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Full text of "Folk lore notes"

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NOTES 



VOL. II-KONKAN 



COMPILED FROM MATERIALS COLLECTED BY 



THE LATE A, M. T. JACKSON, INDIAN CIVIL SERVICl 



R. E. ENTHOVEN, €.1.13., im. 



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UNIVERSITY 

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ARTHUR PROBSTHAIN 
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CORNELL UMVERSITV L BRARY 




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The original of this book is in 
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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924071128171 



FOLKLORE NOTES 

VOL. II KONKAN 



FOLK 



LORE 



NOTES 



VOL. II-KONKAN 



COMPILED FROM MATERIALS COLLECTED BY 



THE LATE A. M. T. X^CKSON, INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE 



R. E. ENTHOVEN, ci.E., Lcs. 




BRITISH INDIA PRESS, MAZGAON, BOMBAY 

1915- 



1 



►g-^l^^ 



KEPEINTKD FROM THE " INDIAN ANTIQUARY " 
BY B. MILLER, SUPERINTENDENT, BRITISH INDIA PRESS, BOMBAY 






TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

Nature Powers, page. 

Worship of minor local deities. Sun-worship. The 'Swastika, Circumambulation 
round'images and other sacred objects. Moon-worship. Days of special importance. 
Eclipses. Worship of planets and stars. The milky way. The rainbow. Worship 
of the earth. Thunder and lightning. Earthquakes. Worship of sacred rivers, 
springs and pools. Water spirits and goblins. Ceremonies at digging of wells. 
Well water as a cure for disease. Sacred Lakes. Palaces under the water. Sacred 
mountains. Deities who control the weather. Methods of causing or averting rain 
and of checking storms. Vratas or religious vows practised only by women. Rites 
in which women are excluded. Rites in which the worshipper must be nude. 
Superstitions in connection with aerolites and meteors ... ... ... ... ... 1 



CHAPTER II. 
The Heroic Codlings. 
Village deities. Local deities. Installation of deities in new settlements. Ghostly 
godlings. Deities responsible for crops and cattle ... ... ... ... ... 21 



CHAPTER III. 
Disease Deities. 
Causes of epidemic diseases and the remedies adopted to stop them. Cattle 
diseases. Remedies practised by the village people in connection with them. The 
methods for the exorcism of disease. Methods of expelling evil spirits from the body. 
The village sorcerer. Offerings of rags, coins, etc., at sacred trees and wells. The 
transferring of disease from one person to another. Scapegoats ... ... ... 29 



CHAPTER IV. 

The worship of Ancestors and ■Saints, 
Shrdddhas and other ceremonies performed for the propitiation and emancipation 
of the deceased. Worship of the founders of religious sects, of saints, etc. Ghosts. 
Rebirth of ancestors in the same family. Miracle-working tombs. Muhammadan 
saints whose worship has leen fdcpted by Hirdus. Rural methods for the cure of 
barrenness 40 



CHAPTER V. 
The Worship of the malevolent dead. 
Popular notions about dreams. Auspicious and inauspicious dreams. Temporary 
abandonment of the body by the soul. Character and functions of the bhut or 
disembodied soul. The state of the soul after death. The rebirth of the soul. The 
souls of persons dying a sudden or violent death. The ways by which ghosts 
enter and leave the bcdy. Methods of driving away evil spirits from the body. 
Reliefs regarding sreezing ard yawning. Rdkshaia or the malevolent demon. 
Other malignant spirits. Evil spirits which go about headless. Tl:e haunts of evil 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE. 

spirits. GHosts of -wiomsn dying an unnatural deatH. Spirits of persons killed by 
tigers and other wild beasts. Ghiosts of women dyinig in childbed or menses. Precau- 
tions taken by parents at the birth of children. Beliefs in connection with! bats and 
owls. Spirits which haunt ruins, guard buried treasure and occupy valleys ... ... 49 

CHAPTER VI. 

The evil 'eye and the scaring of ghosts, 
Elfectsofthe evil eye. Objects liable to be influenced by th'e evil eye. Precautions 
taken to evade tfie influence of the evil eye. Opprobrious names. Change of sex. 
Protection against evil spirits. Amulets. Charmed circles. Omens. Numbers. Lucky 
and unlucky days. Rites performed to help the soul to the other world. Cremation 
and burial. The customs of shaving the hair. Oiferings of food to the dead. Mani- 
festation of evil spirits in form. Thie practice of breaking earthen vessels at, death. 
Rites connected with mourning. Benevolent spirits. Spirits wihich haunt trees. The 
guardian spirits of crops and cattle. Spirits invoked to frighten children 60 

CHAPTER VII. 
Tree and Serpent worship. 
Trees connected with deities and saints. Legends and superstitions connected 
with them. Marriage of brides and bridegooras to trees. Snake worship. Shrines 
of snake deities. Deified snakes. Snakes guarding treasure. The village treatment** 
of snake-bite. The jewel in the head of the snake. 'Guardian snakes ... ... 71 

CHAPTER VIIL 
Totemism and Fetishism. 
Devaks. Names derived from animals and plants. Sacred animals. Deities 
associated with animal worship. Worship of stocks and stones. Survivals of human 
sacrifice. Disease-curing stones. Respect shown to coirn sieves, corn p3unders, the 
broom and the plough. Fire worship. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 78 



CHAPTER IX. 
Animal worship. 
Sacred animals and the legends and supeirstitions connected with them 83 



CHAPTER X. 

Witchcraft. 
Chetaks and CUetakins. qs 



CHAPTER XI. 
General, 
Rural ceremonies connected witli agricultural operations. Rites performed for 
the protection of cattle. Rites performed for searing naxiouis animals and insects. 
Rites performed for ensuring sunshine and favourable weather. Rites performed 
for the protection of crops. Rites in which secrecy and silence are observed. 
The observances at the Holi festival. Rites performed! when boys and igirls attain 

puberty. Vows. The black art ". ; , 87 

APPENDIX 
Glossary of vernacular terms^ occurring in Volumes I and II ^ i to xxxvii 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN. 



CHAPTER I. 



NATURE POWERS 



'T'HE Worship of minor local deities is con- 
nected with such low castes as Guravas, 
Bhopis, Maratha Kunbis, Dhangars, Waghes, 
Murlis, Mahars and Mangs in the District of 
Kolhapur. It is believed by the Brahmans 
that once an image is consecrated and wor- 
shipped, it should be worshipped uninterrupt- 
edly every day, and he who neglects to wor- 
ship such an image daily incurs the sin of 
Brakma-hatya or Brahman-murder. For this 
reason Brahmans generally do not worship 
minor local deities. In former times Brahmans 
who worshipped these deities were excommuni- 
cated by their caste-men. Such Pujdris were 
compelled to wear a folded dhotur or waist 
cloth, and were forbidden to put on the gandh 
or sandal paste mark in straight or cross lines. 
They were allowed to put on the tila or circu- 
lar mark of sandal paste. Another reason why 
Brahmans are not the Pujdris or worshippers 
of such deities is that Brahmans cannot accept 
or partake of the Naivedya oif ering of cooked 
food, fowls, etc., made to them. Lower class 
people can partake of such offerings, and are 
therefore generally the worshippers or minist- 
rants of minor local deities. 

At Palshet in the Ratnagiri District, there 
are two grdnt-devis^ viz., Jholai and Mharjai, 
and th'e pujdris of these deities are respect- 
ively a Gurav and a Mahar.^ The pujdris of 
goddesses are generally men of the lower 
castes. The guardian goddesses of the vil- 
lages of Pule, Varavade, Nandivade, and Eila 



have Kunbis as their pujdris ; while the pujdris 
of the goddesses Mahalakshmi, Bhagvati, 
Mahakali, and Jogai are generally chosen from 
the Gurav caste.^ In the Konkan the Eauls 
(Shudras) are the pujdris of the deities Vithoba, 
Ravalnath and Bh'avani ; the Ghadis are the 
pujdris of the deities Sateri and Khavanesh- 
war; while the deities MJahadev and Maruti 
are worshipped by pujdris belonging to the 
Gurav caste.^ The goddesses Makhajan and 
Jakhmata at Sangameshwar in the Ratnagiri 
District are worshipped by pujdris who belong 
to the Gurav and Bhoi castes respectively. 
The god Ganpati at Makhnele has for his 
pujdri a Wani. The pujdris of the temple of 
Shiva at Lanje in the Ratnagiri District are 
Wanis.* It is said that the pujdri of Punda- 
rik at Pandharpur is a Kirata ^(fisherman) by 
caste.'' 

The pujdri of the goddess Narmata at Sid- 
gad in the Thana District is a Koli; whilst 
the pujdi is of Kanoba, Khandoba, and Vetal 
are of the lower castes. " The goddesses 
Mahalakshmi of Kolvan and Vajreshvari have 
their pujdris chosen from the lower castes. '^ 
The pujdris of Jari-Mari,Mhasoba, Bahiroba, 
Cheda and other deities which are said to 
prevent contagious diseases, are always men 
of the lower castes.' * 

The pujdris of the guardian goddesses of 
the villages Petsai, Dasgaum and Nizampur 
are a Mahar, a Kumbhar or potter, and a 
Maratha, respectively. " The pujdri of the 



1 School Master, Palshet, RatnSgiri. 
3 School Master, Parule, RatnSgiri. 
5 School Master, R4j4pur, Ratnagiri. 
7 School Master, M^lad, ThSna. 

9 School 



2 School Master, Adivire, Ratnagiri. 
* School Master, Makhnele, Ratniigirj. 
6 School Masters, Agashi and Arnala, Thana. 
8 School Master, Shahdpur, ThSna. 
Master, Dasgaum, KoWba. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



guardian goddesses of Chaul in the Kolaba 
District belongs to the lower castes.^ The 
goddess Mangai has always a Mahar as her 
pujdri." Everyday the god Shiva is required 
to be worshipped first by a pujdri of the Gurav 
caste. The pujdri of Bahiri, a corruption of 
the word Bhairav, one of the manifestations 
of Shiva, is a man belonging to the lower cas- 
tes. Similarly the pujdris of Bhagavati, Bha- 
vani, Ambika, Kalika, Jakhai, Jholai, Janni, 
Kolhai, Vadyajai, Shitaladevi, Chandika, etc., 
are persons belonging to lower castes.^ 

It is considered by the Hindus very metri- 
torious and holy to worship the Sun ; and by 
Brahmans £he Sun is considered to be their 
chief deity. The ^dyatri Mantra of the 
Brahmans is a prayer to the Sun-gad or the 
Savita Dev, and the Brahmans offer arghya 
or oblations of water to the Sun thrice a day. 
Those who want health, wealth and prosperity 
propitiate the Sun^god by prayers and cere- 
monies. The Hatha Sapiami is considered to 
be the principal day for special worship and 
festivities in honour of the Sun»god, On this 
day,, on a low wooden stool, is drawn, in red 
sandal paste, a figure of the Sun in human 
shape seated in a chariot drawn by seven 
horses, or by a horse with seven faces. This 
figure is then placed in the sun-shine, and it is 
then worsliipped by offering it arghya or 
spoonfuls of water, red powder, red flowers 
mixed with red sandal paste, camphor, incense 
and fruits. Some people kneel down while 
offering the arghyas tp> the Sun. These 
arghyas are either three or twelve in nupiber. 
Some persons make a vow not to eat anything 
unless they have worshipped the Sun apd per- 
formed the twelve Namaskavas by falling 
prostrate and bowing with folded hands twelve 
times, and at each time repeating one of the 
twelve names of the Sun.* 



In the Eatnagiri District some people 
worship the Sun on the Sundays of the 
month of SKrdvan, A ceremony held on the 
Rathasaptami day, i.c.j the 7th day of the 
bright half of Mdgk, is deemed a special 
festival in honour of the Sun-god, On that 
day people draw, on a small wooden stool, 
an image of the Sun, seated in a chariot 
drawn by seven horses, and worship it with 
great reverence. Milk is then boiled on a 
fire made of cow-dung cakes in front of the 
household Tulsi plant. If the milk over- 
flows to the east, it is believed that there 
will be abundance of crops, but if it flows 
to the west it is taken as a sign of the near 
approach of famine. * The Sun-god is also 
worshipped on the following occasions, ^.g., 
TriJcalj Uajacchdya^ Ardhodaya^ Mahodaya, 
Vyatipdt^ MakarSankrdnt^ Kark-Sankrdnt 
and the Solar eclipse. ^ Though there are 
few temples dedicated to the Sun, the vil- 
lage of Parule has the honour of having one 
called " the temple of Adi-Narayan." Non- 
Brahmanical classes are not seen worshipp- 
ing the Sun in this district, despite the 
fact that the Sun is said to be the embodi- 
ment of the three principal deities of the 
Hindus,® 

The people of the Thana District believe 
that the Stvasiika is the central point of the 
helmet of the Sun, and a vowi called the 
Swastika Vrata i,s held in its honor. A woman 
who observes this vow, draws a figure of the 
Swastika and worships it daily during the 
Chdturmds (four months of the rainy season) , 
at the expiration of which she gives a Brah- 
man a golden or silver plate with the sign of 
the Swastika upon it.'' Another vow named 
Dharmrrnds, common tp all districts in the 
Konkan, requires a persQU to complete his 
d£(ily rites before sun-rise, and to offer a 



1 School Master, Chaul, Kolaba. 2 School Master, Akola, Kolaba. 

' School Master, Poladpur, KoUba. 

* These twelve names are : — 1 Mitra, 2 Ravi, 3 Surya, 4 Bhanu, 5 Khaga, 6 Pushne, 7 Htranyagarbha, 
8 Marichi, 9 Aditya, 10 Savita, 11 Arka, 12 Bhasker, 

i School Master, Phonden. ? School Master, Devarukh, 

6 S,chQQl Master, Parule. 7 School Master, Anjur, 



FOLKLORE OF THE EONKAN 



preparation of food called Khichadi to the 
Sun-god. The observer of this vow then par- 
takes of the food, regarding it as a gift from 
that god. This is either done for one day or re- 
peated for a month till the Dhanu-'Sankrdnt.^ 
On the Somavati-Amdvdsya day (the 15th 
day of the dark half of a month falling on 
Monday), and the Kapildshasthi day, the Sun 
is held in especial reverence.^ A curious story 
is narrated regarding the offering of ArgTiya 
to the Sun. It is said that the Sun rejoices at 
the birth of a Brahman, and gives 1,000,000 
cows in charity, believing that the Arghya 
which the Brahman will offer later on will 
devour his foes, one drop of the Arghya 
killing 1,000 of them*. The repetition of the 
Gdyatri-mantra 108 times a day is supposed to 
release a Brahman from the debt of 1,000,000 
cows owed in this way to the Sun, ^ The 
Toga-Sutras of Patanjali however prohibit a 
man from looking at the setting Sun, though 
the sin tfhus incurred is made amends for 
by the offering of Arghya to that god. * It is 
interesting to note that women do not grind 
corn on the BathaSaptami day. ^ 

Women bow down to the Sun on the 1 1th, 
12th, 30th or 40th day after their delivery; 
but Kunbi women generally worship that god 
on the 7th day.'' On this occasion some 
women show a churning handlet to the Sun- 
god and offer him some grains of rice.''^ 

The Srvastika is considered so holy in the 
Konkan that it is always drawn on the 
Antarpat ; and at the time of the Punydha 
Wac'han ceremony which precedes a Hindu 
wedding, a Srvastika drawn in rice is worship- 
ped.* The principal deities of the Hindus, 
whenever they are invoked on special occa- 



sions, are seated on the Swastika.^ The people 

of the Ratnagiri District worship the Srvastika, 

regarding it as the symbol as well as the seat 

of the Sun-god.^** 

By some the Srvastika is regarded as the 

foundation-stone of the universe^^ and is held 

to be the symbol of the god Shiva, and not 

of the Sun. 12 

The conception of Kunbi is said to have 

taken place by the influence of the rays of 

the Sun .13 

The Swastika is considered as an emblem 

of peace and prosperity, and for this reason 
Brahman woimen draw a figure of the Swast- 
ika in front of their houses. ^* The custom of 
moving round such sacred obj ects as the Ban- 
yan, the Pipal, the Tulsi or sweet basil plant, 
the Umbar^ the Avala (Phylanthus emblica), 
etc., is prevalent in the district of Kolhapur. 
There are no cases recorded in which women 
after child-birth are exposed to the Sun. But 
on the 1 2th day after her delivery, the mother 
puts on new bangles and new clothes ; cocoa- 
nuts, betel-nuts and leaves, grains of rice, 
plantains and grains of wheat are placed in her 
lap. She then comes out and bows to the Sun. 
Wealthy persons on this occasion perform a 
homa sacrifice in their houses by kindling the 
holy fire and feeding Brahmans. No one in 
this district believes that conception is caused, 
or is likely to be caused, by exposure to the 
rays of the Sun. 

The Hindu women of the Konkan walk 
round Pipal, Tulsi^ and Umbar trees every 
Saturday and on the Somavati-amdvdsya day, 
i.e., the 15th day of the dark half of a month 
when it falls on Monday.' ^ Sometimes, how- 
ever, women make a vow to walk round a 



1 School Master, Vasind. 
3 School Master, Malad. 

5 School Master, Padaghe. 

* 33,000,0000 demons are said to be born every day 

6 School Master, Chaul, Kolaba. 

8 School Master, Mithbav, Ratnagiri. 
10 School Master, Pendhur, Malvan, Ratnagiri. 
12 School Masters, Chauk, Karjat, Koldba, 
W Rao Saheb Shelke, 
f The churning handle or rod is called in MarSthi 



2 School Master, Mdldd. 

4 School Masters, Agashi and Arnala. 

to impede the journey of the Sun. 
' School Master, Nevare, Ratnagiri. 
9 School Master, Makhanele, Ratnagiri. 
11 School Masters, Agfehi and Arnala. 
15 School Masters, Chauk, Karjat, Koldbai 
15 School Master, Malgund,Ratnigiri. 
Ravi, which is one of the names of the Sun, 



FOLKLORE OF THE EONKAN 



temple or a sacred tree one-hundred tlioixsand 
times ; and for the fulfilment of this vow they 
Walk rouind the temple or tree for about seven 
or eight hours every day. If they find it 
difficult toi make up the number of rounds 
themselves, they ask their near relations to 
assist them in their undertaking.^ 

The Moon is worshipped by the Hindus on 
the 2nd of the bright half of every month. 
On this day it is considered very lucky to see 
the mooo, and many people, particularly the 
lower classes, pull out threads from the clothes 
they wear, and offer them to the moon, saying 
"O! God,, accept these old clothes of ours 
and be pleased to give us new ones in their 
stead." Some people warship the moon on the 
\Sankasti Chaturthi 4th day of the dark half 
of every month; and such people will not 
eat anything until they have seen and worship- 
ped the moon on that day. The moon is 
not worshipped on the GaJiesft Chaturthi day 
that is, the 4th of the bright half of the month 
of Bhddrapad, as it is considered very unlucky 
to see the moon on that night. It is firmly 
believed that any one who sees the moon on 
the Ganesh Chaturthi day even by accident will 
be falsely accused of theft or some other crime. 
In order to avoid this, people who have accident- 
ly seen the moOn, throw stones at the houses of 
• their neighbours, and if the neighbours abuse 
them in return^ the mischiefmakers consider 
themselves freed by the abuse from the sin of 
having looked at the moon on a forbidden night. 
The spots on the surface of the moon are 
believed by some to be the rath or chariot of 
the god. Others think that they are lunar 
mountains ; but many believe that the spots are 
the visible signs of the slain on the character 
of the moon-god due to his having outraged the 
modesty of the wife of his gwrw, the god Bra- 
haspati or Jupiter. In the Purdns it is stated 
that on one occasion, a dispute arose between 



the moon and' Brahaspati or Jupiter about the 
wife of Brahaspati, each of them claiming to 
be the cause of her conception. Subsequently 
a son was born who was named Budha (Mer- 
cury) . Brahaspati's wife, on being asked who 
was the father of the child, named the moon. 
Thereupon Brahaspati cursed the moon for his 
adultery. The spots on the surface of the 
moon are said to be the effect of this curse. 

The moon-god is believed to distribute nectar 
through his rays, and therefore this deity is 
said to have the power of removing diseases and 
restoring human beings to health. The moon 
is the king of herbs, and all trees, plants, etc., 
thrive owing to the influence of the moon. 
Sometimes people place at night, figs, plan- 
tains, sugarcane and other eatables in the moon- 
light and eat them early in the morning ; and 
it is said that those who do so improve in health. 
The practice of drinking the moom's rays dtoes 
not prevail in the Kolhapur district. But 
people occasionally dine in the moon light.^ 

On a full moon day people perform the 
special worship of their chosen deity, On the 
fuil moon of the month of Kdrtika temples are 
illuminated, and on the full moon day of 
Mdgha^ raw corn such as wheat, hdjri^ etc., is 
cooked and offered to the household and other 
deities.* On this day are also performed the 
special rites and ceremonies that are required 
in connection with the Kula-devatds or family 
gods or goddesses. On the full moon day of 
Fdlguna the Holi fire is kindled and worship- 
ped. In certain families the full moon of 
Chaitra is considered auspicious for making 
offerings to family deities. On the full moon 
day of Shrdvan is observed the feast of 
Cocoanut day, and on this day Brahmans put 
on new sacred threads. The full moon is 
considered by the Sanydsis or ascetics an 
auspicious day for shaving their heads. 



i School Master, Phonde, Ratndgiri. ^ Rao Sahib Shelke. 

» In the Konkan the Navdnna Purnima or full moon day of new food is observed in the month 
of Ashwina, This is, no doubt, due to the difference in the season of the harvest. 



FOLKLDRE 7JE THE KONKAN 



On the new moon day the Pitras or 
Manes are worshipped. Lighted lamps are 
worshipped on the new moon day, of 
'Ashddha, In the Kolhapur State this is 
called Tadali new moon day, and in the 
Konkan it is called Divali new moon day. 
On the new moon day of Ashwin^ Lakshmi 
the goddess of wealth is worshipped'. All 
special ceremonies for the propitiation of the 
Bhutas or evil spirits are usually performed 
on the new moon day. The Drvitiya or 2nd 
day of every month is considered sacred to 
the moon, and on this day the moon is 
worshipped ,- while the Chaturthi is con- 
sidered sacred to the god Ganapati, and on 
the Chaturthi of Bhadrapada a special festival 
is held in honour of the god Ganpati. ^ 

On the 15th day of the bright half of 
the month of AsJimin people put milk in the 
rays of the moon for some time, and thien, 
after offering it to the moon, they drink it. 
Drinking milk in this way is called drinking 
the rays of the moon. ^ On the Sanhrant Cha- 
turthi day and on that Chaturthi which 
immediately follows the Dasara holiday, 
people draw an image of the moon and 
worship it. ^ In the Ratnagiri district 
several conflicting theories are held regard- 
ing the spots on the surface of the moon. 
Some believe that the spat observed on the 
moon is a tamarind tree in which that god 
has stationed himself ; others hold that the 
spot is the reflection of a deer which is 
yoked to the chariot of the moon.*; while 
many more believe that it has been occasioned 
by the hoof of the horse of King Nala. 
Some say that the spot o'n the surface of 
the moon represents a Pipal tree and a 
cow fastened to the roots of the tree; 
others on the authority of Hindu mythology 



suppose that God created Madan (cupid) 
from the essence taken from the body of the 
moon and hence the moon-god has spots on 
his body.5 In the Mahdbhdrat it is stated that 
on the Surface of the moon is reflected the is- 
land of Sudarshan on this earth, together withi 
some trees and a great hare, the bright part 
being nothing but water. ^ The spot on the 
surface of the moon is considered by some a 
deer which the god has taken on his lap.^' 
Some believe that Yashoda, the mother ofi 
Krishna, after waving an earthen dish round 
the face of Krishna, threw it at the sky. It 
struck the moon and thereby the spots on the 
surface of the moon were caused. Nectar is 
supposed to have been derived from the rays 
of the moon ; and in some sacred books it is 
stated that the Chakora bird (Bartavelle 
Partridge) drinks the rays of the moon.^ 

The people of the Thana District hold simi- 
lar notions regarding the spots on the surface 
of the moon.. It has been said by some that 
the portion in question represents mud, while 
others say that the moon has been disfi- 
gured owing to a curse from a sage. ^ Some 
people say that the spots are due to the moon 
being cursed by bis preceptor Brahaspati with' 
whose wife the moon-god had connection.; 
Being unable to bear the pain of the spots, the 
moon, it is said, propitiated his preceptor, who 
directed him to bathe in the Bhima river to 
alleviate the agony. Accordingly the pain 
was assuaged, and the part of the river where 
the Moon-god bathed thus came to be called 
Chandra bhdga. ■'■o Some persons suggest that 
the spots are a Pipal tree with two deer feed- 
ing upon it from two sides^^^ Others hold that 
the spots on the surface of the moon are due to 
its having been kicked by a deer which, when 
pursued by a hunter, was refused shelter. ^2 



1 Rao Saheb, Shelke. 
3 School Mster, Gaumkhadi, RajSpur, 
5 School Master, DAb.holj Ratnagiri. 
!■ School Master, UbhSdanda, Vengurla. 
9 School Master, Murb^d. 
XI School Master, W&da. 



2 School Master, Ibhrfimpur. 

i School Master, Adivare, R^jSpur. 

6 School Master, Ratnagiri. 

B School Master, Ratnagiri. 

1" School Master, Vgsind, SShSpur. 

12 School Master, Edvan, Mahim^ 



6 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



iThe people of tlie Thana District believe that 
the rays of the moon influence conception. ^ 
In the Kolaba -District, to sit in an open 
place on a moon-light night, is regarded as 
drinking the rays of the moon, * The elon- 
gated part of the orb of the moon pointing 
towards the north or the south is supposed to 
forebode scarcity or abundance, respectively.^ 

It is a common belief that the moon should 
not be seen on the Ganesh Chaturthi day, 
i.e., the 4th day of the bright half of Bhddra- 
pad. 

Looking at the moon continuously for a 
short time on every moon light night is said 
to keep one's sight in good order.* 

If the Amdvdsya falls on Monday, Brahman 
women of the Thana District walk round a 
Tulsi plant or a Pipal tree and make a vow 
to a Brahman,^ 

In the Kolaba District a special ceremony 
is held in honour of minor goddesses on the 
8th day of a month. The following things 
are avoided one on each of the fifteen tithis 
respectively : — 

Kohala (pumpkin) dorli (Soianum indicum,) 
salt, sesamum, souir things, oil, uvale (Emblic 
myrobalan), cocoanuts, bhopala (gourd), 
padval (snake-gourd), pdvte (Dolichos Lablah) 
masur (Lens esculenta) brinjal, honey, gam- 
bling. 6 

The people observe a fast on the 13th 
(Pradosha) and the 14th day (Skivardtra) of 
the dark half of every month.'' On the 15th 
'day of the bright half of Chaitra, a fair is 
held in honour of the guardian deity of a 
village, and hens, goats, etc., are offered as a 
sacrifice.^ 



The following are days of special importance. 

Gudhi-pddva, i.e., the first day of the bright 
half of Chaitra: — This being the first day of 
the year, gudhia and toranas are hoisted in 
front of evefy house and are worshipped.^ 

BMu-bij : — On the 2nd day of the bright 
half of Kdrtik every sister waves round the 
face of her brother a lamp, and makes him a 
present. ^'^ 

The ceremony on the Bhdu-bij day has come 
into vogtie on account of Subhadra having 
given a very pleasant bath to her brother 
Krishna on that day. The Court of Yama is 
also said to be closed on that day, since he 
goes to his sister; and consequently per- 
sons who die on that day, however sinful they 
may be, are not supposed to go to Yamaloha 
i. e., hell.^^ 

Ahshya Tritiya: — On the third day of 
the bright half of Vaishdkh cold water and 
winnowing fans are distributed as tokens for 
appeasing the Manes of ancestors. On this 
day is also celebrated the birth of the god 
Parashuram.12 

Ganesh Chaturthy. — On the 4th day of 
the bright half of Bhddrapad, an earthen 
image of Ganpati is worshipped and a great 
ceremony is held in his honour. ^^ The fourth 
day of the bright half of every month is called 
Vindyaka-Chaturthi; while that of the dark 
half is called JSankasti-Chaturthi. On the 
Vindyaka-Chaturthi day, people fast the whole 
day and dine the next day; while on the 
Sankasti Chaturthi day, they fast during the 
day time and dine after moon-rise.^* That 
Sankasti Chaturthi which falls on Tuesday is 
considered the best.^^ 



1 School Master, Kalyan, No. 1 and School Mastra:, 

2 School Master, Chidhran, Kolaba* 
* School Master, Chauk, Kolaba. 

6 School Master, Chauk, Kolaba, 

8 School Master, Poladpur, Kolaba 
10 School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri, 
12 School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri, 
w School Master, Malgund, Ratnfigiri, 



Padaghe, Bhivandi, 
3 School Master, PolSdpur. 
5 School Master, Anjur, ThSna, 

I School Master, Poladpur. 

9 School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri, 

II School Master, Pendur, M^lvan, RatnSgxri 
13 School Master, Basani, RatnSgiri. 

15 School Master, Ubh4diinda, Vengurlaj 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



1 



Ndgpanchami: — On the 5tli day of the 
bright half of Shravan^ pictuires of serpents 
and snake holes are worshipped.^ 

ChampaShashii: — On the 6th day of the 
bright half of Mdrgashirsha^ some ceremony 
relating to the family-deity is performed. 2 

RathaSaptami: — On the 7th day of the 
bright half of Mdgh, the sun is worshipped 
and milk is boiled until it overflows. ^ 

Giohul-Ashtami: — On the 8th day of the 
dark half of Shrdvan the birth of the god 
Krishna is celebrated.* 

Rdma-Navami: — On the 9th day of the 
bright half of Chaitra the birth of the god 
Rama is celebrated. ^ 

Vijayddashmi : — On the 10th day of the 
bright half of Ashvin people cross the boun- 
dary of their village and distribute sone (leaves 
of the Shami and Apia trees) . It is a popular 
belief that a work commenced on this day is 
sure to end well. Weapons are also worshipped 
on this day.^ 

Ekddashi: — On the 11th day of Ashddh and 
Kdrtik a special fast is observed. People also 
fast on the 11th day of each month. A man 
who dies on this auspicious day is supposed to 
go to heaven.''' Sometimes the Ekdddsi falls on 
two consecutive days ; in which case the Smar- 
tas observe the first, while the Bhagvats 
observe the second.^ 

Wdman-dtvddashii — On the 12th day of 
the bright half of Bhddrapad Waman is wor- 
shipped and one or twelve boys are adored, 
being held to represent Waman. The mar- 
riage of the Tulsi plant is sometimes cele- 
brated on this day.9 

T>hana-Trayodashi: — On the 13th day of 
the dark half of A,sHwin^ Lakshmi, the 
goddess of wealth is worshipped. i<> 



NaraJc-Cfvaturdashi ; — On the 14th day ofi 
the dark half of Ashvin^ the demon Narakasur 
was killed. In consequence, on this day people 
take their bath before sun-rise, break Karinta 
(a fruit), regarding it as a demon, and apply 
its seeds to their heads.^^ 

Ndrali Paurninta: — On the 15th day of 
the bright half of Shrdvan^ people worship the 
sea and throw into it a cocoanut.^^ 

Wata-Paurnima; — On the 15th day of 
the bright half of Jyestha^ women whose hus- 
bands are alive fast the whole day, and worship 
the Wata-txtc.^^ 

On the 15th day of the bright half ofi 
Ashvin^ people keep themselves awake the 
whole night and amuse themselves in a variety, 
of ways. On the 15th day of the bright half ofi 
Kdrtika houses are illuminated. This day is 
called Tripuri-Paurnima. On this night people 
illuminate with earthen lamps all temples in 
the village, but particularly the temple ofi 
Shiva. This is done in commemoration of the 
triumph of the god Shiva over the demon Tri- 
puirasura. The full-moon day of the month 
of Mdgha is called Chudi Paurkima, On this 
night people light chudies torches and with 
them slightly burn certain flowers, trees and 
plants. The full-moon day of the month ofi 
Fdlguna is called the Holi or Holi-Paurnima 
and is the biggest holiday of the lower class 
Hindus. On this night the Hindus kindle the 
Holi-fire and worship it.^* On the 15th day of 
the bright half oi Ashvin people eat grain of the 
new harvest. On the full-moon day of Shrdvan 
they perform the Shrdvani ceremony and give 
a lamp in charity. On the full-moon day ofi 
the month of Chaitra^ Faishakha and Mdrga- 
shirsha^ the births of M'aruti, Narasimha and 
Dattatraya respectively are celebrated,^^ The 
Kunbis of the Ratnagiri District believe that 



1 School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri, 
3 School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri, 
5 School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri, 
' School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri. 
s School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri. 

" School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri. 

13 School Master; Basani, Ratnagiri. 



>5 School Master, Pendur, Ratnagiri. 



2 School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri, 
4 School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri, 
6 School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri. 
8 School Master, Mdlgund, Ratnagiri. 

^^ School Master, Basani, Ratnigiri. 

" School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri. 

>4 School Master, Bandivade Budruk, Ratnagiri, 



8 



FOLKLORE OF THE TONEAN 



V 



on the 15th or full-moon day of Paushla^ the 
Hindu gods go out hunting and that they 
return from their hunting expedition on the 
full-moon day of the month of Mdgha. Dur- 
ing this period the Kunbis abstain from wor- 
shipping their gods.^ 

'Amavasya; — On the 15th day of the dark 
half of every month, oblations are given to the 
Manes of the dead.2 The commencement of a 
good deed, jouirney to a distant place, and the 
ploughing of land are postponed on the no- 
moon day of a month.-^ Sanyasis are enjoined 
to get their beard shaved on the Pdurnima and 
Amavasya days only.* 

People do nqt set out on a journey on the 
following tithis^ regarding them as rikta (un- 
fruitful or inauspicious) ; — 

Chaturthi^ Navami and Chaturdashi,^ 

The Chdndrdyana Vrata; — Widows fast 
on the no-moon day of a month. They are 
required to regulate their diet in such an increas- 
ing proportion that on the next full moon 
'day they should have a full meal. The reverse 
process follows for a fortnight after, so 
that they observe ah absolute fast on the 
following no-moon day.^ 

People have various ideas about the cause of 
the eclipses of the sun and the moon. Some 
say that the sun and the moon are superior 
deities, and that the demons Rahu and Ketu 
who belong to the caste of Mangs attempt 
to touch them and to devour them. Others 
believe that the planets Rahu and Ketu 
stand in the path of the Sun and the Moon 
and thereby darkness is caused on the earth. 
It is believed that about 5 hoiurs before the 
commencement of the obscuration, in the case 
of the Sun and about 4 hours in the 
case of the Moon, the Vedka or malign 
influence of the monsters begins and during 
the period till the whole eclipse is over a 



strict fast is observed. At the commence- 
ment of the eclipse, as well as at its close, 
people bathe. Some sit on a low wooden 
stool with a rosary in their hands repeating 
the names of the gods, or the gdyatri or some 
of the mantras. But those who want to 
acquire the art of magic or witch-craft or the 
power of removing the evil effects of snake- 
poison, or scorpion sting, go to a lonely 
place on the riverside, and there standing in 
water repeat the mantras taught to them by 
their guru or teacher. People give almsj 
to Mahars and Mangs on this occasion, and 
therefore persons of this class go about the 
streets saying loudly "Give us alms and 
the eclipse will be over" De d&n sute girdn, 

A strict fast is observed on an eclipse day,, 
but children and pregnant women who 
cannot bear the privation are given some- 
thing to eat under a sike. The eclipse time 
is so inauspicious that children and animals 
born at that time are considered unlu/cky.'^' 
Sometimes an eclipse cannot be observed 
owing to the intervention of clouds. On thati 
occasion the people of the Konkan resorb to 
the following expedient in order to ascertain 
whether the luminary is eclipsed or not. 
They take a potf ul of water and hold in it 
a musal. If it stands in the pot unsupported 
it is regarded as indicative of the existence 
of an eclipse. Mangs, Mahars, etc., are 
supposed to be the descendants of Rahu 
and Ketu; and for this reason gifts are 
made to them in charity on an eclipse day .8 

The pepple of the Thana District believe 
that corn grows abundantly in a year that 
witnesses many eclipses.^ 

The popular cause of an eclipse in the 
Kolaba district, is tHe Girha, a minor deity 
which is said to wander thropgh the sky 
and swallow the Sun and the Moon when 



1 School Master, Anjarle, RatnSgiri. 
3 School Master, Pendur, Ratnagiri. 
5 School Master, Adivare, Ratndgiri. 
7 School Master, Khetwfidi, A,V, School, Bombay, 



9 School Master, Hadaghe, Thana, 



2 School Master, BaSani, Ratn4giri. 
* School Master, R&jdpur, Ratndgiri. 
6 School Master, Uhh&dfinda, RatnSgiri. 
School Master, Khetwadi, A,V. School, Bombay, 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



they cross his path.^' Besides the mytho- 
logical story regarding the cause of an 
eclipse, the people of the Ratnagiri District 
also believe that the Girha throws his 
shadow on the sun and the moon, when 
he comes to demand his dues from them.^ 
The Konkan villagers,, on an eclipse day, 
strike barren trees with a pestle,^ in order that 
they may bear fruits and flowers. A barren 
woman is also beaten with the same motive. 
Similarly many other superstitious beliefs 
are connected with an eclipse. Pregnant 
women are not allowed to see the eclipse of 
the sun or the moon, nor are they to engage 
in cutting, sewing, etc. as bids is believed to 
be injurious to the child in the womb.* The 
eclipse time is supposed to be the most 
suitable to learn mantras or incantations. ^ 
The mantris also muttjer incantations during 
an eclipse in a naked condition." The people 
who believe that the eclipses are caused by 
the influence of the planets Bdhu and Ketu 
offer prayers to Rahu on the lunar eclipse 
day and to Ketu on the solar eclipse day.''' 

The planets and stars are worshipped by 
the Hindus. It is believed thalj a person 
who is to die within six months cannot see 
the polar star. From the movements of the 
planets past and future events of one's 
career are foretold by Brahman and other 
astrologers. And as it! is believed that man's 
good and bad luick are dependant upon the 
influence of the planets, oiferings of various 
kinds are made and sacrifices performed for 
securing the favour of the Navagrahas or the 
nine planets. In order to avert the efi"ect of 
the evil influence of certain planets people 
sometimes wear rings of those precious stones 
which are supposed to be the favourites of 
the planets. 

The rainbow is called Indra dhanushya or 
the Indra's bow, and it is believed that if 



the rain-bow appears in the east, it indicates 
the coming of more rain, and if it appears 
in the west it is a sure sign of the close of 
the monsoon. 

The milky way is believed to be the 
heavenly Ganges. Well known tradition 
relates how Waman (the 5th incarnation of 
Vishnuj went to Bali the king of the lower 
regions and asked him to give him land 
measuring three feet only. The king con- 
sented, whereupon the god Waman enlarged 
his body to such an extent that by his one 
footstep he occupied the whole earth and by 
the second he occupied heaven. Upon this the 
god Brahma worshipped the foot of the god 
Vishnu which was in heaven, and from that 
foot sprang the heavenly Ganges which flows 
in heaven and is called Duidha Ganga or the 
milky Ganges. 

The worship of stars and planets is in 
vogue among Konkan Hindu families of the 
higher castes. The polar star in particular 
is seen and worshipped by the bride and 
the bridegroom after the ceremony at the 
marriage altar is over.^ A very interesting 
stoTy is connected with the polar star.. By 
the great power of his penance the sage 
Vishvamitra despatched king Trishanku to 
Heaven, but the gods hurled him down. 
Thereupon Vishvamitra became enraged and 
began to create a new heaven.' Hindu my- 
thological books say that he thus created the 
sages Vashistay Angiras, Pulah, Pulastya, 
Rutu, Atri,, and Marichi, and stationed Tri- 
shanku in the sky. The Nava-grahas or the 
nine planets are worshipped before the com- 
mencement of all important ceremonies. ^ A 
cluster of seven stars called the Sapta-rishis 
are worshipped by men at the time of the 
Shravani ceremony,, while women worship 
them on the 5th day of the bright half of 



1 School Master, Polddpur, Kolaba. 
3 School Master, Kalse, Ratnagiri. 
5 School Master, Makhaflele, Ratndgiri. 
7 School Master, Makhanele, Katnagiri. 

9 School Master, 



2 School Master, Masuri, Ratnagiri. 
i School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnagiri, 
6 School Master, Ubhadanda, Ratndgiri. 
8 School Master, Makhanele, Ratndgiri. 
Devarukh, Ratnagiri, 



10 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



Bhddrapada^ i These Sapta-risfiis are said 
to have been created by the God- Brahma 
from his own body; and teaching them th(e 
four Vedas, he handed them over to them 
and asked them to regulate the affairs of the 
world,2 

Some people of the Ratnagiri District be- 
lieve that the rain-bow is the bow used by 
Rama, the hero of the Ramayana. Its appea- 
rance on the east is regarded by them as 
symptomatic of the approach of rain, while its 
appearance on the west is equivalent to the 
departure of rain.^ 

The short duration of the rain-bow is held 
to indicate an excessive fall of rain while 
its long duration forlodes a scarcity of 
rain, * The appearance of the rain-bow on 
a river is supposed to indicate the approach 
of rain, while its appearance on a mountain 
means the departure of rain..'' Of the two 
bows of which the rain-bow seems to be 
composed, the larger is believed to belong 
to Rama, and the smaller to Lakshman, ^ 
Since the God Indra is supposed to send 
rain, the Indradfianushya (the rain-bow) is 
regarded as a sign of the advent of rain J 

By some Hindus it is believed that the 
milky way is a heavenly river which is a 
favourite bathing place of the gods.^ Others 
suppose it to be a branch of the celestial 
Ganges which is said to have been brought 
down upon this earth by king Bhagiratha.^ 
Some persons, however,, believe that since 
the great sage Agastya is said to reside at 
Rameshwar in the southern direction, the 
Ganges (the milky way) runs through the 
sky to the south in order to bathe him.. 



Sometimes the milky way is believed to be a 
white cloud.i'' 

On the authority of the Mahakala Nirvan 
Tantra, some people of the Thana District 
believe that a person who cannot get a view 
of the polar star will die within six months ; 
while others substitute the Arundhflti star 
for the polar star and determine the dttration 
of life of a diseased person by the same 
process. ^^ 

The people of the Thana District believe 
that the rain-bow is caused by the accumula- 
tion of moisture in the air.^^ The rain-bow 
is said to' consecrate the region over which it 
appears ^^. The appearance of the rain-bow 
in the morning is supposed to forbode the 
approach of rain.** 

Some people of the Kolaba District believe 
that the holy persons such as Kashyapa, 
Aiundhati and other sages, who lived 
on this earth in ancient times are seen 
shining in the sky by the sacred lustre of 
their powers.is Hindu women worship the 
planets Budha and Guru (Mercury and Jupi- 
ter) in the month of Shravan,^® 

The Sapta-ris'his are somewhere called 
Khatale and Bdjale (cot)^''. The rain-bow 
is held by some to be the symbol of Rama 
and Lakshman, who visit the world in that 
form with the view of watching its proceed- 
ings. Others, however, believe that it re- 
presents God Indra who assumes that form to 
see how his orders are executed by his suibor- 
dinates.'^^ The rain-bow is said to foretell 
goad if it appears either at the beginning or 
end of the rainy season, wihile its appea- 
rance at any other time is supposed to 
forbode evil.^" 



1 School Master, 


Makhanele, 


Ratnagiri. 


2 School Master, Pendur, 


Ratn£giri. 


3 School Master, 


Basani, 


Ratnagiri, 


4 School Master, Makhanele, 


Ratnagiri. 


6 School Master, 


Navare, 


RatnAgiri. 


6 School Master, Adivare, 


Ratnagiri. 


T School Master, 


Malgund, 


Ratnagiri. 


8 School Master, Kankavli, 


Ratnagiri. 


8 School Master, 


Makhanele, 


RatnSgiri, 


m School Master, Basani, 


Ratnagiri. 


11 School Master, 


Agashi and 


Arnala, Th^na. 


12 School Master, Rai, 


Thfea. 


13 School Master, 


Badlapur, 


Th^na. 


" School Master, Mokhada, 


Thfoa. 


15 School Master, 


Chaul, 


KoUba, 


16 School Master, Kasu, 


Koltoa. 


1? School Master, 


Vavasi, 


Kolaba, 

19 School Master, 


18 School Master, Chaul. 
Vavanje, KoUba, 


Kolaba. 



FOLKLORE OE THE KONKAN 



11 



Hindus regard the earth as one of their 
important deities and worship it on various 
occasions. It is enjoined upon Brahmans 
to worship It daily at the time of their 
Sandhya rite, as well as while performing the 
Shrdvani ceremony. ^ The people of the 
Ratnagiri District pray to the earth as soon 
as they leave their bed in the morning,^ 
iThe earth is required to be worshipped at the 
time of laying the foundation-stone of a house, 
as well as at the time of tringing into use a 
newly built houise.^ Since it is held unholy to 
sleep on the bare ground, those whose parents. 
die, sleep on a woollen cloth on the ground 
till their parents anniversary is over."* Wan- 
prastas, Sanyasis, and Brahmans are required 
to sleep on the ground,' Some pious men sleep 
on the bare grfjimd during the Chaturmas (the 
four months of the rainy season), at the expiry 
of which they present a bed to a Brahman. ^ 
It is enjoined upon a prince to sleep on the 
bare ground on the eve of the coronation 
day.'' 

Widows and women are required to sleep 
on the ground during their monthly courses. 
.Women who^se husbands are away are also to 
do the same.*' In the Ratnagiri District 
'Katkaris^ on the day on which they wish to 
be possessed by a particular deity or spirit, 
are required to sleep on the earth. " When 
people are on the point of death, they are 
made to lie on blades of darbha grass placed 
on the earth.^o The performer of a sacrifice 
as well as one who has observed a vow 
are to sleep on the ground.!^ The following 
articles should not be allowed to touch the 



1 School Master, Nevare, Ratnagiri. 

3 School Master, Adivare, Ratnagiri, 

5 School Master, Devarukh, Ratndgiri. 

1 School Master,. Ratnagiri. 

9 School Master, Chiplun, Ratnagiri. 
U School Master, Masure, Ratnagiri. 
13 School Master, Khetwadi, A. V. S„ Bombay, 
15 School Master, Rai, Thana. 
17 School Master, Bhuvan, Thana, 

>3 School Master, 



earth, viz ; pearls, the JShdligram stone, an image 
of the god Vishnu, the linga of Shiva, 
a conchshell, the sacred thread of a Brahman, 
flowers intended for worship, basil leaves, and 
Govardan. ^^ 

The following lines are repeated in the 
morning before setting foot to the ground ^^: — 

O Goddess! who is clothed (surrounded) 
by the sea, whose breasts are mountains, 
and who is the wife of Vishnu, I bow down 
to thee ; please forgive the touch of my feet. 
O Goddess Earth! who art born by the power 
of Vishnu, whose surface is of the colour 
of a conch shell and who art the store house 
of innumerable jewels, I bow down to thee. 

Some women of the Thana District worship 
the earth daily during the Chaturmas (four 
months of the rainy season), at the end of 
which they give a Brahman a piece of land or 
the money equivalent of it^'*. Persons who per- 
form a particular rite, e. g., the Soldsomavdr- 
vrata (a vow observed on sixteen succes- 
sive Mondays) are required to sleep on the bare 
ground.^' At the sowing and harvest time, 
farmers appease the earth by oifering it cocoa- 
nuts, fowls, rice mixed with curd, etc.^® The 
blood of a king and the balls of rice given to 
the manes of the dead are not allowed to 
touch the ground. People convey to a distant 
place the water of the Ganges, without placing 
it on the ground.^" 

The earth is required to be worshipped 
before taking a portion of it for sacrificial 
purposes.^* A vessel containing water over 
which incantations have been repeated is not 
allowed to touch the ground.^^ On the 15th 
day of the bright half of Ashvin every farmer 
prepares some sweetmeats in his house, and 
takes them to his farm. There he gathers five 



2 School Master, 
i School Master, 
6 School Master, 
8 School Master, 
10 School Master, 
12 School Master, 
14 School Master, 
16 School Master, 
i8 School Master, 
Vavanje, KoUba. 



Kasba, Sangameshwar, Ratnagiri. 
Pendhur, Ratnagiri. 
Malgund, Ratnagiri. 
Vijayadurg, Ratnagiri. 
Kankava, RatnAgiri. 
Chiplun, Ratnagiri. 
Anjur, Thana. 
Sbahapur, Thana, 
Chauk, KoWba. 



12 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



stones, worships them, and offers the sweet- 
meats to the earth. Afterwards he takes 
a portion of the food and scatters it over the 
farm. His family then gather there and take 
a hearty meal. In the evening the person 
who carried the food to the farm, picks up 
some grains of barley and puts them into a 
basket. On return home the grains are thrown 
over the house.^ 

Various conflicting notions are entertained 
regarding thunder and lightning. The people 
of the Eatnagiri District believe that the 
clouds are animals that roar. When these ani- 
mals emit water it bursts forth on account of 
the circular motion of the winds called Chanda 
and Munda, This bursting is supposed to 
produce thunder and lightning.^ Somewhere 
thunder and lightning are said to be the 
signals given by the godlndra, to birds, beasts, 
etc., of the setting in of the rainy season.-' 
Some people believe that the god Indra sends 
rain through his elephants who, being excited, 
make a noise like thunder.* 

Others regard the thunder as the roaring of 
the elephant of the gods, while sucking sea- 
water. The thunder is also believed to be the 
roaring of the god Varuna, the king of the 
clouds.^ The boys of the Eatnagiri District 
foelieve that thunder is a sign of the wedding 
ceremonies performed in the heavenly houses 
of the gods." Some Mahomedans believe that 
an angel called Mekail has control over the rain. 
To cause a fall of rainMekail strikes the clouds 
with a whip of lightning. The clouds then 
utter a cry, and this is the cause of thunder.'' 
Some people of the Thana District believe 
that there are big stones in the sky which 
strike against each other owing to the force of 



the wind, and produce thunder. The dash- 
ing of these stones against each other also 
generates lightning.* 

In the Kolaba District it is believed that 
thunder is the military band of the king of 
clouds and lightning is his banner. 9 Lightning 
is said to be produced by the fighting of celes- 
tial elephants; while thumder is heard when 
they pour out water.^^* Some people think that 
thunder is the noise of the feet of the elephants 
(clouds) that give rain ; lightning is also said 
to be generated from their foot fall.^i The 
clouds are supposed to be the messengers of 
gods, lightning being the manifestation of 
Divine power. The gods are said to confine 
these messengers from the nahshatra of Ardra 
to the nahshatra of Hasti, in which latter 
nahshatra they again begin to roar.^^ 

Thunder is supposed to take place when the 
god Indra draws his bow ; while lightning is 
said to be produced when the same god strikes 
his adamant against a mountain.^'' 

In the Eatnagiri District it is believed that 
earthquake occurs whenever the thousand 
headed Shesha shakes its head.^* It is said that 
at one time a demon named Gayasur became 
very troublesome, and all the gods held him 
down by standing on his body. Thereupon the 
demon requested all the gods to remain on his 
body for ever. Occasionally this Gayasur 
shakes his body and this causes the earth- 
quake.^^ Some people believe that the earth 
trembles of its own accord when sins accumul- 
ate upon it.^® Others hold that the earth- 
quake takes place in the hollow parts of the 
earth.^-^ Some people, however, believe that 
since the earth floats upon water, it naturally 
quakes at times.^* 



1 School Master, Akol, Kolaba. 
3 School Master, Kasba, Sangameshwar, Ratn^giri. 
5 School Master, Masure, Ratn^giri., 
' School Master, Chiplun, Ratnfigiri. 
s School Master, Varsai, Kolaba. 
u School Master, Varsai, KoUba. 
13 School Master, Chauk, Kolaba. 
15 School Master, Palspot, Ratndgiri. 
»7 School Master, MurbSd, Thdna. 



8 School Master, Pendur, Ratnagiri. 
* School Master, Makhanele, Ratndgiri. 
6 School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri. 
8 School Master, Anjur, Thana. 
10 School Master, Chaul, KoUba. 

12 School Master, PoUdpur, KolAba. 
14 School Master, Chiplun, Ratnagiri. 
16 School Master, Pendur, Ratndgiri. 

13 School Master, Bhuvan, Thdna. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



13 



The Hindus being element worshippers na- 
turally hold in reverence certain rivers, ponds, 
etc. In the Ratnagiri District the spring at 
Rajapur, called the Rdjdpurchi Ganga is con- 
sidered very sacred. It flows from the roots of 
a Banyan tree. There are fifteen Kundas or 
ponds, and the principal Kunda always remains 
filled with water. On occasions a big jatra 
fair is held and people from distant places 
come to bathe and worship at the spring.^ 
Some people believe that many of the lakes, 
springs, etc., situated in the Kolhapur State are 
sacred.2 A spring or rivulet that flows to the 
east is considered specially sacred. It is called 
a Surya-Vansi spring, and it is considered meri- 
torious to bathe in it.^ In the village of Kun- 
kauli in the Ratnagiri District if a person is 
bitten by a snake or other poisonous reptile, no 
medicine is administered to him, but holy water 
brought from the temple of the village goddess 
is given to him to drink, and it is said that the 
patient is thus cured.* The water fall at Maral 
near Devarkuha, where the river Ban takes its 
rise, is held sacred.^' At Shivam in the Ratna- 
giri District the people use the tirtha of a 
deity as medicine for diseases due to poison. 
They say that it is the sole remedy they apply 
in such cases.** There are ponds at Manora in 
the Goa State, and Vetore in the Savantwadi 
State, the water of which is used as medicine 
for the cure of persons suffering from the poi- 
son of snakes, mice, spiders, and scorpions.^ 
When a well is dug, the people call a Brahman 
priest, to consecrate it. The Brahman takes 
cow's urine, milk, curds, ghi, sandle paste, 
flowers, basil leaves, and rice, and mixes 



1 



them with water, and after repeating sacred 
mantras over the water, throws the mixture 
into the well. After this ceremony, the people 
are at liberty to drink water from the well.^ 

Before a well is dug, an expert is 
consulted to ascertain the place where a 
spring flows. A well is then dug, after 
off'ering a sacrifice to the spirits and deities 
that happen to dwell at that spot. A 
dinner is given to Brahmans after the well is 
built. ^ A golden cow is often thrown into a 
newly built well as an offering to the water 
deities.^'*' There is a well at Mandangad, the 
water of which serves as medicine to cure 
the poison of snakes and other reptiles. ^^ 

It is believed that there is a class of wicked 
water nymphs called Asara who generally 
dwell in wells, ponds, or rivers, far from the 
habitation of men. Whenever these nymphs 
come across a lonely man or woman entering a 
well, pond, etc., they carry that person under 
water. The village of Mith-Bav in the Rat^ 
nagiri District is a well-known resort of these 
Asaras, and many instances are given by the 
villagers of persons being drowned and carried 
off in the river by these wicked nymphs. A 
tank in the village of Hindalem in the same 
district has a similar repntation.12 The people 
of the Konkan believe that water nymphs are 
sometimes seen in the form of women near 
wells, rivers, and ponds. ^* Some say that the 
water nymphs and water spirits confer objects 
desired by worshippers if they are propitiated 
by prayers.i* 

There are seven kundas^ ponds, at Nirmal in 
the Thana District, forming a large lake. This 



* School Master, Ratndgiri. 

