackle. 
A handful of groundnuts will soon collect a shoal, and, when the 
water boils with their rises, the baited hook should be thrown into 
the midst of the shoal. In the early part of the season, in October 1 

soon after the rains are over, when there may be some wild or imper- 
fectly educated fish in the pool, and if the pool has not been 
over-fished, sevei-al runs may be obtained in the course of a day. 
But, as a rule, the fish are so shy and cunning that after the first 
run the fisherman may put up his tackle and leave the pool, for he 
will get no more. sport, if this style of fishing may be dignified with 
the name of sport. 

Good sport may be had with small fish in the rapids which usually 
join the river pools, especially if the rapids have been baited. 
A rapid is baited by sending a man to speind a couple of days in 
casting into the heads of several runs or rapids parched gram, 
groundnuts, and balls of a paste made of clay, bran, rice, and 
. gram. This brings the fish to feed and the sportsman may liegin 
fishing with gram thrown as a fly, spinning with a small bright 
spoon, or ordinary fly-fishing using small salmon flies. When the 
fish of one run have become shy the fisher should move to another. 

Of the medicinal qualities of the ahir, Anguilla bengalensis, the 
local Bhois have the following belief : ' On a Saturday the impotent 
man should strip himself naked and grind black gram. With the 
flour of the black gram he should bait a hook, and when he catches 
an ahir, he should put it into a broad basin of water in which it can 
swim. He should then rub red-lead or shendur on the ahir's head j 
and, .ta.king it in his hand, say to it : ' Oh fish ! I am changing my 
state for yours in taking this slimy balas from your skin. Please 
accept my offering.' He should then remove the balas, and, when 
it is dry roll it into pills, which when eaten will restore his manly 
power.' 

Another of the Poona Bhois' fish-tales is that a fish called vd/vas 
lives at Bdhn Pimpalgaon. In shape the vdvas is said to be 
circular Kke a wheel. It is beKeved that while Sita, the wife of 
/; E4m, was bathing in the river the vdvas bit a piece out of the calf 
= of her leg. This, say the Bhois, is proved because if you 
examine the palate of the fish you will always find a ball of butter. 
To the question why flesh should turn to butter there is the ready 
reply, * It is a miracle and must be accepted'! 



[Bombay Gazetted 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Census Details. 
1S7S-1881. 



Birth-place, 



Language. 



CHAPTER III. 

POPULATION. 

According to the 1881 census the population of the district wai 
900,621 or 168'43 td the square mile. Of these, Hindus numbere( 
846,781 or 94-02 per cent j Musalmdns 42,036 or 4-66 per cent 
Christians 9500 or 1'05 per cent j Parsis 1574 or 0"1 7 per cent 
Jews 619 or 0*06 percent; Chinese 78; Sikhs 30; and Unitarians 3 
The percentage of males on the total population was 50*53 and o 
females 49'46. The corresponding returns for 1872 were a total o 
921,353 or 180"69 to the square mile, of whom Hindus numberec 
870,273 or 94*45 per cent; Musalmans 41,764 or 4^53 per cent 
Christians 741 5 ; Parsis 1286 ; Jews 504 ; and Others 111. Compare( 
with the 1872 returns the 1881 returns show a decrease of 20,73S 
or 2"25 per cent. This decrease is partly due to the famine o: 
1876-77 and partly to the readiness with which the people of Poom 
leave their hemes in search of employment. 

Of 900,621 (males 455,101, females 445,520), the total population 
799,38L (males 402,414, females 396,967) or 88-75 percent weri 
born in the district. Of the 101,240, who were not bom in th( 
district, 22,232 were bom inSdtdra; 15,184 in Ahmadnagar-, 10,551 
in ShoMpur; 10,317 in the Kanarese districts; 748S in the Konkai 
districts; 4967 in GrujarAt; 3744 in Bombay; 3359 in Ni,9ik; 1690 ii 
khandesh ; 1585 in Goa, Daman, and Diu ; 595 in Sind ; 15,968 ii 
other.parts of India; and 3562 outside of India. 

Of 900,621, the total^opulation,, 812,124 (406'908 males, 405,21( 
females) or 90*17 per cent spoke Mardthi. Of the remaining 88,49' 
persons, 48,254 or 5-35 per cent spoke Hindustani; 12,384 or 1-3! 
per cent spoke Gujardti ; 10,776 or 1*19 per cent spoke Telugu ; 699( 
or 0-77 per cent spoke Mdi-wdri; 5239 or 0-58 per cent spoki 
English; 2539 or 0"28 per cent spoke Portuguese-Konkani o 
Goanese; 1013 or O'll per cent spoke Tamil; 882 or -0-09 per pen 
spoke Kdnarese; 98 spoke Panjd.bi; 75 spoke Hindi; 56 spoki 
Arabic ; 55 spoke Burmese ; 34 spoke Sindhi ; 30 spoke Pashtu 
28 spoke Persian ; 23 spoke Chinese ; 10 spoke French ; 6 spoki 
German ; 2 spoke Baluchi ; 2 spoke Greek ; and 1 spoke Italian. 

The following table gives the number of each religious clas 
according to sex at different ages, with, at each age, the percentag 
on the total population of the same sex and religion. The column 
referring to the total population omit religious distinctions but sho> 
the difference of sex ; 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



PooNA Population BY Acis, 1881. 



95 



ASE IH 

Years. 


HlNBHS. 


Musalma'ns. 


OmiSTiANS. 1 


1 


li 




Ig 


i 


H 

2-49 


1 


^"3 


1- 


,11 


£ 




Uptol ... 


11,204 


2-62 


11,388 


2-70 


530 


536 


2-57 


132 


2-15 


109 


3-22 


1 to 4 ... 


44,521 


10-43 


48,013 


11-43 


2106 


9-91 


2176 


10-45 


879 


e-is 


394 


11-66 


5 to 9 ... 


62,438 


14-64 


68,741 


K-97 


^966 


13-97 


2871 


13-79 


4(« 


7-84 


608 


U-03 


10 to 14 ... 


53,417 


12-52 


43,136 


10-26 


2689 


12-66 


2261 


1081 


378 


6-17 


371 


10-97 


15 to 19 .. 


30,873 


7-23 


29,483 


7-01 


1452 


6-83 


1439 


6-9L 


357 


6-83 


307 


9-08 


20 to 24 ... 


31,127 


7-29 


a6,l«5 


.8-60 


1605 


7-55 


1749 


8-40 


1244 


20-32 


318 


9-41 


26 to 29 ... 


39,233 


9-19 


39,350 


9-36 


1797 


8-46 


1945 


9-34 


1182 


19-31 


362 


10-71 


30 to 34 ... 


M,886 


8-64 


37,640 


8-95 


1757 


8-27 


1837 


8-82 


684 


«-54 


288 


8-52 


35 to 39 ... 


28.274 


e-62 


26,525 


6-31 


1413 


6-65 


1238 


5-95 


405 


6-61 


188 


5-66 


40 to 49 ... 


40,96J 


9-60 


38,605 


9-18 


2116 


9-96 


2059 


9-89 


491 


8-02 


270 


7-99 


50 to 54 .. 


18,899 


4-43 


19,791 


4-70 


1023 ■ 


4-81 


1046 


6-02 


203 


3-30 


95 


2-81 


55 to 59 .. 


8787 2-06 


8916 


2-12 


439 


2-06 


376 


I'gO 


117 


1-91 


51 


1-50 


Above 60.. 


19,869 4-65 


22,535 


6-36 


1333 


6 30 


1283 


6-16 


182 


2-97 


118 


3-49 








V 










1 , 


Total ... 
Up to 4 ... 


426,494 


420,287 


21,231 


20,805 . 


6121 


3379 


Jews. 


Others iNciAtDisa 
PA'Bsra. 


TOTAIi. 


9 


3-10 


, 12 


3-64 


2S 


2-69 


2t 


3-05 


11,900 


2-61 


12,067 


2-70 


1 to 4 ... 


38 


13 10 


45 


13 67 


79 


8-18 


72 


10-00 


47,123 


10-36 


60,700 


11-37 


5 to 9 ... 


6S 


l2-lS 


68 / 


20-66 


109 


11-29 


107 


14-86 


66,039 


14-51 


62,296 


13-98 


10 to 14 ... 


41 


43 


13-07 


119 


12-33 


88 


12-22 


58,644 


12-44 


45,889 


10-30 


IS to 19 ... 


35 


12-06 


28 


8-51 


99 


10-26 


80 


11-11 


32,816 


7-21 


31,337 


7-03 


20 to 24 ... 


11 


3-79 


20 


6-07 


89 


9'22 


65 


7-B3 


34,076 


7-48 


38,307 


8-69 


2S to 29 ... 


19 


6-55 


18 


5-47 


58 


601 


51 


-7-OS 


42,291 


9-29 


41,726 


9-36 


30 to 34 ... 


14 


4^82 


19 


6-77 


68 


704 


54 


7-60 


39,309 


8-63 


39,838 


8-94 


35 to 39 ... 


13 


4-48 


18 


6-47 


68 


7-01 


47 


6-62 


30,173 


6-83 


28,016 


6-28 


40 to 49 ... 


18 


6-20 


iO 


6-07 


118. 


12-22 


61 


8-47 


43,707 


9-60 


41,015 


9-20 


60 to 54 ..• 


10 


3-4* 


10 


3-03 


60 


6-ia 


26 


3-61 


20,184 


4-43 


'i0,968 


4-70 


55 to 59 ... 


5 


1-72 


10 


3-03 


26 


2-69 


13 


1-80 


9373 


3-05 


9364 


2-10 


Above 60... 


19 


6-56 


18 
V ^ 


5-47 


68 


6-01 


44 


6-11 


21,466 


4-71 


23,998 


5-38 


Total ... 


290 - 


329 


96 


5 


720 


466,101 


446,620 



Chapter III. 
Fopulatioii. 

Census Details. 
Aqe. 



The following table shows- tiie proportion of the people of the 
district who are unmarried,, married/ and widowed : 

POOSA MaRBXAQS DSTAIIS, 1881. 



Marriage. 





HINDUS. 


Under Ten. 


Tento 
. Fourteen. 


Fifteen to 
Nineteen. 


Twenty to 
Twenty-nine. 


Thirty and 
Over. 


Total. 




Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males 


Fe- 
males 


Males. 


Fe- 
males 


M^e^. 


Fe-- 
males. 


Unmarried. 
Married ... 
Widowed ... 


U6.319 

1746 

98 


109,199 
8736 
207 


i6,685 

7475 
267 


16,883 

26,383 

770 


16,952 

13,518 

403 


1011 

27,235 

1237 


12,380 

66,846 

2136 


828 

68,383 

6304 


4764 

131,806 

17,109 


852 
88,296 
64,964 


196,10« 
210,391 
20,003 


127,773 

219,032 

73,482 




MUSALMA'NS. 


Unmarritd. 
Married ... 
Widowed ... 


6653 
46 
4 


6409 

170 

4 


2424 
161 


1351 

872 
28 


1061 

-377 

14 


112 

1288 
39 


1146 

2134 

122 


88 
3330 
276 


615 
6557 
1014 


123 
4339 
3376 


10,799 
9264 
1168 


7083 
9999 
8723 




CHRISTIANS. 


ITmnarried. 
Married ... 
Widowed... 


975 
4 


1009 
2 


375 
3 


360 
10 

1 


341 
16 


164 

139 

4 


2099 
320 

7 


93 
667 
30 


471 
1376 
.135 


47 
636 
307 


4261 

1718 

142 


1673 

1364 

342 



[Bombay Gazette< 



96 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Census Details. 
Marriage. 



Occupation. 



Houses. 



Villages. 



Commwiities. 







PooNA Marriage Details, 


1S81- 


—continued. 








Unmarried. 
Married ... 
Widowed ... 


PA'ESIS. 


Under Ten, 


Ten to 
Fourteen. 


Fifteen to 
Nineteen. 


Twenty to 
Twenty-nine. 


Thirty and 
Over. 


Total. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
male 


208 
2 


198 

1 


lOB 
7 


77 
11 


77 
21 


3.5 

43 

2 


57 
79 
1 


7 
92 

4 


13 
251 

. J17 


1 

169 

73 


463 

360 

38 


318 
316 
79 


Unmarried. 
Married ... 
Widowed ... 


JEWS. 


105 


121 
1 


41 


37 
6 


29 
6 


9 
19 


7 

21 

2 


2 

33 

3 


4 
86 
9 


60 
35 


186 
93 
11 


172 
119 
38 


Unmarried. 
Married ... 
Widowed ... 


OTHERS. 


3 


2 


3 

1 


... 


7 




6 

i 


"s 


10 
66 

4 


"i 


29 
71 
4 


2 
6 



According to Occupation the 1881 census returns divide tl 
population into six classes : 

I. In Government service, learned professions, literature, and arts, 28,02 

or 3'11 per cent. 

II.— In Domestic service, 14,261 or 1-58 per cent. 
III.— In Trade, 9141 or 1-01 per cent. 

IV.— In Agriculture, 293,364 or 32-67 per cent. 

v.— In Crafts, 67,271 or 7-46 per cent. 

YI. In Indefinite and Unproductive occupations, including children, 488,5£ 

or 54'24 per cent. "" 

According to the 1881 census, of 205,355 houses, 153,401 wei 
occupied and 51,954 unocciipied. The total gave an average c 
88"39 houses to the square mile, and the 153,401 occupied houses a 
average of 5"87 inmates to each house. 

There is one village or town to about every 4'51 square miles of Ian 
and each village contains an average of 760 people, and about 1 7 
houses. Except eleven towns, including 184,700 people or 20-5 
per cent of the entire inhabitants, the population of the Poon 
district, according to the 1881 census report, lived in 1177 village 
with an average of 610 souls in each village. Of the whole numbe 
of towns and villages 85 had less than 100 inhabitants ; 1 70 ha 
from 100 to 200; 438 from 200 to 500; 300 from 500 to 1000; 13 
from 1000 to 2000 ; 24 from 2000 to 3000 ; 22 from 3000 to 500C 
8 from 5000 to 10,000 ; and three more than 10,000 inhabitants. 

^The bulk of the people of the village communities of Poena ai 
of the Maratha Kunbi caste. At the head of the community is th 
pdtil or hereditary headman. In many villages two or more familie 
either each provide an officiator or serve in rotation, but in moi 
villages the headman is always taken from the same family. Whe 



> Contributed by Mr. A. Keyset, C.8. 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



97 



there are more families than one the division may generally be 
traced to the sale of part of the headman^s property and right tof* 
hold office. In the smaller villages there is seldom more than 
one Brdhman family in which is vested the hereditary office of 
Jculkarni or village accountant. The headman and the account- 
ant jointly exercise all authority in the village. Authority is 
nominally vested in the headman alone, but the superior edu- 
cation and intelligence of tl^e accountant, who has to write all 
reports and jury findings, give him almost the whole power. 
Next to the headman and accountant comes the village moneylender 
who is usually a Marw^r or a Gujarat Vdnia, but is often also 
a Brahman and is sometimes a Mardtha. He advances , money 
to the husbandmen to pay their assessment and to provide funds 
for such emergencies as marriage and funeral expenses, and also 
for improving their fields and adding to their farm stock. His 
position as a monopolist enables the moneylender to make terms 
which to European ideas, accustomed to countries where money is 
cheap, are very harsh. At the same time the moneylender is by no 
means always an evil character. In many villages he is the people's 
best friend, without whom they adniit they would neither be able to 
find seed to sow nor money to meet their necessary expenditure. 
That his terms are not so excessively harsh as they are sometimes 
represented, is shown by the fact, that, as a rule, his customers prefer 
to apply to him for advances to improve their estates rather than 
avail themselves of the more liberal terms on which money is offered 
by Government. As a middleman between the cultivators and the 
Government, who ensures the punctual payment of the land-rent, 
the moneylender is a valuable public servant. The other Govern- 
ment servants are the Mhd,rs, who are messengers, scavengers, and 
general assistants to the headman and accountant, and the Eamoshis 
or village watch. In a few cases Mhars and Bdmoshis receive 
cash payment, but in most cases they are paid partly by grants of 
rent-free Government land and partly by a fixed proportion from 
each landholder's crop. Besides these two sources of income in the 
larger towns the Eamoshis often get fees from travellers whose carts 
they watch, and these payments in villages on the main lines of 
traffic sometimes amount to considerable sums. The headman and 
the accountant are paid by rent-free land and cash. And if the 
assessment which they escape paying does not amount to a certain 
fixed percentage on the revenue collected the sum is made up by 
Government, so that they are really paid in cash. Several other 
vallage servants are paid by the community. The chaugula or 
assistant headman whose functions are now almost obsolete, but who 
still takes a share in all village festivities and ceremonies ; the sonar 
the gold and silver sniith; the sutdr or carpenter; the lohdr or 
blacksmith; the .pa/rit or washerman; the hu7nhhdr or -potter; the 
nhdvi or barber; the ehdmbhdr or currier and shoemaker ; the dhor 
or Mang who makes ropes ; the koli or waterman ; and, in the larger 
viljages, the gurav or priest who looks after the temple, and the grdm- 
joshi, or Brdhman astrologer who performs most ceremonies. All 
of these are usually paid in grain, but money payments, especially 
to clients from dependent or incomplete villages, are not uncommon. 



Chapter III. 
Fopulatiou. 

Communities. 



98 



DISTRICTS. 



[Bomliay Gazetteer, 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Communities. 



Movements. 



BbIhmans. 



In tHe larger villages in the plains the fall stafE of oiEce-bearera 
and servants is generally found ; in the smaller villages, especially 
in the hilly west, the staff is by no means complete. Many of the 
smaller western villages are composed of a few Koli families with 
one or even without any family of Mhars and with one accountant 
for a group who usually lives in the largest village of his circle, 

Except in one or two large towfis such as Junnar and Manchar, the 
Musalman population is small. With rare exceptions, they live on 
terms of perfect friendship with the Hindus, and in a few villages 
the head family or one of the head families is Musalman. The 
principal occupations of the Musalmdn portion" of the community are 
those of butchers, weavers, vegetable-sellers, and labourers. P^rsis, 
except as liquor- sellers' and Government servants, are almost 
unknown. Though the various Hindu castes do not intermarry or 
eat together^ with the exception of the Mhars, Mdngs, Ramoshis, and 
Chdmbars, they mix freely, and use the same wells. Disputes 
between the different castes are rare. The chief exception 
to this is that Kunbis and Mhars have often serious quarrels 
regarding the death of cattle, the Kunbis charging the Mhars . 
with poisoning their cattle in order to^et the carcases. Besides the 
regular body of villagers, groups of reed-huts on the outskirts of a 
village often mark the camp or settlement of a gang of wanderers. 
Of these wanderers the chief are the Yanjaris or pack-bullock owners, 
the Kolhdtis or rope-dancers, the Kaikddis or basket-makers, the 
Vaidus or herb-sellers, and the Vadars or earth- workers. 

In 1875 the Deccan Riots Commissioners came to the conclusion' 
that the district exported little except its superfluous labour. During! 
the eight months from October to June, especially during the latter 
portion of this period, a considerable proportion of the Kunbi or 
cultivating classes go to Bombay, where they earn a living as palan- 
quin-bearers, carriers, grass-cutters, and labourers. It is impossible 
to make an accurate estimate of the proportion of the populatioh 
who yearly move to Bombay in search of work. It -is probably not 
less than five per cent. And, if the numbers are added who go to 
the local labour markets and ply their carts along the principal 
thoroughfares, the estimate may safely be doubled.^ This practice 
of a yearly migration in search of labour tends to preserve among 
the people a spirit of independence and self-reliance. In years of 
local scarcity the people scatter in search of subsistence to all parts 
of the Bombay Presidency, to the Berars, and to the Nizam's Domi- 
nions. The practice though attended with some inconveniences, was 
of considerable assistance to Government in fighting the 1876 
famine. 

Bra'hinans,^ according to the 1881 census, included fifteen 



^The 1881 census shows that 111,650 people bom in Poona were in that year 
found in different parts of the Bombay Presidency. -The details are : Bombay 69,000 
against 54,600 in 1872, Ahmadnagar 14,800, Sholdpur 9550, SAtdra 4690, NAsik 4340, 
Khindesh 3630, KoUba 3280, Belgaum 840, Ratndgiri 660, KalAdgi 400, DhArwAr 
310, and Kdnara 150. 

" Hindu caste details are from materials collected by Mr. K. Eaghuadthji by personal 
local inquiry and from information supplied by Mr, M, M, Kunte, 



fieccau.! 



POONA. 



99 



classes with a strength of 49,039 or 5'80 per cent of the Hindu 
population. The following statement shows the divisions and the 
strength of Poena Brdhmans : 

PooNA BrAhmans, 1881. 



DinsioH. 


Malea. 


Females 


Total. 


Division. 


* 
^ales. 


Females 


Total. 


Chitp&van 


6010 


5574 


11,684 


Klat 


93 


85 


178 


Deshasth 


16,768 


16,991 


32,749 


Mirvadi ... 


140 


69 


199 


Devrukhe 


96 


79 


175 


Shenvi 


266 


179 


446 


Dravid 


15 


22 


37 


Tailang 


67 


33 


100 


Goyardhao ... 


816 


289 


604 


Tii^iil 


169 


131 


300 


Gujar&ti 


218 


61 


282 


Vidur 


51 


49 


100 


Javal 
Kanoj 


9 
463 


2 
236 


11 

699 
















Karh&dB 


811 


735 


1676 


Total ... 


26,611 


23,628 


49,039 



Chltpa'vans^ from the fact that the Peshwa -belonged to their 
tribe are historically the most important of Poena Brahmans. They 
are returned as numbering about 11,600 and as found over the whole 
district. Besides Chitpdrans they are called Ohitpols and Chiplnnas. 
Of these names Chitpdvan is said to mean either pure from the pyre 
dhita or pure of heart cMi^, and Ohitpol is said to mean heart-burners. 
It seems probable that these names, like the third name Chiplunas, 
come from the town of Chiplun in Ratndgiri, their chief and original 
settlement whose old name is said to have been Chitpolan.^ Since 
1715, when Peshwa Balaji Vishvanath rose to be the chief man 
in the Mardtha state, the Chitpavans have also been known as 
Konkanasths, that is the chief Konkan Brahmans. Their worship 
of Parashnrdm, the slayer of the Kshatriyas and the coloniser of the 
Konkan, on Parashurdm hill close to Chiplun, the fact that they 
are called Parashurdm srishti or Parashurdm's creation, and the 
meaning pure from the pyre which the sound of their name suggests, 
to some extent explain thepurious legends of which they are the 
subjects. According to Ihe Sahyddri Khand, Parashurdm was so 
defiled by the slaughter of the Kshatriyas- that Brdhmans refused 
to perform any ceremonies for him. At that time the bodies of 
fourteen shipwrecked foreigners happened to be cast ashore by 
the sea which then washed the foot of the- Sahyddri hills. These 
corpses Parashurd,m purified by burning them on a funeral pyre or 
.chita, restored them to life, taught them Brahman rites, and made 
them perform ceremonies to free him from blood-giiiltiness. 
^Jparashuram wished to reward his new priests, and as the Deccan 
had already been given to Brahmans he prayed the sea to spare 
him some of his domain. The sea agreed to retire as far west as 
TParashuram could shoot an arrow from the crest of the Sahyadris. The 
arrow was shot and reclaimed a belt of land about thirty miles broad. 
The banks of the Vashishthi, about forty miles north of Ratnagiri, 
were set apart for the new Brdihmans, and in memoiy of the process by 
which they had been purified they were called Ohitpdvans and their 
settlement Chitpolan. After establishing this colony Parashurdm 
retired to Gokarn in North Kdnara. Before leaving he told the 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BbAemaks. 



ChitpAyans. 



' This aceonnt of the Chitpavans has the approval of Edo Bahddur Grop^lr^o Hari 
Deshmukh. » SabyAdri Khand, I. 2. 



[Bomliay Gazetteer, 



100 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Fopnlation. 

BrAhmans. 
ChitpJ.vans. 



Bralimans, if they were ever in trouble, to call on him, and lie,wonld 
come to their aid. After a time, fearing that they might be forgotten, 
one of the Brahnians feigned death and the rest called on their 
patron to come to theiir help. Parashuram appeared, and, disgusted 
with their deceit and their want of faith, told them that they would 
lose the power of meeting in council and would become servile. 
Accordingly they are said to have married Shudra women and become 
degraded.! The historic value of this legend is hard to estimate. 
The writer of the Sahyddri Khand was hostile to other local Brdhmans 
as well as to the Chitpdvans. He dishonours the Karhade Brahmans 
by a story that they are descended from the bones of a camel which 
was raised to life by Parashttrdm. This story, probably, arose from 
a playion the words TtJiar an ass and had a bone. The explanation has 
nothing to do with the Karhades who are almost certainly a Deccan 
tribe who take their name from- the town of Karhad in Satdra 
at the sacred meeting of the Koina and Krishna rivers. As the two 
stories are so similar it seems probable that the Chitpayans were " 
called after the old settlement of Chitpolan, and that the resemblance 
of that word to chita a pyre suggested some parts of the legend'. 
At the same time it seems probable that the Chitpdvans did not, ' 
like the bulk of Koukan Brdhinans, enter the Konkan by land. 
Their fair complexion, the extent to which they use -the Konkan 
dialect in their homes, and the legend of their arrival as shipwrecked 
sailors seem to show that they came into the South Konkan from 
beyond the sea. Whether they were foreigners is doubtful.^ The -■ 
legend of the shipwrecked sailors being foreigners or TO/eMcAA.as is 
to some extent supported by the low position which the Chitpavana 
formerly held among Brahmans, and , by the commonness among 
them of light or gray eyes. The OhitpAvans have a tradition that 
they came from Amba Jogdi in the Nizam's country about 100 miles 
north of ShoMpur. They say that they were originally Deshasths 
and that fourteen, BrAhmans of different family-stocks accompanied 
Parashurdm to the Konkan and settled at Chiplun. These fourteen 
family-stocks belonged to two branches or shdhhds, Shdikala and 
Titiriya. The sutra or ritual of the Sh^kala branch is that composed 
by the seer Ashvalayan and of the Titiriya branch is &at of the seer 
Hiranyakeshi. They pay homage to the goddess Jogai or Yogeshvari ; 
of Araba, and, wherever they are settled, build a temple in her honour. 
At Poena there are two temples to Togeshvari, one red and the other 
black. Among ChitpAvans Togeshvari takes the next place to Granpati. 
Before marriage and other ceremonies they go^ to her temple with 
music and ask her to come and be with them during the ceremony.* 

Until the rise of Bdlaji Vishvanath Peshwa, who belonged to 

' Another account states that OhitpAvans were not foreigners but Bhois or local 
fishermen. Taylor's Oriental Manuscripts, III. 705. This legend, with slight varja- j 
tions, has been often quoted. The chief references are, Moore's Hindu Pantheon, 351 ; 
Wilks' History of the South of India, I. 157-158; Grant Duff's MarithAs, I. 8.; 
Ancient Remains of Western Jndia, 12 ; Burton's Goa and the Blue Mountains, 14- 15 ; 
Asiatic Researches, IX. 239 ; and Journal Royal Asiatic Society Bombay, XVII. 374 
(185a) and V. 1865. 

? Wilford (Asiatic Researches, IX. 239) thought that the ChitpAvans were Persians 
descended from the sons of Khosru Parviz, 

' Rio Bahddur Gop^rAo Hari Deshmukh. 



DecciEUi.] 



POONA. 



101 



their class, the Chitpavans held a low position and were known 
chiefly as spies or harkdrds. Even after several generations of 
power and wealth, with strict attention to Brdhman rules, the purer 
classes of Brahmans refused to eat with them, and it is said that 
when Bdjirdv, the last Peshwa (1796-1818), was at Nasik he was 
not allowed to go down to the water by the same flight of steps aa 
the priests.^ Whatever disqualifications may in theory attach to 
the Chitpdvans, their present social and religious position is as high 
as that of the Karhade or any other branch' of Deccan Brahmans. 

Chitpd.vans have no subdivisions. All eat together and intermarry 
except families who have the same or an akin family-stock.^ 
Among the common surnames or ddndvs are Abhyankar, Agdshe, 
Athavle, Bd.1, Bapat, Bhagvat, Bhat, Bhave, Bhide, Chitale, Datnle, 
Dugle, Gradgilj Gadre, Jog, Joshi, Karve, Kunthe, Lele, Limaye, 
Londhe, Mehendale, Modak, Nene, Ok, Patvardhan, Phadke, Ranade, 
Sathe, Vyas'. The names of some of their family-stocks or gotras are 
Atri, Babhravya, Bhd,radvd], Gd,rgya, Jamadagnya, Kapi, Sashyap, 
Kaundinya, Kaushik, Nityunjan, Shandilya, Vd,shistha, Yatsa, and 
Vishnuvriddha. Many families, though settled for generations in 
the Deccan still call themselves Eonkanasths and differ considerably 
from Deshasths. Many of them can be recognized by their gray 
or cat eyes, their fair skin, and their fine features. The Poona 
Chitpd, van speaks pure Mardthi. As many of the owners are rich 
and most are well-to-do, Ohitpavan houses are generally comfortable 
and well kept. The house is generally built round a central plot or 
yard and is entered through a gateway or passage in one of the 
outer faces of the building. Prom the inner court a few steps le9.d 
to the veranda or oti, for the house is always raised on a plinth or 
jote three or four feet high., In the veranda strangers are received, 
boys and girls play, a clerk or agent spreads his account-books, or 
the women of the house swing and talk. The ground floor has four 
to seven rooms, a centre hall, a back veranda, and the second 
storey has four rooms and two great halls ; the walls are of brick and 
mortar and the roof is tiled. The woodwork is either of teak or of 
common timber. A rich house costs £500 to £1000 (E,s. 5000-10,000) 
to build, a middle-class house £200 to £300 (Rs. 2000-3000), and a 
poor house £30 to £50 (Rs. 300-500). 

The furniture in a rich man's house is worth about £400 (Rs. 4000), 



Chapter III. 
Fopnlatioo. 

BeIhuans. 



1 Hamilton's Description of Hindustan, II 197 ; Grant Duffs Mardthds, I. 8 ;Wilks 
(History of the South of India, I. 157-158) ?ays that when he wrote (about 1880) the 
Brahmans of other parts of India denied that the Konkanasths were Brihmans. la 
their predatory incursions the Konkanasths are said to have greedily sought for copies 
of the Sahyidri Khand and destroyed tbem. Grant Dufif (MarAthAs,,I. 8) mentions 
that a few years before the Peshwa's overthrow a respectable BrAhman of Vii in Sdtdra 
was degraded because he had a copy of the Sahyddri Khand. " 

2 The akin gotras or family ^stocks are BhdradvAj, Gdrgya, and Kapi ; Jdmadagnya and 
Vatsa ; K4shyap and ShAndilya ; Kaundinya and VAsbishtha ; Kaushik and Babhravya; 
Nityunjan and Vishnuvriddha^ Atri alone has no kin : hence the saying Atri dni 

' sarvdnshi maitri, a person of the Atri family -stock can be j oined to a person of any other 
'family-stock.' Besides surnames and family- stocks, there are pravars or founders' 

■ names which are subdivisions of family-stocks. Thus the Shandilya stock has three 
pravam, Shtodilya, Asit, and Deval, and other family-stocks include three or five 
founders' names. In marriage the boy and girl should, on the father's side, be of 
different founders' names and of different fainily-atockg. 



[Bombay Gazetteeif, 



102 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Popalation, 

BbAhmans. 

Food. 



in a middle-class house about £90 (Rs. 900), and in a poor house 
about £16 (Rs. 160).^ Few families have a large enough, store of 
cooking and eating yessels to entertain the whole company of guests 
called to a caste-dinner or Brdhman-bhojan, 

In rich and well-to-do Ohitp^van families soon after harvest 
either in November- December or in April -May a year's supply", 
of the different kinds of grain is bought and kept in a store-room 
or kothi. Stores of oil and of fuel are also laid in. Prom day 
to day little is bought in the^ market except vegetables and fruit. 
The daily purchases in rich families are made by a Brahman 
man-servant, and in middle and poor families by the head of the 
house or by grown sons. The women of the family never go to the 
market to buy vegetables or fruit. The daily supply of" milk comes 
in most cases frorn the family cows and buffaloes ; in som.e cases 
it is bought from a milkman. The dairy is entrusted to the 
women of the family, and in rich houses^ to BrShman servants. 
Most of the grain, chiefly rice, wheat, millet, and^^piike, is ground 
daily by Kunbi servants. Except at certain religious ceremonies, 
which very rarely take place, a Konkanasth should eat no flesh 
and driuk no liquor. Their every-day food is rice, millet or wheat 
breald, pulse, vegetables, oil, whey, milk, and curds. Their drink is 
water, milk, and sometimes tea and coffee.- Spirituous liquor is 
forbidden by caste rules, but its use,; especially the use of European 
spirits, has of late years become commoneramong the more educated. 
They take- two meals a day, one "between nine and eleven in 
the morning', the other between seven and nine in ihe evening. Men ; 
and women eat separately, the women after the men have done ; 



^ The details are : 



Ckitpdvan Pwniture. 



Article. 


B,IOH. 


Middle. 


Poor. 
















No, 


Cost. 


TSo. 


Cost. 


No. 


Cost. 






B4. 




Rs. 




lis. a. 


Glass Hanging Lamps... 


10 


- 200 


i 


76 






Chairs ...' 


12 


60 


2 


8 




■ 


Benctiea 


2 


10 


1 


6 






Cots 


2 


100 


2 


60 


"i 


5" 


Boxes 


10 


200 


2 


40 


1 


15 


Swinging Cota 

Cradles ... 


2 


100 


1 


20 


1 


10 


3 


90 


1 


10 


1 


6 


High Wooden Stdpls ... 


2 


20 


1 


6 






Low Wooden, Stools . . . 


12 


10 


6 


15 


i? 


s" 


Bering :::' ::: - ::: 


2 


200 


1 


60 






10 


200 


3 


30 


"i 


s" 


Blankets... - 


6 


50 


2 


10 


2 


6 


Coverlets... 


10 


20 1 


3 


6 


2 


3 


Metal Pots 


160 


900 


.50 


26t) 


20 


40 " 


Brass Lamps 


10 


80 


6 


25- 


2 


r 


Wooden Lamps.„ 


2 


26" 


a 


10 


2 


S 8 


Silver Vessels 


80 


600 


10 


100 






Worship Vessels 


■ 20 


■ 300 


18 


160 


"5 


40 


Handmills 


2 


26 


1 


10 






Grindstones and Pins .. 


i 


20 


2 


8 


"i 


s" 


Mortars and Pestles ... 


3 


15 


2 


10 


1 


4 


Earthen Pots ' 


5 


10 


10 


,5 


15 


3 


Carriages 

Total ... 


2 


1000 












4165 




892 


... 


162 8 



Besides tiie articles mentioned in the above list, a well-to^do man has a pair of 
tnirrors, one or two tahlee. Jour or five sofas, and a few cups and dishes for tea service. 
Of late young educated men have begun to furnish their houses in European style. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



103 



children take a meal early in the morning and again in separate 
dishes with the father or mother ; after he has been girt with the 
sacred thread a boy follows the same rules as a man. The head of 
the houSBj his sons, and guests of superior rank sit "on low wooden 
stools in a row, and in a second row facing them are guests or 
male relations of inferior rank. Metal or leaf plates are laid in 
front of each stool and to the right-hand side is a water-pot or 
tdmbya and to the left a cup with a ladle in it. On the top to 
the right are cups for curries and relishes. The pulse and grain 
are served by a Br^man cook, and the vegetables and butter by 
, one of the women of the family, generally the -host's wife or hia 
^anghter-iu-law. The dinner is served in three courses, the first of 
. boiled rice and pulse and a spoonful or two of butter, the second of 
wheat bread and sugar and butter with salads and curries, and the 
third of boiled rice with curds and salads. With each course two 
or three vegetables are served. The plate is not changed during 
dinner. In each course the chief dish is heaped in the centre of 
the plate j on the right the vegetables are; arranged, and on the left 
the salads with a piece of lemon and. some salt. In rich families the 
chief dishes are served by. aBrdhman servant, and the salads by one 
of the women of the family, : generally by the host's wife or hia 
daughter-in-law. Except on a few holidays and by a few strict 
- elders the rule _of silence at meals is not kept. The dinner lasts 
" about half an hour. After dinner a few chew a basil leaf and sip a 
little water, others chew betelnut or a packet of betelnut and 
leaves. The ordinary monthly food charges of a household of six 
persons, a man and wife two children and two relations or dependants, 
vary for a rich family, from £6 to £9 (Rs. 60-90); for a middle 
class family from -£4 to £6 (Rs. 40-60) ; and for a poor family 
from £1 10s. to £2 (Rs. 15 - 20) } 

^- Indoors a rich Chitpavan wears a waistcoat, a silk-bordered 
;;^iwaistcloth, and either leaves his feet bare or walks on wooden 



Chapter HI. 
Fopnlation, 

CbitpAtans. 
Food. 



Dress. 



I The details are : 



Chitpivan Food Charges. 



Article. 


Rich. 


Middle. 


POOK. 1 


From 


To 


From 


To 


From 


To 




Ea. a. 


Rs. a. 


Ea. a. 


Es. a. 


Rs. a. 


Rs. a. 


Eioe 


10 


12 


10 


12 


7 


8 


SpUt Pulsa 


2 


3 


1 


1 8 


2 


8 


Wheat 


4 


S 


2 


3 






Millet Bread 




ft 


2 


3 


1 ,8 


2 


Pulse 


3 


5 


2 


2 8 


12 


1 


Butter 


10 


12 


3 


4 


8 


1 


Oil, Sweet 


6 


7 


2 8 


i 


8 


12 


Oil, Bitter .- 


1 2 


% 


3 


4 


12 


1 


Vegetables 


4 a 


.6 


2 


2 8 


4 


8. 


Sugar 

Molasses 


5 


7 


2 


2 8 


2 


4 


3 


5 


2 


3 


4 


8 


Milt 


8 


10 


5 


7 


1 


2 


Coffee 


1 


2 


8 


12 






Tea 


8 


12 










Firewood 


7 '0 


9 


5 


6 


3 


4 


Tobacco and Betel - ... 


2 


4 


1 


1 2 


4 


6 


Buttermilk and Curds... 
Total, ... 


... 




... 




8 


12 


.65 8 


88 12 


4& 


S6 14 


16 8 


22ao 



The money outlay of a begging or bhikshuh BrAhman who receives constant 
presents of grain and clothes is much less than the sum named in the text. 



[Bom'bay Oazettee 



104 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Fopnlation. 

'BrAsmajhs. 

CeitpJ-VAns. 

Dress. 



clogs or pattens. At dinner and when worshipping his house goc 
he wears a silk waistcloth and puts on a fresh waistclotli at be 
time. In cpld weather he rolls a shawl round his head and puts o 
a. flannel waistcoat. Out of doors he wears a big round flat-rimme 
turban generally with a belt of gold on the front of the. outmost fol 
and a low central peak covere~d with gold. The usual . colours ai 
white, redj crimsola, and purple. He wears a short cotton or broao 
cloth coat, a double-breasted twelve-knotted or hdrcibandi waisi 
coat, a shouldercloth, and on his feet square-toed red shoes. Hi 
waistcloth and shouldercloth are daily washed at home. His fu 
or ceremonial dress is the same as his every -day dress. The Bnglis 
speakers, or B.A's as they are called, wear small neatly folde 
turbans, English-cut shirts and broadcloth coats, coloured stocking! 
and English boots and shoes, and in a few cases loose trouseri 
Of ornaments, a rich man wears a pearl or gold necklace, 
diamond or gold ;finger ring, sometimes a pair of bracelets roun 
the right or left wrist, and a pearl earring. Old men wear 
necklace of gold with pearls, coral, and -rMt^m^-sTi or rosary beadi 
Except that it, is cheaper, a middle-class man's dress does not diffe 
from a rich man's dress. On ceremonial and other fuU-dres 
occasions a poor Brahman generally wears a turban, a shouldei 
cloth, and a coat. A rich man's wardrobe and ornaments- ar 
worth about £320 to £580 (Rs. 3200 - 5800), a middle clas 
Brdhman's£50 to £85 (Rs. 500-850), and a poor Brahman's £1 t 
£3 (Rs. 10-30).! 

The indoor and outdoor dress of a rich Brdhman woman is 



1 The details are : 



Brdlvman Man^s Dress arid Otna/ments. 



Article. ^ 


KlOH. 1 


Middle. | 


POOK. 


No. 


From 


To . 


No. 


From 


To j 


No. 


From 


To 


Dress, 




Es a. 


Es. a. 




Kb. a. 


Es. a. 




Es. a. 


Es. a 


Turfcans 


4- 


75 


100 


2 


SO 


50 


1 


2 


10 ( 


Waistcoats, Broadclotli 


4 


3 


7 


2 


3 


4 








„ Twelve-knotted ... 


4 


2 


3 


2 


1 


1 8 


"i 


o"'4 


6"l( 


Coats, Broadcloth 


2 


10 


20 


1 


6 


10 








„ Cotton .'. 


4 


B 


7 


3 


4 


5 


"i 


o"8 


i" ( 




2 


2 


2 8 


2 


2 


2 IB 


1 


1 


1 t 


Jacket, sadasre' 


4 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 8 








Waistoloths, Silk 


2 


15 


, 25 


1 


10 


15 


"i 


l"'8 


2" i 


'„ Cotton 


3 


5 


7 


2 


4 


5 


1 


1 8 


2 ( 


Sash, dupeta '. 


2 


25 


100 


1 


15 


50 




... 


... 


Shouldercloth, -upama, Gold- 




















edged. 


1 


15 


20 0, 














„ Silk-edged Cotton. 


2 


6, 


10 


"i 


5" 


7" 








„ Plain „ ... 








2 


2 8 


4 


"i 


015 


2 '. 


Shoes 


"i 


"i 


"3 


1 


12 


1 


1 


10 


1! 


Handkerchiefs 


i 


2 


2 8 


2 


1 


1 8 








Walking Stick ... ; 


1 


1 


2 


1 


8 


1 








Umbrella 


2 


3 


i 


2 


2 


3 


"i 


o"'8 


01! 


Ornaments, 




















Necklace, Diamond 


1 


1000 


1600 


... 






... 






,, Pearls 


1 


1000 


1600 






... 




... 




„ Gold ' ... 


i 


400 


600 


'i 


106" 


200 




... 






1 


200 


400 


1 


100 


160 








" " sikcdi '.'.'. !!! 


2 


■ 200 


4CiO 


2 


100 


200 








Armlet „ pochi ... '.- 


1 


SO 


40 


1 


15 0, 


25 








Diamond Eing, dngatM... 


1 


100 


1000 


1 


20 


50 








Gold King 


, 2 


50 


.100 


2 


30 


40 ^ 








„ „ pavitrcik 


1 


20 


30 


1 


20 


30 






'•• 


Total ... 


::■ 


3173 


5787 




472 12 


858 




8 13 


2111 



Deccau.] 



PODNA. 



105 



robe and bodice of cotton and silk. The robe is twenty-four to 
thirty- two feet long and three to four feet broad. It is passed round 
the waist so as to divide it into two parts of unequal length, the 
longer part being left to fall as a skirt and the shorter part being 
drawn over the shoulders and bosom. In arranging the lower half 
of the robe the corner of the skirt is passed back between the feet 
and tucked into the waist behind lea.ving in front two gracefully 
drooping folds of cloth which hide the limbs to below the knee nearly, 
to the ankle. The upper part is drawn backwards over the right 

~ shoulder and the end is passed across the bosom and fastened into the 
left side of the waist. When going out the skirt of the robe is drawn 
tightly over the head, and the end is held in the right hand about the 
level of the waist. The bodice is carefully made so as to fit the chest 
tightly and support the breast, the ends being tied in a knot in front 
under the bosom. It covers the back to below the shoulder-blade, and 
the sleeves, which are tight, come within about an inch of the elbow. 
The right sleeve which is covered by the robe is plain, but, except 
among the poorest, the fringe of the left sleeve is highly ornamented 
with gold and embroidery. On marriage and other great occasions 
a rich woman draws a shawl over the back part of her head and 
holds the ends in front one in each hand at about the level of the 
lower part of the bodice. Her indoor jewelry includes head, ear, 
nose, neck, arm, and toe rings. Though she may not have a 
specimen of every form of oi'nanient, a rich woman has a large 
stock of jewelry worth £170 to £750 (Rs. 1700 - 7500). Except that 
her ornaments are, fewer and that her outdoor dress is less costly, a 

"middle-class woman's dress is nearly the same as a rich woman's. 
A poor woman has few and light jewels and a small store of clothes. 

, The value of a rich woman's wardrobe varies from £50 to £120 
(Es. 500-1200); of a middle class woman's from £15 to £30 
(Rs. 150 - 300), and of a poor woman's from £2 to £4 (Rs. 20 - 40).^ 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Bbahmans. 

CHITPJrANS. 

Drens, 



1 The details are : 



JBrdhmmi Woman^s Clothes, 



Article. 


Rich. 


i 

- MlDDLB. 


POOE. 


No. 


From 


lo 


No. 


From 


To 


No. 


From 


TO 


Bodice, eholi 

)» »» 

Kobe, ahAii "... 
„ paitlami ... ... 

„ „ pttdmiar... 

„ Dhanvadi rdsta ... 

„ Barhdnpmi 

„ Ahmadabadi 

„■ BrahApari 

„ Ahmadabadi 

„ mugta 

Cheap Robes 

Shawls, a Pair of 

Scarf sMa 


10 
2 

"i 

1 
1 
2 
2 
2 

"i 

-2 

"i 
1 


Rs. ». 

10 0- 
10 

200 ' 
100 
60 
20 
20 
IS 

8 
5 

50 
25 


Rs. a. 

IB 
20 

300" 
600 
100 
40 
40 
25 

lb" 
10 

loo" .0 

40 


6 

1 
i 
1 

i 

"i 

"i 
1 

"i 

"2 
1 


Rs. ». 

3 
5 
2-0 
2 

75" 
16" 
10" 

10 

5" 
lb" 

25 


Bs. a. 

4 

10 

2 8 

. 3 

isb'-c 

15" 

" 20" 0. 

20 

7" 
is" 

60 


3 
1 
3 

"i 

"i 
1 

'2 


Bs. a. 

12 

1 8 
'9 

... 

.!! 
lb" 

6 

2 8- 

e" 


Rs. a. 

1 
4 
1 

is" 
s" 

4 

5 




513 


1200 




157 


296 8 


... 


27 6 


41 



n ain_i4. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



106 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population, 

BbIhmans. 

CbitpJ.vans. 

Dress. 



The value of a woman's ornaments varies from about £150 to aboiit 
f.750 (Rs. 1500 -7500).! 

Till they are four years old the children of the rich, middle, 
and poor run naked about the house ; out of doors they are 
covered with a cloak which is drawn over the head and ends in a 
peaked hood. After he is four years old a boy generally wears a 
waistband in the house and a girl a petticoat. Out of doors a boy is 
dressed in a cap and waistcoat and a girl in a petticoat and bodice. 
After it is seven or eight years old, a child's dresS comes to cost 
as much as a grown person's. The value of a rich boy's 
wardrobe varies from £50 to £100 (Rs. 500-1000), of a middle-class 
boy's from £20 to £40 (Rs. 220-400), and of a poor boy's from 
£4 to £7 (Rs. 40 - 70). . The value of a rich girl's wardrobe varies 
from £25 to £50 (Rs. 250-500), of a middle class girl's from £17 to 



^ The details are : Of Head Obnambnts, chandrdkor, the quarter or crescent 
moon, 10s. to £2 (Rs. 5-20) ; phul or flower, 6s. to £1 10s. (Rs. 3-15) ; hetak, the 
flower of the Pandanus odoratissimus, lOs. to £1 10«, (Rs. 5-15) ; rdkhdi, a flower- 
shaped ornament, £1 to £2 10s. (Hs. 10-25); mud, shaped like a cone, 16s, to 
£4(Rs. 8-40); phirhiche phul, or the screw- ornament shaped like a flower, 10s. to 
£1 (Rs. 5-10) ; and apraphtil, the last flower, 6e. to 16s. (Rs. 3-8), total £3 18s. to 
£13 6s. (Rs. 39 - 133). Of Ear. Oekaments, bugdis £1 12s. to £20 (Rs. 16 - 200) ; 
Idlis, £lto£5 (Rs. 10-50) ; kxidi, £1 10s. to £7 10s. (Rs. 15-75) ; kurdu, a, sacred 
grass, of gold and pearls, lOs. to £2 (Rs. 5 - 20) ; k(ip, literally a slice, £10 to £50 
(Rs. 100-500), total £14 12s. to £84 10s. (Ks. 146- 845). Of Nosh Oenaments, a 
nath, a gold nosering set with pearls, £1 4s. to £50 (Rs. 12 - 500). Of Neck Obsa- 
MENTS, mangal sutra the lucky, thread of black beads, 10s. to £2 (Rs. 5-20)'; 
chandrahdr a string of crescents, £30 to £80 (Rs. 300 - 800) ; vajratik, literally thunder^ 
bolt-spangle, perhaps a lightning-guard, £1 4s. to £7 10s. (Via.\2-T5) ; putlydche 
ffdthle a nfecklaqe of gold coins £2 to £30 (Rs. 20 - 300) ; kantha, literally necklace, of 
gold and pearls, £5 to £40 (Rs. 50-400) fekddnipot, the one-grain necklace, of glass 
beads with a large central gold stud, 10s. to £1 10s. (Rs. 5-15); sari, £8 to £50 
(Rs. 80 - 500) ; ihusi, supposed to represent a thrashed wheat ear, but more like a leaf 
of the sacred basil or tulsi, £5 to £20 (Rs. 50-200) ; vindivijnra, literally alightning- 
soarer, £10 to £50 (Rs. 100-500) ; and jondhdli pot, literally millet-grain string, in 
shape like a row of milleli grains, £2 to £4 (Rs. 20-40), total £64 4s. to £285 
(Rs. 642 - 2850). Of Wristlets, »•«« phul kdhne, literally a thread of rui or Ca!oj;ropis 
gigantea flowers in form like the rui flower one of the holiest and most spirit-soaring 
of plants, £5to£15(Rs. 50-150) ; gold bangles or idng'rfis £20 to £35 (Rs. 200-350); 
chhand, £10 to £200 (Rs. 100-2000) ; pdtlis, £1 to £35 (Rs. 10-350) ; todds or cords, 
a rope-shaped ornament, £15 to £50 (Rs. 150-500) ; got, literally a circle, £20 to 
£60 (Rs. 200-600) ; and vdki, literally a crook or curved ornament with or without 
diamonds, £15 to £100 (Rs. 150 - 1000), total' £81 to £315 (Rs. 810 - 3150). Of 
Feet Ornaments, for the ankles todds or ropes of silver, £2 to £20 (Rs. 20-200), and 
for the toes jodvds or double rings, 16s. to £2 (Rs. 8 - 20) ; phul or flower rings with a 
knob or boss, 2s. to 14s. (Rs. 1 - 7) ; gend, a flower in shape like a gonda flower, 28. to 
8s. (Rs. 1-4); and rocfsoK in shape like fish, 8s. to £1 (Rs. 4-10), total £1 8s. to 
£4 2s. (Rs. 14-41). 

,The names of the ornaments are interesting. Several of the names show, and 
several of the forms bear out the evidence of the names, that before they were made of 
metal many of the ornaments were made of flowers or of grass. The kind of flower, grass, 
or plant chosen, and the character of the originals of the ornaments which have not their 
source in plants or trees, suggest that at first all were worn, not as they are now worn 
for look's sake, but because the objects from which they were made or of which they 
were copies were holy or spirit-scaring objects. At least in the case of plants the root 
of the belief in their spirit-scaring power seems to have been the experience of their 
healing power, the belief that spirits fear and flee from healing plants being part of the 
early theory that sickness is spirit-caused. Most of the ornaments which are not 
metal copies of holy plants are copies of other holy or spirit-scaring objects, the 
moon, the sun, the cobra, and the sacred bull. In illustration of this suggestion 
a detailed account of the head ornaments worn by Brahman women is given in the 
Appendix. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



107 



£28 (Es. 170 - 280), and of a poor girl's from £3 to £5 (Ra. 30 - 50).^ Chapter III. 
The value of a boy's ornaments varies in a rich family from £50 Population, 
to £90 (Rs. 500 - 900), in a middle-class family from £19 to £35 BrAhmms 
(Rs. 190 - 350), and in a poor family from £3 to £6 (Ra. 30-60). CBiTpUvA^k. 
The value of a girl's ornaments varies in a rich family from £19 
to £40 (Rs. 190-400), in a middle-class family from £1$ to £25 
(Rs. 150-250), and in a poor family from £2 to £5 (Rs. 20-50).2 



' The details are : 



BrdJiman Bay's Clothes. 



ASTIOLB. 


Rich. 


MiSSLB. 


Poor. 1 


From 


To 


From 


To 




To 


Cap 0* Gold aod Silver Lace ... 

,, of Wool 

Hood, Icunchi of MnkMh . .... 
„ „ of Cotton-silt ... 

„ „ of Chintz 

Waistcoat, ianydn 

Coat dngarkha of Silk 

„ „ of Cotton 
Coat, dagla. Broadcloth 
Shouldercloth, upama, Silk- 
edged... 
>, . , „ ^ Plain- 
Trousers, twmdn. Cotton-silk... 
„' , „ Cotton. ... 
Shoes, jode... 


Es. a. 
6 

8 

5 
3 

1 

12 

6 

2 

3 

6 

s'"o 

1 

8 


Bs.a. 

10 
1 

10 
6 
1 8 

1 
12 

2 8 
6 

6 

b"o 

2 
1 


Es.a. 

4 

8 
i 

3 

1 

12 

5 

1 

2 

4 

1 

2 
1 
8 


R8.a. 

6 
1 
8 
S 
1 8 
1 

7 

1 8 

4 

5 

2 

3 8 
1 8 
1 


Kb. a. 

o""8 

i""d 
8 

8 

o"i2 

1 

i"'o 

12 
4 


Es. a. 

012 

2"o 
12 

12 

i'"o 

1 8 
l"'8 

i'"o 

8 


36 12 


62 


29 12 


48 


6 4 


9 U 



Brdhman GirVs Clothes. 



1 


Rich. 


Middle. 


POOK. 1 


AaTioiB. 








From 


To 


From 


To 


From 


To 




Es. a. 


R8.a. 


Rs. a. 


Bs. a. 


Rs. a. 


Rs. B. 


Hood, kmiehi of kankkfi^ 


6 


10 


4 


8 






„ of striped Silk-cotton ... 


S 


5 


3 


6 


1 


2 


„ of Chintz 


1 


1 8 


1 


1 8 


8 


12 


Bodice of Gold Cloth 


4 


6 










,, ,, „ 


3 


5 


2 


3 () 




... 


Petticoat of Unihib 


15 


2S 










„ called Barh&npuri ... 


7 


8 


4 


S 




.... 




7 


10 


5 


7 






Robe and Bodice, 8i£(2j-cAo2i ... 
Total ... 


8 e 


10 


5 


6 


1 


1 8 


63 


80 8 


24 


35 8 


2 8 


4 4 



* The details are : 



Brdhnian Boy's Ornaments. 





Rich. 


MmDLE. 


Poor. . 1 


Article. 










1 


From 


To 


From 


To 


From 


To 




Bs. 


Es. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Barrings, Gold and Pearl ihiUdli ... 


40 


100 


15 


60 






„ „ „ chavkade... 


2S 


75 


15 


30 


• .. 




,, „ „ kuduk ... 


8 


12 


3 


7 






Necklaces, Gold Arf8i» 


50 


160 


50 


75 






Silver „ .... 


... 








io 


16 


„ Goldfciie 


25 


60 


25 


30 






„.' Silver 










2- 


« 


Bracelets, Gold tode 


150 


200 










„ Silver , 






15 


25 


8 


16 


Gold&adi 


150 


200 










„ Silver „ 






16 


26 


6 


15 


Girdles, Silver or Gold sfflWi 


10 


15 


6 


10 


2 


6- 


j, „ „ kargota 
Anklets, SUver^oiJe ... 


10 


20 


10 


16 






SO 


60 


20 


40 






„ Silver «tfje 


8 


10 


. 6 


8 


6 


8 ■ 


. „ Wvettordya 


.lO 


.SO 
912 


10 


20 






616 


189 


336 


32 


64 



[Bombay Gazettee 



108 



DISTEICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BsijaMANS. 
CsiTPjVAlfS. 

Character. 



Daily Life. 



As a class CMtpavans are notable for their cleanness and fc 
their neatness and taste in dress ; their stinginess, hardness, an 
craftiness are also proverbial. Chitpavans are beyond doubt one c 
the ablest classes in Western India. They were the mainstay of th 
Maratha power when the Maratha power was at its highest. In 172 
the Nizdm found everyplace filled with Konkan Brahmansj^ i. 
1817 Mr. Elphinstone found all the leading Br^hmans in the Poon 
Government connected with .the Konkan.^ Under the Bnglis' 
they have lost much of the power which for a century (1717-1817 
they enjoyed. Still their superior intellect, their eagerness fo 
education, and the high positions they hold in Government servic 
enable them to maintain their supremacy in all Mardthi-speakinj 
districts.* Beyond the limits of Western India their talents ar. 
admired and respected. In Sir George Campbell's opinion n 
Hindus have, shown greater administrative talent or acutenesSj 
and Mr. Sherring held that for quickness of intellect, for energj 
practical power, and learning they are unsurpassed.''' They ar 
Government servants, lawyers, engineers, doctors, traders, money 
lenders, moneychangers, writers, landowners, husbandinen, an( 
religious beggars. 

A rich Ohitpdvan rises at seven, bows to the picture of his favourit 
god, washes his face, bows to the sun, and drinks a cup of mill 
coffee or tea. He sits talking till eight, and, attended by a Brdhmai 
servant or two, bathes, and tying a silk or newly- washed cottoi 
waistcloth round his middle and setting his feet on wooden pattens 
goes to the house-shrine or god-room. In the house shrine he sit 
on a low wooden stool before the gods for about half an hour 
repeating prayers, worshipping, and chanting verses. When hi 
worship is over, he marks his brow with the tilah or sect-mark 



Brdhman Girl's Ornaments. 



Aeiicle. 


Rich. 


Middle. 


Poor. 1 


From 


To_ 


From 


To 


From 


To. 


Hair Ornament, Gold phule 

Earrings, Gold bugdya 

Necitlace, Sold tdit 

Gold taiti 

„ Goldhdeli 

Silver „ 

Bracelets, Gold bindli - 

„ Qold mcmgatya 

Girdle, Silver, edkhli 

Anklets, Silver, tode 

„ Sliver, vitte 

„ Silver, tordya 

Total ... 


Bs. 

10 
10 
25 

"60 

"20 

i§ 

30 

8 

10 


Bs. 

15' 

20 

50 

IBO 

"40 
30 
15 
60 
10 
20 


Bs. 

6 

■ 4 
15, 

"50 

, "ie 

12 
"6 
20 
5 
10 


Es. 

10 
6 
80 

"75' 

"is 

• 20 

10 

- 40 
.8 
20 


Ea. 
3 
1 

_"2 

10 

ib . 


bb: 

.6 
3 

"5* 

■ 16 

IB 


188 


■ 410 


144 


244 


26 


44 



1 Grant Dufif's Marithis, 221. 2 Pendhdri and MarAtha Wars, 112. 

* Naime's Konkan, 133. 

* Ethnological Number of the Bengal Asiatic Society, XXXV. 70. 

"» Hindu Tribes and Castes, 77. Sir George Campbell's and Mr. Sherring's remark 
apparently include Deooan as well as Konkan MarAthi Brdhmans. In all walks 
life Deccan Brdhmans press Chitpd,vans close. Still as a class Chitp^vaaa an 
generally considered keener, more pushing, and quickerminded than Deccan Brdhman 
and have a larger pro{>ortioa of men of marked talent. 



Ddccan.] 



POONA. 



109 



changes his silk waiatclotb, if he has worn it, for a cotton waistcloth, 

and sfts in his office doing business till eleven. He dines with some 

male friends or near relations, chews betelnut and leaves, and 

sleeps for an hour or two, awakes about two, washes his hands and 

face, dresses and sits in his office, and, towards evening, goes to look 

. after his estate or to walk. He comes back about six, washes, 

puts on a silk waistcloth, prays, chants, sups, and goes to bed about 

ten. Middle-class Brahmans may be divided into grahasths or 

laymen and hhikskuks or clerics. Lay Brahmans belong to two 

classes, those who are employed as clerks in Government or 

iiraders' offices and those who lend money or manage land on their 

own account. A Brdhman clerk in the service of Grovemment or 

of a trader rises at six, washes, and goes to market to buy whatever 

is wanted in the house. He returns, bathes between eight and nine, 

and, after, repeating prayers, worshipping, and chanting Verses for 

about ten minutes, dines. After dinner he chews betelnut and 

leaves, dresses, and goes to office. He comes back at six, generally 

reads a newspaper, or sits talking, washes, repeats Sanskrit prayers 

for ten minutes, and sups at or after seven. After supper he chews 

betelnut and leaves, smokes tobacco, and sometimes plays chess or 

cards. He goes to bed about ten. Middle-class lay Brahmans, 

who are not in service, are generally landowners and moneylenders. 

A man of this class rises about six,, washes, and sits on his veranda 

chewing betelnut betel leaves and tobacco, and doing business. 

He bathes at nine, worships, and again sits on the veranda doing 

business. Abont noon he goes into the house, dines, sleeps for an 

hour or for two hours at the most, and again sits in the veranda 

till four. He then goes to look after his property, and, after 

visiting a temple, returns at dark ; about an hour later he sups and 

goes to bed about ten. A priestly or bhikshuk Brahman rises earlier 

than a lay. Brahman, washes, and finishes his prayers and worship 

by seven. If he has anything to buy, any food to beg, any enquiry 

to make about a dinner, or if he has friends or relations to see, he 

goes outj if not he sits repeating the Yeds or reading Purans till 

nine. About ten he washes, and putting on a silk waistcloth 

makes offerings of water, cooked rice, and flowers to fire and to 

gods, and dines. He dries his hands and mouth with a towel 

which he always carries in his hand or across his shoulder, and 

chews betelnut and betel leaves. About noon he goes to sleep, and 

wakening abont two washes and sits reading his sacred books. At 

five he goes out, visits a temple, and returns at sunset. After his 

return he repeats prayers and other verses, tiU about seven j he 

then sups and either sits talking or reading some sa;cred book and 

rietires at ten. Poor iBrahmans may be divided into priests and 

beggars. These rise at fife, bathe, and put on a fresh or woollen 

waistcloth and repeat Sanskrit prayers till about seven. When 

his prayers are over he marks his brow with the tilalc or sect-mark 

and goes out, the beggar to beg, the family priest to his patrons' 

houses, where he worships the house gods, and helps the family if any 

marriage, thread ceremony, or other important family business is on 

handr Their dinner hour is not fixed ; it is genera,lly about twelve. 

A begging Brahman does not always dine at homej but whether he 



Chapter III. 

Fopnlation, 

Brahmans, 

OmTpJrAirSi 

Daily Life. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



110 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Bkahmans. 

OhitpAyans. 

Daily Life. 



dines late or early at home or abroad lie never misses his midday 
sleep. Generally after toeals priests gather at a fixed place, and 
repeat Vedic texts or talk on various subjects, and receive invitations 
to dinner for the next day. They return home after sunset, repeat ' 
prayers, dine, and go to bed about nine. 

A rich woman rises before her husband, and after nursing her 
child if she has a young child, hands it to her servant, who is 
generally of the Mardtha caste. She bows before the basil plant 
and to the sun, washes, and repeats verses. She next gives orders to 
the cook who is generally a man, and to other household servants who 
are generally women, has her hair combed, and bathes.'' After her 
bath she puts on a fresh robe and bodice, worships the basil plant 
and other house gods, and reads a chapter of some sacred Mardthi ' 
book. She superintends the cooking of the midday meal, and when 
the men have begun to eat dines in a separate . room. When 
her meal is over she slee'ps for about two hours, and after wakening 
sits talking with neighbours or relations. About five, she visits 
a temple for a few minutes and on her return looks to the cooking 
of the evening meal, ^nd, when supper is over, goes to bed a^t ten. 
A middle-class woman, like a rich woman, rises before her husband,, 
bows to the sweet basil plant, and washes. She sweeps the 
cooking room, puts the vessels in order, kindles a fire, and sets a 
pot of cold water over it. She sweeps the god-room, prepares j 
lights, arranges vessels and fiowers, and, taking the pot from thei^j 
fire, bathes. After bathing and combing her hair she begins to 
cook. When dinner is ready she serves it to her husband and other 
male members of the family in the women's hall, and to the women 
of the family in or near the cook-room. After they have finished. ' 
she takes her own dinner. She cowdungs the cook-room, sleeps 
half an hour to an hour, and sets to cleaning rice, cutting vegetablea,jj 
sweeping, and cooking.' About seven or eight she serves supper, ' 
and, after the men of the house have' finished', she' herself sups, 
cowdungs the cook-room, and goes to bed after ten. The life of 
a poor woman is the same as the life of a middle-class woman, 
except that as she has all the housework to do she has little leisure ' 
from dawn till ten at night. Occasionally she is able to rest 
between two and four in the afternoon when she chats with her 
neighbours or goes to hear a preacher. With her neighbours her 
talk is of her troubles and worries and about her children, how she 
is to clothe them and how her husband can ever get money enough. 



1 The strictness of the rule that certain articles in a house may he touched and 
certain articles may not be touched by a middle-class or Shudra servant oomplieatei 
the arrangements in a Brdhman household. A Kunbi servant cannot go to the godv 
room, kitchen, and dining room of the house. He may touch bedding and woollen, 
clothes ; he may not touch fresh homewashed cotton clothes. He may touch dry 
grain ; he can touch no grain that is vet. These rules -are puzzling and much care is 
required in teaching and Ifeaming them. Even BrAhman servants are hampered by 
rules. When they have bathed aad put on woollen, flaxf or silk elothes-they are 
pure and can touch anything. They become impure if they touch anything impure 
such as bedding or such wearing apparel as a coat or a turban. If they touch a 
shoe or a piece of leather they have to bathe. A schoolboy after his bath ,hal3 to get 
a servant or a younger brother or sister to turn the pages of his leather-covered soho<4 
book. Mr. M, M, Kunte. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



Ill 



to marry them. Either at a pond or a river bank she has to wash 
all the cotton clothes and occasionally the woollen and silk clothes 
which her husband and children used the" day before, and carries 
back to the house a pitcher full of water which she rests on her 
right hip. So important a part is this of their daily life that, when 
tthey meet, the poorer Brahman women ask each other if their day's 
washing and wai;er-drawing is over. The husband milks the cow 
if there is a cow, and the wife warms the milk, puts a little whey 
into it, and turns it into curds. The curds are churned into whey or 
buttermilk, the buttermilk is kept, and the butter is clarified into 
ghi. As all these operations are pure the churning pole and strings 
cannot be touched freely by any person except the mother and the 
wife to whom the management of the dairy always belongs. The 
washings of the cooking vessels, broken pieces of food, the cleanings 
of grain, and the remains of uncooked vegetables are gathered in 
a vessel and kept in a corner, and form part of the cow's food. 
When a boy becomes five years old his life begins to be ordered 
by regular hours. He rises about six, his face is washed and he is 
taught to repeat verses in praise of the sun and other gods, and to 
bow to them. About seven he has a dish of rice-porridge and 
milk, or bread and milk. About eight or nine he is bathed in 
warm water and dines with his father about noon. After dinner 
he sleeps for about two hours when he gets some sweetmeats or 
milk and bread. About four he is taken out and brought home 
between five and six, and, after eating some milk and bread, is sent 
to bed. When about six years old a boy is generally sent to school. 
He now rises at five, his face is washed, and he gets some bread- 
and milk and is taken to school. He returns at ten and is 
bathed and sandal is rubbed on his brow. He dines about 
eleven with his father and after dinner takes a . nap. He rises 
about twelve or one, eats sweetmeats, ■ and is taken to school, 
and brought back at six. He sups before seven and goes to bed 
soon after. Except that he has less milk and few or no sweetmeats 
the daily life of a middle-class and. of a poor boy is much the 
same as that of a rich man's son. The daily life of a rich man's 
. daughter is much the same as that of his son. A few middle-class 
families, like the rich, send their girls to school, while the poor and 
a few of the middle-class girls help their mothers in housework and 
pass the rest of their time in play. 

Chitpdvans are either Apastambas or Rigvedis, that is their 
rites are regulated either by texts written by the sage Apastamba 
of the Krishna or Black Yajurved or they are regulated by the text 
of the Rigved. Apastamba and Rigvedi GhitpSvaus intermarry. 
They are Smarts that is followers of Shankardcharya who hold the 
doctrine that the soul and the world are one.^ They worship Shiv, 
Vishnu, and other gods, and observe the regular Brdihmanic fasts and 
feasts. Their priests, who. belong to their own caste^ spend most of 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BbAhmaus. 

CBITPJ.7ASa. 

Daily Life, 



, 'The original ShankaidcMiya, who was aNdmburiBrdhman of the Malabar Coast, 
is- believed to have lived about a. d. 700. He has been succeeded by thirty -thre^ 
pontiffs whose head-quarters are at Shriugeri in West Maisur, His followers are 
found chiefly in Western and Southern India. • 



[Bombay Gazetteer 



112 



DISTEICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BRiHMANS. 

CmTPAVANS. 



Ointoms. 



their time at their patrons or yajmdns. The family priest is most 
useful to his patron.- Besides his religious duties he buys articles 
wanted by the ladies of his patron's family and helps his patron in 
prbcuring good matches for his children^ or in arranging the terms 
of a loan. The patron, if he. has a mind for it, also finds his priest a 
ready listener or talker on abstruse sabjects, the origin of life, 
the force that made and moulds the world, and together they sigh 
over the thought that life is a vain show and that their share of the 
glitter of life is so small. Though the social power of the orthodox 
is less than it was, and though among the younger men some are 
careless of the rjiles of caste, the hereditary connection between 
priest and patron and the self-containedness of. a Brd,hman 
family are powers strongly opposed to change. Families who 
incline to leave the old ways are often forced to conform by the 
knowledge that innovators find great diflBculty in marrying their 
daughters and getting wives for their son?. As a class, Chitpd.vans 
have zealously taken to the study of English. In the whole of the 
Poena district few Chitpavan families are without one or two young 
men who know some English. The bulk of the men in some streets 
in Poena city understand English, and even those who are settled in 
villages as husbandmen take care to secure an English education for 
their sons.^ 

For her first confinement a young wife generally goes to her 
parents' house. When labour begins the girl is taken to a warm room 
whose windows have been closed with paper. Great anxiety is felt that 1 
the birth should happen at a lucky moment. Should the child be born 
in an unlucky hour, as when the mul nakshatra or the twenty-fourth 
constellation is in the ascendant, it is believed, that either its father 
or its mother will not live long. When the woman has been taken to 
the lying-in room a midwife is sent for, and if the woman suffers - 
severely the family priest is called to read the verses from the Veds 
and Purd,ns which drive away evil spirits. Sesamum oil and bent 
grass or durva are brought and handed to the family priest or any 
elder of the family, who holds the grass in the oil and repeats verses 
either one hundred or one thousand times over the oil. Some of the 
oil is then given to the woman to drink, a cow's skull is hung over 
her head in the room or laid on the housetop, and the rest of the 
oil is rubbed on her body. As soon as it is born the child is laid 
in a winnowing fan, the mother and child are bathed in hot water, 
fire is kept burning in the room, myrrh-incense is burnt, an iron bar '^ 
is laid on the threshold of the lying-in room, and an earthen jar 
filled with cow's urine with a branch of nim leaves floating in it is " : 
set at the entrance of the lying-in room. To prevent evil spirits 
coming in along with them any person entering the Toom must take 
the nim twig and with it sprinkle his or her feet with the urine. 
When the father of the child hears of the birth, he goes to the house 
to perform the jdikwrm or birth-ceremony. When he reaches the 
house he bathes either in hot or cold water from a pot in which 
a gold ring has been dropped, and washes the clothes he was 



1 ]|&, M. M. Ejinte. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



113 



wearing when the news of the child's birth came to him. The person 
who performs a birth ceremony is considered as impure as the person 
who performs a death ceremony. In case the father suffers from 
some grievous malady such as leprosy, some one of his family 
performs the rite. Whether the father performs the rite or not 
he must bathe and wash and must avoid touching any one until 
he has washed. In the women's hall a square is traced with 
quartz powder and two low wooden stools are set in the square. The 
father, wearing a rich silk waistcloth^ bows before the house gods 
and the elders, and sits on the stool to perform the birth ceremony. 
Before he begins he pours a ladleful of water on the palm of his 
right hand and throws it on the ground, saying, * I throw this water 
to cleanse the child from the impurity of its mother's body.' The 
mother then comes from the lying-in room with the child in her arms 
and sits on the- stool close to her husband. The punyahavdchan or 
holy blessings, mdtrika-pujan or mothers' worship, and ndndishradh 
or joyful-event spirit-worship, ate performed.^ Then the father, 
taking a gold ring, passes it through some honey and clarified butter 
which are laid on a sandal-powdering stone and lets a drop fall 
into the child's mouth. He touches the child's shoulders with his 
right hand, and presses the ring in his left hand against both its ears. 
He repeats verses, smells the child's head three times, and withdraws. 
The midwife cuts the child's navel cord with a penknife and buries 
the cord outside of the house. The father takes in his right hand 
the ring and some cold water, and sprinkles the water on the wife's 
right breast who after this may begin to suckle the child. A present 
of money to Brd.hmans ends the birth-ceremony. A Brdhman is 
engaged from the first to the tenth day to read goothing passages 
of scripture or shdntipdths. Aiter the reading is over he daily gives 
a pinch of cowdung. ashes which are rubbed on the brow both of the 
child and of the mother. 

Either on the fifth or on the sixth evening after a birth a 
ceremony is performed called the shasMhi-pvjan or the worship of 
the goddess Shashthi that is Mother Sixth. An elderly woman 
draws six red lines on the wall in the mother's room, and, on the 
ground near the lines traces a square with lines of quartz, and in 
the square sets a low wooden stool. Six small heaps of rice are 
laid on the stool and a betelnut is set on each heap in honour 
.of Jivanti, Kuhu, R^ka, Shashthi, Sinivali, and Skanda, and 
worshipped by the women of the house. An iron weapon is kept 
near the god-betelnuts, and both the deities and the weapon are 
■entreated to take care of the child. Under the mother's pillow are 
laid a penknife, a cane, and some leaves of waTOeZNarveliazeylonica. 
At ,each side of the door of the mother's room are set two pieces 
of prickly-pear or nivdung and some live coal resting on rice. husks. 
Cooked rice is served on a plantain leaf, sprinkled with redpowder 
mustard seed and udid pulse, a dough lamp is placed over it, and the 
whole is carried to the comer of the street for the evil spirits to eat 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BHi-HMAXSi 

CbitpJ-yans.- 
Customs. 



' Details of these services are given under Marriage, 



B 310—15 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



114 



DISTRICTS. 



Chater III. 
Population. 

BbAhmAks. 

CbitfA'tajts. 

Customs, 



and be pleased. Although the family is held impure for ten days, 
the first, fifth, sixth, and tenth days after, a birth are considered 
lucky for alms-giving or for feeding Brahmans on dishes prepared 
without water or fruit. . For this reason on the evening of the fifth 
a feast is given to relations, friends, and bhikshuk or begging 
Brdhmans. The sixth night is considered dangerous to the child. 
The women of the house keep awake all night in the mother's 
room) talking and singing or playing, and sometimes a. Brahman is 
engaged to repeat verses or read soothing lessons or shdntipdths with 
the object of driving away evil spirits. On the tenth the mother is 
bathed, the walls of the lying-in room are cowdunged, the bathing- 
place is washed, and turmeric, redpowder, flowers, and a lighted 
lamp are laid near or over it. The lap of the midwife, who is generally 
of the washerman caste, is filled with rice, betelnut, leaves, and fruit, 
and she is presented with a robe and a bodice and money. On the 
twelfth day the ear-boring or karna-vedh ceremony is performed. 
The mother, with the child in her arms, sits on a low wooden stool 
in a square traced with lines of quartz powder. The goldsmith 
comes with two gold wires, sits in front of the mother^ and pierces 
with the wires first the lobe of the right ear and then the lobe of 
the left ear, and withdraws after receiving a present varying from a 
turbanto|d.(i anna) and the price of the wires. A girl's ear is bored 
in five places, in the lobe, twice in the upper cartilage, on the tragus, 
and the concha of the ear. A girl's nose is bored when she is ayearor 
two old. The hole is generally made in the left nostril ; but, if the 
child is the subject of a vow, the right not the left nostril is bored. 
If a boy is the subject of a vow his right nostril is bored and a 
gold ring is put into it. The father, mother, and child then bafhe, and 
the father and mother with the child in her arms sit on two low wooden 
stools set in a square of lines. After the punyahavdchan or holy- 
day blessing, and the ndndishrdddha or joyful-event spirit-worshij^ 
rice grains are spread in a silver plate and the name of the family god 
or goddess is traced with the gold ring. The family astrologer comes 
with the child's horoscope, which he draws out at his, house, and lays 
it in front of the silver 'plate. The horoscope contains four names 
for the child ; three of these he fixes and leaves the fourth for the 
parents to choose. These three names are traced on the grain, with 
the ring, and, at the same time, are traced the name of the family 
deity, the month, and the ruling planet. Then the family astrologer 
lays the ring on the rice and the whole is worshipped with sandal 
paste and flowers. The father worships the astrologer and setting the 
plate on his right knee reads out the names loudly so that the persons 
near may hear them. The astrologer reads out the horoscope and 
calls a blessing on the child's head, saying, ' May the child live to a 
good old age.' A feast and a money present to Brdhmans endsthc 
naming. 

A cradle is hung in the women's hall and kinswomen and friends 
bring a plate with a bodice, a cocoanut,, a turmeric root, and 
a betel packet. Two low wooden stools are set near the cradle and 
the mother sits with the child in her arms on one of the stoola 
An elderly married woman marks the child's and its mother's browi 



DeccauJ 



POONA. 



115 



with redpowder, and another woman sitting near the mother takes 
the child in her arms. A woman of the house and another woman 
from among the guests lay in the mother's lap a coooanut, turmeric, 
and redpowder, and five married women lay the child in the cradle 
and sing songs. A lighted lamp is waved round the mother and 
■child, and the women guests retire each with the present of a bodice 
and a coooanut. When the child is a month old the mother goes to 
the house well, worships it, and returns. 

During the fourth month if the child is a boy the Sun-showing 
or 'surydvalohm is peyformed; in the fifth the earth-setting or 
hhumyu paveshan ; and in the sixth, eighth, tenth, or twelfth 
month the food-tasting or annaprdshan. In the case of a girl 
the sqn-showing, the earth-sett;ing, and the food-tasting are all 
performed at the same time. On some lucky day in a boy's 
fourth month a quartz square is traced in the house and two low 
wooden stools are placed in a -line. On the right stool the father 
sits and on the left stool the mother sits with the child in her arms. 
After the punydhavdchan or holy-day blessing, the mother goes 
out of the house followed by her husband, and holding her child 
up shows it to the Sun praying him to guard it. They walk to 
the village temple and presenting the god with a packet of betel 
and a cocoanat beg him to be kind to the child. On their 
return if it is on the way they call at the maternal nucleus house, where 
fruits are laid in the mother's lap and the child and its parents are 
presented with clothes and oi-naments. On returning home the 
husband and wife wash their hands and feet, and water is waved 
over the head of the child and thrown away. They take their seats 
as before. The father fills a silver or . gold cup with sugared milk 
mixed with curds honey and butter, and sets it on a high wooden 
stool, and in front of the cup lays fifteen pinches of rice and sets a 
betelnut on each pinch in honour of Bhumi, Chandra, Shiv, Surya, 
Vishnu, and the ten Dishds or Directions, and they are worshipped. 
Then taking the child on his knee, with its head to the south, a 
gold ring is passed through the contents of the cup and held up, and 
what falls from the ring is allowed tp drop into the child's mouth. 
The Brahmans and the priest are given money and retire. A carpet 
Is spread, and some carpenter's tools, pieces of cloth, a pen ink-pot 
sand paper, and jewelry are laid on the carpet and, to find out what, 
the child is to become, he is laid on his face near them and the 
first thing he clutches shows to what galling he will take in after- 
life. 

