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Full text of "Bihar peasant life, being a discursive catalogue of the surroundings of the people of that province"

-r 



CORNELL UNIVERSm 

UBBAKY 

nHACA,N.Y. 14853 




South A<la CaBaetkm 
KROCH LIBRARY 



CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




3 1924 072 688 025 




The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924072688025 



In compliance witii current 
copyright law, Cornell University 
Library produced this 
replacement volume on paper 
that meets the ANSI Standard 
Z39.48-1984 to replace the 
irreparably deteriorated original. 

1994 



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BIHAE PEASANT LIFE, 



A DISCUESIVE CATALOGUE 



SURROUNDINGS OF THE PEOPLE OF THAT PROVINCE, 



WITH MANY ILLDSTEATIONS PEOII PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN 
BT THE AUTHOR. 



f wpwlr, mxlSiK ffiihts oi t^z ^aizx\xmz\xt si lengal, 



BY 



GEORGE A. GRIERSON, B.C.S., M.A.S.B., -M.R.A.S., 

FELLOW OF THE UNIVEBSIIT OF CALCUTTZ.: FOBMEEIY 8ASSKEIT AND HIKDnBIAKI 
EXHIBITIOlfEE, XEIKITY COILE&E, DCBLIS. 



Calcutta: 

THE BENGAL SECEETAEIAT PEESS. 

LONDON: TRUBNEE & Co., 57 & 59, LUDGATE HILL. 

1885. 



TO 

K.c.s.r., C.I.E. 

IN GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

OF THAT COUNTENANCE AND ASSISTANCE WITHOUT WHICH IT WOULD 

NEVER HAVE BEEN WRITTEN, 

THIS BOOK 

IS DEDICATED 

BY 

THE AUTHOR. 



Bankipore, Hh April 1885. 



INTRODUCTIOK 



While this work professes to be a catalogue of the names used by 
the Bihar peasant for the things surrounding him in his daily life, yet, 
in order to relieve the dryness which such a mere list would possess, the 
writer has attempted to give a description, more or less complete, of 
that life and of its character and incidents. The book is in fact 
a discursive catalogue, and it is hoped that it may serve as a solid 
foundation for more elaborate disquisitions on the Bihar raiyat and 
his surroundings. 

Such a work as this is nothing if not accurate, and no ordinary 
pains have been spared to compass the greatest accuracy possible. 
Existing treatises on Indian rural life are not always trustworthy ; and 
as it is impossible to tell what is and what is not correct in them, the 
writer has avoided taking them as the groundwork of his compilation. 
Every word in this book has been collected from the mouths of the 
people, and noted on the spot where it was spoken, either by the writer 
himself or by one of his assistants. When the work began to assume 
shape, it was carefully compared with every available book of reference, 
and where discrepancies occurred, they were either reconciled or 
explained. Finally the proof-sheets have been circulated to all the 
Bihar districts, and have been again checked on the spot by competent 
observers, different from the original persons who collected the materials 
on which the book was founded.* 

So far, therefore, as its contents go, this book may claim to be 
entirely original, and the writer hopes, to a certain degree, accurate. 
No origiuality can, however, be claimed for its general system and 
arrangement. This is closely modelled on Mr. Crooke's " Materials 
for a Eural and Agricultural Glossary of the North- Western Provinces 



* The writer would here tender his thanks to the various district officers of 
Bihar, who have spared no trouble in having this local checking performed in a 
satisfactory manner. The amount of new information gained, and of mistakes and 
misprints corrected through their help, has been very considerable. 



^ INTRODUCTION. 

aud Oudh."* The writer has followed him very closely in the arrange- 
ment of his matter, and in many cases has not scrupled to use his 
very words when they were the most suitable that could be adopted. 
The vernacular words embodied in this book have in fact been 
brought together from two sources, vi^. the writer's own private 
researches during the past seven years, checked and supplemented by 
actual translations of the words given by Mr. Crooke's work made by 
the writer's assistants once and sometimes twice over in every 
district of Bihar. It will thus be seen how much the writer is 
indebted to the latter gentleman. Mr." Crooke's book differed from the 
present work in being to some extent a compilation from existing 
dictionaries ; and as these were not all of them as accurate as could be 
wished, it was impossible that it should not contain some mistakes. 
But as one who has probably worked through it with more minute 
attention than most people, the writer gladly bears witness to its general 
accuracy. This may be considered as really wonderful, when the 
extremely slovenly scholarship of some of the books on which 
Mr. Orooke had to depend is taken into account. 

In the present work every native word is written twice over — once 
with accuracy in the native character for those who are able to read it, 
and once in the English character for those who are not acq[uainted 
with the Indian vernaculars. This transliteration does not pretend 
to be scientifically accurate. Such a transliteration with its . diacritical 
dots and dashes would only puzzle those for whom it is intended, viz. 
those who are ignorant of the language. All that has been attempted 
for them is to give them a general idea of the correct pronunciation 
of the words, without professing to tell them the exact pronunciation, 
which they hardly require, and which would be difficult to do. For 
these persons all that is necessary is that they should pronounce the 
vowels as in Italian, and the consonants as in English, and they will 
then approach sufficiently near to the way in which the natives them- 
selves pronounce the words.t For those who are acquainted with the 

* Allatabad, 1879. Printed at the North- Western Prorinoes and Oudh 
Government Press. The writer would take this opportunity of acknowledging 
his indehtedness to Mr. Crooke for this really admirable work. Without it the 
present book could never have been written without an expenditure of labour 
which few district officials like the writer would have been able to bestow. 

t The system of transliteration adopted may be briefly described as the 
Jonesian system, with every possible diacritical mark omitted. In pursuance of 
this the cerebral letters are given no dots, and, as nearly every final vowel is long, 
the long mark has been omitted from final vowels. 



INTRODUCTION. 6 

vernacular languages, no instructions for pronouncing the words in 
their vernacular dress are necessary. 

In quoting Arabic and Persian words in the Nagri character, the 
dots, which are sometimes used to indicate an original 2, &e., are omitted, 
for the reason that the words are given as they are pronounced in Bihar, 
and that all the dots in the world will not make a Bihari pronounce a a 
as other than J, or a sad as other than s. 

In order to understand the meaning of the words which the 
writer has used to express locality, it is necessary to explain that, under 
the name Tirhut, he has included the whole tract which lies between 
the river Gandak on the west and the river Kosi on the east, and 
which is bounded on the north by the Nepal frontier and on the south 
by the Granges. He, therefore, indicates under this term not only the 
districts of Muzaffarpur and Darbhanga, but also North Bhagalpur 
.and North Munger (Monghyr). This was rendered necessary by the 
language of these latter tracts being practically the same as that of 
Darbhanga. By North-West Tirhut he means the Sitamarhi and Sadr 
subdivisions of MuzafEarpur ; by South- West Tirhut, the subdivision of 
Hajipur ; by North-East Tirhut, the Sadr and Madhubani subdivisions 
of Darbhanga and the Supaul subdivision of North Bhagalpur ; 
and by South-East Tirhut, the Tajpur subdivision of Darbhanga, 
North Munger, and the Madaipura subdivision of North Bhagalpur. 
By North Bihar he means all Bihar north of the Ganges, and by 
South Bihar all Bihar south of it. When he speaks of the east or the 
west, the north-east or the north-west, he means, of course, the east, west, 
north-east, and north-west respectively of Bihar. 

One more word of warning regarding these localities. When the 
writer says that a word is used in a certain place, he does not mean 
by implication that it is not used anywhere else. He means simply 
that the word has been noted by him in such and such a place, and not 
elsewhere. That it may be used elsewhere is very possible, and 
any notes on this or kindred topics addressed to the writer, care of 
the Secretary to the Bengal Government, Revenue and General 
Departments,* will be gladly welcomed. 

Regarding the illustrations, they are all (with one or two small 
exceptions) lithographed or cut on wood from photographs taken by 



* The writer would also suggest, as an excellent field for th.e discussion of 
the various points noted in this book, a magazine called Punjab Notes and Queries, 
edited by Captain Temple, Cantonment Magistrate, Amritsar. Although pub- 
lished in and taking its title from the Panjab, this useful little work deals with 
the whole of Northern India. 



■4 INTRODUCTION. 

the -writer, who is glad to be able to thank Mr. Sohaumburg and the 
students of the Grovernment School of Art, Calcutta, for the excellent 
pictures tbey haye produced out of what, he must confess, were too often 
very indifEerent photographs. The difficulties' experienced by the 
writer in taking some of tbese pictures were great. The most ludicrous 
reports spread through the city concerning his work. The camera of 
course was looked upon as a fearful engine of destruction, and some- 
times half an hour has been wasted in futile diplomacy to persuade 
an old lady to allow the lens to be pointed at her. Under these 
circumstances photographs had almost always to be taken by the 
instantaneous process, which, however certain it may be in the hands 
of the professional, frequently disappoints the mere amateur. The last 
photograph the writer took — that of a native house — was spoilt because 
the grandmother of the family refused to allow any of the children to 
appear in the picture, her reason being that the Grovernment was build- 
ing the bridge across the Grandak and wanted children to bury under 
its foundations. Just, however, as the plate was exposed, one of the 
little boys determined to immortalize himself, and leaped in front of the 
lens to the dismay of the female members of his family. He had his 
wish in appearing in the picture, but he was so near the lens that he 
covered half of it with his shoulders. On other occasions the writer 
was believed to be collecting oarts and boats for the Egyptian war, or 
to be counting the wells in the country, because he knew a famine was 
approaching, and so on ad infinitum. However, the pictures were 
finally taken, and, such as they are, are certainly accurate representa- 
tions of the originals. 

In conclusion the writer has to draw attention to the thoroughness 
and accuracy with which his assistants, Munshi Dilawar Ali and Mun- 
shi Moti Lai have done their portion of the work The former has, 
the writer much regrets to say, died since the above was first written. 
The latter has been his assistant to the last, and the writer begs to 
record his high sense of his industry and intelligence, and to recom- 
mend his services to the favourable notice of Grovernment. 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 



A GOOD many types have broken in the process of printing. 
Advantage is taken of this list of errata to add information obtained 
after the sheets went to press. 

These addenda and corrigenda are printed on one side of the paper 
only, and can be cut up and pasted in the appropriate places in the 
book. 



Pago. 


Line. 


Section. 


For 


Read. 


3 


5 




^>T^< 


^VTTJtT. 


5 




37 


>h'^>^lj 4i-^<l 


WtTT, WftKT. 


10 


16 




5=*n-5IT 


?f%^T. 


13 




63 


'?r?''TT 


tffW'^T. 


17 


4 
4 




^Trrr' 


^^1. 


21 


=^T^^ 




22 




113 


^TTriT hSgdor 


^PT Tft bag dor. 


23 


7 from 
bottom. 




^^^\^-^T 


^^is-^q^iTr. 


21 


3 




?o-^?^ 


Wcl^. 


25 


Tiast line 
of foot- 
note. 




t- 


t'-S. 


26 




137 


■s]^''#t 


•jrq'-^ft. 


27 


2 




T?>f 


'f^'^. 


31 


2 




0\ 


'^f^f^^t. 


42 




230 


^^ 


wS^^ 


44 





238 


^, §H"^^)T 


^, ad-=tr^-5if. 


52 


5 




¥li=?T 


?W¥T. 


58 




317 


^^^•TT 


■^^cT-TT. 


63 


5 




upper screw ... 


upper roller. 


C3 


Title of 
tion. 


illustra- 


CHABKI ... 


CHAEKHL 



( 2 ) 



Page. 


Line. 


Section. 


For 


Read. 


78 


15 




■^5«"«- 


^^-^T. 


85 


17 


404 


"^^Xl 


^"^TT, 


87 




^<*J-r 


8<-«r. 


)) 


29 

1 




T^N 


jttV^. 


95 




t(*Tl^<>tl<!lJ 


c1HI^<<l<aT. 


y, 


2 




siiTf^m^rT ... 


dHl'Ji'd-^l^T. 


a 


Last ... 




dornsa 


dorassa. 


96 


18 




nariyal 


nariyal. 


97 


Last 




^«t-2^ ... 


■351-3^. 


102 




GIO 


^■^■'^ 


■^w^^. 


103 




516 


^^■^ 


■§T^^. 


105 




538 


^^X iJI-i chahar son 


'^^^^T^ cKaTcarsan. 


IDS 




558 


thatherar 


tJiatkeia, 


109 




567 






110 




570 


■^T 


^T^. 


111 




572 


f^^^-TT 


f^f^'tr. 


tt 




JJ 


kumham 


kumhai'in. 


t> 




575 


fw^ 




112 




584 


^K^ 


^^^;t. 


113 


14 




^ 


Bt. 


114 




586 


'*l'l-'ai> 


grFT-oTt. 


117 
128 


1 


660 


^"^H^ir kolsup 


5[u^-gii kolsup. 




[k*--X*-\ hirJiara 


r^T^"<l hirahra. 


134 




713 


^W 


^m. 


141 




715 


^^'©sT 


3»^i!!rg. 


145 





732 


^WT jama 


<sil*i| jama. 


152 




759 


ll^, W^ ... 


1^, a^-^. 


153 


7 




i^X^'^f 


^ci<-'ir. 


154 




766 


*«»■' 


«a»'8. 



( 3 ) 



Pago. 
154 

155 
157 

159 
161 
164 



165 



166 



168 



169 



171 



173 



Lino. 



3 from 
bottom. 



Section. 



2 from 
bottom. 



12 



771 



7S4.a 



786 



794 



797 



801 



812 



814 



815 



818 



827 



828 



I'or 

^'5 



Bead. 



f^fsR'ft, 1^. 99^- 



^W. 



Add—' A homestead is also called ^T^^ diiira or 
^fist dinro in South Bhagalpur.' 

After 'goriatia,' add—' or in South Bhagalpur jfk^ 
goranti.' 

For ' <rfT ' read ' trr\' 

Aid — ' Soil mixed with coarse gravel is also 
^^•^Tfiid hankrotiya, and hard rooky soil 
'V!^K\.'^ $ailira%U in South Bhagalpur.' 

Before ' f«<!i-3iz',' insert ' im^ kurao ;' and lefore 
' and Wf ,' add — * ^rf^r^ kanil in South Bhagalpur.' 

After ' cMnch,' add — 'or trr 'TT.''^ pah parti.' 

After ' melani,' add — ' or fwsr chitta,' and also add 
— ' Irrigation from wells is ^f^^lT "^fm kunriya 
chas in South Bhagalpur." 

For '°i\^'S^ heioti ' read '^gTcI> hentoti.' 

For ' ^^ ftfi'JlTT^ dhan kiyari ' read ' i(T=f^^tl^ 
dhankiyari.' 

After ' '€^ hlto,' add — ' or WT"t hero.' 

After ' laugachhi,' add — ' or ■=i^Ie5^ naugaclihi' 

Add, — 'Land producing brushwood is f^^ jhSnti iu 
South Bhagalpur.' 

After 'pMran,' add — 'and in South Bhagalpur 
T'^ ^P*fm har samaudh.' 

After ' dahina' add — 'and in South Bhagalpur, 
-^^^ ^I5r ukhar hal.' 

For ' bhaunriya ' read ' hhaunriya,' and add — ' in 
South Bhagalpur ir^ wVcl mando jot or ^^'Hr^iy^ 
chaumandi.' For ' ^<rr'3#t ' read ' ^"IT 5^,' and 
after 'other names current axe,' add — 'w*ncft 
lamii in South Bhagalpur.' 



( 4) 



Pago. 



Line, 



Section. 



174 

99 

176 
177 

179 
180 
182 
183 

184 



185 



186 

187 



188 
193 



Last 



OV «•• 







837 


3 






842 




848 




850 




856 


3 






859 




862 



830 



864 

866 

867 
871 
873 

875 

887 



For ''?''rw^ ' read ' ■girrs''^.' 

For ' « <.•<*! m^n ' read ' sn^^lfi' ^WT.' 

For ' ^f*s % ' read ' ^f*S^,' and for ' ^iwnx ' read 

After ' somdta,' add — ' or fC ^<5»^'^ har samaudh.' 

Add — 'A ploughman who works for advances is 
■^T^ff'sr saonJch in South Bhagalpur.' 

Add — ' Manure is also called TTT hura in South 
Bhagalpur.' 

Add — ' Heavily-manured land is also said °_ to be 
trrp^ patael north of the Granges.' 

Add — 'Barren seeds are called fi^t ^aJii in South 
Bhagalpur.' 

For ' mc)T ' read ' AI<A*\-' 

After ' harua,' add — ' and in South Bhagalpur ffgt 
Jaibbi' 

After 'bengal add — 'and in South Bhagalpur 
fiH-tl hichra or f^^fiiT hihantar. 

For ' ^■^••tK ' read ' f^-^-'iU,' 

Add — 'The bamboo on which the seedlings are 
carried is called '^^^ dharangi in South Bha<^l- 
pnr.' 

Add — • Hoeing is called ^^fl'^Pt kelauni or 5*fi^'\ 
kamauni in South Bhagalpur.' 

After ' helauni,' add — ' or ^i^^ kamauni.' 

For '^"ti-Sl^l ' read '^^^ft^TT.' 

Add—' Cane-cutting is UcftT TTK^ pataur parab in 
South Bhagalpur.' 

After ' agra,' add — ' or -q-sl-JU alga.' 

For 'jhSrjharael' read 'jharjharael.' 

Add—* Treading grain is ^»Trft damahi in South 
Bhagalpur.' 



( 5 ) 



Paito. 



Lino. 



Section. 



192 



19.3 
194 

195 

196 

198 

201 

203 
204 

208 

214 

J) 

224 
226 

228 

J) 

230 

247 



3 from 
bottom. 



14 

8 from 
bottom. 

4 

6 



10 



888 



891 

894 

895 
896 

903 

911 

915 

918 
922 

939 



958 



1001 



Add—' The first treading out of tbe grain is also 
called ^BTqr khiia or ^aHrx khoa, and the second 
treading cIT">irR: tarjhSr in South Bhagalpur.' 

For ' tNttT dogJia " read ' ^^TT dogaha.' 

After ' ^^iT khiia,' add — ' or ^ffhrr khoa or ^T 
paur.' 

Add — 'Loose straw that has been threshed is ^tWt 
mira in South Bhagalpur.' After ' newari,' add— 
' or in South Bhagalpur inftiff gabhauri.' 

Add — ' ^Tcpr gJioran is also used in South Bhagalpur.' 

After 'thathero,' add — 'When applied to janera^ 
{holcus sorghum)' 

After ' kurtdli,' add — ' when between tenant and 
subtenant.' 

For '«r? ■ttisi-d khud kasW read 'm%~sti\^^ 
hhudkasht.' 

Add — 'A man irrigating is in South Bhagalpur 
^ < • =1 1 "ST larwSha.' 

After ' dhurka,' add — ' or "STniT upta.' 

Addr^-' The spring is in South Bhagalpur also S[T 
hhur or ^PTT soa.' 

Add — The 'wooden framework is called bi,^!,;! ! 
jalala in South Bhagalpur.' 

For ' y-4|'!l ' read ' ^^.' 

For ' i^l ' read ' ^ST.' 

For ' ^"n^ ' read ' wtT^T.' 

For ' *i5r ' read ' t^.' 

For ' T?-CBT ' read ' ^rf=^?3T.' 
For • Iff ■ read ' fft.' 
For ' ITTTI^ ' read ' vf^j^-^.' 
For • 1464 ' read ' 1458,' 



( 6 ) 



Pago. 


Lino. 


Soetion. 




248 





1050 


For ' Jfte bhlt ' read ' *ft3 lUth' 


253 


5 from 
bottom. 




For ' V^-^vgj ' read ' if 5r'?»CT.' 


273 






In last column, fir '^re^' ' read J ^?re^«ft.' 


274 


10 from 
bottom. 




For ' ^crra ' read ' '^rnig.' 


280 


16 from 
bottom. 




For ' ^T# ' read '^rt." 


jj 


4 from 
bottom. 




For ' -^TffWt^ ' read'^nr^^.' - 


281 


3 




For ' neede ' read ' need." 


290 
292 
299 




1110 
1117 
1147 


For'wK' read ' ^.' 




For ' K-dndni read '=t\<-=*<s. 




For ' -^r^^x ' read ' 'J<4-si<.' 


300 
310 


13 


1151 


After ' kas chara'i,' add — ' 3;Tf '^TIl Jcah chara'i.' 




For ' *j'#-y IZT read ' H^'^iirt.' 


3> 


15 




For ' «« •( ' read ' ^?i^.* 


)» 


17 




For ' 'itKT ' read ' gr tV.' 


316 


10 from 
bottom. 




For 'i*-ft taTcahi ' read ' Tr^-f^ takhi.' 


318 


12 from 
bottom. 




For'-^^X^Teeydli ' read ' ^^rrft keSli.' 


322 




12096 


After ' rent-free,' add — ' or revenue-free.' 


323 


8 from 
bottom. 




For ' 1487 ' read ' 1482." 


330 


2 




For ' money rents are always assessed,' read ' extra 
money rents are assessed.' 


333 


8 from 
bottom. 


*■••«• 


For ' WTW^ ' read ' ^T^f^.' 


337 


7 




For ' <!l1 isn ' read ' ^"Vt^ijt.' 


357 


4 from 
bottom. 






For iTTKT^ read ' iT^Ti^.' 


359 




1285 


For ' Alfis ■ read ' ^^^1." 


360 




1288 


For ' **! ' read ' wm.' 



( 7 ) 



Page 


Line. 


Section. 




366 




1323 


Add at end of section — ' and in West Tirhut ^ra^ 
lathangar.' 


369 




1338 


Add at end of section — ' and in West TirLut 
fjB^fci;^^'^ khirkhiyauni' 


372 




1349 


Add—' The ceremony of cutting the nails is called 
in West Tirhut ^^ fsift nauh chldlli.' 


389 


4 from 
bottom. 




For ' <^ ^^ doni ' read ' =rf ^ donni.' 


391 


3 from 
bottom. 




For ' nagra ' read ' nagar.' 


412 


A.PPENDE 


1461 


For ' mrf^ ' read ' i(TX=1%^.' 


2 




No. 2 


For ' ^m'^K! ' read ' 'S^^TT.' 


3t 




No. 2a 


For ' Ttfi"^- a^[^ ■ read ' ■'m '^PJr ^^5.' 


14 




14 


For ' am ' read ' am.' 






15 


For ' ^T ' read ' ^IT.' 



CONTENTS. 



DIVISION I.— IMPLEMENTS AND APPLIANCES 
USED IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL MANU- 
FACTURES ... 

Subdivision L— Implements used in preparing land for 
cultivation 

Chaptbb 1. — The plough 

„ 2. — Mattocks and spades 
., 3. — The harrow 
„ 4 — Kakes used in field work 
„ 5. — Pickaxes, pitchforks, &e. 

Subdivision II.— Implements used in sowing, weeding, 
and irrigation ... 

Chapteb 1. — Baskets ... ... ;.. 

„ 2. — Brooms 

„ 3. — Implements used in weeding, &c. 

„ 4. — ^Implements used in connection with irrigation 

Subdivision III.— Appliances used in field-watching 

Chaptbe 1. — The sling 

„ 3. — The scarecrow ... ... ,,, 

„ 3. — The watchman's platform 

Subdivision IV.— Implements used in harvesting 
Chaptee 1. — The sickle or reaping-hook 

„ 2. — Eakes used on the threshing-floor 

„ 3.— Granaries 

Subdivision V.— Implements and appliances used in 
connection with cattle ... 

Chapibb 1. — The fodder-cutter and trough... 
,, 2. — The muzzle and blinkers 

3. — The whip and goad 
„ 4. — Hobbles for cattle ... 
„ 5. — Hopes ... ... ... ... 

„ 6. — Pads for cattle 

„ 7. — Grain-bags and paniers for loaded cattle... 

„ 8. — Canvas, leather, or tarpauUu covers 

„ 9. — Vessels from which animals are fed „. 

„ 10. — Dairy utens.ils ... 

Subdivision VI.— Appliances used in the conveyance of 

goods or passengers 
Chaptee 1. — The country cart ... 

„ 2. — The large, complete country cart 

,, 3. — The light country cart 

„ 4. — The bullock carriage 

,, 5. — The pony carriage 

„ 6. — The country boat ... 

7. --The litter - ... ... "' 

Subdivision VII.— Appliances used in rural manufacture 
Chaptee 1. — Appliances used in the manufacture of oil 
„ 2. — Appliances used in the manufacture of sugar 



Paoe. 



ib. 

1—5 
5-6 

7—8 

8 

8—9 

9 

9—11 

11—12 

12—13 

ib. 

ib. 

13—14 

ib. 

14—15 

15 
15—16 

ib. 
16—18 

18 

18—19 
19-20 
20—21 

ib. 
21—24 

ib. 

2& 

ib. 

ib. 
25—27 

ib. 
27—28 
28—37 
37—38 
38—39 
40—42 
42—45 
45—46 

46 

46—49 
50—60 



11 



Chaptee 3. — Appliances used in tlie manufacture of indigo 

„ 4. — The spinning-wheel 

„ 5. — The weaver's loom... 

„ 6. — The saltpetre manufacture 

,, 7. — A distillery of country liquor ... 

Subdivision VIII, — Appliances used by miscellaneous 
village traders and professionals 

Chapter 1. — ^The palm-juice seller 

„ 2. — The bird-catcher ... 

„ 3.-^The barber 

,, 4. — The country surgeon 

„ 5. — The farrier 

,, 6. — The washerman ..; 



-Tools and appliances used by country 



Subdivision IX.- 

artizans 
Chaptbb 1. — iThe carpenter and turner 

„ 2. — The blacksmith 

„ 3. — The mason or bricklayer 

„ 4. — The grain-parcher ... 

„ 5. — The baker 

„ 6. — The confectioner ... 

„ 7. — ^The tobacco-manufacturer 

„ 8. — The pipe-maker 

„ 9. — The pipe-stem maker 

„ 10.— The cotton-carder ... 

,, 11. — The shoe-maker 

„ 12. ^-The blanket-weaver ... 

„ 13. — ^The fancy silk or fringe-maker 

,, 14.-^The embroiderer 

„ 15.— The dyer 

„ 16.— The wood-painter ... 

, „ 17. — The tinman 

„ 18.— The jeweller 

„ 19. — The lapidary 

., 20. — The seal-maker 

„ 21. — The gold-washer ... 
22.-T-The brazier 

„ 23. — The brass-founder 

„ 24.^-The brass-bangle maker 

„ 25. — The glass-maker and glass bangle-maker 

„ 26. — The lac bangle-maker 

„ 27.— The potter 

„ 28. — The firework-maker 

„ 29.-T-The bookbinder 

„ 30.— The rope-twister 

„ 31. — The weaver's brush-maker 

„ 32. — The bow-maker 

„ 33. — The weapon-cleaner 



APPLIANCES AND 



DIVISION II— .DOMESTIC 
UTENSILS 

Subdivision I.— Appliances used in the preparation of 

food ... 
Chaptbe l.^Sieves 

„ 2. — The pedal for husking grain ... [[[ 

„ 3. — The pestle and mortar used for husking grain 
4. — The hand grindinfj -mill 

„ 5. — The grindstone for spices 

„ 6. — The roller for making paste ... ... ^\\ 



Paob. 

60—62 
62—69 
69—76 

76-77 
77—78 

79 
79—80 

ib. 
80—81 

ib. 

ib. 
81 82 

83 

83—85 

85—88 

88— 9U 

90—92 

92—93 

93—94 

95 

96—97 

ib. 

98 

98—99 

99—100 

100—101 

ib. 

101—102 

ib. 

102—103 

103-105 

105 

106 

ib. 

107—108 

ib. 

ib. 

108-110 

ib. 

111—113 

112—114 

114—115 

115—116 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 



117 

ib. 

117—118 
118-119 
119- 120 
120—121 

ib. 

ib. 



Subdivision II. — Domestic furniture 

Chaptbe 1.— Stool ... 

„ 2. — The bed and cot 

„ 3. — The weighing scales 

„ 4. — Nets 

„ 5. — The pad used for supporting water-pots, &c., on a 

woman's head ... 
„ 6.— The stick 
„ 7. — Boxes ... 
„ 8. — Metal vessels used in cooking and for ordinary 

domestic purposes 
„ 9. — rEarthen vessels 
„ 10.— Wooden vessels ... 
„ 11. — Leather vessels 
„ 12. — Leaf platters 
„ 13. — Stands for vessels 

Subdivision III.— Clothes, ornaanents, &o. 
Chaptee 1. — Clothes ... 

„ 2. — Carpets and mats ... ... 

„ 3. — Jewelry... 

Subdivision IV.— Appliances used in -worship 

DIVISION IIL-SOILS ... 

Chaptbb 1. — Classification of soils 

„ 2. — Soils classified according to their distance from the 

village site ... 

„ 3. — Soils classified according to their constituent elements 

„ 4. — Soils and water action 

„ 5.^-Muddy and water-logged soils 

„ 6. — High lands and low lands 

„ 7. — Ravines, mounds, &c. 

8.^-Stony soils ... .„ 

9. — Cultivated and waste 
„ 10.— Fallow ... 

„ 11. — ^Richness and poorness of soil... 
„ 12. — Irrigated and dry lands 

„ 13. — Lands which retain and which do not retain moisture 
„ 14. — Lands bearing a single and a double crop 
„ 15. — ^Terms used in connection with difEerent crops 
„ 16. — Land impregnated with salt, &c. 

DIVISION IV.-GBNBRAL AGRICULTURAL OPER- 
ATIONS 

Subdivision L— Ploughing and harrowing 

ChjlPTBE 1. — Ploughing and harrowing 

2.— Fields ... ... ..: ... '" 

,, 3.— Boundaries 

„ 4. — Farrows 

,, 5. — Miscellaneous terms used in connection with 

ploughing 
„ 6. — Ploughman and agricultural labourers generally 
„ 7. — Reciprocal assistance in cultivation 

Subdivision II.— Manuring ... 

Chaptbb 1. — Kinds of manure ... 
„ 2. — Modes of manuring 
„ 3. — Manure used as fuel ,., 

Subdivision III.— Sowing and transplanting ... 

Chaptbe 1. — Sowing 

„ 2. — Modes of sowing ... 



Pagb. 
120—121 
121—122 
132—123 
123—124 
124—126 

ib. 
126—127 
127—128 

129—134 
134—140 
141 
141—142 - 

ib. 

ib 

ib. 

142—150 

ib. 

151-156 

156—157 

159 

ib. 

159—160 
160—162 

ib. 
162—163 

ib. 
163—164 - 

ib. 

165 

165—166 

ib. 

ib. 

167 

ib. 
167—169 

ib. 

171 

ib. 

171—174 

174—175 

175—176 

ib. 

176—177 
177-178 
178—179 

ib. 

179—180 

ib. 

180—181 

ib. 

181-182 
182—183 



IV 



Chaptbb 3. — Seed-beds and nurseries ... 

„ 4. — Sowing time 
„ 5.— Transplanting 

Subdivision IV.— Digging, hoeing, and weeding 

Chaptee 1. — Digging 
„ 2. — Hoeing 
„ 3. — ^Weedmg 

Subdivision v.— Watching crops 

„ VT.-rReaping and gleaning 

Chaftes 1.— !Reaping 

„ 2. — Cutting of unripe crops 

„ 3. — Gleaning ... ... 

Subdivision VII.— Threshing and winnowing 

Chaptee 1. — The tlireshing-floor 

2. — Sheaves and Dandles 

3. — Treading out grain _ 

4. — Crops on the threshing-floor ... 

5. — Winnowing 

6. — Miscellaneous 
Subdivision VIII.— Division of crops 

Chaptee 1. — DiTision and valuation 

„ 2. — The shares into which the crop is divided 
„ 3. — Deductions and remissions 
„ 4. — Mode of division ... 

Subdivision IX.— Irrigation 

Chaftbb 1. — Irrigation generally 

„ 2. — Ends of irrigation 

„ 3. — Irrigation from canals 

„ 4. — Ditto weUs 

„ 5. — Construction of wells 

„ 6. — The lever used in raising water 

„ 7. — ^The skin bag used for drawing water 

j_ 8. — Other well appliances connected with irrigation 

„ 9. — The pathway for bullocks, &c. 

„ 10. — The workmen employed at the well 

„ 11. — The Persian wheel 

„ 12. — Irrigation from tanks and streams 

„ 13. — ^Water-lifts and other terms common to irrigation by 
the swing-basket and the spoon-lever... 

„ 14— Water-channels 



Paoe. 

184 
ib. 
ib. 

ib. 

184—185 

ib. 

185—186 

186—187 

ib. 

187—188 
ib. 
ib. 

189 

ib. 

189—191 

191—193 

193—195 

195—196 

ib. 

ib. 

196—197 

197—198 

98—199 

199—201 

ib. 

ib. 

202 

203 

203—204 

204—205 

206—207 

ib. 
208—209 

ib. 
209—210 

ib. 

ib. 

211 
211—212 



DIVISION v.— AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND 

THEIR ENEMIES ... ... ... ... 213 

Subdivision I.— Agricultural products ... ... ib. 

Chaptee 1.— Wheat ... ... ... ... 213—214 

2.— Mixed crops ... ... ... ... 214—215 

„ 3. — Barley and oats ... ... ... ... ib. 

4.— Eice ... ... ... ... 215—223 

„ 5. — Indian com or maize ... ... ... 223 — 224 

6.— The large millet ... ... ... ... 224—^25 

„ 7. — The small bulrush millet ... .;. ... ib. 

„ 8.— The small millets ... ... ... ... 225—227 

„ 9.— Pulses ... ... ... ... 227—229 

„ 10.— Peas ... ... ... ... 230 

11.— Gram ... ... ... ... 2.31—232 

„ 12. — Sugarcane ... ... ... ... 232 — ^237 

13.— Cotton ... ... ... ... 237—239 



Chiptee14. — Tobacco 

15.— Opium poppy 

16. — Hemp ... ... ... 

17.— Indigo 
18.— Otter dyes 
19. — Oil-seeds 
20.— Fibres 
21.— Betel 
22. — Garden crops 

Subdivision II.— Insects and causes of injury to crops ... 

Chapteb 1.— Destructive insects and diseases 

„ 2. — Noxious weeds ... ... ,,. 

„ 3. — Miscellaneous 

DIVISION VI.-AGRICULTDRAL TIMES AND 
SEASONS 

DIVISION VII.-CATTLE AND OTHER DOMESTIC 
ANIMALS 

Chiptee 1. — Cattle generally ... ... ... , 

„ 2.— Bulls 

„ 3.— Bullocks 

„ 4. — Cows and breeding ... ... ,„ 

„ B. — Calves ... .„ .,. 

„ 6. — Bufialoes ... 

I) 7- — Goats .,, 

„ 8. — Sheep 

9.— Pigs ... 

„ 10. — Horses, mules, and asses 

ll.^^Elephants 

II 12.^^Camels ... „, ... 

■I 13.-^Straying of cattle 

„ 14.-^Colours of cattle 

I) 15.— Hides ... ... 

II 16. — Cattle slaugtter •.. ... ... ,,, 

II 17. — Feeding cattle ... ... 

■I 18. — Pasturage ... ... 

■I 19- — Fences ... ... „. ,,, 

II 20. — Grazing-fees 

„ 21. — Cow-houses and enclosures for cattle, cattle-owners. 
&c. 

. I, 22. — Cattle-dealers 

„ 23. — Milk and its preparations ... .,, ,,, 

„ 24. — Cattle diseases 

„ 25.— Cattle fodder ... ... "' 



DIVISION VIII.— LABOUR. 
AND PERQUISITES' ... 



ADVANCES, WAGES, 



Chapteb 1. — Pay and advances to labourers 
,1 2. — ^Advances to tenants 
„ 3. — Dues paid by tenants 

DIVISION IX.-LAND TENURES ... 

Chaptes 1. — Tenures 

2. — Proprietary tenures 
3. — Intermediate tenures 
4. — Shares and sharers 
6. — Cultivating tenures 
6. — B-ents ... 



Page. 
239—241 
241-243 
ib. 
243—244 
244—246 
246—247 
247—248 
248—249 
260—257 

ib. 

257—265 
265—269 
269—270 

271—285 



287 

ib. 

ib. 
287—291 
291—292 
292—293 
293-294 

ib. 

ib. 
294—295 

ib. 
295—296 

ib. 

ib. 
296—297 

ib. 
297—298 
298-299 

ib. 
300 

ib. 

300—301 
ib. 
301—303 
304—306 
306—311 



313 

313—314 
314-315 
315—320 

321 

ib. 
321—323 
323—324 
324—325 
325—327 
327—330 



VI 



DIVISION X.-THB NATIVE HOUSE 

Chaptee 1. — The native house ... 
,f 2. — Parts of a house ... 
„ 3. — Materials used in the construction of the house 

DIVISION XL— FOOD 
Chaptee 1.— Meals ... 

>, 2. — Kinds of food 

DIVISION XII. -CEREMONIES AND SUPERSTI- 
TIONS OP RURAL LIFE 

Chaptee 1. — Marriage 

„ 2.— "Wedding ceremonies generally 
„ 3. — Special wedding ceremonies amongst the Hindus 
„ 4. — Marriage ceremonies amongst the Musalmans 
„ 6. — Birth customs generally 

„ 6. — Ceremonies peculiar to the birth of a Hindu child ... 
„ 7. — Birth customs amongst Musalmans 
„ 8. — Disposal of the dead amongst the Hindus 
„ 9. — Disposal of the dead amongst Musalmans 
„ 10. — Ceremonies at ploughing and sowing and trans- 
planting. 
„ 11. — Harvest ceremonies 
,, 12. — Miscellaneous 
„ 13. — Arbitrations, oaths, &c. 
„ 14. — Miscellaneous superstitions 

DIVISION XIII. -TRADE, MONEY-DEALINGS, AND 

ACCOUNTS ... 
Chaptee 1. — Trade and bazar accounts 

2. — Accounts between landlord and tenant 

3. — Interest, discount, and commission 

4. — Bates of interest ... 

5. — Mortgage 

6. — Miscellaneous 

DIVISION XIV. -WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 
Chaptee 1. — Measures of length 



Appendix 



2. — Superficial measure 
3. — Measures of proportion 
4. — Measures of weight 



Page. 

331 

331—332 
332-338 
338—342 

343 

ib. 
343-356 

357 
357—359 
359—363 
362—374 
374—386 
386—388 
388—390 
390—391 
391—395 
395-396 

397—398 
398—399 
399—401 
401-^402 
402—409 



411 

411—413 
413—418 
419—420 
420—421 
421—422 
422—424 

425 

425—427 

428 

428—429 

429 -431 

i — xvii 






^ 



^ 




The Country Plough. 

(Note. — The front portion of the body is given in section, so as to show the 
position of the share.) 



Division i. 



IMPLEMENTS AND APPLIANCES 

rsED iir 

AGRICULTURE AND RURAL MANUFACTURES. 



SUBDIVISION I. 

IMPLEMENTS USED IN PREPARING LAND FOR 
CULTIVATION. 



CHAPTER I.— THE PLOUGH. 

1. The ordinary country plough, is generally known as "?K har. 
Sometimes the Hindi form of the word, "^^ hal, is used. In Gaya the 
word ^T7t^ langal is also used. 

2. f<a«(iCl khinauri is Used for an old or worn plough. In the 
South-East and in North- West Tirhut this is 'a''^ thenthi, and generally 
over North-East and South Tirhut 'W'st thentha. In Shahabad it is 
?gz"?«vr khutalira. A new plough is «r^3T iia-wtha or •rrsT nautlia to 
the west, sf^i'm naicghar in Champaran, and w^varr latctha generally 
over North-East and South Tirhut. 

3. In West Bihar and South Bhagalpur ^rnio sanga, and in South 
Munger gf»l^ sdngah, mean the plough and all its appurtenances, 
as in the sentence ^Jio (or T^ ^f Jlo ) %^ ^IT^ ^f^^TT sdnga (or har 
sanga) Icne aw bahiyar, — bring the plough, &c., to the field. 

4. The various parts of the common plough are as follows : — 

5. The beam (a). — North of the Ganges this is ^fxM harts, and so 
also in Shahabad. In East Tirhut it is also called "^x^ haris. In 
Patna, Gaya, and South Munger it is ^Tf sdnrh. In South 
Bhagalpur it is- i;g is. '^fk.'i haris is, however, understood more 
or less everywhere. 

1 



2 BIHAR PEASANT tlFE. 

6. The body (i). — This is everywhere "^K /lar. 

7. The handle or stilt (c).— In Shahabad and north of the Granges 
this is 'if^^s parihath ; in the eastern portion of the latter tract it 
is also ^vn^ lagan. ^»iTirr lagnd is used in South Munger, Patna, 
and Graya, and ^tjt^ nangno in South Bhagalpur. In South- 
Western Shahabad ■qf^'??! parihat is used. The knob at the end 
of the body near the handle is in Patna '^ <-«i i chandwa, in Graya 
^T^ cMiidi, north of the Ganges and in Shahabad ■^ muth (or in 
the south-west of the district '#^^ chanduli), and in the south-east 
^fk^T muthiya. In South Bhagalpur H^s^ makri is a piece used for 
mending it when broken. The first, second, and fourth names are 
only used if it is a separate piece of wood. 

8. The notches on the beam {d), by which the share is raised 
or lowered. — In Saran %WT hherha, in Gaya ^^"^ kheiirhi, and 
in Shahabad ^fi' kherhi. In Patna they are %^ kheha, .in Cham- 
paran iiTfrr khdta, and throughout Tirhut ^T^ khdrhi. In South- 
East Tirhut it is also ^ ^^-.-^t kharha, and in South-East Bihar ^T?T 
khonrha or ^T? karh. 

9.'. The sole (e), in which the share is fixed. — 

In West Bihar it is i^K. tor or i^xj tora. In East Bihar it is 
sn^ nds or IT^T tidsa. 

North of the Ganges the thicker end of the sole is called m^ manth 
or ^jf«IT mdntha. 

10. The share if). — Everywhere -qiTT isAar. In North-East Tirhut 
also ■qnXT phdra or MiHi phdla, and in South-East Tirhut also 
^"t^THT lohdma. . 

11. The wedge fixing the beam to the body (g). — North of the 
Ganges and in Shahabad and South Munger this is xfxa pdi. Variants 
are T5T patta (Gaya), TTZT pdta (South Tirhut and Patna), and 
^T^ pdto (South Bhagalpur). 

A second wedge is sometimes added, which is known as '^'^ 
chaili everywhere north of the Ganges and in Gaya and the south- 
west, and also as "§^^t^ chelkhi in South-East Tirhut. In East 
Tirhut it is also called %^ cheri. Another name is W^^ "pdchar 
(in North-East Tirhut and Shahabad), or vgr^ pacliri everywhere 
south of' the Ganges. In South Bhagalpur it is called ^^-^ tttz^ upar 
pato. 

12. The peg (h) passing through the shaft at the end, to prevent 
the body coming off.— This is ^XJ\■^i barain generally, or ^T^ harain 



THE PLOUGH. O 

iu Champaran and Tirhut ; the latter is also used in South Hunger. 
Other forms are ^X^ baren in North-East Tirhut, ^xr^ii barhan 
in Saran, ^t^ baraini in Patna, and ^Kf baran in Shahabad. 
Other names are ^"d ^^f^^ sabh dhariya, 555? tjf^^ sat dhariya, 
in Patna, and g«^x: sabhdhar in Gaya, because it holds the whole 
plough together. Also <T^^5 taraila in South Bhagalpur, «infl^ taraili 
in South-West Shahabad, and t6fl"ir humna in Patna.* 

13. The iron clamp («) for preventing the share falling off. — 
^ir^^mi: karuar or «(r^^TTr karudm everywhere to the west. A 
variant is ^^^T^ karudri (Patna, Champaran, and West Tirhut). 
In South- West Shahabad it is also called T|;^ khura. In Patna it 
is also called sffVr jonkn, and the same name is current all over 
Bihar, sif ^ Jonki and '^«^ ckobhi are also used in South-East 
Tirhut. In North-East Tirhut a wedge is also used for the same 
purpose, and is called ;riT^ ffdsi. 

14. The yoke. — ^North of the G-anges always irmt iJato ; so also 
in Patna, Gaya, and South Munger, with a variant qn^jr pala in 
South Bhagalpur. In Shahabad and Gaya the word is generally 
^S%T^! judlh, whie-h is also sometimes used in Saran and the 
east. Sometimes it is made up of two bars. The upper bar 
then is considered the yoke proper, and is hence usually called the 
^^TS jiMJi. The lower bar is generally TTTs^f^T tarsaila. ■ 

This double-bar arrangement is not commonly, fotmd. in the 
plough yoke. It is more usually met with in the yoke for well irriga- 
tion (^^ mot) ; so also the two following pins. As a general rule TVal' 
pdlo or 'af^id jiiath (according to locality) may be safely used for 
the single-bar plough-yoke and for the double-bar irrigation yoke, 
and aj^<^| jiXa for the single-bar cart-yoke. See § 938. 

15. The outer pins, which join the two bars of the yoke, are 
^^T saila or 5jij^ samail to the west and ^ra^^ kanail to the east. They 
axe also ^"i-f^s^ kankilli in South Bhagalpur. 

16. The inner pins are^^^ samail 01 (Patna and the south-east) 
9U^ samaila and (Gaya) ^*T«JT samaiya. 

17. The leather thongs (j), which attach the yoke to the beam 
of the plough. — These are from Patna to the east of the South Gangetic 
tract, and in Champaran, •n^«T ndran, with a variant rjn...?! larni in 

* About f^T"^ liumna there is a storj of a Jolha (the proverbial fool of 
Bihar stories) who found a.humna on the road and cried out in his foolishness MWf 
T^ ^ l^"'!!, ^cft^T^ ^1^1 'pdon liar he humna, kheti Icarah bandy, — I have found 
the rear peg of a plough, I'll turn a farmer at once. 



4 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

North-West and South-East Tirhut, and optionally ^TRT laran in 
South-East Bihar, smn nadha and it^ imraili are used in Shahabad, 
and variants of the former word occur in tj i <«-^i ladlia (South-East 
Tirhut), ^^ laidha or ^iirr Iddha (North-East Tirhut), and 'fT ^"«?i' har 
ladhi or 'sr Trar har nadha over South Tirhut generally. TTVT nadha 
is also used in Graya. "^ sn ^T har nadha in Saran is only used when 
they are of string. When they are of leather, in that district they 
are called ^*«it^ duali. South Bhagalpur has ^ffT donra or %^ ledha. 

18. The ropes {k) which go round the bullocks' necks.— These 
are everywhere except in the extreme west aftifl' joti. In the extreme 
west (Saran, Champaran, and Western Shahabad) the masculine form, 
^^(TT jota, is the usual one. In North-East Tirhut they are also ^%^ 
samel or ^M'^ samail, aad in South Bhagalpur ^^sphansa. 

19. The projecting knob {I) in the middle of the upper ■ part 
of the yoke. — Hoond this the thongs which fasten the yoke to the 
beam are fixed. This is everywhere ^r^f^TT mahadetca. Variants are 
*ITT%^ mahddeo (Patna and Gaya) and »T-f •x«<r mahdawa (South 
Munger). In South Bhagalpur it is iRf»flTq-i-^o manjhwara. 

20. The notches («) near each end of the yoke. — To these the 
ropes which go round the bullocks' necks are fixed. These are ^af^ 
khdnri in Patna, with variants wif\ hhdrhi in South-East Tirhut 
and %s^ kherhi to the west. South-West Shahabad has ^ir^ khaddhi. 
In Gaya the word used is '^•n^ kanausi, and in South Bhagalpur 
»3THo khdta, while f%w^ simal or ^r^^ nakti are optional names in 

South-East Tirhut. 

21. The leaf of the yoke (w).— This is ^trxJT i^alta, ^wj palla, 
or (in South Munger) ^f^^palai and (in Saran) ■m:nJ pdta. 

22. The trough in which the share lies when fixed in the body is 
ilpt^ khol, or in South Bhagalpur 'iWl IcJioli. 

23. The bamboo whip with which the bullocks are driven is '^mrf 
paina, and its lash is fwfs efihiti in North-Bast Tirhut. Other names 
will be found in § 98 and if. 

24. ^ drill plough.— This is generally ^:w tar, with variants 
in South-East Tirhut zfft tanri and sir tor in South Munger. The 
share is zt^^% tarsui. f5a^x khilla is the nail which fastens the share 
to the body. The bamboo pipe is in West Bihar ^f^T bansa, also 
sometimes ^t;^ bansa in Shahabad. In East Bihar this is generally 
^fjIT chonga, except in South Munger, where it is "f T =^f^ har chanri. 



MATTOCKS AND SPADES. 5 

The cup at the top, into which the grain is poured, is in "West 
Bihar *rraT mah or ^rarrr malwa. In East Bihar it is v^r paila 
(sometimes spelt V[%}^j paila ot mj^ paela) or »1T^ mdli. In South 
Munger it is also ^wi^ ukhri, and in Patna ^Rfr^ akri. 

25. The sharpening of a ploughshare is called as follows in 
the various districts : — 

Shahahad : ^TK ftzT^^ dhar pitaical ; or in the south west of the 
district •^TT '^^WTR^ dhdr pJiargawal. 
Patna: ^Th; ^^•\iii«t dhdr asrdeb. 
Graya : ^^T^ asdr. 
South Munger and South Bhagalpur: ^rnc ^'•^\'^ dhdr pajdw or 

^giT asar. 
North of the Ganges generally : ■utt 'Pt^t^^ dhdr piitdwal. 
Also, North-West Tirhut and Saran : ifR: i^srr^^ dhdr pijdical. 
North-East Tirhut : VTX ^<\i}'i dhdr bandeb. 
South-East Tirhut : tbtx ^KT ^ripx phar hard Ideh. 

26. When a man wishes to plough deep he harnesses the yoke 
higher up the beam in the notolies (d). This is called in West Bihar 
^^?1T<: augdr. In North- West Tirhut it is called wnJK lagdr, and 
in the rest of Tirhut fnca tarakh. In South- West Shahahad it is 
called ^■^TJ'' awde, in South Munger ^TfT thdrha, and in South 
Bhagalpur cUf thdrh. Light ploughing is done in tlie converse way, 
and is known everywhere as %^ sev, or in North-East Tirhut %^ seb. 



CHAPTER II.— MATTOCKS AND SPADES. 

27. A large mattock is in West Bihar and Gaya ^bT^T phaura. 
Variants are itB^^T phahora (Patna and Gaya), w%txt phahora (South 
Munger), ""S^XJ phaora (Patna and Gaya), and wsKf phahura or '^■i\W 
pharuha in Shahahad. In South-West Shahahad it is 'ETJ^ pharsa. 
In Tirhut it is fi^T^ kuddr, and in South Bhagalpur and South 
Munger ^' I^k koddr. Another name current in Gaya is »5T»t jhdm 
or frwiy/iawa- In the same district '^jT>?t abhi is a heavy kind of 
wooden spade tipped with iron for hard soils, and ^gx^^f^ khiirni or 
^g^Tiff khudni is a kind of spade. 

28. A mattock with a narrower blade is ff^^ kuddri, ^-t^x. 
koddri, or ^?CT^ koddrl. South of the Ganges it is also ff^T^ kudali. 



" BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

ff^'ra kuddl and gj^TT kuddr are often used to signify also the smaller 
variety. In South Bhagalpur it is In^ Wt^JX thenthi kodar. 

29. The handle ia^z bent, and the upper end of it, which projects 
beyond the socket, fTO" hum or f^ Mr, or (in South-West Tirhut) 
g;3T mutha. Other names for this end are v^si era or '^^T'ft arani, 
and in South Bhagalpur ttrto 'pata. The ring or socket in the blade, 
to which the handle is fixed, is Tre fas or <n^ jiasa (or in South 
Bhagalpur ^j^ pa&o). In South-West Shahabad it is -^^Ri pamwanri, 
and In South Hunger (optionally) mjiei pasdta. The curved part of the 
blade is in Saran and Patna ^b^ phari. Elsewhere, north of the Ganges 
and in South Munger, 4i<.ein pharki. In Patna and South Hunger it is 
also called xb^ phal, in South Bhagalpur xRvt pharo, and in Gaya 
T5T^ phari. In Shahabad it is ^TX dhar, and in the south-west of the 
district ^^ damph. The place where the ring and the blade meet is 
■^n^ kanthi in Patna and Gaya, sj'^ nalwi in Shahabad, ^^ san or q«i5 
kanth in South Bhagalpur, and 'gf ««« in South Munger. In Saran the 
part of the handle which is grasped is i^ muth, and the corners <tii<ii 
kana. A new mattock is ■•(ec,t|<_ nawghar, and a worn one ?r^ thenthi. 




1. Bent (handle). 

2. Fdsa (socket). 

3. Siira. 



4. Phari (blade). 

5. Kanthi (neck). 



Tlis Mattock ( Phaura or Kodar) . 



THE HAKROW. 7 

CHAPTER III.— THE HARROW. 

30. This is usually the flat plank, with (in the east) a grove along 
the underside. It is dragged along the ground to break the clods after 
ploughing, while a man stands on it to give weight. In West Bihar 
and in South-East Tirhut it is called ^m henga, and in East Bihar 
more usually 4T«»1 chaunki or "^^ chauki. In Patna it is also called 
f*J<«)«^ silwe, 1ET% patwe, or ^nrj^^ lapdwri. 

31. When drawn by one pair of oxen — one ox at each end — it is 
called V'ft' fiengi in Champaran, ^»?t^ dugoKi in Tirhut, ir^ "^xi eh hara 
in South Bhagalpur, and <(t«K-< r doharda elsewhere. When drawn by 
two pair of oxen — one pair at each end — it is called in North-East 
Tirhut "^Jpl^i chaugora, in the rest of Tirhut ^<wTY^ chargori, ^ ^X[ 
do hara in South Bhagalpur, and elsewhere '^H<'«<.T chauharda. 

32. The pegs to which the hauling ropes are fastened are generally 
^^ khunti. In Shahabad they are also called ^s^ sanrusa, and in the 
south-west of the district ^^ gulli. In Gaya they are ^^T baunkha, 
in Patna and South Munger ^^^^T bahkJia, and in South Bhagalpur 
^^x;t ankora. 

33. The hauling ropes are, north of the Ganges generally, and in 
West Shahabad, ^ <.W^ barhi. North of the Ganges they are also ^w^ 
hengahi. In Shahabad chains used for the purpose are ■^f^xsinkat-, and 
in Patna and Gaya 'IW'C slkar when used with four bullooks abreast. 
These words are also used in North Tirhut. In Patna they are also "g^* 
5rTX«r chauk naran when of rope. In South-East Tirhut they are also 
called ^fK'srK marikhar, and in South Bhagalpur siTi^Ct jagdori. In 
South Munger they are ^W': slkar when made of chain, and iif^^K 
marikhar when made of rope, and iTMiTtrT majhautar is the rope or leather 
strap joining the two yokes when four bullocks are used. So also in 
Patna and Gaya. The last word is »wr«n: majhotar in East Tirhut. In 
East Tirhut, when made of leather they are called ■JTT'r mairan or ^^«r 
merhan, and when made of rope «'^\ barJia or^r^ barhi. Sometimes 
long strips of bamboo are made to serve as hauling ropes. They are 
then called in South Munger gr^^ kudandi, in South Bhagalpur 
^^•aTtift bansjoti, and elsewhere '^XT^T araun. 

34. The channel in the lower part of the plank to break the clods 
is in South Bhagalpur ^^ifl" ghaghri or ^TT ghai, in South Munger 
m-^-iykliadlm, and elsewhere 'a^ khaddha. The channel is generally the 



8 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

hollow of the stem of the talipot palm, the harrow being composed 
of the split half of a log of that tree. 



■• 1. fi«»ya (harrow). 2. SJmnti (pegs). 3. JBar/ii (ropes). 

TIw Harrow {Henga or Chaiiki). 

35. The cylindrical roller is rarely used in the field. It is called 
everywhere by a corruption of its English name, viz. '^Y^ rol. 
The block itself is called x(^ palla (Patna), ^^ kari (Gaya), iJ*i<JT 
ektlM in Shahabad, and . <!i*«a^ laJcri in South-West Shahabad. 
Elsewhere it is simply "^^ cJiaunki or ^T^ chauki. 

36. Sometimes the harrow is made of two parallel planks joined 
together. This is called ^Vr Jienga or W^ chauki, &c., as above. 



CHAPTER IV.— RAKES USED IN FIELD WORK. 

37. Eakes are seldom used. Sometimes a bundle of thorns is 
dragged over a field to soften the surface when it has been baked hard 
by the sun after rain or irrigation. This has no special name. In parts 
of Tirhut the "^^m kanta or <^y"l<..n Jchakhorni is a sort of rake or harrow 
worked by oxen to loosen the soil and extricate weeds from a crop of 
young rice. A h-^'^Tk'^i poclipJim-iya or (in Saran) Tt^fr^ geUini is a 
kind of plough with five shares used in indigo factories. 



CHAPTER V. -PICKAXES, PITCHFORKS, &c. 

38. >4 p/cAaxe.— North of the Ganges this is '^trrgainta, south 
of the Ganges it is ^'tit gainta or JiVt gainti. In South Bhagalpur it is 
?i'%T gaincha, and in South MuDger ?i"r«tT gata. 

39. The dredger, used in well-sinking, has various names. In 
Sliahabad, Saran, and South Tirhut it is '^^•srr chaJna, and in Champaran 




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BASKETS. 9 

■ax!^ tarcJihi. In North-East Tirhut it is ^i\ chhUi, ^^ kathul'i, 
or qftiiJT pathiya. -^^ chhlti is also used in South-East Tirhut, where 
also occur JR^T^ff kathwat and (also in Shahabnd) tt^T?^ tagari. 
Elsewhere south of the Ganges it is ^*aT gainta or '^'jFt khanti, and in 
South Hunger fffer chhita. 

40. The pointed iron spear ior tapping the well-spring also has 
various names, viz. i^jyr hhvmta north of the Ganges generally, Ji^il^l' 
gajara in Saran, and rfhflfi^ gobhni in South-West Tirhut. In Gaya it 
is igT*rrirr Jchohhna, and in Shahabad ■<dt« i«r khobhan, hut in the south-west 
of the latter district it is sk. ' ^i larha. In South Hunger it is ^vm 
dehhan, and in South Bhagalpur it is JisiTfT goj^ra or 'a^ khanti. 

41. The hoolied stioli for pulling down fruit from trees is generally 
^mr lagga or ^'Ji^ laggi. The hook of this is '^^[T^ ankusi or (in 
South Bhagalpur) ?rr^ kdni. The long pole with a small net at the 
end to catch the fruit as it falls is ^aj jliola, ^^ kJionchi, or 
(in Saran) ^^Kt^Jhora. Another optional name in South Hunger is 
oi^rrw^ jalkhari. 

The short stick thrown up into fruit-trees to bring down fruit is 
jfi??"^ jhatha, and also (in Saran) ^*^ lagusi. 



SUBDIVISION II. 

IMPLEMENTS USED IN SOWING. WEEDING, 
AND IRRIGATION. 



CHAPTER I.— BASKETS. 

43. Baskets are generally woven of bamboo slips or twigs. Unless 
otherwise stated, this may be assumed of all the following. 

43. Baskets used specially by the sower are called generally ^rl^ 
om, ^Y^ ori, or ^tfeJT orii/a (sometimes made partly with the fibre of 
the leaves of the tal palm) ; also we meet, to the west, ■a?^ chhainti, and 
to the east ^2t chhita (a large one), «?tEt chhlti (a small one), or <aft 
dauri. South of the Ganges they are also called in Patna ^rr hatia, 
(also in Shahabad) ^^ daura, or ^J^f dauri (sometimes made of the 
culm of the sih grass, andropogon mitricatum), in Gaya (also in North- 

2 



10 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

East Tirhut) vfir^ pathiya (also used for feeding cattle), and in South 
Munger 'If^'^T khmichiya. The only difference amongst all these is that 
in the case of the <tir daura and ?^^ dauri the bottom is woven of 
bamboo sKps, like a mat. 

44. There are likewise several other kinds of baskets, used indis- 
criminately for this and other domestic and agricultural purposes. 
Thus, small straw grain-baskets are ^it^ changeli or ^^t'^ changeri, and 
sometimes 'gr^ ddli or ^r^gT daliya, especially towards the east. 
In Patna and South Munger they are called ^^^^ batri. Another 
very similar basket (but still smaller) is called very generally ^^ 
maunni or iftftnm mauniya, also ^tt hatta in Patna, Graya, and South 
Munger, and ^^^ phuluU'm East Tirhut. A large open basket 
made of split twigs of bamboo generally woven up with the fibre of 
the leaves of the tal palm is called i\ <t»«'^ I tokra, ■rr^iT dhaka, ^T^ 
dhdki, ^^^ ora, or %Vr chainta. A smaller variety is called ?ifon ganja, 
il^vf*! tokri, WNt dhakiya. When the bottom is very finely woven, 
BO as even to hold water, it is called vj l ^^jT oraisa. The "ur^ dhama is 
an open basket made of rattan. The ^^^ khaincha or ^t^t khancha is 
a large coarse basket made of twigs of cytisus cajan {rahar) or tamarisk 
(Jhaii). South of the Granges we also find ^^ deli. A smaller 
basket of the same kind is known as ^T^ khanchi (also wt^ khanjhi 
in North-East Tirhut), '^^^^^ khanchiya,^s^V^ khac/ioli, "f^^ pathuli 
(Gaya), 'Tt'flTr^ nonlhari (Patna), or (South Bhagalpur) ^flv^f^^ 
damhariya. The ^ir^KT dagra, tji»'Q' dagrl, also called south of the 
Granges ^xnr daura, ^^ dauri, or (in South Bhagalpur) ^rrwT data, is 
a large shallow basket. These are all made of either bamboo twigs or 
slips, except the -^t^T <?aMm or xj'^ dauri (see above). In Shahabad 
^i^i; karui or ^t^ doki, and north of the Granges f^'S'^ sikahuti 
or fWT«ft sikauti, is a little basket made of the stalks of the mun;' grass. 
45. A broken basket is flffi«j^ chhitni, or in Gaya 4«t««iT chhatna, 
or in South Bhagalpur f^d«<<f chhitna* The wt'^ jhampi or >sPnjT 
jhampiya is a little basket with a lid. It is also called uicTl pauti or 
^fif^T pautiya (being then generally made of munj grass) and ^ZT^ 
petari (made of bamboo or rattan). A larger kind is called wr<r\jhdmpa^ 
The lid of all these is called T^T^^je/;a«t or ^ttt jhdmp. "s^^thaicha 
or ^"1x changor, or in Shahabad bVt thaincha or ^frr thlncha, is 
a kind of large open basket. TSi<si«>si«^ phulddli is a flower-basket. 



* A common curse amongst Gaya women is T^cTt'^ ^^^^ ^T'^ chhitni 
larhni Idqau, — may your wealth be swept away. 







From a photograph. 
A Collection of Baskets and of Other Articles of Basket-u-ork. 



1. Oriya. 

2. Chhaintas of various sizes. 

3. Daura. 
4 & 4(1. Dauris of various sizes. 

5. Deli. 

6. EJiaiacha. 

7. Tap. 

8. Tokri. 

9. Dagri. 

10. Dagra. 

11. Taraju (scale-pan). 



MATEBIi.LS. 



Nos. I and 8 are made of split bamboo 
. twigs, woven up with the fibre of 
the leaves of the tal palm. 
4a, of the culm of the sik grass {andro- 

pogon muricafum). 
5 & 6, of tamarisk (jhau). 
7, of rahar {cytisus cajan). 
11, of bamboo twigs. 

13, of sirki (the upper joint of sac- 
19 Kokiin' ■) -^ . • ^ eharum procerum). 

13 &ap I (Winnowmg sieves). The rest are of bamboo sUps. 

14. Chalni (sifting sieves). 



BROOMS. 11 

^Ta?t sq^'i is one with a handle. In North-East Tirhut t,^Yk mator 
is a basket used by betel-growers {^x\ baral). 

46. ^^ deli is the basket employed by coolies when working on 
roads. In the North-Western Provinces the same word is used for a 
basket in which wild fowl, fish, or young pigs are kept. 

47. A winno wing-basket or sieve is qilwrjM kokup, or in 
North-West Tirhut ^tpxt dagra. A basket for sifting grains of 
various sizes is ^jr sup. A scale-pan is «na^ taraju or fi<.aj^S: tarjni. 

48. There are several kinds of baskets used for catching fish, 
viz. zrq' tap, ^rrr tapa, «T^ tapi ; »if aj ganj or JifaiT ganja ; ^XM\ 
saraila (Tirhut) ; ^nrr anta in East Tirhut ; tt^-W parwe or V| T <«<n 
arsi in P.atna ; ^T'^ arsi, t^stt penoa, or '^x[ saira in South Bhagalpur ; 
and wWr chhopa in Shahabad. The last is also worn over the head 
and down the back in the rainy season to keep the wearer dry, and 
is called in Saran ^Vr^ cliliopi. 

49. South of the Ganges ^?r^ bhaunkiis a large basket with a 
narrow mouth. ?iKJ^iT tarauna in Gaya is a basket made of tamarisk 
for carrying refuse, and in Patna ^tfJi'srr bogiya is a small basket 
for eowdung. In South-East Tirhut ^jt chang is a large basket 
equal to four zt^T^ tokri for carrying chaff. z'viT': tangaur is a similar 
kind, but made of rahar, and rougher. 

50. In Saran »(<«WT tarchha is a basket used in weeding 
poppies. 2TT tap, ZTTV tapa, or «Ti?t' tapi, or (in South-East Tirhut) ^fri 
kJiomp, and in Saran '>ifim jhamp, is a basket under which chickens are 
kept. These are generally made of rahar (ct/Hsus cajaa). 

51. ^"^ batti or ^T^ bad are the twigs used for weaving baskets. 



CHAPTER II.— BROOMS. 

52. These are used for various agricultural and domestic purposes. 

53. The ordinary sweeper's broom is *«T^ jharu and ^?rrs^5T 
jharua or »rf^ jharua. In South-West Shahabad it is also called 
^«K sethan, and near Ara ^=^ kuncha. South of the Ganges, to the 
east, it is called ^f«r borhan or »n^««ft borJini. 

54. Tie broom used by women in sweeping out the house and 
also by sweepers is ^wfl' barhni, or in North-Bast Tirhut also ^Tf^ 
barhan or ^TS^ barhani. According to Crooke it is so called because the 
family is supposed to prosper {barhna). It is also called towards the 
west ^^ kunchi. 

55. The broom used for sweeping up the grain on the threshing- 
floor has various names. North of the Ganges, in Saran. it is f%TT^«r 



12 



BIHAR FEASANT LIFE. 



sirhath, and in North-West Tirliut ^j^.^ tf sarhath. In Champiiran it 
is ^^T^^ kharhara, and in the rest of Tirhut 'irVr kharra. South of the 
G^anges it is, in Gaya and South Hunger, ^i^ kuchcha, in Shahahad ^"^T 
kuncha, and in the south-west of the district ft^ kunchi or %«i«i sethan. 
In South Bhagalpur it is Mjzt jhatal or 'aK^KT kharhara. 

56. The broom used by grain-parchers for turning the grain 
which is being parched is *ST<f jMru in Patna and Gaya, •)3««ft larhni 
in the south and east generally, <^ <..«! i lama in North-East Tirhut, 
fi5^«ft chhvpni in South-East Tirhut, "^^•?l' chalauni to the west of the 
North Gangetio tract, and in South-East Bihar waji^n^ bhunjnathi. 

57. The long twig broom used for sweeping up leaves and rubbish 
is north of the Ganges, to the west, ^'^T^ kharJiara, and to the 
east ^^T kharra. South of the Ganges, in South Bhagalpur, it is 
"sr^.^it kharharo ; but in Patna -mnjhanta, in Gaya WTf^ jharu, in 
Shahabad fii<«^t< air hat or v^v^jhankhi, in the south-west of the same 
district vfiKi'if jharna, and in South Hunger v^^ jhdnia OT'<ifi^^j/iatami. 

58. To sweep is in Patna and Gaya <l-^l<«! boharab or ^Ts«r 
barhab ; the former is also used in the south-east. To the west it is ^^K^ 
baharal, and in Tirhut Hi^'T barhcb, MiTK^ jhdrab, or ^filfx ^f^ t^ 
jhdri jhuri deb. 



CHAPTER III.— IMPLEMENTS USED IN WEEDING, &c. 

59. The ^<;«Tr khurpa is a sort of hoe used for loosening the 
earth round young plants or in weeding. 

60. Of this the iron blade is ^^suT ^•AM'TJa, or in North-East Tir- 
hut Tre^ pdsang. The handle ia'^'z 
bent. The iron ring-fastening in the 
blade is gi^ sdm or ^nn sdmi, and also 
in Shahabad '^ft^lT churiya, and in the 
south-west of the district 5?t«^ mundri. 
The spike of the blade which goes into 
the handle is north of the Ganges snT 
ndr, and south of it ■inx ndr or ^JB^ 
danti or (South-West Shahabad) ^T'g^ 
ddnri. Towards the east we find, north 
of the Ganges, an optional variant 
^TX Idr, and in South Bhagalpur «irT^ 
Idru. 

61. A smaller instrument for 



1. Sen (handle). 

2. Xhurpa or Ichurpi (blade). 

3. Ndr or ddnri (spike). 

4. Sdm (ferule). 



The Hoe {Khwpa or Khurpi). scraping grass or weeding is called, 



THE SLIKO. 13 



when the blade is curved, igr^ hhurpi, and (south of the Ganges) 
when it is straight m^.«?^ pasni. An optional name for the curved 
variety in Graya is ^^ bankua. 



CHAPTER IV.— IMPLEMENTS USED IN CONNECTION WITH 

IRRIGATION. 

62. The beds formed in a field for irrigation are called r**JTO 
hiyari. In South Bhagalpur they are called ^r^T^t hedri. In South 
Hunger vrfK^ ganrdri are smaller sized beds for the same purpose. 

63. These are made with an implement with a handle and board 
fixed at the bottom, like a rake without teeth. This is worked by 
a single man, much as a rake is used. In the North- Western Provinces 
it is usually pulled with a rope, but not so usually in Bihar. It 
is called generally to the south of the Ganges T^rft pharuhi, and in East 
Tirhut 'S^i^ pharuha. North of the Ganges, to the west, it is called <*ss^ 
phahuri. In South Bhagalpur it is called i*^*t|i pliarua, and in South 
Munger 4i^<-^ pharhi. In Gaya it is called"Tfi^ peiirni. 

64. A wooden shovel used in distributing the water in a field is 
called ^«rr hatha or ^'KrT hattha. South of the Ganges it is also called 
^TPrr dbha, in South Bhagalpur fw?T chhitta, and in South Munger 
^rerprr kathaua. 

65. Other appliances used in connection with irrigation from 
wells, tanks, or streams will be found in the chapter on irrigation. 



SUBDIVISION III. 
APPLIANCES USED IN FIELD WATCHING. 



CHAPTER I.— THE SLING. 



66. This is generally ^<!i'<4Jl<J dhelmds or "f^r^TO dhelwd)is. In 
Patna, Gaya, and (optionally) Shahabad it is also called "?^>r^f^ 
dhenkwdns. Another name current in Shahabad is 'sgr^TO cUiekuds. 



14 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



In South-East Tirhut it is also called ^^^ dhelaun. In South 
Hunger and South Bhagalpur it is T^^x. dinror. gxs^w gtirdel or, 
to the east, ^%«f^ guleti is a pellet-bow. 



CHAPTER II.— THE SCARECROW. 

67. This is generally ^ dhuh, ^^ dhuha, or ^^T dhua. In 
Patna it is y«j.<siT putla, and in Qaya ^^ dkahi. 

68. A scarecrow pulled by a string and himg on a tree is north of 
the Granges <:<4'><d<4«^| dhabdhabwa, s^.TT thaTcra to the west, 5^iTsf%«lT 
dhakdhakiya in South- West Tirhut, '^*iy't akasi in South-East Tirhut, 
and elsewhere dK* ^»rr tdrak chhaja or ^^rr dliud. South of the 
Ganges it is in South-West Shahabad «^«-<|^| daniliaua, elsewhere 
in the district •swwcjTf dmnko. In Patna it is ^44«4<|'<!ir damkaula, 
and in Gaya <i<sl»<»l'*<ll dJialkaua. In South Bhagalpur and South 
Hunger it is ^s<".<*j or s^~*l harka. 

69. Cultivators also usually put an old black earthen pot in a 
field to keep off the evil eye, which is called in Tirhut at^rrsr totka, 
or in North-East Tirhut ?^t taula. South of the Ganges we 
find also zl^s^iT totka, with variants ztzTwj totma (Gaja) and 2>s^T 
totwan (South. Bhagalpur). In Shahabad it is called ^Vin tona or 
sfoiT ^TtoiT tiajar gojar, and in South Hunger ^r^T ■ggn; najar 
gtijar. Another general name is ^f^TT ^n^ karikhai hanri or 
-•ir^J^f^ '^f^^ karkhahi hanriya, from ^[f^ karikha or ^i^iigT 
karkha, ' soot.' Local variants of this last word are qro^ karkhi (Shah- 
abad) , ^rrftw karikfi (Gaya) , and cfcx.y^ karkho (South Bhagalpur) . Gen- 
erally this pot is marked vsdth lime (^ttt chuna). Thus, a man of Ara 
would say -If^^TW ^ift^ ^nm % ^^ If ^ f % t^l^ t ^T^^ ^r^ hanriya 

men karikha laga ke chunna ke (Ik de ke kket men dhai aical Jala he 

has come back after setting up in the field the pot on which he has 
laid soot and marks of lime. 



CHAPTER III.-THE WATCHMAN'S PLATFORM. 

70. This is known as v^r^ machdn, with an optional variant wH 
mdnch in the west. 



THE SICKLE OR REAPING-HOOK. 15 

71. The shed over the platform has various nara.es, viz. north of 
the Ganges ^rfif^ j'fwmpri a.nd^tf'V^ Momjm generally , ^^r^ chhapri 
(North-West Tirhut), ^-^ chhahi "(North-East Tirhut), and ^Rft^ 
lagauri (South-East Tii-hut). South of the Ganges we have ^^r^j 
chhapra to the west and M\^\ maruka and *M-^ chhapri to the east. 

72. v:^\ maral and also (in East Tirhut) ■fRT marra, T^f^ringohiya 
(South-West Tirhut) and ^J^T^ palani, is a shed on the ground without 
any platform. 



SUBDIVISION IV, 



IMPLEMENTS USED IN HARVESTING. 



CHAPTER I.-THE SICKLE OR REAPING-HOOK. 

These are either toothed or with a sharp cutting edge. 

73. [a) With a sharp cutting edge. — These are everywhere 
4^^T hansua. A. kind with a heavier blade is called MyR*<r paghariya 
or TETC^T pagharua, or ^gin badhra, -^^^ badhri, ir^m badhariya, 
or ^^T^ badhdru. It is also called in East Tirhut 'fffh^r sangiya, 
in South Bhagalpur ^rr=[o ddba, and in Gaya {^r^-^ chilohi. 

(6) With teeth, — These are called ^^wr dantula, from -^rii ddnt, 
' a tooth.' They are also called ^f^^T kainchiya, of which ^rf^T kachiya 
is a variant in South-Bast Bihar. 

74. ^rs^ hansuli is a smaU sickle without teeth, principally used 
hy girls for cutting spinach (^T»r sag), and by toddy-sellers (ttt^ pasi) 
for cutting palm-trees. The ^^.^^d pahsul is a fixed upright sickle, 
which is kept in position by the foot resting on the wooden base in 
which it is fixed, and is used for cutting spinach and other vegetables. 
In Patna and Gaya, ^tTT katta is an instrument used by Doms for 
cutting bamboos, and qsff^T kyoncJia is an instrument for barking wood. 

75. The above names are also used for the curved part of the 
blade. The straight part of the blade is called ?nx mr or (to the east) 



16 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



^rrx: lar. Other names are ^r!^ c?a«n (South-West Shahabad), ^fx^T 
narii/a (&aya), and sn^ nab (Patna). The handle m'n^ bent. 




1. Sunsaa. 

2. JECansuU. 

3. 3"ar (spike). 
i. Bent (handle) 



The ordinary Sickle (hansiia), and thai of the Toddy-seller (hamuli). 



CHAPTER II.-RAKE3 USED ON THE THRESHING-FLOOR. 

76. This is ^^•n akhaina. It is a kind of hooked stick used for 
pushing the sheaves under the bullocks' feet while the grain is being 
trodden out. This word is only used south of the Ganges. Local 
variants are ^■srr kJiena and ^%«rT akheiia (Patna, Qaya, and South 
Hunger), ^'it"! akhain in South- West Shahahad, and ^^sfr ukMino in 
South Bhagalpur. When it has five prongs, it is called M-t^.yT pachkha 
north of the GTanges, in South Hunger, and in Shahahad, and ■qiVl 
pancha also in the last district. This is also called in South Hunger 
Vl-^'isi pdnchakh. 



CHAPTER III.— GRANARIES. 

77. These are of four kinds — 

1st. — A structure of straw or brushwood in the open air. — 
These are ^^TX bakhar, ■^^^^ bakhari, or ^^ kothi. Local names are 
^■it berhi north of the Ganges generally, ^^ thek in South Bhagal- 
pur, and ^^T^ badari (also in South Bhagalpur) or ^^rr^x munhar 



GRANARIES. 17 

in South-Easfc Tirhut. In Tirhut a »fl^ gpli is a round ^t^ kothi ; 
oj'l'i.l jabra in Graya is a small granary. 

2nd. — Underground pits for storing grain. — These are everywhere 
^arx khad, and also (south of the Ganges) 'aTrrr Icliatta or <sir<ir khata. 
Local names are ^T'C chaur in South- East Tirhut, wy^ mat in Gaya, 
and vn^ khddh or 'a^ kJiadlw, in South Bhagalpur. 

^rd. — Granaries inside the house. — In Saran ^:^ dehri is a 
small circular closet for holding grain, and is generally made of wattle 
and mud. The '^€\ kothi^ ■<fcl(ci<dr kolhila, or ^tflf^ Icothili is every- 
where generally made of sun-baked mud, and is larger. 

4:ih. — A space surrounded by mats for holding grain is t^ tkek. 
A granary made of straw only is in South Bhagalpur 'af^s^ k/ionckri, 
and in South Hunger ^«r bandh. 

78. The support of the granary is »ft^ gora generally. Local 
optional names are ^y.«(i besaa (South-East Tirhut), '^^^ baisak (East 
Tirhut and South Munger), T|TCT MuTO (Patna), and ^t^ ota (Shah- 
abad). 

79. The cover of a ^#t kothi is everywhere except in South- 
East Bihar ^^x^ pehan or ^■^••ti pehna. In Sai-an and Gaya it also 
means the plug or stopper (see § 81). Local names are HM**!! jhapna 
(South Tirhut and South Munger), <iM.«il dhapna (East Tirhut and 
South Bhagalpur), and ^raj chdk (Patna, Gaya, and South Munger). 
The opening covered by it is ^'^^^■^ munhkhar in Saran. In the same 
district the cover of a •(<aH'^ bakhari is ^ffT klwmp. 

80. The bottom is called everywhere"^ jtje>wi?, T^ penda, ^-^ 
pendi, ox^^"^ peni. The South Bhagalpur form is, however, ^f^ ^«k?o. 

81. The hole through which the grain is removed is generally ^jT 
an or '^ptt ana, local names being '^VJ'i am or ifl'^.yr mohkha in 
East Tirhut and Patna, and «"? munh north of the Ganges. The 
plug for filling the hole is -^Sjsn^^^ dabkan, or in the south-east '^^^ 
mundan. In Saran and Gaya it is also ^"^T^ pehan (see § 79), and in 
South Bhagalpur ^'tft thepi. 

82. A heap of grain is f^ dheri or xx^ ras. In Gaya it is also 
fg^ silli. In South Munger a smaller heap is called gf^ kuddi. 

83. Various earthen vessels are used for holding grain. These are 
north of the Ganges generally t^ kunra,wrz mat, ^-^ g/iaila, or 
■|ff«IT hanriya. w^^rt matuka, sff? chhonrh, '^^ cherui are also used,, but 
principally to the west. South of the Ganges we have =^^^1 churua, 

•3 



18 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

^^f khum, 4i^xx khwa, and »?zr^ matM in Patna, Gaya, and South 
Hunger (the last two also in Tirhut) ; iff^ chhonr in Shahahad, and 
^^ kunrl in South Bhagalpur. 

84. The covers of these are the same as those mentioned above ; 
the local names are ^rqiMfT dhakna (Shahahad), »**••) r jhakna (Bast 
Tirhut and Gaya), and %^^ mundan (East Tirhut and South 
Bhagalpur). 

85. An earthen cupboard similar in shape to the «»ir«»tg1 kothili, 
but used for keeping cooking-pots and curd-dishes, &c., is called ei"i«M 
jabra. 



SUBDIVISION V, 

IMPLEMENTS AND APPLIANCES USED IN CON- 
NECTION WITH CATTLE. 



CHAPTER I.— THE FODDER-CUTTER AND TROUGH. 

86. This is ?iTr9 ganrds, ^i^re garans, f\^jw[ ganrdsa, or ^'Si^ 
ganrdsi. Local variants are <n^^ ganrsi in North-West Tirhut and 
?rf fgr gardnsa in South Tirhut. The word ?f^j*D ganrdsi is the usual 
one. It has a short heavy handle. Other similar implements are "^J^ 
ddw, ^irr^ tangdri (Tirhut), and (in Patna, Gaya, and South Munger) 
^iTfi« kdkut or ■<*T^<i kdnkut. The ji^to ganrds and ^f ■reT ganrdsa are 
properly heavy implements at the end of a long handle, four or five 
feet long. They are weapons rather than fodder-cutters. 

87. The heavy wooden part immediately over the blade of the 
fodder-cutter is called ^iX^jdli, ^f^mjaliya, or j^iv^ mungri. Some- 
times, especially to the east, it is simply called "^z bent, 

88. The blade is ?r«T^ ganrdsi, &c., as above. The handle is 
north of the Ganges ^ muth or ^^ muthi, and south of itVz bent. 

89. The knob at the end of the handle has various names, viz. 
Tj^ era north of the Ganges generally, fK Mr in North-East Tirhut, 
' 5<t««)t thekiea in South- West Tirhut and in Shahahad, and ^T?^ drhak 
in South- West Shahahad. Elsewhere no special name has been noted, 
vinless we include ^ muth and ^fa^T muthiya in South-East Bihar. 

90. The spiked part of the blade, which goes into the handle, is 
TgTT khura or xg€^ khuri to the west generally. Also, north of the 
Ganges, to the west, iTfer gora, and in North-East Tirhut '^^fff chohhi. 



THE MUZZLE AND BLINKERS. 19 

A very general name is sttt nar (East Tirhut, Patna, ShahaBad, and 
South Munger), srr^ ndri (Gaya), or ^■pc Idr to the east generally. 




Fodder-cutter (ganrSsi) and block (tlieha). 

91. The blook on which the fodder is eu^— This is north of the 
Ganges and in Shahabad S'ST' th^ha. Another name is •<rfT;^ra' parikath 
(Shahabad and North-East Tirhut), of^^^^ pariath (South-East Tirhut 
and Gaya), ^iK'^^ parlcattho or "^k^s paraitha (South Bhagalpur), and 
MV-^^l parhala (South Munger). Other local names are ^i^i^rerijrr 
kutkatna (Shahabad) and fiitt^T iiisuha (South-West Shahabad). 

92. The feeding-trough — When made of earthenware this is 
STK ""''^ or 1T^ nand generally, a local variant being ^^ lad or ^Tjr^ 
Ided towards the east. 

93. In Champaran and North-East Tirhut ^mi pathiya is a 
basket used for the same purpose ; elsewhere it is wt^^ oraisa. In 
the same tract a wooden trough for feeding cattle is called ii'R ndw, 
a general name for the same being q«««t.i kathra. In Shahabad ^^^ 
charan or "^K^ oharni, in Gaya iiT^ gauri, and in South Munger 
sfN^ gonri, mean a long feeding-trough of sun-dried mud. 



CHAPTEB II.-THE MUZZLE AND BLINKERS, 

94. The net cattle-muzzle, which is put on them when treadino- 
corn and at other times, is ^^:^ jab ; local variants being sn^T jdLa 
(Gaya) and oTt^ j'dhi (East Tirhut, Patna, and South Bhagalpur). 
North of the Ganges (to the west) ^ix^jdbi means a smaller muzzle 
put on calves to prevent them eating earth. Instead of stt^ jdb, srr^ 
Jdli is used in South Munger. 'ff^iTl' moliri in Shahabad is a rope 
attached to the head-rope of an animal to prevent it opening its mouth 
too wide. 

95. The conical wooden frame put on a calf to prevent it sucking 
its mother is ^^ dll, with for local variants ^^^rr dtla (Shahabad 



20 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



and the east) and i#^^ dilo in South Bhagalpur. In South Bhagal- 
pur another name is ^^^ kantelo. 

96. In Patna ^x^ dhdtha is a piece of wood tied round a bul- 
lock's mouth to prevent it eating. Elsewhere strings are used, and are 
called in Tirhut "^^^t berua (west), ^fsrt kajai or ^JTT^ lagami (south- 
east), ^T tema, (north-east), and ^^njuna (east generally). 

97. Blinkers for cattle are in Saran and Champaran^^T^^T^ anpat, 
and in Tirhut and the south-east ^ft^r^^T kholsa. To the east generally 
they are also 'srt^ AAo^ ox ^t^ khbla. In Shahabad they are ^^n^ 
chhopni or sft^fTjjr nokia, in Patna "^fV^T^ andhiyari, and in Gaya "^R^ 
andheli. In Patna ^l^^s^ tohni or ^^t khola are the blinkers used 
in oil-j)resse3 or sugar-mills. The cloth tied over the blinkers is 

ankhmundni. 



CHAPTER III.— THE WHIP AND GOAD. 

98. The whip used in driving bullocks is ^T pena or ^srr paina. 
The latter is sometimes spelt inniT poena. 

99. Its lash is generally ^TTJ^ ehabhuk, with a variant ^tj<^ 
chahhuki in the north-west. In North-East Tirhut it is fld^ eJihiti. 
^fzT santa is found in South Bhagalpur, and local variants of this are 
^TZT sala in Saran and South Tirhut and ^z^^rr satka in Shahabad. 
^^'ctH chharki is used in Patna and Gaya, and Twit jhitti in South 
Hunger. 

100. The thong at the end of the lash is »B^ jhabbu in North- 
West Bihar, Tvx% (the knot) in North-East Bihar, ?5^t phunna in 
Gaya, Pb^ phik or ■gs^^rr phudna in South Bhagalpur, and ^^.«)i 
phundna in Shahabad. 

101. The spike at the end of the stick is ^x^ arm,' of which 
^r^^T araua is a local variation in Patna and South Hunger and ^rrc 
dr or ^re^T arua in South Bhagalpur. 

102. An elephant-goad is ^ipg ankus or ^Tfi^ dnkus. A spear 
for driving elephants is wraT bhald, ^x'-wi barchha, ssxj^ barchhi, or (in 
Shahabad and East Tirhut) ^SH ballam. Another name is aisjWT^ 
gajbak or (Patna and Gaya) vToJ^-nr gajhag. The wooden club studded 
with iron spikes, with which an elephant is beaten over the tail, is 
simply ^TTv^ mugdar. The ^^r^ akuri is a wooden goad for young 
elephants, and when made of bamboo it is called (in South- West 
Tirhut) ^mTTX kanar. 

103. ^BTT dang (East Tirhut and Patna), ^vi deng (Gaya), and 
^fzT sonta, are short sticks which may be used for driving cattle, 



R0PE3. 21 

Vr^ ckhakun, w^^ chhahuni, or (South-West Shahabad) f^-.^rsi 
chhitlcan and (Gaya) f^^K pitaur, are twig whips used for the same 
purpose. 

104. A horse-whip is ^ftn or ^tfT kora or ^r^^ chabuk, and a 
spur ^RtVt kdntd, 

CHAPTER IV.— HOBBLES TOE. CATTLE. 

105. These are WTT chhdn or ^ff^ chhdnd* Other local words are 
^ pairh or ^t paw-Aa or (in East Tirhut) ^q«T patkar or WT painkar 
and (in South Bhagalpur) jtI^T'^ gordni. 

106. A piece of wood tied to the neck of a vicious or runaway 
animal is i^^ thelair or (to the west) a^K thakar. In South-West 
Tirhut it is 3t*T tJwkar, and in North- West Tirhut dl*.^ thokra. 
In Patna it is i^qn^T tliekra, and in South Hunger t"^ thekur. North 
of the Granges we often find JJt^KT mungra or jS?iiKt mungri, and 
other local names are ^4|«<.«i dagran (Gaya) and »IXT?T garhar or 
^l^J^'st garharo in South Bhagalpur. 

107. A cattle chain is ft^T sikkar, ^hix sllear, Rj**«<l s('^r« or 
f^cfci ^' t sjArz. Sometimes these are spelt with a dotted r ; thus ft?ss 
sikkar, &c. 



CHAPTER v.— ROPES. 

108. A. Those used for cattle.— The roT^QioT tethering cattle is 
everywhere ^^^^^l pagha, and also in South Bhagalpur wtxjor or ^3T 
gentha. In Saran and Gaya it is also tui.^ taghi. The knots or 
loops by which they are tied are ^^\KJor or ^^rr theka. 

109. In Gaya and the south-east %^ seli is a hair string tied 
from the neck to the feet of a calf when milking a cow. In Gaya it 
is also called %^ sel. 

1 10. A tethering-rope, by which cattle are tied to a peg; is 
?fr^ chhan generally, or (locally) ^^ gurha (North- West Tirhut, Gaya, 
and Shahabad), <riT^f^ goranw (South- West Shahabad), vrffK gorar 
(Patna and Gaya), »rt^T^«r gorawan (Gaya and South Hunger), 
■^^'CT^^ derlMurdjor (Gaya and North- West Tirhut), »i^ malau 
(South-East Tirhut), 5iK jor (Champaran and North-East Tirhut), 
and ^^ joTo ot i(tsj^ gordni (South Bhagalpur). Most of these 

* As in the proverb JK--?! Hwr? VXj[, -^r^ -^k^ ^Wp? gadJia gelah 
sarag, chhdn lagle gelainhi, — the donkey went to heaven and took his hobble 
with him ; i.e., vices follow one to a future life. , 



22 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



refer rather to the kind of knot or loop with which they are tied than 
to the rope itself. 

111. A double tether for wild cattle, held by two men round the 
animal's neck, is north of the Ganges - ^^tul^ dobaggi, or in South-East 
Tirhut «cf»r?T dogaha, in North-East Tirhut ^«m.< j' t dobagli, in North 
Bhagalpur ^"t^TiPt dobdgi, and in Saran ^ ■u i; ^^! dubagli. South of the 
Ganges «*<«<*^ chharki is used in Gaya and Munger in the sense of 
this method of attaching ropes. It is also used for the mode in which 
a log is attached to an animal's neck. 

112. irra nath is a head-rope for cattle, passing through the 
animal's nose. 

113. ^'IT? (or ^RTX) agar or <4j4||-^ (or ^viT^t) agari is a head-rope 
for horses, a local name being 7i^?^^ galkhor in Gaya and Shahabad. 
PofT^ (or fwr^) pichhan is the heel-rope, which is also called (north of 
the Ganges) M4I€ pachhar. ^TT«^^ bagdor or "(Jl'-dl^ bagdor is a rope for 
tying horses. «lf »r tdnt or 'sftePHT mojamma is the thin leather rope 
tied round the horse's hocks. The halter tied round a horse's neck 
is JT^'P^ra' garaundhan or JrK«^t«i gardanw, or (in Shahabad) ?ix; ^xsr:>?T 
gar aundha, and (in North-East Tirhut) ?ii«<« gardam. 

114. To the west and north ■<Rf^ pa»A;ar, "tf^r^ painkar, or ^^r?^ 
painkra is a heel-chain for a camel, while to the south-east it is used 
for elephants. It is also used by travelling merchants for cattle. •i%^ 
nakail, ■^%^ nakel, or in Saran sr^r^^ ndklol, is the nose-rope of a camel- 

115. B. Ordinary ropes. — An ordinary rope is k^ rasd, xh ;^ 
rasri, ^1x dor, ^\k( dori, or stctt jemwar. gftr jor is also used, and (in 
Tirhut, Patna, and Gaya) ^fT^/awrj.* ^:^7 ras&a is a cable. A ship's 
cable is ^TTWt lahasi, or in Saran ^r^T9 lahas ; and a tow-rope, ^ gun or 
(in Gaya and the south-west) aflT gon. jiVr gainta in Gaya is a rope for 
carrying beams. A coil of rope in the same district and in Ghamparan is 
T5':5^^rT ghurcMla. For the ropes used by a m^ past or toddy-seller, see 
§ 375. The string used in drawing water from a well with a brass vessel 
{W^ lota, &c.) is called ^t€t dori; while the general name with 
other vessels is '«d«i«'^«l ubhan, ^w^t^ ubahni, or (in South Bhagalpur) 
' aaj.^ il ubhain, and in North-East Tirhut ^%sr uglien. The knot 
round the neck of the vessel is north of the Ganges and in Shah- 
abad ^Ks^T arwan, and in Patna, South Munger, and South-East 



* As in tlie provert ^^ wfx itsr, ^S^-stiijauriJari gel, ainthan thdme,- 
tlie rope may be burnt, but the strands remain (even tlioiigli reduced to aslies) ; i.e 
a ricb man come down in the world retains Ms pride. 



ROPES. 23 

Tirhut ^^sn rauna. Other local names are 's^.es'l phanki (North- 
East Tirhut), ^tsr^ phandni (Gaya), ^J^ phans (East Tirhut and 
South Bhagalpur), and 'ff<j<.Jii<^ phamargali in Gaya and South 
Hunger. A small piece of rope attached to the vessel and then 
tied on to the regular •well-rope is generally ■q^^'Y^ panchhor. 
A local name is wt^' chhori (Champaran and South-East Tirhut). 
Its knot is ^T.^ mundhi in Tirhut and the north-west, and ^«5^ 
muddhi in Shahabad. A thick well-rope is K^T ransa or '^k^TT barha. 

1 16. The rope which is used in working the irrigation lever (^rnrr 
Idtha, &c.) is "ii.^T barha, with an optional variant «r^'? barah in South 
Munger. Other names are '^«iht>'^ Imthbarhi, and in Champaran and 
North-East Tirhut ^^^fir ubahani. The short rope Joining it and the 
bucket by a slip-knot is ^i^:'^'^ panchhor or ?ftx^ chhori everywhere, 
with the following local names: — ■^Tk cMor (South- West Shahabad), 
aTraT jota (Saran, Patna, and Gaya and the south-east), 6»rhrft joti 
(Shahabad and South Munger), •rnrr nadlm (optionally in Gaya), •rersi 
nadhan (optionally in Saran), and ^iP'TT bagha (South Bhagalpur). 

117. The strings used in working the irrigation swing baskets 
iyrr^ chanr, &c.) are known as 'six dor or i^Y^ dori. In Saran they are 
oftift joti. 

118. The ropes used for dragging a harrow are north of the 
Ganges generally '^^'€t hengahi or =n.»-4^ barhi, &e., as described in § 33. 

119. To the west iftsBx; mojarox Wl5i«'Cl moj'rr is a rope put round 
the roots of young trees to hold up the earth as they are being trans- 
planted, other names (in South-West Tirhut) being ^^^T gertia or 
(also in Champaran) ^si^TT banhna. In West Shahabad and Gaya it is 
^ft gurhi, and in South Bhagalpur 'sr^^^^'^^^ jarbandhna. 

120. The generic term for a grass rope is ^^ jiinna or ^yfXj'una, 
and in Patna and Gaya also ^iTKijauri, and in Champaran i|di-^<; palhar. 
It is used for tying up bundles and for cleaning vessels. Another 
name in Tirhut is ^^Tq-fi sarpat. vra'Pl gatan, or in Shahabad arnr 
gat, is a straw rope for tying up bundles. Ropes for tying up bundles 
of sugar-cane are ^t^joti, ^refl'fFijT tikhbdndhna, tihtct gataura (South- 
West Shahabad), aud ^TKpangar (North-East Tu-hut) or ^^J[^^ pagra 
(made of sugar-cane leaves in South Bhagalpur). gi.'^ gtirhi in Shah- 
abad and north of the Ganges, to the east generally «ti-<j.<. T 
kachra, and in East Tirhut ^«[rc odar, is a loosely-twisted hemp 
rope (but y^.-^^ gwhi may be either straw or hemp) for tying up 
bundles of crops. 



24 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

121. A rope made of the stems of the cytisus cajan {rahar) and 
similar plants for tying up bundles is called ■^ «ft benti in Patna, Graya, 
and South Munger, and "arrr^ bentri in South Bhagalpur. In Graya 
it is also called ^^^ bandJieri. ^t^ juneri (Gaya) is a similar rope 
made of kus grass. Ropes made of thatching-grass are called north 
of the Ganges ^ti-anj jhaias or ^^.«n jhalsi. Bundles of munj grass 
twisted up for cleaning vessels are ^t lunra or ■^^^ nunra. A thick 
hemp rope is ^TSTT barha, TXT^ barhi, or (in Gaya and South Hunger) 
•K'cir barta or ^T5«^ barti. 

122. For most of the above the word ^j^juna or (when the rope 
is made of straw) wMl«f gafan may be used, or a periphrasis may be 
used, e.g. fW95 x:^€l' kusak rasri for ^^^ juneri. 

123. ^t«T sut, ^;<rr suta, or «TniT tdga, is ordinary thread for sewing 
and weaving. 5«T«'^ sutrl or (rarely and only in the extreme west) 
^a^^ sutli is twine. This in South Bhagalpur is called ^sfrfi' stithri. 
Twisted string is south of the Ganges btxtcT tharra. North of the 
Ganges and in South Munger ^zw K^ bantal rassi, xfar^ x:^ ainthal 
rassi, or (to the west) ^t^ ^^ baral rassi, is used. 

124. To the west '^tr chop is string made of the bark of the 
butea frondosa ('TCRT paras) or of the palm-tree. In Gaya it is called 
'^f^ chomp. 



CHAPTEE VI.— PADS FOR CATTLE. 

125. These are known generally as ir^ gaddi or M^R paldn. In 
Patna, Gaya, and Shahabad ^"avvT bakhra is a leather sheet which goes 
over this. A %'cf%^r kharahiya, or in Saran ^T^ kJuiraiya, is a pad 
stuffed with 'sHC khar, and under it is placed the ^%^ kanheli. "^six 
petar is in South-West Shahabad a belt for tying them, and q ^i^ 
pachhoU a rope fastened to the animal's tail for the same purpose. 

126. The pad for an ass is %Tr lewa, local names being ftffe^T 
pithiya (Tirhut) and ^x:^;^ surka (also in East Tirhut) or crWt tarchhl 
(Shahabad). In North-East Tirhut and Gaya ^f^j^ cMa/a«Hi is the 
cover of the pad. That of a bullock is (besides ji^ gaddi and ^^rr^ 
palan) north of the Ganges and in South Munger ^^^ kanheli, and 
south of it, to the west, W«N^«<.T ehhallabakhra, and to the east ^aT 
chhalla. 

127. An elephant's pad is ?if^ gaddi, and in Shahabad also jt^t 
gadda. Underneath is placed a softer one called n^^r gadela. 




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DAIRY TITBNSILS. 25 

CHAPTER VII.-GRAIN-BAGS AND PANIERS FOR LOADED 

CATTLE. 

128. These are ^-nar akha, ^mi dnkJm, or ?r^ tangi;* south 
of the Ganges they are also Jrfwr fl'e^Ajyfl! ofm^patta. In Shahabad, 
however, they are ^Irryora or i^ gon* A large grain -bag carried 
on a bullock's back is in Saran t; i ^<1 ladauri, or (also in North- West 
Tirhut) ^TJi^ lagauri. In Gtaya this latter word means the cord by 
which the bag is fastened on the animal's back. 

129. ?^<.Toi^ khwji is a gunny (arz tat) bag borne by asses and 
used by potters for bringing clay from earthpits (*j(i<aT«f matikhan), 
and by others for carrying bricks, &c. 

130. A rice-sack is '^^ bora or «r^ tangi. 

131. lu South Bhagalpur a bag borne by the bullock, in which 
the drivers put their luggage, is <*<ii^ katari, and in South Hunger 
it is ^^'x^l? hanrway. In Saran it is ^J^ khas. 



CHAPTER VIIL— CANVAS, LEATHER, OR TARPAULIN COVERS. 

132. These are ffr VMM tirpal or (when made of ^FT^ chhal, 
leather) ^rai challa. 

133. w^ jhul or ^it^jhoK is a body-cloth put over bullocks in 
cold weather. In Gaya it is also ^^ijhola, and in Saran ^flf^sn orhna. 
»»n«r jhul also means an embroidered cloth spread over an elephant's 
pad. 

CHAPTER IX.— VESSELS FROM WHICH ANIMALS ARE FED. 

134. The bag from which cattle are fed is ^fi^*^ jholi, or in 
Champaran »Bl^rr jhola. A horse's grain-bag is wt^^ tobra. In 
Patna ^tttt kapai is a fodder bag for cattle. 

135. Feeding-troughs are described in §§ 92, 93. 



CHAPTER X.-DAIRY UTENSILS. 

136. The milkpail. — This has various names, according to locality. 
North of the Ganges generally they are >f^v^ jhabhi or ^^^ 

* As in the proverb '^^ t« ?^5^^ tPsPt ioH na M.de, kude tangi, — a bullock 
does not leap, but his load does, of which the Shahabad version is ^« t» '^^ ■^ 
'tI^, a, cWnar '?■'& ^bV=t bail na kude, kude gon, i tSmdsa delche kon. 

4 



26 BIHAR I'EASANT LIFE. 

^f««lT dudahi kantiya ; but they are also wfsT bhdnra ia Champaran, 
"^K^Wf ghurla in the North- West generally, and ^tI; chapal in North-East 
Tirhut. South of the Ganges we have ?r^^ ta/iri or 'JKT pura in South- 
West Shahabad, and ^fis^T kantiya in the rest of the district and East 
Bihar ; '^f'ft chdinpi, ^'^fs^ tehri, or IcTtw patla in Patna and Gaya ; 
^■^••fl duhni, ^^ chukki, ^fs^TT katiya, vfaVT metiya, ?S3^^ kathli, or 
^3^ kathai in South Bhagalpur j and '^<h«'^ chukri or ^CT chukka in 
East Tirhut and South Hunger. 

137. ^T4T <fa6f/, y^i.-^V dabhi (also in Champaran), ttt«IT patha, 
XXK^ rais, or TT^ rdsi, are large milkpails used in North Tirhut, and 
«)M«^ thapri is a smaller one. ^f^ kanri or ^nart; kathai, also in North- 
East Tirhut ^rr kattha, are in Tirhut wooden milkpails. In South 
Hunger <t^ rds is used instead of XX^ rais. 

138. Vessels used in mahing and keeping clarified butter (^ 
ghyu, &c.) and curds (^^ dnhi, &c.). — This also has various names, 
viz. north of the Ganges ■^f^tiT'et '^^ dahiyahi hanri or ^TT^ karahi. 
A local name is ^^rvsrr karna (Champaran and Tirhut) or ^Ar-ifT kaurna 
in North-East Tirhut. South of the Ganges we meet wrer bhanra 
generally, with a variant vffo hlmnra in South Bhagalpur and ! ^^^ 
dahenri to the west. In Patna and Gaya we have "g^m champa, 
M-^[^\ mahara, and ^I^^T nadiya. The last is also used north of the 
Ganges and in South Hunger. In South Bhagalpur other names are 
• jiti'C t hantri and ^fTW ohhdnchh. 

139. There are sometimes special names for special sizes. Thus 
while ^f^ hanri or Tfe^T hanriya is everywhere used for the larger 
size, the next smaller size is in Tirhut «*1'^[ koha or ^f^iiT karuna. ^ft^r 
koha is also used in South Hunger, and ■<rf?rwT patila or Tig«^ patuki is 
used with the same meaning in Saran. The next smaller size is ^V^ 
koM or ■<ft'^.t(Ct kahtari. A still smaller size is ^t**! chhanchhi, ^.*^j^■C| 
matkuri (of earth always) or ^re;^^ matkuhi (North- West Tirhut), 
and the smallest size of all is ^flniT chhaiichhiya or •if^^iT nadiya. 

140. The vessel for holding clarified butter is f^'^ -flffT ghiwahi 
bhdnra, ^ft^ kantiya, ^t9i kohi, xj%^ rais (large), ^^^ chuklca (small), &c. 
Other names in North-East Tirhut are fg^^ <» - ^.-^i ghiwak karJia 
(large) or f^^nii ^Tfr^ ghiwak karhi (small). In Patna, Gaya, and 
South Hunger ^^Ftrr champa or "^f^ chdmpi are used, and x^t's^ rasoK 
(large) and '*<v'*(T vherua (small) are met in South Bhagalpur. 

141. The leather vessel in which it is exported is gnuj kuppa or 
^n^ kuppi. The latter is smaller than the former, and is also used for 



• THE COUNTRY CART. 



27 



holding oil. In North-East Tirhut it is also called "g*r^ chamri 
or ^^ri^ chaukthi. ■^■'([^nadoi is used ia Q-aya, and ^WT gelha is a 
similar smaller vessel. 

142. The churn. — To churn is w^^ mahal to the west and w^^ 
niaJmh to the south and east. The act of churning is »?^TT maliai or 
*T«(TT mathai ; local variants being ?r€t mahi in Champaran and South 
Bhagalpur, and H«ri; mathai or *i^^ mahan there and in Gaya and South 
Munger. 

143. A chum is north of the Ganges, to the west, ^?H7Tr^[T^ 
matmahni. In Tirhut and Gaya it is ^^t kunra or (south-east and 
also in Gaya aad Champaran) fr^ kunda, and (north-east) ?frx: k'lior. 
South of the Ganges it is ^»?"r^ kamaii in South- West Shahahad, 
?^^ taula in the rest of the district (also in East Tirhut), ^ t^'H l'^r 
ghormaha north of the Ganges and in Patna and Gaya, and 
^J'^TfT mahdnra in South Munger. 

144. The stirrer or stick moved in the chum is T^ rahi generally, 
and also fl^^ nia/mi to the west and in Tirhut. The latter ;has local 
variants, viz. fl'siT^ mathni (Tirhut and the West), ■'R'^tt maJian 
(West), and wrf^ viahonni (Gaya). Local names are ^isr.^ gaj'hi 
(South-East Til-hut), ^e^ chhorhi (South- West Shahahad and East 
Tirhut), and *il<.ia1 (y/wra/At (Patna, Gaya, and South Munger). 

145. The rope with which it is twisted is generally x^r^ rasii or 
^\^ dori ; but more specific names are ^iT net (generally), with local 
variants «}«(«( neicat or ■^^••tt newta (east) and ■^^ft neto (South 
Bhagalpuj). In Patna it is fe'^fi^ khiachni, and in South Munger 
■^\{ dam. Another name in South Bhagalpur is oTt*?!' joti. 

146. l/an'ous vessels. — In South Bhagalpur qnr kam is a small 
vessel containing a quarter of a ser of milk. A TTSfT patha contains one 
ser, and a '^^T cfiuka four ser. In Saran a ^5^ chukka contains a quarter 
of a ser. 



SUBDIVISION VI. 

APPLIANCES USED IN THE CONVEYANCE OP 
GOODS OR PASSENGERS. 



CHAPTER I.- THE COUNTRY CART. 
147. The ordinary cai-t is called everywhere vit^ gari, but, in 
Saran it is more usually ?i^ gari. The wt-^r chhakra or 



28 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

l[^^ gai-a is the large complete full-sized cart, with long bamboo 
poles projecting from each side in front. In North-East Tirhut 
it is sometimes called "^fg »IT^ chaghus gari. The ^JJl^ saggar 
or ^T?rf sagar is a lighter and rougher bind of cart for carrying 
country produce. In Gaya and Shahabad it is also called ^■^•rs'tT 
larhiya. 

148. For carrying passengers the Vi rath or ^=«i ranth is a light 
four-wheeled cart used by rich people. A similar two-wheeled cart 
is called ^f^jf^ HT^ samwgi,gari or (in Gaya) ^faft JIT^ saungi gari. 
It is also called HWt«ePt' manjholi in Tirhut and Gaya and 5?^^ 
lahal generally, with variants ^%^ baheli (Patna and Gaya) and 
T^«a^ bahli (Gaya). The jrtfr ekka is a two-wheeled light trap, 
generally drawn by a pony. In Saran it is also called €t? •!■«<» 
ghar bahal. The fsircr^ kiranchi is a covered cart something like 
an omnibus on two wheels, 

149, A cart drawn by a single pair of bullocks is ^IfV^T doharda 
or ^4*^1 dokra. One drawn by two pairs is ^^x^^ chaubarda (but 
this hardly ever occurs). In a team of three bullocks the wheelers are 
called ■g;^ dhuri or ^fWT dhuriya to the west and ^tX^jori to the east, 
and the leader ^f^ binr or ff f%^ binriya to the west and fijit jhitti 
(also in Saran) or «IT«T nata to the east. 



CHAPTER II.— THE LARGE COMPLETE COUNTRY CART. 

150. This is w«li«^l chhakra, f[j^ gara, or ^^ irr^ chaghus gari 
(see Chapter 1). Its parts are as follows : — 

151. The wheel. — This is every where ■qf^t*?! joa/^ya. To the west, 
and also in Gaya and South-East Tirhut, it is also called m^ chakka. 

152. The felloe is called *r^T mangar, except in Gaya, where 
it is ^■^y:z jamot. It is made of six segments of s«s«< wood, called 
each s^putthi. 

153. The (iwe is called m"? nah. In Gaya it is also ^^ 
nah, and in Saran srrrr naha. Through this the spokes run com- 
pletely through and through, each spoke terminating at each end in 
the felloe, each thus forming in reality two spokes. There are six of 
these double spokes altogether, making three pairs of two parallel spokes 
each (see illustration). These three pairs are of varying thickness. 
The first pair driven in is thicker and stronger than the second pair, 




1^: 









.-^ 



t; 



i 



THE LARGE COMPLETE COUNTRY CART. 



29 



and the second pair than the third pair. In crossing each other in the 
nave, the second pair runs through the first pair, and the third pair 
through the second and first. These pairs have names, viz.— 

154. The spokes. — 1. — The first pair is called trKT ara. This 
is the thickest and strongest pair of spokes in the wheel. 
2. — The second thickest and second strongest pair of spokes is 
called finrm nimara, other names being ^f% or t^ beli 
(Tirhut and South Bhagalpur), sf^ -g^ nim dhuri or 
'J^TKT nebara (South-East Tirhut), and 'S^TTT lewara 
(Shahabad). 
3. — The weakest and thinnest pair of spokes in a wheel is 
called vrsi gaj. 
To the west and in Gaya, both the second and third pairs are 
called JT5J yaj. The spokes are collectively called ^§f^■^^ danriya, 
and to the west also ^rrxni^ aragaj. 




1. Ara. 

2. Nimara. 

3. Gaj. 



Diameter of wheel > 

„ axle-tree. 

,, axle. 



.Scale 1 inch to a foot_ 



30 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

155. The six segments of the felloe are fastened together bj a 
wedge of wood called ^^ chur or, in Gaya, "g^ chul, fitting tightly into 
two mortices, one in each of the two contiguous ends of the segment. 
This wedge is also called vn-sl chonhi generally, also wt*^ jonhi or 
'sitf^T jonhiya to the west of the North Grangetic tract and »r^T fwwT 
gardb khilla in Shahabad, Gaya, and South-East Tirhut. In Shahabad 
it is also called "^f*^ chonti or ^^ chenghi, and in Patna ^^ chul. 

156. The mortice in the end of each segment of the felloe is called 
^^ chhed or ^sc bhur, or in Saran itrt^ khol. The end of the wedge 
is called 'dT*««?l ddkni. 

157. A wedge driven through the segment of the felloe from out- 
side to tighten the spokes in their places is called ^i^r or ■'ra"^ pachchar, 
or in Saran ■«T^ pachchi. 

158. The iron hoop round the nave to prevent it from splitting is 
called ^'^ band or ^^ ban. 

159. Inside the nave is sometimes tightly fastened an iron tube to 
receive the axle. This is called the ^fl'^«i«'0' muhanri, and in Gaya 
also *h^Tr^ mofiandi. 

160. The iron axle-box passing through the centre of the nave 
inside the »ri^«|.<) mohanri, when there is one, is called ^-pTT awan, and 
also (in Ohamparan, North Tirhut, and South Munger) ^T^tsr don. 

161. When the outside edge of the felloe is bevelled to prevent 
wearing, it is called north of the Ganges and in Shahabad er^ tal, 
with variants 3^[WT talua (Bast Tirhut, Patna, and Gaya), ^iji .'^f talha in 
West Tirhut, and -z-^rr^ talah in South-East Tirhut. To the east it 
is also called '(Tl^ mangar, ^vtki mangra, or ?TiiT maigar, with a 
variant ^^iK( meghra in North-East Tirhut. In South Munger 
it is called <*i <.«*)H kortnar. 

162. When the outside of the felloe is flat it is called ViX^fxpathar, 
but this rarely occurs. 

163. Tlie f/>e.— When the wheel is tired, the tire is called "st^ hal. 

164. The linch-pin is generally ■g?;^cii#t d/iurkilli, local optional 
names being xi.Iqial rankilU (Gaya and South-East Tirhut) and 
s^ kll in Shahabad. In East Tirhut, Gaya, and South Bhagalpur it 
is xr^^ pachchar. The peg inside the wheel is ^tif*®^ pharkilli, or 
in Saran tfi^Tf^WT pharkilla. In a ^«rf t chhakm there is generally 
only one linch-pio, on the inside end of the axle. 




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THE LAHQB COMPLETE COUNTRY CART. 31 

165. The outside washer of hemp (g«T san) is %^ cheiii, ^^ 
chendi, or (in Saran) ^«^ chenhi. That inside the wheel is 'aT^«r kkanan, 
with variants lasfsr khanan (Saran), ^WT^«r khanhan (Soutli-East 
Tirhut), ^TTisr khdnyan (South- West Shahabad), and ^f^«r khandan 
(South Munger, Patna, and Gaya). 

166. The axle. — Each wheel has an axle of its own, each supported 
entirely by struts descending on each side of the wheel from the side 
of the cart to which the wheel belongs. The axle is ^TT dhura or 
•^Ta dhuri. Sometimes a distinction is made, ^TT dhura being used 
when the axle is of wood and •^^ dhuri when it is uf iron ; but this ia 
by no means universal. 

167. The outside supports of the axle. — The supports outside the 
wheel are two pieces of wood meeting outside the wheel in front of the 
nave, where, at the point of crossing, they receive the axle. The upper 
end of one fits into one end of the front crossbar of the frame of the body 
of the cart (zTRlsPt tekani, 3fc.), and that of the other into one end 
of the rear crossbar of the frame of the body of the cart (^T^ ak, &c.) 
(see illustration). These supports are called g^rrrr tulawa. They are 
fastened to the body of the cart by chains or ropes, called ■^T«r ban or 
^^ hand. 

168. The curved branch oisisu wood which passes under the point 
of the axle, where it projects from the g^TTT tulawa, and thus further 
supports the axle, is called TTsjsft' painjani, wtih variants vsj«ft pavjani 
(Shahabad optionally) and ^»i"fV pengni (North-East Tirhut). In 
Gaya it is called ^'K ddh. It is pulled tightly up against the axle 
by three ties, two in front and one behind. 

169. The front ties fastened to the fore end of the -^^^painjani are 
called oPtT jant. The other end of each of these ropes is fastened to a 
hook, called ^rs^ kari. One of these hooks is fastened to the ^^tr^ tekani, 
and the other to the bottom of the cart, farther on in front, to one of the 
^^i^^ karhari [vide pout) . The sr^fi jant are tightened by a stick 
called ^%^ amerhi, or in Saran «^^T saluiya, which passes between 
them and twists them together to the requisite degree of tightness. 

170. The rear tie of the ^ai«ft jsai/yajn' ia called fi^JirfT /tM&jjjrra, 
or in Saran g^aiTfT tulavgra. It generally consists of one iron chain. 
Two rings (^■di<Bf%'^ kharkhariya) hang in two staples ('SRff T konrha) to 
the underside (TS'Rr parak) of the rear bar (^TRi ak) of the cart. One 
of these rings hangs near the centre of the ^TSR ok, and the other 



32 



BIHAR PEASANT LtFB. 



at the end near the wheel. The chain is fastened to one, then passes 
round the end of the 'T'RI^ painjani, and the other end is fastened 
to the other ring. In this way the »i''»l«n painjani is held in its place. 
The accompanying sketch will make this clear. 




b— b 
e 



= the ok. 
= the pardh. 
= the konrha. 



d =^ the kTiarJchariya. 

e = the kulangra. 

t = the rear end of the painjani. 



171. The body of the cart ma,j roughly be described as a long 
triangle strongly built, lying on one surface, and arched so that its 
convex side is uppermost. Viewed from the side it resembles a shallow 
arch, and from above a triangle. Across the back a strong square or 
oblong frame is laid. This serves as the foundation for the carrying 
portion of the cart. The annexed illustration is a plan of a cart taken 
from above. 

172. The wrar ak or ^pr ag is the main beam in the rear of the 
cart. It is made of sisu. In Shahabad this is called ^^m ankh. 
Another and lighter piece of wood going underneath the "^TRf ak to 
strengthen it, and also made of sisu, is called TrenR parak. A slip of 
bamboo tied on behind the ^r^B ak and forming the tail of the cart 
is known as TWi^^i^T pachhlakra, with local variants, viz. ^"gi^^rrfr 
panchlakra in West Tirhut, f«i *>!••* ■^T pichhalhira in Patna and Gaya, 
and P)^««d'»'^ r pichhlakra or ^T kara in Shahabad. In South Bhagal- 
pur it is ■^asY^T ankora or ^w^^^n pach/ierna. 

173. The front bar of the square portion of the cart is known as 
^T^ iekani. In South Hunger it is W^^ tekdni with a dental t. 

174. The sides of the square part of the body, going over the 
wheels and joined at one end to the ^rr^ ak and at the other end 
fitting on to the top of the ^*T^ iekani, are called "fKT^ dhurauti. 

175. The piece of wood fitting over the end of each of the g^^ 
dhurauti, where it joins the a<*i«?t tekdni, and holding the former in its 
place, is called f^M^T hilaiya. 



a — a = the dJc. 
b — b = tlae pachhlakra. 
c =: the tekani. 

d, d = the dhurattti. 

e, t! = the hilait/a. 
f = the pirhiya, 
g = the sagun. 



h = the phar. 
i, :, i = the iarhari. 
j>j.j = tJie 13 batti. 
k = the pachhua. 
1—1 = the tij. 

no, ni = the topsof the twoAr^HM^ri. 
n = the munkthapra. 




Plan of a Cart {chhakra) from above. 






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THE LARGE COMPr.ETE COUNTUY CART. 33 

176. The short stout cross-bar of sisu wood crossing the triangular 
body of the cart between the ^<*T«fl tekani and the apex of the triangle, 
in front of the driver's seat, is called fVf%^T pirhiija. 

111. The point which is the front of the cart, and which forms the 
apex of the triangle, is called ^^r sagun, or in Patna and Gaya 'ag^ 
saguni. The lower portion of this is called in Saran ^tT thop. 

178. The two long sides of the cart, forming the sides of the 
triangle, starting one from each end of the ^i^ ak and meeting in 
the ^ijTJ sagun, are known as 15^ or ^v^ phar, a local variant being 'Tf 
phair (North-East Tirhut). They are also called Trnn tanga south 
of the Ganges and '?T^T harsa in Saran and Champaran. They are 
sometimes strengthened with a band of iron, called ijfn: patfar, ^Jf 
ban, or ^^ band. 

179. The whole 6otto/n of the cart is called ^wit chhajja. It is 
composed of the'^^^Aar, the ^"ra dk, the sqrp^ tekani, and the ftfl^T 
pirhiya, and has in -addition three long strips running the length 
of the cart, called ^Tfi^^ karhari, and thirteen cross-pieces called 'J^ 
batti, or in Saran Tsrr batta, and in Gaya also "^^ chdli. The ^fiT^ 
karhari are also called 'T^ phari in Patna and the south-west and •A'iXi 
chapot in Shahabad. North of the Ganges they are also called fl^WT 
mavjha, «f «fiT manjha, or WKT'fi' bharani. They are fastened in their 
places by pegs, called T5<,»f*ai pkarkilla, ^fffifqrs't katlikilli, or r<*«1 IdlU, 
■q^^^ac^Aar (&e.), or ^s'f kanti. Of the thirteen ^T?t ia^^« or cross- 
pieces, there are three between the WT^ ak and the s^^T'ft' tekani, four 
between the ^4i)'>H tekani and the firf?^! pirhiya, and six between the 
ftrff^T pirhiya and the ^^ sagun. 

180. This completes the description of the main frame of the cart. 

We now come to the various contrivances for retaining goods 
in the cart. These are the following, but they are not all used in 
one cart : — 

181. At the rear of the cart, just in front of the ^ij^ak, is tied a 
thick bough of wood. This is called the -^^^u pachhua. It prevents 
goods falling out behind. 

182. Over the fV%«rr pjr/fiya, and of equal length to the g <»i^ 
tekani, runs a bamboo called the <fNr tlj, supported by two stout pillars 
about a foot high, each standing on one end of the ftfg^T pirhiya. These 
pillars are called the ^z^ khunfri or ■'s^rKj Muntra, local Yanant 

5 



34 BIHAtt PEASANT LIFE. 

being ^z^i^^ khuntahri (Saran and South Tirhut) and^*'^.Ci Mmntehri 
or igfz'^T;^ khuntihri in Shahabad. In Graya similar posts are called 
HT'^ mauchi. 

183. Two very long bamboos now form sides, each resting on 
one end of the ■^t^ ak, on a ft^^ bilaiya, and on one end of 
the laW tij. Bach projects behind the "^rnf Ak and a long way in 
front of the ^af tij, and is called ^®t balla. Other names are 
^f^ bans, w^«^5^ bambalU, ^^TTT bansaura (Shahabad), or 'g^^T 
chandtva (Patna). 

184. Sometimes bamboos run from end to end. These are called 
"^■q chip when they commence at the ^^i^ tekani and run close under 
and fastened to the ^»: phar, up to the ^^ sagun. They serve to 
strengthen the 'BK phar. Wlien they run the whole length of the eai-t, 
from the '^T^ ak to the ^^ sagun, and form as it were the string of 
the bow formed by the body of the cart, running close to and parallel 
with the »52'^iT j/iatka (vide post), they are called ^mi lappa or (in 
Tirhut) w^ lappu. They are fastened to the body of the cart by ties, 
known as y^Hl^sTt ddngli in Saran, <fr*l«#l daungri in East Tirhut, ^>^ 
iff^AJ in Shahabad, ^f^TJaunrha in Gaya, and ^fs sonth ra South 
Bhagalpur. Elsewhere they are simply xi^r rassa, &c. 

185. Sometimes the ^ST balla is raised behind by a pillar ('fzr^ 
khuntri) at each end of the WPR ak, and the space between it and the 
body of the cart filled up with a rope siding. This rope siding is then 
called T^ ««)mi haiithwasa, or in Patna rf;^^^^ phaj-ka, and in Saran TjfT 
era. 

186. The flat board forming the driver's seat is called i fT^«^ T 
mohra, or in South Bhagalpur ift?! morha and in Shahabad n^^ munhra. 

187. The parts underneath the cart supporting the inner end of 
the axle-tree. — ^There are two supports inside each wheel, like the ^t?t 
fulaioa outside. They cross each other opposite the inner end of the 
axle which passes through the intersection. As each wheel has a 
separate short axle, there are therefore two independent pairs of these, 
one inside each wheel. 

188. The rear one of each of these pairs is called ^(k^j guriya or 
^"^f%^ goriya, or (in Patna) ^^jT^n khajana. Like the rear g^TRT 
tulawa, its upper end is fastened into the ^T* ak. It is strengthened in 
its place in the ^\^ ak by a strut, called *i'^.<M mehrab, and the two 
^f^^ guriya are further strengthened by a cross-piece called '^f ^ 



THE LARGE COMPLETE COUNTRY CART. 



35 



danrheri, joining the two, which thus prevents them approaching each 
other. The annexed illustration will make this clear. 




a — a, = the ah. 

b — b = the parah. 

c, t ^ the two goriya. 



d, d = the two mehrab. 
= the danrheri. 



189. The front supports of these pairs are each called «?tw thohh or 
^Y^ thop. The upper ends of these are fixed in the z'^T^ tekani. 

190. The apparatus for keeping the body of the cart curved.— 
This consists of a set of strings called ViZv^RT jhatka, which passes right 
under the cart from end to end, one end being fastened to the ^T^ 
ak and the other to the w^T sagun. This is kept tight, so that it 
keeps the whole cart bent exactly like a bow. 

The following illustration shows the arrangement : — 




a — a 
b 
c 
d 



the dk. 

the danta. " 

the sagun. 

strings fastened to the dk, passing round the danta and back (o 

the dk. 
strings fastened to the sngfin, passing ronudthe dania and back 

to the sagiin. 



36 lilHAll PEASANT LIFE. 

191. The ^Jirr danta, or in south Bhagulpur H)<<g ' l ameri, in the 
above figure is a stout piece of bamboo. It will be evident from the 
figure that it affords increased leverage, and offers a ready means for 
tightening the ■»»i3J^y/'a/A:« when necessary. Sometimes bamboos run 
parallel to the Vnii»^l jMtka from the ^^ sagfm to each end of the ^rr^ ak 
as further strengtheners. These are called ^n<iTfo/;jBa or (inTirhut) ^w Inppn. 

192. The iffir^T chlmtiya is a slip of wood fastened across and 
under the body of the cart from ^*t thohli to ^tw ilwbh, which serves to 
hang baskets, &c., from. 

193. The point which is the front of the cart, and which forms 
the apex of the triangle, is, as already stated, the ^^ sagun or ^yywTi 
sagun. It is here that the yoke is fastened. Underneath it, to pre- 
vent the point resting on the ground, is fixed a stout peg, called ^^iKT 
utra. On the top of the «^«r sagun, to afford a boss for fastening 
the yoke to, is fixed the ^'^•xilM'^T mitnhthopra, vw'^f'f^^l munhthapra, 
or (south of the Ganges) *i1«j|4-^i mothdpra. In Ohamparan it is 
called k1-<<^i mohra. 

194. The^oAeis^;^T y«a, and also in Shahabad ^[^f juar, as 
distinct fromvt^pa/o or ^-^13 juaili, a plough yoke (see § 14}. The 
pegs passing through the ends of the yoke, outside the bullocks' necks, 
to prevent them shirking their work, are made either of wood or 
iron. The name h«^ samail is generally applied to them when of 
wood, and %Tr^ semal, ^m'^ sammal, or f%^^ siimiml when of iron ; 
but this distinction is not always observed. To the east they are 
called i^i^^ Jcanail. The inner pegs towards the middle of the yoke, on 
the inside of each bullock's neck, are called (in East Tirhut) f^K^T 
cMraiya. They may be of either iron or wood. 

195. Props.— When the bullocks are unyoked, the front of the 
cart is supported at the ^^ sagun, to . prevent it falling forward, by 
the f^Ti^ sipawa or (in North East Tirhut) f%X?qT2lT sirpaya and 
(in Saran) f^^^^ sijnoa. The top of this is called in Gaya vnwi manjha. 
The prop to prevent the cart falling back is ij^T era, ^^^-^T ularua, 
f%'?r5^TT ddhicai, or (in Patna) W^f^T larua. 

196. The ropes which go round the bullocks' necks are ^i^wfjofa, 
^■^jofi, or ira^ofti^ galjoti. When three bullocks are yoked, the rope 
which goes over the leader's neck is to the west ftf%^T binriya or 
ftft^lT Uriya, and in Saran and the east fijrft jhitti. The rope (x.^ 
rassi, &c.) by which the yoke is kept in its place is called ft^ 
hkhhiia, or in North-East Tirhut ^fifV jJwnJc. 



THE LIGHT COUNTRY CART. 87 

197. The mat put in the bottom of the cart to prevent grain 
from falling out is ^2T?; chafdi generally, but it is ^^TX hariyar 
in Patna and iTsT^ Mawrfa/i in South Bhagalpur. The last is also 
used optionally in tiaya and East Tirhut. In Saran a canvas mat 
used in the same way is called ?T^rr dhala. 

198. The iron chain for tying up the bullocks at night is 
generally ^^rc sikar or w^'t^x janjir. Local names are TT^ pahi or 
^TTfT danrar in Champaran and Tirhut, %^ hel in Gaya, and tt*^ 
paikal, (also in Gaya) tt^t: paikar, or ^%^ painkar in Shahabad. The 
portion round the bullock's neck is called JlKJ^'ft garduni. 

199. The above is the description, except where otherwise stated, 
of a very complete **«'di chhakra, which is itself the most complete 
kind of cart. Few carts are as complete as this; but they differ 
merely in being less complete, and in no other way. 

200. As regards size, the cart of which the above is a description 
had the following measurements, a cubit being taken as equivalent 
to 14 feet: — 

Cubits. 

Length from ^rra aA to ^■^rn?f feA(2w« ... li 

„ z'+IW^ tekani to ftff ^T ^^VA^y'l ... 1\ 

„ fiifwrfT pirhiya to ^^ sagun ... 3 



Total length ... 6 cubits, 

= 9 feet. 

The ^rrw nk, i^ix^ tekSui, and ^^ Hj, were each three cubits long. 
The ^m^ hallo, were each six cubits long, and the ^^^ khuntri 
one foot. The wheel was two cubits across. 

The greatest height of the arch was at the ftfV^T pirhiya, where 
it was one cubit. 

The height of the ^5«r mgun from the ground when supported 
by the fflTTT^ sipatca was 2^ cubits, and that of the ^rnf ak, at the 
same time, li cubits. 

CHAPTER III.— THE LIGHT COUNTEY CAKT. 

201. This is girf mggar, ^»i^ sagar, or ^^vf^^ir larhiya (see 
§ 147). In Saran it is called f\^^ gdra. 

This cart is rougher, lighter, and cheaper than the if^^ chhakra. 

202. The wheel is the same as in the ^^rrsT chhakra. 



38 



niHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



203. The axle. — There is only one axle {ifTj dhnra), which goes 
right across under the cart, and on which both wheels run. It runs 
through a block of wood which runs across from wheel to wheel, and 
out of each end of which the ends of the axle project. This block 
is called ^^^r mandra. The projecting ends of the axle receive the 
wheels, which are held in their places by outside linoh-pins (-^Kifsfna^ 
dhurUlli, &c. (see § 164). Sometimes the wheels of the 'gnjf saggar 
are protected by a board outside, one end being fastened to the ^T^ ak 
and the other to the ^^rr^ tekani (see §§ 172, 173). Through this the 
end of the axle projects, and is made secure by the linch-pin. This 
board is called 'V'ss^ pahi/ani, v^i^ panjani (Shahabad optionally), or 
(North-East Tirhut) v»ni^ pengni, and must be distinguished from the 
different wheel support bearing the same name in the *<ft«^l chhakra. 

204. The body of the ^jji^ saggar is not arched, as in the ^"ft^^T 
chhakra. It is simply a flat triangle of wood, principally bamboo. The 
two long sides of the body, commencing at each end of the ^T^ ak and 
ending together at the ^^ sagun, are called, as in the if^TfT chhakra, 
■^ phar, &c. As the ^J^T^ saggar has no g^r^ tuliwa, «ftH tJiobh, or 
^f^til guriya, the body rests directly on the axle, being supported by 
two blocks of wood, called «i«T«^T tetla, ihi^^'^ tetaliya, or in Saran 

^3^ tentula, eacb of which rests on one end of the JfKX^ mandra, and 
on whicb, on the other hand, the corresponding t^ phar rests. Along 
the ■'Bt phar, and underneath it, is tied a bamboo to strengthen it. 
This is called ^tjtt; hangar. 

205. In otber respects a'^nf^ saggar differs little from a w^^t 
chhakra, except that it is built lighter and almost entirely of bamboo. 
As the body is not arched, the former has of course no »Jizi^ jhatka, 
&c. 

CHAPTER IV.— THE BULLOCK CARRIAGE. 

206. When it has four wheels, it is called x;i rath or ■«:^ ranth. 
This is rare in Bihar. 

207. "When it has two wheels, it is called ^^^^ hahal, with variants 
^%^ haheli (Patna) and •(■^•<^ bakli (Shahabad and Gaya). 

208. This cart is almost exactly the same in principle as the ^^i^t 
chhakra, except that it is generally built lighter. On the square 
portion at the back is reared a kind of canopied seat, called ^f ^rjft 
samwgi or sfPif^ saungi ; hence the cart is also called a ^^jft jit^ 
saiuH-gi gari. 



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THE BULLOCK CARRIAGE. 39 

209. Its parts are as follows : — 

The wheel. — As in a cart (see § 151 and ff.). 

The leather washer is called "^^J?! or -q^iTz^ ehakli, i[t\ gadtia, or 
f^^ bithal. 

210. The axle. — As in a cart (see § 166). 

c 

211. The supports of the wheels and axles. — These are the same 
as in a ^«». ^ chhakra (see § 167 and fE., § 187 and ff.). 

212. The body of the uehicle.—ThB lovfer part is like a «<tc^r 
chhakra. Over it is placed the following, the whole of which is 
called ^f^^ samwgi or ^ai^ saungi. 

213. The frame of the seat is t^^«^<j, local variants heing ttet 
patta (Bast Tirhut and Patna), xffitTjT patiya (East Tirhut and the 
west), and 41^'^ baudandi (Gaya). Its supports are ^'zt khnnta or 
^JI?T khunta. On these are ornamental brass knobs, called ^if%«n" 
phuUya. The posts supporting the awning are ^'^ danda or ^t!?t 
danta (East Tirhut and the west). The top of the awning is *d.Cl 
chhatri or (in Shahabad and Gaya) di.^ Ihntri, and the stuffed cover 
to keep off the sun is j[^ gadda or u^^T gadela. In South Munger 
it is »i^ gaddi. The net forming the bottom of the seat is ^T^sjfl' 
samwgi or 'ffji^ saungi, and the leather guard of the body inside the 
wheels is ^^T^T dhamaka. 

214. The two long sides are called ^5^ phar, &c., or cifjiT ianffa, as 
in the ^F^^T chhakra. Between them are placed narrow planks, called 
^«?iT manjha. 

215. The supports of the body behind are stj^ dharua or S^:^ 
dhanrua, and similar smaller ones inside are ^nrv^ bawli. 

216. The ^g^T dantua, or in Saran trit dhala, is the back seat 
for carrying luggage, and it is also called ^fp^ arani in South-East 

• Tirhut and Ohamparan. ^t^ dori are the strings forming the side of 
the awning, and •qr^^ parda is the side awning, which may be raised 
or let down as required. In Saran it is also called ^T^ix ohdr. 

217. The rails on each side of the driver's seat are ^i^ balli. 

218. In other respects the bullock carriage is the same as the 
^^!^^ chhakra (see Chapter II). 



40 bihSe peasant life. 

CHAPTER v.— THE PONY CARRIAGE. 

2-19. This is nearly the same as the bullock cart, on a smaller 
scale, except in the following particulars : — 

220. The wheel is the same as in the bullock carriage (see § 151 
and S.). 

221. The axle is ■^tct Mam or -^ dhuri, which is strengthened 
inside by a short metal tube, yT«r samma, ^svf(X samn, or ^T^ sami. 
In North-East Tirhut the latter is also called ^T^ sam. There is one 
of these inside each wheel, and they act as a kind of washer- 
There is only one axle (-^i^ dhnri), on which both wheels run. 
Outside each wheel are a pair of g^T^r tulaica, but inside there are 
no ^^ thobh or ■gf^m guriya, as in the bullock cart (see § 187 and ff.). 
Round the ends of the i<tii^ tekani. the ^tTRf ak, and the axle, 
forming a triangle outside the wheel, is tightly tied a rope called the 
^'^jant, and just above the lowest angle of this triangle {i.e., just above 
the point of axle) , is tied to it a short stick serving as a footstep, called 
^^TT salai or ^^^ salaiya. 

222. The y^siMT tulawa are fastened to the ^c^ ak and the ■■4*h'^ 
tekani (see §§ 167, 172, and 173) by iron hooks, called ■^lfl>'^ ankuri 
or (Champaran, South Tirhut, and South Hunger) -^f^ill ankura. 
South of the Ganges they are also called in Shahabad and South 
Bhagalpur g^nr tulai. ^T^ hal is the tire of the wheel. The leather 
splashboard over the wheel is <ra?rnr tahlita or «pa««f^ takhti. In 
South- West Shahabad it is called m'*^\ patra. 

223. The props of the body are ^r^isrr danda (west), sti?t danta 
(east and Champaran), or ^T khunta. The top of the awning is ^«iv^ 
chhatri, and the roof of it is ^w chhat or (in Gaya) «T^^ iarak ; 
Jl^till gadela or (in South-Bast Tirhut and South Hunger) n^ gaddi 
is a cushion at the top to keep off the sun. The awning at the 
sides is v <.• <.T parda, or in Saran '^27 bVt ghata top, which is fastened 
by iron rings, ^i^ kari or (in Gaya) ^^t^ kholi. The ropes which 
support the awning poles are ^qs^rwr hathwansa, and the rope trellis 
between the two rear awning poles "^^ chauh. This last serves 
as a back to lean against. 

224. The m^j khunta or ^zsTT khuntra are posts which support 
the body in front on the axle, s^s^bt dharua, THI^t dharua, or (in 
South Bhagalpur) B-T^t dhaluan, are the posts which support the 
body on the axle behind the laVr khunta. ^t^t^ bawli or '^^ 







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THE PONY CARRIAGE. 41 

bauli are similar posts behind the €zt khunta, hut iu front of the 
«<i-^r dkarua. They are quite inside the body of the cart. To the 
west of the North Gangetio tract they are also called ty^ ganj. 
The MTr**)r ponchhiya or (to the west) ft^^i pic/ihua are the 
pointed ends of the lower shafts behind. In South Bhagalpur they are 
called ^^i.tgTf dagli. jfTT tan are the four iron bars which support the 
body on the axle. Two of them are called «zi«j[«r khuntatdn or (in 
South- West Shahabad) ^aiv^TJr gajbag. tnJBT manjha are similar wooden 
supports. The ^jT^.^ft samwgi or €f »ft saungi is the twine net under 
the seat, and the straps which keep it up are the ^jft % TT^ saungi he 
nari. The *nf%tjT goriya are side ropes which fasten the splash- 
board to the axle, and the ■^wi^ dhamaka is the leather siding inside 
the wheels. The four curved bamboo shafts are fif jit tanga or (in 
Patna) ef»lT tanga. The 'Wl^ % TT^ chhati ke nari is a strap inside, 
fastening the body to the axle in front of the ^^ 5f ^(T^ saungi ke 
nari. The tjKH ladaic are cross-pieces of bamboo from shaft to 
shaft, forming the body of the cart. In North-East Tirhut they are 
called ^B^ phathi, and in South Bhagalpur ^"tTT hatla. The net at the 
bottom is BiT^rr jala, and the Vii»*T jhatka is a strong rope behind 
and below, fastening the cross-pieces of the body. 

225. The driuer's seat is ^T «fi^ kartali. The pieces of bamboo 
which run underneath from shaft to shaft, on which the driver rests his 
feet, are ^crniPtKT lat/chora generally north of the Ganges, or Wf ^ 
darenri in Saran and 'S^f^ danrera in South-East Tirhut. In 
Shahabad they are T^Jff i latera, in Patna and Gaya ^P^tji danriya, and 
cTTTT tarera in South Bhagalpur. The jftf?^ goriya or (in South- 
East Tirhut) tilf^*'! ghoriya are pieces of wood which join the upper • 
and lower shafts, ■'i^ pankhi are pieces of leather joining the upper 
and lower shafts near the yoke. These shafts are also fastened by 
a leather rope called, north of the Ganges, ^id«<l muthra, and to the 
south of it T f l d«^ T % •rrs^ mothra ke nari, or in Shahabad 5'?t^ % tr[^ 
munhra ke nari. In Patna and Gaya it is called W^rr chhara. The 
Tft >im.<jl mothapra ia a brass cap fitting on to the ends of the two shafts. 

226 . Harness. — The pointed part of the saddle is ^rtifhc khogir, or in 
Shahabad and East Bhagalpur wsjx: khagur. The pad is vi^ gadi or »i^ 
gaddi. The wooden block is ^37^ kathra or (in South- West Shahabad) 
^T5^T kathla. The rings through which the reins pass are ^3T kara or 
xx^ ^rft ras kari. The leather surcingle going over the saddle, round 
the horse's shoulders and across his chest, is yn'^l= pmhtang or ^"^i^g^ 

6 



42 



BIHAR FEASANT LIFE. 



pustang. Another name is ^^ jot. The leather belly-band is ?rw 
tang, tj^ ras means the reins ; Trrrr taica or (in South Bhagal- 
pur) *r^^ tawak, the leather cover of the saddle; THi^^n nagla, 
mi«>!fll nagla, or a^rirr tasma, the straps which fasten the shafts 
to the saddle ; and Ir^ kaincM, the wooden side supports of the 
saddle. Other names for this last are ^f^^ kainchiya (Oham- 
pSran and Tirhut), Jitf^'sn' goriya (South Tirhut, Patna, and Gaya), 
fi'fc'd'l % ^■'♦•^ tikthi he lakri in South- West Shahabad, and 
**»<l^ tetkhi in South Bhagalpur. '^fl*^ dumchi or ^jj.ifioil 
dumkaja* is the crupper. The bridle is Tf^hnr punji patta, and 
the iron bit ^wni lagam. The martingale is ^K"i'^ jerband, the cloth 
over the eyes which serves as blinkers -^i^Tt^ andhari, the neck-ornament 
^i3T kantha, and the brass moon on the horse's forehead ^iv^chdnd. 

227. ^rfspTT ganjiga or " dl^t.^i tobra is the bag hung on either side 
for holding the passenger's shoes, &o. 

228. The above is a description of an XTfT ekka when the canopy 
is attached. When this is taken down, a back railing is added, =hii'<«<l 
katahra, instead of the rear posts, and instead of the two front posts two 
shorter ones are set up, one on each side of the driver's seat, called 
^wr5<ST nimdanda. 



CHAPTER VI.— THE COUNTRY BOAT. 

229. Boats are of various kinds. The following may be noted : — 
The general term for a boat is ^n? nmo, and to the west also ^^ 

naiya. 

230. The larger kinds of boats are yt!iT=ti ulank (which has a long 
narrow bow overhanging the water in front), ^^f^^ melhni (which has 
a broad bluff bow), Vtftji'^ pateli or ^^n^ pataili, also called in Saran 
'Irt'll katra (on which the boards forming the sides overlap and are not 
joined edge to edge), ^^t kachchha (which is shaped like a square 
shallow box, without proper bow or stern, and is steered with two 
rudders. It takes great burdens, and will go in very shallow water), 
and the ^K^T saranga, or in Shahabad ^^t'TT sallna, and in Tirhut 
^fr^T sarinna (which has a round bottom for shallow water). 

231. Smaller varieties are ^rf^z (foArt^ or in Shahabad B^Tirz doet 
(which has a flattish bottom for shallow water, and has its bow and 

* The fate of the ekka pony is well shown in the proverb ^T^ -^s ^jq- ^^ 
igfvfi ^n-^siT ddna 7ia ghas, dunu sdnjh dumkaja, — no grain or grass, and the 
crupper on night and morning. 




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THE COUNTRY BOAT. 43 

stern portions out out of solid wood), and MH'^ik'^ pansuM (which has 
a round bottom, but goes in shallow water). 

232. The smallest kinds are M»rf..<i<. pa hodr or skiff and v^r^ ektha 
or dug-out. The latter is also called ^Ji^^ bangra. Also the 'dltsr.'t^ 
kholnaiya, with both ends rising like a goiidola well out of the water, 
and which cannot sink. Another similar boat is called the ^^ "l^TT 
dengi maehhua, or dingy, '^fji; gharnal (South Bihar) is a temporary 
raft made of water-jars (^^ ghara) and bamboos tied together. 

233. Theparts of a boat are as follows :— The thwarts are ^j^garha 
and the ribs^mrr hata or (in Champaran) d^-<)|cir tharhata, af^tji tharhiya 
(in Champaran and North- West Tirhut), vft^ET gochha (in Saran and 
South-West Tirhut), ^^T giichchha (in North-Bast Tirhut), and ^rrw 
Mchh (in South-East Tirhut), Smaller transverse ribs are «nV bank. 
The outer planking is ^tk Mr or (in South Hunger) <(i<«<«f bakal, (in 
Champaran and West Tirhut) ^JI^ hagal, and (in North-East Tirhut) 
■ifjW^'^'^ kachhak pati. In Gaya it is >3i <«!« • ^ K jalamhar. InShahabad 
the planks which run from end to end in the length of the boat are 
^mc ahar, and ^^^ dewal is also used to mean the " wall " or side 
planks. The flooring inside the boat is VTd«i patan or ^^T^z^ patwatan, 
or in Saran ij^tCt patauri. A long plank running over this is in 
Shahabad ^ti^ apti. The grating above the bottom of the boat is 
"^T^ ckali or (in South- West Tirhut) ^(^v^i urhrha, and (in North- 
East Tirhut) ^nrr^ patai. In a t?^^ pataili the planks at the bottom 
which run from end to end are %Tr lewa, and in other kinds of* 
boats ^jf^tJT mariya or (in North-East Tirhut) HK^t mareya, and in 
Saran jftft^ moriya. The platform on which the rower sits is ^f^^ 
patauri or ftz«r bitan. When on the roof of a large boat, it is^s 
bit or ^■Z'TT patai, or in Shahabad "^^•^■^hI halmachani or wmyf 
machaii. The deck planks in the middle are -^rs^^ patna. ^'^ax. chacJiar 
is brushwood put in the bottom to stand on. *f«=iT karwa or *f.<<T 
kanrwa are the posts which support the thwarts, ^wr jonka are iron 
rings to which the roof of the boat is fastened by ropes. In North- 
East Tirhut and South Hunger they are called ^r^ kari. 

234. When a boat is calked with the bark of the tttt^ paras tree 
{butea frortdosa) the calking is called ^^•■«i«T raswat, and when with hemp 
it is n^T^ gahni. ^3T< atar (in Champaran and North- West Tirhut) 
is string used for calking. 

235. The keel, which is the first plank laid in making a boat, is 
fg^T sikka. In Champaran it is ^^'%^ sahan, and itTSf paiain or ^^r danda 
in South-East Tirhut. It runs the whole length of the boat, and hence 



44 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

f^fljT sUka is also used to mean the two ends of the boat. The length 
of the boat is ^^ daicar, and the stem post irasff galhi. The prow is 
ir^^ malang, »iffn mdngi* or ^itsft ?»««(7. 

236. The rudder is t^tp^xk pattcar or (in North Tirhut) vftnrnc 
patiyar. In Gaya it is ^A"i X <. patuar. This is properly the lower piece. 
The rudder post is jft^ gol, (in Shahabad, North-East Tirhut and, 
optionally. South Hunger) ^i'?! khaniha, or in Gaya ^iT^tT gaula, and it 
is fastened to the thwart by a rope called siftrai nathiya. The tiUer is 
^^ saila or (in South Munger and North-East Tirhut) sjst danta, and 
the socket in which it works «(^.<i haiira or (in North-West Tirhut) 
3-g thel, and (in North-East Tirhut) ^^^ thehri. One rope, by which 
the rudder is fastened to the boat, is ^ti^t^^t ganrkassa, and another, 
by which it is held up, is -^^v^ftvr ankicariya. The steersman is 

»rT»ft manjhi. 

237. ■§^vfrr seida or (in South-East Tirhut) ^ViTT sota is the wooden 
vessel used for baling out water. An oar is ^f^ dam; a paddle <*ii>«(iT 
karuar, ^\^[< keruar, or in Saran <*<i«niCl karudri, and the blade of it 
irnrr pata. A punting pole is ^f^ laggi or vr^lT lagga^ 

238. The mast is g<»<d T gurkha or ?T^«cr^ maslul, or in Shahabad 
^ifV^T gunarklia, and the yard is Tfli.'Tl morni. The mast is raised on 
a post to which it is spliced. This is «'<a.« rr darsudha or sj^YVT jasodha 
in South Munger and Tirhut, ai<.«y( jarsudha in Champaran, and 
^.j.uH T jawiadha there and in North-West Tirhut. The socket in 
the bottom, in wKich the post is stepped, is '^•"^I'n If «f^T darsudha 
ke maliya or M^'<\ malwa. The y«i..<firJ)f satwaniyan is the thwart 
to- which the post is tied. It is called in South-East Tirhut '^71 snt. 
The pulleys are fV^^ ghimi, and the sail is ^t^ paly and in Shah- 
abad '^w surt or ^ji^fsrar suHwaniydti. 

239- The tow-rope is ^ ffun or (in Gaya and the south-west) jfl^ 
«o% which is tied to pieces of bamboo called ^^'^T berua or ^arr khunta, 
or in Shahabad ^^T'IT harua, which the boatmen press against their 
shoulders when hauling a boat up stream. The man who tows is 
• fl^l'^K gunwah. "^Xl^ labasi is a cable, and ^^^ langar or fii^T^I' 
girabi the anchor. A large iron anchor is ^V?^^ lohlangar or firx'nfl 
giramL 

240. To draw water (of a boat) is ■qrfti -^t^^ pani torab to the east 
and 'jTfsr WT^ pani tural to the west, e.g. t ^=^T ^SrT ^w ^nfsT "rfrji 

* The most comfortable seat is in the bow. Hence the proverb »iR=*i '^m 
fff % vpM \ f rpn '^ATKjanikd kkewa nahhi, se agila mdngi satcdr, — the fellow 
who hasn't money to pay his fare takes the bow seat. 




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o 
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EH 



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P3 

o 

w 

El 



THE LITTER, 45 

^ t kachchha bahut kam pant turat bd, — this hachchha draws very little 
•water. To be aground is eV8R«T tikab. 



CHAPTER VII.— THE LITTER. 

241. The litter is «5t^ Jchatoli, ^t^ doli, or (m North-East 
Tirhut) "al^*^ khotli. 4^^ doli is also used for the ornamented litter 
used at marriages, which is also called in South Bhagalpur "^rf'^t^ 
chandol or ?(^«!f^««(T tartartoan. The last word is said by natives to be a 
corruption of the Persian ,yi3j <i"=^ takht rawan, or moving throne. In 
the west it is also called sfha^^ ndlki or ft?ra«ff -qr^n^ft biyaJiuti palki. 

242. The bamboo pole is smgr bann, and from it the litter is 
suspended. 

243. The litter itself is ^z't^ kliatoli, and is a kind of small bed 
(■<4<«m*( cfiarpay) with a bottom made of rough twine ( y ti - .n siitri). The 
sides and ends of the bed are ttt^ pati. In South Bhagalpur the 
sides are called ^■ff patti and the ends I^t^^t sirwa. At each end two 
pieces of split bamboo run np from each comer, meeting about 3 feet 
above the bed, and thus forming a triangle. These bamboos are 
called ft^nTT sipawa, or in South Hunger ft'qT^T sipdha, and in 
Saran f^^fT^ sipwa, and they are fastened to the comers of the bed, 
and, at the apex of the triangle, to the pole by a string called ^t«^<^ 
barkas. This string is also twisted round the ft-RT^' sipawa to 
strengthen them. A bamboo stick passes through the pole just behind 
the rear ftvHl sipawa, and, descending perpendicularly, is braced to 
them by strings. This is called ar^^T tenrua or e ^ t^i terua. It 
prevents the pole slipping round. The illustration shows a litter as 
carried by four persons, but this kind is more usually borne by two. 

244. The feet of the bed are called ^o^rrjoaw a, and the strings 
for tightening the bottom of the bed are ^flX'^'T oreJian, and also in 
Shahabad '?fr^<.N«l ordawan. 

245. Fastened to the pole over the bed, and in a plane parallel to 
it, is an oblong framework of bamboo slips for supporting the canopy. 
This is called "3^^ tJiatri, and in South Bhagalpur also ^t).^*^ chhatni 
or ^cF'^ 'chhatri ; and the string braces descending from its four 
corners to the fom: corners of the bed, to keep this awning steady, are 
called irrsi tan. 

246. The illustration shows a litter without the curtains. When 
a woman travels in it, the whole is enclosed in a set of curtains like a 
bell-mouthed bag, called ^frfTT ohar ox ^vr^ pardd. 



