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ELEMENTS OF HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 



CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




3 1924 071 



28 841 



ELEMENTS 



OF 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY 



BY 



T. A.^GOPINATHA RAO. M.A. 

SUPERINTENDENT OF ARCHEOLOGY, TRAVANCORE STATE. 



Vol. II— Part I. 



THE LAW PRINTING HOUSE 

MOUNT ROAD :: :: MADRAS 

1916 

All Rights Reserved. 

KC- 






/\t^iS33 



PRINTED AT THE LAW PRINTING HOUSE, 
MOUNT ROAD, MADRAS. 



DEDICATED 

WITH KIND PERMISSION 

To 
HIS HIGHNESS SIR RAMAVARMA. 

Sri Padmanabhadasa, Vanchipala, Kulasekhara Kiritapati, 

Manney Sultan Maharaja Raja Ramaraja Bahadur, 

Shatnsher Jang, G.C.S.I., G.C.I. E., 

MAHARAJA OF TRAVANCORE, 

Member of the Royal Asiatic Society, London, 

Fellow of the Geographical Society, London, 

Fellow of the Madras University, Officer de L' Instruction Publique. 

By 

HIS HIGHNESSS HUMBLE SERVANT 

THE AUTHOR. 



PEEFACE. 



In bringing out the Second Volume of the 
Elements of Hindu Iconography, the author 
earnestly trusts that it will meet with the same 
favourable reception that was uniformly accorded 
to the first volume both by savants and the Press, 
for which he begs to take this opportunity of ten- 
dering his heart-felt thanks. No pains have of 
course been spared to make the present publication 
as informing and interesting as is possible in the 
case of the abstruse subject of Iconography. 
Though the illustrations appearing in the present 
volume are by no means inadequate for the main 
purpose of the work, yet they are not so full and 
exhaustive as in the first, and a word of explana- 
tion in that connection may not be out of place. 
To the great regret of the author, the liberal 
pecuniary help offered for the preparation and 
publication of the first volume has been, owing to 
the somewhat straitened finances of the Travancore 
State at present, withheld from him on the present 



vn 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

occasion and he has, in consequence, not been able 
to embody as many illustrations as he had intended 
personally to gather for the purpose from various 
parts of India with a view to present to the public 
a series representative of the varied sculpture of 
the different parts of this country. But the 
Travancore Durbar have, in gracious consideration 
of the trouble and labour involved in the prepara- 
tion of the present volume, been pleased to permit 
its publication by the author himself, for which he 
begs to offer his respectful and grateful thanks 
to the Dewan, Mr. Dewan Bahadur M. Krishna 
Nair, b.a., b.l. 

Mention may here be made of a few points 
worthy of notice in the book. In the Introduction 
is given a collective description of all the peculiari- 
ties of ohe tenets and observances of some of the 
Saiva sects of which the general public has 
hitherto been practically ignorant, and of certain 
other cults ftat have died out without a trace. 
The nature of Lihga worship has been ex- 
amined critically in the light of original texts 
gathered from such important sources as the 
Saivagamas, Saiva philosophical treatises, Puranas 
and Itihasas, and with reference to the extant 
sculpture of all ages of this symbol of worship, and 
the matter has been thoroughly discussed and, what 

viii 



PREFACE. 

the author ventures to claim to be, an impartial 
conclusion arrived at. In the body of the book, 
several matters, which will be seen to be quite 
new even to the informed Hindu, have been dealt 
with ; to cite an instance, everybody knows that 
Siva begged for food with the broken skull of 
Brahma as an expiation for the sin of having cut 
ofi one of Brahma's heads, but it is doubtful if it is 
known why this curious sort of penance should have 
been resorted to by Siva to get rid of His sin. 
Again, it has been found possible with the help 
of the knowledge derived from a close study of the 
bulk of the science of Ndiya-^astra together with 
commentaries thereon to elaborate and treat fully 
the manifold dances of Siva, though only eight or 
nine modes are described in the S,gamic and other 
works. The reader will, it is hoped, come across 
many other instances of fresh information being 
furnished on matters that have remained more or 
less obscure hitherto. 

The author cannot be too thankful to the 
Proprietors of the Law Printing House for the 
extraordinary care and trouble they have bestowed 
upon the printing and general get up of the books 
and for their readiness in coming forward and 
generously offering their timely help but for which 
the volume could not have been brought out. The 



II 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

author cannot also omit to express his sense of 
gratitude to Dr. A. K. Anandakumaraswami, M.A., 
D. Sc, for the ready and willing permission granted 
to him for reproducing the valuable article on the 
dance of Siva, contributed some time ago to the 
Siddhanta-Dlpika by the learned Doctor. He has 
also very great pleasure in recording here his high 
appreciation of the help cheerfully rendered by his 
Pandit Mr. V. Srinivasa Sastri, Smritivisarada, 
but for whose untiring industry and intelligent 
collaboration this work could not have been brought 
to a successful completion so soon. Messrs. Long- 
hurst, Stoney, Kay and Beardsell, have been so very 
kind as to assist the author with photographs of 
images in their respective collections and to accord 
their gracious permission to reproduce them : to 
these gentlemen, the author offers his grateful 
thanks. 

For reasons which need not be explained here, 
it was not possible for the author personally to super- 
vise the printing of the work throughout so as to 
ensure the presentation of an absolutely correct 
text ; he had therefore to entrust the task to the 
printers themselves. In spite of the care and 
trouble ungrudgingly bestowed by them in the 
midst of their multifarious duties, a number of 
errors have unavoidably crept in. Though such of 



PEEPAOE. 

them as have been subsequently noticed are noted 
in the errata list, it is likely many more have 
escaped detection, for which the author craves the 
indulgence of his readers. 



Madras, 
January 1916. 



THE AUTHOE. 



XI 



CONTENTS. 



Preface 
A General 



Introduction on Saivaism, 



I. 
II. 



III. 



IV. 



LiNGAS 

lingodbhavamurti, chandra 

^bkharamurti, pl^upatamubti and 
Eaudra-Pa^upatamurti 

SUKHASANAMURTI, UMASAEITAMURTI 
SOMASKANDAMURTI AND XIMAMAHE^ 

varamurti ... 
Samharamurtis :— 
(i) Kamantakamurtji 
(ii) Gajasura-samharamnrM 
(iii) Kalarimurtii 
(iv) Tripurantakamurti 
(v) Sarabbesamurti 
(vi) Brabma-sirasohhedakam ur ti = 
Bhairava 
(a) Bhairava 
(6) Vatuka-Bhairava 

(c) Svamakarsbaiia Bhairava 

(d) Sixty-four Bhairavaa 
(vii) Virabhadramurti 

(viii) Jalandhara-vadha-miirti 
(ix) Mallari-Sivamurti 
(x) Andbakasuravadhamiirti 



Pages. 

vii — xi 

1—71 

73—102 



103—126 



127-141 
143—202 
147—149 
149—156 
156—164 
164—171 
171—174 

174—182 
177 
177—179 
179 
180—182 
183—188 
188-191 
191—192 
192—194 



Xlll 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

Pages. 





(xi) Aghoramurti (Dasabhuja-Aghora- 








murti) ... 


197- 


-201 




(xli) Mahakala and Mahakali 


201- 


-302 


V. 


ANUGKAHAMURTIS : — 


203- 


-220 




(i) Chandesanugrahamurti 


205- 


-209 




(ii) Vishnvanugrahamurti ( = Chakra- 








danamurfci) 


209- 


-212 




(iii) Nandlsanugrahamurti 


212- 


-213 




(iv) Vighnesvaranugrahamurti 


213- 


-214 




(v) Kiratarjunamurti 


214- 


-217 




(vi) Eavananugrahamurti ... 


217- 


-220 


VI. 


Neittamurtis (Different forms op 








Natana) 


221- 


-270 


VII. 


Dakshinamuktis : — 


271- 


-292 




(i) Vyakhyanamurfci 


273- 


-283 




(ii) Jnanamiirti 




284 




(iii) Yogamurfci 


284- 


-289 




(iv) Vfnadharamurti 


289- 


-292 


VIII. 


Kankala and Bhikshatanamurtis ... 


293- 


-309 


IX. 


Other Important Aspects of Siva : — 


311- 


-358 




(i) Gangadharamiirti 


313- 


-321 




(ii) Ardhanarisvaramiirti ... 


321- 


-332 




(iii) Haryardhamiirti 


332- 


-337 




(iv) Kalyanasuadaramiarti 


337- 


-352 




(v) Vrishavahanamiirti 


352- 


-356 




(vi) Visiaapaharanamiirti ... 


356- 


-358 


X. 


Miscellaneous Aspects op Siva : — 
(i) Sadasivamiirti and Mahasadasiva- 


359- 


-411 




miirti 


361- 


-374 




(ii) PaSchabrahmas or Isanadayah 


375- 


-379 



xiv 



CONTENTS. 

Pages. 

(iii) Mahesamurti ... ... 379—386 

(iv) Skadala Eudras ... ... 386—892 

(v) Vidyeavaras... ... ... 392—403 

(vi) Murtyashtaka ... ... 403—407 

(vii) Local legends and images based upon 

Mahatmyas ... ... 407-411 

XI. SUBRAHMAHYA ... ... 413—451 

XII. NandikI^vaea ... ... 453—460 

XIII. Chandb^vaea ... ... ... 461—469 

XIV. Bhaktas ... ... ... 471—481 

XV. Abya ... ... ... 483—492 

XVI. KSHETRAPALA ... ... ... 493—498 

XVII. Bbahma ... ... ... 499—512 

XVIII. DiKPALAKAS ... ... ... 513—538 

XIX. A^viNiDBVATAS ... ... 539—545 

XX. Demi-gods ... ... ... 547—570 

(i) Vasus ... ... ... 550—553 

(ii) Nagadava and the Nagas ... 554 — 558 

(iii) Sadhyas ... ... ... 558—559 

(iv) Asuras ... ... ... 559—561 

(v) Apsaraaas ... ... ... 561 — 562 

(yi) Pisaehas ... ... ... 562 

(vii) Vetalas ... ... ... 562 

(viii) Pitris ... ... ... 562—564 

(ix) Rishis ... ... ... 564—567 

(x) Gandharvas ... ... 568—569 

(xi) Marut-ganas ... ... 569—570 

Appendix A. ... ... ... 571—578 

B. ... ... , ... 1-279 

Index ... ... ... ... 1—37 



XV 



LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS. 



PLATE TO FACE PAQB 

I — Three different views of the Bhita Linga 

(A.S.U.P.) ... 65 

II — front, side and back views and the section 

of the Gudimallam Linga ... 66 

III — Bust of the image of Siva on the 

Gudimallam Linga ... 66 

Details of ornaments in the Gudimallam Sculpture. 
IV — Fig. 1, The head-gear of the Apasmara- 

purusha ... 67 

IV— Fig. 2, The kuridala in the ear of Siva ... 67 
IV — Fig. 3, The ornamental band on the upper 

arm of the same ... 67 

IV — Fig. 4, The details of the bracelets of the 

same ... 67 

IV — Fig. 5, The details of the jatamaknta of the 

same ... 67 

IV— Fig. 6, The details of the hara on the neck 

of the same ... 67 

IV — Fig. 7, Do. of the Apasmara-purusha. 67 
V— Fig. 1, The Chennittalai Linga ... 69 

V — Fig. 2, The Parasu in the left hand of the 
image of Siva in the Gudi- 
mallam Linga ... 69 
V — Fig. 3, The kamandalu in the same ... 69 

* T.S.A. Trivandram Sobool of Aits ; A.S.M. Aichseologioal Survey 
of Madias ; A,S. My, Aiobasologioal Survey of Mysore ; A.S. Bo. Arohsao- 
logioal Survey of Bombay ; A.S. I. Arobaeologioal Survey of India ; I.M, 
India Muaeum and A.S.U.F. Arcbseologioal Survey of United Provinces. 
Tbe pbotogiapbs and drawings wbiob are not followed by any of the 
abbreviations given above belong to tbe author's oolleotion, 

zvii 
III 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

PLATE TO PACE PAGE 

V — Fig. 4, The ram held in the right hand 

of the same ... 69 

VI — The Adhya, Anadhya, Suradhya and 

Sarvasama lingas ... 93 

VII— Fig. 1, The Trairasika Linga ... 95 

VII— Fig. 2, The Ashtottara-sata-linga ... 95 

VII— Fig. 3, The Mulihalinga ... 95 

VIII— Fig. 1, Ashtottarasata linga, Tiruvorri- 

yut ... 96 

VIII— Fig. 2, Sahaara linga Do. ... 96 

IX— Fig. 1, Mukhalinga with a single face ... 97 

IX— Fig, 2, Do. Do. ... 97 

X — Fig, 1, Linga with brahma sutras ... 98 

X — Fig. 2, Mukhalinga with three faces ... 98 

X — Fig, 3, Dhara-linga, Tiruvorriyur ... 98 

XI — Mukhalinga, Joti (Cuddappah District) ... 98 

XII — Bhadra-Pitha, Vajra-Padma, Srikara- 

Pltha, Pitha-Padma ... ... 101 

XIII — Lingodbhavamiirti, Kailasanathasvamin 

temple, Conjeevaram ... ... 109 

XIV — Fig, 1, Do. Dasavatara Cave, 

Ellora, ... 110 

XIV— Fig. 2, Do. Ambar-Magalam. 110 

XV — Fig. 1, Kevala-Ohandrasekharamurti, 

Tiruppalatturai (A.S.M,)... 121 
XV — Fig. 2, Uma-sahita-Gbandrasekhara- 

miirti, Agaram Settur ... 121 

XVI — Kevala-Chandrasekharamiirti, Onakkiar, 122 
XVII — Oma-Sabita- Chandrasekharamurti, 

Tiruvorriyur (A.S,M.) ... 122 

XVIII— Fig. 1, Do. Madeour. ... 123 

XVIII — Fig, 2, Alingana-Chandrasekharamurti, 
Mayuranathasvamin temple, 

Mayavaram (A.S.M.) ... 123 



xvni 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PLATE TO FACE PAGE 

XIX — Pig. 1, Alingana-Ohandrasekharamurtii, 

Pat^Isvaram, (A.S.M.) ... 124 

XIX— Kg. 2, Do. MarudantanallurCA.S.M.). 124 

XIX— Fig. 3. Do. K5vilur (A.S.M.) 124 

XX— Do. Angur (A.S.M.)... 124 

XXI — Fig. 1, Uma-sahita-Sukhasanamiirti, 

Madeour ... 133 

XXI— Fig. 2, Do. Agaram-Setfciir ... 133 

XXII — Fig. 1, Somaskandamurti, Madeour ... 134 
XXII— Fig. 2, Do. NeUore (Mr. M.K. 

Eangasami Ayyangar) ... 134 

XXIII — Uma-mahesvaramiirti, Bagali (A.S.M.)... 135 

XXIV— Do. Aihole (A.S.Bo.) ... 135 

XXV— Do. Trivandram (T.S.A). 136 

XXVI— Fig. 1, Do. Haveri (A.S.Bo.) ... 137 

XXVI— Fig. 2, Do. Ajmera Do. ... 137 

XXVII— Do. BUora ... 139 

XXVIII— Do. EUora ... 140 

XXIX— Do. EUora ... 141 

XXX — Gajasura-sarhharamurti, Amritapura 

(A.S.My.) ... 162 

XXXI— Do. Valuviir (A.S.M). ... 154 

XXXII— Fig. 1, Do. Darasuram (A.S.M). 155 

XXXII— Fig. 2, Do. Tiruohchengattan- 

gudi. ... 155 

XXXIII — Gajasara-sarhharamiirfci, Hoysalesvara 

temple, Halebidu ... 156 

XXXIV — Kalarimurti, Dasavatara Cave, EUora ... 161 

Eailasa Cave, EUora... 162 

Pattisvaram (A.S.M.) 162 

Tiruohohengattangudi. 163 
(Mr. R. F. Stoney's 

CoUeotion) ... 163 
XXXVII — Tripurantakamurt/i, Dasavatara Gave, 

BUora ... 170 

xiz 



XXXV— Fig. 1, 


Do. 


XXXV— Fig. 2, 


Do. 


XXXVI-Fig. 1, 


Do. 


XXXVI— Fig. 2, 


Do. 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHT. 



PLATE TO FACE PASB 

XXXVIII — Tripurantakamurfci, Kailasa temple, EUora 171 
XXXIX — Do. Kailasanathasvamin 

temple, Conieevaram. 
XL— Do. Madura 

XLI — Bhairava, Pattlsvaram (A.S.M.) 
XLII — Fig. 1, Bhairava, Indian Museum, 

Calcutta (A.S. Bo.). 
XLII— Fig. 2, Do. Madras Museum 
XLII— Fig. 3, Do. Eoy. As. Soc. Museum, 

Bombay 

XLIII — Atiriktanga-Bhairava, Kamesvara Cave, 

Ellora 
XLIV— Fig. 1, Virabhadramiarti, Madras 

Museum. 
XLIV — Fig. 2, Virabhadramurti, Tenkasi 
XLV — Fig. 1, Daksha-Prajapati and his wife, 

Angur (A.S.M.) 
XLV — Fig. 2, Andhakasuravadhamurti, Dasa- 

vatara Cave, Ellora 
XLVI — Andhakasuravadhamiirti, Elephanta 
XLVII— Do. Kailasa, Ellora 

XLVIII — Fig. 1, Aghoramiirti, Pattisvaram 

(A.S.MO 
XLVIII— Fig. 2, Aghoramiirti, Tirukkalukkun- 
ram. 
XLIX — Fig. 1, Chandesanugrahamurti, Gan- 
gaikondasolapuram, (A.S.M.) 
XLIX — Fig. 2, Chandesanugrahamurti, Kaila- 
sanathasvamin temple, Con- 
ieevaram 
L — Fig. 1, Charidesanugrahamiirti, Madura. 
L — Fig. 2, OhaQdeaanugrabamiirti, Suohlo- 

dram ... 911 



171 
171 
178 

179 
179 

179 

182 

187 
187 

188 

188 
192 
193 

200 

200 

203 



208 
211 



LIST 01 ILLUSTRATIONS. 



KiATB 



TO PACK PAGE 



LI — Fig. 1, Vishovanugrahamurti, Conjee 

varam . . 

LI— Kg. 2, Do. Madura .. 

LII — Kg. 1, Kiratamurti, Tiruchohengattan 

gudi .. 
LII — Fig. 2, Pasupatastra-danamurti, Sri 

sailam (A.S.M.) .. 
LIII — Bavartanugrahamurlii, Dasavatara Cave 

Ellora 

LIV — Do. Dhumar Lena Cave 

Ellora 
LV— Do. Belur 

LVI — Nataraja, Madras Museum 

LVII — Do. Kottappadi 

LVIII— Fig. 1, Do. Eamesvaram (A.S.M.) 
LVIII— Fig. 2, Do. (Ivory) Trivandram 

(T.S.A.) 
LIX— Do. PafcMsvaram (A.S.M-).. 

LX— Do. Tenkasi 

LXI — NriUamdrti, Tiruohohengattangudi 
LXII — Katisatna dance, Ellora 
LXIII — Lalita dance, Do. 
LXIV — Fig. 1, Lalafca-tilaka dance, Tiruohchen 

gattangudi.. 

LXIV — Fig. 2, Do. Conjeevaram 

LXV— Fig. 1, Do. Tenkasi 

LXV — Fig. 2, Do. Taramangalam 

(A.S.M.) 
LXVI — Fig. 1, Ohatura-danoe, Badami 
LXVI— Fig. 2,: Do. Tiruvarangujam 

(A.S.M.) .. 

LXVII— Do. Nallur (A.S.M. 

LXVIII — Tala8kmipfa6t|iiia danoa, Conjeevaram .. 

LXIX — Do. Ofaangannor.. 



210 
210 

216 

216 

218 

219 
219 
252 
252 
252 

252 
253 
255 
257 
259 
2C2 

264 
264 
265 

265 
267 

267 
267 
268 
268 



XXI 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 



PLATE 

LXX- 
LXXI- 

LXXII- 
LXXII- 
LXXIII- 
LXXIV- 
LXXIV- 
LXXV- 



TO FAOB PAGE 



-Nrittamurti, Conjeevaram 
-Jnana-Dakshina-murti, Deogarh (A.S. 

Bo.) 



-Fig. 1, 
-Fig. 2, 



-Fig. 1, 
-Fig. 2, 
-Fig. 1, 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Aviir (A.S.M.) 



LXXV— Fig. 2, 

LXXVI- 

LXXVII- 

LXXVIII- 

LXXIX- 

LXXX- 

LXXXI- 

LXXXII- 

LXXXIII- 

LXXXIV- 

LXXXV- 

LXXXV- 

LXXXVI— Fig. 1 



Tiruvorriyiir... 
Suchfndram ... 
Eaveripakkam. 
Tiruvengavasal 
(A.S.M.) ... 
Do. Mr. Kay's Collection. 
Yoga-Dakshinamiarti, Tiruvorriyiir ... 
Do. Conjeevaram 
Do. Conjeevaram 
Dakshinamurti, Nanjangddu (A.S.My). 
Yinadhara-DakshiQamiirti, Madras 
Museum 
Do. Vadarangam (A.S.M.)... 
Kankalamurti, Darasuram (A.S.M.) ... 
Do. Tenkasi (A.S.M.) ... 

•Kankalamiiriji, Suohindram 
■Fig. 1, Do. Kumbhakoriam ... 
■Fig. 2, Do. Tiruchchengafcfcan- 
• gudi 

Bhikshatanamiirti, Conjee- 
varam 
Tiruohchengattangudi 
Kumbhakonam 
Tiruvenkadu (A.S.M.) 
Valuvur (A.S.M.) ... 
Pandananalliar (A.S. 

M.) 
ii, Elephanta 
Triohinopoly 
Ellora 



LXXXVI— Fig. 


2, 


Do. 


LXXXVII— Fig. 


1, 


Do. 


LXXXVII— Fig. 


2, 


Do. 


jXXXVIII— 




Do, 


LXXXIX— 




Do, 


XC— Gan 


igac 


Ibarami 


XOI— 




Do. 


XCII— Fig, 


. 1. 


Do. 



269 

278 
281 
281 
281 
282 
282 

283 
283 
285 
287 
288 
288 

291 
291 
308 
308 
308 
308 

308 

309 

309 
309 
309 
309 

309 
317 
318 
319 



XKU 



LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONB. 

FLATS 10 FAOE PAGE 

XCII — Kg. 2, Gangadharamurti, Vaittisvaran- 

koyil (A.S.M.) ... 319 

XOIII— Do. Taramangalam (A.S.M.) 320 

XOIV — Arddhanarisvaramurti, Badami ... 327 

XGV— Kg. 1, Do. Kumbhakoriam ... 328 

XCV— Fig. 2, Do. Mahabalipuram ... 328 

XCVI— Pig. 1, Do. Madras Museum... 330 

XOVI— Fig. 2, Do. Tiruehohengattan- 

gudi ... 330 

XCVI— Fig. 3, Do. ... ... 330 

XCVII— Do. Oonieevaram ... 330 

XCVIII— Do. Madura ... 331 

XOIX — Haryarddhamiirti, Badami ... 334 

0— Do. Poona (A.S.Bo.) ... 336 

01 — Kalyariasundaramurti, Tiruvorriyur ... 344 

Oil — Do. Eatanpiir (Bilaspur 

Dfc.) (A.S.Bo.)... 345 

OIII— Do. Elephanta (A. S. Bo.) 346 

OIV— Do. Eilora ... 347 

OV— Do. Ellora ... 347 

OVI— Do. Madura ... 351 

OVII— Do. Madura ... 351 

OVIII — Vrishavahanamuriii, • Vedarariyam 

(A.S.M.) ... 354 

CIX— Do. (From the Visvakama)... 355 

CX — Do. Taramangalam (A.S.M.)... 355 

CXI — Vrishavahanamiirti, Mahabalipuram ... 355 

CXII— Fig. 1. Do. Halebidu ... 355 

OXII— Fig. 2, Do. Madura ... 355 

CXIII — Fig. 1, Sadaaivamiirlii, Mr. Beardsell'a 

Collection ... 372 

CXIII— Fig. 2, Do. Mr. K. Kay's 

Collection ... 372 

CXIV— Fig. 1, Mahesamiirti, Gokak Falls 

(A. S. Bo.) ... 382 



XXlll 



(A.S.M.) ... 409 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

PLATE TO FAOB PAQB 

CXIV — Fig. 2, Mahasadalivamurfci, Vaittis- 

varankoyil (A. S. M.) ... 382 

OXV — Sadasivamurti, Elephanta (from Visva- 

karma) ... 372 

CXVI — Mahesamurti, Kavaripakkam ... 380 

CXVII— Do. Elephanta ... 382 

CXVIII— Do. Chitorgarh ... 385 

CXIX — Fig. 1, Ekapadamiirti, Jambukesvaram 

(A.S.M.) ... 410 

OXIX — Fig. 2, Siva as a sow suckling its 

young ones. ... 410 

OXX— Fig. 1, Parvati doingi 

penance L, . . , , 

_.^_ _,. „„. ., IPatfclsvaram 

OXX — Fig. 2, Parvati r ,;;.,, v 

embracing 

Siva. 
OXXI— Fig. 1, Skanda or Velayudha Subrah- 
manya, Mr. M. K. Narayana- 
sami Ayyar's Collection ... 444 
OXXI— Fig. 2, Kumara. Tiruppalatturai (A.S.M.) 444 
CXXII — Subrahmariya with his consorts" Deva- 

sena and Valli, Kumbhakonam. 444 
OXXIII— Do. Tiruvorriyur ... 445 

CXXIV— Do. Ellora ... 445 

CXXV— Do. with his consorts Davasena 

and Valli, Kumbakoriam ... 446 

CXXVI— Fig.l, Do. TrivandramCT.S.A.) 447 

CXXVI— Fig. 2, Sikhivahana, Kumbhako9am. 447 

CXXVI— Fig. 3, Senapati, Madras Museum ... 447 

CXXVII— Shanmukha, Pattisvaram (A.S.M.) ... 447 

CXXVIII— Do. Nalliir (A.S.M.) ... 448 

CXXVIIIa — Tarakari-Subrahmanya, Aihole ... 448 

CXXIX — Devasena-Kalyal^asundaramiirti, 

Tirupparankunram ... 448 

xxiv 



LIST OE ILLUSTEATIONS. 

PIiATB TO PACE PAGE 

CXXX — Dvarapalaka of the Subrahmariya 

shrine, Tanjora (A.S.M.) ... 450 

CXXXI— Adhikara-Nandin, Valuvur (A.S.M.) ... 460 
CXXXII — Nandi, Panohanadikulam (Tanjore Dfc.) 

(A.S.M.) ' ... 460 

OXXXIII— Fig. 1, Chandesvara, Tirruvorriyur ... 468 
CXXXIII— Kg. 2, Do. Marudantanaimr 

(A.S.M.) ... 468 

CXXXIV — Kagriappa Nayanar, Madras Museum. 480 
CXXXV — Siruttorida Nayanar and others, Tiru- 

ohchengattangudi (A.S.M.) ... 475 

CXXXVI— Alvars, Tadikkombu (A.S.M.) ... 480 

CXXXVII — Fig. 1, Tirujnanasambandha, Padma- 

nabhapuram ... 480 

CXXXVII— Fig. 2, Mapikkavaehakar | Tiruehchen- 

CXXXVII— Fig.3, Apparsvamigal ) godu (A.S.M.) 480 
CXXXVII— Fig. 4, Sundaramurti, Padmanabha- 

puram . . . 480 

CXXXVIII— Manikkavaohakar (.Visvakarma) ... 480 

CXXXIX— Fig. 1, Sasta, Sastankottai ... 490 

CXXXIX— Fig- 2, Do. Tirupparaiyaru ... 490 

CXL — Fig. 1, Gajariidha Sasta, Valuvur 

(A.S.M.) " ... 491 

CXL— Fig. 2. Sasta, Tiruppalatturai (A.S.M.). 491 

CXLI— Fig. 1, Kshetrapala, Ajmere (A.S.Bo.)... 498 

CXLI— Fig. 2, Do. Halebidu ... 498 

CXLII — Brahma, Madras Museum ... 504 

OXLIII— Fig. 1, Brahma, Tiruvorriyur ... 505 

CXLIII— Fig. 2, Do. Madras Museum ... 505 

... 506 

... 508 

... 508 

... 509 

... 509 

XXV 

IV 



OXLIV— Do, 


Aihola (A.S.Bo.) 


OXLV— Do. 


Sopara (A.S.Bo.) 


CXLVI— Do. 


Aihole (A.S.Bo.) 


CXLVII— Fig. 1, Do. 


Kumbhakonam 


OXLVII— Fig. 2, Do. 


Halebidu 



HINDU ICONOGBAPHY, 



PLATE 



TO FACE PAGE 



CXLVIII- 
CXLIX- 

CL- 

CLI- 

CLI- 

CLII- 

CLIII- 

CLIII- 

CLIV- 

CLIV- 

CLV- 

CLV- 

CLVI- 

CLVII- 

CLVII- 

CLVIII- 

CLVIII- 
OLIX- 



-Brahma, Karachi Museum (A.S.Bo.^ 

Do. Tiruvadi (A.S.M.) 
-Indra, Chidambaram (A.S.M.) 
-Fig. 1, Indra, Do. 

-Pig. 2, Do. Do. 

-Agni, Kandiyiir (Travancore) 

-^'S-l'^^"'^} Chidambaram (A.S.M, 



Fig. 2, Agni 

Kg. 1, Kubera, Dohad (A.S.Bo.) 

Fig. 2, Nirruti, Ahobilam (A.S.M.) 

Fig. 1, Gangs | j^^ (A.S.Bo.) 

Fig. 2, Yamuna) 

Gate of a temple, Kharod, Bilaspiir 

District (A.S.Bo.) 
■Fig. 1, Naga and Nagini, Halebidu ... 
•Fig. 2, Nagini, Madras Museum 
■Fig. 1, Dvarapalaka of the temple of 

Siva, Kaveripakkam 
■Fig. 2,Ap8aras, Srinivasanallur 
■Figure of Nataraja showing the 

relative positions of the limba ... 



509 
509 
520 
520 
520 
524 

) 524 



528 
628 

531 



531 
557 
557 

561 
561 

573 



XXVI 



LIST OF IMPORTANT WORKS CONSULTED 
OTHER THAN THOSE MENTIONED 
IN THE FIRST VOLUME. 



Atiharvasirasopanishad. 

Bharafca-natya-sastira. 

Brahma-mimamsa-lastra. 

Dakahitiainurtyapanishad . 

Dbarmasutras of Apastamba with HaradaUa'a 

commentary. 
Halasya-mabatmya. 
Harivamsa. 
Jlriioddhara-dasakam. 
Eoyil-puraiiam (Tamil). 
Kurma-purana. 
Euvalayanaada. 
Mallari-mahatmya. 
Malati-madhava. 
Manu-dharma-sastra. 
Mayamata. 
Nafcyaveda-vivriti. 
Poriyapurariam (Tamil). 
Prabodhacbandroday am . 
Prastbanabbeda. 
Pratyabbijnasiitras. 
Sankara-vijaya (Anantanandagin's). 
Sarabbopanisbad. 
Sarvadarsana-sangraba. 
Satarudriya. 

Sivajnanasiddhiyar (Tamil). 
Siva-linga- prafcisbtha- vidbi. 
Siva-tatva-ratnakara. 
Sata-sambita. 
Tiruvarulpayan (Tamil). 
Tiruvacbakam (Tamil), 
Yalodharakavyam . 

xxvii 



Page 


Line 


5 


5 


9 


8 


9 


12 


17 


12 


19 


6 


32 


4 


35 


15 


41 


24 


42 


22 


43 


14 


44 


26 


44 


27 


48 


12 


48 


13 


48 


16 


50 


14 


53 


12 


58 


25 


62 


11 


65 


1&2 


65 


2 


81 


11 


81 


15 


81 


25 


82 


25 



86 21 



EEBATA. 

For 

was 

Srikantha-Siva- ... 
oharya 

gamatvafc 

Pati 

Atharva 

was 

though unaaces-... 
sary to be de- 
tailed here 

to have attempted... 

Gariga 

an 

Mahandeva 

lasna 

the stomach of Siva 

the bhroat of Siva... 
II • • • 

Thou King 

the vaidika 

Mdrkandeya 

Sankara is 

which are believed. . . 
by Mr. Banerji 

might 

Yamaddva 



Vdmadevasiva- 

oharya. 
yindhyaparvata 



Bead 

were 
Srikantha-Siva- 

oharya 
gamatvat 
Pati 
Atharva. 
were 

though it is un- 
necessary to de- 
tail them here 
to attempt 
Ganga 
a 

Mahadeva 
Isana 

Siva's stomach 
Siva's throat 

II 

Thou, King 
the Vaidika 
Markatideya. 
Sankara who i6 
which Mr. Banerji 

believes 
may 
Nigamajnanadeva 



VamadSvasiva- 
oharya. 
Vindbyaparvata. 



xsix 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 



Page Line 

86 20 

105 19 

110 20 



111 1 

113 8 

119 16 

121 18 

125 19 

131 4 

137 11 

140 20 

145 2 

148 5 

148 20 

150 5 

152 17 

157 12 

161 20 

163 6 

164 12 

165 9 

165 10 

166 16 
168 10 



For 

Sfchavara lingas . 
fiowhieh 
are sculptured 
againsli 

Eig 2, PI. XIV . 
and and tibe skull. 
makara-kundala . 
The firsk comes ., 

carry on 

a utpala flower 

with creeper orna-. 

ment 
catching hold of .. 
or a pacific, 
of Siva 
and in the com-.. 

pany 
said to have told .. 

piece of sculpture,.. 

says, to Tirukka-.. 

davur 
see later on, the .. 
with hands 
they desired and .. 

with a half of 
stronger than all.. 

other 
who destroyd 
upon Apasmara-.. 

purusha 



Bead 

Sthavara lingas 

to which. 

are not sculptured 

in accordance 

with 
Eig 1, PI. XIV. 
and the skull 
makara-kundala, 
The first, fig. 1, PI. 

XV 
carry an 
an utpala flower 
with a creeper 

ornament, 
catching hold 
or as a pacific, 
of Kama by Siva, 
and being in the 

company 
said to have men- 
tioned 
piece of sculpture, 

PI. XXX, 
says, Tirukkadaviir 

see later on that the 
with his hands 
they desired and 

that 
with one half of 
stronger than all 

the other 
who destroyed 
upon the Apas- 

marapurusha 







ERRATA. 




Pag9 


Line 


For 


Bead 


168 


16 


.. Apasmdra 


Apasmara 


168 


20 


.. should be held so... 


should be held 






as bhe 


that 


168 


26 


.. Apasmarapurusha . 


Apasmarapiirusha 


170 


3 


.. and padmapasa ... 


the padma-pasa 


171 


24 


... belongs to the... 


belongs to modern 






modern times. 


times. 


172 


14 


.. skin of Narasimha, 


skin of Narasimha 


173 


5 &6 


... as carrying with... 


as carrying Nara- 






two of his legs 


simha with two 






Narasimha 


of his legs. 


174 


11 


... and a face of the... 


and the face of a 






lion 


lion 


175 


5 


... and wearing an ... 


and wearing a 


176 


5 


... learnt at the 


learnt by the 


176 


8 


... Sritatvanidhi 


Sritatvanidhi. 


176 


16 


... in the garments .., 


in garments 


177 


26 


. . . as that of its master. 


as its master 


178 


1 


... so far for the 


so much for the 


179 


17 


... should have an 


should have 


184 


26 


... of demons which ... 


of demons who 


185 


18 


... made to the 


made for the 


187 


3 


... as bis underwear ... 


as underwear. 


189 


1 


... by devas 


by the devas. 


189 


4 


... to Vishnu about... 


about their lot to 






their lot 


Vishnu 


189 


6 


. . . extorted Vishnu's . . . 


evoked Vishnu's 


191 


4 


... and the feet of Siva. 


and his feet 


192 


7 


... in his ears white, ... 


in his ears white 


201 


15 


... stay away in their... 
midst 


stay in their midst 


201 


17 


... stopped away at ... 


stopped at 


201 


20 


... Lalitopakhyana ... 


Lalitopakhyana. 


205 


3 


... a Anugrahamurti... 


an Anugrahamurti. 


206 


16 


... was offering 


. was offering to 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 



ee Line 



Foi 



Bead 



211 


16 


the other two ones . . 


,. the other two 


214 


11 


a utpala flower 


.. an utpala flower 


217 


6 


. Kubera was 


. Kubera, was 


218 


15 


return to Lanka .. 


. to return to Lanka. 


218 


15 insert 


" at the time" after " 


he cried " 


220 


7 


. praising him. 


. praising Mahadeva. 


225 


9 


. and stand 


. and these stand 


226 


10 


. with 


. holding 


227 


1 


. a tortoise shell 


. tortoise shell. 


229 


12 


Apasmarapurusha . . 


. the Apasmarapuru- 
sha 


231 


3 


Siva 


. Siva 


231 


8 


11 •• 


II 


231 


9 


turmed 


. turned 


231 


13 


and if 


. and, if 


235 


27(f.n.)... 


wears 


. wears. 


252 


10 


extorts 


. evokes 


252 


16 


The second photo-.. 


. The original of the 






graph, PI. LVII, 


second photo- 






the original of 


graph, PI. LVII. 






which was 


which was 


252 


17 


in earth 


. in the earth 


252 


18 


and is 


. is 


256 


22 


to carry 


. should carry 


257 


13 


but rest 


. but should rest 


258 


6 


dance 


. dancing 


260 


11 


is known 


. known 


260 


27 


other 


others 


263 


1 


arms 


hands 


263 


3 


arm 


hand. 


269 


15 omit 


and ' after ' side ' 




269 


18 


on the left 


to the left 


269 


19 


PI. LXIX, 


. PI. LXIX 


269 


26 


Kailasanatha- 


Kailasanatba- 






svmin 


svamin. 









ERE AT A. 




Pago 


Iiine 




For 


Bead 


270 


10 




..is 


are 


273 


13 




.. have 


has 


278 


20 




.. has its 


has as its 


279 


4 




descend 


descends 


284 


7 




.. a utpala 


an utpala 


286 


7 




. . to be 


that it is 


286 


14 




. . arm 


arms 


286 


24 




.. is 


has been 


286 


25 




.. Sankaraoharya ; ... 


Sankaracharya. 


286 


25 




.. on 


On 


287 


22 (t.n.) 


.. with thin coat 


with a thin coat 


289 


2 




... Vina, 


Vina; 


290 


21 




.. are added also 


are also added 


291 


2 




.. on the 


on a 


295 


21 




.. accepted 


and accepted 


297 


14 




.. kurma-purdna 


Kurma-purdna 


299 


24 { 


E.n.) 


.. intimated 


informed of 


300 


5 




.. brahmana 


Brahmana. 


300 


6 




■• 11 • ■ • 


,, 


301 


5 




.. at 


as 


301 


18 




.. brahmapas 


Brahmanas 


305 


27 




.. according 


according to 


307 


8 


omit 


' the ' after ' under ' 




308 


19 




.. have 


has 


315 


7 


omit 


' to ■ after ' Ganga ' 




315 


16 


omit 


■ the ■ before ' Ganga ' 




317 


25 




.. arm 


hand 


318 


3 




.. ti . .. 


It 


318 


4 




It 


II 


320 


11 


omit 


' also ' after ' is " 




322 


2 




.. Thitherto 


Until then 


322 


27 


omit 


' over ' after ' covered ' 




324 


21 


inse 


rt' be' after ' may ' 




324 


21 




.. by 


in 


327 


3 




.. PI. XGIII 


PI. XCIV 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 



Page Line 



For 



Bead 



328 


8 


... quite 


quiet 


334 


23 


insert ' that ' after ' right ' 




335 


18 


... isa 


is a 


337 


6 


omit ' by ' after ' but ' 




338 


5 


insert ' even in rendering help 


' after ' meant ' 


338 


5 


... by others 


by any other 


338 


6 


omit ' that of ' before ' her ' 




338 


6 


omit ' even in helping others 




338 


7 


... was standing 


stood 


338 


19 


... that of Siva 


bis 


339 


9 


... in 


at 


339 


20 


omit the comma after ' gods.' 




340 


19 


... to age 


of age 


341 


6 


... for 


to 


341 


20 


omit ' that." after ' and ' 




341 


27 


... with 


in 


342 


22 


insert ' the ' after ' of ' 




345 


25 


omit ' in.' after 'busy ' 




347 


18 


omit ' got ' after ' not ' 




347 


27 


... to obtain the hand... 


to become Siva's 






of Siva 


spouse 


348 


19 


insert ' she ' after ' reluctance ' 




348 


21 


... held 


holds it 


349 


21 


omit ' even ' before ' during ' 




349 


21 


... two!! 


two !!. 


350 


1 


... by 


of 


350 


2 


... but 


and had 


350 


14 


... outstretched 


fingers outstret 






fingers 


ched. 


353 


27 


... carrying 


should carry 


353 


27 


... a.utpala 


an utpala. 


354 


2 


done 


sculptured 


355 


25 


insert ' it ' after ' find ' 




356 


7 


insert ' hand ' after ' right ' 




356 


20 


... considered 


regarded as 



xxxiv 







EEEATA. 




Page 


Line 


Pot 


Bead 


357 


9 


. sight 


gaze 


357 


11 


. going 


about 


358 


6 


. to be 


to have been 


362 


14 


. destruction, 


destruction 






(samhara) 


(samhara), 


365 


10 


. otherwise Isvara ... 


otherwise called 
isvara 


365 


15 


. lengh 


length 


366 


22 


. beautiful 


beautiful. 


367 


2 


.. and is with a... 


and a smiling 






smiling countenance 


countenance 


367 


4 


., have 


has 


371 


23 


. ordinary mortals ... 


ordinary mortals, 


372 


2 


.. heads be adorned... 


heads should be 
adorned 


372 


17 


.. PI. CXII 


Pi. CXIII 


373 


20 


.. and since 


and, since 


376 


8 


.. authority 


authority. 


377 


14 


. khatvdhga 


khatvdnga, 


391 


21 


.. an 


a 


400 


12 


.. S. India, 


S. India 


400 


15 


.. whose photo- ... 


and a photograph 






graph 


of it 


404 


20 


.. Isvara 


Isvara 


417 


25 


.. an 


a 


419 


26 


.. was 


were 


420 


1 


.. it 


them 


420 


14 


.. Agni Eudra 


Agni, Eudra 


429 


15 


. the yajnopavlta ... 


a yajndpavita 


433 


9 


. with rubies. 


with rubies ; 


438 


5 


. Tarakari, 


Tarakari 


456 


18 


.. as also 


and also 


458 


5&6 . 


. They informed... 


They informed the 






this sad news to the 


father of the boy 






father of the boy. 


of this sad news. 



XXXV 



HINDU IGONOGEAPHY. 



Page Line 



For 



Bead 



463 


2 




attained to 


attained 


508 


6 




an 


a 


509 


6 




a 


an 


509 


15 




ana kshamdla 


an akshamala 


516 


23 




and that 


and it is also 
stated that 


518 


2 




of 


in 


521 


4 




an 


a 


521 


4 




adorns 


adorn 


529 


14 




at the present 


at the present time 


529 


21 




an 


a 


542 


26 




had become 


became 


543 


20 




in 


at 


549 


13&14 ... 


Besides, the pre-... 


Besides, since the 








sent compilation 


present compila- 








being a close 


tion closely 








following of 


follows 


551 


24 


Omit 


■ they requested ' after 


whom ' 


551 


27 


... 


being disposed 


having been dis- 
posed 


552 


1 


Omit 


' then ' after ' they ' 




554 


10 




man 


men 


554 


14&15 ... 


Svayambhuva- 


Svayambhuvaman- 








mauvantara 


vantara. 


556 


12 




hands 


palms 


561 


16 




pointed 


pointed out 


561 


16 




being 


was 


562 


4 




are 


is 


562 


15 




are 


is 


568 


2 




are 


is 


569 


3 




and is 


and it ia 


569 


4 




to be given 


to give it 



INTEODUCTION. 



/^NE of the oldest as also the most widely spread 
cult in India is that of 6iva. It consisted 
once of several sects, of which only a few have 
survived to the present day. Some of them had 
the sanction of the Vedas while others were classed 
as outside the Vedas or as opposed to them ; again, 
some of them had milder forms of worship, while 
others practised horrible and shocking rites. The 
ideas about life, action and liberation differed from 
sect to sect. It will not be without interest to 
examine in some detail the history, the main 
tenets and the ceremonies of a few of the leading 
sects of Siva in the following paragraphs. 

First, as regards the origin of the sects classed 
as outside the pale of the Vedas, the following 
account taken from the VardJia-purdna will be of 
interest. In the forest of Dandaka, situated in the 
middle of Bh^ratavarsha, the rishi Gautama had 
his dhrama (hermitage), round which, he had 



HINDU IGONOGBAPHY. 

abundant food-giving plants and trees. There once 
raged a twelve years' famine during which a 
number of risliis from various other ahramas flocked 
to that of Gautama for food and shelter, and were 
received with all kindness and treated with great 
hospitality by Gautama. After the famine abated 
and the country became again fertile, the rishis 
desired to start out on a pilgrimage to the 
several famous tirtlias ; one of the risTiis named 
Maricha, thinking that they should not leave the 
asrama without informing Gautama, but fearing 
at the same time that he might, in his extreme 
kindness and hospitality, refuse permission for the 
pilgrimage, created from maya an enfeebled, old 
cow and let it graze near Gautama's asrama. 
Gautama went near the cow to water it ; as he 
went near the cow, it fell down and died. The 
ungrateful risliis attributed to Gautama, the sin of 
killing a cow and refused to stay any longer in the 
abode of such a sinful one. Gautama, who did 
not know this trick of the rishis, really believed that 
he had committed the sin and asked them how he 
could raise the cow from death. Advising him to 
sprinkle on it water brought from the Ganges, they 
departed on their projected pilgrimage. Gautama 
repaired to the Himalaya and prayed to Siva a 
hundred years and got from his jaiamandala a 



INTEODUCTION. 

small quantity of the water of the Ganga which he 
sprinkled on the dead cow. The water of this 
divine river revived the cow and itself began to 
flow as the river Godavari. Gautama at last 
perceived through his mind's eye that the death of 
the cow and other incidents connected therewith 
were a clear deceit practised on him by the risTiis 
and cursed them to become Vedabahyas or those 
outside the pale of the Vedic religion. On their 
entreaty to abate his anger- against them, he was 
pleased to assure them that though they were 
outside the Vedic cult, they would rise to heaven 
through hhahti or devotional love of God. The 
fallen rishis went to Kailasa and prayed to Siva 
to grant them some kadras which had a few Vedic 
rites at least. Thereupon, the rishis were decreed 
to be born to the Eaudras, the lovers of spirituous 
liquors and flesh, who sprang up from the sweat- 
drops which flowed from Siva while he was in the 
aspect of Bhairava, and to these he gave the 
Pasupata Sdstra. 

From the above account one fact becomes 
clear, namely, that some at least of the followers 
of the Pasupata and other non- Vedic sects were at 
first followers of the Vedic religion and gave it up 
and joined the avaidika cults. That the Pasupata 
and a few other sects are indeed very ancient may 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

be inferred frora ancient authorities. The Atharoa- 
siras Upanishad describes the Pasupata rite thus : 
" This is the Pasupata rite : 'Agni is ashes, Vayu 
is ashes, water is ashes, dry land is ashes, the sky 
is ashes, all this is ashes, the mind, these eyes are 
ashes.' Having taken ashes while pronouncing 
these preceding words, and rubbing himself, let a 
man touch his limbs. This is the Pasupata rite, 
for the removal of the animal bonds." Again the 
Bhita linga and the Gudimallam lihga bear clear 
sculptural evidence of the antiquity of the Saiva 
cults. From the summary of the philosophy of a 
few of the important Saiva sects given below it 
would be clear that they have played a prominent 
part in the Eeligious History of India. 

Let us take first the Agamanta or the Suddha 
Saiva sect. In the Agamanta Saiva 

History of the / 

Agamanta works it is stated that the Saivas 

Saivas. 

flourished in a place called Mantra- 
kali situated on the banks of the Godavari river, 
that there were four matjias, beginning with the 
Amarddaka matjia, surrounding the temple of 
Mantrakalesvara, that when Rajendrachola went 
to the Granges on his victorious march in the north 
he met there these Saivas, whom he, on his way 
back to his capital, induced to come and settle 
down in his kingdom and that from that time 



INTRODUCTION. 

the Saivas immigrated into the Tondaimandala 
and the Cholamandala. Since then an impetus 
was given to the spread of Saivaism and a very 
large number of original works belonging to the 
Agamanta school of Saivaism was written. The 
Amarddaka matjia mentioned above is a famous one 
and had its branches all over India. For instance, 
mention is made of this in the Siddhantasaravali 
and the Eriyakramadyotini, as also in a number 
of inscriptions. 

The members of some of these mathas were 
great authors and exerted considerable influence 
over the sovereigns of vaisious countries. The 
EriyaJcramadyotini of Aghorasivacharya, the Sid- 
dhantasaravali of Trilochanasivacharya, the Jlr- 
noddhara-da§aJcam of Nigamajnanadeva, son of 
Vamadevasivacharya and many another work will 
bear testimony to the above statement regarding 
the literary activity of the SaivaBrahmana settlers 
in the Dravida country. The first of these lived 
in the Saka year 1080, the second lived sometime 
later, for he quotes the former, and the third in the 
beginning of the fourteenth century A.D. The great 
Eajaraja, the builder of the Brihadisvara temple at 
Tanjore, is stated to have appointed a Sarvasiva 
Pandita-Sivacharya as the priest of that temple 
and to have ordered that thenceforth the sishyas 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

and their sishijas alone, belonging to the Aryadesa, 
the Madhyadesa and the Gaudadesa, shall be 
eligible for the office of chief priest. ^i' Again, some 
of these Saivacharyas became rajagurus or the 
preceptors of kings, and appear to have wielded 
such great influence and power that they have 
sometimes set aside even the royal commandments 
and acted on their own authority. For example, 
Kulottuhgacholadeva III appointed two Saivachar- 
yas for the service of the temple at Tirukkadavur, 
but Svamidevar, the king's gum, cancelled the 
order and appointed two others, in recognition 
of their hereditary rights. (2) AH the Agamas declare 
that the Saivagamas flourished to the south of the 
Vijidhya ranges, which is corroborated by the state- 
ment made by Aghorasivacharya ; and it therefore 
appears quite certain that Hajendracholadeva im- 
planted in the south a large colony of Saiva Brah- 
manas of Middle India. 

These Saivas should be carefully distinguished 
from the Vedanta Saivas, who base their philo- 
sophy on the Vedas and the Upanishads. These 
two schools are diametrically opposed to each other 

(1) S.I.I. , Vol. II, Part II, p. 153. 

(2) No. 40 of 1906 of the Madras Epigraphist's collection. 
For an account of the origin and development of the Saiva 
mathas, see Eriydkramadybtini, Siddhantasdrdvali and other 
works. 



INTEODUCTION. 

on many points. From the statement, Yasya- 
nihasitani-vedah, of the Advaitins the followers of 
the Agamanta considered Vedas as inferior to the 
Agamas ; for they assert that the former came out 
of Siva as unconsciously as His breath, whereas 
the twenty-eight Agamas were personally and 
consciously dictated by Siva. Besides, the Aga- 
mantins consider the Advaitins and the Mimam- 
sakas as pasus or unevolved souls and to be there- 
fore unfit for receiving 8aiva dlkshas or initia- 
tions. The Agamantins are in their turn reviled 
by the Vaidikas as being heterodox ; Kumarila- 
bhatta classes them among atheists and we read 
Amarasimha accordingly classing Devalas who are 
generally the Pasupatas, the Pancharatras and other 
Tantrikas that are addicted to image worship, 
among Sudras.'^' At any rate, these Saivas did 
not evidently hold a high place in the system of 
castes ; the Suta-samhita also states that very 
low classes of Brahmanas alone underwent the 
dlJcsha or initiatory ceremony in the Pasupata, the 
Pancharatra and other tantras. It is therefore 
clear that inferior Brahmanas embraced some of 
the non-Aryan cults and became Pasupatas and 
Pancharatras. At a later stage of their history, 

(1) Amarakosa, Ka^da II, Sudravarga. 
7 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

they probably adopted a few of the hdmas and the 
viantras appropriate to them from the Grihya- 
sutras and created for themselves some others in 
imitation of the mantras of the Veda. This ex- 
plains the eagerness with which these anarya- 
sampradayas were somehow classed in the arya- 
sampradayas. But, their system of dlksha, Anku- 
rarpana with which the ceremonies are begun, the 
philosophy of Shadadhvas <i) and many others are 
not found in the Vaidik religions and therefore 
mark off Agamanta as being different in essentials 
from the Vaidik religion. The Agamanta has 
freely borrowed the philosophy of the Sahkhya and 
the Yoga schools. Unlike the Vedantins the 
Agamantins do not shut out women, Sudras, 
and the Pratilomas from participating in religious 
rites and ceremonies. They freely allow women 
to meditate upon the panclialiskara-mantra, and 
grant dlksha to Sudras, who might, in their turn, 
give dikslidi to others among them. " If the Sudra 
is a naishthU:a (one who passes into sannyasa 
without undergoing the intermediate stage of 
grihastlia) he is entitled to consecrate the svartlia- 
chala-lingas, offer dllislia uo Sudras, might recite 

(l) For an explanation of this and of a sumnaary of the 
Saiva philoaophy see the beginning of the Chapter on Misoel- 
laneoua Aspects of Siva (Xth). 



INTRODUCTION. 

with proper svaras all mantras, and study Siva- 
jnana. If he is a grihastha, he is privileged to 
utter the nityeshti mantras, and that too without 
proper intonation or ?ia^a." Though the Avaidika 
Saivaism was essentially different in tenets at 
the beginning, attempts have been made at later 
times to identify Avaidikas with the Vaidikas. 
Srikantha-Sivacharya who wrote a Bhashya 
on the Brahma-sutras in accordance with the 
Agamanta Saiva teachings exclaims, na vayam 
veda-sivagamayorbJiedam pa§yam,ah vedasyapi siva- 
gamatvat, (we do not perceive any difference 
between the Vedas and the Sivagamas, Vedas are 
also as authoritative as the Sivagamas) ; and at a 
later stage, that is, about the time of Appayya- 
dikshita (16th century A. D.), the Vedantins began 
to study the Agamanta philosophy and adopted 
several of their customs ; at this day several of the 
anthropomorphic aspects of Siva, which might, 
with propriety, be called peculiarly Agamantic, are 
worshipped by the Vedic Saivas, and they also get 
themselves initiated into the meditation on the 
PanchaJcshara mantra. But they do not receive 
Tantric diksJia, nor do they interdine with those 
Tantric Brahmanas who are at present only priests 
in Siva temples ; the latter are always con- 
sidered as low in the scale of Brahmanas. The 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

multiplication of images, both Saiva and Vaishnava, 
is due to the Tantrikas who have devoted a great 
deal of attention to the description of images 
in their Tantras. The Vaidikas do not appear 
to have possessed so large a number of images 
for worship at the earlier stages at any rate. 

The one great peculiarity of all the avaidik 
Saivas is their dihsha. In per- 

Saiva dlkslias. 

forming this ceremony they need 
different shaped kundas or receptacles for fire and 
mandalas or drawings, all of which are described 
in their works in great detail. They also invoke 
Siva in humblias or vessels (filled with water), and 
perform different kinds of honias or fire offerings. 
It is their faith that he who has not received the 
Saiva dikshd does not attain mohslia or liberation. 
They believe that Siva personally presents Himself 
before the disciple in the form of an aeharyd for 
granting him Siva-dlkshd. This dlkshd ceremony 
varies with the recipient. He who has renounced 
family life and is expectant of gaining moksha by 
constantly adoring his guru is the fittest person 
for dlkslid. For attaining this state of mind he 
requires the divine grace of ^akti. The bestowal 
of this grace by Bakti on the aspirant for dlkslid is 
technically known as Sakti-pdtam. The grace 
of Baku is of four kinds, instantaneous, rapid, 

10 



INTEODUOTION. 

slow and very slow, and the dlkshas to be 
given differ with the modes, noted above, in 
which the grace of ^akti is received. To him 
who gets this grace very slowly, that kind of 
dlksha called the samayadiksha 

Samaya diksba. 

should be given. In this, the guru 
should invoke through mantras Siva in his own 
person and perform several ceremonies ; the sishya, 
with flowers in hand kept in the anjali pose, is 
taken out, blind-folded, so that he might not 
see sinners, round the mandapa wherein is set 
up the humhha or vessel in which is invoked 
Siva, and after a certain number of rounds are 
gone through, his eyes are opened to light upon 
the humhha, which he is asked to worship with 
the flowers in his hands. Before he begins the 
worship, the guru, considering his own right hand 
as fejorupa or the embodiment of enlightenment, 
and also as the hand of Siva himself, and uttering 
the mida-mantra, should place it on the head of his 
Hshya. By this act of placing the hand which is 
the embodiment of enlightenment, first on the head, 
then over the whole body of the disciple the pa§as, 
bonds, the darkness of ignorance which enveloped 
him, are dispelled. After this ceremony the guru 
directs the sishya to throw the flowers which he 
holds in his hands on the Tcumhha. The disciple 

11 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

shall receive his dlkshd-nama or the name bestowed 
on him on his initiation, according as the flowers 
fall on the top or on any one of the four cardinal 
directions round the Jcumbha, which correspond to 
the position of the Isana, Tatpurusha, etc., aspects 
of Siva ; the suffix, Siva or Deva, is to be added to 
the names according as the disciple is a Brahmana 
or a Kshatriya, and gana if he is a Vaisya or a 
Sudra. Thus, if the flowers fall on the side of 
Isana, the disciple should be called Isanasiva if he 
is a Brahmana, Isanadeva if a Kshatriya, and 
Isanagana if a Vaisya or a Sudra. If the disciple is 
a female, she should be called Isana or Isasiva- 
sakti, Isadevasakti, Isaganasakti according as, 
she is of the Brahmana, Kshatriya, or, Vaisya 
or Sudra caste. Those that have undergone 
this dlJcsha are known as Samayis and will attain 
Eudrapada. To these are prescribed the perform- 
ance of duties contained in the charyapada of 
the agamas. The description given above of the 
Samaya-diksha reads like a page from the ceremoni- 
als of the Freemasons of the present day; the 
claims of freemasonry to remote antiquity do not 
after all appear to be a pretension. It is perhaps 
an echo of a really ancient institution, like the 
ancient Agamanta Saivaism, that it is after all an 
Eastern institution engrafted upon Western soil. 

