Skip to main content

Full text of "Tallis's history and description of the Crystal Palace, and the Exhibition of the World's Industry in 1851;"

See other formats




jj^1924 073 025 979_f 



Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

E-j-||-!KL'mlhyreBiT,lr^ f lom j DajWej-i'uol ,pL !i, lvi,i),,Jl 



DEDICATED TO H.E.H. PEINCE ALBEET, K.G., etc., etc., etc. 






fepitinn iif t|f Wtstlh Mni^ in i85i; 











Abuses in the Customs . 
Agricnitural Seeds .... 
Agricultural Steam-Engines . 
Albert (H.R.H. Prince), Anecdote of 

• ■ Reply to Lord Camden 

Alliance of Science and Industry 
Alpaca .... 
Amber .... 
Amber Manufactures 
Ancient and Modem Cities 
Antiquity of Fur Clotting 

Arab's Tent (illustrate'^ 

Aristotle's Account of Silk 

A.mott's Stoves 

Artists' Implements 

Astrorama, by Matthews 

Axistralian Printing 

Austrian Imperial Printing-Office 

Printing . 


Tyranny . 

Automaton Toys 

Bacon, Lord, Quotation from 

Bacchante, by Clessinger 

Bacchus Reclining, by Nendni 

Barberini Yase 

Barege Shawls 

Bavarian Toys 

Beer .... 

Bird of Paradise Feathers 

Blanqui, Letters (continued), Nos. 6 and 7 

— = ■ 8, 9, and 10 

Boar-hunt, in Gutta-Percha 
Bohemian Glass {illustrated) 
Toys . 

Bombyx Mori 

Bridge at Chepstow, Model of 

Selby do. . 

■ over the Dnieper 

Britannia Bridge, by Stephenson 
British Guiana 

Silk Manufactory 

British Toys .... 
Bronze Chasing 
Brougham, Lord, and the Great Exhibition 

Caledonian Boar 
Caoutchouc, Production of 
' Vulcanizing of 

Carib House, Model of 
Carpet, Ladies' 
Cassava Bread 
Caviare . 
Caxton, Printing . 


. 20 

. 83 

. 18 

. 97 

. Ill 

. 194 

. 91 

. 250 

. 248 

. 46 

. 21 

. 10 

. 135 

. 256 

. 169 

. 151 

. 245 

. 234 

. 58 

. 228 

. 9 

. 60 

. 10 

. 199 

. 33 

. 33 

. 186 

. 262 

. 10 

. 84 

. 32 

. 14 

. 58 

. 82 

. 59 

. 10 

. 257 

. 140 

. 139 

. 140 

. 140 

. 128 

. 360 

. 12 

. 66 

. 96 

. 171 

. 188 

. 73 

. 78 

. 131 

. 148 

. 129 

. 88 

. 229 


Child Sleeping ....... 34 

Chinese Pipes 252 

Chromotype . . , 232 

Classical Literature 195 

Coal, Large Mass of 98 

Cobden and the Corn-Laws . . . . .17 

Coffee and Tea 84 

Colliery, Model of 136 

Colour in the Decorative Arts .... 219 
Comic Chandelier 12 

Electric Telegraph 146 

Conjuring Toys 11 

Cow-Tree Juice 130 

Criticism after Poetry 1 14 

Cupid and Venus, by Jaquet 33 

by Bonnassieux 33 

Curious Facts 144 

Custom-House Vexations 20 

Cutlery 160 

Decorative Furniture 203 

Deer- Stalker and Dog, Stephenson {illustrated) . 34 
Design for National Monument . . . .112 

Digby Wyatt 208 

Digression on the Fair Sex 15 

Dodo, the 189 

Dolls' Dresses 11 

Dying Gladiator, by Costoli 33 

Educational Adaptation of the Great Exhibition . 97 

Egyptian Embalmers 187 

Embossed Leather 3 

from the British Museum . . 3 

Specimens of, by Dulud, &c. . 4 

Enamelled Slate 6 

English and Continental Manufactures compared . 194 

and Foreign Art compared . . . .42 

— Factories compared . . .64 

Eothen, Opinions of 197 

Ethnographical Models 192 

European Workmen 67 

Eurydice, by Marchesi "34 

Exhibition, a School of Industry .... 200 

in the Champs Elysees .... 241 

of Industry at the Louvre . . . 241 

Post-Office 97 

at Munich . . . , . .242 

Exposition of National Industry at St. Cloud . . 235 

Facey's Vertical Orrery 148 

Faithful Messenger, by Geefs . . . • . 33 

Falls of Niagara, Model of 142 

Feathers 30 

FStes of Industry 237 

FSte of Liberty 239 

Fine Arts Court 158 

Fire-Alarm 149 

■• Arms 51 


Fire-extinguishing Ceiling . . » . . • 147 

Flock Paper, &c 5 

Form, in the Decorative Arts 208 

Fourdrinier's Safety Apparatus .... 138 

Fox's Magnetised Balance 1*6 

French and English Workmen compared . . .68 

Critique on English Ladies . . . .15 

Pipes 252 

Taste 48 

Toys 11 

Fur and Feather Trophy 14" 

Feathers 20 

Fur-clad Animals, vast Variety of . . .25 

Trade, its Origin and History . . . - 23 

Geographical Instructor, by Richards . . • 245 
German Pipes 251 

Workmen '8 

Girl and Cupids, by Leeb 33 

Gleanings and Reminiscences 94 

(continued) . . • 143 

Globe by Kumner 247 

of the Moon 246 

Globes 245 

Gold and Silver Workmanship . . . .66 

Gothic Arch of Scagliola 7 

Graphic Delineation 149 

Gutta-Percha 79 

Gull's Hornbook 249 

Gypsum Carvings 135 

Hardware Trophy 167 

Highland Mary, by Spence 37 

Historical Sketch of Her Majesty the Queen (illus- 
trated) 53 

H.R.H. Prince Albert (illus- 

trated) 57 

Homeric Virgins 174 

Hops 84 

Hudson's Bay Company 23 

Hummingbird Toys 11 

India-rubber Air-Gim ... . . 146 
Indian Figures, Models of 192 

Handicrafts 72 

Hunter 24 

Snuffboxes 255 

Toys 10 

Isinglass 88 

Isle of Wight, Model of 247 

Italian and English Sculpture compared . . .48 

Silk 258 

Wonder and American Ingenuity . . .99 

Italy under the Austrian Flag 60 

Ivoiy Carvings 150 

Jackson and Son, Paper Manufacturers ... 2 

Jennings and Bettridge, ditto 2 

Jewels and Glass Beads 47 

Johnson, Dr., on Smoking 248 

Kid Gloves from Spain 15 

Lady's Work-Table 3 

Leathern Tapestries at Hinchinbrook ... 4 
Leather Hangings at Anne Boleyn's Tower . . 4 
Letting the Cat out of the Bag .... 159 
Little Nell and her Grandfather . . . .38 

Life-Boats 125 

Preservers 127 

Lightning-Conductors for Ships .... 127 
Local E^bltions 241 


Lord Byron, Lines on Smoking . ■ • -249 
Love Triumphant, by Simoms («K««<ra<erf) . . ^» 

Lucifer'Matches gj 

Lyons Silks *''**'*' r\ 
Machinery Ber«M Workmen °^ 

Maltese Contributions •••••■ , q, 

Figures modelled in Wax . . • • i»^ 

Mapping Model ^], 

M'Callam and Co 

Meat Biscuit 

Mechanical and Magnetic Toys 
Metallic Lava 

. 87 

. 249 

. 10 

. 7 

. 170 

Mineral Produce of Spain . . ■ " « • i" 
Milton and his Daughters, by Legrew (tUiutrated) . do 

Models 13° 

Model Ships and Steam-Boats . . • .119 

Houses, additional Remarks on . . .108 

Mohair ^ 

Monk and Boy, by Pascal 34 

Moyen Age, Ships of the 124 

Mount Sentis, Model of 247 

Narcissus, by Theed (illustrated) . . . .34 

Nautical i)epartment ...... 119 

Negro's Head, in Bronze, by Cordier . . .33 

Nicholay and Son, Furs 21 

North-west Traders 24 

Notabilia 96 

Oliver Twist, by Stephenson (illustrated) . . 38 

Orestes, by Bessen (illustrated) . . . .33 

Origin of Expositions 235 

Ormolu Cot 3 

Ornamental Design 41 

Orphan Children at Prayer 34 

Orreries ........ 245 

Osmanzone ...... .88 

Ostrich Feathers 31 

Ourang-outan, sleeping 189 

Ouse Viaduct ........ 141 

Owen Jones ........ 219 

Paper-hangings ....... 205 

Staining ....... 4 

Papier M^cbe 2 

Method of Preparing .... 1 

Patriarchal Habits 19 

Perkins, Jacob 183 

Perpetual Motion 184 

Feriphan 245 

Philosophical Toys . 9 

Pictures in the Exhibition . . . . .156 
Pianoforte Case, in Papier M&che .... 2 

Pins 167 

Playfair's Lectures 194 

Planetarium, by Newton 245 

Pluto and Proserpine 36 

Poker Drawing 150 

Poet-Laureate, Lines on the Queen . , . .57 
Popularity of the Great Exhibition . . . .94 

Porphyry Vase 150 

Portrait Painting 52 

in Queen Elizabeth's Time . . 53 

Portraits of the Queen and Prince Albert . . .53 

Prse-Raphaelites 52 

Preserved Meats 85 

Milk 86 




Preparations from Blood 88 

Preserved Vegetables 88 

Primitive Canoe 130 

Printing for the Blind 100 

in France 233 

in Gold 232 

Invention of . > . . . . 226 

Prodigal Son, by Theed 34 

Prussian Toys 12 

Psyche, by Fraiken 33 

Piu'chasee at the Great Exhibition . . . .98 

Pyramid, Model of 51 

Queen, the Colossal Statue of {illitatrated, . . 35 
Queeii's Drawing-Room {illustrate^ . . . 145 
Railway Printing Ticket 143 

Travelling 45 

Ransome's Artificial Stone 8 

Reynard the Pox 190 

Rhubarb Champagne ...... 84 

Ribbons 261 

Rocking-Horses . . . . . . .13 

Romance in the Russian Department . . .95 
Romoli's Scagliola Candelabra .... 8 

Rowcey and Co 152 

Royal Children in the character of the Seasons, by 

Thorneycroft {illustrated) 34 

Royal Commission granted 6 

Yachts, Models of 123 

Samson bursting his Bonds, by Legrew . . .36 

Savery, Captain 181 

Scagliola 7 

Mosaic 8 

Science, Infinity of 196 

Sculpture (continued) 32 

Sea Slugs 88 

Sheffield Plating 170 

Silks from Van Diemen's Land .... 255 

Silkworm, Varieties of 258 

Snuff 84 

Boxes 253 

Scotch 254 

Soap 174 

Sonnet to the Queen ^8 

Spain and Turkey 1^ 

Spanish BuU-fights (2;/tw^a<e(2) . . . .193 

Cloth 15 

Figures, Models of, in Terra-Cotta . . 193 

Workmen 71 


Spiers and Son, Paper Manufacturers ... 2 
Spii'it of Science unveiling Truth {illustrated) . . 36 

Spitalfields Trophy 147 

Startled Nymph, by Behnes 33 

Steam, early Application of 180 

Steam-Engine, Reflections on 45 

Engine, Watts 182 

Substances used as Food ...*.. 82 

Swiss Toys 12 

Taxidermy 187 

{illustrated) 190 

Tea 228 

Teaching of the Great Exhibition . . . .43 
Telescopes . . . .■ . , . . 243 

Test of Civilisation 176 

The Hours leading forth the Horses of the Sun, by 

Gibson 37 

The Plough and the Press 46 

The Stitcher 99 

The Times 50 

Number of Copies 228 

Tobacco • . . . .248 

Toledo Blades IS 

Toys ......... 9 

Turkey Carpets 16 

Turkish Pipes 253 

Valentia Silks 15 

Vase, Colossal, &om Sweden {illustrated) . . 150 

Vatican Printing-Office 229 

Venetian Tapestries of Leather .... 4 
Victoria Regia Cot, in Papier Mache ... 3 
Victory, by Ranee {illustrated) . . . .35 

Vincenzio Monti, Bust of 34 

Voltaire in the Crystal Palace . . . .44 

Uranographic Apparatus 245 

Watt, James, Account of 180 

Wedgwood, Josiah, Account of ... . 185 
Wellesley, Statue of {illustrated) . . . .35 
Wellington, Statue of {illwlrated) . . . .35 

Whewell's Lecture 113 

Worcester, Marquis of 181 

Working Men 179 

Womum's Lecture 39 

Worsted Manufacture 88 

Wurtemberg Toys 13 

Young Girl at the Spring {illustrated) , . .35 
Xulopyrography . . .... 159 


VOL. 1 1. 


Main Atenue, looking East {to face Title.) 
Achilles Wounded (by Fraecaroli) . . .33 
Applegarth's Printing Machine . . . 227 

Bohemian Glass 59 

• Californian Gilt Tea-service . . . . "~ 41 

Canadian Timber Trophy 135 

Captive Love (by Fraiken) . . . .33 
Carved Cabinet, in Rosewood .... 202 
Colossal Porphyry Vase from Sweden . . 150 

Companion Chair 202 

Cotta Chimney-piece 202 

Deer-Stalker and Dog 34 

Dressing-Case (by Guyton) . . .47 

Ebony Casket (by Asprey) . . . .47 

Groups of Arms 69 

Immense Jar from Toboso . . . .150 

Infant Bacchus 38 

Love Triumphant (by Simonis) . . . .38 

Madonna 34 

Main Avenue 14 

looking West .... 1 

East, No. 3 . . .58 

— ; West, No. 4 . . .32 

Milton and his Daughters (by Legrew) , ; 35 

Mirror Frame, in bronze 202 

Model of a decorated Gothic Church . .136 

of breaking in the Horse . . .33 

of Church of St. Nicholas, Hamburg . 136 

Models of Mexican Traders ..... 193 

Narcissus (by Theed) 34 

Nymph preparing for the Bath . . .35 

Oliver Twist 38 

Orestes (by Bissen) 33 

Ormolu Cot 3 

Painted Window-Blinds 
Pianoforte (by Kirkman) 

Prince Albert, Portrait of (Winterhalter) . 
Queen, Her Majesty the. Colossal Statue of 

Drawing-Koom of 

Portrait of 

Rebecca (by Theed) . 

Resting after a Run 

Revolving Bookcase 

Rosamunda .... 

Royal Children as the Seasons (by Thorney- 


Scene m a Mexican Courtyard . 
Science unveiling Truth . 
Silver Breakfast-service . 
Vases (by Gerrard) 

Spanish Bull-fights 

Stove (by Carr and Roberts) 


Taxidermy .... 
The Suppliant .... 
Truth (by Simonis) . 
Tunisian Tent .... 
Vase of Agate and Lapis Lazuli 
Lapis Lazuli 

Victory (by Ranee) 
Walnut-wood Cabmet 
Wellesley, Marquis of, Statue of the 
Wellington, Duke of. Statue of the 
Young Girl at the Spring . 
Youth resting after the Chase . 



































eg 5 









EiHiBiTOES — Magnus's enamelled slate — scagliola — mode op peepaeation — dolan's 


Among the numerous articles displayed at the Exhibition, there were few which, in theii- 
manufactured or finished state, were more attractive to the sight, or which had higher 
claims to the admiration of the visitor, than those formed of the material known as 
papier-mAche. Whether in the shape of domestic furniture, to which it has recently been 
applied, or in articles of general domestic utility, its beauty and agreeableness are 
equally striking. Indeed, such is the nature of the material — so ductile, so light, and 
so economical — that it appears adapted for almost universal application. Admitting a 
polish almost equal to that of glass itself, and receiving colours nearly as hfight as those 
capable of being placed upon canvas, it furnishes a most attractive surface alike to the 
industrial skill of the humble artisan and to the genius of the artist. 

The merit of inventing this beautiful and useful material is claimed by our French 
neighbours, and the manufacture of the article is carried on to a great extent in Paris ; 
but in the application of this substance to articles of general domestic utility and orna- 
ment, it cannot be disputed that we are far ahead at present, not only of France, but of 
the entire Continent. Indeed, to such an extent" is it carried out, that it may almost be 
considered an industrial art peculiarly our own; and for papier-mache work Birmingham 
stands unrivalled. There is an active competition between the English and -Ffench work 
in France itself; indeed, so keenly is the comj^etition felt by our neighbours, that they 
impose an exceedingly heavy duty . upon its' importation, amounting almost to a proi 

VOL. II. ^ 


liibition upon the low-priced articles. The manufacture of papier- raSche articles was, 
we believe, first introduced into Birmingham by Messrs. Jennings and Bettridge, of 
Halkin-street, Knightsbridge— their principal manufactory being at Birmingham— about 
half a century since. At this stage of the manufacture tea-trays only were made. The 
inventor and patentee of the manufacture of tea-trays in papier-mache was Mr. Clay, of 
Birmingham. The firm has, from the commencement, gradually proceeded to develop 
the capabihties of this material by adapting it to new purposes, until the variety of articles 
now produced is almost innumerable. Articles of furniture made from it, such as chairs, 
tables, sofas, cabinets, secretaires, screens, vases, and even pianofortes, were displayed at 
the Exhibition, with writing-desks, work-boxes, papeteries, inkstands, &c., in almost 
endless variety of style and decoration. 

In addition to these purposes, the material has been applied for scrolls, foliages, 
cornices, mouldings, and other articles of internal decoration. Saloons and halls are de- 
corated with panels of papier-m&che, in a style which has all the beautiful effects of 
enamelling ; and under ordinary circumstances has been found to be remarkably durable. 
Admirable specimens of panel-work, formed of this substance, are also to be seen in 
the saloons of the.Europa, Asia, Africa, Hindostan, and Oriental steam-packets j but we 
question whether the material is adapted to bear the constant wear and tear caused by 
the jarring and shaking of steam-power and weather combined. Mr. C. Bielefield, of 
Wellingtourstreet, Strand, has, by his skill and enterprise, done much for the extended 
use of this material for all kinds of ornamental purposes, whether required for flat sur- 
faces, or in the most elaborate picture and glass frames. In the manufacture of papier- 
mache, the paper used is similar in texture to ordinary blotting-paper, but of a grey 
colour. Prior to using it, it is well saturated with flour and glue, mixed with water, in 
about equal proportions, and is then laid on the mould of the article intended to be 
produced. These moulds are of iron, brass, or copper. The mould, coated with the 
first layer of paper, is then dried at a heat of 90 or 100 degrees Fahr., for twelve 
hours. A careful smoothing by a file follows, after which another deposit of paper is 
made. The processes of drying and smoothing are successively repeated with each ad- 
ditional layer of paper, until the article assumes the required strength and thickness 
some commodities having been made of six inches in thickness. An ordinary tea-trav' 
of a quarter of an inch in thickness, takes about thirty sheets of paper, or ten layers' 
When the newly-formed article is taken from the mould, the several parts are planed' 
filed, and trimmed, so as to be correct and level, A process of " stoving" next follows' 
in which the varnish is laid on, and brought to a smooth, hard, and brilliant surface' 
This completed, the most delicate portion of the manufacture commences. The article is 
coated with several layers of shell-lac varnish, coloured, which, after being hardened by 
a heat of 280 degrees, are scraped level with implements of various degrees of smoothness 
1 he different varnishmgs, with the subsequent operations, are carried on for a period 
varying frgm twelve to eighteen days, according to the purpose for which the article is 
required, Ibe exqmsite surface which characterizes the finished goods is a distinguish- 
ing feature of this material. It is produced by manual polishing with rotten stone and 
oil ; but the finish of the articles— the peculiar briUiancy which lends such a freshness to 
the painting-is produced independently of rotten stone or other powder, by the process 
of « handing" alone. Amoijg the largest exhibitors of this article were Messrs. Jennings 
and Bettridge, Messrs. Jackson and Son, of Rathbone-place, Messrs. M'Callam and 
Hodgson, Mr. Lane, and Messrs. Spiers and Son, of Oxford Among the spedmens 
shown by Messrs. Jennings and Bettridge, is perhaps the most extraordfnar^ arSe ye 
produced minis material-a case for a pianoforte, with music-stool and canterbury 
designed m the Italian style, and treated ^ith great simplicity of decoratil; ^he onfy 


Hn^Byeiliy G Grcitbich Tram a. Uiavang "b^BIMaai 



Engraredby GC3rMibocl^frGm3."Ji^naif"byliMaBcm 




ornament employed being y&riously-tinted pearl, the effect of which on the jet-black of 
the case is very rich, and at the same time exceedingly chaste. 

The "Victoria Regia" cot, designed by Mr. J. Bell, sculptor, and highly wrought 
in gold and colours with emblematical devices, attracted considerable notice, but was 
not to our taste, the colours being gaudy and cold, and the shape by no means graceful. 
There were also — A " multum in uno" loo-table on a new principle, combining baga- 
telle-board, chess, draughts, &c., ornamented with inlaid pearl and gold. A lotus work- 
table, designed by Mr. Bell, fitted on a new principle, and decorated in a style appro- 
priate to the form. A lady's work-table, of a shape suggested by the celebrated vase of 
Benvenuto Cellini, richly inlaid with pearl and gilt. " The day-dreamer" chair, designed 
by Mr. H. Fitz-Cook, and ornamented with figures, flowers, &e., allegorically arranged, 
had a curious and novel appearance ; but saying that, we have said all. The figures, 
emblematical of sleep, dreams, good and bad, were too fanciful and too large, and the 
colour, generally, was cold and uncomfortable, A " legere" chair, inlaid with pearl, was 
remarkable for its light elegance combined with strength. A " Prie-Dieu" chair. A 
chair, styled Elizabethan, was more properly after the form of the period of William III. 
Several trays, including the "Pacha's" tray, ornamented in gold and colours, 58 inches 
in diameter.. The contributions of Messrs. Spiers and Son, of Oxford, consisted of tables, 
cabinets, desks, work-boxes, albums,. portfolios, waiters, tea-caddies, ^c, ornamented with 
views of the colleges, public buildings, college gardens, and other objects of interest 
in the University and its neighbourhood. We noticed in them endeavours after a truer 
and less meretricious style of ornamentation than usually prevails. As the taste of the 
Oxford people seems to run in a contrary direction to that of the usual purchasers of 
this description of goods, this firm has taken up the ornamentation of papier-mache in 
a new style. Instead of adopting the usual subjects of birds, flowers, Chinese land- 
scapes, arabesques, or other less pleasing styles, they conceived that picturesque repre-, 
sentations of architectural and landscape subjects, treated in an artist4ike manner, to 
which other ornament should be subservient, would be equally interesting to many per- 
sons, equally popular, and more conducive to the diffusion of a sound taste. Messrs, 
Spiers immortalised their native and most learned city in every possible point of view, 
and upon every possible variety of article, We had Oxford from the fields, and Oxford 
from the river, Oxford in the streets, Oxford colleges, Oxford balls, Oxford staircases, 
and Oxford seals. These paintings, which were scattered over desks, tables, secretaires,, 
and work-boxes, were all beautifully executed. 


The specimens of Embossed, or Helievo Leather, in the Crystal Palace, although 
exhibited but by three firms, two French and one English, identical in their manu- 
facture and mode of treatment, were of sufficient importance to demand a distmct notice. 
From all that we can collect in reference to the earliest history of the art, it is clearly 
to be traced as far back as 900 years before Christ, the British Museum possessmg 
some scraps and pieces of gilt leather straps taken from mummies, upon which are 
relieved figurements of King Orsokon adoring the god Bhem, and others of Amouii Ea 
Harsaphes Italy, Spain, and Flanders, centuries ago, were eminent for their relieved 
leather, the flat or groundwork of which was usually gilded, silvered or coloured; and 
recently Germany, France, and more especially Great Britain, took the lead m this de, 
partment of art manufacture. An able writer, while dwelhng with much gusto upon 
this subject, says, the distinct relief in which the patterns could be embossed, the 
brilliancy of colour of which the leather was susceptible, the high burnish which could 
be given to the gold, the durability, ease of appUcation, and resistance of damp, rendered 


the material peculiarly fitted for panels and hangings. It was a warm and gorgeous 
covering for the walls, affording infinite scope for art, taste, workmanship, and heraldic 
emblazonment, and the exclusiveness of wealth, and was therefore largely used in tlie 
decoration of palaces and baronial halls. At Blenheim, Hinchinbrook House, xNorwicli 
Palace, Knockton Hall, a,t Lord Scarborough's, and in many private collections, leather 
tapestries are still to be found, preserving the utmost brilliancy of colour and gilding. 
Some of the leather tapestries at Hinchinbrook, it is said, bore the name ot JLitian. 
About 1531, or 1533, Henry VIII. built a manor-house near Eastham Church, m Jissex, 
with a high, square tower, that during her sort of year of probation Anne BoxCyn might 
enjoy the prospect of the Boyal Park at Greenwich. This tower had hangings of the 
most gorgeous gold leather, which remained until fifty years since, when the house 
coming into the hands of a proprietor with no especial love for the memory of the bluff 
Harry, nor the sad hauntings of the fate of Anne Boleyn, nor the old art and workman- 
ship of leather decoration, but a clear perception that in so many yards of gilt leather, 
there must be some weight of real gold, had the tapestries taken down, sent to the gold- 
smith's furnace, and some £60 worth of pure gold gathered from the ashes. In the 
French department. No. 1202, M. Dulud, of Paris, exhibited several pieces of tapestry 
and ornamental hangings in embossed leather, which appeared identical in subject and 
the method of their preparation with those of Mr. Leake in the Fine Art Court. He 
likewise showed two elbow,chairs, lined with embossed leather, and other articles of 
furniture similarly decorated, amongst which a cabinet was the best, and which served 
admirably to shew the fitness of leather, where the appearance of elaborate carving is 
required. Opposite to these was No. 164, A.A. Despreaux, a collection of Venetian 
leathers of similar pretensions, but differing as widely as possible in their result. The 
patterns selected as models are well known by us to be very admirably adapted for the 
purpose ; but whether to disguise the original source, or from inefficiency in the opera- 
tives, nothing could have been more impotent than the conclusion, and scarcely anything 
more execrable in taste, than the method in which they were daubed with colour. All 
drawing, ajl grace, and all notions of chromatic harmony were cast to the winds. If 
these in 9,ny way resembled the decorated leathers at the period of their decline and 
ultimate abandonment, we can scarcely wonder at the total extinction of this branch of 
art manufacture in those countries which were eager to appreciate it in its palmy days. 
Mr. Leake's (of Warwick-street, Golden-square) collection was in the Fine Art Court. 
To this exhibitor's perseverance we are indebted for the revival of this branch of art 
manufacture in this country; and we do but justice in stating, that the models from 
which he has hitherto made selections are of the' very best and most classic styles. 


The following general account of the arts of paper-staining and hanging, is abridged, 
with slight alteration, from Grant's interesting little volume. The World and its Work- 
shops : — The art of paper-staining and paper-hanging has now become one of the most 
interesting and useful branches of industry, wliecher viewed in relation to the amount 
of skilled labour and capital employed, or the elegance, refinement, and convenience 
which it supplies to our social wants. Paper-hangings are of comparatively modern date, 
being originally manufactured as a cheap imitation of the rich stuffs and tapestries used 
by the wealthy and great in the coverings of the walls and wainscotings of their apart- 
ments. The French, we believe, were the first to bring them into general use. 

Paper-hangings may be divided, for convenience sake, into three branches — the flock, 
the metal, and the coloured. Each of these appears to have been invented at different 
times, in imitation of a material then much in vogue, as, for instance, the flock to imitate 


the tapestries, the coloured to imitate the gilt leather which the Spaniards hrought 
into generfl.1 use, and, lastly, the metal, which was intended as an economical substitute 
for pain'^ed decorations. Beckman, in his History of Inventions, states that flock paper 
was first manufactured in England, by one Jerome Lanyer, in the reign of Charles I, j 
the Dictionary of Commerce, of 1733, under the head of dominoterie, or marble paper, 
such as is used by the old bookbinders, gives a minute description of the mode of 
printing the latter, and cites statutes to regulate the industry, dated 1586, in which rules 
are given as to what kind of presses are to be used by the dominotiers, and prohibiting 
them, under heavy penalties, from printing with types. Here we catch a glimpse of the 
keen-eyed vigilance of the Romish church, which dreaded the progress of the Reforma- 
tion, then spreading fast and far into every region of human thought. Prom the pre- 
ceding relation, it is fair to infer that block-printing was first practised in France. It is 
evident that the art of paper-staining and paper-hanging was carried on in this countrv 
to a considerable extent, from the time of Charles I. down to Queen Anne ; and its 
subsequent history may be traced, with cotnparative accuracy, by the decorations adopted 
by the nobility and gentry, several of which are still preserved, either on the walls of 
their apartments, or in the works devoted to the illustration of their mansions. In the 
year 1712, the tenth of Anne, a duty of Ifrf. per square yard was imposed on the 
manufacture of stained-paper; and some of the flock-paper, one hundred years old, 
resembles, in every respect, the modern material. The art of flocking, in fact, was 
disused, and almost lost, during a period of twenty years, and revived only about sixty 
years ago. There were formerly three modes in which paper-hangings were manu- 
factured — by printing the outline with blocks, and then colouring by hand, by 
stencilling, and by blocks alone. The first of these methods is that adopted by the 
dominotiers. The second, stencilling, is performed by cutting out either on paper, lea- 
ther, or other materials, the pattern to be represented, and then placing this on the 
proposed ground, and brushing it over with the proper colour. This mode gives an 
imperfect outline, and is seldom used, except by plasterers, to ornament coloured walls. 
The third is the mode now almost universally adopted, whereby every colour is applied 
by a separate block, according to the tints and shadows intended to be represented : 
but within the last two years a great improvement has been efiected in this mode of 
paper-staining, by using several colours on one block, which is a great saving both in 
labour and cost, besides producing a more eff'ective article at the same price. The 
Messrs. Potter, we believe, were the first to introduce this improvement, which has 
since been successfully followed up by Messrs. HinchlifF, who, on some occasions use as 
many as twenty-five colours on a single block, the effect of which, upon the labour cost 
of the article, may easily be conceived. The contributions to the Exhibition, in this 
branch of industry, were peculiarly rich and diversified ; and, as was to be expected, 
Prance, if we may be allowed such a metaphor, was the radiant star on the horizon. 
The specimens of M. Delicourt, Mader Frere, and Genoux, left our manufacturers at a 
considerable distance, as regarded the highest class of paper- staining. 

The papers in the Russian contribution were more curious than effective in style and 
execution ; in almost every respect they were inferior to those from Austria, and much 
below those of Belgium, France, and England. America, we think, was about upon a 
par with Russia in this respect. In 1754, Jackson, of Battersea, a manufacturer, pub- 
lished a pamphlet on the invention of printing in chiar'-oscuro, and its application to 
paper-hangings, which he executed in imitation of the most celebrated classic subjects ; 
and various attempts have since been made in the same path ; the last, and one of the 
boldest, is that of Jeffrey and Allen, who have used what they considered the best 
portion of the Elgin-frieze, in twenty-four feet of length. Scott, Cuthbertson, and Co., 

VOL. II. c 


showed a simple a.d handsome Tudor panelling "V^-^tTesfS7muc^^^^^^^ 
the gold upon a white ground as the P-P^™^^^"„"^^^^^^ "eans confused; 

the drawing would suggest: the border, ^i^J^^^^ ''°™P^^''' i^^u 1 in t^ieir other paper, 
much of this might be owing to the q-^-t^^ics o cdou^^^^^^^^ 

was a bold attempt at reconcdmg ^PP-'^^-^^y J^^J ^^^^^^^^^ attention, on 

was particularly elegant and lady-like, ihese patterns '^^^^''^ thp blocks The 

accou'nt of the%recision claimed ^r the manua 1^°- ^^ £- ^.t'tetor a doVen 

+pst is verv simnle, and the same part ot tne sneet oi pd,pc± lu j 4.4.„_„ 

ibws f7o,^ theVocks without slipping, or causing a ^-^^^XTwhich po's d 
was a desio-n bv Marchand, of Paris. Underneath it were two patterns, which possessea 
The property of Eng their appearance as the eye of the spectator moved, becoming 
alternatoly Lht on a dark ground, and dark on a hght ground pattern. This effect of 
« danc ng " as itls now termed, has not been introduced by this house so much as twelve 
months f;dsstm a novelty. Townshend, Paxker, and Co., had an arabesque paper 
^atSm; quite good enough for hand painting. This certainly was considered the 
Lost p aiseworthy of this class of productions. Their plain flocks on each «de of it 
gained by the contrast : for their purity and neatness of outhne, joined to the sokdity of 
the flocking, were well set off by the general deep tones of the arabesque. 


As we are on the subject of artistic decoration, we shaU now direct the attention of our 
readers to a very interesting manufacture, which, from the various elegant articles 
exhibited in its department, attracted general attention and admiration. We refer to 
imitations of costlv marbles in slate. So perfectly faithful indeed were these imitations, 
that foreign visitors especially, could with difficulty be persuaded that they were not the 
precious materials themselves. On the ground of novelty, enamelled slate stands 
unrivalled, for, until the last few years, the uses of slate were limited to the roughest 
purposes. An occasional piece had indeed been smoothed, painted, and varnished m the 
style of tea-trays, and ornamented with a flower or bird in the Birmingham fashion ; but 
it remained for Mr. Magnus, of Pimlico, to display its full capabilities, who, by means 
of a new, very simple, and inexpensive process, has succeeded in producing works of 
great magnitude and importance, calculated to effect the introduction of slate for 
household purposes on a very extensive scale. The advantages of the material as thus 
used, consist in its great strength, its lightness, as compared with that of marble, and 
its adaptability to all kinds of artistic decoration at a small cost. With regard to the 
strength of slate, it is computed to be about four times that of ordinary stone, and 
slabs eight feet long and upwards can be very safely used of thicknesses not exceeding 
half-an-inch. The extreme compactness of the material, and its perfect non-absorbent 
quaUties, render it well adapted as a lining for walls, where it may be placed without even 
plastering. In this respect it is preferable to any kind of cement. In the decoration, 
the exact method of laying on the colour is not communicated ; but the slate, after 
being coloured, is exposed for several days to a temperature of from 300 to .500 degrees 
Pahr., and the colours are thus rendered so permanent, that washstand-tops, and other 
articles used in hotels for years, have been scarcely injured by wear. In respect also of 
its peculiarly smooth and perfect surface and fine texture, it is admirably adapted for 
various ornamental and useful purposes, and grooves, mouldings, &c., are run with great 
despatch and at small cost by steam power. Among the articles displayed by Mr, 
Magnus was a bath-room of large dimensions, good design, and great beauty, wholly 
manufactured of decorated slate, and in which representations of porphyry, lapis lazuli, 
giallo antico, and other marbles and rare stones, were introduced with a pleasing and 


artistic effect. A column and vase of porphyry— a splendid billiard-table, the legs and 
frame of whichj as well as the bed, were of slate ; several inlaid table-tops, chimney- 
pieces, candelabra, &c., served to show the many purposes to which this useful, novel, 
and interesting invention is applicable. To this exhibitor the jury had no hesitation in 
awarding a prize medal, in acknowledgment of his admirable and useful contrivances 
and applications. 


The name Scagliola is derived from the Italian, where the process is said to have been 
invented more than two centuries ago, but it is now very extensively used for decorative 
purposes in England. The material consists of a coating of plaster mixed with alum 
and colour into a paste, and afterwards beaten on a prepared surface with fragments of 
marble, &c. It is greatly used as an excellent and economical means of imitating the 
finer kinds of marble, the material being as hard as marble, very durable, cold to the 
touch, and taking a perfect polish. The cement is prepared from the finest gypsum, 
broken up before calcining, and afterwards reduced to a fine powder, and passed through 
a sieve. It is then mixed with aluminous matter, and isinglass, and also with colouring 
matter, and is afterwards made up with alum ; and, as it is generally made use of only 
where the more beautiful and veined marbles are to be imitated, as many different 
colours and shades of colour must be mixed up separately as there are in the kind of 
marble to be represented. Thus prepared, it is ready to be laid on the surface intended 
to receive it, which has a rough coating of lime and hair already prepared. The different 
colours having to be laid on ai^d mixed by the hand, the work somewhat resembles that 
of the fresco painter, everything depending on the skill of the operator in imitating the 
style, beauty, and veining of the original. When the cement is laid on and has hardenedj 
the surface is prepared for polishing by rubbing it with pumice-stone, and cleansing with 
a wet sponge. It is then polished by rubbing, first with tripoli and charcoal, then with 
fqlt dipped in tripoli and oil, and lastly with oil alone. A durable lustre is thus obtained 
equal to that of marble. 

Several new specimens of scagliola were eixhibited, of great merit and beauty, by* 
various exhibitors, among whom Messrs. Stevens and Son, and Messrs. Fbancis and 
Sons, received prize medals. The same mark of distinction was also awarded to Mr. 
Denis Dolan, of Manchester, for a Gothic Arch of a new kind of scagliola. This arch 
included a clustered column, with base and capital cast in one piece, the artisan pre- 
paring a mould, and pouring into it the outer coat, a marble composition, which is 
allowed to set before the coarse cement of the interior is added, the latter being so 
contrived as not to interfere by its expansion with the outer coat, but rather insure the 
union of the two. This new process of casting scagliola work, and some contrivances in 
polishing, were noticed by the jury as worthy of consideration. 

Messrs. Oasi and Abmian exhibited a material called metallic lava, which is a plaster 
capable of being worked into a variety of patterns and colours, well adapted by its beauty, 
durability, and cheapness, for floorings and other decorative purposes ; amongst which 
was a table in the Moorish style, which was intended for the then President of the 
French Kepubhc. Two different kinds of the metallic lava were exhibited, one of which 
was white and ornamental, admitting of the application of mosaic work, and the other 
brown, and peculiarly adapted for covering roofs and terraces, lining tanks, cisterns, fish- 
ponds, brickwalls, stables, &c., where a durable, cheap, and impervious covering is required. 
Both kinds have stood the test of experience, and are known to be well adapted for 
the object they are intended for. The composition is patented, and the method of laying 
down a flooring or terrace without joints is both new and advantageous, insuring the 


perfect impermeability of the whole to moisture. A prize medal was awarded to these 
exhibitors. j j r 

To Messrs. Della Valle, Brothers^ of Leghorn^ a prize medal was also awarded, lor 
a new and peculiar manufacture in scagliola, to a certain extent imitative of works in 
Florentine mosaic, but applied in cases which would be impossible by that process. The 
objects exhibited consisted of two tables and a vase, aU truly inlaid, and having a striking 
and very brilliant effect. This kind of manufacture differs from ordinary scagliola m the 
much greater complication of the process, and also in the greater beauty of the result,, as 
the subject included figures and views, which at first would appear hardly possible to be 
executed in such material, but which showed great labour and skill, and some artistic 
knowledge in application. One of the objects, a round table, contained a central tableau, 
surrounded by an azure zone, with several emblematic ornaments. The table itself was 
of scagliola on a base of marble, each colour composing the ground, and each figure of 
the central tableau having been first inlaid in a single piece, and then shaded. The 
lights also were all inlaid, and the general effect was extremely beautiful. It will be seen 
that the general principle involved, is that of a mixture of fine inlaying without shading. 
It would appear, however, that the result, although beautiful, is almost too costly to be 
generally adopted, as the price of the round table referred to, was stated to be £250. 
The rectangular table, in imitation of pietra dura, and the vase, which was copied from 
the antique, showed several diflSculties incident to the process very successfully overcome. 
The polish in all the specimens was very good, and entirely natural, no varnish whatever 
being used. 

M. L. RoMOLi exhibited a scagliola candelabrum, in imitation of giallo antico, designed 
by L. Gruner, Esq., modelled by Ant. Trentanove, and the property of his Royal 
Highness Prince Albert ; . and also a table of inlaid scagliola. This exhibitor was hon- 
ourably mentioned as exhibiting excellent workmanship in the elegant and costly appli- 
cations of the materialhe employed. The candelabrum was not altogether pleasing in 
its effect, but the workmanship was good. . The inlaid table was something in the style 
of those exhibited by the Messrs. Delia Valle, but not at all equal either in design or 
execution. It appeared also to have been manufactured in a somewhat different manner. 
A cement mosaic of wood and marble was sent from the Cape of Good Hope for exhibition. 
. An excellent imitation of stone, extremely hard, perfectly non-absorbent, and resisting 
all atmospheric action, was exhibited by Messrs. Ransomb and Parsons, of Ipswich. 
This material is a compound of grains of sand, pebbles, portions of limestone, granite, 
and similar substances, cemented by a true glass, obtained by dissolving flint in a caustic 
alkali. Besides the ordinary uses to which stone is applied, a porous variety is manu- 
factured for filter stones, which may be supphed at extremely small cost. The Jury 
awarded a prize medal to these exhibitors for the improved material they have intro- 
duced, and the applications of it they have already made. 







Iej as the poet tells us, " Men are but children of a larger growth," then we shall need no 
apology for introducing the subject of " Toys" to the consideration of our readers ; 
especially when we call to mind the remark of one of the most eminent of modern philo- 
sophers, viz., that "boys' toys are the most philosophical things in the world;" and 
that of an equally renowned statesman, who, taking another view of their importanccj 
affirms that they are an index to the character of a nation. Now we beg leave to remark, 
that it is to the toys of the male sex that the observation of the sage philosopher is 
solely applicable, inasmuch as they are always directed to the more intellectual quality 
of the masculine understanding, or to its bellicose propensities ; whereas the toys con- 
trived for the amusement of the gentler sex are invariably such as minister to the gentler 
affections of the heart, to tenderness, to love, and the whole range of domestic virtues. 
In illustration of the first position, as it is observed in the Report of the Juries, a few 
examples may be cited. A boy's kite, in the hands of a PrankUn and a Romas, has served 
to identify lightning with electricity, and convey an instructive lesson on the composition 
of mechanical forces. The pea-shooter not only affords evidence of the elastic force of 
gases, but also of their economical employment when used expansively. The sucker 
illustrates the weight of the atmosphere, and its equal pressure in aU directions ; and the 
sling, the hoop, and the top, show the property of centrifugal force : when the top 
is in rapid motion, it converts for the moment, every spot and bruise on its surface 
into an elegant zone, and thus also imparts a good lesson in physiological optics. To a 
reflecting mind toys afford ample food for thought, and they might be made, perhaps, 
to jaeld much solid instruction to the child, were it not generally far more wise, for a 
certain period, at least, to limit its inquiries rather to the discovery of the weakest parts 
of its plaything. With regard to the assertion, that toys indicate the genius of a 
nation, it is evident that, as the natural tendency of children is to imitate the employ- 
ments of their elders, they wiU always take the most interest in such toys as will assist 
them in this propensity, and lead them in their sports to do that which they see those 
around them doing in earnest. Hence, in countries which are of a military disposition, 
flags, drums, trumpets, guns, swords, and the accoutrements of soldiers, are much in 
demand for the pastime of even the youngest boys. In a maritime nation toy-ships wiH 
be esteemed, and thus the very pastimes of childhood might be made available in 
promoting the welfare of such services as the particular state most requires. The 
Exhibition, therefore, might have afforded an interesting opportunity to statesmen and 
philanthropists for studying the diversity of character exemplified by the contributing 
nations, had they been all as well represented in their toys as they were in their other 
manufactures, ^his, however, was far from being the case, many countries, although 
largely employed in the manufacture of toys, having nearly or altogether neglected sending 
specimens. America, for instance, was extremely deficient in her contribution of toys. 

Austria, on the other hand, was well and copiously represented in the toy-trade. 
From Vienna there were two exhibitors, one of whom sent a great variety of automaton- 

VOL. II. » 


toys, and the other a general collection of ordinary toys; military accoutrements, guns, 
and swords, holding a very prominent position among them, sufficiently indicative of 
their Haynau and Eadetzsky propensities. From Bohemia were sent excellent and very 
numerous examples of those very beautiful boxes of toys for which it is famous, and which 
form a large item in the export trade of the country. From the mountains of Tyrol, 
J. B. PuiiGER contributed numerous specimens of carved white- wood toys, cheap, and 
of excellent workmanship. The Widow Hallek and her Son-in-law, of Vienna, obtained 
a prize medal for a collection of upwards of three hundred children's toys, comprising 
dolls, dressed and undressed, miniature furniture, shops, drums, flags, swords, guns, 
lances, shakos, helmets, and other military accoutrements for children, besides the com- 
moner descriptions of mechanical toys, many of which displayed much ingenuity. There 
were also numerous other sorts of toys in this collection, which were arranged in the 
manner of a trophy, and formed the largest group in the Exhibition. 

KiETAiBL, of Vienna, also received a prize medal for a collection of thirty-nine 
automaton-toys. These toys, which were all moved by good metallic clock-work, were 
most ingenious productions, but they appeared to be more expensive than similar manu- 
factures produced in France, with which, unfortunately, the Exhibition aflforded no 
opportunity of comparison. The following were among those deserving of especial 
notice : — Male and female figures waltzing, the contrivance for efiFecting the occasional 
rapid rotation of the German waltz being very ingenious; a pianist, who played> 
or rather appeared to play, " God save the Queen" and " Rule Britannia ;" an elephant 
carrying a howdah, and four walking Indians carrying a palanquin. This was the only 
one of detached locomotive figures. 