A child's birthday is marked by several observances. In the 
morning the father bathes in warm water and the mother and child 
are rubbed with sweet-smelling oils and powders and bathed in hot 
'^ater. A square is traced in the women's hall, and three low 
wooden stools are set in the square, two in a line and the third in 
.front of them. Eighteen little rice heaps are piled on the front 
.stool and a hetelnut is laid on each heap. One of the betelnuts 
represents the family-deity or Jcul-devta ; another the birth-star deity 
or janma-nakshatra d&oata ; others Ashvatthama, Bali> Bibhishan, 
,Bhd,nn, Hanum^n, Jamadagni, Kripd,charya, Mdrkandeya, PrajApati, 



Chapter III. 
Popnlation. 

BRijHMANfl. 

ObitpJvans. 



Birthday. 



[Bombay Oazettoei 



116 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BBijHMAKS, 

CbitpJ-Vans. 
Birthday. 



Shaving. 



Thread-girding. 



PralMd, Rd,m, Shasthi,, Vighneslx, and Yyd.s ; two represent th 
father's deceased parents. The father and mother with the child. ii 
her arms take their seats on the two stools and a married womai 
marks the child's brow with redpowder. The house gods and th 
elders are bowed tOj and, with their leave, the holy 'day blessinj 
and the joyful-event spirit-worship are performed, and the eightee: 
deities are asked to give the child a long life. A little milk mixei 
with a little molasses and sesamnm seed is put in a silver cup, am 
given to the child to drink. The Brahmans get some money and tak 
their leave, and the day ends with a fesat. On this day the father i 
forbidden to pare his nails, to pluck out any hair, or to quarrel wit 
or sleep with his wife. 

The shaving or cTiawZ of the boy's head takes place in the firsi 
second, third, or fifth year, or at the same time as the thread-girding 
In the morning of the shaving day, after anointing themselves wit 
oil, the father, mother, and child bathe, and, dressing in rich clothe 
and covering themselves with shawls, sit in a line in a quari 
tracing. The usual holy-day blessing and joyful-event spirii 
worship are performed, the sacrificial fire is lit, the boy is seated o 
the knee of his maternal uncle or on a wooden stool set in a squai 
traced with lines of quartz, and the barber shaves his head excej 
the top-knot. The barber retires after receiving a present varyin 
from a turban to a few copper -coins. The boy is anointed wif 
sweet-smelling , oil and bathed along mth his parents. After he 
dried, ashes from the sacrificial fire- are rubbed on his brow, and tl 
■ceremony ends with a feast to Brd,hmans. 

Chitpd,vatis gird their boys with the sacred thread when they ai 
seven to ten years old. The boy's father goes to the house of tl 
family astrologer and asks him to fix a lucky day for girding tl 
boy. The astrologer refers to his almanac and names a day in oi 
of the five sun-northening or waxing months, Mdgh or Januar; 
February, Fdlgim or February - March, Ghaitra or March -Apr 
Vaishdkh or Aptil-May, and Jyeshth or May- June. If the boy wi 
born on one of the five northening montks the astrologer must ayo 
his birth-month, and if the boy is the jyeshth or eldest of bis fami 
the astrologer must avoid the month of Jyeshth or May- June. Tl 
"thread-girding always takes place between six in the mornii 
and noon ; never after midday. A week or two before the d; 
fixed for the girding the near relations and friends are tol 
and during the' interval they by turns feast the boy and his pareni 
Drummers and pipers are sent for and the terms on which th 
will play at the thread-girding are fixed, a booth or porch is built, ai 
invitation cards or lagnachitia are sent to distant relations. To invi 
the caste neighbours the boy's parents- and their male and ferns 
relations and friends -start accompanied with music. Before th 
start they ask the house gods to attend the ceremony, then th 
ask the village god, >nd then their relations and friends. In t 
booth or porch an earthen altar is made facing the west, three of t 
boy's cubits long, three broad, and one high. In front is a step abc 
a span square, and behind, the back rises about eighteen incl 
above the altar in three six-inch tiers, each narrower than the t 



Deccan.1 



POONA. 



117 



, below it. The whole is wHtewashed. A day before the thread-girding 
the punydhavdchan or holy-day calling, the ghdna or rice-pounding, 
and the devpratishtha or god-installing are performed with the same 
detail as before a marriage. On the morning of the thread-girding 
day the boy and his parents bathe and the ghatikdsthdpan or 
lucky-hour installing, and patrikdpujari, or birth-paper worship are 
performed with the same detail as before a marriage.. The 
mother's feast or rndtribhojan follows. Twelve low wooden stools 
are set in a row and twelve unmarried thread-wearing Brahman 
lads take their seats on the stools. At one end of the row are 
set a silver dining plate and a lighted lamp, and behind them 
two low wooden stools on which the boy and his mother sit. 
Dinner is served and all dine, the boy eating from the same 
plate with his mother. When the meal is over the boy goes to his 
father, fetches silver or copper coins, and presents them to the 
twelve Brahman lads. Then a quartz square is traced and a low 
wooden stool is set in the square. The boy is seated on the stool, and 
the family barber shaves his head and retires, with a present varying 
from 2s. (Ee. 1) to a turban. The boy, is rubbed with sweet scents 
and oUs, he is bathed, his brow is marked with redpowder, and-he 
is brought into the house. He is decked with ornaments from 
head to foot, a rich shawl is wrapped round his body, long wreaths of 
flowers are hung from his head over his chest and back down to 
his knees ; a cocoanut and a betel packet are placed in his hands, 
and the priest, taking him .by the arm, leads him to the house gods 
before whom he lays the betel packet and makes a bow.. He is led 
before his parents and other elders in the house and bows to them, 
and is then taken outside and bows to Brdhmans. Two low wooden 
stools are set on the altar facing each other, over the eastern stool 
ahout a pound of rice is poured and the boy is made to sit upon the 
rice ; over the western stool no rice is poured and on it the boy's 
father sits. Round the altar are spread carpets on which learned 
pandits and shdstris - sit and on the other side of the altar the rest 
of the guests sit leaning on pillows and cushions. Behind the boy 
stands his sister with an earthen jugholding water covered with mango 
leaves and a cocoanut, and his mother with a lighted hanging lamp. 
Some male relations hold between the boy and his father a sheet of 
■unbleached cotton cloth marked with red lines, and the family priest 
fills with red rice the hands of all the guests both men and women. 
The astrologer repeats mangaldshtaJcs or lucky verses. When the 
lucky moment' comes the cloth is pulled on one side, the boy hands 
the cocoanut to his father, and lays his head on his father's feet. 
The father blesses him, and the guests shower rice on him, and. 
the musicians raise a blast of music. The father takes the boy and 
seats him on his right knee, and the guests withdraw with betel 
packets and a cocoanut. The Brdhman priest and other laymen 
throw rice.over the boy's head and seat the boy on. a low stool to the 
father's right. An earthen square is traced in front of the father 
and blades of sacred grass - are spread over it. A married 
woman brings a live coal from the house on a tile and lays it near 
the altar. The priest blesses the coal and spreads it over the altar 
and on it are laid pieces of cowdung cakes and firewood. Water is 



Chapter III. 
Fopalation. 
Brahmans. 

GmTpJ.vANa. 
Thread-girding. 



[Bombay Oazetteei 



lis 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Popolatiou. 

BrAhmans. 
ChitPjIyans. 
Thread-girding. 



sprinkled six times round the altar and rice is thrown over it. Thi 
father lays a few blades of sacred grass between himself and th( 
fire. A cup full of butter is placed over the blades of grass am 
other blades are thrown over the fire. The priest keeps near him i 
staff or dandkdsht of palas, Butea f rondosa,, as tall as the upraisec 
end of the boy's top-knot, a 'piece of deer skin, blades of sacred oi 
dar-Ma grass, a rope of mwry grass long enough to go round the 
boy's waist, two cbtton threads one for the boy's waist the other foi 
his neck, a sacred thread or jdnve, a bamboo basket or rovali, foui 
short waistcloths or pdnchds two of which are dyed red, and fouj 
loincloths or langotis of which two are of silk and two are oJ 
cotton. Of the two cotton threads, the priest daubs one in oil anc 
turmeric and ties it round the boy's waist and gives him a loinclotl 
or langoti to wear. . He then rolls a red cloth round his' waial 
and a white cloth round his shoulders. The other cotton thread is 
also rubbed with oil and turmeric and the bit of deer skin is 
passed into it and hung on the left shoulder of the boy in the 
same way as the sacred thread. A sacred thread is also hung ovei 
his left shoulder and the boy is made to pass between the sacrificial 
fire and his father. A. wooden stool is placed, near his father 
and the boy" is seated on it facing east. A metal water-potj 
a plate, and a ladle are set in front of the. boy. and he sips 
water thrice from the pot repeating verses. He is then brought 
back between the fire and his father and takes his former seat. 
The fire is rekindled, and the father taking the boy by the 
hand, goes out of the booth, and they both bow to the sun. 
Then, to the left of the fire or Kom, two low wooden stools 
are set, and the father and son stand facing one another. The 
father, in his hollowed hands, takes water, a betelnut, and copper 
or silver, and pours them into his son's hollowed hands and the 
son lets them fall on the ground. After this has been repeated 
three times they again take their seats on the stools placed for 
them. The boy tells his father that -he wishes to become a 
Brdhman and to be initiated into the mysteries of the sacred verse. 
The boy holds out his left hand and covers it with his right, and 
the father ties his two hands' together with the short waistcloth 
that was wound round the boy's shoulders. He then puts his left 
hand under and his right hand over the boy's bound hands, and 
lays them all on the boy's right knee. Then the boy and his father 
are covered with a shawl, and the father thrice whispers the 
sacred verse into his son's right ear, and he repeats it after his 
father. That no one else, whether Brahman or Shudra, man or 
woman, may hear the verse, all present go to some distance. Then 
the father takes ofE the shawl and frees the boy's hands and the 
father and son take their seats in front of the fire., Blessings are 
asked on the boy's head and the grass string or ffmrtj is tied with 
three knots round the boy above the navel. Thepalas stafif or 
dand is given in the boy's hands, and he is, told always to keep it 
by him and not to stir without taking it in his hand, and that if he 
meets any dangerous animal or anythiag that causes him fear he 
should show the stafE and the cause of fear wiU vanish. Then the 
father says to his son ' Up to this you have been like a Shudra, now 



Deccaii.l 



POONA. 



119 



you are a Br^liman and a BrahmacMri. When you go out you must 
behave with religious exactness or dchdr ; you must rub dust on your 
hands and feet before washing them ; you must take a mouthful of 
water and rinse your mouth with it ; yon must bathe twice a day, 
pray^ keep alight the sacred ^ve, beg, keep awake during the day, 
and study the Veds.' Then a money present is made to begging 
Brdhmans and the rest of the guests are feasted. The mother's 
connection with her son is now at an end, so she too dines ; the 
father, the boy, and, three Brahmans fast till evening. In the 
evening the hhikshdval or begging comes. The boy is dressed 
in a waistcloth, a coat, and a cap, and, with his palas staff in his 
hand, goes to the village temple accompanied by kinswomen and 
with baskets of sweetmeats and music. At the temple the boy 
places a cocoanut before the god and bows, and all return with 
the baskets and their contents. In the booth a low wooden stool 
is placed for the boy to stand on. His feet are washed and his 
brow is marked with redpowder and sandal paste. The bamboo 
basket or rovali is placed in his right hand and his palas staff in his 
left. His mother takes a ladle, puts a gold wristlet round its 
handle, fills it with ricoj drops a rupee or two in the rice, and telling 
the women who- surround her that she is giving alms to her son, 
pours the contents of the ladle into the bamboo basket. The other 
women follow and present the boy with ■ sugar balls. When the 
almsgiving is over, the boy hands the basket to the priest who 
takes it home after giving some of the sweetmeats to the children 
who are present. The boy bathes and the family priest, sitting in 
front of him with a cup dish and ladle, teaches him the twilight 
literally the joining prayers or sandhya. The fire is kindled and 
a handful of rice is cooked over it in a metal vessel. The boy 
throws three pinches of cooked rice over the fire and the rest 
is kept on one side. Then five leaf-plates are served for the 
father, the son, and the three Brdhmans who have fasted since 
morning. The rice cooked by the boy is served to the three 
Brahmans by a married woman. On the second and third days 
the horn fire is kindled and the boy is taught the twilight prayers 
or sandhya. On the morning of the fourth day the boy is bathed 
and seated on a stool in the booth. In front of him is raised an 
earthen altar or vrinddvan like a tulsi pot, and a branch, of the 
•palas tree or a blade of darhha grass is planted in the altar. The 
boy worships the plant, and taking a spouted metal water-pot 
or abhishehpdtra with water in it walks thrice round the altar 
spouting the water in an unbroken line. Then a bodicecloth, a 
looking glass, a comb, and glass bangles are laid in a bamboo basket 
near the earthen pot, and the boy retires with a low bow. The boy 
then makes over to the priest the loincloths, the staff, the deer skin, 
the sacred thread, and the grass ropes, and the priest presents him 
with new ones in their stead. The Brahmans are presented with 
money and repeat blessings over the boy's head. 
Twelve days to a month after covaesthe samdvartan or pupil's return. 
On a llicjiy day the boy is bathed and an earthen altar or sthan'dil is 
raised in the booth. In front of the altar are set two low wooden 
stools. Near the stools are laid sTiami or Mimosa suma leaves, a 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BbAhmaks. 

Thread-gwdin^, 



Pupil's Setimt. 



[Bombay Gazetteei 



120 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Fopnlatiou. 

BbAhmans. 

ChitpAvans. 

Pupil's Return, 



razor^rice, wheat, sesamumj and pulse, curds, and bullock's dung. Th 
priest kindles a sacred fire and feeds it. witli butter. The boy sit 
on one of the stools and his parents stand behind him with two cup 
in their hands, one with cold water the other with hot water. Thi 
priest holds a metal plate at a little distance from the boy's head 
and the boy's father, with a cup in each hand, presses, the boy'i 
head with the middle part of both his hands and pours the wate 
from the two cups in, one spout into the plate held by the pries 
without letting a, drop, of water fall on the boy's head. The pries 
pours curds into the plate, and the father, taking some curds in tht 
four fingers of his right hand, rubs them in a line on the boy's head 
He begins from the boy's left ear, then goes to his left cheek dowi 
to the chin, then across the right cheek and ear, and then passei 
behind the head to the left ear where he began. This he repeati 
three times. Then the ]^ri6st holds in both hands blades of sacrec 
grass with some hairs of the boy's topknot and the father sheers then 
in two with a razor and gives them into the boy's hands. The pries 
drops a pinch of sesamum, wheat, rice, udid, and shami leavei 
oyer the cut hair in the boy's hands, and the boy gives the whoh 
into his mother's hands who throws it in the bullock's dung. This if 
repeated seven times, four times beginning with the, right ear anc 
three times beginning with the left ear. Then,' as if to shai-pen the 
ra^or, its edge is touched with a blade of sacred grass and the razoi 
is made over to the barber with the water from the plate. Thf 
barber shaves the boy's head, and passes the razor over his cheeks 
and chin, and is presented with a new handkerchief; Th« 
sesamum seed, wheat, and rice, and about Is. (8 as.) in cash are 
given to the Brdhman priest, Karanj Pongamia glabra seedj 
are ground and rubbed on the boy's body, and he is bathed and 
seated on a low stool near the sacred fire. Sandal paste anc 
redpowder are rubbed on his brow, redpowder on his righi 
cheek, and lampblack on his left cheek and on both his eyes 
He is dressed in a waistcloth and two sacred threads' are throwr 
round his shoulders in addition to the thread he already has oh 
The deer skin loincloth, the palas staff, the mmij-grass rope and the 
old sacred thread are taken off, and he is dressed in a coat, shoes 
and turban; flower garlands are hung from his head and round hii 
neck, an umbrella is placed in his left hand, and a bamboo stick ir 
his right. A waistcloth is thrown over his shoulders and the priesi 
advises him never to bathe in the evening, never to look at nakei 
women, to commit no adultery, never to run, never to climb a tree 
never to go into a well, never to swim in a river. He ends, ' Up tc 
this time you have been a Brahmach^ri, now you are a sndtak oi 
householder.' The boy bows before the priest and the priest blesses 
him. A cocoanut is placed in the boy's hand and he bows before the 
house gods and before his parents and elders. The boy then tiee 
wheat flour and sweetmeats in a waistcloth or pancha, and starts 
for Benares accompanied by relations, friends, and music. He goes 
to a temple and lays the cocoanut before the god. The priest or the 
boy's maternal uncle or some other relation asks him where he h 
going; he says. To Benares. They advise him not to go to Benaree 
and promise that if he will go home they will find him a wife. Hi; 



Seccan.] 



POONA. 



121 



takes their advice, goes home, and the thread-girding ends with a 
feast. 

Chitpavans generally marry their girls between six and ten and 
their boys between ten and twenty. In choosing a husband for the 
girl the boy should as far as possible belong to a respectable and 
well-to-do, family, be intelligent, goodlooking, and a little older 
than the girl. Among rich and middle-class families there are other 
points which generally influence a girl's parents in the choice' of a 
husband. Among poor families, though this- is not always the case, 
money is wanted and wealth in a son-in-law outweighs suitableness 
of age, good looks, or intelligence. The fathers of dull or ill-behaved 
sons, unless they are very rich, have to spend £30 to £40 (Es. 300- 
400) before they can get them married. The form of marriage in 
use among the Chitpavans is the Brahma vivdha or Brahma wedding. 
According to this form of wedding besides a dower the bridegroom 
receives presents with his wife. 

'In rich families who have a daughter to marry the women of the 
house, after consulting the men, send for the priest,^ and one of the 
elders of the house hands him the girl's horoscope, and naming the 
boy's father or an elder of the family, asks the priest to go to his 
house and offer tha girl in marriage. " When he reaches the boy'a 
house, the priest is seated on a low wooden stool mat or carpet 
in the women's hall or in the veranda, and the boy's father, after 
hearing from the priest why he came, goes into the house and tells 
the women that a priest has come with the horoscope of such and 
such a person's daughter. The boy's father takes the horoscope 
and asks- the priest to call for an answer in three or four days. 
Aiter a day or two the boy's father, if he is a rich man, sends his 
priest or some male relation to see the girl at her father's. He 
tells the envoy if the girl is handsome to ask £20 to £30 
(Rs. 200 - 300) ; if she is ordinary looking to ask £30 to £50 
(Rs. 300-500) J and if she is ugly not to refuse her but to ask more than 
the parents can give. The priest goes to the girl's house, tells her 
father why he has come, and asks if he may see the girL The father 
goes inside, tells his wife that so and so's priest has come to see the 
girl, and goes out and sits by the priest. The girl comes and the 
priest asks how many brothers she has, what are their names, what 
is her father's name, whether she has dined, and what she has had 
for dinners If the girl answers clearly, the priest remarks under 
his breath, but so that the father may hear, ' Yes, she will reach the 
boy's shoulder; that is well.' Then the girl goes into the house and 
the priest tells her father that he approves of the girl and that if he 
will get so much money his master will take her in marriage for his 
son. After some talk the sum of money is settled and the priest 
goes back and tells his master. In middle-class families, after 
consulting his house people, the father, taking his daughter's 
horoscope, goes to the boy's father and offers his daughter in marriage. 
The boy's father says. Times are hard j I must have money, not less 
than £50 (Rs. 500), as my son is clever and holds a good position. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BKiHMANS. 

CmitpJvans. 



' A rich man does not generally employ his priest. He _ sends his clerk or some 

LI 11 !._—..'._ J-A Ui!.M • rmnmrk-t-itrma a-n olAarATT fol O-iA fWl 



[Bombay Gaeetteer 



122 



DISTEICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BKi.nMAK3. 
GeiTPdVAlfS. 



Or be says he will send some one to see the girl, and will let the 
father Jsnow how much money he wants. A poor Chitpdvan whc 
is willing to take money for 'his daughter has not to look out foi 
a husband. Men in want of wives go about with money in theii 
hands searching for girls. There is no want of suitors and the 
girl's father makes the best bargain he can looking to the age ol 
the suitor and to the amount of money be promises. In procEl 
that he has accepted an offer the girFs father hands the boy's 
father a cocoanut. A day or two after the offer has been accepted 
the father's relations and family priests, go to an astrologer. Thej 
hand him the boy's and the girl's horoscopes and aak the astrologei 
to see whether there . is anything in tie horoscopes to preveni 
marriage. When the boy's father is anxious to get the girl as s 
wife for his son he tells the astrologer to do his best to see that the 
stars agree, and the astrologer decides for the wedding. Othei 
fathers again are anxious about the stars or are.not anxious for th( 
match and they ask the astrologer to examine the horoscopes closelj 
and are not satisfied until the horoscopes are found to agree in al 
points. After the astrologer has given his decision each of the 
fathers pays him l^d. to2s, (1 awna-Re.l) and a cocoanut, bowfs tc 
him and withdraws. 

If the astrologer finds in favour of the wedding pseparations are ai 
once begun, , The first thing the father does after the horoscope! 
have been compared is to prepare two lists, one of sundry articles 'th« 
other of clothes. He heads the list of sundries with 8hri that is 
praise of Ganesh, and starts the list with turmeric and redpowdei 
or haladkunku, for these are lucky articles.^ The list of clothei 
includes silk and cotton waistcloths, tohea, bodices, shouldercloths 
and turbans. They hire ' men and women servants to clean th( 
house, to grind grain, and to do other house work. With the hel] 
of neighbours and kinswomen, the women make sweetmeats wafe; 
biscuits and other dishes, always taking care to begin the baking 
on a lucky day which the family priest tells them. The grain an*: 
pulse grinding must also be begun on a lucky day. A couple o 
handmills are cleaned, and five married women, whose father; 
and mothers-in-law are alive, touch the mill with lime in fiv( 
places, and laying before each handmill a betelnut and five bete 
leaves tie taango leaves to them. The five married women grinc 
about five handfuls of rice and sing songs in praise of the boy anc 
girl. The rest of the rice is ground by the 'Servants. The fivi 
married women also grind a little wheat and udid pulse singing 



Musicians, who are generally Hindus of the Nhavi and Ghadsh 
castes, playing on the drum and pipe, are next sent for. I 
bargain is made with them to play music for. five days at th( 
house for a certain sum, and a betelnut is given to each of them t( 



1 the other articles are : Butter, sugar, oil, molasses, rice, wheat, peas, split gram 
iur, betelnut, thread, cloves, nutmeg, cardamoms, redpowder or guldl, cocoanuts 
dry cocoakemel, spices, scented oil, rosewater, coir twine, pain) leaves, raftere 
turmeric, and bamboo baskets. 



DaecanJ 



POONA. 



123 



seal the bargain. The usual rates are 2s. to 6*. (Rs. 1 - 3) a clay to the 
drum beaters or tdsekaris, and Is. to 4s. (8as.-Rs. 2) a day to tbe 
pipers or sandis. 

The building of the marriage porch or booth is begun two to twenty 
days before the wedding. It costs 2s. to £20 (Rs.1-200). On the day 
before he begins to build the host sends his priest to an astrologer 
to find what is the best time to begin. An hour or so before 
the appointed time the priest goes to his master's and begins to get 
things ready. He takes a metal plate, lays in it rice grains, sandal 
powder, frankincense, eamphor, a lighted, lamp, sugar, flowers, and 
redpowder. Outside of the house he orders a hole to be dug, and 
near the hole he sets two low wooden stools faciflg each other, one 
for himself the other for his master. Some metal water-pots of 
the kinds called tdmbya and panchpdtri are filled with water. The 
master dressed in a silk waistcloth takes his seat on one stool, and 
the priest, sitting in front of him on the other, repeats texts and 
' the host worships. He traces a quartz "Square in front of the 
bamboo or wood post which is to form the chief post of the 
booth, offers a pinch of sugar, and asks the g6d of the booth to 
be kindly. The boy's father with his priest and a couple of relations 
goes to the girl's with a flower garland, sugar, and if well-to-do 
gold or silver ornaments. At the girl's,' with his companions he 
sits on a carpet or mat, and the astrologer, consulting both the boy's 
and the girl's horoscopes, finds a lucky moment for holding the 
wedding. The girl is made to stand in front of her father's 
house gods, her brow is marked with redpowder, a flower garland is 
put on her head, and an ornament is put on her person. Sugar is 
handed round and the company retires. 

The head of the house writes a letter asking the house and the 
family gods to be present during the marriage festivities. He 
marks it with redpowder and places it in the god-house or devhdra. 
To ask guests to the wedding, near of kin both men and 
women, come the day before the wedding and stay five days. 
Sometimes the girl's people ask the guests by themselves and the 
boy's people by themselves in a diflferent party. But generally 
one party goes to the house of the other and the two parties 
join and make the invitations together. The formal invitation is ' 
known as akahat. At both houses, before either party starts, the 
priest takes two silver cups and fills them with grains of rice mixed 
with redpowder; he also takes a bag of cocoanuts and betelnuts. Of 
the two silver cups he gives one to one of the women who is to go with 
the party and holds the other in his hands ; the bag he gives 
to one of the servants who hangs it from his shoulder falling on 
his back or side. At the girl's house, if it has been arranged -that 
the girl's party are to call at the boy's, both men and women 
dress in their best, and to hurry them the priest orders the musicians 
to play. Then the party starts, but not before they lay a few grains 
of coloured rice and a cocoanut in front of the- house gods, bow 
low to them, and ask them to be present at the wedding. - At the 
same time the priest is asked to attend the boundary-worship and 
the troth-plighting. Then the party start, accompanied by the 



Chapter IIL 
Population. 

BbIhmans. 
CbitpAvans^ 

Marriagix 



[Bombay Gazetteer 



124 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

BkAhmans. 

OmTpJ.rANS. 

Marriage. 



harnessed horse. First go the men with guns, then the musicians 
followed by a boy on horsebaokj then the priest with the silvei 
cup in his hands containing grains of red-coloured rioOj then the 
men, behind them the women, and last a couple of servants, 
one of them with the cocoanut and betelnut bag under his 
arm ; if it_ is evening there are a couple of torch-bearers. In 
this way they go to the boy's house where the men, womeuj 
children, and priest of the boy's house are ready to start. The two 
parties go together to the temple of Ganpati. Here the men and the 
priests enter the temple, leave a pinch of coloured rice near the godj 
and pray him to be present at the marriage booth for five days tc 
ward off danger and trouble. They go to the houses of kinspeople, 
friends, and acquaintances. At each-house one of the priests lays 
a few grains of coloured rice in the host's hands and naming the 
house and the day asks him to the marriage. The women go into the 
house, lay a few -grains in an elderly woman's hands> and invite the 
family to the wedding, asking some to the dinners, some to stay for 
five days, and some to be present at the wedding ceremony. If thej 
are near relations the inviters are given two cocoanuts, which are 
handed to the servants ; if they are not near relations they leave the 
house after having giveu the invitation. When all the other guests 
have been invited their masters ask the priests to attend. 

Either on the marriage day or on the day before, a stone handmillj 
a wooden mortar, and a couple of pestles are washed, and the pe'stleis 
are tied together with a cotton thread and hung with mango leaves 
and a gold neck ornament and kept in some secure part of the 
house. In the mortar are laid four pieces of turmeric roots, a 
bamboo basket with rice, a new date mat, and a winnOwing fan witb 
udid pulse. A little before five in the morning or at eleven, which- 
Bver is the lucky hour, a girl or tWo is sent with music to call the 
women guests. In the women's/ hall a square is traced with red- 
powder and three low wooden stools for the father mother and soe 
are set in a line, covered with sacking, and a fourth is set for the priesi 
at some distance in front. The priest gives into the father's hands 
a cocoanut, a betelnut, and two leaves, and leads the way followeo 
by the father mother and boy to the family gods before whom the 
, father lays the cocoanut and betelnut and leaves and asks if he maj 
go on with the ceremony. They next go to the elder guests anc 
ask their leave, and when the elders have given them leave take theii 
seats on the three stools. The priest worships Ganpati, lays on th( 
mat in front of the father a handmill to whose neck the father ties 
a couple of mango leaves and marks it in five places with limj 
and turmeric powder. Meanwhile five married women whose 
fathers and mothers-in-law are alive rub the boy and his father anc 
mother with sesamum oil and sing songs while the father fastens th« 
mango leaves to the grindstone. When the -grindstohe'is ready 
the father grasps the bottoni of the handle, the mother grasps ii 
holding her hand further up the handle than the father, "and th( 
boy grasps it holding his hand further up than the mother. Ther 
the women drop in the udid pulse and the three give the stone i 
few turns. After they have ground a little of the pulse, the fathe) 
mother and boy leave their seats, and the five married women grinc 



Deccan.] - 



POONA. 



12& 



the pulse into fine powder singing songs in praise of the boy and 
girl. Next the bamboo basket, to which a silk bodice has been tied, 
is brought filled with rice. Mango leaves are tied to the pestles, 
and the father mother and son and the five married women help in 
pounding the rice. After a little pounding the married women are 
offered a little sugar or molasses and the pestles are put back in 
their places, care being taken that they do not strike against each 
other, as it is believed that the knocking of pestles causes confusion 
and quarrels in a house. The hands of five married, women are 
rubbed with turmeric^^ their brows are touched with redpowder, 
flowers are stuck in their hair, and the parents bow before them; 

At the boy's house a quartz square is traced in the women's hall and 
a stool is set inside of the square, and the boy is seated on the stool 
with his legs resting on the ground. A cup containing turmeric 
powder is given to the boy's mother who pours scented oil into it and 
either herself or the boy's sister takes a mango leaf, places a betelnut 
over it, and holding the leaf with both her hands, dips the end of 
the leaf into the cup and with it five times touches the boy's 
feet, knees, shoulders, and head. This is repeated five times by 
each of the four other married women. After they have done, the 
sister or any one of the five women rubs the boy's body with 
turmeric, and taking him near the door of the booth, seats him on a 
stool, and bathes him. When his bath is over the boy goes into the 
house and puts on a fresh waistcloth. They now make ready to 
carry to the girl what remains of the turmeric. In a winnowing 
fan a married woman lays a pound or two of rice, two cccoanuts, 
some betelnut and leaves, cups containing turmeric redpowder and 
oil, and a robe and a bodice. The winnowing fan is given to a 
servant to carry on his head, and the five married women with music 
accompany her to the girl's. On reaching the girl's the women are 
received and seated in the women's hall. The girl is brought out and 
seated on a stool which is placed in a square tracing, she is touched as 
the boy was touched five times over with a mango leaf dipped in 
:tunnexic, and bathed by her sister. She is then seated on another 
stool, and the boy's sister presents her with a robe and bodice, rubs 
her hands with turmeric and her brow with redpowder and fills her 
lap with the cocoanut and betelnut and grains of rice. The laps of 
both the girl's mother and sister are also filled and the guests are " 
presented with turmeric and redpowder and withdraw. 

The nextceremonjisthe puny dhavdchan or holy-day blessing which 
isalso called the devaksthdpan or guardian-enshrining. It is performed 
either on the marriage day or on the day before the marriage. About 
seven in the morning, both at the girl's and at the boy's, in the centre 
of the marriage booth, a married woman traces a square, and, in the 
square, places three low wooden stools in a line covered with a piece 
of woollen cloth, a blanket, or a woollen waistcloth. A fourth stool 
is set in front of the three and a fifth to the left for the priest. When 
these preparations have been made the boy and his parents sit 
themselves on the three stools _and the priest on the fifth stool to the 
father's left. A little in front of them are spread carpets and mats 
on which begging priesta or bhiksJmks sit. Then the family priest 

loQTToa Ilia ef.nnl nnn Virmo-fl frnm f.hfl linnSA a nla+.A nnn'I'.a.iTiiTifT a. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

BkAhmahs. 

OeitpAvans. 

Marriage. 



[Bombay Gazetteer 



126 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Fopulation. 

BbIhmans. 

M'amage, 



number of articles of worsliip.i Qh the stool in front of him tlit 
father places ^ basket with tWenty-seven small heaps of rice and a 
betelnut on each heap, an earthen water-pot or avignakalash filled 
with rice, a piece of a turmeric root, a cbpper coin, some betelnuts, s 
sweetmeat ball, and an earthen jar with a betelnut and a coppei 
coin inside- and its mouth closed by mango leaves and a oocoanut, 
Before the -stool on which these articles are laid is set a dish, a water- 
pot, and a cup and ladle. When everything is ready the priesi 
goes into the house and says, 'We are too late; the worship cannot 
be finished till after dark.' This is to hurry the boy's parents who 
are dressing with care m their best clothes. The father comes out 
in a silk waistcloth, a shawl, and a second waistcloth folded round 
his head ; the mother in a silk robe and bodice, and a shawl ovei 
her shoulders ; and the boy in a silk waistcloth and a shouldercloth, 
If the mother owing to the recent death of a child or of some othei 
near relation or in case she has them not, wears no ornaments, a neai 
kinswoman among the guests takes off some of her own ornaments 
and in spite of objections makes the mother wear them. Wher 
they are ready the priest puts in the father's hand a cocoanut anc 
a packet of betel leaves, and, followed by the father the mother auc 
the son, goes to the household gods. The father lays the cocoanut 
and betel leaves before the gods, and he and mother and the the boj 
bow low to the gods and ask their leave to go on with the ceremony. 
Then, going to each of the elders of the family, including the widows 
the priest says. They are come to ask your leave to perform the 
ceremony ; and the father and mother bow before them. Then thej 
follow the priest into the marriage hall. Before taking their seats thej 
bow to thebegging priests whomuster in strength 'andhave taken theii 
seats on the carpets 'and mats, and lastly they bow to the family priest 
They take their '•seats amid the blessings of the company. Th( 
father sits on the first stool, the mother on the one next to his right 
and the boy on the third. The priest repeats verses and calls the nam( 
of the boy's sister. She comes with a plate containing a chaplet o: 
flowers, a leaf-cup with milk, and another with wet redpowder oi 
pinjar, a box with redpowder mixed with cocoanut oil or kunlcu, i 
few grains of rice, and a lighted brass hanging lamp. She takes i 
pinch of redpowder and with it touches the priest's brow, sticks a fev 
grains of lice on the redpowder, presents him with a cocoanut, anc 
waves a lighted lamp before his face. Then she waves the lamj 
round the faces' of a few of the leading Brdhmans, then round th( 
father and mother, and lastly round the face of tlie boy, and ties : 
chaplet of flowers round his head Then the priest blesses the boy': 
sister, the mother waves the lighted lamp before her face, the fathe: 
presents her with a cocoanut, and she retires. The family priest place; 
a betelnut in a leaf-cup to represent Ganpati and asks the fathe: 
to worship it, while he and the begging priests repeat verses 



1 The articles are : Bunches of mango leaves, one round bamhoo basket, tw 
bodicecloths, two or three pounds of rice, thirty to thirty-five betelnuts, thre 
metal water-cups, one water-pot, two earthen jars, six uubar sticks each stick rolle 
round with a mango leaf and tied with thread, flowers, sandal, bent grass, curdi 
sacred grass, camphor, frankincense, and some coppers, together worth 2s. to 6j 
(BB.1.S). 



SeccanJ 



POONA. 



127 



and with hia hand motiona the father how to worship. The 
father takes a few blades of bent grass, and sprinkles water and 
sandal powder on the betelnut Ganpati, throws redpowder grains of 
rice and flowers over it, waves burning camphor frankiticense and 
a. lighted lamp round it, and lays sugar before it. He takes one 
of the two pots with the cocoanut stoppers, touches with the stopper 
his own, his wife's, and the boy's head, and sets the pot on the 
ground aa before ) he takes the same pot a second time and a 
third time, touches with it his own head and the heads of his wife 
and son, and lays it on the ground. He goes through the 
same performance with the second pot which he went through with 
the first. All the while the family priest repeats verses and the 
musicians play their sambal or nagdra drums and their sv/r and 
sanai pipes. Three farthings to 3(?. (4-2 as.) is given to each of 
the begging priests.' The family priest calls the boy's sister and 
she comes carrying a lighted lamp. Then they go into the house, 
the girl with the lamp lighting the way followed by the father with 
a flat bamboo basket, his wife holding the earthen jars, and the 
priest with a water cup and ladle. When they reach the door of 
the god-room the girl with the lamp retires, and the father and 
mother lay the basket and the earthen jars before the house 
gods on a raised stool, and mark the gods with sandal paste, 
and bestrew them with grains of rice and with flowers. The boy 
goes into the house and hangs his chaplet and marriage coronet on a 
peg. The same ceremony with the same details is performed at the 
girl's house. Planet-worship or grihamak is performed with the 
help of three six or twelve Brahmans. When everything is ready 
for the- worship they think on the god Ganpati and the worship is 
begun. A leaf -plate is spread on a low wooden stool and on the leaf 
grains of rice and forty-one betelnuts are laid and worshipped. 
The father purifies himself by sprinkling his body with water 
dropped from a blade of darbha grass. A mound or altar is made 
of sand and sprinkled with cowdnng and water. Fire, which 
some married woman brings from the house, is set on the mound, 
and the priest fans the fire, feeding it with cowdung cakes and 
pieces of firewood and repeating verses. Next comes the troth- 
plighting or vdg-nischaya. The boy's father goes to the girl's 
house with musicians, kinspeople, the family priest, and servants 
carrying plates filled with ornaments and other articles.^ At the 
girl's they are seated in the marriage hall on carpets, the begging 
and lay Brahmans always sitting apart. After the guests are 
seated the priests from both houses exchange cocoanuts and 
embrace. After the priests have embraced, the fathers embrace, 
and then the elder malea of both houses exchange cocoanuts and 
embrace. A quartz square is traced in the marriage hall and low 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

BeAhmans. 

CsJTpJrdifs, 

Marriage, 



'The plates contain a necklace 'called sari, a pair of wristlets called vdki, and 
armlets called fade, a leaf-oup containing curds, milk, sugar, molasses, and betelnut 
and leaves, cocoanuts, copper and silver coins, rice, split pulse, two robes and bodices, 
a headcloth, turmeric powder and turmeric roots, two small metal cups with red 
and black powder, a leaf -cup with aandal powder, mango leaves, flowers, a cup ladle 
and plate, sweetmeat balls, a comb, a brass pot filled with oil, a brasg ladle, seaamum 
seed or til, cumin seed ovjire, and coriaadei' seed or dhmn. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



128 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Fopulatieii. 

BniHMANS. 

CbjtpJ^yans. 
■Marriage. 



wooden stools are set in the square. The girl's father sits on one 
stool. Meanwhile the girl, on whose brow a flower garland has been 
fastened, with her head covered with a piece of broadcloth called 
aginpdsoda, is led by her sister and seated on the stool close to her 
father. The boy's father sits in front of them with priests to his left 
repeating verses. The girl's father worships Varun the god of water. 
He takes a leaf -plate and spreads about a pound of rice over it. He 
takes a copper water-pot, marks it in five places with- sandal powder, 
fills it with cold water, drops a betelnut, a blade of bent grass, and a 
silver coin into it, and over its mouth lays a bunch of mango leaves. 
Over the bunch of leaves he lays a leaf-cup filled with rice and on the 
rice a betelnut. To the betelnut, as representing the god Varun, he 
presents sandal paste, flowers, sugar, a packet of betelnut and leaves, 
cocoanuts, ,and cash, burns frankincense, and waves a lighted lamp. 
The fathers mark the brows of their -priests with sandal and present 
them with turbans. They then mark one another's brows with sandal 
and exchange turbans. Then each of the fathers takes five betelnuts 
and five turmeric roots, and the girl's father ties them to the hem of 
the boy's father's waistcloth, and the boy's father to the hem of 
the girl's father's waistcloth. 1'he.fathers then hold the two bundles ' 
in which the turmeric roots and betelnuts are tied near each other, 
the priest rubs them with sand, and sprinkles water from the Varun 
pot over them.. The contents of both bundles are mized and made 
into one heap and distributed among good and respectable begging ; 
guests. Next Shachi or ludra's wife is worshipped. On a leaf--.^ 
plate a pound or two of rice is spread'and on the rice a betelnut is 
set and worshipped. At this Ganpati and Varun worship the 
money placed before the god by the girl's father is doubled by the 
father of the boy. The priest repeats verses, lays on the girl's right 
palm a drop of curds milk honey and sugar, and she sips it. The 
girl's sister ties a marriage ornament on the girl's brow and her 
priest tells the girl's mother and her other relations that the boy's 
people have come to ask for the girl. They agree to let her go. 
The girl now leaves her place and sits on another stool in front of a 
picture of the house gods and throws grains of rice over it. The boy's { 
father presents her with ornaments and clothes, apd she walks into the ' 
house followed by the priest. She is dressed in the new clothes, .| 
the ornaments are put on her, and she is seated on a low wooden 
stool. The boy's mother lays before her a plate with rice, a betelnafc '-i 
and leaves, a cocoanut, redpowder, and a water-pot. In the house 
the boy's mother, or some one on her behalf, washes the girl's feet 
and wipes them dry with a towel, rtibs turmeric on her hands and 
face, applies redpowder to her brow, and sticks rice grains over the 
redpowder. Then, telling the house people that she is filling the ' 
girl's lap,- she drops into it a handful of wheat, a cocoanut, a packet 
of betel leaves, and some sweetmeat balls. The girl makes over the 
contents of her lap to some one close by, and walks away. The brows 
of the male guests are marked with sandal, the lay guests or grahasth» 
are presented with packets of betel leaves and cocoanuts, and the 
begging priests or bhihshuhs are paid 3d. toGd. (2-4 as.) and all retire. 
After the guests have left the priest takes a thread of the same 
length as the girl is tall, and adding to it a thread for every year 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



129 



the girl is old makes it into a wick, pats tlie wick into a lamp, 
lights the lamp before the god Gaurihar, and feeds it with oil brought 
by the boy's, relations in the brass pot. What remains of the wick 
after the four wedding days are over, is carefully kept and burnt in 
the lamp at the worship of Mangaldgauri which the girl performs 
in the month of Shrdvan or July- August. After the lamp is lighted 
the girl's mother is seated near it and the boy's mother begins 
to wash her and her relations' feet, but as the boy's side is con- 
sidered higher than the girl's the girl's mother objects and the 
boy's mo'ther desists. .The girl's mother's lap is filled with a robe, 
a bodice, some rice, and a cocoanut, and the laps of her relations with 
rice only.i 

The simantpunjan or boundary -worship is generally performed 
when the boy crosses the border of the girl's village. When the 
boy and the girl live in the same village the boundary-worship is 
performed either in a temple or at the boy's house, either on the 
marriage day or on the day before the. marriage. When the 
ceremony is to be performed at the boy's house, with the help of 
the priest, an elderly married woman of the girl's family takes 
bamboo baskets and trays and lays in them cocoanuts, rice, butter, 
curds, milk, honey, molasses, sugar, turmeric, redpowder, sandal, 
flowers, two pieces of bodicecloth' which she makes into a bag and 
fills with betelnuts and leaves, and two turbans, a sash, a chaplet of 
flowers, a ladle, a dish, a water-pot filled with warm water, a high 
wooden stool, a piece of broadcloth to spread over the stool, and some 
coppers. Meanwhile one of the girl's relations goes to call neigh- 
bours and kinspeople and another starts to tell the boy's parents 
that the girl's relations are coming. At the boy's in the middle of 
the hall a square is traced with redpowder and two low wooden 
stools are set in the square and covered with broadcloth. The girl's 
relations, with music and the articles mentioned above, go in 
procession to the boy's. First walk the musicians, behind them the 
women followed by the servants, and a few paces behind the male 
guests. At the boy's the' men are seated on carpets and have 
pillows to lean against, and the women sit in the women's hall oq 
carpets. The girl^s priest sets the high stool near the two low 
wooden stools and covers it with a piece of broadcloth. The boy 
who is ready dressed, sits, on the high stool, and the girl's parents 
sit on the two low wooden stools in front of him. The girl's father, 
taking a silver or Jeaf cup, fills it with rice grains, and setting a 
betelnut over itjr worships it in honour of Ganpati ; he then worships 
his family priest and presents him with a new turban. He now 
begins to worship the boy. The girl's mother takes the water-pot 
■containing warm water, pours it first on the boy's right foot and- 
then on his left, and the girl's father wipes his feet dry, marks his 
brow with sandal, and sticks grains of rice over it. He hands the 
boy a new turban, and the boy gives the turban on his head to some 
relation and puts on the new one. He is then handed a sash which 
he lays on his shoulders. The boy's sister is given a flower 



Chapter III. 

Fopnlation. 

BeAhmans. 

CeuTB^vA-ya. 

Marriage, 



._ ^Dnring the four marriage days iihe girl's lap is filled with wheat and not with rice 
B .110—17 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



130 



DISTEICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Fopnlation. 

iBbIhmans. 

CbitpJvjjta. 

Marriage. 



cHaplet and ste ties it from behind round tlie boy's turban. The 
girl's father lays on the boy's right palm a mixture of curds 
butter honey milk and sugar^ which he sips, flowers and grains 
of rice are thrown over him, and a nosegay is placed in his hand. 
All the while the family priest repeats verses. The girl's mother 
washes the boy's sister's feet and presents her with a bodice. The 
girl's parents now leave their seats. The mother going into the 
women's hall, washes the feet of the boy's mother and his other 
kinspeople, fills their laps with rice and cocoanu.ts, and presents 
them with sugar. While this is going on in the women's 'hall, the 
girl's kinsmen mark the brows of the male guests with sandal, 
and present them with packets of betelnat and leaves and cocoannts 
and the begging priests with coppers. Then the girl's kinspeople 
go home. 

The same evening the girl's 'kinspeople, except her father who 
has to stay at home, start for the boy's with a richly-tl-apped horse, 
a couple of men with guns, and, on the heads of Kunbi servants 
and kinswomen, three to six bamboo baskets, plates, and pots 
covered with leaves.^ Of the vessels holding these articles, one is 
a tapela or metal pot, one is a top or metal bowl containing split 
piilse, one is a vegetable pot, one is a plate or pardt, and one is full 
of hotvydchi khir th^t is dough-grains boiled in milk and sugar. 
Besides these there is a plate in which are a new turban and 
shouldercloth and a rupee in cash. The uncooked food and other 
articles are given to Kunbi servants to carry; the rest are taken 
by kinswomen or if the family is well-to-do by Brdhman clerks 
, and cooks or dependant's. Before the procession starts a Brdhman 
is sent to the boy's. In the house he traces a square with redpowder 
and draws figures of men, animals, and trees. After the procession 
has left the girl's house, the girl is dressed in a yellow cloth called the 
bride's cloth or vadhuvastra and is seated near the marriage god or 
Gaurihar on a low wooden stool. A small bamboo basket with rice 
and sesamum is placed in her hand and she is told to sit in front 
of the god, throw a few grains over him, and repeat ' Gauri, Gauri, 
grant me a happy wifehood and long life to him who is coming 
to my door.' ^ When they reach the boy's marriage hall, the men 
of the bride's party sit either on the veraada or in the marriagS 
hall, and the women go into the house and sit in the women's 
hall on carpets or mats which have been spread for them. They 
lay out the dishes and baskets, and one of them goes to the boy's 
kinswomen and asks them to come and see the food. A lighted 
lamp is placed near the dishes. The boy's kinswomen cluster 
round, and after they have looked at what has been brought, they 
withdraw. When the women have gone one or two of the girl's kins- 



' The baskets contain four or five kinds of cooked vegetables, split pulse, wafer . 
biscuits, flattened rice or poke both sweet and sour, one or two kinds of preserves or 
iosJiimUrs in small cups, and a number of sweetmeats, salt pickles, butter, plantains, . 
dates, sugar, and in a cup of spiced milk ten to twenty packets of betelnut and 
leaves, thirty to fifty plantaiii-leaf plates, . rice, coQoanuts, turmeric and redpowder, 
betelnut and leaves, two bodices, and one robe. 

^ The Mardthi runs, Qauri Oauri saubhdgya de, ddri yetil tydla dyuslia de. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



131 



men dressed in silk waistcloths go into the house, set about half a 
dozen stools in the place where the Brahman had drawn the tracings, 
lay out plantain-lpaf plates, serve the dishes, and ask the boy to dine. 
The boy's sister places a rupe& under the , leaf -plate from which 
the boy is to dine. The boy comes with a few unmarried boy 
friends of his, with a turban on his head and a chaplet of flowers tied 
to it, and takes his seat on the stool along with his companions. The 
man who serves puts a drop of butter on the palm of the boy's right 
hand, and he sips it ; he is then given a plantain and spiced milk, 
and when he has eaten half of the plantain and drunk half of the milk 
the rest is taken home and offered to the girl. When dinner is over 
the boy rubs his hands on the leaf-plate and chews a packet of 
betel leaves and nuts. The rupee which the boy's sister laid under 
the leaf-plate is taken by the girl's mother nominally for clearing 
away what the boy has left, though his leavings are generally taken 
by his own people. 

Next comes the varaprasthdn or marriage-bidding. The girl's 
father accompanied by his priest goes to the boy's house, and laying 
a cocoanut in the boy's and his priest's hands gives them the formal 
invitation to his hoase to hold the marriage. The girl's father and 
his priest are each given a cocoanut and withdraw. 

. In the evening before the marriage the boy is dressed in the new 
turban and shouldercloth which were presented to him by the girl's 
relations, and his sister ties a flower chaplet to his turban. His 
family priest, who all the time goes on repeating verses, places a 
cocoanut in the boy's hand and leads him before his house gods, 
and the boy lays the cocoanut before. the gods and bows low before 
them. He is next taken before the elders of the house and bows 
before each. Then he is led to the house door, and curds are thrice 
laid on the palm of his right hand, and he thrice sips the curds, and 
wipes his hand on his shouldercloth. Then his cheeks are touched 
with lampblack and redpowder, and he is taken outside by some 
near relation and seated on a horse, and his relations and friends 
form a procession to escort him to the girl's. In front of the 
procession are link-boys and Kunbis carrying torches ; then come 
musicians of the Mar^tha, barber, or Ghadsi caste playing 
drums and pipes ; the boy's sister carrying in her hands an 
earthen jar filled with cold water; in the middle the boy's 
mother carrying a brass plate with two lighted dough lamps ; and 
on the left a near relation carrying a bamboo basket with a lighted 
brass hanging lamp resting on rice grains and folded round with 
a bodice. Then follows the boy on horseback with friends and 
torch-boys on either side followed by the women of his family, after 
whom the men bring up the rear. On the way, to quiet evil 
spirits, cocoanuts are broken and cast away, and, as the boy passes, 
people come out of their houses, wave brass lamps before him, 
and receive a cocoanut. When he reaches the girl's house, cooked 
rice, spread all over with redpowder, is thrice waved over the 
boy's head and thrown to some distance in the street. A maa-ried 
woman of the girl's house, bringing an earthen jar filled with cold 
water and with its mouth covered with a bunchof mango leaves and 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BrAhmans. 

OsiTPJ-VAlfS. 

Marriage. 



[Bombay Gazetteer 



132 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
JPopulation. 

Bbahmans. 

CbitfAvans. 

Marriage. 



a coooanutj marks it in five places with lime and spills the watei 
over the horse's feet, and is given a bodice by the boy's relations 
The boy is next taken off the horse and a married woman ponrs or 
his feet milk and then water, and waves a lighted lamp before him, 
The girl's brother catches the boy by the right ear an'd he is pre- 
sented with a turban. Then the girl's father ca,rries the boy into tht 
marriage hall and seats him on a high wooden stool. After the boj 
is seated in the girl's marriage porch an astrologer, with a mixture 
of lime and redpowder, writes the name of the god Ganesh, the 
day, date, month, and year, and asks some married woman to smeai 
with cowdung a spot underneath a redpowder drawing on the wall 
and on the spot to trace a square with lines of quartz powder. The 
astrologer sprinkles grains of rice on the square and over the square 
hangs a pot full of cold water. A second pot is- set near the firsi 
pot and both are marked with sandal paste in five places. He ties 
the pots together with a piece of thread and worships them. He 
then lets a cup whose bottom is pierced with a fine hole float on 
one of them, and seating both the fathers before the pots makes 
them worship them while he repeats verses. He then draws up two 
marriage papers, gives them to the fathers to worship, reads the 
-papers, and makes them over to the fathers. . 

If possible before the boy and girl are married, if not soon after 
the marriage, the madhuparlc or honey-mixture ceremony takes 
place. The boy is seated on a high wooden stool and the girl's 
parents sit before him ; the mother pours water over his feet and the 
father wipes them dry with a towel. The girl's father takes a ladle 
full of curds, milk, honey, and butter, and pours the contents on 
the boy's right palm who sips it. He is presented with clothes, 
ornaments, and cash, and is led into the house. He is made to 
stand on a low wooden stool and the girl is set in front of him 
on a sdhdnpdt or sandal-grindstone. A silk waistcloth is held 
between the boy and the girl by the priest on one side and his 
assistant on the other. The girl is given a garland of flowers to 
hold in her hands, and the boy a necklace of black glass beads. 
The priests begin to chant marriage verses, and when the lucky 
time is come the priests stop chanting and the cloth is withdrawn 
to the north. A bugle sounds, and, at the signal, the musicians 
raise a blast of music, the priests and guests clap their hands, the 
girl's father lifts the girl, and she drops the flower garland round 
the boy's neck, while he fastens the necklace of black glass beads 
round her neck. The priest gives the boy and the girl some hand- 
f uls of rice and they sprinkle the rice over each other's heads. The 
priests tell the boy and the girl to think on their family goddesses, 
and then the boy and girl sit. When they are seated, a number of 
Brahman s, who are called from the marriage hall, repeat verses. 
The priest winds a ttread round the couple, and breaking it in two 
equal parts, twists them into cords and tying each round a piece oi 
turmeric root fastens one to the wrist of the boy's righb hand and the 
other to the wrist of the girl's left hand. The begging Brahmans 
who take part are each given ffiJ. to l\d. (i-1 anna). After the 
madhnparh is over a qnarta square is traced in the women's hall 
and the girl's parents going into the god-room lay a betel packet 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



133 



befoi'e the gods, and bow to them. They then bow before the 
elders and the priest bowing to the guests, in a loud voice, asks 
leave to perform the ceremony. The father and mother sit 
on the stools, bowing to the Brahmans who sit along with the 
family priest. Except the jewels which are to be- presented to the 
girl, the rest of the ornaments are taken off her body.^ A 
married woman rubs with sandal paste, the brows of the priest, 
of the girl's father and mother, and of the boy and girl. Then 
all stand the priest holding a plate in his hand, and the girl, 
the boy, and the girl's parents standing round the plate. The 
boy holds out his open' hands, the girl lays her half open hands 
in the boy's, who holds her thumbs with his. Over their hands 
the girl's lather holds his open palm slanting and the mother pours 
cold water from a jug on her husband's hand which falls on 
the hands of the boy and_ the girl, and from them drops into 
the plate. When this is done all sit and the girl's parents join their 
"hands, repeating the names of the boy and girl, their fathers, 
grandfathers, great-grandfathers, and families. Then the two 
family priests, taking a plate with water and a silver coin in it and 
dipping mango leaves into the water, sprinkle it over the heads 
of the boy and girl repeating verses. The priest takes two threads 
and winds orie thrice .round the necks and the other thrice 
round the waists of the girl and boy. Then he makes them sit a 
little closer to each other so as to loosen the thread. Then the 
thread which was wound round their necks is pulled down over 
the feet and the thread which was wound round the waist is drawn 
up over the head. The threads are next wetted with cocoa-milk 
and rubbed with turmeric and the girl's priest winds one round 
the boy's right wrist and the boy's priest winds the other round 
the girl's right wrist. These are called marriage-wristlets or 
lagna-lianhans. 

As soon as the astrologer has been presented with the hour- 
cups and the cocoaniit the^ sahha pujan or guest-worship is 
performed for which invitations were issued the day before. The 
male guests are seated either in the hall of the house or in the 
marriage porch. Those who are hhikshuks or begging priests sit on 
one side of the room and the laymen sit on the other side ; a few of 
the highest of each class are provided with pillows. In front of the 
guests sit dancing-girls, and before the dancing-girls are laid silver 
plates with betel packets, flower garlands, nosegays, and sweet- 
smelling davna or Artemisia abrotanum and marva or sweet marjoram 
shrubs. There are also salver jars of rosewater and boxes of 
perfumery. A few of the host's friends rise from among the guests 
and hand the articles. Packets of betelnuts and leaves are given first 
to rich or learned laymen and priests and then to the rest; next each 
is given a flower garland, their clothes are sprinkled with rosewater. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BbAhmans. 

<JbITPJ.¥A.N3, 

Marnag,e. 



' The articles presented to the boy are : A plate of queen's metal, a water-pot and 
a cup either 6f silver or brass, a brass lamp, finger rings, and if well-to-do a necklace, 
a cow, a female servant, and land. A few middle class families and some of the 
poor, who cannot afford to give so much, content themselves with a brass water-pot, 
and a cup, a lamp, and perhaps a gold finger ring. 



[Bombay Gazettec 



134 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

bsahmaks. 

Cbitpavans. 

Marriage. 



and their wrists are rubbed with scented oil. Besides these eac 
wealthy layman is given a cocoanut and each learned cleric l|c?. 1 
4s. (1 anna - Es. 2). Except the poor clerics all withdraw thankiu 
the host for his hospitality and receiving the host's thanks for the 
friendly attendance. The poor priests go into the yard, and as the 
leave the host gives each |d to 6d. (4-4 as.). This is. calle 
ramnydchi daJcshana or the toy -present. Each of the women guesi 
is given a cocoanut aud all retire. 

Outside the house in a square tracing is placed a grindston 
and in front of the stone a bathing tub filled with warm watei 
Around the stone are set five water-pots or tdmbe filled with col 
water. The boy and the girl are seated on the stone and bathec 
Married women sprinkle water from the five pots on the head of th 
boy and girl, and the boy, taking a mouthful of water, blows it ove 
the body of the girl's sister and the girl on the body of the boy's sistei 
Wiping dry their bddies with a towel, the boy and girl dress i: 
fresh clothes and are led into the house and seated on two loi 
wooden stools, the girl to the' right of the boy. Then, taking 
necklace of black glass beads with a gold button in it, the' bo; 
worships it and fastens it round the girl's neck. Then, on a lo'^ 
' wooden stool in front of him, the boy lays two pinches of rice ^m 
two betelnuts and turmeric roots, and worships. The rice is tied t 
the hems of the boy's and girl's clothed and after the marriag 
ceremony is over is cast away. 

For the vivdha or marriage which is also called grahdpraves\ 
or house-entering the boy and girl are seated on low wooden stool 
near each other dressed in silk waistcloths and robes. In fron 
of them an earthen altar is raised and on its four sides blades o 
darbha grass are spread. To its left are set four leaf-cups mangi 
leaves and sacred grass, and, either in a new winnowing fan or on i 
leaf- plate, are placed parched rice grains, and behind them a sanda 
grindstone. In front of the boy are set a water-pot and cup an( 
on each of his third fingers is put a ring of darbha grass. Fire i; 
lit on the altar and fed with butter, with sacred sticks or samidha 
and with bent grass or durva,.and a little butter is sprinkled over thi 
grain. The girl's brother comes and seats himself in front of thi 
girl facing her. He puts two handfuls of parched grain into th( 
girl's hands and the boy holding the girl's hands in his left ham 
and covering them with his right, both the boy and the girl stanc 
with their, hands covered,' and throw the parched grain over th( 
fire. Then the boy, taking the girl's right hand in his own righ 
hand, walks round the fire for the first- timei, and makes the gir 
stand on the sandal grindstone. After this the boy and girl tak( 
their seats on the wooden stools as before. He takes the girl'i 
hand a second time and walks round the fire. At the. time of takinj 
the third turn the boy lifts the girl in his arms or sets her on hii 
right hip and completes the third turn. The remaining . parchet 
grain the boy throws in the fire, pours more butter on it, and th( 
ceremony is over. 

After the marriage-fire- or viudha-hom comes the sapta-padi'' o. 
seven steps. While the boy and girl are sitting on the stools th( 



Seccan.] 



POONA. 



135 



priest calls to the women and cliildren in tt^ house to come and see 
the husband lift up his wife, and as this is a funny sight all cluster 
round the couple. The sacrificial fire is rekindled. To the left of 
the fire seven small heaps of rice are made in. a straight line and 
close by is set the sandal grindstone. The boy and girl leave their 
seats, and the boy thrice takes a handful of rice and throws it 
into the fire. He then lifts the girl, carries her on his left arm, 
and walks thrice round the fire. Before , taking the third turn 
he sets the girl down, and standing behind her the girl's brother 
sets the boy's foot so that he pushes the girl's foot right over 
the heaps of rice, the priest repeating a verse when each step is 
taken. In return for the help he has _ given the girl's brother is 
presented with a turban. As soon as the seventh heap of rice is 
broken, the priest asks the boy's sister to press down the girl's 
big toe and for this service she is presented with a cocoanut. The 
bride now stands on the sandal-stone and the boy, lifting her as 
before, once more walks round the fire. When this turn is finished 
the boy and girl again take their seats on the low wooden stools 
and feed the fire with butter and parched grain. After the seven 
steps are taken the boy and the girl are taken outside of the house 
and the priest points to them the pole or dhruva star. They look 
at it, bow to it with joined hands, and coming back into the house 
feed one another. When the feeding is over small round betel-leaf 
parcels are given to the boy and girl. By turns they hold one end 
of the rolled leaf in their teeth and the other bites off the end. 
After this they play games of odds and evens, the boy is pressed to 
take the girl on his knee, and they are told to kiss each other. 

Meanwhile the boy's female relations take offence and go 
back to the boy's house. After they have gone the girl's relations 
fill bamboo baskets with split pulse, wheat flour, a cup full of 
butter, molasses, a little bran and oilcakes, rice, scented oil, 
redpowd,er, and cocoanuts, and placing them on the heads of 
servants, go to the boy's house, and fill the offended women's 
laps with grain pulse and cocoanuts, rub scented oil on their 
hands and redpowder on their brows, and ask them to come 
to their house to a feast. To please the boy, who like his female 
relations is supposed to be annoyed, the girl's brother and father bring 
a richly trapped horse to the boy's house. They beseech him to come 
back and dine, but he refuses and asks for ornaments or rich 
clothes. The girl's father agrees to give him what he wishes, and 
with the boy's kinspeople and friends returns in triumph to the girl's. 
Here the guests are all seated, and when dinner is announced all 
wash their hands and feet, put on silk waistcloths, and take their 
seats. The boy, wearing a new silk waistcloth, sits with the girl 
at the head of the male guests and they feed one another from the 
same plate. The women guests dine at the same time in a separate 
room. In front of the boy's mother a lighted lamp is set and she 
is asked to take her seat and break' the wafer biscuit which is 
served on her leaf-plate. Then follows what is known as ukhama or 
metrical bantering. Most of the cleverness is in the rhymes which 
are lost in a translation. The girl's mother begins : In front was 
a niche in which was a frying pan, do not sulk, do not be proud. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

BrAhmasts. 

CbitpAvass. 

Marriage, 



[Bombay Gazett( 



U 



DISTEICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Fopiilatiou. 

BbAhmans. 

GbitpIvans. 

Marriage, 



but eat at leisured The boy's mother answers, I step on a 1 
sandalwood stool, what have you prepared that I may dine at leisun 
The girPs sister say^, In front was a niche in which was 
drinking cup, to dine at leisure we have prepared sweet-gram bali 
The boy's sister answers, In front was a niche in which was 
grain of parched rice, the balls ,you have prepared we- do not lik 
Some one from the girl's side says. In front was a niche 
which was a grain of parched rice, to prepare more dishes 
sweetmeats we have no means.^ One from the boy's side then g( 
angry and says. In front was a niche in which were avle fruits, 
your banter how much folly there is.® From the girl's side. In fro 
was a niche in which were pulse cakes, if you do not like pulse cat 
eat pebbles.'^ From the boy's side, Near the gate of the marria 
hall was tied a fowl, the girl's sister is a tattler.^ From the gir 
side. In the front niche was a necklace, and from the boy's mothei 
hair-knot passed a Bhangi's household.* From the boy's side, '. 
front was a niche in which was a plate, if households pass throa< 
the hair of our head why should yoa be ashamed ?^'' From the gir 
side. At the door of the marriage hall was a cham/pnha tree, t' 
girl's sisters are a band of dancing-girls.^^ . From the boy's side, ! 
front was a niche in which was a knife, from her way of tuckii 
in the back part of her robe she truly is a courtezan.^^ In this wi 
they go' on dining for hours and end in abuse. At last to close t] 
contest one of them says, In front was a liiche in which was a gra 
of parched rice, we do not wish to banter in the presence of men, 
Among the men like scenes take place. They answer each other : 
verses or shlohs. 

Sunmukh or looking in the daughter-in-laiw's face comes aft( 
the offence-taking. The women oi the boy's house take i 
the girl's a silver plate with ornaments and other plates ar 
baskets containing a new robe, a bodice, cocoanuts, sugar, date 
almonds, turmeric^ and redpow;der. When they reach the girl 
house the boy and girl are seated in the marriage hall on la 
wooden stools. The contents of the baskets and plates are show 
to the women of the house, the boy's feet are washed by son 
elderly woman, and the girl is presented with turmeric and rec 
powder. The silver plate is set before the boy who takes from it 



' Samor hota Tconddatydni hota tava, nisu nahd, pJmgu naha, sdvaJeash jeva. 

'' Ohdndamdche pdtdvar t!ievla pdya, sdvakdsh jevdydla kelet kdya? . , 

' Samor hota hondda tyd/nt hota gahu, sdvakdsh jevdydla Tcele bv/ndiche Iddu, 

* Samor hota hondda tydnt hoti MM, amhdla bundiche Iddu dvadat ndhi. . 

^ Samor hota kondda tydnl hoti Idhi, ydj pehsha'pakv'dmmivar chadh hardmayds dmMi 
milat ndhi. 

^ Samor hota hondda tydnt hote dvle, uhhdne ghdlatdna hiti chevale ? 

' Samor hota hondda tydnt hote vade, tumlidla Iddu ndhi dvadat tar hhd hhade. 

^ Mdndavdche ddri bdndhak hombade, navaremuli hadali karavali donhi kadacl 
chombade: 

^ Samor hota hondda tydnt hote gdthle, Inhiniche hhopydtun gele bhangydche hhatale. 

1° Samor hota hondda tydnt hoti tdtaU, dmche khopydAun geli hhataU, tenvha tumhdl 
idn Idj vdtali ? 

1' Mdndavdche ddri hota chdpha^ navaremuli hadalya karavalya kaldvaniinich 
tdpha. 

^ Samor hota hondda tydnt hoti suri, kdaafydchi niri tar hasbin hhari. 

'' Samor hota kondda tydnt hoti kthi, dmhi puruahA-dekhat uhhdne gh4Ht ndhi,, 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



137 



nosering and a necklace and pats them on the girl. Women rela- 
tions deck the girl with other ornaments, dresa her in a new robe 
and bodice, and fill her lap with wheat,, cocoanuts, almonds, 
apricots, and dates, and the rest of the women are given turmerio 
and' redpowder, pieces of cocoa-kerael mixed with sugar, and 
betel packets. The boy's mother and grandmother are presented 
with robes and bodices and his sisters either with bodices or with 
bodices and robes. After dinner the boy's relations return. Then 
comes the sddi or robe-giving when ' women relations and friends 
start from the boy's h6ufle with two plates, one with jewelry and 
the other with sixty -three betelnuts, turmeric roots, about a pound 
of rice, a cocoanut, a rupee in cash, a bodicecloth and a robe, and 
go to the girl's house accompanied by music. After a short time 
they are followed by the boy's father, brothers, and other relations 
and friends. When they are seated the priest sets two low 
wooden stools opposite each other. The boy and girl sit on the 
stools in a- square marked by lines of quartz powder. One of the 
women relations places the plates which they brought near the boy, 
and he takes a nosering and puts it in the girFs nose and a necklace 
and fastens it round the girl's neck. The boy's sister decks the 
girl with other ornaments, and dresses her in the new bodice 
and robe, and fills her lap with a cocoanut, sixty-three betelnuts, 
turmeric, and rice grains. A mamed girl should not remain at her 
parent's more than three hours after the robe-giving. 

Next comes the rdsnhdne or festive bathing when the girl's mother 

bathes the boy's mother and other kinswomen at the girl's house, 

A swinging cot is hung in the back part of the house adorned with 

jingling bells and a plantain tree is set at each comer of the cot.^ 

Taking a present or dmboan, the girl's mother and her kinswomen 

and friends go to the" boy's house and seat themselves in the 

women's hall, and either the ^I's mother or some other elderly 

married woman goes to the boy's mother and other elderly women 

and asks them to come to her house and have a bath. A low stool is 

set in the middle of the marriage hall, the boy's mother is seated on 

the stool, her feet are washed by the girl's mother with milk and water, 

and she is presented with a yellow robe and a white silk-bordered 

bodice. Turmeric and redpowder are handed to the boy's mother 

and other women and their laps are filled with rice and cocoanuts. 

All start in procession with music. Before they start the washerman 

spreads cloths. for the women to walk on and continues lifting the 

cloths over which they have passed and laying them in front till 

the party have reached the girl's house. The washerman prevents 

the boy's mother putting her foot on the cloth until she gives him 

a present for removing the evils that overhang her head. This is 

called ovdlni or keeping off. For this he is paid 2s. (Re.l). As she 

moves, wreathed poles called nakshatramdlds or star-garlands and 

abddffvr pdhhhatra's or guardian umbrellas are held over her 

head, and every now and again she is seated on a high wooden 

stool in the street, and with other relations her lap is filled and she 

is presented with turmeric and redpowder. Fireworks are let off, 

sometimes guns are fired and torches are lighted, and musicians 

sound drums and fifes. • With this pomp the procession passes to the 

B 310— 18 



Chapter III. 
Population. 
'BB.iBUAsa. 

CBITPj.yA.SB. 

Marriage. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



•138 



DISTRICTS. 



Chaptelr III. 
Population. 

Bkahmans, 

CbitpAvans. 

Marriage. 



girl's House, Near the door of tlie marriage hall the musiciang 
stop the way a,nd refuse to let the boy's mother enter until she pays 
them an ovdlni or guarding fee, and she pays' them about 2s. (Re. 1). 
Then the boy's mother refuses to enter the marriage hall unless 
the girl's mother pays her 2s. to 10s. (Rs. 1 -5), When this is 
paid she goes into the hall. The girl's mother pours milk and 
water over the boy's mother's feet, presents her with turmeric powder 
and redpowder, and seats all the guests in the marriage hall. The 
boy's mother is seated on a low wooden stool, and the girl's mother^ 
bringing a basket of rice, pours it over her head, and while she 
bends in getting up throws a robe over her shoulders. Then a 
square is traced in the marriage hall and a low wooden stool is set 
in the square and a bangle-seller is asked to come with glass bangles 
of different colours and kinds. When the boy's mother has taken her 
seat the bangle-seller is asked to sit and the boy's mother throws a 
sash over him. Then he asks her what bangles she likes and takes 
her hand to try the size. But she refuses to let him put any glass 
bangles on her wrist unless she first gets gold bracelets. If the girl's 
family is rich they yield to her wish. ; if they are poor she has to be 
content with glass bangles. Then all the other women are presented 
with glass bangles. ■ The cost to a rich family varies from £5 to £10 
(Rs.50-100), to a middle-class family from £2, to £2 10s. (Rs.20-25) 
and to a poor family from 10s. to £1 (Us. 5 -10). Then the guests, 
beginning with the boy's mother, are rubbed with spices and oils 
and bathed by the girl's mother and by female servants. After the 
guests have been bathed the girl's mother is rubbed with sweet 
scented powders and oils and her head with, scented powders and 
cocoa-milk. She is seated on the swinging cot and a woman 
standing near swings the cot, and hence the name the swinging 
bath pr jhokenhdne. Sweetmeats are served, betel is handed, and 
the guests withdraw. 

At the girFs house in the women's hall a quartz square is 
traced and three low wooden stools are set, two in a line and 
the third in front. The girl's maternal uncle brings the girl in his 
arms and seats her on a stool and the boy walks in and sits to 
the right of the girl. On the front stool a new waistcloth is 
laid, and, with the priest's help, the boy and girl worship the 
waistcloth by throwing turmeric and redpowder over it. When 
the worship is over her maternal uncle carries the girl in his arms_ 
to a mango tree. The priest follows and they sit on low woodenl 
stools in front of the tree, worship it, and go back to the" 
house. Then comes the airini or bamboo basket worship, when, 
in a square tracing, the boy and girl are seated on two low wooden 
stools and the girl's mother places a ring of twisted cloth on the 
boy's head and on the ring of cloth the father sets the basket with 
dough lamps in it. The girl is seated on the boy's lap and he 
drops a pinch of sugar into her mouth. She is then seated on the lap,; 
of the boy's priest, then on the boy's father's lap, then on the brother's 
lap, and they too drop a little sugar into her mouth. The boy and 
girl are then both seated on the girl's mother's lap and she puts 
sugar in the girl's mouth, and the ceremony ends. The robe and 
bodice the girl wore at the time of marriage are placed over the- 



Beccan.] 



POONA. 



139 



priest's hands and the boy worships them and along with a money 
present asks him to take them. The girl's father taking the girl in his 
arms goes into the marriage hall, and seating the girl by turns on 
the lap of the boy's relations says to each, * This my daughter whom 
up to this moment I have nourished as a son, do you now likewise 
nourish as your son/ 

Within five days after the marriage day, generally in the 
6v€fning, comes tne vardt or marriage procession. In the girl's 
house the boy and girl are dressed in rich clothes and seated on 
low wooden stools before the house gods. The girl's sister puts a 
little curds pn the boy's right palm and he sips it. He takes from 
the god-room an image of the goddess Annapnrna and hides it 
in his hand or in his pocket. The boy's sister ties together the 
hems of the boy's^ and girl's garments and they are seated on a 
horse> the girl in front of the boy. They start for the boy's 
house accompanied by men and women relations and friends- 
with music and fireworks. On the way, if they pass a spot 
supposed to be haunted by evil spirits, a coeoanut is waved over 
the boy's and the girl's heads, dashed on the ground, and cast 
away. At the boy's house, when the boy and girl alight, the horse's 
feet are washed and cooked rice sprinkled with redpowder is 
waved round the horse's body and thrown to some distance. On 
the threshold the boy's sister sets a pot filled with rice, and when 
the boy and the girl come near the pot, the girl knocks it over with 
her foot. The boy's sister refills it and the girl knocks it over again. 
This is repeated a third time. Then the boy tells the girl that his 
aister wants their daughter. The girl promises that if she has 
seven boys and the eighth is a girl she will give her in marriage to her 
sister-in-law's son. Then the sister fills the bride's hands with rice, 
and, with the boy walking close behind her and bending over and 
holding both her hands from behind and with his thumbs from time 
to time forcing out grains of rice, she walks till they reach the 
room where the ma.rriage gods are enshrined. Here the boy and 
girl sit on low wooden stools before the gods, and after performing 
some rites the boy's relations tell him the bride's new name and this 
he whispers into her right ear. 

In the same evening at the girl's house is the mdndavapartani 
OP marriage booth-returning. A feast is given to the boy's relations 
when a variefy of dishes are prepared, and the feast lasts all 
night to near daybreak. After the feast the boy and his father 
are presented with a turban and the boy's mother with a robe 
and bodice. The guests receive a betel packet and a coeoanut and 
withdraw. Next comes the samdrddhana or festive entertainment 
a return feast given at the boy's house to the girl's relations when a 
dish or two more of sweetmeats are prepared than at the girl's 
bouse. 

The closing rite is the guardian-nnshrining or devdevakotthdpan. 
When the feast is over, at the boy's house his parents along with 
the boy and girl, and at the girl's house her parents alone, unshrine 
and bow out th& marriage gods. The marriage gods are unshrined 
with the same details with which they were' enshrined. The 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

BbXhmans. 
CniTPAvASSt 



[Bombay Gazetteei 



140 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

CbiipJ.vans. 



Coming of Age. 



gods are brougM out of the house in the same order in which the] 
were taken into the house. All are put in a plate and the watel 
from the Varun-pot is sprinkled over the gods and on the girl anc 
boy and on th& boy's parents. The mango leaves are plucked of 
the twigs and thrown on the top of the marriage hall and some o: 
the ropes_ that bind the roof of the marriage hall are loosened, 
Among rich ChitpAvans the cost of a marriage varies from £150 tc 
£250 (Es. 1500 - 2500) ; among the well-to-do from £50 to £10C 
(Es. 500-1000) j and among the poor from £10 to £25 (Es. 100-250) 
Garbhddhdn literally conception is the ceremony at a girl's coming 
of age. A girl generally comes of age between twelve and fourteen, 
News is sent to the family astrologer and he is asked to say whether 
the time at which her sickness began was lucky or unlucky.^ If the 
moment was unlucky all sorts of calamities and troubles arise, and 
to remove or prevent thein,shdnti or quietings have to be performed. 
The chief of these is the Bhuvaneshvari shdnti or the quieting 6l 
Bhuvaneshvari. When a quieting is wanted word is sent to married 
female neighbours, who come, and, without touching the girl, 
lay in her lap a turmeric root, a betelnut, and a handful of rice. 
Then a woman of the Maratha caste is sent to the houses oi 
kinswomen friends and neighbours, and they are asked to come to 
the turmeric and redpowder or halad-Jcunku ceremony. A bamboo 
frame is set in the women's hall six feet long and two broad arid a 
bangle-seller is called to adorn it with bangles. A high wooden stool 
is set in, the frame, and the girl, dressed in new clothes and wearing 
ornaments is seated on the stool. Musicians play for four days 
for a couple of hours morning and evening, and a woman of 
the Maratha caste attends the girl day and night, washing her 
clothes, combing her. hair, and sleeping with her. For three 
days the girl is given presents of cooked food, and the food is eaten 
by the girl, her maid, and the house-people. On the morning of 
the fourth day the girl is Ijathed and neighbours kinswomen 
and friends come with presents of a cocoanut, a betelnut, a piece 
of bodicecloth, and a ha,ndful of- rice, and lay them in her lap. 
The girl's mother goes to the boy's house with uncooked food 



I Almost always some ill luck attaches to the moment at which a girl's sickness 
begins. Of five hundred cases perhaps only one falls at an entirely lucky moment. 
lU-luck may creep in from many sources, days, dates, months, planets, junction of 
planets, and colour of clothes. Under any of the following circumstances quieting or 
shdnti rites should be performed. If the sickness began on a Saturday, Sunday, or 
Tuesday ; if it began on the first, fourth, sixth, eighth, ninth,, twelfth, or fourteenth 
of the lunar fortnight or on the day of full-moon ; if it happened in the month of Chaitra 
or March-April, Jyesth or May- June, A'shddh or June-July, Bhddrapad or August- 
September, Kdrtik or October-November, and Paush or December - January ; if aay 
of the following stars was in the ascendant, the second the third, sixth, ninth, tenth, 
eleventh, sixteenth, eighteenth, twentieth, and the twenty-fifth of the twenty-eight 
daily nahshatras or host-stars in the moon's monthly course round the heavens ; il it 
happened during the first, sixth, ninth, tenth, thirteenth, fifteenth, seventeenth, 
nineteenth, twenty-sixth or twenty rseventh of the fortnightly ndkahotras or host-stars 
in the sun's yearly course in the ecliptic ; if it happened during an eclipse ; if it 
happened in the evening or at night ; if her sickness began when Uie girl was asleep, 
was wearing old clothes, was wearing red green or any fantastic coloured clothes, or 
if she was wearing no clothes at all ; u it happened at a strange house or village, and 
if at the time the girl was holding a broom, sticks, grass; fire, or a winnowing^au. 
All these occaBio&s rec[uire a (AaTiti or g^uietiiig ceremony. 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



141 



enough ior the whole family, and cooking it with the help of the 
women of the house serves it to the boy's household. Before the 
dinner is begun her mother gives the girl 2s. to £1 10s. (Rs.1-15) in 
cash. On the fifth morning, or on any day within sixteen days from the 
beginning of the girl's sickness, learned Bjahmans, the girl's parents, 
and near relations are called, and the boy and the girl are bathed. 
In the women's hall a square is traced with lines of quartz powder, 
aaid two low wooden stools are set in a line, one for the girl the 
other on the girl's right for the boy. A square altar of earth 
is raised in front of the boy and near it is laid a leaf -cup filled with 
grains of rice. On the rice is set a betelnut and the boy worships 
the nut as the god' Ganpati. A sacrificial fire or horn is lit on the 
earthen altar and tixe same rites are performed as at a marriage, 
except the seven-steps or saptwpadihra/man and the polestar-seeing 
dhruvadarshan. When this is over the boy and girl leave their 
seats and go and sit in a square tracing on two low wooden stools, 
on the veranda or near the house steps. Another earthen altar 
is raised in front of them and the middle of each of its sides is 
adorned with a plantain stem. The boy then begins to kindle a 
sacrificial fire in honour of the goddess Bhuvaneshvari. He first 
takes some grains of rice in a leaf-cup, sets a betelnut on the rice, 
and worships the nut as the god Ganesh. Then the priest is given 
a betelnut and the boy makes a low bow before him and other 
Brdhmans. The boy and girl leave their seats, the boy sitting on 
a low stool close by, apd the girl going into the house and sjjbting 
among the women. The priest, sitting on the stool on which the 
boy sat, mixes in a metal plate cowdung and cow's urine, cards, 
butter, water, and the sacred grass or durbha, and repeats verses 
-i^nd sprinkles the mixture over the earthen mound and round 
himself. When he has finished sprinkling the mixture he sprinkles 
mustard seed round him, and last of all water. To the east of the 
altar a square ig traced and in the square are laid a couple of leaf- 
plates. Three heaps of mixed rice and wheat are laid in a line, 
and on each heap a water-pot is set, the pot on the middle heap 
being larger than the side j)ots. The priest fills the pots with 
water, and drops into each a little sesamum seed, some durva grass, 
the five jewels or pancharatna gold diamond amethyst emerald 
and pearl, the five leaves or panchapallav of the pipal (Ficus 
Teligiosa) umhar (F. glomerata) vad (F, indica) pimpri (F. infectoria) 
and mango, the five cow-gifts ot panchagavya iiaik. curds clarified 
butter cow-urine and cowdung, the seven seeds hhat rice, jav barley, 
hang Italian millet, mug Phaseolus radiatns, sava, Panicum miliare, 
til sesamum, and udid Phaseolus mungo, apta leaves, coriander 
seed or dhanya, the seven earths,^ and thirty-two healing roots and 
herbs. The pots are covered with metal lids and on each lid rice 
aad a betelnut are laid. On the pot, close to each betelnut, is 
set an image, Bhuvaneshvari on the central pot, Adhidevata Indra 
on the right pot, and Pratyadhidevata Indr^ni on the left pot. 