12 



INTEODUOTION. 

The second kind of dlksha is called the Vikesha 
dlksha and is conferred upon those to whom the 
grace of Sakti comes more rapidly than in the 
previous case. In all its details, it is similar to the 
d'dsha ceremony already described ; but the guru 
in this case is supposed to join the soul of the 
sishya from the Maya-garhJia to SaJcti-garbJia, 
and is made to contemplate in his mind on the 
external union of Vagisvari with Vagisvara. After 
this the guru teaches his disciple the samaya- 
charas or the creeds of his faith. They are : 
abstinence from reviling Siva, Sivasastras, Sivagni, 
and the gtiru, from cr6ssing even the shadow of 
these and from eating oneself or presenting to others 
for eating the food offered to Siva : doing pujd, to 
Sivagni and to the guru to the end of one's life and 
so on. He who has received the vi§eshadlJ(sha 
would attain after death the Isvara-pada; he is 
known during his lifetime as putraJca. These are 
enjoined to observe the ceremonies and duties pre- 
scribed in the charya and the Jcriyapadas of the 
agama,s. The conduct and duties of the life of the 
Samayi are called the ds,samdrga. From these 
descriptions of the samayis and putrahas, it appears 
to be clear that those who collect flowers and knit 
them into garlands for the temple services, that is, 
people of the class of Panddrams etc., are to be 

13 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY, 

considered as Samayis or Tadars (Dasas), while 
those that go by the distinct appellation of Pillais 
or Pillaimars, as putrahas- 

The cliksha prescribed for those to whom the 
grace of Sakti comes instantaneously or rapidly 
is called Nirvana dlJcsha. 

In this kind of dlksJia, the fiction is that the 
bonds (pasas) are cut off even when the sishya is 
in his material body ; for this purpose, a few 
strands of string are taken and suspended from 
the tuft of his hair to the toe of the right foot ; 
in these strings, the chaitamja (or energy) of the 
sishya is invoked and the guru conceives in his 
mind as having undergone, even then, the several 
births which the sishya has otherwise to take to 
absolve himself from the various bonds known as 
mala, mUya, karma and kald, and then cuts the 
strings into pieces. To check the further growth 
of these pasas or bonds, the guru throws the bits 
of strings into the fire. After these ceremonies 
are over, the soul of the sishya is believed to have 
become equal to Siva in purity. Another formality 
is also gone through to establish this identity 
of the soul with Siva, namely, the guru, yokes on 
to the soul of the sishya, the six qualities which dis- 
tinguish Siva, namely Sarvajnatva, (omniscience), 
purna-kd,matva (filled with love) anadi-jnana 

14 



INTEODUCTION. 

(beginningless knowledge), apctrasakti (unbounded 
power) svadhmatva (perfect freedom) and undimi- 
nishing power. There are still a few other minor 
ceremonies belonging to the dlksha which need not 
be detailed here. 

Those that have undergone the nirvana-dlkshd 
are divided into two classes, the sadhahas and the 
acJiaryas, and for being called by these names they 
should once again undergo the ceremony of anoint- 
ment as sadhahas and acharyas. The sadhahas 
are supposed to have attained the eight siddhis or 
powers, beginning with anima, so well-known 
through the Yoga system ; the sadhahas are entitled 
to observe the nityaharmas or daily observances such 
as bath, puja, japa, dhyana and homa, and hamya- 
harmas only ; whereas, the acharyas are entitled to 
perform, in addition to these, naimittiha ceremonies 
such as performing the dlhsha ceremony on others, 
and pratishtha ceremony or consecrating images. 

The above described nirvdna-dihsha is of two 
classes, respectively known as Idhadhai-mini or 
hhautihi and Sivadharmini or naishthihi. Those 
that have undergone the latter or the Sivadharmini 
dlhiha should wear the tuft of hair on the top of 
the head, covering the brahma-randhra, whereas 
those that have undergone the former or the Idha- 
dharmini dlhsha need not cut oflf the hair. 

15 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

The Saivas may observe both the Vaidika and 
the Saiva duties, but if some of the former are 
opposed to the teachings of the Saiva tantras, they 
should be abandoned. Those that have undergone 
the bhantiJii and naisJithiJci dlhshas may even 
abandon the Vaidik sandhyd ceremony but never 
the Saiva sandhya. 

The Agamas are alv^ays divided into four 
parts, the Kriyapdda, the Charydpdda, the Yoga- 
pada and the Jnanapada the study and observance 
of the rules laid down in one, two, three or all 
four of these are enjoined upon the Samayis, the 
putrakas, the bhautihis and the naishthilcis respec- 
tively. The paths pursued by these are also known 
respectively by the names dasamdrga, futramdrga, 
sahamdrga and the sanmdrga ; that is, the persons 
who have been initiated in the samayi and other 
dlhshas conduct themselves towards the Lord as a 
servant, a son, a friend or as the Lord himself. 
The paths prescribed are of varying grades suitable 
to souls at various stages of religious evolution. 

These dlJcshds were described in some detail, in 
order to give the readers an idea of the religious 
ceremonials which are common to all sects of the 
Saivas ; it is meant also to give scope for the com- 
parative study of the religious ceremonial institu- 
tions of India and of other countries, more especially 

16 



INTRODUCTION. 

with Freemasonry. As the philosophy of this 
branch of Saivaism is dealt with elaborately by 
various authors elsewhere, it need not be given 
here. 

The Pasupatas are the next important class of 
^j^^p Saivas. According to Eamanuja- 

charya it included the Kalamukhas 
the Kapalas, and the Agamanta Saivas. There is 
some justification for Eamanuja including all the 
four under one name, the Pasupata religion ; for 
all these four sectarians called the Jlvatman, pake 
and the paramatman, Pati. The Agamanta Saivas 
also class these as agachchamayams or sects inclu- 
ded in Saivaism. As regards the antiquity and 
history of the Pasupata sect, little is known. In later 
times the Pasupata sect is known as the Lakulisa 
Pasupata or the Pasupata sect founded by Lakulis- 
vara, who is considered as an incarnation of ^iva 
himself. An attempt has been made by Dr. Fleet to 
fix the age of Lakulisvara, the founder of the Pasu- 
pata sect. It is a matter for surprise that even such 
a circumspect scholar as Dr. Fleet has, perhaps in 
his desire to arrive at some conclusion, proceeded 
upon baseless premises which have naturally led 
him to incorrect results. Because the name 
Lakulisvara-pandita occurs in an inscription at 
Melpadi and in another at Baligami, and because 

17 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

tradition asserts that he propagated his faith in 
Kayarohana in N. India, Dr. Fleet concludes that 
Lakulisvara, the founder of the sect which goes 
by his name, began his activities first in Melpadi, 
wherefrom he drifted on to Baligami and then 
eventually settled down at Kayarohana in Northern 
India, and that he lived in the first quarter of the 
eleventh century A. D. The two individuals 
bearing the name Lakulisvara Pandita, mention- 
ed in the two inscriptions referred to above 
were two distinct personages and were named 
after the founder of their faith ; the conclusion 
of Dr. Fleet is untenable for the following reasons. 
Sankaracharya, whose age is believed to be the 
last quarter of the eighth century, reviews the 
Pasupata philosophy in his Sariraka Bhashya. 
Says he, " The Mahesvaras (Saivas) maintain 
that the five categories, viz, effect {Jcarya) cause 
{liarana), union {yog a), ritual {vidhi) and the 
end of pain {duhJchanta), were taught by the 
Lord Pasupati (Siva) to the end of breaking the 
bonds of the animals (pasii, i. e., the souls). Pasu- 
pati is, according to them, the Lord, the operative 
cause." In his masterly treatise on the different 
systems of philosophy that were in existence in 
his time, Vidyaranya gives the same five cate- 
gories given above as those held by the Lakulisa 

18 



INTRODUCTION. 

Pa^upatas ; the later author, Madhusudana Saras- 
vati, also reiterates the same statement in his Pras- 
thanabheda.* The Pasupata sect as known by 
the name Lakulisa Pasupata is older than ^an- 
kara at least, or perhaps even as old as the 
AtharvaHrasopanishad. The authors of the famous 
Devaram hymns have sung the praises of the 
Siva temples at Nagapattanam (Negapatam) and 
Kumbhakonam, which were known even in their 
times by the name of Kayarohana or Karona, so 
named evidently after the more famous place of that 
name in Northern India. The age of these hymnists, 
is settled to be the middle of the seventh century. 
This fact pushes the limit of the age of Lakulisa 
by one more century. Hence, Lakulisa the founder 
of the faith, should not be confounded with his 
namesakes of Melpadi and Baligami, nor can his 
date be taken as the first quarter of bhe eleventh 
century. The Kalamukhas also appear to be a sub- 
division of the Pasupatas, as we have seen above. 
To substantiate this, we have not only the authority 
of Eamanuja, but also that of some others. The 
Saivagamas sometimes divide Saivism into Saiva, 
Pasupata, Somasiddhanta and Lakula ; and in 
other places divide Saivas into Saiva, Pasupata, 

*The Uttara-Kdmikdgama also states that L&kula bad 
five categories and they are the same as given above. 

19 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

Kapalika and Kalamukha. In the above groupings 
we see that the first two sects are identical in both 
cases ; we learn from the PrabodhacJiandrodayam 
that Somasiddhanta is the authoritative text-book 
of the Kapalikas and the remaining Lakula may 
be inferred to be the same as Kalamukha. In 
praising certain Kalamukha gums, the Baligami 
inscriptions use the phrase "a very Nakulisvara in 
the knowledge of the Siddhantas", which clearly 
proves that the Kalamukhas were identical with 
Lakulisa Pasupatas.* 

*Eegarding the antiquity of the Saiva teacher Lakulisa and 
the faith that he waa an avatara of Siva, the following may 
be quoted : — 



Hfleg: ^tr^rWTl xT ^^m ^ "^ W and 
l^^s^ 5rnfKWI<ll^^iJ%5T: r 

€\^ ^Wr^ft ^I^^ IT^T'^: I 

Kiirmapurana, Chap. 53, Vv. 1, 9 & 10. 

f^t ^ft gojTt c^r ^ ^ R[^^r i 

20 



INTEODUGTION. 

The tenets of the Lakulisa Pa^upatas as we 
gather from the Sarvadarsana-Sangraha, stated 
very briefly, are as follows : — 

The end of pain, their fifth category, is of two 
sorts the anatmalca moTisTia and the satmaka 
moTcsha. Of these, the former is defined as the 
absolute freedom from pain. The possession of 
Kriyasakti and Jnanasakti, which are the attributes 
of Paramesvara and which are described below, is 
called sdtmaJcamoJcsha. Perception of even the 
smallest, the most distant matters, hearing of every 
kind of sound, being well versed in all sastras, the 
possession of these and similar powers is called 
Jnanasakti. The accomplishment of every object, 
quickly assuming every form according to one's 
own desire, is known as Kriyasakti. These two 
Saktis constitute, as stated just now, the satmaTta 
moJcsha. 

In every other system a karya or effect is 
defined as that which follows a Jcarana or cause ; 

JTi'^ mkm ^ iTfJRif^ M g^ ii ^^ ii 

Sivapuraria, Tritiya-Satarudra-Samhita, Chap. 5. 
Also compare pages 190 and 191, Director General of 
Arohseology's Annual for the year 1906-07. 

21 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

the Pasupatas call all dependent objects as effect ; 
in conformity with this their definition of Jcdrya, 
they bring Jivatman or fakt, which they admit as 
eternal, under the category of harya because it is 
dependent upon the paramatma7i or Pati. The 
Being who is endowed with the powers of creation, 
destruction and protection, the Lord Paramesvara, 
is known to their philosophy as the harana. His 
attributes are Jiianasakti and Kriyasakti, which 
are eternally with him, not as are acquired after a 
stage by the perfected human souls. 

The Pasupatas believe also in divine dispensa- 
tion which need not be based upon the good or 
evil Jcanna of the soul. 

The category called Yoga or union of the soul 
with Pati, may be attained in two ways. In the 
first, it is attained through japa, dhyana, and other 
Jcarmas ; while in the second by exercising strict 
control over the senses. By this Yogo, the two 
kinds of molislia mentioned above could be 
obtained. 

Vidlii or the rules of conduct of the Pasu- 
patas is the most interesting part of their religion. 
Bathing their bodies thrice a day in ashes, 
lying down on ashes, making noise like ahd, aha, 
singing loudly the praises of their god, dancing 
either according to the science of dancing or in 

22 



INTEODUCTION. 

any manner, curling the tongue and roaring like 
bulls, — this noice is called hudukJcara or noise like 
hu^u hudu, making prostrations and circumam- 
bulation, repeating the names of Siva — all these 
constitute their vrata or daily observances. But 
these strange acts are strictly forbidden to be 
practised in places where there are other persons 
present. Besides these, the Pasupatas are advised 
to behave actually like mad men. For instance, 
pretending to be asleep when not actually sleeping, 
begging for food, shaking the limbs as when 
attacked by paralysis, walking like one with rheu- 
matic pain in his legs, or like a lame man, exhibit- 
ing signs of lust at the sight of women, doing other 
acts befitting lunatics such as making meaningless 
noise — these are enjoined upon the Pasupatas. To 
get rid of fastidiousness, they are enjoined to beg 
for food, eat the remnants of the dishes of others 
and do similar objectionable acts.* 

"'It; appears quite probable thai; this vidhi of the Pasupatas 
is responsible for the origin and existence of obscene sculptures 
in Hindu temples. In the majority of cases, such sculpture 
consists of the figure of a stark naked male with his membrum 
virile erect, standing with his legs kept separated from each 
other and with his hands held in the anjali pose over his 
head, and his head always covered with long jatas, banging 
down on either side. In front of this figure is its counterpart, 

23 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

The Saivagamas arrange the Saiva sects in 
The Kaia- ^he following Order of superiority, 
SomasTddhan""'' namely, the Saivas, the Pasupatas, 
*"^®' the Somasiddhantins and the 

Lakulas. Again we learn that the Kaulas worship 
the adharachaJcra, the Kshapanakas the actual 
yoni and the trikonas (or triangular yantras), and 
the Eapalikas and Digamhay-as both the objects 
worshipped by the first mentioned two sects. The 
various sects of Saivas hold the view that as there 
is no diflerence between one animal and another, 
there is none whatsoever between man and man 
and dlhsha might be given to all alike. The 

a female one, whose clothiog ia represented as slipping down 
the waist, thereby leaving the pudendum exposed. It ia more 
than certain that the matted haired naked man could represent 
no other than a Saiva devotee belonging to one of the indecent 
sects of the Saiva religioQ, putting to practice the rules of the 
vidhi taught by his philosophy. 

In almost all the later additions to more ancient temples 
and in all the temples built after the 14th century A.D., one 
could meet with figures of men in all manner of capering 
attitudes — with ill-kept, but amusing faces and with the body 
twisted and bent in most astounding postures : one such is 
reproduced on PI. 69 in his Visvakarma by Dr. Ananda- 
kumarasvami. This sort of sculpture recognised by the name 
of konahgis has also its origin in the vidhi of the Fasupata 
philosophy. 

24 



INTRODUCTION. 

Kalamukhas appear to be so called because they 
marked their forehead with a black streak, and 
they are said to be born of nara (human) and 
rakshasa (demoniacal) parents. 

The Kapalikas appear to be also an ancient 
but an extremist sect of Saivas. 

The Kapalikas. 

They have rites and ceremonies 
which are more revolting than those of the Kala- 
mukhas. About the various Saiva sects Ramanuja 
says : — " The Sutras now declare that, for the 
same reasons, the doctrine of Pasupati also 
has to be disregarded. The adherents of this 
view belong to the four classes — Kapalas, 
Kalamukhas, Pasupatas and Saivas. All of them 
hold fanciful theories of Reality which are in conflict 
with the Veda, and invent various means for. at- 
taining happiness in this life and the next. They 
maintain the general material and the operative 
cause to be distinct, and the latter cause to be 
constituted by Pasupati. They further hold the 
wearing of the six mudra badges and the like to be 
means to accomplish the highest end of man. 

" Thus the Kapalas say, ' He who knows the 
true nature of the six mudras, who understands 
the highest mudra, meditating upon himself as in 
the position called bhagasana, reaches Nirvana. 
The necklace, the golden ornament, the ear-ring, 

25 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

the head-jewel, ashes, and the sacred thread are 
called the six viudras. He whose body is marked 
with these is not born here again. Similarly, 
the Kalamukhas teach that the means of ob- 
taining all desired results in this world as well 
as the next are constituted by certain practices 
such as using a skull as a drinking vessel, smear- 
ing oneself with ashes of the dead body, eating the 
flesh of such a body, carrying a heavy stick, setting 
up a liquor-jar and using it as a platform for 
making offerings to the Gods, and the like. ' A 
bracelet made of Rudraksha-seeds on the arm, 
matted hair on the head, a skull, smearing oneself 
with ashes etc., ' — all this is well known from the 
sacred writings of the Saivas. They also hold that 
by some special ceremonial performance men of 
different castes may become Brahmanas and reach 
the highest asrama : ' by merely entering on the 
initiatory ceremony {dikslia) a man becomes a 
Brahmana at once ; by undertaking the Kapala 
rite a man becomes at once an ascetic." 

We learn a little more about the Kapalikas 
from stray mention made of them in a number of 
books. For instance, Krishnamisra in his Pra- 
bodhachandrodaya introduces a Kapalika as a 
character in that drama who describes himself in 
the following words : " My necklace and ornaments 

26 



INTBODUGTION. 

consist of human bones; I live in the ashes of 

the dead and eat my food in human skulls. I 

look with my eyes made keen with the ointment of 

yoga and I believe that though the different parts 

of the world are diflerent, yet the whole is not 

different from God. ! Digambara ! listen to our 

rites : after fasting we drink liquor from the skulls 

of Brahmanas ; our sacrificial fires are kept up 

with the brains and lungs of men which are mixed 

up with their flesh, and the offerings by which we 

appease our terrific God are human victims covered 

with gushing blood from the horrible cut on their 

throats. I contemplate on the lord of Bhavani, 

the mighty God who creates, preserves and destroys 

the fourteen worlds whose glory is revealed in the 

Vedas as well as in his deeds." The Sanhara- 

vijaya of Anantanandagiri states that when Sankara 

went to Ujjayini, the foremost men of all the sects 

living there came for a religious disputation with 

him. Among them one sect of Kapalikas had the 

following characteristic feature and doctrines. They 

wore sphatiha (crystal beads), the ai'ddha-cliandra 

(an ornament shaped like the crescent moon) and 

theja^ (or matted heir). Their God is Bhairava, 

the author of creation, protection and destruction ; 

they believe that all other gods are subservient to 

him. Bhairava has eight different aspects namely 

27 



HINDU IGONOGEAPHY. 

Asitanga, Euru, Chanda, Krodha, Unmatta Bhai- 
rava, Kapala, Bhishma and Samhara-Bhairava 
corresponding to Vishnu, Brahma, Surya, Kudra, 
Indra, Chandra, Yama and the Supreme Being 
respectively. This class of Kapalikas was taken 
by Sankaracharya, states Anantanandagiri, into 
the fold of Brahmanism. But another subject of 
Kapalikas headed by one Unmatta-Bhairava came 
to wrangle with Sankara ; he had smeared his body 
with the ashes of the dead and wore a garland of 
skulls ; his forehead was marked with a streak of 
black stuff. The whole of the hair of his head 
was turned into jatas. He wore a katisutra and 
a kauplna consisting of tiger's skin and carried 
in his left hand a skull and in the right a bell. 
He was calling out the names of Sambhu, Bhai- 
rava and Kalisa. He said that their moksha 
consisted in joining Bhairava after death. Sankara 
rejected this class of Kapalas as incorrigible. 
Living with one's wife happily in this world 
as does Chandra^ekhara (Siva) with his consort 
Parvati in heaven, is also considered by the Kapali- 
kas as moksha. It is certain that this sect of 
Saivas were freely indulging in human sacrifices, 
for there are literary evidences to this effect. 
Bhavabhuti introduces in his drama Malatl- 
Mddhaoa a Kapalika who, for having attained 

28 



INTRODUCTION. 

mantra-siddhi, attempted to sacrifice Malati to his 
god. Vadirajasuri in his Yahodharakdvya describes 
the preparations for two human sacrifices for which 
two pretty little children were decoyed and taken 
to the altar but fortunately saved from the catas- 
trophe. 

Krishnamisra says that the Digambaras and 
the Kapalikas quitted all other countries and gra- 
dually retired to the Malava and Abhira countries, 
which are inhabited by low class men (pamaras). 

The Saivagamas inform us that the Saivas 
worship Siva in the aspect of Tandava-bhushana ; 
the Pasupatas, Siva smeared with ashes and 
wearing jatamakuta, the Mahavratas, Siva wear- 
ing a garland of bones ; the Kalamukhas, Siva 
wearing sphatiJca and piitradlpa (?) beads ; the 
Vamacharas, Siva wearing the sacred thread and 
carrying fire and the Bhairavas, Siva carrymg 
4amaru and wearing anklets ; and that all these 
aspects of Siva should have three eyes. 

From all that has been said of the various 
sects of Saivas the following conclusion about 
^aivaism naturally suggests itself. The prototype 
of all the ghora forms of Saivaism is the 
personality of Siva himself ; dancing and singing 
in a wild manner on the burning ground and 
smearing himself with the ashes of the dead and 

29 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

adorning himself with the skulls and bones of the 
dead; or going about naked in the streets of 
householder rishis and tempting their womenfolk, 
living in bliss also with his own consort ; or per- 
forming severe austerities ; wearing his hair in 
jatas ; drinking and eating from human skulls ; 
killing, maiming and otherwise destroying animal 
life — all these acts of §iva were closely followed by 
such sects as the Kapalas, the Kalamukhas and 
the Vamacharas. These sects which considered 
living in close imitation of Siva and who consider- 
ed living happily with women in this life mohsha 
or bliss, are perhaps really old. Their teachings 
afforded ease and pleasure, indulgence in flesh-food, 
drinking liquor and promiscuous intercourse ; and 
at a time when, as a result of the preaching of the 
Buddha and Mahavira, the Vaidikas practically 
gave up flesh and liquor, some of its members 
with a taste for lower passions not finding their 
surroundings congenial to their tastes might 
have turned renegades and joined the ranks of the 
Saivas, as we hear from the Varahapurana and the 
Suta-samliita, and have undergone the dlhsha and 
other rites peculiar to Saivaism. This state of 
moral depravity attended with conduct unfit for 
any society could not be tolerated by others and in 
the long run by the members of even the Saiva 

30 



INTRODUOTION. 

sects themselves. Therefore, after the fresh glam- 
our passed away, these degraded Brahmanas ap- 
parently set themselves to cleanse their faith of 
its filth, evolve a system of philosophy for it and 
a line of conduct for its adherents and claim a 
purer status equal to or identical with that of the 
Vaidikas. In this evolved Saivaism, also known 
as Suddha Saivaism, we do not meet with any one 
of the evils complained of. Those that persisted 
in it, the Kapalas and the Kalamukhas, have gone 
to the wall in the contest and are lost for ever. 

The Vaidikas at first never paid so much 
attention to the details of temple building, setting 
up in them of innumerable images and performing 
pompous ceremonials, but had one or two small 
images in their own houses their isMa devatds and 
hula devatas, and they were enjoined to meditate 
in silence upon the Supreme Brahman as residing in 
the image ; they took to resorting to temples and 
attending to elaborate ceremonials held in them at 
a later stage when the avaidika cults were purged of 
their objectionable practices. And when the non- 
Aryan Siva was beyond contention welded on the 
Aryan Budra or Agni, even lihga worship was 
adopted by the Vaidikas as identical with the 
worship of Rudra or Agni and at the present time 
all Vaidika or Smarta Brahmanas are worshipping 

31 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

the linga and are even seen dancing and making 
huduJclcara noise while worshipping in temples, a 
strange survival of the Pasupata customs. 

The orgies and revels in lascivious acts was 
also the characteristic feature in all countries in 
which phallic worship was practised ; in Greece, 
in Alexandria, in fact the whole of the Mediterra- 
nean Coast the revelries differed in no way from 
those in existence among the early Indian Saiva 
sects. The initiation and other ceremonies be- 
longing to these Priaptic cults, might possibly have 
been refined by such intellectual and moral men as 
Socrates, Pytbogoras and others, and very likely the 
reformed cults have descended to or been copied 
by the modern Freemasons. 

We have till now been discussing the earlier 
forms of Saivaism ; but India has not been idle 
since then. Newer sects of Saivaism sprang from 
time to time and gathered a large following. Two 
such stand out prominently, namely the Virasaivas 
of Southern India and the Pratyabhijnas of Kash- 
mere. The former was started by Basava, a Brahman 
who occupied a high position in the Court of theKala- 
churi, king Bijjana or Bijjala. Basava was born of 
Brahmana parents but refused to undergo the 
Upanayana ceremony, proclaiming that he was a 
special worshipper of Siva and that he was born to 

32 



INTEODUOTION. 

destroy the caste system. Basava taught the 
adoration of the lihga as the chief feature of his 
system ; his followers were taught the importance 
of veneration to the guru; the lihga and the 
Sahgha. They were also taught that, as soon as 
a Saiva dies, he becomes one with Mahesvara ; 
child-marriage was discountenanced and post- 
puberty marriage was the general rule among 
them ; widow re-marriage was also permitted. The 
Lingayatas or the followers of Basava carry about 
their person a small lihga either encased in a silver 
casket and hung about the neck or tied up in a 
silk cloth which is bound round the right arm or 
on the neck. Under no circumstances should this 
lihga leave the person of the wearer ; it is like the 
yajhopavlta of the Brahmana never bo be removed 
during the life-time of the wearer. The Lingayatas 
are supposed to have no caste distinction, but there 
are among them Brahmanas who are known by the 
name of Aradhyas ; nor is an Ayyanoru (their 
priestly class) known to interdine with low caste 
Jangamas (or congregation). They have a number 
of curious customs among them which it is not 
possible to deal with here. 

The Pratyabbijna school had its origin, as we 
have already stated, in Kashmere. It appears that 
the most important of their religious works are 

33 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

five in number; of these the Pratyabhijna-sutras 
is the oldest and is said to have been composed by 
Utpalacharya, the son (or disciple) of Udayakara. 
The basis of the work was the Siva-drishti sastra 
of Somanandanatha. The Pratyabhijna system is 
believed to be an easy and new system of religious 
philosophy. Though comparatively new, the 
Pratyabhijna school has its foundation in older 
works. The great Abhinavaguptacharya has written 
two commentaries on the sutras, which are known 
as the Laghu-Pratijabhijnavimarsani and the 
Brihat-Pratyahhijna-vimarsani. From the inter- 
nal evidences available in the various works, it is 
inferable that this school became prominent in the 
10th century A.D. 

The power of recognising an object originally 
known to us but which had been lost sight of for 
long is called Pratyabhijna. According to the 
followers of this school, Paramatman or Para- 
mesvara is that which exists always and is pervading 
everywhere, is absolutely free and is the embodi- 
ment of energy and of blissful light. There is no 
distinction between Paramesvara and the Jivat- 
man. But the latter is covered by the darkness of 
maya. If one realises, by the help of his guru, his 
own omniscience, omnipotence etc., he recognises 
in him the Paramatman. This recognition by the 

34 



INTRODUCTION. 

Jivatman of the Paramatman as identical with 
itself is illustrated by an example. A husband is 
separated from his wife. The wife learns every- 
thing about her husband and vice versa, by means 
of news of each brought to the other. But when 
the husband returns after a very long time and 
stands before his wife, she is unable to recognise 
him and till she is able to realise in him her 
husband, she is not conscious of the presence of 
her husband near her. Since the Pratyabhijna 
philosophy does not involve severe practices like 
pranUyama it is held by Abhinavaguptacharya to 
be an easy religion. All castes are equally admitted 
into it. Its categories and their philosophy are 
also easy enough though unnecessary to be detailed 
here. 

Eegarding the caste marks of the various 
schools of Saivas, Anantanandagiri says as follows : 
— The Saivas make marks of the lihga on both the 
shoulders ; the Baudras mark their forehead with 
the trisula ; the TJgras mark their shoulders with 
the damaru ; the Bhattas mark their forehead with 
the lihga ; the Jangamas mark their chest with the 
irikula and wear on it the liiiga and the Pasupatas 
mark the forehead, the two shoulders, the chest and 
the navel with the lihga. 



35 



SIVA. 



SIVA. 

ONE of the most interesting chapters in Hindu 
Mythology is the history of ^iva, the god 
of destruction among the Hindu Trinity. 
In the Bigveda, the Vajasaiieyi-samhita of the 
White Yajur-veda and in the 
cefto^Rud^/a!^*^" Atharvana-vMa, the word Siva, 
meaning the auspicious, occurs as 
an epithet of Rudra. It is only Eudra, (and 
not ^iva) who is praised in all hymns ; he is re- 
presented in these hymns as a malevolent deity 
causing death and disease among men and cattle 
and is therefore specially prayed to by the hymnists 
for allaying his wrath towards them, sparing them 
their families and cattle, and attacking and 
damaging their enemies and their belongings. 
The physical description of Eudra is found in 
a number of hymns in great detail. For instance, 
in some places he is said to be tawny in colour 
and in others of a very fair complexion, with a 
beautiful chin, wearing golden ornaments, youthful 
and having spirally braided hair on his head. He 

39 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

carries in his hands a bow and arrows and is de- 
scribed, in some hymns, as wielding the thunder- 
bolt. He is, throughout the Vedic period, identi- 
fied with Agni and is also said to have given birth, 
by his contact with Prishni (the earth), the Maruts 
(the winds). In the Atharvana-veda it is stated, 
that " Bhava (Eudra) rules the sky, Bhava rules 
the earth and Bhava hath filled the vast atmo- 
sphere " ; in the same work we come across the 
names Bhava, Sarva, Sahasra-bahu, Mahadeva, 
Pasupati, Rudra the slayer of Ardhaka (the 
Andhaka of the Puranic period), Ugra and Isana 
used as synonyms of Eudra ; these names are also 
found in the Satarudrlya along with Aghora, Girisa, 
Nilagriva, Kapardin, Sabhapati, Ganapati, Senani, 
Bhima, Sitikantha, Sambhu and Sankara. It might 
be remarked here that all the names given above 
are applied at the present time to Siva-Eudra, who 
is a later addition to the Hindu triad. In the 
Satapatha-Brahmana we learn "Agni is a god. 
These are his names : Sarva, as the eastern people 
call him, Bhava, as the Bahikas call him, Pasu- 
nampati, Eudra and Agni. The names other than 
Agni are ungentle {a§S.nta), Agni is his gentlest 
designation {§antatma)." 

Prom the descriptions of Eudra given above 
it is patent that Agni, who is the same as Rudra, 

40 



SIVA. 

had his abode in the sky as the sun, in the atmo- 
sphere as the Ughtning and on the earth as fire ; in 
other words, the sky, the atmosphere and the earth 
give birth to Agni in his triple aspect of the sun, 
the lightning, and fire ; hence he receives the name 
Tryambaka or Three-mothered. By the heat- of 
the sun received by the earth winds are produced, 
a physical fact well-known even to school-boys. 
It is this natural phenomenon, the production of 
winds on the surface of the earth by sun's heat, 
that is poetically expressed in the Vedic hymns as 
the sun begetting on the earth the Maruts. The 
winds cause the clouds to accumulate in the at- 
mosphere and lightning and storm follow next ; 
all these phenomena are traceable to Agni or 
Rudra. The stormy winds, the dark masses of 
clouds with flashing lightning in their midst are 
all sufficiently terrifying in their eSeot, and Rudra 
or Agni who is the cause of all these fearful 
phenomena is naturally treated as a terrific and 
malevolent deity always requiring propitiation. 
The sufferings caused to man and beast by storms, 
thunder and rain should naturally have induced 
the Vedic bards to have attempted to appease 
the wrath of this fearful deity and to protect 
themselves and their possessions by praises and 
offerings. 

41 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

The identity of Agni and Rudra also appears 
from the Mahabharata. In nar- 

Beferences to 

Budra in the rating the birth of Skanda, it 

Maliabharata. 

is stated in the Vana-parvan, 
that Svaha, the wife of Agni, assumed on six 
consecutive days the forms of the wives of six out 
of the seven rishis and enjoyed the company of 
her husband, who had previously abandoned her 
and retired to the forest, because he could not 
succeed in securing for himself the company of the 
wives of the rishis with whom he had fallen in love. 
The seed of Agni gathered on the six days by 
Svaha was deposited in a pit and covered with 
Jcusa grass. On the sixth day the seed assumed 
the form of Kumara (that is, Skanda). Again, 
later on, it is also said that Rudra, who was dally- 
ing with his consort Uma for a long time, was 
prayed to by the gods to assume his other func- 
tions ; he let drop his seed on the earth. Agni was 
asked to take it in and develope it, but its burning 
effect was so great that he could not bear it ; he 
dropped it in the river Ganga and Skanda was 
born therefrom. From these two statements, the 
only conclusion possible is that Rudra, who was 
the same as Agni was the father of Skanda. 

From occupying the minor position of Agni in 
the Vedic period, Rudra emerges into one of the 

42 



SIVA. 

supreme deities in the Puranic period ; and he 
is often found to claim superior- 
p^ani^period^^ 1*7 O'^er Vishnu and Brahma. In 
the Puranic period also Eudra re- 
tains his attributes as the destroyer and the 
terrific ; he is described as " assuming the forms 
of the gods Vishnu and Brahma, of men, of 
bhutas and other beings, of beasts and of birds ; 
he is the soul of the universe ; and pervades 
through it ; he dwells in the heart of all 
creatures and knows all their desires ; he car- 
ries a discus, a trident, a club, an axe and a 
sword ; he wears a girdle of serpents, ear-ornaments 
composed of serpents and an Yajnopavlta of ser- 
pents ; he laughs, sings and dances in ecstacy, and 
plays on a number of musical instruments ; he 
leaps, gapes and weeps and makes others weep; 
speaks like a mad man or a drunkard, as also in 

sweet voice He dallies with the daughters 

and wives of the rishis ; he has erect hair, looks 
obscene in his nakedness and has an excited look." 
"Budra has braided hair and matted locks, fre- 
quents cemeteries and performs awful rites ; he is 
now a mild yogi and is also very terrible. He is 
said to possess in every age the nature of Nara- 
yana, that is, his tamasic nature." Such descrip- 
tions form the basis of the several puranic legends 

43 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

regarding Siva, as also of the various images of this 
deity. For instance, Siva is represented as 
dancing in an ecstacy; he is then known by 
the name of Nataraja; as a naked figure engaged 
in begging for cooked rice, when he is called the 
Bhikshatana-murthi ; and so forth. We are there- 
fore concerned immediately with the various 
aspects of Siva described in the Purdnas. 

The birth of Eudra is given in the Satapatha- 
brdhmana as follows : " Praiapati 

Birth of Budra ' 

in the Brahma- (the lord of beings), who is identi- 

nas. 

fied with the Sun and also the 
year, (the beings of whom he is lord being the 
seasons), desired to have a son ; he consorted, for 
that purpose, with Ushas and a son (Kumara) was 
born. As soon as he was born the boy wept. The 
father asked why he wept. He replied he had got 
no name to take away the evil from him. Praja- 
pati gave him the name Eudra. Inasmuch as he 
gave him the name, Agni became his form, for 
Eudra is Agni ; he was Eudra because he wept 
{arodlt, from rud, to weep). The boy said ' I am 
greater than one who does not exist, give me another 
name '. Prajapati replied ' thou art Sarva '. Thus 
he obtained from Prajapati the names Eudra, 
Sarva, Pasupati, Ugra, Asani, Bhava, Mahandeva, 
and lasna — eight names which are associated 

14 



SIVA. 

respectively with the tattvas of agni, (the fire), jala 
(the water), the plants, vdyu (the winds), vidyut 
(the lightning), parjanya (the rain), chandramas 
(the moon) and aditya (the sun). These are the 
eights forms of Agni and Kumara is the ninth. 
This is the threefoldness {trivritta) of Agni. Since 
there are eight forms of Agni and the Gayatri 
metre has eight syllables, men say ' Agni pertains 
to Gayatri '. This boy Kumara entered into the 
forms. Men do not see Agni as a boy : it is these 
forms that they see : for he entered into these 
forms." The same story is found in the Sahhha- 
yana and the EausMtahi-Brahmanas. This story 
forms the foundation for all the later accounts 
given in the Puranas of the birth of Eudra, as 
also of the Ashta-mt5rtisvaras of the Saivagamas. 
The account of the birth of Eudra as found in 
the Vishnu-purana which is almost 

In the Puranas. 

identical with that given in the 
Markandeya-purdna runs thus : At the beginning 
of the Jcalpa (aeon) Brahma was meditating upon 
begetting a son similar to himself. At once a boy 
of blue and red colour was seen sitting on his lap 
and weeping loudly. Brahma asked him why he 
was weeping. The boy answered 'Give me a 
name'. Brahma conferred upon him the name 
Eudra. But the boy wept again and again for 

45 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

seven times more and obtained seven more names, 
Bhava, Sarva, Isana, Pasupati, Bhima, Ugra and 
Mahadeva. 

Another version of the birth of Kudra is also 
given in the Vishnu-pur ana. Sanandana and others 
vyho were first created by Brahma for the purpose 
of creating the various beings became absorbed in 
meditation, attained all kinds of knowledge and 
became free from love and hatred. They neglect- 
ed the business for which they were brought into 
existence by Brahma. Seeing the indifference of 
his sons towards the creation of the worlds, Brahma 
grew very angry and from the frowned forehead of 
this deity was born a son as resplendent as the 
sun. The body of this newly born being was half 
male and half female and it was terrific and large 
in size. Brahma, commanding him to divide, 
disappeared. This being, known as Eudra, divided 
himself into two parts, of which one was male and 
the other female. The male portion further divid- 
ed itself into eleven bodies of which some were 
pacific and some terrific in nature ; in a similar 
way, the female portion divided itself in many 
forms some of black and others of white colour. 
Here is the origin of the Ekadasa Eudras and 
the multiform Saktis of the later period of Hindu 
Mythology. 

46 



A third account of the birth of Eudra is as 
follows: When Madhu and Kaitabha, the two 
demons, attempted to kill Brahma when he was 
created by Vishnu in the lotus that issued from 
his navel, Brahma prayed to Vishnu that he might 
be saved from the demons. Pleased with the 
prayers of Brahma, Vishnu grew fiercely angry 
with the Bakshasas ; from the frowned brows of 
Vishnu sprang forth a being named Sambhu, wield- 
ing a trident and possessing three eyes. Thus we 
see, as in the case of many other deities, there are 
various accounts of the birth of Eudra. 

Before proceeding with the systematic descrip- 
tion of the images of Siva, it will be well to look 
into the import of the various names given to this 
god. When ^iva was besought by 

Explanation of 

the different the gods to destroy the demons who 

names of Siva. 

were the dwellers of three castles, 

the Tripurasuras, he sought and obtained one half 

of their strength from all the gods ; 

Kahadeva. 

he was thenceforth known among 
the gods as Mahadeva or Mahesvara, because he 
became the greatest among them. Since he con- 
sumes flesh, blood and marrow 
jatt'shfa, ^^'"'' (as Agni), is fiery and glorious, he 
is called Eudra. He is termed 
Dhurjati from his smoky colour, and since he makes 

47 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

men prosper in all their actions, he bears the 
appellation Siva (the auspicious). Siva is known as 
Nilakantha and Sitikantha. The following are the 
stories connected with these names : When the 
ocean of milk was churned for obtaining ambrosia 
for the gods, the first thing that came up from it 
was the all-destroying poison ; the gods afraid of 
this dreadful poison withdrew from 

Nilakantha. . / 

the churning ; Siva in his kindness 
to the gods, took up the poison and swallowed it ; 
but Parvati who was near her consort would not 
permit the poison to get into the stomach of Siva 
lest it should kill him ; she pressed the throat of 
Siva and the poison remained there. From that 
time the blue poison became visible through the 
fair skin of the throat of Siva, and lent it a blue 
lustre, which accounts for his being known as Nila- 
kantha.* Again it is said in the Mahdbharata that 
when Siva destroyed the sacrifice of Daksha, he 



* In the Aitareya-brdhmana, Eudca is said to have 
drunk water {visha, whioh also means poison). Of the two 
meanings of the word visha, the latter seems to have given 
birth to the purdnio legend of the later period. The statement 
made in the Brabmana is a poetic rendering of the physical 
phenomenon of Eudra, that is, the Sun or the fire drying up 
water. 

48 



SIVA. 

thrust his flaming trident again and again at 
Daksha and the assembled gods, 

Sitikantha. . , . 

and thus burnt everything with it. 
The trident having done its duty flew and fell near 
the djkrama (hermitage) of the risTiis Nara and 
Narayaria at Badari with terrific force. The glow 
of the weapon was so great that the hair on the 
head of Narayana turned green like the mwiya 
grass. Narayana thereupon repelled the trident, 
which returned to its owner howling. Sankara, in 
anger, ran up to Narayana, when the latter, fearing 
injury at the hands of Siva, seized him by his 
throat. Hence the name Sitikantha (jnamapany- 
anhitas-ch^pi srlJcantas tvam bhavishyasi). 

Siva has three eyes ; the third eye came into 
existence under the following 
circumstances. Siva was sporting 
with his consort Parvati on the slopes of the 
Himalayas, when she playfully closed with her 
hands the two eyes of Siva. The whole universe 
was at once submerged in cosmic darkness and all 
activity was suspended ; sacrifices stopped and gods 
became quiescent. Mahadeva dispelled the darkness, 
by the fire bursting out of his forehead, in which a 
third eye, as luminous, as the sun, was formed. 

In a number of places in the purdnic literature 
we see a sort of fierce denunciation of Siva and the 

49 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

Saiva cult; this is perhaps on account of some of the 
revolting rites connected with the 

Conflict between , 

the vedic and worship of Siva. A graphic descrip- 

the Saiva cults, 

tion of these rites as has already 
been mentioned, is given by Bhavabhuti in his 
Malati-Madhava. 

At the time of the Mahabhdrata, animals 
seem to have been offered systematically as 
sacrifices in the temple of Siva, for, we hear Krishna 
admonishing Jarasandha for his cruelty to other 
kings : says he, " what pleasure can those princes 
have in existence, when they have been consecrated 
for slaughter and kept as victims in the temple of 
Pasupati....Thou king, hast set apart for sacrifice 

to Mahadeva Kshatriya princes In so far as 

you have resolved to offer these kings to Rudra, 
the guilt committed by you by slaughtering them 

will also attach to us and we have never seen 

such a thing as offering human beings in sacrifice 
and thou seekest to sacrifice to Sahkara human 
victims." Daksha in his rage, denounces Siva as 
the " Proud abolisher of rites and demolisher of 
barriers, such as by teaching the word of the Veda 
to the Sudras....," as " roaming about in cemeteries 
attended by the host of bhutas (goblins), like a mad 
man, naked and with dishevelled hair. He is seen 
laughing, weeping, covered with ashes gathered from 

50 



SIVA. 

the funeral pyres and wearing a garland of human 
skulls and ornaments of human bones : he pretends to 
be the auspicious (Siva) while in reality he is asiva ; 
he is insane and is liked by the insane ; and he is the 
lord of the Pramathaganas, beings whose nature is 

essentially darkness Let this Bhava, the 

lowest of the gods, never receive at the worship of 
the gods like Indra, Upendra and others, any por- 
tion of the oblations with them." It might be 
noted here that the conscious neglect of Daksha 
to offer a portion of the sacrifice to Siva in his 
great yajna was certainly due to his hatred for 
Siva and his cult. Mahadeva himself admits that 
from the beginning he was not given any oblations in 
sacrifices : addressing Uma, he says " the old prac- 
tice of the gods has all along been that no portion 
should be offered to me in any sacrifice. By this 
custom, which, is established by the earliest arrange- 
ment, the gods legitimately (dharmatah) decline to 
give me a share in the sacrifices." From these state- 
ments we are led to infer that the Vedic Indian 
looked upon Siva as a low class deity and was not 
offering him any oblations along with Indra and 
other gods. By the entreaties of his wife Parvati, 
Siva establishes for the first time in the yaga of 
Daksha, his right to receive oblations ; this " lowest 
of the gods " gets up to the level of the Vedic gods 

51 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

at a later period and is reconciled with the Vedic 
Hindu. That the ways of the adorers of Siva were 
indeed revolting is seen in the imprecation of Bhrigu 
found in the 8rl Bhagavata. He says " Let those 
performers of the rites of the Saiva cult be heretics 
and opponents of the true Vedas. Having lost their 
purity and misled in their understanding, wearing 
matted hair, ashes and bones, let them undergo the 
Saiva initiation, in which liquor is the deity. Since 
you, the followers of the Siva cult, revile the Veda 
and the Brahmanas, who are the only safeguards 
keeping intact the straying humanity, you have 
become heretics. For, the Veda is the auspicious 
[Siva) and the eternal path of the people, which has 
been followed by the ancients and of which Janard- 
dana is the authority." We obtain a glimpse of the 
real state of affairs at that time from the quotation 
from the 8rl Bhagavata given above. People, in- 
cluding some Brahmanas, left the fold of the Vedic 
religion and joined the cult of Siva, reviled the 
Vedic religion, took to spirituous liquors and be- 
came celibate mendicants, daubing their bodies with 
the ashes of the cemeteries and adorning themselves 
with bones. They threw off the study of the Vedas 
and violated their sanctity by teaching them to 
Sudras and others. The conditions of the Vedic 
Brahmanas of that period is mirrored in the counter 

52 



SIVA. 

imprecation pronounced by Nandisvara, a devout 
follower of the ^iva cult. He tells us that the 
revilers of Siva are sunk, out of the love of carnal 
pleasures, in domestic life, in which bad morals 
are not infrequent ; they practise a number of 
ceremonies without understanding their real import 
and are degraded by the rules of the Vedas. They 
smell strongly of liquor. Nandisvara heaps up on 
the heads of the followers of the Vedic religion the 
curse that these be ever sunk, deluded by the words 
of the Vedas, in the mire of ceremonial ignorance. 
The complaint of the 8aiva against the vaidiJca is 
that the latter pays greater regard to the life of a 
house-holder and that he performs a number of 
ceremonies without understanding their meaning. 
It is in fact a rebellion against the ignorance of 
Vedic rites and a denunciation of family life. 

With the admission of Siva into the fold of 
the higher gods, there seems to have come over 
the followers of both the Vedic and Saiva cults a 
strong desire for a sort of reconciliation. Thus, 
we see Arjuna praising Siva, in the Vana-parvan 
of the MaJiabharata, as follows : " Adoration to 
Siva in the form of Vishnu, to Vishnu in the form 

of ^iva to Hari-Eudra." Again, in the Santi- 

parvan, we see it stated by Krishna that, when 
the god of gods, Mahesvara, is worshipped, the god 

53 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

Narayana, the Lord, will also be worshipped, that 
he who knows and loves Rudra knows and loves 
Narayana and that Rudra and Narayana are but 
one in principle, divided into two and operating in 
the world in manifested forms. The same spirit 
of conciliation, by which Hari and Hara are 
viewed as one, is also found in the Harivamsa 
wherein we hear Markandeya saying to Brahma : 
" When you show me this auspicious vision, 
I perceive that there is no difference between 
Siva who exists in the form of Vishnu and 

Vishnu in the form of Siva He who appears 

as Vishnu is Rudra Bestowers of boons, 

creators of the worlds, self-existent, they are the 
(composite being) half male and half female 
(Ardhanarisvara)....And just as fire entering into 
fire becomes nothing other than fire, so Rudra en- 
tering into Vishnu should possess the nature of 

Vishnu Vishnu, the highest manifestation of 

Rudra, and Siva, the highest manifestation of 
Vishnu, are only one god, though divided into two 
and move continually in the world. Vishnu does 
not exist without Sahkara nor Siva without Kesava; 
hence, these two, Rudra and Upendra (Vishnu) 
have formerly attained oneness." This recon- 
ciliation of Siva with Vishnu seems to be based 
upon the re-discovery of the identity of Rudra, Agni 

54 



SIVA. 

with Aditya, another modification of Agni, as 
found residing in the sky. The Vedic Agni becomes 
Eudra or Siva and the Vedic Aditya becomes 
Vishnu, in the Puranic period. 

The hatred of the followers of the Vedic cult 
towards the Saivas seems to have been also attri- 
butable to the worship by the latter of the phallic 
emblem. The very touch of the ^aiva was con- 
sidered by the Vaidika as imparting pollution, 
because the former set up, from the earliest known 
times, material representations of the ■phallus in 
their temples and offered worship to them. That 
the phallic worship is foreign to the Vedic religion 
becomes quite clear from the references we meet 
with in the Big-Veda. In one place it is stated 
" The glorious Indra defies the hostile kings ; let not 
those whose god is the sisna approach our sacred 
ceremony" and in another we read "Proceeding 
to the conflict, and desiring to acquire them, 
he has gone to, and in hostile array besieged, 
inaccessible places, at the time when, irresistible, 
slaying those whose god is the sisna, he by his 
craft conquered the riches of the city with a 
hundred gates."* The worship of the Phallus 

* " But, Sayaria, following Yaska, interprets the word 
sisnadeva of these two passages as referring to those who 

55 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

which the non-Aryans of India shared with other 
nations who inhabited on the borders of the 
Mediterranean sea, has survived in India to 
this day. The Dhruvaberas in all Siva temples is 
the Lihga surmounted upon the Yoni or the 
pindika (pedestal). It is only in very rare instances 
we meet with the anthropomorphic representations 
of Siva set up as the principal deity in Siva 
temples. This non-Aryan phallic emblem seems 
to have been identified at a later period with 
Skambha of the Vedas, wherein Skambha is con- 
ceived as co-extensive with the universe and 
comprehends in him the various parts of the 
material universe, as also the abstract qualities, 
such as, tapas, faith, truth and divisions of time. 
Ha is distinct from Prajapati, who founds 
the universe upon him. " The thirty-three gods 
are comprehended in him and arose out of 
non-entity, which forms his highest member, as 
well as entity is embraced within him ". The gods 
who form part of him do homage to him. In the 
praise of Skambha we meet with the following 
passages, namely, " Where Skambha, generating, 

sport with the sisna, i.e., unchaste men. Durgaoharya also 
gives the same meaning : he says that the name is applied to 
those who are always dallying oarnally with prostitutes, for- 
saking Vedio observances." 

56 



^IVA. 

brought Puranapurusha into existence" and "Skam- 
bha in the beginning shed forth that gold (hiranya, 
out of which Hiranyagarbha arose) in the midst of 
the world" and lastly " He who knows the golden 
reed standing in the waters is the mysterious 
Prajapati." From the first two of the three pass- 
ages quoted above, we see that one of the functions 
of Skambha is to beget Hiranyagarbha, or Pu- 
ranapurusha, the god of reproduction. He pours 
forth his golden seed in begetting Prajapati. The 
original of the third passage runs thus : Yd vetasam 
hiranyayam tishthantam salile veda sa vai guhyah 
Prajd,patih. In the Big-veda and the Satapatha- 
Brahmana, the word vaitasa has the sense of 
membrum virile. Hence the word vetasa in the 
present passage also might be understood to refer 
to Lihga and the non-Aryan worshippers of the 
phallus might have based the identity of the 
Lihga with the Skambha of the texts of the 
Atharvana veda quoted above. It is this same 
Skambha that has given birth to the purS,nic story 
of Siva's appearance as a blazing pillar between 
Brahma and Vishnu when they were quarrelling 
about the superiority of the one over the other. 
At a later time a sort of philosophical clothing 
is given to the primitive Lihga ; by a section 
of scholars the Lihga and its pedestal are 

57 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

viewed, with some justificatioD, as the repre- 
sentation of the aranis, the two pieces of 
wood which were rubbed together by the Vedic 
Indian in making fire. At that period the upper 
stick was considered as male and the lower as 
female, by the co-operation of which fire was gene- 
rated. If this explanation is to be taken, the object 
generated is the fire, which the Vedic Indian 
identified with Rudra, same as Siva of the later 
mythology and the objects that gave birth to Rudra 
cannot represent the hermaphroditic form of Rudra. 
Hence, it is undoubted that the Linga and the 
Yoni represent the Great Generative Principles 
of the Universe, Purusha and Prakriti. That 
in its earlier stages Linga worship was purely 
phallic can be established by means of a number 
of Sanskrit texts from various works of autho- 
rity. 

The earliest references to the phallic worship 
are, as we have seen above, to be found in the Big- 
Beferences to vsda, where the phallus is called 
Linga worship. ^i^nadeva. When we come to the 
later or the puranic period the references are fuller 
and more explicit. In the Markandeya-Purana there 
occurs the following story : Marhandeya says that 
Rudra and Vishnu are the creators of the Universe 
and they form the Ardhanari^vara aspect of the 

58 



SIVA. 

former deity. Here the allusion is to the Haryardha 
form of Siva, in which the female generative principle 
is identified with Vishnu. That the male and the 
female principles are inseparable and are ever 
found together in cosmic evolution is the real 
import of the Ardhanarisvara or Haryardha forms 
of Siva ; the same idea is also conveyed in a brief 
way by the symbols the lihga and the yoni. In the 
Bhagavata-Purana (second sJcanda) Mahadeva is 
described by Brahma as, " the Parabrahman, the 
lord of Sakti and Siva, who are the womb and 
seed respectively of the universe, who, like a 
spider, forms it in his sport, through the agency of 
Sakti and Siva, (who are one with himself), pre- 
serves and re-absorbs it." The Ling a-fur ana also 
states that Pradhana (nature) is called the Linga 
and Paramesvara is called the Lingin (the 
sustainer of the Linga) and that the pedestal 
of the Linga is Mahadevi (Uma) and the Lihga is 
the visible Mahesvara. A more express allusion 
to the generative power of the Lihga and the yoni, 
the emblems of the Saiva cult, is found in the 
Vishnu-purana, wherein we are told that Brahma 
asked Rudra, born of his anger, to divide himself ; 
thereupon Rudra divided himself into two, a male 
and a female portion. The epithet mahasepha in 
Urddha-keso mahasepho nagno vikrita lochanah 

59 



HINDU ICONOQBAPHY. 

occurring in the Mahabhdrata is also worth noting 
in this connection. A further quotation from the 
same work is also to the point : " And since, 
standing aloft, he consumes the lives of men, and 
since he is fixed, and since his Lihga is perpetually 
fixed, he is called Sthanu . . . and when his Lihga 
remains continually in a state of chastity, and people 
reverence it, this is agreeable to the great God Maha- 
deva. The worshipper of the Lihga who shall adore 
the image {vigraha) or the Lihga of Mahadeva, 
enjoys continually great prosperity. It is the Lihga, 
raised up, which the rishis, gods, gandharvas and 
apsarases worship;" and " He whose seed is raised 
up, whose Lihga is raised up, who sleeps aloft, who 

abides in the sky The Lord of the Lihga, the 

lord of the suras (gods) the lord of the seed, the 

producer of the seed." Sahkaracharya in his 
Saundaryalahari (verse 1) also says " When Siva 
IS united with Sakti, he is able to create, otherwise 
he is unable even to move." The Kuvalayananda 
of Appayya Dikshita begins with " We praise the 
ancient pair, the parents of the universe ; each is 
the end attained by the penance of the other." In 
a work called Anandanubhava it is stated that 
Sakti is of the form of the pleasure derivable from 
Quhya (the female organ) and that Siva is the 
Lihga ; from the union of these two is the cause of 

60 



SIVA. 

the joy that is found in the universe.* Again, in 
an inscription found in the Mysore State, the 
following salutation to Siva and his Devi is 
given.t " The only god, victorious is Siva, the 

ftr«fl^ rT^f%5!5ni5RT^ jwri^ 11 

No. 242, Shikaripur Taluk, Shimoga Dish-icfc, Mysore. 
Ofcher references to the phallic nature of the linga are : — 
1. ^^;nfr iTfWRT: iJUIwillTt rfSTT ^^^ ( 

m ^^wfi wr^j^ (^t*^fkik^'h\ II 

Lingapurana, ch. 100, Vv. 6 & 7. 