C. A. MuLiiEB and Co., of Oberlentensdorf, Bohemia, obtained honourable mention 
for nearly two hundred boxes of toys. These boxes were filled with excellent figures, 
representing men and animals, which were modelled in a sort of papier-m^che, with 
trees and rocks, the former being made of wood and the latter of paper. The different 
series represented huntiug-scenes, zoological gardens, herds of cattle, and numerous 
other groups illustrative of rural domestic life. The truthful delineation of the various 
animals is a feature deserving of great commendation, as it renders the toys well 
adapted to afford instruction as well as amusement. 

Bavakia was chiefly remarkable for mechanical and magnetic toys. G. EichneRj 
of Nuremberg, received a prize medal for twenty mechanical toys. These articles, which 
were made of tinned iron-plate, and painted, were quite remarkable for the neatness 
with which they were finished. They consisted chiefly of carriages with horses, the latter 
being moved by cranks and levers connected with the wheels. A carriage with four 
horses, the carriage containing figures representing her Majesty and Prince Albert, was 
worthy of especial notice. 

British Colonies, — British Guiana sent only a single example. India, on the other 
hand, exhibited a large collection of toys, chiefly from Bengal and Madras. The high 
antiquity of this manufacture in India will appear from the beautiful Indian drama of 
Sacontald, written by Calidas, in the first century b.c. " Go, I pray," says an attendant, 
in Act vii., "to my cottage, where thou wilt find a plaything made for the hermit's 
chUd, Sancaraj it is a peacock of earthenware, painted with rich colours." Brilliant but 
rude representations of birds formed the greater part of the display; but there were 
also some instances of toys which are familiar in England, as the humming-top the 
meriy-go-round, balancing figures, &c. The coUection comprised also several ingenious 
Malay puzzles, two of which were enclosed in narrow-necked bottles. Figures made 
in pith were likewise numerous, and were very clever productions. These toys were 
aU such as are m common use in India, on which account they formed a most valuable 


contribution to the Great Exhibition ; but they were not nearly so vrell made as those 
of Europe. 

France. — One of the French exhibitors sent two ingenious drawing-room ornaments, 
containing au-tomaton-birds, which are toys rather for adults than children. Another 
exhibitor contributed some excellent wax figures for hair-dressers, which are made by 
processes similar to those employed for producing the best description of dolls, and they 
were, therefore, enumerated with toys. But although France manufactures enormous 
quatities of toys of many kinds, only one description of them was sent, and that by 
a single exhibitor from Paris, who exhibited dressed dolls only. " In that capital alone,'' 
according to the Statistique de V Industrie a Paris, says M. Natalis Rondot, " there were, 
in 1847, no less than 371 manufacturers of children's toys, employing 2,099 workpeople 
(641 men, 1,345 women, 80 boys, 33 girls), who in that year produced £173,800 worth 
of goods." The men earn, on an average, 2s. 8d. per day, and the women Is. S^d. per 
day; but some of the men earn 9s. d^d., according to their skill, or the description 
of work they are employed on. Many of the masters employ only a single assistant, 
or work alone, and very few employ more than ten assistants. Thus, of the 371 manu- 
facturers, only 62 employed more than ten ; 142 employed from two to ten ; 77 employed 
one ; and 90 employed no assistant, but did all the work with their own hands. Com- 
petition has, it appears, brought down prices so low that dressed dolls, including a 
bonnet, are to be brought for eightpence per dozen, and undressed composition dolls at 
twopence-halfpenny per dozen. It was to be regretted that none of the very excellent 
automaton-toys, boxes of games, of kitchen utensils, &c., found a place in the French 
department, as they are exported from France to a considerable extent. Swords, guns, 
helmets, and other military accoutrements, are also, as might be expected, produced in 
large quantities in that country, but are disposed of chiefly for the home-trade. Most 
of the toy-guns are beautifully made, and are generally furnished with percussion-locks, 
which wfll fire off a cap. Conjuring toys, for adults as well as children, ought most 
certainly to have been exhibited, as in the manufacture of these articles Paris has no rival. 

BoNTEMS, of Paris, received a prize medal for his groups of Humming-birds, with clock- 
work movements, by which the birds were made to hop from one twig to another, at the 
same time opening their wings, after which they twirl suddenly round, and hop back 
again exactly in the manner of real birds confined in a cage. There was also an inces- 
sant chirping, apparently kept up by the birds, their beaks being made to move. The 
levers which carried them backwards and forwards were ingeniously concealed in 
slits formed in the artificial branches. Other birds were represented continually pecking 
at beetles. The price of one of these groups of automata was £12, and of the other with 
the clock, £18. Both groups were under glass-shades, and formed singularly pleasing 
drawing-room ornaments. 

M. P. JuMEATT, also of Paris, received a prize medal for dolls' dresses. The doUs on 
which these dresses were displayed presented no point worthy of commendation, but 
the dresses themselves were very beautiful productions. Not only were the outer robes 
accurate representations of the prevailing fashions in ladies' dresses, but the under 
garments were also in many cases complete fac-simUes of those articles of wearing 
apparel. They might serve as excellent patterns for children to imitate, and thus to 
acquire the use of the needle, with a knowledge of the arrangement of colours and 
material ; in the latter respect they might, indeed, afford valuable instruction to adults. 

Frankfort was chiefly remarkable for the contributions of J. V. Albert, who exhi- 
bited, among philosophical apparatus, dolls, and the Moor's head conjuring-toy,_ which 
admits of a knife traversing the neck without severing the head. The mechanism by 
which this was effected, though simple, it would be difficult to explain without a diagram. 


Prussia. — The principal toys in the Prussian department were those of pewter from 
Berlin, by G. Sohlke ; the principal example being a representation of the review at 
Windsor, on the occasion of the visit to England of the Emperor of Russia, who was 
portrayed among the numerous figures which this well-executed model contained. 
Besides this specimen, there were several miniature dinner and tea services, also cast iu 
pewter. A. Fleischmann, of Sonnenberg, sent a "Philharmonic Chandelier." This 
very humorous production represented M. JuUien, in the centre at the top, with the 
performers of his band seated round the circles of the candelabrum, in a great variety of 
quaint and expressive attitudes, their features and varied action being portrayed with 
much skill and humour. The same contributor also exhibited a Comic Chandelier, re- 
presenting one of the incidents in Swift's celebrated romance, when Gulliver wakes in 
the country of Lilliput, and finds himself " unable to stir." " As I happened," he con- 
tinues, "'to lie on my back, I found my arms and legs were strongly fastened on each 
side to the ground,- and my hair, which was long and thick, tied down in the same 
manner. I likewise felt several slender ligatures across my body, from my arm-pits to 
my thighs." Such an incident afforded ample scope for the imagination of the artist, 
and he proved himself quite equal to the undertaking. There was much humour evinced 
in the expression and action of the Lilliputians, some of whom were bold enough to 
push their inquiries so far as to pry into GuUiver's waistcoat pockets, a piece of 
temerity which was nigh costing one philosophic-looking individual his life. Others 
of the natives were, however, far more cautious, and mounted, in fancied security, 
upon the branches of trees, which Gulliver might have blown down with a breath, where 
they contented themselves with a more distant view : others, again, preferred trusting 
to the ground and their own legs, and some were already on the start at the first 
signs of waking on the part of the man-monster ; a few slow, dull-headed individuals, 
not knowing what was taking place, were climbing up on his body, whilst others were 
precipitately sliding down ; and even the Lilliputian horses seemed to have their pre- 
sentiment of danger, and were becoming unmanageable. 

Saxony contributed but a few toys and busts made in pewter. Yet, in 1846, there 
were 697 manufacturers of wooden toys, who employed 1,520 workpeople. 

Switzerland, so famous for its carved white-wood toys, did not exhibit any of these 
articles, and therefore might be considered as unrepresented in this branch of manufac- 
ture. M. AuDEMARS, however, exhibited a beautiful little pistol, weighing only half a 
grain, and so small that it required a microscope to bring out its details. When it 
was magnified about twenty times linear, all the various parts might be distinctly seen 
and they then appeared beautifully formed and perfect in their polish. Every part' 
indeed, was as complete and perfect as it is to be found in an ordinary percussion- 
pistol, so that the lock acted when the trigger was pulled. T. P. Bautte of Geneva 
received a prize medal for a Paper-weight of gold, the base being ornamented'with scenery 
painted m enamel. From this a stem ascended, and was surmounted with a small casket 
which opened and closed by means of clock-work. When the cover was turned back a 
most beautiful and perfect little bird was discovered, which was apparently singing and 
at the same time fluttering its minute wings, and twirUng about in different directions 
As soon as the song was finished the box closed. The bird was scarcely three quarters 
ot an mch long, yet was most life-like in the details of its construction and its move 
meiits, and its warble was perfectly suited in compass to its size. The manufacture of 
such minute pieces of mechanism is most valuable training for the watchmaker nnrl 
they are therefore deserving of encouragement. waxcnmater, and 

United KiNGDOM.-Considering the vast quantity of toys manufactured in the United 
Kingdom, the contributions that were exhibited were very inadequate. The only exhS- 


tion of wax dolls that was deserving of notice was one by Augusta Montanari, of Upper 
Charlotte street, to which a prize medal was awarded. The display of this exhibitor 
was the most remarkable and beautiful collection of toys in the Great Exhibition. It 
consisted of a series of dolls representing all ages, from infancy to womanhood, arranged 
in several family groups, with suitable and elegant model-furniture. These dolls had the 
hair, eye-lashes, and eyelids separately inserted in the wax, and were, in other respects, 
modelled with life-like truthfulness. Much skill was also evinced in the variety of 
expression which was given to these figures in regard of the ages and stations which they 
were intended to represent. From the prices of these dolls, however, they were adapted 
rather for the children of the wealthy than for general sale ; since the prices of the 
undressed dolls were from 10*. to 105s. each ; the dressed dolls, which were attired with 
much taste, were much more expensive, and varied in price according to the richness of 
the material of which the robes were made. In a small case adjoining that which 
contained the toys just enumerated, were displayed several rag-dolls, which were very 
remarkable productions, considering the materials of which they were made. They con- 
sisted entirely of textile fabrics, and the dolls, which were intended, and were well 
adapted for the nursery, were reasonable in price, varying from 6s. 6d. to 30s. per doll, 
including the dresses. Rocking-horses were exhibited by J. C. Dear ; and H. Lucas 
sent an improvement on the garden-horse, which was made to rock by means of the 
motion of one of the wheel-axes as the horse was dragged along. A few compressible 
toys were exhibited, and a variety of automaton and other toys, chiefly foreign, were 
displayed by A. Bouchet. None of the ordinary strong toys of English manufacture 
were exhibited, probably on account of the makers" of these sorts being generally very 
poor; for most of the English wooden toys are constructed by chamber- masters, 
who seldom manufacture goods to order, but, on the contrary, when they have produced 
a small number, hawk them about from shop to shop, or vend them in the streets. 
Without capital, and compelled to work almost literally from hand to mouth, they 
continue to exist only, without any material advance, but making much the same kinds, 
having the same general degree of merit, one year after another. That this is no 
exaggeration, must be conceded by every one who will recal to mind the toys of twenty 
years since, and mentally contrast them with those of the present day. That the progress 
has been slow, and requires long intervals for comparison to make it apparent, arises 
from the fact that all the improvements must be made in the few leisure moments of 
the workmen, who are compelled to labour many hours each day to gain a livelihood, 
and who, probably, cannot even afford the time to carry out any suggestions which may 
be made to them. That the poor workman does, nevertheless, endeavour to improve 
in his productions, is shown by Mr. Dickens, with touching humour, in ITie Cricket on 
the Hearth, when Caleb is made to say, " You couldn't have the goodness to let me pinch 
Boxer's tail, mum, for half a moment, could you ?" When surprise is expressed at the 
question, he thus explains his meaning : " Oh, never mind, mum ; he mightn't like it, 
perhaps. There's a small order just come in for barking-dogs, and I should wish to go 
as close to nature as I could, for sixpence. That's all. Never mind, mum." DoUs'- 
houses, shops, brewers' drays, waggons, common horses, the body formed of a sort of 
skittle with a slice cut off on the under side, and four round pins for the legs, are made 
in large quantities in England. Spades, wheelbarrows, garden-rollers, garden-rakes, 
skipping-ropes, caouchouc-balls, tops, kites, and similar toys, are also made in great 
numbers. Wax or composition dolls are made entirely in England, but wooden dolls are 
imported, as are also papier-m^che dolls' heads, the bodies only being made in this 


Wttrtemburg. — Immense quantities of toys are manufactured in Wurtemburg, more 



particularly on the borders of the Black Forest/ stnd- are exported to England, America, 
and other countries. The contributions in the Exhibition comprised most of the kinds 
which are manufactured in that country; as, for iexample, mechanical toys by Rock and 
Graner, of Biberach, some made of tinned iron-plate, and others in papier-m^che, com- 
prising carriages with horses, which were moved • by the revolving parts by means of 
cranks and links; a water-mill, to be acted upon by real water; a cascade and fountain, 
in which, also, real water was to be used; -a working-model of a pump; cbllectioiis of 
kitchen utensils, and numerous other articlies. A prize medal was adjudged to these 
exhibitors. The number of exhibitors from all parts was 51 ; of these there were 13 
holders of a prize medal, 2 who obtained honourable mention, and 37 unrewarded. 

Having gone our rounds, and visited nearly aU the toy-shops of the several nations 
who contributed towards furnishing the vast variety of objects of interest exhibited in 
the Crystal Palace, we will now dismiss the- isubjeet, and, opening a fresh chapter, return 
to the agreeable -dissertatiQUs of our gifted member of the Institute of France. 


LETTERS OF M. BLANQUl— continued. 






Let US in this letter devote ourselves to Spain and Turkey, at the two extremities of 
Europe. They are in close proximity at the Exhibition, and resemble each other through 
their decidedly progressing tendency during the last few years. Turkey and Spain are 
not, as IS generally believed, worn-out countries; on the contrary, they are stillin their 
infancy. The real spirit of progress makes in reality more rapid strides here than in 
other.places, which claim to be enlightenment itself, and which oftener spread conflagra- 
tion than oivihzation. I have visited Spain and Turkey a few years ago • I met these 
nations here again,, more advanced than ever in the .path which had commenced to oben 
betore them; and their products merit serious: attention, even when placed in iuxtano- 
sition with those of the great industrial regions which at the present moment' absorb the 
attention ot the world, Spam has for a long period been a brilliant arena in which the 
manutacturmg arts have shone with a splendour, which is striving to revive Her manu 
factories of arms, of silks, of woollen cloths,. of gold-and silversmith's work of carneta" 
have occupied an honourable rank in Europe. Her typography was once greS 
renowned. Her workmen possessed a rare merit— that of being original without desen- 
eratmg into the false- taste, which for a while ran through theh- literature Thev have 
borrowed from Arabian traditions a multitude of useful processes and of charming formT 
which they have appropriated with a moderation and an intelligence suitaSe lo tS 
times They have never been insipid or vulgar,, even when thi flame^f thdr Jnks 
seemed likely to be extinguished beneath the passion of fanaticism. They fell ^th^Se 
or wjth sadness, as Gastilians are wont to fall, ever ready;to rise agaiS evTr Jrthy 


> y 


of respect. Their exhibition in London is not on a veiy large scale. They have shown 
themselves almost as indifferent here as they habitually are in their national exhibi- 
tions, where they have always appeared in very limited numbers,— whether it be that 
these new festivals of the material world excite less their enthusiasm than those thev 
were wont to celebrate in their temples, or that the distance may have frightened them 
m consequence of the bad state of their roads. I have already said that they had sent 
more raw materials than manufactured goods; I am still of this opinion, and I may add 
that they have done right. Spain is above all a land rich in natural products : and I 
shall not be doing her any great injustice in stating that her mines, her marbles, her 
metals, wiU m the long run tend more to her honour and profit than her woollen and 
cotton manufactures. But, for all that, the efforts which she is making to enter upon 
the path of manufacturing labour, at the keenest moment of the struggle which has 
been entered upon between the European nations, are not the less worthy of honour. 

The productions exhibited by Spain are of very good quality. We have particularly 
noticed blue and black woollen cloths— especially black— which are manufactured from 
the best wools of the country, and which can sustain the comparison with the correspond- 
ing qualities of foreign manufacture. The silk goods of Valentia have likewise main- 
tained their good name, but they leave a good deal to be desired in point of finish, 
patterns, and even colours. A trial of black lace embroidered with colours has been 
less happy : this may be an innovation destined to obtain some success in the colonies. 
Fine and good samples of sail and cable cloths bear testimony to the resumption of the 
spinning of yarn, which possesses great elements of prosperity in that country. The 
Spaniards have exhibited few fire-arms, but what there are, are principally from the 
manufactory at Toledo, the land of good daggers and flexible swords, which enter the 
body with the pliancy of the serpent. Some pistol cases, and two cannons — one of 
bronze, the other of iron — the latter, it is said, forged with the hammer by the Carlists 
during the civil war — complete their collection of destructive implements, which suflBces 
to show of what they are capable in this description of article. Pray to Heaven that 
they may use their iron for other purposes ! This iron is really excellent, and may vie 
with that of Sweden. There are also in the Spanish exhibition very fine samples of 
their kid skins for gloves, which I consider to be the softest in the world, and the most 
worthy to protect ladies' hands. Why have we not likewise in the Spanish gallery some 
of their admirable women — of those who excite the enthusiasm of great deeds ? The 
fair visitors of the North are so cold, so formal ; they look as if they came out of a Pres- 
byterian chapel ! Pardon me this digression. Sir, for the ladies are here in the majority, 
and one would almost believe that it is out of pure gallantry to them that Englishmen 
have got up the Exhibition. They are indefatigable. They eat like ogres, at all the 
refreshment stalls. The detestable fashion of crinoline, and even of baskets, which has 
seized upon them, gives them a really fantastic size, which every day diminishes the space 
left to move about in. It is even something strange and curious to see this exhibition 
within the Exhibition j but it proves at least that here the women, through their instruc- 
tion, take a real share in the progress of industry, and that they seriously occupy them- 
selves about the interests and labours of their husbands. 

Thus we may see them eagerly grouped, like manufacturers or savans, around raw 
materials arranged with much order and simplicity in the Spanish gallery. They 
admire the wools of Estremadura, the silks of Valentia, the lead ores, the marbles, and, 
above all, the preserved fruits of Malaga. This collection is exceedingly beautiful. It 
is by means of her inexhaustible mineral wealth that Spain will regain her fortune. 
She will find within her own bowels wherewithal to feed her children. Mineral wealth 
is now-a-davs the starting-point of all others. When a country possesses iron, lead. 


sulphur, and even, if I may judge from very fine samples sent bj Galicja tin and 
copper, it possesses the essential basis of all manufactures. I hope that the gloriou. 
knd of Spain may not seek elsewhere, to the detriment of her natural fortune, an 
artificial fortune based on tariffs and prohibitions, which would not restore her manufec- 
tures, but which would restore smuggling, to say nothmg of pauperism ^^5 f ^J^f ~ 
train of evils. We may hope the same for Turkey. Turkey now aspires, with much 
honour to herself, to be ranked among the civilised nations. The young Sultan is 
endeavouring honestly to follow the footsteps of his father, and he has found in Rechid- 
Pacha an eidightened counsellor and a determined auxihary. It is indisputably to their 
powerful intervention that the success of the Turkish exhibition is attributable. It 
is really a remarkable one ; and even after having visited the celebrated bazaars of 
Adrianople, of Constantinople, and of Smyrna, I could hardly have expected to find so 
much diversity of richness and taste as in the articles which have been sent by the 
Levant. As I pass, I greet the smaU exhibition of Greece, where we have recognised the 
classic marbles of Pares, and the honey of Mount Hymet. The posterity of Homer and 
Pericles have since cultivated the grapes of Corinth, and now cultivate sponges and 
meerschaum, the latter-forgive it them, O ye gods !— serving to make pipes ! As far 
as I am concerned, I devote all smokers to the infernal gods. Greece has sent some 
beautiful black marbles and madders equal to those of Cyprus. Gall nuts and dyers 
weeds will ere long become elements of wealth for that country, the friend ot France, 
which has always had our sympathy, and whose progress has probably contributed not 
a httle to that of its former masters. 

In giving you an account of the Turkish exhibition, I must commence by saying 1 
have been greatly surprised only to find vulgar carpets, strong and almost unchangeable 
as are nearly all they make, but of an unhappy choice. The Turkish carpets are 
probably the articles most adapted for barter which come from that country, and care 
should have been taken only to exhibit those most remarkable in point of pattern and 
colour. I should not omit to state that on their importation into France they pay exor- 
bitant duties, and that but for this improper protection, these precious fabrics, the 
consumption of which is almost nil, and which ought to be immense, would long since 
have come into very extended use in France. It is the importation of Cashmere shawls 
which has led to the extensive use of French shawls ; it is the importation of Turkish 
carpets which will extend amongst us the use of French carpets. The Turks have 
arranged their exhibition with much art. It resembles a beautiful bazaar, lighter and 
more coquettish than their own, in which the goods are displayed after the Eastern 
fashion. I will not allude to some attempts at printed calicoes, which must not be 
encouraged, for they are hideous and unpardonable, owing to the advanced state of this 
branch of industry in less industrial countries ; but their light silk goods, their stufis 
embroidered with gold, are worthy of attention, even when compared with the analogous 
productions of British India. The Turks will do much better to devote themselves 
entirely to the production of raw materials, and above all, of dye-stuffs. Their Bursa silks 
have a reputation ; their madders, their kermes, their sesamums, their rice, their opium, 
their copper, their skins, will become articles daily more sought after, and with which the 
industry of Europe cannot dispense. It is useful for them as well as to ourselves, to 
tell them that they would take a wrong course in neglecting their natural productions, for 
which they have a certain market, in the pursuit of a more than doubtful manufacturing 

It is such lessons as these that the Universal Exhibition will teach to many people. It 
will prevent capital from flowing to industrial Utopise, to divert them to the safer 
grounds of agriculture and raw materials. If we wished all to manufacture anything 


at any price, we should run the risk of wanting the most indispensaWe raw materials 
necessary for production, and to perish either through insufficiency or abundance. The 
English are at present more dependent upon American cotton than upon their own 
iron. The most characteristic fact of our civilization is the growth of that mutual 
dependence of nations which is the soundest guarantee of peace. The Turks may judge 
from the wants which the Exhibition will have revealed to them, the direction which they 
should give to their reviving industry. 


I ran away for a few days from the attractions of the Exhibition to go and study 
on the spot certain questions to which the economical reforms which have been accom- 
plished in this country impart at the present moment peculiar interest. I was de- 
sirous of seeing whether the great display of industrial power which England is making 
in London at the present moment, and the path of commercial freedom on which she 
has entered since the memorable league of Cobden, were real or delusive symptoms 
of her social progress. It appeared to me that it was the duty of a political economist 
not to trust to appearances only, but to examine for himself whether the English people 
had really been the gainers by all the commercial reforms which have been the result of 
so fierce and determined a struggle. Has the abolition of the corn-laws been bene- 
ficial or injurious to the cultivators of the soil ? Have the workmen gained in prosperity 
what the agriculturists pretend to have lost? Is free-trade likely to be permanent? 
What are likely to be its ultimate results ? 

These are grave questions at the present time — T might say questions of life and death 
— since upon their solution depends the food of the people, and the tranquillity or 
disturbance of the state. What a bitter disappointment, besides, to us, if we must place 
amongst the rank of chimeras and utopise the lively hopes which have encouraged us 
in the war which we wage against the prohibitionists — a thankless strife, in which we 
have so often to encounter the hatred of some, the indifference of others. Happily, the 
moment is at hand when that sovereign arbiter called experience will pronounce — 
indeed, we may say, that that moment has already arrived in England. You shall judge 
of it, and may your readers give to this important letter all the attention which it 
merits. The following are the simple facts : some years ago, several English manufac- 
turers, struck by the distress of the labouring classes, endeavoured to trace its 
causes, and speedily discovered that the taxes on raw materials and on alimentary 
substances were the principal sources of this distress. Taxation in every shape, and 
particularly in that of the import duty on corn, deprived workmen of a portion of 
their wages. It was evident that the state and the great landed proprietors divided the 
amount, entirely defrayed by the industrial classes, between them. Since that period, 
Mr Cobden and his friends— for it is they who have conducted this rehgious crusade to 
a successful issue— did not say to the operatives, "Let us upset the government and 
the institutions of our country— let us drive the Queen from her throne, and let us 
threaten property;" they quietly said, "Your distress is attributable to the co™-laws; 
let us repeal the corn-laws:" and the corn-laws were repealed When they had 
perceived that this abolition would result in a great increase of the prosperity of the 
country, the promoters of the reform, convinced that the surest means of giving a fresh 
impetus to British industry, was to ensure the supply of raw materials at the lowest 
prices, set about with renewed vigour to propaga,te the happy idea, and to ensure its 
triumU : it also, in its turn, has triumphed. Then came the turn of the navigation, 
laws, whose object was to maintain for the English flag the monopoly of conveyance and 
3 maritime supremacy. These laws have likewise disappeared from the statute book- 

VOL. II. ^ 


At present, Englishmen may purchase their grain wherever they please, without paying 
duty; and they receive raw materials from every part of the globe without taxes or 
privilege of flag. ii i j + 

Assuredly never was economical reform more radical than this. It attackea at one 
fell swoop landed property in its income, the state in its financial resources, and the 
national susceptibility in its most ticklish points. All this has been accomphshed, 
without firing a shot, by the sole power of right and reason ; and by perseverance and 
patience— those two great virtues, alas ! so rare among us. But a fierce resistance during 
the struggle, and a" still stronger reaction after success, were things to be expected. This 
reaction still continues, particularly amongst the agricultural interest; and at the 
present moment it is complicated by the extreme depreciation in the price of corn. 
It was, therefore, of great importance to go to the fountain-head, to study this new fact 
worthy of attention. I went, in company with my learned friend, Michael Chevelier, 
professor of political economy in the college of France, to one of the most remarkable 
farms in Lancashire, managed by one of the most distinguished farmers in England. 
We have found this able agriculturahst firm as a rock in his belief of the future pros- 
perity of agriculture. He only considered the present low price of grain as accidental, 
owing either to the general abundance of corn throughout Europe, or to other transient 
causes foreign to the new commercial legislation. He admitted that this reform com- 
pelled him to modify his cultivation ; and that he had discovered a new mine of wealth 
in the multiplication of pigs, of which we counted between four and five hundred on 

his farm. Instead of producing corn, Mr. W produced meat ; and he did not 

doubt that the abohtion of the corn-laws would open the eyes of a great number of 
farmers who had slept for so many years on the pillow of protection. 

Here the cultivators of the soil might see the difference between their venerable 
immoveableness and the application of science to agriculture. I had been very much 
struck, in the Great Industrial Exhibition, with the singular variety of the English 
agricultural implements, the greater part of which are even unknown to us by name 
in France. My colleague and myself had had often explained to us to what uses, for 
instance, might be devoted pretty small agricultural steam-engines of five or six 
horse-power. We know it now. During the whole of our route we have seen several of 
these machines in the farm-yards of the villages. They serve to thrash the corn, to chop 
the grass for the cattle ; they are used for ploughing, by being stationed in various parts 

of the fields, from which they put the ploughs in motion. Mr. W does not despair 

of applying them to a number of other uses ; and he was kind enough to put in motion 
before us two models of machines intended to weed and spade by steam. The latter is 
really exceedingly ingenious : it is impossible to imitate with greater precision the move- 
ment of a man's arms. " Before long," said Mr. W , " all England will be spaded 

and raked like my garden." 

In order to understand the justness and the probable realisation of this idea, it 
suffices to observe with some attention the manners of the people of this country. The 
farmer whose hospitality we enjoyed possesses three thousand acres of land, and lives 
with a simplicity which is not without grandeur. He lives on the land which he 
cultivates, he looks after it, and animates all with his example. He causes the 
smallest portion of solid or liquid manure to be collected with the utmost care. He 
visits the styes of his numerous pigs, looks after their health, and attends to all their 
wants. They are his Cahfornia. Fifteen months suffice to see these useful animals, 
-which yield enormous profits to his farm, born and die. We were greatly surprised at 
meal-times to see all the male and female domestics coming into the room carrying a 
wooden bench, which was placed facing the arm-chair of the master of the house 


and his family. Mr. W--, seated in his arm-chair, then opened the Bible, out of 
which some chapter was read, and then all kneeled together. After prayer the domestics 
took their form with them and the family commenced their meal. Every onrhere 
respects his fellow-man-the masters their servants, and the servants their masters 
There IS neither famiharity nor haughtmess. On all hands there is little talk, but a 
great deal of business. Mr W— conducted us across the fields over all his grounds 
Would that your agricultural friends could make this journey ! Here they would 
see what agriculture is; what an admirable, methodical, and analytical art, replete 
with chaTms, agriculture is; how the soil is kept free from extreme wet and extreme 
drought by means of drainage; how the pulverable manures, such as guano, are deoo- 
sited by a machine around each grain of corn which is sown in the ground; how the 
fodder IS pressed to avoid fermentation; how hay and straw are mixed, &c &c 
Over immense surfaces of ground, all the plots devoted to special culture are enclosed in •" 
everywhere there are small wooden or iron barriers, well closed by means of ingenious 
and economical latches; double-sided mangers, racks, stables, cattle-sheds, and dairies 
of admirable cleanliness, the windows of which are cleaned every day. People con- 
descend to reside here, sir; they know how to draw profit and happiness from the 
fields, and the fields are not unjust. The truth is, with us Paris is everything; we are 
nailed to it by the two most irresistible influences— those of politics and of women- 
may heaven forgive them ! But I trust there are yet good days in store for agriculture, 
and that the republic will render the residence of towns so hateful, that we shall be 
compelled to go for peace and soft emotions to the country. 

Another trait of English manners is, that the greater part of the men who are engaged 
in agricultural pursuits are generally instructed and enlightened in all matters of political 

economy. Mr. W possesses not only a rare collection of agricultural implements, 

but also an excellent library. All the farmers in this country are acquainted with 
the progress of chemistry or botany, of mechanical science, and of horticulture. They 
will therefore have less difficulty in emerging from- the torpor in which the corn-laws 
have plunged them, inasmuch as they will only have to bring forward in the present 
reign of competition that knowledge which, under the past reign of protection, they 
suffered too often to slumber. The inevitable results of the abolition of the corn-laws 
would appear to be further applications of science to agriculture, or a diminution in the 
rents of the landed proprietors. That portion of the rents, which was levied by means 
of the corn-law upon the wages of the operative, will be reduced, to the benefit of the 
farmer ; and perhaps the latter, discovering new processes to augment the profits derived 
from the land, will be able to pay the same rent as heretofore. In that case, nobody 
would be a loser by the change, and the benefits of cheap living would be opened to 

the working classes without diminution in the incomes of the landlords. Mr. W 

expressed the idea ingeniously by saying, "We shall turn our land and our brains to 
better account, that's all; and it is free-trade which will have accomplished the pro- 
digies.'' Thus, experience proves every day that the abolition of the bread tax will 
only further have developed the productive powers of this country. The working 
classes who have become larger consumers, owing to their ability of living cheaply, react 
on agricultural productions by larger demands. They consume more meat, cheese, milk, 
butter, vegetables, simply for the reason that they can buy their bread cheaper. In 
future, only a portion of the corn will be drawn from foreign sources, in exchange for 
English goods, and England will supply the remainder. Do not laugh at these vulgar 
expressions and material details — humanity lives upon good soup, and not on fine words, 
even according to Moliere, and the prohibitionists would be only too glad to put us on 
bread and water, if they found it to their interest to do so. 


You may-j therefore, consider it as a certainty that the cause of freedom of commerce 
is permanently won in England, and that all the attempts of the protectionist system 
will not prevail against it. There remain doubtless some abuses to be destroyed in the 
customs' department; and it is a notorious fact that the vexatious habits of this regime 
have survived the liberal modifications of the new English commercial policy ; but the 
house of commons has appointed a committee of inquiry to put an end to them, and I 
have been given to understand, by the chairman of this committee himself, that this 
inquiry will be conducted in the most liberal spirit. The scandalous reign of espionage, 
of searching the person, of breaking open packages, of impertinent curiosity, is well nigh 
drawing to a close. These acts of plunder, known under the name of pre-emption, of 
seizures, of rewards to informers, will ere long cease to dishonour the legislation of 
nations, to go and join all other seignorial rights. It is time that a vessel running on 
our coast — that a father returning to his family — that a merchant who brings wealth 
to his country — shall cease to be received by armed tax-gatherers, who are permitted to 
pry into the most secret parts of our baggage. Only think, sir, that we sufier these 
outrages for such a length of time — not in the interest of the state, which has a right to 
all our sacrifices, but simply for the purpose of ensuring to some bigoted manufacturers 
the faculty of selling us their goods without competition. 

There is only one opinion in Liverpool against these remains of commercial barbarism, 
and nevertheless the custom-house regulations are less vexatious there than in our ports. 
The ardent life of commerce will no longer tolerate these trammels of the past. There 
arrive at Liverpool about a hundred vessels daily from all parts of the globe ; there are 
always five or six hundred loading. The railways send forth with the rapidity of light- 
ning in every direction trains loaded with passengers, and I close this letter at a distance 
of ninety leagues from London, where I should be in five hours did I not intend to stop 
a day at Manchester. What can be opposed to such torrents ? The present customs 
system will disappear ; not because it is absurd, but because it is impossible. My 
honourable colleague of the Institute, M. Leon Faucher, Minister of the Interior, has 
first delivered us from the tyranny of passports. Should he become minister of 
finance, he will have a fine opportunity to put an end to the custom-house abuses. It 
would suffice to make his name go down gloriously to posterity. 




TKADE— Hudson's bat company— its vast teeeitoey— the noeth-west teadee— the 


Peesonal attire, or dress, has always been held in high estimation in all countries 
and among all classes of people. Prom the rude savage to the polished denizen of 
the modern drawing-room, all own its influence, and aU pay obedience to its laws 


Nature herself, indeed, furnishes us with an excuse for doing so, in the gay and rich 
atire which she has so lavishly bestowed upon the various objects of hef carf'-'the 
hhes tod not, neither do they spin;" the birds of the air and the beasts of 5he fidd 
receive from the same bounteous hand their rich and appropriate clothing. Why 
therefore should not man imitate the example before him, and in his dress fndeavoS 
to unite the qualities of grace and beauty with those of mere utility and convenience^ 

Ll^.°fll Wn ^^'^Ir/- ^'^'' .•°'°^^*' *° ^ P^''^°°^ ^' ^« are afraid it sometimes 
does in the bosoms of the fairer portion of our race, the gentle partners of our firesides, 
that we would deprecate its influence. Pope presents us with a glowing description of 
one of these votaries of fashion, in his celebrated Rape of the Zoc/t, which we shall quote 
tor the edifacation, but by no means for the imitation of our fair readers— 

" And now unveiled the toilet stands displayed, 
Each silver vase in mystic order laid. 
First robed in white, the nymph intent, adores. 
With head uncovered, the cosmetic powers. 
A heavenly image in the glass appears, — 
To that she bends, to that her eyes she rears, 
Th' inferior priestess, at her altar's side. 
Trembling, begins the sacred rites of pride : 
Unnumbered treasures ope at once, and here 
The various offerings of the world appear ; 
From each she nicely culls with curious toil, 
And decks the goddess with the glittering spoil. 
This casket India's glowing gems unlocks. 
And all Arabia breathes from yonder box." 

But we must terminate our exordium, and introduce our readers to the subject-matter 
of the present chapter, which, as stated at the commencement, is relative to fur, and 
chiefly as an article of dress. 

As an article of clothing, the fur of animals was naturally and necessarily the very 
earliest in use among mankind ; and we find that our first parents, when driven out of 
Paradise, had garments made of the skins of beasts. We next read of their use in 
the adorning of the holy temple ; the goat skins dyed red, and the badger skins being 
particularly pointed out. The Persians, Greeks, and Romans were familiar with the use of 
furs as articles of clothing and trophies of victory, and imputed in many instances similar 
customs and usages to their numerous fabled deities and heroes. Equally ancient was 
the use of the dressed skins of animals amongst the Assyrians, as is proved by the repre- 
sentations on the recently-discovered interesting and valuable sculptures lately rescued 
from oblivion, and bringing again to light the records of a great nation and mighty people, 
whose history otherwise might have been lost to us for ever. When we refer to more 
modern times, we find that the regal miniver encircles the royal diadem and composes 
the mantle by which the sovereign on state occasions is distinguished, and that the 
various degrees in rank of our nobility are also known by the heraldic arrangements of 
the ermine worn by them on their 'robes of state. In like manner the sable is used, 
according to the rank, to adorn the official dresses of our civic magistrates. The ermine, 
again, emblem in the olden time of purity, is worn by the judges, and was, possibly for 
that reason, chosen as the adornment of their magisterial vestments. The rude Lap- 
lander, the uncultivated Esquimaux, and the wild Indian, in their several remote and 
inhospitable regions, have several marks of distinction peculiar to themselves. 

Perhaps the most attractive, and certainly the most artistically arranged collection 
of furs in the Great Exhibition was that shown by the Messrs, Nicholay and Son, of 
Oxford-street. Messrs. Nicholay exhibited specimens of almost every variety of fur 
adapted to male and female habiliment. The beautiful lustre of the seal-skin, dyed and 



undyed, was shown to advantage in mantles, pardessus, children's dresses, bonnets, 
coats, and waistcoats— the latter invaluable for winter wear, as a preservation against 
bronchial affections. In the case of these latter,, as in that of the buffalo-skin railway- 
wrapper, great durability compensates for a trifling increased outlay in the first instance. 
The historical miniver may be seen in a great variety of muffs and tippets, with spot? 
made with the paws of the Astracan lamb, to suit the requirements of modern taste. A 
very curious article in this valuable collection was a coat from the hide of a Tartar colt, 
but so carefully dressed as to be as soft as seal-skin, and, from the fineness and density of 
the hair, completely impervious to wet. It is not a little curious to find the skin in which 
a wild Tartar colt once scampered over his native steppes serving, perhaps, as a paletot to 
some tranquil commercial gentleman economically travelling in an English second-class 
railway-carriage. The beaver was also exhibited in a great .variety of ladies' articles. 
Formerly the use of this fur in the manufacture of hats rendered it so dear, as to make 
it quite unapproachable for any other purpose ; but since the great " gossamer" revolu- 
tion, the market has become much more easy, and the manufacture has been in a great 
measure handed over to the furrier. It dresses beautifully, has fine colour and lustre, 
and the density of the pile gives it a very rich and costly appearance. But it is not 
only the skins of wild animals alone that the furrier applies to the purposes of his trade. 
In this collection were exhibited some beautiful articles in the skin of the grebe, a wild 
duck found near the lake of Geneva, and a very costly and beautiful suit made from 
the feathers of the egret, a small bird, and so rare and expensive as only to be attainable 
by royal wearers. This costly collection was completed by various specimens of wolves, 
tigers, &c., carefully stuffed-, and adding greatly to the attractiveness of the stand. 
Her Majesty visited Mr. Nichplay's stand more than once, and commended many of. the 
articles. A visit to that portion of the nave in which the British far-trade arranged 
its wares must have convinced the most sceptical that our English furriers, having the 
command of the best market for the selection of skins, have also attained the greatest 
perfection in dressing these costly and beautiful articles of costume. It may be necessary 
to remind the reader, that the greater portion of the more costly furs is supplied by 
the Hudson's Bay Company and the North American Company, both of which have 
their hunting-grounds in the most northern part of the American continent, and who 
bring the produce to London, where, on sales occurring twice or three times a-year, the 
furriers of the whole world, Russia among the rest, supply themselves; and it is but 
reasonable to suppose that the London furriers, residing on the spot, and having the 
wealthiest people in the world for their customers, would not be behind any in the 
preparation of articles of the greatest costUness and beauty. To prove that such is 
actually the fact, it is only necessary to examine the specimens of the skins of almost 
every animal, from the royal lion and Bengal tiger down to the domestic rabbit, from 
which the fur section in the Crystal Palace was profusely filled. The greatest show in 
quantity, and surpassed by none in quality, was that of Messrs. Nicholay, who hung the 
whole front of the gallery with the skins of lions, tigers, bears, wolves, and foxes, dressed 
to a beautiful softness, and adapted to a modern exigency by being formed into open 
carriage, sleigh, and railway wrappers. It appears that they surpass all other articles of 
that description in warmth and comfort, and, although considerably more expensive than 
woollen wrappers in the first instance, yet, from their great durability, they become 
eventually the most economical wrapper for any one who travels much by open carriage 
or rail. Several specimens of the royal 'ermine were to be found in Messrs. Nicholav's 
stall. In the reign of Edward III. ermine and lettice were forbidden to be worn by 
civilians, and other expensive furs we're permitted only to knights and ladies whose 
incomes exceeded four hundred marks annually. Richard III. and his queen, Anne, 


rode from the Tower to Westminster iu robes of velvet, faced with ermine, on the dav 
ot their coronation. ' 

The fur trade between Europe and America commenced early in the seventeenth 
century, and was earned on by the early French emigrants. Quebec and Montreal 
were at first trading, posts. The trade was, then, as now, a barter of guns, cloth, ammuni- 
tion, &c., for the beaver and other furs collected by the natives, and was effected bv 
the intervention of the voyageurs] engdgis,ov coureurs des bois. These men carried bur- 
dens on their backs to .the Indian camps, and exchanged their wares for peltries with 
which they returned in the same manner.: Shortly after the discovery of: the' Mis- 
ssisippi, permanent houses, and in many places stockade forts, were built, and men of 
capital engaged in the trade. Detroit,', Mackinac, and Green Bay, were settled in this 
manner. In 1670, shortly after the restoration of Charles II., that monarch granted 
to Prince Rupert and others, a charter, empowering, them to trade, exclusively, with 
the aborigines in and about Hudson's Bay. A company, then and after called the Hud- 
son's Bay Company, was formed in consequence. The trade was then more lucrative 
than at present. In the. winter of 1783-4, another company was formed at Montreal, 
called the.NorthrWest Fur Company, which disputed the right of the Hudson's Bay, aind 
actively opposed it. The Earl of Selkirk ytzs, at that time at the head of the Hudson's 
Bay, and conceived the . plan of planting a colony on the Red River of Lake Winnepeg; 
Of this colony the North- West Company was suspicious. In consequence of this, and 
the evil feelings naturally growing out of a contrariety of interest, a war ensued 
between the servants of the parties, and a loose was given to outrage and barbarity; 
Wearied, at last, in 1821 the companies united, and are now known by the name of the 
Hudson's Bay Fur Company. The. colony estiablished by Lord Selkirk soon broke up; 
the settlers going to the United States.? Few are aware of the extent of the territory, 
of the Hudson's Bay Company. It covers one-eighth of the habitable globe. . Russia 
comes next in order of importance in this respect, but the race of animals is different. • 

Of all who have traded with the aborigines, the French were the most popular and 
successful. They did, and still do, conform to the manners and feelings of the Indians 
better than the English and Americans ever could. Most of the persons now engaged in 
the fur trade, in the region north of the Missouri, are French; and they are inuch 
esteemed by the natives, with whom they frequently intermarry. The male offspring of 
these alliances are commonly employed, as. interpreters, engagis, &c. They. are hand- 
some, athletic men. Mixing the blood seems to improve the races. The Indian trade oh 
the great lakes and.the Upper Mississippi, with its bi-anches, has long been in possession 
of the North American Fur Company; the principal directors of which are in the city oi 
New York. In the year 1822 a. new company, entitled the Columbian Fur Company, 
was organised to trade on" the St. Peter's and Mississippi. It was projected by three 
individuals, who had been thrown out of employment by the union of the Hudson's Bay 
and North-west, as before-mentioned.^ Its operations " soon extended, to the Missouri, 
whither its members went from the sources of the St. Peter's, with carts and wiaggons, 
drawn by dogs. When it had, after three years' opposition, obtained a secure footing 
in the country, it joined with the North American. There was another company on the 
Missouri at the same time. Furs were also : obtained from the Upper Missouri and 
the Rockv Mountains as follows: Large bodies of men (under the pretence of trading 
with Indians, to avoid the provisions of the law,) were, sent from St. Louis, provided with 
traps, guns, and all things necessary to hunters and trappers. They travelled in bodies 
of from 50 to 200, by way of security against the attacks of the savages, till they arrived 
at the place of their destination, when they separated, and pursued the fur-clad animals 
singly or in small parties. When their object was effected, they assembled with their 


peltry, and descended the Missouri. They did not always invade the privileges of the 
natives with impunity, but sometimes suffered severely in life and property. This system 
still continues, and its operatives form a distinct class in the state of Missouri. The 
articles used in the Indian trade are chiefly these : coarse blue and red cloth and fine 
scarlet, guns, knives, blankets, traps, coarse cottons, powder and ball, hoes, hatchets, 
beads, vermillion, ribbons, kettles, &c. 