Chapter III. 
Fopolation. 
BbIhua^ts. 
CbitpAyans. 
Coming of Age, 



I The seven earths or laptamritikm are : From the king's palace gate, from an an 
hill, from under an elephant's foot, from under a horse's foot, from where four road 
meet, from a cowshed, and from under the vdla or Andropogon muricatum tree. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



143 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III, 
Popxilatioii. 

BeAhmams. 

QBITFAVANSi 

Coming of Age. 



The three goddesses are worshipped and each is presented with 
a robe and a bodice. The^ priest sits on the stool on which the 
girl sat, and a married woman brings fire from the house and the 
priest scatters it on the altar along with firewood and cqwdung 
cakes. Two pounds of cooked rice are brought from the house and 
kept close by, as are also four leaf -plates on which fortj-two pinches 
of' rice are laid with a betelnut on each pinch. Then to the north-east 
of the leaf -plates, which are called the navagvahas or nine planets,^. 
is set a water-pot or Jcalash covered with mango leaves and a 
cocoanut. The navagrahas and the water-pot are worshipped. 
Then low wooden stools are set round the fire or horn and learned 
Br^hmans sitting on the stools repeat verses and feed the fire with 
cooked rice, butter, sesamum, and samidhds or sacred sticks of the 
palas (Butea frondosa), Jched (Mimosa catechu), and other trees. 
Then the Brdhmans take durva grass, wheat, and sesamum seed, 
and mixing cooked rice in milk and batter,, feed the fire in honour 
of Bhuvaneshvari. Next a married woman takes a bamboo basket, 
andj laying a leaf -plate in it, brings about 'a pound of cooked 
rice and poUrs it into the basket j and the boy, taking a little out ' 
of the basket, makes ten balls, and places one at each of the eight 
points of heaven, the east and south-east, the south and south-west,, 
the west and north-west, and the north and north-east. He adds 
two more,, one to the east the other to the north of the altar. He 
makes twelve more balls and sets nine near the nmagraha and 
one each near the three goddesses. Over all the balls he throws a 
little udid pulse and redpow.der or guldl. He makes twenty- 
three torches, twenty-two- of them small and one of them large, he 
soaks the torches in oil,, and placing one on each of the twenty-two 
rice balls or TrmtMs lights them, _ Then the boy and the girl take 
their seats on two low wooden stools, and place the basket with the 
cooked rice before them and stick the big torch into the rice. The- 
torch is lighted, redpowder is sprinkled over it, and a cocoanut 
and a betel packet are pliaced in the basket. The boy takes a 
pinch of rice in his hands> and says, 'To you Yaksha 
Brahmaehiri,, Bhut, Pret, Pish^chya, Shankini, Dankini, and Vetal 
and other evil spirits do I offer this. May you, eat it and depart in 
peace.' He then throws the rice over the basket. Then a Knnbi 
servant coming from the house with a blanket on his head lifts the 
basket in both hands, and after waving it thrice round the boy and 
girl sets it on his head, and, without looking back, lays it by the 
roadside at some distance from the house. The boy and girl wash 
their hands and feet outside of the house enclosure, return, and go 
into the house,. The boy dresses in a short waistcloth or panchay 
and the girl in a bodice and robe, and they are seated on stools, the' 
girl to the left of the boy. Then the priest and other Brahmans 
take water and a few mango leaves from Bhuvaneshvari's' pot and 
from the mangoe leaves sprinkle the water ovBr the heads of tho'boy 
and girl. The restof. the water is put in a bamboo or metal rovali or 



> The nine planets axe tiie Sun, Mboo, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,, 
BSlra, and Eetn. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



143 



sieve and isjield over the head of the couple. The boy's mother seats 
the hoy and girl on stools, and either his mother or his sister rubs 
sweet powder on the boy's body and the girl's mother or sister rubs 
sweet powder on the girl's body. Both of them are then taken 
to the house well and bathed separately. After rubbing themselves 
dry the "boy dresses in a rich silk waistcloth and the girl in a 
bodice and robe, and the clothes in which they bathed become the 
priest's property. Then the boy's and the girl's brows are marked 
with sandal and redpowder and they take their seats before the 
sacrificial fire and worship it; The boy then takes a pinch of ashes 
from the sacrificial fire and touches with it his own and the girl's 
brows. This part of the ceremony ends with a blessing from the 
priest and other Brdhmans present. 

Next to perform the conception or garhhddhdn ceremony a square 
is traced with lines of quartz and two low wooden stools are set in 
the , square. The boy and girl, after bowing before the house gods 
and the elders, take their seats on the stools, and a married woman 
comes and touches the boy's, the girl's, and the priest's brows with red 
powder. The punydhavdchan or holy-day blessing is performed with 
the same details as before a marriage, and the boy and girl leave 
their seats and go and sit near the sacrificial fire in the house. The 
fire is then rekindled and rice is cooked over it, and the boy places the 
rice along with a few mango leaves on his right. The boy takes 
a mango leaf in each hand, his wife lays butter on the two leaves, 
and the boy drops butter on the rice. She then washes her hands 
and more butter is thrown over the fire. They are now done with 
the sacrificial fire, which is put out either at once, or in the evening, 
or next morning. The boy and girl now rise, and taking flowers 
in their hands go out of the house and looking at the sun throw the 
flowers towards it. They then come in, take their seats near the 
fire, and the boy, laying his right hand on the girl's head, pronounces 
a blessing. The boy's sister hands th« boy a small quantity of 
bent grass or durva, pounded wetted and tied in a piece of white 
cotton, and he, standing behind the girl and laying her head l?etween 
his kneesj with his left hand lifts her chin and with his right 
, squeezes into her right nostril enough bent grass juice to pass into: 
her throat. The girl leaves her seat, washes her hands and feet,, 
and sits as before beside her husband. She once more leaves her 
seat and sits to the left of the boy when he either touches her breast 
or one of her shoulders and lays in her lap a cocoanut which rests 
on a turmeric root, betelnut, and wheat. The girl's mother and her 
relations, as well as the boy's mother and her relations, one after 
another, lay articles in the girl's lap and present both the boy and 
girl with clothes and ornaments. When the lap-filling is over the 
boy whispers his name into the girl's right ear. Then money is 
presented to Brdhmans who ask a blessing on the heads of the 
couple, and they go and make a-bow before the house gods and the 
elders. A feast is held, and as the girl is considered to have 
become pure, she is given a cup of butter and serves it to the diners. 
In the evening, if the 'fire is allowed to remain, it is rekindled and 
fed with grains of rice and the boy rubs ashes on his own and on 
the girl'a brows. A carpet is spread in the women's hall and tie 



Chapter III. 
Population, 

BbAhmans. 

CBITfJVAlia, 

Coming of Age. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



144 



DISTEICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BEiHMANS. 

Oommg ofAge^ 



men and women relations take their seats. Tlie girl is dressed in 
ricli clothes and her head is decked with flowers. The boy is 
dressed in rich clothes, a coat waistcoat and turban, and they are 
seated face to face on the carpet. Male guests sit round the boy 
and female guests sit round the girl. Small round parcels of betel 
leaf are given to the boy and girl. The boy holds one end of the 
rolled leaf in his teeth and the girl bites off the other end. The 
boy is made to take the girl on his knee and bite a roll of betel leaf 
which the girl holds in her teeth. Jokes are made and th«y banter 
each other. The girl then washes the boy's feet and marks his brow 
with redpowder and sandal. She puts a nosegay in his hands and 
spreads leaf'-plates for the guests to eat sweetmeats and fruit. All 
begin eating and the boy and girl who sit at the head of the table 
feed one another and eat from the same plate. When all are done 
the gn-l hands the guests packets of betel and the boy either leads 
her by the hand or lifts her in his arms and takes her into the 
nuptial room. Next morning, if the sacrificial fire is still alight,> 
the boy and girl bathe and rekindle it and then allow it to die. 

A pregnant woman is treated with the greatest care and 
tenderness and both her parents and her husband's family .try to 
give her whatever she longs for. She is considered particularly 
open, to the attacks of evil spirits and is therefore as far as possible 
kept within doors, is forbidden "from going into an empty house, 
from sitting under a tree, or from riding an elephant or a horse. 
She ought not to go into a house with an upper' story, or sit on a 
mortar or pestle, or let her hair hang lose on her back, or quarrel, 
or eat hot and pungent things, or weep, or sleep during the day, or 
lie awake at night. She ought not to draw lines with coal or with' 
her finger nails on the ground. She ought not to sit with her feet 
turned back, and she ought not to cut. anything during an eclipse. 
She should eat packets of betelnut and leaves, mark her brow 
with redpowder, rub her arms with turmeric, put lampblack into 
her eyes, bathe, and comb her hair. If the mother attends to these 
rules the child becomes healthy and intelligent. If she suffers from 
loss of blood she should give a Brdhman a sacred thread of gold,, 
and the issue of blood will cease. As what the husband does during 
his wife's pregnancy is believed to affect his wife and the unborn 
child, he avoids certain acts. He builds no house, does not bathe 
in the sea, attends no funerals, does not travel, and does not get 
his head shaved.^ - • 



' These acta are forbidden to the husband of a pregnant woman because during 
her pregnancy a woman is specially apt to suffer from the attacks of spirits. The 
forbidden acts must therefore be believed to be specially likely either to enrage 
spirits or to bring them to the house. The reason for the different prohibitions 
seems to be that in building a house the anger of the place-spirit is aroused against 
the trespasser ; the husband must not bathe in the sea because the seashore is 
thick with ghosts ; he must not go to a, funeral because the burning ground is 
the great haunt of spirits; he must not travel because he crosses boundaries, 
another favourite spirit haunt ; he must not have his head shaved because, 
perhaps, an exorcist might get hold of the shaved stumps and through the stumps 
work mischief in the house; These rules and examples are interesting ' as they' 
throw light on the widespread practise 6f the lying-in father. This practise, which- 
is commonly known by its French name couvad, may be described as various forms. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



145 



The chief ceremonies, which are performed daring a woman's 
pregnancy are the man-bearing or punsavan in the second month, 
the quench-longing or anavalobhan in the fourth month, and the 
hair-parting or simantonayana in the sixth or eighth months. 
These ceremonies should be performed at each pregnancy ; if they 
are not. performed at a woman's first pregnancy they cannot be 
performed on any subsequent occasion. On the day of the 
ceremony the wife and husband are anointed with sweet smelling 
spices and oils and they bathe. A quartz square is traced in the 
women's hall and two wooden stools are set in the square, and at 
some distance in front of the stools carpets are laid for Brdhmans 
to sit upon. The husband aud wife bow before the house gods 
and the male and female elders,, and take their seats on the 
stools. A married woman marks the brows of the husband the 
wife and the family priest and retires, and the husband, taking in 
his hollowed right hand a ladlef ul of cold water, pours the water 
on the ground before him saying, ' I" pour this water that the child 
in my wife's body may be a male and be intelligent, that he may 
live long, and that he may not suffer in the hour of birth, and not be 
possessed with bhuts, gans, and rdkshasas, and may be happy and 
Ijong-lired.' He next performs the quench-longing or anavalobhan 
ceremony that his wife may not wish for anything which is likely to 
cause a miscarriage. He then worships Ganesh and performs the 
holy-day blessing with the same details as during a marriage. Then 
an altar of earth is raised in front of the boy and the girl and the 
sacrificial fire is kindled with the same details as at the marriage 
or vivdha horn. After this the wife leaves her seat and stands 
behind the stool on which she sat, and into her hollowed hands her 



Chapter III. 
Population- 

BeIhmans. 
OhitpJvass. 

Pregnancy. 



of inTaliding the father instead of or as well as the mother. The practice occurs in 
Western India among the Fomaliyas or gold-washers of South Gujar&t, who, after 
a birth, take great care of the husband, give him special food, and do not allow him 
to go out ; among the Dombars and Lambdnis of the Bombay Karndtak the husband 
is oiled and fed and keeps at home the wife doing all the work ; among the Korvi 
basket-makers of Madras both men and women eat asafcetida after a bath (Tylor'a 
Primitive Culture,. I. 84) ; and in Seringapatam and on the Malabar Coast on the 
birth of the first daughter or of any son the father goes to bed for a month, lives on 
rice, takes no exciting food, and is not allowed to smoke. In Borneo the husband 
;nust eat nothing but rice and salt ; he must do no hard work, fire no gun, strike 
no animals. In West Yunnan in China the husband takes to bed for forty days. 
In Europe traces of the practice of the lying-in husband remain in Corsica, North 
Spain, Beam, Navarre, and Biscay, The practice is very noticeable and elaborate in 
Ajaanca. In Greenland both father and mother keep quiet ; in North America the 
father gives up all active pursuits, fells no tree, fires no gun, and hunts no large game, 
but loafs at home in a hammock ; in Guiana and other pairts of South America the 
husband does no work, fasts, and may not use his nails in scratching ; in California he is 
given noarishing food. In the West Indies the father takes to his hammock, eats and 
(Irinks nothing for five days, and for five more takes nothing but light beer. On the 
fortieth day he is cut with sharp teeth, his wounds are peppered and he is put to bed 
and kept in bed for several days. For six months he does not eat birds or fish 
(Tylor's Early History of Mankind, 291-305). Mr. Tyler (Ditto, 298) suggests as an 
explanation of these customs sympathetic magic that is the feeling that closely 
connected beings act on each other. The character of the acts forbidden to the 
Chitpdvan hnsband, and the fact that diseases connec^d with pregnancy and child- 
birth are still in 'India almost universally believed to be the work of spirits, suggest 
that the explanation of all varieties of couvad is to be found in the early spirit theory 
of disease. The object of all the spedal treatment seems to be to prevent the father 
doing anything likely to displease spirits or give them the opportunity of fastening 
on him and coming home with him. 

B 310—19 



KDiii- <'\i: .i .^ 



[Bom'bay Gazetteer, 



146 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Fopnlation. 

Bkahuans. 

CbitpAvans. 
Pregnancy. 



Atonement. 



husband drops a grain of wheat with on each side of the wheat two 
grains of udid pulse. Over these three he pours a little curds. 
He then asks her thrice what she is sipping, and she answers that 
by which women conceive. The husband and wife go outside the 
housBj wash their hands and feet, and sit as before on the low 
wooden stools. He places his right hand on his wife's head, 
and prays that the child may be born in the tenth month and 
may be a male. Next comes the hair-parting or simantonayana. 
The husband holds back the wife's head as he did when she came 
of age, and squeezes the juice of bent gra^s into her right nostril. 
He next takes a water-pot, fills it with water, and putting on 
a lid lays grains of rice on the lid, and over the whole sets a 
golden image of "Vishnu. After the sacrificial fire is kindled he 
takes a porcupine quill and a blade of sacred grass, and passing 
them along the parting of his wife's hair fastens them into the 
knot behind. He takes a garland of wild umbar figs and hangs 
it round her neck, and decks her with ornaments and her hair with 
flowers. She is then seated on her husband's left and her lap is 
filled with fruit and wheat. Presents of clothes and ornaments are 
made to the husband and wife and they leave their places afterthe 
Brahmans have called blessings upon them. Money is distributed 
among the Brahmans and those who have not been asked to dine 
retire. From this time until after the child is born the wife is held 
impure, and water .and food are not taken from her hands. As at 
the coming of age the sacrificial fire is allowed to go out. 

All-atonement or sarva-prdyaschitta vidhi is generally performed 
by the mortally sick or the aged whose failing powers ■warn them 
that their end draws near. It is a sad rite. Hiaf riends, f rom day to 
day, try to persuade the sick or the aged to put off the atonement 
ceremony as there is no cause to fear the immediate approach of 
death. No one can make atonement without asking leave of his 
heir. If the sick is too ill to perform the rite, his heir can take 
his place. If a man dies without performing the ceremony, 
atonement can be made on the eleventh day after his death. On 
the morning of the day of atonement, the penitent bathes and 
dresses in a newly washed waistcloth and shouldercloth. He sits 
on a low wooden stool in the women's hall and in front of him sit 
on mats and carpets Brdhmans among whom are a few learned 
divines or shdstris and scriptare-readers or purdniks. When the 
Brdihmans are seated the penitent take's in his hands some copper 
coins and a water cup and ladle, and after walking round the seated 
Brd,hmans throws himself on his face before them, and with joined 
hands begs forgiveness. He rises and stands before -them 
with joined hands. The Brahmans say : ' Tell us truly why you 
have called us and why you have bowed so low before us ? ' The 
penitent, keeping his hands joined, answers : ' From my birth until 
now, either knowingly or unknowingly, with wish or without wish, 
once or often, with 'body speech or mind, alone or in company, 
with touch or oth&rwisfe, by eating or refusing to eat, by drinking 
^r refusing to drink, by eating or drinking with those of other 
castes, by tempting or by causing another to sin, by eating or 
drinking from unclean vessels, by defiling a person from his caste, 



Decc&n.l 



POONA. 



147 



in these and in otlier ways I have not ceased from sin. Do ye 
receive me, and by giving me atonement free me from the burden 
of my sins.' He lies flat or bows before the Brdhmans. He 
goes on : 'Do ye, who are able, free me, penitent, from the burden 
of my sins.' And a third time he bows or falls before them. He 
again rises and gives them the coppers he holds in his hands. He 
next goes into the house and brings out the money, he intends 
to give the Brahmans, and putting it in a plate lays the plate 
before them. He worships the money and lays a sacred book 
before the plate, and throws grains of rice over _ the heads of the 
Brahmans. Then the Brahmans choose one of their number, who 
is either ignorant of the ceremony or whose love of money over- 
comes his scruples, and set him in front and call him the 
representative or anuvddah. The representative repeats the name 
of the host and Ms family stock and says : ' Except such grievous 
sins as murder and adultery, I take on myself the sins of my patron 
and free him from them.' The penitent then gives the sinbearer 
a double share of the money in the plate besides uncooked food and 
other presents, and the sinbearer is told to leave the house bearing 
with Mm- the load of the penitent's sins. After the sinbearer 
has gone, the host washes his hands and feet, sips a little water, 
and with joined hands returns thanks to the other. Brahmans for 
freeing him from the burden of his sins. He. asks them to allow 
him to be shaved and a barber shaves his bead except the top-knot 
and his face except tbe eyebrows and pares his nails. The penitent 
goes to the house well, bathes, rubs his teeth with a branch of the 
aghdda Achyranthes aspera, and again bathes. He rubs cowdung 
ashes on the palms of his hands and then with his right hand rubs 
ashes on his head, face, chest, private parts, and feet. He puts on 
more water and covers with ashes his whole body from head to foot 
and bathes. In this way he thrice rubs ashes and thrice bathes. He 
next takes cowdung and rubs it on his body from head to foot and 
again bathes. He takes earth and laying bent grass upon it, throws 
a little to the east, south, west, and north, towards heaven, and on the 
earth, and pouring a little water on the earth rubs the wet earth on 
his head, face, throat, chest, navel, shoulders, sides, armpits, back,, 
thighs, legs, feet, and hands> and finally over his whole body. He 
takes niore dust and bent grass, drops sesamum over them, and- 
throwing them into the well prays to the well and bathes. He rubs 
cow's urine on his body, then cowdung, then milk, then curds, and 
last of all butter, bathing after each. He dresses in fresh-washed 
clothes, and going into the house, makes a clay altar, kindles a 
sacrificial fire, worships Vishnu, and feeds the fire with cow's urine, 
dung, curds, milk, and butter, and drinks what of the mixture 
remains. He makes money presents to Brdhmans and they retire^ 
This ends the atonement except that unless he is ill the penitent eats: 
nothing during the whole day. If he is ill, he can eat any food 
which is not mixed with salt, for on this day salt is strictly for- 
bidden. Women perform the all-atonement as well as men. The. 
Only difference is that no verses are. repeated. 

When a Ghitpavan is on the point of death, a spot in the women's 
hall is cowdunged, holy basil or tulsi leaves are sprinkled over 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

BeIbmans. 

ChitpJvans. 

Atonement. 



Vea&i 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



148 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Brahmans, 

CbitpAvans. 

Death, 



the spot, and a blanket is spread over the leaves. On the blanket 
the dying person is laid with his feet to the south. A few drops of 
the sacred Ganges or Bhdgirathi are poured into his mouth, 
a learned Brdhman repeats verses from the Veds, another reads the 
Bhagvat Gita, and near relations or the family priest ask him to 
repeat, Ndrayan Ndrdyan. His son rests the dying head on his 
lap and comforts him until he has drawn his last breath. When all 
is over the women of the family sit round the body weeping and 
wailing ; the men and the boys go out and sit on the veranda bare- 
headed ; servants or neighbours start to tell relations and friends, . 
and the priest turns up his almanac to see whether the moment of 
death Was lucky or was unlucky., To die under the constellations 
called tripdd a,nS.panchak or under the last five of the seasonal stars or 
nakshatras, between the second half of Dhanishtha and the first half 
of Ashvini, is unfortunate. When the time of death is unlucky, to 
prevent calamity and trouble, quietings or shdntis have to be performed 
on the eleventh day after death. Soon neighbours dressed in a 
waist and shouldercloth begin to drop in. One goes to the market and- 
brings what is wanted for the funeral. When he comes back others 
busy themselves laying out the body. If the deceased was a 
Agnihotri or fire-sacrificing Brahman, some live coal is taken from the 
sacred fire, or a fire is kindled, and the live coal is put in an earthen 
pot. The chief mourner and his brothers, if he has brothers, are 
bathed one after the other outside of the house. The chief mourner 
takes a blade of the darbha grass, touches his brow with it, and 
passing it over his head throws it behind him. He dresses in a wet 
waistcloth and shouldercloth and sits in front of the barber and 
shifts his sacred thread, to the right shoulder.^ The barber shaves 
his head except the top-knot and his face except the eyebrows, 
and pares his nails. The chief mourner is dressed in a new waist- 
cloth, a shouldercloth or uttari is tied along with his sacred 
thread, ' a blade of dcurhha grass is tied round the sacred thread 
and the shouldercloth, another round the top-knot, and of a third 
he makes a ring and puts it on the third right finger. The 
body is brought out of the front door by the nearest male relations, 
followed by the women, and is laid on the outer steps of the house 
on a small wooden plank, the head resting on the steps. The 
•women gather weeping round the head and the men stand at some 
distance. Three or four pots of cold water are brought from the 
well and poured over the body which is hidden from sight while it 
is being dressed. Elderly men bathe the body and leave . it bare 
except a loincloth.^ A piece of gold and an emerald are put in the 
inonth. A few drops of the sacred Bhdgirathi river are poured into 
the mouth and sprinkled over the body, the two thumbs and the 
two great toes are tied together with cloth, and the body is laid on 
the bier and covered from head to foot with a cloth. If the dead 
^ ' — ■ 

' In performing ceremonies for the dead the thread ia always shifted from its 
usual position on the left shoulder to the right shoulder ; it is allowed to remain on 
the left shoulder in performing ceremonies to the gods. 

^ Elderly women dress a woman's body in a full suit of clothes. If the dead woman 
is married and is not a widow her hair is braided, redpowder is rubbed on her -; 
brow, and turmeric on her face and arms ; nose, ear, head and feet ornaments are put 
on ; butter is rubbed on her head ; and her lap is filled with fruit and flowers. 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



149 



leaves ctildren a hole is made ip the face-cloth over the mouth. 
K the dead leaves a wife she is bathed in cold water, and says : 
'Because of the great evil that has fallen on me, I shave my head.' 
She takes off such of hei* ornaments as are not to be given to the 
barber, or she puts on ornaments of little .value, a small nosering, 
earrings, and silver toerings which are given to the barber, or 
instead of ornaments she gives him about 4s. (Es. 2) in cash, The 
barber shaves her head and pares her nails. She breaks her 
bangles and her lucky marriage necklace, rubs off her red brow- 
mark, takes off her bodice, and puts on a white ^obe. The robe and 
the ornaments she wore at the time of shaving become the property 
of the barber. Her hair is wrapped in her bodice and laid on the 
bier. The chief mourner starts walking with the firepot hanging 
from a string in his hand. The bier is raised by four of the nearest 
kinsmen, set on their shoulders, and carried feet first close after the 
chief mourner. With the chief mourner walk two men, one holding 
a metal pot with the rice which was cooked near the feet of the 
corpse ; the other carryiiig a bamboo winnowing fan with parched 
pulse and small bits of cocoa-kernel, which, as he walks, he throws 
before him to please the evil spirits. Of the men who have come to 
the house some follow the body bareheaded and barefooted, repeating 
with a low voice Ram Rdm, Govind Govind. The rest go to their 
homes. The bearers walk slowly and the chief mourner keeps close in 
front that no one may pass between the fire and the body. No woman 
goes to thebuming ground. Female friends take the women and the 
children of the house and bathe them, get the ground floor where 
the corpse was laid, the veranda, and the house steps washed 
with water and cowdung, and go home. Half-way to the burning 
ground the bier is lowered, and, without looking back, the bearers 
change places. When they reach the burning ground an earthen 
altar is made and the fire from the pot is poured over it. 
Instead of himself accompanying the funeral, the family priest 
sends another Brahman, generally one who oflBciates at the burning 
ground and who is known by the name of kdrta} A few chips of 
firewood are thrown over the fire and it is fed with butter. Close 
to the platform, a spot of ground is sprinkled with water and 
sesamum seed is thrown over it. On this spot the funeral pile is 
built by the mourners and round the pile blades of darbha grass are 
strewn. The pile and the bier are sprinkled with sesamum and 
water, the sheet is pulled off the body and thrown aside, the hand 
and feet cloths are cut and the body is laid on the pile with the 
head to the south. Pieces of sandalwood and basil leaves are 
thrown over the body, and, if the deceased died at an unlucky time, 
seven dough balls are made and laid on the head, the eyes, the 
mouth, the breast, and the shoulders. Then from a mango leaf 
butter is dropped on the several balls, and the loincloth is cut that 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Blli.HMAN8, 
CsiTPjrANS, . 

Deaih, 



^ Kartds take their name from the Sanskrit harat a funeral rite. They are found 
among all Brihmans. They generally perform death ceremonies. The rest of the 
caste look down on the Kirta, and they are seldom asked to conduct marriage and 
thread-girding or other lucky ceremonies. They eat, drink, and marry with the 
people of their caste, but are considered unclean in the same way that a mourning 
family is considered unclean. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



150' 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Bkahivians. 

CmirJ.vANS, 

Death. 



the body may leave the world in Jhe same state in which it came 
into the world. The chief mourner lights the pile, if the dead is a 
man at the head and if a woman at the feet, and the other mourners 
throw the rest of the fire under the pile.- The chief mourner fans the 
fire'with the end of his shouldercloth and throws a few sesamum seeds 
over the pyre. The hdrta or funeral priest all the while repeats verses. 
When the skull bursts the chief mourner, carrying on his left shoulder 
an earthen jar filled with cold water, takes his stand near where the 
head of the corpse lay, and another of the mourners picking a 
pebble makes with it a small hole in the earthen pot, and, from the 
hole as the chief mourner walks round the pyre water keeps 
trickling.' At the end of the first round, when the chief mourner 
comes back to the south, a second hole is made with the stone, and a 
second stream trickles out. After the second round a third hole is 
made, and when three jets stream out, the chief mourner throws the 
pot backward over his shoulder and the water spills over the ashes. 
The chief mourner calls aloud striking his hand on his mouth,. 
All the mourners come together and one of them ties round the 
pebble,- with which the pot was broken, a blade of darbha grass 
and calls it ashrda that is the life. The chief mourner, to cool 
the spirit of the dead which has been heated by the fire, pours water/ 
mixed with sesamum on the ashes, and, to quench the spirit's thirst,' 
pours water over the asJima or stone of life. The rest of the. 
mourners follow the chief mourner and throw Water over the stone. 
They start for home. Before starting, to allay the fear caused by 
burning the body, each picks a pebble and throws it towards the 
nearest mountain or hill. At the house of mourning the spot on 
which the dead breathed his last is smeared with cowdung and a 
lighted lamp is set on it. As the mourners come, to cool their eyes 
which have been heated, by the fire, they look at the lamp and go 
to their houses. The chief mourner bathes, puts on a fresh waist - 
cloth, and lays in some safe place the waistcloth and shouldercloth he 
wore at the barning ground, the water-pot and cup, and the asthmd 
or lifestone. As no fire is kindled in the house relations and caste- 
fellows send cooked food. If the chief mourner has brothers, before 
dining they rub butter on their right hands, make a ball of rice,, 
set it in front of their leaf-plates, and pour water over it. The 
family of the deceased keeps in mourning for ten days, during 
which they eat no betel or sugar and drink no milk. They 
are also not allowed to rub their brows with sandal or red- 
powder, to anoint their bodies, to shave their heads, or to wear 
shoes or turbans. Every day for ten days a sacred book, the 
Garud Purdn or Vulture Soripturej is read to the family 
and the bearers are not allowed to dine until they have seen a 
star in the heavens. Generally on the third day comes the bone- 
gaiihering or asthi-sanchay'aii, when the chief mourner, accompanied; 
by the Kdfta, goes to the burning ground with, the waistcloth and 
shouldercloth he wore at the burning, the lifestone, and the water- ' 
pot and cup, and after washing the two cloths spreads them to dry. 
He bathes, puts on the fresh-washed waistcloth, and ties the shoulder- 
cloth along with his sacred thread. He takes a little cow's urine, 
spriokles it on the ashes of the dead, picks out the pieces of unbumt. 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



151 



bone, and heaps them on one side. When he has -picked all the 
bones he ppts them in a -basket and throws them and the ashes 
into some neighbouring pond or stream.^ When he has thrown the 
ashes into the water, he sits on the spot where the deceased's 
feet lay and raises a three-cornered altar or vedi. He sets an 
earthen jar in each corner of the altar and one in the middle, 
fills them with water, and throws a few grains of sesamum into each. 
Close to the jars he lays the stone of life. Near the four earthen 
Jars he places four small yellow flags and in the mouth of each jar 
sets a rice balL He makes eight dough balls shaping them like 
umbrellas and footprints' and four cakes which he lays near the jars. 
The cake near the middle jar and the water in the middle jar are 
meant to appease the hunger and thirst of the dead, the dough 
umbrella is to shade him from the stin, and the shoes are to guard 
his feet from the thorns on the way to heaven. The cakes laid close 
to the corner jars are offered to Rudra, Yama, and the ancestdrs of 
the dead. He sprinkles sesamum and pours water over each of the 
balls and touches them with lampblack and' butter. He dips the 
end of the shouldercloth into water, and lets a little water drop over 
each ball. He smells them, aad, except the stone of life, throws the 
whole into water. Thus for ten days he perforins like ceremonies 
that the deceased may gain a new body. On the first day the dead 
gets his head, on the second his ears eyes and nose, on the third 
his hands breast and neck, on the fourth his middle parts, on the 
fifth his legs and feet, on the sixth his vitals, on the seventh his bones 
marrow veins and arteries, on the eighth his nails hair and teeth, 
on the ninth all remaining limbs organs and strength, and on the 
tenth hunger and thirst for the renewed body. On this tenth day 
a three-cornered earthen altar is made as usual, and the chief 
mourner sprinkles cowdung and water over it. Then, strewing 
turmeric powder, he places five earthen pots on five blades of sacred 
grass, three in one line and two at right angles. He fills the pots with 
water and a few grains of sesamum seed and over the seed sets a 
wheaten cake and a rice ball. -He plants small yellow flags in the 
ground, and setting up the lifestone lays flowers before it, and 
waving burning frankincense and lighted lamps, prays the dead to 
accept the offering. If a crow comes and takes the right-side ball 
the deceased died happy. If no crow comes the deceased had 
some trouble on his mind. The chief mourner bows low to the 
^:^riifestone, and tells the dead not to fret, his family and goods will 
be taken care of, or if the funeral ceremony has not been 
rightly done, the fault will be mended. In spite of these assurances, 
if for a couple of hours no crow takes the rice, the chief mourner 
himself touches the ball with a blade of sacred grass. Then, taking 
the stone, and rubbing it with sesamum oil, to satisfy the hunger 
and thirst of the dead, he offers it a rice ball and water, and 
standing with it near water, facing the east, throws it over his back 
into the water. This ends the tenth-day ceremony. On the 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BkAhmaks. 

OhitpJ-YANS. 

Death. 



•1 If he has to take the bones to NAsik, Bentos, or some other sacred spot, the chief 
mourner puts them in an earthen jar and buries the jar near his house in some lonely 
place where they are not likely to be touched. After a year he goes on pilgrimage 
and at the place of pilgrimage throws the bones into water, 



[Bombay Gaaetteer, 



152 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 
BaiHUAHa. 

CbitpJ.van8. 
Death. 



moming of the eleventh day the whole house is cowdunged and 
the chief mourner and all other members of the family bathe. 
The priest kindles the sacred fire on an earthen altar and heaps 
firewood over it, feeds the fire with a mixture of cow's urine, dung, 
milk, curds, and butter, and that all the uncleanness caused by the 
death may vanish and the house become pure; the chief mourner 
and . his brothers drink what is left of the five cow-gifts or 
panchagavya. The chief mourner rubs a little ashes on his brow 
and throwing a few rice grains over the fire lets it die. < 

On this eleventh day a quieting or shdnti is performed to turn 
aside any evil that may befall the family_if a member of it dies 
under the constellation called trvpdd or under the five planets or 
panchaks. In the women's hall an altar of earth is made and the 
mourner sits in front of the altar. Close by he lays a leaf-cup with ■ 
rice grains in it, and over the rice a betelnut, and worships the 
betelnut.as the god Ganesh. He empties a ladleful of water on 
the palm of his right hand, and pours the water on the ground 
saying ' I pour this Water that the dead may go to heaven and no 
evil fall on his family.' He leaves his seat and asks the priest to 
begin the ceremony. The chief mourner sits somewhere close by 
and the priest sitting on the spot on which the chief mourner sat 
performs the worship. He takes mustard seed and sprinkles it all 
over the house, then cow's urine, and last of all cold water in which 
a blade of sacred grass has been steeped. Next he lays a couple of ;^ 
leaf-plates in front of the mound, spreads grains of rice over the , 
leaves, and over the rice sets five water-pots or kalashes, one at each t 
corner and one in the middle. He covers the pots with lids, and on 
each lid sets grains of rice, a betelnut, and a golden image. The , 
image on the middle pot is Tam, on the east pot is Kudra, on 
the south Varun, on the west Vishnu, and on the north Indra. • 
Each of the images and water-pots is worshipped. A second 
betelnut is laid on the lid of the middle water-pot in honour of 
Ashtdvasu, on the east water-pot in honour of Varun, on the 
south water-pot in honour of Ajaikpdd, on the west water-pot 
in honour of Ahvibradhna, and on the north water-pot in honour 
of Usha. Round the middle pot fourteen betelnuts are arranged , 
in a ring in honour of Tam, Dharmardj, Nirrut, Antak, Vaivasvat, 
Kal, Sarvabhutakshaya, Audumbar, Dadhna, Nil, Paramesh, 
Vrikodar, Chitra, and Chitragupta; and all are worshipped. • The ^^ 
priest kindles a sacred fire in honour of the nine planets or 
navagraha. Over the fire ho cooks rice, and sprinkling sesamum 
over it feeds the sacred fire with butter. ■ The priest takes a 
mango Jeaf, dips it into the water of the different pots, and from ^ 
the point of the leaf sprinkles water on the head of the mourner 
and his family. ' A metal cup is filled with boiled butter, the 
mourner and the rest, of.the family look at the reflection of their 
faces in the butter, and the cup is presented to a Brahman who walks 
away with it. This ends the quieting or shdnti ceremony. Except 
that three water-pots are set instead of five, the ceremony to quiet a 
tripdd constellation is the same as the ceremony to quiet^the planets.^ ;, 

^ A tripdd oonstellatian is one of which three-fourths are iucluded under one sign of 
the zodiac, Williams' Sanskrit Dictionary.. 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



153 



On the same day, tliat is the eleyentli day after a death, ia 
the deceased's house, an earthen altar is made and a sacred fire 
kindled upon it. On the fire three metal pots are put, two of 
brass arid the third of copper. The copper pot has rice and water, 
and one of the brass pots rice and milk and the other water and 
wheat flour. When the dishes are cooked, a water-pot is set in the 
middle of the platform, and on the pot a lid some grains of rice 
and three betelnuts and they are worshipped. The contents of the 
three pots are poured on three leaf-plates and with them the chief 
. mourner feeds the fire. A male calf of a fiVe-year old cow and a female 
calf of a three-year old cow are brought, new waistcloths are put on 
their backs. Sandal and redpowder are rubbed on their brows, 
garlands of sweet basil and flowers are thrown round their necks, 
and their tails are, dipped in a ladle of water and shaken over 
the head of the chief mourner. Next two irons, one three-pointed 
called a trishul the other ending like a key handle in a ring and called 
ckupti, are laid in burning cowdung cakes. The male calf is thrown 
down with its legs tied near the sacred fire and when the irons are 
red-hot ashes are rubbed above the joint of the calf's right forefoot 
and on the ashes the red-hot trident is pressed. Then the ringed 
iron is pressed on his hind quarters, and the calf is allowed to rise. 
The chief mourner walks round the calf, and looking to the 
four quarters of heaven tells the animal that henceforth the four 
corners of the world are free to him and that he is at liberty to 
go wherever he pleases. He leads both the calves to the road- 
side at some distance from the house and sets them free. The 
lowing of the bullock when it is being branded is believed to carry 
thedeceasedtoheaven, and his first cry opens the doors of heaven for 
the dead to enter. Poor people instead of a live ox make an ox of 
dough. After the bullock has been set free presents are made to 
Br^hmans. One of the presents is a cow which is called the Vaitarni 
cow because the dead is believed to cross that river of blood and 
filth by holding the cow's tail. Presents of other articles, food, 
water-pots, shoes, an umbrella, a lamp, cloth, sesamum seed, 
betelnut, flowers, butter, a sacred thread, and bedding, are also 
made to Brdhmans. At the time of presenting the bedding 
a cot is placed in front of the house steps, and fitted with 
,*ipattresses, pillows, sheets, and curtains. On one side of the 
bed is laid a plate filled with metal boxes for keeping betel, 
lime, catechu, cloves, cardamums, almonds, nutmeg, nutmace, 
musk, and saffron. The Brahman who is to receive this 
present is dressed in the deceased's waistcloth, waistcoat, coat, 
shouldercloth, turban^ handkerchief, and shoes, and, if the 
deceased was an old man, a walking stick is placed in his hands. 
He is seated on a low wooden stool with his back to the cot, an 
umbrella is held over his head, and a fan is placed, in his hands. 
The mourner sits in front of him, marks his brow with sandal, and 
asks a Maratha woman or other middle class woman to wait 
on the Brd.hman. The chief mourner then rubs scented oils and 
powders on the Brahman's body and lays before him flowers and 
grains of rice, burns frankincense, and waves a lighted lamp and 
camphor before him, and says to him : ' I make you these gifts that the 
B 310— 20 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BBi.HMANS. 

ChitpJ.vans. 
J>eat^. 



[Bombay Oazetteer, 



154 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 
BrAsmass. 

CsiTPArANS. 

Death, 



dead may be freed fronif his sins and reach heaven in safety, 
and that there all his lifelong he may hare a cot to lie on, a 
packet of betel to eat, a maid to wait on him, an umbrella to 
shade him from the sun, and a stick to help him in walking.' The 
Brdhnian is seated on the cot with his feet resting on the ground, and 
the chief mourner washes his feet with water, rubs sandal on his 
brow, and presents him with 2». to £10 (Rs. 1 - 100). The Brdhman 
lies on his back in the bed, the maid who becomes his property 
shampoos his feet,, and the chief mourner, helped by other male 
members of the family, lift the cot on their shoulders with the Brah- 
man on it, and, followed by the maid, carry it some distance 
from the house, and set it on the roadside, and, throwing a little 
earth and cowdung at the Brdhman, return home, wash their hands 
and feet, and sending some money as the price of the maid or ddsi 
bring her back. The receiver of this present is considered the 
ghost OTpretoi the deceased. As it is most unlucky to meet a man 
who has taken such a present, the present is generally given to an 
outside Brahman who is not likely to come to the house or to be 
met in the streets. In some places the mourner and his friends some- 
times carry the pelting of the present-taker with stones, earth, and 
dung so far that the police have to interfere. Like the Earta the 
cot-taking Brdhman is not allowed to take part in lucky ceremonies j 
or to join dinner parties. Besides the cot, several other articles^^j 
grain, pulse, and other necessaries of life enough to feed a family for 
a whole year, clothes, houses, lands, fields, and sacred books including 
the Bhagvatgit^, Bharat, Ramayah, Pdndavapratdp, Bhaktivijayai. < 
and Shivlilararit are given to Brdhmans. The sacrificial fire is 
kindled, and a number of shrdddhs or funeral ceremonies are 
performed. This ends the eleventh-day observances. 

Though, if necessary,, it may be delayed for a year, the sapindi- 
shrdddh or memorial service in honour of seven generations of ances- 
tors, generally takes place on the morning of the twelfth day after 
the death. As a rule, the ceremony is held in the cattle-shed where 
the dishes are cooked by some elderly woman. In the morning the 
chief mourner bathes and takes his seat in the stable, and the family 
priest, sitting near him on a low wooden stool, begins to repeat verses. 
The mourner takes three bits of plantiain leaf or chats and lays them 
inaline facing north as the seat for his grandfather, great-grandfather, 
and grandfather's grandfather, two leaf -seats facing east for the 
gods Kuldev and Kamdey,^^ and a leaf-seat facing north-east for the 
deceased. Before the priest are a cup, a saucer, and a ladle 
full of water. He dips blades of the sacred darbha grass into the 
water and from the point of the blade sprinkles water over each of 
the leaf-seats. He takes two more blades of grass, twists them in 
rings, and draws them over his third right and left fingers. He ties 
a blade of the grass to his top-knot and another round his sacred 
thread. He takes a blade of the grass and a little barley and 
tucks them ibto the right side of his waistband, and a blade of 
the grass and a little sesamiim seed into the left side of his 
waistband. Under his seat he lays four blades of grass, and joining 
his hands repeats the names of Kuldev and Kamdev. He 
changes his sacred thread from the left to the right shouldei-,' 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



155 



repeats his father's name and family, and the names and family of 
his grandfe,ther, great-grandfather, and grandfather's grandfather, 
and moves his sacred thread back to its usual place on his left and 
shoulder. He takes a bundle of darhha grass, six copper coins 
and some sesamum seed and barley, and leaving his seat goes 
round the six leaf-seats or sacred grass images representing^ 
Br^hmans to pay the homage due to them.' Then, standing 
and looking towards the grass images, he asks them if he is fit to 
perform the ceremony. JHe takes his seat and holding seven 
blades of darhha grass lays two on the leaf -seat of Kuldev, two 
on the leaf-seat of Kamdev, and three on the leaf -seat of the 
deceased. He sets before him two plates, half tills them with water, 
and throws in the one a little sesamum and in the other a little 
barley. In each plate he lays a blade of darhha grass, a betelnut, 
and a copper coin, and sprinkles water from the plates over his head. 
He leaves his seat, sprinkles water over the cooking dishes, and asks 
the cook whether the food is ready. When the food is ready the 
mourner again sits and throws grains of rice and sesamum on all 
four sides of him to guard himself and the ceremony from evil 
spirits. The chief mourner faces the grass images of Kuldev and 
Kdmdev, throws sesamum and barley over them, and sprinkles 
the spot in front of the two images with water from the three plates, 
throws two blades of darbha grass over the two spots which he had 
sprinkled with water, and taking two plantain-leaf cups, sets them 
on the blades of gi'ass. He sprinkles water over the cups and 
lets them run over. He lays two blades of darhha grass across 
the cups, pours a ladleful of water into each, throws sandal paste, 
barley, and basil- leaves into them, and asks the two gods to accept 
them. He takes four grains of barley, touches the grass images 
with his left hand, and drops some grains over them from his right 
hand. He covers them with his left hand, and, taking the two 
blades from over the cups, lays them on the leaf-seat. He takes 
each cup and touching the leaf-seat with his right hand pours the 
contents over his right hand, and sprinkles more water from the 
three: plates over the leaves. He shifts his thread to his left 
shouldfer, repeats the name of his father and the family name, and 
throws a blade of darhha grass and a few sesamum seeds over the 
leaf seat of the deceased, and over the seats of the grandfather, 
great-grandfather, and grandfather's grandfather. He sits in front, 
of the deceased's leaf, sprinkles water before it, turns the cup rim up, 
lays four blades of darhha grass across the rim, and pours into the 
cup a ladleful of water from the plate mixed with basil leaves, 
sandal powder, and sesamum seeds. He treats the leaf -seats 
of the grandfather the great-grandfather and the grandfather's 
grandfather in the same manner, lays three blades of darhha grass 
across the rim of each of the three cups, pours a ladle of water into 
each, and taking in his hands some grains of sesamum and repeat- 
ing his father's name and his family name throws some sesamum 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Bbahmaits. 

0BITPJ.VAN8, 

Death. 



.' If the mourner is well>to-do he haa Br^hmans to sit instead of the pieces of 
plantain leaf. . • 



[Bombay Oazetteer, 



156 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BitiHMAITS. 

CbitpJ.vans, 
Death. 



into each of the four cups. He says, ' I unite my dead father 
with my grandfather, my gi-eat-grandfather, and my grandfather's 
grandfather.' He takes a ladle of water from his father's cup 
and a blade of darbha grass from each of the fouV cnps and 
pours the water in front of one of the three cups and lays the blade 
near the cup. He treats the other two cups in the same way. Then, 
taking a ladle of water from each of the three cups, he sprinkles a 
little over the blades, and empties the other two cups over the 
leaf-seats. He gathers all the blades from the two cups and lays 
them on the first of the three cups and throws the cups in a corner 
along with his father's cup. He shifts his thread frOm the right 
to" the left shoulder, drops sandal and flowers oyer the leaf-seats of 
Knldev and Kdmdev, and burns frankincense and camphor before 
them. He worships the father's, and the ancestor's leaf -plates, 
makes a square of water in front of Kamdev's and of Kuldev's 
cups, shifts his thread to his right shoulder, and drops water in a ring 
in front of each of the three forefathers' plates, and in the form of a 
triangle in front of the father's plate. He spreads leaf-plates over 
all the water lines and draws lines of ashes round the four ancestral 
plates, and lines of flour or qnartz powder round the two gods' 
plates. He rubs butter on the six leaf-plates beginning with 
Kuldev's and Kdmdev's plates. Fire is brought and a, little cooked 
rice is thrice thrown over the fire. If Brahmans are seated on the- 
four leaf-seats of the deceased, and of his father, grandfather, and 
great-grandfather, the cooked rice is given tothem and they swallow 
it> but, as rich presents are required before Brahmans will agree to 
eat the cooked rice, a blade of dafbha gvaas is generally set torepresenf 
them and to receive the homage-due to them. A leaf-plate filled with 
heaps of rice, vegetables, sugared milk, and cakes is laid before 
the leaf-seat of Kuldev and a second plate before the leaf-seat-of 
Kdmdev, and water from the. three metal plates is sprinkled over 
them. A. ring of water is poured round each of the plates, and the 
mourner, resting his right knee on the ground and pointing to the 
food with his right thumb, says, Idam anam, that is ' This is food.' 
He shifts his thread to his left shoulder, rests his left thigh on 
the ground, and points with his left thumb to the four leaf -plates, 
which are laid in front of the four ancestral leaf -seats. He drops 
a little honey on each of the four leaf -plates, and says to the ancestral 
spirits or pitris, 'Are you satisfied with the food.' He throws a 
little water in front of the six plates, and sprinkles some grains of 
rice over them. He lays down a blade of darbha grass and ofiers 
sugared milk as food to those of his family who may have died in the 
womb, been buried, or been burnt without due ceremony. The 
images are asked if they have had enough, and if they have had- 
enough, what is to be done with the remaining cooked rice. The, 
mourner is told to roll the rice into balls or pinds.. He takes the 
cooked rice and makes some of it into a rolling. pin and of the rest 
he makes three rice balls. He sits facing the south-east, sprinkles 
a little water to the right in front of him, lays blades of darbha 
grass on the water,. and lifting the pin from before him sets it on 
the grass. To hialeft he sprinkles a spot with water and on the spot 
lays three balls on blades of grass. These three balls represent 



Deccanj 



TOONA. 



157 



the mourner's grandfather, his great-grandfather, and his grand- 
father's gandfather. He sprinkles water on the leaf-plate which 
represents his father's spirit and worships it with sandal paste, 
basil leaves, and sesamum, and prays it to be freed from its 
present state and to be gone for ever. He then takes a little 
water on the palm of his right hand and says, 'I now mix or 
join my dead father with his dead forefathers.' He takes nine 
blades of darbha grass, twists them into a cord, and ties the two 
ends by a knot. Catching the knotted string between the four 
fingers of both his hands, he sets it on the rice rolling pin, and 
closing his eyes, and repeating Vishnu's name, presses the string 
on the pin, and divides it into three equal parts. He takes the 
nearest part of the pin and makes a cup of it, and laying some 
honey and curds in the cup, drops one of the three balls into it and 
closes it repeating, ' I unite this first part of the dead or pret with 
my grandfather,' and lays the piece of the rice rolling pin on the 
spot from which he picked it. He takes the mi ddle part of the rolling 
pin, forms it into a cup, and putting in the cup the ball which 
represents the greah-grandfather, , closes the mouth of the cup 
saying, ' I unite the dead with my great-grandfather.' He treats the 
third part of the pin in the same way as the first two parts saying 
' I unite the dead with my grandfather's grandfather.' He pours a 
ladle of water over the first ball and says *I offer water in the name 
of my, father.' He pours water over the second and third balls 
saying, ' I offer water in the name of my grandfather and of my 
great-grandfather.' Up to this time the deceased has been a 
ghost or pret. The ghost now changes into a guardian spirit or 
pitra that is father, and unites with the mourner's pitdmaha or grand- 
father, and his prapitdmaha or great-grandfather. The grand- 
father's grandfather ceases as the relationship stops with every 
fourth person. The mourner rubs a little butter on the three balls, 
marks them with lampblack, puts a ,thread from hia waistcloth 
over them, and lays round them the utri or cloth which was tied 
with his sacred thread on the day of his father's death. If the 
mourner is over eighty -five he plucks- a few hairs from his 
breast and lays them on the balls. The cooking pots used 
during the ten days of mourning are presented to the priest, 
and in front of the three balls are laid flowers, holy basil, sandal 
paste, and' grains of rice j frankincense and camphor are waved 
before the balls and they are offered cooked food. All members 
and near relations of the family, men women and children, draw 
near the three balls, bow before them, and ask their blessing. The 
grass figures or chats and the balls are asked to take their leave, the 
water from the plates is thrown over the balls, and the Brdhmans 
are presented with uncooked food and money. The mourner is now 
pure and free from taint. He gathers the balls and leaf -plates, 
puts them in a pot, cleans the place, and sprinkles barley and' 
sesamum water on the spot where the balls were. He throws 
the whole into water. The priest touches the brow of the mourner 
with sandal paste and blesses him, saying : ' May you live^lohg and 
gain as much merit from the ceremony as if it had been performed 
in Gaya itself.' Either on the same or on the following day another 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BbAhmans. 

CHITPAVAm, 

Death, 



[Boml>ay (Gazetteer, 



158 



DISTEICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BlliSMAKS. 

ChitpJ-VAns. 
Deaih, 



offering or pdthaya shrdddh is performecl. The mourner sets two 
leaf-plates facing east and north and lays a blade of darbha grass on 
each. He sets before him a few blades of the sacred grass and over 
the grass three dough or rice balls in the name of his father, his 
grandfather, and his great-grandfather, and worships them, present- 
ing them with shoes, clothes, an umbrella, food, and ajar with cold 
water in it, to protect them in their journey to heaven from thorns 
and from cold, heat, hunger, and thirst. The presents are handed 
to begging Brdhmans and the ceremony is over. 

On the morning of the thirteenth day after a death, the mourner 
anoints his hair with oil and bathes. He rubs sandal paste on his 
brow, sits on a low wooden stool with the priest close to him, and, ex- 
cept that a lamp is kept burning near him, has all the fire and hghts 
in the house put out. He sets a betelnut on a pinch of rice in a 
late and worships the nut as the god Ganesh. He sets close to him 
.1 water jar called the Soothing Pot or shdnti halash, and puts into 
the pot water, mango leaves, bent grass, a betelnut, and four copper 
coins, and, taking a ladle of water in his right hand, says, 'I perform 
the ceremony for myself and my family to be made happy hereafter 
and not be troubled with like troubles.' Four Brahmans sit round the 
water-pot each with a blade of the sacred grass in his right hand 
and touch the water-pot repeating verses. The water is poured into 
a plate and the four Brdhmans, dipping in mango leaves, sprinkle 
the water from the leaf -tips on the heads of the chief mourner, 
all members of the family and the entire household, and in every 
corner of the house and over the furniture. With the help of 
the lamp fire is kindled in the ovens. A money present is made 
to the four Brd,hmans varying according to the mourner's means, 
from a couple of shillings to five or ten pounds. The priest rubs 
redpowder on the mourner's brow, sticks rice grains on the powder, 
presents him with a new turban, and the'relations and friends fol- 
low offering turbans. The mourner takes a whole betelnut, and 
with a stone breaks it on the threshold of the front door, a practice 
not allowed on any other occasion, and chews a little of it. The 
priest, laying a little sugar on a leaf, hands a morsel to the mourner 
and to each member of his family. A feast is held to which the 
four corpse-bearers are specially asked, but people whose parents 
are living do not attend the feast. The mourner, dressed in a now 
turban, is taken to a temple, and after making a bow is brought 
back to his house and the guests take their leave. On the six- 
teenth day the mourner performs a ceremony that the dead may 
not suffer from hunger and thirst. After this the ceremony is re- 
peated every month for a year and at least one Brahman is feasted. ': 
On the death-day and on All Souls'' Night or Mahdpctlish in 
Bhadrapad or August -September, when the dead are supposed to 
hover about their relation's houses looking for food, the service is 
repeated and Brahmans are fed. 

The special rites practised at the marriage of a man who has lost 
two wives, and the special funeral services "performed for an 
unmarried lad, for a woman who dies during her monthly sickness, 
for a pregnant woman, for a lying-in woman, for an heirless man, 
and for a child under two are given in the Appendix. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



159 



Deshasth Brdhmans are returned as numbering 32^749 and as 
found over the whole district. They take their name from desh or 
the country and are called Deshasths apparently iu the - sense of 
local Bxihmans. They are generally dark, less fine-featured 
than Chitpavans, and vigorous. They speak pure and correct 
Mard,thi. The men dress in a waistcloth, coat, waistcoat, turban, 
shouldercloth, and shoes or sandals, and rub their brows with red or 
white sandal. They wear the top-knot and mustache, but not the 
whiskers or beard. The women wear the fullbacked bodice and 
the full Mardtha robe with the skirt drawn back between the feet 
and the end tucked in at the waist behind. They generally mark 
their brow with a large red circle and braid the hair tying it so as 
to form a knot at the back of the head, and over the knot an open 
semicircular braid of hair. They are clean, neat, generous, hospitable, 
hardworking, and orderly. They are husbandmen, landholders, 
traders, shopkeepers, moneylenders and changers. Government 
servants, and beggars. They are either Smarts that is followers of 
Shankardcharya the apostle of the doctrine that the soul and the 
universe are one, or BhUgvats that is followers of the Bhagvat Purdn 
who hold the doctrine that the soul and the, universe are distinct. 
They worship all Brahmanic gods and goddesses and keep the 
ordinary fasts and festivals. Their priests belong to their own 
caste. They make pilgrimages to Alandi, Benares, Jejuri, Ndsik, 
Pandharpur, and Tuljapurj and believe in sorcery, witchcraft, 
soothsaying, omens, and lucky and unlucky days, and consult 
oracles. A family of five spends £1 4s. to £2 (Rs. 12-20) a month 
on food, and £2 to £10 (Rs. 20-100) a year on clothes. A house 
costs £50 to £300 (Rs. 500-3000) to build, and 2s. to £1 (Rs.1-10) a 
month to hire. The furniture and household goods are worth £10 
to £200 (Rs. 100 -2000). A birth costs 10a. to £3 (Rs.5-30); a hair- 
clipping 10s. to £1 10s. (Rs.5- 16) ; a thread-ceremony £2 1 Os- to £20 
(Rs. 25-200) ; a boy's or a girl's marriage £10 to £200 (Rs. 100- 
2000) J a girl's coming of age £2 to £5 (Rs.20-50) ; and a pregnancy 
£1 10s. to £10 (Rs.15-100). Their customs are generally the same 
as those of Kdnkanasth Brahmans.^ When a girl comes of age she 
is dressed in rich clothes and taken to her husband's accompa- 
nied by music and female relations. At his house she is seated for 
three days in a wooden frame and presented with cooked dishes by 
her near relations and friends. On the fourth day she is bathed and 
presented with new clothes, and joins her husband. On the birth of 
a child the father puts a couple of drops of honey and butter into its 
mouth in presence of his and his wife's relations. The mother's 
term of impurity lasts twelve days at the end of which she is bathed 
and becomes pure. On this day the child is laid in a cradle and is 
named. When four months old the child is taken out of the house 
to see the sun, and after it is five or six months old it is fed with 
cooked rice. When between one and three years of age, if the child 
is a boy, his head is shaved, and between his fifth and his eighth 
year he is girt with the sacred thread. They marry their girls 



Chapter III. 

Population, 

BeahmakS; 
Deshasths. 



1 Fuller details of Deshasth Brahman customs are given in the Sholipur Statistical 
Account, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



160 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 
BbAhmans. 



DSVBXJKBES, 



Dbatids. 



OOVARDBANS. 



before they are ten and their boys before they are twenty. The 
girl's father has to look out for a husband for his daughter. They 
burn their dead, do not allow widow marriage, and practise polygamy. 
They have caste councils, and along with Chitpdvans, Devrukhes, and 
Karhddas, form the local community of Brdhmans. They send their 
boys to school and are a well-to-rlo and rising class. 

Devrukhes, or inhabitants of Devrukh in Ratndgiri, are 
returned as numbering 175 and as found all over the district. They 
say they are Deshasths and are called Devrukhes because they went 
to the Konkan and settled at Devrukh in Ratndgiri. They have no 
divisions, and tkeir surnames are Bhole, Ddnge, Ghondse, Joshi, 
Junekar, Mule, Padvale, Shitup, and Sobalkar. Families bearing the 
same surname can intermarry. They look like Deshasths, and both 
tbe men and women are strong, stout, and healthy. In speech, house, 
food, and dress they do not difEer from Deshasth Brdhmans. They 
are neat and clean, hospitable, thrifty, and hardworking. They, are 
writers, lawyers, moneylenders, and religious beggars. They hold 
a low position amoifg Maratha Brdhmans as neither Deshasths nor 
Karh^ddiS dine with them. Some are Rigvedis and others Yajurvedis, 
and they have fifteen stocks or gotras of which the chief are 
Atri, Bhiradvdj, G^rgya, Kd,shyap, Kaundinya, Kaushik, Jamadagni, 
Shdndilya, Shavnak, and Vdshishta. Their religious and social 
customs do not differ from those of Deshasth Brdhmans. They 
marry only in their own class. They have a caste council and settle 
social disputes at meetings of the castemen. They send their boys 
to school and as a class are well-to-do. 

Dravid or South. India Brdhmans are returned as numbering 
thirty-seven and as found in Haveli, Khed, and Poona. They 
cannot tell when and from what part of the country they came to 
Poona. They look like Deshasth Brd,hmans and speak Mardthi. In 
house, dress, and food, they resemble Deshasths. They are writers, 
moneychangers, and religious beggars. They are Smarts in religion 
and have house images of Bhavlni, Ganpati, Krishna, Mahddev, 
Mdruti, and Vishnu. Their high priest is Shankardchdrya Svami 
of Shringeri iu Maisur, the head of the sect of Smdrts. They have 
no special ceremony on the fifth or the sixth day after the birth of a 
child, and do not make the boy eat from the same plate as his mother 
before he is girt with the sacred thread. With these two exceptions 
their religious and social customs do not differ from those of Mardtha 
Brahmans. They have a caste council, send their boys to -school, 
and are a steady class.' 

Govardlians, or people of Govardhan in Mathura, also called 
Golak or illegitimate and Gomukh or Cow-mouth Brdhmans, are 
returned as numbering 600 and as found over the whole district 
except in Purandhar.^ They cannot tell when and whence they 



1 In the NAsik Statistical Account (Bombay Gazetteer, XVI. 41) reasons are given 
for suggesting that the Govardhan Brihmans of Ndsik, Nagar, Poona, and the North 
Konkan are not illegitimate Brahmans, but are an old settlement of Brahmans at 
Govardhan near NAsik, who were ousted by Yajurvedis from Gujardt and Deshasths 
from the Beccan, and who perhaps continued to practise widow marriage after the 
later Brdhmans had ceased to allow it. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



161 



came, but believe they have been in the district upwards of two 
hundred years. They belong to. three family stocks, Bhdradvaj, 
Jdmadagni, and SAnkhdyan.. Eamilies belonging to the same stock 
do not intermarry. Their commonest surnames are, Agydn, Bhope, 
Ghavi, Jvdri, Lakd6, Makhi, Murle, Range, Shet,andTapare j families 
bearing the same surname intermarry. The names in common use 
among men are, Balvant, Ganpatrao, Narahari, Rdmbhd,u, Vdman, 
Vinoba, and Vithoba ; and among women, Bhd.girthi, Gangu, Eusha, 
Manubdii, and Saibdi. Theylook and speak like Deshasth Brdhmans. 
They live in houses of the better sort, one or two storeys high with 
walls of brick and tiled roofs. Their goods include boxes, swings, cots, 
cradles, chairs, benches, carpets, pillows, bedding, blankets, glass 
globes and wallshades and metal lamps, and cooking and drinliing 
vessels. They keep servants,, cattle, and parrots. Apparently with 
' truth they claim to be strict vegetarians. Other Brdhmans do not drink 
water which a Golak has touched Or eat food which he has cooked. 
A famiily of five spends 14s. to 18s. (Rs. 7-9) a month on food. 
They give gram ball or sweet cake feasts in honour of thread-girdings, 
marriages, and deaths which cost i^d. to 7|d. (3-5 as.) a guest. They 
dress like Deshasth Brdhinans, and the Govardhan women like 
Deshasth women do not deck their hair with flowers. Both men 
and women are untidy, but they are frugal and hardworking. They 
say they were formerly priests to Brahmans and other Hindus and had 
the right of marking the time at marriages and that their ancestors 
mortgaged the right to Deshasth BrAhmans. They are husbandmen, 
moneylenders, moneychangers, and astrologers, and some act as 
priests to Kunbis and other poor people. They earn 128. to £2 10s. 
(Rs. 6-25) a month. They consider themselves equal to other Mardtha 
Brd,hmans, but other Brahmans treat them as Shudras and do not 
eat or drink with them. Among them a house costs £20 to £40 
(Rs. 200 -400) to build and about 4s. (Rs.2) a month to rent. The 
value of their goo^s varies from £10 to £80 (Rs. 100-800), their 
servants' wages with food amount to Is. to 4s. (8 as. -Rs.2) a month. 
Clothing costs £2 to £3 10s. (Rs.20-35) a year; a birth 16s. to £1 
(Rs.8-10); a hair-clipping 2s. to 4s. (Rs. 1 - 2) ; a thread-girding £2 
10s.to£7 10s. (Rs.25-75)iaboy'smarriage£10to£20(Rs.l00-200); 
a girl's marriage £2 10s. to £5 (Rs.25-50); a girl's coming of age 
costs her husband's father £1 to £2 10s. (Rs.10-25), and her own 
father £1 -to £5 (Rs. 10-50) ; the pregnancy feast costs the boy's father 
KTs. to £1 (Rs. 5 - 10) ; and the death of a man £l to £1 4s. (Rs. 10 - 12), 
of a married woman £1 to £1 10s. (Rs.10-15), and of a widow 
12s. to £1 (Rs.6-10). They worship the ordinary Brahmanic gods 
and goddesses, especially BhavAni, Bhairoba, and Khandoba. They 
keep all Hindu fasts and feasts and call Deshasth Brahmans to 
officiate at their houses, but do not perform Vedic rites. They go 
on pilgrimage to Alandi, Benares, Jejuri, and Pandharpur. When a 
child is bom nimb Azadirachta indica leaves are hung at the front 
and back door/^ of the house, and on the fifth day in the lying-in room 
four Indian millet or jvdri stalks, tied together at the top and with 
the lower ends stretched apart, are set above the grindstone on which 
a stone lanip is kept, burning all night. A metal image of SatvAi 
or Mother Sixth is set ia a piece of dry cocoa-kernel and laid on the 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Bbahmans, 
GovARDMAya. 



R .<!in_9i 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



162 



DISTRICTS. 



tlhapter III. 

Fopnlation. 

BbahmakS. 
6o7A:itDSAirs. 



grindstone witli a small dougli lamp before it. The husband worships 
the goddess and offers her cooked food. Some elderly woman draws 
an image of Satvdi near each of the four feet of the mother's cot 
and sets a dough lamp in front of each figure. Near where the bath- 
water goes she draws on the ground a coal figure of Satvai, and set^ 
the fifth dough lamp in front of the figure and four more charcoal 
figures, each with its dough lamp, on either side of the front and 
back doors. Married women are asked to dine and the laps of the 
midwife and of other married women who keep awake the whole 
night are filled with grain. On the next day the stone lamp is cleared 
and fresh oil and wicks are put in it and lighted. Curds and cooked 
rice are offered to the lamp, and on the morning of the seventh day 
the whole is removed. On the eighth day the cot is washed and 
worshipped and inolasses are laid before it. Then bed clothes are 
■spread on the cot and the mother and chUd^ are laid on it. 
Govardhans gird their boys with the sacred thread before they are 
twelve years of age. They- set eight instead of six earthen jars at 
each of the four corners of the altar, and when the thread-girding 
verse is over throw over the boy's head grains of Indian millet or 
j'yari instead of rice. They raise a second altar about a span wide 
over the main altar and feast a Brahman with the rice cooked on • 
the sacrificial fire. They marry their girls before they are twelve 
and their boys before they are thirty. Unlike Deshasths the first 
ceremony in their marriages is the swpa/ri JcardyacM or betelnut- 
giving. The boy's father goes to the girl's house with relations 
friends and music, bearing a tray with a bodice, some wheat, a 
cocoanut, and beteinut and leaves^ At the girFs the boy's father 
is met by a party of her relations and friends. The boy's priest 
asks the girl's priest to bring the girl and she comes and sits 
near the boy's priest. The boy's father marks her brow with 
redppwder, and a woman of her family hands her the , bodice 
and -fills her lap with the wheat and cocoanut and beteinut 
which the boy's father has brought. The girl and her female' 
relations go inside of the house and the dates for the marriage 
are settled. The boy's father hands the priest packets of betel, 
gives money to beggars, and retires. Then along with the dishes 
of cooked food or rukhvat the girl's father goes and washes the boy's ; 
feet, marks his brow with redpowder, and presents him with a 
turban. They hold their marriages in the mdjghar or women's hall, 
and when the marriage verses are ended they throw grains of 
reddened millet over the boy and girl. After the ceremony is over a 
lighted lamp is set in a plate, and each guest waves a copper pice 
(I anna) over the boy's and girl's heads and throws it into the plate. 
At the inaiden-giving or kanydddn, instead of pouring water over the 
girl's hands, the girl's father pours water over the boy's mother's 
hands repeating the words: 'I7p to this time she was mine, now 
she is yours.' At the clothes-giving or sddi a bodice cloth is spread 
in a bamboo basket and over the cloth eleven lamps are set instead 
of either sixteen or eleven. The boy and girl are Seated on the 
shoulders either of their maternal uncles or of house-servants, and 
their bearers dance vigorously to the sound of music. When a , 
Govardhan girl comes of age her mother goes to the boy's house 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



163 



with a plate of sugar and betel and tells them that her daughter is 
blessed with a son, and hands round the sugq,r and the betel to the 
boy's family. When a Govardhan is on the point of death five 
Brahmans are each given a pound of .rice and a hali-anna {id.). The 
warm water that is poured over the body is heated in a brass instead 
of in an earthen pot, and the body is laid on the bier wrapped in 
the wet waistcloth instead of in a new dry cloth. They shave the 
chief mourner's head and mustache at the burning ground near 
the corpse's feet, and pay the barber 3d, (2 as.). The body and 
the bier are dipped- in water before they are laid on the pile, and 
when the body is nearly consumed they retire. The other details 
are the same as iJiose observed by Deshasths. They have a caste 
coancil and settle their social disputes at meetings of the castemeiu 
.They send their boys to school and are a steady class. 

Gujara't Brdhmans, numbering 282, are found in the city of 
Poena and in small numbers over the whole district. They seem 
to have come to the district within the last hundred years. The 
names in common use among men are, Baldbhdi, Bdlkrishna, 
ChimanMl, Chhaganlal, and Nandbhdi ; and among women, Amba, 
Bhagirathi, Lakshmi, and Sarasvati. Their chief divisions are 
Audich, Disdval, Kheddval, Modh, N^gar, Shrigod, and Shrimdli. 
They speak Grujard.ti at home and Mar^thi abroad. Many of them 
live in houses of "the better class, one or two storeys high, with brick 
walls and tiled roofs. They own cattle and employ house servants. 
Their staple food is rice, pulse, vegetables, wheat cakes, and 
clarified butter. They are strict vegetarians, and some of them 
take opium, drink hemp-flower or bhdng, and smoke tobacco. Though 
the practice is usual in Gujarat, they do not eat food cooked by a 
Deccan Brahman. The men wear a waistcloth, shirt, coat, turban, 
shouldercloth or v/parna, and shoes. The women plait their hair 
into braids and wear false hair but not flowers. They wear a petti- 
coat, the short-sleeved open-backed bodice or kdnchoU, and the robe 
or sari falling from the hips without passing the skirt back between 
the feet. As a class they are clean, honest, hardworking, and 
- thrifty, though hospitable and fond of show. They are bankers, 
moneylenders, cloth merchants, pearl merchants, clerks, and priests 
and cooks of Gujarat Vdnis. Some are landowners who do not till 
the land themselves but let it to tenants who pay them half the 
produce. On the whole they are a well-to-do class and free from 
debt, 

Gujarat Br^hmans are Smarts. They worship BdMji, Ganpati, 
Mahd,dev, Maruti, and Tulja Bhav4ui, and show special reverence to 
Bdlaji and Shankar. They make pilgrimages to Benares, Pandharpur, 
Rameshvar, and Tulj^pur. They observe all Deccan Brdhman 
holidays. They have a strong belief in witchcraft, soothsaying, and 
the power of evil spirits. Their women and children suffer from 
.spirit-seizures. If one of them is attacked charmed ashes or 
angdra is brought from an exorcist's or devarishi's and rubbed on 
the brow of the sick, or vows are made to the family gods and 
fulfilled after the patient recovers. Early marriages and -polygamy 
are allowed and widow marriage is forbidden. A short time before 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

'BrA.bmxss. 
govabdhans.. 



GujAR^Tia.. 



[Boml)ay Gazetteer, 



164 



DISTEICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

BbAhmaks. 
ovj abatis. 



a Gujarat Brahmaii woman's delivery a Mar^tha midwife or a 
woman of lier own caste is called in. She cuts the child's navel 
cord and putting it in a pitcher baries it near the mori or bath-watef 
pit in the lying-in room. The infant is bathed and the mother 
rubbed with cloths. For three days the babe is fed on water 
mixed with molasses, and on the fourth its mother begins to suckle 
it. The mother is generally fed on harira, that is wheat flour boiled 
in clarified batter mixed with molasses or sugar. On the fifth, the 
' mother worships in the name of Satti or the spirit of the sixth, a 
sword, an arrow, a blank paper, and a reed pen placed on a low 
stool in her own room, and offers them sira jiuris, that is wheat cakes 
stuffed with wheat flour boiled in clarified butter and mixed with 
sugar. A light is left burning during the whole night before them 
and the women of the house sing songs and watch till morning. 
Next day the saif^ worship is again performed and at the end the 
articles on the stool are thrown into a river. Ceremonial impurity 
continues for ten days. On the eleventh the mother is bathed, the 
house is cbwdunged, and her clothes are washed. At noon on the 
twelfth, friends and relations are feasted and at night female 
relations name and cradle the child. Young children are asked to 
attend the naming, and each is given a piece of cocoanut. The 
mother does not leave her house for about forty days after her 
delivery. At the end of the forty days, she is dressed in a new robe 
and bodibe, puts on new glass bangles, and is presented to a small 
company of female friends and relations who have been asked for 
the purpose. The child's hair is first cut at any time between the 
fifth month and the end of the fifth year. A lock -of hair is 
sometimes dedicated to the gods and kept till the marriage day, 
when the vow is fulfilled and the lock cut off. The child is seated 
on the lap of its maternal uncle or its father, and the hair is cut by 
the barber who is paid 6d. to 10s. (4 as.-Rs.5). The child is 
bathed, dressed in new clothes, and carried to the temple of Baldji, 
where it is made to bow to the image. 

Before a thread-girding the father of the boy asks an astrologer 
who fixes a lucky day. "When everything is ready, the wall in front 
of the house is marked with seven lines of clarified butter and 
worshipped in the name of the gotras or family stocks. A leaf of 
the paldsh Butea frondosa tree, covered with betelnuts and wheat, 
is set before the seven family stocks and worshipped. The head of 
the boy is shaved and he is seated on a low stool. The Brahman 
priest kindles the sacred fire and the boy throws on the fire clarified 
butter, sacred fuel sticks or samidha, and boiled rice, and is given a 
cloth to wear. Members of both sexes come, give the boy alms which 
are a perquisite of the priest, and the friends and relations of the 
houseowner are feasted. 

Boys are married between twelve and twenty-five, . and girls 
between eight and fifteen. The offer comes from the father of the 
girl. If the boy's father approves, betelnuts and leaves are handed 
among friends and relations and the news of the betrothal is spread. 
This is called the asking or mdgani. The turmeric-rubbing 
lasts one to eleven days. The girl is bathed and seated on a low 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



165 



stool ; five married women rub her body with turmeric paste and 
her feet with rice paste. One of the women carries her to the 
threshold, where they form a circle round her and sing songs. 
They do this every morning and evening, and retire after the usual 
betel-handing. The priest and some married women of the 
bride's family take the remains of the turmeric and rub it on 
the bridegroom singing songs. On the marriage day, in the 
centre of the booth, a square or chdvdi is made by fixing 
four bamboos in the ground and drawing over the tops of the 
bamboos a white cloth and placing earthen pots round the square. 
Shortly -before the marriage, the women of the bride's family go 
to the bridegroom's with a red pot full of water, and seating him 
on a low stool bathe him. The bride's father presents him with a 
shawl and a silk waistcloth and an upright line of sandal paste is 
drawn on his brow. Garlands are hung round his neck, nosegays 
are put in his hands, and a coronet of flowers is set on his 
head. He is made to take a rupee and a cocoanut, and is led in 
■procession with country music to the bride's. On reaching the 
bride's her mother comes with a dish in which are a lamp and two 
balls of rice flour mixed with turmeric powder, and waves the dish 
round the bridegroom, who throws the rupee into it and retires. 
He is led into the booth and seated. The bride is dressed in a white 
robe and a backless bodice with short sleeves, her hands are 
adorned with new ivory bangles, and she is seated close to the boy's 
right. The priest repeats texts, the bridegroom holds the bride 
by her right hand and they are man and wife. Threads known as 
marriage bracelets or hankans are passed through holes made in 
ghela fruits and fastened round the right wrists of the boy and girl. 
Then the daughter-giving or kanydddn is performed by the bride's 
parents giving a money-present to the bridegroom, and the bride- 
groom fastens a lucky necklace or mangalsutra round the bride's 
neck, and her toes are adorned with silver jodvis or toe-rings. Then 
the boy and girl sit in the square or chdvdi, and throw clarified 
butter into the sacred fire. They next walk round the sacred fire, 
the bride sometimes leading and at other times the bridegroom. 
Eice is boiled on the sacred fire and mixed with sugar and clarified 
butter. The bridegroom takes five handfuls of rice from the bride 
and she takes five handfuls from him, and the mothers of both take 
five handfuls from both. Then the bride's mother serves the couple 
with sugar and clarified butter and both eat freely. After the meal 
is over, before washing his hands, the bridegroom catches his mother- 
in-law's skirt and she makes him a presei),t. Friends of the bride and 
bridegroom give presents to both. The brows of the bride and of the 
bridegroom are marked with an upright line of sandal paste. They 
bow to the images of their gods in the house and play at odds and 
evens before the shrine. On the second or third day each unties 
the other's wedding bracelet or Tcdnkan, and the priest takes the 
bracelets away. The earthen pots that were arranged round the 
square or chavdi are distributed among the women of both families 
and their friends, and suits of clothes are presented to the bride- 
groom's party by the father of the bride. This is known as the 
robe-giving or sdda. The couple are then taken to the bridegroom's 



Chapter IIT. 

Fopnlation. 

Bbahmans. 
QuJAtUliS, 



[Bombay Gazetteer) 



166 



DISTEICTS. 



Qhapter III. 

Population. 

BbAhmans. 
GujarAtis. 



Jayazs. 



on horseback or in a carriage. On reaching the house they both bow 
before the house gods and friends and relations are feasted. 

No special ceremony is performed when a girl comes of age. 
When a girl is pregnant for the first time a sacred fire is kindled, 
and she is dressed in a new green robe, decked with ornaments, and 
taken in a palanquin to a temple, and her father feasts friends and 
relations on fried gram or tundi balls. 

On signs of death, gifts are made to Brahman priests according 
to the man's means. When he has breathed his last the body is bathed, 
dressed in an old waistcloth, and laid on a place washed with 
cowdung and covered with (Z^ar6/ia or bent grass. All the caste- , 
men are asked to attend the funeral. The chief mourner prepares 
three balls of wheat flour. The dead is laid on the bier and one of 
the three balls is laid beside him. The chief mourner, holding a 
firepotin his right hand, starts folio wed by the bearers. On the way 
the bearers stop and lay down the bier, leave a rice ball and one or two 
copper coins, and change places. When they reach the burning 
ground a pile is made ready,and the body is laid on the pile with a rice 
ball at its side; the chief mourner's head and face are shaved except 
the top-knot and eyebrows and the pile is set on fire. When it is nearly 
consumed the chief mourner sets an earthen jar filled with water on 
his shoulder and walks round the pile. Another man foUows and 
with a small stone makes a hole in the jar at each round, so that the 
water trickles out. At the end of the third round the chief mourner 
throws the jar over his shoulder and calls aloud beating his mouth ^ 
with his hand. The rest of the party bathe and return to the house % 
of mourning, where they sit for a moment, and then go to their homes. 
On the third day, the five cow-gifts, milk curds clarified butter dung 
and urine, are poured over the' ashes of the dead, and they are 
gathered and thrown into water. The mourning family reinains 
impure for ten days on each of which ceremonies are performed. On 
the eleventh day gifts are made to Br^hmans, and on the twelfth or 
on any day up to the fifteenth, a caste feast of fried gram balls is made. 
Gujardt Brahmans form a distinct and united community. Social 
disputes are settled at meetings of castemen, minor ofEences being 
punished by fines of 2s. to £10 (Rs. 1-100), the sum collected being 
spent in caste-feasts. They send their boys and girls to school and 
take to new pursuits. On the whole they are a rising class. 