5r%: f^i^w ^ "K 5m^ PR^^ II 
^^ S3n% Tiwf?^ siffg^^qsT 2T«rT ii 

BhagaTatapuraoti" 
3. 'TtPrfelTJl^l^ sPTc^^T^^RTH^ I 

Yatulaauddhagama. 
61 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

form of all wisdom, and also Devi ; whose posses- 
sion are the three worlds, unchangeable in the 
universe, ever united, through whose union the 
essence of all things is mingled, the seed from 
which the world is born — do I reverence." In the 
Siva-Lmga-Pratishtha-vidhi, the author Aghora- 
Sivacharya gives a mantra which runs thus : 
Umayai hhaga-rupinyai liiiga-rupadharaya cha 

Saiikaraya yiamastuhhyam ; and which means 

I salute Uma who is in the form of bhaga and 
Sankara is in the form of Lihga. We learn from 
the Siddhantasar avail that the bringing about the 
union of the pltjia which is the symbol of Sakti and 
the linga, that of Siva, in accordance with the rules 
laid down in Saiva sastras is caWed pratishtha.* We 

4. In marking the lines isutras) on the surface of the 
stone lihga, it is stated that the part marked out thus should 
resemble the nut of the (human) lihga : — 

" f^S^Ti^IJ^" 

Similarly in describing the form of the pltha for the 
Lihga, it is required to be made in the shape of the bhaga (the 
human pudendum) : — 

^nrrg^ jj% ^^ts^^ " 

Siddhantasaravali. 
Eamikagama. 

*^ (^ftii^Jiftra'^'Tt'ff^: sfcTsit^crr f^«g^*. 

62 



SIVA. 

can quote several such texts, but those already 
given are more than ample to show the phallic 
nature of linga worship. So much about the evi- 
dences gathered from literature. Let us now turn 
our attention to sculptural evidences. 

The earliest known Lingas, so far as we know 
at present, are two ; one comes from Bhita and is, 
now preserved in the Lucknow Museum. It has 
been described in a brief account contributed by 
Mr. K. D. Banerji to the Annual of the Director 
General of Archaeology for 1909 — 1910. About 
this liiiga of Bhita Mr. Banerji writes, " The top 
of it is shaped as the bust of a male holding a vase 
in his left hand, while the right is raised in the 
abhaya mudra posture. Below this bust, where 
the waist of the figure should have been, are four 
human heads, one at each corner. From the mode 
of dressing the hair and the large rings worn in 
the lobes of the ears, it appears that these are the 
busts of females. They are more or less defaced, 
but still retain suflS.cient detail to admit of identifi- 
cation. The upper part of the head of the male is 
broken, only the portion below the nose being 
extant. The male figure wears a cloth which is 
thrown over the left shoulder, the folds being shown 
by a double line running over the breast. The vase 
held in the left hand resembles to some extent, the 

63 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

ointment vessel found in the figures of Bodhisatvas 
of the Gandhara school. The left ear of the male 
figure bears the circular pendants, which may be 
earrings. In front, immediately below the heads 
of two females, the phallus is marked by deeply 
drawn lines. To the proper left of this is the 
inscription to which I have already referred. The 
lower part of the stone has been shaped as a tenon 
to be fitted in a mortice. 

" The inscription is in a good state of preser- 
vation, and with the exception of the last three 
letters, can be deciphered very easily." The tran- 
slation of the inscription is given by Mr. Banerji 
as follows : " The Linga of the sons of Khajahuti, 
was dedicated by Nagasiri, the son of Vasethi. 
May the deity be pleased."* 

From the description given by Mr. Banerji it is 
evident that it is a Muhhalihga having five faces 
corresponding to the Isana, Tatpurusha, Aghora, 
Vamadeva and Sadyojata aspects of Siva. In the 
description of Muhhalingas given elsewhere in this 
book, it will be seen that the face representing Isana 
should be on the top, while the other four should 
face the east, south, west and north respectively. 



* The text of this inscription reads as follows : Khajahuti- 
putanam l[im]go patithdpito Vdsethi-putcna Ndgasirind piya- 
ytaitk] d[e]vaid. 

64 



PLATE I. 






[To fac epage 65.] 



SIVA. 

The four faces on the four corners which are 
believed by Mr. Banerji might be of females are 
really those of male figures. (See PI. I.) 

The palaeography of the inscription found 
engraved at the bottom of this Linga is its most 
important feature, for, it enables us to determine 
the approximate age of this most interesting anti- 
quarian object. With the help of the characters, 
Mr. E. D. Banerji has correctly guessed the age of 
the Linga to be the first century B.C. 

The second most ancient Linga is the one 
discovered by me at Gudimallam some years ago 
and which has not been described in detail hitherto. 
It is one of the most perfect pieces of sculpture 
of its class and is of great value in connection with 
the history and nature of the linga worship. 
Gudimallam is a village situated at a distance of 
six miles to the north-east of Eenigunta, a railway 
junction station on the Madras and Southern Maha- 
ratta Eailway. In this place, there is an ancient 
temple with several inscriptions in it ; the god of 
that temple, the Linga under consideration, is 
known from ancient times by the name of Parasu- 
ramesvara and the linga is still in puja. Being a 
badly managed temple, scarcely any oil is spent 
upon bathing the images, a fact which accounts for 
the linga being in the same condition as when it 

65 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

was carved ; there is no oily dirt on it and the high 
polish is in no way lost ; but there are a few chips 
here and there, and it is not known if they have 
existed from the beginning or came into existence 
at a later period. It is very probably the latter. 
The liiiga is made of a reddish igneous rock, very 
brittle and compact in its composition which takes 
very high polish and which is found in the Tirupati 
hills which pass near the temple of Parasurames- 
vara. The Linga is set directly on the floor 
of the central shrine and the pindiJca or the 
pedestal is cut out in the form of a quadrangular 
ridge on the ground ; it is exactly five feet in 
height and bears upon its front portion a beautiful 
figure of Siva. This figure of Siva has two 
arms, in the right one of which a ram is held by 
its hind legs and with its head hanging down- 
wards (see fig. 4, PI. V) ; in the left one is held a 
water-pot (fig. 3, PI. V), and a battle-axe {para&u) 
rests upon the left shoulder (fig. 2, PI. V). On the 
head of the figure of Siva is a covering, resembling 
a turban, of plaited, — not matted, — hair (see 
PI. Ill and fig. 9, PI. IV). The face is distinctly 
Mongoloid in its features, with a somewhat snub 
nose, high cheek-bones, narrow forehead and 
oblique eyes. This last item agrees well with 
Virupaksha (he with oblique eyes), one of the 

66 






i^ja*fai**tii — 



PLATE III. 




Bust of the image of Siva on the Gudimallam Linga, 



[To face page 66 ] 



PLATE IV. 



Details ot ornaments in the Gudimallam Sculpture 



Fia, 1 



Fig, 2 



Fig. 4 




[To face page 67.] 



SIVA. 

names of Siva. There are kun^alas in the ears 
(fig. 1, PI. IV), the lobes of which are distended 
so as to hang down as far as the shoulders ; 
on each of the upper-arms is a highly finished 
ornamental band {angada) and on the forearms 
five bracelets of different patterns (see figs. 2 — 7, 
PI. IV). Round the neck is to be seen a neck- 
lace of rare workmanship (fig. 8, PL IV) ; it 
is noteworthy that there is no yajnopavUa, the 
Brahmanical sacred thread, which is insisted upon 
in all Agamas. The image wears a cloth on the 
loins, which, from its sculpture, appears to be of a 
very fine texture, for the thighs and the organ are 
visible through it very distinctly. The creases and 
smaller folds of the cloth running across the thighs 
are very well executed, and the larger and heavier 
folds flow down between the two legs. 

The figure of Siva stands astride upon the 
shoulders of a Rakshasa — the Apasmara-purusha — 
who is sitting on the ground on his haunches and 
supporting himself wit;h his hands which are 
planted on the ground near the feet. He too has 
a sort of jatamakuta on his head and a hara of 
beads round his neck. He is swarthy and burly in 
the build of his body, possesses a pair of pointed 
animal ears and is, withal, jolly and happy, as is 
evidenced from the broad grin on his face. 

67 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

The Linga itself is composed of two parts, the 
nut and the shaft of the membrum virile, each 
of them shaped exactly Uke the original model, 
in a state of erection. On PI. II are given the 
front, the side and the back views of the Linga, a 
reference to which will enable the reader to form 
an excellent idea of the exactitude with which the 
sculptor has modelled this Linga in imitation of 
the human phallus. The longitudinal facets on 
the erect organ (urddhava-retas) are also represent- 
ed in this Linga. 

There is a very close resemblance of the figure 
of Siva on this Linga to that of a yaksha in the 
Sanchi Stupa, figured on page 36 of Grunwedel's 
" Buddhist Art in India " (translated by Gibson 
and Burgess) ; the face, the ear and the ear-orna- 
ment, the arms and the ornaments thereon, the 
necklace the details of the workmanship of these 
jewels and the peculiar arrangement of the drapery, 
particularly the big folds that descend between the 
legs, — ^all these are exactly alike both in the image 
of Siva on the Linga at Gudimallam and in the 
picture of the Yaksha referred to above. The date 
of the sculpture represented in the latter picture 
has been fixed to be the second century B.C.* 

* " 143 Before Christ (dr.). Probable date of Sanohi 
gateways." Grunwedel, p. 5. 

68 



PLATE V. 






[To face page 69,] 



SIVA. 

This naturally leads us to the inference that the 
image of Siva might also belong to the first century 
at least of the Christian era, if not to a still earlier 
period. Again, from the exact likeness of the Gudi- 
mallam Lihga to the human phallus, it is certain 
that Linga worship was not of a mere symbol 
(linga), nor of a simple pillar (sthdnu), but is 
beyond doubt phallic in its nature.* That this is 
the real origin of Lihga worship even at the pre- 
sent day is easily seen from the rules laid down in 
the Agamas for making a Lihga, as also from the 
innumerable sculptures of Lihga, found throughout 
the length and breadth of India. (For an exhaus- 
tive treatment of Lihga, see the Chapter on 
Lihgas). 

Because it is established to be phallic in its 
nature, some may be inclined to consider Lihga 
worship obscene and immoral. There is nothing in 
it to be , ashamed of ; the two great Generative 
Principles of the Universe, Siva and Sakti, or 
Purusha and Prakriti, the father and mother of all 
creations, the energy and matter of the physical 
scientist, is symbolised briefly in the form of the 

* For a third ancient linga which is also sculptured like 
the human phallus, see fig. 1, PI. V. It is set up in the 
central shrine of the Siva Temple at Chennittalai, a village in 
Central Travancore. 

69 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

lihga and the yoni. For the past two thousand 
years at least, the Hindus, males and females, have 
been offering worship to this symbol of the Great 
Architect of the Universe, without in the least 
adverting to or feeling conscious of the so-called 
obscenity of this pure symbol of the fatherhood and 
motherhood of the supreme deity ; to them it is a 
symbol and nothing more ; there is nothing obscene 
in connection with its worship ; the simplest and 
the purest materials, such as water from a well 
reserved for ceremonial purposes, flowers, incense 
and freshly cooked rice and cakes, are used in 
the worship of the Lihga. If there be any the 
slightest lack of cleanliness and purity on the part 
of the officiating priest, it would be passed over un- 
noticed in a Vishnu temple ; but never in a Siva 
temple, where absolute purity and cleanliness are 
rigorously demanded from the pujari. Thus, what- 
ever might have been the original setting and the 
import of the symbolism, at the present time they 
are forgotten and lost ; and the worship of the 
Lihga and the yoni, is absolutely* and thoroughly 



* The attentiou of the reader may here be drawn to a 
little book entitled " Prinaitive Symbolism as illustrated in 
Phallio Worship" by Hodder M. Westrop, published by 
Messrs. Geo. Eedvay in London. In this, the author has 
collected information about the existence, in the past and 

70 



free from even the remotest associations of any 
kind of immorality or indecency. 

The great antiquity of §iva worship is estab- 
lished by a number of references in ancient inscrip- 
tions ; some of these references are given on page 8 
of the General Introduction in Volume I of this 
publication. 

Having considered at some length the history 
and nature of Siva worship, I now proceed to a 
systematic description of the various images of 
6iva in the subsequent chapters. 

present;, of pballio worship in several countries — Greece, Egypt, 
Borne, Assyria, Ancient Ameroia, &c. Linga worship or wor- 
ship of Priapus, or fascinum or Pripe-gala continued to exist, 
according to Boudia, till the 12th century A.D. in Germany, 
81avonia and France. In France a document entitled Sacerdo- 
tal Judgments on Crimes, of the 8th century A.D. is said to 
contain the following : "If any one performs enchantments 
before the fascinum, let him do penance on bread and water 
during three lents." 



71 



LINGAS. 



10 



LINGAS. 



SIVA is worshipped in a number of anthro- 
pomorphic forms, as also in the symbol of 
Linga. The more common representation is the 
latter. As has been said already, the chief image in 
the central shrine of a ^iva temple, is, in a large 
majority of instances, the Lihga. Very rarely do we 
meet with anthropomorphic images of Siva in the 
central shrines, and where they are seen, as in 
some temples of the Pallava period in South India, 
they occupy a position subordinate to the Lihga. 

Lingas are broadly divided into two classes, 
namely, the chala-lingas and the acliala-lingas, 
that is, the moveable and the immoveable Lingas. 
To the latter class belong the large and heavy stone 
Lingas which are permanently set up in the central 
shrines of Siva temples. A description of the 
different varieties of the chala-lingas, had better 
be given first before proceeding to deal with the 
important class of achala-lingas. 

75 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

The chala-lingas are divided into mrinmaya 
(those made of earth), lohaja (of 
jlglmaLfnVs' metals), ratnaja (of precious 
stones), daruja (of wood), 'sailaja 
(of stone) and JcshaniJca ling as, (those made for the 
occasion and disposed of immedi- 
Lingas. "'^"^^^^ ately their use is over). The 
mrinmaya lingas may be of baked 
or unbaked clay. For making an unbaked clay 
lihga it is stated in the Eamikagama that white 
clay, gathered from pure places, such as the tops 
of hills and banks of rivers, should be mixed with 
milk, curds, ghee, as also the flours of wheat and 
barley, the barks of milky trees, powdered sandal 
paste, mercury, etc., and the whole mass is then 
well mixed up and kneaded and kept for a fortnight 
or, at the most, a month. The linga is then shaped 
according to the instructions given in the Agamas 
for that purpose. The baked clay linga is used for 
abMcharika purposes; that is, for incantations such 
as those made to bring about the destruction of an 
enemy. 

The lohaja lingas may be made of the follow- 
ing eight metals, namely, gold, 

The Lohaja 

Lingas and the silver, copper, bell-metal, iron, lead, 

Katnaja Lingas. 

brass and tin. Similarly, the ratna- 
ja-lihgas may be carved in pearls, coral, cat's-eya 

76 



LINGAS. 

(vai^urya) quartz crystal, topaz (pushyaraga), 
emerald and bluestone ; that is, the ratnas or 
precious stones employed in making lingas are 
seven in number. The Daruja lingas are made of 
the timber of the kami, madhuTca, 

The Daruja 

liingas. JcarniMra, manduJca, tinduha, 

arjuna, pippala, and udumbara trees ; besides 
these, the timber of all such trees as have 
barks which exude a milky latex when cut, is also 
mentioned as good for making lingas; one such 
tree is the jack and it is very largely employed in 
the Malabar Coast for carving very fine specimens 
of images. The Kamikagama adds many more 
trees, such as the Tihadira, the chandana, the sdla, 
the bilva, the badara and the devadaru, the timber 

of which is also fit for making 
L^gL.^*^^*""* lingas. The stone Zm^^as included 

in the class of chala-lihgas are 
perhaps those small ones which are worn on the 
person by the people of the sect of Saivas known 
as the Jangamas, Lingavantas or Lingayats, or 
Vira Saivas. The hshai^Uca-lingas are those that 
The Kshanika are made then and there for puja 

cast away. They may be made of saikatam 
(sand), uncooked rice, cooked rice, river-side clay, 
cow "dung, butter, rudraJcsha seeds, sandal paste, 

77 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

kurcha grass, flowers, jaggery, and flour. It is said 
that worshipping a Imga made of 

Effect of wor- FJr- & J 

shipping various gold grants wealth (sripradam) ; 

kinds of Lingas. ^ ^ \ f / > 

one of uncooked rice, vibhava ; a 
linga made of cooked rice, grants the worshipper 
plenty of food ; a lihga made of clay gathered from 
river banks, grants landed estates ; of cow-dung, 
removes all disease ; of butter, gives one a jovial 
temper ; of BudraJcsha seeds^ grants knowledge ; 
one of sandal paste, is prescribed for those who 
desire saubhagya, while that of kurcha grass for 
seekers after soul-liberation ; a linga composed of 
flowers grants long life ; one made of jaggery con- 
fers all desired ends and that made of flour strength. 

* In the Uttara-kdnda of the Bdmdyana it is stated that 
wherever Eavaria went, he carried with him a golden linga for 
his worship : placing that linga in the midst of a pedestal of 
sand, Eavana made pujd to it with incense and flowers of fine 
smell iyatra yatra cha ydtisma Bdvano rdkshaseivara 
jdmbunadamayam lihgam sthdpya Bdvanah archaydmdsa 
gandhaischdmrita gandhibhih). The commentator remarks 
" that the golden lihga was intended for constant worship. He 
worshipped it from the desire of sovereignty. For it is pre- 
scribed in the Tantras that a golden lihga should be worshipped 
when any one desires sovereignty. (TaZ -lihgam jambunada- 
mayam nitya-pujd lihgam aisvarya kdma^idya hi tal-lihga- 
pUjd Bdvanasya aisvarya kdmasya sauvarna- lihga-pujdyastan- 
ifeshuktah.) 

78 



LINGAS. 

It is further stated that the Imgas made of 
metals, precious stones etc., should have only 
the puja,-bhaga or the portion which is projecting 
above the pedestal in achala-lingas, together with 
the pindika or the pedestal ; in other words, these 
liiigas need not be made with the Brahmabhaga 
and the Vishi}u-bhdga and then set up in a separate 
pindika ; the pindika and that portion of the linga 
which is to be visible and which is known by the 
name of the Budra-bhaga are to be either carved 
out of a single block of precious stone or cast in 
metals. No rules need be observed, as in the case 
of achala-lingas in shaping the chala-lingas and 
they need not bear on them the lines that are 
required to be marked on the achala-lingas. 

The achala or sthavara-lingas are, according 

The Achala or *o '^16 Suprabheddgama, classified 
sthavaraLingas. ^^^g^. ^-^^ j^^^^^^^ namely, the 

Svayambhuva, the Purva (or Purana), the Daivata, 
the Granapatya, the Asura, the Sura, the Arsha, the 
Rakshasa, the Manusha, and the Bana lingas.* Of 

*Tbe Mdnasdra has another olassifioation acoording to whioh 
the achala-lingas are of eixkinds, namely, Saivalinga, Fasupata- 
Lifiga, Kalamukha-Lihga, Yama-Linga, Bbairava-Linga and 
a variety whioh is not mentioned ; but it gives no description of 
any of these lingas. fellTRf^ ^n^riSf^ot ^Sg^rr I Irt 

79 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

these, the Svayambhuva, are said to belong to the 
Their ciaesifica- uttamottama (most superior) variety 
*'^°"' of lingas ; those belonging to the 

Daivata and the Ganapatya classes, are of the 
Uttamamadhyama (middling superior) variety ; 
whereas the Asura, the Sura and the Arsha lingas 
belong to the nUamadhama (lowest among the 
superior) variety. The Manuslialihgas belong to the 
madhyamadhmna (middling among the inferior) 
variety. 

The Makutagama recognises only four classes 
of sthira-lingas, namely, the Daivika, the Arshaka, 
the Ganapa, and the Manusha lingas, whereas the 
most authoritative of all the Saiva Agamas, the 
Kamihagama states that the sthavara-lihgas are 
divided into six classes, the Svayambhuva, the 
Daivika, the Arshaka, the Ganapatya, the Manusha 
and the Bana lingas. Though there is apparent 
diversity among the statements of the various 
Agamas in the classification of the sthdvara lingas, 
practically there is no difference at all in them ; 
some of them include the minor varieties under the 
major heads and swell the list, while others are 
somewhat more rigorous in keeping apart the major 
and the minor divisions among the sthavara lingas. 
The Svayambhuva Linga is described in the 
K&mikagama as one which rose up and came in 

80 



LINGAS. 

into existence by itself and had existed from time 
immemorial. As such, even if 
bhuvaLinga, these are slightly damaged by 
causes such as fire, wild elephants, 
inundation or encroachment of rivers, enemies of 
religion like the Tulushkas, * madmen or men 
possessed by devils, they need no re-setting up 
(jirnoddhara). If anything at all is necessary, it 

*While oommenting on the word ripavah, Nigamajnana- 
deva, son of Vamadevasivaoharya says, ripavah iatruvastulush- 
kddaya : Yamadeva was a contemporary and protege of a king 
called Sambhuvaraya. There are three or four Sambhu- 
varayas, (that is, members of a dynasty of chiefs who styled 
themselves Sambhuvarayas), of whom the Sambhuvaraya, 
the patron of Vamadeva seems to be Eajanarayana Sambhu- 
varayar, whose initial date is A. D. 1322-23. In one 
of the inscriptions discovered by me at Tiruvamattur and 
which is dated 1335-6 A.D., it is said that the Turukkar 
invaded some time previously and caused ruin to the country 
and that the puja in the Siva temple at Tiruvamattur was 
suspended for want of funds and that Eajanarayana Sambhu- 
varayar granted some lands and money to revive the pujas. 
This Bajanarayana constructed a gopura in the Arunaoha- 
lesvara temple at Tiruvannamalai ; sitting in this gopura, 
Vamadeva wrote the original and commentary of the Jirnod- 
dhara dasaka. Hence, the invasion and havoc caused to the 
temples by the Mussalmans under Malik Eafur, the general of 
Alla-ud-din Khilji, were fresh in the mind of the author who, 
therefore, includes in the term ripavah, the Tulushkas. 

81 
11 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

is but a few ceremonials that might be done to 
purify the linga from pollution. If a portion of the 
Svayambhuva Linga is broken, the broken part is 
required, if possible, to be bound with the main part 
with bands of gold or copper; if however, the damage 
is such as to prevent the pieces being bound together 
the broken part may be thrown away. If, however, 
a Svayambhuva Linga is, by some cause or other, 
completely removed from its setting and thrown 
out, the event would cause the king his destruc- 
tion as also of his kingdom, perhaps because he 
and his officers, responsible for the safety of such 
objects of hoary antiquity, were negligent in their 
duty. In fact, a Svayambhuva Linga is considered 
so sacred that it is above all the rules laid down in 
the Agamas for the other classes of Lihgas, If 
such indeed be the superiority of the Svayambhuva 
Lihgas over others, it is no wonder that every 
village claims the Svayambhuva nature for the 
Linga set up in its temple. Sixty-eight places, 
which are situated in various parts of India, are 
said to possess Svayambhuva Lihgas and a list 
of these places, is given in the commentary on his 
Jirnoddhdia-dasakani by Nigamajnanadeva of 
Vyaghrapura, son of VdmadevaHvacharya* 

* The sixty-eight places wherein Svayambhuva Lingas 
are said to be found are : — 

82 



LliJGAS. 



The Daivika Lingas are recognised, according 
to the MaJcutagama, by their 
characteristic shapes. They may 



The Daivika 
Linga. 



No. 


Place. 


Name of tbe deity. 


1 


Varaciasi 


Mahadeva. 


2 


Prayaga 


Mahesvara. 


3 


Naimisa 


Devadevesa. 


i 


Gaya 


Prapitamaba. 


5 


Kurukahetra 


Stba^u. 


5-a 


Prabhasa 


Sasibbjishaiia. 


6 


Pusbkara 


Ajogandba. 


7 


Vimalelvara 


Visva. 


8 


Attabasa 


Mabanada. 


9 


Mabendra 


Mabavrata. 


10 


Ujjayini 


Mabakala. 


11 


Mabakota 


Mabotkata. 


12 


Sankukarna 


Mabatejas. 


13 


Gokarria 


Mababala. 


14 


Eudrakoti 


Mabayogi. 


15 


Mahaliugstbala 


Isvara. 


16 


Harsbaka 


Harsbaka. 


17 


Visvamadhya 


Mabesvara. 


18 


Kedara 


Isana. 


19 


Himalaya 


Eudrarudra. 


20 


Svarnaksba 


Sabasraksba. 


21 


Vilvesa 


Yrisbabbadbvaja. 



83 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY, 
be of the shape of a flame or resemble a pair of 



No, 


Place. 


Name of the deity. 


22 


Bhadravata 


Bhadra. 


23 


Bhairava 


Btiairava. 


24 


Kanakhala 


Eudra. 


25 


Bhadrakarna 


Sadasiva. 


26 


Devadaruvana 


Dandi. 


27 


Kurujangala 


Cbandesa. 


28 


Tri8andhi 


Urdhvaretas. 


29 


Jangala 


Kaparddi. 


30 


Ekagrama (?) 


Krittivaaas. 


31 


Mritakesvara 


Siakshma. 


32 


KalaSjara 


Niiakanfcha. 


33 


Vimalesvara 


Srika^tba. 


34 


Siddhesvara 


Dlivani. 


35 


Mritakesvara 


Gayatri. 


36 


Kasmira 


Vijaya. 


37 


Makufcesvara 


Jayanta. 


38 


Kritesvara 


Bhasmakaya. 


39 


Kailasachala 


Kirata. 


40 


Vrishasthana 


Yamalinga. 


41 


Karavira 


Kritalihga. 


42 


Trisandhi (?) 


Tryambaka. 


43 


Viraja 


Triloohana. 


44 


Dipfca 


Mahesvara. 


45 


Nepala 


Pasupati. 



84 



LINGAS. 
hands held in the anjali pose ; they may have rough 



No. 


Place. 


Name of the deity. 


46 


Karohaiia 


Lakuli. 


47 


Ambika 


Utnapabi. 


48 


Gangasagara 


Anaara. 


49 


Harisohandra 


Hara. 


50 


Mahesvara 


Omkara. 


51 


Kuruehandra 


Sankara. 


52 


Vamesvara 


Jatila. 


53 


Makutesvara 


Sausruti. 


54 


Saptagodavara 


Bhima. 


55 


Nagaresvara 


Svayambhu. 


56 


Jalesvara 


Trisuli. 


57 


Kailasa 


Tripurantaka. 


58 


Karnikara 


Gajadhyaksha. 


59 


Kailasa (?) 


Gartadhipa. 


60 


Hemakuta 


Virupaksha. 


61 


Gandhamadana 


Bhurbhuva. 


62 


Himasthana 


Gangadhara. 


63 


Badabamnkha 


I Anala. 
IDanavari (?) 


64 


Vindhyaparvata 


Varaha. 


65 


Kobitlrtha 


Ugra. 


66 


Isbtikapura (in Lanka?). 


Varishta. 


67 


Patala . . 


Hatakesvara. 


68 


Lingesvara 


Varada. 


69 


Gajapriya 


Jalalinga. 



85 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

exterior with elevations and depressions, deep 
hollows and scars resembling taiika (chisel) and 
sula (trident). The Daivika Lihgas do not possess 
the brahma or the parsvasutras. 

The Ganapa-lihgas are those that are believed 

to have been set by Ganas. They are of the shape 

The Ganapa of the fruits of cucumber, citron, 

Lingas and the — 

Arsha liingas. wood-apple Or palm. The Arsha 
Lihgas are those set up and worshipped by Kishis ; 
they are spheroidal in shape, with the top portion 
less broad than the lower portion ; in other words, 
they are like an unhusked cocoanut fruit. Both 
the Ganapa lihgas and the Arsha lihgas, like the 
Daivika lihgas, are without the brahma-sutras. The 
Kiranagama informs us that the Svayambhuva, the 
Arsha and the Daivika lihgas have no shape (rupa) 
and no measurements {mana) and are recognised 
only by their respective shapes. 

The largest number of the achala or the 
The Manusha stJiavard lihgas, are of the class of 
^^^^*®' Manusha lihgas. As the name 

indicates, this class of lihgas consists of those set 
up by human hands. They are sculptured in accord- 
ance with the rules definitely laid down in the 
Agamas and consist of ten classes. The measure- 
ment of the Manusha Lihgas depend upon any one 
of the following, namely, the height of door-way of 

86 



LIl?fGAS. 

the central shrine, the length of one side of the 
central shrine (which is generally cubical in shape) 
or the natural unit, the hasta or the cubit. The 
Manusha lingas are made up of three parts, namely, 
the lowest which is square in section and is known 
as the Brahma-bhaga, the middle of octagonal 
section, known as the Vishnubhaga and the top- 
most, of generally circular section, known as the 
Eudrabhaga ; the lengths of these parts vary with 
the different classes of lingas. On the Eudrabhaga 
of all Manusha lingas are carved certain lines 
called brahma sutras, and the tops of the lingas 
technically known as sirovarttana are fashioned in 
a number of forms ; the rules for tracing the 
hrahma-sutras and for making the iirovarttanas 
will be described in a subsequent portion of this 
chapter. 

The lingas whose measurements depend upon 
the length of the side of the central 

Lengths of the 

Sarvadesika Lin- shrme are called the Sarvadesifca 
&»• 

lingas ; different proportions which 

are fractions such as three-fifths, five-ninths, or 

half, of the length or breadth of the central shrine 

are prescribed for the lengths of the lingas, which 

are further classed under uttavia, madliyama and 

adhama or the superior, the middling and the 

inferior varieties. 

87 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

The second class of the Manusha liiigas is 
Of sarvasama called the Sarvasama linga. It is 
^"^^*' also called Sarvatobhadra in the 

Mayamata and the K^mikagama. 

In the Sarvasama* class of lingas the brahma- 

bhaga, the Vishnubhaga and the 
mliJist^^^' Rudrabhaga are equal in length; 

whereas in the class known as the 
Varddhamana linga, t which is also known, accord- 
ing to the Siddhantasdravali, as the Suredhya 
linga, the proportion of the Brahmabbaga, the 
Vishnubhaga and the Rudrabhaga are as 4, 6, 6 or 
5, 6, 7, or 6, 7, 8, or 7, 8, 9. Of these the 
proportion 4, 5, 6 is prescribed for Brahmanas and 
the other three for the Kshatriyas, the Vaisyas 

and the Sudras respectively. The 
Li°iatf '^"^^'^^ lengths of the Brahmabbaga etc., 

in the Saivadhikaj: lingas are ac- 
cording to the Kamihagama, the Karanagama and 
the Mayamata are 7, 7, 8 or 5, 5, 6 or 4, 4, 5 
or 3, 3, 4, respectively ; and are meant for the four 
castes respectively beginning with the Brahmanas. 

* Literally ' all-equal '. 

+ Literally ' of ascending order of lengths.' 

I Literally ' with the Saiva part of larger length.' 



LINGAS. 

Of Svastika T^^^^ class appears to be the same 
"^^*®' as the Anadhya linga of the 8id- 

dhantasar avail. The proportion of the lengths of 
the Brahmabhaga and other parts in the Svastika 
linga, is given in the KamiJcagama and the Maya- 
mata as 2, 3, 4 respectively. In the class known 
Of Trairasika ^^ ^^^ Trairasika or Traibhagika 
"^^^^- lingas, the lengths of the various 

parts are given as follows: dividing the whole length 
of the linga into nine equal parts, the periphery of 
the Brahmabhaga should be equal to eight of these 
parts, that of the Vishnubhaga seven and that of 
the Rudrabhaga six. It should be noted here that 
the diameter of the linga is not given and we have to 
deduce it from the periphery ; supposing that the total 
length of the liiiga is nine feet, the length of each 
division is one foot. If, as we have already said, the 
periphery of the square section of the brahmabhaga 
is eight times one division, the length of a side of the 
square will be two feet. The same is the length of 
the diameter of the octagon and the circle inscribed 
in this square. Mathematically the proportions of 
the periphery of the square, and the octagon and the 
circle inscribed in it are approximately 8, 6. 624* 

* 8r, 16 tan 22 '5° and 2Hr, respectively where »' = tbe 
radius of the circular Eudrabhaga, which we have assumed 
to be = l. 

89 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

and 6.3 times one division. (See fig. 1, PL VII.) 
Thus there is a slight discrepancy between the 
proportions laid down in the Agamas and those 
obtained mathematically. All the works, such as 
the KamiJcagama, the Raranagania, the Supra- 
bhedagama and the Mayamata are uniform in giving 
«^ j.^ « jv. tbe same proportions to the three 

Of the Adhya ^ "^ 

Linga, parts of the Trairasika-lihga. There 

is yet one more class of lingas, the Adhya-lihga of 
the Siddhantasar avail : the lengths of the Brahma- 
bhaga, the Vishnubhaga and the Sivabhaga of this 
variety are given as 8|, 8 and 7J respectively. So 
far about the lengths of the various classes of 
lingas. I shall now proceed to the general rule 
regarding the width of lingas. 

The Siddhantasdravali lays down the foUow- 
.^...r. r ing rule for fixing the widths of the 

Widths of _ ° ° 

Lingas. Adhya, the Anadhya, the Suredhya 

and the Sarvasama lingas : divide the total length 
of the lihga into sixteen equal parts ; the width of 
the Adhya liiiga should be six of these parts ; that of 
the Anadhya liiiga, five ; that of the Suredhya liiiga, 
four ; and lastly of the Sarvasama liiiga, five ; the 
width of the three parts having the square section, 
the octagonal section and the circular section 
of the linga is obviously the same throughout. 

90 



LINGAS. 

The Mayamata gives the widths of the various 
lingas in greater detail. 

The central shrines of Hindu temples are 
roughly divided according to their ground plans 
and superstructure into three classes, namely, the 
Nagara, the Dravida, and the Vesara classes. 

The width of the Unga to be set up in the 
central shrine of the Nagara variety 
Lingas^ Nagara jg given in the Mayamata as 
follows : divide the total length of 
the linga, (which itself depends upon the length of 
one side of the central shrine),* into sixteen equal 
parts : the widths of the linga that is to be set up 
in it might be 6, 4 or 3 of these parts. The one 
with a width of five parts is known as the Jayada 

* The central shrines of all Siva temples are square in 
plan. The length of the adhamddhama or the most inferior 
linga that might be set up in the Nagara type of central shrine 
is .5 of the length of one side of the central shrine and that 
of the Uttamottama or the most superior liiiga is .6. Between 
these two extreme limits are seven varieties of lihgas, the 
adhama-madhyama, adhamottama ; madhyamadhama, madh- 
yama-madhyama, madhyambttama ; uttamadhama and uttama- 
madhyama ; these have lengths obtained by adding a seventh 
part of the difference in length between the uttamottama and 
the adhamddhama varieties, which in the case of the Nagara 
temples is .1. 

91 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

or the victory-bestowing variety ; that with a width 
of four parts is of the PaushtiJca or the strength- 
bestowing variety and that of a width of three 
parts, the SarvaJcamika or the all-desires-bestowing 
variety. 

In the case of the lihgas to be set up in the 

Of Dravida Gravida form of central shrines, 
^"'^*^- the following rule gives their 

widths : divide the total length of the lihga* into 
twenty-one equal parts : the lihga whose width is six 
of these parts is called the Jayada lihga ; that 
whose width is five parts is Paushtika and that 
whose width is four parts is Sarvakamika. 

The Jayada, Paushtika and S&rvakamika 

Of V e s a r a Hhgas Set up in the Vesara class of 
Lingas. central shrines have the following 

proportions : if the total length of the lihga\ is 

* The length of the Uttamottama class of the linga set up 
in the Dravida temple is 13/21, part of the length of one side 
of the oentral shrine ; that of the adhamddhama is 10/21 and 
the difference is 3/21 or 1/7. Dividing this difference into 
seven equal parts and adding one, two, etc., of these latter 
smaller parts to the length of the adhamadhama lihga we 
obtain the seven varieties of lihgas of intermediate lengths. 

^ The length of the Uttamottama lihga of the Vesara type 
of the garbha-griha is 16/25 of the side of the central shrine; that 
of the adhamadhama, 13/25 and the difference in their lengths 
is 3/25 ; this difference is divided into seven equal parts ; by the 

92 



Plate VI. 





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[To face page 93,] 



liSgas. 

divided into twenty-five equal parts, the width of 
the Jayada Ivhga is eight parts ; that of the 
PaushtiJca, seven parts ; and of the Sarvakamika, 
six parts. 

A few of the lingas described above are drawn 
to scale and are reproduced on PI. VI ; it might be 
noticed that they have different types of tops, some 
resembling a half-moon ; some, the top of an 
umbrella and others, shaped like the egg. The 
process of rounding of these tops is technically 
known as the making of the sirdvarttana. Minute 
rules are laid down for producing the various tops, 
about which it is necessary to give here a brief 
account. 

The tops of lingas are of several kinds, the most 
The tops of important of which are five, accord- 
^^^^*®' ing to the Mayamata, and four 

according to the Siddhantasaravali. They are 
named respectively chhatrakara, tripushdkara, 
kukkutandakdra, arddha-chandrdkdra and bud- 
buda-sadrisa meaning the umbrella-shaped, the cu- 
cumber-shaped, the egg-shaped, the half-moon- 
shaped and the bubble-like respectively. The 
last named variety has been omitted by the 
Siddhdntasardvali, probably because its author is 

addition of one, two, etc., of these smaller parts to the adhamd- 
dhama variety we get seven lingas of intermediate lengths. 

93 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

inclined to include it in the arddha-chandrakara 
class. These different forms represent difierent 
conic sections and the rules relating to their 
formation are of greater interest to the mathemati- 
cian than to the iconographer ; they are of great 
use to the sculptor. These rules would help an 
investigation into the various curves known to the 
Hindus and furnish some materials for the study of 
the History of Hindu mathematics. As these 
rules are extremely minute and are not quite easy 
to understand they have been omitted here ; but the 
original texts have been inserted in the appendix 
for the benefit of those who can make any use of 
them. 

There is yet one more detail in the making of 
a lihga, without which the liiiga 

Brabma-sutras . 

does not become complete and fit 
for worship ; it is the tracing of certain lines known 
as the hrahma-sutras on the lihga. Two vertical 
lines are engraved on the surface of the iJttdraft/ia^a 
(or the pujabhaga, as it is often referred to in the 
Agamas). The length of these lines* should be, ac- 
cording to the Siddhantasdravali, determined by the 

* These lines are oalled by the name of lakshanoddhdrana 
in Mayamata ; manirekhd, pdrsva-sutra, etc., are also other 
names of these. 

94 




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LI^GAS. 

following rule : divide the length of the pujabhaga 
of the linga into three equal parts : divide further 
the two lower parts into eight equal divisions : now 
the distance between the two parallel vertical lines 
should be one of these smaller divisions ; the thick- 
ness and depths of the lines, should be one-ninth 
of this division : two lines are to be traced, one on 
either side, which should begin from near the tops 
of the vertical lines, descend sloping down and 
removed farther aod farther from the central 
double parallel lines until they reach a distance 
which is two divisions from the lowest portion of 
the pujabhaga ; then the two sloping side-lines, 
{pdrsva sutras), should be traced in a horizontal 
plane so as to meet each other at the back. (See 
fig. 1, PI. VI, PI. VII and fig. 1, PI. X). The two 
central vertical parallel lines should be joined at 
their tops by a curved line whose curvature should 
resemble that of the top or (siras) of the linga. 
Among the Manusha-lingas are included five 

more varieties, namely, the Ash- 
sataLinga?***''* tfittara-sata-Unga, the Sahasra- 

linga, the Dhara-linga, the 8ai- 
veshtyalinga and the Mukha linga. Of these, the 
first, the asMottara-sata-lihga or the 108 minia- 
ture lingas are required to be carved on the -puja- 
bhaga of the Suredhya linga. They are produced 

95 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

by cutting four equidistant horizontal deep lines 
on the surface of the pujdbhaga ; at right angles to 
these and parallel to the axis of the lihga are to be 
carved twenty-seven deep lines. The portions of 
the surface of the main liiiga formed by the inter- 
section of the vertical and horizontal lines are 
small oblongular blocks, which are later on shaped 
into the form of the pujdbhaga of the ordinary 
lihgas by rounding the sides and the top. Thus 
are formed a hundred and eight lihgas (practically 
hsM-lihgas) attached on the back to the main lihga 
(See fig. 2, PI. VII, and fig. 1, PI. VIII). 

The Sahasra-lihga is obtained in exactly the 
same manner as the ashtpttara- 

lK.^*^^^''* ^^^'^■^"^^^- "^^^ carving of the 
thousand and one lihgas should be 
done on the surface of the pujdbhaga of an Adhya- 
linga. In the case of the Sahasra-linga the hori- 
zontal lines are eleven and the vertical lines ninety- 
nine (See fig. 2, PI. VIII). 

The Dhdrd-liiigas are lihgas, the pujdbhaga 
of which has round it vertical 
^The Dhara fluted facets ranging from five to 
sixty-four in number. The Supra- 
bheddgama prescribes 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28 
facets for Dhara lingas, while the Kdrandgama 
mentions only 16 facets. But the Mayamata lays 

96 



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LIISIGAS. 

down the rule that the number of facets in the 
Brahmabhdga, the Vishnuhhaga and the Budra- 
bhaga should be either 4, 8 and 16 ; 8, 16 and 32 ; 
or 16, 32 and 64 respectively. The text of the 
iKamiJcagama is corrupt and hence what rule it 
lays down on this point is unintelligible. The 
Dharalihgas should be made out of the Sarvasama 
lingas. 

The Mukhalinga is one of the varieties of 
Manusha-lingas and is distinguish- 

The Mukhalinga. . . 

ed from all other lingas in that it 
bears one or more human faces sculptured on it. 
Regarding the making of a Mukhalinga all the 
Agamas and Taniras have detailed descriptions. 
The substance of these is that a Mukhalinga should 
be made on the pujdbhaga of the Sarvasama-lihga 
and that it might have one, two, three, four or five 
faces corresponding to the five aspects, Vamadeva, 
Tatpurusha, Aghora, Sadyojata and Isana, of Siva. 
If the central shrine has only one door-way in its 
front or the east side, there should be carved only 
one face and that on the front side of the linga 
facing the door-way (See fig. 1, PL IX) ; if it has 
two door-ways one in front and the other at the 
back of the central shrine, that is, on the eastern and 
western sides, there should be two faces carved on 
the front and back of the linga ; there should be three 

97 
13 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

faces on the lihga, if there are three door-ways, that 
is, on all sides except the west (See fig. 2, PI. IX) ; if, 
lastly, there are four doorways, there should be four 
faces or five ; in the former case, the faces are turn- 
ed in the four directions of the quarters ; in the 
latter case, in addition to the four faces, there is to 
be one on the top of the lihga and facing the east. 
The Isana aspect of Siva is represented by the face 
on the top of the lihga ; the Tatpurusha, by that 
facing the east, the Aghora, by that facing the 
south ; the Sadyojata, by that facing the west and 
the Vamadeva, by that facing the north. In the 
case of the four faces carved on the four sides of 
the Mukhalihga they should be attached to bodies 
which ought to be represented only as far as the 
chest {stana-sutra) (See fig. 3, PL VII, PI. XI and 
Fig. 2, PI. X). Each of these figures should have 
only one pair of arms and be fashioned in all other 
respects in conformity with the rules laid down for 
the making of images. 

From the descriptions of the Manusha lihgas 
given above, it is easily seen that the symbol repre- 
sents a phallic emblem, of which the part project- 
ing above the pitjia is the representation of the 
viemtrum virile and the brahmasutra makes of 
the nut from the shaft and the rounded top com- 
pletes its likeness to the human phallus. The 

98 



LINGAS, 

Brahmabhaga and the Vishnubhaga are only de- 
signed to fix the linga firmly in the pedestal. Of 
the component parts of the pltha, that slab of stone 
with a square hole, in which the square portion of 
the linga fits in and which forms the lower 
member of the pitha, prevents its rotation. The 
second slab with an octagonal hole in it and which 
is the second or upper member of the pltha restricts 
the vertical motion of the linga. 

Lingas are almost always set up in pedestals 
known as the pindikds or pUhas. 

Pithas. 

These may be square, oblongular, 
octogonal, elongated octagon, hexagon, elongated 
Forms of the hexagon, duodecagon, elongated 
plans of pithas, duodecagon, 16 sided, regular or 
elongated, circular, elliptical, triangular and semi- 
circular, in plan. ^ In a square pltha, which is the 

(1). The Manasdra lays down the rule that the form of 
the pitha that should be used in the Nagara, Dravida and Vesara 
forms of vimdnas (central shrines) is the nagara, drdvida and 
vesara respectively and it defines that the nagara pitha is square; 
thedrdvida pitha, oot&gonai and the vesarapiiha circular in plan . 

s[Tf^ sri%i aHR l-^ft ^c cT«rr ii 

* * * ^ -f: 

99 



Length of the 
side of the 
pithas. 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

one commonly met with, the length 
of one side of it may be twice 
the length of the pujabhdiga, or 
equal to the total length of the linga ; in other 
words two-thirds of or equal to the total length of 
the linga. The pltha, the length of whose side is 
equal to the total length of the linga is said to 
belong to the TJttamdUama class and that whose 
side is equal to two-thirds the total length of the 
linga, adhamddhama. Dividing the total length 
of the linga into twenty-four equal parts, the 
following classification of the pithas is obtained. 

parts. 



Adhamadhama pitha's side 


16 


Adhamamadhyama „ „ 


17 


Adhamottama ,, „ 


18 


Madhyamadhama 


19 


Madbyamamadhyama ,, „ 


20 


Madhyamottama „ ,, 


21 


Uttamadhama ,, 


22 


Uttamamadhyama „ 


23 


Uttamottama ,, ,, 


24 



Or, dividing the total length of the linga into 
32 parts, the nine above-mentioned varieties are 
obtained by taking the same number of parts as in 
the above case ; then the Uttamottama variety of 
pltha has a side whose length is, three-fourths of 
the total length of the linga and the adhamadhama 
variety, one-half of the total length of the linga. 



100 



PLATE Xll, 




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tTo face page 101.] 



LINGAS. 

The length of a side of the pitha may also be 
equal to three times the diameter of the linga or 
equal to the periphery of the pujdbhdga or equal 
to the periphery of the Vishnuhhdga. 

The height of the pUha may come up as far 

as the upper end of the Vishnu- 
theplth"^ * ° bhaga of the ling a ; or it might 

cover up the pujdbhdga to a height 
equal to a quarter or even half the height of the 
Vishnubhdga. These plthas are made of one, two 
or three slabs of stones placed one over another 
and they are shaped with various kinds of orna- 
mental mouldings which are arranged in tiers one 
over another. They are named according to the 

number and form of the different 

Kinds of pithas. i • n p it -r->i j - 

kmds 01 mouldmgs as 13hadrapi- 
tha, Mahambuja-P., Srikara-P., Vikara-P., Maha- 
vajra-P., Saumyaka-P., Srikamya-P., Chandra-P., 
and Vajra-P. The various items of the mould- 
ings are known as updna, jagati, kumuda, padma, 
kampa, kaiitha, pattikd, nimna and ghritavdri. 
Drawings made to scale of a few of the pithas are 
given on PI. XII. The upper surface of the pMha 

from which the pujdbhdga of the 
water^cov^se. lUiga juts out is SO shaped as to 

allow a free flow of water towards 
the water spout, which is generally found attached 

101 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

to the side of the pltha on the left of the linga, as the 
worshipper faces it. (See the plan and section 
of a pltha reproduced on PI. XII). The length 
of this water spout or water-course which is known 
in Sanskrit as the nala, as also its width at its 
origin, is required to be one-third or one-fourth 
of the length of the side of the pltha, and its breadth 
at the free end, three-fourths of its breadth at the 
origin. The side view of the nala should be like the 
lip of an elephant. (See the end elevation at CD., 
PI. XII). 

The liiiga should be made out of pum-sila or 
the male stone, while the pin^ika or pltha of strl- 
sila or female stone. A very elaborate dissertation 
on the male, the female or the neuter nature of 
stones, timber, and other objects, is given in all 
agamas, but it is perhaps unnecessary to detail 
their descriptions here. 



102 



LINGODBHAVAMURTI. CHAN- 
DRASEKHARAMURTI. PASU- 
PATAMURTI AND RAUDRA- 
PASUPATAMURTI. 



LINGODBHAVAMURTI AND CHAN DBA- 
SE KHARAMtJETI. 



1" T AVING described the various forms of lingas, 
■■■ ■■■ let me now proceed to a description of the 
LingodbhavamQrti. This is one of the common 
icons in Southern India, which according to the 
Agamas is required to be placed in the niche in the 
western wall of the garbha-griha or the central 
shnne. Siva is said to have appeared in the form 
of a blazing pillar of immeasurable size to quell the 
pride of Brahma and Vishnu. The story, which is 
almost identically given in the Ling a-'pur ana, the 
Eurma-piirana, the Yayu-purana and the Siva- 
piorana, runs as follows : — Vishnu at the end of a 
kalpa was slumbering on the deep abyss of waters ; 
a great illumination occurred then near Vishnu and 
from it emerged Brahma. Brahma saw before him 
another person Vishnu ; Brahma approached Vishnu 
and introduced himself to Vishnu as the creator 
of the whole universe and demanded of Vishnu 
who he was ; towhich Vishnu replied that he was 

105 
11 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

also the architect of the universe. Brahma could 
not brook the statement of Vishnu and a quarrel 
ensued between them both. At this juncture there 
appeared a liiiga resembling the great cosmic fire, 
with hundreds of tongues of flames blazing out of it. 
Instead of quarrelling with each other Brahma and 
Vishnu set about to find out the top and bottom res- 
pectively of this huge mass of fire, for which pur- 
pose the former assumed the form of a swan {hamsa) 
and flew up in the air ; while the latter took the 
form of a boar and burrowed down into the earth. 
The attempt of these two gods to discover the 
reality and measure of this fiery pillar proved futile. 
They then came to realise that there certainly was 
something far greater than themselves ; whose top 
or bottom they could not find out : thus humiliated 
they approached this pillar of fire and began to 
praise it. Pleased with their prayers Siva mani- 
fested himself to them in the body of this fiery lio'iga 
with a thousand arms and legs, with the sun, the 
moon and the fire as his three eyes, bearing the bow 
called the pinaJca, clad in the hide of an elephant, 
carrying the trisula, wearing the yajnopavlta made 
of snakes and with a voice resembling the rum- 
bling of the clouds or the noise of the drum, 
addressed Brahma and Vishnu thus : — " You both 
are born from me, Brahma having come from my 

106 



LINGODBHAVAMURTI. 

right loin and Vishnu from the left loin ; all three 
of us are really one, but are now separated into 
three aspects, namely, Brahma, Vishnu and Mahe^- 
vara. Brahma will in the future be born of Vishnu 
and at the beginning of a Jcalpa, I myself will be 
born from the angry brow of Vishnu." Thus dec- 
laring, Mahesvara disappeared. From this time the 
linga came to be worshipped by all men. 

While searching for the top of the pillar of fire, 
Brahma came by a petal of the JcetaJci flower and 
asked it wherefrom it was descending ; to this the 
petal answered that it was falling from the head of 
Mahesvara, for what length of time it could not 
remember. Taking hold of this petal, Brahma 
descended and lied to Vishnu that he had discovered 
the head of Mahesvara and from it had brought 
this petal of the Tietaki flower. For uttering this 
piece of falsehood Brahma was cursed not to receive 
any worship from men on earth. Hence, it is 
stated, Brahma is never enshrined in a separate 
temple and offered worship. 

In the Amsumadbheddgama is found the follow- 
ing description of the Lingodbhavamurti : The 
figure of Siva in the aspect of Chandrasekharamurti 
should be carved on the front of a linga. It is 
stated in the Kdrandgama that one-fifth part of 
the Iviiga should be left out on the top and at the 

107 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

bottom respectively without any sculpture. The 
legs below the knees of the figure of Chandra- 
sekhara carved on the lihga should be invisible, 
that is, should be left unsculptured. On the right 
of the lihga and near its top Brahma should be 
represented in the shape of a swan (Jiamsa) while 
Vishnu should be carved in the form of a boar 
on the left at the foot of the lihga. The figures 
of Brahma and Vishnu should be sculptured on 
the right and left respectively of the lihga and 
also facing it, with two hands held on the chest in 
the anjali pose. The colour of the figure of Siva 
should be red, that of Vishnu black and that of 
Brahma golden yellow. Over and above this de- 
scription, a few additional details are found in the 
Kamihagama. The size of the swan, it is stated, 
should be the same as that of the face of Siva, while 
that of the boar, twice that of the face of Siva. The 
figure of the boar should be worked out as digging 
into the earth. The figures of Vishnu and Brahma 
should be expressive of submission and be sculptured 
beautifully ; or they may be altogether omitted from 
the panel ; in this latter case, the swan and the 
boar should necessarily be there. The Silparatna 
adds that Siva should carry the sula in one of his 
hands ; whereas, the Karanagama requires that of 
the four hands, one should be in the abhaya pose, 

108 



PLATE XIII. 



'<" *%' - '^'^^ 



4 




Liutoubbavamurti : Stone: 
Kailasanathasvamin Temple : Conjeevaram. 



[To face page 109.] 



LINGODBHAVAMUETI. 

another in the varada pose, a third should carry 
the parasu and the fourth a hrishna-mriga (a black 
buck) and that the digit of the moon (chandra- 
kala) should adorn the crown of Siva. Such is the 
description of the Lingodbhavamurti, which is 
illustrated with three pictures. The first photograph 
(PI. XIII) is that of the Lingodbhavamurti found 
in the Kailasanathasvamin temple at Conjeevaram 
and is over twelve hundred years old. This piece of 
sculpture is very much at variance with the textual 
descriptions. The figure of Siva-Chandrasekhara 
has eight arms of which some are seen carrying the 
parasu, the sula, an ahsTiamala and some other 
objects, while one is held in the ahhaya pose and 
another is resting upon the hip (katyavalambita). 
Then again the one-fifth part of the lihga on the 
top is not left unsculptured, nor is the part of the 
liiiga lower than the knees of the figure of Siva, 
equal to a fifth of the total length of the linga. 
But the sculpture agrees with the Sanskrit texts 
in that the legs of Siva below the knees are left 
out unsculptured ; the digit of the moon is shown 
on the crown of Siva ; the hoa,v-avatdTa of Vishnu, 
with four hands out of which two are shown as 
digging the earth and the other two as carrying the 
saiikha and the chakra, and not an ordinary boar, 
as stated in the Agamas, is carved out at the bottom 

109 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

space of the panel ; Brahma is seen flying in the air 
in his own form instead of as a swan ; one of his legs, 
as also that of the other deities on the left of the 
lihga, is horizontal, while the figures of Brahma and 
Vishnu each having four arms are sculptured on the 
right and left of the lihga ; they have each one arm 
lifted up in the pose of praising, while the other 
rests upon the hip, and the remaining ones carry 
their characteristic weapons. The top of the niche 
has got a highly artistically carved maJcara-torana. 
The second photograph. Fig. 2., PI. XIV, re- 
presents the Lihgodbhavamurti in the temple of 
Siva at Amhar Mdbgalam. In this, the lihga has a 
wreath of flowers thrown over its top ; the figure of 
Siva is shown with four arms, one of which is held 
in the abhaya pose, the other in the katyavalambita 
pose (resting upon the hip), and the remaining two 
carry the parasu and the black buck. The legs 
of the figure of Siva below the knees and up to the 
ankles are sculptured against the rules laid down in 
Agamas ; the feet alone are kept hidden in the lihga. 
On the right of the lihga and on its top is to be 
seen the swan whose beak is prominently visible ; 
below and on the left of the lihga is to be seen the 
boar, half man and half beast, burrowing the earth. 
This piece of sculpture belongs to the mediaeval Chola 
period, that is, to the 11th or 12th century A.D. 

110 



PLATE XIV. 



2^^'~~'*!*«*««%n«i." 






To face page 110.] 



LINGODBHAVAMtJETI. 