The course of a trader in the North-west is this : He starts from Michilimackinacj 
or St. Louis, late in the summer, with a Mackinac boat, laden with goods. He takes 
with him an interpreter, commonly a half breed, and four or five engagis. On his arrival 
at his wintering ground, his men build a store for the goods, an apartment for him, and 
another for themselves. These buildings are of rough logs, plastered with mud, and 
roofed with ash or linden slabs. The chimneys are of clay. Though rude in appearance, 
there is much comfort in them. This done, the trader gives a great portion of his 
merchandise to the Indians on credit. It is expected that the debtor will pay in the 
following spring, though, as many neglect this part of the business, the trader is com- 
pelled to rate his goods very high. Thus the honest pay for the dishonest. Ardent 
spirits were never much used among the remote tribes. It is only on the frontier, in 
the immediate ^dcinity of the white settlers, that the Indians get enough to do them 
physical injury, though in the interior the traders, in the heat of opposition, employ 
.strong liquors to induce the savages to commit outrage, or to defraud their creditors. 
By this means the moral principle of the aborigines is overcome, and often destroyed. 
Spirit is commonly introduced into their country in the form of high wines, they being 
less bulky, and easier of transportation than liquors of lower proof. Indians, after having 
once tasted, become extravagantly fond of them, and will make any sacrifice, or commit 
any crime, to obtain them. Those Indians who have substituted articles of European 
manufacture, for their primitive arms and vestments, are whoUy dependent on the whites 
for the means of life, and an embargo on the trade is the greatest evil that can befal 
them. It is not going too far to say that the fur trade demoralises all engaged in it. 
The way in which it operates on the Indians has been already partially explained. 
As to the traders, they are, generally, ignorant men, in whose breasts interest overcomes 
religion and morals. As they are beyond the reach of the law (at least in the remote 
regions), they disregard it, and often commit or instigate actions that they would blush 
to avow in civiUsed society. In consequence of the fur trade, the buffalo has receded 
hundreds of miles beyond his former haunts. Formerly, an Indian killed a buffalo, 
made garments of the skin, and fed on the flesh while it lasted. Now, he finds that 
a blanket is lighter and more convenient than the buffalo robe, and kills two or 
three animals, with whose skins he may purchase it. To procure a gun, he must kill 
ten. The same cause operates to destroy the other animals. Some few tribes, the Otta- 
ways, for example, hunt on the different parts of their domains alternately, and so 
preserve the game. But by far the greater part of the aborigines have no such regula- 
tion. The fur-clad animals are now to be found in abundance only in the far north, 
where the rigour of the climate and the difficulty of transportation prevent the free 
access of the traders, and on the Upper Missouri, and towards the Rocky Mountains. 

The first proposal as to the exhibition of furs was, that it should be a joint affair 
amongst the merchants, wholesale dealers, and retailers— a shape in which (although 
four of the leading houses in the trade contributed to the great case in the centre of the 
western nave, which went by the name of the Fur Trophy) the project did not get 
carried out J the wholesale dealers at first hanging back, under the impression that 
though furs might be shown of every class, and in every stage of finish, they scarce suffi- 
ciently formed an article of manufacture for exhibition: finally, however, nearly all 


dropped in, it being felt that a branch of trade occupying so large an amount of capital, 
and employing such a number of hands, should be fairly represented; and, therefore, in 
the wholesale trade, Messrs. George Smith and Sons, of Watling-street ; Robert Clark and 
Sons, Cheapside ; Bevingtons and Morris, King William-street ; Lutze and Co., King 
Edward-street; Myer and Co., Bow-lane; and George Ellis, Fore-street; and in the 
retail, Nicholay and Son, Oxford-street; R. Drake, Piccadilly; Ince and Son, Oxford- 
street, became exhibitors in the common case or in spaces of their own. The skins and 
furs from the Arctic regions, sent by the Hudson's Bay Company, selected from their 
importation of 1851, and prepared and arranged by Messrs. J. A. Nicholay and Son, her 
Majesty's furriers, were of great value, beauty, and interest. The groups of the varieties 
of foxes included the black, silver, cross, red, blue, white, and kitt. The black and silver 
fox is the most valuable of this tribe — a single skin bringing from ten to forty guineas ; 
they are generally purchased for the Russian and Chinese markets, being highly prized 
in those countries. The cross and red fox are used by the Chinese, Greeks, Persians, 
&c., for cloak linings and for trimming their dresses. The white and blue fox are used 
in this and other countries for ladies' wear. In the sumptuary laws passed in the reign 
of Henry III. the fox is named, with other furs, as being then in use. It has been stated 
that the fox in the Arctic regions changes the colour of its fur with the change of the 
seasons. Such however is, we believe, not the case, with the exception of the white fox, 
which is in winter a pure white, and in summer of a greyish tint. Among other groups 
shown were beautiful specimens of the otter {Lutra Canadensis). The Hudson's Bay, 
North American, and European otters are chiefly exported for the use of the Russians, 
Chinese, and Greeks, for caps, collars, trimmings, robes, &c. It may not be uninteresting 
to state, that upwards of 500 otters, the produce of this country alone, were exported 
during the last year. Near to these was a beautiful and interesting group of beavers 
{Castor Americarms). The beaver, in former years, was one of the Hudson's Bay 
Company's most valuable productions ; but since its use has been almost entirely dis- 
continued in the manufacture of hats, it has lost much of its value. Experiments have, 
however, been made, and are progressing satisfactorily, to adapt its fine and silky wool 
to weaving purposes. For ladies' wear, a most beautiful fur has been the result of 
preparing the beaver by a new process, after which the surface is cut by an ingenious 
and costly machine. It is exported in its prepared state for the use of the higher classes 
in Europe and the East. The rich white wool from the under part of the beaver brings 
at the present time a very high price, and is, we believe, largely exported to France, 
where it is manufactured into a beautiful description of bonnets. Passing from the 
beavers, we came to two groups, one of the lynx {felis Canadensis), the other of the 
Ivnx cat {felis rufa), both of which, when dyed, were formerly much used. Their rich, 
s'ilky and glossy appearance justly caused them to be great favourites ; but the caprice 
of fashion at length banished them from this country. They are, however, still dyed, 
prepared and exported in large numbers for the American market, where they are much 
admired. In its natural state the fur is a greyish-white, with dark spots, and it is much 
used by the Chinese, Greeks, Persians, and others, for cloaks, hmngs, &c., for which pm:- 
poses it is very appropriate, being exceedingly warm, soft, and light. The lynx ot the 
present day is the fur formerly called the " lucern." ^ ^ ^. , ,,„ , .> 

We had next groups of the wolf {canis ocndentalis) ; of the fisher {mustela Canadensis) ; 
of the wolverin iqulo luscus). The wolves' skins are generally used as cloak and coat 
linings in Russia and other cold countries, by those who cannot afford the more choice 
kinds ; also for sleigh coverings and open travelling carriages. The other skins enume- 
rated are principally used for trimmings, &c. The tail of the cams occidentah, is yery 
valuable, and is exclusively used by the Hebrew race on the Continent. The North 

VOL. II. ^ 


American badger, of which some fine specimens were shown, is exported for general 
wear ; its soft fine fur rendering it suitable for that purpose. The European badger, on 
the contraiy, from the wiry nature of its hair, is extensively used for the manufacture of 
the superior kinds of shaving-brushes. The Hudson's Bay martin or sable {mustela 
martes), is principally used for ladies' wear, and is next in repute and value to the Russian 
sable. It is consumed in large quantities in this country, in France, and in Germany. 
The darkest colours are the most valuable, and the lighter shades are frequently dyed to 
imitate the darker varieties. The heraldic associations connected with the sable render 
it highly interesting to the historian and the antiquary. In every age it has been 
highly prized. The lining of a mantle, made of black sables with white spots, and pre- 
sented by the Bishop of Lincoln to Henry I., was valued at £100, a great sum in those 
days. In the reign of Henry VIII. a sumptuary law confined the use of the fur of sables 
to the nobility above the rank of viscounts. The minx {mustela vison), is exclusively the 
produce of the Hudson's Bay Company's possessions, and other parts of North America. 
It is consumed in Europe in immense quantities, principally for ladies' wear ; its rich, 
glossy appearance, and dark brown colour (similar to sable), combined with its durability 
and moderate cost, justly render it a great favourite. 

The musquash, or large American musk rat, is imported into this country in immense 
numbers ; it was formerly used much in the manufacture of hats, but the introduction 
of the silk hat has entirely superseded it. The musquash is now dressed in a superior 
way, and is manufactured extensively for female wear, both in its natural and dyed state. 
It is a cheap, durable, and good-looking fur. This humble article has, we believe, been 
introduced to the public under every name but its real one, and thousands who use it 
are led to believe that they are possessed of sable, minx, and other real furs. The 
white hare {lepus glacialis), from the Polish regions, and also from Russia, is perfectly 
white in winter, but in summer it changes to a greyish tint. The skins being exceedingly 
tender, it has latterly given place to the white Polish rabbit, which is more durable, and 
therefore more suitable for that purpose. When dyed, it looks exceedingly rich and 
beautiful, and is often palmed ofi" upon the inexperienced for superior furs. The Hudson's 
Bay rabbit is one of the least valuable skins imported by the company. Like all furs 
from the polar regions, it is fine, long, and thick, but the skin is so fragile and tender, 
that it is almost useless ; it is, however, dyed and manufactured for ladies' wear, and is 
sold by many dealers, we believe, under various names, and even frequently as sable ; 
but, to the great annoyance of the purchasers, it soon breaks, the fur rubs off, and it 
falls to pieces. The large North American black bear is termed the " army bear," 
because its fur is generally used in this and other countries for military purposes, for caps, 
pistol holsters, rugs, carriage hammercloths, sleigh coverings, and accompaniments. 
The fine black cub bears are much sought after in Russia for making shube linings, coat 
linings, trimmings and facings; the other sorts, with the large grey bears, for sleigh 
coverings, &c. The skin of the white Polar bear, the supply of which is very limited, 
is generally made into rugs, which are often bordered with that of the black and grey 
bear. The brown Isabella bear is at the present time used for ladies' wear in America. 

Forty years since,- the Isabella bear was the most fashionable fur in England a single 

skin producing from thirty to forty guineas ; but the caprice of fashion causes similar 
skins at the present time to produce not more than as many shillings.. Near the group 
of bears was a small and valuable collection of the skins of the sea otter {eutrydra marttima). 
This animal is mostly sought after by traders on account of its value — a single skin pro- 
ducing from thirty to forty guineas. It is said to be the royal fur of China, and is much 
used by the great ofiScers of state, mandarins, &c. It is in great esteem in Russia and 
18 prmcipally worn by the nobles, for collars, cuffs, facings, trimmings, &c. On account 


of its great weight, it is rarely used by ladies. Among North American and Canadian 
skms Messrs. Nicholay and Son exhibited likewise a group of racoon iprocyon lator). 
Ihe finest qualities of racoon are, we believe, produced in North America, and are 
imported into this country in immense numbers. They are purchased here by mer- 
chants who attend the periodical fur sales, and who dispose of large quantities at the 
great fair at Leipsic. They are principally used in Russia and throughout Germany for 
lining shubes and coats, and are exclusively confined to gentlemen's wear. The dark 
skins are the choicest, and are very valuable. We had next a group of cat lynx (felis 
rufa). This animal is mostly found in Canada, and is a distinct variety of the lynx 
species ; the skins are exported, and are made into cloak and coat linings, being very 
suitable for cold climates, and very moderate in price. The North American minx is 
found in great numbers in Newfoundland, Labrador, the Canadas, &c., and is the finest 
of the species. Several most excellent specimens of this skin were shown. Some furs 
of the Virginian or North American grey fox completed the collection of the produce 
of the Canadas, Newfoundland, and Labrador. This fur is at present used to a con- 
siderable extent for open carriage wrappers, sleigh wrappers, coat and cloak linings, also 
for fur travelling bags, foot muffs, &c. Its exceedingly moderate price, warmth, and great 
durability, render it an especial favourite. 

We now propose to notice the European furs. Foremost in interest among those was 
a group of Russian sables {martes zibellina). This is one of the most costly furs, a 
single skin varying in price from three to ten guineas. It is usually manufactured into 
linings, which are generally used as presents by the Emperor of Russia, the Sultan, and 
other great potentates, being of the value of one thousand guineas and upwards. They 
are also manufactured for ladies' and gentlemen's wear, according to the prevailing fashion 
of the country. The Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffs of the city of London, have 
their robes and gowns furred with the sable, according to their respective ranks. The 
tail of the sable is also used in the manufacture of artists' pencils or brushes, being 
superior to all others. The tail of the sable makes very beautiful trimmings, which, 
together with muffs and boas of the same, are much prized. Russia produces about 
25,000 of these valuable and admired skins annually. Naturalists have not yet decided 
whether this species is identical with that from North America — the fur of the former 
being much softer, finer, and longer than that of the latter. 

The stone martin {martes albogularis) , of which several groups were exhibited, is widely 
spread over Europe, and derives its name from the fact of the animal selecting rocks, 
ruined castles, fee, as its haunts. The fur in its natural state is soft and fine, and shades 
from a light to a dark-bluish grey, taking the colour of the rocks amongst which it is 
found. The throat is invariably a pure white. The French excel in dyeing this fur, and 
it is in consequence termed French sable ; it is extensively used in this country, and 
being a permanent colour, and much like the true sable, it is a great favourite. Several 
groups of baum {or tree) martin {martes abietum), were also shown. This fur derives its 
name from the fact of the animal being invariably found in woods and pine forests. 
The fiir in its natural state is similar to the North American sable, but coarser. It is 
distinguished by the bright yellow colour of the throat : when dyed, it is so like the 
real sable, that it can scarcely be distinguished from it. 

The groups of ermine {mustela erminm), in their natural state, next demand notice. 
The ermine is obtained in most countries; but the best is from Russia, Sweden, and 
Norway. The animal is killed in the winter, when the fur is pure white (except the 
tail, with its jet-black tip), it being in that season in its greatest perfection; in summer 
and spring it is grey, and of little or no value. It is the weasel of more southern climes. 
The ermine is the royal fur of most countries. In England, at the coronation of the 


sovereign, the minever, as the ermine is styled in heraldic language, is used, being pow- 
dered, that is, studded with black spots ; the spots, or powdered bars, on the minever 
capes of the peers and peeresses, being in rows, and the number of rows or bars 
denoting their various degrees of rank. The sovereign and the members of the royal 
family have the minever of the coronation robes powdered all over, a black spot being 
inserted in about every square inch of the fur. The crown is also adorned with a band 
of minever, with a single row of spots ; the coronets of the peers and peeresses having 
a similar decoration. The black spots are made of the skin of the black Astracan lamb. 
On state occasions, in the House of Lords, the peers are arrayed in their robes of state, 
of scarlet cloth and gold lace, with bars or rows of pure minever, more or less accord- 
ing to their degree of rank ; the sovereign alone wearing the royal minever, powdered 
all over. The judges, in their robes of office, are clad in scarlet and pure ermine. The 
ermine, with the tail of the animal inserted therein, is used as articles of dress for ladies, 
in every variety of form and shape, according to the dictates of fashion, and also as cloak 
linings. The minever can only be worn on state occasions by those who, by their 
rank, are entitled to its use. In the reign of Edward the Third, furs of ermine were 
strictly forbidden to be worn by any but the royal family ; and its general use is pro- 
hibited in Austria at the present time. In mercantile transactions the ermine is always 
sold by the timber, which consists of forty skins. The minever fur of the olden time 
was taken from the white belly of the grey squirrel. The Kolinski [mustela Siberica), 
or Tartar sable, is procured from Russia ; it belongs to the weasel tribe, and is in colour 
a bright yellow : it is much used in its natural state, and is also dyed to imitate the 
cheaper sables. The fur which is probably more extensively used in this country than 
any other, is that of the squirrel {sdurus) . The squirrel abounds in Russia (where the 
fur attains the greatest perfection), in such immense numbers as would appear almost 
incredible — the importation from thence to this country alone, last year, exceeding two 
millions. It is manufactured entirely for ladies' and children's wear : for cloak and 
mantle linings it is particularly suitable, its moderate cost adapting it to general use. 
The celebrated Weisenfels linings deserve a remark here, being made from the belly or 
white part of the dark blue squirrel. The exquisite workmanship and lightness of this 
article are without parallel, a full-sized cloak-lining weighing only twenty-five ounces. 
This favourite commodity is known as the petit gris. For colder climates the linings 
are made from the back or plain grey part of the squirrel, the best having part of the 
tail left on each skin. The lighter colours have lately been dyed, and introduced to imitate 
the expensive sables. The squirrel tail is made into the round boa and trimmings, pur- 
posely for the foreign market ; it is also used for artists' pencils. We find the squirrel 
named in the sumptuary laws, in the reign of Henry III., and at the same period the 
minever fur was the white part of the squirrel's belly. Russia produces about 33,000,000 

The fitch or pole-cat {putorius foetidus) is also so well known as to need but little 
description. About forty years since it was one of the most fashionable furs ; the rich- 
ness of its colour (the top hair a jet black, the ground a rich yellow), combined with its 
durability, caused a great consumption of this skin ; but its peculiar odour, from which 
it is called the foulmarte, has probably been the cause of its gradual disuse. It is pro- 
duced in the greatest perfection in this country. Of lambskins there were various speci- 
mens, including those from Crimea, the Ukraine, Astracan, with Persian, Spanish, Hun- 
garian, and English. The grey and black Russian lamb is mostly used for gentlemen's 
cloak and coat linings, for facings, collars, caps, &c., and also for army purposes. The 
Astracan lamb has a rich wavy, glossy, black skin, extremely short in the fur, having 
the appearance of beautiful watered silk : in order to obtain this choice skin, the parent 


sheep is destroyed a certain time before the birth of the lamb. The Persian grey and 
black lamb is covered with the minutest curls possible ; this is not a natural growth, 
but is caused by the animal being, as soon as born, sewed up tightly in a leathern skin, 
which prevents the curl from expanding, and which is not removed till the desired curl 
is produced ; from the means adopted, both sorts are rather costly, and they are used 
for gentlemen's wear and military purposes. The Hungarian lamb is produced in that 
country in immense numbers ; the national coat, called the Juhasz Bunda, is made of 
it. In the summer or in wet weather the fur or woolly part is worn outside ; in winter 
when warmth is required, it is reversed. The skin is tanned or dressed in a way pecu- 
liar to the country, and decorated and embroidered in accordance with the means and 
taste of the wearer. In Spain, the lamb is used for the well-known and characteristic 
short jacket of that country, which is adorned with filagree silver buttons; the coarse 
kinds of both colours are used for our cavalry, and they are also employed for mount- 
ing and bordering skins, as leopards, tigers, &c., for ornamental and domestic purposes. 
In the reign of Richard II., the sergeant-at-law wore a robe furred inside with white 
lambskin and a cape of the same. The furs of the perewaitzki and of the hampster, 
which are obtained from Russia, are principally used by ladies ; the latter is made into 
cloak Unings, which are exceedingly light, durable, and cheap. 

Passing from these, we next come to the skin of that well-known and useful domestic 
animal, the cat. The cat, when properly attended to, and bred purposely for its skin, gives 
a most useful and durable fur. In Holland it is bred and kept in a confined state till the 
fur attains its greatest perfection, and it is fed entirely on fish. In other countries, and 
especially our own, it is produced in large numbers. The wild cat is much larger, and 
longer in the fur, and it is met with in extensive forests, particularly in Hungary j the 
colour is grey, spotted with black, and its softness and durability render it suitable for 
cloak and coat linings, for which purpose it is much used. The black species is also much 
in request, and is similarly used, and, with the spotted and striped varieties, it is made 
into wrappers for open carriages, sleigh coverings, and railway travelling. The value of 
this skin, and its extensive consumption, have, no doubt, been the cause of the disappear- 
ance of many a sleek and favourite "tabby," and we would recommend those of our 
readers who are in possession of a pet of this description to keep careful watch and ward 
over it. We understand that the market is rapidly increasing, and the operation of the 
laws of supply and demand has led to the formation of an unprincipled class, who ruth- 
lessly poach upon these domestic preserves. 

We next come to the English rabbit, which yields a most valuable and extensively 
used fur— both in its wild and its domestic state; and the supply maybe said to be 
inexhaustible. It was formerly employed to make the felt bodies, or foundation, of the 
beaver hat ; but at present, not being used for that purpose, it is dressed dyed, and 
manufactured in immense quantities into various useful cheap articles. The ^ol has 
recently been used in making a peculiar cloth, adapted for ladies' wear. The English 
silver grey rabbit was originally a breed peculiar to Lincolnshire, where great attention 
was naid to it Warrens of this species have since been formed m various parts ot the 
country. It is in great demand in China and Russia, to which countnes it is largely ex- 
ported, on account of the high price there obtained. The white Polish rabbit is a breed 
SeSiar to that country, and the skin is there made into hnmgs for ladies' cloaks, being 
the cheapest and most useful article available for that purpose. It is imported m great 
numbers into this country. The finer sorts of white rabbit are much used as substitutes 
™rmLTand when the^ ermine tails are inserted therein, the imitation is so perfect 
thatTiequires the practised eye of the fiirrier to detect the imposition. So late as the 
refgn of Hen^ VIII great value was attached to the cony or rabbit skin, and the charter 

VOL. II. ^ 


of the Skinners Company shows that they were worn by nobles and gentlemen. Acts 
of parliament were passed, regulating their sale and exportation, which are still unre- 
pealed, though in abeyance. Several fine specimens of seal skin were contributed by 
Messrs. Nicholay and Son. The fur seal, the supply of which is small compared with 
other kinds, is brought to a degree of high perfection in this country; when divested of 
the long coarse hair, which protects it in its native element, there remains the rich, curly, 
silky, yellowish down, in which state it was formerly used for travelling caps and other 
purposes. It is now seldom made use of in this state, but is dyed a beautiful Vandyck 
brown, giving it the appearance of the richest velvet ; and it is manufactured in every 
variety of shape and form, into articles of dress for ladies', gentlemen's, and chUdren'.s 
wear. Passing from the seal skins, we next observed several groups of chinchilla. The 
chinchilla is exclusively a Soijth American animal. Since its introduction into this country 
and France, about forty years since, it has continued to be a favourite and fashionable fur. 
Its extreme softness and delicacy confine it to ladies' wear. It has lately been largely 
exported from this country to Russia and Germany, where it is greatly admired. The 
bastard or Lima chinchilla is a short poor fur, altogether very inferior to the other, but 
often, to those who are not judges, substituted for the superior kinds. 

Leaving the northern latitudes and the New World, let us direct our attention to 
the skins from the tropics, such as hons, tigers, leopards, panthers, &c., several fine 
specimens of which were shown in the Indian department, as well as by individual ex- 
hibitors. In China, the mandarins cover the seats of justice with the skin of the tiger. 
In this country, the use of the leopard's skin under the officers' saddles is a mark of 
military rank adopted in some of her Majesty's cavalry regiments. In Austria the small 
fine leopard's skin is worn as a mantle by the Hungarian noblemen of the Imperial 
hussar body guard. Of buffalo robes, or skins, several specimens yyere exhibited. The 
bufi'alo is killed in immense numbers by the North American Indians, solely for the 
tongue, the skin, and the bosses. They have a peculiar method of dressing the skin with 
the brains of the animal, in which state it is always imported. It has of late years been 
much used in Europe and this coiintry as a warm traveUing wrapper, its moderate price 
placing it within the reach of almost all classes; and in the colder climates it is similarly 
used also for sleigh wrappers, and cloak and coat linings. From Asia Minor we had speci- 
mens of the skin of the Angora goat, which is produced in large numbers in that part 
of the world, and is remarkable for its long, curly, rich, white, silky coat. It was for- 
merly a most costly and fashionable article of ladies' wear, but it is at the present time of 
little value. When dyed, it takes some of the most beautiful and brilliant colours. Its 
low price has caused it to be adapted to weaving purposes with success. It is frequently 
made into very beautiful rugs for drawing-rooms, carriages, and other purposes. 


The class in which furs and skins were exhibited also included feathers, the principal 
British display of which was by Messrs. Adcock and Co. Among their collection of 
feathers for dress, in a handsome glass-case in the British nave, were the several vai-ieties 
of the feathers of the ostrich, dressed and undressed, which vary in quality according 
to soil and climate. There were some of the finer sorts, such as the Aleppo and 
Mogador, made into plumes, as used by the Knights of the Garter, the Knights Grand 
Crosses, and the King's Champion at the coronation of George IV. These feathers were 
also shown formed into a variety of court plumes, such as have been worn since the 
beginmng of the century up to the present time, showing the alterations in the fashion 
during the last fifty years. Some of the black feathers— which come from the back and 
wmgs of the bird— are made into olumes for military purposes, as used by the Highland 


regiments : some are dyed in brilliant colours, and, to show the perfection of the art, 
several colours are produced upon the same feather, a process never attempted until 
within the last twenty years. There were also specimens from the marabout stork Oepto- 
plilus crumeniferus) made into plumes and screens, with the feathers of the scarlet ibis, 
which have a very pretty effect ;. some of these were also dyed various colours on the 
same feather. There were likewise some knotted and made into trimmings, with gold, 
suitable for dresses— a work of great time and patienoe, as every knot has to be tied 
separately. Some of the grey marabouts were dyed black, which, in this description of 
feather, is a colour very difficult to produce. The feathers of the birds of Paradise were 
in great variety, both in their natural state and dressed for ladies' use; some were dyed 
different colours, many of which, considering the natural colour of the bird (which is a 
bright gold), are very difficult to accomplish— as, for instance, the purple and rose 
colours, as well as the mixed hues, which are not very often seen. Some plumes made 
from the feather of the rhea, or South American ostrich, were also to be found among 
the collection. These feathers are usually called by the plumassiers "vultures," and 
are used for a variety of purposes — some for military plumes, others for ladies' wear. 
There were also the feathers of the emu, which are much prized on the continent, and are 
there known as the plume de casoir. The feathers of the heron [arded. oinerea), which are 
used by the Knights of the Garter, are very valuable, owing to their scarcity — a small 
plume being worth fifty guineas. The plumes of the plotus auUnga [pltmes d'auligna), 
a rare feather, also were in great variety, some mounted with gold and silver. These 
feathers are frequently called heron plumes, and are worn by persons of rank in the East. 
Besides these, there were the feathers of the large egret, which are used by the officers 
of the hussar regiments. There were also the feathers of the small egret {herodias 
gurzetta), some dyed in different colours; the feathers of the scarlet ibis, in the form 
of wreaths; also those of the argus pheasant, made into screens, and the feathers of the 
peacock. We had likewise some from the common cock, made into a variety of plumes, 
as well as those of the turkey, the swan, and the eagle ; the latter are used in the High- 
land costume. 

Some interesting specimens of the grebe {podiceps cristatd) were to be seen in the fur 
department. This is an aquatic bird, inhabiting most of the lakes in Europe. The 
choicest specimens were from Geneva, Italy, and Holland. The feathers are of the richest 
white, having the appearance of polished silver, the plumage on the outer edge of the 
skin being a rich dark brown ; it is used by ladies, forms a most beautiful and elegant 
article of dress, and is worn as trimmings for the trains of court and drawing-room 
dresses, for muffs, cuffs, boas, &c. It is very durable ; the exquisite smoothness of the 
feathers prevents its soiling with wear. We next notice the beautifully soft and elastic 
down known as the eider-down. The bird from which this substance is taken is found in 
large numbers in Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Its colour is dark grey, and its elas- 
ticity, lightness, and resistance to wet, are prominent amongst its other advantages ; it is 
used for the inside stuffing of muffs. On the Continent the well-known eider-down quilts 
are, on account of their lightness and warmth, considered almost indispensable to bed- 
rooms. The eider-down is applied to wearing apparel; by being placed immediately 
under the lining, and quilted, it forms one of the lightest and warmest articles of dress, 
both for ladies and gentlemen. The beautiful material known as "swan's-down," of 
which there were several specimens, is obtained from the swan after the feathers have 
been plucked. The feathers, prepared and purified, are used for beds, and, being ex- 
ceedingly durable and elastic, are particularly suited for that purpose. The Hudson's 
Bay swan quills are much in demand for pens, and for artists' brushes or pencils, and 
command a high price. A portion of the plumage is also used for ornamental and fancy 


purposes, and military plumes. Goose-down is manufactured to a considerable extent 
in Ireland, by being sewed on textile fabrics. The article has been patronised and sold 
in England extensively, for the benefit of the poor Irishwomen, by whom it is made up. 
The price, compared with the true swan's-down, is very moderate. Being sewed upon 
cloth, it, can be washed j on the contrary, swan's-down must be placed in the hands of 
the furrier, when required to be cleaned. 

A specimen of the ornithorhyncus, or duck-billed platypus, a native of Australia — one' 
of the most extraordinary aninials in nature — was exhibited by Mr. Ellis, of Fore-street. 
The skin is very much like that of the otter, and seldom exceeds twelve inches in length; 
thejsupply is very, limited. The animal is a sort of connecting link between the bird and 
the beast— having the claw and body of the latter, and the bill and web foot of the 
duck. The male is furnished with two powerful spurs on each hind leg, similar to 
the game cock. The female lays eggs, which she hatches, and then suckles her young 
brood: — which extraordinary fact was not generally credited till, some years since, pre- 
served specimens of the creature were brought to this country, and submitted to the late 
Sir H. Halford, who dissected them, and delivered a lecture thereon at the College of 
Physicians, when this circumstance was first made public. Many attempts have been 
made to bring them to this country alive, but without success. In the Cape of Good 
Hope department a tippet was shown made from the feathers of various Cape birds. From 
Van Diemen's Land some feathers from the mutton bird, or sooty petrel {puffimis brevi- 
caudus) were shown. They are well adapted, and are much used in the colony, for 
pUlows, :bolster8, and mattresses. From the immense numbers of these birds which resort 
to the islands in Bass's Straits, and the profusion of feathers with which they are clothed, 
there would be no difficulty' in obtaining the latter in any quantity that might be required. 
When better known in this country, it is not unlikely that they will prove a profitable 
article of export from the colony. In the foreign department the display of feathers 
was very limited. Those more particularly worthy of notice were two splendid heron 
plumes, contributed by MM. Perrot, Petit, and Co., of Paris, of the value of 3,000f. 
each, and some very fine bird of Paradise feathers. There were also some fine specimens, 
adapted for ornaments for the mantel-piece, for head-dresses, and screens, exhibited by 
M. L'Huillier and M. Lodde, of Paris. 


SCULPTURE— co«<jnMe«?. 





Having in our last chapter on sculpture, described the productions of those artists who 
received, from the awaird of the jury, council and prize medals, we now propose to devote 
our attention to the examination of the works of such as received the gratifying dis- 
tinction of " Honorary Mention." 






o ~- 

OC . 





the piazza BarTjerini at Kome bore ample testimony.: Marchesi, of Milan, next demands 
our notice for his statue, in marble, of Eurydice, which, although its execution was some- 
what neglected, fully deserved the award it received for its design and agreeable expres- 
sion. Mr. F. M. Miller, of London, was also comprised in the list, honourably men- 
tioned, for his marble group of Two Orphan Children at Prayer ; as were Mr. and Mrs. 
Thornycroft, for their agreeable statues, in plaster, of the Koyal Children in the 
character of the Seasons. 

M. Michel Pascal, of Paris, also received the same desirable mark of distinction for 
a group, in marble, of a Monk holding out a crucifix, which a little boy was eagerly 
kissing ; a little girl was standing by, steadfastly gazing at him. There was a charming 
feeling for nature in the expression of the heads, but the general composition, and par- 
ticularly the drapery, might be considered rather picturesque than plastic in style, and, 
with the exception of the nude forms, the whole was only sketched out in the marble. 
Signor A. Sangiorgio, of Milan, comes next upon our list for his colossal bust, in 
marble, of the poet Vincenzio Monti. The conception of this work was very spirited, 
but a little strained, and the execution most masterly and careful. E. B. Stephens, of 
London, for his Deer Stalker and Dog; and W. Theed, also of London, for his Prodigal 
Son and his Narcissus, works already noticed by us, appear in this category, which we 
conclude with the name of H. Weekes, for his Sleeping Child, with a Dog. In casting 
an eye over our review of the productions in sculpture in the Crystal Palace, it will be 
seen that no other nation, exhibited so many works of ihis class as Great Britain. It 
was observed by the jury, that this might be partly accounted for by the fact, that the 
English sculptors have not been embarrassed, like those of other countries, by the cost 
of transporting their works from a distance ; but the far greater wealth of the English, 
as compared with other nations, is another cause of this numerical superiority. With 
regard to the quality of their sculpture, it must be confessed that the productions of the 
modern English school, till within a comparatively recent date, have not been such as to 
command the approbation of the most competent judges. " In the earlier periods of 
English art," observes an able critic, " the name of Elaxman stands alone ; and, fertile 
as this great genius was in invention, the execution of his works hardly equals the beauty 
of their conception. His influence seems to have been scarcely felt for a considerable 
period ; the strong tendency to Realism* in the English school of sculpture found its 
natural expression in portraiture. Chantrey, long pre-eminent among his contempora- 
ries, produced a great number of admirable busts ; but in all the works of this period 
which have a higher pretension, and claim to rank as Ideal sculpture, there is a striking 
deficiency, not only in scientific knowledge, but in taste and in genuine Plastic style. 

Having now in this and in several preceding chapters expatiated on the magnates 
among the sculptors, such as were deemed, in the o^nion of an enlightened jury, worthy 
of distinction, from the envied holder of a councffl^medal, to the gratified receiver of 
" honourable mention," we will now bestow a glance or two towards those less favoured 
sons of the chisel whom we do not consider the " oi polloi" of their race, merely because 
their contributions were altogether unnoticed in " the Reports." Some of their works, 
in companionship with those of their more favoured brethren, have, in the opinion of mir 
talented jury, been deemed worthy of illustration by the burin of the most distinguished 

* A work is called Eealistic when the artist restricts himself to the task of rendering an individual model 
in all its parts, forms, character, and the like, just as they appear before him. On the other hand a work 
of art is called Ideal when the artist modifies the figure in these same respects according to his own 
feeling for its inner significance and outward beauty of form — attributes which necessarily vary in each 







' 1^ 



























■: V V 


Tr< T ' r 3CI r 'A h 
1 ^ H t- I L !ll J I Jf ^ f- 
Mf tf I JIM h F 

irtd by BaH from a DBgncratoljpp by Beard 




/' / 






I I 

- Engraved " the Origiiial StaLae %-T. MUili?: 


eyUiS'T/i'. /A-. C'-o/Yi.-lia/ ,^'^^a/-e/e i/z. /7?i: : ^y^rav- i 


-^.^ rCeaie^ i:/ m'/nc/i. ^laa 

'£a^i^Ji<^,i.K. ^Q^Aeai- fcyW^y^*:^^?, ,s^''/SJ/ 







artists, and have beeu the subject of admiration to our innumerable readers. Gray has 
beautifully observed of these obscurer treasures — 

" Full many a gem of purest ray serene 

The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear, 
Full many a flower is bom to blush unseen, 
And waste its sweetness on the desert air." 

Waiving, however, the question as to the exact applicability of this quotation to the 
subjects before us, let us resume our critical exposition ; we shall in the first place, make 
mention of " a colossal statue of the Queen," which represented our gracious Sovereign 
seated upon the throne, arrayed in aU the attributes of royalty, an appropriate compli- 
ment from the Vieille Montague Zinc Company, of France and Belgium, to this country, 
in commemoration of the Great Exhibition of all Nations. Its production also afforded 
an instance of extraordinary energy, having been, we are informed, " commenced and 
brought to its perfect state within the short space of three months." The statue stood, 
with the pedestal, twenty-one feet high. The design and modelling were from the hands 
of M. Dantan, aine, of Paris ; the etchings of the pedestal by M. Lenormand, architect, 
and prodiiced by M. Hardouin. The statue was cast under the immediate inspection 
of M. Victor Paillard. Independently of aU consideration as a work of portraiture, this 
was a remarkable production, and deserved attention. We, nevertheless, protest against 
colossal portraits, particularly of females. Beauty and grace are altogether independent 
of size ; neither does the expression of dignity and power require any development beyond 
the natural dimensions of the human figure. We do not fancy a Venus twelve feet in 
height j such Brobdignagian beauties are by no means to our taste ; neither do we think 
the majesty of a hero is at all increased by extending his corporeal bulk. Alexander, 
Napoleon, and Wellington, were anything but gigantic in stature. Why then should 
we have the " hero of a hundred fights" presented to us in colossal proportions, as Mr. 
Milnes has represented him ? In honour of his great name and glorious achievements, 
we have — notwithstanding our opinion of its merit as a work of art is by no means an 
exalted one — assigned a place among our illustrations to the statue of the departed 
warrior, as well as to that of the illustrious statesman, his kinsman and namesake. 

The idea of victory so naturally follows the name of Wellington, that we need no 
apology for introducing to the notice of our readers, the statue of that goddess, by 
Professor Ranee, of Berlin, a delineation of which will be found among our engravings, 
from the daguerreotype. She is represented sitting, apparently overlooking a field of 
battle, and holding a wreath of laurel in her hands, ready to crown the successful com- 
batant. From the tented field, let us pass to " the gentle neighbourhood of grove and 
spring," and bestow a glance of admiring approbation on yonder graceful figure of a 
nymph. It is from the chisel of Woodington, and was entitled " A young Girl at the 
Spring," and a very classical and beautiful figure it is, and well worthy of examination 
and praise. We shall next direct attention to a group by Legrew, entitled " Milton and 
his Daughters." The immortal bard is represented sitting between his two female sup- 
porters, raising his eyes heavenward, and apparently in the fervour of composition. We 
may even imagine him, from the sad, yet elevated expression of his countenance, to be 
giving utterance to his beautiful and touching apostrophe : — 

« Thus with the year 

Seasons return ; but not to me returns 
Day, or the sweet approach of even or morn, 
Or sight of vernal bloom, or summer's rose, 
Or flocks, or herds, or human face divine ; 
But cloud instead, and ever-'dm-ing dark 


Surrounds me, from the cheerful ways of men 

Cut off, and for the book of knowledge fair, 

Presented with a universal blank 

Of nature's works to me expunged and raised, 

And wisdom at one entrance quite shut out. 

So much the rather thou, celestial light. 

Shine inward, and the mind through all her powers 

Irradiate ; there plant eyes, all mist from thence 

Purge and disperse, that I may see and tell 

Of things invisible to mortal sight." 

In the vicinity of the above described group, was an allegorical composition by Thomas, 
denominated " The Spirit of Science unveiling Ignorance and Prejudice.'' We do not 
particularly admire allegory, either in sculpture or in painting. Even in poetry it is 
wearisome. The sweet and impassioned language of a Spenser renders it barely endur- 
able. The glowing tints and vigorous delineation of Rubens fail to give it interest, and 
sculpture wastes her powers on mystifications, that are generally unintelligible without 
the aid of lengthened description. In the present subject, we see no reason to change 
our opinion, as to its failure in respect to interest. " Sampson Bursting his Bonds," by 
Legrew, was not so felicitous an attempt as his Miltonic group. The artist has fallen 
into the usual error of nearly every one that has treated the subject, of representing his 
hero as a mere man of extraordinary weight and muscle. Scripture does not authorize 
the idea that the divinely gifted Nazarite was nothing more than a brawny giant, if he 
was a giant at all, or that his strength, like that of ordinary mortals, was consequent on 
physical superiority; the gift was mysteriously placed in his hair, and when his locks 
were shorn from his temples, his strength departed from him, although it cannot be 
pretended that his bodily frame, the compactness of bone and muscle, was one whit 
diminished or in any respect impaired. No — the divine gift, the heavenly inspiration, 
was altogether wanting. We were tempted, as we stood before this ponderous piece of 
muscular development, to exclaim with the chorus in Milton's noble poem — 

" Can this be he, 
That hero, that renowned 
Irresistible Samson ?— whom unarmed, 
No strength of man, or fiercest wUd beast, could withstand ; 
Who tore the lion, as the lion tears the kid ; 
Ran on embattled armies, clad in iron. 
And, weaponless himself, made arms ridiculous ?" — Samson Agonistes. 

We now turn to a classical subject in basso rilievo, by Physick, "Pluto and Proser- 
pine." Of all fables of antiquity, none is more redundant of magnificence and gor- 
geous imagery than that of the Rape of Proserpine, as treated by the courtly Claudian, 
of whose enduring reputation, indeed, it forms the basis. Mr. Physick's highly poetical 
conception of the subject, and the spirit with which he has executed it, authorises, or 
rather demands a somewhat more detailed account of it than we can in general find 
room for, in our criticisms on individual performancs. After a brief, but highly poetical 
introduction, the poet proposes at once his theme — 

" Of hell's dread ravisher, whose fiery car 

And ebon steeds affrighted from their spheres 

The train of night ; of Pluto's bridal bower, 

Dark in its festive gloom with horrid shades, 

My labouring mind impels my eager voice 

In daring notes to sing. * * * O, say, 

What torch of love inspired the gloomy king, 

What sudden seizure doom'd stern Proserpine 

jTo joyless chaos." 


We are then let into a few "family secrets/' and we find that Pluto thinks himself, and 
with sufficient reason, very ill used by his brother Jupiter, who seems resolved to keep 
him in a state of celibacy, as well as in one of comparative exile among scenes " hideous 
and wild." He broods over his wrongs, till he feels inclined to call upon the furies and 
all his shadowy subjects, to aid him in his desire to avenge them, and turn the realms 
above into an uproar. From this he is dissuaded by the fates, who, kneeling before him, 
and strewing at his feet " their locks white with severest age," recommend the peace 
measures happily coming into vogue in the present day, and an appeal to the moral 
force of truth and fair argument. Accordingly, he sends Mercury to represent his 
wrongs to the ruler of the skies, who, after deep and deliberate cogitation, determines 
that the fair daughter of Ceres shall be the bride of the monarch of the dead. He 
accordingly instructs Venus to entice the fair Proserpine to the fragrant fields of Enna, 
" parent of sweet flowers ;" where, while she is disporting with her attendant maidens, — 

" Suddenly a tumult -wild and loud 
Arises; turrets bow their trembling heads, 
And towers and lofty spires are levelled low ; 
No cause appears ; the Paphian queen alone 
Acknowledges the sign, and trembling feels 
A doubtful pleasure, mixed with secret fear. 
And now the dark-browed ruler of the dead. 
Through shades, and winding caverns of the earth 
Urges his fiery steeds. • » ♦ • • 
***** Past fly the nymphs, 
Fair Proserpine is hurried to the car, 
Imploring aid." — Struit's Claudian. 

Having now arrived at the point of action represented in Mr. Physick's basso rilievo, we 
will dismiss the fair Proserpine to the care of the enamoured ruler of the shades below, 
and turn to an enUoement on a larger scale, celebrated in the early history of Rome, an 
incident in which the Marquis Ginori has sculptured in Parian marble on a small scale ; 
and he has succeeded in producing an interesting and well-arranged group. "The 
Hours leading forth the Horses of the Sun," executed in rilievo for Earl MtzwiUiam, 
by Gibson, is a very classic and masterly performance, full of animation and spirit. 
This has always been a favourite subject, both with the sculptor and the painter. Every 
lover of the fine arts is acquainted with the exquisite fresco, representing the same sub- 
ject, by Guido, in the Rospigliosi Palace, at Rome, so fiiU of graceful elegance and poetic 
fancy, and of which the engraving of Raphael Morghen has so widely circulated the fame, 
without, however, equalling the surpassing beauty of the original. 

Mr. Spence, a pupil of Gibson's, exhibited a statue of considerable merit, entitled 
" Highland Mary ;" a personification of the maiden whose beauty and attractive grace 
enthralled the susceptible heart of the poet Burns, and whose early death he deplores in 
the following beautiful lines : — 

" Thou lingering star with lessening ray, 

That lov'st to greet the early morn. 
Again thou usher'st in the day 

My Mary from my soul was torn. 
O Mary, dear departed shade ! 

Where is thy place of blissful rest ? 
See'st thou thy lover lowly laid ? 

Hear'st thou the groans that rend his breast ? 

That sacred hour can I forget. 

Can I forget the hallow'd grove, 
Where by the winding Ayr we met, 

To live one day of parUng love ! 

VOL. II. ^ 


Eternity will not efface 

Those records dear of transports past ; 
Thy image at our last embrace ; 

Ah ! little thought we, 'twas the last. 

Ayr gurgling kiss'd his pebbled shore, 

O'erhung with wild woods thickening green ; 
The fragrant birch and hawthorn hoar. 

Twined amorous round the raptur'd scene ; 
The flowers sprang wanton to be prest, 

The birds sang love on every spray — 
Till, too, too soon, the glowing west 

Proclaimed the speed of wingSd day. 

Still o'er these scenes my memory wakes, 

And fondly broods with miser care ; 
Time but the impression stronger makes, 

As streams their channels deeper wear. 
My Mary, dear departed shade ! 

Where is thy place of blissful rest ? 
See'st thou thy lover lowly laid ? 

Hear'st thou the groans that rend his breast ?" 