Javals, who take their name from the village of Javalkhor in 
Eatndigiri and who are also known as Tthots or village revenue 
farmers, are returned as numbering eleven and as found only in 
Poena city. They are said to be the descendants of a shipwrecked 
crew who landed at Javalkhor half-waly between Harnai and Ddbhol 
in Ratn^giri. Their name is said to come from the yroTijaul a stopm. 
According to the common story the people of Burondi gave 
them leave to settle in Devakea, a hamlet near their village, and 
told them to supply flowers to Taleshvar, the village god; They 
afterwards became the medical attendants of the Phadke family, , 
who, under the Peshwa, held that part of the Konkan and who 
succeeded in having the Javals' claim to be Brdhmans acknowledged. 
All are laymen or grahasths and they have no subdivisions. Th>ey 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



167.. 



look like Kunbis, are dark, less caref ally clean than otker Brdhmans, 
and ab home speak a rough Kunbi-Mard,thi. They use double n 
and I instead of single n arid I, and have a curious way of pronouncing 
certain words. They eat fish but no other animal food and refrain 
from liquor. They dress like Deccan Brdhmans and in family 
matters copy the Chitpdvans. Other Brdhmans neither eat nor 
marry with them. They are frugal, orderly, and hardworking, 
earning their living as husbandmen and writers. None of them are 
hhikshuk or begging Brahmans. They worship the usual Brdhmanio 
gods and their family goddess is Kdlkadevi. They keep the usual 
fasts and feasts, and as none of them belong to the priestly class their 
household priests are Chitpdvans. They say that their customs are 
the same as those of Chifcpdvans. Social disputes are settled at 
meetings of castemen. They do not send their boys to school, are 
poor, and show no signs of rising. 

Kanoj Brahmans, who take their name from Kanoj in the North. 
West Provinces, number 700 and are found in the city of Poena and 
all over the district. They are said to have come into the ^ district 
within the last 150 years. They claim to belong to the Angiras, 
B^haspaty, Bbdiradv^.], Kdshyap, Kdttydyan, and Vd,shisth gotras or 
families. Persons of the same family stock and with the same pravar 
or founder cannot intermarry. The names in common use among 
men are Bdlprasdd, Bhavadiga, Devidin, Devrprasdd, Gopinath, 
Jaganndth, Ramnath, Shankardin, Shankarprasad and Shivaprasad; 
and among women, Jamuna, Janki, Lachhimi, and Sundar. Their 
common surnames are Agnihotri, Bachape, Bdl, Chanbe, Ohhaga, 
Dikshit, Hari, Kibe, Mishra, Pathak, Shakta, Tivari, Tribedi, 
and Vaikar. Persons having the same surnames cannot intermarry. 
. They speak the Brij language at home and Hindustani out of doors. 
They have two main divisions, Kans that is Kanoja Brdhmans, and 
Kubjas that is Sarvariya Brdhmans. The two divisions practically 
form one class as theyformerlyintermarrriedfreelyandstUlintermarry 
to some extent. They profess to look with suspicion on such of 
their castemen as come from Upper India, as they say many of them 
were forced to adopt Islam and are" reverts to Hinduism. They 
are stronger, stouter, and fairer than Deccan Brahmans. Their face- 
hair is long, thick, and black. Soldiers, besides the top-knot, wear 
a tuft of hair over each ear, and grow full beards. Others shave 
the head except the top-knot and shave the chin. They live in 
houses of the better class, one or two storeys high, with walls of brick 
or stone and tiled roofs. They are moderate eaters with a fondness 
for both sweet and sour dishes. They never boil their vegetables 
with salt, but leave the eater to add salt and chopped chillies when 
the dish is served. Their staple food includes rice, wheat cakes, 
vegetables, clarified butter, and sugar or molasses. A family of five 
spends £1 4s. to £1 16s. (Rs. 12 - 18) a month on food, and in feeding a 
hundred guests spend £2 10s. to £3 (Rs. 25 - 30). They-usually bathe 
and worship their family gods before they eat. The use of flesh 
and liquor is forbidden. The men usually wear a waistcloth in 
Deccan Brahman fashion, a coat, shouldercloth, turban, and shoes ; and 
the women wear a petticoat and robe and a backless bodice. They 
plait their hair in braids which they di'aw back and tie together at the 



Chapter III. 

Fopulation. 

BkAhmans. 
Javalb^ 



Kanojs, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



168 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BeIhmans. 



top of the heck. , They are fond of wearing flowers in their hair 
especially on holidays. Both men and women keep rich clothes in 
store for holiday use. Their ornaments are the same as those worn 
by Maratha Brahmans. Kanojs as a rule are clean, hardworking, 
and sober, easily provoked, hospitable, and frugal though vain and 
fond of show. At present their chief calling is sipdhigiri or 
service as soldiers and messengers. ' Some have taken ■ to hus- 
bandry, to moneychanging, and to the priesthood, acting as 
house-priests chiefly among the Pardeshi or Upper Indian section of 
the people. The priest trains his son from his boyhood, and the son 
begins to practise his calling after he is fifteen. As priests they are 
well employed and well- paid earning about £2 (Es, 20) a month. 
Their women do nothing but house work. Kanoj Brahmans rank, 
with Deccan Brahmans ; each professes to look down on the other. 
They are a religious people and their family gods are Bitar^jdevi 
of Upper India, Ganpati, MAta of Calcatta, and Shankar. Their 
priests belong to their own caste. They make pilgrimages to 
Allahabad, Benares, and Jaganndth. Their chief holidays are 
Basant Panchami or Simaga in March ; Dasara in September, and 
Divdli in October; they fast on EMdashis or lunar elevenths, 
Shivrdtra in January, Edma-navami in April, and Ookul-ashtami in 
August. They believe that the spirit of a man who dies with some 
unfulfilled wish wanders after death as a ghost and troubles the'- 
living. They belive in witchcraft and soothsaying, and their women , 
and children suffer from the attacks of spirits. Spirit-attacks are 
cured either by making vows to the family god for the recovery 
of the possessed, or by the help of an exoi'cist or dev.rishi. When a 
woman is in labour "a midwife is called in. She cuts the navel- 
cord and lays the mother and child on a cot. The child is. made to 
suck honey for the first three days, and its mother for twelve 
days is fed on boiled wheat flour mixed with butter and molasses. ' 
From the fourth day she begins to suckle the child. On the 
sixth day. the women of the house wash their- hands in a' mixture 
of water, turmeric, and redpowder, and press the palms five times 
against the walls of the lying-in room. In front of the palm 
marks a golden image of Satvai is set on a stone slab, with a. 
pomegranate, a sheet of blank paper, a reed pen, a piece of three-^^, 
edged prickly-pear or nivadung, and some grains of river sand, and is 
worshipped by the women of the house who lay before them cakes, 
curds, and flowers. They wave lamps round the image and remain,; 
awake during the whole night singing songs. The nncleanness caused ' 
by birth lasts ten days. On the eleventh the house is cov^dunged and 
the inother's clothes are washed. " On the twelfth the mother worships , 
the sun and shows it to the child. Some men of the caste are asked 
to dine and the female relations and friends of the house are called 
at night to name 'and cradle the child. Packets of sugar betel' 
leaves and nuts, are handed round and the naming is over. They 
spend on a birth 16s. to £1 (Rs.8-10). Between the beginning of a 
child's sixth month and the end of its second year its hair is cut. 
The child is seated on its mother's lap and its hair is cut by the. 
barber who is paid 3d! (2 as.). The child is bathed and each 
of its mother's female relations and friends waves a copper coin 



Deocan.] 



POONA. 



169 



roand its head and drops the coin into a dish and the sum so collected 
goes to the barber. A hair-cutting costs 8s. to 1 Os . (Rs. 4 - 5) . When 
a Kanoj Brahman boy is to be girt with the sacred thread, the father 
of the boy asks an astrologer to choose a lucky day and pays him 
Sd. (2 as.). A porch is built in front of the house and friends and 
relations are asked to come. Five married women are called, and, 
at a lucky hour, are made to grind wheat. The houseowner gives 
them turmeric and redpowder and fills their laps with rice. When 
these preparations have been made they bring from the potter's an 
earthen hearth or ckula and place a jar or dera on the health, plaster 
the jar with cowdung^ and stick wheat grains round it. The priest 
repeats verses and drops rice grains over the jar ; the women sing 
songs and cover the jar with an earthen lid; A second jar is 
brought, filled with water and plastered with cowdung, wheat grains 
are stuck round it, and it is set near the lucky pole or muhurta 
medh in the porch on a small heap of earth strewed with wheat. In 
a day or two the wheat sprouts and these sprouts are said to be 
the guardian or devak. The boy is seated on a low stool near the 
lucky pole set on an altar or lahule which is surrounded by lines of 
quartz powder or rdngoli. The women of the house sing songs and 
rub the boy with turmeric paste ; each waves a copper coin round him 
and drops it into a dish where it is kept for the barber. The 
turmeric-rubbing lasts two or three days, the boy being rubbed each 
day morning and evening. On the thread-girding day the boy's 
head is shaved. He is bathed and for the last time eats from his 
mother's plate sitting on her lap. His head is shaved after the dinner 
is over and he is again bathed. The boy is stripped naked, and he 
and his father are made to stand face to face on low stools placed 
in a quartz square with a piece of cloth drawn between them. The 
priest repeats texts, the guests throw, red-tinted rice on the boy, 
the curtain is drawn aside, and the priest hands the boy a sacred 
thread or jdnava and a loincloth. The father sets the boy on 
his lap and whispers in his right ear the sacred Gd.yatri verse. 
The priest kindles a sacred fire and pours clarified butter over it. 
The boy is now a Brahmachdri or begging-Brdhman and the guests 
make him presents, a coat, a cap, a waistcloth, or a pair of wooden 
sandals. The Br^hmans are feasted and the women sing songs. 
Next day the priest throws rice on the guardian earthen pot. Friends 
and relations are fed on wheat-cakes or pv/risy and boiled rice milk 
and sugar called khir, and to each a money present is made. 

Boys are married between fifteen and thirty, and girls between five 
and fifteen. The men of the caste meet and propose an alliance 
between two families, who, in order not to displease their caste- 
fellows, agree. Though they agree they are not bound to go on 
with the wedding at once. During the year before the wedding, the 
girl's father visits the boy with music and kinspeople, worships 
him with sandal and flowers, and presents him with a turban whose 
end is marked with circles of turmeric and redpowder. Betelnut 
and leaves are handed, and the girl's father places a cocoanut 
in the boy's hands and withdraws. On a lucky day the boy's 
father presents the girl with silver anklets, and instals a guardian 
or devak as at a thread-girding. Two or three days after the 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

BkIbmans. 
Kanojs. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



170 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

'BuisciiAsa, 
Kajtojs, 



guardians have been set in her house, the women of her family rub 
the girl ■with turmeric powder, and some married women with music 
take what is left to the boy's and are given a right-hand gold bracelet 
called pdtali and a bodice. The bride is dressed in the clothes and 
her lap is filled with rice and a cocoanut. Next day the boy is 
dressed in a fine suit of clothes and with a peacock-feather coronet 
on his brow is seated on horseback and is led with music in 
procession to the girl's house. On reaching the marriage porch 
betel is handed among the guests, and the bridegroom steps into 
the booth, and is carried to a seat round which lines of quartz have 
been traced. The girl is led out of the house and is made to 
stand in front of the bridegroom on a low stopl, behind a curtain 
or antarpat. The priest repeats marriage texts and throws rice 
grains over the couple. The curtain is drawn on one side and 
the couple are man and wife. The priest kindles the sacred fire^ and 
the girl and boy throw into the fixe clarified butter and parched 
rice. They walk six times round the fire, the bride taking the lead 
and the bridegroom following. At the end" of the si^^th turn 
the bride goes into the house and with much weeping and lamenting 
takes leave of her home. When she again comes out her father 
mentions his own and the bridegroom's family stock or gotra and 
birth-place, and, after asking leave of the guests, the bridegroom takes 
the seventh turn round the fire, followed by the bride, and the 
marriage is complete. A silken thread is passed through an iron 
ring and fastened to the boy's right hand, and another to the bride's 
left hand, and the skirts of their garments are knotted together. 
They go and bow before the girl's family gods and ,the ceremonies 
end with a feast in which the bride and bridegroom join. The 
bridegroom spends a day or two at the bride's. When these -days 
are over the bride and bridegroom throw yellow and red rice over 
the marriage guardian or devak and are sent on horseback to the 
bridegroom's. On reaching the house a wood or iron sJier measure 
filled with rice is set on the threshold and the bride overturns it 
with her foot as she enters the house. They enter the house and 
bow before the boy's family gods. The guests are feasted and the 
wedding festivities are over. 

When a girl comes of age she is unclean for four days. On the 
sisth day she and her husband are bathed together and the priest 
kindles a sacred fire and pours clarified butter over it. The girl's 
lap is filled with a cocoanut, dates, almonds, and sweetmeats; 
bent grass is pounded and her, husband pours some drops of the 
juice down her right nostril. Friends and relations are feasted on 
wheat cakes and curds, and, at any time after this, the girl may go 
and live with her husband as his wife. On some lucky day during 
the seventh month of her first pregnancy the woman is dressed in a 
new robe and bodice and her female relations meet at her house and 
sing songs. 

When the sick is beyond hope of recovery, he is made to give 
grain and \\d. to 3d, (1-2 as.) in cash to the Brd.hman family 
priest and is laid on a white blanket. When he has breathed 
his last the body is bathed in cold water and laid on a bier. 
When the body is fastened on the bier the chief mourner starts 



Seccan.] 



POONA. 



171 



carrying a firepot by a string, and the bearers follow. On their 
way they set down the bier, change places, and pick np a stone which 
is called asJi/ma or spirit. On reaching the burning ground the 
chief mourner has his head and face shaved except the top-knot 
and eyebrows, and the dead is laid on a pile and biorned. When the 
body is nearly consumed the chief mourner lifts on his shoulders 
an earthen pot full of water. When he stands a man beside him 
makes a hole in the pot with the life-stone which was picked up at the 
place where the body was rested. The chief mourner makes three 
rounds and at each round a fresh hole is made. At the end of the 
third round he throws the jar over his head, beats his mouth with 
his hand, and calls aloud. The funeral party bathe^ go to the house 
of the deceased where cow's urine is poured over their hands, 
and return to their homes. On the third day they bathe, gather the 
ashes of the dead, and throw them into water. Three dough balls 
or fmds are made, worshipped, and wheat cakes and curds are laid 
before them. On the tenth, ten dough balls are made at the burning 
ground, nine are thrown into the river and the tenth is offered to, 
cows. The chief mourner bathes and returns home. The ceremonial 
nncleanness caused by a death lasts^ ten days. On the eleventh 
the mourners put on new sacred threads and a memorial or shrddha 
is performed in the name of the dead. On the twelfth sapindis 
or balls of rice are offered to the dead, and, on the thirteenth, 
friends and relations are asked to dine at the house of mourning, 
when they present the chief mourner with a turban. Every year 
in the month of 8h/rdvan or August a memorial or shrdddha is per- 
formed on the day of the month corresponding to the deceased's 
death-day, and, on AH Soul's Day or MaJidlaya Paksha in the dark 
half of Bhddrapad or September, an offering is made in his name. 
The Kanoj Brdhmans have a council and settle social disputes at 
caste-meetings. They send their boys to school, readily take to 
new pursuits, and are Hkely to prosper. 

Karha'da's, or people of Karhdd in Satara, are returned as 
numbering 1576 and as found all over the district. They probably 
represent one of the early Brdhman settlers who made his abode at 
the sacred meeting of the Krishna and Koyna rivers, about fifteen 
miles south of Sdtdra. According to the Sahyd,dri Kiand the 
Karhad^s are descended from asses' or camels' bones which a 
magician formed into a man and endowed with life. This story is 
apparently a play on the words kar an ass and hdd a bone. They 
say that their ancestors lived in the Konkan and came to Poena to 
earn a living about a hundred and fifty years ago. They have no 
subdivisions and marry among themselves, and occasionally with 
Deshasths and Konkanasths. Their family stocks are the same as 
those of the Ohitpdvans ; the chief of them are Atri, Jamadagni, 
Kashyapa, Kutsa, and Naidhava. Families belonging to the same 
stock do not intermarry. Their surnames are Dhavle, Gune, Gurjar, 
Kdkirde, Karmarkar, Kibe, Shdhane, and Shevle; sameness of 
surname is no bar to marriage. The names in common use among 
men are, Bdba, Dajiba, Hari, Nilkanth, and T^tya ; and among 
women, Anandi, Gopika, JAnki, and Saguna. They look like 



Chapter III. 
Fopnlatiou, 

Kanojs. 



KakbAbAs. 



[Bombay Gaietteer> 



172 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

BbAhmaks. 
KabsUdAs. 



KJ-sras. 



CMtpd,vans but are somewliat darker, and none of them have blue 
or gray eyes. They speak like Chitpavans. Their houses are of 
the better sort one or two storeys high mth brick walls and tiled 
roofsl- The furniture includes cots, bedding, chairs, tables^ 
benches; boxes, carpets, picture-frames, glass hanging lamps, and 
metal drinking and cooking vessels. They keep servants, cattle, 
and parrots. They are vegetarians, their staple food being rice, split 
pulse, and vegetables. A family of five spends on food £1 10s. to 
£1 18s. (Ks.15-19) a month; and their feasts of sweet cakes' and 
gram balls cost ^\d. to 7|c?. (3-5 as.) a head. They dress like 
Chitpdvans, and their women wear false hair and deck their heads 
with flowers. They are clean, neat, hospitable, and orderly. They 
are writers in Government offices, husbandmen, moneychangers, 
astrologers, and beggars, earning £1 to £5 (Es. 10-50) a month. 
Their houses cost £50 to £200 (Rs. 500-2000) to build, and 2s. to 10s. 
(Rs. 1 - 5) a month to rent, A servant's wages are 4s. to 6s. 
(Rs. 2-3) a month with food; and the feed of a cow or a she- 
buffaloe costs 16s. to 18s. (Rs. 8-9) a month. Their clothes cost 
£2 10s. to £8 (Rs, 25-30) a year, and their furniture is worth 
£10 to £1000 (Rs. 100-10,000). A birth costs 16s. to £1 (Rs. 8-10); 
a hair-clipping 14s. to 18s. (Rs. 7-9) j a thread ceremony £5 to 
£10 (Rs. 50-100) J a boy's marriage £10 to .£50 (Rs. 100-500) ; a 
girl's marriage £10 to £30 (Rs. 100-300) j a girl's coming of age' 
£5 (Rs. 50) j a pregnancy feSst £2 10s. (Rs. 25) ; and death £7 
10s. (Rs. 75). They are Rigvedis and their family goddesses are 
Vijayadurga and Aryadurga in Ratnagiri and Mahdlakshmi in 
Kolh^pur. Their family priests belong to their own 6aste. They 
keep the regular Brahmanic fasts and feasts and their chief 
Teacher or guru is the Shankardchdrya of Shringeri in Maisur. 
They hold the nine nights or navardtra in September- October very 
sacred. Their customs are the same as those of Chitpavans. Under 
the early^Peshwds Karhd,da Br^hmans are said to have offered 
human sacrifices to their house goddess Mahd,lakshmi. The victim 
was generally a stranger, but the most pleasing victim was said to 
be a son-in-law. The death was caused by cutting the victim's throat 
or by poisoning him.^ The practice was severely punished by the 
third Peshwa Bdldji Bajirao (1740-1761). No cases are known to 
have occurred for many years. Karhd,dds with Deshasths, 
Konkanasths, and Devrukhes, form the local Brdhman community 
and settle social disputes at meetings of the men of all four classes. 
They send their boys to school and are well-to-do. 

Ea'sth Brdhmans, numbering 178, are found in Bhimthadi, 
Junnar, Mdval; and Poena. ' They claim descent from Kdttyayani, 
the eldest among the fifteen sons of the sage Tddnavalkya by his 
wife Kdttya, and call themselves Kattydyani Sakhi Brahmans, that is 
Brahmans of the Kattyd.yan branch: They saythatthey formerly dwelt 
in N5sik and Khdndesh and came to Poena within the last hundred 
and fifty years. They have no subdivisions. The commonest names 



^ Sir John Malcolm, 1799. Transactions Literary Society Bombay (New Edition),' 
m. 93- 95 : compare, under tlie name Carwarrees, the account by Sir James 
Mackintosh (1811) Life, U. 83. - 



Deocan.] 



POONA. 



173 



among men are, Appa, Bapu, GramMji, Govind, and Yadneshvar ; 
and among women, Cliandrabliaga, Ganga, Jdnki, and Yamuna. 
Their surnames are N^gndth, Pandit, Pathak, and Vaidya; per- 
sons having the same surnames capnot intermarry. Their family 
stocks are Bhdradvaj with three divisions, Angiras, Bdrhaspatya, 
and Bhdradvaj ; Kaushik with three divisions, Aghamarshan, 
Kanshik, and Vishvdmitra ; Kashyapa with three divisions, Avatsar, 
KAshyapa, and Naidhrivi; K^ttyayan with three divisions, 
Kattydyan, Kilak, and Vishvamitra ; Vdshishth with three divisions, 
Parashar, Shakti, and Vashishth ; and Vatsa with five divisions, 
Apnavan, Bhd,rgava, Chavana, Jdmadagni, and Vatsa, Persona 
having the same family stock and the same founder or pravar 
cannot intermarry. Their home tongue is Mardthi Kasths are like 
Deshasth Brdhmans in appearance. As rule they are dark, strong, 
and well-made. Except the top-knot, the men shave the head-hair 
which is long and black and the face-hair except the mustache 
and eyebrows. Their home tongue is a corrupt Marathi and they live 
in clean and neat middle-class houses, costing to build £50 to £150 
(Rs. 500-1500), two storeys high, with walls of stone or brick and 
tiledroof. The furniture, which is worth £15 to £100 (Us. 150-1000), 
includes cots, boxes, tables, chairs, glass lamps, mirrors, mixed wool 
and cotton ruga, carpets, blankets, beds, and shawls. They employ 
house servants and own cattle. They are moderate eaters and 
good cooks, and are fond of sweet dishes. Their staple food ia 
rice, pulse, millet bread, and whey-curry or dmti. A family of 
five spends £1 4s. to £1 10s, (Es. 12-15) a month on food. . They 
bathe regularly, say twilight prayers or scmdya, and lay before 
their family gods ofEerings of flowers, sandal paste, frankincense, and 
food. They are in theory strict vegetarians and the use of animal 
food and liquor ia forbidden on pain of loss of caste. They 
amoke hemp and tobacco. They dress like Deshasth Brdhmans and 
have a store of clothes for holiday wear. They are clean, neat, 
hardworking, and mild, often showy and hospitable. Their 
hereditary calling is moneychanging and priestship, by which they 
earn £2 to £5 (Es. 20 - 50) a month. Some are shopkeepers and 
some are in Government service. "Women mind the house and never 
help the men in their work. As a class they are well-to-do. They 
rank themselves with Mardtha Brdhmans, but Deshasths look down 
on Kasths and never eat with them. Their women mind the house 
and their children go to school. The men are always busy and do 
not close their shops on any day of the year. 

Kdsths are a reHgipus people. Their family gods are Bhavdni 
of Tulajpur, Dattdtraya, Khandoba of Ambadgdm near Paithan, 
Lakshmi, Magdpur, Saptashriagi, and Vyankatesh, Their family 
priest belongs to their own caste and officiates at the sixteen 
sacraments or swnskdrs. They claim to belong to the Shdkt sect, and 
treat their family gods with special reverence. Some worship Mahddev 
and make pilgrimages to Alandi, Benares, Ndsik, Pandharpur, and 
Eameshvar. They keep the same holidays as Deshasth Brdhmaas, 
and' fast on EkddasMs or lunar elevenths, Shivardtra in February - 
March, Bdm-na/vami in April, and Jcmmdshtami in August. They 
believe in witchcraft, soothsaying, and in the power of spirits. They 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

BBAHkANS, 
KjiSTBS, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



174 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Fopnlation. 

BbAemaks. 
KlaiBS. 



MARwJiRia. 



perform the sixteen sacraments and their customs do not differ 
from those of Deshasths. . They form a separate community but 
have little social organization- and seldom meet to settle disputes. 
In theory a man who eats flesh should humble himself before their 
high priest Shankardcharya and take the five cow-gifts ; in 
practise breaches of caste rules are common and penance is rare. 
They send their boys to school and college till they are twenty-five, 
and their girls to school till they are twelve. They are a pushing 
class well-to-do and ready to take to new pursuits. 

Ma'rwa'r Brdhmans are returned as numbering 200 and as found 
over the whole district except in Junnar. They say they are called 
ChhanyatiBr^hmans, because they are sprung from sixRishis or seers, 
Dadhichya, Gautam, Khande, Pardshar, and Shringij the name 
of the sixth they do not know. Those of them who are sprung 
from Dadhichya Rishi are called Dadhyavas ; those from Gautam 
Gujar-Gauds ; those from Khande* Khandelvals j those from Pdrasar 
Pdriksj those from Shringi Shikhvals; and those from the nameless 
sixth Sdrasvats. All eat together, and, though they do not intermarry, 
in appearance, speech, religion, and customs they form one class. 
The different divisions seem to have come into, the district^ 
if, not at the same time, at least from the same parts of India 
and under similar circumstances, and they do not differ in 
calling, or in condition. They say that they came into the district 
from Jodhpur in M.&xw^v during the Peshwas' supremacy. Their 
Ved is the Yajurved, their shdhha or branch the Madhydnjan, their 
family stocks ShyAndil and V^chhas, and their surnames Joshi, Soti, 
Twadi, and Upadhe. Families of the same surname and stock 
cannot intermarry. The men wear the mustache, whiskers, and beard, 
and besides the ordinary top-knot a tuft of hair over each ear. Their 
home tongue is Mdrwari and they live in hired houses paying Is. 
to 4s. (8 as, - Rs. 2) rent a month. They generally own vessels, 
bedding, carpets, and boxes. They are vegetarians and of vegetables 
eschew, onions and garlic. Their staple food is wheat, split pulse, 
butter, and sometimes vegetables. Their feasts cost 6d. to Is. 
(4-8 as.) a head. They smoke tobacco, hemp, and opium, and drink a 
preparation of hemp or sahji, but neither country nor foreign liquor. 
The men wear the small tightly rolled two-colonred Marwariiurban, . 
a long coat, a waistcloth and shoes, and the women a petticoat or 
ghdga/ra, and an open-backed bodice or MchoU. They are thrifty and 
orderly, but dirty and grasping. They deal in cloth and grain, act 
as cooks and priests, and live on the alms of Marwar Vdnis. They 
worship the usual Brahmanic.gods and goddesses, but their favourite 
god is Bdlaji. They say that their fasts and feasts are the same as 
those of Maratha Brahmans. Their priests are men of their own 
class. They make pilgrimages to Benares, Dwd,rka, and Jagannath, 
and beKeve in sorcery, witchcraft, soothsaying, omens, lucky and 
unlucky days, and oracles. They keep the fifth day after the birth 
of a child and generally go ta their native country for thread- 
girdings and marriages. They have no headman and settle social 
disputes at meetings of the castemen. They send their boys to 
school and are a steady class. 



Deecan.] 



POONA. 



175 



Shenvis, a name of doubtful meaning, who also call themselves 
Sarasvata and Gaud Brahmans, are returned as numbering 445 
and as found aU over the district, except in Ind^pur.^ Except a few 
who are Shenvis proper they belong to the subdivision which takes 
its name from the village of Bh^ldval in the Rdj^pur sub-division of 
Eatnagiri. Of the other subdivisions of the caste the Pednekars are 
called after the Goa village of Pedne ; the Bdrdeskars after the Goa 
district of Bardesh ; the Sd,shtikars after the Goa district of Sdshti j 
and the Kuddldeshkars from Knddl in Savantvadi These sub- 
divisions sometimes eat together but do not intermarry.^ They claim 
to be a branch of the Sarasvat Panch Gaud Brdhmans and are suppos- 
ed to have come from Hindustan or Bengal. Their original Konkan 
settlement was Gomanchal the modern Goa. They have fourteen 
gotras or stocks, the names of some of which are Dhananjaya Vd,sishth, 
Kaundinya, Bharadvdj, Kdshyap, and Vatsa* Families bearing the 
same stock-name cannot intermarry. Their commonest surnames 
are, Aras, Bdndvalikar, Gharmode, Haldavnekar, K^mat, Eidnvinde, 
Kdvalkar, Kinre, Edpkar, S^kulkar, Shevade, Tendolkar,and Vdghle. 
Unless, which is seldom the case, they are of the same stock-name 
families bearing the same surname may intermarry. The names 
in common use among men are, Bhavdni, Ndrdyan, Pdndurang, 
Rambhau, Shantdram, and Vishvanath ; and among womqn, Kama, 
Sarasvati, and VarAnasi. The men are generally well made, 
middle-sized, and dark; and the women rather taller and fairer with 
regular features. They speak Mardthi like other high caste Hindusi 
but at home. with many South Konkan peculiarities. They live in 
houses of the better sort, one or two storeys high with walls of brick 
and tiled roofs. Their house goods include boxes, cots, tables, 
chairs, benches, carpets, bedding, picture frames, glass lamps, metal 
pots and pans, and earthen jars for storing grain. They keep 
servants and have cattle and are fond of pungent dishes. They feat 
fish and mutton, but their staple food is rxce, pulse, and vegetables. 
A family of five spends on food £1 to £5 (Bs. 10 - 50) a month. 
Caste-dinners are given at thread-girdings, marriages, and deaths, 
and the guests are asked the day before the dinner by one or more 
members of the host's household. Invitations are confined to the 
host's caste. Guesta belonging to other castes either dine after the 
host's castemen have dined or take the food home. These dinners 
are generally attended either by one member of each family asked 
or by aU the members, the number depending on the form of invitation. 
The host engages Brahman cooks who with the help of the host's 
family and relations both cook and serve the food. As a rule these 
caste-dinners are held during the day between ten and two. The 

1 The origin of the name Shenvi is disputed. According to one account it ia 
ghdhdnav or ninety-six from the number of the families of the original settlers. 
According to a second account it is send an army, because many Shenvis were 
warriors. A third derives it from sMhdnbhog the Kandrese term for village 
accountant. Of the three derivations the last seems to find most favour with the 
well-informed. 

2 This is due to social exclusiveness rather than to any difference of origin or 
custom. The late Dr. BhAu D&fi, who was himself a Shenvi, gave a dinner in 
Bombay to which men of all the subdivisions came. Since his death the old distinc- 
tion has revived. 



Chapter III. 
Population, 

BsiHMAIia. 

Sbexyis. 



[Boml>ay Gaietteer, 



176 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Fopiilation. 

BrIhmaks. 
Sbjswvib. 



men and women dine in separate rooms^ the children and the grown 

up daughters with their mothers. Pood is served either on metal 

or on leaf plates, and the guests wear silk waistcloths and robes. 

When dinner is over they wash their hands and mouths, and, 

putting on their upper garments, are served with betel and return 

to their homes. A caste-dinner costs 3d. to Is. ,(3-8 as.) a guest. 

A Shenvi man^s ordinary indoor dress is a waistcloth ; out of doors 

it is a waistcloth, a coat, a waistcoat, a loosely rolled headscarf or a 

Mard,tha Brahman turban, and shoes. The women wear the full 

Mar^tha robe and a short-sleeved bodice and on festive occasions 

throw a scarf over the head. The ceremonial dress of both men and 

women is the same as their ordinary dress only it is more costly. 

The Shenvis are hospitable and intelligent, but untidy and fond of 

show. They are husbandmen, religious beggars, moneychangers/^ 

and Government servants. To build a' house costs £50 to £150 

(Rs. 500-1500) and to hire a house 4s. to £1 (Rs. 2-10) a month, 

and their household goods are worth £10 to £200 (Rs, 100-2000). 

Servants' monthly wages cost 4s. to 8s. (Rs. 2-4) with food; the 

keep of a cow or she-buffaloe 4s. to 10s. (Rs. 2-5), and of a horse 

£1 to £1 10s. (Rs. 10-15). The yearly cost of clothes is £3 to £6 

(Rs. 30-60); a birth costs 4s. to 10s. (Rs. 2-5) ; a hair-clipping 6s. to 

10s. (Rs. 3-5); a thread-girding £2 10s, to £10 (Rs.25-100); a boy's 

marriage £10 to £100 (Rs. 100-1000), and a girl's marriage £20 to 

£30 (Rs. 200-300) ; a girl's coming of age £2 to £5 (Rs. 20-50) ; 

a pregnancy feast about £2 10s. (Rs. 25) ; and a death £1 to 

£4 (Rs. 10-40). In religion Shenvis proper, Ehdlavalkars, 

Kuddldeshkars, and Pednekars are Smarts that is their creed is 

that Grod and the soul are one and that the worship of all the gods . 

is equally effective. They generally wear the Smdrt brow-mark, a 

crescent of white sandal duSt. Among the other subdivisions the 

Sashtikars and Bdrdeshkars are Bhagvats whose creed is that the 

Boul and the universe are distinct and that the proper object of 

worship is Vishnu. They wear one black line between two upright 

white-clay brow lines; The family gods of the Shenvis proper are 

Mangesh, Shdntddurga, and Mahdlakshmi, whose shrines are within 

Goa limits ; the shrine of Mangesh, who is a local Mahddev, is in a 

village of the same name, and the shrine of Shantadurga his spouse 

is in the village of Kavle. Bdrdeshkars, Kuddldeshkars, and 

Pednekars worship the gods of the village in which they happen to 

live. The family gods of the Sashtikars are K^makshi, MAlnd,th, 

Ramndth, Ravalnath, and Navadurga. Their priests are the Karhada, 

Deshasth, and Konkanasth Brahmans who officiate at their houses, 

and in some cases men of their own class. On the birth of the 

first. male child sugar is handed among friends and relations. 

Either on the fifth or the sixth day after a birth the goddess Satvdi 

is worshipped and a dinner is given to near relations. Among the 

neighbours young mothers and pregnant women leave their houses 

and for eight days live elsewhere. On the twelfth day the child is 

named, the name being chosen by an elderly woman of the lather's 

house, and on the same day a cocoanut and grains of rice are laid in 

the mother's lap. On the thirteenth day the young mother touches 

a well, friends and relations present the child with Clothes, and the 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



177 



mother becomes pure. Boys are girt with the sacred thread at the 
age of eight or at ten if the father is poor. An earthen altar is 
built in a booth or porch in front of the house. On the day before 
the ceremony a party of the host's kinsmen with the family priest 
and musicians starts to call fi'iends, relations, and castefellows. 
On reaching a house the family priest asks for the head of 
the house and lays in his hand a few red-coloured rice grains 
and asks him to come the next day to a thread-girding at the 
host's house. Relations and friends who live at a distance are 
invited by cards which are sprinkled with wet saffron. Next 
morning the boy and his mother bathe and for the last time dine 
from the same plate. Then the priests and guests arrive and the 
reli^ous ceremony is performed, the father teaching the boy the 
sacred Gd,yatri verse. When this is over, if the host is well-to-do, 
dancing-girls dance and the guests are dismissed with rosewater 
and betel. An evening or two after comes the begging or 
hhikshdval when the mother of the boy with a few other women of 
the family goes to some temple close by. She is met by women 
relations and friends and is escorted with music back to her house. 
On arriving each of the women guests is offered a cocoanut with 
betelnut and leaves. On, the evening of the eighth day the boy is 
dressed in a turban^ coat, and silk waistcloth, and accompanied by 
kinspeople, friends, and musicians is taken on horseback to a temple 
close by his house. The guests sit with the boy in their midst, and 
his maternal uncle comes to him and advises him to give up the idea 
of leading the life of a recluse and offers to give him his daughter 
in marriage. After some feigned hesitation the boy agrees, and he 
and his friends return to his house. When his daughter is about 
eight years old a Shenvi makes inquiries among his castefellows to 
find her a husband. When a suitable match is found the boy's 
family priest generally compares his horoscope with the girl's, and, 
if the horoscopes agree, the girl's- father, except when the boy is a 
widower, pays the boy's father a sum of money. Both families lay 
in stores of grain and pulse and buy ornaments. A marriage porch 
is built at both houses, and dinners are given to kinspeople and 
castepeople, invitations being issued with the same formalities as for 
a thread-girding. On the marriage morning the girl's father goes 
to the boy's house, or to his lodgings if he has come from a distance, 
worships him, and presents him with a turban and waistcloth, and 
his sister with a robe and bodice. This ceremony is known as the 
boundary-worship or simant-pujan, a name which shows that the 
ceremony used to be performed when the boy crossed the border of 
the girl's village. Immediately after the girl's father leaves, the 
boy's father, with relations friends and musicians, goes to the girl's 
house and formally asks her father to give his daughter in marriage 
to his son. This ceremony is called vdgnischaya or .the troth- 
phghting. The fathers, according to their means, exchange turbans 
or cocoanuts. The boy's father presents the girl with ornaments, 
a -robe, and a bodice, and her sister with a robe and bodice or a 
bodice only according to his means. The boy's mother lays rice 
and cocoanuts in the girl's lap, betel is handed, and the boy's 
friends return home. In the afternoon of the marriage day a party 
B 310—23 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

BkAhmans. 
Sbsnvis. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



178 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

BbAhhans. 
Sbenvis. 



of women starts for the girl's house taking a robe, turmeric mixed 
with cocoanut oil, ornaments^ and sweetmeats. This is called the 
robe and oil or telsada procession. When they reach the girl's 
house the women of her family ar6 called, and in their presence the 
girl is dressed in the robe,' decked with the ornaments, and rice and 
a cocoanut are laid in her lap as many times over as there are 
women present, and sweetmeats are handed. After reaching horn?' 
they start a second time with a present of flowers and a robe. This, 
which is known as the flower and robe or phuhdda ceremony, is the 
same as the last except that flowers take the place of the turmeric 
and oil. After this a procession of men and women accompanied 
by musicians starts for the girl's house to- present refreshments or 
'rukhvat. On reaching the house sweetmeats are given to the boy 
and his companions and the party withdraws. When the rukhvat 
or boy's feast is over, he is dressed in rich clothes, a marriage 
ornament is bound round his turban, and, after bowing before 
his house gods and his elders, he is taken to the bride's either in 
a palanquin or on horseback. In front of him march musicians 
and on either side of him walks a woman, one holding a lighted 
lamp and the other a copper pot filled with water on the top of 
which float mango leaves and a cocoanut. Every now and then 
the procession stops and fireworks are let ofi". When the procession 
reaches the girl's house, her father and mother come out dressed 
in silk, receive the boy, and lead him into the hoiise. His feet 
are washed by his father-in-law and a married woman waves a 
lighted lamp before him. Then the girl's father gives hini a 
cocoanut, and leads him to a seat in the marriage hall where the 
men guests are met. The girl who has been ofEering prayers to 
the goddess Gauri, is dressed in a robe and bodice of coarse yellow 
cloth called ashtaputri. After certain religious ceremonies are 
performed by the girl's father and the boy, the girl is brought by 
her maternal uncle and placed by the side of her parents, a sheet 
or antarpdt is held between the boy and the girl, the priest repeats 
verses, and the guests drop red rice over the heads of the boy and 
girl. At the lucky moment the cloth is snatched to one side, the 
boy and girl throw garlands round each other's necks, and the 
musicians beat their drums. Nosegays and betel are handed and 
the guests go home with betel packets. Shortly after the boy's 
mother, who returns to her house as soon as the marriage hour is 
over, and her relations, with cloths spread for them to walk on, are 
brought to the girl's house to present her with ornaments- and 
clothes. Then follow the sacred fire or Idjdho-m and the seven steps 
or saptapadi which are the same as among Mardthi Brdhmans. On 
the same or on the next day, a ceremony called sddeoT chauthddn 
or the last marriage robe-giving is performed when cocoanuts are 
taken from the boy's father. and distributed among the guests. 
Several games are played by the boy and the girl, the women and 
grown girls siding with the girl and the youths with the boy. A 
plate filled with coloured water is set between the boy and girl and; 
they splash the water over each other. One of them hides a betelnut 
or other small article and the other tries to find it, or one of them 
holds in his teeth a roll of betel-leaf or a bit of cocoa-kernel and 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



179 



the other tries to bite it o£E, or they play at odds and evens. In the 
evening the girl's parents give a grand dinner to the boy's friends. 
The guests us§d not to come to this dinner at the proper time and 
used to ask for dishes that were not ready or which were difficult to 
get ; this practice is falling into disuse. At the close of the dinner 
the members of the boy's household are served with sweetmeats and 
the girl sits in turn on the lap of each of the elderly members of 
her family each of whom puts a little sugar into her mouth. The 
house people sit to dine and the girl taking a cup of boiling butter 
pours it in a Hue over the dinner plates and waves a lighted lamp 
before the faces of the diners, each of whom lays a silver coin in the 
cup. After dinner the boy and girl leave for the boy's house when 
the .boy carries off an imgige from the girl's god-room. There 
is great grief over the girl's leave-taking, the mother especially 
lamenting that her daughter is gone to a strange house. When 
they reach the boy's house his parents receive the couple at the 
entrance of the marriage hall. A wooden measure of nnhusked rice 
is set that the girl may overturn it with her foot, a heavy lighted 
lamp is placed in her hands, and she and the boy are led into the 
house. A new name is given to the girl, and, in the presence of her 
father's relations, she is made to sit on the lap of each of the elder 
members of the boy's household who in turn drop a little sugar into 
her mouth. This ceremony is called hdtildvne or committing the 
giri to the care of her new relations. The male guests who come 
with the return procession are seated in the marriage hall where a 
dancing-girl performs. The guests are told the girl's new name, 
and with a parting present of sugar and betel packets they return 
to their homes. Next day the boy's father treats castefellows and 
others to a dinner. At the end of the dinner the deities who have 
been asked to be present at the marriage are prayed to withdraw. 
After a few months the boy and girl go to her father's house, 
stay there for a couple of days, and return home. This closes 
the marriage ceremonies. Shenvis allow and practise polygamy, 
polyandry is unknown, and widow marriage is forbidden. On the 
first signs of pregnancy a jiarty of women are called, the young 
wife is richly dressed, crowned with flower garlands, and fed on 
sweet food. A few relations and friends present her with clothes. 
When a Sheuvi is on the point of death part of the ground-floor of 
the sitting room near the entrance door is washed with cowdung and 
covered with sacred grass and the body is laid on the grass with 
the feet to the south. When Hfe is gone the body is taken outside, 
washed, rubbed, bound on a bamboo bier, and covered with a cloth. 
Four near relations carry the body on their shoulders to the burning 
ground, the son or other chief mourner walking in front holding by 
a string an earthen pot with a burning cake of cowdung. As they 
go the bearers in a low voice repeat the words. Ram Edm, or Shri 
Rdm Jay Ram, or they mutter N^rayan Narayan till they reach 
the burning ground when they make a pyre of wood and lay the 
body on it. The chief mourner goes thrice round the pyre horn. 
right to left, and lights it. Then all retire to some distance 
and sit till the body is consumed, when they go to their homes. 
Meanwhile, at the deceased's house a lighted lamp is placed on the 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

BbIhmans. 
Sbenvis, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



180 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

BbXtuvtans. 
Sasifvis. 



Tailanqs. 



spot where he died, and, as his soul is supposed to hover about the 
house for ten days, a cotton thread is hung from a peg into a cup 
of milk which is placed near the lamp to enable the soul to, pass 
down the string and drink. In the house of mourning, during the 
next ten days, a Brdhman reads sacred books every afternoon, and 
baUs of rice are offered to help the soul to regain the different 
parts of its body. Friends and relations visit the mourners and 
send them presents of butter and pounded rice as nothing is cooked 
in the house. On the tenth day the chief mourner offers rice balls. 
If a crow touches one of the balls the soul of the dead is believed 
to have gone to heaven in peace; if the crow refuses the deceased is 
thought to have had some trouble on his mind. On the eleventh, 
under the belief that the deceased will have the use of them in 
heaven, the mourners present Br^hmans with coWs, money, earthen 
pots filled with water, rice, umbrellas, shoes, fans, and beds. On the 
twelfth and thirteenth water is offered and on the fourteenth the 
mourning family visit a temple near their house. They are then 
free to follow their every-day business. On the death day every 
month for a year rice balls are offered to the soul of the deceased. 
Shenvis are bound together as a body and settle social disputes at 
meetings of castemen. Most Shenvis are well off. A few of them 
draw salaries of as much as £50 (Es. 500) a month. On the whole 
they are a pushing aiid rising class who send their boys to school 
and readily take to anypromising calling. 

Tailang or TelugU BrAhmans are returned as numbering 100, 
and as found; in Bhimthadi, Haveh, Khed, and Poena. They are 
said to have come into the district about a hundred years ago ; 
' whence and why they cannot tell. Their head- quarters are' in 
Kasba Peth in Poena city. They are divided into Kasalnddu, Muri- 
kinadu, TeMganya, VegnMu, and Velnddu, who eat together but do 
not intermarry. Their family stocks are Atri, Bhdradvd,], Gautam, 
Jamadagni, Kaundinya, Kd,shyap, Pustsasa, Shrivatchhya, and 
Vaghulas. Marriages cannot take place between persons of the same 
stock. Their surnames are Bhamidivaru, Ghanti, Gunipudivaru, 
Innuvaru, Kampuvd,ru, Kandalvarn, and Kotdvdru; sameness 
of surname is no bar to marriage. They are tall, strong, and 
dark. All men wear the mustache, some wear the beard, but none 
whiskers. Their home tongue is Telugu ; with others they speak 
an ungrammatical and ill-pronounced Marathi. ' They do not own 
houses. Their household goods are a white blanket- and a sheet, a 
wooden box, earthen water jars, and metal vessels. They keep 
neither cattle nor servants. They are great eaters and have a 
special fondness for sour or dmbat dishes. They are vegetarians, 
their staple food including rice, whey, and a vegetable or two. 
They get the grain they eat by begging, and spend ^d. to l^d. 
(J-1 anna) a day. Before dicing, . besides sprinkling water and 
thi'owing pinches of rice to the right side of the plate, they repeat 
the name, of the god Govind. They givo dinners of sweet cakes 
in honour of thread-girdings and ' marriages, a dinner to a 
hundred guests costing £3 to £5 (Rs.30-50). Except in the use 
of opium and snuff they indulge in no luxury. The men wear 
a short waistolott, roH a scarf round thie head or wear a Deccan 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



181 



Brahman turban, a coat or a waistcloth, a shonldercloth, and 
sometimes Brdhman stoes. The women wear the full Maratha 
robe and bodice and draw the skirt of the robe back between' the 
feet and tuck it into the waist behind. They mark their brows with 
redpowder, and tie their hair in a knot at the back of the head. 
They are clean, idle, hot-tempered, thrifty, and hospitable. They are 
beggars and make and sell sacred threads. Their begging months 
are February to July [Magh to Jyeshta) and their sacred threads 
are sold in August or Shrdvan when they make considerable sums. 
Their houses are generally hired at 6d. to Is. 6d. (4-12 as.) a month, 
and the furniture varies in value from £1 to £2 (E,s.lO-20). Their 
monthly food charges vary from 2s. to 4s. (Es. 1-2). A birth costs 
IQs. to £1 (Rs.S-lO) ; ahair-elipning 4s. to 10s. (Rs. 2-5) ; a thread- 
girding £1 to £3 (Rs. 10-30)j a boy's marriage £10 to £30 
(Rs. 100-300), and a girl's £2 10s. to £20 (Rs. 25-200); a girl's 
coming of age 14s. to £1 10s. (Rs. 7-15); and a death £1 10s. 
to £4 (Rs. 15-40). They are religious. Their chief objects of 
worship are Kanakdurga of Bejvad in Telangan, the goddess of 
Pith^pur and Vithoba of Jagannath. They also worship Ganpati, 
Mahadev, and the lisual Br^hmanic gods and goddesses. They 
are Smd,rts and their family priests are Brahmana of their own 
country. They keep the usual EEindu fasts and feastS, but on feast 
days both men and women go begging for a meal. If they fail 
they come home, cook some rice, and eat it with whey and salt. 
They show their Teacher Shankardcharya Svami great respect, and 
when he visits them after every second or third year each house 
pays him 2s. (Re. 1). "Women do not generally go to their mothers' 
to be confined, they stay with their husbands. When a child is 
bom the navel cord is cut by the midwife who is generally a 
Mardtha woman ; she is paid 2s. (Re. 1) if the child is a boy and 
Is. (8 as.) if the child is a girl. If the midwife is asked to remain 
with the mother tiU the twelfth day she is paid 2s. to 4s. (Rs. 1-2) 
more. The navel cord is not buried but is kept to dry in the 
lying-in room. The child is bathed and laid beside its mother. If 
a woman is confined at her mother's, word is sent to her husband 
and to other near relations, and if the child is a boy sugar is 
handed among relations friends and acquaintances and money 
is presented to Brahmansjif the child is a girl nothing is done. 
For the first two days the child is fed by sucking a piece of cloth 
soaked in coriander juice or honey ; on the third day it is bathed 
and the mother suckles it for the first time. They keep the fifth- 
day ceremony. In the afternoon in the mother's room a grindstone 
or pdta is hiid on the floor, on the stone is set an image of 
Satvai and the child's navel cord, and these are worshipped by 
the midwife or by some elderly married woman of the family. In 
the evening they lay a blank sheet of paper, a pen, an inkpot, 
and a knife that the god Brahma may write the child's destiny. For 
the first twelve days the mother is fed on rice and butter. The 
members of the family are impure for ten days. On the eleventh 
they wash, change their Bacred threads, and purify themselves 
by drinking and sprinkling the house with cow's urine. On 
the morning of the twelfth day the husband and the wife with the 



Chapter III. 

Population.. 

BbIhmans, 
Tailancis, 



[Bombay Qazetteer, 



182 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 
BkjChmaits. 

TAILAlfSS. 



cHild in her arms worsliip the god Ganpati and Varun with the help 
of the family priest, and the priest gives the child a name he has 
found in his almanac. A sweet cake feast is held in the afternoon, 
and in the evening the child is laid in ' the cradle and given a 
second pet name, and wet gram and packets of betel are handed 
among the women and children. The boys' names in common 
use are, Bhimaya, Ndgaya, Narsaya, Peharaya, Ramaya, Somaya, 
Suraya, and the girls', Gangama, Nagama, Narsama, Perama, 
Ramama, Singama, and Somama. When a child is six months 
old it is given solid food for the first time and Brahmans are 
feasted. If the child is a boy his head is shaved when he is 
three years old, leaving a tuft of hair over each ear and a forelock. 
Girls' heads are not shaved unless they are the subject of a vow. 
A boy is girt with the sacred thread between eight and eleven. 
The day before the gixdiug an invitation is sent to the village god 
accompanied by music. On the thread-girding day a sacrificial 
fire is kindled on the altar and the sacred thread is fastened round 
the boy's neck and his right arm. A dinner is given to relations, 
friends, and other BrAhmans, and money is distributed among 
Brdhman and other beggars. The Tailangs marry their girls 
between six and eight and their boys between twelve and twenty- 
five. The asking generally comes from the girl's side. When the 
parents agree Brahmans and other relations and friends are palled to 
witness the settlement. Sweetmeats are given to the girl, packets of 
betel are handed to kinspeople and friends, and money is paid tobegging 
Brdhmans. On the marriage day the devapratishtha or enshrining of 
the marriage-guardians takes place, and a dinner is given to relations 
and friends. The girl's father presents the boy with a new turban, sash, 
andwaistcloth, andhis motherwitha robe. The boy andgirl arerubbed 
with turmeric at their homes, and the boy is carried on horseback, to 
the girl's in procession and he and the girl are made to stand facing, 
each other on two low wooden stools. A piece of yellow cloth is 
held between them, marriage verses are repeated by the priest 
and other Brahmans, and the sacrificial fire is kindled on the 
altar, on the four corners of which, unlike other Hindus, they do 
not place earthen pots. A turban is presented to the girl's brother, 
b'etelnuts and leaves are handed to the relations and friends, and 
money is paid to religious beggars, and all retire. When the marriage 
ceremony is over the hems of the boy's and girl's robes are ti«d 
together and they are taken into the house to bow to the house 
gods. On the second and third day the boy's relations are taken to 
dine at the girl's house, and, on the fourth day the last marriage 
robe-giving or sdde is performed, when the boy's relations go to the 
girl's house, and present the girl with ornaments and clothes and five 
married women with turmeric and redpowder, and fill their laps with 
pieces of cocoanut. The parents of the boy and girl exchange 
presents of clothes, and the boy, accompanied by relations and 
music, takes his bride to her new home. Here the goddess Lakshmi 
is worshipped, money is given to religious and other beggars, and 
betel packets are handed to the guests. When the procession returns 
to the boy's house the boy and girl are seated each on the shoulder 
of a man who dances to music. 



Oeccan.] 



POONA. 



183 



Wlien a Tailang Br^lmian is on the point of death part of the 
ground-floor of the house is cowdunged, tulsi leaves and sacred darbha 
grass are sprinkled over it, a white blanket is spread, and the dying 
man is laid on the blanket. The family priest dips his right toe 
i&to a spoon full of cold water and a near relation pours the water 
into the dying person's mouth, and money and grain are presented 
to the poor. When life is gone the body is brought out, washed, and 
wrapped in a white sheet. Sacred basil leaves are stufEed in the 
ears, and the body is laid on a bier which is carried by four men 
to the burning ground, the bearers repeating Rdm Ram. The 
chief mourner walks in ' front of the bier holding, by a string an 
earthen pot with burning cowdung cakes. When they reach the 
burning ground the bier is lowered near running water. Water 
and sacred grass are sprinkled on a piece of ground and a pile is 
built. The corpse is washed and laid on the pyre. If the deceased 
died at an unlucky moment wheateh figures of men are made and 
laid on the corpse. While the fire is being kindled verses are 
repeated and the chief mourner lays some burning cowdung cakes 
under the pile. When the corpse is burnt the chief mourner thrice 
goes round the pyre holding in his hand an earthen pot full of 
water. At each turn a hole is bored in the pot with a pebble 
picked somewhere on the road and at the third round the pot is 
dashed on the ground. The pebble is kept as the stone of life 
or ashma and over it sesamum and water are daily poured. The 
ashes are thrown into water and they return home. On the second 
day a three-cornered earthen mound is raised on the spot where 
the body was burnt, and on it five earthen pots are placed, and 
cooked rice, rice balls, and wheat cakes are ofEered to the 
dead. The stone is taken to the river, washed, and carried to the 
house of mourning. Prom the third day to the ninth a rice ball 
is ofEered and the stone o£ life or ashma is taken to the burning 
ground and again brought back to the house of mourning. On 
the tenth day all the adult male members of the house go to the 
river, offer cakes and rice balls, and after setting up red flags six 
inches high, ask the crows to touch the chief ball of the five. As 
soon as the ball has been touched by a crow the mourners pour 
water and sesamum over the stone and throw it into the river. 
They then bathe and return home. On the eleventh day the 
mourning is over. A sacrificial fire is lit in the burning ground 
and money is distributed among beggars. On the twelfth day 
the offering of rice balls or sapindis is performed and Br^hmans are 
feasted. On the thirteenth day the shrdddh is performed and this 
is repeated at the end of each month for twelve months. At the 
end of the twelve months the first anniversary is held and is 
repeated every year so long as one of the deceased's sons remains 
alive. They hold meetings to decide their social disputes composed 
of learned Tailang, Deshasth, and other Maratha Brdhmans^ A 
man proved to have drunk liquor is fined 2s. to£l (Rs. 1-10), and 
any one who forms a connection with a woman of the Mhar, Mang, 
or other low class is turned out of- caste without hope, of forgiveness. 
If the woman is a Musalmdn the Brahman's mustache is shaved 
and he is allowed back to caste after drinking cow's urine. They 



Chapter IIL 
Population. 

BBi.HMAIi'S. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



184 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

BbAhmans. 
Tntaxn.s, 



VtDUBS. 



Tirgtlls are returned as numbering 300 and as found over the 
whole district except Maval and Shirur. Their origin is not known ; 
they are believed to have come into the district from Telangan 
about two hundred years ago. They have no subdivisions, and the 
commonest names among men are Atmaram, M^rtand, Ramchandra, 
and Vishnu ; and • among women Krishna, Lakshini, R^dha, and 
Sdvitri. Their surnames are Arankelle, Arole, Bhinge, Javalkar, 
Kodgule, Mahajane, Mahdshabde, Maindarge, and Supekar, 
They have five family stocks or gotras, Bhdradva], Kaushik, 
X^shyap, Lohit, and Napa, and persons having the same family 
stock cannot intermarry. They speak corrupt Marathi, live in houses 
of the better sort, and are vegetarians. Both men and women 
dress like Maratha Brdhmans, and are clean, thrifty, hospitable, and 
hardworking. They are traders,, bankers, landowners, writers, and 
betel-vine growers. As they kill insects they are considered impure. 
A family of five spends £1 4s. to £2 (Rs. 12 - 20) on food a month, 
and £2 10s. to £5 (Rs. 25-50) on clothes. A house costs £50 to £200 
(Rs. 500- 2000) and 4s. to £1 (Rs. 2 - 1 0) to rent. The value of their 
house goods is about £10 to £100 (Rs. 100-1000). A birth -<!osts 
10s. to £1 (Rs. 5-10) j a hair-clipping 10s. to 16s. (Rs. 5-8); a 
thread ceremony £2 10s. to £20 (Rs. 25-200) ; a marriage £20 to 
£50 (Rs. 200-500); a puberty £3 10s. to £20 (Rs.35-200); and a 
death £2 to £5 (Rs.20-50). They are Smarts and worship all the 
Brahmanio gods and goddesses and keep the ordinary Hindu 
fasts and feasts. They go on pilgrimage to, Allahabad, Benares, 
N^sik, Pandharpur, and Tuljdpur. Their customs are the same as 
those of Deccan Brdhmans. They have a caste council and settle 
social disputes at meetings of castemen. They send their boys to 
school and are well off. 

Vidurs,^ that is the lUegitunate call themselves Brdhmanjdis. 
They are returuBd as numbering 100 and as found over the whole 
district excepting Khed, Mdval, and Purandhar. Tiey have no 
subdivisions and their surnames are Bdraskar, D^vare, Kalangade> 
and Vaikar, ; families bearing the Same surname do not iptermarry. 
Their staple food is millet, rice, and pulse, and a family of five 



1 The Vidura tell the following story to explain the origin of their name. A king 
named ShAntanu walking by a nver saw and loved a beautiful maiden. He asked 
the girl to marry him and aiter some hesitation she agreed. She told him that she 
was the river Ganga and warned him that if he ever questioned her conduct she 
would at once disappear. The king promised to ask no questions and they lived 
together as husband and wife. Ganga bore him several children. No sooner was 
a child born than the queen threw it into the river. The king endured the' loss 
of his children in silencfe. At last when a child named Bhishma was bom he com- 
plained to his wife of the loss of his children and begged her to spare Bhishma's life. 
No sooner had he spoken than Ganga turned to water and flowed off into the nearest 
river. Aiter some time king Shtotanu again walked by the river, saw a beautiful 
girl in a'boat, and she agreed to marry him on condition that her son should succeed. 
This the king promised as Bhishma, Ganga's son, said he had no wish to rule. A 
son named Ohitringad was bom and succeeded his father. He married two wives 
but died childless. On his death his mother sent one of the wives to the sage VyAs 
to raise an heir to the throne. A blind child was born and could not succeed. The 
second wife was sent and a leprous child was bom who too could not rule. The 
queen-dowager then sent one of her son's slave-girls and a boy was bom and called 
Vidur because he was the son of a slave, He succeeded to the throne and from him 
all Vidur Br^hmans are sprung. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



185 



spends £1 10s. to £2 (Rs. 15-20) a monfcli. They do not eat fisK 
or flesh and drink no liquor. They dress either like Mardthds or 
Brdhmans, and are writers, printers, and messengers. They think 
themselves higher than Mardthas, and a little lower than the ordinary 
Mardtha Brahmans. Their family^goddess is Bhavani of Tuljapur, 
and they also worship Khandbba and Bahiroba of Jejuri. They 
have house images of Ganpati, Maha.dev, and Vishnu, and their 
priests are the ordinary Deshasth Brahmans. Their fasts and f easts 
do not differ from those of ordinary Brdhmanic Hindus. Their 
boys are girt with the thread before they are ten. The priest pours 
a few drops of the panchgavya or five cow-gifts on the boy's right 
palm, and, after he has taken a sip, the priest repeats a sacred 
verse over the thread and puts it round the boy's neck. He ia 
paid 6d. to 2s. (4 as.-Ee. 1). They marry their girls before they 
come of age and their boys between sixteen and twenty. The 
texts repeated at their marriages are from the PurAns, not from 
the Veds.- In other respects their ceremonies are like those of 
Deshasths. They burn their dead, and practise polygamy but not 
polyandry. They send their boys to school and are a poor people. 

Writers included four classes with a strength of 1500 or 0'17 
per cent of the Hindu population. Of these about thirty perspns 
Vho are returned as Pdtane Prabhus in the census were Dhruv 
Prabhus, 832 were Kayasth Prabhus, 206 were Pdtdne Prabhus, 
and 423 were Velhdlis. 

Dhruv PrabllUS, literally Lords descended from Dhruv, are 
found only in the city of Poona. According to tradition, Dhruv, from 
whom they claim descent, was the son of Uttdnpdt, a Kshatriya king 
of Oudh, whose name Uttanpat according to their story was the 
origin of the name Patane by which one of the two classes of 
Western India Prabhus is known.^ Dhruv Prabhus claim to be 
the same as Pdtane Prabhus. Two or three years ago they 
applied to be readmitted into caste, but the Patanes refused on the 
'ground that the two classes had been so long separate. The Dhruvs 
have many written statements from Poona Patane Prabhus stating 
that their ancestors had said the two classes were the same. The 
Dhruvs say they came as writers from Bombay and Thana to Poona 
during the time of the Peshwas and have since settled in the district. 
They have no subdivisions. Among their surnames are Kotker 
and Mdnkar. They are like Bombay P£td,ne Prabhus in appearance. 
They speak an incorrect Marathi, using n for p and I for /. Their 
houses are of the better sort, one or two storeys high with walls of 
brick and tiled roofs. They are neat and clean, and are well supplied 
with metal vessels, cups, saucers, Tjedding, carpets, cots, boxes, 
chairs, tables, glass and brass hanging lamps, and large earthen jars 
for storing grain. They have servants generally of the Kunbi caste, 
and keep cattloj ponies, and parrots. They are neither great eaters 

' P4td,ue, according to BrAhman accounts, is properly PitSre or Fallen, because the 
Prabhus have fallen from being warriors to be writers. The Konkan traditions and 
to some extent the evidence of their home speech suggest that the Pdtdne Prabhus of 
the ThAna coast are descendedirom Kajputs of AnhUvdda Pattan in North Gujarit, 
and may take their name from that town, Th&ua Statistical Account in Bombay 
Gazetteer, XIV. 90. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

BkXhmans. 
ViDUsa. 



Weitbrs, 



DSRUY PSABBUS. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



186 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Wbitebs> 
Dbrut Pbabhus, 



nor good cooks. There is nothing special or proverbial about their; 
style of cooking or their favourite dishes. They eat fish and the 
flesh of goats, sheep, hare, and deer, but they eat neither domestic 
fowls nor eggs. Those who are caref lil to keep caste rules do not 
drink liquor. Their staple food is rice, split pulse, wheat bread, 
vegetables, spices, pickles, and salt ; and they drink tea, coffee, milk, 
and water. At their marriage and other feasts the chief dishes are, 
sugared rice, sweet cakes, and pulse and wheat balls. They eat 
animal food on holidays and once or twice a week. It is the cost and 
not any religious scruple that prevents them regularly using animal 
food. They sacrifice a goat on Dasara Day in front of the goddess 
Darga and afterwards feast on the flesh. Both men and women 
dress like Deccan Brdhmans, the women tie the hair in a knot behind 
the head and deck the hair with flowers. They keep rich clothes in 
store, shawls, gold-bordered silk robes and bodices, and sill^ waist- 
cloths shouldercloths and handkerchiefs, valued at £20 to £60 
(Rs. 200-600). They have ornaments of gold, silver, pearls, and 
diamonds for the head, ears, nose, neck, arms, and feet, valued at 
£50 to £100 (Rs. 500 - 1000). Th^y are neat, clean, hardworking, 
sober, honest, even-tempered, hospitable, loyal, and orderly. 
They are English writers, moneylenders, and inQneychangers. 
They claim to be Kshatriyas, eat from no one but BrAhmans, and 
consider themselves higher than any caste except Brahmans. A 
house costs £100 to £200 (Rs.lOOO - 2000) to build, and 10s. to £1 
(Rs. 5-10) a month to hire. House goods vary in value from, £20 to 
£40 (Rs."200-400). They pay their servants 4s. to 8s. (Rs. 2-4) a 
month with food. The feed of a cow or buffaloe varies from 8s. to £1 
(Rs.4-10) a month. A family of five spend £3 to £4 (Rs. 30 - 40) ' 
a month on food, and £4 to £6 (Rs. 40-60) a year on clothes. The 
birth of a child costs £3 to £4 (Rs. 30-40) ; a hair-clipping 4s. to, 
6s. (Rs.2-3) ; a thread-girding £10 to £20 (Rs. 100-200) a boy's 
marriage £50 (Rs.500) andagirFs marriage £20 to£30 (Rs. 200-300)3 
a girl's coming of age £8 to £10 (Rs. 80-100) to both the boy's and 
the girl's father; a first pregnancy £5 to £10 (Rs. 50-100); the 
death of a man £7 to £10 (Rs. 70-100), of a married woman £5 to 
£10 (Rs. 50-100), and of a widow £5 to £7 (Rs.50-70). They are 
either Smarts or Bhagvats, and have house images of Ganpati, 
'M.^hMev, Vishnu, Ram, Krishna, and Annapurna. Their family, 
deities are Indrfiyani at Alandi, Bkvira at Karli in Poona,; 
Khandoba of Jejuri, and Bhavani of Tuljdpur. Their priests are 
Deshasth Brahmans whom they greatly respect^ They keep the 
usual Br^hmanic fasts and feasts, and make pilgrimages to Benares, , 
Pandharpur, Jejuri, and Vajreshvari in Thdna. A woman always 
stays for her confinement at her husband's. After the child is born 
the mother is washed in brandy and hot water. On the evening of 
the third day they set a high wooden stool in the lying-in room 
near the mother's cot, and laying a handful of rice grains on the 
stool place a betelnut on the rice, and present the betelnut with i, 
balls of rice or modaks. This is called the third-day worship or 
tinvichi puja. Wet split gram and cocoanut scrapings are mixed 
and a handful is sent to the house of all the people of the caste. 
A feast of rice balls is held in the evening when near relations are 



Dec can.] 



POONA. 



187 



called. On the evening of the fifth day a high wooden stool or a 
winnowing fan is set in the mother's room, and on it is laid a tdh 
that is ■ a small square metal plate with an image of the goddess 
Sa,tvai impressed upon it, and the Brahman family priest worships it. 
Sixteen dough lamps are set round the image and rice balls are 
offered to it. Relations and friends come to dine and the women- 
keep awake till midnight talking. Next day, the sixth, rice balls 
are made ready and offered to the goddess, and, on the day after, 
the image is put in a box and kept there till the next child is 
born. The mother and her family are considered unclean for ten 
days. On the eleventh day the room is cowdun'ged, the cot 
washed, and the mother and child are dressed in fresh clothes. 
On the eleventh day the men change their sacred threads and name 
the child if it is a boy on the thirteenth and if it is a girl on the 
twelfth day. A feast is held when gram balls are prepared and 
relations and castepeople are ask to dine. In the evening female 
guests bring Some grains of rice, a cocoanut, and a coat and cap 
or kunchi for the child. The child is laid in thd cradle, songs are 
Bung, and the child is given a name by some elderly woman in the 
house. The presents brought by the women are taken from them, 
and in return a cocoanut, some sugar, and a betel packet are given 
them, and they go home. 

A boy's hair is first cut between his third and his fifth year, when 
the barber is presented with a new handkerchief, some grains of rice, 
a cocoanut, and Is. to 2s. (8 as. Re. 1) in money. On any day after 
this, without performing any ceremony, they shave the child's head 
except the top-knot. , Their boys are girt with the sacred thread 
between eight and ten. Two days before the ceremony an altar 
is raised and on the same day the boy is seated on a high wooden 
stool with a penknife and a cocoanut in his hands and is rubbed 
with wet turmeric powder. He is then bathed along with his 
father and mother. A day before the thread ceremony the father 
takes a pole called the lucky pole or muhurt-medh, and, tying to 
its top an umbrella, a handful of dry grass, a couple of cocoanuts, 
and a piece of yellow cloth with grains of Indian millet in it, fixes 
it on one side of the house when it is worshipped by the boy and his 
parents. Then the god Ganpati is worshipped in the first room or 
osri on entering ~ the house. In the women's hall a red or 
yellow piece of cloth is spread in a bamboo basket or padali, and 
the image of the household family goddess or kul-svdmini is ladd 
in the basket and worshipped. An earthen pot is whitewashed 
and marked with yellow green and red, and in it are laid grains 
of wheat or rice, a betelnut, a piece of turmeric root, and a |c7. 
(I anna) piece. The lid is closed and thread is wound round the jar 
and it is set near the basket. This pot is called the guardian or 
devak. A lighted stone lamp is set before it and fed with oil till the 
thread ceremony is over. They then come on the veranda or oti, lay 
a leaf -plate on the ground, and on the leaf lay some grains of rice and 
a gourd or kohola. The gourd is worshipped by the father, the mother, 
and the son. Then the father takes 'a sword, and while his wife 
stands with her fingers touching his arm, he cuts the gourd into four 
pieces two of which are set aside and the remaining two are Sliceii 



Chapter III. 

Fopolation.. 

Weiters, 
Dhbuv Prabmvs'. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Wbitees. 
QSRUV Pbabbus, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 
188 DISTRICTS. 

into small -pieces, cooked, and eaten. Then the women take, a 
frying pan or kadhai, pour oil into it, and put a ladle in each of its 
handles. From the ladle a gold neck ornament called vajratik is hung 
and worshipped by the women with sugar and a copper piee [i anna). 
When this is oyer they begin to make sweetmeats in the pan. Several 
other ceremonies are performed as preliminaries to the thread-girding. 
One of these rites is- called varun-puja or water- worship, when they 
worship a pot or kalash full of -water; a second rite is called 
i^hwa-dpah-santu, literally may the waters be fortunate, when the 
Brdhman drops cold water from a mango leaf on the heads of 
the boy and his parents ; a third is ndndishrdddh or joyful-event 
ancestor-worship when ancestors are asked to the ceremony; a 
fourth is bhumi-pvja or earth-worship ; a fifth is navagraha-puja 
or nine^planet worship; a sixth is rudrakalash-pnja or Rudra's 
pot-worship when the Rndras are worshipped by taking a water-cup. 
or panchapdtri, filling it with water, setting it over a cocoannt, 
and lighting the sacrificial fire ; a seventh is balipraddn or 
offering-giving, when cooked rice is laid in a bamboo basket and 
over it is set a dough lamp with a wick of black cloth, and in it a 
piece of the gourd which was cut in four parts, the whole is 
sprinkled with udid pulse and redpowder, and laid on the-roadside 
by one of the house servants. The day ends with a feast. On the 
morning of the thread ceremony day the boy is seated in front of 
the Brdhman priest who pours butter or loni and water in a cup 
and hands it to the family barber. Then a razor is taken from the 
barber, sprinkled with water, and with it a blade of the sacred 
grass is cut over the boy's right ear, then behind his head, and then 
on his left ear, and the razor is handed to the barber who rubs the 
butter and water on the boy's head and shaves it. The boy is 
bathed, his head is shaved a second time, and he is again bafhed. 
He dines from the same plate with his mother ; gold, silver, and 
pearl ornaments and flower garlands are fastened round his neck ; 
lines of redpowder are drawn over his head ; and he is made 
to stand near the altar on a low wooden stool covered with sack- 
cloth. His father sits before him facing him, and a cloth is held 
between them. The Brahmans chant verses and at the end throw 
grains of rice over the boy's head, the clotk is pulled on one side, 
and he bows before his father and sits in his lap. The boy is 
dressed in a loincloth, and the priest takes a sacred thread and 
fastens it from his left shoulder so that it hangs to his right hips. 
He also gives him a stick and a bag. The boy is told to look 
towards the sun, and the father taking him by his right hand asks 
him whose brahmachdri or religious student he is. He answers, , 
Indra's Brahmachari. Then the sacrificial fire is lit on .the altar and 
the boy bows before it. The father takes a «up of queen's metal, , ' 
fills it with grains of rice, and traces the letters of the sacred Gayatri 
verse on the rice, and the father tells the boy to repeat the verse. 
Then into the sacrificial ladle or pali a iew grains of rice and 
a piece of sugarcandy are laid, and it is put in the boy's begging 
bag while he repeats the words Bhikshdm dehi bhavati that is 
Give me alnis. The father warns the boy to keep the sacred fire 
lighted, agni-rakshane ; to guard the cow, gau-poitane ; and not to 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



189 



use the stick or dand. The guests present the, boy with Is. to 2s, 
(8 as. -Ee.l) in cash, and cocoanuts and betel packets are handed 
and the guests retire except a few near relations and friends 
who stay to dine. In the evening the boy is taken, to his maternal 
uncle's house, a procession is formed^ and he is brought home on 
horseback , accompanied by relations^ friends, and music. Before 
the boy enters the house rice and curds are waved round his head, 
and the guests retire with a betel packet and a cocoanut. Next day 
the thread-ceremony ends with a feast. 

They marry their girls between nine and fourteen and their 
boys between twelve and twenty. The offer of ^marriage comes 
from the girl's house. The girl's father with some friends or 
relations goes to. the boy's and in the presence of friends asks 
his father whether he will give his son in marriage to his daughter. 
If the father agrees the lucky days are chosen with the help of 
the family priest . and the settlement or tithi-nischaya is performed. 
Then the marriage god or guardian is installed, and other 
preliminary customs are performed in the same detail as at the 
thread-girding. They rub the girl with turmeric, tie a piece of 
turmeric root and betelnut to her right wrist, and send the rest of 
the turmeric or ushtihalad to the boy's house accompanied by music, 
married women, and a mango twig. At the girl's the women fix 
the twig in the ground and a pair of cocoanuts are tied to it. The 
boy is rubbed with turmeric and bathed, and a piece of turmeric and 
betelnut are tied with cotton thread to his right wrist. On the 
morning of the second or marriage day a party of men and women 
go from the girl's tothe boy's with music and carrying a plate 
containing a turban, a sash, a pair of shoes, a cocoanut, and 
sweetmeats. The boy is seated on a high wooden stool, worshipped 
by the girl's father, and presented with the clothes ; hanging 
garlands of flowers are hungTound his head, and the party retire. 
Then the boy's relations go to the girl's with music and a plate 
containing a robe and bodice, sugarcandy, cocoanuts, flower 
garlands, the marriage coronet or bashing, grains of wheat, and 
five betelnuts dates almonds and pieces of turmeric and some 
ornaments. The girl is seated on a stool "and presented with the 
robe, bodice, and ornaments, and her lap is filled with dates, wheat, 
betelnuts, almonds, and turmeric. The boy's father presents the girl's 
father with a turban and the boy's party retire. The girl's mother, 
with herfemalerelations,music, and sweetmeats, goes to the boy's house 
and gives the sweetmeats in charge to his people. The boy's head is 
shaved and he is bathed and dressed in a waistcloth, coat, turban, and 
shoes ; flower garlands are wound round his head, and the girl's 
mother ties round his turban the marriage coronet or bashing, and 
gives him sweetmeats and a betel packet. The boy's father places a 
penknife and a cocoanut in the boy's hand and he is taken to bow 
before the household gods. He is then seated on a horse and led 
in procession to the girl's with a party of kinspeople and friends. 
When he reaches the girl's, cooked rice and curds are waved roij.nd 
his head and thrown on one side. Then the girl's father and mother 
come to the boy, the father walks once round the horse, and the 
mother waves a lighted lamp round his face, and they retire. The 



Chapter III. 
Fopnlation. 

JiBRVT PlUBBUi 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



190 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Wkiteks. 
Dhrvv Pbabbus. 



girl's brother comes forward and squeezes the boy's right ear, and he 
is presented with a turban. The boy is taken off the^horse by some 
one near and is led into the niarriage hall. His coat, shoes, and 
turban are taken off, and he is seated on the altar on a wooden 
stool covered with a blanket. Thegirl is by thfs time dressed in a 
white cloth with yellow borders, and seated near the marriage gods^ 
The ceremony of honey-sipping or madhuparjtia performed, and 
the girl's niother washes the boy's sisters' feet and presents them 
with bodices. Then, after the boy's feet have been washed, the 
boy and girl are taken into the house and made to stand facing 
each other on two heaps of rice with a cloth held between them, 
BrAhmans repeat the marriage verses, and at the end they are 
husband and wife. They are then seated face to face on two chairs 
and a married woman fastens the marriage string round the girl's 
neck. A cotton thread is passed round the pair five and seven 
times by the priest. Then the girl's father, holding the boy's 
hands below , the girl's, pours water over the girl's hands, and if 
falls over the boy's and from that into a plate on the ground. 
The boy's and girl's fathers put 2s._ to 10s. (Rs. 1-5) into their 
hands and it becomes the property of the boy. Besides this the 
boy is presented with metal vessels and lamps, and the threads 
passed five and seven times are tied round the right and left wrists 
of the boy and girl. The boy's father presents^ the girl with a robe 
and bodice and the silver anklets called jodvis and viravlyds. The 
girl's father takes the boy and girl by the hand and seats them 
on the altar, and the sacrificial -fire is lighted and fed with butter , 
and parched grain. The girl rises from the stool and the Brdhman- 
lays on it seven pinches of rice and the girl worships them. The 
boy takes^the girl's right hand in his right hand and the pdnigrahan ■ 
or hand-clasping is over. Except near relations who -stay for dinner 
the guests take betel packets and retire. When dinner is over the 
boy and girl are seated in a carriage or on horseback, and, accom- 
panied by kinspeople friends and music, go to the boy's. In the 
room where the marriage god has been set the boy and the girl sit 
before the god and worship, throw grains of rice over it, and retire. 
The guests withdraw with cocoanuts and a cup of sweet milk. On 
the morning of the second day the girl's kinswomen go to the boy's 
and bring the boy and girl and their parents and relations to their 
house to bathe. In the marriage porCh the boy and girl mark one 
another with wet turmeric and they are bathed. , The boy's relations 
now retire. In the evening the boy's parents and near relations 
come again. Then sixteen small dough lamps are arranged with a 
large lamp in the middle. A betelnut is worshipped by the girl's 
parents and the dough lamps are lighted. The boy and girl are 
now worshipped by the girl's parents and then by the boy's parents, 
and the bamboo basket is put over the heads of the boy and the 
girl, and the boy's parents and their near relations. The girl's 
father seats the girl on the lap of the boy's father and of his re- 
lations, and they return to the boy's house with . the girl and the 
bamboo basket. The boy and girl are then seated near the marriage' 
gods and the girl is called by a new name which is given her by her 
husband. Rice is thrown: over the marriage gods with the object of, 



Decean.} 



POONA. 