46 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

247. A superior kind of litter, used by richer women, is ^■^lif 
meana, w^tsr menana, ^r^rjirr maJuippha, ^f^ danri, or ■S'f%^ danriya. 
It has a domed roof, called a-sr^ thatri, supported on eight pillars (four 
at each side), called ^n?T danta. The side-hoards of the body are called 
^Tra diwal, or in Shahahad f x ^^.'^T dilha, and the doorway %^\\\ 
duhari, or in South Hunger ^^T^ dudri. The rest is like the ^V^ doli. 

248. The tiv.<.< ^ bardari, or in Shahahad «i<. ' ^«<^ larahdari, also 
called in Saran^fT'^fwrMijrManj/a, is the corresponding litter used by 
wealthy men. It is the native form of the Europeanized palankeen. 
In this the side-pieces at the bottom are called vfX^ pati or •^fk^ patiya, 
the net bottom ft«i T 'l«t binawat, the legs T^^nr paua, the side-boards 
M<i»^ patri, the four pillars at each side fyMf"*(f sipaua, the doorway 
^■^iCt duhari, and the roof ^cr chhat. The shelf inside at the feet end 
of the litter is ^VJof daraj. 

249. The poles are called ^fg' bans, and the curved end of the 
front pole ^t^ thop. The four iron struts at each end are called »itt tan, 
and they meet in a ring ("^f^vtir chukiya or in South Bhagalpur vj^ 
sami), which goes round the pole. The inner end of the pole rests in 
a socket in the end of the litter, which is also called ^r*t(T chulciya, and 
also in South Hunger gPH^t sdmi or igfw^T khubiya. The rope network 
filling up the space between the two lower struts at each end is called 
ifc^Hd kamwat, or in South Bhagalpur ^rg«r kasan. 



SUBDIVISION VII. 
APPLIANCES USED IN RURAL MANUFACTURE. 



CHAPTER I.— APPLIANCES USED IN THE MANUFACTURE 

OP OIL. 

250. The oil-mill is known as ?rV^ kolh or ■*t<r^^ koUm throughout 
the province. In Gaya it is also %5f kelhu. It closely resembles the 
sugar-mill, as described in the next section, and a detailed description 
is not necessary. Nevertheless, owing to the circumstances stated 
therein, it has been found inconvenient to give an illustration of a 
sugar-mill, and accordingly the following description of a Patna oil- 
mill is here given in order to explain the accompanying sketches. To 
those reference can be made in reading the section on the sugar-mill, 
in which the few points of difference are noted. A well-known proverb 



■Ms.- MkS-'^-- 


















•'^TQ^. 



'X, 







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M 

EH 

o 

o 



D3 
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PS 






APPLIANCES USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF OIL. 47 

about the oil-mill is %^ ^r^ ^TV Tf?, ^ftW "^T^ SJT^ del khari hh&y 
nahin, kolh chataijdy, — (the bullock) won't eat oil-oake when it is given 
to him, and yet it goes to lick the oil-press ; i.e., stolen goods are sweet. 

251. The hollow wooden block forming the bed of the mill. — ^This 
is <h\<i^ kolh or '^^ holhu, and in Gaya also %?f Icelhu. In this the 
cavity in which the oil-seeds to be crushed are placed is knovrai as ^ 
pet or '?'5T handa, or in North-East Tirhut ^^^ kunrh and in Shahabad 
Wl^ khan. In the oil-mill this cavity is shaped like an inverted cone, 
the apex reaching to about midway down the block. There it is about 
two inches wide, and thence it widens again like an hour-glass till it 
leads into the back of the top of the f^r^^ niroh. The lower half of 
this hour-glass cavity is known as ^«r^ athri. The lower end (w^ 
miinri) of the pestle {w^^ malian) is just wide enough to fit tightly 
into the narrow part of the cavity at the waist. The upper half 
of the cavity is that in which the oil-seeds are placed. It has a 
lining of a series of longitudinal pieces of hard wood, wider at the 
top and tapering to the bottom, which are very tightly wedged 
together. These are called 'TT^ pdclmr. Sometimes, when these get 
worn away by the constant working of the pestle, a fresh lining is put 
inside them. In this case the old lining is called d<.(j^.<i tharpachra, 
or in North-East Tirhut *l<,«'l'«i^T tarpachra, and the new inner lining 
vs?xr5^^ petpachra. 

252. The block is buried very deeply in the ground to steady it. 
The part below ground is called ^r^jangha. Round the base a circular 
mound of earth is fitted, called ^F«rr hJiaunta, or in South Bhagalpur 
■^■iX hhauntho, in North-Bast Tirhut vi'srr bhatta, and in Saran ^m^zt 
manjhauta ; and in this, below the exit for oil, a space is dug out for 
the vessel (^W chhanna) receiving the oil. 

253. The exit for oil is the triangular hole at the bottom of the 
block over the above-mentioned cavity. It communicates at its upper 
end with the ^^rr^ athri. This oil exit, together ^(ith the cavity for 
holding the vessel, are together called f^PcT^ niroh, and in Saran and 
Tirhut also TCt^ naroh. 

254. The flat top of the block is called ^\K[para. 

255. The horizontal board to which the bullochs are attached. — 
This is called Hf»rs^ katri. On it the oilman (S^ teli) sits, and while 
he drives the bullocks he at the same time keeps pressing down the 
seeds into the cavity with his left hand. 



48 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



256. The upright beam, or pestle, which moues in the hollow of 
the mill and crushes the seeds. — This is ^Wr mohan or fv^^ mafian. 
To the west it is also called ^n^jdth, or in Shahabad »iT'<»i monhan, and 
in North-East Tirhut »ft%5r moimin. The ball at the end of this beam, 
which fits into the narrowest part of the hollow of the block, is *t^ 
munri. The ferrule round this is fl^'^ii^ murwat-i. The notch above 
this is ^T^ kanh or ^:x(^ kandlia. The upper end of the pestle rounded 



off is ^ cliur or V^ punchhi, and the curved piece of wood joined to 

~° dhenkua. This 






this is \^^J dhenka, or in North-East Tirhut 

curved block of wood connects the pestle with the upright post which 

is fixed in the horizontal driving-beam : thus — 




-flp 



---»" 



257. In the above sketch b is the '^^T dhenka, a is the top of the 
^^H moJian fitting into it up to the point marked d. The upright 
post is c, which is fastened to 6 by a string g passing roimd the two 
pegs e and /. 

258. The upright post is called in:^«n? martliamh, or in Saran 
»lf%^ 11 malik tham, the pegs e and / M^kJianti, and the string g 
sinj^ nadhan, or in East Tirhut ^t^ ladJi and South Bhagalpur %'^o 
ledha. The string is generally made of straw. The upright post is 
fastened to the horizontal board, ■^«i^ kcdri, by a wedge, Ji'g. fitw ^ 
garkilli, which goes through the former and under the latter. 

259. The horizontal board revolves round the main block of the 
machine ; at the- eud of the board nearest the block is f ast<>ned a thick 
lump of wood called %«T pJunta, or in Saran ^ZT plieta, which acts as a 
kind of washer between the end of the board and the block, and which 
also rests against the latter, revolving in a horizontal groove (called 
wf^^ inandar) out in the latter's exterior surface. A bamboo strut 



APPLIANCES USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF OIL. 49 

runs up from the- inner portion of the horizontal board to meet the 
upright post, so as to strengthen the joint. It is called 'S^P^T^jft khar- 
chali, or in North-East Tirhut 'i^«^|<^ khanrchari, and in Gaya and 
Shahabad iff^K hhanrehar. 

260. The arrangement for stirring up the oU-seeds. — ^This is 
called Cfl«*t reicii, or in South Bhagalpur »)<««il^ bharndihi or ^z:^^ 
utkani, and does not exist in the sugar-mill. It consists of a 
peg, ^^ khunti, standing up in the cavity amidst the oil-seeds, 
alongside the peste; to -its top is fixed a horizontal pole or 
handle, " the other end of which is fastened to the upright post, »>xt«i»? 
marthamh, by another peg, ^^ khunti. The whole therefore revolves 
with the pestle, the first peg moving amongst the seeds concentrically 
with it and stirring them up. At the same time the stirring is 
rendered more effective by the peg being perpendicular and the pestle 
on a slant. 

261. The yoking apparatus. — ^The rope which is fastend to a peg 
in the end of the horizontal beam, passed round the hump of the bullock 
and back again to the beam, where it is tied into a hole, is called 
^iT?T karha, and the rope passing under the bullock's chest, joining 
the two traces thus made, is ^^peti. The canvas pad on the -bullock's 
hump is ^if^ kandhi, and the cloth or wicker basket by which he is 
blindfolded is zl^R^ tohni or ^^T klwla, or to the east Wl<d»<Ji kholsa. 
The rope from the bullock's neck up to the curved block or ^^ dhenka 
is ■T»l«^T pagha, and the iron link fasfened to this close to the bullock's 
neck is ^fx ^>^ bMunr kali. The rope round his neck, connected 
to the ^?IT^ pagha by this link, is JRv^T^ gardawani, or in North- 
East Tirhut ilT'^T'ft gardami and in Champaran si^-^Tift garddni, 
and that going through the bullock's nose is •rr^ nath. A bullock 
employed in an oil or sugar-cane press is called a sfTZT ^^ iidta bail. 

262. Miscellaneous. — The circle in which the.bullocks move is 
called ^Kpaur or -^^pauri, and in South Bhagalpufalso *K bimr. 

263. The pot into which the oil drops is called:JRrT chlianna. As 
much oil-seed as can go into the press at one time is called ^T^ ghdni. 
The oil-cake which remains after the oil has been expressed is called 
^■^ khalli, or in Saran ^^ kharri, except the oil-cake of poppy seeds 
(irl^irT posta), which is called "ftTT 'a^ l^nia khalli, or simply iftsiT 
ptna. 

264. To work the mill is ^K'r or ^^fwaJ..- 



50 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

CHAPTER II.— APPLIANCES USED IN THE MANUFACTUEE 

OP SUGAR. 

A.— THE CANE-MILL. 

265. The cane-mill is known as ^tw J(olh or ^^ kolhu 
tlrroughout the province. Patent mills introduced by European firms 
are known as ^5^ hal. 

266. It is apprehended that the following description of a country 
sugar-mill will he of little else than antiquarian interest, for such mills 
are fast disappearing from Bihar, being superseded by the English- 
made iron crushing-mill made at Bihia. To such an extent has the 
use of country mills died out, that the writer found it impossible to find 
a single one in the sadr subdivision of the Patna district which was in 
a fit state for a photograph to be taken of it. They had all been 
broken up for firewood, only a few dismantled ones being available. 
For a general idea as to its appearance, the reader is referred- to the 
illustrations of an oil-mill in the last chapter. 

267. The following are the principal points of difference : — 

(1) The hollow in the block has perpendicular and not sloping 

sides, and it is hence cylindrical, and not conical, in shape. 

(2) The sugar-mill has no x^»S\ rewti. 

(3) In a sugar-mill the pestle and its appurtenances are on a 

much larger scale. The ^rt^sf mohan is six or seven cubits 
long, while in an oil-mill it is seldom more than three and 
a half cubits, the rest in both cases being in proportion. 

(4) The names of the parts differ. 

268. The hollowed wooden block forming the bed of the mill.— 
This is generally known as sft^ kolh or ^Yw kolhu. The cavity in 
this in which the pieces of cane to be crushed are placed, is known 
north of the Ganges, to the west, as ^T*f khan, or in Champaran ^ ghar ; 
and to the east, ^i^ kund or ^V kunr. In Shahabad it is known as 
^TST handa or ^fl^T^T banrohca. In South Hunger it is -^ffT hanra, and 
elsewhere south of the Granges ^^igT handha or ^'^ lianda. Round 
the edge, at the top of this, a rim of mud is sometimes placed to prevent 
the pieces of cane falling off. This is called ■<?% pinr. An iron ring 
fastened round the block to strengthen it and prevent it from splitting 
is ■^sr ian, and in Tirhut also •q'WK pattar, and in South Bhagalpur 
»rS75ct marro. 

269. An iron ring is sometimes fixed under the block to prevent 
it being worn away by the crushing-pestle. This is generally ifkT^rK 



APPLIANCES USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF SUGAR. 61 

inorwar, with variants w1x«^T^ moricdh (North-Easfc Tirhut), ^^nr 
murwar (Shahabad andPatna), ^i^ mur (Gaya), ^T^ murera or ^««=(i^ 
murwari in South Munger, and ■gir^jrr cJianwa in Saran. The ^"^ or 
"^^{Kpachar is a round piece of wood placed in the bottom of the cavity, 
and on which the crushing-pestle moves. TffT or KtKT rora is used for 
the smaller wedges of wood placed in the cavity above this to help in 
crushing the juice. These are also called "^f^^ chandiya in Champaran 
and "North-East Tirhut, and ^^ khonch to the east. In Saran and 
Champaran xTTf raun is a canal cut on the surface of the block through 
which any juice thrown up may flow back into the cavity. In North- 
West Tirhut this is called Tsi rain, in North-East Tirhut k^txtst 
raspain, and in South-East Tirhut 'aTflT khata, 

270. The drain for the juice cut in the bottom of the block is 
to the north <\'^'% nardoh ; also in Tirhut «rrt^ naroh, in North- 
East Tirhut T?!^ narohi, and in South-Bast Tirhut t%^ raser; in 
South-West Shahabad it is ^^^^rr gujurua, and in the rest of the 
district ^Wr joha or KM'< I raslia ; in Patna it is K^j.HKf rasghara or 
f*rcW niroh ; iu Gaya it is w1^ chlioni; in .South Munger, "^1^ chona ; 
and in South Bhagalpur, ^K^^ larlo. 

271. The wooden spout through which the juice drops is id«»lid 
patnari. In the body of the block a channel is cut in which the block, 
^^ phenta, of the driving gear works. This is called n<.<i gharra 
in Shahabad and «T<.< mandar in Patna. 

272. The horizontal board to which the bullocfis are attached. — 
This is ^dtP^ hatri, with-a variant, ^rnrf^ katari or ^HTK katar, in 
Shahabad, South-East Tirhut, and South Bhagalpur. 

273. The upright beam or pestle which moues in the hollow of the 
mill and crushes the cane.— Foi this three names are current, viz. ^t=f sr 
mohan (Tirhut, except the north-west, Champaran, Patna, and South 
Munger), with variants, W^^ mahan, in Gaya and North- West Tirhut, 
and ^f^ monlian in Shahabad, ^rra- lath (Tii;hut and Champaran), 
and m^jath (Tirhut and Shahabad). The last word is used in Saran 
only in reference to the oil-mill, and not to the cane-mill. 

274. The ball at the end of this beam, which fits with the hollow 
of the block, is Hf muiir, ^ muiira, ^ munri. The notch above 
this is north of the Ganges and in Patna ^*5 kdnh or ^^ kandha. In 
North- West Tirhut it is -^f^rix kanhiya, and in South-Bast Tirhut 
^^T panja. In Shahabad it is ^rrsT kan or ^^^KT langm. In Gaya it is 



52 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

»ft^5i^'«T mohanthamhlM, and in South Munger ^^T dhenka. The upper 
end rounded off is ^ chur or ^^ churiya, or (in North-Bast Tirhut) 
wW munr ; and the curved block of wood Joined to this is ■^ert dhenka 
or (in North Tirhut, Shahabad, and South Bhagalpur) ^li^T dhenkua, 
and in Saran'^fi^T dhenkuha. This curved block of wood connects the 
pestle with the upright post which is fixed in the horizontal driving- 
board. 

275. This upright post is north of the Granges, to the west, '^<*H i 
harm or ^fx^ harisa, and to the east (and in South Bhagalpur) 
Ti filch vii ro maniktham or wfH^ «lf manih tham. In Shahabad it is ««i«'a»i 
mankham, in Patna and Graya ?fzT khunta or »iTv«r^ marthamh, and 
»rr5i^w manikham in South Munger. The pieces of wood which keep 
the beam of the driving gear in the channel at the base of the block 
are sft*)! jibha or foifwiT jibhiya, or in Saran the front one is called 
nrzT phenta, and the back one ^fr^ kanail or (south of the Ganges) 
^'If^ kanheli, and in Saran sfisr^*^ kanaili. In North-East Tirhut they 
are called faiftrat jiUya. 

276. A rope of straw supporting the pestle by fastening it to the 
upright beam is north of the Ganges, to the west, «rT^5r nddhan, in 
Champaran 'l^Tsrr nadhna, in Tirhut sr^TT nadhan, but in East Tirhut 
^T^ ladh. In Shahabad it is ^'SmTT tanrna, in Gaya stig *JTvht 
nadh barta, in Patna srr^T nadhan, in South Munger srra nadh or ^T^ 
barah, and in South Bhagalpur ^iijiff sarangi or %^o ledha. 

277. The bamboo strut attached to the horizontal driving-board, 
and running up obliquely to meet the upright post, is called north of 
the Ganges ^■^t^t^ kharehdnri, or south of it **n<l Icamora (Shahabad), 
4i^»-^\ khanrchar (also in Shahabad), <j^. ' ij< kharchar or ^ V^ l ^ 
kharchali (Patna and Gaya), frs"%«rr kudanriya in South Munger, and 
4lx:T'5iTVr khanrcharo in South Bhagalpur. This is fastened to the 
driving-beam by a rope, called •nrt ndran or •rrei nadha, or in East 
Tirhut ^T^T Idran. 

278. The part of the horizontal beam on which the driver sits 
is ^rjelft katari, irniK katar, or <*fi«<^ katri as above. 

279. The leather thong by which this horizontal beam is connected 
with the yoke is •rnrr nadJia or (in Saran) *^t^ kanheli, (in Gaya) 
siT^T ni'dT nadha barta, and in Patna «f'BT mdnjha. ^t^ karh or (in 
North-East Tirhut and Shahabad) ^t^ karha is a rope which is tied 
to a peg in the end of the horizontal board, passed round the hump of 
the bullock and back again to the board, where it is tied into a hole ; 



APPLIANCES USED IN THE MANUFACTDRE OF SUGAR. 53 

and the rope passing under the bnllock's chest, joining the two traces 
thus made, is T^ peti. 

280. Miscellaneous. — The circle in which the bullocks move has 

various names, viz. in<.«<J^< gorpaur {Saran) , t^^ 2?fflMrfar (Ohamparan 

and Shahabad), ^^ paur or ^^^ pauri elsewhere north of the Ganges, 

in Patna, Gaya, and South Bhagalpur, ^^ bahi also in Patna, and 

•(^•^<T barhara in South Munger. 

281. The receptacle for the cane before it is cut (generally a hole 
in the ground) is ITffTiT^ genriyari generally, and »fff*lK geriyar to 
the -west. The receptacle for cane ready cut is zTfswr^i toniyari, with 
variants ^tfsraT^ toniyathi (Saran, Champaran, and South-West 
Tirhut), st^^rr^t toniyasi (North-West Tirhut), and ztsr^^rrsc tmlchdd 
(South Bhagalpur). In Shahabad it is called ^jht^T^ angarwar. 

282. A wooden mallet is used for pressing the cane under the 
crusher. This is Tpft thapi; also in North-East TLrhnt fii^a milit. 

283. The cane as it is crushed is stirred up by hand, and the man 
who does this is called »n<T<(i>4 morwdh or flTF^sTTS tnonrwah, or in 
South Bhagalpur ^•i«<ii'?t ghamcdha. This ma;n sometimes drives the 
bullocks also, and when he does so he is still called by this name. 

284. The pot into which the juice drops is called generally ^flrr 
khora or (in South-East Tirhut) ^rlr khor, other local names being sjt^ 
nad (Shahabad) and fi'ST Aww^fa (Shahabad, West Tirhut, and Patna), or 
(generally) ^nn chhanna. Over this is often placed a basket or earthen pot 
with the bottom pierced like a sieve. This is called generally wfTT chhan- 
na, K<i>^^\ raschhanna, or %^ chheni. Local names for this are »rKT^ 
tarauri (Saran and Champaran), fwTT chhitta (also in East Tirhut), 
or f*<'ilV<r chhirhira (Shahabad), and ^rf%^T rf«%a (South Munger). 
An earthen vessel for holding the juice is in Gaya ^n^T hathaila. 

285. Erom these vessels the juice is removed to the boiler in a 
pot called <*<i-^ or ^rer^ kardh, or sometimes ^TT^ kardhd. 

286. The blocks oh which the cane is cut are north of the Gtinges 
and in Shahabad fsrs^T nisuha, a variant being firg^rr nhica in South 
Bhagalpur. Other names are %'^ theha (North- West Tirhut), 
^^k^^ pariyetha (Gaya), fi«|<s kukdth (Patna), H<.ctid parkath (South 
Bhagalpur), and »l<|.*Tr tonkatta or •ft^t^*? tonkat in South-East 
Tirhut and Munger. 

287. The hollow in the mill is in Bihar cleaned by hand while 
the crusher is turning : hence there is no apparatus in existence for 
raising the latter, as there is in Gorakhpur and Azamgarh. 



^* BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

888. The basket from which the mill is fed is w^ chainti north of 
the Ganges, with a variant, %?t^ chhiti, in North-Bast Tirhut. In 
Shahttbad it is ^rhft ori (also in East Tirhut) or ^=^ khainchi, and 
in South Bhagalpur ^"^f^Trr oriya. In Patna it is ^^ batta, and in 
Gaya vfewT pathiya. The pieces of cane cut up ready for the mill are 
?I«t gmrt to the west and optionally in Bast Tirhut, and im toni in 
Patna, Gaya, and to the east. In South-West Shahabad they are 
'^IT^ angari. 

289. As much chopped cane as can go into the press at one time is 
^T^ ghdni, and as much juice as can be boiled at one time rrr^ taw. The 
latter is also ■^:^\^ kliepan in Soutb-East Tirhut, ttt^ pak in Patna, 
and TTST ran or rr^ ranh in South Munger and South Bhagalpur. 

290. The cane after the juice is expressed is called Wt?;^T kho'iya, 
with local variants 'atfV^lT khohiya (Patna, Gaya, and the east) and 
^4"^ I kho'iha in South Bhagalpur. In Shahabad it is also ^^^T 
ch^hua. 

291. To work the mill is ^t^ or ^^ /)era6, and when several 
cultivators take it in turns, each turn is called vf^ bhdnj, irrft pari, or 
(Gaya) ^r^?^ palti. When men work it turn by turn they are said to 
do it ^fsiT ft^ bhdnja sire north of the Ganges, ^XT 'ffT^ phera 
^Adn in Tirhut, and elsewhere 'TTTr ''KX^ para pari. Sometimes a mill 
is^owned by co-sharers, and then their taking it in turns is »Sai.^R,^ 
bhanjhariya, 'gfifi^^ sajhiyaiti, or (Tirhut) ^"(.d*?! sahthaiti, and also 
in North -Bast Tirhut gf»iraT sajhiya. In South Munger "W^ dhenk is 
the working of a mill by cultivators for a week in turn, one after the 
other, till the turn of the first comes again. 

292. The men engaged on the milt are as follows : — 

(1) The mamoho cuts the standing cane. — This man is •^ ij'^ ' ^i 
angeiiha to the west generally, 3[^«cjfNS*jl genrwahiya in the north-west 
■"TsiT^r^ pajwaM and m<i<.-«(i^ pagarwdh or vjt vj K pangaricah in 
Tirhut. In Shahabad he is also sfffvw't^T genrchhlla, or in the south- 
west of the district ^t^^rr chlwlwa ; in Patna and Gaya, he is " ^c^.hk t 
ketarpara {hom'^ifC^ Zre^an, sugar-cane), ^K:^T%x partdhar, ov■^x^wr%XK 
2}arnihdr, and in South, Munger ^»h..«ii.<t katarpdra or ^»<<.m<l patar- 
pdra. In South Bhagalpur he is ^<..*g| ghurkatta or <»A fi m T kataniya. 
In Saran and Champaran these men do their work without 
wages in money, their pay being the leaves of the cane which they 
cut, which they take home and use for cattle fodder. 



APPLIANCES USED IN THE MANUFACTUKE OF S0GAII. 55 

293. (2) Tlie man who cuts the cane into kngths for the mill 

is ^TT hdnu in South Tirhut and Saran. In Champaran 
he is Mefcr^i ' ^ pakwah, and to the west he is »rf^'»iei 
genrikdta or •^JK.«(i'<r angarwdh. Elsewhere he is 
zfT'^RTT tonlcattai with a variant, zir«i=h8T tonikatta, in 
South-East Tirhut. In North-West Tirhut he is simply 
called M^<\ majura, and in North-East Tirhut sometimes 
onr j'dn. In Saran and Champaran the same person 
cuts the cane and boils the juice, hence his name. 

294. (3) The driver of the mill is <*fK'«(l^ kataricdh, with 

variants •ftdR.clK katariiodh or •frti.^TfT katarwdha, 
and in South Bhagalpur «»(<..«( -^i katarialia. In 
South-West Shahabad and in Tirhut he is called 4 ^r^TT 
hankwa. 

295. (4) The man who feeds the mill. — He is iHT<«^TY monrwdh or 

»ri<««(l^ morwdh generally. In Patna and Gaya he is 
^sfT^T^T ghanwdha or (in South Bhagalpur and South 
Munger) ^•i.«i'^ ghanlaha. 

296. (5) The man iclio removes tlie crushed cane. — He is T ^t^H 

haluai in North Tirhut ; elsewhere this is done by 
the man who feeds. 

297. The buildings. — The whole manufactory, including both 
cane-mill and boiling-house, is called ^tW^K kolhudr, or in South- 
West Shahabad jftsTT golaur. In Patna, Gaya, and the east it is 
called %t«wn: kolsdr. 

298. The house in which the cane is cut into slips for the mill is 
called sffe^K genriydr, orifff^T^ g'mnyan to the west and ztfiraTC^ 
toniyari to the east. Local varieties of this last are <ilfi|tji^ toniydsi in 
North- West Tirhut and a^nai^ tonkhad in South Bhagalpur. 

299. Folklore on the subject. — Near the place where the cane 
is cut into slips the men make a round idol of a deity called 4^<tii<. ^ 
makdr hlr, or in Shahabad «"«•*!< ^^ mahkdr bir, and in North-East 
Tirhut w^T^rnc mahkdr. He is said to have been originally a 
Dom, who once came to a sugar manufactory in the olden 
time and asked for juice, which the people refused to give 
to him. Thereupon he jumped into the boiler and was boiled to 
death. His spirit became deified, and is now worshipped by the 
workmen. The worship consists in pouring a little water on the 



56 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

image when the cane is brought into the manufactory from the 
field, so that he may wash himself. Then five canes are put before 
him. They are then cut up and put first into the mill. The first 
juice that comes out is also poured OYer him, and then the rest may 
go into the boiler. In South Bhagalpur tho deity worshipped is 
f^^^m" biswakarma. 

B.— THE BOILING-HOUSE. 

300. This is in Saran (j^[< guraur, and in Shahabad jfNlK golaur ; 
elsewhere it is simply ERt«^^TK kolhmr or <til<(iv4jK kolsar as above. 

301. The fireplace is '^<agi chulha, or in South Hunger <m«>^< 
gamher. The hole through which the fire is fed vwth fuel is generally ^^ 
mull or w^ munh, but in Patna and Gayait is wt^swT mohkha. The hole 
through which the fire is raked is ^^ sansi generally north of the 
Granges, •iji'.^i natigra iu North-East Tii-hut, ^?i^ langra in Shah- 
abad, and ^a^T«r udhan in South-Bast Tirhut. Elsewhere it has no 
special name. In Saran ^»iifT langra is a receptacle for the juice 
when removed from the boiling-pan. 

302. The outlet for smoke is ^t«^ dhuankas north of the Ganges 
and in Shahabad. In South-West Shahabad it is vg^ dhundhuka, in 
Gaya it is f%sffT hikka, in Patna "rf^ hink, and Wjitst nengra in South 
Bhagalpur and South Hunger. 

303. The stick used as a poker is ^1 <■.•?! khorni, or in Patna ^"^flT 
khorna. Liocal names are ^1 <t'srr khodauna (South-West Shahabad) 
yi"^«^l4. lahicai (Shahabad), and ^'^rsfT anchna (to the east). In 
Shahabad 'BT^t pJmruhi, or in the west generally tjist^ phahuri, is 
a piece of wood used for raking out ashes. The man who stokes 
the fire is called ^TR kanu north of the Ganges and in South Bhagalpur 
and Shahabad. Local names are ^<.*r*<«jl dlmrkamiya (South-East 
Tirhut), ^^•*fcf*f chuljhonka (East Tirhut and Shahabad), f^f^^ 
chulhaiwha (East Tirhut and Gaya), ■^N^^TTT anchwalm (Patna), and 
■^\KX%Kanchtaliar (South Hunger). 

304. The vessel in which the juice is coUeeted before boiling 
is siK »»«^ or fT^ '*«*> or (ii Gaya) "^ft chatti, (North-East Tirhut) 
»I1^ go-g'^'i or ■^^T gJiaila. Generally, however, it is kept in the ^^t 
chhanna (see above), of which there may be several in use at one time. 

305. The spoon for taking the juice out of the boiler is north of 
the Ganges, to the west, ^«ir^ Icathahi or aBd.i^^.iTl kathkhurpi, and to 
the east (also in Shahabad) '^^ saik or ^i*! saika. Elsewhere south 



APPLIANCES USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF SUGAR. 57 

of the Ganges it is ^T?it sapha'i or ^^jr^TT saphaiya. In South- West 
Shahahad it is, however, ^"t^v^T dohra, and in South Bhagalpnr it is 
Tfra't dapti or "SM dabbu. 

306. The scraper to prevent the sugar resting on the bottom of 
the boiler is ^K«^ khurpi generally. In Saran and Ohamparan it is 
*4<..m khurpa, and in North-East Tirhut «*d.*^<.if|' kathkhurpi, the 
meaning of which here is different from that in Saran, Ohamparan, and 
West Tirhut. In Patna it is ^^s^^ perni, and wi(*^«i dapian in South 
Bhagalpur. 

307. The iron ladle used as a skimmer TpU is pauna, or (North 
Tirhut) ^'^♦ ^ gi mailchhanna, (South-West Shahabad and South Bhagal- 
pur) «IT^ thapi (also made of wood), and vfivftr^ jhanjhra in Patna, 
Gaya, and South Munger. Sometimes it is not necessarily of iron, 
and then it is ■'^T^TT khurpa in South -West Shahabad, %m hatha or 
^fifT hattha (of earthenware) in Patna, Gaya, and South Munger, and 
wsn^ chhanauta in Saran and South Bhagalpur. 

308. The boiling-pan is called <*s<V^, <*^l-^ karah or <fc<.|i?l karahi. 
The earthen vessel used for removing the cooked juice from the boiler 
is north of the Ganges ■^^ saik or ^^rr saika, and in Shahabad it ig 
VJITTT pangaura ; in Saran it is ^f^T paunra. The pot in which the 
boiled syrup is placed is called w^^ wa^MA* south of the Ganges, also 
(South- West Shahabad) ^V^ ori, (Gaya) sf^^^ nadua, ^tKJ khora 
in the South- East, and ?^^ kunri in South Bhagalpur. 

309. "rr^ n&d is a hole in the ground dug for receiving the coarse 
sugar. North of the Ganges it is also '^fsjpaunr/ia or ^P^ patmrhi. The 
sugar is collected and thrown into this with a bamboo fitted at one 
end with a roller, which is called ^s^^'T gurdam or (in South- West 
Shahabad) ^^T gurdan. In Tirhut it is also called '^^^^isr dabkan, 
and in South-East Tirhut 'g'qi; snpai. 

310. In North-East Tirhut vnr mat or ^3^ kothi is the large 
vessel in which the juice is finally coagulated. These are in Tirhut tj<.i<K 
gurpaur, and in Ohamparan (made of sun-baked earth) ''f'fT'^ dehri. 

311. XT^ rdb is undrained raw sugar, and ^ gur is rdb boiled 
down for a longer time. Further particulars concerning these and the 
other products will be found in the chapter relating to sugar-cane 
(§§ 1014, 1015). 



58 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

C.— THE SUGAR REFINERY. 

312. A sugar refinery is known as "^•ft % 'IR^'RT chini he htr- 
khdna or ^^hft % Ttft^^ chini ke goddm. South of the Granges the word 
'^;:^i^XKkhanrsar or ^f^m^ khanrsari is also used. The honse in -which 
the sugar is refined is called T^^T % ^ chullia ke ghar or ««m-« * 
^ karah ke ghar. In South Bhagalpur it is iRfT bhattha. 

313. In making coarse sugar (^jT^ '^^ Ad«c/»j chini), a Vat, a 
drain, a reservoir, and a treading-floor are used. 

314. The vat is in Shahahad ^^^j Aawrf or ^^ ^at'rf?, in Gaya 
^■^■•^m ehahbachcha. in Patna ^^twt khamgarnd, and in South Bhagal- 
pur 11 i..'^^ gurhandi. North of the Ganges and in Gaya it is »rT^ nad 
or sif^ ndnd. 

315. The tfra/'/i is «1T^ «aZi or srrft "-in, or in South Bhagalpur 
i|i<.S4i karha. In Saran it is also called 'smrr khdta. 

316. The reseruoir is north of the Ganges, and optionally in 
Shahahad, TT^ n&d or sri^ ndnd. In Shahahad it is ^^T dobha, in Patna 
^^ hand or "^Xf^T charua, and elsewhere south of the Ganges ^i6««(^l 
cliahbac/icha. 

317. The treading-floor is vrr patU north of the Ganges. 
South of it, it is in Shahahad ^\Zl pdta, in Patna and Gaya ^^cITKT 
chabutra, and to the east "^^ chatfi. 

318. In making regular sugar or g^T sakkar, the drain and the 
reservoir are used as hefore. The hundles (fltzv^ motri, or in Patna 
srix*^ ndrgi, in Gaya ■sjirr thaiya, and in South Bhagalpur JiT«iT gaja) 
of sugar are tied up in cloths [<a^«ii lotha or (in Patna and Gaya) ^^r^T 
chhalnd], placed on a bamboo framework and pressed with weights 
of stone or sun-dried clay. The framework is called north of the 
Ganges ^i% khdnch or ^1^^T khdncha, or (in Champaran and East 
Tirhut) wVt chhainta. In Shahahad it is ^ZT^t thatri or ft^?^ tikthi, 
in Patna and Gaya z^^ tekthi, and in South Bhagalpur "^f'^v^ 
ehdmhri. The weights are ^ttt chdmpa, or, when made of stone, ^i^rer 
ptitluil, or in Saran irrft thdpi. 

319. The following utensils are used in the boiling-house : — 

(a) An iron boiler, '^fKT^ kardh, ■^STT^T kardha, or ■^VTrrTt kardhi. 
When an earthen boiler is used, it is called 'a'^r^T khapra 
or ^TT^ khapri, or in South- West Shahahad and East 
Tirhut vjsjTft athri. 



APPLIANCES USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF SUGAK. 59 

{b) An iron ladle for removing the scum. THs is i^tzT 

chhanauta or mT«(I jMuna, also in Patna and Gaya w^ttt 

jhanj'hra. 
{c) An earthen pot with holes in it, used as a filter, »rT<5 ««rf 

or ^T^ nand. In South- West Shahabad it is afe^TW Tf^ 

tkenthiwal nad. 

(d) A filter of river grass, known as '^^K semwar or ^^JK 

sewar, or in North-East Tirhut ^^K semdr, 

(e) A scraper for removing the layer of clean sugar. When made 

of shell it is called f%g^lT sittia, or in South- West Shah- 
ahsid ^S"^^ situfia or tty"^l sufuha. A curved knife used 
for the same purpose is fVrlXs^ sihorni in Saran and 
Champaran, ^t^"iT sehm-im in Shahabad, and *jl^<«H( 
sohiirna in North-East Tirhut. 

(/} The filtering-basket for cleaning the same is wr^ khdncha 
or ^f^ khdnchi. In Gkiya it is ^^^T dalwa, and in 
the east also "^^ deli. 

(g) The wooden or iron ladle for cooling the boiling syrup is 
north of the Ganges nfRi^IT tamiga or (in Saran and 
North-East Tirhut) *rfii^ tamiya. South of the Ganges 
it is ^^ dahhu, (in Shahabad) g<..<5l gurdan, or in South 
Bhagalpur vfrmixj jhanjhra. 

{h) The iron stirring ladle used for taking syrup from the 
boiler and larger than the last is WTflT tdma north of the 
Ganges ; in Shahabad it is ^fT«^^ khurcham or ifft^^TT 
dohra ; in Patna and Gaya it is ■ W^'^ chholni ; and in 
South Bhagalpur «l-^»^ dohla. 

(«■) The earthenware jug for pouring the syrup into the boiler 
is ^^ saika, also ^WT haWia in Patna and Gaya, and 
^■•^it^panchni in South Bhagalpur. A larger jug of the 
same kind is fV^nrr nimra north of the Ganges, and 
fij^.^ T nibra or v<.'<^i parehJia south of it ; also HTW 
taula in the east. 

(y) The wooden supports of the filter are north of the Ganges 
^atcn khdta, or w^T ^«T khunta balla south of the Ganges. 
They are in Shahabad f%ft sirhi (also in South Munger) 
or finrrr?: tirpai, and ^-^K tepdii in South Bhagalpur. In 
Patna and Gaya they are made of earth or brick, and are 
called 5Fitft gori. 



60 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



(A) The shovel for stoking the fire is tjj^'^ pharuhi or '%'s\^ 
pJiahura in Saran and Champaran, and 'BT^T pharuha or 
»1<l< ^ koddri in East Tii-hut. In Shahabad it is 'a^.W 
khorma, or in the south- west of the district ^6Tv^ pharsa. 
In Gaya it is ^^.^ karhni, in Patna "<(w|5<fc<g..(i agkarhna, 
and in the east ^K^^W karchhul. 

{I) The ladle for stirring the hot syrup in the cooling pan is 
^firaf tamiyan north of the Ganges and -^fk^ tainUya 
in Shahabad. In South- West Shahabad it is ^^^ dablu, 
in Patna and Gaya ^«t-.5rr ghatna, and in the east also 
^T^ daba. 

{in) The piece of matting or cloth in which the sugar is dried in 
the sun is TT^iJfl/, also in South-West Shahabad Trex 
pata, in Gayaje;aix: tappar, in Patna bt^ tat, and in South 
Bhagalpur '^ft chatti. 

(»t) The fiat wooden pans for cooling the syrup are ^rarm 
kathauta or ^^^ kathauti, also in the east ^raT«r 
kathaiit, and in Saran ^ai^cf kathtcat. In Saran and 
Champaran they are Tix nad or '^l^di'Tl osauni. 

(o) The vessel into which the juice drops as it is filtered is-q^rsrr 
parchha or (North-East Tirhut and Shahabad) irrax taula. 



CHAPTER III.— APPLIANCES USED IN THE MANUFACTURE 

OF INDIGO. 

320. Indigo manufacture is "confined almost entirely to North- 
Gangetic Bihar.* 

321. The indigo beating- vat is^vr^lf^oJ (or "^T^ ) mahaike 
hauj {oThaud), and also in Norih-East Tirhut v'^^ftn'^:^mahaniya hand. 
The water reservoir is ^<jjhi khajdna. The upper or steeping- vat is 
•n^itl % VK bojhai ke haud, or in East Tirhut ^^Mif^niT ■^TX bojhaniya 
hand. The rake for agitating the fermented liquor is 'Es^ phahuri in 
Saran and tbt^T pharuha elsewhere. In North-East Tirhut it is also 
Tf;^j^ pharma. 

* The author is indebted to W. B. Hudson, Esq., for mucli of the information 
contained in this chapter. The system of manufacture described is the old style, 
now only used by natives. In European factories the use of steam power has 
made considerable changes. 



APPLIANCES USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF INDIGO. 61 

322. The beams of wood for pressing the plant are ^"(Kl dabauta 
in Saran and Champaran, ^"^•■rtH sahtir in Tirhut and Saran, <frH 
dah or '^X^i dharan in North-East Tirhut, and ^w Mm in South-East 
Tirhut. These are supported on projections in the walls of the vat, called 
l^^ majusi, or in Champaran cfXT tan. In East Tirhut they are called 
r«i\»Hi^i sirpdha. Under these pressing-heams are placed, '^W\ hallal, 
or in Saran ^^ kainch, which are bamboos laid immediately on the top 
of the plant. 

323. The ^"^^sff liaudri (Saran and South Tirhut) or Tra »5^ ■mal 
jhari (Champaran and North Tirhut) is the small reservoir where the 
indigo juice collects to be taken to the boiler. The drain is srrar 
iiali or srrft nari, or in Saran *ft€t mori, and the w^iT chhekan is the 
door by which it is closed. The strainer is ^^T chhanna, or in South- 
West Tirhut ^x^ clmddar. 

324. The boiling-room is ^fTT? ^ kardh ghar. The %«t mej is 
the Wooden or masonry straining table in which the indigo is put 
after being boiled. This is the name in Saran, Champaran, and -West 
Tirhut ; to the east it is ^ig; %ai hdlu mej or (in South-East Tirhut) 
WT^ %W mat mej. 

325. The ■^'Hx^^irM or ■^fft^ plris is a corruption of the English 
word " press," in which the boiled liquor is placed in a cloth and 
the -water pressed out. In Saran «nai data, and elsewhere •^ t^.«)t 
chalna, are the perforated boards placed above and below the indigo 
in the press. The screw of the press is t^ pench. The square boss 
or nut on it is f^^^ dhibri. The wtx^ morni is the spanner or 
apparatus for turning the screw. In South-East Tirhut it is also 
*<4ft<««? t mamorni or Hs^.^^ pechkas. The large wooden beam through 
which the screw passes is %"?! theha in Saran, and elsewhere <«)|«ii 
dabauta or ^T^ dab ; when it is made of iron it is called in South 
Tirhut ^T^ bank. The ^i^T kutka are small pieces of wood placed 
below aad above the ^sT^rr ddla or "^"jiHl chalna. 

326. The machine for cutting cakes is ■'^Ki'^ pharma, and the 
wires with which they are cut <rn: tdr. 

327. The cakes of indigo are 3i>«\ goti, and they are dried in 
a drying-house, vrt^^ ^IT goti ghar, on shelves, called in East Tirhut ^^tt 
machan, and elsewhere ^T^ chdli. 



62 BlHik FEASANT LIFE. 

328. The foUoTcing are among the implements used in indigo 
agriculture : — 

(1) The ^K.^ ^n3?t dhm'tn laggi, a wheel for measuring land, 

each revolution of which covers one «d'jTl laggi. 

(2) The gr^nr kuddr or g«<rft kuddri, a mattock for digging. 

(3) The fTK har or plough, which is of two kinds — 

(a) niVlTA»«fl bildeti, or English plough. 

(b) %^ desi or ^i^ kathaur, the country plough. 

(4) 273*^ tanri, the drill plough. 

(5) ^iiBT kanta or 's^tr^ khakhorni, the rake or harrow. 

(6) ^5K»^ khurpi, the spud for weeding. 

(7) NTO AaMSM or V^^BT hamua, the sickle for cutting the plant. 



CHAPTER IV,— THE SPINNING-WHEEL. 

329» The following diary shows the process of spinning thread 
and making doth in the suhdivision of Madhubani, in North-East 
Tirhut, in the year 1879 : — 

On the 20th September the writer bought 24 sers of cotton, 
being a day's plucking on a sunny day from about a bigha 
and a half of cotton field. The cotton ^T banga (see § 
1016 for the various names and varieties) was of the kind 
called «Ft^3^ kokti, which ripens in the month of Bhadon 
(August-September). It was pulled out of the husks 
from the tree. 

20th~r^2Qth September. — ^During this time the cotton has been 
drying in the sun, and now (26th) two old women are 
employed to clean it, picking out the dirty and immature 
cotton, called <M.«^e karkut. This is principally com- 
posed of seeds which have come to nothing and been 
worm-eaten. This cleaning is done by hand. It lasted 
to the 30th September. 

\st October. — Commenced to separate the seeds, ■^^tT bangaur, 
from the ^f jtt banga. This is done by a machine called 
^T^'ft charkhi, which consists of two rollers, about an 
inch thick, of hard wood tightly wedged one above the 



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THE SPINNING-WHEEL. 63 

other ; both rollers are supported in uprights, the ends 
passing through. At one end the lower roller is turned 
by a handle, and has at the other end, where it projects 
from the upright, a screw cut in it. The same end of 
the upper screw has a reversed screw cut in it, and these 
two screws fitting into each other act lite cog-wheels ; but 
when the lower roller is turned, the upper roller turns in 
the direction reverse to that of the lower one, so that they 
act as a pair of feeders tightly wedged together. The 
^Ttit hanga or uncleaned cotton is then applied to the 
feeding side of the two rollers, and on the handle being 
turned the cotton is pulled forcibly through by their 
revolution, while the seeds remain behind and fall down 
to the ground. 

330. The tvpo upright standards are called ^^t kJiunta, and each 
of the rollers snfa' jdthi, or in Saran ^^r^ sanrari. Underneath the 
rollers is a cross-bar, called ^i^ kal, joining the two uprights and 
holding the machine together. The ^^ khunti is a wedge going 
through each upright from front to back, under the cross-bar and 
holding it and the roller in their places. 

331. The trg^ pachri are the wedges running sideways through 
each upright and tightening the two rollers together. The crank which 
turns the lower roller is called H^t^ makri, and it is held to it by the 
f%^ killi or linch-pin. The handle at the other end of the crank, 
which is held in the hand, and by which the machine is turned, is 
called ^T^l^ lagani, or in Saran "q^^ chalauni and in Gaya ^«n^ 
hathauri, 

332. The base of the machine in which the uprights rest si 
called ^^ plrha, or to the west f>Tfg^T pirhiya, and out of this projects 
behind, along the ground, the ^^firrr majhwa, on which the foot of the 
operator is placed to keep the machine steady. 

333. The cotton, when cleaned from the seeds by this machine, is 
called ^ rv, ^ rui, or "aK t€r, — the last by women of the upper Hindu 
castes, and the two first by Musalmans and low-caste Hindus, ^-^t 
1-ua is used in Shahabad. 

334. The above lasted three days. It was then again cleaned 
{j^ tunab, ifsi<r tunnab, or (in Shahabad) <nj^ tumal, to clean), the few 
remaining' pieces of husk, &c., being picked out by hand. 



64 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

21st October. — The cotton was to-day put out in the sun 
preparatory to being carded (^g^nr dhunah, to card). 

22nd October. — To-day two cotton-carders (^ft«(i dhuniya) came 
to card the cotton. Bach brought with him a machine, 
called a ^^n^ dhunki, or to the west ^rg^ dhanuhi. In 
Gaya it is g^a^ dhunethi, in South Hunger and South- 
East Tirhut '^^ dhunaith, and in South Bhagalpur 
^[«l^^3' dhunhath. 

335. It is composed of the following parts : — 




(a) The flexible piece of wood acting as a bow, called %t^ danti 
or ^i5T danta to the east and «T^ ddnri to the west. 

(6) A broad wooden board, called «*^'^ l phareha in North-East 
Tirhut. In South- West Tirhut it is ih<i<JT pJmrauta, in 
South Bhagalpur 4i^-<i pharuha, and elsewhere as Tff^TfT 
pharha. 

(c) The bridge over which the string is passed, ^rnft mdngi. In 
Shahabad and also optionally in East Tirhut it is »n^lT 
mdtha, in South Bhagalpur mjVcfT mathwa, and in South 
Hunger »(WI»«<|«?1 magwdsi. 

{d) A leather string, called -nffT tdnt. In Patna and Gaya it is 
also called ft^ roda. 

{e) A leather strip acting as a sounding board, lying along the 
round edge of the tibt^T phareha, on which the string 
rebounds, called IJ^^ puchhet or ^^z\ puchheta generally. 






■^=? — j - r - '^^ 







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1 



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THE SPINNING-WHEEL. 05 

^^U2T pachhauta in Tirhut, and ^f *T kdnkar in Saran 
and Champaran. In North-East Tirhut it is y»ts^^ 
pushtail, and an optional name in Shahabad is a*|iT 
puchhauta. 

(/) A stout leather string along the outer side of the '^bV'ST 
phareha, to one end of which the cif»r tdnt is attached, 
while the other end is fastened to the ^nft danti. It is 
used to tighten the ?rf«T tint, and is called ft<.-<?| ghirchi 
or ^<''^ ghurchi. When pegs are used for tightening 
this, they are called i?t^ biri or fsrfK^T biriya. 

(ff) The ^«f7^ hathhar, "^vf^nx hathgar, or "^ «(•<*<. hathkar, is a 
loop of string under which the left hand is passed to hold 
the machine steady- The above is the name current in 
North-East Tirhut. South of the Ganges it is also called 
"^l^^iT hathkar, with variants "^^i^^ Jmthkar or "^^i**^! 
hathkara in Shahabad. In North- West Tirhut it is "^^i^tt 
hathra, in South- West Tirhut and Saran ^r«lT hatha, and 
in Saran and Champaran ^a.=|KI muthwara. 

{h) The mallet for twanging the bow, of wood, shaped like a 
dumb-bell. It is held in the right hand, and the itfci 
tdnt is struck and twanged with it. It is called foi^T 
j'ista, and also (in Tirhut and South Bhagalpur) f^ t^ i 
disia. In Patna it is called '^^T dasta, and in South 
Hunger (\*ai distha. 

336. In using this instrument it is held by the left hand imder the 
'?«!•*< hathkar, which passes over the wrist, and the cmr tant twanged 
in the midst of the cotton by the i^^ixjista, which is held in the right 
hand. This process loosens the texture of the cotton, and causes all the 
dust and dirt to fly out of it. The g^T^ dhunki is not allowed to rest 
on the ground, but is supported in the air by the ''^s)«*< hathkar passing 
over the wrist, and it springs up and down as the cifil tdnt is twanged. 

337. The whole pile of cleaned cotton was called i^t^gothi. While 
this was going on, two old women were called in to make little hollow 
rolls of cotton to be made into thread. They are called to the east 
•R^ ^Mw', and to the west Pt^^^wmj" or ^^^ peioni. A local name in 
East Tirhut is ifh: pir. These are about four inches long and a quarter 
of an inch thick, A lump of clean cotton, the size of a walnut, is put 
round a thin skewer, called f<r5«^ft pinrlisari, and is then rolled on a 
board, called f<rf?^T jnrhiya, with the palm of the hand. These are 
then tied up in bundles of about ten each, called Wft niutthi. 

9 



66 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

338. These -^t^ pini are now ready for being made into thread in 
the spinning-wheel. 

339. The spinning-wheel is ^r^T charkha, but in South-West 
Shahabad it is K^'^T rahta, and in the south-east '»J<«<siT jarkha. 

340. Its parts are as follows : — 

The foundation. — This is in the shape of a double letter T : thus— 



341. On one of the cross-pieces the driving-wheel stands, and on 
the other the spinning apparatus. This foundation is called ift^iJir/ja 
or f^rff'^T pirhiya to the east, and ft^i; pirhal to the west. The 
connecting bar between the two cross-pieces is »j»fi^^ manjhwa or 
?jf«T manjha, in Patna and Graya it is ^RTs^lTr latkhora, and in South 
Bhagalpur '(T^^'STT manjhdi. 

342. The driuing-wheel. — The supports of the driving-wheel are 
called ^^T khunta. The wheel itself is composed of two parts, — 

{a) The central boss or nave, and 

(6) The four spokes on each side of the nave. 

343. The nave is called jtVV munri or ^^ muri south of the 
Ganges, and H^ m unri or jff^^T munriya north of it ; in East Tirhut it is 
also ^TKT tdnia, and in South Bhagalpur and South Hunger T^ paila. 
It is about 5 inches long and 4 inches thick. 

344. There are four spokes lying across each end of the nave from 
one circumference to the other ; there are therefore eight radii on each 
aide, and they ai'e so arranged that the radii on each side are not opposite 
each other, but alternate. Each of these cross spokes is called '^^ putti 
or "J^ puti, or in South-West Shahabad ^.v^^ kamri ; sometimes they 
are also called ^^T khunia or ^^ khunii. 



THE SPINNING-WHEEL. 67 

345. Ttese spokes are held in their places by a string, called ^^m 
atoal to the west, -^^rra amwal in Patna and Gaya, and ^ ^m^ amal or 
^iTTW amalh to the east. In South Hunger it is ^r*?ra atnhdl. This 
string goes round the extremities of each radius of each side alternately: 
thus — 




It forms therefore a kind of edge or rim of a -broad wheel, something 
like a paddle-wheel, and over it passes the driving-band which turns 
the spinning apparatus. This paddle-wheel is about a foot in diameter 
and five inches thick. 

346. The central axle of the driving-wheel is called ^rra lath 
generally north of the Ganges and in South Bhagalpur. In Tirhutit is 
called oJT3 jdth, and in North-East Tirhut also ^rrra' Idith or ojt^ 
jdith. South of the Ganges it is generally ■J^srr belna. It is caused 
to revolve by a crank end called y <»«<' > makri, or in Shahabad and 
West Tirhut srT^ ndk. It is X^ft darhi or ^f^*(T darJiiya elsewhere south 
of the Ganges, except South Bhagalpur, where it is again fr^iT^ makri. 
To this is attached a handle, called to the west and in Gaya M"^!*!! 
chalauna, and to the east ^K^«it lama or ^rn:fsT larani In South- 
West Shahabad it is called ^^ bhaunti or «T<i«i( bhamwat, and in Saran 
optionally '^^T^ chalauni. 

347. The driving-band is called i(m rn&l or wrw malh. It is 
rubbed with rosin (■^;*TT dhuman) and oil (^ tel), and is then blackened 
with charcoal ( <t1^^i koela). The driving-band goes twice round 
the driving-wheel and the spinning-axle, once passing through the 
^^9<4il<?l malkathi {vide post), and once not. 

348. The spinning apparatus. — We now come to the spinning 
apparatus. There are three perpendicular uprights. The two outside 
ones are called '^^ khunti, and the middle one is called Jj^^^rr^l' malkathi. 
In Patna these three uprights are called together i|'T?.*r<J«JT 
pachkathiya, and in South- West Shahabad ^frj"^ khuntiputti. The 
two outside ones support the bearings of the spinning-axle, and the 



68 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

centre one has in its length, facing the driving-wheel and going right 
through its thickness, a long slot cut. One of the strings of the 
driving-band passes through this slot, and the other passes outside it, 
so that the double turn round the spinning-axle can never get 
jammed up together, and so entangled. 

349. On the two outside uprights, on the side furthest from the 
driving-wheel, project two stiff pieces of leather, called "^tt^T^ chamrakh. 
These form the bearings of the spinning-axle, which passes through them. 

350. The spinning-axle.— This is called z^t^x takua, and also to 
the west i^'nx tekua. It is an iron skewer about 8 inches long and 
an eighth of an inch thick at the thickest part. It projects a distance 
of three inches beyond its bearing on the same side- as the handle 
of the driving-wheel. This bearing has on each side two little pieces 
of wood fitting on to the spinning-axle, which act as washers, and 
are called ^^ chhuchchhi. Outside the outer. washer on the spinning- 
axle is a flat disc called f^ig^y^ phirki, and two and a half inches of the 
axle project beyond it 

351. The driving-band, after passing twice round the driving-wheel, 
passes through the ij<d««l<ri malkdthi, then twice round the spinning- 
axle, and then back to the driving-wheel outside the «i<!i'"-niol malkdthi; 
and it is evident that even the slow turning of the driving-wheel 
win make the spinning- axle revolve at a very high speed indeed. 

352. In spinning, the projecting point of the spinning-axle has a 
short length of thread attached to it, and then, while' the handle of 
the driving-wheel is turned with the right hand, a roll of cotton 
{■^t^ ptni) is held in the left hand between the finger and thumb, and 
the cotton, being quickly caught up by the length of thread, is drawn 
of£ in the shape of thread on to the quickly revolving spinning-axle. 

353. When the projecting point of the spinning-axle is filled with 
thread, the whole is called a ^*.<^ kukri, or in Saran gr^f^ kukurhi, 
and is wound off on a winder, called viTfl' parta or MV«<1 pareta. 
It is also called in South-West Tirhut sizi^ natwa, and in East 
Tirhut ^3s^ latwa or srercrr natwa. In South Bhagalpur it is 
called T^t natai. This is like an ordinary silk- winder. The handle 
(^^•TT chalauna) of the driving-wheel is taken out of its socket 
in the crank (^rqt^ tnakri), and in its place is placed one end 
of the axle of the winder. The other end is held in the right 
hand, and is revolved between the finger and thumb. The winder 



THE weaver's L00M7 69 

is conical in shape, and does not need further description. It will 
hold half a quarter of a ser of thread at a time. Wheii it' is 
filled, the thread is taken ofif and tied in hanks. These are generally 
ifl^rr pola, xft€\ poll, or TflfW*JT poUya. Local names are spft natti 
(North-East Tirhut), ^"^ latti (Patna and Gaya), and <ti«'^ karchi 
in South-West Shahabad. 

354. The diary breaks off here temporarily, as the spinning of this 
particular cotton was not done in the writer's presence. He wished 
the thread to be spun as fine as possible, and as this could only 
be done by Brahmani women, who would not come to a strange 
house, this part of the work was done by them at home. 



CHAPTER v.— THE WEAVER'S LOOM. ' 

355. The following is a continuation of the same diary. 

IBth January IBiBiO. — The skeins of fine thread were brought to 
me to-day, and were put in water to soak for eight 
days. This strengthens it. 

27th January. — After they had soaked this period I sent 
for a weaver. A Muhammadau" weaver , is Bftw^T 
jolha or trtfif sf momin, and a Hindu weaver is ?i<l's^( 
tantwa or ?rr^ tdiiti, or, in Shahabad «rT<ft. tdnto. 
Sometimes the Hindi word 5rt<8m jolaha is used 
instead of ^'^'^[ jolha. 

356. The Musalman weaver or "^t^m jolha is the proverbial fool 
of Hindu stories and proverbs. He swims in the moonlight aoross fields 
of flowering linseed, thinking the blue colour to be caused by water. 
He hears his family priest reading the Quran, and bursts into tears 
to the gratification of the reader. When pressed to tell what part 
affected him most, he says it was not that, but the wagging beard 
of the old gentleman so much- reminded him of a pet goat which 
had died. When forming one of a company of twelve he tries to 
count them, and finding himself missing wants to perform his own 
funeral obsequies. He finds the rear peg of a plough, and wants to 
set up farming on the strength of. it. He gets into a boat at night, 
and forgets to pull up the anchor.. After rowing till dawn he finds 
himself where he started, and concludes, that the only explanation is 



70 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

that his native village could not bear to lose him, and had followed 
him. If there are eight weavers and nine hukkas, they fight for the 
odd one. Once on a time a crow carried off to the roof of the house some 
bread which a weaver had given his child. Before giving the child 
any more he took the precaution of removing the ladder. Like the 
English fool, he always gets unmerited blows. For instance, he once 
went to see a ram fight and got butted himself, as the saying 
runs: — 

Karigah chhdr tamdsajdy, 
Naliak chotjolaha khay. 

— ' He left his loom to see the fun, and for no reason got a 
bruising.' Another story (told by Fallon) is, that being told by a 
soothsayer that it was written in his fate that his nose would be cut 
ofE with an axe, the weaver was incredulous, and taking up an axe 
kept flourishing it, saying ^ ^RVTT fo ^ft^ ^RT^Nf , ^ «t<'«iT <f s tri 
^z^ff, ^"^T «if ■«*<««ll »R SIT-, yon hatha ta gor kdtbon, yon karba ta hath 
kdtbon, aur yon karba tah nd-, — if I do so I cut my leg, and if I do so 
I cut my hand ; but unless I do so my no — , and his nose teas off. 
A proverb oJT^t^ oiTirfii siT ^rr^ jolhajdnathi jau kdtai, — does a weaver 
know how to cut barley, — ^refers to a story (in Fallon) that a 
weaver, unable to pay his debt, was set to cut barley by his 
creditor, who thought to repay himself in this way. But instead 
of reaping, the stupid fellow kept trying to untwist the tangled 
barley stems. Other proverbs at his expense are ^^ ^rara 'fT^ 
%, «il'sl«^l' ^^ra ^TO ^ kaua cJialal bds ken, jollw, chalal ghds ken, — 
the weaver went out to cut grass (at sunset), when even the crows 
were going home ; sjt^P^ ^fif^^T^ i^^ %rr jollia bhutiaildh tlsi 
kliet, — the weaver lost his way in the linseed-field, an allusion to 
the swimming exploit already recorded. His wife bears an equally 
bad character, as in the proverb «[^^Hf% s^^vf^fsf ^ttrt ^f?t ^^ 
hahsali Jolhini bdpak danrhi noche, — a wilful weaver's wife will pull her 
own father's beard. 

357. The weaver proceeded to set up in the ground seventeen pairs 
of sticks in two lines, at a distance between each pair of about one and a 
quarter cubits, and between the lines of about two cubits. At each 
end of each line a stout bamboo post is fixed, and close to each of 



THE WEAVER S LOOM. 



71 



those at one end another smaller staff, 
is twisted as follows : — 



Round these sticks the thread 




A, A, A, A, are the tops of the bamboo posts, and the dots are the 
tops of the smaller sticks. 

358. This operation of setting the warp is called cTT^ ^SK^ tdni- 
karab, or in Shahabad cTTTT ^fK^ tana karab. The bamboo posts are 
called ^€t khunti, and each stick, gr sar. These last are called in 
Saran, Champaran, and North- West Tirhut ij<.*T sarka. 

359. The sticks immediately in front of the bamboo posts are called 
to the west f^f^^T chhitua, in Shahabad fifT^ chhipki, and to the east 
flfZi'^ chhitki, also in North-East Tirhut ^IxW ^T donk sar. The 
whole apparatus is called wi^ idni, or in Shahabad TnTT tana, and the 
thread to be stretched is put on a kind of pyramidal reel called 'gT«^ 
charkhi. It spins on a spindle, called <J|««fl dagni, or in Shahabad ■<^^ 
dangi, and in the inside of the apex of the cone is a cup called ift^ 
thori, or in' Shahabad ^"T'^^ tholri, in South Hunger «Jt^T^ thorli, and 
in South Bhagalpur zH to'i, which rests on, and revolves on the point 
of 1 the spindle : thus — 




360. The spool is composed of 14 slips of bamboo, forming the 
framework of the cone, fastened at equal distances round the circum- 



.72 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



.ference (^IJK chakkar) of the base of the cone, and converging to a 
point at the top. 

361. The spindle of the spool is held in the left hand, and the 
weaver walks np and down between the two lines of thread, directing the 
thread by a hook called ^r^ khunri or ^f^ khonri, or in South- 
West Shahabad 4|i>wi khunda, in South Munger ^i^ khundi, and in 
North-Bast Tirhut and Shahabad t%;s\ khunra, and shaped as follows : — 



IP 



The hook at the top is made of iron. 

362, 5th February 1880.— The warp having now been all set 
upon the sticks ('gr sar), they were, with the M^ 
khunti, pulled up, rolled up; and put by till to-day. 
To-day they were unrolled and laid out in a long line 
on the grass. The wSi khunti were then carefully drawn 
out, and a bamboo staff, called V*i<\< sirar (or HiilR 
sirdri) , put in the place of each. It will be remembered 
that the ^x sar were in pairs, and that at each pair the 



thread crossed thus 



Another kind of 



WK sar is now taken, made like a long shallow bow, 
except that the string is made of a thin strip of 
bamboo. This bow is called ^ri.^ sutri, or in Tirhut 
^^^ssT banhka. The arch of the bow is also made of 
bamboo. The bamboo string is called ^^ dori. The 
arch of the bow is now passed through the threads 
where one of the old ^r sar was, and the bamboo string 
through where the other 'BT sar of the pair was, so 
that the cross of the threads is still preserved. The 
bow and string are then fastened to each other at 



73, 

each end. The arches of the various bows all face one 
way. The warp is then laid out on the ground, and 
the threads neatlj spread out upon the bows in 
parallel lines, to the width of the future piece of cloth. 

362a. ^th February. — The thread thus arranged was rolled up, dip- 
ped into, and well wet with cold rice-water ^'RT^ mdnr), 
to whiohsomeH^^T»wan«a seeds had been added to 
etiSeu it.' It was then unrolled and stretched out hori- 
zontally at a height of three feet from the ground and 
brushed with a large brush, called ^"^ kunch, dipped in 
mustard oil and water, which smooths the threads and 
takes away any knots or inequalities in the thread. 
This brush is also called 44«1><|| majna in West Tirhut, 
•tToii manja in South Bhagalpur, and flfsJT mdnjan in 
South- West Shahabad. The cross sticks on which 
the thread rests are called vim matijha, and the cross 
bamboos at each end axe^^vr^ thengbni or ^itT l ytX 
Idthi dor to the west, ypt^i gora to the east, <ao «i*< l 
khasraiya in North- West Tirhut, ^iT dhattha also in 
North-Bast Tirhut, efar dhdntha in South Bhagalpur, 
and Vl<s^ lathi also in South-East Tirhut. This brushing 
ia hard work, and takes eight men to do it properly. 
The brushing is along the threads, and not across them. 
The bristles of the brush are made of ta^iiB^ khaskhas, 
called also in Saran ^vi^xr % si^ katra kejar, such as is 
used for tatties, and are about two and a half inches 
long. The brush itself is about a foot long and two 
inches wide. The brushing went on for three days, 
and is called TR ^X^ pdl karah, and also in East 
Tirhut MW'i '^^ tdsan karab. The phrase ^tt TPC 
di pdi means the brushing and other preparations, and 
there is a proverb, sflid-'^l % ^riT ^TX, ^^ifpxj % ft|>4M 
jolha ke di pdi, chamra ke bihdn, — ^when a weaver says the 
cloth win be soon ready, as he is now brushing it, 
don't believe him, any more than you believe a shoe- 
maker who says ' the boots wiU be ready to-morrow.' 

363. When this was concluded, the threads were put into the loom 
and woven at the rate of a yard a day. The loom is little different 

10 



74 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

from that used in England. It is called ^f^ai'^ karigah to the "west 
and MiT^nx hargah to the east. It consists of the following parts : — • 

(1) The shuttle. — This is «t^ dharU in Gaya and to the west, 

and ^rn:?ft^ kaparUnni or ^TK^^sft kaparlnni to the 
east. In North-East Tixhut it is also called ^RTCs^ 
kaparni. 

(2) The needle inside the shuttle, on which the thread is 

wound, is fwft tiri, and the tuhe which revolves on 
tMs ^1^ chhuchchhi, or in Shahahad ^^ chhunchki. 
When thread is wound on this tuhe the whole is 
called 5rf> )iari, also in East Tirhut sift lari. This 
is held in its place in the hollow of the shuttle hy 
a pin made of a feather. This is called TTO^irrt 
pakhmri to the west and in South-East Tirhut, -^X. 
hir in South Bhagalpur, and v^^^pakhUr or ^^T^t 
pdlchedri to the east. A weaver estimates his work 
by theiiumber of sr^ nari which he uses up, as in 
the proverb in which he is supposed to address a man 
who has seized him to carry a load, «»i^^^ So STJPS, 
*ff^ ^o s^ sftW "^x;7^f?l ^t?«f tangbah ta tdiigah, 
nahin ta nati narik ImrkaU hOet, — if you must load 
me, load me quickly, otherwise the time of nine 
shuttles will be wasted. 

(3) The wooden frame suspended from the roof, which after 

the shuttle passes is pulled forward by the weaver and 
drives the thread home. This is x^T hatha or x^\ 
hattha in West Shahabad, Patna, and West Tirhut, 
«im«V^ kamlianr in the west generally, ^«« v^ Icamhar, 
in the north-^west, and *«■."« <«| kamJmnda in Gaya. 
In North-East Tirhut it isTrTTT tana, and in South- 
East Tirhut wv^ tani In South Bhagalpur it is 
il«iv<ifc< tankar. 

(4) The comb of reeds or bamboo in this bar, which keeps the 

threads of the warp apart, is called rrw rachh. 

(5) The heddles, which alternately raise or depress the threads 

of the warp, are mr hae or ■^ lai. 

(6) The set of three reeds which is placed in front of the heddles 

to keep the two sets of the threads of the warp apart is 




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THE WEAVERS LOOM. . 76 

'■ .^fl«H.l«l*T atr&wan nortli of the Ganges generally and 
in Shahabad, and v<<NH tardwan elsewhere south of 
the Ganges. Another set of three reeds also used is 
called Moi.^ hhanjni in Champaran, North Tirhut, 
Gaya, and South Munger, and <;h6 two sets tog€(ther 
are called in J^orthrEaet Tirhut muKT^T vm atraiean 
bhdnj. In Fatna and the soufli7east the reeds are also 
called ^K sar, 

(7) The elastic bow which keeps the woven cloth stretched in 

front of the weaver is tj^^ pannik south of the Ganges ; 
north of the' Ganges it is mHi^ pannikh, and also ^nft 
panni in East Tirhut. 

(8) The wooden roller behind which the weaver sits, and on 

which the cloth is wound up as fast as it is made, 
is in the north-west, in West Shahabad, and in 
South Munger v,)^**! lapetan ; elsewhere it is ^^q«r 
chaupat. * 

(9) This is supported by posts called ?^«t khunta; also the right 

and left ones have different names, viz. the right-hand 
one, which passes through the roller and prevents it 
turning round", is fsiM^ jibhela everywhere, in North- 
East Tirhut also T^'^jmjUila, and in South-East Tirhut 
also fm'^^j jihela. In South Bhagalpur it is ttt^ ^ar 
gdli khunta. The left-hand one, against which the 
roller rests, is ^w^T hdnghela north of the Ganges every- 
where. Also, in East Tirhut, as also to the west 
and Gaya, it is 'f^rfl' hamwdri or f^'fr'^T bamwariya, 
in Shahabad it is also f^T pachhela, and in South- 
West Til-hut ^^^ kandhela. In South-East Tirhut 
it is also called ^»i^rT bamaila. In South Bhagulpur it 
is simply Tgrr khutta. 

(10) The woof is supported at the end opposite the weaver by a 

piece of wood called '5R7^T? kharkaut to the west 
and '3K»«^^ kharkauti to the east or »a v^<^ kharJcuti 
in South Bhfigalpur, which is held up by pillars 
called Mi*i^ kanaili to the north and west, ^zt khunta 
in East Tirhut, ^ thum in Patna, I'fll timmbhi in 
Gaya, and ig^T thumbha in the east, and also 1^:^ ^|zt 
kJiarko khunta in South Bhagalpur. 



'^^ BlHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

(11) The woof is held tight by a string, which is fastened to its 

end and passes round a peg at the extreme end of the 
loom and back again up to the weaver, where it is 
fastened within his reach to another peg. He is thus 
able to slacken the woof as necessary. The first peg 
is called ^^ % ^st aqela ke khUnta, or in Tirhut 
^\«*|«fl % ^^bV sarkauni kekhunti; the second peg is 
called «l<v«(5<fr % ^zj dorhandha ke khunia, or in South 
Bhagalpur <ti<l*fvii^ Icankilli. 

(12) The treadle, which the weaver moves with his foot, is 

qfiJK paunsdr or •qt^TT pausar generally, and in East 
Tirhut "v^tTK pasar. The knob on this, held between 
the- weaver's toes, is "^yn^ pautdn. 

(13) The upper levers, to which the heddles are attached, are 

sr^-;^ nachni generally. In East Tirhut they are 
tuTl-^''^ lochni, and in South Hunger ^r^J«^ lachni. 

(14) These levers are fastened to an upper beam, which has 

various names, viz. ^rw^ ahher to the west, fflcpMrr 
hhitbhera in Saran and Ohamparan, ^^siT dhachdna 
in South-West Tirhut, ^^^r dhachdn or ^^RT^ akdsi 
in North-East Tirhut, vdT»<.<*'(. uparkar in South-East 
Tirhut, *<.5H< karhar in Gaya, and ^n: kar in Patna 
and South Hunger. 
364. The loose end of the woof {^\ pdi) is called f^TKT sirdra, 

and it is wound up on a £vr^ tangni, which is hung up out of the 

wtiy. 



CHAPTEE VI.— THE SALTPETRE MANUFACTURER. 

365. He is called sftftwf noniydn. The round vat in which 
he dissolves the saltpetre from the saline earth is ^t'^ kothi north of 
the Ganges, and south of it '^i^fTT^ dhri. The mother liquid thus 
produced flows out through a drain called TRTT^fflMar in Tirhut and to 
the east, and ■^IK paundr to the west ; also in Saran v\n^ mohdn, and 
in South-West Shahabad Ml'**!-*! parnauha. It flows into an earthen 
vessel fixed in the ground, called T^v^r nadha, ^^ nod, or srr^ ndda 
also ■Vf'^ parchha in Tirhut and towards the west, and »rs«ft garni 
in South-East Tirhut. 

366. The mother liquid is called x^ ras, or in South-West 
Shahabad ^vfiVi agras. After the saltpetre has been deposited the 



A DISTILLERY OF COUNTRY-LIQUOR. 77 

refuse liquid from which salt can be educed is called tpfn?^ pachhdri, 
or in South-West Shahabad^fT^ kahi. In Saran tn'^ kdhi means the 
liquor from which salt is educed, and v<lj^ pachhari the refuse which 
is thrown away. 

367. Over the round vat are placed bamboo rafters, which are 
called Hflit korai to the west, nft^t' karo in North- East Tirhut, and 
■^zn(Zm{ patwatan in South-Bast Tirhut. These are supported on bricks, 
^ZT inta, and over them is spread straw, called m<iii chhaja, f^f^ 
chhitti, or ^k khar. 

368. The mother liquor is boiled in a large iron pan called ^btt^ 
karah, ov (to the east) f^'^rr taula. When made of earth it is called 
gnirr kunda, or in Saran ^"K khor. The fireplace is called ^r^rfT chulha- 
The pot for cooling the boiled liquid is ^f^^ hanriya, or to the east 
5^WT taula. 

369. The iron curved spud by which the saline earth is scraped 
from the ground or wall is 4^<.m khurpa, and the mattock for digging is 
■^STT phahura to the west, *1<^T^ kodar in Tirhut, and ^i^l^ kuddri 
in Saran. The basket for carrying the saline earth is sfl*.^ tokri, 
and that for carrying the saltpetre '^^ chhainti 

370. In South- West Shahabad— 

(a) si^^T HtKl jarua sora is saltpetre prepared by boiling ; 

ifi) ^tT^ ^Itt ahi sora is saltpetre prepared by evaporation by 

the sun's rays ; and 
(c) ^r^rnft ^^ kalmi sora is refined saltpetre. 



CHAPTER VII.— A DISTILLERY OF COFNTRT-LIQUOR. . 

371. v^b^TT Ma«A?rfar or ^T^ii^iT^ oiA:ar is a distiller. In Saran 
he is also called xf^ r.dnki. ^r^rra kaldl is a Muhammadan who sells 
country-wine ; «i i r i '«< C < kalwar is a Hindu who does this. qiwi<!9 kaldl 
and TTsft rdiiH are caste names. When a man of another caste sells, 
liquor, either on his own account or as a servant, he is called «i^««i«i 
gaddiwdn. vft bhatthi is a distillery. «h*!ll'^ kaldli or spft gaddi is a 
place where country-spirits are sold. 

372. The still is called v^ bhaithi, and consists of the following 
parts : — 

(1) %Ji deg or %»T deg, the boiler. — This has a baked earthen 
cover called ^t|«'*K adhkar, or in Saran ^f^i^ix. adhkar. 



78 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

(2) Over this is inverted a wide-mouthed globular copper 

vessel ; this is called «if^ tdmthi, or ia Saran Trfw'tT 
tamiya. It serves as a condensing-vessel. The spirit 
rises into it, and over its outside surface runs con- 
tinually a supply of cold water. 

(3) The water reservoir is snx nad. The water flows from this 

through a pipe called tfrf^ paunalH, or in South 
Bhagalpur miT<«i) panndli, and in Saran also «f»lT 
dhonga, on to the top of the condensing-vessel. 

(4) The spirit thus condensed flows out through a pipe called 

«*)■••! 1^ madhnari. 

(5) The spirit is oolleoted in an earthen jar called ^VK tank or 

»i^^ matuka, and in this it is carried to the place of 
sale. 

(6) The refuse left in the boiler is K^ ras ; also, in Gaya, 

5^^!^ baksa, and in South Bhagalpur also ^^ gora. 

(7) 4liaiw safan or m'i^ ehhdban is water used for diluting 

spirit, so as to increase the quantity for sale. 

(8) The liquid for distillation is made as follows. Liquid 

(t^ ras) and sweet preparations (^?Nt mitha) are mixed 
and buried in the ground. This mixture is called 
*«f<»rt kasaunj'i. When it is ripe »is^ mahua is 
poured into it. This act of mixing is called v^^ 
hharii. When the mixture is suflBciently fermented 
for distillation it is called «n**l< hojhai. The 
constituents of the x^ ras and of the '^<i\ mitha 
vary, and are not detailed here. 

(9) Earthen cups for drinking country-spirit are "5;^ chuJckar, 

a^«<t?l gurU, or fir^^rr pitaua. 

(10) Pots for keeping the spirit in the shop are called trr^ mat, 

■'*1l«IT horena, or in Shahabad <*1<.u kaurena and tt^ij T W 
huiydm. In Saran another name is ^iTt<rr kardha. 

373. Ordinary weak country-spirit is ^ct^rr^ dokdni, and. also 
in Saran 'sft^T khasiya ; the next strongest (when made of i^t: gur 
only) is ^r=^ kandi or (when made of other materials) i{l - «<|<i dobdra ; 
the next strongest is s^hft saumphi, or in South-East Tirhut ^TITT 
sebdra ; and the strongest of all, «'^<«<VI< maharddr. 



THE PALM- JUICE SELLER. 79 



SUBDIVISION VIII. 



APPLIANCES USED BY MISOSLLANEOUS VILLAGE 
TRADERS AND PROFESSIONALS. 



CHAPTER I.— THE PALM-JUICE SELLER. 

374. The pabn-juico seller is ^rP?ti>as». 

375. In climbing up the palm-tree he uses a heel-rope, which ties 
his feet close together. At the same time he has a stout rope passing 
round the tree and his body. He leans back against this rope, and 
presses the soles of his feet, thus tied together, against the ti-ee. He 
then climbs up the tree by a series of hitches or jerks of his back 
and his feet alternately. The heel-rope is called «*«<t malcri, or to the 
west 'Tfi^ pakusi. In Shahabad it is 'TsfiJ^ paksi, and in Tirhut and 
'Pa.tna. '^sfi^ phandiya. The body-rope is generally ■#^5^1V danrwans. 
In the east it is also 'k;^ rassa, and in South Munger *(i<vrti hdrta. 

376. The longish earthen pot in which the juice is collected is 
called ^'U'ft idbni, or to the east ^^ urhnrh. Round its neck is tied a 
string, called to the west ^T«^»r arwan and to the east 115^ phanni or 
Hi^l.*^ phanki, or in South-Bast Tirhut < T *II rauna . This string is 
booked on to a hook, "^[givr ■ ankuru, or in Saran '^gffT anhtrha, in 
Shahabad ■■^^^ ankmi, and in South Bhagalpur 'flJi<jrtH,T ankora, which 
is tied to the man's waist by a rope, si^K lewar, or in Saran ■b-^***! 
danrkas, in Champaran ^^ ddnra, and in South Bhagalpur TZTT petdr. 

377. The sickle used for cutting the palm-tree is ^^^ hamuli to 
the west and ^^^T liansua to the east. It is sharpened on a piece of 
wood called ^73T lautha, and also, to the east M\i\ sonta, or ^^j^'a 
balvMh in South Bhagalpur and ^3T baletha in South Munger. 

378. A ^sft^ii Mtliauna or «i<«<ts't tarkatti, or in Saran ^^Tirr lahna, 
is a large longish earthen pot for holding toddy («rr^ tdri). In South 
Bhagalpur JfT^T taula or gi^sT kunda is an ordinary vessel for holding 
it. ITTT ndpa, or in Saran sp?^ naphi, is a small earthen pot used for 
measuring it, and «rt\«^ jorwa, ^tRi^IT harariya, and sfhaTrf golwdn 
are in South Bhagalpur earthen vessels in which toddy is' sold. 

379. A toddy palm-tree is WTT or W^ tar, and the juice is ?rr^ 
or ?rr^ tdri. There are two kinds of this tree — the female one, which 
bears fruit and is called ^^5«nT phaltdr, or ia South Bhagalpur 
TE^ p/Mlla, and the male one, which produces hairy flowers and is 



80 BIHAR PEASANT XIFE. 

called «ra^»rn; haltdr or ^^tixlK phultar, oi in North-Bast Tirhut 
i|it(i>^ phuldo, and inSsran «(fia>jT haliha. A ^»r»KT khangra, V^'XJ 
khagra, or iSJii^ khagri is a young palm-tree. A ■«^t^ korhi (North- 
East Tirhut) or a ^f^KT haJiira (South-East Tirhut), VNFi' ft^^rr 
banjhi siswa or ^^iT^ andthu (South-West Tirhut), is a palm-tree which 
does not produce juice ; a 'TO^ hasanti is a tree which produces juice 
in spring, and vig^jjethua, or in Saran ^T^ sal, one which does so in 
summer, while ^^ ghaud is one which does so all the year round. 
In the east ^r ghaur is a tree which produces jioice in the rainy season. 

380. To cut a palm-tree for the juice is ^^ chhewab. 



CHAPTER II.-THE BIRD-GATCHER. 

381. The bird-catcher or f«<«r*j»T\ mirsikdr, or in Shahabad 
«i yf ^« l l baheliya, uses a number of sw ^ml or ffK nar, which are long 
shafts of bamboo tied together like a fishing rod, of which the top 
one is called ^swrr kampa, or in Soutk Bhagalpur ^^ khoncha. On 
this last is applied bird-lime (^'TOT l&sd), and the bird-catcher cautiously 
approaches the bird, concealing himself behind a z'ft tatti or screen 
of leaves and branches. When the bird is within distance it is struck 
with the limed ^n^T kampa, and thus caught. The vjt^ i chonga is 
the bamboo tube for keeping the bird-lime. 

382. The ^bt^ phdnd oi ^■^ phdnda and ^T|^^ chaugora are 
two kinds of nooses. ^fz^T^ hatiyari is a net used in the day-time, 
and sri«1< chatar, one used at night for catching birds. 



CHAPTER III.— THE BARBER. 

383. The barber is ^«rni hajdm, ^TgfX: thdkur, •n? nai, TT^ ndu, or 
•IT^I tMiM. In North East Tirhut he -is also sf^fK: naheri, and in Saran 
sometimes ^jfirT osta. He has his ^Wt hkhar or f^g^cr kismat, fkiM'^tt 
kisbat, or f%g^^ kisbad, which is his instrument-bag. Also he has a 
•qTilT*T chamauta or '^i^z'l' chamauti, or piece of thick leather used as a 
strop, a wl"***"*! mochna or tweezers, and a J[tj chhura or ^i^TT astura, or 
to the east i^ khur, or razor. His nail-parers are •r'^T:^ ivaharni, but 
in Ohamparan they are siVT«i nahran, and vrTK«sft laharni in East 



THE WASHERMAN. '81 

Tirhut. His whetstone is fkm silla or fWt nlli. %"^ kainehi is Ms 
Ecissors, ^relxV katori his brass cup for water, -<^.<>m<i darpan his looking- 
glass, and ^^ lungi the cloth which he spreads in front of the person 
he is shaving, and on which the hairs fall. 



CHAPTER IV.— THE COUNTRY SUEGEON. 

384. The country surgeon is vtv^KT^ jarrSh, sirrf jara\ or '^^Tw 
hajam. 

385. Among his instruments are srgTCT jamtira, a tooth-extractor, 
^•«T chobha or ^n^x; nastar, a lancet for the arm, and ^v^irr thunka,a, 
lancet for the head. 

386. For circumcision {^^i(t( sunnatGiWtf-:^ khatm) he has ^^ 
jantri, '^tfi ghori, or in South Bhagalpur ^^T cMnta, which are nippers 
of bamboo, aud rj«dK saldi, which is a bamboo needle for holding up 
the foreskin. 



CHAPTEll v.— THE FARRIER. 

387. The farrier or HTW".^^ nalband has the following 
appliances. 

388. A H'ar^ mekhari or f^^iT kisbat, which is the bag in which 
his tools are carried, a f^ chhuri or curved knife, a ^«i>'<4<i^ sumtards 
or large curved knife, a gjii^ jambur or pincers, a ^cf ret or file, a 
^^s^aT halkha or ^rc^T^ martaul or small but long hammer, a ^h<i ^ 
doali, or in South Bhagalpur ^tji-yi balkha, which is a leather for holding 
up the horse's hoOf, a 'S,>^'*i\'^ inijmal or hair string for tying the ear 
of a refractory horse, a "^^^^T Mlkha or iron ring, and a ^*i?^i^ 
sumkatti or chisel for cutting the horse's hoof. 



CHAPTER Vr.— THE WASHEEMAN. 

389. The ^^^ dhobi or wafehfennan uses a ifZ'^i patha or 
pat, which is the washing-board, of which the support is in 
Shahabad ^^^T MeAwa or^^Tsrs" ?j<-tOT,'(^A. In South- West Tirhut it ia 

11 



82 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

called ^T^ chauki, and, when made of stone, ti«i^ pathal. His iron is 
T^firft istiri or (in North-East Tirhut) fireif?T^ mistiri. Ilis ironing 
cloth is t3T hethan, and his starch ^^t lialap or ^r^'RB kalaph. 

390. When the article to he washed is too heavy for him to lift 
up and dash upon the washing-hoard, he beats it with a mallet, called 
gJT^TT mungra or ^»T^ mungri, or (in Saran) igfwT daman, (in North- 
East Tirhut) ^fzT sonta, and in South-East Tirhut <«ii<n /a^/««. In 
South- West Shahabad it is called ^ar^fr kathka, and in South Bhagal- 
pur tfl'i'^ fn dhobddng. The clothes-line or drying-frame is «TTR tdndw. 
His bundle of clothes is «[f«^T baJcucha. 

391. The act of beating the clothes is ff^ kundi, and to beat the 
clothes is ^Itz^ ^fe6, or ^tv^ dhoel north of the Ganges, ftst<<H 
bichharab (in Patna), i^ifKT nichharab (in Gaya), Ih^TT^ nikhdral (in 
Shahabad), 'rf^^ khincJiab (in South Bhagalpur), and ^3^ chhdntab 
or t^f^^^AiwcAai (in South Munger and Shahabad). 

392. South of the Ganges clothes which are well washed are ftfUTf 
nimdr, or in South Bhagalpur ^rtT^ »KTX gobarjhdr. In Champaran they 
are fi|«K nikchdr. The half-washing given to new clothes is <d*<»<r t 
kJmmso, or in South Bhagalpur ?ifnii^ khdmso. In Gaya the washing 
of a cloth after it has had patterns printed on it is f^*<..n bichharni. 

. 393. The honesty of the washerman and his tenderness for the 
clothes committed to his care are not considered of much account in Bihar, 
and there are numerous proverbs coined at his expense, e.g. ^f^ -fx 'sfN^ 
^, K^ ^FTJ^T ■>?T ^^T "^ dhobipar dhobi base, tab kapra par sdbun pare, 
— no soap ever touches clothes unless many washermen live together 
(when owing to competition they wash well). Again, vtf^ ^T^ %1C f%5 
5rf% "RfT^ dhohik bap her kichhu nahinphdf, — nothing belonging to a washer- 
man's father is ever torn by him {i.e. those are the only clothes about 
which he is careful). It is also a wise precaution, which according to 
Bihar ideas should universally be adopted, to disbelieve a washerman 
when he says the clothes are ' nearly ' ready. A washerman's donkey 
is a bye-word, as in the proverb V^7%T X ^3 ^^^ ^ft^*^f, tftf^T^ To 
'O'J^ mO^i, gad/ia ken na dosar gosainydn, dhobiya ken na donar parohan, 
—an ass has only one master (a washerman), and the washerman has only 
one steed (a donkey). Again T?t4\ TTar ^K^^, t ^?j^ ^^inx^T^ dhobi, 
ndu, darji, i ttnu algarj'i,— there are three careless people, the washerman, 
the barber, and the tailor. 



THE CAKPENTER AND TURNER. 83 



SUBDIVISION IX. 



TOOLS AND APPLIANOBS USED BY COUNTRY ARTI- 

ZANS. 



CH^kPTER I.-THE CARPENTER AND TURNER. 

394. The carpenter is ^^ barhi, or in East Bihar optionally 
^!^{\Kkamar. In South Bhagalpur he is also called V^vi maraiya. -His 
workshop is <««<•« I *i</i;aw«rsa^ar or ^3^^ ^rtTT barhi khdna. A proverb 
ahout him is 'I; ^f<.«i"<* ?iTii ^WcTP? ^ftratT if^TT lo <i^<!ir i huribak gam 
kamaitah, janihi rukhdn na basula, — this fool (of a carpenter) would serve 
the village when he has neither chisel nor adze ; said of one who under- 
takes to do a thing without possessing the means. He uses the following 
tools : — 

395. The arfze. — '^■^^ basula or, especially in South and West 
Bihar and. South Bhagalpur, x^;^ basula. In South Munger it is 
^f5^T basila. A sifflilar tool is T^ tanga, afjlT tdnga, zfafl' tdngi, or ■^»IT^ 
tangdri. In North and East Bihar it is also called ff^rr^ kulhdri. 
This is a larger adze, and is used chiefly by sawyers (^^^f^^fr arkasiya 
or ■^TTRR^-ardias) in squaring logs, and by carpenters for rough work or 
for cutting down trees. 

396. The large saw. — ^kt dra, ar.d south of the Ganges also 
H««<l ' arra. The small saw. — ^T^ Sri. 

397. The large hammer. — "?»^KT hathaura,-0T in South Bhagalpur 
f%TRT lihdwar. The small hammer. -r-^^^^ hathauri, M\\,^^r^ mdrtaul, 
and in West Tirhut and south of the Granges aXso n^i gJian. In South 
Bhagalpur it. is called »ifT^ mariya. 

398. The ^i^rr barma or •(<.«? barman is a revolving awl or drill, 
worked with a bow and string, and used as a gimlet or centre-bit. The 
bow used with it is *«r«?t kamdni, or in South- West Shahabad • cm T «i>c 
kamdnak. The handle round which the string goes is g<?i.ifl gulphi or 
^^ gulU. In South and East Tirhut the word is ff^r^ kuVphi. In Gaya 
it is ^ muth. The cap at the top, on which the palm of the hand 
rests to press the awl, is 5t<ft topi, ^^ paila, -^^ dahni, or ^T^r 
dabauta. The awl itself is ^T^KT ba>ma or axi^flf barman. The string is 
north of the Ganges ^^i<j^ dodli, and south of it iB^ft dori or ^X^ joti, 
or in South- West Shahabad W^T jemicar. 



84 BlHiR PEASANT LIFE 

399. The following are various kinds of chisels : — 

{a) The «»:^<ft kacJichak north of the Ganges, and the ^eiO' 
batdri or ^ e i ^ batdli south of the Ganges, is broad 
at the base and narrow at the point. lu South 
Bhagalpur it is called ^f«i^ kajjak. 

(J) The X^Cl romba is a long chisel for maMng mortice holes. 

(e) The "^iTiyT chmrsa is broad and straight ; another name 
in Gaya and Shahahad is ^dltft batdsL 

(d) The -^a^ rukhan or ^F^rra^ rukhani is like the kachchak, 

but is larger and thicker, and is used for coarse work. 
It is also a generic term for all chisels. 

(e) A small chisel with a rounded edge for making lines on 

wood is north of the Ganges ^ftsgRt "^^^ ^T^ golak 
burujkhdh. South of the Ganges and in Saran it is 
riTXv?[T girda or 3t1v«<K T^T garddr randa. In South 
Bhagalpur it is also ^f%*rr kholiya. 

400. Gouges' are 5fRW golak, i^^n golakh (Gaya), ^ift^rr ^^rrspJ 
gola rukhani, Or ^"^i*^!^ a^i«i^ gorddr rukhani ; other names are 3JT^ 
fCflMcA (SdTlth West Tirhiit) and f»iT:f«3 girmit (? gimlet), North- West 
Tirhut. A latge gouge for heavy work, such as hollowing out rice- 
mortars, is ^T% ^^t'fl' bank rukhdni. A square gouge is ' <t^ch <^' < di41 
kachchak rukhani. 

401. The common plane is xr^ randa, of which the blade is 15^ 
phalli, or in Shahabad ^"si'^ji phalsa,, and the body ff%r kunda. The 
wedge for holding the blade has various names, viz. north of the 
Ganges ^^ khunti, 3^ theki, or ^^ chaili. South of the Ganges it 
is in Shahabad "4"^ khwiti oi §t^ thepi, and to the east ^l^ pachchi, 
Tt-^g^ piichri, or 'R^s pachchar. When the blade h^s a coarse edge 
for rough work, it is ^fiXTTT tT^T j'harna randa ; also -^hf X^ ddnt 
randa in South- West Shahabad. Af plaae with a- fine blade is ^T''^ 
K'^rr sdphi randa. The ■^T«I dardj is a narrow plane for squarino' 
th«r edges of boards^ 

402. Groouing-planes. — There are — ■ 

(a) The pkne' for cutting square grooves. — a^^r 'sT^ buriij khdb, 

or (South of the Ganges) ^^r^ {or jp^) wri bitruj (or 

g'ul'uj) khdp. 
{b) The si^HT 0ltd is for cutting round grooves. In West 

Bihar and South Munger it is also called ftrrr^ 

khirchi or ^^r?Kt khilti. 




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THE BLACKSMITH. 85 

(c) The ^sr^ % Tr^Jhari ke randa or (north of the Ganges) 
iwi-S paldun is a plane for making grooves for 
panelling. 

403. The following 3x6 files : — 

{a) xvt reti is the common file. 

{h\ The file for sharpening saws is generally ^nrrrryta^/*a. Local 
names are ^Cri^katari in North-West Tirhut^ ?S' «t •0 ' ^'^ 
katrohi in East Tirhut, ^<6^ tephal in Gaya and 
Shahabad, ^"^fMX tephalla in Saran, and ■^WT^ kanani in 
West Shahabad. 

(c) ^'^sr sohan, or in East Tirhut ^"I'^sr sohen, is a coarse rasp. 

(d) The- ^"Iv.^ji chorsa, or to the west sj^<,.iyr cliaursa, is a 

broad file. 

- (e) The fsi'Wijftfv^' nimgirid is a half-round- polishing file. In 
South Bhagalpur it is iifiTxt maigiri. 

{/) The "^X^ ^fir chauras reti, or in South Bhagalpur ^^r^^ 
TH^ chawpahal reti,. is a square file. 

404. The square, or gnomon, is ^snr batam, ^fsi«if guniydn, or 
^«!l"«d I M'a\M ehalta batam. The compasses are m,«<tl<!l parkal. A 
blunt point for. drawing lines is <si(<<49 khafkas, or in Soutli Bhagalpur 
<t1<»4Acl korsut. Sand-paper is 'Q^^ '^?iX sares kanna, 'WK^ '^^^[^ sares 
kdgaj, or ^5? "Vfn sares patta. In South Bhagalpur it is ^T<5t saphi. 
The pincers for drawing nails are sr^gTT jamhura, oi^K T jamura, or 
iB^^ sanrsl. Glue is ^^^ sares. t?^^ patthal, "TSf^ pathal^ or f%^ «j7, 
is the grindstone. The 6/oe/f on which the man works is bWt tMha, 
#Tr theha, or in South Bhagalpur fa^EiT thiya, ftr?T ^A«7ja, or m.ttst 
parkattho. !& Gaya and' Cbamparan it is called ^fkj(X^\ party dthd. 

405. The English auger is also used, and is called ^^rvp: awgar, 
or in Tirhut fiiT^z girmii (? = gimlet). 

406. A lathe is <eI<i<, kharddf and the man who works it is <5i<.i^ 
kharadi, a turner. 



CHAPTER II.--THE BLACKSMITH. 

407. The blacksmith is'^ftnr Mar generally, and in!' South-East 
Tirhut he is also stfiT thdkiir or '^ivX'^'kcC'mdr. His smithy is ^nrt?^T«lx; 
kamarsdydr. In Saran it is also' wf^f^^TCt hhidri, aid in South Bha'gal- 
put it is *«<««JT^ kamarsari or wsk. marai. 



86 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

408. His anuil is ftr?TT nihai or ^^?; nehai ; but in South-East 
Tirhut it is ^TTs; lehdi, and in South Bhagalpur 1%nT Hhdi. This is 
fixed in a block called 'S^T theha north of the Ganges, <?l^ r ththa in 
Shahabad, and in South Bhagalpur fain thiya, ^t^^ra' parkath, or 
JrF^<3IT9 gariyas. In Patna and South Munger it is M4l3l parefha or 
^'^TT parhattha, and in Gaya ^ft^T^T pariydtha. In South- West 
Shahabad it is ^f^ dnkuth. A well-known proverb about an anvil 
is ^^ '^fs •T'^ I i<(f «T«ir SMM?j cAo^ nehdik mdntha, — ^it the anvil has 
nothing on it, the blow falls on its head. 

409. The ti^.yt^ glianmudhi is the swage block or perforated 
anuil on which iron is placed when being pierced with holes, and ^^ 
buri ov^\Kbir (east generally, Patna, and Gaya) or^gr hanna (South 
Bhagalpur) is the round block of iron placed on this, also pierced with 
a hole. This latter is also used for making heads of nails, and another 
name for it is ^Tf^iH*! chaprdwan, "^TTfC^T eJiaprauria, or "qTpnix'ft 
chaprauni. 

410. The large hammer for welding is •srsr ghan ; smaller than this 
is the '^«iT< hathaur or '^«u<i hathaura ; and smaller still the ^^^ 
hathauri or wf^T mariya. 

411. Tk&^^^ jamhura or si^^ /awMm is a pair of p/'/jcers or 
tongs round at the tips; other names are t[-^'^ gahua (Ohamparaii, 
"West Tirhut, and Patna), ti^.fi^ sanrsi (Shahabad and South Bhagal- 
pur), and ^^ banguri (South-West Shahabad). Everywhere ^^"^ 
sanrsi is used for a pincer adapted for taking a hot piece of iron out of 
the fire, tightening nuts, &c. To the west the ^T[h sugahi is a pair of 
horn or wooden pincers. 

,412. The iron /30/rer for stirring the fire is north of the Ganges 
^%?T ankurha; in Gaya and Shahabad it is ^(fXT ankura or ^f^f^ 
ankuri; and in South Bhagalpur ^^^t anhora or ^T^fr^ onkra. 
North of the Ganges, to the west, it is also ^f^Jmr /tM«am ;* while in 
Patna, Gaya, and South Munger it is ^t^i^TTr koltara. 

413. Th.9 cold chisel is t^ cklieni, and the chisel for making 
holes in iron is a>Tsr topan, with a variant ^^I«^T topna in Patna and 
Gaya; another name is ^^ sumbha south of the Ganges or ^^bt 
summa or ^^ summi north of the Ganges. 

414. The fixed bellows is vx^ bhdthi, and also (south of the Ganges) 
«f<^ bhdnthi. The hand-bellows is ^^5?^ duhantJii when worked with 
both hands, y-t.^i^ ekhanthi when worked with one hand, and ^t^t 



THE BLACKSMITH. 87 

supaua in South-West Shahabad. In the south-east it is also ^r^ th%^ 
kath bhanthi. The end of the bellows pipe which goes into the fire is 
'^^ mura, g;^ muri, or yjf^«|| muriya. In Saran it is '4^^ I ankurha; 
in South Bhagalpur, g^g^ murhi or ^T^ra salak ; in Patna, «fl'^.«i tnohkha ; 
and in South Hunger, *fl<si«^ mokhri. The pipe itself is ^^ phvnk ; 
also north of the Q-anges and to the west 'S^ chhunchhi or ^"Stt chhuch- 
chhi ; and in Patna, Gaya, Saran, and Bast Tirhut "wf»rr chonga, or in 
South Tirhut ^^ chongl. The clay pipe over this is ^T^ aran or^R«ft 
arni, or in South-Bast Tirhut VIT «»•. In Bast Tirhut it is also *rfe^»I 
matiham, and in South-Bast Tirhut ^^ metum. The wooden sides of the 
bellows are cna^rTT takhta ; also in Patna, Gaya, and South-West Shah- 
abad v<i«<T patra. The leather sides are ^wrf t chamra ; also ^TT chdm 
(optionally south of the Ganges) and ^31^ khdl in Champaran, Patna, and 
Gaya. The valve is tt^ pankha ot T^ pankhi; also (in Patna) ^^d. ^ ^ 
pankhri. In South-Bast Tirhut and Champaran it is j[^ gaddi. The pivot 
on which the pair of bellows works is ^fT konrha north of the Ganges ; 
also in North- West Tirhut ^T^T sursa. South of the Ganges, to the west, 
it is ■^^ dhari, and ■^^<( ankura to the east and also in Shahabad and 
Champaran. The pillars which support it are ITOT ^Aaw6^ north of the 
Ganges and ^ZT khunta south of the Ganges and in South-East Tirhut. 
The upper iron bar is ^TfT harenra or ^^#f barenri north of the Ganges, 
and ■^^3T haretha in Patna and Gaya. In Shahabad it is ^f%iiT benriya^ 
in South Bhagalpur w^irr danda, . and in South-East Tirhut ^J!?t 
danta. The lever which works the bellows is ^ chhip in the North 
Gangetio tract, and also i?i5T danta in Tirhut ; south of the Ganges 
it is rTT* lath or ^XS\ Idtha, and in South- West Shahabad igiST danda. 
In South- West Shahabad a small bellows worked by both hands is 
"n-s^^T vv^ menrarua bhanthi. A well-known saying about the bellows 
is g^^ ^T^ ift^ % '?ftf ^^^ T ong, 1^^ ^TK ^ 1^ ^ ^r^.^TOv 
^ srr^ tulasi ah garib ke hari sen sahal najdy, muala chdm kdphunk sen. 
loh bhammhojdy, — O Tulsi ! God cannot withstand the sigh of a poor 
man : the blowing of dead leather (in a bellows) reduces iron to ashes. 

415. The^XT»n'i«'wa isa reuofuing awl ot drill wovked with a 
bow, ^^rr^ kamdni, with a leather string, cT^flT tasma. Sometimes a 
string is used instead of a bow, and this is called ^'«(1>»1 dodli or Sfl^ 
joti, or in South- West Shahabad m'^xjemwar. The iron spike of the awl 
is north of the Ganges ^t^ dandi to the west and t^ phalli to the east. 
South of the Ganges we have ^j^ dans in Shahabad, ^>^ dantim Patna 
and Gaya, and ^^ dandi again in the south-east. 



88 



BIHAK PEASANT LIFE. 



416. The fixed uice is sf« bank or (in South Bhagalpiir and South 
Munger) t« hais (?=vice), and the hand- vice is '^«j«*<sl Aa^A-Aa/ or (in 
Patna and Gaya) ^T«l»<*«!) hdnthkal. The two sides of the vice which 
grasp the iron are ■<T^ palla ; theficrew is ^4j.H' mttsi-a, or in North- 
West Tirhut ?sx«^t kab/a ; and the socket for the screw to work in is ^'^ 
chhuchcfihi, except in Shahabad, where it is ^TfinJT chongiya, and South 
Bhagalpur and Champaran, where it is ^farr chonga. The handle for turn- 
ing the screw is north of the Granges ^^iXT mmra or ^^TTw ehalauni. The 
latter name is also current in Shahahad, where in the south-west of the 
district we also have ^^i^nr hathkara or ^'ST danda. In South 
Bhagalpur it is Trg? hatul or '^TBJ hattha, and elsewhere it is ^^PKT 
haihra. The spring is mvr^ kamani. 

4 17- The tap and die for making screws is north of. the Ganges 
^ffij^ bddiya or ^^T badiya ; the latter is the usual form in North- 
East Tirhut. South of the Ganges, in Gaya and Shahabad, it is «f^T 
badiya, and elsewhere ^fwT badhiya. In South Bhagalpur it is also 
called rrri^aij (die). Of this the female screw is ^fz?^ kutka, the 
tightening screw ^e^ chutki, and the nut-maker T^^^w pechkas. 
f^-^ dhibri, or in Saran ^i^^t kabla, is the nut of a screw. 

418. The common ;?/es are t^ reti, and the round files i\\^^ 
■golak or ift^w golakh, and in South Bhagalpur siV^ va^ gol reti. The 
half-round file is ftniJjftft^ nimglrU, and the triangular file in Saran 
f«(«l'4i«T tinphalla, in Champaran (iKiiitl'«l tirphdl, in Shahabad firK^T^^ 
tirpahttl, in Tirhut ^t«^ tephal, in Gaya ^H'?^ tepahul, and elsewhere 
'finrrq'^^ tinpahal or firK^TT^^rr tirpahla. 

419. The compasses are M<.*i<!i parkdl or ^wrm kampds. The 
would is 'af ^ sdnchn, and the vessel for cooling hot iron ^Tif^TXJ panihdra 
in Champaran, West Tirhut, and Gaya; xrfW^irr panihanda or ttsjt^'^ 
panh'inda in Shahabad and South-East Tirhut ; ■^ttt chdha (also in 
South Munger), -g^ laberi, ^t^ labor, or ^t?: laber also in South- 
East Tirhut ; srk naber or ^% namer in North-East Tirhut ; and sftft 
naberi in Tirhut generally. In South Bhagalpur it is ^^^^ panchdha. 



CHAPTER III.— THE MASON OR BRICKLAYER. 

420. The mason is called xm raj, also Km firfert rdj mhiiri 
north of the Gajiges, and Tm W^i; raj mojur in South Bhagalpur and 
South Munger. In Saran and Champ5ran he is also >?gt thawai. 

421, He uses the ^Q^ *.»««/(•, wHch is a pointed /(a/nmer for cutting 
bricks. In Shahabad ^ lorh is an iron hammer for breakino- stone°s 



THE MASON OH BRICKLAYER. '89 

422. B.i3 trowels are (l)^R^ karnt, the largest, for mmng 
mortar; (2) K»«1^rT mmijhoU or (in South-West Shababad) ^i^-^m adhla, 
a smaller one ; and 'i^T^rr nahla, or in Tirhut and the west^r^^ kalam 
or ^^i^ kalmi, the smallest one, for polishing the surface of the mortar. 

423. Mortar is 'R^t^tt masdla or (in North-East Tirhut) w^ gach 
when made of hrickdust and lime ; when made of mud it is fWRT 
gilawa, also Jixf garra (Patna, Champaran, and North-Bast Tirhut), 
^nrr gar a (Saran and the east), ?5T«ct kado (South-West Tirhut), and %i; 
lei (South-West Shahabad). 

424. The wooden beater tor consolidating and smoothing plaster is 
£jN^ mungri or^rpft thdpi. The tJ^ rol or. ■5^^ raul (South Munger, 
Patna, Saran, and Tirhut) is a long stick for smoothing the plaster 
Other names are m-^-.zi pahta or ■qrrr pdta, v[^ paita, M'^'A\ paihta 
(South Munger), and T^Twxpharma in Gaya. In Shahabad and South 
Bhagalpur f^XTTr chirna is a slip of wood used for the same purpose. 
The scoop for making moulding is north of the Ganges and to the east 
generally jft^T^'g golakas, and also to the east ?iWr gola. Elsewhere 
south of the Ganges and in Champaran it is »^<-.-^«n khurchuni. 

425. The plumb is VTS^ sahul. The string is ^^r sut, and in Cham- 
paran and South-East Tirhut also'^rtx't rfort; and the small pieces of wood 
fixed on the string are ^^ kenra or ^;fT kainra in Tirhut, 'Shahabad, 
Patna, and Gaya, Wt paiti in Saran and Champaran, F^^|^^P^<'| phitkiri 
also in Champaran, East Tirhut, and South Munger, flhi.tt'^ phirki in 
South- West Shahabad, and '^z'^^^S^ phetkina in South Bhagalpur. 

426. The square is -Jv^^^i goniya,-^f^i(^ guniya,OTT^iimT: guniy an 
to the west, also ^Tw^^ sadhni in Patna, Gaya, and north of the 
Ganges generally, and ^f*^^ rabhil in South-East Tirhut and North 
Bhagalpur. To the west and in Gaya it is also <t<i|t( batdm. 

427. The maul-stich is fw^tr mktar in Patna, the North- West, 
and South Tirhut. In Tirhut, Gaya, and the west it is fireT nistar. 
In South Bhagalpur it is '^Itt chip. 

428. The whitewashing brush is ^^^ kanchi ; in South Muager 
it is also vfTKT^ j'harni. 

429. The ladder is ^^t «"'^^ ai"i the scaffolding wfg mdnch or 
w^jt{ machdn to the north of the Ganges. South of the Ganges the 
latter is fT? pdrh generally, or ^3 path in Shahabad. In Champaran, 
Patna, and Gaya it is also =51^ clidli. 

12 



90 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



430. The «T»nT or cHTT^ ia gar (also tim^ tag dri in Tirhnt) is the 
pot in which the mortar is mixed. The mortar-pot is 5rr^ ndd or sif^ 
ndnd. The mortar-trough when made of clay is ^f^ l.dnri, also 'siThfT 
kolia in East Tirhut, and optionally ^n-^xx athra south of the Ganges. 
In South Bhagalpirr it is also ^i^TT harhai. When made of wood it 
is -^z-iKK kathra or ^i^«?|- kathauti. 

431. The bricks are ground into powder (^^i^ mirkhi) by a crusher, 
V^ dhenki. or (in Champaran) WT^ lath. Of this the pestle is ^;wK niusar 
or ^^-'Xl musra, or (in South-East Tirhut) ^ms samdth. The piece of wood 
on which the bricks are sometimes crushed is '?srt^^ okhri north of the 
Ganges ; south of the Ganges it is ^1? a-^ r okhla in Gaya, ^^t^ 
ukhli in South Munger, -^k^ hhuriydn in Patna, and ^f%^T kanriya 
elsewhere. It is supported by pillars, which are ^2T khunta or ?giT 
khutta in East Tirhut and south of the Ganges. In the latter tract they 
are also called 'awr khamblm. In West Tirhut and Saran and Cham- 
paran they are "sr^ jangha or ^TOT Ichdma. The axle on which it works 
is called ^^<rr akhauta in Patna and Saran, vd<dl«(l ukhauta in Gaya, 
andalso^re^rraMfljfein Patna. In Champaran and North-West Tirhut 
it is ^rnjfT mdnjha, in South- West Tirhut ftfWT killa, and in East Tirhut 
^TJUT danta. Sometimes a hammer is used for breaking the bricks, 
which is called ^^rr mungra or (in Shahabad) ^^j^frrr hafhkutta, and in 
Saran «rnff thdpL 

432. The large earthen pot for water is ^^T ghaila, also fgf ^«) i 
thiliya in Gaya and ail^ gagri north of the Ganges. The smaller 
pot is "?f^ hdnri or ^fWr hanriya, also ^^ khoha in East Tirhut. 
South of the Ganges the pot with a spout for pouring water on the 
plaster is ^tj^^Tr badhna. In South Tirhut it is ^^sr hadlum, and in South 
Bhagalpur »jn^y/ean. North of the Ganges generally ^f^nrr karwa 
oj ^IftsTT kantiya is used, and in East Tirhut also ^^ phuclichi. 



CHAPTEE rr.— THE GEAIN-PAECHEE. 

433. The grain-parcher is sg^^dnu or ?iif^ kdndu, with a variant 
^if^if kdndun in Champaran, Patna, and Gaya. In Champaran 
(optionally) and in South- West Shahabad he is called afff gonr, and 
north of the Ganges and to the south-east he is also krowii as v^^mj 
bharhhunja. Parched grain is wr bhunja, or in Shahabad ii^^ 
bhunjna. When it bursts inthe parching it is called WTT Idwa or ^3t^ 
phutha. 



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THE GRAIN- PARCHER. 91 

434. His parcHng-house is vticrgj^ gfwmdroT fr^^ri^r^ghonsdr 
to the west, and also to the west of the North G-angetio tract, v^TigT^t 
bhansdri. In South- West Shahabad it is m..4jT q bharsdin. The name 
*i'<iK kansdr or «fir^"n; kanisdr is current in East Tirhut and to the 
east of the South Gangetic tract, including Patna and Gaya. In 
Tirhut it is also ^rsij^t^ kansdri. 

435. The fireplace is^^Wf chulha in Tirhut and to the east of 
the South Gangetic tract, including Patna and Gaya ; also WTK bhdr 
generally, and v«l««K bhansdr north of the Ganges and in Gaya, and 
tJlH-^K. ghonsdr in Saran. In South-West Shahabad it is v<..*jT*( 
bharsdin. 

436. The place in front of the stove, on which the grain falls, is 
Tnrt; parul in Shahabad and tf^^T parud in South Munger. In Patna 
and South- East Tirhut it is TTK pdur ; in Gaya, South Bhagalpur, and 
North- West Tirhut 'TT^t paun ; and in Saran and Champaran ir^ pdri. 
Another name more or less current north of the Ganges is ^«rsTr 
chautra. 

437. The earthen pot in which the grain is parched is 'riTf khdpar 
or 'a'qvsT khapm when it is large with a wide mouth, and ^■qv?^ khapri 
when it is smaller. The latter is also called north of the Ganges ^fST 
kunda or '^^ST kunra, to" the west, and ciTaT taula to the east. 

438. The iron spoon for taking out the hot sand is<ti<!i«^><l kalchhul 
in Saran and Champaran and South Munger, and <4i<!l«^<!il kalchhula in 
Patna and G-aya. In Shahabad it is ^^^ kaluchh or (in the south-west) 
^f^ Jlate. In South-'Bast Tirhut it is <J<.r^*)l saraUya. In South-East 
Bihar it is called ^sa dahbu. When made of earth with a bamboo 
handle it is called <:4i'<^ dhakni north of the Ganges and in South 
Munger, or ^x»*rr sarwa in North-East Tirhut. 

439. The flat wood stirrer is called ^fwT dabila to the west. 
In North Tirhut it is '^f'i'^IT dabiya, and in South-East Tirhut X^ dab, 
and in Gaya ^i^^ Awrfir. A kind of broom made of four or five 
reeds tied together is SBT^/^a*"" (Patna and Gaya), w^rifra^MMwywa^At 
or ' 'r\^'«ri borhni to the south-east, •(^••ft barhni to the east generally, 
^4^.^ T lama or ^T^f^r Idrani in North-East Tirhut, r*M-«ri chhipni 
in South-Bast Tirhut, and 'g^T^ chalaimi north of the Ganges. 

•440. The sieve is "^^r^ chahn generally, but "^^^^ chalna in 
South- West Shahabad and '^rafsf chalanivx East Tirhut. To the west it 
is also WK^^ jharna, and also in South-East Tirhut ^:it sup. 



9^ 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



441. The poker is ^"^r^^rr khoma or «1<«^ khorni north of the 
Ganges and in South Bhagalpur and South Hunger ; elsewhere south 
of the Ganges it is ia1^«ii khoma or Wtfssft khorni. In South-East 
Tirhut and Champaran it is ^V««ll^ khornathi. 

442. The basket for the grain is north of the Ganges ^TTT daura 
or ^^ dauri. South of the Ganges we have ^e.^ batri in Patna, «<(«ii 
mauni or ^ftft^iT mauniya in Gaya and South Munger, 4f^ hhaunki in 
Shahahad, and ^t%^T daliya in Ohampsran and South Bhagalpur. In 
Champaran and Gaya the ijd«(4<.<<4l satgharwa, and in South Munger the 
■^1% chdnr^ is an earthen vessel -with seven or more divisions for 
various kinds of grain, and ia South-East Tirhut a ^STefit baithki 
is a similar one Vidth four divisions, and ^tst chhanna one with six. 
<*l-^i koha or ^fir^T kantiya in North-East and South-West Tirhut, 
and ^iT'TT karioa in Champaran, are earthen pots for grain, and ■<*dsxr 
kathra in Patna and Gaya, or ^raT'fi' kathauti elsewhere south of the 
Ganges, is a wooden pan. 

443. The grindstone is sjf«rT jdnta or (in South-West Shahahad) 
sjTTf jdnt. Its axle is ftiWT kilh or (ia South-East Tirhut) ^fNr 
ktl, and- it is made to revolve hy a handle, which is ^«ir<T or sd>!|«^l 
Jfuthra generally, and ^**(T jua to the west, also "^tstt in South-East 
Tirhut. 

444. The wages in grain paid to the graia-parcher is vk JAar, 
or in South Bhagalpur wrCt bhdro, as in the proverb ^T «ift ^Nr, mr 
^T ^T^^ "^ jau jari gel, bhdr la bdnhal chhi, — ^the grain-pareher has 
burnt mybarley andhas tiedmeup for his fee (adding insult to injury). 
The quantity of grain parched at one time is 'm^ ghdni. 



CHAPTER V — THE BAKEIl. 

445. The baker is generally IH'^K ndnbai, with a local variant 
spiiifn; wmbai in Shahahad. In Gaya he is «) t.);vg< ndnpaj. He is 
also called rtiWRTT rotiwdla. He is proverbially a rude fellow, and 
'TTin^K % t^W nanbai ke khinga is popularly used to mean a stout rude 
fellow. 

446i He uses an ouen, cTT^ tanur or"s[^K tandur. 

447. Bis roasting-spit is south of the Ganges ^¥^ smkh, and 
elsewhere ^>a sikh. In NorthTEast Tirhut it is also ^Nf nink. This is 
fixed on supports, which are f^'ST hichchha to the west of the North 
Gangetio tract and in Patna, and ^ttr X(^ katcdb ddni in South-East 



THE CONFECTIONER. 93 

Tirhut, Shahabad, and South Bhagalpur. In Gaya they: are: ^^R^ 
chakkas. 

448. The boiling-pot is ^vr.^ or -^Ji-^degcM. South of the 
Ganges and to the west it is also called Wt^ patili when made of 
earthen waxe. 

449. The oup is fK*l^ rikabi, the saucer fwr^ rilc&bi or ^rrlTT 
katora, and the wooden spoon ^X% ddi, and alSo in East Tirhut '^^^ 
chamach or (to the west) "q^H^ chammach. 

450. The'large wooden stirrer is called <hHi-^ I ' kaphcM in North 
Bihar, «Ht doS in North-Bast Tirhut, and 'sf nT c^oMg^a in South Tirhut. 
In Patna it is «nn" ddbha, and elsewhere south of. the Ganges «^ rfaSJM 
when made of iron, or ^n5«j?hi: kaphglr (west generally) when made of 
wood. 

451. The cushion by which he places the cake on the side of the 
oven is t^^ raphlda, or in North-East Tirhut ri^ gaddi. The 
"^stTtfJiTSfT hushtagna is an iron bar hooked at the end, and the ^TT'CT 
arra an iron bar flattened at the end. They are used in taking 
cakes out of the oven. The one is held in one hand, and the other in 
the other. The two together are called wti[jori, or in Champaran '^sg^ 
kansi. 

452. The instrumjent for making ornamental marks on pastry is- 
north of the Ganges ^wrsdncha ; south of the Ganges it is "^^^sf chokan 
in Shahabad, '«fl*«4'l ckokni in Patna, and elsewhere ■<0*r ckoka. 

453. The <^4tj.41 hhuraohni is an implement for cleaning vessels. 



CHAPTER VI. -THE CONFECTIONER. 

454. The confcfotioner is TOMTIT haluai in North,i and ■^^t^t^. 
halwai in South B.ihar. "Sis fireplace is f^fT chulha, and also in Cham- 
paran and South Hunger vi^ bhatthi, of which the stoke-hole is wr 
munh, and also in Gaya and South- West Shahabad ^ ^k dudr. 

455. His open cauldron is "^r^vit karahi generally, also ct^ - .-^ ix; 
harhai or TTRT tdwa in Gaya. Of this the handles are sn^ danti qrfr 
kara, or ^rjt kanna, with a variant ^sf%^T kariya in South Muufer. 



456. The skimmer is mKj^jharna in Patna, the north-west, and 
East Tirhut, VSTRT chanauta generally north of the Ganges, ^^^ pauna 
in the north-west, Tirhut, and south of the Ganges. In Patna it is 



94 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

also ^^«IT paunina, in South Bhagalpur 'gift chatti, and in Gaya, South 
Hunger, and Saran v^w^kj jAanj'hra. The large stirrer is if^t^T keoncha, 
and the small stirrer wt^iv^ chholni. In Ghamparan and North Tirhut 
it is also <^<.«m\ khurpi, and in South Bhagalpur ^^.--^.Tl khurchani. 

457. The wooden rolling-pin is ^<«i«<it telna, which is worked on 
a paste-board. This latter is called "g^rr^ chakla when it is round, 
and "gT^ ekauki or yAi<r patra when it is oblong. Other names 
are frevjTT takhta (North-East Tirhut), ftrff^T pirhiya (Gaya and South 
Bhagalpur), and.-^^ pirha (Gtiya and South Hunger). The pestle for 
beating the dough is <^t^ ddba, (South-West Shahabad) ^T^ ddU, or 
(North-East Tirhut) i^ dab. Other names are UH..<^« gurdam or ^^^ 
musad (Ghamparan), vM>i«i daptan (Patna), and fiji«<j mungra (South 
Bhagalpur). 

458. The spoon is qj^T^ hahhhul or in North-East Tirhut ^RiW 

karuch. The brass /aaf/e with a wooden handle for removino' the suoar 

from one vessel to another is ■S'*^ dabbu. 

«\ 

459. The wooden platter for sweets is fiir^^ girda north of the 
Ganges and in Shahabad, ^sTttt^ khoncJia north of the Ganges and in 
Gaya and South Hunger, ^rsp^ Mancha in South Bhagalpur, and 
'af^ khancha or ■^ir^n^x dagarna in Patna and Gaya. 

460. The brass saluer is -m^ th&ri generally, with local variants 
«rf^ thariya in Shahabad and East Tirhut and tsrm thai in Ghamparan 
and Bast Tirhut. In Saran and Tirhut it is also called ^tt chhlpa. 
The deep brass pan is ^i^Tci pardt. 

461. The sweetmeats are exposed on stands called • «<t^«n tarauni 
local variants being d'U'll tarauna in Ghamparan and South-East Tirhut 
and ■«r<.«ft taraini in Ghamparan. In South Bhagalpur they are ^^^f^ 
tekhti. 

462. He has also a wooden basin, called ^ssrxj kathra, ^rer^^j- 
kathwat, or ^tfJfTl kalhauti ; a large ladle, Wi-jw< \ rfoArf; and a pair of 
scales, called generally cRT^ tera>, ?n,.<»4i fer;M"ii, or b'W^ Ukauri. It is 
also e<ft^<^ takauri in Tirhut and the west, and ^\.^y narja in 
Ghamparan. 

463. f ^T?; If -^^r^, ^t^t % w^t lialudi ke dokan, ddda ke 
phateha, is a well-known proverb. Kplmteha is a feast in honour of the 
dead, at which sweetmeats are given away for nothing. When a 
person wants to get a thiug for nothing, which he has no right to 
expect, the proverb, which means ' a confectioner's shop is not my 
grandfather's funeral feast,' is said to him. 



THE TOBACCO MANUFACTUIIEB. 96 

CHAPTER VII.-THE TOBACCO MANUFACTURER. 

464. The tobaooo-seller is «rwr^i^T^T tam&ku-wdla, <<«Jl|i>ti<tK 
tamdku-phdrosh, or '!r*rrfi^rT?rraT tamdkul-hdla. He uses a 
crushing-lever, ^b^ dhenki, with a peg, ^^ musar, <j<j.^i mttsra, or 
^♦<l<* samdth, fixed in it. It is supported on pillars, ^ZT khunta, 
%iii\ khuntd, or (in the west) ^^ jangha or ^ftwT janghiya, by an 
axis-pin, f*«T A-jV/a or ^PS^tTT akhauta. It falls on a hollow bed called 
**fl4^-.^ okhri or ^rNr?^ okhli, on which the tobacco is placed. When 
the crushed tobacco is being removed, the beam is supported by 
a forked stick, which is called 5*»«n tekni, ^Tift tekdni, or (in 
Shahabad) ^^t theka or 'd'<ti><(T thakwa, or in Saran 3*«<<r thekwa. 
In East Tirhut it is called 3'*-«n thekni OT^vi'i\^algani, in Champaran 
^XTiF^ argani, and in South Bhagalpur dwi.«j| thengna or ^av^^ 
nehkun. Sometimes a string, ^:^t rassi, is used for this purpose. 
An illustration of the similar crushing-lever used in pounding bricks 
will be found opposite § 431. 

465. The fragments of tobacco are collected by a broom, »5T^ 
jhdru or "•(^■••?1 barhni, which is also called ^"^ kunchi or «F^ kuncha 
towards the west and ^aXT^rr kharhara in Patna. The tobacco is 
sprinkled with water from a water-pot, called m •( • >s>sT panharida, 'Ifeji 
hanriya, ^ffT'l't kardhi,f^^X^\ piydla, mA'^^ matkuri. In East Tirhut 
it is called ^J«IVKT athrd. 

466. The balls of manufactured tobacco are generally fr^nji 
pilanda or qf ^ dhondha. Other names are ^tPTRT lohiya (Champaran), 
jiWt gola (Saran and the East), ^fl^T londa (South Munger and North- 
West Tirhut), f%^ litti in Patna and South Munger, and fn^j piuda 
in Shahabad. fitji.'Cl tikri are smaller balls. 

467. In a tobacco shop the broad flat metal plates are, north 
of the Ganges, %•?!■ seni, and south of it <d l"«f ?->^ r khdncha or 'srtTT^ 
khoneha. The tobacco-pots are *JTfT bhdnra, ^^r^rr charua, or "wir?; 
charui. The cloth covering the stand for the vessels is 'jt^j^t kharua, 
WV^ jhdmp, or m-<l parda, and the board on which the tobacco is 
mixed is tt^^^ patra or 'ftrr plrha. When of stone it is '^^t patiya. 
Instead of ift^ plrJia, fTrff^zfT pirhiya or »(<si»rti takhta may be used. 

468. Among the spices used in manufacturing tobacco are 
oTZT «^ jata masi, W^'^1 chharila, '^Jr^ ^T^ sugand wdla, and ^jt^ 
^tf^^T sugand kokiki. Plain tobacco is called ^^^T sdda, that which is 
spiced or scented 4t^tn khamhlra or 'g^flrT khamira, and a mixture of 
the two ■^Yk^ doras or '^IXWT dorma. 



96 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

CHAPTER VIII.— THE PIPE-MAKER. 

469. The maker of gurguris (vide post), -who is a ?R%rr Aasera or 
brazier, uses a kind of lathe, which is called ^^ix kharad. Of this 
^SZT khunta, or in South Bhagalpur fi^ kund, is the block which holds 
one end of the stem as it is being turned. Iji it is fixed an iron spike 
called ^wi gunj. MiV.-^ pharM is a piece of iron which keeps the 
stem in its place as it is being turned, and ^^ bagheli, or in 
South Bhagalpur TW^T haghaila, is a piece of wood through a hole in 
which the stem is passed during the operation. 

470. The workman uses ila^Q reuoluing awl, -fKT^harma, moved 
by a bow, ^rti^ kamani, of which the string is ci^j.^i tasma, "i^ dori, 
•or ^tflt y'oti ; a, broad chisel, sjl<«^i chaursa, and a narrow gouge, 
«f5^T^ naharni, or in South Bhagalpur Hf s^ iiehni; an adze, ^^^T 
■ basula; a small saw, ^ix^ dri; a hnife, '^^ chhuri ; ajuA. files, ^«ft reti. 

471. The maker of hubble-bubbles (srf^^TTTTrWT nariyartoald) 
•uses a T«?^ reti (of which the point is f^ hfir), ^t^ ari, xmrr 
barma, and »iw gaj. 

472. The pipe (sr^r htikka) is of various kinds — 

(1) The sffr^TT nariyar or ^1x?iT^ Hariyal, which is the ordinary- 
country hubble-bubble, in which the mouth "is applied to 
the cocoanut itself. It is smoked principally by Hindus. 
Of this the stem bearing the bowl for burning the tobacco 
is ^^Ittt bota or i\xx gatta. The short smoking-stem some- 
times applied to the cocoanut, to save the hands from 
being blackened, is T'Mi \^ nigdli ov^Knar. The bowl is 
f^?W chillam or f^^w chilam. In South Bhagalpur vfji^ 
pongi is a temporary pipe made of the leaf of a tree. 
In South- West Shahabad -^^ dammi is a wooden pipe 
used by travellers, and ^*j.<.*j|-<}| damdanidcha a pipe 
used by women. 

473. (2) The other kinds stand on the ground, and are more or 
less similar to each other in shape. The general name is 
'ST*^^ grMrgftM't when the smoking stem is joined to a 
tube rising from the brass bowl, and ^i^rrji^ gargara 
when it issues directly from the brass bowl. They are 
generally made of metal or earth. Another name is 
^K^ pharsi. The tube arrangement for carrying the 




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THE PIPE-STEM MAKER. 97 

bowl is the same in principle as in the cocoatmt kind. 
The difference is in the smoking-stems (•r'^T naichd). 

Of these there are — 

(a) gi'd-'fl^K kulphidar, that with joints (fi^^^M^Aj), allowing 
the mouth-piece to be moved in any direction. A 
%5b^<.K ff^r^'ft kehanidar kulphi is a joint like an elbow, 
and a fitTwfiwr "^^"^^ Jilebiya kulphi is a twisted joint. 

(6) ^TBTT 'a'?T arhai khamha, that with two large bends and one 
small one. 

(c) "i^ ^■»?T derh khamha, that with two bends. 

{d) ^zfk^^ tharhiya or a'f^ *n thariya, with a short straight stem 
— used only by poor Masalmans. 

(e) ^TiT^ chaugani, the simplest kind— used by the poor. 
(/) jftr^ gauraiya, a simple kind, made of pottery. 
{g) ^z^ latak, which bends downwards. 

{h) ifi^K chhalled&r, ornamented with gold or silver rings 
(wr chhalla). 

{i) ^^% satak, ir-<4<<lH pechwan, "f^^jK petichdar, or ■'571T "T^ 
phatah pench, are vaiious kinds with the long, 8nake-like> 
flexible tube. 



CHAPTER IX.— THE PIPE-STEM MAKER. 

474. The pipe-stem maker ( ^f^m ^^ naichdband or ^ ?ts-^ 
naichdbau) uses an awl, v^ gaj or (in Patna) gf'g slnkh ; a polishing- 
knife, Y^ chhuri; a pair of scissors, ^=^ kainchi or ^^TT3r mekraj ; a 
saw, ^TKf ari; and a pair of tweezers, flt^iT moehna. He also 
uses <l<,.<al tarla or reed, and '^sr chin {Panicum miliaceum), a superior 
kind which comes from. Sylhet. 

475. For making the longest snake-like stems, ^^n\^ pechwdn, a 
board {tm^m takhta), a string \^i^ dort), and a mould (^srf^^ kalib), 
are also used. The embroidered work on a pipe-stem is called ia 
South Bhagalpur ni«i«<,l< pdnddr or ♦n«iJI morassa. The silk work 
on it is y<T*)< sard-sar or WCR^ bhardwat, the flowered silk work 
on it f^ bud, the silver work on it ^t^tt'^ alphi, and the ornamental 
cloth work, ^^iz "^^ ul/i chin. 

13 



98 BIHAR IEAS.\yr LIFE. 

CHAPTER X.— THE COTTON-CARDER. 

476. The cotton-carder is gf^f dhuniyan. For a description of 
him and his instruments, see § 334 and fE. 

477. In addition may be mentioned the TJ*.*«i patlcan, which is 
an instrument for teasing cotton. It is also called irei gaj in Tirhut, 
Shahabad, Gaya, and South Bhagalpur, and ^z't sati in Champaran 
and Shahabad. The rf,z-.'^ phatka or ■'i;^:^ phatki is a simple bqw 
used by village^omen for carding cotton. 

478. A lion once met a cotton-carder in the forest, and seeing 
his oarding-bow, mistook him for a hunter. To avoid being killed, the 
lion addressed him vr& ■q^^ wr% ^TSf, ^"^f ^ f%^ ^^^Tsr hathe 
dhanuM kdnhe ban. kahdn chale Dilli Sultan, — with bow in hand and 
arrow on shoulder, where is the emperor of Delhi going ? The cotton- 
carder was equally frightened, but at length mustered courage to reply 
HT W <.-s««iT ^T V ^T^rr ^ ^ ^T<f ^^ H^«-^T«l[ bii7t men rahna, ban 
men khana, bare ke bat bare pahchdna, — although he live and eat in the 
forest, only a gentleman can recognise a gentleman. These sayings 
have passed into proverbs, the meaning of which is obvious. 



CHAPTER XI.— THE SHOE-MAKER. 

479. The shoe-maker is fl>^ mochi or ^f^ tnonchi in cities, and 
^HT^ chamdr in the country. Among his tools are — 

480. The thick iron pounder for joining the edges of two pieces of 
leather which have been previously smeared with paste, which is ^f%^ 
loUya north of the Granges generally, also ^^^\ (ahaunga to the west of 
that tract, and f^iz^^-x pitna\n North-East Tirhut. In Patna, Graya and 
South-West Shahabad it is ^t^^ Manga, and in thereat of Shahabad 
and in South Bhagalpur it is #^t lehonga or fkw^^ tipna. In South 
Hunger it is T^j\rzx singtha. The paste used is %t lei, or to the south-east 
^ lal. In South-East Tirhut it is la^ khari. ^^^ lasam is a similar 
paste made of poiinded boiled rice. 

481. The knife for scraping the surface of the leather is in North- 
West Bihar xi^ rdmpi or KTrft rdpi. In Tirhut, the west, and South- 
East Bihar it is also ^gKJ^*^ khurpi. In Gaya it is ^kvttt khurpa, and in 
Patna x;wrr rampa. 

482. The large awl is ^tir^ sutdri, with a variant ^s^tT^ sutdU in 
Gaya. To the east it is also ^"Wr lokhar, in Champaran ^'^ttsk 



THE BLANKET-WEAVER. 99 

lalikhar, and in Soutli-East Tirhut ^nx ar. The awl with a hook at the 
end for sewing is srbt^^ katarni. In South Bhagalpur it is ^^jtstt 
takna, and in South Hunger fsg^ tipuni. The medium-sized awl is 
iniitifll manjhola or fl^'sWt manjholi. 

483. The horn for grease is ft^r singa; south of the Ganges, it is 
also ^^ singh. 

484. The/asfis''5rrwrj5Aar»jaor (north of the Ganges and the 
South-East) vfid'ffr kalbut ; south of the Ganges it is 'also, in Gaya, 
■^Tgs^^ kalbud, and ^f^53[^ kalbud elsewhere. 

485. The wedges of wood or leather fastened to the last to make 
it fit are -fXTtf^X partaha (also in South Hunger), or TroWTTr partaha 
in Shahabad, and ^^ pachcM in the south-west of the same district. 
In South Munger they are ^^T^^ kapchheri. 

486. The chisel for paring the edges of the sole is i^i.; ! ^ klmrpi 
The sort of wooden chisel for smoothing the surface of the leather i8^?rr 
henga to the east, ^^nr beunga north of the Ganges, or ^^TjtT heonga or 
^^J?t heongi elsewhere south of it. In South Bhagalpur it is t^st 
pelan. 

487. A wooden block for beating the leather is ttjit hdmmar in 
South Munger and Gaya and m^s' ghdmanr in South-West Shahabad. 
The block on which the leather is cut is f^VT pirhiya, or in South 
Bhagalpur fwT silla, and in Saran f<n7^ pirhi. 



CHAPTER XII.-THE BLANKET-WEAVER. 

488. The blanket- weaver is »I%^ gnreri south of the Ganges and 
Mff ^5X hhenrihar north of the Ganges ; also in East Tirhut *rf^ marar. 

489. He uses a simple loom. The stick on which the blanket is 
wound as it is woven is ^W^ oktiar south of the Ganges. North of the 
Ganges it is fgoft«I sinjoy, also fV?af sinjo in Tirhut and <m«>{<; kamhar 
in Champaran. The supports for this beam are ^igvt khutti, tiSi 
khunti, or (in Gaya and East Tirhut) Tr«r|- khunta. In South-Bast 
Tirhut they are also ?IT^ gali and »i^ galK or »r%^T^ galiydri in 
Champaran. In Shahabad the left support is called ^T«ft 6ar«!, and 
the right hand one »rr^ gali. In the same district the support furthest 
in front of him is -^^ dhura, and in Champaran i^ dhui. 

490. The beam to which the web is fastened at the opposite end 
torn the weaver is ^t^T^ ohdri. "f hen or\^ benw is a wooden imple- 



100 BIHAK PEASANT LIFE. 

ment which is passed between the thread of the web to drive tight each 
thread of the woof. In South-Bast Tirhut it is also called ^^rr hatha. 

491. The movable sticks placed at intervals to separate J;he 
threads of the web are kjit^ tagdhari in Tirhut and Saran and ^^ 
hailat elsewhere, except ^W^ bailath in Shahabad and ^(KH barat in 
Champaran. 

492. The heddles, or implement for alternately raising and 
depressing the threads of the web, axe'^v^ chapni ; also in South- West 
Tirhut Mil^ phatthi. 

493. The wooden scraper for removing knots or excrescences 
from the thread is Pa<d"\<««<l khikhorna or f^«l<.^ khikhorni north of 
the Ganges, also ^^lilWf khidhorna in Champaran. In Patna it is 
fa<8n<««ll khilorna, and elsewhere south of the Ganges fe^s.^lt^.^i 
khilhorna. 

494. The thick iron needle is ^:^ sua, or in South Hunger 
■^^ suj. The shuttle is ^rjin sargdn in South Munger and north of 
the Ganges, and %T^ serang or ^V^ seranga south of it. 

495. In Saran and South-West Tirhut the «Tft bhdnriis a thick 
bamboo which is placed between the two threads of the warp. In 
Champaran it is Vi^H sdsat, in South-East Tirhut ^l^sawsa/-, elsewhere 
south of the Ganges ^T%cr sdnsat, and elsewhere "^f»lT chonga. 



CHAPTER XIIL— THE FAJSTCT SILK OE FEDSTGE-MAKEB. 

496. This man is called m:i<\ patwa or MZ»%<1 pathera. In Saran 
he is called ^'Z'i^^ lyatheri. 

497. He uses the ^fi^KT katra or ^ir^rT katla, a piece of wood with 
four holes, in which four threads are fixed for winding. 

498. The wooden reel furnished with a handle is ^a..?^ batni gen- 
erally. The small wooden reel is ^ii^ anti or ^r;t3 charakh. An optional 
local name is H^ gatti in South- West Shahabad. sfl^ goli, or in Tirhut 
and South Munger '^'^:^ pechak, is a ball of thread. The winding-stick 
is ^^ till in Patna, t^R belan in Shahabad, and ^^T^ Main in North- 
West Bihar. 

499. His scissors axe ^^^"^ kainchi. The coarse needle for smooth- 
ing roughnesses in thread is ^^nr saldt, also afi^T takua in East Tirhut, 
and ^«p^T <eA;i<a in Champaran. The ivory smoother is v.'^x^ mathdr. 



THE DYER. 101 

or in Saran ^rax-sjT matharna. The large darning-needle is ^iiT sria. 
The fine needle is ^ct ««*» also •i«i»<jJ>j«jT nanmuhiya. 

500. The iron hooh with a ring which goes round the toe is ^git.! 
or ""^(frfT ankura, also ^f ^ ankusa and '^^ «wA;ms/ in Gaya and North- 
East Tirhut. This hook is supported on a stand called ^r'^ thanu in 
Patna, »a^«ti thauna in Gaya, «i«T ^Aa/Za in South- West Shahabad, ■^sjT 
dhauna in the rest of the district, and ■«r»T ^Aam to the east generally. 

501. The drum off which the thread is wound is Tj^frr pareta, 
■'jjyrtT porta, OT ytx^ partiin 'bioith-West Bihar. The bamboo frame 
on which the thread is wound is ST^^TT natwa or "^Z^WX latwa. In 
Patna it is m^t'C natai, and in Gaya and the South-East <i.*<\ netwa. 



CHAPTER XIV.— THE EMBEOIDEREB. 

502. The embroiderer is Bjxr^tai jardoj or (south of the Ganges) 
*K«'^4'l IT^T kdrchohiuiala, and he makes embroidery (**K«-<nfl 
kdrchobi) on the «iiK"'-^*t^ kdrchoh or embroidery-frame, on which the work 
is stretched. This frame is rectangular ; and of the parallel pairs of sides, 
one pair is called (in Patna) «Hi%T samser or (in Gaya and the west) 
^*<*5<* samserak, midi the other «?t^ tlU in Patna, 15^ pharad in 
Gaya and Saran, and \^ patti in Shahabad. 

503. The small needle is ^;% svii, and the sewing-awl ^ J«<i>f 
suteman north of the Ganges, ■^»r«^I«i sutwdn in Gaya and Shahabad, 
^^T sua or ^f^ ■^^i hari sui in Patna, Gaya, and South Manger. 



CHAPTER XV. -THE DYER. 

504. The dyer is t»IVK^ rangrej, in opposition to the T <l'<)|q< 
rangsdj or painter. In North- West Bihar he is called TJ|«<a?l rangreji* 

505. He Txses a uat or pot sunk in the ground for his dyes. This 
is called north of the Ganges wa mat. In Patna it is wfz mdnt, and to 
the east nT3 math. In Shahabad it is wfW chhonr, and in the south-west 
of the district ^r>rr kunda. In Gaya and East Tirhut it is^ kunr, and 
in South Bhagalpur and East Tirhut vfWt goli. 

* This word is often confounded with the word ^^Fr^ Angreji ' English ;' 
and in jest, or when speaking facetiously, the English in India are called k'i^t^ 
rangrej, or ' dyers.' 



102 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



506. His half-round pot ia^m^ijathra or STT^ worf north of the 
Ganges, in Shahabad, and South Hunger. In South-East Tirhut and 
South Hunger it is also called ^'^ItTI kardhi. In Patna and Gaya it is 
^^ hdiiri, and in South Bhagalpur ^Tf ^^7^ karhai. 

507. The wooden j?/^er-/ra/we on which the cloth is hung like a 
bag with the dye inside is ufaft mdnji or M^ manji generally. In South- 
West Tirhut it is fti<.«'d T mirla, in North-East Tirhut ^rJrV jhori, in Gaya 
vh^ mdnjhi, and in South Bhagalpur hjhi^sI chammal. The string tied 
to the cloth is ^rg^ kasan, and the cloth with the dye inside it in South 
Hunger and Patna '^^'^i];t?^j phulgarna. 

508. The stirring-stick for mixing the dyes is «^ dandi, or in 
South Hunger ^WTT danta, in South Bhagalpur e^^*^ tekhti, and in 
North-East Tirhut «!i<««)l larna. 



CHAPTEE XVI".— THE WOOD-PAINTEE. 
509. The wood-painter is tji.^jm rangsaj, as distinct from the 
<<r « l! gf rangrej or dyer. He uses two kinds of paints — one ^^K aslar, 
which is a paste made up with chalk and gum, and the other rfW 
rogan, which is made up with resin and oil. 



CHAPTER XVri.— THE TIN-MAN. 

510. The tin-man (nt^nriT kalaigar) -asen a 6e//o«/5, called vnf^ 
bhathi south of the Ganges and in East Tirhut ; elsewhere it is called 
^«t.»rt dhaukni. Another name current south of the Ganges is 
jr^^^w W^ ekhatthu hhathi. The two sticks used as handles are north 
of the Ganges and in South Hunger ^?5V hatthi or '^TBhatthu, and south 
of it, and also in Tirhut, ^jss\ danta. In South-East Tirhut they are also 
%m hattha. The bamboo pipe is ^f^rr chonga, also in North-West Tirhut 
aiXT^T naraua, in Gaya and Shahabad sj^n^ nardun, and in South 
Bhagalpur ^J?t chongi. 

511. The solder is vnr\ rdnga, and the soldering-iron %VJ kaiya. 
He also uses cotton-wool, ^ rui, and pincers, ^^^ sarsi or ^^v^ 
sanrsi. The fa^^fT thikra or ^If^^T khoriya is the flat tile for 
melting the solder. 

512. T\xe tin-cutter is ^-^ Icainchi,andi he also uses the small 
hammer, ^m^ hathauri, and the compasses ■ m:"t \ <g parkdl. The 
tin-scraper is ^^^ nehni or ^-^^ lehni; also xgxs^sf^ khurchuni 
in South Bhagalpur. 



THE JEWELLEK. 103 

513. The ^^T^T sahra, ■^^t^ sabri, or (in Soutli Bhagalpur) tgrr^^ 
tahal, is a small kind of anuil, made of a bent piece of iron, mth one 
end pointed and stuck in tlie ground. 



CHAPTER XVIII.— THE JEWELLER. 

5 14. The jeweller is 'ftsiK sonar, or in Gaya ^^ soni. In Cham- 
paran and North- West Tirhut he is ^"l^Ji^ ^t ^t^lK &ongarhxM sonar. 

515. Amongst his implements are the tongs, which are ^^syT 
saursa or 'S^r^ sanrsi. 

516. The pincers have various names. Large pincers are f^Trs^ 
chimta in South-West Tirhut, also 5-^«ii sehuna generally to the west ; 
^'t^iTT soJina to the east and in Gaya, and "aVr chunta in Patna. 
Smaller ones are f^^.i't chimti, ^svsf^ sehuni, ^T^«^ sohni, or ^t chunti. 
Another kind is iis^T gahua, which are the large pincers. Nippers 
are Jist gahu'i, or in South Bhagalpur ^^^ gahuK. The *Jr«ji'^ 
kagmuhm are nippers twisted at the head for holding the crucible 
in the fire. These may also be called i|Ji«^^«^ hagsanrsi in North- 
West Bihar and "Ui'^ivf hagmuMn in Tirhut and Champaran. 

517. The ^PSS^jamura or ^-ts^jamuri are wire drawing-pincers, 
and the perforated wire plate ^is 5}^ jantri south of the Ganges, in 
North- West Bihar, and East Tirhut, mt^jaintri ncrth of the Ganges 
generally, and snrift jatri in Champaran and North-East Tirhut. 

518. The iron needle-shaped tool for making links of chains is 
S'g;^ tekuli to the north-west, Z^i^rr takua to the east and south-west, 
^fi'BT tekua in Saran, Patna, and Gaya, and ^^ift tekuri in South 
Bhagalpur. 

519. The compasses are ij<-.*i^ parkdl or %vu^ kampas, or in 
South- West Shahabad '^^'^ clialdnki. 

520. The chisel with a round knob for embossing circular orna- 
mentation is ^^^ khalni, or in Tirhut itft^^ kholni. 

521. The cold chisel is i|^ chheni, and a smaller variety is ^^^ 
ka/am south of the Ganges. 

522. The cutters are ^=^ kainchi, and also to the south, except 
Patna, ■*'iJX"fV katarni. 

523. Amongst hammers ^«^t or f sj^fT haUaura is the largest. 
The medium-sized is irftVT or W%«rr mariya, with a variant «T^T mareya 
in North-East Tirhut ; in Gaya it is «d<."«fl matharni. The smallest 



104 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

is ?n«!i«yNsf golmuhdn or »it^i^^ golmuhin; another name is 
^at ^'^fi.*)! hholmnriya in East Tirhut. 

524. The small pointed anvil is y^.^H samdan. The curved 
anvil is i/***!!^ ekwdi, or in East Tirhut jifM^J ekabe. 

525. The bell-metal anuil sunk with several depressions for 
making repousse work is ^^«it kamula in North- West Bihar, vp^-.M I 
A;an«/a in East Tirhut, <t f^^ I kdnsula in South Tirhut, ^Tfls^TT kdnsia 
in South-West Bihar, and 4ij><dl Ans/a in South Bhagalpur and South 
Munger. 

526. The square-headed anvil is f^nr '"'^aii or in Champaran 
and North-Bast Tirhut ^^Tjr nehae, and 5ir?T?; nahai in South-East 
Tirhut. In South Bhagalpur it is f%nT lihd'i. 

527. The anvil blocks sunk in the ground are "gr^ chdha in Saran 
and South-West Shahahad. In Champaran and West Tirhut they are 
^TT theha. In Shahahad they are u^f^aT ehtha. In Patna, Gaya, and 
Tirhut they are ^xym^ parkath, and in South-East Tirhut also fi<<.«p|d1 
pirgithi. 

528. The blow-pipe is ^4.«ik bakndr, or in Saran <i4i-«it^ haknal. 

529. The hollow cane for blowing up the fire is ^^ «an. with 
local variants "TK^ »<an' in Gaya, ^Txt lari in North-East Tirhut and 
South Bhagalpur. In South-East Tirhut it is optionally ^f^Ta't phukdthi. 
The fireplace is ■^ir^T angaitha north of the Ganges and ■^ij'eST angetha 
south of it. Another name for this last is tK^ horsi. The fan for 
blowing up the fire is ■^^^ pankha. or -V^pankhi; also in South-West 
Shahahad it is ■§fir«lf beniydn. In North-East Tirhut vit bhatti is 
the dry powdered earth used for cooling the hot metal. 

530. The small clay crucible is 'g%gT or vl^^tx yhariya. It is 
made of a mixture of clay and rags called in Shahabad 'If^t^^ kam- 
praut, and in Champaran ^ii'i'ii kapraut. 

531. An ingot not beaten out is ^iTH*t kdmi, or in Gaya p^t^nT 
ekwdi. In Saran it is ^r^r thakka, in Champaran and North- West 
Tirhut W^T^ chhalki, South-East Tirhut n'ft gaddi or >?Y^ thak (also 
in South Munger), in Soath Bhagalpur ^^ thauk, and in Tirhut 
generally except the north-west f^rsl**^ chhilki. A block of silver beaten 
out flat is ^"H^T chaursa. 

532. The iron ingot mould is •qKvia'^Tnft pargahui to the west and 
■TT*^^ parghani in Patna and Gaya. In East Tirhut it is «ttt 
dhdra, in Saran ^w 3"iTr kam dh&ra, and in South Bhagalpur •rr^ nali. 



THE LAPIDARY. 105 

533. The moulds of various sizes into which metal is beaten are 
^e.R(i<;i katkira north of the Ganges, ^<s>f«4.T kathkira south of it to 
the east, di^i thassa in Saran, and "s^vt thappa in Gaya and Shabahad. 
In Shahabad similar moulds are •(^•<m bahka, ^^i^TSTT laheriya, Jit^r^ 
gokhlu (also in South Bhagalpur), and ^finrr motiya. To the west 
<s^e.c|i<' rahatioar is a mould in which round articles are beaten into 
shape, and <n3ir^ gunjri is a similar smaller one. In the same tract 
^nr«^ 3^ pagri thasa are milling moulds, such as those in which the 
edge is given to a rupee. These last are called in South Bhagalpur 
'^^ Hi 5^ khlra bichchi, ■s|f^ bank, or ''01^'^ pagra. 

534. Pattern stamps for ornaments are afgr tJionsa in Shahabad, 
erwT thasa in Gaya and South Bhagalpur, sw thdns in Patna, and 
ifrqr chhapa in South-West Shahabad and South Munger. 

• 535. The • ^ t a l l'l katori is a box or cup for holding scraps of silver. 
In North-Bast Tirhut it is called f^Hitii dibiya, and in Tirhut and 
to the east %g^T situha or T»r'^»<'l rangehn. 

536. The polishing-brush is ^6r^ baraunchhi. In South-East 
Tirhut it is also called fi^ kuchchi. The polishing stone is ^t'l^sil- opni 
or ■Kttf pot. 

537. The touch-stone is w^St kasauti. A jeweller's wages is 
1TIT garhdi. 



CHAPTER XIX.— THE LAPIDARY. 

538. The lapidary is ^^T^ hakkak, or in South Bhagalpur *fl^T^ 
^"tTTK mohli lohdr, and he uses a revolving grindstone or ^«r sdn or 
in Shahabad ^^S^ ^TT chakar sdn, made of corandum powder and lac. 
The bow for turning this is ^WTTT kamdna or (to the west) «fc*<V*lV 
kamdni. Its props are W^ khvnta, ^<(i«d'l dewdli, or ji<fc.dT ektha. 
Its wooden axle is ui^sil sdnkha in Patna and Gaya, ^r lattu in 
Shahabadj and fgT kun to the east. 

5 39. The agate burnishers are ^fzT ghonta, and the round ones 
fWt ««%■; the pincers, ^^ chunti in Tirhut, Patna, Gaya, and the east, 
f^^lTsT chimta in Saran, and ^$s^ sehuni in Shahabad ; the iron grauer 
is g^rjT sa/at; the cutters, ^-^ kainchi; the small hammer, >s«uO 
hathauri; fhe anuU, f^rwT^ nihdi; the pincers, ^^vi\ sanrsi; and the 

revolving a«// ^^T ^si^Jild sdn or ^nc ^TT AAar «4». 

14 



106 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE 

CHAPTER XX.— THE SEAL-MAKER. 

540. Tte seal-maker is tjl>j<.«ii<i moharkan, and lie uses a maoBine 
called a '^x^ charakh, of whioli the principal portion is a revolving awl, 
m:»*iy barma. 