While we are discussing these guasi-iovaestic subjects, we must not omit to notice 
two which have been drawn from the writings of the admirable author of Pickwick. — 
The first of these, " Oliver Twist/^ represents the interesting subject of the memoir, in 
his forlorn and destitute state, before he is accosted by the " artful dodger ;" this was 
in the American department, and was the production of Stephenson, who exhibited the 
Wounded American Chief. The latter, " Little Nell and her Grandfather," was from 
the chisel of William Brodie, of Edinburgh, and formed an exceedingly attractive group. 
The point of time chosen was, when the old man had just escaped the fangs of the 
gambling sharpers, whose persuasion and advice had nearly driven him to exchange 
poverty for crime ; and when his faithful Little Nell, like a guardian angel, had prevailed 
upon him to fly from the scene of temptation ; but when " the noble sun arose, with 
warmth in its cheerful beams, they laid them down to sleep upon a bank hard by 
some water. But Nell retained her grasp upon the old man's arm, long after he was 
slumbering soundly, and watched him with untiring eyes." 

The little group called " Love Triumphant," is one of those prettinesses in marble, 
which take rank with the minor productions of Simonis, and about which there is 
always a little knot of sympathisers in all public exhibitions. It is pleasant to see an 
artist of high merit descending to these lighter and more playful compositions. Thor- 
valdsen had, in the abundant treasures of his studio, many similar graceful trivialities, 
which never failed in attraction to all genuine admirers of art. But here, for the pre- 
sent, we conclude our remarks ; in a future chapter we may perhaps devote a few more 
pages to the further consideration of this branch of the fine arts, gleaning here and there 
such remaining examples as may be likely to awaken the interest, and gratify the taste 
of our critical readers. 







i;jiyl-jM-d \t) D Vcu'.id 








In the year of the Great Exhibition, it was curious to observe how the thoughts and 
conversation of all people turned upon the prevailing topic of interest, "the world's 
great show." Not only was the fruitful theme discussed in every private party, can- 
vassed at every domestic hearth, but public lecturers and scientific writers also indulged 
in frequent allusion to, and serious investigation of, the actual state and future results 
of the mighty phenomenon. The following is the substance of a very interesting lecture 
delivered by Mr. Wornum at the Central School of Design, which we lay before our 
readers, not only to illustrate our remark, but as a very instructive piece of "gossip," 
if we may be allowed the term. 

"My object," says the talented lecturer, "is not to explain the Exhibition, even 
generally, but rather to make use of the Exhibition, or more correctly, some prominent 
works of art-manufacture contained in it, as one huge illustration of the general prin- 
ciples I have advocated throughout in my lectures. There is not one point that I have 
urged that is not there practically demonstrated to be of essential importance j and I 
think I shall be able now to clearly show you that the very first business of every 
designer is to make himself master of the elements of all estabUshed styles, not only 
for the sake of knowing these styles, but to enable him to effect any intelligible orna- 
mental expression whatever. You must know all : to study one style only will, perhaps, 
prove more fatal to your success than to study none at all ; for, in the latter case, you 
are open to improvement and new impressions, while in the former your mind is, as 
it were, a stereotj^e of a few fixed ideas with which you stamp your uniform mark on 
everything you touch, as the ignorant knights of old made their sign-manual with their 
sword-hilts, or their thumb-nails. We have seen ' natur^ very often sententiously held 
up as in antagonism to the so-called historic styles, or absolutely in antagonism to art ; 
this is only the outrageous presumption of ignorance. I need not demonstrate to you, 
that true art can never be the antagonist of nature. The treasures of art are derived 
as legitimately from nature's stores for the recreation of our minds, as the grains and 
fruits of the earth are provided by the husbandman's skill for the nourishment of our 
bodies. If pure ' naturalism' is true for the mind, I maintain it is true also for the 
body ; yet if so, there is nothing left for us but all to go out to grass. However, what 
is nature ? We hear of three kingdoms of nature — the vegetable, the mineral, and the 
animal: one cannot be more natural than the other; therefore, on the score oi nature 
herself, we cannot give the preference to any one in particular. 

" The naturalists generally have not gone to nature, but only to one small class of 
individuals in one of its kingdoms. Let us by all means go to nature, but with a strict 
impartiality, selecting our forms simply with a view to the most appropriate contrasts or 
combinations in accordance with the sentiment of the design we have in hand, at once 
repudiating, in toto, the notion that mere imitation can in any way compensate for an 
incomplete or imperfect arrangement of the parts, as prescribed already by the very 
sentiment or principles of the contemplated design. This brings us to another point — 
how far using the elements of past times may be deprecated as a slavish repetition of 
ancient or mediaeval art, and ignoring the wants and sentiments of the present age? 


Such a result may accrue if we cannot separate old elements from old sentiments ; we 
must, however, go very much out of our way to verify any such disaster, and certainly 
only by, in the first instance, adopting an old sentiment, as in the so-called Mediaeval 
Court in the Exhibition. But there are, as I shall show as we proceed, very many 
works in the Exhibition eminently suited to the wants and sentiments of the present 
age, though composed as ornamental designs, entirely of old elements. The fact of 
ornamental elements being established favourites of remote ages, does not make them 
old in a bygone sense, unless they have sprung from a sentiment that is bygone. Many 
ancient and middle-age forms, if reproduced now in their genuine original character, 
would be at best but whimsical revivals ; but beauty can never really be antiquated or 
old-fashioned, whatever the conventionaUties of the day may be. What is inherently 
beautiful is for all time ; and the repeated attempts at the revival of classical forms, with 
a steadily increasing interest on the part of the public, in spite of fashions or conven- 
tionalisms the most opposite, is at least one sure test of the inherent beauty of these 
forms. It is a morbid state to hunt after variety purely for variety's sake ; and it is 
perfectly legitimate to preserve all that is beautiful, however we may continue to prosecute 
the search of the beautiful in other provinces ; and there are stUl unexplored regions of 
nature left for us. It must be evident that efforts at variety, unless founded on the 
sincerest study of what has been already done, not by our own immediate rivals in 
our own time, but by all people at all times, are at most but assumed novelties ; but 
if such really, the chances are that it is their only recommendation, as was the case 
with the Rococo, the novelty of which represents the exclusion of all the beauty of the 
past. " What is recommended by use never grows old : it is only what is fostered by 
fashion that will be superseded as a new fashion arises. So it is with the duration of 
the styles : some are characterised by mere local peculiarities or special objects, others 
by abstract principles. Local peculiarities, and all specialities, when their causes cease, 
must die out, and cannot be revived except by a revival of the cause ; and so, if their 
causes cannot be recalled, it will be impossible to revive several of the historic styles ; 
but where the causes of styles still exist, the styles themselves are as much of this age 
as of the past. The Classical and Renaissance styles are founded on abstract principles, 
and therefore may and must be revived as soon as their motives are thoroughly under- 
stood ; and such a restoration is not a copy of an old idea, but a genuine revival of a 
taste — a very different thing from merely copying designs. " Then to apply our test to 
the Exhibition itself: it is generally admitted that in spite of much that is bad and 
indifferent, it offers, on the whole, an unprecedented display of art-manufacture. Of 
course, in the general review I now propose to take of this wonderful collection of the 
worM's industry, I must limit my remarks, if I am to be at all practical, to the most 
prominent specimens only, or even to the mere treatment of classes of manufacture ; 
and at present my object goes scarcely beyond an attempt to show you that all the most 
remarkable works there displayed owe their effect to a skilful management of the 
results of the labours of generations that have gone before us; from the study and 
mastery of past efforts, and not from any sudden impulse of genius or any intuitive 
adaptation of nature. All that is good is the result of the study of ornament, more 
or less universal or singular, according to the method of that study. The Exhibition 
contains nothing new — not one hew element, not one new combination ; and yet it repre- 
sents, vast as it is, only a small proportion of the great national expressions of orna- 
ment, of past ages of the world. And in many cases we have very much more the 
simple reproduction of an old idea, than the veritable revival of the genuine artistic 
feeling of the past." 

The lecturer then pfoceeded to illustrate his remarks by reference to portions of 


the Exhibition. In Messrs. Wedgwood's stall he found a genuine revival of artistic 
feeling ; and in Mr. Battam's a reproduction of old ideas. He spoke of the Sevres 
room as showing general magnificence ,and classical taste. The glass stall of J. Gr. 
Green, of London, was another illustration of a legitimate application of an old taste to 
modern purposes. With reference to bronzes, the display of these, considering the 
applicability of the material, he thought remarkably small in the Exhibition, and the 
general taste trifling. He specially pointed out those by Potts and Messenger, those in 
the Cinque-cento style by Villemsens, and for general good taste, those by Mattifat. 
The genuine reproductions of the Renaissance by Barbedienne ; and the damascened 
work by Falloise, of Liege, were .much to be admired. The silver work displayed the 
three tastes — Classical, Renaissance, and Louis XV. A vase, or centre-piece, by Wagner, 
he considered the finest thing there. A tea-service, by Durand, was noticed. The 
lecturer treated at some length on the specimens in oxidized silver, and showed the 
advantage of the method for the display of art. The works of Froment, Meurice, 
Rudolphi, and Gueyton, were especially mentioned. The Rococo prevailed too generally 
in English work. The classical specimens, by George Angel, were very admirable. The 
fine Cinque-cento centre-piece, by Brown (Hunt and Roskell), sufiered, he thought, by 
frosting and burnishing. In the carvings there were specimens of Renaissance, Cinque- 
cento, and Louis XV. Fourdinois and Barbedienne stood pre-eminent. Rinquet- 
Leprince, Durand, Krieger, Leclerc, and Cordonnier were noticeable. Lechesne's frame, 
in the Cinque-cento style, he considered a very fine work. After some remarks on 
the Austrian furniture, on the whole complimentary, the lecturer proceeded as follows : 
— The objections to English carving imply every want but those of mere mechanical 
skill and means. . There is a want of definite design, and a disregard of utility: there 
is an overloading of detail, and an inequality of execution, often fatal to the whole efiect. 
In some instances, where the human figure is mixed up with conventional ornament, 
the last is perfectly well executed, while the former is absolutely barbarous in con- 
ception and in execution. Other specimens found their pretensions solely on profusion 
of details : others, again, are conspicuous only for their bad style, or their Baroque mix- 
ture of styles. Let us, then, briefiy sum up the conclusions that we may draw from 
this cursory survey that we have just made ; and let every designer treasure it in his 
mind, for in this result he will have presented to him more forcibly than in any other 
way, the paramount importance of a knowledge of ornament over and above an artistic 
or manual dexterity. The Exhibition has pretty well proved that the most dexterous of 
all artists are the French, yet what an inveterate sameness their works must present to 
the French eye, from their so generally adopting the same style in almost ever branch of 
manufacture. A French design not in the ordinary Renaissance, is almost a curiosity : 
we certainly do find French examples of Greek, Gothic, and the now generally discarded 
Louis XV., but they are the rare exceptions. No skill of execution can ever atone for 
such excessive mannerism as this. The wide-spread influence of France, in spite of the 
most debased taste in design, the Rococo, is one curious picture presented to the mind 
by this assemblage of the world's industry. . . , 

Another great fact displayed, perhaps unavoidable where true education is absent, is 
the very general mistake that quantity of ornament impHes quality. In the Oriental 
works, where quantity of detaU is also the chief characteristic, it is of a kind so gene- 
rally unassuming in its details, and harmonious in its efiect and treatment, that the 
impression of quantity itself is the last that is conveyed, though the whole surface may 
be covered with ornament. We find the best specimens of ornamental design, as a 
class are of the Renaissance, but the great bulk are of the Louis XIV. varieties : classical 
art is scarcely represented, and the Gothic is only very partially so. We have, indeed, 

VOL. II. ^ 


only three decided expressions of taste, the Classical, the Renaissance, and the Louis 
XV., for what we have of the Gothic we owe to sentiments distinct from ornament. 
These three tastes are very distinct: we have in the first, the classical or Greek, a 
thoroughly well understood detail, with a highly systematic and symmetrical disposition 
of these details : in the second, in the Renaissance we have also a well understood 
detail, but a prevalence of the bizarre, and of a profusion of parts ; great skill of execu- 
tion, but a bewildering and fantastic effect upon the whole ; in the third, the Louis X. V., 
we have a total disregard of detail, therefore a purely general effect. And this I believe 
to be a fair picture of the present general state of ornamental art in Europe, a condition 
out of which it is the task of the schools of design to extricate it; and if we may 
judge of the fruits of the French schools, it would appear the especial province of the 
English schools to perform this service ; for the uniform practice of the French seems 
to show that they are too much absorbed in the execution of details, to give any great 
attention to distinct varieties of ornamental expression. If a general inferiority in 
design must be admitted, on the part of England, it is much less in the application than 
in the taste and execution of the design itself, irrespective of all style. However, in the 
more magnificent foreign productions, especially those of France, there is a disregard to 
usefulness, or the general wants and means, which very much detracts from the high 
credit the execution of the work would otherwise ensure. It would be no distinctive 
feature of the age to work well for princes : princely means have secured princely works 
in all ages ; and the Exhibition will have done nothing for this age, if it only induce a 
vast outlay of time and treasure for the extreme few who command vast means. While 
the efforts of England are devoted, for the most part, to the comfort of the many, 
France has expended its energies as positively over luxuries for the few : it is an amalga- 
mation of the two that we require, — fitness and elegance combined. When a costly 
work, however, is distinguished by exquisite taste, it is something more than a speci- 
men of costliness, and a skilful work will be beautiful, not by virtue, but in spite of 
its materials. Good taste is a positive quality, however acquired, and can impart such 
quality in perfection to even the rudest materials : it is taste, therefore, that must ever 
be the producer's most valuable capital, and it is a capital that the English designer 
and manufacturer may very materially accumulate by a careful inspection of some of the 
more important foreign contributions in the Exhibition. I have only, then, to again 
caution you, that notwithstanding the unrivalled display of magnificence now assembled 
from all quarters of the world in Hyde Park, the great-art of the ornamentist is still 
only partially represented, as compared with the aggregate of past efforts and achieve- 
ments ; that great styles, individually capable of as much display and variety as the 
whole of this unique collection together offers, are barely touched upon ; that this vast 
store is at the student's feet, to be gathered into his granary, as the meadows spread 
their honey before the bees, if he will only extend his search beyond the reach of his 
hands. The time has perhaps now gone by, at least in Europe, for the development 
of any particular or national style ; and for this reason it is necessary to distinguish 
the various tastes that have prevailed throughout past ages, and preserve them as dis- 
tinct expressions ; or otherwise^ by using indiscriminately all materials, we should lose 
all expression, and the very essence of ornament, the conveying of a distinct aesthetic 
impression on the mind, be wholly destroyed. For if all objects in a room were of the 
same shape and details, the want of individuality would be so positive, that the mind 
would soon be fatigued to utter disgust. This is, however, exactly what must happen 
on a large scale, if all our decoration is to degenerate into a uniform mixture of all 
elements, or if we allow any one class of elements to engross our exclusive attention : 
nothing will be beautiful, for nothing will present a new or varied image to the mind. 



For the following remarks on the instructive nature of the Great Exhibition, we are 
indebted to the columns of The Builder. It is, indeed, something to have entered that 
huge hive of the industry of all nations, and to have carefully examined its stores of 
intellect contributed by all quarters of the globe ; to have seen the ingenuity that has 
been applied to productions of every kind more or less distinguished by their peculiar 
merits, and valued either for their elegance, their grandeur, or their utiUty, and to have 
noticed the diversity of thought and intelligence with which the genius of every country 
has displayed itself. Among its multiplicity of objects, every faculty of the mind is 
appealed to, as every faculty has therein been exercised ; every taste is presented with 
the best specinien of whatever is its favourite subject for study ; every form that it was 
possible to devise in order to gratify the desire of the fastidious or supply the wants of 
the wealthy, meets us ; and every species of art and mechanism, simple or elaborate, 
is here brought to its highest degree of development. The student who is yet unknown 
— the man who has long exercised the fine skill of his hands — the mechanic and the 
artisan, each, amid the wonders enshrined in this palace, can add to his knowledge and 
to his experience. Such a living encyclopsedia as this is a means of instruction, a lever 
of education, that was long wanting to the solitary and unassisted student, who, being 
ignorant of what former ages and countries had done, could not tell what it was in the 
power of mind to do. The fragmentary and scattered forms in which knowledge was 
conveyed to him served rather to bewilder than enlighten. The present sons of industry 
have not, however, to bewail this deficiency, nor to labour under this disadvantage; a 
glorious edifice being now open to them condensing all the discoveries of science, and 
all the conquests of the mind. It is in this Exhibition that all see fresh motives to 
industry, and further inducements to excellence. The opportunities it offers for study 
to visitors in general, considering how much knowledge, artistic and mechanical, natural 
and artificial, must come by sight, are not to be slighted ; but the professional carver, 
sculptor, and draughtsman, appreciate the opportunity it offers to them for directing 
their talents. To d^l engaged in the arts, it is a standard for correcting and advising 
such as have bent their minds in a wrong channel, or seen with imperfect eyes ; who 
have made a bad use of their powers, and not employed them in the direction to which 
they were naturally inchned. Let all such profit themselves by comparing what they 
have done with what they might have done. This is one of the great teachings of the 
Exhibition. It is, we think, indisputable, that all may at least inform their minds 
by the contemplation of such accumulations of beauty and magnificence. Even they who 
do not seem to have any interest for such things, will go away impressed with ideas 
new and uncommon ; with feelings, likely, perhaps, to refine their natures, more than 
those of a different character, to which they are every day familiar; and wherever there 
exists the capacity to receive the influences of this place and its contents, noble ideas 
will assuredly be admitted into the mind of the recipient. And whilst, in an industrial 
and manufacturing point of view, the effect of this Exhibition will be beneficial, it at 
the same time is calculated to work moral results, which are of great importance from 
their bearing upon and being conducive to eminence. Whoever enters this spacious and 
splendid pile with notions of vanity or arrogance, will certainly receive a check and a 
cure— he will feel his littleness by the superiority that surrounds him everywhere, to 
which he wiU be forced to make comparison. This is a useful teaching indeed. Who- 
ever also hopes for those triumphs of hard-working and patient labour at which he 
gazes wiU be induced to work himself with greater earnestness than heretofore, to 
qualify himself for the abilities necessary for their attainment. Whoever thinks he is 


great in criticism, and can make or mar a reputation, will experience the difficulty there 
is for the best trained judgment deciding between the conflicting and distracting preten- 
sions of such a vast variety of objects. Here is another great teaching; and with it an 
argument, if one were needed, in favour of this museum of all nations, and for repeat- 
ing attempts of this kind, even on a smaller scale; for thousands who have not the 
inclination to form their judgments and modulate their feelings to works of art and 
ingenious fabrications through books and the theories of men who comment and criticise 
upon them, would yet put themselves to some personal trouble and inconvenience for 
seeing and judging for themselves such a pile with such attractions. And it cannot be 
denied but that they are under the best tuition. Beautiful works proclaim their own 
merit, and force conviction. They have the force of examples seen by the eyes over 
theories read unwillingly by the mind. They show the substance of true taste, and what 
it is : your critics and books can only tell it. 






" Millions of spiritual creatures walk the earth 
Unseen, both when we wake, and when we sleep."— -Mi7fe». 

Such is the declaration that the immortal bard puts into the mouth of our great pro- 
genitor. And our old friend, Christopher North, bears evidence, in one of his learned 
lucubrations, to the truth of the statement, inasmuch as he testifies from ocular experi- 
ence, to the appearance, within the walls of the Great Exhibition, of a revenant of con- 
siderable celebrity in the world of letters. We allude to the philosopher of Eerney, the 
shrewd, the keen, the inquiring, the sarcastic Voltaire. In fact, our neighbours north 
of the Tweed have always been celebrated, not only for the keenness of their optics for 
the second sight, but also for their prompt recognition of ghosts and wraiths of every 
description. Hence we readily enter into the statement of our contemporary respecting 
the appearance of this sceptical personage, who, it seems, was resolved to ascertain for 
himself the truth of the wonderful accounts he had heard of the Crystal Palace, whether 
in the regions above or below we do not take upon ourselves to inquire. " It was im- 
possible," says our friend Christopher, from whose columns we extract the following 
passages, " to keep him quiet — there would have been no peace in the shadowy regions 
of the departed, unless this energetic, inquisitive, self-willed spirit, had been allowed 
to have his own way ; and Voltaire, rising to the earth in the city of Paris (where else 
could his spirit rise ?) started by train to see the Great Exhibition. Eeports had reached 
him that in a Crystal Palace, not far from the Thames, were to be assembled specimens 
of the industry of all nations — nothing less than a museum of the works of man. But it 
was not this only that had excited the curiosity of the philosopher of Ferney. Rumours 
of a new era of society, of unexampled advancement or development of mankind, had 
from time to time descended into the territory of the shades, and had kindled a desire 


to revisit the earth. * * "Progress! progress!" muttered our returned philosopher to 
himself, as he whirled along upon the railway. "What a din this age makes about its 
progress ! it travels fast enough, if that were all. Rapid progress of that kind. For 
the rest — let us see whether the world is revolving in any other than its old accustomed 
circle." After taking a brief survey of the building itself, and expressing, in various 
muttered ejaculations, his admiration of its marvellous size, its lightness, and its won- 
derful adaptability for the purpose for which it was erected, the quondam lord of Perney 
proceeded to the department where the machinery was exhibited. Here a professor of 
mechanics was so courteous as to explain to him the various processes of our cotton man- 
ufacture. He explained the power-loom, the mule, and I know not what other contrivances 
beside ; and, pleased with his intelligent listener, he launched forth into the glorious 
prospects that were opening to human society through the surprising mechanical inven- 
tions that had illustrated our age. To labour man was born, he said, but we should take 
the sting out of the curse ; it then would cease to be toilsome, cease to be degrading 
cease to be incompatible with refinement of manners and intellectual culture. Stepping 
through an open door into a neighbouring department, the professor found himself in 
the presence of a gigantic locomotive standing upon its railway. " Here," he exclaimed, 
"is one of our iron slaves; we feed him upon coal; he bears us, a thousand at a time, 
with the speed of an eagle, from town to town, from county to county. What limit can 
you set to human progress when you reflect upon such an engine as this?" Voltaire did 
reflect. " Very clever are you men," he said ; " you cannot exactly fly — you have not 
yet invented wings — but you go marvellously fast by steam. No spirit need travel 
quicker. But methinks there is something hypocritical and deceptive in this obedient 
engine of yours. Goes of itself, you say. !Does it ? Your iron slave wants many other 
slaves, unfortunately not of iron, to attend on it ; on this condition only will it serve you. 
No despot travels with so obsequious a train, and so subservient, as thi« quiet-looking 
engine. Putting my head out of the window of my railroad carriage, whilst we were 
yet at the station, I saw an industrious mortal going from wheel to wheel with a huge 
grease-pot, greasing the wheels. He greases wheels from morning to night ; eternally 
he greases. Another man trims lamps incessantly ; I saw him with a long row before 
him feeding them with oil ; in oil he seems himself to live. Of engineer and fireman I 
could not catch a glimpse, but I saw a crowd of men employed continually in putting 
boxes and carpet-bags from a truck into a van, and from a van into a truck. Not much 
intellectuality there. And when the shrill whistle was heard, and we started, lo ! there 
was a living man standing on the bank, acting as signal-post — with arm outstretched 
and motionless, a living signal-post. Most useful of men no doubt, if mortal necks are 
worth preserving, but his occupation is not such as could possibly be intrusted to one 
who might wander into reflection. The railroad train runs, it seems, not only upon those 
hundred wheels of iron which we see and count, but on a hundred other wheels forged 
out of human flesh and blood." 

" You are perfectly right," said a pale melancholy Englishman who was standing beside 
them, and had overheard this conversation. " We are altogether in a wrong course ; we 
are making machines that enslave ourselves, and bind us down to all the toils and all 
the social degradations of slavery. We must go back to simplicity. We must learn to 
limit our desires, and discard flctitious wants. Then only can the reign of Justice com- 
mence. If all men were contented with the gratification of the simple wants of nature, 
all men might be equal, and equally enlightened. Our task ought now to be not to 
invent more machines, but to select from those already invented the few that are really 
worth retaining. For my part, I find only two that are indispensable." "And what 
may they be ?" said the professor of mechanics, with a smile of derision. " The plough 



and the printing-press. "With these two, and the principle of justice, I would under- 
take to make a happy community of human beings. Bread and books ! what more 
do we need ? Here is supply for mind and body." " No ! no ! no !" exclaimed Vol- 
taire, who retained all his horror of this return to primitive simplicity. " Get as much 
civilisation as you can. Let as many enjoy it as can. If you had nothing but the 
plough, you might dispense with your printing-press as well. What on earth would 
your rustics have to write about ? Bread and books ! and what sort of books ? Bread, 
books, and an Egyptian priestcraft — pray complete your inevitable trio." " Sir, you 
blow hot and cold with the same mouth. Our mechanical inventions are but rivetting 
their fetters on the industrial classes : you see this ; and yet when I would break the 
machine you interpose." " He who talks on man must blow hot and cold with the 
same mouth. He has always lived, and always will live, in the midst of contradictions. 
Let us hear nothing of this return to simplicity and ignorance. No savage happiness 
for me. TheFuegans — so a traveller from South America once told me — when they are 
hungry, kill a buffalo, and, scraping the flesh from off the bones, make a fire of these 
bones to roast the flesh withal. What admirable simplicity in this self-roasting ox ! 
Here is your golden age at once. I recommend to you a voyage to Terra del Fuego." 
" Are we, then, said the plaintive idealist, " to see nothing in the future but the contra- 
dictions and turmoils and iniquities of the past?" "And what men endured in the 
past, why should not you also and your posterity endure ? The type of civilised society 
has been again and again presented upon the earth : we may improve, we cannot mate- 
rially alter it." " There," said the professor of mechanics, " I must be allowed in 
some measure to differ from you. I observe that you have a due appreciation of the arts 
and inventions that contribute to civilisation ; but you do not sufficiently understand 
the enormous progress that this age has made beyond all others." " Pooh ! pooh !" said 
his impatient auditor, " there is a vast difference between civilised life and savage, but 
the progress you make afterwards is but slow and slight. You take a wild country, and 
from a swamp reduce it to a cultivated plain. Corn is growing in the field. The change 
is immense. Well, you may grow still more corn in the same field, but you can never 
produce any other change like that which it has already undergone. Between the wild 
Celt or Saxon, and the civilised inhabitants of Paris or London, who would not 
acknowledge the difference? But I would as willingly have lived in the Paris of a 
hundred years ago, as in the Paris of to-day. A wealthy citizen of Bruges or of Florence 
in the fifteenth or sixteenth century passed, I suspect, as rational, as agreeabkj and as 
dignified a life as the wealthy citizen of your own monster metropolis in the nineteenth 
century. He would not enjoy quite such immense feeding — not such luxurious ban- 
quets as your Guildhall and your Mansion-house can boast, where you spend as much 
at a dinner as would have built the Parthenon — but he, perhaps, found a compensation 
in a keener zest for art : at all events he hved in a city which had not quite blocked out 
every charm of nature, in which every green thing had not withered, and where the sky 
was still visible. At Athens and Rome, and, for aught I know, at Babylon and Thebes, 
men have enjoyed life as keenly, and lived as wisely as they do here. Many are the 
eras of the past where you may point to the city, the seat of government and the arts 
and the neighbouring cultivated country where the peasantry have enjoyed the protec- 
tion, and shared to some extent the mental culture, of the town. Such has been the 
type of civilised society hitherto; nor is it always that the last instance in order of time 
presents the most attractive picture. 

" I walk," he continued, "through the spacious streets and squares of London. I 
see the residences of your wealthy men: the exterior is, not pleasing; but if I enter I 
find in each what deserves to be called a domestic palace. In these palatial residences 















i^ -^\ 





many a merchant is li\dng amongst luxuries which no Roman emperor could have com- 
manded. I lose my way amidst the darkj noisome, narrow streets and interminahle 
courts and alleys of this same London. Each house — each sty — swarms with life. And 
oh, heaven ! what life it is ! They are heaped like vermin. They prey upon each other. 
How they suflTer ! how they hate ! Full of corroding anxieties, they endure a wretched- 
ness and tortute which no Roman emperor could have inflicted upon his slaves." " But, 

sir " " I tell you I have seen the beggar at Naples. He is a prince. He lies in the 

sun, on the earth — it is his home — and the open sky above him, it is his. He rises to 
beg, or to work, or to steal-^-he does either with a savage energy — then lies down again, 
no leopard in the forest more carelessly dispread. But poverty in England is steeped 
to the Up in bitterness, in care, in hatred, in anxiety. When bread comes, it is eaten 
with fear and trembling for the future. Tears are still flowing upon it. Yes, you have 
indubitably progressed thus far : you have made hunger reflective." " But, sir, we are 
at present in a state of transition. Say that hunger has become reflective : in the next 
stage of our progress the reflective man will have protected himself against the chance of 
hunger." " A state of transition ! I am charmed with the expression. What age ever 
existed that could not have accounted for all its suflferings by this happy word, if they 
had known it ? Oh, the world, I think, will be very long in a state of transition ! But, 
gentlemen, we must use our eyes, as well as other organs — however gratifyingly employed 
■ — ^in a place like this. Pray, what is that," he inquired, as they stepped into the central 
avenue of the building, " round which so eager a crowd is collected ?" " That is the 
great diamond — the Koh-i-noor, as it is called — once the boast of some Great Mogul, 
now the property of the Queen of England." " Oh ! And what is that to the right, 
where a crowd almost as dense is congregated ?" " They are the jewels of the Queen 
trf Spain." " And on, further to the left, I see another crowd into which it is hopeless 
to penetrate." " They surround the blue diamond, that has been valued at I know not 
how many thousands of pounds." " The children !" cried Voltaire. Then turning to 
his professor, he added, " You who will make all classes reflective, pray begin with these 
gentlemen and ladies. When your celebrated navigator. Captain Cook, visited the 
savage islanders of the Pacific Ocean, he gave them glass beads in exchange for sohd 
provender. We smile at the simple savages. They were reasoning philosophers com- 
pared with our lords and ladies. The glass bead was not only a rarity; it was a novel 
and curious production to the savage. A precious stone is no longer a novelty to any of 
us } and for the very important purpose of personal ornament it may be easily imitated 
or substituted. I defy you to find another element than simple ostentation in the ex- 
treme value we put upon our glass beads. They are merely the insignia of wealth. The 
children !— but men always have been, and always will be, children. I have frequently 
said it of my own Parisians, and, between ourselves, never liked them any the less for 
their being the most perfect children on the face of the earth." 

Our visitor moved on to that end of the building which, to us, bears the name of the 
foreign quarter. He was not a little surprised to see the extremely tasteful and artist- 
like display which Austria and Bavaria made. A certain Parisian, thought he, once 
asked if it was possible for a German to have wit; at aU events no one will ever -ask 
whether it is possible for a German to have taste. And the descendants of his favourite. 
Czar Peter, did not fail-to attract his attention. They, too, are running a race of luxury 
and civilisation. He entered into the little sculpture gallery of the Milanese aad other 
Italians. There was the usual medley of subjects which a sculpture gallery always pre- 
sents. Eve, the Christian Venus-Venus Repentanl^ as she might be called-here has 
a charming representative. Not only the expression of the face, but of the whole 
attitude telu the sad history. She sits looking down, and shrmking withm herself, as 


if she would contract herself out of sight, if it were possible. Opposite is a head of 
Christ. Our critic paused with reverence before it ; but an involuntary smile rose to 
his lips, as he observed that the artist, in his endeavour to make the head more and 
more placid and patient, had at length sent it fairly to sleep. Near it were Leda and 
her Swan, and Danae waiting for her double shower of love and gold. Such is the 
medley we are always doomed to encounter in any collection of sculpture ! From this 
Milanese gallery he hastened to the room devoted to English sculpture, that he might 
compare the genius of the two nations. The sculpture of the whole Exhibition — that 
which is displayed as pure art — is but of a secondary character ; but our visitor found as 
much to please him in this room as amongst the Italians. Here were the lost children 
in the wood, whom the little birds covered with leaves. The poem is known throughout 
Europe, and the artist has translated it most faithfully into marble. Here is a mother 
or a nurse with a child, the child they call Bacchus; and Voltaire recognised with 
delight the Ophelia of Shakspere. Here she stands, leaning on the branch that will 
treacherously precipitate her into the stream ; and the artist has, with singular felicity, 
succeeded in portraying, not only the beauty and the sorrow, but the bewildered mind 
of the love-lorn damsel. In the comer stood a head, designated II Pensierono, 
which, if the police had not been so vigilant, our visitor might have been tempted to 
purloin. Traversing the building, he soon returned to that part where his own 
countrymen especially make so great a display with their jewellery, their bronze clocks, 
the gilt ornaments of every description, their silks and velvets, and every article of 
luxury. He kindled for a moment with a sentiment of patriotic pride, as he noticed 
here the eminent position of his own France. Seeing so large a display of these 
articles, he asked one of his countrymen what could have induced him and others to 
bring so great a number of these costly products accross the Channel. What could 
nave been the motive, he asked — was it honour or was it profit ? " Both,'' was the reply. 
" We bring to exhibit, and we bring to sell. It is pleasant to take the conceit out of 
our neighbour, and his money at the same time." "But what has induced your 
neighbour to invite you here, with all these splendid silks and trinkets ?" " Ma foi I 
I know not. Perhaps he wanted a lesson in good taste, and was willing to pay for it. 
If you look down the buUding you may catch, even at this distance, a glimpse of the 
gewgaw splendours of Birmingham. With an unlimited supply of tinfoil, a North 
American savage would do better." " Ha ! monsieur, you must instruct your neigh- 
bour, and he, as is just and fit, will pay for his instructions." 

Voltaire had no sooner ceased speaking than he found himself revolving a more 
serious train of thought. He sat himself down on a bench, and surveyed as much as 
he could, at one glance, of the whole building and its contents. "The industry of 
all nations !" thought he. " It is weU ; but what I see here most prominent, is the 
luxury of aU nations. Did England really need a lesson in luxury ? And if her taste 
in jewellery and upholstery has been defective, is any very great end answered by 
highly cultivating such a taste ? What other countries may learn from England I know 
not ; but she herself can learn nothing from this Great Exhibition but the lesson my 
countrymen are so wiUing to teach her : she can learn only how to spend her money 
in objects of luxury, in what they call ornamental and decorative art. Pure art I 
honour ;" thus he continued his soliloquy. " I honour all the fine arts. From the man 
who designs a temple to him who engraves a gem ; I honour all who contribute to the 
cultivation of the mind through the love of the beautiful. Men must have emotions for 
the soul, as well as food for the body ; and if they do not find these in poetry, in music, 
in painting, they will seek them exclusively in those gloomy superstitions which afflict 
while they agitate, and render men morose and uncharitable. I honour the arts, and I 


respect also every useful mauufacture which adds to the comfort of daily existence ; 
but there is a province of human industry lying between these two, which is neither 
fine art nor useful manufacture, which I do not honour, for which I have no respect 
whatever — ornamental nonsense, for which I feel something very near akin to contempt. 
Men decorate their houses and their persons with costly fooleries. I put my elbow 
on the mantelpiece, and am in danger of precipitating some china mannildn. Huge 
vases encumber the floor, which never held, and never will hold, anything but the 
chance dust that is swept into them. Absurd tables are set out to be covered with 
knacks and toys, that have not even the merit of amusing a child. The fingers are 
squeezed into rings; holes are made in the ear for the jeweller's trinket; there is no end 
to the follies committed in what is called decoration and ornament. Say that such 
things must be, is it a purpose worthy of the energies of a great people to increase and 
spread abroad the taste for fantastic upholstery and useless china, and all the imposing 
splendours of the haberdasher and the silversmith ? Is it a very magnificent project 
to invite competitions in lace and embroidery, and or molu, and all the sumptuous 
trivialities of a lady's boudoir ? Art ! art ! exclaims one. Do you value as nothing the 
art bestowed on these articles? Not much. If you model a human figure, of man 
or woman, let it be done for its own sake. A true work of art is a sufficient end in 
itself. Must I have the human figure scattered everywhere upon every utensil I pos- 
sess 1 Can I not have a time-piece but a naked woman must sprawl upon it ? Is this 
doing honour to the most beautiful of forms, to make it common as the crockery or 
drinking cup it is called in to ornament ? Must it support the lamp upon your table, 
or be twisted into the handle of a teapot ? If I pour water from a ewer into a basin, 
must I seize a river-god by the waist ? Have you nothing better to do with the head of 
a man than to model it upon every prominence, fasten it upon the lid of your cofi'ee- 
pot, or squeeze it under the spout of your jug ? In all this taste I find little else than 
mere ostentation. Would you have sumptuary laws ? says one. No ; but I would 
have a sumptuary opinion, if there was any getting it." 

A part of this soUloquy had been unconsciously uttered aloud. " It all does good for 
trade," said a bluflf neighbour who had overheard him ; " rich men should spend their 
money." " Not exactly upon absurdities, I suppose." " Anyhow they should spend their 
money. I am a tradesman — a Manchester man; I care nothing for these fine things 
myself, but I say, that rich men ought to spend their money." "And whether the 
articles can be of the least service to them or not ?" " It does good for trade all 
the same." " Not all the same. Suppose he lent it to a respectable capitalist like 
yourself, a Manchester man, who would employ it in some useful manufacture, in 
multiplying articles of substantial service to mankind, of which there is still by no 
means a superfluity, would not this be doing good for trade, and in a better manner ?" 
" Ay, ay ! and bring him a good per centage for his money. You are right there. 
Beg pardon, sir, but you are not such a fool as I took you to be. Let the nobleman 
have his grand house and his garden, his pictures and statues, but if he has more money 
than he knows what to do with, let him lend it to the industrious capitalist, who will 
multiply useful things for the community at large. Profits, to be sure, would be 
somewhat less, but everything would be cheaper. I see, sir, you are no fool." Voltaire, 
bowing in acknowledgment for the compliment he had received, rose and threaded his 
way through the crowd, passing the gold and velvet of Persia and Turkey and India, 
and not forgetting to pay his respects to the Chinese. Other people cultivate the 
beautiful, or intend to do so ; it is fit, thought he, that there should be one people who 
cultivate the ugly, the monstrous, the deformed, and with whom the grotesque stands in 
the place of the graceful. 

VOL. II. ° 


What our visitor thought of all the various works of art he encountered, as well 
gigantic as minute — the Amazon, the lion, the archangels, who in several places are 
killing Satan or the dragon, with the utmost calmness, and with the least effort in the 
world, it were too long to tell, even if his criticisms were worth presei-ving. We follow 
him into what is called the Mediaeval Court. Here altar and crucifix and sacred candle- 
stick, and all the paraphernalia of Roman Catholic worship, arrested his attention, and 
somewhat excited his surprise. Well, said the philosopher to himself, I have always 
remarked that the spirit of trade is an admirable counterpoise to the spirit of bigotry. 
I have heard of the English people making idols for exportation to heathen countries ; 
dealing with them as articles of commerce. They despatch a vessel to some barbarous 
coast, and in the cabin they carry out a missionary and his tracts, to convert the 
inhabitants, and in the hold they have an assortment of idols from Birmingham to com- 
pete with the native manufacture. Nothing so liberal as the spirit of trade. Now, here 
these English Protestants are making what they think most superstitious implements 
for the benefit of some Roman Catholic neighbour. "Pray," said he, addressing a 
sleek stranger, whom he thought likely to give him the required information, " Pray, for 
what country may these be intended ? France can supply herself; to what people do 
you export them ?" " Hush ! They are not for exportation," said the grave gentleman, 
casting his eyes down upon the ground, and speaking in a plaintive and subdued voice. 
" They are for the English themselves." " But the English are Protestants." " Say 
rather Anglo-Catholics. But they are returning, slowly and doggedly, to the true fold. 
You, who are a foreigner, will be rejoiced to hear this." Voltaire took largely of his 
snuff. " If it pleases you, I will be rejoiced. They will read my Cyclopedia now. At 
last I shall be understood in England." * * * * 

Our philosopher now makes his escape from his theological friend, and again plunges 
among the machinery, where he still finds his professor of mechanics, with whom he 
enters anew into learned disquisition ; in the middle of their argument, however, the 
professor, for some incidental purpose, lit a common lucifer match. Voltaire had never 
seen the like before. He begged the experiment to be repeated. He examined the 
simple apparatus minutely ; and asked for the old flint and tinder-box, that he might 
make comparison between them. They smiled at him. Such a thing did not exist. 
" Here is an invention," he cried, " which, as a real contribution to the comfort of life, 
far surpasses everything I have seen. Oh Lucifer ! as they call thee, thou son of the 
morning, if I had had thee in a box by my bedside, how many hours should I have 
saved ! how much anger and impatience should I have escaped ! and Frangois, how thy 
knuckles would have been spared ! Verily, this is the greatest invention that has been 
made in the world since I — " But seeing that he was attracting to himself a degree and 
kind of attention from a staring and tittering audience, that was by no means agreeable, 
he broke off. Meanwhile, the professor, who talked on as incessantly and unweariedly as 
if he too were set in motion by the steam-engine, had already commenced his eulogium 
upon another instance of our mechanical invention. This time the machine was one 
calculated to interest Voltaire. It was a printing-press of the latest constmction, 
worked of course by steam. He saw it in full operation. The type was arranged upon a 
large upright cylinder; four smaller cyhnders, placed around it, bore the paper and 
carried off the impression from the types. At every revolution of the large cylinder, 
four sheets of printed paper were consequently delivered, for the edification or amuse- 
ment of the world. Oux ex-author watched the process, and was very much disposed to 
call for pen and paper, that he might give some copy to the machine. The professor 
continued his oration. " By a machine of this description, but of still greater power," 
he said, " the Times newspaper is printed, I tremble to say how many thousands in an 

Engfearea "by G.GTea.tbiLch.,£coin a.IlKL7niig "by 



EDgMETna.'bf Q.GxBaxbdfh bim o-DrsMinf l)/ iulaaan , 




hour. Each paper contains matter that would fill an octavo volume. The debates in 
parliament that may have been heard at two o'clock in the morning, are that same 
morning laid on the breakfast-table of the country gentleman who is residing one 
hundred miles from the House of Commons. And not only have the speeches been 
reported and printed, but they are accompanied by well- written comments of the editor. 
Wonderful cielerity !" "I hope," thought our listener, "that the orations are equally 
wonderful. They should be. From what I remember of suCh matters, I think I could 
wait a few more hours for them without great impatience; and perhaps the well- written 
comments would not suffer by the delay." Quitting the lecturer and the scene of his 
glory, Voltaire mounted the gallery. Here he encountered what, for a time, entirely 
subdued the captioiis spirit, and called forth all the natural energy and enthusiasm of one 
who had been poet, wit, and philosopher. This was the electric telegraph. He could 
scarcely contain his enthusiasm as he watched the index on one dial-plate, and saw the 
movement responded to by the index of a corresponding dial, and reflected that no 
conceivable length of distance would render the operation less certain or less instantane- 
ous. Thought travels here with its own rapidity; manumitted from the trammels of 
space and time. Yet, after all, he added, it can be but human thought that travels on 
the. wire. ; ... 

Stepping on a little further, he found himself surrounded by improved fire-arms, mus- 
kets that would kill at the distance of five hundred yards, and many-barrelled pistols, 
which promised to deal half-a-dozen deaths in as many seconds. The cynical humour 
returned. "They are not all messages of peace and love," thought he, "that yonder 
electric telegraph will be employed to communicate. The old game of war is played at 
still, and, like Hie rest, duly provided with improved implements. And what is it I 
read on this label ? * A pair of duelling pistols.' Duelling, by the law of England, is 
murder. It must be a very dead law, when, in this industrial exhibition we have ' duelling 
pistols' thus distinctly labelled. ' Pistols for committing murder !' would have been 
rather a startling designation. It seems, therefore, that, in the public opinion, duelling 
is just where it used to be, just the same honourable custom, where men contrive to 
mingle in exquisite proportions the foolery of coxcombs, and the ferocity of savages. 
The progress seems to be all in the mechanical department." Our hero next encounters 
a Socialist and a member of the Peace Society, with whom he has a long and animated 
discussion. With his usual volatility, however, he abruptly breaks away from his adver- 
sary, and nimbly retraces his way along the gallery. In his haste he entered, unawares, 
into a wooden case, or closet, where there was exhibited an anatomical model, m wax, of 
the human figure. It was the size of life, and stood upright, with the breast laid 
onen exposing for convenient inspection the heart and liver, and all the other great 
viscera of the human frame. "Ha! ha!" he cried—" No change here. The same as 
ever— heart, stomach, and the rest of us; the same creature they laid in the pyramids, 
and burnt upon the shore, and deposit now in deep holes in the earth. No alteration 
here Oh. those bowels ! how often did they afflict me !" Apropos of burying, he was 
involved soon after in the examination of a new design for stowing away the increasing 
multitude of our dead. It was the model of a pyramid, to be erected of the same size as 
the greatest of the Egyptian pyramids, but to be erected after a very different fashion. 
For whereas the ancient pyramid was an encasement of stone enclosing the coffin of one 
man in the modern pyramid every stone might be said to contain its dead. The area 
would be first covered with vaults built close to one^ another, on these a second. area 
of simUar vaults would be constructed, on these a third rising gradually to an apex. 
The project had something in it to please a reflective mind. How the two structures 
would contrast-the despot's pyramid and the democratic pyramid! What admirable 


types they would form of the two forms of society, the memory of which they would 
severally perpetuate ! In the one a people of slaves build an enormous mausoleum for 
one man, who is, as it were, a representative of the whole ; in the other, a nation of free- 
men construct an eternal monument for themselves, simply by each man lying down in 
his place as he is called. ***** Spirit as he was, our visitor at length began 
to find himself exhausted by the multitude of objects which solicited his attention. 
He had seen enough, he thought, for one visit. But in quitting the Crystal Palace, 
the model lodging-houses erected by Prince Albert caught his eye. " This Prince Albert !" 
thought he ; "I hear a great deal of this prince, and from all I hear there has not 
been on or near a throne, for many an age, so intelligent and accomplished a man. One 
must go very far back in the annals of England to find his parallel. This prince has 
equal intelligence and far more knowledge than my Frederick of Prussia, and Frederick 

could be a But I have forgiven him. Moreover, I had my revenge ; after which one 

very sincerely forgives. Into these lodging-houses that bear the prince's name I must 
make some inquiries." He did so, and that with a rapidity and acuteness which soon put 
him on a level, in point of information, with the rest of the spectators. A prospectus 
of the society for building a better order of houses for the workman and the peasant was 
put into his hand. It did not fail to meet with his most cordial approbation : it was a 
scheme of judicious philanthropy worthy of its royal and enlightened patron. As he 
was withdrawing his foot from the step of the model cottage, he met, for the third 
and last time, the professor of mechanics, who here also was indefatigable in erplaining 
and developing. Observing VAltaire, whom he now regarded in the light of an old 
acquaintance and antagonist, he determined to push the advantage which their present 
subject of examination gave him, and he enlarged triumphantly on that philanthropic 
desire which had lately sprung up in the higher and middle classes of the community, 
to improve the condition of those who occupy a lower place in the social scale. * * * 
A hot dispute follows, in the course of which the professor becomes extremely irritable, 
and at length was about to overwhelm his ghostly antagonist with a burst of honest 
indignation, when he discovered, to his surprise, that his opponent had vanished from 
the scene. Voltaire went back quite contented that he had lived in Paris a century ago. 