* School Master, Wanhavli, Ratnagiri. 

S School Master, Makhaaele, Ratndgiri. 

T School Master, Ubbaddada, Ratndgiri. 

9 School Master, Basani, Ratndgiri. 

" School -Master, Basani, Ratnagiri. 
>3 School Master, Malgund, Ratndgiri. 



» School Master, Phonde, Ratndgiri. 

4 School Master. Bandivade, Budruk, Ratndgiri. 

« School Master. Masure, Ratnagiri. 

8 School Master, Mith-Bdv, Ratndgiri. 
10 School Master, Masure, Ratnagiri. 
" School Master, Mith-Bdv, Ratndgiri. 
<« School Master, Devarukh, Ratndgiri 



14 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



lake is said to have been formed from the 
Wood of the demon Vimalasur. At Shahapor 
there is a holy spring of hot water under a 
Pipal tree. It is called Ganga.^ There are 
Jcundas, pools, of hot water in the Vaitarna 
river in the Thana District, in which people 
bathe on the 13th day of the dark half of 
Chaitra.^ There are also springs of hot water 
on the bank of the Surya river at Vajre- 
shvari and at Koknere, in the Thana District."'' 
A handful of corn, if thrown into the hot 
■water Jcundas at Tungar, is said to be boiled 
3.t once.* It is held holy to bathe in the 
Jcundas^ of hot water that are situated in the 
rivers Tansa and Banganga in the Thana Dis- 
trict.^ The water of a well which is drawn 
without touching the earth or without being 
placed upon the ground is given as medicine 
for indigestion. Similarly the water of seven 
tanks, or at least of one pond, in which lotuses 
grow is said to check the virulence of measles, 
small-pox, etc.*' A bath in a certain tank in 
the Mahim taluJca is said to cure persons 
suffering from the itch, and water purified by 
repeating incantations over it is also said to be 
a good remedy for the same disease.'' 

The water of a tank or a well is supposed 
to be wholesome to a person of indifferent 
health, if given to him to drink without pla- 
cing it upon the ground.^ Some people be- 
lieve that the water oif the Ganges is so holy 
and powerful that if bows are thrown into it 
they are instantly reduced to powder.^ The 
repair of lakes, caravansaries, temples, etc., is 
held more meritorious than their actual erec- 
tion.io It is enjoined upon a man to perform 
a certain rite if he wishes to relinquish his 
right of ownership over a well or tank, and 
after this rite is performed, it can be utiliz- 



ed for public purposes. But no ceremony is 
required to be performed if a well is dug for 
the benefit of the public.^^ 

The peo'ple of the Thana District believe 
that water nymphs reside in every reservoir 
of water.i2 Some people, however, believe 
that the water nymphs dwell in those lakes in 
which lotuses grow. These nymphs are said 
to do harm to children and young women, 
especially when they set out for a walk 
accompanied by their brother Gavala. They 
are unusually dangerous. ^^ The people wor- 
ship the images of the following seven water 
nymphs or apsaras^ viz., Machhi, Kurmi, 
Karkati, Darduri, Jatupi, Somapa and 
Makari.l* 

The following places are said to be inhabited 
by water spirits : — the channel of Kalamba, 
the tanks of Sopara and Utaratal and the lake 
called Tambra-tirtha at Bassein ^^, Water 
nymphs are supposed to drown a person who 
tries to save another fallen into water,^^ A 
species of small men named Uda, otherwise 
called water-spirits, are said to dwell in water 
and subsist on fishes.^'' The spirits called 
Khais and Mhashya are supposed to reside in 
water.i* 

The river Savitri in the Kolaba District 
takes its rise near Mahabaleshwar and is con- 
sidered very sacred. The following tradition- 
ary account is given of its origin. The god 
Brahma bad two wives, Savitri and Gayatri. A 
dispute having arisen between them, they both 
jumped over a precipice. Savitri assumed 
the form of a river and fell into the sea 
near Banket. Gayatri, on the other hand, 
concealed herself in the river Savitri and 
manifested herself as a spring near Hari- 
hareshwar in the Janjira State.*** A man is 



I School 
3 School 
5 School 
' School 
9 School 

II School 
13 School 
15 School 
" School 



Masters, Agdshi and Arndla, Thdoa. 

Master, Mdldd, Thdna. 

Master, Wdda, Thdna. 

Master, Anjur, Thina. 

Masters, Agdshi and Arndla, Thdna. 

Master,! Rdi, Thdna. 

Masters, Agdshi and Arndla, Thdna. 

Masters, Agdshi and Arnila, Thdna, 

Masters, Wdda, Thdna. 

M School Master, 



2 School Master, Murbdd, Thdna. 

* School Master, Anjur, Thdna. 

e School Masters, Agdshi and Arndla, Thdna< 

8 School Master, Saloli, Thdna. 
10 School Master, Kinhavali, Thdna. 
12 School Master, Khativaliy; Thdna. 
1^ School'Master, Murbdd, Thdna. 
1^ School Master, Bhuvan, Thdna. 
18 School Master, Shdhdpur, Thdna. 
Folddpur, Koldba. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



15 



said tabe released from re-birth if he takes a 
bath in the Jcund (pond)' named Katkale-tirtha 
near Nasik.^ Bows are said to be reduced 
to powder if thrown into a certain kund at 
Uddhar-Rameshwar in the Sudhagad taliika.2 
Kupotsarga is defined to be the digging of a 
well for the benefit of the public and abandon- 
ing one's right of ownership over it.^ 

A pond near Khopoli in the Kolaba district 
is held very sacred. The following story is 
related in connection with it. The villagers 
say that the water nymphs in the pond used 
to provide pots for marriage festivities if a 
written application were made to them a day 
previoTis to the wedding. The pots were, 
however, required to be returned within a 
limited time. But one man having failed to 
comply with this condition, they have ceased 
to lend pots. Another interesting story is 
associated with the same pond. It is as 
follows. A man had fallen into the pond and 
was taken to the abode of the nymphs. He 
was, however, returned by them after a few 
days on the understanding that he would be 
recalled if he spoke of what he had seen there. 
One day he communicated to the people the 
good things that he enjoyed there, and to the 
surprise of all he was found dead immediately 
after.* Water nymphs are said to reside in 
a pond at Varsai in the Kolaba district. Con- 
sequently persons that are held unclean, e,g., 
women in their monthly course, etc., are not 
allowed to touch it. The nymphs of the same 
lake were once, said to. lend pots on festive 
laccasions.'^ -It is said that the water nymphs 
used to provide ornaments for marriage and 
other ceremonies, if returned within a pres- 
cribed period.; But some people having failed 
. to return tbem, they xeased to lend them.s 



A spirit called Girha is supposed to reside 
in water. It is said to make mischief with 
man in a variety of ways by enticing him into 
deep water .'^ The Jakrin is said to be a deity 
residing in water. ** Persons drowned in water 
are believed to become water-spirits, and to 
trouble. innocent passers-by.^ 

A mountain near the village Pule, in the 
district of Ratnagiri is held sacred on account 
of the residence of the gcd Ganpati at that 
place; For this reason people walk round 
the mountain and worship it. Tradition says 
that Ganpati was at first at Gule in the 
Ratnagiri district, but on account of the sanc- 
tity of the place being violated by - some 
wicked persons the god transferred, his resi- 
dence to Pule. At Gule there is still a very 
beautiful temple of Ganpati, though it is 
now in a dilapidated condition.^" The cave 
of the sage Much-kund near Machal on the 
Sahyadri mountain is considered sacred. In 
the Konkan it is not held sinful to ascend a 
mountain or a hill, though to sit uipo'n its. 
summit is considered sinful,^^ The hill of 
Mirya near Ratnagiri is considered sacred. 
This hill is believed to be a particle (miri) of 
the mythological mountain Dronagiri.i? 

A hill near Dharavi in the Thana District 
is consecrated by the temple of- a goddess, 
upon the top. This goddess is said to preserve 
ships at sea, and people are occasionally pos- 
sessed by her. : It is said that a Roman Ca- 
tholic priest met instantaneous death on 
having insulted her.^^ 

The hill of Mahalakshmi in the Dahanti. 
taluka is held sacred. The villagers consi- 
der it dangerous to ascend this hill.** On the 
hill of the same name is a temple of the 
goddess Jivadhani, who is said to preserve, 
children from small-pOx. The foUowipg,, 



I School Master, Chauk, Koldba. 

3 School Master, Varsai, Kolaba. • 

s School Master, Wavasi, Kolaba. 

7 School Master, Chaul, Koldba. 

9 School Master, Vavasi, Koldba. _ 

II School Master, Bdndivade, Budruk, Ratnagiri. 
13 School Masters, Agishi and Arndla, Thdna. 



2 School Master, Wavasi, Koldba. 

4 School Master, Khopoli, Koldba. 

6 School Master, Chauk, KoUba. 

8 School Master, Akol, Koldba. 
1" School Master, Basani, Ratndgiri. 
12 School Master, Mdlgund, Ratnigiri. 
14 School Master, Dahdnu, Thdna. 



16 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



story is told in connection with the goddess. 
A person in need of money used to place be- 
fore her image as large a heap of flowers as 
he wanted gold, stating that he would return 
the gold when he had done with it. He used 
then to go home and return on an appointed 
day for the gold, which was sure to be found 
where he had placed the heap of flowers. 
Once a man failed to return the gold, and 
thenceforth the goddess withheld her bounty. 
There is no door to the temple of this, god- 
dess. It is only through a hole in a big 
stone that one can have a view of her image. 
Sweet scent is said to be continually emitted 
from this hole. The goddess is said to have 
fastened the door of her temple for the fol- 
lowing reason. One day the goddess was 
Walking at the foot of the hill at night. A 
cowherd who happened to be there was be- 
witched by her matchless beauty and fell a 
prey to evil desire. He pursued her to the 
top of the hill, when the goddess, divining 
his motive, fastened the door of her temple 
with a prodigious stone. On the same hill is 
a cattle shed in which fresh cow-dung is said 
to be always found. This place being inac- 
cessible to cows and other quadrupeds^ the 
people believe that the goddess keeps a cow 
of her own.i 

The hill of Tungar is consecrated by the 
temple of a certain goddess upon it. There 
is also a very famous hill near Arnala, called 
the hill of Buddha. This hill was once the 
seat of a king belonging to the weaver caste. 
Eecently a pond was discovered upon it, in 
which was found a stone-box containing a 
begging-pot and a diamond, A great fair is 
held annually on the hill of Motmavali near 
Bandra in the Thana district. The devotees 
of the deity are Hindus, Parsis, and Chris- 
tians. It is said this goddess was once wor- 
shipped by Hindus only. A Brahman is the 



pujdri of the Pir on the hill of Baba Malang 
near Kalyau. It is said that the Pir has 
declared that no Moslem pujdri should wor- 
ship him. The Hindus and Moslems worship 
him alike.2 

Brahmans do not cross the top of a moun- 
tain without stopping for a short time before 
ascending the summit.^ 

At a short distance from Chaul in the 
Eolaba District is a hill dedicated to the 
god Dattatraya, in whose honour a great fair 
is held anniMlly. The following story is told 
in connection with this hill. In ancient times 
a Brahman used to practise austerities on this 
hill near a Tulsi plant (the place on which the 
present temple stands). He used to spend the 
whole day there, but returned home at night- 
fall. On his way home fearful scenes were 
often presented to him, and in his dreams he 
was asked not to go there any more. But the 
Brahman was obdurate. He persisted in his 
resolution to practise austerities for a number 
of years, and at last succeeded in obtaining 
a personal interview with the god Dattatraya, 
who commanded him to boW' down to his feet 
{^pdduka). From that time pious men live on 
this hill and oif er their prayers to the god 
Dattatraya. Nearly four hundred steps have 
been constructed for the ascent of this hill, 
and additional steps are being built every 
year. Here also are some springs of pure 
water. It is worth while to note that the 
pujdri of this god is a Shudra by caste.* On 
the north-east side of the hill dedicated to the 
god Dattatraya stands the temple of the god- 
dess Hinglaj . To the north of this temple 
are four caves, while to the west is a deep den 
resembling a well, through which a lane ap- 
pears to have been dug. This is said to be the 
road excavated by the Pandavas to enable 
them to go to Kasi.^ At a distance of 



1 School Masters, Agdshi and ArnAIa, Thdna. * School Masters, Agdshi and Arndla, Tbdna. 

' School Master, Umbargaum, Thdca. * School Master, Chaul, KoMba. 

!> School Master, Chaul, Koldba. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



n 



two miles from Akola in the Kolaba Dis- 
trict is a hill called Mallikarjun. This 
is said to be a small stone fallen from 
the mythological mountain Dronagiri. This 
hill is said to contain many medical herbs. ^ 
The hill at Kankeshwar near Alibag is held 
sacred, and tradition says that in ancient times 
it had golden dust upon it.^ Acave at Ambivali 
near Karjat in the Kolaba district consists of 
seven rooms, one of which is spacious enough 
to accommodate five hundred persons. In the 
same taluka there is another cave at Kondha- 
vane.^ 

The gods Indra and Varuna are supposed to 
send rain; but it is believed that the god Shiva 
in chief has the power of causing the fall of 
rain, and for this reason whenever there is a 
scarcity of rain people pour water over the 
linga of Shiva until the whole linga is sub- 
merged.* In order that there should be a fall 
of rain, some people besmear the linga of the 
god Shiva with cooked rice and curds.^ In the 
Ratnagiri District, whenever there is a scarcity 
of rain, people go to the place known as Para- 
shuram Kshetra, and there pray to the god 
Parashuram to send rain.*" Sacrifices are also 
offered to Indra, the god of rain, in order that 
there should be plenty of rain. Some believe 
that there are certain mantris or enchanters 
who by the power of their mantras are able to 
prevent the fall of rain.'^ 

In the Ratnagiri District the following cere- 
mony is performed by the lower castes such as 
Kunbis, etc., to avert drought. All the male 
villagers assemble together at an appointed 
place, and there they select one of them as 
their Qorvala-deva. All of them then go about 



in the village from house to house. The owner 
of every house sprinkles water over the assem- 
bly, and curds and butter-milk over the body of 
the Gowala-deva. They are also given some 
shidha consisting of rice, pulse, vegetables,, 
etc. After visiting most of the houses in the 
village, the assembly headed by the Gowala- 
deva go to the bank of a river. Here they 
cook the food, offer it first to the Gowala-deva 
and then partake of the remainder as a prasdd 
from the Gowala-deva.^ Some people make an 
image of the sage JShringarishi for the purpose 
of causing the fall of rain.^ Others make an 
image of Dhondal-deva in order that there 
should be plenty of rain.i" Sometimes people 
repeat mantras addressed to Parjanya (rainj 
so that rain should fall.^i The goddess Nava- 
chandika is worshipped in order that there 
should be rain. The Kunbis perform a pecu- 
liar rite for checking the fall of rain. They 
ask a person born in the months of Jyestha, 
Ashddh^ Shrdvan or Bhddrapad to fetch some 
rain-water in an alu leaf, and this is fastened 
to the eaves of thatched houses by means of a 
string. Note that, if this rite is to be perform- 
ed in the month of Jyestha, a person born in 
that month only is required and no other ; and 
so f orth.^2 In order to check an excessive fall 
of rain the villagers sometimes ask a boy to 
take off his clothes and then to catch rain- 
water in the leaves of the alu plant. The 
leaves containing the water are then tied to the 
eaves of the house.^^ The people say that 
during the rule of the Peshwas there was a 
class of mantris who had the power of causing 
a failure of rain.i* To check the fall of rain, 
some people ask naked boys to throw burning 



1 School Master, Akol, Kolaba. 

s School Master, Chauk, Kolaba. 

5 School Master, Mdlvan, Ratnagiri. 

1 School Master, Kankavli, Ratndgiri. 

» School Master, Chiplun, Ratnagiri. 
11 School Master, Ratndgiri. 
1* School Master, Bdndevade, Budruk, Ratndgiri. 



2 School Master, Sasavane, Koldba. 
■ * School Master, Mith Bav, Ratnagiri. 
6 School Master, Anjarle, Ratndgiri. 
8 School Master, Phonde, Ratndgiri. 
1" School Master, Nevare, Ratndgiri. 
12 School Master, Ubhdddnda, RatndgirL 
1* School Master, Mdlvan, Ratndgiri. 



18 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



coals into the rain water,^ Irale (a protection 

against rain, made of the leaves of trees) is 
kept in the rain upside down, the goddess Ho- 
lika is worshipped, the boughs of the Avali tree 
are conveyed to a place where four roads meet 
and stones are heaped over it, and eaves of 
thatched houses are beaten by boys who do not 
wear clothes, all these being done by the villa- 
gers with a view to preventing an excessive 
fall of rain.2 

The people of the Thana District believe 
that distinct deities preside over distinct seasons, 
€.g., Mars presides over the spring (Vasant), 
Venus over summer (Grishma), the moon over 
autumn (Varsha), Mercury over skarat^ Saturn 
over winter (Hemant and Shishir),^ When 
the people are in need of rain they say to the 
god of rain "Let us have plenty of rain to- 
morrow and we will give thee, Oh ! God of 
rain ! rice mixed with curd.'' The same offer is 
made to the god of rain even when they do 
not want it. In order that there should be no 
scarcity of rain, some people perform the 
rites of Laghu-rudra and Mahfl-rudra* The 
following measure if adopted is said to cause 
rain. The villagers go from house to' house 
with boughs of the Limb tree on their heads, 
and water is then poured upon them by the 
inmates.^ The fall of rain is supposed to 
cease if a person born in the month of Fdlgun 
extinguishes burning coals in rainwater when 
his garments have been removed,, ° 

\ Some stones are supposed to have influence 
over rain fall. There- is a big stone at Varasai 
in the Kolaba District on which are drawn 
certain images. The people believe that it 
rains hard if this stone is held straight, and 



then swung to and froJ Semo people per-/ 
form the following rite known as the Dhondil. 
jagya. They ask a person of the Kaikadi or 
Vadar caste to remain naked and break the 
string round his waist. A small image of 
black earth is made and placed upon his 
head. The boy then conveys the image from 
house to house in the village, A woman in 
each house sprinkles water over the image 
while the boy dances saying " Dhondil gajya, 
Pdus gajya." It is believed that it rains in 
the direction in which the water sprinkled 
falls. A person who accompanies the boy 
gathers corn at every house. A dinner is then 
prepared, and the people of the caste to which 
the boy belongs, partake of it heartily.! It is 
also said that making water in a standing pos- 
ture causes the fall of rain.s The god Ra- 
meshwar at Chaul in the Kolaba District is 
said to have control over rain. In the temple 
of this god there is a parjanya-kund (pond) 
which is opened after performing a sacred 
rite, if there be a scarcity of rain. There are 
also other kundas in the temple, viz., Vdyu- 
kund and Agni-kund^ but no occasion has yet 
arisen to open them.^ Some people believe 
that the god Agni regulates the seasons^c^ 

Eaves of thatched houses are cleansed with 
a brush made from the leaves of cocoanut 
trees in order that a fall of rain should be 
prevented..^! 

The ceremonies of Haritalika, Rishi-Pan- 
chami, Vata-Savitri, Vana-Shasthi, Mangala- 
Gouri, Shital-Saptami are to be performed by 
women alone.i^ Similarly, the ceremonies of 
Mahalakshmi, Vasuibaras, Shiva-mutha, and a 
rite on the Makar Sankrant day are performed 
by wonisn exclusively. ^^ 



I School Master, Ddbhol, Ratndgiri. 

3 School Masters, Agdshi and Arndla, Thdna. 
5 School Master, Dahdnu, Thdna. 
1 School Master, Ndgothaua, Koldba. 
9 School Master, Chaul, Koldba. 

II School Master, Khetwadi, A.V.S., Bombay. 



" School Master, Mdlgund, Ratndgiri 



2 School Master, Basani, Ratndgiri. 
* School Master, Murbad, Thdna. 
" School Master, Padaghe, Thdna, 
8 School Master, Akol, Kolaba. 
!» School Master, Apte, Koldba, 
12 School Master, Mdlvan, Ratndgiri. 



FOLKLORE OP THE KONKAN 



19 



The rite of Biski-Panchami is performed 
on the 5th day of the bright-half of Bhddra- 
pad to make amends for sins committed with- 
out knowledge. On this day women go to a 
river, a weU, or some other sacred place, 
cleanse their teeth with the leaves of the 
'Aghdda plant, and take baths with something 
on the head. They then take some stones 
from that place and worship them as Rishis, 
On the conclusion of the worship, they partake 
of fruits. On the VrataSdvitri day women 
worship a banyan tree or its boughs. The 
ceremony falls on the 15th day of the bright 
half of Jyesta.'^ On the Haritdlika day i.e., 
the 3rd day of the bright half of Bhddrapdd, 
women make images of earth of Parvati and 
her two friends and worship them and fast 
the whole day. The observance of this rite 
contributes to their good fortune. Even girls 
of tender years observe this fast- The wor- 
ship of Mangala-Gauri is a ceremony per- 
formed by married girls for five successive 
years on every Tuesday of the month of 
Shrdvan., Similarly, the goddess Mahalakshmi 
is worshipped o'n the 8th day of the bright 
half of Ashvin, On the Mahar Sanhrdnt day 
women worship a sugad * and present it to a 
Brahman. 2' The ■Shiva-mutha consists of a 

handful of corn offered to the god Shiva by 

married girls on every Monday in the month 

•of Shrdvan.^ 

The worship of Shadananda and the Holika 

Devi and the ceremonies of SKrdvani, 

Shrdddha and Antyesti are performed by men 

■alone,^ 

In some families of non-Brahmans on a 

particular day, especially on the full-moon 



day of Ashvin, the host and the hostess put off 
their clothes and perform certain family 
rites .2 

The women of the Thana District fast the 
whole day on the 12th day of the dark half 
of Ashvin. At night they worship a cow, 
give in charity a calf, and then take their 
meal. It is to be noted that this ceremony 
called the Vasu-dmddasi is performed by 
women who have children. On the Haritdlika 
day some women live on the leaves of a 
Rui tree.® 

On the Somavati-Amdvdsya day women wor- 
ship a Pipal tree and offer it a hundred 
and eight things of one kind.'^ Women 
desirous of having a son perform a certain 
rite at midnight, without clothing.^ If one 
wishes to have a son, one has to go through 
a ceremony called the Hanumdn in a naked 
state." 

The god Kalbhairav is worshipped by a 
naked person on the Narha-Chathurdasi day 
(14th day of the dark half of Ashvin), 
Those learning the dark lore, e. g., muth. 
mdrane, are also required to remain naked 
while studying it. They learn this lore on an 
eclipse day on the bank of a river. i" The rite 
called ■Somaya is performed by the host 
when his clothes are off his body. On a 
certain Monday in the month of Shrdvan a 
lamp of wheat flour is prepared and burned 
by adding ghi. This lamp is regarded as a 
deity, and is worshipped solemnly. During 
the performance of this ceremony as well 
as the preparation of the requisite food, the 
host and the hostess are required to remain 
naked.i^ 



1 School Master, Ubhdddada, Ratnigiri. 

* Two earthen pots tied face to face, one of which containing some corn and red and yellow powders. 

2 School Master, Basani, Ratndgiri. 3 School Master, Malgund, Ratndgiri. 

* School Master, Malvan, Ratndgiri. ^ School Master, Makhanele, Ratndgiri. 
« School Master, Anjur, Thdna. ' School Master, Badlapur, Kalyan. 

8 School Master, Bhuvan, Thdna. ' School Master, Bhuvan, Thdna. 

1" School Master, Tale, School No. I, Kolaba. ^1 School Master, Poladpur, Kolaba. 



20 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



The Swayambjiu (un artificial) linga of the 
god Shiva is supposed to have influence over 
the fall of rain.^ 

The people of the Thana District believe 
that the following ceremony causes a fall of 
rain. Stones are taken out of a pool and 
worshipped. They are then carried to every 
house in the village, and water is poured upon 
them by the inmates.* There is a temple of 
the god of clouds at Viranath in the Thana 
District .3 

The appearance of a comet is regarded by 
the Hindus as symptomatic of a coming 
evil, e.g., a big war, a great famine, or a 
terrible contagious disease spreading itself 
throughout the length and breadth of a coun- 
try.* Some persons think that comets and 
shooting stars bode evil to the king.^ 

Whenever a great person or a very holy 
man is about to be born, it is believed that 



he alights on the earth in the shape of a 
shooting star. Siometimes a big star falls on 
the earth, and thereby a noise like that of 
thunder is produced. When this happens, 
people believe that a great Raja or a holy 
saint whose merit has been exhausted is going 
to be born on earth.^ The following verse 
from the Mrichhakatiha Ndtak supports the 
view in accordance with which orthodox 
people in the Eonkau avoid looking at 
shooting stars : — 

5rr=# irrirfTr% II "rrr t^ ^p^k II i.e., 

The following four things, vis,^ the rain- 
bow, the fall of shooting stars, the delivery 
of a cow, and the death-struggle of saints or 
holy men should not be looked at.''^ It is 
generally believed by Hindus that a child 
will immediately be born in the house to- 
wards which shooting stars are directed.^ 



1 School Master, Devarukh, RatnSgiri. 

2 School Masters, Agashi and Arndla, Thina. 
5 School Master^ Nivare, Ratn^giri, 

7 School Master, Thana, 



2 School Master, Badlapur, Thdna. 
* School Master, Mith Bav, Ratndgiri. 
6 School Master, Mith Bav, Ratndgiri. 
8 School Master, Koldba. 



CHAPTER II. 



p THE HEROIC 

In the Konkan the deities of the Hindus 
are divided into the following five classes, 



(1) The Grdmadevatds or Village deities, 

(2) The StJidnadevatds or Local deities, 

(3) The Kuladevatds or Family deities, 

(4) The Ishtadevatds or Chosen deities, and 

(5) The Wdstudevatds or Grihadevatds^ that 
is, the class of deity vehich presides over the 
house and is established at the time of the 
housewarming or Wdstu ceremony. 

The principal Girdma-devatds are Hanu- 
man or Maruti., Kalika, Amba,, Waghoha, 
Chedoba, Mhasoba, Bahiroba or Bhairav, 
■Ganesh, Vira, Mhalsa or Maha Lakshmi, 
•Chamunda, Vetal, Khandoba Malhari Jogai, 
Bhawani, and Wageshwari and Shiva,, In 
most villages the chief village god is Maruti 
or Hanuman, whose temple is situated at the 
-entrance of the village. Maruti is consider- 
ed to be an avatdr or incarnation of Shiva, 
Wnd is held in great reverence by all classes. 
A festival or jatra is held in honour of Ha- 
aiuman on the bright half of the month of 
CKaitra, On this occasion the temple is de- 
corated with ever-green s, and flowers, the 
.stone image of the god is newly painted or 
covered with red lead and oil, and garlands 
of the Rui (Gigantic snake wort) flowers are 
iplaced round the neck of the image, cocoa- 
nuts, plantains, betel-nuts and leaves are 
off'ered to the god, camphor is lighted and 
waved round the image, incense is burnt, 
cooked food and sweets are ofi^ered, and money 
presents are made. Every worshipper brings 
with him some oil, red-lead or Cendur, a co- 
coanut, a vidd-supdri, i.e., two betel leaves, 
one betel-nut and a copper coin, and a gar- 
land of -Kwi flowers. These are given to the 



GODLIN'GS. 
temple ministrant, who offers a part of the 
oil and red lead to the deity, places the gar- 
land round the deity's neck, and, breaking the 
cocoanut into pieces, gives a piece or two to 
the devotee as the prasdd or favoured gift of 
the deity. Saturday is the sacred day of 
the monkey god Maruti. Every Saturday 
fresh oil and red lead are ofi^ered to the god 
by the devotees. The Pujdris in most of the 
temples of Maruti are Guravs, Ghadis, Mara- 
thas or Gosavis. 

Every Saturday in the month of Shrdvan 
(August), called the Sampat Shaniwdr or the 
wealth-giving Saturday a special puja or 
worship is performed in the temples of Ma- 
ruti in Bombay as well as in the Konkan. On 
this day people fast the whole day and dine 
in the evening, after offering the god Hanu- 
man or Maruti a preparation of rice and 
pulse called khichadi and cakes made of udid 
flour called vade.^ 

There is no village in the Konkan which 1 
has not the honour of having a temple of the 
god Maruti. Maruti is supposed to guard 
the village against evils of all kinds. Care 
is therefore taken to build the temple of Ma- 
ruti at the outskirts of the village.^ There is] 
a tradition that at the time of leaving the 
Dandaka forest (the present Maharashtra), 
Rama asked Maruti to reside therein. It is 
for this reason, the people say, that every 
village in the Konkan and on the Ghats has 
a temple of Maruti.* The god Maruti is 
worshipped in the village of Wasind on 
Tuesdays and Saturdays.* In former days 
it was customary to establish an image of the 
god Maruti in a newly built castle or fort,* 
Hanuman, the son of Anjani and the wind or 
Marut, is known for his loyalty to his master 



» School Master, Khetwadi, Bombay. * School Master, Devgdd, Ratndgiri. 

' School Master, Kamathipura, Bombay., * School Master, Wasbind, Thina. 

s School Master, Umela, Thina, 



22 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAX 



and for his bravery. In days gone by he uti- 
lized his strength for the protection of Saints, 
Bishis,, Brahibans and cows, and for this 
merit he was elevated to the rank of a Hindu 
gcd. Every Hindu village or locality is sup- 
posed to possess at least one temple of the gcd 
Maruti, and in Maharashtra Maruti is the guar- 
dian of every village. He is a Brafimachari^ 
or bachelor and is one of the seven heroes who 
are believed to be chiranjivis or immortals,* 
Maruti is supposed to be the originator of the 
MantraShdstra, by the study and repetition of 
which one obtains strength ard superhuman 
power. Women desirous of getting children 
go to the temple of Maruti, and there burn 
before his image, lamps mtde of wheat flour 
and filled with ghi. The image of Hanuman 
is represented. in temples in two ways, that is 
(l) .Vira Hanuman or Warrior Hanuman, (2) 
Dasa-Hanuman or servant Hanuman. The 
former is fourd in a temple consecrated to 
the worship of the gcd Hanuman alone, 
whereas the latter is found in a temple dedi- 
cated to the worship of the god Eama.i 
Since Maruti is the gcd of strength,' gymnasts 
tie an image of Maruti to . their wrists, and 
they ako consecrate an image of Maruti in 
their gymnasiums. The number eleveji is 
said to be dear and sacred to him because he 
is believed to be an incarnation of the eleven 
Rudras,' The birth day of the god AIaruti„ 
which falls on the 15th of the bright half of 
CRfliirfl,- called the Hanuman Jayanti day, is 
celebrated in the Kolhapur District with 
great reverence. '■ Those who wish to have a 
son draw the figure of Maruti on a wall in 
red-lead, and worship it daily: wijth sandal 
paste, flowers and garlands of i?M?, Others 
burn lamps made of .wheat flour, before the 
image of the god. Personjs who are under 
the evil influence of the planets, and especi- 
alty-of the planets Saturn, worship the god 
Hanuman ion "Saturdays in order to propitiate 



the planets. On this day they make wreaths- 
of the leaves and flowers of the Rui plant and 
adorn his neck with them. They also oiFer 
him udid (Phaseolus radiatus) and salt. The 
story told of Maruti is that Anjani his mother 
pleased the god Shiva with her penance, and 
when the god asked her to claim a boon, she. 
requested that Shiva himself should be born 
as her son. Shiva therefore took birth in her 
womb and manifested himself as Hanuman 
or Marati^. 

The Local deities are generally found in 
special localities or sacred places called Kshe-- 
tras or Punya sthdnas. Thus the god Rama 
at Nasik, Vithoba at Pandharpur, Krishna at 
Dwarka, Mahalakshmi at Kolwan, Wagre- 
shwari at Nirmal (Thana), Mharloba in the 
Ratnagiri, Shitala devi at Kelwa Mahim,. 
and Khandoba or Khanderai at Jejuri. 

Khanderai is said to be an incarnation of 
the god Shiva. Khanderai killed the demon 
Mani-Malla who was devastating the earth,., 
and he is therefore called Mallari or Malhari. 
Kunbis and lower class Hinduis in the Konkan 
as well as in the Deccan occasionally make a 
vow to the god Khandoba that if their desire 
is fulfilled they will oifer their first born. 
ma,le or female child to the service of the 
god. The male child thus dedicated to 
Khandoba is called Waghya and the female' is . 
called Murali; The Waghya and Murali do 
not engage in any business, but maintain 
themselves by begging in tMe streets in tlie > 
name of the god Khanderai, Though they are 
not actually . married, , the Waghyas and 
Muralis live, as husband and wife, and their 
progeny are also called Waghyas and Mur^lis. 
They repeat the sacred cry Joi hhanderdyddhaj 
Elkot^ and give to people beLbhanddr 
of Khanderai consisting of the sacred 
Bel leaves .and turmeric powder. The god 
Khanderai is the family deity of some Der 
shasth Brahmans, who perform a family; rite ■ 



* The Hindus Jaelieve that there are seven heroes 
3 Vy^sa, 4 Hanumdn, 5 Bibhlshana, 6 Kripdchdrya 

1 SchooUMasters, Agiishi and Arndla, Thdna. 



who can never die, i. e. j 1 Ashwatthdma, 2 Bali," 
and 7 Parashur^m. The Sanskrit text is : — 

2 School Master, Samangad, Kolhipur, 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



23 



■called Tali bharane rfoSt HKPt on every 
purnima or full moon day. The rite is as 
follows : — 

A tali or plate is filled with cocoanuts, fruits, 
betel nuts, saifron, turmeric or bel-bhdnddr, etc. 
Then a pot is filled with water, and on its 
mouth a cocoanut is placed. This cocoanut, 
with the pot, is then worshipped with flowers, 
rsandal paste, etc., a lighted lamp filled with 
ghi is put in the same place, and the tali is 
waved thrice round the pot, which is supposed 
to contain the god Khandoba. Five persons 
then lift up the cocoanut with the tali and 
place it three times on the pot, repeating each 
time the words Elkot or Khande rdydcha Elkot, 
The cocoanut is then broken into' pieces, mixed 
-with sugar or jdgri^ and is distributed among 
friends and relations as prasdd. On this 
■occasion, as well as on the occasions of all 
Kuladharmas, that is, the days fixed for per- 
forming the special worship of the family 
goddess or family god of each family, the 
ceremony called the Gondhal dmce is 
■performed. On the same occasion another cere- 
mony called Bodan is performed by the Desha- 
•sths and by the Chitpavans. It is as follows: — 
An image of the family deity is placed in a 
pot or plate called tdmhan, and it is then bathed 
in the panchdmrit, that is, the five holy things, 
■viz., milk, curds, ghi, honey and sugar. Sandal- 
paste is offered to it as well as flowers, lighted 
lamps and some sweets and incense. Five 
women whose husbands are alive then prepare 
five lamps of wheat flour called Kuranandi 
and wave them thrice round the face of the 
goddess or god, as the case may be. All the 
lamps are then placed in the plate or tdmhan 
in which the deity is kept, and the panchdmrita 
and other materials of worship and food and 
sweet cakes are mixed together. Occasionally 
4>ne of the five women becomes possessed with 
the spirit of the Jeula-devi oi family deity, and 



confers blessings on the members of the family 
for their devotion. It is believed that those 
families which fail to perform periodically the 
Bodan^ Tali and Uondhal ceremonies in 
honour of their tutelary deity are sure to suflFer, 
from some misfortune or calamity during the 
year.i The local deities chiefly worshipped 
at Chaul, Kolaba District, are Hinglaj, Jakh- 
mata, Bhagawati, Champawati, Mahikawati, 
and Golamba-devi. At the sowing and reaping 
times, people of the lower castes offer fowls and 
goats to these deities, and Brahmans ofi'er 
cocoanuts. 2 The local deity of the village 
Wavashi near Pen in the Kolaba District is 
said to possess the power of averting evil, and 
is accordingly held in great respect by the 
people of many villages in the District. 
Every third year a great fair is held, and a 
buffalo is""sacrificed to the goddess on the full 
moon day of the month of Chaitra. The 
Pujdri of this goddess is a Gurav.^ Another 
celebrated Sthdna-deva in the Kolaba District 
is Bahiri-Somajai of Khopoli. It is believed 
that a person suffering from snake-bite is 
euired without any medicine if he simply resides 
for one night in the temple of this goddess. 
Sacrifices of goats, fowls and cocoanuts are 
made to this goddess at the time of sowing and 
reaping. The Pujdris of this deity are known 
as Shingade Guravs.* The worship of the local 
deity Bapdev is much in favour among the vil- 
lages of Apta and the surrounding places. At 
the times of sowing and reaping, offerings of 
fowls, goats and cocoanuts are made to Bapdev 
through the Pujdri.^ The worship of the 
local deities Kolambai, Bhawani, and Giroba 
is prevalent in the Chauk villages.® To the 
Grdma-devi of the village of Tale every third 
year a buffalo is sacrificed, and at an interval 
of two years goats are offered. '^ The deities 
Shiva and Kalkai are worshipped with great 
rieverence at Bakavali in the Ratnagiri District.' 



1 School Master, Poladpur, KoWba. 
3 School Master, Wivshi, Koldba. 
5 School Master, Apta, KoWba 
J School Master, Tale, Koldba. 



2 School Master, Chaul, Koldba. 
* Scbool Master, Khopoli, KoUba. 
< School Master, Chauk, Koldba. 
s School Master, Bakavali, Ratatfgiri. 



24 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



In many villages of the Ratnagiri District 
the goddess Pandhar is considered to be the 
Gaon-devi or the chief goddess of the 
village. The Pujdri is generally a Gurav or 
MarathaKunbi. On every full moon day cocoa- 
nuts are offered, and on the occasions of sow- 
ing and reaping, goats and fowls are sacrificed 
to this deity .^ At Devgad there is a temple of 
the goddess Gajabai on the sea shore. The 
Pujdri of this goddess is a man of the Ghadi 
caste. On the first day of the bright half of 
the month of Mdrgashirsh (December) special 
offerings of goats, fowls and cocoanuts are 
made by the villagers. ^ The deities Raval- 
nath, Mauli, Vetal, Rameshwar and Hanuman 
are usually worshipped in most villages in 
Ratnagiri. The villagers in the Ratnagiri 
District have great faith in their local deities, 
and before undertaking any important busi- 
ness they obtain tbe consent or take the omen 
of the deity. This ceremony is known as 
kaul ghalne and it is performed as follows : — 
Two betel mits or flowers are taken and one 
of them is placed on the right side of the 
deity and the other on the left side. The 
worshipper then bows before the deity and 
requests her to let the nut on the right side 
fall first if the deity is pleased to con- 
sent, if not, to let the nut on the left side fall 
first. Naturally one of the two nuts falls 
first, and they interpret this as either 
consent or dissent as the case may be. The 
villagers have so much faith in this haul that 
they make use of this method of divination to 
ascertain whether sicfc or diseased persons 
will recover or die. Special sacrifices are offer- 
ed to these local deities whenever an epide- 
mic like cholera occurs.^ In the Ratnagiri 
District, at many places, there are Sreayamhliu 
or natural lingas of the god Shiva, and over 
these places temples are built. The Pujdris 
of these temples are generally Jangams or 



Lingayat Guravs. No animal sacrifices are 
made at these shrines.* At a short distance-^ 
from the village of Makhamle there is a tem- 
ple of the god Shiva called Amnayeshwar. 
The following legend is narrated in connection 
with this temple: — The place where the present 
temple stands once abounded with Amani trees 
and formed a pasture for cattle. The cow of 
a certain man of the village daily used to go' 
to graze at this place. The cow used to give 
milk twice, but one day she gave milk only 
once, and thereafter she continued to give 
milk only once a day. The owner therefore 
asked the Gavali or cowherd to ascertain the 
cause of this sudden change. One day the 
cowherd noticed that the cow allowed her 
milk to drop upon a stone. At this the cow- 
herd was so enraged that he struck the stone 
with his scythe so hard that it was cloven in: 
two and blood gushed forth. He hurriedly 
repaired to the village and related this won- 
derful phenomenon to the people. The villa- 
gers came to the spot, and decided to build a 
temple to the god Shiva over the stone. 
One part of the stone is in this temple and the 
other part was taken to the village of Kalam- 
buri, where another temple was built over it.^ 
In the Sangameshwar village the Brahmans 
also worship the images of the local goddesses 
Chandukai, Jholai and Sunkai. In the Kon- 
kan the deities Narayan, Rawalnath, Manli 
Datta, Vetal and Shiva are worshipped every 
where.6 The following legend is told about 
the deity Vetal, the leader of the ghosts: — In 
the Sawantwadi State there is a temple of 
Vetal in the village of AjgaonJ As part of 
his worship it is considered necessary to^ 
offer to this deity a pair of shoes every month.. 
The people believe that after a few days 
the shoes become worn out. The inference 
drawn from this by the people is that at 
night the god Vetal goes out walking in 
the new shoes.^ In the village of £hed 



I School Master, Ratndgiri. 

3 School Master, Parule, Ratndgiri. 

S School Master, Malgund, Ratnigiri, 

' School Master, Sangameshwar, Ratndgiri. 



2 School Master, Devgadj, Ratndgiri. 
i School Master, Poladpur, Koldba. 
s School Master, Makhamle, Ratndgiri. 
8 School Master, Kdmdthipnra, Bombay. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAX 



25 



in the Ratnagiri District, a buffalo is offered 
to the goddess Eedjai on the full moon 
day of Chaitra every third year. ^ At Narin- 
gre offerings of cocoanuts, etc. are made to the 
deities Bhavakai, Chala, etc. on the 1st of the 
month of MdrgasJiirsha. 2 The Schoolmaster 
of Ibrampur states that one of the following 
deities is the grdmadevata of every village in 
the Ratnagiri District viz: Chandkai, Varad- 
han, Khem, Bahiri, Kedar, Vaggaya, Antaral, 
Manayai, Salbaya and Vaghambari. A proces- 
sion in their honouT takes place in the months 
of Chaitra and Fdlgun. The Pujdris are gener- 
ally either Guravs or Maratha Kunbis. A 
ceremony called Palejatra is performed in the 
sowing season, while the Dhal-jatra is per- 
formed at the harvest time. At these fairs 
fowls, cocoanuts, goats, fruits, etc. are offered 
to these deities. ^ At Malwan on the no-moon 
day of Shrdvan (August) local deities and 
ghosts are propitiated by offering to them goats, 
fowls, etc' At Palsct in the Ratnagiri 
District, the god Parashuram is the most 
important deity especially for Chitpavans, 
He exterminated the Kshatriyas twenty-one 
times, and having no space for himself and 
his Brahmans, he asked the sea to provide him 
with new land. On meeting with a refusal, 
Parashuram became enraged and was about to 
push the sea back with his arrow, when, at the 
instigation of the sea, a black-bee (bhunga) 
cut the string of his bow, and the arrow only 
went a short distance. The people say that the 
space thus recovered from the sea came to be 
called Konkan.5 At Anjarle there are two local 
goddesses Sawanekarin and Bahiri. Offerings 
of goats and fowls are made to them in the 
months of Mdrgashirsha (December) and 
Fdlgun (March). Sometimes liquor and eggs 
are also offered. Offerings can be made on any 



day except Monday and Ekddashi, Tuesdays- 
and Sundays being considered most suitable,*^ 
At Ubhadanda in the Ratnagiri District, Rav- 
alnath and Bhuitanath are held in great rever- 
ence. They are believed to be incarnations of 
the god Shiva. The Pujdris are generally 
Guravs, Ghadis, Rauls and SutarsJ The 
following goddesses which are popular in the 
RatnagiriDistrict are believed to be incarnations 
of the goddess Durga, vis, Navala-devi, Vaghur- 
devi, Jakha-devi and Kalkai.^ At Maral in 
the Ratnagiri District there is a srvayamhhu 
or natural linga of the god Shiva. It is called! 
Maheshwar, and in its honour a fair is held 
on the Sanhrdnt day,^ The chief local deity 
of the Dahanu taluka, Thana District, is Maha- 
lakshmi. She has seven sisters and one bro- 
ther, two of the sisters being the Pangala-devL 
at Tarapur and the Delavadi-devi at Ghivali. 
Goats and fowls are offered to the Pangala- 
devi on the Dasara day. Her Pujdri is a 
Gurav. It is said that the goddess Delwadi 
used to receive her garments from the sea, but 
now this is no longer the case though it is still 
believed that the incense which is burnt before 
her comes floating from Dwarka.^'' In the 
village of Edwan there is a goddess called 
Ashapuri, who used to supply her devotees with 
whatever they wanted. The devotee was re- 
quired to besmear with cow-dung a plot of 
ground in the temple, and to pray for the things 
wanted by him. The next day, when he came 
to the temple, he found the desired things 
on the spot besmeared with cow-dung.^i At 
Mangaon the Pujdri of the local goddess is 
either the Patil or the Madhavi of the village.^^ 
In the village of Dahigaon cocoanuts are 
offered annujally to the village Maruti, aud- 
fowls and goats to the other local deities, in 
order that the village may be j)rotected against 
danger and disease.^-'' It is believed that any 



1 School Master, Dabhol, Ratndgiri. 
3 School Master, Ibrampur, Ratnagiri. 
5 School Master, Palset, Ratndgiri. 

I School Master, Ubhddanda. Ratndgiri, 
9 School Master, Sakharpe, Ratndgiri. 

II School Master, Edwan, Thdna 



13 School Master, Dahigaon. 



2 School Master, Ndringre, Ratndgiri. 

4 School Master, Mdlwan, Ratnagiri. 

6 School Master, Anjarle, Ratndgiri. 

8 School Master, Masure, Ratndgiri. 
10- School Master, Dahdnu, ThAna. 
12 School Master, Mdngaon, Thana. 



26 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



Erahiiian who acts as the Pujdri of the god 
Shiva will find his family exterminated, and for 
"this reason Brahmans do not act as Pujdris 
in the temples of Shiva. 

In a few temples of goddesses like Jakhai 
•etc. the Pujdri is of the Mahar caste.^ A 
great fair is held in honour of the goddess 
Vajra-bai or Vajreshwari near Nirmal in the 
month of Kdrtika (November). The Pujdri 
•of the goddess is a Gosavi of the Giri sect. 
The worship of Bhimasena is not prevalent in 
the Konkan, but the hero Bhima, like Maruti, 
is held in reverence by the gymnasts. Bhima 
is not worshipped, but a work called the 
Bhima-stavardj is read at the bed of a dying 
-man in order that he may obtain salvation. 
At Ashirgad there is a gumpha or cave of 
Asliwathama, a hero of the Mahabharata, and 
it is said that a noise is heard coming from the 
cave on the full moon day.^ 

I Wherever a village is founded, it is custo- 
mary to establish a village deity as the guar- 
dian of the village. The deities chosen are 
Maruti, Kali, Chandkai, Varadani, etc. In the 
Konkan, goddesses are preferred, and on the 
^Ghats generally Maruti is preferred. Certain 
■ceremonies are performed for consecrating the 
place to the deity, and sometimes the deity is 
called after the village as Marleshwar* etc. 
By many lower class people the goddess Pon- 
•dhar is often selected as the guardian of a 
new village. At Shahpur, if the newly found- 
ed village is to be inhabited by high class 
Hindus, the deities Maruti and Durga are 
selected as grdma-devatas , but if it is to be 
inhabited by lower class people, then such 
'deities as Mhasoba, Chedoba, Jakhai, etc. are 

/^chosen.* In the Bassein and Salsette talukas 
the following deities vis. Maruti, Cheda, 
Chandkai, and Shiva, are chosen as village 



deities. Cheda is represented by a long piece 
of wood or stone besmeared with red-powder, 
and is placed on the outskirts of the village. 
No Brahman is necessary for establishing a 
Cheda. The Pujdri is generally a Kunbi or 
Mali, and he establishes the deity by offering 
it a goat or fowls and cocoanuts.^ Sometimes 
the guardian deity of a new settlement is 
decided upon by a Kaul. Two or three names 
of deities are selected, betelnuts or flowers 
are placed on the sides of the guardian deity 
of the neighbouring village and that deity 
in whose name the betelnut falls first is 
chosen as the deity of the new village.'' At 
Chaul, the deity called Bapdev is very popular 
among the lower classes. It is represented by 
a big stone fixed on mortar and besmeared 
with red-powder. When it is established for 
the first time in a village, a Brahman is required 
to make the first puja or worship, but after 
this it is worshipped by a Pujdri of a lower 
caste.'^ The Mahars in the Kolaba District 
select the ghost-deity called Jhaloba as the 
guardian deity of a new settlement.^ In many 
cases the deity of their former village or of 
the neighbouring village ^ is named by a 
Bhagat or exorcist, who becomes possessed.^" 

In the Konkan every village farm is suppo- 
sed to be under the guardianship of the minor 
godlings, the majority of which^ are called 
Bhuta-Devatds oe ghostly godlings. In some 
cases the field guardians are also the Brahma- 
nic godlings like Maruti and Shiva. To the 
Brahmanic guardians of the fitld, cocoanuts and 
flowers are offered at the sowing and reaping 
seasons, and to the rest, fowls, cocoanuts, and 
sometimes goats, are offered. The higher clas- 
ses feed one or two Brahmans in order to pro- 
pitiate the deities of the fields ; and for the 
propitiation of the minor deities of the field 



* School Master, Bhiwandi, Thdna. 
3 School Master, Agashi, Th^na. 
i School Master, Shahdpur, Thdna. 
7 School Master, Medhe, Koliba. 
9 School Master, Akol, Koldba. 



2 School Master, Agashi, Arndla, Thdna. 

* School Master, Malgund, Ratndgiri. 

6 School Master, Agdshi, Thdna. 

8 School Master, Chaul, Koldba, 

1" School Master, Masure, Ratndgiri. 



•' School Master, Shiroshi, Thdna District. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



27 



the lower classes perform a rite called Dalap. 
This rite is performed by a man of the Guirav, 
Ghadi, or Raul, caste by sacrificing to the field 
deity a goat or fowls and cocoanuts. The 
pujdri repeats prayers for a good harvest, hnd 
then distributes portions of the offerings among 
the people assembled there for witnessing the 
rite.^ In the Ratnagiri District on the no moon 
■day of Jeshta people assemble in the temple of 
the village deity and perform a rite called 
Gdrhdne in order that they should have a good 
crop, that their village may be free from 
■diseases, and that their cattle may be protected. 
A similar rite is performed on the first day of 
the bright half of the month of Mdrgashirsha 
(December), and on this occasion sometimes a 
goat or sheep is sacrificed at the boundary of the 
village. 2 In order that there should be 
a good harvest, the villagers of Kankaoli 
■worship on certain days from the month of 
Kdrtika (November) to the month of SMmga 
■(March) the minor deities of the field by 
offering them fowls, cocoanuts, etc.^ At Achare 
(Ratnagiri) some people worship the god of 
the clouds on the day on which the Mriga- 
sMrsha constellation begins, and they believe 
that thereby plenty of rain is ensured for the 
season.* For good harvests and for the 
protection of their cattle, the villagers of 
Achare pray to the Girdma-devata in the 
month of Jeshta (June), and then go in pro- 
cession from the temple of the village deity 
to the boundary of the village, where they 
sacrifice a cock and offer some cooked rice 
-with a burning wick upon it, to the deity 
that presides over the fields and harvests.^ 
In the village of Palset of the Ratnagiri 
District the goddess Khema is worshipped by 
the villagers to obtain good crops, and for 
the protection of their cattle. The Puja or 



special worship takes place on the full-moon 
day of Mdrgashirsha and on this occasion the 
sacred Gpndhal dance is also performed.^ 
In certain villages of the Ratnagiri District, for 
obtaining good harvest, people worship the 
godling Mahapurush at the beginning of the 
sowing and reaping operations, and offer the 
deity fowls, cocoanuts and cooked rice.'^ In 
the village of jMalwan, at the sowing and 
reaping seasons, the villagers usually make 
offerings of fowls and cocoanuts and goats to 
the guardians of the fields, but Brahmans 
and such Kunbi farmers as do not eat flesh 
make offerings of cooked rice mixed with 
curds. ^ At Ubhadanda village, in order 
to secure a good harvest and for the protection 
of the cattle, the villagers worship the spirit 
godlings called Samhandhas and perform the 
rite called Devachdr.^ At Kochare, annual 
prayers are offered to the godling called Gavat- 
dcv for the protection of the village cattle.^® 
In the Devgad taluka people believe that some 
deity resides in every farm or in every collec- 
tion of fields, and that good or bad harvests are 
caused as the deity is pleased or displeased.^^ 
In order that there should be plenty of rain 
and that the cattle should be protected, the vil- 
agers of Malgund assemble in the temple of 
the village deity and offer prayers on the full 
moon day of Fdlgun (March) and on the 1st 
day of the bright half of MdrgasMrsH}'^ In 
the Kolaba District, for the protection of cattle 
and for good crops, prayers are offered to the 
god Bahiri and tiie ghosts Khavis and Sam- 
bandh.^^ 

At Chauk in the Kolaba District the vil- 
lagersi perform a special puja or worship of 
the god Krishna in order that the village 
cattle may be protected.^* At Casawani a 
fair called pale jatra is held in the month of 



1 School Master, 
3 School Master, 
5 School Master, 
7 School Master, 
9 School Master, 
11 School Master, 
13 School Master, 



Parule, Ratndgiri. 

Kankaoli, Ratnagiri. 
Masure, Ratndgiri. 

Basani, Ratndgiri. 
Ubhdddnda, Ratndgiri. 

Devgad, Ratndgiri. 
Khopoli, Kolaba. 



2 School Master, Adivare, Ratndgiri. 

4 School Master, Achare, Ratnaeiri. 

6 School Master, Palset, Ratndgiri. 

8 School Master, Malwan, Ratnagiri, 
10 School Master, Kochare, Ratnagiri. 
12 School Master, Malgund, Ratndgirl. 
14 School Master, Chauk, Kolaba. 