541, The hammer which he uses is n i ! | ««r t mathni or wf^^rr 
mariya; the s?o«e to which the metal to be engraved is fastened is 
%irr dhema; and the diamond -gea is ^i^rw kalam. 



CHAPTER XXI.— THE GOLD-WASHER. 

542. The gold-washer is called fi)«jt<*jr niyariya or fsnjTfxiT 
niyariya north of the Ganges and in Patna ; elsewhere south of the 
Granges he is palled g^v^Wr sandkoa, and South Bhagalpur f^raK Vt^T 
niydr dlioa. 

543. He uses the «*d.<i kathm or wooden pan iat washing the 
ashes of jewellers' shops. Anotheir name current in Patna and Graya is 
siidTti^ hatliauti. The ashes are ft^KT niyara or ^^m nedra, and they 
are collected by a scraper, ■^fTJTr khurpa, and a broom, ■q>^ kunehi or 
^^TS\ mutlia. South of the Ganges the ^f^g^ pakhuri is an iron 
instrument for collecting the ashes. 

544. His sifting-pan is ^?5f cJihattan, or in Patna and Gaya 
7<h'«l r dJiahia. In South Bhagalpur it is h^I'^si cJiauhatta. 

545. His bet lows are w^ bhdtJii ; his blow-pipe, '^<^\••^i^. bakndr, 
or in Shahabad ■^•iriif^ haknal; and the earthen pipe of the vessel 
which remains in the fire, ti'y««<r siiswa north of the Ganges and '^^T 
sunsa south of it. In Saran it is also •nn'^T naraua. 

546. His pincers are 'b^t^ sanrsi, or in North-West Tirhut ^-sr^y 
sansa ; and the iron stirrer i^Nf mnk north of the Ganges and ^f'a sinkh 
south of it. Another name for the latter is 'y<siT<: saldi in North- West 
Bihar. 

547. The earthen crucible is ^f^^ or ^fi^r gliariya, also ^t^ dib 
in Patna and Gaya and ^^ adda in South Bhagalpur. These crucibles 
are of two kinds ; the first only destroys the dirt, leaving all the metals 
behind, and is called iJixsil^ baglauti. The second destroys all the baser 
metals left by the first, and leaves only the gold and silver untouched. 
It is called g^iT^T pMM^ai". = ^.»v,o»^, k»:t«- _ :^.:_ U c^to-iurt ,1*)^^ 



THE BRAZIER. 107 

CHAPTER XXII.— THE BEAZIEB. 

548. The brazier is toxt thathera, but in Shahabad be is also called 
^%TT kasera, wbicb properly means a brass-founder. In North-East 
Tirbut be is B'fffV thatheri. He is famous for bis powers of swindling, 
as in the proverb iifK. ^rSix: ffT ^'^^T Thf thatheri thatheri nahifi 
badla hoy, — braziers don't traffic with each other (for if they did, it 
would be diamond cut diamond). 

549. He uses the fii'^ii, nihcCi or ^^TP" nehde, or anvil. In East 
Tirbut this is also called WTfV lehde, and in Patna, Gaya, and South- 
West Shahabad tto^ 'pathal. The ^^r^jsr samdan is the poiuted anvil, 
which is also called in Gaya and Shahabad !<*■«< i< ekwai. The tii-ii 
sabra or, in the south-east ^M< sdl/ar, is an anvil round at the top. The 
circular anvil for shaping the mouth of a vessel is 'WVfn chauka south 
of the Ganges and ^VM^fl^i^rr hdgalbharua north of it. South of the 
Ganges the Jif^'sir geriya (Gaya) or '^'fr^ dugovi (west) is a sort 
of wooden anvil or block. The 'it^ ^^'d' goli sahri is a kind of anvil 
for pushing up any indentations. In South Bhagalpur it is called 
7ft ^.<j T <!t<. golsabar. The ^r^.^ kharwe, or in Shahabad '^'laT dabtha, 
is a kind of anvil on which hollow vessels (Tr^r^^ ga-gra) are ham- 
mered out. It stands on the two-legged ^siY^ dugori, also called 
«<|i kharat. 

550. The cutters are ^^ kainchi, also WT«T k&t in Gaya and 
North Tirbut. 

551. The stirrers are — (a)-for stirring solder, %5JT kaiya sonih. 
of the Ganges and ^TR; sardi north of it ; also '^Vq^r lopah in East 
Tirbut : (J) the iron stirrer for mixiig up the flux, i^'P\^ pandeni north 
of the Ganges and Gaya, 4^^ peneni in Shahabad, and i|^.<tii<rt 
pankdthi (of wood) in South Bhagalpur. 

552. The pincers are ^^.^Tt sansi or ^^wft sanrsi, also us^rr 
gahua ; the file t^ reti, and the hammers ■^^^xj ' hathaura or ^^e^ 
hathauri, also w^^TT mathna north of the Ganges and to the west, ^fff^ftx 
mariya in East Tirhut, and "npf ghan in North-East Tirbut. 

553. The uessel for holding the flux, Wl'^wiT sohdga or mv«i 
pden, is ^rat€i katori. In South Bhagalpur it is -q^^i^T panicala. 

554. The bellows are vr^ bhdthi; the crucible, ^^T or ^fKSX 
fjhariya; th.e> tongs, ^w**?) sansi; and the perforated couer for the 
crucible, ^t^TT ohar north of the Ganges, South Hunger, and South- 
West Shahabad ; also MiPT Jhdtnp in Sonth-East Tirhut and South 



108 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

Munger, »?it<isr jhdmpan or »bTm.«(I jhOmpna in Patna and Gaya, 
fVtn^T chhipauna elsewhere in Shahabad, and *<.«'^ll karhai or -^r^ 
mundan to the east. 

555. The mallet is wTift mungri. The scales are ?TTT5J taraju or 
WK^sjt tarjuL The polisher is *l<si«*rt chholni or ^'^•^ /eAni. In 
South Munger it is also •rxi-^'i' nehni. 



CHAPTER XXni.-.THE BRASS FOUNDER. 

556. He is «t5ii kasera, and in Gaya also fr^^ tamhera. 

557. He uses moulds of various kinds, called ^^ sancha, or in 
Shahahad ■**j.<4<Hr kamdharna. His lathe is 'SKK khardd, or in 
Shahahad and South-East Bihar ff^ kund. His large pincers are ^•'97 
sanrsa or ^«l.<jr sa«so. His crucible '^fKvi gharit/a, of which the mouth 
is §'? munh. His broad chisel is '^xy^T chaursa or ^^X7^ ehaursi; also 
^TJ^ fe/mi in Shahabad and w«ft chheni in the south-west of the 
same district. 



CHAPTER XXIV.— THE BRASS BANGLE-MAKER. 

558. The brass {^ifgr kdnsa) bangle-maker (33^ thatheri or B^n 
thatherar) makes i|T"41 hdnhi, which are'brass bangles worn by the lower 
classes. To the east they are called ^fcT^ batisi, and in South Bhagalpur 
^^ hasti. When a number of these are worn, those at each end are called 
^•T ban or (South-East Tirhut) ?5^-«^ kaehrukhi and (Saran) «>iH.\^ 
katri. Of these the one highest up the arm is called ^f^^TT agua or 
^pNtt agela, and that nearest the hand, 'Tij^T paehhua or •q'W^r pdchhela. 

559. He uses the following implements. Variants of the names 
already given in other chapters will not be repeated here : — 

560. ■•T'^.l*! nehdy, the anvil; T«lT<'t hathauri, the hammer; ^■^•v^ 
sanrsi, the pincers ; T«ft reti, the file ; ^^ chheni, the cold chisel ; vi^ 
hhdthi, the bellows ; '^ff^T ghariya, the crucible ; and 3Tf T dhdm or ^f^T 
sancha, the mould, in which M^ kdmi is the orifice through which 
the molten alloy is poured. 



CHAPTER XXV.— GLASS-MAKER AND GLASS BANGLE- 
MAKER. 

561. These an© the ^^T <<«H'«lf slsd dharewdla or glass-manufac- 
turer ; the flfsiXK manihdr, who makes glass bangles ; and the ^fr?TT 



THE GLASS-MAKER AND GLASS BANGLE-MAKER. 109 

or 'jffvsK ehurih&r or ^f^«i T cituriya, who makes the embossed 
ornaments on glass bangles. 

562. Their furnace is called v^ bJiatthi, of which the opening 
through which the melted glass is removed is TRT bar a north of the 
Ganges, 4<l'«.^i mohra in Shahabad, and elsewhere ^<.^|«ir darwaja. 
This is closed by a cover called ^^v?nx^ alw&ri north of the Ganges 
and in South Hunger, ^T^^^fT^ olwdri in South-West Shahabad, «»^T 
dhqpauna in Shahabad, and elsewhere MnT^«rT jhapna. 

563. The earthen crucible is Ts^iK thikkar or r3i«*<i thikra 
generally, also V^T^ karahi in South-East Tirhut, and fe^ - .<.i dihra in 
Patna and Shahabad. 

564. The spoon for putting the glass into the crucible is <fc<.^^ 
karchhul. The iron hook for taking out the glass is '^J^i^ ankuri or 
■^^■<r ankura in Patna and the west. ^^TT akwa in South-East Tirhut, 
^■«T ^ir^ hath dkuri in South Tirhut, "^^r ^^•'€l' hath ukri in South 
Bhagalpur, and <:<.«n ^rgK^ dharni akuri in Champaran. The instru- 
ment for turning the glass in the crucible is y(^<i akura generally, and 
■^^rn^^jT kalchhula to the west. 

565. The stone on which the ring is shaped is ^TftK patthar or ^n«f^ 
patthal north of the Ganges, and My\^^ pathri south of it. The mould 
with a handle for shaping the bangle is ^T^^»T kdlhut north of the 
Ganges, and ^r^rq^ kalbud or *UMi sdncha south of it. The handle of 
this is *j<»*Hit sarkandi. 

566. The long iron poker on which the glass is melted is ^^nr 
saldg ; the flat iron instrument for shaping the ring is *rraT mdla ; and 
the instrument for widening the ring to the required size ^■qinT bedhwdr 
in North-West Bihar, ^fc(«<(l<^ badhwdri in Patna and South Tirhut, and 
H^K:«rT badharna south of the Ganges. The wtf^ ^Ti«rr^ cUhoti bedhwdri, 
&o., or ^tft ^fi^ chhoti akuri, is the instrument for taking the ring ofif 
the mould. In South Bhagalpur it is nv^ gharanni. 

567. Other instruments used by the glass bangle-maker arefz^^^ 
tikhthi, which are bamboo slips for holding the bangles in the fire ; v^ 
panni, leaves of solder; t«I 411/1 phokdthi (Gaya and South Bhagalpur), 
■^§V<^ phonphi (West Tirhut and South- West Shahabad), or T^ nari 
(Patna, South Hunger, Tirhut, and rest of Shahabad), which is the 
pipe for blowing up the fire ; the '^lar angethd or "^^ angethi, which 
is the fireplace ; and '#zT chunta (Shahabad), '^'ifT chunta (Tirhut, Gaya, 
and South Hunger), "9^ chunti (South Bhagalpur), or f^TZj ddmta 
(generally), which is the pincers. 



110 



BIHAR PEASANT LtPE. 



568. In Shahabad a famous maker of glass bangle ornaments 
was one Samman Churiya. It is said that wlien boys he and a king 
•were pupils in the same school, and each promised that on his 
marriage he would show the other his wife. Samman married first, and 
did so. When, however, the king married, he refused to carry out the 
agreement and show his wife to Samman. The latter thereupon 
disguised himself as a female bangle-maker, and, gaining admission to 
the female apartments, sold some ornaments to the queen in the 
presence of the king, who praised the workmanship, saying the 
bangles were like ivory ones. Next day the king began to boast of 
his high character, and how lie would never allow his wife to be seen 
by an outside man, when he was interrupted by Samman reciting the 
iEollowing verse, which showed the other how he had been made a fool 

of : — ^^^w ^ftx^rr ^ ^ ^ "^^ % ^^, ^^ ^*Ff t^ %«t t1 ^i" %^ ^f^i 

Samman Churiya u garhen jyon hasti ke dant, bank pakari ras kt liain, 
baithe dekhen kant, — Samtoan the bangle-embosser makes bangles like 
ivory. He held her by the arm, and had the pleasure (of seeing her) 
while her husband was sitting by. 

569. The stamp for making embossed ornaments on the bangle 
is^^f^ sancha (Tirhut and the south-east), ^^ ^z:iTT karaili katna 
(Gharaparan), s^m thappa (South-"West Shahabad), and WPTT chhapa 
(Tirhut and elsewhere in Shahabad) * In Champaran and South-West 
Tirhut ?ftT^ togar is an instrument for embossing. 



CHAPTER XXVI.— THE LA.C BANGLE-MAKER. 

570. The lac (^nrer lakh or ^rr^ lah) bangle-maker is ^r%^ laberi or 
^%^ lahera. He uses a block of wood with a handle, on which the bano-les 
are fitted, which Is called gr^ kund; a ^t^t sdncha, which is a brass 
mould for embossing ornaments ; and a ^^wi^ chubhki (and also 
to the east ^w-ifl chubhti) , which is an ivory mould for embossing. 
His bamboo pipe for blowing the fire is srrd ndri or ^ nari, also 
•^<^i^ phukathi or ^tQ- Idri in South Bhagalpur and ^^jit phukhathi 
in North-East Trrhufc. 

571. A bangle, whether of glass or lac, is f;^ churi. The latter 
variety is also called ^re^^ lahthi. Of these the thickest, or keeper, 
which prevents the thinner ones slipping over the hand, is • «t^|.^'^ 
kangni. The end bangles of a set are ^=^ band, or in South Bhagalpur 
^TJsiT lama, and the intermediate ones HI<«<t^ surki, and in South 
Bhagalpur 'V^^ZT pahia. 







t^ 



o 
O, 






THE POTTER. lH 

CHAPTER XXVII.— THE POTTER. 

572. The potter is generally called ^!^tk kumhar or f*?^^' 
kumhra ; in the east he is also called ^Tfecr pandit, and in Patna and 
Gaya also •"TTvajT^rf parjapat. In Shahahad he is ^^K kunhdr, and in 
the south-west of the district ^tTTK kohdr. Concerning him there is a 
proverh, fii-q-n ^ ^««'<r, -^fsm sjo % gjTT ^Ix nichint sute kumhra, 
matiya na le jay chor, — the potter sleeps secure, for no one will steal 
clay. His wife is known as gi»^ AjMwAaeW or -^^ kumhain, as in 
the proverb ^^ ^"^ ^T fr»?fsf «f% teli bail la kumhaini satti, — for the 
sake of the oilman's oxj the potter's wife has become suttee, i.e., she 
interests herself in other people's affairs, 

573. His u/Aee/ is ^r^ cAaA, which is turned by a stick, ^%a 
chakaith, or in North-Bast Tirhut ^fr chhari, on a peg, which is ^t^r 
klla or f%^ killa to the west, and 'a^ khunti or J^t khuiti to the east. 
In South Bhagalpur it is, however, f%«T silla, 

574. The implement for mixing the clay is <^sa.^ t:- lehsur north 
of the Ganges and <s)-^.tt<. lahsur south of the Ganges generally, , In 
yhahabad it is ■^ziifl' katni, and in South Bhagalpur "Vr^l patta. 

575. The ra/nme/" for consolidating the clay is Tj^iTjoz/aMrwhen 
made of wood; when made of earthenware it is irFf jo?«»: north of the 
Ganges generally and in Shahahad, ft^TT pirhaur or fvf^ pihrhuri in 
Patna, and f^-sx pinrhur in Gaya. In South Bhagalpur it is f^Tiiri^ 
pinauri. The clay is smoothed with an instrument calle"d ft^TTT 
milauna north of the Ganges and in South Munger, and also '»T«j;^ 
majni in South-East Tirhut and South Bhagalpiu:. 

576. The moulds for shaping vessels are '^s(5<1 athri generally. 
Other names are «fcd^«j.'Ct kathathri in Patna and ■*<«vn^ kartliari in 
South Bhagalpur. The pots when ready are severed from the wheel 
by a string called ^'^'^ ehhewan ; also 'ifT^ chhauni in Patna and 
*cc.wn chhewni to the east. In South Bhagalpur it is t?"'qi<it chlievmo. 
Another name is ^-Ht^ kamthi in North- West Tirhut. The ''a'^ sancha 
or ^f^ sancha is a mould used in making tiles. 

577. The kiln is 'jtrt du-a. 

578. The clay-pit has many "names, viz. '^:^f chudti (South-West 
Tirhut), xl^TT khanrdr (Patna), wfa^'aTsr matikhdn (West Tirhut, Gaya, 
and Shahahad), nz^^^iT matkhana (South- West Shahahad and Tii-hut), 
^izi'a^rr matkhabha (South Bhagalpur), «i.<*H tnatkor (Patna and South 



112 bihJlR peasant life. 

Munger), and ^fz^jTX: matiyar (South-East Tirliut). Other names are 
^t^^JTK kohanrgar in Saran and JiZ>*4M matkham in North-West 
Tirhut. 

579. The earthea pot in which the water which the potter uses 
while mating the vessel is kept is called 'g'*.<K chakwar in the north- 
west ; also ^ !().«( |-.k1 athwani in North- West Tirhut, >$«|«ii<n hathwani 
in Gaya and South-Bast Tirhut, and "^^js kadaith in South Munger. 
In South Bhagalpur it is "<j*t^ chakori or >s«|.Mr«n hathpdni. 



CHAPTER XXVIII.— THE FIREWORK-MAKER. 

580. The firework-maker is ^l<m«'(I5i ataahaj or ^rnnj^Tol 
atashbaj. In Shahabad and South Bhagalpur he is T^iT^vcrr^rT 
rawdiswala. In South Bliagalpur iff^ gonri is the name of a caste 
whose employment is to make fireworks. 

581. He uses a grindstone, which is "^^ chakki to the west 
and in South Bhagalpur, and sncTT jdnta in Tirhut and to the east ; 
also in East Tirhut M^'X't chakn. In South- West Shaliabad it 
is ftra' dl. 

582. His ramrod for ramming the powder is 4)^..^ ^ kalhud 
generally, with a variant <*<dl^'*r kaldbut in South- West Shahabad. In 
the rest of Shahabad it is ^S'^ sumba, and in South-East Tirhut 
optionally ■5»5T sumha when made of iron. In Saran it is ^iw gaj. The 
wooden roller used in making a Roman candle is ^rhj^^^ kholakra, 
and in South Bhagalpur also ^g's^ kholni. 

583. His sa«/ is ^T^ an; 1^ knife, ^^ chhnn. A flat heavy 
one is ^f^ hdnki in Saran and Champaran, ^f^ hank in Shahabad, 
•^^ dab in Tirhut, and ^ft^JT ddbiya also in the north-east of the same 
district. His awl is ^T^^ baima, and his file is T^s't reti. 

584. His wooden platter is <*«j.<i kathra to the west, ^«T'«it 
athra in Tirhut, Gay a, and South- West Shahabad, ^af^ kathauti or 
'(«dH kathaut in Patna, Gaya, and East Tirhut, and ^ivTIT karhdi in 
South Bhagalpur. 

585. Among the fireworks which he makes are — 

(a) The hand Catherine wheel, -gx^ charkhi, and that which is 
mounted on a pole, ^^K chakkar, ktv -^^T rddhe chakkar 
(South-East Tirhut), or "g^ixj^rr^ chakarhdn (Shahabad). 



THE FIREWORK-MAKER. 113 

Of these, the pipes in which the powder is placed are 
TT^ ndl, or to the east ^rra lal or WrTT Idla, and in South 
Hunger smT nalla. The pipe in which the axle works 
is also called sn^ ndl, &o., as above ; also ^^ pulli in 
South-West Shahabad, -^^i^kulpMiii South Bhagalpur, 
and in South-East Tirhut <fi)« jTg^ daniydli. The axle 
itself is H^'Pl' malcri or ^'^ chhuchcAhi north of the Granges 
generally, and also ifcf^ft pJumphi to the west. The spokes 
and rim of the wheel are ^f^ dhdncha to the west or 
•e-gr^ dhanchri in Saran, ^ra: that in Tirhut, ^rsv^t 
marri in South Hunger, and "vjiKt menrra in South 
Bhagalpur, 
(fi) There are various kinds of bombs : amongst them are ^jt^wtt 
bhmhampa or '^'^^T hhuchappa (north of the Ganges) or -^t 
•q^T Ihuin Champa (south of it), -^flnx andr (generaUy), 
^fW^T kulhiya (north of the Ganges) or ^T^ lauki (east 
generally), ^w^jft^T bamgola (generally) or WWr gola 
(Champafan and North-East Tirhut), ■ir?T^ tardka 
(south of the Ganges), srra Tra nds pal (generally), -^ifg^T 
ddntua and dKHl torna (Shahabad). A long kind of 
bomb is north of the Ganges "g^.<*r cliahka. 

(c) The balloon is ^qaKT petdra south of the Ganges, and ^^TfT 

petdrha or jfNTTT gohdrd north of the Gtinges, to the west. 
In North-East Tirhut it is vd<.»ir Tarrr urtd petdrha, and 
in South-East Tirhut ^3KT m^i^t uran petdrha. 

(d) The rocket is "^tt?; hawdi or ^^.-^h •nrr asmdn tara; also 

■^^ chhari in North-West Tirhut. In South-West 
Shahabad, Saran, and Champaran ^T<T ban, and in North- 
East Tirhut 5f^ ■^i^jangi ban, is a species of rocket. 

(e) The Roman candle is ^^•dl>?l mahtdbi generally, also ^^ 

dasti north of the Ganges and i[^:^gallar in Shahabad and 
East Tirhut. 

(/) Other fireworks are »r?V(rR fiiahtdl, ^^ khajur, f^j^r 
kild (a miniature fort, of which the bastions are ' «t<»j| ^ 
burji), 5T^ fgrrm ganj sitdra, ^t^jt ^TW kadumgdchh, ^^ 
'^■^ I ^^^ 4,K chddar pardheddr, vi<.T ^T^ sada chddar, ^\-^ 
chddar or (East Tirhut) ^T^si If zft saman ke tatti, 
<^T^ s:j<.<^ chdnd charkhi, xf^^TW patebdj, f%f^ kirin or 

15 



114 BIHSR PE-iSANT LITE. 

(North-East Tirhut) f%ixT '^nr kirin chakkar, -^^^^ 
chhuehhundar ("West Tirhut and South-West Shahabad), 
^^%^jalebi (South- West Shahabad), -gKvKT murra or '^v'^T 
murlia (South- West Shahabad and Gaya), ^^^c^ ^^T chan- 
dar kala (South West Shahabad), ''^^^paraka or (South- 
West Shahabad) T2T^t paldkha (Chinese crackers), ^T 
murha, -^^^ dlpak, ^%\ juhi, X^'^y^ raspdl (Saran 
and Champaran), ^<»^[«(r ardana (East Tirhut), %^ 
deb or %^ deo (a flying monster), TZ.^T^ natbaj or 
^\"fr \^ larat deb (fighting monsters), %cr ^T<^ Icait ban 
(around rocket), TSK^JrWr^Aarsi gola, zft ^^ ^ tatti 
lilti phar (south of the Ganges), ^^ "^^T ghan chakkar 
(south of the Ganges), »rlT '^"^^ »«<"' chakkar (south of 
the Ganges), vTK'^TSi mor baj (south of the Ganges), 
■«r^^ panclwrkhi (Shahabad), '^crfrT chautdna (Shah- 
abad), '^^XK ^-^ hajdr bin (Shahabad), "^^fT chaughara 
(Shahabad), «^^ huluk (Shahabad), and ^rfTOT batasa 
(Patna), wbich is also called ^JlT^ angdri in Shahabad. 
In South Bhagalpur ^^ lauki and Tr^qrr paduka have 
been noted. 



CHAPTER XXIX— THE BOOKBINDER. 

586. The bookbinder is in North- West Bibar <.Mii<.^ duphdari, 
and in East Tirhut ?[4i.«(<^ daphtari. In South-East Tirhut he is also 
called ■^T»l«>ft' kagji. South of the Ganges he is faf^^v^'^ jildband, 
or in Shahabad fmw^^^^X jUdgar. 

587. His sorew -press is f%^fiiT sikanja. Another kind of 
press is ^*.<^ makri. The wooden boards for putting between 
the books in the screwpress are cjy.wi takhta or (in Patna and South 
Bhagalpur) r|4d<<n takhti. In Shahabad and North-East Tirhut they 
are iiz «\ t patri; in South-East Tirhut, fqf?^ pirhiya; and in South- 
East and North- West Tirhut, fir!H.-«t<.<.i nishkarda. 

588. The paper-cutter is ^rttcs^ kafarnl, or (in Champaran) TTf 
pdrh or ^T? barh. The scissors are ^=^'\ kainchi, or in North Bihar also 
<R4«<M mekrdj. 

589. The iron mallet is ^«rT^ haihauri or ^tK.dl^ mdrtaul, and 
the awl ■^i^T siia north of the Ganges generally and in Shahabad and 
South Bhagalpur, ^XT^ft surdkhi in Patna, ■St^i*!^ suldkhi in Gaya, 










i 











'^J-i 












f5'^- 



I 



« 



g 






THE EOPE-TWISTEK. 115 

^WT^ sutafi north of the Granges, and zj>'^i tckua optionally in South- 
East Tirhut. The needle is ^ sm. 

590. The embossing-wheel, which is an instrument with a small 
revolving wheel for embossing the binding, is ftB^.^ phirki in 
North-West Bihar and South-East Tirhut, ^^ chakki in Tirhut 
and Patna, "^r^ chakkar in Gaya and : South Bhagalpur, and 
"^^ chakka in Shahabad. Other dies. for. embossing are '"^ phul 
or (optionally in Champaran and Tirhut) -smK thappa ; also ^^'^xjhalaK, 
a|»l«^TI janjira, and ^H^^ dosuti, 

591. The cutter for paring edges is .»jrmT Jhdma north of the 
Ganges and Patna, and M\-i'i soAaw elsewhere. A file for the same 
purpose is T^ reti. 

592. The wooden tool for smoothing the binding is ^%w sales , 
(corruption of English * slice '). It is alss called fs€t tilli or •Tl"^ tili, 
and in East Tirhut ^wr^ kamchi. 

593. The leather-scraper is i^i. i fl khurpi, also north of the 
Ganges f^^^^ chhilni. I3f^ patthar is the flat stone on which the 
leather is scraped. 

CHAPTER XXX.— THE ROPE-TWISTER. 

594. The rope-twister is -w^X kanjar in North- West Bihar and 
Gaya, and ^T chain in "West Tirhut. In Shahabad. and Gaya 'he is 
^'?^'!5T rashanta. The art of rope-twisting is ^iisri?; hatnai. 

595. His rope-twisting implement is called ftR;?^ ghimi or f^^isri; 
ghirmi, also ^ ghari in South-West Tirhut. Of this the ^<- .^> ^gl 
-hhaunrkali is aflat stone with a hook, to which the rope is fastened as 
it is being twisted ; sometimes a peg, ^^t khunti, is used for this purpose. 
The board or bamboo fixed in the ground and perforated with holes, by 
which the strands, WK lar, pass is called JT^Tf'l gardri north of the 
Ganges, ^Tlft gardri in Patna, ^^ gliarri in Gaya, and ftK..*)! ghimi in 
Shahabad. The strands are fixed to the ends of pegs, ^^rsf belan, which 
revolve in these holes. 

596. The string used to move the machine is f^?7^T ghirna. 

597. When cables and thick ropes are made, an instrument called 
(north of the Ganges) "?T!IT'^x:^ hattlid charak and (south of the Ganges) 

^3T mutha is used. This is a grooved block, in the grooves of which 
the strands are fixed to secure uniformity in the twisting, A man holds 
it in his hands, and carries it forward as the strands are twisted. 



116 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

598. A simpler kind of macMne is called ^ett^ charahh or ^X«'a^ 
charkhi. It consists of only a bent wooden handle, «^ daiidi, and a 
perforated board. The strands are fastened at one end to the handle, 
and the other ends are twisted by hand. 



CHAPTER XXXI.— THE "WEAVER'S BRUSH-MAKER. 

599. The weaver's brush-niEiker is called ^f'^vI'^:^ Icunchhandhwa. 
The brush is called ^'^ kunchi, ?bV kunch, &c. (See Chapter on 
Weaving.) 

600. He uses the *i\M\ sancha, which are two moulds for keeping 
the brush in order while it is being prepared. He beats the brush with 
a cn*««fl thokna; and he has a flat piece of wood called ^^^.^<^'^ patri for 
keeping the bristles in order. 



CHAPTER XXXII.-THE BOW-MAKER. 

601. A bow is ^«TT kamdn, or in North-East Tirhut ^wi3T kaintha, 
and its maker is ■^^•T^i; katnangar. He has no special implements. 



CHAPTER XXXIII.— THE WEAPON-CLEANER. 

602, The f%f*^.)ix: sikilgar or arms-cleaner uses a t^t randa, 
or in North-East Tirhut ^cmyAaw, which is a kind of plane for cleaning 
off rust ; a ■gia^ gulli, a piece of hard stone for a similar purpose ; fi^if 
kurun, a kind of stone powder. He also uses a f^'^rx^ singhauta or 
polishing-hom, a »r^^[^ maskali or iron instrument, and ^^ gaddi or 
thick olothj both used for varnishing. 



DIVISION II. 

DOMESTIC APPLIANCES AND UTENSILS. 



SUBDIVISION I. 
APPLIANCES USED IN THE PREPARATION OF FOOD, 



CHAPTER I.— SIEVES. 

603. The winnowing-sieve is •^;^ sup or *l<5'*iT kolsup. The 
former is also used for sifting grains of various sizes. It is made of 
reeds. The latter is used for ■winnowing only, and is woven of bamboo 
slips. They are both oblong in shape, and have a low waU round 
three sides, called in East Tirhut w^^KT marra. Other names are ^tfsraT 
honiya (North-East Tirhut) and ^^t^i dagra (see § 47) in Gaya, 
Champ aran, and North- West Tirhut. 

604. The 'g^-.^ chalni, or (North-East Tirhut) '^■rafir chdiani, is 
a woven sieve for sifting bran from flour, as in the proverb concerning 
an extravagant man, '^?t«r y<'>^* ^^S' »rnj, '^<sifi( <sr ^^SM srnr kon 
puruliJiak bheldhun gay, chdiani lai duhdwe jay, — of what man have I 
become the cow : he has brought a sieve into which to TnilTr me. 
Again, "^T^t^r ^^^;:^r%, ojfsr^T ^'^^K'f^t^ ^\ cMlam iusal sup ken, 
janika sahasar got chhed, — ^the sieve, which had a thousand holes, 
sneered at the winnowing-basket, i.e. the pot called the kettle black. 

605. The f^^v^^ chiltcan, or in Saran, Patna, and Gaya f%^5j 
chilaunj or f^^^ chilaund, and in South Hunger f%^TT cJiilaun, is a 
kind of sieve used for catchiag fish, and also (according to Crooke) in 
the North-Western Provinces for straining sugar-cane juice. Other 
names are ^7T^ arsi or sf^ jangha, both used in South Bhagalpur, 
and the latter in North-East Tirhut and the former iu Saran. 

606. The ^'<^<<<l' chalna is a sieve for cleaning grain. Other names 
are wK^'n jharna south of the Ganges, fi\«a?1 tarchhi in Champaran 
and ipiT^.^TT gurchalm (North-East Tirhut). 

607. The ^Tifi' dngi or ^fi]^T angiya is a cloth-bottomed sieve for 
sifting fine flour. It is called "^^ hdngi in Gaya and ^nr^r^ 



]18 



BIHAU PEASANT LIFE. 



%^../... optionally t, ,f ,^, G,^^^^^_ ^^ .^ ^^^ 

Western Provinces, ^t^I angki is a leather sieve with very fine holes. 








Chalni. 
Kolsup. 



Taraju. 
Supuli. 



Angi. 



Sup. 



CHAPTER II.-THE PEDAL FOR HUSKING GRAIN. 
-^ !?^; • ^^' "^^"^^ apP«^atus. and also the movable beam, is called 

%.::r ^^^ """"^ ^'- ^^-- - ^ -- - a^ -rai) 

■ ^°!; The p///ar. on which the beam rests are ^ Jangha 
.;««^^^ya m North-West Tirhut. In Tirhut and the ;est theTZ 
^^ /.M«^«, in Patna and Gaya ^^t /./,«„.., and in sltlBWr 
pur and South Hunger ^^T khutta. In South West ShabrT^.T 
are called ^.«t khcmbha. Shahabad they 

610. The peflr in the beam which crushes the rice is ^^ - 
to the south and west, and WKT musra in Tirhut Patna ^..7^ 

and .^ 1: JttirotSelldTtir" "^ '''' '"T''''' 



THE PESTLE AND MORTAK USED FOR HUSKING GRAIN. 119 

611. The ax/e is geueiaHy^i^^yf akhaut ot ^^Jtn aJchcmta, local 
names being flf»K mdnjha in Champaran and Nortli-East Tirliut, 
^^TT^ helni in North-West Tirhut, and ^^^t danda also in North- 
East Tirhut. la Patna it is Tf*^ raiiki, in South Bhagalpur 
^W^^<3TT aslcalat, aad in South-West Shahabad ^rCT sdra. 

612. The hollow wooden bed in wMch the rice is crushed is ^"Y^t^ 
okhri north of the Ganges, or as a local variant ^ft^g^ okhar in North- 
East Tirhut and the north-west. ^1<si«<1 okhri and ^^ bhundo 
occur also in South Bhagalpur, and ^'sIt^ ukhri in South Hunger. 
In South- West Shahabad it is ^f^ kanri, in the rest of the district 
■^jff^ hhuriya^ in Gaya ■^l^t^P^^ bhuinokhri, and in Patna w^.<t?t 
hhtinrki or '5'<I1' ghundi. The stick used for stirring the grain while 
it is being pounded is in Gaya and South Bhagalpur 3^^^ thekra. 

613. The hand-rail which the workman grasps is ^^Pff astham 
north of the Ganges and ^♦js<?t thanini or "^^•Jisfl' algani in South 
Bhagalpur. It is z'^*^ tangni in Patna and South Munger, also 
^^T^ arani in South Munger, and "^^ hatthi in Gaya. In Shahabad 
a rope (k^ rassi) is used. 

614. The pedal or place where the worker rests his foot is m v<< 
paiidar in Patna and Shahabad, tt^^x: pachhahar or m«1€ pachhdr in 
Saran and Champaran, y^.^i puchhm in North-East Tirhut, tt^hXT 
pachhaura in South- West Shahabad, ■'T^^T pdchhua in South Mun- 
ger, ■gfiRiT puohhiya in South Bhagalpur, iffift ponchhi in Gaya, and 
^■fi»*J<.T latmara in North- West Tirhut. The pit into which this is 
depressed is in Gaya ^"l^-Ml'U gorpauri, and in South Bhagalpur 
Jl'flt gatto. 

615. This implement is practically the same as the lever for 
breaking bricks, for an illustration of which see § 431. 



CHAPTER III.— THE PESTLE AND MORTAE USED FOR HUSK- 
ING GRAIN. 

616. The mortar is "^t^:^^ okhri generally, local variants being 
■^tfSK. okhar in North-Bast Tirhut and Shahabad, ^ >sI.<: t okhra in 
South- West Shahabad, and ^"^^ okhli in Gaya. In Patna an 
optional name is ^RT^ kurdan, and in Saran -^ffsfiff dkankutti. 

617. The pestle is ^::'JT niusar to the west and -g^rre samSth to 
the east. In Patna both words are used. 



120 BIHAK PEASANT LIFE. 

618. The iron ferule at the bottom of the pestle to prevent it 
splitting is 'ffT'i ««»»> or in Patna, Gaya, and the south-east ^flT^T 
mmaua, and in Saran optionally <jf«*iT samiyan. 



CHAPTER IV.— THE HAND GRINDING-MILL. 

619. This is known as 3if<f jdnt, ^tt^^t jantwa, or siTdl jdnta. 
This is -worked by two women. The smaller kind, used for breaking 
pulses and worked by one person, is "g^ir^ chahri generally, or "^^ 
chaklci to the west. North of the Granges s^gK^iT chakula is a medium- 
sized one. 

620. The upper stone is yv«<r<iT iiprauta, and the lower stone 
«JXT^ tarauta, and also south of the Ganges rrwTZT taiauta. 

621. The handle of the large variety is -^T^Tf hathar in South- 
East Tirhat, and elsewhere "^si^fT or "^«jt^t liathra. In Shahabad 
it is ^;^T jua- That of the smaller variety is t%^ khunti. The 
axle is ^SOT Idlla or (in South-East Tirhut) ^^ Jdl; and the feeding 
channel, #^ munh generally ; also ^t^ gdli in Shahabad, Gaya, and 
South Bhagalpur, ^l^ galli in Saran and North-East Tirhut, ^^T^ 
galausi in Ghamparan, 'afrw khonichh or ^f^^T-^ galiydri in North- 
West Tirhut, Jprr gatto in South Bhagalpur, and -^gr ghanya in 
South-West Tirhut. 

622. The handful of grain poured into the miU is ^^^jhink, 
local variants being ^^j'hmka in Saran, Patna, and South-Bast Tirhut, 
and 'sWt Jhika in South-East Bihar. In South Bhagalpur it is also 
giflt lappo. 

623. The wooden seat on which the woman sits is tftf T pirha. 
A. local variant is ^ft^^ pirhi or (East) ftff^T pirhiya. A similar mud 
seat is -^^^^ haisni, or in Ghamparan -^^T^ift haithni, and in South-East 
Tirhut ^'ffif haisan. In South Hunger it is 5^[??rt baiska, and in South 
Bhagalpur x^J**! baisko. 

624. To roughen the stone with a chisel is north "of the Ganges 
zf *i^ tdngab or '^TK tungab to the west and ^s^ kutab to the east. 
South of the Ganges, to the west, it is ^zw 'Jt|<«i kutal j'aib, and to 
the east ^f^TP^ kutdeb or ^^^ kutideb. The man who does tliis is called 
sifPlfST jantkutta. He uses a chisel, %^ chheni, and a hammer, ^rj^T 
thapua or ^'«rr^ hathduri. 

625. The act or profession of grinding corn is PreiT pisdn, 
fcr^^^n piswan, or in Ghamparan fM^ji^T pisna, and in Gaya fwTT pisdi, 




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STOOLS. 121 

and its wages fwJT piaai. A well-known proverb is oiiv^ Me««il 
si^fT V^ SITIT, jdichhi patna jora eh jdnt, — ' I go to Patna for a 
pair of mill-stones/ something like a Newcastle-man going to London 
to look for coals. 



CHAPTEE v.— THE GRINDSTONE FOR SPICES. 

626. This is f^^rga silwat or ftt^^z silaut, and in Saran f%^rnr3 
silawat ; also in Patna, Gaya, and South-East Tirhut ^W sll. To the 
isouth-east it is also "fiSi pati. 

627. The stone roller used with it is ^^ lorha to the west and 
Wll'i' lorhi to the east. In Patna another name is ^rsT batia. 



CHAPTER VI.— THE ROLLER FOR MAKING PASTE. 

628. The rolling-pin is ^r^-<\ belna; also ^sr belan in Patna. 

629. The pasteboard is "gT^ eliauki to the west and"g^ii^rr chakla 
to the east. In South-East Tirhut another name is ^^bWt chakola, in 
Gaya "^^^ chavkla, and in North-East Tirhut "sr^ chak or "^^ chak. 

630. The dry flour sprinkled on the board to prevent the paste 
sticking is M<.i|«i parthan generally, with local variants VTS'I'^ parthani 
to the west and ^r%«iT palethdn in Patna and South Hunger. In 
South-East Tirhut it is optionally called ^rr^jmdra. 



SUBDIVISION II. 
DOMESTIC FURNITURE. 



CHAPTER I.— STOOLS. 

631. Stools made of bamboo or reeds are wfrr monrha when 
large, and »if ^^ monrkiya when small. 

632. When made with a woven twine seat, a wooden frame- 
work, and four legs, they are called vifk^fj machiya. Another name is 
i^^rr machola, current in Champaran. 

633. When it has three legs, it is called fimT tipai north of the 
Ganges, and -^TX tepai or isit tepai south of it. In Shahabad a three- 
legged stool is calledl?^ mench. 

16 



122 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

634. A wooden stool is, according to size, t^^ plrha (large), 
■^\:^ pirhi or fqff-^w'/ii (smaller), and firf?^ pirhiya (smallest). 

635. The wooden platform for sitting, sleeping, or bathing is, 
when large, d<sif(«<ri<J takhatpos, and "when small ^ztXj patra. ^^ 
chaiiki is used for both large and small kinds. 



CHAPTER II.— THE BED AND COT. 

636. A. bed or oot is iitz khdt, 'sfe^ khatiya, or tt^t^ palang. 
When an ordinary bed, it is specially called 't^K-m?; chdrpdi or ^T.^TIT 
charpai, and when a cot, <del<sir hliatola or ^st^ khatoK ; also in South- 
East Tirhut ^^T khalula. Another name is ^fii^rr palangiya or 
1<S<I'^ palangri in Shahabad and South Munger; another name 
is g^^iT sajea or ^fsniT sejiya, which is used principally in poetry. 

637. The pillow is «if^^T taUya or <i^T takea, also ii^^T gerua 
in East Tirhut and fij^l«ri or f%^T<?l' sirhdni in Tirhut and the west. 
The bolster is ^r^be halis, ^f%^T balista, or (in South-West Shahabad) 
f^^T bilasta. The side bolsters are ^ir*'^ wfeR^rr iagli takiya, and the 
heavy thick bolster for resting the back against is fl^^ i^ masnad or 
»n' frf^^ gau takiya. The bed clothes are fVarr^ftT bichhdon, ft*|«n 
hichhauna, or ^^ getam. The mattress or its equivalent is '^t^^ tosak. 
In Tirhut ^*T^1«r ochhdon or '^^•ii ochhauna are the bed clothes 
over the body. A patchwork quilt, &o., worn by the poorer orders is 
ai^^T gendra, (also in ChampSran and to the east) ^i^^^ khendhra, 
or ^ai-.«?^ sojni in South Bhagalpur, Patna, and Gaya, ^si^tt khenra 
or w«inff sujni in Saran and West Tirhut, W«r^TT kndra in Shahabad, 
and iSK^T'' fi"*^*"" or g^ leica to the west generally. In South Bhagal- 
pur it is *ff«PtT bhothra. See also § 731. 

638. The legs of the bed are Tn^rr paua, xj-nrr pdya, or «n^T pdica. 
The side pieces are ^xi^ pdti or ti^ patti generally, also TT^ pdsi in 
Tirhut and South Bhagalpur. The end pieces are 'g'^ chur or 'g^g chul. 
The head of the bed is fViTsrr sirhdna or f^T^ sirhdni north of the 
Granges, also ir^ren^ miirthdri in North Tirhut and fiivtii sirnia in 
North-East Tirhut. South of the Ganges it is f«Tr?T^ sirhdna (Shah- 
abad also Riv^sU sirhdn) or ^<.«)ii^ murthdri, also n j < .. <T^1 sirwdnsi 
in South Bhagalpur. The foot of the bed is jtItv^kV gorthdri or 
7rt^«)ft«fT gorthariya. In Shahabad it is jflf«nT gortdr, and in Saran 
i^'\"ti\^ gunthdri ; also Ji>si7<rT^ grow ^^n north of the Ganges generally 
and in South- West Shahabad, ^f^j^ pathauni in South-Eaet and 



THE WEIGHING-SCALES. 123 

R^rr^T pathana .in North-East Tirbut. South of the Ganges we find 
optionally ^mTT paitdna in Shahabad and Patna, ^'IwT'n' pautdna 
(also in South Hunger) or »flq r 41 poth&ni in Gaya, and ^l«)i«iT 
pauthdna in South Munger. 

639. The network at the bottom is fi^iHi bindwat or Hiilv 
6««ai!, or in East Tirhut ^tviT ghordi. In Patna and Gaya it is ^siT 
binan or f^«^ hinaut, in Shahabad ft^rT^r 6jwow, and ^sf ghoran 
in South. Bhagalpux and South Munger. When this is made of 
one string, the bed is said to be y^i.«i(v ^T ehbadhiya ; of two strings, 
■^!\:^f^nK dobadhiya ; of four strings, '^ -^fmr chaubadhii/a (west) ; and 
of six strings, ?f*rfV^T ehhabadhiya. In South Bhagalpur the words 
3rqfTiftf%«JT ekgotiya, ^ifffefT dugotiya, '^x^^^^^ clmrgotiya, and ^jftftm 
chhagotiya are used. In South Munger they are 3T9R^Pi?n ekjoriya, &c. 
The strings, at the bottom by which the netting can be tightened at 
pleasure are ^tK^^ orchan or ' Wll«<°i T «l^ ordawani in Tirhut and the^ 
west. In Saran and Patna they are <4l<«'^f orchan or vfll^.=ii^sf odicain. 
In the east they are ^ixf^ ardneh. Other local names are ^tTs^«l onchan, 
in South- West Shahabad, ^jt^T??r oc?d'i» in Gaya, ^t^KT ^'•'^'''aw* to the 
east, ^"l^sr oddn in South Mimger, and wt^ badh or 'i<ilri gatdn in North- 
East Tirhut. The thick rope at the foot to which the netting is tied 
is ftrs?««i(^^ sidhwdni in the north-west ; also ^f^ mdnhi in Champaran. 
In South-East Tirhut it is ^'3i'«<iiv*l ajwain. In Patna it is ^htt main, in 
Gaya ^wiT medr, in South Munger *?r?7f main, and in South Bhagalpur 
^T«r ban or *?«f main. Elsewhere it is also called ^Ix-^^^ ordawdni. 
The string tied to the side as the netting is being made is ^\^\ barua 
in the north-west and south. In Tirhut and the east generally it is 
^*flT ojha, or in South Bhagalpur also stat^it jamaua. When the net- 
ting is finished this string becomes useless, and villagers believe that 
if it be thrown across the door of a house the members of that house 
will quarrel amongst themselves. The ^t^ sog or 'ft^ sok are the 
large spaces in the netting along the frame of the bed. 



CHAPTER III.— THE WEIGHING-SCALES. 

640. The large fixed scales are vrw^ rdtal, local variants being 
xrg^ rdtul in Shahabad and xrrssf rdian in North-East Tirhut. In 
South Bhagalpur they are ^fzT kdnta, which elsewhere means the 
small scales. Another name in the same place is wii^^ar mankdnta. 
The small scales ai-e crrr^ tardju, local variants being tn?^l: tarjai 



124 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

in the north-west, W^'^ tarju in East Tirhut and South Munger, and 
i(X55j^T tarjua in South Bhagalpur. Other names are ssfzT kanta aud 
25^^ takaiiri in the west and Patna and Gaya, and '?ft«rr^ pariyani 
in Patna and Graya, which principally refer to goldsmith's scales. In 
South Bhagalpur fi^ tul is a weaver's scale for weighing thread 
or cotton. 

641. The pans of the scale are l^rnrr or (in Patna and Gaya) 
M^^T palra. In South Bhagalpur they are also called ^^H^ daini 
or V9'\ pulla. 

642. The strings of the scale are called ?r^ tanni (except in the 
east), a local variant being <rr^ tani in Gaya. In the east they are 
<wl«?i joii or (in South Munger) 3i"V?fT jota. In Patna optional names 
are wt^ dwi and ^"pn' badha. 

643. The weights are ■«(d«'§^ hatkhwra or ^t^ bat. The make- 
weight put into one scale to make the balance true is Tfl^r pasangha, 
local variants being (East Tirhut) ^v^ pasangh and (Patna, Gaya, and 
South Bhagalpur) 'j^^ pasanga. In Patna and Gaya and South 
Munger it is also called ^ttt dhdra. 

644. The beam of the scales is ^^ dandi. In the south-east 
the beam of a jeweller's scale is f*iid nitti or f«(tin nilcti. The indicator 
is "^x *"*• 

645. A false balance is ^cr newat or 4|<<««jt netota to the west 
and in Gaya. In East Tirhut it is %Tsr kwat, and in Ohamparan 
^^^<!T nawta. In South-West Shahabad it is ^g<r jiyat or ^\mjita, 
and BO also in Gaya and South Munger. In Patna and Gaya it is 
^^•(11 J/iukta, and in South Bhagalpur ^^'^joti. 



CHAPTER IV.— NETS. 

646. A small fisherman's net is srra Jal or ^T^ Jdli, and a 
^JTT'siTW mahdj'al is one of a larger size. North of the Ganges and in 
Shahabad a ffx:^ kurail is a net fixed in the water with six sticks and 
worked by one man. In South Bhagalpur it is ^^^ kharail. A similar 
net with three sticks is ft^T^ bisdri north of the Ghtnges and in South 
Munger ; also f^'?^ bisri in Ohamparan, and ft^TT bisdi- in ChampSraJi, 
Gaya, and South-East Tirhut. In North-East Tirhut, however, it is 
called i§T5^Tf^ khansdri, and in South Bhagalpur '^h^i chaundha. A 
casting-net is iS%^ phekail in Patna, Gaya, and Saran, %tf khep to the 
west, and-^^rvt Bn<? ghiimatta jdl in Tirhut and South Munger; also 



NETS. 125 

in North-East Tirhut ^ft^nr khapiydr. In South Bhagalpur it is 
■^^RT pheka. The iron or earthen sink-balls attached to it are ^fe^^ 
batiwan and ^z«^sr batwanio the west, and ^^ paunri in North- "West 
Tirhut. In South Bhagalpur they are vffz^T bhontiya. A net attached 
to two poles and worked by two fishermen is ^^ donri in Patna, Gaya, 
and the west, and ^^ donr in Ohamparan. Other fishing-nets are 
^•r^ ghanaili and Tracer pasra to the west, and f»n?fir^ girgira, a 
email variety, used in Gaya and the south-east. In the same district 
and in Ohamparan ^t^ oka is a bag dragged through the water for 
catching fish. In Ohamparan and North-Bast Tirhut ^t^ tapi, in 
Shahabad STT tap, and in South Bhagalpur '^V^ arsi, is a kind of 
bamboo fish-net, and Jifsf gdnj or wt^ gdnji is a horn-shaped basket 
for catching fish. The man who works the last is called sisnTTV 
gajwdh. In this connection may be mentioned a fish-trap used in 
Gaya called f%^P^ chilaund (see, however, § 605). Fish caught in this 
are kept in a pit, called ^rnrr dpa. A kind of pit used for catching 
fish is called in Gaya ^fX'wr pharka. A net for catching birds is 
^^ ghani north of the Gunges ; also ^bti phdn or ^T^ phdni in 
Ohamparan and Tirhut, and tET^ phdnda in Shahabad. South of the 
Ganges the ^fa^Tft batiydri is a net used in the daytime, and "^niT 
chdtar one used at night for catching birds. 

647. North of the Ganges the ^fit^yAoto or ^Bt^yAo/» is a net 
used by cartmen for feediug bullocks. To the west it is vfK^ jhori, 
and elsewhere south of the Ganges er^.yaife. '^tr^jdla is a net for 
carrying grass. A local variant is '^wx jalla in Saran and South 
Hunger. In South Bhagalpur it is '^ITT kapai. 

648. To the west (including Patna and Gaya), and in Tirhut, 
fij>*.v4^ sihhar is a net for hanging up pots, &c., in a house. Other 
names are vT*! sinka (Patna and Gaya), TjNrT ^lia (Saran, Ohamparan, 
and the east generally), and 'ft^ sik also in North-West and South- 
Bast Tirhut. ^loTl khdnji in North-East Tirhut is a net for holding 
fruit. 

649. The stick or rope for hanging up clothes is *i«.<)^ argent in 
Saran, Ohamparan, Patna, and North-East Tirhut, ^^wr^ argani in 
Shahabad and Tirhut, ^st^t^ asgani in Tirhut (optionally), Shahabad, 
Patna, and Gaya, and tit5?\ regni in Shahabad. Other names are 
^Jiv^T tangna in Patna, Gaya, and South Munger, ^i[r^ tangni 
or ^T^ dauni in Patna and South Bhagalpur, and fsj^TTT jiyata in 



126 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

Shahabad. A frame used for the same purpose is 33ift thatri to the 
west and WflyCf chhatri in North-West Tirhut. 

650. A cord net for carrying goods on the head is wi^jm^JalMaii 
in West Tirhut and to the north-west, and siT^ Jdli in Shahahad, 
South Hunger, and Tii-hut. In the south-east it is «IWT jalla. 

651. The net used by bearers with the sling pole (^'f sift bahangi or, 
in North- East Tirhut, ^^f%^U bahinga) is generally fij<»«-^< sikhar, but 
^^ slita in the south-east, f%^si7<:A'fl! in Gaya, and ^t^sii (optionally) 
in North- West and South-East Tirhut. 



CHAPTER V .—THE PAD USED FOR SUPPORTING WATER-POTS 
&c., ON A WOMAN'S HEAD. 

652. This is 1%rr bittha, ^3T bltha, or ^N^ bitho to the west 
and iu West Tirhut. In Patna, Gaya, and the south-east it is ^sY 
netho or ^f^T nethua. Another name is 'JT^^rr genrua to the west 
and in Gaya and South Hunger, ^^^ genruli in Patna and Gaya, and 
Jl^Tfl' genruri in Tirhut. Another name (only noted north of the 
Ganges) is ff f^«<| binriya in Champaran, ft^r^ binrri (a small kind) 
in Saran, ^f^ buiro in Bast Tirhut, and f^'^'STT binrua in Tirhut 
generally ; yet another name is srj^ lajuri in South-West Shahabad. 



CHAPTER VI.— THE STICK. 

653. The ordinary long stick is ^T3^ lathi (also ^3 lath in Patna). 
Other names are ^TK. Vawr (north of the Ganges) or <!iw<: laur 
to the west, and ^^cv^ satJca north of the Ganges, The butt end of 
this is fTT hura north of the Ganges and in Patna, sv«<;r hurra in 
Shahabad and the south-east, «wt huttha m. Gaya, and ^^ goa 
in South Hunger optionally. 

654. ^fzT sonta or ^3T sota is a stout short stick. It is also 
called ^HJT dantd, and in Champaran ^^*T datauka. A thin stick is 
W^ chhari, and to the west, including Patna and Gaya, ?Vt5?l^ goji. 
Other names are Wt^t chhakan in Champaran and North- West Tirhut 
and »*■••?! chhakni in South Bhagalpur. A thick walking-stick is 
ersT dang, and also, to the west, ^rt^t labda, and a similar one used 
principally by old or lame men, is ^^fs?!' thevghuni. This last is also 
called i^^ft thegunri in Champaran and West Tirhut, btt theng or 
'vT^ thengimi m Shahabad, sjo-dj^m thenga in the south-west of the 



BOXES. 127 

same district, In South Bhagalpur it is b'U^ ihengiii, and elsewhere 
a'^ft' thengi. ^M\^ hesakhi is a crutch. In Shahabad M<!*<tiH patkan 
is a walking-stick. A piece of split bamboo used as a stick is t5?t 
phattha, vg^ phatlhi, or nx^iJ^ pharathi. It is also called ^vtbtT 
hamphatta or *i<j.^h3T bansphenta in Fatna and Gaya, and n^ hatti in 
the south-east. A heavy stick is ^f?r hong, or to the north-west ^«it 
^fiT bajar bong. 

655. The following Hindi lines in praise of the stick are very 
popular in Shahabad, a district famous for its club-men : — 

«r^ ^r^T^ ^Tf? ^fixrz F^ ^ 'TTK i 

Ldthi aisi chlj hai sada raihiye sang, 

Nadi ndr agah jal tahdn hachdo ang. 

Tahan bachdo ang jhapat kutto ho mar, 

Durjan ddwdgir us ko masak jhdr. 

Kah Girdhar kabi rdy Ukh bhejiye pdii, 

SJamar liye tartcdr, hdth men liye ldthi. 
A stick is the kind of thing you should always have with you : 
If the water in a river is too deep, you can save yourself by it. 
You can also at once save yourself by hitting dogs with it. 
And if you meet a wicked enemy you can dust {lit. tram.) his head 

■with it. 
Saith Grirdhar, the prince of poets, write a letter 
Telling him to wear a sword in his belt, but to carry a club in his 
hand. 



CHAPTER VII.— BOXES. 

656. North of the Ganges ^^w sanukh or (in Saran and South 
Munger) ^^^ sandukh is an ordinary box. South of the Ganges 
it is ^^^ sanduk, and in Patna and Shahabad g^OT sanuk. A small 
box is '*«i««rii kantor or 11*^ bdkas (box). South of the Ganges 
it is ^^^[^^ sandukchi or ^d**^ sanukchi, the latter chiefly in 
Shahabad and the extreme east, -^^rr pauta ox -^^ pauti, oi (in South 



128 BIHAR PEASANT MFE. 

Bhagalpur) ^f«^' pmiiti, is a little box made of tamboo slips, and 
»ftTr mona fChamparan) or ^iSft maunni are similar ones made of 
straw or of bamboo slips. 

657. T^TfT petdrha or ■qer^ petdrhi, and also south, of the 
Ganges ^aki petara or ^^T^petari, is a light travelling box or basket 
for clothes, &o., carried by a man on a sling bamboo, as in the proverb 
«n^i^ XT^ ^ ■^'snT vr^ thakal harad km petdr bhdri,—ioT a tired 
bullock even a basket is too heavy. Other names are ^ol^l sakhdri iu 
South-East Tirhut and m^ jhampi south of the Ganges and in 
Champaran. The sling bamboo is called ^j^ bahangi, or in North- 
East Tirhut ^ft^iT bahinga ; also s?;^ suila in Champaran and 
North-West Tirhut, and ftra^<rt sikpatdi in East Tirhut. 

658. The f ^fi ^T dibiya is a small box for 'jewelry or other 
valuables. In Patna and Gaya it is f^^^ dibba, and in Saran also ^Kt 
diba. 

659. The ^T^ chtinavti is a box for carrying the lime ( ^71 
chUn or ^^T chunna) used with betel. In Champaran and North-West 
Tirhut it is called '5«r»^T chunha. 

660. The box in two parts for holding betel, &o., is <j^.«(8T pan- 
battaar^'^'%'^Kjbelahra. Local names are 'T'lT^ /""»"«'» (Shahabad), 
•q «l-'f ^ panbatti (Champaran and South-East Tirhut), ^^sl-^*^ belahri 
(Patna and Gaya), and f^«^TT birhara (Champaran and Bast Tirhut). 

661. The box in which the <4i <*•<£•) abtan, or cosmetic which is 
rubbed on the bride at a wedding, is kept is ■ttl^Tl doki in Shah- 
abad, and ^M^T sogila or ^^^T'fJi^ sansogila in the south-east. 
Elsewhere it is ^rrar mala, &c. See below. 

662. The box used by women for carrying red lead is fl^IxT 
sindhora when large, and ^eWr kiya when small. The box in which 
they carry the vermilion which they put on the parting of their hair 
is TTi^^^ ihgrauti or fti«)T^ kiyauri. It is also ffnt^ hingori in 
North-East Tirhut and iJM«^ sapri in South-East Tirhut. 

663. A. *n^T mala, Mig,'A\ maltca, or »r%«lT maliya is a box for 
holding oil. It is also called fl'sav^ malsi in North-East Tirhut, 
■ff^n^'BT telhanda in Patna aijd Gaya, and "ff^^^f^ lelbhdnra in 
Shahabad. 



VESSELS USED IN COOKING AND DOMESTIC PURPOSES, 129 

CHAPTER VIII.— METAL VESSELS USED IN COOKING AND 
ORDINARY DOMESTIC PURPOSES. 

664. The vessels ordinarily used by Hindus are as follow : — 

tre^^T tasla or t<ij«<^^ T tasJawa, made of brass (T^"tjx pitar), a 
round vessel used for boiling rice. About two sers of rice can be 
cooked in it.* 

665. ' «(< | .<^ tasU, a similar vessel of smaller size. In Shahabad 
it is called tH^^'l tauli. 

666. ^^^T bafua or ^? batfu, a vessel made of alloy (t^ phul, 
EjTfl^s kaskut, or (Graya) «f^«r hharith). This is used for. cooking rice, 
and about a ser of rice can be cooked in it. . It is comparatively 
higher and narrower than the crgv^r tasla. 

667. <ki"i\ ' ^ batlohi or (north of the Granges) ^^ hatuli, a 
smaller similar vessel, used for cooking pulse or meat. 

668. ^fir^ patili of copper («nVr tamba) or aUoy. It has a 
narrow flat mouth, and is used for boiling meat. 

669. ^"^ handa, ^f?T Mnrha (Patna and the south-east), ^K'^'st 
kharhhanda (Gaya), or ^aNr^t'^^rr khankhrahra (Champaran and North 
Tirhut) , is a very large copper vessel for boiling rice. When used by 
mendicants {T^;^(Kpha]clr) it is called by them i^-wutokna. 

670. m^ tami or <ifiraT tamiya is south of the Granges a large 
brass vessel, broad at the bottom, for cooking pulse at marriages, &o. 

671. *t>^l ' ^ Tear ah. This (to the north-west and in Graya) is a 
large iron pan capable of boiling as much as twenty sera of rice. 

673. ^T^^TT barguna. This (ia North-West Bihar) is a small 
brass vessel with an erect rim for boiling rice, pulse, &e. 

673. tt< i -^ kardhi or ^fr^ karahi, and to the east and in 
Champaran «tf^^ lohiya, an iron or brass broad shallow pan with 
handles (SiTT or ^■Slkara), generally used for cooking vegetables. 

* About this vessel there is a story. Once upon a time all the people of 
Bhoipur, ia Shaliabad, were robbers. WJieu a traveller passed througb one of 
these villages, they used to seize his cooking-pot, saying "gg'^T ^x: «st 'tVi: 
tasla tor M mor," — " Is the pot mine or yours ?" If the traveller replied " jfbc 
mor," " mine," they would set upon him and beat him and rob him of the vessel 
by force. If he said "gVr tor," "yours," they used, on his o^n admission, 
to take it from him and let him go peaceably. Thus, in any way, they plundered 
him. Hence the saying d-y-^lT 'gtT ^ ^»: tasla tor ki mor has passed into a 
proverb, of which the application is easy to see. 

17 



130 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE, 

674. ? '^«g ^T hahguna, an iron or brass cooking-pot with straight 
edges and a handle. 

675. d^.^'ft tamheri, a round copper vessel. 

676. inrr tawa, in^rr tdtca, or (Patna and Gaja) tttT iai, an iron 
griddle plate. 

677. ■^zXxxhatora to the south and north-east, cfcvn<T leachora 
in Saran and Champaran, '^^T duhhha in Saran and Champaran, 
^T?t hati in Tirhut, and ^f%^i^ menhibati in South-East Tirhut, 
is a vessel used for eating from, with a projection at the bottom on 
which it stands. 

678. The Tt^j.d^ tasfari (north of the G-anges and in Graya, 
Patna, and South Munger), fw3^ chhipuli to the east and in Patna, 
sjl^T jam in Patna, Gaya, and the south-east, and ?rei»i'n kastari 
in Shahabad, is like the '*ztKT katora, except that it is flat-bottomed, 
and has no stand. 

679. In the south-east the »5^t^>t jharka is a deep pan for eating ; 
the?f^T ig;^ kanehan puri, a. ^ailow one ; and the ^»i«K^ a^raiY, one 
with the edges straight and short. 

680. The srr^ thari or ^ft^iT thariya, also i^T chhipa, and (in 
Patna and Q^ya) ^al^ khori, is a flat pan from which food is eaten. 
The «€fiT«lT «rT^ malangiya thdri has straight sides, and the fiv oii g? ) 
mirjapuri has curved ones. 

681. -fKVH par at, a large flat pan like the «rrft thdri, except 
that its sides curve gradually up to the top. 

682. afa'f thdnthi or zf^ tdnthi is a dish like the ^r^ thdri but 
made of bell-metal (^f<iT kdnsa). 

683. 's^ dabhu, a brass or iron spoon, of which the bowl is deep 
and broad, principally used at marriages. 

684. 'n'8«^<a hakhhul or ^^.^rji karchhul is a spoon, ^^i^ 
kakhha in South-West Shahabad means an iron spoon, and ^^i^ 
kalchhi in Saran, Patna, and Gfaya a brass or iron one. 

685. North of the Ganges and in Shahabad ^iiW chhanauta 
or -if^x^j jharna, and in Patna, Gaya, and the south w^hi^t jhanjhra, 
is a cullender or iron sieve with a handle. In North- West Tirhut 
it is also called ^^T«l samuta, and in North-East Tirhut Ma^jhdnjh. 

686. w pauna or (South-East Tirhut) ^U^x pmniya is an 
iron cullender or straining-ladle. 



VESSELS USED IN COOKING AND DOMESTIC PtmPOSES. 131 

687. The ^t«T Ma is used fox drawing water and drinking. 

688. The »i^^ gerua or -^w^^r hathhar north of the Ganges, 
Patna, Glaya, and Shahabad, also ^^.^ soharna in North-East Tirhut, 
and wr^ jhari in Champaran, Patna, Graya, and to the south-east, is 
a kind of Ma with a spout (^f^ tonti). It is generally made of a 
white alloy (^^^ phul). The ^rr^^ fV^ madhab singhi (North-East 
Tirhut) is a kind of drinking-vessel invented by Madhab Singh, a 
former Maharaj of Durbhanga. It is shaped like a globe surmounted 
by a funnel. The globe has a spout, and the whole stands on a 
pedestaL 

689. dti'^l tamha north of the Ganges, and *iiT'^ jhdri south 
of it, is a similar vessel made of red alloy (*<j.3i<4 kaskut). Both 
the last two are used for drinking. 

690. ^ "I '^ aT t i i ahkhora or ^»ri^^ amkhora is a drinking-vessel, 
the sides of which are broader towards the mouth, and it is provided 
with a stand (jfl^iT goriya) at the bottom. It is also called ^YtT khora. 
In Gaya'^^T duhhha is a large cup, and in South Bhagalpux ^ts^ 
MM. 

691. fil^TT^ gilas (glass), similar to the last except that the sides 
are straight or only slightly curved. It sometimes has no stand, 
and is flat-bottomed. It is, in fact, modelled closely on the lines of 
a European peg-tumbler, but is of inetal. 

692. ^TT batta (Patna, Gaya, and North-Bast Tirhut), a kind of 
large metal cup. ^T^ bati is a small one. 

693. irit^TT gagra, or (in Champaran and Tirhut) «nrrw^ tamghail 
or cUT^^T tamghaila, (in Gaya) X^^ basni, and (in Champaran, 
Patna, and to the south-east) ^f^^ft kalsi, — a copper or brass vessel 
used for drawing water from a well. 

694. 'sY^ dol or ^ kunr, an iron vessel for drawing water from 
a well. 

695. 'i i T'^'^l lonhra or ^f^r^^ hnhrij a small iron pan. In 
the south-west also used for drawing water from a well, like s^ dol. 
North of the Ganges it is also called ^>i^T Miii/a. 

696. wff chhonrh or v^4iT matuka, a copper or brass vessel for 
storing water in. 

697. The ^TT^ surdhi or €1<l^ sorahi is used for keeping 
water, ^■^^^jahihari (North-East Tirhut) is a water-pot. 



132 BlHiE PEASANT LIFE. 

698. ijTB^WT^T aphtdba or '<tmi*diN1 ajphtaya, a water-ewer used 
for washing. 

699. f^f^«i-<|i chilimchi north of the Ganges, fVrf^^^^ cUliphchi 
in North- West Tirhut, fcrairH^ chilamchi south of the Ganges, and 
fij<smi--«n silaphchi amongst Muhammadans, used for washing. 

700. ^i.'Ml^ sarpos, tb4i««it dhakna, or «q><iT dhapna, a cover for 
other vessels. 

701. «n>i*(T maliya or (Gaya) »?f?f^T malhiya, a smallcup for 
holding oil. Sometimes it is made of wood. 

702. ^N^ diyat or ^N^ dlicat or f^*.<^H chiraMdn (north of 
the Ganges), ^«-«*TT haradwan (Gaya), and f^cr»l»<^ chirdgdan (Shah- 
ahad and South Munger), is a lamp-stand. In North-East Tirhut 
it is ^^& diathi, and in South Bhagalpur fXM«<T dipra or ftfT^^^i 
dipahra. 

703- f^»l-il cJiimta or ft^dl siuntha, also ^zr chunta, a pair of 
small tongs used for arranging the fire or turning over cakes on the 
griddle. 

704. ^f •g'^ sanrsi, or (to the east) ^r^^^ bawK, or in South-East 
Tirhut «iyt^ buguU, tongs used for removing the pot (^^^ bafuli, 
&e.), from the fire. 

705. ^ 1<-«ll khorna or 'al<.^ khorni, also VXTK^sarai (North- 
West Tirhut), "<ia«*«! utkah (Patna, Gaya, and South Munger), H'^'ix 
ektha (C)hamparan\ and ^ M«i lopan (East Tirhut), is an iron or 
wooden poter. f«j"<«<(><. pihkar (Shahahad) is a wooden poker. 

706. x^rpf foj*sir imdmjista or (to the south-west) XT^«r ^^n 
hawan dastu, or (South-West Shahahad) fsr*r:^^rr nimdasta, or (South 
Bhagalpur) ^;m^ r<<sil Mmdm dista, — a pestle and mortar for grinding 
spices, &o. 

707. f4*«<W piikddn or fwv»<|.r i pikddni, also to the west and 
south ^a^^'^Tf ugalddn, -(in Patna and Gaya) optionally ^X?fiT5^ 
chirmichchi, and (in South Bhagalpur) fiK4|»<,|«i pirigddn, a spittoon. 
To the east and in Patna it is also f<rf<*«<.M pirikddn. 

708. n«i»<T*i panddn or ''{^r^^tx panbatta, — for keeping betel. 

709. %Tr lewa, or in Patna and Shahahad %^^ lewan, and ia the 
south-west of the district %^ &o, is ashes plastered on the cooking- 
pot to save it from fire. 



VESSELS USED IN COOKINa AND DOMESTIC TURPOSES. 133 

710. The handful of straw, &c., used for cleaning metal vessels 
is ^T lunra or g'irr lunda. In South-East Tirhut it is optionally ^^ 
nunra. In South Bhagalpur it is TfV nuro, and in South Hunger 
■^f'orr nunda. 

711. Musalmans generally use the following vessels :— 
Tj-fHtjiT pallia, a large copper vessel for cooking rice. 

mf l i^ patili, %.^^^ degchi, or ■®'*i'^ degcM, a similar vessel 
smaller in size. 

^ deg or "^n deg, a somewhat larger pot for boiling. 

3rq«n badhna, the same as the Hindu r^ei lola, but with a 
spout. 

^^jT^ bad/mi, a similar vessel of smaller size. 

■ €fc^ | <.l /catora, similar to the Hindu vessel, but made of copper. 

f'njT^ piydli, a cup. 

ff^T^ piyala, similar to the last, but larger. 

fK*I^ rikdbi, a saucer. 

d«ll* iabak, Tm'VJ jihbJia in Champaran, or fmvs tabakh south of 
the Ganges, a broad flat washing-vessel. 

f^^'^ST chimta, &c., the same as used by Hindus. 

WX«<fi^ sarpos, i'\,"\\ dhakna, or sr'T^Tr dhapna, cover for other 
vessels. 

F^ntm^j^ chilimchi, &c., the same as for Hindus. 

•^ M i'H M I aphtdba, the same as for Hindus. 

?re«j- tamt or (when smaller) ny-dCt' tastari, a broad flat dish. 

%T^ seni or (in South-East Tirhut) ^T sain, a broad shallow 
tray. 

^lil'XT gagra, &c., as for Hindus. 

«jil^ lagan, a large vessel for storing water. 

ifiXT'^ kardhi, &e., the same as for Hindus. 

■»fiXi«n' jhania, ^«IT^ chhanauta, &c., as for Hindus. 

'V^'i'^Xi panbatta, &o., as for Hindus. The s^sp^'pr husunddn or 
(Gaya) grfiT kutta or fiTft kutti is similar, and contains additional 
compartments for lime. 

'are^'R khdsddn, for keeping pan or betel, with a cover, 



134 BIHAR TFASANT LIFE. 

The f^^T=rft- khilbatti is used for keeping ready rolled up betel 
leaves, with the nut and lime inside ready for use (fe^ khilli). 
f^l^f^^TT pikdan, &o., as for Hindus. 
^1X1^ sorahi, &c., as for Hindus. 

Lamp-stands, viz., 'BcfNr 'fl'si lyhntil soj, and in Saran also tt^^ ^"Yar 
patil soj, of brass ; f^^tr^l'^H chirdgdan, of wood ; ^X^ dlwut, &c. 
(see Hindu articles) of iron ; and «r^-TPr hadwdn, of bamboo slips. 

TTRT tdwa, &c., as for Hindus. 

^W 'T«TT^ dastpanah or -^ ^nrr das 2mna, tongs. 

f€'5i^^ sinkhcha or ^'ir slkh ; also north of the Granges ij^i 
gaj, a spit. 

^^ dahbu, as amongst Hindus. 



CHAPTER IX. -EARTHEN VESSELS. 

712. The number of these is very large, and varies in each 
district. The following list does not profess to be exhaustive. It is in 
alphabetical order. 

713. When a new earthen vessel is taken into use, it must first 
be used by a member of the family and not by one of the servants of 
the house ; otherwise it is considered impure. This is considered as a 
dedication of the article to family use. To dedicate an article thus is 
^■^rM=( urdhab, or in South Bhagalpur ^<3Ti)«( urlideb, and in Saran 
^f T^t^ uraol or ^Tre^ anicdsal. 

^■^^T arhaiya, a vessel containing two and a half sers. In North- 
East Tirhut it is made of brass. 

■^sinj athra, a pan for making dough. •^«it^ athri is a smaller 
one used (in Graya) for holding water, washing clothes, and roasting 
poppy-flower cakes. 

^b|-*< adhkar (east), a vessel used in distilling. 

^^^^KT abkhora, a drinking- vessel. 

^f^l^r kantiya or ^ri^T katiya, a little vessel with a long neck. 
Cows are milked into it. 

^-n^ katti (Patna, Graya, and Saran), or w^ gatti (Shahabad), a 
round potsherd used by boys in playing. 
^TI'sV kapti, a bind of cup. 
^tt; karal (South Hunger), a water- vessel with a spout. 



EARTHEN VESSELS. J (3 135 

»K««il karna (Saran), an earthen vessel in which milk is boiled, 
also (North- West Tirhut) used for holding curds. 

^TLV^T /Jfl»*«ca (West Bihar and South Bhagalpur), a water- vessel 
with a sjiout. 

*<.f^*<r karahiya, for boiling milk = <t<.i-^ karahi. 

sfcO"^ karahi (north of Ganges) an earthen pan in which clari- 
fied butter (bi ghyu) is cooked or milk boiled. 

gi^^^ kaha, *<!i'<n kalsi = a ^^ ghaila, especially when orna- 
mented with lime and colours at weddings, &c. 

^^•rtKT kastara (south-east), a saucer for holding curds. 

q[^v?T^ kastari (south-east) = creTcf^ tastari, q.v. 

^^ kunr (west and Patna), a large vessel for holding grain and 
food. 

^^ kunra (north of Ganges), an earthen vessel in which sweet- 
meats or balls of rice mixed with sugar (<t«TV kasar) are given to 
daughters when going to their father-in-law's house. In South 
Bhagalpur it is fi'ST Mnda. 

^iff^T kurJiiya (South Bhagalpur), a small vessel for milk. 

^f^ kunda (Champaran, Shahabad, and South Bhagalpur), a large 
flat iar. See also '*Vr kunra, 

'^'^ koha ov^^;^ patuki, a, evcydUl round wide-mouthed vessel for 
curds, or for cooking. ^If^tJT kohiya (Gaya) is a smaller variety. 
^T^ Mapra, tiles. 

^T?T^, ITJT^ i/wpri, or (North-East Tirhut) wr^fk: khdpari, an 
earthen griddle for making bread or parching grain. When used 
for parching grain it is made by breaking off the top of a t^ yhatla, 
but that used as a griddle is specially made by the potter. In South 
Bhagalpur it is also called ^fe^T cliariya. 

'SH-vi-it khaprauri (Gayaand West Tirhut), a pot for removing the 
afterbirth, &e., when a child is bom. 

ir^T^ hhalchi (Shahabad), a little platter. 

^rrrf^ khdpari. See ^Tp;^ khapH. 

'sCRT khdwa (South Hunger), an^earthen cooking- vessel. 

^'^ khikhi (Tirhut), a vessel for holding oiL 

^?T khum (Patna), a large flat jar. 



136 - BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

irK Ichor, ^ilTT khora (Tirliut, Patna, and the soixth-east), a long 
round earthen vessel used by saltpetre-makers (sflfst^T noniya) for 
holding the mother' liquor ; also (to the east and in Graya) a large jar 
used for various purposes. 

l^T^ gtg^h a vessel used for drawing water. 

;n^ gatti,—Bee w^ katti. 

zi M't^[ gamla, a flower-pot. 

(} - ^.<jn gurki, a drinking-vessel, especially for drinking spirits. 

^^ ghara, — see ^^ ghaila. 

f^kM gharil, — see w^rr ghaila. 

vfjST ghariga (Shahahad), a drinking-vessel. 

•^sft ghuchcM (Saran), a little dish with a narrow neck. 

■^fx^ glmrili, a little vessel with a narrow neck. 

t^rr ghaila, ^^ ghaiK, VSt: ghara, or ^fi:^ gharil, a vessel for hold- 
ing or drawing water. (See «nj-«n iasni, 'ST'Tr ddba.) 

'wit chatti (Patna and Gaya), an earthen cooking-dish. 

^fe^r chariya, — see OT^ khapri. 

'%%'^j charua, ^^ charui (south of Ganges), a vessel for holding 
grain or for cooking = Q<i<^i cherua. 

f^^^ "^f^ chilcni hanri, a vessel for cooking vegetables, pulse, &c. 
After using it for several months it becomes polished and durable 
owing to the oil and butter cooked in it. 

f%TT^ cAM-a,4 (South Tirhut and the west), fV^nr chirdg, a lamp- 
saucer. 

fV^^ chilam, the bowl of a pipe. 

'^^•■s'l' chukri (south-east), a drinking-vessel. 

^^ chukni (Gaya), a small earthen jar. 

'^^Tj '^^^ chukkar, a vessel with straight sides and a very short 
neck, used for drinking, 

^^ chukka, a drinking-vessel. 

^^^fT clierua, "^^ cherui (north of the Ganges and east), an earthen 
cooking-dish or for holding grain = "^^^oi charua. 

■^T?i cAaMOT/)« (Patna and Gaya), an earthen vessel in which milk 
is boiled. 



EARTHEN VESSELS. "J ' 2 137 

^^rnr chhanan (Tirhut, Patna, and Gaya), a vessel with clotli at 
the top for straining toddy. 

Wl"? chhonrh (to the west), a large earthen jar. 

wff^ chhonrhi (north-west), a vessel for keeping water or grain. 

srraryafo, a water-Jar. 

*BS>fi^ jhajjhar, a croft for keeping water. 

n^'^Jhabhi, an earthen vessel into which cows are milked. 

^HT^Jhdri, a vessel with a long spout. 

2fx?rr iariya (Ohamparan and the east), a small oil-pot. 

3T^ tar, ZT^T idra (Gaya), an oil-pot. A smaller variety is ZT^ 
tari. 

^JIT tuniya, a drinking-vessel. 

3^f lAian, -^ turn (Patna and Gaya and South Munger), a 
drinking-vessel with a spout. 

i^KT tehra (Gaya and South Bhagalpur). a kind of pot for milk. 

zf fz^T tontiya, a tile used as a water-spout at the eave of a house. 

fH'fisjtjT thiliya, a vessel used for drawing water. 

vd«(»Ol dahri, — see 'fe^^ dibri. 

'STTT ddba, a vessel used for drawing; water smaller than a ^igT^ 
hasni and a 5^ ghaila. In South-Bast Tirhut, used for boiling 
milk. 

■^r^^ dibri, and also in Shahabad ^•(••Cl dabri, same as ^sfT^^ 
sanhak, but smaller. 

s^Tifj dhakna ov {e3&^ 'sj^S^ dhdicani, a cover for other vessels. 
3^T^ dhahii is a smaller one. 

fgTjT^T dhimka (South Bhagalpur), a saucer used as a_eovering 
for other vessels. 

ffTj^S^ tarJcatti, the vessel in which palm- juice ('frr^ tdri) is collect- 
ed at the foot of the tree. 

■t(^\■^ tabak (Patna and Gaya), a little platter (generally of iron). 

v nj »d< 1 tastari, a saucer used by Muhammadans. "When made of 
brass, also used by Hindus. Of. ^ir^^^ kastari. 

«TTT tdi (south of Ganges and Champaran), a griddle for making 
bread ; a kind of shallow pan, with an edge for lifting it up by. 
■^T^f ^ telhdnri,, i(^'%'^l lelhanda, a vessel for holding oil 

18 



138 BIHAE PEASANT LIFE. 

K^T«I telay, an eaxtlien vessel for cooking oil or clarified butter 'W 
{ghyu). 

ffjwx taula (north of Ganges, Gaya, and the south-east), a large 
earthen dish for cooking. 

^IT^ thapri (Patnaand East Tirhut), a vessel for measuring milk. 
«rra thai, a platter. 

^ «(•*•) dabkan (Gaya), a saucer used as a cover for other vessels. 
■^■^a dawat, an ink-stand. 

«j^^ dahenri or (Patna and Shahabad) ^^T^ dahri, for holding 
tyre (^"^^ dahi). 

f^^T^ diyari (north of the Ganges and south-west), f<tj|<^ diyari 
(North-East Tirhut), a very small lamp -saucer. 

f^^rt diuri or fi^^a*^ diuli, a very small lamp-saucer. 

^V dip, a lamp-saucer. 

^Nt dlya, a lamp-saucer. 

^t^ diri (south-east and Gaya), a very small lamp-saucer. 

%?r deg, a cauldron. 

•ffc^T nadiya, for keeping tyre ('^^ dahi). 

srxt?; nadoi (Gaya), an earthen cooking- vessel, 

srft^ nariya, a kind of tUe ( ^M-'dl khapra) . 

•rr^ ndd or (east) ^tx lad, a large earthen basin or bowl used as 
a feeding-trough and for other purposes. 

"^^(^patila (Saran, Patna, and South Hunger) or WNtt paiila 
(Saran and Gaya), an earthen cooking- vessel. 

■fg^ patuki (west), a small round ■wide-mouthed vessel for 
keeping tyre or for cooking. 

^•i«^"><l panchora (south of Ganges), a vessel used in distilling. 

■^TJWl parchha (West Tirhut), a large jar for water. 

qnTi'«»'ai! (South- West Shahabad), a saucer used as a cover for 
other vessels. 

■^T^:mpariya (Patna), a saucer used as a cover for other vessels. 
U^^lpitaua (Patna), a small earthen pan. 
f^T^ piyala, V^T^^jea/a, a drinking-cup. 



EARTHEN VESSELS. 7 ^ i 139 

/ 

■$^ phuchchi (Soutli-East Tirliut), a vessel for maasuriag milk. 

^^ phnri (South Bihar), a saucer used by Musalmans in feasts of 
the brotherhood. 

w^"rr hadhiia, a water-vessel with a spout. 
^^^ baruka (South Tirhut), a drinking-vessel. 
^y«<?l basni, a vessel for holding or drawing water, smaller than 
a ^^ ghaih, and larger than a ^t^ data. 

^■'"^••1* baJma (Patna and South Munger), a large flat jar. 

fir^rnc Uthar (Patna), a large dish. 

^«5:^rr bhabhka, a vessel used in distilling. 

*?^^iT bharuka or »t^^ bharuki, a drinking-vessel. 

*)ffT bhanra or iif^ bhdni; a vessel with a neck for milk or 
claiified butter (fT ghyu). 

^•*T bhurka, ^JT?^ bhurki (in Tirhut), a drinking-cup. 

■*vN'^^ blwjahri (south-east), an earthen dish used by Musal- 
mans at marriages. 

^i\»<j mangra, the tiles along the ridge of a roof. 

«j<i*<4il matka, and also (south of the Ganges and in Champaran) 
*l^^ matuha, an earthen vessel for holding water or grain. 

Hf^rr matuka = vz^^Cf maika, q.v. 

t? <«fl«tH martaban, m;(i<tH martawan (south of Granges), fiivrr^T'i 
mirtawdn ( north of Ganges), an earthen vessel with a wide mouth 
ornamented with lac ( ^"? Idh) . 

M^'<[ malwa (West Tirhut, Shahabad, and South Munger) or 
t} fa« ir nmliya (North-West, West Tirhut, Patna, and South Bhagalpur), 
a vessel for holding oil. It is equally often of wood or metal. 

ufz mant (Gaya), a large flat jar. 

fi K«d«< T «l mirtawdn = «<»d<^M martaiodn, q.v. 

ftrf^T mitiya or ^fs^IT metiya, a round vessel with a short neck 
for water. 

^felT metiya = filf^^ mitiya. 

%eT meta (South Bhagalpur and to the west) = ftift^T mitiya. 

%^ meli (South Bhagalpur), for holding tyre. 



140 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

*n^ maun, a vessel for holding date-juice. 

TWr^^^TT ramkarwa (South- East Tirhut and Champaran), a drink- 
ing-vessel. 

T%^ rahehi = ^^rnft rekdbi, q.v. 

\«i''5«Ri ramchukka (Patna and Graya), a drinking- vessel. 

<MM rais (East Tirhut), a little vessel with a narrow neck, used 
for holding milk and similar purposes. 

f<«til<fl rikabi, a saucer. 

ft%^ rikehi = T^rr^ rekabi, q v. 

T^TT^ rekdbi or (Patna and Shahahad) K%^ rakebi, or (south- 
east) T<%^ rikebi, a saucer. 

^fsFTT lahna (Patna and Champaran), a water-pot in th^j shape of 
an ellipsoid. 

^•(••Tt Mini, the vessel in the shape of an ellipsoid, in which 
palm- juice f^rx^ tari) is collected from the trees. 

^TX lad = «iT^ nod, q.v. 

^ijT^ sanki (South Bhagalpur and Graya), a saucer used by 
Musalmans. 

^ «|.-^«» sanhak, ^•i'-^*t sinhaki, a broad flat dish used by 
Musalmans for eating boiled rice. 

H K. '^ sarbi (South Bhagalpur), a cup for distributing pulse, &o., 
from the cooking-pot. Used at marriages. 

^^.f^ surahi, — see ^vi-?^ sordid. 

-§T5T^ sephdli (Patna, Gaya, and Shahabadl , a flat earthen dish. 

^XT?T serha, a vessel for drinking spirits. 

^flll-^ sordhi (north of Ganges) or 'SKT^ surahi (south of 

it), a -water- vessel with a long narrow neck. 

^f^^ hanriya, diminutive of "^r^ hdnri, q.v. 

' ^xfltjii hanrola, diminutive of ^tf^ hdnri, q.v. 

^Tprr hatlMuna, a vessel for collecting date-juice, larger than 
a ^i^Tsff lahni, used when the juice (cji^ tari) flows freely. 

H\^ haiiri OT ^ff^T hanriya (small) or ^^^ hanrola (small), 
a vessel for cooking or holding milk, tyre, §-0. 



LEATHEK VESSELS. 141 

CHAPTER X.— WOODEN VESSELS. 

714. Tlie ^3T»r hathaut or ^aT»ft Jcathauti is a large wooden disk 
for kneading flour. It is also called ^frar^ Icathra south of the 
Ganges and to the west, «T^T'f't' tagdri in Tirhut and Champaran. 
^»I«<r dagra in Champaran and Gaya is a large flat dish made 
of wood. The ^^^ uldi in" the west, ^^^ kathtiK in Shahahad 
and South-East Tirhut, ^aY'dl katholi in North-Bast and South- 
West Tirhut, and ^3^^ kathli or ^ff^T arhiya in Shahabad, is a small 
wooden dish for scraps. In Patna, Gaya, and the south-east it is 
TOT paila. 

715. The 5R^^^^ kasJcaul (Patna), fWT kista (Gaya and the 
south-east), and ^r^^ kamwandal (generally), is a wooden cup 
earned by mendicants. In the north-west sftx^ nariyari is an 
oval one. WflT tunia, g^T tumma, or g^^T tumba, is the mendicant's 
gourd. 

716. ^^^ sewti or^ (North-Bast Tirhut) ^T^ sauthi is a wooden 
platter used by sailors. 

717. ^^^ dokni (Saran and Champaran) and «*'-.fi dhakna 
(North Tirhut) are small wooden dishes. 

718. The ^t% ddi or (south of the Ganges) <i f ^ T doa, or (South- 
West Shahabad) ^=^ doki or (south-east) ^Va^T doixd, is a wooden 
ladle used by Muhammadans in cooking pulse. The corresponding 
word amongst Hindus is, in North-East Tirhut, ^if^ dabi, and in 
Champaran ^fr^r ddba. ■star^ ghatna in Gaya is a machine for stirring 
pottage as it is being cooked. 



CHAPTER XL-LEATHER VESSELS. 

719. South of the Ganges the M^i;^-^i malwa is used for holding 
oil. In Champaran it is ti%^t maliya. ^j^T kuppa or fwf kuppi 
is for holding oil or clarified butter i^ ghyu). -sf-^T. nadoi is used 
in Gaya for the same purpose. In North-East Tirhut ^t^^^ dJiokra 
is a sack used for the same piirpose, as in the proverb TS5 ^s 
>fhs^ 5"^ ajT^ yuvak chot dhokren punu jan, — it's only the vessel 
that knows the pain (or weight) of the molasses, i.e., only he who 
suffers, knows the pain. ^v?r gelha is a similar smaller vessel. 



142 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



JNfT gelha or (in South-East Tirhut) ^^ri^ chamri is also a vessel for 
carrying molasses. 

720. *Vs mot or ^^ moti is the large leather bucket for drawing 
water from a well. '^W dol is the smaller one. *r^^ masak is the leather 
water-skin borne by water-carriers. ^^ fnm dasti Jcujjpa is the small 
leather bag used by torch-bearers (^t^t^^^ masdlchi) for carrying oil. 



CHArTER XII.— LEAF-PLATTERS. 

721. The ^^ dona is a small round leaf-platter. In Patna, 
Graya, and the north-west it is also called 'a^ khona, and in Shahabad 
^■^tsTT khadona. The 1"*}^ pattal is a broader and flatter kind, and 
is also used as a kind of basket at Hindu marriages when a number 
of guests are to be fed. It is also called TiT's'^l' paM in Shahabad, 
^^1 patta in South Bhagalpur, and 1H'<.V^ patrauri or »<«)««i<r 
panmdra in Chainparan and North- West Tirhut. 



CHAPTER XIIL-STAjSTDS FOR VESSELS. 

722. These are made of mud or brick, and known as ft^ifge't 
ghirsirhi in the north-west, east, and Patna, f^f%^ ghkiri in Saran, 
f^'if^'H' ghirsindi in Patna and Gaya, ft)<»r*j<. ghirsir in Patna and 
Shahabad, and fV^?g^ ghirsandi in South Munger. Other names are 
^^•9T^ ghailsdri in South-East Tirhut, vi<si.yi<'l ghahari in South 
Bhagalpur, W-ji'Stj^ ghalfhari in North-West Tirhut, b^=^ gharaunchi 
(South- West Shahabad), and '^'^Ki cJiautra or '^^ ota (Champaran). 



SUBDIVISION III. 
CLOTHES AND ORNAMENTS, &c. 



CHAPTER I.— CLOTHES. 



723. The general terms are ^hjt^ kapra, '^ chlr, and ^l[^ luga. 
The last has local variants, stjit niiga (South-East Tirhut) and ^piT 
lugija,-^;^! nunga, OT ^T «««?a south of the Ganges. Other names, 
current principally to the west, are q-^-VHI pahrdwa, ^^x bastar, or 




f-( M 5^ ■# 



CLOTHES. 143 

^fq^fT ^TWT kapra latta. A suit of clotlies is called ^TTl' ^ W^r 
pdnc/w tuk kapra, and consists of a turban, loin-cloth, jacket, sheet, 
and bathing-cloth. 

724. Amongst men's clothes are — 

The turban. — tt^ pag, <ff»nrr pagiya, 'm\'^ or 'nri^ pagri is a 
piece of cloth woven for the purpose. The inner portion of the 
made-up turban (^ti % <jjf^ but te pagri) worn by the more respectable 
people is called 'm^ p/ienta. ^^ht muretha is a piece of ordinary cloth, 
or even a garment, such as the ^i^n^^T gamchha, ^^ chaddar, or <fVT5T 
dopaita, worn round the head, -j^^l chira is a checked turban. A 
piece of cloth wound under the chin and over the head is 5T3T dhdtha ; 
also ^^pft galaudhi in Patna and East Tirhut, Ti^vji^WT galmochha in 
Tirhut and to the east and (optionally) south of the Ganges, and 
Jl^rf^sT galjin in North-West Tirhut and Gaya. 

725. The cap is z^^ topi or rrnft taUi. The round cap covering 
the ears worn by Brahmans is ■g'^r muuda in Saran and North Tirhut, 
^r^t^T^ kaslwdl in South Tirhut, «rraT taj in North-East Tirhut, Patna, 
and the west, and ^^^^ babhnait in Shahabad and South- East Tirhut. 
■^'t^f%'6?T dopaliya is a long cap made of two pieces, and the ^X'^fw^T 
charjMliya or ^ifffsrm chaugoshiya is round and made of four pieces. 
The cjvwi.itv kantop, w^'^w^rx hanjhappd (both of these also to the west 
and in Patna), and ^T«l«<.r< zt<^ handar topi (all north of the Ganges), 
is a piece of cloth worn loose over the head. South of the Ganges 
it is ff?^ hulhi or ^-st'Hi-oJt kanjhappo (Patna and South Munger), 
grif^Mi'q^ Aaw/^api'J (Gaya), and ^rsTT'fflTiT kanjhopa (South Bhagalpur). 
grf%^ kulhiya in Gaya is a boy's cap. ■gf^j gliongha in Gaya is a 
wide umbrella-shaped hat of tdl leaves, worn in rainy weather. 

726. The loin-cloth.— This is -sftift dhoti. North of the Ganges 
and in Shahabad it is also called *^<,-<T<fl marddni, and in Shahabad, 
Patna, and Gaya ^^ lungi. The small loin-cloth is ^^rtsT langota or 
^jft^ langoti ; also in Patna «^« langot. Other names are ^Yfrsi 
kopin, in Ohamparan ««ri<rit kopln, and in the south-east 'Sfiytz nangot or 
^flTJftsT nangota. ^nirr kappa (east) is a small cloth worn round the 
waist by the poor. The Wittt bhagica, or in Saran vitk. bhagal and 
North-East Tirhut ■^PcTT dhariya, is a small dhoti principally* worn by 



* It is not always worn by boys. Compare the proverb =qVT5R ifrJn"eiT ^rft 
cliorah hhagwa ddhl, — biirn a thief's loin-cloth, i.e., disgrace Mm as much as 
possible. 



144 B1HA.B PEASANT LTFE. 

boys. The f^^^^ bisii, or in Gaya f^^ bichhuti, is the scrap worn by 
poor boys. The small tight cloth worn by wrestlers, and also the 
usual cloth tightened up to allow of free play of the limbs in violent 
exercise, is ^twt kaehha or ^^T kachchha. Other names are '^^-^^ 
charna (Champaran, Patna, Gaya, and the east), f^^ chit (Patna), 
^wi^ samali (Gaya and the south-west), w;-** or wsT^fw bharlcachh* 
(North-East Tirhut), and fl-s-sRT^ bharkachh (South-East Tirhut). 
yiy,TV^ tahmad, or in Shahabad w?T^^ tahband, and in Champaran K^ 
tahi, is a loin-oloth worn by Musalman mendicants (fakirs). The 
tag of the loin-cloth tucked in behind is Tv^J pichhua or ^f^T 
pachhua to the west. To the east it is ^^.T dhenka or '^^T dhenkua. 
The loose end which hangs down in front is -^ kJmnt, ^"^ sanchi (North 
Tirhut), and ^^ J5j«c^c/«A (South-East Tirhut). In South Bhagalpur 
it is ^f^ konchi. The knot in the loin-cloth for holding money, &c., is 
ViT^ phanr, x^-my phanra, ot ■^'mi phanrfa. They are also called V^ 
client OT^'z tent towards the west, a.nd'M'^ peiich in North- West Tirhut. 
Other local names are -^fffT /larira (North-East Tirhut), il'^-^l 
airha or ^ft murhi (both South-East Tirhut). 

727. The drawers. — These are TTsiTTrr paijama, also south of the 
Ganges -^JK ijar and f%^.*"tt khiskat (apparently a corruption of the 
Persian <~i^^ khishtak). In South Bhagalpur they are also called r|«H 
tamdn, and in North-West Tirhut ^^•^TW surtoal (a corruption of the 
Persian jljl* s/«?/(cdr). According to the Kanuni Islam, the ijdr and 
surwal are not so wide as the paijama. Tight drawers are ^f^<.TT 
churiddr, also ^^ ehust to the west and in South Bhagalpur. If loose 
at the ankles, they are w'l'^f^^lT mohridar ; also ^i^^^K khaltedar in 
Patna and to the west, ^x:-<*T=l^ harkabar in Gaya, and tr^<.li 
painchedar elsewhere. If loose, with pieces let in along the thigh, they 
are >*f%^[K kalidar. ^fWr janghiya are tight-fitting short drawers, 
Buch as those worn by wrestlers. 

728. The jacket— TKis is ftx^sit: mirjai and also ^^fs^iT ^JIT^T 
khutiya angarkha. 

729. The coat. — This is -^^ anga, -^aiT^^T angarkha, or ^'j's^si 
chapkan. Those worn by Hindus open on the right breast, and those by 
Musalmans on the left. It is tied at the neck by a string, "^il't 

* Compare ManbodL's Haribans, wliicL. is a Maitliil poem, ^r^w^ cTO ^fs 
WS^ir^ -rrnT kadamaJc taru charhi bharkachh mdri, — (Krisliiia) mounted tke 
kadam-tree and tightened his loin-clotli. 



CL0THB8. 145 

ghiindi ov -Bi-ft gJiunri, s,nd also to the east and south ■y^ hhundi or 
^^ bhunri, and in South Bhagalpur ^"ist bhundo, which runs in a hem, 
g^iiRT tukma, or (in Patna and Gaya) »it^ gali. The ^^*ir achhan is 
a long loose coat buttoning right down the front. The ^STTT kaba 
or (south cf the Ganges) ^^T kaba is an outer coat open at the chest 
and sleeves. The fy«T^«r nimastln (also called "^HT nlma south of 
the Ganges) is a jacket the sleeves of which reach only to the elhows, 
while the «c^^ shaluka and ^cf^ sadari leave the arms bare. 

730. The sheet. — This is "sr^ chaddar or ^T^T chddar. This is 
of various kinds, viz. the ^t^r dohar is a doubled sheet hemmed all 
round. The fjT%Mi gileph, ^^tttt mlga, or ^^ hhol, is similar, but ia 
not hemmed all round, and is generally made of coarse cloth (wl'fa^T 
motiya). The v%~'^Tl ekpatta or ii^ti'isiii ekldi is a sheet made of one 
breadth of cloth. ■'fs^Trr derhpatta or "s^g.^-ft derhpatii is a sheet whose 
whole breadth is made up by sewing together two cloths, of which 
the breadth of one is half that of the other. The ^t^-zt dopfa or 
^qrr dopatta is a sheet whose breadth is made up by sewing together 
two cloths of equal breadth, ^cj .^ utri to the east is an outer 
garment. To the west it is used (a) for the string tied round 
a corpse's neck, and (6) for the mourning garments worn for ten days 
by the *<«»(| karta, or person who lights the funeral pyre. 

731. The stuffed quilt. — These have various names, according to 
the amount of cotton- wool in them, viz. ^^rne lehdph (five or six scrs) ; 
Kwr; rajdi, ^"^^ nehali, or (South Bhagalpur) €"Tr^ lehdli, all of 
which hold from one to three sers ; and the ^<!iT4, doldi, ^ftx^ sirak, or 
(in South Bhagalpur) gnr turai or ^Wr slrag, which contain less 
than half a seer. The stuffing of the quilt is ^rxTirr bharna or (to the 
south) ^TTT? bhardw or flTRT hhardna. Bits of old cotton padding 
in a quUt are ^l=T anga north of the Ganges. A timilar quilt made 
of patchwork is ^'^'^KT gudra or ^^'^ gtidri. When made of rags 
it is ^^KT khendhra ; also optionally in Tirhut, Patna, Gaya, and the east 
^^•^ gendra, and in Shahabad ^^'^KT lendra or ^^^T ledra. See also 
§637. 

732. The long coat worn by well-to-do people is ^rrrr dha. The 
kind of court dress consisting principally of flounced petticoats is enjj 
jama. 

733. The bathing -cloth, worn round the loins while bathing and 
used for drying the body afterwards, is named differently by Hindus 

19 



146 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

and Musalmans. The former call it ^JiTm angauchha or ^i^T^WT 
gamchha, a local variant being '^W^ angochha to ttie west. A 
smaller kind, or handkerchief, is ^ti^ angauchhi, tw^^ gamchhi, 
^T^ sapM, c^^ tauni (East Tirhut), or f?P3^ Uuni (North-West 
Tirhut). The Muhammadans call the bathing-cloth ^^ lungi or 
^^ lungi. The '^atMi hajuriya is a similar bathing-cloth worn by 
Hindu mendicants (^^■pft hairagi). 

734. The purse.— This is ^^t thaila, ^^ Uaili, ^ battu, '^^^t 
batua, OT ■^■^battii. The »)fkT y^»-a is a larger bag. In Graya and to 
the west it is also xfii ghoghi or Vi^i?t dhokri. The ^^^ baguli or 
fh^ -<l«l' t tildaiii is a tailor's housewife. ^fW'; lokhar is the case in 
which a barber carries his razors, &o. The last is also called f%^^<T 
A:m»w^ north of the Ganges and f^^^^nkisbat south of it. The money - 
belt is sf fT donra or ^^^TT donrha. 

735. The shoes. — These are ^Ht^ jora,^^wx juta (or '^rnjuttd), 
^T^ juti, or ■fsi^ panahi. ^X^\K jerpai, ^^^rr kharpa, or (south- 
east) ^^'J^TT chatka, are usually the shoes worn by women. The 
wooden bathing-patten with a peg to go between the toes is ^fr^ 
khardon, 'a^rraT kharailn, or ^rersf khardnw (also to the east *4<.\M khardm 
or ^ ^ I '^ilf't bharaoni) or "^rTszT chapta, and the clog held on the feet 
with strings or straps is ^T^ bddha or ^^^TT badha. In Saran and 
South-West Shahabad ^r<r^ latri are old shoes. 

736. The Brahmanieal cord is ^^ janeio, si^ janeu, or (to the 
south-east) ai^^r janeiia. The knots iu the cord are Tr<.5<<< paitoar 
or tiT^^ parwal. In Tirhut and South Bhagalpur they are also M<.'»l ^ 
parbal. The ^»T f^T sut sikha is the projecting part beyond the knot. 
The length of the cord is measured by handbreadths ( '^t^t chaua). A 
Brahman's cord is 96 handbreadths long, and so also a Rajput's, but 
the knots are different. 

737. The blanket. — This is ^fBT kammar, ^j^b^ kammal, or ^wr^T 
Itamra. In South- West Shahabad it is also <T^ rdl. A small blanket 
is ^TiT^ kamri or ^wft^n kamariya. In Champaran and the south-east 
V^ dima or -^^T dlmsm is a thick kind of blanket. T^rr?;^ pachhatthi 
is a large blanket five cubits long, and w^WT chhahattha or w^^ft chha- 
hattlii is six cubits long. ^^ ghogi is a peculiar way of tying a blanket 
over the head to save the wearer from rain. In South- West Shahabad 
it is also, called -^hV gJwnghi, and in Patna and North-East Tirhut "^^ 
bukki. The blanket forms the subject of many proverbs : thus «flf ^^ 



CLOTHES. 147 

jqf ^mx *rrf\ ji/ofi bhlje, iyon kammar hhari,— 'Ca.Q more a blanket 
is allowed to become moist, the heavier it gets, i.e., delays are 
dangerous. 

738. A patch on the clothes is ^^^pewan, local variants being 
^^=^ peicand south of the Ganges and ^^sfT pauna in South- West 
Shahabad. It is also called TT^ pati or "^fe^ patiya to the east. 
Another name is ^^5^;^ chephri in North- East Tirhut. 

739. When cloth is doubled, the outer piece is ^^r^ abra or 
(in South Bhagalpur) ■«raT palla, and the lining ^WT asfar or (in 
Champaran and North Tirhut) ic^ tahi. 

740. Among -women's clothes are — 

Tlie sheet. — This is gr^ or tst^ sari generally, with a variant 
^fx^T sariya to the east. To the west and in Patna and Gaya it is also 
called f^^^T kfiilua. It is also called ^T luga, with, in East Tirhut, 
a variant, wr nuga. In South Bhagalpur it is called ^xT^rf^t barhatthi 
(when \% cubits long), and in South Munger ^f^ khduri or ^^^ khanda. 
An old torn sheet is ^iT^ lugri, as in the proverb sri; ^rffffsraf ^?i%, 
^•fr^ ^^^ ^TTT^ nai dhobiniydn dlli lugriye sdbuii laili, — the new 
washerwoman has come and applied soap even when washing rags, i.e., 
a new broom sweeps clean. A proverb of similar import is sr^ WV^^ 
'sRT'ftW V'fc^'dlT, nayd nokar khargos pakartdre, — a new servant will 
catch a hare, or, as they say in Ireland, a sharp fellow won't let 
a hare catch him. The smaller sheet worn by poorer women is bi.)i4^ 
tfffft jandni dhoti or ^^ Ingri. Over the ^T^ sari is worn another 
sheet, called ^^^ chaddar or s^K<. ehddar, or (in Gaya and South 
Munger) ff*|<l pichhaura. This may be -^^^zTdopta or ^q?T dopatta, 
as in the case of a man's sheet. The small sheet worn by little girls 
is tn?W?T parkfianda to the west and in South Bhagalpur a,nd Gaya 
.l<«tf t barki in Patna and the south-west. It is tfr^^T plmliya in 
Saran and North- West Tirhut, -^i:^ gdnti in South Bhagalpur, and 
T^f^C^JT phariya in South- West Shahabad. We also find W'S^B^ kheruki 
or ics^ kliaruU, ^^^ hheruka or ^^^t kharuka, north of the Ganges, 
and g«l«^ putli in South Tirhut, Patna, and South Munger. 

741. The hem of the sheet is generally ^^r^r. dncJidr, and also ^'^VT 
anclira or ^^-^ cuihra. This is also the part which covers the bosom. 
The first of these words is the nominative, and the others are more 
properly used with postpositions. Thus t ^f=^ ^ ^ilir ^ i dnchar 
bar riiman ha, — this border is very beautiful ; but ff^^T « ^T^ 



148 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE, 

^^ achra men bank delin, — I tied it up in the hem of my garment. 
The end of the sheet gathered up and tied in front is -grsfir phuphuti, 
^^■^ phiiphuni, or ^^^ phuj^hundi to the west, and *!%! konclia or 
^^ honchi to the east. The pocket in front formed by loosening 
the part tied round the waist is ^IrwT khoinchha, and in the extreme 
south-east ^VW{ khoechha or ^WT khonchha, as in the proverh ^^s^^ 
^^^f ^ si^ ^TT ^"tfsT burbak kanedii ken nau ana khoinchha, — it's a 
fool of a bride that only gets nine anas in her pocket (for wedding 
presents). The loose fold on the left side is »fNrJ^T«T gojhnauta. 
In the south-west it is fq^liT pichhaura. When a woman is 
modest and meets a strange man, she draws her sheet or veil (see 
below) before her face. This action is called tN« ghoghat, or in Gaya 
-gigr ghuggha, in South Bhagalpur '^Ht gJiogho, and to the north- 
west "^^ ghugh or ^t^ gJiogh ; and when a woman wishes to be extra 
modest, she pulls a great deal over her face. She is then called ^ 
^t^3 bar ghoghat* 

742. 't^<j«4^k chasddr is a dyed cloth with a double-hemmed 
border worn by women in Shahabad. In the same district ff^sTs 
masdrhu is a dyed cloth used by females of the lower orders, and 
fi^r^jhimki is a cloth printed with flower patterns. ^r^^t«fT kakreja 
is a purple, and ^^ sdlu a red cloth, much used everywhere. 

743. The petticoat- — This is generally ^t^jtt lanhga. A looser 
kind is f 5t^T ghanghra in Graya and to the east, ^^ ghanghar in the 
south-east, and ^Teix: ghdngliar in Shahabad. The Ifg^ gJianghri is a 
girl's petticoat. '4141 kachlia is a mode of tying it under the leg. 
The waist-band through which the string is run is ^^ nepha, and the 
string itself is '^^T ^^ ifdr band, or in the case of a bride or bridegroom 
^TXT ndra. The hem is also called ^flx;^<ft?: kamartdi. 

744. The bodice. — This, if it reaches to the waist, is f V ' <i r kurta, 
n^ jhula, or in North-East Tirhut ^wftr kasani. If it is short, only 
covering the breasts, it is ^ff?t^jT angiya ai '^^ choli. A similar short 
bodice, worn chiefly by prostitutes, is called ^n^^ mahram. This 
last in North-East Tirhut is called ^^1- choli. 

745. The ueil or cloth worn over the head is ^1i^ orhni. "When 
a veil or a sheet ('^t^k chddar) has a dyed border, it is called ^v<^ 

* As in Mantodli's Haribans, where the wife of Akrur, although very modest, 
still wanted to look at Krishna when he came into the house, c^ q>^T ijg cRf?i> 
^lf?v har ghoghat punu takalo chahia. 



CLOTHES. 149 

ehunri or ^<y^ chundri, and also in Saran f»fwn^ jhhnJci. The border 
is called in North-Bast Tirhut Trff pdrhi or ^rff ^ parhiya. 

746. The drawers are ^^^r[^ paijama or (in North- West Tirhut) 
^i^vsji^d surwal. 

747. Toilet requisites. — The antimony put on the edges of the lower 
eyelids is igK^WT surma, and the lampblack applied to the eyeball is i*M< 
kdjar, as in the proverb at? ^ ■^rrax, fraf^ ■g«r <*if<,<s thdmw gun Icdjar, 
Jcuthdmw gun karikh, — in the right place it is coUyrium, and in the 
wrong place, soot. Lampblack is kept in a box called ■qrar^n^T kajrauta 
or ^rsiTT^^ kajrauti. The coarser red lead put on the forehead and on 
the parting of the hair is %^ sendur or %^t senur. The finer kind 
placed between the eyebrows is X^ ingur. The silver spots put on 
the forehead are called fyfi^ tilmli, and the round silver spot between 
the eyebrows is ft*^ bindi. The small silver or gold spots surround- 
ing this are, in North-East Tirhut, ^^ beni or '^f^j^T leniya. The 
comb is ^^'f T kakha, ^^r^ kakhi, or "^n^ kangahi. ' It is also ^B^^T 
kaku-a in Patna, Graya, and South Bhagalpur. The ftr'a-ii'^'^ likhgalmi 
is a kind of comb used in Gaya. The hair-brush is d+^'Tl or «i^ri^ thakri. 
To the east ^K-'il' jharni is a kind of brush made of the stem 
of a cocoanut leaf. A tooth-brush is ^;g^«r datuan. It is made by 
biting one end of a sprig of wood till the fibres form a brush. Hindus 
use a fresh one every day, but Musalmans keep theirs for a fort- 
night at a time. 

748. Washing of clothes.— See §§ 389 and ff. 

In making clothes, the following terms are used by the tailor or 
■^ry^ darji : — 

•"I^isr pasuj is running, y<«i|i turpal hemming or felling, ^^x^r 
urma is top-sewing, ^^f langar tacking or basting, and "^^r chun 
gathering. Tfe^T bakhiya or ^^^j hakhea is stitching, '^ttt ^f^T 
chdmpa lakhiya is long stitching, and ^t€t ^ If ^fti^T dori de ke bakhiya 
stitching-in piping-cord, sj-^t jaica is a long stitch and a short stitch 
alternately, and ^faT tfi't^ 'trPa^T kanta phori pakhiya is a kind of 
stitching for which there is no English name. t.t!i-dM ^^ suit an 
lorhiis a mantua-maker'shem, ^jys^ sdrj'i is herring-boning, and arr^ 
jdli a kind of herring-boning for joining two cloths but not bringing 
their edges together. ^x?3T daraj is a run-and-felled seam. When it is 
narrow, it is caRei iyt^ gol ; when ^m^.e,Xf{^'^^^ imalpatti ; and when 
very wide, TtTT chaura. There are false hems of various kinds. When 



150 BIHi-R PEASANT LIFE. 

the edges of tlie two pieces meet evenly, it is c&llei rrfi patti ; when 
the edge of the added piece extends beyond the edge of the main 
piece, the false hem is called, if it is narrow, »T»mi?t" magji, which 
properly means the overlapping portion. If it is wide, it is called ^^TO 
sanjaph. When the overlapping portion is very wide, the false hem is 
called <^»d.«i ^ |<8i ir ^STO lakhnawdla sanjaph, or in Shahabad ^'a««U^T^ 
^rai^ lakhnaudl sanjaph. ^nw kaj is button-hole stitch, and f^ hul 
ejelet-hoHng. 

749. fg^'S^TT silahra is a kind of embroidery. Two thicknesses 
of muslin are sewn together. The under one has holes cut out in it 
which are embroidered, and are visible through the upper one. It is 
used as an ornamental border. ^ bel is similar to fy«!l>»»<.i silahra, 
except that patterns of various leaves, &c., and not holes, are cut in the 
lower muslin. Ps^tk;! singhdra is an embroidered scolloped or vandyked 
edge. ^TtTt''^ sardhi is a piece of calico cut into an ornamental shape 
and appligued on to the shoulder of a coat. 'a^rizT W'"?! ulta mundha 
is binding am armhole with piping-cord, ^put kantha is a rounded 
collar sewn in front of the coat. A sleeve is said to be '^ff ^TT churiddr 
when it is gored to fit tight at the wrist. A gore is Th; glior. There is 
no Bihari equivalent for " dart," " pleat, " or " tuck." 



CHAPTER II.— CARPETS AND MATS. 

750. A floor-cloth is ^rr^Nr ksUn south of the Ganges, north of 
the Ganges ajlfsj^? jdjim, or (to the west) ^IR^ pharas. A carpet is Sf'cl' 
dari, or when larger ^<(-<.W^ satranji. A Ji^r^T galakha or »T^^ gattcha 
is a thread mat. "^^ chatti in South Bhagalpur is a canvass mat, and 
■^T^t chdh in Gay a ia a coarse kind of mat made of bamboo slips tied 
together. 

751. ^^n: chatdi or "^^^ chataini is a mat made of various 
reeds or bamboo slips. A r^fi^ gonri or ^if^rft gondri is made of 
the gond reed. In Patna, Gaya, and the south-west ^tj saph is a long 
gond mat used when a number of people are assembled at a marriage, 
&o. In the north-west it is TTfT dharha, in South-East Tirhut '^275? 
chatdn, and in North-West Tirhut T^-^air barhaWw. A rrcnf tardy 
to the east is made of palm leaves, and a art tarai in Cham- 
psran of reeds. f%(i<^<m^^ sitalpdti is a fine mat for sleeping on in 
the hot weather. When a number of Musalmans say prayers together 
on one carpet, it is called aitfimM jdnimdj, or in South Hunger 
5jT<i( •<♦< I «i jdynemdj ; and when on a mat, it is called ^^ saph. 



JEWELRY. 151 

CHAPTER III.-JEWELRY, 

752. The following are some of the varieties of jewelry commonly 
worn : — • 

a. — Worn by Men and Boys. 

753. On the ears. — ^t^ hali or (in Shahabad) ^fl bdri. This ia 
a ring. Also the qrsi^^ kanausi (Patna and Gaya, where it is worn 
by Hindus only). Other ear pendents are »rt^ moti, ivt^g^T gohhula 
(and to the west also »rK'?g^ gorkhul) (an ornamented ring), ff"®^ 
kundal (a large ring), ^K lor (worn principally by Groalas), and 
*«l«»craT kanbala, ^^T sona is a plain ear pendent, and '^'^ anti is a 
plain stud fixed in the lobe of the ear. fnii.**^ phirki is a double gold 
ring. 

754. On the arms. — The wf^ bank and H^lefc.dT chauktha are 
worn on the right upper arm. So also the r<aiH<J hij&wath or ftof^aj 
bijautha, which is, however, more properly a female ornament. The 
^spil anant and »(r<?i«i tdwij are various kinds of amulets. 

755. On the neck.'-Th.e vx^j mala is tbe bead necklace. The 
va <.•<!* udrSchh is one made of the seeds of the nil* rudrdchh [Eko- 
carpus ganitrus). The ^f<©T kantha is a necklace with gold and silver 
ornaments or sacred relics attached to it. The ^t\t^\ mungwa is a 
coral ( 5^J]T munga ) necklace, and the »n^< flT^T molmr mala 
or <rr^T ^ST mohan mala is a, long necklace of gold mohars and 
coral. The •ft'T gop is made of twisted gold wire, and it is also 
called ^•(•<?i ghunsi in Champaran, North Tirhut, and South Hunger. 
The ft'^^ sikri is a long chain going round the neck. 

756. On the fingers. — This is -^ycTt anguthi, xfg^ j ainthua 
(Gaya), or ^f^ aunthi. The Tpt^^g ^'fT^ gorakh dhanhdri or aftK!^ 
V^Tx'l gorakh dhandkdri is a puzzle-ring which takes to pieces and is 
diflScult to put together again. 5^€t mundri is a ring worn on the 
right little finger, vpt^ got (Shahabad) and ^rrm pherua (Patna and 
Gaya) are kinds of rings. 

757. On the wrist. — These are wrai bdla or (Patna and Gaya) 
^^T balea, rjf^'^ pahunchi, and also (south of the Ganges) vs-^l'^ 
pahunchari, ^^ kara (south of the Ganges), ^tt bera in Gaya and to 
tbe west, fonJir jigga in Saran, ^Ia*jr mathiya in South Bhagalpur, 
and rftfT tora in South-West Tirbut. These are worn principally by 
boys, h'*?^ tainti is a kind of amulet in South Hunger, Gaya, and 
Shahabad. 



152 BIHlR PEASANT LIFE. 

758. On the waist. — The chain hung round the waist is ^t^T 
kardhan or cjix^nf^ kardhani ; also '^^•■^•(.i harhara in the east. A kiud 
of belt is ^JiTKT, and of this STRT jaiva or ^■^•[^jmoari, #i]^fT langva 
and ■^k.jat, are portions of the clasp. 

759. On the ankles. — A boy's anklet is »fts1W goranw, Jitffq 
gordin, or ^T kara. South of the Ganges we also meet »il^^;n 
gorha, •g'^'c ghunghur, or ■H'sr^ ghunghru (fitted with bells, used also in 
Tirhut), and ittt^ chaurasi (when it carries 84 beads). 

760. On the toes. — ^^t angutha is a toe-ring. 

b, — Worn by Women. 

761. Ornaments for the liead. — The ornamented hair-pin is "gfzt 
cJumti. 

762. Ornaments for the forehead. — The WJi^a^^ST mangtika or ^•iTspj- 
hanni is an ornament tied in the centre of the forehead by three 
strings, one passing round each side and the other over the top of the 
head. They are fastened in the hair. Of this the ornament is 
called "^^^3T chauktha, and the strings f^T:^ sikri. The spangles 
or wafers gummed on to the forehead are fVfr^ tikuU. Another 
name in South-West Tirhut is f^^iTir^ sisphul or 'gr^ chand. In Shah- 
abad '5fz?iT satiya is a wafer made of embossed paper and gummed on 
the forehead. 

763. Nose-ornaments. — The nose-studs fastened on to the outside 
of one nostril is ^'^ chhuchchhi, in South Bhagalpuj st^t^p^ 
nakchanda, and in Patna and to the south-west ^jt laung. It is 
not an easy thing to steal, hence the proverb ^r?T'? ^ ^^^ ^t^T^ ^ 
■§^ kahdicai lai saiyad, chordicailai chhuchchhi, — by name he is a saiyad, 
but he can steal even a nose-stud. The ring passing through the outside 
side of the nostril is sr«f nath. A smaller kind is ^fttfiT nathiya, and 
that worn by girls ?rg^ nathuni. The ■^^'Rf buldk or ^k besar 
is a ring hung from the centre cartilage of the nose, and the ^^"Pt 
jhulni is a similar one worn by women of the Rauniyar caste. It 
swings backwards and forwards, and is ornamented with beads.* 

* Nose-ornaments are peculiar to females. If a mother loses a first-born son 
she endeavours to persuade the demon who kills children that any future boys 
born are only girls, and hence not worth killing. To do this, she often makes 
the boy. wear nose-omaments, and calls him by some nickname, as JBiddlci 
(wearer of a nose-ring), &c. There are other similar customs, such as giving 
opprobrious names to such sons who are born after the death of a first born 
which it would take too much space to mention here. 



JEWELRY. 153 

764. Ear-ornaments. — Ear-studs fastened to the lobe of the ear 
are »l\i«i»4i^ karanplml or ^rqvtjr^ kanplml and 'ata^WT kholla, or in 
East Tirhut ^3«^T khutla or x^ift khutti, to the north- west ^z^f^ 
hhutli, and in Gaja and Shahabad ^gfz^T khutila. The iRsv^ kanaili 
is a stud worn on the cartilage just where it leaves the head 
under the hair. Rings worn in the lobe of the ear are ^t^ bdli, 
and those worn in the upper part of the cartilage ied<.««il utarna. 
Broad plates worn across the ear are 'mr pat, irffr patta, and ttxt^ 
tarki. A smaller kind worn in Gaya is called »ft^«^T golwa. Amongst 
pendents are the '^^ jhumak or ^^^ jhummak, which has two 
round pendents, and the f»Bfl^f»fifir«n' jhimjhimiyn, which are flat 
pendents. The wwft^ machJiariya is a pendent shaped like a 
fish. In South Hunger it is called *iiff%5JT machhaliya. The wtr lor 
and ^R«fT^ kanausi form a set of ear-ornaments. The first are round 
plates with a square cut out of the inside, forming a kind of ring 
with a square inside. One of these is hung in the lobe of each 
ear. The latter is a ring. One is hung in the upper part of 
the cai-tilage of the right ear, and two in the upper part of the cartilage 
of the left ear. When a hole bored in the ear for an ornament is not 
in use, it may be filled up with a plug, called h-^r thek. "When the 
ornaments worn are too heavy for the ear to carry without tearing, a 
chain is fastened round the ear so as to support the heavier ornaments. 
This is called fii<»»< l sikri. Other ornaments for the ear are ^fi^ Mr 
(Tirhut), JfiiTT kdmp, and xgf^rnjT khuUya in the south-east, and fir^s^ 
UjU in Patna and Gaya. 

765. NecJc- ornaments. — The '^'^r^ ^K cJiandar lidr is a long chain. 
A fTT^W tdwij is a similar one with an amulet attached. A set 
of three chains of various lengths is '^^r^ telri, and also to the 
north-west fW^^ tilri, of five chains m^.-^iCI pachlari, and of 
seven chains grfv^T^ satlari. The ft*-^ sikri is a long chain, 
and the ^^ laddhi is a long chain crossing the chest and 
going behind round the body. s%^ humel is a necklace fitted 
with bells. Bosses tied to the throat are "^t^ ^t^ champa kali, 
^< | .wf jugrm, and s'^^mTT ^T^ dholna cliauki. The last is principally 
worn by the bride at a marriage, and is the first ornament put on before 
the marriage ceremony. The "f^^ /k??wm/« is. the solid necklet open 
in front which goes round the neck, and the rR^ tawak is similar with 
pendents in front (worn by Musalmans). -^frr suli in North-East 
Tirhut is a kind of neck-ring, w^ JiVr jawa gota, vrtj^sv^^- 

20 



154 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

galsatka, r[r?^T^ gardmcani, and ^IT^ gard, are various neek- 
omaments used in Gaya. Other neck-ornaments are f%«i^gT (South- 
East Tirhut), ^^K katesar (Champaran, Patna, and South 
Bhagalpur) or ^z^^X katsar (Tirhut and South Bhagalpur), and 
^f*r«iT kimmhhiya (South Bhagalpur). t(K hdr or T^t^T hariva is 
the general term for a necklace, and ^^jft WT^ moti mala is a pearl 
necklace, or one made with beads of the shape of pearls, ^rg^ 
lalri and «5<-«j«i darpan are two ornaments worn on the breast in 
G-aya and South Bhagalpur. A %^«^ Miial, or in Champaran 
%^^ hailak, is a long necklace composed of flat pieces, generally 
nine in number. When a man marries a second wife, an ornament 
is made representing the first wife, which the second wife wears. 
On the first occasion on which the second wife applies vermilion to 
her hair, she first puts some on the ornament before applying it to 
herself. This ornament is called yifrt«i sautin, or in South Mimger 
^■pl saut. 

766. On the clothes. — ^stTk^ manori are ornaments on the veil 
(^T^ sSri), and "^^^ anchri on the hem of the sheet. 

787. Arm-ornaments. — The following are worn by all classes. 
Highest up on the arm is the ?T5J bdju, or ht^ ^^ b&ju band, 
which is a wide armlet. Below.it the ftofpra bijawath, frsjurs 
bijaeth, or fto^ST bijautha, which are five ornaments strung together ; 
below that the ftx^^ birkhi, which is smaller. Another name is 
f^^ birenti. Below this comes the -^f^ bank, made of one piece. It 
is worn by Hindu women on the right arm, but by Musalmans on 
both. Lowest down comes the -^^urr habhuntd, or to the west ^surr 
bahunta, of five pieces and round. Arm-ornaments worn principally 
by Hindu women are ^^PtT anant and zk tar or zft^JT tariya. Similar 
to the last is also another ornament called ^STT bahutta. ft^T^ 
sikri is a chain worn on the upper part of the arm. ^f^r(\jhahiya 
is a kind of inverted cup hanging from the arm, and to which bells 
(^'qiTT bachvsa) are attached ; and -51^ gfAww^fj little ball pendents hang- 
ing from the ^^ bdju, or from an ^^nr anant. ^ mundhi is 
a clasp. ■^^'^ barekhi in South-West Shahabad is an arm-ornament 
worn by women of the Godla caste. Arm-ornaments worn principally 
by Musalman women are,— on the upper arm, ^^^^jausan, xrnr pat 
(a flat piece tied on), and ^^^t bajulla, or in Saran f^% bijuli (worn 
immediately below the ^Tij baju) ; .and on the forearm sjTfTT naunaga 
or (in North-East Tirhut) sR^q'? nabgrah of (nine stones). An 



JEWELRY. 155 

ornament worn on the back between the shoulders is called by- 
Hindus ^Tf pan or T«f^^T ^Jawica, and hy Musalmans ^^jtt^t^ balamtdr. 

768. Wrist-ornaments are ^^-sit kankna, ^^••ft' kankni, or ^nP^iJ 
kangna, or in Champaran *<*s^ i kakna, ^p^^t kaehia (Graya and the 
south-east), ^rfR^T katwa (Gaya and the south-east), ^flvj^ ^a^r?, ^^i^ 
kansauthi (G-aya and the south-east), ^ft^T khasii/a, jtT^^t golwa 
(G^aya and the south-east), f^: chur, ^^Pt churi (bangles), w^ chhan or 
w=^ chhand, ^ft. Ja'i, f^pjn Jigga, -i^ tora, finp^'^ tink/iandi, ftf^r^iu 
tinnaga, firft^T^T tisiauta (Gaya and the south-east), •njK^ naghuri or 
fsffn"^^ nigihri, or (in Gaya and the south-east) '^'5^ laghuri, ■q'^r^ift 
pachkhandi, idl^ pachJiela or wf^?rT pachheliya, xfaT^ ^a^-e, qZT^T 
patwa, ^^pahunchi, ^^^ hanguri, «(;d-^ST harhara, or in Gaya ^-^.-^^ 
barhar, and in Champaran ^^^<T helahra, ^r^T ia^«, ^f f hanhu, ^xf 
bera, ^f«5T baunkha (Gaya) (made of thread), wfatfT mathiya, tfifT^ 
rupauthi .(^&JSi and the south-east), and ^'^'c'l' laghuri (see T'^^ 
naghuri). The ■•y««^«t'< samseband is a keeper worn on the -wrist to 
prevent the "^ cMr falling off. 

769. 0« the fingers. — A ring is ^^^fa't anguthi. ' A round solid 
ring is ^wr chhalla. Other names are -^at- aunthi and ^^T ainthua. 
The iThTsi ti-^ l C l' gorakh dhanhari, &c., is the same as that -worn by 
men ; so also the 5iW gol and tJ^'^t pherua. Other rings are 
firsi-^fsr^ tinchhaliya, •('^•<dl^ bahloli, ^gwTsrT angustdna, ^XIJ^ arsi 
(which has a small mirror attached),' g^^^ mundri, ^"^h^^t lobherua 
(south-east), ^<i*JI*m'Cl daryabddi (ib.), ^^-^VlSt pathrauti [ib.), T^KtTiWT 
chiraugiya («6.), ^[^^ aMiua (South Bhagalpur), wstr^ mathdni 
(South-Bast Tirhut), ■^^J^ baddmi (Tirhut), -"fKpo?- {ib.). 

770. On the waist. — Waist-chains and bands are ^j^iin^ kardhani, 
^^TT^^i^ kamarkas, w^fjhabba or ^iff^T jhabiya, JTbTtt gathaura, -^^r 
amwara, ^rN«^^ kochban, mvx^^ kamarjeb, i#hfl sipi, sn^ir^ japhri. 
The ^"t*!"^ kothli is a kind of pocket tied to the -waist. 

77 1. On tlie/eet. — The ornament fitting on the ankle and covering 
and fitting on to the upper part of the foot is <if^^ pdnwjeb. Like it 
are ^x^^ pdwat, n^ pairi, and TT^ ^WK pdnw sankar. Over this comes 
the i5f ^^" cliarra or ^FfT chhara, a number of fine rings like the f^^ 
churi on the arm ; over this again the ^^J kara ; and at the top the 
^3 chur. The ^si^^ painjni are anklets with bells ; so also f^fVfir 
kinkinia,■n.i■■^'^ghvghuru ox^^^ghunghuru in Gaya and North-East 
Tirhut. 



156 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

772. On the toes — are --^JyaT angutha and w^t chlialla, which are 
rings. An ornament fitting over all the toes is f*(n*t(T hichhiya. In 
Gaya and the south-east ^%^ haturi is a toe-ring to which bells are 

fastened. 

♦ 

SUBDIVISION IV. 
APPLIANCES USED IN WORSHIP. 

773. The appliances of a Hindu temple are as follows: — ^The 
"flT^*^ asni is a sort of mat made of kus grass, wool, &o., for sitting on. 

774. A spoon for throwing water on the Kngam is known as 
■^T^Tji^ dchmani ; also ^f^iflf^ achmamin South-West Shahabad, "^^siT 
anchauna in Gaya, ■^^T'?^ anchauni in Saran, and ■<«^«*'l halchhi in 
South Tirhut. 

775. The ^r^^^jjfTKJalpatar is a vessel in which water is kept, and 
a smaller kind is ^^^-mxH. panchpatar. The ^R-qr arg'^ is the saucer 
made of stone or metal in which the stone representing the lingam is 
placed. The qf^ pinri or f^"^ pindi is the platform on which the 
lingam is placed. Other names are ^ktt sarai (optional) in South-East 
Tirhut, "^TT clmura in South-West Shahabad, and sd<sif^ jakhar in the 
rest of that district. 

776. ^ii?T gr/ww^a or w^ (//jan, also south of the Ganges ^^ gf^aM^, 
are gongs or bells, and the f^^Tgnj bijghant is a kind of gong with 
erect edges. '5i!?T ghanta specially means a bell ; »Jff »5 jhdnjh (small) 
or ^i<sjhdl (large) are the cymbals. ^ sankh is the conch. 

777. The idol is fjn murat, also tj<.«rt murti in South Bhagal- 
pur, and TT^^'aJT i^arkhat optionally in South-East Tirhut. Its throne 
is f^Jl'reT singdsan or (in Patna and Gaya) fff^m^ singhdsan. 

778. "«1<«*ii horsa, or in the south-east ■sX'm hursa, is the 
round stone for grinding sandal-wood {■^'^^ chaitdan). Another name 
is 'l-^-TTZT chandrauta. The vessel in which the ground sandal- wood 
is placed is cRsY^ katori. 

779. The censer is north of the Ganges ^r^'pr dhupddn, in 
Patna and Shahabad ^tr^T^ dhtijjddui, in Gaya g^^'^rr dimpahra, 
and in the south-east ^'T'^ dhiiperi. 

780. The f\^«^r5i dipddn, f^,qT^^ dq^ddni, is the lampstand 
holding only one lamp or wick. One with four or five wicks is 
called ^T^^ arti. 



APPLIANCES USED IN WOKSHIF. 157 

781. The ^fflT*^ sumirni north of the Ganges and ^hx.i^ 
suwarni south of it is the rosary of nineteen beads. In Champaran and 
Gaya it is also ^%^ sumer. ^TRTT mala, or in Saran and Tirhut sRK^T^rr 
karmdla, is a similar rosary of one hundred and eight beads. U«<<'«r i 
sumarni, &o., are also used for the large bead at the end of a WT«T mala. 
A 5iT<? '41 1 <!( I japm ala is a large rosary containing as many as a thousand 
beads. The ^ni^ttt^ ashtotri or ^"<5t«i«^ athotri is a rosary -wbich 
is kept in a small bag called i^Ht jhora. Into this bag the worshipper 
puts his hand and turns the beads. The ^r^iw rudrachh is a rosary 
used by worshippers of Shiva, as in the proverb ^m<» ar^ l^^l*^. 
1^^ it nstrw bapak gave mungri, putak gave rudrachh, — the father has 
a club on his neck, and the son a rosary, i.e., the father is a scoundrel 
and the son a devotee. 

782. The Tjtrr tuma, g'BT tiimma, or g^r tumha is the hollow 
gourd carried by religious mendicants (^j^sadhu or ^^jogi). It is 
also called *dT^ kathari or ^TtT sagar in Saran and Tirhut. The 
g^.ft tumri is a small gourd. The ^W"s^ kamandal is a similar 
vessel used for drawing water in a temple. A ^""i **j*M5r dand kamandal 
is a similar vessel made of metal (brass, copper, gold, &c.) 



DIVISION III. 



SOILS. 



CHAPTER I.— CLASSIFICATION OP SOILS. 

783. Soils may be classified — 

{a) According to their distance from the village site. 

(b) According to their ooastituent elements. 

(c) According to the crops for which they are prepared, or 

which they usually produce. 



CHAPTER II.— SOILS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THEIR 
DISTANCE FROM THE VILLAGE SITE. 

784. The concentric circles (■^^rrsRT halka) are generally, but not 
always, three in number. The nomenclature and division differ 
according to locality. 

(fit) The belt near the homestead, which is better manured, more 
carefully cultivated, and adapted for superior kinds of 
crops. The homestead is called ^'^T^ ahadi, ^W cllh, 
■^^r^ basU ; and the belt of land Jrf3[^ goenr, jft^fT 
goenra, jfffT gonrha,ov^m gaunrha of^vsi bddh ; also 
^"IXTT Jcordr in Patna and to the west, iV^T% dihdns 
(Shahabad,Patna,andGaya), vx^^X^ gharbdri in Patna 
and South Hunger, and ^^ bdr'i in South Bhagalpur. 
The land actually in the homestead is specially called ^m 
dill, f^'^TO dihdns, or (in Tirhut) ^S'T bhltha, and in Cham- 
paran "^"S bhlth. ^^ dih is properly an old village site 
or mound. If there are two clusters of dwellings of the 
same name some distance apart, the older one wUl be 
called ^^^ dlh. ■^^^ abddi is properly settled or culti- 
vated land. The land near the village which receives 
the drainage of the houses ia iff'^'nr gohan in Sbahabad. 



160 BlHlR PEASANT LIFE. 

{b) The next furthest belt from the village site is ^^TrB^ 
haharsi to the west and in Patna and South Hunger. 
This belt is also called ^'^ sareh to the south-west as 
long as crops are standing on it. It is also called «n^ 
tddhi (Champaran), ^^^^ baharhhum (Saran and Tirhut), 
Tm tdl (South-Bast Tirhut), -^f^^m: bahiydr (North- 
East Tirhut), and ^^K baihar (South Bhagalpur). 
In Hazaribagh it is called fij-f-l singJia. 

(c) The belt furthest from the village site is also called ^t''? sareh 
to the west, also ^^K"^ baharbhum in South Munger. 
So that the second and third belts are only considered as 
one. There are also, however, separate names for the 
third belt, viz. ZT^ tar, zf^ tanr, or zf^ tdnri, which is 
used to mean high extensive wastes of infertile or gravelly 
soil, or of hUloeks and ridges such as are found in 
Graya, and ^^^ ehatmr, which means low open marshy 
country. In South Bhagalpur i?^aY bhltho is the land 
far from the village site which only produces bhadoi 
crops with much labour, and a still further circle is ^XT 
baran, which bears no produce. In Saran and Tirhut 
^t^T diyar are the fields situated on the further side of - 
a river, or islands formed by rivers. 



CHAPTEE III.— SOILS CLASSIFIED ACCORDINQ TO THEIR 
CONSTITUENT ELEMENTS. 

785. Sandy soils.— ^X^ bdla or ^^tt^t balwa, ^^risn: halthar 
(North- West and in Patna and in Gaya), ^^^n^?- bahodh (South Bhagal- 
pur), and^^n^ haldhm (Champaran), are soils principally composed of 
sand. Sandy loams are ^^ri^s^K balmndar or a^i^ff^^ bahiindri, with 
local variants ^^Fgit balsun or ^^Tg»f^ balsumhi in South Tirhut, 
•j<!(»«k<d^ balkasi in South-East Tirhut, and ^^p^H balsum in North-East 
Tirhut. They are also called ^^;^2 baitcat to the west, and ^f^ws 
balimat in Shahabad. North of the Ganges and ia South Munger 
■^^^gr balua is land with sand on the surface and clay at some 
distance below. In Champaran and South-West Tirhut vg d/ius 
or 1^^ dMsi is an arid and sterile soil consisting of an admixture of 
oand and clay. A loose sandy subsoil, in which a clay well will not 
work, is ^m benga or xjit^t bengica. In South-East Tirhut it is also 



SOILS AND THEIR COXSTITUENT ELEMENTS. 161 

Xj^Tsfi- bhusni. In Shahabad v'i^ hhls is fine compact sand, and wim 
bdla loose coarse sand. 

786. Clayey soils. — The principal is ?rfzifK matiyar, or in Graya 
^ZJVC matigar, which is a brown clay soil, well adapted for rice. 
It contains about 60 or 70 per cent of clay. A stronger kind, 
containing about 85 per cent, is called If^^ kewal. This is also 
called cji^K Mrdr in the south-east. %^^ kewal in South Munge^ 
is of three kinds, viz. ■^SK'^ karka, which is black; ^ftft^TT 
goriatfa, which is yellowish ; and "^51^^ chanki or aiarr^ ^<4i<d gagri 
kewal, which is mixed with fine gravel. This last is also called 
T«P^rfasiT pathratiya in South Bhagalpur or (when it is of a reddish 
colour) JrlTf<f^ 'TI'^TT^ gorentiya pathrauti. In South-East Tirhut 
%?(T^ kew&l is of two kinds, viz. jft'^ %^T^ gori kewal, which 
is light-coloured, and ^f%^T li^T^ teliya kewal, which is dark. 
^iT^ karail to the west is a bluish-black soil, which contains more 
organic matter than Jifz^TX madyar. In Shahabad it is divided into 
two kinds, viz. ■^jit ^tkw hangar kurail, which is apt to crack on 
drying, and ^t^T ^x:^ doma karail, which is of a more bluish colour 
than the other. A clay which feels greasy when rubbed in the hand 
is called ■^^ dudhi or f^^^^ firft chikkan mitti or fV^^ ftr^ chikni 
mitti ; and '^^^ bhmuri (west) and w^l^ kachaui (east) are clay 
soils which soon dry on the surface. X'Sfx: rakhaur is a similar 
soil mixed with ashes, which is called in South Munger T^r^ 
bhasurahi. "^sr^ chanki, or to the west f%7iTai sigta, are hard soils, 
which split and crack when dry. In Patna and Graya ^^^ kachhuiya 
is a loose clay met in digging wells, -^r^r^ f^ MM mitti north 
of the Ganges, 5^ gent south of it, and ^rrftg kahis in South-West 
Shahabad, is a red clay. ^rXH naram, and also to the east ^n:^ laram, 
mean soft when applied to clay. North of the Ganges, to the west, 
and in South Munger, ^^-^t^ akrah is a hard clay soil mixed with 
fine gravel. In South-East Tirhut it is ^Krft chhardhi. xtTx^\-% 
roriyah or kT^^TT rorha is land which goes into hard lumps the size of 
eggs after preparation. fW-<.Ts^ kumrauti, or in Saran fi^^T^ kumr- 
hauti, and in Tirhut ^^ "f^^ kdri iiidfi, is potter's clay, 

787. Loamy so/7s.--The ^t?w chaJial or =fi?ftT Awfoj is that which 
is never drier than mud, and in which crops are planted without 
ploughing. 3^'^^ dhabri or 3TW dhdb is land which is part of the year 
under water and part of it dry. ^^Hh doras, or (in Patna and Gaya) 
^•^T"^ dorsabi, and (in South Bhagalpur) ■qK?Tf«?t parsoti, and also- 

21 



162 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

TT 't)»«fcA<!i panchhatail in Tirhut, is a clayey loam ; while «i<«i'\i"^< 
hahundar (see sandy soils for other names) is a fine sandy loam. In 
Champaran ^*Tifl^ babhni is a light red soil. 



CHAPTER IV.— SOILS AND WATER ACTION. 

788. Land thrown up by fluvial action is »r^ ^TK gangbardr (also 
spelt <mK. barar) , and that cut away fv^ f^^f^ gang sikast. *|<,«( chhdran is 
land left by the retrocession of a river, zpr tanr in South- West Shah- 
abad, and ^revin: imtpar in South-East Bihar, is newly-formed land so 
situated as to receive an annual accretion of alluvial deposit ; but in 
Saran and South Tirhut TTz^trsi; patpar is barren alluviated land. In 
Saran ^rnr^ mamas is rich alluviated land. In Tirhut, Patna, Gaya, 
and the south-east «fft tari means moist soil in hollows and at the foot 
of slopes. It also even means water. Thus they say, ' Are you going 
Tf^ tari (by water) or ti^^ khusM (by land) ? ' In Saran <l-^;TqT^ 
taryani is similarly used, er'ct tari is also applied to lands recovered by 
retrocession of a river. In Shahabad they are wr^R hhdgar, and in the 
south-west of that district fifw^^f^ziT chhichhlahiya. They are also 
called ^TTT chharan. ^?rt diyar or f^^lTTT diyara is fresh land thrown 
up by the shifting of the course of a river. In Patna, and also in 
Champaran, it is called ft[^TT diara, in South-West Shahabad ^fWi dila, 
in South Hunger •^hcT dira, and in South Bhagalpur -^To dlra. 
The alluvial deposit left by rivers while still wet is called ^^t kadai, 
W^tX. kaddi, or ^if^ pdnk or ■qif pank (see § 789). Land rendered 
useless by deposits of sand is called ^Ykt ^t^ kora hal (in Saran) 
and ^^TT balan (North-West Tirhut). 



CHAPTER v.— MUDDY AND "WATER-LOGGED SOILS. 

789. Land in the bed of a tank is in Patna and Gaya «i^ 
tari. In Shahabad it is ^^ kinch, and to the west generally 
■^^ f%^^ kdno kichehar. Marshy or muddy soils and quagmires 
are *n^ bhds and "^^n^ dalki to the west and in Patna, and the latter 
also in Gaya and South Hunger. In Tirhut, Saran, and Patna they are 
^^rr^^ daldal, in Patna and Shahabad "^f^rsTT pankha, and in the south- 
west of the last district xf ^t^ khanchra. Lands usually" saturated with 
water are TT'lifllx: panmar north of the Ganges, ^^KT sugra in South- 



RAVINES AND MOUNDS, &C. 163 

West Shahabad, fy ^ i ■^ sinrSh in the rest of the district, ffl^TTT sirdha 
in Patna and South Hunger, 'fffT sira in South Bhagalpur, 
and ^wi( sent in Gaya. ■y^siT dha&na is land liable to be submerged. 
It is called ^^ gaunehi in Gaya and si^rnf^ jalki in South-West 
Shahabad ; in South Munger it is ^^ gaunehhi. The old dry bed of 
a river is mK^ ehJiaran or (in North Tirhut) ^ncT maran. Other 
names are ^^ ham- in Patna and Shahabad and *rh: jhor in the 
south-west of the last district, nf^ pdnk, tjt^b^ pdnki, or "f^ panh is 
earth wet and soft so as to yield to the tread, adhesive and rotting. 
Nothing will grow in it. ?5T^ kado, ^f^ hadoi, or ^i^ kadai, is 
mud in which crops will grow. 



CHAPTER VI.— HIGHLANDS AND LOWLANDS. 

790. Highlands, as contrasted with river valleys, are ^qx^^K 
uparwdr in Patna and to the north-west, ^^^'^w baharbMm in South 
Tirhutj and vjmv^ t i. uprdr in East Tirhut. South of the Ganges 
fV'^W dihdns is used in Patna, erf tdnr in Gaya and South Munger, 
^^ dil in Shahabad, and ^l^"? dlh in South Bhagalpur. In Haza- 
nbagh other names are ^^i^ uchas and ^^^^ dliibar. In South 
Munger »rr^ gdd is the corresponding word for a lowland. »ft^ 
jhil or "ff k: chaunr, or in Saran ^rnf hdchh, is low marshy land. In 
Patna, Gaya, and South Munger it is sn^yaA. M^ man is a large sheet 
of water of considerable depth, and in Tirhut ^n^ jdn is similar but 
something smaller, iiw khdl, ^tsiv<jT khalwa, or in the north-west 
«3^K khaldr or '§'5fT khalhar, is a hollow with or without water. 



CHAPTER VII.— RAVINES AND MOUNDS, &c. 

791. Land cut by ravines and broken ground is ft'^g hihar or (in 
Gaya) ^Vl^ blhanr. In South Bhagalpur it is ^fr^^ arian. The 
elevated soil in the midst of ravines is 'b^ dhuh or s'^ dhuki in 
South- West Shahabad, ^t^ dll in the rest of the district, Tiv^ j tilha 
in Patna, Gaya, and South Munger, and fz^ tikkar in South 
Bhagalpur. 

792. In Patna, Gaya, and South Munger ^'^^ tanrua or srr^ 
ndla is a ravine. The latter word is also current to the west, and 
is only used when the ravine is also a water-course. In the south-east 



164 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

the word is ^f^ dam: ^? ^T^ST derh kana is also used in Patna. 
Uneven groxind is ^Vc ^TVK uhliar kh&bar to the north-west and in 
South-East Tirhut, and itz^^t matha or ST^T dabar (also in Champaran) 
in North-East Tirhut. South of the Ganges we have '^mx ^j^x ubar 
khdhar in Patna, Gaya, and South Hunger (also noted in Saran)> 
^^ ItT^ uiwh hhal in Patna and to the west, ^^T ^TXf ukhar khdhar 
in Shahahad, and ^^^^ n<;hU in South Bhagalpui-. A high river 
bluff is *<.T<T kardra, ^j?xi arra, ^xjx ardr, ^X^K araii or «(rwi^ 
kachhdr or '^WT^l kachhdra. Other names are '^t^ dhdh (north 
generally) and ^jr1%^T kanganiya (North-Bast Tirhut). The sloping 
bank of a river is in Shahabad «n:»f%Tr?; tctisitrd'i, and in South 
Munger ^f^ tari. 

793. A mound generally is fe^fT tilha, or in South Munger fz«^T 
^ry^x. tillia takar. In South- West Shahabad it is's^ dhuh,'^^ dlmhi 
(also in Saran), «T^ dil, or f^ST dilla, in the rest of that district ^f^ 
tlpur, and in South Bhagalpur f^^x. tikor or fi*<; tikkar. In South- 
West Shahabad Tz'irc'^ patpari is a hill with a flat top. The sites of 
ruined villages are ^^ dih ; also ^Wt bhUha in South Munger. The 
sites of old villages are often covered with potsherds, hence such sites 
are also called fd*.<lf thikrdhu in Patna, fe^r^^ thikraiil in Saran, 
fe^f^^TT thikariya to the east, f»5^^K jhiktaur in Patna, Gaya, and 
Champaran, f^^^^ sikraur or f»ir?iT^ jhikraur in Shahabad, and 
f»ii<».fi*JT jhiktiya in South Bhagalpur, the words for potsherds being 
fw^-ij jhikta, fis^ii^ jhikti, or aW': thlkar or fdHi^gi thikra, also f%^sfT 
sikra in Shahabad and {MRi«Tr Jhikra to the west. 



CHAPTER VIII.— STONY SOILS. 



794. Gravelly soils axe **«<.l^ kankrdhi in Saran and Patna, 
■^S^^^ ankrail in Saran, and "^Ni^TT ankraur to the west. Gravel 
generally is in Patna and to the west ^iVf dniar, and to the east 3i^=z 
gang at ; also everywhere ^ilp^ kanhar. In Champaran and Tirhut 
it is x^^ inkri, and in Champaran and Gaya ^ch-J?!' jhikti or "^iKXHi 
gardngat. Coarse gravel is in Shahabad '^^^T ankra, and fine "^^^ 
ankri. To the south-east it is »i»j-zt gangta and ^n'^i'r^ gangti. Soil 
mixed with coarse gravel is «n^i^*rr^T gangtiydha in Patna, Gaya, and 
South Bhagalpur, and ?r»l~aT^ gangtdha in Patna and South Mimger. 
MzH chatdii is a hard rocky soil. Other names are ^Wr dohar in 
South- West Shahabad, and ■<r?r^'^K pathrehar in South Mixnger. 



FALLOW. 165 

CHAPTER IX.— CULTIVATED AND WASTE. 

795. Classifying soils according to cultivation, we have cultivated 
land known as ^xt^ abdd or ^^TP^ abadi. It is also known in the 
south-east and Gaya as 'T? pah, in Patna as ifNt ^3T^t^ Mil baithdol, 
and Shahabad as ^<5|.«K khilmar. 

796. An inhabited village is ^•^^«T basgit or «i^»fft basti, and a 
deserted village ? w«jt he chhappar (unroofed), and also in South 
Hunger . fsrfVTT'ft' nichirdld (without a light) and in Gaya ^*t^t 
damka. Other names for the latter are ^3ar^ ujar, ^SoTiK^ ujral, 'TJlTf 
ujar, 'd'Ji '^ ^ l vjra or (optionally in Tirhut) ^^ dih. 

797. Waste land is ^^^c^ parlt (Patna, Gaya, and South Munger) 
or t<<««n parti. Land which has accidentally gone out of cultivation 
is specially TCTa par at is. Saran, ^<|«| parata to the north-west, and 
M<,Tf( pardnt or TTK^fTT parta in North Tirhut. Waste land broken 
up for the first time is 'IW kftU, or in the south-east f^^«B3 khilkat 
or ftr^^ khilkatti. In Tirhut it is also called fws'rn: hhilmdr. 
The second year after it is broken up it is ^1^ hhil to the north-west, 
T?"? pah in Tirhut, Shahabad, and the south-east, and tt^ pauh in 
Patna and South Munger. The third year it is called ^«T khet or 
(in Champaran) 't^ pahi, and North-Bast Tirhut ^% pah. 



CHAPTER X.— FALLOW. 

798. Land left fallow for sugar-cane from the previous spring 
harvest till the season for sowing the cane is called irar^ maghdr, 
&c., see § 805. Land left uncropped in the autumn harvest and 
ploughed during the rains for the cereals of the spring harvest follow- 
ing is ^T^T^ chaumds, and to the west also ^^f^x. palihar. Those lands 
on which a spring crop is sown without any interval after the autumn 
crop is cut are called sfT^ ndri in Patna and South Munger, and sr^ 
jari or oT^ %Kjari khet elsewhere south of the Ganges and in Saran. 
Waste lands which are ploughed up during the rains and cold weathei: 
and sown in rice at the commencement of the next rainy season are 
called ^ttprr ^^ire dotra ehaumas in North- West Tirhut, aiafrff gajdnr 
in South-Bast Tirhut, ftfK h'lrdr in South-Bast Bihar, and ^^^.-^ x: 
kulhar in the south-west. 