191 



inducing them to withdraw, and the wristlets or hanJcdns and the 
marriage ornaments are tied in a piece x)f cloth and kept somewhere 
in the house. A feast at both houses is the last of the marriage 
ceremonies. When a Dhruv Prabhu dies, he is laid on a white 
woollen waistcloth or dhdbli, and the toes of his feet are tied together 
with a string. The chief mourner's head and mustache are shat'ed, 
and he cooks rice and makes -it into three balls or, pinds, one he 
lays in the house at the corpse's head/ a second is afterwards laid 
at the place where the body rested on the way to the burning 
ground, and the third is laid 6u the mouth of the corpse when 
it is placed on the pile. When the skull bursts with the heat each 
mourner throws a piece of sandalwood on the pyre and the chief 
mourner in addition throws a cocoanut. When all is burnt the chief 
mourner, carrying an earthen jar of water on his right shoulder 
walks round the pyre with his left hand towards it. When at the 
end of the first round he is near where the corpse's head lay one of 
the mourners makes a hole in the pot with a pebble called the 
ashma or spirit picked up near the place where the bier was .rested, 
and the mourner lets the water stream from the hole as he walks 
round the pyre. At the end of the second round a second hole is 
made and a second stream runs out of the pot, and at the end of 
the third round a third hole is made and the pot is dashed on the 
ground. _ The chief mourner cries aloud striking his hand on his 
mouth. Either on the same or on the next day, a three-cornered 
mound is made on the spot where the deceased was burnt. Sacred 
grass is spread on the mound and on the grass four small 
earthen jars' are set filled with water, and over the jars four 
dough cakes and rice balls are laid. Flowers are strewn over the 
cakes and four small yellow flags are set in the ground and wor- 
shipped. The funeral party withdraw to some distance till a 
crow has touched one of the balls. After that they bathe and accom- 
pany the chief mourner to his house. When they reach the house 
of death they go inside, peep at the lamp which is burning on the 
spot where the dead breathed his last, say some words of comfort 
to the mourners, and go to their homes. The family mourn ten days, 
and, on the tenth, ofEer ten rice and ten dough balls on the burning 
i ground. They anoint the ashma or stone of life with cocoanut oil, 
' worship it, and after a crow has touched it, throw it into a river. 
The priest returns home, and is presented with a blanket, an 
umbrella, a brass lamp, and a pair of shoes. On the eleventh day 
the chief monrner and a few near relations go to the burning 
ground and cook rice, spilt pulse, vegetables, pulse cakes or vades, 
and wheat cakes or puran-poUs, and make three rice balls to which 
the several' dishes are offered. The whole is mixed together into 
three balls, two of which are burnt and one is thrown into the water. 
After a bath they return home. On the twelfth day alms are given 
in the. name of the deceased ; on the thirteenth a memorial ceremony 
or sJirdddh is performed and the caste is feasted; and on the fourteenth 
fourteen earthen pots are filled with water and presented to fourteen 
Brahmans along with f d. (^ anna), and near relations are feasted 
chiefly on wheat cakes or pitran-polis. Dhruv Prabhus are bound 
together as a body' and settle social disputes at meetings of the 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Wkitebs. 
Dhruv Prabbus 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



192 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Writers. 

KIyasth 
Pbabhus. 



castemen. English education of late has weakened the authority 
of easte. They send their boys to school and are a steady class. 

Ka'yasth Prablms are returned as numbering 830 and as found 
over the whole district except Junnar. They claim to be Kshatriyas. 
According to their story, aifter Parashurdm had killed Sahasrd.rjan 
and king Chandrasen, he discovered that Chandrasen's wife had 
taken refuge with the seer Ddlabhya and that she was with child. 
To complete his vow to kill the whole of the Kshatriyas Parashurdm 
went to the sage, who received him kindly, asked him why he had 
come, and promised to grant his wishes. Parashuram replied that 
he wished to kill Chandrasen's wife. The sage produced the lady, 
and Parashurdm, pleased with the success of his scheme, promised 
to grant the sage whatever he asked for. Dalabhya asked for the 
unborn child, and Parashuram, bound by his promise, agreed to 
spare the mother's life on condition that the child should be bred a 
writer, not a soldier, and that instead of Kshatriyas hiB descendants 
should be called Kdyasths because the child was saved in his 
mother's body or kdya. The boy was married to Chitragupta's 
daughter, and was given the title of Prabhu or lord. Kdyasths are 
divided into Chitragupb KAyasths, Ohandraseni Kdyasths, and 
Sankar Kayasths. The Ghandrasenis have no subdivision except 
Damani Prabhus who in no way differ from the rest and have a 
Special name only because they lived for a time at Daman in the North 
Konkan. Kd,yasths have gotras or family stocks and prauars or- 
founders, and forty-tWo surnames. People bearing the same surname 
and belonging to the same family stock do not intermarry. In 
appearance Kayasths closely resemble Konknasth Br^hmans. They 
are fair and middle-sized, with regular features and thick black 
hair. The men wear the top-knot and mustache, but neither 
beard nor whiskers. The women are fairer than the men and 
handsome. They wear the hair tied in a knot at the back of the 
head, use false hair, and deck their hair with flowers. Their 
home speech is Mardthi, which both- men and women speak 
correctly. Their houses are well stocked with furniture, copper 
brass iron and tin vessels, boxes, cots, bedding, glass hanging 
and brass lamps. Each family has a servant, and most have 
cattle, horses, dogs, parrots, and bullock carts. Their houses vary 
in value from £50 to £2000 (Rs. 500-20,000) ; their furniture from 
£10 to £200 (Rs. 100-2000); a man's' stock of clothes from 
£7 to £50 (Rs. 70 - 500) ; a woman's and a child's from £10 to 
£200 (Rs. 100-2000); their ornaments are worth £30 to £600 
(Rs. 300-5000). They eat 'fish and the flesh of goats and sheep, 
but secretly as they prefer to be considered vegetarians, and 
drink both countiy and foreign liquor. Their daily food is rice, 
pulse, vegetable fish or pulse curry, milk, curds^ and whey. They 
drink tea or coffee, are fond of good living, and their pet dishes -are 
gram oil-cakes and wheat and sugar semicircular cakes or haranjas. 
A family of five spend every month ' on their food, if rich 
£5 to £7 10s. (Rs. 50-76) if fairly, off £3 to £4 (Rs. 30-40), 
and if poor £2 10s. to £3 (Rs. 25-30). Their feasts cost 6d. 
to Is. (4-8 as.) a guest. Both men and women dress like Mardths' 



Deccan.] 



POONA> 



193 



BrdhmanSj and it is often hard to tell a Kdyasth Prabliu from Chapter III. 
a Brahman. They are generally richly and most carefully and Population., 
neatly dressed. Of ornaments well-to-do men wear gold necklaces ^^ 

and. finger rings^ and the women the same ornaments as Brdhman emees. 

women. They are hardworking, hospitable, orderly, and loyal ; but Pjubhus. 

. extravagant and fond of show. They are writers, husbandmen, 
moneylenders, and- moneychangers. They are generally Bhagvats 
or followers of Vishnu, and are termed Deviputras or Goddess' 
Children because they worship the early local mothers more than the 
regular Brahman gods. They have house images of Annapurna, 
Vishnu, Balkrishna, Bhay^ni, Ganpati, Khandoba, and Mahddev. 
Their priests are Deshasth Brahmans whom they treat with great 
respect. They keep the regular Hindu fasts and feasts, and settle 
social disputes at meetings of the castemen. On the sixth day 
after a child is born they worship the goddess Sathi and name the 
child on the twelfth. They gird their boys with the sacred thread 
before they are ten. They marry their girls before they are 
twelve, and their boys before they are twenty. The details of th^r 
birth, thread-girding, and marriage ceremonies differ little from 
those of Pdtane Prabhus. A thread ceremony costs them £10 to 
£50 (Rs. 100-500) and a marriage £50 to £500 (Rs. 500-5000).. 
They burn their dead and do not allow widow marriage. They send 
their children to school and hold their own as writers in spite of 
the competition of Brdhmans and other non-writer classes. 

Pa'ta'ne Prabhus are returned as numbering 200 and as found P^tA^js Psabbus, 
only in the city of Poena. Only a few have been long settled in 
Poona. These, they say, came from Bombay about sixty years ago 
as clerks in Government offices, and after retiring from service 
settled in Poona with their families. The rest appear to have come 
also from Bombay as clerks within the last eighteen years and are 
not .pernian.ently settled in Poona. Poona Pd,tdne Prabhus have no 
subdivisions and deny that the Dhruv Prabhus belong to their 
caste. They say that they formerly had no surnames and that 
the fashion of using_ surnames has been introduced with the last 
twenty-five years. Their chief gotras or family-stocks are Bharadvd], 
Brahma-Janardan,Gd,rgya,Gautam,Jamadagni,Mudgal,and Vashishth. 
The names in cojnmonuse among men are Dhvd.i'kd,nd,th, Moreshvar, 
Moroba, Saddnand, and Vishvanath ; and among women, Hirdbai, 
Ndnibai, Sokal-ab^i, and SundarabAi. The men are generally stoutly 
made and in height above the middle size with regular features ; and 
the women are about the same size as the men, fair, and goodlooking. 
They speak purer Mar^thi than the Bombay Prabhus owing to their 
intercourse with Deccan Brdhmans. The. older residents own houses 
two storeys high with brick walls and tiled roofs, clean and well kept. 
They have servants^ carriages, and horses as well as cows, parrots^ or 
pigeons. Besides the ordinary Hindu cushions, carpets, and pillows, 
they keep in European style tables, benches, couches, chairs, chests of 
drawers, brass or wooden bedsteads,, wardrobes, cabinets with orna- 
mental knick-knacks, wall pictures, lamps, and chandeliers. Their, 
cooking pots and eating and drinking vessels are generally metal. 
Their usual food is rice, wheat cakes, pulse, vegetables, fish, and 
mutton. Besides mutton the only animals they have no scruple 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



194 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Popalation. 

Writers. 
PAtJkb Prabevss 



Marriage? 



in eating are tlie wild tog, deer, and hare, and of birds the wood- 
pigeon, partridge, quail, and water-fowl. Their caste rules are 
against the use of any other animals. Their drink is milk, coffee, 
and tea, liquor being forbidden them. They have two principal daily 
meals, one between nine and twelve in the morning, the other 
between seven and ten in the evening. A family of five living in 
comfort spend £5 to £10 (Rs. 50 - 100) a month ; the poorer families 
live on £2 to £3 (Rs. 20 - 30). The men dress in a waistcloth, 
waistcoat or coat, and the Maratha Brahman turban, and English or 
Mard,thi shoes. The women dress in a fall MarAtha robe with the 
skirt drawn back between the feet and a tight-fitting bodice with a 
back and short sleeves. Out of doors and on ceremonial occasions 
they draw a shawl over the shoulders or head. 

Most Poena Patdne Prabhus are clerks' in Government .offices. 
One is a teacher of drawing and plan-making in the Poena College 
of Science, and another is a High Court pleader qualified to practise 
as a solicitor in Bombay ; a third is a retired broker; Their boys 
attend the Government schools and colleges; some of them are 
matriculated and one has taken the degree of Bachelor of Arts and 
Bachelor of Laws, Some of them own houses and land, but most live 
in hired houses paying mon,thly rents varying from 10s. to £2 10s. 
(Rs. 5-25). Their house furniture is worth £50 to £100 (Rs.500- 
1000). Besides their every-day clothes they keep a store of rich 
garments and of jewels worth £100 to £500 (Rs. 1000- 5000). A 
birth costs £10 to £40 (Rs, 100-400) ; a ihread-girding £20 to £50 
(Rs. 200-500) ; the marriage of a son £150 to £400 (Rs. 1500-4000), 
the marriage of a daughter £100 to £500 (Rs. 1000-5000) ; a girl's 
coming of age £10 to £20 (Rs. 100-200); a pregnancy £10 to £15 
(Rs. 100-150) ; the death of an adult £10 to £30 (Rs. 100-300), and 
the death of a child 10s. to f 1 (Rs. 5-10). 

Prabha customs come under the six heads of marriage, pregnancy, 
birth, infancy, thread-girding, and death. ; 

A child's marriage occupies its parents' thoughts from its earliest 
days. The choice is limited to families of the same caste and among 
castefellows to families of a different stock or gotra. Boys generally 
marry between ten and sixteen j girls between four and eight. The 
only form of marriage now in use is Brahma-vivdha or the Brahma 
wedding according to which, besides giving a dower, the bridegroom 
receives presents with his wife. The ceremonies connected with • 
marriage last over many months, and involve the spending of the 
savings of years. They may be brought under three groups, those 
before, those on, and those after the wedding day. The first group 
includes eleven heads, offer of marriage, comparison- of horoscopes,; 



1 Marriage, in Sanskrit, is technically called pdnigrahan or hand-holding, the 
popular Sanskrit word for marriage is vivdha or mutual taking, and the common 
Mardthi word is login that is union. Among Prabhus the wedding months are 
Maghov January - February, ^rfZg-MJi or February -March, Vaishdkh or April-May, 
Jeshtha or May -June, and MdrgasUreha or November -December. If either the boy s 
or the girl's birthday falls in Jeshtha or May- June marriage in that month is nsky, 
and if it is the birth-month of both the marriage cannot take place. Marriage cannot 
be held when the planets Jupiter and Venus are hid, on any amdvdsya or no-moon, 
at the sankrdnts when the sun passes from one zodiacal sign to another, or dnmg 
*>,<, sUnhnM rnifie in twelve vears. when the planet Jupiter is in the constellation Leo. 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



193 



goat-offering, day-naming, guest-asking, gift-making, booth and 
altar -building, pot-buying, god-pleasing, and gift-making. 

In families, wbo have a young daughter, the women of the house 
fix on somd boy as a good match. The family priest is sent for and 
the girl's father, handing him her horoscope and naming the boy's 
father, asks the priest to go to his house and offer the girl in 
marriage. If he- approves of the offer the boy's father gives the 
priest one to two shillings, a cocoanut, and sugar, telling him to say 
that he has kept the horoscope without waiting to see if it agrees 
with his boy's. If not .rich enough to meet the cost of his son's 
marriage, the father says the times are unsuitable. The priest asks 
if he would wish the girl's family to help. The father says help 
would be welcome, and between them they agree on the sum the 
father wishes to have. These are unusual cases. The common 
practice is for the boy's father, without opening it, to place the 
horoscope either before the family gods, or in some other safe place. 

After a day or two the father hands his boy's and the girl's horo- 
scopes to his family priest to take to an astrologer. The astrologer 
compares their details and tells the priest whether or not they agree. 
The priest returns and tells the boy's father. A few days more and 
the girl's family priest comes to learn the boy's father's answer. If 
the horoscopes do not agree the girl's is sent back, and the priest 
is told to say that the horoscopes do not agree. If the horoscopes 
agree, the priest leaves with a cocoanut and a handful of sugar. 

There is no betrothal. In most cases, after the boy's father has 
accepted the proposal and the horoscopes are found to agree, the 
first ceremony is the goat-offering. 

A day or so before the astrologer has fixed the wedding day a 
child, escorted by a servant, is sent to ask a few married women 
relations to a feast in honour of the family goddess, and on the 
evening of the same day a young he-goat is bought. Early in the 
morning of the feast day a room on the ground-floor is smeared with 
cowdung, and on a high wooden stool, in a square marked off by 
lines of white quartz powder, the image of the family goddess is set 
and worshipped by the oldest man in the family. The goat is brought 
into the room and made to stand in front of the goddess. One of 
the married women of the family comes forward, washes the goat's 
feet, and sprinkles redpowder on his head, and, after waving a lighted 
lamp round his face, retires. The eldest man in the family lays a 
bamboo winnowing fan with a handful or two of rice in it before 
the goat, and taking a sword stands on one side, and, while the goat 
is eating the rice, with one stroke cuts off its head, and holding it up 
lets a few drops of blood trickle over the goddess, and then places the 
head in a metal plate under the goddess's stool. Except the head, 
which is left till the next day, theflesh of the goat is cooked and eaten.^ 

1 In some families the goat-oflfering ceremony takes place at midnight on the day 
before the marriage an(} the, goat's head is laid on the top of the marriage hall. In 
other families it is oflfered at the time of the planet-propitiation, when the blood is 
allowed to trickle on the cooked rice before it is left in the comer of the street. In 
some families the flesh is eaten on the first, and the head and feet on the second day. 
■ Again in some families, instead of a goat, a cock is offered, its neck cut, and tjie blood 
dropped on the goddess. As Prabhus do not eat domestic fowls the cock is given to 
a married woman of the Mard,tha Kunbi caste, who dresses it at her house, and eats 
some of it at the host's house with liquor. In other families no animal is sacrificed. 
The guests being feasted on sweet dishes either at the host's house or at a temple. 



Chapter III. 
Fopnlation. 

Wkitbks. 

PJtJNE PRABEm 

Marriage. 
Offer. 



Soroscopea, 



Betrothal. 



Goat-offeriiig. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



1»6 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Writees. 

PJ-tAne Prabbjts. 

Marriage. 

J)ay-nammg. 



Gvest-aakmg. 



Some -day, about the same time as the goat-offering, the girl's 
parents send to the boy's house a present of fruit, sugar cakes, and 
other eatables. Like gifts are in return sent to the girl.^ 

The day-naming ceremony has two parts, a general fixing of the 
day and a special religious rite. Two or three days after the 
exchange of presents the boy's parents send for. their family priest 
and ask himto find out lucky days and months. This he learns 
from ' astrologers or other Brahmans, and partly on the priest's 
advice partly on family grounds, the boy's father and mother, after 
consulting the girl's family, fix one of two' days. 

One of these days, if the father of the girl approves„is chosen By 

the boy's father for the day-fixing or tithi-nishchchaya. The day 

before, the boy's family priest calls on the astrologer, and, on the 

morning of the day, boys from both families are sent to ask near 

relations. At the boy's home, about eight or nine in the evening 

when the guests have come, the boy's father takes a basket or two 

full of cocoanuts and sugar-cakes, and, with his guests the astrologer 

the family priest and other Brkhmans, goes to the gill's house. 

Here they are met by the girl's father or some other elder and led 

into the hall. The astrologer is seated in the midst of the company 

with a lighted brass lamp, a slate and- pencil, two blank sheets of 

paper, pens, an inkstand, a ruler, a few grains of rice, and some 

redpowder. He reads over both the horoscopes, sees under what 

constellations the boy and girl were born, and by calculations on the 

slate finds out the lucky days and hours. He then tells the elders 

of both families the result, and with their consent fixes the marriage 

day or tithi. When the day is fixed the astrologer draws up a 

marriage paper, writing, after an invocation to Ganesh, the names of 

the boy's grandfather father and' mother, then in like order the 

names of the girl and her relations, their family, the date of the boy's 

and girl's birth, and the day fixed for the marriage, finishing the 

paper with tables taken from their horoscopes. The whole is read 

aloud, spotted with redpowder, and a copy is given to the elders 

of each house with a blessing and marking of redpowder. Each 

family gives the astrologer Is. to 2s. (8 as.- Re. 1), cocoanuts and 

sugar-cakes are handed, and, according to their rank, silver or copper 

coins are given to the other Brd,hmans. This ceremony costs each of 

the families £1 to £3 (Rs. 10-30).!^ 

Three classes of guests are asked each in a different way. Friends 
and castefellows are asked by children, women relations by the 
women of the house, and men relations Iby letter. A fortnight or so 
before the wedding day, about noon, both families send four or five 
boys and girls, with one or two servants and drummers, to bid friends 
and castepeople to the wedding. When they reach a house the 
girls hurry in ^nd give their invitation to the women of the family 



' The details are : Twenty-five to fifty cocoanuts, twenty -five to fifty sugar-cakes 
eight or nine inches across, two or more legs of mutton, and ten or fifteen fiuh 
sprinkled with redpowder and turmeric. 

2 The details are : Cocoanuts Rs. 5 to Es. 15, sugar-cakes Ra, IJ to Rs. 5, gifts tc 
.BrAhmans Es. 5 to Es. 10. total £1 3s. to £3. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



197 



in four words, Somvdri navagraha Mangalvdri lagna, tliat is, Monday 
tlie nine planets' worsliip Tuesday the wedding.^ Then, without 
an answer, they leave, delighting in hurrying from house to house 
and if asked for particulars shouting back answers from the street. 
When the girls go inside, the boys stand in the doorway and call 
out, ' Is any man at home/ If no one comes they either shont that 
so and so has asked them to a marriage or chalk a message on the 
front door. If one of the men of the house comes out, the boys 
stand before him with folded hands and repeat a very courteous and 
elaborate invitation, including the whole family and any guests that 
maybe with them. Of late the practice has been introduced of 
•asking male friends and castefellows one or two days before the 
wedding by cards distributed by a Brdhman or a house servant in 
the name of an elder of each family. 

A few days later, about a week before the marriage, thegirFs 
mother, with two or three other women and one or two children and 
servants, goes in the afternoon to the house of the boy's parents. 
From the boy's house she takes his mother and two or three other 
women, one or two children, and servants with empty bags to hold 
cocoanuts, and they start in horse carriages to ask their kinswomen. 
When they come to a house they alight, go in, and give the invitation. 
Low wooden stools are set and they are asked to sit down, and, if 
they are near relations, they are offered sweetmeats on English 
plates. After eating a little and washing their hands, betel is 
handed, and at parting the boy's and the girl's mothers are each 
given a cocoanut. If the people called on are not near relations, 
.they offer the mothers nothing bnt'a cocoanut each. The women of 
some famflies are asked only for the marriage day. Others are 
asked to stay for five days while the ceremonies are going on, and 
the mother of one of the sons-in-law is asked to send her boy to 
take part in the gourd-cutting ceremony. The work of asking the 
female relations of both families takes four or five hours a day for 
three or four days. 

Four days before the marriage the boy's mother sends a servant 
to the girl's house to ask her to come the next'day for the flower- 
giving. Next day, in the afternoon, a child dressed and seated in a 

t palanquin or carriage is sent with music to fetch the girl to the 
boy's house. The girl, who is dressed in velvet and decked with 

- ornaments, goes with the child. When she reaches the boy's house 
she is met by the women of the family and seated on a wooden stool. 
After dining, she is dressed in a rich petticoat or parh'ar, or in a 
gold-embroidered robe and bodice, and decked with jewels and 
flowers. She is shown to the older men of the family and given 
five to ten dishes of fruit and sweetmeats.^ Then she is sent to the 
nearest relations of both families, the women asking her what her 
mother-in-law has given her. This round of visits generally lasts 
till about nine in the evening when the girl goes home. 



Chapter Hi. 
Population. 

WbItbbs. 

PAtANB PRABHUi 

Marrmge. 
Quest-asbing. 



difit. 



1 Monday and Tuesday are used vaguely ; the actual days are generally found out 
from the family priest. 

" This practice is becoming uncommon ; instead of sweetmeats and fruit the girl 
gets a money present of £1 to £2, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



198 



DISTEICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Wkitbbs. 

PJ.TA1SE Prabbus. 

Ma/rriage. 



Booth-'buUdmg. 



. Altar-raising. 



PotAmying. 



Xnrmeric-mTMng. 



Next day, like the gid, the boy goes to the house of the girl's 
parents in a carriage, where, if of age, he is met by the men, and if 
under twelve by the women, and seated on a chair in the hall. After 
an hour or so he dines, and is given a new suit of clothes, a turban, 
a waistcoat and coat, a handkerchief, and a waistcloth, and in some 
families a pair of patent leather English shoes and silk stockings 
and garters. Long flower garlands are hung round his neck, a gar- 
land is tied to each wrist, and a nosegay is placed in his hand, and 
like the girl he gets a money present of £1 10s. to £3 (Rs. 15-30). 

During this interchange of gifts, at both houses stores of ornaments 
and dress, supplies of rice, pulse, oil, butter, sugar, fruit, spices, 
betel, bamboo winnowing fans, and earthen pots are laid in, and a 
wedding booth or hall is built. 

In the bride's house, after the booth has been some days ready, 
a bricklayer is called, giten earth and bricks, and told to makie an 
altar or hahule near the house-steps. Measured by the bride's arm 
this altar is three cubits long, three broad, and one high. In front 
is a ' step about a span square, and behind the back rises about 
eighteen inches above the albar in three six-inch tiers each narrower 
than the tier below it. When finished the whole is whitewashed. 
For this, besides a rupee, the bricklayer is given a handkerchief, 
some rice and betel, and a cocoanut. 

The day before the wedding a set of forty-six earthen pots white- 
washed and marked with red, green, and yellow lines, are piled four 
or five high at each side of the marriage god, of the house, and of 
the altar. 

The next ceremony is the turmeric-rubbing. One or two days 
before the wedding day, at the houses of both families, a large 
wooden mortar and five long wooden pestles are washed and placed 
in the women's hall. Early next morning a girl is sent to ask the 
nearest kinswomen and a second message is sent them about nine. 
About ten or eleven the guests meet in the women's hall and sit 
chatting on the ground-floor till noon or later. Then in the women's 
hall the women of the house or the guests trace two squares opposite 
each other with white powdered quartz or rdngoU. In one square 
is set a low wooden stool and in the other square a two-feet high 
wooden mortar or ukhli, hung with garlands of bachelor's- 
button flowers or roje. The boy is called in dressed in his waist- 
cloth, and set on the low wooden stool in front of the mortar. A 
few pieces of turmeric are put in the mortar, and five married girls, 
each with a pestle, pound the turmeric and sing. After a few 
strokes four of the girls leave, and one, a sister or other near relation 
of the boy, goes on pounding till the turmeric is powdered. She 
takes out the powder, puts it in a metal cup or vdti, and mixing it 
with water rubs it over the boy's body. Then the four other girls 
come back, and each of the five rubs some turmeric powder on her 
own hands and eats some grains of coriander or dJtane and molasses. 
Next, at one end of the marriage hall, one of the girls traces a fresh 
white powder square, setting in it a low wooden stool. The others, 
bring four mjetal water-pots or tambes filled with cold water and set 
them one at each corner of the sauare with a mansro leaf floatiner in 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



199 



each and a cotton thread passed once round them, and a servant 
brings a bathing pot filled with warm water and sets it near the low 
wooden stool. When this is ready the girls go into the house, bring 
the boy, and seat him on the stool. Then each girl lifts a watei'-pot, 
and, while the drummers beat their drums, the girls sing and let 
water trickle from the point of the mango leaf on the boy's head. 
When the singing, is over four of the girls leave, and the girl who 
rubbed the boy with the turmeric powder bathes him in warm water. 
When he is bathed the boy is dressed in a fresh waistcloth and 
decked with a chaplet oi bachelor's-button flowers. Eed lines or 
naiid are drawn on the upper part of his feet, a lighted lamp is 
"waved round his face, and he is led into the house. At the girl's 
house, with the same ceremonies, the girl is rubbed with turmeric 
powder and bathed. The boy and girl are now sacred. They are 
called bridal gods or navardevS) and may not leave the house till the 
four wedding days are over. 

A number of rites, calling Ganesh, the marriage-booth spirit, the 
water goddess, ancestors, and the planets, and the sacrifice of a 
gourd, and a fig branch, are performed with the same detail at both 
the bride's and the bridegroom's. In the afternoon, when the 
turmeric rubbing is over, to call the god Ganesh, the women guests, 
with lines of white powdered quartz, trace a square in the inner part 
of the marriage hall in front of the house steps. In the square four 
stools are set, three in a line and the fourth close by at right angles 
to the three, and in front of the three stools matting is spread. The 
family priest and other Brahmans seat themselves, the family priest 
on the fourth stool, and the other Brdhmans on the mats. The 
family priest's assistant goes into the house and brings a silver plate, 
a cup, a ladle, a pot, a bamboo basket, a gourd, and a tray filled 
with flowers, fruit, and scented powders.^ When all is ready the 
family priest goes into the house and calls the parents, They come, 
the father wearing a silk turban and a waistcloth and a shawl thrown 
either round his shoulders or tucked under his arm j the mother in 
a silk bodice robe and shawl ; and the child in a cotton waistcloth 
and a handkerchief tied to the neck and hanging down the back. 
Laying a cocoanut before the house gods and bowing to the older 
men and women, they seat themselves on the three stools, the father 
next "the priest, the mother on his right, and the boy or girl beyond 
her. The priest touches with redpowder the child's and the parents' 
brows, and repeats texts, and the father thrice sips water and 
sits bowing till the priest has repeated the names of the twenty-four 
gods. The father takes a round bamboo basket, and, spreading a 
yellow cloth over it, sets on the clo^h a handful of wheat, and on the 
wheat sixteen betelnuts and six mango leaves rolled into cigar form, 
with a knife stuck into one of them, and tied with thread. Next, 
on a metal plate, the father lays half a pound of rice, and on the 
rice sets four betelnuts, three in a line and the fourth in front. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Wbiteks. 

PATJiNS PBABEUS, 

Marriage. 



GocC^allvnff, 



1 The details are : Cocoamuts, betel, flowers, basil or tulsi leaves, plantains, rice, 
cotton wicks, camphor, frankincense, sandal-powder, clarified butter, milk, curds, 
honey, sugar, turmeric powder, redlead, yellow, red, and scented powders, 



[Boin1)ay Gaietteery. 



200^ 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Fopalation. 

■Writers. 

pj-tase prabsxjs, 

Marriage. 

God-calling. 



Booth Spirit. 



Water Ooda. 



representing the god Ganesh, his two wives Siddhi and Buddhi, 
and the family goddess.- Then^ raising his joined hands, he calls 
on the god and the goddesses to come and stay in the nuts till the 
marriage is over. He then sets the nuts in another metal plate, 
pours on the top of each a drop or two of milk, some curdSj clarified 
butter, honey, sugar, and water, mixed with sandal powder, and 
holding over them a metal water-pot with a hole in it lets water 
drop on them. He wipes them dry, sets them on the rice as 
before, marks them with sandal powder, and throws over them 
a few grains of rice, some dark red and yellow powder and flowers,, 
waves burning frankincense and lighted butter lamps round thenii 
and lays before them a little sugar, a cocoanut, a plantain, two 
betel leaves and one nut, and a smalloopper and silver coin. . Again, r 
he waves lighted camphor, and, taking a flower in both his hands 
after the priest has recited texts over it throws it on the god's head. 
The whole ends with a prayer that the gods may continue kind till 
the marriage rites are over. All this .time the mother sits still now 
and then touching her husband's right elbow with the tip of the 
first finger of her right hand. The child has nothing to do. 

After the worship of Ganesh comes the calling of thebooth^spirit. 
While the child and its parents' are seated on their stools,' a 
married woman draws red lines and lays a wreath of flowers on a 
gourd, and close by the priest places a forked mango post and a pair 
of cocoanuts tied together by their fibre. A servant brings a long 
pole, and laying it down ties to its top an open umbrella, a pair of 
cocoanuts fastened by the fibre, and a bunch of mango leaves. Four' 
married girls, singing songs, wave rice over the gourd, the forked' 
mango post, and the pole. As they sing they hold a mango leaf ■>, 
cup filled with oil over the gourd, the mango post, the pole,, 
and lastly over the head of the boy. Then leaving their seats the 
father, mother, boy, and priest go to a corner ia the marriage hall - 
where a hole has been dug, and standing .in the order in which ' 
they sat, worship the hole, dropping into it a few grains of wheat,;, 
a copper coin, and a little water. A servant now sets the pole in 
the hole, fixing it in its place by filling, in earth and stones, and- 
plasters the ground round it with cowdang. A married woman 
draws lines with quartz powder, and the father, passing a cotton ■ 
thread three or four times round the pole, worships it. When this 
is done all go back and sit on their stool? as before. 

Then Ganesh is called and two brass water-pots filled with cold water 
are placed on a few grains of rice in front of the father. In the water 
is put a little turmeric and sandal powder, a few grains of rice, small 
silver and copper coins, bunches of mango leaves, a few- blades of 
bent grass or durva, and cocoanuts on the top. A cotton thread is 
thrice passed round the whole, and with the middle finger of the right 
hand the father draws four lines of sandal powder on the outside of the 
pots, and with open hands prays Varun the water-god to be kindly. 
As the father sits with his legs donbled under him resting on 
his toes, he takes one of the two pots in his open hands and with 
the potihric'e touches his brow and right shoulder and the brows of 
bis wife and child. He next poura water from the ladle on the 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



201 



powder, a few grains of rice and some flowers and betel, and finishes 
with a copper pice (^ anna), which he dips in water before laying it on 
the Brd,hman's hand.^ Lifting the water-pots one in each hand and 
crossing hands he pours water from both together in one unbroken 
stream into the m.etal plate. The parents change places, the father 
taking the mother's seat and the mother the father's, and the 
priest standing up with three other Brahmans and dipping a blade 
of bent grass into the metal plate sprinkles water over the parents' 
heads. Then the parents sit as at first on their low stools and the 
Brahmans also take their seats. The priest next lays the metal 
plate before the parents, who dip in their forefingers and touch their 
eyelids with the water, A. married woman coming from the house 
waves a lighted lamp first before the god Qanesh, then before the 
family goddess, then before the two water-pots, the priest, the father, 
the mother, and tlie child. The priest lays in the mother's lap a 
■cocoanut, two leaves and a betelnut, and with a prayer that she may 
have eight sons this part of the ceremony closes.^ 

Next to keep the house free from uncleanness and to call the 
spirits of forefathers, the father, taking four blades of bent grass 
between the fingers of his right hand, with the left hand pours water 
on his right palm, and prays the gods goddesses and ancestors to be 
present during the marriage and the next four days. Then striking 
a copper coin against the metal plate he opens the fingers of his 
right hand and lets the blades of grass fall. 

The father then takes an earthen jar called the avighna-kalash or 
hinderance-removing-jar and fills it' with rice. On the rice he sets a 
betelnut, a piece of turmeric, and a silver coin. He spreads mango 
leaves over the top, and on the leaves lays a cocoanut and winds 
cotton thread round the whole. On the outside of the jar he draws 
five lines of sandal powder, worships the jar, bows to it with joined 
hands, and pulls the round bamboo basket before him. The boy's 
mother puts the six rolled mango leaves into a metal plate, waves 
a few grains of rice thrice round the leaves, and taking in her hand 
the sixth leaf in which is the penknife, crushes a few grains of rice 
on the flbor, and replaces the leaves in the basket. The father 
places a cotton bodice, a cocoanut, betelnut and leaves, a plantain, 
and a silver coin in the basket, and prays the water-goddesses or 
jalamdtrikas to stay in his house till the ceremony is over; 

A gourd is brought in and laid on a wooden stool close to the altar. 
A son-in-law of the family, holding a shawl under his arm, and 
behind him his wife also covered with a shawl and with a metal pot 
of turmeric powder in her hands, come into the marriage hall. One 
of the married women of the family ties together the skirts of the 
two shawls, and with a sword given him by the priest the son-in-law 



Chapter III. 
Foptlation. 

Wkiteks. 

PjLtXSX PRABBlfS. 

Marriage. 



Anctitori, 



Oaneth Worihip. 



Qouri-ofering. 



1 Money or dahshana given to a Brdhman is dipped in water that it may not be 
consumed by the fire that burns in a Brdhman's hand. 

^ Either in the case of the bri,de or of the bridegroom, if the father and mother are 
dead their place is taken by some near relations, a brother and his wife or an uncle and 
aunt. Where there are no near relation any member of the same stock or gotra may 
iiit. The only exception to this rule ia that when the father is, a widower he sita 
^lone with a Ijetelnnt tucked to his waist in place of his wife. 



[Bombay Gitzetteer, 



202 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Writees. 

PATJ.irE Pbabhus. 

Marriage. 

Ood-imtaUing. 



Plantt Worihip, 



DISTRICTS. 



cuts tlie gourd in two. Th& wife rubs the two pieces with 
turmeric and steps back. Then with two more strokes the son-in- 
law quarters the gourd. The wife as before rubs turmeric powder, 
and waves a lighted lamp in front of her husband, who receives ffom 
his father-in-law either a shawl, a .tarban, or a waistcloth, and 
withdraws. 

When the presence and the goodwill of the gods are secured, the 
next step is to set them in some part of the house where they will 
be comfortable and safe. While the parents, the child, aud" the 
priest are seated as before, a married woman comes holding an 
earthen water jar, and after standing before the worshippers moves 
towards the house scattering drops of water as she goes. After 
her the mother walks with the earthen water-pot in her hands ; the 
father with the roufid. bamboo basket, and the six rolled mango 
leaf goddesses or matrikds ; the son-in-law with the drawn sword, 
the forked mango post, and the pair of cocoanuts; the priest with 
a pot containing a few grains of rice and sandal powder ; and last 
of all the child and a few under-priests. They enter the house and 
in this order go to one of the ground-floor rooms, where, some 
days before, a high wooden stool has been placed with two heaps of 
rice piled on it and the walls adorned with pictures of gods and in 
the centre with the picture of a fruit- laden mango tree. On the stool, 
on one of the heaps of rice, thomother sets the earthen pot, and on 
the other the father sets the bamboo basket* In a hole dug on one 
side of the stool, after throwingin a few grains of wheat, a nut, a copper 
and a little water, the mango post is planted, the cocoanuts are 
hung over the post, and the ground is smoothed. Then the father 
mother and child sit on stools, and the father worships the pot and 
the basket. Next, out of respect to the ancestors and as there 
are no images of them to instal, the father repeats the names of his 
own and of the priest's forefathers. When this is finished, the 
father gives the priest and eight other Brdhmans a copper coin 
and a beteinut each. 

After the marriage-gods, are installed the goodwill of the planets . 
has to be secured. The priest goes into the marriage booth, takes 
a copper plate, puts nine pounds of rice in it, and on the rice sets 
about seventy betelnuts. A servant brings a basket full of earth, 
and the priest makes a flat raised square altar. The mother fetches 
fire from the house in a tile, and the priest, rubbiug a few grains 
of rice, on her forehead and throwing some rice on the fire, spreads 
the hot cinders over the altar, purifies the firewood by sprinkling 
water over it, and then arranges it upon the fire. The priest 
worships the planets sitting on the low stool on which the 
mother sat. He goes into the -house and bringing a pound of 
cooked rice, a leaf-cup with half a pound of butter, and l08 
nine-inch sticks, twelve of each of the nine pure plants and 
trees, sits with eight other Brdhmans round -lie altar .^ One of 



1 The nine pure trees and plants of which the sticks or samidlids are made, are : 
Vmbar Ficus glomerata, aghdda Achjrranthea aspera, rui swallow- wort, dwrva bent 
grass, darbha sacred grass, hhair Mimosa catechu,- paZo* Butea frondosa, pimpal 
Vit^na rplioinsfl.. !i.Tid sha/mi Mimosa Buma. 



DeooanJ 



POONA. 



203 



the Brdhmans holds in Lis hands the leaf-cup with butter in it, 
another the grains of rice, the priest the sticks, aild two more 
repeat passages from the Veds. After the priest has kindled 
the , fire more texts are repeated, and butter, grains of rice, and 
sticks are thrown on the fire. While the eight Brdhmans are busy 
repeating texts and feeding the flame, the priest goes into the 
house, and, bringing seventeen rice-fiour lamps, places them in pairs 
round the sacred fire and lights them. A married woman comes 
from the house, draws with white powder two squares in the 
marriage hall, and placets in one square four low stools, three in a 
line and the fourth close -by at right angles, and goes back into the 
house. The priest fetches from the house a. round bamboo basket 
filled with cooked rice, and placing it in the other square^ 
sprinkles it with curds and redpowder or goat's blood, and sets a 
lighted flour lamp and a lighted torch in the basket. 

. The father mother and child again take their seats on the three 
stools and the priest on the fourth. While the priest repeats texts 
the father lays in the basket two leaves and a nut and four copper 
coins. Then a servant, lifting the basket in both hands, waves it 
three times round the child's face, and taking it away without look- 
ing behind, is followed as far as the marriage hall door by the child 
and the parents; the father, as they walk, sprinkling water on 
the ground. On reaching the door the parents and the child wash 
their feet and again take their seats in front of the sacred fire. 
The servant, without looking behind, leaves the basket in a corner 
of the strept, and taking the four copper coins returns and bathes. 
The child and the parents now stand, the father taking in his hand a 
leaf-cup with butter in it, a cbpper coin, two betel leaves and a nut, 
and walking once round the fire pours on it the contents on the sacred 
fire. Then the father holding out his open hands, the mother holding 
hers below his, and the child holding its under the mother*s, the priest 
pours three spoonfuls of water into each of their hands, and putting 
four nuts and ali<tle more water into each, they all sip a little from 
their hands.^ The father takes his seat, touches the brows of the 
eight Brahmans with sandal powder, and presents each with a 
silver coin. The priest touches the brows of the child and of the 
parents with redpowder and a few grains of rice, and taking a 
cocoanut a plantain and two betel leaves and one betelnut presents 
them with a blessing to the father, who receives them in his shawl 
and passes them to his wife. A married woman- waves a lighted 
lamp round the face of the child and the parents, and the father 
throws a few grains of rice over the sacred fires and with the mother 
and child goes into the house. Lastly the priest follows with the 
articles of worship and the day's religious rites are over. In the 
evening a dinner is given to the men friends of the house. 

About eight in the evening of the same day the kinswomen of 
the boy's family start for the girl's house^ with music and about 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Writers. 

PXtANE PBABSUg, 

Marriage, 
Planet Wonhipi 



Evil Spirili, 



Oiftt. 



' Of the four nuts, three are eaten by the parents of the boy and th6^ fourth by 
the boy when he starts for the brid&'s house on the wedding day. - , 

* The details are : Sugar figures of men, animals, houses, temples, ships, fruit, 
flowers, and trees ; twentyrone balls of pulse flour mixed with butter and sugar ; 
about fifty eocoanuts ; a miniature silver dinner and cooking set and another sot 



[Bombay Qazetteer, 



204 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Toptilation. 

Writers. 

PJ.TAirB Prabbxjs. 

Marriage. 

Giftt. 



Wedding Day. 



(H/t-makinjf. 



twenty metal trays filled witH sweetmeats, toys, aick-nacks, clothes, ~ 
house furniture, and cooking pots carried on the heads of servants. 
iWhen they reach the girl's they stand on the threshold, and the 
girl's sister comes forward, and pouring water from an earthen 
jar or kara, and waving a lighted lamp before the face of the boy's 
sister, leads the way, and- seats them on carpets in the women's hall, 
where the girl and the women of her family are assembled. The 
trays are laid down, and, after' sprinkling a little water on the 
ground, a square is traced with white powdered quartz, and a chair 
Bet in the square facing the east. A few of the toys are spread 
'before the chair, the candles and oillamps are lighted, and the clothe* 
are unfolded and laid ready for wearing. The boy's sister, followed 
by the girl and sprinkling water as she walks seats the girl on 
the chair. One of the women of the boy's family combs and braids 
the girl's hair and puts garlands of flowers on her head. She is 
dressed in a robe and bodice and a lighted lamp is waved round 
her face. After eating a little sugar she goes with a toy in her 
hand to show herself to her mother and other women. This is .twice 
repeated and the third time she stays with her mother. Then 
eocoanuts are handed round, and the boy's si.ster is given about a 
pound of sugar on a leaf -plate. The party make over the gifts to 
the girl's mother or some other elderly woman, and return to the 
boy's. The same evening or the evening after the girl's family sends 
a return present' to the boy. Except that a book, a desk, a chair, 
glass candle-shades, chess, marbles, slippers, an umbrella, a silver 
tea sot, and writing things are sent instead of cooking pots, andthat 
the boy does not go to show himself to the people of the honse, the 
practice is the same as in making presents to the girl. 

The wedding day ceremonies come under eleven heads ; gift- 
making, oil-pouring, shaving, bathing, feet-washing, fig-worship,' 
boy's procession, marriage, guest-worship, leave-taking, and return 
to the bridegroom's house. 

Early on the morning of the marriage day one of the women of' 
the boy's family. is sent to call near kinswomen. The women 
guests begin to arrive about ten, and sit chatting on a carpet spread 
in the women's hall. The women of the house fill three silver 
salvers with silver and b;-ass cups^ clothes, ornaments, and fruit.^ 



of brass; English China and Indian glass ivory and wood toys; a set of miniature 
■wooden articles of furniture ; a chair and a pair of glass candle-shades ; a looking glass ; 
tumblers with oU and ■wicks ready to light ; three robes and bodices ; and wreaths of 
flowers ; silver trajs with a rosewater stand ; a lighted lamp ; a few grains of rice ; 
eugar ; and redpowder. 

^ The details are : In the first salver a silver rosewater holder, silver cups ■with 
wet turmeric powder, wet sandal powder, redpowder, and powdered quartz ; a 
silver lamp with five partitions ; a lamp with five partitions containing redlead and 
red dark and yellow powder ; twenty -five to thirty betelnuts . and leaves and about 
a hundred eocoanuts. In tbe second salver, a high metal or wooden stool, a looking 
glass in a sOver frame, an ivory comb, a silver cup for holding red and one for holding 
turmeric powder, a silver five-inch stick, a bag worked in gold or silver holding five 
silver shells, a rupee, a gold necklace, a gold ring, a necklace of black beads, six 
glass bangles, a sUk robe, a green cotton robe, a gold-bordered silk waistcloth, and 
a irne cotton robe. In the third salver, a bunch of five plantains, a. cocoanut, two 
betelnuts and leaves, £ve almonds, five apricots, five dried dates, and a handfU bl 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



205 



About one o'clock musicians, the women guests, the family priest, 
and the boy's married brother, with servants carrying the metal 
plates on their heads or shoulders start in procession for the girl's 
house. At the girl's house, except the boy's sister, all the women 
go in. The boy's sister stands in the doorway, and one of the 
women of the girl's family comes out with a lighted lamp, and 
wkving it round her face, leads her into the house. Except the 
family priest and the boy's married brother who wait on the verSiuda, 
the guests are all seated on carpets spread in the women's hall. 
Then in the marriage hall in front of the house steps, one of the 
women of the bride's family draws a square with white quartz 
powder, and sets four stools, two facing the east in one line, a third 
in front of the two, and a fourth beside the third for the priest. 
Between the stools are set a water-pot, a lighted lamp, and a metal 
plate with rice, and- on the rice a betelnut. The boy's sister takes an 
earthen jar full of water, and, followed by the bride, walks from the 
house to the Stools, sprinkling water as she walks. On the two stools, 
facing the east, sit the girl and her father, on the stool in front sits 
the boy's brother, and on the stool on the other sits side the boy's 
family priest. Helped by the priest the boy's brother worships 
Ganpati in the betelnut placed on the rice, and the water god Varun 
in the water-pot. He ofEers the second tray filled with clothes 
and ornaments to the bride. She touches the tray and the priest 
makes it oyer to some elderly woman, who, taking the bride into 
the inner part of the house, dresses her in the new clothes and 
bringing her back seats her, as before, next her father. Then the 
girl's father and the boy's brother tie five pieces of tamarind and 
betelnuts in the corner of their handkerchiefs and leave their seats. 
Another square is traced with lines of white powder and a low 
stool is set in it. The girl is, seated on the stool ; her hair is fdr the 
first time divided with a silver stick or hhcmgsdl, combed, braided 
and decked with flowers ; a green robe is folded round her waist ; 
a gold chain is hung round her neck ; a gold ring is put on one of 
her right fingers ; silver rings are put on her toes j and she is led 
into the marriage hall, and her lap,, filled with fruit and spices 
taken from the third salver. A married woman of the family 
brings a lighted lamp, waves it round the faces of all present, 
gives the girl's brother a silk waistcloth, and withdraws. While this 
is going on in the marriage hall, two or three women of the boy's 
family go through the house with the first salver, and, wherever 
they find a married woman belonging tp the girl's family, they 
sprinkle rosewater over her, rub wet turmeric powder on her 
hands, mark her brow with redpowder, and her throat with wet 
sandal powder, and giving her two betel leaves, a betelnut, and a 
cocoanut, again sprinkle water over her. After they have done this to 
almost all the women of the girl's family, cocoanuts are handed to 
all the women present, and the party form in procession and go 
home. About two or three in the afternoon, when the boy's people 
have left, the musicians meet at the girl's house, and her mother, 
dressed in a gold-embroidered robe and bodice and mufiEing herself 
in a long shawl, with a crowd of female relations friends and 
servants carrying five large copper and brass pots full of pulse 



Chapter in. 
Population. 

Wbitbrs. 

PJiTjNE PRABHUS. 

Marriage. 
Gift-making. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



206 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Weitees. 

TAtjLsx Prasbus. 

Marriage. 



OS-offeHng. 



and flour, goes to the boy's house.^ At the Tiouse, a lighted lamp 
is waved- round the daughtef'a face, and they all go in and seat 
themselves on carpets in the women's hall. At one end of the hall, 
one of the women of the bridegroom's family traces a square with 
lines of white quartz powder and within the square sets two low 
wooden stools. In front of the wooden stools is set a high silver 
stool, and, on the stool five silver cups with-five kinds of sweetmeats. 
Next to tTie silver stool two silver plantain leaf-plates are laid and 
sweetmeats served on them. When this is done the girl's ■ sister, 
taking an earthen jar in her hand, seeks the boy, and, when she 
finds him, leads him to the women's hall^ dropping water from the jar 
as she walks. He takes his seat on one of the two low stools, and 
soon after his mother, accompanied by some elderly married women, 
takes her seat on the second low stool, next her son, the elderly 
married women standing behind her. The girl's sister then comes 
to the boy and rubs turmeric powder on both his hands, and four 
married girls, two from each family, wave rice over him, and the 
girl's sister presents him with a silk gold-bordered waistcloth. The 
girl's mother comes forward, washes the feet of both the boy and 
his mother and dries them. She then presents the boy and his 
mother with costly clothes. They take the clothes into the house 
and put them on, and coming back seat themselves as before. The 
elderly women are then given robes and bodices, and a lighted lamp 
is waved. round their faces. While this is going on the boy's sister 
or some other woman of his family, as she moves about, slips into 
the boy's hand a ball of wet turmeric powder. The boy and his . 
mother are then asked to eat some of the sweets. As they are 
eating the girl's mother offers the boy a cup of milk, and he, on 
pretence of reaching his hand to the cup, thrusts the turmeric ball 
into her mouth, or rubs it over her face. She tries to avoid the 
rubbing, and the trick causes much amusement. When this ia over 
the women are presented with cocoanuts, one from each house, and 
the procession returns. 

At about three in the afternoon eight married girls, four ^from 
each house, taking a metal plate with two betel le&,ves, one betelnut, 
a sweetmeat ball, redpowder, a little rice, a copper coin, a lighted 
lamp, and about a quarter of pound of cocoanut oil, go to Kdlikdi's 
temple. Each waves rice and redpowder three times over the 
goddess, and the last girl lays the betel leaves and nut and the 
sweetmeat ball before her, waves the lighted lamp, pours oil into the 
lamp which is kept burning before the goddess, and withdraws. 

When the women of the boy's family come back from making; 
presents at the girl's house, a barber is called, a square is traced 



' The details are : Five large pots ■with rice, split peas, split gram, wheat, and 
wheat and udid flonr ; their tumed-up lids are fall of balls of sesamum seed, grain, 
mug, and wheat flour. Besides these five pots are' a cask of oil, a box of sugar, 
bamboo baskets full of fruit and vegetables, and a salver with the following 
silver articles, a raised stool, two dining leaves, five silver cups, five baskets, a plate 
with two small boxes, a "betelnut-cutter, a lime-holder, a tree with packets of .betel 
leaves hanging from its branches, a looking glass with richly carved frame, a comb, 
two cups one for turmeric the other for redpowder, a robe and a bodice. Another 
salver contains two silk waistcloths, a rich gold-worked robe and bodice, eight or 
ten other robes and bodices, and sweetmeats. 



Deccan.l 



POONA. 



207 



with lioes of white powder, and a low stool is set in the square. 
On this stool the boy seats him self ^ and the barber shaves his head 
except the top -knot, and is paid eight pounds of rice, a rupee, a 
cocoanut, and betel. Then the boy is taken to a square traced in 
the marriage hall, where he is bathed and dried, and is led into the 
house with a lighted lamp wared in front of him. 

Shortly after returning from Kd,likAdevi's temple four married 
girls, each with an earthen pot, a metal plate with a lighted lamp in 
it, a box of redpowder, and a sugar ball carried before them, start 
for the hoiise well. They worship the well, offer it sweetmeats, 
and draw water only partly filling their pots. On coming back to 
the marriage hall they again trace a square, set the four water- 
pots one at each corner, pass a thread round them, and placing two 
low stools together go into the house. In the women's hall another 
square is traced, two stools are set, and the boy and his mother 
are seated on the stool. Turmeric powder is rubbed over them, 
and they are brought into the marriage hall and seated on the stools 
in the square. A rupee is tied in the skirt of the boy's waistcloth, 
and while the m.usician3 play the four girls sing and let water drop 
from mango leaves on the boy and his mother. When the bathing 
is over, the mother stands in her wet clothes and pours a little 
water on the feet of her nearest kinswomen, each of them in 
return dropping a silver coin into the water-pot. Then the girl's 
mother, waving a lighted lamp round her face, gives her a 
gold-embroidered robe, which she takes and walking" into the 
house puts on. When the boy is done bathing he is given a fresh 
waistcloth, a lighted lamp is waved round his face, and red lines are 
drawn on his feet. As he is putting on bis new waistcloth his 
' brother runs away with the old one, and puts it on keeping the 
rupee that was tied in its skirt. Next his maternal uncle throws a 
cotton sheet over the boy and lifting him sits with him on the 
threshold. Pour elderly married women come with a shawl in 
their hands and a little rice, cumin seed, a rupee, a betelnut, and 
a winnowing fan, and stand holding the -shawl over the boy and his 
uncle. They lay the rice and nuts on the fan, drop them into the 
shawl and then again taking them up put them back on the fan. 
This is done thrice by each of the women, and the rice, cumin seed, 
rupee, and betelnut are tied to the hems of the boy's and girl's 
clbthes. After this is over his uncle takes the boy into the room 
where the marriage gods are worshipped, and dresses and adorns him. 

Except the shaving the ceremonies at the gii-l's house, after her 
mother has returned from taking gifts to the boy's house, are the 
same as at the boy's. Then the bride is taken to the room where 
the marriage gods are worshipped to be dressed and decked for 
the wedding. 

About half-past four in the afternoon the girl's kinsmen, with 
music and flowers milk and jewels, go to the boy's house to wash 
his feet before he starts for the girl's. On reaching the boy's house 
they are received by the boy's father and his relations, and 
seated some in the marriage) hall and others in the house. The 
father of the girl goes into the house, and, seating the boy on a high 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

WKITBH3. 
PJ.TANE PbABSVS. 

Marriage. 
Stconi Bath. 



Feet-^mhing. 



[Bombay Oazetteer, 



208 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

FopTilatiou. 

Writers. 

PJ.tJ.nb Prabhus. 

Marriage. 

Feet'Washing. 



Fig Worthip. 



Proeeision. 



carpet-covered stool set in a white powder square worships him with 
the help of his family priest. He washes his feet, with milk 
and wipes them with his handkerchief; he marks his brow with 
sandal powder, puts a gold ring on one of the fingers of his right 
hand, oilers him sugar-cake to eat, sprinkles rosewater over him, 
and placing a nosegay in his hands, withdraws bowing. When 
this is over, the girl's father and the other guests are each given a 
cocoanut and a nosegay, sandal powder is rubbed on their brows, 
and rosewater is sprinkled over them. They are asked to stay 
and join the procession to the girl's house. Some of them stay, but 
the girl's father and others have to go back at once to their own 
house. Meanwhile at their home the girl and her mother are 
bathed and rubbed with perfumes, and the girl is decked in her 
yellow silk wedding dress and jewelry. 

When the feet -washing is over, at both houses the family priest 
brings a branch of umbar Ficus glomerata, and places it on one side 
of the marriage h,all. A boy who has married into the family is 
asked to cut the branch. The boy walks into the marriage hall with 
a shawl under his left arm and a sword in his right hand followed 
by his wife with a lighted lamp and by another woman. The 
woman ties together the skirts of the boy's and his wife's shawls. 
When this is done three more married women come into the marriage 
hall, and the one who tied the knot joining the other women three' ■ 
of them wave rice, and the fourth waves a lighted lamp over the 
branch.' Then the four married wgmen withdraw, and the son-in- 
law, with one stroke of his sword, cuts the branch in two. After .' 
his wife has waved a lighted lamp round his face he takes one of 
the two pieces of the branchy and walking into the house, followed ' 
by his wife, lays the branch and the sw ord near the marriage gods. { 

After the girl's father has gone, the boy is rubbed with sandal 
and other fragrant spices and decked with jewels. His waistcloth 
is of silk, talc is sprinkled on his I'ed turban, and three ornaments ''• 
are tied to his brow, the wedding coronet or hashing, a plume or crest 
on the right side, aiid an aigrette of jewels in front. Next, he is 
clad in a long white robe hanging to his feet; his loins are girt 
with a sash, and another richly wrought sash is thrown across his 
shoulders ; long wreaths of pearls or flowers fall over his chest and 
back dowti to his knees; on his' feet are a pair of red gold-embroidered . 
sho^s vf ith silk tassels, and a packet of betel leaves is given him to 
chew. His eyelids are b'acked with antimony and a tinned cocoanut 
is put in his hand, and he thrice swallows a little curds placed on 
the palm of his right hand. With the family priest he goes to the 
household and marriage gods, and, bowing before them, oifers them 
a cocoanut, and asks their blessing. Then, after bowing to the 
elders of the house, he is mounted on a richly dressed horse, and, 
besides the tinned cocoanut, holds a penknife^ in his right hand. 
The order o£ the procession is : A bullock cart with a band of pipers 
and drummers ; a row of carriages full of richly dressed children ; 
buglers walking ; a band of Muhammadan drummers ; behind the 



' Among Prabhus the penknife has taken the place of the sword. 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



209 



■drummers boys and men on foot ; then dancing-girls walking irr a 
line, and immediately behind them the boy-bridegroom on a horse 
■with gold and silver trappings. On either side of the boy a couple 
of men wave fly-whisks or chavris, another couple fan hipi with 
gilver fans, and a barber holds over him a long-handled big red silk 
umbrella. After the boy walks his mother and all the other women 
guests except widows. On either side of and behind the boy and 
the women are carried wooden frames called vddis or gardens with 
pots of artificial trees fruits and flowers.^ Then comes a bullock 
cart with about a thousand cocoanuts, four bundles each of fifty 
sugarcanes, and one hundred round bamboo baskets strung on a 
rope.^ This closes the procession. Any women of the family who 
are too weak to walk follow the bullock cart in horse carriages. 
On the way, should two prooessioils meet, the barbers lower the 
umbrellas and that they may not see each other's marriage coronet 
or bashing literally brow-horn, hold them in front of the bridegrooms' 
faces. At each turn in the street, to please evil spirits, cocoanuts 
are dashed on the ground and thrown away. 

At the girl's house the party stops at the door of the marriage 
hall, where two female servants stand with an earthen water jug 
in their hands. The bridegroom stays on his horse and some of 
the men of the party enter the marriage hall and take the seats 
prepared for them, and the rest stand outside with the bridegroom. 
On the veranda the, astrologer sets close together two silver water- 
pots filled with cold water, and in each floats a copper cup with a 
small hole in its bottom. In front of the water-pots surrounded by 
lighted brass lamps he places the marriage papers. The bride's 
maternal aunt, with a rice-flour lamp in her hand and a shawl held 
over her head at the four corners, going to the43oy, who is still on 
horseback, waves the lamp round his face and gives hitn a little sugar 
to eat, and receiving a present of clothes from the boy's parents is 
led into the house under the shawl ; then a young brother of the 
bride's or the son of some near relation is Carried in like manner 
under a shawl to the bridegroom, and squeezing his right ear, 
receives a present of clothes, and is led back into the house; 
Next, the girl's father, dressed in a silk waistcloth, a shawl on his 
body, and a silk turban on his head, with a shawl held by the four 
iCorners over his head, lays a cocoanut near the forefeet of the 
bridegroom's horse, and walking round it offers the boy sugar, and 
lifting him from the saddle carries him to the. altar in the centre of 
the hall. By this time the astrologer's copper cup fills with water 
and sinks and the astrojoger and the bride and bridegrooin's family 
priests begin to chant hymns. The bride's mother, with a few 
of her nearest relations, bringing some presents, comes to receive 
the women of the bridegroom's family. When she comes to the 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Wkiters; 

P^TjiNB PSABBUS. 

Marriage. 
Proeestion. 



''Each frame- work which ia about six feet long and one broad is borne on the 
heads of two carriers. Two of them are carried on each side of the boy and one 
behind, the space in front being left open. 

' Besides the Gocoanuts sugarcane and baskets^ the cart contains four bunches of 
plantains, 100 copper or brass round baskets, forty pounds of almonds, dry dates, 
{uxmeric, betelnut, sugar, twenty pounds of cumin and coiiander seed, forty pounds 
of flue rice, and about eighty {lounds of dry cocoa-kernel. 



[Bombay Oazetteer, 



210 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Wbitees. 

PJ.TJ.irs Prabbxjs. 

Marriage. 



Honey -nipping. 



Feei-waahivig. 



Jtice-thramTtg. 



bridegroom's motlier she touclieslier feet, bows to her, and, holding 
her by the right hand, respectfully leads her into the house ; the 
others follow, and are seated on carpets in the women's hall. The 
remaining male guests either take a sfeat in the marriage hall or in 
the house, or stand till the bridegroom and the bride are married. 
The barber also remains standing in the marriage hall with the 
urubrella open. The girl's father and mothertake their seats on 
low stools in front of the altar. The bridegroom standing on the 
altar takes off his long robe and turban and sits down with nothing 
on except his silk waistcloth. 

Then the marriage service begins with its ten rites of honey-sipping, 
feet- washing, rice-throwing,^ moment-naming, present-making, 
clothes-worship, bride-giving, oath-taking, seven-steps, and feeding. 

When all are in their places, some honey and curds are laid in 
the bridegroom's right paltn, and the priest repeats in Sanskrit, the 
bridegroom saying the wOrds after him : ' I see and take thee my 
bride with the eyes and strength of the sun ; I mix thee with honey 
and take away all that is hurtful in feeding on thee; I eat that 
sweet nourishing form of honey, and may I thus be of choice sweet' 
well-nourished temper.' Touching the several parts of his body he 
says : ' May there be speech in my mouth, breath in my nostrils, 
sight in -my eyeballs, hearing in my ears, strength in my thighs, and 
may my whole body and soul keep sound.' 

Then the bride's father washes the feet of his sons-in-law and their . 
'wives, and of the. boy's married sigters, and a lighted lamp is waved 
round their faces. A little sugar is given them to eat and with the 
present of a silk waistcloth and robe they go back into the house. 
After this the bridegroom's feet are washed with milk and water., 
and dried, and he is presented with a rick silk waistcloth with broad 
gold borders and jewelry, 

Then the bridegroom, ptitting on the new silk waistcloth and a 
silk turban, is led by the bride's father into the house at one side 
of the women's hall. Here, with his face to the west, he is made to 
stand on a large heap of rice. The bride, clad in her richest robes 
and covered with jewels, is carried in by her maternal uncle, and, 
with her face to the east, is made to stand on a second rice heap , 
facing the bridegroom. Between the bride and bridegroom, so 
that they cannot see one another, four men, if possible sons-in-law. 
of the famHies, one -of them with a drawn sword, hold a sheet of. 
unbleached cloth with red lines drawn on it. Standing by the 
bride and bridegroom the family priests and the astrologer chant 
verses, at the end of each verse calling on* the boy and girl to 
think how great a step they are taking. The girl'» sister stands by 
with a lighted rice-flour lamp in a metal plate, and relations and 
others, clustering round the bride and bridegroom, at the end of each 
verse keep silently throwing a few grains of rice over them. Now 
and then the father of the biidegroom, standing behind him with a 
long string of black glass beads with a gold button,^ asks him to 



' The gold button should be one tola in weight, but at the time of taking it from 
*he goldsmith it is not weighed ; he is paid at the bazar rate at so much per tola of 
pure gold. 



Deocanl 



POONA. 



211- 



look at the mystic figures on tlie sheet held between him and the 
bride and say over the names of the family gods; All this time 
the guests keep quiet and with the musicians wait for the lucky 
moment. 

When the lucky time is come the priesta cease chanting and the 
cloth is drawn to the north. A bugle sounds, and at the signal the > 
musicians raise a blast of music, the guests clap their hands, the 
bridegroom's father puts the black bead necklace round the bride's 
neck, and the bride thrown a garland of flowers round the bride- 
groom's neck. The astrologer touches the bride and bridegroom's 
eyelids with water, women wave lighted lamps round their faces, 
and they are seated on chairs face to face. The old women start: 
their marriage songs, the dancing-girls dance, the- barber shuts the 
umbrella, -the parents and guests embrace or exchange greetings,- 
and cocoanuts are handed to all present. 

Then the bride and bridegroom receive money and jewelry from 
their friends and relations. Each present, as it is given, is noted 
down by the boy's and girl's brothers, who stand by with paper and 
pencil. 

Immediately after, near to where the astrologer set the water-pots, 
are placed the jewelry box and other articles intended as presents 
for the bride.^ As soon as all friends and relations have given their 
presents the astrologer leads the bride from the house and seats her 
on a low wooden stool between her own and the bridegroom's 
brother. After a littie worship the bridegroom's brother gives her 
two robes, two bodices, a sash, and a jewelry box. After touching 
these and handing them to her mother, the bride takes her seat on 
the chair opposite her husband, and the ceremony doses by the two 
brothera embracing. 

An hour or so after the lucky moment, close to the bride an<J 
bridegroom's chairs, two low stools are set for the bride's father 
and mother, and in front a third for the priest. Between the stools 
are laid a cup, a ladle, and a plate, and close by another plate with 
fifty-one rupees. After the girl's parents and the priest have taken 
their seats, the girl's father sips water thrice and repeats the names 
of his twenty-four gods. Then he, his wife, and the priest leave 
their seats and go towards the bride and bridegroom''s chairs. At 
the priest's request the bride and bridegroom stand facing each 
other. The boy holds out his open hands, the girl lays her's half 
open in his, he clasping her thumbs with his. Oyer their hands 
the girl's father holds hig, open and slanting, and the mother pours 
cold water from a silver jug which running off her husband's hands 
passes through the hands of the bride and bridegroom, and, as it 
falls, is caught by the priest in a silver plate* While the mother 
pours, the priest says in Sanskrit : ' This is my daughter whom to 
this time I have nourished as a son,, I now give her to your most 
sacred keeping, and solemnly pray you to centre in her your love 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Wkiteks., 

PAhAne Prabhvs.- 

Marriage, 

Moment-naming. 



Clothee-uxKsMp. 



\ Bunches, of plantains, metal baskets, almonds, dried -dates, turmeric, betelnut^ 
sugar, cumin, coriand:er seed,, and xice,. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



212 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Writers. 

PatJ-nm Prasbusi 

Marriage. 

Oath-taking. 



Seven Steps. 



Quest-worship. 



Le^ve-taking. 



as a hpsband and to treat her with kindness.' The priest then 
repeats the names of the bride and bridegroom, their fathers, 
grandfathers, "■ great-grandfathers, and- ■ families. The girl's 
father dips fifty-one rupees in cold water and lays them in the 
bridegroom's open hands, and the ceremony closes by the priest 
giving to each old woman of the family three ladlef uls of the water 
that was poured over the bride and bridegroom's hands. 

Next at one end of the marriage hall the family priest kindles a 
sacrificial fire and sets the cocoa-kernel grindstone or pdta before 
the fire with seven betelnuts on it,, each betelnut lying on a little 
rice heap. Calling Indra, Varun, and Umdmahesh to be present, 
the bride, the bridegroom, and the bride's father sit down, the bride's 
father saying : ' You should treat her as duty bids you and not 
cheat her in religion, wealth, or pleasure.' The bridegroom thrice 
repeats : ' I will not deceive.' 

Then the bride and bridegroom leaving their seats walk thrice 
round the fire, and, on coming towards the grindstone, the bride- 
groom sitting down and repeating a Sanskrit text,-*^ lifts the great 
toe of his wife's left foot and draws it over the seven rice heaps. 
This, which is called the seven steps or saptapadd or the crossing 
of seven hills, is the chief of all marriage Writes. No marriage is 
complete until the bride has taken the seventh step. Till the . 
seventh step is taken the father of the girl may break off the match 
and marry his daughter to some one else. The rite ends by a ^ 
married woman striking the bride's and bridegroom's brows 'j 
together. ^ 

After the marriage oath the bride and bridegroom feed one another,' 
eating sweetmeats, vegetables, and rice from the same plate. 

They are then dressed and seated near each other in thehall,and 
again rise and go round among the guests marking their brows with 
redpowder. 

At the same time the guests' brows are marked with sandal 
powder and each is given two cocoanuts. From the hall the bride 
and bridegroom are taken to the women's room and other placeB 
where the elder women are. Here each one, lifting the bride in her 
arms, kisses her, and with tears in her eyes , speaks kindly to her, 
and last of all the girl bids farewell to her parents. Meanwhile 
the pao-ty are getting ready to start for the bridegroom's house. 
The bride and bridegroom are seated either on the same horse on which 
the bridegroom rode in the evening, or in an open carriage ; they are 
followed by a company of friends and kinspeople in the same order 
as they went to the briide's house.^ As they go fireworks are let off. 

The girl's father and some of his nearest relations follow for a 
few steps and then return home. 



1 The substance of the te3Ct is : May Vishnu make thee take one step for food, 
one step for strength, one step for cattle, one step for happiness, one step for pnests 
to perform sacrifices, one step for wealth, and one step for religion. 

2 Theorder is the same as in the evening, except that a servant walks in front ot 
the bride and bridegroom's horse, sprinkling cooked rice to satisfy .evil spirits, and 
that -link- boys surround the party, each carrying at the end of. a stiek a grated open 
iron bowl with lighted pieces of dried eOcoa-kernel. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



213 



In some families when the procession reaches the door of the bride- 
groom's house two servants, the one taking the bride and the other 
the bridegroom on his shoulderSj dance to the sound of music for 
about a quarter of an hour. Lines of white stone powder are drawn 
on the ground leading to the room where the marriage gods are 
worshipped and on both sides of the lines rows of lighted rice flour 
lamps are set. Between these the bride walks, her hands full of rice ; 
the bridegroom follows bending' over her, holding both her hands 
from behind, and with his thumbs from time to time forcing 
grains of rice out of them. As soon as the bridegroom comes near 
the house door his sister stops the way and does not let him pass till 
he promises her to give his daughter in marriage to her son. He 
then goes to the room where the marriage gods are worshipped, 
throwing the rice as before, and he and his wife are seated on low 
stools before the marriage gods. After performing some short rites 
the bridegroom's sister and parents tell him the bride's new name 
and this he whispers in her right ear. Meanwhile in the reception 
hall guests are seated and served with sugared milk and a handful of 
sugar folded in paper. This closes the wedding day ceremonies. 
The bride retires and sleeps with the other girls in the women's 
hall, and the bridegroom with the m.en. 

Each of the four days after the wedding is marked by some 
special rites. 

About nine or ten on the morning of the first day the bride is 
asked to serve food to the men of her husband's house. The five 
pots sent by the girl's parents are piled in the dining hall. In the 
highest is a gold necklace and in the four others are sweatmeats. 
Low stools and- leaf-plates are laid out, and when the men are seated, 
the bride without letting the pots strike together uncovers them one 
after the other. She opens the first, and seeing a gold necklace, puts 
it round her neck ; she opens the second and finding sweetmeats 
serves them to the guests uncovering each pot with great care and 
handibg round its contents. She then takes a metal .plate with a 
lighted lamp in it, and going to each guest waves the lamp round his 
face, each according to his means putting some silver in the plate. 
She then leaves the room and after the guests have eaten the sweet- 
meats they also leave. In the afternoon the bride and bridegroom 
eat from the same leaf -plate, feeding one another in the presence of 
the women and children of the house. When the meal is over 
small round betel-leaf parcels are given to the boy and girl. The 
bride holds one end of the rolled leaf in her teeth and the bride* 
groom bites off the other end. After this about fifty betelnuts are 
equally divided between the bride and bridegroom. A few girls 
side with the bride and some boys with the bridegroom, aad for an 
hour or two play games of odds and evens called ehi-behi. About 
four in the afternoon the bride and bridegroom are asked to spend 
the night at the bride's house. Before the bride _ leaves the women 
of the bridegroom's family make her presents of jewelry. Then the 
bride and bridegroom go to the nearest relations of both houses, the 
women asking the bride what presents have been given her, and 
elderly widows who have not been at the wedding give , Iter 



Chapter III. 

Fopiilation. 

Wkitkrs. 

PatIme Prabeus. 

Marriage. 

Bome-aomiaff, 



Warning. 



4/ter the Wedding. 



Visiting. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



214 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Fopiilation. 

Writers. 

PJ.TJ.ifE Pbabhus, 

Marriage. 

Second Day.. 

After. 



Third Day. 
After. 



2s. to £5 (Rs. 1-50) in cash, or they give a cocoahut both to her and 
her husband. This round of visits generally lasts till about seven in 
the evening when the bride and bridegroom go to the bride's house. 
Here they play a game of odds and evens, and about nine they feed, 
one another sitting down to dine with the men. 

During the night' the bridegroom steals his mother-in-law's 
bracelet, and early in the morning ma;kes off to his father's house. 
When the bracelet is missed, the bride, her parents and friends, - 
and the family priest go in procession to search the bridegroom's 
house. On hearing they are come the bridegroom hides, and the 
bride and one of her party start over the house searching for him, 
shouting that he has stolen a water-jug and an old pair of shoes. 
At last his hiding place is found and he is led by his wife into the 
hall and seated on a raised carpeted stool in the midst of the guests. 
Before him on the carpet sits the bride and her father. The father, 
placing before him a silver water-pot, a silver plate, and a silver cup 
and ladle worships the bridegroom, and with joined hands asks him 
to give his feet to be washed. He refuses unless they promise to 
give him whatever he asks. They agree, and he asks something 
whimsical, a cart with a pair of goats, his father-in-law's garden, or 
his house, or asks his father-in-law to give up smoking or snuffing. 
When all he asks is promised he lets his feet be washed with milk 
and water. He is then given a suit of clothes and taken to the 
bride's house. 

On the third day, about ten at night, the bridegroom, the bride,. 
and her parents and relations go with music to bring the bridegroom's , 
parents and nearest relations to their house. On the way back they 
walk on cloths which are takeiTup as they pass and again laid in 
front. On entering the bride's house the guests are seated either 
in the receiving room or in the marriage hall. Before the altar 
lines are drawn and three low stools are set. The bride and bride- 
groom are seated on the altar, and- the bride's pai-ents and the 
priest on the low stools. The priest repeats texts and the bride's- 
parents touch their eyelids with water. The bridegroom's married 
relations and their wives come in pairs. The husbands sit beside*; ; 
the bridegroom and the wives stand close by their husbands. Then 
the bride's mother pours water over the men's feet and the bride's 
father wipes them dry ; and again the bride's father pours water 
over the women's feet and the mother wipes them dry. A married 
woman waves a lighted lamp round the faces of each pair, and they 
go back to their seats with a present of a silk waistcloth' for the 
man and a robe and bodice for the woman. The feet of all the 
sons-in-law and their wives, and, last of all, the bride and bride- 
groom's feet are washed with the same ceremony. 

When the feet-washing is over, in the marriage hall in front of 
the house steps a white powder square is traced, and, on one side, 
facing the east, three low stools are set in a line and a fourth at 
right angles for the priest. In front of the three stools is placed a 
bamboo basket with five lighted rice-flour lamps, a sweetmeat ball, 
cooked rice, split peas, butter, vegetables, and cakes, a leaf-plate- - 
served with cooked rice, vegetables, split peas, and butter, and a few 



Seccan.] 



POONA. 



215 



Bweet cakes. On the otlier side the bridegroom and his relations 
sit on carpets. The bride and her parents dressed in silk seat 
themselves on the three stools and the priest on the fourth. The 
bride's father gives eight Brdhmans round bamboo baskets, with, 
in each basket, a silver two-anna piece, a cocoanut, a betelnut, 
and two almonds. Then the bride's father, taking the girl in his 
arms, seats her on the lap of each of the bridegroom's kinsmen, 
who in return put a little sugar into her mouth. The mother takes 
the bride in her arms, and' seats her on the lap of each of the bride- 
groom's kinswomen who, like the men, put a little sugar into 
her mouth, and lastof all she is seated by her father beside her 
husband, . Then the girl's mother making a twisted cloth ring puts it 
on the head of each of the bridegroom's kinsmen, and the father 
taking the square bamboo basket in both his hands touches with its 
bottom the twisted cloth ring. The bride's father then taking the 
ring in his hands places it on the head of all the women guests and the 
mother touches it with the bamboo basket. The fathers embrace, 
and the bride's father addressing the father of the bridegroom asks 
him to take care of their daughter whom they have nourished as their 
only fond child, whom they have always petted, and never allowed to 
leave her mother's side. Then the bridegroom's party taking the 
bride with them go back to his house. 

About eleven on the morning of the fourth day, at the boy's house 
three squares are drawn, one in the women's room and two in the 
marriage hall one in the middle near the house steps and the other 
on one side. In the square drawn in the women's hall two low 
wooden stools are set in a line, and on them the bride and bridegroom 
are seated. The sister, or some other of the boy's kinswomen 
tightly ties his hair in a knot, and asks the bride to untie it with 
her left hand. The bride unties the knot, puts cocoanut milk on 
the bridegroom's hair, and rubs a mixture of turmeric and rice on 
his body. Then the bridegroom has to untie his wife's hair, to put 
on cocoanut milk, and rub her with a mixture of turmeric powder 
and rice flour. A married woman now goes to the marriage hall, 
sets a low stool in the corner square, and opposite to it the grinding 
stone. • Between these ~she sets a metal plate with a mixture of lime 
and turmeric hiding in the mixture a gold finger ring, for which 
the boy and girl search and whoever finds keeps it ; she also, at eack 
corner of the square, sets a jar of cold water with a mango leaf 
floating in it and winds a thread round the jar. The bride and 
bridegroom are then led to the corner square in the marriage hall 
and seated face to face, the bridegroom on the low stool and the 
bride on the grindstone. Bach is given' a packet of betel leaves 
to chew j and while they chew f 6ur married women sprinkle water 
on their heads and sing songs. The drums beat and the bride and . 
bridegroom squirt betelnut and leaf juice on each other and from 
the metal plate throw red paint over each other. After this they 
are bathed, dried, an^ dressed, the bridegroom, in his turban, long 
robe, silk waistcloth, and shoes, and the bride in a silk robe and 
bodice. The marriage ornaments are exchanged, the bridegroom's 
being tied on the head of the bride, and the bride's on the head of 
the bridegroom. A lighted lamp is waved round them, red lines 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Wkiters. 

PAtAne PRABBlfS, 



Third Lay.. 
'After-. 



FouHh Day. 
Jfter. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



216 



DISTEICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Wkiters, 

PAtJlNE Prabhvs. 

Marriage. 

Fourth Day. 

ASter. 



are drawn on their feetj tHe silvered cocoanuts are exchangedj and 
the bridegroom raising his bride by the left hand follows his 
sister who walks before him sprinkling water from an earthen jar to 
where the third square is drawn in the middle of the marriage hall, 
Herej while the bridegroom and the bride are bathing, a bedstead 
with a large sugar-cake at each corner is-brought in and the whole is 
covered with a sheet. In the middle of the bedstead is a grindstone 
muffled in cloth spotted with wet turmeric powder and at each 
corner an earthen jar. The bridegroom and bride are seated 
on the bed near the grindstone and each of four married women 
waves rice three times round, their heads and touches their brows 
with the hems of the bride and bridegroom's clothes. -Again, taking 
both the girl's hands in their own, each of the married women thrice 
waves a rupee, a piece of turmeric, and a few grains of cumin seed 
before the boy's face. , Then taking the cumin seed, the turmeric, 
and the riipeefrom the hem of the bridegroom's robe they are waved 
before the bride. The bridegroom sits down and the bride rising 
takes the grindstone in her hands, and passes it to him saying : ' Take 
the baby, I am going to cook,' and again sits down. Then the bride« 
groom rising hands back the grindstone, saying : ' Take the baby I* 
am going to office.' After this she leaves the child on the bedstead, 
and the bridegroom lifting his wife by the left hand leads her into 
the room where the marriage gods have been worshipped. Here he 
sits on a low stool before the gods, takes his wife on his lap, and, 
with a mango leaf, sprinkles the molasses and lime- water on the figure 
of the mango tree on the wd,ll. Then, going into the women's hall 
where some married women are met, the bride and bridegroom feed 
one another. In the afternoon they are asked to go to the girl's house 
and start accompanied by the bridegroom's sister and music. Here 
in welcoming them a lighted lamp is waved round the faces of the 
three, and, except that the bedstead hangs from the roof and that 
before it is let down the "bridegroom has to give the children of the 
bride's family 10.s. to £1 10s, (Rs. 5-15) the details' are the same as 
at the bridegroom's house. When the baby-ceremony and the mangor 
tree worship are over, the boy is made to stand behind the girl, and 
each married woMan, dipping the girl's hands in a mixture of 
molasses and lime, rubs them on the boy's long robe. The mother 
of the girl draWs red lines on a wall close by the marriage gods, 
and places a grindstone below the lines. In the middle of this 
she sets a brass hanging lighted lamp surrounded by sweetmeats 
and sweet cakes, and beyond them a row of lighted rice-flour lamps. 
The boy places five to fifteen rupees on the stone, and in presence of 
the women the bride and bridegroom feed one another. 