28 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



Bhddrapad (September) in order that the vill- 
agers may have a good harvest, and that their 
cattle may be protected against tigers and 
disease.^ At Akol, on the day which follows 
the Ganesh-Chaturthi, people throw parched 
rice over their fields and houses so tha^ the, 
rats may not run over them.^ At Malad in 
the Thana District, for the protection of cattle, 
the god Waghoba is worshipped at night on 
the 12th of Ashwin which is called the Wdgh- 
bdras,^ In some villages of the Thana 
District the deity Waghoba or Waghya is 
Worshipped on the 1 2th day of the dark half 
of Kdrtik, On that day the cowherds collect 
a quantity of milk and prepare a kind of food 
known as KMr by mixing jdgri and cooked 
rice. They then proceed to the stone image 
of the deity in the jungle, and besmear it with 
new red-lead or shendur. They pour a portion 
of the sweet milk over the stone, and offer 
prayers for the protection of their cattle. 
They then partake of the remaining milk.* 
At Agashi and other neighbouring villages, 
before the fields are ploughed, the vil- 
lagers assemble and collect a certain 
sum of money, with which they ' buy 
goats, fowls, red-powder, cocoanuts and par- 
ched grain. A goat and some cocks are then 
sacrificed to the spirits residing in the ceme- 
teries and at the boundary of the village. 
Cocoanuts besmeared with guldl red powder 
are also offered to these ghost godlings. A 



goat decorated with garlands and red powder 
is then made to walk round the village three 
times at night, accompanied by the villagersy 
who throw Idhya parched rice while passing. 
This rite is called Sima Bdndhane or bind- 
ing the boundary, and is supposed to protect 
the village crops and cattle. No farmer dareS' 
to sow his seed unless this rite has been per- 
formed. After this rite has been performedr 
every farmer appeases his family deity i.e. 
Khandoba, Bahiroba, Kankoba, etc., by per- 
forming a ceremony at home called Deopan 
or Devaski^ which relates to the worship of 
ancestors. Most of the farmers regard one of 
their dead ancestors as their chief deity, and 
represent him in their house by a cocoanut. 
They do not enter on any new business with- 
out first offering prayers to this cocoanut, and 
they also believe that they can bring evil upon 
their enemies by simply cursing them before- 
the deified cocoanut. The only materials 
generally required for the worship of thi& 
cocoanut are red powder, incense and flowers. 
On rare occasions, goats and fowls are sacri» 
ficed. It is believed that the ancestor in the 
cocoanut likes to be worshipped by the wife or 
husband (as the case may be) of the person, 
represented by the cocoanut. Some farmers, 
in addition to the cocoanut, worship a stick or 
cap of their ancestor along with the cocoanut, 
and offer prayers for the protection of their 
cattle, for good rain and harvest, and also for 
the destruction of their enemies,' 



1 School Master, Sasawani, Koldba,; 2 School Master, Akol, Koldba. 

» School Master, Mdldd, Thdna. « School Master, Bhuwan, Thdna. 

^ School Master, Agdshi, Thdna District. 



CHAPTER HI. 



DISEASE DEITIES. 



A T Vengurla, in the Ratnagiri District, when 
epidemic diseases prevail, the people of 
the village assemble and prepare a basket in 
which are placed cooked rice, cocoanuts, lemons, 
wine, red flowers and Udid (Phaseolus radia- 
tus) grain. The basket is then carried cut of 
the village along with a cock or a goat, and 
deposited outside the village boundary. To 
carry this basket, a person belonging to the 
Mahar caste is generally selected. The people 
of the next village similarly carry the basket 
beyond their village limits ; and it is finally 
thrown into the sea. It is believed that if the 
basket of offerings to the disease-deities is car- 
ried from one village to another, it is sure to 
bring the disease with it. Great care is there- 
fore taken to throw the offerings into the sea. 
In cases of small pox a feast is given to women 
whose husbands are alive. In some cases 
boiled rice is mixed with the blood of a cock, 
and on the rice is placed a burning black cot- 
ton wick in a cocoanut shell with a little oil in 
it. The whole is then carried beyond the 
village boundary and thrown away.^ In the 
village of Mitbav in the Ratnagiri District, 
epidemic diseases like cholera, small pox, 
plague, etc., are supposed to come from 
disease deities, and in order to avoid the dan- 
ger of such diseases the people of the village 
go to the temple of the village deity and pray 
for protection.S^The special form of worship 
on such occasions is the Kaul i.e., asking a 
favour from the deity. When an epidemic of 
plague broke out for the, first time at Sang- 
meshwar, the people of the village at once pro- 



ceeded to worship the village deity ; but a few 
cases of plague occurred, even after worshipp- 
ing the village goddess Jdkhmata. When the 
people went to the temple and asked the reason 
why the plague continued, it was announced by 
the deity through the temple ministrant that 
she was helpless in the case of plague, and 
desired the people to worship the god Shiva, 
thereby signifying that the village deity has- 
limited powers, and that the power of averting 
great evils lies with Shiva the god of destruc- 
tion.2 In the Devgad Taluka of the Ratnagiri 
District in epidemic diseases like cholera, etc., 
the usual ceremony, i.e.^ the Paradi (disease- 
scaring basket) is performed. A basket 
containing boiled rice, red powder, red 
flowers, lemons, betel nuts, betel leaves, etc., 
is prepared, and on that rice is kept 
a burning cotton wick dipped in oil. The 
basket is then carried beyond the village 
boundary along with a goat having a red 
flower garland round its neck. The goat 
is set free at the outskirts of the village-. 
In cases of small pox, married women whose 
husbands are alive are worshipped with 
turmeric powder, cocoanuts, flowers, etc., and 
incense is kept burning in the house. The 
deity of small pox is also specially worshipped 
for a number of days. It is represented by a 
brass or copper lota with a cocoanut placed 
over it. This process is called mdnd hharane 
i.e. arranging the materials of worship. The 
girls in the house sing songs in praise of the 
small pox deity. It is believed that in this way- 
the severity of the disease is reduced.' 



1 School Master, UbhddAnda, Ratndgiri. ^ school Master, Mitbav, Ratndgiri. 

3 School Master, Fonda, Ratndgiri. 



30 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



In the Sangameshwar taluka of the Ratna- 
giri District, when epidemic diseases prevail, the 
people of the village assemble in the temple 
of the village deity, olf er a cocoanuit to the 
goddess, and ask for a Kaul (omen). After 
receiving the Kaul they pray for mercy. It is 
believed that if the Kaul is in favour of the 
\ people the diseases will disappear.^ At 
Achare in the Mai wan taluka of the Ratnagiri 
District it is believed that epidemic diseases 
such as cholera, small pox, etc., are caused by 
the anger of the deities Jari and Mari ; and in 
order to satisfy those deities animal sacrifices 
are offered at the time of their worship. There 
are no other deities who cause such diseases. ^ 
T.t Vijayadurg in the Ratnagiri District, in 
cases of small pox, the child suffering from the 
disease is made to sleep on a silk garment 
JSovalen. Flowers are thrown upon the 
patient's body, and are given to him to smell. 
Incense is burnt in the house. On the 
seventh day from the beginning of the disease, 
the child is first bathed in milk and then in 
water. Black scented powder called Abir is 
thrown on the body. After two or three days 
an image representing the deity is made of 
flour, which is worshipped, and a feast is given 
to Brahmans and unwidowed women.-'' 

At Basani in the Ratnagiri District the 
disease of small pox is averted by a Brahman 
worshipping the goddess SMtala. Brahmans 
are also worshipped, and a feast is given to 
them. In cases of cholera and the other epide- 
mic diseases the village deity is worshipped 
and sacrifices are made to her.* 

At Kochare in the Vengurla taluka of the 
Ratnagiri District^ a woman whose husband is 
alive is made to represent the goddess Jari 
Mart, and is worshipped with flowers, red pow- 
der Kunku and black ointment -KajaZ. ghe is 



given a feast of sweet things ; and rice and 
cocoanuts are put into her lap by another wo- 
man whose husband is alive. She is then 
carried in procession through the village with 
beating of drums and the singing of songs. 
This is similar to the Paradi procession, which 
is also common in that District."'* 

At Navare in the Ratnagiri District, in 
cases of small pox, the diseased child and the 
person into whose body the small pox deities 
called Bay as enter, are worsliipped with Abir 
black scented powder, flower garlands, &c.6 

At Pendur in the Malwan taluka of the 
Ratnagiri District the wrath of the female 
deities or Mdtrikds is supposed to be the cause 
of epidemic diseases, and these Mdtrikds are 
accordingly worshipped for their pacification.'' 
At Chaiil in the Kolaba District the god 
Shankar is worshipped by Brahmans when epi- 
demic diseases prevail in a village- The wor- 
ship consists in repeating Vedic hymns. The 
nine planets are also propitiated by sacrifices of 
boiled rice, etc. There is a famous temple of 
the goddess Shitala at Chaul where the deity 
is worshipped by Brahmans, who recite Vedic 
hymns, whenever small pox prevails in the 
village. The mantras of the goddess and the 
Shitala Ashtaka are also repeated in the 
Paurdnic style. The women walk round the 
temple every day as long as the signs of the 
disease are visible on their children. The 
goddess is worshipped with turmeric and red 
powders, and clothes and fruits are given to 
her. The Kaul ceremony is also practised in 
this District. It is worth noticing that even 
Musalmans ask for a Kaul from this goddess< 
The days fixed for Kaul are : — Sunday, 
Tuesday, Thursday and Friday. The morning 
hours are considered specially auspicious 



1 School Master, Sangmeshwar, Ratndgiri. ^ School Master, Achare, Ratnagiri. 

' School Master, Vijaydurg, Ratndgiri, * School Master, Basani, Ratndgiri. 

5 School Master, Kochare, Ratndgiri. ^ School Master, Navare, Ratndgiri. 

^ .School Master, Pendur, Ratndgiri. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



31 



i'or the Kaul. There is another temple at 
Chaul, of the goddess Shri Golaba Devi. 
This goddess is also worshipped when other 
epidemic diseases prevail in the village. 
Saptdha i.e. continuous worship for seven days 
is also performed in honour of the deity. Tlie 
gardeners {Mdlis) of the village worship this 
-deity every Tuesday morning with cocoanuls 
gathered from every house in the village. This 
.temple is being repaired at presenb.^ 

When epidemic diseases prevail in the village 
■of Poladpuir of the Kolaba District the god 
Shiva is worshipped by continuously pouring 
water over the deity's head or linga. Sacrifices 
of fruits and animals are also offered to the 
village deity. Where there is a temple of 
.the deity Mari or Mahamari, the deity is 
worshipped through a Brahman, and sacrifices 
of cocks and goats are offered to her. The 
.deity named Shitala is worshipped in cases 
.of small pox. 2 

At Vavashi in the Pen taluka of the Kolaba 
District, in cases of epidemic diseases, the 
people of the village invoke the god Shiva, and 
holy fires called homa are kindled in honour of 
that god. Sacrifices of boiled rice are also 
.offered to the deity. For averting small pox 
the deity Shitala is invoked by the mantras 
■called Shitala AstaJca. For averting fevers the 
gods Shankar and Vishnu are also worshipped. ^ 
At Medhe in the Eohe taluka of the Kolaba 
District the god Shiva is worshipped in 
order to avert an epidemic, and Hanuman is 
worshipped to avert fevers.* 

At Malad in the Salsette taluka of the 
Thana District, when an epidemic prevails in a 
village, the goddess Navachandi is worshipped 
and the Homa is kindled in her honour. On 
the last day of worship a goat is set free as a 



sacrifice to the deity. The Bali i. e., the offer- 
ing of boiled rice, and the goat are taken 
beyond the boundary of the village, and 
handed over to the people of the neighbouring 
village, who follow the same procedure, and at 
last both the sacrifices are thrown into the sea. 
The goat generally dies, as it does not get 
water and food till it reaches the sea.'' 

In the village of Anjur in the Thana Dis- 
trict, in cases of long standing fevers the 
Brahmans observe the ceremony called UdaJe 
Shanti or propitiation by water. It is as 
follows : — An earthen pot filled with water 
is placed on the ground. On the top of the 
pot is placed a round plate in which the image 
of the god Brahmadev the son of Vishnu is 
consecrated. Four Brahmans sit on the four 
sides of the pot and repeat their Vedic hymns. 
These four Brahmans are supposed to be the 
four mouths of the god Brahmadev. It is 
believed by the people that by performing this 
ceremony the fever is made to disappear.® 

At Rai in the Thana District some people 
believe that malarial fevers are averted by 
placing secretly asuiall stone on the head of the 
god Hanuman.'' 

In the Kolhapur District the nine planets are 
worshipped in the house to ward off diseases 
such as cholera, small pox, fevers, etc. The 
goddess Laxmi is worshipped in order to avert 
small pox, the worship being generally per- 
formed in a garden or a grove of mango trees, 
when parched rice, cocoanuts and lemons are 
ofi'ered to her. The people assembled at the 
spot partake of the food. To avert fever, the 
people perform a certain ceremony ordained 
in the Shdstras, If the sick person is suppo- 
sed to be under the evil influence of the planet 
Saturn, the planet is invoked by repeating the 



1 School Master, Chaul, Kolaba. 
s School Master, Vdvashi, Koldba. 
5 School Master, Mdldd, Thdna. 



2 School Master, Poladpur, Kolibai 
4 School Master, Medhe, Koldba. 
6 School Master, Anjur, Thdna. 
7 School Master, Rdi, Thana. 



32 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



mantras, and worshipped with the usoal oiFer- 
ings. Garments such s^s a Sari and a Choli are 
oflFered to the goddesses Mari and Kalubai. 
When an epidemic disease such as cholera 
prevails in a village, the people of the village 
instal the deity Margai at a place where four 
roads meet, and worship her for seven or eight 
days with much ceremony. Every one brings 
oiFerings of cocoanuts, lemons, ambil or conjee, 
cooked rice and curds, etc. with the beating 
of drums to offer to the deity. After worshipp- 
ing the goddess in this manner for eight 
successive days they sacrifice a Bali of a 
he-buffalo before her. The deity is then put 
upon a bullock cart and carried through 
the village with the beating of drums and much 
ceremony, to be thrown away beyond the 
village boundary along with the offerings,^ 

\ — 

Epidemic diseases are not attributed to 

witchcraft at Devgad in the Eatnagiri Dis- 
trict. It is believed that they are cause i by 
the accumulated sins of the people.^ In the 
Dapoli taluka of the Eatnagiri District 
epidemic diseases are attributed to witchcraft 
by low caste people. The power of averting 
such diseases lies in the hands of the village 
deities. They are therefore propitiated by 
the sacrifices of cocks, goats, and cocoanuts.^ 
At Poladpur in the Kolaba District, epidemic 
diseases are sometimes attributed to witchcraft 
by low caste people. Persons well versed in 
the mantras of evil spirits are called Bliagats 
or exorcists. Some o£ them keep evil spirits at 
their command. The poor people believe that 
what these exorcists foretell is sure to occur. 
It is believed that the spirit dwells on the 
tongue of these exorcists. When these spirits 
are hungry, they are let loose in the village by 
the sorcerers for the destruction of the people, 
thus causing an epidemic. When a spirit is to 



be destroyed, the people of the village 
assemble in a mob and attack the sorcerer, ar 
small quantity of blood is taken from hi* 
tongue and water from the earthen pot of a 
Chambhar is poured upon it. It is believed^ 
that by so doing the spirit is permanently 
destroyed and the sorcerer either forgets, all 
his mantras or they become ineffective. The 
spirit is called tond hhut, and it sometimes^ 
troubles even aJiimals.* 

At Chauk in the Karjat taluka of the- 
Kolaba District, the people believe that the 
devotees of the Mari deity bring on epidemic 
diseases by the use of their mantras, and ia 
order to satisfy them, offerings are made 
to the deity Mari which are taken by the 
devotees or Bhagats.'' At Vade in the Thana 
District epidemic diseases are attributed to- 
witchcraft. There are some women who are 
supposed to bring on, or at least foster, the- 
growth of such diseases by their evil mantras. 
Such women are threatened or punished by 
the people, and sometimes they are even driven 
out of the village." In the village of Anjur 
of the Thana District, if a man vomits blood 
accidently and falls ill, or dies, it is believed 
to be due to the act of Muth Mdrane^ 
that is, the throwing of a handful of rice over 
which incantations have been repeated. If 
there be any sorcerer in the village who has- 
learnt the same incantations, he alone is able- 
to return the Muth to the sorcerer who first 
used it.'' At Shirgaum in the Umbergaott 
taluka of the Thana District, when epidemic 
diseases prevail in the village, the people of the 
village take a turn round the village in a 
body and kill a buffalo. A Bali at offering 
of boiled rice,; cocoanuts, cocks and goats is^ 
also offered to the deities that cause epidemic 
diseases.^ 



1 Rao Saheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 
3 School Master, Anjarle, Ratn^giri, 
5 School Master, Chauk, KoMba. 
^ School Master, Anjur, Thdna. 



' School Master, Mitbav, Ratndgiri, 
* School Master, Poladpur, Koldba, 
6 School Master, Vdde,, Thdna. 
' School Master, Umbergaom, Thdna. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



When cattle disease breaks out in a village 
the people of the Devagad taluka in the 
Ratnagiri District generally prevent the 
healthy cattle from mixing with the diseased, 
and the people of the neighbouring villages 
take precautions against using the milk, 
etc. of the diseased cattle. At such times 
the cattle of the village in which the disease 
breaks out are prohibited from entering the 
neighbouring villages.^ At Ubhadanda in the 
Ratnagiri District, the deity named Maha Gira 
is worshipped in connection with cattle 
diseases. At some places a feast is given to 
Brahmans, and in certain villages of this 
District a man is painted like a tigex", carried 
out of the village and bathed in a river. It is 
believed that this is one of the remedies for 
averting cattle diseases.^ At Fonda in the 
Ratnagiri District, when cattle disease breaks 
ut, a goat or a cock is sacrificed at the temples 
of the village deity.* In some villages of the 
Malwan taluka the deity Brahman is 
worshipped.^ At Basani in the Ratnagiri 
District the gods of the Mahars as also the 
village deity are worshipped in connection 
with the cattle diseases.^ At Vavashi in the 
K.ulaba District when cattle disease prevails 
in a village, a pig is killed and buried on 
the border of the village. A sweet oil lamp 
in the shell of a crab or a lobster is kept 
burning in the cowshed. River or sweet 
water fishes are boiled in water, and the water 
is given to the animals to drink. The owner 
also cleans the cowshed and burns sulpher, 
camphor, dammer and other disinfectants.^ 
At Varsai in the Pen taluka of the Kolaba 
District a Kaul is taken from the village deity 
to prevent cattle diseases, that is, the village 
deity is consulted through the temple ministrant, 
who acts as the spokesman of the oracle.'^ At 
Medhe in the Rohe taluka of the Kolaba Dis- 
trict the village deity Bahiroba is worshipped 



in connection with cattle diseases. The dis- 
eased animals are minutely examined, and the 
affected part of their body is branded with a 
red hot iron.^ In the village of Umela of the 
Thana District the village deity is worshipped 
and sacrifices are offered to her. Milk from 
the affected villages is prohibited, and veget- 
ables are not fried in oil during the prevalence 
of the disease in the village.^ At Kolhapur 
the people make vows to the god, and ashes 
from the temples are brought and applied to 
the forehead of the cattle. Cotton strings are 
tied to the feet or the neck of the cattle in the 
name of the god. They also make vows to the 
deities Tamj ai and Waghj ai, and offer to them 
eyes made of silver, a new cloth, a fowl or 
a goat, when their animals are cured of the 
disease.^'' 

In the Devgad taluka of the Ratnagiri Dis- 
trict, in cases of malarial fevers pieces of 
certain kinds of herbs are fastened together 
with black cotton strings, and tied round the 
arm or neck of the person suffering from the 
disease. Sacred ashes are put in a copper 
amulet and the amulet is tied in the manner 
above described. ^^ At Fonda in the Ratnagiri 
District, in addition to herbs and copper amu.^ 
lets, peacock feathers in black cotton strings 
are tied to the arms of the persons suffering 
from malarial fevers, etc.^^ At Vengurla in the 
Ratnagiri District, in fevers like malaria, 
black strings of cotton are tied round the arm 
or neck, and certain secret mantras are repeated 
at the time. It is believed that the power of 
the mantras is lost if they are disclosed to the 
public.^'^ At Murud in the Dapoli taluka of the 
Ratnagiri District the mantras of the god 
Narsinh, the fourth incarnation of Vishnu, are 
repeated for the exorcism of diseases.^* In the 
Dapoli taluka people who want to get rid of 
their diseases tie a copper amulet to their arms. 
The mantras that are repeated on such occa- 
sions are kept secret. There are at present 



I School Master, Mitbav, Ratndgiri. 
3 School Master, Fonda, Ratndgiri. 

5 School Master, Basani, Ratndgiri. 
7 School Master, Varsai, Koldba. 
9 School Master, Umela, Thana. 

II School Master, Mitbdv, Ratnagiri. 

13 School Master, Ubhddanda, Ratnagiri, 



2 School Master, Ubhdddnda, Ratndgiri. 

4 School Master, Bdndivade, Ratndgiri. 

6 School Master, Vavashi, Koldba. 

8 School Master, Medhe, Koldba 
M Rao Saheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 
12 School Master, Fonda, Ratndgiri. 
W School Master, Murud, Ratndgiri. 



34 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



some ptTSons in the Anjarle village who give 
such amulets and charms.^ In the Chiplim 
taluka of the Ratnagiri District the following 
articles are used for averting diseases: — Copper 
amulets, black cotton strings, and holy water 
over which certain mantras have been repeated 
by the exorcist. ^ At Poladpur in the Kolaba 
District, black cotton strings are tied round 
the arm in cases of malarial fevers. Some 
tnantras are repeated in cases of pain in the 
right or left side of the body. Besides the 
mantras some signs and figures are drawn on 
birch leaves, and tied round the arm or the 
neck of the patient. Women who wish to have 
children wear such black cotton strings and 
copper amulets.* At Vavashi in the Kolaba 
District mantras are in vogue for the exorcism 
of diseases such as liver and spleen affections. 
For exorcising eye diseases black cotton thread 
is tied to the ear.* At Chauk in the Karjat 
taluka of the Kolaba District, ashes are applied 
to the body of the sick person after repeating 
certain mantras over them.-' At Malad in the 
Thana District, for exorcising diseases caused 
by evil spirits, certain letters of the Nrisinha 
mantra are written on a birch leaf, and the 
leaf is tied round the arm of the sick man with 
a copper amulet. In order to drive out the 
evil spirit permanently, the god Nrisinha is 
worshipped, and sacr;d fire is kindled to pro- 
pitiate the deity. For the worship of Nrisinha 
the ministrant required must be a regular 
devotee of Nrisinha, and he must also be 
a PanchdJcshari i.e. one who knows the 
mantras of evil spirits." In the village 
of Shirgaon in the Mahim taluka of the 
Thana District, in addition to copper amulets 
and black threads of cotton, mantras of 
Musalman saints or pirs are in vogue for 
exorcising disease.'' At Kolhapur, the higher 
classes perform the religious ceremony called 
Anushtkdn to propitiate Shiva, the god 
of destruction, in order to avert disease, 



and also make vows to the same deity. The 
lower classes offer cocoanuls, fowls or a goat. 
They sometimes go to the exorcist for ashes 
in the name of the god, and apply them to 
the forehead of the diseased person. Copper 
amulets and cotton strings given by the exorcist 
are also tied round the neck of the sick person. s 
At Adivare in the Ratnagiri District the 
following practices are adopted for driving out 
evil spirits that cause disease. Incense is 
burnt before the exorcist, drums are beaten 
and then the exorcist takes a burning wick in 
his hand and frightens the diseased person by 
striking the ground with a cane or a broom of 
peacock feathers. He also cries ouit loudly 
He then draws out the evil spirit from the body 
of the diseased person, and puis it in a bottle, 
which is either carried ouit of the village and 
buiried under ground near a big tree or is 
thrown into the sea.^ In the Sangameshwar 
taluka of the Ratnagiri District, the process of 
exorcising is sometimes accompanied by danc- 
ing and loud cries. The person who suffers 
from evil spirits is taken to Narsoba's Wddi in 
the Kolhapur State where patients are believed 
to find a cure.i'^ In the Devgad taluka of the 
Ratnagiri District the exorcist, when possessed, 
does not dance as at other places, but freely 
uses abusive epithets to drive out the evil 
spirits ; and on such occasions the threats are 
repeated loudly by the exorcist.^^ In the 
Dapoli taluka of the Ratnagiri District, danc- 
ing is used in exorcism. While dancing, the 
exorcist makes a show of different kinds of fits. 
They are similar to those made by a person 
suffering from hysteria. He also stands and 
sways his body to and fro for some time, then 
assumes a serene and quiet attitude, and begins 
to cry out loudly.^^ There are some sorcerers at 
Dasgaon in the Kolaba District, who dance and 
cry out loudly in order to drive out the evil 
spirits from the body of the diseased. i* At " 
Malad in the Thana District dancing is used 



I Sctiool Master, Anjarley Ratndgiri. 
3 School Master, Poladpur, Koldba. 
5 School Master, Chauk, Koldba. 

7 School Master, Shirgaon, Thana. 
' School Master, Adivare, Ratnagiri. 

II School Master, Fonda, Ratndgiri 



13 Schoolmaster, Ddsgaon, Koldba 



2 School Master, Ibhrampur, Ratndgiri. 

4 School Master, Vavashi, Koldba. 

6 School Master, Mdldd, Thdna. 

8 Rdo Sdheb, Shelke, Kolhdpur. 

10 School Master, Sangmeshwar, Ratndgiri. 

V School Master, Anjarle, Ratndgiri. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



35 



in exorcism. The following is a description of 
one of these dmces. Songs of the deity which 
is to be summoned on the occasion are sung 
along with the music of the Tdl (a kind of 
■cymbal) and the beating of druns called 
Ghumat, The Ghumat is an earthen jar, the 
lower and upper ends of which are covered 
■over with leather. The man in whose body 
•the deity is to make its appearance takes his 
bath and sits bj^ the side of a small prayer 
■carpet called Asan_ A small quantity of rice 
(about a sei-) is put in front of the carpet, and 
a copper pot filled with water is placed on the 
Tice. The musicians begin to strike their 
instrument with a loud clash, and the exorcist's 
body begins to shake. The shaking of the 
body is a sure indication of his being spirit- 
possessed. He then sits upon the carpet and 
begins to throw grains of rice into the coppe 
pot containing water, gives out the name 
of the particular spirit with which he is 
possessed, and the cause for which it has 
attacked the patient. He then explains 
ihe measures and rites by which the spirit can 
be driv'en out. The psople abide by his direct- 
ions, and the patient is thus cured> 

At Padjhe in the Thana District, when an 
.evil spirit is to be driven out from the body of 
„the patient, the latter is asked to hold in his 
mouth a betelnut or a lemon. After some 
time, the betelnub or the lemon is put into a 
bottle, the bottle is then tightly corked and 
.buried underground. A copper pot is filled 
with water, and the diseased person is asked to 
hold the pot upside down. If the water runs 
out it is believed that the spirit has dis- 
appeared. ^ 

In the village of Edivan of the Thana Dist- 
-jrict, dincing is practised in cases of spirit 
possession, but it is resorted to among the lower 
■ castes only. While dancing, the sorcerer cries 
out loudly, and throws grains of Udid (Phasee 
olus radiatus)on the body of the diseased person^ 
after repeating certain mantras. This rit 
is styled Bkdrani or the process of charming. 



At Kulhapur, dancing is not used in exorcism, 
but the people suffering from evil spirits some- 
times dance and cry out loudly. Some of 
them loose their hair while dancing, and even 
strike their heads. Some quarrel like comba- 
tants, and some of them try to make speeches 
like orators. There is a temple of the god 
Shri Dutta at Narsinhwadi in the Kolhapur 
State, to which people suffering from evil spirits 
are brought for a cure. These people cry out 
loudly when the palanquin of the Smdmi Maha- 
raj is carried through the village, and spirits 
usually quit the bodies of their victims at this 
ime, for it is said that they cannot bear the 
proximity of the Swdmi Mahdrdj, Patients 
are also cured by residing in the village for a 
certain period. On this account the village of 
Narsobachiwadi is considered very holy. A 
big festival is celebrated in this village annu- 
ally on the twelfth day of the dark half of 
Askwin (October). Feasts are given to the 
Brahmans, the expenses being borne by the 
Kolhapur State.* 

In the Sangamesliwar taluka of the Ratnagiri 
District, the Bhagat or exorcist is respected by 
the lower caste people. His duties are to ask 
a kaul from the deity on behalf of the people 
and to alleviate their sufferings. His appoint- 
ment is hereditary, the clever member of the 
family generally following the profession of 
his faiher.5 In the Devgad taluka of the 
Ratnagiri District, low class people are afr.iid 
of sorcerers because they might injure them if 
they are offended. They therefore are care- 
ful not to cause them displeasure. There, the 
profession of a sorcerer or exorcist is not 
hereditary. Any one who learns the wicked 
mantras after attending regularly the burial 
and burning grounds for some days becomes 
an expert, and may follow the profession." 
In the Malwan taluka of the Ratnagiri District 
the chief function of the village sorcerer is to 
worship the village deity. All kinds of gifts 
and presents intended for the deity are made 
through him. His profession is hereditary 



1 School Master, Mdldd, Thdna. 

3 School Master, Edv^an, Thdna. 

5 School Master, Sangameshwar, Ratnagiri. 



2 School Master, Padghe, Thdna. 
4 Rao Saheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 
8 School Master, MitMv, RatnSgiri. 



36 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



and he is much respected by the ignorant 
people^. At Fonda in the Ratnagiri District 
the exorcist is not appointed, but one who can 
satisfactorily interpret or explain to the village 
deity the suiTerings of the people is generally 
selected. 2 

In the Vengurla taluka of the RatnagiriDis- 
trict, the chief function of the village sorcerer 
is to find remedies for the cure of persons 
suffering from evil spirits. His position among 
the people of the low classes is considered 
high. He follows the hereditary profession of 
a sorcerer, and generally the eldest son suc- 
ceeds his father.** 

At Chidhran in the Panwel taluka of the 
Kolaba District, Bhutes, a caste of beggars, 
are the devotees of a goddess. Some of them 
are called Bhagats. Devrishis are very rare. 
The difference between a Devrishi ania. Bhagat 
is as follows : — A Devrishi removes the evil 
spirits by simply repeating the mantras while 
the Bhagat removes them by bringing the evil 
spirit into his own body and by dancing, etc.* 

At Chanl in the Kolaba District, Bhutes go 
begging in the ncorning every day for the first 
nine days of the month of Ashrvin (October). 
On the tenth day the Bhutya is given a pice 
from every house. These Bhutes are devotees 
of the goddess Shakti. At Sasawane in the 
Kolaba District the village sorcerer comes to 
beg every day and is given rice, etc., but 
during the first nine days of the bright half of 
Ashrvin (October) he is given copper coins. ^ 
At Anjur in the Thana District the devotee of 
a particular god is called Bhagat^ and one who 
knows how to summon or eject evil spirits is 
called Bhutya. A Devrishi is a person who 
knows the mantras for warding off the great 
evil spirits such as Brahma Rdkshasa^ Brahma 
iSamband, etc. These three classes are res- 



pected only for performing their respective- 
duties, and not otherwise." 

At KolhapuT, the sorcerer is never appointed. 
His functions are to ask a kaul from the deity, 
to pray for the welfare of the people, and 
explain to them what he sees in his dreams. 
He holds no position in higher society, but the 
poor people who believe in him are afraid of 
him. Sorcerers are generally very cunning ;. 
they frighten poor people, and obtain from^ 
them presents and gifts for their maintenance.'' 

In the Vengurla taluka of the Ratnagri 
District red flags are hoisted on Banyan, Pipal^ 
and Umbar trees, and on certain occasions- 
offerings of coins and cocoanuts are made. It 
is believed that when the three kinds of trees 
happen to grow together, i.,e., close to each 
other, near a well or on the bank of a river, 
the god Datta resides there, but such cases 
are very rare. These trees are supposed to be 
the haunts of the Munja spirit, and therefore 
copper coins waved round the persons suffer- 
ing from evil spirits are thrown underneath 
them. There are no sacred wells in this 
taluka.s In the Dapoli taluka of the Ratnagiri 
District, the Banyan and Pipal trees are 
worshipped. The former is worshipped by 
women on the full moon day of the month of 
Jestha (June) and on the no moon day when 
it falls on Monday. On these occasions a cotton 
thread is tied round the tree, and offerings of 
glass beads, cocoanuts, fruits, etc., are made. 
These trees are also worshipped with offerings- 
of copper coins, etc^ In the Dapoli taluka^ 
there is a certain place between the two villa- 
ges of Anjarla and Harnai where persons pas- 
sing by that side throw one or two stones,, 
causing thereby a heap of stones there. It is be- 
lieved that by doing this the person who throws- 
such stones gets rid of his itch. This place 



1 School Master, Bdndiwade, Ratndgiri. 2 School Master, Fonda, Ratnagiri. 

3 School Master, Ubhdddnda, Ratndgiri. * School Master, Chidran, Koldba, 

5 School Master, Sasawane, Koldba. 6 School Master, Anjur, Thdna. 

1 Rdo Sdheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 8 School Master, Ubhdddnda, Ratndgiri. 

5 School Master, Bankavli, Ratndgiri. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



37 



is called Girjoba. Hands and feet made of 
wood are also offered by persons who make 
vows to do so when their hands or legs are 
affected by any disease.^ At Ibhrampur in 
the Ratnagiri District offerings of cotton 
thread, copper coins, and fruit are made to 
Banyan and Pipal trees on the full moon day 
of the month of Jestha (June) and on every 
Saturday in the month of Shrdwan (August).^ 

At Vavanje in the Panwel taluka of the 
Kolaba District, offerings of coins, etc., to 
sacred trees are made at the time of Parwani 
(a festival). For instance, when the no moon 
day falls on Monday, the women worship the 
Pipal tree, and on the full moon day of Jestha 
(June) they worship the Banyan tree. The 
custom prevails of the worship of a well by 
women after their delivery. A woman, after 
completing the period of her confinement or 
ceremonial impurity, is taken to a well, from 
which she has to bring home water, and is re- 
quired to worship the well with the following 
materials, viz : — cotton thread, copper coins, 
cocoanuts and such other fruit as can be had 
on the occasion.^ At Varsai in the Pen taluka 
of the Kolaba District, offerings of cotton 
cloth, copper coins, cocoanuts, betelnuts and 
plantains are made to the Banyan, Pipal, and 
Umbar trees, and also to holy wells. The 
Pipal, Tulsi, and Umhar trees are worshipped 
daily by women in this district, while the Ban- 
yan is worshipped on the full moon day of 
Jestha (June). The materials of worship 
are : — rice, fruits, water, sandalpaste, flowers, 
mangoes and jack fruits.* 

At Malad in the Thana District, the Ban- 
yan tree is worshipped by women of the Drvi- 
jas, i.e., of the twice born castes, on the full 
moon day of the month of Jestha, Copper or 



silver coins and fruit are offered to the tree 
These offerings are taken by the Brahman 
priest, who explains to them the modes of 
worship. The Brahman priest is also given 
some money as a gift. This Vrata, i.e., vow, is 
observed by women by fasting for three suc- 
cessive days, from the 13th to the 15th day of 
the bright half of Jestha (June). The Pipal 
tree is worshipped daily by some men and 
women of the Brahman caste. Women walk 
round this tree for a hundred and eight times 
or more daily. Some persons hold a thread 
ceremony for the Pipal tree in order to obtain 
a son, and worship the tree for a certain 
period. It is worshipped with fruit and cop- 
per coins. Wooden cradles are also offered to 
the tree. Wells are worshipped on auspicious 
days such as Parwani by women of the upper 
castes.^ ^t Padghe in the Thana District tlie 
Banyan tree is worshipped on the full moon 
day of Jestha, and the Pipal is worshipped 
every Saturday in the month of tShrdwan 
(August). The Pipal tree is not worshipped 
before the performance of its thread ceremony, 
and its thread ceremony is not performed till the 
tree bears at least one thousand leaves, ^ 

At Kolhapur, the Banyan and Pipal trees 
are considered very holy, and offerings of 
rags, coins,, etc., are made to them. It is a 
custom among the Hindu women to (varship 
the Banyan tree on the full moon day of Jes- 
tha, Offerings of cloth and fruit are made 
to this tree, and copper or silver coins are given 
as dakskana. Some women make a small mo- 
del in gold, silver, or copper of the Banyan 
tree or of its leaf, and present it to the Brah- 
man priest along with a present of money. 
All these rites are required to be strictly per- 
formed as enjoined in the Shdstras,'' 



1 School Master, Anjarle, Ratndgiri 
5 School Master, Vavanje, Koldba. 
5 School Master, Mdldd, Thana. 



2 School Master, Ibhrampur, Ratn^giriJ 
4 School Master, Varsai, Koldba. 
6 School Master, Padghe, Thdna. 



? Riio Sdheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 



38 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



At Nagothane in the Kolaba District, it is 
believed that men who are well versed in the 
mantras of witchcraft and sorcery sometimes 
transfer diseases from one person to another.'- 
Vaccination is believed to be a method of 
transferring disease to other persons.^ 

At Malad in the Thana District a method 
of transferring disease from one person to 
another is in practice among the Shudras, It 
is as follows : — A woman without a child cuts 
secretly a little piece from the garment of a 
woman who has children. She then burns the 
piece, puts the ashes into water, and the mixture 
is then drunk by the barren woman. It is 
believed tliat, by so doing, the evil spirit of 
the disease that is troubling the barren woman 
is transferred to the other who has children. 
The barrenness of the first woman then 
disappears, and she begets children. It is said 
that if the second woman comes to know of the 
mischief before using that garment, she 
discontinues the use of the same, and no harm 
is done to her.* 
^ In the Umbergaon taluka of the Thana 
District the methods of transferring disease 
are called Muth Mdrane i. e., a bewitched 
lime is sent to the person to whom the disease 
is to be transferred. Various mantras are also 
secretly repeated with the object of trans- 
ferring the disease to an enemy.* 

At Kolhapur, there are no methods of 
transferring disease to other persons, but it is 
said that the following ceremony is practised 
in the case of persons suflfering from swollen 
glands. Rice, Udid grain etc. are tied in a 
yellow cloth, and three knots are made in it. 
This is then kept for one night under the 
pillow of the diseased person. It is taken out 



the next morning and thrown away at a place 
where three roads meet. It is then supposed 
that the person who steps on the bundle first is 
attacked with the disease, and the one for 
whom the rite is performed is cured.^ 

At Devgad taluka in the Ratnagiri District 
it is believed that evil spirits are fond of 
things like a cock, cocoanuts, boiled rice, etc., 
and when a person considers himself attacked 
by evil spirits, these things are waved round 
his body and thrown away at some distance 
from his residence. This is generally done in 
the evening, but if necessary it can be done at 
any time. The person who goes to throw these 
things away is prohibited from looking behind. 
The things required for a bali, i. e., oblatio.n, 
on such occasions are boiled rice, red powder, 
and an oil lamp made of black cotton wick.*^ 

In the Vengurla taluka of the Ratnagiri 
District, when a person is suffering from any 
disease for a long time, and when ordinary 
medicines prove to be ineffective, a goat or a 
cock is waved round the body of the patient, 
and are then put beyond the village boundary 
or taken away by the sorcerer. While 
performing this rite, the man must repeat 
certain mantras.'' 

At Fonda in the Ratnagiri District, the use 
of scapegoats is resorted to in cases of persons 
supposed to have been attacked by evil spirits. 
Cuirds and boiled rice are waved round the 
body of the diseased person and thrown away 
at a distance from the house. In some cases it 
is said that the cock which is waved round 
the body of the sick person dies instantane- 
ously.8 

In the Malwan taluka of the Ratnagiri Dis- 
trict the scapegoat (often a cock) is waved 



' School Master, Ndgothane, Koldba. 

• School Master, Mdldd, Thina. 

' Rao Saheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 

' School Master, Ubbdddnda, Ratndgiri. 



2 School Master, Navare, Ratndgiri. 
* School Master, Shirgaon, Thana. 
« School Master, Mitbdv, Ratndgiri. 
* School Mastery Fonde, Ratndgiri, 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



39 



three times round the sick person and thrown 
into the street. The man who goes to thro\f 
it away is prohibited from looking behind. 
Burnt cowdung ashes are thrown out of the 
•door after the man has left the house, and the 
door is closed at once.^ 

In the Dapoli taluka, cocoanuts, curds, 
boiled rice, turmeric powder, red powder, cocks 
•etc. are waved round the body of the sick 
person and taken beyond the village boundary 
or to a big tree supposed to be haujnted by 
•evil spirits, and in some cases these things are 
thrown away where four roads meet.^ 

In the Rajapur taluka of .the Ratnagiri 
District scapegoats are used by the low caste 
people, while Brahmans use cocoanuts, boiled 
rice and copper coins.^ At Kalse in the Rat- 
nagiri District eggs, cocks, goats, etc. are used 
as scapegoats. These things are waved roumd 
the body of the patient, and taken beyond the 
village limits or far from the residence of the 
sick person. For this rite a man from the 
Ghadi, Gurav, Raval, or Mahar caste is in- 
vited at night, and he is paid in cash for his 
.■services.* 

At Ibhrampur in the Ratnagiri District, the 
cocks and goats used for driving out evil 



spirits from the body of the patient are not 
thrown away, but are eaten by the exorcist.'' 

At Navre in the Ratnagiri District, hens 
are used to extract the poison of snake bites 
from the body of the sufferer. In cases of 
evil spirits alone, cocoanuts, cocks and goats 
are used as scapegoats." 

At Dasgaon in the Kolaba District, a Paradi 
(basket) containing black glass beads, bangles, 
turmeric and red powders, sweetmeat of five 
sorts, flowers, cocoanut, a burninig scented 
stick, and rice, is waved three times round the 
body of the patient, and thrown away outside 
the village.'^ 

At Kolhapur, the use of fowls, goats, limes, 
cocoanuts, copper coins, dry chillies and salt 
is in vogue, not only in cases of sick persons, 
but also when a person performs a feat such 
as bending an iron bar, or doubling with his 
hands a silver coin, or winning a victory in 
wrestling. The articles are then waved round 
him and thrown away in order that he may 
not suffer from an evil eye. Among the rich 
the same rite is performed on ordinary occa- 
sions such as leaving a bouse, starting on a 
journey etc In cases of illness it is specially 
performed in the evening, and the articles are 
thrown away at the outskirts of the village, 
or by the side of a well.* 



1 School Master, Bandivade, Ratnagiri. 
3 School Master, Adivare, Ratnagiri. 
5 School Master, Ibhrampur, Ratnilgiri. 
' School Master, Ddsgaon, Kolaba. 



2 School Master, Anjarla, Ratndgiri. 
4 School Master, Kdlse, Ratndgiri, 
6 School Master, Navre, Ratnagiri. 
8 Rao Sdhib, Shelke, Kolhdpur. 



CHAPTER IV. 



WORSHIP OF ANCESTORS AND SAINTS, 



In the Konkan, especially among the lower 
classes, a strong belief prevails regarding the 
mortality of the spirits of the dead and of 
their re-appearance or re-birth in their 
children. And for this reason, as well as for 
protection against evil, the dead ancestors are 
worshipped, 

^ The custom regarding the worship of an- 
cestors prevailing at Kalshe in the Ratnagiri 
District is as follows : — The worship of an- 
cestors is called Shrdddha (anniversary) . It 
is performed on the no moon day of every 
month, on the date of the death of the person 
every year^ and also on the same date of the 
dark half of the month of BMdrapada (Sep- 
tember). Among the Brahmans, Brahman 
priests are invited, worshipped, and are given a 
feast, after worshipping balls of boiled rice 
as representing the dead ancestors. The 
special materials used for worship are sesa- 
mum and barley grain. The same custom 
prevails among non-Brahmans with the excep- 
tion that the balls are made of rice flour and 
not of boiled rice. To partake of the food on 
such occasions,; the lower classes invite married 
persons of their own caste. The anniversary 
day of Sddhus and MaJiants, i.e. saints, is 

I called Punya tithi i.e. the day of merit. 

It is commonly believed that spirits are 
mortal. The life of the deceased remains in 
the spirit condition until the sins which he 
may have committed are washed away by the 
good deeds of his descendants. There is no 



belief that one spirit dies and another takes 
its place, but it is believed that the ancestors, 
are sometimes reborn in the same family.^ 

At Ubhadanda in the Vengurla taluka of 
the Ratnagiri District ancestors are worshipped' 
every year on the same date of the month 
(according to the Hindu calendar year) on 
which the person died, by performing a Shrdd- 
dha rite. They are also worshipped on the 
same date in the second half of Bhddrapada 
(September) every year. This is by a rite 
called Mahdlaya Shrdddha, On both these 
occasions Brahmans are invited, and the wor- 
shipping ceremony is performed by repeating 
the mantras. After the ceremony,- all the invit- 
ed guests men and women partake of food. 

Sadhus are worshipped after washing their 

feet with sandal paste, flowers, cocoanuts and^ 

gifts of money. 

-A 
It is believed that evil spirits undergo a ^ 

transformation after a lapse of twelve years. 

The practice of giving the names of ancestors 

to children is common, and it is due to the 

belief that the spirits of the dead are reborn 



in children in the same family.^ 

At Pendur in the Ratnagiri District the 
ancestors are worshipped on the last day of 
every Hindu calendar month. This monthly 
worship is called Darsha Shrdddha. The 
annual anniversay of the manes is celebrated 
by the ceremony called the Sdmvatsarik 
Shrdddha, If any ancestor has died after 
becoming a recluse or Sanydsi, his body is 



^ 



1 School Master, Kdlse, Ratndgiri, 



2 School Master, Ubhdddnda, Ratndgiri. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



41 



buried, and a tonib called a samddhi is erected 
■over it; and his descendants, instead of per- 
forming the annual Shrdddha, worship the 
tomb o'f the recluse every day. It is believed 
that the spirits take a different form after the 
lapse of seven generations. The belief tliat 
the spirits of the dead are reborn in the same 
family prevails among the people of this dis- 
trict. The following measures are adopted for 
the purpose of identification. When a person 
■dies in a family, a basil or hel leaf is placed 
on a certain part of the body, or some familiar 
sign is made in sandal paste ; and when a child 
is born in the family, its body is carefully 
examined to ascertain whether there are any 
■signs on the body of the child such as were 
made on the dead body of the ancestor. If 
the same sign appears to the satisfaction of 
the members of the family, it is believed that 
the dead person has been reborn in the same 
family.^ 

At Navare in the Ratn'giri District Brah- 
mans are invited, worshipped and given a feast 
in honour of ancestors. Sddhus and MaKants, or 
saints, are worshipped by giving them the same 
honour accorded to the family deities.^ 

At Basani in the Eatnagiri District the 
anniversary day of saints is observed by the 
performance of a Bhajan^ which consists in 
-singing the good deeds of saints and in offering 
prayers. It is believed that spirits are mortal, 
but they do not die like ordinary human beings. 
They cease to exist as spirits as soon as the 
period of their release is over. The spirits 
obtain absolution by visiting certain holy 
places. 3 

At Dabhol in the Ratnagiri District the 
people believe that the souls of ancestors are 
reborn in children in the same family if some 



of their desires remain unfulfilled at the time 
of their demise.* 

At Shiravde in the Ratnagiri District ances- 
tors are worshipped every year by performing 
the rites called tarpan^ which consist in offering 
oblations of holy water, sesamum, barley grains 
and repeating prayers. The tarpan is obser- 
ved on the very date of the month in which the 
person died. The procedure of worshipping 
the Hindu saints is similar to' that cf the other 
deities. Owing to the belief that the spirit 
of the dead are reborn in children in the same 
family the name of the grandfather is given 
to the grandson.'"' 

At Naringre in the Ratnagiri taluka ances- 
tors are worshipped by inviting Brahman 
priests, and worshipping them with sandal 
paste and flowers. These Brahmans are 
supposed to represent the father, grandfather 
and great grandfather of the worshipper. '^ 

At Bandivade in the Ratnagiri District the 
leaves of the herb called pudina^ (a good medi- 
cine for worms) sesamum, and darbha grass are 
required for the worship of ancestors. The 
man who worships the ancestors has to turn his 
sacred thread from the right hand to the left.'' 

At Anjarle in the Ratnagiri District Mahants 
and Sddhus are worshipped in their life- 
time like family deities, and their tombs are 
worshipped after their death. '^ 

At P^onde in the Ratnagiri District ancestors 
are worshipped by making balls of boiled rice 
on their anniversary day. The balls are suppos- 
ed to take the place of the dead parents, and 
they are worshipped with sandal paste and 
flowers, and by burning incense and lighting a 
lamp of clarified butter. Betelnuts and leaves, 
cocoanuts and DaJcshina (presents of money) 
are given to them. People also bow before them. 



1 School Master, Pendur, Ratnagiri. 
3 School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri. 
5 School Master, Shiravde, Ratadgiri. 
7 School Master, Bdadivade, Ratnagir'. 



2 School Master, Navare, Ratnagiri, 
* School Master, Dabhol, Ratndgiri. 
« School Master, Naringre, Ratndgiri. 
s School Master, Aajarle, Ratnagiri. 



42 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



Mahants and JSddhus are worshipped by wash- 
ina; their feet, sandal paste is applied to their 
body, and they are garlanded with flowers. 
Cocoanuts, a piece of cloth and a gift in coins 
are given to them according to the means of 
the giver. It is said that spirits can remain as 
spirits for about a thousand years.^ 

At Vijayadurg in the Ratnagiri District 
the method of worshipping ancestors is as 
follows: — In some cases elderly parents as well 
as a grandfather and great grandfather are also 
worshipped, their feet are washed with water, 
and the water is accepted as tirth or holywater. 
While worshipping the Mahants and Sddhus, 
or saints, water is poured on their right hand, 
and they are worshipped with sandal paste 
and flowers, and given a dakshana or gifts of 
money according to one's means and will. 
The pddukas^ or foot prints, of saints are 
worshipped after their death. ^ 

At Mitbav in the Ratnagiri District holy 
persons such as Sanyasis are worshipped after 
their death by performing their anniversary 
ceremony every year. It is believed that 
spirits are mortal. Evil spirits such as munjas^ 
etc., undergo a kind of transformation, and 
it is believed that this occurs at places like 
Narsoba's Wadi.^ 

At Devgad in the Ratnagiri District ances- 
tors are worshipped on their anniversary days, 
the manes being represented by pieces of 
Darbhs, grass and balls of boiled rice.* 

At P'oladpur in the Kolaba District a person 
whose father is alive but who has lost his 
mother's father, has to perform the Shrdddha 
of that grandfather on the 1st day of the bright 
half of Ashtvin (October), This Shtrdddha is 
called Duhitra. A person who has lost his 
wife has to perform the Shrdddha for tliat 



wife on the 9th day of the dark half of the- 
month of Bhddrapada, This day is called- 
Ahev Navami. These different sorts of Shrdd~ 
dhas are observed only by the high class- 
Hindus. The lower classes worship their 
ancestors on the last day of the month of 
Bhddrapada by preparing a ball of boiled rice 
or flour, and putting it out for the crows to eat^ 
It is believed that spirits are mortal. The 
ceremony called Narayan Nagabali is per- 
formed when it is believed that the spirit of an 
ancestor is giving trouble to the family. When 
this rite is performed, the spirit is saved and. 
the ailment ceases. It is believed that the 
spirits of the dead are sometimes reborn in. 
children in the same family, and in such cases- 
the names of the ancestors are given to their 
children by the people. ^ 

At Khopoli in the Karjat taluka of the 
Kolaba District the form of worship of ances- 
tors is similar to that of the ordinary Hindu 
deities. In the case of the worship of the 
deities the person performing the worship has- 
to sit with his face towards the east, w;hile at 
the worship of the ancestors he has to sit witL 
his face towards the south.'' 

At Chaul in the Kolaba District, the tombs- 
of Sanyasis^ i.e. ascetics and Sddhus are wor- 
shipped on their anniversary days, and a great 
fair is held in their honour. The other ances- 
tors are worshipped by the shrdddka rites The- 
anniversary of the founders of the different 
sects is observed by their followers by a 
bhajan, i. e. singing songs in their own style 
and exhibiting the different insignia and flag 
of the sect as advised by their founders.'' 

The people of Chidhran in the Kolaba 
District believe that the period for which the- 
soul has to remain in the spirit state dependS'- 



1 School Master, Fonde, Ratndgiri. 
3 School Master, Mitbdv, Ratndgiri. 
5 School Master, Poladpur, KoUba. 



2 School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratndgiri. 
* School Master, Devgad, Ratndgiri. 
6 School Master, Khopoli, KoUba. 
^ School Master, Chaul, Koldba. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



43 



upon the sins of the person, or the wishes which 
remained unfulfilled during his life lime. It 
is not that all the spirits of the dead are 
reborn in children. The rebirth depends upon 
the good or bad deeds of the deceased. 
However, if the nature of any child suggests 
the nature of any dead person in the family, it 
is assumed that the spirit of the deceased has 
returned to the family.^ 

At Nagothane in the Pen taluka of the 
Kolaba District some of the communities 
worship small images called tanks on the 
anniversary of their ancestors' death ; among 
the Shudras food is given to the crows on the 
last day of Bhddrapad, The custom of 
giving a grandfather's name to the grandson 
prevails largely, and is due to the belief that 
the spirits of the dead are sometimes reborn 
in the same family.- It is also said that in 
some of the Hindu communities, if a child 
cries continuously, ashes are applied to its 
forehead in the name of one of the ancestors 
in the family ; and if the child sleeps quietly 
or stops crying, the name of that ancestor is 
given to it.*'' 

^ At Shirgaon in the Thana District, the 
worship of ancestors is performed on the 
day of the father's death, every year. On 
any auspicious occasion the rite called Ndndi 
shrdddha is performed at the beginning of the 
ceremony. It is believed that evil spirits or 
ghosts have to remain in the ghostly state for 
about one thousand years, or at least until one 
of the descendants in the family goes to 
a holy place like Kdslii (Benares) and there 
performs the shrdddha rites of his ancestors.* 

W At Malad in thie Thana District, the 
worship of ancestors is performed on the day 
of the father's death every month till the 



completion of one year by inviting Brahman* 
and giving them a feast. This is done among 
Brahmans only. The other communities worship 
their ancestors by performing the rite calle d 
Chata Shrdddha and by giving Shidha, i.e. rice 
pulse, vegetables and ghi to Brahman priests.. 
A feast is then given to their casteiuen.^ 

At Kolhapur, ancestors, Mahants and Sd~ 
dhus are worshipped by the rites known as the 
Purtmic ritual, that is, no Vedic mantras are 
repeated while performinr these rites. It is a 
common belief in this province that the soul 
of the person who has committed a murder, or 
has incurred debt and enmity, is obliged to- 
repay the debt by being born again as a 
servant or in some other subordinate capacity 
of the debtor.'^ 

The tombs of the Hindu and Mahomedan 
saints are considered holy, but they are not 
supposed to possess miracular powers.''^ The 
following is a list of saints who have been 
deified and worshipped by the people of the 
Eatnagiri District. (1) Mukundraj, (2)' 
Dnyandev, (3) Tukaram, (4) Eknabh 
(5) Namdev, (6) Eamdas, (7) Akkalkotche 
Swami, (8) Eanganath, (9) Dev Mamlatdar 
(10) Kabir. (11) Kamal, (l2) Nipat 
Niranjan, (13) Tulshidas, (14) Pundalik, 
(15) Vashistha, (16) Dattatraya, (17) 
Sohiroba, (18) Gorakshanath, (19) Pur- 
nanath. 

At Shiroda in the Eatnagiri District a 
practice prevails of making vows to the tombs 
of women who burnt themselves as Satvis. 
Vows are also made to the Musalman Pirs^ 
and offerings are often made in fulfilment of 

such V0WS.8 

At the fort of Vishdlgad there is a tomb of 
a Pir (saint). It is usual to make a vow to 



1 School Master, Chidhran, Koldba. 
i School Master, Vavanje, Koldba. 
5 School Master, Mil^d, Thana. 
7 School Master, Pendur, Ratndgiri. 