The third picture, (Fig. 2, PL XIV), is a pen and 
ink sketch of the Lingodbhavamurti from the Dasa- 
vatara Cave at Ellora. The whole panel is a remark- 
able piece of artistic work ; it consists of the blazing 
pillar of fire at the centre, with the figure of Siva 
emerging from the middle of it, having one hand in 
the abhaya pose, another resting on the hip, while 
the others are carrying perhaps the parasu and 
mriga (deer). Since Siva is said in some pur anas to 
have presented himself before Brahma and Vishnu as 
a flaming pillar (the SJcambha of the Atharvana- 
veda), the artist has shaped the lihga like a pillar 
with a capital. Flames are bursting out in tongues 
on both sides of the pillar. Brahma with four faces 
is seen flying in the air, and Vishnu as Varaha is 
digging the earth with his hands and snout. On 
the right and left are seen Brahma and Vishnu 
respectively standing in a reverential attitude, with 
two hands clasped in the anjali pose and the other 
two carrying the characteristic objects such as the 
sanhha, the chaJcra, the hamandalu, etc., of these 
two deities. The details in this sculpture are 
executed in the most exquisite manner. It might 
be observed that in all these cases, the figure of Siva 
is enclosed in a lenticular aperture on the surface of 
the lihga. 



Ill 



CHANDEA^EKHAEAMUETI. 



*' I ^HB name Chandrasekharamurti implies an 

•■■ image which has Chandra (the moon) as its 

head-ornament. How Siva came to possess snakes 

on his body, the black buck and the -parahu in his 

hands, the Apasmara-purusha or 

General charac- 
teristics of the the demon under his feet, to wear 

images of Siva. 

the skins of the lion and the tiger 
on his loins and and the skull and the moon tucked 
up in his crown is described in the Suprabhedagama 
thus : — When §iva was passing by the slopes of the 
mountain Meru without any garments, the wives of 
the Eishis fell in love with him and lost their 
chastity. The Eishis, wild with rage, performed 
incantations to kill Siva, the seducer of their wives ; 
from their ceremonial ground there came snakes, a 
Jcrishna-mriga, an Apasmara-purusha, a parahu, a 
bull, a tiger, a lion and several other things. For 
destroying Siva all these were discharged by the 
Eishis against him. The latter took into his hands 

113 
le 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

for his sports the black-deer, the snakes and the 
parasu ; the Apasinara-purusha was trampled under 
his feet and is always serving him as a foot-stool ; 
the lion and the tiger were killed by Siva and their 
skins worn by him as his garments, while the skull 
and the digit of the moon were placed on his 
jatamakuta as ornaments. The Suprabhedagama 
adds further that all figures of Siva should have the 
following characteristics, namely, three eyes, four 
arms, the crescent moon, the dliurdhura flowers, 
{datura), snakes on the crown {jatdmaJcuta), the 
tiger-skin garment, the hara, the Jceyura, yajno- 
pavita and huTidalas adorning his person. Special 
figures of Siva may have other objects about them 
than those mentioned just now. 

In addition to these, other characteristic fea- 
tures of the images of Siva are given in a manus- 
cript added at the end of the Silparatna whose 
name is not known. It is stated therein that the 
colour of the figure of Siva, if it is painted on a 
wall, should be white or of the red colour of the sun 
or golden yellow. The image should possess high 
shoulders, long arms and eyes like the petals of the 
lotus ; there should be three waist zones or liati- 
sutras. The appearance of the figure of ^iva should 
be that of a youth of sixteen years of age, with a 

114 



chandeas'EkhaeamtJbti. 

blue throat, handsome countenance, and wearing 
hundalas in the ears ; the neck should be somewhat 
stout. The figure may have four, eight, ten, sixteen 
or eighteen arms. The image is said to be a hanta- 
murti or pacific in nature, when it has four arms : — 
in this case, of the four arms two should carry the 
trUula, and the damaru, while the remaining two 
should be kept in the varada and the abhaya poses. 
If the image has eight arms — (it is not mentioned 
in the text in what aspect Siva should have eight 
arrfcts) — it should carry all the objects which are in 
the hands of the image of Siva with ten arms, except 
the hhadga and the JchetaJca. The image of Siva, 
when he is in the act of killing the Gajasura, should 
have ten arms ; when it has ten arms, the right 
h'ands should carry an akshamala, a sword, the 
§aMyayudha, the danda and the sula ; whereas the 
left hands should carry the Jchatvanga, a snake, a 
skull, the hhetaka and the deer. Siva in the act 
of destroying the three-castle {Tripura-dahana) 
should possess sixteen arms. In this instance, the 
following six objects should be carried in addition 
to those mentioned in connection with the image 
of Siva with ten arms ; namely, the b^na, the 
chahra and the gada in the right hands and the bow, 
a bell and the saiikha in the left hands. In the 
aspect of Bhairava, Siva has eighteen arms ; the 

115 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

additional hands hold the daniaru and the 

Sankha (?)* 

yifiid: "bt^jW^t ^Frr*RiiTj%r: i 

sre^^R^fNft Jft^S^l JT^l: II 

^(5T5rrfw\«r g%s^t^5ri^: fjf^g; ii 
^ 5iwf^ a^wf^ gtg =^ jr«n^HH; ii 
^sR^m g^ %w ^"Ti^ ^J^ cr«n ii 
nsni^^^TT^ ^fiit^rf^rgcT: ii 

Sfpii =q?5 q^ %^ ^oisVJTf^^ Vf^^ II 

vig^^ ^«n ^ST 5r^ ETRsf^^ ^itg; i 
^r^) 3^: st^fT ^r^# f^^^Prm: ii 
^(?)^%^:^i^ft ^Tftrssr^ w^- i 
^m =^ ^«rr ^if^rfSr^ 3 s^jft^ 11 
flRiyj 3Trt %^ ^ =gT«inTn%^?m. I 
^^^fl^^^r ^TF^T^j^^^wrf^^^ II 

116 



CHANDEAS'SKHAEAMtJETI. 

The Purva-Earanagama states that the figures 
of Siva in the Bhikshatana, the Kahkala, the 
Haryarddha, the Arddhanarisvara, the Sukhasana, 
the Kamantaka and the Dakshinamurti aspects 
should not have near them the figure of the Devi ; 
while in all other aspects the Devi should be found 
near Siva. The height of the figure of the Devi, 
in company with that of her consort ^iva, should 
be up to the ear of Siva, if the figure of the Devi 
is of the uttama class ; up to his mouth, if of the 
madhyama class, and up to his uplifted hand, if of 
the adhama class. 

The colour, according to the Karanagama, of 
the Nrittamurti, of the Kahkalamurti and of the 
Dakshinamurti is to be white ; while that of all 
other aspects of ^iva, coral red. 

The image of Chandrasekharamurti is divided 
into three classes, namely, the Kevalamurti, the 
Umasahitamurti and the Alihganamurti. All these 
three classes are usually found in the temples of 
Southern India and their descriptions are contained 
in all Agamas. For instance, the Amsumadbheda- 
gama says that the Kevalamurti 

Eevala-mtirti. 

should have one of his right hands 

117 



HINDU ICONOGBAPHY. 

held in the abhaya pose, one of his left hands in the 
varada pose, the other right hand should carry the 
tanJca and the remaining left hand a black buck ; 
Siva should be standing erect, without any bends in 
his body, that is, in the attitude known as sama- 
hhahga. He should be shown as wearing on his head 
a jaiamahuta ornamented with a crescent moon ; 
also, he should have three eyes, a beautiful face, and 
be adorned with all ornaments ; he should be clad 
in yellow garments {pltambara), the ends of which 
should descend as far below as the knees, while the 
bigger folds should pass between the two legs. If 
the hand held in the varada pose happens to be 
completely stretched out as in fig 5, PI. V. of 
Vol. I, it should be kept so as to make the wrist 
reach the height of the hip, while the tips of the 
fingers should reach the msdhramula-sutra. If the 
hand has its fingers slightly bent, as in fig. 4, 
on the same plate, the back of the hand should be 
raised as far as the nahhi-sutra. The samabhanga 
attitude is expressive of the rajasa-guna of the 
image. The deer and the tanJca should be held in 
the hands kept in the kartari-hasta pose ; and the 
deer may be facing the figure of Siva or be away 
from it. The crescent of the moon may be attached 
to the right or the left of the jatamakuta. The 
colour of the figure of ^iva should be red. 

118 



ohandeasEkaeamurti. 

To the above description, the Uttara-Jcamika- 
gama adds, that the right front hand may be held 
in the simhaJcarna, JcataJcahasta or the Jcatyavalam- 
bitahasta pose. The two back hands which are 
held in the Jcartari-hasta pose should not go higher 
than the hikka-sutra, that is, above the shoulders 
and the tops of the taiika and the mriga, higher 
than the karna-sutra or the ear. While the deer 
might face the figure of Siva or be away from 
it, the head of the tanka should always be turned 
away from it. In the left ear of the image of ^iva- 
Chandrasekhara there should be either the ear- 
ornament named the ratna-kundala, the hahkha- 
patra or the padtna-patra ; whereas in the right 
ear there may be either the ornament named the 
makara-kundala the simha-kundala, or the patra- 
kundala. The curls of hair should hang at the 
back as far down as the ear, while the jatds or 
the braids or plaits of hair should hang on the 
right and left of the image as far as the shoulders. 
The figure of Chandrasekhara should be orna- 
mented with several pearl necklaces {muktahara) 
and Jewelled necklaces {ratnaharas), with well 
designed medallions (padakas) attached to them ; 
and there should also be yajnbpamta and the 
chhannaiHra and udarabandhana. Besides, there 
should be keyuras and other bracelets ikatakas) on 

119 \ 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

the arms ; and the fingers should be adorned with 
rings and the waist with a zone, and the ankles 
with anklets. The figure of Chandrasekhara should 
be standing upon a padma-pitha. 

The second variety of Chandrasekharamurti 
is, as we have mentioned above, known as the 

Umasahitamurti. If the image 
m^Ti*'**^^** of Chandrasekhara has that of the 

Devi by his side, either on the 
same pedestal {pitha) or a different one, it is said 
to be Uma-sahitamurti, or Chandrasekhara with 
Uma. 

The third variety of Chandrasekharamurti is 
known as the Alingana-murti. In this aspect, 

Chandrasekhara is to be represent- 

ed as embracmg theDevi With one 
of his left arms : this arm might rest upon the left 
side of the Devi just below her breast, or it may be 
placed upon the left arm of the Devi, outside 
the par§va-sutra ; the Devi should keep in her 
right hand a red lotus flower. Or, the right hand 
of the Devi may embrace Siva, in which case the 
hand of the Devi should rest on the right side 
of Siva a little above the waist zone ; and the left 
hand of the Devi should carry a flower. Or, the 
two figures of Siva and Uma may be embracing 
each other, the one with the left and the other with 

120 



PLATE XV. 







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[To face page 121.] 



GHANDEA^EKARAMUETI. 

the right hand. Thus there are three modes in 
which the figure of Alingana Chandrasekhara may 
be sculptured. 

In all the above instances Chandrasekhara- 
murti whether in company with his consort or not, 
should have around him the prabhd-mandala. It 
must also be noted that this image of Siva should 
always be a standing one. 

The Srltatva-nidhi adds that the colour of 
Siva in this instance should be that of coral, while 
the colour of Devi, black. The Devi is here said 
to possess three eyes and is required to be standing 
with three bends in her body {trihhahgd) ; her right 
leg should be planted firmly on the pedestal and the 
left leg, slightly bent. She should carry in her 
right hand the nllotpala flower. 

In illustration of the descriptions given above 
ten photographs are given. The first comes from 
Tiruppalatturai in the Tanjore district. The artist 
who produced this image of the Kevala Chandra- 
sekharamurti has followed in every detail the 
descriptions of the Agamas ; the image is standing 
perfectly erect on a padma-pltha ; its varada-hasta 
and the abhaya-hasta as also those carrying the 
parasu and mriga are placed in the exact posi- 
tions required by the Agamas. In fact, the 
sculptor is seen to exhibit in this piece of work such 

121 

16 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

scrupulous care to be true to the descriptions of 
Agamas that he has subordinated his artistic 
instinct, if he had it in any degree, and the result 
is not quite pleasant. The long jata-makuta and 
the unhappy looking countenance of Siva together 
with its ill-shaped legs, stamp the work as being 
really of an inferior kind. The second photograph, 
PI. XVI, is that of a figure of Kevala Chandra- 
sekharamurti carved in wood. It is found in the 
Bhagavati temple at Onakkur in North Tra van- 
core. The figure is about four feet in height. It 
holds the parasu and the mriga in the back right 
and left hands respectively, while the front right 
and left hands are in the varada and the abhaya 
poses respectively. The ornaments and the drapery 
of the image are carved out very elaborately. This 
image is one of the best specimens of wood-carving 
of the medieval period found in Travancore. The 
third photograph, PI. XVII, is of the Umasahita- 
Chandrasekharamurti belonging to the Siva temple 
at Tiruvorriyur near Madras. The rules of the 
Agamas are very carefully carried out but not so as 
to mar the beauty of the image ; the execution of 
the work is excellent. The head of the parasu, it 
will be observed, is turned away from the figure of 
Siva and the deer has its face turned towards Siva. 
The height of Uma comes up to the shoulders of 

122 



PLATE XVI. 




Eevala-Cbandriisokbaramurti. 
Wood : Oi^akkur (TravaDcora State). 



[To face page 122,] 



PLATE'XVIII. 








[To face page 1231 



CHANDEA^EKARAMtJRTI. 

Siva and the Devi is therefore of the adhama class. 
Both the Deva and the Devi are standing upon 
padmdsanas as required by the Sanskrit texts. The 
fourth is a photograph of the Uma-sahita-murti to 
be found in the Siva temple at Agaram ^ettur (See 
fig. 2., PL XV). In this case, the figures of ^iva and 
Uma are standing each on a separate pedestal and 
are each surrounded by a prabhamandala of elabo- 
rate workmanship. The Devi has three bends in 
her body and keeps in her right hand a nlldtpala 
flower. The figure of Siva is almost similar to the 
one first described ; the left hand, instead of being 
held in the varada pose, is held in the simhakarna 
pose. The artistic merit of this group of images 
is also far from excellent. Fig. 1, PI. XVIII is 
the photograph of the Uma-sahita-murti of the 
temple at Madeour. This is a fine piece of 
sculpture correctly conceived and very neatly 
executed. In this group Siva and Uma stand 
on two padmaplthas which are fixed on a hhadra- 
pUha and are both surrounded by a single prabha- 
mandala. 

The next photograph, fig. 2, PL XVIII, repre- 
sents the Alingana-Chandrasekhara to be found in the 
Mayuranathasvamin temple at Mayavaram. Siva, 
in this piece of sculpture, carries in his two back 
hands the paraiu and the mriga, while he keeps.the 

123 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

front right hand in the abhaya pose. The front left 
hand is carried behind the Devi and is resting on her 
body below her breast. The Devi carries in her right 
hand a flower. The figures of Siva and Uma are both 
shown with three bends in their bodies (trihhanga). 
This excellent piece of sculpture belongs to the 
Chola period (of approximately 10th or 11th Cent. 
A.D.) In the image ■ of Pattisvaram reproduced 
as fig. 1, PI. XIX, which resembles closely the 
Kevalamurti of Tiruppalatturai (fig. 1, PI. XV), and 
which appears to be the handiwork of the same 
sculptor, has its left arm taken near the waist of the 
Devi ; whereas in the sculptures of Marudantanallur 
and Kovilur, figs. 2 and 3 respectively of PL XIX, 
the left hand of Siva rests upon the left shoulder 
of the Devi — that is, about the ■parsva-sutra of the 
figure of Devi. The original of the photograph of 
the Alingana Chandrasekharamurti reproduced on 
PI. XX, belongs to the Chalukya-Hoysala school and 
comes from Ahgur in the Bellary District and is an 
extremely beautiful piece of art. The image of Siva 
carries an akshamald, a tri'sula and a damaru in 
three of its hands and the fourth is thrown over 
the shoulder of the Devi ; the figure of Devi has its 
right arm placed on the right shoulder of Siva and 
carries in its left hand a lotus flower. On the right 
and the left, near the feet of Siva and Uma 

124 



PLATE XIX, 



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[To face i age 124.] 



PLATE XX. 




Alingana-Cbandrasekhara-murti ; 
Stone : Angur : Bellary District. 



[To face page 124.] 



ghandea^Ekaeamubti. 

respectively are seated their two sons, G-anapati on 
the floor and Subrahmanya on his peacock. The 
highest praise is due to the artist for the excellent 
pose in which he has sculptured the two images, the 
well-proportioned features of the male and female 
figures, and the splendid effect they produce on the 
observer. 

Closely allied to the Chandrasekharamurti are 

the Pasupatamurti and a slightly different aspect of 

it, the Eaudrapasupatamurti. The 

and Baudrapasu- .rasupatamurti should also be 

patamurti. , t ■ / t t • \ 

standmg erect [samabhanga] as in 
the case of the Chandrasekharamurti, should have 
three eyes, four arms and hair standing on the head 
upright on all sides, and a large well-proportioned 
body. One of the right hands should be held in the 
abhaya pose, while the other, should carry a sula. 
One of the left hands should be kept in the varada 
pose and the remaining hand should carry on ahsha- 
mala. The figure must be decorated with all orna- 
ments ; and it must have a good look with a gentle 
smile playing upon its lips. The Amsumadbheda- 
gama states that the image of Pasupata-miarti maybe 
either standing or sitting, whereas the Silparatna, 
wants it to be a standing figure and substitutes the 
Jcapala in the place of akshamala in the above 
description. According to the Amsumadbhed&gama, 

125 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

the Pasupatamurti is to be used for the daily 
services {nityotsavas in temples). 

If, in the above description of the Pasupata- 
murti, the following alterations are made, it becorties 
the Eaudrapasupatamurti : The colour of the body- 
as also the eyes of the Eaudrapasupatamurti is to 
be fiery red, the image of this aspect of Siva should 
have sharp tusks, curling eye-brows, yajndpavUa 
made of snakes, flaming head and red garments ; in 
one of its hands there should be trisula held head 
downwards, and another hand should carry a Icapala. 
Or, in the front hands must be held the trisula in 
a horizontal position and the other two hands 
should hold the tahka and the sword. Meditating 
upon this aspect of Siva even once, destroys all 
enemies, but this aspect should not be worshipped in 
actual images, but in certain symbols such as a 
pltha. 



126 



SUKHASANAMURTI. UMASAHI- 
TAMURTI, SOMASKANDA- 
MURTI AND UMAMAHES- 
VARAMURTI. 



SUKHASANAMtJETI, UMASAHITAMURTI, 

SOMASKANDAMUETI AND 

UMAMAHESVARAMURTI. 

'T^HE four varieties of the images of ^iva known 

■^ as the Sukhasanamurti, the Umasahitamurti, 
the Somaskandamurti and Umamahesvaramurti are 
usually met with in all Siva temples which lay claim 
to some importance in Southern India. Of these, 

the Sukhasanamurti is described as 
^sukhasana- fgHows in the SUparatna, which is 

practically the same as the descrip- 
tion given in all other authorities. The image of 
SukhipSanamurti is a seated figure with four arms, 
three eyes, a very handsome appearance suggestive 
of the rajoguna and of coral red complexion. The 
image should be seated erectly upon a bhadra-pUha 
with its left leg bent and resting upon the seat and 
the right one hanging below it. It must be clad in 
the skin of the tiger and also in silk garments ; in 
its back right hand is to be the parasu, and in its 
back left hand the mrlga ; the front right hand 
should be held in the ahhaya pose, while the front 

129 
17 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

left hand may be either in the varada or the 
simhakarna pose. In the right ear there should be 
either a makara-kundala or a simha-hundala and 
in the left ear, a patra-Jcundala ; or there may be 
vritta-kundald,s in both the ears. The head is 
adorned with a jatamakuta, the fore-arms with 
kahkanas or bracelets shaped like serpents (sarpa- 
kankanas) and the chest with yajnopavlta ; besides 
these, the image should be decorated with all other 
ornaments. It is imperative that neither Devi nor 
Skanda should be near the Sukhasanamurti. The 
Purva-Karanagama differs from the above descrip- 
tion in one small detail, namely, it states that the 
right leg of the image should be bent and be resting 
upon the seat and the left one hanging. 

When seated alone as described in the previous 
paragraph, the image of Siva is known as the 
Sukhasanamurti. If the figure of the Devi is also 
seated on the same seat by the side of the image 
of Siva and faces the latter, the group is known as 
TJmasahita- ^^^ Umasahitamurti. The posi- 
"'"*^' tion of the Devi is to the left of 

Siva. She should have only two arms ; in her right 
hand she should keep a lotus flower, while she may 
hold her left hand either in the simhakarna pose or 
keep it straight resting on the seat. Her head is 
to be adorned with a karanda-makuta. The left 

130 



SUKHASANAMtETI. 

leg of the Devi should be hanging down the seat, 
while the right one is to be bent and kept resting on 
the seat. The Silparatna states that the right hand 
of the Devi should keep a utpala flower and the left 
hand held in the varada pose, or the left hand 
might rest on the pitha a little to the left of 
the left thigh of the Devi, and that the colour of 
the Devi should be grass-green. The Devi is re- 
quired to be adorned with all ornaments, haras and 
maJcuta and be clad in red silk garments. The 
Purva-Earandgama adds that the figure of the 
seated Devi should be as high as the shoulder of 
that of Siva. The aspect of Siva and TJma seated 
on the same seat and under the same prabhs,- 
mandala as described above is known as the Uma- 
sahitamurti. 

In the case of the Somaskandamurti, the same 
relative positions are maintained by the figures of 
Siva and tJma, but between these, there is the 
additional figure of the child Skanda. The figure 
of Skanda may be standing, sitting on the seat or 
on the lap of Umadevi, or dancing ; it should have 
a single face with a pair of eyes and two arms ; and 
be adorned with a karanda-mahuta on the head, 
nahra-Tiundalas in the ears, and chhannavlra on the 
body. The child Skanda should have a waist zone 
and bracelets. The figure of Skanda if it is standing 

131 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

simply, may carry in its right hand a lotus 
flower and keep the left hand hanging ; or the two 
hands may keep lotus flowers in them ; or as the 
Silparatna would have it, the left hand should be 
held in either the varada, or the simha-karna pose 
and the right hand carrying a book. There should 
be no clothing on the person of the child Skanda. 
If the figure of Skanda is represented as dancing, 
it should carry in its left hand a fruit and the right 
one should be kept in the suchi pose ; or the left 
hand might be kept stretched out and be without 
the fruit. 

The height of the figure of Skanda, says the 
Uttara-EamiMgama, may vary from one-tenth to 
four-tenths of the height of that of Siva ; and 
according to the Earanagama one-eighth to a 
quarter of the height of Siva. The Silparatna 
states that it should be as high as the bent hand 
or the breasts of the Devi. 

The Earanagama adds that the gods Brahma 
and Vishnu together with their respective consorts 
should be standing on either side of the Soma- 
skandamurti. 

The VishnudJiarmottara and the Bupaman- 

umamahes- dana giYe the description of the 

varamurti. Umamahgsvaramurti. The former 

authority states that in this aspect, the image of 

132 



PLATE XXI. 



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[To face page 133] 



SUKHASANAMtJETI. 

Siva and Uma should be seated on a seat, 
embracing each other. Siva should have the jata- 
mahuia on his head with the crescent moon stuck 
in it ; he should have two arms, in the right one of 
which there should be a nllotpala flower and the 
left one should be placed in embrace on the left 
shoulder of Uma. Umadevi should have a hand- 
some bust and hip ; she should have her right hand 
thrown in embrace on the right shoulder of §iva 
and should keep in her left hand a mirror. The 
figures of ^iva and Uma should be sculptured very 
beautifully. 

The Bupamandana informs us that Siva 
should have four arms and that in one of the right 
hands there should be the trisula and in the other 
a matulunga fruit (a kind of citron) ; one of the left 
arms should be thrown on the shoulder of Uma and 
there should be a snake in the other left hand. 
The colour of ^iva should be red like the coral. 
The Devi should be as in the description of the 
Vishnudharmottara given above. There should be 
in this group the Vrishabha or the bull of Siva, 
Granesa, Kumara and a lean emaciated figure of the 
rishi Bhringi dancing, all arranged in an artistic 
composition. 

Figs. 1 and 2, PI. XXI, are to illustrate the 
aspects known as the Uma-sahita-murti, as also 

133 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

the Sukhasanamurti. If the Devi were absent in 
both the instances, the image of Siva would have 
passed for the Sukhasanamurti; as they are, they are 
Umasahita-murtis. In both the instances the 
back right hand keeps the para§u and the back left 
hand, the mriga ; whereas the front right hand is in 
the abhaya pose and the front left hand in the 
siihhaJcarna pose. In the one case, the left hand 
of the Devi is kept resting on the seat, whereas in 
the other it is held in the simhaJcarna pose. The 
stone image is older than the bronze one. Figs, 1 
and 2, PI. XXII are two splendid pieces of sculp- 
ture; the first belongs to the Siva temple at 
Madeour and the second was recently discovered 
as a treasure trove in Nellore. Both of them are 
very good specimens of the Somaskanda-murti. 
The textual descriptions are carried out with 
scrupulous accuracy and the workmanship is 
superb. In the first piece, the left hand of the 
Devi rests on the pltha and in the second piece, it 
is held in the varada pose. In both, the child 
Skanda is in the dancing attitude, with both his 
hands held in the siihhaJcarna pose. Attention may 
be drawn to the makara-hun^ala in the right 
ear and the fatra or vritta-Jcundala in the 
left ear of Siva in both the pieces of sculpture. 
Illustrations beginning from PL XXIII to XXIX 

134 



PLATE XXII. 




F.ig. 1. Somaskandaraurti. Bronze: Madeour. 




Fig. 2. Somaskandamarti. 
Bronze: Treasure Trove found in Nellore. 



[To face page 134,] 



PLATE XXIIf, 










Uinamahesvaramurti : Scone : 
Bagali: Bellary District, 



■■ wmmt*"'riiir^ir 



[To face page US.] 



PLATE XXIV. 




Umamahesvaramurti : Stone : Aihole. 



[To /ace page 135] 



SUKHASANAMtJRTI. 

represent Umamahesvaramurti. PL XXIII is 
the reproduction of the image at Bagali in the Bel- 
lary District. In this, Uma is seated upon the 
left lap of Siva and has her right hand taken round 
in embrace and resting upon the right side of the 
chest of Siva, and carries in her left hand a matu- 
Iwhga fruit. The front right hand of Siva is held 
in the abhaya pose and the front left hand is 
placed on the left shoulder of Uma. In the back 
right and left hands are the trikula and the damaru 
respectively. The Devi wears on her head the 
hair done up in a fine side-knot. On the prabha- 
vali are sculptured minutely the figures of the ash- 
ta-dik-palas or the guardians of the eight quarters. 
It should be noted that in this case the figures 
of Ganesa, Kumara, the rishi Bhringi and the 
bull are not sculptured. PI. XXIV is the 
photograph of a piece of sculpture to be found in 
Aihole. Here, Siva is carrying in two hands 
snakes, and in one hand the trisula ; the remaining 
hand embraces Uma and rests on her shoulder. 
Uma keeps her right hand on the left thigh of Siva ; 
her other arm is broken. On the left side of the 
seat on which Siva and Uma are seated, is the 
figure of the child Kumara who seems to be holding 
in his left hand three lotus flowers by their stalks 
and keeping some fruit in the right one. Below 

135 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

the seat are two Apasmara-Purushas and the 
rishi Bhringi. The figure of Ganesa which ought 
to be on the right of Bhringi appears to be lost, 
PI. XXV is one of the very best pieces of ivory 
carving executed in the School of Arts at Trivan- 
dram. The delicacy of the workmanship, the beauty 
of the conception and execution, the grandeur of 
the effect it produces are beyond praise. 6iva 
is here represented as seated on a bhadrasana under 
a tree and carries the parahi and the mriga in his 
back hands ; he holds his front right hand in the 
abhaya pose and embracing the Devi with his left 
arm, keeps that hand in the varada pose. Uma is 
embracing Siva with her right hand and keeps in 
her left one a lotus flower. There is a profusion 
of snake ornaments — on the crown, in the ear- 
lobes, on the arms, and round the chest, of Siva. 
On the right and left are the two children of Uma, 
the elder, Ganapati, having an underwear and 
the younger, Kumara, standing naked. Ganesa 
has four arms in which he keeps the ankusa, the 
■pasa, the danta and the modaJca and behind him 
is his vehicle, the mouse. Kumara has two arms ; 
in the left of which he holds the sakti and with his 
right arm he embraces the neck of his favourite 
vehicle, the peacock. In front of the seat of Siva is 
the seated figure of Nandi, the bull vehicle of Siva. 

136 



PLATE XXV. 




Umamahelvaramurti : Ivory ; Trivandram School of Arts. 



fLATE XXVl. 





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(To face page 137.] 



SUKHASANAMtJETI. 

Fig. 1, PI. XXVI, represents Umamahesvara as 
found in the temple at Haveri. In this also 
Uma is seated on the left lap of Siva and embraces 
him with her right hand, which rests upon the 
right side of his body ; she appears to have held a 
flower in her left hand, which is unfortunately broken. 
Siva carries in three out of the four of his hands the 
sula, the damaru and an akshamala and the 
remaining hand is thrown in embrace over the left 
shoulder of Uma. Around Siva and Uma is a nicely 
carved prabhavali with creeper ornament ; in each 
of the circular loops of the creeper is carved a diJc- 
pala. At the right extremity of the bhadrasana on 
which are seated Siva and Uma is a tiny figure of 
a seated Ganesa with four arms, carrying as usual 
the ankusa, the pa^a, the danta and a modaka. In 
front of him sits Nandi, the bull of Siva. Corres- 
ponding to these, are to be seen on the left side of 
the seat the figures of Kumara with six heads seated 
upon his peacock vehicle, and an alligator, the 
vehicle of Uma-P5rvati. The whole work is 
executed very skilfully and tastefully. 

Fig. 2, PI. XXVI is another group almost 
similar to the one described above. Siva is, in this 
sculpture, seen carrying a lotus, the sula, and a 
snake in three of his hands and the remaining 
one is embracing Uma about her chest. Both Uma 

137 

18 



HINDU iCONOGRAPHY. 

and Siva are wearing sankha-patra ktmdalas, that 
is, sections of concli-shelis. Round the head of 
Siva is a very well executed prabhd-mandala while 
the hair of the head of Uma is fashioned into an 
artistic knot behind. The Devi keeps her right hand 
resting on the left foot of her lord and appears to have 
carried a liower in her left hand which is broken. 
On the top right hand corner of the panel is seated 
Brahma in the yogasana attitude and carrying in 
his hands the articles peculiar to him. The middle 
face of this deity has a peaked beard. Correspond- 
ingly on the left is the figure of Vishnu who, in 
three of his hands carries the gada the chakra and 
bhesankha and keeps the remaining hand in the pose 
of praise. Both Brahma and Vishnu are seated each 
on a full blown lotus. There is a distinctly notice- 
able smile on tbe faces of Brahma and Vishnu. 
Below are the figures of Ganesa and two others, who 
are unidentifiable, on the right ; the rishi Bhringi, 
in a dancing attitude, in the middle ; and Kumara 
on the left. Both Ganesa and Kumara are repre- 
sented as children and are nude. There is also the 
bull behind Bhringi. The grouping of the members 
in the composition of this piece of sculpture and its 
execution are indeed very good. Pis. XXVII-XXIX 
are the characteristic pieces of sculpture of the cave- 
temples of the Bombay Presidency. A certain amount 

13B 



tPLATE XXVII. 




U tiftruahegvaramurti. Stone panel : Ellora. 



[To face page 139.] 



stjkhAsanamGrti. 

of family likeness could be noticed in these three 
pieces of elaborately carved panels. The Deva and 
the Devi, the central figures are shaped rather larger 
than the others, seated in the middle ; and around 
them a number of other deities attending upon 
them. In the lower section is the big bull of Siva 
tended or rather overtended, by the most humour- 
ously carved impish ganas. The artists of these 
master-pieces have spared no pains to cover the 
panels with a profusion both of vigorous figure 
sculpture and minute ornamental designs. Nothing 
short of the highest praise is due to the long gone 
artists who executed these immortal pieces of art. 
In PI. XXVII ^iva has four arms, the left one of 
which is holding the right arm of Uma and another 
is seen resting upon the seat. What the two right 
hands carried cannot be guessed, as they are broken ; 
evidently, the one resting upon the right thigh was 
left empty and the other perhaps carried a snake as in 
fig. 2, PI. XXVI. Between the figures of Siva and 
Uma stands Kumara, who keeps both his hands 
crossed on the chest. Ganesa is standing on the right 
of Siva. There are two lady attendants, one carrying 
a chamara and another a water- vessel (?) On either 
side of the panel are standing two divine figures, who 
cannot be identified as Vishnu and Brahma, because 
both of them ha,ve jaia-maJcutas on their head and 

139 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

because neither of them has four faces. They are 
in all probability two dvarapalaJcas. PI. XXVIII is 
almost similar to the previous plate. Herein there 
are sculptured a number of Devas, shown as hover- 
ing in the air carrying different kinds of offerings 
in their hands. It is worthy of notice that to the 
left of Uma is seen standing a dwarfish woman 
servant. This dwarfish woman is a characteristic 
feature of the sculptures at Ellora. In the lower 
section of the panel is the bull in the centre. The 
dwarfish ganas are taking care of it ; one peculiarity 
worth noticing is that these ganas are supporting 
the legs of the bull — an idea apparently borrowed 
from the Buddhist sculptures wherein the hoofs of 
the horse of Buddha are borne by devas lest they, 
treading on the earth, might produce noise and 
awaken the guards and stop Buddha from renounc- 
ing the world. The sculptors of all these panels are 
curiously agreed in representing one of the ganas as 
biting the tail of the bull, another as catching hold of 
of its horns, others tumbling about and playing 
with each other. In PI. XXIX one is seen in the 
extreme left and behind the figure of a lady, widen- 
ing his eyes with both his hands, thereby to frighten 
all others, while another in the extreme right over 
the figure oi another lady is exposing his back in 
an obscene manner. Of the lady attendants in this 

140 



PLATE XXVIII. 




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PLATE XXIX. 




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UiBamabesvaramurti. Stone panel : Ellora. 



[To face page 141,] 



SUKHASANAMUETI. 

panel one is fanning Siva and another is taking hold 
of the hair of Uma and dressing it up. 6iva is 
herein holding in one of his left hands the upper 
part of the garment of his consort and keeps one of 
his right hands in the suchi pose and the other ap- 
pears to be carrying a book. He is evidently giving 
out to Uma one of the puranas, which are supposed 
to have been addressed by Siva to Parvati. 



141 



SAMHARAMURTIS. 



SAMHAEAMUETIS. 

SIVA is represented in sculptures either as a 
terrific, destructive deity or a pacific, boon- 
conferrer. In the former aspect he is known by 
several names, each one being indicative of the de- 
struction of a particular malevolent and troublesome 
demoniacal being; for example, he is known as 
the Gajahamurti, having killed an elephant-formed 
asura ; Kalarimurti, as having killed Kala, the God 
of Death ; Kamantakamurti, because, he burnt 
down the God of Love who came to meddle with 
his austerities ; and so on. In the latter or the 
pacific aspect, Siva is represented as seated with his 
consort, — be it noted that the company of the Devi 
is always to keep Siva in a pacific turn of mind — , 
bestowing boons and blessings on his deserving 
votaries. The various boon-bestowing aspects of 
Siva are called the anugrahamurtis : for example, 
^iva is called Chandesanugrahamurti, because he 
conferred on Chand.esvara the boon of being the 

19 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

steward of the household of Siva ; Vishnvanugraha- 
murti, because he restored an eye to Vishnu, who 
had plucked the same for offering it to Siva, and 
for which act Siva also presented Vishnu with the 
cTiakra or the discus ; and so forth. Siva is a great 
master in the arts of dancing and music, besides 
being the greatest Yogi and philosopher. Being 
well-versed in the art of dancing, he is often repre- 
sented as dancing any one of the hundred and 
eight modes of dances detailed in the Natyaiastras ; 
as a master of music also he is portrayed as sitting 
or standing and playing upon the vlna, the most 
perfect of stringed Indian musical instruments. 
In this capacity he is known as the Vinadhara- 
Dakshinamiirti. As a yogi and philosopher, he is 
known as Vyakhyana-Dakshinamurti, etc. Besides 
the aspects above described there are many others 
of smaller or greater importance. To sum up, 
the images of Siva are of five classes, namely, 
the SamhAramurtis (or destructive aspects), the 
AnugraJiamurtis (or boon-conferring aspects), the 
Nritta-murtis (or dancing aspects), the Dahshina- 
micrtis (or the yogic, musical and philosophic 
aspects)^ and other minor aspects. Let me now 
deal with each one of these aspects under a separate 
chapter, noticing the various forms comprised in 
each of these different aspects. 

146 



SAMHlRAMtJRTIS. 

The circumstances under which 6iva is said 
to have destroyed Kama, the god of love, are 
described as follows in the Linga- 
m^tL*"'**'**^*" pw^a^^ia- After Dakshayani, other- 
wise also known as Sati, the first 
wife of Siva committed suicide by plunging into 
the fire, because her father slighted her Lord 
Siva by not offering oblations to him, ^iva sat 
upon the Himalaya and began to practice severe 
penance. The daughter of Himavan, Parvati, who 
was none other than Sati, who was reborn to 
Himavan, began to attend upon Siva, the great 
yogi. In the meantime the asura Taraka began to 
do havoc to the gods ; they knew that the only 
person who could destroy this demon would be a 
son born to Siva. Since Siva had to be diverted 
from his austerities and be induced to beget a son 
for the purpose of destroying Taraka, Kama, the 
god of love was deputed to create lascivious 
thoughts in the mind of Siva. Kama approached 
Siva and attacked him with his flowery arrows. 
Incensed at the disturbance caused by Kama in 
his mind, Siva opened his frontal eye and emitted 
flames of fire and reduced Kama to ashes ; but all 
the same, he fell in love with Parvati, married her 
and begot Kumara or Subrahmanya and through 
the latter got Tarakasura killed, thereby satisfying 

147 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

the wishes of the gods. At the entreaties of Eati, 
the wife of Kama, Siva promised her that Kama 
would be reborn as Pradhyumna. In the Tamil 
country it is believed that this act of destruction 
of Siva took place in a village called Tiruk- 
kurukkai in the Tanjore district. 

Descriptions of the Kamantakamurti are given 
in the tJttara-Kdimikagmna, the Suprabhedagama 
and the Purva-Edranagama. Siva should be 
represented in this aspect exactly similar to the 
figure of Yoga-Dakshinamurti, before which the 
figure of Manmatha or Kama should be sculptured 
as having fallen down at the mere glance of Siva. 
The height of the figure of Manmatha may range 
from one to seven-tenths of that of Siva ; he should 
be shown as decorated with golden ornaments ; his 
complexion should also be golden yellow. He is 
required to be represented as carrying in his hands 
the five different flowery arrows and the bow made 
of sugar-cane and in the company of his dear 
consort Kati. There should also be with him his 
companions, Devabhaga (?) and Vasanta (or the 
spring season). The names of the five arrows of 
Manmatha are given as the Lambiril, Tdpinl, 
Drdvinl, Mdrinl and Vedinl* The arrows should 

* The Kdrandgama calls these, Tapani, Dahant, Visva- 
mohini, Visvamardinl and Madinl. 

148 



SAMHSRAMURTIS. 

be held by Manmatha in the right hand and the bow 
in his left. The figures of the companions of 
Manmatha may or may not be represented ; so also, 
instead of five arrows, he may be shown as carrying 
only one. To this description the PurvaJcarana- 
gama adds that the figure of Siva should have three 
eyes and four arms ; his head should be covered 
with a, jata-maJiuta ; he should have a terrific look 
and carry a snake and an aJcshamala in two out 
of his four hands : the remaining right arm should 
be shown as held in the pose of pataka-hasta 
(or the hand held banner-wise)* and the re- 
maining left hand in the pose known as the 
sucJii-hasia. In all other respects, it should be 
similar to Yoga Dakshinamurti. This authority 
prescribes that the height, of Manmatha should 
be one-half of that of Siva ; and that he may be 
represented as being on a pltlia or pedestal or 
in a chariot (ratha). The banner of Manmatha 
should bear on the chariot the device of a fish. The 
names of the companions of Manmatha are given 
in the EaranUgama as Mada, Raga, Vasanta and 
Sisiraritu (the cold season). 

The story of the destruction of an elephant- 



* Or, should carry a banner. 
U9 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

asura by Siva and his wearing the skin of the 

elephant as his garment is found in 

2 Gajasura- ^.j^g Kurviavurana while describing 

samharamurti. _ ' * _ 

the linga named Krittivasesvara in 
Kasi (Benares). Suta is said to have told that Siva 
came out of this linga, when an asura, who assumed 
the shape of an elephant, came near it to disturb the 
meditations of several Brahmauas who had gathered 
round it, and killed the elephant and made its skin 
his upper garment. But the Varahapurana gives 
quite a different account which is already given 
elsewhere.* Another version of the story is that 
found in the Suprabheddgama which is also noticed 
in one of the earlier chapters of this volume, t So, 
the accounts found in different authorities, as usual, 
differ from each other, but the fact that Siva killed 
an elephant and had the elephant-skin as his 
clothing is common to all. A village in the Tanjore 
district called Valuvur is associated, in the Tamil 
country, with this destructive act of Siva and this 
is perhaps the only place which has a beautiful 
metal image of Gajahamurti. 

Descriptions of the image of Gajahamurti 
or Gajasurasamharamurti are found in the 

* Hindu Iconography, Volume I. p. 379. 
t Do. Volume II, p. 114. 

150 



SAMHAKAMUETIS. 

Amsumadbhedagama, the Silparatna and other 
Saivdffamas. In the former it is said that the image 
of Siva in this aspect may possess four or eight arms ; 
if there are only four arms, one of the right hands 
should hold the pa§a, and the other the skin of the 
elephant, while the two left hands should hold the 
tusk of the elephant and the skin respectively. If, 
on the other hand, there are eight arms, three out of 
the four right hands should carry the irUula, 
the ^amaru and the pasa and the fourth hand 
should be holding the skin of the elephant ; one of 
the left hands should be held in the vismaya 
pose, another catching hold of the skin of the 
elephant and the remaining two carrying a kapala 
and the tusk of the elephant respectively. The 
left leg of Siva should be planted firmly on the 
head of the elephant ; while the right one should 
be bent and lifted up above the thigh of the other 
leg. The tail of the elephant should be visible 
over the makuta of Siva and the artist might 
arrange on either side the position of the four legs 
of the elephant in any artistic manner which sug- 
gests itself to him. The skin of the elephant should 
be so arranged as to look like a prabhaman^ala to 
the image of Siva. The image of Siva should be 
adorned with all ornaments and have the garments 
made of silk and tiger's skin ; the colour of Siva in 

151 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

this instance is deep red. This is one of the 
descriptions given in the AmkumadhTiedagama ; the 
other one runs as follows: — In the right hands of 
Siva there should be the trikula, a sword, the tusk 
of the elephant and in the last the skin of the 
elephant ; while in the left hands, a Jcapala, the 
shield, a ghanta and the skin of the elephant. The 
left leg of Siva must be kept firmly on the head of 
the elephant and the right one bent and held as in 
the uthutiTtasana posture. 

On the left side of the Gajasurasamharamurti 
there should be standing the Devi with Skanda in 
her hands, trembling with fear at the ferocity of 
her lord. 

To illustrate the descriptions of the Gajasura- 
samharamurti five photographic reproductions are 
given. Of these, the first piece of sculpture, is to 
be seen in the mahanasika or the ornamented facade 
of the Amritesvara temple at Amritapura in the 
Mysore Province. In this, Siva has sixteen arms, 
a large number of hands being broken ; from what 
remains it is seen that they must have held the 
'pasa, danta, trikula, akshamald and Jcapala ; two of 
the hands are seen holding the skin of the elephant. 
Surrounding the figure of Siva is the skin of the 
elephant in the form of a prabhamant^ala. On 
the top of this skin, and beginning from the right 

152 



PLATE XXX. 






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'T^^ -^^^\ d»lf-"'.-' "J'^'ft ^-T-- 











. ^_-».-^-^<. '-< — — .«^- . 



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[To face page 152.] 



SAliHiEAMtJETIS. 

and ending on the left are the figures of the ashtadik- 
palas or the guardians of the eight quarters. On the 
right of Siva is the four-faced Brahma playing on 
the vina with two hands and carrying in the other 
the kamandalu and the sruJc and sruva. To the left 
of Brahma is a four armed person, who cannot be 
identified (because the objects in the hands are not 
clearly visible in the photograph) sounding the drum 
called, jantha. To the left of Siva is standing Vishnu 
with six hands : two are playing upon the flute, while 
the remaining four carry the sanTtha, chaJcra, padma 
and gada ; there is also another four-armed figure 
standing to the left of Vishnu, which is also not 
identifiable. All these four figures are so carved as to 
suggest the notion of dancing. Within the fold of the 
skin of the elephant are the Devi and Ganesa to the 
right of Siva, and Nandi, the bull and Bhringi, to 
the left. At the foot of Siva lies the head of the 
elephant killed by him. The head of Siva is orna- 
mented by a mandala oijatas and the jatamaJcuta he 
wears, is adorned with a garland of skulls : a similar 
garland is also worn on the neck. A large number 
of very nicely executed ornaments are on the per- 
son of the image of Siva. This is a unique piece 
of patiently and elaborately carved sculpture. 

The second illustration, PL XXXI, is taken 
from the oiva temple at Valuvur,the reputed place of 

153 
so 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

the destruction of Gajasura. Thebronze,of which the 
illustration is a photograph, is a remarkable piece of 
artistic work, both for its size and the excellence of 
its execution. The very well-carved face has a pair 
of round eyes, a pair of side tusks, both indicative 
of the terrific nature of the deity ; surrounding the 
head is ajatamandala in which are seen on the left 
the crescent of the moon and on the right a snake. 
In the jatamaJcuta are the skull, durddhura flowers 
and other ornaments. The image of Siva has eight 
arms ; one of the right hands holds the elephant- 
skin, another two carry a very artistically shaped 
trisula, and a hhadga respectively, while what is held 
in the fourth is not clear in the photograph. Each 
of the left hands carry the kapala, Jchetaha and 
tanJca (?). Below the right foot of Siva is the head 
of the elephant, while its tail is visible on the top. 
One leg of the elephant is shown as hanging in 
front above the left hands of Siva. On either side of 
§iva stands a gana each with four arms and playing 
upon the drum and other musical instruments. 

The third illustration fig. 1, PI. XXZII, 
comes from Darasuram in the Tanjore district. Siva 
in this sculpture is represented with eight arms. 
In the right hands of Siva are seen the damaru, 
hhadga, trisula and the elephant's skin; in three out 
of the four left hands are the kapala, paka and the 

154 



PLATE XXXI. 




Gajaaura-samhara-murti. Bronze : Valuvur. 



[To face page 154.] 



PLATE XXXII. 





[To face page 155. J 



SAMHARAMtJETIS. 

elephant's skin, while the fourth is held in the 
sucliihasta pose. As in the previous instances there 
is the jatamandala on the head of ^iva, in which 
is tied up a skull ; and the whole person of Siva is 
adorned with a large number of well carved orna- 
ments such as the Jcundalas, haras, udarabandha, 
keyuras and hatahas. As in the image of Valuvur, 
the right leg is planted on the head of the elephant 
and the left held up bent is an utJcutiJcasana in 
direct opposition to the descriptions given in the 
Agamas. This deviation from the 2.gamas appears 
to be a peculiarity of this aspect of Siva belonging to 
the sculptures of the Chola period and country, as 
might be seen also in the figure of Tiruchchenga- 
ttangudi (see fig. 2, PI. XXXII). In the Darasuram 
sculpture, the artist has kept the two legs and the 
tail of the elephant vertically over the head of Siva. 
Towards the left of Siva stands the Devi with the 
child Subrahmanya seated on her loins ; both of them 
are looking with awe at Siva. The Tiruchchengat- 
tangudi image of G-ajasurasamharamurti is almost 
exactly similar to the Darasuram image; in his right 
hands Siva holds the damaru, the pasa, the §ula and 
the elephant's skin; one of the left hands is held in the 
vismaya pose, another seems to carry a deer (?), the 
third having a Jcapala in it is held in the suchl pose, 
while the fourth is holding the skin of the elephant. 

155 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

The fifth photograph, PI. XXXIII, is that of 
an image to be found in the Hoysalesvara temple 
at Halebidu. Like the first illustration, this 
one also has sixteen arms, which carry a very 
large number of objects such as the Jchadga, 
aiikusa, vajra, damaru, bana, gada, hhatv5,hga, 
tanka ghanta, sarpa, dlianus and kapala ; the 
two hands are seen holding the elephant's skin. 
As in the sculpture of Amritapura the right 
leg of Siva is made to rest upon the head of the 
elephant and the left is bent and held slightly 
lifted up. The skin of the elephant is kept like a 
prabhd-mandala. On the right of Siva are four 
famishing goblins {dakinis) praising Siva ; and on 
the left of Siva are a few male and female musicians 
sounding drums and other musical instruments. 
Like the first illustration this belongs to the Hoysala 
style of sculpture of the 13th Century A.D. 

Siva once got angry witL\ Kala, the god of death 
and kicked him on his chest. The 

3. Kalarimurti. 

Circumstances under which this act 
was performed by Siva are given m the puranas 
thus : —The Eishi Mrikandu was long without a son. 
He prayed to God that he may be blessed with sons. 
God appeared to him and asked him if he would like 
to have a large number of useless sons or only one 
remarkably intelligent but with his life limited to 

156 



PLATE XXXIII. 




, ^/~% .jtr 



/, 




Mi 



Gajasura-satnhara-DQurfci. Stone : Halebid. 



[To face page 156.] 



SAMHAEAMtJBTIS. 

sixteen years. The risJii chose the latter alternative 
and in due time his wife Manasvini bore him a son 
who was called Markandeya. The child grew up to 
be a very intelligent boy : even as his intelligence 
and behaviour grew to be more and more remark- 
able, the hearts of the parents began to be weighted 
with sorrow, for at the sixteenth year of his 
age he was fated to die. The news of the short 
duration of his life, reached Markandeya's ears. 
He resolved to offer pujas to the gods at all import- 
ant places of pilgrimage, and, in the course of his 
perigrinations, reached, the tradition says, to Tiruk- 
kadavur and was intently absorbed in worshipping 
the liizga enshrined in its temple. Just then the 
call from the lord of death, Yama, came. His 
emissaries approached Markandeya to bind his 
soul and carry it to their master ; not finding it 
possible for them to do so, they reported the fact 
to Yama, who proceeded in person to conduct 
operations against the life of Markandeya which was 
not destined to continue longer than sixteen years. 
He all but succeeded in binding the Brahmana lad, 
but Siva burst out of the Lihga in great anger, and 
administered a kick on the chest of Yama, which 
almost killed him. Yama came to his senses, realis- 
ed that this great devotee of Siva ought not to have 
been submitted to the same rules as other ordinary 

167 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

mortals and went away the wiser for his visit to 
Tirukkadavur. Siva then blessed Markandeya to be 
ever of sixteen years of age, so that the destiny that 
he should die at the expiry of his sixteenth year 
might not operate on him and he is believed to 
exist as one of the cliiranjlvls (immortals). Siva in 
the act of chastising Yama is known as Kalarimurti. 
This beautiful story is often seen perpetuated in 
stone and colour in many a temple. In the Tamil 
country it is believed that this incident took place 
in Tirukkadavur in the Tanjore district. 

The descriptions of Kalarimurti are given in 
all the agamas. The image of Kalarimurti is to 
have its right foot placed upon a 'padma-pitha and 
the left leg being lifted up so far high as to reach 
the chest of the figure of Yama, over which the toe 
of Siva should rest. The figure of Siva should have 
three eyes, lateral tusks, the jatamakuta adorning 
the head and four or eight arms. If the image has 
only four arms, one of the right hands carrying a 
sula should be lifted up as far as the ear ; the other 
right hand may carry the parasu or be held in the 
varada pose ; if the hand holds the parasu the edge 
of the instrument should be turned towards the 
person of Siva and the height at which this hand 
is to be kept raised is that of the hikTiasutra. The 
front left hand should be held with the palm in 

168 



SAliHARAMUETIS. 

front, at the height of the navel and this hand 
should be in the sucM pose. The back left hand 
should be kept in the vismaya pose ; in this case, the 
ring-finger of the hand should be raised as high as 
the ushnlsha or the lower portion of the crown. If, 
however, the image of Siva has eight arms, the 
right ones should bear in them the 6ula, the paraiu, 
the vajra and the hha^ga ; in two of the left hands 
there should be the Jchetaha and the pasa, while the 
two remaining hands should be held in the vismaya 
and the sucM poses respectively. The colour of 
Siva in this aspect is also red, though of the coral, 
and he should be adorned with all ornaments. 

Kala, Yama or the god of death should be re- 
presented with two arms and two legs, with side 
tusks and with a Jcaranda-makuta on his head. One 
of his hands should carry the pa§a and with this 
and the remaining hand he should be doing anjali 
to Siva, his body covered with blood and trembling 
with fear ; his legs should be standing apart from 
each other (as though he is attempting to steady 
himself). Kala must also be looking up to Siva for 
his grace. 

The above description of Kalarimurti accord- 
ing to the AmhumadhTiedagama is supplemented 
by the Kamikagama thus : the right leg should 
be shown, according to this authority, in the act of 

169 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

kicking Yama and the left one should be placed on 
the ground. In the right hands of Siva there must 
be the sula and the parasu and in one of the left 
hands the ndgapd,sa, while the remaining hand 
should be held in the suchi pose. The eyes of Siva 
should be so sculptured as to suggest the idea that 
their sight is directed towards Kala and the §ula 
should be turned head downwards and piercing the 
neck of Yama. In this work Kala is required to be 
represented as fallen down fainted with eyes filled 
with tears. He should be clothed in red garments, 
should have red eyes, red hair both on the head, the 
moustache and the brows ; he should have side 
tusks also. The height of Yama should reach up 
to the navel of Siva and his figure must be shaped 
according to the nava-tala measure. 

There is another description given in the 
Kamikagama according to which the figure of Siva 
may be represented as rising from the Linga which 
Markandeya was worshipping and the figure of 
Yama fallen prostrate on the ground. In this 
instance, the lihga and the image of Siva should 
be sculptured as in the Lingodbhavamurti already 
described above. The body of Siva should be 
covered with white ashes (vibhuti). 

Markandeya should be seated near the linga 
with flowers for offering and his features should 

160 



PLATE XXXIV, 




Kahu-i-murti: Stone panel : Dasavatfu-a Cave : Ellore 



[To face page IGIJ 



SAMHiRAMtJRTIS. 

indicate the fear due to the approach of death 
rather than happiness at the appearance of ^iva for 
his rescue. 

The Karanagama adds that the two front 
hands of Siva which are to hold the down-turned 
trident must be in the JcataJca pose. Evidently, 
this rule is meant to be applicable to bronze images 
in which such implements, which are wrought 
separately and not cast with the original image 
itself, and are generally inserted whenever they are 
wanted. The kataJca-hasta pose will be seen in all 
metal images in whose hands different articles are 
meant to be inserted at the will of the worshipper. 
For example, in the case of the goddesses who stand 
near their consorts, one hand is held in the Itataha 
pose to receive a natural flower every day in it ; the 
hands of Eama and Lakshmana are kept in the same 
pose for inserting in them the bow and the arrow; 
in the case also of Vinadhara Dakshinamurti, we 
shall see later on, the hands are held in the kataka 
pose. 

Five illustrations are given of Kalarimurti. 
The first of these, PI. XXXIV, is a drawing of the 
Kalarimurti to be found in the Dasavatara cave in 
Ellora. In this panel Siva is represented as issuing 
from the liiiga, in front of which is seen the 
boy Markandeya kneeling with his arms folded on 

161 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

his bent knees. One of the right hands and one of 
the left hands of Siva grasp a stout handled, sharp 
trident which is aimed at the abdomen of Yama. 
The remaining right hand rests on the hip 
{hatyavalambita hasta) and the remaining left hand 
is held in the vismaya pose. The right leg of 
Siva is buried up to the knee in the lihga and the 
left leg is represented as kicking Yama. The person 
of ^iva is adorned with many ornaments. Yama 
has apparently fallen down ; in this miserable plight 
he praises Siva with his right hand uplifted and in 
the left hand he still grasps the yaka with which he 
had bound the neck of Markandeya. 

The second sculpture, Fig 1, PI. XXXV, also 
belongs to Ellora, and is found in the Kailasa 
temple. It is almost similar in its details to the 
panel described above. Here Yama stands prais- 
ing Siva with one hand uplifted and holds in the 
other the pasa bound to the figure of Markandeya. 
The image of Siva issues from the top of a lihga 
before which is seen seated the figure of Markan- 
deya with the head broken and lost. The action of 
Siva in kicking Yama with his foot and piercing 
him with his kula is portrayed vigorously. 