QtEEN Elizabeth's time — winteehaltee's poeteaits of the queen and pbince albeet 


Poktrait Painting in modem times has undergone a considerable change j rigid truth 
has been laid aside for flattery, individuality has been generalised, age concealed, and all 
prominent peculiarities softened down and almost obliterated; plainness of features, 
though stamped with intellect, is abhorred by modern art as a crime, and must not be 
represented, so fastidious has the age become. Perhaps it will be one of the best results 
of the Prse-Raphaelite school to bring back the style of our leading portrait painters to 
the sobriety of truth. We want the express image, the alter idem, of such personages 
as are eminent in rank or talent, with all the sharpness of nature's coinage impressed 

upon the visage. If we have lost in one respect, however, we have gained in another 

we have improved in elegance and simplicity ; we no longer bedeck our female portraits 


with all the feathers, and lace, and pearls, and jeweUery that it is possible to load them 
with; neither do we pourtray our belles as Dianas arrayed for the chase, as Bellonas 
with spear and helm, or as piping shepherdesses with a lamb and crook. Let us peep 
into Hampton Court, and see the Virgin Queen, exhibited in every stage of life from 
infancy to age, and loaded alike in all with extravagant profusion of dress and ornament. 
At the same time the artist was rigidly exact in point of resemblance. It is curious to 
observe the difference between the poets and the painters of that period in their descrip- 
tions of royal personages. While the former launched out into the most extravagant 
praises as to their personal charms, their youth, their beauty, and their noble qualities, the 
latter, severely true, represented them precisely as they were. From the poetry of 
Spenser, Su- Walter Raleigh, Sir Philip Sidney, and others, one would imagine the 
beauty of an Aspasia outrivalled, the graces of a Helen eclipsed. But Holbein and 
Zucchero have given us very different ideas; they have faithfully and honestly done 
their best to immortalise the lineaments of their royal mistress, in colours as true as 
they deserve to be lasting. We feel grateful, too, that bluff old Harry had no courtly 
flatterer— no Sir Thomas Lawrence of the day — to soften down, to generalize his stal- 
wart proportions, or to idealize his countenance. He stands before us with his bold 
swagger, and all his characteristic qualities, such as they were, unmistakeably delineated 
in his features. Again, in the cold and unbending severity of the "Elizabeth" of the 
same painter, who can recognise the " Gloriana" of Spenser, the unrivalled paragon of 
perfection, so celebrated in the poetry of the times. In fact, in his courtly adulation, 
in his disregard to truth, the portrait painter of the present day has lost ground, instead 
of advancing in his art, and will, consequently, have less claim upon the respect of 
future generations, who would prefer, one would imagine, to see their ancestors as they 
really looked and moved, and not as if their features were softened down and corrected 
according to Gay's precept in the fable, from the Apollo and the Venus in the studio 
of the painter. But it is time for us to leave the court of " Gloriana," and that of her 
august sire, and turn our attention to our own gracious Sovereign, whose portrait, 
with that of her illustrious Consort, we have the pleasure of presenting to our readers. 
They were both objects of much attraction in the Crystal Palace, and were painted on 
china, after the originals, by Winterhalter ; that of the Queen having been executed by 
Madame A. Ducluzeau, and its companion by M. Antoine Beranger, of Paris ; and to both 
of these artists was awarded the honourable distinction of a prize medal. As a fitting 
accompaniment we subjoin a brief memoir of the illustrious pair. The language of 
eulogy, when applied to kings and queens, generally becomes a direct falsehood, or sub- 
sides into unmeaning commonplace. The graceless Charles II. was " our most religious 
king," The royal Mbertine, who spurned from his home and heart, and consigned to 
an early grave, the wife he had sworn to cherish and protect, was hailed as "the first 
gentleman of the age ;" and thus it has ever been. In the eyes of the world the graces 
of royalty amply compensate for its vices. When royalty is spoken of, the language of 
flattery only is heard ; the censor speaks with bated breath. And thus the difficulty is 
increased when, as in the case before us, the voice of praise is but the voice of truth. 

In our sketch — as is but right — we must give the first place to our Sovereign Lady, 
Queen Victoria. The incidents of her life may soon be told. Her father was his Eoyal 
Highness Edward Duke of Kent, fifth child of George III. Her mother was Victoria 
Maria Louisa of Saxe Coburg Saalfield, and was born at Coburg on the 17th of August, 
1786. In her sixteenth year this amiable princess became the consort of the hereditary 
Prince Leiningen ; but after the birth of tw:o children she became a widow, and was 
married to the Duke of Kent on the 39th of May, 1818, with all due splendour, at 
Ctoburg, in conformity with the Lutheran rites. The illustrious couple immediately set 



out for Englandj and on arriving at Kew palace, the marriage ritual was again performed 
according to the service of the Church of England, " This," says a writer in the Annual 
Obituary for 1831, " must be allowed to have proved a fortunate, for it was a happy 
union. They exhibited towards each other the most marked attention and regard." 
The result of this union was the birth of her most gracious Majesty Queen Alexandrina 
Victoria the First. In eight short months the mother was again a widow. The Duke 
of Kent expired on Sunday, the 28th of January, 1821, one week previous to the demise 
of his royal father, George III. The childhood of the princess was passed under the 
guardianship of the Duchess of Kent, who, in every respect, appears to have been well 
qualified for the task. The Queen's governess was the companion and friend of the 
duchess, the Baroness Lehzen ; and one better adapted for fulfilling the duties of her 
situation could hardly have been selected. The princess was early taught to consider 
herself as the possible future depository of a trust to be exercised only for the good of 
the whole community ; and when, in the course of time, the succession to the throne 
became no longer a matter of speculation, the additional aid of the late Bishop of Salis- 
bury, subsequently assisted by the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of Lincoln, 
was invoked. At the age of nine years the princess had made considerable progress in 
the ordinary branches of polite education. She could understand the French, Italian, 
and German languages. But her penchant was evidently for the fine arts, more particu- 
larly music, for which, from her earliest childhood, she displayed considerable taste. 
We are told, on one occasion, the first, we believe, of the kind — Beethoven's celebrated 
"Hallelujah to the Father," being performed before her royal highness, — when that 
beautiful passage, " The exalted Son of God," burst upon her astonished ear, she mani- 
fested very great emotion. For several minutes after the conclusion of the chorus her 
royal highness seemed spell-bound, as though a new theory had suddenly been pro- 
pounded to her imagination ; and it was not till the expiration of some minutes, during 
which she seemed insensible to all around her, that she was able to give expression to 
her feelings of delight. A letter describing the confirmation of her Majesty, which 
took place July 30, 1835, may not be deemed uninteresting. " 1 witnessed," says the 
writer, " a beautiful touching scene the day before yesterday, at the Chapel Royal, St. 
James's — the confirmation of the Princess Victoria by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 
The royal family only was present. The ceremony was very afiecting : the beautiful, 
pathetic, and parental exhortations of the archbishop, on the duties she was called on to 
fulfil, the great responsibility that her high station imposed on her, the struggles she 
must prepare for between the allurements of the world and the dictates and claims of 
reUgion and justice, and the necessity of her looking up for counsel to her Maker in all 
the trying scenes that awaited her, most impressive. She was led up by the king, and 
knelt before the altar. Her mother stood by her side, weeping audibly, as did the 
queen and the other ladies present. The old king frequently shed tears, nodding his 
head at each impressive part of the discourse. The little princess herself was drowned in 
tears. The ceremony over, the king led her up to salute the queen and the royal 
duchesses present." 

The following authentic fact exhibits a most gratifying feature in the character of 
her Majesty. A man named Killman, who served in the capacity of porter to the late 
Duke of Kent, had a daughter much afflicted and confined to her bed. On the evening 
of the late king's funeral, this young woman received from Queen Victoria a present of 
the Psalms of David, with a marker worked by herself, having a dove, the emblem of 
peace, in the centre, placed at the forty-first Psalm, with a request that she would read 
and derive from it the consolation it was intended to convey. The Queen is said to be 
passionately fond of children. The following anecdote went the round of the news- 


papers some few years since as an illustration. Her Majesty commanded Lady Barham, 
one of the ladies in waiting, to bring her family of lovely children to the palace. 
They were greatly admired and fondly caressed by the Queen, when a beautiful little 
boy, about three years of age, artlessly said, " I do not see the Queen — I want to see 
the Queen f upon which her Majesty, smiling, said, " I am the Queen," and taking her 
little guest into her arms, repeatedly kissed the astonished child. We give one more 
anecdote, as an instance of her Majesty's religious feeling. A noble lord, in this respect 
very unlike her Majesty, arrived at Windsor recently late on Saturday night. " I have 
brought down for your Majesty's inspection," he said, " some papers of importance ; but 
as they must be gone into at length, I will not trouble your Majesty with them to-night, 
but request your attention to ^em to-morrow morning." "To-morrow morning?" 
repeated the Queen ; to-morrow is Sunday, my lord !" " But business of state, please 
your Majesty" — " Must be attended to, I know," replied the Queen ; " and as, of course, 
you could not have come down earlier to-night, I will, if these papers are of such vital 
importance, attend to them after we come from chiu?ch to-morrow morning." On the 
morrow, much to the surprise of the noble lord, the sermon was on the duties of the 
sabbath. "How did your lordship like the sermon?" inquired the young Queen. 
" Very much, your Majesty," replied the nobleman, with the best grace he could. " I 
will not conceal from you," said the Queen, " that last night I sent the clergyman the 
text from which he pxeached. I hope we shall all be the better for it." The day 
passed without a word on the subject of the papers of importance, and at night, when 
her Majesty was about to withdraw, "To-morrow morning, my lord," she said, "any 
hour yoa please, as early as seven if you like, we will go into these papers." His lord^ 
ship could not think of intruding at so early an hour on her Majesty ; " nine would be 
quite time enough." " As they are of importance, my lord, I would have attended to 
them earlier, but at nine be it." And at nine her Majesty was seated ready to receive 
the nobleman, who had been taught a lesson on the duties of the sabbath, which it is 
to be hoped, he did not quickly forget. 

But we must return to our narrative. On the decease of her uncle. King William IV,, 
June 30, 1837, her Majesty succeeded to the throne. On the 21st of the same month 
she was proclaimed, and on the 28th the ceremony of her coronation was performed. 
But we now come to an event erf more importance — her marriage with Prince Albert, 
which took place February 10, 1840. It is time that we say something of the Prince, 
who is the husband of our Queen, the father of our future kings, and to whom we are 
indebted for the idea of the Great Industrial Exhibition. His Serene Highness Prince 
Albert Francis Augustus Charles Emanuel, Duke of Saxe, Prince of Saxe Coburg and 
Gotha, was born on the 26th of August, 1819, and received the first rudiments of educa- 
tion in the Castle of Erenburg. His father was one of the numerous honorary princes 
with which Germany abounds. Before the French invasion there were 300 of these 
principalities. At the Congress of Vienna, however, their number was reduced to 38. 
Besides its separation into states, Germany was divided by Wenceslaus, in 1307, and by 
Mammilian, in 1500, into nine grand sections, called circles. Of these two are com- 
prised in Saxony Upper and Lower. In Lower Saxony we find Coburg Gotha, a terri- 
tory not very large, but very much improved since the accession of Prince Albert's family. 
It is the most southern of the Saxon independent states, and is surrounded by Schwartz- 
burg, Meiningen, Hildeburghausen, and Bavaria. The valley of the Itz forms the greater 
part of its territory. The Thuringian mountains stretch along the northern boundary of 
Coburg, which is only about one-fourth larger than Rutlandshire, having an area of not 
quite 200 square miles in extent. Joined, however, to Gotha, the territory of the duke 
equals in size the county of Dorsetshire) having a surface of a thousand square miles. 


Much of this is covered by mountains and forest land. As to Prince Albert's family, we 
may here briefly state that the Duchess of Kent is his aunt, and Leopold, King of 
the Belgians, his uncle. We may further state, that some of his ancestors were notice- 
able men. In the dimness that overhangs the days of Charlemagne, we faintly perceive 
a Saxon chief named Wittekind, who for thirty years defied that prince's power. Prom 
his loins sprung the race of which Prince Albert is a younger son. All readers of 
Luther's life know how he was befriended by the Elector of Saxony, Frederick " the 
Wise," John " the Constant," and John Frederick, " the Magnanimous." Prince Albert 
boasts these men as his ancestors. Their blood floats in his veins, and he is true to the 
faith they held. We have already stated that Prince Albert received the rudiments of 
his education in the Castle of Erenburg. His masters were chiefly selected from the 
College of Coburg, and his proficiency was of the most signal character. After the 
death of Prince Albert's mother, Dorothy Louisa PauUna Charlotte Frederica Augusta, 
daughter of Augustus, the last duke but one of Saxe Gotha Altenberg, while his father 
was engaged in arrangements for a second alliance, it was thought expedient that the 
Prince should be removed for a time from home, and he became the visitor of her Royal 
Highness the Duchess of Kent, and the fellow-student of the young Princess, whose 
heart and hand he was afterwards to share. Who knows but that the seeds of that 
attachment were then sown which rendered the after marriage of so different a character 
to what royal marriages generally are ! Be this, however, as it may. Prince Albert, 
who had completed his eleventh year, partook of the lessons in the English language, 
music, and the various sciences, which were given to his illustrious cousin. Fifteen 
months were thus spent, when, after his father's second marriage, he returned home. So 
assiduous was the Prince in his application to study, that at the age of seventeen he 
passed with eclat an examination which admitted him into the University of Bonn, 
where his education was completed, and where, owing to his amiable manners and pro- 
priety of conduct, he became a general favourite. 

When, at the close of his university career. Prince Albert returned to his father's 
court, the inhabitants of the duchy vied with each other in doing honour to the event. 
His entry into public Ufe was celebrated by poems, balls, illuminations, and rejoicings of 
all kinds. Soon after the Prince paid a second visit to this country. The occasion was 
the coronation of her Majesty, Amongst the guests brought together by that event, 
were no visitors more popular than the Prince and his illustrious sire. On his return the 
Prince prepared for a tour in Italy, where he spent the winter of that year. Already 
it is probable that the event which was to raise him to so high a rank was in con- 
templation. It is said, on his return from Italy, the first object that met his eyes on 
entering his apartment, was a portrait of her Majesty, which had, during his absence, 
been sent over for his acceptance from the Queen, At any rate, coming events did cast 
their shadows before. Hints were dropped by our " own special correspondent," and at 
the beginning of October, 1839, Prince Albert embarked with his brother. Prince Ernest, 
for his third visit to London. During this sojourn all doubts were put to flight, and 
on the 2nd of November following, her Majesty, at a court held at Buckingham P^ace, 
declared that the Prince was the husband of her choice. The course of royal love did 
run smooth, and on the 10th of February, 1840, the service, read alike over the highest 
and the lowest in the land, joined together the royal pair. The issue of that marriage 
are — 1, Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa, Princess Royal, born November 21, 1840; 2, 
Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, born November 9, 1841 ; 3, Alice Maud Mary, born 
April 25, 1843; 4, Alfred Ernest Albert, born August 6, 1844; 5, Helena Augusta 
Victoria, born May 25, 1846 ; 6, Louisa Carolina Alberta, born March 18, 1848 ; 7, 
Arthur Patrick William Albert, born May 1, 1850. And whilst we are yet writing^ 


the birth of another prince is announced to us by the joyful firing of cannon on the 

Prince Albert's fame preceded him on English ground. We had heard of him as 
a scholar, and a ripe and good one. A fellow-student of the Prince at Bonn, in a 
letter published in the J^mes, stated that the Prince was not only conversant with 
several European languages, but that he was deeply learned iu the classics— that when 
at Bonn he had published an elegant volume of lyrics for the benefit of the poor — that 
his skill in painting was also considerable — and that in the composition of several songs 
he had shown himself a good musician. Proofs of these qualities have now become 
familiar enough. We were prepared for them, and not surprised at the manifestations 
of them ; but we were not prepared for the untiring philanthropy, for the graceful 
domestic life, for the greatness of aim, evinced by Prince Albert. For the birth and 
realisation of that great idea which, more than any event in our own time, has aided pro- 
gress, and has prepared the way for the brotherhood of man, the world must ever hold in 
veneration the memory of the Prince. No prouder monument could man desire. When 
the pyramids shall have crumbled away — when the monumental brass shall have decayed 
— when London shall be what Tyre and Sidon are now — stiU 1851 wUl be memorable in 
the annals of the world; and labour^s sons will remember, as they toil at the loom, or 
the forge, or the plough, or the mine, who it was that vindicated for labour her proper 
place in the breasts of men — who it was that asked the world to do homage to peace 
and its attendant arts. With all our great institutions — with aU our national celebra- 
tions — with all our national sympathies — have the names of Victoria and Albert become 
entwined. When revolutions raged in neighbouring lands — when blood was spilt in 
Vienna, in Paris, in Berlin — when thrones tottered to their faU — in our land peace and 
order remained secure. The future historian will have to tell how, when Victoria went 
amongst her people — whether she visited the cotton-spinners of Manchester, or the pea- 
santry of Buckinghamshire, or in the presence of the denizens of every clime, in fitting 
manner, with the organ's peal and the voice of prayer, opened the Crystal Palace — all 
along the way glanced eager and admiring eyes, and everywhere were the teeming 
manifestations of a nation's loyalty and love. Already an inscription commemorative of 
the virtues of our Queen has been written by our poet-laureate. We extract from it 
the following appropriate lines : — 

" Her court was pure ; her life serene ; 
God gave her peace ; her land reposed ; 
A thousand claims to reverence closed 
In her as mother, wife, and queen. 

She brought a vast design to pass, 

When Europe and the scattered ends 

Of our fierce world were mixed as friends 
And brethren in her halls of glass. 

And statesmen at her council met, 

Who knew the season when to take 

Occasion by the hand, and make 
The bounds of freedom broader yet 

By shaping some august decree 

Which kept her throne unshaken still, 
Broad-based upon her people's will, 

And compassed by the inviolate sea." 

VOL. II. Q' 


We are not afraid, however, of challenging ;comparison between these lines and the 
following, to the same august lady, from the fair friend who has already more than once 
enriched our pages with her poetic effusions :^— 

When first I gazed upon that beauteous brow, 

And thought how early it was doomed to wear 

That " polished perturbation, golden care," 
Men call a crown, I only wept — but now 
Far other feelings bid my bosom glow j 

For thy sweet soul-enthralling smiles declare, 

O regal lady, excellent as fair. 
The varied blessings which around thee flow. 

In virgin bloum beloved, as queen revered, 

As wife, as mother, more, still more endeared. 
Long for thy happy people may'st thou live ! 

As long thy gifted graceful consort prove 

How rich a boon thy pure, thy generous love, 
The choicest treasure even thou couldst give. 


LETTERS OF M. BLANQUI— conc/«(Zerf. 






Let US now once more turn to the agreeable lucubrations 'of our learned friend, M. 
Blanqui. — I cease for a while, he writes, my studies upon French iiidustry, in order to 
treat of Austria and her exhibition. Austria occupies the third rank of this universal 
congress ; and she has appeared with a .display of resources which has surprised the whole 
world, except those who do not form their opinion from public report, and who do not 
judge of great states from pot-house prejudices. Austria has taken the Exhibition in 
earnest. She has appeared armed at all points, and every day the interest excited by 
her various products, which betoken an industrial progress worthy of the attention of 
manufacturing nations, is increasing. Commencing with the most liberal branch of 
industry— -printing — I am glad to say, that the imperial printing-office of Vienna has 
exhibited the most complete collection of specimens of all known types. This collec- 
tion, which contains no less than two hundred and six languages or dialects, from Phoe- 
nician characters, the most ancient in the world, down to Japanese, is the most beautiful 
in Europe. It is of itself a sufficient answer to the charge of love of darkness, so often 
brought against Austria, and which for a long time has only been, deserved by her new 
government. Austria has now entered upon a new path, and although the statue of 
Marshal Radetzki, which seems to watch, leaning on a sword, over the deposits of Aus- 
trian wealth, may appear an emblem little in conformity with the industrial progress of 
that country, there is no other, after France and England, which merits in the same 

jfiii ^.A^Mi\i^ lilt MiDL & 






o H 
















degree the attention of the man of study and of labour. The homage rendered to science 
and to human mtellect by the branch of industry most capable of propagating them 
throughout the world, is assuredly a remarkable fact. When we reflect upon the 
immense quantity of linguists, of professors, of compositors, and of able workmen, which 
such a luxury of typography evinces, it will suffice to show the rank occupied by 
Austria in the great European family. The imperial establishment of. Vienna possesses 
all the types of the characters printed in its workshops, and it has even exhibited the 
matrices used in their manufacture.: The inigenioiis invention, by means of which the 
80,000 signs of the Chinese ' language are formed by moveable type like music, has been 
particularly noticed. In a technical point of view, the art which the Austrians have> 
attained of calculating the space occupied by every isolated letter, enables them before- 
hand to know what will be the precise extent of a manuscript when it is printed, and the 
imperial printing-office possesses already 150 millions of letters founded upon this system. 
Oriental scholars have greatly admired a work printed for the first time in Japanese with 
moveable types, and which, from its perfection, would rather appear to have been imported 
from that country itself, than reproduced in Germany. Austrian typography has placed 
itself in the first rank^ through this magnificent display of richness. It would require a 
volume to give the simple catalogue of all she has exhibited of this nature, and that 
volume would require a knowledge of the subject which I do not possess. I regret to 
say that the national printing establishment of France has limited itself by opposing to 
this dazzling array of typographical productions a solitary volume of specimens, which 
have unquestionably their merit, but which do not seriously represent French typo- 
graphy. Austria has also displayed much luxury in her topographical productions, and 
her maps, already very celebrated, have maintained at the Exhibition the distinguished 
rank which they merit. When we leave the department of science to enter into that of 
the industrial arts, we find that Austria is making sensible and continuous progress. 
She manufactures iron skilfully in her works of Styria, the products of which are excellent. 
She has almost supplanted the town of Nimes in the exportation of common shawls. 
She manufactures with great superiority ordinary woollen cloths ; and, notwithstanding 
the legitimate reproaches which may be addressed to her on the subject of taste, her 
furniture has produced a certain degree of sensation at the Exhibition, owing to the 
spirit with which it has been executed. A country which manufactures as many as eight 
millions of scythes and reaping-hooks for exportation only, is evidently organised for 
extensive industrial pursuits. - But it is especially in Bohemian glass that we recognise 
one of the most marked superiorities of Austrian manufacture ; and this is the place 
to say a word about the condition of the glass manufacture as shown at the Exhibition. 
Three powers had the right to figure there with their distinctive characteristics — Prance, 
England, and Austria. France has abstained from exhibiting. Our beautiful" manufac- 
tories of St. Louis and of Baccarat, managed by protectionists as skilful as they are 
bigoted, have sent nothing, whereas they might have sent masterpieces, which are 
perfectly well known, for there is a magnificent collection of them at the Conservatoire 
des Arts et Metiers, at Paris. We do not even hesitate to say, notwithstanding the ill- 
feeling of these gentlemen, that this collection would have sufficed to beat out of the field 
all the rival collections J but then, at the same time that we should have demonstrated 
the superiority of the French glass manufacture, we should have asked with what right 
it dared to levy tribute on the national consumers, and show itself so eager for monopoly, 
with which it can dispense exceedingly well?- This is what their absence will not prevent 
us from asking. Besides that this absence is a grave fault at a moment when the 
question is to defend the honour of national labour, it is hkewise a useless precaution, 
because the object of this intentional desertion will escape nobody. It is shameful to 


hide yourselves when you are accountable to your country for the efforts which it has 
so liberally made to sustain you, and you lose all right to boast of your superiority when 
you refuse to appear at a gathering like that of London. Away then, gentlemen, with 
your pretensions to prohibit in France the entry of the glass of Bohemia and of other 
countries ! Away, shameful taxgatherers, who levy upon us, by means of prohibition, 
abusive imposts ; and who do not wish any one to discuss the strange budget by virtue of 
which you make us pay so dearly for what we ought to have cheaply ! The moment is 
approaching when all producers wiU have to submit to the natural reign of competition. 
"We wiU gladly make sacrifices for the state which guarantees to us security, roads, justice, 
or government ; but what do you insure to us, shameless monopolists ? Yes, here you 
wovdd have shone beyond comparison, if not through the cheapness of your products, if 
not through their colour^ at least through their form. You would have been recognised 
as worthy to occupy a medium situation between England and Austria. England seems 
to have gained the palm for white, Austria for coloured glass. The gigantic English 
fountain, upwards of thirty feet high, whose waters diffuse throughout the transept of the 
Crystal Palace a delightful freshness, is a masterpiece which you have not equalled. The 
large pieces of red Bohemian glass, of which you feared the rivalry, have in reality 
over yours only the advantage of cheapness. You would have united nearly all the merit 
except that of sparing our purse. My learned colleague, Michel Chevalier, was right 
when he said, " France pays you the poor-rate, and she does not owe it you." 

I was sadly afflicted to find under the Austrian flag the products of a considerable 
portion of Italy j — the silks of Milan, of Verona, the beautiful stained glass of Bertini, 
the mosaics — everything, in short, that is left of art and grace to these unfortunate 
Italians. Austria has exhibited very fine specimens of her mineralogical products. She 
shines less in her cotton goods, which she would do well to leave alone. It is now- 
a-days the error of great nations to desire to procure, at any price, by means of forced 
labour, that which they might acquire cheaply by means of their natural labour. The 
printed calicoes of Austria are very ugly, and badly finished, notwithstanding the abun- 
dance of chemical productions which are exhibited in her name. Chemical products 
have followed the progress of science in nearly all the countries of Europe, and as I find 
occasion to remark it here incidentally, I have obtained at Manchester authentic proofs 
of the remarkable change which has manifested itself in England. One of the most 
eminent calico printers has shown us by his books the price which he pays for various 
substances, all of which evince a very advanced state of manufacture. Upon the whole, 
Austria occupied a very distinguished rank in the Universal Exhibition. There is, in 
the almost encyclopaedic collection of her products, something masculine and severe, 
characteristic of the nation itself — a dissimilitude in strength as there is a diversity of 
races in the empire. The Bohemians, the Hungarians, the Italians, the pure Germans, 
who have co-operated in forming the union of Austrian industry, have each unquestion- 
ably preserved their peculiar physiognomy, and have lost nothing by being associated 
together. It will be hereafter interesting to study the special character of the labouring 
populations of all the countries which have appeared at this Great Exhibition — French, 
English, German, Spanish, American, and Oriental. You will see what curious relations 
exist between the workman and the work, and how much the lot of the former ia 
connected with the success of the latter. But who, until now, has occcupied himself to 
know exactly what is a workman? Workmen are flattered when they are strong — they 
are curbed when they abuse their strength ; but to study them, to admonish them — who 
thinks of it. 



I return, with the whole of Europe, to this marvellous exposition of Lyons, which will 
form an era in the history of industrial exhibitions. It is not sufficient mSy o 
exclaim, like all the spectators « Beautiful ! magnificent! admirable!" it is necesLy 

to attempt to make every one appreciate their import. The city of Lyons has not only 
outstripped all riva manufactories, if such there be-she has eclipsed herself; and you 
will be better enabled to judge of her strength from the simple fact, that only one- 
seventii of the Lyoonese manufacturers have presented themselves at the Exhibition- 
but these are the masters of the art. I have already told you that they had had the 
happy idea to lay aside their individualities for the purpose of appearing ioiutly In 
truth, only one name is observed, that of the city of Lyons, which towers above all her 
products, and which appears to canopy them with her glorious renown. Union has con- 
stituted their strength, and these illustrious anonymous persons shine with a greater 
brilliancy tha,n if they had posted up their own names. I could have wished that the 
l-arisian turniture and paper-hanging manufacturers, imitating their example, had con- 
fined themselves to the following simple inscription : Paris, Fauhourg Saint Antoine. 
1 hat would have meant, "You take us for barbarians who only know how to destroy • 
behold^ how we work when we are not engaged in setting the four corners of Europe in a 
flame. And Europe would have answered, "Pray work, gentlemen; it is a great deal 
more beautiful." 

Let us commence by doing justice to the two men who have presided over this brilliant 
Lyonnese exhibition, and who watch over it in London with paternal solicitude. They 
are Messrs. Aries Dufour, member of the Lyons jury, and M. Gamot, inspector of silks. 
The one, full of fire, zeal, and ardour, is not an inapt representative of the operative 
impetuosity; the other, calmer, milder, and more thoughtful, resembles the genius of 
business. A goodly portion of the success of the great city is attributable to them, and 
it required not less than their united merits to bring to a happy issue this memorable 
exhibition, the preparations for which have not been unaccompanied with difficulties. I 
will describe to you how they have accomplished the delicate task which had been 
confided to them. They have collected under one head all the Lyonnese articles of the 
same description, without distinction of origin, and they have exhibited them in the best 
light. Thus, all plain fabrics are exhibited together, from the lowest priced to the most 
costly qualities. The cut or crisped velvets come next, followed by lutestrings, satins, 
and gros-de-Naples ; then follow crapes, plushes, handkerchiefs, the figured and brocaded 
goods, and the fabrics used for churches and palaces. Every kind comprises all its 
varieties, and an attentive contemplation of the whole suffices to embrace, in the most 
complete manner, this immense family of woven fabrics which constitute the pride of 
the loom.. We were the less prepared to admire what we are about to describe, inasmuch 
as the Paris Exhibition of 1849 had left in the minds of all an unfavourable impression 
of insufficiency and sorrow. It was evident that the city of Lyons had not figured 
in a manner worthy of herself at this industrial solemnity, and that she bore profound 
traces of the moral and political disorder caused by the events of 1848. I leave you to 
judge of the general surprise called forth at the aspect of the fabrics of incomparable 
richness and variety, which leave far behind them everything of the kind that has been 
attempted even in Lyons. Thus we may see, at the Crystal Palace, gold cloth with 
bouquets figured with silk, valued at 400 francs per metre, of workmanship so superior, 
that it may be considered as the most beautiful ever issued from the looms of Lyons. 
Lyons has maintained and raised her old repute of her manufacture in fabrics for 

VOL. II. H. 


church ornaments, and in woven and embroidered chasubles, with inlaying of precious 
stones.. The figured goods naturally occupy in the Lyonnese exhibition the most important 
place, owing to the special character of their manufacture, the richness of their colours, 
and the grand beauty of their ornaments. It is from thence |that all court robes, the 
princely hangings, and the decorations of the most splendid apartjnents, are sent forth. 
It will be a long time before we behold a more glorious industrial trophy than that of 
all these glorious evening dresses chosen among the chefs'd'oeuvre of the loom, which 
represent the greatest difficulties overcome, together with the most delicate and most 
exquisite eff'ects of pattern and mixture. There is not a nation in the world at present 
capable of uniting in the same degree the richness of material with the perfection of 
labour. Only one house has exhibited crapes — ^about seventy pieces — crisped crape, 
smooth crape, crepe-lisse, aerophane crape, embroidered on white or in colours, of inde- 
scribable grace, lightness, and freshness. This department of the Exhibition is very 
dangerous for husbands. From morning till evening there are thousands of women in 
ecstasy, who laud them to the skies. It is, indeed, from the heavenly regions that these 
enchanting productions, variegated with a thousand colours, transparent and light, like 
the wings of the butterfly, would appear to have descended. Happy women of the earth ! 
I cannot too often repeat it to you : when you throw over your beautiful shoulders these 
aerial scarfs, think sometimes of the poor girls who have made them. They are of your 
own sex, your own country, and your own religion j and they are often in want of the 
necessaries of life, after having provided you with superfluities ! Not far from these 
treasures, the Lyonnese have exhibited an assortment of more than 200 pieces of cravats, 
neckerchiefs, and handkerchiefs — more durable and vulgar, but of which immense quan- 
tities are produced, and in the manufacture of which the Lyonnese industry has made 
considerable progress in the last fifteen years. Lyons has not excited less public attention 
by her three stalls of black plush for men's hats. Hats, such as are worn now-a-days in 
the shape of perfectly ridiculous cylinders, are very ugly, ungraceful, and incommodious ; 
but they are not too dear ; and it is owing to the improvements introduced in the man- 
ufacture of plush that we are enabled to renew them often and have them clean, until we 
wait the time that a form more rational and appropriate to our habits be given to them. 
There is, in the Lyonnese exhibition, an article which it would be well to leave alone ; 
these are the plain fabrics, with patterns printed in the warp, called chines, which have 
become very fashionable of late, though they but little deserve it. This bastard or misty 
style, very extensively used for ladies' dresses, imparts to the pattern something vague 
and stiff, which is contrary to the traditions of Lyonnese manufacture, so justly cele- 
brated for the brilliancy and distinctness of its colours. Only one exhibitor has dared 
to compete with the Chinese crape shawls, and he has done wisely. The real China 
crape shawls are always a little heavy in their embroidery, even when the fabric upon 
which they are worked, which is seldom the case, is light. We may, therefore attempt 
with hopes of success, a competition which deserves encouragement. I may say the 
same of the special manufacture of silk cravats, in which the English excel to a degree 
to send a good many to the Parisian market. The watered silks exhibited are somewhat 
stiff, and are particularly suited to dowagers. There is another description exhibited, 
more rich than beautiful, and which is relieved, I might almost say inlaid, with gold and 
silver. The use of filigree wrought metals is only suited to the habits of the East. The 
Lyonnese shawls are going out of fashion, or are transformed, beaten out of the field, by 
the Parisian manufacture in point of elegance and materials, beaten by the printed 
shawls in point of economy, and by the fashion which is by degrees substituting the 
wrapper, the mantles, and wadded over-dresses, to everything that is not an Indian shawl. 
Lyons has exhibited figured shawls all of silk, and velvet shawls, for this winter, verv 


graceful and elegant. This is the inimitable stamp of Lyonnese manufacture, distinction, 
and elegance. I trust our English neighbours will pardon me, but all the printed shawls 
— real slop shawls — of which their women use such lavish quantities, would not be worn 
in Paris by respectable chamber-maids. It is with difficulty that such houses as M. 
Depouilly of Puteaux, Messrs. Gros, Odier, and Roman, of Wesserling, whose products 
are perfection itself, can obtain for their printed shawls a sale much more due to their 
lightness than to the purity of their printing. I shall only allude incidentally to a 
compliment paid to the royal family of England by the house of Potten and Rambord, 
consisting of three pictures, worked in silk by the loom, by the process of Maissiat, after 
Winterhalter, representing Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and one of their children. 
There is also a portrait of the Pope, executed by the same process, from the manufac- 
tory of M. Coquillat. These pictures from the loom are veritable triumphs, which only 
tend to prove of what the shuttle is capable ; but I do not admire them any more than 
the Gobelins pictures, which will never be industrial products, and which will always leave 
something to be desired as works of art. 

That which, above all things, distinguishes the Lyonnese manufactures, is the supreme 
taste which characterises all its productions, like the natural element in which its 
workmen breathe ; it is that series of traditions which neither the revolutions of fashion^ 
the devastations of civil war, nor the savage distractions of politics, have been able to 
interrupt. There would appear to be a mysterious agreement among the innumerable 
hands which co-operate, often without knowing each other, in the perfection of these 
admirable fabrics. Warpers, designers, Jinishers, dyers — all lend each other, without 
eflfect and almost without method, mutual assistance. They produce masterpieces in the 
same manner as elsewhere vulgar things are produced, because it is their nature. 
Behold them at work : with what care they protect against the dust of the domestic 
hearth the immaculate whiteness of these satins, purer than silver — or of those crapes, 
the grain of which is produced by the pressure of a cylinder, covered with coarse leather, 
and rough to the touch ! Nothing will be more interesting than the history of these 
men, when it shall be written with sympathy for them, without flattering or disregard- 
ing them. These men, at the present moment, demand their proper position; and they 
exhibit, as their title-deeds, the masterpieces which we have just admired. Have they 
deserved it or not ? 


After the striking success of the Lyonnese exhibition, there is none comparable with 
that of the manufacturers of Mulhouse, who have also had the happy idea of appearing 
collectively, and whose products have excited universal admiration. Here, it is no longer 
by the richness of the material that the exhibitors have shone ; it is by the elegance of 
their patterns, and, above all, by their splendid execution. Muslins, jacconets printed 
for gowns, printed cloths for curtains and furniture — ^these constitute the general staple 
of the Alsatian exhibition ; but, with these simple articles, they have found the means of 
eclipsing all rival manufactures, and they no longer fear any competition. I do not think 
that I ara unjust towards any one by asserting that the manufactures of Alsatia are the 
first of France, either as regards the importance of their own capitals, or those of the 
bankers who are interested in their operations. They have all taken manufacturing pur- 
suits in good earnest, and do not devote themselves to them, like so many others, to 
make a smaH fortune, and then to retire into idleness. They live or die engaged in 
industrial avocations. The manufactories pass from father to son, constantly perfected 
bv the intelligence of generations which succeed each other. At Mulhouse they study — 
they do not vegetate* in the beaten track of routine; there are industrial and sdentific 


societies which endeavour every day to solve the economical problems of manufacturing, 
labour^ and which generally conduce to them by the most liberal means. What a dif- 
ference from the exclusive, absolute, and prohibitionary manufacturers of the north ! 
able men likewise, but untractable, and ever ready to regard their local interests as 
those of the whole of France. Alsatian industry was therefore destined to shine at the 
London gathering, and it must be admitted that it makes a better figure than that of 
Turcoing, Lille, and Roubaix, although these are represented by very honourable names, 
among which those of Messrs. Scrive, Freres, are foremost. Alsatia is a model man- 
ufacturing country. Machine manufactories, spinning, weaving, printing establish- 
ments — all are united there ; it is the land of mechanists, designers, and chemists. Every 
especial degree of skilfulness lends each other a mutual aid, and hence there has resulted 
an ensemble of forces which has turned to the profit of their entire manufacturing 
system, and which attracts towards it , by preference, the attention of the manufacturing 
world. It is sufficient to name the Koechlins, the Hartmanns, the Dillfus, the Schlum- 
bergers, the Zubers — all these really patrician families — to justify this well-merited pre- 
ference. It is to Alsatia that the immense development which calico printing has 
taken in Europe during the last twenty-five years is owing ; it is Alsatia which has spread 
the best modes of manufacture, and which unceasingly perfects them. Nowhere better 
than in this land are dye-stufifs more skilfully used ; nowhere are dyers' weeds, madder, 
cochineal, and orchilla, applied with more brilliancy or fastness. Alsatia is like a great 
printing school, where the masters and foremen of all nations come to form themselves. 
It is, thanks to her, that Europe has become partial to those graceful and light fabrics 
which now-a-days decorate at such small cost all dwellings, and which so economically 
clothe all women. The exhibition of these masters of the art was therefore expected 
with impatient curiosity. It has been worthy of them in every respect, and their products 
have become the standard by which all other analogous products are compared, to class 
them suitably. It is, therefore, well to state, that all the calico printers of Europe are 
unanimous in admitting that Mulhouse carried off the palm over all printed calicoes, as 
Lyons did over all silks. This superiority is easier to state than to define. The English 
are great producers of printed calicoes ; the Belgians, the Austrians, the Prussians, the 
Saxous, the Spaniards, and even the Turks, are so likewise ; but, with the exception of 
two or three Manchester houses, all these manufacturers belong rather to the school of 
Rouen than to that of Mulhouse. The calicoes which they print are very ordinary, and 
cannot compete with ours. It is through the immense quantities which they produce, as 
well as the economy in the details, that the English are distinguished above all other 
nations engaged, like them, in calico printing. Their great advantage consists in 
operating upon enormous masses of goods, and not to waste an atom of matter. You 
should see with what solicitude they seek after economising a centime on a chemical 
product, on a number of yarn, on a colouring matter, and on freight ; and with what art 
they transform this economy iuto profit, by millions, by multiplying their markets by 
demand, and demand by cheapness. This art is pushed in England to the most micros- 
copic details, and veritable oceans of wealth are created there literally drop by drop. 

Thus, all their factories have a severe and somewhat gloomy aspect of grandeur and 
simplicity. Not a single ornament — no columns, no architectural display. High and 
black brick walls, iron flooring, iron stairs, iron doors, iron barriers everywhere — rarely 
flowers and trees around a factory — never any fruit-trees. The abodes of labour, it must 
be admitted, are not very cheerful in England. In France, on the contrary, and par- 
ticularly in Alsatia and Normandy, the factories have nearly everywhere an attractive 
appearance, full of charm. They are inhabited often nearly during the whole year by 
their proprietors ; they are surrouuded with gardens, or faced by beautiful ayenues, oi 


bordered by beautiful waters ; and their more artistic charjjicter is more in unison with 
their destination, and with French habits. I shall never forget, as one of the noblest 
specimens of the kind, the beautiful factory of Messrs. Zuber at Rixheim, near Mul- 
house, with its large spacious courts, shaded by magnificent sycamore trees, looking more 
like an Italian villa than a manufactory of paper-hangings. More not less remarkable 
instances might be quoted at Thann and Cemay. It is, therefore, always by means of 
art and taste that we distinguish ourselves, and that we compete with our rivals. They 
shine with the compass — we with the pencil. They derive their profit from fuel, from 
iron, from the mass of the products manufactured, from the greater facilities of credit 
amongst them ; our profits are derived from our designs, from our inventions in matter 
of colour and form. They force the buyers by lowness of price — we seduce them by 
novelty. The prosperity of an English factory depends more on its master ; that of a 
French factory more on its workmen. 

It is evident that everywhere, where it is only necessary that machinery, almost perfect, 
such as those English looms of 1,300 spindles — monster machines, which move by 
themselves, which go, come, I might almost say, which reason — should work regularly, 
the capitalist and the mechanician alone suffice j but when the success of the manufactory 
depends upon the designers, the chemists, the finishers, the wealth of the master can 
do nothing ; the genius of the workmen can do nearly everything. It is this value of 
the workmen which political economists have called their moral capital — infinitely greater 
in France than anywhere else. Thus, the magnificent sideboard executed by Four- 
dinois, and which has produced such a great sensation at the London Exhibition, has 
sprung from the brain of an able designer, M. Protat, whose name does not even appear 
in the catalogue. The London Exhibition, and the study of the French and English 
factories, point out in a very significant manner the difference in the industrial genius of 
the two nations. We have just described the difference in the construction, in the site, 
and in the objects surrounding the factories ; but it is still more striking, when you enter 
the workshops, to study the distinctive character of the two races. The English factory 
operative is cold, silent, absorbed by his task ; he possesses a peculiar characteristic of 
patient and severe firmness, which distinguishes him from other workmen even in his 
own country. The French workman, on the other hand, more lively, more sprightly, more 
open, likes to chat, and indulges in it willingly whenever the din of machinery does 
not drown his voice. The English workman lives more isolated, he is more fond of 
privacy ; he prefers domestic life when he has a family. The Frenchman is more fond of 
living in public, of noise, and of political discussions. The English workman does not 
seek after the public journals with the same eagerness as the French artisan. The 
influences by which both races are surrounded must also be accounted for in their cha- 
racters. The French, accustomed from early life to the study of arts, of design, and the 
sight of monuments of artj the English more accustomed to the management of 
machinery and its various applications. Whatever degree of superiority the severe habits 
of the English may impart to their manufactures, the Alsatian, more than any other 
branch of French industry, tends to deprive them of it, because it unites with the 
advantages of internal economical order, the merits of numerous arts which add value 
without enhancing the price of the products. It is not the richness of the material 
wliich constitutes the price of printed calicoes — ^it is the taste, the originality of the 
design, the happy combination of colours; all superiorities of French genius, which 
compensate, by a species of natural favour, for the elements of inferiority which we may 

possess. , , « . 1 . I. 