2 School Master, Nagothane, Koldba. 
i School Master, Shirgaon, Thdna. 
6 Rao Saheb Shelke, Kolhapur. 
8 School Master, Shiroda, Ratnigiri, 



44 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



-worship this Pir with fetters on one's legs, and 
it is believed that, at the time of worship, the 
«hains break ofF.^ 

There is at Dahibav in the Ratnagiri 
District a tomb of a Hindu saint named ■Shri 
Anand Murti^ to which the people of that 
locality make vows when severe calamities 
tef all them, and it is believed that the saint 
listens lo their prayers. ^ 

When a Brahman assumes the garb of a 
recluse or Sanydsi, he is considered by the 
people as sacred as a Hindu god, and is 
worshipped with great reverence, provided he 
abides by the rules contained in the shastras.^ 
There is a tomb of a Pir at Bawa Malangad 
in the Panwel taluka of the Kolaba District, 
where the people make vows to the Pir, and it 
is believed that the Pir fulfils their wishes. 
Hindu saints such as Ramdas, Dnyaneshwar, 
Namdev are held m great honour in this 
District.* 

There is a temple of Ndgoha at Avas in 
the Kolaba District where persons suffering 
from snake-bite, if carried to the temple while 
still alive, are said to be cured. ^ 

At Kawad in the Bhiwandi taluka of the 
Thana District there is a tomb of a 
Brahmdchari named Sakharam Bdva who has 
been deified by the people of that District. 
A great fair is held at the tomb every year.^ 

The following instance is given of a miracle 
at the tomb Sakhdrdm Bdva of Kawad. A 
man suffering from fits showed an inclination 
to go to Kawad to read Guru Charitra for 
seven successive days. He was taken to that 
place accordingly. After his arrival, he 
continued to suffer from these fits in the 



morning and evening at the time of the 
worship at the tomb. Once during the fits he 
said that he would be free from the disease if 
Rs. 200 were spent in giving a feast to the 
Brahmans at Pali. The relatives of the sufferer 
agreed to arrange accordingly, and instantly the 
man put his head on the SamddKi /tomb) and 
threw himself on his back. He came to his 
senses after ten minutes, and from that time he 
was completely cured. A feast was then given 
to the Brahmans at Pali, and Rs. 200 were 
spent over it as promised. Another instance 
of miracular power is cited, and that is of the 
priest of the goddess Mahaluxmi of Kolwan. 
This priest goes up and hoists the flag of the 
goddess on a steep hill which no other person 
can climb, and it is believed that he can do 
this only when the spirit of the goddess en'^ers 
his body.'' 

At Umbergaon in the Thana District there 
is a miracle-working tomb of a saint called the 
Datar "Pir." Sakharambava of Angaon 
Kawad, a Hindu saint, is held in high honour 
in this village.* At this place it is a'so believed 
that some of the Pirs walk round the village at 
night, and their ' ombs are said to be seen in 
motion. The Datar Pir is worshipped even 
by the Hindus of that locality." 

At Shirosi in the Muirbad Taluka of the 
Thana District, Sakharambava of Kawad, Dev 
Mamlatdart Chandirambuva of Khed, Narayan- 
buva of Nanuri, the Sivdmi of Akkalkot, the 
Stvdmi of Kumbhar Peth at Kolhapur, and 
the Dandekerbuva of Rajapur are the principal 
saints held in honour by the people, i" 

At Manikpur in the Thana District it is said 
that a bright light or flames emanate from 
certain tombs of Musalman saints.^^ 



1 School Master, Sakharane, Ratntigiri. 
' School Master, Adivare, Ratndgiri. 
* School Master, Akshi, Kolaba. 
' School Master, Padghe, Thilna. 
' School Master, Umbergaon, Thdna. 



2 School Master, Ndringre, Ratndgiri. 
* School Master, Chauk, Ratndgiri. 
8 School Master, Vdda, Thdna. 
' School Master, Dahdnu, Thdna. 
10 School Master, Shirosi, Thdna. 



" School Master, Mdnikpur, Thdna. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



45 



At Umela in the Thana District it is said 
that flames and smoke are given out from the 
tombs of certain Mahomedan saints situated in 
the locality. These flames appear and 
disappear very suddenly. ^ 

In the Kolhapur District people believe that 
the Bamddhi of Swami Anandmurti, who was 
a disciple of Raghunath Swami of Bhramanal, 
shakes on the SMwardtri day, that is the 1 3th 
of the dark half of Mdgha^ and on the Rama- 
nawami day i. e. the 9th of the bri ht half of 
Cfiaitra^ at the time of the worship called 
Bhajan. Among the tombs held most sacred 
by the Hindus of the Konkan may be mentioned 
the following vis: Bhuijang Swami of Lokapur, 
Ramdas Swami, the Samadhi of Shri Shankara- 
charya at Sliirgaon, Chintaman Swami of 
Murgud, and the Samadhi of Mangalmurti 
M'orya at Chinchwad near Poona. All these 
Srvdmis were Brahmoichdris or bachelors, and 
they spent their lives in the service of God and 
preached virtue and morality to the masses. 
These JSamddhis are of two kinds: (1) of saints 
after death, and (2) of saints on the point of 
death. Tihe third kind is called Jal Samadhi, 
i.e. immersion in water, but no tomb of the 
latter kind is to be found in this Province. It 
is said that, if a lime is placed above the Sama- 
dhi of Bhujanga Swami, it begins to shake at 
the time of the Arti ceremony. The present 
disciple of Bhujanga Swimi sits in (Samddhi) 
meditation continuously for four to eight days 
There prevails a belief at Kolhapur that the 
swdmi whose body is buried in the tomb at 
Chinchwad is still alive. Some years ago when 
the present disciple of the Chinchwad Stvdmi 
was anxious to take Samddh, he had a dream in 
which the srvdmi in the tomb told him that he 
was still living in that Samadhi^ and that there- 
fore there was no need for his disciple to take 
Samddh. He was thus obliged to forego the 
project. The Peshwas of Poona, who were 
staunch devotees of the Chinchwad swdmi, and 
by whose favour they were raised to a position 



of social equality among the Deccan Brahmans, 
granted an Inam of some villages for the 
maintenance of this Samddhi^ and the British 
Government have allowed the descendants of 
the swdmi to retain the Inam, The following 
are the principal Musalman saints who have 
been deified in the Kolhapur District: — 

(1) BdhaJamdl, (2) Ohod Pir, (3)' Bara 
Imdnt^ (4) Avachit Pir, (5) Buran Sdheb 
and (^) Mira Sdheb of Miraj, All these 
Pirs have been supplied with annual grants of 
money by the Kolhapur State. ^ -^ 

At Ubhadanda in the Vengurla taluka of | 
the Ratnagiri District some Hindus have adopt- 
ed the worship of Mahomedan saints., Maho- 
medan Pirs are worshipped in the month of 
Moharram. On these occasions Hindus beg 
in the town in the disguise of Fakirs^ and the 
alms thus obtamed are offered to the Pir. 
They make offerings of water to the Pirs, while 
the tdbuis are being carried to the sea for 
immersion. But this practice is being slowly i 
discontinued.^ 

At Bandivade in the Ratnagiri District 
Hindus offer cocoanuts and Jchichadi to the 
Pirs at the time of the Moharram^ and at some 
places a lamp is kept burning every Monday in 
honour of a Pir.^ 

*At Kalbadevi in the Ratnagiri taluika there 
is a tomb of a Musalman saint who is worship- 
ped by the Hindus. Similarly there is a Pir 
at Oaonkhddi in the Rajapuir taluka who is 
held in reverence even by high caste Hindus.^ 

At Ade in the Dapoli taluka of the Ratnagiri 
District there is a tomb of a Musalman saint 
which is worshipped by the Hindus including 
the Brahmans. The building and also the 
mosque in that village have been repaired from 
contributions obtained fromhighclass Hindus.^ 
Many Hindus of IJevagadin the Ratnagiri 
District worship Musalman saints. Occasional- 
ly they offer cocoanuts to tdbuts, and throw 
red powder over them. They also make vows 
to the Pirs.'' 



1 School Master, Um^la, Thdna. 

3 School Master, Ubhdddnda, Ratnigiri. 

5 School Master, Basani, Ratnigir-i 



2 Rao Sdheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 

i School Master, Bandivade, Ratnagiri. 

6 School Master, Murud, Ratnagiri. 



7 School Master, Devagad, Ratnagiri. 



46 



FOLKLORE OE THE KONKAN 



There are two Pirs at Vijayadurg who are 
-worshipped by the Hindus. The same practice 
prevails at Rajapur and Kharepatan.^ 

At Chauk in the Karjat taluka of the Kolaba 
District some Hindus worship Pirs. The 
members of the Ketkar family of Chauk are 
the Pujdris or ministrants of the Musalman 
saint known as Bdva Mdlangad, This shows 
that even Brahmans worship Musalman 
saints.^ 

The tomb of Bavd Mdlangad situated in 
the Kolaba District is worshipped first by a 
Brahman and then by Musalmans. The Brah- 
man worshipper performs this task more for 
the pecuniary benefit which he derives from the 
worship than from faith in the divinity of 
the Pir.3 

At Poladpur in the Mahad taluka of the 
Kolaba District there are no instances of 
Musalman saiuts being worshipped by Hindus, 
but persons wishing to have children make 
vows to Pirs, and children born by the favour 
of such Pirs are required to assume the robe 
of a Fakir during the Moharram festivities.* 

The practice of worshipping such saints 
exists at Khopoli in the Kolaba District. 
Persons in trouble, or desirous of getting 
children, make vows to the saint Imam Hussein 
and when their desires are fulfilled they dress 
themselves as Fakirs and beg at certain places 
during the Moharram festivities.^ A certain 
Lakshman Gangadhar Joshi of Rewdanda in 
the Kolaba District is the Mujdwar (priest or 
ministrant) of a Musalman saint Chdnsemalli 
and lie holds an Indm in connection with his 
office of Mujdwar of the saint's Darga.^ 

At Akshi in the Kolaba District there is a 
tomb of a Pir which is worshipped by lower 
class Hindus such as Kolis, Mdlis and 
Bhanddris.'' 

The Hindus of Bhmvan in the Murbad 
taluka of thb Kolaba District worship the Pir 



1 School Master, Vijaydurg, Ratnigiri. 
3 School Master,, Chidhran, Kolaba, 
5 School Master, Kbapoli, KoUba. 
7 School Master, Akshi, KoUba. 
9 School Master, MdMd, Thdna. 

" School Master, 



of the locality. It is said that the cultivators 
of the village once lost their cattle, and that 
a Fakir attributed the loss to the rage of the 
Pir. Since that time they are careful to worship 
the saint, and the result is that there Jias been 
no disease ameng their cattle. They offer 
Malinda i. e. bread and jdgri, to the Pir every 
Thursday.8 

The Hindu inliabitants of Malad in the 
Thana District sprinkle water over the roads 
by which the tdhuts are to pass, and allow 
their children to pass beneath the tdbuts. 
Some throw sweetmeat on the tdhuts, and 
distribute the same to the poor.^ 

At Shirgaon in the Maliim taluka of tlie 
Thana District some Hindus make vows to the 
local Pir and take part in the tdhut procession. 
They pour water over the feet of the tdhut 
bearers, and throw ahir (black scented powder) 
and flowers on the tdhuts. They also distribute 
to the fakirs Malinda, or KMchadi.^o 

The Mujdwar (priest) of the saint Walli 
Amir Shaha of Shahapur in the Thana 
District is a M'aratha by caste.^^ 

In the Kolhapur District Pirs are held in 
great reverence by Hindus. They make vows 
to the Pirs in order to get a son, and when 
their object is fulfilled they offer a preparation 
of Til (sesamum) and sugar called Rewadi, 
and other sweets called Change, Malinda and 
Pedhe at the time of Moharram. They also 
give Fakiri to their sons in the tdhut season. 
Some of them even bring a tdhut and Ndl 
sdheh to their houses, and spend much money 
on them for illuminati(ms, etc. They dance 
from one Ndlpir to the other saying that the 
Nalpir has entered their bodies. While going 
through the streets they cry out very loudly 
the words 'Yalli Dhulla\ The holiday of the 
Moharram is obsereved for ten days. On the 
tenth day the tdbuts and the Nalpirs are taken 



' School Master,^hauk, Koldba. 
* School Master, Poladpur, Koldba, 
« School Master, Chowl, Koldba. 
3 School Master, Bhuwan^ Thdna. 
1" School Master, Shirgaon, Thdna. 
Shirosi, Thdna. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



47 



to the river for the pmrpose of immersion. 
While returning home from the river with the 
bundle of the Patlca of Ndlpir on their heads 
they cry out loudly the following words : 
"Alahiddyo Ala biddsha ya Husan bani 
alidoshdke sultdn albida" . On the third day 
after the immersion of tdbuts into the river, 
the Pirs devotees kill a goat in the name of 
their patron Pir and make ca preparation of 
the goat's flesh called Konduri} 

The following rites are in vogue for the 
cure of barrenness in the village of Dabhol in 
the Ratnagiri District. — (1) Walking round 
the Pifol tree daily ; (2) Observing a fast for 
sixteen successive Mondays ; (3) Performing 
the worship of Shiva after observing the 
aforesaid fast.^ 
^ At Kalshe in the Mai wan taluka of the 
Ratnagiri District a barren woman is required 
to walk round a Pipal tree every day in the 
morning, and if the barrenness be attributed 
to the disfavour of any deity or the attack of 
an evil spirit, the same deity or the evil spirit 
is invoked and worshipped by the woman her- 
self or through a medium who knows the 
appropriate mode of worship.^ 

To steal an earthen image of the God 
Oanpati, to make a cross or a 'SrvastiJea on the 
bodies of children with marking nut, and the 
worship of the god Mdruti or some other 
powerful deity at midnight in the no moon by 
a barren woman, after divesting herself of her 
clothes, are rural methods for the cure of 
barrenness observed at Anjarle and other 
places in the Dapoli taluka of the Ratnagiri 
District.^ 

At Bandivade in the Ratnagiri District 
copper amulets and black cotton strings are 
used to cure barrenness. Some people make 
vows to a particular deity, and some perform 
the rite of Ndgabali/' 



To walk round Pipal and Umbar trees, to 
circumambulate thle temple of a particular 
deity, and to make vows to that deity, to recite 
or have recited the holy scripture Harivansha^ 
arc methods in practice for cure of barrenness 
at Achre in the Malwan taluka of the 
Ratnagiri District.*' 

At Vijayadurg in the Ratnagiri District, it 
is believed that beating a woman at the time 
of an eclipse is one of the surest methods of 
curing barrenness. Some people give charity, 
observe fasts, worship certain deities and 
make vows to them to obtain children.'' 

At Ubhadanda in the Ratnagiri District, 
stealing the idol of Krishna when it is being 
worshipped on the 8th day of the dark half 
of Shrdwan (August), the birth day of the 
god Krishna, and putting a cocoanut or a 
betelnut in its place is believed to be the best 
method of curing barremiess.® 

At Chauk in the Kolaba Distiict, the same 
plan of stealing the idol of the god Krislina is 
observed as a cure for barrenness. But here 
the idol is returned with great pomp, and re- 
placed in its original place after the birth of a 
child. The godlings Hanumdn and Banian 
Vir are also worshipped for the cure of 
barrenness.*' 

At Poladpur in the Kolaba District the 
favourite method of curing barrenness is to 
obtain copper amulets and black or red cotton 
strings from a Fakir.^'' 

The following are the methods in vogue for 
the cure of barrenness at Khopoli in the 
Kolaba District. 

(1) To inquire from a sorcerer the cause 
of barrenness, and then to perform the rites 
mentioned by him. 

(2) To use copper amulets and cotton 
strings taken from a ManfriA; i. e., one well 
versed in the mantras. 



^ Rao Sdheb Sheike, Kolhdpur, 
» School Master, Kalshe, Ratndgiri. 
5 School Master, Bdndivade, Ratnlgiri. 
1 School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnagiri. 
« School Master, Chauk, Kolaba. 



' School Master, Dabhol, Ratnagiri. 
4 School Master, Anjarle, Ratndgiri. 
6 School Master, Achre, Ratndgiri. 
8 School Master, Ubhadanda, Ratndgirij 
10 School Master, Poladpur, Koldbas 



48 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



(3) To walk round the Tulsi (basil) 
plant or the Pipal or Banyan tree daily in the 
morning after worshipping it. 

(4) To feed another woman's child, or to 
give milk to a child.i 

At Nata in the Kolaba District, a woman 
wishing to have a child is required to strike 
with a knife the Jack, the Tamarind, and the 
Champa trees during an eclipse. It is believed 
that by so doing the woman will bear a child, 
and the trees will also bear flowers and fruits. ^ 

At Medhe in the Roha taluka of the Kolaba 
District, the following methods are in vogue 
for the cure of barrenness: — 

(1) To worship the god Shiva and to 
observe fasts on Mondays. 

(2) To worship the god Ganpati and to 
observe fasts on Sanhasthi chaturthi i. e. tlic 
fourth day of the dark half of every month. 

(3) To walk round the temple of Mdruti 
and Pipal and Umbar trees every day, in the 
morning.^ 

At Padaghe in the Bhiwandi taluka of the 
Thana District, images of Rama and Krishna 
are put into the lap of a barren woman en 
their respective birthdays i. e., the 9tli day of 
the bright half of Chaitra^ and the 8th day 
of the dark half of iShrdrvan. Cocoanuts are 
also placed in her lap with these images.* 

At Manikpur in the Thana District the 
goddess Shitala is worshipped by women to 
cure barrenness. Tbey observe fasts, and go 
to the temple of the goddess bare-footed with 
their hair loose and throwing milk on their 
path. They offer to the goddess wooden cradles 
and children's toys in fulfilment of their 
vows.' 

At Shirgaon in the Mahim taluka of the 
Thana District, it is said that the repetition 
of the mantra" Santdn Gopdl jay'' is resorted 
to as a cure for barrenness." 



At Wade in the Thana District,women make 
vows even to minor deities such as Chedoba 
to get rid of barrenness. They also use copper 
amulets and cotton strings procured from a 
sorcerer well versed in the use of mantras'' 

At Dahigaon in the Thana District the 
worship of the god Shri Satya Narayan is 
held to cure barrenness. Some women also 
distribute to the poor jdgri equal to the 
weight of a child.® 

At Dehari in the Murbad taluka of the 1 
Thana District, the village deity Dehari Mata 
is invoked and worshipped by women for the 
cure of barrenness. 8 In the Kolhapur District, 
the help of the family deities and of the 
household deities is invoked. Women take 
turns round the Banyan, Pipal and Umbar 
trees. Some make vows to the gods, and 
perform certain propitiatory rites as well as 
the Ndrdyan Ndgabali. It is believed that 
the children do not live long if a member of the 
family has killed a snake, or if the funeral 
rites of a person in the family have remained 
unperformed. The following ceremony is 
known as Ndrdyan Ndgabali. A snake is made 
from the flour of Rdla (panie seed), and 
another made of gold is put into it. It is then 
burnt like a dead body. All the ordinary 
funeral rites are perforjiied. After performing 
the eleventh day rites, homa, i.e., sacred fire, 
is kindled at night time, and after keeping 
vigil for the whole night, milk and - a dakshana 
are given to Brahmans. A feast is given to 
eleven Brahmans on that day. On the twelfth 
day sixteen Brahmans are fed, and on the 
thirteenth, five Brahmans are given a feast, 
after performing the Shrdddha rites. On the 
fourteenth day, again, a feast is given to about 
100 to 500 Brahmans according to the means 
of the host. It is believed that, after the per- 
formance of these rites, the soul of the deceased 
reaches heaven, and there is an end to the 
troubles and misfortunes of the family.^* 



-^ 



1 School Master, Khopoli, Koldba, 
' School Master, Medhe, Koldba. 
5 School Master, Mdnikpur, Thdna. 
' School Master, Wdde, Thdna. 
S School Master, Dehari, Thdna. 



2 School Master; Ndta.KoWba. 
1 School Master, Padaghe, Thdna, 
6 School Master, Shirgaon, Tbdna. 
' School Master, Dahigaon, Thdna. 
10 Rdo Sdheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 



CHAPTER V. 



THE WORSHIP OF THE MALEVOLENT DEAD. 



At Ubhadanda in the Ratnagiri District the 
following dreams are believed to be lucky and 
propitious. To swim through the river or 
sea, to rise to the sky, to see the Sun, the 
Moon and the other planets, to eat meat, to 
bathe in blood, and to eat rice and curds. It 
is also believed that the sight of white objects 
in dreams foretells success in any work or 
undertaking that may be in view. A deity, a 
Brahman, a king, a married woman decked 
with ornaments, a bullock, a moimtain, trees 
full of fruits, climbing the Umber tree, a 
looking glass, meat and flowe'rs, if seen in 
dreams, are good omens. Climbing the 
Palas tree, Warul i. e. an ant heap, the bitter 
lime tree, to marry, to use red clothes or red 
flower garlands, to eat cooked meat, to see the 
sun and the moon without lustre, and to see 
shooting stars during dreams, are said to be 
bad omens. ^ 

At Mitbav in the Devgad taluka of the 
Ratnagiri District dreams are believed to 
be caused by indigestion and restlessness. 
To embrace a dead body in a dream, to see 
troubled waters, to dine heartily, are said to be 
bad omens. Feasting friends and receiving 
gifts from them are said to be good omens.2 

At Fonde in the Ratnagiri District dreams 
are said to indicate things that have happened, 
or are about to happen in the near future. 
All white substances other than cotton, salt, 
and bones, arc considered auspicious, and all 



black substances excepting a lotus, a horse, 
an elephant, and a deity are considered 
inauspicious.^ 

At Ibhrampur in the Chiplun taluka, hor- 
rible dreams are good omens, while pleasing 
dreams indicate approaching calamities.* 

At Pendur in the Ratnagiri District it is 
believed that dreams foretell future events. 
It is believed that the dream will prove correct 
and effective if the person dreaming has asked 
three questions and received three answers 
in his dream. Those dreams which are caused 
through cold are called Jalap. They are 
generally false dreams, and no good omens are 
derived therefrom.^ 

At Basani in the Ratnagiri District it is 
believed that the ancestors who take interest 
in the welfare of their descendants appear in 
dreams and foretell f utuire events, so that the 
dreaming person may take the needful precau- 
tions for the prevention of future calamities.^ 

At Kalse in the Malwan taluka of the 
Ratnagiri District it is believed that dreams in 
the last part of the night, i. e., just before 
daybreak, and in which great men are seen, 
generally prove effective. If anybody sees ) 
himself married in a dream it is supposed that 
he will hear of the death of some relative. '^ 

At Chauk in the Kolaba District it is 
believed that, when calamities are threatened, 
the guardian deity of the family as well as 
the dead ancestors appear in dreams and give 
warnings of the coming calamities.^ 



1 



1 School Master, Ubhddanda, Ratnagiri. 
3 School Master, Fonde, Ratniigiri. 
5 School Master, Pendur, Ratnagiri. 
1 School Master, Kalse, Ratnagiri. 



2 School Master, Mitbdv, Ratnagiri. 
4 School Master, Ibhrampur, Ratndgiri. 
6 School Master, Basani, Rata&giri. 
8 School Master, Chauk, KoUba, 



50 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



The people of Poladpur in the Kolaba 
District believe in dreams ; and when some of 
their deities appear in dreams and give them 
advice or directions, they are careful to follow 
them. Sometimes even evil spirits appear in 
dreams, and advise the people to do certain 
things to avert calamities. People who have 
faith in such spirits act according to their 
wishes, and if they fail to do so, trouble 
is sure to follow.^ 
' The people of Khopoli in the Kolaba 
District believe that if a person sees in a 
dream, the dead body of a near relative, it 
indicates that the person whose corpse was 
seen in the dream will live long.2 

At Birwadi in the Kolaba District it is 
believed that if a person sees a snake in a 
dream, a son will be born to him ; if he sees a 
hell, he is sure to get wealth. If he sees gold, 
it is a sure sign of losing wealth. Again, if a 
person sees himself taking his meals in a dream, 
it indicates that his death is nigh at hand.^ 

At Malad in the Thana District, omens are 
derived from dreams. In case of bad dreams 
the god Vislinu is remembered, and the gods 
Shankar and Maruti are also worshipped.* 

At Belapur, wood, cowdung cakes and 
turbid water, if seen in dreams, foretell 
calamities. White clothes, beautiful ilowers, 
and food containing sweetmeat are considered 
auspicious.^ 

At Murbad in the Thana District it is 
believed that all black things, and white things 
such as ashes, are inauspicious when seen 
in dreams, but a black cow, white flowers, 
and pearls are auspicious. Considering the 
four parts of the night, the dreams that occur 
in the first part prove eifective within one 
year, that of the second part within six months, 
that of the third within three months, and of 



the fourth within one month, and those caused 
at daybreak are realized immediately.^ 

At Kolhapur, dreams are believed to be 
caused through some mental derangement or 
bodily disorder. It is customary to derive 
omens from dreams, but their nature greatly 
depends upon :^he different times at which 
these dreams occur. The dreams caused in 
the latter part of the night, i. e. just before 
daybreak, are believed to come true.^ 

AtUbhadanda in the Vengurla taluka it is 
believed that the soul of a person leaves the 
body temporarily dijring his sleep; hence it 
is siaid that no changes or marks of colour, etc, 
should be made on the body of a person during 
sleep, because it is believed that, while 
returning, the soul identifies the body, and if 
it is satisfied, with the marks of the body it 
enters it ; otherwise it might not return. ^ 

At Adivare it is believed that only Hindu 
saints and ascetics, after deep and devout 
meditation, are capable of removing the soul 
from the body. It is believed that their souls 
go to heaven during that period and return at 
pleasure. At present theve are no such sddhus 
in the district.^ 

Many Hindus in the Ratnagiri District 
believe that the soul goes to drink water at 
night, and therefore keep a pot filled with 
water at their sleeping place.-^" 

The people of Chaul in the Kolaba District 
do not consider it possible ordinarily for the 
soul to leave the body, but they state that the 
Swami of Alandi, who died in or about the year 
1886, used to remove his soul from the body 
by means of Yoga.'^^ 

At Kolhapur, it is believed that the soul 
leaves the body temporarily at night when a 
person is asleep. ^^ 



1 School Master, Polddpur, Kolaba. 
' School Master, Birwadi. Koldba, 
5 School Master, Belapur, Thdna. 
r Rao Saheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 

School Master,- Adivare, Ratnagiri. 
II School Master, Chaul, Koldba. 



2 School Master, Khopoli, Koldba. 

* School Master, Maldd, Thdna. 

6 School Master, Bhuwan, Murbdd, Thdna. 

' School Master, Ubhdddnda, Ratndgiri, 

ic School Master, Kalshe, Ratndgiri. 

t Rdo Sdheb Shelke. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAX 



51 



At Bankavali in the Dapoli taluka, it is 
believed that ghosts or evil spirits have the 
form of a human being, but their feet are 
turned backwards. They can assume any 
form they choose. Their character is ordinarily 
to trouble the people, but when satisfied they 
are said to prove friendly. The following 
story is narrated of a person who went to 
reside in one of the villages of the Konkan. 
His wife was first attacked by a ghost called 
Girha. The Girha troubled him much by 
playing mischief in his house, vis: by taking 
away eatables or by mixing dirt in his food. 
jV.t night he used to divest the couple of their 
clothes, and on one occasion an ornament was 
removed by the spirit from the person of the 
wife. Tired of these annoyances, the man left 
the village and went to reside at a distance, 
when, to the astonishment of the public, it 
happened that the ornament which was lost at 
the old village was restored to the man's wife 
while she was asleep in the new village, and 
nobody knew who brought it there. All this 
was believed to be the work of the Girha.^ 

At Ubhadanda in the Vengurla taluka 
people believe that a B hut is fierce in aspect 
and very troublesome, but when its wishes are 
complied with, it becomes harmless. The 
Bhuts reside in jungles, burial or cremation 
grounds, old trees, sacred groves and deserted 
houses. They assume all sorts of shapes and 
forms. Sometimes they appear very tall, and 
they can instantly assume the shape of a dog, 
a cat, a tiger, or any other animal. Some 
ghosts are even seen fishing on the banks of 
rivers .2 

At Mitbav in the Devgad taluka it is 
believed that the souls of those who die with 
their wishes unfulfilled take the form of a 
Shut. They enter the bodies of people. 
Any woman who is attacked by the Bhut of a 



Pir becomes able to speak in the Hindi langu- 
age although it may not be her mother tongue ^ 
When a child or a person is suffering from the 
attacks of a spirit, incense is burnt, and it at 
once begins to tell the whereabouts of the 
spirit and the reason why the person has been 
attacked. He is then asked to state what he 
wants, and when the things which the spirit 
wants are offered, it goes away.'^ Spirits are 
generally invisible. 

The spirits that belong to the class of malig- 
nant Bhuts are of a ferocious appearance ; 
but tliose that belong to the class of friendly 
Bhuts possess bodies like human beings.* [ 

At Naringre in the Devgad taluka, it ijv 
believed that spirits are cruel by nature and 
have no shadoiv, that they are capable of taking 
any form they like, and can perform miracles.^' 
At Pendur it is believed that Bhuts eat 
chillies, and that they do not speak with human 
beings. Spirits are said to remove and con- 
ceal their victims for a certain period of 
time.'' At Vijaj'adurg, a Bhut is considered 
to be of mean character. People perform 
certain rites to bring it under subjection. 
Their actions are always contrary to nature.^ 
When a person begins to cry, dance, to eat 
forbidden things etc. he is said to be attacked 
by a Bhut, When there is enmity bet- ' 
ween two persons, the one who dies first 
becomes a sambandh and troubles his living 
enemy.'' At Basani, there is a belief thatj 
there are two kinds of spirits. Some aim at 
the welfare of the people, and others are 
always troublesome. As they have no regular 
form they cannot easily be recognised. They 
can change their forms at any time.® 

The character of a Bhut is to trouble 
people and to take revenge on an old enemy. 
A person attacked by a spirit speaks 
incoherently and acts like a mad man. In sucli 
cases the leaves of the herb satdp are used. 



1 School Master, Bankavali, Ratndgiri. 
3 Scheol Master, Mitbdv, Ratnagiri. 
5 School Master, Naringre, Ratnagiri. 
7 School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnagiri. 



2 School Master, Ubhddanda, Ratnagiri 
* School Master, Ibhrampur, Ratnagiri. 
6 School Master, Pendur, Ratnagiri. 
' School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



The leaves are pounded and put under the 
patient's nose. In a few minutes, the person 
■who is possessed by the spirit begins to 
speak.i 

The people of Chauk in the Kolaba District 
believe that the main function of a Bhut is to 
frighten people, to beat them, and to make them 
perform unpleasant tasks and thereby to obtain 
food from them. 2 At Poladpur it is believed 
that if a person is able to bring a Bhut under 
his control he can make it do every kind of 
work for himself .^ The people of Akslii believe 
that kindling fire without any reason and 
throwing stones at certain houses are the main 
functions of Bhuts* At Vavashi hi the Pen 
taluka, it is believed that Bhuts^ while walking, 
never touch the earth but always move through 
the air, and that they have no shadow." The 
old men of Shirgaum in the Mahim taluka 
advise young children not to respond to the call 
of anybody at night unless the person calling 
is an acquaintance. For such calls are some- 
times those of an evil spirit." 

In the Kolhapur District, it is believed that 
the character of a Bhwt is like that of a human 
being. When a person is attacked by a spirit, 
a great change is observed in his language and 
actions. He begins to speak in the language 
of the Bhut by which he is attacked. If the 
ghost is of the female sex, the person speaks the 
language of females. It is believed that the 
souls of those who have been murdered or tor- 
tured assume the form of a spirit known as 
Samhand\ and trouble the murderer or the 
torturer, by entering his body. It is said that in 
some cases the spirit does not leave the body of 
such a person till he dies, thus exacting revenge 
for his past misdeeds.'^ In Khopoli in Ratnagiri 



ic is said that the cow which is given to a Brah- 
man while performing the funeral rites of a 
de^d person helps him to reach heaven. He gets 
there by catching hold of her tail. There are 
three paths to the other world. They are 
Bhaktimdrga, Karmamdrga^ and Yogamdrga. 
The Karmamdrga is believed to be superior to 
all.^ At Malad, a belief pievails that the path 
to the other world is through the Himalayas. 
While going through the mountains of the 
Himalayas, souls find happiness or sorrow 
according to their actions in life-time. TJie 
people also believe that the soul returns every 
month on the date of the man's death to accept 
Kdgvds i. e. cooked food given to the manes, 
and reaches heaven at the end of one year.'' 
At Dahigaum in the Murbad taluka, it is 
customary among the Hmdus to smear with 
cow dung the place from which a dead body has 
been removed to the burning ground. The 
place is then covered with rice flour, and is 
hidden under a basket, an oil-lamp being kept, 
burning near by. The persons who accompany 
the corpse return home to look at the lamp, and 
it is believed that the soul of the deceased will 
pass tc any creature or species of which 
footprints are seen on the rice flour. ^^ 

At Kolhapur it is believed that the soul of a 
person after death attains that sta.te to, which 
he aspires at the last moment before his death. 
Virtuous persons who die without any desire 
reach heaven and remain there in the form of 
the stars, where they are believed to enjoy the 
happiness of heaven. Some of them are sent 
to this world when they wish to return. iJinners 
are said to reach hell in consequence of their 
misdeeds, but some remain in this world in the 
form of Bhuts.i^ 



1 School Master, Chawl, Kolaba, 
3 School Master, Polddpur, Kolaba. 
5 School Master, Vdvashi, Koldba. 
' RAo Sdheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 
9 School Master, Mdldd, Thana. 



2" School Master, Cbauk, Kolaba. 
4 School Master. Akshi, Kolaba. 
6 School Master, Shirgaum, Thdna. 
8 School Master, Khopoli, KoUba. 
1" School Master, Dahigaon, Thdna. 



11 Rdo SSheb Shelke.Kolbilpnr, 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



53 



The people of Achare in the Malwan taluka 
believe that the souls of persons who die by 
accident return to the same caste, and have to 
remain there till the expiry of an appointed 
period.^ 

The people of Chauk believe that persons 
dying a sudden or violent death leave wishes 
unfulfilled, and are therefore compelled to 
remain in this world in the form of Bhuts.^ 

At Rai in the Salsette taluka it is believed 
that the souls of those dying a sudden or violent 
death attain salvation according to their deeds 
in lifetime, but it is a current belief that those 
committing suicide take the form of a ghost, 
and those who die on battlefields attain eternal 
salvation.3 

At Kolhapur, it is believed that the souls of 
those who die violent deaths do not attain 
salvation, but are turned into ghosts.* 

The people of Ubhadanda in the Vengurla 

taluka believe that Bhuts do not possess 

visible human forms. They can assume any 

shapes they like, but there is a conmion belief 

that the hands and feet of Bhuts are always 

turned backwards." 

[~ The most favourable times for spirits to 

enter human bodies are midday, midnight and 

twilifht.** Women in delivery as well as 

those in their menses are most liable to be 

attacked by spirits.'^ It is generally believed 

that persons adorned with ornaments are 

attacked by spirits, especially in cases of 

women and children. Again, a common belief 

prevails in the Konkan that persons, and 

particularly ladies, decked with flowers and 

ornaments are more liable to be attacked by 

\_spirits than others.^ The people of Fonda 

are of opinion that spirits generally enter and 

ieave human bodies through the organ of 



1 School Master, Achare. Ratnagiri. 

3 School Master. Rfii, Thdna. 

s School Master, Ubhadanda, Ratndgiri. 

1 School Master, Rai, Thdna. 

9 S:hool Master, Fonde, Ratndgiri. 
11 School Master, Mitbdv, Ratndgiri. 
13 School Master, Pendur, Ratndgiri 



hearing, while the people of Naringre hold 
that the hair is the best way for spirits to 
enter.9 The residents of IbJirampur state 
that the mouth and the nose are the favourite 
channels for spirits entering human bodies.^'' 
At Vlitbav it is believed that spirits attack 
people in the throat, and generally only those 
persons who are uncleanly in their habits are 
liable to be attacked. There are no special 
ways for entering human bodies.^^ At Chaul a 
belief prevails that spirits enter the body 
when a person is suffering from any disease or 
when he is frightened. ^^ 

In the Konkan, people attempt to find good 
or bad omens in sneezing. It depends upon the 
time and the position or standing of the person 
who sneezes. If a sick person sneezes it is 
presumed that he will recover from his illness 
within a verj' short period, but if the sneezing 
is caused by the use of tobacco or snulf, no good 
or bad omens are drawn.^* Sneezing at the 
time of conversation or when contemplating any 
particular task or business is held to be 
inauspicious. Hence if anybody sneezes at 
the beginning of a task, or at the time of 
starting out on any such task, the time is 
unfavourable. Yawning is said to be caused 
by a relative or friend remembering the person 
who yawns.'-* In ancient times happiness and 
calamities were foretold by a voice from the 
sky, and in modern days they are expressed by 
sneezing. People have much faith in sneezing, 
and often inquire whether it is a good or bad 
omen to sneeze at the beginning of any work or 
undertaking.^^ 

If a man sneezes with his face towards the 
west, it is considered auspicious. If a man 
sneezes while contemplating any task or busi- 
ness, the sneezing is considered inauspicious. 



2 School Master, Chauk, Koldba. 

* Rdo Saheb Sheike, Kolhdpur. 

6 School Master, Anjarle, Ratnagiri. 

8 School Master, Bdndivade, Ratndgiri. 
10 School Ma-ster, Ibhrdmpur, Ratndgiri. 
12 School Master, Chawl, Koldba. 
14 School Master, Ubhadanda, Ratndgiri. 



15 School Master, Bdndivade, Ratnagiri. 



54 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



Sneezing at the time of taking food i. e. while I appearance, it is believed to be a deiuon 



at meals, while sleeping, and while sitting on a 
praying carpet is considered auspicious. Sneez- 
ing with one's face turned towards the north, 
the south, and the east is also unlucky.^ 

In the case of Bhagats and exorcists yawn- 
ing is considered to indicate that the disease 
will disappear. 2 

In the Konkan it is believed that sneezing and 
yawning indicate the call of death, and therefore 
it is customary among the Hindus to snap the 
thumb and the middle finger at the time of 
yawning, and to repeat the words Shatanjiva 
i. e. Live for hundred years, at the time of 
sneezing.8 Sneezing on a threshold is believ- 
ed to forebode evil.'* 

At Kolhapur, people believe that sneezing 
and yawning forebode evil, and the practice is 
to repeat the following words at the time of 
sneezing and yawning, viz, Shatanjiva i. e. Live 
a hundred yeai-s, and also to repeat the name of 
lidm^ while snapping the thumb and finger 
{chutaki). In the case of a person suffering 
from a serious illness, sneezing is supposed 
to indicate a cure. If a woman sneezes while 
a man speaks, it is lucky, and if a man sneezes 
it is unlucky. The reverse is the case in 
respect of females.^ 

In the Konkan^ Rakshasas, or malevolent 
spirits, are believed to be very cruel. These 
evil spirits are held in great fear, and people 
try to avoid giving them offence. It is sup- 
posed that to cause displeasure to these demons 
may bring about death. With a view to pro- 
pitiate them, offerings of cocks and goats are 
made to them every year regularly on fixed 
days." If a woman gives birth to a child which 
is extraordinary or horrible in size and 



I School Master, Khopoli, Kolaba. 
5 School Master, Vavanje, KoUba. 
5 Rfto Saheb Shelke, Kolhapur. 

7 School Master, Fonde, Ratnagiri, 
9 School Master, Khopoli, Kolaba. 

II School Master, Anjarle, Ratnagiri. 



reborn. Such a child is supposed to bring 
bad luck to the family.^ The Konkan people 
believe that in former days Rakshasas, or 
malevolent demons, used to be tall, ugly, black,^ 
with long and laose hair, big teeth, and with 
their foreheads painted with red lead, or 
shendur. They could assume any form they 
liked, were powerful, and could fly in the air_ 
They were fond of human flesh.'"* The 
people of Khopoli believe that Khavis is the 
ghost of an African Sidhi, This spirit is^ 
very malevolent, and exorcists find it verv 
difficult to bring it under control. A strong 
belief prevails in the Konkan districts that 
those attacked by the spirits of non-Hindus- 
are beyond cure." 

According to the belief of the people in the J 
Kolhapur District, Brahma Edicshasa is one of 
the most powerful spirits. It takes up its 
abode in the sacred Pipal tree, and when it 
attacks a person, little hope is entertained of 
his delivery from its grasp.^" ■ 1 

The following are the principal mali- 
gnant spirits of the Konkan. 

(1) Vetiil, (2) Brahmagraha, (;) Sam- 
bandhas, (4) Devachar, (5) Munja, (6) Kha- 
vis, (7) Girha, (8) Chetak. (9) Zoting, 
(10) Vir, (11) Cheda, (12) Mhasoba, (13) 
Jakhin or Alwant, (14) Lavsant, and (15) Ha- 
dal. 

(1) Vetal is believed to be the King of 
Spirits. 11 Vetal is considered to be a deity 
and not an evil spirit. It enters into the 
body of an exorcist and helps him to driva 
a way other evil spirits.^^ 

(2) Brahmagraha is the ghost of a Brah- 
man well versed in the Vedas^ but who is over 
proud of his education. i'' 



13 School Master, Ubhdddnda, Ratnagiri 



2 School Master, Chawl, KoUba. 

* School Master, Umbergaon, Thana. 

^ School Master, Ubbdddnda, Ratnagiri. 

5 School Master, Adivan, Ratnagiri. 
M Rao Saheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 
^ School Master, Shirgacn, Thdna. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



55 



(3) Sambandha is the spirit of a person 
who dies without aii heir, and whose funeral 
rites have not been performed by any member 
of his family. It troubles the members of 
the family, but when invoked through a Bha- 
gat it becomes harmless, and even favour- 
able to the family.! It is the spirit of a 
covetous person or a sanyasi who dies with 
his desires unf ulfilled.^ It does not allow 
anybody to enjoy his wealth, and takes 
revenge on an enemy till death ensues. It 
haunts trees, wells and unoccupied houses.'^ 

(4) Devachar is the spirit of a Shudra who 
dies after his marriage.* These (Devachar) 
spirits are said to reside on the four sides of a 
village. The spirits which reside in burial 
or cremation grounds, on river banks, and in 
old trees are said to be subordinate to these. 
Cocoanuts, plantains, sugar, cocks and goats 
must be given annually to gain their favour.^ 

(5) Munja is the spirit.of a Brahman boy 
who dies immediately after his thread ceremony, 
but before the final ceremony called Sod-munj 
is complete. It does not greatly aifect its 
victim but simply frightens. When it attacks, 
it is difficult to drive out. It is cast out only 
when the patient makes a pilgrimage to a holy 
shrine.*^ It resides in a Pipal tree or in a well. 

(6) Khavis is the spirit of a Musalman or 
a non-Hindu.'' It is also the spirit of a Mahar 
or a Mang.8 

(7) Girha is the ghost of a person who 
dies by drowning, or of a murdered person.^ 
Girha is not very powerful, and obeys the orders 
of the exorcists. It only frightens and troubles 
people." It lives by the water side, and 



I RaD Saheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 
3 School Master, Chauk, Kolaba. 
5 School Master, Khopoli, Kolaba. 
7 Rao Saheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 

9 School Master. Khopoli, Koldba. 

II School Master, Anjarle, Ratniigiri. 
13 Rdo Saheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 

15 School Master, Basani, RatnAgiri. 
17 School Master, Anjarle, Ratnigiri. 



deceives persons at night by calling them by 
their names and leading them into false paths. 
It often troubles people while crossing rivers or 
creeks at night, and leads them to places where 
the water is very deep. It is said that the 
spirit Girha becomes the regular slave of a 
person who takes possession of the hair of its 
head, and gives him anything that he requires. 
It requests the person to return its hair, but 
this should not be given under any circum- 
stances. For, if the Girha gets back its hair 
all sorts of misfortunes will befall the riian.^^ 

(8) Chetak is the ghost of a person of 
the Kunbi or Shudra caste. ^^ This spirit is 
also known as Ddv. 

(9) Zoting is the ghost of a man belonging 
to the Kharvi or Koli caste^^ It is also said 
to be the ghost of a Musalman.^* 

(10) Vir is the ghost of an unmarried 
person belonging to the Kshatriya com- 
munity.!" It is also said to be the ghost of a 
Rajput or a Purbhaya (Pardeshi.) 

(11) Cheda is the ghost of an unmarried 
Mahar. It resides on mountains, in jungles, 
and the outskirts of the village.i^ Cheda 
attacks domestic animals. It haunts fields and 
farms, and resides at public places where the 
Holi fires are annually kindled. To avoid 
being troubled by it, people offer annual 
sacrifices of fowls and goats.^^ 

(12) Mhasoba is the lord of the ghosts, 
and is equal in might to Vetal.is 

(13) Jakhin or Alwant. Jakhin is the 
CThost of a woman who has a husband alive. 
Alwant is believed to be the spirit of a woman 
dying at childbirth or during her menses. 



2 School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri. 
i School Master, Ubbadanda, Katn^giri. 
6 School Master, Anjarle, Ratnagiri, 
8 School Master, Chowl, Kolaba. 

10 School Master, Shirgaon, Thana. 

12 School Master, Bankavli, Ratniigiri. 

11 School Master, Basani, Ratnagiri. 
16 School Master, Shirgaon, Thana. 
18 School Master, Shirgaon, Th^na. 



56 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



It resides at burial or cremation grounds. 
Persons attacked by this spirit are taken to 
Narsoba's Wadi or Gangapur, which are 
celebrated as shrines for the remoi'al of 
malignant spirits. ^ 

(14) Lavsat is the ghost of a widow. It 
generally resides in burial and burning 
grounds, and attacks do)uestic animals and 
their calves. It is also said to tear clothes and ! 
eat corpses. 2 

(15) Hadal or Hedali is the ghost of a 
woman who dies within ten days of childbirth 
or during her menses. It is supposed to be 
an evil spirit, but it can be kept in check by the 
use of a cane. It attacks all sorts of persons, 
but leaves them as soon as it is beaten. ^ 

This spirit is also known as Ddkan in the 
Kolhapur district.'' Satavi is the ghost of a 
woman. It troubles women in childbirth, and 
kills their children on the 5th or 6th day after 
their birth.^ Shakini is the ghost of an 
unmarried girl. Talkhamba is the ghost of 
an unmarried Shudra or a person from the 
low castes.^ The people ofVijayadrug believe 
that one who hates and troubles the Brahmans 
and speaks ill of their religious duties becomes 
a Brahma Samhandha after death.'^ At Polad- 
pur in the Kolaba District the ghost Bdpa is 
represented by a stone painted with red lead 
and oil and placed at the boundary of a field. 
It is the guardian of the field, and protects the 
owners' interests. Offerings are made to it 
annually. If the annual offerings are neglect- 
ed, it troubles the owner of the field. It also 
troubles others when disturbed.^ 

The spirits known as Kdlkdiche Bhut and 
Bahirobdche Bhut are not troublesome. When 



1 School Master, Ubhdddnda, Ratndgiri. 

3 School Master, Khopol, Koldba. 

5 School Master, Cbauk, Koliba. 

' School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratndgiri. 

s School Master, KhopoH, Kolaba. 
" School Master, Ibhrampur, Ratndgiri. 
'3 School Master^ Shirgaon, Thdna. 



they favour any person, he enjoys health and 
happiness for a period of twelve years. But 
after that period he is ruined.^ In addition to 
the varieties of malignant spirits already des- 
cribed, the following spirits are known at 
Shirgaon in the Mahim taluka of the Thana 
District. They are — Hirwa, Wdghoha^ Asards^ 
Gdngud^ Saitd/i and Chaitannadya, The spirit 
known as Hirwa requires the offerings of a 
bow and an arrow, bhdnig^ bdjri bread, and a 
chatni of garlic. The Waghoba haunts jungles 
and troubles domestic ginimals. Cocoanuts and 
lamps of ghi are offered to it. Asards are the 
deities that dwell in water. They infest the 
wells and ponds, and attack women and children 
at noon time and in the evening. Red lead, 
cocoanuts, flowers, parched rice (Idhya) and 
ndddpudi are given to them.^" 

At Ibhrampur in the Ratnagiri District it 
is said that the evil spirit Noting goes abouit 
headless.^^ 

The people of Medhe in the Rolie taluka 
believe that the spirit known as Girha^ which 
resides in water, goes about headless. ^^ 

At Shirgaon in the Mahim taluka it is belie- 
ved that the spirit Hirwa goes about headless. 
It troubles human beings and animals. The sea 
and the jungle are its places of abode. To 
avoid being troubled by it, bhditg^ cocoanuts, 
fowls are given to it.^* 

The people of Dahigaon in the Murbad 
taluka believe that the Bhut known as Peesa 
goes about headless.** 

Some evil spirits haunt trees such as the 
Pipal^ Bdbhul and Adulsa_ Some have their 
haunts on a public road where three streets 
meet, or in a dirty place, some haunt old 
houses, and the rest prefer to reside in 
burial and burning grounds.^'' 



15 Rdo Saheb Shelke, Kolhdpur, 



2 School Master, Chauk, Koldba. 

* Rao Saheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 

6 School Master, Basani, Ratndgiri. 

8 School Master, Polddpur, Koldba. 
1" School Master, Shirgaon, Thdna 
^ School Master, Medhe, Koldba. 
" School Master, Dahigaon, Thdna. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



57 



Many spirits dwell in burial or] cremation 
gfoiinds, Among them are Vetal, Jakhin, 
iChavis, Kliaprya, Zoting, Dav, Girha, Alavat 
and Lavsat.-"- 

The spirits Munja and Sambandh are said 
to reside near houses and old trees that pro- 
duce sweet smelling flowers. The spirits Dev- 
char and Chalegat are said to reside at the 
four corners or the bomidary of a village.^ 

It is believed that all kinds of spirits 
assemble at night at the funeral ground when 
a body is burnt or buried.^ " 

The evil spirits known as Khavis, Zoting and 
Kafri are said to dwell on mountains and in 
jungles ; while the others named Sambandha, 
Jakhin^ Hadal and Ldvsat are said to reside 
on trees.* 

Munja resides in the Pipal tree. Sambandha 
dwells in the Banyan, Pipal and Umbar trees. 
It is supposed to be a guardian of buried 
treasure.^ 

At Murbad in the Tharia District, it is 
believed that an evil spirit known as Hadal 
infests the tamarind trees." 

In the Kolhapur District it is believed that 
the ghosts of persons dying on battlefields 
infest mountains and jungles, and the evil 
spirit known as SamhandU infests trees.^ 

Generally in the Konkan, and specially in 
the R.atnagiri District, young mothers and 
their children are supposed to be liable to the 
attacks of the spirits Satdvi, Avagat^ Alavant, 
Jakhin, Devchdr and Chalegat,^ 

At Khopoli in the Kolaba District it is 
believed that a j-^oung mother and her child 
are generally attacked by the spirit of the 
dead wife of her husband, or by a Hadal or 
Ldvsat, The spirit that attacks a woman 



during her childbirth is difficult to drive out. 
The spirits are always afraid of cleanliness, 
and therefore, where there is cleanliness, there 
is very little fear of their attacks^. 

The people of Shirgaon believe that the 
fiend known as Hedli attacks a young mother 
and her child. The SAMiyo, or the sorcerer, 
makes use of his cane and of the dirty incense 
known as Nurkya Uda^ and compels her to 
speak and to ask for what slie wants. Some- 
times she speaks and asks for the things 
required. Boiled rice and curds, and oil with 
red lead are given to her. When she leaves 
the body, the person becomes insensible for 
a short time.^" 

The fiend known as Hadal^ and other evil 
spirits of the female sex, generally attack 
a young mother and her child. They are 
generally attacked by these fiends on a public 
cross road where three roads meet, or under a 
Bdbhul tree, and also at wells.^^ 

At Ubhadanda in the Vengurla taluka "it is 
believed that those who are killed by tigers 
or other wild beasts are born as kings in the 
next generation.i2 On the other hand the 
people of Bankavli are of opinion that those 
who suffer death at the hands of tigers and 
other wild beasts are turned into spirits. The 
spirit of a person killed by a tiger is called 
Vdghvir.^^ 

At Achare it is believed that .persons killed 
by lions and tigers attain salvation, while 
those killed by inferior beasts go to hell.^'' 

The people of Ibhrampur believe that 
unmarried persons killed by tigers or other 
wild beasts take the form of a ghost. Males 
become Girhas and females become Jdkhins 
and Ldvsats.'^^ 



1 School Master, Mitbdv, Katnagiri. 

3 School Master; Ibhrampur, Ratnagiri. 

5 sAool Master, Chauk, Koldba. 

7 Rdo Sdheb Shelke, Kolhapur. 

9 School Master, Khopoli, Koldba. 

11 Rdo Siiheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 

13 School Master, Bankavli, Ratndgiri. 

15 SchoprMaster, 



2 School Master, Fonde, Ratndgiri. 
1 School Master, Ibhrampur, Ratnagiri. 
e School Master, Murbdd, Thdna. 
8 School Master, Achare, Ratndgiri. 
10 School Master, Shirgaon, Thdna. 
12 School Master, Ubhdddnda, Katndgiri. 
14 School Master, Achare, Ratndgiri. ; ,.' 
Ibhrampur, Ratnagiri. . 



58 



FOLKLORE OF THE KOXKAN 



At Pendur it is believed that persons killed 
by tigers and other wild beasts become 
Brahma Rahslmsa. The same form is assum- 
ed by those who die by accident. A murdered 
man becomes a Devachar.^ 
I In the District of Kolhapur a belief pre- 
vails that the spirits of those killed by tigers 
or other wild beasts assmne the form of 
ghosts. It is also believed that persons who 
die before they are married do not attain 
salvation, and therefore it is considered in- 
auspicious among the Hindus to remain 
unmarried. This is the real reason why the 
majority of the Hindus marry their children 
( at an early age.^ 

'The ghost of a woman dying in childbirth 
or during her menses assumes tlie form of 
Alwant. For the purpose of preventing the 
dead woman turning into a ghost the following 
device is adopted. The corpse, instead of being 
burnt as usual, is buried underground, and four 
iron nails are fixed at the four corners of 'the 
spot on which the body is buried, and plants 
bearing red flowers are planted thereon. ^ 

At Bankavli it is believed that the ghost of 
a woman dying in childbirth or during her 
menses assumes the form of Jdkhin, while the 
people of the Kolhapur District believe that it 
assumes the form of Hadal* 

The special precautions tliat a father has 
to take at the birth of a child are: — 

To arrange for a suitable place or a room 
provided with the materials required for the 
occasion, and to ensure the correct moment for 
the birth of the child. No person other than 
a midwife is allowed to enter the room for the 
first ten days. A pot is kept filled witli water 
and a twig of the nim tree in the entrance 
of the house, and all persons entering the 
hoiuse have to wash their feet with this water. 