The third illustration, Fig. 2, PI, XXXV, 
belongs to Pattisvaram in the Tanjore district. 
Herein the treatment of the subject is quite 

162 



PLATE XXXV. 





[To lace page 162.] 



PL\TE XXXVI. 




Id 


1^ 


a 




•s 


o 


ICS 


a 


im 


o 


M 


o 




<o 










04 


o 




c; 


0(1 








<,^ 


Si 




H 




[To iace pat^e :6J J 



SAMHAEAMtJETIS. 

different. Siva is standing with his left leg resting 
upon the body of the fallen Yama and is kicking 
him with the right foot on his chest. He carries in 
his hands the sula with its head turned downward, 
the parasu, the mriga and the Jcapala. Markandeya 
stands to the right of Siva with hands in the anjali 
pose praising Siva. 

The next illustration, Fig. 1, PI. XXXVI, is 
of an image to be found in Tiruchcheugattangudi 
and is almost similar to the Pattisvaram sculpture 
described above. The only differences between the 
two are that in the former the left leg of Siva is 
lifted up to kick Yama, whereas in the latter, it is 
the right leg that is lifted for that purpose ; the 
right foot is planted firmly on the body of Yama in 
Tiruchchengattangudi sculpture, while in the 
Pattisvaram sculpture, the left foot is so placed. 
The head of Yama is on the left of Siva in the 
Tiruchchengattangudi image and on the right in 
the Pattisvaram one. The last illustration. Fig. 2, 
PL XXXVI, is the reproduction of the photograph 
of a bronze image kept in the collection of Mr. E. F. 
Stoney, Executive Engineer, P. W. D., Madura. 
In this instance, Siva is seen emerging from a 
lihga, within which his right leg is buried up to the 
thigh. The other leg is lifted up in the act of 
kicking Yama (whose image seems to have been 

163 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

sculptured as a separate piece). The back hands 
carry the parasu and the mriga, while the front 
ones are so kept as to hold in them a trisula. 

On one occasion Siva killed three asuras who 
dwelt in three forts constructed of metals and who 
caused great damage to the suras and the rishis. 
The story is given in detail in the Karnaparvan of 
the Mahabharata, an abstract of which is given 
below. The three sons of Tarakasura*, having 
performed great penances, obtained from Brahma 
the boons that they should occupy three castles 
wherefrom they should move as they desired and 

after a thousand years the three 
multt^""*^**^* castles should unite into one and 

should be only destructible with a 
single arrow. The asura architect Maya built 
them the three castles, one of gold which was in 
heaven, another of silver in the air and a third of 
iron on the earth : each one of these was appropriat- 
ed by one of the asuras, and they started out on 
their tour of harassing the gods. Indra attacked 
them with his vajra but did not succeed in putting 
them down. The gods then repaired to Brahma 
to consult him as to the means of destroying these 
asuras. He told them that they could only be 

'*' These were named Vidyunmali, Tarakaksha and Kama- 
laksha. 

164 



SAMHAEAMtJETIS. 

killed with a single arrow and such a weapon could 
be wielded only by Mahadeva and directed them 
to pray to him for help. They prayed accordingly 
and succeeded in inducing him to undertake 
the task of killing the asuras. Mahadeva then 
demanded of them one half of their powers (saMi) 
to add to his own strength, as, otherwise, it was 
impossible to kill those strong demons. They 
consented and parted with a half of their strength, 
Mahadeva became now stronger than all other 
gods and hence came to be known by the name 
Mahadeva, the great god. The various gods served 
Mahadeva in other capacities also. Vishnu, became 
his arrow, Agni its barb and Yama its feather. 
Mahadeva made the Vedas his bow and Savitri 
his bow-string. Brahma became his charioteer. 
With the three-barbed arrow consisting of Soma, 
Agni and Vishnu the castles with their inhabitants 
were destroyed by Mahadeva. 

The puraniJc account of the destruction of the 
three castles by Mahadeva is based upon very 
much older accounts found in the Samhitas and 
Brahmanas. For instance, in the commentary 
of the Vajasaneyi Samhita of the Yajurveda, it is 
stated that the asuras being defeated by the 
gods, performed austerities and built three castles, 
which were destroyed by Agni, Similarly in the 

165 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY, 

aatapatha-Brahmana we are told that the gods and 
the asuras fought together, though born of the same 
father, Prajapati. The latter built for themselves 
three castles which excited the envy of the gods. For 
destroying them Indra is said later on to be prepar- 
ing his thunderbolt with Agni as the shaft, Soma as 
the iron and Vishnu as the point. The Taittinya 
Sarhhita somewhat amplifies the story thus : The 
asuras had three castles, the lowest being made of 
iron, the next higher of silver and the highest of 
gold. The gods were unable to conquer them ; 
therefore they made an arrow, consisting of Agni 
as the wooden shaft. Soma as the iron and Vishnu 
as the point. But then they needed one to wield 
this weapon ; their choice fell upon Rudra, the cruel, 
who dasbroyid the castles and drove out the asuras 
from these regions. Similar references to the de- 
struction of three metallic castles are found in the 
Aitareya-Brahmana and other ancient authorities. 

Tripurantakamurti is described in great detail 
in almost all the agamic authorities. 

No less than eight different descriptions of the 
Tripurantakamurti are given in the Amsumadbhe- 
dagama alone ; but there are not many points of 
material difference between one form and the other 
given in this work ; however, since a distinction 
has been made by tbia authority, let me adhere to 

166 



SAMHAEAMUETIS. 

its descriptions. In the first form of this aspect of 

Siva, the right leg of the image of Siva should be 

kept a little in front, while the left one, slightly 

bent, should be behind. One of the right hands 

should be held in the simhakarna pose at about the 

height of the nabhi-sutra and be holding the bow 

string in which the arrow is set. The thickness of 

the arrow should be that of the little finger of Siva; 

one of the left hands should be grasping the bow 

and raised up in a horizontal position ; the thickness 

of the bow ought to fit in exactly into the closed 

fist of Siva and should be tapering at both the ends. 

The bow should be painted beautifully with various 

colours. It may have three bends (see fig. 3, PI. II, 

in Vol. I) or be like the crescent moon and may be 

of wood or metal. The thickness of the bow string 

is given as one-third of the thickness of the bow 

and its length as seven-eighths of the length of the 

bow. The remaining hands should be held in the 

kartari-hasta pose ; in the right hand there should 

be the tanka and in the left, the krishna-mriga. 

The figure should be adorned with bhejata-makuta 

and all ornaments should be of red colour. On 

the left of that of ^iva, there should be the figure 

of the Devi. 

The Uttarak&mikagama adds to the above 
description the following : the image of Siva should 

167 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

have three eyes ; in its right ear there should be 
the makara-hundala ; from the non-mention of any 
ornament for the other ear, we have perhaps to 
infer that it has to be adorned by none. This 
authority states that Siva may have four hands or 
even two ; in the latter case, they should carry the 
bow and the arrow- The body of Siva should be in 
the samahhahga attitude. 

In the second form of Tripurantakamurti the 
left foot of Siva must be kept upon ApasmSra- 
purusha, while the rest of the description is 
exactly similar to the first. In the third form, 
the left leg of Siva should be kept standing 
vertically while the right should be slightly bent. 
In the fourth it is stated that the left foot 
should be placed upon the Apasmara ; this is evi- 
dently a mistake for the right foot, for, as it is, it 
is the description of the second form given above. 
The front right and left hands of Siva, in the fifth 
form, should be held, so as the palm of the latter 
might be facing up and that of the former turned 
down, grasping the point and tail of the arrow ; in 
the back right and left hands there should be the 
tahJca and the mriga or dhanus respectively. 
The legs should be somewhat bent but there should 
not be the Apasmarapurusha in this form. There 
should be the Devi to the left of Siva. In all these 

168 



SAliHiEAMUETIS. 

five forms of Tripurantakamurti there should be 
only four arms and no more. 

In the sixth form, Siva as the Tripurantaka- 
murti should have eight arms, in the four right 
ones of which there should be the bana, the paraiu, 
the kha^ga and the vajra ; whereas two of the left 
hands should be held in the vismaya and the 
kataka poses respectively, while the remaining two 
should carry the dhanus and the khetaka. There 
should be several bends in the body of Siva {ati- 
bhaiiga) which should add grace to the general 
beauty of the figure. There should also be the Devi 
to the left of Siva. In the seventh form, there 
should be ten arms ; in the right hands they should 
carry the bana, the chakra, the §ula, the taiika and 
the vajra; and in three out of the five left hands 
there should be the dhanus, the sankJia and the 
khetaka : the remaining hands being in the vismaya 
and the suehl poses respectively. 

In the eighth form, Siva is to be represented as 
driving in a chariot. His right leg should be slight- 
ly raised and be resting on a part of the chariot, 
whereas the left one should be planted in the middle 
of the chariot. In the chariot there should be a 
part called the mukula, which is not quite intelli- 
gible. It is stated that this mukula should be 
tied up with a rope, and Brahma, the charioteer 

169 

i2 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

should be seated in the middle of this mukula, 
with a bamboo stick in one right hand and ham- 

m 

andalu in the other ; and padma-pdsa (?) in one 
left hand and the kundika (a kind of water-vessel) 
in the other. Below the mukula there should 
be standing a white bull. This bull is Vishnu 
who got down from the arrow temporarily to 
steady the chariot which was giving way under 
the feet of Siva ; and after steadying the chariot 
Vishnu returned to the arrow. The chariot should 
be shown as sailing in the air. 

The common features of the eight forms of the 
Tripurantakamurti are that they are all of red 
complexion, have one face and three eyes, and have 
the Devi on the left side. In this aspect Siva is 
guided by a passion composed of the satva and the 
rajo gunas. 

Four illustrations are given of Tripurantaka- 
murti. The first two are to be found in Ellora and 
another in the Kailasanatha temple at Conjeevaram. 
Of the two sculptures of Ellora, the first is in the 
so-called Dasavatara cave, PL XXXVII. In this, 
Siva stands in his chariot with his right leg kept 
forward and the left one, behind ; the body of Siva is 
turned away from the objects aimed at, but his face 
and arms are turned in the direction of the three 
castles which h« is about to destroy. He seems to 

170 



PLATE XXXVII. 




Tripurantakamurti : Stone. Daa'avatara Cave : Ellora. 



[To face page 170] 



PLATE XXXVIII. 




Tripurantakamurbi : Stone : Kailasa Temple : Bllora. 



[To face page l7l] 



PLATE XXXIX. 




Tripurantakamurfci : Stone : Conjeevaram. 



[To face page 1?1] 



PL\TE XL. 




:Tripurantakamurti : Stone : Madura. 



[To face page 171] 



SAMHAEAMtJBTIS. 

have had ten arms ; those that still remain 
unbroken are carrying the sword, and the shield, a 
third arm is holding the arrow strung in the bow- 
string, while a fourth holds the bent bow. Brahma 
is driving the chariot which is yoked to two horses. 

The second illustration, PL XXXVIII, is the 
photograph of the sculpture to be found in the 
Kailasa cave in the same place. In this, Siva has 
only two arms ; the right hand bears the arrow while 
the left one the bow. On the right shoulder is a 
quiver of arrows. Brahma is seen sitting in the front 
portion of the chariot and driving the two horses 
yoked to it. In front of Tripurantakamurti are 
the asuras fleeing before their pursuer. 

In the third illustration, PI. XXXIX, Siva is 
seated in the alidhasana posture in the chariot and 
has eight arms, in which there ought to be the bow, 
arrow and other implements of war. As in the 
previous instances, Brahma is driving the chariot. 

The last illustration, PI. XL, is the ' reproduc- 
tion of the photograph of the beautiful sculpture 
found in the mandapa in front of the central shrine 
of the Sundaresvara temple at Madura, which 
belongs to the modern times. 

Once Siva assumed the form of a mythical 
animal called Sarabha. The circumstances under 
which he was obliged to take this form are given as 

171 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

follows : Vislin,u, in his Nrisimhavatara, destroyed 
the asura Hirainyakasipu who was 
m-orti. causing great annoyance to the 

gods. Even after the destruction 
of the asura, Vishnu did not abate his terrific 
attitude, which was causing damage to the inhabi- 
tants of the world. They approached 6iva for 
succour and Siva promised them his help. He at 
once assumed the form of a harahha, an animal with 
two heads, two wings of resplendent beauty, eight 
legs of the lion with sharp claws, and a long tail ; 
making dreadful noise the Sarabha approached 
Nrisimha, caught hold of him and tore him up ; 
the skin of Narasimha, he wore as his garment and 
the head was worn on his chest or, as some accounts 
have it, on his malcuta as an ornament. Vishnu 
came to his proper senses and retired, after praising 
Siva, to his own abode, the Vaikuntha. Siva came 
thenceforth to be known as Sarabhesamurti or 
Simhaghnamurti . 

Sarabhesamurti is described in the Kamika- 
gama as follows : The body of Sarabhesa is that 
of a bird of golden hue ; it should have two wings 
which should be uplifted : Sarabhesa has two red 
eyes, four legs resembling those of the lion resting 
upon the ground and four others with sharp clawa 
kept lifted upwards, and an animal tail ; the body 

172 



saiIhSbam-Betis. 

above the loins should be that of a human being 
but having the face of a lion which should be 
wearing upon its head a hirlta-makuta. There 
should also be side-tusks and on the whole a terrific 
appearance. Sarabhesa is to be shown as carrying 
with two of his legs Narasimha. The figure of 
Narasimha should be the ordinary form of a human 
being with the hands held in the anjali pose. 

The Srltatvanidhi gives a somewhat different 
description. It requires that the figure of Sara- 
bhesa should have thirty-two arms, in the right ones 
of which are to be found vajra, mushti, abhaya, 
chaJcra, kahti, danda, ahJcuia, hhadga, Jckatvanga, 
parasu^ akshamala, a bone, dhanus, musala, and 
agni ; whereas the left hands ought to keep the paia, 
varada, gada, bana, dhvaja, another kind of sword, 
a snake, a lotus flower, Jcapala, pustaha, hala and 
mudgara and one hand should be embracing Durga. 

The Uttarakaranagama says that by consecrat- 
ing this image, all enemies will be destroyed, 
battles won, all ailments cured and every good 
achieved ; and that the three eyes of this aspect of 
6iva are the sun, the moon and the fire ; that his 
tongue is the subterranean fire known as the 
badavanala; that his two wings are Kali and Durga ; 
his nails, Indra, the belly, Kalagni ; the thighs, 
Kala and Mrityu; and his gigantic strength 

173 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

Mahavayu. Again, in the Sarabhopanishad it is 
stated that sara means the Jlva or soul ; Hari is 
shining in the limbs of Sarabha, and that Hari 
himself is Sarabha who is capable of granting 
moksha. 

An illustration of the Sarabhesamurti is given 
in Vol. I, PI. B, Introduction. It is a bronze image 
to be found in the Siva temple at Tribhuvanam in 
the Tanjore district. In this piece of sculpture 
Sarabha is represented as having three legs, the 
body and a face of the lion, a tail and four human 
arms ; in the right upper hand is the parasu, in the 
lower right one, the p^sa, in the upper left one, the 
mriga and in the lower left one, agni. With the 
front leg, Sarabhamurti has pinioned Nrisimha, who 
is struggling against his adversary with his eight 
arms. 

The following account is found in the Vardha- 

purdna regarding the cutting off of the fifth head of 

Brahma by Siva. Brahma created 

6. Brahmasira- t, , 

schchiiedaka- Kudra and addressing him as 

murti. 

Kapali, asked him to protect the 
world. Because he was insulted as Kapali, Siva 
cut off the fifth head of Brahma with his left 
thumb-nail ; but this head stuck to his hand and 
would not fall off from it. Then Brahma was 
requested by Eudra to tell him how he could get 

174 



samhAeamurtis. 

rid of the head stuck up in his hand, for which 
Brahma prescribed to Rudra the observance of the 
Kapalika life for twelve years, at the end of which 
he promised that the head would fall oS. Then 
Rudra repaired to Mahendragiri and wearing an 
Yajnopavlta made of hair, a garland of beads made 
of bone and a piece of the skull tied up as an orna- 
ment in the. jatamaJcuta on his head and carrying 
a skull filled with blood in his hand, went round 
the earth visiting all places of pilgrimage. 
At the end of twelve years he arrived at Varanasi, 
where, by the followers of Simachari(?) the skull of 
Brahma was removed from the hand of Rudra. 
The place where the head fell obtained the name 
of Kapala-mochana. Rudra then bathed in the 
Ganges, worshipped Visvesvara at Kasi and return- 
ed to Kailasa. 

A somewhat different version is found in the 
Eurmapurana. Once upon a time the rishis asked 
Brahma as to who was the origin of the universe. 
Brahma arrogated it to himself. Just then Siva 
appeared on the scene and claimed to be the origi- 
nator of the universe ; upon this there ensued a 
dispute between Brahma and Siva. Even though 
the Vedas came to declare that Siva was the greatest 
of all Gods, Brahma would not accept their verdict. 
Then appeared in space a huge illumination in which 

175 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

was discernible the figure of Siva. Siva then 
ordered Bhairava to cut ofi that fifth head of 
Brahma which spoke to him with haughtiness and 
disrespect. By the power of his yoga, Brahma 
escaped death and he also learnt, at the sacrifice of 
one of his heads, the superiority of Siva. 

The following description of Brahmasirasch- 
chhedakamurti is found in the Sritatvanidhi. 
The figure of this aspect of Siva should be of white 
complexion, with three eyes, four arms and a 
jatamaJcuta on the head and the patraJcundala in 
the right ear and the nakrakundala in the left 
one. In the right hand are to be the vajra 
and the paraiu and in the left ones, the skull 
of Brahma and the ^ula. It should be draped in 
the garments made of tiger's skin. 

The Siva-purana calls Bhairava the purna- 
rupa or the full form of Sankara and that those 
whose intellect is darkened by maya are not able to 
understand the superiority of this aspect of §iva and 
decline to worship it. Bhairava is so called 
because he protects the universe (hJiarana) and 
because he is terrific (bhlshai^a). He is also known 
as Kalabhairava for even Kala (the god of death) 
trembles before him ; Amarddaka because he kills 
bad i^rsouBimarddana) andPapabhakshana, because 

176 



SAMHSEAMtETIS. 

he swallows the sins of his bhaktas or devotees. 
He is the lord of the city of Kasi. 

The description of Bhairava is found in the 
Vishnudharmottara. It is there 

(a) Bhairava. 

stated that Bhairava should have a 
flabby belly, round yellow eyes, side-tusks and wide 
nostrils, and should be wearing a garland of skulls. 
He should be also adorned with snakes as orna- 
ments ; besides these there should be other orna- 
ments also. The complexion of Bhairava is dark 
as the rain-cloud and his garment the elephant's 
skin ; he should have several arms carrying several 
weapons. He should be represented as frightening 
Parvati with a snake. 

Bhairava has many forms such as the Vatuka- 
bhairava, Svarnakarshanabhairava and so forth. 
The features of each one of these forms are describ- 
ed below. 

Vatuka-Bhairava should have eight arms in 

six of which are to be the Jchatvaiiga 
Bhairava.'^* the pasa, the sula, the damaru, the 

Jcapala and a snake ; while one of 
the remaining hands should carry a piece of flesh 
and the other should be held in the abhaya pose. 
By the side of this Bhairava there should be a dog 
of the same colour as that of its master. Meditation 
upon this form of Bhairava is said to secure all the 

177 

23 



HINDU ICONOGBAPHY. 

wishes of the votary. So far for the description 
given in the Bupamandana ; the following is the 
description found in the VatuJca-BhairavaJcalpa. 
This aspect of Bhairava should have jatas of red 
colour, three eyes and a red body. He should carry 
in his hands the sula, the pasa, the damara and the 
kapd,la and be riding upon a dog. Vatuka-Bhairava 
should be stark naked and be surrounded on all 
sides by a host of demons. 

Four illustrations of Vatuka-Bhairava are 
given, in none of which is Bhairava seen with eight 
arms as given in the Bupamandana. The South 
Indian image of Pattisvaram, PI. XLI, carries the 
sula, the damaru, the pasa and the kapala and is 
naked. It has jvalas or flames surrounding its 
jatamakuta and wears round its neck a long necklace 
made of small bells, besides a number of well- wrought 
golden and other necklaces. Round the loins is the 
katisutra or waist zone consisting of a snake. To 
show the terrific aspect of this deity, the eyes of the 
image are made round and there are shown large 
side-tusks. Immediately behind the figure of Bhai- 
rava is a dog also adorned with a number of necklaces 
and other ornaments. This image belongs to the 
later Ch5la period (12th and 13th centuries A.p.). 

The two Northern Indian images as also the 
one of the Chalukya style, figs. 1, 3 & 2, PL XLII, 

178 



Plate Mli. 




Bbairava : Stone : Fattisvaram, 



[To face page 178] 



PLATB XLll. 




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[To face page 179] 



SAMHAKAMUBTIS. 

are alike in their execution. They all carry the 
sula, the hhadga, the paia and the Jcapala, have 
their jaias arranged in a circle (or mandala,) and 
are naked. They wear garlands of skulls and are 
of terrific appearance. The image belonging to the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta, fig. 1, PI. XLII, alone 
is smiling, whereas that belonging to the Museum 
of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
fig. 3, PI. XLII, has a scorpion attached as a IdncJih- 
ana or mark on the front face of the pedestal ; and 
these two images are surrounded by emaciated 
pisachas. The sword in the hand of the image of 
the Madras Museum (fig. 2, PL XLII), is a short 
dagger held with its point downwards. All these 
thr^e images stand on sandals, which are absent 
in the case of the South Indian image. 

Svarnakarshana Bhairava should have an 

yellow coloured body, with four arms 
shana^BhaSava. ^^^ ^^^^^ ^ycs and should be clothed 

in yellow garments. He should be 
adorned with all kinds of ornaments and be praised by 
all gods. The appearance of this aspect of Bhairava 
should be one which suggests perfect happiness 
coupled with masterful authoritativeness. He 
should be carrying in his hands a vessel filled with 
gold and precious gems, a chamara and a tomara and 
a large iula should be resting upon the shoulder. 

179 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

We have already seen in the introduction that 
Bhairava's aspect has eight difier- 
four Bhih-amr ent forms, named Asitaiiga, Euru, 
Chanda, Krodha, Unmatta-Bhai- 
rava, Kapala, Bhishana and Samhara. Each one 
of these forms is divided further into eight 
subordinate forms, thus making sixty-four in all. 
All these are grouped into eight groups and are 
described in the Budra-ydmala. 

In the group coming under Asitanga are in- 
cluded Visalaksha, Marttanda, Modaka-priya, 
Svachchanda, Vighna-santushta, Khechara and 
Sacharachara. All these are of golden complexion 
and have good looking limbs, and carry the trlsula, 
the damaru, the pasa and the khadga. 

The group headed by Ruru consists of Kroda- 
damshtra, Jatadhara, Visvarupa, Virupaksha, Nana- 
rupadhara, Vajrahasta and Mahakaya. The colour 
of the Bhairavas of this group is pure white ; they 
should all be adorned with ornaments set with 
rubies and should carry an akshamala, the aiihuka, 
a pustaJca and a vlna. 

Chanda, Pralayantaka, Bhumikampa, Nila- 
kantha, Vishnu, Kulapalaka, Mundapala and Kama- 
pala constitute the third group. All these are to be 
of blue colour and have good looks. They should 
carry in their hands agni, kahti, gada and knnda. 

180 



SAllHARAMUETIS. 

In the group headed by Krodha are included 
Pingalekshana, Abhrarupa, Dharapala, Kutila, 
Mantranayaka, Rudra and Pitamaha. All these 
are of smoke colour and should carry Jcha^ga, 
khetaJca, a long sword and -paraku. 

In the Unmatta-Bhairava group are Vatuka- 
nayaka, Sankara, Bhuta-vetala, Trinetra, Tripuran- 
taka, Varada and Parvatavasa. Their colour is 
white and they are all to be of good looks and carry 
in their hands the kun^a, the khetaJca, the parigha 
(a kind of club) and bhindipala. 

Kapala, Sasibhushana, Hasticharmambara- 
dhara, Yogisa, Brahmarakshasa, Sarvajna, Sarva- 
devesa and Sarva-bhutahridi-sthita form a group 
and are all to be of yellow colour and carry the 
same weapons as in the previous group. 

The seventh group consists of Bhishana, 
Bhayahara, Sarvajna, Kalagni-Maharaudra, Dak- 
shina, Mukhara and Asthira. They all carry the 
same weapons as in the above group and are of 
red colour. 

In the group of Samharabhairava are Atirik- 
tanga, Kalagni, Priyankara, Ghoranada, Visalaksha, 
Yogisa and Dakshasamsthita ; all these are to be 
of the colour resembling the lightning and to carry 
the same weapons as in the previous group. PI. 
XLIII, represents the Atiriktanga aspect of 

181 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY, 

Bhairava and is found sculptured in one of the 
cave-temples of Ellora. Seated near his foot is the 
emaciated figure of Kali ; round him are a number 
of blood-thirsty goblins and on his right stands a 
brahmana votary with his hands held in the anjali 
pose. Though grotesque, the sculptor has executed 
his work with great skill. 

Virabhadra is a form of Siva assumed at 

the time of the destruction of the yajna (sacrifice) 

of Daksha. The following account 

7. Virabhadra- , , , n . . • r i.i -c 

murti. of the destruction ot the sacrifice 

of Daksha occurs in the Eurma- 
purana. On one occasion Daksha with his consort, 
paid a visit to the house of Siva. In spite of the 
solicitous attentions of Siva, Daksha became dis- 
pleased with his son-in-law, and returned to 
his quarters. On another occasion Siva's wife 
Sati went to her father Daksha's house. Daksha 
reviled Siva in the presence of Sati and also abused 
her and directed her to quit his house. This insult 
offered to her in his own house by Daksha smote 
Sati so hard that she burnt herself to death ; she 
was afterwards born to Himavan as his daughter 
under the name of Parvati. Learning the demise 
of his consort, Siva cursed Daksha to be born as a 
Kshatriya and to commit incest with his own 
daughter in that birth. Daksha was born as king 

182 



PLATE XLIII 




Atiriktanga Bhairava : Stone Panel : EUora. 



[To face page 182] 



samhAeamOrtib. 

Prachetas and was performing a yaga at Ganga- 
dvara, but owing to the hatred he coneeived for 
Siva in his former existence he declined to dedicate 
a portion of the offering to Siva, All other gods 
who had received their portions did not intercede on 
behalf of Siva. But one Dadhichamaharishi alone 
remonstrated against the injustice of Daksha's 
neglect of Siva but in vain. Then Dadhicha 
cursed all those who were present to become veda- 
hahyas and lovers of lower religious systems and 
even to lose the favour of Vishnu on which they so 
much counted. He then invoked there the 
presence of Siva. Just then Parvati also was 
requesting Siva to destroy the irregular sort of 
yd,ga that was being performed by Prachetas. He 
acceded to her request and created Virabhadra 
with a thousand heads, a thousand eyes, powerful 
shoulders, a thousand arms, and resembling in 
brightness the fire that devours the universe at the 
end of an seon ; having side-tusks, carrying the 
sankha, the chaJcra and a bow and besmeared with 
ashes; this Virabhadra was sent to destroy the 
yaga of Prachetas. Parvati, in her turn, created 
Bhadrakali and sent her also with Virabhadra, 
^ith a body of gantis to help them. Virabhadra 
d^troyed the yaga and in the action that ensued 
put out the eyes and plucked the teeth of Surya, 

183 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

cut ofE the hands and the tongue of Agni, cursed 
Indra's arm, that had been lifted up to strike, to 
remain stiff in the same position. Chandra was 
crushed by the toe of Virabhadra and Vishnu's 
vehicle Garuda had to flee for life. Daksha came 
to his senses and prayed to Siva, who became 
pleased with him and promised the headship over 
the ganas at the end of that aeon and dis- 
appeared. 

An altogether different tale is found in the 
Varahapurana. Kudra was born from the anger 
of Brahma ; the latter asked him to create beings, 
which he did not care to do, but lay in inactivity. 
Brahma therefore created Daksha and six other 
Prajapatis. Daksha begot a lot of children and 
grand-children. Indra and other Gods, the grand- 
children of Daksha, began to perform sacrifices for 
the pleasure of Daksha. Meanwhile Eudra who 
was sunk in inactivity came and created four species 
of animals ; in a short time the voices of Indra and 
other gods came to be heard by Rudra who got 
angry at the creation of these beings by some one 
else before he himself took up the act of creation. 
This anger of his glowed in the form of tongues of 
fire issuing from his ears and from this fire came a 
number of demons which went against the Devas, 
attacked and destroyed their sacrifices and compelled 

184 



SAliHAEAMUETIS. 

them to offer him also a portion of the offerings. 
Daksha prayed to Eudra to appease his anger and 
gave his daughter Gauri in marriage to Eudra. 
Brahma then allotted to Siva and his consort a 
place in Kailasa. 

The BhS,gavata-purana gives a fuller account 
of the enmity between Daksha and Eudra. The 
gods and the rishis were assembled at a sacrifice. 
Daksha entered the hall when all the assembly, 
excepting Brahma and Mahadeva, rose up. Daksha 
made his obeisance to Brahma and sat down at his 
command. But he did not like Mahadeva being 
seated when he entered the hall and so reviled 
Mahadeva in very strong and highly objectionable 
language alluding to his roaming in cemeteries and 
other repulsive acts and cursed him that he should 
never be given thenceforth a portion in the offerings 
in yaga made to the delectation of the gods. Siva 
departed from the hall of sacrifice. Some years after, 
Daksha began to perform the sacrifice known as 
the Brihaspatisava. All the gods with their wives 
were seen going to attend the sacrifice; seeing 
which Sati, the wife of Siva, pressed him to 
take her to her father's house for the sacrifice. 
He informed her of the insult offered to him by 
her father and advised her not to persist in 
going to the sacrifice. But she persisted in going, 

185 

24 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

and, as was predicted by her husband, was slighted 
by her father. On being treated with scant 
courtesy, she committed suicide. The news 
of the death of his spouse reached ^iva, who 
in his anger tore a lock from his matted hair ; 
this lock of hair took a gigantic form. Bidden by 
Siva, this Being completely destroyed the sacrifice 
of Daksha and brought him to submission to 
Siva. 

The Srltatvanidhi contains a description of the 
image of Virabhadramurti. It should have four 
arms, three eyes and a terrific face with fierce side 
tusks. In the left hands should be held a bow and a 
gadd and in the right ones a hhadga and a hdna. 
It should be wearing a garland of skulls and should 
be standing on a pair of sandals. By the side of 
the figure of Virabhadra there should be the figure 
of Bhadrakali also. On the right side of Virabhadra 
there should be the figures of Daksha with a 
goat's head, two eyes and two horns, and with hands 
held in the anjali pose. 

The Kdranagama has a somewhat different 
description of Virabhadramurti. It says that the 
figure of Virabhadra should have four arms, three 
eyes, head covered with jatds which emit fire, side 
tusks, and wearing garlands composed of bells and 
skulls and those made of scorpions, a yajnopavlta 

186 



PLATE XLIV, 




mm 




L. Virabhadramurti : Bronze : Madras Museum. Fig. 2. Virabhadramurti : Stone : Tenkasi. 



[To face page 187] 



SAMHARAMUETIS. 

of snake, and adorned with beautiful anklets ; it 
should be standing upon a pair of sandals and 
should have short drawers as his underwear. The 
colour of Virabhadra should be red; he should have 
a face indicating great anger and should look 
terrific. He should carry the hhadga, the khetaJca, 
the dhanus and the hana. The setting up of this 
image is believed to remove all great sins and to 
cure people of all their ailments. 

Two photographs are reproduced in illustration 
of Virabhadramurti. The first, fig. 1, PI. XLIV, is 
of a bronze image belonging to the Madras Museum ; 
its hands are broken and therefore the objects 
carried in them cannot be made out. The figure 
has round eyes and side-tusks indicating the terrific 
nature of this aspect of Siva. It stands upon a 
pair of sandals. The second photograph, fig. 2, on 
the same plate, is that of an image carved on a 
pillar in the mandapa in front of the Siva temple 
at Tenkasi and is of the 15th century A.D. In 
this piece of sculpture Virabhadra has ten arms ; 
three out of the five right hands carry the bana, 
the parasu and the Tiha^ga ; of the remaining two 
hands, one holds a long sword (partly broken) 
which is thrust into the neck of Daksha and the 
other pulls out an arrow from the quiver. The 
left hands keep in them the dhanus, the musala (?), 

187 



HINDU ICONOGBAPHY. 

the p&ka, a round shield and an oblong one with a 
beautiful device on it. The jatamakuta has round 
it tongues of flames. Virabhadra is standing upon 
the prostrate body of Daksha-Prajapati. 

Fig. 1, PI. XLV, represents Daksha-Prajapati 
and his wife ; this piece of sculpture is to be found 
in Angur in the Bellary district and belongs to the 
Chalukya-Hoysala school and is executed very 
well. It is to be noted that Daksha has the face 
of a goat. 

The Siva-purana gives the account of the 
destruction by Siva of the asura 
hammurti*^*''*" earned Jalandhara. The fire that 
emanated from the forehead of 
Siva at the time of the destruction of the three 
castles of the Tripurasuras was let into the sea 
where Sindhu joins it. This rose up as a child 
named Jalandhara. When he grew old he loved 
and married Brinda, the daughter of Kalanemi and 
became reputed as the most powerful king in the 
world. Once upon a time Eahu, with his maimed 
body came to the court of Jalandhara ; he was asked 
about the cause of his deformation to which Eahu 
replied that when the Milky Ocean was churned, he 
misconducted himself and was therefore punished, 
and added that the gods then took away from 
the ocean a great quantity of gems. The news of 

188 



Plate xlv. 




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[To face page 188] 



SAMHSEAMtJETIS. 

the possession by devas of a lot of riches induced 
Jalandhara to wage war against them and he began 
in right earnest to attack them. The gods com- 
plained to Vishnu about their lot, who fought hard 
but unsuccessfully with Jalandhara ; meanwhile 
Jalandhara's might extorted Vishnu's admiration, 
as a consequence of which, Vishnu asked Jalan- 
dhara to ask for any boon he desired. The asura 
took this opportunity to request Vishnu and his 
consort Lakshmi, to come and reside in his capital. 
Vishnu was therefore obliged to repair to the city of 
Jalandhara. The gods then desired that Siva should 
become hostile to the asura and kill him. For 
this purpose, they induced Narada to kindle enmity 
between the asura and Siva. Narada went straight 
to the palace of Jalandhara and told him that such 
a pretty damsel as Parvati, the consort of Siva, was 
alone the fittest partner in life to Jalandhara and 
that he should therefore make every attempt to 
possess her. Thus incited by Narada, Jalandhara 
despatched immediately messengers to Siva to 
surrender Parvati to him. Siva forthwith set out 
for battle with this impudent asura, but very 
soon the ganas of §iva were put to flight by the 
asura. ^iva then appeared in person for a combat, 
but did not succeed well. In the meantime Jalan- 
dhara created, with his maya, a host of very pretty 

189 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

Gandharvas and Apsarasas and made them sing and 
dance before Siva, who became absorbed in the 
dance and music; he became unaware of the fact that 
his weapons dropped down from his hands. Seeing 
that that was the best opportunity for him, Jalan- 
dhara assumed the form of Siva and proceeded to 
Parvati to ravish her. But she knew the person 
who was disguised as Siva and invoked Vishnu to 
come to her help. Vishnu appeared on the scene ; 
Parvati requested Vishnu to ravish Brinda, the 
wife of Jalandhara. Parvati's wishes were carried 
out immediately. Brinda not being able to bear 
the indignity ofiered to her committed suicide and 
died, cursing Vishnu that in one of his avataras 
he should suffer the loss of his wife by abduction 
by another. Jalandhara could not find Parvati at 
her abode, hence he returned. Siva had also re- 
covered from the spell of the music ; a battle ensued 
in which Jalandhara was killed with the Sudarsana- 
chakra which Siva obtained from the sea. Thus 
ended the life of the asura Jalandhara. 

The description of the image of Jalandhara- 
haramurti is given as follows : The colour of 
Siva in this aspect is red ; he should have three 
terrific looking eyes, and only a single pair of arms ; 
in the right hand he should carry an umbrella and 
in the left a kamandalu. On his head should 

190 



SAMHARAMtJETIS. 

be a dishevelled jatabhara containing in it the 
crescent moon and Ganga. He should be adorned 
with Ttundalas in the ears, haras on the neck and 
anklets on his legs and the feet of Siva should 
rest on a pair of sandals. The posture of Siva 
should be such as to indicate his desire to move 
quickly. 

Jalandhara should be represented with two 
arms, and be adorned with Jcirlta, Icankat^a 
(bracelets) and all other ornaments. He must 
have a sword tucked up below his forearm, while 
the two hands should be held in the anjali pose. 
On the hands thus held there should be the Sudar- 
sanachakra. The colour of Jalandhara should be 
yellow. 

Anantanandagiri in his Sankaravijaya states 
that there was a quarter called 

9. Mallari Siva. . . _. . , , 

Malla in Ujjaymi. In it dwelt a 
sect of people who were adoring Siva in the aspect of 
Mallari and conducting themselves like dogs, after 
the fashion of the dog -vehicle of Mallari, barking 
like it and putting on the appearance of the dog, 
adorning their necks with garlands made of shells. 
They believed that Mallari was the origin of the 
whole universe and were ofiering puja to him as 
the Supreme Being. Sankaracharya proved to 
them that their appearing like dogs and barking 

191 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

like them and other characteristic customs of 
theirs were opposed to the sastras and converted 
them to the religion of the Brahmanas. 

The aspect Mallari that is referred to above is 
described in the Mallari-mahatmya thus : Mallari 
is to be of the colour of gold, wearing on his jata- 
mahuta, the crescent moon, in his ears white, 
shining Jcundalas, and round his neck, necklaces of 
rubies and pearls and a garland of flowers. In his 
arms there should be bracelets of snakes and he 
should be clad in yellow silk garments. The orna- 
ments of Siva should be hidden here and there by the 
hoards of snakes and there must be a smile playing 
upon the lips of Siva. In the hands are to be seen 
a damaru and a Jchadga. His vehicle is to be a 
white horse and he must be surrounded by seven 
dogs. 

The pauranic story of the destruction by Siva 
of the great demon Andhakasura 
sJavad^^mSrtt l^^s already been given in connec- 
tion with the Sapta-Matrikas on 
pages 379-382 in Volume I. To illustrate the 
descriptions of the aspect of Siva as Andhakasura- 
vadha-murti, three photographs are reproduced, 
all of which belong to the Cave-temples of the 
Bombay Presidency. The sculptures represented 
on Pis. XLV — XLVII, belonging as they do to 

192 



PLATE XLVI. 







first- A 



V ;- -, «^ 



Andhakasuravadhamurti : Stoue Panel: Elephanta 



■A ^- -I 



[To face page 192] 



PLATE XLVII. 




Andhaka3uravadhamurti : Stone Panel : 
Kailasa Temple : EUora. 



[To face page 193] 



SAliHARAMtJETIS. 

one school, bear a strong family likeness; the 
artists have dwelt upon the subject in exactly 
the same manner and it is therefore sufficient 
to describe one of these pieces of sculpture. In 
all the three instances, ^iva has eight arms, in 
two of which he carries a trikula, at the end of 
which is pinned the body of Andhakasura and from 
it blood drops down. The goddess Yogesvari, 
squatting on the ground, holds in her hand a cup 
in which she catches the blood-drops as they trickle 
down. Siva himself bears the hapala in one of his 
hands to collect in it the blood flowing down from 
the body of Andhakasura. In the other hands of 
the sculpture of the Dasavatara cave, Siva is seen 
keeping the damaru and the hhadga ; two other 
hands of his hold stretched the skin of the elephant 
in the shape of a prabhdmandala and the remain- 
ing hand is held in the tarjanl pose. 

Yogesvari or Kali carries in her other hand a 
short curved dagger : her body is represented as 
very emaciated and her head is surrounded by a 
jataman^ala. Just above the head of Kali is the 
figure of a 4aJcini, half human and half bird, sitting 
waiting for her prey of human flesh. 

On the right of Kali is the Devi, seated upon 
a padmasana and viewing with awe the events that 
are taking place before her. 

193 
as 



HINDU ICONOGBAPHY. 

The sculpture belonging to the Kail3,sa at 
Ellora and that belonging to the Elephanta Cave 
are not different in their description, but it must 
be noted that the latter is one of the finest pieces 
of workmanship of the period to which it belongs ; 
in this sculpture, one hand of Siva carries a ghanta 
instead of the damaru. 



194 



OTHER UGRA FORMS OF SIVA. 



A 



OTHEE UGEA FOEMS OF SIVA. 

MONG the rites and ceremonies that are pre- 
scribed for kings for attaining success against 
their enemies is the adoration of 

ll.Aghoramurti. . mi -■ • • 

Aghoramurti. The description of 
the rites that have to be performed is given in the 
Lingapurana. A priest who has attained mantra- 
siddhi or the power of eflficaciously using mantras, 
should for that purpose repair to a place where there 
is a corpse or where there is a temple dedicated to 
the Saptamatrikas (or the seven mothers), and con- 
struct five Tiundas (receptacles for fires), one on each 
cardinal point and one in the centre. On the four- 
teenth day of the dark fortnight * the ceremonies 

* The fourteenth tithi of the dark fortnight of the month 
of Fhalguni is known as Agbora-chaturdasi ; it is said that 
those who worship Siva in the aspect of Agh5ra on this day 
will be taken to Siva's abode. 

(Apte's Sanskrit Dictionary.) 
197 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

ought to be begun and continued to the eighth day in 
the succeeding bright half of the next month. During 
this period the priest with four of his disciples, who 
have also attained mantra-siddhi, should sit in 
front of the kundas, himself occupying the middle 
and the four disciples the four quarters, before 
the kundas and perform homa sacrifices in the fire 
concentrating their thought upon Aghora. Then 
they should make a wooden effigy of the enemy 
king, place it in one of the kundas with the head 
downwards and burn it with the fire brought from 
the burning ground. There are a few other minor 
ceremonies of no great interest. 

The following is the description of the Aghora 
who is required to be meditated upon. The figure 
of Aghora should have eight arms ; in the hands 
are to be seen the sula, damaru, pasa, kapala, 
danda, dhanus, bana and khadga ; the neck of 
Aghora should be blue and his complexion black. 
He should be naked, or be clad in the skin of the 
elephant and the lion and be adorned with orna- 
ments composed of snakes and scorpions, and be 
covered with the ashes of the dead bodies of human 
beings. His face should be terrific in appearance 
and should have side tusks. A snake should bind 
his hair and he should be surrounded by demons and 
goblins. 

198 



OTHER UGEA FOEMS 0¥ ilYk. 

Another description, according to which the 
Aghoramurti is generally sculptured and set up in 
temples, is found in the Karanagama. In this 
work he is known as the Aghorastramurti and it is 
stated therein that the image of this aspect of Siva 
is set up for gaining victory, for destroying such 
great sins as hrahmahatya or brahmanicide and for 
granting riches. Aghorastramurti should have 
three eyes, eight arms and be of terrific look, with 
side tusks. The colour of this aspect of Siva is 
dark. He is to be draped in red clothes, adorned 
with garlands of red flowers, ornaments set with 
rubies, a garland of skulls, and another composed 
of short daggers (khadgamala) and a third of 
scorpions. His hair should be flaming and his 
forehead marked with ashes in the shape of the 
crescent moon. In his two hands he should carry 
a trihula horizontally as though about to charge 
with it, and the other hands should hold a vetdla, 
Jchadga, damaru, hapala and Jchadga {gJiania ?). 

A third description is given in the Sivatat- 
varatnaJcara. According to this, Aghora has a 
single face, and thirty-two arms ; on the head is a 
jatU-makuia and in it the crescent moon. He 
should have three eyes. In his right hands are to 
be abhaya, kha^ga, hula, chaJcra, damaru, a bone, 
bana, gadd, a lotus flower, Jcapdla, jnanamudrd, 

199 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

kunda, ankusa, ahshamala, khatvanga smipara^u; 
in the left hands, varada, kavacha (shield), tanka, 
pa§a, mudgara, a snake, agni, mriga, ghanta, dhanus, 
katyavalambita-hasta, ratnas or gems, a water lily, 
a pitcher, musala and pustaha. This Aghoramurti 
should have also a garland of skulls and be standing 
upon the severed head of Kala. An image of the 
above description is believed to grant all protection 
to its votaries. 

Aghoramurti with ten arms is described as 
possessing three eyes and a terrific 
AghorfmurtL"^* countenance. The colour of his 
body is blue and that of the 
garments red. There are to be snake ornaments 
all over the body. In his ten hands he should 
carry the parasu, damaru, khadga, kJietaka, bana, 
dhanus, sula and kapala and the remaining hands 
should be held in the varada and ahliaya poses. 

Two photographs, figs. 1 and 2 on PI. XL VIII, 
are reproduced in illustration of Aghoramurti, both of 
which belong to Southern India. The first image is 
to be found in the oiva temple at Tirukkalukkunram 
and the other in the Siva temple at Pattisvaram. 
Both of them are almost similar to each other ; in 
these pieces of sculpture two front hands bear the 
trUula in a horizontal position, while the other 
hands carry the ghanta, the pdsa, the khetaka, 

200 



PLATE XLVIII. 




at 

03 



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o 

OS 



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OTHEB UGRA FORMS OF SIVA. 

kapcila, the khadga and the damaru. The head 
is surrounded by tongues of flames and the face, with 
its round eyes and the side-tusks, indicates the 
terrific nature of this image. Eound the neck is a 
large garland of skulls reaching down to the ankles 
and the prabhd-mandala surrounds the figure. 

An asura named Dushdna was giving trouble 

to the Brahmanas residing in and near Ujjayini. 

They prayed to 6iva to relieve them from the 

visitations of the cruel asura. ^iva pleased with 

the prayers of the Brahmanas, 

13. Iffiahakala n 1.1. i. j -l-u 

with Mahakaii. appeared on the spot and with a 
breath of his reduced Dushana to 
ashes. The Brahmanas then prayed to Siva to 
stay away in their midst ; Siva assumed the form 
of a Jyotirlinga and the name Mahakala and 
stopped away at Ujjayini. Such is the account of 
Mahakala of Ujjayini as given in the Sivapurdna. 
The description of the image of Mahakala with 
his consort Mahakaii is found in the Lalitdpakhydna. 
It is stated therein that Mahakala should be em- 
bracing Mahakaii and be wearing a black coat. 
The colour of Mahakala is black. His eyes should 
be red on account of the excessive drink in which 
he is indulging ; he should be drinking from the braJi- 
mdnda (the colossal shell from which Brahma was 
born) used as a vessel to hold the liquor. His sight 

201 

26 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

must itself be resting fondly on his dark coloured 
consort Mahakali, and both of them should be seated 
upon a simhasana. Mahakala, swallower of the 
Universe, should have by his side Kala and Mrityu. 
He should also be meditating upon Lalita, doing 
puja to her and bestowing long life on her devotees. 



202 



ANUGRAHAMURTIS. 



ANUGEAHAMUETIS. 

A S we have already stated Biva possesses also 
•^ *• the faculty of affording grace to his votaries 
and that in this aspect he is said to be a Anugraha- 
murti. Let me proceed with the description of 
some of the anugrahamurtis of Siva. 

In the village of ^eynalur on the bank of the 
river Manni in the Chola country 

1. Chandesanu- ., ,• i • -, , ■, 

grahamurti. there lived a pious and learned 

Brahmana named Yajnadatta of 
the Kasyapagotra. He had a son by name Vicha- 
rasarman of great intelligence. One day when the 
lad was going to the school, he saw a cowherd 
assaulting brutally a cow, that sacred animal 
which deserves being worshipped. Incensed at the 
behaviour of the cowherd, young Vicharasarman 
took upon himself the duty of tending the cows of 
the village, to which the villagers acceded. From 
that day the cows became happy and began to yield 
much more milk than their udders could hold and 
naturally the extra milk began to flow out. Vicha- 
rasarman seeing that the milk was wasted, collected 

205 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

it in vessels, set up lihgas made of sand and 
began to bathe them with this extra milk, with 
intense piety for Siva. The cowherd who lost his 
position on account of this Brahmana boy, found 
this a fine cause for denouncing him and immedia- 
tely repaired to the village and reported to the 
villagers that the boy Vicharasarman was wantonly 
milking the cows, drinks milk with his chums and 
spills the rest on mounds of sand. The complaint 
thus often repeated, made one of the villagers go 
and see for himself the truth of the accusation pre- 
ferred by the cowherd and to his surprise he saw 
young Vicharasarman actually pouring milk on 
sand mounds, but he did not pause to investigate 
and see that it was only the extra milk that the 
boy, in his intense devotion to Siva, was offering 
the sand-made symbol of the lihga. Forthwith 
he complained to the father of the boy, Yajnadatta, 
about the wickedness of his son. On this complaint 
the father also went one day to the river side 
to see what his boy was doing and found him 
in the act of spilling milk in the sand. He ap- 
proached the boy and stood near him, but, in his 
deep devotion the proximity of the father was not 
perceived by Vicharasarman. On seeing the 
apparent mischief of his son, Yajnadatta, in anger, 
kicked the mound of sand; whereupon the son 

206 



ANUGEAHAMtJETIS. 

woke up from his reverie and cut oS with his axe 
the leg that kicked the object of his worship with 
the result that Yajnadatta fell, ^iva who was 
pleased with the devotion of this boy Vichara- 
sarman appeared on the scene with his consort 
Parvati and ofEered him his grace. Siva told the 
boy that in his intense love for himself (Siva) he 
even went to the extent of cutting off the leg of 
his father, and promised him that thenceforth he 
would be in loco-parentis to him, embraced him 
and made him the head of his ganas and the 
steward of his household under the name of Chan- 
desa. ^iva commanded that thenceforth the 
ofEerings made to him must be given to Chandes- 
vara, the clothes worn by him should be set aside 
for his devotee and in token of his favour he also 
tied round the head of Vicharasarman the flower 
garland then worn by him. 

The scene representing Siva as offering to 
Chandesa his grace is described in the Amkumad- 
bhedagama. Siva should be seated with Parvati 
as in the case of Umasahitamurti described already. 
But his face should be turned a little to the left ; 
his right hand should be held in the varada pose 
and the left hand be placed on the head of Chandesa. 
With hands folded in the ahjali pose Chandesa 
should be standing on a padmasana in front of 

207 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

Siva; the colour of Chandesa is golden yellow. 
The UttarahamikS,gama states that Siva and Uma 
should be seated as in the case of Chandrasekhara- 
marti and Ghandesvara with hands in the anjali 
pose should be either standing or sitting before 
Siva, who with his right hand should be holding 
the end of a flower-garland and with the left hand 
tying it round the head of Chandesa. The height 
of the figure of Chandesa may be up to the knee, 
thigh, navel, breast, neck or mouth of that of 
Siva and it should be made in accordance with the 
adhama-daha-tala measurement. The Purva- 
haranagama and the Silparatna have practically 
the same description as that found above. 

Four pictures are reproduced to illustrate the 
description given above. The first fig. 1, PL XLIX, 
is of a sculpture to be seen in the big Siva temple at 
Gahgaikondasolapuram, built by Eajendrasola, the 
son of Kajaraja the great. In this is seen Siva 
seated with his wife Parvati on a seat, below which 
is seated Chandesa. In the two back hands of Siva 
are the parasv and the viriga ; the right front hand 
holds the end of a flower garland and the left front 
one is tying it round the head of Chandesa. This 
fine piece of sculpture belongs to the Chola period 
and is of the first quarter of the eleventh century 
A.D. 

208 



PLATE XLIX. 




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[To face page 208] 



ANUGRAHAMURTIS. 

The original of the second illustration, fig. 2, 
PI. XLIX is found in the Kailasanatha temple 
at Conjeevaram. In this Siva is standing on his 
right leg, while the left one is resting upon a 
raised seat. He has four hands, the right one of 
which is held in the varada pose ; it is not quite 
clear from the photograph what objects are kept in 
the remaining hands. To the right of Siva stands 
ChaEide^vara with the axe with which he cut down 
the leg of his father resting upon his right shoulder. 
Below him and fallen on the ground is the father of 
Chandesa, with his left hand held in the vismaya 
pose. The sculpture is in a highly damaged condi- 
tion. It belongs to the reign of the Pallava King 
Eajasimha and is of the 7th century A.D. The third 
and the fourth illustrations, figs. 1 and 2, Pl.L, are of 
the Chandesanugrahamurtis sculptured on the base 
of the gopura in front of the Sthanunathasvamin 
temple at Suchindram and on the pillar in the front 
mandapa of the Minakshi-Sundaresvara temple 
at Madura respectively. They both resemble the 
sculpture at Gangaikondasolapuram. 

Vishnu obtained through the grace of Siva 

the chaJcra and the circumstances 
grfhamStir^'^or thereof are narrated in the 8iva- 
murti^'^^'^^''^' Parana. On one occasion Vishnu 

found himself unable to conquer 



37 



209 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

certain asuras, and prayed to Siva for the grant of 
the chaJcra which was in Siva's possession. To 
his prayer he added a pujd in which he employed a 
thousand lotus flowers daily. One day he sat for 
puja with the required number of flowers but at 
the end he missed one flower, which, to test the 
strength of his devotion Siva had secreted ; 
Vishnu at once plucked one of his eyes which 
are always compared to lotuses, (Jcamala-ldchana) 
and threw the same in offering on Siva. Siva became 
so pleased with the devotion of Vishnu that he 
presented him with the chakra which was originally 
in his possession. This fact is also alluded to in 
the Mahdbharata. 

The Uttarakdrandgama and the SrUattvanidhi 
give the description of the Chakradanamurti. The 
first authority states that Siva should have three 
eyes, four arms, a pacific appearance, and the 
jatdmakuta on the head. The left leg should 
be bent and be resting on the seat, while the 
right one should hang down. In the right hands 
are to be the tahka and the chakra, the left ones 
being in the varada pose and holding a krisJina- 
mriga. Surrounding the head of Siva is to be a 
prabhdtnandala and a kirascliakra. On the left of 
Siva should be seated Parvati and on the right 
Brahma should be standing. Vishnu, with hands 

210 



PLATE LI. 





'-0 
oj 



-a 
O 



a- 



a 



a 
o 
O 

<D 

n 
o 



g ai 

TO 



> 






[To face page 210] 



PLATE L. 





ig. 1. Chaiidelanugrahamurti : Stone : 
Madura. 



Fig. 2. Chandesanugrahamurti : Stone : 
Suobindram. 



[To {ace page 211] 



ANUGRAHAMUETIS. 

folded in the anjali pose, should be worshipping or 
doing puja to Siva with lotuses and his eye. 

The Srltattvanidhi is not particular about the 
taiiJca in the hand of Siva, but gives the alternative 
of carrying the parasu. In this work it is stated 
that Vishnu ought to be standing to the left of ^iva 
in such a manner as to indicate his readiness to 
receive the boons and the cTiakra, after finishing his 
puja of Siva with lotuses and his eye. 6iva should 
be seen presenting Vishnu with a pitamhara (a 
yellow garment), the haustubha (an ornament) and 
the chakra, as also the name Kamalaksha to Vishnu. 
Vishnu should be black in colour, clad in yellow 
garments and adorned with all ornaments. In two 
of his hands should be the sanhha and the chakra 
and the other two ones should be held in the anjali 
pose. 

Two illustrations of Vishnvanugrahamurti are 
reproduced. The first of these, PI. LI, fig. 1, 
belongs to the Kailasanatha temple at Conjeevaram. 
Siva is seated on a raised seat with his consort, 
having his two back hands raised up in astonishment 
{vismaya pose), the right front hand rests upon the 
seat, the remaining left hand being held in the 
simhakarna pose. Behind §iva stands an attendant 
and below the seat is seen Vishnu kneeling ; with 
one of his left hands he is plucking out his eye, the 

211 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

other left hand holding the last remaining lotus 
flower; the front right one is held in the kataJca pose, 
while the remaining hand is not visible in the 
photograph. The second illustration, fig. 2, PL LI, 
is of a piece of sculpture found in the Minakshi- 
Sundaresvara temple at Madura. In it, Siva and 
Parvati are seated upon a bhadrasana and Siva 
is seen presenting the chakra to Vishnu, who is 
standing reverently and receiving it. 