In the evening the father and inother, and the bride and bride- 
groom, first at the bridegroom's and then at the bride's, sit in a line 
before the marriage gods, and worshipping them, throw a few grains 
of rice over them and over the floor of the marriage hall, and say : 
' Depart ye gods and- goddesses until such time as I may ask you to 
come again.-" Last of all the priest, untying- the sir cigar-rolkd. 
mango leaves, sprinkles water over the heads of the four worshippersi 

In the afternoon of the fourth day, comes the last of the marriage . 
ceremonies, the rubbing of the bride and Ibridegroom with rice-flourill 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



217 



at their own houses. The bridegroom is seated on a stool in the 
women's hall in a square of white powder, and some woman of the 
family rubs him with rice flour and takes him into the marriage hall, 
where he is seated on a low stool in a square of white powder, bathed 
with warm water, and has a lighted lamp waved round his face. He 
then goes into the house and is now free to go about as usual. After 
a few days the girl is presented with copper, or brass miniature 
cooking and other house vessels filled with rice, pulse, flour, butter, 
and oil. 

Next day, or a day or two after when the host wishes the guests to 
go, a sweet dish of pulse is cooked and served at dinner time. After 
eating the pulse the marriage guests leave. 

After the marriage ceremonies are over the boy and girl, on feast 
and high days, are asked to one another's houses, and at least during 
the first year at each visit receive clothes and other gifts. Before 
one of these visits the sight of a servant from the father-in-law's 
house often sets the bride crying.^ Coaxing threatening and 
whipping are all sometimes in vain, and the little wife from the 
time she leaves her father's house till she comes back keeps on 
sobbing. She is now apart of her husband's family. Her duty is 
entirely to her husband and his parents, who must support her 
through the wedded and if need be through the widowed state. To 
her husband's relations the young wife shows much respect. She 
stands up when they pass near her, and in talking to them uses not 
their names but some term of respect. She does not call her 
husband by any name, and whether in public or private should never 
be seen talking to him. The husband is generally kind to his wife, 
he thinks her his friend and his equal, and leaves her the full use of 
his goods. 
: In the case of the girl, between marriage and pregnancy, come 
three minor rites, lucky-dress wearing, skirt-wearing, and puberty. 

Muhurt sdda or lucky-dress wearing may take place at any time 
after a girl's marriage and before she is twelve years old. The boy's 
father consults an astrologer, who examines the boy's and girl's 
horoscopes, and names a lucky day and hour. A day or two before 
a servant is sent to tell the girl's mother when the robe is to be 
given. On the day fixed, two boys and the family priest,' with 
fifty to a hundred cqcoanuts, sugar cakes, and fruit, a robe, a 
bodice, and music are sent to the girl's house. On the floor of the 
^J;Wpmen's hall a square is drawn with white powder, and two low 
"stools are placed opposite each other, one. for the elder of the boys 
and the other for the girl. The family priest sits beside them on a 
third stool. Then the elder boy worships Ganpati and performs 
the holy-day bussing, and touching the hem of the robe with red- 
powder, presents it along with the bodice to the girl. The girl rises, 
and going into an inner room winds the robe round her waist, and 
coming back seats herself as before facing the boy, who lays in her 
lap five plantains, an orange, a lemon, a guava, betelnut and leaves, 
a few grains of wheat, and a silver coin. A married woman waves 
a lighted lamp round the faces of the priest, thegirl, and the elder 
boy, and the priest blesses the girl, drops a few grains of rice over 
the Ganpati, and taking a rupee from the boy retires. The elder boy 
B 310—28 



Chapter III. 

FopulatioiL 

Writers. 

PAtAnb Prabeus, 

Marriago, 



Parting BiimRr. 



iMcky Dress. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



218 



DISTKICTS. 



Chapter III. 

PopulatioB. 

Wbitees. 
PJ.tJ.ne Pbashus. 



Breast-robe. 



Coming of Age. 



goes home, and the younger, taking the girl with him in a carriage 
starts, -with music, for the iusband's house. At her mother-in-law'a 
the girl stays for two days and then goes home. 

A few weeks after the lucky-dress wearing comes ^Ihq 'padar-sdda 
or breast-robe. The girl is taken to her father-in-laVa house 
and. for the first time wears her robe, like a woman, drawing one end 
over her shoulders and letting it hang on the right side. In the 
afternoon of the second day, before leaving for her parents' home, the 
girl, seated on a low stool, has little children set opposite her, and her 
lap is filled with fruit as on the first day. She throws the fruit to 
the children, and after a scramble, some elderly woman of the house 
divides them between the children and the girl. The customs are the 
same as at the lucky-robe wearing except that the girl sits by the side 
of her husband instead of by the side of a toy of his family. 

When a girl comes of age an elderly married woman fills her lap 
with rice, betelnut and leaves, and a cocoanut, and waving 
a lighted lamp round her face gives her sugar to eat. She is 
sent to her husband's house in a carriage, and her mother-in-law 
takes her and leaves her in a room by herself. Little girls are' sent 
to ask kinswomen and friends. An elderly woman goes to invite 
the girl's mother, and when she comes, about three in the afternoon, 
she- changes her dress, and going to her daughter, combs and braids 
her hair, dresses her in a rich robe and bodice, and decking her with 
ornaments, seats her in a wooden frame leaning forward, her hands 
resting on her knees. On each side of the frame two- large brass 
lamps and a pair of glass candle-shades are placed, and on the floor 
in front, a silver plate with boxes for betelnut and leaves, and 
spices, and close by a silver tree, its branches hung -with packets of 
betel leaves. The music plays^ and the guests, all of whom are women 
keep dropping in from five to .eight, each as she comes having sweet 
cakes given her. When the guests are gone her mother leads the 
girl to the inner room", and taking off her ornaments makes them 
over to the mother-in-law, and after bathing and taking sugar cakes 
goes home. This is done every day for four days. About four on 
the morning of the fifth day, the mother of the girl, going to her 
daughter's house, bathes her, and then herself bathing, both the 
daughter and the mother are presented with robes a,nd bodices. The 
mother then goes home. In the afternoon, on one side of the dining 
hall, a square of white quartz powder is drawn and in the square 
two low stools are set. On these stools the girl and her husband are 
seated and their bodies are rubbed with rice-flour. Then in a square 
tracing, in the back part of the house, they are seated close -to each 
other on low stools, and the boy loosens the knot of the girl's hair 
and the girl loosens his top-knot and they are bathed. Then, on 
a square traced on one side ' of the women's hall, three low 
stools are placed, two in a line, and the third at right angles. 
The boy and the girl seated on the two stools and the pnest on 
the third, worship Ganpati, perform the holy-day blessing, wrship 
the Mdtriks that is the seven goddesses Gauri, Padma, Shachi, 
Medha, S^vitri, Yijaya, and Jaya., and perform the pyfal-event 
spirit- worship. The boy and girl leave their seats, and the priest, 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



219 



helped by ten other Br^hmans, kindles the sacred fire in honour of 
the nine planets and of Bh*uvaneshvar, the god of the universe. 
When this is oyer the boy and girl sit as before, cooked rice is waved 
round them, and is laid by the roadside to please evil spirits. After 
washing their feet, they are given new clothes and have their bodies 
rubbed with sweet-scented powder, and seating them close to each 
other in a square tracing in the back part of the house, the priest 
pours over their heads water from a rice-washing metal-pot or viroli, 
and after bathing and dressing in new clothes they take their seats 
as before in the women's hall. An earthen altar is made, Granpati is 
worshipped, and the sacred fire is lit. The ,boy touches the hem o;f 
a new robe which he gives to the girl and fills her lap with presents. 
A married woman hands the boy a small quantity of bent or durva 
grass, poonded wetted and tied in a piece of white cotton, and 
standing behind the girl and laying her head between his knees, he 
lifts her chin with his left hand and with his right squeezes into her 
right nostril a few drops of the juice of the bent grass. A lighted 
lamp is waved round their faces and the cereniony is at an end. In 
the evening the girl is seated in the frame richly dressed and decked 
with jewels. The mother and other kinswomen, and friends with 
music and trays of clothes and jewelry, go to the boy's house and 
take their seats on carpets spread in the women's hall. A square 
is traced near the frame, and on one of two low stools placed near 
each other, the boy sits, and the girl coming out of the frame sits on 
his right. The girl's mother goes to them, and waving a lighted 
lamp round their faces puts a shawl over the boy's shoulders and 
a rich suit of clothes and jewelry in the girl's hands. The other 
women follow giving presents according to their husband's means ; 
sugar cakes and cocoanuts^ are handed, and, except the mother 
and her sister, the guests leave.^ About nine at night the boy is 
seated in the frame and the girl rubs him with sweet-seented 
powder, and gives him a cup of milk to drink. He drops a silver 
coin into the cup and drinks the milk, and kissing his wife lifts her 
in his arms, and carries her in to the nuptial room which is adorned 
with garlands of .sweet-scented flowers. All this time the mothers 
;and other relations, both male and female, surround the pair. The 
boy's mother sobs, ' We have brought you so far and now make you 
over to the toils of married life.' 

In the fifth month of a woman's pregnancy a few families perform 
a ceremony called the pcmchdngne ov fifth month. ^ G-anpati is 
worshipped, sugar cakes distributed, and in the evening both the 
boy and the girl are presented with clothes. In the seventh or 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Wbitees. 

PJTJ.irE Pbabbus. 

Coming of Age. 



Pregnancp. 



1 In handing sugar cakes, and oocoanuts a married woman with a tray full of 
sugar cakes goes to each woman guest and, sitting in front of her, asks from whose 
house she has come. The guest says from her parents or mother-in-law's as the case 
may be. The hostess takes in her hand two sugar cakes and goes on giving them two 
at a time till the guest stops her and will have no more. Some women take ten or 
twenty or even as many as fifty or 100 pairs of sugar cakes and afterwards sell them 
and buy ornaments with the money. In some houses women who are known to.do 
this are watched and given just as many cakes as there are people in their houses. 
Xately, except among the rich, cakes are less freely given, each guest getting only two. 
2 Very few families perform this ceremony, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



220 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Foptilatioii. 

Writers. 

PatAnb Prabbvs. 

Pregnancy. 



Birth. 



eightli month of a woman's pregnancy the priest is called to fix a day 
for the pregnancy ceremony. On the morning of the day little 
girls go to ask kinswomen and friends, and an elderly woman goes 
to invite the girl's mother. In the afternoon the husband and wife 
are seated on two low stools; and the priest, on a third. After a 
sacred fire is kindled, Ganpati is worshipped, holyday-blessings 
performed and the planets worshipped, the boy squeezes a few drops 
of bent grass juice into the girl's right nostril, throws a garland xjf 
fig-tree leaves round her neck, and sticks a porcupine quill into her . 
hair. He next gives her a ladleful of curds mixed with two grains of 
pulse and one of barley, and asks her thrice what she is sipping. 
She each time says in reply, ' That by which women are blessed 
with children.' When this is over some elderly married woman 
waves a lighted lamp round their faces. In the evening the girl's 
mother and other women go to the girl's house, and, seating the boy 
and the girl in a square traced on the floor, give them shawls, clothes, 
and jewelry, and taking some sugar cak.es, go home. A dinner is 
given by the boy's household to both men and women relations. 
Other dinners at relations and friends' houses follow, the young wife 
receives presents, and in every way meets with the greatest care 
and kindness. In the eighth or ninth month of her first pregnancy 
the young wife, who is often not more than fourteen, is seated in a 
palanquin and sent with music to her father's house. As she goes, 
at every corner of the street, to please evil spirits, cocoanuts are 
dashed on the ground and thrown away. 

From the time the girl goes to her father's house she is fed 
daintily and decked with flowers. A midwife, generally one known 
to the mother's family, attends the girl, and when the girl's time 
comes is called in. The young wife is taken to a warm room and 
one or two of the older women of ~ the family gather round her. 
Outside of the room the girl's father or some other of the older men 
of the house stands with &, watch in one hand and with the other 
tells his beads, promising much to the gods and goddesses if they 
will grant the girl a safe delivery. Care is taken that the birth may 
happen at a lucky moment, and should the mother suffer severely, 
Br^hmans are hired to read sacred books or to tell beads both in their 
houses and temples. As soon as the child is born the girl's father or 
some one of the older men of the house notes the time, and a metal 
dinner plate is beaten as a sign of joy, the women rejoicing over the 
mother as one brought back from death. Till the mother is washed and 
laid on a cot, the babe is put in a bamboo winnowing fan. It is then , 
washed in warm water, its navel-cord cut, its head squeezed to give it 
a proper shape, its nose pulled to make it straight, and the cartilagft 
of its ears bent. It is bound in swaddling clothes and laid beside its 
mother on the bed, and a bit of karvi Strobilanthus grahamianus, and 
a penknife are laid under the pillow to ward off evil spirits. Word 
is sent to the husband's family, sugar is handed, and the midwife is 
given four to ten shillings, rice, betel, a cocoanut, and a robe. The 
room-door is covered with a blanket, and an iron bar is thrust 
across it. A dim-shining brass lamp burns near the child's face. The , 
Brother is given a packet of betel leaves, myrrh or iol, a mixture of i 
hohev and butter, sdaaraota that is the fruit of the Guilandina ' 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



221 



bonducella and butter, myrrli mixed with molasses, and myrobalan 
powder mixed with molasses. For forty days she drinks nothing 
but water in which a red-hot iron has been cooled, boiled with cloves. 
For three days she eats a coarse wheat-floiir paste mixed with 
molasses and butter. On the eleventh day she has wheat cakes 
boiled in hatter, and, from the twelfth to the fortieth, rice mixed 
with black pepper and butter. After the fortieth day she takes her 
usual food, rice, vegetables, or fish, as suits her best. For forty 
days she does not leave her bedroom without a hood, a thick blanket 
thrown over her body, and slippers. Every evening the babe is 
rubbed with parched gram powder and the white of 'an egg, and 
bathed in hot water. Before drying the child, the midwife takes 
water in a metal pot, and waving it thrice round, that the child's 
misfortunes may be on her and no evil eye may look at it, stands up, 
pours water over her feet, and touches the child's brow with dust. 
Then she marks the child's brow and cheeks with soot, and taking a 
few grains of mustard seed waves them round the child and throws 
them into the fire. For the first three days, the child is fed by 
sucking a cloth soaked in coriander juice. For ten days after the 
birth both the wife's and husband's houses are unclean, and there is no 
worship and no prayers. That evil spirits may not choose this time , 
to enter the house, a Brahman, every evening, holding in his hand 
a pinch of ashes, repeats charms and spells, and gives the ashes to 
some one in the house to rub, on the child's brow and lay under its 
pillow. With the same object the midwife draws ash -lines at the 
house-door and at the door of the mother's room. Any one coming 
into the house must, as he enters, look round and drive off any spirit 
that may be following him, and wash his feet and hands. If he is 
not a member of the family he must bring some sugar cakes or 
clothes. It is unmannerly to go to a new-born babe empty-handed. 
On the evening of the day of birth, or on the next day, the 
father of the child, the astrologer, the family priest, and kinspeople 
and friends go with music to the mother's house. They are met by 
the mother's parents and seated, the men guests in the hall and the 
women guests in the women's room. The astrologer is handed a slate 
and pencil and paper pen and ink. He takes from the wife's father 
a note of the time of birth and sits in the midst of the company 
calculating. When the horoscope is ready he reads it aloud, almost 
always foretelling for the child talent, comfort, success, and long life. 
Then touching the brow of the oldest man in the father's family, he 
makes over the horoscope to him with a blessing. While this is 
going on, in the inner part of the house, the father of the child, 
sitting on a low stool in a square traced on the ground, worships 
Ganpati and performs the holy-day blessing. He rubs a little gold 
and honey on a atone, takes it in a silver cup, and going into the 
lying-in room, dips a gold finger ring into the cup, and in presence 
of some kinspeople lets a drop fall into the child's mouth. If the 
birth hour be unlueky the father has to undergo penances • and he 
does not see the child's face for fear he should loose his own or the 
child's life. When the lucky hour comes, he worships Ganpati and 
performs the holy-day blessing, kindles a sacred fire, and placing 
the child on a piece of red cloth in a winnowing fan, lays him before 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Writers. 

PAtJ-NE Pbabhus. 

Birth. 



Pint Day. 



[Bombay Gazetteer;' 



222 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
FopiQatiou. 

WniTEKa. 

PJ.TJ.nrB Pbabsus. 
Birth. 



lyth Sight. 



Tenth Day. 



the face of a cow^ and lets honey drop into his mouth. In honour of 
the birth a feast is given by the molsbor's father. Dancing-girls 
amuse the guests, milk, cocoanuts, and sweet cakes are handed round, 
the astrologer the priest and other Br^hmans are paid, and the 
guests leave. 

The third day after the birth the child and the mother are bathed^' 
and the mother first suckles the child.^ In the mother's, room two 
long lines of white powder are drawa and divided, if the child is a boy 
into eleven and if a girl into ten spaces. In each space is placed a 
betel leaf touched on the top with soot redpowder and turmericj 
boilied gram, cooked horse-radish leaves, aad cocoanut scrapings 
mixed with molasses. Close by a square is traced on the ground 
and a low stool is set in this square. In front of the stool are laid 
a metal plate with a lighted lamp, redpowder, a few grains of rice, 
a sugar cake, a cocoanut, and close by a full water-pot and. ladle. 
The mother is seated on the low stool, her hair is combed, and the 
child is laid in her arms.' Then the. brows of both the child and 
the mother are touched with redpowder and a few grains of rice. 
Bits of sugar cake are put into their mouths, a cocoanut is laid in 
the mother's hand, and a lighted lamp is waved round their faces. 
Then placing the cocoanut on the ground, the mother sitently raises . 
the ladle from the water-pot, and taking a little water sprinkles 
it on the child's body, and throws a few grains of rice on the leaves; 
The guests, who are little boys- and girls, are sent home after eating 
boiled gram and cocoanut scrapings. 

The fifth night is a time of much danger to the child. Sathi, the 
goddess of that night, is worshipped by some elderly married 
woman of the family with presents of fruit and is besought to take 
care of the babe.^ A blank sheet t)f paper with pen and ink is laid 
near the goddess that she may write the child's fate, and a drawn 
sword is left leaning against the wall. The father of the child, 
with some relations and friends, goes to his wife's house with 
presents. He worships Granpati, gives the midwife two to ten 
shillings in cash, and receiving sugar cakes- returns home.^ That no 
evil spirit may steal in watchmen are set to guard the house, and 
outside, till daybreak, servants sing by turns, and, according to the 
father's means, are paid two to ten shillings.- The midwife is seated 
near the child, and that she may not sleep is closely watched by the 
elder women of the house. 

On the tenth day the mother and child are bathed, and their clothes 
washed, the -whole house is cleaned, the floors are smeared with a 
mixture-of cowdung and water, and cow's urine is sprmked all over 
the house. After bathing and dressing in fresh clothes, to free them 
from impurity, each member of -the household thrice dnuks about 



1 The practice of not suckling a cHld tiU the third day is dying out. . ^^sr 

2 In some families, along with the fruit, fried pulse, grain, a cock, aad a tumwer 
of liquor are offered. AU these are given to the midwife. 

3 The present consists of butter, sugar, betelnut and l?a^«/' ™f.' ^o^^^'Xl. 
suits of embroidered and plain clothes, an-urabrella, a pair of English shoes, bMok 
ings, gold silver and pearl ornaments, wood and metal, boxes for holdmg cioveB, 
..innaTYiriTi viiif.mflcr tnn.nA. fi.'nd other articles.. 



Deccan,] 



POONA. 



223 



a teaspoonfnl of the five cow-gifts.'- Tlien the men of the father's 
family change their sacred threads and drink the five cow-gifts. 

Under the head Infancy come eight rites, naming, thirtieth day, 
fortieth day, ear-boring, vaccination, teething, hair-cutting, and 
birth-day. 

On the tenth, eleventh, or twelfth day, but sometimes not till the 
hundred and first day after birth, the child is named. About four 
in the evening the women of the father's house go to the child with 
presents of clothes, and putting a large sugar-cake on each of the 
four corners of the cradle, lay the child in the cradle, and swing 
it, calling the child by a name chosen in its father's house. The 
mother's relations give the child another name ; but a child is 
generally known by the name chosen for it by the father's family. 

On any day between the twelfth and the thirtieth a servant brings 
into the house a copper pot full of cold water, and placing it in a 
square traced on the floor of the women's hall, the mother, who is 
seated on a low stool in another square, worships the water-pot. 
When the worship is over, she takes- in her hand a piece of white 
cloth, and putting a little turmeric powder in it, is asked by an 
elderly married woman, who, at the same time waves a lighted lamp 
before her face, where she is going with the cloth. The mother 
answers : ' To the well to wash' my child's clothes.' 

_ On the fortieth day the mother is bathed, a necklace of new beads 
is tied round her neck; and new glass bracelets are put on her wrists. 
The bracelet-seller is given two shillings, eight pounds of rice, a 
cocoanut, and betelnut and leaves, and .bowing low retires, praying 
that the woman may never be a widow and may be blessed with 
eight sons. The young mother is again pure, and her relations and 
friends come bringing presents of clothes and sugar cakes. With 
this ceremony the days of confinement end. 

Two to five months after, on a lucky day, a boy, seated in a palan- 
quin, is sent with music, from the husband to the mother with clothes, 
small silver pots, and gold and silver ornaments, toys, and about a 
hundred cocoanuts and sugar cakes. At the house the boy is seated 
on a stool, and the mother and babe are dressed in new clothes and 
go to the father's house. On the way, to please evil spirits, at each 
turn of the street a cocoanut is broken, and on reaching the father's 
house the child's aunt or other kinswoman, lifting the child in 
her arms, stands with it on the veranda, and another woman waves 
a pot full of cold water round the child's head, throws the water 
away, and takes the child into the house, followed by the mother. 

When the child is between six and twelve months old comes the 
ear-boring or Mnm'ndaMe. A girl's ear is bored in three places, 
in one part of the lobe and in two places- in the upper cartilage. 
About a year after the ears are healed her nose is bored. _ The hole 
is generally made in the right nostril. But if the child is the 
sabject of a vow, the left instead of the right nostril is bored, the 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Writers. 

PJ-tJjifs Pbabbus. 

Infanoy, 

Nammg, 



Thirtieth Day. 



Fortieth Day. 



Ear-ioring. 



1 The five cow-gifts are clarified butter, curda, inilk, oowdung and cow'b urine. 



[Bombay Gazetteer. 



224 



DISTRICT'S. 



Chapter Illr 

PoptQation. 

Writers. 

PJ.TJ.ifE Pbabbvs. 

Infancy, 

Ear-boring. 



TaceinaUon. 



nose-ring is worn in tie left nostril, and the child is called by such 
names as, stone or Dhondibdi, beggar or Bhikubdi, sweepings 
or Qovarahdi. In such cases after marriage the mother-in-law 
bores the left nostril, and at. the husband's expense puts in a rich 
new nose-ring. In a boy the lobe of both ears and sometimes the 
upper cartilage of the right ear are bored. If a woman, who has 
lost one or more sons, has another, that he may be thought to be 
a girl, she bores his right nostril, and puts a nOse-ring into it, 
sometimes giving him a silver anklet to wear, and calls him stone 
or Bhondu, or beggar* Bhikii or FaJcir.^ In boring the ears and 
nose the hole is made with a needle and black cotton thread tied 
like a little ring. The wound is fomented with boiled cocoanut oil 
and the child is dieted to guard against inflammation. When the 
wound is healed a gold ring is passed through each 'of the holes,' 
and afterwards a heavier ring is worn circled with pearls and' 
precious stones. As a rule two holes are first made, and when the 
place is healed a third hole is bored. The borer, who is generally 
a goldsmith, is paid Sd. to 6d. (2-4 as.) a hole. For the first 
boring he is given a rupee, about eight pounds of rice, a cocoanut, 
and betelnut and leaves. 

When the child is five or six months old, some vaccinator who 
is known to the family is sent for, and operates in three places on 
the right arm and in two on the left.^ On .the third day he again 
calls and examines the wounds. If the lymph has taken, the god- 
dess Shitalddevi is supposed to have entered the child, who is sacred, 
treated with respect and spoken to as devi, that is the goddess. A 
silver pot filled with- cold water is set in some clean spot, English 
Chinese and Indian toys are laid round it,> and at liight the place is 
lighted. The mother dresses in white and does not wear the usual 
mark on her brow. Morning and eveniug she waves burning 
frankincense and a lighted lamp round the child's face, the swinging 
cot, and the water-pot, and bows before them. She touches nothing 
impure. Neither the men nor the women of the family eat fish or 
flesh, and go to no marriages, funerals, dinner parties, or processions. 
The husband sleeps apart from his wife, and none of the women of 
the family, who may be ceremonially impure, walk about the house, 
or talk loud. Morning, noon, and dusk, the women seated on 
swinging cots, sing songs in praise of the small-pox goddess, and 
the whole care of the household is centered in the child. If a 
stranger comes into the house, he has to sprinkle cow's uriue on 
his feet with a lime-tree twig, and speak to the child kindly and 
reverently as though addressing the goddess. On the morning of 
the seventh day after the lymph took, a girl is sent round to ask 
female relations and friends, and a written invitation is sent to men 



1 These nose-rings and anklets are worn till the thread-girding time. They are 
then taken off and given in charity. 

2 Br^man vaccinators are most popular. They are paid 2«. to is. In some 
families children are not vaccinated, the parents waiting tiU they are attacked by the 
small-pox. Then ceremonies like the above are performed, and iu addition, Hmdu 
male or female devil-daucera are called in. 



DeccauJ 



POONA. 



225 



to be present- at the ast-rubbing or vibhut. About ten in the 
morning, in front of the water-pot, a square is traced with powdered 
quartz, and in it figures of men, animals, houses," and fruit- laden trees 
are drawn. In the square a low stool is placed and in front of the 
stool two silver plates are laid, one with scented powder or abir, 
the other with cowdung-ashes or vibhut. Lighted metal and glass 
lamps and burning frankincense-sticks are mounted on brass and 
silver stands. From four in the afternoon women bpgin to come, 
bringing trays of sweetmeats, flowers, and fruit. The mother, 
dressed in a rich suit of white, comes with her child in her arms, 
and seating it on the low stoolj humbly, as if addressing the goddess, 
asks it to accept the offerings. Then rubbing the ashes and the 
scenT;ed powder *on the sores, she again begs the child to accept 
the sweetmeat's, fruit, and other offerings. Then the salvers are 
emptied, a little of each article being left in each salver, sugar-cakes 
are handed, and the women go home. About eight in the evening 
men begin to drop in, and after fruit and a cup or two of spiced ■ 
milk served in English dishes and oh tables, sugar-cakes are handed 
and they leave. A fortnight after the vaccination day, the 
nearest relations are called, and at noon, with music playing, the 
child and its parents relations and friends go to the temple of the 
goddess Shitalddevi. Here the mother pouring pot after pot of cold 
water upon the image's head, sits with her husband and child before 
the image, the priest murmurs verses, and the mother throws rice, 
flowers, and redpbwder on the goddess and bows low. They then fill 
the laps of married women and giving them pieces of watermelons 
go back to the child's house. Here they are served with a rich 
^'dinner, with a dish of spiced mjlk, and leave after throwing water 
from'the water-pot into a well. In the evening a rich dinner is 
given to the men. After this, lest other children should be 
attacked with small-pox, no songs are sung in praise of the goddess. 

When a child begins to cut its first tooth,it is dressed in trousers 
cap and shoes^ and loaded with ornatnents, and, accompanied by 
servants, is sent to the houses of relations, with either silver or brass 
cups and sweetmeats. At each house the servant puts a little 
sugared gram into a cup, goes in, and lays it before a mai-ried woman. 
Then the women gather round the child, smiling, and touching its 
cheeks. In this way the child goes from house to house till about 
seven or eight at night it is taken home. Only the well-to-do keep 
this custom. 

For the hair-cutting the boy is made to sit either on his father's 
lap or on a low wooden stool, a new handkerchief is spread 
over his knees, and sometimes a silver water-cup is set beside 
him. The barber shaves the boy's head, leaving two tufts of hair, 
a top -knot and a forelock. When the shaving is over, the women 
of the family, as the barber's perquisite, let sugar-balls roll down 
the boy's head into the handkerchief, and the barber is given 
one rupee, eight pounds of rice, a cocoanut, betelnut and leaves, 
the handkerchief, and the silver cup. The forelock is from time to 
time cut and kept short and the top-knot is allowed to grow into a 
long lock or shendL 
B 310—29 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Weitees. 
PJtJne Pbabbus. 



Vaeeination, 



Havr-cuttimg. 



226 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



DISTEICTS. 



.Chapter III. 

Population. 

.Wkitebs. 
PJ.tJ.nb Pbabbvs, 

Thread-girding, 



In well-to-do families on their birthdays, boys are generally 
given a new suit of clothes and ornaments j relations and friends 
are treated to a cup of spiced milk, and singing and dancing go on 
the whole night. The birthday is kept sometimes till the child is 
girt with the sacred thread, sometimes till he is married, and 
sometimes till he is a father. 

A boy's munj or thread-girding may take place at any time between 
four and ten. The parents ask the astrologer who sees the boy's 
horoscope, calculates, and fixes the day. On some lucky day about 
a week before the ceremony, a quarter of a pound of turmeric, of 
redpowder, of coriander seed, of molasses, and of thread are brought . 
^from the market and laid before the family go<^, Two or three 
days after, from the house of the boy's father,- a party of boys and 
girls with music go to ask the people of their caste to the ceremony. 
A booth, or porch is built in front of the house, and the chief women of 
the family go to ask their kinswomen both for the thread-girding 
and for the dinner, begging the mother of one of the sons-in-law to 
send her son for the gourd-cutting. . On the same day the head of 
the family asks men relations and friends by letter. Next day the 
boy is rubbed with turmeric and the same rites are gone through 
as before a marriage. About three in the afternoon, such of the 
guests as are married women are served with a rich dinner. At 
the head of the row of guests sit the boy and his mother in a square 
space traced with white powder on the threshold of the room. 
Before they begin to eat, a morsel from the plate of each guest is 
set before the boy and his mother and tasted. The mother is then 
, served on a separate plate close by the boy. In the back yard of 
the house an altar is built, tho same as the marriage altar except 
that it is measured by the boy's and not by the girl's arm. The 
same night male guests are entertained at dinner, musicians come, 
'and a store of earthen pots is laid in. Early in the morning of the 
thread-girding day lines are drawn in the booth and two low stools. .. 
are set within the lines. The boy and his mother sit on the stools and 
with songs and music are bathed by a band of young married girls. 
After they are bathed lighted lamps are waved round them and.they go 
-into the house. On one side of the entrance hall lines are drawn and 
the boy is seated on a low stool. The boy's mother's brother and 
his father's sister come to him. The mother's brother puts a gold 
ring on the boy's right little finger and with a pair of silver scissors 
cuts some hair off his forelock, and the aunt catches the hair in a silver 
cup filled with milk. The barber sits in front of the boy and shaves 
his head except his top-knot. When the shaving is over, the 
women of the family roll sugar-balls and silver coins down the boy*s 
head into a handkerchief spread over his knees; . These are given to 
the barber, and also a new tiirban or a handkerchief, rice, betel, and 
a cocoanut. The boy is a second time bathed in the booth, rubbed 
dry, and a lighted lamp is waved round his face.. Then his maternal 
uncle, covering him with a white sheet, carries him in his arms to 
the veranda. Here again a lighted lamp is waved round his face 
, and he is carried into "the room where the goddesses have been 
worshipped. After a short time the boy eats from the same plate, , 



Deceaa.1 



POGNA. 



227 



as his mother along with eight boys who wear the sacred thread but 
are not married. When the meal is over, presents are made to 
the eight companions, and the boy is washed and taken to the 
room where the goddesses have been worshipped, decked with 
ornaments, and led to the altar on one side of which his father sits 
with his face to the east. The guests begin to come and either sit 
in the hall or stand near the altar. The boy stands opposite his 
father on a heap of about eight pounds of rice facing him. An 
unbleached cloth marked with red lines is held between them, and, 
till the lucky moment comes, the astrologer,-the family priest, and 
other BrAhmans repeat texts. The boy's sister stands by with a 
lighted rice-flour lamp in a metal plate, and relations and others 
gather round the boy, and at the end of each verse keep silently 
throwing a few grains of rice over him. At the lucky moment the 
priest stops chanting and the cloth is pulled to the north, a bugle 
sounds, and at the signal musicians raise a blast of music and the 
guests clap their hands. A piece of silk cloth fastened to his waist- 
band is passed between the boy's thighs and tucked into the waist- 
band behind, the sacred thread is put over his left shoulder so as to 
fall on the right side, and a string of munj grass Saccharum munja, 
together with a piece of deer hide is bound round his middle. The 
boy is now ready to hear the Gayatri mantra or holy text. He 
bows to his father, is seated on his father's right knee, and, in 
an undertone, the words of the hymn are whispered in his right ear. 
Lest the words should be overheard by a woman or by a man of low 
caste, a shawl is thrown over the father's head and the guests talk 
together loudly or repeat a hymn in praise of the gods. After 
this kinspeople and friends present the boy with gold, pearl, or 
diamojid rings, or money. The family priest takes away the riee 
heap and kindles the sacred fire in the middle of the altar. The 
observance ought to last five days, the sacred fire being kept alight 
and the boy touching no one. But as few families can afford to spend 
five idle days, the fire is usually put out on the evening of the first 
day. In the afternoon the mother of the boy, with a number of 
kinswomen and friends, goes with music to her parents' house. 
She receives clothes and other presents, and leaves after sugar-cakes 
■and cocoanuts have been handed round.'' On the mother's return 
comes the begging ceremony. The boy stands near the altar with 
a beggar's wallet round his shoulder and a stafE in his hand, and 
begs, and each man and woman gives him a sugar-ball and a silver 
or copper coin. After this the kinsmen and kinswomen are 
served- separately with a rich dinner. About eight or nine at night 
the boy starts on a pilgrimage nominally to Benares, but in practice 
to his mother's father's house. When he is gone the guests sit in 
the receiving hall, and about ten form a procession and with music 
follow the boy to his grandfather's. 

On their arrival the boy is seated on a high carpeted stool, and 
his maternal uncle dresses him in a rich suit of clothes. Sugar-cakes 



Chapter IIL 
Population. 

Writers. 

PJtJNS PBABBUa. 

Thread-girding. : 



^ The presents are : Silver or brass plates, ladles, cups, looking glasses, silver brow- 
marks, cups for sandal powder, a gold or cotton sacred tbread, a low wooden stool, 
a silk waistcloth, and a rupee in cash, the whole worth 8». to £5. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



228 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Foptilatioii. 

Writers. 

PItAnb Pbabhus, 

Thread-girding. 



Deaths 



and cocoanuts are served and the party returns with the boy to his 
father's. Then the guests take their leave after a parting cup or two 
of spiced milk and some betelnut and sugar. At night the guardian 
deities of the thread-girding are bowed out, and the next day the 
boy is rubbed with rice flour and goes back to his every-day duties. 
A day or two after the guests have gone special sweet dishes are 
cooked and five to a hundred Brdhmans are fed. While taking 
their dinner the Brahmans by turn repeat hymns, joining in a 
chorus at the end of each hymn. When dinner is over, betelnut 
and leaves are served, and, except the family priest and one or two 
learned Brdhmans who are paid one to two shillings, each is given 
l^d. to Zd. (1-2 as.) After distributing these gifts the host stands 
with his turban on his head and his shawl in his open hands before 
the seated Brdhmans, who repeat the usual blessing for the gain of 
money, corn, cattle, children, and long life, and at the end throw 
grains of rice over the host's head and into the shawl' held in his 
hands. 

A few hours before death the family priest brings in a cow with her 
calf, marks the cow's • forehead with red and salutes it by bowing 
and raising his joined hands. The eldest son or other near kinsman 
of the dying man pours into the dying mouth a ladleful of water 
in which the end of the cow's tail is dipped. The priest is given 10s. 
to £1 10s. (Rs. 5-15) as the price of the cow, and a learned Brdhman 
is called to read the sacred books or Gita.^ In the name of the 
dying man rice pulse and money are given to Brd,hmans and other 
beggars, and a spot in the women's hall is strewn with sacred grass 
and sweet basil leaves. On the grass and leaves the dying is laid the 
feet towards the outer door, and a few drops of Ganges water, a leaf 
of sweet basil, and a particle of gold are put in the mouth. The nanie 
of the god Rdm is called aloud in the dying man's right ear and he is 
asked to repeat it. The eldest son sits on the ground and taking 
the dying man's 'head on his knee, comforts him till he draws his last- 
breath, promising to care for the widow and children. The body is 
covered with a sheet, and the women sit round weeping and wailing. 
The men go out and sit bareheaded on the veranda, and servants 
start to tell relations of the death. About £2 is handed to friends, 
who go to the market and bring what is wanted for the funeral.^ 
When they come back, they busy themselves in making the body 



' No cow is given in the case of children. 

a Things wanted for a funeral are always brought from the market ; they are never 
taken from the house. The details are : For a woman's funeral, two bamboo poles, 
two split bamboos, 20 yards of fine cotton cloth, coir rope, date mattmg, basil leaves, 
a flower wreath, 1 large and 5 small earthen pots, sandalwond, 1200 cowdung 
cakes, clarified butter, six large wooden posts, 1 to li khandis of wood, dry palm 
leaves, tobacco and country cigars, parched grain, a cocoanut, matches, two copper 
coins, one winnowing fan, a dish and a copper pot, wheat flour, pounded turmeric, 
red and scented powder, camphor, plantain leaf, white clay, dried clay, myrabolans, 
sesamum, rice, betelnut and tobacco, lime, five plantains, one cocoanut, a smaU 
looking glass, a comb, a small wooden box, bangles, wheat, and betel. 

Tort man the detaUs are the same as for a woman, except that plantains and otner 
fruits are not wanted, and that about ten yards less of cloth is used in the shrouo. 
If a child's body is burned, its funeral costs about Es. 3-5-0. Of this 4 mnm go lii 
cloth, 4 anna in cowdung cakes, 1 anna for a clay pot, and about Ks. 3 in hrewooa. 
~ - * ■ •■ • ■ _u°..4.ij-ii c„ li *.,.. .i;r.m..<» the crrave and 4 an«(M tor sail. 



_i-;lj 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



229 



ready. Outside of the house the chief mourner and his brother, 
if he has brothers, are bathed one after the other, and their 
mustaches and except the top-knots their heads are shaved and their 
nails pared. The chief mourner is dressed in a new waistcloth, and 
a shouldercloth is twined -with his sacred thread. Near the feet 
of the body rice is cooked, made into balls, and laid at its feet, 
and then taien and placed on the bier near the head.^ The nearest 
male relations followed by the women carry the body through the 
main door and lay it on the house steps on a small plank, the head 
resting on the steps. Round the head the women sit weeping, the 
men standing at some distance. A second rice ball is laid near 
the feet and the third is placed on the bier. A pot of cold water is 
brought from the well and poured over the body, which is hidden 
while it is being dressed. Elderly women dress a woman's body 
in a full suit of new every-day clothes.^ If the dead woman 
leaves a husband, her lap is filled with fruit and flowers, and a 
lighted hanging brass lamp is waved round her face, and without 
putting it out is thrown on one side upside down. Each married 
woman present takes a little redpowder from the dead brow and 
rubs it on her own brow, praying that like her she may die before 
her husband dies. A man's body, except the waistband, is left bare, 
yellow powder is rubbed on the brow, garlands of sweet basil leaves 
are thrown round the neck, and he is laid on the bier and covered 
with a sheet. If he leaves a widow of more than fifteen, old widows 
lead her into a room, her bodice is stripped, her glass bangles are 
broken on her wrists, her lucky necklace of black beads is torn from 
her neck, and her head is shaved. The. hair, the broken bangles, 
and the lucky string of black beads are rolled in her bodice and 
laid near the head of the dead. 

The bier is raised on the shoulders of four of the nearest male 
relations, and is carried out feet first close after the chief mourner 
who' walks with an earthen pot of burning cowdung cakes 
hanging from his hand in a three-cornered bamboo sling. With the 
chief mourner walk two other men, one holding a metal pot with 
the rice which was cooked near the feet of the body, and the other 
a bamboo winnowing fan with parched pulse and small bits of 
cocoa-kernel, which, as he walks, he throws before him to please the 
evil spirits. Of the men who have come to the house some follow 
bareheaded, saying Rdm Rdm in a low tone ; the rest go to their 
homes. The body is carried at a slow pace, the chief mourner 
keeping close in front that no one may pass between the fire and 
the body. No woman goes to the burning ground. The friends 
take the women and the children and bathe them, get the floor 
where the body was laid, the veranda, and, which is never done 
at any other time, the house steps washed with water and 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Wbitbks. 

PJ.TJNS PrABHUS, 

Death. 



^ The tier is made of two solid bamboos in the shape of a ladder, strongly bound 
with a coir string. On the ladder is laid a piece of date matting covered with a white 
sheet. 

2 A widow's body is dressed in a white robe, her brow is rubbed with white 
powder, and the body is laid on the bier covered with the winding sheet. A married 
woman's body is not covered with a winding sheet, A man's \>oSg is covered, except 
the face. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



2sa 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

^ Wkitbes. 



cowdung, arrange for the mourner's dinner, and go lionie. On nearing 
the burning ground a small stone called ashma or the soul is picked 
up. To this stone as a type of the dead funeral cakes and offerings 
are made. Further on, the. litter is loweredj, a ball of rice and a 
copper coin are laid on the ground, and, without looking back, the 
bearers change places, and for the rest of the way carry the bier in 
their hands. 

At the burning ground, where the pile is to be raised, a small 
hole is made, and filled with water and in the hole blades of sacred 
grass and sesamum seed are laid. Prom the earthen pot fire is 
dropped on the ground, and, while the priest says texts, the chief 
mourner kindles the holy fire. When the pile is ready, the chief 
mourner draws three lines on the ground with a piece of firewood, 
and from the hole sprinkles water on the pile. The bearers pour 
water on the body, lift the litter three times, touch the pile, and lay 
the body on it with the head to the south. Prom a small-stick 
butter is dropped into the mouth," nostrils, eyes, and ears. Five 
small unbaked wheaten balls are laid, on the mouth, on each 
shoulder, on the brow, on the navel, and on the breast, and, if a 
person has died on an unlucky day, rice-flour figures of men are 
laid beside it. When this is done, each man lays on the breast a 
small piece of sandalwood. The chief mourner, taking a little 
water and few blades of sacred grass, walks round the pile. 
Layers of cakes are heaped over the body, and it is mad© 
ready for burning. The bier is turned upside down, thrown on one 
side, and taken to pieces. The winding sheet is carried off by some 
Mhdr, the date mat is destroyed, and the bamboo poles are kept 
for stirring the fire. The chief mourner is called, a brand is put 
in his hand, and, going thrice round the pile with his right hand 
towards it, shifts his sacred thread to his right shoulder, and, 
looking towards the north, applies the brand near the feet. He 
fans the fire with the hem of the shouldercloth which is twined 
with his sacred thread. Except a few who know how to burn the 
pile, the rest with the chief mourner sit some way ofE. When the 
fire bursts into flames, and the body begins to burn, the party 
withdraw still further, and, till the burning is Over, talk, laugh, joke, 
smoke, a few even chewing betel.^ When the skull bursts, which, 
is known as hapdl moTcsk or the skull-freeing the chief mourner goes 
near the pyre, and throws cocoa-milk over it to cool the body. When 
all is burnt and it is time to put out the fire, the chief mourner, 
carrying on his right shoulder an earthen pot filled with water, and 
starting from the west side with his left shoulder towards the pyre, 
begins to walk round it. When he comes to the south near where 
the head lay, one of the relations makes a small hole in the earthen 
pot with the life-stone or ashma, and as the chief mourner goes round 
the water trickles through the hole. At the end of the first rounds 
on coming back to the' south, a second hole is made with the stone 



^During the last two or three years the chewing of hetelnut and leaves at the 
burning ground has come into fashion. A few joung Prabhus even go 60 far as to 
drink sodawater and lemonade. 



PJ.tJ.nb Prabbw, 
Death, 



Deccan.1 

POONA. 231 

and a second stream runs out. At the end of the second round a Chapter III. 
third hole is made, and after making a third turn, at the south end Fopulation. 
he turns his back to the pyre and drops the jar from his shoulder so wbitbes 

that the jar dashes on the ground and the water spills over the ashes. 
,The chief mourner strikes his mouth with the back of his right hand 
and cries abud. After this, the rest of the party pour on the fire 
pot upon pot of water, and the ashes are carried away and thrown 
into a river.^ 

A three-cornered earthen mound is raised in the centre of the 
spot where the body was burnt. On the mound eowdung and water 
are sprinkled, sacred grass is strewn, and on the grass are set five 
earthen pots full of water, a few bits of sacred grass, ~ sesamum 
seed, rice rolled into balls and mixed with sesamum seed and 
barley, wheat cakes and butter, a thread from the chief mourner's 
waistcloth, a few flowers, sprigs of sweet basU, and small yellow 
flags. The chief mourner lights camphor and burns frankincense 
before the balls, and asks the dead to accept the offering. Then, one 
after the other, the mourners shift the sacred thread to the right 
shoulder, and thrice offer water to the soul-stone saying : ' Since 
"by burning you are heated and that the heat may cool we offer thee, 
naming the deceased and his fe^mily, water. May this offering 
reach you.' 

Then the party start for the house of mourning, the chief 
mourner going first, carry!ng in his hand the soul-stone in a metal 
vessel wrapped in fragments of the shroud. When the mourners 
return the women in the house again burst into weeping. The chief 
mourner is bathed on the front steps of the house, and the others 
wash their hands feet and mouths and go inside. Then the 
relations quiet and comfort the women, and make the mourners take 
food. After the mourners have begun to eat, the friends bow to the 
lamp which is kept burning on the spot where life left the dead, and 
return to their homes. 

For ten days the spirit remains seated on the eaves of the house 
where it left the body. At sunset, that the spirit may bathe and 
drink, two plantain-leaf cups are placed on the eaves, one full of 
mUk the other full of water. During the ten days when the spirit 
of the dead stUl rests on the house-top the mourners are bound by 
strict rules. Except to worship at the burning ground the chief 
mourner does not leave, the house for thirteen days after the funeral. 
The members of the family eat no animal food, nor any food or 
drink in which sugar is mixed. Leaves are used instead of metal 
plates. They neither buy nor cook, eating only fish, herbs, and 
things sent them by their relations and friends, and cooked by some 
one who stays with them to comfort them. They neither worship 
their family gods, nor say their prayers ; and husbands sleep away 
from their wives, on blankets or mats, or on the bare ground. On 
the second day after the death, at the burning ground the chief 

1 At some rich funerals the body is covered with a Kiahmir shawl, sandalwood 
is mixed with other firewood, and the fire ia quenched with milk instead of with 
water. , . 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



282 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III, 

Population. 

Writers. 

PAtane Pbasbjts, 

Death, 

After Death. 



mourner cooks or hires a Brdhman to cook rice-balls and wheat 
cakes, offering them as he offered them on the first day that the 
dead may gain a new Ijody. On the first day the dead gains his 
head, on the second day his ears eyes and nose, on the third his 
hands breast and neck, on the fourth his middle parts, on the fifth 
his legs and feet, on the sixth his vitals, on the seventh his bones 
marrow veins and arteries, on the eighth his nails hair and teeth, 
on the ninth all remaining limbs and organs and his manly 
strength, and on the tenth he begins to hanger .and thirst for the 
renewed body. On this day the lamp, which has been kept 
lighted in the house since the mourners came back from the 
burning ground, is upset, the lighted wick is pulled in from below, 
and the wick is taken to the burning ground for the tenth 
day's ceremony. As the light goes out the soul of the dead leaves 
the house and the women raise a cry of sorrow. On reaching tha 
burning ground, the chief mourner makes a three-cornered mound 
of earth, and sprinkles cowdung and water on it He strews 
turmeric powder, sets five earthen pots on five blades of sacred 
grass, three in one line and two at right angles. He fills these five 
pots with water, throws in a few grains of sesamum, and over their 
mouths lays a wheaten cake and a rice-ball. He plants small, 
yellow flags in the ground, and, setting up the soul-stone, strews 
flowers before it, and waving burning frankincense and lighted 
lamps prays the dead to accept the offering. If a crow comes and 
takes the fight-side ball the dead died happy. If no crow comes 
the dead had some trouble on his mind. With much bowing he is 
told not to fret, his family and goods will be cared for, or if the 
ceremony was not rightly done the fault wUl be mended. In spite 
of these ' appeals, if for a couple of hours the crow will not take 
the rice, the chief mourner touches the ball with a blade of sacred 
grass. He then takes the soul-stone and rubbing it with sesamum 
oil to quench the hunger and thirst of the dead, he offers it a rice 
ball and water, and standing with it near water, facing the east, 
throws it over his shoulder into the water. This ends the tenth 
day ceremony. During the^e ten days friends and relations grieve 
with the mourners staying with them daily till dusk. On the 
eleventh day the chief mourner goes to some charity-house or 
dharmshdla to perform the shrdddh or memorial service. In 
perforining the shrdddh the chief mourner^ smears a plot of ground 
with cowdung and water, and placing a fe^w blades of the sacred 
darbha grass on one side, sits on them, and draWs rings of sacred 
grass on the ring-fingers of both his hands. He sets before him a 
lighted metal lamp, a water-pot, a cup, a ladle, and a platter filled 
with flowers, grain, spices, and other articles.^ He dips a sweet 
basil leaf in the water-cup, and sprinkles water from it over himself 
and the articles of worship. For the gods he sets two blades of 



1 The chief mourner is the eldest or the only son. If there is no son there is no 
yearly shrdddh. 

^ The details are : Flowers, sweet basil leaves, sacred grass, barley, sesamum, rice, 
butter, curds, milk, sugar, scented powder, frankincense, cotton wicka dipped in 
butter, betel, plantains, and copper and silver coins. 



■mik 



Deccan] 



POONA. 



233 



sacred grass on two spots in front of him and a little to the right ; 
he then shifts^ his sacred thread to his right shoulde^ and lay^ on 
his left six blades, three for paternal and three for maternal ancestors, 
praying both the gods and the ancestors to come and sit on the 
grass. He spreads sacred grass in front of the spots where the gods 
and the forefathers are seated, and sets leaf-cups on them. From 
another le9,f-oup he sprinkles water on the cups from the point of 
a sacred grass leaf. He lays sacred" grass on the rims of the cups, 
partly fills them with water, putting barley in the gods' cups and 
sesamum in the forefather's cups, and lays betel, plantains, and copper 
coins before them. One after another the cups are taken up, smelt, 
and laid down^ The sacred grass that lay on the rim of the cups is 
laid on the priest's right palm, and the sacred grass that was under 
the cups is held by the mourner in his own hand, and from it he 
pours water from the cups on the priest's hand. He piles the cups 
in three sets. Then his cook or some other elderly woman hands 
him a pound of freshly cooked rice. In the rice he mixes a little 
butter and barley and a few sweet basil leaves, rolls them into balls, 
and lays them on a bed of sacred grass. Over the balls he sprinkles 
water, flowers, sweet basil leaves, and scented powder, and lays on 
the top a thread from his waistcloth, and offers the balls cooked 
rice, vegetables, cakes, sweet milk, betel, a cocoanut, and copper and 
silver coins, waves lighted cotton wicks and camphor, and makes a 
low bow. He takes the middle ball and smells it' in the hope that it 
may lead to the blessing of a son. He pays the priest Is. to 4s. (8 as.- 
Es.2) and the priest retires. The chief mourner gathers the offerings, 
gives them to a cow, and closes the ceremony setting on the house- 
top a leaf-plate filled with several dishes. On the evening of the 
twelfth day the chief mourner is brought home by relations 
and friends. When he reaches home he washes his hands and feet, 
and, standing on the edge of the veranda, with joined hands, 
dismisses the company with low repeated bows. On the morning 
of the thirteenth day, to purify the spot on. which the deceased died, 
it is made clean, a mound is raised over it, and a sacred fire is 
kindled. To raise the spirit of the dead from this world where it 
would roam with demons and evil spirits to a place among the 
shades of the guardian dead, the shrdddh ceremony is again 
performed. When the secondi shrdddh is over part of the deceased's 
property is given to Brdhmans.^ If the dead was a man, his clothes, 
bedding and cot, snuff-box, walking stick, and sacred books are 
given J if the dead was a married woman her wearing apparel, 
ornaments, combs, lucky necklaces, and redpowder boxes are given 
to married Brahman women whose feet are washed with cocoanut 
water. A certain uncleanness or dishonour attaches to the Br^hmans 
who take these pi'esents. In return the priest gives the mourner a 
little sugar to eat. Then, laying a little of each dish on the eaves 



Chapter IIL 
Population. 

Wbiters. 

PJ.T2NE PbABEUS,, 

Death. 
After Deadly 



' During the thrdddh the mourner has to shift his sacred thread to his right 
shoulder when offering to the spirit of the dead, and to his left when offering to the 
gods. When offering to the spirit of an ascetic or eddhu the thread is hung round 
the neck like a chain. 



B 310-30 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



234 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Weitebs, 

PAtass Prabbus, 

Death. 



Corpse-lees Fmieral. 



to feed the crows, the guests and the chief mourner dine together, 
the guests now and then asking the chief mourner to taste the 
dishes prepared with sugar. The chief dish is milk boiled with 
sugar and spices. In the evening relations and . friends come and 
present the mourner with snufE-coloured turbans, one of them being 
folded and placed on his head. Then the mourner, dressed in hia 
usual clothes, leads the company to the nearest temple. At the 
temple he offers oil cocoanuts and money, and the others stand 
outside or come in and bow to the gods. When his offerings are 
over, the chief mourner leads the company back to his house, and 
dismisses them, and is free to follow his daily duties. This evening 
all the married women go to the houses of their parents, and the 
little married girls to the houses of their husbands, and not a 
particle of cooked food is left in the house. On the sixteenth day 
the mourner performs a ceremony for the dead that he may not 
Buffer from hunger or thirst. Every month for a year this ceremony 
is repeated, and after that on the death day and also on the corre- 
sponding day of the month in Bhddrapad or August -September, 
when the dead hover round their kinsmen's houses looking for food. 

Besides the regular funeral ceremonies when death takes place- at 
home, special rites are sometimes performed when there is no body 
to burn. There may be no body to burn either because the deceased 
died in a distant land or was drowned at sea, . or the burning may 
be symbolic, done while the person is alive, to show that he is dead 
to his family and caste. Sometimes when a wife has forsaken her 
husband and will not return, he performs her funeral and from that 
day will never see her face again. Or if a Prabhu gives up his 
father's faith and turns Christian or Musalmdn, either at or after his 
change his parents perform his funeral rites. In these cases, the chief 
mourner with the family priest and one or two near relations go to 
the burning ground and spread the skin of a black antelope in a 
corner. On the antelope skin. the chief mourner lays three hundred 
and Bixij palas leaves, forty leave? for the head, ten for the neck, one 
hundred for both arms, ten for the ten fingers, twenty for the chest, 
forty for the belly, one hundred and thirty for the legs, and ten for the 
ten toes. Tying them by their stems with sacred grass in separate 
bunches and laying them on their former places, he spreads more 
grass on the leaves, and rolls the whole into a bundle a foot or 
eighteen inches long. He liolds the bundle in front of him, mixes 
a,bout a pound of wheat-flour honey and butter, and rubbing the mix- 
ture on the bundle draws a white cloth over it. At its top^ for the 
head he places a cocoanut, for the brow a plantain leaf, for the 
teeth thirty-two pomegranate seeds, for the ears two pieces of shell, 
for the eyes two kavdi shells their comers marked with redlead, for 
the nose sesamum flower or seeds, for the navel a lotus flower, for 
the arm bones two carrots, for the thigh bones two brinjals, lemoAS 
and Abrus or gurya berries for the breasts, and sea shells or a carrot, 
for the other parts. For the breath he puts arsenic, for the bile 
yellow pigment, for the phlegm sea foam, for the blood honey,' for 
the urine and excrement cow's urine and dung, for the seminal 
floids quicksilver, for the hair of the head the hair of a wild hog, for. 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



33& 



the hair of the body wool, and for the flesh he sprinkles on the 
figure wet barley-flour honey and butter. He sprinkes milk, curds, 
honey, butter, sugar, and water on the figure, and covers the lower 
part of it with a woollen cloth. He puts on ibs chest a sacred thread, 
round its neck a flower necklace, touches the forehead with sandal, 
and places on its stomach a lighted flour-lamp. The body is laid 
with its head to the south and is sprinkled with rice and the life of 
the dead is brought into it. When the lamp flickers and dies the 
mourner offers the gifts and performs the ceremonies which are. 
usually performed to a "dying man. When the lamp is out he raises 
a pile of wood, and burns the flgure with full rites, mourning ten days . 
and going through all the after-death or shrdddh ceremonies.^ 

A few Prabhus are of the Shaiv sect of Brahmanic Hindus, but 
most are followers of Shankardchdrya (700 - 800) whose representa- 
tive, the head of the Shringeri monastery in West Maiaur, is the 
pontifE of all members of the Smart sect. The Smarts hold the 
ehdvait or single behef that the soul and the universe are one. Few 
Prabhus become ascetics or religious beggars. In childhood all 
are taught Sanskrit prayers and know the details of the ordinary 
worship. Butj except the women and some of the older men, 
beyond marking feast days by specially good living, few attend to 
the worship of the gods or to- the rules of their faith. Bach day on 
waking the first thing a Prabhu looks at is a gold or diamond ring, 
a piece of sandalwood, a looking glass, or a drum. He rubs the 
palms of his hands together and looks at them for in them dwell 
the god Govind and the goddesses Lakshmi and Sarasvati. Then 
he looks at the floor to which, as the house of the god Nd.r4yan and 
of his wife Lakshmi, he bows, setting on it first his right foot and 
then his left. Next with closed eyes, opening them only when 
before the object of his worship, he visits and bows to his house 
gods, his parents, his religions teacher, the sun, the basil plant, 
and the cow. About nine, after his bath, he goes to the god-room 
to worshipk the house gods. On entering the room he walks with 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Writers. 

PJ.TANE Prabsus. 

Death, 



Seligion, 



^ The special expenses of such a funeral are : 

Corpse-less Fwnerdl. 



Abticlb. 


Cost. 


AjBTIOIiE. 


Cost. 




Rs. a. p. 




Rs. a. p. 


Deer Skin 


1 


Cowdnng 


1 


360 Batea, Leaves 




Limes,-two 


2 


Two Cucoanuts 


1 6 


Brinjals, two 


6 


Plantains 


2 


Carrot, one 


1 


Plantain Leaf 


3 


Hog-hair 


2 


Pomegranate , 


I 


Woollen Waistoloth ... ' ... 


2 


Bangles, two 


2 


Wheat Flour 


10 


Cowri Shells 


1 


Five Cow-Gifts 


3 


Sesamum Flower 


3 


Rice 


2 


Talc 


2 


Lotus Flower 


1 


Yellow Orpiment 


3 


Abrus Berries 


2 


Cuttle Fish Scale 


3 


Wool 


3 


Gorochan 


3 


Barley Flour 


10 


Quiok8l>Ter 


10 


Sacred Thread 


6 


Ked Sulphuret of Arsenic 
Honey ... 


3 
3 


Giirland 


.0 10 






Cow's Urine 


1 


Total ... 


3 IS 



236 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



DISTEICTS. 



COiaptet III. 
Population. 

Weitebs. 



measured steps so ttat his rigM foot may be the first to be set on 
the low stool m front of the gods. His house gods are small images 
ot gold, silver, brass, and stone, generally a Ganpati, a Mahddev in 
the torm of the Ian or arrow-head stone Ving}- a Yishnu in the form of 
the pierced shdUgrdm,^ the conch or shanhh, and the chahrankit or 
discus marked stone, a sun orsurya,a,uA othpr family gods and goddesses, 
ihese images are kept either in a dome-shaped wooden shrine called 
■ devghara or the gods' house or on a high wooden stool covered with 
a glass globe to save the gods and their offerings from rats.? In 
worshipping his house gods, the Prabhu seats himself before them 
on a low wooden stool, and, saying verses, lays ashes on the palm 
of his left hand, and, covering the ashes with his right hand, pours 
one or two ladlefuls of water on the ashes, i-ubs them between the* 
palms of both hands, and, with the right thumb, draws a line from 
the tip of the nose to the middle of th& brow, thence to the corner 
of the right_ temple, and then back to the corner of the left brow. 
He closes his hands so that the three middle fingers rub on each 
palm, opens them again, and draws lines on his brow, those from 
left to right with the right hand, fingers, and those from right to 
left with the left hand fingers. He rubs ashes on his throat, navel, 
left arm, breast, right arm, shoulders, elbows, back, ears, eyes, and 
head, and washes his hands. He ties his top-knot, -pours a ladleful 
of water on the pal m_ of his right hand, and turns his hand round 
his head. He says his prayers or sandJiyas* sips water, repeats the 
names of twenty-four gods, and, holding his left nostril with the 
first two fingers of -his j-ight hand, draws breath through his right- 
nostril and closing that nostril with his thumb, holds his breath 
while he thinks the Gayatri verse.^ He raises his fingers, breathes 
through his left nostril, and, with his sacred thread between his 
right thumb and first finger, holding his hand in a bag called 
gomuJci th&t is cow's-mouth or in the folds of his waistcloth, he 
ten times says the sacred verse under his breath. He then sips 
water and filling a ladle mixes the water with sandal powder and a 
few grains of rice, and bowing to it spills it on the ground. He 
takes a water jar, sets it on his left side, pours a ladleful of water 
into it, covers its mouth with his right palm, rubs sandal powder 
and rice grains on the outside, and drops ffowers on it. He worships 
a little brass bell, ringing it and putting sandal powder, rice, and 

1 The bdn or arrow-headed brown stone is found in the Narbada. 

^ The fidligrdm is a round black stone found in the Gandaki river in Nepftl. It 
sometimes has holes in the shape of a cow's foot or of a flower garland, and is 
believed to be bored by Vishnu in the form of a worm, and is specially sacred as the 
abode of Vishnu under the name of Lakshmi-NAriyao. 

' Eats are troublesome in Hindu houses and are either poisoned or caught in 
traps, except on Ganesh's Birthday in August when balls of rice flour, oocoanut 
scrapings, and sugar are thrown to them. 

* Sand?iya, literally joining that is twilight, includes .religious meditation and 
repeating of verses. It should be repeated thrice a day, at sunrise, noon, and sunset. 
Most Prabhus say prayers in the morning, none at noon, and a few at night. 

° This very holy and secret verse should every day be thought on. It runs ; Om I 
Earth 1 Sky ! Heaven ! let us -think the adorable light, the sun ; may it lighten our 
minds. Compare Descartes (1641) (Meditation III. The Existence of God); 'I will 
now close my eyes, stop my ears, call away my senses .....' and linger over the 
thought of God, ponder his attributes, and gaze on the beauty of this marvellous 
light.' . Rene Descartes by Bichard Lowndes, 151 and 168. 



Deeoan.] 

POONA. 237 

flowers on it. He worsliips the conch shell and a small metal Chapter III. 

water-pot which he fills with water for the gods to drink. He Population. 

takes the last day's flowers, smells them, and puts them in a basket ^ 

so that they may be laid in a corner of his garden and not trampled Weiters. 

under foot. He sets the gods in a copper plate, and bathes them P^'^^^' P^^^^^^- 

with milk, curds, butter, honey, and sugar, and, touching them with Religion. 

sandal powder and rice, washes them in cold water,^ and dries them 

with a towel, and putting them back in their places, with the tip 

of the right ring-finger marks the ling with white sandal 

powder and Granpati and Surya with red. He sprinkles the gods 

with turmeric, red and scented powder, and grains of rice. He 

sprinkles the ling with white flowers and Ganpati with red, the U-ng 

and shdligraM with bel and sweet basil leaves, and Ganpati with 

bent grass or durva. He lays sugar or cooked food before them and 

rings a bell which he keeps on ringing at intervals during the whole 

service. He offers them sugar, cotering it with a basil leaf and 

sprinkling water over the leaf, and drawing a towel over his face, 

waves his fingers before the gods, and prays them to accept the 

offering. Waving burning frankincense a lighted butter lamp and 

camphor, and taking a few flowers in his open hands, he stands 

behind the low stool on which he had been sitting and repeating 

verses lays the flowers on the gods' heads, passes his open palms 

above the flames, rubs them over his face, and going round the dome 

where the gads' images are kept, or if there is no room turning 

himself round, bows to the ground and withdraws. 

He goes to the stable, sits on a low wooden, stool before the cow, 
throws a few grains of rice at her, pours water over her feet, touches 
her head with sandal and other powders, rice, and flowers, offers her 
sugar, waves a lighted lamp, and ' goes round her once, thrice, 
five, eleven, or one hundred and eight times, and, filling a ladle 
with water, dips the end of her tail in it and drinks. With the same 
details he worships the basil plant,^ and last of all the sun, before 
whom he stands on one foot resting the other foot against his heel, 
and looking toward the sun and holding out his hollowed hands 
begs the god to be kindly. Then taking an offering or arghya, of 
sesamum barley red sandal and water in a copper boat-shaped 
vessel, he holds it on his head and presents it to the deity. These 
rites are generally performed in the morning, either by the master 
of the house if he has the mind and the time, or by a Brdhman, who 
is a different man from the famil^^riest and is paid one or two 
shillings a month.^ Before taking their morning meal the elder 

* During the DivdlV. holidays the gods are rubbed with scented powder and 
lathed in warm water. 

^ To Prabhus, Tuhi, Krishna's wife, is the holiest of plants. No Prabhu backyard is 
without its tulsi pot in an eight-cornered altar. Of its stalks and roots rosaries and 
necklaces are made. Mothers worship it praying for a blessing on their husbands and 
children. 

8 A hired Brdhman in worshipping the family gods uses water not milk, and in 
some cases the master of the house bathes the gods in water. On great worships or 
mdhapujag, the gods are bathed first in milk and thea in water. In the evenings a 
Hindu does not bathe his gods but puts fresh flowers on them, offers them sugar to 
eat, and waves a lighted lamp before them. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



238 



DISTEIOTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population, 

Writers. 
Vr^jiw Prabhus. 
Fasts and Feasts. 

Month Days, 



women of the house, especially widows, tell their beads^ sitting on the' 
low stools in the god-room with rosaries in thnir hands. The other 
women worsMp the gods and the basil plant when- their husbands 
have gone to office. At any time in the morning or evening, before 
taking their -meals, the boys come into the god-room and say 
Sanskrit prayers. 

The Hindu month lias two parts, the bright fortnight called the 
shuddh or shuhla pakslia that is the clean half, and the dark fortnight 
called the vadya or Terishna paltsha that is the dark half. Bach 
fortnight' has fifteen lunar days called tithis; the first pratipada, 
the second dviUya, the third tritiya, the fourth chaturthi, the fifth 
panchami, tbe sixth shashthi, the seventh saptami, the eighth ashtarrd, 
the ninth navami, the tenth daslmmi, the eleventh ekddashi, the 
twelfth dvddashi, the thirteenth trayodashi, the fourteenth chatur- 
dashi, the fifteenth in the bright "half is punvma or full-moon, and 
in the dark balf amdvdsya, literally with-living, that "is when there 
is no moon because the sun and moon live together. Of these the 
first lunar day whicli is called pddva both in the bright and dark 
fortnights is thought lucky for any small ceremony. There are 
three leading first days Gudi-pddva the banner-first in bright Ohaitra 
or March -April, Bali-pratipada Bali's first in bright Kdrtik or 
October -November, SindAje-pddvathe grandfather's first in Sshvin 
or September- October.^ Two second days are specially sacred, - 
YamdvUiyob Yam's second in bright Kdrtik or October r November 
also called Bhdubij or the brother's second and Mahdbij or the 
second. Two third days are important Akshayatritiya or the undying 
third in bright Vaishdkh or April-May, and Earitdlika or the 
bent-grass third in bright Bhddrapad October -November. Fourth 
day are of two kinds, Vindyaki or Ganpati's in the light half, and 
Sankashti or troublesome fourths in the dark halfs. The sahkashtis, 
are by some kept as evil-averting fasts. On all bright fourths 
and specially on the fourth of Bhddrapad or August -September, 
Ganpati is worshipped, and at nine at night, after bowing to the 
moon, rice balls are eaten. Of fifth days, Ndgpanchami • or the 
cobra's fifth in bright Shrdvan or July- August, Bishipanchami or 
the seers' fifth in Bhddrapad or August- September, Lalitdpaneha/mi 
or Lahta's fifth iu bright Ashvin or October -November, Vasant- 
panchami th.e spring, and Rangpanchami' the colour fifth in bright 
jPhdlgun or March - April. Two-sixths are important Varnashasthi 
or the Pulse sixth in bright Shrdvan or July-August, and the 
Ohampdshashthi or the Champa sixth in bright Mdrgashirh or 
December - January.^ Of the sevenths two are important Shilal 



^ These rosaries or Tnalas have one hundred and eight beads made either of rough 
brown berries called rudrdhsha or of light brown tuUi wood. While saying hia 
prayers the devotee at each prayer drops a bead, and those whose devotions are silent _ 
hide their hand with the rosary in a bag of peculiar shape called the cow's mouth or 
gomukhi. 

■ ^ A.jepddva is celebrated for the performance of shrdddhs in the name of the grand- 
father by the daughter's son while his parents are alive. 

' On the Ghampdshasthi day the worshippers of Khandoba hold a feast. Brinjals 
after a break of nearly five mouths, since AsMdh or June 'July, again begin to be 
eaten. 



DeccanJ 



POONA; 



239 



or the cold seventli in briglit 8hrdva7i or July -August, and Rath 
or the car seventli in bright Mdgh or January- February. Of the 
eighths one is important Janma or the birth eighth, that is Krishna's 
birthday also called Gokul from Krishna's birthplace. Of the 
ninths one is important Earn or Edm's birthday in bright Chaitra 
or April- May. Of the tenths, all of which are holy and kept as fasts 
by the strict, the ^chief is Vijaya or Victory tenth the same as 
Dasara in bright Ashvin or September -October. Of the elevenths, 
all of which are holy and kept as fasts by the strict, two are 
important the Ashddh eleventh in bright Ashddh or June- July, and 
the Kdrtik eleventh in bright Kdrtik or October - November. Of 
the twelfths, all of which are holy and kept as fasts by the strict, 
two are important Vdirnan or the Dwarf Vishnu's Twelfth in bright 
Bhddrapad or August - September, and Vdgh or the Tiger's 
Twelfth in dark Ashvin or October -November. Of the thirteenths 
called Pradosh or evening, because on that day food cannot be 
eaten before looking at the stars, all are sacred to Shiva, and one ia 
specially sacred if the day falls on a Saturday. ^Of these the chief 
is Dhan or the Wealth Thirteenth in dark Ashvin or October- 
November. Of the light fourteenths two are held in honour 
Anant' or Vishnu's Fourteenth in Bhddrapad or September- October, 
and Vaikunt or Vishnu's Heaven's Fourteenth in Kdrtik or 
November - December. All the dark fourteenths are called Shivrdtris 
or Shiv's nights. The chief are Nark or the demon Nark's 
Fourteenth in Ashvin or October -November and Mahdshivardtri 
or the Great Shiv's night in Mdgh or February -March. Of -the 
fifteenths the bright fifteenth as Furnimas or Full Moons are sacred. 
There are five chief full moons Vata or the Banyan Full Moon in 
Jeshth or May- June, Nd/rali or the Coooanut Full Moon in Shrdvan' 
or July -August, Kqjdgari or the Waking Full Moon in Ashvin or 
October - November, the Vyds or Puran expounder also called the 
Tripuri or Three Demons' Full Moon in Kdrtik or November - 
December, and Eutdshani or the Fire Full Moon also called Holi 
or Shimga in Phdlgun or March -April. On the dark fifteenths 
called Amdvdshyas or together-dwellings cakes are offered to the 
spirits of the dead. Three together-dweUings or no-moon nights are 
specially holy, Divdli or Lamp No-Moon, also called Pithori or 
Spirits No-Moon in Slvrdvan or August -September, Sarvapitri or 
All Spirits' No- Moon in Bhddrapad or September -October, and a 
second or greater DivdU or Lamp No- Moon in Ashvin or October - 
November. If ^ no-moon day falls on a Monday it is called' Somvati- 
or the Monday No-Moon. This is a specially holy day on which 
Prabhu men and women bathe early and give Brdhmans money. 

Of the days of the week Sunday or Aditvdris sacred to the sun. The 
sun is a red man seated in a car, with a quoit, and sometimes a lotus 
in his hand, driving a team of seven horses. The sun is the father 
of some of the heavenly beings, and among men of the Kshatriya 
or warrior race. He is the eye of Grod, or God himself ; Brahma ii 
the morning, Vishnu at noon, and Mahddev at night. Sunday is a 
good day for sowing seed, for beginning to build, for holding a fire 
. sacrifice, for planting a garden, for beginning to reign, for singing 
and playing, for starting on a journeyj for serving a king, for 



Chapter III. 
Fopnlation. 

Wbiteks. 

PJTUm Pbabbvs. 

Month Days. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



240 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Fopulatiou. 

Wbitkeis. 

PlTJjfB PbABSUS^ 

Monday, 



Thursday. 



buying or giving away a cow or an ox, for learning and teacWng 
hymns, for taking and giving medicine, for buying weapons gold 
and copper articles and dress. It is unlucky for a girl to come of 
age on Sunday ; slie will die a widow. It is, unlucky to travel west, 
and a lizard falling on one's body means loss of wealth. On Sunday 
nights a green robe should be worn. 

Monday or Somvdr is sacred to the moon. . The moon is a male 
deity, large gentle and,kindly, young and sweet-faced, a warrior with 
four arms, a mace in one and a lotu? in another, seated on a white 
antelope. Mondayis good for begiiming a war, mounting a new horse 
elephant or chariot ; for buying flowers, clothes, hay, plants, trees, 
water, ornaments, conch-shells, pearls, silver, sugarcane, cows, and 
she-buffaloes. It is unlucky for a girl to come of age on a Monday ; 
her children will die. A blow from a falling lizard brings wealth.' 
At night a parti-coloured robe should be worn. 

Tuesday called • Mcmgalvdr or the day of the planet Mars. The 
planet Mars, who is sprung from the sweat of Mah^dev's brow and 
the earth, is four-armed, short, and fire-coloured. He is a warrior, 
.quick-tempered, overbearing, and fond of excitement. Tuesday is 
good to fight and to forge or work with fire, to steal, poison, burn, 
kill, tell lies, hire soldiers, dig a mine, and buy coral. If a girl 
comes of age on Tuesday she commits suicide. A blow from a 
falling lizard takes away wealth. " On Tuesday nights a red robe 
should be worn. 

Wednesday is, called Budhvdr the planet Mercury's day. The 
planet Mercury is the son of the moon and a star. He is middle- 
sized, young, clever, -pliable, and eloquent, in a warrior's dress, and 
seated in a lion-drawn car. Wednesday is good for becoming a 
craftsman, for study, for service, for writing, for painting, for selling 
metals, for making friends, and for arguing. It is unlucky for 
going north. If a girl comes of age on a Wednesday she bears 
.daughters. A blow from a falling lizard brings wealth. On 
Wednesday night yellow should be worn. 

Thursday, Brihaspatvdr, the planet Jupiter's day, is sacred to 
Brihaspati the teacher of the gods. He is a wise old Brdhman, 
large, yellow-skinned and four-armed, seated on a horse. Thursday 
is a good day to open a shop, to wear ornaments, to give charity, to 
worship the planets," to learn reading and writing. For a married 
woman it is good for such pious acts as will prolong her married 
life, for buying clothes, for house work, for going on pilgrimage, 
for sitting in a chariot or on a horse, for making new ornaments, - 
and for taking medicine. It is a bad day for going south. 
Thursday is a good day for a girl- to come of age she will bear sons. 
A blow from a falling lizard brings wealth. On Thursday nights 
white should be worn. 

Friday o;r Shiihrania/r, the planet Venus' day, is sacred to 
Shukra the Brahman teacher of the giants, gentle, ease-loving, 
middle-aged, with four arms. He is seated on a horse. Friday is 
the proper day for worshipping B^laji. It is a great day for eating 
parched gram. Clerks club together to lay in a store at their oflBces, 
and women, to free their husbands from debt, send presents of 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



241 



parched gram to Maratha schools. Friday is a good day for baying 
precious stones, sandalwood, clothes^ a cow, treasure, for sowing 
seed, for making ornaments, and for a woman to sing or hear singing. 
It is a bad day to go west. A girl who comes of age on a Friday 
bears daughters. A blow from a falling lizard brings wealth. On 
Friday nights a white robe should be worn, 

Saturday, called 8hanvdr or tbs slow mover, is the planet Saturn's 
day. Shanvar, a Shudra some say a Chdndal by caste, is four-armed, 
tall, thin, old, ugly, and lame, with long hair nails and teeth, 
riding on a black vulture. He is sour-tempered and bad, the patron 
of evil-doers, who on Saturdays make offerings at his shrine. 
Saturday is good to buy metal, swords, and slaves, to sin, tb steal, 
to make poison, to enter a new house, to tie an elephant at one's 
door, and to preach. It is a bad day to travel east and to start 
on a journey. Children who eat gram on Saturdays bring poverty 
and become horses. A girl who comes of age on Saturday becomes 
a bad character. A blow from a falling lizard takes away wealth. 
Gn Saturday nights a black robe is worn. 

The twelve Hindu months are, Ohaitra or March- April, VaiskdJch 
or April -May, Jeshta or May- June, A shddh or June- July, Shrdvan 
or July -August, Bhddrapad or August - September, Ashvin or 
September -October, Kdrtik or October -November, Mdrgashirsh or 
November-December, Paush or December- January, Mdgh or January- 
February, and Fdlguh or February -March. Of these months Shrd- 
van or July -August is the holiest. Almost every day in Shrdvan 
is -either a fast or a feast. Its Mondays are holy to Shiv, its 
Tuesdays to Shiv's spouse Mangalagauri, its Fridays to Vishnu, 
and its Saturdays to Hanumant. Besides the regular months, extra 
or adhik months are occasionally added, and, sometimes, though 
more rarely, a month is dropped and called the kshay mds or 
dropped month.^ 

Of special fast and feast days there are altogether twenty- six. 
Of these three come in Ghaitra or March- April, Oudipddva or the 
Banner-first the Shalivahdn new year on the bright first, Eam's 
Birthday on the bright ninth, and Hanum^n's Birthday on the 
bright fifteenth or full-moon ; one in Vaishdkh or April - May, 
Akshay or the Immortal Third of the bright half ; one in Jeshta or 
May -June, the Banyan Full-Moon j one in Ashddh or June -July, 
the bright eleventh ; four in iS/i-rayaw, or July -August, Cobra Day 
on the bright fifth, Oocoanut Day on the full-moon, Krishna's 
Birthday on the dark eighth, and Durga's Attendants Day on the 



Chapter IIL 

Fopulatioiiu 

Writeks, 
PatAne Prabevb, 

Saturday. 



Months. 



Holidays. 



^ Professor Kem Lakshman Chhatr6 has kindly given the following explanation of 
extra and suppressed months.. As the Hindu year is a lunar year fitted to solar 
periods it falls short of the solar year by eleven days, or in three years by a mouth 
and three days. To each of the twelve lunar months one of the twelve Zodiacal 
divisions or sanhrdnts is allotted, and as the sanhrdnts vary in length from twenty-nip e 
to thirty-two and a half days, while the lunar months are all about twenty-nine and 
a half days, it sometimes happens that a lunar month passes without any gankrdnt 
and sometimes that two Sfmkrd/nts fall in the same lunar month. If no sankrdnt 
falls a month is put in and if two sanhrdnts fall a month is suppressed. Extra 
months do not come at regular intervals, but in nineteen years seven of them occur. 
Suppressed months are rarer ; the last was in 1823 (ShaJc 1744), the B.ext will fall in 
1964 {Shak i«85). 