799. Lands left fallow for a time to recover their strength are 
Tn?fl^ parti generally. Other names are ■RX.T«rr parta in North Tirhut 



166 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

and "gf^ chaneh in South Bhagalpur. Land which never lies fallow is 
^^TX abddoT ^^T^ abddi. Another name is'^a^^ ufhti in Champaran. 
North of the Ganges ^^'t rulii or (to the east) ^[^ runni is poor-light 
land which requires to be left fallow for a year or two. It also 
means land which has lost its fertility. Other words in use are 
»jr^ jhus and ^^^'fi haluk to the north-west and in Patna, >s^ jhusi 
in North-East Tirhut, sfts'l' korhi in Patna, ^fw chhdnchh in Gaya, 
^^^rr^ hangrdh to the south-west of that district, fJTf^T "ft^ tUiya 
korhi in South Munger, and ^^ti?^ algi in South Bhagalpur. 



CHAPTER XI.— EICHNESS AND POORNESS OF SOIL. 

800. ^Itvk bariydr or Tf •^T gahra, or in South Munger oj^^ 
jaiyad, is the general term used for rich soils. Others are "^vxjigar 
(Patna) and "g^^T chokJia (North- West, Gaya, and South Munger). 
Poor soils are "^^^ haluk (North-West Bihar), xf^ >•«»«« (see § 799), 
' c<M.«) T -^ tapndh (North-East Tirhut), and cP? thas, ^«^ abbar (also in 
Champaran), or ^^^ usath south of the Ganges. 



CHAPTER XII.-IRRIGATED AND DRY LANDS. 

801. Land artificially irrigated is 'T^t^t pataiia or v^s^^pataui to 
the west. Other local names are ■^^TTr patauna South-East Tirhut, and 
^ZT^t^ patdol North-East Tirhut and va^'^f patdhudn in Shahabad. 
In Gaya it is '5'«i-f^%2 hathghiset, and in South- West Shahabad 1?^^ 
bharaiya. Land irrigated from tanks or ponds is ^'R^ chhdnan in Saran 
and Patna, ■««V^ phor in South- West Shahabad, and elsewhere south 
of the Ganges a^t^t^ melwdni or (South Bhagalpur) ^ <jH«n meldni. 
When irrigated from wells it is ^i^n"^ mohcahi to the west. Un- 
irrigated land, or land which does not require irrigation, owing to its 
being, or its capability of being, flooded is ^tirar ajita. If watered after 
ploughing, it is fwtx^i^ chhirikni to the west, "T^^f pachauan in 
South-West Shahabad, and vir^T panaula in the rest of that district, 
fjnrfsr^ nipaniyan are in Patna unirrigated crops. In South Munger 
lands which require irrigation are ^sn runa, and there and in Saran 
those which produce crops without irrigation are ^^Wt halhi. 



TERMS USED IN CONNECTION WITH DIFFERENT CROPS. 167 

CHAPTER XIII.— LANDS WHICH RETAIN AND WHICH 
DO NOT EETAIN MOISTURE, 

803. This is the division most common amongst natives them- 
selves. The moisture in land is '^t^ hdl. Land which does not 
retain it is ^an: hangar, and that which does is ^W bhith, or in 
North Saran ^mra' bhath. Under these divisions come other suh- 
divisions, such as "^^^ ^f^ balua hangar (which is sandy), vfz^iT 
^VK matiyar hangar (which is clayey), and so on, and ^^^T ^W 
halua hhUh, wfrsixx: m^ matiyar bhlth, and so on. Crops on hangar 
lands cannot he cultivated without irrigation, and the expense of cul- 
tivation is therefore greater, but the yield more than compensates 
the outlay, being a third, and sometimes double the amount of hhllh 
produce. The latter lands are sometimes irrigated and sometimes not. 



CHAPTER XIV.— LANDS BEARING A SINGLE AND A DOUBLE 

CROP. 

803. Lands which produce only one crop in the year are iJ<ti>^Rj<di 
ekphasila or ^r^Tqift^ ekphasili. In Champaran they are called jJ^rr- 
"fff^^ eksaliya. "gxTW chaumas lands (also called Trfe'^X palihar to the 
west) are kept free from crop during the rains, and tUled for the cold 
vyeather crop. Lands bearing two crops in the year are <(t4ifij««iT 
doplutsila or ^t^ft^ dophasili, or in Champaran ^t9f%^T dosaliya. 
In South Bhagalpur they are •^ft^Tsr dosal. Land on which crops are 
grown all the year round is fJffri^f^T tinphasila. 



CHAPTER XV.— TERMS USED IN CONNECTION WITH DIF- 
FERENT CROPS. 

804. The following terms are used in connection with different 
crops. 

805. Sugar-cane. — Land prepared for this crop is ^^tV ukhanw 
or ''3W[^ ukhdo. Land constantly ploughed for cane or any other crop 
from Asarh to Magh are ii^Trr maghat in South-East Tirhut, ^r^f 
or *fmi maghdr in Saran, Patna, and South Munger, w^r^ maghra in 
Gaya and the south-west, and ^Tf^T maghua in South Bhagalpur. 
Land under cane is ^3^1X^ ukhdri in Shahabad. «i3r^ir jathhan in 
South Munger is land cropped in the previous year with cane. 

806. Cereals. — Tvfai-*ii harjima are those lands which grow all 
crops except transplanted rice. 



168 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

807. Garden crops. — Land suited for growing garden crops is ^tTK 
kordr in Patna and to the west and *lf<.«jR koriydr in Patna and (Jay a. 
Other names are ^"tXTZ kordnt (South Tirhut), ^f^^r^ kairiydr 
(Shahabad), %X^ bdri in Tirhut, and ^rfhrr^ latihdid in South 
Munger. These names apply rather to the use to which the land 
is put than to the kind of soil, most of them being connected with 
the word ctTl^^*! ko'iri, which is the name of a well-known caste of 
garden cultivators. 

808. Cotton. — In Shahabad the following kinds of land are suited 
for the various kinds of cotton : — 

Cotton. iMnd. 

(1) jSs^I rarhiya -^xM karail. 

(2) ^^T^ hanrchha VteK kordr. 

(4) ««l^f manicdn •r^'«<f€i nadwdnsi. 

809. /'i;/ses.— Land under gram is called ^«rT chaita in South 
Bhagalpur. 

810. Maizes, millets, <fie.— Land under these crops is^tg^T datura 
north of the Ganges. The word means properly land in which both 
a rainy season and a cold weather crop can be sown. 

811. Spring crops.— Light friable soil suitable for tbese crops is 
called ^^ bhlth or ^st bhUIia, also in Gaya f«3TXT bhithdra. See, 
however, § 802. 

812. nice. — Eiee land is ^sit?T dlmnhar. In Qaya it is called 
^•r f*«lTC^ dhan My art, and in South- West Shahabad fc|«(«yx dhavkliar. 

813. Land under trees, brushwood, &c. — Forests are ^?i ban or 
vf^-^ j'angal. A grove ismf^ bagaicha or VT^ gdchJd. trt bdg is 
a garden, and ^fii^T bagiya an orchard. *«!(»^l^ lilmlicdri is an 
orchard, enclosed, irrigated, and stocked with fruit-trees. A ^rr^ ^T?r 
khdne bdg in Champaran and Patna or •loiK TT^ nnjar bdg in Gaya 
and Shahabad is a grove attached to a shrine or other building and 
growing flowers as well as fruit. 

814. A mango grove is ^T^ % "^ly^ dm ke bagaicha, or in Tirhut 
ifV^gdchhi; a clump of bamboos is ^T^ ^ -^^ bans ke kot//i in the 
north-west, ^^?T^ hanswdri north of the Ganges generally, and ^t^^ 
^W bdnsak bUh in North-East Tirhut. In Patna it is ^^ baser, in South- 
West Shahabad tJ^'^^tt baiiswdr, and elsewhere south of the Ganges 
^^Tf bjsdr. In South Bhagalpur it is also called ^^t bUo and 



LAND IMPREGNATED WITH SALT, &C. 169 

in TirLut ^^ odh. A young grove of fruit-trees is t^^^ gachhuli 
north of the Ganges, also »n'';'nfl' naurdhi in Champaran, «Kt5 
naroi in Champaran and Tirhut, and ^fw JI^^ lab gachhuli or •!? 
?r5=^ naw gachhuli in Tirhut, Another name is T? ^^ naiv pera. 
South of the Granges it is «^jrn^ laugachhi to the south-east, %^Tr^ 
kerwdri in Shahabad, "KIt nardin in Patna and South Hunger, and 
'ft%fT 'TJT'^T naulcera bagaicha in Gaya. A belt of trees on either 
side of a road is Mtrtt pdnti or ■uf*nrr€t pantiydn, and also «a<si-<.T<T 
lakhrdnw to the west and '':rhc(\ pdnta in Tirhut. 

815. Land producing brushwood is is^jhdra (Ssran and Patna) 
OT'^'f fws^ ban chhihuU (South- West Shahabad). Brushwood . is »jiTX: 
jhdr, m.'fT jharha, or to the north-west and in Patna and South 
Hunger vsxjhur. Small stunted brushwood is »5(g^ jhakhuli or »B^5^ 
jhakhuri north of the Ganges and in Patna, ■^sft raunji in Patna, and 
»fiK»«i?t jharkanti in South- West Shahabad. Land producing tall 
thatching-grass is 'SfT''; kharhaur or ^sj^ kharhaul, or south of the 
Ganges ^^^ khardhur. Other names are gorr^^ mujwdni, ^s^rr^ 
kanrwdni in the north-west, and jars^nT munjican in Shahabad. In 
South Hunger it is ^sxsx kharaitha. The principal of these grasses are 
^ix pater, 'mx. khar or 'T^?; kharal, XT^ rdri, ^rv^ ddhhi, T^\ ikkar or 
^l^'^t ikn, »faj munj or vf^j^ jhalds. Of the last, Woi munj is properly 
the bark used for making string, H<A\*i jhalds the leaves used for 
making rough thatches, ^ffT kanra the stout lower part of the stalk 
used for roof-thatching, and f^^«^ sirki the upper or reed part used 
for making sieves and mats. Reeds are •r^^^rz narkal, and the land 
producing them is •rK«tiT«r narkdn in Champaran. 



CHAPTER XVI.— LAND IMPREGNATED WITH SALT, &c. 

816. Land impregnated with impure carbonate of soda t^ {reh) 
is «w: usar or ^^'^ ussar. Other names are 'C^T? rehdh or x'^X^ rehdr 
(East Tirhut) and "C^^^^ rehra (Patna, Gaya, and South Hunger). 
'HT^ khdri or (Sputh Bhagalpur) ^Xjm khartca is land impregnated 
with sulphate of soda. -^M^t noni south of the Ganges is land 
impregnated with common salt. Other names are srffst^r? noniydh, 
•rffsTTT^t noniydri, and «n«i»<<l ^ nonchhardh. In South- West Shah- 
abad "^Tl chdmp, and in the rest of the district "^ff^ chdndil, is 'smr 
iisar land, in which spots of good ground are scattered. 

22 



DIVISION IV. 



GENERAL AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS. 



SUBDIVISION I. 
PLOUGHING AND HARROWING. 



CHAPTER I.— PLOUGHING AND HARROWING. 

817. To ploughis'ST ^Vcpr Aflryo^rtS, ^x: ^^? har bahdb, or ^< 
^ranr^ har chalaeh. "?T TT?^ hor nddhah is properly to yoke the oxen to 
the plough (also called gx~^ larni in Champaran and South-East 
Tirhut) . Other expressions for ploughing are f%TTW^ % ^x:^ sirdur 
ke dharal or ^fx^T % ^1«r^ sariya he jotal in Champaran, ""T^' ^^\^ pais 
dharah (or ^'w ^K^ puis dharab in North-East Tirhut) in Champaran 
and Tirhut, and ^f^sf *l<**iH dahin dhareao in Champaran and 
South-East Tirhut. One ploughing is ■^TH' chds, and in Gaya and 
to the west also ^f^ bdnh : thus, tt^ ^T? ek bank the first ploughing, 
^ ■^% do bdnh the second ploughing, and so on. 

818. The first ploughing is called irf^^ ^m^aAi'/ chds or ''CTi'^ 
pharni. In Gaya and Champaran it is >*|T«< phdran. Lands sown 
after a single ploughing are «t^n%r bhokaiia in the north-west and 
qi^d T ■^v^jota bdwag in Champaran and Tirhut. vrsx^ ^^ti{^ maghdr 
jotab is north of the Ganges and in Patna and Gaya the ploughing in 
the month of Magh (January- February) of lands intended to be sown 
at the next rainy season. In East Tirhut and Champaran this is 
also called "^TinW 5i1«R chaumdns jotab. In Gaya and Champaran 
it is also fl^f T "^I^ maghra chds, in Shahabad ^ra^g^ maghwat, and 
in the south-west of that district g>ts»-«\. kulhar. In South Bhao-alpur 
it is *fi^ ^TO mdghi chds, and in South Munger •^^T^ maghdr. 
The field which is thus ploughed is f^^nx birdr to the west 
and south and "T^ pah also south of the Ganges and in Champaran. 
North of the Ganges it is called ^Ti^fg chaumdns. 



172 BIHlR PEASANT LIFE. 

819. The second ploughing is ^^ircor ^^T^f doihdr. In Gaya 
and Ohamparan it is also called 5T«% purwe. Other names are ^>»n^T 
somra to the north-west and 5HTT sanidr in North-East Tii-hut, 
■^y%JX dollar in Ohamparan and North- West Tirhut, and ^'^•<.T«<^ 
dohrdwan in South-West Shahabad ; and the same names are also 
applied to the field so ploughed. In the south-east the second ploughing 
is called "^TO chds, ^^tt dokhdr being the third ploughing. 

820. The third ploughing is ^^t^c tekhdr and also (in Ohamparan) 
^^[T?j tekhra. To the west it is also "ci'^«<M»f tehrdwan. In the 
south-east it is ^t^T^ dokhdr. The same terms are \ised for the land 
80 ploughed. 

821. The fourth ploughing is in East Tirhut and Gaya "gj^-^ 
chaukhdr, and in Shahabad, Gaya, and South Bhagalpur ■qTr^^ 
charchasi. Elsewhere it is ^n: ^W chdrchds; so also the land so 
ploughed. 

822. The fifth ploughing is m«i«-^ w pdwihds. 

823. The phrase used for successive ploughing is jr^ "qTO ek chds, 
■^ ^^TH du ch&s, and so on. Theoretically there is no limit to the number 
of ploughings required for some crops, as is shown in the following 
rhyme current in Gaya : — 

^T ^^ T'^, Sau chds ganda, 

■q^T'? '^7¥ w^ST, Pachas chds manda, 

^^n: ^T^ '?t^ Tekar adha mori, 

^^tr '^T^ ^"^ Tekar ddha tori. 

— A hundred ploughings for cane, fifty for wheat, half that (25) for 
rice, and half that (12^) for oilseeds. 

824. The ploughing of millets, when they are about a foot high, is 
ft^T^ hiddh, a local variant being ft^"?.^ bidahni in Ohamparan, 
West Tirhut, Patna, and the south-east. In Gaya and Ohamparan 
it is ^^•i koran, and in South Munger, when hoeing is substituted 
for ploughing, it is ^■^••Tl korni. When a rice-field is flooded and 
then ploughed to kill the weeds, the process is called %i^ leo in the 
north-west, &^T letca in Gaya, and ^T^ kddo or q«^-?T kadwa to the 
north-west and in Tirhut. In North- West Tirhut it is called WWT^ 
masdh. 

825. In Saran and Ohampsrau ploughing with a plough of which 
the block is new and full-sized is si^^rr % sfttr nawtha he jot, and 



PLOUGHING AND HARROWING. 173 

■with one wHch has a small worn block fe«tT^ ^ sTtH khinauri he 
jot. In Tirhut and also in Champaran the oorresponding words are 
respectively ^RT3T ^ arfn fotrf/^a ke jot diadi '^tn ^ 5rt«T thentlia ke jot, 
and in Shahabad ■'(^'^•^ nawahra and ^^'^TTT khuntehra. 

826. In rice cultivation, after sowing, the field is lightly 
reploughed to clear the weeds and cover the seed. This is called ^•ir-? 
unah to the north-west and in North-West Tirhut, Jtan: gajar in the 
North-East Tirhut, and ^wtt samdr in Champaran and South-Easfc 
Tirhut. In Patna it is g^'? samah, in Graya ftKT? birah, to the west 
and in Patna and Gaya f^^T^ biddh, and in Champaran and to the 
south-east f<(<,'^«'<?t bidahni. 

827. The small pieces of the field which the plough has not 
touched are ■'j^ pais in Champaran and South- W^st Tirhut and gi;^ 
puis in North-East Tirhut. In North-West and South-East Tirhut 
, and in Champaran they are ^f%«]T dahina, and in Saran and Champaran 

^3^ ^W ehhutal khet, 

828. Cross-ploughing is ^i < t ara, or in Champaran and South 
Bhagalpur ^tk ar. and in South-East Tirhut n^XK samdr. "When a 
field is ploughed round and round in constantly diminishing circuits, 
it is called '^l5i<n chauketha or (in Patna) ^^tjar chauetha, ^5TK*t "^TO dri 
chas in Gaya, 'gl«m»^ chaubagli in Champaran and Gaya, and ^Jifr^rr 
ehaugathiya or "^T^ chauk to the west. In Saran and Champaran it is 
"giii^ chaugeth, in South Hunger »rFferr bliaunrlya, and in North-West 
Tirhut ^T%K chauker. The centre plot in the middle, round which the 
bullocks have no room to turn, is called ^<.-<r^ badhdr, and this is 
furrowed by taking the plough across it diagonally from corner to corner. 
Ploughing from corner to corner is ^ftfinrisrttT Aone^ayo^ or ^tT /to», 
also ■*l«i«*rt' konsi in South Hunger, ^'1^f%'?T konasiya in Champaran and 
South- West Tirhut, ^f)^ koni in Gaya, and ^siT ^^ kona koni 
to the west. When a crookedly-shaped field has to be ploughed, it is 
called ^•rr ^f't whr una dyorhi jot in Saran and Patna and ^wre^ arftfr 
iina derhi jot in Champaran. When a rectangular field is ploughed 
straight along its length or breadth, the ploughing is called g'l'^^T 
^t«l sojhaua jot. Other names current are s^ix tharhdin in Patna and 
Champaran and aff^T tharhiya to the west. Ploughing breadth- 
ways is ^\<\ phdni in Saran and North-West Tirhut, Mii.«fl phatki in 
Champaran and the south-east, ^s^T 'HT^ una pMni in Patna, and ■^f^^ 
phandiya in South- West Shahabad. 



174 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

829. The' following rule is ciirrent in North- East Bihar as to 
ploughing and harrowing : — 

^'j^ «i5 ^tf% sirrf «T" ^% ^l^o JTK II 
Thorjotiha bahut hengdiha, uneh he bandhiha dr, 
Upje ta lypje nahln, ta Ghdghe dilia gar. 

— Plough little, harrow much, and have your field boundaries high. 
If what should come does not then do so, you can abuse Grhagh (who 
gives you this advice). 

830. A harrow is ^^T lienga, &c., as described in § 30 and fi". To 
harrow is ^<iiVf hengdeb, ^?rT "g^rP"^ lienga chaldeb, or "^T^ ^**ii'«« 
chauki ghuma'eb. The act of harrowing is in Gaya -qr^ra pdlat. 

831. The oxen attached to a harrow have various names. The one 
on the left-hand side is called t^T? panchaut or ^^•<r^«lT kurdahina, 
and the one next to him "?^^t hathaua. The right-hand ox is ^Xl 
phera, or in South Munger w^rjff bhasni. 



CHAPTER II.— FIELDS. 

832. A field is ^w khet. Other names also current are zlM*^ 
topri and Tpft' pdri south of the Ganges, a1m.<i topra to the west, 
and yT'K dabar in Champarah and Gaya. In South Bhagalpur the 
words ^IT^ bdri and ^f^*(K bahiydr are used. Beds made in a field to 
facilitate irrigation and for other purposes are R>*) | C1 kiydri, and 
also in Champaran ^rar^ gJiardri, in Patna and to the south-east ^fT^ 
ganrdri, and in Gaya flfT^ genrdri. Similar beds in a sugar-cane field 
are called "^TfiT WTWT hdta tcdla to the north-west and in Gaya 
and North-West Tirhut, and affix: jhor or »rhCT jhora south of the 
Ganges. In the north-west »s1xT jhora is a large bed, and so also 
are q^^^T pahta in Gaya, Saran, and Champaran, ifwT pariya in South- 
West Tirhut, -^^ dawan in Champaran and North- West Tirhut, and 
f**Jr<T kiydra or ^^ bher in East Tirhut. The raised banks between 
the irrigation beds are ^^ menr in the north-west and ^tt dr in 
Tirhut. In Shahabad, Patna, and Gaya they are *<,.^t karlia, and in 
Patna and Gaya q<,«JfT panrga, in South Bhagalpur 1^^ palanga, 
and in South Munger ^TT daug. North of the Ganges a plot marked 
off by a boundary is ^T»rr ?T^ hdta wdla in the north-west and South 
Mimger and ^^^ ^T^ chharki bdla in East Tirhut. The small patch 



BOUNDARIES. 175 

of ground adjoining a house is ^t^ kola, sfft^ koli, or ^ift^^mt; kohcdi 
to the north-west, and ^r^ bari in Champaran and Tirhut. ^Wr hola 
also obtains in Shahabad and the south-east. In Saran and Patna it is 
^15 khand or ^^ khanr (which properly means aruined^ojiae), and 
in Gaya ^^^fl gheioari. Other optional names are ^^ galli in South 
Bhagalpur and ^1«rr^ kondsi in Shahabad. When the fields of one 
proprietor's share are scattered over a village, each is called Jm^aT 
takhta or f^rar kitta. The whole cultivation of such a proprietor is 
called %ff^ ^T^ kheti bdri to the west and in Tirhut ; also ^ff <i(*lK khet 
hadhdr in Shahabad and Patna, and #3 T^nx khet patMr in Champaran 
and South Munger. In Patna aad Graya ^jw khandh, ^^!{ khandha, 
fVsTT kitta or f^KWX kita, is a large area of cultivated land. A division 
of this is W^z khandhaut, which is agaiu divided into fields. 



CHAPTER III.— BOUNDARIES. 

833. The low ridge which forms the boundary of a field is every- 
where ^nx ar, ^Tfx or '^TT^ dri, as in the proverb ^ifx ^Ti: W? *m< 
tjtTal', '^^ "K^ '^Xr^T%, dri jai ta kapar lathi, hlch banga charwdhi, 

if you go on a field boundary have a stick (to protect) your head, (and 

then) you may graze your cattle in the midst of a cotton-field. North 
of the Granges it is also called ^%^ danrer. Other names are ^^s^ 
ahri (see §919), '^^^ alang, or Tnj3 pardnth'vi Patna, Gaya, and 
the south-west ; vx:i»rT panrga, ^^T^ ganrdri, ^X^M ail, or ^T^ dl in 
Gaya and South Munger, and ^^ ddnr in South- West Shahabad. 
A ditch boundary is ^ kha%, ^TT khdi. Win khatta, or ^rnrf khdtcdn. 
Another name is ^sfiT khanta in South Bhagalpur. In Gaya 
district irtw^xT dobhra is a small ditch. An embankment used as a 
boundary is ^^xr ahra (see § 919) or ^f^ bdndh. Other names are 
vfxj^^ bharban (Champaran), -^ dhur (North Tirhut), and *<.<»?1 
cMiarki (South-East Tirhut). A place where three boundaries meet 
is fiWf^ft^ tinkoniya, and where four meet ^^^ chaumukh, ^'^«((i*<T 
chaubatiya, or.^xrrr chaurdha. In Champaran and South-Bast Tirhut 
it is also '^TTf chaiqyar. 

834. The rural Bihari lays great stress on the importance of 
keeping these boundary embankments in order. Thus, there is a 
proverb aiR't "^^ft? =tT«i< ; ^ifx^ '^+<5) f**JT«t thank chukal bdnar, drik 
chukal kisdn, — a cultivator who neglects to look after his boundary 
embankments becomes like a monkey fallen from a branch. Another 



176 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

proverb wliioh may be noted here is %«t ^?t%, ^tIx "tl^*^ khet bhase dri 
kori, — the field is flooded, cut the boundary embankments, i.e., passion 
must have its vent. 



CHAPTER IV.— FURROWS. 

835. A furrow is "^KTT harai to the west. In Champaran and 
Tirhut it is fiiV T 'd^ siraur, in Patna fiC t ^ siror, and elsewhere T^XJK 
siraur. In Gralya another name is ^^TeT sewdt. *Ff»5«IT jhanjhiya or 
•^Ttt dhdri in Gaya and Saran, and ■^t ghal in Patna and South- 
East Tirhut, are the deep furrows in a field in which extra crops 
are grown, especially those at the edge of the field, or running from 
cornet to comer. 

836. The deep furrow used as an irrigation channel is ^'ncT dra in 
the north-west, ^-^ pain or ^^1^ paini generally, ^bk daungar in South 
Tirhut, Patna, and Gaya, TT^t nari or WKP^ karha to the west and in 
Patna and Gaya, ^tTT ihzta in East Tirhut, and -^ir daug in Patna 
and to the south-east. 



CHAPTER v.— MISCELLANEOUS TERMS USED IN CONNECTION 

WITH PLOUGHING. 

837. To the west ^7^% sdnjh le, •ff'B^T sanjhiya, and 'laj«'^f<t|T 
sanjhariya mean ' up to evening,' or ' at evening ' and hence are used 
as adjectives with the word ^ft^ jot to signify as much land as can be 
ploughed in a day. In Champaran and South Munger this is 
^f'^fX'n' sagardiua, and in Patna 3^fif ft^ thaktiariya. The area 
ploughed in half a day is called ^tr^ix^T dopahariya. 

838. The portion of land included in a plough circuit is ^BTffK 
dntar, and also to the north-west and in North-East Tirhut '^fr 
hattha, and to commence another circuit is <(t*J< «<(Tc(< •qT^ dosar dntar 
dharab. The place where ploughing is going on is "^T7^T?^ harwdhi 
in Patna and north of the Ganges. In Shahabad it is ■^<««<T-^ 
harwanhi. In Patna it is stqi^T topra, and generally ^^tht hardtha. 

839. The first ploughing of the season is '^x::^s«?T harmahutar in 
Saran and "^X'»fNr^a^ hannohtar in Patna and Gaya. It is also ^^ris«t 
samhut, and to the north r*J <.rM-<< •*?! sirpanchmi or f%Ti'T^i; sirpachat, 
both the last two terms being derived from the festival of the sri 



PLOUGHMEN AND AGRICULTURAL LABOURERS GENERALLY. 177 

panchami. In South Munger it is ^^ h-^tIT Jiar tiiahaniar or ^^ ^iT«T 
Aar samat, and in South Bhagalpur ^»rniT sonidta. Another name 
current in Saran is ^ <.«<«< harwat. 

840. The bringing home the plough on the back of a bullock or 
with the share over the shoulder is "^xt^^ harkhuli, "^T««tfe«rr 
harkhoUya, or S3<.(|j,5i^ harkhujal, and in South-East Tirhut (optionally) 
^x^JiT^ harkhugani. In South-West Shahabad it is - ^K-^^ T ^ 
harchhutao, and in the rest of the district and in Gaya ^^v^fSH 
harchhuttan. In Patna it is s^^'fit^ K harbindr or ' ^i.-afl ^TK harjodr, in 
South MTinger and Champaran ^r^'at^TT^ hnrkholdni, and in Gaya, 
Champaran, and the South-East '^T^^Wt harkhoU. 

841. The bullocks which draw a plough or harrow are called HT^ 
harad, and to the west, also ^^ hail. When it is wished to distinguish 
them specially from cart-bullocks, they are called in Champaran and 
Tirhut ^IT WT^ hattha harad, and to the north-west and in Gaya 
^^^T ■^^ harea hail. A lazy fat plough bullock, which sits down 
rather than work, is called ^(fk korhi or ^■K^^ parua, as in the proverb 
^ff ^K^ % ■^^f'C ^^»I korhi harad ken phephari hahut, — it's the 
lazy bullock that puffs and blows. 



CHAPTER VI.— PLOUGHMEN AND AGEICULTUBAI, 
LABOUKERS GENERALLY. 

842. A ploughman is ^t^^TTT harwdJia, and to the west also 
^K^TT? harwdh. In East Tirhut he is also called "^^n^ karauri. His 
wages are called •^<«<<1-^ harwdhi. An agricultural servant in general 
is >jai<r majura or ^fsr?K hanihdr. An agricultural servant engaged 
for the whole year is ^^r^X liarwar in Saran and ^K7Bf%^T hharsaliya 
in North-East Tirhut, and one for the whole day is vxT^t^T 
hhardina. A ploughman who works for half a day is ^T^Pc^T 
dupahariya or ■^'l^ft^TT dopahariya, or in North- West Tirhut tt^t-^K 
paharwdr. One who works on advances is ^jtt^^ or ^prTrrf oM 
agicar (or agwarh) jan to the north-west, **^Tl kamdi to the west, 
^ft^ kamiyai or ■<t>f«*<Y kamiydn in Patna, Gaya, and South 

Munger, and ^ng^T ^^ lagua jan generally. The last is usually 
the man who binds himself to work off a debt incurred. When 
a ploughman receives the use of a plough for one day in three 
instead of wages in cash or kind, he is called ■^n^^fw angwariya 

or '^Ts^f^^ agwariya, and to the west ■^J[»crT angwdr. In Saran 

23 



178 BlHiK PEASANT LIFE. 

and Champaran he is also called ^ij^aT tepta (so also in North-East 
Tirliut), or fir^'^ tisri or frrgft^T tisariya. In East Tirhut a plough- 
man who works without advances is called ^IT uttlia, as distinguished 
from 'ST-^T^r harwaha or "^x.iCi' luirauri, who does take them. 

843. In North-East Tirhut ttz' pat or '9Ta^ 'RTa't sa^» i»a<j is the 
custom of a plough-owner employing two ploughmen for each plough, 
each ploughman relieving the other at intervals of eight days. In 
Shahahad and Patna ^XT? harai is the custom under which every 
tenant lends his plough and bullocks to the landlord for two days 
in the year. 

844. An agricultural labourer paid in kind is stt jan, also in 
Gaya and Champaran ^awfirai uphangiya, and in South- West Shahabad 
^sfi- bani. One who receives money is 'ft^'C nokar, or in the 
north-west sniT jdna. One paid solely in cash is called ^^^T 
koranja to the north-west. In Patna, Gaya, and South Munger 
the proedial slaves who are attached to an estate, and cannot 
leave it, or marry, or in fact do anything without the consent of 
their landlords, are called ^ncx; naphar or ^fir^T kamiyan ; and food 
given to such is WWf hhaihan. A labourer who by custom works 
a certain number of days for nothing for Government (formerly, and 
for the landlord nowadays) is called ^»nx hegdr. Payments made 
in kind to agricultural labourers are called ^^ Ian, or in East 
Tirhut ^"tT hon. Advances to ploughmen are ^W!^ agwar in 
the west and ^JTT^t agauri in South-West Tirhut. Elsewhere in 
Tirhut and to the north-west they are called ^T^ harauri, and 
generally '^rg^T lagxia. 

845. When there are spare bullocks in a field where ploughing is 
going on to relieve those that get tired, the boy who looks after them 
is called ^^tr^rrf anwdh in East Tirhut ; elsewhere he is '^X'TTf T 
charwaha or jftT-^^T gwkhiya. 



CHAPTER VII.— RECIPROCAL ASSISTANCE IN CULTIVATION. 

846. 'T^^^'^iT hadlaiya &-nA -^^^^r^palta 01 ■'^xS^ palti axe terms 

for exchange of labour for labour by agriculturists. To the west 

it is also called T"? painch, in Gaya '^^^'^ badli, and to the south 

generally TTjra paeth. In East Tirhut another name is omv^'^T 

janpaincha. The practice of two or more cultivators joinino- their 



KINDS OF MANURE. 179 

ploughs and ploughing together, first the field of one and then the 
field of another, is called generally vfoj hhdnj. Other names are 
*foj''^n,*(l bhanjhariya and ^x ^^5T har sajjha to the west generally 
VSiTT^ hhanjauti in North-East Tirhut, 'ffx: v%-\ har bhanja in Patna 
and to the north, ^< n-^.e( har pahta in Champaran and Gaya, 
«f%3 hhanjeth in. South-East . Bihar, and wait bhanjo in South 
Bhagalpur. The cultivator in this case is ^ifsiT ^T^T bhanjd wdla, 
or in Tirhut *is}»r bhanjait. Another name current to the west is 
^^^^^^(XK^ angwdra, though this properly refers to the custom of paying 
ploughmen (-^JiT^f^c^ angwariya, see last chapter) hy lending them a 
plough and cattle one day in three. 

847. The work which one cultivator does for another in this way 
is called to the west 'TPTz sdpat. 



SUBDIVISION II. 
MANURING. 



CHAPTER I.— KINDS OF MANURE. 

848. Manure is north of the Ganges ^t^K hhddar, '3^^ hhadaur, 
^n?t khaddhi, or ^TsTKT gondaura to the west, andarNr goaov^xs^ karsi 
to the east. South of the Ganges, to the west, it is ^ ghur, and to 
the east (also in Saran) JlsilTT ganaura or if^lTr gandaura. ^jr 
hura, ^r^ irK«fz kura kurlcut,' ■^■^[X^f bahdran, or (in South-East 
Tirhut) TTtTT^ gonraur, is ruhhish or road-sweepings. Cowdung 
is liHx; gobar. When dried it is called south of the Ganges ■•^mhj 
damdra, of which a variant in East Tirhut is ^wi^ daindr, also in 
Shahabad and Patna ^"ST kanda, and to the west ^itT kanrra. The 
latter term is also used in Saran. In North-Bast Tirhut it is 
Jll'ftr gauthi, and in Champaran JiTat gauthi. In Gaya \^ phenti 
are pieces of dried cowdung. -gtw chot to the west is the quantity that 
falls from an animal at one evacuation. Cattle urine is »mf gaunt or 
JlTcT gaut, and to the west also ^ inut. ^^ lid, f%^ liddi, or ^^ 
Mi is the dung of horses, elephants, &c., and that of sheep or goats is 
"m^T^ bhenrari, wsfT^t bhendri, or (to the west) w^ lenri. Other filth 
of various kinds is mwt maila, or in South Bhagalpur f^firr ghina. The 
refuse of indigo after maceration used as manure-is "^^ sith. 



180 



BIHAB PEASANT LIFE. 



849. A manure heap near a house is i"'^ dheri, or (in East 
Tirhut) *n«l< gonar* North of the Granges generally it is also 
»rni man. A manure-pit is ■^ ghiir, ^TT^ khdd, or ^tT'^^ % irSJf T 
khddar ke garha. A heap of dried grass, sweepings, dung, &o., is in 
North-East Tirhut and Shahabad ^ kur. Ashes are XT^ rakh or WT^T 
chhdur, and in South Bhagalpur ^TCt chhauro. In Patna and Graya 
they are ^T^ bani. An ash-heap is in North-East Tirhut ^'PTH 
chhaurdth. 



CHAPTER II.— MODES OF MANURING. 

850. Heavily-manured land is north of the Ganges ^^? %«I 
khadaur khet, or it is called j fl'I'^^l P'g gobrael, or in South-East Tirhut 
w^^ hharal. South of the Granges it is ^^T khadaur, i^JiK 
khadgaur, or ^f^ kharit in Shahabad. 

851. The custom of allowing cattle to stand in a field for the pur- 
pose of manuring it is called north of the Granges "^^ ^^T^*^ bhenri 
baisdol ot'm'^ f^KTWf^ bhenri hirabl ; south of the Granges it is fsR^Jn: 
"^tv ^T ■^': '^'iX^^ jivgar hoe la dhur baisaol, and in South Hunger they 
say %rr ift^^CT^^ khet gobrdbe hen. 



CHAPTER III.— MANURE USED AS FUEL. 

852. Manure collected in the forests and g;ra2dng-ground8 and dried 
for fuel is called north of the Ganges 'sif •?! kanrra or chg;<^i karra. South 
of the Ganges it is 'SiTJXT damdra or ^"ST kanda. In East Tirhut it is 
^?rn: damar, and to the west it is also called f^rg^T WItbt binua goitha. 
Another general name is ^«r aft??! ban goitha. When made up into 
cakes with chaff and other refuse, the large oblong blocks are called 
j fl'^'ll gohra to the west and Jit^^T gorha in Champaran and to the east. 
The next sized round cakes which are stuck on the wall to dry are 
ifixsr gointha or ^^5:37 goitha. The smallest cakes are f^^r^^ chipri. 
The largest-sized slabs made with both hands are ^-^.q r dohthn or 
«l-^.sft sohthi. qix^g^ karsi, or in Gaya and South Hunger "^^ji^ amdri, 



* Compare for an example of tkis word the proyerb ift^TT^B 'iVnT 51 ■'^g 
f^^^ godrdk gonar duhu dis chikkan, — a gowala's dunghill is neat on both 

sides . 



SOWING. 181 

are vmmanufactured lumps of dry cowdung dried and stored. 

853. The pile of cowdung fuel is called to the west jfh?'''^ gohraur 
or JTt'^'^TT gohraura. In North-East Tirhut it is »ff^x gothaur,, in 
Champaran jHrfHI gothdula, and there and in Tirhut ZT^ tdl. It is ^^ 
chMa optionally to the west, i^ chhuJia or ^^ chhuhi in Patna and Gaya 
^■^T ^ff^*!! cMwa cAAa«»a in South Hunger, and wi^ chhdni in South 
Bhagalpur. The pile of the large oblong blocks is also called ? fl-^.<. i 
gohra or »iTxr5T gorha as above. The house in which the fuel is stored 
is Jilej]*; gothaur, Tivt^KT gothaura, or ?fN^ g'o^AaM^ generally ; also Jit^^ 
gothul in North-East Tirhut, jftsBsr gothdhul in Shahabad, and ?iT?:3T '^x 
gditha ghar in Gaya. The operation of making the cakes is ttt^ 
pdihab or ■STirra pdthal, according to locality, or else «A<*«| thokab or st=fi^ 
thokal. The place where they are made is north of the Ganges generally 
'<i^J^ pathari. South of the Ganges it is ^^v,^:\JJipathraur in the west, 
^TfT dra in Gaya, and ■qffT pdnrar in Patna. 

854. In selling cowdung fuel a ■'^pan equals 20, 22, or 23 jtst 
ganda {i.e. fours), according to locality. In buying the article in Patna 
the seller gives two cakes extra (called a x(i[j^panU) for every ^^ pan 
bought. 



SUBDIVISION III. 
SOWING AND TRANSPLANTING. 



CHAPTER I.— SOWING. 

855. Sowing is to the west ^^t^s^ hoiini, and to the east ^^tt 
bdwag, ^T^n hdbg, or ^t^jt hdug. South of the Ganges, and also in 
Champaran, it is also ^>^T?; hoai, or in Patna and South Hunger Tt^ 
honi. In South Bhagalpur (and also in Champaran) the word is ^t^^l' 
hoani. To sow is north of the Ganges, rT^^ iodl, ^t^>t ^X^ baicag 
karab, ^«r^ bunab, or ^l^ bunal, according to locality. To scatter the 
seed is generally f^^^ chhitab or ^¥^^ chhlntab. In Patna '5<«iIjj«i 
chulaeb is also used in connection with Bhaddi or autumn crops. 

856. Seed is ^^t blya or >fNsr bihan. In Gaya it is f^-^-iK^ 
bihnai (also used in Champaran), ftrwT Uchcha, or jftzT gota, and in 
South Bhagalpur f^sn^TT binhdi. A grain of seed is KV^ dana. 



182 BIHiR PEASANT LIFB. 

Barren seeds are ^*^ abbi (or in Shahabad) ■^^i awal, and fertile 
seeds are M'^Vt suggi. 



CHAPTER II.— MODES OF SOWING. 

857. The following are the modes of sowing : — 

(a) Furrow sowing.— ■sn^ dhdri ox "^fk^l dhariya. To plough 
in this way is iJT^ ^JITJJ^ dhdrl lagaeb or ^fv<( i a i 
dhariydeb. South of the Ganges this method is called 
■^3^ chutU. In this method a plough goes in 
advance of the sower, who carries the seed in a 
basket. He drops it into the furrow as soon as the 
latter becomes visible. By this method the seed is 
sown deep, the stalk is stronger, and not so liable 
to be laid by high winds. *3Tjj^ bhathdib,-^(^fK^l 
dodlmriya, ^Tr< dohar, or H*i1K samar is the practice 
of filling up with soil the furrow in which the seed 
has been sown, by ploughing a separate furrow 
beside it. This is generally done in the case of 
Bhaddi crops. Sugar-cane is not covered in this way 
in Bihar, but by hand. The long straight lines of 
seed across a field are known as vr^ dhdri or hTjTI 
pdnti. When the ploughing is done round a field, and 
not across, it is called '^^i:^ chauketha, &c. (See § 828). 

(6) Sowing by drill. — This is a^r tar, zt^" fdrl, zt'C tor, ^it^ 
tori, often spelt ziX, zre tdnr, zfr, ^^ to7ir, &c. 
To sow in this way is <JT<."«t tdrab or Z\x ^TTjr^ tor 
lagaeb. The man who works the drill-plough is «t<.»i<|-g 
tarvcdh or 2t<-«<r^ torwdh. 

(c) Broadcast sowing. — This is generally arr^ir bdwag or its 
variants, — see above. Other names are fw?! chhitla or 
fw^T chhitua north of the Ganges, and ^^fzT chhinta 
south of it. Maize and similar crops are sometimes 
sown broadcast on land left soft after an inundation, 
and are then pressed 'into the mud by baud. This 
method of sowing is called e^MT dohha, and to sow thus 
is €t*i^ dobhab. 



MODES OF SOWING. 183 

858. If the 6eed is sown on lands which have not heen 
ploughed, it is called fw?T chhitta, faf^^ chhitua, or south of the 
Ganges ^JT^i^ ^T^T jongli haicag, tttH' paira (Gaya, also in Cham- 
p§ran), or 'VXTJX pder or VMJX samdr (Patna and South Munger). iff zT 
chhlntd or f»?T chhitta is also used to signify lands in which the seed 
has been scattered after a single ploughing. It is also specially used for 
sowing the spring (■^ rahl) crops on the ^'sft^rr dophasila lands, i.e., 
those from which the autumn crop has just heen cut, as contrasted 
with the M f ^'^i; palihar or ^i«r« chaumds, which are carefully-prepared 
fallow lands for wheat and similar crops. The sowing of the early 
rice in dry lands is ^^".T^ HT^^r Itharhar hawag. North of the 
Ganges it is also gftm ^^T dhuriya bdwag. South of the Ganges 
it is in Shahabad and Patna "sxjkj tharra, in the rest of the district 
^ip^tT? khancdh, in Gaya y<«4< kharweh or ^k»% kharwe, in Patna 
^T^T haugha, and in South Munger ^^^^T dhurgJiussa. In Patna 
and Gaya sowing in a wet field is called %^ lev:a. Sowing wide 
apart is generally tiIcK pdtar. Other names are (north of the Ganges) 
■qr^TT'^ phdkdh or ■vbTh'C phdnphar to the west and ^T^ chhehar or ^XTflTT 
permdr generally. South of the Ganges we find trp?^ pdthar in Gaya, 
^tP^T patla in South Munger, and ^nfts patil in South Bhagalpur, 
the last two being also met with in Champaran. Sowing thick is 
generally wr ghan, jit? garh, or JiTfT garha. North of the Ganges 
^^^ sajor is used in the same sense. 

859. Grain that fails to germinate is ^l^ ahhi, fiiT'^fNl nirbtj, 
ftsrniTT hijmdr, or ^t^ v\x hiya mar. In South- West Shahabad it 
is «i<t^)T barua. If a man wishes to say that his seeds have not come 
up, he says "^^X ft"^«lTT TIX^ 5i^ hammar Uhnai mdral gel. 

860. "When from excess of rain followed by heat a crust is formed 
on the surface, which prevents the young plant from coming up, it is 
called to the west W<fZ aiTT«f sapatjail or ^■<t:^T oITT^ sapta jail. In 
East Tirhut and Shahabad it is called xrqi^ papri. South of the 
Ganges it is WT M T tdwa to the south-west of Shahabad, or '^'^r^si sewtha 
in the rest of the district and in Patna. Elsewhere it is ^^raj sewta or 
^s^T munda. 

861. Self-sown seed, — Seed which falls on the ground in the field 
at harvest time, and which germinates next year, is called rji*i<i lamera 
in the west, ^^ namhero in South Bhagalpur, and sj'^T namher, 
g^T lamher, or ^TR lam in South Munger. 



184 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

CHAPTER III.— SEED-BEDS AND NURSERIES. 

862. A nursery for rice is farfK birdr or fkWfX biydr. To the 
weat it is also^^T benga. The young plants which are transplanted 
from the nursery are generally ^^T blya or -npft gachhi. They 
are also called ^W^f blhan or ^-^^sa?; bihndi. South of the Ganges 
and to the north-west (when of rice) they are also called »i¥^ morl, 
and in Champaran sfxt; jarai. The bundles of rice seedlings ready for 
transplanting are ^TS?t dnti or -^ftm antiya. 



CHAPTER IV.— SOWING TIME. 

863. The sowing season is <t^r^ boiini north of the Ganges and 
^jrr^T logha south of it. It is also generally called ^X^f[ bawag. 



CHAPTER v.— TRANSPLANTING. 

864. To transplant is CtM«l ropab. In Gaya when a man has 
finished transplanting he says '^««< «l^yK %^ hammar banusdr bhel, — 
* I have finished transplanting,' the quantity of rice seedlings trans- 
planted at one place being called everywhere except in the south-east 
^if bdn. A. bundle of seedlings is ^f^ dnii, and the man who plants 
them is called eV«T dobfia or xtM-Pi^TK ropnihdr. The bundles are tied 
in pairs and set astride over a long bamboo when carried about. 
This bamboo is called to the west fit^«(-<ri*i(l bihandhoa or ^[^3 kandth. 
The man who roots up the seedlings from the seed-bed is called ^i^f^^ 
kahariya, or in Saran qrafcTT kabariha. In South Hunger he is also called 
^ft^«B^'KT morkabra. Seedlings which have been re-transplanted, i.e., 
transplanted more than once, are called north of the Ganges ^^ khdru 
or 'a^T'I kharuhan. 



SUBDIVISION IV. 
DIGGING, HOEING, AND WEEDING. 



CHAPTER I.-DIGGING. 

865. To dig is ??ri^ A:ora6. In Champaran and Tirhut it is also 
\l [ MH tdmab or mk«i pdrab. In South- West Shahabad it is ^^i^ 



WEEDING. 185 

chhejal. Digging is sirt^^l^ korni, also in Champaran and Tirhut 
•nJ-sn tamni, in Patna, Graya, and South. Hunger fsr^T*^ nikauni, and in 
South- West Shahabad w'^'^ chliejni. In South Bhagalpur it is ^Yfl 
koran or 'm^ khanr. In Saran and Champaran if^^iz gohiit is digging or 
hoeing the edges of fields. In Tirhut this is called ^rf^ *T<i«( ari 
chhantab. 



CHAPTEK II.-HOEING. 

866. Hoeing is ^T^f^T'iT khurpiyana to the north-west. In 
Champaran and in Tirhut generally it is %\T^ kerauni or ^wf^ kamaini. 
South of the Granges it is ^^■^•'•n korni, or in South-West Shahabad 
W5r»^ chhejni. In the month of Asdrh (June-July) sugar-cane gets 
a special hoeing, which is called ^WTl't' '9st^ asdrhi kor, and in Champaran 
and North-East Tii-hut zl'^? tolcab. In Graya it is called -qT^ pdsa, 
and in Patna ^^t^ ^Yf T asdrhi koran. In Champaran and the south- 
east it is "^j^.^r =fit';T adra koran, and elsewhere it has no special 
name. The first hoeing of the sugar-cane crop, which generally takes 
place in Magh (January-February), is called ■^'t't ^^T andheri 
koran in Patna, ^T^r«r chdlan or ''?'C^^«r ttjhlan in Gaja and to the 
west, -^^^ andJieri or »ti^'«fi jhdrni in Saran and South Munger, and 
^^••ri jhurni in South Bhagalpur. North of the Ganges it has no 
special name. 



CHAPTER III. -WEEDING. 

867. Weeding is IkT^ kerauni or ^'h^ kamaini north of the 
Ganges. In the west generally it is ^"l^'^Tl sohni. Elsewhere 
it is generally ^1^^ korni, and also ^T.W^ harkhi in Patna and 
'3»5i#T ujhlan in Gaya and Shahabad. In South Bhagalpur it 
is optionally %Wt^ kelauni, and ^<|«n kerauni reappears again in 
South Munger. To weed deep is *nc <^<»>ri ^^^ bhar khurpi sohab ; 
also ^f t^ kor deb to the north-west and in North- West Tirhut, 
and i^rr«^ khdblml in Saran and Champaran. In Patna the operation 
is called fi)^) »«<T <C ^ bismddi, and elsewhere it has no special name. 
Superficial weeding is ^gKiPl^TTrr khurpiyana in the north-west and 
fsr^TK^ nikdwan in the south-east. In Champaran and Tirhut it is called 
Tm'^ tipni. The digging up a field to clear it of weeds before plough- 
ing is fTTH^ tamab, also in North-Bast Tirhut et^i^ tokab. The 
operation is called fre^ tamni, or in North-East Tirhut -s\^j^ tokni. 

24 



186 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

Weeding by hand is fW<^<"f t chikhurni in the north-west and 
^w^z^ uchhtani in Champaran and Tirhut. In Patna, Gaya, and 
South Hunger it is Tm ^ fiwTJX^ hdnth sen nikaeb, and in South 
Bhagalpur -eiw^ thakural. In Shahabad it has no special name. 

868. Weeds are ^9 ghas or ^T^ ^rnr ghas pat. In the north- 
west they are also ^:h ^f^ dulh dandar, and in Tirhut t|; dhu. When 
collected and burnt as manure, they are ^rr^ khadar in the north- 
west, and jtHt goa there and in Tirhut. In Patna and Gaya these 
are 'Ji^rs alah or ^ST^t dahi, '^ Mm Jn South Hunger, and ^Kt 
chharo in South Bhagalpur. 

869. Wages for weeding are ^t^^ soh&i or f^^fTlT cMkhurdi in 
north-west, and in' the east generally simply ^sf Saw. In Patna and 
Gaya they are ftf^^ nikauni, in South- West Shahabad ^ iani, and 
to the west generally ^fsr^T^ banihari. 



SUBDIVISION V. 



WATCHING CROPS. 



870. Watching of crops is generally T*d«^ll1 rakhwari, '««?tCl 
agori, or ^wtfr^fT agoriya. Other terms are t'S'TI^ rakhwahi or 
^^i^T^-halrakkU in Patna, wi-<lT^ jagwari or ^*(..(T^i badhwaha 
in Gaya, ^^r^TT badlmdr in East Tirhut, and 'sJtJtiir^ jogdeb in Cham- 
paran and South Bhagalpur. In Champaran and the south-east ^f^ 
hdnki is to drive crows off afield. Elsewhere it is ^t^t 'ST^r^ Aa««« 
hdnkab, &e. A field-watchman is T^^ir rakhwdr, ^?ftfx^ agoriya, 
or ^jfh^fsJTTT agornihdr ; also ^^•K^^rr balrakkha in Patna, ^'rtrr 
agora there and in Champaran and South Hunger, ^^■^^fk:^ jagwariya 
in Gaya, and srhrf'WT joganiyan in South Bhagalpur. The ^t|.=iK 
badhwar or ■«(N««(T^T badhxcdlm is generally a man appointed to watch 
the fields of a number of cultivators and paid by the landlord. 

871. In the north-west ir^rfsrsK chhenknihdr, and in North- 
East Tirhut '^■cir:%^ chakled&r, is a man appointed to watch on behalf 
of the landlord to see that none of the crops is carried away before 
the demand is paid. Elsewhere he is simply called ftraT^ piydda or 
^"Crf^^ hardhil, but to the south-east he is i%<.*jM sirmdn or «(<!l«l'MT 
balrakkha. To attach the crops thus is called '^t^^ rokab : hence the 



REAPINO. 187 

Anglo-Indian phrase " to roke crops." The act of " roking " ia 
called in the north-west ttit chhdpa. 

872. "When oultivatots club together to watch their crops in turn, 
it is called north of the Ganges TT^t pari, «f^ hhdnj, or vH^n blianja. 
It is also M<!i«<?l palti in Patna, Gaya, and the west; also m^ ' ^i 
parihar in Patna and Gaya, ^f\ pethi in South- West Shahabad, and 
Miy* paeth in South Munger. 



SUBDIVISION VI. 
REAPING AND GLEANING. 



CHAPTER I.— EEAPING. 

873. Reaping is *i.«n katni, or to the north-west ^fz^T katiya. 
In South-West Shahabad it is Td^«n launi. To reap is «tid«l Mtah, or 
in South- West Shahabad ^rr^ ^rr^ launi Tcaral. To cut cane is ^l^r^ 
ckholal in the north-west, »r^ <*<<si genra karal to the west, ir^l 
pardb in Ohamparan and Patna and Gaya and South Munger, and 
^ ^na^ ghur katab in South Bhagalpur. 

874. The man who outs the cane is described in section 292. 
A reaper is vz-Ismk katnihdr north of the Ganges and in Patna and 
to the south-west. He is also f^fsr^T dinihar in Patna, Gaya, and 
South Munger, ^■^^f^T^Tt Uonihdr or «hi.(vrtif katniydn to the west. 
Elsewhere he is simply oTST jan, ^f^TTT hanihdr, &o. Harvest time 
is ^ii^ katni. The wages of harvesting are 8<«i^<.T dinaura in 
Patna and Gaya, and ?^t^ dini in Ohamparan, Gaya, and the 
south-east. Another name is in Gaya ^?CI^ gudara, or in Saran g<^n : 
guddr. Elsewhere they are ^T han, or in South- West Shahabad 
Wf bani. 

875. Cutting the ears without the stalks is '^<d^i halkat generally. 
Other names are ^»i"ft tungni north of the Ganges and to the west, 
^JI«^T agla in Ohamparan and Gaya, ^i^ kattii in South- West 
Shahabad, ttfji^ pSngal to the west, and spf^^re^^ nanhkatni in South 
Munger. So also in East Tirhut it is si^.*^.^ nankatni or (also in 
Ohamparan) f^^^^ siskatni, and in South-East Tirhut fifiTi^-jT 
chhipkatta. It is '^JTigT agra in South Bhagalpjur. Gutting crops at, 
the root is mK-^tx^ jarchhorni, (in South-East Tirhut) ^(^J^Xl jarkaiia,, 
or (in South Munger) ^X^Xl jarchhora. 



188 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

876. To state the fruit off a tree is w^hittP^ jhdrjharael 
in the north-west. In ChampSran and West Tirhut it is WK^^nx^ 
jharlchdeh, and in East Tirhut «ft<<i|^<f jhakaeb. To the -west it is »fftK^ 
jhoral, and also, generally, ^s^ doUib or ?[l'sll*' ^^ doldy deb. «2T?^ 
jhataJiab is to knock down fruit from a tree by throwing up sticks 
into it (see§ 41). 



CHAPTER II.— CUTTING OF UNRIPE CROPS. 

877. Unripe crops are sometimes cut for food. North of the 
Ganges this is known as ii'^KT gadra or sir^ kachcha. Other names are 
UT^ gdda and iv%j gadda. In South Hunger it is V|T« gadar, and 
in South Bhagalpur ■^[g«^ ankuri. The last two are also met with in 
Champaran. A word used to the east generally is ^R^^r^ kachri. In 
the north-west ^*rarfr samahut is a little grain cut . first, and this is 
^^«T mmut in North- West Tirhut, ^V^ netodn in Saran, and ^^T5| nebdn 
in Champaran and Tirhut. ^fhc^TT horha is unripe grain cut for 
parching. It is also called ^K'JTT or/m in Tirhut and the south- 
east, and optionally "?^^t^ holha in Champaran and South Munger, 
The green ears of Eleusine coracana (wf ^IT marwa) treated in this way are 
called ^^ wnmi or ^wt umito the west and in Tirhut and «n^ uni in 
Champaran. "^ItsTt dlo in Gaya is the part of the crop which is reaped by 
a cultivator for present eating before the whole is ripe. Sometimes 
unripe pulses and barley are rooted up and given as fodder to cattle. 
This is called in Saran ^^f«T rakhdnt. 



CHAPTER III.— GLEANING. 

878. A gleaner is ftsrsft^^K binnihdr or ftfsrtjf Uniydn to the 
west. He is also generally ^t^^jfir^K hrhnihdr, with variants 
^e^:m^^ hrhtdhar in Patna, Gaya, and South Munger, and ^"I'^^rvr 
lohra in South Bhagalpur. Gleanings left on the field for the lower 
orders are ■»fiT«»IT jharnga or WTtt jhdrang to the west, and ^t^ lorhi 
or ^f^3T hrhiya to the east and in Champaran. Other names are 
»jre^T jharua (Patna and North- West Tirhut), sjr; jhar (South-East 
Tirhut), and 13^ ^re^ cM«<a/ ^jate/ (Champaran and Tirhut). Glean- 
ing is called in Gaya and South Munger ^TfT^ hrha bkhcha, and 
gleanings are ist?! lorlia. 



SHEAVES AND BUNDLES. 

SUBDIVISION VII. 
THRESHING AND WINNOWING. 



189 



CHAPTER I.-THE THRESHING-FLOOR. 

879. A tliresliing-floor is everywhere ^fXTrT kharihdn, with 
an optional variant '§f<'^l«fi kharihani in Patna. The shed erected on 
the threshing-floor is Jsr^i; maral, #tiT^ khompri, or *fif "l^rt jhompri. 
In Patna it is W^^ maruka or »Bf <rr^T jhompra, in Gaya ^rr kurha, 
and in the south-east ^^i^^ klwmpra. 



CHAPTER II.— SHEAVES AND BUNDLES. 

880. The cut crop is ffa ddnth to the north-west, or ^ff ddnt in 
North-West Tirhut. In East Tirhut it is ^k l&r. In Shahabad it is 
tS"^..!^ khni, in Champaran %^T iehan, in Gaya tcTTT i^a^aw*", in Patna 
■RfiT^ patauri or TrifT^ patni, in South Hunger H\ti< pdtan, and in 
South Bhagalpur v^fmf pattan. In Shahabad it is called ^f^^\K^ palhdi-i, 
and in Saran 'T^l^ pathdri, when it is left a day in the field without 
being gathered. 

881. In considering the nomenolature of the sheaves it wiU be 
convenient to take North and South Bihar separately. 

NORTH BIHAB. 

882. The smallest sheaf, about a handful, is called ^^ mutha, 
^TT muttha, or ^^T pula ; the next largest is the ■^fVr anwdnsa (north- 
west), ^H^?fT aulha (North Tirhut), and ^Ts^ d/iul or 'j j^tg i a/iu^a (East 
Tirhut) ; the next largest is the '^fe^fT antii/a or (Champaran and 
North-West Tirhut) ^re^ pasaJii ; the next largest is an armful or 
Tfimjpdnja; the next largest is a ^^NiT hojha; and the largest of all, 
that carried on a bullock, ^<«*ir ladna. The relative scale of some 
of the above is generally as follows : — 

4 '^1 mutJia = 1 '^raf^T anwdnsa or ^^fT aulha. 

8 '^WT aulha = 1 '^^■^X pdnja. 

4 Trim! pdnja = 1 ^tMiT bojha. 

16 ^Wr hojha = 1 ^t^^^ sorhi. 



190 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

In East Tirllut the following scale obtains : — 

4 ■^TS^ ahul = 1 %*«^ kehuni. 

4 %«^ kehuni = 1 ■^Tmipdnja. 

4 ^JTOT panja = 1 «fNiT bojha. 
16 ^Wt boj/ia = 1 ^1X5^ «or/». 
16 ^t^s^ sorM — 1 ^KT^T sorha. 

883. The word ^g 1c«-^ sorhi is a common unit for measuring 
produce. Thus, a raiyat will say that such and such a field gives so 
many ^il<«'41 sorhi to the hlgha. 

SOUTH BIHAR. 

884. The proportions vary in different places, as follows : — 

South-West Shahabad. 



2 ■^^f^ anwansi 
10 ditto 



= 1 ■^ferr antiya or ^tfifT domra. 
= 1 "^mipdnja, ^.^pui-i, or ^rrH 
dnti. 
3 ^xml panja, J,f\puri, or ^n^ dnti = I ^ffsj bojha. 
30 ditto ditto = 1 fw^^^ tisaur. 



10 ■^qf^ anwansi 
4 •^Siferr antiya 
Or 10 ^f^ d)isi 
4 "^fmj pdnja 
21 nt*sx bojha 



Shahabad. 

= 1 ■^fs^T antiya or Tspfl^**)! panpiaua. 

= 1 ■'rt'JiT bojha. 

= 1 VJ^fX pdnja, 

= 1 ^>5T bojlw. 

= 1 i' + fy'lT ekaisiya. 

Patna. 



4 ^rr^TI arpa 

5 'flvz'i dnti 
5 JiT^ grdAi 

Or 5 «<(t«lT arpa 

21 ^Vhtt %'Aa 



= 1 "^d^ dnti. 
= 1 3iT^5'aAi. 
= 1 tNtt 6o;'Aa. 
= 1 'Tlsn pdnja. 
= 1 ^»irT bojha. 
= 1 7^^ cAai^f. 



TREADING OUT GRAIN. 191 

Q-AYA. 

8 ^raTT arpa = 1 %T2^ anti. 

5 ^^i\ anti = 1 arpft gain. 

10 »ir^ gahi = 1 ^»ST hojha. 

Or 9 ^X'^ arpa = I -^mypanja. 

3 Tl«TiJa/ya = 1 ^^r Jo;7»a. 
21 TNiT %'Aa = ]_ 37^^ ekai&i. 

South Mungee. 
The same as Gaya, except that 4 •<^^ panja ^ 1 ^»jrT 6o;%a. 

South Bhagalpur. 

4 nTift gaunti = 1 ^fSt anti. 

4 ^f^ anti = 1 qfWr iJo^yaw. 

16 ^f^ anti = 1 ^*5T iq/7ja. 

16 ^frr %'/^ = 1 ^^1xr€^ sorhi. 

885. The word 7J%^ eiam south of the Ganges is used in much 
the same way that ^h7^ sorhi is used ; so also firarx: tisaur. It will be 
seen that the ahove scales are not always consistent amongst themselves. 
This is the fact, and is due to a difference in the size of the unit accord- 
ing to locality. The Tt»irT bojha is about the same everywhere. 

886. An ^^fTTT'C akwar or '4'*«<i1< ankwar (optionally), or in Patna 
and South-East Tirhut ^fs^ kehuni, is as much grain as can be carried 
between the arms, and ^«}:^^t»ffT mathbojha is a load carried on the head. 
Out of each ^ffST hojha one ^^ anti is given to the labourer who cuts 
and carries away the crop, and the remainder is in Shahabad called 
ji<,K guddr* ^^ guild in Patna or sf^ gunra in Gaya is a bundle of 
cut pulse. 



CHAPTER III.— TREADING OUT GRAIN. 

887. Treading out grain is ^J^ dauni north of the Ganges. To 
the west and in Patna'it is also i^f^ daunri or fwajJift minjni. The latter, 
word is principally used when the grain is trodden out by men and not 

* The ^f^ anti given to, or ratter taken by, the reaper varies in size, as is 
witnessed by the proverb jrW? ^jZ^fHTPC ^ 9^^ '9'=' ''t^ Jcorhi katnihdr ken 
mungar san anti, — the lazy reaper gets a bundle as thick as a club. 



192 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

by bullocks. In Shahabad it is •[^x'f dauri, and so also in the soutb-east. 
In Champaran, Patna, Graya, and South Hunger it is <«jT-4^ dawanhi, 
and in Patna also (when trodden by men) ^sj^ tnainjni. In South 
BhagalpuT ^-^-.^sahri is a thorough threshing of corn. The beating out 
of the heads against the ground or bed to disengage any grains that 
remain is ^2^ pitab, ^xx^jhdrab, or mx^jhantab north of the Ganges. 
It is also Tzift petari to the west, i|i^ dangauni in Patna, Pi^i^ 
pitni in Champaran and Gaya, w^ifft dengauni in East Tirhut and 
South Hunger, and vsv^jhantni in South Bhagalpur. 

888. The first treading out of the grain is called .^nT paur ; 
the second treading is ^cft ^t^ duntt ddnwab north of the Ganges 
and in Shahabad, or til^ ' i^f tm-aeb in North-East Tirhut. To the 
west it is ^2^ chhdntab, in Champaran and Patna it is i^i.-^.l'Tl 
Murdauni, in Gaya Kg l^^C?^ khurdonti, and in South-East Tirhut and 
South Hunger ^T-^K khurddin. 

889. The stake to which the bullocks are tied in treading out the 
grain is Iff^ men/i, with local variants H^ menlm (to the north-west 
and in South-East Tirhut), H'?^^ mehta (Patna), and ^rNf mlnhon 
(South Bhagalpur). In South- West Shahabad no centre stake is used. 
A bullock stands in the centre, who is called ^f^T ^^ menhiydn bail. 
In other places the inner buUock next the post, which is the slowest 
and weakest of the team, is called 'JffV'lf menhiydn generally ; also 

"^fT menrha in Champaran and South-East Tirhut, and M'^zj mehta or 
'^'^•JT menhta in Gaya and South Hunger. In South Hunger he is also 
^TT meha, and in South Bhagalpur ^fhsf mlhdn. Another name for 
him is in Gaya ^^•<Fis«iI hurdahina. The outer bullock, which is the 
smartest of the team, is called ■qra' path or vfa^T pathiya to the west, 
to the north-west and in North- West Tirhut '"ifeiT patiya, and 
in East Tirhut TRf <i[<^l pat wdla. In South-East Tirhut it is ^<| .<iv 
agdden, and variants of this are <^j|.-.^ix agdain in Patna aad South 
Hunger, ^Ji^^TT dgddin or ^rit^'^^t agdainydn in Gaya, and 
V*\'^\\ egddin in South Bhagalpur. In South-West Tirhut he is 
^xj phera. The rope which goes round a bullock's neck is J^\■:■^^ 
garddnw in the west and in South Hunger, n^^^^ gardani in Cham- 
paran and West Tirhut, and Jiff ^ garawidha in Patna. The main 
rope to which all the bullocks are tied is J{^m manjha, also ^^ daunri 
to the west, -Cfx^ daunrar or ^tipr^T dogha in West Tirhut, and ^KTV 
Jcardm ia Bast Tirhut. In Patna, Gaya, and South Hunger it 
is ^^r€t dawdithi, and in South Bhagalpur -^mk dammar. In 



-1. 
,1 /• 



















.■^ 






^ 



<: 



a 
S 
b 



CROPS ON THE THRESHING-FLOOR. 193 

Champaran and G-aya it is also called ^f kdnr or ^ri^r kaitra. 
The rope Dy which the main rope is tied to the stake is -g^f^ ghuri 
or w'^Ti'l' menhauti in Patna and Gaya, and TffT donra in South 
Bhagalpur. 



CHAPTEB, IV.— CROPS ON THE THEJESHING-PLOOE. 

890. The pile of sheaues,— When the crop is piled in bundles on 
the threshing-floor it is known as Tifoi gdnj. Other names are 3"ra tal 
(north of the Ganges and Shahabad), Jim galla (North-West Bihar), %ft 
dheri in Gaya, and ^sf^ kanr or ^ff T kdnra in Champaran and to 
the east ; also ^s^Kjkham/idr in South-East Tirhut. When the cut 
crop is piled like a stack in England, with the grain heads inside to 
save them from rain, it is called thTid*)? kothiyau in Saran, and Tsr 
punj or ■gsrr^ punjaur to the north-west and in Patna, Gaya, and 
the south-east. When raJmr (cytism cajan) is piled on end to ripen 
before threshing, it is called ^^T 3TW khara tdl north of the Ganges. 
Stacks are rarely raised on platforms in Bihar, but when it is done 
the platform is called m-^\< machdn. 

891. The spread-out crop ,— When the crop is spread out flat on 
the threshing-floor, ready to be trodden out by the bullocks, it is ^ 
pair north of the Ganges and in Shahabad. Other names are ^xpaur or 
T^pauriin East Tirhut, ^^k/wh in Champaran and South East 
Tirhut, ^^•irt^T barhora in Patna and Gaya, ^=^^T harhara in South 
Munger, and ^^t khua in South Bhagalpur. 

892. The crop after it is trodden, —After the crop is trodden ott 
the pile of chaff and grain ready for winnowing is t%^ silli north of 
the Ganges, in Patna, and the south-west. Other names are ^ef ^ 
kiitdnw (Patna and North- West Bihar;, 'i'^t dheri in Champaran, Tirhut, 
and South Munger, ^^X pair in Champaran and Gaya, and "^rKdhdr in 
South Bhagalpur. In South-East Tirhut it is also ^ww ukdm (also 
in Patna) or \i^M ukum, and in Shahabad g^ef ukdnw. 

893. The heaped grain.— This is xy^ rds or %f^ dheri, also ia 
North-East Tirhut ^Kkhsr. Over this is placed a cake of cowdung 
to avert the evil eye. This is ^gf^ harhdnw (Patna and West Bihar) 
and ^^>ST<4«J harhaioan in Gaya and the west ; but ^f^ harhdnw 
is more properly the dung deposited by the bullocks while treading. 
Other names for the cake are ^r?T| maMde or ^I'^T^^ mahadeb. A 

25 



194 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

piece of moist earth stamped is sometimes used iu the same way, and 
is called ^T^W cJiakal to the west and ifmT chhappa generally. In 
South-East Tirhut a piece of wood so used is called ^I'PB j&k. 

894. The heaped straw and chaff. — Straw in bundles is •g;^ jjula 
in Patna und north of the Ganges, except in North-East Tirhut, 
where it is »5g^iT jhatua. South of the Ganges, and optionally 
in Saran, it is '^f^ anti or -^fa^ antiya, except in the south- 
east, where it is g«T pulla or .fSfr hinra. Loose straw that has 
been threshed is ^^KT puara (to the west) or J^IK pudr (to the 
east). Local variants are ifV^r pora (also in West Tirhut) or ^I'^T*. 
podr in Patna and South Mimger. When it has not been threshed, 
but has been left standing in the field after the ears are cut off, 
and then itself cut, it is called "iTT »dr, and also (to the east) wrK. 
Idr. Its stalks are whole, and are not crushed like threshed straw. 
^^jV\ newdri is straw which is cut with the ear, but is not trodden 
by bullocks. It is tied up in bundles, and the heads are beaten 
against the ground. The husks of the grains are ^jgr bhusa or '^J^r 
bhmsa. South of the Ganges a nasal is generally insei"ted — thus, 
w^T hhuma. Other names are «fc^^l katua in Patna and Gaya, 
g^ gundo in Champaran and South Bhagalpur, and ^ <5i«<.| khakhra 
or ^ff^T dhuUa in South Hunger. Bran is ^^tk chokar, also in 
Patna and the west ^^ bhunsi. Other names are "^^^ chalaunsi 
(Patna and the west), ^rrs; kordi (Patna, Tirhut, and the west), 
^fqn: chonkar in Champaran and Patna, and 'Wl*«<l chokra in South 
Hunger. The heaped straw on the threshing-floor, or a stack of 
straw anywhere, is irxaT gdiij or ^t^ tdl. f*jal silli is also specially 
used for the heap of straw on the floor. 

895. An enclosure for stacking straw or fuel is ^KT^l gherdn 
in West Tirhut, Saran, and Champaran, ic(KJ^ ghordn in Shahabad, 
and ^TT gliera or ^3 dhdth in ChampSran and Tirhut, the latter 
specially to the east. To the west it is \n."M purwat. A house 
for holding chaff is U^^ ^ bhumul ghar in the north-west 
and West Tirhut, and ^v^fK bhuskar, -e^ry^^^ bhmsbhulba* 
or (also in Champaran) ^^j-'sk bhuskhdr to the east. In South- West 
Shahabad it is ^^ bhunsaur, and to the west generally of that 
district ^g®^ bhumdhul. In Champaran and Patna it is »Tf ^t^j 



* As in the proverb ^'-sr ^^ %^^m--^Vi aT? chhutal ghor bhmshhulbahin 
thdrh, — a horse, when he gets loose, stays in the chaff-house. 




I 



g 



m 
CD 

o 
12; 



•3 

4 

to 

t 

o 

I 

re 

in 

4 
I 



WINNOWING. 195 

bhomaula, and there and in Gaya sgT^r ^T bhusa glmr. In Champaran 
and South Munger it is ^g^wr bhusghar, and in South Bhagalpur 
^^•=inxt bhuskclri. ^ffq- khomp or 'iftfl' khompi north of the Ganges is 
a small shed for chafE. The round thatoh covering a ^ffTT khomp to 
save it from the weather is ^fr % wp^ khomp ke mathni, *i'«i»«ft 
chhaoni, or £t<r^ topar. In South-East Tirhut "^f T chdng is a large 
basket for holding chaff equalling four zt^r^ toiri. ^t^ tangaur 
in the same place is a similar one, but is rougher and made of 
rahar (Cytisus cajan), 

896. The refuse straw and fodder. — This is in the north-west 
JTlxn: gothdr, to the west and in North-West Tirhut it is ^^-^ lathsr, 
in Champaran and North-East Tirhut f'TW^ nighds, and South-East 
Tirhut fir^sff nighes. South of the Ganges and in Champaran it is 
^^ ddnti. The refuse straw of the rabi or spring-crop, and specially 
of the rahar (Cytisus cajan) , is K^ffT raretha generally south of the 
Ganges, local variants being ^^TS^ laretha in South Bhagalpur, 
and in Champaran K%3T rahetha. In Patna it is also called ^x:!; 
kharai. The refuse straw of the autumn crop is ^3 danth or ^gitr 
daiituka or ^<1<<4\| kutka north of the Ganges. It is also to the west 
and in Patna '^IT dhattha, and elsewhere ^z ddnt, VfaT ddnta, or '^i\ 
danti. In South Bhagalpur and Patna, however, it is stxt thathero. 
The dry stalks of mustard (^fwt sariso) are gifl santhi in the north- 
west, fi(^^ tilthi to the west and in North-West Tirhut, <Ttft2iT^ 
toriyathi in South-West Tirhut, ?itfer3 toriyath in Shahabad, and 
fitt^liTl tilathi generally. The stalks of cereals without the ear are 
^JIVTT jhengra to the west and in South-West Tirhut, ^i\rsj jhegta in 
Champaran, sfz ddnt in the rest of Tirhut, ^-^7 jhanga in Champaran, 
and m^jhdng also in South-East Tirhut. 



CHAPTER v.— WINNOWING. 

897. Winnowing grain is ^I^Ji*?! osauni. To winnow is ^t^TP^ 
OS deb. 

898. The fine chaff which is blown away by the wind in 
winnowing is "V^ pambhi generally; also ■qf ^ pdrM or ■'TT^ pdmbhi 
to the west, ^■ft gunri in Champaran and South-East Bihar, and 
^zT bhaunta in Patna. South of the Ganges these words are confined 
to the winter (Aghani) crop. The words for the autumn {Bhaddi) 



196 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



CTOTp 0,16 -^^l^^ 2^uresi OT -^X^ puarsi to the west, and xTSTsft pakhni 
in Patna and Gaya. In South Munger ^^'fl^ adhbhari is rice not 
fully developed, in which the ear is only half full, the rest being 
all chaff. 



CHAPTER VI.— MISCELLANEOUS. 

899. The gathering or collecting grain at one place in the time 
of harvest is WHt batoran or ^t^ hrhan. 

900. When grain is being weighed, an extra handful is thrown in 
to make up for dust, &o. This is called ^^[\ pachhim generally, but 
also ^rar kasar to the west and t5T=f phdo in the south-east. It is 
^o called wvn lahh in Champaran and South Munger. 

901. The grain left on the threshing-floor after removing the 
bulk of the crop is ^vi^^^ agwdr generally north of the Ganges, and 
*TT3 bhdth in South-East Tirhut. South of the Ganges and in Saran 
it is 'crft tari. The gleanings and refuse grain on the' threshing- 
floor are '^tttt patpar in the north-west and <sH5 i -<l khakhra to 
the west and north. The grain which is blown away with the 
chaff at the time of winnowing is -^jit^t^ agwdr or ^Ji^^TK^ agwdri 
to the west, ^'^\T^ agdr in Champaran, Fatna, and Gaya, and ^Ji^T 
agbar in the south-east. 



SUBDIVISION VIII. 
DIVISION OP CROPS. 



CHAPTER I.— DIVISION AND VALUATION. 

902. The division of crops on the metayer system between land- 
lord and tenant is called xzn; batdi or ^^t bataiya. Local variants 
are ^TS bant in Champaran and Gaya, ^T3> bdnti in Champaran and 
South Bhagalpur, and ^^r^ bantnu in South- West Shahabad. Land 
so held 18 called «t^v^ bhdoU ov ^^^ 6«^«*y«, as opposed to ^,.^ 
nagdi,oi which the rent is paid in cash. In South Bhagalpur' the 
division of the crops is called fi?;i:frT^ kurtdli. 

903. In ^TT batai a certain fixed proportion of the crop is given 
to the landlord as rent, as described in the following chapter. When, 



THE SHARES INTO WHICH THE CROP IS DIVIDED. 197 

instead of a proportion, a certain fixed quantity of the crop per bigha 
is paid to the landlord, it is called W •!•«'? manlihap, ^Jt-tTtqii manthika, 
S<ST hunda, or Wsfi^^T manhunda. This is especially adopted in the 
case of fsiKTcT jirat or home-farm lands when let to a cultivator. In 
Patna it is called n^ ^"^"(^ mani handohast. 



CHAPTER II.— THE SHARES INTO WHICH THE CROP 
IS DIVIDED. 

904. Half to landlord and half to tenant. — This is called ^fk^-[ 
north of the Ganges and in the south-west, in Patna and Gaya 

^■^r^^-^T adhbataiya or t^ pah, in Champaran and the south-east 
^■%v^T^W adhbatiya. In South-West Shahabad they say -^ ■^Tsnlff'^l 
JTcff ^-RT alfir^TT ^'^^T, ^7^X: jr^ ^JifT ^^T^ % ^T^ du dana men sen 
eh ddnajamiddr lehala, diir ek dana asami ke deJiala, — of two grains, the 
landlord takes one and gives one to the cultivator. The turn of the 
eentence which makes the landlord give the cultivator his share is worth 
noting. 

905. Seven-sixteenths to landlord and nine-sixteenths to the 
tenant. — This is it^tt nausat or sft^UT nausat/a. The practice has only 
been noted in the west, Patna, Gaya, aijd South Hunger. In South- 
East Tirhut the custom is only observed in respect to mangoes and 
jack-fruit. 

906. Nine-sixteenths to the landlord and seven-sixteenths to the 
tenant. — This is sf^"!!! nausatta. The practice has only been noted 
to the west and in Patna, Gaya, and South Hunger ; also (%^ «ng^iT 
seri nausatta) in West Tirhut. 

907. One-third to the landlord and two-thirds to the tenant. 
— This is Wir^ tekuri or fd^Vl tiMiya in Shahabad, Patna, and Gaya, 
K^Kl tekura in South- West Shahabad, ■fi'*^<^ tekhuri in South Bhagal- 
pur, '^■gri^ tekuU in Champaran, fiw^ tisri in Saran and Champaran, 
and ^^^ tesri in South Hunger. Not noted elsewhere. 

908. Two-fifths to the landlord and three-fifths to the tenant 
—This is TT-'l-'i; pachdu, to the west and in West Tirhut, ■<rcr ^;;WT 
pachcha d&a in Patna, Gaya, and the south-east, and '^^ panchdu 
to the west. Not noted elsewhere. 

909. Three-fifths to the landlord and two-fifths to the tenant— 
This is ^^^ pachdu to the north-west, and v,V^ %^\ pdncha dua in 
South Hunger and Tirhut. Not noted elsewhere. 



198 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



910. Landlord one-fourth, tenant three-fourths. — This is ^^«it 
chautlmiya in Champaran and South-East Tirhut and Wlrf^lT chautlmiya 
to the west and in Patua and Gaya. Not noted elsewhere. 

911. The following remarks as to custom south of the Granges 
may be of use. The division into equal shai'es is rare, and is confined 
to the cases of high-caate tenants, or where a tenant has obtained a 
decree of the Civil Court restricting the landlord's share to one-half. 
Nine-sixteenths to the landlord and seven-sixteenths to the tenant is 
the customary rate, the two-sixteenths in excess which are claimed by 
the landlord being supposed to represent the cost of collection, irriga- 
tion, and watching the crops. When the landlord takes less than 
a half-share of the crop, as in §§ 905, 907, 908, and 910, it is only in 
exceptional cases, as ia time of drought, or when a jungle or waste 
land has to be brought under cultivation, or when land requires much 
labour on the part of the tenant. In these cases the settlement is 
always for a limited period, say one, two, or three years, and is often on 
a progressive scale, i.e., in the first year the landlord takes one-fourth, 
in the second year one-third, in the third year two-fifths, and thereafter 
half of the gross produce. When the landlord takes three-fifths and 
the tenant two-fifths (§ 909), it is a case of special agreement with 
a landlord, who lets his private (ti:^ ^rr^JTr kliud hasM)\zMA^. In 
calculating all these shares (except iu the case of division by bundles, 
see § 913) only the net grain produce after threshing is divided. 
The tenant in addition takes all the straw. 



CHAPTER III.— DEDUCTIONS AND REMISSIONS. 

912. A deduction of one ser in the maund from the amount 
received by the tenant is caHed ''S^mpahi to the west, and also ^K^ 
serU ia Shahabad. A similar deduction of li sen per maund is 
called in South Bhagalpur ^ neg, or perquisite. In the case of 
division by appraisement (see next chapter) an allowance is made for 
deficient produce. This is called to the west and in Tirhut "^ chhU. 
South of the Ganges and in Champaran it is called jr^ garki, also 
5171^ nabnd in Patna, ^^.^ chhutti in Gaya, jrv^ TK^ff garki parti in 
South Munger, and *rv^^ jh.^ marki garki in South Bhagalpur. A 
similar deduction of 1^ sers in the maund is called in Champaran, Patna, 
and Gaya ^s^%d derhseri ; and when of two sers, ^%f^ duseri. To 
the west ^TK Jf^XK dahar mahdr is the loss to both landlord and 



MODE OF DIVISION. 199 

tenant when the produce is deficient through inundation. A 
remission to a high-caste tenant is called ■RH*^ pagri or vni\ maphi. 
North of the Ganges "T^^T pachhua is an allowance made by the 
tenant for dust in the landlord's share of the grain. In Saran and 
Patna "^[^[^ anjiiri, and in Shahahad ilfgi: anjur, is an allowance 
of one or two sers per plough taken by the tenant. ^f%Tr^ khalihani 
in Patna is an allowance claimed by the tenant, and so also is vhrT 
hhdmwar in Shahabad and H»iv^ mangni or w'jiT mangan (^ a ser in 
the maund) in East Munger. 



CHAPTER IV.— MODE OF DIVISION. 

913. This may be considered under two heads, — division on the 
field and division on the threshing-floor. 

Division on the field. — This may be done either by actual division 

of the bundles (<rr»ST bojha) or by appraising (^r^ kanah) the value of 

the crop. When the bundles of the cut crop are divided, this is called 

tNs^^t? bojhhatai or (in Champaran and South-East I'irhut) <si\»«i^K 

kharlatdi. To the north-west it is w«iT<?t -^z-ixjajati batd'i. The rough 

appraisement of the crops for the purpose of division is called ^T kan 

or ^<T kut, or <*«i.^r( kankut or ■smrrii'^ kankutti. When the valuation 

is done by appraisement it is called ^sifr^ ^^? kankutti hatSi. It ia 

also called ■^i«rT^'^ dandhandi generally, ^^rsT bhaukatta in Shahabad 

and the south-east, tS^iT^ damdo or «jnv^i^ damkatti in Shahabad, Patna, 

and Graya. When the crops are ripe for harvesting the landlord 

deputes an assessor (^fl^^sr ainin) and an arbitrator (yiRsUr sdli-s) to the 

field. They are met there by the tenant and the village officials. The 

village measurer (^dlMX; kathddhari then measures the field with the local 

pole, and the arbitrator goes round it, and after a consultation with the 

assessor and the village officials estimates the quantity of grain in the 

field. If the tenant accepts the estimate, the quantity is entered in 

i}ie paticdri's field-book (^^^^ khasra) and the matter is at an end. If 

the tenant objects, his fellow tenants are called in as mediators, 

and if they fail to convince either party a test (-qx^TT partdr) takes 

place. On behalf of the landlord a portion of the best part of the 

crop is reaped, and an equal portion of the worst part is reaped 

on behalf of the tenant. The two portions so reaped are threshed and 

the grain weighed. On the quantity thus ascertained, the whole produce 

of the field is calculated and entered in the field-book. The tenant is 



200 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

then at liberty to reap the crop and take it home whenever it suits his 
convenience. In calculating the amount due to the landlord from the 
whole estimated quantity a deduction in favour of the tenant of 
generally two sers per maund, called ^:z^ chhutti, &c., (see § 912), is 
made to allow for deficient produce and for the cost of reaping, 
gathering, and threshing, which in this system of division is borne by 
the tenant. The remainder, thus calculated, is then divided into the 
respective shares of the landlord and the tenant, and the latter is 
debited with the landlord's share in the accounts. If he pays this 
amount within the year, it is paid in kind ; but if he does not do so, 
its value in money is written against him as an arrear in next year's 
accounts. 

914. Diuision on the threshing-floor. — This is ^et?: '§ft"rn?t 

batai kharihdni, ^jftT ^ZTT affor batd'i (because it is watched or 
guarded till division), or ^z^x batdi simply. The man who weighs 
the grain is called f z^^T hatwa north of the Ganges. He is also 
^21^ hatwe in Champaran, Patna, and Gaya, ^t^t bdya or '^hit baya 
to the west, ^I^K sonar in Patna, and %^T^ kedl or ^f^f 
baniydn in Patna and the south-east. His fees are called '^d««j T l 
hatwai OT ^^'^k. hatical north of the Ganges, and a^ao ^^^ pachhua 
in Champaran and Tirhut. In Champaran and East Tirhut they are 
also ^l«r:Tt; manpal or WI-Ml'tn manpaua. To the west they are "^^W 
leyai or v^^^ patoahi (i ser per maund), in Gaya and South Munger 
"?rT^»gT chdlsa, in Patna and Champaran "^ft^ dimriya (i ser per maund), 
and in the south-east %^t^ kedli or «fl^TT tauld'i (one ser per maund). 
When grain is measured instead of being weighed, 16 cups (v^iiJajVa) 
of grain make one ^7fT drha. In this system the crops are reaped 
under the supervision of both parties, and are gathered on a common 
threshing-floor (see § 879), and strictly watched by both parties. 
Threshing does not take place until all the crops of the village have 
been thus gathered. Neither party is allowed the use of the crop till the 
grain is threshed out, weighed, and divided. During the reaping 
period the tenant at the end of each day gets the gleanings of the field 
(^tsT lorha, &e., see § 878), and a fixed proportion of the gross produce 
(f^sTT^T dinaura, &c., see § 874\ which go as wages to the reaper. 
From the joint crop the village artisans and officials (carpenter, black- 
smith, shoemaker, accountant, &c., see §§1193 and ff.), who have worked 
all the year round for both tenants and landlords, receive their 
perquisites. When the heap of grain is ready for division, the grain 



IRRIGATION GENERALLY. 201 

wMcli is blown away with the chaff (^ur^ agar, 8fc., see § 901) is not 
divided, but is all the property of the tenant. Out of the common heap 
are then set aside the dues given for religious purposes (f^^ ftf^ 
bisun pirit, 8fe., see § 1203), and out of the grain thus left the landlord 
takes his share, but the refuse grain mixed with dust left after 
removing the bulk of the crop {w^ tari, Sfc, see § 901) is all taken 
by the tenant. In this system, too, the tenant gets all the straw, 
chaff, &o. 



SUBDIVISION l>(. 
IRRIGATION. 



CHAPTER I.— IRRIGATION GENERALLY. 

915. To irrigate is ^zttt^ patdeb, or to the west wr^ bharal. 
Ixiigaiion isif^:^^ patdwan QV tf^X^ patauni. In South Munger it is 
TZTiT patdn. The flooding of a field preparatory to planting rice is %^ 
kb, %^ leOf or %^t lewa, and in South Bhagalpur '^^'^T? anhdo. Such 
a flooded field is called ifsnjTjr^ paniydJil. A water-drawer is ^^TTT 
panihara or "T^^fl^ panhhara. In the north-west he is also -qiiTHTTT 
panbhdra. A man irrigating has various names. To the north-west 
he is ^ipw^ panchJianna, and in Gaya -tif^i^^^l panchhanda ; in Saran and 
Champaran he is ■«r«|TTfiX^^'W panmorwdh ; in South- West Tirhut he is 
^K^^^T^T khanodha; and in South-West Shahabad he is ^"^^rr kamhaiya. 
The man who distributes the water in the field with the '^W hattlia 
or wooden shovel (see section 64) is called "^^i-^T^T hathwdlia or f^v^sjx 
chhirkaim to the north-west. In Shahabad he is ^X7^^ barwdh ; 
to the west generally ■qf^r^'? paniwdh ; in Patna and Gaya, Xsr^^ifi^ 
khanrmora or fif^^^ chhichamydn ; in Patna, fV-^«"=n^T sinchwdlia 
or ^?^T?T khanrwdha ; in Champaran and South Bhagalpur, ^%»^s^ 
kharkatta ; and in South Munger, jf^K'^^rrr ganrarkatta. The wages 
for irrigation with a lever are ^re^^Tft lathwahi. Sometimes cultivators 
combine to assist one another in irrigating. This is called ojmt 
jdna in Saran and Champaran, '^^ painthi or if^T^t palti to the 
west, and the latter also in Patna and Gaya, ^qfr^K parihar in Patna, 
TffT<SXpatiMr in Champaran and South Munger, and TTPZ pdei in 
Champaran and South Bhagalpur. 

26 



202 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

CHAPTER II.— KINDS OF IRKIGATION. 

916. There are three main kinds of irrigation : — 

(a) From canals.— A canal is ?i'^ naJiar (which is generally 

used only for the Son and similar Government canals), 
v^pain, or ^fsi paini, and ^ff\ naddi or (South Bha- 
galpur) ^^ laddi. In South-West Shahabad a canal 
is ■«rr'a tdl. 

(b) From wells (f^ kuSn, 8fe.) 

(c) From tanlfs, or ponds.— A. tank is TT^rr pohhar, Ml<sii<.T 

pokhra, or «raT^ talao.* A small pond is fiwfX talai. In 
Patna, Graya, and South Mimger a reservoir of which the 
water is higher than the level of the surrounding country 
and is kept in by embankments is called <dMi«tT khajana 
or 'asTTTT khajatia. 

917. The embankment round all these tanks and ponds is called 
^^ hhinr or fwiiT Ihinda. Ijoeal names are '^T^ pmr in Patna and 
Graya, and 'af^f khamcan or ^T^t khdwa to the west. The post erected 
in the centre of a tank is srrz jdt, grrfs jdti, srr^ jath, or snft jdthi. 
In South Hunger it is ^jz lath. 

* In Nortli-East Tirhut ifhs^ft pohhari is a large tank, as is instanced by the 
proverbial saying — 

Fohhari BajoMari, aur sahh pokhra, 
JRdJa Sib Singh, aur sahh chhokra. 

—" The tank at Eajokhari is indeed a tank ; all the rest are puddles. Eaja Sib 
Singh was indeed a king ; all others were princelets." 

Another version of this is— 

Tdl ta Bhopal toil, aur sabh talaiya, 
Raja ta Sibai Singh, aur sabh rajaiya. 

Eajokhariand Bhopal are the names of two villages in the Darbhanga district, 
where there are very large tanks, said to have been dug by king Sib Singh. 



IKRIGATION FROM WELLS. 203 

CHAPTER III.— lERIGATION FEOM CANALS. 

918. Flush irrigation, when the water is at a higher level than the 
field and the cultivator has only to cut the bank of the water channel 
and allow the water to flow into the field, is called ^i^^T apta in the 
north-west, and ^^k.vitz agarpat in Champaran and North-West 
Tirhut. To the west it is et^ tor or irtT^ molmr. In Patna and 
Gaya it is ^r^ii chhdnan, in South Hunger <ff^rK melan, and in South 
Bhagalpur f x?^ dhurka. 

919. Irrigation by lift, when the water has to be raised from a 
lower level, is caUed ^j^^ % Tpft % o)tu«I udah ke pdiii le j'aeb to the 
west, and in the south-east ^^T ukliewa. A dam is sometimes built 
across the stream to raise the water. This is ^«r bdndh or ^t^ bdiih 
generally ; also ^f^ khdnr, si^sft garni, and ^tt gJiera to the north- 
west, ?n;f^ 5'araMn in the north-west, Patna, and Gaya, 'BT^ phdnri 
in Champaran and Patna, jt^^ garandi in South Hunger, and <dT^ 
khdnro in South Bhagalpur. A gang of men employed in making 
such an embankment is called in Patna and Gaya jfNrw godm. A 
long embankment thrown round a plain of high land in which rice 
is cultivated, and in which there is a flow of surface water, is ^%"^ 
danreri to the north-west and in Patna. South of the Ganges and to 
the north-west ^oiT«rT klmjdna, Hir^V dhar, **i^-<t ahra, and ^^7^ 
ahri mean the plain itself including the embankment. The embankment 
as distinguished from the plain is fir<!S find or ^^^ alang. A. cutting 
in the embankment is called in Gaya 'If'^'^ khanrhu. 



CHAPTER IV.— IRRIGATION FROM "WELLS. 

920. WeUs may be divided into three classes : — 

(a) Those lined with masonry.— These are called ir^ pakka. 
In the north-west ^T^~^ bdoli is a large well, some- 
times with a ghat or flight of steps running down to the 
water. XJ^XX indra, <<T<T inddra, xhtk. indr, or f ^-a 
indra is a large masonry well. In South Bhagalpur kt%^ 
rahat is a masonry well. 
(&) A welt without masonry lining is called ^r^ hachcka ; 
also ^^f kuan or ^^f kuiydn or ^ kup. In South 
Bhagalpur vf ^ hhanruki, and generally «^'f ^ bharkuHi, 
is a small well. In Patna apd Gaya € v^ kandri is 



204 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

a well dug on a river-bank into which the river- water 
filtrates and is thereby rendered pure, 
(f) Surface depressions containing water.—These are -^ 
chum north of the Granges, 'S'^Tft chudn to the west and 
in Patna, and '^:^T chudn elsewhere. A clay well which 
has fallen in is called m^^ bhasal north of the Ganges, 
and MKSJ hharan in Champaran and North-East Tirhut. 
In Champaran, Patna, and Gaya it is hit bhattha, and 
to the west «JJiTf hhagdr. All the above are adjectives 
agreeing with ^^f kudn. Another expression used 
in Shahabad is «^i^^ hhathkudn. The space formed 
inside a well by the collapse of the sides is ^rrax 
khdnkhar in the north-west and ^btx dhodhar in Cham- 
paran and South-West Tirhut. To the west it is VT^ 
pdl, and in Patna and Gaya -ffx chaunr. 



CHAPTER v.— CONSTRUCTION OF WELLS. 

921. The large circular excavation made before a masonry well 
is built is ■^^f dawar to tbe west and in Patna and South Tirhut, and 
ifT'sr^ khdnkhar to the north. In South- West Shahabad it is jiY^. 
gol, and in the rest of that district ?fW TT^ gol gal. In Gaya it is 
ift^'HT golammar or ^sTwt^ khabhdr. 

922. The 'spring is ^trrr sota nortb of the Ganges, and also 
in Nortb-East Tirhut *?t*i mqka. In Shahabad it is ^t«T sot 
or ^^ sutti, in Patna, Gaya, and South Hunger ^1^ so'i, and 
in South Bhagalpur 'ftei sot or ^^nxn" sangra. The side spring in 
a well is rr^Tr^ft^ tarsoa in north-west and in West Tirhut. Spring- 
water is ^fc^IK Tn^ bariydr pani, or in South Bhagalpur ^n^XT sangra, 
and in Soutb Hunger f^v?r^ jiugar, the two latter words being 
adjectives. When the spring is tapped the phrase used is, north of the 
Ganges, wT^ "^rs ^ tdica tut gel, and south of it ^Ix^iK (or fsr^ijn;) 
1T^ ^Tpf vNr bariydr {ov jiugar) pdni dbi gel. The hole through whicb 
the water rises wben the spring is reached is ^^f bhunr or jj^c bhur. 
In Patna and South Hunger it is ^■*,-^T bhurhu. An optional word 
in Soutb Bhagalpur is ^*f bam. When the spring is copious, it is called 
•«r^^ bhurphut. Wben tbe spring is not reached, the well is called 
^9 sunn ; and a well, wben tbe spring has- risen, is K^TT paniha. 



CONSTRUCTION OF WELLS. 205 

923. A well supplied from a spring and not from, surface 
drainage is ^f^^T sitUiha to the west, and 'rt'T''^ sotlii in the 
rest of that district. In Patna, Gaja, and South Hunger it is 
^T?;^! soiya, and in South Bhagalpur sr^'^r^ jaldJiar. The place 
where the earth begins to become moist as a well is being sunk 
is ■R«r:%^ pansel or M«i«^J^T pamacha in the north-west. In the south- 
west it is wtr pasoi, and to the south-east M^m pasewa. In^ some 
cases there is a stratum of sand so fine that it falls in at once and 
chokes the well. This is known in the north-west as vt^ bhds 
The depth to which a well is dug is measured by the height of a 
man (^f^^ ^jwrn or -w^-^i^porsa). Thus a weU, is said to be four, five, 
six, or seven ^i^ puris deep. 

924. The masonry cylinder of a well is ^^ivaft^ kMnjlr. When a 
well is made up with circular hoops of kiln-burnt earthenware for sides, 
these hoops are called 'aq-fi or 'aTT'KT kliapra. Other names are (north- 
west) ^K ««^j (South-West Shahabad) »fNvgT mohhra, (Patna) firx^^n" 
girda, (Patna and South Munger) ^^^t ganrua, and ^^\^ pat in South 
Bhagalpur. Sometimes a coil of twigs is used for the same purpose, 
which is known as "ff^ Icothi, 'St^ dol, or ^f h'lnr in the north-west 
— the last also in Patna and Shahabad, ^^ dol in the south-east, and 
f^<i^ Mndi elsewhere in the south. Wells protected in this way are 
q r t rd'^ r lothila to the west and ?I^^^ garauan in Patna. Wells are 
sometimes lined with a wooden cylinder, and are then called ^3v^^ 
kathkiian. When the cylinder of a well fails to sink, a second smaller 
cylinder is sometimes sunk inside. This second cylinder is called 
TT'^^.T parchuin. 

925. The wooden base of the cylinder is made of jamun wood, 
and is called ^v.-^s jamwat or m^Xzjamot. In South Bhagalpur it is 
called ojTrr^ra jamkath. 

926. A well so large that two buckets can work it is called ^t^ft 
dolattU. In Patna and the south-east it is ^ajTfT dujat, and in South 
Munger also ■^aUniT dujanta. One for three buckets is fcj.j.qt^' ^ tinlatthi 
or -a'^rft telatthi ; in South Munger it is ^tit tejatta, and in South 
Bhagalpur ffra«5iT!T tinjant. 

927. The well-dredger and well-spear are described ia § 39 
and ff. 



206 bihAr peasant life. 

CHAPTER VI.— THE LEVER USED IN RAISING WATER. 

928. This is "%f^ dhenkul, ^-^m dhenkula, or ^=^ dhenki. It 
is also called ^rra lath, ^rfT lattJia, or ^rsT Idtha south of the Ganges, 
and mjffjant in South Bhagalpur. 

929. The pot (whether earthen or of iron) is ^^^ kunr, ^i\ kunri, 
orf!^ kundi. A smaller iron vessel used for drawing water by hand, and 
not by means of a lever, is 'sY^ dol, other names being ^t^^ loJianra in 
Shahabad and ^^ dol in South Bhagalpur. In North-Bast Tirhut, 
however, ^#t^ dol is also used for the lever-bucket. In Gaya «(id.^-^ 
kathnahi is a wooden bucket for drawing water fi-om a well. The stick 
placed across the mouth of the bucket to which the rope is fastened 
is f%^ kilU or 'ij^ guUL In South Bhagalpur it is <«i«f*a^ rankilli 
or ■g^ puUL The string which fastens this to the pot is '^r^^ kaneti 
to the north-west and «*f^«)T<?l kunriydthi generally to the north of 
the Ganges ; also ^Ix^^f^®^ chorkiUi in Ohamparan and North- West 
Tirhut. 

930. The rope of the lift is «kw^i harJui. It is also called ^^ 
harah in South Munger, and <?xi^x^ hathharhi and ^ «) -^fif uhahani in 
Champaran and North-East Tirhut. The short rope joining it to the 
bucket by a slip-knot is q^nwlT panchhor or ^Y^ chhori, with the 
following local names : — ^1x chhor (west) , ^t»rr jota (Patna, Gaya, 
and the south-east), sn^T nddhu (Gaya), sftrpt joti (Shahabad and 
South Munger), and ^tit^ bagha (South Bhagalpur). 

931. The lever-beam is ^ bans when made of bamboo, also ^ 
ehliip in Champaran and North-East Tirhut. ^n^ lath or ^rr^r Idtha is 
a shorter and stouter one. Other names are "^'Hl' dhurJu (South-West 
Tirhut), ^li^ dhenkul (west), and ^^T danda (south-east). Sometimes 
a thin piece of wood is spliced on to the end of the beam. This is 
called ^^T^tK bansj'or, and in Patna and the south-east ?^ chhij}. The 
end of the beam which projects beyond the rope over the well is 
called ^iTK agar or "^iilCi agari. 

932. The lever-beam is weighted with a counterpoise of clods 
of earth, &c., fixed to the end furthest from the well. These are called 
%^ led, §^ ledu, and %^ Ml In East Tirhut they are %^ ledh 
and in South-East Bihar t^Tr led/io. Other names are T?iaf pachhdr 
(Champaran), ti% pachUr (South-East Tirhut), and '^^J-d chakri 
(Champaran, Patna, and Gaya). The peg with which these are 






^y^.. 







-it;:' 






f-S ^i<^4^^ 



.ivfa 



:jr : 











Si ^l;^-:$v:m^'^^^ft^^ 



\ 



.. ^-^ 




T/^ *rrt;5,a^«. &»e^ r^^^A^ ;. raised, with the bucket out of the weU 



LithLyHBLrilal Pa-l Student &ovt.ScKool of Art Calcutta.. 



Coa:-jrwallis PresE Calcutta. 



THE SKIN BAG USED FOR DRAWING WATER. 207 

fastened to the beam are \|;zT khunta or ^^ khunti ; also ^n^f^^'aT 
ganrmekha (Patna and Gaya), ^^ gulli (Patna), and ftrST killa (Patna 
and south-east). 

933. The post on the top- of which the lever swings is 'i^T 
JchamhJia ; also Trt^^TT dhorea in Patna and Shahabad. To the west ^vt: 
dhurai is a post with two branches at the top. These posts are often made 
of a live tree called ^Nj^yiya/ {Odina Wodier), which forks naturally in 
a convenient position, and which wUl grow if only a piece of it is stuck 
in the ground, hence its name. The forks are ^T«r kdn, 4H1 kana, 
■^TXt kdni, ■qr^T kanna, or ^r^ kanni. In Champaran and the south- 
east they are ^*l«ri dokdni or ^ctH*^ dukdni. The cross-axle is ^'^WT 
akhauta or vuyl'i akJutut, local variants being ^^gt^t akhoto (South 
Bhagalpur), ■#3T?rr ankhauta (South Munger), and ^%frr akheta or 
■^^■^ dklied (optional) in Graya and Patna. Other names are wPfn 
mdnjha in Champaran and Gaya, and zWt tona in Patna. At right 
angles to and underneath this cross-axle a piece of wood is tied under 
the lever-beam to keep the axle in its place. This is called ij*.^ 
makri in Patna, Gaya, and the west. The holes in which the cross-axle 
works are called ^rf«r kliol. 

934. The wooden framework over a well on which the person 
who draws the water stands is called TTf^TST pariydtha or ttst 
pautha. 

935. When a bucket or lota falls into a well, it is pulled up 
by a set of grappling-hooks, called ^sf^T i'a/J^*, ^nsT kanta, or wjitt 
jhaggdr. 



CHAPTER VII.— THE SKIN BAG USED FOR DRAWING 

WATER. 

936. The use of this has not been noted in East Bihar. In 
West Bihar it is ^ftfit moti, -^ts mot, or ^if« mont. The iron ring round 
its neck islS^'^ST menrra ; also '^^if T kardhi and ^rfT kara in Saran, and 
^iffT kdnra in South- West Tirhut. The rope or cord which joins the 
bucket to this iron ring is srf«raT^ nathiydri or ^1x^^ sorhi; also •ffii^T 
nathiya in South- West Tirhut. The semicircular pieces of bent wood 
fastened to the ring to keep the mouth of the bucket open are ^tKi: ghm-ai 
or ^Kl^ ghordni. To these are fastened two rings of iron, which are 
called w^ kari or ^t^t bdla. f%^ killi or ■gwl' gulli is a wooden 
peg by which the bucket is fastened to the well-rope. 



208 BIlliR PEASANT LIFE. 

CHAPTER VIII.— OTHER WELL-APPLIANCES CONNECTED WITH 

IRRIGATION. 

937. The portion of the mouth of the well on ^\-hich the bucket 
rests as the water is being discharged is called ^^^m arans or •'JIffTO 
anrds. Sometimes this is of wood. On this straw or rushes are 
placed to save the vesael and prevent splashing. In Patna and Gaya 
this cushion is called nlerr sltha or f^<irr binda, and in South-West 
Shahabad ^ji»^t jhengra. In Saran a similar article made of leather 
is called ^rar chhalla. When made of straw in Saran it is called 
'^'^K cliachar, and in Champaran "g^TT chachra. The catch-basin into 
which the bucket is emptied is called fff«iT tltha to the west. Else- 
where it is called ^^^ ardns, 'gVar sltha, &c., as above. 

938. The bullock yoke, which has two bars (see § 14), is ttt^ 
^\z^r^ pdlo motha 01 ^Si^TS judth. Local names are ei^yo^/i (Patna) and 
^^ juar (Champaran and Gaya). In Champaran, Patna, Gaya, 
and South Hunger v^v^ pdlo is used. The above names are also used 
for the upper bar, and also TST palla in South- West Shahabad. The 
lower bar is WT^tw tarsatl or cn?^^ tarsaila, local names being ^^t 
saila in Shahabad, JifTPC gatdr in Champaran and Gaya, and oj^^ jahar 
in the south-east. The outer pins joining these two bars, and which go 
outside the buUock's necks, are called ^t^ sail or ^^t saila to the west 
and ^^^ kanail to the north-west and east. The similar pins inside are' 
^w^ samail or (Patna and the south-east) ^^^t samaila. They are also 
called ■q^TT pachdr in Shahabad. The knob to which the rope is fast- 
ened is ^ITT^^T nmhddeica. In the south-east it is ^t^tt tnalidewa. 

939. The wooden framework over the mouth of a w ell to prevent 
people falling in is ^mf^ jangla. The wooden beam laid over the well 
on which the person drawing the water stands is tti?^ pdwath or ^^^bt 
pautha. Other names are ^rfhtT latmara (Patna and North- West 
Tirhut), ^t«T<^3T gorpautha (South- West Tirhut), and -^Tirr dliarm 
(Champaran and South Hunger). The masonry work at the mouth 
of a well is sntw jagat to the west. Other names are ^|^ murer 
(west), Jf^ munrera (also in Champaran) or t^tr^ nirdri in Patna 
If^ff mureri in Champaran and Gaya, and ^?t murha in the south-east. 

940. The pulley is generally supported in the fork made by two 
lopped branches of the trunk of a tree erected by the well. This trunk is 
called ^[X^'^i' dhurhi or 'g'^ klmmha to the north-west and in South 
Hunger. South of the Ganges we have ^1; dlmrai or ^T^l dliorea 




t^&Am/Mi 



S 

■^ 



■| -^ 



^ 

9 



§ 









-S 

•5 



c~i 



ti 












-S ^ 



S 






THE WORKMEN EMPLOYED AT THE WELL. 209 

in Shahabad. In Gaya it is s}%-^ jaser or ■^'^T daser, and in 
Champaran, Patna, and the south-east «a«wT khamhha or ^'^T khamJia. 
Other names are g'^'t thunhi in Patna and Shahabad and ■<t^T^ 
dokdni in the south-east. The cross beam is ^^^X[ banrera in the 
west, and HWT bulla in South-West Tirhut. In parts of Shahabad 
it is ^KT3 ardth, and in Patna and Graya TTZ pat. The branches 
in which the pulley works are ^rgr kanna or '<«i«?t kani, and the puUey 
axle ^mTsr akhaut or ^^T«rr akhauta. Other names for this last are 
iS'<5T danda in Champaran and South-'West Tirhut, ^K-xrr sarra in 
South-West Shahabad, and Zt^ tona in Patna. The pulley itself is 
^^^ ghardri to the west, also jt^t^)' gardri to the north-west and 
in South Munger. It is fVci^ ghirni in Champaran and South-West 
Tirhut, Patna, Gaya, and South Munger, »r^T gadda in South-West 
Shahabad, "f^*'^ ghurni in Patna, and fl^^ makri in Champaran 
and to the south-east. 



CHAPTER IX.-THE PATHWAY FOR THE BULLOCKS, &o. 

941. The sloping pathway for the bullocks is VT^paudar, also 
^^T dawar in Shahabad, ^'^ bahi in Gaya, and ^JPC dagar in Cham- 
paran, Patna, and the south-east. In South Munger it is also jftf ^tt^ 
gorpaur. The portion above ground is m<,\ tf ^rtst paudar ke mdnth, 
or to the west ^mVK. math dr. The portion below ground is ?rtwr 
khoinchha to the west. A yoke of well-btdlocks is called ^z^^j ^V^ 
mothajori. Drawing water by cattle power is v^ ^^ttjix mot chaldeb. 



CHAPTER X.— THE WORKMEN EMPLOYED AT THE WELL. 

942. The following labourers are employed at the well : — 

The bullock-drwer. — He is "t^r^ hankwa or 'l^fsrsT'C hanknihdr ; 
also iJtr^T pherha in Shahabad. 

943. The man who empties the water-bag.— 'He is <j<'(^-^ tx: 
dharnihdr north of the Ganges, fk^r^T chhinwa in South-West 
Shahabad, and TilA ; <i<. «m motdharwa in the rest of that district 
and in South Munger. 

944. Both these men are called- north of the Ganges vt^t^jx\ 

motwdlia. 

27 



210 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

945. The man who distributes water in the field is called ^•(•♦Tti.T 
panmora or ■q«riw^ panchhanna north, of the Ganges. South of the 
Gauges he is ^T^^IT? barwah in South-West Shahabad, ^li^TI^ morwdh 
in the rest of that district, and w^^TK khanruar in Gaya. He is also 
'3 <.■•«) I'lST Marwdha in Saran and ^^^tct^^t Ithanrwdha in Patna. 

946. The man who distributes the water with a spade has already 
been described in Chapter I of this subdivision. 



CHAPTER XL— THE PERSIAN WHEEL. 

947. The Persian wheel is not used in Bihar. Its name, v^ 
rahat, is however known in Patna. 



CHAPTER XII.-IRRIGATION FROM TANKS AND STREAMS. 

948. Water is raised from these either by the swing-basket or by 
the spoon-lever. 

949. The swing-bastiet—Hhs swing-basket is generally ^K sair to 
the west and "^T? chanr in Central and Eastern Bihar. In Tirhut it is 
also s^ dkos, in South-West Shahabad -^JTJ daura, in Champaran and 
Gaya MK sar, and to the south-east ^sr sain. The strings from which it 
swings are ^< dor or <5Y€f dori. The place where the men stand who 
work the basket is afix^i^T gorpaur, or to the west mtji paudha. In 
South Bhagalpux it is ■^•rn; sain dr. The men who work it are ^TTT^ 
sairwdh, "tff ^r^ chanriwdh, or el'^TfTT^ dhoswdh in the above-mentioned 
localities respectively. To work the basket is ^x ('^Tf or #t^) "g^nr^ 
sair {chdnr or d/ios) chaldeb. In South Bhagalpur it is ^sr ^ixtv^ sain 
bardeb. The pit from which the water is lifted is "Sif^^xcfiariydr 
in Gaya and South Hunger. 

950. The spoon irrigation /ewer.— This is a long log of wood 
boUowed out like a spoon. It is so balanced that the bowl end is over 
the water to be raised. It is depressed into the water by the foot, and, 
rising by its own balance, discharges the water along its stem into the 
higher catch-basin. It is called ^^ don to the west, and qn^ karm 
or ^'cfir karing to the east. The man who works it is called «(l«| .?r ^ 
donwdh and ^ftsi^^'^ IcarinwSli or *Rj|.c(k kar-ingwdh respectively. 
The place where he stands is "^jsj pautha in the west and ^TI^KT 
altmara in Tirhut. 




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5a 



WATEK-CHANNELS. 211 

CHAPTER XTII.— WATER-LIFTS AND OTHER TERMS COMMON 

TO IRRIGATION BY THE SWING-BASKET AND THE 

SPOON-LEVER. 

951. The height to which the water is lifted is X^%K. hodar in Ssran 
and Shahahad, ^4<tiT anna in Champaran, and m^ gar in North- West 
Tirhut. South of the Ganges it is "grr? charhdo, V}«iT^T anaua in 
South-West Shahahad, and ttbt^ eghdnw, &c., as follows. 

952. When there are several lifts, the first reservoir is called 
H^«(»ciiT thewJca in the north-west, ^ ^ ' '^ i WK. pahia gar in North- West 
Tirhut, ard 5fiT«i'C kdnar in North-East Tirhut. South of the Ganges it is 
tasmrT khajdna or tP^^ eghdnw. Of this last there are local variants 
P"'BT^ eghdwa in Patna and ynni eghdy in South Bhagalpur. The top 
of the lift is ■^TfTs^ ardni to the west, and '^Wr sitha in South- West 
Tirhut, Patna, and Gaya. The catch-hasin from which the water 
flows into the field is tfi'siT tltha to the west. It is also 'T^Tflrr parchha 
in South- West Shahahad, and H^r^jff melwdni in Gaya. 

953. When there are two or more lifts, the second from the hottom 
is •^t?f^ doghdnw, with a local variant -^t^T^T doghdwa in Patna. The 
third is ^sif^ teghdnw, or in Patna fl^'rnrr teghdwa. The fourth is '^'Ivjk 
chaguhdnw, or in Patna ^^T^T ehaughdwa. These lifts are also called 
5^5RT theiika in South- West Shahahad. Thus ^ B-^ff^pr do theuka, iffr 
h'^^ tin theuka, &c. The raised hank between the two reservoirs is 
lar^T khdnwan in South- West Shahahad and H^ menr in the rest of that 
district. In Gaya it is '^^ plnr, and in Patna ^^rf= alang. In South 
Hunger and Patna it is ^T^^ dhar, and elsewhere ^i? hdndh or 
<l"pf hdnh. 



CHAPTER XIV.— WATER-CHANNELS. 

954. The channel which conveys the water into the field is 
generally vrsf pain or ''jfsr paini. In Patna, Saran, and Shahahad it is 
also <4i<«-<| karha, and in South- West Shahahad ^TfT bdha. In Tirhut 
it is ^3 pauth or ^T dawan, and in North-East Tirhut «n^ pauti. 
In South-East Tirhut it ia ^^ bah. To the west ^n^ fidri is also 
used. In the south-east and Ohamparan we find «ff ddnr, and also 
(in South Bhagalpur) fs^JTiTr singha. In North-East Tirhut ^iri^T 
kanwa, and in Patna and Gaya ^fsi^^ kanicah, is a narrow branch 
channel leading from a tjt pain. A water-course generally is «is^ 



212 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

naddi or (in South Bhagalpar) ^^ laddi, and its branches »n^ bdka 
or (north of the Ganges) •(^••ll bahna. In Shahabad ^^ chher is a 
shallow spring of water, and its branches fsra-^i;^ nigm'tn. In Patna 
and Gaya ^I'f^^T bhokila and ^^^T tanrua are small water-channels. 
The latter is smaller than, and is a branch of, the former. A turn in a 
water-ODurse is »ftxn^ mordni in Patna and the north-west, and \m\'\ 
ghuman in Ghamparau and North-East Tirhut. 



DIVISION V. 

— ♦ — 



AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND THEIR ENEMIES. 



SUBDIVISION I. 
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. 



CHAPTER I.— WHEAT. 

955. Wheat {triticum vulgare or sativum) is if^ gehuh north of 
the Ganges. In East Bihar generally, however, it is arsT gahum. To 
the west it is also »ffe gohuh, and elsewhere south of the Ganges 
and in North-East Tirhut ^sv gohum. In Gaya it is also WST manda. 
Cf. § 823. 

956. The chief varieties are ^fe^ munriya, a first-class heardless 
wheat. In South- West Shahahad this is £Ps<!i»<(T munrilwa, ■g^ffv^ 
muria in Saran and Patna, and ^'^ mur/i or ^f^<Jl hhunriya in 
Gaya. <.|yt^ ddudi or ^T^ daudi in West Bihar, or to the 
south-west and in Gaya ^f^i daudiya, is an excellent white 
beardless wheat. In Tirhut it is known as srarwr ^i^ jamal khdni. 
A white round-hearded wheat is known as '^^ dudhi or ^f^T dvdhiya 
in South Tirhut, Patna, and South Hunger. In South Bhagalpur it 
is M-^»<%.'"St paehrukhi. ^r^»^ lalka in Shahahad and South- West Tirhut, 
%^ desi or ^ft^T desila, and ^t^tt Mrna or ^TTT^^T hahrrahtca, in the 
north-west, "?T^T hdra in Tirhut, '^^^^'^T harhara in South- West 
Tirhut, ^^'T^T harlia (Patna), i«i<si.'^T kewalha (Gaya). and ■^ny^ jamdli 
or ^mTj:^j jamariya to the east, are a small-grained red wheat. ^Pgr^^T 
lalka also occurs in South Munger. North of the Ganges ^ii^^T dogla 
is a mixed wheat composed of snrr^ ^r^ jamal khdni and ■^rsr 
hdra. ^•ir^flT bargahuma in South-East Tirhut is a large bearded 
wheat. In Shahabad K^T renra means stunted wheat. 

957. The germ of a grain of wheat is south of the Ganges j'sj^ 
putti. AVhen a grain of wheat germinates first, the sprout is called 
5^JIT suiya or ^:^T ma; also "^^fl ankurha to the north-west, and 



214 BIHlR PEASANT LIFE. 

^Jift hanni in Patna. In Nortli-West Tirhut it is '^'b deph, and to 
the east '^^ dephi. The phrase used is ^T^T T'?r suiya gail north of 
the Ganges, or %t« fsi^i^g^ deph niksal in North-East Tirhut. To 
the west they say t^^ ^T renral ba or ^'^ HW rehr gail. In Gaya 
they say ^^T^ ■^rrf % sua awe hai, and in Patna «*Pi*iiiJ<!j ■^tT'To 
^ kaniyael dwa hai. When it has further sprouted, hut has not 
yet taken firm root, it is "gcr*^ puira. When the blade throwa 
out shoots they are called f^^ dibbhi ; also ^lii^ ddbhi in South- West 
Shahabad, and ^«^ tembhi in Patna. When about six inches high 
it is called ^«T g^rr«j kaua lukdn in Gaya, Saran, and Shahabad, and 
^^T»5Tr«i kauajhapdn in the south-east, both meaning sufficiently high 
to hide a crow. When it is cut unripe it is known as vgl<'-^ i horha, 
or (Tirhut and the South-East) ^xr^T orha, and (optionally) in South 
Hunger as ^t^nrr holha. When the ear begins to form, they say ^^ *r^ 
■^ renra bhail ba in the north-west, iwr *r^ '^ gabha bhail ba in South- 
West Tirhut, and Ji*^«^T v^ ^fw gamhra hhel achhi in the rest of 
Tirhut. In Shahabad they say '^f^J^TjT^ dudhiydel. In Patna and 
Gaya a similar phrase, or the phrase t^^jt^ % gadrdel hai, is used, and 
in the south-east they say ^^ dudhailai. tt^JKW^ gadrdel is also 
used in Tirhut. When the grain hardens they say it is ^x^BTir^ 
habsdel in South- West Shahabad, ^^rnr^ kaildel generally ; in 
Saran and West Tirhut also 3T^T3''5( gotdel, ^nr^TSf adhpakku in Gaya, 
%^ 7t^ kaila gel in Patna, and ^r^rjr^ kaldel in the south-east. 

958. The beard is sr"^ tunr or ^ngr tunra to the west, and ^tr 
siingh or ^»r sung elsewhere. In South- West Tirhut it is ^:^ sunr. The 
ear itself is ^T« bdl, except in North-West Tirhut, where it is TT^ bdli ; 
in South-East Tirhut, where it is ^t^ sis ; in South Bhagalpur, where 
it is ^'91 sisa ; and in South Hunger, where it is iwi»«ii tungna. 



CHAPTER II.— MIXED CEOPS. 

959. Wbeat and barley grown together are jffsgt; gojai. A 
mixture of peas, gram, barley, or wheat, or any two or three of 
them, is called ^tj^T terra in South- West Shahabad, tt^x 'W^ 
gajar masar in the rest of that district, f^mx ^«iK gajar bajar in Cham- 
paran, »I«rT '^^iT gajd iajO' south of the Ganges generally, and '^tS^xj 
utra in Patna. In the north-west it is TV paira, in West Tirhut 
^T pair, and in East Tirhut «)T^ paur or ^*f^T bejhra. Barley 
grown with the smaller pea (%Tnr kerdo) is '^ li'CT?; jau kerdl 



RICB. 215 

generally, also B^ ^^in jau matra to the west, bi^KT?; jakerai to the 
south-east, and 3i^ %X7^T jab kerwa in North-East Tirhut. Other 
names are fre'^ %KT^ kusahi kerdo in Patna and the south-oast, cfc t ^j^ 
host in South Bhagalpur, and ^K"CtTV^ IfKT^ harphorwa kerdo in South- 
West Shahabad. ^v<T berra or •?Kt berai in Shahahad is barley mixed 
•with gram, and the same is called 3R ^?T jab butta north of the 
Ganges, and sft ^TT jo butta in the south-east, wt ^'^•KTJo khesra is a 
mixture of barley and peas ('SyiCt khesdri) in the south-east. 

960. When there is a mixture of crops, the inferior one is called 
^T'^ tari when compared with the other. Thus in 5^ ^XTS;yaM kerai the 
small pea (%KR kerdo), being the inferior, is the <rft tari. 



CHAPTER III.— BARLEY AND OATS. 

961. Barley {hordeum vulgare) is ^r^jau generally. In the north- 
east it is SR jab, and in Patna and the south-east ^ jo. North of the 
Ganges wi-^ jai (also in Shahabad) or m^^jantari are shoots of barley 
artificially grown and distributed by Brahmans at the festival of the 
Dasahra. In Gaya they are si^t^t jawdra, and in Patna wift jainti. 
The prickly hairs on the ear are ■s}^ tunr in West Tirhut, Ssran, and 
Shahabad ; ^^T tunra or ^T sunrha in GhampSran and Tirhut ; ^^ sunr 
in South- West Tirhut, and also ^1:^ sunffh or ^»r sung in Patna and the 
east generally. 

962. Oats {avena sativa) are called the sister of barley, and are 
hence named sji; jal or ^jai. 



CHAPTER IV.— RICE. 

963. Rice {pryza sativum), whether as a crop or threshed but 
unhusked, is called VT^ dhan. When husked it is ^^T chdur, but the 
Hindi form ^fT^^ chdwal has also been noted in Patna. Husked rice is 
of two kinds, viz. '^T^^T arwa, which is not parboiled before husking 
and is eaten by the higher castes, and the cheaper, which is parboiled 
before husking and is eaten by the lower castes. This latter is called 
^f%^ usina, ^H'^1 usnUf or oft^T^T josdnda. Bice when partially 
husked is called ^j'g '^i muhchur in Gaya, 'Nl*"."^! bokra in Saran, 
and f^afJ^JT khijaya in North-East Tirhut. Eice boiled plain is wr<i 
bhdt, when boiled with pulses it is f^^^ khkhri, and when spices are 
added to this it is ^^ f%=^^ bhunalhhichri or ^^ kabuli; also in 



216 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

South Bhagalpur wf^ chhaunki. "When rice is boiled to a mash, it is 
called Jrt^^sf golhath or »?^t^f c^ golhaUhi. In Gaya vfjlf cTT panihata 
is a dish made by adding water to the rice left from last night's 
supper. In addition to the usual names, ^tt Idr, ^^tk. podr, &o. 
(see § 894), the long straw of transplanted rice is called »rt<^ TZT^t 
mori petdri, or (in Champaran) 'tzt^ petdhi or (in Shahabad) T^T^ 
petdrhi. 

964. The varieties of rice grown in Bihar are very numerous, as is 
borne out by many proverbs, such as the following : — ^x:arr5;(j -^ 'WT*' % "^x: 
fTf^% rajput o dhdii ke or ndhin hai, — there is no limit to the clans of 
Rajputs or the kinds of rice; ^Vi{ ^^v:^\'Sl'^ ^^ dlidn hdbhan ken 
ekke hdl, — rice and Babhans are one and the same (in number of kinds). 
Rice may be divided into two broad classes, tho.se which are sown 
at once broadcast and are called <K\'^*\ bdwag, ^T^^T bdog, (in Graya) 
•«rt<t^T hogera, or in Patna ^JTiTT bogJia, and those which are sown in 
seed-beds and transplanted, being called tW rop or 'ct^ ropa or (in 
Graya and Patna) ^t^T^^ ropha. At the same time it should be 
noted that practice varies with locality, and that a kind of rice which 
is ■^■Rsr bdwag in one place may be ■cfrr ropa in another. 

A— EICE THAT IS SOWN BROADCAST. 

965. (1) ^T^ sdthi. — This is a red rice, and ripens in sixty 
days from sovdng, as in the proverb — 

■•Ki<s(l Tf%xjsf^. 

Sdthi pake sdth din, 
Barklm hokhe rat din. 

— Sdthi ripens in sixty days if it rains night and day. 

In the east it is also called ^v^ gambhri or ^n^^ gamkri. 
It is sovm in the month of Jeth (May- June), and is cut in Sawan 
(July- August). 

(2) ^fhR^siT &ohia (north-west). — This is sown with the first 
fall of rain in Jeth (May- June), and is cut in Bhadou 
or Asin {i.e., in September). This crop is also called 
*i^«IT bhadaiya. 

(3) The following are sown in Phagun (February-March) 
and Chait (March-April), and are cut in Aghan 
(November-December). The names were principally 



tetCt! THAT IS SOWN BROADCAST. 217 

collected in East Tirhiit, and unless the contrary is speoLally 
stated do not apply elsewhere :-^ 

(a) '^■^^m 'ftr akdl bir. (In Saran "^m^ jftt akdl gir~ 
and in North-JEast Tirtut also ^ST^r i?k kdla gir.) 

(6) ^^TJtT vjdgar, or in Saran WT^IKyag'ar, which name 
is also current in North-East Tirhut. 

(c) V*)!")!* chanabah. 

{d) »(nti •«<•<•! jhalmardan. 

(e) '^<.'M\ darmi (also known in the north- west). 
(/) ^'9lXf r desariya (Tirhut and Champaran). In 
Saran itis called sj^frsJT jasariya). 

{g) "^f^x. ptohar. 

{h) ^^9rXK helaur (also known in the north' west). 

{i) *jff2«T bhdntin (Saran). 

U) *f^'^ bhaislet (also known in the north-west). 

{k) ^f^ Idnji (Saran). 

{I) ^flfx^rr safo«y« (Saran). 

(ot) ^f^^ sdhil (Saran^. 

{n) fefjiTcr singra. 

(o) ^^m sobra. 

%Tr kherha is a white bearded rice sown all over Tirhut and in 
Champaran. The following (also East Tirhut) are sown in Jeth 
(May-June). They are sometimes sown broadcast and sometimes 
transplanted : — 

(ffl) g^^ dhusri (also known in Champaran). 

(6) ^^X bastar. 

(c) XXV ^^^ ram duldri. 

966. In South- West Shahabad the following kinds of rice are 
sown broadcast : — 

(a) ^T^TT karnga "j Two kinds with a black grain (also known 
(6) ^C^ karngi J in Saran), 

(c) * <,• s^ jTI karhanni, a small black grain (also known in 

Saran). 

(d) ^iTf^l khdtin, a coarse kind. 
{<j ^^.^i,*!! sahdeiya, a red kind. 
(/) ^T^ sdthi. See above. 

28 



218 bihSr pkasant life. 

(s) ^T serha, a fimall black and white grain. Lake the 9T^ 
sothi, it ripens in sixty days. The South- West 
Shahahad version of the saying already quoted is — 

%ST ^a^ ^T3 f^T, ^ %^ ^\.«% TPT f^T 
Serha sdthi sdth din, jemw deb barse rat din. 

— Serha and sathi take sixty days if it rain night and day. 

In the rest of Shahabad the following kinds of rice are sown 
broadcast : — 

(a) 1 •r^HT^ joawsan. 

{b) ■yr^NfC bhuin&lkar. 

(c) .^JTT ni&nga. 

(af) KTJT ^I'-^yl rem karhanni. 

(e) TTfl ^T^ »'a«i dulari. 

(gr) fii<.'^'!? sirJutnt. 
967. In Gaf/a sowing is done in the month of Akhar, in the 
lunar asterism of Aradra (June-July). About this asterism (sjwmt 
nachhattar) and the two following ones the following rhyme is 
current throughout Bihar • — 

Aradra dhan, Puitarbas paiya. 
Gel, kisdn, je boe Chiraiya. 

— Paddy sown in Aradra turns into plenty, sown in Punarbas to chaff 
and sown in Chiraiya (or Pukh) it turns to nothing. 

The paddy is generally cut in the month of Pus (December- 
January). 

Amongst the kinds of paddy sown broadcast in this district are— 

(a) v^J^ edli. 

(b) ^fli^iT katika, — cut in Katik (October-November). 

(c) ^si«^^ kanbada. 

(d) «*<«-^^ karhanui. 

(e) «BlVr j'inga. 
{/) »^K7JIT jhanrga. 
(g) "^^rr dhusra 
(h) ^21^ rafica. 

(i) ^«^l^ laldeiya. 



RICE THAT IS TRANSPLANTED. 219 

U) <!n>««<r hhra. 
(k) f^<.«^s^ sirhatti. 

968. In Patna on the first fall of rain, whicli generally takes 
place in tlie asterism of Rohni, in the -month of Jeth (May-June), the 
sowing is commenced. Paddy •which is sown broadcast is divided into 
two classes — a red, which is considered superior, and is called <ift«g»<ITtX<(i 
lalgondiya, and a black, which is considered inferior, and is called 
'ifTO ^"^Jr^TT kara hogha. The former kind includes ^x^^^ karhanni as 
the principal. The ear is black. 

969. In South Munger the following kinds are sown broadcast : — 
{a) '^«rnT ajan, a white variety. 

(6) ^^^ kajri. 

[c) ^x^a^ karhanni. See above. 

{d) ^^v^nf khirdant. 

(e) WJi^T chhagra. 

(/) ^mjauga. 

{g) ■'JTrgT^T pnnsdha (a coarse red kind) . 

(h) ■^f^WT burhwa. 

(t) \f»il- rdngi. 

(y) «r<-^»( sarihan, a white variety. 

(A) f%<iTS^ sirhatti. 

970. In South Bhagalpur the following kinds are sown broad- 
cast : — 

(") ^ W< ?g^ kajargharo. 
[h) jfl^««T gnhma. 

(c) '^'T chdiig. 

(d) m^rjonga. 
(«) ^«{.*^'^ dudsar. 

B.— RICE THAT IS TRANSPLANTED. 

971. This rice is generally sown with the first rains in Jeth 
(May-June). It is transplanted in Sawan (July- August) . In Patna 
the custom is to commence transplanting on the 5th of Sawan, 
after holding a festival, called •)<*cMT"«n' nakpdncho, or the " fifth of the 
asterism (^nSRT nakhal)." The regular harvest is held in Aghan 
(November-December). Before this, however, some is cut for the 
ceremony of ftr^f f^fX'^ bisun pirit (called in Saran fi?Q«ifz^ bisunatiya), 
at which Brahmans are feasted on the new grain. 



220 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

972. The following kinds of rice are transplanted in Tirhut :— 

(a) ■^^T atiga, a black bearded kind, 
(i) «ti«l* ■*wh: kanak j'lr (East Tirhut), 

(c) ^?rt^ kamoch, a black kind grown in North-West. 

(d) *<,.4<l karma, a long black kind (Tirhut). 

(c) JI^'RT gahuma, a red flat kind grown in North-East Tirhut. 

(/) ^3r^«if«i^T jagarnatliiya, a similar kind grown in North- 
West Tirhut. 

{g) ^N«<l»i dudhraj, small and white. 

(A) Tf^T iianhiya (East Tirhut). 

(t) ^^<'«n hahami (North-West Tirhut) or ^-<l<.««n bahorni 
(North-East Tirhut), a long -white variety. 

(y) ''■n?r ^^ hhdl sari. 

{k) w«re«'^ manasri, a red variety (also known in Saran). 

(0 Tra »vtn mal bhog. 

(m) T^*^ ramnni (also known in Saran). 

{n) «T^ ^T^T /a/ rfe'iyff, or in Saran ^^s^Ti^JT laldeiya, a red 
variety. 

(o) ^fv^T sarihan (north of the Ganges generally), sown in 
Baisakh (April-May) and cut in Sawan (July- 
August). 

(p) ft^n^' silhat, with a black husk but white grain. 

973. In South-West Shahabad the following are transplanted : — 

(a) *^'<^i''^KJalhor, possesses a fine grain. 
(6) m"^ jhengi, a white variety. 

(c) ■^t(«*T'^< dudlikdnrar, white, 
(rf) Tre^^^ hdsmati, a superior white variety, 
(e) ^ d<-«ri baitarni, a reddish kind. 
If) v ^«<» T e) -^ bhenrkdbar, a coarse red kind. 
{g) v'x^ \%\ mal dehi, a fine-grained variety. 
(A) .^^'^ inutvni, white, 
(i) ■4.«-ai_'*JT ramjua, fine. 

{j) ^Ti^^rj longchura (a black and very fine variety), 
(/f) ft^ %?xf siV* kebal, white. 

974. In the rest of Shahabad the following are transplanted:— 
{a) tft«i*'<^<t kanakjtra. 

(b) 'S^'^'^T dulahra. 

(c) K^^^ dolangi. 



HICE THAT IS TRANSPLANTED. 221 

975. In Gaya the following are transplanted : — 

(a) '^reT^T ^X,«*ii<, Jcamla parsad. 
{b) Tcmpvfiij gajpatta. 

(c) j^xjgudra. 

(d) Jit^^ ■q;^ gokhul phul. 

(e) »ffT(^ wW gopal bhog. 
(/) <ilfi<. ^«r thaleur bhog. 
{9) ^^'fWw dudhgilds. 
(A) ■'Jw^T dhanlwa. 

(i) IT '9TCr nati dhdra. 
U) ■^^S.^T hakoiya. 
(Jc) i?«rr^ ■^•l^ batas pheni. 
{I) T<rT«T batdsa. 
(w) ■^^T^ brdnti. 
(«) ^f^-«^ bdsmati. 
(0) *n>?T^T mddhica. 
(p) ^i.''^ murdhi. 
{q) ^T^ %^t Idl kesar. 
(r) ^«? s^Kt sdmjira. 
(s) ■^TTT '<r^ stt^rt pankhi. 
it) %?fT se/Afls. 

976. In Patna the following are transplanted : — 

(a) ^^■^^rfiniT basmatiya. 

(b) ^%^ saphed. 

(c) f^^T^ siydh. 
{d) %«f T seMfl. 

977. In South Munger the following are transplanted : 

{a) '^HT^ ^^ ff^Kzr Aaft'. 

(J) 5B^^^ /ca/n. 

(c) ■qrg«r fTC kanchan chur. 

(d) ^iT^ ^f * kdri bank. 

(e) iTSJiia^ gajpati. 

if) ^^^ \^ tulsiphul. 
(g) ■^"t^.Jpt' <fo/(/^. 
(A) -^^^irffV bdsmati. 
{i) ^"T^ lupdhi. 
(j) fk^ VTK siti sdr. 
{k) '^Wf seVia. 



222 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

978. In South Bhagalpur tlie following are transplanted : — 

{a) ^^^ "^ kanak chUr. 
{/)) ^m^^kamodi (a sweet-scented variety), 
(c) 'ft^^ mK gokhul sar. 

(cC) "^wiw^ dmmaphul (a sweet-scented variety), 
(e) TT1 IX bag nar. 
(/) vt^ ■'5^ bans pJiul. 
(g) m*i'»^ bdsniati. 
(/«) mwr 'fft'T basa pasin. 
(«') »JST^TT mansara. 
(J) T^rftWT ramayiiya. 
{k) KTW '5W^ ram dullar. 
{I) ^^"^^ hamcha. 

979. Of all the above rices, the most esteemed is mim ^trr 
samjira. It is a fine kind, and when cooked its fragrance fills the 
house. The next best is *(iy«4<»n bdsmati or «(fj"««f?reT basmatiya, 
which is not quite so fine as the first. %wr selha may be considered 
as the third best. 

C— OTHER MISCELLANEOUS KINDS OF RICE. 

980. ^V<t boro is a poor kind of rice sown in Asin (September- 
October) or Katik (October-November) in the mud on the banks of 
streams and lakes. It is transplanted several times in Pus and Magh 
(December, January, and February). ^%^ lamera or (in South-East 
Tirhut) vftK J fiar or in (Saranj WTX-f jhdran is rice which has fallen from 
the sheaves when reaping, taken root, and grown next year, 

981. Rioe-lands. — Land which has been under a rice-crop is^^spr^x 
dhanliar, ^r«r^§Tr dhankhet, or TJ«i»ii«fi' dhankheti. It is also ^sit^^ dkunkhar 
in Shahabad, t^«i«f**<lir dhankiyara in Gaya, and "atsiTTT dhanha in Patna. 
Fresh waste land ploughed up for rice sowing is fidn^.^ nc khilmar ; 
also «mT^ ^^ nawad khet north of the Ganges, and ^^rt^ naukhil 
in Gaya. In the south-east it is f^^r^^a khilkat or fW^ll' khil- 
katti. To dig it in order to make it fit for sowing is ^^ ^^ 
khil korab or ^aW ifff^ khil torab. The preparation of a rice-field 
is ^T^ (or «*<^-4l) ^T^ kado (or kadtca) karab ; also %^ ^k^ leo karab in 



INDIAN COKN OR MAIZE. 223 

Saran, and iWTT ^r^ masah karab in Ohamparan. A man who culti- 
vates rice is *(«|.^t dJianha to the west. 

982, Seedlings, — A nursery for rice seedlings is f«r^7^ birar or 
f^TK biyar. In South-West Shahahad it is "^ni benga. The seed is 
^^•f blhan, fil^^nT bihnai, or ^^T blya, and the same words are also 
used for the seedlings of any crop ; but the seedlings of rice are 
specially called ift€t mori south of the Ganges and to the west. They 
are also called ^x^jaral in Ohamparan. The bundles of rice seedlings 
ready for transplanting are ■^f^ anti or ■^fa^T antiya north of the 
Ganges and in the south-east, and the quantity transplanted at one place 
is everywhere except to the south-east ^T«r ban. Seedlings of nKt boro 
rice which have been transplanted once and are again transplanted are 
called in North-East Tirhut ^rns khdru or <sHt^K hharuhdn. For fuller 
information concerning seedlings and transplanting, see 855 and ff. 



CHAPTER v.— INDIAN COEN OR MAIZE. 

983. Indian corn or maize {zea mays) is »i^ makai or fT^tri 
makaiya. It is also called 3i^^ janera in the west and foi^V^ 
jinora in Patna, which names ought properly to be applied to the large 
millet {holcus sorghum) . The stalks are btt dhattJia to the west and 
3'3XT thathera to the north generally. In South Bhagalpur they are 
a^Kt thathero, and elsewhere ^fz ddnt or «T^ ddnti. The broken stalk 
is ^x; latJier in the North-West and West Tirhut, and f^T^ nighds 
or r^^iji' nighesa in East Tuhut. No special name for this has been 
noted south of the Ganges. 

984. When the grains begin to form, but are not yet fit for eating, 
the ear is called ^^ sancha. The unripe ear is ^t diiddha to the 
west generally, and also ^WT dodha in Shahabad. Other names are 
f»a^ kUchcha or ^^ aju in Tirhut, ^M-wls dudhghottu in Gaya, 
■5«rT 'HS'I; duddha makai in Saran and Patna, '5«J5^^ dudhbhoro in South 
Bhagalpur, and ^rr^^^TKT dantkamra in South Hunger. When ripe 
it is ^TT bhutta or ^^ bdl. When the seeds are ripe and hard, and 
not fit for eating, it is called M*«dr4,<!( pakthail. The roasted ear is 
^trrr horha generally, and also '^T'K?TT orha to the east. The empty 
cob after the grain is beaten out is ^^ Imrha generally ; also ^t 
nerha in. East Tirhut and W^^ lenruri in Shahabad. In Patna and 
SoT;ith-East Tirhut an optional name is f ^^ baluri, and South-East 



224 BiHiB PEASAm: life. 

Tirhut and South Munger T«v^ balri. In South-West Shahabad 
the word used is m^^ khukhuri or V^^^ khonkhri, and in South 
Bhagalpur '▼^ haddi. The grain beaten out is jft^T gota or jftz got. 
An ear with no grain in it is called ^ttl^ hhordh or *flT'^T bhorha 
north of the Ganges. When it contains only a few grains it is called 
Tr^sjftfa^ pachgotiya. The hair on the ear is ^g^ bhua to the west ; 
also '^^ ghua in South-West Shahabad. In Champaran and Qaya 
it is called ^N' san. In Patna it is ^?f monchh ; in South Munger, 
VW mochha ; in Tirhut and South Bhagalpur, v\^ moch or 'nt^ mocha. 
It is also called %^'^ kesi. The sheath of the cob is «al^«<T khdiya 
to the west, and •(<!i-<sili,«JT balkhdiya or ^Y^jr^fT bokla generally. 
In Champaran another name is <ci(d>Tf|i,«ii khalchoiya, and in 
South- West Tirhut w^-^l' balko or ^^ kosa. In East Tirhut 
it is 'aTt'^t hhoincha, in South Munger MdKr pataura, and in South 
Bhagalpur liWt poclw. The male ear is called x«i»«(i»!i dhanbal or 
i^sr^T^ dhanahra. 



CHAPTER VI.— THE LAEGE MILLET. 

985. Large millet {hokus sorghum or sorghum vulgare) sr^/awer or 
«T^TT janera generally. A variety of it is called wisf<«iT «i^^ masuriya 
janer to the west to distinguish it from maize {zea mays, see last 
chapter). So also it is called srP?^ sj^^j nanhiya janera in Bast 
Munger. Local names are ifsirr gehuma and wtt^^ jonhri in Saran, 
fgnYtr jinora in Patna and Graya, and ^r«»rr gahuma in South Bhagal- 
pur. Amongst its varieties may be mentioned a large red kind grown 
in Shahabad, called siT'=iCl jondhri. This is called fflr^^TT ^rswr sisua 
gahuma in South Bhagalpur. A similar red kind is called K^r^^ raksa 
or K^n^ raksi. This millet is little grown south of the Ganges. The 
only other kind noted there is ^ai-^T bajra, which is described as a 
dwarf white variety {see however § 987). North of the Ganges '^fV^lT 
dudhiya, or (in South Tirhut) ^<.i*fzt(r larkatiya or sf^^ftgi narkatiya, 
is a dwarf white variety. The following also occur north of the 
Ganges :— »5wfWr jhalariya, of which the head bends down, and which 
ripens late. ^^ jethi in the north-west is a kind sown for fodder. A 
kind with two grains in one husk is called ns^f genhudn. 

986. The stalks cut up for fodder are ^^t dhathera or ^tt dhattha 
to the west, and s^r, thather or s^xx thathera to the east. When the 



THE SMALL MILLETS. 225 

young plant. first germinates it is ^^Xf ankura, and the young plant 
is fk^ dihbhi or ^»i^ dibhi. The ears are ^T^ hdl, or in East Tirhut 
optionally ^g us. The large stack of the stalks out up for fodder is 
JTTar gdnj to the west and zt^ tdl to the east. Local names are ^^\K 
khamhdr or ^ff kdnr in South-East Tirhut. 



CHAPTER VII.— THE SMALL BULRUSH MILLET. 

987. This millet (holms spicatus or peneillaria spkata) is ^•aii^T 
hajra in Saran. South of the Ganges it is sometimes incorrectly called 
WtiP^tlT si^ (or in Patna f^^Hl) manuriya janer (or in Patna jinora), 
■which is properly a different grain, a variety of the large millet 
{holcus sorghum ; see § 986). In South West Shahahad it is gff^fV^T 
jondhariya^ and in South Bhagalpur ^^WT gahuma. Just as the 
large millet is grown principally north of the Ganges, so this 
millet is grown almost entirely south of it. Hence there is great con- 
fusion in their names. The following terms relate exclusively to South 
Bihar : — I'he stalk is «fe ddnt or ef^ ddnti eveiy*here ; also 31T 
dhattha in Shahahad and 3^^ thathero in South Bhagalpur. The first 
shoots of the plant are "^f^^T ankhua or 4^'4ji sua ; also 'ftfVtTjT tihhiya in 
South Munger and tj'4.t(r suiya in South Bhagalpur. To throw out shoots 
is ■^f^'^TF^r ankhudsb or ■^^TX'T sudeb. When the ear hegins to show itself 
the phrase used is ^^pttRT ■^ lalhdi ha in Shahahad, "t"?! ^^ % renra hhel 
hai in Gaya, ^'^i^m T.^^ % lahlahd fahal hai in Patna, '^'^ ^^^ ara gel 
in South Munger, and T^^STTW halhaldichai in South Bhagalpur. 
When the heads are blighted and grainless, they are ^usT thuntha in 
South- West Shahahad, ^^i^ banjhar in the rest of that district and in 
West Tirhut, ^T^ bdnr in Gaya, ^rgr thuttha in Patna, and gf^**! 
muriya in the south-east. The fluffy flowers are ■sf'n' ghompa in 
South-West Shahahad, sn^ jdwa in South Munger, and <{n!i-<*1' phulko 
in South Bhagalpur. 



CHAPTER VIII.— THE SMALL MILLETS. 

988. These are— 

(1) Panicum Italicum. — This is ^f^ tanguni io iih.& south-west 
and in Saran, and ZTgif tdngun in Saran and Gaya. 
Elsewhere it is SBT^ kauni, or in South Munger option- 
ally •ST^'J hdiin. 

29 



226 bihIr peasant life. 

989. {2)Panicum mileaceum. — ^cjT sdiiwdn or ^ •ptf sdwaw. la 

Tirhut it is also ^wi sama, and in South Bhagalpur 
^WT sama. 

990. (3) Eleusine coracana. — This is the most important of 

all the millets, forming the staple food of a large 
portion of the population. It is *?'3~^ marua or »rf ^T 
manrua. The empty dry ears after the grain has heen 
taken out are ^'\S[ danti north of the Ganges ; also ^r^^ 
katua in North-East Tirhut, ^^ marhi in South-East 
Tirhut, and -5^ putti in South- West Tirhut. In South- 
West Shahabad they are ^I'g'J^ kholri, and in the rest of 
that district Wl' bhusi. In Fatna and Gaya they are 
^^^ bhusa or <sit!l«<tt?^ kJialkoiya, and in the south-east 
they are ^^T bhussa. The stalks are ^^^T nerua or 
^^^T lerua to the west, and ^ttk Idr to the north- 
east. Another word current to the north-west is 
^TT dhattha. In Patna they are "^XK nar, in Gaya 
•iTTT ndra, and in the south-east ^^f^TT larua or sre^rr 
narua. In Gaya and the west 'sfa d&nth or ttz ddnt or 
«T^ ddnti is also used. The green ears roasted for food 
are <3^ ummi or ^n^ iimi to the west and in Tirhut, 
and ^nfl' uni in Champ aran. When cut somewhat riper, 
but not quite ripe, and then roasted, they are "itxTfT horha 
generally, and ^^tK^f^T orha in Tirhut and to the east. 
They are optionally ^Iti^.^i holha in Champaran and 
South Hunger. In Shahabad they are '^T^^ hdhis, and 
south of the Ganges generally ftiT5^ ghunghni or -5^^ 
ghughni. This being an important food-crop, there are 
many popular sayings concerning it. The following 
may be quoted: — 

f^'TT 3^ ^^ «^ KTI^ W 11 

an? »re^T^ ^ra v^ I 
fti^ 5«rr % lira ^^ II 

Jab marua a ke gdchhi bhel, 
Dhiya puta mkh sukh mdchhi bhel. 
Jab marua men bdl bhel, 
Dhiya puta ke gdl hhel. 



PULSES. 227 

— When tlie marua began to sprout, the children dried Up like 
flies {i.e., their food had been used for seed-grain) ; 
but when the tnarua came in the ear, the children got 
(fat) cheeks. 

'T^'flT ^ -^ n^ v^ I 
^Si^ % wTiT -^^ ^^ ^'i\ II 

Marua mm, chin sang dahi, 
Kodo ke hhat dudh sang sahi. 

— Marua should be taken with fish, china with tyre, and milk 
with kodo. 

?ftxt Tf ^rr ^[^r srf^ i 

Wt^V'^T 'gl^T SPT srl^ II 
Kodo marua an nahin, 
Jolha Dhuniya jan nahin. 

— Kodo and marua are not really food-grains, {i.e. they are 
despised as poor men's food), just as weavers and cotton- 
carders can never be cultivators. 

991. (4) Panicum frumeniosum. — This is fkfn chinna or "^iiT 

china, local variants being "^W chin in East Tirhut 
and ^'h? chinh in South-West Shababad. It is of 
two kinds in Saran, — JuR^iT gauriya and <*»«JT raksa. 
The grains when boiled and then parched are called 
5HT?T nidrha or ^ifsT manrha, or in East Tirhut vrs mar. 

992. (5) Paspalum frumentaceum — This is ^bIx'" 1<:odo. In 

Shahabad a smaller variety is called ^"t^ kodai. 

993. Miscellaneous.— ■^^f:^Kl makra {eleusine cBgyptica), a kind of 

grass of which the seeds are eaten. In the North- 
Western Provinces this name is applied to eleusine 
coracana, but not in Bihar. 



CHAPTER IX.— PULSES. 

994. Among the pulses are — 

(1) Cytisus Indicus or cajanus. — This is t^^ rahar or K.^^ rahri. 
In North-East Tirhut it is also called TT'Tf raihar, Xr^ 
rahari, or TTT^ rahar. The dry stalks are K%^T rahetha 



228 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

north of the Ganges, or X^zra rahath or ^T^3- rdhdth in East 
Tirhut. South of the Ganges we have ■^Xsj haretha or KX^T 
raretha (also used in Tirhut) in South- West Shahabad, 
K^^3T rahretha in the rest of that district, K'^^a'T rahraitha 
in Patna and Gaja, ^^.^37 lahraiiha in South Munger, 
and «T^ laretlw in South Bhagalpur. The pods are -e-f^ 
dhenrhi generally, and ^*?^ clihemi also north of the 
Ganges and in Shahabad. To the East they are also 
^fhrf^ chlmari or fwfl'^ chhimri. In Gaya they are also 
^hi^ cJihimi, in Patna iVs*^ dindi, and in South Munger 
vf^ dinri. The stalks used for fodder are ^^ bhus or 
^^T hhusa ; also ^^^T kafua in Patna and '^^^ katuo in 
the south-east. This and other pulses when sprouting 
are known as fk^ dihbhi or ^^ dibhi, except in. the 
north-east, where they are vrrw gaehh. Bread made from 
this pulse, gram ('^z Imnf), and phaseolus mungo (ig^ 
mung), is called f^^ litti or vt^ roti north of the Ganges 
(both these words being general terms for bread made 
from any grain), WTiKT bhubhra in Patna and Gaya, 
and f^cTT^T chitdwa in South Munger. ^rt bari is a 
kind of roimd cake or fritters made similarly. 