Nandikesvara is an important adjunct to the 
family of Siva. His history is given in detail under 

Nandikesvara or Adhikara-Nandi 
grlhamTrti^*''"' elsewhere in this volume. When 

Nandi's tenure of life on earth was 
coming to an end, he prayed intensely to Siva to 
grant him a longer lease of life. Siva appeared and 
granted him his prayer, as also the command 
over a portion of his ganas, and complete exemp- 
tion from old age and pain. He then took the boy 
near him and threw round his neck the flower 
garland that was gracing his own. At once he be- 
came a duplicate of Siva, with three eyes and ten 
arms. Siva took a quantity of the water of the 
Ganges which he had tied in his jata and sprinkled 
it upon Nandi. It began to flow as the river 
Jatodaka. Siva ordered his consort Parvati to treat 
Nandi thenceforth as her own son. She also smelled 

212 



ANUGRAHAMtJETIS. 

the top of the head of Nandi* and milk began to 
flow from her breast and fall in three spouts on the 
head of Nandi ; this milk also became a river under 
the name Trisrotas. Nandi out of joy bellowed 
then like the bull. This noise also gave rise to a 
river named Vrishadhvani, Siva still more pleased 
with Nandi presented him with his own golden 
maJcuta and ear-rings set with precious gems. Surya 
seeing that Nandi was thus honoured and loved by 
Siva sent a cool downpour of rain. The water 
having come in contact with the gold of the makuta, 
began to flow as two rivers named Svarnodaka 
and Jambunadi. Thus near Japyesvara the place 
where all these events occurred, five rivers began to 
flow. Nandi was afterwards crowned as the lord of 
the ganas and was married to Suyasa the daughter 
of the Marut ganas. 

In this aspect of Siva, Vighnesvara seems to 

have been blessed by Siva imme- 
nugTahamurtr*" ^lately after he was restored to life 

by placing on his shoulders the 
head of an elephant. (For this account of Ganesa, 
see Vol. I, pp. 36-39). Siva should have, as usual, 
four arms, three eyes and the head adorned with a 
jata-maJcuta and he should be seated with his 

* Ad instincMve practice of mothers in regard to their 
children. 

213 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

coQsort Parvati. f^iva should have one of his right 
hands in the abhaya pose and placed on the head of 
"Vighnesvara ; the corresponding left hand should be 
in the varada pose and the remaining hands should 
be shown as carrying the parasu and the mriga. 
The right leg of Siva should be bent and be resting 
on the seat while the left one should be hanging 
down. The colour of Siva is to be black and there 
should be all ornaments on his person. Near him 
on the left should be seated Parvati, smiling and 
keeping in her right hand a utpala flower and 
holding the left hand in the varada pose. 
Curiously enough, it is stated here that Parvati 
should have three eyes. She too has her right leg 
bent and the left one hanging. 

Vighnesvara, of red colour, adorned with a 
kiritamakuta on his head, and carrying in his hands 
the p&sa and ankusa, should be standing reverently 
before Siva with his other two hands held in the 
anjali pose. 

Arjuna was presented by Siva with the powerful 
weapon named the ■pasupatastra to 

^5.Kiratarjuna- gg^j. gucCCSSfully against the 

Kauravas. The account of the 
gift of the weapon by Siva is narrated in the 
Vanaparian of the Mahabliarata thus : Arjuna 
being advised by Indra to beseech Siva to grant him 

214 



ANUGEAHAMtJRTIS. 

the powerful pakupatastra, went north to the Hima- 
laya mountain, where he began to observe severe 
austerities for pleasing ^iva. The rishis were 
alarmed at the severity of the austerities of Arjuna 
and reported the matter to Siva. Siva being 
already aware of the reason for the penance of 
Arjuna, pacified the rishis and himself assuming 
the form of a Jcirata (hunter) approached Arjuna. 
Just at that moment an asura in the form 
of a boar was about to attack Arjuna; Arjuna 
having seen the boar coming against him aimed 
his arrow against it, but the Jcirata disputed 
the right of Arjuna to shoot the boar which he was 
the first to aim at. Arjuna not consenting to the 
claim of the hirdbta, they both simultaneously shot 
the boar and killed it. Arjuna then reviled the 
Jcirata as an unsportsman-like person, upon which 
a fight ensued between the hirata and Arjuna, in 
which the latter was uniformly unsuccessful, and 
at the end fell exhausted. After he regained his 
senses, he recognised in the hirata Siva himself 
and fell at his feet and praised him. Siva in his 
turn admired the strength and courage of Arjuna 
and promised the most powerful weapon which 
Arjuna was praying for and was fit to employ, 
namely the pa§upatastra. Thus did Arjuna procure 
from Siva the pasupatastra. 

215 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

The Kiratarjunamurti is described as having 
four arms, three eyes and a jatamahuta on the 
head. He is adorned with all ornaments and wears 
nice garments and a yajnopavita. His colour is 
red. He is to be standing perfectly erect {sama- 
hhanga) carrying in his hands the dhanus, the bd,na, 
the parasu and the mriga. Arjuna is to be seen 
standing on the right of Siva and Gauri on the left. 
Arjuna should be represented as having only one 
face, set with two eyes and standing with his hands 
held in the anjali pose. His head should be 
adorned with Sijatamakuta and his person with all 
ornaments. 

Two illustrations are given of the Kiratamurti. 
The first belongs to the Siva temple at Tiruch- 
chengattangudi, in which Siva and Parvati stand 
together. The former carries the para§u, the 
mriga and a bow. The photograph is of an image 
to be found in SriSailam. In this is seen Siva 
portrayed in the act of giving the weapon pakn- 
patastra to Arjuna. (See PI. LH, figs. 1 and 2), 

The weapon pahupatastra is described in the 
Saivagamas as a person thus : — The Pasupatastra 
should have four faces each with three eyes ; it 
should have four arms and terrific faces with awful 
tusks, stiff hair and fierce moustache, all lending 
strongly the impression that it is a terrific aspect 

216 



PLATE LII. 




CO 



a 
o 

02 






60 




<n J. 

:o .^, 

•- 00 

•l-H M 



[To face page 2i6] 



ANUGRAHAMtJETIS. 

of Siva. In the four hands there should be the 
haMi, the mudgara, the sankha and the Jchadga- 
This image representing the Pa&upatastra should be 
seated upon a padmasana. 

Ravana, king of Lanka, having gone to defeat 
Kubera was returning after achieving his purpose. 
On his way he came to Saravana, the place in 
which Karttikeya was born. He ascended the 

hill, from the top of which he saw 
griham^tL*'^"' ^ much more pleasant garden 

whither he drove his vimana Push- 
paka. But when it neared the place it would not 
move any further. At this place Ravana met a 
tawny coloured, monkey-faced and powerful dwarf, 
by name Nandikesvara, one of the strong adherents 
of ^iva, who, on being asked why the car was un- 
able to move further, told Ravana that Mahadeva 
with his consort Uma was sporting on the mountain 
and had prohibited all, even the gods, from crossing 
that way. In great anger Ravana asked who that 
Mahadeva was and laughed contemptuously at the 
monkey-faced Nandikesvara. Nandikesvara, who 
was no other than a form of Siva, grew incensed at 
the insult offered to him by Ravana and cursed that 
he should be destroyed by monkeys like himself in 
appearance and strength. Not being able to proceed 
further and being cursed by Nandikesvara, Ravana 

217 

28 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

determined to pluck up the mountain Kailasa, from 
its very roots, threw his ten arms round the moun- 
tain and began to Hft it up. He was able to move 
it, so that those that were on it trembled and Uma 
actually began to shake out of fear and clung to her 
lord. Siva, learning the real cause, pressed the 
mountain with the great toe of his foot, which fixed 
the mountain firmly as of old and also pinned down 
Ravana underneath it. Ravana seeing his own 
miserably helpless condition, and advised by his 
counsellors to propitiate Mahadeva wept for a 
thousand years, singing hymns in praise of Siva ; 
the latter was at last pleased with Ravana, whom 
he presented with a sword at his request and let 
him return to Lanka. Because he cried, he was 
given the name Ravana. 

Three photographs are reproduced in illustra- 
tion of this legend. The first and second. Pis. LIII 
and LIV belong to the Ellora rock caves and the 
third to Belur in the Mysore State. The first 
which is to be found in the Dasavatara cave is 
one of the finest pieces of sculpture extant in 
India. The natural proportions of each image in 
the group, the great realism in their moulding 
and the expression on the face of many a figure 
in it, especially the fright of Parvati, all these 
are admirably worked out. In this group, 

218 



PLATE LIU. 




Eavananugraliamiirti : Stone Panel : Ellora. 



[To face page 218] 



PLATE LIVi 




H 



p 

Hi 
Ol 
o 
a 
o 

& 



M 



[To face page 219] 



PLATE LV. 




Eavananugrahamuiti : 
Stone ; Belur, 



[To face page 219] 



ANUGRAHAMURTIS. 

Siva and Parvati are seated upon the mountain 
Kailasa which the artist has in the conven- 
tional manner represented as a pile of rhomboidal 
pieces. Surrounding this pair are seen two of his 
own attendants and two female attendants of 
Parvati and on either side are two of the ganas, 
dwarfish little fellows standing in a very reverential 
attitude. Below the mountain is to be seen 
Ravana, of mighty strength trying to up-root 
the Kailasa hill. His posture is suggestive of the 
display of his strong muscular energy. Parvati, in 
great fear, embraces the well-proportioned and well- 
built body of Siva, who is calm and unperturbed, 
and is seen in his turn embracing and reassuring his 
frightened consort. 

The second panel which is found in the so- 
called Dhumar Lena Cave, is almost similar to the 
above described sculpture, but utterly lacks the 
spirit and realism of the former. The other differ- 
ences between the two are that in the latter there 
are more ganas and a number of gods with their 
consorts praising Siva and Parvati. 

The original of the third photograph is sculp- 
tured on the south wall of the central shrine of 
Chennakesavasvamin temple at Belur. It is a most 
elaborately carved piece of sculpture and is charac- 
teristic of the Hoysala style. The Kailasa mountain 

219 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

is so minutely carved as to accommodate in it 
a large number of gods and goddesses and all 
sorts of animals, from the elephant down to the 
snake. On the top and in a finely carved 
mandapa are seated Mahadeva and Parvati, sur- 
rounded by a number of other deities who are 
praising him. Below the mountain is to be seen 
Rapvana in a kneeling posture trying to lift up the 
mountain, as in the other photographs. He has a 
sword in his hands, perhaps the one presented to 
him by Siva. 



220 



NR1TTAML3RTIS. 



NEITTAMUETIS. 

SIVA, we have already said, is a great master 
in the art of dancing. He was often dancing 
in ecstacy on the burning ground with great glee, 
accompanied by sweet music in which also he was 
a great expert. The Bharata-Ndtyasastra men- 
tions a hundred and eight different kinds of dances 
and in the Saivagamas it is stated that Siva danced 
in a hundred and eight modes. Perhaps the one 
hundred and eight kinds of dances mentioned in the 
sdstra are identical with the one hundred and eight 
modes of dances of Siva. The Ndtya-sdstras dis- 
tinctly mention the necessity of dancing for both 
males and females ; in the case of the former, 
dancing is said to give a suppleness to the limbs, 
which is very useful in warfare. It is very curious 
that all the one hundred and eight kinds of dances 
are sculptured on either side of a gopura in the. 
Nataraja temple at Chidambaram with their de- 
scriptions in Sanskrit as they are found in the 
Bharata-Ndtya-sdstras engraved below each one 
of them. These sculptures and the texts are 

223 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

reproduced in the Madras Epigraphist's Annual 
Eeport for 1913-14. 

The Saivagamas, state that Siva danced in a 
hundred and eight modes but content themselves 
with the description of nine modes only as it is very 
difficult to describe all. Of these the first variety 
is the one which we see associated with the figure 
of Nataraja, commonly found in all §aiva temples of 
importance. According to the Amsumadhheddgama 
the image of Nataraja should be sculptured accord- 
ing to the Uttama-da§a-tala measurement. The 
front left hand should be held in the dandahasta or 
the gajahasta pose across the body, and the back 
left hand should carry agni either in a vessel or 
upon the palm itself. In either case the agni should 
be at the end, middle or the root of the middle finger. 
The front right hand should be held in the 
abhaya pose, the top of the middle finger of which 
should be just touching the hikka-sutra. On the 
fore-arm of this hand, there should be the sarpa- 
valaya, a description of which is given on page 23 in 
the Chapter on Definition and description of terms 
in Vol. I ; it is there called bhujangavalaya and 
means the same thing as sarpavalaya. The back 
right hand should keep a damaru. The right leg 
should be slightly bent and placed upon the back 
of the Apasmarapurusha and the knee should reach 

224 



NRITTAMtBTIS. 

the nahhisutra. The left leg should be lifted up, 
somewhat turned towards the right leg and kept 
across it. On the head of Siva there should be the 
jatamahuta adorned with flower garlands, dhurdhura 
and arJca flowers, a snake, jewelled ornaments, a 
grinning human skull and the crescent moon tied 
on the left side. From this jatamakuta should 
issue on either side five, six, seven or eleven jatas 
and stand either horizontally or arranged in a 
circle. The body of Siva should be adorned with 
a yajnopavita, a urassutra (a chest band), rings on 
all fingers except the middle ones, on all toes except 
the middle one and anklets on the ankles. The 
face should be smiling. The chest should be 
smeared with saffron paste and the rest of the 
body with ashes. The garment must be made of 
tiger's skin. 

The Apasmara-purusha who is trodden on by 
Siva should have his head on the right side and his 
legs on the left side of Siva. He should be black 
in colour and be playing with a snake, by keeping 
all his fingers in a cuplike shape, and resembling 
the hood of a snake (naga-mudra). 

On the left of Nataraja should be standing 
his consort Parvati, in the manner described in 
Uma-sahita-Chandrasekharamurti. 

226 

S9 



HINDU ICONOGBAPHY. 

The measurements of the position of the 
various limbs of this image are given in Appen- 
dix A. 

This is the first mode of dancing of Siva as 
found in the Amkumadhhedagama. The TJttara- 
EamiJcagama gives a somewhat detailed descrip- 
tion, of which only those that are not already 
given above are noticed here, ^iva, according to 
this authority, should have four arms kept in the 
poses described and with the objects mentioned 
above, three eyes and two legs disposed as in the 
above description. The jatas should be spread 
around the jatamakuta. These jatas might vary 
from five to thirty, each one being separated from 
one another. In the intervals between the jdta,s 
might be the flowers of dhurdhura, arka and other 
plants. The colour of these jatas should be 
brownish red. In the jatas on the right side there 
should be the figure of Ganga with the upper 
half shaped in the form of a woman and the 
lower half like running water, standing with hands 
in the anjali pose ; on \>h.e jatas on the left side there 
should be the crescent moon. Round the neck of 
Siva there should be necklaces of different sorts ; one 
should be made of pearls, another should be of 
snakes, a third of vahula flowers and a fourth 
composed of sea-shells, boar's tusks, tiger's claws 

226 



NEITTAMUETIS. 

and beads, with a pendant of a tortoise shell. On 
his left shoulder there should be an upper garment 
made of tiger's skin, a deer's skin, or a very fine- 
textured cotton cloth. On his left earlobe there 
should be a patra-Jcundala and on the right one a 
nakra-'kunciala ; on the ankles, anklets made of tiny 
bells and another set composed of ornamental 
designs. The colour of ^iva-Nataraja should be 
milky- white. The rest of the description is exactly 
that given in the AmhumadhTiedagama. 

The Apasmara should be made in the chatus- 
tala measurement, with two arms, two eyes, with 
the face downcast or looking up and should be 
holding in his left hand a cobra with uplifted hood. 

The height of Ganga should be equal to that of 
the face of Siva. She should have three (?) eyes, 
two arms held in the anjali pose, adorned with the 
Tcaranda-makuta and all other ornaments. 

On the right side of Nataraja there should be 
either the risTii Bhringi or Bhadrakali. 

This dance, it is said, is known as Bhujahga- 
trdisa. If the foot of the uplifted leg is kept higher 
than the knee of the standing leg, the dance is said 
to be Bhujanga-lalita. 

In the Natya-Sastra however that particular 
dance which is known by the name of bhujahgatrasa 
is defined as follows: one leg being bent in a 

227 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

triangular fashion and lifted up while the body about 
the hip and knee being slightly turned on one side, is 
called hhujangatrasa. Abhinavaguptacharya, the 
commentator of the Bharata-Natya-'sastra, explains 
the term hhujangatrasa in his Ndtya-veda-vivriti, 
thus : ' This kind of dance is called hhujangatrasa, 
because in it the dancer suddenly lifts up his leg 
as though he discovered a snake very near him, 
and appears to be of an unsteady gait- In this, 
one arm should be in the dola-hasta pose and the 
other in the JcataJca pose ; * and the dola-hasta 
pose is defined in the Bharata-Natya-sastra thus: — 
If the hand hangs down freely from the somewhat 
drooping shoulder, in the form of the patd,ka-hasta, 
it is called dola-hasta pose, t 

The Silparatna adds to the foregoing descrip- 
tions of the Nrittamurti the fact that surrounding 

* f ^^ Ti^lc^^ 5r^i55 ^^^ I 
^rrf^g^^f Tf^^^ g^r^rfiicTq; i ^ i^^jsj gf^- 

Tflf ^ *R^: ( ^^ ?"!^1?^: T^ ^SZ^Wf ifcT ^^H I t^- 

t ^ jrl%fSrQ?^ f ^ "TcTT^ 3 JR5^^ I 

JT^T *1^ Wf ^ ^ ffct #^^: II 
228 



NEITTAMUETIS. 

the figure of the dancing 6iva there should be a 
prabhdmandala resembling the orb of the sun ; and 
the Purva-Karanagama states that the eyes of Siva 
should resemble the shape of the bird Tcurari, that 
in the right ear of Siva there should be the naJcra- 
kundala and in the left ear patrahundala, that the 
garment of Siva should be a tiger's skin, that the 
agni in the left hand should have three tongues 
or flames and that between the two left hands there 
should be a piece of tiger's skin to serve as the 
upper garment. It further adds that the figure of 
Apasmarapurusha should be made in the chatustala 
measurement and should have three bends in its 
body. 

The descriptions given above of the first form 
of the Nrittamurti, refer to the figures of Nataraja 
commonly occurring everywhere in Southern India. 
In all Siva temples of importance a separate place is 
allotted to Nataraja which is known as the Natana- 
Sabha or simply Sabha. The most important of 
these Sabhas is that at Chidambaram. From the 
earliest times Chidambaram has been held very 
sacred by the ^aivas who call it " the temple ". In 
the days of Tirujnanasambandha, the Saiva saint, 
that is, in the middle of the seventh century A. D., 
it was already very famous. Further from time 
immemorial the god in the temple at Chidambaram 

229 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

had been the family deity of the Cholas who were 
strongly ^aiva in their persuasions. They had 
covered the Sabha with gold and hence it came to be 
known as the Kanakasabhd (or the golden hall) and 
the image of Nataraja as Kanakasabhapati. The 
Sabha at Madura, the capital of the Pandyas, had a 
covering of silver and was known as the Bajata- 
sabha. The Cholas might have desired to out-do the 
Pandyas in their regard for their family deity and 
hence covered the Sabha, not with silver as the 
Pandyas had done, but with gold ; and in the days of 
the king Parantaka Chola I, the roof of the Sabha 
was regilt. (A.D. 908-948). At the present day the 
Nattukkobtaichettis have once again covered the 
temple with gold. Chidambaram has been maintain- 
ing its importance from the earliest times and has 
always been the seat of activity of several Saiva 
scholars. For instance, the Periyapurdnam de- 
scribing the lives of the sixty-three Saiva saints was 
written and published by Sekkilar in this temple ; 
many a work on Saiva Siddhanta was written and 
published there. The saint Manikkavachaka spent 
the evening of his life in Chidambaram and such 
great Saiva saints as Jfianasambandha, Nanda and 
others are said to have been absorbed in the figure of 
Siva at Chidambaram. On account of such holy 
associations, the temple at Chidambaram is clothed 

230 



nbittamGetis. 

with extraordinary sanctity and mysticism, and 
a good deal of philosophical significance is attri- 
buted to the dancing immage of Siva that graces 
the Sabha in the temple. 

The significance of the mystic dance is 
explained in several ways. The same materials 
which were gathered by me for the purpose of ex- 
plaining the mystic nature of the dance of Siva 
have been turmed to account by Dr. A. K. Ananda- 
kumarasvami in writing independently a very 
beautiful article which he contributed to the 8id- 
dhanta-Dipika (Vol. XIII, July 1912). Since the 
work has already been done by him and if I may 
respectfully say so, in quite a splendid manner, 
my task is lightened and I have much pleasure in 
reproducing with his kind permission, the whole of 
the article here. 



THE DANCE OF SIVA. 



" The Lord of Tillai's Court a mystic dance 

performs : what's that, my dear ?" — 

Tiruvachagam, XII, 14. 

A great master-of-dancing (Nataraja) is Siva ! 

The cosmos is His theatre, there are many different 

steps in His repertory, He himself is actor and 

audience — 

231 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

When the Actor beateth the drum, 
Everybody cometh to see the show : 
When the Actor collecteth the stage pro- 
perties, 
He abideth alone in His happiness. 
How many various dances of Siva are known 
to His worshippers I cannot say. No doubt the 
root idea behind all of these dances is more or less 
one and the same, the manifestation of primal 
rhythmic energy: Siva is the Eros Protogonos 
of Lucian, when he wrote : 

It would seem that dancing came into being at 
the beginning of all things, and was brought 
to light together with Eros, that ancient 
one, for we see this primeval dancing clearly 
set forth in the choral dance of the constel- 
lations, and in the planets and fixed stars, 
their interweaving and interchange and 
orderly harmony. 
I do not mean to say that the most profound 
interpretation of Siva's dance was present in the 
minds of those who first danced in frantic, and 
perhaps intoxicated energy, in honour of the pre- 
Aryan hill-god, afterwards merged in ^iva. A great 
motif in religion or art, any great symbol, becomes 
all things to all men ; age after age it yields to men 
such treasure as they find in their own hearts. 

232 



NSITTAMUETIS. 

Whatever the origins of Siva's dance, it became in 
time the noblest image of activity of God which 
: any art or religion can boast of. Of the various 
/ dances of Siva I shall only speak of three, one of 
them alone forming the main subject of interpreta- 
tion. One is an evening dance in the Himalayas, 
with a divine chorus, described as follows in the 
Siva Pradosha Stotra — 

"Placing the Mother of the Three Worlds 
upon a golden throne, studded with precious gems, 
^ulapani dances on the heights of Kailas, and all 
the gods gather round Him :" 

" Sarasvati plays on the mna, Indra on the 
flute, Brahma holds the time-marking cymbals, 
Lakshmi begins a song, Vishnu plays on a drum, 
and all the gods stand round about :" 

" Gandharvas, Yakshas, Patagas, Uragas, 
Siddhas, Sadhyas, Vidhyadharas, Amaras, Apsaras 
and all the beings dwelling in the three worlds 
assemble there to witness the celestial dance and 
hear the music of the divine choir at the hour of 
twilight." 

This evening dance is also referred to in the 
invocation preceding the Katha Sarit Sagara. 

In the pictures of this dance, ^iva is two- 
handed, and the co-operation of the gods is clearly 

233 

30 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

indicated in their position of chorus. There is no 
prostrate Asura trampled under Siva's feet. So far 
as I know, no special interpretations of this dance 
occur in Saiva literature.* 

The second well-known dance of Siva is called 
the Tandava, and belongs to His tamasic aspect as 
Bhairava or Virabhadra. It is performed in ceme- 
teries and burning grounds, where Siva, usually in 
ten-armed form, dances wildly with Devi, accom- 
panied by troops of capering imps. Eepresentations 
of this dance are common amongst ancient sculp- 
tures, as at Bllora, Elephanta, and also at 
Bhuvanesvara. This tandava dance is in origin 
that of a pre-aryan divinity, half-god, half-demon, 
who holds his midnight revels in the burning 
ground. In later times, this dance in the cremation 
ground, sometimes of Siva, sometimes of Devi, is 
interpreted in Saiva and Sakta literature in a most 
touching and profound sense. 

Thirdly, we have the Nadanta dance of Nata- 
raja before the assembly {sabha) in the golden hall of 

* It is not known upon what authorities the varieties of 
dances referred to here and the descriptions of images made in 
these dancing postures, are based. I am not aware of any 
texts which mention a two handed figure of Siva employed in 
the act of dancing. (T.A.G.), 

234 



NEITTAMUETIS. 

Chidambaram or Tillai, the centre of the Universe, 
first revealed to gods and rishis after the submission 
of the latter in the forest of Taraka, as related in 
the Koyil-Puranam. The legend, which has after 
all, no very direct connection with the meaning of 
the dance, may be summarised as follows : 

In the forest of Taraka dwelt multitudes of 
heretical risTiis, followers of the Mimamsa. Thither 
proceeded Siva to confute them, accompanied by 
Vishnu disguised as a beautiful woman, and Adi- 
^esha. The rishis were at first led to violent 
dispute amongst themselves, but their anger was 
soon directed against Siva, and they endeavoured 
to destroy Him by means of incantations. A fierce 
tiger was created in sacrificial fires, and rushed upon 
Him ; but smiling gently, He seized it and, with 
the nail of His little finger stripped off its skin, and 
wrapped it about Himself like a silken cloth.* 
Undiscouraged by failure, the sages renewed their 
offerings, and produced a monstrous serpent, which, 
however, Siva seized and wreathed about His 
neck like a garland. Then He began to dance ; 
but there rushed upon Him at last a monster in 
the shape of a malignant dwarf, Muyalaka (the 

* A similar story is elsewhere related about an elephant 
and these account for the elephant or tiger skin, which Siva 
wears 

235 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

Apasmarapurusha). Upon him the God pressed the 
tip of His foot, and broke the creature's back, so 
that it writhed upon the ground ; and so, His last 
foe prostrate, Siva resumed the dance, witnessed by 
gods and rishis. 

Then Adi Sesha worshipped Siva, and prayed 
above all things for the boon, once more to behold 
this mystic dance ; Siva promised that he should 
behold the dance again in sacred Tillai, the centre 
of the Universe. The dance of Siva in Chidam- 
baram or Tillai forms the motif of the South Indian 
copper images of Sri Nataraja, the Lord of the 
Dance. These images vary amongst themselves in 
minor details, but all express one fundamental 
conception. Before proceeding to enquire what 
these may be, it will be necessary to describe the 
image of Sri Nataraja as typically represented. The 
images then, represent Siva dancing, having four 
hands, with braided and jewelled hair of which the 
lower locks are whirling in the dance. In his hair 
may be seen a wreathing cobra, a skull, and the 
mermaid figure of Ganga ; upon it rests the crescent 
moon, and it is crowned with a wreath of cassia 
leaves. In His right ear He wears a man's ear-ring, a 
woman's in the left ; He is adorned with necklaces 
and armlets, a jewelled belt, anklets, bracelets, finger 
and toe-rings. The chief part of His dress consists of 

236 



NEITTAMUETIS. 

tightly fitting breeches, and He wears also a flutter- 
ing scarf (angavastram) and a sacred thread. One 
right hand holds a drum (damaru, uduMai), the 
other is uplifted in abhaya mudrd (do not fear): one 
left hand holds fire, the other points downward to 
the lifted foot. The right foot is pressed down 
upon the asura Muyalaka, a dwarf holding a cobra; 
the left foot is raised. There is a lotus pedestal, 
from which springs an encircling arch of glory, 
(tiruvasi), fringed with flame, and touched within 
by the hands holding drum and fire. The images 
are of all sizes, rarely if ever exceeding four feet in 
total height. 

Even without reliance upon literary references, 
the interpretation of this dance would not be difii- 
cult. Fortunately, however, we have the assistance 
of a copious contemporary literature, which enables 
us to fully explain not only the general significance 
of the dance, but equally, the details of its concrete 
symbolism. Some of the peculiarities of the 
Nataraja images, of course, belong to the conception 
of Siva generally, and not to the dance in particular. 
Such are the braided locks, as of a yogi : the 
cassia garland : the skull of Brahma : the figure of 
Gahga, the Ganges fallen from heaven and lost in 
diva's hair : the cobras : the different ear-rings, be- 
tokening the dual nature of Mahadeva, ' whose half 

237 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

is Uma ': the four arms. The drum also, is a general 
attribute of Siva, belonging to his character of yogi, 
though in the dance, it has further a special signi- 
ficance. What then is the meaning of diva's dance, 
as understood by Saivas ? The dance is called 
Nadanta. Its essential significance is given in texts 
such as the following : 

" Our Lord is the Dancer, who, like the heat 
latent in firewood, diffuses His power in mind and 
matter, and makes them dance in their turn."*t 

The dance, in fact, represents His five activities 
{PanchaJcritya), viz., Srishti (overlooking, creation, 
evolution), Sthiti (preservation, support), Samhara 
(destruction, evolution), Tirobhava (veiling, em- 
bodiment, illusion, and also, giving rest,) Anugraha 
(release, salvation, grace). These, separately consi- 
dered, are the activities of the deities Brahma, 
Vishnu, Rudra, Mahesvara and Sadasiva. 

* atrL-i— ^io6r&)QuiTeo a_i_«D aeois^ B-UiSleiairO(ue\)e\)irLh 
^L-®aSa(^LD iBil.®isjm IB iJaweiRiraaiT QeOsnrQaieesii^^uj. 
t Kadavul Mamuaivar's Tiruvdtdvurdr Purdnam Putta- 
raivatil-venra-sarukkam, stanza 75, translated by Nallasvami 
Pillai, §ivajndnabodham, p. 74. This could also be rendered : 
Like heat latent in firewood, he fills all bodies : 
Our Father dances, moving all souls into action, know 
ye ! 
Compare Bokhart, " Just as the fire infuses the essence 
and clearness into the dry wood, so has God done with man." 

238 



NEITTAMURTIS. 

This cosmic activity is the central motif of the 
dance. Further quotations will illustrate and explain 
the more detailed symbolisms. TJnmai VilahJcam, 
verse 36, tells us : 

" Creation arises from the drum : protection 
proceeds from the hand of hope : from fire proceeds 
destruction : the foot held aloft gives mukti." Here 
mukti is the same as anugraha, release. It will be 
observed that the fourth hand points to this lifted 
foot, the refuge of the soul. 

We have also the following from Chidambara 
Mummani Kovai. 

" O my Lord, Thy hand holding the sacred 
drum has made and ordered the heavens and earth 
and other worlds and innumerable souls. Thy lifted 
hand protects the Chetana and Achetana Prapancha 
which Thou hast created. All these worlds are 
changed by Thy hand bearing fire. Thy sacred foot, 
planted on the ground, gives an abode to the tired 
soul, struggling in the toils of karma. It is Thy 
lifted foot that grants eternal bliss to those that 
approach Thee. These Five-Actions are indeed 
Thy handiwork." 

The following verses from the Tirukuttu 
Darsana (Vision of the Sacred Dance), forming the 

239 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

ninth tantra of Tirumular's Tirumantram, expand 
the central motif further : 

" His form is everywhere : all-pervading is His 

Siva-Sakti : 
Chidambaram is everywhere, everywhere His 

dance : 
As Siva is all and omnipresentj 
Everywhere is diva's gracious dance made 

manifest. 

" His five-fold dances are in saJcala and 
nishhala form, 

His five-fold dances are His PanchaJcritya : 
With His grace He performs the five acts. 
This is the sacred dance of Uma-Sahaya.* 
" He dances with Water, Fire, Wind and Ether, 
Thus our Lord dances ever in the court t 
" Visible to those who pass over Maya and 
Mahamaya, 

Q^ssrQ La IT ifiu rrsGsr ^(^Bi—LorrQQLH. 
f aneSQajiru-iru^i searsrrf&i^^iTi^d 
A-eiflQcuiTi—m^d (^sueovu^Q^iuituf. 
iSif.iuiSir^'SireOiS&r euiresBeai—iuni^ 
iBiTi^peuLDUei)^Q^ iun<SiBir^Qe!ir. 

2iQ 



NEITTAMUETIS. 

Our Lord dances His eternal dance.* 

" The form of the Sakti is all bliss (ananda) — 

This united bliss is Uma's body : 

This form of Sakti arising in saJcala 

And uniting the twain is the dance "t 

'' His body is Akas, the dark cloud therein is 

Muyalaka, 
The eight quarters are His eight arms, 
The three lights are His three eyes, 
Thus becoming, He dances in our body as the 

assembly (sabha) ".| 
This is His dance. Its deepest significance is 
felt when it is realised that it takes place within 
the heart and the self : the kingdom of God is 
within. Everywhere is God : that Everywhere is 
the heart. Thus also we find another verse : 

LDiTiL\LnjSieS ^a aULf/DLoneanB^ 

LD IT OB lULDirLDiraauj ■si—i^'S^^'irsiTeim 

miTiuseiit^dirSU iBU.^Qfiu\L\Ui euirQ/D. 

Ou.ir^^euiresni^OLDir(^iBt^LDir(DLD. 

QLDitsniuQfidsesiitsarQp^Q(irfefifiiT^a 

241 
31 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

" The dancing foot, the sound of the tinkling 
bells, 

The songs that are sung and the varying steps, 
The forms assumed by our Dancing Guru- 
para — 

Find out these within yourself, then shall 
your fetters fall away."* 

To this end, all else but the thought of God 
must be cast out of the heart, that He alone may 
abide and dance therein. In Unmai Vilakkam, 
we find : 

" The silent jnanis destroying the threefold 
bond are established where their selves are de- 
stroyed. There they behold the sacred and are 
filled with bliss. This is the dance of the Lord of 
the assembly, "whose very form is Grace. "t 

With this reference to the ' silent jnanis ' 
compare the beautiful words of Tirumular : 

f QLairesrisfi LDirQpesflaiiT QpLbiaeo^eiD^ QioirQ^^^ 
242 



NRITTAMUETIS. 

" When resting there they (the yogis who 
attain the highest place of peace) lose themselves 
and become idle.. ..Where the idlers dwell is the pure 
Space. Where the idlers sport is the Light. 
What the idlers know is the Vedanta. What the 
idlers find is the deep sleep therein".* 

Siva is a destroyer and loves the burning 
ground. But what does He destroy ? Not merely 
the heavens and earth at the end of a Icalpa, but 
the fetters that bind each separate soul. Where 
and what is the burning ground ? It is not the 
place where our earthly bodies are cremated, but 
the heart of the bhaJcta, the devotee, laid waste and 
desolate. He brings not peace but a sword. The 
place where their selves are destroyed signifies the 
place or state where their egoity or illusion and 
deeds are burnt away : that is the crematorium, 
the burning-ground where Sri Nataraja dances, 
and whence He is named Sudalaiyadi, Dancer of 

^(^iB^irir &mis!r OfiueSiuireaeuiLi QmitdSl 

QfirtMuir ^(T^uugi «^^ OeuafliiSQe\) 
QfiTUDuir Qi—uu^ »^fi QwireiflaSQ& 
Qfituauir s-emit&igi »(t^^ Qpi^ib ^ujh 
Qfirwuir sami—irirS «q^^ssl. QaaQui, 

243 



HINDU laONOGBAPHY. 

the burning-ground. In this simile, we recognize 
the historical connection between Siva's gracious 
dance as Nataraja, and His wild dance as the 
demon of the cemetery. 

This conception of the dance is current also 
amongst Saktas especially in Bengal, where the 
Mother rather than the Father-aspect of Siva is 
adored. Kali* is here the dancer, for whose 
entrance the heart must be purified by fire, made 
empty by renunciation. A Bengali Hymn to Kali 
voices this prayer : 

" Because Thou lovest the Burning-ground, 
I have made a Burning-ground of my heart — 
That Thou, Dark One, haunter of the Burning- 
ground, 
Mayest dance Thy eternal dance. "+ 
" Nought else is within my heart, O Mother : 
Day and night blazes the funeral pyre : 
The ashes of the dead, strewn all about, 
I have preserved against Thy coming, 
With death conquering Mahakala neath Thy 
feet 

* Fiie article on " "What is Kali ?" in, S.D. Vol. Ill, 
p. 13,— £d. S.D. 

f 8_6\)fflG'LD iLKj^euLDiT'S Qiunesflai^^uu^iTs 

eSeo^Quififfn (^rrcnrdQifleaiu iL^LLmamiLDira 
aeOL^® Q^iri^e06sQeirn(B ibitl^s iBUf.uuasr iBir^ar. 
244 



NEITTAMURTIS. 

Do Thou enter in, dancing Thy rhythmic 
dance. 

That I may behold Thee with closed eyes". 

Eeturning to the South, we find that in other 
Tamil texts the purpose of diva's dance is explained. 
In Sivajnana Siddhiyar, Supaksha, Sutra v. 5, 
we find, 

" For the purpose of securing both kinds of 
fruit to the countless souls, our Lord, with actions 
five, dances His dance". Both kinds of fruit, that 
is Iham, reward in this world, and Param, bliss in 
MuUi. 

Again, Unmai VilaMam, vv. 32, 37, 39 inform 
us 

" The Supreme Intelligence dances in the soul 

for the purpose of removing our sins. By these 

means, our Father scatters the darkness of Maya, 
burns the thread of Karma, stamps down Mala 
{anava, avidyci), showers Grace, and lovingly plun- 
ges the soul in the ocean of bliss (Ananda). They 
never see rebirths, who behold this mystic dance".* 

* S7il® uSjreaii(S(ip(T^euireBreS eSeis^Qji 

lueuiriu Lap i9asr(ii/'(Sleuirssr. 

fiiiueu QfisSuj(j^eir^irOesr(S^^-^QiEUj^^ireo 
245 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

The conception of Llla, the world-process as 
the Lord's sport or amusement, is also prominent 
in the ^aiva scriptures ; thus, Tirumular writes : 
" The Perpetual Dance becomes His Play". 

This aspect of His activity appears to have 
given rise to the objection that He dances as do 
those who seek to please the eyes of mortals ; to 
which the answer is given that He dances to main- 
tain the life of the cosmos and to give release to 
those who seek Him. 

In another way, more arbitrary, the Dance of 
Siva is identified with the Panchakshara, the five 
syllables Si-va-ya-na-ma, which have a peculiar and 
special significance in Saiva symbolism. In TJnmai 
YilakTcam, vv. 33-35 they are identified in the dance 
as follows : 

" In His feet is na ; in His naval is ma ; in His 
shoulders is Si ; in His face is va ; in His head is 
ya . 

^iBiEfiwiriP^aS e\)iresrLDiree>e>j^/SiT esTQp^^ea 

S-etDjriLjeeariTeijd QsiLi—ir QeurrfT^eueir tSKSu^fird 
sjr^fiireo euealTinsi—irBsiuir^ — ueiDiruSi^LDiTiLa 
sir^aCoui^Qiu sq^^uti^q^^ Qsirehi—in—io 
Qu^ULDeurrd^esmQi—n iSlpuLf. 
* ^(Sihui^Qs&r iBeoeoiMUeo^^iT 'SesnuQesr 
iBir<BiB ^(T^wi^uSQeo !B,sinJa 8S._® 

246 



NRITTAMtJBTIS. 

A second way of contemplating the Panchak- 
shara is also given, as follows : 

" The hand holding the Drum is §i ; the 
hand held out is va ; the hand holding out protec- 
tion {ahhaya) is ya ; the hand holding fire is na ; the 
foot holding down Muyalaka is ma".* 

The text continues : 

" The meanings of the five letters respectively 
are God, 6akti, Soul, Tirobhava and Mala.... If this 
beautiful Five-Letters be meditated upon, the soul 
will reach the land where there is neither light nor 
darkness, and there Sakti will make it One with 
Sivam".+ 

Another verse of Uij^mai VilaMam explains 
the fiery arch (tiruvasi) : The Panchakshara and 
the Dance are identified with the mystic syllable 
Om, the arch being the Jcombu or hook of the 

Mird^ua lusjrLcuujairiM — uird3e9ei>ps 
amS iE6Birijoif.dQifi Qpiueoe^ii 

jiieinesBieO Qp^eaiiuipen QsQg^ea^sgt 
LoemessfieSjrirLj UiseojbjSearu^Q^ — isemssS 
lUQ^efTiresrsi ^eu^Q^ luird^Lo^^eaeiJ 

247 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

ideograph of the written symbol : " The arch over 
Sri Nataraja is Omkara ; and the aJcshara which is 
never separate from the Omkara is the contained 
splendour. This is the Dance of the Lord of 
Chidambaram".* 

The Tiru-Arul-Payan, however, (Ch. IX. 3) 
explains the tiruvasi more naturally as represent- 
ing the dance of Nature, contrasted with Siva's 
dance of wisdom. 

" The dance of matter {Prakriti) proceeds on 
one side : the jnana dance on the other. Fix your 
mind in the centre of the latter", f 

I am indebted to Mr. Nallasvami Pillai for a 
commentary on this : 

The first dance is the action of matter- 
material and individual energy. This is the arch, 
tiruvasi, Omkara, the dance of Kali. The other is 
the Dance of Siva — the ahshara inseparable from 
the Omkara — called ardhamatra or the fourth letter 
of the Pranava, Chaturtam and Turvyam. The 
first dance is not possible unless Siva wills it and 
dances Himself. 

* ^BsnirQui mp/S^eutrS tLjpp^esBeir 

Ou/b(yyiT LSIpuup0'ir iSleir. 
f EEcaar isi—snr Qu>iT(T^uir Qeoir^uireon 

248 



NEITTAMtBTIS. 

The general result of this interpretation of the 
arch is, then, that it represents matter, nature, 
praJcriti; the contained splendour, Siva dancing 
within and touching the arch with head, hands 
and feet, is the universal omnipresent Purusha. 
Between these stands the soul, as ya is between 
8i-va and na-ma. 

Now to summarise the whole interpretation, 
we find that The Essential Significance of diva's 
Dance is threefold : First, it is the image of his 
Bhythmic Activity as the Source of all Movement 
within the Cosmos, which is represented by the 
Arch : Secondly, the Purpose of his Dance is to 
Release the Countless souls of men from the Snare 
of Illusion : Thirdly the Place of the Dance, Chi- 
dambaram, the Centre of the Universe, is within 
the Heart. 

In these notes I expressly refrain from all aesthe- 
tic criticism and have endeavoured only to translate 
the central thought of the conception of Siva's dance 
from plastic to verbal expression, without reference 
to the beauty or imperfection of individual works. 
In conclusion, it may not be out of place to call 
attention to the grandeur of this conception itself 
as a synthesis of science, religion and art. How 
amazing the range of thought and sympathy of 

249 
sa 



HINDU ICONOGBAPHY. 

those rishi-artists who first conceived such a type 
as this, affording an image of reality, a key to the 
complex tissue of life, a theory of nature, not merely 
satisfactory to a single clique or race, nor acceptable 
to the thinkers of one century only, but universal 
in its appeal to the Philosopher, the Bhakta, and 
the artist of all ages and all countries. In these 
days of specialisation, we are not accustomed to such 
a synthesis of thought ; but for those who ' saw ' 
such images as this, there could have been no divi- 
sion of life and thought into water-tight compart- 
ments. Nor do we always realise, when we criticise 
the merits of individual works, the full extent of 
the creative power which, to borrow a musical 
analogy, could discover a raga so expressive of 
fundamental rhythms and so profoundly significant 
and inevitable. 

Every part of such an image as this is directly 
expressive, not of any mere superstition or dogma, 
but of evident facts. No artist of to-day, however 
great, could more exactly or more wisely create an 
image of that Energy which science must postulate 
behind all phenomena. If we would reconcile Time 
with Eternity, we can scarcely do so otherwise than 
by the conception of alternations of phase extending 
over vast regions of space and great tracts of time.* 
[* Oliver Lodge, Hibberfc Journal, Vol. X, No. 2, 1911.] 

260 



NBITTAMUETIS. 

Especially significant, then, is the phase alternation 
implied by the drum, and the fire, which ' changes,' 
not destroys. These are but visual symbols of the 
theory of the day and night of Brahma ! 

In the night of Brahma, Nature is inert, 
and cannot dance till Siva wills it : He rises 
from His rapture, and dancing sends through 
inert matter pulsing waves of awakening sound, 
and lo ! matter also dances, appearing as a glory 
round about Him. Dancing, He sustains its mani- 
fold phenomena. In the fulness of time, still 
dancing, he destroys all forms and names by fire 
and gives new rest. This is poetry : but none the 
less, the truest science. 

Again, this Nataraja is not only Truth, 
but Love : for the purpose of His Dance is 
Grace, the giving of freedom to countless indi- 
vidual souls. Lastly, also, how supremely great 
in power and grace this dancing image must 
appear to all those who as artists have striven 
in plastic forms to give expression to their in- 
tuition of Life ! 

It is not strange that the figure of Nataraja 
has commanded the adoration of so many genera- 
tions past : we, familiar with all scepticisms, expert 
in tracing all beliefs to primitive superstitions, 

251 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

explorers of the infinitely great and infinitely 
small, are worshippers of ^ri Nataraja still. 

A. K C." 
Five photographs are given in illustration of 
the Bhujangatrasa mode of dance of Siva. The 
first, PI. LVI, is that of the beautiful figure of 
Nataraja discovered at Tiruvalangadu and now 
preserved in the Madras Museum. It is one of the 
finest specimens of bronze casting in South India 
and extorts our admiration for the excellence of its 
design and execution. The prabhamandala, the 
jaias, the upper cloth tied round the chest and the 
4amaru are broken and lost. The head is orna- 
mented with peacock feathers, the dhurdhura 
flowers, a skull, a cobra and the crescent moon. 
The second photograph, PI. LVII, the original of 
which was found buried in earth at Kottappadi 
and is at present kept in puja in the temple at 
that village. As required by the agamas, the Devi 
is sculptured as standing near Nataraja, but on a 
separate pedestal. There are five jatas on each 
side and between each pair of them are worked out 
flowers and the figure of Ganga. The Devi is 
standing in the tribhanga posture and has her left 
hand let down and the right arm bent and held in 
the Jcaiaka pose. The illustration, fig. 1, LVIII, 
comes from Ramesvaram. The image has not got 

252 



PLATE LVI. 





[To face page 252] 



Nataraja ; Bronze : Madras Museum, 



PLATE LVll 




a 

C3 

■+3- 
lO 



C 
O 



fTo face page 252] 



PLATE LVMI 





Fig 1. Nataraja : Bronze : Eamesvaram. 



Fig 2. Nataraja Ivory : Trivandram. 



[To face page 252] 



PLATE LIX. 




Nataraja with Davi : Bronze : Patt svaram 



[f o face page 2531 



Ni^ITTAMUBTIS. 

the jatas round the head; the head is adorned with 
a hiflta like jatdmaJcuta and the back hands are not 
fully stretched out as in the previous illustrations. 
The work lacks the vigour of action which is well 
portrayed in the other instances, and does not 
appear to be altogether a commendable piece of 
art. Fig. 2 on the same plate is a piece of ivory 
carving executed in the School of Arts, Trivand- 
ram, which is made in utter disregard of the agamic 
rules. PI. LIX is a pretty piece of sculpture belong- 
ing to the temple at Pattisvaram. 

The second, the third and the fourth varieties 
of Nritta are not very different from the first. In 
the second form of dance, the Amsumadhhedagama 
states, there should be the figure of Ganga standing 
on the jatas flowing on the right side of Siva with 
hands held in the anjali pose ; and that the height 
of this figure of the river Ganga should be sixteen 
ungulas, an ahgula being a hundred and twentieth 
part of the total height of the figure of Siva. In 
the third kind of dance it is stated that the left foot 
of the Nrittamijrti should be placed on the body of 
the Apasmara-purusha and the right leg lifted up. 
A jaUbhhara or jatd,mandala spread round the 
crowned head of the figure of Siva in the form of a 
circular disc is required in the fourth form of Nritta 
or dance. 

253 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

The fifth form of the dance of §iva is somewhat 
different from the previous ones. In this the 
right leg is to be lifted straight up to the crown 
of the head and the left leg, somewhat bent, 
should be resting upon the Apasmara-purusha ; 
Siva in this aspect has eight arms ; in three out 
of the four right hands are to be seen the §ula, 
the pa&a, and the damaru, while the last one 
should be kept in the abhaya pose ; one of the 
left hands is to be held crosswise, from left to 
right in the gajahasta pose, and the three other 
hands are to carry the Jcapala, the vessel of fire and 
a bell (ghanta). 

In the sixth variety of dance, the legs of the 
figure of Siva should be as in the case of the 
fifth variety described above ; but Siva is to be 
represented here as having sixteen arms ; one 
of the right hands is required to be held in the 
abhaya pose and the remaining right ones to carry 
the damaru, vajra, aula, pasa, taiika, danda 
{hasta ?) and a snake ; or, abhaya, iula, pUka 
Jchadga, ^amaru, dhvaja {patdka-hasta?), vetala 
and the suchl pose. One of the left arms should 
be held in the gajahasta pose, being held across 
the body from left to right, while the remaining 
ones carrying either agni, mithuna (a double 
headed instrument like the vajra ?), valaya (quoit), 

254 



PLATE LX. 




Na^araja : Stone : Tenkasi. 



[to face page isj) 



NEITTAMURTIS. 

a banner,* ghanta, Metaka and Jcapala ; or agni, 
gajahasta, JchetaJca, the vismaya pose, ghanta, 
Jcapdla, khadga and the suchl pose. 

To the left of the dancing ^iva should be stand- 
ing his consort, carrying in her left arm Skanda and 
keeping her hands in the anjali pose, while the 
child Skanda should, out of fear at the sight of the 
ecstatic dance of his father, be catching hold of the 
breast and abdomen of his mother, the Devi. On 
the face of the Devi the emotions of fear and 
wonder and yet a friendly feeling should be brought 
out by the skilful artist. 

The photograph reproduced on PI. LX, in 
illustration of the sixth mode of dance belongs to a 
series of well-carved life-size stone images in the 
^iva temple at Tenkasi. In this, one of the left 
hands is shown as carrying a dhvaja with the bull, 
the characteristic totem of diva's banner, sculptur- 
ed on it. To the right and left of the figure of Siva 
are the rishis Vyaghrapada and Patafijali respec- 
tively with hands folded on their chests in the 
anjali pose. This piece of sculpture is one of the 

* Here the word may be understood to mean a banner or 
the hand held in the form of a banner, pataka-hasta. In fact, 
these two different senses are taken and sculptures executed 
accordingly. See the description of the illustrations to the 
sixth nritta, 

266 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

best specimens of the later Pandya period and is in 
an excellent state of preservation. 

In the seventh form of nritta, the image of 
Siva is required to possess eight arms, three eyes 
and an out-spreading ya^awawt^aZa; the left leg of 
Siva should be placed upon the Apasmarapurusha 
and the right leg lifted up fully stretched, as far 
as the head. One of the right hands should be 
held in the ahhaya pose, the others carrying the 
§ula, the pasa and the damaru. Two of the left 
arms should be kept in the gajahasta and the vis- 
maya poses, respectively; the remaining two 
carrying a Jcapala, and an agnipatra (or vessel of 
fire). There should be a bend in the body of 
ten angulas from the medial line {madhya sutra). 
To the left of the dancing figure of ^iva should 
stand that of the Devi. 

If in the seventh mode of dance there be 
substituted six hands in the place of eight, we get 
the eighth form of the Nrittamurti. In this, one 
of the right hands ought to be held in the ahhaya 
pose and the remaining ones to carry the damaru 
and the kula ; and one of the left arms is to be 
kept in the gajahasta pose, another in the vismaya 
pose and the third should carry a hapala. 

Here it must be particularly noted that the 
images of the fifth and sixth forms of the 

266 



PLATE LXI. 





f- 


t 




jSp^ 


S^ 




^^v*n 


w 






,^|i 


l^^ 




.-4 ?-■ - "-:^V 

t „-v w— -L-* *^ 



Nrittamurti : Stone: Tiruohchengafctarigudi. 



[to fice page 257] 



NIlITTAMtETIS. 

Nrittamurtis should possess only two eyes, whereas 
all the rest, described hitherto and hereafter, 
should have three eyes. 

The ninth form of Nrittamurti is described 
as follows : — The image of ^iva should have four 
arms, three eyes and a jatamakuta on the head. 
One of the right hands is to be held in the ahhaya 
pose and the other should carry a damaru, 
whereas one of the left arms is to be held in 
the gajahasta pose and the other hand ought 
to carry fire in it. In this particular dance, 
diva's left foot should not be placed upon the back 
of the Apasmarapurusha but rest upon a pltha 
and should be somewhat bent. The great toe of 
the right foot should also rest upon the pitha. 
A photograph, PI. LXI, the original of which is 
found in the Siva temple at Tiruchchengattangudi, 
is reproduced here in illustration of this, the ninth 
dance of Siva. There is a very close adherence to 
the description in the making of this image and the 
work is well executed. 

From a study of the so-called nine different 
forms of the Nrittamurtis it becomes patent that 
these do not really represent nine varieties of 
dances as described in the Natya-sastra. We find 
the dance of the common form of Nataraja to be 
what is technically known as the bhujangatrasa 

257 

88 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

mode of dancing. Besides these nine varieties of 
the Nrittamurtis described in the Am§vmadbheda- 
gama, we meet with several different images of 
Natanamurtis in actual sculpture. Some of them 
do, as a matter of fact, represent a few of the 
modes of dance whose descriptions are found in 
the Bharata Ndtya-sastra. Since the art of danc- 
ing, which was very popular till so recently as 
twenty years ago, is fast going out of fashion owing 
to the notion of a large section of the English- 
educated people of India that nautch ought to be 
discouraged owing to its association in practice with 
dancing girls who have, quite contrary to the original 
lofty ideals of the institution, degenerated into 
professional prostitutes, the study and practice of 
one of the Fine Arts of India is gradually dying out 
and]is least understood by the educated classes at the 
present day. The works dealing with the science 
have almost perished for want of appreciation, and 
it is very difficult to meet a scholar who is really 
well versed with the Ndtya4astra in its theoretical 
and practical aspects. Consequently the explana- 
tions of the few modes of dance of 6iva met with 
in actual sculpture which are attempted below are, 
it is feared, likely to be somewhat inaccurate, but 
endeavour is made, with the help of the only com- 
mentary on the subject written by the great 

258 



PLATE LXII. 




o 



CM 



> 



O 

u 

a 



o 

a 

a 



C3 



[io face pAge iiSyj 



NEITTAMtJRTIS. 

Abhinavaguptacharya,* to describe them as cor- 
rectly as possible. 

Plate LXII exhibits a mode of dance which is 

called the Kaiisamam in the Natya- 

^dancM* ^astra. In this mode, according to 

the text of the Natya-idstra, the 

legs are required to be in the pose known as the 

svastiJcapasritam, while one of the hands should be 

near the navel and the other on the hip ; and the 

pelvis should be in the udvdhita pose. The term 

svastiJcapasritam is explained in the Ndtya kastra ; 

* There is only one copy of this rare work hitherto dis- 
covered and this one also is here and there damaged. It is 
now in the custody of the Curator of the Sanskrit Manuscripts 
in Trivandram. If other copies are found, the work deserves 
being published by a competent scholar of the Natya-sdstra. 

^f^d+KH'd^ 55[%5TTf%Hnrr STJRRgTT- 

j*i'diiii: atiTirn: — ^^^"r ^ =? ^^rfe^ 3i^^ i ^^ ^^ 
t^ =^i5r ^«rH# ^jfesvqt ii 

259 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

but it is easier to make out the meaning of the term 
from a number of sculptures and from the ety- 
mology of the term. Two legs kept crossing each 
other is known as the svastika pose ; in this pose 
if the legs are kept a little apart from each other, 
that is, without touching each other, they are said 
to be svastikdpasrita pose. Again, if the hands are 
kept as described in the text quoted above, the pose 
is, according to the Natya-veda-vivriti, the com- 
mentary on the Bharata-natya sastra by Abhinava- 
guptacharya, is known as the svastiha pose. In 
this pose, Abhinavaguptacharya says, the hand that 
is near the navel should be kept in the JcataJca-hasta 
pose and the other hand in what is known as the 
arddha-chandra pose : in the latter pose the thumb 
and the other fingers should be kept so as to resem- 
ble a bow. Again, udvahita pose of the pelvis is 
that in which one side of it is raised and the other 
lowered proportionately. The mode of standing 
in the Jcatisama dance is technically known as the 
vaishnavastMnam, which Abhinavaguptacharya 
describes as follows : In the vaishnavasthana one 
leg should be resting firmly on the ground and the 
other bent and placed across the first at a distance 
of two and a half angulas. This sort of posture 
is prescribed for men when they are conversing 
with other or throwing the discus. 

260 



NEITTAMtJRTIS. 

In the illustration given on PI. LXII, Siva 
has eight arms. Of these, one of the right hands is 
carrying a ^amaru ; another is held near the navel 
in the Ttataka pose, a third is lowered down and on 
it is thrown a fine cloth, the upper garment of Siva, 
and the fourth is broken. One of the left arms is 
raised in the tripataha pose, another is resting on 
the thigh, and the hands of the third and fourth 
are broken. The legs are in the svastihdpasrita 
pose. The head is adorned with an extremely well 
executed jatamakuta and is surrounded with a 
prabhamandala. The upper arms wear beautiful 
spiral bands resemblihg snakes. On the chest and 
around the neck hangs a necklace of rare beauty 
and a yajnopavlta is seen lying across the chest. 
Besides these, there are the udarabandha and 
hatisutra on the abdomen and the loins. The 
under-wear of Siva is silk and tiger's skin, the latter 
of which is sculptured very distinctly and accu- 
rately. Parvati is seen standing to the left of Siva 
with the baby Skanda in her arms. Between her 
and her lord are two female musicians playing upon 
two musical instruments. Behind Parvati stands 
a man with a big jatabhara bearing on its front a 
fillet and has a pair of long moustaches ; perhaps 
he is one of the attendants of Siva. Over his head 
are the four Dikpalas, Yama, Indra, Nirruti 

261 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

and Agni. To the right of Siva are three or four 
male musicians of whom one is playing upon the 
flute, another is sounding the drum. The head of 
the elephant-headed G-anesa^ the first son of Siva, 
is peering through from the background. Over his 
head are the remaining Dikpalas. This is also one 
of the finest pieces of sculpture of its period. 