A knife or some other sharp weapon is kept 
under the bed of the woman in order that the 
mother and her child may not be attac"ked by 
a spirit.^ 

The chief reason for ensuring the correct 
moment for the birth is that, if lihe birth takes 
place at an unlucky hour, special rites are 
necessary for averting the evil effects. These 
rites consist in the recitation of certain holy 
mantras and in giving presents of money, 
sessamum, jdgri^ clarified butter, etc., to the 
Brahmans and alms to the poor.'' 

At Medhe in the Eohe taluka, it is customary 
for the father to throw a stone in a well, a pond, 
or a river at the birth of his son, and then to 
look at tlie face of the child.'' _.^ 

An owl is considered to be a bird of such I 
evil repute that, in all parts of the Konkan, it 
is considered necessary to perform expiatory 
rites when an owl perches on the roof. If 
these rites are not performed, it is firmly 
believed that some evil will befall the members 
of the family. Various omens are drawn from j 
the cries of the bird Pingla, and these cries 
are known as Kilbil, Chilbil and Khit KMtJ^ 
If an owl sits on tlie roof of a house, it is 
a sure sign of coming death to a member of 
the family.9 

At Devgad in the Ratnagiri District the 
sound of a bat or an owl is considered 
inauspicious, and indicates the death of a sick 
person in the house.^'' 

At Chauk an owl is said to have some 
connection with spirits. Its sound at night 
indicates the approaching death of a sick 
person in the house. One variety of the owl 
called the pingla is supposed to foretell future 
events by its movements and cries, while the 
bat is considered an inauspicious bird, and 
its appearance forebodes coming evil.^* 



1 School Master, Pendur, Ratndgiri. 

' School Master, Ubhddaada, Ratndgiri. 

s Rdo Saheb Sheike, Kolhapur. 

J' School Master, Medhe, Koldba. 

' School Master, Adivare, Ratnagiri, 



11 School Master, Chauk, KolAba. 



2 Rdo Sdheb Sheike, Kolhapur. 
* School Master, Bankavli, Ratnagiri. 
8 School Master, Pendur, Ratnagiri. 
' School Master, Shirgaon, Thdna. 
11 School Master, Devgad, Ratndgiri. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



59 



At Umbergaon people do noit throw stones 
at an owl. For it is considered that the owl 
might sit and rub the stone, and that the 
person throwing it will become weak and 
■wasted as the stone wears away.^ 

The people of Kolhapur do not believe that 
there is any connection between the bat or owl 
and the spirits of the dead, but tliey believe 
that, if an owl cries out in the evening or at 
night, it indicates the death of a sick person in 
tjie family, .This applies also to -the sound 
■of a single pmgia, but the sound of a pair of 
pinglas is considered auspicious. 2 

It is generally believed that old unoccu- 
pied houses are haunted by evil spirits. 
Persons whoi wish to inhabit such houses first 
perform the Vdstu skdnti ceremony, and give 
a feast to Brahnians, In former times, in the 
districts that were ruled by the Portuguese, 
religious persecution prevailed. To escape 
from these persecutions, people were,compelled 
to leave their houses unprotected. Before 
leaving their houses, they used to bury their 
treasure in the ground, and on that spot 
a human being or an animal was sacrificed in 
order that tlie spirit of the dea'd should hover 
about the place, and prevent strangers from 
L£oming.^ 

The evil spirits which haunt ruins and guard 
Ijuried treasures and old forts are known as 
Mahdpurush^ Khavis, Brahma Rdkshasa and 
Sambandh* 

/r— 

If there be any buried treasure in an old 
■unoccupied house, the owner of the treasure 
remains there in the form of a ghost. If the 
treasure be near the temple of a deity, it is 
supposed to be under the guardianship of that 
r deity.s 



At Vijayadurg it is believed that a person 
who builds a house in the days of his prospe- 
rity and does not survive to enjoy it, becomes 
a Sambandh, He remains in that house in the 
form of a ghost, and troubles every one who 
comes to stay there, excepting the members of 
his family. A man who buries his treasure / 
underground becomes a ghost after death, 
comes back to watch his treasure, and troubles -v 
those who try to' remove it.'' 

Unoccupied houses are generally haunted 
by evil spirits. At certain forts in the Konkan 
where battles' were fought, the souls of those 
slain in the battles are said ,to have assumed 
the forms of spirits, and to keep a watch over 
the forLs.T 

In the Kolhapur District there is a village - 
Nigve beyond the river Panch Ganga at 
a distance of three miles from Kolhapur, where 
the soul of a person named Appaji Kulkarni 
has assumed the form of a Sambandh and 
guards the buried treasures in his house. 
When anybody tries to dig up the buried money, 
the ghost enters the body of his daughter-in-law 
and begins to dance and cry out loudly, and 
does not allow any one to touch his treasure. 
It is also said that he strikes the ground with 
his stick at night. Another similar instance 
is cited in the case of the village of Latvade 
in the Shirol Peta, where Bapujipant Kulkar- 
ni continues to guard his house after death. 
He does not allow anybody to live in the house, 
and if any one is bold enough to sleep there 
at night, the spirit of Bapuji appears and 
throws him out of the house. The house is 
therefoire uninhabited at present. His wife 
has adopted a son, but he has to live in another 
village Vadange.s 



1 School Master, Umbergaon, Thana. 
s School Master, UbhddAnda, Ratnagiri. 
5 School Master, Pendur, Ratndgiri. 
7 School Master, PoUdpur, Koldba. 



* Rdo Sdheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 

* School Masfeij; Adivare, Ratnigiri. 

* School Master, Vijayadrug, Ratndgiri, 
8 Rdo Saheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 



CHAPTER VI. 



THE EVIL EYE AND THE SCARING OF GHOSTS. 



Hindus generally believe in the effects of 
the evil eye. If an accident befall any thing 
of value, or it undergoes any sudden change, 
it is said to be due to the effects of an evil 
eye. In order to r-.scape from the influence 
of an evil eye, people begin the use of 
incantations and charms on a Sunday, 
Wednesday, or Thursday and finish them 
on the third or the fifth daj\ Small children, 
domestic animals, and beautiful objects are 
generally liable to be affected by an evil 



r 



pye. 

The following are some of the methods 

of evading the effects of an evil eye. 

1**. — Dry chillies are waved round the 
body of the affected person and 
thrown into the fire, and if they do 
not thereupon make a loud noise, 
it is said that the effects of an 
evil eye are averted, 
2nd. — Mustard seed and salt are waved 
round the face of a child and then 
thrown into the fire. 
Srd, — Alum is waved round the child and 
then thrown into fire. The piece 
of alum thus thrown is sometimes 
believed to be changed into the form 
of a man or a woman. From this, 
conjectures are made as to the sex of 
the person by whose evil eye the 
patient is affected. The form or the 
figure is then broken by a toe of the 
left foot of the patient, and dry 
chillies, garlic, hair, rubbish from 
the house and salt are mixed in the 



alum powder. The mixture is 

waved round the patient three 

times and then thrown into fire. 

Meanwhile the sorcerer repeats the 

names of all persons, things and 

evil spirits suspected by him. After 

this performance has been rep'eated 

three times, the fire is deposited in 

a public place where three roads 

meet. 

^th. — If the evil eye is believed to be that 

of a ghost, the sorcerer mutters 

some words to himself, waves 

ashes round the affected child,, and 

blows them in the air. 

5th, — The evil eye of a tiger is removed 

from an affected animal in the 

following manner. An oil lamp is 

burnt in the eye of a dead tiger 

and the lamp is waved round the 

animal by a Mahar. The Mahar 

is given a loaf prepared from eight 

kinds of grain. 

6th. — Copper amulets and black cotton 

strings charmed by a sorcerer are 

also tied round the neck or arms of 

the patient. ^ ■— ' 

When a child is to be removed from one 

village to another, rice is scattered at the 

boundary of the village, at the bridges, rivers, 

creeks, etc, that are crossed during the 

journey. Cocoanuts are waved round the child 

and thrown away at the boundary of the village 

and at places supposed to be haunted by 

ghosts. Before entering a house in a new 

village, a small quantity of boiled rice, bread 



^ School Master, Ubbdddnda, Ratndgiri, 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



61 



or grains of rice are waved round the child 
j and thrown away. It is believed that, when 
black ointment is applied to the eyes, cheeks, 
or forehead of a child, there is no fear of its 
being afiFected by an evil eye. This also 
depends on the position of tlie stars at the 
birth of a child. If anybody sees a beautiful 
thing and praises it, there is a chance of its 
being affected by an evil eye., It is believed 
that children, animals, trees, and even wood 
and stones, are apt to be affected by an evil 
eye. In order to avoid injury from an evil 
eye, cocoanut shells or a shoe are tied on a 
conspicuous part of a tree or a creeping plant, 
black beads known as Vajrabuttu are tied 
round the necks of children, and cowries and 
black beads are tied round the necks of animals. 
Even grown up persons are affected by an evil 
eye. When a man is very ill or frequently be- 
comes unconscious, cocoanuits, fowls and boiled 
ijrice are waved round him and thrown away.^ 

When the effects of an evil eye cannot be 
removed by ordinary methods, the evil influence 
is said to have entered through the bones, 
' Hddi drusta padalij In order to remove it 
people bring the bone of an animal in the 
evening, and after besmearing it with oil and 
turmeric powder, wash it in hot water. It 
is dressed in a yellow cloth,, and black and 
red ointments are applied to it. It is then 
waved round the affected person, and thrown 
away in some public place where three roads 
meet. ^ 

For evading the effects of an evil eye, 
salt, mustard seed, hair, garlic, dry leaves 
of onions, dry chillies, and seven small stones 
from the road are put on the fire. The fire 
is then waved round the body of the affected 
person and thrown away. Charmed black 
cotton strings are turned over the burning 
incense and tied round the arm or the neck. 
Charmed ashes from the temples of certain 
deities are also applied to the forehead of 
the affected person.^ 



At Ibhrampur in the Eatnagiri District, it 
is believed that a person whose eyes Have 
come under the influence of evil stars 
possesses the power of the evil eye. Ashes 
are taken on a mango leaf, and charmed 
with the mantras or incantations for an evil 
eye, and then they are applied to the forehead 
of the affected person.* 

The people of Poladpur in the Kolaba District 
believe the effects of an evil eye to be as 
follows. A healthy child becomes sickly and 
cries, a man may suffer from indigestion or loss 
of appetite, a cow or a she-buffalo yielding 
plenty of milk suddenly ceases to give milk 
or gives blood in place of it, a good image is 
disfigured or broken, and even stones are shat- 
tered to pieces by the effects of an evil eye. 

The following devices are used Lo ward 
off such evil effects. A black mark is 
made on the forehead of children. Black 
beads called Drustamani, and Vajrabuttu 
are tied round their necks. Marking nuts 
and cowries tied with a black thread are 
fastened round the necks of animals. A 
little black spot is marked on an image. 
A worn out shoe or a sandal is tied to the 
fruit-yielding trees. Salt and mustard seed 
are waved thrice round the face of a child 
repeating " Ishta mishta honyd pdpinichi 
drushta" and thrown into the fire. Some 
people roll a cotton thread round a curry 
stone, wave it three times round the patient, 
and then pjit it into the fire ; if the thread 
burns, the evil eye is held to have been 
removed. If the evil eye be on the food, three 
morsels of food are first raised to the; mouth, 
and then thrown into the fire. 'Sacred ashes 
are applied to trees and creeping plants 
to remove the effects of an evil eye."'* 

The people of Khopoli in the £olaba 
District! believe that the evil eye can be 
diverted from living creatures only, and not 
from inanimate things such as a stone or an 
earthen image. Sacred ashes are applied 
to the forehead of the suffering chiild by 



I School Master, Mitbav, Ratndgiri. 
' School Master, Achare, Ratnagiri. 

^ School Master, 



2 School Master, Anjarle, Ratndgiri. 
i School Master, Ibhrampur, Ratndgiri. 
Poladpur, Koldba. 



62 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



repeating the Ram raksha stotra^ i, e, the 
protecting praises of Rama, the seventh 
incarnation of Vishnu. Among Brahmans, 
rice grains are waved thrice round the face 
of a child and put into water. The water is 
then thrown away. Even flowers are waved 
round the faces of small children in the 
evening and thrown away,^ 

At Chauk in the Karjat taluka of the 
£olaba District, some people wave the left 
shoe thrice round the body of the affected 
person for thfe purpose of evading the eifects 
of ■ an evil eye. A red hot iron bar is also 
cooled in water mixed with turmeric 
powder.2 

At Shirgaon in the Mahim taluka of the 

Thana District water is drawn in a brass or 

a copper pot in the evening, and turmeric 

powder, rice, and any other edible articles on 

which the evil eye has fallen are put into it. 

Twentyone date leaves, each of them with 

a knot, are then waved round the body of the 

affected person and thrown into the water pot, 

burning coals being dropped into the mixture. 

The pot is then waved thrice round the body 

of the affected person, and kept in a corner 

of the bedroom for one night, with a basket, 

a broom, and a sandal or an old shoe placed 

on the top. It is then thrown away in the 

morning in some public place where three 

roads meet. If the water becomes red, it is 

supposed that the evil eye has been 

removed.^ 

The effects of an evil eye are sometimes 
visible on the face of a child in the form of 
small red pustules. The appearance of such 
pustules is called Chdk padane,* 

If a person is affected by an evil eye at the 
time of taking his meals, he loses his appetite. 
He also becomes weaker day by day. 
One of the modes of removing these evils is 
to wave fresh date leaves three times round 
the face of the affected person, and to throw 



them into water. Some people take water in 
a copper plate and extinguish in it burning 
sticks of the tamarind tree, after waving them 
round the body of the affected person."* 

At Kharbav in the Bassein taluka of the 
Thana District, five pieces of broken tiles 
are made red hot and put into water in which 
a little quantity of all the cooked food in the 
house has been mixed. Turmeric powder is 
also put into it. A pen knife or some other 
iron instrument is then turned five times 
in the water. A winnowing basket and a 
broom are waved thrice round the face of 
the affected person, and placed over the water 
pot." 

At Dahanu in the Thana District, two 
big stones, of which one has been waved 
round the face of a person affected by an 
evil eye, are struck one against the other. 
If the stone breaks, it is believed that the 
evil effect has been removed. Cowdung is 
mixed with water in a brass or a copper 
plate, and dust from a public road, hair, and 
burning black cotton cloth are put into 
another small vessel. This vessel is then 
waved round the person, and placed upside 
down over the mixture of cowdung. If 
it sticks to the brass plate, this is suppiosed 
to be due to the evil eye.'^ 

The people of Kolhapur believe in the 
effects of an evil eye. A child suffering 
from an evil eye turns pale and thin, and 
suffers from headache. To avoid these 
effects, elderly women make a mark with lamp 
black on the face or brow of the child. 
Boiled rice and curds, and bread and oil 
are also passed round the face of a child,, 
and thrown into a public road.® 

Generally, in the Konkan districts, oppro- 
brious names are given to children when they 
are sickly, always crying, and weak, or when 
thev are short lived. These names are 



1 School Master, Khopoli, Kolaba. 
' School Master, Shirgaon, Thana. 
5 School Master, Maldd, Thdna. 
f School Master, Dahdnu, Thanal 



2 School Master, Chauk, Kolaba. 
* School Master, Padghe, Thdna. 
^ School Master, Khdrbdv, Thana. 
8 Rdo Sdheb Sheike, Kolhdpur. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



(33 



Marya^ Rodya, Kerya, etc. It is believed 
that children improve in health vfhen called 
by such opprobrious naines.^ 

Opprobrious names such as Dhondu^Kondu, 
Keru,a.ie given to children in families in which 
the first children are shortlived. But their 
real names are different. The names of the 
■wcUknown arithmetician Keru Nana Chhatre 
and his son Eondopant Chhatre are examples 
of opprobrious names. ^ 

Among high class Hindus, the first son 
is not generally called by his real name, but 
by one of the opprobrious names given 
above.' 

Children are sometimes weighed with shoes 
or sandals, and also with cowdung. In some 
cases, their nostrils are bored, especially the 
right one.* 

Hindus generally call their children by 
the names of their deities and ancestors, and 
they attribute the premature (^eath of their 
children to their own misbehaviour towards 
such ancestors, or to their having abused 
them; they ' fear that such abuse or 
misbehaviour has offended the ancestors. 
To avoid their displeasure and the consequent 
death of their children, the people give 
opprobrious names to their next born such 
as Dagadya Dhondya, Gundya^ Dandya 
Kerya, Ukirdya, Kondya, Lobhya^ etc. The 
custom of tattooing one side of the body of 
females also prevails in the KolhapurDistrict, 
especially in cases where the children in a 
family are shortlived.^ 

In the Purdnas there are instances of males 
being transformed into females, and females 
into males. For example, the female Amba was 
transformed into a male called Shikhandi and 
the male Narad was transformed into a 
female. Arjuna, the third brother of the 
Pandavas is said to have changed his sex, and 
turned into Bruhannada.^ 



In the Shivlilamruta, a book pertaining to 
the god Shiva, in the chapter of Simantiui, 
it has been described how a man was turned 
into a woman. '^ 

At Kolhapur, there are no instances known 
of a change of sex. The goddess YaUamma 
has a high reputation in this district for 
making a change in the habits and deportments 
of men and women, especially among low 
caste people. It is believed that the curse of 
this goddess has the power of destroying the 
virility of males, whereupon they behave like 
females. Many instances of this type can be 
seen at the fair of the goddess YaUamma,which 
is held in Mdrgas'hirsha ( December ) ; men 
dressed in women's clothes and vice versa are 
often seen at this fair.* 1 

In Western India, iron nails are generally 
used when any spirit is to be buried in the 
ground. Other metals, such as gold, silver, 
and copper, are sometimes offered to the ghosts. 
The blood of fowls and goats is also offered 
to them. When incense is burnt before a 
sorcerer, the spirit enters into his body. 
Water is charmed and sprinkled over the 
body of a person attacked by an evil spirit. 
Rice and udid grains are required for 
exorcising spirits. Red powder Pinjar, tur- 
meric powder, black ointment kdjal, lemons, 
Narakyd Wuda a kind of incense, betel-leaves, 
betelnuts, cocoanuts, mango leaves, Nirgudi 
leaves, and pieces of cloth are also used for 
the same purpose.^ 

Cane sticks are used by people as a protec- 
tion against evil spirits. A stick cut from 
the tree known as Pdndhri is also used as 
protection. Charmed black cotton strings are 
tied to the wrist, arm or neck. If a man is 
very much afraid of a ghost, he repeats the 
name of the monkey god Maruti or any other 
deity that may be favourable to his family .i** 



» School Master, Mitbdv, Ratndgiri. 
3 School Master, Bhayinddr, Thdiia. 
5 Rdo SAheb Sheika, Kolhapur. 
7 School Master, Murbdd, Thdna. 
9 School Master, Basani, Ratndgiri. 



2 School Master, Anjarle, Ratndgiri. 
* School Master, Dahanu, Thdna. 
8 School Master, Ibrahmpur, Ratndgiri. 
^ Rdo Sdheb Shelke, Kolhapur. 
1" School Master, Mitbav, Ratndgiri. 



64 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



The blood of fowls and goats is uised as a 
protection against ghosts and Devachdrs, and 
also against witchcraft. Charmed water is 
waved round the person affected by an evil 
spirit, and thrown away. Rings, amulets, and 
anklets made of metals of five kinds are put 
on the hands and legs of children to ward off 
the effects of evil spirits.^ 

It is customary among certain people to apply 
spittle to the sandalpaste mark on the forehead 
of a man, and to the red Kunku mark on the 
forehead of an unwidowed woman. It is con- 
sidered to be a protection against evil spirits.^ 

The beak of an eagle, a stick cut from a 
tree known as Pdndhri^ a cane having three 
joints, and the root of a shrub called SKrdvad, 
which has white leaves, are used as protection 
against evil spirits.* 

At Pendur in the MJalwan taluka of the 
Ratnagiri District it is believed that an iron 
stick held in the hand is a protection against 
evil spirits.* 

At Chauk in the Karjat taluka of the 
Kolaba District, pictures of certain deities are 
tattooed on the body for the purpose of 
protection against evil spirits. It is also beli- 
eved that evil spirits run away when salt and 
garlic are thrown into fire as they cannot bear 
the smoke of burning garlic.^ 

At Medhe in the Rohe taluka, when the dead 
body of a woman dying within ten days of 
her delivery is taken out of the house for 
burial, an iron horseshoe is driven into the 
threshold of the house, and grains of Ndchani 
are scattered in the street while the corpse is 
being carried to the burial ground.® 

At Bhuwan in the Murbad taluka some 
people tie a square piece of leather to the 
necks of their children as protection against 
evil spirits.'^ 



At Rai, a custom prevails of putting coral 
necklaces on children as a protective against 
evil spirits.^ 

Iron nails and horseshoes are driven into t 
the threshold or on to the door of a house on. 
the full moon day or the last day of the Hindu 
calendar month at evening time, to prevent 
the entrance of evil spirits. Dirty localities 
being considered to be haimts of evil spirits, 
people living in such localities burn incense 
in their houses every day. While exorcisingj 
evil spirits the sorcerers throw charmed JJdid 
grains and Rale panic seeds on the body of 
the diseased^ or place these things below his 
bed. Rings made of metals of five kinds, — 
iron, copper, brass, silver and gold — are 
charmed on an eclipse day, and worn by people. 
Red lead and cowries are tied to the necks 
or feet of animals as protection against evil 
spirits. The spirits that haunt buried treasures ] 
are pacified by the blood of fowls and goats 
when digging up such treasures." 

Certain mantras are written on a paper, and 
the paper is tied to a black cotton string, or the 
paper is put into a copper amulet, and then tied 
to a black cotton string. The black cotton 
string with the amulet is then tied round the 
arm or the neck of a person attacked by evil 
spirits, or suffering from malarial fevers. 
These mantras are never disclosed to 
anybody.^" ^ 

Nddddora is a black cotton thread having 
seven or nine knots with a charmed paper in 
one of these knots. The thread is first held 
over burning incense, and then tied round the 
neck or the arm of the diseased. Sunday 
is generally chosen for attaching these 
threads.-*-^ 



^ School Master, Ubhddanda, Ratnagiri, 
s School Master, Fonde, Ratndgiri, 
3 School Master, Chauk, Koldba. 
'i School Master, Bhuwan, Thdna. 
9 Rdo Sdheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 

" School Master, 



2 School Master, Bdndivade, Ratndgiri. 

* School Master, Pendur, Ratndgiri. 
6 School Master, Medhe, Koldba. 

* School Master, Rdi, Thdna. 

'" School Master, Bdndivade, Ratndgiri. 
Kalse, Ratndgiri. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



65 



At Poladpur in the Kolaba District, there 
lived a sorcerer who used to give such amulets 
and charmed threads. He placed about ten 
or twelve copper rings or amulets in a copper 
plate kept in the sun. While thus exposed to 
the sun, these amulets were continuously watch- 
ed by the sorcerer for some twohours, repeating 
certain mantras.'^' 

At M,alad in the Thana District, copper 
amulets and charmed black cotton threads 
in the name of Kal Bhairav, an incarnation 
of the god Shiva, are used as protective 
against evil spirits. They are tied to the aims 
or the neck of the diseased on an eclipse day, 
on the last day of the Hindu calendar month, 
or on a Tuesday, Wednesday and Saturday. 2 

\ At Kolhapur, the use of aro.ulets is generally 
resorted to by people suffering from the 
attacks of evil spirits or from malarial fevers. 
The sorcerer who exorcises the evil spirits 
writes certain mantras on a paper, or draws 
certain symbols and repeats tlie mantras over 
them. The paper is then wrapped in an 
amulet made of copper or silver, and fastened 
to a cotton thread. This amulet is tied round 
the arm or the neck of the diseased. Before 
tying it to the arm or the neck, it is once 

ilield over burning incense." 

A sacred circle is frequently used as a pro- 
tection from spirits. The sorcerer draws a circle 
on the ground, with his stick, and the following 
articles are put inside it. Cocoanuts, lemons; 
red lead, and a Kohala gourd. Fowls are also 
sacrificed to this circle. The filling in of this 
circle is called mdndabharane by the exorcists.* 

r Eice or Udid grain, and ashes charmed by 
mantras, are scattered round a certain area 
of land, or are given to a person supposed to 
be affected by evil spirits. The spirits cannot 
enter a place charmed in this manner. They 
are also scattered round the place supposed 
to be haunted by evil spirits in the belief that 
neither evil spirits nor snakes can transgress 
\ the boundary thus marked by a sorcerer.^' 



Formerly sages and saints used to make 
such sacred circles round their residence, re- 
peating certain mantras^ for their protection 
from evil spirits. It is believed that the 
spirits cannot enter or leave these enchanted 
circles. They used to bury bottles containing 
such spirits at the boundaries of these circles. 
There are many such places in the Kolhapur 
District, such as Buransaheb of Brahmapuri, 
the Sadhubuwa of Panhala, and Babu Jamal 
at Kolhapur.*' 

It is a general belief among all classes of 
Hindus in the Bombay Presidency that Satur- 
day is an unlucky day, and in some places 
Friday and Tuesday are also considered 
inauspicious. 

Sunday is considered as an ordinary day. 

Monday, Wednesday and Thursday are 
believed to be auspicious or lucky days. 

It is said that a thing suggested or thought 
of on Friday cannot be carried out success- 
fuUy.7 

Sowing seed and watering trees is strictly 
forbidden on Sunday. It is believed that 
trees do not bear well if watered on Sundays.® 

Tuesday and Friday are considered unlucky 
days for beginning a new task. Wednesday 
and Saturday are said to be inauspicious for 
visiting another village.^ 

The numbers 2, 6 11, and zero are believed 
to be lucky, 4, 5, 10 and 8 are unlucky, and 
1, 3, 7 and 9 are considered as middling or 
moderate. 

The figure zero is by some considered 
inauspicious. i** 

The numbers 5, 7, 9 are said by some to 
be auspicious, and 1, 3, 11 and 13 
inauspicious. 1^ 

• Odd numbers are auspicious, and even num- 
bers are said to be inauspicious. ^^ 



1 School Master, Poladpur, Kolaba. 
3 Rdo Sdheb, Shelke, Kolhapur. 
5 School Master, Ubhddanda, Ratnagiri. 
7 School Master, Ubhadanda, Ratnagiri. 
9 School Master, Khopoli, Koliba. 
u School Master, Bdndivade, Ratndgiri. 



2 School Master, Malad, Thana. 
* School Master, Bdndivade, Ratnagiri. 
6 Rao Saheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 
^ School Master,Basani, Ratnagiri. 
1" School Master, Rdi, Thana 
'= Rao Sdheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. ] 



66 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



The following are generally held to be 
■auspicious omens : — 

While going on any business, to come across 
an unwidowed woman, a cow, Brahmans^ a 
five-petaled flower, or a pot filled with water ;^ 
the throbbing of the right eyelid and of the 
right arm of a man, and of the left eyelid of a 
woman ; a Brahman coming inj front with a 
cup and a spoon in his band after taking his 
bath;2 the appearance of a peacock, the 
BHdradwdj or the blue jay, and the mongoose, 
especially when they pass on the left side of 
the person going on business.^ 

The following are considered to be auspi- 
cious when seen within a hundred paces of a 
person starting on business : — 
. Brahmans, unwidowed women, boiled food, 
meat, fishes, milk, any kind of corn, th§ bird 
Ckds'ha or the blue jay, passing by the left 
side, the appearance of the moon in front, a 
person coming across one's path with vessels 
filled with water, and a married couple, a cow 
with its calf, images of god, cocoanuts and other 
fruits, the mother, white clothes, the sound 
of a musical instrument, a horse, an elephant, 
curds, flowers, a lighted lamp, a jackal, a 
spiritual preceptor, a public woman, a Mahar, 
a washerman coming with a bundle of washed 
clothes, and a marriage procession.* 

The following objects and persons are 
generally believed to be inauspicious : — 

Oil, buttermilk, a couple of snakes, a mon- 
key, pig, and an ass, firewood, ashes and cotton, 
a person with a disfigured nose, a man dressing 
his hair in the shape of a crown, red garlands, 
wet clothes, a woman wearing red cloth, an 
empty earthen vessel, a Brahman widow, a 
BraUmachdri and an unmarried Brahman-'', 
a widow, a bare-headed Brahman, a cat going 
across the path, a dog flapping his ears,- 
meeting a barber with his bag, a beggar, 



sneezing, or the asking of a question at the 
time of departure, waiting, meeting a person 
with an empty vessel,^ howling of dogs and 
jackals, a pair of crows playing on the ground, 
and a lighted lamp extinguished by its fall 
on the ground.'^ 

While plans or proposals are being made, it 
is considered inauspicious if any one sneezes 
or the sound of a lizard is heard." Meeting 
a person of the depressed classes whose touch 
is pollution, or a Brahman who accepts funeral 
gifts, is considered inauspicious. ^ Meeting a 
woman who is in her menses, a mourner, £^ 
buffalo, a snake and a diwad are considered 
inauspicious. ■'^" An iron vessel or an iron bar, 
cow dung cakes, salt, grass, a broom, a vulture, 
and a washerman bringing with him dirty 
clothes are also considered to be inauspicious 
omens. ^'^ 

Among the Hindus in Western India, for 
the purpose of helping the spirit to go to 
heaven safely, and for securing its goodwill 
towards the survivors, after death ceremonies 
called the Shrdddhas are generally performed. 
Some perform these ceremonies once a year 
in the month of Bhddrapada, and others per- 
form them twice or thrice i.e. on the anniver- 
sary day of the deceased as well as in the 
dark half of Bhddrapada, which is generally 
known as the ntanes fortnight (pitru 
pahsha) ,^> 

The funeral solemnities performed from the 
1st to the 1 4th day from the death of the 
deceased are as described below ; — 

On the first day, at the time of burning the 
dead body, a plot of ground is purified by 
repeating certain mantras, and the corpse is 
then placed on it. Before setting the funeral 
pile on fire, balls of boiled rice or wheat flour 
are put on the face, the forehead, arms and 
the chest of the corpse. Such balls are placed 



" School Master, Ubhdddnda, Ratnagiri. 
3 School Master, Achare, Ratndgiri. 
5 School Master, Achare, Ratndgiri. 
^ School Master, Khopoli, Koldba. 
s School Master, Anjarle, Ratndgiri. 
11 Rdo Saheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 



2 School Master, Khopoli, KoUba. 
* School Master, Mitbdv, Ratndgiri. 
« School Master, Ubhiddnda, Ratnagiri. 
8 School Master, Mitbdv, Ratndgiri. 
"" School Master, Pendur, Ratndgiri, 
'2 School Master, Devgad, Ratndgiri, 



FOLKLORE OF THli: KONKAN 



67 



on the body of the deceased only wlien death 
has taken place on an unlucky day, or when 
there is an unlucky conjunction of stars. The 
son, or some other near relative, of the deceased 
generally performs these rites with the help 
of a Brahman priest. On tfie third day he 
goes to the burning place, collects the ashes 
of the deceased, and throws them into the sea. 
On this occasion he is accompanied by the 
relatives of the deceased. Rich persons who are 
able to go to Benares keep the bones of their 
deceased parents and throw them into the 
Ganges at Prayaga near Benares after per- 
forming certain Shrdddhas there. The giving 
of oblations continues daily till the tenth day. 
The oblations of the tenth day are called Das 
Pinda. The rites of the eleventh day are 
called Ekotistha. On the eleventh day the 
person performing the rites has to change his 
sacred thread, after sipping a little cow's 
urine. Cooked food is prepared at the place 
where the rites of the eleventh day are per- 
formed, and Brahmans are fed there, or at 
least thirty-two mouthf uls of cooked food are 
offered to the sacred fire. A big ball of 
boiled rice is put before the sacred fire or near 
the Brahmans taking their meals. This ball 
is then thrown into the sea. A male calf is 
branded, worshipped and let loose. This calf 
is called Vasu, and is considered sacred by the 
villagers. On the 1 1th day, special ceremonies 
for propitiating the eight Vasus and the eleven 
Budras are performed, and gifts of a plot of 
ground, a cow, cooking vessels, various kinds 
of corn, golden images, silver and copper 
coins, clothes, shoes, umbrellas, bedding, etc. 
are given to the Brahmans collected there. 
On the 13th day after death a feast is given 
to 13 or more Brahmans and the other relatives. 
Navakdddn, i.e., the gift of a ship and 
Gopraddni.e., of a cow and a calf, are also 
given to the Brahmans on the understanding that 



they will help the soul of the dead while 
crossing the river Vaitarna.^ 

Water mixed with til or sesamum seed, 
sandalpaste, and oblations of boiled rice are 
given daily to the manes to secure their good- 
will towards the survivors. ^ 

At Bankavli in the Dapoli taluka of the 
Ratnagiri District, in order to prevent the 
soul from assuming the form of a ghost, there 
is a custom of tying a piece of Gulvel^ a 
species of moonseed, or the seed of a vegeta- 
ble known as Mdthbhdji, round the neck of 
the corpse before burning it. It is also 
believed that, by doing this, the soul is prevent- 
ed from troubling the survivors.^ — ^ 

At Poladpur in the Kolaba District, some 
villagers drive an iron nail into the head of 
the corpse before it is taken to the funeral 
ground. They believe that, in consequence, 
the soul of the deceased will not turn into an 
evil spirit. Some people scatter grain on thej 
road while the corpse is being carried to the 
cremation ground.* 

Among the Hindus in the Konkan, as well 
as in the Deccan, dead bodies are generally 
burnt, but under the following circumstances 
they are buried. 

Persons dying of small pox, women dying I 
in "childbirth or during their menses, children 
dying within six months from their birth, and 
Sanydsis are buried. The bodies of persons 
suffering from leprosy are necessarily buried.^ 
Among Lingayats the bodies are always 
buried. Certain mantras are repeated while 
burying or burning the dead body. While \ 
burying, cocoanuts and certain kinds of grain 
are thrown into the grave, and after covering 
the dead body with salt, the grave is filled up 
with earth and stones." While burning, the 
dead body is placed on the funeral pile 
with its bead to the north and feet tow;ards 
the south. Tulsi wood, sandal-wood, and 
Bel wood are kept on the pile before placing 



1 Rdo Sdheb Shelke, Kolhapur. 

3 School Master, Bankavli, Ratndgiri. 

5 School Master, Ubhddanda, Ratnagiri. 



2 School Master, Bandivade, Ratndgiri. 

4 School Master, Poladpur, Kolaba. 

G School Masteri, Ibhrampur, Ratndgiri. 



68 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



the dead body over it. Cocoanuts and 
camphor cakes are placed on the body, and 
it is set on fire. Among the Lingayats and 
G'osavis the d .ad are buried. Before burying, 
the Lingayats have to take a written order 
from their priest, the Ayya or Jangam. 
The paper is then tied to the neck of the 
deceased, and the body is placed in a bag 
made of new cloth, the head being allowed to 
remain out of the bag, Bhasma or ashes, salt 
and camphor are also put into the bag along 
with the corpse, which is then buried. The 
Jangam repeats mantras when the body is in the 
grave. No such written order is necessary for 
the burial of Gosavis, A cocoanut is broken 
on the head of the corpse at the time of 
burying it. Among high class Hindus the 
corpse is carried to the funeral ground in a 
bier made of bamboos. Among the Lingayats 
.1 gaily dressed frame called Makhar is pre- 
pared on the bier, and the body is dressed with 
clothes and head dress and seated in the Mak- 
har. Some of them carry the dead body in a 
bag made of blanket. There is a custom .of 
keeping foot-prints on the spot where a San- 
ydsi is buried, and they are daily worshipped 
by the people.^ Among the Kathawatis of 
Thana and Kolaba districts the dead body is 
first buried, and after a few days the skeleton 
is taken out of the grave and then burnt as 
usual.2 Among the high class Hindus the 
moustaches are shaved at the death of parents 
paternal uncle and elder brother. Among the 
Shudras it is not necessary to shave.* Persons 
who have lost their parents have to perform 
certain funeral rites or Shrdddhas when they 
visit holy places such as Benares, Prayag, 
Ayodhya and Nasik, and they have to shave 
their moustaches at all these places before 
performing the funeral rites.* Moustaches 
are also shaved as a penance for certain sins. 



The Agnihotri, i.e., one who preserves perpe- 
tual fire in his house f-or worship, has to get 

himself shaved every fortnight.^' , , 

Among high class Hindus boiled rice is ' 
daily offered to the dead after a portion has 
been thrown into the fire, the remainder being 
given to the crows. The portion thrown in_ 
the fire is called Vaishvadev^ and that which is 
given to the crows is called Kdgrvds. Among 
other Hindus it is given on the last day of 
Bhddrapada and on the date of the father's 
death, annually.'^ Oblations of boiled rice are 
given to the dead every day, on the last day of 
the Hindu calendar month, on the date of a 
person's death every month, on the same date of 
the dark half of Bhddrapada every year. These 
oblations are put out of the house before taking 
the meals. It is believed that the ancestors 
come down in the form of crows to partake 
of these offerings. '^ Oblations of cooked food 
are also oiFered to a cow, and considered thus 
to be received by the dead. They are especially 
given to the crows annually in the dark half of 
Bhddrapada on the date of the deceased's 
death.* After the corpse has been carried to 
the funeral ground, an oil lamp containing 
one cotton wick is kept on the spot where the 
deceased expired. The flame of the lamp is 
directed towards the south as it is believed that 
the soul goes to heaven by the south. A ball 
of boiled rice and a little quantity of water or 
milk is kept daily for the first ten days near 
the lamp while repeating the name of the 
deceased and of the gotra to which it belonged. 
The lamp is taken out of the house on the 



1 1th day.9 



Hindus believe that impurity attaches to all 
the things in the house in consequence of the 
death of a person in that house. All those 
things which can be purified by washing are 
washed and taken back, while things like 



■n 



» Rdo.Sdheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 

3 School Master, Mitbdv, Ratndgiri. 

5 School Master, Khed, Ratndgiri. 

' School Master, Ubhddiinda, Ratndgiri, 



2 School Master, Mokhade, Thdna. 
1 Rao Sdheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 
8 School Master, Kelwd-Mdhim, Thdna. 
^ School Master, Devgad, Ratndgiri. 



3 Rao Sdlieb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 



FOLKLORE OF TH.E KONKAN 



69 



earthen pots, cooked food, etc. are thrown 
away, special care being taken to break these 
pots, so that they may not be used again. Even 
the walls of the house are white washed.^ The 
earthen pots that are required for the funeral 
rites of the dead are all broken. One which 
is required for boiling water to bathe the 
corpse is broken when the body is carried to 
the funeral ground. Of the rest, one is broken 
at the funeral pile after the son has passed 
thrice round the pile with an earthen vessel 
filled with water. It is believed that birds and 
animals drinking water out of these vessels 
would be infected by disease, and this is the 
reason why these pots are broken. The mour- 
ners who use earthen vessels during the mour- 
ning break them at the end of the mourning 
period.* Among the Agris of Chaul in the 
Kolaba District, all earthen vessels in the house 
are broken on the eleventh day after a death in 
the family, the chief reason assigned for this 
act being that the wishes and desires of the 
deceased might lurk in the earthen vessels 
\ and cause trouble to the inmates of the house.^ 
All the members of the family of the dead 
have to observe mourning for ten days. They 
are purified on the eleventh day after taking 
a bath and sipping Panchgavya, or the five pro- 
ducts of the cow. The son of the dead person, or 
one who performs the f uneijal rites of the dead 
is purified on the twelfth day after completing 
the rites of ■Sapindi, A man iu mourning 
does not touch those who are not in mourning. 
If anybody touches him, both of them have to 
take a bath. The son of the deceased or, in the 
absence of a son, any male member belonging 
to the family is entitled to perform the 
funeral rites of the dead. These rites are 
performed during the first twelve days, beginn- 
ing from the first day or from the 3rd, 
5th, 7th or the 9th. One who performs these 
rites has to sleep on the ground during these 



twelve days. A person hearing of the death 
of a member of his family within the first 
ten days from the date of the death, becomes 
free from that mourning on the eleventh 
day. If he happens to hear it within one 
month of tlie death, he has to observe it 
for three days and after one month he has to 
observe it for one day only.* The son, or 
one who performs the funeral rites of the 
deceased has to sleep on the ground, and has 
to take his meals only once a day till the end 
of the 13th day. He takes his bath in cold 
water. Sweet things are not prepared in the 
house during the days of mourning. During 
the period of mourning, every morning, a 
Brahman comes to the mourner's house and 
recites some passages from the Garud Purdna, 
which relates to the state of the soul after 
death. On the eleventh day the house is 
besmeared with cowdung, and cow's urine is 
sprinkled in the house. All the clothes are 
washed. Mourning is not observed in the 
case of a death of a Sanydsi, and the Lingayats 
do not observe any kind of mourning-''. 

The brother of the deceased, his son, grand- 
son and all the members belonging to the 
family, have to observe the mourning for ten 
days. The married daughter of the deceased 
has to observe it for three days. From the 
fifth or sixth generation in the same family, it 
is observed for three or one day only..'^ In 
case of the death of a wife's parents, the 
husband has to observe mourning for three 
days. During the mourning days people do 
not worship the gods or go to the temples. 
Milk is also prohibited during the mourning 
period. The mourners are not to touch any- 
body except the members of their family.^ 

On the thirteenth day the sons and other 
members of the family are taken out to visit the 
temple of any deity by the people assembled 



1 School Master, Ubhaddnda, Ratnagiri. ' Kao Saheb Shelke, Kolhapur. 

3 School Master, Chowl. Koldba. * School Master, Ubhadanda, Ratnag.ri. 

5 Rao Siheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. ' School Master, Mitbav, Ratnagiri. 

7 School Master, Vavanje, Kolaba. 



70 



FOLKLORE OF THE KOXKAX 



for the purpose. It is believed that after 
going to the temple on the 13th day, the sons 
and the other members of the family are at 
liberty to go out of tlie housed 
' At Kolhapur it is believed that the deities 
Etalai and Kalkai of the Konkan districts 
keep with them evil spirits as their servants. 
These servant spirits obey bhe orders of these 
deities. Some people in this district go to 
the temples of these deities and request them to 
lend them the services of these spirit servants. 
It is considered very lucky to secure the 
help of these spirits. The temple ministrant 
then requests the deity to give a Kaul or omen. 
For this purpose, the temple ministrant calls 
on the deity to enter his body, and when he 
is possessed by the spirit of the deity, he 
allows the applicant to take with him one of 
the deity's servants for a fixed period. The 
Gurav, or the ministrant, then explains to the 
person the period for which the spirit servant 
is given, and the amount of the annual tribute 
required to be given to the deity for the use of 
her servant. He also gives him a cocoanut 
and sacred ashes. The applicant then returns 
home, believing that the spirit servant will 
follow him, and from that time he prospers. 
This spirit servant is called Chetuk, and it 
can be seen only by the person in whose charge 
it is given by the Gurav.^ 

At Achare in the Ratnagiri District, the spirit 
of a Brahman well versed in the Vedas is called 
Mahapurusha and it is said to be benevolent. 
It haunts Pipal and Umbar trees. ^ 

At Murbad in the Thana District, the spirit 
known as Vetal, the king of evil spirits, is 
considered to be benevolent.* 



L 



The spirits known as Mahapurush haunts 
the Pipal and Umbar trees. Avagat the ghost 
of a widow haunts the Avali (Phyllanthus 
emblica) tree. Alavant, the ghost of a woman 
dying at childbirth or during her menses, lives 
in the Ndgchdmpa, Surang and the Kdjra 
trees. Devachar, Sambandh, Munja, Zoting, 
Khavis and Khapra reside in trees and plants. ■"* 

The people of Kolhapur believe that the 
spirits known as Bramhasambandh, Brahma 
Rakshasa, and Khavis reside in trees." 

The spirits known as Devchar and Chalegat 
are considered to be the special protectors of 
crops and cattle.'' 

The people of Ubhadanda in the Ratnagiri 
District believe that the village deities and 
the Devachars are the special protectors of 
crops and cattle. Offerings of fowls and 
cocoanuts are made to them annually.® 

At Kochare in the Ratnagiri District, the 
spirit known as Viswati is believed to be the 
special protector of crops and cattle.^ 

The people of the Kolaba District consider 
that the spirits known as Mhashya, KhaviSf 
and Bandav are the protectors of crops and 
cattle. 10 

At Dahanu in the Thana District, the spirit 
Cbeda is believed to be the guardian of crops, 
and cattle.ii 

The people of Kolhapur believe that the 
deities of the fields protect the crops and 
cattle. Those who are in possession of the 
Chetuk, or the servant spirit, are sure to find 
their crops and cattle protected by this servant 
spirit.12 

Evil spirits are not usually invoked to 
frighten children, but occasionally the names 
of goblins such as Bagulbawa, Bowaji, Gosavi 
etc. are mentioned to scare them.i'* 



1 School Master, Mdlid, Thdna. 
^ School Master, Achare, Batnigiri. 
5 School Master, Achare, R^tndgiri 
^ School Master, Fonde, Ratnagiri. 
° School Master, Kochare, Batn^giri. 
" School Master, Dahdnu, Thitia. 



2 Bao Sdheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 

4 School Master, Murbad, Thdna. 

6 Rao Sdheb Shelke, Kolhapur. 

8 Sohool Master, Ubhdddnda, Ratndgir:, 

IK School Master Varsai, Koldba. 

12 Bio Sdheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 



13 School Master, Achare, Batndgiri. 



CHAPTER VII. 



TREE AND JSERPENT WORSHIP 



Groves of mango trees are considered to be 
sacred as they have a pleasing appearance, 
and afford grateful shelter against the heat of 
the day. It is a general belief among Hindus 
that trees from which such pleasure and pro- 
lection are derived must naturally be the abode 
of the gods. There are many such groves in 
Satara. During the spring season people go 
to these groves and worship the trees. The 
Hindus have a general prejudice against 
cutting living trees which yield fruits, and it 
is considered specially inauspicious to cut the 
following trees : — 

U.tnbar, Vad or Banian tree, Pipal, Saundad 
or Shami Palus, Bel^ Rui, Avali and the Tulsi 
plant, for it is believed that these trees are 
the abode of deities, e.g. the god Dattatraya 
resides under the Umbar tree, the goddess 
Parvati oQ the Baniam tree, and the god Vishnu 
resides near the Tulsi plant. The god 
Brahma, the creator of the world, is found in 
the Pipal tree. The plantain tree is also con- 
sidered to be sacred. While gathering a bunch 
of plantains, the tree is first cut before the 
btmich. It is considered inauspicious to gather 
the bunch without so doing.^- 

There are certain groves at Ubhadanda in 
the Vengurla taluka of the R'atnagiri District 
which are supposed to he haumted by Deva- 
chdrs, and are therefore not cut by the 
people.^ 

The people of Ibhrampur in the Chiplun 
taluika consider it inauspicious to cut the Vad 
and Pipal trees of which the thread ceremo- 
nies have been performed* After the thread 
ceremony of these trees is over, a stone plat- 
form is raised around them.^ 



1 Rdo Sdheb Shelke, Kolhapur. 

3 School Master, Ibhrdmpur, Ratndgiri. 

5 School Master, Padghe, Thdna. 



At Fonde in theDevgad taluka, it is con- 
sidered inauspicious to cut the trees and the 
groves that surround the temple of a village 
deity, fpr they are believed lo belong to 
that deity.* 

At Padghe in the Thana District, the trees 
which are supposed to have been haunted by 
evil spirits such as S amhandh^ Munja^ Devoj 
chdr^ etc. are not generally cut by the people 
through fear of these spirits. When any 
tree is cut down, the custom is to keep a stone 
at the root of the tree in order that the 
place may no longer be affected or haxmted 
by the spirit in the tree.^ There are certain 
families who do not burn Pipal^ Khair^ or 
Shiwani wood. They believe that the burning 
of these trees causes harm to their families. 
It is said that the burning of the Apta tree 
causes the breeding of the insect known as 
Gochadi, i. e. the cattle or dog louse.® 

There is an Atvdumhar tree of the god 
Dattatraya at Bhillawadi, and a big Banian 
tree near the math of the Ijngayat swdmi 
named Kadappa near Kolhapur, which are 
worshipped by the people of the neighbouaring 
villages. The Saundad tree, better known as 
Shami, is worshipped once a year on the 
Dasara, the 10th day of the bright half of 
Asliwin (October). It is said that Rama, the 
seventh incarnation of Vishnu, kept his arms 
on the Shami tree during his fourteen years' 
exile, and took them back again when he 
marched upon Lanka or Ceylon to kill Rawan, 
the demon king of Ceylon. While going to 
Lanka he bowed to the SKami tree, and as 
he was successful in his undertaking, the 
Marathas used to start for a campaign on the 

' School Master, Ubhdddnda, Ratndgiri. 
* School Master, Fonde, Ratndgiri. 
6 School Master, Dahigaon, Thdna. 



72 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



Dasara day after worshipping the Shami tree, 
and distributing its leaves among their friends 
calling it Survarn or gold. This is said 
to be the origin of the festival of Dasara, A 
species of the tamarind tree called Gorahh 
Chinch is said to be connected vrith the Hindu 
saint Gorakhnath. For this reason this tree 
is worshipped by the people. A great fair is 
held every year at Battis Shirale in the Satara 
District, which is situated at a distance of 
about ten miles from Kolhapur.^ 

The Pipal^ the Umbar^ the Vad or Banian 
tree, and the Tulsi plant are worshipped by 
Hindus in general. The Apia tree is wor- 
shipped by Hindus on the Dasara day, and its 
leaves are distributed under tlie name of sone, 
or gold, among their friends and relatives.^ 

At Medhe in the Eoha taluka of the Kolaba 
District, there is a tree Vehala (Beleric 
myrobalan) which is believed to be connected 
with the local deity Mhasoba. It is consi- 
dered to be a sacred tree, and nobody dares to 
cut it or to touch it with the feet.^ 

At Shirgaon in the Mahim taluka of the 
Thana District there is a Rdnjani tree on the 
bank of a tank called Khambale, which is said 
to be connected with the deity Brahma; and 
therefore no branch of that tree is cut by the 
people. It is considered harmful to cut the 
tree.* 

At Ganagapur iu the Kolhapnr District, 
there is a Vad tree coimected with the saint 
Kabir. It is called Kabirvad, There is also 
an Awdumhar tree connected with the god 
Dattatraya, and known as Dattdtraya Arvdum- 
bar? 

The TJmbar, Pipal, Vad^ and the Tulsi 
plant are considered to be sacred, and are 
respected by Hindus. The following are some 
of the legends about their sacredness. 



Umbar — When the god Vishnu in his fourth 
incarnation, called Narsinh, i.e. half man and 
half lion, tore into pieces the body of the 
demon named Hiranyakashipu with his claws, 
he felt a burning sensation of the poison from 
the body of that demon, which was assuaged 
by thrusting his hands into the trunk of the 
Umbar or Arvadumbar tree.^ 

In order that they may get the auspicious 
sight of a deity early in the morning, Hindus 
generally plant the Umbar and Tulsi trees in 
front of their houses, and worship them daily. 
The juice of the root of the Umbar has a 
cooling effect, and hence it is freely used in 
cases of measles or itch. Its sap is also used 
as medicine for swellings. It is very pleasant 
to sit under the shade of this tree, and as it is 
believed that tlie god Dattatraya resides 
beneath this tree, it is held very sacred by the 
Hindus.'' 

Pipal — The Pipal tree is considered very^ 
sacred because it is believed that the god 
Brahma resides in the roots, the god Visluiu 
in the trunk, and the god Shiva on the top of 
this tree. Persons who make a particular vow 
or have any objects to be fulfilled worship the 
Pipal tree, and walk round it several times 
every day.s The evil spirits Sambandh^ 
Devachdr, Munja, and Vetdl haunt the Pipal 
tree. These spirits are considered to be the 
servants of the god Shiva. It is also believed 
that persons who worship and walk round this 
tree daily are not affected by those spirits. 
The Pipal tree is specially worshipped at 
dawn on Saturday as it is considered that the 
gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesh Or Shiva 
happen to be there at that time," 



1 Rdo Sdheb Shelke, Kolhapur. 
3 School Master, Medhe, KoMba. 
5 School Master, Umele, Thdna. 
' Rdo Sdheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 



2 School Master, Shiravade, Ratndgiri. 
4 School Master, Shirgaon, Thdna. 
s School Master,! Fonde, Ratnagiri. 
s Rdo Silheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 



' School Master, Ubhdddnda, Ratnagiri. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



73 



Vad or the Banian tree — A prince named 
Satyawan died of snakebite under the Vad 
tree. His wife named Savitri, who was very 
■chaste and dutiful, requested Yama, the god of 
death, and succeeded in securing from liim the 
life of her husband Satyawan. As the prince 
Satyawan returned from tliiC jaws of death 
under the Vad tree, this tree was specially 
worshipped by her, and it is therefore believed 
that Savitri has ever since then been responsi- 
ble for the practice of worshipping the Vad 
tree by women for the purpose of securing a 
Jong life to their husbands.^ It is also believed 
that the god Vishnu takes shelter under the 
T\id at the time of the general destruction of 
the world. The worship of this tree is 
similar to that of the other deities, and women 
take turns around it at the close of the worship 
or puja." 

The Tulsi plant is worshipped daily by the 
Hindus in general, and women in particular, by 
keeping the plant near their houses. The god 
Vishnu is worshipped particuilarly by the leaf 
of this plant." The Tulsi plant is considered 
by the people to represent the goddess Luxmi, 
the wife o'f Vishnu. Hindu women will not 
take their meals before worshipping the Tulsi 
plant daily in the morning. It is also said that 
the god Vishnu, in his eighth incarnation called 
Krishna, had loved Vrunda, the wife of a 
demon. After her death she was burnt, but 
-oTi her burning ground there grew the Tulsi 
plant. As Krishna loved Vrunda very dearly, 
lie began to love this plant also, and hence 
the image of Bal Krishna, or the god Vishnu, 
is married to this plant every year on the 1 2th 
day of the bright half of Kdrtik (November). 3 
As it is also believed that the god Vishnu 
resides in the Tulsi plant, the worship of this 
plant is equivalent to the worship of the god 
Vishnu.^ 

Besides the above mentioned trees, the Palus 
(Butea frondosa), thei^eZ, a tree sacred to god 
Shivn, mi the iShami (Prosopis spicigera), a 



tree sacred to god Ganpati the son of Shiva, 
are considered to be holy by the Hindus.'' 