The same contrast is found in a very different branch of mdustry now m process of 

undergoing a complete revolution, and split into two very different camps. I allude to 

VOL. II. * 


artistical and industrial gold and silversmith's work. Garrard in London, and M, Odiot 
in Paris, represented industrial; M. Rudolfi, M. Morel, M. Froment-Meunce, the artistic 
branch. Which of these is in the right ? which in the wrong ? Which of them works in 
the well-understood interests of production? How are we to establish an equitable 
comparison between such opposite styles ? The gold and silversmith's craft has attained 
in these days such a degree of importance, that the question will not be e&iy.lto decide in 
the midst of: the universal jury. Thus the English are still inspired by the ample forms 
of the age of Louis XIV., whilst in France. they have long since studied to imitate 
the Grecian and the Roman. The English' prefer the useful arid the comfortable to be 
afiected, to the bastard imitations of a revival, the originality of which too often consists 
in changing white into black, and to give,to silver the colour of iron.. We have seen too 
many- masses of articles of this jki)id,-at-4;he London Exhibition; fantastical groups of 
doubtful utility, and better calculated' to figure in a cabinet of curiosities than on a well- 
served table. What signify these silver palm trees, these gentlemen on horsebiack, "these 
allegorical and < hieroglyphical figures, and all these whimsical compositions with which 
English wojkers in precious metals have . inundated the jE^hibition ? Nothing but a 
dangerous departure from the path of: taste, capable of driving the entire branch of 
industry into a false path, and drying up the source of its markets. 1 prefer the manly 
and proud simplicity of Odiot. Odiot, the gold and silversmith, has produced gold; and 
silversmiths' work. All his productions are destined for the use andj- service of the 
table. His candelabra, elegant as they are, are made to carry candles ; his soup-tureens 
to contain soup, his eoflee-pots to pour out coffee. You have only to place a bottle of 
champagne, surrounded by ice, in his wine-coolers, made of pure and simple silver — not 
forced, not contorted, not oxidised at considerable expense. Thus the famous Germain 
covered with his magnificent works the tables and the dressing-tables of Louis XIV. at 
Versailles. By the side of these principal pieces, where the perfection of the work vies 
with the richness of the material, the branch of industry of electro-silvering and gilding, 
of which the head-quarters at Paris are at Messrs. Christoffle and Co.'s has made its 
appearance at the Universal Exhibition, and has attracted a great number of visitors. It 
arrived late, but it has regained lost time by a skilful display, and brilliant and varied, 
which will ever stand in the same relation to gold and silversmiths' work, as cotton lace 
does to thread lace, but without damaging the former, or destroying the taste for it. 
Elkington's process is still in its infancy. The immense metallic movement of California 
and Russia is destined to give it a new impulse, and I am convinced that ere long the 
keys of our furniture, a considerable portion of our table cutlery, our hunting weapons, 
and the locks of our apartments, will be gilt by this process. 

Prance and England have exhibited gold and silversmiths' work of an immense 
amount. Several makers have contributed to the value of £40,000, some for .£20,000 
others for £10,000. I know not who will buy these Napoleons, these WeUinftons on 
horseback, these towers of Babel, these infidel slayers, these tigers, these wolves and 
lions, of gold and silver, which are of no use. It appears to me that bronze is better 
adapted than the precious metals for purely artistical groups. Bronze is firmer and more 
severe, and it has become so flexible in the hands of Parisian workmen, that its chasing 
is even superior to that of gold and silver. It is in the industry of bronzes that the 
alliance of taste, of form, and imagiuation, has been most admired. This branch of 
industry is growing every day, and its importance will gain much from the comparison 
with the bronzes' from the remainder of Europe, such as they have appeared at the 














As in our preceding chapter several references are made to the workmen whose varioas 
labours adorned the numerous departments of the Great Exhibition, we shall sum up 
the notices of our Parisian Mentor with the following article from his talented pen, on 
the comparative merits, peculiarities, condition, and mode of thinking and living of the 
different workmen of Europe. Amidst the marvels of the Universal Exhibition, says our 
author, the idea has frequently suggested itself to me, to cast a glanCe at the condition 
and the habits of the workpeople who, in reality, have done the honours of it, and to 
endeavour to seek out if some mysterious relations did not exist between them and their 
works. In what consist these relations ? Why has each country a distinctive character- 
istic of national originality, to such a degree that furniture, arms, lace, and woven 
fabrics, but seldom resemble each other in Paris, in London^ in Vienna, and in Madrid? 
Whv are Spanish workmen so gay, so lively, and so sober, and those of England so pro- 
foundly serious, silent, and voracious ? Has not French petulancy some connexion with 
the boldness of good taste of the French artisan, and Germanic coldness with the con- 
scientious but heavy work of the German one ? By means of what inexplicable prodigy 
do the workmen of India manufacture shawls more beautiful than those of Paris, and 
what is the unknown source of that school of designers which in the East seems every 
day to outstrip the limits of fancy ? 

I have greatly regretted that advantage has not been taken of the Exhibition to unite 
in a congress, in the midst of their works, workmen of all nations. They might have 
interchanged amongst each other, to their mutual instruction, a host of practical ideas 
and ingenious processes, which would have become the inheritance of the general 
industry of the world. In default of this cosmopolitan gathering, it will not be 
without interest to sketch the peculiar characteristics of the principal labouring families, 
whose productions have been displayed at the Exhibition, and to bestow a rapid and 
impartial glance upon their present condition. These large masses of men have, since 
the commencement of the present century, acquired an importance, and in some parts of 
Europe an influence so considerable, that it becomes imperatively necessary to study, m 
the closest manner, everything connected with their economic and social condition. The 
abolished system of guilds maintains still greater sway than is generally imagined 
amongst the emancipated branches of industry. Traditions have survived laws, and the 
labouring classes continue to live isolated, in a world apart, too often a sealed book to 
those most interested in being acquainted with it. This characteristic Une of demarcation 
is nowhere more profoundly traced than in England. The English workman is a being 
apart, having his manners, his habits, his vices, his virtues, his pride, his modes of work- 
ine and his amusements peculiar to himself. His mirth and his gloom resemble no 
other The miners, the spinners, the weavers, the builders, the stokers, all the workmen 
engaged in manufacture, have almost nothing in common with those employed m agri- 
culture. The workmen engaged in manufacture all eventually identify themselves with 
the regularity of their machines, under the influence, I had almost said the despotism, 
of the division of labour. They are compelled to go and to come, forward and backward, 
like the machines which employ them: the machine commands and they obey. Their 


task is regulated with mathematical precision, and their arms make as many move- 
ments as the break-wheels make revolutions. After some time the result is a species of 
automatic life, a frightful monotony, from which the workman only escapes in his leisure 
moments by strong and gross excitements, by intemperance, which leads to drunkenness, 
and this drunkenness itself is of a gloomy and savage nature, like the drinks which have 
produced it. The manufacturing system has likewise profoundly modified the character 
of the English workman. He lives less in the midst of his family, and belongs much 
more to his fellow-workmen than to his children. His existence has ceased to be 
domestic. From the commencement he is enrolled in one of the thousands of societies 
which abound throughout the country, and which, if need be, easily assume the attitude 
of coalition. The workman's forum is the meeting-place of his trade's union ; it is the 
club of which he forms part, the economic or industrial association to which he is 
affiliated. These associations are reckoned in England by thousands ; they form veritable 
tribes, which have their regulations, their prejudices, their exigencies — nay, even their 
superstitions. The spinners and the printers of Manchester, the hosiers of Nottingham, 
the cutlers of Shefi&eld, the smiths of Wolverhampton, the potters of Burslem, the colliers 
of Newcastle, the ribbon weavers of Coventry, the cloth weavers of Leeds, form as many 
industrial armies, obeying the voice of their chiefs, each ranged under his own banner, 
and in reality distinguished by a kind of peculiar physiognomy easily recognisable. 

The wives and children of these workmen generally follow the vocation of their hus- 
bands and fathers. They thus get inured to them at an early age, at least in those 
branches of industry which admit of the employment of women and children, and they 
at last acquire faults, and physical and moral qualities, which are really characteristic. 
Their costume never varies : a spinner, a mender, a colUer, a smith, are always dressed 
nearly in the same manner ; and even their hair, particularly amongst the women, is 
arranged according to their vocation with invariable regularity. Their minds, inces- 
santly bent upon the same object, eventually acquire a gift of second sight, which often, 
without instruction, leads them to discover improvements of important details. It is 
seldom, however, that their thoughts travel beyond the regions of the factory and of 
material enjoyments ; and it is a distinctive trait in their character, that none of them 
dream of making their fortunes as politicians, neither does ambition penetrate their souls. 
They like labour for its own sake, and it is a great point of self-love with them to 
devote themselves to it conscientiously and perseveringly. There is a good deal of affinity 
between them and their machines. They have little initiative, of taste and ideas, and 
they are infinitely less artistical than ours. The French workman is nearly in every 
respect the opposite of the English one. His dependence, proud and haughty, always 
resembles a concession, and he deems himself attached to a temporary yoke rather 
than to a permanent workshop. His exactness and stability nowise partake of the Eng- 
lish fatality and resignation j he would ever be ready to go, and to give notice rather than 
receive it. He is more gay, more lively, more talkative, more of a reasoner ; and, since 
the contagion of politics has entered our manufactories, he has become imperious, 
cavilling, important, and rather occupies himself with the government of the state than 
that of his looms. Among many, business is looked upon as an affair of circumstance 
and of necessity ; they occupy themselves with it because it is necessary to live, and 
hitherto politics have not yet discovered the secret of supplying masses of men with a 
livelihood without labour ; but their minds are, in reality, elsewhere, and in quest of 
perpetual and undefinable ameliorations. The real French workman is the workman of 
art, and it must be said, whatever may be their faults, such are the Parisian workmen. 
There are excellent workmen throughout France ; there are only perfect ones in Paris. 
Our weavers of cloth, and our spinners of cotton, resemble, in many respects the English 

:iflgr3.ved by T Bol'tis, fromaDramng toy B liaaon 




workmen; of -their categories ; but the Lytfnnese workman, the designer of iVTulhouse, the 
operatiy^ manufacturer of shawls, and he who makes the ribbons of St. Etienne; have 
alwap required to receive from Piaris the secret influence, either by raeans of the design, or 
by the idea or the order explained^ to reach perfection. Paris is likfe a large school 
of taste, which gives the tone and the colour. It is there, in fact, that are formed, in 
innumerablej schools . of design, mostly gratuitous, i^iCse' legions of ing'rates, who have 
acquired their talent in establishments maintained by governments which, every ten or 
fifteen.years, they take so much pleasure in upsetting. 

If you examine well, you will find, in the jprovinces, a host of remarkable special 
manufactures. Doubtless, excellent guns are made at ChdtefUerault, and at St. Etienne; 
buiiti.s ip, Paris alone that beautiful arms are made. ' Watehmaking is carried on very 
eccaiomically and very ingeniously in Franche-Coiflte, but it is in Paris that the finishing 
stroke is put to these watches, and it is there only (I am only speaking of France) that 
they are worthy of their name. Good locks are unquestionably inaniifactured in Picardy, 
and which are not dear, but the great lock-makers, the niasters of- the art, are all in 
Paris, It is thence that all inspirations emanate. The Chaniber of Commerce of that 
city, is now engaged in printing aJbook, which will be exceedingly curioiis, aiid which 
wili -clearly explain this economic phenomenon : it is a faithful statement of all the pro- 
fessions exercised in that great city, street by street, and, to some degree, man by man ; 
an analysed register of that ingenious, intrepid, and capricious ant-hill, called the 
workpeople of Paris. There will appear, for the first time complete, the nomenclature of 
these ancient branches of industry whose products, known under the name of Parisian 
articles, are spread over the entire world, and which know no rivals. Nowhere is such 
furniture made"; nowhere are toys, bronzes, paper-hangings, tapestry, articles of fashion, 
umbrellas, ornaments, and those thousands of trifles which represent millions in value, 
produced better than in Paris. This vast industrial encyclopaedia comprises entire streets 
of the capital, the streets Saint Denis and Saint Martin, the street of the Faubourg St. 
Antoine, the street Grenetat, the street Bourg I'Abbe, tiie two streets of the Temple, 
where more than one unknown genius produces masterpieces at wretched prices, and 
frequently imparts value to nameless materials, to lucifer-matches, for instance, which 
absorb, it will hardly be believed, whole timber-yards. But the greater part of these 
branches of industry are entirely domestic; thfey are carried out, like the work of the 
milliners and lacemakers, in circumscribed workshops, in which the most skilful 
mechainical resources frequently secure the independence of the workman, who is paid 
by the,piece, and who manufactures articles for which he has received or furnished the 
raw material according to the extent of his small capital. It is "this mode of labour, 
common to the Parisian, and the Lyonnese wOrkman, which imparts to both a 'peculiar 
physiognomy amongst all the races of French and foreign workman. London "ddes not 
produce the immense variety of articles that are made at Paris. Mechanism governs 
everything, and individual labour does not strive to seize on that part of its domain in 
which all the marvels of our capital are produced, under the inspiration of the taste 
which .aistinguishes its artists. Sevres, the Gobelins, the Savonnerie, are the types of 
that brilliant school of decoration whose lustre has shone over the entire of French 
industry, to the eternal honour of those who have laid or strengthened their foundations.* 
The more I study the question of workmen employed in manufactures, the more I 
remain convinced that the true vocation of ours is to excel in those branches of mdustry 
which can do without protection, and live an independent life by inspirmg themselves 
with the sacred fire of art. The English so thoroughly understand the French superiority 
in this respect, that for some time they have made unheard-of effqrts to naturalize, 
amongst the good workmen, the study of drawing and the cultivation of the beautiful, so 

VOL. 11. ^ 


necessary to the useful. AVanting their own, they borrow our workmen, thus implicitly 
admitting that neither the progress of machinery, nor the low price of freights, nor the 
abundance of capital, can compensate for the absence of taste, which is also a creator of 
value. Open the lists of the jury awards, and you will see how powerfully this peculiar 
French element of wealth has weighed in the balance, which has only charmed the 
judges, after having excited the admiration of the entire world. The works of the 
Lyonnese will probably remain the most brilliant souvenir of this memorable struggle. 
A third family of workmen has appeared with iclat on the great stage of the Universal 
Exhibition ; these are the workmen of the German region, in which are comprised all 
those of Prussia, of Austria, and those of the other German states. They are less known, 
and have hitherto made less noise than the French and the English, because they are 
less agglomerated, less compact. German manufacture, with the exception of that of 
some towns or valleys renowned for their industrial establishments, is, as it were, lost and 
drowned in the wave of rural populations, which are the predominating element of that 
portion of Europe. But the German workmen have just proved of what they are 
capable, and the world has beheld with admiration a host of products created by them, 
worthy to compete with those of the most advanced nations. The imperial printing- 
office of Vienna has obtained the council medal, whilst the national printing offi.ce of 
Paris has only obtained the prize one. The Prussian founders have covered themselves 
with immortal glory. The valley of Chemnitz, in Saxony, has exhibited a host of articles 
capable of competing in point of cheapness and good workmanship with France and 
England themselves. The Austrian cabinet-makers have appeared to me likely to 
become more redoubtable rivals to those of the Faubourg St. Antoine than those of any 
other country in the world. Hitherto, however, these skilful men have only been 
imitators in everything. The German workman invents little, but he copies marvellously 
well — not servilely, but by imparting to his works a peculiar stamp of naivete. They 
are less mechanical than the English, and less artistical than the French j but they 
rather incline to the French style, wanting, however, their elegance, which they sometimes 
happily replace by the natural and the simple, when they do not degenerate into man- 
nerism. Their habits are, generally, tolerably temperate. The English eat ; the Germans 
smoke -intemperately, by day, by night, I had almost said at meal times, in bed — it is 
frightful : and if this habit should persist in developing itself, Germany will become 
uninhabitable. One of my greatest apprehensions is to see this ruinous taste penetrate 
into our workshops, where it injures and stupifies the children, and causes amongst them 
more serious ravages than is generally believed. The German workman lives much 
more in the midst of his family than the other workmen of Europe ; and although the 
absurd spirit of communism is at this moment infecting the German world beyond all 
conception, the. old fundamental qualities which distinguish it will struggle a long time 
against the tendencies of the evil genius which has been introduced, it must be admitted, 
into Germany, by the students of the universities. The German workman is patient 
and thoughtful ; he has much more sensibility than the English workman, much less 
elegance than the French one. He likes to infuse sentiment into his works; and I might 
mention works in Bohemian glass, toys of Nuremberg, porcelain of Saxony, even printed 
calicoes, and clocks, which bear strong evidences of this tendency, which might be 
called pastoral, if it did not frequently degenerate into the trivial and the vulgar. On 
the whole, they are a race of men now very much advanced. They have gradually profited 
by the discoveries and processes of Prance and England, and after having, for a long 
time, made common woollen cloths in Silesia, they now manufacture very fine ones at 
Aix-la-Chapelle. The abolition of barriers between German states, consequent upon the 
establishment of the Zollverein, has contributed, in no trifling degree, to give to German 


industry an impulse, which has not ceased to grow under the influence of the habits 
of order and economy of its manufacturing population, and by the aid of the numerous 
hydraulic movers, spread over the whole surface of the country. Germany will not 
arrest its progress in so noble a path, and, notwithstanding the eflforts which have been 
made to allure it to the beaten track of protection, it will complete its interior enfran- 
chisement by the speedy conquest of freedom of commerce. 

The Spanish workmen do not deserve the fourth rank in the great working family of 
Europe ; judging only from the actual importance of the products which they have sent 
to the Exhibition, the Belgian and the Swiss would have the right to take precedence. 
But Belgium and Switzerland gravitate in the orbits of France and Germany, and 
their workmen, nearly equally distributed between agriculture and manufactures, are not 
so original as those of Spain. Spanish workmen are, more than is generally imagined, 
choice men, remarkable for vigour as well as suppleness, and nearly all of proverbial 
sobriety. I have been surprised, on going through the manufactories of Catalonia, at 
the frugality of their habits, their liveliness, and their admirable aptitude for labour. 
Their intelligence and activity are well calculated to surprise those who judge of Spain 
from the reputation of indolence and effeminacy enjoyed by its inhabitants. The Galicians, 
the Basques, and the Asturians, are first-rate workmen ; those of Andalusia not less so, 
and I have found in the province of Valencia, unjustly renowned for its idleness, work 
men endowed with as great an energy and ingenuity as those engaged in our silk 
manufactures of Lyons and AArignon. The contagion of socialism has not yet penetrated 
amongst these vigorous and poetic populations. They are, doubtless, much behind- 
hand as regards education, and do not possess all the resources of machinery of the 
English workmen; neither are they endowed with the indefatigable and serious per- 
severance which characterises them, but they are eminently fitted for industrial pursuits, 
and the sacred light of ancient art which has shone in Spain is on the point of being 
rekindled amongst them. The two last expositions of Madrid, although very incomplete, 
have raised the most legitimate hopes in this respect. The Spanish workman is in the 
path of progress, since the fall of the regime which favoured idleness and recklessness 
in his country ; as soon as the greater portion of the convents were transformed into 
factories, other manners began to prevail, and I am acquainted with robust monks who 
have become excellent spinners. Spanish industry cannot fail to revive in conditions 
compatible with the country, thanks to the peculiar facilities which the workman is 
assured of finding in the mildness of the climate, the abundance of raw materials, and, 
above all, the richness of its mineral products. It will be long before Spain will have 
to dread the invasion of the doctrines which have perverted the moral sense of the 
other working populations of Europe. " The workman of that country," according to 
the expression of M. Ramond de la Sagra, " knows not yet to curse the hand that pays 
him ; he accepts labour as a duty, never as a yoke ; he obeys from conviction and from 
habit, and he preserves his pride and his integrity in the humblest station." Would I 
could say the same of the Italians ; but there is no longer an Italy. Italy no longer 
belongs to herself, and does not know herself; and but for the vigour of Piedmont, 
which her recent misfortunes have not been able to cast down, and which carries 
in her bosom the destinies of the Peninsula, we should have to look to the past rather 
than glimpse at the future, for the glory and prosperity of the Italian workman. Who 
will some day reveal to us the mysteries of the Indian working world !— who will cause 
the light to penetrate into those workshops of the East, where the hand of man is 
incessantly occupied for a pitiful and precarious remuneration, inferior to the wages, 
already so wretchedly low, of our manufacturing operative ? Thus, at both extremities 
of the scale, the spindle and the weaving loom produce the same economical results 


for the lot of the labourer. In France and in England, in Germany and in Spain, in 
Switzerland and in Belgium, there are entire generations who scarcely earn sufficient 
to live under the rule which protects them. Is not this protection an illusion? Is 
it not the workman who suffers from the ulterior competition, and the master who 
profits by the external restriction ? The same cause which exhausts the one does it not 
enrich the other? and might it not be asked — Which is the dupe? Reply — Every body 
is duped : how long wiU it last ? As a contrast, in every respect, to the energetic and 
laborious habits of the European workman, we shall conclude our chapter with the sub- 
joined account of 


An English engineer in India describes his experiences amongst the native workmen 
in an amusing article in Chambers' Journal, from which the following is condensed. 

I had the anvUs raised upon wooden blocks, so as to necessitate an erect posture 
while at work. The poor fellows submitted with the best grace they could, but seemed 
greatly embarrassed. The queer shaky way in which they stood, and the undecided 
flexure of the knee and hipjoints, were so indicative of a tendency to flap down on 
the slightest possible pretence, that it was really impossible to look at them without 
laughing. The work went on very slowly j but I hoped that all would soon go well : 
alas ! I had under-estimated the tenacity of a race-established precedent ; and, so, one 
afternoon, I found my blacksmiths perched on blocks of wood of the same height as 
their anvUs, and hammering away with all the vigour which the stability of their tottering 
pedestals admitted of ! It was hopeless contending with such a demonstration as this ; 
so, to the great joy of the lohairs (blacksmiths), I allowed the anvils to be placed once 
more on terra firma. Time, which the Englishman values as money, has a very secondary 
place in the estimation of the Oriental. The radj, or bricklayer, is, I think, about the 
best illustration of this. He works with a trowel about the size of an ordinary table- 
spoon, and a small hammer weighing about sis ounces. Armed with these, and squatting 
before his work, he, in a loud voice, summons his rundees (women, two of whom always 
wait upon each radj), and orders them to bring eentee and massala (bricks and mortar) . 
The rundees in due season make their appearance — one with a brick in each hand, and 
the other with a small wooden trencher, about the size of a bread basket, filled with the 
massala. I am much within the mark when I say, that a single English bricklayer and 
hodman could in one day do the work of a dozen radjs, rundees, and all ; and do it 
much better too. One would imagine from this that building was a very expensive 
process in India ; but the contrary is the case. An English bricklayer and hodman will 
cost from eight to tenrshillings a day, while the Indian radj and his two attendant 
rundees will not cost more than from threepence to fourpence per day. The writer next 
attempts to introduce the barrow for earthwork in place of the little cowrie baskets, 
holding about a spadeful each. After a great deal of see-sawing, one poor fellow managed 
to deUver his freight. Thinking that a little practice, unembarrassed by my presence, 
would familiarise them with the barrow, I left them for a time, and on my return I beheld 
the wheel-barrow borne along by four men, very much in the style in which dead men 
are carried off the stage^that is, two at the head and two at the feet — palanquin style, 
in short. A set of lighter ones, little larger than those with which boys are accustomed 
to amuse themselves in England, was made, and success for a time was complete j but 
one day, happening to come upon them unexpectedly, there were half-a-dozen of the 
men walking along with the greatest possible gravity, each carrying his wheelbarrow on 
his head — legs in front, and wheels behind ! Even after I had threatened to dismiss 
the first man I found carrying his wheelbarrow on his head, I met a serious-looking 



old man tottering along with his barrow laid across his arms like a baby in long clothes ' 
The first snort of the iron horse seems to have produced a complete panic, and the 
movement of a steam-engine was hailed like a new Avatur. I was at much pains, he 
says, m eudeavounng to explain the principles of its action to the most intelligent of the 
workmen ; but I found they had long ago provided themselves with what, to their 
thmkmg, was a complete theory of the whole matter. The doctrine was, that the 
boiler contained an English bhoot (spirit) ; that we made a fire beneath the boiler, and 
roasted the said bhoot until he called out duhagei (mercy) through the safety-valve ; and 
then only, and not before, would he go to work : the water was merely given to quench 
his thirst ! The time is not far distant when the rich produce of Central India will 
be poured into Europe with a profusion and regularity never yet dreamed of. The 
steam-engine is destined to do more for India than all her other teachers have yet 
effected. This iron apostle of civilization does not declaim; it does not dispute nor 
vituperate ; but it works, and always succeeds. 



{From the Jury Reports.) 


The existence of a milky juice in many plants, which flows from them when their tissues 
are wounded, is a fact that has been familiarly known from time immemorial. It is, 
however, only a matter of recent discovery that this milky juice characterises several 
families of plants. Although the great majority of plants which yield this juice in 
abundance are tropical, yet they are not without their Eui'opean representatives. The 
spurges, dandelion, and celandine of our road-sides, are instances. The families of plants 
which furnish this milky juice in the greatest abundance are Moracese, Euphorbiacese, 
Artocarpeje, Apocynaceae, Cichoracese, Papaveracese, Campanulacese, and Lobeliaceae. 
This juice, which is called by botanists " the milky juice,'^ because it has an appearance 
similar to milk, has also the physical constitution of that fluid. It is an aqueous liquid, 
charged with soluble matter, in which float globules of a substance insoluble in water, 
and which are by their tenuity held in suspension in the liquid, but for which they have 
no affinity, in the same manner as butter is held in suspension by milk. From the 
difference of the refractive powers of these two substances, each of which, taken 
separately, would be colourless or transparent, arise the opacity and white colour of the 
two ; hence the compound is properly called a " milky juice." The analogies which this 
juice exhibits with the milk of animals and vegetable emulsions are seen in the manner 
in which it acts when left to itself. Run out into the air, received and preserved in close 
vessels, it separates itself into two layers, as milk itself would do. The watery part very 
soon has an insoluble part floating upon it, which collects together, and swims at the 
top as cream swims upon milk, and which forms nearly half of the entire mass. But 
with these physical resemblances the analogies cease. That which in milk and in 



emulsions produced from seeds collects on the surface of the aqueous liquor, is, properly- 
speaking, a fatty body containing oxygen in its composition, as they all do j -while the 
kind of cream which swims upon the milky juice of the plants when left to itself, is one 
of the compounds of carbon and hydrogen which are found so frequently in organic bodies. 
The latter, when obtained for commercial purposes, bears the Indian name of caoutchouc. 
This substance has long been known to the natives of both the Old and New World, 
in Hindostan and South America. It was not, however, till the expedition of the French 
Academicians to South America in 1735, that its properties and nature -were made 
known in Europe by a memoir upon it by M. de la Condamine. This notice excited 
little attention; and subsequently notices of this substance were sent to the French 
Academy, in 1751, by M. Fresnau, and in 1768 by M. Macquer. At the latter end of 
the last century and the begining of the present it was brought into this country in small 
quantities, where, on account of its being used for rubbing out black-lead pencil marks, it 
acquired the name of India-rubber. Although, after its application to the waterproofing 
of garments, its consumption gradually increased, the importation into the United King- 
dom in 1830 appears not to have been more than 50,000 pounds. In 1842, the import 
of this article had increased to between 700,000 and 800,000 pounds. Up to the 
present time the consumption of India-rubber has prodigiously increased ; and one part 
alone in South America is said now to send to Great Britain nearly 4,000 cwts. annually. 
To the large consumption in the United Kingdom we must add that of America, where 
the application of caoutchouc has been much more general and successful than even in 
our own country. 

The particular species of plants which are employed for procuring India-rubber are 
very numerous, and it is probable that many yield it which are not yet known to botanists. 
The tree which supplies most in continental India is the Ficus elastica, a tree belonging 
to the order Moraceee ; it is exceedingly abundant in Assam. All the species of ficus yield 
caoutchouc to a greater or less extent in their juices, and even the common fig {Ficus 
carica) of Europe contains it. Species of ficus produce the caoutchouc brought from 
Java, and F. radula, F. elliptica, and F. prinoides are amongst those mentioned as 
affording a portion of that brought from America. Next to the Moracese the order 
Euphorbiacese yields the largest quantity of caoutchouc. The Siphonia elastica, a plant 
found in Guiana, Brazil, and extending over a large district of Central America, 
yields the best kinds of India-rubber that are brought into the markets of Europe and 
America. To another order, Apocynacese, we are indebted for the caoutchouc which 
is brought from the islands of the Indian Archipelago. The plant which is the source of 
this substance in those districts is the Urceola elastica, a climbing plant of very rapid 
growth and gigantic dimensions. A single tree is said to yield, by tapping, from fifty to 
sixty pounds annually. Many other plants of this order yield caoutchouc, and of those 
given on good authority we may mention Collophora utilis and Cameraria latifolia, plants 
of South America; Vahea gummifera, in Madagascar; and Willughbeia edulis in the 
East Indies. To this order belongs the cow tree, or Hya-hya {Taberncemonta utilis), of 
tropical America, which yields a milky juice that is drupk by the natives of the district 
in which it grows. The caoutchouc, whilst it is in the tissues of the plant, is evidently 
in a fluid condition, but after its separation from the other fluid parts, its consistence 
becomes changed, and it forms a solid mass similar, in its external characters, to vegetable 
albumen. In this state it is dense and hard, but may be separated and rolled out so as 
to form a sheet resembling leather. It has many interesting and peculiar properties. 
Insoluble in water and in alcohol, it dissolves in ether, in the sulphuret of carbon, the 
fat oils, and the liquid carburets of hydrogen. It is soft and elastic at the ordinary 
temperature, but at the temperature of two degrees above the freezing point, it acquires 


the haa-dness of wood. A temperature of 100 degrees softens it without altering its form. 
It then unites with itself with the greatest facUity, and two pieces recently cut apart 
reunite so as to render it impossible to discover where the junction has taken place. But 
a higher temperature, approaching 150 degrees, changes it into an adhesive substance, 
which, on coohng, does not recover the primitive properties of caoutchouc. In this state 
of recent coagulation, and while still in a pulpy condition, caoutchouc possesses a degree 
of plasticity which admits of its receiving, by means of moulds, the most varied forms. 

The greater part of the caoutchouc of commerce is obtained by the natives of the 
countries m which it is produced, in the form of shapeless masses, collected at the foot 
of the tree which has been incised or cut, for the purpose of extracting the juice 
from it, or solidified in a trench made in the earth, and coagulated in this rude mould 
in voluminous masses, which often resemble the trunk of. a large tree. A part of it, 
however, possesses other forms, which the rude art of the natives attempts to communicate 
to it. They model, with plastic clay, figures of animals, imitations of the human foot, and 
pear-shaped bodies, and then dipping these moulds in the thickened caoutchouc, and 
renewing the connexion when the first coat is solidified by exposure to the air, they 
obtain, by breaking the mould and getting it out in fragments through an opening pro- 
perly arranged, hollow flasks, figures of animals, rough slippers, &c. They thus make 
caoutchouc serve for the manufacture of objects for which we ourselves employ animal 
membranes and leather. Caoutchouc is obtained from both the Old and New World, 
The East Indies furnish caoutchouc, of which numerous specimens have been exhibited 
in the Crystal Palace by the East India Company. This caoutchouc, which comes 
principally from Java, is often glutinous, and is less esteemed in commerce than that 
furnished by the equatorial regions of America. Great quantities of caoutchouc are 
imported into Europe from Mexico, from South America, and especially from the 
province of Para, in Brazil. That which comes in the shape of bottles is generally 
preferred, and when it is pure, and the difierent coats which comprise it are well united, 
it may be employed immediately for many purposes. But it often happens that the coats 
which form the pear-shaped masses are badly united. It then becomes necessary, in order 
to make use of them, to work it up by a process of kneading, so as to obtain it in a 
coherent or homogeneous mass. This operation becomes especially indispensable when, 
as most commonly happens, the caoutchouc is in large impure masses, and mixed with 
sand and the debris of vegetable matter. These impurities do not entirely proceed from 
the moulds made in the earth, into which the juice has been allowed to exude, and in 
which it has been left to thicken and solidify, for their quantity and their presence 
between the coats of the pyriform masses show that the impurity is mainly to be attri- 
buted to fraud. The caoutchouc thus obtained is not applicable to any use until it 
has undergone a previous purification. The purification of the caoutchouc is accom- 
plished by submitting the impure caoutchouc to the action of cylinders furnished with 
teeth turning in opposite directions and with unequal velocities, which cause it to undergo 
a kind of mastication. If the matter which renders the caoutchouc impure adheres 
very closely when dry, this property is lost when it is moistened. From this it happens 
that, by causing a small jet of water to flow into the apparatus, these foreign matters, 
crushed by the mill, are carried off by degrees, and the purified portions of caoutchouc 
unite the one with the other. By the subsequent exposure of these masses of purified 
caoutchouc to a second mastication, but performed dry, they are softened by the heat 
evolved during the forcible compression to which they are then submitted. In this 
treatment the caoutchouc becomes softened without being hquefied, and a homogeneous 
mass is formed which is cut in the form of rectangular blocks. These are again placed 
in casting moulds, in which they are powerfully compressed, until they are completely 


cooled, when it is found that the pressure has freed them from cavities, air-bubbles, &c. 
By submitting them to the action of knives moved very rapidly by a mechanical action, 
and the edges of which are constantly kept wet by a thin jet of water, the caoutchouc is 
cut into sheets of various thicknesses, which, subdivided in their turn, constitute those 
small parallelopipedons used by draughtsmen to rub out the marks of black-lead pencils. 
This use of caoutchouc was, in England, for a long time the only one to which it was 
applied ; but this limited use was far from indicating the extent to which caoutchouc 
has been employed in the last thirty years, or the multiplicity of services it has been 
called upon to perform for sanitary and industrial purposes. To rub out pencil marks, to 
form the rude slippers which seemed well adapted to the Indian toilet, but to which a 
form acceptable in Europe had not been imparted, were, in fact, the only uses to which 
caoutchouc was applied up to 1830. In England was discovered the art of stretching 
it into thin sheets, and thus making it available for the production of waterproof fabrics. 
In France was discovered the art of drawing it out into delicate threads for the manu- 
facture of elastic tissues. We are indebted to Messrs. Mackintosh and Hancock for the 
application of caoutchouc to the rendering tissues waterproof, and for the manufacture 
of those garments which throughout the world have rendered unquestioned service to the 
cause of health, and made the name of one of their inventors so justly popular. The 
garments called Mackintoshes are well known. They are formed of fabrics covered on 
one side with caoutchouc, or two fabrics are united by the caoutchouc between. They 
are thus rendered impermeable to water, but at the same time they possess a flexibility 
such as it had never been possible to obtain by the employment of other varnishes. 
Eor the purpose of obtaining the sheet of caoutchouc sufficiently thin for this purpose, 
it is dissolved. The solid carburets of hydrogen are soluble in the liquid carburets, and 
for this purpose spirits of turpentine and the volatile products of coal tar were first 
employed. But after having obtained this solution, it was necessary to evaporate a great 
quantity of it for the purpose of obtaining a coating of caoutchouc, which at first occupying 
a great space, should be reduced to a small one when the drying was complete. For 
the purpose, however, of economising the solvent, a method is employed of kneading the 
caoutchouc, by means of powerful machines, with the spirit of turpentine or naphtha, and 
impregnating it with the menstrua without dissolving it, and softening it without making 
it a liquid ; the caoutchouc rendered pulpy, is then spread upon the cloths by means 
of a flattening mill, and the process of evaporation is thus dispensed with. Waterproof 
garments were thus rendered cheap and available for the use of every class. This 
description of garment, nevertheless, presented a notable fault which was not avoided 
until a later period, and which arose out of the properties inherent in the caoutchouc 
itself. This substance, which in ordinary circumstances, possesses very great elasticity, 
such as to justify the name by which it is designated in France, gomme 4lastique (elastic 
gum), loses this elasticity when exposed to a temperature near the freezing point of water, 
and this suppleness, which might almost cause a sheet of caoutchouc to be mistaken for 
an animal membrane, gives place all at once to the rigidity exhibited by the same mem- 
brane when dried. This property, which in cold weather was a real defect, when applied 
to fabrics rendered waterproof by caoutchouc, has been found very useful in the making 
of garters, braces, and other articles in which the elasticity of the caoutchouc has been 
brought to supersede that which had, until then, been obtained by the employment of 
spiral metallic springs. In order to obtain the threads which are used for the manufacture 
of elastic tissues, either the flasks of caoutchouc in its natural state, cut in half and 
flattened by pressure, or else those masses of purified caoutchouc which are sold in 
continuous sheets, cut by knives, wetted by small jets of water, are employed. These 
sheets are divided into thongs ; tlie latter are afterwards subdivided into very narrow 


bands, which serve in their turn to produce the threads employed for the manufacture 
of the tissues. If by a slight elevation of temperature the natural elasticity of the 
caoutchouc is increased, these narrow bands can then be stretched into threads of great 
length by drawing them out and rolling them upon bobbins. But it may be well con- 
ceived that the management and weaving of the threads would be very difficult if they 
retained their elasticity. Fortunately the parbicles of the caoutchouc eventually accom- 
modate themselves to the forced position which they have been made to assume, and the 
exposure to a low temperature materially hastens this result. The threads having thus 
lost their elasticity can then be introduced like common threads into the fabrication of 
stuffs ; they can be covered with a different thread, by winding spirally round them cotton, 
silk, &c., and this compound thread may be in its turn introduced into the composition 
of new tissues. In all these operations the caoutchouc has retained all its rigidity, but 
that elasticity of which it has been deprived by a long distension and a low temperature, 
can be restored to it by means of a proper degree of heat. The stuff thus woven is 
exposed to a temperature of from 140 degrees to 160 degrees Fahrenheit, by the passage 
of a hot iron, when each thread resumes with its primitive length the diameter which it 
first possessed. The fabric diminishes in length without increasing in width. The tissue 
is thus compressed, and the caoutchouc, which has regained its elasticity, communicates 
it in a permanent manner to these tissues. The manufacture of these threads of caout- 
chouc constitutes at present a distinct branch of industry from that which, making use of 
them either in an uncovered state, or covered with silk and cotton, combines them with 
ordinary threads in the way of weaving ; and, like the manufacturers of linen or cotton 
fabrics, the makers of the elastic tissues buy the threads of caoutchouc in bobbins of 
different numbers. When the limited lengths of the narrow bands from which these 
threads are manufactured is borne in mind, the necessity is foreseen of being able to 
unite them end to end for the purpose of making continuous threads. A remarkable 
property of caoutchouc renders this easy. It unites with itself with the greatest readiness 
if it be the least warm ; and two surfaces recently cut with a very sharp instrument, 
may be made to adhere together by means of pressure, with a cohesion equal to 
that which unites the other parts of the same thread. But although in this case this 
property is made useful, in other instances the limited elasticity, and the rigidity com- 
municated to it by a low temperature, are great drawbacks. However, all these pro- 
perties inimical to its use disappear in that combination of sulphur with caoutchouc 
called vulcanized India-rubber, which exhibits such special properties as to form in some 
degree a new substance. This transformation of caoutchouc was first applied to practical 
purposes in America. 

While in England the employment of caoutchouc was being developed principally in 
regard to the rendering of cloths waterproof, and in France its elasticity was being 
made available for the manufacture of certain tissues, it was turned to account in 
America for waterproof shoes, by making use of the processes discovered by Mr. Charles 
Goodyear, who, since 1836, had been engaged in the discovery of means for making use 
of caoutchouc, with a skill and perseverance which have borne the most happy fruits. ' It 
is not that attempts at fashioning according to the European taste, and thus rendering 
useful the Indian shoe made of caoutchouc, had not been frequently made in Europe, 
but these attempts had hardly been successful in giving them acceptable forms, and the 
stiffening by cold rendered them very inconvenient. However, Mr. Goodyear at last 
succeeded in making shoes of raw India-rubber purified, and perfectly free from objection, 
thus completing by the manufacture of waterproof shoes the service which Mackintosh 
had begun by the invention of the garments which bear his name. Since 1843, Mr. 
Goodyear has imported into Europe shoes which possess an unlimited and permanent 

VOL. II. ^ 


elasticity, and which resist cold; two of their surfaces may be pressed against each 
other without the least adhesion taking place. These are precisely the remarkable 
qualities which characterise that caoutchouc which is called in the present day vulcanised 
India-rubber. Impressed^ perhaps, with the idea, too often moreover a just one, that 
the specification of a patent is sometimes nothing more than the occasion of attracting 
the attention of imitators, Mr. Goodyear took no patent for this article, but he endeavoured 
in Europe to take advantage of his discovery, by communicating it as a process of which 
he alone possessed the secret, which might be lost to mankind, and disappear with its sole 
possessor, when Mr. Thomas Hancock, of Stoke Newington, who had been engaged in 
Europe in the working of caoutchouc with no less perseverance and success than Mr. 
Goodyear in America, discovered anew the process of the vulcanisation of India-rubber> 
and secured it by a patent, which Mr. Goodyear afterwards demanded for the same 
subject. Mr. Thomas Hancock discovered that a band of caoutchouc dipped into melted 
sulphur, and impregnated with this substance, without losing any of its properties, 
only required to be afterwards exposed to a temperature of about 300 degrees Fahrenheit, 
to acquire properties entirely novel, which were precisely those possessed by the material 
employed by Mr. Goodyear for the waterproof shoes. 

This was, as may be seen, a new discovery of a fact already known — a novel solutimi 
of a problem which was known to be soluble, since it had been already solved. This 
discovery must, however, have presented its diflficulties, and required also the fortuitous 
co-operation of favourable circumstances. For though analysis might have pointed 
out to Mr. Hancock the existence of sulphur in the productions of Mr. Goodyear, and 
have also disclosed the presence of the salts of lead which the latter had deemed 
indispensable, it could not in any manner give him a clue to the discovery of the essential 
condition of this transformation, that is to say, the employment of a given temperature, 
which alone was able to impart to the mixture of caoutchouc and sulphur the new pro- 
perties which appeared to make of it an entirely new body. Whatever may be the share 
of merit assigned to Mr. Goodyear and to Mr. Hancock in this important invention, 
the latter has not the less exclusive merit of having discovered that sulphur was the 
sole cause of the vulcanization of India-rubber. On seeing Mr. Charles Goodyear intro- 
ducing the different salts of lead into the specification of the patent which he subsequently 
took out, it is felt that he regarded their intervention as indispensable, while it is now 
demonstrated that sulphur alone is sufficient ; if other substances are employed in certain 
cases, it is not so much to aid in the vulcanization of the caoutchouc as to add to its 
weight and solidity. The vulcanization of India-rubber is an easy process. The India- 
rubber, softened by the heat evolved when it is being kneaded by strong machines, is 
mixed with the sulphur in the masticating apparatus already alluded to. This mixture 
retains all the solubility of the caoutchouc in the different menstrua — the property of 
becoming hard at a low temperature as well as that of uniting with itself; but as soon 
as it is exposed to a temperature of 300 degrees Fahrenheit — a temperature which would 
have sufficed to change the pure caoutchouc — the matter acquires new properties. It is 
no longer soluble in the menstrua which dissolve caoutchouc, but is impregnated with 
them by contact, and swells out like an animal membrane that is moistened with water ; 
resuming its primitive properties on being dried. It no longer becomes rigid when 
exposed to cold, nor does it unite with itself, and it resists without any alteration a 
temperature which would have sufficed to transform the ordinary caoutchouc into a stickv 
matter ; it is, in short, vulcanized India-rubber. This absence of the tendency to adhesion 
is so decided, that in actual manufacture no use whatever can be made of the shavings 
of the caoutchouc thus modified, and the means of separating the sulphur and repro- 
ducing the pure caoutchouc presents at the present day an important problem to solve. 


If this action of heat which modifies the caoutchouc is exercised upon a mixture enclosed 
and compressed in a mould, the material then acquires a form which the indefinite and 
permanent elasticity of the vulcanized India-rubher causes it to retain. This solphuriza- 
tion of the India-rubber, instead of being produced with free sulphur, may be obtained 
with sulphur in a state of combination, as with the chloride of sulphur. If articles of 
common caoutchouc are immersed for one or two minutes in chloride of sulphur, 
diluted in fifty or sixtj times its weight of sulphuret of carbon, they acquire, by exposure 
to a proper temperature, all the properties of vulcanized India-rubber. In commerce 
this caoutchouc is designated by the name of converted caoutchouc. From the moment 
in which the vulcanization of India-rubber was known, all the inconveniences which 
ordinary caoutchouc presented having disappeared, its employmemt received an extension 
which is continually increasing, and each year sees new applications of this product 
spring into use. The enumeration of the objects exhibited by the two manufacturers to 
whom this branch of manufacture is the most indebted, Mr. Goodyear, in America, and 
the firm of Mackintosh, in Europe, will tend to show how widely spread, and how varied 
the use of this material has already become. 