The next mode of dance is technically called 
Lalitam* In this, the left arm 

Lalita dance, 

should be held in the gajahasta 
pose and the right in the pravartita pose. The 
former has already been described and should be 
familiar to those who have studied the first volume 
of this treatise. According to the Natya-sastras, 
gajahasta is a combination-pose in which both 
hands are employed to produce the required eflfect 
and this is described thus : in the case of a human 

gg^tcft 55^ ^ ^^oi T^I^'jf fc^ 

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?5gr^^n^ft"jr f^ffl^: g^r %?ff^ra^:?rf^TSR- 

262 



iPL\TE LXIll. 






m 



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V 



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Lalita mode of dance of Siva : Stoae Pttnel : Ellora. 



NBITTAMURTIS. 

being who has only two arms, if one hand is 
stretched right across the chest towards the 
other shoulder and if the other arm is bent 
thrice in the tripatalca pose, that is, the upper 
arm lifted up as high as the shoulder horizontally 
and the forearm held at right angles to it vertically 
and the palm of the hand bent at right angles to 
the forearm and facing upwards, the double-hand 
pose is called gajahasta according to the Natya- 
sastra. This definition is, no doubt, different from 
the explanation found in Volume I of this treatise, 
but the one given here is applicable to the combi- 
nation-pose of both the arms. Pravartita hasta 
simply means uplifted arm. The leg pose required 
for the Lalita dance is technically called huttitam, 
which is described in the Natya-vedavivriti thus : 
if one leg rests firmly on the ground and the other, 
resting upon the toe, strikes the ground with the 
heel, the leg pose is called niJcuttitam. 

In the illustration, PL LXIII, Siva is represent- 
ed as dancing in a vigorous manner. The trunk 
of his body is thrown on one side and to the back, 
with the left side of the pelvis lifted and the right 
side depressed. His left leg is standing on the 
ground and the right resting on the toe is stamping 
the ground with the heel. One of the right hands 
carries the 4^maru, another the parasu, a third is 

263 



HINDU lOONOGBAPHY. 

broken and the fourth is held in the gajahasta pose ; 
while one arm is kept in the tripataJca pose, 
another in the ordinary pataka or streamer pose 
(in which it is kept stretched horizontally, away 
from the shoulder), the third appears to be held in 
the tarjanl pose and the last in the sucM pose. A 
Tpietty jatamakuta adorns the head while the ears 
are ornamented with kundalas. There is the yajno- 
pamta, the hara, the udarabandha and a snake 
employed as hatisutra. On either side are groups of 
four Dikpalas. To the left of Siva is Parvati holding 
in her right hand the hand of her boy Skanda, while 
with her left hand she holds a portion of her gar- 
ment. Near her to her left is standing a gana. To 
the right of Siva is Nandi sounding the drum, 
another playing on the flute and a third doing 
something which is not clear. On the seat on 
which ^iva dances, there is the famished figure 
of Kali seated in an easy pose and witnessing 
the dance of her lord. This panel is remarkable 
for its vigorous action. This one and the 
previous panel, belong to the rock temples at 
Ellora. 

Pis. LXIV-LXV exemplify the dance called 
Lalata-tilakam* In this mode of dance one of 

264 



PLATE LXIV. 







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[To face page 264] 



PLATE LXV. 







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[To face page 26S] 



NEITTAMURTIS. 

the legs is to be lifted up (technically known as 
the vrihcTiika pose) as if going to mark the fore- 
head with its toe with a tilaka mark. Abhina- 
vaguptacharya informs us that that leg pose in 
which the leg is lifted up behind is called the 
vrischika pose, for it then resembles the tail of a 
scorpion. In Pig. 1, PI. LXIV, 6iva is seen stand- 
ing on the Apasmarapurusha on his left leg, while 
he has his right leg lifted in the vrikcTiika pose ; 
one of the left arms is lifted up in the pataJca 
pose, while the other holds a Jcapala. One of the 
right hands bears a damaru and the other is kept 
in the abhaya pose. On the left of Siva is seen the 
figure of Bhairava dancing in the Lalita mode ; on 
the right is a figure (who might be Nandi) sounding 
the drum. This piece of sculpture is to be found 
in the ^iva temple at Tiruchchengattangudi and 
is of the same age as the figure on PI. LXI illustrat- 
ing the ninth mode of dance of Siva. 

The sculpture reproduced as fig. 2, on PI. LXIV, 
is to be found in the Kailasanathasvamin temple at 
Conjeevaram. In this Siva has eight arms carrying 
various objects such as the -sula, the valaya and 

^%^ ^%f^ f2ftf<c«llRi*4^dr4)W 

(5TI«fel^«ilqltcfl n) 

265 
S4 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

the dhvaja ; one of his right hands is in the abhaya 
pose. The left leg of Siva is planted firmly on 
the ground, while the right one goes up, from behind, 
as far as the top of the crown. To the immediate 
left of Siva is Nandi, also dancing, but in the Lalita 
mode ; and immediately to the right is a Mnnara, 
half man and half bird playing apparently on a 
stringed instrument. On the right and left niches 
adjoining the central one of ^iva are the figures of 
Brahma and Vishnu standing and praising Siva. 

The third illustration, PI. LXV, fig. 2, belongs 
to the Kailasanathasvamin temple at Taramanga- 
1am and is a very recent production. Here, the 
figure of Siva has sixteen arms carrying various 
objects. The right leg of Siva is lifted up as far as 
the crown while the left one is somewhat bent and 
resting upon the back of the Apasmarapurusha. One 
of the left hands holds a damaru which is sounded 
by one of the right hands ; also one of the left arms 
is lifted up to the head in the patdJta pose. To 
the right of the figure of Siva is that of Brahma 
sounding the cymbals and to the left is the figure 
of Vishnu sounding the drum. Between Brahma 
and Siva is a figure of a rishi ; who it is, is not clear. 
The Apasmarapurusha is lying with his head 
towards the right and the legs towards the left of 
Siva and holds in his hands a snake. 



266 



PLATE LXVI. 





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PLATE LXVII. 





[To face page 267] 



NEITTAMtJRTIS. 

Another mode of dance commonly met with 
in the sculpturing of the dancing Siva is known as 
chaturam* The Bharata-Natya Sastra defines 
this mode thus : ' The left arm should be in the 
anchita pose, the right one in the chatura pose, and 
the right leg in the Jcuttita pose.' Abhinavagupta- 
charya seems to be giving the term alapallava as 
a synonym of ancJiita and explains alapallava as 
follows : that pose of the hand in which the fingers 
are kept separated and all turned towards the palm, 
is called alapallava. Again, the chatura pose, 
according to the same authority, is one in which 
the little finger is kept vertical, the three others 
stretched at right angles to the little finger, while 
the thumb is placed in the middle of the three 
fingers. 

Figs. 1 and 2, Pis. LXVI and LXVII, illustrate 
in a manner the dance called chaturam. Of these, 

267 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

the first is the reproduction of a very well executed 
piece of sculpture to be found in the lower cave at 
Badami. In this, the central figure of Siva has 
sixteen arms in which are seen such objects as the 
sula, the parasu and a snake. One left arm is in 
the gajahasta pose and the lowermost right hand 
is in the chatura pose whereas the third right hand 
from above is in the anchita pose. The figure of 
Siva is adorned with various ornaments and a 
prabhd-mandala graces the head, which is sur- 
mounted with a neatly carved jata-mahuta. The 
left leg is in the hiittita pose. Behind and on the 
right of Siva is seen his bull-vehicle ; on his left is 
Ganesa, also attempting to dance. There are two 
drums to the left of Ganesa one of which is being 
sounded by a male, perhaps Nandisvara. 

Fig. 2 is almost exactly similar to fig. 1. 

One other mode of dance represented in sculp- 
tures of Siva is known by the name of talasam- 
sphotitam*. In this mode of dancing the dancer 
stamps vehemently the ground in front of him with 

3T^^RRT "^1^ ^^ "Ilfc^H fc^r ^hn^ 

Pm i d^ g: drti^*i<4 =^ wr#r f^ ^^f^dy<»<i<^firf|^ ^ 
d^a^irHili^d d<^dl£tN>4 ^^ ^T^rr ^TT^st^ ggjj §HH f^rg f^rr^ it 

268 



PLATE LXVIll, 




Talasamsphotita mode of dance of Siva : Stone : 
Kailasanathasvamin Temple : Gonjeevaraic. 



[To face page 268] 



PLATE LXIX. 




Talasamsphotita mode of dance of Siva: Stone: 
Chengunnur : Travancore State. 



fTo face page 269] 



PLATE LXX. 




Nrittamurci : Scone : OoDJeevaram. 



rXfi fare naee 2691 



NEITTAMtJETIS. 

one of his feet lifted fairly high. In this mode of 
dance the hand pose pataka hasta is also insisted 
upon, according to the commentary Natyaveda- 
vivriti. Talasamsphotita mode of dance is exempli- 
fied in Pis. LXVIII and LXIX. The original of 
the first photographic reproduction is in the 
Kailasaniithasvamin temple at Conjeevaram. The 
right leg of Siva is lifted up as high as the knee of 
the left one and is in the act of thumping the 
ground ; the left is somewhat bent and is resting 
upon the ground. Of the eight arms of Siva, one 
is held in the patdJca pose, another in the abhaya 
pose while the rest are in various other natya 
poses. From the jatamaJcuta of Siva issues one 
jata on the left side and on which is seated Ganga 
with hands folded in the anjali pose. Her head is 
shaded with the hood of a five-headed cobra. 
Parvati is seated on a seat on the left of Siva. The 
photograph reproduced on PI. LXIX, is also of 
this class and is of a piece of sculpture to be found 
in the Siva temple at Chengunnur in Travancore. 

The last illustration, PL LXX, is of a kind of 
dance, which it is not easy to identify with any one 
of the hundred and eight standard modes of dance 
enumerated in the Natya Sastra. In this sculp- 
ture, also found in the Kailasanathasvmin temple 
at Conjeevaram, Siva is seen suddenly assuming 

269 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

in the middle of his dance, a posture similar to the 
dlidhasana. He has eight arms, of which one 
carries the §ula, another the paraiu, a third one a 
snake and so on. One of the hands is in the gaja- 
hasta pose, another in the pataJca pose and a third 
in the chatura pose. On the left side there are three 
niches in one of which is seen Parvati seated, in 
another the bull of Siva couchant, and in the third 
an elephant ; similarly on the right are three niches 
in which is a figure which is unidentifiable, some 
musical attendants and an elephant respectively. 
In a niche below the central one are three ganas 
imitating the dance of their lord. 



270 



DAKSHINAMURTl. 



DAKSHINAMUETI. 
A \ J'Et have already stated that §iva is a great 
* ^ master of yoga, music and dancing and have 
described in detail his dances in the chapter on 
" Nrittamurtis. " As a teacher of yoga, music and 
other sciences he is known by the name of Dakshi- 
namurti. One account gives an explanation 
regarding the etymology of this name ; it states 
that because Siva was seated facing south when he 
taught the risTiis yoga and jnana he came to be 
known as Dakshinamurti, This aspect of Siva is 
always invoked by students of science and arts. 
The great Sankaracharya, among several other 
celebrities, have sung the praise of this aspect of 
Siva, which is as remarkable for its peacefulness 
as the Nrittamurti is for joyfulness. 

Dakshinamurti is viewed in four different 
aspects namely, as a teacher of yoga, of vlna, of 
jnana and as also an expounder of other Sastras 
(VyaJchydnamurti). Of these, the last form is the 
one which is most frequently met with in temples. 
It has already been mentioned elsewhere that in all 
Hindu temples, both Saiva and Vaishnava, the 
niche on the south wall of the central shrine should 
have the figure of Dakshiriamurti enshrined in it. 

273 

36 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

VYAKHYANA DAKSHINAMtTETI. 

As an expounder of the Sasfras, Dakshina- 
murti should be represented as seated on a secluded 
spot on the Himalayas, under a banyan tree, on a 
seat covered with a tiger's skin; or, as another 
account has it, on a white lotus {padmasana). The 
right leg of Dakshinamurti should be hanging 
below the seat while the left one bent and rested 
across on the right thigh. The kind of sitting 
posture adopted here is called the vlrasana. The 
leg hanging down may or may not rest on the 
back of the Apasmarapurusha. Dakshinamurti 
should have three eyes and four arms : of these the 
front right one is held in the jnanamudra or the 
sandarsanamudra* pose and the front left hand 
may be kept in the varada pose or stretched 
straight in the danda pose, the elbow resting upon 
the left knee in that latter posture. Even when 
the hand is in the varada pose it should rest upon 
the left knee but with the back of the hand touching 
it. The back right hand should hold tha aJcsha- 
mald, while in the back left hand there should be 
either agni (fire) or a sarpa (snake). In one 
account it is stated that one of the left hands may 
be, as already stated, in the varada or the danda 

* This is known as the samdamsa in the Nafcya-aastras, 
a name whioh occurs also in the agamas. 

274 



DAKSHINlMUETI. 

pose ; if it is in the former pose, it might keep a 
book, the other left hand holding a snake, fire 
or a lotus or nllotpala flower. The various parts 
of the body of Dakshinamurti should be free from 
bends — a rigidity indicative perhaps of the resolute 
will and force of thought of the god in the aspect 
of the teacher. His head might be adorned with 
a jatabhara, jatabandha, jatamandala or jata- 
maJcuta ; or the jatas might be held together with 
a ■patta-bandha. In any case the mass of jatas 
should be embeUished with the flowers of the 
durdhura (dhatura) and other wild plants, as also 
with a serpent on the left and with small tinkling 
bells, the . hapala and the crescent moon on the 
right side. In the middle of the jatabhara there 
should be visible the smiling face of the river- 
goddess Oahga. The complexion of Dakshinamurti 
is pure white, resembling a sphatika (crystal) ; 
according to another account the colour of 
Dakshinamurti may be white, red, yellow or black. 
His person should be adorned with all ornaments, 
clothed with perfectly white clothes and tiger's 
skin, should wear a white yajndpavlt'a and have on 
his chest a coat of white sandal paste. In his left 
ear there should be a Sankhapatra and in the right 
ear a hundala, or there may be only the sahhha- 
patra or the Jcundala in both the ears. A garland 

275 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

of rudraJcshas should be hanging round the neck and 
descending as far down as the chest. The coun- 
tenance of the god should be absolutely free from 
even a trace of mental perturbation. His sight 
must be fixed upon the tip of the nose ; according 
to the Karanagama the sight must be fized on the 
tip of the toe. The Silparatna adds that this 
aspect of Siva which preaches the dharma or law 
is very auspicious to the devotees and grants all 
good to its worshipper. 

Surrounding the great teacher-god, are to be 
rishis eager to learn the sastras. The names of the 
risJiis are given differently in different works ; for 
example, the Amsumadbhedd,gama mentions the 
risTiis Narada, Jamadagni, Vasishta, Bhrigu, Bhara- 
dvaja, Sanaka and Agastya. The Kamikagama 
mentions the names Kausika, Kasyapa, Bharadvaja, 
Atri and Gautama and omits the names of two others 
though it gives the number of rishis as seven. The 
Karanagama gives the names of Agastya, Pulastya, 
Visvamitra and Angirasa only. These rishis should 
\ia>\e, jatamaliiLtas on their heads, the garland of 
rudrahsha seeds round their neck and white yaj- 
hopavltas on their person. Their bodies should be 
covered with ashes {vibhuti or hhasina) and be 
clothed in white garments. The height of these 
rishis should not exceed that of the chest of 

276 



DAKSHINAMtJETI. 

Dakshinamurti. It is stated in the Kamikagama 
that the complexion of the rishis Kausika and 
Kasyapa should be dark, of two others (unmentioned 
in the text) yellow, of Bharadvaja red and of Atri 
and Gautama a mixture of dark and red. In 
grouping them on a panel around the figure of 
Dakshinamurti, two may be placed on one side and 
three on the other, or three and three on each side, 
or three and four on either sides. 

The god Dakshinamurti should be adored by 
liinnaras, devas and others. 

The Apasmara-purusha should hold his right 
hand in the sarpa-mudra pose, that is, hold the 
palm of his hand in the form of the hood of a cobra, 
in front of the cobra which he should hold in his 
left hand. 

The Dakshinamurti Upanishad and the Suta- 
samJiita give the esoteric meaning of the figure of 
Dakshinamurti. It is stated that He is the supreme 
god who, at the end of an aeon (kalpa) absorbs within 
himself the whole universe and remains resplend- 
ent with joy. Dakshinamiarti is such a deity. 
Jndna (knowledge) is known also as daJcshina and 
since daJcshina is ever in front of Siva and is gazing 
at him in the aspect of Dakshinamurti, he is called 
Dakshinamukha. The Apsmara-purusha under his 
foot is the personification of the ignorance of the 

277 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

living beings, which he keeps under subjection under 
the tread of his foot. The book he holds in his 
hand contains all wisdom and illuminates the souls 
of beings. The akshamald which he carries in his 
hand is the representation of the tatvas. His body 
is composed of eternal bliss and eternal energy ; the 
wide-spreading banyan tree casting deep shade is 
the symbol of maya (illusion) and the vrishabha 
of Siva is dharma (law). Dakshinamurti is teaching 
the risJds who are already deeply versed in the 
Vedas the atma-vidya (knowledge of self and soul) 
and rescuing them from samsara (bondage). He is 
himself imperishable, without birth or death and 
the kamaldsana or the lotus-seat upon which he is 
seated is the symbol of the sacred syllable Dm. 

Eight photographs are reproduced in illustra- 
tion of the above description. Of these the first 
illustration, PI. LXXI, comes from Deogarh and 
represents a very fine piece of sculpture. This 
panel has its central figure Dakshinamurti seated 
on a raised platform placed under a tree, with his 
left leg hanging and the right one bent and rested 
upon the seat. On his head is a jatahandha ; the 
back right hand carries an akshamald and the front 
right hand is held in the jndnamudrd pose. The 
back left hand carries a long object which is not 
easy to identify; perhaps it represents a cadjan 

278 



PLATE LXXI. 




JnauEL-DaksbiQamurtii ; Stone Panel: Deogarh. 



[To face page 278] 



DAKSHINAMUBTI. 

manuscript : or a bundle of kuha grass {kurcha) the 
front left hand carries a pot, perhaps an amrita- 
ghata, as required in the Vishnudharmditara. He 
wears round his loins a garment which descend as 
far down as the knees ; on his left shoulder and 
descending below as far as the left thigh and lying 
on it is a krishnajina (or deerskin), the head and 
front legs of the deer being clearly visible there : 
this skin is worn in the upavlta fashion. The 
whole figure is slightly bent forward and a few 
jatas are seen descending over the shoulders. The 
face portrays beautifully the calmness that is 
insisted upon by the agamas and the sight is fixed 
below. 

Below his seat and near his left leg are seen 
two deer, also listening to this exposition of dharma. 
This brings to mind the analogy of the representa- 
tions of Buddha's preaching the dharma wherein 
also the same animals are introduced as members 
of the audience. Behind stands an ascetic with 
crossed arms and legs and carrying on his left hand 
an akshamala; he has a tapering beard and his 
jatas are tied up in a knot on the crown of his 
head. 

To the left of Dakshinamurti is seated a person 
as tall as himself. He is also seated underneath a 
tree on a rocky seat. This may either be a rishi or 

279 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

Siva himself in the aspect of the Vyakhyana- 
Dakshinamurti ; on the latter supposition the other 
person (seated to the right) must be taken to be 
Yoga-Dakshinamurti. However it is not possible 
to say definitely whom this figure represents. The 
right hand of this image though carrying an 
aJcshamala is held in the cMn-mudra pose, while the 
left hand is held in the bhu-sparsamudra pose. Its 
head is adorned with a neatly execntedi jatamakuta, 
and its body is covered with a deer skin in the 
upavUa fashion. The right leg is let down the seat 
and is resting on the ground and the left leg is bent 
and kept on the seat. The garment covering the 
lower portion of the body descends as far below as 
the knees. As in the case of the other figure there 
is behind it a smaller one, also an ascetic, whose 
right hand, holding an akshamala, is kept in the 
chinmudrd, pose and the left hand carries a water 
pot. Below the seat of this image is a lion 
couchant with its head resting upon its forelegs 
which are kept crossed over each other. 

There are devas and gandharvas, who are 
shown as flying in the air over the heads of these 
two central figures carrying flower garlands in their 
hands. Higher up and in a separate compartment 
is sculptured Brahma as seated on a padmasana ; 
as usual, he has four heads ; but only two arms ; 

280 



PLATE LXXll. 




[To face page 281] 



Plate lxXiii. 




Jnaoa-Dakshinamurti : Sione : Tiruvorriyur. 



tTo face page 281] 



DAKSHIljrAMUETI. 

the right hand is kept in the chinmudra or ahhaya 
pose and the left carries a kamandalu. On both 
sides of Brahma are a deva and his d^vl, flying in 
the air and praising him. 

The second image whose photograph is repro- 
duced as fig. 1, on PL LXXII, is to be found in 
the Siva temple at Avijr in the Tanjore district. 
It is also a well executed piece of sculpture. In 
this image the jatas are bound together by a lalata- 
patta of elaborate workmanship. In the left ear is 
a patraJcundala and in the right a naJcraJcundala ; 
on the chest are the yajnopavlta and a necklace of 
rudraJcsha seeds ; there are also the chhannamra 
and the udarabandha and a cloth worn in the 
upavlta fashion. The front right hand is kept in 
the chinmudra pose and the front left hand, which 
rests on the left knee, bears a book. In the back 
right hand is the sarpa (snake) while in the back 
left hand is agni (fire). The right leg hangs down 
the seat and is placed upon the Apasmarapurusha 
and the left foreleg rests upon the right thigh. 
This image belongs to the early Chola period. 

The photograph reproduced on PI." LXXIII is 
of a comparatively modern sculpture to be found in 
a Siva shrine built in the second praJcara of the 
temple at Tiruvorriyur. It is coarse in its execution 

281 

36 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHT. 

and lacks effect. The jatas in this case are spread 
fanwise and are bound at their base by a lalata- 
patta. The image has the same objects in its hands 
as the one noticed above (PL LXXII, fig. 1). But 
there is in addition the figure of a rishi seated below 
the seat of Dakshinamurti, with its hands held in 
the anjali pose. The seat on which Dakshinamurti 
is seated in fig. 1, PI. LXXII, is a bhadrapltha 
while in PI. LXXIII it is the mountain represented 
in the usual conventional manner. 

The fourth illustration, fig. 2, PI. LXXII, is 
exactly similar to the third ; but there are two rishis 
sculptured separately and seated on either side of 
the central figure. 

The fifth illustration, fig. 1, PI. LXXIV, is from 
Suchindram in South Travancore. The image is 
of a comparatively recent date. It has on its head 
a carefully worked wp jatamakuta ; and a few stray 
jatas are seen flowing down on the shoulders. The 
posture assumed herein is the vlrasana. In the 
right back hand is seen a lotus flower, in the back 
left hand a sarpa, while the front right hand is held 
in the chinmudra pose and the front left hand 
carries a book. 

Fig. 2, PI. LXXIV, is the photograph of the 
figure of Dakshinamurti found in Kaveripakkam 

282 



PLATE LXXIV. 





Fig. 1. Jnana-Dakshi^amurti : Stone : 
Suohindram. 



Fig. 2. Jnana-Daksbi^amiarti 
Stone : Eaveripakkam. 



[To face page 383] 



PL\TE LXXV. 




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[To face page 283] 



DAKSHINAMtJBTI. 

and belongs to the Pallava period. Herein, the 
deity has on his head heavy curls of hair constitut- 
ing the jatabhara ; he carries the aksTiamala in his 
back right hand, agni (?), in the back left hand 
and a book in the front left hand ; the front right 
hand is held in the vyaJchyana-mudra pose. The 
right leg is hanging below the seat, while the left 
one is kept bent in the utkutihasana posture. 
Eound the neck are two hards (necklaces) on the 
chest, the yajnopavlta and in one ear a vritta- 
kundala ; the other ear wears no ornament. Below 
the seat are to be seen a deer and a cobra listening 
to his discourse. 

Fig. 1, PL LXXV, is the reproduction of a 
photograph of the Jnana-Dakshinamurti kept in the 
southern niche of the central shrine of the Siva 
temple at Tiruvengavasal in the Pudukottah State. 
In this case, the deity is represented as seated with 
his left leg kept in the utkutikasana posture and on 
it is stretched the front left arm. Fig. 2, on the same 
plate is that of a bronze statuette belonging to the 
collection of Mr. Kay, Madras. It is almost similar 
to the figure on PI. LXXIII ; the only difference is 
that in the figure belonging to Mr. Kay, the back 
right hand keeps agni and the back left one, a snake, 
whereas in the Tiruvorriyur image the order is 
reversed. 

283 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 
JNANA-DAKSHINAMtJETI. 

There is not much difference between the 
Vyakhyanamurti and the Jnanamurti. In the latter 
the general posture of Siva is exactly the same as 
in the former, but in the back right hand there 
should be the ahshamala, and in the back left hand 
a utpala flower. The front right hand should be 
held in the jnanamudra pose, whereas the front left 
hand may be kept in the abhaya or the danda pose. 



YOGA-DAKSHINAMUETI. 

This form of Dakshinamurti may be sculptured 
in three_ different ways. In the first, the two legs 
of the image should be crossed as in the svastiJca- 
sana ; while the front right hand should be held 
near the chest in the ydgamudra pose and the front 
left hand should rest upon the lap in the character- 
istic yogic posture. In the back right hand there 
should be the akshamala, and in the back left hand 
a lotus flower. The gaze must be fixed on the tip 
of the nose : and a few jatas should hang over the 
shoulders. This image of Dakshinamurti should 
be surrounded by rishis who should be adoring him. 

In the second mode of representation of Yoga- 
Dakshinamurti the left leg of the figure should be 
bent in the utkutikasana posture ; surrounding the 

284 



PLATO LXXVI. 








^^^^'^^^^..i^. 









Yoga-Dakshiriamurfci (locally kaowQ as Gaulisvara) : Stone : Tiruvorrlyur. 



[To face page 285] 



DAKSHINAMtJETI. 

body of the figure and its left leg should be a yoga- 
patta. The right leg should be hanging down the 
seat. The front left arm should be kept stretched 
and be resting by the elbow on the knee of the bent 
left leg. The rest of the description is identical 
with that given for the first form. 

The third form is required to be sculptured 
thus : The two legs are bent and crossed in a more 
or less vertical position (as in the figure of Yoga- 
Narasimha), and round these and the body is passed 
a yogapaUa to keep the legs in position. The front 
two arms are stretched and kept resting on the 
knees. In the back right hand there should be the 
akshamala and in the back left hand a Jcaman^alu. 
The jatas should be disposed of in the form of a 
jatamandala and in it should be the crescent moon, 
a snake and other objects. The colour of the body 
of this aspect of Dakshinamurti is white, but his 
neck should be represented as of black colour. The 
image should be adorned with all ornaments includ- 
ing a number of snake ornaments. 

The illustration on PI. LXXVI, is a well- 
carved figure of Siva in the ydgS,sana posture. It 
is enshrined in a fane situated in the south praJcara 
of the Siva temple at Tiruvorriyur. The inscrip- 
tions on the walls of this shrine refer to the image 
set up in it as Padampakkanayinar and state that 

285 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

it was set up in the fifth year of the reign of the 
Chola king Virarajendradeva (about A.D. 1067-8). 
From the position of this shrine with reference to 
the main central shrine, that is, to the south side 
of it, and from the posture and other features of 
the image itself enshrined therein, it may, without 
fear of contradiction, be stated to be the first form 
of Jnana-Dakshinamurti described above. The 
figure has a well executed jata-mahuta ornamented 
with jewelled discs and bands round it ; Jcundalas 
in the ears ; and hara and necklace of rudrahsha 
seeds and yajnopavUa on the chest. The forearms 
are adorned with a number of bracelets and the 
upper arm with Iceyuras. The legs are crossed one 
over the other so as to bring the soles up ; this is 
exactly the yogic asana called the svastiJcdsana. 
In the back right hand there appears to have been 
a sula, whose shaft alone now remains, the head 
being broken ; in the back left hand is the kapdla ; 
the front right hand is held in the chinmudrd pose 
and the front left hand also in the pose character- 
istic of an expounder of sciences. This image now 
goes by the inexplicable name of Gaulisvara and 
near it and to its proper right is set up in more 
recent times the figure of Sankaracharya ; on the 
base of the seat of this latter are carved the figures 
of his four great disciples. 

286 



PLATE LXXVIl. 




Yoga-Dakshigamurti: Stone: Oonjeevaratn. 



TTo face oaee 2871 



DAKSHINAMUETI. 

The second form is illustrated by PI. LXXVII. 
The original of this photograph is in the Kailasa- 
nathasvamin temple at Conjeevaram. In this 
sculpture Siva has his left leg bent and rested verti- 
cally on the seat and this leg and the body are 
bound together by the yogapatta. The front right 
hand is held in the yogamudra pose, while the front 
left hand is in the ahJiaya pose. The back right 
hand keeps an aJcshamala, and the back left hand 
agni or a lotus flower.* The right leg is hanging 
down the seat. Siva is as in the previous instances, 
seated under the shade of a banyan tree and below 
his seat are deer lying, with their heads lifted up to 
Siva. Below his right elbow is a cobra with an 
uplifted hood, also gazing at the enchanting figure 
of Siva. Above the head of Siva are seen seated a 
pair of bhutas on either side. On three niches 
situated on either side respectively of Dakshina- 
murti (not shown in the picture) are rishis sitting 

* At some later period of the history of this temple, when 
the surface of the stones of which the sculptures are composed 
began to peel off, they have all been covered with thin coat of 
plaster. The plasterer not being able to make out the exact 
nature of some badly injured objects has shaped slightly 
different things in their stead : thus, a lotus flower that is 
required by the dgamas seems to have been evidently mistaken 
for the most likely object in the back left hand of Siva, namely, 
agni, 

287 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

and listening to the preaching of the Vharma or 
Yoga by Siva.* The image whose photograph is 
reproduced as PI. LXXVIII is almost similar to 
that on PI. LXXVII ; the back right hand, in this 
instance, carries a cobra. Dakshinamurti is seen 
sitting here upon a bhadrapitha placed upon a hill- 
Pi. LXXIX is the photograph of the image of 
Dakshinamurti to be found in the Siva temple at 
Nanjangodu in the Mysore Province. This 
represents, only so far as its sitting posture goes, 
the third form the Yoga-Dakshinamurti. The 
asana assumed is that form of utJcutiJcasana 
described under the third form. The legs are 
bound with the body with a yogapatta. But 
in fact the image is a combination of all aspects 
of Dakshinamurtis — namely, the Yoga, the 
Vina-dhara and the Vyakhyana forms ; it is the 
Yoga form because its sitting posture is the yogic ; 

* Mr. Alex. Eea in his " The Pallava Architecture " de- 
scribes a panel containing the images of Dakshi:Qamiarti and the 
rishis thus : " in this panel, eleven seated sages are listening to 
the exhortations of Siva, who is represented in a panel on the 
north side of the central shrine. He is armed with different 
symbolical weapons, and seems to be preaching war" (!) Such 
mistakes are fairly common in his publications and hence need 
no serious refutation ; nor are his drawings reliable, for, to 
quote an instance, a sankha in the hand of an image is wrongly 
represented in the drawing as a padma. 

288 



PLATE LXXVIII. 




Yoga-Dakshiriamurbi ; Stone: Oonjeevaram. 



[To face page 288J 



PLATE LXXIX. 




Dakshinamurti : Stone : Nanjangodu. 



[To face page 288] 



DAKSHINAMtETI. 

the Vinadhara because it carries in its back left 
hand a vma, and Vyakhyana because its front right 
hand is in the chinmudra pose and the front left 
hand carries a book. The figure is seated below a 
banyan tree and the Idmclihana (the totemistic 
emblem), the bull, is carved in a counter-sunk surface 
on the pedestal, in front. Below the seat and in the 
middle of it is seated a Lingayat priest who holds 
in his left hand a lihga. On either side of this 
guru are his disciples with their hands in the anjali 
pose. A prabhd,vali is placed behind the figure of 
Dakshinamurti on the jambs of which are standing 
one on each side a rishi with the hands in the 
anj'ali pose. 

VINADHAEA-DAKSHINAMIJETI. 

As a great teacher of music, both instrumental 
and vocal, Siva is worshipped in the form of Vina- 
dhara-Dakshinamurti. The description of the image 
of this aspect of Dakshinamijrti is found in the 
Kamiha, the Amsumadhlieda and the Karanagamas. 
The Amsumadbheddgama states that the left leg 
should be kept in the utJcutiJca posture and the two 
front hands should hold the vlnd ; the rest should 
be exactly similar to the description of the Vyip- 
khyanamurti. According to the Kamikdgama the 
Gana-Dakshinamurti should have his front right 
and left hands held in the Jcatalca pose, the former 

289 

37 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

with its palm facing below and the latter facing 
above. The Jcataha pose being slightly different in 
form, the Kamihagama calls the pose the sarpa- 
Tcara. The left arm should be lifted up and the 
right arm lowered below, so as to hold in proper 
position the long-handled musical instrument, the 
Vina. The vlna should be held at the top by the 
left hand and by the right hand at the lower end; 
the resonating body of the instrument should rest 
on the right thigh. The lower right hand should 
be manipulating the strings of the instrument. 

The measurement of the vlna is next given as 
follows : the vlna should be projecting three ahgulas 
beyond the right thigh and four aiigulas above the 
left kataJca-hasta. The distance between the two 
points specified above is the length of the vlnd- 
danda or the hollow shaft of the instrument whose 
width at the top should be two ahgulas. The gourd 
resonator attached at the lower end should be six 
ahgulas in diameter and three ahgulas in height. 

A few general observations are added also about 
the figures of Dakshinamurti. It is stated that the 
face of Dakshinamurti should be turned towards the 
hand held in the sandarsanaviudra pose ; also the 
gaze of the god may be fixed on this hand. Surroun- 
ding the figure of Dakshinamurti there should be 
different kinds of animals and reptiles, sages (munis) 

290 



PLATE tXXXI. 




Vinadhara-Dakahinamurti: Bronze: Vadarangam. 



[To face page 391] 



PLATE LXXX. 




Vinadhara-Dakabiciamurti : Bronza : Madras Museum. 



[To face page 291] 



DAKSHINAMUETI. 

and ascetics (siddhas), vidyadharas, bhutas and 
hinnaras ; Siva should be seated in a place on the 
mountain where all sorts of flowering trees and 
plants grow luxuriantly and under a banyan tree, 
on the right side of its trunk, on a jewelled -pltjia 
covered with a tiger's skin and he should present a 
benign look: and the rishis the ancestors of the 
Sivadvijas (Saiva brahmanas) should be seated 
round him. The figure of Dakshinamurti may be 
sculptured as seated or standing surrounded or not 
by rishis, with his legs either resting or not upon 
the Apasmara-purusha and with or without the 
banyan tree, bhutas and others mentioned above. 

Two photographs, Pis. LXXX and LXXXI, are 
reproduced in illustration of the Vinadhara-Dak- 
shinamurti ; both of them are identical in shape and 
in the details of moulding.* Siva is seen standing 

* These two images figure on Pis. XV and XVI of Mr. 0. C. 
Gangoly's South Indian Bronzes. Besides these, be has re- 
prodaoed two other photographs of the same aspect of Siva on 
Fls. I and XIV. In every detail all the four figures agree ; for 
instance, in all, the right leg stands straight on the ground 
while the left one is slightly bent ; all four have four arms, the 
back hands of which carry the parasu and the mriga and the two 
front hands are held in the kataka poses required in the agamas 
and are evidently meant to keep a vind in them ; the very same 
ornaments, head-gear and clothing are to be seen on all the 
images. In the case of PI. I, there is a slight divergence from 

291 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

with his right leg kept firmly on the ground, while 
the left leg is placed a little forward slightly bent. 
The front two hands are held in the JcataJca pose, 
the left one looking up and the right one looking 
down. Evidently a separately cast vlna was intend- 
ed to be inserted in the hands whenever wanted 
and hence this instrument is not to be seen in 
either image. The back right hand carries a 
paraiu and the back left one a mriga. There are 
all sorts of elaborately sculptured ornaments on the 
person of the figures. The first figure (PI. 
LXXX) belongs to the Madras Museum, while the 
second (PL LXXXI) is to be found in the temple at 
Vadarangam in the Tanjore district. The second, 
an earlier piece of sculpture, is of very high artistic 
value ; the first is of rather inferior workmanship. 

the description of the agamas, namely, the left leg, instead of 
being placed directly on the ground, is held supported on its 
head by a 6^Mia— which deviation is one of the artistic embel- 
lishments of the master-sculptor. In spite of the striking 
similarity, nay identity among the four images, they are 
called by different names : thus, the figure on PI. I is said to 
be Kalasamhara or Kalakalamurti ; that on PL XIV, Ganga- 
dhara, that on PI. XX, Chandrasekhara or Somadhari ; and 
lastly ; that on PI, XVI, Prameswara Swami [sic). It is not 
quite clear either from the dhydna-slokds quoted or from the 
short descriptive notes added to each if the identifications are 
justifiable at all. 

292 



KANKALAMURTI AND BHIK- 
SHATANAMURTI. 



KANKALAMUETI. 
Once upon a time the great rishis, desirous of 
learning as to who was the real author of this 
Universe went to the top of the mountain Meru 
and put Brahma, who was seated thereon, the 
question which was engaging their thought. In 
his vanity, forgetting the real creator, he boasted 
that he himself was the great Architect of the 
Universe. Meanwhile, §iva appeared on the scene 
and justly claimed the place for himself. Though 
his own position was reasonably defended by Siva, 
Brahma would not yield ; the Vedas and the 
Pranava (the sacred syllable Otti) also interceded 
on behalf of Siva in vain. At last, through the 
will of Siva, there appeared near by a huge pillar 
of illumination, which demonstrated the greatness 
of [Siva, but Brahma remained still obstinate. 
Incensed with anger at the thoughtless conduct of 
Brahma, Siva ordered Bhairava to cut off that one 
out of the five heads of Brahma, which reviled 
him. Brahma suffered temporary death, but, soon 
revived by the power of his austerities, accepted 

295 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

the superiority of 6iva. However, the sin of having 
killed Brahma (the major sin called hrahmahatya) 
possessed Bhairava (a form of Siva). Bhairava 
requested Brahma to suggest to him some penance 
to get rid of this sin ; Brahma advised him to beg 
food in the skull of the head cut by him till he met 
Vishnu who would devise means for wiping off 
the sin. Till then, said Brahma, the sin would 
assume the form of a woman and be ever pursuing 
him. Bhairava surrounded by a host of bhutas 
(goblins) went from place to place begging for food. 
All the women of the houses he visited fell in love 
with him and set out, singing and dancing, to 
accompany him. Last of all he reached the abode 
of Vishnu and attempted to enter it, but Vishvak- 
sena, the gate-keeper, would not allow him to 
enter. A fight ensued in which Vishvaksena was 
killed and added one more sin of brahmahatya. 
Bhairava, fixing the body of the gate-keeper of 
Vishnu on his trident, got into the interior of 
Vishnu's mansion and begged for food. Vishnu 
cut open an artery on the forehead of Bhairava and 
told him that the blood that flowed from it was the 
fittest food for him. Bhairava next requested 
Vishnu to assist him in washing off his sin. Vishnu 
pleaded on behalf of Bhairava to the personified 
female form of Brahmahatya to quit him but she 

296 



kankAlamubti. 

would not leave him. However, the thought occur- 
red to Vishnu that if Bhairava went to Varariasi 
the sin would leave him off and he advised him 
to go to this sacred place for being freed from his 
sins. Dancing with joy Bhairava wended his way 
to Varanasi (or Kasi) with the body of Vishvaksena 
and as soon as he reached that place, the sin left 
him and plunged into the nether world. The skull 
of Brahma and the dead body of Vishvaksena also 
left him and he once again became pure Mahesvara 
and returned to Kailasa. Vishvaksena was restored 
to life and he joined Vishnu's service as usual. 
Such, in short, is the account we meet with in the 
hurma-purdna regarding the bearing of the skull 
and the dry bones QcanJcala) of Vishvaksena by 
Siva and also regarding his begging expedition. 
There is a confusion here about Siva and a parti- 
cular aspect of his, Bhairava ; also the sin of the 
slaughter of Vishvaksena is imposed upon the 
shoulders of Siva which were already groaning under 
that of the cutting off of the head of Brahma. 

The reason for Siva having begged so is 
revealed by a study of the Dharma-Sastras. It is 
therein laid down that if a Brahmana happens to 
kill another of great learning and good conduct (such 
a learned person is called a bhruna), the sin could 
be expiated by following the course of conduct 

297 

38 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY 

prescribed thus : the sinner should, with his own 
hands, erect for himself a hut in the forest, hoist on 
it as a flag the head of the man he killed 'and live 
therein, having for his upper garment the skin of a 
horse or an ass, which he should wear with the 
hairy side appearing outside. His underwear should 
be made of threads of the hemp and when worn 
it should not descend below the knee. Carrying 
a skull in one hand, as his begging bowl and 
one of the long bones of the arm (Jchatvanga) 
of the deceased as a stick he should start out 
begging for his food saying " who is there who 
would feed the murderer of a bhruna." He should 
not visit more than seven houses for making his 
living and if any day he does not succeed in getting 
food from them, he should go without it that day. 
He should take his food and drink from this skull. 
At home in his hut, he should observe the vow of 
silence and be contemplating upon the sin commit- 
ted. He may undertake to tend the cows belonging 
to a Brahmana village and on that account and 
on account of receiving food alone he can enter the 
village. At other times he should conduct himself 
like one belonging to one of the classes considered 
to be untouchable. While walking on a public way 
if he meets an Arya on the road he should, like a 
pig, move away to the very edge of the road, leaving 

298 



kankAlamurti. 

it clear for the Arya to go by. Thus should he 
spend twelve years only to absolve himself from 
the sin and no more ; from the day he committed 
the murder he ceases to be fit for the society of the 
Aryas ; by this course of conduct alone, he wipes 
off the sin and prepares himself for a better birth 
in the future. If, however, the life prescribed above 
in the Dharmasastra is unendurable, he may end it 
in one or other of the following ways. In those 
days, there were cattle-raids committed often for 
political reasons.* He may fight against the raiders 
and suffer death in their hands ; or, if he is unfortu- 
nately successful in his attempt at driving away 
the raiders, he may still attempt on future occa- 
sions with a view to die in the same cause. If 
thrice he comes out successful in repelling the 
cattle-raiders, he is absolved from the sin. Or, he 

* War is divided into two classes in Tamil literature, 
namely, ara-ppor and mara-ppdr, that is, righteous or dharma- 
yuddha and unrighteous or adharma-yuddha. In declaring 
a righteous war against an enemy king, notice is given to good 
men and women, children, mendicants and ascetics, and cows 
to quit the place which is to be attacked. Since cows cannot 
be intimated the intentions of the invading king, they are 
carried away by the army of the invader preparatory to 
war and this act is considered sufficient notice to all the others 
to leave the place as early as practicable. In the mara-ppdr 
no such notice is given. 

299 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

might get into the thick of a battle seeking to be 
shot dead ; it then becomes, the Dharma-sastra says, 
incumbent on the soldiers to. kill this murderer of a 
hhruna. Such, in short, is the punishment meted 
out to the brahmana murderer of a learned 
brahmana.* 

* ^° — 3TST g^iTfT^^^q' ?^r^ ^ ^it#T "TftTni g^^^:- 

^toJTTMT^T^ =qT^f^ ^j|iftsggRrr STgSTTT^^r =? m^ sot: 

3^wr %?: 2r^ ^^f^^^^^i 1%^: a^frtrHr4 w^ 

14 "TR^^ If cftTH "THSr^uiiiq^A^Dt ^ft^JTiTf^ cf t^ 

Apasfi. Dbarma-sutra, Haradatta's Gomm. 1st Prasna, 
lOth Patala, 29lih. Khandika. 

firi^ll 

Ap. Dh. Su.. Har. Com. I, 10, 29. 

^«Ti°iins<4i — ^fc#i% g^^^ra 7^?^ ^ m§ii 

^r^ftrd «^ ^nE^r g' ^raitrt^^^: ^^t^p^h: ^s^imiRdw 

^^^: I ^^ f^JTRRf^r^: i 

Apastambha-Dharaia-sutra, with Haradattacbarya'a 

300 



KANKALAMtJETI. 

Now, the Puranas and other authorities are 
one in asserting that Siva cut off the head of 
Brahma, the most learned of all beings in the 
Vedas and ^astras and hence a veritable bhruna of 
bhrunas. The sin of brahmahatya stuck, at it ought, 
to him and he underwent the course of conduct 
prescribed for a bhrunaghna (murderer of bhruna). 
With the skull for his drinking and eating vessel, 
with bones for his staves, he went about begging for 
food and, be it noted, he went to the seven houses 
of the seven great rishis and also he never lived in 
any town or village, but made the burning ground 
outside the village his abode. From all accounts 
about Siva found recorded in the ancient literature 
we see that the course of conduct followed by Siva 
was exactly that prescribed, in the early Dharma- 
kastra», to a bhrunaghna. Having committed the 
murder of Brahma, the best of brahmanas, it is to 
be conjectured that Siva should have become unfit 
for the society of the Aryas ; if so, the question 
arises whether it was this disqualification on the 
part of ^iva that made him hateable to the 

commentary on it named Ujjvala, 1st Prasna, 
9th Fatala, 24th Khaiidika. 
Cf. Manu Smriti, XI, 72—86, Gautama, XXII, 2—10, 
Kurma-Puraiia, XXXtb chapter end. 

301 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

Aryas, as he is said to have been in the earlier 
literature (See the Introductory chapter). 

There is another slightly different account con- 
cerning the act of begging for food associated with 
Siva and this account serves only the purpose of 
explaining why, in his aspect known as the Bhiksha- 
tanamurti, he is seen stark naked when going out 
abegging. The Lingapurana states that in the 
forest of Daruvana even women and children took 
to the performance of austerities and forgot the 
worldly ways of living (pravritti-marga). To make 
them feel the need also of the worldly ways, Siva 
started out to beg in their quarters ; for this purpose, 
he became a black, ugly looking being and naked he 
went into their midst. The appearance of this 
notable figure drew the attention of all the inhabit- 
ants of the Daruvana and through his maya the 
residents of this forest took to all sorts of bad ways 
of this world. Angered by the bad example set up 
by the new comer, the rishis cursed him, but, 
instead of being affected by it, he disappeared. The 
rishis became aware that the intruder was no other 
than Siva and repented their inability to have 
offered him worship when they had the good for- 
tune to have in their midst his human embodiment. 
Brahma advised them to worship his ling a studi- 
ously if they desired to see him in person once 

302 



KANKALAMUETI. 

again. They followed his advice and were rewarded 
for their devotion by Siva appearing before them 
once again and blessing them. 

The images of the Kankalamurti and the 
Bhikshatanamurti are generally found in almost all 
Siva temples of importance throughout Southern 
India and all the Saivagamas contain more or less 
detailed descriptions of these images. The Am§u- 
madhheda, the Kamiha and the Karana agamas, 
as also the Silparatna describe them as follows : — 

The figure of the Kankalamurti should be a 
standing one, with the left leg 

Kankalamurti. 

planted firmly on the ground and 
thelright slightly bent and kept a bit forward suggest- 
ing that the figure is in the act of moving. The 
colour of the body of Siva in this aspect is pure white. 
He should be wearing red-coloured upper gar- 
ments while his under-wear should be composed 
of silk and tiger's [skin. The head should be 
ornamented with the jatamaJcuta ; on the left side, 
it should be adorned with a few durdhura {dhatura) 
flowers and a snake and on the right with the 
crescent moon. His face should be beautiful and 
beaming with the feeling of happiness, smiling and 
singing sweet songs. The pearly teeth of Siva should 
be half visible and the ears adorned both with ordin- 
ary Jcun^alas or with a mahara-Jcun^ala in the right 

303 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHT. 

ear and a §anlchapatra in the left one. There should 
be the yajnopavlta on his chest. Of the four hands, 
the front right one should keep the bdna — here the 
term bana seems to mean a short resined stick 
used in exciting the membrane of a sort of drum, — 
while the front left one should keep a drum known 
by the name of dhakJca. The back right arm 
should be stretched out and its hand held in the 
JcataJca pose near the mouth of his pet animal, the 
deer; and in the back left hand should be the 
Ttankala-danda or the stafi on which the bones of 
the arms and the legs of the murdered person are 
tied up together by a rope and ornamented with 
the feathers of the peacock and a banner. The 
bones should be dry and of blackish colour and be 
free of flesh ; but there should be traces of blood 
on them and on the small jingling bells tied to the 
staff. This kankaladanda should be placed horizon- 
tally on the left shoulder, one end being held, as 
already noticed, by the back left hand. In the 
girdle round the loins of Siva there should be tucked 
up a dagger made of gold, with a silver handle ; he 
should be wearing a pair of wooden sandals on his 
feet and the whole of this curious get-up should be 
finished with a number of snake ornaments distri- 
buted all over the body. The Kankalamurti should 
be surrounded by a number of women and the 

304 



KANKALAMUETI. 

bhutaganas (goblins) represented variously as dan- 
cing, singing and in other attitudes ; one of the 
bhutas should carry on his head a large vessel for 
storing in the food received in alms and be situated 
on the left of Siva. Of the women who surround 
Siva some should appear to be completely possessed 
of irrepressible love for him, some eager to embrace 
him, some others blessing him, while still others 
serving in his vessel food ladled out from another 
with a spoon. Out of lust for Siva the clothes of the 
women should appear slipping down their loips. 
There should also be hosts of rishis, devas, gandhar- 
vas, siddhas and vidyadharas everywhere around 
Siva, with arms crossed on the chest in the anjali 
pose. The god Vayu should sweep the streets before 
Siva, Varuna should sprinkle them with water, the 
other dMvas should shower flowers on him, the rishis 
should praise him by repeating the Vedas, Siirya 
and Chandra should carry umbrellas over his head 
and the celestial musicians Narada and Tumburu 
should sing songs to the accompaniment of musical 
instruments. The height of the women who are 
keeping company with Siva may be that of the chin, 
chest or the navel of Siva ; the height of the hhutas 
should be equal to three or three and a half times 
the length of the face of Siva and they should be 
shaped according the pancha-tala measure. 

305 

39 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

In the case of the image of the Bhikshatana- 
BMksiiatana- ^^rti, the general posture of Siva 
^^^^- is the same as in the Kankalamurti 

aspect ; that is, the left leg standing firmly on the 
ground and the right slightly bent suggesting 
walking. The front right hand and the back left 
are held as in the case of the Kankalamurti, 
whereas the front left hand should carry a Jcapala 
and the back right one a damaru. The head may 
have the jatas dishevelled (jatabhdra) or arranged 
in the form of a circle (jatamandala) with the 
crescent moon in it. The forehead should be 
adorned with a patta or ornamented band ; there 
should also be the other ornaments all over the 
body. But there should be no kind of clothing on 
the person of Siva, not even the waist zone. In- 
stead of this latter there should be a snake tied 
round the waist ; besides this, there should be other 
snake ornaments in appropriate places on the person 
of Siva. On the chest is to be seen a white 
yajnopdvlta. The neck of Siva should be of blue 
colour and his forehead should be beautified with 
the tripundra mark. In this aspect he should not 
carry the kankdla-danda, but in its place there 
should be the kula decorated with a lot of peacock- 
feathers. There should be a pair of wooden 
sandals on his feet ; sometimes it might be omitted 

306 



KANKALAMtETI. 

also. The hand that bears the Jcapala should be 
lifted as high as the navel, whereas the one that 
carries the damaru should be raised as far as the 
ear and the distance between the wrist of this arm 
from the ear is to be sixteen angulas. As usual, 
Siva should possess in these two aspects three eyes. 
The rest of the description of the Bhikshatanamurti 
is identical with that given already under the 
Kankalamurti. 

The Swprahhedagama adds that the JcapUla 
held by Siva is that of Brahma and the Jcankala 
that of Vishnu ; herein the Pauranic story of the 
murder by Siva of both Brahma and Vishvaksena, 
an aspect of Vishnu, is accepted and followed. 

A number of photographs are reproduced in 
illustration of the Kankalamurti and the Biksha- 
tanamurti ; unfortunately all of them belong to 
South India, a fact which seems to point out that 
these two aspects of ^iva were more favoured by 
the Southern people than the Northerners, who 
worshipped the equally naked Bhairava more 
freely instead. All the images of the Kankala- 
murti as also those of the Bhikshatanamurti are 
practically similar to one another, and it will 
therefore be sufficient to give the description of any 
one of each aspect. 

307 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

On the whole eleven photographs are repro- 
duced in illustration of the descriptions of the 
Bhikshatana and the Kankalamurtis (Pis. LXXXII 
— LXXXIX). Of these, five are of Bhikshatana 
and five of Kankalamurti ; and the remaining one 
may be taken either as the one or the other, 
because it does not conform strictly to the descrip- 
tion of either. It might be noticed that the left 
back hand of all the bronze images of the Bhiksha- 
tana and the Kankalamurtis are held in the TcataTia 
pose ; they are so held as to permit of being inserted 
in them a separately cast hmikaladanda or a sikhi- 
pinchha, if necessary. The dead body of Vishvaksena 
is clearly visible in the photographs of the Kankala- 
murti images in temples of Nagesvarasvamin, Tiru- 
chchengattangudi and Suchindram. The pet deer of 
^iva is seen with all the stone representations of the 
Kankala and the Bhikshatanamurtis given here, 
but have been left off while the photographs of some 
of the bronze figures were taken. The sculpture 
belonging to the Kailasanathasvamin temple at 
Conjeevaram has only two arms, in one of which 
is a sikhipincha and the other keeps an akshamala 
and is held in the chinmudra pose ; it is doubtful 
if it is wearing any clothes and it has no jatamaJcuta 
on its head ; and from the general appearance it is 
to be inferred to be a Bhikshatanamurti rather 

308 



PLATE LXXXll, 




Kankalamurti : Stone : Darasuram. 



fTo face page 308] 



PLATE LXXXIII. 



p-- 







Kankalamurfci : Bronze : Tenkasi. 



[To face page 308] 



PLATE LXXXIV. 




Kankalamurti : Stone : Suohindram. 



[To face page 308] 



PLATE LXXXV, 




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[To face p^e 303] 



PLATE LXXXVI. 





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[To face page 



PLATE LXXXVll. 



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[To face page 309] 



PLATE LXXXvm. 




Bhikshatanamurti : Bronze : Valuvur. 



[To face page 309] 



PLATE LXXXIX. 







BhikshatanamurtL : Bronze: Panda^anallur. 



[To face page 309] 



KASKALAMtJETI. 

than the Kankalamurti. The cut of the face of the 
image of Bhikshatanamurti of Valuvur is in strik- 
ing similarity with that of the image of the Vrisha- 
vahanamurti of Vedaranyam, which makes us 
beUeve that the artist {sthapati) who made these 
two images was perhaps one and the same person. 
All the images are made very well indeed, but we 
should separate from these the bronze statue of 
Bhikshatanamurti of Tiruvenkadu and the stone 
figure of the same of the Nagesvarasvamin temples 
for the special notice of the readers. Both of them 
are gems of art. The extremely easy and natural 
posture, the remarkably well-proportioned limbs, 
and the smile which the artist has eminently 
succeeded in depicting on the countenance of the 
bronze Bhikshatanamurti are noteworthy. In the 
stone image the posture and the general effect are 
splendid. One other peculiarity which is not found 
in the agamic descriptions but found in the sculp- 
ture is a tiny bell tied by a string just below the 
knee of the right leg ; it is found in the majority of 
the instances reproduced in this chapter. 



309 



OTHER IMPORTANT ASPECTS 
OF SIVA :- 
Gangadharamurti. Ardhanarisva- 
ramurti. Haryardhamurti, Kal- 
yanasundaramurti, Vrishavaha- 
namurti and Vishapaharana- 
murti. 



OTHER IMPOETANT ASPECTS OF ^IVA. 