A common custom among Hindus is for a 
person who has lost his two wives and wishes 
to marry a third, to be first married to a Rui 
plant, and then to the actual bride. His marri- 
age with the Rui plant is considered as a third 
marriage. After the marriage, the Rui plant 
is cut down and buried, and thus the marriage 
with the third bride is considered to be a fourth 
marriage. The marriage with the Rui plant 
has been adopted in the belief tliat the third 
wife is sure to die unless the spirit of the 
deceased is mide to enter the Rui plant." — 

When a girl is born under the influence of 
inauspicious planets which may be harmful to 
her husband, she is first married to a tree or 
an earthen pot, and then to the bridegroom. 
The marriage with the earthen pot is ciUed 
Kumbhavivdha^ or the pot-wedding. It is 
believed that, by observing this practice, the 
danger to her husband is avoided. The danger 
passes to the tree to which she is first married. ' 

Among the lower classes in the Thana Dis- 
trict* a poor man unable to marry owing to his 
poverty is first married to a Rui plant and 
then to a widow. This marriage with a widow 
is called pat Idvane. This remarriage of a 
widow among the lower classes is generally 
performed at night, and under an old mango tree. 
It is never performed in the house. A widow 
who has remarried cannot take part in any 
auspicious ceremony such as a marriage, e!;c.s__J 

At Vankavli in the Ratnagiri Disrtict there 
is a custom among tlifi low class Hindus of a 
woman who has lost her second husband and 
wishes to marry for the third time, first 
marrying a cock, i.e., she takes the cock in her 
arms at the lime of her marriage with the third 
husband.'-' 

Persons who have no children make a vow to 
Khandoba at Jejuiri that the firstborn^ male or 
female, shall be offered to him. The females, 
offered in fulfilment of such vows are called 



^ Rao Saheb Shelke, Kolhiipur. 
3 School Master, Dahanu, Thtina. 
5 School Master, Devgad, Ratndgiri. 
r School Master, Khopoli, Kolaba. 

9 School Master, 



- School Master, Mitbtiv, Ratnagiri. 
i School Master, Ubhadanda, Ratndgiri. 
6 School Master, Mitbdv, Ratnagiri. 
8 School Master, Edwan, Thana. 
Vankavli, Ratnagiri. 



74 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN. 



Muralis, They are married to the gcd Khan- 
doba, and have to earn their livelihood by 
begging in villages. A male child thus offered 
to the god is called a Vaghya^ 

There is a custom of offering children to tlie 
deities Yallamma and Khandoba in fulfilment of 
vows made in order to get a child. The child 
is taken to the temple of these deities, acccm- 
panied with music. The temple ministrant 
asks the child to stand on a wooden board on 
a heap of rice in front of the deity, and puts 
into its hands a paradi — a flat basket of 
bamboo, tying to its neck the darshana of the 
deity. A female child is married to the 
dagger — Katydr — of the deity. When once 
this ceremony has been performed, parents 
abandon their rights to such children. When 
these cliildren come-of age, the males can marry 
but the females cannot. The latter earns her 
livelihood begging jogava in the name of the 
goddess Amba with a paradi in her hand. A 
male child offered to the goddess Yallamma is 
called jogata, and a female, jogatin. Children 
dedicated to the goddess Mayaka are called 
Jogi and Jogin. Children offered to Firangdi 
and Ambdhdi are called Bhutya (male) and 
Bitutin (female) .2 

In the Konkan districts there is a class of 
women known as Bhavinis who are said to be 
married to Khanjir^ i.e., a dagger belonging to 
the god. They are also called deva yoshita, i.e.^ 
prostitutes offered to the god. They have no 
caste of their own. They retain the name of the 
caste to which they originally belonged, such 
as Marathe Bhavini, Bhandari Bhavini, Sutar 
Bhavini, etc. The following account is given 
of the origin of the sect of Bhavinis. A 
woman wishing to abandon her husband goes 
to the temple of a village deity at night, and in 
presence of the people assembled in that 
temple she takes oil from the lamp burning in 
the temple,! and pours it upon her head. This 
process is called Deval rigftane, i.e., to enter 
into the service of the temple. After she has 
poured sweet oil from the lamp upon her head, 
she has no further connection with her husband. 



She becomfes the maid servant of the temple, and 
is free to behave as she likes. Daughters of 
such Bhavinis who do not wish to marry, 
undergo the process of shesa bharane^ and 
follow the occupation of their mothers. The 
sons of the Bhavinis have an equal right to the 
property of their mother, but any daughter 
who marries a lawful husband loses her share 
in the property of her mother. A Devali 
follows the occupation of blowing the horn or 
cornet; and is entitled to liold the torches in the 
marriage ceremonies of the people in the village. 
Many of them learn the art of playing upoa 
the tabour — mrudunga — and are useful to- 
Kathekaris, i.e., those who recite legends of the 
gods with music and singing. Some of them- 
become farmers while others are unoccupied. 

Bhavinis follow the occupation of a maid- 
servant in the temple, but their real occupation 
is that of public women. They are not scorned 
bj- the public. On the contrary, they are 
required to be present at the time of a marriage 
to tie the marriage-string — Mangalsutra — of 
a bride, for tliey are supposed to enjoy 
perpetual unwidowhood — 'Janma suwdsini' 
Some of the houses of Bhavinis become the 
favourite resorts of gamblers and vagabonds. 
In the absence of a daughter, a Bhavini pur- 
chases a girl from a harlot, and adopts her as- 
her daughter to carry on her profession. ^ __ 

Snakes are believed to be the step-brothers 
of the gods. They reside under the earth 
and are very powerful. The snake is con- 
sidered to be very beautiful among creeping 
animals, and is one of the ornaments of the 
god Shiva. An image of a snake made of 
brass is kept in the temple of the god Shiva, 
and worshipped daily along with the god.. 
There is a custom among the Hindus or 
worshipping iVagffl, i.e., the cobra, once a year 
on the Ndga panchami day, i.e., the fifth day 
of the bright half of •Skrdwan ( August ). 
Images of snakes are drawn with sandalpaste 
on a wooden board or on the walls of houses. 



School Master, Palshet, RatnAgiri. 2 r^q Saheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 

' School Master, KdUhe, Ratndgiri. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAX 



75 



and worshipped by Hindu women on this day. 
Durva grass, sacred to Ganpati, parched rice 
Idhya^ legumes kadadan, and milk are oiFered 
to this image. Some people gO'-to>the siiakes, 
abode Vdrul — an ant-hill — on this day to 
worship the snake itself, if they happen to 
catcli sight of it.^ 

It is said that at Battisa Shirale in the 
Belgaum District the real Ndga comes out of 
its abode below the earth on this day, and is 
worshipped by the people. Milk and Idhya, 
parched rice, are put outside the house at night 
on this day with the intention that they may 
be consumed by a snake. Hindus do not dig 
or plough the earth on Ndga panchami day. 
Even vegetables are not cut and fried on this 
day by some people.^ 
\ Earthen images of snakes are worshipped 
by some people in the Konkan districts on the 
Ndga panchami day. The Ndga is considered 
to be a Brahman by caste, and it is believed 
that the family of the person who kills a 
snake becomes extinct. The cobra being con- 
sidered a Brahman, its dead body is adorned 
wiljt Ae-jdnawe-,- and then burnt as that- o{ a 
human being. A copper coin is also thrown 
into its funeral pile.s 

Atcertain villages in the Deccan a big 
earthen image of a snake is consecrated in a 
public place on the Ndga panchami day, and 
worshipped by Hindus in general. Women 
sing their songs in circles before this image 
while men perform tamdshds by its side. In 
fact, the day is enjoyed by the people 
as a holiday. The snake is removed next day, 
and an idol in the form of a man made of 
mud is seated in its place. This idol is called 
Shiralshet, who is said once to have been 
a king and to have ruled over this earth for 
one and one-fourths of a ghataka, i. e., for 
half an hour only. This day, is observei as 
a day of rejoicing by the people.* 



L_ 



The names of the snake deities are 
Takshaka, Vasuki and Shesha. Their shrines 
are at Kolhapur, Nagothane, Prayaga, 
Nagadevachi Wadi and Subramhanya. A great 
fair is held every year at Battisa Shirale on 
the Ndgor panchami day.* 

There is a shrine of a snake deity at 
Savantwadi. The management of the shrine 
is in tlie hands of the State officials. It is^ 
believed that a real snake resides therein.^' 

There is a shrine of a snake deity at Awas 
in the Alibag taluka of the Kolaba District, 
where a great fair is held every year on the 
14th day of the bright half of Kdrtik 
(November). It is said that persons suf- 
fering f rpm snakebites recover when taken in 
time to this temple.^ 

It is said that a covetous person who 
acquires great wealth during his life-time and 
dies without enjoying it, or without issUe, 
becomes a snake after death, and guards his 
buried treasures. At Kolhapur there was a 
SdtvJcdr — money-lender — ^named Kodulkar 

who is said to have become a snake, and to 
guard his treasures. In the village of 
Kailava in the Panhala petha of the Kolhapur 
District there is a snake in the house of a 
Kulkarni, who scares away those who try to 
enter the storehouse of the Kulkarni.^ 

It is a general belief among the Hindus 
that snakes guard treasures., It is said that 
there are certain places guarded by snakes. 
in Goa territory. Persons who were compelled 
to abandon Portuguese territory owing to 
religious persecutions at the hands of the 
Portuguese buried their treasures beneath the 
ground. Tlwse who died during exile are said 
to have become bhtits or ghosts, and it is 
believed that they guard their buried treasures 
in the form of snakes.^ 

The Hindus generally believe that the snakes 
who guard buried treasures do not allow any 
one to go near them. The snake frightens 
those who try to approach, biit when he wishes 



1 School Matter, Mitbiiv, Ratnagiri. 
3 School Master, Khopoli, Kolaba. 
s School Master, Pendur, Ratnigiri. 
: Bdo Saheb Shelke, Kolhapur, 



- School Master, Kalshe, Ratnagiri. 
* Rio Saheb Shelke, Kolhapur. 
s School Master, Apte, Panwel, Koliba. 
' School Master, Ubhddanda, Ratndgiri. 



76 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



to hand over the treasure to anybody he goes 
to.that person at night, and tells him in a dream 
tliat the treasure buried at such and such a 
place belongs , to him, and requests . him to 
lake it over. After -the person has taken 
possession of the treasure as requested, the 
snake disappears from the spot.^ 

It is said that a snake which guards treasure 
is generally very old, white in complexion, and 
has long hair on its body.^ 

Hindus worship the image of a snake made 
of Darbha grass or of silk thread on the ^nan< 
Chaturdashi day, i.e., the 14th day of the bright 
half of Ashwin (October), and observe that 
day as a holiday. Legends of the exploits of 
the god are related with music and singing on 
this day.^ 

A snake festival is observed in the Nagesh- 
war temple at Awas in the Kolaba District on 
the night of the 14th day of the bright half 
of Kdrtika (November). Nearly four hundred 
devotees of the god Sliankar assemble in the 
temple, holding in their hands vetra-sarpa long 
cane sticks with snake images at their ends. 
They advance dancing and repeating certain 
words, and take turns round the temple, till 
midniight. After getting the permission of the 
chief devotee, they scatter throughout the 
neighbouring villages with small axes in their 
hands, and cut down, andbriiig from. the gar- 
dens,^ cocoanuts, ' plantains, and other edible 
things that are seen on their way. They TCtum 
tothe temple after two hours, the last man 
being the chief devotee called Kuwarkdndya. 
The fruits are then distributed among the 
people, assembled at the temple. Nobody inter- 
feres with them on tliis day in taking away 
cocoanuts and other fruits from the village 
gardens. On the next day they go dancing in 
the same manner to the Kanakeshwar hill with 
the snake sticks in their hands.* 

In the Deccan no special snake festivals like 
those described above are- celebrated. But in 



the • temples devoted \ to snake deities, on the 
full moon day of Kdrtik, which is sacred to the 
snake deity, the deity is worshipped with 
special pomp, and the crests of the temples are 
illuminated on that night. ^ 

The village' cures for snakebite are : — 

1 . The use of charmed water and the 
repetition of mantras by a sorcerer. 

2. The use of certain roots and herbs as 
medicines. 

3. "The removal of the sufferer to tlie neigh- 
bouring temple. 

4. Branding the wound with fire . 

5.. The drinking of soapnut juice, or of 
water in which copper coins have been boiled 
by the patient, who is thus made to vomit the 
snake poison.*^ 

In the Deccan a person suffering from snake- 
bite is taken to a village ten^ple, and the mini- 
strant is requested to give him holy water. 
The deity is also uwoked. Thus keeping the 
person for one night in the temple, he is carried 
to his house the following day if cured. The 
vows made to the deity for the recovery of the 
person are then fulfilled. Tliere is one turahat, 
a tomb of Avalia a Mahomedan saint, at 
Panhala where persons suffering from snake, 
bite are made to sit near the '■ tomb, and it , is 
said that they are cured. In some villages 
there are enchanted trees of Kadulimb wliere 
persons placed mider the shade of such 
trees are cured of snakebites. Some people tie 
a stone round the neck of the sufferer as soon 
as he is better, repeating the words Adi Gudi 
Imdm the name of a Mahomedan saint. After 
recovery from snakebite the person is taken to 
the mosque of the Adi Gudi Imdm SdJieb, where 
the stone is untied before the tomb, fmdjdgri 
equal to tlie weight of the stone is offered. ' A 
feast is, also given to ihe:Mujdfvar or minis- 
trant. of tlie mosque. There, is at. persent a 
famous enchanter- — Mdntrika-r^at: Satara who 
cures persons suffering from snakebite. It is 
said that he throws charmed water on the body 
of the sufferer, and in a few minetes.the snake 



^ School Master, Chawk, Kolaba. 
3 Scbool Master, Pendur, Batndgiri. 
3 Rao Saheb Sheike, Kolhapur. 



2 School Master, Basani, Batndgiri. 
* School Master, Cbawl, KoUba. 
^ Scbool Master, Jambivali, Kolaba. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



77 



begins to speak througli the victim. The 
sorcerer enquires what the snake wants. Tlie 
snake gives reasons for biting the person. When 
any thing thus asked for by the snake is 
oiFered, the victim comes to his senses, and is 
-cured. There are many witnesses to the above 
fact.i 

At Mitbav in the Ratnagiri District chickens 
numbering from twenty to twenty-five are 
■applied to the wound caused by the snakebite. 
A chicken has the power of drawing out the 
poison from the body through the wound, but 
•this causes the death of the chicken. The 
remedy above described is sure to be successful 
if it is tried within three hours of the 
person being bitten. There are several other 
medicines which act on the snakebite, but they 
must be given very promptly. There are some 
men in this village who give charmed water for 
snake or any other bites. Many persons 
suffering from snakebite have been cured by 
the use of mantras and charmed water.^ 

Water from the tanks ox Vetavare in the 
.Savantwadi State and Manjare in Goa territory 
is generally used as medicine for snakebite. It 
:is believed that by the power of mantras a snake 
■can be prevented from entering or leaving a 
particular area. This process is called 'sarpa 
bdndhane' . There are some sorcerers who can 
Jraw snakes out of their holes by the use of 
their mantras^ and carry them away without 
toucliing them with their hands.^ 

At Adivare, in the Rajapur talulia^ roots of 
pertain herbs are mixed in water and applied 
to the wound caused by the snakebite, and 
given to the sufferer to drink.* 



At Naringre in the Ratnagiri District, persons 
suffering from snakebite are given the juice of 
Kadulimb leaves, and are kept in tlie temple 
of Hanuman. The feet of the deity are 
washed with holy water, and the water is given 
to the victim to drink." 

A snake is believed to have a white 
jewel or ma«i in its head, and it loses its life 
when this jewel is removed. This jewel has 
the power of drawing out the poison of 
snakebite. When it is applied to the wound, 
it becomes green, but when kept in milk for 
sometime, it loses its greenness and reverts to 
its usual white colour. It gives out to the 
milk all the poison that has been absorbed 
from the wound, and the milk becomes green. 
This jewel can be used several times as an 
absorbent of the poison of snakebite. The 
green milk must be buried under ground so 
that it may not be used again by any one 
else." 

It is believed that an old snake having long 
hair on its body has a jewel in its head. This 
jewel is compared with the colours of a 
rainbow. The snake can take this jewel from 
its head at night, and search for food in its 
lustre. Such snakes never come near the 
habitation of human beings, but always reside 
in the depth of the jungle. This species of 
snake is called Deva Sarpa, i. e., a snake 
belonging to a deity. It is related that a 
snake was born of a woman in the Kinkar's 
house at Tardal in the Sangli State, and 
another one in the Gabale's house at 
Kolhapur.^ 



1 Rdo Sdheb Shelke, Kolhapur. 

3 School Master, Ubhddanda, Ratnigiri. 

5 School Master, Ndringre, Ratnagiri. 



' School Master, Mitbav, Ratnagiri. 
i School Master, Adivare, Ratnigiri. 
« School Master, Kdlshe, Batndgiri, 



1 Rao Sdheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



TOTEMISM AND FETISHISM. 

The worship of totems, or Devaks, prevails 
among Hindus in Western India. The term 
Devak is applied to the deity or deities 
worshipped at the beginning of a thread or 
a marriage ceremony. The ceremony is as 
follows: A small quantity of rice is put into 
a winnowing fan, and with it six small sticks 
of the ZJmbar tree, each covered with mango 
leaves and cotton thread. These are worshipped 
as deities. Near the winnowing fan is kept 
an eartlien or copper vessel filled with rice, 
turmeric, red powder,' betelnuts, sweet balls 
made of wheat flour, ghi and sugar ; and on 
the top of the vessel is a small sprig of mango 
and a cocoanut covered with cotton thread. 
This vessel is also worshipped as a deity, 
and offerings of sweet eatables are made to it. 
After the worship of tliis vessel, the regular 
ceremony of Punyahavachana is performed. 
Twenty-seven Matrikds^ or village and local 
deities, represented by betelnuts are consecrated 
in a new winnowing fan or a bamboo basket. 
Seven Mdtrikds are made of mango leaves, six 
of which contain durva grass, and the seventh 
darbJta grass. Each of them is bound with 
a raw cottoA thread separately. They are 
worshipped along with a Kalasha or a copper 
lota as mentioned above. This copper lota 
is filled with rice, betelnuts, turmeric, etc., a 
sprig of mango leaves is placed on the lota, 
and a cocoanut is put over it. The lota is 
also bound with a cotton thread. Sandalpaste, 
rice, flowers, and durva grass are required for 
its worship. An oil lamp called Arati is waved 
round the devak, the parents, and the boy or 
the girl whose thread or marriage ceremony is to 
be performed. A Survdsini is called and 
requested to wave this Arati, and the silver 
coin which is put into the Arati by the parents 



is taken by her. The father takes the- 
winnowing fan and the mother takes the 
Kalasha, and they are carried from the mandap- 
to the devak consecrated in the house. A_ 
lighted lamp is kept continually burning near 
this devak till the completion of the ceremony. 
After completion of the thread or marriage 
ceremony the devak is again worshipped, and: 
the ceremony comes to an end. The deity in- 
the devak is requested to depart on the second: 
or the fourth day from the date of its con- 
secration. No mourning is observed during 
the period the devak remains installed in the 
house. 

Among Marathas and many of the lower 
classes in the Ratnagiri District tlie branch of 
a Vad, Kadamha, mango, or an Apt a tree is. 
worshipped as their devak or kul^- 

Some Marathas have a sword or a dagger 
as their devak, which is worshipped by them 
before commencing the ritual of the marriage- 
ceremony.2 

The family known as Rane at Naringre iir 
the Davagad taluka of the Ratnagiri District, 
and the families known as Gadakari andi 
Jadlxava at Malwan, consider the Vad or Banian 
tree as their devak^ and do not make use of its- 
leaves. In the same manner, some people con- 
sider the Kadamha tree sacred to their family.^ 

There are some people among the Hindus 
in Western India whose surnames are derived. 
from the names of animals and plants, such as- 
Boke, Ldndage, Wdgh, Dukre, Kdrvale, Garud 
More, Mhase, Rede^ Keer, Popat, Ghode,. 
Skeldr^ Gdyatonde, Wdghmdre^ Shdlunke 
Bhende, Padwal, Wdlke, Apte, Ambekar 
Pimpalkhare^ Kelkar and Kdlke. 

The Hindus believe that a cow, a horse, and 
an elephant are sacred animals. The cow is 
treated with special respect by the Hindus- 



> School Master, Adivare, Batndgiri. ^ School Master, Kalshe, BatniSgiri. 

' School Master, Achare, Batndgiri. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



79 



in general, and the bull by the Lingayats and 
oilmen. The milk, the urine, and the dung of 
a cow are used as medicines, and they are also 
given as offerings to the god in sacrifices. 

The Shelar family considers the sheep as 
their devak^ and they do not eat the flesh of a 
sheep. The Shalunke family respects the 
ShdlunJci or sparrow. People belonging to the 
More family do not eat the flesh of a peacock 
as they consider it to be their devak.l 

The Bhandaris whose surname is Padwal 
do not eat the vegetable of a snake-gourd or 
Padwal.'i 

Hindus do not eat the flesh of the animal 
respected by them, and those who offer any 
fruit to their guru as a token of respect do 
not eat that fruit in future. Some Hindus do 
not eat onions, garlic and the fruit of a palm 
tree. The fruit of a tree believed to be the 
devak of a family is not eaten by tlie members 
of that family. 

The families of Rava and Rane do not take 
their food on the leaf of a Fad or Banian 
tree as they consider it to be their devak.^ 

There are some Hindu families in the 
Kolaba District who believe that their kul or 
totem consists of the tortoise and the goat, and 
they do not eat the flesh of such animals. A 
certain community of the Vaishyas or traders 
known as Swar believe that a jack tree or 
Phanas is their kul^ and they do not use the 
leaves of that tree.* 

It is believed among the Hindus that the 
deity Satwdi protects children for the first 
three months from their birth. The deity is 
worshipped on the fifth day from the birth of 
a child, and if there occurs any omission or 
error in the worship of that deity, the child 
begins to cry, or does not keep good health. 
On such occasions the parents of the child 
make certain vows to the deity, and if the 
child recovers, the parents go to a jungle, and 
collect seven small stones. They then besmear 



the stones with red lead and oil, and worship 
them along withl a she goat in the manner in- 
which the vow was promised to be fulfilled.^ 

The horse is connected with the worship of 
the god Khandoba because this animal is; 
sacred to that deity, being his favourite 
vehicle. For this reason all the devotees or 
Bhaktas of Khandoba take care to worship the 
horse in order that its master, the god Khan- 
doba, may be pleased with them. 

It is well known that the cow is considered' 
as most sacred of all the animals by the 
Hindus, and the reason assigned for this 
special veneration is that all the deities dwell 
in the cow. 

The Nandi, or a bullock made of stone^ 
consecrated in front of the temple of Shiva, 
the VdgK or a tiger at the temple of a goddess- 
and cows and dogs in the temple of Dattatraya 
are worshipped by the Hindus. 

The mouse, being the vehicle of Ganpati the 
god of wisdom, is worshipped by the people- 
along with that god. 

In the Konkan cattle are worshipped by the 
Hindus on the first day pf Kdrtika, and they 
are made to pass over fire. 

The mountains having caves and temples of 
deities are generally worshipped by the 
Hindus. The Abucha Pahad, the Girnar, the 
Panchmadhi, the Brahmagiri, the Sahyadri,, 
the Tungar, the Jivadancha dongar^ the Munja 
dongar at Junnar, the Tugabaicha dongar^ the 
Ganesh Lene, and the Shivabai are the princi- 
pal holy mountains in the Bombay Presidency. 
Mount Abu, known as the Abucha Pahad, is. 
believed to be very sacred, and many Hindus 
go on a pilgrimage to that mountain. 

Hills are worshipped at Ganpati Pule 
and Chaul. At Pule there is a temple of the 
god Ganpati, the son of Shiva, and at Chaul in 
the Kolaba District there is a temple of the 
god Dattatraya. 



1 School Master, Anjarle, Katndgiri, ^ School Master, Acbare, Batndgiri. 

3 School Master, Fonde, Batnigiri, * School Master, Chauk, Koldba. 

5 Rao Siheb Shelke, Kolhapur. 



80 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



The place which produces sound when water 
is pomred over it is considered to be holy, and 
is worshipped by the people. 

In the Deccan, hills are worshipped by the 
people on the Narak chaturdashi day in 
Dipatvdli, 14th day of the dark half of Ashtvin 
(October). The legend of this worship is 
that the god Shri Krislltta lifted the Govardhan 
mountain on this day, and protected the people 

■ of this world. A hill made of cowdung is 
worshipped at every house on the Narak 

■ chaturdashi day.i 

Stones of certain kinds are first considered 
as one of the deities, or as one of the chief 
heroes in the family, and then worshipped by 
the people. Many such stones are found 
worshipped in the vicinity of any temple. 

A stone coming out of the earth with a 
phallus or lingam of Shiva is worshipped by 
"the Hindus. If such a lingam lies in a deep 
jungle, it is worshipped by them at least once 
a year, and daily, if practicable, in the month 
of Adhikamds, an intercalary month which 
-comes every third year.* 

The red stones found in the Narmada river 
represent the god Ganpati, and are worshipped 
by the people. 

A big stone at Phutaka Tembha near Murud 
in the Ratnagiri District is worshipped by the 
people, who believe it to be the monkey god 
Hanamdn or Maruti. All the stone images of 
gods that are called Swayamhku or self- 
existent are nothing but rough stones of 
peculiar shapes. There are such stvayamhhu — 
natural-images — at Kelshi and Kolthare in the 
Ratnagiri District.* 

There is a big stone at Palshet in the 
Ratnagiri District which is worshipped as 
Kdlikddevi* 

Stones are sometimes worshipped by the 
people in the belief that they are haunted by 
«vil spirits. We have for example a stoen 



^ 



called Mora Dhonda lying by the seashore at 
Malwan in the Ratnagiri District. It is 
supposed to be haunted by Devachdr.^ 

The stones which are once consecrated and 
worshipped as deities have to be continually 
worshipped, even when perforated. The'^mall 
round, white stone slab known as Vishnupada^ 
which is naturally perforated, is considered to 
be holy, and is worshipped daily by the Hindus 
along with the other images of gods. The 
boles in this slab do not extend right through." 

It is considered inauspicious to worship the 
fractured images of gods, but the perforated 
black stone called Shdligrdm, taken from the 
Gandaki river, is considered very holy, and 
worshipped by the people. For it is believed 
to be perforated from its very beginning. 
Every Shdligrdm has a hole in it, even when it 
is in the river.'' 

Broken stones are not worshipped by the 
people. But the household gods of the 
Brahmans and other higher classes which are 
called the Panchdyatan — a collection of fiv« 
gods — generally consist of five stones witli holes 
in them.8 c-J 

No instances of human sacrifices occur in 
India in these days, but there are many 
practices and customs which appear to be the 
survivals of human sacrifices. These survivals 
are visible in the offerings of fowls, goats, 
buffaloes, and fruits like cocoanuts, brinjals, 
the Kohdle or pumpkion gourd and others. 

Human sacrifices are not practised in tliese 
days, but among the Karhada Brahmans there 
is a practice of giving poison to animals in 
order to satisfy their family deity. It is said 
that they used to kill a Brahman by giving . 
him poisoned, food. 

It is believed that the people belotiging to 
the caste of Karhada Brahmans used to offer 
human sacrifices to their ■ deity, and therefore 
nobody relies on a Karhada Brahman in these 



1 



1 Rdo Sdbeb Shelke, Kolbapur. 

2 School Master, Anjarle, Batnagiri. 
5 School Master, Kdlshe, Ratndgiri. 
' Rdo Sdheb Shelke, Kolbapur. 



2 School Master, Medhe, Koldba. 
* School Master, Palshet, Batndgiri. 
6 School Master, Mokbdde, Tbdna. 
^ School Master, Kdlshe, Katndgiri. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KOXKAN 



81 



days. There is a proverb in Marathi which 
means that a man can trust even a Kasdi 
or a butcher but not a Karhada. 

As, they cannot offer- human sacrifices in 
these days, it is said that during the Navardtra 
holidaysi, i. e., the first nine days of the 
bright half of 4 sAwiw (October), they offer 
poisoned food to crows, dogs and other 
animals.^ 

At Kalshe in the Malwan taluka of the 
Eatnagiri District, the servants of gods, i.e., 
the ministrants or the Bhopis of the temple 
prick their breast with a knife on the Dasara 
day, and cry out loudly the words ' Koya ' 
' Koya '. No blood comes from the breast as 
the wound is slight. This appears to be a 
survival of human sacrifice. ^ 

In the Bombay Presidency, and more 
.especially in the Konkan districts, fetish 
atones are generally worshipped for the 
purpose of averting evil and curing diseases. 
In every village stones are founi sacred to 
spirit deities like Bahiroba, Chedoba, Khan- 
doba, M'hasoba, Zoting, Vetal, Jakhai, Kokai, 
Kalkai and others. The low class people such 
AS Mahars, M'angs, etc., apply red lead and 
oil to stones, and call them by one of the above 
names, and ignorant people are very much 
afraid of such deities. They believe that such 
deities have control over all the evil spirits or 
ghosts. It is said that the spirit Vetal starts 
to take a round in a village on the night of the 
nomoon day of every month, accompanied by 
all the ghosts. When any epidemic prevails 
in a village, people offer to these fetish stones 
offerings of eatables, cocoanuts, fowls an ' 
goats. 

There is a stone deity named Bhaval 
at Kokisare in. the Bavada State, to. whom 
TOWS are made by the people to cure diseases. 
As the deity is in the burning ground, it is 
aiaturally believed that this is the abode of 
spirits.^ 



At Achare, in the Malwan taluka of the 
Ratnagiri District, the round stones known as 
KsJietrapdl are supposed to possess the power 
of curing diseases, and are also believed to be 
the abode of spirits.*. 

At Adivare, in the Ratnagiri District, there 
is a stone named Mahdr Purukha . which is 
worshipped by the people when cattle disease 
prevails, especially the disease of a large tick 
or the cattle or dog louse.^ 

At Ubhadanda, in the Ratnagiri District, 
there are some stones wbich^ are believed to 
be liaunted by Vetal, Bhutnath, Rawalnath 
and such other servants of the god Shiva, 
and it is supposed that they have the power of 
curing epidemic diseases. People make vows 
to thfese stones when any disease prevails in the 
locality.^ r^ 

Tlie Hindus generally consider as sacred 'all / 
objects tliat are the means of their livelihood, 
and, for this reason, the oilmen . worship their 
oil-mill, the Brahmans hold in veneration the 
sacred thread — Yadnopavit, — and religious 
books, the goldsmiths consider their firepots 
as sacred, and do not touch them with their 
feet," In case any one accidently happens to 
touch them with his foot, he apologises and S 
bows to them. 

It is believed by the Hindus that thej broom, 
the winnowing fan the pdyali — a measure of 
four shers, the Samai or sweet-oil lamp, a 
metal vessel, fire and Sahdn or the levigating 
slab should not be touched with foot; 

The metals gold, silver, and copper, the 
King's coins, jewels and pearls, corns, the 
Shdligrdm stone, the Gianpati stone from the 
Narmada . river, conchrshell, sacred ashes, 
elephant tusks, the horns of an wild ox {Gava) , 
tiger skin, deer skin, milk, curds, ghi, cow's 
urine, Bel, basil leaves or Tulsi, cocoanuts, 
betelnuts, and flowers are considered as sacred 
by the Hindus, and no one will dare to touch 
them with his foot. 



1 School Master, Chawk, Koldba. 
3 School Master, Fonde, Ratndgiri, 
5 School Master, Naringre, Ratnagiri. 



2 School Master, Kdlshe, Ratnagiri. 
i School Master, Achare, Ratnagiri. 
'' School Master, Ubhadanda, Ratnagiri. 



82 



FOLKLORE OF THE KOXKAN 



Hindus worship annually on the Dasiira day 
the arms and all the instruments or implements 
by which they earn their livelihood. The corn 
sieve, the winoowing basket, the broom, the 
rice-pounder, the plough, the Awuta or wood 
bill, and other such implements are worshipped 
on this day. The agriculturists respect their 
winnowing fans and com sieves, and do not 
touch them with their feet. 

In the Kolhapur District all the instruments 
and implements are worshipped by the people 
one day previous to the Dasara holiday. This 
worship is called Khdndepujan. They also 
worship all agricultural instruments, and tie to 
them leaves of Pipal and mango trees.^ 

A new winoowing fan is considered to be 
holy by the Hindus. It is filled with rice, 
fruits, cocoanuts and betelnuts, and a Khana — a 
piece of bodicecloth — is spread over it. It is 
then worshipped and given to a Brahman lady 
in fulfilment of certain vows, or on the occasion 
of the worship of a Brahman Dampatya or 
married pair. 

The broom is considered to be holy by the 
Hindus. Red powder — Kunku — ^Is applied to 
a new broom before it is taken into use. It 
should not be touched with the feet. 

At Kewadanda, in the Kolaba District, some 
people worship a wood-bill or Koyata on the 
6th day from the birth of a child. The rice- 
pounder, or Musal, is worshipped by them as a 
devak at the time of thread and marriagfe 
ceremonies.2 

Fire is considered to be holy among the high 
class Hindus. It is considered as an angel 
that conveys the sacrificial offerings from this 
earth to the gods in heaven. It is considered 
as one of the Hindu deities, and worshipped 
daily by high class Hindus. A Brahman has 



to worship the fire every day in connection with 
the ceremony Vaishrvadeva — oblations of boiled 
rice and ghi given to the fire. It is also 
worshipped by the Hindus on special religious 
occasions. ' 

Fire is worshipped at the time of Yadnas or 
Sacrifices. Sacrifices are of five kinds. They 
are — 

Devayadna^ Bhutayadna or Brahmayadna 
Rishiyadna or Atithiyadna, Pitruyadna and 
Manushyayadna. The offerings of rice, ghi, 
firewood, Til or sesamum, Java or barley, etc., 
are made in these yadnas. It is also wor- 
shipped at the time of Shrdvani or Upakarma — 
the ceremony of renewing the sacred thread 
annually in the month of Shrdvan,^ 

Among the lower classes fire is worshipped 
on the Mahdlaya or Shrdddha day. They- 
throw oblations of food into the fire on that 
day. 

The fire produced by rubbing sticks of the 
Pipal or Shevari tree is considered sacred, and 
it is essentially necessary that the sacred fire 
required for the Agnihotra rites should be 
produced in the manner described above. 

Agnihotra is a perpetual sacred fire preser- 
ved in Agnikunda^ — a hole in the ground for 
receiving and preserving consecrated fire. A 
Brahman, who has to accept the Agnihotra, has 
to preserve in his house the sacred fire day and 
night after his thread ceremony, and to worship 
it three times a day after taking his bath. 
When an Agnihotri diesi his body is burnt by 
the people who prepare fire by rubbing sticks 
of Pipal wood together.* 

Tliere are some Brahmans who keep the fire 
continuously burning in their houses only for 
Chdturmds or four months of the year. The 
fire which is preserved and worshipped for 
four months is called "Smdrta Agni,"^ 



1 Rao Siiheb Shelke, Kolhapur. ' School Master, Rewadanda, KoI^ba. 

3 School Master,' Ibhrampur, Ratniigiri. * School Master, Adivare, Ratn^giri. 

5 School Master, Anjur, Thana, 



CHAPTER IX. 



ANIMAL WORSHIP. 



The following animals, birds and insects are 
respected by the Hindus : — The cow, bullock, 
she-buiifalo, horse, elephant, tiger, deer, mouse, 
goat, ants and alligators ; and among the birds 
the following are held sacred. — Peacock, swan, 
eagle and kokil or cuckoo. 

Of all the animils tlae cow is considered to 
be the most sacred by Hindus. It is generally 
worshipped daily in the morning for the whole 
year, or at leist for the Ckdturmds or four 
months beginning from the 1 1th day of the 
bright halt' of Ashddha to the 11th day of the 
bright half of the month of Kdrtika; and a 
special worship is offered to it in the evening 
on the 12th day of the dark half of AsTtwin 
(October). 

The cow is believed to be the abode of all the 
deities and rishis. It is compared with the 
earth in its sacredness, and it is considered that 
^dien it is -pleased it is capable of giving 
everything required for the maintenance of 
mankind, and for this reason it is styled the 
Kdma Dlienu or the giver of desired objects. 
It is said that a person who walks round 
the cow at the time of its delivery obtains 
the punya or merit of going round the whole 
earth. The cow is even worshipped by the 
god Vishnu. 

The cow is considered next to a mother, as 
little children and the people in general are 
fed by the milk of a cow. Some women among 
high class Hindus take a vow not to take their 
meals before W|0rshipping the cow, and when 
the cow is not available for worship, they draw 
in turmeric, white or red powder the cow's 
foot-prints and worship the same. At the 
completion of the vow it is worshipped, and 
then given as a gift to a Brahman. It is con- 
sidered very meritorious to give a Gopraddn — a 



gift of a cow along with its calf, to a lirahman.. 
The sight of a cow in the morning is believed 
by all Hindus to be auspicious. 

The bulloci is respected by the people as it 
is the favourite vehicle of the god Shiva, and is 
very useful for agricultural purposes. The 
Nandi or bull is worshipped by Hindus. The 
bullock is specially worshipped on the 12th 
day of the bright half of Kdrtika. When 
performing the funeral rites of the dead, a bull 
is worshipped and set free. The bull thus set 
free is considered sacred by the people, and is 
never used again for agricultural or any other 
domestic purposes. 

In order to avoid calamities arising from the 
influence of inauspicious planets, Hindus wor- 
ship the she-buffalo, and offer it as a gift to a 
Brahman. The she-buffalo is compared with the 
Kdl Purusha or the god of Death, th* reason 
being that Yama is believed to ride a buffalo. 
The Brahman who accepts this gift has to- 
shave his moustaches and to undergo a certain 
penance. The cowherds sometimes worship the 
she-buffalo. As it is the vehicle of Yama, the 
buffalo is specially worshipped by people when, 
an epidemic occurs in a village. In certain 
villages in the Konkan districts the buffalo is 
worshipped and sacrificed on the same day. 

The horse is the vehicle of the deity Khan- 
doba of Jejuri. It is Worshipped on the Vijaya 
Dashami or the Dasara holiday as in former 
days, on the occasion of the horse sacrifice or 
Ashwamedha, 

The elephant is the vehicle of the god Indra 
and is specially worshipped on the Dasara day. 
It is also believed that there are eight sacred 



84 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



elephants posted at the eight directions. These 
are called Ash,tadik-Pdlas, i.e., the protectors 
of the eight different directions, and they are 
worshipped along with other deities on auspi- 
-cious ceremonial occasions, like weddings, 
thread-girding, etc. 

The deer and the tiger are considered to be 
holy by Hindus, and their skins are used by 
Brahmans and ascetics while performing their 
austerities. The deer skin is used on the 
occasion of thread girding. A small piece of 
the deer skin is tied to the neck of the boy 
along with the new sacred thread. 

The mouse, being the vehicle of the god 
Ganpati, is worshipped along with that deity 
on the Ganesh Chaturthi day, the fourth day 
of the bright half of Bhddrapada. 

The goat is believed to be holy for sacrificial 
purposes. It is worshipped at the time of its 
sacrifice, which is performed to gain the favour 
of certain deities. 

The ass is generally considered as unholy by 
the Hindus, and its mere touch is held to cause 
pollution. But certain lower class Hindus like 
-the Lonaris consider it sacred, and worship it 
on the Goleul Ashthami day (8th day of the 
-dark half of JShrdrvan). 

The dog is beb'eved to be an incarnation of 
the deity Khandoba, and it is respected as the 
favourite animal of the god Dattatraya. But 
it is not touched by high class Hindus. 

It is considered a great sin to kill a cat. 

All domestic animals are worshipped by the 
Hindus on the morning of the first day of 
MdrgasJiirslia (December) . 

On this day the horns of these animals are 
washed with warm water, painted with red 
colours, and a lighted lamp is passed round 
their faces. They are feasted on this day as it 
is considered to be the gala day (Divdli holiday) 
of the animals. 

Hindus consider it meritorious to feed ants 
and fish, and to ihiow grain to the birds. Ants 
are fed by the people scattering sugar and 
flour on the ant-hills. It is believed that, by 



feeding the ants with sugar or flour, a person 
obtains the Punya or merit of sahasrgbUojan, 
i.e., of giving a feast to a thousand Brahmans. 

Alligators are worshipped as water deities 
by the Hindus. 

The peacock is the favourite vehicle of 
Saraswati, the Goddess of Learning, and it is 
therefore respected by the people. 

The swan is the vehicle of Brahma, the god 
of creation. 

The eagle is the vehicle of the god Vishnu, 
and is a favourite devotee of that deity. It is 
therefore held sacred by Hindus. 

The cuckoo or Koleil is believed to be an 
incarnation of the goddess Parwati. This bird 
is specially worshipped by high caste Hindu 
women for the period of one month on the 
occasion of a special festival called the 
festival of the cuckoos, or Kokila vrata, which 
is held in the month of Ashddha at intervals 
of twenty years. 

The crow is generally held inauspicious by 
Hindus, but as the manes or pitras are said to 
assume the form of crows, these birds are res- 
pected in order that they may be able to partake 
of the food offered to the dead ancestors in the 
dark half of Bhddrapada called Pitrupaksha. 

It is necessary that the oblations given in 
performance of the funeral rites on the tentli 
day after the death of a person should be eaten 
by the crow. But if the crow refuses to touch 
these oblations, it is believed that the soul of the 
dead has not obtained salvation ; and hence it is 
conjectured that certain wishes of the dead have 
remained unfulfilled. The son or the relatives 
of the dead then take water in the cavity of 
their right hand, and solemnly promise to fulfil 
the wishes of the dead. When this is done, the 
crow begins to eat the food. 

The harsh sound of a crow is taken as a sure 
sign of an impending mishap. 

The dog, cat, pig, ass, buffalo, rat, bhdlu, an 
old female jackal, lizard, and the birds cock 
crow, kite, vulture, owl, bat, and pingla are 
considered as unholy and inauspicious by Hindus. 



CHAPTER X. 



WITCHCRAFT 



Chetak is an art secretly learnt by women. 
It is a form of the black art. A woman well 
versed in the mantras of chetak can do any 
mischief she chooses. She can kill a child or 
turn any person into a dog or other animal by 
the power of her incantations. The Chetakin 
can remove all the hair from the Jhead of a 
woman, or scatter filth, etc. in a person's house, 
make marks of crosses with marking nuts on 
all the clothes, or play many other such tricks 
without betraying a trace of the author of the 
mischief. The chetakins ave able to mesmerize 
a man and order him to do anything they want. 
A Chetakin or witch cannot herself appear in 
the form of an animal. 

They follow revolting forms of ceremonies. 
All witches who have learnt the black art meet 
at night once a month on the Amavdsya day or 
no moon day of every month, at a burning ground 
outside the village. On such occasions they go 
quite naked, and apply turmeric and red powders 
to the body and forehead. While coming to 
the cremation ground they bring on their 
heads burning coals in an earthen pot called 
Kondi, At this meeting they repeat their 
mantras, and take care that none are forgotten. 
After completing the repetition of the mantras, 
they go round the village and return to their 
respective houses. They have no special 
haunts or seasons. 

In the Kolhapnr District the woman who is 
in possession of a chetak is called chetakin. 
The chetak is said to abide by her orders. It 



is believed to bring corn and other things from 
houses or harvesting grounds. It is seen only 
by its mistress the chetakin. The belief that the 
chetakins can turn a person into the form of 
an animal does not prevail in this district. They 
do not wander from one place to another. 
The chetakin has to go once a year to the temple 
of the deity from whom the chetak has been 
brought, and to pay the annual tribute for the 
use of that chetak or servant spirit.* 

There are no witches in the Eatnagiri District. 
It is said that there are some at Kolwan in the 
Thana District. They are generally found 
among Thakars. Some of them come to the 
Eatnagiri District, but though no one can tell 
anything about their powers, ignorant people 
are very much afraid of them.2 It is believed 
that they can turn persons into animals by means 
of their incantations. The person once charmed 
by tlieir mantras is said to blindly abide by 
their orders. It is also believed that they can 
ruin anybody by their magic. 

There are no witches at Eai in the Thana 
District. The woman who can influence evil 
spirits to do harm to others is called a Bhutdli. 
It is said that the Bhutdlis assemble at the 
funeral ground in a naked state on the full-moon 
day and on the Amdvdsya, or the last day of 
every month, to refresh their knowledge of the 
black art,3 

A witch has dirty habits and observances. 
The chief sign for detecting a witch or chetakin 
is a foam or froth that appears on the lips ofl 



^ Bdo Sdheb Shelke, Kolhapur. ^ School Master, Anjarle, Batndgiri. 

» School Master, Rdi, Thina. 



86 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



her motiith when she is asleep. The only means 
to gaar^ against her witchcraft is to remain on 
friendly terms with her, and not to hurt her 
feelings on any occasion. People generally keep 
a watch over the actions of a woman who is 
suspected to be a witch, and if she is found 
practising her black art, and is caught red- 
handed, people then pour into her mouth water 
brought from the shoe-maker's earthen pot or 
kundi. It is believed that, when she is compelled 
to drink such water, her black art becomes 
ineffective.^ 

In the Thana District it is believed that the 
skin round the eyes of a witch is always black, 
her eyes have an intoxicated appearance, her 
nails are generally parched and have a darkish 
colour, and the lower portions of her feet seem 
to be scraped. When any sorcerer gives out the 
name of such a Bhutdli, she is threatened by 
the people that, should she continue to give 
trouble in the village, her own black art or 
another spirit would be set against her ; and she 
then ceases to give trouble.^ 

There are some sorcerers in the Thana District 
who can move a small brass cup or vdti by the 



power of their magic. They can detect a witch 
by the movement of this vessel. When the brass 
vessel or vdti reaches the house of a witch, it 
at once settles upon the witch's bead. She is 
then threatened by the people that she will be 
driven out of the village if found practising 
her black art.^ 

In the Kolhapur District, when the people 
come to know of the existence of a witch in 
their village, they take special precautions at 
the time of harvest. They arrange to harvest 
a different kind of grain to tlie one selected for 
harvesting by the witch. After some time they 
go to the field of the witch, and discover whether 
there is a mixture of grain in her field. If they 
are convinced of the fact, they take further 
precautions. In order to avoid being troubled 
by the chetdk, they keep an old, worn out shoe 
or sandal and a charmed copper amulet under 
the eaves at the main door of their houses, or 
make crosses with marking nut on both sides 
of a door. At some places ctiunam spots or 
circles are marked on the front of a house, the 
object being to guard against the evil effects of 
the chetah's tricks.* 



1 School Master, Khopoli, Koliba. 
3 School Master, Padghe, Thdna. 



^ School Master, B&i, Thdna. 
^ K^o Saheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 



CHAPTER XI. 



GENERAL. 



Offerings of cocoanuts, fowls or goats are 
annually made to the spirits that guard the 
fields. They are generally made at the time 
of beginning a plantation or the harvesting of 
a crop. When making these offerings, the 
farmers pray to the god to give prosperous 
crops every year. They prepare their cooked 
food in the field on the first harvesting day 
and offer it as naivedya (god's meal) along 
■with the above mentioned offerings.^ 

At Bandivade in the Eatnagiri District, while 
commencing the sowing of crops the farmers 
worship a certain number of bullocks made of 
rice floor and then throw them into the pond or 
river adjoining the fields. On other occasions, 
offerings of cocoanuts and fowls are sacrificed to 
the deities that protect the fields. Some people 
give a feast to the Brahmans at the end of the 
harvesting season. ^ 

Ceremonies in connection with ploughing, 
etc., are not observed for all the lands. But fields 
which are supposed to be haunted by evil spirits 
ate worshipped at the time of ploughing, and 
the evil spirits are propitiated, cocoanuts, sugar, 
fowls or goats are offered to the local deities or 
devachdrs. There is a custom of worshipping 
in the fields the heap's of new corn at the time 
of harvest^ and.this custom generally prevails 
in almost all the Konkan districts. '^ 

At Fonde in the Eatnagiri District the 
Shiwar generally composed of boiled rice mixed 
with curds is kept at the corner of a field at 
the time of reaping the crops. The Shiwar is 
- sometimes composed of the offerings of fowls 
and goats.* This ritual is also known by the 
name Chorarva.^ 

At Dasgav in the Kolaba District, there is 
-a custom of carrying one onion in the corn 
taken to the fields for sowing and placing five 
handfuls of corn on a piece of cloth before 
beginnhig to sow the corn. At the time of 



Ldwani or jjlantation of crops a 'fair called 
Palejatra is held by the people, and every 
farmer breaks a cocoanut in the field at the 
time of plantation or Idvani of crops. At the 
time of harvesting it is customary with many 
of the cultivators in the Konkan to place a 
cocoanut in the field and to thrash it by the first 
bundle of croj) several times before the regular 
operation of thrashing is begun. At the close of 
the harvest the peasants offer cocoanuts, fowls 
or a goat to the guardian deity of the field. ^ 

At Vada in the Thana District the ploughs 
are worshipped by the farmers on Saturday and 
then carried to the fields for ploughing. At 
the time of harvesting, the wooden post to which 
the bullocks are tied is worshipped by them and 
at the close of the harvest the heap of new 
corn is worshipped and cocoanuts are broken 
over it.'^ 

In the Kolhapur District the farmers worship 
the plough before beginning to plough the land. 
At the time of sowing the corn they worship 
the Kuri an implement for sowing corn. At 
the time of Ropani or transplanting the crops 
they split a cocoanut, and worship the stone 
consecrated by the side of the field after bes- 
mearing it with red powders, and make a vow of 
sacrificing a goat for the prosperity of their 
crops. At the time of harvesting they also 
worship the heap of new corn and after giving 
to the deity offerings of cocoanuts, fowls or 
goats they carry the corn to their houses.' 

In the Konkan districts the village deity is | 
invoked to protect the cattle. People offer 
fowls and cocoanuts in the annual fair of a 
village deity, and request her to protect their 
cattle and crops. They have to offer a goat or 
buffalo to the deity every third year, and to 
hold annual fairs in her honour. The procession 
of bait is one of the measures adopted for 
averting cattle diseases. ^ --» 



'■ School Master, Khopoli, Kolaba. ' School Master, Baadivade, Ratndgiri. 

3 School Master, Devgad, Ratnagiri. * School Master, Fonde, Ratnigiri. 

5 School Master, Ubhdddnda, Ratndgiri. ^ School Master, Dasgdv, Kolaba. 

' School Master, Vjida, Thana. ' Rao Sdheb Shelke, Kolhapur. 

9 School Master, Khopoli, Kolaba, 



88 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



When there was scarcity of rain the Hindus 
formerly invoked Indra, the god of rain, by 
means of Yadnyas or sacrifices, but such sacri- 
fices are now rarely performed as they are very 
costly. The general method of ensuring rain- 
fall in these days is to drown the Lingam of 
the god Shiva in water and to offer prayers to 
that deity.* 

The following rural rites are intended to 
ensure sunshine and to check excessive rain. 
A man born in the month of Fdlgun (March) 
is requested to collect rain water in the leaf of 
the Alu plant, and the leaf is then tied to a 
stick and kept on the roof of a house. Burning 
coals are also thrown into rainwater after passing 
them between the legs of a person born in the 
month of Fdlgun.'^ 

In order to protect the crops from wild pig 
the people of Umbergaon in the Thana District 
post in their fields twigs of Ayan tree on the 
OanesU Ckaturthi (fourth day of the bright 
half of Bhddrapada or September) day every 
year.^ 

In the Kolhapur District the deities Tamj ai 
Tnngai, and Waghai are invoked by the villa- 
gers for the protection of cattle. When the 
cattle disease has disappeared the people offer 
cocoanuts and other offerings to these deities. 
The potters and the Chudbude Joshis observe 
the following ceremony for causing rainfall. 
A lingam or phallus of Shiva made of mud is 
consecrated on a wooden board or pdt^ and a 
naked boy is asked to hold it over his head. 
The boy carries it from house to house and the 
inmates of the houses pour water over the phallus. 
The Brahmans and the high class Hindus pour 
water on the lingam at the temple of the god 
Shiva continuously for several days. This is 
called BudrdbhisheJca. It is a religious rite in 
which eleven Brahmans are seated in a temple 
to repeat the prayers of the god Shiva. 

In order to scare noxious animals or insects 
from the fields, the owners of the fields throw 
charmed rice round the boundaries of their 



fields. The figure of a tiger made of dry 
leaves of sugarcane is posted at a conspicuous 
place in the fields for protecting the crops of 
sugarcane.* 

Great secrecy is required to be observed on 
the occasion of the special puja of Shiva which 
is performed on the first day of the bright half, 
of the month of Bhddrapada (September). 
This rite is called Maunya vrata or silent wor- 
ship, and should be performed only by the male 
members of the family. On this day all the 
members of the family have to remain silent 
while taking their meals. Women do not speak 
while cooking, as the food which is to -be offered 
to the god must be cooked in silence. ^ 

Newly married girls have to perform the 
worship of Mangala Gauri successively for the 
first five years on every Tuesday in the month 
of Shrdman (August), and it is enjoined that 
they should not speak while taking their meals 
on that day. Some people do not speak while 
taking their meals on every Monday of Shrdman^ 
and others make a vow of observing silence and 
secrecy at their meals every day. All Brahmans 
have to remain silent when going to the closet 
and making water. ^ 

Certain persons observe silence at their meals 
during the period of four months (Chdturmds) 
commencing from the 11 th day of the bright 
half of Ashddha (July) to the 11th day of the 
bright half of Kdrtile (November). Certain 
classes of Hindus observe the penance of secrecy 
in the additional month that occurs at the lapse 
of every third year.'^ 

Silence is essential at the time of performing 
certain austerities such as Sandhya^ worshipping 
the gods, and the repetition of the Brdhma Gd- 
yatri mantra and other such mantras. Secrecy 
is specially observed when a disciple is initiated 
by his Guru or spiritual guide with the sacred 
mantras or incantations.^ 

Secrecy and silence are essential when learn- 
ing the mantras on snakebite, on evil eye and the 
evil spirit of Vetal. All followers of the Shakta 



1 School Master, Fonde, Ratndgiri. 
3 School Master, Umbergdon, Thdna, 
5 School Master, Chinchani, Thdna. 
? School Master, Ddbhol, Ratndeiri. 



' School Master, Ndringre, Ratndgiri. 
« Rdo Sdheb Shelke, Kolhdpur. 
« School Master, Dahduu, Thdna. 
8 School Master, Fonde, Ratndgiri. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKA^i 



89 



sect must worship the goddess (Durga) very 
secretly. Silence is also observed by people in 
■welcoming to their homes and worshipping the 
goddess Parvati or Gauri in the bright half of 
Bhddrapada every year.^ 

At Vade in the Thana District, one day 
previous to the planting of rice crops the farmer 
has to go to bis field even before day break with 
five balls of boiled rice, cocoanuts and other 
things. There he worships the guiardian deity 
of the field and buries the balls of rice under- 
ground. He has to do it secretly and has to 
remain silent during the whole period. He is 
also forbidden to look behind while going to the 
iield for the purpose. 2 

Secrecy and silence are observed when per- 
forming the rites of CUetuks and evil spirits or 
ghosts. Widow remarriages among the lower 
classes are performed secretly. The pair 
wishing to be remarried is accompanied by a 
Brahman priest and the marriage is performed 
apart from the house. The priest applies red 
lead (^Kunku) to the forehead of the bride and 
throws grains of rice over their heads and a 
stone mortar or pdta is touched to the backbone 
of the bride. The priest then turns his face 
and walks away silently.^ 

The Holi is a religious festival. It is 
aimually celebrated in memory of the death of 
Kamdev the God of Love who was destroyed 
by the god Shankar on the full moon day of 
Fdlgun (March). The object of this festival 
appears to have been, a desire to abstain from 
lust by burning in the Holi fire aU vicious 
thoughts and desires. As a rule, females do 
not take any part in this festival. 