The substance designated by the name of gutta percha, is, like caoutchouc, a carburet 
of hydrogen, and isomeric with that substance, and possesses a great number of the 
properties which characterize India-rubber, but exhibits certain special properties which 
admit of its being applied to particular uses to which caoutchouc is not adapted. 
Gutta percha possesses as great an indestructibility by means of chemical agents as 
caoutchouc. It has an intermediate consistence between that of leather and wood ; it is 
capable of being softened by heat, and of regaining its primitive consistence on cooling. 
It is, therefore, at the same time, capable of taking, and of retaining the most delicate 
impressions. The important uses to which it has been latterly applied, are only the 
forerunners of those to which it will be adapted hereafter, provided the lack of this 
precious material (which unfortunately is produced in much less quantities than India- 
rubber, and in localities much more circumscribed) does not present an obstacle to it. 
Whilst the plants which furnish caoutchouc abound in the whole of the territorial zone 
which extends between the tropics, the Isonandra gutta, belonging to the natural order 
Sapotacea, is the only tree which yields gutta percha. It grows scarcely anywhere, 
except in certain parts of the Malayan Archipelago, and, up to the present time, has been 
almost exclusively obtained from Singapore. It was brought for the first time into 
England in the days of Tradescant, as a curious product, under the the name of 
Mazer-wood, and subsequently it was frequently brought from China and other parts 
of the East, under the name of India-rubber, in the form of elastic whips, sticks, &c. 
In 1843, Doctors D' Almeida and W. Montgomery drew particular attention to it, together 
with its various singular properties, its easy manipulation, and the uses for which the 
Malays employed it. The most common employment of it was for whips ; and it was 
by the introduction of a horse-whip made of this substance, that its existence was for 
the first time known in Europe. The exhibition of the products of the East Indies, 
shown by the Honourable East India Company, proves that the natives of the country in 
which the Isonandra gutta grows, knew also how to appropriate it to the manufacture 
of different kinds of vases, and that European industry has little more to do than to 

imitate their process. » t.- i_ 

The importation of gutta percha into England, where the employment ot this sub- 
stance first drew attention, was in 1845 only 30,600 lbs. ; but in 1848 it had increased 
to above 3,000,000 lbs. ; and during the last three years, the importation has amounted 


to a much larger quantity, and one which begins to cause some apprehension as to the 
possibility of the supply sufficing for the requirements of the novel uses in store for it in 
the future. It is true, that during its use, gutta percha is but little consumed, and the 
waste from the articles in this material, submitted to a proper softening, can be made 
to serve new uses ; nevertheless, its constantly increasing consumption, added to the 
barbarous manner in which the product has hitherto been extracted, may justify some 
apprehension. During the first few years of the employment of gutta percha, it was the 
custom to out down the tree for the purpose of obtaining the juice, which, left to 
itself, very soon allowed the gutta percha to separate and coagulate of its own accord. 
There is reason to hope that European industry will soon be embarked in the cultivation 
of this product, and that the Niato (which is the name that the Malays give to the tree 
which produces gutta percha), multiplied by means of a regular culture, naturalised in 
other countries than those to which it is indigenous, and worked by regular incisions, 
which will only take from the tree a portion of its juice without hindering its develop- 
ment, will be the means of furnishing, at a low price, a substance which is destined to 
render notable services to industrial and domestic economy. The gutta percha, which 
arrives in Europe in the form of lumps of some pounds weight, is far from being pure. 
The natives of the Malayan Archipelago make no scruple of introducing into it stones, 
earth, &c. ; the presence of which in the interior of these blocks renders a purification 
indispensable, which purification, however, is capable of being attained without much 
manipulation. Ever since its first introduction into Europe, gutta percha has, in fact, 
found everything provided for the purpose of cleansing it, and has been found capable 
of being worked by the processes and instruments which are employed in the purification 
of India-rubber. At the present day the block of gutta percha, cut into slices by a strong 
machine, is softened by means of hot water, divided and torn into shreds by the same 
machine that is used for India-rubber, which serves to knead the gutta percha in such a 
manner, that the crushed stones and earth may be separated from it on being diluted in 
the water j it is then dried, and submitted, by means of a powerful machine, to a masti- 
cation similar to that which India-rubber is made to undergo ; and when, after some 
hours of kneading, the mass has become homogeneous and sufficiently softened, it is 
drawn by the drawing-mUl into cylindrical cords, into tubes of various diameters, or it 
is spread out by means of the flattening machine (as is done with lead) into sheets of 
various thicknesses, which are finally divided into bands, from which are cut out, with a 
ripping tool, the pieces which are required to be employed in different uses. 

Whatever difficulty manufacturers may have had in procuring gutta percha fit to be 
made use of, they have at least been able to concentrate their efforts upon the discovery 
of uses to which it is adapted ; and in the space of a few years have discovered numerous 
and important ones, as may be witnessed in the beautiful exhibition made by the Gutta 
Percha Company. One of the first and principal uses of gutta percha was to supersede 
the leather bands employed in machinery for the transmission of movements. This is 
very nearly the only use to which it has hitherto been employed in France. It seems 
moreover, that latterly in England some inconveniences have been found to result from 
this employment of gutta percha; but should its use for that purpose diminish, every 
day others are found for it. Indestructible by water, and at the same time a bad 
conductor of electricity, gutta percha has been found available for enclosing the metallic 
wires employed in the electric telegraph ; and the use of this substance may certainly 
claim its share in the success of the submarine telegraph, which has just brought London 
and Paris within a few minutes of each other. It may be conceived to what a variety 
of forms a substance can be turned, which becoming soft without adhering at the tem- 
perature of boiling water, regains at the ordinary temnerature the slight elasticity and 


tlie consistence of leather. Tiius agriculturists and manufacturers have turned it to 
account for the fabrication of buckets of all kinds, light, indestructible, and capable of 
being mended by a slight degree of heat and pressure when they are worn out. It is 
especially in the manufacture of articles for maritime use that gutta percha, resisting 
as it does the action of water, and especially of salt water, appears to be the best adapted. 
Buoys of every description for anchors, nets, &c., have been made of it ; sailors' hats, 
speaking trumpets, &c. There is no doubt that it will be brought to perform a useful 
part in waterproof garments, as well as in the construction of life-boat apparatus. If 
India-rubber has been advantageously combined with leather, it may be conceived that 
the combination of gutta percha with wood, of which Mr, Foster has shewn a specimen at 
the Exhibition, may in certain cases offer peculiar advantages. The decorative art has 
also taken advantage of the plastic properties of gutta percha. All those different 
articles of furniture, the prices of which are so much enhanced by carving, are capable 
of being reproduced by means of pressure, and thus multiplied at a low price. Writing- 
tables, work-baskets, &c., can be produced in gutta percha, and thus be made to combine 
the threefold advantage of lowness of price, elegance of form, and absence of fragility. 

In the large manufactory which is more especially devoted to the employment of gutta 
percha, are made every day a great quantity of mouldings, friezes, panels, leaves, &c., 
and of articles of every description. These, combined by the decorator, covered with 
gilding (which gutta percha takes in perfection), are, in the manufacture of picture frames, 
and in the decoration of furniture, capable of superseding the carving upon wood, which 
is so costly, or papier-mache, and carton-pierre, which presents the defect of great 
fragility. On going through the exhibition of Messrs. Thorn & Co., as well as that of 
the Gutta Percha Company, we may judge of the extent which the employment of this 
substance promises to the decorative art by the imitation of carving upon oak, rose-wood, 
&c. Bronze articles have also been reproduced in a felicitous manner ; and the clearness 
of the edges and the purity of the forms make it easy to understand how gutta percha 
has been found capable of being used for making galvano-plastic moulds, and how 
some experiments have begun to be tried for the purpose of substituting this material in 
the process of stereotyping, for the metal with which at the present day the pages of our 
illustrated books are multiplied. This employment of gutta percha for the reproduction, 
by pressure, of objects for interior decoration cannot but be widely extended, enabling the 
many to enjoy those gracefiil and elegant forms which, as long as they could not be 
reproduced in a material indestructible by water and free from fragility, could only be 
brought within the reach of the few. 

Quite recently, by the exertions of Mr. Truman, a lump of coloured gutta percha, 
moulded into the form of a jaw-bone, has been found capable of holding together artificial 
teeth, and thus advantageously superseding those settings in gold, which were so costly, 
and the absolute rigidity of which, moreover, presented much inconvenience. The 
slight but sensible elasticity possessed by gutta percha renders it, on the contrary, 
very well adapted to this use. There is another use to which the exertions of H. Mapple 
have rendered gutta percha applicable. Soles of this substance, glued on to the upper 
leathers by means of gutta percha dissolved in gas-tar, constitute shoes which are not 
affected by water, which last a long time, are very simple and economical in their make, 
the soles of which are easilv mended, and easily put on again when they come off, and can 
be made to serve anew by means of a fresh kneading up when they have become unfit 
for use • thus constituting a description of shoes, the use of which cannot fail to become 
extended in such a general manner as to render notable service to health. Gutta 
percha soles have also been found capable of being affixed with much advantage upon 
leather soles. This solution of gutta percha in the oil of tar, like that of caoutchouc, 

VOL. II. ^ 


which, by its evaporation, leaves the caoutchouc uninjured, can be made use of to obtain 
sheets of gutta percha of extreme thinness, which have already been begun to be used in 
surgery, as well as in the preparation of waterproof papers and cloths. It is more 
especially to the manufacture of chemical utensils for the preservation and conveyance of 
acids, that gutta percha seems destined to render the greatest services. Latterly pumps 
for hydrochloric acid have been made of it, pipes for conveying this acid, bottles in which 
to send it away ; large wooden vessels have been lined with gutta percha, in which to 
preserve the acid ; gasometers are being constructed, which will be capable of collecting 
the sulphuric acid disengaged in certain chemical actions, and which would have corroded 
metallic vessels. 

A council medal was awarded to the Gutta Percha Company for their various 
novel applications of this substance, and for the extensive specimens they exhibited. 
A prize medal was also awarded to the West Ham Gutta Percha Company, for the rich 
variety of objects they exhibited, amongst which, one of the most conspicuous was a group 
representing a boar hunt, covered with a metallic coating in imitation of bronze, which 
displayed the success with which gutta percha may be employed in the decorative 
and even fine arts. The exhibitor succeeded in combining gutta percha with sulphur 
and the metallic sulphurets, to which the name " metallo-thianised " gutta percha has 
been applied. The gutta percha thus treated is as hard as ebony, and can be used for 
most purposes to which wood and ivory are generally applied. 







In inviting the attention of our readers to the consideration of Food, we confess we are no 
disciples of 

" Those budge doctors of the Stoic fur, 

Who fetch their precepts from the Cynic tub, 

Praising the lean and shallow abstinence." 

We urge that moderation in the use of the good things of this life is a far superior virtue 
than that of total abstinence ; and we hold to the sentiment expressed by Milton, which 
we take to be his own, albeit he has put it into the lips of Comus — rather a questionable 
authority, our adversaries may suggest. Let us see, however, what the jolly reveller 
advances, for truth is valuable, from whatever source it may proceed — 

" If all the -world 

Should in a pet of temperance feed on pulse, 

Drink the clear stream, and nothing wear but frieze, 

Th' All-giver would be unthanked, would be unpraised. 

And we should serve him as a grudging master, 

As a penurious niggard of his wealth. 

And live like nature's bastards, not her sons." — Comus. 


Let us, then, now open our eyes and admire the vast fertility of nature, and contemplate 
with thanlcfulness the various means of food and subsistence that the bounteous hand of 
Providence has provided for the benefit of mankind. An American gentleman, walking 
through the Exhibition, was somewhat cheered, when looking round on the empty spaces 
and half-filled cases devoted to the United States, by the remark of an Englishman, that 
at any rate America had the advantage in her specimens of corn and maize and salt 
meat, which might be said to be the raw material of the whole Exhibition. This is a 
true statement of the fact, and it indicates the most important relation of America to 
Europe. The inha.bitants of the Old World do not seek the shores of the New to in- 
dulge their taste in the fine arts, or provide themselves with luxuries to deck their 
tables and adorn their palaces. It is the demand for food— lying at the root of all more 
transcendental tastes — which drives the European to America. How fitly, then, were the 
United States represented by ploughs, harrows, drills, waggons, sacks of corn, ears of 
maize, and barrels of salt meat — by indications of the space and specimens of the fruits 
which they had to offer to an over-crowded continent ! It was one of the drawbacks to 
the testing here the substances used as food, that the visitor was not allowed to try 
them by the sense to which they especially appeal. We can, therefore, report only 
from sight ; and, so far as that enabled us, with regard to the United States" exhibition 
of these articles, we may say that the samples of wheat, maize, and other grain, indicated 
at once the fertility of the soil and the good management of the farms on which they 
were grown. It is not our intention to speak generally of the substances used as food 
which were to be found throughout the various divisions of the great Exhibition, but 
more pajticularly of Class III., according to the catalogue. First, let us take those from 
the vegetable kingdom. In this department were found a very extensive series of cases 
and fittings devoted to a display of the vegetable substances used in food, medicine, 
and the arts from Scotland. This Scotch exhibition was almost an epitome of the raw 
produce of the vegetable kingdom throughout the British islands, as there are few things 
of any use that will grow in any other part of this country that will not grow in Scot- 
land. These specimens, which had been got together by the Messrs. Lawson and Son, 
of Edinburgh, were regarded with interest on account rather of their completeness than 
of their rarity. Here we had the various cereal grasses of Europe, as wheat, barley, oats, 
rye, &c., and the varieties which are commonly grown in Scotland, or which are produced 
in that country as used in other parts of the world. Not only were there exhibited the 
grains or fruits of those plants which are employed, and the various substances which are 
manufactured from them, but we had dried specimens of the plant in blossom, and 
during the time of the ripening of its fruit. The various kinds of farm and garden 
produce used for food were also represented here. In cases where the vegetable sub- 
stance could not be kept or dried, wax casts were substituted. Thus, we had a series 
of specimens of roots, as carrots, turnips, &c. Casts also of rare specimens of curious 
forms, and of the varieties cultivated were exhibited. The grasses grown and used as 
fodder for animals were shown on the same scale. On either side of the entrance to this 
Scotch compartment in the south gallery were found two living specimens of an inter- 
esting grass, the Tussack grass {Dactylus ccRspitosa), a native of the Falkland Islands, 
which have been grown in the Western Hebrides, and have produced flowers and seeds, 
so that it may be hoped this valuable grass may be shortly naturahzed amongst us. 

Most of our native British plants which are used in medicine were also to be found 
in this collection. In the glass cases looking north were a series of blocks of wood in 
their rough and in their polished condition, with also dried specimens of the branches, 
leaves, and flowers of the plants that have yielded them. Those who were anxious to gain 
a general view of the products of the vegetable kingdom in Great Britain, might have 


referred with unhesitating satisfaction to this collection of Scotch vegetable products. 
Of the agricultural produce, generally, exhibited in this department, we may say that 
there were very fine specimens of wheat and barley, also of malt. The Messrs. Gibbs 
and Co. had a large space devoted to them for the display of various agricultural seeds. 
We did not observe anything new in this collection ; but it was found of interest to the 
practical agriculturist, as affording a view of the seeds employed in British agriculture 
at the present day. We were sorry, however, to be obliged to find fault with the un- 
sightly appearance of the table on which these seeds were spread, and with the enormous 
loss of space attendant on their arrangement, which, far from assisting in their exami- 
nation, almost entirely prevented it. From barley and malt we naturally turn to hops ; 
and here we found several specimens from various parts of England. In this depart- 
ment we observed some enlarged drawings of the hop fungus — a very destructive growth 
on the hop — by Dr. Plomley, of Maidstone. Had a like plan been generally adopted, 
we might have had some interesting observations on the diseased conditions of food which 
sometimes play such dreadful havoc, as in the case of the potato disease. In the chemical 
department we found a glass case illustrative of the making of beer in this country. It 
would, indeed, be a blessed time for this beer-drinking country if all its beer were made 
from the materials exhibited here. Malt on one side, hops on another, a glass cask of 
porter on another, and a glass cask of ale on the other, revealed the true receipt of how 
to make good beer. Beer reminds us of the section of " intoxicating drugs, fermented 
liquors, and distilled spirits ;" which, although some persons regard them as belonging 
to the class of poisons, were placed by the executive committee under the class " Food." 
The distilled liquors and wines exhibited here must have been from " unusual sources." 
There were, however, a few bottles of what, judging from the outside, looked like genuine 
champagne. Whether the grape be an unusual source for champagne or not, there are 
few persons who will deny that rhubarb is : and amongst the few wines of the Exhi- 
bition, this rhubarb champagne deserves a passing notice. Vain, however, must be the 
hope of wine-makers to get any substitute for the juice of the grape until they shall meet 
with something which contains the same compounds as the berry of the grape. In this 
department, the lovers of tobacco might regale their eyes and nostrils with an exhibition 
of the various forms which that substance assumes for the indulgence of its admirers. 
Of course, smoking was not allowed ; and the tobacco on the British side, in the form 
of snuff, was not in a condition to be applied to the olfactory nerve. But the snuffers 
were better off than the smokers in the Exhibition : for there were no frowning notices 
in seven different languages forbidding them to indulge in their favourite luxury, — and 
the liberality of the Portuguese exhibitors of snuff had provided for every visitor a pinch. 
We understand from those who are judges that this Portuguese snuff was very excellent, 
and likely to produce a sensation in the snuff-taking world. 

From snuff and tobacco the transition is natural to tea, coffee, and chocolate. The 
exhibition of tea was quite on a small scale : — a few samples of the different varieties of 
black and green from Assam constituting aU that was to be seen in Class III. We have 
not yet sufficiently explored India and China, to say what these countries might exhibit. 
The specimens mentioned are, however, interesting, as indicating that tea may be grown 
in our Indian possessions, and may ultimately become a source of great commercial 
advantage to ourselves, and benefit to India. In coffee there was more than was novel. 
One exhibitor separated a quantity of useless vegetable tissue from the coffee, and thus 
secured a purer form of the raw material. Dr. Gardiner, of London, has discovered that 
the leaves of the coffee plant contain caffeine, a principle identical with that obtained 
from tea-leaves, called theine. It is generally admitted that these principles are the source 
of the utility of both coffee and tea as articles of diet. Dr. Gardiner proposes to dry the 


coffee-leaves, and use them as we do tea-leaves. As he has procured a patent for his pro- 
cess of preparation, we suppose we may expect shortly to hear something more of this 
discovery. In addition to coffee, we had several exhibitors of chicory ; so that people 
may becom,e acquainted with the appearance of that which in their coffee they appear so 
constantly to taste. The produce of the cocoa tree {Theobroma Cacao) had numerous 
exhibitors. The seeds of this plant contain an active principle called theobromine, in 
addition to a fixed oil and other alimentary substances. Ground down, these seeds form 
cocoa paste. Mixed with vanilla, they constitute chocolate. When sugar is added, the 
chocolate has an agreeable taste ; and it is used very extensively as an article of diet in 
France. It is gradually finding its way into England ; and various Paris manufacturers 
competed here for notice and favour from the English, who might be disposed to try 
this new food. Hitherto the English have too much regarded this substance as a 
substitute for tea and coffee. That it is so, there can be no doubt, as it possesses 
the principle theobromine ; but it is something more, and contains nutritive ingredients 
which are not found in either tea or coffee. The Exhibition served to call more atten- . 
tion to chocolate as an article of diet. Before leaving this subject, we would call atten- 
tion to some specimens of Paraguay tea {Ilex Paraguaensis), which is the only substance 
that in any part of the world can be fairly said to compete with tea, coffee, and choco- 
late. It is curious that this plant is found to contain a principle identical with theine. 
It is used for making tea by the natives of South America. It would make a good and 
cheap substitute for tea in this country, but it is not allowed to be imported. 
We extract the following notices from the juries' reports : — 


It is impossible to over-estimate the importance of these preparations. The invention 
of the process by which animal and vegetable food are preserved in a fresh and sweet 
state for an indefinite period, has only been applied practically during the last twenty- 
five years, and is intimately connected with the annals of Arctic discovery. The active 
measures taken to discover a north-west passage, and to prosecute scientific research 
in all but inaccessible regions, first created a demand for this form of food; and the 
Admiralty stimulated the manufacturers to great perfection in the art. As soon as the 
value of these preparations became generally admitted in cold climates, their use was 
extended to hot ones, and for the sick on board ship under all circumstances. Hitherto 
thev had only been employed as a substitute for salt beef or pork at sea, and, if eaten 
ashore, it was at first as a curiosity merely. Their use in hot climates, however, 
speedily became evident, especially in India, where European families are scattered, and 
where, consequently, on the slaughter of a large animal, more is wasted than can be 
consumed by a family of the ordinary number. The consumption of preserved meats 
became at once enormous ; hundreds of tons are annually exported to the East Indies 
and all our colonial possessions, and many are consumed by our fleets. The cheapness of 
these preparations is most remarkable. This arises from the processes and materials for 
the cases being inexpensive, and from there being no waste of the meat : all that is good 
goes into the case, which is always filled. It is affirmed by the manufacturers and others, 
and probably with truth, that meat in this form supplies troops, and the fleet, with a 
cheaper animal diet than salt provisions, from avoiding the expense of casks, leakage, 
brine, bone, shrinking, stowage, &c., which ai'e all heavy items, and entail great waste 
and expenditure ; added to this, the damage of one cask of salt meat risks the loss of all, 
its contents, whilst the meat canisters are, comparatively speaking, imperishable, and an 
accident to one occasions a loss of at most but from two to four pounds of food. 

Several hundred canisters of meat were exhibited from various countries, and in some 

VOL. II. ^ 


of these by many different persons. Their merits were tested by a selection from each : 
the cases were opened in the presence of the jury, and tasted by themselves, and, where 
advisable, by associates. The majority are of English manufacture, especially the more 
substantial viands; France and Germany exhibiting chiefly made dishes, game, and 
delicacies — of meat, fish, soups, and vegetables. The jury desire to draw attention to the 
fact of viands of this description being extensively prepared in Australia, Tasmania, the 
Cape of Good Hope, Canada, &c., of equally good description with the English. Animal 
food is most abundant and cheap in some of those colonies. In Australia, especially, 
during seasons of drought, it is wasted in extraordinary quantities ; flocks are slaughtered 
for the tallow alone, and herds for their bones and hides. Were the meat on these 
occasions preserved, it cannot be doubted that it could be imported into England, and 
sold at a cheaper rate than fresh .meat in our metropolitan markets, to the great benefit 
of the lower classes. Among all the preparations exhibited by France, England, &c., 
there is no perceptible difference either in the mode or perfection of preservation. To 
seal, hermetically, full tin canisters is the general principle adopted ; and it is effected 
by plunging them in boiling water, and soldering; a small orifice left purposely, by 
which all the air is expelled ; this principle, variously modified, being the same through- 
out. The contents of all the cases, of whatever kind, have lost much of the freshness 
in taste and flavour peculiar to newly-killed meat; they are always soft, and, as it 
were, overdone ; the nutritious principles are, however, perfectly preserved. As nutri- 
ment, they are unexceptionable ; they are wholesome and agreeable, and often pleasantly 
flavoured. Vouchers were given for some of the samples tasted by the jurors having 
been preserved for twenty-five years and upwards : these were in a perfectly sound state, 
and did not perceptibly differ from the contents of canisters only a few months old. So 
long as the sealing remains sound, the viands appear to undergo no change. Any 
difference between the contents of the properly-prepared cases is to be attributed to the 
state of the food before preparation, or to the cooking, and not to the method employed 
for preserving, which is simple and universally applicable. Vegetables, preserved iu a 
similar manner, have been considered by the jury with the animal food. Generally 
speaking, their flavour is fresher than that of the meats ; especially in the case of those 
abounding in saccharine principle, as beet, carrots, parsnips, salsify, which preserve to 
advantage. The more farinaceous do not preserve so well, such as green peas, &c. ; 
whilst those abounding in volatile oils are hardly worth preservation at all (especially 
cabbages, turnips, and celery), except as anti-scorbutics. 

Mr. E. Mason's dried compressed vegetables demand especial notice, as shewing one 
of the remarkable discoveries of modern times in this branch of manufacture : they have 
been awarded a council medal. By Mr. Mason's process the most bulky, soft, and suc- 
culent vegetables are reduced to a fraction of their volume, and are preserved in a dry, 
indestructible state. After boiling for a rather longer time than usual, they are restored 
to something of their original form and consistence, retaining all their nutritious prin- 
ciples, and much of their flavour. Chollet & Co., the manufacturers of these preserved 
vegetables use only dessication and compression in the process, which is Mason's inven- 
tion. According to a statement published in the " Comptes Rendus," as read before the 
Paris Academy, the vegetables are reduced seven-eights in weight, and proportionally in 
bulk. They require to be boiled for one hour-and-a-half to one hour and three-quarters, 
and on cooling are found to have regained nearly all their evaporated juices. Ifj as the 
jurors have reason to believe, these preparations retain their good qualities for several 
years, they cannot be too strongly recommended to public attention. It would pro- 
bably be necessary for long voyages, that these square cakes be packed in perfectly dry 
casks or tanks as biscuits are. In the British Department, J. H. Gamble, and Ritchie, 


and M'Call exhibit very fine samples of preserved viands and vegetables, and to each 
a prize medal is awarded for excellence of material and preservation. Ritchie and 
M'Call's deserve especial notice for the great size of the pieces of meat, combined with 
all the firmness of texture that is attainable. All are said to be prepared by Goldner's 
process, the results of which are equal, but not superior to the ordinary process, as far 
as the jury could decide, after a very protracted examination and comparison. A pre- 
served pig, entire, a conspicuous feature in the English Department, deserves notice as a 
remarkably successful instance of curing on a large scale. 

Canada deserves a very prominent mention for the abundance and excellence of the 
preserved viands exhibited ; but all are of the ordinary description of cured meats, and 
none have any particular merit or novelty to entitle them to reward, except the hams of 
G. Reinhardt, of Montreal, which have been awarded a prize medal. There are barrels 
of beef, pork, and tongues, cases of smoked hams, bacon and sausages, kegs of lard, 
&c., all produced at a remarkably cheap rate. Numerous other articles were noticed by 
the jury, some with honourable mention, and some with the distinction of prize medals. 
Excellent preserved salmon was exhibited by New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; pre- 
served fresh meats from Australia in all respects equal to the English ; admirable 
boiled mutton in tin cases by the Newcastle Preserving Company, no whit inferior 
to the English. Van Diemen's Land sent excellent hams and preserved meats ; New 
Zealand furnished dried mullets, while store of salt beef and pork travelled to the general 
mart from the Cape of Good Hope. In short, the abundance of good cheer that was 
displayed on every side, would have more than sufiiced to furnish a hundred such bridal 
feasts as were spread out by the rich Coraacho before the wondering eyes of the delighted 
Sancho Panza, as the illustrious Cid Hamet has recorded in his most entertaining his- 
tory. Of a more recherche and delicate quality were the contributions from the land of 
the Gaul, the land of exquisite cookery and scientific gourmandise, differing from those of 
England, in being articles of luxury rather than of common use. Meat, fish, and vegetables, 
with their various combinations of savoury sauces, were delicately offered to the taste of 
the experienced connoisseur. Austria supplied a quantum suff. of soUd fare, hermetically 
sealed ; and moreover dispatched a fiight of preserved larks, which obtained honourable 
mention from the gentlemen of the jury. Spain acquired a prize medal for her hams of 
Montanchis, sent from the Borough of Aviles. U. H. Carstens, of Lubeck, had a 
prize medal awarded to him for his tin cases of provisions. Switzerland^ with the 
thrifty economy natural to her people, exhibited fish and meats, dried and preserved m 
a fresh state by simple dessication, a remarkable pecuharity, and one which obtained a 
prize medal for the inventor, H. Baup. The specimens, however, wanted flavour, and 
were discoloured, although perfectly fresh and sweet. Simplicity and cheapness were 
the great recommendations of these articles. Russia exhibited fish, apparently m ex- 
cellent condition. The United States were unrivalled in their display of hams which 
were declared by competent judges to be unsurpassable. Two prize medals testified the 
approbation of the jury on this subject, to Charles Duffield, of Louisville, and Schooley 
and Hough, of Cincinnati. The cream, however, of American produce, was the meat- 
biscuit of Gail Borden, a more concentrated food than which was never brought before 
the public The exhibitor combined the best wheat flour with the nutriment of the 
finest beef, and presented them for use as food in the form of a dry, inodorous, flat, 
brittle cake, which will keep dry for an unlimited period It only requires hot w?.ter 
and seasoning to the taste to produce a first-rate, agreeably-flavoured, highly-nutritious 
soup, somewhat of the consistence of sago. One pound of the biscuit gra ed, and boiled 
in a nint of water, forms a rich nutritious soup. It is averred by the inventor, and he was 
supported by authority satisfactory to the jury, that ten pounds of this substance, with 


a proper allowance of water, aiford, both in bulk and nutriment, food sufficient to sup- 
port the physical and mental powers of a healthy working man for a month. A council 
medal was awarded to the inventor. 

The osmazone exhibited by G Warriner, is the nutritious matter or juice of meat, 
which is set free during the operation of boiling down fat for tallow in Australia. This is 
afterwards concentrated, and preserved in the form of sausages. A great amount of 
nutriment is thus obtained in a portable form, and when boiled with gelatine, it forms a 
palatable diet. The price is very moderate, one shilling pet* lb., and it hence commands 
a market, and is much used to form a gravy-meat. The exhibitors declared that one 
pound weight is equivalent to the nutriment of thirty lbs. of fibrine, which argues a high 
economic value. Several specimens of preserved milks were submitted to the inspection 
of the jury. Of these, the concentrated preserved milk of E. D. Moore, received a prize 
medal. It contains all the nutritious qualities, and much of the flavour of fresh milk. 
Russian caviare, of the finest quality, was exhibited by Nikita Vsevolodowitch 
Vsivolosjky, and received honourable mention. Borneo and Singapore both supplied 
Trepang, or sea-slugs, in considerable abundance, no doubt a very delicate morsel, as we 
may also suppose are the swallow's nests, which the Chinese exhibited, of first-rate 
quality. Shark's fins, too, of which the Chinese are extravagantly fond, were also largely 
exhibited. Leaving these dainties, however, we arrive at the elegant manufacture of 
Nature's own artisans, whose unfailing excellence and chemical achievements no human 
art or industry has ever yet attempted to rival. Honey, from various quarters of the 
world, including that from far-famed Hymettus, was submitted to the inspection of the 
naturalist ; and many specimens received prize medals or honourable mention. The next 
article which attracted our attention was entitled " Preparations erom Bloob," and we 
confess it awakened in us somewhat of antipathy and disgust, familiar as our more homely 
tables have long been with the occasional display of — 

" Black puddings, proper food 
For warriors that ddight in blood." 

The jury, however, has succeeded in describing the dish as so dainty a one, so nutritive, 
and so economical, assuring us at the same time that its inventor, P. Brocchieri, was 
deemed worthy of honourable mention, that we do not hesitate to promise that we 
will ourselves taste of his dish, should it ever come before us, and pronounce accordingly 
on its merits, or otherwise, as the case may be. Isinglass, as exhibited by Dr. 
MacClellahd, obtained the honour of a prize medal; and with this announcement 
we close our remarks on the important and popular subject of Food. 






The term " worsted stiiffs," is applied to those manufactures, into the composition of 
which wool enters, that have undergone the process of combing, and includes those fabrics 


in which wool, thus comhed, is comhined with cotton and with silk. The name " worsted" 
is derived from a village in Norfolk, where these goods were first produced. These 
fabrics are to be distinguished from " woollen cloths," the chief characteristic of which 
is, that they undergo the well-known process of " felting" or " fulling." In opening up a 
number of fleeces, a distinction is easily observable between the wool of short and that 
of long staple. The short wool, if examined by a microscope, is noticeable for the 
immense number of little feathery serrations, or imbrications on its surface, which enable 
the individual fibres to be locked into one another by the felting process ; and this wool 
is accordingly most used for the production of woollen cloths. The longer wool does 
not possess these serrations to the same extent, and is better suited for combing, the 
object of which is to unravel all the fibres, and lay them smooth and even. From the 
earliest times of English history, wool has always been regarded as our great national 
raw material for woven goods. The mother of Alfred the Great is described, like the 
virtuous woman spoken of in the Book of Proverbs, as busying herself diligently in 
spinning wool. Of Edward the Elder, an old chronicler tells us, that whilst " he sette 
his sons to schole, his daughters he sette to wool-werke." Nor was wool regarded with 
less favour by our early sovereigns as a means of replenishing the royal exchequer. 
No subsidies are more common as granted to the crown, than those on wool, and no 
articles more frequent subjects of legislative interference than wool and its manufactui-es. 
Amongst other instances of the wisdom of our ancestors it was at one time provided 
that no wool "should be sold by any man of Scotland, or to any other to carry into 
Scotland," under pain of life and member. A paternal government attempted to regu- 
late the length, breadth, quality, and price of the cloth to be produced, and prescribed 
the wages and diet of the artificers. Thei'e seems little doubt that the first great impulse 
to our manufactures from wool of all kinds was given by the prudence and, patriotism of 
Edward III., who encouraged cloth-workers from Flanders to settle in Norfolk, York, 
Kendal, and other places. It is scarcely to an ecclesiastical writer that we should look 
for manufacturing details ; yet the witty Fuller, in the third book of his Church History, 
so pleasantly describes this event, th^,t I am sure our readers will pardon us for tran- 
scribing the passage : — "The king and state began now to grow sensible of the. great gain 
the Netherlands got by our English wool,: in memory whereof, the duke of Burgundy, 
not long after, instituted the order of the Qrolden Fleece; wherein, indeed, the jkece 
was ours, the gold theirs, so vast their emolument by the trade of clothing. Our king 
therefore resolved, if possible, to reduce the trade to his own country, who, as yet, were 
ignorant of that art, as knowing no more what to do with their wool than the sheep 
that wear it, as to any artificial and curious drapery ; their best clothes then being no 
better than friezes, such their coarseness for want of skill in their making. But soon 
after followed a great alteration, and we shall enlarge ourselves in the manner thereof. 
The intercourse now being great betwixt tlje English and the Netherlands (increased 
of late, since king Edward married the daughter of the earl of Hainault), unsuspected 
emissaries were deployed by our king into those^ countries, who wrought themselves 
into familiarity with such Dutchmen as were absolute masters of their trade, but not 
masters of themselves, as either journeymen or apprentices. These bemoaned the 
slavishness of these poor servants, whom their masters used rather like heathens than 
Christians ; yea, rather like horses than men ! Early up and late in bed, and all day 
hard work and harder fare (a few herrings and mouldy cheese), and all to enrich the 
churls their masters, without any profit unto themselves. But, Oh ! how happy should 
they be if they would but come over into Engl9,nd, bringing their mystery with them, 
which would provide their welcome in all places ! Here they should feed on fat beef and 
mutton, till nothing but their fulness should stint their stomachs; yea, they should 

VOL. II. 2 A 


feed on the labours of their own hands, enjoying a proportionable profit of their pains 
to themselves ; their beds should be good, and their bedfellows better, seeing the richest 
yeomen in England would not disdain to marry their daughters unto them ; and such 
the English beauties, that the most envious foreigners could not but commend them. 
Liberty is a lesson quickly conned by heart, men having a principle within themselves 
to prompt them, in case they forget it. Persuaded with the premises, many Dutch 
servants leave their masters, and make over for England. Their departure thence (being 
picked here and there), made no sensible vacuity, but their meeting here all together 
amounted to a considerable fulness. With themselves, they brought over their trade and 
their tools j namely, such as could not as yet be so conveniently made in England. 
Happy the yeoman^s house into which one of these Dutchmen did enter, bringing 
industry and wealth along with them. Such who came in strangers within their doors, 
soon after went out bridegrooms, and returned sons-in-law, having married the daughters 
of their landlords who first entertained them. Yea, those yeomen in whose houses 
they harboured soon proceeded gentlemen, gaining great estates to themselves, arms and 
worship to their estates." 

There is no doubt that the manufacture of worsted stufis was introduced or improved 
at this time, for, in the account of exports in the twenty-eighth year of Edward the 
Third's reign, we find mention of "8,061^ pieces of worsted, at 16s. 8d. per piece." 
The county of Norfolk became then, and continued for four centuries, the main seat 
and centre of the trade. So great, indeed, became the prosperity of the city of Norwich, 
that when Queen Elizabeth visited it in 1578, we are informed by the city records, that 
a grand pageant was exhibited, representing seven looms weaving worsted, russets, darnic, 
&c., with various devices; and that her majesty particularly examined the knitting and 
spinning of the children, perused the looms, and noted the several works and com- 
modities that were made. The manufacturing processes at this period were characterised 
by the most primitive and arcadian simplicity, and a degree of " slowness" which, in 
these railway times, we can scarcely realise. The work was entirely domestic, and its 
different branches widely scattered over the country. First, the manufacturer had to 
travel on horseback to purchase his raw materials amongst the farmers, or at the great 
fairs held in those old towns that had formerly been the exclusive markets, or, as they 
were called, " staples" of wool. The wool, safely received, was handed over to the sorters, 
who rigorously applied their gauge of required length of staple, and mercilessly chopped 
up by shears or hatchet what did not reach their standard, as wool fit only for the clothing 
trade. The long wool then passed into the hands of the combers, and having been 
brought back by them in the combed state, was again carefully packed, and strapped on 
the back of the sturdy horse, to be taken into the country to be spun. For this end 
the West Riding manufacturer had not only to visit the villages in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Halifax, Bradford, &c., but used periodically to traverse the romantic 
hills and dales of Craven. Here at each village he had his agents, who received the 
wool, distributed it amongst the peasantry, and received it back as yarn. The machine 
employed was still the old one-thread. wheel, and in summer weather, on many a villapfe- 
green and hill-side, might be seen the housewives plying their busy trades, and furnishing 
to the poet the vision of " Contentment spinning at the cottage door." Returning in 
safety with his yarn, the manufacturer had now to seek out his weavers, who ultimately 
delivered to him his camlets, or russets, or serges, or tammies, or calimancoes (such were 
then the names of the leading fabrics), ready for sale to the merchant or delivery to 
the dyer. It was in the year 1790 that the first spinning-jenny was put up in Bradford, 
in the private house of Mr. Garnett, a spinner, whose family still maintain a deserved 
eminence in the trade. Of course it was worked by hand. About the same period, similar 


machinery was introduced into Halifax and the neighbourhood. The first factory erected 
in Bradford was in 1793j a.nd loud and manifold were the predictions of ruin that ac- 
companied it. The extension of machinery and the improvement of mill-yarn advanced 
slowly but steadily. From a variety of causes, the manufacturers of Norwich did not 
avail themselves of the improved processes which the invention of the spinning-frame 
and the application of steam power brought out; and, consequently, the spinning of 
worsted yarn passed gradually from Norfolk to Yorkshire; in which latter county 
such improvements in machinery have subsequently taken place, as have enabled the 
manufacturer of that district to bring his goods into the market against the rivalry of 
the whole world. 

In the year 1836 a new raw material was brought into use in the Bradford trade, 
destined speedily to become one of its most important features. The existence of an 
animal called Alpaca, half camel and half sheep, had long been known to travellers and 
naturalists, and, indeed, tradition reports that Pizarro had brought back specimens of its 
wool on his first return from Peru, together with textures made from it by the natives. 
But up to the period mentioned, this wool, as an article of commerce, had attracted 
little notice ; and to Mr. Titus Salt, of Bradford, belongs the honour of having properly 
estimated its capabilities, and perfected its adaptation. The animal is of the Llama 
tribe, and is found only in the mountainous regions of the southern part of Peru, the 
table-land about four hundred miles from the sea-coast. It cannot live in the low lands 
near the sea. It is gregarious, but not kept in large flocks like sheep, and requires con- 
siderable care. The attempts to naturalise this animal in England have not hitherto 
been succcessful. His Roysd Highness Prince Albert, with his characteristic patriotism 
and love of science, has paid much attention to its culture and adaptation to otir climate ; 
but his efforts have not realised the result we could have desired. The late earl of Derby's 
flock, now in the hands of Mr. Salt, are thriving ; but still it is doubtful whether the 
alpaca will ever become a stock animal in this country. The humidity of our climate is 
generally believed to be the main cause of our failure. Some years ago, six hundred 
alpacas were shipped from Peru to Liverpool ; but so unskilfully had the arrangements 
been made for their accommodation, that only six survived the voyage. Alarmed at 
this shipment, the Peruvian government issued an edict, prohibiting their exportation for 
the future; and when, last year, some enterprising Australian colonists attempted to 
procure a cargo, they were obliged to return disappointed. The wool, or hair of the 
alpaca is of various shades of black, white, grey, brown, &c., and is pre-eminently dis- 
tinguishable for its brightness and lustre, its extreme softness, and great length of 
staple. A specimen, shown in the Great Exhibition by Messrs. Walter MiUigan and Son, 
of Binwley, was forty-two inches in length ; but this must have been of many years' 
growth? Considerable difiiculties were at first experienced in the working-up of this 
material into yarn, but patience, perseverance, and skill, ultimately overcame them; 
and at the present time, in combination with warps of cotton or of silk, it forms an 
amazing variety of articles of great richness, softness, and beauty. The advance in its 
consumption may be estimated from the fact, that whilst, in the five years from 1836 to 
1840 only 560,000 lbs. per annum were imported, last year the import had reached 
27 331 ballots, or 3,186,480 lbs. weight : and the advance in price has been from lOrf. 
perlb.inl836, toS*. 6rf. perlb. inl853. , . ^ , , .i. v • • • ^ 

Nearly contemporaneous with the mtrodnction of alpaca wool, was the brmgmg mto 
general use in Yorkshire of an article, similar in many of its properties— mohair, or 
loafs wool This article is of verv ancient use in manufactures, havmg been employed, 
as we are taught in the Book of Exodus, for the furniture and covering of the Jewish 
Tabernacle The wool is grown in the neighbourhood of Angora, m the centre of 


Asia-Minor, and is brought from thence on the backs of camels to Constantinople for 
shipment. It is singular that, although many attempts have been made to extend 
its growth beyond this immediate district, they have hitherto entirely failed. Formerly 
yarn was spun by hand in Turkey itself to a large extent, and exported to France ; 
but English-spun mohair yarn has now entirely superseded it. The export of this 
yarn to France in 1850, amounted to 400,000 lbs j and in Germany its consumption 
is greatly increasing. It is manufactured in Yorkshire, chiefly into articles for ladies' 
dresses, of great softness, lustre, and brilliancy. It will be readily conceived that the 
introduction of these new raw materials, added wonderfully to the capabilities of the 
manufacture, and increased immensely the number and variety of the fabrics produced. 
In the mean time, great improvements were made in machinery, and the result has been 
the opening of new branches of industry, and the quadrupling, within thirty years, the 
number of work-people employed. In the town of Bradford alone, the population has 
arisen within the last fifty years, from 13,264 to 103,782. The consumption of the 
various manufactures produced is immense. The total quantity of yarn spun may be 
estimated at about 57,000,000 lbs., which would require about 100,000,000 lbs. of fleece 
wool. Among the many advantages of the late Great Exhibition, none was more striking 
than the opportunity it afforded of studying the comparative capabilities of our own 
and other countries. Englishmen were taught the useful lesson that we possess no 
monopoly of inventive genius or practical skill ; and that to maintain our position, it is 
indispensable that we spare no effort, and relax no energy. " I had the honour and 
pleasure," says an able lecturer, " to serve as vice-chairman of the jury charged with the 
examination of the goods included under Class XII.; and, along with Mr, George Tetley, 
of Bradford; Dr. Hermann, of Bavaria, and Mr. Bernonville, of Paris, I inspected the 
various fabrics produced by our own and the continental worsted manufacturers. The 
result of this investigation was, on the whole, highly creditable to English industry, whilst, 
at the same time it afforded usefiil suggestions for the future. It was curious and inter- 
esting to notice some worsted fabrics of great beauty, sent from Kussia, a country we 
have never heretofore regarded in the light of a manufacturing rival. Amongst these 
were specimens of a cloth of great softness and fineness of texture, said to be spun and 
made by hand, from camel's or goat's hair, by the Bashkirs, a wandering and half-savage 
tribe on the banks of the Caspian Sea : — these were really wonderful, as showing what, 
after all, with the very simplest and rudest machinery, the human hand is capable of 

It appeared to the jury that as to the fabrics composed of wool mixed with cotton, 
and the alpaca and mohair goods, there were no goods produced on the continent that 
could at all compete with the English manufactures. The second conclusion was, that 
whilst there were some Bradford goods of very fine qualities that were, of their particular 
description, unsurpassed in excellence of manufacture, yet that there were no double- 
twilled merinos of English manufacture exhibited ; and that in these merino fabrics, and 
other goods designed for the use of the wealthier portion of the community, our French 
neighbours maintained their pre-eminence. We must not forget to mention, while speak- 
ing of French manufactures, some figured or fancy goods from Roubaix, which were of 
beautiful design and exquisite workmanship. It is, indeed, in the department of design 
that our English deficiencies are most apparent ; and no greater benefit could be rendered 
to the worsted trade than the introduction of a purer and more cultivated taste, not 
only among the producers, but also the consumers of our fabrics, by an extension and 
improvement of our plans of art-instruction ; which is mainly to be done by indoctrinat- 
ing the pupil with the true principles of art, and placing before him specimens illus- 
trative of the right application of these principles to the specialities of his own particular 


manufacture. One point more remains to be briefly dealt with. We have seen the 
various improvements and inventions which, following each other in such quick succes- 
sion, have brought the worsted trade to " its present point of progress and prosperity. 
There can be no question that these have developed our national resources, and added to 
our national wealth j but what,has been their influence on the great masses of the people 
employed in the manufacture ? We know it may be said that the landowner has been 
benefited, for his rental has been largely augmented ; that the farmer has derived great 
advantage, for his wool has been increased in quantity as well as raised in price ; that 
the manufacturer himself has attained to wealth and eminence. But what have been 
their results, economically, socially, and morally, on the toiling thousands dependent on 
the trade for their daily bread ? We have described the processes of manufacture carried 
on towards the close of the last century, before the introduction of machinery and steam 
power. There are some persons who affect to look back upon that period with regret, 
and lament over the loss of domestic comfort, simple manners, and social happiness, which, 
they say, our manufacturing system has caused. And they delight to draw a glowing 
picture of the time when, amidst the quiet scenes of nature, far from the smoky town and 
the clatter of machinery, the spinner and the weaver followed their honest calling in 
the bosom of their families ; not wasted in their physical strength by excessive toil, nor 
ground down to the dust by the rapacity of tyrannical masters, but earning a comfort- 
able competency by moderate labour; not a turbulent, infidel, and chartist, but a con- 
tented, religious, and loyal peasantry. 