B 310— 31 



[Boml)ay Gazetteer, 



242 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Writers. 
PItAne Prabbxis, 



OudiptSdva- 



BAm'i Ninth. 



no-moon ; seven in Bhddrapad or August- September, Haritalika's 
Day on tlie bright third, Ganpati's Birthday on the bright fourth", 
the Seers' Day on the bright fifth, Gauri's Day on the bright eighth 
or ninth, V^man's Day on the bright twelfth, Anant's Day on the 
bright fourteenth, and All Souls Day'-on the dark fourteenth ; three 
in Ashvin or September- October, Dasara the bright tenth, Kojdgar'i 
the full-moon, and the first two DivdK days the dark fourteenth 
and fifteenth; three in Kdrtik or October -November, the last two 
Divdli days the first and second of the bright half, the last of which 
is also known as Yam's Second, the Basil Wedding-day on the 
bright, eleventh, and the Lamp FuUrMoon; one in Paush or 
December -January, a variable lunar day Makar Sanltrdti or the 
Sun's entry into Capricorn; one in Mdgh or January- February 
Shiv's Night on the dark fourteenth ; and one in Fdl'gun or . 
February- March the Holi Full- Moon. 

' Qudipddva, the Banner First, is the first day of Ohaitra or March- 
April and the first day of the Shalivahd,n year. The day is sacred 
to the Deccan king Shalivahan whose nominal date is a.d. 78. The 
story is that in Pratishthd,n or Paithan on the God^vari, about forty , 
miles north-east of Ahmadnagar, the daughter of a Brdhman became 
with child by Shesh the serpent kiag, and was turned out of the city. 
She went to live among the potters and bore a son named ShAli- 
vah£n. As a child Shalivahan martialled armies of clay, figures, 
drilled his playfellowsi and settled their quarrels showing surprising 
talent and wisdom. News of his talent came to Somkrdnt the king. 
He sent for the boy, but the boy would not come. The king brought 
troops to take him by force, and Shdlivahan breathed life into his 
clay figures, defeated the king, and took his throne. On this day 
Prabhus bathe early in the morning, rub themselves with scented 
oil, and to secure sweets for the rest of the year eat a leaf of the 
bitter nim, Azadirachta indica. From one of the front windows 
of every Prabhu's house a bamboo pole is stretched, capped with 
a silver or brass water-cup, a silk waistcloth hanging to it as a flag,, 
with a long garland of bachelor's button-flowers and mango leaves. 
Below the flag, in a square drawn by lines of quartz powder, is a 
high .metal or wooden stool, and on the stool, in honour -of the 
water-god, is a silver or brass pot full of fresh water on whose 
mouth are set some mango leaves and a cocoanut. After an hour 
or two the water-pot and stool are taken into the house, but the 
flag is left flyiSg till evening. During the day a Brdhman reads 
out Maratha almanacs, telling whether the season will be hot or 
wet, healthy or sickly, and for each person whether the year will 
go well or ill with him. In the evening every family has a specially 
rich dinner. - New year's day is good for beginning a house, putting 
a boy to school, or starting a business. 

Eight days later on the ninth oiChaitra, or about the beginning 
of April, comes Bdmnavami or Eam's Ninth, the birthday of 
the seventh incarnation of VishnUj Edm, the hero of the R^miyan 
who became man to fight R^van the giant-ruler of Ceylon. For 
eight days preparations have been made, R^m's temples are white- 
washed, adorned with paintings and, brightly lighted at night. Men 



Deocan.] 



POONA. 



243 



and women throng them to hear Brahmans read the Ed,m4yan^ 
and Hariddses or Edm's slaves preach his praises.^ On the ninth 
or birthday before noon, Erabhus, especially men and children^ 
flock in holiday dress to Edm's temple, and listen to a preacher 
telling how Ed,m was born, and to dancing-girls singing and 
dancing. At noon, the hour of birth, the preacher retires, and comes 
again bringing a cocoanut rolled in a shawl like a newborn babe, 
and showing it to the people lays it in a cradle. He tells the 
people that this is the god who became man to kill the wicked 
Eavan. The people rise, bow to the god, and full of joy toss red- 
powder, fire guns, and pass to each other sunthvada or presents of 
powdered dry ginger and sugar. Then all but the devout go home, 
and dine freely on wheat cakes, butter, sugar, milk, and fruit, rice 
fish and flesh being forbidden. In the evening they flock to the 
temples once more to hear Eam'a praises. 

Six days after Eam's birthday, on the bright fifteenth or full- 
moon of Ohaiira, generally early in April, comes the birthday of 
Eam's general Hanumdn the monkey-god. In Hanumdn's temples 
Brdhman preachers tell Hanuman's exploits. Some old Prabhu 
women keep the day as a fast eating nothing but fruits and roots. 

About eighteen days later on the third of Vaishakh, generally 
about the beginning of May, comes the Undying Third or 
Akshayatritiya. It gets its name because being the first day of the 
Satya Yug or the first cycle it is believed to secure the merit of 
permanency to any act performed on the day. For this reason gifts 
of earthen jars, fans, umbrellas, shoes, and money made to Brdhmans 
have a lasting value both to the giver and to his dead friends. The 
day is not specially kept either as a feast or as a fast. 

The Vad Pornima or Banyan Full-Moon falls about five weeks 
later on the Jeshta full-moon, generally early in June. On this day, 
io prolong their husbands' lives, Prabhu women hold a festival in 
honour of Sdvitri from which the day is also called VadsAvitri or 
Sdvitri's Banyan. This lady, who was the daughter of king Ashva- 
pati, chose as her husband Satyavan the son of king Dumatsen. Soon 
after Sdvitri made her choice the seer N^rad came to Ashvapati 
and told him that Dumatsen had become blind and lost his kingdom, 
and was wandering in the forests with his wife and son. Ashvapati 
wished his daughter to change her choice, but she would not, and, 
though the seer told her that within a year of their marriage her 
husband would die, she refused to give him up. Seeing that she 
was not to be shaken, Ashvapati marched into the forest, and, giving 

. his daughter a large dowry, married her to Satyavan. For a year 
she served her husband and his father and mother. Two days 
before the close of the year, when according to the seer's prophecy 
her husband must die, S^vitri began to fast. On the second day, 
though she asked him to stay at home, Satyavdn took his axe and 
went into the forest. Savitri followed and in spite of her prayers 
Satyavan went on and fell dead as he was hacking a fig tree. As 

• Siivitri sat by him weeping, Yama, the god of death, came and took 
Satyav^n's soul. Savitri followed him and prayed him to give her 
back her husbaad's soul. Tam refused, but Savitri persisted, until 



Chapter III. 
Fopalation. 

PJ.rJ,NS Pbabbus. 
Holidays, 



Eamim&n't Births 



ATcishayatritiya. 



Banyan FtUUMoaa. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



244 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Fopnlatioo. 

Weiters. 

PAtajhe Pbabbus- 

Holidays. 

Bam/an Full-Moon. 



Ashudhi Ek&dashi. 



Cobra Day. 



he promised to give her anything short iti her husband's Hfe. She 
asked that her father-in-law might regain his sight and Tarn 
granted this boon ; Sdvitri still followed Yam and, refusing to let 
him go, gained from him her father-in-law's kingdom, a hundred 
sons for her father, and sons for herself. Then she once more, 
pleaded, ' How can I have children if you take my husband,' and 
the god, pleased with her faith, granted her prayer. She went back 
to the tree and touched her dead husband, and he rose, and they 
returned together to their home. She touched her father-in-law's 
eyes and brought back their sight, and with his sight he received 
his kingdom. On the morning of this day, after bathing and 
dressing in rich silk clothes, married Prabhu woraen worship the 
Indian fig tree or vad. In front of a wall where pictures of a vad 
and a,pipal tree have been painted, the woman sets a high wooden 
stool with a vad twig on it, and sits on a low wooden stool and 
worships the twig. When the worship is over she gives the priest' 
a present called vdhcm and touching it with the end of her robe 
repeats verses.^ She gives the priest one to two shillings, and the 
priest touching her brow with redpowder and throwing a few 
grains of rice over her, blesses her saying, ' May you remain mar- 
ried till your life's end and may god bless, you with eight sons.' 
The chief dish on this occasion is mango-juice and fi.ne soft rice- 
flour cakes called pithpolis. Some women in performing this cere- 
mony live for three days on fruit, roots, and milk. 

About, twenty-six days after the Banyan Full-Moon, generally 
about the beginning of July, the eleventh of Ashad or June -July 
is kept in honour of the Summer Solstice, that is the twenty-first of 
June. This is the beginning of the gods' night, when, leaning on 
Shesh the serpent king, the gods sleep for four months. 

About three weeks later on the bright fifth of Shrdvan, generally 
about the end of July, Prabhu women worship the nag or cobra. 
On a wooden stool nine snakes are drawn with sandalwood powder 
or redlead. Of the nine two are full grown and seven are young ; 
one of the young snakes is crop-tailed. At the foot is drawn a 
tenth snake with seven small ones, a woman holding a lighted lamp, 
a stone slab, and a well with a snake's hole close to it. All married 
women sit in front of the drawing and each throws . over it parched 
grain, pulse, round pieces of plantains,, cucumber, and cocoa 
kernel. Leaf-cups filled with milk and j)ulse are placed close by, 
redlead is sprinkled, and flowers are laid on the redlead. They 
pray the snakes to guard them and their families and withdraw. 
The eldest among them gathers the children of the house and tells 
them this story of the Nine Snakes and the Woman with the Lamp. 
A village headman had seven daughters-in-law. Six of them he 
liked and the seventh he hated, and, because she was an orphan, he 
made her do all the housework and live on scraps left in the cooking 



1 The present includes a round bamboo basket with a bodioecloth, a looking 
glass, five glass bangles, a necklace of black glass beads with a gold button, a comb, 
small round redpowder boxes, lamp-black and turmeric, five mangoes, a oocoanut, " 
betel, sprouting pulse, a glass spangle, and a copper coin . The whole is covered with 
another bamboo basket rolled round with thread. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



2d5 



pots. One day, while the seven girls were at the house well, the six 
were boasting that their relations had come to take them home for 
a feast ; the seventh was silent, she had no home to go to. Prom 
their hole close by a male and female snake overheard the talk, and 
the male snake told his wife, who was then with young, that he 
would ask the seventh daughter-in-law to their feast and keep her 
till, his wife's confinement was over. In the afternoon, when the 
orphan went to graze the cattle, the male snake, in the form of a 
handsome youth, came to her and said ; ' Sister, I am one day coming 
to take you home, so when I come be ready.' One day when the 
house people had dined, the orphan took the cooking pots to clean 
by the well side. She gathered the scraps in one pot and went to 
bathe on the other side of the well. While she was bathing the 
female snake came out of her hole and ate the scraps. The orphan 
came back to eat her dinner, and finding it gone, instead of cursing 
the thief, she blessed him, saying, ' May the stomach of the eater 
be cooled/ Hearing these words the female snake was overjoyed, 
and told her husband to lose no time in bringing the orphan home. 
Tlje male snake, taking human form, went to the headman's house 
and told the orphan he was come to take her home. She asked no 
qaestions and went. As they w'ent the snake told her who he was, 
and that on entering his hole he would turn into a snake. She was 
to hold him fast by the tail and follow. Trusting and obedient the 
girl followed the snake, atid, at the bottom of the hole, found a 
beautiful gold house inlaid with gems, and in the middle, on a 
hanging swing of precious stones, a female snake big with young. 
While the orphan held a lighted lamp the snake gave birth to seven 
young ones. One of them climbed on to the girl and she in her 
fright let fall the lamp and it cut o.fB part of the snake's tail. When 
the brood of snakes grew up they laughed at the crop-tailed snake, 
and he in anger, finding how he had been maimed, vowed to kill 
the headman's daughter. He made his way into the house on a day 
which chanced to be Ndgpanchami Day. He found the girl worship- 
ping snakes and laying out food for them. Pleased with her 
kindness the crop-tailed snake kept qi^iet till the girl left the room, 
ate the offering, and went back and told his parents of the girl's 
devotion. The old snakes rewarded her freely, making her rich and 
the mother of many children. When the story is over the children 
and the rest of the family have a good meal, chiefly of rice-flour 
balls. Bands of snake-charmers go about calling on people to 
worship their snakes, and the people worship them, offering parched 
pulse, grain, milk, and a copper coin. On the same day a fair is 
held in honour of snakes., Prabhu women fill leaf-cups with milk 
and pulse and place them in corners of the garden for snakes to feed 
on. As they are hurtful to snakes, no grinding baking or boiling 
are allowed in Prabhu houses on the Cobra's F2th. 

About ten days later, generally early in August, on the full-moon 
of Shrdvan, comes Ooeoanut Day or Ndrli-pomima. In the even- 
ixig, after a hearty afternoon meal, Prabhu men and children go 
to the river- side, and to win the favour of the water throw in 
cocoanuts. On going home the men and children are seated on low 
wooden stools, emd tfe women of the house wave a lighted lamp 



Chapter in. 

Fopulatiou. 

Wkiteks. 

PJ.T4irB Pbassus, 

Holidays. 

. Cobra Dav- 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



246 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. \ 

Wkitees. 

'PJ.tJ.ne Pbabbus. 

Holidays. 

Janma and GokuC 
Ashtami. 



PWutry&g So-Moon. 



Alika's Day. 



Garts^aWt Birtliday. 



round their faces, tlie men according to tteir means presenting' 
them "with Is. to 12s. (8 as. - Es. 6). 

Eight days after, about the middle of August, comes a festival in 
honour of Krishna, either his birthday or the day after when he was 
taken to Gokul. The story is that Kansa, Krishna's uncle, hearing' 
that Krishna would cause his death, tried to destroy him as a child 
but failed. This is the cowherds' great day. Covering themselves 
with dust and holding hands they dance in a circle, calling out 
Govinda, Gopdla, Narayana, Hari. Curds, milk, and cold water are 
thrown over them, and they get presents of cocoanuts, plantains, and 
money. Those who keep the birthday observe it as a fast ; those 
who keep the second or Gokul day observe it as~a feast. 

About a week after, at the Shrdvan neW-moon, generally towards 
the end of August^ comes the worship of the Pithoryds or attendants 
of the goddess Durga. Married women with children alive bathe 
in the early morning and fast. On a high stool or wall, redlead 
pictures of Durga's sixty-four attendants are drawn and wor- 
shipped. Then the oldest woman of the family ofEers the goddesses 
the leaves of sixteen kinds of trees and flowers and a bunch of five 
to twenty-one cocoanuts, and prays her to bless the children of the 
house. Then, arranging dishes of prepared food round her, the 
worshipper calls the children one by one, asking them in turn who 
is worthy to eat the ofEerings. The child answers, I am worthy. 
This is thrice repeated and the worshipper touches the ■ child's 
brow with redlead, and, throwing grains of rice over it, blesses it 
and gives it the plate. The children and grown people sit down 
together and eat the food. 

Three weeks later in Bhddrapad or August- September comes a 
fast in honour of the maid Alika. A king's daughter had vowed to 
wed none but Shiv. Her father, not knowing of her vow, offered 
her in marriage to Vishnu. Hearing this the king's daughter, with the 
help of her maid retired to a deep forest, refusing to move unless she 
was allowed to marry Shiv. In her honour, getting up early in the ■ 
morning Prabhu women bathe, wash their hair and putting on a silk 
robe and bodice draw a quarts square and in it set a high wooden 
stool. Sitting before it on a low stool they lay a handful of sand in the 
middle of the high stool and with the sand make figures of Pdrvati 
and Sakhi, Shiv's wife and maid, and in front of them a ling. These 
three they worship with flowers and the leaves of sixteen kinds of 
trees, and as in the, Vadtdvatri fast present the Brd,hman priest with 
two round bamboo baskets and Is. to 2s. (8-as. - Re. 1) in money. 
On this day women drink no water and eat nothing but plantains 
and melon or chihud. Next morning they again worship the sand 
images, ofEering them cooked rice and curds and cast them into the 
river, or into some out-of-the-way placer 

Next, on the fourth of Bhddrapad, generally late in August, comes 
the birthday, of Ganesh or Ganpati, the god of wisdom and of 
beginnings, in figure a fat man, seated, with four hands, and an 
elephant's head- Of the stories of Ganpati's birth the commonest 
is that Parvati, Shiv's Wife, from oil and turmeric rubbed off her own 
body, made a man and set him to guard her door. Shiv coming 



DeccanJ 



POONA. 



247 



in, annoyed at being stopped by the watcbman, cut off bis head. 
Hearing this P^rvati demanded that her son's life should be restored, 
and Shiv going into the forest cut off a one-tusked she-elephant's 
head and setting it on Ganpati's shoulders brought back his life, 
making him for his trustiness god of wisdom. 

Some time before Ganpati's birthday the reception hall is 
whitewashed and painted, a wooden framework or other seat is 
made ready, and the room is filled with rich furniture and at 
night is brightly lit. On the morning of the feast day the head 
of the house and some children and servants, with music and a 
palanquin, go to the market and buying an image of the god,^ 
seat it in the palanquin, and bring it home. At the house the 
mother of the family waves a lighted lamp before the god and 
it is laid down till the head of the house is ready to worship it. 
It is then set in the shrine and with the help of the family priest 
verses are recited that fill the image with the presence of the god. 
The image of a mouse, Ganpati's pet charger, is placed close to it. 
After the worship, the head of the house, with a lighted lamp in his 
hand and with his sons and relations round him, standing in front of 
the image, plays and sings hymns in praise of the god. This is done 
shortly in the morning and in the evening at greater length. At the 
end of the service sweetmeats are handed round among the guests 
and family. In the morning of the first day, at the end of the 
worship, the family feast on sweet-spiced rice-flour balls, and in the 
evening the mice are allowed to share in the feast. Ganpati, they 
say, one evening fell off his mouse. The moon laughed at the god's 
mishap, and to punish him Ganpati vowed that no one should ever 
look at the moon again. The moon prayed to be forgiven and the 
god agreed that themoon should be disgraced only one night in the 
year, Ganpati's birth-night. For this reason no one on that night 
will look at the moon. 

According to the will and means of the family the image is kept 
in the house from one and a half to twenty-one days, in most cases 
about a week. So long as it is in the house the god is worshipped 
night and morning. When the time comes fOr the god to go, in. the 
evening players and a palanquin are hired, and a priest is called in. 
After praying Ganpati to bless the family, to keep sorrow from its 
doors, and to give wisdom to its^ children, verses like those that 
brought the presence of the god into the image are said and its 
divinity is withdrawn. Then waving a lamp round its face, laying 
a little curds in one of its hands, and seating it in a flower-decked 
palanquin, calling out the god's name as they go, they carry him to 
the side of a lake or river. At the water's edge they take the image 
out of the palanquin' and seat it on the ground, and waving a lighted 
lamp round its face carry it into the water sorrowing that for 
another year they will not see the god again. 



Chapter III. 

Fopulation. 

Wkitbks. 

PXtIne Prabhus. 

Holiday!. 

Ganpati's Birthdai;. 



1 Ganpati's image ig of gilt or painted clay, with four hands, a big belly,' and an 
elephant's head. It is either made in the house or bought from men, chiefly of the 
Deccan Brahman caste, whose sole calling is the making of Ganpatis. The cost 
varies from a few pence to £15 or £20. Some do not buy clay Ganpatis but with 
rice grains on a plate trace an image of the god known as the pearl Ganpati, 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



248 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Writers. 

■PJ-tAnb Pbabbus. 

JSolidaya. 

Girnri- 



Vdman DvddasU. 



BMdrapad brigM-fifth, the day after GanesFs birtliday, is kept 
in honour of the Bishis or Seers who sit in, heaven as the seven stars 
in the Great Bear. The day is kept only by women. Their chief 
rule is to eat nothing that is not- hand-grown. Anything in which 
the labour of cattle or other animals has been used in rearing or 
bringing to market is forbidden. So hand-grown fruit and 
vegetables are on that day sold at four times their usual price. 

On Bhddrapad bright-eighth or ninths the third or fourth day after 
Ganesh's bii-thday, women hold a feast in honour of. his mother - 
Pd,rvati or Gauri. In the morning ten or twelve balsam or terda 
plants are bought for an ann^ or so and hung on the eaves. About 
two in the afternoon, over the whole of the house, women draw 
quartz powder lines six inches apart and between them trace with 
sandal powder footsteps two in a line and four or five inches apart.. 
An elderly married woman, taking one or two of the balsam plants, 
washes their roots and folds them in a silk waistcloth.^ 

This representing the goddess Gauri is laid in a girl's arms, who 
carrying a metal plate with a lighted lamp, a few rice grains, a red- 
powder box, and some round pieces of plantains, and taking with her 
a boy with a bell,, starts through the house, the boy ringing the bell 
as they go. In each room the woman seats the girl who carries the 
goddess on a raised stool, waves a lighted lamp round the faces 
of the girl and of the goddess, and, giving the girl and the boy a bit 
of plantain, calls ' Lakshmi, Lakshmi, haye- yOu come ? ' The girl 
says, ' I have come.' The woman asks, 'What have you brought ;'• 
ihe girl says, '' Horses, elephants, armies, and heaps of treasure 
enough to fill your house and the city.' Thus they go from one room to 
another, filling the house with treasure and bringing good luck. "When 
they have been through the whole house, the goddess is seated on a 
high stool in the women's hall leaning against a wall, on which have 
been painted a Prabhu's house and all it holds. At lamplight the 
goddess is offered plantains, cakes, and milk, and at night she is richly 
dressed, decked with jewels, and with lamps lighted before her is 
offered milk and sugar. The next day is a time of great rejoicing, 
when many dishes of sweetmeats, fish, and mutton are cooked, 
offered to the goddess and eaten.^ During the day Kunbi and Koli 
women and the house servants dance -before the goddess and are 
well paid. On the third day the goddess is offered cooked food, and 
about three o'clock she is laid in a winnowing ian, stripped of 
her ornaments, except her nosering glass bangles and necklace of 
black glass beads, and with some cooked food tied to her apron and 
four copper coins is placed in a servant's arms. Without looking 
behind him, while an elderly woman sprinkles water on his footsteps, 
the servant walks straight out of the house to the river or lake 
side, and, leaving the goddess in the water, brings back the silk 
waistoloth, the winnowing fan, a little water, and five pebbles. 

Vdman Dvddashi or Vantan's Twelfth falling on the twelfth of 
Bhddrapad generally in September, is sacred to Vdman, the black 



^ Prabhu women call tlie balsam roots Gauri's feet, 

''The dish ofifered to the goddess varies in different families. Some offer 
vp^etablna. some ninklAfl. anrnp. fiflh. anmfi coat's flfinb. n.nrl anmo a nnn.lr n.nrl liniinr. 



Deooan.] 



POONA. 



249 



Brahman dwarf, the fifth incarnation of Vishnu. Vdman's story 
is that to keep the religious merit of the great king Bali from 
winiiiiig him the rule over the three worlds, Vishnu appeared at 
his court as a Brahman dwarf. He beat all other Brd,hman8 in 
explaining the holy books and the king asked him what gift he would 
wish. Vdman said, 'As much space as lean cover in three strides.' 
The king agreed, and the god, filling the earth with his first step 
and the air with his second, took his third step on the king's head 
and drove him into the bottomless pit. On Vdman's Day old 
Prabhu women fast and give BrAhmans money presents. 

Some Prabhus keep the day before All Hallows Day, that is the 
bright-fourteenth of Bhddrapad or August- September in honour of 
Anant or Vishnu. If a Prabhu by. chance finds a silk string with 
fourteen knots he takes it home and lays it by.^ On the fourteenth of 
Bhddradpad with his whole family he fasts, and in the evening places 
on a raised stool two metal pots filled with cold water, representing 
the "holy rivers Ganga and Jamna, and covering the water-pots 
with a metal plate, he lays in the plate a snake made of the 
sacred darba grass, and close by a string called anant-dora with 
fourteen bead-like round moveable knots, the whole generally 
worked with gold and silver lace. Then with the help of the priest 
he worships the gods Anant and Shesh, and the goddesses Ganga 
and Jamna, offering them fourteen kinds of flowers, leaves, fruits, 
and sweetmeats, and ending with a feast in honour of Vishnu. The 
thread is either worn or laid by for a year. At the end of the year 
a new thread is bought and worshipped and the old one is made 
over to the priest. The worship of this thread should be kept up for 
over fourteen years and should then cease. The practice is observed 
both by men and women, and begins only when a chance thread is 
found. 

A day after Anant's Day, the second of the dark half of the month 
of Bhddrapad or August-September called Pitripaksha or the Spirits' 
Fortnight is'sacred to the spirits of ancestors. In the name of each 
ancestor, both men and women, funeral rites or shrdddh are perform- 
ed on the day corresponding to the day of death. The ninth day 
known as avidhvd-navmi, is kept for rites in honour of unwidowed 
mothers. And on the fourteenth day there is an All Hallows 
No-moon or sarvapitriamavdsya, for any ancestors whose worship may 
have been left out.. The shrdddh is generally performed by the 
head of each family at midday on the ground-floor of the house. The 
object of the rite is to improve the ancestors' state in the spirit 
world. "When the rite is over dishes of rice, milk, and sweetmeats 
are left on the tiles for the crows to feed on, and a rich dinner with 
spiced milk is given to relations and friends. 

A day or two after All Hallows are sacred to Durga the wife 
of Shiv. The first nine are known as the Navrdtra or nine nights, 
and the last as the Dasara or tenth. Some Prabhus fast during 



Chapter III. 
Fopulation.. 

Writees. 

PJ.tJ.NB PBABHVa. 

EoUdaya, 



Pitripaksha. 



ifawdtra. 



1 The string worshipped by Prabhu women has one line with fourteen knots ; 
those worshipped by men have two or three lines with the same number of knots as 
the women's. 



B 310—32 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



250 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Writers. 

PJ.TASE Prabhus. 

Soliddya. 

Nawiitra. 



Jhirga's Tenth 
Jlasara. 



Daiara. 



the nine days, living on fruits and roots. • On the ninth the goddesS 
Durga is worshipped, a sacred fire is lit, and fed with firewood and 
butter. Daring these days married women of the Konkan Vadval or 
Oartkeeper caste with a hollow dried gourd wrapped in cloth hanging 
from their right arm, -beg in Bhavdni's name from house to house. 
Bach day they are given a handful of rice and on one of the nine days 
an elderly married woman of each household worships the hollow 
gourd. _ A Vadval woman and her husband are called j a quartz 
square is drawn, and the hollow gourd placed in it on a low stool. 
The worshipper rubs the outside of the gourd with turmeric and 
redpowder and a few grains of rice, fastens a spangle on it, and 
filling it with rice waves a lighted lamp before it. The Vadval's 
wife rubs her own -hands mth turmeric powder and fastens on 
her brow redpowder and a spangle, and before her and her gourd 
the worshipper waves a lighted lamp. The Vddval man is given 
some rice and oil, and blessing the worshipper, he blows the conch 
shell.-^ Married and unmarried girls and women go to one another's 
houses during these nine days. Seated on mats spread in the 
women's hall, their arms are rubbed with turmeric powder ; their 
brows adorned with redpowder and glass spangles; their heads 
crowned with flowers, and their laps filled with parched rice, 
betelnut and leaves, and a few copper coins.^ 

Early in the morning of the tenth or Dasara, the day on which 
Durga slew the monster Mahish^sur, Prabhus bathe and worship their 
house gods. In front of the house the women trace a quartz square* 
and in honour of the five Pd,ndavs set five cowdung balls on a leaf 
in the middle of the square and sprinkle flowers and redpowder 
or guldl over the balls. , Those who own a horse have him brought 
in front of the house. Grarlands of bachelor's button-flowers are 
thrown round his neck and tied round his feet, a shawl is laid on 
his back, and a mlarried woman, coming out of the house holding a 
plate with a lighted lamp, a cocoanut, sugar-cake, redpowder, a 
few grains of rice, betelnut and leaves, and a silver coin, rubs his 
forehead with redpowder and rice, gives ^him sugar to eat, and 
laying the betelnut, leaves, cocoanut and silver coin at his forefeet, 
waves a lighted lamp before his face.* 

Besides the coin offered to his horse, the groom gets a few shil- 
lings and a tarban or a suit of clothes. In the evening, after a 
hearty meal of mutton and sweetmeats, Prabhus take their children 
and carrying branches of the dpta tree Bauhinia racemosa, go to 
Devi's temple and offer her dpta or shami Mimosa suma leaves and 



^ Only on this day does a Prabhu allow a conch-shell t? be blown in his house. 
At any other time the sound of the conch is supposed to blow everything, out of a 
Prabhu's house. 

" Some of these girls collect during these nine days one to two rupees at the 
rate of two or three pies (Jrf. -§d.) from each house. The Poena Prabhus have given 
up this ceremony. It is still observed in Bombay. 

^ From this day, in different coloured powders, Prabhu women begin to trace 
pictures of trees and houses on the ground in front of their doors. They go oil 
making these drawings for about six weeks. ' , 

* It is said that the horse-loving Arjun washed his horses' feet, threw garlands ol. •! 
flowers round their necks, and patted them. ' '- 



Deooan.] 



POONA. 



251 



B. copper coin.^ They then go visiting their friends and relations, 
greet each other, and offer an dpta leaf and embrace >^ On his 
return home, his wife, standing in the doorway or seating her 
husband in the house on' a low stool, touches his brow with red- 
powder, and rice, and giving him sugar to eat and laying a cocoanut 
in his hands waves a lighted lamp before his face. The husband 
drops 4s. to £1 (Rs. 2-10) in the plate, and washing his hands and 
feet sets a stool close to the house gods, and on the stool lays a 
Bword, a gun,^ a sheet of paper with carefully written sentences in 
English Mardthi and as many other languages as he knows, a pen, 
a ruler, a penknife, and inkpot and sacred books. He touches these 
with' sandal and redpowder, lays on each an dpta and a shami leaf, 
and asks them to keep his house safe during the year. 

Abut five days after Dasara generally in Aslivin or. September - 
October comes the Kqjdgari Pornimcu feast. About eight in the 
evening Parvati Shiv's wife is worshipped. A supper is eaten of rice 
cooked in milk and sugar, and gram-flour cakes mixed with 
plantains, onions, brinjals, and potatoes and boiled either in butter 
or oil, and after supper men and women play chess till midnight.* 
A week later comes the Athvinda or eighth day feast, when a 
servant draws a line of ashes, and lays castor-oil leaves on the 
veranda and other parts of the house. 

This and the Khojdgari festival in the week before lead to the 
great feast of Divdli. This, the lamp or diva feast, in honour of the 
goddess Lakshmi and of Vishnu's victory over the demon Sdriki, 
lasts four days, the two last days of Ashvin or September-October and 
the two first days of Kartik or October -November. The day before 
the feast large metal water-pots are filled and placed in the house. 
An elderly woman, taking an dghdda Achyranthes aspera plant, cuts 
from it six one-iach pieces, and as many more as there are persons in 
thehouse including servants. These pieces she lays in a round bamboo 
basket, and near them the cut fruit of the chirhati creeper. She takes 
a, castor-oil leaf, lays in it the bark of a plant called tdkia, used both 
^or food and as a drug, and a few blades of fine grass, and folding the 
leaf lays it in the bamboo basket. In this way she prepares a packet 
for each- of the household. Then taking a metal plate she makes 
as many rice-flour lamps as she has made packets, and putting two 
wicks and oil in each, dusts its rim in three places with redpowder 
and places the plate close to the bamboo basket. She then makes 
an extra rice-flour lamp and placing it by the house wall lights it in 
honour of the god Yam. She washes her hands and in another dish 
makes ready another five-wick lamp, and, with a cocoanut, a few rice 
grains, and a box of redpowder, lays it in the plate. Lastly she 
fills cups with sweet smelling spices, oil, and cocoa-milk. Then, as 



Chapter III. 

Foptdation. 

Writbrs. 

PXtAnb Pravhvs, 

Holidays. 

Daxara. 



K<sdgari Pomima. 



Divdli. 



^ Oa this day dpta leaves are called gold apparently because on this day their 
power to scare spirits is as great as the spirit-scaring power of gold. 

= On this day if a BrAhman and a Prabhu meet they exchange leaves and the Prabhu 
bows to the Brihman and gives him ^d. to Is. (J - 8 as. ) 

•iPrabhus worship the sword and gun as they claim Khsatriya descent. 

* People play chess on this night in the hope that Pirvati will bring them cari- 
' 1 of treasure. 



[Bombay Oazetteer, 



252 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Wbitbes. 
PJ.tJ.ne Prabbus. 



DwAli. 



Vishnu promised him, in Narkdsur's honour every nook and corner 
of the house is lighted. Till eight or nine at night children let off 
fireworks and then all feast on sweetmeats and other dainties. Next 
morning a married woman rises about three and drawing a square 
in the entrance room, places a low stool in the square and close to 
the stool sets the cups of spices and scented oil, and, on each side of 
the stool, sets a lighted brass lamp. The head of the house sits on 
the stool and the barber or some house serrant rubs him with rice- 
flour, spices, and oil, and his top-knot with cocoanut milk. He next 
sits facing the east on a high wooden stool in a square traced in the 
-yard in front of the house-door and bathes, and putting on a waist" 
cloth and turban stands in front of the house door. As he stands 
his wife or some other married woman of the family takes the 
five-wick lamp and a flour-lamp, places the flour-lamp at one side 
of the doorway, and marking his brow with redpowder and a feW 
grains of rice, hands him a cocoanut, and waves the lighted lamp 
before ,his face. He gives back the cocoanut, touches the flour- 
lamp with the toe of his left foot, and enters the house.^ After 
the head of the house, the other men of the family bathe in turn, and 
when all are bathed feast on sweetmeats. Then they worship the 
house gods, dress in rich clothes, and either go visiting or sit on 
the veranda talking. The married women dine at noon, and sit 
tracing drawings before the house door, while an old woman makes 
ready sixteen lights and sets them on a high stool. At dusk an 
elderly married woman sets the stool with its sixteen lights in the 
middle of the square drawn in front of the house.^ Then placing 
near the stool a cocoanut, betelnut and leaves, a plantain, a sugar 
ballj and a copper coin, she bows to the lights and walks into the 
house. As the people of the house gather round the lamps, letting 
off fireworks and making merry, one of the servants takes a light 
from the stool and carrying it hid in his hands, goes to a neigh- 
bour's house and tries without being seen to place his master's 
light among their lights, saying, as he lays it down, * Take this son- 
in-law, jdvai ghya.' Other servants are on the look-out for him and, 
as he steals in, try without putting out his light to duck him with 
water. In this merrymaking and in letting off fireworks two hours 
are spent. Then the high stool is taken into the house with as many 
of the lights as are left on it. On the second day nothing special is 
done except, bathing in the morning in front of the house. In the 
evening the head of the family worships Lakshmi the- goddess oi 
wealth. On the third day, a servant rises at one in the morning, 
sweeps the house, and, ga.thering the sweepings into a bamboo 
basket, lays on the basket an old broom, a light, some betel, and 
four copper coins, and waving the basket in front of each room, says.: 
Iddpidajdvo Baliche raj yevo, ' May evils go and Bali's kingdoni. 
come.' While the servant says this, a woman walks -behind him as far 



1 This is done in memory of Vishnu's fight with the giant Narkd,SHr. After kill- 
ing the giant, Vishnu entered the city early in the morning. The people lighting up 
'the city, received him with great joy, the women going, out to meet him and waving 
lighted lamps before his face. _ 

' To make these sixteen, lights, two one-inch pieces of «i^«< are taken and about 
half an inch on the top is hollowed and filled with oil and wicks. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



259«. 



as the house door, beating a winnowing fan with a stick and urging 
the servant to keep saying the verse without stopping. She 
drives him to the house door telling him not to look back, and he 
goes out, lays the sweepings by the roadside, and brings back the 
coin. He then rubs himself with oil, and without touching any one 
bathes in warm water. When the servant's bath is over the house 
people bathe one after another. Then, as Vishnu promised, the head 
of the house takes a metal image of king Bali on horseback, dresses 
it and sets it on a high stool with twenty-one brass lamps round it.^ 
At dawn he sets the god in front of the house, and the household 
let ofE fireworks, play games of chance, and give money to Brdhmana 
and other beggars who swarm in front of their houses. The last of 
the Divdli days is Yamadvitiya or Yam's Second or Bhdubij also 
called the Brother's Second. On this day Yam, the lord of death, 
came to see his sister the river Jamna, and she won from him the 
promise that no man who on this day goes to his sister's house and 
gives and gets presents will be cast into hell. So on this day 
Prabhus go to their sisters' houses. The sister draws a square of 
quartz-powder lines, seats her brother in the square on a low stool, 
and waves a lighted lamp before his face. He gives her 2s. to £ I 
(Es.1-10) and she gives him a waistcloth and a rich dinner of 
milk and sweetmeats. 

Nine days after Yam's Second, on the bright eleventh of Kdrtik 
generally in October, a day is kept in honour of the marriage of the 
holy basil or tulsi with the god Vishnu. The h-ead of the house fasts 
in the early part of the day. At noon the basil-pot is coloured red 
and yellow and a square of quartz powder is drawn round it. After 
breaking his fast the head of the house, with the help of the family 
priest, worships the basil and an image of Vishnu. Then, with 
Vishnu's image in his hands, he stands in front of the plant, a shawl 
is drawn between the image and the plant and held by two married 
men, the priest repeating verses, and the house people, both men 
and women, at the end of each v*rse throwing grains of rice over 
the plant and the image. When the verses are done, the curtain is 
dropped, the guests clap their hands, the image is set in the flower- 
pot in front of the plant, fireworks are let off, sugarcane is handed 
round, and Is. to 2s. (8 as.-Re.l) are presented to the priest. 

Four days after the Basil- wedding on the bright Mteenthoi Kdrtik 
or October -November comes Bip-'purnima or the Lamp Full-Moon^ 
On this day, in honour of Shiv's victory over the giant Tripurdsur, 
Prabhu women present Brahmans with fruit,-money, and lighted 
lamps, either silver lamps- with gold wicks, brass lamps with 
silvep wicks, or clay lamps with cotton wicks.^ In the evening they 



Chapter III. 

Populatiou. 

Weitbbs. 
PJ.tJ.ss PbabbVS, 
Holidays. , 
Divili, 



Basil Wedding. 



Lamp Full-Moon. 



1 When Vishnu in the form of the dwarf Viman stamped king Bali into hell, he 
promised that once a year his followers would worship the king. The story of 
Viman and Bali is given at p. 249. 

2 This demon, the lord of a golden a silver and an iron city, is said to have grown so 
mighty that beating almost all the. gods he drove them out of their palaces. The 
gods crowded round Shiv and he, pitying their case, made the earth his car, the sun 
and moon its wheels, the HilnAlaya mountains his bow, V^isuki the serpent king 
his bowstring, and Vishnu his quiver. Thus armed, after a furious struggle, Shiv 
destroyed the mighty giant. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



254 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Wkiteks. 

PJ.TJXB PbABBUS, 

Holidays. 

Makarsankrant. 



Shiv'i Night. 



Soli. 



fill the holes in the lamp-pillars or dipmdls with lights, and soakmg 
wicks in butter lay them in earthen pots, pierced with holes, light 
them and send them floating over the temple pond. 

On the twelfth of January, a solar festival and therefore on an 
uncertain day in Paush comes the Makarsankrant that is the 
passage of the San into the sign of the Crocodile or Capricorn, the 
djay when the sun's course turns northward. In honour of the sun'a 
return devout Hindus make great rejoicings. From this day begin 
the six lucky northing or uttaraydmi months when light is large 
and heaven's gates are open, and when marriages should be held, 
and youths girt with the sacred thread. These are followed by the 
six spirit-haunted southing or dakshanayani mouths, when the days 
creep in and heaven's gates are shut; and the spirits of the dead 
have to wait without till Makarsankrant comes again. The Prabhus 
both men and women rise early, rub themselves with sesamum oil, 
bathe in warm water, worship the family gods, and present 
Brahmans with sesamum seed, money, clothes, pots, umbrellas, and, 
even lands and houses. In the afternoon they feast on sweetmeats 
and in the evening dress in new clothes and taking packets of 
sesamum seed mixed with different coloured sugar, give them to 
their friends and relations, saying : ' Take the sesamum seed and 
speak sweetly '.^ Next day is an unlucky or kar day. On it married 
women bathe, and, dressing in rich clothes, deck their heads with 
flowers, and make merry going to their parents' houses and 
speaking no unkind word. As they do this day, so will they do all 
the year. She who beats her children will go on ill-using them, she 
who weeps is entering on a year of sorrow. 

About two weeks after the Makrasankrdnt on the bright four- 
teenth of Mdgh or January -February comes Shiv's great fourteenth 
or the Mahdshivardtri. A wicked archer hunting in the forest followed 
a deer till night fell. To save himself from wild beasts he climbed a 
bel tree .^gle marmeloS, and to keep himself awake kept plucking 
its leaves. By cjiance at the tree-fo6t was a shrine of Mahd,dev and 
the leaves falling on his shrine so pleased the god that he carried 
the hunter to heaven. Prabhus keep this day as a fast. In the 
evening they worship Shiv and in the hope of gaining! the hunter's 
reward lay a thousand bel leaves on the ling. After worship they 
eat fruit and roots and drink milk, and, that they may not sleep, 
either read sacred books or play chess, a favourite game with both" 
Shiv and his wife. Shiv's temples are lighted and alms are given 
to begging Brd,hmans and others. 

About three days after the MahdsMvardtra and fifteen before 
the full-moon of Fdlgun or February-March begins Hold or Shimga, 
apparently the opening feast of the husbandman's new year of work." 
On the first day little boys' dig a pit in the middle of the street or 
yard and, beating drums and shouting the names of the organs 
of generation, go from house to house begging firewood. At night 
they burn the wood in the pit crying out and beating, their mouths. 



1 The Mardthi runs ; Tilfa ghya, godaa bola.. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



253 



This goes on for fifteen nights, and each night for three or four 
hours. On the eleventh night, dressed in white clothes, they go to 
the house of their high priest or to one of Vishnu's temples where 
red-coloured water is thrown over them. From this time till the 
full-moon the festival is at its height. Young and old men 
shouting the names of the organs of generation, rub redpowder on 
each other's clothes and faces. On the last or full-moon day, in 
the afternoon, after feasting on mutton and sweetmeats, a plantain 
tree is set in the pit and heavy logs of wood are piled round it. 
About eight at night each householder who lives in the street with 
his family priest worships the pit, and gives sweetmeats. When 
this is over one of them takes a brand and, lighting the pile, which 
is called hoU, shouts the names of the male and female organs 
of generation and beats his mouth. Next day is the dust or dhul 
day, when people go about in bands throwing dust and filth. At 
night men go to each other's houses and the head of the house 
marks the guests' brows with sweet-scented powder or abir, and 
gives them milk, coffee, fruit, and sweatmeats. Women have 
parties of their own, where dressed in white robes and green bodices, 
their heads decked with flowers and their brows marked with 
sweet-scented powder, they treat one another to fruit, coffee, and 
milk. 

Eclipses or grahans caused by the giant Edihu swallowing the sun, 
or the giant Ketu swallowing the moon, are thought to foretell evil. 
Of the beginning of eclipses the story is that when Dhanvantra 
brought nectar from the churned ocean, the giants hoped to keep it 
to themselves. Seeing this, Vishnu, taking the form of Mohani, a 
handsome woman, ranged the gods on one side and the giants on 
the other. Struck with the woman's beauty, the giants sat at a 
distance from the gods waiting for the drink. When the woman 
began to give the nectar to the gods, Rahu slipt between the sun 
and the moon, and gaining a share drank it off. Mohani with her 
discus cut Rahu in two, the body being called Rahu and the 
head Ketu. The rest of the giants attacked the gods, but after a 
hard fight were beaten. In a solar eclipse twelve hours and in a lunar 
eclipse nine hours before any change is visible the influence or vedh of 
the eclipse begins. From this time Prabhus may neither eat nor 
drink ; the water-pots have to be emptied and cooked food thrown 
away. The place swarms with evil spirits. An eclipse is the best 
time for using a charm or a spell, and mediums, sorcerers, and 
jugglers are busy repeating spells on river-banks and in waste places. 
To keep the giants fromentering the house, blades of holy or darbha 
grass are laid on pickle-jars and wafer-biscuits and tied in the 
skirts of clothes. When the eclipse begins, Prabhus give rice, 
' parched grain, old clothes, and money to Mhars and Mangs who 
go about carrying large bamboq baskets and shout. Be dan sute 
girdn, that is 'Give gifts and free the planet'. When the eclipse is 
over every Prabhu bathes, the cook-room is fresh cowdungei, 
cooking pots and pans are washed, jars are filled with fresh water, 
and fresh food is cooked and eaten. 
Pdtdne Prabhus have no headmen and no caste council. They are 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Weitees. 

PJ-llltS PsABBzrs. 

Molidays. 

Molt. 



EcKpus. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



256 



DISTRICTS. 



Oiapter III. 
Population. 

Wrixees. 



a prosperous and well-to-do class. Their monopoly of English 
clerkship has broken down^^ but they are pushing and successful as 
doctors, lawyers, engineers, and in the higher branches of Government 
service. 

Velalis are returned as numbering 423 and as found in Khed 
and Mdivalj and in Poona city and cantonment. They say they are 
Vaishyas, and that they came to the district fro.m Trichinopoly and 
Td.n]or about seventy years ago to earn a living. They are divided 
into Pilles and Mudliars who eat together but do not intermarry.^ 
The following particulars belong to the Pilles! They are divided 
into SoliyaveMli, Khudkyavelaji, Mothevelalan, and Kdrikd,tvelAlan, 
of whom the first three eat together and the first two intermarry. 
The KarikatveMlans do not eat or marry with the other three clans 
as they consider themselves of higher rank, and unlike the rest do 
not eat fish or flesh or drink liquor. The names in com m on use among 
men are, Ohimnaya, Devrdj, Mutkarji, Peridaa, and RAmasvami, the 
title j>iUe being added to each name as Devrajpllle and Chinayapille. 
The names in common use among women are, Kamakshi, Minakshi, 
Maridi, Murkdi, Pund,ma, and Viri^i. They are dusky coloured of 
various hues of brown. They are stoutly and gracefully made with 
jet black hair. Their home tongue is Tamil, but out of doors they 
speak Mardthi. They live in houses of the'better sort, one or two 
storeys high, with walls of brick and tiled roofs. They keep cows, 
buffaloes, and she-g6ats, and have copper and brass vessels, cots, 
bedding, carpets, pillows, boxes, stools, and tables and chairs. They 
are not great eaters, and are fond of sour dishes and of tamarind. 
Their staple food is rice, millet, wheat, pulse, vegetables, butter, 
spices, fish, and mutton. They eat hare, deer, ducks, and domestic 
fowls, but.not beef or pork. They drink both country and English 
liquors, and smoke tobacco. They give dinners at marriages and on 
death anniversaries, when wheat cakes and sweet milk are prepared 
costing £2 10s. (Rs. 25) for- a hundred guests. The men wear a 
waistcloth, coat, waistcoat, and ^houldercloth, and fold a kerchief or 
rumdl round the head. The women wear a bodice with a back, and 
the skirt of the robe hanging like a petticoat without being drawn 
back between the feet. The men wear the top-knot, mustache, 
and whiskers, but not the beard ; and the women tie the hair in a 
knot behind the head. They have rich clothes in store for special 
occasions worth £5 to £50 (Rs. 50-500). The ornaments worn by 
women are gold earrings called hamalos worth £2 10s. to £10 
(Rs. 25-100), the gold and pearl nose-ring called nath worth £2 10s. 
to £'20 (Rs. 25-200), the gold necklace called adigi worth £5 to £l0 
(Rs.50-10G), and the gold or gilt bracelets caileA ^dtlis, worth £2 
to £5 (Rs. 20-50). The men wear the gold earrings called Icadhans 
worth £1 10s. to £10 (Rs. 15-100), and ihose called murugus worth 
10s. to £10 (Rs. 5-100). They are a hardworking, vigorous, and 
talkative people, clean, neat, sober, even-tempered, orderly, and 
hospitable almost to extravagance. They are husbandmen, traders; ?; -, 



^ Mudliar seeina to be the KAnarese name for the Tamil people, the word meaning 
south-east' men. Similarly they call the Telugu people Baaages or northmen. 



Deocau.] 



POONA. 



257 



shopkeepers^ and brokers ; the commissariat department is full of 
them. They say they are Vaishyas and higher than Mudliars with 
whom in their native country they do not eati In Poona the two 
classes eat together but do not intermarry. A family of five living 
in fair comfort spend- about £2 (Rs. 20) a month on food and £2 10s. 
to £10 (Rs. 25-100) a year on clothes. A house costs £30 to £100 
(Rs. 300-1000) to build and 3s. to 8s. (Rs.l|-4)a month to rent; 
their house goods vary in value from £2 10s. to £20 (Rs. 25-200), 
• and they have servants on monthly wages of 4s. to 8s. (Rs. 2-4). A 
birth coats £2 10s. to £5 (Rs. 25-50), a hair-clipping or jdval £2 10s. 
to £10 (Rs.25 -100), a, tesLching or palikudamivdky a £2 10s. to. £5 
(Rs.25-50), a thread-girding or iaZiipaAiaZi/dnam £5 to £15(Rs.50-150), 
a boy's marriage £20 to £50 (Rs. 200-500), a girl's marriage £10 
to £20 (Rs.100-200), and a death £5 to £10 (Rs. 50-100). They 
are Smarts and their chief object of worship is Mahddev. Their 
family god is Kd,md.thshdma of Madras and Maridma of Trichinopoly. 
Their family priests are Shaiv Tailang Brahman s. They have 
house images of Mahadev, Vishnu, Ganpati, Krishna, and Surya 
Ndrayan, and go on pilgrimage to Benares, Madhura near Trd.Tankor, 
Rdmeshvar, and 'the Trivanna mountains near Madras. They fast 
on the Shivardtrns or dark fourteenths, on Pradoshs or dark 
thirteenths, on Ehadashis or elevenths, and on all Mondays; 
Their holidays are Sankrdnt in January, Holi in March, Varshabhya 
or New Year's Day in April, Ndgaiyanchmi in August, Ganesh^ 
ch-aturthi in September, Dasarain October, and DimZi in November; 
Their women are impure- for ten days after child-birth. On the fifth 
day they worship the knife with which the child's navel cord was 
cut, setting before it flowers, eggs,' mutton, and plantains. On the 
tenth day the child is laid in a cradle and named by an elderly 
woman of the house. The mudi or hair-clipping takes place at any 
suitable time before the child is three years old. In the morning 
they go to a garden some distance from the house, cowdung a spot 
of ground, and raise a canopy of sugarcanes, and' set a plantain tree 
at each corner of the sugarcane canopy. They take two pebbles in 
honour of the goddess Kdm^kshi^ma, daub them with redlead, and 
place them inside the canopy. They break twenty-five to fifty cocoa- 
nuts, and place them in front of the goddess together with fifty 
sugarcanes and fifty plantains. A goat is killed, and the child lying 
on its maternal uncle's knee has its hair clipped by a barber who 
retires with a present of uncooked food and 6d. (4 as.) in cash. 
The hair is gathered, shown to the goddess, and thrown into a 
river or pond. A feast is held, and, after presenting the child with 
clothes and money, the articles offered to the goddess are handed to 
the guests who retire to their homes. If the child is a boy, when 
it is five years old, the ceremony of teaching- or palikudamvdlcya, 
is performed. A Brdhman teacher is called, and friends and 
relations are invited. The boy is seated in the middle of the 
guests, a turmeric image of Ganpati is made and placed in 
front of the boy on a low wooden stool, and he worships it, the 
priest repeating verses. . A pair of waistcloths and some money are, 
given to the Brdhman teacher. The boy makes a low bow before 
him and he teaches the boy to repeat a few letters. Sweetmeats 
B 310-33 



Chapter III. 
FopulatioQ. 

Wkiteks. 



[Bombay Qacetteer, 



258 



DISTRICTS. 



apter III. 

>pulatio&. 

Writers. 
VelIlis. 



are served and tlie guests withdraw, unless the boy's parents are 
well off when they feast the guests- before they leave. When a boy 
is ten to fourteen years old the thread-girding or talapakalydnam 
takes place. A sacrificial fire or horn is kindled and the boy is 
dressed in new clothes and seated on a wooden stool in front 
of the fire. A sacred thread of cotton .silver or gold is put round 
his neckj money is handed to BrahmanSj and they withdraw. 
The other guests are treated to a feast. They marry their girls 
before they come of age and their boys before they are twenty. A 
betrothal ceremony precedes marriage. In the morning the boy's 
father lays flowers close to a new robe and bodice, sprinkles red- 
powder over them, burns frankincense, and with a party of relations 
and friends and music gpes ' to the girl's house. He cai-ries with 
him plates filled with twenty -five to fifty cocoanuts, a bundle of 
sugarcaries, one hundred to two hundred plantains, the robe and 
bodice worth about £2 10s. (Rs. 25), and jewelry worth £10 to 
£50 (Rs. 100 - 500). When the party reach thfe girl's house she is 
dressed in the bodice and robe, her brow is marked with red and 
turmeric powder, ornaments are put on her body, flower garlands 
are hung round her neck, and the sugarcanes and cocoanuts. are 
presented to her. The girl's mother approaches the boy's mother, 
and throwing a flower garland round her neck, says, ' I have given 
my daughter in marriage to your son.' The boy's mother says to 
the girl's mother, ' I have given my son in marriage to your daughter 
and your son is to me as a son-in-law.' The betrothal ends with a 
dinner. Twice during each of the next, three days parties of the 
boy's people go to the girl's house and of the girl's people to the 
boy's house, and at their homes rub the boy and the girl with a 
mixture of turmeric, gram flour, and oil. The day before the wedding 
at the boy's house a marriage hall is built and a lucky post is planted, 
under which are laid a pearl, a piece of coral, and a bit of precious 
stone, together worth about Is. 6d. (12 as.) ; to the top of the lucky 
post a handful of darbha grass is tied. In the marriage hall clay 
figures of a hosse, a lion, and an elephant are piled one above the 
other, and over them three empty earthen jars one above another. 
This is their marriage god or devak. Close to the marriage god is 
set a wooden mortar and over the mortar an earthen lamp with 
water and oil covered with another broken jar. An eai'then altar is 
raised close by and four plantain posts are fixed one at each comer. 
On the marriage day, generally in the morning, the girl's, parents, 
taking the girl in a palanquin with music and accompanied by male 
and female relations and friends, go to the boy's house. Before they 
enter the marriage hall/ one of the boy's female relations comes 
with a plate of water and. a mixture of turmeric powder and lime, 
waves it round the girl's head, and throws it away.. Another 
woman comes with a hghted dough lamp and waves it round the 
girl's head, and the girl walks in, and is given sugared milk to drink 
and a plantain to eat. The boy sits on the altar on a wooden stool 
and the girl is seated on a second stool to the boy's left. In front 
of them, in honour of Ganpati, a water-pot is set and a cocoanut is 
placed on its mouth and worshipped. The c6coanut is broken in 
two. In one of the pieces the lucky gold button necklace or 



Deoc&u.] 



POONA. 



259 



mangalsutra is laid and sprinkled witli floTfers. It is laid in a 
plate and taken before eacL. guest who bows to it, and when all 
have saluted it the boy fastens it round the girl's neck. A sacrificial 
fire is lit in front of the boy and girl, and about twenty pounds 
of rice and cocoanuts are placed near them. Elderly meii 
approach, fill their hands with rice, and throw the rice on the 
heads of the boy and girl. They wave cocoanuts round the heads 
of the boy and girl, break them, and throw them on one side as a 
present to the washerman. The couple change places, the hems of 
their garments are tied, and elderly women sing marriage songs, 
and at the end of each verse throw rice over the couple's heads» 
The boy catches the girl by her right little' finger, and together they 
thrice go round the altar. An opening is made in the marriage 
hall towards the north, and the boy pointing to a star asks the girl 
if she sees the star. She says, I see it. She is then seated on a 
plantain leaf over which about a pound of salt is spread and in 
front of her is laid a grindstone or pdta. The boy catches the girl 
by both her feet and thrice sets them on the stone. The couple are 
then taken inside the house and are offered sugared milk and 
plantaias. Lueky songs are sung by elderly women and when the 
songs are over, the boy retires and sits outside in the marriage 
hall with the men. Betel is served, and, except those who' 
have been asked to diue, the guests withdra;w. The priest also 
retires with a present of a pair of waistcloths and 2s. 6d. (Rs. H) 
in cash. Next day the girl cooks a plate of rice and split pulse 
or khichadi in the marriage hall and serves it in five plates and 
offers it to the marriage gods, burning frankincense and breaking 
a cocoanut. A dinner is given, and, in the evening, the boy is 
seated on horseback and the girl in a palanquin or carriage and they 
are taken in procession to Maruti's temple and then home. When 
they reach the house a mixture of turmeric and water is waved 
round their heads and thrown on one side and the guests present 
the girl with 6d. to 2s. (Re. J-1) in cash. The booth is pulled 
down, and a mixture of water and parched grain is boiled and 
thrown on the boy and girl. They are then seated in a carriage 
and taken to' the river to bathe. After their return a feast is given 
of a variety of dishes and the marriage ceremony is at an end. 
They allow child marriage and polygamy, but neither widow marriage 
nor polyandry. When a VelAli is on the point of death a booth is 
raised outside near the front door of the house, and the floor of the 
booth is strewn with darhha grass and the dying person is bathed 
' and laid on the grass. Ashes are rubbed on his brow and alms 
are given in his name. A couple of women break two. cocoanuts in 
four pieces and placing them in a brass plate along with flowers and 
a dough lamp, go a little distance from the house, and setting the 
plate on the ground, look towards heaven and ask God to give the 
dying person a seat near him. The plate is then brought home and 
kept near the dying person's head. When life is gone the chief- 
mourner, with four others, go with water-pots to a well and fetch, 
water, a Jangam or Lirigd,yat priest walking in front of them blo'wing 
a conch phell. One of the house doors is taken ofE its hinges and 
laid on the ground outside the house, and the body is laid on th.& 



Chapter IIL 
Population. 

■Writers. 



[Bombay aa2etteer, 



260 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Writers. 
VelJlis. 



door and bathed with water from the well. It is dressed in new 
clotheSj a turban, waistclothj and coat, if it is a man ; a robe and 
bodice if it is a married woman j and a robe alone if it is a widow. 
It is laid on a bamboo bier and covered with a shawl or silk 
waistcloth. Flowers, red and scented powder, and rosewater are 
sprinkled over the body. If the dead is married and leaves a 
husband or a wife betel ~is placed in the hands and again taken 
back by the husband or wife and thrown away. After this the 
survivor may marry again without angering the dead. The body is 
then raised on the shoulders of four men. In front walks the chief 
mourner with an earthen jar containing either burning cowdung cakes 
or live coal and beside him a Jangam or Lingayat priest blowing a 
conch shell. Parched grain is carried in a new winnowing fan and 
strewn as they walk till they reach the burning ground. Wh^n 
they have gone half-way the bier is laid On the ground, with the 
feet pointing south. A pound of rice and 2c?. (If anna) are given 
to a Mhdr or HaMlkhor, and the body is carried on to the burning 
ground. A pile of cowdung cakes is raised, the body is laid on the 
pile, and the bier is thrown on one side. The chief mourner's face 
is shaved including the mustache. He bathes, and with an earthen 
water vessel on his shoulder and a burning sandal log in his right 
hand thrice walks round the pile, and, standing with his face to the 
south and his back to the pile, dashes the jar on the ground and 
touches the pile with the burning sandalwood. Burning pieces of 
cowdung cakes are thrown round the pyre by the other mourners. 
The chief mourner is then taken to some distance from the pyre 
by two men who walk and seat themselves on either side of 
him. The rest of the mourners busy themselves with, setting fire 
to the pyre. When it is half burnt, they give it in charge to the 
Mhar and go to where, the chief mourner is sitting, and pay 6d, 
(4 as.) to the Jangam, 2s. 6d. (Rs. 1^) to the Mh^r, 2s. 6d. 
{Rs. 1 J) to the musicians if there are any, 6d. (4 as.) to the 
barber, and 6d. (4 as.) to the washerman. They then bathe in 
some stream or pool near the burning ground, each wearing a silk 
waistcloth or pitdmbar, and return to the mourner's house. Near 
the house door water is kept ready for the mourners to wash their 
hands and f eeb. When they have washed they enter the booth, where 
a la^ip is kept burning on the spot where the dead breathed his last. 
They look at the lamp and return to their homes. Such as are near 
relations stay with the- mourners and diae with them, the food 
being brought by the mourner's maternal uncle. On the second 
day -the chief mourner, accompanied by a few relations, go'es to the 
burni-ng ground with a cocoanut, a piece of sugarcane, plantains, 
red and sweet scented powder, frankincense, camphor, flowers, oil, 
milk, and sMkakdi pods, and throwing water over the ashes picks 
up the bones and makes them into a small heap. He sprinkles 
water over the bones, pours oil on them, drbps shikalcdi and the red 
and sweet scented powders on them, lays plantains beside them, 
breaks a cocoanut oyer them, and twisting a piece of sugar- 
cane lets a few drops of juice fall on them, and waves bulming 
frankincense and camphor before them. He lays the bones in an 
earthen jar, and taking the jar on his shoulder goes to the river 



Deooan.] 



POONA. 



261 



and throws it into tlie water. He bathes, and returns home. On 
the third day the chief mourner goes to the burning ground with 
a few near relations. They rub powdered dvalkati or pepper and 
milk on their bodiesj bathe, and return to the house of mourning, 
where they dine on rice, vegetables, pulse, and butter. They then 
present the chief mourner with a turban, a coat, and a waistcloth, 
and in the evening take him to the temple of Ganpati or Mahddev, 
where he worships the god, breaks a cocoanut, and lighting camphor 
waves it before the god, bows, and returns home. On the night of 
the fifteenth they bring two new bricks and shape them like human 
beings, dress them, and lay them on a low wooden stool. A few 
of the deceased's clothes are washed and heaped in front of the 
images, and they are offered plantains, cocoanuts, parched rice 
or fohe, and frankincense is burnt before them. Female relations 
Bit by weeping till next morning. On the morning of the 
sixteenth day the images and the offerings are tied in a bundle 
and placed in the hands of the chief mourner. He takes sixteen 
small and four large earthen jars, a handful of powdered coal, 
rice-flour, turmeric powder, brick powder, and gfreen powder made 
of pounded leaves, oil, rice, salt, pulse, plantains, cocoanuts, and 
vegetables,, and with a party of friends and Brahmans, goes to the river 
side or to the burning ground. Here the chief mourner is shaved 
and bathed,, a new sacred thread is fastened round his neck, and he is 
dressed in fresh clothes. A platform of earth is made about eight feet 
square and at each corner one of the four earthen jars is set filled 
with water, and the sixteen small jars are also filled with water 
and arranged round the square. Mango leaves are laid in the mouth 
of each jar and a thread is passed round the necks of them all. 
The coloured powders are thrown over the platform. A miniature 
bamboo bier is prepared and two cloth dolls are made and laid on 
the bier, covered with dry leaves, and burnt. When the bier is 
consumed the chief mourner gathers the ashes and throws them 
into the river. He then bathes, sits near the square, and lights the ■ 
sacrificial fire. The Tailang and other Maratha Brahmans are given 
uncooked iood and money and retire, and the jars and other articles 
are thrown into the water. Presents of clothes are made to the 
chief mourner, and when the party returns to the house of mourning 
the friends dine and retire. They have no caste council. They do 
not remember having ,ever met to settle a social dispute. They 
send their children to school and are a rising class. 

Traders include twelve classes with a strength of 20,736 or 
2'44 per cent of the Hindu population. The details are : 

POONA Tbadbbs. 



Class. 


Males. 


Females 


Total. 


Cuss. 


Males. 


Females 


Total. 


AgarvUs 

Bangara 

BhAtiyds 

Branma-Kshatris. 

Kirids 

Romtia 

Lingiyats... 


64 

20 

40 

32 

lU 

229 

2709 


18 

27 

31 

122 

200 

2652 


121 

33 

67 

.68 

236 

429 

, 6361 


Loh4n&8 

Timbolis 

Vinia Oujariit ... 

„ Mdrwir ... 

„ Vaiahya ... 

Total ... 


3 

26 

2283 

' 6889 

468 


3 

20 
1511 
3748 
425 


6 

46 

3844 

9637 

• 893 


11,877 


,8859 


20,736 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Writers. 
VejAlis. 



Traders. 



[Bombay Gasetteer, 



262 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
fopulation. 

Traders. 



Agarvals are returned as numbering 121 and as found in 
Haveli, Maval, Sirur, Parandharj and the city and cantonment of 
Poona. They claim descent from the sage Agarsen , whose seventeen 
sons married the seventeen daughters or ndgkanyds of the serpent 
Shesh. They have seventeen gotras or family stocks, of which the chief 
are Bdsal, Bran, Kdsal, Gdrg, Goel, Mangal, and Mital. People of the 
same family stock or gotra cannot intermarry. They say that they 
originally came from Agra, and after living in MarwAr for a time 
came to Poona about a hundred years ago. They are divided into 
Sache or pure Agarvdls, Dasa and Visa Agarvdls, and Mard,tha 
Agarvdls who represent the illegitimate children of Sd,che Agarvals. 
The following details apply to the Sache, Dasa, and Visa Agarvdla, 
who, though they neither eat together nor intermarry, differ little 
in religion or customs. The names in common use among men are, 
Ganpatldl, Girdh^rildl, - Kanhdilal, Ndrdyandas, and Vithaldds ; 
and among women, Bhdgirthi, Ganga, Jd,mna, Lachhmi, and Rhdi. 
They look like MArwar Vanis, are middle-sized stout and fair, and 
their women are goodlooking. Their home tongue isMd,rwd,ri, but 
most speak mixed Hindustani and Gujardti. They live ih houses 
of the better sort, one or two storeys high, with walls of brick and 
tiled roofs. Their house goods include metal vessels, bedding, 
carpets,. pillows, and boxes, and they have servants whom they pay 
6s. to 8s. (Rs. 3-4) a month. They are strict vegetarians, and of 
vegetables do not eat onions, garlic, carrots, or masur pulse. The 
men dress like Deccan Bfdhmans in a coat, waistcoat, waistcloth, 
shouldercloth, and Brahman turban or -headscarf, and wear either a 
sacred thread or a necklace of tulsi beads. They wear a top-knot 
and hair curling over each cheek, whiskers, and sometimes a beard. 
The women wear a bodice a petticoat and shoes, and muffle 
themselves from head to foot in a white sheet or chddar. They. do 
not wear false hair or deck their heads with flowers. They keep 
clothes in store. The women's ornaments are the gold hair 
ornament called bor worth 10s. (Rs. 5), the gold earrings called 
jhule worth £2 (Rs. 20), the gold and pearl nosering called nath 
worth £.5 (Rs. 50), the glass and gold bead necklace called 
mangalsutra worth £2 (Rs. 20), the bracelets called bdjubands worth 
£2 (Rs., 20), and glass and lac bangles, and the silver anklets called 
bichves worth £1 (Rs. 10) ani hadis worth £3 to £4 (Rs.30-40). 
Except the gold and silver finger rings called angthia the men wear 
no ornaments. They are vegetarians, and their staple food is rice, 
pulse, vegetables, wheat, butter, and spices. Their marriage and 
dea,th feasts cost them about 9d. (6 as.) a head. They are hard- 
working, even-tempered, orderly, and miserly. They are merchants, 
traders, grocers, moneychangers, moneylenders, dealers in cloth 
and grain, makers and sellers of sweetmeats, cultivators, and 
landholders. They say they do not earn more than £3 to £5 
(Rs. 30 - 50) a month. A family of five spend £2 (Rs. 20) a month 
on food. A house costs £50 to £150 (Rs. 500-1500) to buy and 
10s. (Rs. 5) a month to rent. The house goods, including clothes, 
furniture, and jewelry, are almost never worth more than £100 
(Rs. 1000). They spend £2 10s. to £5 (Rs. 25 - 50) a year on clothes. 
A birth costs £1 to £4 (Rs. 10 - 40) ; the first hair-cutting £5 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



263 



(Rs. 50), a sacred thread or tulsi necklace-girding 10s. to £1 (Rs. 5- 
10), a boy's or girl's marriage £50 to £100 (Rs.5O0-i0O0), and a 
death £50 (Rs.oOO). They are a religious people and their chief 
object of worship is Bdldji. Their priests are Marwdri Brdhmans 
or in their absence Deshasth Brdhmans. They make pilgrimages to 
Pandharpur, Mathura, Ndsik, Benares, Vrindavan, and Rdmeshvar. 
They fast on the two elevenths of every Hindu month, on Shivardtra 
in February, on Bdm-navami in April, and on Gokulashtami in 
August ; and feast on Holi in March, on Basara in October, and on 
Divdli in November. Their spiritual Teachers or gurus are either 
Rdmdnandis or Vallabhach^ryaMahardjas,*to whom they show great 
respect. On the fifth day after a child is born they worship a mask 
or tdk of the goddess Satvai which they place on a high wooden 
stool on wheat and arrange lemons round it. Children are named 
when they are a month old. ' At the naming ceremony four boys stand 
with a piece of cloth held on all four sides of the child and the 
child's paternal aunt names it. The aunt is presented with a bodice 
if the child is a girl and from 2s. to 10«. (Rs.1-5) if the child is a 
boy, and the four boys are given pieces of dry cocoa-kernel and sixteen 
gram or bundi balls each. Eunuchs or hijdes dance and sing in the 
evening and are paid 2s. 6d. (Rs. ]|^). They shave the child's 
head between its fourth and fifth year. Whisu a boy is eight or nine 
years old his parents take him to the spiritual Teacher or guru 
with music, relations, -and friends, and a. plate of betelnut and leaves, 
a cocoanut, flower garlands, nosegays, and lOs. (Rs. 5) in cash. The 
boy worships the Teacher or guru, offers him 10*. (Rs. 5), and 
falls before him. The Teacher or guru fastens a tulsi bead 
necklace round the boy's neck, whispers into his ears a sacred verse, 
and drops sugar into his mouth. They marry their girls between 
ten and twelve and their boys between fifteen and twenty. They 
do not allow widow marriage, and they burn their dead. They 
have no headman and settle social disputes at meetings of the 
castemen. They send their boys to school and are well-to-do. 

Bangars are returned as numbering thirty-three and as found 
in Poena city only. They say their origin is given in the Basvapurdn, 
and that they came into , the district about two hundred years ago. 
Whence and why they came they cannot tell, but some of their 
religious and social customs suggest that their former home was in the 
Bombay Karnd,tak. They have no subdivisions. Their surnames are 
Bhinkar, Buras, Jiresale, Khatdvkar, Mhasurkar, Phutane, Tambe, 
and Vaikar, and families bearing the same surname eat together 
but do not intermarry. The names in common use among men are 
Ganapa, Ird,pa, Khanddpa, Morapa, Rakhmdii,R^mapajand Rudrapa j 
and among women, Ganga, Lakshmi, Sita, and Yamuna. They look 
and speak like Mardthas, and own stone and mud built houses with 
tiled roofs. Their household goods are metal and earthen vessels, 
"bedding, carpets, and blankets; they keep no servants and oyra. no 
cattle. They are vegetarians and their staple food is millet, split 
pulse, and vegetables. They eat rice twice a week on Saturdays 
and Mondays. The men dress like Brdhmans in a coat, waistcoa,t, 
waistcloth, shouldercloth, and Brdhman turban and shoes. They 
wear the ling and mark their brows with, sandal and ashes. Their 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Traders. 



JBANaABS. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



264 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Traders. 



women dress in the full Marafcha robe and bodice. jThey rub their 
brows -with redpowder and do not use false hair, deck their heads 
with flowers, or care for gay colours. They are neat and clean, 
hardworking, frugal, hospitable, and orderly. They are shop- 
keepers and sellers of spices, turmeric, asafoetida, and dry cocoanut 
kernel, and hawk groundnuts, molasses, pulse, sweetmeats or 
ehiki, and , parched grain. Others serve as sbopboys earning 
10s. to 12s. (Rs. 5-6) a month without food. Their boys earn 4s. 
to 6s.(Rs. 2-3) a month as shopboys. A family of five spends 
1.4s. to £1 (Rs, 7- 10) a month on food, and about £1 10s. (Rs, 15) a 
year on clothes. A house costs about £10 (Rs. lOO) to build and 
6d.to Is. (4-8 as.) a month to rent. Their house goods are not 
■worth more than £5 (Rs. 50). A birth costs about 10s, (Rs. 5),a 
boy's marriage £2 10s. to £7 10s. (Rs. 25-75), a girl's marriage £2 
10s. to £5 (Rs.25 -50), and a death £1 (Rs.lO). Their chief god is 
Mahddev and their priests are Jangams or Lingdyat priests, who 
officiate at their births, marriages, and deaths. They make 
pilgrimages to Shrishailya Malikdrjun in Signapur near Phaltan. 
Bangars .worship the goddess Satvd,i on the fifth day after a 
child is born. In the middle of a bamboo winnowing fan they 
place a handful of wheat, and on the wheat set a dough lamp which 
they feed with butter. They ofEer the lamp molasses wheat 
broadband methi or fenugreek, and ask it to be kindly. A feast to 
near relations and friends ends the day. On the seventh a Jangam 
is called, his feet are washed, and the water is drunk by the 
people of the house, and he presents the new-born child with a 
lingam laying it on the bed near the child's head. A present of Bd. 
(2 as.) satisfies the priest and he retires.. On the twelfth evening 
the child is laid-in the cradle, four dough lamps are lit under it, and- 
five dough cakes are laid one on each corner of the cradle and the 
fifth under the child's pillow, and the child is named in the presence 
of female guests. Wet gram is presented to _ the guests and they 
retire except a few near relations who remain for dinner. They-do- 
not think their women unclean after child-birth, but they do not 
touch them during their monthly sickness. They do not mourn the. 
dead and. do not think that a death makes near relations impure. 
They marry their girls before they come of age and their boys before 
they are twenty-five. The boy's father has to look out for a wife 
for his son. When he has found a suitable match she is presented 
with the silver feet ornaments called sdkhalyds and vdles, worth about 
£4 (Rs. 40). A marriage paper or lagnaehiti is prepared and made 
over to the boy's father. The boy and girl are rubbed with turmeric 
at their homes, the girl first and then the boy, and presented with 
clothes, the girl with a green robe and bodice and the boy with a 
shouldercloth and a turban. In the evening two earthen pitchers 
are brought and broken into two equal parts. They are marked 
with fantastic colours and decked with gold and silver tinsel. The 
upper part of the jar is turned upside down and on it the lower part 
is set and filled with ashes. In the ashes, three torches four or five 
inches -high, soakJed in oil, are stuck and lighted with camphor. 
Round the torches are set fifteen flags about a foot and a half high, . 
a,nd the whole is lifted and waved round the house gods. This is . 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



265 



called the huldharmdchddip that is the faWily god's lamp. The boy 
and his mother dress in yellow silk, and' taking the two broken jars 
on their heads go to the temple of the village Mahddev accompanied 
by kinsmen and kinswomen and with a conch shell and other 
music. At the temple the lamp of the family god is waved round 
Mahddev's face, a betel packet is laid in front of the god, and the 
torches are put out by breaking two cocoanuts and pouring their water 
over the torches. The conch shell is brought back by a married 
couple the hems of whose robes are knotted together, and it is placed 
among the household'* gods as the marriage guardian or devak. This 
ceremony is repeated at the girl's house with the same details, 
except that instead of the boy's mother the girl's father takes the 
other jar upon his head. The day ends with a dinner. On the 
marriage evening the boy is seated on horseback and taken to the 
girl's house. On reaching the house, before he enters presents are 
exchanged, and rice, curds, and a cocoanut are waved round the 
boy's head. In the marriage porch he is made to stand face to face 
with the girl on a carpet and a 'cloth is held between them. Both 
a Jangam and a Brahman are present, and, after the marriage verse 
is repeated by the Brahman, the cloth is pulled on one side, grains 
of rice are thrown over their heads, and they are husband and wife. 
They are next seated facing each other on wheat with their maternal 
uncles standing behind them. In front of the boy five brass 
water-pots filled with cold water are placed, one at each corner of a 
square and the fifth in the middle, and with the help of the Jangam 
are "worshipped by both the boy and the girl. A cotton thread is 
wound five times round the couple, cut in two, and one-half with a 
turmeric root is tied to the right wrist of the, boy and- the other half 
to the right wrist of the girl. The boy pours water from th« middle 
water-pot over the girl's hands, and the hems of their garments 
are tied by the Jangam, who leads them before the conch shell 
or marriage guardian. They make a low bow and return, and the 
knot is untied by the Jangam. The Jangam and Brdhman priests 
are then given betel packets and about 3s. (Rs. 1^) in cash and retire. 
Next day a married woman fills the girl's lap with five betel 
nuts and leaves, five dry dates, five turmeric roots, pieces of 
cocoa-kernel, and grains of rice, and she goes to her husband's 
house with him and his relations and friends and music. A feast 
at both houses ends the marriage. They allow ^idow marriage and 
polygamy, but not polyandry. They bury the dead. They carry 
the body sitting in a blanket bag or zoli with a Lingayat priest 
walking in front blowing a conch shell. They bury the body 
sitting with its face to the east and the ling which he wore round 
his neck in his left hand covered with his right. The chief mourner 
brings water in a conch shell, drops some into the dead mouth, lays 
a few bel leaves on the hand and in the mouth, and the mourners fill 
the grave with earth repeating Har, Har, Mahadev. After the grave 
is filled the Jangam stands over it, repeats texts, and sprinkles a few 
hel leaves'; and the mourners retire. The caste is feasted on the third 
or the fifth day after the death, and every year a mind-feast or 
ahrdddh is performed. The Bangars have a headman whom they 
style shetya, who settles social disputes in consultation with tlie men 
B 310—34 



Chapter III. 
Population, 

Tradbrs. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



266 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Tradbes. 
BhAttAs. 



Brsbxa-Ksba tbis. 



of tlie caste. .They send their boys to school for a short time. 
They are a steady class. 

. Bha'tya's, or Bhati traders, are returned as numbering sixty-seren 
and as found in Haveli, Bhimthadi, and Poena city. They have no 
subdivisions. They are short and sturdy with regular features. Their 
home speech is G-ujar^ti, but with others they speak Marathi. Their 
usual food is rice, pulse, and butter in the morning, and rice bread in 
the evening. They are vegetarians and are careful to abstain from fish, 
flesh, or liquor. Except their special double-horned turban, the 
men's dress does not differ from that of high class Mardthds ; their 
women dresS like Gujarati V^ni women in,a full petticoat, a short- 
sleeved and openvbacked bodice, and a robe or scarf which is drawn 
up from the back part of the waist of the petticoat across the face so 
as almost to form a veilj and is fastened in front in the left waistband 
of the petticoat. Their petticoats and robes are generally of hand- 
printed cloth darker and less gay than the Mardtha women's robes. 
As a class they are hardworking, sober, thrifty, and hospitable.- 
They trade in molasses and hirde. or myrobalanSj which they buy 
and send to Bombay, They worship the usual Brdhmanic and local 
gods, but their chief objects of worship are Gopal, Krishna/ and 
Mahadev. They are well-to-do. 