THE king Sagara had, by his first wife Kesini, 
a son named Asamanjasa and sixty thousand 
others by the second wife Sumati. Asamanjasa was 
from his childhood a wicked man and his example 
affected the other children of Sagara and made them 
equally bad. The gods who could not bear the evil 
Gangadhara- ^ays of the SOUS of Sagara asked 
™^*^* the rishi Kapila, one of the aspects 

of Vishnu, as to what would be the fate of all the 
wicked sons of Sagara, to which the rishi replied 
that in a short time they would all perish. Sagara 
arranged for a horse-sacrifice, for which purpose 
he let loose a horse. It was stolen by Indra 
and hidden in the Pdtala-loka. Tracing the foot- 
prints of the horse the sixty thousand sons of 
Sagara excavated the earth till they reached the 
Pdtdla-ldha and there found the horse in the hermit- 
age of Kapila. These wicked sons of Sagara 
mistaking Kapila for the thief rushed on him to kill 
him. But Kapila by the power of his penance 
reduced them to ashes. Having waited long for the 

313 
40 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

return of his sons in vain, Sagara sent his grandson 
Amsumat (son of Asamanjasa) to search for the 
horse as also his uncles. He too traced his way 
into the Patala-loJca and found the horse near 
Kapila. Being, unlike his uncles and father, a well- 
behaved boy, he implored Kapila to permit him to 
take away the horse ; the rishi pleased with the boy 
gave over the horse to him, informed him of the 
fate of his uncles and conferred upon him the boon 
that they would all go to heaven in the life-time of 
his grandson. The horse-sacrifice was celebrated 
by Sagara and after sometime he passed away, The 
son of Amsumat was Dilipa and his son was Bhagi- 
ratha. The rishi Kapila had told Amsumat that if 
the water of the Gahga was sprinkled on the ashes 
of his uncles they would go to heaven. Bhagiratha 
performed severe austerities to bring down the 
celestial river Gahga ; the latter was pleased with 
Bhagiratha and asked him who could resist the 
force of her fall on earth from heaven ; if none 
could, the fall would cause the earth to be pierced 
in the middle. He replied that Eudra, the power- 
ful, would be able to bear the force of her descent 
and began to address his penances to Eudra 
for granting him the boon of receiving Ganga 
on his (Eudra's) head. Siva, being satisfied 
with the austerities of Bhagiratha, went to the 

314 



OTHER IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF SIVA. 

Himalayas to receive Ganga. At first Ganga 
thought Siva would be unable to bear her descent 
and came down in great volume and with enormous 
force. Siva, indignant at her haughty behaviour 
towards him, determined to humble her. Having 
received her on his mighty head covered with 
matted hair, ^iva made Ganga to wind through the 
labyrinth of his locks of hair for a long time before 
she was able to reach the earth. Being once again 
requested by Bhagiratha, Siva let the river Ganga 
flow down on the earth. Bhagiratha led Ganga 
to where his ancestors' ashes lay and made them 
attain heaven by the contact of the waters of the 
holy river Ganges. It is under the circumstances 
described above that ^iva came to wear on his head 
the Ganga and thence became known as Ganga- 
dharamurti. The story of the descent of Ganga 
for the sake of Bhagiratha is given in the Vishnu- 
purana, the Bh^gavata-purana and the Bamayana. 
The image of Gangadharamurti is described in 
the Am'sumadhhedd.gama, the Eamikagama and the 
Karanagama. It is stated that the figure of Siva 
should be standing with his right leg planted verti- 
cally on the earth and the left one slightly bent. 
The front right hand should be placed near the 
chin of his consort Uma, whom he should be 
embracing with his left front arm ; the back right 

315 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

arm being lifted up as high as the ushmsha or the 
crown on the head, should be holding a jata or a 
lock of rnatted hair, on which should be the figure 
of the goddess Gahga ; the back left hand should 
carry a mriga. 

On the left of Siva there should be Uma stand- 
ing in a state of mental uneasiness * which emotion 
must be portrayed on her face by the sculptor. The 
right leg of Uma should be somewhat bent, while 
the left one should be straight. Her right hand 
should be hanging down freely and the left one 
should be carrying in it a flower ; or, the right hand 
might be holding a few folds of the cloth about her 
thigh. 

On the left should be Bhagiratha in company 
with a number of rishis, praising Siva. The group 
of figures described above constitute the panel of 
Gahgadharamurti. The central figure of Siva may 
also be called Gahga-visarjanamurti. 

The following are the additional facts found in 
the KdmiJca and the Karanagamas. The figure of 
Siva should have four arms and three eyes ; of these, 
the front right hand should be in the abhaya pose 
and the front left one in the Jcataka pose. The 

* This is the feeling of jealousy due to Siva trying to 
favour another lady v^ith his attentions. 

316 



PLATE XC. 




Gangadharamurbi : Stona Panel : Elephanta, 



[To face page 317] 



OTHER IMPOETANT ASPECTS OP S'lVA. 

other two hands should be carrying the parahu and 
the mriga. The hand that touches the jata (this 
must be the one which keeps the para^u), should 
be lifted as high as the ear. The height of the 
figure of Bhagiratha should be that of the navel, 
the chest or the neck of that of Siva and it should 
be made according to the ashta-tala measurement. 
The figure of Bhagiratha should be draped with the 
garment made of barks of trees ; the matted hair of 
the head of Bhagiratha should be dishevelled and 
flowing down and he should have only two eyes 
and two arms and these latter should be held in 
the anjali pose on his chest or over his head. 

Five illustrations of the Gangadharamurti are 
given ; of these the first, PI. XC, is to be found in 
the rock-cut cave at Elephanta and is executed in 
a very admirable manner. In the centre of this 
fine panel are the figures of Siva and Uma. The 
back right hand is holding a jata from which a 
female, whose figure is broken and whose legs alone 
are visible at present, seems to be descending : 
near the end of this jata is Brahma seated upon a 
padmasana. The front right hand of Siva is kept 
in the abhaya pose. Even though the forearm of 
the back left arm is broken it is easy to find that 
it must have been directed towards the chin of 
Uma ; it is not easy to say what there was in the 

317 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

front left hand of Siva. To the left of the figure 
of Siva is seen standing that of Uma, whose left 
arm is let down hanging, while the right is bent 
and held up ; the forearm of this arm is broken ; it 
is very likely that this hand held in it a flower. 
Near the shoulder of the goddess Uma is seen 
Vishnu seated upon his vehicle, the Garuda. On 
the right and near the foot of Siva is seated Bhagi- 
ratha with flowing jatds and facing the lord Siva. 
His arms are broken ; perhaps they were in the 
anjali pose. Between Siva and Uma and to the 
left of Uma are two dwarfish ganas or attendants 
of ^iva. On the head of Siva is a triple headed 
goddess who is in all probability the triple river 
Gahga after she was joined by the Yamuna and the 
Sarasvati branches. On a level with the head of 
Siva are sculptured a number of devas, all flying in 
the air, which is shown in the conventional manner 
of a cumulus cloud. This, like the other pieces of 
sculpture in the large cave at Elephanta, is of rare 
workmanship and is remarkable for its gigantic size. 
The second photograph, PI. XCI, is that of a 
large panel sculptured on the west wall of the rock- 
cut cave at Trichinopoly. In this Siva is standing 
with his left leg placed straight upon the ground 
and the right bent and placed upon the Apasmara- 
purusha (or a gana). His back right arm is lifted 

318 



PLATE XCI. 




Gangadharamurti : Stono Panel : Trichinopoly. 



(To iince page 318] 



PLATE XCII. 





[To face page 319] 



OTHEE IMPOETANT ASPECTS OF ^IVA. 

up and bent to take hold of one jata issuing from 
his head; at the end of this jata is the river 
goddess Ganges seated with hands folded on her 
chest in the anjali pose. The front right hand 
holds a snake in it ; whereas the back left hand 
is meant to keep a mriga, which is actually shown 
at a distance from this hand ; the remaining hand 
is resting upon the hip of Siva. Bhaglratha on 
the right and another rishi on the left are holding 
up their hands in an attitude of praise. On 
either side of Siva is a deva also praising him. 
Besides these, there are some other beings also 
praising the lord. The whole panel is supported 
by an ornamental platform ; both the panel and 
the base are exquisitely carved. The age of this 
piece of sculpture is the middle of the seventh 
century and it was carried out by the order of the 
Pallava King Mahendravarman. 

The third piece of sculpture given as fig. 1, 
PI. XCII, is to be found on the south wall of the 
central shrine of the famous Kailasa temple at 
Ellora. ^iva is seen here also as letting down the 
river goddess Ganga from one of his jatas, which 
he holds with his front right hand and his back 
right one rests upon the hip. The front left arm is 
kept bent upwards as if to carry either the paraiu 
or the mriga ; the back left arm which is broken, 

319 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

was apparently near the chin of Uma. The river 
Gangii is descending upon the head of a risM seated 
with crossed legs supported by the yoga-patta, 
evidently Bhagiratha. From near him it flows to 
where the deceased Sagaras are, that is, below the 
foot of Siva; they are all sculptured as seated 
cross legged and with arms folded in the anjali 
pose. Above these Sagara-putras are sculptured an 
elephant and a horse, for what purpose, it is not 
possible to say. At the foot of Siva is a figure 
bending lowly in obeisance ; it is also perhaps that 
of Bhagiratha who expresses his gratitude to Siva 
after his ancestors reach heaven. Above and near 
the head of Siva are two or three celestial figures 
praising Siva. Near Siva and to his left stands 
Uma with one arm resting upon her hip and the 
other holding a flower. Her left leg is planted 
firmly on the ground and the right is kept bent and 
crossing the left one. 

The fourth illustration, PI. XCIII, belongs to 
the Kailasanathasvamin temple at Taramangalam 
in the Salem District of the Madras Presidency. 
It is of comparatively modern date {circa 15th 
century A. D). In this sculpture Siva is standing 
in a very solicitous attitude towards his consort 
who is angry with him for having sheltered another 
woman, Ganga. He is pacifying her with the 

320 



PLATE XCIII. 




Gangadharamurti : Stone : Taramangalam. 



iTo face page 330] 



OTHBE IMPORTANT ASPECTS OE ^IVA. 

front right hand placed near her chin ; with one 
of his left arms he is embracing her. In his back 
left hand which is kept in the Jcartari hasta pose he 
holds Ganga who is descending from a jata of his 
head ; and she is flowing down in the form of water 
and the river thus descending is swallowed by a 
bull, which is seated on the pedestal on which Siva 
and Uma are standing. In the remaining hand of 
^iva is to be seen (rather faintly in the photograph) 
the mriga. The right leg of Siva is planted firmly 
on the ground and the left one is somewhat bent ; 
the left leg of Uma is straight while the right one 
is somewhat bent. In her left hand is a flower and 
the right hand rests upon her thigh. 

The fifth illustration (fig. 'Z, PI. XCII) is that of 
a bronze belonging to the Siva temple at Vaidyes- 
varankoyil (Tanjore district) which is exactly 
similar to the sculpture of Taramangalam, just 
described. 

It is stated in the Siva-pnr&na that Brahma 

first begot a number of male beings, the Prajapatis, 

and commanded them to create various other 

Ayddhanaris- beings. They were found later 

which they were intended and Brahma, feeling 
uneasy at the slow progress of creation, contem- 
plated on Mahesvara. The latter appeared before 

321 
11 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

him in the composite form of a male-female and 
asked him to cease feeling distressed. Thitherto 
it did not occur to Brahma to create a female 
also, and at the sight of this composite form 
of Mahesvara he realised his error ; thereupon he 
prayed to the female half of Mahesvara to give him 
a female to proceed with the act of creation : 
Brahma's request was complied with and the crea- 
tion went on aferwards very well. This story 
accounts for the Arddhanarisvara form of Siva. 
The real meaning of this aspect has already been 
adverted to in the Chapter on Lingas. 

There is yet another account of the appearance 
of Siva in the Arddhanarisvara form. On a certain 
occasion when Siva was seated with his consort 
Parvati on the top of the Kailasa mountain, the 
devas and rishis went there to pay their homage 
to him. All of them except the risM Bhringi, 
went round both Siva and Parvati in their circum- 
ambulations and also bowed to both. This risJii 
had a vow of worshipping only one Being, that is, 
Siva ; in conformity with his vow, he neglected to 
go round or bow down to Parvati. Parvati grow- 
ing angry with Bhringi, desired in her mind that 
all his flesh and blood should disappear from his 
body and instantly he was reduced to a skeleton 
covered over with only the skin. In this state he 

322 



OTHEE IMPORTANT ASPECTS OE SIVA. 

was unable to support himself in an erect position. 
Seeing his pitiable plight ^iva gave him a third 
leg so as to enable him to attain equilibrium; 
Bhringi became pleased with his lord and out of 
joy danced vigorously with his three legs and 
praised Siva for his grace. The design of Parvati 
to humble Bhringi thus failed and the failure caused 
great annoyance to Parvati who returned to do 
penance for obtaining a boon from Siva. At the 
end of the penance, Siva, pleased with his consort, 
granted her wish of being united with his own body. 
Thus was the Arddhanarisvara form assumed by 
Siva, for offering difficulty to the rishi Bhringi in 
circumambulating, or bowing to Siva alone. But, 
undaunted by this impediment Bhringi assumed 
the form of a beetle pierced a hole through the 
composite body of Siva and circumambulated Siva 
alone to the great wonder and admiration of even 
Parvati, who became reconciled to his vow and 
bestowed her grace upon the pious rishi for his 
steadfastness to his vow. 

The description of the image of Arddhanar- 
isvara is given in the Amsumadbhedagama, the 
Kamikagama, the Suprabhedagama, the Silpa- 
ratna, the Karanagama and a few other works. 
As the name indicates, the form of this image 
should be half man and half woman. The right 

323 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

half is male, that is, Siva and the left half is 
female, that is, Parvati. The male half should 
have a jatamaJcuta on the head, which should be 
adorned with the crescent moon. In the right 
ear there should be the nakra-Jcundala, sarpa- 
Ttundala or an ordinary hundala and the right half 
of the forehead should have one half of an eye 
sculptured in it. The image of Arddhanarisvara 
may have two, three or four arms. If there are 
four arms, one of the right hands should be held in 
the ahhaya pose and the other should keep the 
parasu ; or one hand may be in the varada pose 
the other carrying a sula ; or there may be a ^awA;a 
in one hand, and the other may be held in the 
ahhaya pose ; or one of the arms may be somewhat 
bent and rested upon the head of his bull-vehicle 
and the other hand held in the ahhaya pose ; or 
there may be the sula and the aJishamala in the 
two right hands : if there are only two arms, the 
right one should be held in the varada pose ; or 
there may the JcapStla held by it. The whole 
of the right side should be adorned with the 
ornaments peculiar to Siva and the chest on the 
right side should be that of a man. On the right 
side the garment should cover the body below the 
loins only up to the knee and the material of the 
garment is the tiger's skin and silk. On the right 

324 



OTHER IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF SIVA. 

half of the chest there should be the naga-yajno- 
pavlta and on the loins of the same side, the 
sarpaviekhala (or girdles of snake). The whole of 
the right side should be covered with ashes. The 
right leg should be somewhat bent (or it may 
also be straight) and be resting upon apadma-pltJia. 
The right half might be terrific in appearance and 
should be of red colour. So much about the Siva 
half of Arddhanarisvara. The left or the Parvati 
half of the Arddhanarisvara image, is as described 
below. 

On the head of the female half or the left side 
there should be a karanda-mahuta or a fine knot of 
hair well-combed and divided, or both. On the 
forehead of this half a half tilaka mark, contiguous 
with the half eye of ^iva should be shown. The 
left eye should be painted with collyrium. In the 
left ear there should be a kundala known as 
vdlika* If the image of Arddhanarisvara has four 
arms, of the two left ones, one is to be bent and 
rested upon the head of the bull of Siva and the 
other kept in the kataka pose, holding a mlotpala 
in it ; or the latter may be let down hanging below. 

* This is the rendering of the Tamil word vali, which is 
the name of an ear-ornament ; such words are common in the 
Agamas, and indicates distinctly the fact that the authors of 
the bulk of the agamas were residents of the Tamil country. 

325 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

If there be only three arms in the image of 
Arddhanarisvara, there should be only one on the 
left side. This hand may keep in it either a flower, 
a mirror or a parrot and it must be adorned with 
keyura, kanJcana and other ornaments ; if, on the 
other hand, there are only two arms, the left one 
may be hanging below, or keeping in it a mirror, a 
parrot or a flower, or it may be bent and resting 
upon the head of the bull. The parrot may be 
sculptured as perching upon the wrist of Parvati. 
On the left side there should be the bosom of 
a woman with a round well-developed breast ; 
on this side of the chest and the trunk there 
should be sculptured haras, and other ornaments 
made of diamonds and other gems. The female 
half should be smeared with saffron, draped in 
multicoloured silken female cloth, covering the 
body down to the ankles ; or, the garment may 
consist merely of white silk. The garment may 
be held in position on the loins by three girdles. 
On the left ankle there should be an anklet 
and the left foot tinged red with the leaves of 
henna (Tam. Marudani). The left leg might be 
somewhat bent or stand erect upon the padmd- 
sana. The colour of the left half may either be 
parrot-green or dark, and should be of pacific 
appearance. 

326 



PLATE XCIV. 



M'**.^''-mt:^''^'^ 



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Arddhanarisvara: Stone Panel: Badami. 



[To face page 327] 



OTHEE IMPOETANT ASPECTS OE SIVA. 

Eight photographs are reproduced to illustrate 
the description of Arddhanari^vara given above. 
Of these, PI. XCIIl is of a fine panel to be found in 
the rock-cut temple atBadami. In this sculpture, 
Arddhanarisvara has four arms ; in one of the right 
hands he holds the para§u, wriggling round which 
is to be seen a snake, one of the favourite animals 
of Siva; the same arm has a sarpa-valaya round it. 
The remaining right and one of the left hands hold 
a Vina in them and play upon it. On the right 
upper arm there is a snake ornament ; there is a 
sarpa-lcundala in the right ear. On the right half 
of the head is the jatamaJcuta bearing on it the 
crescent moon, the skull and other ornaments. An 
exceedingly well wrought necklace adorns the neck. 
There is also the yafnopavlta on the chest. This 
side is draped from the loins down to the knees 
with deer's skin. The right leg is somewhat bent 
and is resting upon an ornamented platform. The 
female half has a Icaranda-makuta, a knot of hair 
with bands of jewelled ornaments running across it, 
a large number of hanikanas on each forearm and a 
well executed Jceyura ; there are melchalas or girdles 
keeping in position the silk garment which descend 
down to the ankles. On the foreleg is an anklet. 
The other left hand holds a mlotpala flower. 
The whole of the head is surrounded with a 

327 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

prabhamandala. To the left of Arddhanarisvara 
is a female attendant standing with the right arm 
hung down and the left arm bent and carrying 
in it a vessel ; she is also beautifully adorned 
with all ornaments and is draped in a fine cloth. 
Her hair is done up in a knot, dhammilla. To 
the right of the central image is the bull of Siva, 
meek and quite, with its eyes casting glances on the 
ground before it. Behind the bull is a human figure 
with a thoroughly emaciated body ; it may be 
representing either Bhairava or the rishi Bhringi. 
Its hands are held in the anjali pose. On the right 
and left of the head of the central figure are the 
representations of Devas with their consorts, flying 
in the air and praising Siva. Below the platform 
on which stands the figure of Arddhanarisvara, are 
sculptured small figures of the ganas, some dancing 
and others playing upon different musical instru- 
ments. 

The second illustration, fig. 2, PI. XCV, belongs 
to Mahabalipuram. The figure of Arddhanarisvara 
reproduced here is sculptured on the Dharmaraja- 
ratha. In this, the image has four arms ; one of 
the right hands holds a parasu and the other is kept 
in the abhaya pose. The right half is shaped male 
and the left half female ; of the two arms on the 
female half one is hanging down and the other one 

328 



PLATE XCV. 




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[To face page 328] 



OTHBE IMPOETANT ASPECTS OF ^IVA. 

bent and lifted up holding a flower. The forearm 
of this last mentioned arm has a number of brace- 
lets. In the right ear there is an ordinary small 
Jcundala while the left ear bears a big disc of a 
patra-Jcundala. 

The third illustration, fig. 1, PI. XCV, the 
original of which is to be found in the Nagesvara- 
svamin temple at Kumbhakonam, represents that 
class of the image, with the bull at the back. This 
piece of sculpture is one of the finest of the Chola 
period and is remarkable for the exactness of 
the proportions both of the male and the female 
portions of the torso and the excellence of its 
artistic effect. The figure in this instance has 
three arms, two on the right and one on the left ; 
of the right arms one is bent and placed upon the 
head of the bull and the other bent and lifted up 
carrying the para§u. The left hand keeps a mirror 
towards which the head of the image is slightly 
turned ; the left forearm bears a number of brace- 
lets. On the left the hip and the pelvis are shaped 
larger than on the right and bring out beautifully 
the relative proportions of the male and female 
pelvises. The garment on the right side does not 
descend below the knee, whereas that on the left 
side descends as far as the ankle and has a many- 
folded portion tucked up in front near the loins. 

329 



HINDU ICONOGKAPHT. 

On the whole, this is one of the many excellent 
pieces of sculpture in the Nagesvarasvamin temple. 

The fourth illustration, fig. 2, PI. XCVI, is 
exactly similar to the third and belongs to about 
the same period. The original of this is to be 
found set up in the circuit round the Siva temple 
at Tiruchchengattangudi in the Tanjore district. 

The fifth illustration is a photograph of a 
bronze preserved in the Madras Museum (see fig. 
1, PI. XCVI). It is noteworthy in some points : the 
back right arm is bent and lifted up and carries a 
parasu ; the front right hand is held in the kataJca 
pose, apparently to hold a trisula. Of the two left 
arms, the back one is bent and kept raised and 
holds in it a nllotpala flower, whereas the front 
one has on its wrist a parrot. In other details, it 
resembles the other images described above. 

The sixth illustration is entirely different from 
all the others noticed above (see PL XCVII). The 
original stone sculpture is a loose piece lying in 
the first prakdra of the Kailasanathasvamin 
temple at Conjeevaram and is as old as the middle 
of the seventh century A.D. In this, the image 
of Arddhanarisvara has three arms ; the front 
right hand is seen carrying a trisula by its lower 
end and the back one is raised up as high as 
the head and holds a cobra by its tail ; the 

330 



PLATE XCVI. 




pq 




[To face page 330] 



PLATE XCVII. 




Arddhanarisvara : Stone : Conjeevaram. 



[To face page 330] 



PLATE XCVIII. 





Arclclhanarisvava ; Stoaa : Madura. 



[To face page 331] 



OTHER IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF s'lVA. 

reptile hangs down and lifts up its hood near the 
hand holding the trihula. The left hand, that of 
the female half, holds a vlna in it ; it is bent and its 
elbow is resting upon the head of the bull upon the 
back of which the figure of Arddhanarisvara is 
seated. Nowhere in the authorities quoted in the 
beginning is it stated that the figure of this com- 
posite aspect of Siva may be a seated one and this 
particular piece of sculpture is noteworthy for its 
breach of the rule in this respect. The bull is also 
seated, an unusual attitude for this animal, especi- 
ally in the presence of its master. 

The seventh illustration, PL XCVIII, comes 
from Madura and belongs to the time of Tirumala- 
Nayaka (A. D. 17th century). In its details, it 
agrees closely with the Mahabalipuram sculpture ; 
the workmanship exhibits peculiarities which were 
common to the age to which the sculpture belongs, 
namely, a conventional mode of standing, sharp- 
pointed nose, artificial disposition of the drapery 
etc. However, it is a strikingly fine piece of work- 
manship. 

The eighth and the last illustration, fig. 3, 
PI. XCVI, is an exceedingly interesting and extra- 
ordinary piece of sculpture ; in this Arddhanarisvara 
has three faces and eight arms. The heads are 
surrounded by a prabM-man^ala and the hands 

331 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

carry in them the ahsliamdla, the Jchadga, the pasa, 
the musala (?), a Jcapala, a lotus flower and other 
objects. The right side of the figure is male and 
represents Siva and the left side is female and 
represents Parvati. In no Sanskrit work that has 
been examined do we meet with a description of 
Arddhanarisvara which agrees with the image 
whose photograph is reproduced here. 

Having described the image of Arddhanar- 
isvara it is easy to describe the figure of Haryard- 
dhamurti. Before proceeding with its description 
it is necessary to say a few words regarding the 
origin of this aspect of the deity ; it is related 
in the Vamana-purdna that Vishnu is reported to 
have said to a rishi that he and Siva were one and 
that in him resides Siva also and manifested 
himself to the rishi in this dual aspect of his. In 
the Arddhanarisvara form the left half is occupied 
by the Devi or Prakriti and Puru- 

Haryarddha- 

murti or Hari- sha and Prakriti are united with 

haramurti, 

each other for the purpose of 
generating the universe ; the same idea is, as we 
have already noticed, represented by the liiiga and 
the yoni. Uma, Durga or Devi is also considered 
to be a female aspect of Vishriu. It is necessary 
in this connection to draw the attention of the 
readers to the fact that Durga, the consort of ^iva, 

332 



OTHBB IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF SIVA. 

is represented in all sculptures with the sanJcha 
and the chaJcra, the weapons characteristic of 
Vishnu. In one instance, she is also called the 
sister of Vishnu. Vishnu is also viewed as the 
•prakriti-tfibtva and hence we see Vishnu substituted 
in the place occupied by Devi in the Arddhanar- 
isvara aspect of Siva. 

Again, it appears likely that the sculpturing of 
the Haryarddhamurti and its worship as a chief 
image in many temples came into existence after the 
conflicts between the partizans of the cults of Siva 
and Vishnu had abated and a compromise was 
arrived at, namely, that Siva is Vishnu and Vishnu 
is conversely Siva and that they are essential 
for the creation, protection and destruction of the 
Universe. It is gratifying to note that during the 
mahotsavas in the temples of Harihara, the 
vehicles, decoration and ceremonies are alternately 
those that are peculiar to ^iva and to Vishnu res- 
pectively and these festivals are attended by both 
Vaishnavas and Saivas. 

In the figure of Harihara or Haryarddhamurti, 
the description of the right half or the Saiva portion 
is exactly identical with the description given under 
Arddhanarisvara. The left half or the Vaishnava 
portion is described in the Sanskrit texts as 
follows : On the left side of Harihara there should 

333 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

be two arms, of which one should be carrying the 
chaJcra, the saiikha or the gada and the other held 
in the hataJca pose near the thigh. On the head, 
in the Vaishnava half, there should be a Jcirlta set 
with precious stones and of excellent workman- 
ship ; there should be a maliara-hundala in the left 
ear. The arms on this side should be adorned with 
heyura, Icahkana and other ornaments. On the 
right foreleg there should be an anklet shaped like 
a snake while that on the left leg should be set 
with all precious stones. The Vaishnava half is to 
be draped with a yellow silk garment. The colour 
of the Saiva half is snow-white and that of Vishnu 
either green or bluish brown. It is also stated that 
the two legs of Harihara should be kept without 
any bends in them. The right half should be 
terrific and the left half pacific. On the Saiva 
portion of the forehead the third eye of Siva must 
be half visible and behind the head of the image of 
Harihara there should be a siraschaTcra or halo. 
The Vishnudharmottara adds that to the left of 
the figure of Harihara there should be sculptured 
that of Garuda and to the right, of Nandi. 

Of the two photographs given in illustration 
of the Haryarddhamurti one, PI. XCIX, belongs to 
the panel found in the lower cave temple at 
Badami. The central figure in this panel is 

331 



PLATE XClX. 




Haryarddhamurti (or Harihara, Sankara-Narayariamurfei) : Stone Panel ; Badami. 



OTHER IMPOETANT ASPECTS OF ^IVA. 

Harihara ; a clear vertical line of demarcation bet- 
ween the jatamaJcuta of Siva and the Mrlta-makuta 
of Vishnu is visible in the head-gear. In the right 
ear is a sarpa-kundala whereas in the left one there 
is a nakrakundala. In the right back hand the 
image carries a para§u with a snake round it : and 
the back left hand keeps a sahJcha. The front 
right hand, though broken, appears from its posi- 
tion to have been held in the abhaya pose : 
the corresponding left hand is resting upon the 
thigh. There is a kirakchakra surrounding the 
crown of the head and the legs stand straight. On 
the right and left are two goddesses, evidently 
Parvati and Lakshmi, the consorts respectively of 
Siva and Vishnu. Between Parvati and Harihara 
is a short figure of the bull-faced Nandi carrying in 
his right hand a danda ; and on the left between 
Lakshmi and Harihara is a dwarfish figure of 
Garuda. Below the panel and in a long horizontal 
niche in the platform, over which the figures of 
Harihara and others stand, are carved a number 
of ganas, some playing .upon musical instruments 
and others dancing. 

On the top of the panel and on both sides of 
the head of Harihara are shown two celestial 
beings with their wives as flying in the air and 
carrying in their hands a flower garland each. 

335 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

The second photograph, PI. C, is that of a 
beautiful image of the Chalukya period preserved 
in the Office of the Superintendent of Archseology, 
Western Circle. In all details regarding the orna- 
ments and dress this is not different from the first. 
In this sculpture the hands in the Saiva half carry 
the trikula and the aksliam^la^ whereas those on 
the Vaishnava half keep the gada and perhaps a 
hankha, (this hand is broken and hence the object 
carried cannot be correctly guessed). As in the 
previous illustration here also there are the two 
devls, Parvati and Lakshmi each one carrying a 
fruit and a flower in the two hands. Garuda is 
kneeling on the left and Nandi, here represented 
wholly in the form of a bull, is standing on the 
right. The sculpturing of this image is excellent ; 
great credit is due to the sculptor for the remark- 
ably minute carving of the ornaments. At the back 
of the central figure is a prabh^vali. Even here 
distinction is shown between the Saiva and 
Vaishnava halves, the right half being an ordinary 
prabhavali and, the left being one-half of an 
expanded hood of a five-headed snake ; but on 
the top of the prabhavali the central figure is the 
face of a lion. On the right and near the blades 
of the trikula might be observed the figure of 
Brahma seated crosslegged, with hands in the usual 

336 



PLATE C. 




Haribara : Stone : Foona. 



[To face page 336] 



OTHEE IMPOETANT ASPECTS OF SIVA. 

poses and carrying the objects characteristic of 

this deity. 

Sati, the daughter of Daksha and the consort 

of Siva was dead. The asura, Taraka, was offering 

great annoyance to the devas and brahmanas and 

could not be disposed of by any one but by one born 

of Siva. In the absence of a wife Siva can have 

no progeny and the gods became interested in the 

Kaiyan a a u n- carriage of Siva. Sati was already 
daramurti. ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ g^^ ^f ^^^ Himalaya 

(Himavan) as Parvati and was herself performing 
austerities to be joined to her lord once again. It 
was at such a moment that, induced by the devas, 
Kama the god of love, tried his artifices upon ^iva 
and met with his end. But when once the mind of 
Siva was disturbed he could not at once gather his 
mental determination and he yielded to the prayers 
of the gods ; he resolved to enter marital life. He 
wanted to try the steadfastness of Parvati. The 
Varaha-purana is alone in giving the following 
account of how he tested it. biva assuming the 
form of an old, decrepit brahmana, approached 
Parvati, who was absorbed in her austerities, and 
begged to be supplied with food, as he was feeling 
very hungry. Parvati was pleased to ask him to finish 
his bath and other ablutions and come for meals. 
The old man went to the river very near the 

337 
43 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

hermitage of Parvati and as soon as he got down 
into the water contrived to be caught by a crocodile. 
He called out to Parvati for help. Pravati came 
to the riverside, but she could not stretch her arm, 
which was never meant to be held by others than 
that of her lord, Siva, even in helping others. 
Perplexed with this feeling she was standing still 
for some moments but the danger of the guest 
being swallowed by the crocodile very soon became 
patent to her and she was obliged to give up her 
vow of not being touched by a hand other than 
that of Siva; she stretched out her arm and 
took hold of that of the old brahmana and pulled 
him out of the water and the crocodile also left 
him. Pleased with Parvati, Siva showed his 
real self to her and she was immensely gratified 
with her lord for having saved her from being held 
up to obloquy for having caught hold of a hand 
other than that of Siva. She dedicated herself to 
Siva and the regular marriage was celebrated later 
on. The details of the celebration and the descrip- 
tion of the images of the gods and goddesses that 
are to be represented as having taken part in it are 
found in the Agamas. 

In the composition of the scene of the marriage 
of Parvati with Siva there should be Siva and 
Parvati forming the central figures facing the east. 

338 



OTHEE TMPOETANT A8PB0T8 OF SIVA. 

Vishnu and his consorts Lakshmi and Bhumi as 
the givers — acting the parts of the parents in a 
brahmana marriage— of the bride should be there; 
of these Lakshmi and Bhumi should be standing 
behind the back of the bride, touching her at the 
waist indicative of handing her over to her lord ; 
and Vishnu should be standing in the back-ground, 
between Siva and Parvati with a golden pot of 
water ready to pour it in the ceremony of giving 
the bride to the bridegroom ; then, there should 
be Brahma in the foreground, seated and perform- 
ing the ceremony of hdma or making offerings to 
the fire. In the back-ground and at various dis- 
tances should be seen the eight Vidyehvaras (or the 
lords of learning), AshtadikpalaJcas (or the guar- 
dians of the eight quarters), Siddhas (persons who 
have attained the eight great powers), YaJcshas 
(semi-divine beings), rishis (sages), Gandharvas 
(another class of semi-divine beings), the Matrihas 
(or the seven mothers) and a host of other gods, 
with their respective goddesses, all of them standing 
with arms folded in the anjali pose, and with the 
feelings of pleasure, happiness and wonder portrayed 
in their faces. Such are the details of the general 
composition of this remarkable scene and the indivi- 
dual figures are described in detail as follows : — 
§iva should be sculptured as standing firmly 

339 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

on the left leg aad with the right one resting upon 

the ground somewhat bent ; or, the left leg niay be 

represented as slightly bent and the right straight 

and standing firmly on the ground. The front 

right arm should be stretched out to receive the 

right arm of the bride, Parvati ; the front left hand 

should be held in the varada pose. In the back 

right hand there should be the parasu and in the 

back left one the mriga. There should be three 

bends in the body of Siva, that is, should be of the 

trihhahga posture. The head of Siva should be 

adorned with a jatamahuta with the crescent moon 

tucked up in it, and all other parts of the body, with 

their appropriate ornaments such as the hara, the 

keyura, the udarabandha and the waist zone. The 

snake Vasuki should serve Siva as the sarpa-Jcun- 

dala, Takshaka as the waist band and Pushkara as 

the h^ra. The figure of Siva should be that of a 

young man who has just come to age. The colour 

of Siva should be red. As usual Siva should have 

three eyes. 

To the left of the figure of Siva * should be 
standing that of Parvati, of dark complexion, with 

* Soma authorities state that Parvati should be standing 
to the right of Siva and there are sculptures representing 
Parvati as standing both on the right and on the left sides of 
Siva. 

340 



OTHER IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF s'lVA. 

her right arm stretched out to receive that of ^iva, 
in the act of panigrahana (the ceremony of taking 
hold of the hands) and with her left hand keeping 
a nllotpala. Her head should be slightly bent down 
in shyness and her person should be adorned with 
all ornaments appropriate for the occasion. The 
figure of Parvati should be as high as the eye, the 
chin, the shoulder or the chest of Siva and she 
should be represented as a well-developed youthful 
maiden, with two eyes and two arms and draped in 
silk garments. 

In front of Siva and seated on the ground 
should be the figure of Brahma doing hdma or 
making offerings to the fire. The figure of Brahma 
should be as high as the chest of Siva. The 
Purva-Kdranagama gives numerical proportions 
for the height of the figures of Brahma and Vishnu. 
It is therein stated that the height of Vishnu might 
be seven-twelfths, eleven-twelfths, three-fourths or 
two-thirds of the height of Siva and that the height 
of Brahma either equal to or one-sixth, one-seventh 
or one-eighth less than that of Vishnu. 

Brahma must be seated upon a padmdsana 
facing the north, with, in front of him, a kunda in 
which the fire is burning with tapering flames. As 
usual he should be represented with four faces, four 
arms and as being busy with the performance of 

311 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

the homa ceremony. He should be adorned with 
a jatamakuta and the body with a yajnopavlta, a 
girdle made of munja grass, and all other ornaments; 
he should wear an upper cloth. In his front right 
and left hands he should hold the sruva and sruk 
respectively, and in the back right and left hands 
there should be the aJcshamala and the Jcamandalu 
respectively. The colour of Brahma should be red 
like the fire. 

The size of the sacrificial hunda is then given 
as follows : the hunda should have three mekhalas 
(broad tiers going round the central pit in which 
the fire is kindled) each of twelve aiigulas in width 
and the extreme length of the whole hunda includ- 
ing the rrnhhalas being 22 ahgulas. In the pit of 
the hunda, the fire should be shown as possessing 
seven or five jvalas or tongues of flame which ought 
to be a fourth of the height of Brahma ; and the 
breadth of the flames of fire must be half their 
height. The ahgula mentioned here is the deha- 
lahdha-ahgula of the central figure of Siva. 

On the north of homa-hunda should be standing 
the figure of Vishnu, whose height should come up 
to that of the nose, shoulder or chest of Siva. If it 
is as high as the nose, it is said to be a nttama 
figure ; if as high as the chest, adhama. Dividing 
the distance between the nose and the chest into 

342 



OTHER IMPOETANT ASPECTS OF SIVA, 

eight equal divisions, we shall get the nine classes, 
composed of the uttama, madhyama and adhama 
forms of Vishnu, that is, uttamottama, uttama- 
madhyama, uttamadhama and so forth. Vishnu 
should be adorned with a Mrlta-makuta on his 
head and all other ornaments in their proper 
places. In the back right and left hands he should 
bear the chaJcra and the sanJcha, while the front 
right or left hands should carry a golden pot, held 
ready for pouring water from in the act of giving 
the bride Parvati to the bridegroom §iva. The 
colour of Vishnu should be, as usual, dark. 

The figure of Lakshmi is required to be as 
high as the chin or the shoulder of Vishnu, with 
arms resembling the trunk of an elephant adorned 
with keyiiras, JcaiiJcanas and other ornaments. The 
hip of Lakshmi should be broad and graceful and 
she should be draped in richly embroidered silk 
cloth. 

Such are the descriptions of the individual 
figures composing the picture depicting the favourite 
theme of the Indian artist, as given in the 
Am^umadbhedagama,'^ Uttara-kdmiJcagama and the 
Purva-Kdbranagama. Let me now turn to the 
descriptions of the actual sculptures found in the 
various parts of India, whose photographs are 
reproduced on Pis. CI to CVII. 

343 



HINDU ICONOGRAPHY. 

Seven photographs are given in illustration 
of the marriage scene of Siva with Parvati ; 
the original sculptures are of varying degrees of 
complexity and consist in one instance of barely 
Siva and Parvati standing hand in hand, while in 
others with all the divinities surrounding them and 
each doing a duty in connection with the marriage. 
Let me therefore describe each of them separately. 

The first photograph, PI. CI, is that of the 
bronze images of Siva and Parvati in the act of 
taking hold of each other's hand in marriage. The 
original image of Siva is nearly three feet in height 
and has four arms and three eyes. The front right 
hand is held out to receive that of Parvati, while 
the back right one carries a parasu with its head 
turned away from the face of Siva. The front left 
hand is held in the abhaya pose and the back left 
one carries a viriga. The right leg of the image of 
Siva is placed firmly on the ground and the left one 
is slightly bent and is resting upon the ground. 
There are two bends (dvibhanga) in this image. 
On the head of this image is a jatamahuta adorned 
with very nicely executed ornaments ; the Jiara and 
the yajnopavUa, the keyura and the katahas the 
udarahandlia and the katibandha — all these are 
also artistically made. The image is apparently 
draped in tiger's skin and on the feet are the 

344 



PLATE CI. 




Kalyanasundaramurti : Bronze : Tiruvorriyur. 



[To face page 314] 



Plate cii 




Kalyaaasundaramurti : Stoua Panel : Ratanpur (Bilaspur District). 



OTHER IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF SIVA. 

anklets. The figure is standing upon a padmasana. 

The image of Parvati, with its face slightly bent 

down in shyness, stands by the right side of that 

of Siva, with the right arm stretched out to receive 

that of §iva, while the left hand is kept in the 

kataka pose. On the head of Parvati is a Jcaranda- 

,makuta and her person is adorned with a large 

number of ornaments of good workmanship ; she 

wears an exquisitely embroidered cloth which 

descends in flowing folds on either side and is held 

on the loin by mekhalas (a kind of belt). The 

figure of Parvati is also standing on a 'padmcLsana 

with two bends in its body. This piece of sculpture 

appears to belong to the early Chola period (A. D. 

1000-1100). 

The second sculpture whose photograph is 
reproduced on PL CII, comes from Eatanpur in 
the B'laspur district of the Central Provinces. In 
this panel Siva stands with his front right hand 
stretched out to receive that of Parvati, who in this 
instance alone, stands to the left of Siva. His 
front left hand rests upon the right shoulder of 
Parvati. In the back hands he carries perhaps the 
sula and the damaru. Brahma is seen seated 
before the fire, on the right of Siva and is busy in 
making fire-offerings ; the fire is burning in a cup 
placed in front of him. Near ih.e\kunda or cup of 

345 

44 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

fire stands the bull of §iva. Surrounding the 
central figures of ^iva and Parvati are a large 
number of gods and goddesses, several in the anjali 
attitude and some with their arms resting upon 
their hips (Jcatyavalambita). 

The next illustration, CIII, is to be found in 
the Cave temple at Elephanta. It is a remarkably 
well-executed panel, but very unfortunately here 
and there mutilated. But what remains is suffi- 
cient to disclose the master-hand of the artist who 
sculptured this most interesting scene. Siva is 
standing with Parvati to his right ; his front right 
hand is as usual stretched out to receive that of 
Parvati. The figure of Parvati is of striking 
beauty ; her slightly bent head and down-cast look 
depict an amount of shyness : her narrow waist 
and the broad hip, the well-formed bosom and the 
easy posture of the legs all lend a charm to the 
figure which is all its own. Brahma is making 
homa to the left of Siva and Lakshmi is seen 
standing behind Parvati with her hands touching 
her back and behind Lakshmi stands her consort 
Vishnu with a large pot of water for pouring water 
at the ceremony of giving the bride to the bride- 
groom. The figure of a very well built man is to 
be seen standing behind Parvati with his right 
hand bent and resting upon the right shoulder of 

346 



H.ATE cm. 




Kalyanasundaramurti : Scona Panel : Elephanta. 



PLATE CIV. 




Kalyanasundaramurti : Stone Panel : EUora. 



[To face page 347] 



OTHER IMPORTANT ASPECTS 01 SIVA. 

Parvati. From the size of the figure and from the 
fact that it has only two arms, as also from a sort 
of inferior head-gear, one may presume it repre- 
sents Parvataraja, the father of Parvati. If that 
is he, it is indeed noteworthy to find him in the 
panel. Below the right hand of this figure is a 
large drum, also very well-carved. A number of 
gods with their respective goddesses are seen in 
the air in the attitude of flying and praising the 
married couple. In point of size also this panel is 
most remarkable ; the height of the figure of Parvati 
is 8 feet and 6 inches and the panel itself measures 
approximately lOf feet square. 

The photograph reproduced on PI. CIV is of 
the panel found in the Dhumar Lena Cave at 
EUora. In its details the panel is exactly similar 
to that of the Blephanta Cave, though its work- 
manship has not got the latter 's fineness and 
artistic finish. 

The large panel whose photograph is given on 
PL CV belongs to the Cave temple of Rames- 
vara at Bllora. It is divided into three sections, 
the two on the left are depicting scenes from the 
marriage of Parvati with Siva. In the extreme 
left section and at its right end is seen Parvati 
standing erect on the mountain between two fires, 
performing penance to obtain the hand of ^iva in 

347 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

marriage. Her left hand rests upon her thigh, while 
the right one is counting the beads of an ahshamala. 
To her left stands a woman carrying a box ; a male 
figure, with outstretched right hand as though 
asking for something from Parvati, is seen standing 
to the left of the tall girl with the box in her 
hand. It is the figure of §iva as a hungry beggar 
asking for food. A little to the left, the scene 
changes : the beggar, who was asked by Parvati, 
according to the VardJia-purana, to go to the river 
to bathe and return for meals, is in knee deep 
water, the surface of which is covered with lotus 
flowers and leaves ; his left leg is caught hold of 
by a makara and he is calling out for help. Par- 
vati who repairs to the spot to see what has become 
of her guest, sees him in this miserable plight ; 
after hesitating for a moment if she should now 
offer her hand or not to this beggar, and with 
great reluctance, tries at last to lift him up with 
her left hand — note, she keeps her right one far 
away from the man and held in the vismaya pose. 
To save her from the tongue of slander 6iva 
appears to her in his real person, represented in 
the panel, just above the head of the beggar. 
His jata-makuta and other ornaments readily 
proclaim his identity. It should be noted here 
that water, fire and mountain are represented 

348 



OTHER IMPORTANT ASPECTS OE ^IVA. 

in the conventional manner described elsewhere. 
Proceeding then to the next scene, that of the 
actual marriage ceremony, which is depicted in 
the middle section of the panel, it is seen that 
Parvati, standing to the right of Siva is offering 
her right hand to him, who receives the same in 
his right hand. At the background and between 
the bride and bridegroom is Vishnu standing 
with a pot of water ready to pour in the hands 
of ^iva, in making the gift of the bride. Lakshmi's 
face is seen behind the head of the bride and she is 
standing behind Parvati and presenting her to her 
lord, Siva. Behind the bride are two female attend- 
ants, one of them carrying a box and behind the 
bridegroom are two devas and a gana, the latter 
being easily recognised by his size and head-gear. 
Brahma, assisted by a rishi, is seen performing the 
fire-ofifering {homo). The strangest thing in the 
panel is the anachronistic presence of Ganesa 
and Karttikeya, the two sons of §iva and Parvati, 
even during the marriage of the two ! ! The little 
Ganesa is standing between the legs of ^iva and 
Parvati and Karttikeya between those of Siva and 
the gana. The latter appears to carry in his left 
hand a JcuJcJcuta (cock) whose tail is visible in the 
photograph. The presence of these two children 
is, in all probability, meant to indicate that they 

349 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

were not born by the union of the couple but had 
existed from eternity like all gods, but at a later 
period assumed the position of the sons of Siva and 
Parvati. 

The remaining portion of the panel represents 
another scene in the life of Siva. He is seen 
learning the significance of the mystic syllable Om 
from his son Subrahmanya. An account of this 
event will be found given in the chapter on 
Subrahmanya. Subrahmanya with six heads (of 
which three are visible in the sculpture) is seated 
on a high pedestal with a rishi; one of his right 
hands is held in the chin-mudra pose, while the 
other is kept with outstretched fingers. One left 
hand is resting upon his lap. He wears the cloth 
in the upavUa fashion ; the legs are hanging below 
the seat and resting upon the ground. The rishi 
has also both his legs hanging down the seat and 
seems to have his hands kept in the anjali pose. 
In front of Subrahmanya is seated cross-legged on 
the ground Siva with his right hand held in the 
jnana-mudra pose and the left one resting, in the 
yoga-mudra pose, on his lap. He also wears his 
upper garment in the upavlta fashion. Behind 
him is seen standing Parvati, his consort. 

Below this remarkable composite panel is a 
row of most humourous ganas some with animal 

350 



PLATE CVI. 




Kalyanasundaramurti : Stone ; Madura. 



[To face page 351] 



PLATE CVII. 




Kalyanasuadaramurti : Stona : Madura. 



OTHEB IMPOETANT ASPECTS OF ^IVA. 

faces, others with animal-mouthed bellies {vriko- 
daras) and the rest like human beings taking active 
part, with great cheerfulness, in the arrangements 
in connection with the marriage festivities. The 
two first on the right end are seen carrying each a 
banner and the third a mace ; the fourth is dancing. 
Three ganas are seen carrying a four-footed article 
resembling a table, which is evidently a raised seat. 
On the left of this group another gana is seen 
playing upon the flute ; next to him is a lion faced 
gana playing upon a stringed musical instrument. 
Adjoining this, there is a bear-faced gana carrying 
something on his head ; another, tiger-faced, holds 
in his left hand something kept in a round leaf, 
apparently that of the lotus. The fourth from the 
left is a vrikodara ; the rest are carrying some 
article or other in their hands. 

The next two illustrations. Pis. CVI and CVII, 
are from South India. They are found in Madura, 
the one in the Pudu-mandapa and the other in the 
man^apa in front of the central shrine of Sundares- 
vara temple ; the first belongs to the reign of 
Tirumalai Nayaka and the second, a copy, made 
some forty years ago. In these the principal 
figures are Parvati, who is being given to Siva in 
marriage by Vishnu pouring water in the hands 
of 6iva ; and Siva standing on the left with his 

361 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

right hand stretched out to receive the gift ; in 
front of and between him and Vishnu is seen, with 
the head bent down in shyness, Parvati keeping 
her right hand Hfted up so as to be taken hold of 
by Siva ; and on the left is Vishnu pouring water 
from a vessel on the hand of Siva. Below, and 
in a countersunk panel is seen Brahma making 
fire-ofiering. The whole subject is treated with 
great cleverness and the effect is very striking. 
There is not that elaborateness which one meets 
with in the Cave temples of Northern and Western 
India, but the very simplicity of the sculpture 
carries a great charm with it. The shyness 
depicted on the countenance of the bride is very 
noteworthy. , 

One of the favourite modes in which Siva is 
represented in sculpture is known as the Vrisha- 
vahana or Vrishabharudhamurti ; that is, Siva 
seated upon the bull, his vehicle. It is in this 
aspect which is hnld in high veneration by the 
people that Siva has often appeared in person before 

his devotees. One day, among 
rudhamurfi!'^* ^^^ ^^^ days' festival in any §iva 

temple in South India, the image of 
Siva is seated upon a bull and carried round the 
streets in procession and that day is held by people 
as the most important of all the days of the 

352 



OTHEE IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF SIVA. 

festival. Hence also this form of the image of §iva 
is described in great detail in all « the important 
Ugamas. 

Vrishavahanamurti should be standing with 
his right leg placed firmly on the ground and the 
left slightly bent ; the left arm should be bent and 
its wrist resting on the head of the bull ; the hand 
of this arm may be hanging fully open so that the 
tip of the middle finger may reach the level of his 
own navel. The right hand should carry a vakra- 
dandUyudha (a crooked stick like the one carried 
by Sasta, Mannannar Krishna, etc.). This stick 
should be of the thickness of the small finger and 
should have three bends at its top end and its 
length equal to the distance between the hiJcJca- 
sutra and the knee. In the back right hand there 
must be the tanka or paraku and in the back left 
hand the mriga. The head might be adorned with 
a jatamaJcuta, or a hanging jatabhar a or a, jata- 
bandha, the choice of which is left to the sculptor. 
The figure should be adorned with all ornaments ; 
the colour of Siva, as also that of his garments is 
to be red. On the right side or the left should be 
the figure of Devi, standing with the right leg kept 
firmly on the ground and the left one slightly bent. 
The right arm of the Devi should be bent and 
that hand carrying a utpala flower. The left 

363 

46 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

hand should be hanging down freely. The figure of 
Devi should be done according to the measurements 
given in the dgamas for female images ; the direction 
of the bends in its body would depend upon its 
situation to the right or left of the image of Siva. 

The rishabha (bull) should be standing behind 
Siva and should be of the height either of the chest, 
navel, root of the penis or even the thigh or the 
foreleg. (Evidently in the last two or three instan- 
ces the animal should perhaps be sculptured as 
sitting on the ground). 

The illustrations which fit in almost exactly 
with the description given above are the images of 
Vrishavahanamurti of Vedaranyam,that reproduced 
from the VisvaJcarma and that of Taramangalam, 
whose photographs are given as Pis. CVIIT, CIX and 
CX respectively. In the first instance, as in others, 
it is not the left arm that is resting on the head of 
the bull but the right. The left arm is let down 
and its hand is resting upon the thigh and not as 
required, held in the kataJca pose. The tip of the 
middle finger of the right hand held in the pataka- 
hasta reaches, as is required by the agamas, the 
level of the navel. It is to be noted that the figure 
of Siva in the present instance has only two instead 
of four arms. The left leg stands firmly on the 
ground and the right one is slightly bent and resting 

354 



PLATE CVlll, 




Vrishavahanamurti : Bronze : Vedaranyam. 



[To face page 354] 



PLATE CIX. 




[To face page 355] Vriahavahanamurti : Bronza ; Visvakarma {Dc. A. K, K. 



Plate ex. 




Vrishavahanamurti : Stone : Taramangalam. 



[To face page 355] 



PLATE CXI. 




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[To face page 355] 



Plate cxii, 




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■^ijiii M. 



fTo face page 366] 



OTHEE IMPORTANT ASPECTS OP ^IVA. 

on the ground on its toes. The bull is as high 
as the thighs of Siva. PI. CIX is true to the very 
description given in the agamas* Its left arm 
rests on the head of the bull and the right hand is 
held in the JcataJca pose to receive in it a separate 
metallic or wooden crooked stick. The right leg is 
kept firmly on the ground and the left one is kept 
slightly bent. In the image of Taramangalam, 
PI. CX, the front right hand is kept in the abhaya 
pose, but in other respects it is exactly similar to 
the one on PL CIX. 

The third photograph reproduced on PI. CXI 
is that of the sculpture to be found on the wall 
of one of the so-called rathas at Mahabalipuram. 
It almost resembles the image represented on 
PI. CVIII. The image of Siva has four arms. The 
left hand is in a manner held in the Jcataha pose. 
On either side of this Vrishavahanamurti is a Deva, 
with his consort, praising Siva. 

The photographs reproduced as figs. 1 and 2 
on PI. CXII are similar in treatment. The agamic 
description agreeing with this mode of representa- 
tion of the Vrishavahanamurti is not available at 
present. So, we should be satisfied with the de- 
scription as we find recorded in the sculptures. 

* Mr. v. A. Smith calls this image " Siva in sandhyaaritta 
dance." 

355 



HINDU lOONOGEAPHY. 

Here, Siva and Parvati are seated exactly as in the 
aspect of Umasahita-alinganaraurti, or Somaskanda- 
murti, on a seat placed upon the back of a full sized 
bull. In fig. 1, Siva is embracing Parvati and in 
fig. 2, he is not. In the first piece of sculpture Siva 
carries in his back hand the &ula and the damaru 
and the front right is kept in the abhaya pose and 
the front left is thrown on the shoulder of Parvati ; 
in the second sculpture the back hands carry the 
parasu and the mriga and the front hands are in 
the abhaya and the varada poses respectively. An 
elaborately carved prahhavali is seen surrounding 
the figures of Siva and Parvati. The first piece of 
sculpture belongs to the Hoyasala School and the 
second to the modern Nattukkottai artisans and the 
former is fitted up now in the reconstructed Keda- 
resvara temple at Halebidu and the latter in the 
Sundaresvara temple at Madura. 

The aspect of Siva known as the Vishapaha- 
ranamurti appears to be considered a kind of 

anugrahamurti ; since it is not 
muS*^*^*''*''^' definitely mentioned as such in 

the agamas it is included in 
this chapter. We have already mentioned that 
^iva swallowed the dreadful poison that emerged 
from the ocean, when it was churned by the Devas 
and the Danavas for obtaining ambrosia (amrita) 

356 



OTHER IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF SIVA. 

from it. We have a description of this murti in 
the Karanagama ; therein it is stated that Siva, 
as usual, should have a face with three eyes on it, 
wearing a jatamakuta and having four arms. In 
two of his hands there should be the para§u and 
the mriga ; in one of the remaining hands there 
should be the cup containing the poison and the 
fourth hand should be held in the varada pose. 
His sight must be fixed upon the poison and the 
general attitude should be such as to indicate that 
ho is going to sip the poison immediately. He 
should be adorned with all kinds of ornaments. 
On the left of Siva there should be his consort 
Parvati embracing her lord about the neck with her 
right arm and appearing highly perplexed and 
distressed. Her complexion should be dark, she 
should have two eyes, two arms and be standing in 
the tribhahga posture, (with three bends in her 
body), with her right leg placed vertically on the 
ground and the left one kept slightly bent. Another 
description adds to the above the following details : 
that the appearance of ^iva should be made terrific 
(ugra) by the addition of side tusks; his com- 
plexion should be white as the full-moon and he 
should be draped in garments made of tiger's skin ; 
there should be a garland made of small bells, and 
along with the other usual ornaments, there should 

367 



HINDU ICONOGEAPHY. 

be some others composed of scorpions {vri§chiJca). 
In the right hands of Siva there should be the 
trisula and a beaked vessel {gokdrnd) containing 
the poison ; and in one of the left hands the Jcapala. 
Since no object is mentioned as being in the fourth 
hand, it appears that this arm may be taken to be 
employed in the act of embracing the Devi. In 
the first description Siva and Parvati are required 
to be standing, but in this one, they are said to be 
seated on the bull-vehicle of Siva. 



358