In the Konkan districts the annual festival 
of Holi begins from the fifth day of the bright 
half of Fdlgun (March). Boys from all the 
localities of a village assemble at a place ap- 
pointed for the Holi. The place appointed for 
kindling the Holi is not generally changed. 
The boys then go from house to house asking 
for firewood, and bring it to the Holi spot. 
They arrange the firewood and other combustible 
articles around the branch of a mango, betelnut 
or a Sdwar tree in the pit dug out for the 
purpose and then set it on fire. After kindling 



the sacred fire tliey take five turns round the 
Holi accompanied with the beating of drunis and 
raise loud cries of obscene words. After, this 
they play the Indian games of Aiydpdtyd and 
Khokho and occasionally rob the neighbouring 
people of their firewood and other combustible 
articles. At the close of these games they daub 
their foreheads with sacred ashes gathered from 
the Holi fire. They consider these ashes espe- 
cially auspicious and carry them home for the 
use of the other members of their families. 
This process is continued every night till the 
close of the fullmoon day. Elderly persons 
take part in this festival only during the last 
few days. 

On the fuUmoon day all the males of the 
village, including old men, start after sunset for 
the Holi spot, collecting on their way pieces of 
firewood from all the houses in the locality and 
arrange them in the manner described above. 
After having arranged the Holi^ the officiating 
priest recites sacred verses and the puja is 
performed by tlie mdnkari of the village. This 
mdnkari or pdtil is either the headman or some 
other leading person of the village and to him 
belongs the right of kindling the Holi fire first. 
Some persons kindle a small Holi in front of 
their houses and worship it individually, but 
they can take part in the public Holi. In the 
towns the Holis of different localities are kindled 
separately while in small villages' there is only 
one for every village. 

At Vijaydurg in the Ratnagiri District a hen 
is tied to the top of a tree or a bamboo placed 
in the pit dug out for kindling the Holi fire. 
The fowl tied to the top of the bamboo is called 
JShit. A small quantity of dry grass is first 
burnt at the bottom of this tree when the Mahars 
beat their drums. The Shit (fowl) is then 
removed from the tree after it is half burnt 
and taken by the Mahars. The Holi fire is 
then worshipped and kindled by the Gurav. 
Worshipping and kindling the Holi and taking 
the SJiit (fowl) are considered as high honours. 
Occasionally quarrels and differences arise 
over this privilege and they are decided by the 
village Panch* 



1 School Master, Chauk, Koldba. 
3 Rio Sdheb Shelke, Kolhapur. 



2 School Master, Vdde, Thdna. 

i School Master, Poladpur and Vijaydurg. 



90 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



After the kindling of the Holi the people 
assembled there offer to the Holi a Naivedya 
(god's meal) of poll — ^a sweet cake made of 
Jagri^ wheat flour and gram pulse. Cocoa- 
nuts from all the houses in the village are 
thrown into this sacred fire. Some of these 
cocoanuts are afterwards taken out of the 
sacred fire, cut into pieces, mixed with sugar 
and are distributed among the people assemb- 
led as prasdd or favoured gift. Lower 
classes of Hindus offer a live goat to the 
Holi^ take it out when it is half burnt and 
feast thereon. 

On the night of the fullmoon day and the 
first day of the dark half of Fdlgun^ the 
people assembled at the Holi fire wander 
about the village, enter gardens and steal 
plantains, cocoanuts and other garden produce. 
Robbery of such things committed during these 
days is considered to be pardonable. Some 
people take advantage of this opportunity for 
taking revenge on their enemies in this respect. 

The fire kindled at the Holi on the fullmoon 
day is kept constantly burning till the Rang- 
pancKami day i. e., fifth day of the dark 
half of Fdlgun. Next morning i. c, on the 
first day of the dark half of Fdlgun, the 
people boil water over that fire and use it for 
the purpose of bathing. It is believed that 
water boiled on the sacred fire has the power 
of dispelling all the diseases from the body. 
People go on dancing in the village and sing 
songs for the next five days. They generally 
sing Ldvanis, a kind of ballad, during this 
festival. Among these dancers a boy is 
dressed like a girl and is called Rddha. This 
Rddha has to dance at every house while the 
others repeat Ldvanis. 

The second day of the dark half of Fdlgun 
is called Dhulvad or dust day when people 
start in procession through the village, and 
compel the males of every house to join the 
party. They thus go to the Holi fire and 
raise loud cries of obscene words throwing 
mud and ashes upon each other. They after- 
wards go to the river or a pond to take their 
bath at noon time and then return to their 
houses. The third day of the dark half is 
also spent like the previous one with a slight 



difference which is that cow dung is used in- 
stead of mud. This day is called Shenwad 
day. On the fourth day the Dhunda Raksha- 
hasin (a demon goddess) is worshipped by the 
people, and the day is spent in making merry 
and singing obscene songs called Ldvanis. The 
fifth day of the dark half is known as Rang^ 
panehami day and is observed by the people 
in throwing coloured water upon each other. 
Water in which Kusumba and other colours 
are mixed is carried in large quantity on 
bullock carts through the streets of a city and 
sprinkled on the people passing through these 
streets. On this day the sacred fire of- the 
Holi is extinguished by throwing coloured 
water over it. This water is also thrown upon 
the persons assembled at the Holi. The money 
collected as post during this period is utilised 
in feasting and drinking. 

At Ibhrampur in the Ratnagiri District the 
image of cupid is seated in a palanquin and 
carried with music from the temple to the Holi 
ground. The palanquin is then placed on a 
certain spot. The place for thus depositing 
the image of the god is called Sahan.! At 
Naringre there is a big stone called Holdev 
which is worshipped by the people before kindl- 
ing the Holi fire.2 After the kindling of the 
sacred fire the palanquin is lifted from the 
Sdhdn^ and turned round the Holi fire with 
great rejoicings. The palanquin is then car- 
ried through the village and is first taken to the 
house of a Mdnkari^ and then from house to 
house during the next five days. The inmates 
of the houses worship the deity in the palanquin 
and offer cocoanuts and otlier fruits and make 
certain vows. The palanquin is taken back to 
the temple on the fifth day of the dark half of 
Fdlgun when on its way guldl or red powder is 
thrown over the image and on the people who 
accompany it.^ 

Among liigh class Hindus the thread girding 
ceremony of a boy is performed when he attains 
puberty. The girls are generally married a 
an early age, and when a girl attains puberty, 
sugar is distributed among the friends and 
relatives of her husband. She is then seated 
in a Makhar — a gaily dressed frame. Dishes 
of sweets which are brought by the gIrTs 



1 School Master, Ibhrampur, Ratndgiri. 2 School Master, Ndringre, Ratnagiri. 

' School Master, Ibhrampur, Ratndgiri. 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



91 



parents and the relatives of her husband are 
given to her for the first three days. She 
takes her bath on the fourth day accompanied 
by the playing of music and the beating of 
drums. Sweetmeats in dishes are brought by 
the relatives tiU the day of Rutushanti (the 
first bridal night). The GarbMddn or Rutu- 
shanti ceremony is one of the sixteen cere- 
monies that are required to be performed 
during the life of every Hindu. This cere- 
mony is performed within, the first sixteen 
days from the girl's attaining her puberty, the 
4th, 7tb, 9th, 11th and the 13th being consi- 
dered inauspicious for this purpose. While 
performing this ceremony the following three 
rites are required to be observed. They are 
Ganpatipujan or the worship of the god Gan- 
pati, PunhydhavacJian or the special ceremony 
for invoking divine blessings and Navagraha- 
shdnti thf ceremony for propitiating the nine 
planets. The ritual of this ceremony is as 
follows : — 

The husband and the wife are seated side by 
side on wooden boards to perform the above 
three rites. The Kadali pujan or plantain tree 
worship is performed by the pair. The sacred 
fire or Hotna is required to be kindled. The 
juice of the Durwa grass is then poured into the 
right nostril of the bride by her husband. This is 
■ intended to expel all diseases from the body of 
the girl and to secure safe conception. They 
are then seated in a Makhar^ and presents of 
clothes, ornaments etc., are made by the parents 
of the girl and other relatives. After this the 
husband fills the lap of the girl with rice, a 
cocoanut, five betelnuts, five dry dates, five 
almonds, five plantains and five pieces of 
turmeric. The girl is then carried to a temple 
accompanied by the playing of music. Agrand 
feast is given to the friends and relatives at 
\ the close of this ceremony. 
' The Hindus generally make various kinds 
of vows in order to procure offspring or with 
some other such object, and fulfil them when 
they succeed in getting their desire. The fol- 
lowing are the different kinds of vows made. 
They offer cocoanuts, sugar, plantains and 
other fruits, costly new dresses and ornaments 
to the deities, and give feasts to Brahmans. 



Special ceremonies called Laghurudra and 
Mahdrudra in honour of Shiva the god of des- 
truction are also performed. Sweetmeats such 
as pedhas etc. are offered to the gods in fulfil, 
ment of vows. Some people make vows to 
observe fasts, to feed Brahmans, and to distri- 
bute coins and clothes to the poor ; while 
others hang ^orana-wreaths of flowers and 
mango leaves— on the entrance of the temple 
and hoist flags over it. Rich people erect new' 
temples to different Hindu deities. Some ob- 
serve fasts to propitiate the goddess Chandika 
and worship her during Navardtra the first nine 
days of the bright half of Ashvin (October) 
and others offer fowls and goats to their fa- 
vourite deities. Women make it a vow to 
walk round the Audumhar or Pipal tree and 
to distribute cocoanuts, sugar, jagri, copper or 
silver equal to the weight of their children. 

Vows are made by people with the object of 
securing health, wealth and children and other 
desired objects such as education, etc. They are 
as follows : — 

Performing the worship of Shri Satya 
Narayan, offering clothes and ornaments to the 
temple^ deities, hanging bells, constructing a 
foot path or steps leading to the temple of the 
special deity.i Vows are also made to ob- 
tain freedom from disease or such other calami- 
ties. When any person in the family becomes 
ill or when a sudden calamity befalls a family 
an elderly member of the family goes to the 
temple of a deity and makes certain vows 
according to his means, fulfilling them as soon 
as the calamity or disease has disappeared. ^ 

Vows are usually to perform acts of bene- 
volence. These consist in distributing cocoa- 
nut mixed in sugar, giving feasts to Brahman 
priests, observing fasts on Saturday, Tuesday 
and Sunday, offering clothes and Ornaments to 
deities, building new temples and guest houses 
(dharmshdlds), digging out new wells and in , 
distributing clothes and food to the poor.^ ^ 

At Khopoli in the Kolaba District, people 
who have no children or whose children die 
shortly after birth make a vow to the Satwai 
deity whose temple is at a short distance from 
Khopoli. The vow is generally to bring the 
child to the darshana (sight) of the deity and 



1 School Master, Fonde, Ratndgiri. 



2 School Master, Baakavli, Ratnagiri. 



3 School Master, Vijaydurg, Ratndgiri. 



92 



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN 



to feed five or more (married) Brahman pairs. 
Sucli vows are fulfilled after the birth of a 
child. Some worship the god Satya Narayan 
on a grand scale and others propitiate the god 
Shiva by the ceremony of Abhisheka (water 
sprinkling).! Some ofi"er nails made of gold 
or silver to the goddess Shitala after the re- 
covery of a child suiFering from small pox. 
Eyes and other parts of the body made of 
gold and silver are also occasionally offered in 
fulfilment of vows. People abstain from eating 
certain things till the vows are fulfilled. ^ 
' Vows are made in times of diflSculties and 
sorrow^ The person afflicted with sorrow or 
misfortune prays to his favourite deity and 
promises to offer particular things or to per- 
form special ceremonies, and fulfils his vows 
when his desired objects are attained. The 
ceremonies commonly observed for these pur- 
poses are the special pujds of Satya Narayan 
and Satya Vinayak. Native Christians make 
their vows to their saints and Mot-Mavali 
t (Mother Mary) in the taluka of Salsette.^ 
There is a shrine of the god Shankar at 
Kanakeshwar a village on the sea side two 
miles from Mitbav in the Ratnagiri District. 
Many years ago it so happened that a rich 
Mahomedan merchant was carrying his mer- 
chandise in a ship. The ship foundered in a 
storm at a distance of about two or three 
miles from Kanakeshwar. When the vessel, 
seemed to be on the point of sinking the 
merchant despairing of his life and goods, 
made a vow to erect a nice temple for the 
Hindu shrine of Kanakeshwar if he, his vessel 
and its cargo were saved. By the grace of 
God the vessel weathered the storm and he 
arrived safely in his country with the merch- 
-andise. In fulfilment of this vow he erected 
a good temple over the shrine-^of Shri Shan- 
kar at Kanakeshwar, which cost him about 
rupees six thousand. This temple is in good 
condition to the present day. Many such 
vows are made to special deities. When the 
people get their desired objects they attribute 
the success to the favour of the deity invok- 
ed, but when their expectations are not 
fulfilled they blame their fate and not the 
deity.* ' 



In the Konkan districts there are some per- 
sons who practise black art of several kindis 
such as Chetah, Jaran, Maran and Uchdtan. 
Chetak is a kind of evil spirit brought from 
the temple of the goddess Italai of the Kon- 
kan districts. It is brought for a fixed or 
limited period, and an annual tribute is re- 
quired to be paid to the goddess for the ser- 
vices. 

Another kind of black art widely piactis- \ 
ed in the Konkan districts is known by the 
name of Muth mdrane. In this art the sor- 
cerer prepares an image of wheat flour, and 
worships it with flowers, incense, etc. A lemon 
pierced with a number of pins is then placed 
before the image. The sorcerer begins to 
pour spoonfuls of water mixed with Jagri on 
the face of the image,, and repeats certain 
mantras. Meanwhile, the lemon gradually 
disappears and goes to the person whose 
death it is intended to secure. The person 
aimed at receives a heavy blow in the chest 
and at once falls to the ground vomitting 
blood. Sometimes he is known to expire 
instantaneously. The charmed lemon, after 
completing its task returns to the sorcerer, 
who anxiously awaits its return, for it is be- 
lieved that if the lemon fails to return some 
calamity or misfortune is sure to occur to him- 
For this reason the beginner desiring to be 
initiated into the mystery of this black art has 
to make the first trial of his mantras on a 
tree or a fowl. 

Females are also initiated into the mys- 
teries of Jadu or black art. Such women are 
required to go to the bumtog ground at mid- 
night in a jiaked state, holding in their hands 
hearths containing burning coals. While on 
their way they untie their hair, and then 
begin the recital ,of their mantras. There 
they dig out the bones of buried corpses, bring 
them home, and preserve them for practis-^ 
ing black art. j 

There is a sect of Hindus known as 
ShSktas who practise the black art. The 
Shaktas worship their goddess at night, make 
offerings of wine and flesh, and then feast 
thereon. 



* School Master, Kbopoli| KoUba, 
i School Master, Basseiti, Th^na« 



2 School Master, Poladpur. Koldba. 
* School Master, Mitbdv, Ratndgiri. 



APPENDIX. 



GLOSSARY OF VERNACULAR TERMS OCCURING IN VOLUMES I AND II.* 



A 
ABIL : A kind of incense. 
ABIR: White scented powder. 
ADACHH : Red cotton yarn. 
ADAD: Lentils. 

ADAGHO BADAGHO : A ceremony performed to drive away insects. 
ADHASUR : Name of a demon. 
ADHIKAMAS : Intercalary month. 
ADI-NARAYAN: A name of Vishnu. 
ADO: Useless. 

ADULSA : Name of a medicinal plant. 
AGAR : Excreta. 

AGASTY A : Name of a sage ; name of a constellation. 
AGATHI : A tree, Sesbania Grandiflora. 
AGATHIO: ^-ee Agathi. 
AGHADA: Name of a plant. 
AGHORI: A sect of Hindus. 
AGIARI : Fire temple of the Parsis. 
AGNI : Fire ; the deity presiding over fire, 
AGNICHAR : An order of evil spirits living in fire. 

AGNIHOTRA : A perpetual sacred fire preserved in a hole in the ground for receiving and preser- 
ving consecrated fire. 
AGNIHOTRI : One who keeps an Agnihotra. 

AGNIKUNDA : A hole in the ground, or an enclosed space, on the surface, or a metal square- 
mouthed vessel, for receiving and preserving consecrated fire. 
A6NI-SANSKAR: The rite of setting fire to a corpse. 
AGRI : Name of a caste or an individual of it. 
AHALYA : The wife of the sage Gautam. 

AHEVA NAVAMI: The ninth day of the dark half of Bhddrapad. 
AHI : Name of a demon. 
AHIR : A caste of shepherds. 
AHUTI: A handful of rice, ghi, sesamum, etc., cast into fire, water, upon the ground etc., as an 

oSering to the deities. 
AIRAVAT : Name of the elephant of Indra ; the elephant presiding over the east. 
A J A : A goat. 

AJAMO': Lingustioum ajwaen. 
AKASH: The sky. 
AKASH-GANGA : The milky way. 
AKHAND SAUBHAGYA: Perpetual unwidowhood. 
AKIK : A kind of stone. 

AKHA TRIJ : The third day of the bright half of Vaishdkh. 
AKSHAYA TRITIYA : See Akha Trij. 
ALAWANA : A sort of shawl. 

ALWANT : A spirit of a woman dying in childbirth or during menses. 
ALU : An esculent vegetable. 
ALUNDA : Name of a vow. 

* The terms given below are as they are used by the common people in popular parlance in which 
form they are given in the text. They will therefore not be found to be grammatically correct in all 
cases Again, only such meanings of the terms are given as apply in the context. 



31 APPENDIX 

AMANI : A kind of tree. 

AMAR : Immortal. 

AMATHO : Useless. 

AMATHO MaMO : An order of ghosts. 

AMAVASYA : The last day of a month. 

AMBA : Name of a goddess. 

AMBIL : Conjee. 

AMBO : Mango. 

AMNAYESHWAR : A name of the god Mahddev. 

ANAGH : Name of a vow. 

ANAGODHA : See Anagh. 

ANANT CHATURDASHI : The fourteenth day of the dark half of BArfimpai sacred to Vishnu. 

ANDHARIO : An order of ghosts. 

ANGIRAS : Name of a sage. 

ANJALI : Palmful. 

ANJAN : Soot used as collyrium. 

ANJANI : Mother of Mdruti. 

ANJANI : A sore or mole on the eye-lid. 

ANKADA : Name of a poisonous plant. 

ANNADEVA : The god presiding over food, 

ANNAKUTA : The eighth or tenth day of the bright half of Ashvin or the second day of the bright 

half of Kdrtik when sweets are offered to gods, 
ANNAPURNA : The goddess presiding over food. 
ANTARAL : Name of a deity. 
ANTARAPAT : The piece of cloth which is held between the bride and bridegroom at the time of 

a Hindu wedding.. 
ANTYESHTI : Funeral rites. 
ANURaDHA : Name of a constellation. 

ANUSHTHaN : Performance of certain ceremonies and works in propitiation of a god, 
APASMAR : EpUepsy. 
APSARA : Certain female divinities who reside in the sky and are the wives of the Gaudharvas. 

They are sometimes represented as the common women of the gods. 
APTA : Name of a tree. 
ARANI : Elaeodendren glaucum. 
ARATI ; The ceremony of waving (around an idol, a guru, etc.,) a platter containing a burning 

lamp. 
ARDHODAYA : Half -risen state of a heavenly body. 
ARDRA ; Name of a constellation. 
ARGHYA : A respectful offering to a god er a venerable person consisting of various ingredients 

or of water only. 
ARJUMA : The third of the five Pdndava brothers. 
ARUNDHATI : Wife of Vasishtha ; name of a star. 
ASARA : A water nymph. 
AS AN ; A prayer carpet. 
ASHaDH : The fourth month of the Deccani Hiudu and the ninth month of the Gujardt Hindu 

calendar year. 
ASHAPURI : Name of a goddess. 
ASHLESHA : Name of a constellation. 
ASHO : A corrupted form of Aahmn. 
ASHAPATI : Name of a mythological king. 
ASHTABHaRO : An order of ghosts. 
ASHTADALA : Eight-cornered. 

ASHTA-DIK-PaLA : Protectors of the eight different directions. 
ASHTAKA : A hymn consisting of eight verses. 



APPENDIX 111 

ASHTAMAHADAN : A gift consisting of eight kinds of articles. 

ASHTAVASU - A class of divine beiaga eight in number. 

ASHVIN : The seventh month of the Deooani Hindu and the twelfth month of the Gujardt Hindu 

calendar year. 
ASHVINI : Name of a constellation. 
ASHVINI KUMAR : The twin sons of the sun by his wife Sanjnya in the form of a mare. They 

are famous as heavenly physicians. 
ASHWAMEDHA : Horse sacrifice. 

ASHWATTHAMA ; The only son of Drona, She military preceptor ot the Kau'-avaa and Pamdavas. 
ASMANI : An order of ghosts. 
ASO : A corrupted form of Ashvin. 
ASOPALAVA : Name of a tree. 
ASUR GATI : The path ot the demons. 
-ATIT : A class of religious beggars. 
ATLAS : A kmd of cloth. 
ATRI : Name of a sage. 

_ATYAPaTYA ; Name ot an out-door game played in the Deocan. 
AVAD-MATA : Name of a goddess. 
AVAGAT : An order of ghosts. 
AVAGATI : Fallen condition. 
AVALIA : A Muhammadan saint. 
AVALA : Name of a tree. 
AVATAR : An incarnation ot Vishnu. 
AVI : An order of ghosts. 
AVLI : Name ot a tree. 
-AWDUMBAR : A tree, Ficus glomerata. 
AWUTA: Wood bill. 
AY AN : Name of a tree. 

B. 

BABARO : An order of ghosts. 

BABHUL ; Acacia arabioa. 

BABRIO: See Bdbaro. 

BABRO : See Bdbaro. 

BABRUVAHAN : Name of a demon ; a son of Arjunai 

BABUL : Acacia arabica. 

BADHA : Impending evil. 

BAGHADA : Name ot an evil spirit. 

BAGULBAWA : Name of a goblin. 

BAHIRI : Name of a goddess. 

BAHIRI-SOMJAI : Name ot a goddess. 

BAHIROBA : Name ot a minor deity. 

BAHIROBACHB BHUT : An order of ghosts. 

BAJA: Dish. 

BAJALE : A wooden cot. 

BAJAT : A wooden stool. 

BAJANIA ! A oast ot tumblers or an individual of ib. 

BAKA : Name ot a demon; name of a sage. 

BAKLA : A small round flat cake ot dry boiled bean? . 

BAKLAN : See Bdkla. 

BAKOR : Noise. 

BALA TBRASH : The 13th day of the dark halt of ^hddrapad. 

SALAD : An ox. 



iv APPENDIX 



BALADI : An order of ghosts. 

BALDEV : Name of the brother of Krishna, the eighth inoamafcion of Vishnu 

BALEV : The full moon day of Shrdvana. 

BALEVA : See Balev. 

BALEVJAN : A kind of worship. 

BALI: Name of a mighty demon, the lord of the nether world or pdtdl; an oblation; a victim. 

ofiered to any deity ; name of a procession. 
BALIDAN : Ofiering of a victim. 
BALLA : An order of ghosts. 
BANaSUR : Name of a demon. 
BANDHAI-JAVAN : Name of a cattle disease. 
BANIA : A trader. 

BAP A ! Name of a guardian spirit of fields. 
BAPDEV : See Bdpa. 

BARANESHWAR MAHADEV : A name of Mahadev. 
BARAS : The twelfth day of the bright or dark half of a month. 
BARVATIA : An outlaw. 
BATASA : A kind of sweetmeat. 

BATRISA: A man possessed of thirty-two accomplishments. 
BATUK : Name of a minor deity. 
BAU : A word used to frighten children ; a goblin. 

BAVA : A term of respectful oompellation or mention for an ascetic or religious teacher. 
BAVAL: See Bdbul. 
BAVO : See Bava. 

BAY A : Name of a deity presiding over small-pox. 
BAWAN VIR : Name of a minor deity. 
BECHR A MATA : Name of a goddess. 
BEDA : Name of a tree. 
BEL : Aegle Marmelos. 
BEL-BHANDAR : Leaves of the Aegle Marmelos and the turmeric powder that are kept on an . 

idol. 
BER : Jujube tree. 
BERO : Deaf. 

BETHX : An order of ghosts. 
BHABHO": Worthless. 
BHADARWA : See Bhadrapad. 
BHADBAPAD : The sixth month of the Deccani Hindu and the eleventh month of the Gujarilt- 

Hindu calendar year. 
BHAGAT : An exorcist. 
BHAGIRATH : Name of an ancient king of the solar dynasty who is said to have brought down . 

the Ganges from heaven to the earth. 
BHAGVAT : Name of one of the eighteen purdnaa. 
BHAGVATI : Name of a goddess. 
BHAGWAN : An epithet of Vishnu ; of Shiva. 
BHAGWATI : -See Bhagvati. 

BJIAIRAV : A name of an inferior manifestation of Shiva. 
BHAJAN : Repeating the name of a god as an act of worship; hymns or pieces or verses sung to 

a god. 
BHAKTIMARGA : Path of devotion. 
BHALU : An old female jackal. 
BHANDARI : A caste of Hindus. 
BHANG : Hemp water. 
BHANGI : A scavenger ; name of the caste of scavengers. 



APPENDIX 



BHANGRA : A kind o£ tree. 

BHARANAI : Name of a goddess. 

BHARANI : Name of a constellation. 

BHARANI : The process of charming. 

BHARATA ; Name of a brother of Rdma the seventh incarnation of Vishnu . 

BHARVAD : A caste of shepherds. 

BHASIKA : An order of ghosts. 

BHASMA: Holy ashes. 

BHASMASUR : Name of a demon. 

BHAUBIJ : The second day of the bright half of Kdrtik. 

BHAVAI : Name of a stone deity. 

BHaVAKAI : Name of a goddess. 

BHAVANI : A n^me of the goddess Pdrvati. 

BHAVIN : A caste of female temple servants who are prostitutes by profession. 

BHAWANI : See Bhavdni. 

BHENSA : A she-bufEalo. 

BHENSASUR : A demon in the form of a he«bufialo. 

BHIKHARI : A beggar. 

BHIKHO : A beggar. 

BHIL : A partly Hindu, partly animistic tribe, 

BHIMA : The second of the five Pindava, brothers^ 

BHIMA-AGIARAS : The eleventh day of the bright half of Jyeshtha. 

BHIMASENA ; -See Bhima. 

BHIMNATH MAHADBV : A name of Shiva. 

BHIMNATH SHANKAR : A name of Shiva. 

BHISHMA : Son of Shantanu and the river Ganges and grand-uncle of the Panda vas and Kauravas^ 

BHOGAVA : Village boundary. 

BHOI : A caste of fishermen and palanquin-bearers. 

BHOJAPATRA ; A palm-leaf. 

BHOLANATH : A name of Shiva. 

BHONG RIN6DI : Name of a poisonous plant. 

BHOPALA: Gourd. 

BHOPI : The person that officiates in the tempbs of village daities. 

BHUCHAR ; An order of ghosts hovering over the earthj 

BHUNGA : A black bee. 

BHUSHUNDAKAK : Name of a sage. 

BHUT : An evil spirit. 

BHUTA : See Bhut. 

BHUT A-DEV ATA . A ghostly godling. 

BHUTALI : A woman who can iafluencs evil spirits to do harm to others. 

BHUTE : Plural of Bhutya : See Bhutya. 

BHUTIN : A female msmber of an order of devotees of the goddess Bhavdni. 

BHUTNATH : Name of an evil spirit. 

BHUTYA : A male msmber of an order of devotees of the goddess Bhavani. 

BHUVA : A male exorcist. 

BHUVI : A female exorcist. 

BIBHISHANA : Brother of Ravana, the demon king of Lanka or Caylon. 

BIJ : The second day of the bright or dark half of a month. 

BIJAVRIKSHANYAYA : The maxim of seed and shoot. The maxim takes its origin from the 

mutual relation of causation that exists between seed and shoot, and is 
applied to cases in which two objects stand to each other in the relatioia 
of both cause and efiect. 

BILADO : A cat. 



VI APPENDIX 

BILI : Set Bel. 

BINDU: A drop. 

BOCHO : A coward. 

BODAN : A ceremony in which curds, milk, boiled rice, fried cakes, etc., are mixed up together and 

presented in oblation to the goddess Mahdlakshmi by a company of at least five 

nxarried women and one virgin. 
BODO : Bald-headed. 

BOL CHOTH : The fourth day of the dark half of Shrdvan. 
BORADI : The Jujube tree. 

BOTERUN : A complete cessation of rain for seventy-two days. 
BOWAJI : See Bava. 
BOW : See Bau. 

BRAHMA GRAHA : Ghost of a Brdhman. 
BRAHMA : The first god of the Hindu Trinity. 
BRAHMABHO J : A feast to Brdhmans. 
BRAHMACHARYA : Celibacy. 

BRAHMACHARI : One who has taken a vow to lead a celibate life. 
BRAHMAHATYA ; The murder of a Brahman. 
BRAHMAN : The sacerdotal caste of Hindus or an individual of it. 
BRAHMANA-VARUNA : The appointment of duly authorised Brdhmans to perform religious 

ceremonies. 
BRAHMARANDHRA : The aperture supposed to be at the crown of the head, through which the 

soul takes its flight on death. 
BRAHMA RAKSHAS A : See Brahma Sambandh. 
BRAHMA SAMBANDH : The ghost of a Brahman that in his life time possessed high attainments, 

and a haughty spirit. 
BRIHASPATI : Name of the preceptor of the gods. 

BRUHANNADA ; The name assumed by Arjuna when residing at the palace of Virdta. 
BUDHA : Mercury. 
BUDDHI : Name of a wife of Ganpati. 



■CENDUR : Red lead. 

CHADA : Rent. 

•CHAITANNADYA : An order of ghosts. 

CHAITRA : The first month of the Deccani Hindu and the sixth month of the Gujarat Hindu 
calendar year. 
■ CHAKLI : A sparrow. 
•CHAK PADANE : Appearance of red pustules on the face supposed to be caused by the influence 

of an evil eye. 
CHAKORA -. A bird, Bartavelle Partridge. 
CHALA : Name of a deity. 
CHALEGHAT : An order of ghosts. 
•CHAMAR : A caste of tanners. 
CHAMPA : Micheha champaca. 

CHAMP A-SHASHTI : The sixth day of the bright half of MdrgasUrsha. 
CHAMP AV ATI : Name of a goddess. 
GHANA: Gram. 

CHANDA : Name of a kind of wind. 
CHAND CHANI : An order of ghosts. 
CHANDAN: Sandalwood. 
CHANDIKA : Name of a goddess. 

CHANDI KAVACH : A hymn in honour of the goddess Chandi or Durga. 
•CHANDIPATH : Recitation of a hymn in honour of the goddess Chandi or DuPga. 
CHANDKAI : Name of a goddess. 



APPENDIX vn 



CHANDRA: The moon. 

CHANDRAMANDAL : The disk of the moon ; the iunar sphere. 

CHANDRAYAN VRAT : Name of a vow. 

CHARAK : Excreta. 

CHARAN : A caste of genealogists and bards. 

CHARANAMRIT : Water in which the feet of a spiritual guide have been washei. 

CHARMARIA ; Name of a snake deity. 

CHARONTHI: A kind of flour. 

CHASHA: The Blue jay. 

CHAT : An image of darhha grass at Shrdddha when the required Brahman is not present 

CHATA SHRADDHA : A shrdddha in which a chat represents a Brdhman. 

CHATURMAS : The period of four months commencing from the tenth day ol the bright half ot 
Ashddh and ending with the tenth day of the bright half of Kdrtik , 

CHATURTHI : The fourth day of the bright or dark half of a month. 

CHAURAR : An order of ghosts. 

CHEDA : Ghost of a person of the Kunbi or Shudra caste or an unmarried Mahdr. 

CHEDOBA : Name of a spirit deity. 

CHELA: A disciple. 

CHELAN : An oblation to a Mdta or goddess. 

CHETAK : A kind of black art. 

CHETAKIN: A witch. 

CHBTUK : A spirit servant, 

CHHAMACHHARI : Death anniversary. 

CHHIPA : A caste of calico-printers. 

CHHOGALA : Celebrated, Great. 

CHHOGALO : With a tail, 

CHILBIL : Notes of the Pingala bird. 
€HILUM : A clay pipe. 

CHINDHARO : Ragged. 

CHIRANJIVA: Immortal. 

CHITHI : A piece of paper on which mystic signs are drawn ; an amuleb. 

CHITHARIA: Ragged. 

CHITI: SeeChithi. 

CHITPaVAN ; A caste of Brahmans also known as Konkanasth. 

CHITRA : Name of a constellation, 

CHOK : A square. 
OHOLA : Dolichos Sinensio. 

CHOLI : A bodice. 
CHONGE : A kind of sweet. 

CHORASI KANTINI : An order of ghosts. 
<;HORaSI VIRU : An order of ghosts. 

CHORAWA : A ceremony performed at the time of reaping, 
CHOTH : The fourth day of the bright or dark half of a month. 
GHUDBUDE JOSHI : A caste of fortune-tellers. 
CHUDBL : An order of female ghosts. 
CHUDBLA : See Chudel. 
CHUDI: A torch. 

GHUDI PAURNIMA : The full-moon day of the month of Mdgh. 
CHUNADI : A kind of cloth worn by females, 
CHUNTHO : Ragged, 
CHUNVALIA KOLI : A tribe of Kolis, 

CHURAMA : Sweet balls of wheat flour fried and soaked in ghi. 
CHUTAKI : Snapping the thumb and finger. 
COHAMPALO: Meddlesome, 



Viu APPENDIX 



DADAMO : An order of ghosts. 
DADAMOKHODIAR : Name of a field deity. 
DADH : A molar tooth. 

DADH BANDHAVI : To deprive of the power of eating by a charm or spell. 
DADO : An order of ghosts. 
DAKAN ; A witch ; an order of ghosts. 
DAKINI : See Dakan. 

DAKLA : A spirit instrument in the form of a small kettle-drum. 
DAKSHA i A celebrated Prajdpati born from the thumb of Brahma. 
DAKSHA PRAJAPATI : See Daksha. 
DAKSHANA ; A gift of money made to Brdhmans. 
DAL : Name of a sect of Hindus. 

DALAP : A ceremony performed for the propitiation of the minor deities of the fieldt. 
DALIA : Baked split grain, 

DAM AN A : An amulet tied to the horns of a pet animal. 
DAMPATYA : A married pair, 
DANA : Com seed. 

DANDA ; The bat at the game of trap-stick. 
DANKLA: See Dakla. 

DANKLA BESWAN : The installation of a ddnkla. 
DANKLAN : See Dakla. 

DARBHA": A sacred grass ; Cynodon Dactylon. 
DAKDUBI : Name of a water nymph. 
DARGA : A Muhammadan place of worship. 
DARJI^: A caste of tailors, 
DASHA : Influence. 

DAKSHA SHBADDHA : A shrdddha to the manes on every new moon day, 
DASARA : The tenth day of the bright half of Kdrtik. 
DASHARATHA : Son of Aja and father of B^ma. 
DAS PINDA : The oblations collectively to the manes of a deceased ancestor which are offered 

daily from the first day of his decease until the tenth, or which are ofiered together 

on the tenth : also the rite. 
DATAN : Wooden sticks for brushing the teeth. 
DATTA : Name of a god. 
DATTATRAYA : See Datta. 
DAV : An order of ghosts. 
DEDAKO: A frog. 
DEHARI MATA : Name of a goddess. 
DELAVADI DEVI : Name of a goddess. 
DENDO,: The croaking of a frog. 

DEOPAN : Ceremonies and observances in' propitiation of a god. 
DESHASTHA : A caste of Brdhmans found in the.Deccan. 
DEVA : A god, 

DEVACHAB : Spirit of a Shudra who dies after his marriage. 
DEVAHUTI : Name of the mother of the sage Kapil. 
DEVAKJ: A term for the deity or deities worshipped at marriages, thread investitures etc. j; x 

totem. 
DEVAKI : Mother of Krishna. 
DEVAL : A temple. 

DEVAL BIGHANE : Entering into the service of the temple. 
DEVALI : The male offspring of a Bhdvin. 
DEVALO : Not loved. 



APPENDIX >X 



DEVARSHI : A dealer with gods and devils : one that summons, exorcises them, etc. 
DEVA SARPA : A snake belonging to a -deity. 

DEVASKI : The annual ceremonies in honour of the tutelar divinity of a village. 
DEVA YOSHITA : A woman offered to a god. 
DEV DIVALI : The eleventh day of the bright half of Kdrtik. 
DEVI: A goddess. 

DEVIPANTH : A sect of the worshippers of the goddess Durga. 
DHAGA ; An amulet made of a piece of cloth. 
DHAL-JATRA : A ceremony performed at the time of harvest. 
DHAMA : A name of Hanumdn. 
DHANA: Coriander. 
DHANANJAYA : Name of a snake. 

DHANA-TRAYODASHI : The thirteenth day of the dark half ot Ashvin. 
DHANGAR : A caste of shepherds. 
DHANISHTHA : Name of a constellation. 
DHANU: Sagittarius. 

DHANURMAS : The period during which the sun is in Sagittarius. 
DHANU-SANKRANT : Transit or passage of the sun through Sagittarius. 
DHaRaVaDI : A stream of milk. 
DHARMARAJA : The god of death. 
DHARMASHALA : A rest house. 

DHARMASHaSTRA : The code of body of Hindu law. 
DHARMASINDHU : Name of a work treating of Hindu law. 
DHED : An impure caste of Hindus. 

DHEDVADA: The ward or place occupied by the Dhed caste. 
DHINGO : Fat. 

DHOBI : A caste of washermen. 
DHOL : A drum. 
DHOIilO : An order of ghosts. 

DHONDILGAJYA : Name of a rite performed for securing rainfall. 
DHORI; White. 
DHOTAR : Waist cloth. 

DHUL PADAVO : The first day of the dark half of Fdlgun. 

DHRUVA : The son of Uttanapdda. He was a great devotee of the god Vishnu. The solar star. 
DHULETI : See Dhul Pddavo. 

DHUL WAD : See Dhul Pddavo. The day of throwing dust after the burning of the Holi. 
DHUNDA : Name of a demon goddess. 
DHUNDA RaKSHASIN : -See Dhunda. 
DHUNDHUMARI : Name of a mythological personage. 

DHUNI : The smoke-fire of an ascetic over which he sits inhaling the smoke. 
DHUPA: Frankincense. 
DIGAMBARA : Name of a goddess. 
DIPO : Panther. 

DISHA-SHUL : Pain caused by directions. 

DIVALI ; A festival with nocturnal illuminations, feastings, gambling, etc. held during the con- 
cluding day of Aahvin and the first and second day of Kdrtik. 
DIVAS A : The fifteenth day of the dark half of Ashddh. 
DIWAD : A serpent of a large but harmless species. 
DODKA : One hundredth part of a rupee. 

DOKADO : A ball of molasses and sesamum seed cooked together. 
DORA : Piece of a string ; a magic thread. 
DORLI : Solanum indicum. 
DOSO: Old. 



c APPENDIX 

DRO : A kind of sacred grass. 

DRONA : Son of Bhdradvdja, by birth a Brdhman but acquainted with military science which he 

received as a gift from Parashurdm. He instructed the Kauravas and Ptodavas in the 

use of arms. 
DRUSTAMANI : A kind of black beads. 
DUDHA: Milk. 

DUDHPAK : Rice cooked in milk and sweetened with sugar. 
DUG-DUDIOON : See Ddkla. 

DUHITRA : Shrdddha performed by a grandson to propitiate his maternal grandfather. 
DTJKAIi : Famine. 
DUNDUBHI: A kettle-drum. 
DUNGAR : A hill. 

DXJRBAR : The court of an Indiair Chief. 
DURGA : Name of a goddess. 
DURGATI : Fallen condition. 
DtTRVA : A kind of sacred grass. 

DURYODHANA : The eldest of the Kaurava brothers. 
DWUA : A twice-born. A Brdhman, a Kshatriya or a Vaishya, whose investiture with the sacred 

thread constitutes, religiously and metaphorically a second birth. 
DWITIYA : The second day of the bright or dark half of a month. 



EKADASHI : The eleventh day of the bright and dark halves of a month. 

EKAL PER : Zizyphus jujuba. 

EKANTARtO : Intermittant fever. 

EKOTISHTA : The rites performed on the eleventh day after death, 

ETALAI : Name of a goddess. 



FAG : A vulgar song. 

FAGAN : A corrupted form of Fdlgun. See Fdlgun. 

FAKIR : A Muhammadan mendicant. 

FAKIRI : Alms given to Fakirs in the Muharram. 

FAKIRO : A beggar. 

FALGUN : The twelfth month of the Deccani Hindu and the fifth month of the Gujardt Hindu 

calendar year. 
FAVADI : Name of a bird. 
FIBANGAI : Name of a goddess. 
FUL : A flower. 
FUL DOli : A festival in which coloured water is thrown. 



GADHEDA: A donkey. 

GADHEDO : See Gadheda. 

GADHERIMATA : Name of a goddess installed to protect a fortress or a street. 

GAFAL: Stupid. 

GAGANACHAR : An order of ghosts moving ia the etherial regions. 

GAGARBEDIUN : A piece of leather thong or a piece of black wood on which mysticspells have 

been cast. 
GAJABAI : Name of a goddess. 
GAJACHHAYA: A festival — the day of the new moon of Bhddrapad the moon being in the 

Hasta constellation. 
GALAL ; Red powder. 



APPENDIX XI 



GANA : A troop of demigods considered as Shiva's attendants. 

GANAGOR : Name of a vow. 

GANDHARVA : A celestial musician ; a class of demigods who are considered to be the singers of 

gods. 
GANDIVA : Name of the bow of Arjuna. 
GANDU : Name of a tree. 
GANDH : Sandal paste. 

GANESH CHATURTHI : The fourth day of the bright half of Bhddrapad celebrated as the birth- 
day of Ganesh. 
GANESHIO : A hook^shaped instrument used by thieves in boring holes through walls. 
GANGA : The river Ganges. 
GANGAJAL : Water of the Ganges. 
GANGIGOR : Name of a vow. 
GANGLO : Stony. 
GANGUD : An order of ghosts. 
GaNJA : Hemp flower. 

GANPATI: The son of Shiva and Parvati. He is the deity of wisdom and the remover of diffi- 
culties and obstacles. 
GANPATIPUJAN : The worship of Ganpati. 
GANTHIA : A preparation of gram flour. 
GAON-DEVI : Village goddess. 
GARABI : A song in propitiation of a goddess. 
GARBHADAN : The marriage consummation ceremony. 
GARHANE : Supplication to an idol. 
GARUD : The eagle. 
GARUD PURAN : Name of a purdn. 
GATRAD : Name of a goddess. 
GAU : A measure of distance equal to li miles. 
GAUTAM : Name of a sage. 
GAVA : A wild ox. 
GAVALI : A caste or herdsmen, 
GAVATDEV : Name of a godling. 
GAVATI : An order of ghosts. 
GAYASUR : Name of a demon. 
GAYATRI : Name of a daughter of Brahma. 

GAYATRI MANTRA : A sacred verse from the Vedas held specially sacred and repeated by every 
Brdhman at his morning and evening devotion. The verse is in honour 
of the sun, 
GAYATRI PURASCHARAN : A form of devotion requiring the recitation of the Gdyatri mamira a 

hundred thousand times with certain sjonbolic ceremonies. 
GAYATRIPURASCHAVACHAN See Gdyatripurasoharan. 
GEDI: A bat. 

GEDI-DANDA ; An outdoor game played by boys. 
OERIA : A boy who takes an active part in the HoU festival. 
GHADI : An exorcist. A caste of temple ministrants or an individual of it. 
GHADI : A measure of time equal to twenty -four minutes. 
GHADULO ^ A process for removing the effects of the evil eye. 
GHANCHINI : An order of ghosts. 
GHANDHARAVI : An order of ghosts. 

GHANI : That quantity of oil seeds which is put in at one time to be crushed in an oil mills 
GHAT : Steps on the side of a river or tank leading to the water. 
GHATOTKACHA : Name of a demon. 
GHELI: Mad. 



xii APPENDIX 



GHELO: Mad. 

GHELUN: Mad. 

GHERAYALA: Eclipsed. 

GHETA: A sheep. 

GHODO: Ahorse. 

GHUGARI : Grain boiled whole, i.e. unsplit and unhusked. 

GHUMAT : A sort of musical instrument — an earthen vessel, pitcher-form, covered over at the 

larger mouth with leather. 
GHUNA : A mysterious watery pit. 
GIDOTaN : Name of a creeper. 
GILLI-DANBA : A play amongst boys, trapstick, 
GIRASIA : A Rajput landholder. 

GIRHA : A water demon. Applied to Rdhu or to an eclipse in general, solar or lunar. 
GIRI : An order or individual of it anjong Oosdoia. 
GOCHADI : Cattle or dog louse. 
GODHO: A bull. 

GOKARN : Name of a mythological king. 
GOKHALO : A niche in the wall. 

GOKUL : The name of the village at which Krishna was brought up. 
GOKHARTT : A species of thorns. 

GOKUL-ASHTAMI : The eighth day of the dark half of Bhadrapad celebrated as the birthday of 

Krishna. 
GOL : Molasses. 

GOLABA : Name of a goddess. 

GOLAMBADEVI : Name of a goddess. 

GOMUKH : Mouth of a cow. 

GONDARO : Place where the village cattle rest. 

GONDHAL : A kind of religious dance. 

GOOLVEL : A kind of creeper. 

GOPALSANTAN : Name of an incantation. 
GOPRADAN : Gift of a cow with its calf to a Brahman. 
GOR : A priest. 
GORA : A black earthen vessel filled with curds. 

GORADIA : A name of Hanimito. 

GORAIN : A married unwidowed woman. 

GORAKHA : Name of a saint. 

GORAKH CHINCH : A kind of tree. 

GORJI : A preceptor. 

GORAKHRAJ : Name of a saint. 

GOSAVI : An ascetic. 

GOTRA : A section of a caste having a common ancestor. 

GOURI-PUJAN : The worship of the goddess Gouri, a festival observed only by women. 

GOUTRAD : A vow in honour of the cow lasting from the eleventh day to the fifteenth day of the 
bright half of Bhddrapad. 

GOUTRAL : Name of a vow. 

GOVARDHAN : A celebrated hill near Mathura. A large heap of cow dung or of rice, vegetables , 
etc. made on the first day of the bright half of Kdrtik in imitation of the 
mountain. 

GOWALA-DEVA : Name of a deity connected with rain-fall. 

GRAHA : A planet. 

GRAHANA : An eclipse. 

GRAHAN-PUJAN : The worship of the plough on the full-moon day of Shrdvan. 

GRAHA-SHANTI : A ceremony in propitiation of the planets. 

GRAMADEVATA : A vUlage goddess. 

GRAMA-DEVI : A village goddess. 



APPENDIX xm 



GRIHADEVATA : The diety which presides over the house. 

GRISHMA-RITU : The summer. 

GRIVA -. Name of a deity. 

GUDHI : A pole, wrapped around with a cloth, a mango sprig, etc., erected oa the first day of 

the year before the house-door. 
GUDHI-PADVA: The first day of the bright half of Ghaitra, the new year's day of the Dtocani 

Hindus. 
GUHYAK : An order of semi-divine beings. 
GULAB: Arose. 
GUGAL : Balsamodendron. 

GUJAKALPA : Name of a medicinal preparation. 
GULAL : Red powder. 
GUMPHA : A cave. 
GUNDAR : Gum arabic. 

GURAV : A caste of temple ministrants or an individual of it. 
GURU : A religious preceptor ; Jupiter. 
GURU CHARITRA : Name of a sacred book. 

H. 

HADAL : Ghost of a woman who dies within ten days of childbirth or during menses, 

HADALI : See Hadal. 

HAJ : A pilgrim. 

HAJAM : A caste of barbers or an individual of it. 

HALAHAL : A sort of deadly poison produced at the churning of the ocean. 

HANSA : A goose. 

HANUMAN : Name of a deity in the form of a monkey. He was a great devotee of Rama. 

HANUMAN-JAYANTI : The full-moon-day of ehaitra celebrated as the birthday of Hanuman. 

HAR : A name of Shiva. 

HARDA : A garland of balls made of sugar. 

HARDAS : One who performs Kathda that is relates stories of Hindu deities to the aceompanimeafc 
of music. 

HARDE : Myrobalan, 

HARI : A name of Vishnu. 

HARISOHANDRA ; Name of a mythological king. 

HARITALIKA: The third day of the bright half of Bhddrapad on. which images of Parvati made 
of earth are worshipped by women. 

HARIVANSHA : Name of a purdn. 

HASTA : Name of a constellation. 

HATHADI : An order of ghosts. 

HATHI : An elephant. 

HA VAN : A sacrificial ofiering. 

HEDAMATIO : A name of Hanuman. 

HEDAMBA : Name of a giantess. 
HEDLI : An order of ghosts. 

HEMANT-RITU: Winter. 

HIDIMBA : Name of a giantess. 
HIJADA : A eunuch. 
HINGLAJ : Name of a goddess. 
HIRANYAKASHIPU : Name of a demon. 
HIRANY AKASHYAPU : Name of a demon. 
HIRANYAKSHA : Name of a demon. 
HIRWA : An order of ghosts. 
HOL : Name of a goddess. 

HOLI : A festival held at the approach of the vernal equinox. The pile arranged to be kindled at 
the festival. 



XIV APPENDIX 

HOLIA : A boy who takes an active part in the HoU celebrations. 

HOIilKA : Name of a goddess. 

HOLO : A species of birds. 

HOMA : A sacrifice. 

HOMAHAVAN : A formation expressing comprehensively or collectively, the several acts and 

points appertaining to oblation by fire : also any one indefinely of these acts 

and points. 
HOW : Name of a demon. 

HUMBAD : A caste of Vdnids or an individual of it. 
HUTaSHANI : The pile arranged to be kindled at the festival of HoU. 

I 

INA : An egg. 

INAM : A gift. 

INDA : An egg-shaped vessel. 

INDRA-DHANUSHYA : A rain-bow. 

INDRAJIT : Name of a demon. 

INDRAMAHOTSAVA : A festival celebrated m honour of the god Indra. 

IRALE : A protection against rain made of the leaves of trees. 

ISHTADEVATA : A chosen deity. 

ITIDIO : A species of insects. 

J. 

JADI: Fat. 

JADO : Fastened. 

JADU : The black art. 

JAGRAN : The fifteenth day of the bright half of Ashddh. 

JAGRITI: Wakefulness. 

JAIKHA : An order of ghosts. 

JaKHaI : Name of a minor goddess. 

JAKHANI : An order of semi-divine beings, 

JAKHAI -DEVI : Name of a minor goddess. 

JAKHARA : Name of a minor goddess. 

JAKHARO : An order of ghosts. 

JaKHIN : Spirit of a woman whose husband is alive. 

JAKHMATA : Name of a minor goddess. 

JAKRIN : Name of a deity residing in water. 

JaL : An order of ghosts ; name of a tree, 

JALACHAR : An order of evil spirits living in water. 

JALADEVI : Water-goddess. 

JALAJ : An order of ghosts. 

JALA-JATRA; The ceremony of submerging the image of Shiva. 

JALANDHAR : Name of a demon. 

JALAP : A dream caused by cold. 

JALDEVKI : Water-goddess. 

JALOTSAVA : A water festival. 

JAMBUVANT : One of the generals of Rama's army at the siege of Lanka or Ceylon. 

JAMBUVANTI : The daughter of Jambuvant. 

JAMI : An order of ghosts. 

J AN : An order of ghosts. 

JANAK : A king of Mahila, the foster-father of Sita. 

JANAWE : A sacred thread. 

JANGAM : A Lingdyat priest. 

JANHU : Name of a mythological king. 

JANJIRO : A black cotton thread with seven knots. 



APPENDIX XV 

JANMASHTAMI : The eighth day of the dark half of Shrdvan celebrated as the birth-day of 

Krishna. 
JANMA-SUW4SINI : A woman who is perpetually unwidowed. 
JANNI : Name of a minor goddess. 
JANTR A : A mystical arrangement of words. 
JAP : Repeating prayers in a muttering manner. 
JAP-MAL : A rosary. 
JARAN : A kind of black art. 
JABASANDH : Name of a demon. 
JARI : Name of a goddess. 

JARI-MARI : A goddess presiding over an epidemic or pestilential disease. 
JATA : Matted hair. 
JATRA: A fair. 
JATUPI : Name of a sage, 
JAVA: Barley. 

JAVAJLA : Tender wheat plants. 

JETHA : The eighth month of the Gujardt Hindu calendar year. 
JHAPAT : A sudden encounter. 
JHOLAI : Name of a goddess. 
JIMP : An order of ghosts. 
JINNI : An order of ghosts. 
JINO: Small. 
JINTHRO: Rugged. 
JIREN : Cumin-seed. 
jrVADHANI : Name of a goddess. 
JIVI: Live. 
JIVO: Live. 

JOGAI : Name of a goddess. 
JOGANI : A female harpie. 

JOGATA : A male child offered to the goddess Yallamma. 
JOGATIN : A female child offered to the goddess Yallamma; 
JOGAVA : Begging in the name of the goddess Amba, 
JOGI : A male child offered to the goddess Mdydka. 
JOGIN : A female child offered to the goddess Mdydka. 
JUARI : A kind of corn. 
JULEBI : A kind of sweet. 
JUTHI : False. 
JUVaRI : A kind of corn. 
JYESHTHA : The third month of the Deccani Hindu and the eighth month of the Gujarat Hindu 

calendar year. Name of a constellation, 
JYOTISH-SHASTRA : The science of astronomy. 

K. 

KABAR : A tomb raised over the grave of a Muhammadan saint. 

KABIR : Name of a celebrated saint. 

KACHA : The son of Brihaspati, the preceptor of gods. 

KACHAKADA : A kind of bead. 

KACHARO : Refuse. 

KACHBI : Rainbowr 

KACHHIA : A caste of vegetable sellers. 

KADADAN : Legumes. 

KADALIPUJAN : Plantain tree worship. 

KADAMB : Authocephalus cadumba. 



XVI APPENDIX 

KADVI : Bitter. 

KADAVO : Bitter. 

KADULIMB : Melia Azadirachta. 

KAFRI : An order of ghosts. 

JSAGDO : A crow. 

KAGRASHIA : An expounder of the utterances of crows. 

KAGVA : Cooked food offered to the manes. 

KAITABHA : Name of a demon. 

KAJAL : CoUyrivim. 

KaJRA : A kind of tree. 

KAKADI : A cucumber. 

KAKBHUSHUNDI : Name of a sage. 

KALASH: Ajar. 

KALASHI : A weight of corn. 

KALANEMI : Name of a demon. 

KALASIO : A bowl. 

KALI_: Name of a goddess. 

KALIKA ; Name of a goddess. 

KALKAICHE BHUT : An order of ghosts. 

KALI CHAXJDAS : The fourteenth day of the dark half of Ashvin. 

KALINGI : Daughter of the king of the Kalingas. 

KALI PARAJ : A name applied collectively to the aboriginal tribes of Gujarat. 

KALIYA NAG : Name of a mythological snake. 

KALI YUGA : The fourth age of the world according to the Hindu scriptures 

KALO: Black. 

KALO VA : Name of a cattle disease. 