995. (2) Phaseolus mungo. — This is ^^ mung or ^jt mung. In 
North-East Tirhut it is also called ^T *?»r mahha mung. 
The pods are called the same as those of cytisus cajanus 
(k^^ rahar). The stalks used for fodder are ^Ji^rr 
jkengra in Saran, Gaya, and South-West Tirhut, »jiTt 
jhar in Champaran and North- West Tirhut, igfa- danth 
in North-East Tirhut, and ^nj^s. gachh, ^MTf\ jhamri, or 
»STJr jhang in South-East Tirhut. South of the Ganges 
they are vq bhus or fm bhusa ; also «ti^^ T katua in 
Patna and ff?^ kutuo in the south-east. 

996. (3) Phaseolus roxburghii or phaseolus radiatm. — This is ^fej 
urid or (south of the Ganges optionally) ^x?^ urdi. 
In East Tirhut it is also called ^r^r?; kaldi, ^T^ kardi, 
or ??TO ^^TT?; mas kaldi. There are several kinds, e.g., 
^^T doma (East Tirhut), which bears in Pus and 
Magh (January) ; ^T^ larhi (Saran and South- West 
Tirhut), 1^^ narhu, •i<--^ narho, W<?^ larlio or ^^^sfl' 
asni (Tirhut), or ^^rr^^^r aghanua (Saran, Cham- 



PULSES. 229 

paran), which bears in Aghan (November-December) ; 
^Wt tepakhi (Saran and South- West Tirhut) or ^(ffr^T 
katika (elsewhere north of the Granges), which bears 
in Kafik (October-November) ; and nf^T^ bhadwi (South 
Hunger), which bears in Bhddori (August-September). 
Another division is into black and green varieties. The 
black varieties are ^fT danga (North-East Tirhut), 
*lO kari, ^fK'sjT kariya (Shahabad and the south- 
east), ^T^rr kala in Gaya, and f%^rr? siydh in Patna. 
The green kinds are g^i^a^ tulbulli in North-East 
Tirhut, ^f\:^T: hariar in Shahabad, ^^.^r harra in Gaya, 
and ^^ia^ sabji'^ in Patna. The pods are ■Sf^ dhenrhi, 
Wfl^ chliemi, &c., as above. 

997. (4) Fhaseolus aconitifolius. — This has only been noted 

south of the Ganges. It is generally called »?t«r moth. A 
smaller variety is ^rt^ mothi. The stalks used for 
fodder are ^^ bhus, ^s^^T katua, &c., as above. 

998. (5) Ervum hirsutum (one variety) or cicer (or vicia) 

lens (another variety).— This is w^^sc niasur or wg^^ 
masuri. 

999. .{&) Miscellaneous. — fiT?^ kurthi [dolichos biflorm), <^ ?i^ 

khesdn {Mhyrus satica)* l«s bhent or '^zj^to bhent-wdns, 
^?r M-m khet mas or %w ^T^ khet mdsu (North-East 
Tirhut) , which is apparently a variety of phaseolus radiatus, 
fflT'nft bhirngi (a kind of wild pulse eaten by the poor), 
and (Shahabad) ^jiri.Cl latri. 



* It is unwholesome for human beings, but bullocks eat it greedily, e.g., in 
the sayings 

^\M'i ^?rrT, •*i\i\'n wx^. 

TuruJc tdri, hail JcJiesdri, 
Bdman dm, Zdyatli hdm. 

^Toddy is necessary for a Musalman's happiness, Jchesdri for a bullock's, 

mangos for a Brahman's, and employment for a Kayasth's. 



230 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



CHAPTER X.— PEAS. 

1000. Peas {pisum sativum) are of various kinds. The large variety 
is VZX matar, or 'va South- West Shahabad WI5T mantar. A smaller variety 
is It^T^ kerdo. This is often sown with barley, when the mixed crop 
is known as s^ ^X}\jau kerai, &c., see § 959. The principal varieties are 
^f^^ kablli (north of the Ganges) or *«(«y1 kabfi (south of it), which is a 
large white kind. It is also called ^^^f^ ghebli in South-East Tirhut. 
North of the Granges ^5vi^^ sugwa is a small green variety. Another 
kind is known as ^ai^ bajri in Champaran. ^^^ baturi in Shah- 
abad, and ■grg^ kusahi in Patna, Gaya, and the south-east, is a small 
black variety. In South Bhagalpur it is called firavjiTT bhithgara. 
Another variety is ^^f%^T dabliya in South- West Shahabad, «^ra 
3i<H dabal kerdo in the rest of that district, and 5"T^t^ dhdbli in 
Patna. 

1001. When the plant first appears above ground, it is called ft^ 
dibbhi north of the Ganges and in Shahabad, but in the south- west of the 
latter district it is ^nvt dabhi.- In North-East Tirhut it is also called 
JiTi^ gachhi. In Gay a and Tirhut it is "^f TT ankura, in Patna and 
Tirhut '^(wrr aiikhua, in South Hunger <fc.j.<?l kansi, and in South 
Bhagalpur Ji^K gajur. When the pod appears, the phrase is to the north 
of the Ganges tRx ^rni«r ^ pata Idgat ha, or a similar phrase. In South- 
East Tirhut they say that the plant is 'TZTtr^ patdel or ttzs^ patra. In 
Shahabad they say it is »i<..<;iii<ifl gadrdel ; in Gaya and South- West 
Shahabad they say ^^ «T3I^ % (or ^t) dhenrhi Idgal hai (or ba) ; and 
in Patna f^i^ ^Ti^ % dindi Idgal hai. The pod when fully formed 
is ^Ct dhenrhi, '^hft chhimi, %»ft chhemi, or flf*T^^ chhimri to the 
north, and f%^"^ dindi to the south. In South Bhagalpur it is ^^ 
dhenri. The unripe pods are ^1X gad or irr^ gdda, and when used 
to make a pottage they are called «(*•*< hatkar in South- West 
Shahabad. The young shoots are also used for pottage. These 
are called north of the Ganges ^nr sag or vra^ bhaji, the latter 
principally to the west. When cooked to a soup it is called ^'^ pareh, 
and in Patna and Gaya »5tK jhor. In South Munger they are '^'^ 
chanda, and in South Bhagalpur flz^ct ^nr matro sag. The young 
shoots cooked with pulse are called <.ig«M«lT dalpainfa in South- West 
Shahabad, and ^wi-ii^il dalsagga in Patna, Gaya, Saran, and the 
south-east. 



GRAM. 231 



CHAPTER XI.— GRAM. 



1002. Gram {cicer arietinum) is ^*z hunt generally. It is also called 
"^^ chana in Ssran, ^^^J^ beddm in East Tirliut, and xf^^T rahila!" 
to the west. 

1003. ^1^ worn' or la^TT khatdii&\h.ei oxalic acid and acetic acid 
which form on the leaves. In Shahahad '^'^xptyar is a kind of which 
the grain is yellow pointed, and ^^ bunti, or in Patna "^^ chani, 
is a smaller variety. Another small variety is ^^^ baturi in 
Shahahad. 

1004. The young shoot as it first appears ahove ground is said to he 
SSl^li ^ swiail. InEast Tirhut they say of it ^:t: W+isiA* sul phenkalkaik. 
The shoot is called ^TH ddbh in South- West Shahahad, and f^i?i' dibbhi 
in the rest of that district. In South Munger it is f^^ tibbhi, and in South 
Bhagalpur ^^T gajur or tj.'Oi sua. The young leaves used as pot-herhs 
are known as ^TJT sag or VK^ bhaj'i, the latter principally in the 
west. The pod is "^^^ dhenrhi generally, also ^*^ chhlmi north 
of the G anges. Another name is ^Phrfe chhimari or f^*t»^ chhimri in East 
Tirhut. In Patna it is fe's't' dindi, and so also in South Munger. 
In South Bhagalpur it is ^^ dhenri, and in South-East Tirhut 
optionally ^f^ dinri. The unripe pods are ^"^^VT Icachra, and else- 
where • «»-^»\^ kachri. When the gram appears in the pod, the verh 
used is <i<-il^ ? gadrdeb. The plant is then called in South- West 
Shahahad ■'13'^ patM, and in the rest of that district ■^^^.<t^ ' ^| 
chatkoha. In Gaya the phrase is f%^fXT ^Pra % chitura Idgal hai. 



* E.g. in the song — 

yi% Tf?5rt fr ^r^r i 

^TcT ^'\\^ ^w II 

Mhi rahila ke pun kachauri, 
Ehi rahila ke ddl ; 
Ehi rahila he kailin khirawara, 
Bahut motailen gdl. 

—I made this gram into puri (thin bread fried in clarified butter) and cakes 
into pottage khiratoara (cakes of rice-flour prepared in hot water), and my cheeks 
got very fat. 



232 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

and in Patna ^?t tff^ % chatta d/iaris hat. The husk of the gram 
is ^^rr halukha in South-East Tirhut ; elsewhere it is '^j^T bhussa, 
^^ bhunsa, or ^^T bkiisa. Gram injured by rain is flKlT^ marail, in 
Saran Jta^ galal. In Tirhut it is m\t:^ t^^ maral gel. South of the 
Granges it is fijT^R^ pMaggu or ^«(»«!ig^T patlagiia, except in South- 
West Shahabad, where it is ^^t^t uktJia, in South Hunger ^f^^^^ 
dahU/ae/, and in South Bhagalpur ^fiwitgi dagiydl. 



CHAPTER XII.— SUGAR-CANE. 

1005. Sugar-cane (saccJiartim offiHnarum) is known generally as 
^»3 ukh or gi^ akhi. In Tirhut, Patna, Gaya, and South-East Bihar 
a more general name is Irin"^ ketdri. In North-East Tirhut it is also 
known as fif^Tt khusiyar. Among the varieties are — 

f,f^mT kusihdr (south of Ganges), a dwarf hard variety. 

^3T< (Gaya and the south-east), ^TfTRT ketdra (Patna), ^T^ keudli 
(Saran), %'<4l'<^ kewdhi (Shahabad), '^fxT rautida (South Munger), 
a taU thin variety. Eipens in KdtiA (October-November). 

§i=IT^ keicdhi, — see %f(TK ketdr. 

^rftnrr cMniya or f^fifiif chiniydn, which is a soft, large, whitish 
cane. Good for eating in Phdgun or Chait (March). It is called 
M«(«*llCi pamdri in Gaya and Shahabad, 4«i«y|'-4^ pansdhi in 
Saran, and also T*)«*lV^ panchhdhi or T^I^'^JT pansahiya in 
the south-west of that district and in "West Tirhut. In South 
Bhagalpur it is called CT^ paunri. 

«f < « < ?t^ tiargori (North Bihar), — see ^k¥^ baraunkhi. 

ffarai'^l' pachhiydri, — see "^^J ponrlia. 

ITiwr?^ ^JascMaA}, 'T'PTrcl' pamdri, m«I*<JI^t pansdhi, — see f^^r^iT 
chiniya. 

Tlf?i . ponrha (west), Tf^ ponra (Patna and Gaya), irf^x^ 

pachhiydri (South Bhagalpur), a tall, stout, juicy variety. 
■qf^ paunri, — see f^fifJJT chiniya. 

^^^ baraunkhi (Saran), ^x 'ara bar Ukh (South- West Tirhut), or 
srtTjfrd nargori (North Bihar generally). This is thin, with a 
reddish bark. The juice is sweet and thick. 



SUGAR-CANE. 233 

^.^ bhurli (North- West Bihar and "West Tirhufc), a very thick 
short cane, full of juice. Fit for eating in Baisakh (April-May), 
fliisjft mango, — a small, hard, red cane. 

T^rifT renwra (North-West Eihar and South-West Shahahad) 
or tj"»v.^l^ sakarchini (Patna and Gaya), — a yellowish kind, 
not good for eating. 

Cf^l raunda, — see ^dK ketdr. 

^'sl'wrT'f) lalgonri, — a tall, red variety. 

^^fXr^t^ sakarchini, — see '^■q'ST renwra. 

^T^ sahi (South-West Tirhut),— a dwarf variety. 

'^S'Tl hathmi (Saran and West Tirhut), — a moderately thick 
variety. 

1006. A cane-field is to the west ^nirtn ukhdnw or ^a^r^ ukhdri. 

Elsewhere, it is simply ^i^ (or lf<TT^) % %fr ukh (or ietdri) ke khet. 

Sugarcane land requires careful cultivation, or, as the saying runs, 

^sr M<ii<i««, ^T? «fcl^H tin patdwan, terah koran, — three waterings, 

thirteen hoeings. Land prepared for sugar-cane is ^a^t^ ukhdnw in 

North- West Bihar. When the land is left fallow the autumn preceding 

the planting, the plant is called 'Tl'f T porha in the North- West and in 

South-West Tirhut, and "^irXK sungdr in North- West Tirhut. When an 

autumn crop is taken the season before planting the cane, the system is 

known as sr^/an to the west, or in Saran •ii'Ci' ndri. In North- West 

Tirhut it is called ^tg^ dotura. South of the Ganges it is generally 

called S4|^|4j cJuzunids. When cane is cultivated without irrigation, a 

layer of leaves, grass, &e., is thrown over the seed and acts as a sort of 

hothed. This system is known as ^f^T^t^ khadiydol to the west and 

in South-West Tirhut, and jft^T ■"Tsor^ goa patdeb in North- West 

Tirhut. To the west two ploughs are used in cane-planting. 

The first is simply called '?T har or ^f^m'^T^'%xpahiya wdla Imr; the 

second is called • <» T «^ % '^^ kdnhi ke har in Saran and »<<ij«fl hlmthauni 

in Ohamparan. The second plough has a bundle of grass tied round 

it, called ^TP^ kdnhi or ^f •il' kdnni, to widen the furrow. The furrow 

is everywhere fg^T^T sirdilr, also t'? reh in North-East Tirhut. South 

of the Ganges a second plough is not used. In Azamghar the furrow 

is filled up by ploughing a second furrow alongside it, but in Bihar 

this is usually done by hand. 

1007. The first watering of the cane is j\-^1 ^jk ganda dhdr in 
Gaya and South-West Shahabad ; in the rest of Shahahad it is W^^^t 

30 



234 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

chhemcka. In Patna it is ijijijjist panganda, and in South Bhagalpur 
^ ^'^«<' l ■>TZT=ff andhri vatdwan. Elsewhere it is simply 'ff^^ VZT^«i 
jjahil patdican. The second watering is ^?T kora in Patna. Else- 
where it is (Cly^ ''T3W«r or ^tH^) dosar patairan (or ^^awj), with a 
variant ^jt^'^ 'RT'^l dosro patdwan in South Bhagalpur. The third 
watering is "^^P^ dkJiri in Patna ; elsewhere, ^T (or ■Er«i<t in South 
Bhagalpur) ^^^t^'^ (or '^^) tesar (or tesro) patdwan (or paiii). 

J 008. Cane sprouting from the roots left since the previous season 
is known as ^^ kJiimti north of the Ganges, and also ^fz'^lT klmntiya in 
North-East Tirhut. When sprung from fresh seed it is known as^T^»i 
hdwag, or (optionally) in Tirhut xtT rop. Cane sown after the autumn 
crop is cut is known as aifx:^T % ^^ jariya 1'e ukh to the west, and also 
IT'C^ % ^'sf ndri Ice ukh in Saran. In South-West Tirhut it is ^gTT % 
^^ dvtura ke ukh. Elsewhere it is known as '^THf%^T chaumasiya. 
Cane cut up for seed is known as JTfT genra or ^^ genri to the west, 
and ^tfT tona or ^^ toni to the east, ■g^ gulU is also used in Shah- 
abad. In Patna it is also called '^'^'^ ponhra, and in South Bhagalpur 
^Hl blhun. When only the top of the cane (which sprouts quicker 
than the rest) is cut up for seed, the pieces are called -^Jh: anger in 
Saran, -^nxi angenra in Gaya, -^^T^ agari in Patna, ^M'<. \ ngra in 
South Hunger, and ^-piT aga in South Bhagalpur. North of the 
Ganges they are called ■a.f^i hadhiya or (in North- West Tirhut) ^Mrft 
phungi. The hole in which the cane slips are kept before planting 
is ^T^ khdd in Saran, i3rfIT khdta in Champaran, jit^ gdra in Shahabad, 
^IW'BIK ganrsar in Gaya, ^<si«<jt^ bahdr in Patna, and stTi'aT^ tonkhdd 
or Bl«(«'y|«(i tonkhdica in the south-east. 

1009. The sprouting eyes of the cane are ^ffe ankhi or ^f^ ankh 
in Gaya and to the west generally ; so also in South Munger. In 
North Tirhut they are '^f^T ankhhja, and in South-West Shahabad 
-■^•^••(T ankhwa. In Patna and East Tirhut they are ^^-^ 
ankhua, and in South Bhagalpur ^iwTff ankhiydy. When just 
sprouted, the cane is called Y^T^ piudri in Champaran, ^^ pauri in 
South-West Tirhut, and jTtv^ gohhi elsewhere north of the Ganges. 
In Shahabad it is called ^\poi, in Gaya it is said to be '^(^f^TP^ 
avkurdel, in Patna '^•^tpw ««A/«(ae7, and in Saran ^t^iiJ^ .s«iyae7. 
In South Munger it is fa^ tlhbhi, and in South Bhagalpur f^i^ diphi. 
The earth is hoed (^^^ koral) once after the cane has sprouted. This 
is called -g^T^ % artcT ptidri ke jot in Champaran, and '^'ttx^T anhariya 
in North-East- Tirhut. Elsewhere it has no special name. The chief 



SUGAR-CANE. 235 

hoeing is done in Akharh (June-July), and is called -^wft ^^ 
akharhi koran or ^^t^ tf ^Tf^ adra ke korni. To the -west it is 
called '^yiy'l ^Vf asarhi kor, and in Gaya it is in^y pdsa. 

1010. The root is arf or ^x ./«>' to the north-east, and ^^ 
murk elsewhere north of the Ganges. In Shahabad it is si^ 
'ir^ Jar khar, in Gaya and South Bhagalpur ^2^ khunti or ^fii^T 
khuntiya, and in Patna and South Hunger sr^ jari or sif^niT 
jariya. When the sprouts are two or three feet high, they are 
called zfzT tonta in Patna. Elsewhere they have no special name : the 
plant is simply described as *Tx: 'srs^ bhar thelmna, or in some similar 
way. The knots on the cane are Tt^: por, and (in Shahabad) tfr?; poi. 
They are also called firK gire or fn^'? gireJi. When these become visible, 
the plant is called TffKTstT porana in Champaran, Patna, Gaya, and the 
east generally. In West Tirhut they are f5if i^T girhmia, and in South- 
East Tirhut 'ftr ^t'lT por chhorna. In Shahabad they are called 
•g' ^ T ** ! denrauka. When the plant is ready for cutting, it is called 
^;rrT.«^w agarhandhu in Patna and ■^^x?^'* angerhandhu in Gaya. In 
the south-east it is sf^ ddnr. Elsewhere it has no special name. A 
sprout of cane is ■^ft dnkh north of the Ganges and in Shahabad and 
Gaya. In North Tirhut it is -^f^^T ankhiya, in Patna ^ ^ ig^r ankhua, 
in South Hunger ^nri^ kansi, and in South Bhagalpur »rF»^ gonjhi. 
The leaves at the top and the upper part of the cane are "^^ir^ agenr in 
the west, and ?f^ genr in the south-west of Shahabad. In Patna and 
Gaya they are -^3)^1 angeri, and also ^sii\-^^ agra in the latter district. 
In Tirhut they are tRTK pagdr, in East Tirhut- ^hr cJiMp, and in the 
south-east Tni^^ pagra. The dry leaves at the top are i^«t patain 
in Saran and South-East Tirhut, q<?T^ patliar in Champaran and 
North- West Tirhut, qw^ fatlo in South- West Tirhut, and M^xm 
patras in North-East Tirhut. In Shahabad they are ^iri; patai, in Gaya 
HjfXKj pataura, in Patna ''^^r^^ pathul, in South Himger Tax^ pataura 
or VfTi^rt^ pathol, and in South Bhagalpur q^r^Yx: palhor. Shoots 
coming from the knots are ^iTiafrsn: kangojar or ^^Vajc kanojar in 
South-East Tirhut. 

1011. A branch springing from the bottom and injuring the 
plant is ^fsi donj in Saran and South- West Tirhut, m*-iI1 pachhkhi 
in Champaran, ^s^^iT pliutna in North- West Tirhut, and arl^ gohhi in 
East Tirhut. In South- West Shahabad it is ni^F^ kankhi, and in 
the rest of that district aisf^Tsrr ganivkha. In Patna and Gaya it is 
^'^jjonka, and in the south-east 'R^^ jjaguri. In South Bhagalpur 



236 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

it is also Tj-»^ pahunch or tft^iit^ pornotco. When a plant is attacted 
by insects, which are called in Saran and Champaran ^•ly slna or 
^T^ idra, it is called north of the Ganges ^rsrr??? kanail or v«1«^'!i 
ratral, or (in Tirhut) ^rsiT^ kandh. The latter name is also current 
in South-West Shahabad, and variants are «*«fi^T kanaka in South 
Munger, ^Tpff kdno in South Bhagalpur, and ^rr^T kana in Patna. 
In Graya it is called <.diu«ii ratael, and another term in use in Patna 
is T^TSr^ rasael. North of the Ganges a plant is called afV*'T<V ^T^M 
munydri mdral when the top withers and fresh sprouts (S'^ teni in 
Saran and ^fslt donji in Tirhut) come out from underneath. 

1012. The green top cut for fodder is '^^^ agenr or "^^ anger in 
Saran, ^■^ genr in Champaran and Shahabad, ■45) •^ angeri in Patna and 
Gaya, and also '^ri.xT agra in the latter district, and ^jit^ agar in South 
Munger. In Tirhut it is 'TnTx: pagdr, and in South Bhagalpur 
TTJi^^ pagra. The piece between two knots cut for eating is iftT por. 
The piece of cane chewed at one time is "^WH guUa, or (in Shahabad) 
optionally ^^ gulli, and the refuse thrown out of the mouth ^atr^l 
khoiya north of the Ganges. South of the Ganges it is generally 
^'tf^^T khohiya or vJyv^jT chepva, local names being f%^ sitthi in 
Shahabad and South Munger, (also used in West Tirhut) and "^tTT 
chopa in South Bhagalpur. For the pieces of cane cut for the 
sugar-mill, see§ 288. 

1013. A bundle of canes is ^f[^ .pdnja. A large bundle is ift»«T 
bojha, which is as much as can be carried by a man. 

1014. Among the preparations of the sugar-cane may be 
mentioned T^ ras, or <«-^-<'J kachras, and in South Bhagalpur ^^ X^ 
kancho ras, which is the juice of the cane. When boiled down and 
undrained, it is xm rob or (in Patna and Gaya) xT'fT rdtoa. When 
boiled down for a longer time, it becomes ^< gur or ^ gur (often 
spelt ^, ^). When made up in smallish balls it is called M^ 
bheli. Other names are fij^TT mithai, and, when made round 
and flat, ^r^ chdki and ^*^ ehakri in Saran, and "^s^ chakki 
in Patna and Gaya. The raw sugar which remains in the bag 
after pressing the rdb is called ^^^ sakkar, or in Patna, Gaya, 
and the south-east ^?fX sankar. When dried, it is called ^^ 
khdnr or ■^KT bhurra or vtt bhura, i.e. brown sugar. The molasses, 
or juice which runs out of the bag when the rdb is pressed, is called 
^^T chhoa, or in South- West Shahabad ftxT sira. ft^v;^ misri is 
sugar-candy or loaf-sugar, and f^^ chinni or "^^ cJiini is refined brown 
sugar (^^^ sakkar or ^XT bhura). The molasses (wV^T chhoa) above 



COTTON. 237 

mentioned is used in tobacco manufacture, and is then called tum. 
tagar in Gaya, Jifr^ gariya in Patna, and ifiT^ phank in South 
Bhagalpur. 

1015. In a sugar-refinery x^ ras (or in the north-west ^•<.««(W 
sarhat) is the raw sugar dissolved in water. »?^ mail is the scum taken 
off the boiling-pans. To the south-east this is ^b^t maila, and in North- 
West Tirhut and Shahabad ^rf^^ mahiya. The boiled juice is ^KT 
sira, and the clear filtered juice TW % T^ rds ke ras. To the north- 
west the juice after the first filtering is <ft^T doma, and after the 
second H^'TT^t Ihopdri. "When the scum is mixed with water and again 
boiled, it is called ^^^r^^ pa&aica. 



CHAPTER XIII.— COTTON. 

1016. The cotton-tfee (gnssypium herbaceum) is known everywhere 
except to the south-west as ^r^T hanga or TTTT bdnya, with a local 
variant ^^Tt hdngo in South Bhagalpur. To the west it is called 
cSlTO kapas, which properly jneans the cotton in the pod. Most 
kinds of cotton ripen about Baisdkh (April-May). Amongst the 
varieties may be noted *ftf5r^T hhogila (north of the Ganges), a 
good kind with large pods, and of medium height; ^~1-<^«<1 bhochri 
(north of Ganges), a small variety, of which the cotton is apt 
to get blown out of the pod by the wind. ■'pz^^T^r phetwdl is a 
kind grown in North-West Tirhut, and *ilb}<; gdjar is one grown close 
to the house in the ^T^ hdri, and not in the fields, in North-East 
Tirhut and Shahabad ; r^vj rarhiya (Patna, Gaya, and the south- 
west), a dwarf variety ; •i^yi baraisa (Patna and Gaya), a large 
variety ; 'SX'm larma (Saran), sTK^flT narma and T^I'^ henwti (Shah- 
abad), a dwarf variety. Other kinds grown in Shahabad are ^??rr 
banrchha or ^'^'^ banmckha, and ^vir^^f manwdn, and in Munger we 
find Jfft^rr gola and ^^ suphed. Tirhut is famous for a special kind 
of cotton which ripens in Bhddon (August-September), called ?Bt«fi»3^ 
kokti or fl^^T bhadaiya, which is of a red colour, and of which thread 
and cloth of extreme fineness are made. A dress of kokti cloth lasts 
a life-time. 

1017. The uncleaned cotton in the pod is ^nrre kapds, also 
^T bdnga in East Tirhut, ^fjft bdngo in South Bhagalpur, and 
■^rn ^'^T kdnch rua in South Munger. To clean the seeds from 
cotton is . ■%'tz^ otab or "^J^ oittab, and the operation is called 



238 BlHATl PEASANT LIFE. 

^t3"ft otni or ^stt otdi in Saran, and ^Tzr? auntai in South Bhagal- 
pur. The last two words also mean the wages paid for cleaning. 
The cotton-pod is called V^' dhenrh to the north-west and ^s^ 
dhenrhi in Tirhut and South Bhagalpur. In Shahabad it is ^fg\ 
dhonrhi, in Gaja ^T ter, in Patna and South Munger f%"®'t dindi ex 
^^ dinri. The cotton-seed is ^■itTT banaiir to the west, ^>11X hangaur 
in Tirhut, #JnxT bangaura ia South Munger, and 'Ijit^ bangthi in 
South Bhagalpur. In South-West Shahabad it is ^^T^ bandaur. A 
cotton-picker is ^g-fii^rc lorhnihdr (which means simply 'gatherer') 
in the north-west ; elsewhere there is no special name. North of the 
Ganges he or she is paid by a share of the cotton picked. This is called 
^^pal in Saran and South-West Tirhut, Tf^ po'i in South-East Tirhut, 
and ■<Jt<«i boin in North-East Tirhut. In North-West Tirhut the share 
is a fourth of the crop, and is called "^a"?!! chauthaiya . 

1018. The stages of growth in the plant are as follows : — 
When the first leaf shows, it is called ^fJiqiya patiydel north 

of the Ganges. In South- West Shahabad it is ^^ dubbhi, in the rest 
of that district fs^ dibbhi, and in Patna and Graya qi fii*<| ^<j kaniyael. 

The next stage is ^t^finrT dopatiya to the north-west, and also 
south of the Ganges generally. In Tirhut they say it is *m<1 tj^^^ 
kapdri phoral. In Gaya it is ffjT^T patiya, in South Munger ^1"*?^ 
dopatii, and in South Bhagalpur ■^qfri^ dupatiyo. 

The third stage is ^xffiiqT chaupatiya or (to the north) "^T-^ffniT 
charpatiya, and in South Bhagalpur "gxTTffra^ charpafiyo. 

The flower has no special name, and is simply called ^^ phul. 
To flower is ^S^TP^ phulaeb. 

The pod bursting is ^^^^x^ ^'z^ kapds phutab to the west, and in 
East Tirhut ^fjrr ^ifz^ bdnga phutab. In South Bhagalpur it is ^fift 
T(rz^ bdiigo phutab, and in South Munger ''^t^ plwta. 

1019. Raw cotton is ^TT? kapds, or ^jit bdnga, ^T'Tt bango, &c., as 
above. In Bast Tirhut ^ff bdng is also used. To the west ^T»rT bdnga 
means cotton stalks. From xfs^l rarhiya (raw cotton) about one-sixth 
clean cotton is obtained ; from «1'^-^ bhochri and ^ff^fT^ kokti, about a 
quarter ; from ■»rtfjt~n bliogila and W^^ heincti, about a third ; and from 
Tfl^^T^ p)hettval, about two-fifths. fi?»<fTKT mijhra north of the Ganges 
is a mixture of wt-'^-'Cl bhochri and ^rjfjr^rr bhogila. 

1020. Cotton is the subject of many proverbs, as (for instance) 
South Munger proverb ^.^KT ^TTf %I^T ^T>r, ^^n: Ir €lTr ^T, je&ra 



TOBACCO. 239 

barah higha bang, kamar meii doro na — (here's a fine miser) he has 
twelve bighas of cotton and can't afford a string for his waist. 



CHAPTER XIV.— TOBACCO. 

1021. Tobacco (nicoiiana tobacum) is fiiT^ tamdku or fTFT^i^ 
tamakul. It is little grown south of the Ganges except in South- 
Bhagalpur and South Munger. North of the Ganges there are three 
main classes : — 

(1) f ^ desi or (North-East Tirhut) ws^ barki. 

(2) f^^TPffi" bilaeti or (in ChampSran and North-West Tirhut) 

■^^5e(,fv(fi7 Jtalkatiya. 

(3) si^^i jethua, which is sown in Magh (January-February) 

and cut in Jeth (May-June). 

In East Bihar are found vrrfi^ dhamdkul, a broad-leafed' 
variety, and iM^^ft^ pandathiya and ^Ji«'^?l khangriwa, narrow- 
leaved varieties. 

1022. In Shahabad ^ft <«-^«l morhan are long leaves of the best 
kind, and w^^t chheua the next quality. 

1023. When manufactured, there are three main kinds: — 

{a) Chewing-tobacco. — ^^ft khaini or tj<..«n surti, or in Patna 
^ft'iMrr dokhta. Some people call this ^ra ^ai % '^ftitj 
kaljug ke amrit, or the ambrosia of the kali age. 

[b) Snuff, which is Tra nds or •W nas. 

(c) Smoking-tobacco. — This is called ■"fNf'r i??a«« ot^^ plni 

generally. Among its kinds may be noticed <4ii<^i kdla 
(North- West and South-East Tirhut) or irfr^T pdkua 
(Tirhut), which is the coarsest kind, ^p^t; kandal or 
^*j.«H bhusna in South Bhagalpur, and af^ gunri in 
South Munger, is broken tobacco. ^rf^T karua or (in 
South Bhagalpur) ^f^l' karuo is a second-class strong 
kind. ■^Ixwi dorassa, or in South' Bhagalpur ^etWt 
dorasso, is a mixed tobacco of fair quality. Another 
similar kind is called w^T^-^TC masdlddr or ti-^»«t|'=;i r 
mahkaua. ^C^Xf khamlra is a scented kind mixed with 
spices, and ^T^T sdda is the plain kind in common use. 
T^'^T mahia to the west is the usual kind sold in 



240 BIHAK PE.43ANT LIFE. 

shops, and ■^*T^ dokani is the cheap kind used hy 
the poor. 

1024. The stalks are «J!^ danfi generally, with local variants «Ts 
ddnt in South Hunger and 's'^i^ datUki in South Bhagalpur. In Bast 
Tirhut they are also ST? danth. The refuse broken leaves and stalks 
are »jrT'OT jhdla in the south-east, and in Sout^-East Tirhut ^x?^«r 
kharsan. When blisters come on the leaf when ripe, the verb used is 
"^^ charhah ; also g<d»ni*lTF^ gulthiymh or tVfa^Tjr^ chitiydeb in 
Champaraa. The blisters themselves are called f^ifi' chitti. The 
seed-eapsules are t|;^ gftuni in Saran, ■mt'c phar in Charcparan, and 
f^^ bichchi in Tirhut generally. The nipping or cutting off of the 
head is TfrrwT^pa/a ^«>-a6 in Saran and South- West Tirhut, ^t-qi^ 
chlwpni in South-East Tirhut, and '^iz^ kdtah or *<i-«iT katni else- 
where. Sometimes shoots appear after doing this, and they are called 
cff^ doiiji. Other local names are 'M^t^ pachkhi in Saran and 
Champaran, ^fftw^ kanojar in North-East Tirhut, ^m W kanail or 
3(rf'ft Jcdnkhi in South Tirhut, and ^>«fi: kanal in the east generally 
The iirst crop is called ♦n<»-^«i morhan. A second crop raised from the 
roots is 's^f^ donji, or in South Bhagalpur '^fejr khuntiya. Tobacco 
seedlings are called vt^T poa in South Bhagalpur. 

1025. Tobacco is the subject of many proverbs and tales. An 
example of the former is — 

^T^i^T iTTg^ snJiTjT, TptsT ^^ ^r^ % I! 

Chun taniaku san ke bin mdnge je de, 
Surpur narpur ndgpur, tinu bus kar le. 

— The man who mixes tobacco with lime (for chewing) and ofiers it 
without being asked, conquers (by his virtuous action) heaven, earth, 
and the lower regions. 

1026. A folk-tale about tobacco runs that a villager who went to 
a distant village to visit his friends found them smoking in the 
morning before they had said prayers, whereupon he said — 

S^ f^^^ ^TWiT ^T^^ II 

Bhor bhae, manus sabh jage, 

Htikka chilam bdjan lage. 

^t daybreak the people awoke, and immediately the htikkas began to 

gurgle. 



OPIUM POPPY. 241 

To wLicli one of the smoking party replied — 

% SIT •^^srr^o %% ^kr II 

Khaini khde, na tamdku pie, 
Se nar batdwa kaise jie. 

— Show me the man who can live without either chewing or smoking 
tobacco. This verse has passed into a proverb. 

1027. Tobacco is often compared to the river Ganges, which has 
three streams, — one of which flows to heaven, another to hell, and the 
third to the world of mortals. So also tobacco has three branches, 
viz. snuff, which, by being smelt, goes upwards ; smoking-tobacco, 
which, by being smoked, goes downwards ; and chewing-tobacco, which 
goes neither up nor down. 



CHAPTER XV — OPIUM POPPY. 

1028. Opium poppy {papaver somnifcrum) is ■qt^^cTT posta or (in 
Patna) Tft^cr posat. The advances made to the cidtivators are <i<««ri 
dadni. The average produce per bighn is ^K^^ V<"»C< sardar partar or 
xfTTfTr parta north of the Ganges and in Gaya. In Shahabad it is fcv^ 
mdl, and in Patna ^^ paida. The rough measurement of the field is 
Trfd| ?'?t lathdbandi in South-West Shahabad, and elsewhere south of 
the Ganges sittt nap. North of the Ganges it is -stt^ napi. 

1029. The poppy petals are ^cfr^ phul, and the heads ^e^ denrhi, 
or in Patna f^ift dindi. The cakes of poppy petals are ^r^^rTT 
phulpata in Champaran, Tj^si-Mii^ phulpatti in Saran and Tirhut, and 
xTHW pattal in Patna. Elsewhere they are Tt^^ roti. 

1030. The instrument used for piercing the capsule is ir?T^ 
naharni, or in Tirhut optionally ^r?';''?!' laharni. In Patna and Gaya 
it is •«)<.-^a1 narhanni. To lance the capsule is ^m^ pdchhab. The 
milky juice which exudes is ^^ dudh, and the opium yield is m^ mdl 
The scraper used for collecting the coagulated opium cff the pod is 
called 1%n'^T situha or ftg^T sitm. In South-East Tirhut sometimes 
a bamboo scraper is used, called -qlar^l" pochhni. The gathering 
of opium is ^<3|^<4 uth&eb generally. Local words are <m*«) kdchhab 
to the north-west and in North-West Tirhut, and iftw^ pochhah 

31 



242 BIHiK PEASANT LIFE. 

also in North- West Tirhut. The person who lances the capsules is 
M*«P)-^l< pachhnihar or {feni.) '4*«(»t^ll\«l pachhnihdrin, and he or she 
who collects the coagulated opium which has exuded from the capsule 
is ^^fsiTIT' uthaunihar or 'SalPf-^lH.'! uthauniharin. The grain of the 
prepared opium is ^TTT ddna, and its consistency ^^v^«r sukhwan. 

1031. The grains of opium-seed are ^ttt ddna. The shell is 
^■^^ khoiya north of the Ganges, and «1P5»IT khohiya in Gaya. In 
South-West Shahahad it is Wt^^ kholri, in the rest of that district and 
in South-East Bihar ^t*^^ bokla, and in Patna Tfi^ bakula. In Gaya 
f^T^T chitura are poppy capsules which are empty and have not home 
seeds, The oil-cake prepared from the seeds is fii^ pinna or ^l^r 
plna. 

1032. The refuse opium, consisting of the washing of the vessels, 
&c., is ^t^^ dhoan north of the Ganges and ^1^ dho'i south of it. 
In the south-east it is ■vrrcr dJioe. The refuse scraped from the vessels 
is ^T^sJ khurchan, or (Gaya, South- West Shahahad, and South 
Hunger) trat^si khakhoran. The juice which drains off the fresh opium 
is v^TT pasewa. This is inspissated on rags, and the product is ^r'BT 
kapha, of which ■^rnfT kapha in Shahahad and ^jfoST kappha in Sarau and 
South Hunger are local variants. The fluid opium used in pasting the 
leaves on the cakes is %^T lewa in Patna, and the cakes themselves are 
ift^ goti. 

1033. Preparations of opium.— v^ys madak is made hy boiling 
down and inspissating the juice (-^x:^ arakh) of pure opium or ^ncT 
kapha. This inspissated juice is known as ftwm kimdm or (in Gaya) 
%«T^ kemdm. With it are mixed cut-up betel or guava leaves, known 
as mr^jdsu. The pipe used for smoking madak is known as ^r^r^ 
mahru or bIt'JT thariya or sfs^T tharhiya, or to the south-east ^^ nieru. 
A small piece of madak, known as ^3T chhita, is ignited in the bowl of 
the pipe with a spill of charcoal, called ^rsrw kalam or (in South 
Bhagalpur) ^irrfT kangra, which is held by a small pair of tongs, 
called f^-K'Zi chimta in the north-west and '^^ chmdi south of the 
Ganges. 

1034. '^^^c/iandu or <^fs;^chdridu is the distilled juice of pure opium, 
and is smoked in an earthen bowl called f^^^ cMlam to the north-west 
and •^^rni dawdt south of the Ganges. This is attached to a stem called 
fsr^T^ nigdli in Saran, Patna, and Gaya, ^t^^t narcha in Champaran, 
and ^fX nar in North- West Tirhut. Another name is ^^^ bambu or 
^Tf bdmbu, bamboo. It is stirred with an iron skewer, called ^^ thak. 



INDIGO. 243 

When it is desired to make the preparation extra strong, the sediment 
which accumulates in the stem of the pipe is added. This is called -^^ 
anchi south of the Ganges generally, ^^ insi in South Munger, 
and x^ inchi in South Bhagalpur. In Patna it is also called ^"^ 
kainti, and in Chsimparan %2^ kaiti. 

1035. f^f^^pmikiB the drowsiness produced by opium intox- 
ication, and ^^ chmki the quantity of opium water drunk at one time. 



CHAPTER XVI.— HEMP. 

1036. The hemp T^lsmi {cannahis sativa) ia known as nfsfT ganja 
when cultivated in Rajshahai, and vm hh&ng when wild elsewhere. The 
leaves are known as vfjT bhang or ^f blmng (generally), ^^^ salruji 
(north- v/est), or ^^iSiT saA/a (Patna and Graya). A favourite way of 
taking the drug is in the fotm of a sweetmeat, called T^ majum or 
*rr^ir mdjum. "^k.^ charas is the resin which exudes from the flowers 
and leaves. 

1037. The flat ganj'a is ^v^^T chapta or f^Tj^ex chipta ; also in 
Shahabad ^r^ kali. The round gdnja is art^ gol, also fV^ifiiferr 
girgitiya in South- West Shahabad, and also ''n?»'S^ jaawn in the rest 
of that district. Broken ganja is ^^T rora or ^t chur, or (in Graya and 
South Munger) xt; rat. In Shahabad ^Tg;^X hdluchar and «reT jdsar 
are two kinds of imported gdnja. Gdnja with stalks attached is called 
^#t ddrhi in Shahabad. %^f% medani or w<^.»«n medni is a plant 
taken with gdnja. 



CHAPTER XVII.-INDIGO. 

1038. Indigo {indigofera tincloria) is^^ III. The word ^^ nil 
used by Europeans is a Westernism borrowed from Urdu-knowing 
subordinates. 

1039. Indigo sown before the rains and irrigated by artificial 
means is called ■'r^T■^T pataua. The first cutting is *i1<.'^w morhan. 
The second cutting is "^^ khUidi or (in South-East Tirhut) ^ffafl donji, 
and the third cutting is called Ws?^ ienji or W^r^ ielri, or in the north- 
west 'finrr^ tirdnti. If the second or third cutting is allowed to grow 
on to the second year it is called ^^W kalam or ^^^^ kalmi. In 
South Bhagalpur there are two sowings (^T^^ hdwag), — one called ^ft^ 



244 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

katiki {wx^m Kdtih = October-November), and the other ^B^r^ 
phalguni (niT^rsr Phdlgim = February-Maxeh). In North Bihar the 
chief sowing is the 4i(}<ri phaguni ('p^ Phagun = February-March), 
and there is a second sowing in ^raif Akharh (June- July), called 
^rei'^ asdrhi or '^l^T^ akhdrhi. There are also sowings in ^rrf?Rr Kdtik 
(October-November) and t^rra Baisdkh (April-May). 

1040. The system of obtaining the plant from cultivators on 
advances is called <^i<««ri dddni or ^i<,«i dddan in the north-west, in 
South- West Tirhut, and in South Bhagalpur. When indigo is grown 
by cultivators who have entered into an agreement to do so, it is 
called ■^'51^ raiyati or ^?^t{*I«(K asdmiwar or ^^f^VTT asdmiydr. 
Under the system called in the north-west ^pr 'S^^ khush kharld, 
the planter advances money to a cultivator to sow indigo. He 
also advances indigo-seed at a given rate, the price of which is 
recovered in the settlement of accounts. This is also called ^ggi^ 
khuski in Cha,mparan and •ri^^g-^T^ nawishtakhdni in North- West 
Tirhut. i\M % ^Nr thika ke III is when the planter takes a 
village in farm and cultivates the zira'ats ((oKlcf jirdt) and such other 
land as lie can secure. The special cultivation carried out by the 
planters themselves is fmVC^ jirdt, or (in South Bhagalpur) ^T^ bdri. 
The divisions of their estates are called fsf^T jila, each under charge 
of a I^^T^K jildddr, and a subdivision is (north of the Ganges) 
«t^ taik, under charge of a <il<A><l< tokddr. 

1041. ^rai^ alawa or ^igi^ aldwe is indigo grown by the culti- 
vator on his land after opium or other crop. 



CHAPTER XVIII.— OTHER DYES. 

1042. The following may be noted : — 

(1) -^rra dl (morinda dtrifolid). — This is used for dyeing red 
cotton cloth ^nr^ sdlu and the coarse red cloth iTT^f 
khdrudn. The root is divided into classes, called ^rar 
bdna. The best and thinnest roots are known as m^ 
phuha. The thickest roots are «*^-B kachri in Shahabad 
and South Munger, and «ftfir toran or ^^ gulli in 
Patna and Graya. %^ mel in Shahabad is a misture 
of the two kinds. 

1043. (2) Safflower {carthatnm tindorius). — This is -^^kusum 

generally north of the Granges, and ?ff^Tr kosum south 



OTHEK DYES. 245 

of it. A local name is -v^ phul in Tirhut. The seed is 
^T^ barri in South Hunger. It is also called to the 
west and in Patna and Gaya ^x^ harre. The following 
are some of the colours prepared from safflower : — 

^^^t^rraV asmani, light blue. 
iftT^ kdgl, navy blue. 
^T^T kdla, black. 

■^if^ sg^orr kahi saluja, dark green. 
%^fi?Err kesariya, safFron-yellow. 
"^^1% guldb or ■gsrrff guldhi, pink. 
■^■^ champal, orange. 
•nx^^idranji, orange yellow. 

VST^ paithdni. Made by dipping into an indigo- 
vat also. 
^J^^l"^ phdlsdhi, plum-coloured. 
■^^T^ baddmi or ^'^'nft beddmi, almond-coloured. 
V»rniV baingni, purple. 
wv^ mdsi, a very dark green, 
g'ra Idl, red. 
^^T lila, dark- blue, 
^^^rr sabuja, green. 
^X7«t; surmai, antimony-black. 
y<i'y surukh, red. 
^"^S^T sondhvla, golden yellow. 

Of course all the above are not made from safflower alone, 
but it forms the basis of all. In most of the darker colours it is used 
in conjunction with indigo. The following riddle shows the compre- 
hensive range of colours embraced by safflower. At a marriage proces- 
sion garments of every bright colour are worn, and the riddle is — 

Bap rahal pete, put gel bariydt. 

— While the father was still in the womb {i.e., pod), the son went 
to a wedding party. The father is the seed of the safflower in pod ; 
the son is the safflower dye. 

In the north-west 5ni"^T ^ jarua tel is an oil extracted by means 
of heat from the safflower-seeds. It is called ^x^-^ ^ jarathva tel, 
and inShahabad ^sf^T aw darhua tel. It is used for applying to sores, 
and also for burning. 



246 BIHlR PEASANT LIFE. 

1044. (3) nw bak'im {ccesalpina sappan). — This is a red dye, 
used principally where ^1^ al is uot obtaioable. 



CHAPTER XIX.- OILS BEDS. 

1045. Oilseeds in general are r«<<*««) i chikna,iiw^^^ «fb^ telhan 
i, or simply ^^^^ir telhan. Amongst the varieties may be noted — 

(1) Mustard {brassica campestris or sinapu dichototra). — This is 

^Pc^ narison or ^ft^ sariso north of the Ganges and 
in the south-west ; elsewhere it is '^i.'Mf sarson. In South 
Bhagalpur it is JTtzt goto, and in North-East Tirhut also 
jft^ got. Oil from this seed is called ^rr^T ^«r karua 
tel or ^r^ ^ karu tel. 

(2) Mustard (brassica j'uncea or sinapis rawosa).— This is ^T^ 

Idhi or XIX rai to the west. In South Hunger it is K^ 
ranchi, and in East Tirhut V^ rainchi'. Elsewhere it is 
irf'^ tori, and so also in Champaran. 

(3) Sesamum {srsamum orietitale or Indicum). — This is i^Nr til. 

In South-West Shahabad fw«^ tilli is a variety with a 
white grain, which is sown with the autumn crop. 

(4) Unseed (liiium usitatissimum). — This is «ft^ iisi. To the 

east it is also called fi)«t««ii cMkna. 

(5) Safflower {carthanms tincforia). — See last chapter. 

(6) Castor-oil plant {ricinus commt/ni/s). — This is \^ renr or 

^^ lenr, also "^t^ anrar in the north-west, Tirhut, and 
South Bhagalpur, and ^'vgr anda in Tirhut and South 
Bhagalpur. The seed is ^^^ Unri or ^^ reiiri 
generally, also ''iJh?*^ anrri in the north-west, Tirhut, 
and South Bhagalpur, and ^oft andi in Tirhut and 
South Bhagalpur. A plantation of this is Tf^'^T^t 
renrwari or ^^•<ilO lenrtcdri. 

(7) Bassia latifolia. — The tree is called m^ mahu or »ra^T 

mahua. Its clusters of buds are %f(i chhatta or ^f^ konch. 
The flower which falls to the ground and is used for 
distilling spirits is ^fw mahu or Kranrr. The oilnuts 
which are borne by the tree are ^?:?i ko'in north of the 
Ganges, or iiit???^ koini in South-East Tirhut. In South- 
West Shahabad they are 'rK^T ko'inda. In South 
Munger the waAtta-pickers sing a song while employed, 
called zW" toha. 



FIBRES. 247 

(8) Celastrus paniculaliis. — This is ir^. 'af Ji"ft malkangni or fsart^ 

ditkauri in South- West Shahabad, ii^'*!''^ ma/kauni 
in Patna and Gaya, *r»i»^iT^ marikauni in South-East 
Tirhut, ^t^i^ kauni in South Munger. 

(9) Croton {croton tiglium). — This is sjm^ W^ZT jamal gota 

in Patna, Gaya, and the west. 

(10) Two other oils may be mentioned here. One is ftft^fiT 
% ^ mimiyai he tel, which is supposed to be extracted 
from the heads of coolie emigrants to the colonies, by 
hanging them head downwards over a slow fire, see §1464. 
The other is ^^ft^ ^ ^^ ah)l ke tel, made from the nut 
of the ^raW akol {akuritis triloba) tree, which if rubbed 
oa a person's body makes him invisible. This is like 
sayiug that if you catch a guinea pig by the tail his 
eyes will drop out ; for the nut is so hard that it is 
impossible to extract oil from it. 



CHAPTER XX.— FIBRES. 

1046. Hemp, as a drug {cannabis saiiva).~See Chapter XVI. 

1047. Hemp, as a fibre plant. — There are two varieties of this : — 

(1) ^M san {crololaria juncea) or (North-East Tirhut) «^«5t^t 

kasmira or ^ST son. 

(2) T^^T patua, fig^H kuturum, or (in South Bhagalpur) 

fr^-^il kudruni {hibiscus cannabensis, Roxb.) This is like 
san, except that its flower is like the safflower, and that 
it is used only for making the coarse fibre (^ai c/ianna). 
See below. 

1048. The stalk is ^sit sanal north of the Ganges generally 
except in North-East Tirhut, where it is ^if sanai. In Shahabad 
it is ^T3T sanaitha, in South Munger ^siT^ sandthi, and in South 
Bhagalpur ^si^wfT^ sansanatld. When the bark has been removed, it is 
^^ santhi, or in South Munger w«iT^ mudthi, and in South Bha- 
galpur «^ri«srr3^ sansanathi. A bundle of fibres is ■^x^^ larchha, or in 
East Tirhut vf^T dhoa or ^-^T thva. Short stalks that remain in the 
fibre are called in North-East Tirhut g^^ gudri, J^-^x khudar to 
the west aud in "West Tirhut, ^^T^ kuddii in North-East Tirhut, 



248 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

and u^ gudar in East Tirhut. In North-East Tirhut the coarsest 
fibres are called ^«t channa, the next finest "m^f patua, and the finest 
*^»f«KT kasmira. There is no special name for the seed. 



CHAPTER XXI.— BETEL. 

1049. Betel {piper betel) is called ^n^ pan, and the man 
who grows it ^T^ barai. Amongst its varieties the best is *^<\ 
kapuri, which has a long leaf, mild, but slightly bitter. The next 
best is ^f^ sdnchi. The common varieties are ^r=^ kakir (North- 
East Tirhut) or ^)%K kaker (South-East Tirhut), which has a large 
leaf and mild flavour ; the w^»^ belahri (south-west) or ■^<d'^'0 ^f^ 
belahri sdnchi (North-East Tirhut), and the «ji«-«^ maghi, which have 
a round leaf and a sweet taste ; and the ■afar:^ bang/a or (South-West 
Tirhut) ^iPKl bangra, which is small and slightly bitter. To the 
west there is also a kind called ^iK^^T kardrua, which is small 
and sweet. 

1050. The mound on which the plant is grown is fv'^ 
bhinda, ^X^ baraitha, or TTf park north of the Ganges. South 
of the Ganges it is ^Iht bhit. A betel-garden is ^t^ bareo 
or ^x?% barwe. The rows in the plantation are ^3^T sapura in 
Saran and South Tirhut, and ^fg^ sdmpur in North-East Tirhut. 
In South-West Shahabad they are Tre pas, and in the rest of that 
district MtcTt pdnti. The intervening spaces are ^TWK. dntar or ^ »r «<: T 
antra. They are also ■'IT% pdhe in South-East Tirhut, -^nx daungar 
in Patna and Gaya, and ^PT daug in the south-east. The main 
props down these lines are ^vl" koro in Tirhut and ^slxi; koral in 
Shahabad. In the south-east and in Saran they are t^«kY ikri. 

1051. The spaces between these props are in North-East Tirhut 
^<«<<m korwds. The supports of the plants are igtt sarai north of 
the Ganges, or in South-East Tirhut ^3^?^ kharhi, of which there are 
generally six between each main prop. In Shahabad they are called 
f^iK Inkar, and in the south-east ^i:i^'^ sarkanda. In Shahabad ^^ 
dhempi are the lumps of clay in which the plants are sown. The supports 
of the roof are also ^^ koro, except in Patua and Gaya, where they 
are ^'«T khambha, and in South Hunger, where they are ^rpft khdmhi. 
The walls are «^ tatti, or in East Tirhut ZT^ tat, and in East 
Hunger zxi^ Idti. The roof is wnft mdro or flfft mdnro. In South- 
East Tirhut it is optionally «T1^ mdrab. In South- West Tirhut 



BETEL. 249 

it is sz-vr thatra, and in Shahabad and East Tirhut optionally ifnft 
chhani. In South Hunger it is ti^^ci i marwa or 33t^ thathri. 

1052. The hrush-wood on the top is ^x\ikliarai or (in South- West 
Shahabad) ^rr^^T kharcha, and in South Hunger ^r^nrr kaclma. The 
young seedlings for planting are ^^it kalam in Patna, Gaya, and 
Shahabad, and ^^ hel elsewhere. They are watered from an earthen 
vessel called ^^ loti or (in Sarari) ^s lot. In North-East Tirhut 
vitx mator is a basket in which the gardener carries earth to the plant, 
and which he also uses for keeping the leaves. In East Tirhut vtx 
hhwr, and in South Tirhut ^^ hhura, are the shoots which come out 
of the plant near the root in Jeth (May- June), and ^w kan are those 
which come out inBhadon (August-September). 

1053. A packet of twenty leaves is called a ^^ kori south of 
the Ganges. North of the Ganges one of fifty leaves is called "^Tam 
chauthaiya, and one of a hundred leaves ^t^t «^t^ ddha dholL A ^t^ 
dholi has 200 leaves. 

1054. North of the Ganges and in Shahabad — 

7 <ri<d^ dholi = 1 ^iTs^f kanwdn. 
14 ditto = 1 ^^^ adhwa. 

28 ditto 1 ^^TTiJatw or I'RTpdwja. 

4 iT^Ti»««« = 1 %9t feso. 

1055. Elsewhere south of the Ganges 108 «^^ dholi make 1 %^ 
leso. A kaf of betel rolled up in a cone for chewing is ^^^ hlra, f^^^r 
hirwa, or f^ft^T hiriya or f^^ khilli. It is also firaT^ gilauri. fi?^T^ 
singhdra are the triangular-shaped packets. Betel is kept for 
consumption in a wickerwork basketi called -^g^in belahra or (in East 
Tirhut) ftX'^^KT birahra. In North-East Tirhut ^T^ dhaki is a largo 
basket used by the betel-grower for the same purpose. 

1056. The betel-nut, which is the fruit of the areca catechu, is 
called Xi.M T O supari or ■^trr^' s(ypan. Other names are ^^ kasaili 
north of the Ganges, and ^^g^ mukhsudh, ^r^sgfV or ^^ai^^ 
mukhsudhi, in East Tirhut. The nippers for cutting the nut_are ^^m 
sarauta. A well-known proverb is ^^gfV To m<,.<»k, ^rft^ ^t%«iTfRr 
^ vj^jccti T t mukhsudhi na parkdr, tanika ariyatak bar ehamatkdr, — he 
can't afford to give his guest even a bit of betel-nut, and yet he escorts 
him out of the house with as great pomp as if he had been actually 
entertaining him. 

32 



250 BIHAE PEASANT LIFE. 

CHAPTER XXII.— GARDEN CROPS. 

1057. These may be divided into — (I) edible roots, (2) gourds, 
(3) miscellaneous. 

EDIBLE ROOTS. 

(1) Potatoes (solamim tuberosum or escukntum). — ^rer dlu, and 
in East Tirhut also ^T^ dru. Also north of the Ganges 
^^[^T alwa and .^^ aM. North of the Ganges t!i<«)«<«I 
lalka or ^fajs^ dackhini is a red kind, and 4j<!i«<,f^<(l 
maldahiya or I'Trat napdli a white one. A red variety 
of the last name but one is called fl^i^^f^j ^•f^«sf<*IT 
maldahiya handkpuriya. Seed potatoes brought from the 
hills are ^^T % ^rg; biya ke alu, and each eye is ^if^ 
dnkhi or ^f^ dnkh. The produce of these kept for next 
year is called MfTi<d T if^ If ^^T pahila mdiiti ke biya, 
and the produce again of this kept for seed for the third 
year is ^^^ wfs^ % ^W dosra mdnti ke biya. 

1058. (2) Yams {dioscorea sativa). — ^These are ^Tcttx: latdr generally 

north of the Ganges, and also x;«tlT ratdr to the west. 
To the north-west yet another name is ^cfK atdr, and to 
the south-west <AdK kathdr. In Patna and Gaya it is 
xsv^ratdlu. In Tirhut it is also called ^K joAa/*, and to 
the east also I'^A^fll khamharua. 

1059. (3) Sweet potato {batatas edulis). — This is <ich<..iii^ sakar- 

kand generally. North of the Ganges it is also called ^m^^ 
•^T^^T lamka alua, and in South-East Tirhut ^^mj alhua. 
In East Bihar it is ^^^t alua. North of the Ganges 
there are two varieties : — (a) A red one, called %^ desi, 
and also in South Tirhut ^^^^ lalka ; (6) a white one 
called firarrjr^ bildeti, and also >t<.«faqf karmiya, and in 
South Tirhut also ^dojK**! ujarka. A large white variety, 
weighing from one to twenty sers, is called in North- 
East Tirhut w^t tekuna. 

1060. (4) A kind of yam (dioscorea fasciculata). — ^zf^^ suthni. 

1061. (5) Arum culocasia. — This is ^^^ arui generally. Also 

"^K^ arabbi in North-East Tirhut, ^^^t pekcha in 
South-East Tirhut, v^:'^ pelxhi m Shahabad, vq^ 
peiKhi in Gaya and Shahabad, and in South Bhagalpur 



GAEDEN CHOPS. 251 

^^^ alti. Another variety {eohcasia antiquorum) is 
^r^ kaclicJm. A larger variety is ^xj^T arua or^r^ kanda. 

1062. (6) \TH ^«jTi ram kesaur (North Tirhut), or fijftCi "^^ 

niisiri kan (East Tirhut), a large edible root sometimes 
weighing eight or nine scrs. Considered a very cooling 
food. 

1063. (7) "<j|<C"=<'* adlchak, the Jerusalem artichoke (Jielianthus 

tuberosus). 

GOURDS. 

1064. (1) Tfie water-melon {cueurbU dtruUus or citrullus vul- 

garis). — These are f{\^r^^ tarbuj or d<- ' g ; »i r tarhuj'a or 
in North-East Tirhut w T ^g) tarhhuj. In Champaran they 
are also called ^rt'i'^T'^ panikaua, and in South-West 
Shahabad fV^'^TTl hinudna. 

1065. (2) The melon {cucumis utilatissimus or cucumis melo). — 

^^^5iT kharbuja. Also ^rr^'Jt Idlmi in West Tirhut 
and Patna and the west, and 'wa phunt (which is 
properly the cucumis momordicd) to the south-east, 

1066. (3) Cucumis tnomordica. — This is ^ phUnt when it is 

ripe after bursting spontaneously. The young fruit used 
for cooking is sm dam and (South- West Shahabad) 
sws^ dabJiko. 

1067. (4) The bitter gourd {momordica charantid). — ^xwtkaraila, 

also ?5T^ karaili in Shahabad and South Bhagalpur and 
^■^^ karail in North-East Tirhut. 

1068. (5) The bottle-gourd {lagenaria vulgaris or cucurbita 

lagenaria). — This is <*§**<| kadua generally, or ^^ kaddu 
in South Bhagalpur. Ajiother name in Gaya, South 
Hunger, and the west genera.lly is ^^^ lauka, with a 
variant ^t^t laua in Patna. In East Tirhut it is also 
called ^fe^l sajitcan. 

1069. (6) Lagenaria acutangulu-s or cucumis acutangulu&. — This is 

W^tr tai-o'i generally. Other varieties are y»i«yfimT satpu- 
tiya, f5«^ jhinga, ^y;^ jhinguni, or f*fi^^ jhinguli, and 
^^^f nenuant fk^KJ ghiura, or i'JITfT ghetora. 

1070. (7) Cucumber {cucumis saiivus). — ^txj khira. A variety is 

WT^m 'fKr balam kMra in Shahabad. A large variety of 



252 BIHAK PEASANT LIFE. 

cucumber is called **."^ kakri or ^if^f^ kSnkari 
{cucumis utilaiissimus). Natives much, appreciate this 
vegetable, as in the proverb fij?^fT^T n^rrx ^r^, %f^f< 
^f% f^l ■'irrs nikauriya gelah hat, kankari dekhi hiya 
phdt, — the man without money wont to market, and 
his heart burst when he saw the cucumber. The 
great size of the plant is well illustrated by the 
proverb sr^ "^T^v '*T«tif^, s^ '^T«j<* ^ffT ek Mthak 
kankari, nau hdthak htya, — a cucumber only one cubit 
long has an offspring nine cubits long. (Cf. the parable 
of the grain of mustard-seed.) 

1071. (8) T'a.Q sweet pumpkin {cucurbita pepo) . — This is ^^s^ 

kojihra ; also in North Tirhut ^"^»5^T komhra, and in 
East Tirhut ^r^irr kadima. Another variety, much used 
for making sweetmeats, is >ig^rr bJuttua to the west ; also 
sj^T Ihua or ^tt bhura in Gaya, f^ij-MiTf^ siskonhra 
in Chatnparan, fijaj.^r^^.^) sijkonhra in Tirhut, 
^^oi^jfif ^T^ surujkonhra in South-East Tirhut, and ^:k^ 
kumhar to the east. 

1072. (9) f^NxT chichira or f^^T chichura (north of the 

Ganges), the snake-gourd {trichosanthes anguina). — In 
East Tirhut it is %crT kaita, and in Saran ^cr kait. 

MISCELLANEOUS VEGETABLES (IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER). 

1073. The writer regrets that he has not been able to identify 

the botanical names of more than a few of the under- 
mentioned plants. In some cases the identification given 
is doubtful. He has to thank Dr. Shaw, Civil Surgeon 
of Darbhanga, for much assistance rendered in correct- 
ing the botanical portion of this division. 

'^«««ri<l ajmoda or (Tirhut) ^^^^TT'' banj'ewain, parsley (pefro- 
selinum sativum 01 ? apium involucratum). — Cf. fM < H.»^ ^ 
pitarseli. 

■^B^i^TTf ojwain, — see ^'^r^ jawdin. 

^^ca adrakh or ^^-^^ adrak, ginger {zingiber officinale), also 

•^T^ adi generally, 'Wi'^ ad in South-East Tirhut. 
H^i^'^rt^ asaphgol, — see ^TBTjrT^ saphgol. 
^T?^ ad, ^T^ adi, — see ^^"^ adrakh. 



GARDEN CROPS. 253 

lI*J <.•«?! imirii, or In Gaya K««^T5^ ramcharim, an acid ourry- 

vegetable, the fruit of spondia mangifera (?). 
^sj hath, — see ^x: klmir. 
"^m^ ^'^K kamal pair, — see ftijTsr pii/dj. 
^Tfl.^^T karamkalla or ^[^iT ?ft^ bandha kobi, cabbage {brassica 

olereaced). 
%^'^ ^TT kalmi sag, the tops of convolvulus repens, much used 

as a spinach. 
^^5 kawachh, — see ^^T* kewanchh. 
^rr^^ kasni, endive {cichorium eiidwia). 

^rm kaku (Patna and Gaya), a kind of lettuce {lactuca satim). 
■3i«i«Ci kunri, a creeping-plant, of which the fruit is used for 

curries. 
^r^TW kewanchh or <B^T^ kawachh, a plant which produces a pod 

like a bean (dolichos pruriens). In Gaya it is ^ %« 

bh€p sem. 
%<rT kaita, — see f^^ETTT chichira. 
^ 1-q..j)l ^ ^m kochla ke sag, a kind of spinach. 
■<»ri4^ kohi, the cabbage (brassica oleraced). 

^TijT khurpha or ift^RT goldica (Saran, Patna, and Gaya), 
purslane {portulaca sativa). 

^^■^^ khusbari, — see w^ftv makoe, 
vi^^'^l khekhsa, — see vjdy chathail, 
^X. khair or W^ kath, catechu {acacia catechu). 
JI^Tf gadlna, a kind of pot-herb with a taste of garlic. 
j | g).< T or 3i5i7fT 5ra;Va or (in South-West Shahabad) JHai ^ ^^ya*" 
the carrot (daucus carota). 

1T«if gajar, — see ar^i^^TT gajra. 

^^•'5T gulpha, a kind of spinach. 

'll^ ^eH/jri or (in East Tirhut) jF^fT^ genhdri, a pot-herb 
(.^ amaranthusfrumentaceus). 

7I tj).^<iA | gelhanta, i[\'A'*\'ii\ golbhanta,— see ■^"jtI baingan. 
jilidl ^r golaica, — see ■<^^'"*l' khurpha. 

jfr^ ftf';"^ gfo^ mirich or ^fijfW gulmirich,— see f^fx:^ mirich. 
'^'^ ghench (North-East Tirhut), an aquatic tuber wnose white 
stalk is eaten by the poor (? aponogeton monostachyon). 



254 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

■g^ cJialhail or "^^^ clmtail, a much-appreciated curry- vegetable, 

a creeping-plant. In Gaya it is called ^is^^t kliehhsa. 
"^^'^x chaiuur, a kind of cress {lepidum sativum) . 

f^a<»^<^ chitarseli, — see fq-<rTs^^ pitarseli. 

■^a^ cnengica, — see ^TH oawgan. 

swTTf jawain (west, Fatna, and South Bhagalpur), ««<ij»<(ii4 
ajwain (Gaya and South Hunger), ^^nrsi jewain (north 
of the Ganges), a plant something like aniseed (liousticum 
aj'oicain and ptychotis ajowari), 'ttXTOT^ <3i<4K«l khordsdni 
Jawain is hyosciamus niger. This plant is not the true 
aniseed (anist). 

^XT j'lra or (South-East Tirhut) «^ j'lr, cummin (cuminum 

cyminum). 
4i<lli,ai jewain, — see ^'^^ jawain 
aff^T tharhiya,—SQ6 *i i <•« I mdrsa. 

f^'f^^T fWTrgiT diriya mirchai^'^K.ViX ThX'MTX dlienriya mirchai, — 
see ftrfK^ mirich. 

jfC^^ tarkdri, — see ■«n*J«i tiyan. 

srv^^f^rr tarkonka (Patna), the bud of the red lotus, used for 

medicine. 
S^sr t'lyan, <<<,>*T^ ta>kdri, or ^'^KX pataura, the general term 

for vegetables. 

^fsi^t dhaniydn, coriander {coriandrum sativum). 

w^TT newdr, — ^see ?^ muli. 

jf^xci pataura,— Bee ^fhrif tlyan. 

"^X-^X parwar, -Jf^g^ palwal, TTt': paror, TTCt^T parora, or (in 

South Bhagalpur) tt(W parol {trichosanthes dioica), 

(Roxb.) 
n^t<ftl paldnki, — see «1T^^ pdlak. 

•<Tra^ pdlak, ^i<sj.<t1 ^ja/A» or (East Tirhut and Champaran) 
^^T^ paldnki, spinach {spinacea oleracea). 

fil<iX'^^ pitarseli or (Tirhut) f^»n?%^ chitarseli, parsley (petro- 
selinum sativutn or ? apium involueratum). — Cf, ■^f^jrii^^ 
ajmoda. 

Pnitsi piyaj or (South Bhagalpur) w^ P^yaj, and north-west 
^w^ inn; kamal patr, the onion {allium cepa). 



GARDEN OKOPS. /OjS 255 

^^•^^pudcna, — see ^ft^Nr podina. 

Ht^'lTi podina, TTt^iT podena, or J^TT pudena, also (Tirhut) »^T 
phudena, mint (mentha sativa ox viridis). 

^■^phiidena, — see Tt^fT podina. 

?S^««ft)^ phulkobi, the cauliflower (brasska olereacea). 

^^•^T bdkla, Sfi«^ bakuH, ^n^^ bangla, — see ift4i*<«ll bokla. 

q«i««qqiv«i banjewdin, — see ^sisflY^ ajmoda, 

^t^U^^'^ banbhutka,—Bee i{^\v makoe. 

fsv=(K Jirwaii (Gaya), vegetable seedlings. 

f%<!i'l y «n M4^l bildeti patua, roselle (hibiscus sabdariffa). 

ft's)lii«fi^»I«r bildeti baingan, tlie tomato (solanum lycopersicum) . 

^"jisj baingan, wv^ bhanta (usually confined to the round variety) 
or »ff^^^T!?T golbhanta, and in South Hunger also •ff^sl-^flSl 
gelhanta and ^u^^ ^JTi chengwa baingan. In East 
Tirhut it is optionally ^fzx bhanta; the egg-plant 
(soteMm melongena) . Compare the proverb ^frf % «ji5T 
■^^ ^RTf % Mfssi '^'^ kahu ke blianta bairi, kdhu ke bhanta 
panth, — to some the egg-plant is an enemy, to others 
it is prescribed as a regimen ; i.f., what is one man's 
meat is another's poison. 

^ t 't-'^l hokla or ^ai^T bangla (north-west), '^^'^^rr bakla (Cham- 
paran), ^g!^ bakuli (South-West Tirhut), ^t^^T tftsr 
bokla bin (South-East Tirhut) (?), a kind of bean (?faba 
major). 

vz^^wt bhatkuan, *rav3Bf^T Ihafkona, — see ^tftT makoe. 
WJI5T bhanta, — see ■sTwir baingan. 

ftif^ bhindi or XTV ervfT ram taro'i-, also to the east xt^ l^tx: ram 
paror, a long kind of fruit used for cooking {hibiscus 
esculentus or abelmoschus esculentus). 

53^^ bhutka, — see *i^t^ makoe. 

^Tf ^ bhup sem, — see %3lf 5^ kewdnchh. 

M^S^ makoe (west and Tirhut), ^^v^^ khusbari (gooseberry) 
or (purple variety) «*•<*)**<( l bhatkona or vs^a bhat kudn, 
the cape gooseberry, or tiparee {physalis Peruviana). The 
red variety is also ^z^^ bhutka or ^sRjzrqri ban bhutka 
in South-East Tirhut. 



256 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

ilf^^T markka, — see ftrfic^ mirich. 

»rr^"WT mdrsa or 3f%«lT tharhiya (west), amaranthiis mangostanus, 

ftiK*^ mirclia, r«f.«^K mirehdi, — see ftrft^ mirich. 

firft'^ mirich or (West Tirliut, Shahabad, and Gaya) ^rfi:^ 
maricha and ItttJ^'R: mirchai, (Patna) fir^?^ , mircha, 
(South Munger) f«1%^ f«l-^l4, diriya mirchai, (Gaya) 
^ft^ ftXT^TT dhenriya mirchai, long pepper, &c. {caiysicum 
fastigiatum, SfC.) ^itw ftf':^ gol mirich or ^^^ftrfi;'^ gui 
mirich is black pepper {piper nigrum). Bird's eye pepper 
{capsicum haccatum) is «if fii«JT wft^ longiya maricha or 
sniT TnK'-<i^ jaiya mircha. 

^^T munga, — see ■^^w saiyan. 

^rt mural, %XT% murdi, ^lat wm^/?, ^ mur, g;^ »j«ro, — see ^^ 
muli. 

^^g't »}«//, 5^ mulli, or ^T% wwraii or (East Tirhut optionally) 
gjC mur, (South Munger) ^mc murdi, (South Bhagalpur) 
^ muro, the radish (raphanus sativus). In Shahabad 
there are two kinds — (I) ^^x. newar, which is large, and 
(2) ^fcRiT lutiya or ^fwT desila, which is small. 

%^ methi or"«'^ menthi, fenugreek {trigonella fcenum Groecum). 

KH^'^ V«IT ramc/iarna, — see lftRr«ft imirti. 

X^Cil rasun, XWr rassun, — see «^^sr lahsun. 

X^fk^ ^ rahariya sem or TTH rfT ram rahar, a kind of bean, 
not a oUmbing-plant, but a shrub. 

\T^ f(Xt\ ram taro'i, xm T<t^ rdmparor, — see fti>^ bhindi. 

^'^^Sf lahsun, or to the east x^pn rasun or TW^l rassun, garlic 

{allium sativum). A clove of garlic is sY^ poti or 

^3 pot. 
■^fkffj lutiya, — see sg;^ muli. 

iaf firai ftrtxg longiya mirich,— see firft'? mh-ich. 

■^■^^ saphgol, or in South- West Shahabad ^^'ssift^ asaphgol 
(jphantago isdbghold). 

'j^^F salgam and also (south of the Ganges) g^^rajw saljam, the 

turnip {brassica rapa). 
fl^QPT sahjan, &c., — see tisR saiyan. 
ffl^^ siiighdra, the water-caltrop {tra2M bispinosa or nutans). 



DESTRUCTIVE INSECTS AND DISEASES. 257 

'B^ Sim, — see %1T sem. 

%H sem (west), ^w szm (east), a bean (phaseolus magnus). A 
variety is %*rr sema. 

^*Iir sail/an, or (Tirhut) ^f^ofw sohijan or ijt^^ajsr sohjan or 
q^Toj^ sahjan, or (Shahabad) ^if^^T scmhijan or (Patna) 
«^s««(l sahjana, the horse-radish tree {hyperanthera 
moringa). Its fruit is called -^f^^m'munga, and. is used as 
a vegetable, and its root (which tastes like horse-radish) 
is used as a condiment. 

vf<e saiimph, ? a kind of aniseed {peucedanum gmveolens or 
aiiethum sotm). 

^t^ hardi, or in Shahabad optionally ■^^t^ /wM, turmeric 
{curcuma longa). 

"?W^ haldi, — see ^K^ hardi. 



SUBDIVISION ir. 
INSECTS AND CAUSES OP INJURY TO CROPS. 



CHAPTER I.— DESTRUCTIVE INSECTS AND DISEASES. 

1074. Among these may be noted the following, which are 
arranged in alphabetical order ; — 

•^jfiptT angra (north-west), »*.V»--hl jharka (Saran and Tirhut), 
blight in cereals caused by the sharp west wind ; also 
(Champaran) a blight in opium. See gx??RT murka. 

^T^T araiya, — see ^t^d^ podri. 

'?^V3T vlctha (south), a sort of mildew which dries up the grain 

in wheat. 
^*i?T tikrha, ^'S'tct ukhra, ^a^ri^T uksa, — see '3«a.d| ukhtha. 

vjia'd l vkhtha or ^^i^fT ukrha (north generally) , ^^3^^ wMra 
(Tirhut), ^sr^igr uksa (north-west), withering of Crops 
from excessive drought, 

^T<W aurang (Champaran), — see JiM-rf gaptu ; also (north-west) 
or (in Tirhut) '(H?^ hahhni, a white spot appearing in the 

33 



268 



BIHAK PEASANT LIFE, 

leaf of millets, causing them to wither up. 

^ir^Tr kacholux (South Bhagalpiir), a disease in tobacco. 

^nsjT^T Aa/j-a,— see ^sfr^ kajri. . 

^r«fi^ Itajri (generally), ^sn^T kajra (West Tirhut, Patna, and 
G-aya), ^ispr^i kajla (North- West Tirhut), ^oi-.<^ majri 
(East Tirhut), a green grub which eats the young plants of 
rice, wheat, and barley when they are about six inches 
high. 

^rsiT^T liajla, — see ^gjs^ kajri. 

^r^ katui, an aquatic beetle which infests rice. 

^r«r«iT kataiya (South-WestShahabad), ^r^t katdi, ^i"l<«lT katdiya 
(elsewhere south of the Ganges), a blight which attacks 
rice and turns the ears an orange colour and destroys them. 

^"<4t4,tjl katoiya, ^retS; katdi, — see ^^^'SIT kataiya. 

qrtn^ katri (South- West Shahabad), a disease of the rice-plant. 

^^.^la7 kanat/m, m^ kanhi, — see ^fl^ chklri. 

qiM«ir kapta (Champaran), an insect which attacks young rice. 

^■g^T kamua, — see ^PJIT kamma. 

mwx kamma or ^l^r kamua (Patna), a smooth kind of 
caterpillar. 

^n^snr kirauna, — see »if^ gdndhi. 

i^h^ klri or (South Bhagalpur) ^bct klro, a maggot. 

^ffif't kukurhi (Saran and Tirhut), an insect which attacks cotton. 

Hrfrft kukuhi (north-west), an insect which injures the cold- 
weather crops. 

frgr^^sTT kuswatna (north-west), fff^^TTT kmiydna (Tirhut), a 
bligbt in transplanted rice. 

fifwrrsTT kusiydna, — see fi^r^zsiiT kuswatna, 

■^"^^f kenudn, — see ^<.<*| larka. 

iirhCJT koiya, a tiny black insect which does great damage in 
granaries. 

vTli'd't koili, ^ff^T korhiya, ?[rf%^ kailiya, blights of Tarious 
kinds in rice. 

^"^f^^ korhiya, ^f^^ kailiya,— i&Q *t4;<^ idili. 

r^ khankhri, a blight in cereals on account of which no 
grain is produced in the ear. 



DESTRTJCTIVE INSECTS AND DISEASES. /" 7'' 259 

«M'f"ll«lf khaprdiya (Champaran), Jl^^tT garra (Gaya, Saran, 
and Tirhut), a small white insect which attacks rice. 

^f^ kJiaruka, — see ^(V^jdla, 

^Xl kliaira (west), '^^ khairi (North-East Tirhut), a blight which 

attacks rioe and turns the ears an orange colour and 

destroys them. 

Ji^^TTT garra, — see <sm'«<l^*ll khaprdiya. 

UfT^ garar (north), a grub which attacks the roots of 
sugar-cane. 

T\-^^ gadhi (north) or (Saran and East Tirhut) JT^f^vT gadahiya, 
an insect very destructive to growing pulses. 

TF^9S^ gandhki (Patna and Saran), a small green fly, which 
attacks rice. 

jra?t gandhi, — see Jif^ gandhi. 

I'T^ gaptu or TiTig^T gaptua (Patna and north), jtwmj- gabhtu, 
^festlft thonthiyari (Shahabad), iriv^ gapsu (Ssrau), 
and ^"H^ aurang (Champaran), a disease afEeeting 
millets, sugar-cane, and Indian com, in which the tops 
wither. 

tiwrfr gabhtu, — see i|M«d gapfu. 

<riT^ gadur (South-West Shahabad), an insect which attacks 
pease and gram. 

3lf^ gandhi or Ji^ gandhi, also to the west jivstT gandhwa. 
Other names are m\^ manchhi (north generally), f^^^^r 
kirauna (South-West Shahabad), and ^w^xj bhemra (South 
Hunger), the flying-bug, — an evil-smelUng insect, which 
attacks principally the millets before the flowers are 
formed. 

jf'S^T gerua (west), the grub which attacks the roots of sugar- 
cane. 

5n^t; gerui (north and south-west), a disease of the cereal crops, 
in which the plant dries up and assumes a reddish colour 
while the ear is black. It is caused by excess of winter 
rains and east wind. 

» ri«l,'<^< I gobraura (West Tirhut and west), blight in betel. 



260 - bthXb peasant life. 

Tfft^ gohhi, a disease produced by prevalence of severe winds, 
and consisting in the plant giving out little shoots, 
which weaken it. 

»ff^ gaunchhi ("West Tirhut, Patna, and Gaya), an aquatic 
beetle which destroys rice by floating frran one plant to 
another in a boat made of a leaf. 

^•^i^ ghanghri (Shaliabad), — see ^fs^ ghonghri. 

■^ ghun, a weevil destructive to wood and grain. 

wTH"^ ghonghri or (Shahabad) ^^v^ ghanghri, a worm in the 
ear of millets and gram. 

^[tTi^ chaira, — see ^^RT^ muar. 

'^m'HX chapatwa (South-West Shahabad), a small green fly 

which attacks rice. 
W^CT chhapta (north-west) , V'^^^rST pachkatta or (Tirhut) T?»i.<»gr 

patkatta, a green caterpillar which eats up the rice-plant. 

i^W chhlra, — see ^ft^ chMri. 

^^ chhiri (south and west), v^ c/^^wrt north-west and 
Tirhut), also iftrr chhlra in Champaran. Other names 
are ?(f»^ kanhi (South Hunger) and ^•rrer kandtha 
(South Bhagalpur), the palmer {?) worm, which attacks 
pulses, cotton, and tobacco. 

v-ft chhem-i,—see ^^^ chhlri. 

errai Jala (Tirhut, Patna, and east), -^im^pakkhan (West Tirhut 
and Gaya), ^^f^TT khuruka (South- West Shahabad), 
^ < '.< t T murka (west and West Tirhut), a blight in opium. 

»B^7^rri^'*»,— see •^i»«;T angra. 

f»ir^ jhilli (north-west), -^i^rsF^T phulhhnnga (Tirhut), an 

insect which eats the stalks of -pulses and makes the leaves 

crumple up. 
ZT^ tara or af^T tanra (west), a email green insect which 

ravages wheat and eats the roots of sugar-cane. 
ZT^ tara (north-west), «f^ tanri (North- West Tirhut), a grub 

which eats the young plants of wheat and barley when 

they are about six inches high. 

2^-^ tlri or (South- West Shahabad) fV^'pt tirri, and ^Bft^ 
pharinga (Tirhut and east), the locust. 



DESTRUCTIVE INSECTS AND DISEASES. /"^^ 261 

^•i«*V tunki (north), a disease which attacks rice, 
af feRin?^ thonthiyari, — see ^[^*tf gaptu. 
firfJ(<^ titili, a butterfly. 

^<ti'«vi» telchat (Patna and east), ^^t^patdi (West Tirhut, Gaya, 
and South Munger), a disease of the castor-oil plant. 

^ftll^T ddkhinha, (north and south-west), also ^f««iT^ 
dakhindha (Gaya and south-west) ; also «flwT nitna (North 
Tirhut) , f%ttKT sirora (Patna) , and '^■^piro (South Bhagal- 
pur), a disease of rice, millets, and sugar-cane caused by 
a noxious wind from the south. A white spot-appears on 
the leaf of millets, and they wither. In sugar-cane 
the tops wither. 

^Ps'^r dahiya (north), a disease in 'fhn china (Panicum 
frumentosum) . 

fi^-^m dianka, f^^T diunka, f^^ff^ diydnra, f^^TT^ diyar, f^?TK 
diwar, — see ■^Nl diydn. 

■^t^T diyan or f^^si diydnra (Patna, Gaya, and south- 
east), ^^^ diunka (South-West Shahabad),f^^«Tc?w«Aa 
or f^^ diaka (west generally), fsc^nx diyar (Champaran 
and Tirhut), OD.A.f^'iXdiwdr (East Tirhut), the white ant. 

sPtwT nima, — see ^f^»|T^T dakhin/ia. 

^Tt nerha, — see W^T knhra. 

'?^^«J pdkkhan, — see "sa^^xjdla. 

■V^palikhi or T?f53?lT pakhiya, a small insect which attacks 

the singhdra plant or water-caltrop {irapa natans or 

hispinosa). 
TTM' *S T pachkatta, xr^^^nn patkatta, — see ^^^^ chhapta. 
r(^jf\ patdrhi, — see v^xfi petdrhi. 
oyf^ patoi,—see ■^^ -^z telchat. 
f^\, pitoi (Patna and South Munger), a small green insect, which 

ravages wheat and eats the roots of sugar-cane. = ztst 

tdnra, q.v. 
fqw pillu or ft^^T pilua, a small white maggot, whidi attacks 

cotton, safflower, and grain, whether growing or stored. 



262 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

fvif^m pihika, — see b^^ sukhra. 
•qVct piro, — see ^(y«t«^l dakhinJia. 

HJElft petdrhi or M«tf<f l patdrhi (Tirhut), an insect whicli 
attacks stored rice only. 

«J^ I <» ' <^ petdrhi (Shahabad), a red-coloured insect which attaoka 

cotton, gram, and the castor-oil plant, 
^rsrr paiya, a worm in the ear of grain. 

vNn€ti?oar2 (east) or ^■^siT araiya (South Munger), a disease of 
the rice-plant. 

^fi^^flMwcA^i (Patna and iSouth Hunger), a branch springing 
from the root of sugar-cane and injuring it. 

Mii'^l phatha (South Bhagalpur), vs,x\ phatta (South Munger), a 
disease of the rice-plant. 

^XX phatta, — see ^^'^^ phatha. 

^fH^ phatingi, a kind of grasshopper which eats the leaves of 
Bugar-eane. 

^BSlTjft phangi (west), a kind of grasshopper which appears in 

years of drought and attacks roots of wheat and gram. 
^^T\i phaniga, — see tt<.*T surka. 
^fvWJ pharinga,— see ^^ tifi. 
^1^ phdti, a blight in the ear of rice. 

vi^^ phdnra (Tirhut) or T^^rft phdnri (Tirhut), a weevil destruc- 
tive of wood and grain. 

^^^«^T phulbhanga, — see ftjf^ jhilli. 

ifi^T bakula, — see ^^ hakki. 

'^fi^ hakuli (south-west), a green caterpillar destructive to rice. 
Cf . ^3i^ kajri. 

S%«IT hdkeya, — see ^^ bakki. 

if^ bakki, also ^^T bdkeya or ^ft^rr bakula (also in West Tirhut) 
in Shahabad, and ^fl^ burhiya or ■<?^^^ barhi in South 
Bhagalpur, a small kind of caterpillar which attacks rice. 
A larger kind is i)T<*i barika. 

^^^ barhi, — see ^^ bakki. 

^^■i^ babhni (Tirhut), a blight affecting rice, sugar-cane, mil-! 
lets, and opium. See also ^T^^ aurang and ^x;^^ murka. 



DESTRUCTIVE INSECTS AND DISEASES. /"p^ 263 

^^T halua, ^^i; lalvii, — see ■OtV^ bdhi. 
wTirr banka, — see T^ bakki. 

^f?^ banki (Gaya), a disease ■whioli attacks the leaves of 
trees (especially the pepper- tree), and causes them to curl 
Tip and -wither. 

Trar bdla, — see ^T^ balu. 

vj^ balu or ■*(c4'^(l balim (Patna, Gaya, and south-east), ^t 
balui (Shahahad), 'rn«rr bah (South-West Shahabad), 
an insect -which eats the stalks of pulses and makes the 
leaves crumple up. 

'ft'Jra bijhal (G-aya and South Hunger), weevil-eaten. 

■^fk^ burhiya, — see ^^sft bakki. 

«^ bhankh, — see vhf bhankh, 

¥T^T bharka (West Tirhut and south-east), an insect injurious 

to rice, caused by prevalence of south winds and excess 

of rain. 

vr^T^ bhanwra, — see v^\ bhenra. 

wx^ bharki (South Bhagalpur), a disease of the rice-plant. 

*IT^ bhankh (north) and also inf^ bhdnkhi (north), wg= bhanhh 
(east), a blight vrhich attacks the millet ^f^f sdnwan 
(panicum frumentaceum). 

^iSC^rr bhu'ila, VC^ bhuili, -^^j^ bhurri, ISKJ^ bhurli, ^fx^ 
bhurila, ^ft:^ bhurili, — see ^^T bhua. 

v^\ bhua (Tirhut, Patna, Gaya, and east), ^TW hhu'ila or ^j,.ij^ 
bhuili (West Tirhut and north-west), also ^x?^ bhurli 
(Saran), ^f<^T bhurila, ifirs^ bhurili, oi ^K^ bhurri 
(south-west), a hairy worm which eats the leaves of the 
castor-oil plant and pulses, and is fatal to cattle when 
eaten. 

VfT bhenra or vf^^ bhenrwa (Patna and east), ^«(.<i bhantera 
(West Tirhut and Shahabad), an insect which attacks 
millets and stored grain in dry weather. 

WRT bhemra, — see ^f^ gdndhi. 

^rn^cT mangra (South- West Shahabad), an insect which attacks 
the sugar-cane in the root. 



264 bihIr peasant iife. 

»I31T^ jnajri, — see ^5ri«Ci icajri. 

v^^^^Kt marhinna, v^ man, — see ^JVJK mudr. 

vi^ mdnchhif — see sif^ gdndhi. 

*rnn" mdra (Nprth-Bast Tirhut), a disease in rice which withers 

the plants. 
jjv<jK mudr (west), "^fr^tr chatra (Patna and Gay a), vx^t^:)! 

marhinna (Tirhut and East), w^ mari (West Tirhut and 

South. Bhagalpur), a disease in which the whole plant 

is burnt up. 

gr^^ murka (north), also ^vtkj angra (Champaran), and ^^^ 
babhni (Tirhut), a hliglit in opium. See srr^rr/afo. 

^fX^T muriya, — see \i<si«^T sukhra. 

^^^firfiroT lachhminiya (East Tirhut), a small, thin, red-coloured 

beetle found in granaries. It does no harm, and is 

reverenced by grain-merchants. 

<^<i«tT la^'ka or (Gaya) <!i<'*r lurha, a worm which attacks 
gram and pease. North of the Ganges it also burrows 
into the ribs of the leaf of the tobacco-plant, and is 
then called ^^3^f kefiudn in Tirhut. 

^•j^ laki, plant-lice. 

^Vr lenrJia (west and "West Tirhut), ^ nerlia (Tirhut), a 

disease in wheat or barley in which the ears turn black, 
^f^^ sarka, a worm in the root of rice. 
f^^^ siruka, — see ^x*^! surka. 
fVcftj sirom,— see <C^*l^^ dahhinha. 
ms^.df svkhtlia, — •see is^avfT sukhra. 
^(d.^ T sukhra (West Tirhut and south generally), ^<a.d r sukhtha 

(West Tirhut and west), firf%^rT_p«/*i*a (rest of Shahabad), 

Tjfx^TT muriya (South Bhagalpur), a blight in sugar-cane. 
>5^T^ sundri (east), an insect which eats the leaves of the 

castor-oil plant. 

y^rg\ sunda, — see ^^ sunra. 

^H?^ surka (East Tirhut and Shahabad), f*j^<fcT siruka (Saran 
and Patna), Mit^ill phaniga (Tirhut and South- West 
Shahabad), an insect which eats the leaves of sugar-cane 
and destroys gram, pease, and cereals. 



NOXIOUS WEEDS. ^^/'^ ' * 265 

^Syr sanm or ^|^ sunri (Tirhut and south generally), ig? 

sunrh or BfT sunrlia (Qaya), ^^T sumla (West Tirhut 

and south-east), a kind of weevil destructive to wood 

and stored grain. Cf. ?^^ klri. 
^s' sUnrh, — see ^fi sunra. 
^^ hadda a vrhite stem growing out of the root of the 

tobacco-plant, and throwing it far out of the soil. 
^fil^T -hathiya (North-East Tirhut and Gaya) and "?f«WT ^<ST 

hathiya sunda (south-east), a small white insect which 

damages rice. 
"?x?^T harda (north and east), a sort of mildew which dries 

up the grain in cereal crops. The plant turns yellow, 

and the ear black. 



CHAPTER II.— NOXIOUS WEEDS. 

1075. These are as follows : — 
■■^NrisT ankta, — see '^^I'cr ankra. 

■^^•n ankra or ^?B^ ankri (West Tirhut and Shahabad),'^|qrtzT 
ankta (Tirhut and elsewhere south) {dcia satim), it 
appears in wheat. 
' ^fii^T agiya (north and east), a weed which burns the rice- 
plant (from ^TT ag, fire). 

^^•f I ukhra, — see ^'§T hadda. 

^3T^1>W^ urkmsi, — see fsr^nnfT hichhautiya. 

^^jTiiT kakna (Patna, Graya, and south-east), ^it^t^ bamdri 
(Shahabad and East Tirhut), a weed which chokes crops. 

q[gT^iT«ft kathrengni, — see ^Ji^ rengni. 

■<*•(. i|T kaniean, ^^t kanna, — see ^T^rr kdna. 

^•rT^sf kansan, — see ^T^ kansi. 

^■pTT kana (Tirhut, Patna and east), ^■gr kanna (north-east 
Tirhut), *•!•«(? kanwdn (Gaya), %siT kena (West Tirhut 
and west), a weed which chokes rice (a species of Coix). 

^f^ kdmi (West Tirhut, Patna, Gaya, and the south-east), ^tv 
kas (Shahabad and North Bihar), -^5179^ k-aman (Siirau), 
{saccharuin fpoittaneuni'), a most destructive grass; 

34 



266 BIHiK PEASANT LIFE. 

%TT kena,— see ^T^T kdna. 

^XK^ ^ ko'il k/w,—see jftx^^ gorkhul 

«'?*T kimruka, — see ^^ijj^t kharthua. 

'BT.-fBT kharthua (Patna and Graya), ^^^T hathua (generally) 

«if^rr kharuka (North-East Tirhut and Shahabad), ^ft^iV 

mochatti (ditto), a weed in opium. 

^<»f T khurka or ^r^fft' machhaiti (north), also xf ^t'?!' ruari (Saran), 
a weed in opium. Cf. "^^tk;! rudra. 

i^t^t: garhar, — see i\j^x gdnrar. 

Jifs'Cl' garhro, — see jf^r^~^-^T gerhania. 

"TT^ g'arar, — see nTfK gdnrar. 

VT^ gdnrar (West Tirhut and Patna), irfTX gardr (Tirhut and 
east ), 5iHT^ ^"^IK jamdr gardr (South Munger), Jrer^r 
garhar (South-West Shahahad), a weed which injures 
rice (varioiis species of Coix). 

jfs^^Tf^T gerharua (north-west), Jii^«0 garhro (North Tirhut), 
a weed in cereal crops. 

I'tlRrr gokhula, — see aft^^^ gorkhul. 

^ftXTWS gorkhul [-west), ^f€t bansi (generally), ^vtTg,^ gokhula 
("West Tirhut, Patna, Gaya, and South Munger), ?bt^ 'aY 
ko'il khOf a plant which injures rice {tribulus terrestris). 

^■<IT^ chapra, — see ^'L'^^ dhurjM. 

N^^:^^ chichlwr, f^X chichor, f^^V^ c7iic7iori,—see '^f t leitral. 
"^WsT chaupatta,—see f^^^xJ jiipra. 
§m^^jangla, — see fvft^^r j hi riia. 
^mTK Vft'Kjamdr gardr,-' see Jiff ^ gdnrar. 

^■^xjamhdr, ^i^KJdmhar (Patna and South Munger), f^^fiK 
jinhdr (South-West Shahabad), ands^ct damharo (South 

Bhagalpur), a coarse hard grass, infesting poor soils 

(varieties of andropogon.) 

cjl'^r jdmJiar, — see si'^T'; jamhdr. 

fmi^P^rt jinwdn, a grass something like^ duhh, q.v. 

i^m^K jinhdr,— see ^mtX jamhdr, 

■<^XJhar, -xfiXja jharnga, ^mXjhdr, — see ^fXW jftdrang. 



NOXIOUS WEEDS. /"/ f 267 

'^l^F jharang (north-west), "WKJ^ jharnga (Shahabad), mtt^ 
jhar or ^xj/iar (Tirhut and east), a weed which injures 
rice 

f»jn5^lTyAj>Mfl (Patna, Gaya, South Hunger, and North Bihar) - 
fi»niT^rr Jhiratia (South Munger), fsB^r^T jliirica (South 
Bhagalpur), ^•^ryawg'fo (South-West Shahahad), »^^ 
jhiro (East Tirhut), a weed which chokes rice. 

^^jMro, — see f«^r^Ty/«VMa. 

3t«TTj thokra, — see ftfioftnfT hichhautiya. 

V^i^ damharo, — see 'mf^T.jamhdr. 

^T. dar, ■^'Y';t deyora, — see JrfejT montha. 

<sx^ ddbhi (north) a coarse grass, injurious to crops {xy)-is indica). 

fiffff^ titili, — see frf^^Ti^fprn. 

^fsT"?! dudMya, — see "i?^ hadda. 

^ duhhoT-^ duh (north and east), also ^l' dubbhi (south), 
a grass which overspreads fallow fields {cynodon dactylon). 

g^r^TT dhurpa (Patna, Graya, and South Munger), 'g^ dJiu- 
rup (South Bhagalpur), "gqr^TcAapm (Shahahad), a tough, 
coarse grass spreading over uncultivated lands, which 
are inundated yearly {cynodon dactylon). It is only 
removed hy digging. 

' «)«ti«f^'fc »^ nakchhikhi, — see K"'^ rengni. 

fV^'Cr pipra (Saran, Patna, and east), ■giTrTT pupra (South 

Bhagalpur), "^^T chaupatta (South- West Shahahad), 

ftrffT^ titili (generally), a weed in wheat. 
"^V^J pupra, — see ^v;<k!^ pipra. 

^^artSfll bargolmma (south and east), a weed in wheat. 
^H^ T bathua, — see ^k-vj^i kharthua. 
^TpRig^T banpiyajua, ^^^^ToT banpiyaj, and hj^.^^t^t 

banrasTM, — see li^TTT ruara. 
V^m^ bansari, — see ^^^^n kakna. 
^Mjf^ basdnrhi, — see ^t ^' tfT basaunta. 
^ffcTT &asaM«to (West Tirhut and north-v^est) , ^^f^ basdnrhi 

(Tirhut), a weed which injures the spring crops {acalypha 

indica ?) 



268 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

Vfg^ bansi, — see aflT^^ gorkhul. 

fw^flniT hichhauiiya or fti^^^fiRiT hkhlmatiya is a parasitic plant 
which injures the poppy. It is also called >ix>«f^ 
bliarhhdnr in South- West Shahahad, Bt^Ttr thokra in 
the rest of that district and north of the Ganges, and 
^^*f>^ urktissi in South- East Bihar. 

v>i«tT bhangra (West Tirhut, Patna, Gaya, and South Munger), 
vn'^'m bhangraiya (Tirhut and east), vjjf^:^! bh^ngdriya 
(North Bihar and Shahahad), VJrf'PiT bJmngariya (Tirhut) 
{verbesitia prostrata), a small creepicg-weed with a white 
flower which injures rice. 

*f Jifi'^T bhangariya, — see WJPTT bhangra. 

vxmrr^ bharbhdnr, — see fsf^fcrai biehhautiya. 

w'nft^T bhengariya, — see vn'^Kl bhangra. 

*r^T^T mdkra (north and east), a rough coarse grass spreading 
over uncultivated lands which are inundated yearly. It 
is only removed by digging (cynosurus). 

»?w«?t machhaiti, — see ^T'^^rr khurka. 

^%T manrer (Patna, Qaya, and east), *rfT niarar (South 
Bhagalpur), WT^l maren (Shahahad), a weed which 
chokes rice. 

tft-ijs' t mochatii, — see 'ST.^'^T kharthua. 

wfuT montha, also ^< dar And ^H'^T mauna (also in West Tirhut) 
in the south-east, and ^^fJxT deyora in South Muno-er. 
A coarse grass which grows in uncultivated land and 
injures the autumn crops {cyperus rotundus). 

KT^ rari (north), a coarse hard grass infesting poor soils. 

■^^KT rudra (Patna), ^snr^siT banrasna (Gaya and South 
Munger), ^»iTfcreT5r banpiydj or ^^rfq^i^-^T banpiyajua 
(Tirhut and Shahahad), a weed which grows in opium. 
Cf . '^T^T khurlca. 

iS^T^ rudri, — see ^x^efrf khurka. Cf. ff^iKX rudra. 

"^UT^ rengni, the Mexican poppy {argemone Mexkana), a thistle- 
like plant, which overspreads fallow fields. It "is also 
called si+.p**'*?! nakchhikni or (to the east) ^azf jit^*^ 
kathrengni. It was introduced into India in a cargo 



MISCEIXANEOUS. 269 

from Mexico within the last hundred years, and is now 
very common. 

lenrai (north-west), f^^"^?: cJiichor (north and Gaya), f^^'^ 
chtchori (Tirhut), f%'^-^'><: chichhor (east), fg^lrt chicJioro 
(South Bhagalpur and Tirhut), a weed which chokes rice. 
^fT hadda or ^^-i^T ukhra (West Tirhut and south), or ("West 
Tirhut and Gaya) -^^1 dudhiya, a small creeping-plant 
injurious to crops (eiepAorSw /«M-fe). Of. also § 1183 for 
other names. 



CHAPTER III.— MISCELLANEOUS. 

1076. A stunted crop is ^s^ "Trf%w haithal Msil north of the 
Ganges. In Shahabad and West Tirhut it is ^gfV^iir^ siturii/del 
or cigfr^TP^ taturiydel, or in Saran, ^cift«rr3J«r sutariydel. In Gaya 
it is T^-^xjnv^ thingiiriyael, in Patna hz-^it^ bhenttcdns, in West 
Tirhut and South Hunger fft^TP^ thuriydel, and in South Bhagalpur 
ft<.TF«t*ny^ birniyael. A blighted ear is ^njjr^ mardel north of the 
Ganges. In Shahabad it is -^^rsfr abda or ^Ji^^Tx: dagddr, in Patna and 
Gaya ■^b^T^ koU, and in the south-east ttxt mara. ^^npaiya in Gaya and 
the west, and wt^ bhor to the north-east, is rice in which the ears have 
no seed. Blighted millets are called wf^^TTP^ bhakhiydel in the north- 
west, and ^T^ ^^^T bhakh chatua in Tirhut. In Shahabad they are w^^^ t 
khukkJia OTWt^'^^Mojra, in Gaya ^^r^n^ algal, and in Patna it,^..^^ ^ 
phulhar. 

1077. Crops withered from drought are to the west and in West 
Tirhut ■^^Tt mudr ; in Gaya thry are ^t^TTT modr, and in Patna ^^^ mtial. 
To the east and in Tirhut they are fx^^TT marhena or WK^f^gr marhinna, 
and in South Bhagalpur also ^xrr mara. An irretrievably spoilt crop is 
ftJI^^:^ ^fg^ bigral hdsil north of the Ganges. In Shahabad it is 
^fqiTT bdnkta, and in Patna ^P??rT chuclmhiya. Scarcity of rain is 
S'SK sukhdr. 

1078. Failure of seed is ftgr^WT^ bijmdr in Gaya and the 
west. In South Hunger it is ^^T vfTK. biya mar. North of the 
Ganges it is also fsrf^si nirbijj, ft^f s? nirbij, or -^f^si abijj. Other names 
are ^»BT^T banjhaura (South- West Shahabad), ^v^ bdnjhi (rest of 
Shahabad), t|>*^ banjlmwi in Patna, and ^"^nr^ daihdeb in South 
Bhagalpur. In North-East Tirhut there is also crtx ^Jir^ kaur jdeb 
and in East Tirhut w^'^ srrp^ bhakJuir jdeb. 



270 ^ BIHia PEASANT LIFE. 

1079. Crops trodden down by cattle are vwra' (also spelt v^T^) 
dhangath north of the Ganges, local variants being ^zyis dangath in 
South-East Tirhnt, vinjra" dhangael in Saran, and viit^ dhanger in West 
Tirhut and Champaran. In South^West Shahabad they are ^r^iiirST^ 
lahnael, in Graya and South Hunger 4^<.(^W khurkhun, and in South 
Bhagalpux ^f^ khlnchi. In East Tirhut they are also called fsi%^ 
nighes. 

1080. Crops laid by the wind are called fi[XM giral or ^¥W khasal. 
A hot dry wind which burns up crops is to the west called »5Wr jhola, 
and such crops are known as »fft^ni:w jJwlail or ^^x^ Jkonkral. To 
the east it is TT^ dharha or STs*^ dhdrhi. A frosty wind which 
frost-bites the crops is TT^T pdla or (to the east) trar palla. The 
same words are used for froat-bite itself, and a frost-bitten crop is 
trg itiA^ T palmarua. An inundation is '^^K. dahdr or ?Tf bdi'h, also 
^ff hdrhi (North-East Tirhut), "^^ dhddh (Gaya), ■^■PBTT dphat 
(Patna), and ^^ boha or iit^ khdr in the south-east. Morning fogs 
are ^^ kuha, of which optional local variants are ^i%« kuhes or ^!%gT 
huhesa to the west and ^'^^T kulmssa in South Bhagalpur. f>%^ 
fcwAes is also current in North-East Tirhut, and in South-East Tirhut 
yre find fi^^ kumJies. A fog in the day-time is f^r dhun or VJ 
dhvmdh. Hail-stones are V(«|<!i patthal, tiwc patthar, ■R.Tsn: pathar, or 
■•(•IT^ hanauri, a local variant of the last being ■^nj^ bangauri or 
^^ftft^T bangauriya in West Tirhut, Patna, and the east. 



DIVISION VI. 



AG-RIODLTURAL TIMES AND SEASONS. 

1081. The* Bihar agriculturist follows the Hindu year in 
calculating his seasons. The year is divided into twelve lunar 
months {w(^ mas, -Jif g mam, vfV^T mahina, ^rf^aT mahinna, or ir^^ 
mahlna) of 30 days each, and therefore consists of 360 days. Each 
month is further divided into a first or dark half [f^^sr ina 
(or vmi) kisun pakh (or pachchK)'\ (commencing with the first day 
of the wane of the moon), and a second or light half (g^^ tj^ 
sukl pakh). Roughly speaking, a Hindu month commences at 
ahout the 15th of an English month ; but as there are thus only 
360 days in a year, they begin each year somewhat earlier in the 
solar year than the year before, till the calendar is brought nearly 
right every third year by the insertion of an intercalary month (w^r^ig- 
maltnds) of 30 days every third year. 

1082. Besides the above, another important division of the year 
must be noticed, — that into lunar asterisms (sn§rr nakhat, irtTiT^ 
nachhattr, or T^WtTi^ nichhaUr). There are 27 of these in each year 
and consequently 2$ in each month. Each asterism is not of equal 
length. The longest is "^fsi^T hathiya, which is 16 lunar days. The 
others range from about 13 lunar days in the dry months to 15 lunar 
days in the wet. Every agricultural operation commences in a certain 
asterism, and so it is necessary to know when they occur. The 
accompanying table shows roughly the relative positions of the 
English and Hindu months and of the lunar asterisms. 

* Part of the following will be fouad in Camegy's Kactahri Technicalities 
s.r. nakhat. 



272 



BIHAK PEASANT LIFE. 



Hindu 



Appeoximate Etjeopean 

MO^'TH. 



Name. 



Part of September 




1 

1 




^ 1 r^j'f Asiti or g>^ 1 '. Kuar 


October 








wrrfJJBfi Kdtik ... 


■ •• 




November 


■yJl-'^'t Aghan ... 


December 

■ 


n;^ Pus 


... 




January 


M\\ii Mdgh 


... 




February 


4ilJr^ Phdgun ... 


... 




March 








tlVf Chait 




April 












t^T'3 Baisdkh 




May 








§tB Jeth 


• •• 




Jime 












''TOIS Akhdrh or ^-m-S Asdrh 


July 








«!<(•( Sdwan or 'Bn^tsr Soon 






August 








MT^ JBhddun ... 






Part of September 







HINDU MONTHS. 



/o ^^ 



273 



Months. 





Dark half (fegT ^T^ Icisun pahli) and 
light half (%W^ '^ sukl pakh). 


Asterisms, of which there are two and a 
quarter to each Hindu month. 




Dark ... 

; 
[^Light 


f of ^ol-'XT ">W-=f^ trtra Phaguni. 




T^ Hast or ^ftrar Eathiya. 




f^cl^TT Chitra. 




Dark 
Light 










'aTcft bmdti or f*Jc(iciT Siwdti. 




r -n t 




H «j 1 ii 1 Bisakha. 




Dark 
Light 


'^^TTsrr Atiur&dha. 




^aTT Jeshtha. 




Dark 

■ 

.Light 


^[^ Mul. 




TK^^T jsn^ Purha Khdrh. 




Dark ' ... 

1 Light 
L 


■^ci-K\ «l<i Utra Khdrh. 




wra^ Sdwan. 




^?p!33T Dhanishtha. 




Dark 
] Light 




53 cT'^^^ Sathhikha 




ITT^ TfisET^ Furah Bhadrapad. 




f 
iDark 

Uiglit 




'i'!\K *i?f ^^ ZZi^a?" Bhadrapad. 




T^TcTt i?eo«s. 




Dark 
Light 


^la^"^ Asioini or ^'TO'^rf ^sai. 




*i7;"=ft Bharni. 




f^-f^rRil Krittuka. 




^Dark 
Light 




Ttf^sff 5o/tnJ or xlr^'ft Rohini. 












^Dark 
^ Light 


J^irgiddh. 




^X^'XT Aradra or ^T?"<T ^(ira. 




g^Titr?^ Punarbas. 




''Dark 
] Light 


■^ Pukh or fyi gr ^Ihiraiya. 




'jre-X^ ^ire« or '?re"§l'3T Aslekha. 




fDark 
1 Light 


trm^ Maggha. 




gTXT 1^41 "A Purba Phaguni. 

\ of ■5??'^ tETpft i7i!ra Phaguni. 






35 



274 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

1083. The year current in Bihar is the Fasli year, which 
commences with the Hindu month of Asin. The year is also 
popularly* divided into three seasons, viz. the hot (»IX^ garmi), 
the wet (^^;^T barkha), and the cold (grr^ jar a). The hot season 
commences in '5Tg'«r Phdgun, the wet in ■^^Tf Akharh, and tae 
cold in ^ifir^ Kdtik. The following rhymes, some of which will 
be found also in Carnegy's Kaehahri Technicalities, are current over 
the greater part of Northern India, and show the various seasons 
for agricultural operations. 

1084. Cultivation commences in Jeth, in the asterism of Rohni, 
when ploughing and sowing begin. The rain of Mirgsira is not good, 
and hence no sowing is done in that asterism. In Aradra sowing is 
recommenced and transplanting is done for the winter {agJiani) crop. 
This goes on into Punarbas and Pukh if the rains are late. In Magha 
and Purba Phaguni the urid, kurthi, and other pulses are sown. In 
Hathiya rain is very important, both for the winter crops and for 
the sowing of the spring (rabbi) crops. In former days (say cultivators) 
the rains used to stop in Swati, which was very good for the crops, 
but now they end in Hathiya. So valuable is the rain of Swati that 
any drop which falls during that asterism into a pearl-oyster becomes a 
pearl. That is how pearls are made. The rain in Chitra, on the contrary, 
is very bad. 

W^ ^rirT% WWT, ft^T^ ^Mij ZT^ I 

MaggJia lagdwe gJiaggha, siicdti Idtcas tati, 
Kahtari Hathi rani, ham hun meat hati. 

— Maggha brings rain-storms, Swati brings a screen {i.e., rain 
stops), and Queen Hathiya tells (by her thunder) that she is 



commg. 



^7^ Tif% ■frrm f?T^ ^f% jht trt .ift^rx ii 

Phagu kardi, chait chtik, kirttik natthahi tar, 
Swati natthahi mdkh til, kahi gae Dak Godr. 



* Astrologers and poets count six seasons, but the above is the popular dirision. 



HINDU MONTHS. 7^'^'' 



275 



—If it rains in the month of Phagun, urid is spoilt; if in the 
month of Chait, lemons;* if in the asterism of Ki-ittika, the 
toddy palms; and if in that of Swati, beans and sesamum, saith 
Dak, the Growala. 

^ ^^t ^^^53T THii I 
"7^ ■^iflff ^T ^m II 

Jaun barse Baisakkha rdu, 
Ek dhdn men dohar chau. 

-If King Baisakh (AprU-May) rain, every grain of paddy will 
produce two of rice. 

%f^T IT? W^ % ^rt I 
sjf xt^-^ ^rrPf ^TKt ^t II 
Kriitika chue chhau le mue, 
Jon Rohini ndhin kddo /care. 

—If it rains in Krittika, there will be no rain for the six following 
asterisms, provided Bobini makes no mud. 

J^-ittika is the best asterisni for sowing china (paniciim frumen- 
tosum) : hence they say in Tirhut — 

tififfRrr'H ^ ^It^ct '^*t II 

Jab janiha kharchdk hln, 
Krittika men tun boiha chin. 

— If you find your stock of food becoming exhausted, sow cMna in 
Krittika. 

^ ^\^ ^ firalX li'flT ''■Pf T ^m II 

Mirgsira tabay Rohini labay aradrajdy budbuday 
Kahai Ddk sunu Bhillari, kutta bhdt na khay, 

If Mirgsira is hot, Rohini rains, and Aradra gives a few drops, 

saitb Dak, hear, Bhillari, (rice wiU be so plentiful that) even 
dogs wiU turn up their noses at it. 

* g-5|f c/tM/fc is a mess of lemons kept for fermentation, and is here applied to 
the fruit on the tree. 



276 nlHAK PEASANT LIFE. 

1085. The rain of Aradra (middle of Jiine) is of considerate 
importahee to the future crops : thus — 

^^ % fi^X f if ^1^5 ^T3^ II 
Adm mansje boe sathi, 
Biikh ke Mar nikdla Vxtlii. 

—If you sow sixty-day rice in Aradra, you strike distress with a club 
and diive it away. 

Adi na barse aradra, hast im barse niddn, 
Kaliahvii Dak sunn BMUari bhae kisdn pisdn. 

— If Aradra does not rain at the commeiieement, and Hathiya at its 
end, saith Dak, hear, Bhillari, the cultivator is crushed. 

And— 

?RW^ xrrsfT ^7%, ^ ^^=^ flTX.'?^ II 

Chavhat barse aradra, utrdt barse hast, 
Katek raja ddnre, rahe aiiand girhast. 

— If it rain when Aradra conimenees and when Hathiya is ending, 
no matter how much rent may be demanded, the householder is 
still happy. 

^T^T ^t% ^w fVf -^ I 
V^ «RT^ TfTK f^ ^f II 

Aradra barse sabh kichhu hdn 
Ek .jaiods patr bin bhdn. 

— If Aradra rains everything grows [lit. is) : only one, the jawds 
{Hedi/sarum alhagi), loses its leaves. 

1086. Aradra and Punarhas are the two main asterisms of the 
month of Akharh (June-July). This is the great month of the year 
for finishing the preparation of the fields, as the proverb says, #*^ ^^rw 
^^^^T t t^K ^TKft WT^ jekar banal akharwa re tekar bdraho mas, 
—he whose fields are ready in Akhdrh, is ready also all the year 
round. If the rains are late, paddy sowing goes on as late as Punarbas 
or even Pukh, but this is rarely successful. These last two asterisms 
are usually devoted to transplanting, and not to sowing. 



HINDU MONTHS. Z^//-/ 277 

»n'9i ^re%^T %T^ VT^ II 

Pm/i7* punarhas boe dlian, 
Maggha aslekha kado san. 

— Sow paddy in Pukh and Punarbas, and in Maggha and Aslekha mix 
thoroughly the miid {i.e. prepare the fields). 

^, f*<Ji«t, "^ ^tf f^^ N 

Aradra dhdn, punarhas paiya. 
Gel, kisdn, je boe chiraiya. 

— Paddy sown in Aradra turns to plenty, in Punarbas it has empty 
ears, and sown in Pukh it turns to nothing. 

1087. After Akharh (June-July) comes Sawan or Saon (July- 
August), to which the following rhymes apply : — 

af iafji M^ ?'t% ^ «fii %^ 'a^rrsrn 

Sdon sukla sdptami ehhapi kai ugahin bhaii. 
Taun lagi meglia barsejaun lagi deb uthdn. 

— If on the morning of the seventh day of the bright half of 
Sawan the sun rises obscured by clouds, it will rain up to the 
festival of the Deb Uthan (11th of the light half of Katik, i.e. 
early in November). 

^T^>^ ^^^T ^mfl '^Ji % ^^Bf^ ^T I 
"^Wl" f^«iT f '^ ^^^ ^^'ST ^ ^f% ■^k: II 

8 don sukla sap t ami, ug ke lukahin, sur, 
Hdnko piya har barad, barkJia gel bari dur. 

— If on the same day as that above mentioned the sun rises (clear) and 
afterwards hides itself behind clouds, drive away, my dear, your 
plough and bullocks, for the rain is very far off. 

■^^1 "S^^J ^5W^, 's^ aff f % irr^ I 

Sdon sukla saptami, udaijon dekhe bhdii, 
Turn jdo piya Mdlwa, ham jaibon Multdn. 

— A cloudless morning on the same day (is a sure sign of drought). 
My dear (let us leave the country,) I ain going to Multan, and you 
can go to Malwa. 



278 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE, 



*>(■ 



^T^lsr «*^T ^H^ xfti '^f^ wfg^K I 
^r? Wl'; «^ ''ifK ■^\^t( ^TT5i^ ^TX: II 

Sdon sukla sa2)tami, raini hohhi masii/di; 

Kali Bhadclar sunu Bliaddari, parbat upjay sar. 

— ^If on the same date the night is dark, saith Bhaddar, hear, 
Bhaddari, excellent crops will grow even on a mountain. 

^r?ftsr ^^37 W8^, ^ <fp:# '^iwV rm i 

Sdon sukla saptami,jon garje ddhl rat, 
Tumjdopiya Mdhoa, hamjaibon Gujrdt. 

— If on the same date it thunders at midnight (there will be a 
drought), you must go to Malwa and I to Gujrat. 

^T% ^^ ^^^j f^T 1T^ siTF I 
*^ »Tf K ^^ w^ix iraT *tT<t T mv II 

Karke bhlnjai kankri, singh garjaijde, 

Kali Bhaddar sunu Bhaddari, kiitia bhdt na khde. 

— " If in Cancer (Sawan, July-August) the gravel is wet, and Leo 
(Bhadon, August-September) passes by with thunder," saith 
Bhaddar, " hear, Bhaddari, rice will be so plentiful that even 
dogs will refuse it." 

^■^"TiT TT^F^ vr^^ 3T^r '^Tftsr ^-i t^T^r i 

Sdon pachhwa, Bhddab purtoa, Asin balie isdn, 
Kdtik, kanta, sikio na dole katay ke rakhbah dlidn ? 

—If the west wind blow ia Sawan, the east in Bhadon, and the 
north-east in Asin, and if there is so little wind in Katik that 
even the reeds do not shake, where, my dear, will you have 
room to keep your rice ? {i.e., you will have a bumper crop). 

Sdonmds baliai puncaiya, benchsh baradkinah gaiya. 

—If the east wind blow in Sawan, sell your bullocks and buy cows 
(it will be no use trying to plough). 



HINET7 MONTHS. /aCp-^ 279 

i:?0^ vrasT ^^T^ fsntx. w 

Sdonak pachhioa din dtii chari, 
Chulhik pacliha upje sari. 

— If tlie west wind blow in Sawan for only two or three days, rice 
will grow even behind your hearth. 

vr-0 igK^T Tsra ^% ii 
Saon pachhea niahi hliare, 
Bhddon piirwa pathal sure. 

' — If the west wind blow in Sawan, tbe land will be flooded ; and 
if the east wind blow in Bhadon, (it will rain so that) 
the very stones will melt. 

Je na hliare Asrekhi Maggha, 
Flier hhare Asrekha Maggha. 

— ^That which is not filled up with water in Asres and Maggha 
has no obance of being fiUed up till they come again nest 
year. 

1088. To Bhadon (August-September) the following apply : — 

South Hunger — 

^T^ ^m^ -^Tm vrT II 
Purwa rope pur kesdn, 
Adlia ghaghri adha dhan. 

— If a cultivator does not finisb transplanting before Purwa {i.e. 
Purba Pbaguni), half bis crop will be paddy and half chaff. 

^ ij^Tr :5K^'^T -qi^ i ^^% ^f^^ ■^T^t T^t ii 
Jaun, purwa purwaiya pdwe, siikhle imdiya ndo hahdwe. 

— If the east wind blows in tbe asterism of Purwa {i.e. Purba 
Pbaguni), there will be so much rain that ships will float in 
tbe dried-up beds of rivers. 



280 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

Closely connected with this is the following :— 

5-c^ ^T ^ TT^^T ^ I f'^^^ "^^ ^"^ ^ " 
jr? <tiif If T% ft'^TT I 'ar ^t t ^ ^tk II 

Purica par Jauii pachhwa halmi, bUiausi ranr hat karai. 
Eh donon ke ihai hichdr u harsai i karai bhatar. 

— If the west wind hlows during Purwa, and if a widow chats 
and smiles, from these facts you may judge that in the first 
case it will rain, and in the second case she is going to 
marry a second time. 

With this may be compared — 

^ '^T^ e^ ^iftifsr, "ar wx;% t ^Tjr II 
TUirpakh megha ure, o hidlma musukde. 
KaJie Ddk sunu BaMni, u harse i jde. 
— *' When the clouds fly like the wings of the iiartridge, and 
when a widow smiles," saith Dak, " hear, Dakini, the one 
is going to rain and the other to marry." 

■^'^l vr% M^Pc f^sr ^X^ iff 5iTJJ II 
Suk kare hadri samchar ralie chhae, 
Aisan bole Blmddarl bin barse nahin joe. 

— A cloudy sty on Friday and Saturday is a sure precursor of rain. 
^"Nl^ ^ "SK^, «T^ if*flT wt^ I 

Saon lie purwa, b/tadon pachhima jor, 
Bardha beticha sdmi, chala des ha or. 
—My husband, let us sell our bullocks and leave the country 
if there is east wind in Saon and a strong west one in 
Bhadon. 

The following is ouirent.in Tirhut : — 

^^ ^"^ Xfi^'^o ^T1 J%^T5I II 
Kusi anidxcns chaulhi chdn, 
Ah ki ropba dhan kkdn. 



HINDU MONTHS. /^^^-f ggj 

—After the Kmi Amawas (the festival of the 15th Bhadon, oa 
■which Brahmans dig km grass), and the Chauk Chanda 
(the moon of the 19th of Bhadon, cultivator ! you neede 
not plant out paddy. 

^rerrr w arfsr CVmb vwt i 
■^ 't^si ^ ^^ ^ II 

Utra men jani ropahu bhaiya. 
Tin dhan hoe terah paiya. 

—Do not transplant in Utra Phaguni, for you will only get three 
grains to thirteen empty husks. 

TTg^ ^rnn ^^^ f^^K I 

Rdtuk Tcdga dinuk siydr, 
'Ki jhari hddar ki uptar. 

— If the crow speak by night, and the jackal by day, there will 
be either a rain-storm or an inundation. 

^'Wr ^^T ^% ^«ng I 

Aua baua bake batds, « 

Tab hola barkha ke as. 

— When the wind blows from all four quarters, there is hope 
of rain. 

1089. To Asin (September-October) the following apply : — 

'eftr'JT ^T^ -^ "ttK ^, 'ar^T, ^t^, »rrg, i 
^f^T ^rt ^T 5iT5f ^. ^ft^, ^ff^, ^rrre i 
Hathiya barse tin hot bd, saJckar, salt, mds, 
Hathiya barse tin jdt bd, til, kodo, kapds, 
— Eain in Hathiya produces three things, — sugar-cane, rice, and 
pulse ; and destroys three things, — sesamum, kodo, and cotton. 

With this may be compared — 

^Tftl^T ^ ^« ^, ^T^t^ ^ifarer "^T^ II 
Adra gel tint gel, san, sdthi, kapds; 
Hathiya gelsabh gel, dgilpdchhil chds. 

36 



282 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

— Want of rain in Aradra destroys three crops, — hemp, sixty-day 
rice, and cotton. But by want of rain in Hathiya every 
thing is ruined, both what has been sown and what will 
be sown. 

^T ^ ^^ fK:ft?erra (or '^mxiv) n 

nathiya barise, ohitra menrr&y, 
Ghar baise dhanha ririydy (or agray). 

— If Hathiya rains, and (the clouds of) Chitra hover about, the 
paddy-cultivator sits at home and "utters cries of joy. 

f^fRT ^T% TT^ wrt I 

^rJf vtt; ii^t %^^iTt II 

Chitra barse mctti mare, 
Age hhai gerui Ice kdre. 

— Eain in Chitra destroys the power of the soil and is likely to 
produce blight. 

^TVT ft^t TK ¥nT I 
^T^ f%^ an' %TTT II 
Adhn Chitra rai murai. 
Adlia Chitra jau kerdi. 

—In one-half of Chitra sow mustard and radishes, and in the 
other half barley and pease. 

1090. To Katik (October-November), the following apply : — 

Eko pdni jon barse Swati, 
Kurmin pahire sona pdti. 
—If a single shower come in Swati it enriches people so much, 
that even Kurmi,women get golden earrings to wear. 

t^ fVf^cT SIT Tt% '^iT I f^^n g^T ^if^ "^ TTTsr i 

^^ 'S'gTlcI^ ^^ •^-SVH I »Ri^ ^T% ^-c? <MX^ II 
f(^X ^T% ^?T ^fX^TST I «T^^ ^^ flBTfeq ^T^I || 
Bedbidit na hoklie an, Una Tula nahinphutai dh-M, 
Sukh mkhrdti deb uthdn, takrai barhai karah nemdn, 
Takrai barhai khet kharihdn, takrai barhai kothie dhdn. 



HINDU MONTHS. 283 

— What has been written in the Vedas cannot happen other- 
wise, and paddy cannot ripen before the balance [i.e. 
Libra = Katik = Octobei>-November). From the festival of 
the Svkhrdti {i.e. the Diwali) to the Deb Uthan (11th of the light 
half of Katik) there will be happinesg. On the twelfth day 
after that, hold the festival of eating the new grain ; on the 
twelfth after that, heap up the com on field and threshing- 
floor ; and on the twelfth after that, put the grain in the 
store-house. 

1091. The following are the signs of the stoppage of the rains : — 

SPT % 'air Ht ^T *i^, fsror?r ^fk ^T^ I 

Chhap he ugai to kya bJiaije, nirmal raini karant, 
Klye jal dekhilia sagra, kamini kup bJiurant. 
—It matters little if the sun rises obscured by clouds, because 
when the nights are clear (the rains will stop). You will only 
find water in the sea, and women will have to go to the wells 
for water. 

TTH fsi^^, (or Tfl^ ^^w^) fic^l ^ ^^ I 

^"^^ ^Tw IS ^x^T ^nv^ II 

Rat nibaddar (ov ratuh chakmak), din keft chhaya, 

Kahen Ghagh je harkha gaya. 

—If you see a cloudless night and a cloudy day, be sure, says 
Ghagh, that the rains are at an end. 

•^^ sfT^ '^X^ % ^TO II 
Boli luihri, phule kas, 
Ab nahlh harklia ke as. 

The barking of the fox and the flowering of ids grass are 

signs of the end of the rains. 

"^t( ^^tw ^T '^ ^rre 1 
^^ iTrf ^iT^T % '^rre ii 

Uge agast ban phule kds, 
Ab ndhin barkha ke as. 

The appearance of the stax Canopus and the flowering of 

the has grass in the forest are signs of the end of the rains. 



284 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

•^^ ^T Vt^tRo VTI ftpffTsi II 
Kami kusi c/utttth ke chart, 
Ah ka ropba dhdn kisdn. 

—If the has grass and the km grass flower on the fourth of 
the light half of Bhadon, why do you plant out, 
O cultivator (for the rains are stopped) ? 

1092. The following refer to the dry season : — 

Aghan dobar. Pus dyaurha, 

Magh sawai, Phagun barse gharhu keja'i. 

—If it rains in Aghan, you will get douhle an average crop ; if in 
Pus, one and a half ; if in Magh, one and a quarter : hut if 
in Phagun, then even (the seedlings which you brought from) 
your house will be lost. 

^^ ^ TraT ^asf ^ %^ II 

Aghan je barse megh, 
Dhan o raja dhan o des. 

— Happy are the king and people when it rains in Aghan. 

THJ^ ^t;% "^t^ ^ \ 
^^^ ii% "^TVT ^ II 

Pdni barse adha Pus, 
Adha gehun adlm bhus. 

— Eain in the middle of the month of Pus {i.e. early in January) 
will give you half wheat, half chaff. 

vm ^ f\.\^, ^ ^ srrf , i 
Trf%aT in'J^ flK J7^ «fTf I 
m^ ^ =5^ -frff ^>J^ I 
^^f qrr TTsft ^"K^ ■«ft^ II 
Magh ke garmi, Jeth ke jar, 
Pahila pdni bhar gail tdr, 
Ghagh kahen Jiam hohaun jogi, 
Kuan kdpdni dhoilmn dhobi. 



HINDU MONTHS. 285 

— Heat in Magh (January-February), cold in Jeth (May- June), and 
the tanks filled with the first fall of rain (are signs of a drought). 
I'll become a beggar, says Ghagh, and the washermen will wash 
with well-water. 

Chait kepachhea, Bhddon kejalla, 
B/uidon kepachhea, Magh kepalla. 

— The west wind in Chait (March-April) means rain in Bhadoa 
(August-September), and the west wind in Bhadon means frost 
in Magh (January-February). 

1093. It wiU now be of advantage to compare the above with a 
native account of the behaviour of the asterisms preceding the famine 
of 1873-74. The poet Phaturi Lai, in his tale of the famine, says as 
follows : — 

June 1873, — Eohni is the first asterism of the rainy season ; but, 
Rainfall in Tirhut about «» it Came, it departed without rain. 
* iio'ies. MiKGSiRA fulfilled our hopes, for it gave a 

few drops of rain and departed. 

</w/y.— Aeadea passed by with great majesty, thundering on 
every side. 
„f'^Sttiil"wer^ PimARBAs is a Very holy asterism, but it 

/nI'e:fnXe'iIllt^l''* was also a miser. 

PuKH saved the face of the earth, but it became 
the end of the rains. 



JIugust—AsuBS rained upon such of the 



Rainfall about 4i seedliniars ns did rise. 

inches. ° 



Rainfall about 4 inches. 



Magha was as poor as a beggar. 

September. — Pukba Phaguni gave no proof 
of his existence by rain. 
Utra Phaguni did not give even a drop to swear by. 
October.— 'Rathiya was like an elephant {hathi) who put his trunk 
in his mouth. 
Rainfall niL Chitra was Only a robber and a murderer. 

November. — Swati was put to public dis- 

Rainfall nil. 

grace. 



DIVISION VM. 



CATTLE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 



CHAPTER I.— CATTLE GENERALLY, 

1094. Cattle generally are known as »?^»^ maweshi, Mim mal, or 
K'ra siT^ maljdl. Other names are ^^T chaua north of the Ganges, 
Tfx: dhur in Patna and Gaya, and «i<«tjT bardha in South-West Shahabad. 
A head of cattle is KT^ rds, and in Patna and Gaya also i;^ dhur. 
Homed cattle, exclusive of bufEaloes, are irt^ goru or jttt WY^ gdi/ gorn ; 
also "^K stut dhUr ddngar in Patna and Gaya. In Saran «fjT^ dangar 
means cattle worn out from old age. In North-East Tirhut they are 
called ^zs latal. A worn-out, useless cow or buffalo is said to be ^^r? 
tutah or "^ Ji^ tut gail north of the Ganges, or in North-West Tirhut 
^^•<(l<!l' behwal. In Patna the term is ^*i\ thaunsa, in Shahabad 
«IS^^ thahusal or ■err^r^ thausal, in Gaya «l<*T<<; nakddar, and in 
South Bhagalpur ■aai^Tt uthano. Dead cattle are stjit ddngar in 
Shahabad and »r^ mari in Bast Bihar. 



CHAPTER XL— BULLS. 

1095. A bull is ^f^ sawr/} when branded with sacrificial marks 
and let go, and ^*T dhdkar when not so branded. ^T'T^ chaubhar 
(Patna and Gaya) or ■si^t^^t? dhakarchhoh is an imperfectly castrated 
bull, and P-i'i'^ur t binhdmo is a bull to the south-east. 



CHAPTER in.— BULLOCKS. 

1096. A bullock is TC^r haradh, also in Patna, North- West Tirhut, 
and in Shahabad optionally ^r:^ or ^Tf^ bardd. To the west it is also 
called ^^ bail, and in Gaya -^ dhur or ^KT paira. Plough-bullocks 
are called ^x:T^ hardthi to the east. The pair are called sThfr 
jwa. In a team of three bullocks the wheelers are called •^7^ dhuri 



288 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

or ^^C^n dhuriya to the west, and 9bV^ jori to the east. The 
leader is ^f^ binr or fVf^^ binriy a io the west, and ^if^ jhitti or 
sjTZT ndta to the east. 

1097. A yoke of well-bullocks is called fltz^fT^T^ motha baradh. 
The bullock which works blindfolded in an oil or sugar-cane press is called 
siTJT nata or ^Rt^f^rr ^^ kolhua bail. When there is ploughing going 
on or a cart being pulled by the aid of three bullocks, of whom only 
two are yoked at a time while the third one rests, the three are called 
^^TT tedJiura or (in East Tirhut) ai^r^ tedhri, or in Patna "S-^^zi tepta. 
Similarly when there are four bullocks, of whom two rest while two 
work, the team is called ^T^K chaukhar or ^T^f^T chaukhariya or 
"^K^fX.'"**! charhardha, or in South- West Tirhut •"B^xsTIT pherwar. In the 
case of ploughing, the boy who looks after the unemployed bullocks is 
called in North-Bast Tirhut '^ST^^T^ anwdh. 

1098. Bullocks are distinguished by various peculiarities, such 
as the following •.■^— 

A bullock unbroken to work is '^^T^ addri, also ^KT< addr 
in Tirhut, in Shahabad, and in South Bhagalpur. In Patna and 
Gaya he is '^IXK auddr, in South Hunger ^^ abon. One that sits 
down at work is M^«m parua to the west, and north of the Ganges 
^fk korhi.* In South- West Shahabad he is Jift^x: gariar, in Shahabad 
and Gaya Ji^ gar, and in Patna »r«i.^'t^ mankorhi. A vicious 
bullock is flK'^T^ markhdh, also *j<.«4si'ST markhanda in Patna, iiK'^'iral' 
markhanno in Bast Bhagalpur, and MK^m^ markhan in Gaya. In South- 
West Shahabad the words ♦j<.*^i markaha and ^»r^T latha are used. 
A shying bullock is «ii'it«f<*ji'< phephriydh to the north .and west, 
and P-4S<«K chihukdr or ^x;-«r^ harkdh north of the Ganges generally. 
In South- West Shahabad he is ^f^?rr bandiya, in the rest of the district 
»i^?iK manjhdr, in Patna and Gaya ♦)<•<« i-^T bharkdha, and to the south- 
east f K^T^ harkdha. To butt is ^K ^^ hur petal in the west and \i \K^ 
mdrab in Tirhut. In Patna and the east it is «\ v\k^ dhuns marab, 
and to the south-east ^^ W[\^ dhus mdrab or 5"^ fTT^ dhusa mdrab. In 
Gaya it is ^ft'siTi'^ dhusiydeb, and such a bullock is s^^irrt dhusmdr or 
«g(\ l^T M T dhusiydha. To break in cattle is tmr wtar^ tewdre jotal to 
the west. In Tirhut it is T(z ^tTJr^ or sftcR pat lagdeb or jotab. 
In East Tirhut it is "qTua ^«i;j«( pdet ghumaeb, and in Gaya tft^ H 
•< wld«< piri men jotab. In Shahabad fii^rre^ nikdsal, in Patna ^ t|«<iu« r 

* Compare the proverb ^"Yff '^t:^ ? wirf% '^'IcT korhi barad ken phepkari 
bahut, — it is the lazy bullock that snorts and shies. 



BULLOCKS. 289 

daghrdeb, in Gaya ^^itht^ dahraeb, in South Hunger jft"<«liv«) 
gohraeb, and in South Bhagalpur wf3 «j i ^«i chJiatiy&eb, mean to cause 
an animal to get up and to drive it along a viUage-road. 

1099. A stunted bullock is aq^ftr^icrr nankirwa, siTST nata, or 
sfz^rr natwa. A dwarf bullock is Ji«rT gaiim. 

1100. A bullock whose horns project in front is ^f^rr ghonclm 
north of the Ganges and in Patna and South Bhagalpur, also ^"tiir 
ghompa in East Tirhut. In Shahabad it is ^^fxp^x ghonchwa, in Gaya 
^BT ghonghar, in Patna also ^Ji^rr glwngra, and in South Munger 
"^f^^Xf ghonghra. 

1101. A bullock one of whose horns is erect while the other hangs 
down is *j<Ji»M«ll<dV saragpatali (literally pointing to heaven and hell) or 
*J<.iS«*l*ll'«i'l sarangpatdli. He is also called ^^ deb in Champaran 
and West Tirhut, ^^T^ kansdsuri in South-West Shahabad, thtt^ 
fw^ patttl singhi to the south-east. 

1102. A bullock -whose horns join in the centre is 3^1%^ gaminghi 
in South- West Tirhut, and ff JF^rr singjuUa or fgjr^s^ singjutal 
generally. 

1103. A bullock whose horns are loose and are turned down is 
called wsjT maina, or in Patna and the south-east Jr^f main. 

1104. A bullock -whose horns are curled like a ram's iavsT^j 
hheiirwa,'v'^ bhenr, or »J^^r mendhica. 

1105. A bullock one of whose horns turns to the right and the 
other to the left is ^nrx chdtar, or ^fi^a chatra when they are small 
and flat. When they are large, he is called Hidt-^ phathah or ttA..^| 
phatha. In North-East Tirhut he is ■'5K^rJ'JfT^ijAa!raA//%am. 

1 106. A bullock with stunted horns is ha-u muthra or ^fa^r 
muthiya generally, but in Shahabad it is 537^ muthal or ^3"^ 
muthail, and in Gaya ■^sftJiT muthariya. 

1107. A bullock -with no horns is 5%^ mimrera in Saran, -^jutt 
bhunda in Champaran, v^ bhunra or Jf^^T bhunrwa in Shahabad 
?ffT munra in North-East Tirhut, and ^irr munda in Gaya and the rest 
of Tirhut, ^f^^ murla in South-East Tirhut, Patna, and South 
Munger, and ^^ mura in South Bhagalpur. Other names are -^i^gT 
dunriya in South- West Shahabad and ^-^r thutha in South-East 



Bihar. 



37 



290 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

1108. A bullock with only one horn is ir^f^j^ eksingha or 
f€v«^SI singktutta. 

1109. When a bullock has a broken tail he is called sixf banr or 
^1Vr hdnr a ■aovih. of the Ganges and to the south-west, also snrr narha 
in East Tirhut and the south-east. In Graya and Ohamparan he is 
^^T banda, and in Patna ^irr landha or ^>5T handJia. In South Munger 
he is «ffT Idnrha. The opposite to this is ^jf wi^-raT fonchhwala. 

1110. A bullock with its ears covered with long hair is ^T^ 
hahar to the east and 'Jf^^rr jimbhra to the west. One with crooked 
eye-brows is ^f^f ^x bhauMii ter or ^Nf 'S'^ hhaunaii der, also in 
South Munger m^f ■f-CT bhdnioan dera. 

1111. A bullock not used for agriculture because it has excres- 
cences (representing Shiva) on its body, but purchased by religious 
mendicants, is known as ois^T jataha or ^w^TT basaha. Other local 
names are sjzr^HI jatliawa in Shahabad and 3iat jato in South Bhagal- 
pur. It is the btdlock ridden by Shiva. 

1112. A ^^5^T chherua or ^f^T badhiya is a castrated animal, as 
distinguished from the ^f? sdnrh or entire bull devoted and let go. 
The sacred marks placed on this last are the fax':^^ tirsul or trident 
and the "^^"^ chakkar or discus. 

1113. The following rules for selecting cattle are current through- 
out Bihar: — 

oi^ t:t^ ■^■«nn''c I ^«T "^rfc ^N '^Wf ii 

si^ ^f^B'? ^fxf>l srr^ I ^3r ^ % giPc? ^^ II 
3}^ tf'T^ ^ftlRT ^=ff 1 ■%^ jft^T ^1^ 5]^ ^=fl II 
Bail besShai ekalalah kant, bail besahilia du dU dant, 
Kdchh kasauti sdnor ban, I chhdri kiniha matt an. 
Jab dekhilia rupadJiaur, taka clidri dllia uparaur, 
Jab dekliiha maina, tab ehi par san Icariha baina. 
Jab delthilia bairiya gol, uth baith kai kariha mol, 
Jab dekliiha kariyawa kant, haila gola dekhah janu dant. 

—My dear, you have started to buy a bullock, be sure and buy 
one with only two teeth. Do not buy any which is not some 
shade of grey; but if you see a pure white one, you may 



cows AND BREEDING. 291 

advance your price fotir rupees. If you see one with loose 
horns, give handsel without crossing the road (to look at it 
more carefully, i.e., it is sure to he a good one). If you see one 
with a red head and a light red hody, don't huy till you have 
had a good look at it. But, my dear, if you see a black, or a 
yellow-grey, or a red one, don't take the trouble to look at its 
teeth. 

The following is a warning against two kinds of bullocks : — 
•^"ojsr ^rnf, ^nftfwr %t n 

Sarng patdli bhaundii ter, 
Appan Ttlidy parosiya her. 
-A bullock with horns pointing up and down, or one with crooked 
eye-brows, injures its master and the neighbours as well. 



CHAPTER IV.— COWS AND BREEDING. 

Ill 4. A cow is 3^ gau or lU^ gay. One that has had one calf is 
known as a ■«rf%^^ or 'Tf^'^a vjf( pahiloth or pahilaunth gdy. Some- 
times these words are spelt with z t instead of with 3 th. A cow or 
buffalo within six months after calving is ^ir dhen generally. In 
North-Bast Tirhut it is ^^gsf dlieun or v^^ dlienu, in Patna and the 
south-east ^t dhenu, and it is also Vir dJienu in Patna. After this she 
is ^%«r taken, or (in Shahabad and the south-east) ^%siT bakena. A 
cow that calves yearly, or that never stops milking, is gxif^'srr purdhiya 
north of the Ganges. A cow that breeds when five years old is H^Tf 
pachdr. In Shahabad and Patna she is ^•1«3<t^ dhanpuraJii, in Patna 
(also), Gay a, and South Hunger «(<.•« K^ barsdin, and in South 
Bhagalpur tfftTr poraiya. A barren cow is ^f%^T bahila generally, 
also 'S^Kf thahra in South-"West Shahabad. 

1115. To be covered by a bull is «(<»rti*JTiJ«l bardhiydeb or 
Tr f<t)|^«l pariyd^b, and also south of the Ganges ^^.-^TJr^ barddeb. 
Another general term is trr^ ^iv^ pdl khdeh. To copulate (of animals) 
is ^T^?^ bdMb, also in North-East Tirhut ^"tTTPX ohdeb. In regard 
to buffaloes, ^^jr=f bhainsaeb may also be used, and of a goat iFJp^TJiar 
chhagrdeb to the west. 



292 BIHiB PEASANT LIFE. 

1116. A COW in calf is ^^t^ttj^ barddel or »iTf«sr gdbhin. In 
South Bhagalpur elie is 15x7^ plmrli. The act of calving is HttiH 
biydn or f^TTT biyana. South of the Ganges »fr«T %^ jhol deb is to 
give birth to a number of young, e.g. in South- West Shahabad a 
man was" heard saying "^in^ W^ '^'fit^ ^^T f^j^^^r^ "^o hamdr chlieri du 
jhol bachclia dihlas ha, — my goat has dropped kids on two occasions. 

1117. A cow that is a good milker is ^^tt dudhar or ^^ft dudhdri.* 
One which gives milk for one and a half years is "i'^r^ deicarh, or in 
North-East Tirhut ^VTH barkhu. A cow or bufEalo that has gone 
five months in calf, or that has given milk for five months, is ij-^-O^ 
sahros north of the Ganges, and also 5?:f?^T ^Ji«-aA/«/a in North-East 
Tirhut. One that gives little milk is "^f^ chonrhi or ^ff ehonrh, 
also 'ThC^ chorni, and in Tirhut vfw dhonchh. In Shahabad it is ^^^K 
nathdhar, and in South Bhagalpur '^^ chaunr. A cow that kicks at 
the time of milking is x-^^i karkat, or in Tirhut ^^ttkt'^ lathrdh. 



CHAPTER v.— CALVES. 

1118. A calf as long as it is unweaned is %^ leru. A male calf 
is ^T^ bachha, ^^t^ bachhwa, or «i*«^ bachhru, and a female calf ^a^ 
bdchhi or ^ft^iT bachhiya when they are from 1^ to 3 years old. When 
a calf has two teeth, it is ^t^R dohdn north of the Ganges and in 
Shahabad, In the rest of Shahabad it is "4^^ dtidani, and elsewhere 
^tx^ dodant or ^^stJT dodanta. In West Tii-hut it is ^tw ^^ dokh 
bail. When it has not yet got its true teeth it is called ^-^ udant, or 
to the east ts^-rt adant. -^TWk. osar, or to the west ^R^tr kalor, is a 
heifer ready for the bull. In North-East Tirhut she is ^^ gaur, in 
Patna ttiii<«f phetdin, and in South Bhagalpur ■'INffK^T ankariya. 
In South-East Tirhut ■sf^ ihair is a two-year old heifer. Full-grown 
cattle are fiVilK taiydr. In calculating roughly the age of pack- 
bullocks, the word «rr^ taul, or in Gaya "^ pur, is used. Thus 37^ <i^ 
ek taul or trt ^tw tf rlT^ ek sdllce taul, one year full-grown ; ^»iW du 
taul, two years full-grown ; and so on, the counting commencing from 



* Cf. the proverb wr?^ H f^ HK^ ■«f%$ WW^ "Sfn ; ^rra ^TcT '^■gejiK ^ ^p^g 
?^TfK ■S-^jdhi ten JcicUu paiai, sahiai karui lain ; lit Mat cliuchiikar ten saJiat 
dudhari dhen,—iiom wliomsoever you expect to receive benefits, you must bear 
abusive words ; even while being kicked by a milch-cow, a man wiU endure its 
actions and pat it. 



BUFFALOES. 



293 



the time when the buUook has eight teeth, viz. when he is four years or 
more old. A oalf with six teeth is called tn^a chhadant. It is also 
called if^^ chhakkar, ^Ri^^ chhakra (male), or W^>^ chhahri (female). 
Such calves are not appreciated, as in the proverh 5T« •I<,«<1 ^=S«^ imiil 
harda chhakri, — as soon as a bullock is dead (it is abused and called) 
a chhakri. A calf with seiven teeth is ^«f«^T satdar or ^^jri?-^ satdhar 
to the west, and ^rn; sattar elsewhere south of the Ganges, except 
South Bhagalpur, where it is ^rjfi^ satattar. In West Tirhut it is 
FrTT^niT satdanta. A calf with eight teeth is iS[KT pura, i.e. full-grown, 
or ^>r^ adhail. 

1119. Coaxing a cow that has lost its calf to eat grain is called 
cTtixiT toriya, or in South-East Tirhut W^^glx^ ghasturiya. In South 
Bhagalpur it is called JTtix^T^ toriyan. The same words are used for 
reconciling a cow or a buffalo to its newly-born calf by smearing the 
latter with sugar. A kind of hair string used for tickling a cow 
with a similar object is ^^ selh or %^ selhi; and to do this ia ^f^^ 
ddnwal in the north-west and %^^ selhal in South- West Tirhut. 
Sometimes the skin of the calf stuffed with hay. is put before a cow 
which has lost its calf, especially at milking time. Salt is sprinkled 
on it and the cow licks it and lets her milk flow. The stuffed calf is 
called ^mr^^ lagawan north of the Ganges. In South- West Shah- 
abad it is called ^f^W^ khalitari, in the rest of the district *?^ maur, 
in Patna csx?'^ karchi, and in (3-aya ■qtrMit' ^<t karti inuri. The kind of 
food given to cows when they calve is t§^ pakheo to the west and in 
Patna ; also tt^^TT pakhewa in South Munger. In North- West Tirhut 
it is ^>?T3 chohdt or '^'^Tf chiihar, and in North-East Tirhut "^'^%t: 
ckohair. In South-East Tirhut it is i?%^ mahela, and generally ^rgi^T 
masala. In Gaya it is 3<ji* pustai. 



CHAPTER VI.— BUFFALOES. 



1120. A male buffalo is ^t bhaima, also wf%^ wia/n'sa in East 
Tirhut. A female buffalo is *m hhains or wVt bhainsi; also ^ bhain north 
of the Ganges, and ^f^^ mahis or »if?^ rnahisi in East Tirhut. A buffalo 
calf is ^•^•<^^;cr»TM or ^^^ karru. A male buffalo calf is '^T^\ para or 
^r^ kdra, and a female one Tra^ pari or ^T^ kdri. A well-known 
proverb is '^«T ?)f%^ "^X, 'Tf ^^f^ *nx khet mahisi char, parruhin mar, 
— bufi'aloes are grazing in the fields, beat the calves, i.e., in a fight the 
smaller men get caught, and the richer and more powerful real 



294 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

culprits get ofE. In Patna and the south-west ^ii=^lochar isatwo-jear 
old buffalo. In Gaya it is «TR tehaii. A buffalo with two teeth, i.e. 
three years old, is Tj^jjas. 



CHAPTER VII.— GOATS. 

1121. A goat is ^Kcfiher or ^mK hakhar. A he-goat kept for 
breeding is generally 'Jt^ET hoka. General names for all male goats are 
^«^T bakra, ^(^ k/iassi, or ^^"^ k/ianssi. Other terms are wrnr 
chhdgar or ^t^vgr hokra (North- East Tirhut), "^tfr botu (Patna) or Tlcft 
boto (South-East Bihar), sfhf^ biyar (South- West Shahabad), and 
fx^'^T biahan (rest of that district). A she-goat is ^?(rr^ bakri or w^ 
chheri, also ar»i5^ ehhagri to the east. A castrated goat is specially 
^1^ khassi or ^^ khanssi in Tirhut and south of the Ganges. 
North of the Ganges the general name is ?^^t ehherua. 

1122. A kid 'v&-^z^% pathru. A male kid is itt^t i>aWa or tr^^t 
metnnu, and a iemaleifj^ pdthi, iff ^^ pa/ kiy a, ot ■^ifr^ mem)n. In 
South Hunger it is sometimes called «)c|i.<^ bakru. A goat kept 
for sacrifice is called south of the Ganges Md.<^ pathru, but when kept 
for other sacrifices it is called 'sHi^ khassi. 



CHAPTER VIII.-SHEEP. 

1123. A sheep is "w^ bhenr. A ram is Ih^t bhenra or (in South 
Bhagalpur) wft bheiiro, and a ewe "wft bhenri. A lamb is "wff* 
^^ blienrik bachcha, also -^3:^ pathru and ^^sr^ bakru in Tirhut. 
flJiTsn tiiemna is also used in South-East Tirhut. 

1124. A flock of sheep or goats is »ffn? jhund or wV yMwr ; also 
% jer in East Tirhut, ff Jier in West* Tirhut, and ^$" jel in South 
Tirhut. A flock of about twenty is f^ Imkar, and of about one 
hundred ^m bag. ji% gdhenr is a stiU larger flock of four or five 
'iTJfr bag. In South Bhagalpur ^Wt kharuho, and in South Hunger 
^x. saher, mean a flock of sheep. 



CHAPTER IX.- PIGS. 

1 1 25. The general tei-m is ^?n: sugar or ^;^t smr, also «>^ dhoka 
in North-East Tirhut. Musalman villagers call them euphemistically 



ELEPHANTS. 295 

^^ ^^ fjad kaum, or in Nortli TiAut and Patna w^ 'tt^ bad khom {i.e., 
'low caste'). Other similar names are '^XTfl liardm in Gaya, and '^ 
'ft?^ had mohri. A young pig is "ffi^K. pdhur to the east, also (male) 
^■^■^^ dalira north of the Granges and in Gaya, ZT^rr tahra in Shahahad, 
tkTiT chhauna in Patna and the west, and ^1=17 chhawa in Graya. Female 
names are -s^'Cl dahri (also in G^aya) or wrt; chhal north of the Granges, 
and ^f^ kumbhi in Graya. A full-grown boar is ttit pattha or 4d.<T 
pathra in North-East Tirhut, and a full-grown sow is <j1*j»«1^ somni in 
the same place. A pigsty is ^"^wtt: kJwihdr, or to the west ^^irrfK 
kJwbhari. In South- West Shahahad it is also </l^i< khobdr, in South- 
East Bihar it is ^^rrc kJiabhdr, and in Patna and Gaya it is ■^'IIt baklior. 