Brahma-Kshatris are returned as numbering sixty-three 
and as found only in Poena city. They are said to have come into 
the district from Aurangabad about .sixty years ago in search of 
work. They are also called Thakura, or lords, a name which in the 
Deccan is applied to several classes who have or who claim a strain 
of Kshatriya blood. Among their surnames are Bighe, Nagarkar, 
and SAkre, and among their family stocks or gotras are Bhdradvdj 
and Kaushik. Sameness of stock but not sameness of surname 
is a bar to marriage. The names in common use among men are 
Apd,rao, Anandrdo, and Lakshman ; and among women Ambab^i,; ! 
Jdnkibdi, and Sondbai. They are a fair people and look like 
Gujarat Brdhmans. Their home speech is Mardthi. They live 
in houses of the better class two or more storeys high with walls 
of brick and tiled roofs. Their houses are neat and cl^an, and 
they keep horses, cattle, and parrots. Their staple food is millet 
bread, vegetables, and spices. Their holiday dishes are pulse 
balls and sugared milk; a feast of these dishes costs about £4. 
(Rs. 40) for every hundred guests. They say they do not eat fish 
or flesh or drink liquor, and smoke nothing but tobacco. Both 
men and women dress like Mardtha Brdhmang, and the women 
wear false hair and deck their heads with flowers. They are neat 
and clean, hospitable, and orderly. They are bankers, money- 
changers, moneylenders, railway contractors, writers, cloth-dealers, 
and husbandmen. The average monthly food charge for a family 
of five is about £2 (Rs.2,0). Their houses cost £60 to £500 
(Rs. 500-5000) to build and 4s. to £1 (Rs. 2-10) a month to hire. 
Their furniture is worth £70 to £200 (Rs. 700- 2000). Besides 
their food servants are paid 4s. to 8s. (Rs.2-4) a month. Their 
animals are worth £2 to £20 (Rs. 20 -200). They spend on clothes 
£3 to £20 (Rs, "30 - 200) a year. Their store of clothes is worth £5 to 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



267 



£50 (Rs.50-500), and their ornaments £250 to £500 (Rs. 2500-5000). 
A birth costs £1 10s. to £2 10s. (Rs.l5-25)j a hair-clipping £1 to 
£2 (Rs.10-20), a thread-girding £7 to £12 10s. (Rs. 70 -125), the 
marriage of a son £50 to £100 (Rs. 500- 1000), the marriage of a 
daughter £20 to £80 (Rs. 200-800), a girl's coming of age £5 
1}0 £7 10s. (Rs.50-75), a pregnancy £2 to £3 (Rs.20-30), and a 
death £6 to £7 (Rs. 60 - 70). They are religious, worshipping chiefly 
Mahadev and the Devi of Saptashringi hill about thirty miles 
north of N^sik. They employ Deshasth Brdhmans as their priests 
and show them great respect. They worship the usual Brdhmanic 
gods and goddesses, keep the regular fasts and feasts, and make 
pilgrimages to Alandi, Saptashring, and Benares. They believe in 
sorcery, witchcraft, soothsaying, and omens. When a child is born 
its navel cord is cut by a midwife and buried inside the house. On the 
fifth day they place a grindstone in the mother's room. A handful 
of wheat and abetelnut are laid on the stone and worshipped by one 
of the married women of the family. A^dough lamp is set close by 
and the whole is left for twelve days in' the mother's room. To each 
leg of the cot on which the mother and child are laid is tied a rod 
of iron as thick as a man's finger and they are left there ten days. 
The mother is held impure for ten days, when she is bathed and 
the cot is taken away. The house and part of the room is 
cowdunged and a fresh cot is laid for the mother and child. In 
the evening each of five BrAhmans is presented with sweetmeats 
and a copper coin. On the twelfth day the grindstone is taken from 
the lying-in room and the cl^ild is named. Brdhmans and married 
women are feasted, the chief dish being oil-cakes. The hair- 
clipping takes place when the child is three months to two years 
old, when the barber buries the hair in some lonely spot and is 
given a meal of uncooked food and 6d. (4 as.) . They gird their boys 
with the sacred thread when they are between six and ten, the 
details of the ceremony being the same as among Mardtha Brdhmans. 
They marry their girls before they are twelve and their boys before 
they are twenty-five. Except that the bridegroom wears a silk or a 
cotton waistcloth, a coat, and a turban, the ceremony is the same as 
among Deccan Brdhmans. They burn their dead, mourn ten days, 
and end the mourning with a caste feast. Polygamy is practised 
and widow marriage foi-bidden. They have a caste council and 
settle social disputes at meetings of the castemen. They send 
their boys to school and are well-to-do. 

Eira'ds are returned as numbering 236, and as found in 
Poena city only. They are. said to have come from Gwalior since 
the beginning of British rule. They have no subdivisions. 
Their surnames are Jaradya, Khojarvdjar, Menduri, Parsaya, 
and Sujemiya; people bearing the same surname intermarry. The 
names in common use among men are Baliram, Banduram, 
Chanduldl, Kisandas, and Kiiehaji ; and among women Hir^bdi, 
Jesibdi, Lalubai, Munydbdi, and Subhadrd.bai. They look like 
Pardeshi Brahmans. The men wear the top-knot and whiskers but 
not the beard, and the women wear the hair in a roll at the back of 
the head. The men mark their brows with sandal paste- and the 
women draw a cross line of redpowder. Their, home tongue is 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

TRjiDBES. 
BrAHMA-KsBA TBI 



KiBADS. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



268 



DISTEICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Popalatiou. 

Traders. 
KijUls. 



Hindustani, but out of doors they speak Mardthi. They live i^ 
houses of the better sort, one or two storeys high, and have metal 
and , earthen vessels and bullocks and carts. Their staple food is 
millet bread, split pulse, and vegetables, and they are fond of 
pungent dishes. They eat fish, eggs, and the flesh of goats sheep and 
fowls, and drink liqu or. They give feasts of curds and rice sweet cakes 
and wheat bread. The men dress like Mardthds, and the , women 
wear either a petticoat or a Maratha robe, drawing the skirt back 
between the feet, and a bodice. The women wear ornaments in 
their hair and on their ears, nose, neck, arms, and feet. They 
are hardworking, sober, thrifty, clean, and neat, but hot-tempered 
and fond of show. They are contractors, supplying hay, thatch, 
bullocks, and carts. Their women help by making thatch, gi'inding 
grain, and selling firewood and cowdung cakes. A house costs 
£20 to £50 (Bs. 200 -500) to build and contains furniture and 
goods worth £5 to £50 (Rs.. 50 - 500). They pay their servants 10s, 
to 18s. (Rs. 5 - 9) a month without food. A family of five spend 
£1 to £1 10s. (Rs. 10 - 16), a month on food, and £1 16s. to £2 
10s. (Rs. 18-25) a year on clothes. A birth costs 2s. to 10s. 
(Rs. 4-5), a hair-clipping 2s. to 4s. (Rs. 1-2), a boy's marriage 
£5 to £15 (Rs. 50 - 150), a girl's marriage £5 to £6 (Rs. 50 - 60), 
and a death, £2 to £3 (Rs. 20-30). They are Brahmanic Hindus 
and worship goddesses or mothers more than gods and are termed 
devi-updsaks or goddess-worshippers. Their family deities are 
Bhavani of Tuljdpur and Lakshmi-Nardyan. Their priests are 
Kanoj Brdhmans who officiate at their houses during marriages 
and deaths. They go on pilgrimage to Tuljdpur, Pandharpur, and 
Alandi. They believe in sorcery, witchcraft, soothsaying, and lucky, 
and unlucky days. On the fifth day after the birth of a child they 
worship the goddess Satvdi, and offer her brinjals or 'ga^re, dry 
ginger, black pepper, split pulse or revdi, sweetmeats, dry bomalp 
fish, and dress the child' in a coat and cap. On the twelfth 
the mother's impurity ends and her cot and clothes are washed. 
On the thirteenth they lay the child in a cradle and name it. 
They clip a child's hair when it is one to five years old outside of 
the house or in a garden. They marry their girls before they are 
fifteen and their boys before they are twenty-five. The boy's father 
looks for a girl for his son, and when one is found he sends some of 
his kinsmen to settle the match. After a couple ' of days the 
kinsmen bring back all that the girl's father will let them know of his 
wishes regarding the match. On the third day the boy's father goes 
to the girl's. If the girl's father seats him on a cot it is understood, 
thatheiswilling to give his daughter; if the girl's father seats him 
on a mat the boy's father goes home. Next day if the match is 
settled the boy's and girl's fathers go to the priest's and are told 
lucky days for the marriage and turmeric rubbing. The days are 
noted on two pieces of paper, which are handed to the two fathers, 
who lay them before their house gods. A post is set up near the 
house and a bundle of hay is tied to its top. On the following day 
wheat cakes and balls called gulgule, are prepared and ten to fifty 
are sent to the houses of all caste people. On the third day. the 
boy is rubbed with turmeric, and what remains is sent to the girl 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



269 



■with a petticoat, bodice, and robe. On the fourth day, a four feet 
long mango staff is planted in the marriage hall and an earthen jar 
coloured red and white and filled with cold water is set near the staff. 
Two copper coins are laid in the jar, it is covered with an earthen 
lid, and a dough lamp is kept burning close by. Four holes are 
made in the staff and four lighted lamps or- kodyds are kept burning 
in ladles and the whole is worshipped by the boy's maternal uncle. 
This is called the marriage god or devah. The boy is seated 
on a low wooden stool, is anointed with oil from head to foot, is 
rubbed with turmerio", and a marriage ornament of wild date or 
sindi palm is tied to his brow. He is seated on a horse and taken 
in company with children to the marriage porch which has been 
built at the girl's house. When he draws near the hall he waits 
without dismounting till the girl's father comes and presents him 
with a turban and sash, and he goes back to his house. On the 
fifth day the boy is made to stand at his house on a low wooden 
stool, and a thread is passed seven times round his body.- A couple 
of leaf-plates are filled with rice and an iron ring is tied with the 
thread that was passed seven times round his body. This ceremony 
takes place with the same details at the girl's house. The boy is 
seated on a horse, and, accompanied by relations friends and music, 
is taken in procession to the girl's. He is led to a neighbour's 
house where a feast is held, and after the dinner is over the guests 
withdraw leaving the boy and one or two of his relations. Early 
next day the guests return. Two low wooden stools are set in front 
of the marriage god or devah, and the boy is taken to the girl's 
house, and he and the girl are seated the girl on his right. The 
priest kindles a sacrificial fire in front of them and the boy feeds it 
with clarified butter and grain. The priest holds a cloth between 
the marriage guardian or devak and the boy and girl and repeats 
marriage verses. When the verses are ended, the girl followed by 
- the boy takes six turns round the devah. Before beginning to take 
the seventh turn, the boy asks his parents and the other guests 
whether they should take the seventh turn. They say, 'Take 
the seventh turn'j and he walks in front of the girl, and when 
the turn is completed they are husband and wife. A feast is held. 
In the evening the boy and girl are seated in a palanquin 
or carriage and are taken to the boy's house. Before he enters 
the house the boy's sister stands in the doorway and asks him to 
give her two silver wristlets or hakne. The boy hands her 4s. 
(Rs. 2) and she allows him to pass. On the following or seventh 
day the boy unlooses the girl's wristlet and the girl unlooses the 
boy's wristlet, and the marriage festivities end with a feast. When 
a gid comes of age, she is seated by herself for four days and on 
a.lacky day her lap is filled with wheat and fruit. When a person 
dies the family barber goes to tell the caste people. When they 
come a bier is made, and, after water has been poured over the body 
where it lies in the house, it is brought out, laid on the bier, and 
carried to the burning ground on the shoulders of four men. When 
.the body is half burnt the mourners bathe and go to the deceased's 
house, and the chief mourner standing before them asks their 
forgiveness for the trouble to which they have been put. The 



Chapter lit. 

Population. 

Traders. 
EirIvb. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



270 



DISTEICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Fopulatioa. 

Tbasebs. 
KieUds. 



KOMTIS. 



LinbItats- 



mourners reply, ' It is no trouble ; we have helped y.ou and you will 
help us/ and they retire. On the third day the chief mourner throws 
the ashes into water, and on the place where the body was burnt sets 
two earthen jars, one filled with water the other with milk, and 
after a bath returns home. The deceased's family mourns ten dajrs. 
On the eleventh the men of the caste have their heads shaved at the 
chief mourner's house and at -his expense, and after a feast they 
retire. On the thirteenth his near relations present the chief 
mourner with a turban and the mourner is free to attend to his 
business. They have a caste council who settle social disputes at 
meetings of the castemen. Offences against caste are punished by 
fines varying from Qd. to £1 (Rs. :|-10), which are spent either on 
liquor or on a caste feast. The Kird,ds send their boys to school 
until they are able to read and write a,nd cast accounts. They are a 
steady well-to-do class. 

Eomtis are returned as numbering 429 and as found over the 
whole district except in M^val. They are said to have come into 
the district fifty to seventy-five' years ago from Telangan. or the 
Nizdm's country. They are of three divisions, Jains, Rydpols, and 
Vaishya,s, who though they neither eat together nor intermarry 
differ little in appearance, speech^ calling, or customs. They are- 
dark, tall, and thin. Their home tongue is TelugU} but with others 
they speak Marathi. Many of them live in houses of the better 
sort two' storeys high with walls of brick and tiled roofs. They 
are vegetarians and their staple ^ood is millet, rice, pulse, and 
vegetables. : Both men and women dress like Deccan Brahmans. 
As a class Komtis are hardworking, orderly,' thrifty, and hospitable. 
Most of them are grocers, dealing in spices, grain, butter, oil, 
molasses, and sugar. A few are moneylenders, writers, husbandmen, 
and in G-overnment service as messengers. They send their boys 
to school.^ , 

■• Linga'yats, or Ling Worshippers, are returned as numbering 
5S61 and as found over the whole district. They originally belonged 
to the KamAtak and are said to have come to the district about al 
hundred years ago. They have no subdivisions. Their surnames 
are Gradkar, Hingmire, Jire, Jiresal, KAle, Mitkar, Parmale, Phutdne, 
Vdikar, and Virkar. Families bearing the same surname do not 
intermarry. The names in comrnon use among men are Mahddev 
Malikdrjun, Shankar, and Virbhadra ;,and amjong women Bhdgirthi, 
Bhimd, Ganga, Girja, Pdrvati, and Uma. They are generally 
tall, thin, and dark. Their home tongue is Kanarese, but out 
of doors they speak Mardthi as fluently as Marathds. They, live 
in, houses of the better class and have servants and cattle. Their 
staple food is millet, rice, pulse, and vegetable, and they neither 
eat flesh nor drink liquor. They do not allow strangers to see their 
food or the sun to shine on their drinking water, and they , are 
very careful that no scraps of a meal shall be left uneaten. The 
men wear a waistcloth, coat, waistcoat, shoulderoloth, headscarf^ 
or Brd/hman turban, and Brdhman shoes. The women dress in the 



Fuller details of Komtis are given in the Sholipnr Statistical Account. 



Deecan.] 



POONA. 



271 



full Mardtha robe and bodice, and both men and women mark their 
brows with ashes and carry the ling in a small box either tied to 
the upper left arm or hanging from the neck. They are thrifty, sober, 
hospitable, hardworking, and orderly. They are grain and cloth 
retail dealers, and peddlers, grocers, and spice sellers. They are 
ShaiTs and have no images in their houses. If they pass any Hindu 
temple they bow to the image thinking it to be Mahadev, and in the 
same way they bow before a mosque or a church thinking every 
object of worship is Shiv. Their priests are Jangams, to whom 
they show great respeet and before whom they bow low. They 
profess not to believe in sorcery, witchcraft, or soothsaying, or to. 
consult oracles. When a young wife's first confinement draws near 
she is generally taken to her mother's. When a child is born the 
midwife outs the navel cord and lays the child beside its mother iu 
the cot. Word is sent to the child's father, and he distributes sugar. 
and betel-packets among relations, friends, -and neighbours. Either . 
on the first, third, or fifth d&j a, ling is tied round the mother's 
neck or laid under the child's bed or pillow. Qn the evening of the 
fifth day, in the lying-in room, near the cot a square is traced on 
the ground with rice flour or quartz powder, and in the square is 
laid the knife with whichthe child's navel string was cut, together 
with a blank sheet of paper and a pen, and these are bowed to as 
Satvai. On the evening of the sixth day a silver image of the 
goddess Pd.rvati worth '^d. to \^d. (J-1 anna), is set on a low 
wooden stool, the midwife lays flowers, camphor, and frank- 

' incense before it, and the mother and child bow down to it. The 
eTangam comes and is seated on a low wooden stool. JEis feet are . 
washed in a plate, and the water is sprinkled over the house, and 
given to the house people both men and women to drink. The , 
priest retires with a dinner and a few coppers. They name their 

I. children, if a girl on the twelfth day and if a boy on the thirteenth. 
On the naming day five married women are asked to dine along 
with near kinsfolk and the child is laid in a cradle and named. 
Before beginning her house work the mother takes her child to a 
temple of Mahadev,^ bows to the god, and comes home. They feed a 

, child on solid food for the first time after it is six months old. 
When it is a year old, if it is a girl, part of its forelock is clipped by 
its maternal uncle, and if it is a boy. the head excepting the top- 
knot is sha,ved by a barber. At five years old a boy is sent 
to school, and at twelve he is taught a sacred verse in honour of 
Shiv. Girls are also taught this verse, but not till they are sixteen. 
They marry their girls between eight and twelve and their boys 
■ between twefve and twenty-five. Th& offer of marriage comes from 
the boy's house, and when the match is settled the boy's father, 
accompanied by a Jangam and a few near . relations, goes to the. 
girl's, presents her with a new robe and bodice, and, puts a little, 
sugar into her mouth, The girl's father hands betel-paokets and 
the guests withdraw. Afterwards, the marriage.^ day is settled in 

ij,,cbnsultation with a Jangam or a Brahman astrologer. Marriage 
pidrches are raised both at the,boy's,and at the girl's and an earthen 
altar is made at the girl's. Round the altar twenty whitewashed 
earthen pota marked with red lines are- piled in five pillars each 



Chapter III: 

Population. 

Tbadebs. 
LinqAtai3. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



272 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Traders. 
LinsAyats. 



of four pots. The boy is seated on tofseback, and with^a band 
of kinsmen and kinswomen and music goes to the girl's bouse. The 
boy and girl are rubbed with turmeric and 'the hems of their 
garments are knotted together and untied after the boy and girl 
bave bowed before the god MahddoY. A quartz square is tracedj 
and round it are arranged five metal water-pots filled with water. In 
the middle of the square two low wooden stools are set and the boy 
and girl take their seats on the" stools. In front of them is set an 
image of Mahddev and of his carrier the bull Nandi, and these are 
worshipped with the help of the Jangam. The Jangam repeats the 
marriage verses and tbe guests keep throwing grains of rice over 
the beads of the boy and girl. When the verses are finished the 
boy and girl bow. before Mahadev and Nandi and are man and wife. 
The boy and girl are seated on the altar and the girl's father presents 
the boy with a water-pot or tdmhya and a plate or pitali. A dinner 
follows and after dinner betel-packets are handed and the guests 
withdraw. Next day presents of clothes are exchanged, the boy 
goes in procession .with his wife to his house, and the gaests are 
• given betel-packets and withdraw. When a Lingayat is on the 
point of death alms are given in his name. When he dies he is 
seated on a low wooden stool leaning against the wall and supported 
on each side by near kinspeople. ,A bamboo frame is built round a 
high wooden stool, a young plantain tree is>tied to each corner of the 
stool, and a red cloth is folded on the three sides of the bamboo frame. 
The body is carried outside of the house, cold water is poured 
over it, and ashes are rubbed on the brow arms and chest. It is 
dressed in tbe usual clothes, and flower garlands are bung round 
the neck. A lighted lamp is wayed round the face and tbe body 
is seated in tbe frame and carried on the shoulders of four men.- 
In front walks a Jangam with a conch shell and a bell, constantly 
ringing tbe bell and every now and then blowing the shell. Both 
men and women follow repeating Har, Har, Mahddev. When they 
reacb the burial ground the frame is lowered, water is sprinkled 
on the ground which is to be the grave, a hole six feet- deep is 
dug, and tbe body is lowere^d into the hole, and seated with the 
clothes on. The ling is untied from the neck, laid on the open hand, 
and covered with bel leaves. As mucb salt as the mourners can 
afford is spread round the body and the grave is filled. A stone 
is laid over thegrave, and on the stone the Jangam stands repeating 
verses. When the verses are ended bel leaves are thrown over the 
stone and the funeral party retire to the bouse of mourning and 
look at the burning lamp whicb was placed on the spotwhere the dead 
breathed his last. After they leave the lamp is allowed to go out. 
Tbey sbow no signs of mourning, but, if able to meet tbe expense 
raise a tomb witb a ling and a bull carved on it. On tbe' third day 
a feast is held. Nothing more is done till the yearly death-day^ 
when another feast is given. The Lingayats are bound together 
as a body, and settle social disputes at meetings of tbe castemen in 
consultation with the headmen or shettids. They send their boya 
to school for a short time, and are in easy circumstances. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



273 



. Loha'na's are returned as numbering six and as found only in 
Poona. They have come to Poona from Bombay, where they muster 
strong. Their home tongue is Gl-ujard,ti, but they speak Mardthi like 
Braiimans. They are thrifty, hospitable, and hardworking. They 
are traders, moneylenders, and dealers in gunny-bags or bdrddns. 

Ta'mbolis, or Betel-leafsellers, are returned as numbering 
■ forty-six and as found only in the city and cantonment of Poona. 
They say they came from Sitara and Ahmadnagar during the time of 
the Peshwds and took to selling betel leaves from which they get their 
name. They eat and marry with Mardtha Kunbis. Their surnames 
and the names of men and women are the same as those of cultivating 
Mardthds, and, as among Marathas, persons bearing the same surname 
do not intermarry. They look speak di'ess and eat like Marathds. 
They resemble Mardthd,s in religion and customs, and settle social 
disputes at meetings of the castemen. They are retail sellers of 
betel. leaveSj of dpta Bauhina racemosa and temburni Diospyros 
melanoxylon cigarettes, of betelnut, of catechu, and of tobacco. They 
buy the betel leaves from Tirgul Brahmans who grow them in 
gardens. Between Mdgh or February and Jesht or June they buy a 
Jmdtan of thirty-seven JcavUs, each kavK containing four hundred 
and fifty leaves, plucked from the tops of plants and worth 16s. to 
£1 6s. (Rs. 8-13) the kudtan. They sell -twelve, fifteen, or twenty 
leaves for f <?. (j anna). From June to October they buy a kudtan of 
na/oatichis or tender leaves an&talpdnes or short-bottom leaves at 
4s. to 12s. (Rs. 2-6) the kudtan. Between October and February 
they buy a kudtan oi gacMs or middle leaves costing 14s. to 18s. 
(Rs.7-9) and sell them at twenty to twenty-five for ^d. The ripe 
or pakka leaves are sold at eight to twelve for fcZ. The leaves have 
to be turned and aired every day and the ripe ones picked out. 
If not carefully picked and sifted the leaves rot. , Tambolis make 
£1 to £1 10s. (Rs. 10-15) a month. Their women do not help. 
Lads begin to serve as shopboys on 10s. to I4s. (Rs. 5-7) a month. 
They do not send their boys to, school, and are a steady class. 

Va'nis or Traders, with a strength of 14,374, belong to three main 
divisions, G-ujardt Vanis, Mar war Vanis, and Vaishya Vanis, who 
jieither dine together nor intermarry. 

GujaeIt YAsis or traders, numbering 3844, are found over the 
whole district. They are said to have come from Gujardt in search 
of work at different times during the last two hundred years. They 
are divided into Meshris or Brd,hmanic , Vanis, followers of the 
Vaishnav pontiff Vallabhacharya, and Shrdvaks or followers of the 
Jain religion, Meshris are divided into Kapbls, Khaddyats, Ldds, 
Modhs, N%ars, Pd,nchds, and Porvdls. They rank next to BrAhmans 
and eat only from the Gajardt Brd,hmans who officiate as their 
priests. The Jains are divided into Humbads, PorvJlls, ahd Shrimalis. 
The following details apply both to Meshri and to Jain Vd,nis.^ The 
names in common use among men are Ganpatdds, Lakhnlidds, 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Tradkks. 

TAmbous, 



VInib. 



Gujarat, 



1 Besides the Gujarit and Mirwir ShrAvaks or Jains, there are a few KAnarese 
Jains who do not dififer from the Jains described in the ShoMpur Statistical Account. 

B 310—35 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



274 



DISTRICTS. 



.Chapter III. 
Population. 

Tbaders. 

Chijardt, 



Manekchand, Ndrdyandds, Ragliuiiilfchdds, Rdmdas, Shivchand, 
Shivdas.and Vithaldas^; and among women, Guldb,Goddvari,JadAv, 
Jamna, Jasoda, K^veri, Lakhmi, Manik, Rddba, Rukhmini, and Reva. 
They have neither surnames nor family stocks. The men add the 
word shet the Gujarati for merchant, to their names. They speak 
Gujarati at home and like the Vanis of Gujarat, from whom they 
do not differ in appearance, they are fair and inclined to stoutness. 
Most of them live in houses two or three storeys high, with stone 
and brick walls and tiled roofs. Their houses cost ,£100 to £1000, 
(Rs. 1000 - 10,000) to build and 16s. to £2 (Rs.8-20) a month 
to hire. The value of their furniture and house goods varies 
from £100 to £1000 (Rs. 1000-10,000). The furniture of. the richer 
families of Poona Vanis includes couches, sofas, boxes, chairs, 
tables, globes, looking glasses, Indian cai-pets, Persian carpets', 
beds, pillows, cushions, large and small cooking and storing vessels 
. and utensils, and useful and ornamental silver plates. Most of them 
employ servants to do the house work and pay them 8s. to 12s. 
(Rs. 4-6) a month. They keep cows, she- buffaloes, horses, and 
parrots'. They are strict vegetarians and are famous for their 
fondness for sweet dishes. The daily meal includes four or five 
dishes, rice boiled and strained, split pulse turmeric powder and 
salt called varan, unleavened wheat cakes called polis, and vegetables. 
A family of five spends £1 10s. to £2 10s. (Rs. 15 - 25) a, month 
on food. They give caste feasts on marriage and other occasions, 
the chief dishes being a preparation of wheat floui-, milk, sugar, 
and clarified butter called IdpsM; grains of gram flour passed 
through a sieve fried in clarified butter and seasoned with 
sugar called hundis ; tubes containing boiled sugar, fried in 
clarified butter called jiZfois; and raised wheaten cakes fried in 
clarified butter and rice seasoned with sugar clarified butter and 
condiments called puris. They use no intoxicants except bhang, 
a liquid preparation of Indian hemp flowers, and smoke tobacco. 
Though most families have a store of rich clothes they are neither . 
careful nor neat in their dress, many of the men being slovenly 
and dirty. A family of five spends £4 to £7 (Rs. 40 - 70) a year on 
dress. The men wear the mustache and whiskers, but shave the 
chin. They dress like Mardtha Brdhmans, except that in passing 
the end of the waistcloth between the legs they draw it tight over 
the right shin. The men's ornaments are the earrings called 
bhikbdliwovth £5 to £15 (Rs. 50 - 150), the necklace of twisted chain 
called gop worth £10 to £80 (Rs. 100 - 800), the necklace called 
kanthi worth £10 to £100 (Rs. 100 - 1000), the bracelets called 
todds worth £5 to £15 (Rs. 50-150), and the bracelets called hadis worth 
£5 to £15 (Rs. 50 - 150), The women arrange the hair in a braid. 
Some have lately taken to decking their hair with flowers and mixing 
it with false hair. They dress like Gujardt Vani women. Some wear 
bodices with backs, and some bodices without backs. Almost all wear 
the lunga or petticoat, over which they draw a rich robe, the lower 
end of which is faatened into the waistband of the petticoat and the 



: ^ Meshri men's names end with dSa and Shrdvak men's names end -with' chand. 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



275 



upper end drawn over tte head and held in the hand near the waist 
in front, so as, when the wearer wishes, to form a veil. The 
petticoats and robes of the Gujdrat Vani women are noticeable in 
the Deccan, because they are oftener of dark-tinted hand-printed 
calico than the light single colours worn by most Deccan Hindu 
women. Besides the luck-giving necklace worth 4s. to £1 
(Rs. 2-10), they have different neck ornaments, hirdkadichi sdJchaU 
worth £10 to £15 (Rs. 100 - 150), kantha worth £20 to £50 
(Rs. 200-500,) putalydcM mdl worth £12 10s. to £50 (Rs. 125-500), 
thusi worth £10 to £12 10s. (Rs. 100 - 125), and vajraiika worth 
£2 to £4 (Rs. 20 - 40). Their bracelets include hdngdis' worth 
£10 to £12 10s. (Rs. 100-125), gots worth £10 to £15 (Rs. 100.150), 
•pdtlis worth £15 to £50 (Rs. 150 - 500), and todds worth £20 to £25 
(Rs. 200 - 250). The only feet ornaments are sdhhlis and todds, 
each worth' £10 to £15 (Rs. 100 - 150) ; and toe ornaments, jodvis 
and TndsoUsf each worth £1 to £1 12s. (Rs. 10-16). They are 
patient, hardworking, respectful, and thrifty. Most of. them are 
grocers, cloth and silk sellers, bankers, and moneylenders, and a 
few are Government servants. When he reaches his sixteenth year 
a boy is placed as a clerk under some trader or shopkeeper for six 
months or a year, during which he manages to pick up the business. 
At the end of the time he begins to -trade on his own account and 
makes £2 to £5 (Rs. 20 - 50) a month. Most of their large purchases 
are made in Bombay. They work from early morning to noon, 
rest till two, and again work till eight in the evening. The opening 
of railways has increased competition and lowered profits. Many are 
rich and almost all are well-to-do and free from debt. The women 
do not- help the men in their work, but mind the house and spend 
the rest of their time in embroidery. 

A Grujar^t Vani woman generally remains for her confinement at 
her husband's bouse. When a woman is in labour a midwife is sent 
'. for, who is generally a Kunbi. She delivers the woman, cuts the 
child's navel cord, and buries it either in the lying-in room or outside 
of the house. The woman and child are bathed in Warm water and 
the woman is given molasses and clarified butter to eat and 
anise-seed water to drink. During the first three days the. child 
is fed on honey and castor oil, and from the fourth day is given 
the breast. The mother from the fourth to the twelfth day is fed 
on sdnja, that is the grit of wheat flour boiled with sugar and 
clarified butter. On the sixth evening a blank sheet of paper, a 
pen, and an inkstand are laid near the mother's cot for the 
goddess Sati to . write the child's fortune, and grains of parched 
grain coated with molasses are given to little children to eat. The 
mother is unclean for eleven days. 'The child is named when it 
is a month or five weeks old. On the- naming day five or six 
married women are asked to dine, and the father gives the child 
feet and waist ornaments and the mother a robe and bodice. In 
the evening the child is laid in a robe folded in hammock fashion, 
and is named by an unmarried girl, who is given sugar, a piece of 
cocoa-kernel, and betel leaves. A birth costs £2 to £3 (Rs. 20-30). 
Ihejaval or hair-cntting ceremony costs £2 10s. to £1 (Rs. 25-100) . 
If a vow is made on the child's behalf, its hair is not cut until 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Tkadeks. 

VInis, 

OvjarcU. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



276 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Traders. 
VAms. 
Qvjardt. 



the vow is paid. Sometimes the hair- cutting comes off during the 
marriage of one of the child's kinspeople, and sometimes on any good 
day between the sixth month and the fifth year of the child's age. 
The barber who is to cut the hair clips a small lock with a silver pair of 
scissors worth 2s. to 10s. (Rs. 1 - 5). The ceremony ends with a feast 
to friends kinspeople and Brahmans. They generally marry their 
daughters between eleven and fifteen spending £50 to £200 (Es.500- 
2000} on the marriage,and their boys betweeh thirteen and twenty rfive 
at a cost of £200 to £500 (Rs. 1000-5000). When the girl's fatW 
thinks of marrying his daughter, he takes some near kinsman and 
goes to a family who have a boy likely to make a suitable match. 
The kinsman sees the head of the boy's family and tells him why 
they have come. If the kinsman finds that the boy's father favours 
the match, he returns with the girl's father. Then the boy's 
father in presence of witnesses agrees to the offer and names the 
sum which he can aSbrd to spend on ornaments for the girl. If the 
girl's father has no hope of securing a better or a richer husband for 
his daughter, he marks the boy's brow with vermilion and gives 
cocoanilts,- betel leaves, and dry dates to those who are present. 
The fathers go to an astrologer to fix the marriage day, and the 
boy's father gives the astrologer a cocoanut and ^d. (2, as.) 
Marriage cards are sent to friends and relations, and • in front of the 
girl's and the boy's houses a marriage porch is built. A Ganpati 
of brass or silver is set in a large earthen jar marked with lines 
of white and red, and the jar is placed in the house on a heap 
of wheat. The mouth of the jar is covered with a small earthen 
vessel and a lamp is kept burning before it. A month before the 
day fixed for the marriage the ceremony of rubbing the boy's face 
and feet with 'pithi or gram-paste begins. The boy is seated on a 
four-legged or chaurang stool and his faCe and feet .are rubbed by 
women, who afterwards -sit round him and sing songs. Bach of the 
women on leaving is every day given a handful of betelnut. This 
ceremony is called Lahdn Ganesh or the Little Ganpati. Pour days 
before the marriage day caste feasts begin. On the marriage day 
the bridegroom is decked with ornaments and garlands of flowers, 
dressed in rich clothes his turban being stuffed with pieces of green 
kinkhdb or brocade, and carrying a cocoamit in his hand he is 
taken to the bride's on horseback with music and a company 
of friends. When the procession reaches the bride's, her mother 
comes out of the marriage booth, waves a drinking pot full of water 
round the face of the bridegroom, and pours the water over the 
horse's feet. The bridegroom is taken from the horse and seated on 
a four-legged stool. The bride is led into the booth and seated on 
a low stool facing the bridegroom. They hold each other's right 
hands and a piece of coloured cloth is drawn between them. The 
priest recites eight luck-giving verses. At th« end of the verses 
the priest binds round the right wrists of the bride and the 
bridegroom a fcamfcari or bracelet of cotton thread passed through 
a gelphal or Vangueria spinosa fruit, and the married couple pass 
fourteen times round a sacred fire or horn the bridegroom walking 
in front of the bridCi ~ Qn the fourth day after the mairriage the 
bride's father presents the bridegroom with clothes and vessels :^ 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



277 



the bride's portion and the married pair go on horseback in 
procession to the bridegroom's. At the bridegroom's the priest 
worships and bows out the divinity who under the name of 
Ganpati was summoned at the beginning of the ceremonies. When 
the marriage guardian has been bowed out the bride and bridegroom 
fall at the feet of the priest, who blesses them. At the bridegroom's 
house, the castepeople are for several days feasted often at great 
expense. 

When^ a girl comes of age she is held to be unclean and is made 
to sit by herself for four days. The event is not marked by any 
other ceremony. In the seventh month of a woman's first pregnancy 
a caste feast is given, and her parents present her and her husband 
with new clothes. She is seated on a four- legged siool and her lap 
is filled with grain and fruit by women, who sing as they fill her lap. 
She is taken to the houses of friends and kinspeople to pay her 
respects in a palanquin or a carriage. This costs £2 10s. to £10 
(Rs.25-100). 

A dying man is laid on a spot of ground which has been washed 
with cowdung, and wheat grains and copper or silver coins 'are 
distributed to begging Brdhmans. When they hear of the death, the 
friends and kinspeople come to the house, and the women standing 
in a circle beat their breasts and wail and the men make a bier. A 
cocoanut is tied to the bier and a piece of sandalwood is fastened 
at its head. The body is bathed, robed in a waistcloth, laid on the 
bier, and covered with a shroud, sometimes a richly embroidered 
shawl. Unlike the Mardthas they cover the face of the dead. When 
all is ready the chief mourner starts carrying the fire-pot in a sling. 
On the way to the burning ground the bearers set down the bier and 
change places and the son drops a copper coin on the spot. At 
the burning ground they lay the body on the pyre and kindle it. 
While the body is being consumed they thrice stir the pile with 
poles whose ends are smeared with clarified l^utter. The funei-al 
party bathe and return to the house of the deceased, staying for a 
time, and trying to comfort the women who are weeping and wailing. 
Next day the mourners go to the burning ground, remove the ashes, 
and place on the spot a little rice and split tur pulse, a copper coin, 
and an earthen pot filled with water. The impurity caused by a 
death lasts ten days. Meshri or Br^hmanic V^nis perform shrddh 
ceremonies on the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth day after a death, 
and feed castepeople on the twelfth or thirteenth. Shrdvak or 
Jain Vdnis do not perform shvadhs, but go to their temples or 
apdsrds on the twelfth day and offer scents and flowers to the 
Tirthankars.^ 

Grujardt V^nis are scattered in small numbers over the district. 
They settle social disputes at meetings of the castemen. Offences 
against caste are punished by fines ranging from 2s, to £2 10?. 
(Rs. 1 - 25), and the amount is spent either in charity, or on caste 
feasts. They send their boys and girls to school, keeping the hoys 
at school till sixteen and the girls till nine. They teach the boys 



Chapter III. 
Fopnlatiott. 

Tbadeks, 

VJms. 



1 ShrAvaks py little attention to the Brahman rule that a 4eath causes a ten day's 
impurity. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



278 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Traders. 

VMris. 
Mdrwdr. 



to read, write, and cast accounts. They do not confine ttemselyes 
to^ny one branch of trade and are quick in taking advantage of 
new openings. As a class they are well-to-do. 

MIewIe VlSis are returned as numbering 9637 and as found 
over the whole district. Most, if not all, have come into the 
district since the beginning of British rule. They are divided 
into Osvals and Porvals, who eat together but do not intermarry. 
The two divisions do not differ from each other in appearance, 
speech, religion; or customs. Their surnames are Ohavan,'.Parmd,r, 
Pohan^chavdn, and Sakruju ; families bearing the same surname 
do not intermarry. The, names in common use among men are 
Gavra, Hattaj, KhumAji, Khushal, Kusna, Rd,m, and Sada; and 
among women Bani, Devi, 'Dhan^de, Naju, Nopi, Padma, and 
Rakhma. They are rather tall dark and stout, as a rule with big 
faces and sharp eyes. The men generally shave the head except 
the top-knot and the face except the mustache and eyebrows. 
Some wear a lock of hair curling over each ear, and the back 
hair is mostly worn long with an upward curl at the tips. Their 
home tongue is Marwari, but with others they speak an incorrecb 
Marathi. Most of them live in houses of the better class, two 
or more storeys high, with walls of brick and tiled roofs,, their 
furniture including metal vessels, boxes, carpets, beds, and pillows. 
Their staple food is wheat cakes, rice, pulse, vegetables, and butter. 
They are vegetarians, neither eating fish nor flesh, and drinking 
no liquor. They dress either like Mard,thi-Brd.hmans or in small 
tightly wound particoloured turbans, generally yellow and red or 
pink and -red. Their women wear the petticoat or ghagra, a short- 
sleeved open-backed bodice, and a cloth rolled round the waist of 
the petticoat, passed over the head and face, and the end held in the 
hand in front. Their arms are covered with ivory bracelets and 
they do not -deck their hair with flowers. They are hardworking, 
sober, and timid, but dirty, miserly, greedy, and unprincipled in their 
dealings. Besides in grain, cloth, and metal, they deal in condi- 
ments, spices, sugar, butter, flour, and oil. They are money- 
changers and moneylenders. They make advances to . almost any 
one and recover them by all sorts of devices. A family of five 
spends £1 to £1 10s. (Rs. 10-15) a month on food and £1 to £3 
(Rs. 10 - 30) a year on clothes. They generally do not own houses, 
but rent them at 10s. to £1 (Rs. 5 - 10) a month. They sometimes 
have clerks, whom they pay 10s. io £2 (Rs. 5-20). a month. Their 
furniture and household goods vary in value from £20 to £50 
(Rs. 200-500). A birth costs £1 to £3 (Rs. 10-30), a boy's 
marriage £30 to £50 (Rs. 300-500), a girl's £20 to £30(Rs, 200-300), 
and a death £5 to £10 (Rs. 50 - 100)., They are Shravaks or Jains 
by religion and their chief god is Kshatrapal whose chief shrine is 
near Mount Abu. They also worship the usual BrAhmanic or local 
gods and goddesses. Their priests are Shrimali Brahmans, who 
conduct their marriage and death ceremonies. They marry their 
girls before they are thirteen and their boys before they are twenty. 
They mb turmeric on the boy's and girl's bodies from three days 
to a month before the marriage and spend the time in feasts and 
make presents of clothes. On the marriage day the boy is seated on 



Seccan,] 



POONA. 



279 



a horse, the marriage ornament is tied to his brow, and he is taken 
to the girl's with a dagger in his hand. Before he dismounts^ a 
stick is handed to him and with it he touches the marriage porch. 
The girl's jnother comes out carrying on her head two or three brass 
water-pots or Tzalases piled one on the other. The boy bows and 
drops 4s. to £1 (Rs. 2-10) in the. pots. She then goes back and 
comes with a plate in which are two cups, one filled with curds and 
the other with redpowder or kunku. She marks the boy's brow 
first with redpowder and then with curds and squeezes the boy's 
nose four times. The boy dismounts and takes his seat "in a cot in 
the marriage hall, at each corner of which is piled a pillar of seven 
earthen jars. The girl is brought out and seated in front of the 
boy with grains of rice in^herhand. A cloth is held between the 
boy and the girl. The girl throws the grains of rice over the boy's 
head and the cloth is withdrawn. She then takes her seat on the 
boy's right. The hems of their garments are tied together by a 
married woman, a thread necklace is fastened round their necks, 
and the sacrificial fire is lit, and barley sesamum and butter are 
thrown into it. The boy and girl walk thrice round the fire and 
before taking the fourth turn the girl walks in front of the boy and 
does not make the fourth" turn until the elders have given her 
leave. All this while the priests keep reading lucky verses or 
mangalashtaks, and no sooner is the fourth turn finished than grains 
of rice are thrown over the heads of the boy and the girl and they 
are married. They burn their dead„ have no headman, and settle 
social disputes at meetings of the castemen of each division. They 
send their boys to school and are well-to-do. 

Vaxshta VInis are returned as numbering 893 and as found 
all over the district except in Junnar. They have no tradition of 
their origin and no remembrance of any former settlement or of 
their arrival in the district. . They have no subdivisions. They are 
iniddle-sized and stout, and their women are fair. They speak 
Marathi and live in houses with mud and brick walls and tiled roofs. 
They eat fish and flesh and drink liquor. They dress like Deccan 
Brdhmans. They are thrifty, hardworking, sober, and orderly, and 
earn their living as traders, shopkeepers, and husbandmen. They 
worship the usual Brahmanic and local gods and goddesses, keep 
the regular fasts and feasts, and go on pilgrimage to the chief 
Brahmanic places of resort. They pay great respect to their priests 
who are Deshasth Brahmans. They have a caste council and send 
their boys to school. They are a steady people. 

Husbandmen include five classes with a strength of 449,930 
or 53'13 per cent of the Hindu population. The details are : 
PooNA HmsANDMSur, 1881. 



Class. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


B&ris 

KAcMa 

Kunbis 

MMis 

PiMdis 

Total ... 


58 

350 

199,403 

26,306 


SO 

368 

198,184 

26,261 

6 


68'^ 

708 

896,687 

82,BS7 

10 


226,101 


324,829 


449,930 ' 



Chapter III. 

Fopnlatioii. 

Tbaders. 

VJ.ms. 

MArwdr, 



Vaiehya, 



HUSBANDMEH. 



[Bombay Gazettder, 



280 



DISTEICTS. 



Chapter HI. 
Population. 

Husbandmen. 

BlRIS. 



Baris, or Ban Tdmbolis, that is Bari betel-leafsellets, are 
returned as numbering sixty-eiglit. All are found in the city of 
Poena. They believe that they came to Poena about a hundred years 
ago from Barhdnpur in West Berdr. They are called BAri-Tdmbolis 
to distinguish them from Teli or Oilmen Tdmbolis, from Mardtha 
Tdmbolis, and from MusalmAn T£mbolis. The Bdris' surnames are 
BerAd, Hage, Ikare^ M^koda, Musdle, Povdrj Panchod, and Tade, 
and persons bearing the same surname cannot intermarry. The names 
in common use among men are Ganpati, Mitfcraji, and Shivrdraj 
and among women Ambu, Lahani^ Shitaj and Sundar. They 
look like Marathd,s, being middle-sized and dark. The men wear the 
top-knot, mustache and whiskers, but not the beard. They speak 
Mardthi without any peculiarities. Most of them live in houses 
of the better class, two or more storeys high, with, walls of brick 
and tiled roofs. They keep their hortses clean and have copper 
brass and earthen vessels, blankets, and carpets. They own cows 
and buffaloes, but almost none have servants. They are neither 
great eaters nor good cooks. There is nothing special or proverbial 
about their style of cooking or their pet dishes. Their staple food 
is millet, pulse, vegetables, and spices, 'and they eat rice, fish, and the 
flesh of goats, sheep, poultry, and occasionally eggs. They say they 
do not eat from the hands of any one but a Brdhman. They drink 
both country and foreign liquor, smoke tobacco, and hemp flowers 
or gdnja, and take opium. Their holiday dishes are oil-cakes 
and sugared milk. The men wear a waistcloth, shouldercloth, 
coat, waistcoat, Mardtha turban, and shoes. The women wear 
a Mardtha robe and bodice and glass bangles. They tie their hair 
in a knot behind the head, but do not deck it with flowers or use 
false hair. They have no special liking for gay colours. Their 
holiday dress does not differ from their every-day dress except that 
it is freshly washed. Except a brass, gilt, or gold ring for the 
ear called bhikbdli worth Is. Bd. to 2s. (Re. |- - 1), the men seldom 
wear any ornaments. The women's ornaments are a gilt or gold- 
buttoned lucky necklace or mangalsutra with glass beads worth 2s. 
to 2s. 6(2. (Es. I-I5), queensmetal bracelets called yella sknd- got 
worth 2s. to 4s. (Rs. 1 - 2), and queensmetal anklets called jodvi 
and viravlya worth Bd. to 6d. (2-4 as.) 

They are hardworking, frugal, and orderly. They deal in betel 
leaves, buying them from Tirgul Brdhmans, M^lis, and Mardthas at 
2s. to £1 16s. (Rs. 1-18) for a kudti of about 16,500 leaves. Betel 
leaves are of four kinds : navdtis worth 2s. to 10s. (Rs.il-5) the kudti 
of 16,,500 leaves; ^ taldchis worth 2s. to 4s. (Rs. 1-2) the kudti ; gachis 
worth 6s. to £1 4s. (Rs. 3-12) the kudti; and sMdis worth 6s. to £1 16s. 
(Rs. 3-18) the kudti. They keep no holidays and work steadily 
without busy or slack seasons. They generally work from six in 
the morning to twelve, and from two to, nine. The women help the 
men by turning the leaves. A family of five spends 16s. to £1 
(Rs.B - 10) a month on food and £1 to £1 10s. (Rs^ 10 -15).a year on 



' The details are : In each kudti 37 kavlis and in each kavU 450 leaves, that ia a 
total of 16,650. 



BeccanJ 



POONA. 



281 



clothes. They live in hired houses paying 9c?. to Is. 3cZ. (6 -10 as.) 
a month. A birth, whether of a boy or of a girl, costs 10s. (Es. 5) ; 
a marriage of a boy £5 to £7 10s. (Rs. 50 - 75), and of a girl £4 to 
£6 (Rs.40-60) ; and a death £1 to £1 4s. (Rs.10-12). They have 
house images of Ganpati, Mahddev, and Mdrilti, and their family 
goddess is the Bhavdhi of TuljApur. Their priests are generally 
Deshasths. Their fast days are Mdhdshivardtra in February, nine 
days of Navrdtra and Bdm-navmi in April, Ashddhi Ekddashi in July, 
Gohul-ashtami in August, and Kdrtiki Ekddashi in November, and 
their feasts are Shimga in March, Pddva in April, Ndgar-panchami 
in August, Ganesh-chaturthi in September, Basara in Ootoberj and 
Divdli in November. 

They have no guru or teacher and profess to disbelieve in witchcraft, 
soothsaying, omens, and- evil spirits. For cutting, the child's navel 
cord they pay the midwife l\d. to Is. 3c?. (5 - 10 as.), and feed the 
child for three days on honey and castor oil. On the evening of 
the third day the child takes the breast and the mother is fed pn 
butter, wh.eat, and molasses. On the night of the fifth they draw 
redlead figures on the wall in the mother's room and in front of the 
figures place rnethi, that is fenugreek or Greek hay, and rice or millet 
bread, and the mother with the babe in her arm bows to the figures 
and retires. The same ceremony is repeated the next night in 
honour of the goddess Satvai On the evening of the twelfth day 
the child is named and wet gram and packets of betelnut and 
leaves are presented to married women. The jdval or hair-cutting 
takes place on any day after a child is four months old and before 
it is a year and a quarter old. 

They marry their girls between five and nine and their boys 
between twelve .and twenty-five. Their asking and betrothal 
ceremonies are the same as those of Mardtha cultivators and their 
guardian or devak is their house goddess. On the day before 
a marriage they give their house gods to a goldsmith to clean 
at his housp. , When they are clean they bring the gods home 
with music and instal them with much ceremony, worshipping 
them with great pompj playing music, and offering them abund- 
ance of sweet-smelling flowers. Oil-cakes are prepared and 
a feast is held. The boy and girl are rubbed with turmeric at 
their houses. Either on the same day or on the day after rela- 
tions and friends are feasted. On the marriage day th,e boy goes 
on horseback to the girl's house with kinsmen and kinswomen, 
friends, and music. At the girl's water and rice are waved round 
' his head, he is taken into the house and made to stand either on a 
low wooden stool or in a new bamboo basket facing the bride,, and 
a cloth is held between them. Br^hmans repeat marriage verses 
and at the end throw grains of red rice over the heads of the boy 
and girl, and they are husband and wife. The skirts of the boy's 
and girl's robes are tied together, and they are seated in the 
marriage booth and the sacrificial fire is lighted. They are taken 
before the marriage gods and bow low before them. Their garments 
are untied, and the boy and the girl repeat one another's names in 
couplets. On the following day presents of clothes are exchanged 
between the two houses, and, in addition, the boy is given a plate 
B 310—36 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Husbandmen. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



282 



DISTEIOTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Husbandmen. 
BAbis. ■ 



or ihala of queeiism«tal, a brass or copper water-pot called tdrnhydj j 
and a brass lamp. The relations on both sides throw finger rings 
and copper and silver coins into the plate for the girl. The girl's 
parents take the girl in their arms, and saying to the boy's parents, 
' All this while she was ours, now slie is yours,' place her in the 
boy's arms. The boy's mother puts a little sugar in the girl's 
mouth, sticks a rupee on her brow, and looks in her face. The skirts 
of the boy's and girl's robes are tied and they are seated either 
on a horse or in a carriage, and, accompanied by kinspeople and 
friends, go in procession to the boy's house. Before entering ,the 
house the boy's -mother' waves cooked irice and- bread oyer their 
heads and throws the rice and bread away. The boy and girl go 
into the house, throw grains of rice over the heads of the house and 
marriage god^, bow- before them, and retire. On the following 
day, if well-to-do they give a feast of sweet cakes or puran-polis, or 
if poor distribute betelnut and leaves. This ends the marriage 
ceremony. When a girl comes of age she is seated by herself for 
three days, bathed on the fourth, presented with a new bodice and 
robe, and her lap is filled with plantains, guavas, dates, pomegranates, 
oranges, and wheat or rice. In the evening the girland afterwards 
the boy are taken to a room set apart for their use. This is done 
either at the boy's or the girl's. If at the girl's the boy stays for 
a couple of days and then goes home either with or without his 
wife. 

When a BAri is on the point of death rice , or wheat grains are 
distributed in his name to beggars and a tulsi leaf is laid in his 
mouth. When lie dies, bamboos worth 6d. to 7^d. (4>-5 as.), two 
earthen pots worth about l^d (1 anna), a white cloth worth 2s. * to 
5s. (Rs. 1-2|), and cowdung cakes worth 7s. to 14s. (Rs. 3^ - 7) 
are bought. The body is brought out of the house, hot water is 
poured over it, and it is -wrapped in the new cloth, and laid on the 
bier.^ If the deceased is a widow her brow is marked with abi'r or 
sweet-scented powder. If her husband is alive she is dressed in a 
new green robe and bodice, her brow is marked with redpowder 
and turmeric, glass bangles are put on her wrists, and her lap is 
filled with grain dry cocoa-kernel and dates, and she is laid on the 
bier. The bier is carried on the shoulders of four near relations and 
the chief mourner walks in front with an earthen pot containing 
burning co.wdung cakes. Half-way to the burning ground the bier is 
lowered, a few grains of rice and a copper are laid by the side of the 
road near the corpse's head, and each, mourner drops two or three 
pebbles over the copper. The bearers change places and carry the 
corpse to the burning ground, dip it in a streanwiver or pond, and the 
chief mourner dashes on the ground the pot containing the, burning 
cowdung cakes. A few cowdung cakes are placed over the burning 
cakes, a pile is raised, and the dead body is laid on it. The chief 
mourner first sets fire to the pile and then the other mourners. 
When the skull splits the chief mourner takes another earthen 
jar full of water on his; shoulder and walks thrice round th^ 
pyre beating bis mouth \?ith the back of his right hand. When the 
body is burnt to ashes they bathe and return to the chief mourner's, 
kouse caiTying- nim leaves. At the mourner's house, a lamp is kep't 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



283 



burning on the spot where the deceased breathed his last. The 
mourners take a look at the lamp, sprinkle nim leaves round it, and 
return to their homes. On the third day, accompanied by a couple 
of near relations, the chief mourner goes to the burning ground, 
gathers the ashes, and throws tkem into the river or stream, sprinkles 
cow's urine, turmeric, redpowder, and flowers on the spot where the 
body was burnt, burns frankincense, and offers parched rice grain 
and sweetmeats to the spirit of the dead. He gathers the unburnt 
bones in an earthen, jar, puts them somewhere in hiding, and 
returns home. The chief mourner is considered unclean for teij 
days. At the end of the ten days he either buries the bones in 
the jar or throws them into water. On the tenth day he feasts the 
four corpse-bearers with a dish of wheat and molasses called thuli 
and curry. A flower dipped in butter is drawn from the shoulders 
to the elbow of each of the corpse-bearers, and they retire.^ On the 
eleventh day the chief mourner goes to the burning ground, sets 
twelve or thirteen wheat balls- in a row, drops redpowder and flowers 
over them, and throws them into water. On the twelfth day, the chief 
mourner and his family priest go to the burning ground and make 
a three-cornered mound and set three earthen jars on it. Over each 
jar is placed a small wheat cake and a rice ball and at each corner 
of the mound is^planted a flag six or eight inches long. The mourner 
retires to some distance and waits for the crows to come, and when 
a crow has come and touched one of the balls he bathes and 
goes home. The Brdhman who accompanies him is presented 
with a pair of shoes, an umbrella, a dining plate or tdt, and a 
water-pot or tdmbya, and 6d. to Is. (4-8 as.) in cash. On the 
thirteenth day the chief mourner fills a plate with food and 
throws it in a stream or river. The caste is feasted and treated to 
a dish of sweet cakes or furan-folw. A near relation presents the 
chief mourner with a turban and the mourning or dukhavta is over. 
The Bdris allow child-marriage, widow-uiarriage, and polygamy, but 
not polyandry. They have a caste council and settle social disputes 
at meetings of the castemen. They send their boys to school for a 
short time. They are a steady class. 

Ea'chis are returned as numbering 708 and as found in Khed, 
SirQr, Haveli, Bhimthadi, and Poena. They say their forefathers 
came from Gwdlior and. Aurangabad ; when and why they do not 
know. They are divided into Mdrwari and Pardeshi Kdchis. The 
following details apply to Marwari Kachis who are divided into 
Kaldo-kSchis, Dhimar-kachis, Karbhoi-kachis, and Bundele-kachis, 
who do not eat together or intermarry. Their surnames are 
Bun dele, Elchya, Gwaliari, and Katkariya, and" persons bearing the 
same surname do not intermarry. The names in common use 
among men are Dhanu, Jairam, Tuk^ram, and Tuljaram ; and 
among women, Ganga, Jamna, and Kundi. The Kdchis are strong 
and well made. The men wear the top-knot but neither whiskers 
nor beards, and their home tongue is Hindustani. Most of them 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Husbandmen. 

BJ.BIS. 



KJ.OHIS. 



' This rite is called hJidnde uiarne, literally the shoulder taking-away, meaning 
apparently the taking away of the unoleanness, that is of the unclean spirit, which, 
settled on their shoalders in consequence of their having borne the body. ' 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



284 



DISTEIOTS. 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Husbandmen. 
KJ.oms. 



KVSBIS. 



live in houses of tlie better sort, one or two storeys higli, with walls 

of brick and- tiled roofs. They eat fish and the flesh of goats, 

sheep, and domestic fowls, and drink liquor. Their staple food is 

millet, wheat, split pulse, and rice. They generally eat in the 

evening. A family of five spends £1 to £1 lOs. (Rs. 10 - 15) a 

month on food. The men wear a waistcoat, a coat, a waistcloth, a 

shouldercloth, a Mar&tha turban, and Brahman shoes ; the women 

wear a bodice with a bank and either the full Maratha robe 

passing the skirt back between the feet and tucking it into 

the waist behind, or a petticoat and short upper robe the end 

of which they draw over the head. They are hardworking, 

thrifty, sober, and orderly. They are fruit-sellers, taking fruit 

gardens on hire from their owners at £7 10s. to £20 (Rs. 75-200). 

They worship the usual Brahmanic gods and goddesses and keep the 

regular fasts and feasts. Of these the chief are Holi in March, 

Akshadtritiya in May, and Edkhipornima in August. • Their priests 

are Pardeshi Brahmana whom they treat with great respect. Their 

customs are like those of Mard.thas. A_ birth costs £1 to £2 

(Rs. 10-20), and naming 4s. to £1 (Rs. 2 - 10). Their guardian or 

devah is an axe or hurhad and the yanchpallavs or five leaves of 

the Ficus religiosa pipal, F. glomerata umbar, P. indica vad, F. 

inf eptoria ndndruk, and the mango, which they tie to a post of 

the marriage hall at both the boy's and the girl's houses. They 

marry their children seated on qarpets near each other, the girl 

to the left of the boy. When the marriage texts are finished the 

hems of their garments are tied together, and they make a bow 

before the hoiise gods. The boy and girl are offered sugared milk 

and taken in procession on horseback to the boy's parents' house." 

Feasts are exchanged and the marriage is over. The ceremony 

costs the boy's father £1 to £15 (Rs.10-150), and the girl's father 

£1 to £2 (Rs. 10-20).' 'They either bui-y or burn their dead and a 

death costs them £1 t6 £2 (E,s.lO--20). They have no headman and 

settle social disputes at meetings of castemen. The ojBfending 

person is fined 2s. to 4s. (Rs. 1-2), and when the amount is recovered 

it is generally spent on drink. They send their boys to school and 

as a rule are in easy circumstances. 

Kunbis are returned as numbering nearly 400,000 and as 
found over the whole district. They seem to have a strong early or 
pre- Aryan element. The term Kunbi includes two main classes, 
Kunbis and Mardthas, between whom it is difficult to draw a 
line. Marathas and Kunbis eat together and intermarry and do not 
differ in appearance, religion, or customs. Still these two names 
seem tcj^represent, though in .both cases with much intermixture, 
the two main sources from which the bulk of the present peasantry 
are sprung. The Kunbis represent those in whom the - local 
or early, and the Mardth^s those in whom the northern or 
later element is strongest. The( Poena Kunbis, not conteiit with 
calling themselves Mardthd,s, go so far as to call themselves 
Kshatriyas and wear the sacred thread.^ They include a 

^The Marithi accounts seem to show that the great Shivdji (1627-1680) never wore 
the sacred thread or i/a/BoptMJJi till he was enthroned and raised to the rank of a 
Kshatriya. See RAygad in Bombay Gazetteer, XI. 369, 370 and note 1. • 



Deccan.] 



POONA. 



285 



traditional total of ninety-six clans wHcli are said to be sprung 
from the rulers of fifty-six countries who are the descendants of 
Vrkram of Ujain whose traditional date is B.C. 56, Shdlivahan of 
Paithan whose traditional date is a.d. 78, and Bhojrdja of Md,lva 
whose traditional date is about the end of the tenth century. 
According to the "traditional accounts, the Bhosles to whom ShivAji 
belonged are the descendants of Bhojraja; the descendants of Vikram 
are called Sukarrdjas; and those^of ShiilivahanRdjakumars. All claim 
to belong to one of the four branches or vanshas of the Kshatriyas, 
Som-vansha or the Moon branch, Snrya-vansha or the Sun bra,nch, 
Sesh-vansha or the Snake branch, and Tadu-vansha or the Shepherd 
branch. The names of some of the families of these four branches 
are : Of the Sun branch, Aparddhe, Bichare, Bhosle, Bhovar, Dalvi, 
Dhdrrao, Hendhe, Gavse, GhAd, Ghadke, Gh^g,- Ghorpade, Joshi, 
Kadam, Malap, Mulik, Nakdse, NAlavde, Nayak, Palve, Pardhe, 
Patak, PAtd.de, Povar, RAne, Rao, RAul, SagvAn, SAlve, SankpAl, 
Shinde, Shisode, Shitole, Surne, and Vdghmare ; of the Moon 
branch, Bhate, Ohavhdn, Dabhade, Dalpate, Darbare, Gdikavdd, 
Ghddam, Ghddke, Insulkar, Jagtd,p, Kalpdte, Kamble, Kdmbre, 
Kapvate, Kathe, Kesarkar, Mdn, Mhdtre, Mohite, More, Nikam, 
Nimbalkar, PAtankar, Randive, Sd,Tant, Shelar, and Varangej of 
the Snake branch, Bd.gve, Bhoir, Bogle, Chirphule, Dhulap, Dhumdil, 
Dhure, Divte, Gavli, JAmble, Kdsle, LendpovAl, Mhadik, Mokari, 
NAmjdde, Parabh, Sangal, Tdvde, and Thdkur; and of the Shepherd 
branch, Bagvan, Bulke, Dhumak, Gavand, Gharat, Ghavad, Ghogale, 
Jadhav, Jdgle, Jagpal, Jalindhare, Jd,re, Jasvant, Mokal, Mdlpovar, 
Patel, Phakade, Shelke, Shirgone, Shirke, Tambte, Tovar, and 
TMav. 

Each Knnbi has three personal names, a priestly name a house 
name and a pet name. The priestly name, which is known as the 
rds ndv or star name, depends on the position of the stars at the 
time of the child's birth. The priestly names generally chosen for 
boys are Amritya, Ankorsa, Babaji, Dnngarji, and RAvji, and for 
girls Saku, Bhd^gu, and Chimi. The house name is chosen by the 
elders of the house ; the commonest are for men Khandu, Pdndu, 
Rdghu, and Vithu; and for women Kashi, Parvati, Rama, and Savitri. 
The pet or dvadate name is generally given by the child^s parents 
or the mother's relations. The commonest pet names for boys are 
Appa, Babu, Bala, and Nana ; and for girls Abbi, Bai, Kaki, and Tai. 
His pet name sometimes clings to the bearer through life. When a 
boy grows up ji or rdo is added to the name, and to girls' names di 
or hdi. In addition to his personal name a man bears his father's 
name and surname, and a woman her husband's name and surname, 
thus Lakshman son of Khandu Povar, and Bhagirthi wife of Shiva 
Bhosla. 

As a class Kunbis are dark, of middle stature, with round faces, 
straight nose, thicfeish lips, and. high bare and protruding cheek- 
bones. They are strong, hardy, enduring, and muscular. The Kunbi 
women, like their husbands, are strong and hardy, but the veiled or 
gosha Mardtha women are generally weak. Great numbers die in. 
infancy. Those who survive are generally long-lived, few dying 
before the age of sixty or seventy. In the hilly west the Kunbis are 



Chapter III. 

Population. 

Husbandmen. 
Kunbis. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



286 



DISTEICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Husbandmen. 

MUNBIS. 



generally weaker, thinner, and fairer than- the Kunbis of eastern 
Poona. A, Kunbi or Mard,tha girl is slender, dark-skinned, and 
generally graceful. She becomes a mother at fifteen or seventeen, 
and is past her prime at twenty. Boys are . generally active and 
clever, but at an early age the men grow dull and dreamy.^ The men 
shave the head except the mustache and in a few cases the whiskers. 
They speak Marathi both at home and abroad. Though it is 
surrounded by heaps of refuse, the inside of a Kunbi's house is 
always clean and tidy. The floors and walls are fresh-cowdunged 
every fortnight and the front veranda is always swept clean. They 
often keep their cattle under the same roof, as themselves either 
with or without any partition, or under a shed attached to the 
house. Besides their field tools, their household goods include earth 
and metal water-pots and plates, an iron or brass hanging lamp, 
-a frying pan, cooking pots, a grindstone and pin, a handmillj a 
mortar and pestles, baskets, network utensils, and a bedstead, the 
whole not varying in value more thanfrom£110.9. to£3(Rs.l5-30).^ 
An ordinary house with room for a family of five does not cost more 
than £16 (Rs. 150) to build or 8s. to 12s. (Rs.4-6) a year to rent. 
The monthly keep of a milch cow comes to about 6s. (Rs. 3) and the 
keep of a she-buffalo .varies from 8s. to 10s. (Rs.4-6). 

Kunbis are moderate eaters and are proverbially fond of pepper 
and other hot spices. Besides grain pulse fruits spices oils curds 
and butter, they eat fish -fowls eggs sheep goats hare deer and wild 
hog, and besides water and milk they drink liquor. They do. not 
eat flesh except on marriage and other family festivals and on a 
few leading holidays such as Dasara in October and IHvali in 
November. They sometimes vow to offer an animal to a god, and, 
after offering its life to the god, eat its flesh. They generally drink 



1 In 1819 Dr. Coates (Trans. Bombay Lit. Soc. III. 203) described the Poona Kunbis 
as ratber low in stature and lean, the hands feet and bones small, the muscles 
prominent though not bulky, the Umbs often well-shaped. Twenty men in a hundred 
averaged five feet four inches in height and 7 stone lOj in weight. Fiv6 feet six inches 
was tall and eight and a half stone was heavy. The black straight hair was shorn 
except the mustache and the top-knot. The skin was of varying shades of bronze 
' sometimes nearly black. The face was more round than oval, the brow short and 
retiring, the cheek-bones high, the eyes full and black, the nose straight and prominent, 
the teeth not remarkably good and stained black or red. The expression was sedate 
and good with little quickness and no ferocity. Children were often quick and 
and men of forty dulL With few exceptions the women had no pretensions to 
beauty. StiU wben young the round plump face, smooth clean skin, fine long black 
hair, large sparkling eyes, and sprightly gait made them interesting. Their bloom 
They were old at eighteen and wrinkled and ugly at twenty-five (Ditto, 



232). About half died as children (Ditto, 244). The survivors were long-lived, though, 
as no registers were kept, the ages were doubtful. Out of 164 the twenty-five oldest 
men in the village of Loni were said to average about 76J years and of 198 the 
twenty-five oldest women were said to average 72J years. , 

," Of the Poona Kunbi's house-geai; in 1819, Dr. Coates (Trans. Bom. Lit. Soc. III. 
209-210) gives the following details : A stone handmill worth Re. 1, two iron-tipped 
wooden pestles worth Ke. J, a large copper water-vessel worth Bs. 10, two or three 
small drinking copper vessels worth Ks. 2 each, two or three round shallow eating 
dishes of copper or bell-metal each worth Ks. IJ to Re. 1, an iron griddle worth Re. }, 
a frying pan worth Re. 1, four or five glazed and twenty to thirty unglazed earthen pots 
together worth Rs. 24 "to Rs.S, a large wooden kneading dish, several baskets, two 
iron cup-lamps, two rude couches each worth Ke. 1, or a whole average value of 
about Rs. 40. A rich Kunbi has more copper vessels, a copper Jamp instead of an 
iron lamp, and his couches are laced with tape instead of with rope. 



Deccan] 



POONA. 



287 



liquor about sunset, an hour or so before the evening meal. Th« 
ase of liquor is not forbidden, but drinking is considered disreputable 
and is rare among men and almost unknown among women. Kunbis 
who indulge in liquor drink as much as possible in private and by 
stealth. Besides liquor their only stimulant or narcotic is tobacco. 
It is chiefly smoked, but is also chewed by men and sometimes by 
women.. - Most grown men and women and many youths of ten and 
over when hardworked depend much on their tobacco pipe. Their 
usual holiday fare is vermicelU or shevayfl eaten with milk and 
molasses. Their every-day fare consists of millet, rice, vegetables 
and fruit cut in pieces, split pulse, and alan Xh.&t is gram flour boiled 
with cumin coriander pepper salt turmeric and onions. They take 
three iieals a day. They generally breakfast on bx'ead with some 
vegetable relish or a raw onion. About noon their wives bring their 
dinner of bread and vegetables and either fish, flesh, or split pulse. 
Their supper, of bread vegetables milk or some liquid preparation 
of pulse, is eaten about eight. The ordinary daily food of a husband- 
man, his wife, two children, and a dependant costs about 3d. (2 as.),. 
but landholders are not actually put to this expense as all these 
articles, except tobacco, are the produce of their own fields. 

Kunbis as a class are neat and clean in their dress. They are 
seldom rich enough to indulge their taste,'bat the well-to-do are 
fond of gay clothes, the men wearing generally red or white turbans 
and the women red robes. Indoors the Kunbi wears a handkerchief 
passed between his legs, the ends fastened behind to a waistcord. 
Out of doors he rolls a "loincloth round his waist, covers his body 
with a waistcloth or armless jacket, and wears a turban on his head 
and sandals on his feet. In cold and wet weather he throws 
a coarse blanket over his shoulders or ties it in a hood and draws 
it over his head. Besides as articles of dress, the blanket and 
waistcloth are used as sleeping mats and as bags for carrying 
clothes and garden-stuff. The woman's dress is the full Mardtha 
robe or sddi and the short-sleeved bodice reaching to the waist and 
covering both the back and chest, the ends being tied in front.^ 
The ' man's ornaments for the ear are a pair of gold rdjkadya 
valued at 4«. to 8s. (Es. 2 - 4), a gold bhikbdli valued at 10s. to 16s. 
(Rs. 5-8), or a pair of gold chaukadds valued at £1 12s. to £4 
(Rs. 16-40) ; for the wrist a Jcade valued at 12s. to £1 (Rs. 6-10), 



Chapter III. 
Population. 

Husbandmen, 
Kunbis. 



1 The Kunbi'fl dress seems to have improved since 1819. Dr. Coates wrote (Trans. 
Bom, Lit. Soc. III. 208) : A Kunbi in his every-day attire is a moat wretched-looking 
being, and when first seen by a European can excite only feelings of pity and disgust. 
In the warm weather at home or afield he is naked except a dirty rag round the loins. 
He sometimes has a pair of short coarse cotton drawers and a dirty bandage round his 
head. In cold and rainy weather he wears a coarse black blanket round his shoulders 
or over his head. His holiday dress is a turban white red or green sometimes with a 
flower and a smelling sprig. On the body a coarse white frock falls to the knee, a 
fine white cotton waistcloth of shouldercloth, coarse drawers, and shoes or sandals. 
The yearly cost was about Rs. ISJ then equal to about £18. Oi the Kunbi women's dress 
Dr. Coates (Ditto, 2.32-233) says ; The dress is a robe or sddi twenty-four feet long 
by three wide. Three or four feet of one end are thrown over the head and shoulder, 
a turn or two is passed round the loins, and the rest is puckered up and tucked in a 
bundle in front and the ends passed between the legs and fixed behind. The other 
article of dress is the bodice or choli, a short jacket with sleeves to the elbow covering 
about half the body a^d tied by the comers in front over the bosom. 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



288 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III, 
ropulation. 

HirSBANDMEN. 
KUNBIS, 



a peti valued at 2s. to 4s. (Rs. 1-2), or a pair of kadis valued at 
£1 to £4 (Rs.'r0-40) J for the fingers rings or dngthya of silver 
valued at 2s. to 6s. (Rs. 1-3) ; and for the waist a silver girdle or 
Tcargota valued at £2 to £6. (Rs. 20-60). The woman's ornaments 
for the ear are hugdya worth 6s. to 10s. (Rs. 3-5), hdlya of brass 
worth l^d. to 3cJ!. (1-2 as.) and rdj'kadya worth 4s. to 10s. (Rs.'2-5),- 
for the nose a gold moti worth 10s. to 16s. (Rs. 5-8) ; for the 
neck a silver sari worth 6s. to 12s. (Rs. 3^6), a gold gdthle worth 
£2 to £4 (Rs. 20-40), one to ten gold putlyds worth 8s. to £4 
(Rs. 4-40), the mangalsutra or lucky necklace of glass beads worth 
4s, to 6s. (Rs. 2-3), and a garsoli of glass beads worth IJd to ^d.- 
(1-2 as.) ; for the wrists glass bangles worth l^d. to 3d. (1-2 as.), 
glass chudds worth fd (^ anna), a got worth Gd. (4 as.), a vdle ii of 
silver worth 4s. to 12s. (Rs. 2-6) and if of lead worth 4^d. to H^d. 
(3-5 as.), kdhan if of lead worth 4|d. -to 7^d (3-5 as.), a silver vela 
worth £1 to £4 (Rs. 10-40), and w%a.worth 10s. to 12s. (Rs. 5-6). 

Kunbisrare hardworking, temperate, hospitable, fond of their 
children, and kind to strangers. At the same time they are cruel 
in revenge and seldom scruple to cheat either Government or their ' 
creditors. Among themselves disputes about land often split a 
village into factions and give rise to quarrels and fights. Otherwise 
in dealing with each other they are honest, just, and straightfor- 
ward. They are frugal in. every-day life, but spend large, sums on 
marriage and other feasts. The women are generally chaste and 
fond mothers, and, except when they fall out with each other, they 
are modest in look and in words. They help theii" husbands in the 
field, and generally have the upper hand in the house. They have a 
private purse whiph they fill from the wages they earn and empty on 
ornaments and Sometimes on dinners to neighbour women.^ 

Most Kun bis earn their living by tilling the ground and are helped 
in their work by their women. They have not recovered what they, 
lost in the 1876 and 1877 famine. Their credit is small; many have 



1 Of the character of the Deccan Kunbi Dr. Coates (Trans. Bom. Lit. Soc. Ill, 204- 
206) wrote : They are temperate and hardworking, hardy and enduring. Scarcely 
any can read or -write. Though not particularly sharp they are minutely inforjmed 
of everything relating to their calling ; they are fond of talk and many have a fair 
knowledge of the history of their country. , They are tetter informed and more orderly 
than the lower classes of Englishmen. They are wild-mannered, forgiving, seldom 
violent or cruel. They are indulgent to their women and most attached to their 
children. Except at marriages when they arc lavish and profuse, they are frugal 
inclining to parsimony. As far as poverty allows they are hospitable. Among 
them no mannerly stranger will want a meal. They are just in dealing with each 
other, but unscrupulous in overreaching outsiders and Government. Theft iS scarcely 
known and the voice of the community attaches weight to a virtuous life. They owe 
their vices to their Government, cunning, cheating, and lying. Their timidity makes 
them prefer stratagem to force. Still when roused they are not without courage and are 
by no means contemptible enemies. Love intrigues sometimes take place among the 
young, but as a rule the women are remarkably chaste. A first offence is punished by 
a beating ; a second offence, especially if the man is a Musalmto or a Mhdr, may lead to 
the woman being put out of caste (Ditto, 231 - 232) . Women are well treated, have much 
freedom, and often rule the house. Each has a private purse' supplied by the wages of 
extra labour and by presents from kinspeople and sometimes from the husband. She 
spends her money on ornaments either for herself or her child, in feasts to her neigh- 
bours, or on sweetmeats. Some of the less scrupulous recruit an empty purse by pil- 
ferring grain (Ditto, 230-231). 



SeccanJ 



POOHA. 



289 



given up husbandry and taken to be messengers, constables, grooms, 
and day-labourers.^ 

Kunbis cannot tell wbetber they are Smarts or BMgvats. They 
worship all Br^hmanic gods and goddesses, but their chief objects 
of worship are Bhairav, Bhavdni, Birpba, Jdkhai, Janai, Jofchai, 
K^lkai, Khandoba, Mdruti, Metisai, 'Mhasoba, Mukai, Navlai, 
Phriugai, Satvai, Tukai, VAghoba, and Vet£l, whom theygreatly fear 
and whose images or idks they keep in their houses. Bhaibav is 
the usual villsCge guardian. He has two forms, Kal Bhairav and B^l 
Bhairav, KAl Bhairav is shown as a standing man with two hands, 
an hourglass-shaped drum or' damaru in his right hand, and a trident 
in his left. He is encircled by a serpent. B^l Bhairav lives in an 
anhewn stone covered with redlead or shendur mixed, with oil. If 
kept pleased by a coating of oil and redlead and if he is given offerings 
of clarified butter Bhairav is kindly. He cures snake-bites and tells 
whether an undertaking will do well or will fail. In the chest of 
the rough figure of Bhairav are two small holes. The person who 
wishes to consult the oracle places a betelnut in each of the holes 
and expliains to Bhairav that if the right betelnut falls first it will 
mean that the undertaking will prosper, and that if the left betel- 
nut falls first it will mean that the undertaking will fail. He asks 
the god, according as the event is to be, to let the lucky or. the 
unlucky nut fall first. He tells the god that if he will drop the 
lucky nut. and if his undertaking prospers he will give the god a 
cock or a goat. Twice a year before they begin to, sow and before 
they begin to reap the villagers come in procession and worship 
Bhairav. BhavIni, that is Pfirvati the wife of Shiv, has two local 



Chapter III, 
Population.. 

HtrSBAKDMElf» 

Kunbis.. 



* The daily round of the Poona Kunbi'a life has changed little since 1819 when Dr. 
Gpates (Trans. Bom. Lit Soc . III. 228 - 232) wrote : The Kunbi rises at cockcrow, washes 
his hands feet and face, repeats the names of some of his gods, and perhaps takes a 
whiff of his pipe or a quid of tobacco. He is ready to begin his labour. He loosens his 
oxen and drives them slowly afield letting them graze as they go. His breakfast is 
with him in a dirty cloth or it is sent after him by one of his children ; it is a cake and 
some of the cookery of the day before, or an onion or two and some relish. He gets to 
his field between seven and eight. Works for an hour or two, and squats to his breakfast 
without loosing his cattle. He is at work again in a quarter of an hour and works on 
till twelve when his wife brings his dinner. He unyokes his oxen, drives them to drink, 
and lets them graze or gives them straw. He dines under some tree near a well or 
stream, his wife waiting on him. If others are near they come and talk and sleep for 
half an hour each on his blanket or cloth. The wife eats what the husband has left. 
He is at work again by two or half -past' two, and woi:ks on till sunset when he moves 
slowly home, ties up and feeds his oxenj and either washes in a stream or gets his wife 
to douse him with hot water. After washing, or on holidays oiling with sandal oil, he 
prays before the house gods or. visits the village temple. He then sups with the rest of 
tbe men of the family. Between supper and bed at nine or ten is his play-time. He 
fondles and plays with his children, visits his neighbours, talks about the crops and the 
village, asks after strangers, or seeks news from any one wjio has been in Poona. '■ In 
the two or three months between January and April, vrhen field work is light, he takes 
his meals at home and joins with other villagers in loafing in the shade and chatting, or 
he visits friends in neighbouring villages, or he goe? on pilgrimage. During the busy 
season the Kiinbi's wife rises between four and five, grinds the da;^'s grain, sweeps the 
h.Quse, and clears out ashes and dung from the. cow-house, burying part in th.e 
manure-pit and making fire-cakes of the rest. She fills the water jars with fresh ^ater, 
cooks till about ten, and then with a child or perhaps two children starts for the field 
with her husband's dinner on her head in a basket. She weeds or reaps till noon, 
waits on her husband, «i)d dines. After a short rest she is again at work and works 
till evening carrying, home a bundle of grass. She makes, ready and eats supper and 
goes to rest between nine Sjid ten. - ^ • . .* 

E 310-37 



[Bombay Gazetteer, 



290. 



DISTRICTS. 



Chapter III. 
Fopolation. 

HUSBANBMEN.. 
KUNBIS, 



nameSj Phringi.and Tuk^i. She shares with Bhairav the, honour of 
being village guardian; she is generally shown as a rude image, 
either with two hands; a sword being in the right hand, or with 
eight hands holding a conch, a wheel, and other articles the same as 
Vishnu holds. Like Bhairav she is asked the cause of sickness or 
ill-luck and to advise regarding the future, and like him if she 
removes trouble. or advises well she is given a goat or a cock. 
BiKOBA is worshipped by Dhangars or Shepherds. He lives in an 
unhewn stone outside of the village. Like Mhasoba he is an un- 
kindly spirit to whom people pray when they are anxious to plague 
or ruin their enemies. JakhIi, JanIi, JokhIi, Kalkai, Metisat, 
Mtjkai and NavlIi are all local mothers. According to the people's 
account they are unkindly forms of Bhavdni. With the help of 
two attendants, Naikji and Birji, they do much mischief. They blast 
crops of grain, plague men with sickness, and carry off travellers. 
People who owe their neighbours a grudge pray to Janai, Mukdi, or 
one of the other mothers to send them sickness, to kill their cattle, 
or to ruin their fields. Khandoba, literally sword-father, guards the 
country as Bhairav guards the village. Khandoba is the Tshvar 
Dev or guardian deity of the Deccsm. As a guardian he is shown 
sometimes, as at his chief shrine at Jejuri, as a Zi«g', the great 
protector, and more often as a horseman with a sword in hi