KALPAVRIKSHA : A fabulous tree granting all desires. 

KAL BHAIRAV : A name of Mahddev. 

KAL PURUSHA : The god of death. 

KALUBaI : Name of a minor goddess. 

KALYAN: WeUare. 

KAMA DHENU : A heavenly cow granting all desires. 

KAMALA HOLI : The fourteenth day of the bright half of FSgun. 

KAMAN : A kind of black art of bewitching a person. 
' KAMANDALU : A gourd. 

KAMDEV MAHADEV : A name of Mahddev. 

KAMOD : A kind of rice. 

KANAKNATH : A name of Mahd'dev. 

KANKOTRI : Red powder. 

KANOBA : Name of a minor deity. 

KANSA : King of Mathura, maternal uncle of Krishna. 

KANSAR : Coarse wheat flour cooked in water or ghi and sweetened with molasses or sugar. 

KANYA : A girl ; Virgo. 

KAPHAN : The cloth in which a corpse is wrapped. 

KAPIL : Name of a sage. 

KAPILASHASTHI : A day on which synchronize six partioulars-i^the day, Tuesday ; the month, 
Bhddrapad ; the date, the sixth of the dark fortnight ; the Nakshatra , 
Rohini; the Yog, Vyatipdt; the Mahdnakshatra, HaatU 

KAPILASHETE : See Kapildshasthi. 

KARAN : A kind of tree. 

KARHADA : A caste of Brdhmans found in the Deccan. 

KARKA ; Cancer. 



APPENDIX XVU 

KARKATA : Name of a water nymph, 

KARKATI: See Karkata. 

KARKOTAK : Name of a snake. 

KARMAMARGA : The path of action. 

KaRTIK ; The eighth month of the Deccani Hindu and the first month of tlie Gujardt Hinda 

calendar year. 
KARTIKEY : Son of Shiva, the commander of the army of the gods. 
KASADA : A kind of sacred grass, 
KASaI : A butcher. 
KASATIA : Name of a. god. 

KASATIA-GaNTH : Tying the knot of Kasatia, a vow observed in the name of the god Kasatia. 
KASHI: Benares. 
KATHAWATI : Name of a tribe. 

KATHEKARI : A narrator of the legends of the gods. 
KATHI : Name of a tribe. 
KATKARI.- Name of a tribe. 
KaTLAN : A kind of medicinal preparation, 
KATYAR : A dagger. 

KAUL : The rice, betelnuts, etc., stuck upon an idol when it is consulted. 
KAUL GHALNE : To consult a deity by kaul. 
KAURAVA : The patronymic of the descendants of Kuru, but usually applied to the sons of 

Dhritardshtra. 
KAUSTUBHA : Name of a celebrated jam obtained at the churning of the ocean and worn by 

^ Vishnu. 
KAVANESHWAR ; A name of Mahadev. 
KAYA: Body. 
KEDAR : Name of a deity. 
KERADO : A kind of tree. 
KESHAR: Safiron. 
KESHAVA : A name of Krishna. 

KETU : In astronomy, the ninth of the planets ; in mythology, a demon. 
KHABITH : An order of ghosts. 
KHAD-KHADYA-BESADVI : A ceremony performed by exorcists to propitiate their favourite 

goddesses. 
KHADI : Red or green earthj 

KHAGACHAR : An order of ghosts roaming in the sky. 
KHAIR : Acacia catechu. 
KHAIS : A species of water spirits. 
KHAJADA PANTH : A sect of Hindus. 
KHAKHARA : A kind of tree. 
KHAKHI : A sect of Hindus. 

KHAL : The passage in the ShivaUnga (phallus of Shiva). 
KHANA : A bodice cloth. 
KHANDE PUJAN : Worship of arms. 
KHANDERAl : A name of the deity Khandoba. 
KHANDOBA : Name of a deity. 
KHANJIR: Adaggerj 
KHAPARI : A kind of cattle disease. 
KHAPRYA : An order of ghosts. 

KHARAVA : A disease of cattle in which the hoofs are affected. 
KHAR V A : A caste of fishermen and sailors or an individual of it. 
KHAR VI : See Kharva. 
KHATALE : A cot. 



APPENDIX 



KHATRI : A caste of weavers. 
KHAVAS : A caste of Hindus. 
KHAVIS : An order of ghosts. 
KHETALO : Name of a snake deity. 
KHETRVA: Afield. 
KHEM : An order of ghosts. 

KHICHADI : A preparatiqn of rice and pulse cooked together. 
KHIJADIO : The Shami tree, Prosopis spicigera 
• KHIJADO: See Khijadio. 
KHIJADO MAMO : An order of ghosts. 
KHILI : A peg. 

KHIR : Rice cooked in milk and sweetened with sugar. 
KHIT KHIT : Notes of the Pingla bird. 
KHODIAR MATA : Name of a goddess. 
KHODO : Lame. 

KHODO MAMO : Name of a minor deity. 
KHOJA : A class of Musalmtos. 
KHOKHO : An outdoor game played in the Deooan, 
KHUNTINI : An order of ghosts. 
KIDI : An ant. 

KILBIL : Notes of the Pingla bird. 

KINKHAB : Silk worked with gold and silver flowers, brocade. 
XINNARI : An order of semi-divine beings. 
KIRATA: A fisherman. 
KISHORDAS : A name of Hanuman. 
KODRA: Pimctured millet. 
KOHALA: Pumpkin. 
KOKAI : Name of a goddess. 
KOKIL : A cuckoo. 
KOKILA VRATA: The festival of cuckoos which is held in the month of Ashddh after a lapse of 

twenty years. 
KOLAMBAI : Name of a goddess. 
KOLHAI : Name of a goddess. 

KOLI : A primitive tribe of Hindus common in the Bombay Presidency. 
KOLO : A jackal. 
KOLKAI : Name of a goddess. 
KOLU : Cucurbita maxima. 
KONDI : A kind of earthen pot. 
KONDURI : A preparation of mutton. 

KORI : A new garment ; an unused earthen jar ; a small silver coin. 
KOTHALI : Reticule. 

KOTWAL : Name of an untouchable caste of Hindus. 
KOYATA: A wood bill. 

KRISHNA : The eighth incarnation of Vishnu. 
KRITIKA : Name of a constellation. 
KRIYA BHAUDAl : Name of a deity. 

KSHATRIYA : The warrior class, the second of the fourfold divisions of Manu, 
KSHETRA : A holy place. 

KSHETRAPAL ; The guardian spirit of fields ; a kind of stone. 

KUBER : The lord of wealth, the regent of the north and the king of theYdkshas aui Kinnaras. 
KUKAD VEL : A kind of creeper. 
Kul : A totem ; a clan. 
KULA-DEVATA : Family deity. 
XULA-DEVI ; Family goddess. 



APPENDIX 



KULADHARMA : A special worship of the family god or goddess of each family. 

KULATHI : A kind of corn. 

KULERA : A mixture of wheat, oat or rice flour, clarified butter and sugar or molasses. 

KULKARNI : A village accountant 

KUMBHA: Aquarius. 

KUMBHAKARN : Name of a demon. 

KUMBHAR : A caste of potters. 

KUMBHARAN : A woman of the Kumbhar caste. 

KUMBHAVA ; Name of a cattle disease. 

KUMBH AVIV AHA : Marriage with an earthen jar. 

KUNBI : A cultivator. 

KUND : A pond ; a pit ; a sacred poo]. 

KUNDALAN : A kind of magic circle. 

KUNDALI : An astrological diagram of the position of planets at any particular time 

KUND ALIA : A name of Hanumdn. 

KUNDI : A shoe-maker's earthen pot. 

KUNKU : Red powder. 

KUNTI : The first wife of Pandu. 

KUPOTSARGA: Digging a well for the benefit of the public — and abandoning one's right of 

ownership over it. 
KURANANDI : Wheat flour lumps used in the oeremcjny of the Bodan. 
KURI : An implement for sowing corn. 
KURMI : Name of a water nymph. 
KURUKSHETRA : The extensive plain near Delhi, the scene of J the great battle' between the 

Kauravas and Pandavas. 
KUSHMAND : An order of demi-gods. 

KUSUMBA : The dye prepared from the dried flowers of the Kusumba (Carthamus tinctorius). 
KUTRO : A dog. 



LADU : A sweet ball. 

LAGHURUDRA ; A rite in honour of the god Shiva. 

LAHYA : Parched rice. 

LAKSHACHANDI : A recitation in honour of the goddess Parvati. 

LAKSHAMANA : Brother of Rdma. 

LAKSHMI : The goddess of wealth. 

LALA HARDEV - Name of a minor local deity. 

LALO : Name of a field deity. 

LALO BHAGAT : Name of a saint. 

LAMANDIVO : An iron lamp. 

LAMLAN : A branch of black magic. 

LANKA : Ceylon. 

LAPSI : Coarse wheat flower fried in ghi and sweetened with molasses or sugar. 

LAVENG : Clove. 

LAVANI : A kind of ballad ; plantation. 

LAWANI : Plantation. 

LAVO: A Parasite. 

LAVSANT : A ghost of a widow. 

LIMDO : A tree, Alantas excelsa. 

LIMBO : Poisonous. 

LINGA : Phallus. 

LINGAM : See Linga. 

LINGAYAT : An individual of the Lingdyat religion whose chief object of worship is Shiva. 



XX APPENDIX 



LOBAN : Olibanum. 
LOBHaN : Incense powder. 
LOTA: A water pot. 
LUVANA : A caste of traders. 
LUXMI : See Lakshmi. 



M. 



MACHCHENDRA NATH : Name of a saint. 
MACHHI : Name of a water njrmph. 
MACHHO : Name of a goddess. 
JIACHHU : See Mdchho. 
MADALIUN : A hollow bracelet. 
MAD AN: Cupid. 
MADHAVI : A village headman. 
MADHU : Name of a. demon. 
MADHU PAVANTI : An order of ghosts. 

MADHWACHARYA : Name of a great saint who founded a sect o; VaishnavJsm. 
MAFAT : Useless. 
MAFATIO : Useless. 
MAG : A grain, Phaseolus mungo. 
MAGH : The eleventh month of the Deocani Hindu and the fourth month of the Gujarslt Hindu 

calendar year. 
MAGHA : Name of a constellation. 

MAGHALO : A lamp of mud covered with leaves to represent the god of rain. 
MAHABHARAT ■- Name of an epic of the Hindus. 
MAHADEVA : A name of Shiva. 
MAHA GIRA ; Name of a minor deity. 
MAHAKALX : Name of a goddess. 

MAHAKALI NIRVaN TANTRA : Name of a work on Tantric philosophy. 
MAHALAKSHMI : Name of a goddess; Name of a ceremony in which the goddess is worshipped on 

the eighth day of the bright half of Ashmn. 
MAHALAYA SHRADDHA : A shrdddha performed in the dark half of Bhddrapad in propitiation of 

ancestors. 
MAHAMARI : Cholera goddess. 
MAHANT : A saint. 

MAHAPURUSH : An order of civil spirits. 
MAHAR : An unclean caste of Hindus. 
MAHAR PURUSHA : A kind of stone. 

MAHARAJA : A term of respectful compellation applied to kings, religious heads, saints, etc. 
MAHARaKSHASA : A class of demons. 
MAHARUDRA : A sacrifice in honour of Shiva. 
MAHARAURAVA : A kind of hell. 

MAHASHIVARATRI : The fourteenth day of the dark half of Mdgh, a fast day in honour of Shiva. 
MAHATMA : A saint. 
MAHATMYA : Greatness. 
MAHESHA : A name of Shiva. 
MAHESHVAR : A name of Shiva. 
MAHI : Name of a demon. 
MAHIKAWATI ; Name of a goddess. 
MAHODAYA : Name of a festival. 
MAIDAN : A plain. 
MAKARA ; Capricomus. 
MAKABI : Name of a water nymph. 
MAKHAR : A gaily dressed up wooden frame. 



APPENDIX xxi 

MAKI : Maize. 

MALAR -. A musical mode. 

MALHARI : A name of Kandoba. 

MALI : Red lead. 

MALI : A caste of gardeners or an individual of it. 

MALINDA : A sweet preparation of wheat flour fried in ghi. 

MALIN ! Unclean. 

MALLARI : A name of Khandoba. 

MALO : A bower. 

MAMIKULA : An order of ghosts. 

MAMO : An order of ghosts ; a maternal uncle. 

MANAYA : Name of a deity, 

MANDAL : A group. 

MANDALU : A circle. 

MANDAN MISHRA : Name of an ancient scholar. 

MANDAP : A bower. 

MANDA BHARANE ; Filling in a magic circle as a protection from spirits, 

MANEK-STAMBHA : The auspicious post of the marriage bower. 

MANG : An unclean caste of the Hindus, 

MANGAI : Name of a, goddess. 

MANGAL : Mars. 

MANGALA-GOURI ■• A ceremony performed by married girls for five successive years on every 

Tuesday of the month of Shrdvan. 
MANGALaRATI : Moving a lighted lamp round an idol. 
MANGALSUTRA : The lucky thread worn by married women. 

MANI : A jewel ; name of a deity. 

MANIDHAR : A snake. 

MANI MALLA : Name of a demon. 

M\NKARI : The person entitled to certain honours and presents at village assemblies. 

MANKODA : A black ant. 

MANSA KHAVANTI : An order of ghosts. 

MANTRA : An incantation; a magic spell. 
MANTRA-SHASTRA : The science of incantations. 

MANTRI : An exorcist. 

MANTRIK : An exorcist. 

MANUSHYACHAR : An order of ghosts moving among men. 

MARA2SI : A branch of black magic. 

MaRGA : A path ; course. 

MARGAl : Name of a goddess. 

M 'TirASHIRSHA : The ninth month of the Deccani Hindu and the second month of the Gujardt 
Hindu calendar year. 

MARGI : A sect of Hindus. 

MARGI PANTHI : A follower of the Margi sect. 

MARI : Name of a goddess. 

MARICHI : Name of a sage. 

MABIYUN : A ceremony for driving away insects. 

MARVO : Marjoram. 

MASUR : Lentil, 

MASIDA : An order of ghosts. 

MATA: A goddess. 

MATaJI : See Mdta 

MATA ASHTAMI ! The eighth day of the navardtra. 

MATARI ! Name of a goddess. 

MATH : A monastery. 



XX II APPENDIX 



MATHBHAJI : A kind of green vegetable. 

MATI : Earth. 

MATRIX A : A mother ; an order of semi-divine beings. 

MAULI : Name of a goddess. 

MAUNYA VRATA : A vow of sUence. 

MAVADI : Ghost of a woman dying with certain desires unfulfilled. 

MAYA: lUusion. 

MAYAKA : Name of a goddess. 

MED A: Marrow. 

MEDINI : The earth. 

MEGH : A cloud. 

MEGHARAJA : The god of rains. 

MEGHLADDU ; A sweet ball of wheat flour fried in ghi. 

MEHULO : See Maghalo. 

MEKAIIi : Name of an angel. 

MELADI : An order of ghosts. 

MELDI : See Meladi. 

MELI VIDYA : Sacrilegious art. 

MENA : A kind of bird. 

MERIT : Name of a mythological mountain. 

MESHA: Aries. 

MHALSA : Name of a goddess. 

MHARJAI : Name of a goddess. 

MHARLOBA : Name of a deity. 

MHASHYA : A species of water spirits. ■' 

MHASOBA : Name of a village deity ; lord of ghosts, 

MIANA : A class of Musalmdns. 

MINA : Pisces. 

MINDHAL : A kind of fruit. 

MIRl: Particle. 

MITHUN: Gemini. 

MIYALI : An order of ghosts. 

MOBHAR A : A hollow stone used for- threshing corn. 

MOCHI : A caste of shoe-makers. 

MOOHINI : An order of ghosts. 

MOGRI : Bat-tailed raddish. 

MOHAN : A branch of black magic. 

MOHINI : A fascinating woman. 

MOHARO : The stone found in the head of the snake. 

MOHOR : See Moharo. 

MOKSHA : Salvation 

MOLANI : An order of ghosts. 

MOTAKAT : Name of a vow. 

MOR : A peacock, 

MORIA : An earthen bowl. 

MOT MAVALI : Mother Mary. 

MOTUDUKH ; A kind of cattle disease. 

MOVA KHARAVA : Name of a cattle disease. 

MRIG : A deer ; name of a constellation. 

MRIGANKA : The moon. 

MRIGA TONCHANA : The moon. 

MRITYIIIsrjAYA : Name of an incantation. 

MUCHKUND : Name of a sage. 

MUJAVAR : A sweeper of a mosque devoutly or piously fixed to it 



APPENDIX xxiu 

MUKTI : Salvation. 

MUL : Name of a star. 

MULO : Raddish. 

MUNDA : A kind of wind. 

MUNGESHWAR MAHADEV : A name of Shiva. 

MUNGI MATA : Name of a goddess ; dumb mother. 

MUNJA ; Spirit of Brahman boy who dies immadiately after his thread ceremony. 

MURAL 1 : A flute. 

MURDUNGA: Tabour. 

MURLI : See Murali. 

MUSAL: A rioe pounder. 

MUTH : The fist. 

MUTH MARANE : Throwing of a handful of rice over which incantations have been repeated; 

sending a bewitched lemon to a person to whom a disease is to be transferred 

or who is to be killed. 
MUVA-KESHIBI : A kind of cattle disease. 

N 

NACHANI: A kind of grain. 

NADAPUDI: A coloured cord with a small parcel containing incense, red powder, etc. 
NaDASADI : A cord and a robe. 

NAG : A snake ; a spesiss of semi-divine beings half man half ssrpsnts in form. 
NAGA: ;Sf6eNdg. 

NAGABALI : A propitiatory offering to snakes. 
NAGAR : A caste of Brahmans found in Gujarat. 
NAGCHAMFA : A flower tree, Alpinia mutans. 
NAGDEV : The snake god. 
NAGKANYA: A snake gu-1. 
NAG KESAR : Messua Ferrea. 

NAGMAGA : A class of beggars who worship the snake. 
NAGNATH : Name' of a snake deity. 

NAG PANCHAMI : Thefifth day of the bright half Shrdva,n, a holiday in honour of the snake deity. 
NAGO: Shameless. 
NAGOBA: The snake deity. 
NAGVEL : A kind of creeper. 

NAIVEDYA : An ofiering of some eatable to an idol. 
NAKSHATRA : A star ; a constellation. 
NALA : Name of a mythological king. 
NALPIR : Name of a pir or Mahomedan saint. 

NAL SAHEB : A familiar name for the bearer, in the Muharam, of the Tabut-pole which termi- 
nates at the top in a ndl or horse-shoe member. 
NAMAN : Oil poured over the image of Hanuman. 
NAMASKAR : Reverential or respectful address or salutation. 
NANDA : the adoptive father of Krishna. 
NANDARAJ : Name of a mythological king. 

NANDI: A bull. 

NANDI SHRADDHA : A Shrdddha to the names, preliminary to any joyous occasion. 

NANO,: Small. 

NAO NARASING : An order of ghosts. 

NABA : Name of a sage. 

NARAD MUNI : Name of a divine sage. 

NARAK: Hell. . 

NAR AK-CHATURDASHI : The fourteenth day of the dark half of Ashvin, 

NARALI PAURNIMA : The coooanut holiday, the fifteenth daj of the bright half of Shrdva^i, 

NARASIMHA: An incarnation of Vishnu in the form of half lion half man. 



IXlV APPENDIX 



NaRaYAN : Name of a sage, 

NARAYANA BALI : A sacrifice in propitiation of evil spirits. 

NARAYAN KAVACH : A hymn in honour of Vishnu. 

NARAYAN NAGABALI : A kind of offering. 

NAREL-PURNIMA : See Ndrali Paurnima, 

NARGUDIKALPA : A kind of medicinal preparation. 

NARKYA UDA : A kind of incense. 

NARSINHA: See Narsimha. 

NARSINHA MEHTA : A celebrated saint of Gujarat. 

NATAK: A drama. 

NATHU: Tied. 

NAVACHANDI : Name of a sacrifice. 

NAVAGRAHA : The nine planets. 

NA.VAGRAHASHaNT1 : A ceremony in propitiation of the nine planets, 

NAVAKADaN : Gift of a ship. 

NAV ALA-DEVI : Name of a goddesa. 

NAVAMUTHIUM : A preparation of nine handfuls of wheat. 

NAVARATRA : The first nine days of the month of Ashvin held sacred to Durga. 

NAVATERI : A game of nine and thirteen. 

NEHADO : A hamlet of Bharvdds or shepherds. 

NIAR : A kind of rice grown without ploughing. 

NILOTSARGA : A kind of Shrdddha. 

NILOTSAVA : See Nilparvan. 

NILPARVAN : A ceremony in propitiation of the spirits of deceased ancestors, 

NIRGUDI : A kind of plant. 

NIRMALA : Name of a goddess. 

NOL VEL : A kind of creeper. 

NRISINHA MANTRA : An incantation in honour of Nrisinha. 

NYASA: Gesture. 



OGHAD : A fool. 

OKARINU : Vomitting ; a kind of sheep disease. 

OLD. : A species of birds. 

OMKaR MANDHaTA : Name of a god. 

P 
PADO : A he-buffalo. 
PADUKA : Impressions of feet on stones. 
PADVAL : Snake-gourd. 
PADWAL : See Padval. 
PA JUS AN : A holiday of Jains. 
PALAS : A tree, Butea frondosa. 

PALEJATRA: A ceremony performed at the sowing season. 
PALE MARAD : An order of ghosts. 

PALIO : A pillar. A tomb erected on the grave of a person who dies on a field of battle 
PALUS: &epalas. 
PAN : A betel leaf. 

PANCHAK : Grouping of constellations lasting for five days. 
P ANCHAKSHARI : An exorcist. 

PANCHAMRITA: A mixture of mUk, curds, sugar, ghi and honey. 

PANCHARATNA : Five kinds of precious things, viz., gold, silver, copper, coral and pearls 
P ANCHAYATAN : The five deities. Shiva, ^-is•hnu, Su^a, Ganpati and Devi. 
PANCH.DEVA: fte Panchayatan. 



APPENDIX 



PANCHGAVYA : A mixture of the five products of the bow. 

PANCHOPACHaK : The presenting in oblation to an idol of five articles. 

PANDAVA : A term applied to the five sons of Pandu. 

PANDHAR : Name of a goddess. 

PANDIT : A scholar. 

PANDHRI : A kind of tree. 

PaNGALA-DEVI : Name of a goddess, 

PANOTI : Certain peculiar conjunctions of planets ; name of a goddess. 

PAP AD : Wafer biscuits. 

PARADI : A disease-scaring basket ; a basket. 

PARAKAYAPRAVESH : Entering the body of another. 

PARASHU : An axe. 

PARDESHI : A term applied to men from Upper India, usually low caste. 

PARJANYA: Rain. 

PARJANYA-SHANTI : A ceremony performed to secure rainfall. 

PARMAR : A clan of Rajputs. 

PaRO : A kind of stone. 

PARSHAD VAIKUNTHA : Name of a heavenly region. 

PARTHISHWAR : Lord of the earth ; a god. 

PARVATI : The consort of Shiva. 

PARWANI: A festival. 

PASHUCHAR ; An order of ghosts moving among beasts. 

PASHUPATAK-A : A weapon of Shiva. 

PASTANA : The being disposed for use — vessels, etc. for idol worship. 

PAT : A low wooden stool ; marriage with a widow. 

PATAL : The nether world. 

PATHA: Recitation. 

PATIL : A village headman. 

PATIT-PAVAN : Purifier of the fallen. 

PATKA : A head scarf. 

PATLA : A low wooden stool. 

PAT LAVANE : To marry a widow. 

PAURANIC : As prescribed in the purdnas. 

PAUSH : The tenth month of the Deccani Hindu and the third month of the Gujardt Hindu 

calendar year. 
PAVAIYA : A sect of goddess worshippers. 
PAVTE : A kind of grain. 
PEDHB : A kind of sweets. 
PEDI : A small heap or Idpsi. 
PEESA : An order of ghosts. 
PENDA -. A kind of sweets. 
PETTOD : A kind of cattle disease, 
PHALGUN : The twelfth month of the Deccani Hindu and the fifth month of the Gujardt Hindu 

calendar year. 
PHANAS : The jack fruit, 

PIDHAN ABATI : The ceremony of substituting night ornaments on an idol for the costly orna- 
ments of the day. 
PILUDI : A kind of tree. 
PIND : A rice ball. 
PINDA: SeePind. 
PINGLA : A species of birds. 
PINJAR ; Red powder. 
PIPAL : A tree, Ficus religiosa. 
PIPALESHWAR MAHADEV : A name of Shiva. 



XXVI APPENDIX 



PIR : A Muhammadan name for a paint, 

PIRAS PIPALO : Theapesia populva^ 

PISHACHA : An evU spirit. 

PITAR : A spirit of a deceased ancestor. 

PITHI : Turmeric powder. 

PITPAPDO : Glossooardi Boswellia. 

PITRA: Manes. 

PITRI : An ancestral spirit. 

PITRI SHRADDHA : A Shrdddha in propitiation of the ancestral spirits, 

PITRRIYA : A deceased ancestor, 

PITRU PAKSHA : Manes' fortnight, the dark half of the month of Bhddrapad. 

POHOR : A measure of time equal to three hours. 

POLIO : Hollow. 

POLO : Hollow. 

PONDHAR : Name of a goddess. 

POP AT : A parrot. 

POSHI : A class of chudels, an order of ghosts. 

POTHIA : An exorcist ; the bull of Shiva. 

POTHIO: A bull. 

PRACHETAS : A patronymic of Manu. 

PRADAKSHINA ; Circumambulation. 

PRADOSHA : The thirteenth day of the dark half of a month. 

PRALHAD : The son of the demon Hiranyakashipu. He was a great devotee of Vishnu. 

PRALAMBASUR ; Name of a demon. 

PRANA : Life. 

PRANA-POKA : Death wail. 

PRASAD : Consecrated food. 

PRASTHANA : See Pastana. 

PRATAB : An order of ghosts. 

PRAYASCHITTA : Penance. 

PRAYOGA : Performance ; experiment. 

PRETA : A goblin; spirit of a person dying a sudden or accidental death. 

PUDINA : Mentha Sativa. 

PUJA.: Worship. 

PUJARI : A worshipper. 

PXJJYA': "Deserving to be worshipped. 

PULAP : Name of a sage. 

PULASTYA : Name of a sage. 

PtJNARVASU : Name of a constellation, 

PUNDARIK : Name of a mythological snake. 

PUNEMA : The full moon day of a month, 

PUNJI : Refuse. 

PUNJO:: Refuse, , 

PUNY AHA WACHAN : A particular ceremony performed on festive occasions. 

PTJNYA STHANA : A holy place. 

PUNYA TITHI : Tiie death anniversary of a Sanydsi or saint. 

PURAN : The name of a certain class of sacred books aspribed to Vydsa and containing the whol& 

body of Hindu mythology, 
PURBHAYA : A term applied to persona from Upper India. 

PURNAHUTI : An offering into the fire of a handful of rice, ghi, oocoanuts and some other articles. 
PURNIMA : See Paumima. . 

PURNA TITHI : A complete day. 
PURUSHOTTAM : Intercalary month, 
PURVABHADRAPADA : Name of a constellation. 



APPENDIX xxvii 



PURVA-FALGUNI : Name of a constellation. 
PURVAJA : An ancestor. 
PURVASHADHA : Name of a constellation. 
PUSHKAR : Name of a snake. 
PUSHYA : Nanxe of a constellation. 



RABaRI : A caste of shepherds. 

RADHA : A man dressed in woman's clothes as a dancer ; name of a sweetheart of Krishna. 

RADIO: Crying. 

RAFDA : A kind of jujube tree. 

R AGATIO : An order of ghosts. 

RAHXJ : A demon with the tail of a dragon whose head was severed from his bojy by Vishnu. 
The head and tail, retaining their separate existence, were transferred to the planetary 
heavens, and became, the first, the eighth planet, and the second (Ketu) ths ninth, 

RAINADEVI : Name of a goddess. 

RAJAH : A king. 

RAJAYAJNA : A kind of sacrifice. 

RAJBAI MATA : Name of a goddess. 

RAJBHOG ARATI : The ceremony of oHering dainties and cookerl fooi to the go :1s. 

R AJPUTANl : Wife of a Rajput ; a Rajput woman. 

RAKHADI : A piece of silk thread. 

RAKHEVALIO : An order of ghosts. 

RAKSHASA: A demon. 

RALA ; Panic seed. 

RALE : Panic seed. 

RAMALASHASTRA : The science of divining by means of figures or lines and dice. 

RAMAN AV AMI : The ninth day of the bright half of Ghaitra celebrated as the birth day of Rama. 

RAMANUJA -. Name of a great saint and philosopher who founded a sect of Vaishnavism. 

RAMAYANA : An epic poem by Vdhniki describing the exploits and adventures of Rama. 

RAMCHANDRA : A name of Rdma. 

RAMESHWAR : A name of Shiva. 

RAMNATH : Name of a deity. 

RANDAL : Name of a goddess who presides over child-birth. 

T? 'NDHAN CHHETHA : The cooking sixth, the sixth day of the dark half of Shrd'.oan. 

R 4NGPANCHAMI : The fifth day of the dark half of Phalgun on which colourel water is thrown, i 

RANJANI : A kind of tree. 

RANNA DEVI : Name of a goddess who presides over child-birth. 

RANO : A Lord. 

RASHI : Signs of the Zodiac. 

RATANVO PARO : A kind of stone. 

RATANWA : A kind of skin disease. 

RATH : A charriot. 

RATHA SAPTAMI : The seventh day of the bright half of Magh,. 

RATNA: A jewel. 

RATNESHWAR MAHADEVA : A name of Shiva. 

RAUL : A caste of Hindus or an individual of it. 

RAVAL : See Rdul. 

RAVALNATH : Name of a spirit ; name of a village deity. 

RAVAN : Name of the demon king of Lanka or Ceylon. 

RAVI: The sun. 

RAWALNATH : See Ravahidth, 

RAYAN : A tree, Mimusops hexandra. 

REKHA : A line. 



XXVlU APPENDIX 



RELA : A stream. 

REV ATI : Name of a constellation. 

REWADI : A preparation of sesamum and sugar, 

RIKTA : Unfruitful, inauspicious. 

RISHI PUNCH AMI : The fifth day of the bright half of Bhddrapad. . 

RITU : A season. 

ROHINI : Name of a constellation. 

ROPANI : Transplanting. 

ROT : A loaf prepared from eight kinds of grain. 

ROTAL : Womanish. 

RUDRA : An order of semi-di^'ine beings. 

RUDRABHISHEKA : The ceremony of pouring water in a, constant stream over the image of 
Shiva for eleven consecutive days and nights. 

RUDRAKSHA : A tree sacred to Shiva, Eleoei rpus ganitrus, 

RUDRAKSHA MALA : A rosary of 108 beads of the rudrdkaha wood. 

RUDRA Y AG : A sacrifice-in honour of the god Shiva. 

RUI : A tree, calotropis gigantea. 

RUPO: Handsome. 

RUTU : Name of a sage. 

RUTUSHANTI : 'I'he marriage consummation ceremony. 



SABHA : A meeting. 

SADASATI PANOTI : A panoti extending over seven years and a half. 
SADHAN : Accomplishment. 

SADHU: A saint. 

SAGAR : A king of the Solar race, an ancestor of Rama. 

SAHAN : A levigating slab. 

SAHASRABHpJAN : Feeding a thousand Brahmans. 

SAITAN : An order of ghosts. 

SAIYED : A name for Musalmans directly descended from the Prophet. 

SAKHARADO : A kind of disease. 

SAKHOTIA : Name of a tree. 

SAKINI : An order of ghosts. 

SAKSHI . Witness. 

SALAM : The word used in salutation by and to Muhammadans and other people not Hindu. 

SALBAYA : Name of a deity. 

SAMACHABI : The death anniversary 

SAMADH : The edifice which is erected over the burial-place of a Sanydsi or saint ; deep and 
devout meditation. 

SAMADHI : See Samadh. 

SAMAI : A brass lamp. 

SAMANYA PUJA : Ordinary worship. 

SAMBANDHA : Spirit of a Brdhman who dies without an heir and whose funeral rites have not 

been performed. 
SAMELU : A log of wood. 
SAMISHYA : Entering the divine order. 

SAMPAT SHANIWAR : Wealth-giving Shaniwdr, a Saturday in the month of Shrdvan. 
SAMUDRA : The sea. 
SAJIVAT : A year. 

SAMYATSAR : A year"; A period of three cycles of twenty years each, that is sixty years. 
SAMVATSARI : Death anniversary. 

SAMVATSARIK SHRADDHA : The yearly Shrdddha. 
SANATKUMAR : One of the four sons of Brahma. 



APPENDIX 



SANCHAL : A kind of salt. 

SANDHYA : The morning, noon or evening prayers of a Brdhman. 

SANDHYA ARATI : Offerings of Milk, sugar and cakes to the gods in the evening, 

SANIPAT: Delirium. 

SANKAL: A chain. 

SANKAR : A stone. 

SANKASTI CHATURTHI : The fourth lunar day of every dark fortnight. 

SANKRANT : Transit or passage of the sun or a planet from one sign of the zodiac into another. 

SANKRANTI : See Sankrant. 

SANYASI : The BrsUiman of the fourth order, the religious mendicant. 

SAPINDI: The offering of a ball of rice, etc., to the spirit of a deceased relative, commonly on 

the twelfth day after his decease. 
SAPTAHA : A perusal or reading through of a purdn or other sacred book in seven consecutive 

days. 
SAPTAHA-PARAYAN : See Saptaha. 
SAPTA-RISHI : Ursa Major (the seven stars of which are supposed to be the seven great saint 

Mariohi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu and Vasishtha.) 
SAPTA SANI : Name of an incarnation. 
SARANGDHA : A kind of fruit. 
SARASVATI : The goddess of learning. 
SARI: A robe. 
SARPA BANDHANE : A process by which a. snake can be prevented from entering or leaving a 

p&rticular area. 
SARVASAKSHI : The observer of all things. 
SATAP : A kind of tree. 
SATARSINGO : Name of a goblin. 

SATEM : The seventh day of the bright or dark half ot a month. 
SATERI : Name of a goddess. 

SATHARA: The place in the house where a corpse is placed. 
SATHIA : An auspicious figure drawn on the floor. 
SATSANG : Contract with the righteous. 
SATVAI : Name of a goddess ; the ghost of a woman. 
SATYA NARAYAN : Name of a deity ; a vow of that name. 
S ATYA VINAYAK : A name of a Ganpati ; n vow of that name. 
SATYAWAN : Name of a mythological king. 
SAUDAMINI : The lightning. 
SAUNDAD : The Shami tree, Prosopis spicigera. 
S AVAJ : A wild animal. 

SAVAPATI : Weighing about six pounds and a quarter. 
SAVITA: The sun. 

SAVITRI : A mythological woman celebrated for her devotion to her husband, 
SAWANEKARIN : Name of a goddess. 
SAWAR : A kind of tree. 
SAWKAR: A money-lender. 
SAVO : Sewed. 

SAYUJJA : Merging into the divine form. 
SER : A measure of weight. 
SERAJA : A kind of gift. 
SEVA: Vermicelli. 
SEVAK : A disciple, a follower. 
SEVAKA : See Sevak. 
SHADANADA : Name of a goddess. 
SHAKARIO : Name of a cattle disease. 
SHAKINI : An order of ghosts. 



XXX APPENDIX 

SHAKTA MATA : Name of a goddess. 

SHAKTI : The energy or active power of a deity personified as his wife ; as Pirvati of Shiva. 

SHAKTIMATA : Name of a goddess. 

SHAKTI-PANTHI : A follower of the Shakti or Shdkta sect that is those who worship a divine 

energy under its feminine personification. 
SHAKTIYAG : A sacrifice in honour of Shakti. 
SHALIGRAM : A sacred stone supposed to represent Vishnu, 
SHALUNKI : A species of singing birds. 
SHANI: Saturn. 
SHANGAR ARATI : The ceremony of taking off the idols night garments and putting on others 

for the day. 
SHANKARACHARYA : The designation of the celebrated teacher of the Ved^nt philosophy. 
' SHANKASUR : Name of a demon. 
SHANKHASUR.i Name of a demon. 
SHANKHESTI : An order of ghosts . 

SHANTANU : A king of the lunar race who married Oanga and Satyavati, 
SHARADIAN : The dark half of the month of Bhddrapad. 
SHARANG : The bow of Vishnu. 
SHARAD PUNEMA : The full-moon day of Ashvin. 
SHARAD-RITU : The Autumn. 
SHASTRA: Scripture. 

SHATACHANDI : An incantation in honour of the goddess. 
SHATANJIVA -. Live for a hundred years. 
SHATATARAKA : Name of a constellation. 

SHATGHANDI : An incantation in honour of the goddess Chandi. 
SHES BHARANE : Name of a ceremony. 
SHENDUR : Red lead. 

SHESH NAG : The snake of one thousand hoods who supports the earth. 
SHEVARI : A kind of tree. 
SHIKHANDI : Amba born as the daughter of Drupada. She was given out to be, and brought up 

as, a male child. 
SHIKHAR : Top. 
SHIKOTAR : Name of a goddess. 
SHILI : Stale. 

SHILI SATEM : The stale seventh, the seventh day of the dark half of Shrdvan. 
SHIRALSHET : Name of an ancient Vani or trader who became a king,, and reigned three and a 

half ghatika (a measure of time). 
SHISHIR-RITU : The cold season. 

SHIT ^ The fowl tied to the top of the bamboo planted in the pit of the HoU fire. 
SHITALA ASTAKA ; A hymn in praise of the goddess Shitala. 
SHITALAI-PUJAN : A holiday observed by women, 
SHITALADEVI : The small-pox goddess. 
SHITALA MATA : See Shitalddevi. 
SHITAL-SAPTAMI : See Shili Sdtem. 
SHIVA : The thbd god of the Hindu Trinity, 
SHIVALANGI : Name of a plant. 
SHIVA-MITTHA ; A vow in which handfuls of corn are offered by married girls to the fod Vishnu 

on every Monday in the month of Shrdvan, 
SHIVARATRA : The fourteenth day of the dark half of every month sacred for the worship of Shiva. 
SHIVARATRI : See Shivardtra. 
SHIWANI : A kind of tree. 

SHIWAR : An offering of boiled rice mixed with curds ; an oHering of a, goat or fowl. 
SHLOKA: A stanza, a verse. 
SHODASHOPACHAR : The sixteen ways of doing homage. 



APPENDIX XKxi 

SHOKA-PAGLAN : Morning foot prints. 

SHRAVAD : A kind of shrub. 

SHRAVAK : A term applied to the members of the Jain religion. 

SHRAVAN : The fifth month of the Deooani and the tenth month of the Gujardt Hindu calendar 

year. 
SHRaVANI : The ceremony of renewing the sacred thread. 
SHRAWANA : Name of a constellation. 
SHRI DUTTA : Name of a deity. 
SHRINGAR ARATI : See Shangdr drati. 
SHRINGHI: Name of a sage. 
SHRISATYANARAYAN: Name of a deity. 
SHUDDHA:' Pure; the bright haU of a month. 
SHUDR A : The last of the four-fold divisions of Manu. 
SHUKAMUNI : Name of a sage. 
SHUKRA : Venus. 
SIDDHA: An order of semi-divine beings. 

SIDDHA PURUSHA : A magician. 

SIDDHI: Accomplishment; the acquisition of supernatural powers; name of a wife of Ganpati. 

SIDDHI KARAN : Name of a book in which Dharmardja keeps an account of the good and bad 
actions of men, 

SIDHA -. Uncooked articles of food. 

SIDIO : Nigro-like. 

SIKAN: A sling. 

SIKE : A sling. 

SIKOTARU : See Sikoturu. 

SIKOTURU : Ghost of a woman dying with certain desires unfulfilled. 

SIMaNT : The first pregnancy ceremony. 

SINDHAVAR : Name of a goddess, 

SINDUR ; Red lead. 

SINHA:-Alion; Leo, 

SINHIKA : The mother of Rahu. 

SITA : The consort of Rama. 

SIWA BANDHANE : Binding the boundary-name of a ceremony. 

SIWO : Sewn. 

SMARTA AGNI : The fire which is kept constantly burning and worshipped during the Chdturmds. 

SOD-MUNJ : The ceremony of loosening the m/unja (string) from the loins of a Brahman. 

SOLANKI : Name of a clan of Rajputs. 

SOLA SOMVAR-VRATA : A vow observed on sixteen successive Mondays. 

SOMAPA : Name of a water nymph 

SOMAVATI-AMAVASYA : The fifteenth day of the dark half of a month falling on Monday. 

SOMAGA : Name of a religious ceremony. 

SONI : A caste of goldsmiths or an individual of it. 

SORRO : Sulphuret of antimony, 

SOSHI : Name of a class of chudels. 

SOVALEN : A silk garment, 

SPHATIKA MANI : A crystal stone. 

STAMBHAN : A branch of black magic. 

STHANA: Locality. 

STHANA-DEVA : A loeal,deity^ r 

STHANADEVATA : See Sthdna-deva. 

STHAP AN : Installation. , - - . 

SUD : The bright half of a month, 

SUDARSHAN : See Sudarshan chakra. 

SUDARSHAN CHAKRA : The discus of Vishnu. 



xxxii APPENDIX 

SUDHA: Nectar. 

SUDHAKAR: The moon. 

8UDYAMAN : Name of a mythological king. 

SUGAD : A little earthen vessel. 

SUKaL : A plentiful harvest. 

SULIO : An order of ghosts. 

SULEIMANI PaRO : A kind of stone. 

SUMARIA GANESH : A name of Ganpati. 

SUNA : Unoccupied. 

StJNAKU : A kind of cattle disease. 

SUNKAI : Name of a goddess. 

SUNTH : Dry ginger. 

SUPADUN : A winnowing fan. 

SURA: Liquor. 

SURAKANO : Twisted iron wire. 

SURAM : Amorphophallua campalatus (elephant foot). 

SURANG : A kind of tree. 

SURDHAN : Ghost of a male member dying with certain of his desires unfulfilled. 

SURMO : See Sorro. 

SUROPURO : A spirit of one who meets death on a field of battle. 

SURYA : The sun. 

WURYA KAVACH ; A hymn in honour of the Sun. 

gURYA-VRAT : A vow in honour of the Sim. 

SUTAKI : One ceremonially I mpure on account of the death of a relative. 

SUTAR : A caste of carpenters or an individual of it. 

SUTI : An order of ghosts. 

SUTTEE : A woman who burns herself on the funeral pyre of her husband. 

SUVA : An ingredient used in preparing spices. 

SUWARN: Gold. 

SUWaSINI : An unwidowed woman. 

SWAMI : A lord, a term applied to saints. 

SWAMI MAHARAJ ; An epithet of Dattdtraya or Slu-i Dutta. 

SWAMINARAYAN : A sect of Hindus. 

SWAPNA : A dream. 

SWARGA: Heaven. 

SWASTIKA : A kind of mystical figure. 

SWATI : Name of a constellation. 

SWAYAMBHU: Self-existent. 

SWAYAMVAR : A maiden's choice marriage. 

T. 

TADIA : A fruit of the fan-palm. 

TADULI : The full moon day of. Ashddh. 

TAKSHAK : Name of a snake. 

TAL : A kind of cymbal. 

TALABDIA KOLI : A sub-division of the Koli tribe. 

TALKHAMBA ; A ghost of an unmarried Shudra. 

TALI : A plate. 

TALI BHARANE : A rite performedin honour of the god Khemdoba, 

TALO BHAGAT : Name of a great saint. 

TAMASHA ; A diverting exhibition ; a show, play, farce, mock-fight, etc. 

TAMHAN : A flat saucer -like metal plate. 

TAMJAI ; Name of a goddess. 

TANYATUN : Lightning. 



APPENDIX xxxiu 



TAPAKESHWAR : A name of Mahddev, 

TARa-BARAS : The star twelfth, the twelfth day after the death of a persoa, 

TARIA TAV : Periodical fever, 

TARPAN : An ofiering of water. 

TAV : A sheet of paper. 

TAVA : A cake fried in oil in a pan. 

TAVO : Flat unleavened loaves. 

TAXAMI : The ghoat of a woman dying in child-bed or menses. 

THAKORJI : A name for the Deity. 

THAL : A dish. 

THANA : A station. 

THANAK: Locality. 

THOR : A tree. Euphoria nerif olia. 

TID : A locust. 

TIL : Sesamum. 

TIL A : The sectarial mark made with coloured earths or unguents upon the forehead. 

TILAD : A singing sparrow. 

TINDOTAN : A kind of creeper. 

TIRTHA . Water used in bathing an idol ; a holy place. 

TOLA : A weight amounting to 210 grains. 

TOND BHUT : An order of evil spirits. 

TOSHI : A class of chvdels. 

TRAVENI : A confluence of three rivers. 

TRETAYUaA : The second yuga or age according to the Hindu scriptures. 

TRIJ : The third day of the bright or dark half of a month. 

TRIPINDI : A kind of Shrdddha. 

TRIPURASUR : Name of a demon. 

TRIPURI-PAURNIMA : The full moon-day of Kdrtik. 

TRISHANKU : Name of a king of the Solar race. 

TRISHUL: A trident. 

TUCHAKA : A mystical method. 

TULA: Libra. 

TULSHE— VRAT : A vow in honour of the Tulshi or aweeb basil plant. 

TULSI : The sweet basil. 



TUNGJAI : Name of a goddess. 
TURABAT : A tomb. 



U. 



UBHI : Standing ; an order of ghosts. 

UCHATAN : A branch of black magic. 

UCHCHATAN: See Uchiitan. 

UDA : A species of water spirits. 

UDAK SHANTI : Propitiation by water. 

UJANI : A ceremony in prppitiation of the viUage gods. 

UJJANI ; A festival in honour of the god Indra. 

UKARDI : Earth with which the marriage altar is built. 

UMA MAHESH -"ihe god Mahddev and his wife Parvati ; name of a vow in honour of them. 

UMBAR : The Indian fig tree. 

UMPI : Name of a Nag girl. 

UNAI MAT A: Name of a goddess, 

UNDAR : A mouse. 

UNT : A camel. 

UPADEVA: Ademi-god. 



XXXiy APPENDIX 



UPAKARMA : The ceremoQy of renewing the ?acred thread. 
URAS : A fair held in honour of a Mahomedan saint. 
UTAR : A sacrificial ofiering. 
UTTANAPAD : Name of a mythological king, 
UTTARA-BHADRAPADA : Name of a constellation. 
UTTARA-FALGUNt : Name of a constellation. 
UTTARASHADHA : Name of a constellation. 

V. 

VACCHADO : The spirit supposed to cure hydrophobia. 

VACCHARO : See Vdcchado. 

VACHO: Even. 

VAD : The banyan tree; the dark half of a month. 

VADAN : Fried cakes. 

VADHAVO : Odd. 

VADYAJAI : Name of a goddess. 

VAGADNAR : One who beats musical instruments like drums, 

VAGGAYA : Name of a deity. 

VAGH : A tiger. 

VAGHAMBARI : Name of a goddess. 

VAGHARAN : A woman of the Vdghri caste. 

VAGHESHWARI MATA : Name of a goddess. 

VAGHRI : A caste of Hindus. 

VAGHUR DEVI : Name of a goddess. 

VAGHVIR : The spirit of a person killed by a tiger. 

VAGHYA : A male child offered to the god Khandoba. 

VAIRAGI : A recluse. 

VAISHAKHA : The second month of the Deccani Hindu and the seventh month of the Gujarat- 
Hindu calendar year. 

VAISHNAVA : The sect of Hindus devoted to Vishnu. 

VAISHVADEV • An oblation of boiled rice into the fire. 

VAISHYA : A trader, the third of the four- fold divisions of Manu. 

VAITAL : An order of demi-gods. 

VAITALIKA -. An attendant of the god Shiva. 

VAIVASWAT MANU : Name of the seventh Manu now reigning. 

VAJRA : Adamant. 

VAJRABAI : Name of a goddess. 

VAJRABATTU: A kind of bead. 

VAJBAMAYA: Adamantine. 

VAJRESHWARI : Name of a goddess. 

VAJRESWARI : -See Vajreshvari. 

VALAM : A mock bridegroom in the Holi festival. 

VALAMA VALAMI : A procession of a mock marriage in the HoU festival. 

VALAMI : A mock bride in the HoU festival. 

VALAND : A caste of barbers or an individual of it. 

VALGO SAMACHARI : Death anniversary. 

VALLABHACH.iRYA : A great saint and scholar who founded a sect of Vaishnavisra. 

VALO : A kind of cattle disease. 

VALU : Eccentric. 

VAMA-MARGI : A foUowsr of the Vdma-mdrga that is a mode of worship in which the idol is. 

worshipped by the left hand, liquor drunk, etc., etc. 
VAMAN : A dwarf; name of the fifth incarnation of Vishnu. 

VANA-SHASTHI : Name of a Holiday. 

VANTRI : An order of ghosts. 



-APPENDIX XXXV 



VANZIAPAKA: Barrenness. 
-VARADANI : Name of a goddess. 
VARADHAN : Name of a deity. 
VARAH : A boar. 

VARAHA-SANHITA : Name of a book. 
VARSHA-RITU : The rainy season. 
VARUL : The white ant-hill. 
VASANA : Desire. 

VASANTAPANCHAMI : The fifth day of the bright half of Magh. 
VASANT-RITU : The spring. 

VASH : An oblation of rice and sweets offered to crows. 
VASHIKARAN : A branch of black magic. 
VASHISHTHA : Name of a sage. 

VASTU : A religious rite performed on entering a new house. 
VASTDBVATA : The guardian spirit of dwelling places. 
VASTUN : SeeVastu. 
VASTUPUJAN : -See Vdstu. 

VASU : A bull-calf or bull branded and set at liberty. 
VASUBARAS : The twelfth day of the bright half of Ashvin. 
VASUDEVA : Name of the father of Krishna. 
VASU-DWADASI : See Vasubdras. 
VASUKI : Name of a snake. 
VASTU SHANTI : See Vdatu. 

VATA-SAVITRI VRAT : Name of a vow observed by women on the full moon day of Jyesktha. 
VATI : A small metal cup. 
VATKI : -See Vdti. 
VAV : A reservoir of water; a tank. 
VAYALI; Eccentric. 

VAYU : Wind; the deity presiding over the wind. 
VAYUSUTA : A name of Mdruti. 
VEDA : Name of the scriptures of the Hindus. 
VEDATRAYI : The three vedas, Rik, Yajus and Sama. 
VEDHA : Malign influence. 

VEDIC : Relating to the Vedas; as enjoined in the Vedas. 
VEHALA : A tree, Bel eric Myrobalan. 
VELAN : A stick. 
ATELO : A creeper. 

VETAL : The lord of ghosts; name of a village deity. 
VETRASARPA : A cane stick with an image of a snake at its end. 
VIDA-SUPARI : Betel nut and leaves. 
VIDYUT ■ Lightning. 
VAJAYADASHAMI : The tenth day of the bright half of Ashmn. 

VIJLI : Lightning. 

VIKRAM : Name of a king. 

VIMAN : A celestial car. 

VINAYAK-CHATURTHI : The fourth day of the bright half of every month. 

VINCHI : A female scorpion. 

VIR -. A male fiend; ghost of an unmarried Kshatriya. 

VIRA : An order of ghosts ; name of a village deity. 

VISHA: Poison. 

VISHAKHA : Name of a constellation, 

VISHESHA PUJA : Special worship. 

VISHI : A cycle of twenty years. 

VISHNU : The second god of the Hindu Trinity. 



xxxvi APPENDIX 



VISHOTJSAHA^RA-NAMA. : A book containing the thousand names of Viahnu,- 
VISHNUYA^A : A sacrifice in honour of Vishnu. 
VISHOTAK : Nam 3 of a disease. 
VISHVaMITRA : Name of a sage. 

VISHWARUPA : That exists in all forms, an epithet of Vishnu. 
VISHWESHWAR : A name of Shiva. 
VISWATI : An order of ghosts. 
VITHOBA : Name of a god. 
VISUCHIKA : Name of a cholera goddess. 
yiVANCHARA : An order of ghosts. 
VRAT : A vow. 

VRIKODARA . Wolf -bellied, an epithet of Bhima. 
VRINDA : Name of the wife of Jalandhar, a demon. 
VRISCHIK A : Scorpion. 
VRISHABHA : Taurus. 
VRITRASAR : Name of ademon, 
VRUNDA : See Vrinda. 

VYATIPaT : The seventeenth of the Astrological Yoga (the twenty-seventh part of a circle 
measured on the plane of the Ecliptic). 

W. 

WAD : The banyan tree. 

WADI : An enclosed piece of meadow-field or garden ground. 

WaGH-BARAS : The twelfth day of A«/jOTn. 

WAGHE : Male children offered to the god Khandoba. 

WaGHESHWARI : Name of a village goddess. 

WaGHJAI : Name of a deity. 

WaGHOBA : An order of ghosts. 

WAGRESHWARI : Name of a village goddess. . 

WAGHYA : Name of a deity ; a male child offered to the god Khandoba. 

WAMAN-DWADASHI : The twelfth day of the bright half of Bhddrapad. 

WANI : A trader ; a general name for all castes of traders i. ei., bauyaa. 

WaNPRASTA : A Brahman in the third order of his life ; a hermit in general. 

WARUL : An ant-hill. 

WATA : The Banyan tree. 

WATA-PAURNIMA . The full moon day of Jyeshtha. 

WUDA : Incense, 

Y. 

YADNA : See Yajna. 

YADNOPAVIT : The sacred thread worn by Brdhmans. 
YADNYA : See Yajna. 

YAJAMAN : A host ; a person performing a sacrifice. 
YAJNA : A sacrifice. 

YAKSHA : A class of demi-gods, attendant on Kubera and employed in guarding his treasures. 
YAKSHINI : A female Yaksha ; a fairy. 
YALLAMMA ; Name of a goddess, 
YAMA : The God of death. 

YAMADUTA : A messenger of the god of death. 

YAMAGHANTA : A Yog or conjunction of times, viz., a Sunday-faUing upon the second day of the 
bright or dark half of a month ; a Friday falling upon the third lunar day, 
etc., etc. 
YAjMALOKA : The region of Yama. 
YAMAPURI : The city of the god of death. 
YANTRA -. A mystical formula or diagram. 



APPENDIX XXXVU 

YOGA : Religious and abstract meditation. 

YOGA MaRGA : The path of meditation. 

YOGA-SUTRA ; Name of a work by Patanjali containing aphorisms of the science of Yoga, 

YOGAVASHISTHA ; Name of a work on philosophy. 

YOJAN : A measure of distance equal to eight miles. 

YUDHISHTHIR : An epithet of Dharma, the eldest of the Pandava brothers, 



ZAMHADI : A female spii'it guarding the village gates. 

ZAMPAHADT : An order of ghosts. 

ZANZARKA : NaTme of o, goddess. 

ZANZIR A : A kind of magic incantation . 

ZAR : Fever. 

ZARMAN ZAR VAN : A ceremony in which a woman fetches water for the first time after delivery, 

ZILAKESHWAR : A name of Mahddeva. 

ZINI: Small. 

ZOD : An order of ghosts. 



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