CHAPTER X.— HORSES, MULES, AND ASSES. 

1 126. A horse is '^tfT or ^V^t ghora, and a mare ^t^ or %^ 
gliori. A common term for both is ^^ or ^tx: ghor. South of the 
Ganges and in Saran another word for a horse or mare is '^K'A\ charwa. 
A pony is ^T tattu, and a pony mare a^^T'Pi' tatudni, and also 
in Patna and Gaya ^f^^^ madiyan. A foal is ■^i'^i bachJiera, and 
a filly w^ bachheri. 

1127. To own a horse is a great piece of display according to Bihar 
ideas, as in the proverb ^■f ^fts ^t^, iT -"W 'CTof derh got ghori, nau got 
phauj (spoken of one who mates display when he cannot afford it), — 
the owner of one and a half {i.e. two wretched) mares goes about (like 
a lord) with nine servants. 

1128. An ass is ^^^^T firarfAffl, a she-ass is Jrc[r^ gadhi, and an 
ass's foal 3T^»^ % TIT gadha ke baclicJia, or (in East Bihar and 
Shahahad) ^T^ chlmuni. An ass-driver is jt^^t^ gadhenri. A mule 
is '3^^ khachcliar. 



CHAPTER XI.— ELEPHANTS. 

1129. An elephant is ''ST^ hdtJii, a male elephant is ^<^t hattha, 
and a she-elephant ■^T^a;^ hathini, '?^^ hathni, or (in East Tirhut) 
^^7^*^ medni, and in South-West Tirhut ^tfl jorhi. A male elephant 
with small tusks is Wfi^T makuna. One with large tusks is ^riT pattha. . 



296 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

1130. Elephants are tied up with a front foot-chain, which is 
t^ beri or ^^,xi>oikar, and also in South-East Tirhut W^^fT chhanua. 
Its hind legs are chained with chains called ^tj^ daggi or T^ nangar, 
and also with a wooden hobble, called >*«j.«ia?^ kathbandhan. 



CHAPTEE XII.— CAMELS. 

1131. A camel is ^^ «»^, also among Musalmans TggK shutur- 
Its young is called ^Wr hota in North-East Tirhut. Its nose-ring is 
sf%^ nakel. ■•*c5«<l kathra or crt^ kathi is its wooden saddle, also called 
V^rnr paUn in North-East Tirhut ; and t[%W( gadela or n^ gaddi is 
the pad. 



CHAPTER XIII.— STKAYING OF CATTLE. 

1132. To stray is generally %rr snT^ hera jSeb ; also in Saran 
n^T^iOK,^ bhula jail. Other terms are '^^ aner (or ^^■(.♦^ i anerwa) 
n-xsr^jaeb'm North-East Tirhut, ^^t^«% bahkal or ^Tf^TP^ bhonriydel 
in Shahabad, and ^^z arrrr^ bahatj&eb in Patna and Gaya. ^^-r- bathan 
and also in North-East Tirhut jfl^ i v goa-i, is a cattle enclosure. 
Other words are i<T ghera, srre- dhdth, and ^y^ dhdtha. ^»h^ lamblmb, 
^[f*f? Idmbhab, or WT?^ Idmhab, is to drive cattle into another's field 
to graze on the crops. 



CHAPTER XIV.-COLOUES OF CATTLE. 

1133. These are — 

White.— This is '^t^ charak or ^x^^ cliarka, with a variant <gT^> 
charko in South Bhagalpur. In Gaya it is .prn^ ri<padhau, and 
ekewhere also ^t^^t: rupdhar or ^tt^pc rupdhaur. Another word is 
"1^^^ chamicra in North- West Tirhut. 

1134. Grey of various shades.-^^ dlmcar, tm: dhaur, or in 
Shahabad ^T^x. dMwar, is a light grey. ^€1^^ sokan is a dark grey, %^ 
kail or %^t kaila is a yellowish grey or cream-colour, and f^%^ sileba 
or f^%t sUebe, reddish grey, -gfg^ samwar or ffrr minra is a black 
grey, ^r^^ kasauti and ^ii? AacAA are shades of grey. 



CATTLE SLAUGHTER, 297 

1135. Red.— A. reddish cowis jfr^gro/, irf^T gola, or »it«i^fTr golioa. 
A dark red one is ^nrw l&l. A cow with a red head and the rest of the 
body of a lighter colour is ^fXTT iJW hairiya gol. -gx^Jit^ dhurgolo is 
another shade of red in South Bhagalpur. ws^it^ mahugol means red 
like the mahua flower {bassia latifolia). In Shahahad this is ♦is'^jt. 
mahuar, and in Soutli Hunger *ls^^T mahulakha. 

1136. Yellow. — This is -^t^iKplar or f^^Xi piara. jts^?? gahuman 
or jfts»i«r gohuman is wheat-coloured. 

1137- Black. — This is ^rr^l kdri, ^ff\?iT kariya, ^rfr^rrr kariyawa, 
or (South Bhagalpur) ^^^T karua. 

1138. A spotted cow is «»1t? kans, a brindle one ^^wwx bagchhalla 
(tiger-skinned), ^T^ ^t^^W^ l&l hagchJialla being a red brindle and ^^ 
^Ti^aFOT mphed bagchhalla a white brindle. ^T^^faq- karkandha is one 
black on the shoulders. In Shahabad this is called ^fxas'^T karikandha. 
.^"sI'^TT guldar is a spotted cow, and trf^ *f%^rR punch kaliydn 
a piebald one, or more properly one with white stockings and a white 
blaze on the forehead. 



CHAPTER XV.— HIDES. 

1139. These are g»7^ chamra,w\^ khdl, or ^X^^ charsa. TTi^SJ 
gaukha is raw cow's leather. It is also called Jfft^T goUa north of the 
Ganges. ■*r^T^ bliainsaiita or (in South Bhagalpur) v^3T bhainsautlia 
is that of buffaloes. '^T'R chain is tanned cow hide. Sheep skins are 'ir^i^ 
khalri. A bullock's hide cut in two halves is "^V^J Wtl' ddha phdvi or 
(North-East Tirhut) ^bt^ phdnki. The hides of cattle which have 
died a natural death are ^"^T^ murdari or ^TT^K murddr, and those 
of killed cattle ^^R^ haldli. 'ffT^^ sdbar is tanned deer skin. A 
depot for hides is "g^vi^ % Jit^m charsa ke goddm. In South Hunger 
■ ^^..^j T charsa is a cess paid by tanners to the landlord. 



CHAPTER XVI.— CATTLE SLAUGHTER. 

1140. A slaughter-house is ^t^TTT lokdna in Champaran, »ni7^x: 
manhar in South-East Tirhut and Shahabad, and ftiti'^TTT kilkhdna in 
South- West Tirhut. 

38 



298 bihAr peasant life. 

1141. Another name in Shahabad is yv<'-<l«l gitrdaw&n, and in 
Patna t^z khunt. Flaying and cleaning is ^ffl^T kamina or ^WTTT 
kamdna. A butoher is ^rart kasai, but a goat-butcher is <i<ti<«h<dl<l 
bakar kasdb, and a f^qr chik* or ^^ c/iik kills both goats and sheep. 
The large knife used by them is 'rfiT^ bogda, and also north of 
the Ganges ^jfV^T dabiya. The block is 3fT tlieha, gp^T kunda, 
or ir^ kundi. In South-West Shahabad it is 'iYf khor, and in 
South Bhagalpur it is ^x::^i:^ parkaWio. The string used for hang- 
ing up the animal to be flayed is ^^T«tT lokdiia. 

1 142. A cultivator has many terms of abuse for his cattle. A 
favourite one is sff? '?f>^^ ^sT jdh kasaiya khunla, — may you go 
to the butcher, or to the sacrificial stake. 



CHAPTER XVII.— FEEDING CATTLE. 

1143. To chew the cud is ■'T^ (or ttt^t) -^t^ paguri {or p&gur) 
karah north of the Granges and in Shahabad. South of the Ganges 
generally it is Ti'^KTT'^ ^a^Ae/raeS or T^^ -^X^ paghuri karnb. Local 
names are ^^^m ^X^ pdj karab in Tirhut, ^'^'^ '^iT^ kori karab or ^T^ 
•inc^ kauri karab in Patna and Gaya, and TS^a cfnc^ galthai karab in 
South Bhagalpur. 

1144. Cattle fodder, consisting of the stems of the ^^^ janera 
[Holcus sorghum) and similar green stuff, is cut with a chopper 
(see §§ 86 and ff.), and is known as fi-^ kutti or fifz^T kutiya. In 
South Bhagalpur it is "^«J«<^ kutri, and in Patna wil katta. The fodder 
for stall-fed cattle is »i^7f gawat north of the Ganges. Other names 
are ^T»«1T lehiia — current in Shahabad, iit<t gaut in Gaya, and silfPTr 
gautha in Patna. A general word for fodder is ^TTT chdra, or in 
North- East Tirhut ^K^ chari. jtsjtxh'sI' gajvauti or (in Gaya) ir«i^2T 

* It is unlucky to touch money reeeiyed from these men on an inauspicious 
day. Hence the proverb : — 

Sipra iahalua, chik dhan, o hetin Ice bdrh. 
Ehu se dhan na gate, to kari baran se rdr. 

— ^If you cannot get rid of your wealth by having a Brahman servant, keep- 
ing possession of money received from a butcher, or from excess of daughters 
you will do it by fighting with bigger men. 



PASTURAGE. 299 

gajrauta are stalks and leaves of the carrot (>rr^^ g&jar) given to cattle. 
The chopped up sugar-cane tops (IS if genr) given to cattle as fodder 
are called ^^^ agenr, 8fc., as described in § 1012. ^T^ chdncfiM in 
North-East Tirhut is a cattle-food made of spring-crops cut before 
they are ripe and then dried, ^t^ sdni is the chafi and water on 
which bullocks are fed. 

1145. To feed cattle is ^si^ ttt^ qjx:^ (or %^) sdni pani karab (or 
deV). Another phrase current in Patna and Gaya is 3iT<r ^ gaut deb. 
A load of fodder is ^\m\ bojha, and also ^z mot in Patna, Gaya, and 
Shahabad. Chaff is ^n bhusa, with variants vht bhunsa (in Patna and 
Gaya) and ^^T bhussa. The net full of chaff is ^mxjalla or ^i^jdla 
generally. In Shahabad and South Hunger it is <jj*si.y< jalkhar, in 
South-West Shahabad ^Ttxjjora, and in Patna ^nrrr kapai. The refuse 
grass, &c., which cattle leave behind is ^^^ lather to the west, firajg 
nighds to the north-east, and ?fl"siTT in Patna, Gaya,. and the 
south-east. Local names are ^^^ kJmdhel in Shahabad and jft'CTTTCt 
gorthdro in South Bhagalpur. 

1146. A beast that eats little is fsnsfKT'? nikhordh or fsn^O ■* 
nikhurah, also f^^f^^T cMkaniya or 'y^ti-Mfar^T alpajiya in South-East 
Tirhut and ji^H^^^ gawatchor in South-West Tirhut. In Patna and 
Gaya it is optionally i^^'ti naksondh, in South Munger f^f^iprqfnT 
chikankaur, and in South Bhagalpur f'^sisfsr^ chikmjibbho. 



CHAPTER XVIII.— PASTURAGE. 

1147. Lands set apart for pasture are generally simply v:^?^ parti. 
Special names are, however, T^ifT rakhdt north of the Ganges and 
TjgTa rakhdnt (South Munger). Other names are ^fTTiT?: chirdgdh in 
Saran, Patna, and South Munger, -^z charant or ^T^ bddh in Gaya, 
and ^-^XX ardr Shahabad. A cattle-yard is ^nTT bathdn or ^^ii^^ 
hathdni. The field in which cows are fed is in South-West Shahabad 
^^^ chardi, in the rest of that district ^t^ uber, and in South Munger 
^TT ubera. In Gaya it is -^X^ bddh, in Patna ^^^:^ baharsi, and in 
South Bhagalpur ^f^ t i K bahiydr or ^T^ di: Cattle left to graze 
without watch are ^^ft^T aneriya to the west, ^^ anera in West 
Tirhut, ^A.< T chhutha in Gaya, ^Kl=^ udangar in Patna, '^shtt ujjha 
in South Munger, and %^pxj ujra in South Bhagalpur. 



300 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



CHAPTER XIX.— FENCES. 



1148. A fence to keep cattle out of fields is ^TTsi gherdn or txTsi^ 
gherdni to the north-west. In Tirhut it is ^r^ bari or i? berh. South 
of the Ganges it is t ll<.i«( gJiordn. Local names are i^nr ghera in 
Tirhut and ^mn chhapa in South Hunger. In Champaran f^XCS 
hirant is a hedge of brambles not fixed in the ground. 



CHAPTER XX.— GRAZING-FEES. 

1149. These are of two kinds : — 

(1) Those paid to the owner of the land. 

(2) Those paid to the herdsman. 

1150. A cowherd is called j^tx gwar, v^■^^x goar, ^'g^x; ahir, 
^<.' << 1 ^ . charwdh or "gr^n^r clMiwdha, and »fhcsf5igT gorkhiya A 
tender of cows is in North-East Tirhut ?i^rr^ gaiwah. A shepherd 
is ir^^- garenri or v^r^ bheiiriliar. South of the Ganges the latter also 
takes the form ^fl^f%^TT 6^c«>v^«r or vf%^KT MeKnAaro. A local name 
is «^^^ bJienrdhurai in South Bhagalpur. 

1151. (1) The fees paid to the owner of the land are known 
as 'a^s^ff kharchari or iix^TrT kharchardi north of the Ganges and 
in Gaya. The latter also is used in Gaya. In Shahabad the term 
is ^K^f^T hardiya. In Tirhut, Patna, and the east are noted sfrre 
"gKr?; kds chardi, ^^ dena, v'^BfvT bJiainsondha, and ^K^TTT barddna. 
In the south-east the word is ■?snr daina. In many places these 
fees are only paid for buffaloeSj and not for other cattle. 

1152. (2) Those paid to the herdsman are ^T^^T"^ charwdhi or 
"g^TT chardi. See also § 1205. 



CHAPTER XXI.— COWHOUSES AND ENCLOSURES FOR 
CATTLE, CATTLE-OWNERS, &o. 

1153. A cowhouse is nxmx. gausdr or iiWr^T gaus&la. To the 
east it is ?iWra gohal. Local names are ^^tt gaighara in North- 
East Tirhut, ^^"^^ darkhol in South-West Shahabad, and ^t>rrw 
dogdh in Patna and Gaya. ^tk sdr is also used to the west. q<^KT 
barghara, or in Gaya ?"^VtiKT baltarghara, is a cattle-shed. In 



MILK AND ITS PREPARATIONS. 301 

Champaran a breeding-shed for cattle is called ^t^ gh&ri. A 
place where cattle are collected is totsj bathdn. In some places a 
special word is used for spots where buffaloes are collected, viz. 
f^KTcI hirat in the north-west, ^^ lenrh in North-West Tirhut, 
^3TT baithar in East Tirhut. To collect cattle is ^«pf5f«rnr^ 
bathniyael. In North- West Tirhut it is Wf?«JTxr^ lenrhiyael. A 
cattle enclosure is ^xm pdjha in the north-west and tt^it'^'I- palani 
in Tirhut. In Shahabad it is ^^^t ardr. A local name in North- 
Bast Tirhut is ?it dhattha, which becomes srs dhath in West 
Tirhut. A general word is ^mn bathdn. In Patna -^xn aran, and 
in Gaya -^^ ara, is an enclosure for cattle in the forest. 

1154. To the west an owner of cattle is called *i^^Tt maudr. 
The song sung by cowherds while herding is called I^t^t birha, or (in 
South Hunger) ir^cn: malirai. Another similar song, but sung to a 
different air, is "^f^t: chdnchar. w t<.- mrc lorkai is a special cowherd's 
song concerning a hero called ^fkm lorika. In South Bhagalpur the 
cowherd's dance is called ^ff^rct loriydro. The man who dances 
is called sr^^T natiM or Jr^^ T netiia. 

1 155. In Gaya ^^T=n chelhwa, in West Tirhut -^^t chalha, and 
La Saran -qi^r chdlhUi is a knife used by milkmen. The brand for 
branding cattle is ^rsV sdti. 



CHAPTEK XXII.-CATTLE-DEALERS. 

1156. These are ^xy^ pherha north of the Ganges, and ia South 
Bhagalpur -^V^-^ pherbaik. In South- West Shahabad they are '^f^^T 
AanAa, in Patna w^«ffm<!iT lenhriwala, in South Hunger 'if'?^1%qT^T 
genhriwdla, and elsewhere TH^TT^T hdrwdla. 



CHAPTER XXIII.— MILK AND ITS PREPARATIONS. 

1157. Milk is -^yt diidh. Cow's milk is Tjar gaby a or ?rlT^ 
goras. To milk an animal is "^^T^ duhab or <^<itjj<4 lagdeb. A cow 
that gives milk is wvi^^K laghar or ^jivstpit lagwan, as opposed to 
■srrsT ndtha or '^^rTST andtJui, which is one that does not ; one that mUks 
plentifully is '^vrf'i: dudhdri* 



* Cf. § 1117. Another proverb is jmfx ^T^ ^ \ ctT^ »Rrr dudliari gdy ke 
du lata bhala, — even two kicts from a good milker are to be valued. 



302 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

1158. When the milk of a cow or buffalo runs dry, the word used 
is fsre^^ bisukhab. Local words are bttb" vfly^ thamth hoeb (South- 
East Tirhut), ^(H^^X^bhkhdb in Patna and South-East Tirhut, '^^•3T«i 
chuhtdb in Shahabad, and cj*<.<i thamra in the south-west of that 
district. The milk of a cow for six months after calving is ^^r (or 
south of the Ganges ■rsr) % %^ dhen ke dudh. After that it is ^%ir ^ 
^T? baken ke dudh. 

1159. The unsophisticated Bihar villager is not ignorant of the 
advantage which accrues to tbe seller by watering the milk he sells. 
According to popular belief the cow acts as the milkman's confederate 
in this, as in the proverb jti^ Jit^rc m^TTT, ^s^ 'TTfH ^T^, gay godreti 
niildp, thehunen pdni duhdb — the cow and the milkman are confederates, 
for (without the pail leaving his) knee, she lets him TnilV water 
into it. At the same time it is but fair to add that some translate 
the proverb as meaning that when a cow and the milkman are friends 
she will let him milk her even standing in water up to her knees. 
Both translations are possible. 

1160. Clarified butter is si ghyu. Sometimes the Hindi word ^ 
ghl is u£ed. The word is sometimes spelt '^=r ghiw. Local names are 
^^•I neun in West Tirhut, f^^Tsn chikna in Gaya, 5r«r nainu or §sr 
lain in Shahabad, and ^^ nenu in the east. Fresh clarified butter 
is ■^'^"^i: % ■si^ahir ke ghyu, or in South Bhagalpur fi\x^ sr girastu 
ghyu ; and that stored for a time in leather vessels fn"5^ % 5i kuppi 
ke ghyu or ^«fT ^ ar gelha ke ghyu. South of the Ganges it is also 
called ^f^iiTTT ^dakhindha ghyu. 

1161. The sediment which settles in making clarified butter is 
»rf%^nT mathiyar, ws mdth, or MM\ mdtha north of the Ganges. 
South of it it is ^^ lainu in South-West Shahabad, fl^^-^ mathgar 
in the rest of that district, ^37^ maihdha in Gaya, and 'Frar^ 
mathdhi in Patna. The refuse left in boiling it down is ^t^ ddrhi ; 
also iif^Jrr mahiya in North- West Tirhut, and ■5>^ ghor in Tirhut 
generally. Other names are Tjrrf si phdran and ^? ^.m mahran in 
Shahabad, and ^XT^'^f korauni, used in the same place and in 
South Hunger ; ^'a^ khankhori in the rest of Shahabad, and TgxT^ 
khurchani in Patna. 

1162. Tyre or curdled milh is ^ or ^f% duM. It should be 
noted that this word is feminine, though grammarians say it is 



MILK AND ITS PREPARATIONS. 303 

masculine.* Another name current in West Tirhut is 9^?: sajui. 
The old curds put in to curdle milk are s^^sr joran. Tyre is a 
lujxury, hence the proverb ^X ^^, s^^ ^^ 9^"'!' (^Mi iahro 
dahi, — only he who eats tyre at home gets it abroad. 

1163. Curdled milk is srtr ^'^ jamdo dahi or ^5iT? ^^ sajdo 
dahi. Other names are ^f ^ sanchi to the east, ^aif^ sojioa in North- 
East Tirhut, fit^x mithur in South-East Tirhut, and srgi; jamui 
in Q-aya. The cream of this is called WT^^ chheUhi, a local variant 
being m^ chdli in Patna. In South- West Shahabad it is <juT 
sdrhi. When this is taken off, the remainder is called ^[^ ^^ 
katu'i dahi or w^^+^i, chhalkatui. In Shahabad it is also called fIrST 
chhinui, and another name north of the Granges is flfg^ chhinuhi. 
Another variety of curds, from which the whey has been expressed 
or boiled, is called w«rr chliena. It is something like the dry curds 
from which cheese is made in England. 

1164. The thick milk given by a cow just after calving, or 
beesting milk, is ^r^^ phenus or *y^i phenusa to the west. In 
Tirhut and the south-east it is f^v*J r khirsa, and in Gaya «rr*T 
dhdkar means the milk of the first milking after calving, ^"^ plienus 
being that of the second. A cow that drops her milk is qsT^v^^T 
kamdhenua or ■^^'^niK dhenudgar north of the Ganges, also ^r^^ 
klidsar in East Tirhut. To allow the calf to suck the teats of a cow 
for an instant before milking, so as to induce the latter to let the 
milk flow, is if»iv-^Ti)<!l phenhdel or M-^iy«jj?ewAae7. 

1165. Cream is »t^tt maMi or ^^k; baMi, and skim-milk v^T^T 
pasdwan or (in East Tirhut) if^^T "^ chhanua dudh. 

1166. Butter before clarification is ^^3T neiin north of the Ganges, 
and also ^sr nen in North-East Tirhut. South of the Ganges it is ^ 
lainu to the west, fV^^rr chikna and 4j<tvl<t makkhan in Patna and Gaya, 
and ^^nenu there and in the south-east. Butter-milk is *r5T matthu, 
»rr3T mdtha, or ^t; ghor. In Gaya and the south-west it is also ^? 
chhdnchh. A well-known proverb about butter-milk is '^^ m^ w^ 
■"irf^ ''fi^ dudhak jaren mattha phuki plbe, — ^through having been scalded 
by (hot) milk, he blows on the butter-milk before he drinks it, i.e., a 
burnt child dreads the fire. 

1167. ^"^T khod is milk boiled down till it is thick. 

* E.g., in MaubodJi's Haribans, VII, 48, V.^,'^ ^f? ^f^ ^-^ ^T^^lfr, ekao 
dahi nahin lei adhaldhi, — they did not take a single bad curd. 



304 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

CHAPTER XXIV.— CATTLE DISEASES. 

1168. Medicines are administered tlu-ough a bamboo tube called 
<i<i*l dharha or ^f^ kanri. 

1 169. The identification of the following diseases is in many cases 
very doubtful. The list is given rather in the hope that it may form 
the basis of a future identification by competent experts. Probably 
many of the names given as representing different diseases are merely 
different local names of one and the same disease. 

1170. Farcy. — This is ■^fii^rr agiya or ■^fji^iT^'ni aginhay. 

117 J. Diseases of the stomach. — sff^ jonki is inflammation 
caused by small leeches in the stomach and liver. In West Tirhut it is 
srt^rri^yoA^/. V2t^^ petchali, or (in Tirhut) -^zpfi petauk, is diarrhoea ; 
■<ff^^ pokab, or in North Tirhut ^^ chkinri, is purging, fw"^ 
pilhi is said to be a swelling of the liver. Perhaps it is disease of the 
spleen. 

1172. Foot and mouth disease. — This is ^t^r^T kliorha in the 
north-west and in West Tirhut, ^'^^T^ alucah also in Champaran 
and North- West Tirhut, ^JtT^T khangdha in East Tirhut, <sffj|«^l 
khongha in West Tirhut, hsjt^t bhajha in South- East Tirhut, -^jwf 
dbha in Tirhut generally, and (optionally) <^<.'^r khurlia in Patna 
and Graya. 

1 173. Diseases of the throat and mouth.— -m^ ^?x anti barhab, or 
^T^t '^W '5ITP'^ dnti charh jdeb, is swelling of the uvula, ^is-n: Jcanthdr 
(Graya and the north-west), ftr^^ bhirukhi (Tii-hut), ^i3T ft^T kantha 
rog (Gaya and Tirhut), «t^*t dharka (Patna), is a disease of the throat 
and chest, which swell and prevent the animal swallowing. ^N^ dhdnsi 
(north of the Granges) is cough, "^irr benga is inflammation of the 
vessels of the tongue followed by dysentery, ^^^tt thuklia (Patna 
and the south-east) is described as a disease in which saliva flows 
from the mouth, ^^^^i^ sukhbhdmi (north-west and Graya), ^^ 
chhenri (Tirhut), ^'«l^sn: dantnar (South-East Tirhut), fgwr hanim 
(South-East Tirhut and Patna ), ^^rti^TcT s«A;ar(4'a«^ (Patna, Graya, and 
Shahabad), ^[M ^^K dant lahar (South Bhagalpur), are described as 
diseases of the tongue, f^^jibbhi (West Bihar) or f^'xr^^tT Jibhsatia is 
lampus. ■^'S^ bhundi (Patna) is described as a throat disease. ■^137 ^jro 
kantha sdru (South-East Bihar), or in Graya siTsfi' *1^r nddi kanwa, is a 
disease in which sores form in the throat ; so also in the same tract is ^I^t 



CATTLE DISEASES. 



305 



'sWr sona hola. '^ jj^^T chor matka (South-East Bihar) is a disease 
of the mouth which prevents the animal eating, ^^^ftafl munhpasija 
is diarrhoea with watering at the mouth. In Gaya^<it<<«^T gliargliarwa 
is a disease accompanied hy rattHng in the throat. tiTy«\l«^'<<T 
ghonghphulwa in Gaya, and w-^T gheghua in Gaya and Shahabad, is 
a. kind of goitre. 

1174. Diseases of the feet — Poot-rot is »Bifmv<<TM jhanakwah 
(North-West Bihar and Shahabad) and sjw^ jhanak in Tirhut. In 
Patna it is ^Bsr^^^TrrT jhanakbdta, and in South- West Shahabad »5il^^ 
jhanka. mciT hata is a swelling of the knee-joint. When a bullock 
becomes lame through overloading, the phrase used is vx q j ijjti bhar 
jaeb, 'BT^ ajTP^ sarak jaeb, or ^^kk mTsr^ ukJiar jaib, or in South-East 
Tirhut 'sT^T klianja. '^T^T charaiya in the south-east is too large 
hoofs, ^fjv khang is an insect bred in the feet, which is supposed to 
devour the whole body. An animal affected with it is <j|N|<^ khdngal. 

1175. Rinderpest. — This is ^^^ chechak everywhere.- Other 
names are srt^ ^ f«T^^^ goti ke niksari and 4i^i*j|*(T mahmdya, 
both generally, and ^t*^ ■$mx^ barka bemdri ia Ohamparan, jrt^T^ij 
gos&iin in North-East Tirhut, "^nix: ^z^^ antar katica and ^atT^jjiT 
jagdamma in Gaya. 

1176. Windy colic. — This is ^:^r^rff phulbdt, -^a^^t^ pei phuUi in 
Tirhut and Shahabad. In Patna it is T<^n bindha. A similar disease, 
accompanied by difficulty of breathing, is ^i^^^ phulbagha in Gaya 
and Shahabad. 

1177. Staggers. — These are fi <i^ wj/rgrj generally; other names 
are "^V^'ft ghurni (Patna and the south-east), '^fl^^ ghumri in South- 
West Shahabdd, and ^r^^«=IT hateyarwa in the rest of that district. 
Perhaps ^«i»<t^ tunJd in the South-East, which is described as a sudden 
death of cattle, is a variety of staggers. 

1178. Worm forjilaria) in the eye. — This is "^f^^ chdndni in 
Gaya, and »rt^I mdra or ^!TfX ^^ mdra phulli in Shahabad. 

1179. Tumours. — These are ^"^X^^^ jaharbdd, with a variant 
^X^j^X^ jaharbdt in Gaya and South- West Shahabad. Another name 
in Shahabad is f^K^^ ^Jirfc". 

1180. Fevers— '^^'fn arhaiyaov^^^^-^ arheya is & fever lasting 
two and a half days. In Tirhut it is called ian..y>K: jarkhor. 

39 



306 BIHAR PEASANT LI?E. 

1181. Pneumonia (?). — A disease attended with panting is called 
^f'S hamph in the north-west and in West Tirhut. In South-East 
Tirhut it is "^Tli^ haphni, and in North-East Tirhut ^T»T bat. 

1182. «ftT^-><^ T konrpakka (South Bhagalpur) is a disease in 
which the liver gets abscesses, ^txf kharra is a kind of mange. It 
generally attacks young cattle. 



CHAPTEK XXV.— CATTLE-FODDEE.. 

1183. The following grasses and other plants are used for cattle- 
fodder. Their botanical names have not been in the majority of cases 
identified : — 

■^*5il' artkta, — see ■^'<tc<^ ankri. 

■^^r^ or ■^Ni^a»jX;n(west), ^s^^ bhekhri (north-west and Gaya), 
fw^"Y^ hhilor (north-west), - ^44 -a I ankta (Patna, Qaya, and south- 
east) ; also ^3^^ atka (South Bhagalpur), vkia saliva. 

■'5a5<*T atka, — see -4*«<'l ankri. 

■^ff^ antJmli (Gaya), ^ffa^ anthil (South-West Shahabad and 
Gaya) . 

•^siTSfTST anjdn, (Patna, Gaya, and Shahabad). 

^^rrar amta (West Tirhut). 

■^fl^^T amrora (East Tirhut, Gaya, and Champaran.) 

^T^IT araiya (generally). 

^ff3^ anthil, — see "^^ anthuli. 

^sp^T f%Kif%^ unta chirchiri (East Tirhut and Gaya). 

^Ct at^ ori tlni (Patna and Gaya) . 

■^Nrt aunkar (Shahabad and Gaya). 

^S5i -^ kajla (Champaran and North-East Tirhut) or qrajT^ kajri 
(Shahabad). 

^<i.^T katra (Saran and Tirhut). 

^•iVcfT kanwa, ^^ /:a;ni«, — see %^T kena. 

flRK^ karmi, — see ^K»T karem. 

^X\X karar (Shahabad and South Munger). 



CATl'LE-FODDEE. C ^ ^ ^/ 307 

^JT karem (South-West Shahabad), jp^ harmi or ^iX«#t g?T 
karmi lat elsewhere, a creeping-plant with a small white flower which 
grows in marshes (Conmkulus repens). 

^•iT Icana, — see %irT kena. 

ff^^fVr kukraundlia (north). 

gi^^l kukusa (South-West Shahabad). 

%sfT kena (west and Gaya) or ^TRT kdna (Tirhut, Patna, and South 
Munger)", also 'chw|.<4i kanwa (Gaya) and ^f^ kanna (South Bhagal- 
pur and Gaya), which grows in Indian corn. 

^tfV^rr korhila (Ohamparan and North Tirhut) . 

<*)<*(KT kaudra (East Tirhut) . 

yj|«^l khagra (Shahabad). 

^'ai^T khukhsa (general). 

^Y*ft khobhi, (South-East Tirhut, Gaya, and Ohamparan). 

1^^ garni (north-west). 

^I^g^^^ ganrhar (Shahabad, Gaya, and South Munger), Jif^^T 
gariydr (west), n%^ ganrer (Gaya), Jif^ gdnrar (Patna), ?ryrT gardr 
(south-east), Ji^f ^^T garharua or ^^^ ganreri (north). 

^' ■j'V<t^ T garharua, if^K gardr, vfk^tx gariyar, H^X. ganrer, .ri'^^ 
ganreri, — see ^^^T< ganrliar. 

JT^^^V^T gadpanroa, n^^firft^T gadpirora, st^Tj^ijx gadpurna, 
— see 3i':(«y<»»n' gadhpuma. 

ugrgviT gadhpurna (West Tirhut and Ohamparan), Ji<^»y "' (...t T 
gadpurna (Shahabad), ji<»mV1^T gadpanroa (Patna and Gaya), JT^Tpj-. 
^VfT gapinrora (South Munger), ^kt^^"^ purnwo (South Bhagalpur) 
{Boerhaavia procumheni) . 

jiffK gdnrar, — see ar^^K ganrhar. 
i\^(Kj gunjera (South- West Shahabad). 
jftW'SiT god/ma (East Tirhut). 
'^sfhfT chakora, — see fcTSiT^rfil^ tinpatiya. 
"SP^ chart, — see vfi^.Ta chordnt. 

^PCr chdra, branches of trees,' especially of the p'lpar {ficus 
religiosa) or of the bar {ficus Indica) given as fodder to elephants. 

f^^rrsft chikni (South- West Shahabad and Gaya) • 
f^^^T; chichhor,—see fWt^ chichori. 



308 BIHAR PEASANT XIFE. 

f^t^ chichori (Tirhut), also f^'^^ chichor (north and Gaya), 
f^'^^^lx cliichJwr (east) or f^-'Tl'Of chichoro (Soutt Bhagalpux and 
Tirhut) and ^f^i; lenrdi (north-west) . 

f%«rTTr chinwa (East Tirhut). 

^■g chench (west), ^r^«^ garaunchhi (Champaran and Patna), 
^ff^ saraumhi (Gaya and South Bhagalpur), ^T-^^ sarhanchi (Gaya 
and South Munger) (various species of Achyranthus). 

"^■^3 chorant (Gaya and South-West Shahahad), ^^ chari 
(west generally), "^"^<f«T chordnta (Patna), g^gY'' jurguro South 
Bhagalpur), and ^v^^jugra, (South Munger). 

SJ^VIT jakerdi, — see afrtrCr?; jauJcerdi. 

ftni^f jinwan (west) or ^^i^ jhiro (East Tirhut), 

^^ jur (South-West Shahabad) . 

*S"*?T jugra, ^%'^^ft jurguro,— bqq ^Itts char ant. 

^Y^ joh (Tirhut, Gaya, and west generally). 

siT^rn; jau kerai (generally); sj^tr; joker ai (south-east). 
See §959. 

W^^rr jharua, — see *rk jhar. 

»ffTx: jhar (Tirhut and Gaya), 'im'^n jharua (Saran and Patna), a 
kind of brushwood growing on wells, &o. 

sfftrr jhlro, — see fsjsivqf jinwan. 

■sfkm tharhiya (Shahabad and East Tirhut). 

efjiT dangar (Patna and Champaran), a species of Indian com 
which bears no cobs. 

(rr^ ddbhi (north of Ganges, Gaya, and Shahabad;. 

ts^-^T derhiia (South Tirhut). 

fira^g^ titli (Gaya and west), ^^nft tet&ri (Tirhut), aftT^ tetar 
(East Tirhut). 

fijaV?; titol (Gaya and South Munger). 

firHTufif^ tinpatiya (south and west) and -^"^ chakora (Gaya 
south-east). 

^cTTx; tetar, ^<iT?t tetari, — see ferri^^ titli. 

^t^gr dudhiya^ a kiad of wort. It is very poisonous. 

^ dub or i« duhh, also south of the Ganges ^> dubbhi {cynodon 
dactylon). 



CATTLE-FODDER. , // 



^3/ 309 



^^^ dhakra (Tirhut and Champaran). 

fV»?tT dhimo'i (Gaya and west), ft^ chhimoi (South Hunger). 

TK^^^ narcha (Gaya). 

^XSaff ^ narjonk, — see ^<.»4t larhi. 

si^r^T narua, — see "Tt^XKpoar. 

^X narai, W(K nar, ^'91^ newdri, — see STTK l&r. 

^ff^f; patlar (Champaran). 

\'A'K\ papra, — see rMM.<;i pipra. 

■q^Fcn pasaunta, — see ^^hn hasaunta. 

fvj^Xt pipra (South-East Tirhut, Patna, Gaya, and South Munger), 
^m' Xl papra (South-West Shahabad), and ^Tjrrr pupra (Champaran 
and South Bhagalpur). 

B'T^xi' pupra, — see firn^T pipra. 

^<.«i Tq^ purnwo, — see Jr6).<j<,.«(r gadhpurna. 

^y^V^.poar (sonth), ifha pora (West Tirhut), •r<t^T narua (South 
Bhagalpur), straw which has heen trampled in the threshing-floor. 

TET-^T pharka (South-East Tirhut). 

^^ phutiya (East Tirhut). 

■5(%«n phulem (north-west), ^rn? -^^J^ sham tuhi (West Tirhnt) 
or ^5V g^n^ han tuisi (East Tirhut). 

■^iS-iT phephna (East and South Tirhut). 

■^■^ g^^ han tuki,—see y^^\ phulena. 

^sf -^tm han post a (Champaran and Gaya), wild poppy. 

^T linT han kerai (Patna, Gaya, and West). 

q ^dl hasaunta (north of the Ganges), ^^rcfjirr haswanta (Shahabad), 
or (North-East Tirhnt) ■'^^h[-\ pasaunta, which grows in Indian corn. 

f^iffTl^ hisarhi (East Tirhut) . 

■if^T herhiyan, — see ^^ hei-i, 

■$^^»t behcan, ?"^*^r hebnha, ^^T^T belaudhan, — see "^^F^T 
helaundha. 

^^Nt helaundha, which grows in rice and millet, found north of 
the Ganges, in Patna, and South Munger. In Gaya it is ^^^ar 
belaudhan, in Shahabad ^«'^f helwan, and in Gaya and South Bhagal- 
pur ^^^T helonha. 



810 ' bihXb peasant lwe. 

t€t beri (Graya), ^f^^lf berliyan (Patna). 

f*?^"^ bkilor, — see -^-^ anJerL 

^ bhiisi (north) or ^Tt^ bhosa (Tirhut), chaff. 

v^i^ b/iekhri, — see '^^r^ ankri. 

»fr^T motha (north of Ganges, Shahahad, Gaya, and south-east) 
(cyperus rotunda). 

jmk. ^ sfz makdi ke dant (Gaja), Indian com stalks. 

v^tKt makra, a grain (north of Ganges, Sonth-West Shahahad, 
and South Munger) -which grows in Indian corn. See § 993. 

w^ % ITXT mandu ke ndra, — see ?rf^T^ manidti. 

M^ masi (Saran). 

■^'^K muttnur (north of the Ganges), -which grows in rice- fields. 

*rf ^Ts^ martiati (Gaya and South- West Shahahad), *r® tr THT 
mandu ke ndra (Gaya), marua straw. ^373 

^sfJJTT munga, yT^«oi«( sahjan, &c., {hyperanthera moringa), see ^^sT 
saiyan in § 107^. It is -very plentiful at Gaya, hence the proverb — 

Munga, machchhar, mokhtdr, mdljddi, t chdro sen Sdhabganj ki abadi. 
'—Munga, mosquitoes, attorneys, and courtezans, these four mate 
up the population of Sahahganj {i.e., outer Gaya). 

^^s^sr munmun (north-west). 

j j <«<» T murka (north), found in -wheat and barley. 

^T^Ii murena (west), 

^ZT^ ratni (East Tirhut). 

Xf^^rdtan, — see <TeT. rdrhi. 

xr^. rari (north of Ganges). 

KT^ rdrhi (Shahahad, Patna, and Gaya, and South Munger), KTz«r 
rdtan (South Bhagalpur). 

^TfT^T fo^^te {Gaya and -west.) 
^l."3rr*l larjonka, — see ^nrft' larhi. 

^SKj^ larhi (Patna), •! <.aiT«li narjonk (South Munger), gr ^ - -jif°til 
larjonka (South Bhagalpur). 

^rw: iSv or st-iT ndr, ■ also ^-^ narai (South- West Shahahad), and 
^^^^ wet^'ars (Patna and Gaya), untrampled straw. 



CATTLE-FODDEK. ^'^^ 311 

^^ lenrdi (Q-aya and west) or (North Tirhut) ^"^f?«iT korhila, 
found in rice-fields. The same as f^^l^ chichori. 
TTF g^-^ sham tulsi, — see ■^^n pJiulena. 

^ft sdni'^ iGaya and Shahabad) or ^n?f sdmi (North-Eaat 
Tirhut). 

grwi sdma (Tirhut), — see § 989. 

^V^ sdmi, — see ^ff sdni/i. 

^f sdnwd^, (Graya, South-West Shahabad, and South Hunger). 

ft^T sihor or f^Tt^ silwra (Champaran and Tirhut). 

^^nCT suara, — see ^X^f^^T surbariya. 

'^TJ^TK^^ surbariya (Patna and Gaya), ^^^K surbdr (Gaya and 
Shahabad), ^'^TT suara (Gaya and Shahabad), ^^rqi'ft surwdri (north), 
found in millet. 

S<,»«ll< surbdr, ti^^T^ surwdri, — see ^t^^Fk^ surbariya. 

%^ serhi (South- West Shahabad). 

TfT hara, — see ^t hadda. 

"^^ Jiadda (north of Ganges) or (East Tirhut) "^^ hara, ^T^ hara, 
(Gaya and South- West Shahabad), which grows in millet {euphorbia 
hirta). Cf. also § lOTf). 

'%y|J^ hathbai (East Tirhut). 

>g<l<i^ harauti (South-East Tirhut). 

^Yf hdra, — see ^T hadda. 



DIVISION VIII. 



LABOUR ADVANCES, WAGES, AND PERQUISITES. 



CHAPTER I.- PAT AND ADVANCES TO LABOURERS. 

1 184. A labourer generally is *i<^< majur, also in Tirhut and 
tlie soutli-east ^ffjan. Another very general word is ■^fJiTTT bamhar. 
In East Tirhut a ^flPc^fX kamariya {i.e., he who wears a blanket) means 
a labouring man generally. In Patna, Gaya, and South Hunger 
he is also ^ft^ kamiydn. In Tirhut "^T^n; chakar is a paid 
servant, as opposed to ^^^^ hahiya and '^^'•<jj-^ ckarwdh, which mean, 
an unpaid servant. A day-labourer is in South-East Tirhut Ttsn'^r 
rojha ; elsewhere he is «9|T majur or era Jan, as above. A servant 
engaged by the year is ^^K nokar north of the Ganges, and also 
■ ^<..^l^g harwah (literally, a ploughman) in Tirhut. Eoroed labour is 
•^JIT^ hegdri, and a forced labourer is ^r[JK hegar, or in Gaya ■%\f^ 
s^-^ hakim hukmi. In Bast Tirhut fsiTi^Tr jiratiha is a labourer 
who receives land rent-free and works for his master without remuner- 
ation in the agricultural season. In the north-west the . mCl«(J<;3r 
pdriwdla sometimes works for his master and sometimes for himself. 
In Tirhut ^r^W khawds means a male house-servant, Hindu or Musal- 
mari. A proverb which alludes to him is '^^^ ^^ '^, M^<ict, ^^ ^sraTO, 
choralt sang chor, paharuk sang khawds, — with other thieves he is a thief, 
but in the presence of the watchman he is simply a servant. 

1185. A lahourer's pay is fl^"^ majuri, or to the east ^^XT qjura. 
When paid in kind it is ^'i ban or ^si lani, also ^"1f*r boni in North-East 
Tirhut. When paid daily it is also called xtoT roj or (in Patna, Gaya, 
and South Munger) kW^it rojina. In Champaran it is r^^■x^■^ 
rojbandhi. Monthly wages is ^x:t^1^ darmd/m, also Kf%^ mahinna 
when it is a fixed sum, and wf^-^T^ mahinwdri when it means the 
average income of the month. Yearly wages is ^rf^^isn sdliydna or 
gr^TT sdhna. In the north-west it is als.o ^^sfT sallna, and in 

40 



314 BIHAK PEASANT LIFE. 

North-East Tirhut ^X^^ harhhi. In Saran and North-West Tirliut 
^^ mani is an allowance of grain made to a servant in lieu of pay. 
In South Munger it is'Vtxrprr hordna. 

1186. Advances of pay to labourers are -^fm^ phajil or -^ji^^ 
agioar in the north-west. In East Tirhut they are ^^K janaur, in 
West Tirhut ^^iT^ agauri, and in South-East Tirhut also ^mi'SX agailr. 
In Shahabad they are ^?i^5T agwan, in Patna ^jik agar, in South 
Munger '^li^'?^ agauri, and in South Bhagalpur ^ipifTX agraur. In 
Gaya they are ?5fn'?T^ Icamhjauti. f ^t^tK haricar in the west, and 
'^KT^ harauri in South- West Shahabad and Tirhut (or in East Tirhut 
optionally "?KT^ Mravr), is an advance of grain or money or a piece 
of land given to a ploughman when he is engaged. In the south- 
east it is '^K-^rli' harioahi, in Patna ^ftnr^ kamiai, and in Gaya 
^ifil^Tz't kamiyauti. 



CHAPTER II.— ADVANCES TO TENANTS. 

1187. Advances are generally n>\\^ tagdwl or <«<'«ai| karja. The 
following special names are also used : — 

1188. Aduanoes to buy food. — These are ^f sr khaihan to the 
west and in Patna and Gaya. In Tirhut they are called ^Pt^jt^T 
baniyauta, and when in cash ^^v5It karja. In Patna and Gaya they 
are 'srft'^T kharihan. 

1189. Advances to buy seed. — These are f^'^sr liahan in East 
Tirhut, and ^-^^ btJian in Patna and Gaya. In Shahabad they are 
^T^»IT Uya henga or -^t ^T«r blya bal. 

1190- Advances for purchase of cattle and sinking wells.— These 
are anT^ tagdwi or *^«oir karja south of the Ganges. In East Tirhut 
^t^^^TT^T adhldwa, and in West Tirhut ^j^^-nrr adhlappa, is the advance 
made to a tenant for the purchase of cattle. The lender receives 
back the amount of the advance and half of the profit derived from 
the cattle. 

.1191. Advances for marriage expenses.— These are ^x^^karjain 
in Patna. . 

1 192. In Champaran ■^f|^«^ dahihalcki is a remission made by the 
landlord to a lessee. In South-East Tirhut similar terms are ^zrjft 
ehhutti (used also in Patna and Gaya) and mff[X khdtir. In West 



DUES PAID BY TENANTS. 315 

Tirhut and Champaran when fallow land is given to a cultivator for a 
quarter rent or rentfree for the first year, the custom is called fe^*'^ 
khilhi. So also in South-East Tirhut it is ^T^T ^T9 dsa chas, and in 
Shahabad ^^ WT^ IcMl mdri. See also §§ 9J2 and 913. 



CHAPTER III.— DUES PAID BY TENANTS. 

1193. These are principally the cesses paid to the resident artisans 
and other non-cultivating residents in the village, who are known as 
''f^'^ pawani, HT*?!" pauni, or •«ftfsi«iT pauniya. In East Tirhut they 
are M«<«n ttot^ pawani pasari. 

1194. The carpenter { <^-^ harhi) and blacksmith (#}Tr<: 
lohSr), who are generally the same person, get a fee from the 
member of a marriage procession who gets any work done by 
him; This is known as ftfxsr birit in South Munger, and 
as f^r? ^n^ Uyah dani in South Bhagalpur. Elsewhere it is 
simply x*! l« inam or ^^i^ baksis. His remuneration for the 
repairs of instruments is ■scsj hatha in Saran, ^ITT jaura in 
Champaran, and tjt^ pal ia. Tirhut. In Shahabad it is WKT?: kamdi, 
and so also in Bast Tirhut. In South-East Tirhut it is also vrt^x. 
bhdmwar, and in South Munger it is ^*i^ kamaini. "When he is paid at 
so much paddy per plough, it is called, according to the amount, TNrr 
bojha in Saran, Patna, Gaya, and the south-east, '^feiT antiya or 
^fajT panja in Champaran, and icNjT'; panjaur in North-East Tirhut. 
Another of his perquisites received at the time of sowing is called 
■^ST an^ur in Shahabad and '^^^ anjuri in Graya. He receives 
a further remuneration for keeping the cane-mill in order. This is 
■q-^T^-R-iT pachrawan or *rf ^x: bhdmwar in Shahabad, ^t^f^^rf kolhkarh 
in Patna, ^"^q§^^^ kolhkar in South Munger, and %l<!^»i|-^«<i^ 
kolhpachrdni in South Bhagalpur. In Saran he gets two rupees for 
each mill, and his remuneration is called 'sttt khdn. For repairing 
other implements he gets in Saran ^T^ sail, and a similar cess in 
Champaran and Tirhut is known as 'af^r^ kharihdni. In South 
Bhagalpur wf^ bhaunri is the general term used for his perqui- 
sites. In North-West Tirhut -^Tst khdn, and in North-East Tirhut 
'STii khan or ^WK; kamai (which means wages for any work done), 
are the wages for making a new mill. The grain actually 
given is ^t^ ddli, and amounts to from 10 to 30 sers. The 
fee for repair is df^i^z^ bighati, and is 4 annas per bfgha for iTt»??^ 



316 BlHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

morhan or first cuttings, and 2 annas per biglia for m^ khunti or 
second cuttings of the cane. 

1195. The weauer's perquisite.-This is in North- West Tirhut 
^T^ bani, and elsewhere ^siT bdna. 

1196. The shoe-maker's (^^mjx. cliamdr) perquisite. — This is wfsr^ 
hhdmwar to the west. In Graya and Shahahad, however, it is 'afc^l^ 
kharihani. It is ■^TT^ pal in Champaran and Tirhut, also **<I4; katnai 
and ■^^TT panjaura in North-East Tirhut. In the South-East it is 
nfoTT panja or Tt»5T bojha, and in Patna and Qaya ^nu^ mangni. 
ftitjt'^I T biyaua to the west and ^jt t^i to the east is the fee given to his 
wife for service as a midwife. 

1197. The sweeper's (fir^-aT mihtar) perquisite. — This also is 
^ft'^T'^ kharihani or ^fwn; kamai in Shahahad. In the south-east it is 
a sweeper's and not the shoe-maker's wife who officiates as midwife. 
A. sweeper in the south-east is ^T^ hari, and his wife is "^ifff hdrin. 
The fee paid her for her services is ^jr{ dat or ^ fl'^ii^ dat bhojiti. 

1198. The perquisites of the uillage accountant {-fZ'm^ patwdri) 
are many and various. In Patna and Graya if the tenant's lands are 
snTT^ nagdi he gets in Patna Zi sers per bigha, and in Graya 12i se7-s 
per plough. This is called 'RT Jisi mdngan, and is his recognised salary. 
He also gets a fee of one pice in the rupee per annum for 
answering a raiyat's inquiries ahout his rent. This is called ssj^rniT 
hujtdm. If the land is *(t<(«<dl bh&oli, he gets in. the same district, 
in addition to the above, ^^ noficha (also in Shahahad itf^^T 
nochiya) or " pluckings," which amount to Jth of a ser per maund. A 
similar fee is called «(«•<«« balkat in Saran. In Shahahad a villao-e 
accountant gets in the case of ajjfs^ nagdi lands a perquisite of i an 
anna in the rupee, called z^r^ takahi. In the case of «t^^ bhdicli 
rents he gets i a ser or a ser per maund, the first being called "^^ 
aseri, and the second %^ seri or ^■'cr^ serki. In the case of a general 
clearance of rents he gets a present of 8 annas or a rupee, called 
igTT^ift-^T^^ pharkatiydwan. In Tirhut this item is called ^BXT^itT 
pharkdna or '^ft^TTr pharikaim.. In South Hunger lands are principally 
sijr»^ nagdi, and the village accountant is a servant of the landlord and 
is paid by him, and gets nothing from the tenants. His pay is as 
follows. In the case of sRis^ nagdi tenures he gets a ^ittr mdngan of 
5 sers per bigha. When the land is »<ijfv<!n bhdoH he gets 2i 



nUES PAID BY TENANTS. 317 

sen per maund, and his pay is called ^f^'^^ ^nn^ dahiak mdngan. Ha 
also gets a irrs^nTT pharkdna of one pice per rupee in the case of a 
clearance of accounts. In South Bhagalpur the tenant gives the 
accountant a ^ neg of 3^ sers per maund. In most districts he 
charges a pice for every rupee for which he grants a receipt. This is 
called generally xf^^TiT rasiddna or ^f%i[T^T rasidawan, also qi ^WajH T 
kdbjdna in East Tirhut. ^rNPt ^^TK holi khelai or "li^^^ phaguahi, 
Kt^rni ^^^^X. do&t pujal, and ^XTUT "S^X durga pujai, are cesses levied 
by the accountant on the three main Kayasth festivals of the Hindu 
year. The ahove are the usual amounts of his fees, hut many of them 
vary from village to village. 

1199. Perquisites of the weighman. — See § 914. 

1200. The milage watchman (jrt-^ff gorait, ^^t^r^^^ kotwdl, or 
(when a Government servant) ^T=fi^^K clmuklddr) is sometimes paid by 
a grant of rent-free land ('sit't^^" jdg'tr), and hence he is called in South 
Hunger arr»?t^v^TX jaglrddr. When otherwise paid, his remuneration 
is called generally south of the Ganges ^T^^^r^ chaukiddri. In the 
north-west it is ^Fc^T*?t kharihdni, in North-East Tirhut sft^rr^ ^^ 
goraitak muth, and in South-East Tirhut vft^'^ goraiti. In Patna 
and Gaya he is sometimes paid in kind, and his fee is then called 
xft^S^j^l phasilana, and in Gaya also sff^ noncha. 

1201. This perquisites of the landlord. — In addition to his rent, the 
following customary cesses may he noted : — siT^TW godm in Patna, Gaya, 
and South Munger, ^'?s^^ hanhwaiya in South-West Shahabad, and 
Jit^n: gohar generally, are personal services rendered to the landlord 
by the tenants en masse. sfWfT hukumai or Hi<«4<ll*J pharmd'is are 
occasional demands of service or produce for special purposes. This 
in South Munger is called ^^<T madat, and in South Bhagalpur 
M ■<>'*< «ft hakmaiti. His perquisite of milk from his tenants' cows 
is in South- West Shahabad ^TT^ duhdo. Cesses paid on special 
occasions are generally called 'a^i^ salami, but there are frequently 
special names. E.g„ when a tenant's daughter is married, the 
landlord gets a fee called 'fttrr^^^T^ biydhddni, ^rrix^'HT sddiydt, ^f%«fTrr 
sadiyat,OT-^-^-[-^ sadiydna. In North-Bast Tirhut this is usually 
one rupee four annas at a girl's marriage, and ten annas at a boy's 
marriage, which is realised from every one except Brahmans, Kayasths, 
Bajputs, and Musalmlns. In South- West Shahabad it is Wf^^ra 
manricanch. In Tirhut and the east fviTlf dhingdn is a fee paid 



318 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



on the marriage of a daughter for the second time, and *ft'3itift hhojni 
is paid on the marriage for the first time of a boy or girl. The 
former cess is paid in cash, but the latter in kind ; e.g. in rice, pulse, 
or clarified butter. For other cesses paid by cowherds, see § 1151. The 
help given by the tenant in ploughing the landlord's lands is ^^ hari 
to the north and the west generally. To the east it is '^ft'^'C harihar, 
^fr^TT harihara, and vfX.^^ harihari. Local names are ^?IT^ sangaha 
in North-East Tirhut, TTJT hardi in Shahabad and South- West Tirhut, 
and ^<r^ harahi in Patna and Graya. The presents given to the landlord 
when he visits the village are ^^I5?t salami or (in Shahabad) •(-rt«<.i«iT 
najrdna. His fee when a house is built or sold is ^T^' chauth generally 
north of the Ganges, and also in East Tirhut ^T:.'%'\^jar chauth. In 
towns in Patna and South Hunger it is ^^?rT chauthait/a, and elsewhere 
simply ^^T^ salami. He collects cesses in the nature of a ground-rent 
from the resident artisans and traders in the village. These are called 
»itd<:»4il motarpha or f1c< ••«•"* t motharpha generally, •Rtfd«ll'^ kothiydri 
in Champaran and Tirhut generally, and ^s^ basurhi in East 
Tirhut. South of the Granges they are ^^#t dimnni, or (to the east) 
^^rr^ abudb. In Patna and Graya the former name represents a 
cess of the following description. 15 mans of grain, or thereabouts 
(according to village custom) is assumed (when rent is paid in kind) 
as the produce of one higha. For each bigha (or 15 maws) thus 
calculated of the tenant's share of the crop, the landlord takes a cess 
of 2 anas. In the case of lands paying cash rates, the cess is levied 
at from 2 anas to 9 pice on each bigha of land held, by the tenant. 
^^ pur is a fee of one rupee per loom paid by weavers. In 
South Hunger ^K^^ charsa is a cess paid by tanners. In North- 
East Tirhut t^i^'t keydU or f^T^ kiydli (also ^^T^raT barddna 
in Patna) is (or was) a transit-duty levied on cartmen for every 
load of grain they took. Sometimes it was levied at every place 
where they halted for the night. In the same tract the same name 
is also used for a tax levied on grain-sellers' weights. This last 
is called ^f^ kauri in the north-west, and ^fbr^iT ^^r^ malikdi chutki 
in South-Bast Tirhut. In Shahabad it is ^ur? baydi. In Gaya it is 
f^TT^T kirdya, and the corn paid is mt^x^ mdngni. In the south- 
east ?f<?^«JTd <a^5/an or ii^Tarrd tabjari is a similar tax levied on 
shopkeepers. 

1202. Eents are generally calculated in the old sicca rupees of 
Akbar, which are converted into current coin by adding exchange rates, 



DUES PAID BY TENANTS. 319 

called T5T ^TT^ batta mal and ^rr ^i"!'^ hatta kampani. The batta mdl 
is added direct to the rent in sicca rupees, and denotes the exchange 
rate between them and the Murshidahadi coin introduced in the year 
1773. In 1835 the introduction of the Company's rupee, IxV of which 
equalled -[l- of the Murshidahadi rupee, led to the imposition of a 
further rate of exchange, called batta kampani, which is calculated on 
and added to the rent calculated in sicca rupees plus the batta mal. 
Each of these rates of exchange is generally less than one anna 
per rupee. 

1203. Dues given for religious purposes.— The first fruits given to 
Brahmans are ft^si f^rfT*r bisiin pirit, and also (north of the Granges) 
f^Q'J ■^''^ bisun ans. To the west they are ^^^^ anganun or -^i^f^if 
angaundn. On the other hand first fruits set apart for house-gods 
(vfli 3ra^ bhumi ganes) or penates are ^>if agaun, or (in Shahahad) 
^^ir^K agbar, and (in Champaran) T^^^ rasuar. In South Hunger 
three small heaps (gr^ kuddi) are put aside on the threshing-floor. 
One is given to the Brahmans, and is called f%^ fViXfT bisun pirit ; the 
second is given to the ^i^^T munJiar of the vUlage, who is known as 
^■^ dehuri, and is called ^flT sa/idr; and the third, called 'V^ agaun, 
is set apart for the house-gods, and is consumed by the cultivator 
himself. In South-West Shahabad a small heap of grain is put aside 
for the village god (IV^^TT dihwar). This is given to the village 
milkman (iT^PC godr), who performs the worship of the god, and it is 
called fvsJX pithdr. In South Hunger ^'?vx:^ bahraiya, and generally 
^^57^ behri or ^'^JIT bahariya (all of which mean simply a subscrip- 
tion), are names for the subscription for the expenses of village worship, 
and ^f^"^^ dahialt is a similar cess of \\, and 'e^^ satcaiya of 1\, 
seers per maund. The grain set aside for beggars (^5^^ phaktr) are 
known as fv^T bhichchha or «W bhlkh amongst Hindus, and «j,<j^ 
ramli or ■<Ef*<,MT pliakirdna amongst Musalmans. The f^'^ ^^ sib ans 
is the portion set aside for religious mendicants (<j-^i41 sanydsi). 

1204. H/liscellaneous.—s^Nn puraunta is the fee paid by the 
members of a marriage procession to any person who does any work 
for them. In North- West Shahabad 10 sets per plough are taken 
each by the washerman (^t^ dhobi) and the blacksmith (^fl^TT: 
lohdr). This is called ^Kl jaura. In the same place ^^v^if kharwan is 
an armful of crop given to each of the following : — the blacksmith, the 
carpenter (wf^ barhi), the barber (sfT'HT nana), and the washerman ; and 
the %^T kera is a smaller bundle of crop given to each of the same four. 



320 . BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

Again ^5^ puri is three handfuls of crop given to the same four. In 
West Tirhut a similar cess is called «rT^ i^^^ pal paseri. 

1205. In Shahabad, and also in South Bhagalpur, ^ii ban 
is an allowance of one maund in twenty -one or twenty-five of crop given 
to the agricultural labourer. In South-West Shahabad the cowherd 
receives a certain share of the milk of the cows he grazes, which is 
called iiTTT bara. In South Munger this is t^F^t paraundha, and in 
South Bhagalpur ■qft'Tt parodho. Similarly ^3t^ttT athwdra {i.e. 
paid every eighth day) in Saran, MTK par in North Tirhut, vfsi 
hhanj in West Tirhut, and IKT para or ^f^^T duhiya in South Tirhut, 
is the milk given to the milkman as a fee for milking cows. ^<"<| ^ 
charwdhi is a fee paid to the herdsman for herding. It is also 
Mill chardi in Shahabad. ^^T'ft salami or 'm^.'^sTltilll hamar- 
kholdi is the term applied to the presents made to or demanded by 
a police-officer or Grovemment peon on entering a village, and the same 
terms are also applied to the presents made by the local police to the 
menial servants of magistrates and other high Government officials 
when in camp in their own district. In West Tirhut they are also 
called i;«li« indm. 



DIVISION IX. 



LAND TENURES. 



CHAPTER I.— TENURES. 

1206. The descriptions contained in this division do not pretend to 
be legal definitions of the tenures referred to. On the contrary, they are 
only to be taken as giving the popular ideas (always more or less indefinite) 
current among the villagers as to the nature of the tenures. 

Land tenures may be divided into — 

(1) Proprietary tenures. 

(2) Tenures intermediate between proprietary and cultivating 

ones. 

(3) Cultivating tenures. 



CHAPTER II.-PROPBIETARY TENURES. , 

1207. (1) Reuenue-paying tenures. — These are known everywhere 
as fsjffl^-p^ jimiddri, A very large landlord is, however, called a »rr^^rrsCT^ 
talukadar, and his tenure Tl<5i*l<,l^ tdlukaddri. This is the popular 
distinction in Bihar between the two names. Both tenures can be 
held in common and can be divided. When, in popular phraseology, it 
is wished to name a tenure which cannot be held in severalty, but is 
owned by one heir, the other heirs being given villages or pargaiias 
on which to subsist, it is called a Txm raj. In a farf^^f'^' jimidari (or 
«rr^T^T^ tdlukaddri) tenure the whole land is held and managed in 
common. The property itself is called faif»i ^TX'i' jimiddri, or f%^.f%«rci 
milkiyat if it is small, and cfT^^n taluToa if it is large. The rents with 
all other profits from the estate are thrown into a common stock, 
and after making the deductions to be noted further on. the balance 
is divided among the proprietors according to a fixed law or share. 
The deductions are the Government revenue and . other expenses. 
The Government revenue is generally ^itji'ti^lT^ mdlgujdri or 
T^'y-*! IX^ malyujdri, also ^Tz Idt and Kt^ rol in Tirhut and 
to the east, and ^r5i"nrr khajdna in North-East Tirhut. In Patna 

41 



322 BIHi.R PEASANT LIFE. 

and Q-aya it is also known as ^<!i<i«Cl kalatri. The other expenses 
are known as Ji're ^'PW gain kkarch generally, also j^m % <aKW 
game ge klvxrch or Jr^«if ^X?^ gawaihyan kharch in Tirhut. la 
Soiith.-'West Tirhut they are also ^^"^IT ^T^^ sdl'ma kharch. 
In Gaya (and East Tirhut optionally) they are ^"^ ^x^ dehi 
kharch, in Patna tt'Htkts'T'J ekhrajat, and in South Hunger jtk^^ 
Trx:i^T garhi kharcM. In South Bhagalpur they are ^^^t^^ banh- 
kharcha, which properly means embankment expenses. 

1208. A landlord is ftffir^TK/JwMrfar or *tt%^ w<z7jft; also some- 
times 'sri.'^'n: sarkar. Local names are ?if^ % STfK gdnw ke 
thdkur in South-West Shahahad, and ^^t gaunail generally in that 
district. When the tenure is held in joint property, the shareholders are 
called f^W^K hisseddr, &c., see § 1214. The GoTemment revenue 
is paid in by one of the body, called ^Jncr^x: lamarddr in Saran and 
H^^Tcrrt mokhtar in Tirhut and Patna. In Shahabad he is ^^^7^^ 
lambarddr. He is also known generally as rrf^fg^fT^Tx: tahsilddr, 
■mTyKK-^jm kdrparddj, or w=hafij^TT mokhtiydr. In Xorth-East Tirhut 
he is also known as fjn^^ix tipddr. The inferior proprietors are known 
as ?gvf^r?T JRlf^^ khurdiha mdlik north of Ganges, while south of 
the Ganges they are ^^TTX^T ^Tf^W khurdiya mdlik. In Patna they 
are known as g«i^l^ ^W^xjujwi hisseddr. 

1209. (2) Free grants. — These are known generally as fkfkit 
birit, and the holder as f^f^f^TT biritiha or f^ f< fl .^i< biritddr. These 
are general terms, and amongst them may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing : — 

(a) Granted for religious purposes.— These are known gener- 
ally as ^if^ sankalp, and are of different varieties, 
such as ^XTriT>7rT barmotar, for the worship of Brahma • 
f^ijif ^ bishunprit or f^si ^^t^j^t Ushun arpan, for 
the worship of Yishnu ; f^Ttm: sibotar, for the worship 
of Siva ; f%^t^ ^XTxpi kislmn arpan, iox the worship of 
Krishna, and so on. 

(J) ^(K^K.jdg-ir, ^to^ttst Idhhraj (rentfree), Jix^ mdphi, finr^ 
wimto- (at reduced rent), or f^%<i khilM. These are 
properly grants for warlike services. They are also 
(especially mx^jdglr) applied to the free grants of 
land for services made to the potter (^r^.^c kumhdr) 
watchman (Tft^jr gorait), and other viUage servants. 



INTEEMEDIATE TE>'URE. 323 

(c) A grant given to the family of a man killed in the Raja'a 
service in open fight. This is ^<.^j marwai in the 
vrest, and TKT^ marauti to the east. 

{d) A fifftiT birit may be either acquired by purchase, when 
it is known as 'aft'^i^n kkaridgi, or it may be given 
by favour, when it is called ^th inam or ^s i mi cT indtndi. 
Local names in such a case are 'axT'T khairat in Shah- 
abad, and ^^^^tt khushakat in South Bhagalpur. 

(e) ^Tvn khorish or w'l^'ct mokri (north of the Ganges), also 
^^■^^ palak (Saran), other local names being <Erti:T^ 
khoraki or -q-T^T^gMff imrwasti (South-East Tirhut) 
and ?rriri^TsT khdndan (North-East Tirhut). This is 
an assignment by a raja to a younger son or brother 
of a certain number of villages in the estate for 
subsistence for himself and his descendants for ever. 
On failure of descendants the grant reverts to the 
parent estate. This occurs in the case of a raj which 
cannot be divided. 



CHAPTER III.— INTERMEDIATE TENURE. 

1210. The principal intermediate tenure is that known as ^%^i^ 
thlkedari, in which the holder (s't%^TT thikeddr) contracts to hold the 
property at a fixed rental either for a certain term of years or until a 
sum of money {^X ^M'Tjar saman) advanced on usufructuary mortgage is 
repaid. In the former case it is also called ipr:^ ^NiT khushki thika, 
and in the latter tTf^a^ patautan in Shahabad, ir^Nf pataundn in the 
North-West and Tirhut, and generally ^^T^I 'TST'^T sadkaua pataua. 
A mortgage lease is T«rrTT ijdra or SJT VK^jf^ ^NiT jar peshgi thlka. 
See § 1487. 

1211. Among other intermediate tenures may be noticed the trii^ 
patni tenures, which form the subj eot of special laws. They may be briefly 
disoribed as estates created by a landlord by separating a portion of his 
estate and letting it in perpetuity at a fixed rent. Subdivisions of these 
tenures let on the same principle are called ^V4d«^ darpatni, and these 
last are sometimes again allotted into smaller portions, called <A'<d««r t 
slpatni. The holder of ^tni lands is called a ^KtS^^t^jK. patnidar. 



324 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

1212. A tenure which may he either intermediate or cultivating, and 
which may be noticed here, is Wl ■*<;?) mokarari, or tenure in perpetuity 
at a fixed rent. In some parts of the country these are also popularly 
known as Fy«t-A sikmi tenures, which usually mean under-tenures 
held by a cultivating raiyat. 

1213. In Champaran f^w^^ff sikmi tenures are described as 
dependent proprietory taluks paying land revenue through the landlord 
who is responsible for it, and not into the Government Treasury 
direct. Concerning f^^iW^ sikmi rents in Gaya, see §§ 1225, 1226. 



CHAPTER IV.— SHARES AND SHARERS. 

1214. A share in a village is f%^T hissa and also (in Tirhut and 
the west) ^^^tt bahhra. The subdivision of a village held by a pro- 
prietary body is known as ^rft patti or ^^J^a takhta, also ^t^R thok 
north of the Ganges and ^nr phat in Gaya. A shareholder is 
f^%^T'^ hissedar or gf^i^^^^ sarikddr ; also ^^XT^-K bakharddr to 
the west, -qfa^TT patiddr in Tirhut. The proprietor of a half share 
is called ^fwJIT adhii/a north of the Ganges, and -"^^^t^ ddheddh 
in South-West Shahabad. The inferior shareholders are called 
^K«fH'^ khurdiha, &c., as described in Chapter II. v^ patti is 
also used to mean the principal share in a village, which may 
contain several f^^r^R^ sikmi or subordinate shares. The shares 
of a brotherhood are v^fz bhaibdnt generally, or in Patna and 
South Hunger v^ ^fs bhaiya bant. In the west they are also vw9 
bhaiwadh. A father's share is ^tpg' bapam, also ^ ij.^^ baphans in 
Saran, ^xjtz^ bajmuti in North-East Tirhut, and or^ j'addi in West 
Tirhut. An elder brother's share (which according to popular 
belief was larger than the share of the younger brothers before the 
institution of the English law-courts) is ^sg' jethans, also b }a '.y-.q- 
jethhans in Saran, and in North-East Tirhut ^^cfi- (not ^^^) 
Jethauti. The Government revenue is ^t i^.jj<hi<^ mdlgujdri, &c., as 
described in Chapter II. The half-yearly instalment is known as 
^^T^T adhkhar or ^v^x adhkar north of the Ganges, also as ^^f^i 
athaniya or '^aa'^ athinni generally. In South Bhagalpur it is ^T^^ra 
f^ adhkar kist. The distribution of the revenue over the sharers in 
villages held by a brotherhood is in South- West Shahabad ^^ bher. 
Elsewhere., a periphrasis is used, such as fr^T ^fk^J^- hissa patiddri. 



CULTIVATING TENURES. 325 

A proprietor by purchase is tifft^TC khariddr, and also (north of the 
Ganges) ^^x: baiddr. 



CHAPTER v.— CULTIVATING TENURES. 

1215. A cultivator is known as '^WT^ asdmi,x.^n raiyat,''^'^-[ 
parja, or *i*si.*K kastkdr. In Patna he is also ■'ff^^lK potedar. A 
tenant with rights of occupancy is ^^^5^ maurusi {litemlli/, hereditary) 
or^«^^ kadimi (ancient), also %'^ dehi (resident) in Patna and Graya, 
and 5J^^ jdddi (ancestral) in Shahabad. A tenant at fixed rates is 
T^^'tT^ istamrdri, but this distinction is little observed. Hardly any 
cultivators, and very few landlords, know the difference between a 
tenant at fixed rates and one with a right of occupancy. A cultivator, 
without rights of occupancy is known as nx vt^^ gair maurusi, 
also as .Tff^ pdhi {literally, ' foreign ' or ' non resident ') in Patna and 
G-aya, and T3fx:^Tji^ A^natj?? (;iiem%, acquiring by purchase) in Shah- 
abad. In North-East Tirhut he is 'rr^ ^-"m^f^ hdl updrjit'{neydy 
created). These names are interesting as showing what cultivators 
themselves consider to constitute a non-occupancy tenant. 

1216. In Shahabad, especially along the south bank of the Ganges, 
there is a class of tenants called j j<»i-di<.K gudashtdddr or ^^T^nc 
gudastdddr. They axe generally Eajpiits and Brahmans whose ancestors 
conquered the country, a;nd who, while serving under the landlords, for 
whom they were always ready to fight, were considered entitled to a 
privileged position. A y<in.«ir gudashta or y<^*5ir gudasta tenure is held 
at a rent fixed for ever,* and is alienable without the consent of the land- 
lord. It is, in fact, a freehold ' subject to a rent charge. The holders 
seldom sublet, and are a body of peasant proprietors, very prosperous as 
compared with other tenants, and furnishing thousands of recruits to the 
army. Another similar tenure is known as jflrr gora. In this the rent 
is fixed for ever in a holding with specified boundaries, without reference 
to the quantity of land. The rent is not variable even if the land be. 
found to be more or less than the quantity roughly estimated at the 
original settlement. It is alienable without consent of the landlord. 

1217. In some estates there is a kind of head tenant, who 
acts as an intermediary between the proprietor and the cultivator.! 
He collects the rents and receives in return some petty privileges and 
immunities. He is known generally as fl^.cff mahton, and in 

* This point of fixed rents is denied by .some landlords. 



326 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE, 



Patna and Qaya as •<'<s»crt^rf i mahto&ra. In Ssran he is also 
known as f«4.<i^ tipdar, in North-East Tirhut as Wl^^*r mokadam, 
aad in South Bhagalpur Wf < manrar. Generally, however, the head 
tenant is called sfav^^iK jethraiyat, and he usually performs the 
above duties. The high-caste cultivators are known as »t<<i«<.| tB 
asrdph, local names being ^x?"B7 surpha in Patna, s^nrrsT surphdn in 
Gaya, and -^ ^^?«^ bar admi north of the Ganges. In South Bhagal- 
pur, the quarter of the village where such live is called ^fj^t^ri bahutola. 
The remission of rent for such high-class tenants is m\^ mdphi gener- 
ally north of the Ganges, also ^^Ta'V chhuti or ^^h^^ kamsare in 
East Tirhut. In South- West Shahabad and Gaya and South Hunger 
it is T^fTPW redet, in the rest of Shahabad *t^t^^ marauati, in Patna 
^^ Icami, ??nF inam, or "Z^V ildm, and in South Bhagalpur ^^5 mdph. 
The low-caste tenants are kaown as XX^ afrft' rdrjdti, s^^ nlch, or wtz 
•aYsT chhot log. They are also known as T^l'^ rajil in South- West 
Shahabad, ^fl^^ kamlna in the rest of that district, KV^ *rt^ rdr b/ior in 
South Bhagalpur, ♦Jltji.*'^ solkanh in Tirhut, and T^M raiydn in Gaya. 
A proverb about them is — 

Kdeth kichhu lelen delen, Barahman hhiyaulen. 
Dhdn pan paniyaulen, au rdr jati latiyauUn. 

— A Kayasth does what you want on payment, a Brahman on 
being fed, paddy and betel on being watered, but a low-caste man on 
beiug kicked. 

1218. Cultivators may also be divided into resident and non- 
resident. The resi dent cultivator is «i| <.•«!•< chliaparband, also fs^ dihi in 
North-East Tirhut, ^^ dehi in Patna and Gaya, and TT^ ^W bdri bast in 
the south-east. A non-resident cultivator is ttp^ ^rra pdhi kdst or ^r^ 
pdhi (foreign), a word fi-equently confounded with ^n^ pal {literally, a 
foot ; hence used to mean an under-tenant) . The word T[\ pal has almost 
fallen out of use now, but it is still understood, and has led to much 
confusion in laws and treatises on the rent-law, rendering it possible 
that the rights and liabilities of the under-tenant have been transferred 
to the non-resident cultivator. In South Bhagalpur the non-resident 
cultivator is known as 'T'^T paihdr. The ^^^ dohat or ^^J«i dokta 
cultivator differs from the TR^ pdhi cultivator in that he keeps up two 
establishments and cultivates in two different villages, while the ^T^ 
pdhi cultivator does so only in one. 



RENTS. 327 

1219. Below the ordinary cultivator there ia sometimes an 
imder-tenant, who is known as fV*i«J\ aikmi or gn««n<^ kurthauli, also as 
^ a i«lT<aT petawala in tho north-west and ^ f^^<ft '^prt^ koliaiti asami 
in East Tirhut. It is said that to the south-east in the case of a 
fni?«^^ kurthauli tenure the rent of the under-tenant is fixed at a 
money rate, but is paid in grain at the market rate of the grain at the 
time of payment. Elsewhere the rent of under-tenures is generally 
paid in kind. 



CHAPTER VI.— RENTS. 

1220. Rent is ^Ji'Pi fo^aw. North of the Ganges and in South- 
East Bihar it is also ''Jt«rr pota, with an optional variant M\r[pot in 
South-Bast Tirhut ; another name current north of the Ganges is 
V^^^srx^ nmlgvjari. Eent rates are ^^ dar, g^ save, ot VK% sarah; 
also ^t^'i^p^^ darhandi or ■•«<'^«<i»^ sarahbandi. '^<^% \ chukaua north of 
the Ganges is rent payable at a fixed rate. 

1221. Eent paid in cash is known as vjm mal, and that paid in 
kind as ^^i ain. When rents are paid in cash, the tenure is known as 
ifi'^ ruigdi, and also in East Tirhut as UsTPT khap. When paid in kind, 
it is known as ««(.<siT mankhap or «rhrs%^ bhaoli. In *l«i«yM mankhap or 
*T«T»a^t«n manthika, ■s'TT hunda or irsp^isT manhunda, the rent is a 
fixed quantity of grain paid as rent, irrespective of the proportion 
it bears to the whole crop. This custom is current principally in 
Tirhut and Champaran. In Patha it is called v^ ^'^t'ra mani 
handobast, and a variety in which a certain number of maunds of 
cleaned rice per bigJia is taken as rent is known as "^ilTT 
chauraha. These tenures are principally adopted by landlords when 
letting their foj^m jirdt or home-farm lands. In WT«(«<^ bhaoli a 
certain fixed proportion of the whole crop is taken by the landlord. 
This division is called ^zrs; batdi, &o., and a full description will be 
found in §§ 902 and ft. 

1222. A tenure which has been noted in Patna is the ^^pr^ 
Jiastbudi, derived from the Persian Jiast, 'is,' and bud, 'was,' and which 
means literally 'the-is-and-the-was tenure.' In this the rate of rent is 
fixed at so much per bigha, but rent is only charged for so much area as 
is actually bearing crops at the time of harvest. Thus, suppose a 
piece of land measuring one bigJia is cultivated, but for some reason 



328 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

Csuch as inundation, destruction by insects, &c.) the area of land 
actually under crops when ready for harvest is found to be 16 kathas, 
then the rent of four kathas is remitted and the rent for 16 kathas 
only is demanded. It thus closely resembles the utbandi tenure of 
Bengal. Compare § 1229. 

.1223. 'era ^ify^ hdl hdsili tenures also exist in Patna and Gaya. 
In these the cash rent is determined on the spot after inspection of the 
existing crops on the land. A very similar tenure is known as ng^^z 
balkat. In this the landlord's men, accompanied by the tenant, inspect 
the crops when ready for harvest, and fix a cash rent by estimating 
roughly the quantity of produce and its value. 

1224. A peculiar tenure, which is principally adopted in lands 
which are generally subject to inundation, is known as ■<t(<,i<{^ jaid&di. 
It is also adopted where the land is extremely bad and the prospect of 
a crop is uncertain. The principle is that the full rent agreed upon 
is paid on the land in any year in which any crops whatever ^however 
small) is grown upon it. In any year in which no crop is produced 
upon it, no rent is paid. 

1225. The tenures* and rent system in the district of Gaya are 
worth noting. Four-fifths of the cultivated lands are let on the ht^'^ 
bhaoU system, as has been described in sections 902 and following. In. 
the lands held on the •RT'^ waj^rft system the rent conditions are some- 
what peculiar. The nagdi tenure is of two descriptions, — fg^r^jft sikini 
or f»j.<|i.<?t shikmi, and f^qia' cMkafh or ^^3 chakath, 

1226. A ftt^R^ shikmi tenure is described by Babu Bhup 
Sen Singh as that under which the landlord has not any power 
of enhancement, irrespective of the period for which the tenant 
might have been in possession. The money-rent is not fixed upon 
the land, but upon the crops actually grown, varying with the 
nature of the soil and the class of tenants, whether, ^igli caste 
(^^^^BTT surphan) or low caste (t'sI'R raiyan), the former having a 
lower rate to pay than the latter. The lands generally under this 
tenure are the.f^'^TH dihdns lands, or the best land lying on the borders 
of the inhabited portion of the village (see § 784), and the crop grown 
thereon pays a higher money rent than the same crops grown on fields 

* Concerning the tenures in Gaya, I hare to acknowledge my indebtedness to 
an admirable note prepared by Babu Bhup Sen Singh, Grovernment Pleader of 
that district. 



RENTS. 329 

more distant from the village site. The same shikmi field also pays a 
rent varying with the crop. Thus if a Brahman tenant planted it with 
opium poppy in one year and with an ordinary spring crop next year, 
he woidd pay a higher rate of rent the first year than the second ; 
while a low-caste tenant would have to pay for both of them a higher 
rent than the Brahman. Every tenant in a village has a fixed quantity 
of shikmi land partly at the higher and partly at the lower crop rate. 
If the tenant grows opium poppy upon a bhdoli and not a shikmi field, 
he pays for one harvest hhdoli rent, and is liahle also to pay nagdi rent 
for the poppy at the rate fixed in the village for the particular class 
of tenants to which he belongs for poppy grown under such 
circumstances. According, however, to other authorities the rate of rent 
of these shikmi tenures is unalterable, but an extra rate or cess of so 
much per higha is put on when special crops, such as opium or sugar-cane, 
are grown, and is taken off again when these special crops cease to be 
grown. Compare § 1231. 

1227. The f^^ra chikath or ^^ra chakath tenure is, according to 
Babu Bhup Sen Singh, a temporary settlement of waste or unculti- 
vated but culturable lands for limited terms of years, at nominal rents, 
for the purpose of reclaiming them or bringing them under cultivation. 
This tenure is governed by the terms of the contract between the 
parties. If one term be not sufficient to render the lands fit for 
proper cultivation, the settlement is renewed from time to time till they 
become capable of yielding full crops. They are then settled as bhaoli 
or shikmi lands, according to their quality. In chikath lands no right 
of occupancy accrues by custom, and the rent is capable of enhancement 
on the expiry of the term of the settlement. 

1228. According to Babu Bhup Sen Singh when a summer or 
^If^TT jethiM crop is grown on bhdoli land, an additional rate of 20 
annas per bigha is charged as rent, the local bigha equalling 2i Bengal 
bighas. 

1229. In South-West Shahabad, when in rice lands, the tenant 
pays only for the land under rice, and not for any land which may be 
fallow, the phrase ^^^ m.-fd uthti parti is used. Compare § 1222. 

1230. A remission of rent on account of deficient produce is 
^■PB maph north of the Ganges, and also ^-i^ chhutti in East 
Tirhut. South of the Ganges it is sfT^ nabud, or, when made on 
account of inundation, »TT,^ garki. 

42 



330 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

1231- Special crops, such as tobacco or poppy, on which special 
money rents are always assessed, are known as sw»^ jabdi or ^j'^swV 
japti. Cf. §1226. 

1232. Of the spontaneous produce of a village, »(T»?F^ bankar is 
the produce from forest land, wood, gums, &c. In Shahabad it is 
also called ^^ fw^ft^ banchhioU. ^(^^xjalkar is the produce derived 
from lakes, streams, &o. ; and ts^t^^tk phalkar is the produce of fruit. 
fn^tK wr^ sikar mahi to the west is fishing rights. 

1233. Fields situated in one vUlage and included in the area 
of, and belonging to the proprietors of another village, are called 
»ft«l^'^ motalke, or (in Nort-hEast Tirhut) WT^^ Wuka. 




No 






<9 



1 

§ 



'^ 



DIVISION X. 



THE NATIVE HOUSE. 



CHAPTER I.— THE NATIVE HOUSE. 

1234. A house is ir^isr makan or ■^ ghar. Local variants of 
the latter are TnKr^ gtrhi in Gaya and Saran, '^ ghaur in South-East 
Tirhnt, VXjghara in South Hunger, and fk^ grihi, ^Koghara, or -gttffharo 
in South Bhagalpur. A name current in Shahabad is s^ar^ bakhri. 
An enclosure containing seuerai houses is north of the Ganges '^^^ 
haweli or ^t^ habeli, and south of it ^TffT hdta. South of the Ganges 
and in Saran ^%^ haweli or "^^^ Mbeli generally means the female 
apartments. A palace is tJ^^'^K dhmrahar or ^X7'?T dharhar, as in the 
proverb ^a'^ ^^ »rT, ^l^TT? ^T^^x: suti khar tar mpnai dharhar, — 
he sleeps on grass and dreams of palaces. A hut is sfifiri^ jhompra 
or »fif TjT^ jlwmpri," ^ifvT hhomp, ^M.^T khompra, 'afq^ khompri, or 
^^X^ palani. ^^ kuti or fii't kutti is the hut of a religious mendicant 
( TB'B'tTi'^Ai?-). Other names used north of the Ganges are »ra wza^A 
generally, and wf^^fT mathiya to the west, ^rei^ asthal to the 
north-east, and ojjif jagah or ^^^TT akhralia to the south-east. 
^T marai, rc^k. mahral, or *rct; mara'i, is a grass hut, and m^ mdnro, 
&c., (see section 1307) is the hut in which a marriage ceremony is 
conducted. A little hovel or hut is north of the Ganges ?ftf%gT gohiya. 
South of the Ganges it is in Patna and Gaya 'i^^ maruka or ^fj 
kurha, in Shahabad ^J^ tdti or ^K^T^^ harhaughar, and in' South 
Bhagalpur 3T^ dhdko or vtx?^ morka. Th\»^ sirki is a hut or tent 
made of reeds, as in the proverb Hj^*"**! Jr* %^rf% «nfsr, <rtfk ^ ^ 
^^rr?^ infi, f%^^ ^^t^^ t'sw 'JT ^kt, ^t^ 'rrf 'rs tt^ ^ji^tt sirki 
ek delanhi tdni, tdhi her man del pdni, sirki uthdbaik rahal na bera, dgu 
ndth na pdchhu pagha, — he pitched his hovel and it began to rain, nor 
could he get an opportunity for striking it ; he was (like an ass) without 
nose-ring or tether. A ruined house or enclosure is «N dih or 'afr^^ 
kkanrhar. A hut in the forest is north of the Ganges ^ITST pdjha. 



332 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFK. 



and south of it ^^■^ ht chanchar gJiar . in Gaya, ^f^^T^rr ■^ chdnch- 
tcdla g/iar in South Bhagalpur, 22^5^ tatghar in South Hunger, and 
»?^T^ marhhi in South Bhagalpur. 

1235. Straw huts used by the poor are A^Vi . talaughar north 
of the Ganges, and ^v^ ^ff^ kdhi pos south of it. In Shahabad 
they are also called <li^ srr dochra, and in South Bhagalpur ^^ 
^< kharo ghar. They are also very generally known as ^'g^ ^ 
WT phus he ghar over the whole Bihar tract. A masonry house 
is xrsT pakica or •«fNrJ«rT pokhta. When built of stone it is called 
in Shahabad ^f<s.f^ chandni. When built partly of bricts and 
partly of mud, it is sf^ ^r^ kacMha pakka or ss^ ''rar kaneha pakka. 
In Shahabad it is, however, ^r^ kaneha or ^f^T kaneha. A house 
built entirely of mud is ^r^ ka^hcha ; it is also to the west ^aTH khdmi 
and to the east v^ ^x bhu ghar. 

1236. When a house has three openings, it is finri^T tindara or 
^^nt iedra ; with twelve" openings, it is ^T^^ bardari or ^< '^ «4.'C ^ 
barahdari. But these terms are not much used except south of the 
Ganges, from and including Patna westwards. A house provided with 
lattices is sn^«<.K jdlddr or «T^^TT jaliddr. A house with nine 
apartments is in Patna and Shahabad s^Tasr nauratan. Eooms in 
a native house are generally nine cubits long by five cubits wide. Such 
rooms are called 'H^^'B naupancham. srr^T hd^a or ^kt dera is a dwelling 
or lodging-house, and f«<si'=l«< khilwat a house used as a private 
ohapel by Musalmans. 



CHAPTER ir._PARTS OF A HOUSE. 

1237. The courtyard.^This is ^d=JW Sngan, ^n^ angnai, or 
(prinoipaUy in Patna and Gaya) ^jfirz^T angna; also in South Hunger 
P^^ engna. In South-East Tirhut it is also called i^T dera. The 
space m front of a house is '^r^n: agudr or ^g^^ agudra; also 
^^r^ agwd» m Shahabad, ^g^"^ agutti in Patna and Saran, and 
^^'^n^ agudni in Patna and the south-east. The space behind it 
IS ft^TT y^cMt ^ar or (g enerally in the oblique cases) f^^^xt pichhudra, 
or to the west Tr^^rn: pachhudr or (generally in the obUque cases) 
TTf^^ pachhudra. It is also ^i^ pichhut to the west, f*rf^ pichhutti 
in Patna and Saran, and T^f^^n^ pichhudni in Patna and the south-east. 

1238. The vestibule or outer entrance room.-Thi, is ^tt duar 
crt^K dodr generally. It ie also ^ rf«m north of the Ganges, 



PARTS OF A HOUSE. 333 

and ^^5^ duhari or ^ *«R*) T duariya in Patna and Gaya. Another 
name current in Patna and the east is ^^^ dehri. 

1239. The inner entrance /-oom.— This is the room in which the 
men of the family sit and meet outsiders. It is called <(qiH dal&n. 
It is also named ^JTT^ dogdh in South-West Shahabad and ^kY^i 
darokha north of the Q-anges. In Patna «cl^rrf dogah means a cattle- 
shed. In North-West Bihar ^'^ dumunhan is a somewhat similar 
room, but opening both to the outer world and to the inner apart- 
ments. A sitting-room generally is ■^^7?rt baithka. 

1240. The upper story. — This is ^t^r kotha, or in the south- 
west ■'Tas^f patahudn. 

1241. The under-ground story. — This is k^istt takhana or <i^- 
^TiiT tahkhdna. Other optional names are ^^^'^ bhunjabra or rnr^rr 
tarahra in Patna, Gaya, and the south-east. 

1242. The oeranda.— This is -^mx.! osdra or ^"1<].'<,I osra, with 
variants ^"fJT^ osdri in South- West Shahabad, 's^t^t usra in G^ya, 
and ^flvr^t osfo in South Bhagalpur. It is also called WHJ^T'f sdebdn 
and in Shahabad Tt^ dhdba. 

1243. The sitting-platform. — This is "^fnTT chautra generally. 
Other optional names are 'g^ciTrr chabutra and firiBT pinda in Patna 
and the south-east, and ^^ ota in Patna, Gaya, and Saran. 

1244. The roof.— The roof or ceiling is ^rr ch/iai. It is also ^ts 
chhdt south of the Ganges, ^mt chhatta in Gaya, and wrn1 chhata in 
South Bhagalpur. A thatched roof is ^FT^f?r chhduni, wi^ chauni, ^rr=% 
chhdnh, 'SfT'^ chhdnhi, or »fN?rr chhanhiya in North-West and South 
Bihar. It is also generally WHT chhappar, with an optional variant 
^TP^ chhapri in the south-west. Another name current in Tirhut is 
■qiT char. If it is a simple thatch without tiles, it is specially called 
sjz thdt. A thateher is *i<l4?t gharami or ^Ifii^TK chJiaunihdr north 
of the Ganges, and his work is WT^^ chhduni In Patna and Gaya 
he is ^firrr^ sutihdr, and to the south-east 'W^ sff^c^T gJiar chhariya. 

1245. When a thatch is only a "lean-to" on one wall, it is 
known as jr^l^raT ekpaliya to the west. In Tirhut it is jr^n^T^ 
ekchdri, and to the south-west jr^.vcrrTT ekchdra. In Patna, Gaya, and 
(optionally) the south-west it is i)<*««;T!TT ekchhapra. If it rests on 
both walls with a ridge pole in the middle, it is 3itMf^*jl dopaUya to 
the west and ^^^TT dochdra in Champaran and to the east. In Patna 



334 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



it is xRTT^ 2}aldni, and in Gaya and (optionally) South Munger ?[t*qn:r 
doehhapra. In Shahabad another name current is <^^.i;t dochra. A 
roof composed of four triangular thatches meeting in a point at the 
top is called ^rTTT chaupdr. When there are more than one thatch 
in a roof, each thatch is called 'liKJSRT pharka or ^mipalla. Also in the 
case of two thatches the front one is called north of the Ganges 
ni^ If ■^^z agut ke that, and the rear one TTfrf ^ ^r^ pachhut ke that. 
The thatching along the ridge is ^'^T^ kochdni, or in Gaya sffTT doga. 
A small thatch put on the top of a wall to save it from rain is '< < . ^|' | 

parchhatti or '^^IT'*^ uparchJiatti north of the Ganges, and south of it 
1^T?fT?t parehlmtti (with a soft {). Other local names are *|.n chhauni 
(North-Bast Tirhut), WT^^ chltapri (Tirhut generally), and MH.^iTf 

panchhatti in Patna. 

1246. To rethatoh a roof is ^Itjt otab or s^H^ ^nc^ nautJmt karab. 
The yearly repairs to a tiled roof are wff^ pheraunti in the south-west, 
and elsewhere XsTT^^t %Tt? khapra pherab. The grass put on a roof to 
make it water-tight is ^^ra-^sr phatkan in Saran, if T^T chhdban in Cham- 
paran, and ^^^ chhauni or cTKKT tarera in Patna, Gaya, and the south- 
west. In Tirhut it is ^^.t chlmran, and in the south-east W(X^ chharan. 
Mud used for the same purpose is fir^rrrr gildwa. The repairs to a tiled 
roof which leaks are fl^siT ^^''^ chuana marab in Soutb-West Shahabad, 
itV^ toiya in the rest of that district, feM«*i^ tipkdri in Gaya, 
and 2'!^^ mT^ tapka marab in Patna. 

1247. The fireplace. — ^This is "^:WT ehulha generally, local variants 
being "^^ chulh in Shahabad, '^;^ chulhi in South-East Tirhut, and 
•^(•^"t chhulho in South Bhagalpur. In Bast Tirhut 'f;^ chulh is a fire- 
place with two orifices, and ^iT5fT kaulha one with one. In South- 
West Tirhut this last is called p-^^WT ekaulha. The mouth of the 
fireplace is called ^T munh, or sometimes '^^tk dudr south of the 
Ganges. In North-East Tirhut H«i.«K chinmdr is the raised earth 
platform on which the fireplace is. made, and on which food is cooked, 
while "^^BT chauka is the similar platform smoothed for a Hindu to 
eat from. s^^lT thauna to the west is a raised platform on either side 
of the fireplace for receiving pots for straining off rice-water. When 
the ground is simply smoothed for eating from, it is called ^^x thahar, 
or in East Tirhut alx thdmo. ■^KT or ^^rrsr dra is a cuphoardin the wall 
at a man's height from the groimd, in which cooking-pots are placed at 
night, 'fl^^'i'^ borsi is the moveable fireplace used hy jewellers and by 
villagers (especially females) to warm themselves in winter. In North- 



PAET8 OF A HOUSE. 335 

East Tirliut it is ^Itb' boras, ■gr: ghur is a hole dug in the ground 
filled with straw and sweepings and lighted in the evening as a fire to 
warm oneself at. It is also called ^<jt or ^^^ kaur in the west.* 
The iron or earthen moveable fireplace is ■^Ji^ angaithi. A similar 
one used by Jewellers is ■^jtsT angaitha. An earthen pot for holding 
fire is in Gaya v,t^^k mutpar, and in Shahabad ^z^x mentahar or ^fx 
paura. 

1248. The holes on the top of the fireplace, on which the pots 
are placed, are called ^sft' anchhi or ■^fwf anchhiya ; also in South- 
West Shahabad ^^t aila. They are also called ff^nr chulhiya in East 
Tirhut. "When there are places for four pots, it is known as a ^vf^qf 
■^^^T charanchhia chulha, or in South-West Shahabad as a ^^ "sf^fr 
charaila chulha. The paxtitions between the holes are ■gTTT puta, ^'m 
putta, OTiS'^putti. Also j^ ^ms<« in South-East Tirhut, and gfiniT 
putiya in South Hunger. The cooking-house is amongst Musalmans 
^^V^ ^T^ habarchi khaiwi ; amongst Hindus it is wfTTT ^K rasoiya 
gha/r ; also h^it^ g^: bhansa ghar in Patna and the east. In East Tirhut 
it is Wl^ ^K bhanas gJiar. The portion of the cooking-room set apart 
by a partition for cooking purposes only is called "^^fT^ chulhani or 
'^^y^ chuhdni. The other portion is known as vv^ vx mdnjh ghar m. 
Saran and South- West Tirhut, as flf^ ■^ mdnh ghar in Shahabad, and 
as «rr=€f kJionhi in North-East Tirhut. 

1249. The door. — A doorway is ^^tt dudr, ^t^nr dodr, ^^t^ 
duari, '5[<.«(MI darwdja, ^T^JTooiT darwajja or (in Patna, Gaya, and the 
south-east) ^^T«9T darauja. A door is ^^t^ kenwdri, or in East Tirhut 
%qTf kewdr, '^^f^ kehwdnri, W^fs' kenwdiir. The main doorway is ^^^ 
^X^T^rr sadar darwdja ; also fsi*^^^ niksdr to the west, and ftdctii^ 
nikds in East^ Tirhut. In South-East Bihar it is ^^^ «^^<l<i< l samukh 
daroja. A gate is ^ST^^* phdtak. A side door or window with lattices 
is f^X>^ khirki ; also ^t"^ darainchi in Patna and Gaya. «qf^ 
bhawdnri to the west and in West Tirhut, ^^^^Kl bJiambhra in East 
Tirhut, and to the west ^vf ^ darinchi, is a hole pierced in a waU to give 
light and air. In South Hunger it is wn'^KT bhamra, and in South 
Bhagalpur ^^T bhonra. In Patna and Gaya it is err^-^jir tdbddn. ^^ 
mukka or 'ffNsT monka, and in Champaran "^^r^f andhdri, is an earthen pot 
fixed in the wall for holding pice, &c. The leaves of the door are 

* Compare the proverb gT 'srcp?, \T. ?ciT^ gharjarainki ghur butdw, — when 
his house is on fire he puts out the ghur, i.e. in many difficulties he grapples with 
the least. 



336 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

^f^ palla, or in Shahabad Tfj^updla, and the strip of wood nailed on 
one leaf to cover the chink is t^ beni or ^Isi^t beniydn. In South 
Bhagalpur this latter is tTT bena. The cross-pieces across the leaf of 
the door to hold the boards composing it together are ^rsiT bdta or 
vm batta. There are generally four of them. 



1250. The door-frame is ^r*3 chaukath. The top bar or lintel 
of this is ^n.O*T uprauta or (in Tirhut) «T«r chhdt. The bottom bar 
or threshold is ^f«PiiTT latmara, <«(«(•»' <«^ htmarwa, or ^ra^^xT Jatklwra. 
Sometimes a second outer door-frame is added for the sake of ornament. 
This is called ^l'? &ah or ^T^ dasaurhi, and such a double door- 
frame is said to be ^t^K;T dohra or ^t^^t^tt sdhwah or -^a [^ ^^3 
dasaurhi cimukath. In contradistinction from this, the single doorway 
is ^T^ sada or jr^r^ix;! eHahra. The pivot used as a hinge is -^ ehur 
or (in Patna ^:^ chut). In South- West Shahabad it is ^^ churh. 
A similar kind of hinge is in Gaya >fiTi*Tz jliankaut. The wooden 
bar used for fastening the door is fWl' killi, and also (to the 
extreme west) "^tt^ a9'a>'> ^tt^ dgal, or V(J|.<^ agri. In South- West 
Shahabad it is s<st danda. A short bar fastened by a pin to, and 
revolving on, one leaf of the door, and falling on a nail fixed on 
the other leaf, is f^rat billi or ft^RTI bilaiya. The nail is called »raT^ 
indkri. A European door-bolt is f**.**!^ chhitkani or f^d ' fW ^ 
chhitkini. The heavy door-bar sliding back into a recess in the waU 
is"W^ Scwror'^'^ benra. South of the Ganges ^e'^'^ dlienki, or in 
Shahabad "x"^ dhenka, and in the south-west of that district ^^ 
^^Awn, is a perpendicular bar sliding down from a recess in the top 
of the door-frame. ^K«^T gJiarka (in South Hunger) is a kind of bolt. 
The door-lock is ffi^T tdla, and the key fi^ kunji, '^x^ chdbhi, or 
■Wt^"^ chhorauna. The bolt of the look is «^^^r hurka or (in Shahabad) 
m\xjhar. In South Bhagalpur sx^nrr hurka also means a piece of wood 
fastening the two door planks behind. When a screen or hurdle, which 
is ^T^ tdti or Z"^ tatti or (to the west) 's^k thatar, is used for a door 
the spar that supports it inside is"W^ benr or^^T benra. In Tirhut it 
is also ^X\^ berdthi, ■^K\i\ bardthi, or (to the east) ^^[\^ bendthi. In 
South-Bast Bihar it is"^^!^ benrdthi or "f^Ts^f arkhar, and in South- 
West Shahabad f^«^T benwra. The straw buffers tied along the two 
door-posts, against which the edges of the hurdle rest, are *f^a nwkh 
or fl^WT mokha. 

1251. The wall.-K wall is f^Tx: diwdr or ^ bhit. Sometimes 
the Hindi forms ^T^ ditcdl or ^vn devodl are used. The foundations 



PARTS OF A HOUSE. 337 

are ^^ two, and also in Patna and the south-east ^T^T daiea. The straw 
mixed with earth for building a mud wall is m^x pacJiar, or in Saran 
^T«rir dlan. The lumps of damp mud used in building a wall are 
nfff^r londa or ^fvr dJwndha in Patna, Gaya, and to the west. To the 
east they are iff «^ gondi; also %'ft c/jepj in Champaran, "^'sn cAaMj in East 
Tirhut, and ^ifi^ londi in South-East Tirhut. In South Tirhut another 
name is ^^«,«(i Mya, and in West Tirhut %*^ cheki. The stages in which 
it is built are K^ radda or ^Kf rada, and also optionally Tf ? pinr ■ in 
Saran. In Saran xjj radda is the piece of the stage which, being the 
width of the wall, is finished before commencing the next piece. The 
top of a wall is ^^T hhlta north of the Ganges, and ^ff bhit south of 
it ; also flTsj mdnth in South- West Tirhut, and JT«l'«i^ mathni in East 
Tirhut. The plank over the top of a doorway on which the wall is 
built is *T^T3' hharanth, Vtxz bhareth, vrs bliarailh, or Mxr^z bharnath. 
In Gaya it is wxttt bhama, and in Patna Mi.^^«sr patdeMl, of which 
a local variant in Saran is ttz-^^k patdeJmr. To the east it is also 
»ft.).cfte jhankat. If this plank is not equal in width to the waJl, two 
or more are laid side by side. Then the plank in which the top pivot 
of the leaf of the door moves is jik^^t^T^ garddnak, or in Champa ran 
^T) ;(y.t T upraunia, and the others are called wt^ bliareth, &c. An arched 
recess in the wall over this plank, and serving as a cupboard, is ^'clN 
duraundh or ^^r^T duraundha, or in East Tirhut irnr chhdt. The gable- 
eud wall of a house is mwrpdkha, or in Shahabad th^ pdkh. In North- 
East Tirhut, however, it is ^si^HTK c/ianmdr, and in Gaya and South- 
East Bihar "S'^^T kaneta. 

1252. The eaues.— These are '^'t^«ft o^^i generally, also ^ft <"■» 
to the north and west. Another name current in the west is •^ft^jTift 
oriydni. In Gaya and the south-east they are ^^l*^ agri, and there and 
in the south-east ^I^TT^ ohdri. The edge of the eave, which is finished 
off with a board or with a kind of long straw or reed wisp, is known as 
^ft-^s^tT mohabhat ; also as -tr^f pasaunrar in North- West Tirhut, -u^ifFf 
pamrauiir in Champaran, and Tfsr^TJlT panidgar in North-East Tirhut. 
The last three words are also used to mean the long bamboo which 
supports the eave along its lower edge. The pieces of wood let into 
the wall to support this are ^''i^T term generally, and ti^^ tarak in 
North-East Tirhut. In Shahabad they are also called WT^ marua. 
The slope of the roof is HK*I tdran to the west and iR^ garah to 
the east ; also ilX^^K garahgar in North-East Tirhut and clTii.Ji^ 
tarangar in Champaran. The raised ground under the eaves is in Gaya 
■ asthi. 

43 



338 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

1253. The cupboard. — This is fn<n takha or crr'3 takh. A wall- 
bracket for lamps is fl(;^^:'3 diarakh or ^^^?^ diark/ia ; also %^x dekhar 
or t^P'^ dekhra in South- West Shababad, ^tci^T dhorhha in Patna 
and Gaya, and T j t »< srT dharkha in Gaya and Soutli Hunger. In North- 
East Tirhut it is ^rarr chakka, and in South-East Tirhut f^tas^TS! 
chirakddn. In North-East Tirhut ^fK?5T«n kharikauta is a hole in the 
wall for keeping tooth-picka. In South-West Bihar and Gaya this is 
^^ bhurki or ^x.«*"^ kkarkoti. ^^ mukka, &c. (see § 1249), is an 
earthen pot fixed in the wall and used for holding pice, &c. 

1254. The men's and women's quarters, <6c. — The men's quarters 
are ^TTt^IT mardana, and also WT^T^ mardani. Other terms used are 
^^sr dalan, ^K^^oJT dancaja, or ^^^ darmja, -^^(XK duar, and (south- 
east) %Ti-^m bangla. The women's quarters are ■^'s^CTW andardt, sisiTTT 
f^Tjanamkita, or -^t^ habeli. To the east they are also called 
9tt dera, and (in North-East Tirhut) 'tn^T angim. The part between 
the two is ■s'^ft deurhi or (south-west) t^ff deurhi. This word is 
often used to signify a whole house, especially that of some great 
person, «.e., equivalent to ♦ palace.' The outer room is also ^^^ ^Xf 
bakar ghara or (South-East Tirhut) ^ WTT ban ghara. 



CHAPTER III.-MATERIALS USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OP 

THE HOUSE. 

1255. Building materials are '^^^^ amla or 'gfil^ sangdh, or to 
the south-east wio sdnga. 

1256. The posts and beams. — The wooden pillars supporting the 
roof are ^^;^(jkhumbha,''s^khambfit,^f^fViTkhambhii/a, or^f^T khamhiya. 
Another name current to the west and in South Tirhut is ■si'^ thunhi or 
w»^ thunhtn. In North-East Tirhnt another name is ^r^^Tf uchicar. 
In South BhagalpuT we find ^»?f kliamhdn, and in South Hunger 
vti^ khdmhi. Sometimes to support the ridge-pole a cross-beam runs 
across from waU to wall, and on its centre stands a pillar, on the 
top of which the ridge-pole rests. This pillar is also supported by two 
struts running obliquely from the beam and meeting it half-way up. 
This beam is called ^K^ dhaian, the pillar is called »if«r^^»? manikihamh 
or wf«^^^ malikthambh or (in Shahabad) also ^-^ kauri, and the 
props are called i'^ pankhi or in Champaran fV^n^ sipwa. When this 
is found too expensive, two struts run up fiom opposite walls, and cross 



MATERIALS USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HOUSE. 339 

each other just under the ridge-pole, which rests on their upper angle. 
The struts are called fti«r*«^ bhitbhera, ^il^«<j '< T ghormuhdn, or ^^ 
kainchl to the west. Other names for similar supports are ^3^*1 hatha 
and iftr^^T goriya in Shahabad, ?sT^^ kaimlva. Patna, Gaya, and South- 
Bast Tirhut, ^st: kahui in South- West Shahabad, ifl^.«j^T ffhonaha or 
Tt^ ghori in Champaran and North- West Tirhut, ^'q' kainch in the east 
generally, and ^ gainch in South Bhagalpur. The ix^ terua (or in 
South-East Tirhut ^«it«|.^<.i kalandara) is a strut running out from 
a wall to support the eaves. 'TreT pai/a is an earthen pillar for 
supporting the roof. 

1257. The ridge-pole is ^'c harenr or ^^^ barenri, also ^ixr^ 
larhi in Champaran and the south-west, and tk*^ narhi in North- 
West Tirhut. All the beams of the thatch cross each other over this 
the upper angle of the cross is filled in with grass, and the whole 
is tied up tightly. This filling in is called *iJ|«Ct mangri. The sloping 
ridge-pole down a corner where two thatches meet is called v^ 
tarak. A beam running horizontally the length of the thatch along 
the centre, each end resting on the slope of a gable, is called qw^'s^^ 
kamarballa, also ^TTf par in North-East Tirhut. A lean-to thatch 
forming the roof of a verandah is supported on a series of struts 
projecting from the wall, which are called <i^**(T terua, *iWi mala, 
»?^.WT malwa, w^^T or w^^T marua, or tr'^^TT manrua, which support a 
long beam or bamboo, called ^^i^< sardar, on which the thatch rests. 

1 258. The round rafters of a thatched house are ^¥i balla, also 
^l^TT bala in Shahabad. Thick squared rafters are known as ^^ kari. 
The rafters of whole bamboos are sbYtt kora or ^1x^ koro. The thickest 
of split bamboo are tptt bata or ^^rr batta, and the thinnest laths 
of bamboo are ^rnft bdti and ^'^ batti, also in North-East Tirhut 
>i?f»5ST jhonjhan. f^PUS\ nigasta is a thick rafter used in South- West 
Shahabad ; ^Tsttt barga are the thinner rafters used in supporting a flat 
pakka roof. ^^ balli are rafters smaller than a n^j balla. 

1259. The round poles built up inside mud walls are %qT ^tpD' 
lewa khdmhi north of the Ganges. In Shahabad they are jfT^ gol ox 
jftar gola, and so also in the south-east. In Patna they are ^K Idr, 
and in South Bhagalpur ^^X ndr. The support of a broken wall is 
^^« astham or ^rft chanri north of the Ganges ; also "^f^i chanra, 
^^«7 uchka, or ^^^rt thamua in South-Bast Tirhut. In Shahabad this 
is ^'€f ihmhi, in Patna and Gaya 1^ thumbhi, in South Bhagalpur 



310 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

il'^^T thamhna or "gfsT chdnda, and to the south-east "^ftaiji^ othgani 
or '^rlB^'TT othgan. 

1260. vX^ gol or »rt^T goln are round beams, and '^T*tr chaukor 
or ^<i^^ chaupahal squared beams. The latter are also called "^TVTK 
chaudhdr in Shahabad. A crooked beam is said to be ^^ kiibar in 
Shahabad. 

1261. In South "West Shahabad ^^ chenra, in South Bliagalpur 
^^T chela, and elsewhere south of the Granges ^^ chaila or ^^ chaili, 
are splinters of -wood, a layer of which is placed between the rafters 
and the tiling, and is also used for fuel. 

1262. The tiles.— Thase are irrrfj k/iapra generally. Flat tiles 
are «i3^T ihapua, or in Champaran tj^^t pat/iua, and in South Hunger 
^^fJniT supatiya. Another name is ttz^^c') patri in South -West 
Shahabad. Semi-circular tiles are •ifi.sjl nariya generally, and pointed 
eave-tiles are «f a^ tonti or (Shahabad) zf fzin^ tontiydri south of the 
Ganges. In the north-west ^tfj aitndlia is a rough mode of tiling, 
when only flat tiles are used. In Gaya ^iJirirr munyra, and in Saran 
«jnXT mangra, is a large kind of tile laid along the ridge of a roof. 
Bits of broken tiles are Wi'^sr markan to the north-west, and fijf^^ 
jhituki, ^^zi^i jhutka, or ^z^^jhutki to the north-east. South of the 
Ganges they are fa^^ thikri or ^if!^^ jhikti. In Shahabad they are 
f^i;v'^jhikn or f%^'5^ sikri. Tiles are baked in a kiln, called ^ttt 
dua or (South- West Shahabad) "(ifclf dnwdn. The layer of loose grass 
on a tiled roof between the rolls of thatching-grass and the tiles are 
known south of the Ganges as ntt tarer or <i^kt tarera, or (in South 
Bhagalpur) ^€1<lii patofan. In the north-west it is vnzt^m p/iatkan, 
and in Tirhut *T^ chharan. 

1263. The bn'chs.— These are ?3T Inta generally, local variants 
being % mt or t:sT ita south of the Granges, and ^^ ainfa in Patna, 
Gaya, and South Munger. A well-known proverb is ?tt w ^tst ^irar "^ 
Srr man men an, bagal men inta, — (pretending to have) something else 
in one's mind, and having really a brick under one's arm (to heave at 
you). Among the varieties are TT^ ^joA^Am or "qr^i^ pakal, which are 
kiln-burnt (the first word is borrowed from Hindi), and ^t^t kaclicha 
(also Hindi) or ^f^ kanch, which are sun-dried. Another classification 
is into ■^^59't angreji or H"^«<*i barka, which are large table-moulded 
bricks. These are also called T^f^^ gadahiya in Patna and South 
Bhagalpur, and «7^ tali in South Munger. Common country bricks 
are ^Xl^ dehati, or iu South-East Tirhut '^n^^rt^ hhiiilot or ijii^r^T 



MATERIALS USED IN THE CONSTRUCT'ION OF THE HOUSE. 341 

panginja. ^fxK saundar in Patna and the south-east is a yellow 
kind of country brick. The smallest-sized country bricks are 
^■^p^ lahauri or ^r^'srfT kihduri to the west, ^WTT JJaJdi in South- 
West Tirhut, ^'gp^ lakliauii in East Tirhut, ^ofv^i kliajica in South- 
East Tirhut, and fa^f^T ^Ai'Aanya in Patna and the south-east. The 
bricks forming the segment of a circle, used for lining wells, are known 
as ^?!^ bahau, ^qsj bankau, ^=inr?T hakica, or ^^TcfT hankwa. In South-East 
Tirhut these are known as 'qt%3T chakaita or ^fa^T ?ST kothiya 
inta. ^^aj«5^ surujmukJii, or in Champaran ifT'^'^T^ gehruawa, are the 
bricks, narrow at one end and broad at the other, used in building 
the sides of wells. 

1264. In the interior of Patna ^^^k. thaual is the name of the 
bricklayer caste. Bricks are burnt in a kiln, called ifajMT pajdica, 
■pToiT'iT pijdwa, ^ifmr^m pijtca, VTf b/mttha, or ^^ bhdthi. An over- 
burnt brick is »sf^f jhdnwmi north of the Ganges, and mMl jhdma 
south of it. Local names are »irnT jhdm in East Tirhut and »sphY 

jhdmo in South Bhagalpur. Half-fired bricks are ■'fN'C plyar or ■pran 
piyara, other local names being ■ijgr<.^ bhusuriya or ^■^-kttt sewrdlm in 
Champaran, ^^'^i seivar in Shahabad, i?t^T plla in Graya, '^?T^ 
awdlu in Patna, and ■*-<^«'*l'? kachkoh in South Bhagalpur. Other 
names are wz.^^ bhatrang in North-'West Tirhut and ■y^<^T bhusranga 
in South-East Tirhut. The outer bricks of a kiln which become half 
black or axe partially fired are called wra ^ ^3T chhdl ke inta, and in 
South Bhagalpur also WT^'^ chkdtti. 

1265. Stone- — Stone is v;^x patthar or ^^sra pattlvil. Slabs of 
stone are ■^rfejT patiya or j%^ silli. When large they are also called 
^"^^r cMra in Shahabad, and ^^T^ asdr in Patna and Gaya. Small 
pieces for jambs and lintels are e^T'S>A\ ioriya in South- West Shahabad, 
H'yif tutan in the rest of that district, =f,'^vt kachri in Gaya, and 
^t^T dhoka in Patna. 

1266. Lime and mortar.— The calcareous nodular limestone 
used for lime-making and road-metal is known generally as ^r^ kankar, 
local names being '^f *^ dnkar, X^S^ i^>'i, or x^i^ inkri (also in South- 
East Tirhut) to the west, ir^Z sanyat in Patna and Gaya, and arfjre 
gmgat to the south-east. Large blocks of it are known south of the 
Ganges as ^?Tsi cliattdn or '^zx^ chatdn, also as ^t^r Mn in South- West 
Shahabad. The small pieces for road-making are ^^^^ ankri or 
^f^re ankar in Shahabad, ^^b^s^ kankri in Gaya, and in Patna, Gaya, 
and the south-east simply ^Y«T lora or kY?! rora, which last may also 



342 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



apply to small lumps of bricks, &c., also used in road-making. 
WKJKT chkarra, or in the south-east Tffe^ baits, is coarse limestone gravel. 

3267. Lime is ^iTT cAuM, ^TTT cM?ja, or '5^ c/jM««a. It is of two 
varieties, viz. fii^ ffitii — that made from limestone, and «B^ kali — 
that made from shells. In the south-east that made from gravel is 
also called ?s^ kali. The mussel shell used for making lime is 
^'^Tpi' slpt north of the Ganges, and ftg^T situa or l^grr situha south 
of it. A local name is fkfi siUu in South Bhagalpur. €f '5T ghongha, 
■^37 aitha, or ??aT aintha is the voluted shell of a kind of water- 
snail similarly used. Lime mortar is w^'rar masala, or in Patna 
^^tr dabdi. Plaster is ^^T^ leddl or 5ift^ nlpe. Moistened clay used 
as mortar is fjr^l^TT gilawa, or in South Hunger fir%«rT gilewa. In Patna, 
Graya, and the south-east it is also called iTTTr gara. The pounded 
bricks used as a substitute for sand is ^^^^ surkhi. When a wall is 
whitewashed it is said to be ^"I-^kt ^'[^^ pochara wala, "5«rz^ chunetal, 
"^iP^X^ chunwuttal, oi '^ytl'^X^ chuna p/ieral. 



DIVISION XI. 

♦ — 

FOOD. 

CHAPTER I.— MEALS. 

1268. The general term tor a. meal is wfT msoi ; also WJ^ 
bhdnas in East Tirliut. The morning meal is wifsn-dr nashta. Other 
names are TSf^f^K jOffwpeyao, ^'i'V'im^ panpiyai, Si^'TnT jalpan, oi(^.<^S. 
jalkhal, and oi<g«<jrTTr jalkhawa. Other local names are Si^[T^?nr^ 
ya/^/iera«f (Champaran), ■qTrifinfT^ pa»2p«yar (Graya) , and ^T^TT ddna or 
^T»rr ^/ff rfa/«a rfM«« in Shahahad. •fsr^pTEfTT panpiyai is also used to 
mean the food eaten by the labourer in the intervals of work ia the 
field. This in the west is also called ^frjf lukum. 

1269. The midday meal, which is the main meal of the day, is 
called by the people ^f%qT kakwa, ^r^gj kaleu, or (ia Tirhut) ^^ 
kalau, though according to dictionaries and pandits this is a light 
morning repast. Local names for this meal are ^n^ khdy ia Patna, 
JSVT khaiya ia Graya, ^rn;^ k/id'ik in South Hunger, and ^«T^T kalaua in 
South Bhagalpur. 

1270. An euening meal is ^'^^t sanjhaua in South-West Shah- 
ahad. ^^fT^ hedlu, or in Champaran ^T:^f3^T herJiaUya, is light food 
taken just before sleeping. 

1271. K mouthful, or the quantity of food put into the mouth 
at once, is ^^ kor, qr?^ kawar, or ^c kaur. In South- West Shahahad 
it is also ^^'rai newdla, which, however, means in the interior of 
Patna the refuse food left, after eating, for servants, and which is 
then also called '*<^€ ulus. 



CHAPTER IL— KINDS OF FOOD. 

1272. The followiag are the principal kinds of food consumed by 
the lower orders : — 

^cRT^ akri, jr^^ ekri, or ^■Riid' enkri, — ^uncleaned rice. 



344 



lilHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



akhri ov (South Muns^er) ^'srr^x ff/c/zra or (South Bhagal- 
pur) ^'STcT akhro, also '^T^a anwat (North- West Bihar and 
South-East Tirhut), — barley ground without being first 
cleaned. Cf. jj;^ guri. 

^"<r6t adauri or (Shahabad) ^■^t^^ adicari, — little round balls 
made of pulse. 

•^iTT^j anaj, — a general term for food, especially grain. 

'^■g anil, — food generally, especially com. 

^^rnrz amawat (west), '^irtz amot (North-East Tirhut), — mango 
conserve. 

•^X-^^ arkaunch, — see K^^ rikaunch. 

^TT^'RT arddioa, — gram and barley mixed and parched. Used 

as a food for horses. 
^WTa^ ^ ^^ amanthi ke roti, — see ^Ts^ % Ttz^ dnthi ke rati. 

^TZl dnta or ^rei dta, 'Prem^isaw, ^ii%Ti kani/c or (East Tirhut) 
f^^rg chikas, and (South Bhagalpur) fV«(r^T chiksa, — flour or 
meal. 

^f^ % vta^ dnthi. ke roti, also f*y»<!iT % xtsi' kisU ke roti 
(Champaran), ^»rf^ % rl'il' amdnthi ke roti (Gaya and South 
Munger), and ^^rr gumma (South Bhagalpur), — bread made of 
crushed mango stones. 

^rfira dmil (North-East Tirhut), neiT khatSi (Saran), and ^tt 
kJiatta (South Bhagalpur), — dried chips of the mango fruit used 
as a conserve. It is of two kinds, '^IV^ darimi and ^rfT^T 
kJidiya. The first is made from small immature mangos ( fiji^ T 
tikula or fi4«ftt?T iikor/ia), and the second from large mangos. 

^f^^ dnivat, — see ■^'3i<T akhra. 

^tlT['<J ogra, — see »«% mdnr. 

"^"T^T^ orha, — see "^"Ttttt horJia. 

^^<5^ im)-iii,— see 1af%^ jilebi. 

%T ingur or fg^ ingiiri (north),— barley from which the husk has 
been removed by pounding. 

^IWt ujhila, — cooked mustard-seed. 

^^ umi, — green marua {eleiisine coracaua) roasted as food 
(see § 990). 



KINDS OF FOOD. ^"^7^ 345 

^wfT^T -ZCP& ulwa d&l, yyH'Jf uldural, — see '^jm dill. 

5TV^ ekri, vm'^ enkri, — see ^<*«<^ akri. 

qrqTijfjra-j kachicaniya (Saran, Patna, and South Munger), nt^W 
»wo(foA; (Qayaand Shahabad), «mK kas&r (South Munger), — 
a round sweetmeat made of rice-flour, sugar, and clarified 
butter. 

wrT9 kachras (north-west) or 'T^^ panudn (South-West 

Shahabad), — sugar-cane juice mixed with water. 
«R^T^ kachauri, — cakes of flour filled with pulse, &o. The 
inside stuffing of pulse-flour, &o., is called ift^ pithi south of 
the Ganges. 
^s^T karhua (south), — food saved from supper for the children. 
^^<^ kabuK, — see fig'Vi-"^ khichri. 
ifl^tti kanik, — see ^tjt dnta. 
W9\x kasar, — see tti-<4'«=lf»i*|l kachicaniya. 
^^ kdnchi, — see ^^^IT halua, 

ftrei^ % Vt^ kisli ke roti, — see ^T^ % vt^ dnthi ke rati. 
^•sft kunii, — see ^T? Id'i. 

%f^»<r'^ konhrauri, — cakes made of ground pulse and pumpkin. 
^5i^^T khajla (north), — a sweetmeat made from wheat-flour. 
»3^ khajur, also (south of the Granges) ^t-flT khurma or (South 
Bhagalpur) 'Pfff^T jkiliya, — a sweetmeat in the form of 
a date. 
TIZK kJiatdi, — see ^ifij^ dmil. 
^■flKT khanraura, — see ^^ khitddi. 
^^pff khahauni (south), — a sweet cake of wheat, 
mtm\ khdja (north), — a sweetmeat made from wheat-flour. 
Psi-ij . ^' i khichri,— -nee boiled with pulse ; also called ^^^ kabUli 
or wim f< si-<j«j^ bhunal khichri when spices are added. This 
last is called ^N^ chhaunki {i.e. seasoned) in South Bhagalpur. 
f%^.^<r khiraura (South-West Shahabad), — cakes of rice-flour 

prepared in hot water. Sometimes spelt "RaK^xrr khirawara. 
■^X khlr, also ^tft khiri in North-East Tirhut and %^j. 
lakhir south of the Ganges,— rice boiled in milk with sugar. 
See also ^v^xjd'ur and TT^^t: fasmai. 

44 



346 bihXr peasant life. 

^g^ khuddi, also (South- West Shahatad) ^^ kJutm-aura, and 

South Hunger wTs^'T merkhun,—hxdk.&o. pulse or rice, 
TST^T khurma or South Hunger ^^7«T khorma—a. sweetmeat in 
form of a date made of wheat-flour, sugar, and clarified 
butter. Cf. JS^khajur.- 
-^tsy^ khitshka,—se6 VT*I hhdt. 
m^^*^ khmki,— see ttk^s* partfian. 
jft^vf^T khobhiya, — see ^rc lai. 
^X^j kho'iya, — see ■^ift^ amil. 

VXT gatta, — a cheap sweetmeat made of molasses. They are sold 
for a kauri each, and are the delight of boys of the poorer 
classes. 
j | .j).«t g galbal, — see ^w:^ dabhka. 
giiT gumma, — see ^a^ tr 'ft^'t dnthi ke roti. 
^ijdi gvri (Shahabad),— barley ground after being cleaned, Cf. 

^i.i^T ckhra. 
^^^^rr gulgula, also (Shahabad u^TTl guIaura,—B. pudding of 

wheat and sugar. 
•g^T^-RT guldana (north-west), also T^K^ ^T»!T ildichi dana 
(Saran and South-West Tirhut), and *jgf=^ ^T^T makundi dana 
(Patna), — a sweetmeat made of wheat. 
5^^ srrgT gulabjdmim, — a long sweetmeat made of dry curds 

(i|srr chhena). 
^^ guUi, — see ^lT?rr lo'iya. 
^^Kl gulaura, — see ^^^ipn gulgula. 

irt*Sj goj'ha (north and south-west), also nM^JRlT gojhiya, — a kind 
of sweet cake. See also ^TT phara. 

■^VK\ ghatra, ^ylTT ghatora, — see ^[^T pua.. 

^IT gliattha, — see ^n?^^ lapsi. 

«ft^^ ghatihan, wfs'?^ ghathihan, — a general term for cheap 
graia, such as barley, pease, &c., also (Saran) any kind of grain 
which when ground absorbs much water and is not easily 
digested 

■^i^KT ghatora, — see 'j'^T pua. 

^^■^T ghastia or 9gt Tt5?t ghasti'i roti, also •'fY^'vn poch/nia (Tirhut) 



KINDS OF FOOD. /^/i 3^7 

and ^xT'ft soMri (East Tirhut and Shababad),— cakes fried 
in a little clarified butter or oil. 

^r3 ghdth, wrar ghdtha, mal' ghatlio, — see ^""T^ Up&i. 

vtI^ ghdthi, — see t^ij besan. 

^faY ghantlio, — see ^Tn^ hpsL 

ft^^ ghigaura, -^x. ghiwar, -pp^ ghuguri, — see %srK ghewar. 

■^^^r ghughni (north and south-east), — a mess made of pulse, 
clarified butter, &c. 

%^ ghewar (north), -5^^ ghuguri (South-West Shahabad), 
ft^TTT g'liyaura (Patna and Shahabad), ^t ^^war (Gaya 
and south-east), — a sweetmeat made of wheat-flour. 

^^ ghor, ^t^ ghol,—Bee jtst mattha. 

^T^STT^K ghorjaur, ^X^mx^ ghorjari, — see Ha^gjTgt mathjdUr. 

"^■gjT chakka. — see '^aji^r hajka. 

"^3^ chatni, — "ohutnee." 

^t^T chabe^ia, '^^^ chabeni,'^v^f{ charban, ot wsrr bhunja, also 
^gjT^rr 6//«/Ma (Shahabad) and ^w«rA« (South Bhagalpur), 
^^ J^u/a (North-East Tirhut), — parched grain. 

fg^i^ chikas, f^^M^j ehiksa, — see ^TST dnta. 

1W9 chikkas (north),— roasted barley ground up with unroasted 
barley. 

f^^ chiiiri (north-west), "g^ chauri (South Tirhut), ^.^^ 
pharuhi (East Tirhut and Shahabad), <*K^^ pharhi (Patna and 
Gaya), — unripe barley parched ; but in South Bhagalyur, ^6Xf^ 
pharuhi is parched rice. 

^^ ckunni, — see '^ chun. 

"^^ chura, — unhusked rice, parched, then moistened and 
pounded flat. 

^5T chun (north-west), ^^ chunni (Patna, Gaya, and South 
Hunger), and Kt: ral (Shahabad), — rice partially boiled, then 
pounded and roasted. 

^V^ choklia or ^TX^ffrT bharta, also (East Tirhut) ^^ sana, — a mess 
of pounded roasted vegetables. 

"i^f^IT chonthi (Sarau),— a dish of pulse. 



348 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

'^^ cfiauri,—Bee f'g'3^ chitiri. 

^"^toT chauretha, -q^^ chaurath, — rice soaked in water and then 

dried and pounded. 
«5^T^ chlianka, ^t^st chhemkan, *^^^^ chhewankna, ^^fH 

chhaunkil, wf *T chhaunka, — see ^^IK haghdr. 

iTT ^^ chhena ham, — round flat sweetmeats made of dry 
curds (isiT chher.a) ; a Bangali dainty adopted in Bihar. 

^^ chhaunki, — see 'fia^^ khichri. 

SRi^lT jawakhar (south) or irrq^R pachak (South Bhagalpur), 

— ashes of burnt ears and stalks of bailey, used as a cure for 

indigestion. 
WT^K /awr,— rice boiled in milk with salt. When boiled with 

sugar it is ^'K khir, q.v. 
9T^Xjdbar,—e, mess of rice, vegetables, clarified butter, &o. 
^^^Ji/ebi, — a tubular sweetmeat in a coiled shape, made of fine 

wheat-flour, sugar, &c. A variety of it is known as xw^ftift 

imriti or xftl'tTl imirti. 
\^jjhanjha (South- West Shahabad),— a mixture of coarse sugar, 

hemp, clarified butter, &c. 
fif^^^ jhiliya, — see ^a^ kJiajur. 
^^jhilli, — see 'sm latfu. 
^Xjhor, — see ■'fK^pareh. 
■zvx tuka ^north) or (East Tirhut) ^■^ tukri, — the fourth 

part of a round cake, 
ft^!^ tikri, — a sweetmeat made of flour, fried in clarified 

butter or oil, and covered with sugar ; also (Graya) a small loaf 

or roll. In South Bhagalpur it is a round sweetmeat in the 

form of a cake, and made of flour, butter, and sugar. Another 

name for this last is f^fti^ tikiya. 
3'gi'^T thakiia, — see ^fi^T thektia. 
'^K^ thurrif—SQQ "z^ thuH. 
■3-^ thuri, or (Tirhut, Gaya, and South Hunger) ^t^ thurri, 

(South- West Shahabad) 3^ fhori, (Patna) 1x7^ murri, and 

(South Bhagalpur) ^s;^ niurhi, — grain which has not burst while 

being parched. 



KINDS OF FOOD. /^^ 349 

^^T thekua, h^-^t thaliua,— a kind of cake pressed in a mould 

called '^Ji^^ZT agarauta. 
STO thori, — see a^ thuri. 

%Mr^ dahhka (north-west), T^r^^ gr«/6ff; (South Tirhut) , bm^^ 
diibhkal, — parched unripe grain, or ripe grain soaked in water 
and parched. 

1 TijrT duppha, — see *ts^K mahuar. 

rrgrr <a/fA'ar, — a preparation of butter-milk wiih spices, &c. It 
is said to be very cooling. 

f\XM tarnl (North-East Tirhut), — a kind of dish consisting of 
vegetables cooked in clarified butter or oil. It is peculiarly a 
rich man's food, and is supposed to be fattening, hence the 
proverb riK^ ^rnr, g^^iT^ ^i^ tern/ May, ^«mM gar al jay, — he 
is a rich man, and yet he is lean. 

*m«*ji tasmaz, — rice boiled in milk with sugar, usually eaten by 
mendicants. It differs from ?^hc khlr in that the latter may or 
may not have water added. 

fiTsJ TaRT iaj khdni, — see HT^ *4T^ tas khani. 

^\^ 'TP^ tas khdni (north), also (South-East Tirhut) film ^sft 
taj khdni, — a round sweetmeat made of rice-flour, sugar, and 
clarified butter. 

f«<'!l»*fivf|' tilkatri, — see ^J\ lai. 

f^:^ tilkut, — a sweetmeat made of sesamum and molasses, 
much eaten by boys in Patna. 

fif^^ tilauri, — small balls of urid or mung mixed with sesamum 
seed, dried in the sun, and then fried in clarified butter. . 

ffl^^T^ tisjauri (South Tirhut) or f«rf%^T^t tisiydUr, — ^linseed 
and rice cooked together. 

■^1%^ daritni, — see ^iftrer dmil. 

^Tgjpa'^; danjdur (Saran and South- West Tirhut) , — poppy-seeds 
( < T «|| ddna) and rice cooked together. 

^•^X^ danauri, — ^the same as fir^p^ tilauri, poppy seeds being 
used instead of sesamum. 

^KT dara, '<S'^ darra (north), — coarse meal ; but ^T^rr darra 
south of the Ganges is pounded maize boiled with water and 
sugar. 



350 BIHiH PEASANT LIFE. 

??r^^ dalpMM, ^^r^fta','^ dalpithauri,— see ^7^ ift^ dal pUhi. 
^W^wrr dalsagga or (South- West Shahabad) tjnvtrf^T sagpahita, — 
pulse boiled with vegetables. 

^?n^ ■g[^ dalhi puri, — see 5\«-^ berhi. 

^"RT ddl, — split pease or pulse. When these are parched they are 
called 'S^T^ra' X^ uldwal ddl or ^^^q^T ^7^ ulua ddl. 

\Tm ■«ft^ dal plthi, ^^•Prfi' dalpitthi, or (Shahabad) ^^•fMdt<1 
dalpithauri, — (1) balls of wheat or barley-flour stufEed with 
pulse inside and boiled in water ; (2) balls of wheat or barley- 
flour cooked along with pulse. '"ift^T pttJia means balls of meal 
boiled in water. 

■^^TT dhundnr, — see ^^«f phoran. 

^^^ ■^■ra' dhoal ddl, ifr^T^ dhodnch, — see vtt dho'i. 

>ftf dho'i (north and Shahabad), also irf^f^ dhodnch (South- West 
Shahabad), elsewhere ■^t^^ ^TW dhoal ddl, — soaked pulse. 

vfir dliong (Shahabad), — a thick cake. 

■f ■^'STTT't pakmdn or m*«cIM pakwdn, — sweetmeats. 

^«7KT pataura, — the tops of the plant called g^j gumma 

{pharnaceum mollugo) roasted in a castor-oil leaf. 
ir^^^panudn, — see c|i-^.<«j kachras. 
TpnTT^opro; — 8eeT?m< pdpar. 
q^ftitir pardkiya, — see 'ffjft^T samosa. 
^x:««i«l parthan, also Gaya "f^vpf palethan, and ^^r;^ A^e^g^/^^—the 

dry flour rubbed on the dough as it is being made into cakes. 
M<>44<d parmal (Shahabad), — parched maize or grain. See also 

vTx^'^T horlia. 
'i'KV^ pardtha, — ^see mXTsy pimrdt/ia. 
mt:"^ pareh, T^T rassa, xj^ rasa, or ^^j'hor, sauce, such as of 

vegetables, &c., eaten with dry food. 
^%«l«f palethan, — see ■'T^^«r parthan. 
•<rr»r pdg or (south-east) ^sr ran or (South Bhagalpur) f^XT sira, — 

syrup made by melting sugar in water and boiling it down. 

TjT^^ pdclmk, — see SR'reTT jawdkhdr. 
xrnjT pdpar or mm-ii papra, — a crisp cake of pulse flour. 
fvr^T;K pithdr (North-East Tirhut), — rice pounded in water, 



KINDS OF FOOD. /-J/Z. 35 j 

ftrrr piWia or ^ftrr ^z^A*, also to the east ^firvr hagiya, and in 
Tirhut ^»f'iIT hageya, — a kind of boiled pudding made of satti< 
or meal. A smaller variety is called Prft pitthi. 

fkit pitthi, — see f^^ pHtJut. 
fWpT pisdn, —see ^fzT anta. 
i^W joic/*, — see vrr^ mdnr. 
Ttar pitha, — see IV5T piitha. 
"Tlal ^«<A«, — see ^^T^ kaelMuri. 

^T i?«a, also (East Tirhut) ^ i'". S'lid ^^W ghatora (Patna 
and Graya), and '52^1 ghalra (South Bhagalpur and Gaya), — 
wheat-flour and molasses mixed and cooked in clarified butter 
or oil. Of. wra 'X^ malpua. 

•J^ puri, also (north) ^=^4 luchui, and (Tirhut) ^t^'^ sohari 
or ^<?T'^ suhari, — thin cakes boiled in clarified butter. They 
are supposed to be as indigestible as muffins : hence the 
proverb about one who attempts things he cannot do, hi -q^ 
•i'Pl, ■g^ ^T »nft gTiyu pache nahiii puri la mdri, — a fight for 
muffins, when even clarified butter won't digest. 

^tpetha (north), also ^hi i mm bhudpag (South-East Tirhut), 
— candied gourd. 

^^ pera, — a sweetmeat made of Bugar and milk. Those made 
in Mathura and Gaya are most esteemed. See also v^i,*)! Idiya. 

xBrWt pharhi, — see f^'a^ chiuri, 

TiKT phara (north-west), jffrr gojJia (Shahabad), and «rft^T 

bagiya (South Bhagalpur), — balls of rice steamed over a pot 

containing boiling water. 
Ts^3T pharatha (north and south-east), ^TT^ ^ara^/ia (elsewhere), 

— bread made like pie-crust, 
■qre^ pJiaruhi (South Bhagalpur), 'Sl •*s«iT phokna (South 

Hunger), — parched rice. See also f^'a'pl chiuri. 

^2V^-^ phutpuri, — see ^T^Tt berhi. 
^'^^^ phutahra, — see 1%^ litti. 

^aT^T plmtha or (South-West Shahabad) ^z^ttt phutahra, 
— parched gram and pease. 

■^f'^r^ phufe/iri,—s&e f^?t fitti. 



352 BIHiB PEASANT LIFE. 

^^KT phulaui a,—\&Tge balls of «rJrf-flour fried in clariaed butter 
or oil, aud then soaked with, spices in tyre. It becomes very 
spongy. 
^^ phulauri—{l) (south) a roll of coarse flour cooked by steam 
in a pot with some water in the bottom, and resting above on 
twigs; (2^ (north) balls of pulse-flour boiled in claxified 
butter or oil. 
^^pheni, — a frothy sweetmeat made of wheat-flour and sugar. 

See also ^f(m %'?1' batdspheni. 
r^tm^T phohia, — see ^^i^^ pJiaruhi. 
^Tsi plwran, also (Shahabad) ^TX (?/<««<!«>•,— seasoning used 

with food. 
^1^^ hdkhlr {South-West Shahabad), X^^^ rasiyAo (rest 
of Shahabad), x'hm rasiya (Patna, Gaya, and the south- 
east), — rice cooked in sugar and water. See also xrlT khlr. 
^fWr hagiya, -^^VJ bageya, — see fq\j pittha. 

^^TT haghar (north-west), w^r^^^i chh^wkan (Tirhut), w^^«rr 
chhewankna (Patna), ^f^FSi chhawnkal (South Munger), »^t^ 
chhanka or ^*T chhaunka (South Bhagalpur),— the act of 
seasoning food. 
^^^^ bachka, — see ^ors^T bajka. 

V^P^ bajka or (Fa.tn&) ^'^^^X bachka, (north "^^-rchakka, (North- 
West Tirhut) ^Xl bara, (South Bhagalpur) ^TTT bdra, — slices 
of gourd or vegetable covered with pulse-flour and then 
fried in clarified butter or oil. 

'mx^ '^^ batdspheni or ^'^ pheni (north), — a spocsry sweetmeat 
made of sugar and flour. 

*(<iTiJT batdsa, — a spongy sweetmeat made of sugar. 

^TfflTt baphauri, — ^pulse-flour cooked by steam. 

ST^^nr barjaur, — see ■sr<«(>sq berhin. 

v^j^ barphi, — a white sweetmeat made of wheat, flour, milk, 
and sugar. 

s^ bara or '^TCT bdra, — cakes of wrirf pulse fried in clarified butter 
or oil. See also '^sri^rr bajka. 

^■^ ban, — ^balls of urid, mung, or gram-flour fried in clarified butter 
or oil. 



KINDS OF FOOD. /^7'2- 353 

^sl ' tl T' ^ halusahi or ^'nj ^T^ halu said, — a sweetmeat made of 

■wlieat. 
flft*lT hasiya, — see ^TO^ 6as*. 
^S^ bahuri, — see ^K"i r horha. 
^KT 6am, — see ^^rr^T hajka and ^K7 Jam. 
^^^■^f lalu mill, — see ^^1^°^ halusahi. 

^^ basi or ^f€^r basiya, also (Shaliabad) ^wt fj^ iost ^«sj, — 
food saved from supper for breakfast. 

^^ hiri (Gaya) , a kind of food made of leaves and flour fried 
in clarified butter. 

^firef hmiyan, — a small round hollow sweetmeat made of 
gram-iesflSM, fried in clarified butter or oil and covered with 
sugar. 

^fil^fT beniya, — see ^?:W^ berlii. 

5x7?^ berhin or ^K^oJiT barjaur (Shahabad), — ^pulse cakes. 

^Tj^ berhi, ^^r^ ^^^^ dalhi puri (north), ^2^^ phutpuri 
(South Bhagalpur), and also (Tirhut) ^ftr^T beniya, and 
(Shahabad) ^Ts'^^T herhlya, — pulse-flour cooked inside a 
wheat cake. 

^3C besan or ■grfn" ghathi (North-East Tirhut), — ^pulse-flour. 

^^ bor or ^T ^K bm' bor (Gaya and west), ^rf^ sdni (South 
Bhagalpur), -^t^ son (South Hunger), the act of soaking dry 
food, such as bread, in any liquid. 

^jW.Ct hhabhri, — see "f^r^ litti. 

v:\ji bhat (amongst Hindus), 4^»i.*t hhushka (amongst MuBaU 
mans), — plain boiled rice. 

^'^ I M T Jf bhuapag, — see %3T petlm. 

^ai ' Vi T hhujna, vmj bhunja, vorr bhuja, — see ^^tt chahena. 



vs^ T^T^^T bJmnal khichri, — see fe^r^ khichri. 

Miiij maeda or 'Jt^ maida, — fine sifted flour. 

»rfi^ makuni' (1) (north), — cakes stuffed with gram-flour ; (2) 
(south) cakes made of pease or wheat-flour. See also %^ 

liiti. 

jfz^ matri (north), ^b«0 muthri (South-West Shahabad), — 
a sweetmeat made of wheat-flour. 

45 



354 BIHAE PEASANT LIFE. 

»r5T mattha or ^\a\ mdtha, also vsx mantha (South- West 
Shahabad), irt«r gfwl or "siV': glior (to the east), and w^ 
mahi (South Tirhut), — ^butter-milk. 

tia.tii T ^ ^ mathjdur, also (east) ^il^aiT^x: ghorjaur and (South 
Bhagalpur) ■^Kisrr^ glwrjari, — ^butter-milk boiled in water, 
with a little rice, &c., added. 

VZiKi mathri, — see »iz^ matri. 

♦J'^ •«*•*! marsatka (Graya), — ^rice-gruel with the rice. 

»ii3T mantha, — see »tit mattha. 

f{TH iffir malmn bJwg, — see ^^^^T lialua. 

irfWr^T mahiyctur (north) and »i%t maker (South-West Shah- 
abad), — a mess of rice, &c., in butter-milk. 

ws^T mahuar or (South Bhagalpur) ^iiffT diippha, — the flowers of 
the mahua {Bassia latifolia), soaked over-night, crushed next 
morning, and made into a-cake with flour, gram, pease, or 
linseed. 

»T%T maker, — see wf%«rT^T mahiydilr. 

flT3T mdtha, — see vsT mattha. 

flf^ manr (amongst Hindus) and iftw plch or 'sjlii. TT ogra 
(amongst Musalmans) , — ^rice-gruel. 

JTRf ■5^ mdl pud, — ^wheat-flour, sugar, and milk mixed and 
cooked in clarified butter only, thus differing from •^^rr pua 
q.v. 

^^ '57^ mlthi puri, — sweet cakes. 

5T^ murri, — see 'S^ thuri. 

^^ murhi, — see ^^ thuri, ^t^ cJiabena, and ^IK. lai. 

HK^T merkhun, — see ^^ khuddi. 

^^T maida, — see hjt^t mmda. 

^<ft 13: ^noti chur, — a sweetmeat made up of very fine ■^i^^ 
buniydn shaped like pearls. 

»flx?if modak, — see cfi^^i^fiRiT kachwaniya. 

K% raj, — see '^ chun. 

x^ jiWt ras s'oZfl,— round balls of dry curds (^?rT chhern) in 

syrup ; a Bangali dainty adopted in Bihar. 
Kft^T rasiya, r^^m rasiydo, — see if^x: lakhir. 



KINDS OF FOOD. /2 7^ 355 

TWT rassa, XXWl rasa, — see vir^pareh. 

Kr«f ran, — see tttt pag. 

Km rab, — boiled sugar-cane juice. 

1x:€f^ rikaunch or ^t saindha (norfcli), also ^X7^^ arkaunch 
(Tirhut), — a mess of pulse-flour cooked iu the leaves of tlie 
^^ ami {Arum colocassia). 

^rariat laktJio,—&&Q %^ seo. 

«TT latta or yiaT l&ta, also (Soutli Bhagalpur) fk(^jhilli, — a mess 
m.ade of the flowers of the mahua {Bassia latifolia), molasses, 
and parched grain. 

^^ laddu or ^f^ larua, — a sweetmeat made up of sugar and 
cream. 

<(IM>«j^ lapsi, — floux of any grain boiled in nulk and eaten with 
sugar. "When made with salt instead of sugar, it is called 
(South-West Shahabad) ^T3 ghdth, (South-East Tirhut) wf 
ghattha, (South Hunger) "sj^i ghdtha, and (South Bhagalpur) 
^T3Y ghdtlw or ^fst ghdntho. 

^TT lai, also (Tirhut) ^^^ murhi, -^^ kunti (Patna and the 
south-west), and f>i<jl'=E»r^ tilkatri (South Bhagalpur) and 
■latfH^T kJwbhiya, — parched liee prepared with sugar south of 
the Granges, but without it north of the Granges. 

^arr^TT lata, — see '^^ latta. 

Tjnrr Idwa, — maize, rice, &c., parched in hot sand. 

f^ifi litti, vmr^ hhahhri, TTfT^ makuni, or *i-^.Ci phutehri or 
(south) ^ra^fsTT lohidahra., — various cognate kinds of cakes 
fried in hot ashes. The last four are generally stuffed with 
sattu and spices, while the first may or may not be so stuffed. 

g^ luchui, — see ■g;^ pw-i. 

^tvr hiya or (South Bhagalpur) ^ guUi, the lumps of 
dough out of which cakes are made. In Patna, Musalman 
women call them TfT pera. 

^^ I'Ml'dl sakarpdla or (Gaya) ^K^^ WM^'a?,— a sweetmeat of 
wheat-flour. 

^Trnrf^UT sagpahita,—se6 K'd-^'JII dahagga. 

W3^ sattia, -^t satui, — see -^^ sattu. 



356 BIHiB PEASANT LIFE. 

'J^ satlu or ^5^T satua. also (Sliahabad) ^t: satui, and (north, 
generally amongst mendicants) f^rrar^^iift' sitalbukni, 
parclied gram ground into flour. 

^^Wt samosa also (Tirhut) "«n:f«^T parakiya, — balls of flour, 
with fruit, &c., inside, cooked in clarified butter. 

<d<««i»J sarbat (south-east) , — sugar-cane juice mixed with milk ; 
also generally eau sucri. 

^ifsr sdni, — see ^ftr bor. 

'wr^ sans, — a sweetmeat made of f g^ besan and molasses^ eaten 
by boys in Patna. 

f^fl^j^cfiTift sitalbukni, — see ^w sattu. 

f%^T sidha or ^^T sidha, — ^provisions, food, as in the proverb 
■ftvr 'ff^'f, f[^~ ir5i> ^^ftf sidha sandeh, gabya gabya karathi, — 
it is doubtful if he should get anything at all to eat from 
me, and he has the impudence to ask for milk, 

fVtr sira, — see "m^ pag. 

nJ<i^I sirua, — soup. 

^K^^T ^TTswrAa c/iurfl!,— unripe paddy parched and pounded flat. 

^^^ suJiari (North-East Tirhut), — see "J^ puri. 

^^ suji, — the flour from the centre of the wheat grain. 

%w seo or (Shahabad) ^rqr^ lakt}io,—& kind of coarse macaroni, 
difiering from ^^i; semwai in not being regtdarly coiled. 

^tI; semwai, — a kind of macaroni, which differs from %^ seo in 
being regularly coiled. 

^^ saindha,^see ft^^ rikaunch. 

^n^ld sohari, — see ■g^ puri. 

^W so?j,^see TtK bor. 

"^^^T halua, also (Shahabad) ^t^ kdncki,—a. sweetmeat made 
of flom-, dried fruits, and clarified butter. Musalmans also 
add eggs, A superior variety of this is known as *r^ v^ir 
tna/uzn bhog. 

^^ hahiis, — green barley roasted as food. 

-rtxv^ horlia (west), ^tKi%i orha (east generally), also \\<A-i X 
hollm (Patna and Gaya), ^^^ bahuri or tik^^ parmal 
Shahabad), — unripe grain, roasted in the ear or pod. 

T?l«l«'^l holha,-~BQQ TtTf^ horlia, 



DIVISION XII 



CEREMONIES AND SUPERSTITIONS OF RURAL LIFE. 



CHAPTEE I.— MARRIAGE. 

1273. Marriage is. amongst Hindus ft^r? biyah, local optional 
names being ^^^^ shumangali (properly tlie marriage service 
described in § 1328) in North-West Tirbut and Champaran, and 
fk^r% ^ij^ biyah ddni in East Tirbut. ft^T'f bibah is common in 
Nortb-East Tirbut, and ft'^ biha in Soutb Bbagalpur. Amongst 
Musalmans it is ^^ sadi or vjt^ shadi, f*i^rr^ nikah being the 
less regular form. Tbe marriage contract is -^^r^ akad amongst 
Musalmans. 

1274. Tbe husband is everywhere (amongst Hindus) ^t bar 
(properly bridegroom), WfrK bhaiar, -q^i ply a or if^ pi (only used in 
poetry), ^f^ pati <yT: mv\ sami. Local forms are ^■PT /a^way (properly 
Bon-in-law) (Soutb- "West Sbababad) and in East Tirbut '^'ig; sairkn 
amongst tbe lower classes and ^Tfl^ swdmi or ^^t»J^ sawdmi amongst tbe 
higher classes. *TrfT^ bJiatar is sometimes specially used to signify a 
woman's second husband. Musalmans use the word 'sn''^^ shauhar. 
Tbe following words are used by Hindus and Musalmans iadifferently : 
^5W^T dulha (properly bridegroom), 3X^ puruhh, ^n:^ marad, ^^^ 
khasam, ^[^^ admi or ^f^^ adimi* (also used in South Munger to 
mean wife), and itft^ khawind. South of tbe Granges occur '^^^ 
amdi and flT^^T'TT marddwa. A wife calls her husband flT^ tnarad, or 
in tbe localities mentioned above ^T«r ianwdy or *j K' <l ^T marddwa. 
In Soutb Bhagalpur she calls him ^ft sdnin. 

1275. A wife is ^TT^ mehrdru, ?:f%^ istiri, »rr^ir maiig or ^pft 
maugi, ^ bahu or ^% bah, (also, in Champaran, ^p? bauh) (which 
means literally daughter-in-law), ^^jannl, ■?^«i bekat (also used to 
mean husband), si'^l-nj janana, mt^joru, and ^sfkwi kabila, tbe last two 

* Often spelt by purists ^rr=[»ft adami. 

45 



358 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

being principally used by Musalmans. SiT^iT jauji (a corruption of 
zauja) is used only by Musalmans and Kayastbs. When talking to a 
respectable man about his wife, the word ^W7^ sawdri or bk ^ ^PtT ghar 
ke log or a periphrasis is ueed. Thus they say in Shahabad ■^■q?^ ^ 
^n^ '^^ "^o apne ke sawdri aili ha ? ' has your wife come ? '; K^^ 
"^X % ^rU[ «fr?^f m^ rawm, ghar ke log kahwan harm ? ' where is 
your wife ? '; or X^ ^^ "w ^n? '^^ ^5 rawan habeli men kab dili 
ha ? • when did your wife come ?' lit. * when did the being in your 
honour's inner apartments come ? ' 

1276. When there are two wives, each is ^r^«T sdiit or ^fjfsr 
sautin to the other, a South Granges variety being 'aYf^T sotin, and 
in South Munger ^fwir saitin. The first wife is f^i^ iiydhi. In 
Patna and Gaya fV^ hihi, and in Shahabad 5*^^ mehri and ^Rft^T 
kabila, are also used in the same sense. When there are two wives, 
the elder is called W3^ jethri, <»fd.*t' jethki, or ^^^^ barki, and the 
younger gs^ lahuri or ■^ztib^ chhotki. 

1277. A woman whose husband is alive is north of the Granges 
j7^^^T«fi' ehwdti, and south of the Ganges she is '^IV^ra^ ahiwdti or 
■^f^'ETTti^ ahiydti. A local variety is ^"^^ aihab in South-East Tirhut. 
^tNtI^TT sohdyin is another word used everywhere in the same sense. 
Another local word in South-East Tirhut is 'etrr^T sadhwa. When a 
married woman is living in her father's house she is a •f^^XTfira 
naihraitin, or in South Bhagalpur ^=rrf%r^ saicdsin, and when she is 
living with her husband's family she is ^^xrfa^i sasuraitin. 

1278. A widower is x^^ randa or TT^f rdnra. If he marries a 
second time he is ^t^"ns dodh or (in East Tirhut) '^fij^K dutibar or 
^?:f'TOT'^T didbiydha, and in South Bhagalpur -^tf^"^ dobiha. If he 
marries a third time he is ^^T^ teak or (in East Tirhut) ftft^K 
iritibar, and South Bhagalpur ^ftrr tebiha. In such case he is also 
called ^t^T^ dodh. 

1279. A widow is t^r btwa or kt^ rdiir. Another term is 
ft^«[T bidhwa. In South-East Tirhut ti?^ baidhab is also used. The 
second marriage of a Hindu widow is ^irn; sagdi. Optional names are 
■HTV^M sagaham, ^^qw sambandh or bwv samadh, used chiefly north of the 
Ganges. To the south-east =5^-nnT chumdwan or ^iiTTr chumauna is also 
used in this sense. Such a woman is called to the west ^T^ ardhi 
and the second husband is ^Jre^T sagdhiia or ^ii-s^t sang/ma. In 
Western Shahabad he is ^f-gjr sdnghut, and to the west generaUy 



WEDDING CEREMONIES GENERALLY. 359 

'^Kv^ ardhua or nmt bhatar. A child brought forth by the widow 
previous to the ceremony is TTas^wrr^^T pachhlagwa or ^sis(zx kathbeta, 
or in South .Bhagalpur ^ H '^A f lahheta. The second maxriage of a 
Musalman widow is '^^S^ ^T^ akad sani or fif^il-^ nikah. 

1280. A Ae/jf-M/oman, who lives with a man without marriage, 
is t§f%^ rakhelin, T^^ rakJieli, or K^r^ rakhni. Other names are 
T^ randi, '9^^ urharhi or ^f^ urhari, and ^ti-wl dhemni. ft<rc<«f 
suraitin is used in South-West Shahabad. 

1281. The bridegroom is -s^^t <^«/H ^ iasr, ^it ««««« or sn^ 
naushe. Also, south of the Granges, nvrr^ gabhru. In East Tirbut 
the forms f^f^^T bikhiya avii f%$^T bikheya are current. The bride's 
people call the bridegroom rj f <<t r fon&a or ■^a^T betwa. 

1282. The bride is ^-f^if dulliin or cfi^^f kanedn, also in 
South Bhagalpur ^=ifT^ kanyain. The bridegroom's people call her 
<«)n.*^ fen7«, ^T/f%ifi' larkini, or ^feiiT betiya. 

1283. The dowry is ^%3r /«%' or ^%a} tfo^'. In South-East 
Tirhut it is sr^ jaituk. 

1284. The marriage settlement amongst Musabnans is n^^^ 
%si mohar den north, and ^^r fl'^x: dain maliar south of the Granges. 



CHAPTER II.— WEDDING CEREMONIES GENERALLY. 

1285. The proposal for a boy in marriage by the girl's relations 
or vice versa is amongst Hindus ■•(^.•dT bartui or a^^r^^ bardekhi, 
or in Shahabad ^1^ barekhi. In South Munger it is sometimes i^jt^ 
panhatti. In Patna it is occasionally ^>Tir 'ff'^' babhan puchchhi. 
Amongst Musalmans the name for a proposal is flm««(fi nisbat. 

1286. The match-maker, who conducts the preliminary negoti-" 
ations, is everywhere '^^^T agua. In North and East Tirhut he is also 
■^^^ ghatak. The barber and Brahman, who are messengers, aud 
sometimes negotiators, in the matter, are called collectively •rr^r KT^pr 
naua brahman. The searching for a boy in marriage is north of 
the Granges, to the west, ntii<*T ^Y^ larika khbj, in South-Tirhut 
'K'd'^l'C^ bartuhdri or ^'^rr^^T ^fT^ sudhabadha karab, while in North- 
Bast Tirhut it is %^n *K^ katha karab. South of the Granges it 
is. ^I'fj^K bartuMr. Most of these . words, however, include the 



360 BIHIr PEASAJfT LIFE. 

preliminary negotiations, when a suitable boy has been found If, 
during the negotiations, a member of the bride's house visits the bride- 
groom's, or vice versd, the food givec him to eat is called ^T?^^ tr WW 
bartuhi ke bhat. The first food given to him after the marriage \mder 
similar circumstances is «r«iTia hJmthkhai. 

1287. The betrothal consists in paying the fH^r^ tilak on the 
occasion of the formal proposal and acceptance of the proposal of 
marriage. This f?i^* tilak is a present made to the bridegroom's people 
by the bride's people in the bridegroom's house. Some castes pay a 
portion of this in advance, as a sort of retaining-fee to secure the bride- 
groom ; and when this is done, it is called tB^^^rT phalddn, w*t chlienka, 
or ■^ W^TT bar chhenka. In Saran and Champaran it is also called 
^■^■^T barachchha, in South-East Tirhut ''f*(^f\ pancharhi, and in South 
Bhagalpur M«iv2t^ pantohi. 

1288. The man -who carries the ^^rr chhenka is the W^^t^ 
chenkdhru north of the Granges. South of the Granges he is W?R^^ 
chhenkdhri, or in South Munger ir^Tcrff mahton. 

1289. The period of marriage ceremonies dates from the present- 
ing of the ft^^ tilak, and is called g^M lagan, or in East Tirhut 
•^1^ sudh. 

1290. The marriage procession is ^ft^Trf bariyat. Sometimes 
the Hindi form ^KT»f barat is used. When it remains at the house of 
the bride a day after the wedding, the halt is called ^jxtott^ marjdd. 
When a bride's father is unable through poverty to defray the expenses 
of the marriage, and he sends her to the bridegroom's house for 
the performance of the ceremony, she is called ^^t karhui, ^^^t 
karMa, or ^^ ^^i; dol karhui. The marriage procession is the first 
formal visit of the bridegroom to the bride's house. 

1291. The second visit, which consists in the ceremony of going 
to the bride and bringing her home to her husband's house for the 
consummation of the marriage, is iRnrr gawna, jrw gawan, or i^srr 
gauna. In Bast Tirhut it is also 'SiHUTil durdgaman, and south of the 
Granges ^<HIH durdgaun. Another name is <1<».^i a1- roksati, T l^.^ i ^ 
roksaddi, rf^r^ift roskati, or Vt^^^'^ roskaddi (ty^^-j ). Yet another 
is ft^H^ biddgi. 

1292. If the bridegroom pays an intermediate visit, it 
is called in South-East Tirhut ^^umtjwc durdgnaghan. Immediately 



WEDDING CEREMONIES GENERALLY. 361 

before the final visit to fetch the bride, a message is sent to the bride's 
house with some presents, to announce the approaching of the time for 
the visit. The presents are called '^^IK near, and the persons who 
carry them ^-^X'^T^T neardharua. The persons who actually fetch 
the bride are <3l^T^^ lautahar, ^v:k%k neotahar, ^'tiT%X Uiahar, or 
■fe^T^T liawan, or in South Bhagalpur ^^^^ levari. 

1293. The newly-am'ued bride is called ift^ii'5^ gaunahri. In 
Bast Tirhut she is also called ?s^Tft«r hahudsin. The male members 
of her party are ^^«iT''?T lohidM, and the females ^ft^-'fl't lokni or 
^"t^r^TEtT lokaniya. 

1294. After consummation of marriage, the first and second uisits 
of the bride to her parents' house are called ^'^^>^^ roksati, &c., as 
above. The second oisit of the bride to her husband's house is ^fjir 
dunqa, and her third visit is ^TT tenga. Her subsequent visits to 
her husband's or her parents' house are called TNii^<ft' roksati, 
f^^ U\ ^ bidagi, ft^'Pl'?'^ liddgri, '^^si ir^'i awan gawan, ^stt 
^Si:t ahura bahura, ^"^^ ^^^ ahor bahor, •^TKI ^T^ aura baura, or 
^T?;^ VT^ ail gail. 

1295. A married girl in her father's house is called by her people 
^t dal, iff dhi, ^^t babiii, or 5^Tf%f sudsin. When a wife is in her 
father's house, and her husband wishes her to return, he sends a 
messenger (generally a barber by caste) to summon her, who is called 
■$an^fsi^ pethwdniya. 

1296. Tlh.&a father-in-law's houses are called by bride and bride- 
groom respectively ^^TTX: sasurar. The educated also use the Hindi 
word ^SK'ra sasural. In East Tirhut it is called ^T%X sdsur, and in 
Shahabad sometimes '^^Ki sasura* 

1297. The wife's parents' house is called by her in Patna and 
South Hunger srPfXT nahira or H*T maika, and in South Bhagalpur 
ii'^iKf nehra. Elsewhere she calls it ^"^K naihar. 

1298. The husband's or wife's maternal grandmother's house is 
called by bim or her siT-fl^'rra' nanlhdl, ift^^ nanihal, siPiTI^ nanUidr, 
sifi^K nanihar, or srfsi^TtT naniaura. Other names are iW^?^ mamhar, 
and (in East Tirhut) mf^ matrik. 

1299. The husband's or wife's paternal grandmother's house is 
his or her ^T^'^^ dddlhdl, ^f^f^'rar dadihdl, -^f^TTK dadihdr, ■^f^'ST 



* A man in his father-in-law's house is always made much of, and fed well ; 
henee in thieves' jargon a jail is called (let us hope sarcastically) ^r'^ir sasurar. 



362 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



dadihar, or ^f^'^iTT dadiaura. Another name current in East Tirliut 
is "^fk^ paitrik, while in South Bhagalpur they say '^■<r^^ haphar. 

1300. Their maternal uncle's houses are his or her «*j«-^< mamliar 
or irg^T mamuhar. So also the paternal uncle's house is ^^KTK sasur&r. 

1301. The paternal grandfather's house is (north of the Ganges) 
ajiaura. 

1302. The father of the bride and the father of the bridegroom 
call each other 's^Tf'iV samdhi. Their wives call each other ^^irfi^ 
samdhin. 



^fevKT ( 



CHAPTEE III.— SPECIAL WEDDING CEREMONIES AMONGST 

THE HINDUS. 

1303. Marriage ceremonies vary somewhat according to locality 
and caste. The following is mainly a description of such a wedding 
as might take place in the house of a well-to-do goala in Patna, see 
§ 1353. When the marriage has been agreed upon, the father of the 
bridegroom visits the father of the bride, and each provides a few hand- 
fuls of paddy (tjtt dhdn). These are mixed together, and then divided 
between the two fathers by a Brahman, and the bridegroom's father 
takes his share home. This ceremony is called *)•(•«( st dhanbatti. 
This paddy is reserved to be parched in the ehulha whidh will be subse-. 
quently mentioned. 

1304. Then the females of the bride's family perform the 
^^TRf chumatran or ^prfTT chumauna ceremony. In this five women 
take rice between the thumbs and forefingers of both hands and touch 
in order her feet, knees, and shoulders with it. They then put it on her 
head. To perform this ceremony is '^^ttP'^ chumaeb. 

1305. On the fifth or eighth day before the expected arrival of 
the wedding procession, the following preparations are made in the 
bride's house. If they take place five days previously, they are called 
VgTWi'CT pachmangra ; if eight days , %|d»«Ji.<.| athmangra. 

1306. The ceremony called ^izi^tfi^T matkonca. — The women 
of the family, and their friends^ go singing to a well. They level 
a piece of ground near the well and smooth it down with ^rra 
^IT^ Idl mdti, a kind of yellow clay which is generally found 
immediately over gravel. They then dig a clod up out of it, 
and carry it home on the Head of one of them. They make a 



SPECIAL WEDDING CEREMONIES AMONGST THE IIINDDS. 363 

fireplace, ^^S?T chulha, of tliis mud in tlie centre of the court-yard 
or ^TTVH dngan. In South Bhagalpur they set up a plantain-tree and a 
bamboo in the courtyard, under which they place the mud. 

] 307. The day before the expected arrival of the marriage proces- 
sion, the family sets up a bamboo shed in the court-yard over the 
fireplace. This shed is called u^.'«(r marhwa, ^•^•«<i irianrwa, or vt^t 
mdnro, also in South Hunger »re^^ »«a;7<j, and in South Bhagalpur w^ti 
mandap. The same day a potter brings an earthen pot, called ^raP^T 
kalsa, with a four- wicked lamp, called '^T¥'3 chaumukh,.on its top. This 
is placed in the house where the family god is placed for the purposes 
of the marriage. This house is called 'SBt^^K kohhar. According to 
some the pot is placed at once in the Tff^TT marhica. 

1308. A plough-shaft (^ft^ haris), a plough-yoke (TRTf pdlo), 
and some bamboo twigs (^iX^^/carcAt), are then buried in the ground in 
the centre of the tid««<i marhwa. Then five men bring out from the 
^>?T^K kohhar the qra^^T kaha, and place it under the ♦tc.qi marhwa 
in front of the bamboo twigs. The father of the bride then anoints 
the four posts of the tts?^ marAwa with "^ghyu (clarified butter) , and on 
each the mother applies some vermilion (5^< senur). The name of 
this ceremony is ■sf^T'^ ghyudhdri or ^ST^ dhidhdri. In South 
Bhagalpur it is fsrsirl ghidhari. At the same time worship is offered 
to the progenitors of the family, which is called ws^'j^T mantri 
puja. Then five men take turmeric ('^<»<»l hardi), oil (^ tet)^ and 
duh grass (f;^ dubi), which they scatter on the bride's forehead. This 
is called "^K^i^ ^TTjr^ hardi charhdeb. Then women anoint her body 
with oil and turmeric. This is called >d«(.i.| ubtan, &c. ; see § 1342. 

1309. Next day, before the arrival of the procession, the paddy 
saved from the g «).»)^ dhanbaiti is parched in the fireplace imder the 
M4"H marhwa. This is prepared for the ceremony of ^T^T f*2T^ 
Idwa chhitdi (see § 1332), at the time of the marriage circumambu- 
lation. The fireplace is then put to one side. 

1310. Next follows the ceremony of swallowing the mango fibre. 
This is called ■3;??i^ ■yT^ri; imli ghontdi. In South Bhagalpur a similar 
ceremony is called ^w^td^ ^Z^ amlo ghotan. An elder male of the 
mother's family (usually her brother) puts into her left hand a present 
of money or ornaments. The barber's wife then gives him the 
centre fibre of one of the mango leaves hanging up in the 
«Ti^T marhica, which he presents to the mother's mouth. The mother 
then bites a small piece off this and deposits it in the hollow 



364 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

of her own right hand, into which the elder male pours a little 
water. The piece of fibre is called wfK«T kharika, firsi^^r tinka — , 
or ^isft danti. This the mother holds over her daughter's head and 
gulps (^^ ghontab, to gulp) it aU down. The elder male then says 
to her, " Art thou cool {i.e., pleased) ? {^W% juraila)," to which she 
replies " I am cool (^Tf ^ jurailin)." 

1311. Wedding wreaths of mango leaves, flowers, &c., are hung 
over the door, and about the w?^^ mnrhwa. These are, north of the 
Ganges, ^•<.^«(|< bandnewar or ^ip^TK banwdr. South of the Granges 
they are ♦k.i.^ih. bandanicdr, and in South Munger %^T ghera. In 
South Bhagalpur mango branches are hung about the house, and are 
called qwt pallo. 

1312. In the bridegroom's house, before the marriage procession 
starts for the marriage ceremony, very similar ceremonies are gone 
through; the ^tZ '^I^ ^T mathorwa is performed. A H.'^fT chulha is 
made in the court-yard. The plough-shaft, yoke, and bamboo twigs 
are buried, and the earthen pot with lights is set up. Only no 4j<^><4| 
marhwa is built. The ceremonies of ^^WT*iT chumauna and T'C?^ ^<fiir«j 
hardi ckarhdeb are performed on him, as is done to the bride. 

1313. The paddy reserved from the t4<l««ll1 dhanbatti is parched 
in the i:^T chullia. This parched grain is taken with the wedding 
procession, and mixed with that parched in the bride's house, and with 
it scattered at the eircumambulation (§ 1332). 

1314. They then cover him with cosmetic (g^^zsr ubtan, &c., see 
§ 1342), and his nails are cut by a barber's wife, he sitting in front of 
his mother, and his mother wearing the maur (see § 1326). This, 
as in the bride's case, is called M'^^ nahchhu (see § 1326). The 
ceremony of i^J'tsTt ^f^n; imli gliontdi is also observed (see § 1310). 

1315. He is then bathed and anointed, and sets out with the 
marriage procession. A little of the water in which he was bathed 
is brought with him. This is called 'fir^ % tnfii sineh he pani. He is 
not allowed to bathe again vrntil the '^«rr^ chauthari (see § 1340). 
When the marriage party arrives at the bride's house, this water is 
given to her mother, and at the time of the girl's «T^^ nahchhu, 
the barber's wife wiU mix it with other water, and bathe the bride 
with it immediately before cutting her nails. 

13 16. The first scattering of rice.— When the bridegroom arrives 
at the door of the bride's house, the women of her family receive him, 



SPECIAL WEDDING CKREMOKIES AMONGST THE HINDUS. 365 

and scatter over him uncooked rice, the dung of a heifer, halls of cooked 
rice, and other articles. A married woman of the family then takes a 
brass pan (^'fi' chhlpi or m^ thari) and a small lamp (^NjT d'lya) and 
gives them to the bridegroom ; and then, holding two corners of her 
mantle (■^•(•Ct c/iunri), touches with them the pan, then the boy's fore- 
head, and then her own. This is called ilr^^sT parichhdwan, ■"jfT^^r 
parichhan, v,\"ii l^«r parcliliawan, ^x^^^ parchlian, or '<\Xjw\^ parchhauni. 
A similar ceremony is called in South Bhagalpur »i^7%^ galsedi. 

1317. The ceremony of the pestle. — The girl's mother then rubs 
in the palm of her hand a curry pestle (^ST lorha), which she 
applies to the cheeks of the bridegroom. Tiiis is called irra' ^^ 
gal senki. This custom is not known in South Bhagalpur. Instead 
there is performed a ceremony called ■^^T dhua. A man disguises 
himself as a woman and approaches the wedding party with a jar of 
waAer. He says he is a woman of KamrQp fAssam) come to give away 
the bride. He theu sprinkles water on the bridegroom. (Compare § 1320.) 

1318. The marking of the bridegroom's forehead with sandal 
paste before marriage is fri^* tilak or fsrw^ tillak. In South Bhagalpur 
it is "^s^ chandan. This is done by a man called in the west 
f^q)..t ^i^ tilkahru, and in the east fk^^M^^'^ tUakdeua or falVfti^T 
tiUUya. He is generally the bride's father. This tilak is quite distinct 
from the tilak paid at the time of proposal of marriage. 

1319. These ceremonies at the door are called collectively ^^i^ 
■^mx dudr puja. In South Bhagalpur they are known as ^"^K «si<lH>_ 
duar lagai. Those described above are those performed by goalas 
in Patna. Other castes have other customs, — the higher ones 
contenting themselves with giving presents to the bridegroom and 
scattering rice (■^'^'JT achchhat) over him. 

1320. The wedding procession then proceeds to put up in a 
place set apart for them. This is called ai^^flrr janicdnsa or (in 
North-East Tirhut) '5^^*'^ haithki or ^m^K bdsgJiar, and in South 
Bhagalpur si^htqt janmdsa. A male member of the bride's 
family (generally her sister's husband) then brings to the arsr^^T^T 
janicdnsa a bowl of sweet drink or sharhat, called i^T dhua, and 
covered with a red cloth. He also brings some urid {doHchos pilosus) 
flour mixed up with finely-powdeied pepper. This is called ^^^T 
bukua. On his arrival at the sjiTi^gT janwama he scatters this in the air, 
causing the bridegroom's party to sneeze. He then gives all those 

47 



366 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



present to drink of the s/iarbat. The whole ceremony is called ^fi'^T 
«^K bukua urai. A similar ceremony is called, north of the Gauges, 
^5|TW« dhurchhak, in -which water is sent in pitchers, and a little 
scattered over the party with mango sprays. 

1321. The barher now comes for the bridegroom's »i^ wasj/r or 
head-dress, as will be subsequently described, which ho takes away to 
the bride's house. 

1322. When all is ready the friends of the bridegroom leave the 
smT^t^T janic&ma with great pomp, carrying with them the presents 
for the bride. Amongst these is a valuable cloth, culled cR^^iTic 
kaneai, or in South Bhagalpur fV^«ff bihauti, which is taken to the 
female apartments, and in which she is dressed. She is then brought 
out and made to sit in the v^7^ marhwa. This visit is called 
f*ift^f^ nirichchhan, ftr'^T nirachchhan, or I^^twi nirchlmn, as the 
bridegroom's party see ( fsi^^^ nirekJmb, to see) the bride now for 
the first time. 

1323. Then the ceremony of making the bracelet is performed. 
The bridegroom and seven other men husk paddy in a mortar. When 
husked, two or three grains are wrapped up in mango leaves to form 
a kind of bracelet. Two of these bracelets are made, and one is tied 
on to the bridegroom's right wrist, and the other on the bride's left 
wrist, by a Brahman. These bracelets are called sfi-'f^ kangan or w^^ 
kankan. The ceremony is called ■^2fiH: athongar, ^rif JIT athaungar, or 
(in Patna) ^'ffP'PC Mhaungar. 

1324. Then follows the adoration of the bride. In this ceremony 
the elder brother of the bridegroom (or in default of him some elder of 
the bridegroom's family) offers sweetmeats, molasses (^x; gur), and orna- 
ments to the bride. He then takes some betel-leaf and tyre (^^ dahi) 
in his right hand, and presses it against the bride's forehead, at the 
same time pressing his left hand against the back of her head. 

1325. These two ceremonies ars together called ^s?^ bandan, 
fSS-'^^ giirhatthi, or ^T^^*!^ gurhaUhan, and signify that he has touched 
her once for all, and that if he touch her again he will be guilty of a 
sin. In South Bhagalpur they are performed by the bride's sister, and 
both bride and bridegroom are adored. There the ceremonies are 
called ^rfVr guraundha. 

1326. Then the bride's mother sits in the ^re^TT marlum with the 
bride between her knees, holding her round the waist. The cere. 



SPECIAL WEDDING CEREMONIES AMONGST THE HINDUS. 367 

mony that follows is the cutting of the nails. This is called ff^^ 
nalichhu, •I'^^^T nalichhua, 'V^'^-^l sf^T^T nahchhua nahdwan, «r^*1^Jrr 
nahkatiya, or (in Shahahad) '•(■^•^'S-^ nahtungi. In South Munger 
it is ^sinf nar.hhtmas, and in South Bhagalpur ^^^T lauchhua. 
The bride's mother has previously sent (§ 1321) a barber (■^oji^j hajani) to 
the ^(^^i^ janxcansa to ask for the head-dresses. There are two head- 
dresses, — one worn by the bridegroom, which is made of talipot-leaves 
and is called ^^XK maur ; the other is worn by the bride, and is 
called ^Rp^ mauri, or (south of the Granges) <i^^t^ pattoasi, or xr^'nrpf^ 
p'ntmauri. The bride's head-dress is made of date-leaves. The 
barber brings these two to the bride's house aud puts the ^TT maur on 
the mother's head and the H^i'l mauri on the bride's head. Then the 
barber's wife ('^sjifiT'T hajamin) cuts the finger and toe-nails of both 
the bride and her mother (the bridegroom's having been cut before 
he left home). 

1327. The bridegroom's party then returns to the ^siraTwr 
janwama, and the bride goes inside the house and exchanges her 95^^T?; 
Icaneai for her wedding dress or f'T^'^ piUri (see § 1-348). The 
bridegroom is then sent for and is seated under the *ri^^T marhwa, and 
the father or elder male relation brings the bride and seats her beside the 
bridegroom uuder the *if^^ marhua, to his left. Some one belong- 
ing to the bride's famUy then goes inside and gets the bridegroom's 
maur from the bride's mother, and brings it out, and it is put on the 
bridegroom's head. 

1328. Then the marriage service is read by the Brahman. This 
is called T5ir^=^ shumangali or ^^-^<^ swnangaU. The bride- 
groom sits under the »Tf^^ marhwa in front of the bride. The father 
of the bride sits kneeling on one knee, keeping the bride sitting on 
his other thigh. This is the ceremony of giving the girl in marriage, 
and is called <^-^m{\ ^^ kaiiean dan or gif^T (siT^ or wft^) ■§^iRr 
jdiigha {jangh or janghiya) baisaeb. 

1329. It is not necessary to describe particularly the procedure 
carried out by the officiating Brahman. He recites (or is supposed to 
recite) verses from the Vedas, and leads in various acts of worship, such 
as throwing incense on the fire, throwing rice (^^w achchhaf) about, 
worshipping Grauri, and the like. At one period the Brahman puts into 
the bride's father's hand a shell containing water, flower, achchhat, 
and metal, and makes him empty it round the base of the earthen pot 
^i^(T¥T tete on the top of which the lamp with four lights (called 



368 BIHA.B PEASANT LIFE. 

i^ ^ jj jji chaumuhh) is burning. He makes liiiu do this five or seven times. 
This completes the ceremony of ^^^T ^M Jcanean dan. 

1330. From the time of the arrival of the ^fw<T lariyat up to 
the completion of the ^^^f ^sr kanean dan, the father and mother of 
the bride can eat nothing. 

1331. Next follows the knotting together of the clothes of the 
bride and bridegroom. This is "afa ^^sr genth bandhan generally. South 
of the Ganges it is sometimes known as ^3 siW (lehth jor or ira^sitf^ 
gethjoran, and in South Bhagalpur as »pm '^^janam genth. At the same 
time something of small value, such as a two-ana piece or a few pice, 
or sometimes a piece of betel-nut, is tied in the bride's waist-band and 
in her breast-cloth by the Brahman. Sometimes an ornament is tied 
to the bride's sheet, which is called ^^^ Tra> (or ^^) anchri 
pdlo (or pallu). 

1332. The circumambulation of the sacrificial fire.— This is 
sometimes done by both bride and bridegroom, sometimes, e.g. 
in North-West Tirhut, by the bridegroom alone. . They or he carry 
a winnowing sieve. The bride holds it in her hands in front of her, 
and the bridegroom follows her with an arm passing round her on each 
side, also supporting the sieve. Her brother fills the sieve as they go 
alont' with parched grain prepared in the fireplace formerly under 
the 'Wf^T marhvca, which the bridegroom at the same time scatters 
by shaking the sieve with his hands (this is called ^mr fw^T?; 
lawa ehhitai or, in. Shahabad, ^ITT ftTTT^ lawa miraih). Care 
is taken to keep the sacrificial fire (when there is one) or the altar 
to the right.* It is considered unlucky for the girl to pass it to her 
left. This ceremony is called «f^T bhdfurar, v:^^^ bhaiiwri, w¥^ 
bhaunri, or ^fi «f^ sat bhaunri. It is also called ^f?[ ^^HJ«i 
bedi ghumaeb. This circumambulation is performed five times, and 
is the important part of the ceremony. The couple on its conclusion 
are fumigated with incense by the officiating Brahman. This is 
called '^TCar drat, ^TTScfi' drti, ^Tf-fTt agti, or ^fiii}-r^ agiydsi. In 
South Bhagalpur it is called '^tw liom. 

1333. When this is done, the bride's sisters and her brothers' 
wives amuse themselves by pushing the bridegroom about, and lifting 
him up by the ears. This last is supposed to be done five times, but 



* The reverse rule is observed by some castes when the horoscope makes out 
that it is necessary. 



SPECIAL WHEDDING CEREMONIES AMONGST THE HINDUS. 369 

is rarely done more than once. It will be seen that this is onl)' done 
by females. Amongst the Tirhutiya Brahmans and Ka^'asths, however, 
it is done by the bride's brother. The ceremony is called ^^* w^T?^ 
'331?^ harah haisdeb uthdlib. 

1334. This is followed by the application of uermilion. In this 
the bridegroom takes a small cup containing vermilion in one hand, and 
applies vermilion to the parting of the bride's hair with a piece of 
hemp. This is called %^T ^•f senur dan or f%^§;K ^Tsr sindiir dan. 

1335. Tile stopping at tlie door. — The couple then leave the court- 
yard and go into the house where the family deity is put. This house 
is called ^irt^.^T kolibar, or in South Bhagalpur ^ft^vxTS kohbara. 
At the door they are stopped by the sister of the bride, who requires 
.the bridegroom to repeat certain verses, called ■^^^T duraundh, or "^^m 

duraundha. The bridegroom demands a present for doing so, and on 
this being given he repeats the verses. This ceremony is called 
■^^TPC W^? duar chhenkai or '^^IT W^f^ dudr clilienkauni. 

1336. The stealing of the shoes. — The bridegroom takes off his 
shoes before entering the house. If he is silent or is too nervous to 
speak much, the bride's sister may, as a joke, steal his shoes while he is 
inside, and conceal them, somewhere, in order to compel him on his 
reappearance to speak, and say " where are my shoes ? " This cere- 
mony is called ^cTT "^XKJX. juta choral. In South Bhagalpur they 
make the bridegroom bow to a pair of shoes covered with cloth, and 
the ceremony is called ^BT ■i[\-^^r^ix.juta gor lagd'i. 

1337. The couple then kneel facing the north-east, and perform 
the worship of the tutelary deity of the family, offerings being made 
to him at the same time. This is called ifK ^Jliy«( gor lagd'eb. The 
clothes of the bride and bridegroom are then untied, the promised 
presents given to the sister of the bridegroom, and the marriage is 
concluded, the bridegroom returning to the 55«jt^tVt janwdiisa, and 
the bride remaining in the house. 

1338. Shortly after the marriage, tliough this sometimes takes 
place the morning after, the bridegroom goes to his mother-in-law, who 
feeds him with rice-milk. After eating a little he sometimes takes the 
rest, dish and all, to the smWf^ junwdnsa, and finishes it there, or 
sometimes leaves it unfinished. This is called ^T f^^TST khzr khiydo 
or -frsuft «T»i biydhi bhat, or (iiT East Tirhut) *m^* malmak. 

1339. If the bride's people invite the bridegroom's people to stay 
over the night, it is called ?lT7ajT?J KT^^ marjdd ydkhab. This may last 



370 



BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 



for two or three days or more. On the expiry of the period of n^ran? 
marjdd, the bride's people see the bridegroom's party off. This is called 
Vt^^^ftr ^fr^^ roskati kari deb, &o., as in § 1291. In South Bhagalpur 
it is also called ^"l^.tsTi lotli. It is managed as follows : The bride's 
family collects in the court-yard all the presents received from the bride- 
groom's party, and with the assistance of village friends assesses their 
value. All this time the bridegroom's party is away in the 3ra«^f^ 
janwansa. When the value has been assessed, the bride's father collects 
on his side presents to the value of at least one-fourth greater value than 
those received, and takes them to the ^^^r^^^■[ janiodnsa. These return 
presents constitute the dowry, and are called the ^%W dahej. The bride's 
father lays them before the bridegroom's. Then the bridegroom's father 
takes a new cloth ( "^^ chaddar) and puts it on the bride's father. The 
bride' s father in return presents the bridegroom's father with a purse 
of money of the value of the cliaddar. Then both saldm to eacb other. 
Then the bride's father, in token of allowing the other to depart, 
presents him with a sum of money varying according to means, and 
a lota of water, saying " Km Km ram ram," to which the other replies 
in the same words. This ceremony is called K»n^*3]^ ramrammi, flW*! 
mllan, fir^^ milni, or ^^r^^ fH^T^T samdhl milawa. The two 
fathers are now, by relation, ^f.-^ samdhi to each other, and in 
token thereof they exchange cloaks and garlands. These exchanged 
cloaks and garlands are called ^W^^ sanidho. Amongst lower castes, 
as the procession is about to start, the bride's father gives each 
member money sufficient for the way expenses and drink, called ^2.«T^ 
Sflfean, and in South Bhagalpur M^'^f^ pdthak. Then the procession, 
bridegroom and all, goes off. 

1340. The untying of the bracelets.— YouT A&js after the mar- 
riage the bride and bridegroom bathe, and the bracelets on their 
two wrists are taken off. This ceremony is called ^"Wn^ or "^*t3TT^ 
chauthari or '^K^ chaturthi. This is the first washing the bride- 
groom and bride get from the time of the arrival of the procession 
before the marriage. During the interval they have been anointed with 
cosmetics, ^^«tiT uhtan, &c. ; see § 1342. Usually this is done in their 
respective houses, but in Patna the bridegroom sometimes goes to the 
bride's house to perform the ceremony. This concludes the marriage 
proceedings. 

1341. Miseellan' ous. — The wedding breakfast is (north of the 
Granges) Wt kalau or fl»iP?ft majhni. South of the Granges, in Shahabad 
it is T^f^Ti 2Mnghat, and elsewhere ift'^T goraudha or ^^^ guiaudha. 



SPECIAL WEfiDlMG CEREMONIES AMOKGST THE HINDUS. 371 

The feast at the houses of both parties the day before the marriage 
processiou is ^wi^st bhatwan, v^^-[^ bhaticdni, or wtsr bhoj. Before 
eating the guests wash their feet, and the ceremony is called ""IT ■q^'Pa 
pair pakhdri,^X'^^^^J pair pahharua, vi^-f^X^ pauio pahhdri, ift^ >?t?: 
gor dhoi, or iftfi^t^T?; gordhoai. 

1340. The cosmetic of turmeric, meal, oil, &c., rubbed on the 
bride and bridegroom for about ten days before marriage, is north of 
the Ganges ■^'^•zsr dbtan, and in East Tirhut ^^l•^H ugtan, *iJK kasdr, 
or sfiT^r k&sa. South of the Ganges we find ^^^^«r uhtan or (in Patna) 
iil«l«'i«( ohtan very generally used ; also ^T^s dnvcat and ■^'T J" aptan in 
Shababad, <3^Ta;r uktan in South Hunger, and ^T^ kasa, ^^fTT 
kasdra, or y^-vs'sr utJcan in South Bhagalpur. 

1343. The horoscopes of the boy and girl are everywhere sj^iw 
■qTHK jaiiam pair or ^nfi Mtj-Cl jnnam patri. Also, very generally^ 
^hfii t'lpan. In West Shahabad they are also ^i^-isn kundli. If they 
agree, the phrase wh««11 ^^^ gamm banab, or sffT ft^T? jog milab, or 
Tre ^TT ■^^ ^^ rds barag bais gel, is used. To calculate the horoscope 
is fim^ ginab, or orTir liKgrTy^ jog milaeb, or f^ ^a^ erk^ rfm gunni 
karab, or ^»m J'^ babhan puchchhi. 

1344. When the auspicious day for the marriage has been 
fixed, an announcing letter is sent to the bridegroom's father. This 
is known as the ^niT ^^ lagan patri, or simply as the t^f\ chitthi. 
The formal invitation to the wedding is ^-^fiT mnwta or -^^MfT neota, 
or (in Bast Tirhut) «rwiT naxcat. 

1345. 77?e /east ^/t;e/? fo the brotherhood at the wedding is 
known as >T?:^tTT bhdidra, wi^^^ bhdidri, v^^at bhdidre, *i?;'gTVf 
bhdichdro (Shahabad), m^^ixjeondr, or ^toi bhoj. 

1346. In North-East Tirhut, amongst certain castes, especially 
the Bikaua (ft^T^T) Brahmans, easfe /wone^ is paid as follows. If 
the bride's father is of lower caste than the bridegroom's father, the 
latter pays the former a sum in compensation called ^'f^f ^Tf kanedn 
dan. In South Bhagalpur this is called fi^ main. If the bridegroom's 
father is of lower caste, he pays the bride's father a sum of money 
called fi?^i^ bikri. 

1347. The presents given are as follows :— ^^ sanes, srai ddla, 
or ^T^r '^^ <I'^J daura, are the presents sent by the bridegroom before 
the arrival of the procession. ^%5f dahej, as already explained, is 
the dowry paid by the bride's father. Before the bridegroom leaves 
after the welding, he goes to bid his mother-in-law good-bye. She 



372 BIHia PEASANT LIFE. 

and the other women give him presents, which are called ^gTWT salami. 
Other similar presents are in South Hunger -grsi puran, and in 
South Bhagalpur -^Nr chnunk. f^^T^T nichhdwar, fk^j^X. nichhaiir, 
or w^^^^WT^T ncochhaicar, are presents made to the harher and his wife. 
^^Tsr gaiddn or irT^T«i gauddn is the present of a cow made by the girl's 
father to the family priest (-v^^tf^ parohit, or (in East Tirhut) ^OHsfl 
purohit or ^^Twac/idrj). ^^T?^ gurhatthi has already been mentioned 
as the ceremony of giving presents to the bride by the bridegroom's 
elder brother (§ 1325). JTf^t^TT mohdekhdi, ^'sf^ mwdel-hnuni, or 
■^■^ mudekhi, are the presents given to the bride by her mother-in-law 
or other female relatives of the bridegroom on her first coming to her 
husband's house. 

1348. The fr^^ piiiri, ■'fi^ inri, or (in South Bhagalpur) 
«ti fi i*^^ kaniaiti, is the bride's yellow dress, and ^^t^K kanhdwar or 
^^^'T kandhaioar is a red loin-cloth laid upon the bridegrom's 
shoulder during the ceremony. 

1349. Bringing the bride home. — This is Ji-prr gauna, &a., vide 
§ 1291. The procedure is as follows : — When the bride is old enough 
to live with her husband, an auspicious day is fixed. Some days 
before the date, the bridegroom's family send a present of sweetmeats, 
called J^T If 'B'^TKT gauna ke nedra. On the evening of the 
appointed day the bridegroom and his party arrive, and after feasting 
go off with the bride at dawn next day. The day before, a plough- 
shaft ( '^K'^ haris) , but no yoke or bamboo twigs, has been buried in 
the court-yards of each of the respective families. Before the bride and 
bridegroom start, their nails are cut. This is called «r^ %wrx. mih 
chhachhdi or ^Y? fif^rrt noli chhilai. "With the party the bride's people 
send one or more gaily-decorated earthen vessels full of sweetmeats, 
called frax kunda or ^nt mahar. 

1350. When the party arrives at the bridegroom's house, the bride 
passes from the litter to the door, putting her feet into a basket at each 
step. This is called ^7^ «■ iftX ^K^ daura men gor ddrab or ^T^^T^ 
ghar paisdri. 

1351. On entering the dwelling the couple go into the house where 
the family god is, and worship him. This is called aftK ^TTipf^ gor 
lag deb. 

1352. As they go into the house, another ceremony, called ^^IK 
^*TC dudr chhenkd'i, is performed. In this the bridegroom's sister 



-«» 



SPECIAL WEDDING CEREMONIES AMONGST THE HINDUS. 373 

demands a present, and when it is given or promised she allows them 
to pass. 

1353. On certain ceremonies performed by Soti Brahmans of East 
Tirhut. — Different castes and different localities have various marriage 
customs, but the one just descrihed may fairly he taken as a standard 
Hindu marriage ceremony. It desorihes a marriage such as would take 
place in a well-to-do goala's house in the district of Patna. 

1354. The Soti Brahmans of East Tirhut have several curious 
marriage customs which have existed for many hundred years, some of 
which will now be noted. The greatest care is kept in keeping up 
correct genealogies of members of this clan. The genealogical registers 
are called tifo?t panji, and they are kept up by hereditary genealogists 
called •q^ftjfnr panjiyar. Once a year or oftener there are great meetings 
of these Brahmans at Saurath, near Madhubani, and other places, where 
the panjiyctrs assemble and write up the registers. They also arrange 
marriages after consulting their registers, and give certificates to 
the parents certifying that the marriage is lawful, and that the parties 
are not within prohibited degrees of affinity. These certificates are 
called nit^tK m^T adhikar mala or ^^sjsr ?^ asvjan pair. The 
settlement of the conditions of marriage is called f^fcT sidhant. 

1355. When the bride is of equal or higher caste than the 
bridegroom, the parties meet in a distant place away from both their 
homes, and the conditions are proclaimed by the panjiyars present. 
If, however, the bride is of lower caste, the following procedure is. 
adopted : — 

The bride and her family leave their house and going a little 
distance off erect a ^^^ marhwa for the marriage ceremony. On the 
day appointed for the wedding, the bridegroom starts from his home with 
his servants under the pretence that he is going out hunting. None of his 
relations accompany him, and although they, of course, really know for 
what he is starting, they pretend to be ignorant. "When he arrives 
within a little distance of the «5t^ marAira, he stops, and then the sidhant 
is proclaimed. By this time the marriage preparations are ready, and 
the bride's brother comes to him and conducts him to the appointed 
place. On his arrival at the door the bride's female relatives, each 
being called for this purpose a ft^^^i^ bidhkari, catch hold of his nose 
with one hand, and with the other hold a sheet tied round his neck. 
In this condition they bring him into the »?f^i marhwa, and there the 
marriage is performed. 

48 



374 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

1356. After a time the bridegroom's friends pretend that he has 
been lost in his hunting expedition, and send a man called the 
^sr srautra to look for him. He returns shortly afterwards, and 
informs them that the bridegroom has married so and so, whereupon 
they all fall to and abuse him. After abusing him they change their 
minds and reward him. 

1357. At the marriage a barber ties some paddy in a knot in the 
bridegroom's waist-cloth (irl<^ dhoti) . This is called ajirw "Sffa janam 
genthi. This is not untied until the fourth day after marriage, which 
is by this sect called the ^gr^ chaturthi. 

1358. Another ceremony is the ^^if dasaut. In this a profes- 
sional dancer (fl^r natua) comes up to the bridegroom and offers him 
sham sweetmeats (^1 laddu) , in return for which be receives presents. 
After this the bride and bridegroom go into the ^t^^K kohhar to worship 
the family god. On tie way the bride's female relations set up shops 
of paltry articles, which the bridegroom is obliged to buy. 

1359. Another ceremony is w*jv<t,-^ ghaskatti. In this the bride- 
groom cuts some grass for his father-in-law, and in return the latter 
promises to give him a horse, 



CHAPTEE IV.— MARRIAGE CEREMONIES AMONGST 
THE MUSALMaNS. 

1360. The writer is indebted to Kazi Sayyad Eaza Husain of 
Patna City for the following facts : — 

1361. Amongst Mu^almans there are two kinds of marriage 
ceremonies, — 'sjTt: ( t5*j"" ) sharal and^V^ft (ts*^* ) 'urfi, or religious and 
ceremonial. The more strict and educated members of the community 
follow the former, and the common people the latter. 

1362. ■J^ ( ts^j-" ) sliarai marriages are entirely free from cere- 
monies of any kind. After the betrothal the marriage is performed in 
strict conformity with the sacred law. The amount of dowry (^x%x 
.(_;*«) maliar) is not fixed, but depends on the pecuniary circumstances 
of the parties. Immediately after the man-iage, the wife goes to her 
husband and is settled for life. 

1363. ^K?^ ( ts^j* ) itrji marriages are not so frequent as they 
used to be. The spread of education and railw5iys has tended to make 
people stricter in their religious duties, but, specially amongst the lower 



MARRIAGE CEREMONIES AMONGST THE MUSALMiNS, S75 

orders, the following ceremonies are still in vogue. In these marriages 
the dowry (v^x (^«) mahar) is always fixed. In the cities it is fixed at 
one lakh of rupees, and in the villages at forty-one thousand rupees 
and one dinar. This is the amount of dowry promised by even the 
poorest people. It is needless to say that it is never given. 

1364. Arranging the preliminaries, fim v ^ ^ { "^^ ) nisbat. — The 
parents first make themselves acquainted with one another's pecuniary 
circumstances, and the negotiations are carried on through a female 
match-maker (^IHNI (AtU*) mushata). When the preliminaries 
are settled, a letter of ceremony is sent by the guardian of the 
boy to the girl's family. This letter is written on red paper, or on 
white paper sprinkled with red. The carrier of the letter, on arrival 
at the girl's house, is given sharhat to drink, and detained for a day 
or two. The reply is written on similar paper and retiimed by him, 
and this correspondence settles the marriage question. From this time 
marriage presents are exchanged between the parties, the boy's 
guardian making the first present. If at this time any women come 
from the house of the bridegroom on a visit to the bride's house, 
the bride wiU not show her face to them. 

1365. In some places, before the marriage is decided on the 
girl's guardians first see the boy. This may be done in two ways : 
either the girl's people send for the boy to their house, and serve him 
with betel-leaf, and give him rupees or gold niohars, or else the 
guardian of the bride sends some relative to the boy's house. There, 
6n his arrival, he is given sharhat to drink, and the first thing given 
him to eat is sweetened rice { ^ifi^T MT^^ mltha chdilr). This relative 
reports concerning the boy to the girl's guardians. 

1366. Betrothal. — This is #ii^ ( ts*^** ) mangni. In this the 
boy's guardian, after consulting with the other party to the contract, 
fixes a date, on which he sends presents with considerable ceremony. 
Large coloured earthen pots are filled with sweetmeats and fruits, and 
sent with a large party, In some places a suit of clothes is also sent. 
The pots are carried on the heads of maid-servants, who sing songs 
■v^hen they start and when they approach the bride's house. As soon 
as they arrive they are given sharbat to drink, and while they drink 
the bride's people sing abusive and obscene songs to them. The 
persons that supply them with sharbat receive a small present. The 
maid-servants are also given sweetened rice to eat in a dish covered 
with silver leaves and pieces of fruit. Sometimes they are given 
sweetmeats to eat first and then dishes prepared with salt. They are 



376 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

detained for at least one day. When they leave the hride's house on 
their return journey, they are given presents in money and some- 
times suits of clothes. They are also given a plain ring («5WT chhalla), 
a red handkerchief, and some sweetmeats as presents for the bride- 
groom. 

1367. The letter of promise ^t^j mj ^wr {*^j^ ii>^ 3) wada ka 
rnJcka. — When the time of marriage approaches, the parties, either 
orally or in writing, fix a date for it. Afterwards a customary letter 
of promise is sent, written on red paper and sprinkled over with 
pieces of gold or silver leaf. The letter is to the effect that such and 
such a day has been fixed, and that the writer hopes that it will 
meet with approval. Amongst poor families, the letter is sent in a 
bag of red cloth or velvet, together with two betel-nuts, some green 
grass, one or two pieces of turmeric, and a little rice. Amongst rich 
families, the letter is sent in a silver or golden box. The box is 
placed inside an embroidered bag together with the betel-nuts, &c. 
The whole is sent on a silver plate. The letter is always carried by 
a barber, who is given a handsome present, consisting of cash, clothes, 
and utensils by the girl's guardian. The guardian sends a reply either 
through the same man or through a messenger of his own. A tailor 
is then sent by the girl's guardian to take the measure of the boy's 
dress. He also gets a present from the boy's people, on going away. 
The marriage must take place not more than two months after this 
correspondence. 

1368. The going into retirement of the bride and bridegroom 
tnv ( (loi^ ) mdyun or «f»«T ( U^l<) mdnjha. — After the interchange 
of letters, the bride and bridegroom sit in manjha. — The girl puts 
on a sheet dyed with safflower, and the women of the neigh- 
bourhood and her female relations assemble, and rub her with cos- 
metics ('3^^i^ uhtan), singing songs as they do so. From that day 
the girl sits in a room, and never leaves it except for necessary 
purposes. She does not see the face of any man, — not even of her father 
or her brother. She eats only mUk and fruits, and every day the 
barber's wife comes and applies cosmetic to her. In the meantime 
the boy is undergoing the same treatment. He wears similar 
dyed garments, is surrounded by females, and cosmetic is rubbed 
on his body every day. In South Munger he does not thus go into 
retirement. 

1369. The ceremony of the grindstone—'^ chakki— and the 
washing of the pulse — ^T^ Tpftt ( t^j-'^jM ) dal sho'i or ^^ tfti; dal dhdi- 



MARRIAGE CEREMONIES AMONGST THE MUSALMANS. 377 

Two or three weeks before the marriage a grindstone is put in one of the 
rooms of the female apartments of both the houses, which has been previ- 
ously weU cleaned. The following day a number of women assemble 
and singing, accompany the maid-servants who carry some mung 
{phaseolus mungo) to a well or river. Arrived there, they joke and 
sprinkle water on each other, whUe washing the grain. They then 
bring it back in the same way. It is dried in the sun, and ground 
into flour on the grindstone by seven women whose husbands are 
alive (^n-^ipifii sohagini). It is then made into a dish called ^^ bari 
for the ceremony of "^"^^ ( ^■iji'^) kanduri (see § 1377). 

1370. The cutting of the clothes. — This is called f%»iT ■RTTT^T 
( '^J*. ^ ) ^*^ pdrcha, and takes place in the bridegroom's house. 
Men and women are invited, songs are sung, and the tailor cuts out 
the marriage dress of the bride. When it is cut, all the men present 
congratulate the boy's guardian, and give the tailor a small present. 

1371. A similar ceremony takes place in the bride's house on the 
day of the marriage procession. There the bridegroom's wedding 
garment is prepared, and when it is being despatched to him the male 
friends of the family assemble imder a canopy in the female quarters. 
A few stitches purposely left unfinished in the bridegroom's drawers are 
then completed by the tailor, who gets some small fees from those 
present. This ceremony is called ^T^i (or, in South Mtmger, sttht ) 
X'^t'K ( ^j^. 3'*») sdj (or jama) beotab. 

1372. The vigil — Kd«aJ'Jil ratjagga. — This ceremony takes place 
in the houses of both parties. A spot in the house is washed, and a 
small wooden stool is placed therein. A new water-pot is placed on it, 
and is covered over with a new earthen cover. A red handkerchief is 
then tied on it. A garland of flowers is then placed round the neck of 
the pot, sweetmeats are cooked, and hymns sung entreating Grod to bless 
the bride and bridegroom. The women sit up the whole night near 
the water-pot, thereby intending to keep God awake. At dawn the 
sweetmeats and frwH ( *=y ) riham* and sharhat are offered to God. 
They are then distributed among the people. 

1373. The erection of the canopy— m^r^y^ ( ts^ij * u ^ saya- 
bandioT ^^T moMrhwa. — ^This takes place the day after the last 
ceremony. A canopy with four bamboo poles is erected in the female 
quarters. First, brown sugar is offered to the saint named Shakarganj, 
and then garlands are tied to each pole of the canopy. "When the ropes 
of the canopy are being tied, the sister of the bride or brideoroom 

* Kice-flour mixed with clarified butter, sugar, and milk, and made into balls. 



378 BIHAK PEASANT LIFE. 

or any near female relation cf the father of either, comes in and 
stops the work. The persons employed are not allowed to proceed 
till they have promised to pay her a sum of money. When the canopy 
has been safely erected, a paste of sandal powder is rubbed on the faces 
of those present. In some places, after the ierection of the canopy, a goat 
or a cow is sacrificed iii memory of the saint Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani, 
( ^^ j,il«Ji»v* ^^* )• The flesh of the animal sacrificed is cooked on 
the spot where it was killed, with rice and gram, in new earthen pots. 
When booked, it is offered in the name of the saint, and then eaten. 

1374. The same night another Ceremony takes place. A potter is 
brdered to make a small water-pot. This is coloured and painted with 
figureis of horses and elephants. It is called sR^pf^T kalsa. It is placed in 
the courtyard and covered with an earthen cover, on which ears of rice 
and mango leaves are put. A four- wicked lamp (^t5^ chaumidch) is kept 
burning on it every night. This pot is neither opened nor removed 
till the marriage ceremony is over. When it is first deposited, the 
women sing a song over it, the purport of which is, " We have shut 
up storm, rain, serpents, scorpions, and worms herein." 

1375. On the same night another ceremony, called f^^^ »r?r 
( ui^ J*a. ) chihal tan (forty persons), takes place. A number of beggars 
who play the drum and fiddle are invited, and towards the end of the 
night a pit, four or five feet wide and two or three feet deep, is dug under 
the canopy. In this pit large billets of wood are burnt, while tbe beggars 
play and sing hymns in honour of the same. When the fire begins 
to bum brightly, they one by one faJl upon it and extinguish it with 
their bare feet. Sometimes they carry the bridegroom in their arms 
while performing the ceremony. When it is over, fried gram and 
fried wheat mixed with sugar are offered to the forty saints. 

1376. The song of Balaimiyan. — This is called ifk ^T iwr 
(is^ ^ ji^) plr ka naija, or ^^ 'm^J (u>li«^'i) balai mlyan. Next day the 
females of the neighbourhood are invited ; a spot is washed beneath the 
canopy, and the green branch of a mango tree with leaves on it (or 
sometimes einiply a wooden stick 3 or 4 feet high) is erected therein. 
A red handkerchief dyed with safflower is spread over it. The women 
then sing the song of Bdlai Miydn. At the same time an "^ft^ 
ankhiya* is put in a new earthen pot, offered to the saint, and then 
distributed to the people. 

* A kind of cake made of wheat-flour and rice-flour and boiled in water. It 
is shaped like the eye, dnhhi : hence its name. 



MARRIAGE CEREMONIES AMONGST THE MUSALMANS. 379 

1377. Offering to deceased elders. — This is called '^■^f\ ( l?;}^^) 
kanduri or ^''K^ ^ gTisr* ( t-fi=^ ^/ ^^ ) blbi he sahmk, and takes 
place on the same night as the last ceremony. An earthen fireplace 
(T«fT chuUm) is prepared at home and placed beneath the canopy. The 
maid-servants go singing to fetch water, carrying several water-pots 
covered vdth red cloth, and accompanied by musical instruments. They 
must be married women of good character ; they may not be 
widows, or women who have married twice. In the water which 
they bring, rice, gram, mung (phaseolus mungo), fruits of the egg-plant, 
and ptmipkins, &o., are cooked. When cooked, first the ric^ is distributed 
on earthen plates, then on it the pulse, then a little tyre prepared 
specially for the occasion, and then the vegetables and cakes. On 
each plate one betel- leaf and one garland is laid. Iii some places only 
rice, curds, and sugar, &re put pn the plate, and this is called ^f^^ 
iS'j^O mlthi kanduri. These plates axe prepared in great number, and 
have been previously kept in a room washed for the purpose Then 
the plates are offered, first one in the name of the prophet, then one 
in tl}e name of his daughter £ibi Fdttna ( >*^^), then one each in the 
names of many saints, and then one each in the names of the deceased 
members of the family, so far as they can be remembered. Great 
care is taken to make offerings in the name of all of the last. After 
this the females of the neighbourhood and those related to the family 
who have been invited assemble in a place in the courtyard ('^firsr 
angan) of the house, which has been well washed for the occasion, and 
sing songs in the praise of Blhi Fdttna, and e^.t the offerings. No 
woman who has been married twice, or who is unchaste, dare efd, out pf 
these sacred plates. 

1378. The anointing. — S«r ^aiy*( tel charMeb. — This takes place 
in the houses of both the bride and bridegroom the day after the 
last ceremony. Each is made to kneel down on a wooden bench 
(^^ chauki), and a yellow cloth is thrown over him or her. Then 
seven married women (^rNrf^rfsf sohdyini) tie up seven cakes (^TT^ 
suhdh* and Tftar j>ltha) in a yellow handkerchief, and wave it round 
their heads. Then they anoint the whole body of the bride 
or bridegroom with oil. A small bundle is made up of mustard 
seeds tied up in a piece of yellow cloth, and then tied on the 
arm of the bride or bridegroom. This is called ^JItit MJ^n kangna 
hdiidhab. 



* A cake made of flour and turmeric and fried in clarified butter. 



380 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

1379. The marriage procession. — This is ^frsiT»r barit/dt, &o., as 
amono'st Hindus ; see § 1290. When the time for the departure of the 
brideffroom's marriage procession draws near, the maid-sei*vants of the 
bridegroom's house go out, singing songs, to fetch water. On their 
return they are stopped at the gate by the musicians, who refuse to let 
them pass till a present has been made to them. The water is placed 
under the canopy, where also a small stool is placed. The male members 
of the family assemble there, and, as songs are simg, the brother-in-law 
of the boy, or any near relative, digs a pit there. This is called ' digging 
a pond,' ■TN'itT ^f^ polchra hhodab. He also gets a present for doing 
this. The bridegroom then bathes at this place, and puts on his 
wedding garments, consisting of (a) . coloured drawers, (S) a kind of 
overcoat (srnn C^^) j&ma) dyed with the safflower, or made of 
yq ,. < ^-T ehranga or of brocade (^^^ (tsyj^O asawari), (c) a white 
turban covered with a red cloth, or a red turban, («0 a garland of 
flowers, and (e) a handkerchief carried in the hand. He then mounts 
on horseback, and visits first the grave of some saint, where Tie makes 
an ofEering of. sweetmeats, and then the village imambara (\«i«'.«ir^i 
( tjtj ^U|)),* where he makes a similar offering. He then starts for 
the bride's house, and on approaohidg it he pays similar visits to 
the tombs of saints and the imambara there. In the meantime the 
bride has also bathed, put off her ^?f«5T manjha dress, and put on 
another which has been prepared either in her own house or in that of a 
relative. 

1380. When the time for the arrival of the bridegroom approaches, 
the bride's maid-servants set out on the road on which it wiU. come, carry- 
ing with them rice soaked in water and a newly-made ladle (^^ ddi), to 
which is tied a piece of red cloth. They stop at a well or a river, lay 
the ladle down on the ground, and cross over it one by one, eating the 
rice as they do so. They then dig up a f^X^rf^TT chirchiraf shrub which 
they had. previously noted, and carry it home, singing songs. The root 
of the tree is ground up and made into pills, which are administered 
to the bridegroom on the night of the tA^i'^i j'alwa { § 1384). 

1381. The sending of presents.— Ihis is called ^r ^«« ((J^-U) 
sdchaJc. Before the arrival of the marriage procession a ^'^ bari is sent 

* An imambara is, according to Bihar tradition, a building erected in honour 
of the celebrated martyr Imam Hassan, the grandson of Muhammad. 

t Achyranthus aspera, said to be of sovereign virtue to one bitten by a 
venomous reptile or stung by a scorpion, &c. 



MARRIAGE CEREMONIES AMONGST THE MUSALMINS. 381 

to the bride's house. This word has two meanings, viz. (1) a dish of 
cooked pulse, and (2) that here referred to, — all the following presents 
taken together. It consists of : — 

(1) Dresses for the bride, of from one to twenty-five suits. The 

first suit, or wedding dress ('^^ ^t^rit ke Jora), 
is also called the in^TTT (A'IaU) shahdnaat royal 
suit. It is not worn after the fourth day of the 
ceremony. It consists of a pair of long drawers of 
satin cloth and a 'mrvx jama (see above) of brocade, 
tasar sUk, or P'*«^S"I ekranga. A second suit, also of 
fine materials, for the fourth day is called the ^^ 
It sft^ chauthi ke jora ; and a third suit, for the 
tenth day, ^^■^r^^ Ir ^I^t dasahra ke jora. Each suit 
is of less value than the preceding one. 

(2) The chaplet, fWt^tT ( •jt- ) sihra, for the bride. 

(3) Some raw thread dyed with safflower. This is called ifTfT 

nara or ^R^^ ( *j ^ ) kaldwa, and varies in amount 
from one or two chhat&riks to a maund. 

(4) Some otto of spices, ^TIT % ^^^ (^^ ^ ^W*) soh&g ke atar. 
(6) Sweet-scented oil. 

(6) A cone-shaped basket (called ^Y^m ''^xx sohag pura) of 

bamboo, covered with red paper and containing 
^<j'^Rg T chlMlchhahela, ^iirT ^«IT nagar motha, ^t^ 
^ bdl chhar, the bark of the bay-tree (fw taj), carda- 
moms, sandal-wood, grains of musk, nutmeg, mace, 
saffron, cassia, turmeric, &c. 

(7) Sweetmeats. 

(8) Fruits, viz. almondfl, pistachios, grapes, dates, cocoa-nut 

kernel, &o. 

(9) Spices for betel. 

(10) Fifty-two water-pots. These are small in size and are 

gaUy coloured. In eacii a little rice, some betel-nuts, 
and some mango-leaves, are put. 
These things are carried on the heads of maid-servants in proces- 
sion in trays, accompanied by torches, music, and fireworks. First comes 
a large tray carrying the royal robes, then small trays, on each of 
which is placed another suit, and then the rest. The whole is covered 
by a long piece of cloth called ^^'^=t«*(f daljhakna. 

49 



382 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

1382. In the meantime the bridegroom's dress is despatched from 
the bride's house, with a tailor, to meet the procession. The dreSs 
consists of a red wrni jama (see above), long drawers of silk often 
worked with gold and silver flowers, a turban covered with a red 
handkerchief on which is laid a garland, and over this a very thin 
handkerchief, called .»?SiTifT (jf^) maqna or veil, and a red hand- 
kerchief for him to carry in his hand. When the bridegroom is 
clothed in this by the tailor, he gives the clothes in which he has 
travelled so far to the barber, who follows the bridegroom, carrying an 
umbrella over his head. Then the ceremony of fsr^T^ ( ^* ) nikdh 
or religious marriage is performed, and dates and sweetmeats distrib- 
uted to the assembled guests. 

1383. After this the bridegroom goes on horseback to the 
bride's house with great pomp, accompanied by a large party of 
men with torches, fireworks, and music. When they reach the house, 
all the men remain standing outside, while the bridegroom enters the 
female quarters of the house either on foot or hOTseback. There he 
sits on a wooden stool (which is given him in dowry), and his mother-in- 
law (or if she be dead, some other female relation of the bride) comes 
to him carrying a plate containing a small lamp made of flour and 
a little ^T^^ arwa rice. She warms her hand at the lamp, and then 
touches the cheek of the bridegroom. While she is doing this, a 
woman comes and whispers in his ear the following Hindi verse 
" B^^ ^Y^iTT, ^ w trnrr l ^ ^^^^ ^t hm ^^f%T % ^rntT ll sone men 
sohdga, s«i' men tdga o dulha ka man, dulhin se Idga, i.e., borax* in gold, 
a thread in a needle, and the bridegroom fell in love with the bride." 
Then six married females (^ftrrfrf^ sohdgini) and the mother-in-law 
alternately touch the cheeks of the bridegroom with the ^K^^ arica rice. 
He is then given some sharbat to drink. This is prepared in various 
ways : sometimes the wet hair of the bride after she has bathed is dipped 
into it, sometimes a small piece of sugar is put into her hand till it 
becomes moist with the perspiration, and then the sharbat is made of 
it, and sometimes it is made of a piece of sugar which she has taken 
into her mouth and crushed between her teeth. Then the bride- 
groom stands on the wooden stool, and a maid-servant carries in 
the bride in her arms, and touches the back of the bridegroom 
with her feet, and takes her away : then the bridegroom returns to his 
own party. 



* Borax is a flux for melting gold. 



MARRIAGE CEREMONIES AMONGST THE MUSALMA.NS. 383 

1384. The ^^[7^j Jalwa. — The day after the arrival of the pro- 
cession, milk, a dish called Wt^ (8'^'*) mallda or sweetmeats, and 
sharhat, are sent from the house of the bride to the bridegroom's party. 
The fl<d^<^T mallda or sweetmeats are put into the milk and drunk by 
the bridegroom out of a cup of silver or copper, which is given to him 
afterwards in dowry. Then the others drink it. The same evening 
maid-servants come from the bride's house singing songs, and take 
away the procession umbrella, and under its shade seven married 
females grind the spices which came in the ^tNtjt ''^KJ sohdg pura, 
and when ground, apply the powder to the hair of the bride, which they 
also tie with the stt^'T ndra or string which came at the same time. 
The scented oil is also applied to her hair. Then the bride puts on the 
royal dress, a garland of flowers, the ohaplet ftf ^^ ( I;*-" ) sihra, and 
a veil, which is thrown over her face. She takes off all the ornaments 
of her maidenhood, and puts on new ornaments sent her by the 
guardians of the bridegroom. Black powder ( f«ijfi missi) is applied 
to her teeth, and she is adorned in every other practicable way. During 
the day, it may be added, myrtle leaves have been applied to the soles of 
her feet to make them red. When she is ready, the bridegroom is sent for, 
and he comes walking, preceded by a maid-servant walking backwards, 
and carrying a plate on which is a burning lamp, so arranged that 
the smoke is thrown towards the bridegroom. When he reaches the 
gate of the female quarter of the house, the mother of the bride, or 
(if she is dead or a widow) any other married woman, meets him, and 
conducts him inside. The manner of doing this varies in different 
places. Sometimes the mother carries in her hand a plate in which 
lamps made of flour or silver are burning, and the wicks of which are 
of red cloth. A small quantity of the red thread (lifT ndra) already 
mentioned is also laid on the plate. She walks backwards with her 
face towards him, and at every step throws down a piece of thread, and 
asks the bridegroom to pick it up and lay it on the plate. In this 
way, and at the same time touching his cheeks with her hand warmed 
at the lamp, she takes him into the inner yard, imder the canopy. 
In other places the mother-in-law gives him betel to chew, which he 
bites and throws away. 

1385. When the bridegroom comes under the canopy he sits on 
a wooden stool near a bed. As long as he stays there his sister (or, 
in her absence, a maid-servant) spreads a portion of her cloth (^t^ 
sari) over his head. Then the match-maker (g^TBTT ( sil^* ) mmhdta) 
throws a string round his neck, and pulling it gently, refuses to 



384 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

lat it go till sLe is paid something. A cloth is then hilng between 
the hed and the stool, and the match-maker (who has also had charge 
of adorning the bride) makes her stand on the bed in such a way that 
the bridegroom can only see her face. She then places the two hands 
of the bride on her (the bride's) forehead, and moves the bride's head 
this way and that way. A coloured handkerchief, in which is tied rice 
and turmeric, is then given to the bridegroom, who throws it on the 
bride, and each time he does so he is given a betel leaf in which 
pieces of the root of the f^T^f^xn chircMra shrub already mentioned 
are wrapped up. This moving of the head and throwing of the 
handkerchief is repeated seven times, and the ceremony is called . 
^S^T ^^ ( l^J »y^ ) jalwa deb. The bridegroom then sits on the 
head of the bed, and the match-maker takes ofE the chapLet and veil 
from the face of the bride and shows it to the bridegroom, who for this 
favour gives her a present, and at the same time receives presents from 
the female relations of the bride. Sometimes, after this is done, a oup 
contaimng sandal- wood and a finger-ring of silver, which has a small cup 
made in the place where there is usually a stone, is given to the 
bridegroom, who, after dipping the ring into the sandal-wood, touches 
the forehead of the bride with it. In other places vermilion (%^ 
senur) is used instead of sandal- wood. 

1386. Then the wife of the bride's brother, i.e., the bridegroom's 
^K^oi ( ^j'' ) sar/mj, comes and sits on the bed, and throws little balls 
of flour at the bridegroom, who does the same to her. This ceremony 
is called vf^ ^^^ gend khelab. A maid-servant then carries ofE the 
bride in her arms, followed by the bridegroom, who catches hold either 
of a corner of the bride's sheet (^\^ chaddar) or her finger. 

1387. It must be noted that throughout all these ceremonies 
the bride has kept her eyes shut, and never moves on foot, but is 
always carried in the arms of a maid«servant. 

1388. The bride and bridegroom are then made to stand in an 
outer room (^WT'I dal&n), and in the hands of both a little rice is put, 
but the hand of the bride is turned backwards. They are then caused 
to toss their hands up in the air, by a maid-servant, and thus the rice 
is scattered through the house, and the bride says at the same time 
that she is fiUing the house of her father and mother. The brideoroom 
also says that he is filling the house of his father and mother-in-law. 
This ceremony is called ^T »1KX ghar bharab. The bride is then carried 



MAKRIAGE CEREMONIES AMONGST THE MIISALMXNS. 385 

off to a well-furnished room, where the bridegrooai takes off her shoes 
with his own hands. 

1389. The departure of the procession. — This is <i4ei«^ti ^ {^j^-^) 
ruk/isati, and takes place on the third day after the above-mentioned 
ceremony. The bridegroom is called into the female apartments, and he 
and the bride are given rice-milk ^?It (khlr) to eat. He affects 
displeasure, and refuses to eat with her. The mother then makes him 
a present, stud he consents to do so. Then the bride and the bridegroom 
sit together on a c-arpet, and a small piece of sugar on a betel-leaf is 
placed first on her head, then on her shoulder, then on the palm of her 
hand, then on her knees, and lastly on her feet. The bridegroom is 
pressed to pick up the pieces of sugar from each place- with his mouth, 
or at least with his hands. This ceremony is called sKnr ^71^ 
nabdt chunab. 

1390. Wlen the bridegroom goes off to his own house with the 
bride, she is carried in the arms of a maid-servant, and keeps her eyes 
shut till she reaches the court-yard of her husband's house. The sister 
of the bridegroom first meets her with a jug of water and washes her feet 
in a plate, which she (the sister) keeps as her perquisite. After this 
the ceremonies of vx VK^ ghar hharah and sr^nf "^tr naiat chunab are 
performed again in the bridegroom's house. 

1391. The ceremony of the fourth day — This is ■^^ chauthi or 
"^iIT^ cJmuthari. It takes place on the fourth day after marriage, i.e. 
on the day after the arrival of the bride and bridegroom at the 
latter's house. The bridegroom takes off the thread ^TfT nara with 
which the hair of the bride had been tied. The women of the family 
then bathe the bride in the female apartments, singing songs at the 
same time, and the bridegroom himself bathes outside. Sometimes 
the bridegroom also bathes inside. The bride then puts on her 
dress made for this day (see § 1381), and the bridegroom also puts on 
the dress given him by his father-in-law. The bridegroom then 
enters the female apartment, and joins in the ceremony of ^^Tjua, 
or gambling. Seven spotted shdls (f%^ ^^ chitti kauri) and a 
necklace ('^=^sj ^tt chandan Mr) are thrown up in the air. A maid- 
servant extends the bride's hands, and the bridegroom his own, and both 
try to catch the falling necklace. The one who succeeds wins the 
game. 

13.92. Two or three days after the arrival of the bride ia the bride- 
groom's house people come from her house to take her back. The bride's 



386 BIHiK PEASANT LIFE. 

younger brother and other relations may form some of the party, but 
not elders, such as the father or uncles. They bring with them presents 
of sweetmeats, rice, pulse, a goat, &c., varying in quantity according to 
means. Two or three days afterwards they return with the bride 
and bridegroom. 

1393. - The ten days' stay. — This time the bridegroom stays nine or 
ten days in his father-in-law's house. This stay is called the ^^^^TT 
^TTT dasahra khdna. On their arrival a room is made over to the bride- 
groom in the female apartments, and the bride is made to walk into this 
room accompanied by her female relatives and those of her husband, 
all singing songs. This is the first time the bride is allowed to walk 
since the commencement of the ceremonies. Up to this she has been 
always carried about. When the bride approaches the bridegroom in 
this room, he is expected to salute (^^rnr saldm) her. If he does not do 
so, showers of abuse are poured upon him. 

This concludes the wedding ceremonies. 



CHAPTER V.-BIRTH CUSTOMS GENERALLY. 

1394. An adopted child is amongst Musalmans tflw- n - g T 
idi^") motmanna. Amongst Hindus he is irra^ pdlak, Tfr^ig^i 
posput, or Tt^Ttrra'^ pospdlak. Local names are titgTf ar posbeta or 
■<rtg^r«^ posbdlak in the south-east, and ^t^arr ^i^ karta putr in 
East Tirhut. To adopt a child is Ttf^i %^ posiya leb, JT^^^ god 
leb, or KTW ^ix; %^ rds par leb. 

1395. When a woman cannot suckle her chUd, owing to pains in 
and hardness of the breast, she is called TEf^f^^^-^ thamiUydhi. 
InabiHty>to suckle on this account is sw^ thanaili. When a child 
is not well nurtured owing to the untimely death of its mother, or 
to her milk running dry, it is called ^^^^i^t dudUutua or ^^t^t 
dudhkatua. In South Bhagalpur it is ^r^r^r kalra. 

1396. A seven-months' child is ^7qf^ satwdns or ^Jirrm 
satoa«sa generally ; also w^T^t^ satioamu south of the Ganges, ^jp^m 
'atmOs in North-East Tirhut, and ^^r^^^ satmasua in South-East 
Tirhut and South Bhagalpur. An eight-months' child is ^^rgfg 
athwdns generaUy; also ^^^fg; athwdnsu south of the Ganges 
-^^^^athmds in North-East Tirhut, and ^3^^t athmasua in 
South Bhagalpur. 



BIRTH CUSTOMS GENERALLY. 387 

1397. An only child is P^«T?rr eklauta ; also ir^s^T ekdhula 
in Shahabad and i)<*ifiiNt ekauniyan in Soutli Bhagalpur. A first- 
born child is ■»rf%«T3T pahilautha. The youngest child, i.e., the last 
which a woman has, is called t a-mT^^I T petponchhua or ^ftXTurf^T 
korponchhua. When a girl is born after three boys (which is con- 
sidered very lucky), she is called a ^«n: tetar, and she is even often 
named 'S'^r^ tetri. In the south-east, however, a girl bom after two 
and not after three boys is so called. A child whose elder brother 
is dead is called ?rKTW marachh, or ^K^^ marachhwa, or (in South 
Bhagalpur) ^JVTWT marochha, and (in North-East Tirhut) M^\ 
machhat. Such children are treated and dressed as girls, sold to the 
midwife for a few cowries, and brought back again and given oppro- 
brious names, in order to induce the demon of death to think them of 
small account and not worth killing. 

1398. When a woman has a child every year she is st»« W^ 
harsain, or in South Bhagalpur ^^^ barsaino. A woman 
with only one child is a^it ekaunj, or to the east ^T* ^^«\ kdk 
banjha, or ^^^PT ^»ff kaua bdnjh. The latter name is said to be 
derived from the children's game of WTT "^^ kag dwm, or " odd or 
even." In this game one boy guesses whether another has an odd or 
even number of cowries in his hand. If he guesses an odd number 
he says ^T^T kdg, or if an even one ^^re' durm. Hence ^rnr kdg 
means an odd number, and specially 'one.' A barren woman is 
^m banjh, ^^^ ^fWr banj'h bahila, or (in the south-west) ^fpssr 
bdiyhin. A woman after delivery, until the purificatory ceremonies are 
performed, is "^^r^?^ alwdnfi or tn^^ parsauti. The lying-in room 
is north of the Ganges «'t?/?l' soiri, and to the east also ^^tSfK soer. 
South of the Ganges it is ^^ saur, ^^ sauri, or ss^rr Wf^ jachcha 
khdna. In this a fire is kept burning for ten days after the woman's 
delivery. This fire is known to the north-east as '^fireT^ agiydsi, 
and in South Bhagalpur as -^X^ pora. Elsewhere it is ''^^[^ pdsanghi, 
with a variant ''re'fl' pdsangi in the south-west and in South 
Mimger. 

1399. The presents given to a woman in a state of pregnancy 
are known as 5?^ sadhor. In South Bhagalpur such presents are 
given after delivery, and are called ^^Kt sathora. ■^^^r^ achhwdni 
is caudle given to a lying-in woman to produce milk. It is also called 
iildT< sothaur in the north-east • and WTat<,l sonthaura in Gaya 
and the south-west. Another name current in the north-east is 



388 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

"^^PT^ adhrassi ; in South Munger it is ^^T^T kadwa, and in South 
Bhagalpur ■^T^ ^^ ado gUr. The longing of a pregnant woman is 
^W^ dohad or *?«n^^^ mancliahh. The earthen cakes which she is 
fond of eating when in this condition are called ^iqT^ kliapra. 



CHAPTER VI.— CEREMONIES PECULIAR TO THE BIRTH 
OP A HINDU CHILD. 

1400. When the labour pains commence, the "^^Kfii chamaini or 
•^^^ chamaini, i.e. the native midwife, is sent for. She is also' called 
^;^« l .r<« t or ^JirftT dagrin. On her arrival she puts a finger-mark 
(^^T tika) of vermilion on the wall. This ceremony is called 
^""tTT^ sordri, and is supposed to hasten the delivery of the child. 
As soon as the child is bom, the midwife washes the forelock (^^ lat) 
and feet (iftK go7-) of the mother, which operations are called ^raWt^TX 
latdhoai and JrfKT^I^K gordJwai respectively. She gets a fee (^ neg) 
for doing this. The child's navel-string (srK ndr) is then cut. If the 
child is a vxvs maraclih (or ^<*.cii mm-achhwa), i.e. if the child which 
was bom before it from the same mother is dead, the navel-string is all 
thrown away. Otherwise it is buried in the floor of the lying-in room, 
and over it the fire (^^ pdsanghi) is placed. The latter is called 
in South Bhftgalpur y^-^ pasni or -^ ghur. The child's body is 
then rubbed with cdld'-'^TK kothwdr, which is the dust of a sun-dried 
granary (^^ Jcothi), in order to take off the foetal excretion (wr^ 
Jatear or sjf^K jamtcar). The midwife's fee for cutting the navel- 
string is *H<i<*eiT narkatai or •i<.*ii4, narhatai. 

1401. When <^e child's body has been thus mbbed with dust, it is 
bathed in lukewarm water, and then the midwife throws it up in the 
air and catches it again five times. This is called gfr^RT ^*TP^ larika 
Idkaeh. At the same time another woman strikes a brass dish («rT^ 
^am^ thari hajaeh), and the mother holds in her hand a handful ('^'d' 
anjuri) of grain, which last is the perquisite of the midwife. The after- 
birth (f^^i^ lijhri or siK '5^51 nar purain),* &e., is then thrown away 
in a vessel called ^tt^^K khapraur or (in Q-aya) ^ M.^.t ^ khaprauri, for 
which the midwife receives a fee called ^t;^^ ^^\ khapraur phenkai. 

1402. Two or three days after the birth, when the TnvtfV<r prohit 
or family priest has fixed on a lucky day, the ceremony of ^rfr?^ 



* The after-birti of an animal, as distinguished from that of a human being, is 
TRT^'Aar or WTKjhar. 



CKREMONIES PECULIAR TO THE BIRTH OF A HINDU CHILD. 389 

nahdioan is performed. This consists in ^^tv nlm {azadiracMa Indica) 
leaves being boiled in water, and both the mother and child being 
bathed with the decoction. Then a handful of seeds of Tr?; rdi (mustard, 
sinapis racemom) and sjsni;«f jentcdnin (diU, ligusticum ajowan) is waved 
(fsf^Ml zfiTsf nichhawar karab or *Cf*^ aunchhab) round the mother's head 
and thrown into an earthen cup containing fire. "When the seeds 
are consumed, the cup is upset, and the mother breaks it with her 
left foot. Then she sits with grain in her hand, while the brass dish 
is again beaten, and the midwife again throws the child five times in 
the air. This all takes place in the court-yard of the house, and is 
done to avert the evil eye. It is the first day on which the mother 
comes out of the lying-in chamber. The same day this chamber 
is plastered over with fresh mud, amongst the rich by a maid-servant, 
and amongst the lower classes by the husband's sister srif^ (^nanad), 
who gets a fee for this, called ^T.'^' fk^TTX. soiri lipai or (south of the 
Ganges) W^*:: f^^K saur lipai. The same day the washerman takes 
away the lying-in clothes (^d"<*i If ^M«^l chhutka ke kapra), and 
washes them. His fee for this is called ^ff^^ chhutka* 

1403. The next day after bathing, the barber pares the mother's 
nails, which ceremony is called 'ft^-^i^ nohtungi or sr?^^^ nahtungi, 
and his fee is known as sft^^TK nohtungai. 

1404. On the seventh or eighth day, when the mother is first able 
to eat rice, the ceremony of mi^ sfrsTpx khenrhi jord'eb is performed. 
A hole is dug in the ground, into which milk and water are poured. 
The mother sits close to it, and eats her first dish of cooked rice. 
From this day eoUyrium {^jmK kdjar) is put on the child's eyes. 
Before this, when oil was rubbed on the child's body, the child had been 
laid on its back during the operation, but henceforward it is laid on 
its face for the application. Fi-om this day, also, the mother gets 
a bed to sleep on. Up to this day she had been fed only on caudle 
and on a mixture of oil, turmeric, and molasses (T^^ ^T liardi gur). 

1405. On the twelfth day the ceremonies of ^sft ^f^f^ donni 
jhdnkab and w^ chhathi are performed. Sometimes the latter ceremony 
is omitted. In the former, five ^*(^ doni or '^nj doiia, which are a kind 
of platter, are prepared of leaves of the jack-tree ( ^s^^%X kathar). In 
these cakes (^[^iJf(/-0> rice milk (<^^ khlr), &c., are placed. Some- 
times the leaf platters are omitted, and rice milk, &c., is simply laid 

* The washerman caste is considered an unclean one because its members 
touch these garments. 

50 



390 BIHAR PEASANT LIFB. 

on the ground over the cakes. Worship is then performed, and the 
articles eoteu. 

1406. The ^-^ chhathi or ^t^ chhatthi ceremony is also called in 
Tirhut wfOTK chhathiyar or wfa chhathi. As its name indicates, it 
should properly he performed on the sixth day after birth, but this 
rarely occurs now-a-days. When it is held on the twelfth day it is 
also called m<«'^ barhi. In this ceremony a kind of square marked 
with diagonals and made of cowdung is fastened on the wall. At every 
corner and intersection cowries are fastened, and the whole is painted 
wth vermilion, and cakes, &c., are laid before it. The child is then 
oiled, has collyrium applied to its eyes, is wrapped up in a cloth, and 
placed before it. It is then dressed in new clothes, and rings {^rfi 
kara) are put upon its arms and feet for the first time, and some 
mouey put into its hand. On this day also the child is named, and the 
relatives are fed. 

1407. The ceremony of purification performed on the fortieth 
day after birth is called faf«T chhilla. In South Hunger a similar cere- 
mony takes place on the twentieth day, and is called ^^•^T'^ basdauri. 
The ceremony of first feeding the child with rice is called ^•(•M-iT^i 
anprasan, also (south of the Ganges) f<sil»fy*^T?; khirkhiydi and 
f^^'^^TS; khirchatai. In Gaya it is f^ura ^^ nimak chasi, and in 
South Monger ^ew*! chatawan. 



CHAPTER VII.— BIRTH CUSTOMS AMONGST MUSALMSNS. 

1408. The navel string (sTK nar) is cut by a 'qm^ chamaini, and 
the child is then bathed ifW<sr *^iy<fl ( ^\jS >J<~« ) gosal kard'eb. Sweet- 
meats are then consecrated (firaT«r ^T.^ {^'j^ ')^) niyaj karab) in 
the court-yard by the male members of the family, and the milk of a 
respectable and virtuous woman is given to the child in a shell (f%g'?T 
situha). This ceremony is called -^^^fwr? dudhpilSi. The people 
are then called to prayers by striking a brass pan («n^ than) with a 
stick, and this custom is called ^sr ^^^^a ( >s,\jU ^Ji ) ban salicat. In 
South Hunger it is called ^f?r ^^P^mr bang salwdt. 

1409. The lying-in room, in which the mother {^:iK!^^ parsauti) 
is, is always kept warm with an -^^-^ angethi or moveable stove, and is 
called ^T^ sauri, &c. ; see § 1398. Caudle {^^^^ ac/ihirdni) is given to 
her to produce milk, and oil mixed with turmeric and molasses is given 
to her to make her strong. This last mixture is called '^ri^ i^x. hardi 



DISPOSAI. OF THE DRAD AMONGST THE HINDUS. 391 

gur. Until milk flows in the mother's breasts, the child is wet-nursed 
with the milk of the woman whose milk was given to it immediately 
after it was born. 

1410. On the third day the mother and the child are bathed and 
dressed in new clothes, and the women of the neighbourhood come and 
sing songs, and receive oU. and vermilion. Up to this the mother has had 
nothing to eat except the caudle and the mixture already mentioned, 
but now she is allowed to eat food and to sleep on a bed. 

1411. On the same day the washerman takes away the lying- 
in garments, and the barber pares the mother's nails and shaves the 
child. The former operation is called •(^•^^ nahtungi, and the latter 
^T^ riTT^ (cy"!/ J''0 io.1 tardshi. 

1412. The fees of the midwife (^»f«i^ chnmaini), of the washer- 
man, and of the barber, are all known as W»^I«J^ % *Wif parsauti ke 
kamai. 

1413. On the same day the lying-in room is plastered over with 
mud plaster. This operation is known as 'ftur fiiWK soer lipai. 

1414. On the fortieth day the consecration ceremony (firinoi 
{)^) niydj) is again performed, and the relations are fed. 

1415. Circumcision is ^insrr Mo^rtfl or ^^»r sM«»w/. See also § 386. 



CHAPTER VIII. -DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD AMONGST THE 

HINDUS. 

1416. The burning of a corpse is ^r^ '^ ddh dd>, ^rfir f^ dgi deb, 
<j(^ ^rr^ dagadh kardb, or siK^ jarah. In North-East Tirhut it is 
also ^^7K ^^ sanskar deb, and in the south-east sjktjt^ jardeb. 
When a Hindu dies- he is taken out of the house and placed on 
a bier. A bier is T^ ranthi generally ; also ft^^^ tikthi in South- 
West Shahabad, ZTZ^ tdti in the east generally, ^tet dhath 
in North-East Tirhut, -qfffic^ pJiarki in South-East Tirhut, 
and sjTj.i^ chachri in South Bhagalpur. Sometimes he is simply 
placed on a bed ('^K-mi cJiarpai or 'aft^ klialiya). Four men, who are 
called nfti^ % wrf*l^TT majille jdniMr, or in South Bhagalpur ^siv^fe^t 
kankathiya, carry the bier on their shoulders and set it down on the 
ground outside the village. This is called mjw fk^JKt^ nagra hisrdnw 
and is done in order that the people' who are to accompany the corpse 
(who are called wfsiftr'^T majililia) maj' collect. 



392 bihXr feasant life. 

1417. After the departure of the corpse from the house the walls 
of the latter are plastered over with fresh plaster, and outside it are 
placed a stone, cowdung, iron, fire, and water for the ^RnHatT majililut 
to touch on their return from the cremation. 

1418. The four men who carried the bier take it on, when the 
people have collected, to the place of cremation on the hank of a river. 
This place is called ^gj^if asmasan, or ^T?^^^ murdhatti north of 
the Granges. In North-Bast Tirhut it is ^fl.^T'T samsan. South of the 
Granges it is f^TXK chirar or f^KT'^ chirari, or to the South-East ViXT^ 
marghatti or ^Ti^^T murgliatiya. In Bast Tirhut it is also called 
inr^a marghat or ^Kwf^ murghatti. They then bathe the corpse 
(sr^nmr^ nalmaeb or ^^.«)R ^^Tjn? asnan hardeb). The heir or chief 
mourner ( ^<<.fi T karta) then has his head, beard, and moustaches shaved 
(w^T^: ^XfV^ bhadr kardeb), and puts on a dress of mourning {'^JT^ 
utri or SK'B'^ kaphni). He then dresses the corpse in new clothes, viz. 
a waist-cloth (^r^T kaehchha) and a sheet, washes its mouth, and then 
with the assistance of the other men places it on the funeral pile. 
To dress a corpse in this way is «ti>t««liiJ«i kaphndeb. 

1419. A funeral pile is f^m chita generally, also '^■^ chaiti in 
Graya and 'Tkt sdra in Patna and the south-east. To prepare it a trench 
is dug in the form of a cross and four pointed logs (^^ khunta) 
are driven into the ground at each end, and between them the logs of 
wood are piled. When the corpse is -placed on the pile, the chief 
mourner (^X^«n karta) anoints its mouth with a mixture of ^g^ 
gugul (gum of the amyris agalhcha), barley, incense ("^ dJmp), water- 
nut (^i^TTT makhand), honey, sesamum, and sweetmeats. He then 
buys fire (^rrfiT 'rW %^ dgi tnol leb) from a ^^ Bom (some, however, 
take fire from the house), and with it lights a long torch {<^^ liika). 
He then walks roimd the corpse five times, touches its lips each time 
with fire {rcsii^x^t pachkarma), and sets fire to the pile (^ip? ^>t^ 
dagadh karab). When the body is nearly burnt, each of the persons 
present throws five sticks into the fixe. These are known as T^^^sfWr 
pachkathiya north of the Ganges ; in Gaya and the south-west they are 
^jvimipf panchdgi or ^'<^'^fj|«f panchagin ; in Patna they are "^^^i^d**^ 
panchlakri ; and in the south-east as tj^i^th pachkdth or q-«^.<*T^ 
pachkdthi. When the body is nearly all consumed, the fire is put out 
(Tnf*r %^ pani deb) with handfuls of water, and the remaining small 
unbumt portion is thrown into the river for fishes and tortoises 
(fllT^lfW ^T machhkachh la). They then wash the place where the body 



DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD AMONGST THE HINDUS. 393 

was burnt, and the chief mourner (^x;VfrT karta) plants a tuki tree 
near by, and writes on the ground the words xm X[V ram ram. 

1420. They tben bathe at another landing-place i^xz ghat) and sit 
down. Then the ^r^T^ Icarta gets up first and walks towards home, 
followed by the others. When they arrive at the door of the house, 
they touch, the stone, cowdung, iron, fire, and water already men- 
tioned, and then their left ears, each with the little finger of his left 
hand. This ceremony is called ^TH ^rr^ ^<(|<«) lean kathi utarah. 
They then separate. Some castes, however, instead of performing this 
ceremony, simply bite a piece of bitter nlm leaf, and then go home. 

1421. Offerings are sometimes made to the manes at the time of 
cremation, and these are called in South Tirbut ^^^TT -jsiT asmasan 
puja, or •q^'^.f^iST patwlipinda. 

1422. The day after the funeral the ^x^<n karta goes to the place 
of cremation, and pours on the site of the pUe a little fresh milk. This 
is called p9»n 9xTJ^ chita seraeb. He then comes to the village ptpal 
tree, where he fitnds the barber and the family priest (^rrvrf^ prohit) 
waiting for him. The former has some fresh milk, and an earthep 
vessel (^fs^T kantiya) carried in a sling (i%^^?: sikJiar) of »?s? munj 
rope. There is a hole in the bottom of the pot, partially stopped up 
witb a plug. The karta hangs this up on a branch of the tree, so that 
its contents will drip out through the bole on to the root. He then 
fills it witb milk and water and covers the vessel with an earthen 
cup («^'J«f^ dhakni). He then goes round the tree three times, and goes 
home. The whole of this ceremony is called v,^ ZTTH ghant tdngab. On 
reacbing borne he feeds his relatives with rice-milk and urid pulse, 
and himself eats off a potsherd Ca^f^ khapri). Before commencing to 
eat eacb person places a small quantity of rice and milk from his 
platter (•<r»i^ pattal) apart on another platter. This is called ^^r? ^rr^ 
ruah kdrhab, and tbe whole ceremony is called ^*i-£-^ dudhmunh or 
5^^g^ dudhmunhi, and also ^^ dudhi in Soutb-East Tirhut. 

1423. Tbe same evening and every evening up to the tenth day 
(^^^f dasicdn) after the deaths the ^XTrrr learta lights a lamp made 
of mud and placed on tbe top of a stick. The first day it is 
placed at the spot where tbe deceased died. The second day at 
a little distance from it, towards the door. The third day fur- 
ther off again, and so on, it being arranged tbat on the evening 
of the tenth day it reaches the spot outside the door where the 
five articles (stone, cowdung, iron, fire, and water) were placed. 



394 BlHin PEASANT MFE. 

This rite is calloil ^Nt m^ diya bdti, or (iu East Tirliut) ^'a Krfjl 
sukh rati, and in Patna f^niT ^^ chirag hatti. Up to the tenth day 
the *tMTT harla every day after bathing throws into the river or the 
well a handful of sesamum (ftrg til) mixed with rice and water. This 
is called f^raf^ %^ tilanjur deb. 

1424. On the third day after the death the rite of fJlTTft tirdti is 
performed, and in South-East Tirhut, on the fourth day, the ■^^FW^T 
athsancJian. On the seventh day is performed the '^<rs«lTn^ satnahdeb. 
In this the male members of the family touch oil and oil-cake ^^KT khari), 
and then bathe. When they return, the females do the same, and on 
their return to the house they put oil and vermilion on their heads, and 
a little gram soaked in water (^^r^ akuri) is given to each. 

1425. On the tenth day is performed the rite of ^^•^f'pw das 
harm, also called ^^-^f daswdn, and in Tirhut ^^^in<i^ dasgdtr, and 
in North-West Tirhut ^^"^ dasdhi. On this occasion the male 
relatives shave their heads, and those who are sons of the deceased 
their moustaches also. Then the Brahman who performs such obsequies, 
and who is called ^n?TTt kantdha or flTT^TWI mahdbdbhan, 
comes, and performs the ceremony of making obsequial ofEerings 
f'T'ST ^X^^y^ pinda paraeb. If the deceased is a male, this Brahman 
gets as a fee all the requirements of a man (clothes, bed, shoes, 
umbrella, fan, dishes, lota, &c.), and, if a woman, all those of a 
woman. On the eleventh day ofierings (ftCJT pinda) are again made. 

1426. Brahmans are then feasted. This is called fl»ii*fr^ brambfioj, 
flW bhoj, or <*K'»J kdraj. Amongst Brahmans this takes place on 
the 13th day after the death, amongst Eajputs on the 14th day, 
amongst Vaisyas and amongst some Sudras on the 16th day, and 
amongst other Sudras after" the expiry of a month. The ceremony 
is as follows : — In the day-time, the Tf'Ctl^W prohit or family priest 
performs the ft"ST pinda ceremony, and after it the ^KTffT karta sits on 
a square marked on the ground (^T^l chauka). A new turban is tied 
round his head, and he is dressed in new clothes. This is called 'TirJ^ 
^^TTJX pagri banhdeb. The relatives also put into his hand an offering 
of money, called ^«|miT tieota. Brahmans are then fed (^T^T ^ «j;«f i < 
brahman je.ondr). Afterwards, in the evening, the caste brotherhood 
are fed. On this day the widow of the deceased is clothed in her 
widow garments, which are known as V'f»<ji'^ ranr sari, or (in Tirhut) 
X^^^x ranrsdr. Amongst the upper castes this is a white cloth, but 
amongst the lower ones it is a coloured one. 



DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD AMONGST THE MUSAI.mAxS. 395 

1427. In the case of the death of a male, f^'^T piiida ceremonies 
are performed six months and a year after death : the first is called 
^WT^ ehhamdsi, and the second ^T^^ barkhi. When, however, a 
marriage has to be celebrated in the family, the ceremony is performed 
three months after death, and is called f»r«rJ<i^ % ft"ST tinpakhi he 
pinda. On all these occasions also Brahmans and the caste brotherhood 
are fed. 

1 428. When all the funeral ceremonies have been performed in 
the orthodox way, they are called fVfK^ ^^w kiriya karm. When 
the body is merely thrown into a running stream, it is called 
■TXT^Tf pancah or si^MTX'^n^ jalparwali. On five days in the month 
a body must be burnt with five effigies of gre km grass {^oa 
c^nosuroides) . These images are known as ff^^«i-t kmputr, and the 
days as M'%'^ panchak or M-<(»*i pachka. In the south-east they are 
?^a(r pachchak. The visit of the women to condole after a death is 
^'^ %'3^ munh dekliab, -3^1^ puchhdri, ovswiKt pwhhdro. 

1429. Some Hindu and semi-Hindu sects and castes bury their 
dead. The principal of these are Kahirhas {^fkxT^ kahirha), Saiva 
mendicants (■^«?t'Hi atith or ^sn^^ sanydsi), Sib Narainis (tV^ sTTxr^ 
sib naraini), and Mushars (■^fffr^x: musJiar). To be buried is ^^it% (or 
^»rr9) ^^ samadhi (or samadh) kh, and to bury is iv(?\ %^ mitti deb or 
^^J^ w t^TP^ samadh men baisdeb. The body is bathed and dressed 
in new clothes, the necklace {^r«s^ kunthi) and sectarian mark (fW^ 
tilak) are put on his neck and forehead respectively, and he is seated 
in the grave . facing the north with the feet crossed under the buttocks 
(■R^^ »i'9^ palthi baisab) and with cakes in his hand. 



CHAPTER IX.-DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD AMONGST 
MUSALMiNS. 

1430. The corpse immediately after death is taken out into the 
verandah (^T?^i^ sdebdn) or court-yai-d (^Tirst angan). It is stripped 
and a new waist-cloth (^jfi' lungi or ^^ lungi) is put on it. It is then 
washed (jft^'« ^VTjr^ ( ^l/ "-^ ) 90^(^1 kardeb). The man who washes 
has a kind of bag (called ^^^ {ls'^) sd/i) on his hand, with which 
he wipes the corpse. He then performs the ceremonial ablution 
of the corpse (^^ ^xjjr^ (.^'^j^ ^3) ^'<yu kardeb). This consists 
in cleaning its teeth, washing its hands, inside of the mouth, 
forehead, face, arms, and feet. He then dries it with a clean 



396 BlHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

VJ^ (t5^^) s^A- The waist-cloth is then taken off as unclean, 
and is given to the barber, who attends to call the relations, and, 
when they are assembled, to look after their refreshment. A fresh 
waist-cloth is then put upon the corpse. Amongst the Sunnis this 
washing is generally done by friends of the deceased, but amongst 
Shias there is a special class of men who perform this work. The 
water with which the corpse is washed has been boiled with leaves 
of the ^T bair tree {zizyphus jtijuba), and to this plain water is added. 
This washing is said to preserve the corpse from decay for a short 
time. 

1431. A sheet is now taken, and a hole torn in the middle, 
through which the head of the corpse is put. The rest of the sheet 
hangs down before and behind. It is called »^ jhul or ^^B^ 
(^^s*^) kaphni. The corpse is then laid on a bed (^K**) K chdrpai), 
decently covered with a sheet, and taken to the grave-yard, which is 
known as ^^^^rT«r ( i:j\iMy3 ) kabristan. The funeral itself is called 
sT«iT5rr (!S3^'^) janaja. The prayers recited at the grave-yard or 
in the yard of a neighbouring mosque differ for men, women, and 
children. After their recitation the corpse is laid in the grave with 
the head northwards. The grave is then roofed over with bamboos or 
planks, over which some thatching grass (»jrarT9 jhalas) is laid, which is 
plastered over with mud. It is then filled up with dried earth, every 
member of the funeral procession assisting in doing so. This is called 
firfl' t^ mitti deb. Before the party leave the grave-yard, alms (^Tm 
khairdt) are given to beggars. The man who digs the grave is a srtfsi^f 
noniyan, and his fee is known as ^^-tK. ^^IT ( i^\^j^ j^ ) kabr kliodai. 

1432. For four days after the death nothing is cooked in the 
deceased's house, and the family is supplied with food by the relatives. 
On the third day the brethren all assemble in an open place and li or 
21 sers of gram, some flowers, betel-leaf, and sharbat, are taken there. 
Each man then takes up a grain of the gram, and after reciting a bene- 
diction over it drops it on a cloth spread for the purpose. The benedic- 
tion is called ^^^ ( ^j;i ) darud. They go on doing this till all the 
grain is exhausted. It is then given to beggars, and the sum or 
chapter of the Qur'an entitled qui huwa-l-lahu is read. Each one then 
drinks sharbat, takes betel-leaf, and the meeting separates. This cere- 
mony is called by the educated gr^ ( Ji ) kul, from the first word of the 
title above quoted. By the ignorant it is called tttst t??^ pan phul. It 
is the conclusion of the funeral ceremonies. 



CEREMONIES AT PLOUGHING AND SOWING AND TRANSPLANTING. 397 

CHAPTER X.— CEREMONIES AT PLOUGHING AND SOWING 
AND TRANSPLANTING. 

1433. In the south-west on the first day of ploughing the 
villagers scatter rice-flour over the plough and yoke. This ceremony is 
called 'awsrr samahut. A similar ceremony is the M<««^T»r harmahurat 
north of the Granges, also called ^vs»r samahut in Tirhut, in which a 
handful (wW munth) of grain is thrown into the field at the north- 
west (iTiST^ hlianddr) corner. In South Hunger the plough is 
worshipped. The ceremony is called ^<«»rr»r< harmotar, and in it a 
vessel of water is poured over the plough in the name of the earth- 
goddess T^^T^ ^x dharti mai. 

1434. In South-West Shahahadthe ?;3''53rT muthpuj'a is the feast 
at the time of commencement of sowing. The villagers give handfuls 
of grain to the herdsman and watchman. It is also called f^^r^K ^sfT 
dihwdr puja. In South Bhagalpur the ^ ^mi muth pvja consists in 
the cultivator feeding his labourers on rice and milk. On the last day 
of sowing broadcast, a small quantity of seed is brought back to the 
homestead and shut up in an earthen pot (^WT kitnra), after which 
food of extra quality is prepared. This is called generally ^^gs^ 
hmrmundan or ^^^^sisf kunrmunan ; also ■^\»«ri^«} har&odlmn in 
Champaran. 

1435. On the first day of transplanting rice a feast is given. 
This is called TTf^'^hri'aAM-op in Patna, and Trf%^qT pahiropa in the 
south-east. In East Tirhut it is w<t vtaf khet bhoj, or %rr iftansi^ 
Miet bhojni. South of the Granges on this occasion the cultivators face 
the east and plant five rice seedlings (^t^ mori). This is called 
^^T?;3 panchaith in Shahabad, and ■<T^f ^ pachdnii elsewhere. On the 
same occasion in South Bhagalpur wine, nulk, fried grain, and oil are 
offered to the gods who protect the field from blights and mildews. 
This ceremony is called jft^ gochhi. In South Hunger on this 
occasion a deity of the g^-T^ mushar caste, named Ji^«*a.^T Murkattca, 
is worshipped. The legend about him is that a cultivator once sent 
this man, who was his labourer, home from the fields to get some 
seedlings. On the labourer's return the cultivator observed a spot of 
vermilion (%^X senur) on his forehead, and concluded that he had been 
debauching his (the cultivator's) daughter, who was at home at the 
time, and had given the seedlings. The man was quite innocent, 
but the cultivator in a rage killed and hid him in the earth. 
He is hence worshipped as a martyr, especially by his caste-fellows. 

51 



398 BlHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

North of the Granges, ou the first day of transplanting a feast is 
given to the neighbours. This is known as irt gawa or irpTT yaioa, 
and to give it is n^T %^ gaica leb or JT«rT ^^p^ gaica lagdeb. 

1436. The feast at the conclusion of rice transplanting is ^N?^^ 
aunjli in South Bhagalpur, «i«iy^'<.T banusm or ^^^TT hanmar in Graya, 
and ^wvf^ uchhari or ■sfsra^rpf bamikhdo in Patna. In Saran, when 
the transplanting is over, a handful of seedlings is planted with cere- 
mony in a comer of the field. This is called %siT "s"^^ kena dehri. 

1437. In planting sugar-cane, before commencing, the direction 
of the wind is tested to judge of the probability of rain. This 
is called Tr^«i ^K^T paban paricJicJiha in the north-west. The day 
on which the planting of this crop, as well as of the spring crop, is 
commenced, is called ^3 muth, and when it has come they say ■^ ^Nitd 
muth Idgal. When the planting is concluded five long canes are planted 
in the middle of the field. This is called ti^^^ panchukh or ^^vs 
panchaukh north of the Granges, and m^«<sIT^ pachkhdnr south of it. 



CHAPTER XI.— HARVEST CEREMONIES. 

1438. When the crops are cut, some of the new grain is taken 
home and eaten with certain ceremonies. This feast is known as ^Tfsr 
neicdn or •^^'pfi' newdni, or to the south-east as 'srwTsr nemdn. When the 
grain is collected on the threshing-floor, a cake of cowdung is placed on 
the top of the heap to avert the evil eye (see § 839). South of the Granges 
worship is also done to the village deity or 'fir^T^TK dihtcdr. A similar 
worship in South Bhagalpur to propitiate ghosts is caUed ^^ 7^T 
ddno puja. 

1439. The ceremony of the first cutting of the sugar-cane takes 
place, south of the Granges, on the festival of the ^^ ^btt deb uthdn 
or ^^•ST'i deothdn. This takes place on the 11th of the bright 
half of Katik {i.e., early in November), and is said to be the 
day on which Vishnu wakes from his four months' sleep. In 
South- West Shahabad, on this day, the villagers tie a few canes 
together by the leaves, and place a neck-ring i.^^^^^ hansitli) on 
the top. They then . pour perfumes over it, take the neck-ring away, 
and commence cutting. When the crushing of cane is begun a 
ceremony is performed, called ft^TK pithdr in South- West Shah- 
abad, ^n«<l samahut in the rest of that district, wr^^ petdwan 



MISCELLANEOUS. 399 

in Patna and Graya, and t'^t^'I pacliglMn in the south-east (see also 
§ 299). 

3440. In Shahabad, on the first day of crushing cane, the villagers 
take some juice home to cook with rice. This dish is called t^twt^^ 
rasjaur. The ceremony at the first boiling of the juice is ^(STX 
miihai in the south-west, and ftx^spt nrni in Patna and Graya. A 
similar worship of a god, who is called ^%MT *rT<JT KoVa Mata, exists 
in the south-east. This god exists elsewhere as a deity protecting 
wells. 



CHAPTER XII.— MISCELLANEOUS. 

1441. Among the lesser known festivals may be mentioned the 
foUowing. The ^K^ uras or rg^JUT chirdgais, south of the Granges, a 
festival held in honour of the Musalman saint a^t^tt ^T? Makhdum Shah. 
It takes place on various dates in different places, e.g. in Patna City 
it takes place in the month of Bakrd'ld (about December), and at 
other places in Barak ira/dt (about March). »r<d.^«TfT makhdumana 
is a rite performed in his honour by landlords. 

1442. The ^^ ^';«<f chhath bart is a Hindu festival in honour of 
the sun held on the 6th of the light half of Katik (early in November). 
The ^cTTfT ■gajT dawdt puja is held by men of the Kayasth caste on 
the 12th of the light half of Katik {i.e., the day but one after 
th.ediwdli). On this day they worship their inkstands and will not 
touch pen and ink. 

1443. In the north and east, on the 3rd Bhadon (August-Septem- 
ber) occurs the ^Nr tlj, on which women fast a day and night in honour 
of the goddess qi^cf^ Pdrbati, and eat ^'n^saiiu (ground parched grain) 
next day. On the last day of Bhadoii occurs the ^TFr=fr anaiit or ^^Mrt 
anat on which day both men and women fast. In the same tract the 
^^TT bahura is a festival on which the women eat gfr sattu with sugar 
and clarified butter. 

1444. The ^laKi^si akhartlj in Patna, •^'^t^PrfwiT akhartljiya 
in Gaya, and ^^r^^lcT akhartit in South- West Shahabad, is the feast 
on the 3rd of the light half of Baisakh (early in May), on which the 
obligations of the spring harvest are cleared off. In South Bhagalpur 
it is called ^* ffj^fil^T achhai tirtiya. 



400 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

1445. On the 5th of the light half of Saon (early in August) 
ooours the feast of the •ITT V^»^ nag pancliami, also known as tstTT tt^^jH 
lagpanchmi in North-East Tirhut, sj5[iiqf% nakpdnche in Shahabad, 
^jp\lf% nagpaiiche in Patna and Gaya, and ^ji.mT^ lagpdnche in the 
south-east. On this festival the women mark their houses with lines 
of cowdimg, and worship ^^^irnr sesnag (the Serpent of Eternity) with 
TrnTir and parched grain («nTT lawa) . On the nt^ 1T% gobar pdnclie, 
which falls on the 5th of the dark half of the same month (late in 
July), the same god is often worshipped in Patna instead of on the 
former festival. This is called x^r^T lf^ behra pancJie in South 
Bhagalpur. 

1446. irt"s^ godhan is a woman's rite in which they mate 
cow-dung figures of scorpions, snakes, &c., and beat them. To the 
south of the Ganges, in Bhadon (August-September), the women 
fast for twenty-four hours and make cowdung figures of Ganes 
and lay brambles ('ffi^ »jr^ jhdr jhur) in the court-yard, saying 
the words '^pn'r ■<*<:« wj^ -spc^w "STf »?rf "ff^r^T? "€t aj^pan harm 
bhaiyak dharm jhdr jhur ghmidice hi, an incantation which literally 
translated means, ' I cause my own fate and my brother's virtue to enter 
the bramble.' This incantation is supposed to benefit the speaker and 
her brother in some mysterious way. A similar ceremony is called 
- tB<.»< I v^T^ karma dharma in South Bhagalpur. 

1447. The ^'^frmx jiiitiya to the west and the fmfitmjitiya to the 
east is a fast and worship performed by women on the 8th of the dark 
half of Katik (late in October) for the benefit of their children. 

1448. In Patna the festival of the hoK festival (full moon of 
Phagun or middle of March) is distinguished by the custom called 
^^rr^ lukdri or "<?i*»=)r'Ci lukwdri. In this, at night, the village children 
throw lighted torches across the boundaries of the village into the 
neighbouring village. This is supposed to be lucky for the village 
which throws, and imlucky for the village which receives, and is a source 
of frecLuent fights. 

1449. On the day between the 15th of Chait and the 
15th of Baisakh (about the 15th of April) when the sun enters 
the sign of the Ram (%^ inekh), it is customary to feed Brahmans 
with ^"iT satlu (ground parched barley), fi<t^^T tikorha (immature 
mangos), and water, and to give alms. This feast is called the 
^r^T^sr satuain or ^gr^nft satudni. In South Bhagalpur this 
festival is held on the last day of Chait, i.e., the last day of the 



ARBITRATIONS, OATHS, ETC. 401 

Bangali year. On the following day there is in Tii'but a curious 
festival, called the ^;^ 'ftri^ jiir sttal. The people bathe in water 
drawn the previous night and eat food cooked at that time, after 
worshipping f^ciT^ %^ Sitla Debt, the goddess of small-pox. 
Then from morning till noon all classes, rich and poor, cover 
themselves with mud, and shower it on all whom they meet. No 
one is free from this mud bath. In the afternoon the people go 
out with clubs and hunt Jackals and hares and whatever animal 
they can find in the village. On their return home they boast of 
their valour in having killed this and that jackal, and the phrase 
^^ 'Jhrer^ ft^r€t jur sitalak sipdhi is used like wtir^:^ tf fV^r^ 
moharram ke sipdhi to signify a braggard. 



CHAPTER XIII.— ARBITRATIONS, OATHS, &c. 

1450. A body of arbitrators is ^"^jxtl panchdit to the north 
and west. In Patna and Gaya it is m^h panchlt or 'T^tir pancheta, 
and in the south-east v^~^ panchaiti. The head arbitrator is called 
^^vq^ sarpanch, also south of the Ganges ^X7CC sarddr or ^x^ 
maliton. In Shahabad he is also called »r?Tii mahdn, and in South 
Bhagalpur fl'^ manrar. A caste assembly is ^ar?: ckatai {lit. a mat), 
or TT^<r pangat {lit. sitting iu a row), and its head arbitrator "(tj^t^ 
pardhdn or wT«t7gj^ manjan. In Shahabad the man next to the chief 
is called the w^^R chhariddr. 

1451. When one party in the case challenges the opposite 
party or a particular person to an oath, the phrase used is '^^■^ mx^^ 
hasar karab ; also STT^ dhdrab in Patna, Gaya, and the south-east. 
The oath may be on the ammonite {^T^ri\^ s digram or ^f% ai.<m 
saligrdm), a copy of the Sanskrit ^Ix^'g' haribans, or on Ganges water 
(iriT 5i^ ganga jal). When Ganges water is placed in a copper 
vessel with some leaves of the holy basil {Ocymum sanctum), the oath 
is said to be by g^rr^ »if^T tulsi- tamba. Or a man may lay his hand 
on his son's head ( ^Zl ^T 1%^ IK ^«I ^ "^ beta ha sir par hdnth 
dhai kan), in which case his son is supposed to die withia a year 
if he tells a lie, or he may touch a Brahman's legs and swear 
by them (^T-^W % ^fffC 1 "^ Brahman ke gor chliu kan). In Shah- 
abad one form of oath current is to pour forth some country liquor. 
This form is known as »T^T??T madain. The oath taken on a cow is 



402 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

known as i^ f^dx^ ga^i kiriya. The man who swears by this oath some- 
times holds the animal's tail, and sometimes simply touches it. In these 
cases the man before swearing bathes and puts on new clothes. North 
of the Granges the ^^T gurura is a circle drawn on the ground in which 
the man who takes the oath stands, or from which he takes the thing 
claimed. The belief in these oaths is, throughout the oouutry, very 
genuine, but perjury is sometimes attempted. One common trick 
when swearing with one's hand on one's son's head is to substitute some 
one else for the son. The writer remembers in the year 1879, when he 
was in camp in Darbhanga district, a curious incident. License-tax 
assessments were being held, and one weU-known money-lender offered 
to swear on his son's head that he lent no money. The challenge was 
accepted, and the oath taken. Curiously enough the son was next day 
seized with what was said to be cholera, and the man came to the 
writer, and insisted on his name being written in the highest class of 
assessees. This was done. It is satisfactory to know that the son 
recovered. Babhans are popularly supposed to have little fear of the 
sanction of an oath, as witness the following proverb, — ^W, ^rf, 
"fft^'^ #, ^'^ TIT* VK, P^^ W ^TWir, TT TT *T^ tft^iK S'll, sut, 
haribans lai, blc/i gangak dhdr, etek lai babJuin trnl na karah itibar. 
If a Babhan swear by the ammonite, his son, the Haribans, and in the 
midst of the Ganges, — don't believe him. 

1452. To excommunicate from caste is SWT (or s^T ri^i^ ) ^^ ^?;«f 
htikka (or hukica tamdku) band karab. It is also frsflcl ^x:^ kujat karab 
or V^T?;*' ^ ^TZ \^ panchait sen kdt deb. The headman of a caste is 
^jl^^T niukhiya, '^^^ chaudhri, ^T^^IK sarddr, or ^TTTiaj'I manjan. 
Amongst the Tehs and Chamars he is also called *r^Mff mahton, ^"fia'^ 
mehtar, or (in South-East Tirhut), wf ^5 mahrar. 



CHAPTER XIV.- MISCELLANEOUS SUPERSTITIONS. 

1453. A wizard is ^»fi7 ojJia or sji^jk jddugar. Other names 
also used are ^"Y'ST sokha in South- West Shahabad, g^^^ gwii in 
North-East Tirhut, ■#«JT daiya in Patna, wm bhagat in Patna, Graya, 
and the south-east, and also wirffnjT bhagatiya and ^fs^T cAa^ya in South 
Munger. His enchantments are oJTf; jddu or ^l^irr?; ojhd'i, also WFirrx; 
bhagtai in South Bhagalpur. A witch is "^sjx.^ dd'in. 

1454. An omen is ^^ sagun, and also north of the Granges Ttigsf 
shagun. A good omen is ^'^T ^^s? achchha sagun, or in Shahabad 



MISCELLANEOUS SUPERSTITIONS. 403 

S^W g^ sulabh sagun. An evil omen is ^«jy*f kusagun, also in the 
north-west ^^^^^rgf baduMgun, and in Patna and Gaya •i'?^ nahas. 
In East Tirhut it is ^^^^ asgiin. Other names are ff^TTff kusait (an 
unlucky time) and grsrRT kujatra (an unlucky starting). 

1455. There are a vast numher of vOlage gods (iiw ^^rwr gram 
deota) worshipped throughout the province. The principal amongst 
them will shortly be mentioned. A ^:x^ ^^Tf kali asthdn, also called 
%^ ^^rnr debl asthSn or %^ ■«fT«i dehi than, which is a mound in 
honour of Kali, the wife of Shiva (f%^ Sib), is generally erected outside 
each village. In Tirhut under the village plpal tree there is generally 
a mound, decorated with clay images of the principal personages 
in the epic connected with him, erected in honour of the Salhes who 
is mentioned in the following list. This is called a ^^^ ■^■^T«r salhes 
asthdn. The mound erected to a deceased Brahman or holy man is 
generally called a ^KT^^ '^^Tsf barham asthdn. 

1456. The following is a list of the principal village deities 
worshipped in Bihar. The more well-known deities, such as fk^ Sib, 
*r?T%^ Mahddeb, m.-MM Barham {Brahma), or tifj^^ Krishn, are , omitted. 
It will be observed that some of them are demons, who are worshipped 
in order to propitiate them. 

^"R^rTT' tr^T^ Amta Bhawdni or ^f*H<til v^T^ Ambika Bhawdni, 
a form of Debi worshipped in Saran. 

qrr^ ^1t Kdru Blr or ^r^ ^^ Kdru Bds (south), also ^^T 
^^ Kalua Bir (Patna), worshipped by Doms and Dusadhs. 

fT^ ^=r«n E-ul Deota, the family god. 

Ifg^ *\ \ Mf< Kailuk Gosanln, worshipped in South Bhagalpur by 
Dusadhs. 

^xmi fTTriJ Koila Mdta, the goddess of a well spring, worshipped 

generally. 
^V^K ^'ST Kodar Katta, worshipped by Doms in South Bhagalpur. 
^^ Kol, worshipped in Gaya. 

^srrSr fe^^ KJidje Khidar, the patron god of the boatman (w^T^ 
maldh) caste. He is also often confused with a similar female 
deity ^^ nn; Ganga Mai. Musalman women fast on every 
Thursday in the month of Bhadon (August-September) and 
call the fast xai^ f%^\ ^ ^afT khdje khidar ka roja. 



404 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. /^ ^ 

%fpt w^n^ Klicli BiMwani (Patna and south-west), worshipped 
by Koiris when they phint and cut their vegetables. In 
Patna a Musalman vegetable-seller (^ajr^T hunjra) worships 
^^ d I ^X Bam Thakur. 

jff^TJnx ^n^cT Gobnai Ediit (north-west), a deified cowherd 
worshipped in Saran and Champaran. 

iftT^T Goraiga or jitc^T Gorea, worshipped generally south of the 
Granges, especially by Doms and Dusadhs ; also called iftft^T 
Gonya (Patna). 

■grsf Ghaton, worshipped in South Bhagalpur by Dusadhs. 

-grn^^T Chafdican (Patna), worshipped by Doms and Dusadhs. 

f^TT^z^^ ■^K Chirkutwa Ptr, — see f^^^^riK Bihwar, 

^^^ "fcm Chuhar Mdl, — see ^^^ Sallies, worshipped in the south- 
east by Dusadhs. 

• ^ HZ Chohat, worshipped by Doms and Dusadhs. 
snrs^^lT Jagdamma, the goddess of small-pox, worshipped in 
Patna and the south-east by Dusadhs. 

s}^rT%sr Jaldsen, the protector of bearers, worshipped in Saran. 

gft'?^^ ^K^ Jaiihri Barm, worshipped in Saran. 

^f«r^ ^T Jhunki Blr, worshipped in Gaya. 

^WT^'^l^ Damarddk (south), worshipped by Doms and Dusadhs. 

■^T^ Bdk, worshipped in Patna, Gaya, and South Hunger. 

IW^^TT Bihwdr (generally), also (Saran and South Tirhut) 
f^Ki^z'^^ TplK Chirkutwa Fir. This is a very generally 
worshipped deity. There is supposed to be a separate 
one for each village. Every one who passes by throws a piece 
of cloth on his image. 

■i^^TT^ ifk DheVia Pir (north) or 5id«<<r jft^rr Dhelwa Gosdnin 
(south), in whose honour a heap of earth is erected on the 
road-side, to which every passer-by adds a clod. He protects 
wayfarers. 

^^"^ Debt, the popular name of the goddess Durga. 

«•»,•« ••im Dharmnath, an incarnation of Sib, worshipped in Saran. 

^T?^ ■*j|'5w Ndek Sdkeb, worshipped in Patna. 

srnr Ndg, the snake god. Worshipped generally. In Saon 
(July-AugustJ crowds of women calliug themselves his 



MISCELLANEOUS SUPERSTITIONS. /-i i'^ 



405 



-wives (iirfJiJi nagin) go out begging for 2^ days, during which 
period they neither sleep under a roof nor eat salt. Half the 
proceeds of the begging are given to Brahmans, and the other 
half invested in salt and sweetmeats, which are eaten by the 
whole village. During the expedition several charaoteristio 
songs are sung, some of which have been published by the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

T^f^W ^K Mahthin Dai, worshipped in the south-west. 

TTW ^ Pahas Bar (Patna and Graya), worshipped by Doms 
and Dusadhs. 

^^"^ "n^ Pancho Plr, the five saints named wt^ »?t«}f Gdji Miy&n, 
^"I'siT Hathila, vft'^n: Parihar, M^'^H \ij\ 8'ahja Mai, and 
^aj^ ^T^K Ajab Sdldr. They are worshipped by Musalman 
drummers (^■'ST^ daphdli), who during an outbreak of cholera 
act as village Musalman priests. They go about, beating 
drums, with an iron bar wrapped in red cloth and adorned with 
flowers, which represents rn^ ^PNit Gdji Miy&n. They are 
paid in kind by the people at whose doors they stop and 
drum. A 'T-'^'ImR'^ panchpiriya is a Hindu who worships 
Musalman saints. In Shahabad these five saints are worship- 
ed conjointly with three others, as mentioned in the following 
verse : — 

'^^nsn ^, trNt 'Jk, w?t cik, ^iwrr ^ Amna Sati, 
Pancho Plr, Langra Tdr, Sobarna Tir. 

Langra Tdr is simply a crooked wire which is worshipped. 
Soharna'Tir means the banks of the river Sobarna. 
^Ky sTT^i Paras Nath, worshipped by bankers (^^To3»r mahdjan). 
^^ ^T^ Phul Dak (Gaya), worshipped by Doms and Dusadhs. 

^ir7fl^< Bakhtaur, a deified cowherd worshipped in South-East 
Tirhut. 

^^«T^^ Bandaufni (Graya), worshipped by Doms and Dusadhs. 

^?^ Bandaut (Gaya), worshipped by Doms and Dusadhs. 

^a^ Banni (south-west), worshipped by Doms and Dusadhs. 

^<.5j.c|fi(t|| Bardicaniya, worshipped in Patna. 

^<.^« ^ Barham Deo, worshipped in Gaya. 

■^^T^if ^g^^ Basdican Eunar, worshipped in Gaya- 

52 



406 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. /4 To 

^■fY^ Bahor, worshipped in Patna and South Munger by Dusadhs. 
fk%^ ^\^^ Bidesi Barm, worshipped in Saran. 
^■. f«m-<i - < T Bisahra, worshipped in North-East Tirhut. 

w^ BJmirdb or vKt Bhairo, worshipped by cultivators in the 
south-east. 

KT^rrr ^ Makdr Bir (north and east), — see § 299. 
Ca; »f^^^ TTT Mama Bam (Patna) , worshipped by Doms and Dusadhs. 
Wiir^ <wt Manano Dawo, worshipped by Doms in South Bhagal- 

pur. 
jf^-^ %n Manus Deo (north and west), worshipped by Doms and 

Dusadhs. 

il^v^Tirr Maldam (south), worshipped by Doms and Dusadhs. 
w^sr Masdn (Patna), worshipped by Dusadhs and Doms. 
W'f^T'lT Mahmdya, the goddess of smail-pox. 
w^T'?!^ Mahdblr, a form of Hanuman, the monkey-king who 

befriended Bam. 
WTBrr ^JK. Mdta Dai or 1%tii^ Sitli, the goddess of small-pox. 
^K ^^^T Mir Phajula, a Musalman saint worshipped in Saran. 
%^ ^ra Meghu Dak (Patna), worshipped by Doms and Dusadhs. 
^n{ Maiya (Patna and south-east), worshipped by Mushars, 

Dusadhs, and Doms. 

?fhft X[^ Moti Rdm, brother of ^^^ Sallies {q.v.), and worship- 
ped in the south-east by Dusadhs. 

K^^ 'fl* Baghuni Dak (Patna), worshipped by Dome and 
Dusadhs. 

V^ Raghu, worshipped in South Bhagalpur by Dusadhs. 

TTW a igi< Rdm Thdkur, worshipped in Patna and the south-east. 
See also ^^ MA\^^ Kheti Bkawdni. 

in^ ^T Rdm Blr (Patna), or TT*l »rt^f^ Rdm Gosdnin (Qaya), 
worshipped by Dusadhs. 

xr^ Rdh or (North-East Tirhut) TTS Rdhu is a demon worship- 
ped by Doms and Dusadhs. The ceremonies- are a kind of 
fire-worship, in which the devotees run along a trench filled 
with blazing coals. 



MISCELLANEOUS 8UPEKSTITI0NS. 407 

e'^aT ^^ Lila Dom, worshipped by Doms in South Bhagalpur. 
*j(^'<<.<r Sanichra (south-west), a god worshipped by vegetable- 
sellers (gK^T turha). i^M-^r^-i. -c ir^ -^rp-ar- ^ty^---*— -^^ , <-? 

^^•^ Salkho (south-west), worshipped by Doms and Dusadhs. 

^^^ Salhes or ^%^ Sales (south and east), worshipped by Doms 
and Dusadhs. He was a great hero and the first watchman. 
He fought a battle with ^"^ vj^ Chuhar Mdl of Mokama, 
who was the first thief. A famous epic concerning him is 
current in Tirhut, and has been published by the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal. 

<i>5"»iT<C^ WTT Sahjadi Mai, worshipped in the south-west. 
faJh^r: Singesar, worshipped in North-East Tirhut. 
^fTTTJT ^^X^ Hariram Barm, worshipped in Saran. 
^ft^x: fT^ Harihar Ndth, in Saran, at Sonpur. 

1457. A spell or charm is ^ gun or usa^ mantr. 2ta»*T totka, 
z^zmi totma, or 2t«iT tona, are spells or charms generally with an 
evil object. In Shahabad they were a'teiKH totram ; in Patna and 
Graya they are optionally '3rriTr MWKT utdra patara, and in South Bhagal- 
pur f^T^^T ^1^ ningchha chhori. The fk^T ^"^jiya dan, f^T^T*! jib 
dan, or tI^^tt baliddn, is an animal, &c., sacrified to ^T^ S^dli as a kind of 
scapegoat. In cases of sickness various articles are exposed in a saucer 
at a cross-road. This custom is supposed to communicate the 
disease to the first person who touches it, and is called sftir jog 
or miJT «Ysi jog ton, or in South Bhagalpur ^^ ^W ojA tern. The 
contents of the saucer vary with the disease demon to be pro- 
pitiated. There are generally some red ^"It^^ orhaul [hibucus) flowers, 
some sand, grain, and yellow cloth. If a ghost ^«r bhut has to be 
propitiated, wine, or even a fowl, is laid there. In cases of small-pox, the 
cloth with which the sores were dressed is frequently put out, which 
often makes the superstition about communicating the disease a lament- 
able reality. In South-East Tirhut an oblong mound studded with 
flags to avert cholera is called -^itcP^^ dsrik. The x^^j khatola 
(north of the Ganges) is a miniature bedstead hung on a tree as a 
propitiatory offering. 

1458. The following is a list of some of the various demons, 
ghosts, and other supernatttral bogies believed in in Bihar. Those 
which are worshipped, and which hence have been included in the 
former list, are omitted. 



408 



BIHAK PEASANT LIFE. 



^xfir^riT^ Agi Baiidl or ^fifvmm^ Agii/a Baital, a hideous demon 
which lurks in trees, lives on dung beetles, and seizes 
wayfarers by night. 

•iTlIVi Klchin (south), a kind of Lamia. She assumes the shape of 
a beautiful woman, and visits and seduces any man whom 
she may meet in a lonely place. The man dies within a few 
months of his yielding to the temptation. She has feet back 
to front, i.e., toes behind and heels in front. Hence the wise 
may recognize her. 

i?r^K Ghoghar (north-west), a ghost invoked to frighten children. 

"g^^T Chatua or ^^ntr Chahta (north-west), <g3v^ Chatna (north- 
east), a vampire who drinks up the milk of cows and women. 
In South Bhagalpur he is called ^H »T37=irr Chor Matka. 

^^^ Churail, also (in Shahabad) ^^f^^T Bahariya, an evil spirit 
which assumes the shape of a bird and sits on the roof 
of a house which contains a pregnant woman. This injures 
the child. 

fti^^T Jilaiya or si<sJ««<*JT Jalwaiya (south), or (South Bhagal- 
pur) *J<.-Fiil^*(r Marchiriya, a fiend which takes the shape of a 
night bird, and is able to suck the blood of any person whose 
name it hears. Hence women are very careful about calling 
their children by name in the night time. If it fly over the 
head of a pregnant woman, the child born will be a weakling. 
Such a child is called ftrg^^qr % w^^ jalwaiya ke chhml 

fsm Jin (north), a ghost, goblin, genius, ' djin. * 
•^^ Duba, — see -^^ bura. 

^■^X ^iw^T Dhokar Kastca, a man with a bag who carries ofE 
naughty children. 

^^^NeM Bibi (Gaya and south-west), a ghost invoked to 
frighten children. 

MW|..d^^ Pandubi, — see ^;^ bura. 

^■Krff f^re Barm-Pichas, a kind of ghost or goblin. "^ f'S- »<^'^ •- f'^ 

•at Biii is a ghost invoked to frighten children. 

^^ Bura, ^T Duba, or v!^^^ Pandubi, a water-demon, who 
drowns travellers. 

^T'*K Baupher (north), a kind of ghost or goblin. 



MISCELLANEOUS SUPERSTITIONS. 409 

vv^ Bhakur (north-west), a ghost invoked to frighten children. 

I^tr bhut, a ghost or goblin generally. 

»rf<*«j»^T Bhokasua (south), a ghost invoked to frighten children. 

*n5?r^^flT Manusdeba (north), a kind of ghost or goblin. 

«<.-f>lf^Vl Marchiriya, — see fti^f^^ jilwaiya. 

»lf^ Manon (north), a ghost invoked to frighten children. 

ftift^K % ^ mimiyai ke tel, a kind of bitumen brought from 
Persia and elsewhere. It is said to be extracted from the 
heads of coolies who emigrate to the colonies, by hanging 
them head downwards and roasting them over a slow fire. 
The threat of extracting it from the head of a child is 
therefore an active deterrent. 

KT^re Rakas, the will o' the wisp ; it breathes fire and misleads travel- 
lers, but it also lives in the fields, and where it resides grain 
is produced in abundance. 

Q4si;^T Sukhra (north), also ^^sj^ sukhaini (North-East Tirhut), 
a vampire which sucks up children's blood. 

^Tar Sdii (Patna), or S'BT humma (South Bhagalpur), a ghost 
invoked to frighten children. 

1459. The yH.*i',«J| utsarg, and also (in Tirhut) ^sr^^Vwir kana- 
notsarg, is the emblematical marriage of a grove to a well, without 
which preliminary observance it is unlawful to partake of the fruit. 
The f^K^isTlrt.^X-Jr birkhotsarg, and also (in Tirhut) the^f^^ baidik, is the 
ceremony of marriage performed in the name of a bullock let loose 
on the 11th day of mourning for a near relative. The oi^Tlcl ^T^ 
jalotsarg is the emblematical marriage ceremony on completion of a 
well or tank. It is married to an image erected close by. In case of 
a pond it is also called ^TPftil^^'T taragotsarg, and on completion of a 
well fTTtsTT^T^ kiq^otearg. The latter is called in South Bhagalpur 
^ 5rn kup jag or ■^tj^ ^sf kuiyah dan. ^iztdm<:ir bdtotsarg is the 
ceremony on the completion of a road. No marriage is in this case 
performed. 

1460. Water brought from a sacred river, spring, or place of 
pilgrimage «?tK«f [tlrath), is much used in religious ceremonies, and is 
carried by men called ^^K^'TO kamarpanthu. They are also called 
^i^K^ kamwdrthu in South- West Tirhut and ^Bfl^g^T kamrathua 
in South-Bast Tirhut. 



DIVISION XIII. 



TRADE, MONEY-DEALING, AND ACCOUNTS. 



CHAPTER I.— TRADE AND BAZAR ACCOUNTS. 

1461. Trade is %sr f len den, Jr^rm^ mahajni, ^^rKs^TK Jcdrbdr 
or -cfilOt'Pi: karohar, ^^r'ST': beohar, ^^ttttx: beyapdr or -^^qK beopdr, or 
^fitaf bmij. In Patna City it is also -^^f ttijut beohargat. Exchange 
or barter is ■^^^t; ^x'^^ "^^^^^ badlai. A money-lender is ^r^rsj^ 
mahdjan, ^v^ sdh or ^r^^nr sdhukdr, or x''^^fK^T behwariya. He is 
also called in tlie country ^fsi^T baniya, and in South-West Shahabad 
^^ sao. In Patna City he is called ^i<l«(r(^ karobari or «r^ dliam. 
A banker is ^ft^l'^a kothiwdl or ^KTtB saraph^ A. borrower is fVfn^ 
riniha, ^^'^ khadduk or 'si^*l khaduka, or ^WT^ asdmi. In South 
Munger he is also called •g^TT mujera, in South Tirhut ^fV^zr 
baniyauta and WKf^r^ dhdrnik, and in South Bhagalpur ^]«t^ khdtab. 
In Patna the words ^K^ST 'iW Aa»:;' AAawA and <*V'aT ^H fo?^ khor 
are also used. 

1462. An account-book is ^^ iaA«. A trader's account-books 
are called coUeotiYely ^^ 'STWT 6aAj khdfa. sit^k jaAw»- in Graya is a 
record of cloth sales kept by cloth-merchants. Each page of the 
account-book is called if ai panna, and also in North-East Tirhut ti'trr 
patta. 

1463. The foUovsiag are the books usually kept by village money- 
lenders : — 

{a) The O^.^m.^^T rojndmcha.—T}a.a is the day-book. The 
left hand or credit side of the page is known as otht jama, 
and the right or debit side as sjfw noMw or sith nam. 

(b) The 'fr^f ^^ ro&ar bahi —Mr. Crooke's description of this 
is equally applicable to Bihar. It is exactly the same as 
the \l«..)m.T<| rqjnamcha. There is only tliis difference, 



412 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

that it is balanced after eacL transaction. For example, 
the book shows Es. 1,000 on the credit side ; Rs. 100 
are disbursed on a certain account. This is entered on 
the debit ( «) T «t^ bahi or sif^ nmiw) side, and the book is 
balanced showing Rs. 900 still to credit. This is called 
Cl** ^■nrt rokar baki or ^^ cT?^^ baki tahhll, and is 
again brought forward to credit. North of the Ganges 
it is called TirTftT^ phajil. A man who carries on several 
distinct trades keeps up a separate x^*^ ^^ rokar bahi 
for each. 

(c) The %^ -^ lekha bahi, the mtn khdta, or ^jm ^^ khata 
bahi. — This is the ledger, and is made up as time allows 
from the <lw«'l | ti» ^T ^^ rojmmcha bahi. It contains 
each creditor's or debtor's account separately, with a 
reference to the page of the day-book on which each 
item has been entered day by day. Some traders keep up 
a separate ^sxwf ^^ khdta bahi for each of their trades or 
speculations, others have only one general one. 

{d) There is also the onrrex*^ jamdkharch, which is an 
abstract of the day-book, and is hence also called a 
^sfiraT^ khatiyauni, and shows the totals of receipts and 
payments on each page. 

1 464. Small traders generally only keep up the first of these books, 
—the <l«.'im«^l rojnamcha or day-book. Very small traders do not 
even keep this. They have a separate slip of paper containing each 
customer's account, and called f^^ chit, f^ chittha, or f^fj- chitthi, 
01 ISXsrm purja or -sx^purji. In South Hunger it is called ^TKjmtf 
sarkhat. 

1465. Large traders, such as those in the city of Patna, with whom 
this work has nothing to do, keep up all the above four books. For the 
sake of completeness, the following information, founded on that given 
by EUiot in his Glossary, is added. Quoting Elliot's words (with the 
necessary alterations to suit local variations) : "The page (of an 
account-book) is divided into two equal parts, called in Patna xm^J 
rekdna : each of these is again divided into two ^^^ rukan or ^^tst rukn. 
The (first or) right-hand <«ftHI rekdna is called the Tmt hdslio. The 
first right-hand quarter (some say half) of the left-hand x^r^ rekdna 
is called ^T slra, and the remaining portion is called in Patna City 



ACCOUNTS BETWEEN LANDLOKD AND TENANT. 413 

^T^ irdda, and elsevfheie rt^ peta or (in North-East Tirhut) ^ ^e^. 
The^tXTsJffl! contains the sum finally. brought to account after the 
necessary deductions have heen made from the gross amount in the ^t 
peta and v^mH hasho." In reading the above, it should be remembered 
that it refers to accounts kept in the Persian character. When kept in 
the mahajni character, the terms for right and left must be reversed. 



CHAPTER II.— ACCOUNTS BETWEEN LANDLORD AND 

TENANT. 

1466. These accounts are not usually kept in bound books, but 
on separate slips of paper, kept together in packets by a paper tape, 
called ?r^.<si* tablak or %^^ kaidak. 

1467. A tenant's receipt for rent is known as t^^ rastd or 
^rtWr ddkhila, and in North-East Tirhut ^Rra kabaj. 

1468. The system of accounts differs according as the rent is paid 
in kind or in cash. Hence two sets of accounts are kept up in a land- 
lord's office. They are the following :— 

(a) Accounts of rents paid in kind — 

1. <a^-<l ^nrr^*^ Miasra danabandi. 

2. ^^"^Kl WZJX khasra batai. 

3. n 1 >t« C l^ mophrid. 

4. ^ftiW laggii and ^t%^ ^t^ wasil baki. 

5. fiff^aJ fsrft^:^T tirij jiniswar, 

6. ft^^T siydha. 

7. f^r^ f^sfS**^ IWT Msdb bikri galla. 

(J) Accounts of rents paid in cash — 

8. ^'97^ khasra. 

9. 'Tf'B^^ mophrid. 

10. grftifT laggit and =rri%^ ^^ wdsil baki. 

11. fiilxsj' i|i<<Td tirij patew&ri. 

12. f*j*(Ki siydha. 

(c) In addition to the above, the following general accoimts 
are kept, v^hich are applicable to both kinds of rent— 

13. wlr«|."^*'l molhaki. 

14. ^yr dhaddha or ^^T 'STtf^^ '^({^jatna wdsil bdki. 

53 



414 



BIHAK PEASANT LIFE. 



15. sj'JTTw^ jamdbandi. 

16. oTwraT^^ jamdlcharch. 

1469. The word flrftsf Wny, met with above, means "abstract.' 
In small estates, Nos. 5, 11, and 14 are often not used. 

1470. The following is a brief description of the above accounts : — 

(1) The ^^7<T '^j'lX^^ khasra ddnabandi. This is the account 

paper drawn up in the field when the ^Tsti dana 
or estimate of the crop is being made. It containB— 

{a) The date. 

(Z>) Name of tenant. 

(c) Quantity of land (^TToi^ araji). 

(d) Length (?Rij tul) and breadth (^^isj araj) of the plot. 

(e) Name of the crop (fsrpi^ Jinis) thereon. 

(/) The quantity of grain estimated. 

The f?rf^sr «rr^^r7qTx tirij tarlklmar is a daily abstract of 
No. 1, and shows (in the case of division by appraise- 
ment) the total area of land and the quantity of grain 
estimated daily. The sum of all the daily entries in this 
paper shows the total area of lands of which the rent is 
paid in kind, and the produce thereof. This account is 
only kept when the division of the crop is by appraise- 
ment ( <l«)i«l-^ danabandi, see § 913). Some landlords, 
however, also keep it in the case of actual division on the 
threshing-floor, as a check on No. 2. 

(2) When the division is by actual division on the threshing- 

floor (^jftX ^31?: agor batai, see § 914), a ^^^^T ^^^X. 
khasra batdi is opened instead, containing the date, name 
of tenant, area, kind of crop, quantity, landlord's share, 
cesses, &c. 

(3) The tf^B^^d^ mophrld is the bundle of papers in which 

separate accounts of each tenant are entered. A separate 
slip of paper is kept for each tenant. It is compiled 
from the ^^^TT khasra (No. 1). It shows the quantity 
of each kind of grain belonging to him which was 



ACCOUNTS BETWEEN LANDLORD AND TENANT. 415 

estimated, date lay date. The area of the land under 
each crop at each estimate is also given. When this is 
abstracted out so as to show the total area and total 
crop for each tenant, the abstract is called faf<;3i trhBrfl^ 
tirij mophrld. 

(4) The ^rfJjTef laggit and «{Tf%W Tt^ wasil haki are written up 
from No. 3, a separate slip of paper being kept for each 
tenant. They form a kind of ledger or personal account. 
The heads are as follows, — the total quantity of each kind 
of grain and the area of land under each. The total share 
claimed by all the landlords (Trf%^ ^WT hakimi hissa) 
is then struck ofE. From this the shares of the other share- 
holders, who keep accoimts separate from the landlords 
whose accounts we are considering, is deducted. To 
the remainder the cesses and other dues (^^rgj^ abwab) 
are added. The total shows the quantity of grain 
realizable from the tenant by the landlord on whose 
behalf the account is prepared. This portion of the 
account showing the demand is called the ^pam laggit. 
From the total demand the quantity of grain realized 
during the year is set off, and the balance, if any, is 
shown. The whole paper showing demand, realization, 
and balance is called the =171%^ ^T»ff wdsil haki. An 
abstract of the ^rfijrrr laggit, showing under the head of 
each kind of grain separately the amount of crop of, and 
area of land under, that grain owned by each tenant, is 
called the firfer ^f>Jlcl tirij laggit. The abstract of the' 
•nf^^ '^^. wdsil bdki is the 5^ dhaddha (No. 14). 

(5) The fkfxsT f5ifi|«.<*K tiry jiniswar is compiled from the 

^fiJtH laggit (No. 4). It shows in one entry for each 
tenant the total area he has under cultivation, and the 
amount of each kind of crop demanded from him. 

(6) The f%^T^ siyaha is the day-book of receipts and disburse- 

ments of grain. An abstract of this, called the ^^T^a^T 
awarja or m<»oiT lodrja, shows the total receipts and 
disbursements, date by date. 

(7) The r^<J T «) f%^^ 1WT hisdh bikri galla is the account 

showing the produce of the sale of the grain received as 



416 bihZr peasant life. 

rent. It shows the date of sale, quantity sold, rate, 
and price. 

1471, We now come to the accounts of rent paid in cash. 

(8) 'S^^T Masra is the paper in which the area {i.e., 

cT^ tul or length and ^irai araj or hreadth) as ascertained 
by measurement of the lands held by the tenants in 
a village, together with the rate per bigha or class 
(■fST j»«*'«) of each plot, is entered. An abstract of this 
shows the amount measured each day, while the measure- 
ment is going on, and is called ftlxoT ^^T7 tirij khasra. 
This «*)•<,! khasra gives only the measurement of the 
lands held temporarily on a cash rent, and differs from 
the regular ^^^^ khasra or measurement papers of a 
village. 

(9) iil*.^^ mqphrtd. — This is similar to No. 3, mutatis mutandis. 

It shows the area and different rates of rent of the various 
plots held by each tenant. Each tenant has a separate 
slip of paper, and all lands for which cash rents are paid, 
whether temporarily or not, are included in it. It is 
compiled from No. 8 and No. 10. An abstract of it, 
called firf^si ♦TI'b.^^, tiriJ mophrtd, shows the axea of 
land held and total rent payable by each raiyat. 

(10) ^filler hggit and «<ifv^ ^^ wdsil haki. — These are similar, 

mutatis mutandis, to No. 4. They are the ledger 
account of each tenant. Each tenant has a page, 
on which is shown the area of his plots, rate of 
each, rent of each, total area, and total rent. From this 
the shares of the other shareholders are deducted, and 
to the remainder the cesses and dues are added, together 
with the value of any rent in kind (^HT=r T^ damdo 
galla), due by the raiyat which has not been realized 
during the year. To this again the arrears of previous 
years are added, and the total shows the demand 
against the tenant. The paper thus far is called the 
^p3irr laggit. From the total demand is deducted the 
cash rent collected during the year, and the balance is 
struck to be carried to next year's account. The whole 
paper showing demand, realization, and balance is called 



ACCOUNTS BET^VEEN LANDLORD AND TENANT. 417 

the ^f^^ -^^ toOsil baki. An abstract of tlie ^fin*r laggit, 
called the ftrfkar ^Itira- tirij laggit, shows under the head of 
each tenant separately the total area held and rent 
payable by him at each rate. The abstract of the TrfW 
*ll<*^ wdsil haki is the ^yr dhaddha. 

(11) The t«iR«J ■rS^'^ tirij paiewdri is the paper in which 

the name of each mj patta or separate class of land 
in the village is entered, showing the total area, rate, 
and rent of each class. The total shows the total area of 
land held at various rates in the vUlage. This paper is 
compiled from No. 10. 

(12) The fttjl'^l Biyaha is the same {mutatis mutandis) as No. 6. 

In this the daily receipts and disbursements in cash, 
including the price of grain sold, are entered. It is, in 
fact, a cash-book. An abstract of this, called the ^rtk^stt 
awarja or ^TK.T5rr warja, shows the total expenditure day 
by day. 

1472. The following accounts are applicable to both kinds of rent. 

(13) The »ll«!i.-^«*^ molhaki is a ledger account for each tenant, 

showing date by date all payments (whether in cash or 
kind) made by him. It is compUed from the t%ifT^ 
siyaha. An abstract of this, called ftrft^l ifl^n^9R^ tirij 
molhaki, shows the total payments made during the year 
by each tenant. The totals of this should agree-with 
the total of No. 12 (the f%?jT^ siydha) on the receipt 
side. It hence serves as an abstract of the receipt side 
of No. 12, while the "=(j«(Kia)| awarja is the abstract of 
the disbursement side. 

(14) The ^ JT dhaddha is also called the (wf<aJ ?Tf%W STT^ tirij wdsil 

haki or snn ^ft^ -^x^jama, wdsil bdki. It shows the name 
of the tenant ; area of his holding at each rent ; amount of 
rent ; additions on account of cesses, unrealized grain rent 
and arrears of previous years ; deductions on account of 
shares of other shareholders ; deductions on account of 
cash rent realized ; and balance. This paper is in fact an 
abstract of the Trf%^ ^T^ wasil bdki (Nos. 6 and 10). 
The latter shows the accounts of each tenant separately, 



418 BIHAK PEASANT LIFE. 

whereas the ^^ dhaddha shows all the tenants' accounts 
on one sheet of paper. This form of account is according 
to Field* said to have heen invented by Udhmant Singh, 
of Nassipur, in the district of Murshidahad, in order to 
enable the zamindars to represent the collections as they 
pleased to the Muhammadan Grovernment. 

(15) The i jitim*^ jamabandi is the paper in which the total 

annual demand of the village on account of rent is 
entered. This paper does not usually show illegal 
demands from the tenants. These are generally shown 
only in the ^frmjy^ jamakfuirch (No. 16). 

(16) The smrox^^ jamdhharch is the final annual abstract 

of the financial condition of the village. It shows the 
total demand, realization, and balance of the year in 
more or less detail. The demand side shows the balance 
of previous year, the total demand according to the 
5j-»iT^5^ jamabandi (No. 16), and other items of demand 
(such as fines, illegal cesses, &c.) which do not find their 
way into the latter. The total is the grand total of the 
demand for the year. This demand is on the other 
side of the account again divided into money spent and 
balance. The money spent includes the portion of the 
realizations which are forwarded to head-quarters, and 
the portion of realizations spent on the village and on 
miscellaneous expenses. The balance is made up of reali- 
zations in hand, and for which the village official or the 
landlord's grain-merchant is responsible, and of 
unrealized demand, the latter of which is given in detail. 
Some landlords have two copies of this paper, — one for 
their own information, containing the illegal cesses, and 
the other excluding them, so as to allow of its production 
in court. 

1473. In the appendix to this work are given translations of the 
various forms of account as kept by a Patna landlord. 



* Law of Evidence, p. 670. 



INTEREST, DISCOUNT, AND COMMISSION. 419 

CHAPTER III.— INTEEEST, DISCOUNT, AND COMMISSION. 

1474. Discount and commission are generally y<sjl*?^ salami. ^IT 
batla is also used south of the Ganges. In Patna they are also called 
ftrC'fiT phiranta. ^i«fi' barhti is a premium. M'<^'<X sakrai is a commis- 
sion of 3 or 6 pies per cent charged by the acceptor on accepting a biU. 
•!•*•<. 5, ij<h.<,i, nakrai sakrai is a charge at 8 anas per cent, on a drawer 
of a bill when his bill is not accepted. oJT'^^t '9T? ^T jahta sdh jog 
is a commission at one anna pei cent, when the bill is accepted in 
favour of a banker. ^f^tlHT hundiydna or ^t^^t^st hundiyatcan is com- 
mission on a bill-of-exchange (s'^ hundi). Factorage, or the commis- 
sion (of one or two piec per rupee) taken by a servant on goods bought 
for his master is ^^r^ dasturi, or, more commonly, ^M phal. <^.<!H<aT 
dalali is brotterage. 

1475. Interest is ^;^ sud. Interest in kind, paid on seed-grain, is 
n(r^ dghi to the west and in South-Bast Tirhut. In South-West 
Shahabad it is ^Ti^^sr agwan, and in Patna WTST chhdra or ^TK 
karhaur. North of the Granges generally it is also called ^^n; "i'T^ 
sawdi derhi, in allusion to the rate at which the principal is lent. 
In the south-east it is f^T^T hiydj. Elsewhere ft^T^ biydj or 
w^Toi hedj is interest on money, which in the south-east is ■55;^ 
sud. ^^^ asal or g;^ mnr is the capital lent out at interest ; but in 
Shahabad it is also ^;;^ mul, and in the south-east ^f«ft ^nr«rr sudi 
rupaiya. fffTnffT monapha is profit. It is distinguished from interest 
(which is unlawful for them) by strict Musalmans. Amongst others > 
however, the two terms are convertible. Other words for profit are 
^flrl*^ barhotri or »rT'5T ndpha in Shahabad, srer napha or 4,«i«fri4ii 
intipha to the west, x^Pki \ i* r intdpha in the south-east, and ^f%«r bachit 
in Patna, Gaya, and South Bhagalpur. 

1476. T'^T paincha or "^«i«>tT hathpher is a loan when the exact 
thing is to be returned. A local variant is tp? painch in South- West 
Shahabad. It is also called ^mT udhdr, which properly means a 
purchase on credit. «R^«5rr karja is a money loan. This is also called 
south of the Ganges ^k:^ karj, ^ursi'WlM kai-jwdm, and -"iVr paincha. 
^^jr?;i^ dasgarddn or (amongst the educated) ^^tjik*^ dastgardan 
is a temporary loan without interest. ^«l^K hathpher or (in Shahabad) 
'k^ ^^t: hanlh udhdr is also used in this sense. 

1477. A debtor is 'a^^ khaduka or *oy|<?l asdmi. Local names 
are ^%ys khadduk m. Gaya and the south-west, if'SKT mujera in Patna, 
and TiT»r^ Midtab in South Bhagalpur. A defaulting debtor is strtot^ 



420 BIHAK PEASANT MFE. 

jamdm&r, also «|<<-44K thanmdr in Champaran and Soutli-Bast Tirliut, 
fl^'^WTT malmar in South-West Tirhut, and «i^Wr^ thailimar in South 
Bhagalpur. Other names are 'rr^ khdu in Saran, ^T^^ khaukdr in 
South-East Tirhut, and srr ^f T »m! dehan in Patna. The educated say 
SIT ^5^ ivi dehand. Outstandings are ^tttstt lahm. A bad debt is 
JifiT^ ^Tfrr ^fl^a/ Mato in Patna and the north-'west, and »PIT^ ^rr^TT 
gayal khata in Graya and the south-west, of which ara ^T<rr ^««^ khdta 
in South Munger is a variant. In South- West Shahabad it is also said 
to be JiM-dl^ gaptdl, in Tirhut they say ^^ m^ bural hhelai, and in 
South Bhagalpur -s-jft w dubo gelai. When an animal or other 
property is pledged for a debt, it is called to the north-west and in West 
Tirhut ^rr^T Idican or wi^^ »5T^T lawan jhdwan. Elsewhere it is 
vr V«IT hliarna or f Ji'scf giron. 

1478. To borrow money is ^:^ ^^c ^^^T ^Tf^ (or ^rf? %^, 
or ^Tf? <!HJJ«t) sud par rupaiya kdrhdb (or kdrhi leb, or &a?'A« ^oefi). 



CHAPTER IV.— RATES OF INTEREST. 

1479. A rate of interest is ^^ dar. The following are the rates 
of interest charged. Interest at one per cent, is ^nr ^ ^i.^ i rupai 
saikra, at two per cent., f; ^t ^^t^ du rupai saikra, and so on : — 

(1) -i-fT derha, -^^^ deorha, or in the south-east -ir'alVsrr 

deurhiya. This is fifty per cent., e.g., a man borrows 
five maunds of grain at sowing time and repays 7\ 
maunds at harvest, without reference to the selling price 
at the time of borrowing or sepayment. This is confined 
to transactions in gtain. 

(2) g^rr? sawdi or ^^irr sawaiya is twenty- five per cent, as above. 

(3) f^^i^ % WR IQiri he bhdo tnorth), or VT^%*ng Mao fe 

hhdo (south), also ^w^ % ^^^ asal he asal in the south- 
east.— In this grain is lent, and at harvest time an 
equivalent in grain to the real money value of the grain 
lent at the time of borrowing is returned. 

(4) ^rmsf^ hgdni is giving one rupee's worth of grain and 

after six months receiving back one rupee two annas 
worth. In South' Tirhut it is also called ^3T<;'?[T5ft 
athrahni. 



MORTGAGE. 



421 



(5) Tr% ^^T paise rupaiya is money interest at one pica per 

rupee per montt. So ^'S ^ *i^ * n derh paise rupaiya 
is one and a half pice per rupee per month. 

(6) a^jT^ taJchi is money interest at two pice or one "S^ taka 

per rupee per mensem. In the south-east it is also 
called ^n*^^ adhanni. 

(7) ^«T^ gandU is money interest at four pice per rupee per 

month. 

(8) ^T^^ charanni is four annas per rupee per annum. 

(9) ^^^'St pa^ihanni is five annas per rupee per aimum. 

(10) ^^^ft chawatini is six annas per rupee per annum. 

(11) f*^ Jcist or fq;^ ^^ kist bandi is when the total of principal 

and interest is repay ed within a stated time by fixed 
instalments. 

1480. The first money received by a shopkeeper during the 
day is «n^ « «n hohni; also *il'^'«?i' ^TT bohni batta in Patna and Graya, and 
^•riTlT banhai in South Bhagalpur. In Patna City it is jfaT^ ganthaut 
or Tifar gdntha. A pledge or deposit is fjT^f giron or ^faf^ bandhik. 
In Patna, Graya, and South Hunger it is fjK'<?r girioM, in Shahabad 
•filK^ giraln, in the south: west of that district fnrf ifs' giron -ganth, 
and in South Bhagalpur fii^T'^ girmi. glx^T puriya, or in East Tirhut 
g^^^T purja, is a sealed or fastened-up deposit. oTRff jakar is 
goods which are taken away for use, if required, at a wedding, &o. 
The price is fixed before hand. If the goods are used, this is paid ; if 
they are not used, they are returned, and a pice or two per rupee is 
paid to the shopkeeper. 



CHAPTER v.— MOETGAGE. 

1481. A pawn or mortgage is K'^t relian, ^f^^ bandhik, or4i<ti.Mi<tr 
miikpMl. It is also firCT giraln in Shahabad, and fir<ij?f girmi in 
South Bhagalpur. »i^pw^ makphul is more usually applied to mortgage 
of land, and the other terms to pawning of moveable articles ; but this 
distinction is not tmiversal. A mortgagor is rrf%*i ■rahin, and a 
mortgagee is ^vrf^l murtahin, but these words are seldom used. The 
villagers prefer to use words like ^a^^ khaduka, ^^^ khadduk, or 

54 



422 BIH5.R PEASANT LIFE. 

^^7^ asSmi for the former, and ^i^Tsjir mahdjan for the latter. In 
Patna a mortgagor is 5ih;r mvjera, and in Shahabad a mortgagee is 
s'^T^f^WT beohariya. 

1483. A usufructuary mortgage, in which both the principal 
and interest are extinguished by being paid out of the profits of the 
land mortgaged for a fixed period, is ti^^t pataua, mj^x 'T^^TT sataua 
pataua, or ^^T^T ''TST^T sadhaua 'pataua. '^^ *rx;"rT sudbhariia is 
similar, but the usufruct is only instead of interest, the principal 
remaining to be paid by the mortgagor. A "^ ft w '^'^RT ( l»P ^ Ci^ ) 
bai bil wafa is a mortgage of property for a fixed period, ia which, 
if the total debt is not repaid within the period, the property becomes 
the mortgagee's in satisfaction of the debt. Money adyanced on the 
security of standing crops is to the north ^eil' lagi. 



CHAPTEE yi.— MISCELLANEOUS. 

1483. An inuofoe or manifest is ^^^ bijak, and also to the 
east f^lT chittha or f^Txm pliirist. Insurance is ^"^at blma, with 
a variant ^^ bliiwa in Shahabad. In the south-west of the latter 
district it is «^S1 ^TTI hunda bhara. Something additional given 
to a purchaser is north of the Ganges ^^i ghalua or ^t^T ^« Idbh 
sabh. In South-East Tirhut it is also ^T*T Idbh, and in South-West 
Tirhut ^XT^«T barkat. South of the Granges it is generally TTPf 
phao or fr^^TT pichhiia. A variant of the latter is tt^t pachhua in 
the south-east. Another name is ^^zv^ chutki in Patna. ^jt Jug is 
similarly used by women when making petty purchases, especially of 
vermilion (%5t senur) and coUyrium (fi?^ missi). Other names for 
this are ^»r^ mangni to the west and in South Tirhut, WJj.flt 
■gjlT^ mangni changni in Patna, ^7=rr ^W^ Idwa ^holi north of the 
Granges generally, ^tttt "^^J lawa dua in South- West Tirhut, and 
«f^ ddnti. T?^mT bedim or ^^T^ baydna is a handsel given by the 
buyer to the seller to secure his purchase. 

1484. JTST salla is a hole in the ground or a bag under the shop- 
keeper's seat in which he keeps his money. To test coin is ^»5^ 
bujhab, at^^ tlwkab, VK'^^K p)arl(hab, Bjf=^^ janclmb, ^^TP"^ bajd'eb, or 
•<^^^X anknab. In the south-east it is tj^^^ parekluib. A money- 
tester is ■'R'S'a't parklii or T<;f^^T parakJiiya, or sj^vq-«iT jachwaiya. 
In the south-east he is "ffx^rt^ parekiiiya. In Patna he is ^Tam parikfi, 



MISCELLANEOUS. 423 

and in Gaya Tt^^ffx^T rokaiiya. To test the correctness of scales is 
«TW %^ sadh leb. In Patna and the south-east it is VT^ ^K^ dhara 
Mrdb, and in Shahabad TT^^ ^^ p&sangh dekhaJ. To test a weight 
is fji^ tdrah or 'aT'?^ sadhab. 

1485. Capital is ifai't ^fijyV or ^^ i?K»yV, and capital out at 
interest is ftrqt^ biySju or ^^T^ Sea;'**. It is also called "^a^ ^r^RTT sudi 
rupaiya. The adjustment of accounts is ^^rttt bujharath north of 
the Ganges, and ^nii saphai south of it. In South-West Shahabad 
it is ■^HrpTT bujhauta. To test the entries is sjt^ %? janch leb or f^^ 
%4 mila leb. The testing is in Shahabad 3if^ ft^rTT janch milan. 
A release in full is ^tti'3^ pharhhatti or *<.«T?f pharkattL In the 
north-west they say in such a case ^^.(tl<l 'gt 1^ bhubhtdn ho gail, 
and in the east of Tirhut they say his account is t;t<5 "WVa raph sdph, 
and in Patna that it is ^^^ v^ hebak bhail. In Patna they say T^t 
■RT % «rni ^TrTx: ^^ baM par se nam uiar gel, and in South- West 
Shahabad srra 5 I'd 1W nam gheral gail, alluding to the custom of 
encircling the name with a line when the account is cleared off, 

1486. To become bankrupt is fijrr^ Pichiy^ diwala niksab, or 
f<<il<sl( ^g "Tf <j< l ^«t diwala sudh hojdeb. To make a man a bankrupt is 
f^^WT f«l <<< 1 4j <( diicdla nikdsab. A bankrupt is f^^xf^^T diwdliya. In 
Tirhut they would say of such a man 'TRi 'SW? 'f ^f*? sdk ukkar gelainhi, 
or f^^ofTWT ^3^% 5f^f% diwala ukhari gelainhi. In all the above 
the word may also be spelt ^'^T^ deicdla. In Patna they say ^^x 
«TZ 'ag'Z^ ■% okar tdt ultal hai, in allusion to the custom amongst 
bankers of a bankrupt turning up one comer of his mat and sitting on 
it, as a notice of his condition. The action is equivalent to putting 
up the shutters in England. In connection with this it may be 
mentioned that Patna is famous for its bankrupts, as in the lines 
commemorating the three rascals of Bihar : — 

Bhdgalpur ke Bhageliya, Kahalgdnw he ihag, 

Patna ke diwdliya, tlno ndmjad, 

8une pdwe Chhaprahiya, tino ke ture rag. 

—The Bhagels of Bhagalpur, the thags of Colgong, the bankrupts 
of Patna, are all famous (sharpers) ; but if a man of Chhapra 
hears this, he will beat them {lit. burst their veins) all (at their own 
weapons). 



424 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

1487. A. bill of exchange is w^ hundi or ■s^ v^ hundipatri; 
also in Gaya and the south-west "Jd*^ patri. The duplicate of the 
bill is %3 painth. Also, in Patna City, ^s peth. The third duplicate 
is -tiT^Ta parpainth or iT^s parpeth, and the fourth fw^-ft Ji'tri or 
fm>\-^ jigi-i. This last is also a letter to a person other than the drawer 
for the acceptance of his endorsement by the drawer. A letter vfaduice 
is ^^"^ f^ mmachari chitthi. A bill payable at sight is n,\'^nt 
darsani. In Patna such bills by custom bear eleven days' date. If 
payable after a future date, it is ft^r^ mitjddi or ^^^ mudatt. One 
payable five days after sight is called trs-g TTTr(rpr pahunch parmati or 
(in Patna City) T^% -^jv pahunche dam. The address at the head of a 
banker's letter is arTn jog or f*j<..«injT sirnama. A bill paid and dis- 
charged is ^^T khokha. In Patna it is also '^•c^H hhugtdn, and north 
of the Ganges ■^wrffTT hhtihhtdn. To accept a bill is ^'^T^ sakdrab. 
The date on which a bUl falls due is called ftnfl' mitti, which indeed 
in mercantile transactions is the general word for dates of all kinds. 

1488. A warehouse is aff^ro goddm. '^ k-^ t harja is demurrage. 
v^'*i.^ mahsul or nn^t^ masul is customs, postage, or railway freight, 
&c. A price-current is ftx^ srnrr nirakh ndma. Gash or specie is snr^ 
nagad, ■•iJi'<.l Tipc^ iiagda nagdi, or 'CNr rok. ^x^^:^ pdtcna is a claim, 
and ■<*?!< rasid a receipt z^t^t^ taksal is a /n//?^. Merchandise is 
W^^iir^ % »rr^ sauddgri ke mal. Imports are "^|«J<«^ dmdani, and 
exports vsTrTsft raphtani. 



DIVISION XIV. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



CHAPTER I.— MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

1489. The ^'^^ angul is a finger-breadtli, equal to about two-thirds 
ofan iach. The width of the four fingers of one hand, i.e., four 
^^5^ angul, is called a '^'W chaua. Instead of this, a measure is used 
in^Shahabad called ^TT muWia, which is the width of the closed fist. 
Twelve finger-breadths make one span, which is fwr Utta or f^^r^ 
hilasta, or to the north-east fttsJiTS^d hilhast, to the south-east 'ft^r^ 
Ulast. South of the Ganges a still smaller scale is current. A ^:cr sut 
is the thickness of thread. 

3 ^c^ sut = 1 TfiT pain. 

3 TT^r pain = 1 finger-breadth. 

1490. In Shahabad and the south-ealst a finger-breadth is w^x: 
tassur. In Shahabad and Patna in measuring wood, however, a ffW^ 
tassur equals two finger-breadths, and fourteen of these make one jt^ 
gaj or THf hath (wood measure). Twenty-four finger-breadths, or six 
v^l^^I chaua, or two ftwT bitta, make one "^f^ hanth or "^sr hath, which is 
a cubit. The ^VH hath is the standard from which the others are taken, 
and varies from 15 to 20 inches in length, 18 inches being the average. 

1491. Two cubits make one %jt deg or pace, and also one jiw gaj 
or yard. A fsn;^ girah, ■fiiT'^ gireh, or ^f\x gire is the length of the 
forefinger, and 16 go to a i\^ gaj. Another name for a faiK^ girah 
is ^i«n^f kamcdn in Patna and Graya. Three Jiai gai or six cubits 
make one ^mrr lagga or ^''fl" laffgi, which is also called wf^ bans 



426 BIHiR PEASANT LIFE. 

south of the Ganges, and ^ir lattlia in South-West Shahabad. 
Another fm gnj is the t%=ti'^.Ct T«r Sikandri gaj, also called t<t im 
bara gaj or <^«<M Tsf barka gaj, which is 2\ cuhits north of the Ganges 
and 48 fingers or 2 cubits south of it. It was the yard used in land 
measuring until Aibar's time, and properly equals 26 inches, but has 
become in the village mind confused with the ^^ nm bara gaj. 
This is the tailor's yard, and is called by them ^mk. srsf katai gaj or 
^i^ JTSi kattigaj. AJibar introduced as the standard measure of the 
empire the T^rft" Jrai ildhi gaj, equal to 33f inches, which is still in 
use in the North-West Provinces.. 

1492. In South-East Tirhut and Patna ^r^dhdp equals ■f^w deg or 
«S^iT kadam, a pace, but elsewhere north of the Ganges and in the 
south-east it is about half a sft^ kos ; see below. Another name of this 
last is «^ mail or ^t^ niU, a corruption of the English 'mile.' The 
K^ rassi or T^^^ rasi-i is equal to 20 ^^aft laggi or 120 cubits. In 
South- West Shahabad 70 cubits make a x^ rassi. Generally 60 
T^ rassi make one ^W kos, but in South- West Shahabad it ia 
50 T'^ rassi. The ^fh? kos varies greatly in length in different 
districts. An ordinary ^tg' kos is however 60 k^ rassi 1 200 
gi^ lagffi, or 3,600 7\^ gaj or yards, or 80 yards more than two 
miles. The iii*!*) gaukos is a vague measure of distance as far 
as a cow's bellow can be heard. A ^r^ ^^ kachcha kos is a short 
?B^ kos, and ttpt dhap (see above) is generally about a mile. 

1493. A cubit used in measuring earthwork and well-sinking is 
rr^^^T iarha to the north-west and xgfsrs khanit (literally, digo-ino-) in 
the south-west. In South- West Shahabad and South-East Tirhut it is 
?gnrr khanta. In Gaya it is ^xjkj tarra, and to the south-east fji^^^Toft" 
gilandaji (which means simply earth-work). In digging a weU the 
depth is measured in men's heights, called -i^x^ puris, &c. See § 923. 

1494. The following table shows the relative value of the 
principal measures of length. 



MEASUKES OF LENGTH. 



427 



TJ 










































CO 


al 


as 


CO 


<o 






o 


<s 


"B 






eo 


o 








e4 


o 








iH 


M 


-■^ 


M 


«. 


■ ca 


o 














i-T 


s 


to 






















13 




















<* 






















: 


to 




S 


cn 


s 


3 


S ■ 


o 














l-t 


■ .*o 


.-* 




It 














oo 


00* 






















"S 
















lO 




« 




















Ri- 






« 
















°1 


-* 






<30 


1 


s 

oo 


s 


















«" 


« 






■Sj3 














t- 






P 














*-t 






!± U) 




















■^ 
























CO 


«o 


« 


n 


g 


g 








e 












'« 
















































6 


















1 


M 


■« 


en 


1 


o 










t* 








C9 










o 










•a 










c" 




















to 




























































ttl 






















.M 






























































« 


to 


o 


o 


















C4 


ca 












»4 








ea 












o 








t> 
































»«s 








































Ts 




















tq 






















■a 




















t( 


CO 


o 


o 














03 




w 


^ 














>» 






CO 














U 






OQ 














O 








































^ 




















O 












13 




















£ 


g 


o 




































o 








































•*» 




















CSi 




















& 




















e 




















S 










: 


o 




















o 


















% 








































« 




















ft^ 








« 




















■o 




















t^ 




















g3 




















w 








































00 




















<J> 




















" 








































•a 




















N 




















«D 




















■•• 








































•a 








































i3 



428 bihIr peasant life. 

CHAPTER II.— SUPERFICIAL MEASURE, 

1495. The ■'i^T fkii^^r palcka bigha is fixed at 14,400 square feet, or 
1,600 square yards. It is therefore a little less than \ of the English acre 
of 4,840 square yards. The ^^ f^fl.^sr 'kachcha higha varies in every 
pargana ; it is generally smaller than, but is sometimes larger than, the 
standard. The foundation of the size of the bigha is the r^^ laggi (see 
ahove, § 1491), which varies greatly in the number of cubits which it 
contains. A square ^fjlft laggi is a fx dhur. Twenty ■^ dhur make one 
^IT kattha, and 20 ^m hattha make one tx^^^T higha. In Shahabad a 
^TfT kattha is called a ft^^T bisita. In East Tirhut a fJrt'f^ higha 
is also called ^ct kuro. North of the Ganges 4 TT?; pal make one 
^T dhur ; south of it — 

9 square ■^T^T chaua make 1 sq. "iTr deg or qi^^ icadam. 
9 „ %ir 1 sq. f K dhur. 



CHAPTER III.— MEASURES OP PROPORTION. 

1496. Proportion is generally expressed by saying so many annas 
in the' rupee. Thus 10 annas in the rupee = 10 : 16 ; 4 annas in 
the rupee =1:4; 8 annas in the rupee =1:2; and so on. In 
calculating proportionate shares in estates, two systems are in vogue. 
In both the estate (flT^rr mauja or ^TT^ mahal) is the unit. In one 
system the following is the scale : — 

1 ^«TT mauja or «'?T^ mahal =16 ^T«rr ana. 
1 ^^ ana = 20 ■^J^ dam. 
, 1 '^TW dam = 20 ^T^ kauri. 
1 ^rr^ kauri = 20 '<\%'hauri. 
1 ^T^ hauri — 20 t«t^ phauri. 
1 ^BT^iJ/eawri = 20 kTT^ rauri. 

The other system is as follows : — 

1 ^T^T mauja or *?Tra mahal = 16 ^"RT ana. 

1 ^isrr ana = 12 TIT pai. 

1 VK pdi = 20 ch<.T<( kardnt. 

1 ^KTW karant = 20 *rgffr masdnt. 

1 M^bt( masdnt = 20 f^^rf^ dismil ( ? = decimal). 

1 ft^rvfir^ dismil = 20 ftg^a ' ' 



MEASUKES OF WEIGHT. 



429 



The first system is called the Hindustani, and the second the 
English system. 



CHAPTER IV.— MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 

1497. 25 ^TW da7n are counted to the pice (wr paisa). A 
^*F3^ damri is a nominal coin equal to 3| ^Tw dam. The srf^ addhi 
is half a ^*rs^ damri. The zgrr takka or z^ taka = 50 -^to rfa« or 
two pice, and the "^^^n adhela or (in South-West Shahahad) ^^^tt'^t 
adhekha, is 12^ ^*r dam, or half a pice. The ^tqf.fr or "^^frtr «/o/fcr« 
or w^TW chliaddm is 6^ ^j»t rfam, or ^ of a pice. A pice is also called 
^^T dhebua or (in Gaya) WWT kachcJia. The w^iTf chliadam or sixteenth 
part of an a«a is also called ^siv^t kanwai, ^r^rs^f kanwan, or «zf^ 
chJmtank. The following table will make this clear : — 



1 


sr 


3' 


s 


s 


g 


1 




1 


ei 


■* 


00 


s 


^ 






1 


ffi 


-* 


oo 


«D 








e<i 


■* 


00 






s 

go- 
's H 


ei 


-* 






1 


M 


' 




g 

o 

■1 



55 



430 BIHAR PEASANT LIFE. 

1498. In weighing, the tb^ ratti of 1'875 grains Troy is taken as 
the standard. From this the following scheme may be drawn up : — 

8 x;'^ raiti = 1 vcfVX mdsa = 15 grains Troy. 

12 »?reT mdsa = 1 wtar tola = 7 dwt. 12 grains Troy or 

the weight of one 
rupee. 

5 ?ft^n' tola = 1 >»«i««iT knnwan or flfaf* chhatdnk = loz. 

17 dwt. 12 grains Troy. 
16 ■h«t.cj T kanican or wzf^ chhatdnk = 1 ^Tiser = 2]h. 6 oz Troy. 
40 ^ ser = 1 «5i wam == lOOfb. Troy = 82-286rb. 

Avoirdupois. This is the standard ff^ 

man or maund, and 27'222 of these go 

to the English ton. 

For larger weights the %^ ser is the standard. In local bazars 
it varies greatly, not only according to locality, but according to goods 
sold. The bazar %^ ser is named as containing so many ti^J ganda, a 
»1'©T ganda consisting of four cfWl t^la or sometimes four pice, and 
being a constant quantity. 

1499. In weighing gold, jewels, &c., the standard is the red seed 
{abrus precatorius) called the "^r?^^ karjani, ^imldl, or ^^ Xflt kachehi 
ratti. It is said to weigh three barleycorns i^jau). 

The jeweller's scale is as follows : — 

3 SIT' jau = 1 ^rr^ Idl. 

4 ditto = 1 K"^ ratti. 
2^m Idl = H X^ ratti. 

4 Tri^ ratti = 1 "^It^ chauratti. 

5i ditto = 1 ^^ anni. 

8 ditto = 1 UTOT mdsa, *n^ massa, or «iWr masika = 

15 grs. Troy. 
lOi ditto = 1 ■g^at duanni. 

8-^^duanni or 10^ Tij^T tndsa = 1 ^^ dhak or (in South- "West 
Sliahabad) ^x^ dhdka, which is the weight 
of a rupee = 6 dwts. 6 J grs. Troy. 

12 flT'aT mdsa = 1 cTt^T tola = 7 dwts. 12 grs. Troy. Here it 
will be seen that the jeweller's rupee is less 
than a tola. 



MEASURBS OF WEIGHT. 431 

1500. The following weights are common throughout Bihar : — 

«z^ chhatanJd ^= yV of a ser. 

Wir^irt: adhpai, ^-^mm adhpaii, or ^^^TT^T adhpaua = i of a «er 

'Kl^ paw, ''Tf'sct pawa, or tT^T^a««i ^ j of a ser. 

^■^^XT adhsera or ^xj asfra = ^ a ser. 

fTpn^T^T tinpaiM = | of a ser. 

^cf^jT saicaiya, properly 1 J ser ; really J of a ii%^ paseri. 

"St^^X derhseri = 1\ ser. 

^T\ arha, ^f?}T arhaiya, properly 2\ s«r ; really i of a t?^^ 
paseri. 

RrT^tT tinsera or fd^i."?^ tinseri = 3 ser. 

WV%KT charsera or '^^•^•Cl' charseri r= 4 ser. 

i^^ paseri, also (in Shahahad) '^^'^xj pansera, ar'^^'^^^panseri. 
This is properly 5 ser, but varies greatly. It is usually said 
to he 7 ser iachcha, hat is sometimes only 5 or 6. Vegetahle- 
seUers generally call it 6 ser. 

fIXT dhara = 10 ser. In Shahahad it sometimes means 5 ser. 



APPENDIX- 



FOEMS OF ACCOUNTS USED IN A LANDLORD'S 
OFFICE IN PATNA. 



^'9^TT ^TTR^ Ehasra Ddnabandi. 
Yeah. — 



Ehasra Ddnabaiidi of the 



Crop in the Estate of 



Date.- 



Name of 
tenant. 



Length. 



Breadtli. 



Area of 
plot. 



Kind of 
crop. 



Amount of 
crop estimated. 



la. 

fcrfto? «rT^i3TStTK Tirij Tdrikhwar. 

Year. — 
Tirij Tdrikhwar of the Khdsra Ddnabandi of Village 




APPENDIX. 

2. 

^^rcr ^^?; KJiasra Batdi. 
Yeae. — 



Shasra of Division of 



Crop in the Estate of 



Date. — 



Uame of 
tenant. 



Area. 



Kind of 
crop. 



AmouTit of 
grain. 



Landlord's 
share. 



Dahiyak.* 



Vansera.^ 



Total of 

columns 

5 to 7. 



2a. 

Abstract of, the dbote. 



(1) Date 

(2) Area 

(3) Total amount of grain „ 

(4) Landlord's sliare 

(5) Ti^^ra dahiyak* 

(6) ^^^^=^^ jiansera-\ 

(7) Total ... 

(8) ^^NTT^iOJtari (weighman's fees) 

(9) 1^ '^rqr^ ganj aplijudX 

(10) s^flharU^ 

(11) ^^"^ «ai(i/jj II 

(12) Total 

• Fi{2£ foot note to form (5). 



In the original, the columns 
run across the page 
instead of from top 
to bottom. 



t Afterthe division of crop, dahiyak i.<i added to the landlord'"! Omro tn n^n^i, .~,- » 
»dded, that quantity being taken from tlie tenam's share unZ the name of r^^^^^^^^ ^ '""" "^ 

tatel'lvt°bT?hVrandiord.''**'''""'°' seeond weighment on the floor after the grain has bee.. 

la Jo?d?s"i-'S?a"^:" '"'"'' "'"'''™'°'*"''™°^'"«°*'-^^^ has been carried to the 

.oldlm™°'°""'*'"'''''^°'"''°*"'"'^"°^'*"-''''^"'*'^^"''°'«"'"°""t°'^^^ stored has been 



APrETTPIX. 



^rt't'Ci^, Mophrld. 



YiiR.— 
Mophrid of the Rent in Kind for the 

Name of Tbnant.— 



Crop. 



Black Paddy. 



Date of Estimate. 



Area. 



Amount of Crop. 



Paddy Sown Broadcast. 




Basmatti Paddy. 



Date of Estimate. 



Area. 



Amount of Crop. 



and so on for every kind of grain in tte tenant's holding. 



IV 



APPENDIX. 



Total Area. 



Total Amount of Grain. 



Name of Tenant. 



3a. 

Abstract of the last. 



Yeab.— 



Total Area. 



Amount of Crop. 



4. 

^pjlc l Laggit and ^llf^^ ^T*^ Wd<,il Baki. 
Year — 
Laggit of Senls Paid in Kind for the Whole Year. 
Name op Tenant. — 



Kind 

of 

grain. 



Area. 



Total 
grain. 



Share 

of 

landlord. 



DahiyaTc.* 



Total 
due. 



Kealized. 



Balance. 



' See note tx> lorm 5. 



Name of Tenant. 



ATTENBIX. 

4a. 

Abdract of the last. 

Yeah. — 

Black Paddy. 



Amount due. 




TVTiUe Paddy. 



Name of Tenant. 



Area. 



Amount due. 



and so on for eacli kind of grain. 



vi APPENDIX. 

5. 

fHftal f^JpTOi^Ix: Tirij Jiniswar. 

Year. — 
Tirij JinisKdr for the Village of 

1. Name of tenant. 

2. Area under cultivation. 

3. Grain due. 

4. Dahiyak.* 

5. Total. 

6. Amount of maize. 

7. Ditto of marua. 

8. Ditto of sdtJd paddy. 

And so on, a separate column being allotted to eacL crop. 

In tLe original, tLe form runs across the page in columns, and not from top 
to bottom. 



» This is the amount the landlord receives in addition to his half share. South of the 
Ganges he generally realizes 5 ser per man, i.e. he receives 9 ser in every 16 ser, the tenant's 
ahaxe being 7 ser. This division of crop is called " Wt^UT nausatta," i.e. 9—7 See § 906. 

6. 

fwrrr SiyaJm. 

Yeae. — 

Day-liooJc of Receipts and Disbursements of Grain. 



Receipts. 

From so and so — 

Sdthi paddy 5 maunds "^ 
Broadcast C 

paddy ... 2 „ J 


Dai 

Amount. 

7 maunds 


E.— 

Disbursements. 

Sent to the landlord 
Sold, viz. 

Total Mds. 
Balance Mds. 


Amount. 


From so and so ... 




Total Mds. 







APPENDIX. 

6a. 

Abstract of above, or ^^TX^sJT Aicdrja. 



Vll 





E.ECEIPTS. 




EXPEKDITUEE. 


Date. 


Amount of Grain. 


Date. 


Amount of Grain. 











7. 

fij^lM ft^rr^ ^^ Misdb Bikri Galla. 

Yeae. — 



Date. 



Amount sold. 



Bate. 



Price realized. 



VIU APPENDIX. 

8. 

4$l^*<l Khasra. 

Yeah. — 

Khasra showing the Measurements of Lands let at Cash Rates in 
the Village of 

Date. — 



Name of Tenant. 



Lengtli. 



Breadth. 



Area. 



Class of Land 

or rate per 

bigha. 



8a. 

Abstract of the above. 

Yeab, — 

Tirij Khasra showing the Measurements of Lands let at Cash Sates 
in the Village of 



Date. 



Area. 



AtPE3S'btX. 

9. 

»iT<Bif^^ Mophnd.. 
3fophrid ef the Lands 'paying Cash Sates in the Village of 

Yeae. — 

Name op Tenaht.— 

At Es. 4 per bi</ha. 



Date of Measurement. 



Area. 



At Es. 3 per bfgha. 



Date of Measurement. 



Area. 



and so on for" the various rates at which the tenant holds. 



APPENDIX. 

9a. 

Abstract of tlie above. 

Yeab.— 
Tirij Mophrid of the Lands paying Cash Sates in the Village cf 




10. 

^rf«W Laggit and HTft^-^«ft Wasil-baki. 

Teab. — 
Laggit of Sents payable in Cash in the Village of 
Name of Texabt. — 



Class of land held by him. Area. Bate of the class. 



Sent. 



Total rent 

Cesses... 

Value of unrealized rent in kind for the year 

Arrears of previous years 

Total demand .., ... 

Deduct realizations 



Balance to be carried to next year's account 



APPENDIX. 3a 

10a. 

Abstract of the above. 
Year.— 
ftrfr.'W wfiJIel lirij Laggit of Lands paging Cash Bates in the Village of 

At St, 4 per bigha. 



Name of Tenant. 


Area. 


K«nt. 






' 



J.t Ss. 3 per bigha. 



Name of Tenant. 



Area. 



Bent 



and so on for each rate of rent. 



11. 



fijf^sj ^ *'HI^ Tirij Patewdri for the Village of 



Class of Land or Degrees of Bate. 

1st class ... .«• 

2nd do. 

And so on ,i. 



Area. 



Sate. 



Sent. 



Xll 



Al'PENDlX. 

12. 

f%'EfT^I Sii/dha. 

Year, — 

Day-J)ook of Meceipts and Disbursements of Cash. 

Date, — 



Rkoeipts. 



EXPENDITOBB. 



Name of Tenant. 



Amount paid. 



Description of 
expeiiditiure. 



Amount. 



Balance, 

12a. 

Abstract of the above, or ^ciK.oiT Awdrj'a, showing Expenditure only. 
Amount sent to jLandlord. 



Date. 



Amount. 



APPENDIX. 

Salary of Village Establishment paid. 



XlU 



Date. 



Amouut. 



fJref'l-^'ra^ Crilandaji Expenses {Hepairs to Embankments, i^'c.) 



Date. 



Amouut. 



■■K.iK-01 Garamta (Diet-money supplied to the ^^e( Gorait, who takes 
Money to the Landlord). 



Date. 



Amouut. 



aud so on. 



jav 



APPENDIX. 



13. 

'Rl^nr^jft Molhaki. 

Yeab. — 

Molhaki of Payments in Cash and Kind for the Whole Year. 

Name of Tenakt. — 



Cash Payments. 


Payments in Kind. 


Date. 


Amount. 


Date. 


Amount of Grain. 











13a. 

Abstract of the above. 
Tear. — 



I^ame of Tenant. 



Total amount paid by 
him in cash. 



Total amount paid by 
him in kind. 



APPENDIX. XV 

14. 

^^ Bhaddha. 

{In the original, the column* run across the page, instead of from top 
to hottotn. The various cesses, ^c, named are only samples, 
and differ in every village.) 

Yeae. — 
Bhaddha Wasilbahi for the Whole Tear in the Village of 

Columns. 

(1) Name of tenant. 

(2) Area of holding in sutheads according to rate and class. 

(3) Eent. 

(4) ^'T^t duanni.* 

(5) Weigliman's fees (+fl •( I i"^ sonari), 

(6) ^rr? '^^Tt kdh charai.-f 

(7) ^■§\ i?Kt kothi sora.X 

(8) wtax-tfiT motarpha.% 

(9) f ^<^i-Cl '5rr*T bikri am (price of mangos). 

(10) tlTT tar (rent of toddy-palms). 

(11) Bent for mahua trees. 

(12) n^^^ machhli (fishery-dues). 

(13) Total of above. 

(14) ■5fT W^ hatta mSl.^ 

(15) ^5T g!«rft hatta kampani.\\ 

(16) Eoad-cess. 

(17) Unrealized grain-rent. 

(18) Arrears. 

(19) Grand total of demand. 

(20) Deduct share of other landlords. 

(21) Eemainder, i.e., fsijjr «^T9 hissa khds (own shajre). 

(22) Bealized. 

(23) Balance due. 

(24) Credit, realized in excess. 

« See § 1201. 

t Dues for grazing cattle. All cattle, except bnffalos, are generally exempt. Each 
buffalo is charged at from 2 to 4 annas a year. See § 1151. 

X Eent of a saltpetre factory. 

§ Rent of houses occupied by Ehopkeeperc, oil-men, weavers, and other non-culti- 
vating tenants. See § 1201. 

II See § 1202. These are only charged on rent of land and on old settlements of other 
kinds. For instance, if a new settlement is made of toddy palms, it is made in Company^s 
rupees, and no exchange rate is added to the rent. The addition of a rate of exchange, in 
fact, depends on whether the settlement is made in old coinage or in new; and according 
to custom, rent of land is generally settled, even at the present day, in the old coinage, hut 
not BO other rents. 



XT! 



APPENDIX. 



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APPENDIX. 



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vi 

Cl 

•a 









t 



r 




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rt 


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CO 


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o 


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to 


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t~ 


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so 




pi 


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1 
11 

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go 


Total remitted to 1 
Village expenses — 

Salary of establishment 


1 3s 

1 


And so on in detail. 
Total miscellaneous e 
Balance — 

With the gumasMa (in han 
Due from the tenants (each 

in detail) 

With the grain-merchantsj 


1 i 




pi 






o 






o 


o 




4 






o 






o 


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g 






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have 
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ahandi 
entered 
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dcfaul 




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) Noting' 

(Here 

cesse; 

exolu 

Total 


3 








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^^ 




















«•<■ 
















'B'* 






<u 










m 






fi 















•s 



INDEX. 



(I'he numbers refer to paragraphs.) 



u ^ « u 



■^NfTZT ankta, 1075, 1183. 

"^^TfT ankra, 794. 

^^fw^ anhri, 794, 1183, 1266. 

^^^^^ ankrail, 794. 

■^^r^TT ankraur, 794. 

^^r^ ffAW, 1273. 

^^^ ^T^ aA;ac? sa««, 1279. 

■^*"i^ anknab, 1484. 

^^R^^ OTi-Sm, 1075. 

'^'PK^ akrdh, 786. 

^^f^^rr ankariya, 1118. 

^^^ oA;rt, 24, 1272. 

•^«T^ ffH/tn, 107-5, 1183. 

■^*»^fx^T ankwariya, 236. 

^^v^Tx: akwdr, 886. 

^^•^•n: ankwar, 886. 

^qiia ffA-a/, 965fl!. 

^^"ra »rtT: a^aZ ^jj*, 965a. 

^^T^ ^^ akal blr, 965a. 

^^T^ afedsi, 68, 363. 

■^fffT ankura, 500. 

^IteT ankurha, 376, 412, 414, 957. 

^ffKT akiira, 564. 

^irrr awAMm, 222, 376, 414, 412, 

500, 564, 986, 1001. 
"^f KTTT^ anhuraiil, 1009. 



^fi^ ahwi, 102, 566, 1424, 
^fi^ ankuri, 222, 412, 564, 877. 
"•^^■tfl ankusa, 500. 
-^f^ret' ankusi, 41, 376, 500. 
^^!^rr ankora, 32, 172, 376," 412. 
^^1^ Ir ^g' aAo/ A:e fe/, 1045. 
^<sl^»=ll akharhwa, 1086. 
■^y«y<.'«n ankhmundm, 97. 
^^KrfdRiitJI akhartijiya, 1444. 
^ <d<'«? t w akhartlj, 1444. 
^<d<«<nd akhartlt, 1444. 
^^T^r akhraha, 1234. 
■^ii^KT ahhra, 1272. 
^^grft a/cAn, 1272. 
■^^a^ ai-/»ro, 1272. 
"^'sT^T ankhwa, 1009. 
-^^Tf aMw-A, 1039, 1082, 1083. 
^iST^ akharhi, 1009, 1039. 
^1T^ «titf«r akharhi koran, 1009. 
^fe^T ankhiya, 1009, 1010, 1376. 
■^fe^rnr ankhiyay, 1009. 
^^^awAAwa, 769, 987, 1001,1009, 

1010. 
^tf^nr^ aiikhudeb, 987. 
'^^^'Ory^ ankhiidel, 1009. 
^%»rT aA/icfo, 933. 



INDEX. 



'si^^C akhed, 933. 

^%«rr akhena, 76. 

^^sr ahhain, 'VS'^1 akhaina, 76. 

^^^T akhaila, 431. 

^^'^ aklioto, 933. 

■^^Ta akhaut, 611, 933, 940. 

^^T<rT akhaufa, 431, 464, 611, 933, 

940. 
■^^"[^j anichauta, 933. 
■^31^ angahun, 1203. 
^7)^i^.«il agkarhna, 319A. 
^TTfT agra, 875. 
■^T^^^xagraur, 1186. 
^Ji^^ «^#(, 1332. 
^Ji^lX agdain, 889. 
'^Ji-^l^ agdaen, 889. 
•5!f jiT^qf agdainyan, 889. 
•^»l7jrr aw^fwa, 1237, 1254. 
^JiTif angnai, 1237. 
'^JiT^ fiffirJar, 901, 1203. 
^nx^^rr angarkha, 728, 729. 
^iKTtns agarpat, 918. 
^ilKT^j^ agarhandhu, 1010. 
■^'K^K angarwdr, 281. 
■^T^'J^rs angarwah, 293. 
"WiT?^ ffgrras, 366. 
^Jira a^ra, 1008, 1010, 1012. 
■^Ji-^T angra, 1074. 
^Ji-T'ra agrdy, 1089. 
^>iT^ <7^n, 1250, 1252. 
■^l*i«rt^ angreji, 504, 1263. 
■^Ji^x:^ agrail, 679. 
'sjJiTso'aT agrauta., 1272. 
^»iT^rr flg'/a, 875. 
^Ji7q'^ agwar, 842, 844, 1186. 
^JiT^f oTif agwar jan, 842. 
^"^f agwarh, 842. 
^JiT^-g- oj^ agwarh jan, 842. 
■sffJlT^sf agioan, 1186, 1475. 
^Ji-^fr^T agwariija, 842. 



I ^jiT^fV^T angwariya, 842, 846. 
^I^^TX agicdr, 901. 
■^an^TK angicdr, 842. 
■^RTV^T';! angicdra, 846. 
^^•<)l<1 agwdri, 901. 
^JFTrg agtcds, 1237. 
'^sn^ a^'as^, 1091. 
^>l^^?5r agf/jflM, 1082, 1092. 
■^^T^^^rr aglianua, 996. 
'^»n^T ajraur, 1186. 
'^JTTf «5'ar, 113, 901, 914, 1012. 
■^JTT^ ag'aW, 113. 
^JiK «^ar, 113, 931, 1186. 
'^JTift a^an, 113, 931, 1008. 
^TI^ angdri, 288, 585. 
SiJTT^ a^fa/i, 655. 
^flranrig aginbdy, 1170. 
•^firJJT «5^»2/a, 1075, 1170. 
^f JT^T ^^rra agiya baitdl, 1458. 
■^fh^T angiya, 607, 744. 
^fil^iT^ a^-iVosf, 1332, 1398. 
■^fir^T agila, 235 (footnote). 
"^^^?T agtia, 558, 1286. 
^y'*ll«l^ agttdni, 1237. 
'^^f^^ agudr, 1237. 
^5^TKT agudra, 1237. 
■^gdl angutha, 760, 772. 
■^■ga^ anguthi, 756, 769, 
^5=^ agutti, 1237. 
^g<!iMl angmtdna, 769. 
'^^a tf efl« flgrfi^ Are ^^a^, 1245. 
^ii'^'^T angeriha, 292. 
^vf3T angetha, 529, 567. 
^Tra^ «n(7e^/;», 567, 1409. 
^%a(7e«'-, 1010, 1012, 1144. 
^T^T anger, 1008, 1012. 
■^it^^aj amjerhaiulhu, 1010. 
-"^Wtt angenra, 1008. 
^T^d aH(/e/-/, 1010, 1012. 
^i)^T r?(7e/r?, 363, 5 58. 



INDEX 



111 



^^3-T angaitha, 529, 1247. 
■^^^ angaithi, 1247. 
■^iftft^ agoriya, 870. 
■^iftWT angochha, 733. 
''urti'Pc^K agornihar, 870. 
^jftK ■^«TT agorbatai, 914, 1470. 
" ^ifKr agm-a, 870. 
^ift^ a^on, 870. 
'^^ agaun, 1203. 
■^^fMir angaunan, 1203. 
^irr*T angatickka, 733- 
■i^nT^ angauchhi, 733. 
^TT^ agauri, 1186. 
^TT^ agauri, 844, 1186. 
^^P9 antes, 102. 
^^ awgr, 655. 
^^I a«^a, 729, 731, 972. 
^^^ angul, 1489. 
•^^T^sr achkan, 729. 
•^^ar^K anchtdhar, 303. 

■^^■r«rr anchna, 303. 

^ ■<j.4<^ achmani, 774. 

^^7^ acAra, 741. 

■^^^:tt anchra, 741. 

■^^v^ anchri, 766, 1331. 

■^^^ Hl'J t anchri pdlo, 1331. 

'^'Tjlij) achdrj, 1347. 

^ Tj .-q|sjf anchwdha, 303. 

^^T atZtto, 547. 

■^li^TTT anchauna, 774. 

^^T^ anchauni, 774. 

^■^tT acJichhat, 1319, 1329. 

^=5^T ^^ achchha sagun, 1454. 

^j^T^X^ achhwdni, 1399, 1409. 

^flf acM«, 957. 

•^f*^ anchhiya, 1248. 

^^ f^'irfif^ flcMoj iirfiga, 1444. 

^3i^ ^■raK »;ai sa/dr, 1456. 

•^ ^'^T l^T aj'moda, 1073. 
^gnTr?,«f ajwain, 639, 1073. 



^5fT5l «;/««, 9G9a. 

^^f^aHywn, 912, 1194, 1401. 

^fsr^TKT ajiaura, 1301. 

^^ ryw, 984. 

'^^T (ywm, 1 185. 

■^■^ fl!«c/w, 1034. 

■^aK ajywr, 1194. 

■sja^^T a^^a, 1183. 

■^ZTT aidr, 234. 

^a^T awitjya, 862, 882, 884, 894, 

982, 1194. 
■^sfsf^T athaniya, 1214. 
-^siX atlmnni, 1214. 
^arr«7i«KT athmangra, 1305. 
^a-«ti^T athmasua, 1396. 
^HiiTTg athmds, 1396. 
"583^?^^ athrahni, 1479. 
■^Hnrm athiodra, 1205. 
^HT^TH athwdns, 1396. 

^av^T^ a^/izcdMe«, 1396. 

■^^t^ anthuli, 1183. 

- ■^d lrt''C l a^Ao^j-j, 781. 

^sfjlT athongar, 1323. 

■^bThk athaungar, 1323. 
arkhar, 1250. 
awm)', 1045. 

•=?(■« ••Ci a«w, 1045. 

^^ am, 987, 1153. 

^TfT 5Nr ara pe/, 987. 

^^TT araw, 1153. 

^TfT^ amwii, 29, 216, 613, 952. 

^[^'C ardr, 1147, 1153. 

^^f^ arans, -^iSX^ anrds, 937. 

^■f^irnraf ariydiak, 1056. 

^^ arte, 1500. 

^^T? crAai, 473. 

^^TTTT ^3^T arhd'i khamha, 473. 

■^f%^T arhiya, 714. 

■^ikm arheya, 1180. 

^f«(T arhaiya, 713, 1180, 1500. 



IV 



INDEX. 



^JPT antd, 48. 
<i8^ anti, 498. 
■ an la, 1045. 

■^ift andi, 1045. 

^fiT atar, 1381. 

■ ^d»<l antra, 1050. 

Hiri .<H« f atrdican, 363. 

^ f(.<l«| 8r vfol atrawan hlianj, 363. 

<*ldK a<a>-, 1058. 

^^sj flitjif/j, 1429. 

^trvKT ai5/«ra, 430, 465,506, 584, 
713. 

^HT^ athri, 251, 253, 319«, 576, 
713. 

■^^T^-pfl' athwani, 579. 

^tfT^^Tif athsaiKlian, 1424. 

^?[nT adant, 1118. 

'^X^'l- fl^«j», 1217, 1274. 

^<..<* adrdli, 1073. 

■^^K^ adrakh, 1073. 

^^^^ a^^ro, 866, 1009, 1082, 
1085, 1089. 

^^^TKT % «irt^i^ adra ke Icorni, 
1009. 

^^v<r ^TK adra koran, 866. 

vi«^.<sit; adlai, 1461. 

"^^T^i; «l<'<^i ac?/«« badlai, 1461. 

«*««"i^ adwari, 1272. 
^^K ac?ar, 1098. 
^^T^ adari, 1098. 
^^^ adimi, 1274. 
r adauri, 1272. 
t adhanni, 1479. 
'il^^-g- adhkar, 1214. 
■^^^ f%^ adhkar kist, 1214. 
^^^T a«^/iA-ar, 372, 713, 1214. 
^^v^K adhkar, 372. 
^^^T adhkhar, 1214. 
^V-'lt; adhpdi, 1500. 
^^^T^ adhpakku, 957. 



^TEivqT'ar adkpdii, 1500. 

•w^<iWr ad/qjaua, 1500. 

■s^qr^fz^ adhhatiya, 904. 

^tfr^y^ adhbataiya, 904. 

^«rTW^ adhbhari, 898. 

^^•<^ adhrassi, 1399. 

^Nr.ft' aH(?/«r«, 1007. 

"'ilfW'Cl Trer^TT andhri patatcan, 1007. 

^^T^TjiT adhlappa, 1190. 

^■qTiST a^/ifo, 422. 

^■^T^TRT adhldioa, 1190. 

^-STT^ ac?/«OT, 1054. 
- ^^^tKT adhsera, 1500. 

*TTd andhari, 226, 1249. 

'^f«r*TC adhik&r, 1354. 

'^fV^TT 4j|<^i adhikar mala, 1354. 

^f*?^ a*i?>«, 904, 1214. 

■^fw^T^ andhiyari, 97. 

^'t^TT^ adhelcha, 1497. 

^V^ andheri, 866 

■^%^ ^BHf andheri koran, 866. 

^t^TT arf^^/a, 1497. 

•^^ mdheli, 97. 

■^V^ adhail, 1118. 

^r!T a», 990. 

■^•l-«)T«i anjan, 1183. 

'^RfT «wa^, 1443. 

^pr^ awa«^, 754, 767, 1443. 

^«p^ anand, 1085. 

^•ITTTZ anpat, 97. 

■^;rm^^g«r anprasan, 1407. 

^^ ««< 1 '^ anicah, 845, 1097. 

■^KToT a/aq;', 1272. 

^•TTST anatha, 1157. 

■^•rr^ anathu, 379. 

■^•ITT anar, 585, 977. 

■^•nx ^r^ ff«ar /ca/«, 977. 

^■^^rr a»i««a, 951. 

■^^TT'irr anurddlia, 1082. 

^^XVoTT anenca, 1132. 



INDEX. 



^^ftsn aneriya, 1147. 

^^ aner, 1132. 

^^XT anera, 1147. 

^HT^fT anaua, 951. 

■^'flK^z^^ antar katwa, 1175. 

'tf^ anti, 753. 

^'^KT'T andardt, 1254. 

■^g aww, 1272. 

^^ anni, 1499. 

■^'g' ans, 1203. 

■^'sft^ anhariya, 1009. 

^^§1? anAaOj 915. 

^TfTesf a^fem, 1342. 

^TT^Topfe, 801, 918. 

^xfTifJ ap^t, 233. 

^T^ ajj««, 1275. 

^wsT appan, 1113, 1446. 

^Tj?3j4; aphjud, Appendix, 2a. 

"^Var^ aphtdba, 698, 711. 

^tfFWT^ aphtaya, 698. 

^^ a6, 1088, 1091. 

■^^^TT ahkhora, 690, 713. 

^^T2^ aJtow, 661, 1342. 

'^^T^T abda, 1076. 

^^^TT «6rfl, 739. 

^«|.«(M abwab, 1470. 

^^T^ abdd, 795, 799. 

^^^ aJa<f», 784, 795, 799. 

■^ftwl flJiy, 1078. 

■^f^rr^ abudb, 1201. 

'^^ abon, 1098. 

^«^ aiSar, 800. 

^^ afifij, 856, 859. 

■^^ abher, 363 (14). 

^«v^^ amkhora, 690. 

^«j.((r amte, 1183, 1456. 

■^^ivifx v^T^ amta bhawdni, 1456. 

•^■?r^ amdi, 1274. 

■^fl^srr amna, 1456. 

^fl^^ amrora, 1183. 



^flT^TT ««&, 1255. 

^ ti.^^t ^z^ «wfo ghotan, 1310. 

^wf^ amanthi, 1272. 

^wfat If ^1^ amanthi Ice roti, 1272. 

^wi^ amdri, 852. 

^WT^ awa/, 345. 

■^iiTW a/mdlh, 345. 

^^T'^z amdwat, 1272. 

^WT^^ amdicas, 1088. 

^^^ amJw, 913. 

^^^ ameri, 191. 

%%^ amerhi, 169. 

^tfts awo^, 1272. 

^f H'fci *i^T^ ambika bhawdni, 1456. 

^fq«T amn^, 1023. 

^Kt «m«, 101. 

■^ff^vqff^T arkasiya, 395. 

■^K«*¥^ arkaunch, 1272. 

^T'st arakh, 1033. 

^^n^ argani, 464, 649. 

■^^^^ argent, 649. 

■^KT^T argha, 775. 

■HjToi aroy, 1470. 

'^T^TtT arot^ra, 967, 1082, 1084, 

1085, 1086. 
■^T^^T^rr arddna, 585. 
^K'^^T arddwa, 1272. 
%X^ ardhi, 1279. 
^K^^T ardhua, 1279. 
^T?^ ami, 414. 
^r^qiT arpan, 1209a. 
arpa, 884. 
arabbi, 1061. 
^'Cf^ arm, 396, 451, 792. 
'4««<««r arwan, 115, 376. 
^K^T arwa, 963, 1383. 
^Ti€! ars«, 48, 646. 
^KT-g ardnch, 639. 
^RT^ ar(yY, 1470. 
•^■CT? ara</«, 940. 



VI 



INDEX. 



■^KTT ardr, 792. 

■^xtPc ardri, 792. 

■^fv^T arian, 791. 

^^^T arua, 101, 1061. 

■^^ arui, 1061, 1272. 

^re^T araiya, 1074, 1183. 

w^'^ araua, 33, 101. 

■^^^TTT ardtodhi, 639. 

"^^1^ algani, 464, 613. 

•^^rnnr^aPt atgarji, 393. 

^^•?i^ a^g^aZ, 1076. 

^^TjiT alga, 875. 

^^771^ a/g'j, 799. 

^^^ aUng, 833, 919, 953. 

^^r^ alti, 1061. 

^«Txi1^T alpajiya, 1146. 

■^^■^ «^/j», 475. 

^^"i T«< ^ ahcdnti, 1398. 

^^T^ aldwa, 1041. 

^^?TK^ alwari, 562. 

■^^T% alSwe, 1041. 

^^rr^ a^A, 868. 

^g;^T alua, 1057, 1059. 

^r^ alul, 1057. 

^^?^T alhua, 1059. 

•^^t; oeim, 856. 

^^Tii^ awgar, 405. 

^^^ JI^T awan gawan, 1294. 

■^^KT amwara, 770. 

^■^T?' awae, 26. 

^qTKiojT aicdrja, 1470, 1471, 1472 ; 

Appendix, 6a and 12a. 
■^■^T^ awdl, 345. 
"^Nrr^ anwdl, 345. 
^efT^ awdlu, 1264. 
"^^f^r^ anwasal, 713. 
•^^T%T anwdnsa, 882. 
•^^P^ anwansi, 884. 
^■9?l«<«'Cl ashtotri, 781. 
^^^^nr askaldi, 611. 



^B^Wt asgani, 649. 

■^^^1 ««(/««, 1454. 

^^•3^ as^/ii, 1252. 

^^iTsr aswfflrt, 1418. 

■^^^STTT JfiTTP^ asmjj koraeh, 1418. 

^^is^ asm', 996, 1082. 

^^^•irt^ asaphgol, 1073, 

■^^^T«r asmdn, 585. 

^^^T«r «nTT asmdn tara, 585. 

■^gTjrrsft asmani, 1043. 

■^^•KTF^ asraeb, 25. 

^^•KTff asrSph, 1217. 

^re«?^T asrekha, 1087. 

•^^•^g asres, 1082. 

'^^^ asaZ, 1475, 1479. 

"^^^ % '^^^ asflZ Ae osa/, 1479. 

■^^^t^r asM-//.a, 1082, 1086. 

^^T? osarA, 1082. 

^^rrf^ asar/M, 866, 1009, 1039. 

■^597^ ^Y^ asarhi kor, 1009. 

^<jl4^ '^f'l asarhi koran, 866. 

■^^^ ^1x asarhi kor, 866. 

^WrfiraiT asdmiydr, 1040. 

^^nfimt asSmiiodr, 1040. 

•^^Tjft asami, 904, 1215, 1219, 

1461, 1477, 1481. 
^giT asar, 25, 1265. 
^srr=(^ asdtcari, 1379. 
^^ojsr a&vjan, 1354. 
^^sj'lT^ asiijanpatr, 1354. 
■^%rr asera, 1500. 
^^K't flseri, 1198. 
■^^K astar, 509, 739. 
^reiXT astura, 383. 
■^^^ asf/iam, 613, 1259. 
^^^ asthal, 1234. 
"^^■pf asthdn, 1455. 
^^^Tf asmasdn, 1418, 1421. 
■^^^Tsr '^srr asmasdn piij'a, 1421. 
^fe^ aswlni, 1082. 



INDEX. 



VU 



^^ixi ahra, 833, 919. 
^^7^ ahri, 365, 833, 919. 
^^^T? ahwdh, 1172, 
'^ff^Tfi^ ahiyati, 1277. 
^f^«il<n ahiwdti, 1277. 
■^'^TT ahar, 233. 
■^•^ahir, 1150, 1160. 



■^'fiT %'ai ahlr ke ghyu, 1160. 

^SKT ahum, 1294. 

■^sTT 'STaSTT aAwra hahura, 1294. 

^s^T ahula, 882. 

^^^ aAor, 1294. 

•^'€K ^^t^ ahor bahor, 1294. 



U '^^ u 



■^K 'TK ^'i poi', 362a!. 

^TT^ ail, 833, 1294. 

■^TT^ f[^ ail gail, 1294. 

^T?;f% aili, 740. 

^T^^ aw, 904. 

^TjJT am, 81. 

^^nr^ ae/, 1234. 

■^r^-sf don, 160, 

'^T^ dk, 167, 170, 172, 174, 178, 

179, 181, 183, 184, 185, 188, 

190, 191, 200, 203, 204, 221, 

222. 
^r^ra dnkar, 794, 1266. 
■^rff3 anicuth, 408. 
■^i^^ dnkus, 102, 
^173 ankh, 172, 1009, 1010, 1057. 
^■pl^ dkhri, 1007. 
•sg-pirr aAAfl, 128. 
■^T'iT dnkha, 128. 
^rf^ ankhi, 1009, 1057. 
^Tir a^, 172, 1075. 
■^TiT'^TTf dgdain, 889. 
^TIT a»»5'a«, 1237, 1306, 1377, 

1430. 
^TTT ajrar, 1250. 
^TiRf dgal, 1250; 
^T>TT a^a, 1008. 
^Tif^ ai/8, 1416, 1419. 
■^Tifi' %^ aj» (^e6, 1416. 
•^Tfir^ffra agibaitdl, 1458. 



'wrfir J?!^ %^ dgi mol leb, 1419. 

^rfW agil, 1089. 

■^pft' ««^*. 607. 

'^T^ dgu, 1234. 

^T^ a^e, 1089. 

^T^ dglii, 1475. 

^%^ dnghi, 607. 

"^r^irr^ dchmani, 774. 

■^r'^T dnchar, 741. 

^TW^ ancJiM, 1248. 

■^T^ myW, 912. 

•^TST a^a, 1272. 

^^fT^T a«to, 1272. ' 

%^ d«i!j, 862, 864, 884, 886, 886«, 

894, 982. 
•^TfesT dntJiil, 1183. 
•^T3> a?ii!/«:, 1272. 
■^Irfl % ^t^ a«^/j?" Ae ro<«, 1272. 
^TfT «/•«, 853, 1247. 
■^T?^ drhak, 89. 
^T?T a»'/<a, 914. 
^fi^ a«<ff/-, 838, 1050. 
"^MtK^^^ dtashbaj, 580. 
•^Tfre-'^T5T atasbdj, 580. 
^Tfl^ a«!!/, 1173. 
^Tf?t '^^ 5iir?^ o«<j e/jffr^ jaeb, 

1173. 
^T<?t ^T^ a/ii(j barhab, 1173. 
^T^ a«;, 1073. 
^T^^ adami, 1274 ( footnote). 



INDEX. 



^rf^ ndi, 1085. 

^T^ ddi, 1073. 

■^T^^^ adichak, 1063. 

^TKt ado, 1399. 

•^T^ ^f ado gar, 1399. 

^TWT fi^M 823, 1053, 1088, 1089, 
1092, 1139. 

^■pTT ^^ ac?Aa <fAo/j, 1053. 

■^T^ ^JfT'^ ddhaphari, 1139. 

^W^ m^Aj, 1087. 

'^T*!^ Tier ddhi rat, 1087. 

■^T^-^T^ ddheadh, 1214. 

^T^ a», 81, 1090, 1113, 1263. 

^MT flHa, 81, 741, 1496 

■^im dpa, 646. 

^■p5?T ap^«<, 1080. 

^T^sRlK dbkdr, 371. 

■^TTT aSa, 732. 

*^T«IT^ dhddi, 1183- 

^Tf^ aS«, 922. 

^T^ abi, 370. 

^T^ ^^ dbi sora, 370. 

^T*rr nJAa, 64, 1172. 

■^^ oJ/ji, 27. 

^■pT aw, 814, 999 (footnote) ; Ap- 
pendix, 14. 

^TW % ^?i^T am Ae bagaicha, 814. 

■^THV^^ dmdani, 1488. 

^iftr^ «»»■/, 1272. 

^K a>-, 101, 414, 482, 828, 829, 
832, 833, 1147. 

^lK<r arat, 1332. 

^HT#^ ari!t, 780, 1332. 

^TK«T aran, 414. 



^TT^ drsi, 48, 605, 769. 

^TTT <i'-a, 154, 396, 828, 836, 

1247. 
■^nTT«H ardkas, 895. 
^TTr»l5J ardgaj, 154. 
^Tft <s«, 833, 834, 865. 
•^Tfr^ d»-(A, 834. 
^Tft WT3^ an chhdtab, 865. 
^^ ar«, 396, 470, 471, 474, 583, 

828, 833. 
"^T^ ^TO dri chds, 828. 
■^T^ dru, 1057. 
^TW dl, 833, 1042, 1044. 
'WT^rsr alan, 1251. 
^T^ dlu, 1057. 
■^ml' dlo, 877. 
^T^ ow, 3. 
^T^ awa, 957. 
^T^t^ awwa^, 1272, 1342. 
^■RcT ajca#, 1084. 
■^"Rf dwaw, 160. 
'^T^T awa, 577, 1262. 
•^TTT dnwan, 1262. 
^T^ awe, 957. 
^g as, 1088, 1091. 
'^TOTi^ dsni, 773. 
WT^^fr^ asrik, 1457. 
^■rer asa, 1192. 
'^T^T ^T^ dsa chds, 1192. 
^Tfgsr as««, 1082, 1087. 
^T^ ansi, 884. 
^r^ aA, 414. 
^T^K dhar, 919, 953. 
^TSW ahul, 882. 



4.*-^ iA;n, 1266. 
I^rrft ««Av«, 794, 1266. 
?:^.ft ikri, 815, 1050. 



U Xi w 



\^X ikkar, 815. 
x»l^T3\ ingrauti, 662. 
vg^ m^Mrj, 1272. 



INDEX. 



IX 



f^T ingur, 1272. 

T5J1T ijdr, 727, 743. 

■*WK ^^ yar Jaw^, 743. 

TonXT ijdra, 1210. 

T^ «wcA«, 1034. 

Tf<r^K itibar, 1451. 

T?[nT jWra, 920. 

X^JK\ indara, 920. 

i!«r^fiTMiT intdpha, 1475. 

Tf^^ intipha, 1475. 

X-rxv indm, 1194, 1205, 1209«?, 

1217. 
4,«II<IM indmdt, 1209^^. 
TTPC indr, TTW warn, 920. 
?7€t insi, 1034. 
■<«iR'iifl imriti, 1272. 
«,«<!i«M't?t imalpatti, 748. 



t «<»<^ «Vw/?, 1310, 1314. 

<*j.<d^ ^?T?: wj^j ghontdz, 1310, 

1314. 
■?;wiiT imam, 706. 
TTnr farei hndmjista, 706. 
TTPHT^T^ imdmhara, 1379. 
HftTTjfi- mw-i!?, 1073, 1272. 
«l<l iracfe, 1465. 
T^rrr^*^ ildichi, 1272. 
T^Tr^ ^TTT ildichi ddna, 1272. 
TOTW «7a»«, 1217. 
T'^fT'f^ ildhi, 1491. 

<»!ll-^ 5T5T 4^/i8 ^o/, 1491. 

T^fil^ istiri, 389. 
l%l*J'<,lTt istamrdri, 1215. 
Tf%^ »s<«>8, 1275. 
T% tVm, 1088. 



ll t' u 



ti, 128 (footnote), 240, 394, 741, 

1088, 1113, 1183. 
^*K inkar, 1051. 
'^gK ingur, 747. 
^3 e»<,1263. 



tCT i^fl, 1263. 

T2T 4«!!«, 367, 1263, 1264. 

f;^ is, 5. 

t^T^ wo«, 1087. 



U <3 « \l 



^^tssT i/A;to«, 1342. 
^^IP^ M7c^/*a, 1004, 1074. 
^^i^?T ukrha, 1074. 
^3^«€t M^n, 564. 
^?R^^ wAsffl, 1074. 
^^■pi ukdm, 892. 
'3^«f^ uhdnw, 892. 
^^»? ukum, 892. 
^^aTST uhhtha, 1074. 
'a'li^ ukhar, 1486. 
's^^ ^m wMar /ja/, 827. 
^'^rfx wMrfl, 1075. 



'3'3t% ukhari, 1486. 
^^ar^TSTirT ukhhandhna, 120. 
^JSK 5iTP^ ukhar jdeb, 1174. 
^^sT^^T M/cAra, 1074. 
^^■:f^ ?«/;/j>7', 24, 612. 
^^[^"^ mAA^j, 431. 
^'TT^t- ukhari, 805, 1006. 
^3^31? wMao, 805. 
^^^ ukhanw, 805, 1006. 
'S^^T ukheica, 919. 
^^5^ ukhaino. 76. 
^^^TJIT ukhauta, 431, 



INDEX. 



SIT vg, 1087. 

^iT-3si ugtan, 1342. 

Tgji-^ .^H ugalddn, 707. 

^^ «/5'a«, 109]. 

^%«l tighen, 115. 

^^T^rr licMff, 1259. 

^^sfiT twMun, 464. 

■^^7^ McA/?, 793. 

^^•^^ uchwar, 1256. 

^rgT^ uchds, 790. 

^wiaiff uchhtani, 867. 

^■ifT^ uchhari, 1436. 

^oi^ «{/«>■, 796. 

^ar.^T «yVa, 796. 

'ssjKTSRT ujarka, 1059. 

'S^I^^^ «/ra^, 796. 

^^^^ ujra, 1147. 

"aailJU. ujdgar, 9656. 

^3)T^ zyar, 796. 

^snrr M;yA«, 1147. 

^»ji;^»r vjhlan, 866, 867. 

y (**•«!) I ujhila, 1272. 

"dii^si M^A-aw, 705, 1342. 

^ST^T M^ra, 193, 959. 

^IT uttha, 842. 

^3? uth, 1113. 

^3355?^ MifA^e, 799, 1229. 

■ss^ifi- ^Knft- t«f/j;j jurtj-i;/, 1229. 

'^ST^ uthaeb, 1030, 1333. 

^a^T^uthan, 1087, 1090, 1439. 

^3T^ uthdno, 1094. 

'SHT^^ uthdbaik, 1234. 

^arf^rTr": uthaunihdr, 1030. 

^dBlT^^ttx^ uthaunihdrin, 1030. 

^^T t«/'di', 1320. 

^fT'^"^ 2wad/, 713. 

^^TXST urd/uib, 713. 

^^ itrharh, 376. 

■^f^TT urhrlia, 233 

^^f^ urharhi, 1280. 



'T?^ (/»•//««■, 1280. 

^?TP^ urhdeh, 713. 

^aT Mfer, 1485. 

^ri^TH «^m<, 1085. 

^d<««II u/arna, 764. 

^T^T tt/ra, 1082, 1088. 

^cfTTT ^T? utrakhdrh, 1082. 

'3»nTT 'pg^ utra phaguni, 1082. 

■^tT-.^ tt^n, 1418. 

^fiT^\:ir titsarg, 1459. 

^fl-n:^ tttdrab, 1420. 

vdriKI «/ara, 1457. 

vitiKi MHKI utdrapatdra, 1457. 

g^nr wife;-, 1082. 

^tt^ w^^ uttar bhadrapad, 1082. 

'S^^ udangar, 1147. 

^^ni ««?fln^, 1118. 

'5<.»<.T* udrdchh, 755. 

'sr^'? Mdiff/*, 919. 

^^ ^ Tp^ % sirsr^ vdah ke pdni 

lejdeb, 919. 
'a^ udai, 1087. 
y<=iH udhdn, 301. 
'3WTX: ««rf/<a/-, 1476. 
'«'i-il f'^T?f%^ unta chirchiri, 1183. 
^srr? undh, 826. 
^^•oJti «iyay, 1087. 
^<j^ upaje, 829, 1087. 
^t:st upta, 918. 
^T^aiT «j!J<ar, 1088. 
^Vt upar, 11. 
■^i^^fx: uparkar, 363. 
^sXTwl^ tiparchhatli, 1245. 
'^l^ ^n^ upar pdto, 11. 
^M<.-«HK uparwdr, 790. 
'sxi^TiK li/jrdr, 790. 
^^T^'O^T uprauta, 620, 1250. 
'aqvffzT uprauhta, 1251. 
^1T^^ tyjsrawr, 1113. 
'aMT^ftlfr uparjit, 1215. 



INDEX. 



XI 



^'SftnfT uphaiigiya, 844. 

^■^z^ uhtan, 1308, 1314, 1340, 

1342, 1368. 
^■^7^«r tibhan, 115. 
^^■^fii uhahani, 116, 930. 
^«l»'^^ uhhani, 115. 
y«i.^«i uhhain, 115. 
gt^ uber, 1147. 
^3^KT wJera, 1147. 
^v^ ubhar, 792. 
^wt; xsito^ ubhar klidbliar, 792. 
'a'w^ ummi, 877, 990. 
^I'fiJl urkussi, 1075. 
^XTfTT M»*ia, 585c. 
^<«<il <?<il^4 M'-^a petdrlia, 585c. 
^K^ wmn 585c. 
^T«f '^^^ Mra« petarha, 585c. 
^K^ MjyjAi, 1361, 1363. 
'a^Twr urma, 748. 
^fT«? urid, 



"^x:^ urdi, 996. 

y»si'<4<si ultal, 1486. 

's^PJT Mto, 749. 

^^PZT ^'isT m/^ mundha, 749. 

^^i'f M^fi, 475. 

^^g^ "i^ tclti chin, 475. 

^^^ mM, 714. 

^a^Ri^rr ularua, 195. 

Wi«).=(l ulwa, 1272. 

V3<!)«<4I ^r^ «/«:« dal, 1272. 

'3^=R ulank, 230. 

w<!)T<itsi uldwal, 1272. 

vdtjiM'?) ^T^ nldual ddl, 1 272. 

'3'«r «s, 655. 

<39i«n' M*wa, 963. 

w*j.^r, ««ra, 1242. 

^i%TT ttsma, 963. 

^^3 Msa^A, 800. 

y'^<" ussar, 816. 



U ^fi II 



^ u, 568, 1088. 

^rs wM, 1005, 1006, 1008. 

■ar^ {or ^r^) % ^«T ukh {or ketdri) 

ke khet, 1006. 
■gfiK nkhar, 792. 
gf^-5; Tirr^'^ ukhar khdbar, 792. ' 
■^f^sT mMi, 1005. 
^Tlf^ ugahin, 1087. 
'^^uge, 1091. 
'es'q- M«c/j, 792, 829. 
^'^ ■^'ra unch hhdl, 792. 
^z unt, 1131. 



^ ure, 1088. 

^TTT MWfl, 828. 

^ITT %^ ^w «?j« derhijot, 828. 

^i^ ^1^ sffci ow dyorhijot, 828. 

^«rr ■^^ M«a phalli, 828. 

gj^ sm, 877, 990. 

^if^T vibar, 792. 

^i^T'^T^ M&fl"' khdbar, 792. 

^i^ uOTi, 877, 990, 1272. 

^T^ firfls, 1441. 

xii^ g ulvs, 1271. 

^grgK usar, 816. 



\\ ^ e \\ 



V^ ek, 625, 817, 904, 1070, 1085, 
1118, 1234. 



jJ?R-l1ft^T ekgotiya, 639. 
TT^B^KT eltchdra, 1245. 



INDEX. 



jr^"^^ ekchari, 1245. 
TT^ "gw eh ch&s, 823. 
Tj^iTwqj-^T ekchhapra, 1245. 
3:r^i^5ft1x^T elijoriya, 639. 
jr*73T e&^Aa, 35, 232, 527, 538, 

705. 
Tratr ?iT^ eA taul, 1118. 
F^^^T ekpatta, 730. 
TT^if^lT ekpaliya, 1245. 
T3^^f%^ eipAas^Va, 803. 
jr9R7Hif%^ ekphasili, 803. 
•jr^T^ftf^jX ekbadhiya, 639. 
p-^ ^f^ e^- 5awA, 817. 
jT^fT^^ ekranga, 1379, 1381. 
Tjcfc.Ci' e^»'«, 1272. 
^^M^ e«Ar«, 1272. 



IJ «»•<;) I T ehlai, 730. 

V'l»«<8l T«n' eklauta, 1397. 

jT^iT^lT e^wdi', 524, 631, 549. 

TT^^Psl*! r eksaliya, 803. 

TT^ «7^ % <iW, ek sal ke taul, 1118. 

iJ*«f*J-^l eksingha, 1108. 

jr^iT^in e^AaW^M, 510. 

y^i.'^ru VT«f^ ekhatthu bhdthi, 610. 



pqiT^js^ ekhanthi, 414. 

J7^ ^T.TeA; Anra, 31. 

y*-^»^T ekahra, 1250. 

TRis^ ekahula, 1397. 

i)*M eA;a6e, 524. 

17^1%^ ekaisiya, 884. 

TJ^g*^ eArt/s/, 884, 885. 

V^ eko, 1090. 

TT^I^^T ekauniyan, 1397. 

p^W ekmnj, 1398. 

3rqaWT ekaulha, 1247. 

p^ eyfAfl-, 148, 228. 

ui e4,4e, 964. 

iJ <;(«<■ I ■jiT'T ekhrajat, 1207. 

■p-jlT^fx egddin, 889. 

FirsiT ewpjio, 1237. 

■jmr^ eghay, 952. 

T3m eghdnio, 951, 952. 

U'EiTsrr eghdwa, 952. 

,u<?=ti efei;, 1461. 

jr^i^ erf/j, 967a. 

jr? e/i, 1088. 

7r?v=rrcf^ ehwdti, 1277. 

irpf ehi, 1002 (footnote), 1113. 



Tj^ ek, 1084. 



I Tj^T em, 29, 89, 185, 195, 



T ainthua, 756, 769. | ^^r^r airha, 726. 



^far amte, 1263. 

Ud«f ainthnn, 115 (footnote). 

^3^ ainthal, 123. 

^d^ K^ ainthal rassi, 123. 



^31 fl»i!)^a, 1267. 
^3T flm</w, 1267. 
^ am, 1221. 
^:^ aila, 1248. 



INDEX. 



Xlll 



aili, 1275. 
^g^ aisaii, 1088. 



■^^ aisi, 655. 
^Qr?^ aihab, 1277. 



n ^t u 



^T^lMfT onfo'«, 412. 

^T^aRTo^/jm, 616. 

'^>»3T^ oMn, 431, 464, 612, 616. 

"^ft^r^j okhla, 431. 

■^tw^ oM/j, 464, 616. 

'^tiF'CT ogra, 1272. 

■^Stwrwt"! ochhdon, 637. 

■^"I'WTTr ochhawna, 637. 

■^'^''irrs: oy/iaii, 1453. 

^^^^ o68«, 1017. 

•^'tzTT otdi, 1017. 

■^"I'a^JTT othgan, 1259. 

■^a^T^ oihgani, 1259. 

^M^^T orjya, 43, 288. 

■^■^^ oraiSfl!, 44, 93. 

'^^sfT orAM«, 133. 

^■^1^^ (W-Am, 745. 

^I^T^ orkaul, 1457. 

■^t^TefT?^ odieain, 639. 

■^"l^Tifl' odain, 639. 

^^TT orfa», 639. 



^tsTJ^Tf onchan, 639. 

^triT^ oj9?j}, 536. 

^t«|:iwr obtan, 1342. 

^XT^ir orchan, 244, 639. 

^'^H74.=H.?) ordawani, 639. 

^1<'<l«<5r orddtcan, 244. 

^1tj'?t o/-/2a, 877, 957, 984, 990, 

1272. 
'^^F v-^hI oriyani, 1252. 
vf^tMfi- o/i;«, 1252. 
■^'T'sI-^tO' obcari, 562. 
^"I^^TT osra, 1242. 
^tr^^ osro, 1242. 
^"I^TiT^ osaeo, 897. 
"^"t^KT osdra, 1242. 
^^^ifi- osdri, 1242. 
^>9T^ osflMnt, 319tt, 897. 
^'^Vnohdeh, 1115. 
^"t^K oAar, 216, 554. 
^>?;t^ ohari, 490, 1252. 
^"tWT osto, 383. 



U ^ o 



u 



'^■^ 0, 964, 1088, 1092, 1383. 

'^^iT okar, I486. 

•^^^ 3T3 'a^rrzw % okar tat 

ultal hai, 1486. 
'^'Wr oAa, 646. 
^^^ okhar, 489, 612, 616, 
^>?iT ojha, 639, 1453. 
^ta^ o<a6, 1017. 
■^■fz^ ow^ori, 1017. 



^Vr Ota, 78, 722, 1243. 
^TTfT ora, 43, 44. 
■^>^on, 43, 288, 308. 
■^"^TR o^aJ, 1^46. 
^>V odh, 814. 
^>C 0/-, 964, 1088. 
^1^ ori, 1183, 1252. 
^"tft ^^ ori !!im, 1183. 
^Yg^ osar, 1118. 



XIV 



INDEX. 



U '^ au \\ 



^fW^ aunjli, 1436. 
^TzT?; auntai, 1017. 






■^T an, 1217. 

^TWT ^^^T aua baua, 1088. 

^■^^aunkar, 1183. 

^TiTT augar, 26. 

■^W^ aunchhah, 1402. 

'^f^aunthi, 766, 769. 



ff?«ttfl!, 882. 



^TTn; auddi; 1098. 
^fifr aundha, 1262. 
■^^1^ aurang, 1074. 
^KT ««<ra, 1294. 
■^^^ ■^XT «««■« baura, 1294. 



U ^ A u 



i* Aaw, 1451. 

^Jff:^ AioAn, 1070. 

■•h^h"^ kankri, 1266. 

^^^^ Aaina, 768, 1075. 

^^"!T kankna, 768. 

^%T^ kankni, 768. 

^^•KT^ kankrahi, 794. 

4l^T^ kankri, 1087. 

^qnix«iT kakreja, 742. 

<**»<!Tnitjr kankrotiya, 794. 

^^.■^T kakua, 747. 

^^nr^T /mMa, 747. 

i**.^'! A-a/cAi, 747. 

cfi^H Aate', 1049. 

^%T &aZ;er, 1049. 

■?Pli^ kangra, 1033. 

■*J|'*IT kangna, 768, 1378. 

^iT^iiT f "ra^ kangna h&ndhab, 1378. 

^Jlfwuir kanganiya, 792. 

^iiviff kangni, 571. 

wnw'^'^ kagmuMn, 516. 

^iT'ft kangahi, 747. 

•*-<4.<l kachra, 768. 

^^f^ kanlcar, 794, 1266, 

SR^^ kankan, 1323. 



^'g^ iaw^'flH, 1323. 

«i>'^-^¥^ kachkoh, 1264. 

W^iT¥ kachras, 1014, 1272. 

cR'^vTlT ftewAra-, 768, 1004. 

*'^Tft/cflcAn,877, 1004, 1042, 1265. 

^■"^•^^sfi kachrukhi, 558. 

^r^^fsi^T A«c^«'n««y''» 1272. 

^f^^T kachiya, 736. 

^'^^T kachua, 1052. 

^■^tTT kachora, 677. 

^^Wr kachoha. 1074. 

^^T^ kachauri, 1272. 

^^T^ ^^c^f^"'"*'} 1002 (footnote). 

■qr^T^ kachaus, 786. 

^TfT* kachchak, 399. 

^r^ AflcAcAo, 877,9206, 1235, 1263, 

1492, 1495, 1497. 
^i^T ^^ kachcha kos, 1492. 
sinjT ^RST kachcha pakka, 1235. 
^fT ftjl'-^l kachcha bigha, 1495. 
sif^ kachchi, 1499. 
^^ t'^ Icac/wM ratti, 1499. 
^^ kachchu, 1061. 
^^T kachchha, 1418, 726. 
^^f kachhar, 792. 



INDEX. 



XV 



^^rfT kachhdra, 792. 

*%it(T kachhuiya, 786, 

^arl; kajat, 96. 

^a]?:Tqxt kajargharo, 970. 

?ir3fiXT kajra, 1074. 

^rai^d %V«, 9695, 977, 1074, 1183. 

^STTKTaT kajrauta, 747. 

^oT^'^^ kajrauti, 747. 

^si^^r kajla, 1074, 1183. 

^«i^ kajjak, 399. 

w^sf kanchan, 977. 

?ff^«i '^K kanchan chur, 977. 

^^^ ^€t kanchan puri, 679. 

^^ Icancha, 1235. 

gr^ TT^ kancha pakka, 1235. 

i^r^ kancho, 1014, 

^^^9 kancho ros, 1014. 

^r^K kanjar, 694. 

?ff3«f%^T kaikira, 533. 

^z^«rr katna, 569. 

<h^>f^«JT katniyan, 874. 

gja^fsr^TT katnihar, 874, 886 (foot- 
note). 

^ziq'^A;ai5»ij, 574, 873, 874, 1024. 

■•tii^.^ katarni, 482, 

ctii.^T katwa, 1175. 

^z'^^ffx: /«afca»', 765. 

^ra^K kathar, 1405. 

wa-^xrr katahm, 228. 

'SST^i' katari, 131. 

^fz^ Aa?j%a, 136, 140, 433, 442, 

713, 1422. 
^ftgr Aa%a, 136, 713, 873. 
^^-^T Aa^wa, 894, 990, 994, 995, 

997. 
^ffgi; katui, 875, 1074, 1163. 
^fT ^"?^ katui dahi, 1163. 
^^^ katuo, 994, 995. 
^^^ kantelo, 95. 
■<*^*j< kaiesar, 765. 



^^^T kataiya, 1074. 

*'*I"<:^T katoiya, 1074. 

^2>?; AMii!oz, 1074. 

^>)a /^afom, 449, 677, 678, 711. 

^i^td katori, 383, 535, 553, 778. 

qr?T Aa«a, 1144, 1456. 

^5T kattJia, 1495. 

^>3 A-ai!/», 414. 

^3T^q75^ kathathri, 576. 

^st A-ait/iai-, 136, 137. 

**d.«hT kathka, 390. 

^ra^fqiXT kathkira, 533. 

^a^fti^t Itathkilli, 179. 

^d.^'^f kathkudn, 934. 

^r^sTvift" kathkhurjn, 305, 306. 

qi?5«r^ kathnahi, 929. 

<tid:»(ar5r kathhandhan, 1130. 

^rec^izT kathbeta, 1279. 

^ra' vrrsPt' ^a<A hhdnthi, 4:14. 
^SJTT /tfldAm, 93, 226, 430, 442, 

462, 543, 584, 714, 1131. 
^fSTrn^ kathrengni, 1075. 
^es><«ii kathla, 226. 
^ra^ itaitA/j, 136, 714. 
^i^r^w hathwat, 39, 319», 462. 
^3'^ kathahi, 305. 
^^ Aroj^/iff, 1194. 
<*d(fc|X; kathddhar, 913. 
qraiT kathar, 1058. 
*|dVl kathdri, 782. 
«ti^i^ kathulif 39, 714. 
^dltd'l katholi, 714. 
■^ST^T kathaua, 64. 
^STfT kathaut, 319«, 584, 714. 
^3[f(r kathauta, 319». 
w-^^kathauti, 319/1, 430, 442, 

462, 543, 584, 714. 
^3T< katliam; 328, 
^■^•'il karra, 852. 
4^fT kanrra, 852. 



INDEX. 



^f^KT kanrm, 848. 
^^^ harm, 1120. 
^^rrr kanca, 233. 
^^^Tkanrwa, 233. 
^fi^T'^ kanriBani, 815. 
^fT?'^ karhari, 169, 179. 
^firr karha, 140. 
^■<S«^K karhai, 455, 506, 584. 

^fi'S^ Aa»-Ai, 140 . 

^^ /far(7, 226, 455, 673, 757, 759, 
771, 936, 1406. 

^TT? karali, 285, 308, 671. 

^^r€t karaU, 138, 455, 465, 606, 
' 563, 673, 936. 

^f^T kariya, 455. 

^fe^T katiriya, 431. 

^^ kari, 35, 169, 223, 233, 936, 
1258. 

^^^rr kartM, 1023. 

^■5^ karuo, 1023. 

^^^ karhni, 31 9A;. 

^TT? karhai, 430. 

^3^ fcar/ii/a, 1272, 1290. 

^T?; karhui, 1290 . 

5Ii^?;^flr/iaM>', 1475. 

?f!Ji?T /Jawita, 37, 328, 935. 

^lyKT kantaha, 1425. 

^^15 kanth, 29. 

^i3T Mntha, 226, 749, 755, 1173. 

■sgvsXK kanthdr, 1173. 

qrwrr rtT kantha rog, 1173. 

^<i3T ^T^ kantha sdru, 1173. 

^".fr A:a»iifAi', 29, 1429. 

^rirr kanda, 848, 852. 

cfiTji; Jtaj i-a^flii gfo/, 1491. 

^<ig katay, 1087. 

^aXT^ katarni, 588, 

^«T^»^T^T katarpdra, 292. 

^flKT^TT katarbaha, 294. 

^Jlxr^^T^ katartrdh, 294. 



sfirT^TTT^T kataricdha, 294. 

?fi»rKT A-rt^z-a. S62a, 403, 497, 1183. 

^fTTTT ^ oTf A-a^ra Ae y«r, 362a. 

^nft^T^ katariwdh, 294. 

^i»Tf5c katari, 403. 

^Hva- Aflfo-j, 255, 258, 272, 278, 

558, 768, 1074. 
^-f\-^ kanfri, 138. 
•RH-O'^ katrohi, 403. 
^ff^T A-a^/a, 497. 
^fTT^ katwa, 768. 
^faqtT Xvj!<i&7, 967J, 996. 
^fii?^ Awifji-/, 1039. 
W^ katek, 1085. 
^Ttrr katta, 74. 
^1?^ A:r/«4, 713, 1491. 

^"^ iTof Aa^/t _9q;', 1491. 

^«f te^/i, 1073. 

^«rr Ara^Aa, 1286. 

^«IT ^T^ i-ff/Aa A:aro6, 1286. 

^^ A-a«f«f, 788, 789. 

^■^ kadam, 585, 1492, 1495. 

■^^T^ kadamak, 726 (note). 

qfS[Tj JTT^ kadam gaehh, 585. 

^■^'■^ kandri, 920. 

^^T^T A-flcftra, 824, 981, 1399. 

■*^^T kadima, 1071. 

^^fl^ kadimi, 1215. 

^^T /rac^iw, 1068. 

^■^;^ kanduri, 1369, 1377. 

^^3 kadaith, 579. 

^^ fcflrfoj, 787, 788, 789. 

^f kaddu, 1068. 

■^iTRK A-a«rf^aM-ar, 1348. 

^^T/.ff«c^/ie/<7, 863. 

^fiiAaw, 913, 1052, 1062. 

^i^t /i««ae, 1024. 

^5f* A;flM«A:, 972, 978. 

^i^^ ^ kanak c/iur, 978. 

^si^ ^K kanakjir, 972. 



INDEX. 



^VU 



HR^TofltT kanakjim, 974. 

*-i"*ra'«n' kanhathiya, 1416. 

tti«ic». gf^T kanakpuriya, 1057. 

^•J if* i^'pcankilli, 15. 

^TTfi'^ ^^X kankutti batai, 913. 

JB«i'|^ kankut, 913. 

^5171,^ kankhi, 1011. 

'^<r:v\'^Xkangojar, 1010. 

^sp»iimT kanjhappa, 725. 

^'TT'fltqV kanjhappi, 725. 

^siv»iiivt kanjhappo, 725. 

^ii-'TfiTT kanjhopa, 725. 

^ifTatTT kantop, 725. 

^sr^fr^ kail tor, 656. 

^•i-WW kanphul, 764. 

^^^ kduah, 913. 

^if-.^^ kaiibada, 967c. 

q\^5^T^T kanhala, 753. 

^•riqi; kanwa'i, 1497. 

gfi«f.«l^ kanwa/i, 954, 

^sfT^ kanica, 954, 1173, 1183. 

i*il.«if kanwdn, 1054, 1075, 1491, 

1497, 1498. 
qf^ngsri kansan, 1075. 
^rsf .^T^ kansar, 434. ' 
^rsT^BT^ kansari, 434. 
^f^tr^Aansz, 1001, lOiO. 
^rsflT^ kandil, 1011. 
loins' kanath, 864. 
q>siT3T kandtha, 1074. 
<ti<il4fl Icanasi, 403. 
?STi'^ kandr, 102. 
^•rr^ kandh, 1011. 
^•rrrr kanaka, 1011. 
^fsr^«?l' kaiiiaiti, 1348. 
?fps-^ kanik, 1272. 
^fsf^Tii^ kaniydel, 957, 1018. 
JfifsnrTTJ^ ^T^^ % kaniydel dim had, 

957. 
^sf^^ ^a»w7, 797. 



^fsf^K kanisdr, 434. 

^^■^f /ta«ea«, 741, 1282, 1328. 

^frar'^ST?; kanedi, 1322, 1327. 

ai^-^f ^T kauedn dan, 1328, 1329, 

1330, 1346. 
^■^T kaneta, 1251. 
^^ toneiSj, 929. 

^wtoa//, 15, 194, 275,938, 1024. 
^w^ kanaili, 275, 363, 764. 
^jsiY^iT kanojar, 1010, 1024. 
'*TT^ kanausi, 20, 753, 764. 
*■=?! /cawi, 568, 1113. 
^^T kanta, 1087. 
^r=^i; kandal, 1023. 
q.s^T kanda, 1061. 
^rft kandi, 373. 
^a^t kandha, 274. 
^T Afl«««, 404, 455, 933, 940, 

1075, 1183. 
^r^ AawMJ, 933, 957. 
^RITT^ kanyain, 1282. 
^5^ Aansj, 451. 
^'rn'^ kanhdwar, 1348. 
^f%^T hinhiya, 274. 
^f^ toiM, 1074. 
^■=5^ kanheli, 125, 126, 275. 
«'?«i5<t kapchheri, 485. 
^TfTET tej:>fe, 1074. 
cfi^i^ A;apfe", 713. 
^Ti^T A-ojsm, 393, 723, 1402. 
^itn^T ^wr Aa;?/-a fo^^o, 723. 
?fi^KJ^'; kapardhiXr, 607. 
^iK^ A;apa»'«8, 363. 
qripcrf^^ kapaihinni, 363. 
gRiK.^s5^.fo?parie««, 363. 
^Tfj^l-s kapraut, 530. 
^iTn,7Z k'impraut, 530. 
^fq-R; %?ai, 134, 647, 1145. 
•^'JTx; kapdr, 833. 
^^T'^ 'Tt^^ kapdri ijhoraJ, 1018. 



XVUl 



INDEX. 



^imr kaims, 1016, 1017, 1018, 

1019, 1089. 
^nrre ^2^ kapds phutab, 1018. 
^^ kapuri, 1049. 
mvij kappa, 726. 
^n<ST kappha, 1032. 
^TBufhc kaphgtr, 450. 
^B^B^^T kaphcha, 450. 
^4).«iliJ=( Jcaphndeb, 1418. 
^t*'^ kaphni, 1418, 1431. 
cfiTflT /copAa, 1032, 1033. 
^r^ Aa6, 1275. 
^^^ /faSfy, 1467. 
^iTJsj'prr kahjdna, 1198.- 
^r^r^ A:ffl6r, 1431. 
^^T^ ^"t^r?; kabr khodai, 1431. 
^^ft^ kabariya, 864. 
'<ti°t«R4!il<i kabristdn, 1431. 
qr^ft'^T kabariha, 864. 
qj^^a Aff.J/a, 416, 417. 
•6'^^^ kabli, 1000. 
qiTT Aa6«, 729. 
qrTR kabab, 447. 
^i^Tx ^T^i^ Ao6a6 <;?««*, 447-. 
^ff^ AaW, 655. 
^tftXTTT kabirha, 1429. 
?rfWr kabila, 1275, 1276. 

^ft'Spl' kabili, 1000. 
^^ ftaJttZJ, 963, 1272. 

^w A;fl!m, 240. 

WB^A;«»?<?Ae, 592. 

■<^M'3 r kamtha, 601. 

qrai^ kamthi, 676. 

ch*j.d <...(( kamdharna, 557. 

^fT ■^KT Aa>M dhdra, 532. 

^wsg' kamandal, 782. 

cm.|.JK kamangar, 601. 

^^T kamar, 655, 1020. 

■«(i«j<..«^ kamarkas, 770. 

^fl<,«<sn<!ll<, kamcirkholdi, 1205. 



^flX.'^^ kamarjeb, 770. 

^TCTtftT kamartoi, 743. 

^♦JHU^T kamratJiua, 1460. 

ct4j<.M =p kamarpanthu, 1460. 

*«<'«(i3il katnarballa, 1267. 

*»Ji;»«It|x: kamarsayar, 407, 394. 

^^i^iJItt kamarsdri, 407. 

^nFTTKT kamra, 737. 

^r7?n;?n" kamariya, 737, 1184. 

ssiTTx^ A:rt»»-(-, 344, 737. 

^«^ TT^^ kamalpatr, 1073. 

*«.t!lT ^XTW^ Affw/fl parsdd, 975. 

^rtr:^t kamsare, 1217. 

•^HT?^ kamhanr, 363. 

^flT^<ST kamhanda, 363. 

qiwi^K kamJiar, 363, 489. 

^nriT Aa»za«, 842, 1194, 1196, 

1197, 1412. 
<*«M kamdn, 601. 
*+JH* kamdnak, 398. 
^WTTT A;a»jd«a, 538,1141. 
^*rrfl'^ kamdni, 398, 415, 416, 470, 

538. 
<*i*JTK kamar, 394, 407. 
^^rr^ kamdri, 143. 
^f^r^i: kamiai, 1186. 
^1^5?t kamiyai, 842. 
^ft^f kamiydn, 842, 844, 1184. 
^ffl^'ra^ kamiyauti, 1186. 
^??f A-(7«!, 1217. 
^»?^Jrr kamina, 1141, 1217. 
^if^^T kamua, 107'4. 
^^ar? kamaitdh, 394. 
^HJi^ kamaini, 866, 867, 1194. 
^nrT'? kamoch, 972. 
'^'fr^ kamodi, 978. 
"^r^rtrr kamora, 277. 
^f^T^ kamaiini, 866, 867. 
^r«jsf|-^v7w^M;»-, 1202 ; Appendix, 14. 
^i^^T kampa, 381. 



INDEX. 



XIX 



cRwJTO kampas, 419, 519. 

qpBT kammar, 737. 

^'B^ kammal, 737. 

^w?T kamma, 1074. 

^f?lT kamhaiya, 915. 

^^ A;fl!r, 363, 1025. 

^rxt Artrai, 713. 

^ <.•<*■* karkat, 1117. 

^fXTcRarr karkandha, 1138. 

^T^^ AarAa, 786. 

^<.^a karkut, 329. 

w<,.^ to-fe, 1087. 

^<jyT karkha, 69. 

■<*<:''aHT karkhana, 312. 

^^^wrf^ karkhdhi, 69. 

^iT.^rTfT "^f^*)! karkhdhi hanrlya 

69. 
■<*<»*si^ karkhi, 69. 
^V^ liarkho, 69. 
^fTTiTf kargah, 363. 
ch<*J|| karnga, 966a. 
qrrnft karngi, 9666. 
^KT^^ /Mrc^i, 353, 1119, 1308. 
^fXT^ karchhul, 319A, 564, 684. 
^r^tsf tery, 1461, 1476. 
^K^S' ^'C A-ar; AAor, 1461. 
^^•5f ^^ karj khauk, 1461. 
^^•apft' karjani, 1499. 
<ti<,.ql ' '<l^ karjtodm, 1476. 
^iT?5jT /car/a, 1187, 1188, 1190, 

1476. 
^^TTaTSf karjain, 1191. 
^<^<J^ kartali, 225. 
^rK7<fT teri!a, 730, 1394, 1418, 1419, 

1420, 1422, 1423, 1426. 
H)<.dl "5<r^ kartaputr, 1394. 
^K*^ ^^ karti muri, 1119. 
• «M.q< ^ karihari, 576. 
qiifei Itarathi, 1272. 
*<.«^ir kardhan, 758. 



^T-ti^ kardhani, 758, 770. 

^^HTCB^ karanphul, 764. 

^^isrr karna, 138, 713. 

^K^ A;ar»z8, 422. 

^^5B ftam«<,.1091. 

^K^ fciraS 358, 3623, 855, 981, 

1143, 1246, 1286, 1339, 1343, 

1402, 1408, 1416, 1419, 1451, 

1452, 1484. 
^^^T karba, 356. 
^t^T^ Icarbar, 363. 
5ST^ harm, 1428, 1446. 
^K»<«*«iT Icaramkalla, 1073. 
^^Tirr karma, 972. 
«««.•♦< I "^K^TT karma dharma, 1446. 
^^•«T<!iT karmala, 781. 
*T^^ karmiya, 1059. 
^T^ kurmi, 1183. 
^^nl' ^ff Aarm« M, 1183. 
^K^^rr kararua, 1049. 
^ST^ A;3rfl;, 873. 
jfrnrr fo>-ew?, 432, 713, 
^r?^ fejm, 848, 852. 
^XT? karah, 1090, 1451. 
^H..-^^ karlianni, 966c, 966rf, 967</, 

969c. 
^i?T?-T A;a)•/^a, 832, 836, 954. 
^iT^Ti; karhai, 554. 
^Kf^T karahiya, 713. 
«Tr /wm, 673. 
■^XXX karai, 996, 1084. 
^in-p^ /MracS, 1408, 1418, 1430. 
%X[fS kardnt, 1496. 
?R?^T karaba, 372. 
<*TI« kardm, 889. 
^?:rT /M>-ar, 786, 1183. 
^KTTT kai-ara, 792. 
^iTT WTP^ />;3»'a /ac6, 25. 
^na'? kardh, 285, 308, 312, 319. 
^TT^ % ^T karah ke ghar, 312.. 



XX 



INDEX. 



^XT% ^K karah ghat; 324. 

■*\T^T kardha, 285, 319. 

^T^ harahi, 308, 3)9, 673, 711, 

713. 
'^i'^^sn karikandha, 1138. 
^ft^T karikha, 69. 
*lTCrT karikhdi, 69. 
^fr^ITT " ^Tjt karikhdi hdiiri, 69. 
^fcJT^T? karingwdh, 950. 
"■ ^IXT^ karigah, 356, 363. 
^ir %^ A-ari rf<!&, 1339. 
qt fiwi.tiK karinwdh, 950. 
^ft^TT kariyaica, 1113, 1137. 
^ft^lT kariya, 996, 1137. 
•<fc( x -^o kariha, 1113. 
^^ir karing, 950. 
€55^ AaHji, 950. 
afc^ttyr A;arM«, 1045, 1137. 
^r^^T ^ karua tel, 1045. 
<t<i^l T karudr, 13, 237. 
^ir^^Trr karudra, 13. 
'fc<t^lC V karudri, 13, 237. 
qiX5^ karu'i, 44. 
^^3? karuchh, 458. 
^reTT karuna, 139. 
^■^ Aarjf, 1045. 
^r^^^ forrw <e/, 1045. 
^^ to-e, 1084, 1088. 
^^w kareni, 1183. 
^T /caraf, 1088. 
^T^ karail, 786, 808, 1067. 
^xr^rr karaila, 1067. 
cRT^ karaili, 569, 1067. 
«fc<:<d^ cRT^TT karaili katna, 569. 
^^ A«Z, 265, 330, 1023. 
^^rTqrfa»rr kalkatiya, 1021. 
*fliTWT kalchha, 684. 
^^a?r Ara&Mj, 684, 774. 
^«'f^ kalchhul, 438, 458, 684. 
^^^^T kakhhitla, 438, 564. 



^>^ ^vr kaljug, 1023. 

^^ ^^ % ^f^«T kaljug ke amrit, 

1023. 
^siET^ kalatri, 1207. 
^i^^iT^KT kalatidara, 1256. 
^^Ti A-a/(5(p, 389. 
^r^tff kalaph, 389. 
^^7^^ kalbud, 565, 582. 
^«i^<T Aa/J»^, 484. 
^^i^^ kalbud, 484. 
^r«fH A-a/a»?, 422, 521, 541, 1033, 

1039, 1052. 
^■^.^kalmi,S70, 422, 1039, 1073. 
■qr^'nfl' ^TT A;a/»jj sag, 1073. 
^^vi?t ^gYrr kalmi sot-a, 370. 
^^•a A-a/r«, 1395. 
cR^^iT kalwar, 371. 
*^n^ A-a&fl, 713, 1307, 1308, 

1329, 1374. 
^,^7^ kalsi, 693, 713. 
^^T kala, 585/, 
*^T?: fei/di, 996. 
^[■^iTJ^r kaldel, 957. 
q,^T^«T kaldhut, 582. 
■^f^T^ fca?a^, 371, 
^^T^ kaldli, 371. 
^^TTT kalawa, 1381, 
^f%^K kaliddr, 727. 
^i%^7^ kaliydn, 1138. 
Wf A-a?*, 765, 977, 1037, 1267. 
cR^'^T kalua, 1456. 
■«tn^*<(r ^^ ^te Jlr, 1456. 
^^^ kaluchh, 438. 
■«*<5iy kalus, 438. 
^^^ A:a&M, 1269. 
^%n kalewa, 1269. 
^WIT kaJaigar, 510. 
^d>T ^afor, 1118. 
^^T Awte, 1269, 1341. 
1 ^^^ kalam, 1269. 



INDEX. 



XXI 



^f^'Q!^ kanwandal, 715, 
^^X kawai\ 1271. 
""♦^rraf icawdchh, 1073. 
?f^TV«r kamwarthu, 1460. 
^'grriia kaskut, 666, 689. 
^^•^Ta kaslcaul, 715. 
^^^^T kastara, 713. 
^m^ft te^ffn, 678, 713. 
sR^sr /wsan, 507, 249. 
<**jf«i kasani, 744. 
«^^fflKT kasmira, 1047. 
^S¥K Aasar, 900. 
^^■^T kasla, 625. 
■?R^aT kansla, 525. 
^g^^ kaswa, 1458. 
^HTX Aasai, 1141. 
^WT^ Aasor, 713, 1272, 1342. 
^r^T^T kasara, 1342. 
^fi'^T^'^ kasawai, 249. 
5S^T\S^ kamasuri, 1101. 
^^^1 kansula, 525. 
-^KT kasera, 469, 556, 548. 
^^?rr kasaiya, 1142. 
?K%^ kasaili, 1056. 
■^gf ^ kasaunji, 372. 
^g*z> toawiSj, 537, 1113, 1134. 
^^T^ kamautlu, 768. 
qr? ita/», 655, 1087. 
cp^-c) ^ kahtari, 139. 
qi ^' tri^ kahtari, 1084. 
^^^mf ^ kaJialganw, 1486. 
ch-^.tj f kahicdn, 1275. 
■?r?f^ kahahin, 1085. 
^'^f kahdn, 478. 
«jr^^ A-a/jaM^a«, 763. 
c)Tf% A'rAe, 1084. 
^si; kahiil, 1256. 
^ A-ff/je, 1088. 
^^ yta^ew, 1091, 1092. 
^ /i-tt/ffli, 1084. 



^ /«, 414, 1088, 1092, 1367. 

^T^H A-dtm, 988. 

■^0^ /.;««», 146. 

^n-xr«i kaeth, 1217. 

^rr^ /■;aA, 1398. 

^iT* ^^WT A:a/i; hanjlia, 1398. 

<tT<*<. kdnkar, 33oe. 

^if^fK: kdnltari, 1070. 

^iTfi^ kdkut, 86. 

^ffgre kdnkut, 86. 

^f^ kdnkJii, 1024. 

^rrn Aa^', 1398. 

•STTsr kdgaj, 404. 

^tji'ojI '<;ao/*j 586. 

*T>r ^^^ Aa^r durus, 1398. 

^TTT /.ag'a, 1088. 

^ST'fl' A-a5f«, 1043. 

^f ^ AfTMcA, 1017, 1263. 

^f^ ^^T kUnch rua, 1017. 

■^if^T hdncha, 1235. 

*f=^ -iawcAj, 313, 1272. 

^t^ ^i^ kdnchi chtni, 313. 

^T^ A-ocM, 233, 790, 1113, 1134. 

«TW^ Tr^t kdchhak pati, 233. 

^T^'^ kdchhabj 1030. 

^rnrr kdchha, 726, 743. 

^T5T A'o;', 748. 

^T5jK %«r, 747, 1404. 

^rrs A^^, 1452. 

^E^ kdtab, 873, 1024. 

^Ts»^ kdtbon, 356. 

^frr A:a«M, 104, 640, 748, 935. 

^T2T i^etf)' ^fWr kdnta phori 

bakhiya, 748. 
^T^ kdnti, 179. 
^T^ kdtai, 356. 
^rr^ ^ai!A», 1131, 1420. 
^ff kdnr, 889, 890, 986. 
^.T^T kdra, 1120. 
^T /ia«ra, 815, 889, 890, 936. 



xxu 



INDEX. 



mft kdnri, 137, 612, 1168. 

^Tf^ kari, 1120. 

^T^ karh, 8, 279. 

qfT3^ karhab, 1422, 1478. 

^^ Mr ha, 261, 279. 

^rf? Jcarhi, 1478. 

sSTci ^a<, 550. 

^T*nc >ia/fl!r, 272, 278. 

?rnrfx: /Jaten, 272, 278. 

^:X^im kdtik, -laZd, 1082, 1083, 

1087. 
^ri^Icandu, 433. 
■qif^ kdndun, 433. 
^iTKf /^ra^^o, 423, 1084. 
^TCt kddo, 789, 824, 981, 1086. 
<*r<0' ^^^ ^a^o ^flm6, 981. 
^iSft kdndhi, 261. 
^if /ia«, 274, 933, 1420. 
5RTT ^TR^ Vjc(K«( kdn kathi utdrah, 

1420. 
qnT^TT kdnddr, 725. 
^l«i«<.K at^fl' kdnddr topi, 725. 
■<fcM«ri«^jfr kananotsarg, 1459. 
3jT«l^ kdnar, 952. 
^TTT Aana, 29, 933, 1011, 1075, 

1183. 
^T^ A;a/ii, 41, 933, 940. 
^^ kdnni, 1006. 
^Tsr A;aMM, 293, 303, 433. 
^T^ kdno, 789, 1011. 
^sfr f«t>^^ A;ajw kichchar, 789. 
^■P5 fcawA, 256, 274. 
m-nlt kdnhi, 1006. 
^P^ If f ^ kdnhi ke har, 1006. 
qrp% kdnhe, 478. 
^ftT kdmp, 764. 
^TjTT kapha, 1032. 
qrr^T tefiff, 729. 
^rrft^ Aa^js, 786. 
^mr kdm, 999 (footnote). 



spTfl^g^T kdmdheniia, 1164. 

^Tfwsf^ kdmini, 1091. 

qfT«?t' Aa/»i, 531, 560. 

^nm kayath, 999 (footnote). 

^TKJ'^ kdrehob, 502. 

^K'-'fl'St kdrchoU, 502. 

^i'^^l ■ar^rr kdrchoU wdla, 502. 

ssTKoi Aaro;', 1426. 

qrr^<T^-<M kdrparddj, 1208. 

*K-«ITK kdrbdr, 1461. 

^fTT ^tJIi^T *am JogrAa, 968. 

^Tft^ kdrikh, 69, 747. 

^T^ Aan, 786, 977, 996, 1137. 

^T^ ^f^ kdri bdnk, 977. 

■^T^ vrf^ kdri mdti, 786. 

^rr^ ^TO Aarw das, 1456. 

WX^ ^iJ. kdru bir, 1456. 

^HT kdre, 1089. 

^IJi'^wrK^drobdr, 1461. 

■^Ttt^T^ kdrobdri, 1461. 

CAT'S) •'i<< kdlbut, 565. 

■tl^^xK. kdlbud, 484. 

^nrarM/a, 965a, 996, 1023, 1043, 

^rrar ifiT /^a^a P**", 965a. 

«tlf<il«l kdlib, 475. 

^T^ kali, 1455. 

*i«^ ^wnr i-a^j asthdn, 1455. 

eRT^tsf 7;rt^«M, 750. 

^TSJTfT kdsht, 911. 

^TO to, 1075, 1091, 1151. 

^Ira /cans, 1138. 

^Tff "^TTT /««« cliarai, 1151. 

^HJ.«?t /;asni, 1073. 

<*T<j.<!iT kdnsla, 525. 

^■rer /cosa, 1342. 

^fgr A;a«sa, 558, 682, 1342. 

^^kdnsi, 1075, 1091. 

^rreWr^ kdsitcal, 725. 

^tg^rr kansula, 525. 

^■ra /i;a«^, 1218. 



INDEX. 



XXUl 



^l<d*<4iK kdstkdr, 1215. 

qiT? kdh, 1151 ; App endix, 14. 

^"^ ^nx AaA charai, 1151 ; 

Appendix, 14. 
qrri% A«Ai, 1043. 
^Tf% ^jajT kahi sabuja, 1043. 
?BT^ A«fAj, 366, 1235. 
^ST^t ^^ kdhipos, 1235. 
^T^A:dto, 1073. 
fNf A«, 1088. 
fspfili^ kinkini, 771. 
fti^^ kichchar, 789. 
%5 teMw, 393, 1085, 1217. 
f=B<rr kita, 832, 1254, 1370. 
fkitfj TrKT^T M« pdrcha, 1370. 
fifTfrr /a'^^a, 832. 
f^t^o kiniha, 1113. 

f^TW kvmam, 1033. 
f%^IKT kiydra, 832. 

r**(iCl kiydri, 832. 

f^^T^ kiydri, 62. 

f**(l«^ kiydli, 1201. 

f^*ll<^ kiyauri, 662. 

f^^'^'^ kirdnchi, 148. 

ftiTT^T Mr ay a, 1201. 

ftif^ ^^^ Am» chakkar, 685. 

ftff^ Hriya, 1428, 1451. 

Offt^ ^^7H ii«r/yffl Ajarnj, 1428. 

f^TT*!! kirauna, 1074. 

ftif^qf Am-^jA, 1084. 

f+isi-yMT kUkhana, 1140. 

f%^T ft«Va, 585. 

■ Ae7&, 431, 443, 464, 573, 621, 
932. 

killi, 179, 331, 929, 936, 
1250. 

■fti^!^ ■^T^^T kishan arpan, 1209a. 

f^ng^ ^<'M«i kishuH arpan, 

1209«. 
fti^T^rr Afs&a^, 383, -388, 734. 

f^^^-^ kinbad, 383. 



f*^^cr kisniat, 383, 734. 

272. 
fwPf toaw, 834, 967, 1085, 1086, 

1088, 1091. 
f^^ TT'a {or T^) Z;jsMw ^aM {or 

pacJichli), 1081. 
f%^ tei!, 1214, 1479. 
f%^ ^'^ /cis^ bandi, 1479. 
f%^OT fe&!, 715. 
^> ki, 664 (note), 1088, 1183. 
^'W kinch, 789. 
^"^"^1 kichin, 1458. 
^N"? ^«i«/*, 1087. 
^^ /ceya, 662. 
^^^ %e, 1091. 
^f^ klri, 1074. 
?6K1- klro, 1074. 
^^ M, 164, 443, 621. 
%^^T A;2/fl!, 573. 
ir^K ^Mar, 1082. 
l«?^f AM«ya«, 9206, 1459. 
lR;'6it ^M AweyaM ddn, 1459. 
kukri,- 353. 

kukraundha, 1183. 
f^rra kukdth, 286. 
^ifift' kukurhi, 353, 1074. 
fffi^T kuku&a, 1183. 
f!^i^ kukuhi, 1074. 
^f'gT^^^T kunchbandhwa, 599. 
fi^T kiichcha, 55. 
fT^ kuchchi, 536. 
^3.1^ kunjra, 1456. 
IfarrK A-««;a^, '1452. 
'^41 Id ^^^ A't^/a^ karab, 

1462. 
^ajMf kujdtra, 1454. 
kunchi, 65. 
aT A-?««;V, 1250. 
fi^T^T /cM!!/fa!, 325, 417, 896. 

^ET\^ /iM^r?, 1144. 



XXIV 



INDEX. 



fiaiP'^ httaeh, 624. 
ffzf^ kutanw, 892. 
^fe^T kutiya, 1144. 
^ toififj, 1144, 1234. 
frsf ^ kuthdniv, 747. 

kudanriya, 277. 
kudandi, 33. 
grf ^f^sTT kurdaJiina, 831, 889. 
^■^^=5i«I kunrmundan, 1434. 
^^g^HT kum-munan, 1434. 
^f%^T TW kunriya chds, 801. 
^%2IT^ kimriyathi, 929. 
«pfV^T kurlmja, 713. 
^"i? Amhc^, 268. 
fiiSTT Icundal, 753. 
^<is^ kundli, 1343. 
-HT AMK<fo, 143, 284, 368, 437, 

505, 713, 1349. 
^>ii^ kundi, 929. 
^g^^ kutiirum, 1047. 
^-TiT /««««, 711, 1084, 1087. 

fifl^ /CM^^J, 711. 

fi'rff A;m<^o, 655. 
^^^*r kudrum, 1047. 
^4.iK A«rfa»-, 27, 28, 328. 
fi^lft kudari, 328. 
fi^TdA;Mrfaw, 28, 369, 1048. 
^^.7^ A«c?a/, 28. 
■^!^r^kudali, 28. 
Iffl- Am£^c^«, 82, 1203. 
^^''^kunri, 1073. 
^ kunti, 1272. 
lr=^ A;mh(?, 469, 570, 557. 
ff^T kunda-, 401, 1141. 
^ ««««(?!, 391, 1141. 
ffqI'f.'tK'*! kupotsarg, 1459. 
f «JT fa«pj)a, 719, 720. 
f x^ kuppi, 719, 1160. 
^a?i If HI fceyj^jj ke ghyu, 1160. 
fi^ AwJij, 856, 859. 
^flT^^T kumarhauti, 786. 



^««<.l<s^ kumrauti, 786- 
fi'^ kmnbhi, 1125. 
^*gf kumhar, 1071. 
ff?TKr AMm/«'(7, 572. 
li»fK kumhar, 572, 12096. 
f ^g kumhes, 1080. 
5i»???r kumhaiin, 572. 
^'^Pr kumhaini, 572. 
aii-di Am-te, 744. 
^^TcJT^'l^ kurtali, 902. 
fTvTi^ A:«r!;/j8, 999. 
l^'SH"!?! kurlhauli, 1219. 
^^^^ kurdan, 616. 
fiXifflsr kurmin, 1090. 
f KT^ Attrao, 797. 
ff^^ kurun, 602. 
■gr^K kiirur, 439. 
irr^ kurail, 646. 
1>W ^m/, 1432, 1456. 
ff^'drir kultara, 412. 
fi^r t^'tiJT /cm/ rfeoto, 1456. 
fiTi^ Am^/w, 398, 473, 585. 
li<!i«<*^<l< kulphiddr, 473a. 
f*^'?^ /««/Aa»-, 798, 818. 
fi'^fT^ kulhari, 395. 
^«f 5qT kulhiya, 685, 725. 
li'55^ /cM^/w, 725. 
f ^ /sits, 1428. 
^yg"! kmagun, 1454. 
^^^3*1^ kusputr, 1428. 
^•421^ kuswatna, 1074. 
f;^^ Atwa/ij, 959, 1000. 
li^^ ^<M kusahi kerdo, 959. 
gvr^cf kusaii, 1454. 
frft^n^ kusiydna, 1074. 
^R)*-(K kusiydr, 1005. 
^iftTTK kusihdr, 1005. 
f.^ A:«««, 1 088. 
■gi'SW kusum, 1043. 
fi'^^T kuhassa, 1080. 
^'STT kutthdr, 572. 



INDEX. 



XXV 



kulm, 1080. 

ff^gr kuhesa, 1080. 

f^T kuan, 916, 920fi, and 920c, 
1092. 

€^ kunch, 362a!, 599. 

^^ kwicha, 53, 55, 465. 

€^ kunchi, . 54i, 428, 465, 543, 
°^ 599. 

^a? kutab, 624. 

^2^ SJTI^ kutaljaib, 624. 

^ t^ A;Mi!j (fej, 624. 

^ /cwift, 1234. 

^ kmr, 238, 505, 713, 929. 

^^ kura, 848. 

^ Mwra, 83, 143, 437, 713, 
1434. 

fTl" ffCffrar kHra kurkut, 848. 

^^ kunri, 83, 308, 929. 

^r? kunrh, 251. 

f?7 Awr^a, 879, 1234. 

fB Am^, 913. 

^ Att&, 128 (footnote). 

^ kun, 538. 

^ M^, 920J, 1091. 

1^ sin kupjag, 1459. 

^^ MJar, 1260. 

^ Ailr, 849. 

f 'ft" kuro, 1495. 

f ^ kusi, 1091. 

^"^r M^a, 1080. 

% ke, 312, 445, 463, 478, 585/, 724, 
748, 814, 990, 1006, 1008, 
1009, 1015, 1023, 1025, 1040, 
1045, 1057, 1073, 825, 829, 849, 
919, 1118, 1139, 1175, 1183, 
1207, 1208, 1235, 1272, 1275, 
1377, 1479. 

%^T€t kedri, 62. 

^^t^ keal, 914. 

%^\^keaU, 914, 1201, 



^'3'^f kemidn, 1074. 

^^^Y^T kenoclia, 456. 

^^•^Tl^ kerwdri, 814. 

IfffTSTTlTr ketarpdra, 292. 

^■\K. ketdr, 1005. 

tffTm ketara, 1005. 

%fnKl- ketdri, 292, 1005, 1006. 

%JiTO kemdm, 1033. 

^^•3T /cerfca, 959. 

ItKT?: kerai, 959, 960, 1000, 1089. 

^iTT^ to-ao, 959, 960, 1000. 

tr^s^T^ kentdr, 237. 

%^^ kerauni, 866, 867. 

Ii^'^ fe/a2««i, 866, 867. 

%^^^T keicallm, 956. 

^rfsf kewdnchh, 1073. 

%gTf AeM^ar, 1249. 

«s'^T^Ae«2ca?M*, 1249. 

^^i^ kempdri, 1249. 

^^f^ kehwdnri, 1249. 

tra'ra kewdl, 786. 

tfrr^ kewali, 1005. 

Ir^7^/:ewa/w', 1005. 

ffgfrsiT kesariya, 1043. 

%^K kesaur, 1062. 

%S5ff fe^iMw', 882, 886. 

5is«il<viv ff^'ft kehuniddr kulphi, 
473. 

%A-e, 414, 568, 964, 1002 (foot- 
note), 1073, 1085, 1087, 1089. 

'^ken, 356, 393, 604,657, 741, 

841, 886 (footnote), 964, 1090. 
-%^T kera, 1204. 
"iff T kenra, 425. 

%srr fewa, 1075, 1183,1436. 

%'n ir?J^ keiia dehri, 1436. 

%q^ kebal, 973. 

%T A-«»-, 393. 

tr^ kelhu, 250. 

%^K kesar, 975. 



XXVI 



INDEX. 



%g'^ kesi, 984. 
^f^^T kaimhitja, 73, 226. 
vfx«nx kairiydr, 807. 
*<!iiy<!i hailael, 957. 
^f%^T kailiya, 1074. 
Ir Imi, 1087, 1113. 
%% kainch, 322, 1256. 
^"^^ kainchi, 226, 383, 474, 499, 
512, 522, 539, 550, 588, 1256 
%^ kaiti, 1034. 
'^*^ kainti, 1034. 
^^ kainra, 425. 
%?T ^«r(V, 585/, 1073. 
%7rr kmU, 1072, 1073. 
%fi7^TT kaitbdn, 585/. 
%^« kaituk, 1456. 
%5* Tft^TT Mituk gosdnin, 1456. 
%^^ kaidak, 1466. 
%^ ^-a/ya, 511, 551. 
%^ A-fl-;/, 1134. 
%<s[T kaiki, 1113, 1134. 
%5rT '^ kaila gel, 957. 
%^ kailin, 1002 (footnote). 
%# kaise, 1026. 
^tsi'ft A-oe««, 1045. 
^Ys;=3T kdinda, 1045. 
?Bt?iiT Awy«, 1074. 
^"Tlff A-om, 807. 
^t?^T koila, 1440, 1456. 
*li'!ir mwi koila mata, 1440, 1456. 
?R=r?^ Aw7», 1074. 
^sIp^t koela, 347. 
^t^va^ AoA!;«, 329, 1016, 1019. 
^T-fti=sT kokila, 468. 
^>q7^^ kochban, 770. 
^>'g':^ A-oc/«^, 1073. 
^l^r^^T ^ WXi\ koclila ke sag, 1073. 
^^^■PFJ^ kochnni, 1245. 
^■z-:-jx kothioar, 1400. 
^tfa-iT A-o!';«>, 1090. 



«stft«IT kothiya, 1263. 

^"T'fa^rr ^«t kothiya inta, 1263. 
^Ifa^K^ kothiydri, 1201. 

^fsr^^ IcotMrjau, 890. 

^tft^ A;oi!/M7«, 924, 77. 

^fa^ kothiU, 77, 85. 

^tf^/corm, 824, 865, 866, 867, 
1009. 

^BtflT korar, 808. 

^■^f^T Iwrhiya, 1074. 

^ftf^ai korJiila, 1183. 

^>i|T^a koUcal, 1200. 

.»l q» «^ A»^M, 770. 

^"t^t; kiodal, 992. 

^ft^Tx: A»<^a»-, 27, 28, 369. 

<«1<tR: koddri, 28. 

^t^T'^t koddri, 28, 319A;. 

^tsrvft^T konasiya, 828. 

■««ri^.<?l Aowse, 828. 

<*>l«(l<n kondsi, 832. 

^RTfif^T kmiya, 603, 828. 

^fsurr ^W koniyajot, 828. 

«fi"l*««'^I' komhra, 1071. 

^>rt Aorai, 367, 1050. 
^x:^T koranja, 844. 
*l<»<rr%'<IT korponchhua, 1397. 
^"tc^mr kormdr, 161. 
«*!<•«< I ^ korwds, 1051. 
*i I'^d korsut, 404. 
«tri<K Awaii, 894. 
^HT2 korant, 807. 
^ttT^T A»ra«fl, 1185. 
^ffrr^ A»raj-, 784, 807. 
^tfblTt koriyar, 807. 
*"i<HT korena, 372. 
^TTsi^ Awfl«mj, 1161. 
«*l'd'<ilTT koUdra, 412. 
SRt^T^TS; kohcd'i, 832. 
^T^-'^K A;o&ar, 297, 300. 
*T^-Q^ A-o&(yj, 47, 603. 



INDEX. 



xxvu 



^i^^a^ koliaiti, 121.9. 

, SBlf^«l?t ^'arifl't koliaiti asami, 1219, 
^"^W^^r? kolhkarh, 1194. 
^"t^fT^K kolhkar, 1194. 
^l^fTtpqT^T^ kolhpaehrani, 1194. 

^tw ^ kolhua, 1097. 

?Rt?f ^T ^^ kolhiM hail, 1097. 

^W^K kolhuar, 297, 300. 

«*l-^^«i|< koJianrgar, 578. 

^Ti^^ kofihra, 1071. 

^>?^K /co/jJar, 1307, 1308, 1335, 
1358. 

^t'^f^Ko kohbara, 1335. 

«bTtS-v|^ konhrauri, 1272. 

sitNtx; foAdr, 572. 

^RtfV^fT kohiya, 713. 

^ Z;o, 655. 

?ftT^ kdin, 1045. 

^t^ A;oi!^, 1076. 

?fi¥i;9«^ kdilkJw, 1075. 

^ff'g konch, 1045. 

■eff ^T koncha, 741. 

^T ^ AowcAi, 726, 741. 

^t^T MAa, 1240. 

^tit kothi, 77, 79, 310, 365, 814, 

924, 1400 ; Appendix, 14. 
?fit^^T^ kothkodl, 1461. 
^^ ^^T Ao^A« sora, Appendix, 14. 
^ Icor, 867, 1009. 
^Vf ^ kor deb, 867. 
^"Vr ^oran, 824, 865, 866, 1006, 

'l009. 
qsff^'^fWT konrpakka, 1182. 
-qrfa^ korab, 865, 981. 
^ftf sr Aora/, 1009. 
^T Aw«, 104, 1007. 
?Bt^ kori, 834. 
sfffT konrha, 170, 414. 
^f? A»rA», 841, 886 (footnote), 
1098. 



•R^ff ^T^ ^ ^'sft ^©«f /corAi irtraaf 

ken pJiephari bahut, 841. 
^>?r ^rA«, 379, 799. 
^rIx^ ^TT /coi&r katta, 1456. 
^^ Ao(fo, 990, 992, 1089. 
?B>sr Ao«, 128 (footnote), 604, 828. 
^t^lT /»«a, 828. 
sbI^T ^5?^ ^o»a A-«;Wj 828. 
^^"^ koni, 828. 
^stftrsT kopin, 726. 
JThft'sf ^^m, 726. 
?fl^ koU, 1073. 
*>T A;or, 866, 1271. 
^i.w koran, 866. 
«"kT kora, 104, 788, 1258. 
•ftrr '^T^ A»ra Ja/, 788. 
^^Aw-e, 1053, 1143. 
^'fi" ^iK^ Aon karab, 1143. 
^>et- ^ro, 367, 1050, 1051, 1258. 
^>^ kol, 1456. 
^t^T kola, 832. 
*Wt- A;o&', 832. 
SB^- kolh, 250, 265. 
^!t%kolhu, 250, 265. 
^frw te, 1492. 
^t^ kosa, 984. 
^fiWt kosi, 959. 
^V^gn- kosum, 1043. 
?B>Tr Ao/jflj, 139, 430, 432, 442, 

713. 
^S'?^ koJd, 139, 140. 
•^■^m kauara, 1183. 



flnTvsiT kaurna, 138. 

^TTTT kaurena, 372. 

^^^kaml, 1256. 

^rWt A«!m, 356, 792, 870, 957 

1398. 
^l^T vrqrsr kaua jliapan, 957. 
Wt^t ^f»ii ^Ma Ja?i/A, 1398. 
*T^ ^^frpl feiMa /«^aw,, 957. 



XXVIH 



INDEX. 



^^T ^*^ kaua hdnkab, 870. 

^^ Icaur, 1247. 

^ft kauri, 1201, 1391, 1496. 

Wt^ katmi, 988, 1045. 

^Tffkaum, 1125. 

Wt^ kaur, 1078, 1247, 1271. 

^K alTJr^ kaurjaeb, 1078. 



^1^ /m?w«, 1143, 1256. 
^T^ ^XM kauri karab, 1143. 
^?fT kaulha, 1247. 
^T %ff, 1091. 
^^^T kyonclia, 74. 
SifFn'Eirr A;r*««A-a, 1082, 1084. 
fsB^«r krishn, 1456. 



U ^M U 



^t Maj, 833. 

^irv^ khankhri, 1074. 

^'sm^Tcr khankhrahra, 669. 

^^•CT khakhra, 894, 901. 

^'at '5^ A-A«AAo>-wi, 37, 328. 

^^V:^ khankhori, 1161. 

^^'rtT'f khakhoran, 1032. 

^jn^ khagra, 1188, 

^H^KT khagra, 379. 

51117^ khangra, 379. 

^»IT^ khagri, 379. 

;b>i5^^ khangrlwa, 1021. 

^JTTSrr khangaha, 1172. 

^»j;t khagur, 226. 

ifw^ kanchra, 789. 

^f^ajT khanchiya, 43, 44. 

■ig^^ khachoU, 44. 

<si^.^ khachchar, 1128. 

^5i^«iT khajla, 1272. 

»gaiTqT khajwa, 1263. 

iggfprr khajdna, 1S8, 321, 916, 91 9, 

952, 1207. 
^5JT May«r, 686/, 1272. 
ig^T khanja, 1174. 
la^TT A/Miifai, 1003, 1272. 
^fz^T khatiya, 636, 1416. 
la^^T khatula, 636. 
^<J^5iT khatola, 636, 1457. 
^aY^ khatoli, 636. 
^IT khatta, 1272. 



khaddha, 34. 
^^ khaddhi, 20. 
^^ /f/««r, 1234. 
€^ Z-;iff7i>-, 832, 865. 
^f^?T kharkatta, 915. 
^fVJK-«)T klmnrgarna, 314. 
'sTf^K: kliarchar, 277. 
^?s^T khanrchar, 259, 277. 
^^TT^ khanrchari, 259. 
^■d.«l kJiarnia, 319ft. 
^•^•^Tl'd I klianrmora, 915.- 
'^«^Tr?T kharwdha, 915. 
^^^T^T khanrwaha, 915, 945. 
^■"S.^l khanrliar, 1234. 
^^^:^rr kharJm, 8. 
^•T| khanrim, 919. 
<Ei^-*JTT khanrsdr, 312. 
^^•^jikV klmnrsari, 312. 
'afr^W khardiin, 735. 
■iisrf'naf kharaon, 735. 
^TfT «T^ A;/Mm ^a/, 890. 
^■STT khanrar, 578. 
'a^f^ kJmrdmc, 735. 
^^^TX khanruar, 945. 
^T^rr kliaruka, 1075. 
^Wttt khanraura, 1272. 
^^^ klmrhaur, 815. 
lart^ kharhaul, 815. 
^ang khmid, 832. 
^cTT^^ khatkas, 404. 



INDEX. 



SXIX 



Wff^TT khatna, 386, 1415. 
^f^rai^ kJMtiyauni, 1463(?. 
^flT khatta, 77, 833. 
^sr^jnx; kliadgaur, 850. 
^K^rr khadJM, 34. 
^f^«rN^ khadiyabl, 1006. 
^5^ khaduka, 1461, 1477, 1481. 
^^ttsTr khadojia, 721. 

kJiadaur, 848, 850. 



I«T khadaur khet, 850. 
%«^ klmdaur, 850. 
?i^* Ma«?rfMA;, 1461, 1477, 1481. 
Wl- khaddhi, 848. 
^WT khadha, 77. 
^^ khadJiel, 1145. 
ilena: khandhaut, 833. 
^siMa«, 1194. 
<d«(««nx: khanjlr, 924. 
■^•Tsi khanan, 165. 
^•f •*) I CI' kJiansdri, 646, 
<st«i-««l khanhari, 165. 
^fsTtT khanit, 1493. 
73=fiT Mawte, 833, 1493. 
isT^fl't' khanti, 39, 40. 
^g^ khandh, 832. 
^jairr khandha, 832. 
^nr^fT Mapm, 319, 437, 713, 924; 

1262, 1399. 
?^TI^ Mqprt, 319, 437, 713. 
irTiT^>?^ khapro'iya, 1074. 
^gTi^Vr khapra, 924, 1246. 
^'F':! ^K^ khapra pherab, 1246. 
^TjTff Mffjjn, 713, 1422. 
^r^P<tX«rT khapro'iya, 1074. 
^t H< T<ft khaprauri, 713, 1401. 
^'rrrK khapraur, 1401. 
^"J^^ ^^nr khapraur phenkd'e. 

1401. 
^q^T^ khapiyar, 646. 
'a^^ khamlnra, 468. 



^^^Ti?|- kliabauni, 1272. 

^VR Mmbhdr, 921, 1125. 

^Ri'e?T khambhiya, 765. 

^TfT^ khamso, 392. 

TsW^^ /J/jamara, 468, 1021, 1023. 

^>}rr klMmhha, 414, 431, 609, 933, 

940, 1051, 1256. 
'if^T khambhiya, 1256. 
?r^ khambhi, 1256. 
^'^T^T khamharua, 1058. 
'3'?T khamha, 473, 940. 
^ar^f khamhdH, 1256. 
T3*rr^ kliamhdr, 890, 986. 
'af*?^ kliamhiya, 1256. 
^K Mar, 367, 539, 815, 1010. 
^^t A;^«m«, 815, 896, 1052. 
•<j(^i^a'l kharkuti, 363. 
^X7^ ^ZT kharko khunta, 363. 
isll -' ^Tl gV kharkoti, 1253. 
^^^T^ kharkaut, 363. 
iTK'^T^ kharkauti, 363. 
■JsTK^if'ST kharkhanda, 669. 
^rXTiaf^JlT kharkhariya, 248. 
xiTurf'sr khargos, 740. 
^^^ /c^arcA, 1207, 1463^?. 
^gTT^^m; kharchatai, 1151. 
TT^s^^ kharchari, 1151. 
?iiT^^ kharcha, 1052, 1207. 
Tg ^.-tjU i kharchdk, 1084. 
^^^f^ kharchdnri, 277. 
^X-^TCt khanrcharo, 277. 
<il<'-^ T^ kharchdli, 259, 277. 
^?;i?r^T kharthua, 1075. 
igxriiTT kharpa, 735. 
^TT42T?; kharhatai, 913. 
x3TT^5iT kharbvja, 1065. 
^TT^^ kharuan, 1204. 
yi-<^r kharwa, 816. 
Tsrv?5rr? khancdh, 858. 
^■'T^T^T khancdha, 9 J 5, 945. 



XXX 



INDEX. 



Tgrii kliarwe, 549, 858. 

73^1$'^ khariceh, 858. 

< s l<'*il«f kharsan, 539, 1024. 

^^^^K ^T^iT kharhar havcag, 858. 

^XT^^T kharhara, 55, 57, 465. 

^ sK'-^'CY kharharo, 57. 

isr?i%«rr kharhiya, 125. 

IItW^ kharhi, 1051. 

?ax:sK kharahur, 815. 

^KT^"1f*l kharaoni, 735. 

^^la kharat, 549. 

i3KT^ A/wracZ, 406, 469, 557. 

'SKT^ kharddi, 406. 

larm kJiardm, 735. 

^ft^T kliarika, 1310. 

^fl<*^ffT kharikauta, 1253. 

^tT<T kliarit, 850, 

^ft^T^fi- kharidgi, \2Q9d, 1215. 

■efr^K Mnrt^ar, 1214. 

<eiR^.f kharilmn, 1188. 

^■ft'fTsr kharihdn, 879, 1090. 

^ft^?^ kharihani, 879, 914, 1194, 

1196, 1197, 1200. 
T^l^n, 250, 480, 1424. 
^^ *«rlc?, 1040. 
^sRS^T kJiariia, 467. 
il^^n kJiaruka, 740, 1074. 
isre^ klmrnki, 740. 
'O^^^ kharuhan, 864. 
'd<i^l«T kharuhan, 982. 
^^^ M(?n<Ao, 1124. 
'a^^T kharaiya, 125. 
'SX^r kliaraitlia, 815. 
^x:^ kharail, 646. 
i^ "5^ Ma;-o ^Aar, 1235. 
^Kf /t/wrm, 55, 57, 1182. 
^^ kharri, 263. 
'a^T^t?;''! klialkdiya, 990. 
la^^ klmlchi, 713. 
»f^^?;^T khalchdiya, 984. 



^^vf^ */Wn, 1139. 

'3<«)«fi<K khaltedar, 727. 

^55?^ khalni, 520. 

^g^TT khalwa, 790. 

^idK khalar, 790. 

^1%<r^ khalitari, 1119. 

irfa^Tf^r khalihdni, 912. 

^^ Maa, 263. 

^^fT khalhar, 790. 

^^re klmwas, 1184. 

'§^n^^ khaskhas, 362a. 

^^H khasam, 1274. 

'sf^^TT khasra, 913, 1468 a and 6, 
1470,1471; Appendix, 8. 

W^^TT ^n'^i'^'^ khasra ddnahandi, 
1468a, 1470 ; Appendix, 1. 

^^^<T ^^TT khasra batd'i, 1468. 
W^^STT khmraiya, 362. 
il«3 khasal, 1080. 
^fWT khasiya, 373, 768. 
'^'^ khassi, 1121. 
x|^ khamsi, 1121. 
^rr?:^ MaiA, 1269, 
^Tt: Ma?, 833. 
isrrar MaM, 1477. 
^n? A7tae, 1026. 
^af^K khdnkhar, 920c, 921. 
xif^r khdng, 1174. 
^f Ji«r khdngan, 165. 
^f»i^ khdngal, 1174. 
W=g khdnch, 318. 
^'^ khdnclm, 44, 318, 319/, 459. 
537^ khdnchi, 44, 319/. 
'sTT^ ■fe^ Ma/e khidar, 1456. 
^arsTT Mq;a, 1272. 
'aiJi-prr khdjana, 916. 
khdnji, 648. 
khdnjhi, 44. 
'sTTS Ma<, 636. 
'STTf^iT Ud^M, 966rf. 



INDEX. 



XXXI 



W^ kh&nr, 919, 1014. 

^i-it khdnri, 20, 740. 

W^ khanro, 919. 

■mrw hharh, 1082. 

^stT^ kharhi, 8, 20. 

^T»io khdta, 20. 

^3TTT? /cAa^aJ, 1461, 1477. 

^fTT Mato, 8, 77, 269, 315, 319/, 
1462, 1463c, 1477. 

^rrm^'^t khata bald, 1463c. 

^TfW^ khdtir, 1192. 
^T^ khad, 77, 849, 1008. 

<siT<«) khandan, 165. 

xrr^T Matfor, 848, 849, 868. 

^rrsr Mai^A, 77. 

^rt?! khadha, 77. 

'aT^ Maw, 251, 268, 1194. 

y r«i •'■^ T khdncha, 459, 467. 

^rr'i'^TT khandan, 1209c. 

4dH<) khanan, 165. 

msiT Mawfl!, 394, 478, 1248, 1393, 

1398. 
xar^ khdni, 1272. 
xrr^ ^T^r kham bag, 813. 
wvi khdp, 402, 1221. 
4sim^ khdpar, 437. 
^TtR khdpari, 713. 
^T^ Ma6, 399, 402. 
^TR^ khabar, 792. 
yMK khdbar, 792. 
^rmr khdbhar, 792. 
<s)m<^ khabhal, 867. 
^sTHT kham, 1235. 
'^TW^'fft khdmso, 392. 
^rnrr khdma, 431. 
?§rT'fi MamAj, 1051, 1256, 1259. 
^^ May, 250, 356, 1084,1087, 

1113, 1269, 1272. 
^5TK Mar, 1080. 
^7^^ Mari, 816. 



^T^ Ma>M, 864, 982. 

'ani'flf kharuan, 1042. 

'rra Ma^, 414, 790, 792, 1139. 

ITTT khdwa, 713, 917. 

^m khdwdn, 833, 917, 953. 

^■rfw^ khdwind, 1274. 

^TO Mas, 131 ; Appendix, 14. 

^■|«'<?l«f khasddii, 711. 

^l*i\ khdsar, 1164. 

fe'TtXTirr khiklionia, 493. 

f'^^i'Fl' hhMiorni, 493. 

f^^ khinga, 445. 

I^'^^ khinchri, 963, 1272. 

fi|^««rf kJiinchni, 145. 

fta^T khiohoha, 984. 

fesjT^ khijdya, 963. 

fHr^^Tsrr khidhorm, 493. 

^Tl^ khinauri, 2, 825. 

ra^T^ ^ Wt«r khinauri he jot, 825. 

ferrw khiydo, 1338. '> 

f%JrraM«yaMfere, 1217. 

■RrxT*^ MMj, 1249. 

fe^^fWlT khirkhiydi, 1407. ,-v 

f^Ksfe^iTif^ khirkhiyauni, 13^ 

ftrXT^aT?: khirchatdi, 1407. A 

f%K5^MM-cA8,.402. 

fw^fr khirdant, 969. 

f^rr khirawara, 1002 (footnote), 

1272. 
ftiTT^ MiVsa, 1164. 
f<sf\lU khiraura, 1272. 
fW^^z MeVAa^, 797, 981. 
■fe^*l> khillcatti, 797, 981. 
f<sl<!t«f(^ M««7<j, 402. 
fW^^ khilbaiti, 711. 
fW^H-n: khilmdr, 795, 797, 981. 
f^^T^TT kUlwat, 1236. 
iwr^ 7cM/^i, 1192. 
I^^PTtT^^ khilhorna, 493. 
khilua, 740. 



XXXll 



INDEX. 



f^'^TTT khilorna, 493. 
fttww khillat, 12096. 

khilla, 24. 

khilli, 711, 1055. 
f^^T^ra khiskat, 727. 
^"^-a"^ khlkhi, 713. 
^^^ khlnchab, 391. 
'srf'^ khinchi, 1079. 
'al^ Z:to-, 1272, 1338, 1389, 1405. 
'flK f^^T? khlr khiyaio, 1338. 
^TT klm-a, 533, 1070, 
^TT ft^ Mzra bichchi, 533. 
laTx: ;!:/i»n, 1272. 
^(fNr Mz^, 795, 797, 981. 
'IW ^^X khil korab, 981. 
^^ 'at^ Mill torab, 981. 
^Jt^ ^3T^"1^ khll baithaol, 795. 
^igr vr^ khll man, 1192. 
i^ct^l khukklm, 1076. 
4^4d.<di khukhsa, 1183. 
^<^<ft khukhuri, 984. 
^z^KT khuntra, 182, 244.* 
^«^ khwitri, 182, 185, 200. 
^Bi^rr khutla, 764. 
?ga7^ khutli, 764. 
^3"^^<T ^Aw^aAra, 2. 
^B'^r^ khuntahri, 182. 
^aTflTsl khuntdtdn, 224. 
^fz^l^ khunUputti, 348. 
?gfa^ khutiya, 728. 
^fg^T khuntiya, 1008, 1010, 1024. 
^gfsJIT ■^T^-'HT khutiya angarklm, 

728. 
^gfa^rr, khutila, 764. 
^fr^T^ khuntihri, 182. 
Tf s"^^ khuntehra, 825. 
4^*-^.Cl khuntehri, 182. 
^?T Mt<«a, 363, 431, 609. 
?gf\ /;/m«««, 489, 573, 764. 
^p?! MwHfe, 40, 213, 464, 609. 



tg'sjT khiinda, 361. 

^<t^ khundi, 361. 

;(g?[ /.:/»/rf, 911. 

^^•*HH«fr khudkdsM, 911. 

^?;.i^ khudni, 27. 

?g^T khudar, 1048. 

^ft 7c/iMfl'<^«, 1272. 

?gfV^T khubiya, 764. 

xgv khum, 83. 

^T7^T khurka, 1075. 

^rng^ khurkhun, 1079. 

?|Ti^5i khurchan, 1032. 

?fTT^^ khurchani, 3 19/*, 456, 1161. 

<^<'^««^ khurachni, 453. 

<^<.^^ khurchuni, 424, 512. 

<^<.a?l khurji, 129. 

^:^i^at khurdain, 888. 

^^7f^T khurdiya, 1208. 

^^rf\tjT «Tf%^ khurdiya mdlik, 1208. 

^T7fT?T khurdiha, 1208, 1214. 

xg^Tf^T Wife's khurdiha mdlik, 

1208. 
^^•^f^ khurdonti, 888. 
^^O^iwft khurdauni, 888. 
4^<»^ khurni, 27. 

WT:iTr MtM79«, 59, 60, 306, 369, 481. 
^K^ni^TTT khurpiydiia, 866, 867. 
^T^i^ Mi«}7>j, 61, 306, 328, 456, 

481, 486, 867. 
^^<5T khurpha, 1073. 
^^^TMMr^«a, 1272. 
m^^TT khurha, 1172. 
^TT Mwm, 90. 
^gr^ fcAwn', 90. 
^^khush, 1040. 
^■8!T*T khushJca, 1272. 
^!H«<«?1 #t^fT khmliki thika, 1210. 
^^ 'aff^ A/*MsA A/wsrrrf, 1040. 
^^T^*^ MmsAj, 788, 1040, 1272. 
^^•^^<J Mmsbakat, \209d. 



INDEX. 



XXXUl 



khushari, 1073. 
'^SI^T khm, 888, 891. 
^^ khanf, 79,6, 1141. 
^ khania, 213, 223, 224, 239, 
°^ 330, 363, 414, 431, 464, 469, 

489, 538, 609, 932, 1142, 1419. 
#^ ^WT khania balla, 319/. 
^e> khunti, 32, 258, 260, 330, 
°^ 348, 401, 489, 573, 595, 621, 

932, 1008, 1010-, 1039, 1194. 
^■^ khunra, 361. 
^*^ khunri, 361. 
T|:« khum, 713. 
Tf/C khur, 383. 
IH^T khura, 13, 78. 
'^'F^^ kJiekhsa, 1073. 
^T?.^! khendhra, 637. 
^'^iTT kJiendhra, 731. 
^srm khenra, 637. 
<5"4H kJiepan, 289. 
^■^^ kheruka, 740. 
^'5^ kheruki, 740. 
^WT?; khelai, 1198. 
^^•<;t kJiesra, 959. 
'J^lft A/^esan, 959, 999, 999». 
^■rr kherha, 8, 965. 
^ff Mer/ii, 820, 1404. 
^^ khenrhi, 8. 

%^ aftfTJT^ kherhi joraeb, 1404. 
%a Me<, 69, 356, 797, 798, 827, 

832, 834, 850, 981, 1006, 1090, 

1120, 1435. 
^?r 'TTrK kliet pathar, 832. 
%»T -^'^XK kliet badhdr, 832. 
%?r *ft3j7^ khet bhojni, 1435. 
$tT vt^ khet bhoj, 1435. 
%»r fl're khet mas, 999. 
^s TTS kJiet mdsu, 999. 
%ift Me!!«, 832, 1456. 
%<f^ ^rft kheti bari, 832. 



^ift^ v:^v^ kheti bhawani, 1456. 

^srr kliena, 76. 

^T Mep, 646. 

%^TA^(M»a, 235 (footnote). 

%Tr kheha, 8. 

^^T khainclia, 44. 

W^*^ khainchi, 288. 

^^ Mamj, 1023, 1026. 

^ifTT khaiya, 1269. 

't^ Ma«>, 1073. 
• ■^TX khaira, 1074. 

^KTW khairdt, 1209c^, 1431. 

^ft /£Aam, 1074. 

'S'?«r kliaihan, 844, 1188. 

^"tX^ klwincha, 984. 

^"IfwT khoinchim, 741, 941. 

^'^T«rr Moiya, 290, 984, 1012, 1031. 

«all-^r kho'iha, 290. 

latir^ khoeehha, 741. 

^^^ khonkhri, 984. 

^"jl^-^ r khongha, 1172. 

<jT'<<«i1 khonchri, 77. 

^tsn^T khojra, 1076. 

^aigi klwtla, 764. 

Xsfts*^ khotli, 241. 

^^TiiT khorna, 441, 

^tf^ khm'ni, 441. 

irt^R; khodai, 1431. 

^<^T«tT khadauna, 303. 

litsp^T khoncha, 459, 467. 
^T?TfT khompra, 879, 1234. 
^ siT n-' fl khompri, 71, 879, 1234. 
^t^TT khobdr, 1125. 
^■^j^Tirr khobhna, 40. 
^"T^iK khobhar, 1125. 
^"^^ix khobliari; 1125. 
WTf*reT khobhiya, 1272. 
^'tXT'IT khorna, 303, 441, 705. 
^"^^liJT^ khornathi, 441. 
^rhci^ AAonii, 303, 441, 705. 



XXXIV 



INDEX. 



?rtV*n khm-ma, 1272. 
»atT«'?T khorha, 1172. 
^tKt^ khordki, 1209c. 
< d1 ^l?l« i^ kkorasdni, 1 073. 
^" i T mr^ sj^lf khorasani jawain, 

1073. 
^tft^fT khoriya, 511. 
^1<!l*»^r kholakrd, 582. 
^=l^nrf^ kholn, 990, 1031. 
^>^r^ kholni, 520, 582. 
^rt^^TJlT kholnaiya, 232. 
irf^P^ftTT kholmariya, 523. 
la lirf.ij r khoka, 97, 261. 
^^f¥«rr khohiya, 290, 1012, 1031. 
^ft^A^a, 888, 891, 1167. 
i^tV^ khoiya, 1272. 
^ aT^g! khonichh, 621. 
^^^T khokha, 1487. 
TrtJ^ khoglr, 226. 
?gf^ khonch, 269 
liif^ khonchi, 41. 
lifer khonchha, 741. 
^tw M&y, 1286. 



ijtf AAor, 1141. 

<siT^ khonri, 361. 

^iffrr khonrlia, 8. 

^^^ khodah, 1379. 

^Vtt khona, 721. 

^"V^ /c/jo»i^«, 1248. 

^T<r A-AoOTi9, 60, 79, 895, 1234. 

^"fT % ^r'lFsPl' Mom^ Ae mathni, 895. 

'ffTfl' kJiompi, 895. 

^*m kJiohhan, 40. 

^Vt Mo6A», 1183. 

^^ /t/wm, 1125. 

^rt^ /:^r, 143, 284, 368, 713, 893, 

1461. 
^KT Mora, 83, 284, 308, 690,713. 
^"YR'^ khorish, 1209c. 
?rrC^ hhm-i, 680. 

?rt^ kiwi, 22, 97, 156, 730, 933. 
^rNrr khola, 97, 261. 
^t^ kholi, 223, 22. 
^1^ klwh, 891. 
^T^ khauk, 1461. 
T^^K khaukar, 1477. 



U ^ 9^ U 



inx g'ffl«, 1084. 

^jiTZT gangta, 794. 

Vf^lxiKI gangtaha, 794. 

;n^JiTft?n^ gangtiyaha, 794. 

iTTT^ gangti, 794. 

juPtT g'fl!g^>'«, 693,711. 

^jn^a ^a^n, 304, 432, 713, 786. 

snrs^ 4<ii^ gagri kewdl, 786. 

JTf: graw^r, 788. 

ir^=2 gangat, 794, 1266. 

If ^TIK grawgr barar, 788. 

11^ f^^f^ g'awf)' sikast, 788. 

3i^T ganga, 1451, 1456. 

i^^T^ gangak, 1451. 



sri^T 5fw ganga jal, 1451. 

TWT 'T?; 5^fi!»5'a >wai, 1456. 

JT^ S'ocA, 423. 

ir^^ gachhuli, 814. 

JI31 ^ay, 154, 471, 474, 477, 582, 

711, 1490, 1491, 1492. 
Jl^^fT gajra, 1073. 
Tliji^v*?!- gajpati, 977. 
JrejnnrT gofpatta, 975. 
Jiaj'il* gajbak, 102. 
J|a).«(TJl gajbag, 102, 224. 
JTSiT gfo^ar, 826, 959. 
JloJT ■^oit g'«ya>- Ja/ar, 959. 
it^K MHX gajar masar, 959. 



INDEX. 



XXXV 



iT4i"<.l gajra, 1073, 
ir<»)»\KI gajrauta, 1144. 
Jrenrr^ gajrauti, 1144. 
»laj«<ji^ gajwdh, 646. 
»I«l'^ gajhi, 144. 
ToTT gaja, 959. 
JmT^ gajanr, 798. 
TSJl'f I gajara, 40. 
"fajT ^rsrr g'*?;'* S«j;'«, 959. 
jfioi^fT ganjiya, 227. 
3T^ gajur, 1001. 
ira §'««;', 224, 585. 
JT^ ^Hi.oj^ grewy ajphjud, Appen- 
dix, 2a. 
irw f%<rn: ganj sitdra, 585. 
irrr ^ato, 472, 1272. 
jrft gra^ifj, 498. 
jf^rfz ganthaut, 1480. 
j |3 | < r gathaura, 770. 
Vf^^^T ganrkassa, 236. 
»lf^f%^ garkilK, 258. 
ir ^«J | ^l gargara, 473. 
iTf^ gfarm, 365, 919, 1183. 
^^^'3T ganrmekha, 932. 
^f^ <. cfc a v ganrarkatta, 915. 
jfl^^TT s^arm, 1074. 
^^flTX ganrsdr, 1008. 
sffi^ ganrsi, 86. 
3T3V^^ garharo, 106. 
ir^^^^ garhar, 1075. 
^rfl'^K S'awrAar, 1183. 
^i^'-^o'^f garharua, 1183. 
71^'^t garha, 849. 
i\^^ gandhi, 1479. 
tt ^ t J^ gardri, 595. 
ireiT ^arar, 1074, 1075, 1183. 
ir^^ gardri, 940. 
n^T^ ganrdri, 62, 832, 833. 
»ffT9 ganrds, 86. 
if^f^ gar dm, 86. 



TT^K