Such a picture is a fable, not a fact. There can be no question, from all the records 
and traditions of the trade, that the physical comforts of the artisan have been vastly 
increased, and his social position greatly elevated. In 1787, the average rate of wages 
was 3s. 3d. per week, when a stone of flour, weighing 16 lbs., cost the working man 
from 3s. to 3s. 6d. At the present time, with flour at 2s. per stone, with other articles 
of provision reduced in proportion, with articles of clothing one-third at least of their 
former price, the average wages at Bradford of the factory-workers, men, women, and 
children, is 10s. per week. Nor is the amelioration in their social condition less real, 
although there is still great room for sanitary, for educational, for religious improvement. 
If there are grasping masters, men ignorant or regardless of their high moral obligations, 
they are the exception, not the rule. There are many noble ." captains of industry,' 
between whom and their work-people there is some other connexion than a mere money- 
payment ; who study to promote their welfare and elevation, and whose efibrts are met by 
a frank confidence and a grateful recognition. There are thousands of homes in the 
West Riding, where not only honest labour meets with its due pecuniary reward, but 
where comfort, cleanliness, and intelligence prevail; homes radiant with happiness, and 
many of them hallowed by religion. We shall now, with all due acknowledgment, take 
our leave of the able lecturer from whose discourse we have selected the foregoing 
remarks, and, in concluding our present chapter, briefly remark that the jury, in testi- 
mony of their high approbation of the various specimens offered to their examination, 
awarded prize medals to no fewer than forty-seven exhibitors of worsted manufacture. 







Under this head we shall, from time to time, record such incidental events connected 
with the hrief but glorious existence of the Crystal Palace as may, we hope, prove 
not altogether uninteresting to our readers. We shall also, without any attempt at 
classification, occasionally describe such of the more remarkable objects as, in the rich 
profusion that was everywhere scattered aroiind, may have escaped our earlier attention. 
Indeed, such was the apparent inexhaustibility of that wondrous collection that, on a re- 
trospective glance, the mind despairs of comprehending it as a whole ; but now that the 
glorious vision has passed, now that the excitement has cooled, and visitors from foreign 
parts and quiet country places have reached their homes ; now that the splendid trophies 
of human ingenuity and enterprise have returned to their respective owners, and that 
vast array of wealth and grandeur is dispersed, we begin to faintly realise the magnitude 
and purpose of the Great Industrial Bazaar. The Exhibition of the Industry of all 
Nations having finally closed, we are enabled to look on its results as matters of history, 
and recall the various events of those eventful months with a somewhat calmer and more 
philosophic spirit. Two reflections arise out of the mass, which, above all the rest, will 
read the world a great lesson. The first, that thousands of people, gathered from every 
civilized corner of the earth, speaking different languages, brought up under different 
modes of government, exercising different forms of religion, and putting faith in different 
creeds, passed daily through the noble edifice, not only without accident or mischief, 
but positively without inconvenience to themselves. The people were their own police ; 
and the six millions went, and wondered, and departed in good- will and peace. History 
records no fact Hke this. Not less surprising or less suggestive, is the amazing thought 
that seventeen thousand exhibitors, who, like the visitors, were of almost every nation 
and kindred under heaven, entrusted the most valuable evidences of their wealth, their 
skill, their industry, and their enterprise, to the guardianship of some fifty policemen, 
armed with no better weapon than a wooden baton, and earning wages but little superior 
to that of the day-labourer. Day after day and night after night passed on, and no added 
force was requisite for the safety of the almost countless wealth deposited within those 
fragile walls. One can scarcely comprehend the strength of so much confidence and 
reliance on the law and order of Great Britain. In no other country of the world 
could such an exhibition of the industrial arts have taken place. Do we say this boast- 
ingly, or of a vain spirit? No; rather let us humble ourselves before the Throne of 
Mercy, and be thankful that it has been vouchsafed to us in our generation to lead the 
peoples onward in the march of peaceful enterprises and industrial triumphs. 

The exceeding popularity of the Exhibition eventually became its greatest wonder 
and many who went there to study the marvels of manufacturing skill could only gaze 
at the multitudes which they attracted to Hyde-park. There is a magnetic power 
about large masses gathered in one vast edifice, and swarming in happy excitement alono- 
spacious avenues, -where their numbers tell upon the eye, which eclipses every other 
spectacle, however splendid or interesting. Man is superior to the choicest examples of 
his handiworkj and never were vast assemblages seen in a situation more imposing. 


Those who wituessed the aspect of the building on a crowded shilling-day will not readily 
forget the strange and indescribable sensations with which it inspired them. Who 
can say that we shall ever be able to witness such a sight again? It is not a small 
excitement which drags up humble provincials en masse from the country — which induced 
an old woman of eighty-four to travel on foot all the way from the Land's-end — which 
sent a bushel and a half of watches in one night to the shop of a single pawnbroker 
in Leeds, and which so stirred the heart of private benevolence throughout the kingdom 
that even our charity schools and the inmates of our workhouses, were largely represented 
at this Jubilee of Industry. On the ground, therefore, of popular excitement alone, few 
of us can expect to see the renewal of such a spectacle. Books may supply us with the 
fullest information on the subject, but they can never touch the heart or stamp their 
lessons upon the memory like a personal inspection of this wonderful display. For 
ourselves we have always felt our powerlessness in dealing with the details of a collection 
so vast and comprehensive. An Exhibition which embraced every kind of industrial 
product cannot be grasped within reasonable limits, and a history of it, if attempted, 
would exhaust the patience of the most indefatigable reader. The bare classification 
of objects occupies eighteen closelyprinted foolscap pages. The power of discussing 
advantageously each division of that immense classification involves a minute knowledge 
of every art to which the ingenuity and the labour of mankind have been directed, and is 
plainly impracticable. For the determination of excellence in each department the public 
may, however, be most safely and authoritatively referred to the awards and reports of 
the difierent juries. There are, notwithstanding, general results which it comes fairly 
within the province of the historian to point out ; particular inventions, to indicate the 
importance of which justifies a special notice, and lessons of experience for the guidance 
of our future industrial career which ought not to be lost sight of. Many of these topics 
have from time to time been touched upon. Others may occasionally suggest them- 
selves ; and we shall endeavour to trace out the full significance of the objects that were 
brought before us, and gather up the threads of interest which the spectacle presented. 


We have some doubts whether the Exhibition was ever so interesting in detail since 
the 1st of May, as it was within two or three days of the opening. Two days 
before it opened, the fulfilment of the pledge to the public appeared physically 
impossible. The place was strewn over with fragments and saw-dust, and boxes and 
cases, packed and ^unpacked. Hundreds of fittings had yet to be finished ; men were 
at work all over the counters, and up in the galleries, and on the roof, and over the floor ; 
and there were not twenty yards of the whole area of twenty-six acres that looked in 
such a state of forwardness, as to justify a hope that they could be got ready in time for 
the opening. By what magical arts all these difi&culties were overcome, the confusion 
cleared up, the hangings swung, the cases unpacked, the counters dressed, and the vast 
superficies decorated, and put in order for the ceremonies of the inauguration, we know 
not • and we are even sceptical as to the fact whether the people who accomplished 
these sorceries, are quite aware themselves how they did it. The confusion of the last 
two days was singularly picturesque. You could see the costumes of all nations running 
about in a state of flutter and disorder, that elicited an infinite variety of tempera- 
ments the flash of the tropics, the languor of the south, the gravity of the oriental com- 
plexion, and the rough bluster of the north. Some were impetuous and choleric ; whilst 
others, seated tranquilly on their unopened bales, waiting for instructions, looked on at 
the surrounding riot with imperturbable indifference. The incidents that were every- 
where disclosed to you as you passed up the nave helped, also, to give a sort of dramatic 


interest to the scene, and to set you speculating on the distant homes and associations of 
these people, and the community of pursuits and civilizing aims which had thus collected 
a multitude of men from the extremest points of the world under one roof, and for one 
express object. Little domestic under-plots, and quaint bits of pathos and fun, occasionally 
enlivened the bustle, or threw a scrap of pantomimic comedy into the silent corners 
of the Bazaar. 

We remember an instance of this kind. It was just before the Exhibition opened, 
whilst most of the foreign departments were in a state of indescribable confusion. 
The Russian division was in the incipient stage of development; curious drums and trum- 
pets, glittering ware and articles of northern vertu, had been delivered out of their boxes, 
and lay heaped about till the rest of the consignment should have arrived. There was 
a lull in the work ; the men entrusted with the business were out, probably unpacking 
in the park ; and the Russian chamber, in that condition of rich disorder, was left to 
the charge of a young girl. She was dressed town-fashion, and had none of the marks 
of the peasant about her, except a bright glow on her cheeks. She was handsome 
— that is to say, round-faced, with lively eyes, capable of a profound sentimental ex- 
pression, (which seems, indeed, more or less common to all lively eyes,) and of a " comely 
shape." You would have almost guessed her country from the cast of her features; 
yet, notwithstanding the Russian snow she came of, she gave you to understand at the 
first glance, that there was blood in her veins as warm as ever danced in Italy. If 
one could make anything substantial out of such a fancy, we might have imagined that 
she was a neighbour of that river, " whose icy current flows through banks of roses." 
There she stood, keeping watch over the goods, and pretending to read a book. It was 
a mere pretence. From behind a temporary curtain suspended at the back, there 
peeped every now and then an English youth of one or two-and-twenty, with a dash of 
the juvenile rovA in him, extremely well-looking, and fairly set out for conquest. He 
appeared to be connected with some of the adjoining states, but it was evident that while 
his business called him to one place, his love of adventure had fascinated him to 
another. The coquetry that went on between them, would have had a telling effect 
upon the stage. Young as they were, they understood how to flirt books and curtains 
as skilfully as any senhorita of Seville or Madrid ever flirted a fan. Her look aside, to 
show her consciousness, as it were unconsciously, was perfect; and the way the young 
gentleman affected to be looking very seriously at something else, while he was all 
the time directing an intense focal light upon her ringlets (which she felt as palpably 
as if it had lifted them up), was a picture which, with the lady in the foreground, 
might be recommended to the consideration of Mr. Prank Stone, who always hits off 
these exquisite inchoate sensations with the most charming truthfulness. They did not 
understand one word of each other's language, yet had already contrived, by the aid 
of a third language, with which they were both familiar, to get up a tolerably intimate 
acquaintance. We are sorry we cannot tell our readers how it ended ; we hope happily 
for both parties, and that the lady did not leave her own inclement climate to find a more 
wintry region here ! When the Romances of the Exhibition — with the Crystal Fountain 
for a frontispiece, as the trysting-place for lovers who wished to lose other people and 
find themselves — come to be published, perhaps we shall have the sequel of this little 


Lord Brougham and the Great Exhibition. — This learned lord, who was opposed to the 
erection of the Crystal Palace, became at length persuaded of its usefulness. In pre- 
senting Mr. Paxton's petition to the Lords, he said : — " He had the honour of presiding 


over the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, and it was the intention of the 
society to present a petition in favour of this ally for the diffusion of knowledge. They 
considered it a serious rival to their adversary, the gin palace, because it would draw the 
people towards that which, whilst it entertained, also instructed, and must improve. 
He understood that two million and a quarter of persons had already visited the Crystal 
Palace, not more than one-fourth of whom had come from the country ; and he could 
not help saying that, instead of seeing £2,500 a-day taken in shillings, he would rather 
see jE200 received in pence. 

Educational Adaptation of the Exhibition. — The proposition to make the Exhibition a 
means of popular education, by explanations and descriptive lectures, &c., was most 
favourably received, and the University of Oxford not only countenanced the scheme, 
but gave a series of lectures, in accordance with the idea in preparation for the general 
visit of the members of the University to the Exhibition. Professor Ansted an- 
nounced a series of eight lectures on successive Friday and Saturday mornings, between 
the hours of nine and twelve o'clock, in explanation of the mining processes, mineral 
products, and manufactures forwarded for exhibition from various parts of the world. 
The first of these lectures took place on Friday, the 33rd of May, and was of an intro- 
ductory character — treating of the general nature of the materials of which the earth 
is composed. He then discussed, in their order, mineral fuel, iron, other metals, stone, 
clay, various earthy minerals and gems. The number of his class was limited, and a 
detailed list of the objects illustrated was issued previous to each lecture. Lord Dufferin 
suggested that a number of the pupils of the Belfast School of Design should be sent 
to London to have the benefit of seeing the (xreat Exhibition. His lordship headed 
a list of subscriptions for the purpose with a contribution of £30. 

The Exhibition Post-Office. — A "post" was erected in the centre of the south half of 
the transept, after the fashion of such as are used in Belgium. It was a hoUow cylinder 
(tastefully decorated, and in imitation of bronze), with a mouth similar to that of a com- 
mon letter-box in this country j the post times being inscribed upon a ticket inserted in 
the top of the "post." It was, we understand, intended to adapt this to the uses of 
the Exhibition establishment, which, we may here mention, included a post-office depart- 
ment, the business of which was very extensive, and was conducted by Mr. Osmond Jones. 
In this office, on an average, about 500 letters were dispatched daily, and about 300 
arrived. Letters sent out were registered ; and letters received were distributed to all 
the various parties engaged in the vast edifice. Posts arrived and left thrice a day — 
eleven, three and five. The Postmaster-general sent direct for the letter-bags, which did 
not pass through any branch office ; and great acommodation was thus afforded to the 

A graceful act of liberality on the part of his Royal Highness Prmce Albert towards 
the young ladies, pupils at the Government School of Design, Somerset-house, is worthy 
of record. A few days before the opening of the Great Exhibition, the senior female 
students, (several of whom were exhibitors,) prepared a memorial to Prince Albert, 
praying that they might be present at the inauguration of the " world's fair" by her 
Majesty. The prince immediately replied to Mrs. M'lan, the principal of the female 
branch of the school, regretting his inability to grant the free admissions required, but 
requested that the young ladies would accept a dozen season tickets, and that she would 
be pleased to present them to twelve of her most deserving pupils. Shortly after this 
communication from the prince, Mr. Redgrave, the principal of the male department, 
received from the Earl of Granville the foUowing note :— " Bruton-street, April 29. Mr. 
Labouchere and I have much pleasure in offering twelve season tickets to the Government 
School of Design, if you will, with the other head-masters, select those students who 

VOL. II. ^ ^ 


appear to you the most deserving. It will give us pleasure if these tickets give pleasure 
and instruction to those to whom you may allot them." 

Purchases at the Great Exhibition. — Her Majesty among other acquisitions, purchased 
at the Exhibition a tiara of sapphires of great lustre and size, and a brooch, consisting 
of two enormous rubies, set round with diamonds, by Lemonniere, of Paris. At a meeting 
of the Goldsmiths' Company, a resolution was unanimously passed that the sum of 
s65,000 should be expended in the purchase of some of the magnificent plate exhibited 
at the Crystal Palace, for the use of the splendid hall. At a court of common council. 
Alderman Copeland brought forward a motion, " that a sum not exceeding £5,000 
be voted from the city cash to purchase some of the works of art in the Exhibition of the 
Industry of all Nations, adapted for the decoration of the city of London." 

A Commemorative Monument. — We extract the following from the columns of a popular 
journal. — {To the Editor of the Daily News.) Sib, — Your excellent article on the Exhi- 
bition in last Friday's paper has given much satisfaction to a large body of exhibitors,_ 
and all concur in the desirability of erecting a monument in commemoration, as sug- 
gested by you. Will you allow me to suggest another plan of doing this, viz., to pur- 
chase the Crystal Fountain — erect over it a temple, and let this be the memorial to 
coming ages, that on the spot occupied by it, thousands met each other " by appoint- 
ment," during the great days of the Exhibition ; and that it was not only the centre of 
attraction to many pilgrims who visited the building from afar, but the centre of the 
building itself. The commissioners might do a worse thing with a portion of their sur- 
plus fund than this, and their famous names might be engraved on brass within the 
portals of the temple itself. An inscription also should be placed there, showiag how far 
east, west, north, and south the building extended from the centre, so that visitors might 
measure with their "mind's eye" the grand proportions of the Palace of Glass. — I am, 
Sir, your obedient servant. 

Crystal Palace, October 13. A Lucky Exhibitor. 


The public must remember the colossal cross, made of granite, which stood close to 
one of the entrances to the Great Exhibition, 1851. This immense piece of workman- 
ship, which was hewn out of a solid block, and weighed upwards of ten tons, was brought 
over from Sweden, by an eminent merchant, named Carl August KuUgreu, who, falling 
sick and dying during the Exhibition, directed the cross to be placed over his remains, 
in the burial-ground of the Swedish church. Prince's- square, Eatchffe Highway, which 
was accordingly done, and it there found its last resting-place. Its carriage from Hyde 
Park to its present site, cost £25. On the base is the following simple inscription 
— " Carl August KuUgreu, born at Sweden in 1793, and died in London, 1851." 


This large block of coal was drawn out of one of the pits in the Hange Colliery 
Tiyidale, near Tipton, belonging to Mr. Daniel George Round. Upon the first attempt 
being made, such was the great weight of the coal that the niche ring upon which the 
rope is wound broke through in two places, it being cast iron, six inches broad and one 
inch thick. A new niche ring being put on, a second attempt was made, when, amidst 
great suspense, the coal was brought to light, up a shaft 200 yards deep, in the space of 
three minutes. The waggons being run over the pit the coal was landed amidst the 
shouts and cheers of all assembled. The coal was then transmitted, by an inclined rail- 
way, about 300 yards, to the wharf, the colliers holding it back by ropes. It had to be 
brought to the bottom of the pit some considerable distance; the ponderous mass at 


times breaking the cast-iron rails and sleepers forming the railroad, as it moved slowly 
along. The weight of the coal itself, exclusive of any chains, &c., is about five tons, ascer- 
tained by means of steelyards. When lifted to be weighed, the hook by which the coal 
was suspended broke through, being of wrought iron, IJ inch square. The size is 
6 feet high and 18 feet in circumference, necessarily of a circular shape to admit it up 
the pit shaft ; the largest size that could possibly be produced, and probably the greatest 
weight ever attempted to be drawn out of a mine, and must have been attended with 
great risk to the machinery and ropes. No other than the thirty-feet or thick coal 
seam of South Staffordshire could allow of such a large piece of coal being produced. 
Its height, upon the skip and waggon, is nearly nine feet. It is a fine coal, remarkably 
bright and clear. It formed a very interesting addition to the Great Exhibition, and 
attracted great curiosity. It is worthy of remark, that the services of the men were gra- 
tuitous in getting the coal and sending it from the mine to the wharf, thus showing the 
good feeling existing between Mr. Round and his workmen. 


We translate the following amusing notice from the Giornale di Roma, the daily oracle 
of the eternal city : — Let us, says the astonished writer of this article, take a brief survey 
of American eccentricities in the Crystal Palace. First of all cast your eyes upon that 
case — it is no larger than an ordinary portmanteau — open it, and you will find therein 
an entire house of caoutchouc, which you may erect, wherever your roving fancy may 
lead vou, upon a very slight foundation, which folds up into the smallest possible compass, 
no bigger than an umbrella. All necessary furniture for the establishment is packed in 
the same case — to wit, an excellent elastic mattrass which you may blow up at pleasure ; 
small packets also, which with a breath you may convert into most commodious cushions. 
Is the evening fine and starlight — take that long band — it may be easily inflated into a 
luxurious sofa, upon which yourself and your whole family may sit at ease. In the course 
of your peregrinations, do you suddenly encounter a broad river, whose waters bar your 
further progress? You may navigate the stream : lay hold of that paletot — you never 
met with its equal before — it is no bigger than an ordinary Mackintosh — you would take 
it to be one — you may see one like it every day in Hyde Park, or in the Champs Elysee ; 
no dandy appears without one. But feel in one of the pockets, you will find therein a 
small pair of bellows'; apply the tube to a little opening, and suddenly your paletot swells 
out, changes its shape, and in a trice is transmogrified, to all intents and purposes, into 
an excellent, serviceable boat. A couple of oars lie hidden at the bottom of the wonder- 
ful case vou embark, seating yourself upon the same serviceable case, in which your 

house is contained — you pass the river, and your canoe resumes its original form. 
According to the temperature of the atmosphere it either remains on your shoulders, or 
disappears into its hiding place j— from the container becoming the contained. 

A little further on, you stop before a small brass machine, about the size of a quart 
bottle ; you fancy it is a meat-roaster : not at all. Ha ! ha ! It is a tailor ! Yes, a 
veritable stitcher. Present a piece of cloth to it : suddenly it becomes agitated, it twists 
about screams audibly— a pair of scissors are projected forth— the cloth is cut; a needle 
sets to work, and lo and behold, the process of sewing goes on with a feverish activity, 
and before you have taken three steps, a pair of inexpressibles are thrown down at your 
feet and the impatient machine, all fretting and fuming, seems to expect a second piece 
of cioth at your hands. Take care, however, as you pass along, that this most indus- 
trious of all possible machines does not lay hold of your cloak or great coat ; if it touches 
even the hem of the garment, it is enough— it is appropriated, the scissors are whipped 
out and with its accustomed intelligence the machine sets to work, and in a twinkhng 


another pair is produced of that article of attire, for which the English have as yet been 
able to discover no name in their most comprehensive vocabulary. See now, how, with 
this wonderful case and this most extraordinary machine, a man may travel far and wide 
without the aid of his fellows. Add only to this small quantity of luggage one of those 
steam ploughs lately invented by the English, with which six shares are readily set to 
work, and you may plough your field up in a jiffy. Is it not astonishing, to travel, sleep, 
be clothed and fed without apparent assistance from human hands ? 






The jury have noticed vidth pleasure the large number of exhibitors from England, 
France, the ZoUverein, and the United States, of inventions and devices for the instruc- 
tion of the blind. It has been estimated that, in the European countries, one person out 
of every 1,200 or 1,400 of the entire population is blind, and in America, one in every 
2,000. The great and increasing attention that is paid to the intellectual and moral 
instruction of this unfortunate class is one of the distinctive features of the progress of 
our age. A few years ago, printing for the blind was considered only a curious or 
doubtful experiment ; but it is now established beyond all question that books are true 
sources of profit and pleasure to them. Whilst embossed books have recently very 
rapidly increased, it is delightful to notice that the blind readers have multiplied far 
more rapidly. These circumstances have induced the jury to attempt a brief historical 
sketch of the origin and progress of printing for the bUnd, together with the present 
state of the art. 

The invention of printing for the blind marks a new era in the history of literature. 
The whole credit of this invention, so simple, yet so marvellous in its results, belongs 
to Prance. It was M. Valentine Haiiy, who, in 1784, at Paris, produced the first book 
printed with letters in relief, and soon after proved to the world that children might easily 
be taught to read with their fingers. It has been said by his biographer that he took 
his idea of embossed typography from seeing that Mademoiselle Parodis, a blind pianist 
of Vienna, who visited Paris that year, distinguished the keys of her instrument by the 
sense of touch, and also rapidly comprehended the maps in relief, which, a short time 
before, had been invented by M. Weisembourg, of Mannheim. After employing letters 
of different forms and sizes, and experimenting with the blind as to the precise shape of 
the letter that could be the most readUy distinguished by the touch, he at length fixed 
upon a character differing very sUghtly from the ordinary Roman letter, or perhaps a little 
approaching italics. There was the usual mixture of the upper and lower case, the 
capitals takiug more of the script form than the small letters. He submitted his first 
efforts and experiments to the Academy of Sciences of Paris. A committee was appointed 
to examine them, consisting of the Due de la Rochefoucauld, M. Desmarets, M. Demours, 


and M. Vicq-d'Azir, and their favourable report on the 18th February, 1785, rendered 
his success a triumph. Great eclat attended the public announcement of this invention. 
A new institution was established, called the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles, 
and M. Haiiy was placed at the head of it. Among the books which he embossed were a 
grammar, a catechism, small portions of the church service, and also several pieces of 
music. The printing of the music was inferior. The abbreviations which he introduced 
into his grammar, it has been said, did not afford sufficient advantages to counterbalance 
their inconvenience. His principal work is entitled Expose de differends moyens verifies 
par V experience pour les mettre en etat de lire a I'aide du tact, d'imprimer des livres dans 
lesquels Us puissent prendre des connaissances de langues, d'histoire, de giographie, de 
musique, etc. ; d'exicuter differends travaux relatifs aux mitiers. Imprime par les Enfants 
Aveugles. Paris, 1786, 4to. This celebrated essay was translated into English by Dr. 
Blacklock, the blind poet; and, in 1793, was published in London with his poems, in 
quarto. On the 26th of December, 1786, twenty-four of M. Haiiy's pupils exhibited 
their attainments in reading, writing, arithmetic, music, and geography, before the king 
and the royal family at Versailles, who were delighted with the wonderful results. For 
a while all went on prosperously, but M. Haiiy's friends soon began to give him credit 
for zeal rather than discretion in the management of his Institution, and consequently, 
as the novelty wore away, their admiration cooled, the funds fell off, and the institution 
languished until it was put upon a government foundation. The blind really received 
but little advantage from an invention that at first promised so much. The fault, how- 
ever, seems to have been, not so much in the plan as in the execution of it. The books 
were bulky and expensive, and the letters, though beautiful to the eye, and clearly em- 
bossed, wanted that sharpness and permanence so essential to perfect tangibility ; besides 
that, though the letters filled three spaces, they were too small to be well adapted to the 
sense of touch. Large editions of the few books printed were published, the idea hav- 
ing taken a strong hold of the public mind; so that, though the evil was soon per- 
ceived, it was not easy to abandon the defective alphabet and assume a better, for that 
step involved the sacrifice of all the previous labour. Hence this noble invention, except, 
perhaps, within the walls of the institution, soon sank into oblivion, and very httle more 
was heard of it until 1814, when Haiiy, having fallen into disrepute, was pensioned off 
on 2,000 francs a year, and Dr. GuilU^, an active and enterprising gentleman, was made 
Directeur-Gdneral in his place. Dr. Guillie soon revived the printing, and having con- 
siderably modified the letters, commenced the publication of a series of elementary and 

The mechanical execution of these volumes was exceedingly heavy. Most of them 
were ponderous folios, and very expensive; still they formed, for many years, almost the 
only literature of the blind, not alone in France, but in other countries. We should not 
omit particularly to mention the following book, which has come under our notice: Notice 
Historique sur I' Instruction des Jmnes Aveugles. Par M. Guillie, directeur-general de 
I'Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles de Paris. Paris, Imprime par les Jeunes 
Aveugles, 1819, 4to, fifty-two pages, with seventeen lines to a page. Iwo leaves are 
pasted together, so that it is read as if embossed on both sides of a sheet This is the 
Lcond edition, the first having been embossed in 1817, the third m 1820, and a fourth 
edition, enlarged, in 1821. On page fifty-two is a curious specimen of printing in relief, 
in colour, so as to render the letters more easily read by the eye. This book was a 
valuable contribution to the Ubrary of the bhnd, but stdl retams nearly aU the objec- 
tions that were made to Haiiy's first books; it can only be read by those possessing 
a very delicate touch. It is replete with information respecting the means then em- 
ployed for the instruction of the blind in Paris; it proves, however, that the art 

VOL. II. ^ ° 


of embossed typography had made but very little progress. It is singular that in 
this book no mention is made of the author's predecessor, Haiiy, to whom, we should 
not forget, the idea of finger-reading is due. Between the years 1831 and 1840 very 
little printing was done by this institution, except religious books, and music, a,fter the 
system of notation by letters and ciphers. L'Institut des Jeunes Aveugles de Paris, since 
its foundation in 1784, has at times been in a deplorable condition, but, about the year 
1840, it underwent a thorough reorganisation, and is now, under the able manage- 
ment of M. Dufau, justly entitled to the front rank of institutions of this class in Europe, 
from its usefulness, no less than its age. A radical reform in the printing department 
has been made : M. Dufau has devised a system of types consisting of capitals and 
lower-ease Roman letters, and has greatly improved the character of the embossing. 
The French books are now well embossed, sharp, clear, and durable. They have also 
been so much reduced in bulk that they are offered at a moderate price. M. Dufau has 
proposed to print a standard library for the blind, to consist of ten volumes in quarto, 
for elementary instruction, and ten volumes for higher instruction. The first series is 
nearly completed. The second series of this library, not yet printed, it is to be hoped 
will soon follow. For the above lists, and other interesting information respecting the 
Paris typography for the blind, the jury is much indebted to a valuable pamphlet 
pubHshed by M. J. Guadet, entitled L'Institut des Jeunes Aveugles de Paris, son 
Hisioire et ses Procides d' Enseignement, Paris, 1850, 8vo, pp. 115. At Vienna an 
institution for the blind was established in 1804, but the jury is not aware of any- 
printing having been executed in Austria before the year 1830 or 1831. About this 
date, the intelligent publishers, Treusinsky, of Vienna, embossed sheets with the Lord's 
Prayer in various languages, in Roman letters, and afterwards printed works for elementary 
instruction. The subject has been recently taken up by the imperial printing-office, and 
several volumes have been published, but the jury are unable to give a bibliographical 
description of them. In 1806, M. Haiiy was invited to establish institutions for the , 
blind at Berlin and St. Petersburgh. His system of instruction was adopted in each of 
these institutions, and the books used were, for a considerable time, supplied from the press 
of Paris. Both of these institutions, in a pecuniary point of view, were unsuccessful to 
M. Haiiy, and, in 1808, he returned to Paris, and for a while resided in quiet with his 
brother, the celebrated Abbe HatLy. The jury have not been able to trace the progress 
of the printing for the blind at Berlin or St. Petersburgh, but they learn that the amount 
of matter embossed in Germany, until very recently, did not exceed half of the New 
Testament. It was in Great Britain and in the United States that the first improve- 
ments were made in embossed typography ; and only within the last fifteen years, that 
the blind generally have derived any considerable advantages from books. Before 1836, 
when Mr. James Gall, of Edinburgh, first began to turn his attention to the intellectual 
and moral education of the blind, it is believed that not a single blind person in any public 
institution of this country or America could read by means of embossed characters. To 
Mr. Gall is due the credit of reviving this art. With the most commendable zeal, 
patience, and perseverance, he canvassed the form of every letter, untU. at length he 
adopted his angular alphabet. He seems, from his own Historical Sketch of the Origin 
and Progress of the Literature of the Blind, Edinburgh, 1834, 8vo, pp. 388, to have 
experimented long and patiently with a great variety of arbitrary and Roman alphabets, 
with a view of finding one sufficiently simple and tangible for finger reading. On the 
28th of September, 1827, he published A First Book for teaching the Art of Reading to 
the Blind; with a short statement of the principles of the art of printing as here applied 
to the sense of touch. Edinburgh, published by James Gall. This is believed to be the 
first book printed for the blind in the English language. It is a small oblong octavo 


volume, of nine pages, price sixpence, with four preliminary leaves, in which the author 
sets forth his "principles." The embossing is in high relief; and though it presents 
rather a rude appearance from the fact of its having been printed from wooden types, 
yet it soon rendered the practicability of reading by the blind a matter of experience 
in Great Britain. Mr. Gall then issued sheets printed by metallic type, which were 
easily read by the pupils in the asylum at Edinburgh. Encouraged by his success, in 
March, 1838, he issued his prospectus for the publication, by subscription, of the gospel 
by St. John, but it was not until about the middle of 1829 that he perfected his alphabet 
to his own satisfaction. He tried three different founts of type — first, the double Eng- 
lish size ; second, the double pica ; and, third, the great primer ; and, after printing and 
cancelling sheets in each of these three founts, he at length, in January, 1832, finished 
the printing of his great work. The blind must ever feel indebted to Mr. Gall for the 
zeal and honest endeavour which he displayed in accomplishing what he thought would 
most benefit this unfortunate class. Notwithstanding the last sheet of his work was 
printed in January, 1832, yet it was not till October, 1834, that he was enabled to pub- 
lish it. It is entitled The Gospel by St. John, for the Blind : with an Introduction, con- 
taining some Historical Notices regarding the Origin of a tangible Literature for their 
Use. By James Gall. Edinburgh : James Gall, 24, Niddry-street. 1834. In 4to. The 
introduction, in common type, comprises eighteen pages. The text, in embossed charac- 
ters, consists of 141 pages, with twenty-seven lines on a page of seventy square inches. 
The leaves are not pasted together. The subscription price of the volume was one 
guinea, but it was subsequently sold for six shillings. Gall was very sanguine of the 
entire success of his noble enterprise; and, probably, had he chosen a less angular 
character, and one a little more resembling our common alphabet, as he has since done, 
he would soon have seen his books used in every institution in the country. His 
alphabet was the chief objection raised to his system. His printing was clear, sharp, and 
permanent ; and his books, in every respect, were a great improvement on Haiiy's and 
Guillie's. He published five or six other httle elementary books in 1834, at the time he 
issued his chief work ; but his system seems not to have come into extensive use. It is 
to Mr. Gall, perhaps, more than to any other man, that the interest in the education of 
the blind was awakened throughout Great Britain and America. Nor has he allowed his 
exertions to flag. In 1837 he published Tlie Epistle of Paul the Apostle to tfie Ephe- 
sians, printed for the Blind, in the largest type. The shape of the characters is similar 
to that in which the Gospel of St. John was printed, but instead of being smooth the 
letters are fretted or serrated. It is a small octavo volume of seventy-two pages, seven- 
teen lines to a page ; 250 copies were printed at the price of Is. 6d. It is printed in the 
lower-case letters without capitals. The Epistle to the Philippians was also printed, in 
octavo, price Is. 6d. The following year he again modified and improved his alphabet 
by bringing it back to a still greater resemblance to the common alphabet; but, un- 
fortunately, he yielded to the suggestion of the Society of Arts of Edinburgh by intro- 
ducing the use of capital letters at the beginning of sentences and proper names. His 
next book was Tfie Gospel according to St. Luke, printed in the common alphabet, for the 
use of the blind, and capable of being read by any blind person, 1838. Printed for 
the British and Foreign Bible Society, London. Printed by James Gall, 22, Niddry- 
street Edinburgh. This is a well-printed volume of 158 pages, twenty-eight hues on a 
page of seventy square inches : price 5s. The same year the Acts of the Apostles was 
pnnted in the same serrated letter, in 150 pages, price 5s. Besides these books, Mr. 
Gall printed a series of tracts for the bUnd, for the London Tract Society, in 1837, price 
Gd each. It is a matter of surprise that these excellent and well-pnnted books of Mr. 
Gall are not more generally used. With the exception of the school at Abbey Hill, 


near Edinburgh, it is believed they are adopted by no public institution in Great Britain. 
It is still a question if the roughness of the serrated character possesses any advantage 
over the smooth, sharp embossing. Old and used books are frequently preferred by the 
blind to new and fresh ones. 

While Mr. Gall was thus engaged at Edinburgh, the Rev. Mr. Taylor, of York, 
displayed an intelligent and active interest in the education of the blind. In 1828 he 
published the Diagrams of Euclid's Elements of Geometry, in embossed or tangible form, 
in 8vo. This was done on Bristol board, but was found too expensive. His mode of 
embossing, we believe, was forcing the paper, by means of heavy pressure, into the deep 
cut lines of a copper-plate. It was not successful. He published also a map of Eng- 
land and Wales. In 1836, he printed in raised characters Selections of Psalm Tunes 
and Chants, in oblong 4to. Also a short history of Elijah the Prophet, and of Naaman 
the Syrian ; and the History of Joseph. The efforts of Mr. Alexander Hay, in the cause 
of embossed typography, deserve mention, although an entire failure. He devised an 
alphabet of twenty-six arbitrary characters, which, by certain combinations, could repre- 
sent the abbreviations and double letters ; so that in all he had fifty-eight characters. 
He procured types and other printing apparatus, and in 1828 or 1829, issued a pro- 
spectus for publishing the Gospel of St. Matthew, at 7s. 6d. The book was never pub- 
lished. The public interest in the blind became so great, that in 1832 the Society 
of Arts of Edinburgh offered a gold medal of the value of £20, " for the best commu- 
nication of a method of printing for the blind ;" and the result was, that between the 9th 
of January, 1832, and the 25th of February, 1835, no less than nineteen different alpha- 
bets were submitted, of which sixteen were in a purely arbitrary character. The grand 
problem was to produce an alphabet that would unite cheapness and legibility. While 
the puzzling question of an alphabet best adapted both to the fingers of the blind and the 
eyes of their friends was under warm discussion on this side of the Atlantic, Dr. Howe 
was developing his system at Boston, in the United States. In 1833, the Perkins' Insti- 
tution for the Blind was established at Boston, and Dr. S. G. Howe, a gentleman distin- 
guished through a long series of years for his philanthropic labours, was placed at its 
head. As Gall had done. Dr. Howe took Haiiy's invention as the basis of his system, and 
soon made those improvements and modifications which has rendered the Boston press 
so famous. He adopted the common Roman letter of the lower-case. His first aim was 
to compress the letter into a comparatively compact and cheap form. This he accom- 
plished by cutting off all the flourishes and points about the letters, and reducing them to 
the minimum size and elevation which could be distinguished by the generality of the 
blind. He so managed the letters that they occupied but little more than one space and 
a half instead of three. A few of the circular letters were modified into angulai- shapes, 
yet preserving the original forms sufSciently to be easily read by all. So great was this 
reduction, that the entire New Testament, which, according to Haiiy's type, would have 
fiUed nine volumes, and cost £20, could be printed in two volumes for 16*. Early in the 
summer of 1834 he published the Acts of the Apostles. Indeed, such rapid progress did 
he make in his enterprise, that by the end of 1835 he printed in relief the whole of the 
New Testament, for the first time in any language, in four handsome small quarto 
volumes, comprising 624 pages, for four dollars. These were published altogether in 1836. 
The alphabet thus contrived by Dr. Howe, in 1833, it appears, has never since been 
changed. It was immediately adopted, and subsequently became extensively and almost 
exclusively used by the seven principal public institutions throughout the country. It is 
now the only system taught or tolerated in the United States, and deserves oniy to be 
better known in Great Britain and elsewhere, to be appreciated. In America, seventeen 
of the states have made provision for the education of their blind; and as universal 


educatioli is the policy of the eoutitry, as well as its pf&iiclest boaSt) these books for th^ 
blind soon became in great demand. Dr. Howe, some time since, proposed a library for 
the blind ; and, with a view of increasing the numbeil of books as rapidly as possible, 
arrangements have been made between the several institutiolis and presses to exchange 
books with each other, and not to print any work already belOflging to the library Of the 
blind. This harmony of action, together with the uniformity of the typdgr&,{)hy, presents 
so many obvious advantages, that the jiiry cannot but wish a similar System was pursued 
by the institutions of Great Britain and the oontineut of Eutbpe. 

It appears that, exclusive of three voluihes not fully described in the list, 7,903 Jages, 
containing on an average seVenty-seven sqUare inchesj have been pritited kt the press of 
the Perkins Institution, or more than twelve times the quantity of matter contained irl 
the New Testament. Almost all the books are stereotyped^ and stnall editions are struck 
oflF as they are required. They are sold at the actual Cost, the cost of the largeif works 
being averaged on an edition of 250 copies. The above prices include the bindiilg; fifty 
per cent, discount is allowed for books sold in sheetsi The books are embossed in the 
institution under the superintendence of Dr. Howe himselfy by flieans of a powerfill 
press, built for the purpose. The Sale of books in 1851 atnounted to 427 dollars. This, 
however, is exclusive of the Scriptures. The American Bible Society, which no* uses the 
stereotype plates of the Bible described above, distributed last year 149 Volumes of the 
Bible. In short, the Boston books possess a neatness, clearness, sharpness, and diira- 
bility of impression peculiar to themselveSj The seventh volume of the Cyclopeediti iS 
already printed^ and the jury learn with pleasure that the printing of the remaining 
volumes will be resumed and probably be finished in twenty volumes very soon. Want 
of funds is the temporary and only obstacle. About the time that the Perkiiis Institution 
was established at Boston, another was set up in Philadelphia. A meeting of benevolent 
persons was called on the 21st of January^ 1833, when arrangements were made to open 
a school for the instruction of the blind, and Mr. J. R. Friedlander was placed at its head. 
This school became the Philadelphia InStitUtiofl for the Blind, by act of incoi'poi'ation, 
27th of January, 1834. The blind owe much to Mr. Friedlander fOt- the Philadelphia 
contributions to their literature. On the 21st of November, 1833, he held the first public 
examination, and astonished the pubHc by the progress of his pupils in reading, Writing, 
geography, music, &c. The pupils read fluently from tangible letters executed hf them- 
selves with pin types. These were small pieces of wood about two inches long, hafitig' a 
letter cut in relief on one end, and the same letter formed at the other by steel points. 
Maps of the world and of the United States were also exhibited, made by perfoi^atirig the 
outline from behind. The result of this exhibition was highly satisfaetory. In his 
address, Mr. Friedlander set forth the great advantages that would accrile to the blihd 
by a general system of instruction. He repeated the usual unanswerable arguments 
against the adoption of airbitrary characters, and stenographic or phonetic Systems, and 
strongly recommended the use of our own alphabet. He followed, generally, Hauy's plan 
of instruction. Early in 1833, Jacob Snider, a young gentleman^ a native of Philadel- 
phia applied his mind to the contrivance of a method of printing in relief.- The alphabet 
at first adopted was a mixture of the upper and lower-case italics, and the relief was pro-- 
duced by heavy pressure on thick paper, between two sheets of copper, havmg the 
letters deeply cut. The embossing was thus on both sides. His first attempt, after prmt^ 
ins a few elementary sheets, was on the Gospel of St. Mark, which he completed by the 
end of 1833 in a large quarto volume, and published early in January, 1834. An account 
of his first American book for the Wind may be found in PoulSon^s Amencm Daily 
Advertiser of the 10th of January, 1834. The four gospels were soon after printed in 
Roman capitals, but being found too balky and otherwise objectionable they were aban- 

VOL. II. 2 ^ 


doned, and a smaller, more compact, and sharper type, in the Eoman capitals, was 

It appears that the Boston and Philadelphia institutions were founded almost simulta- 
neously, and that their presses and system of typography were established without being 
apprised of the efforts of each other. Time, however, has at length remedied this diver- 
sity. The typography of the Philadelphia books is exceedingly well executed, and com- 
pares most favourably with the best of the Grlasgow books; but the press has ceased to 
work, and printing in capital letters will not probably be resumed. From the preference 
which the present distinguished and intelligent director of the Philadelphia Institution, 
Mr. William Chapin, late superintendent of the Ohio Institution, is known to entertain 
for the Boston system of typography, we may reasonably hope that, when printing shall 
be resumed there, it will be •(vith Howe's alphabet. It is the opinion, however, of Mr. 
Chapin, that all the American institutions should unite, not only in the use of the same 
alphabet, but that they should all contribute to support one press. It may be remarked 
here, that the pupils in all the American institutions read fluently in both the upper and 
lower-case letters, but it is presumed that Philadelphia and Glasgow books will soon be 
entirely abandoned there ; and, as the Boston books can now be obtained in London at 
a price cheaper than any of the five different systems of books printed in Great Britain, 
it is to be hoped that they will come into general use here. If it be thought that the 
letters are too small for adults to read with ease, books may be printed with larger 
types, and even then be less bulky and expensive than any of the systems in arbitrary 
characters now in use. In the year 1848 or 1849, the Virginia Institution set up a press, 
and has since printed several elementary and school books. The Boston type is adopted; 
with the exception that capitals are used at the beginning of sentences and proper names. 
This alteration, in the opinion of the jury, is not an improvement, as the blind are thus 
compelled to learn two alphabets instead of one. The Virginia books are well embossed,- 
and it is hoped that in future books capitals will be omitted. To the American Bible 
Society at New York much praise is due for their commendable efforts in the circula- 
tion of the Scriptures among the blind. The stereotype plates of the Bible in six volumes; 
executed at the Boston press, under the superintendence of Dr. Howe, now belong to 
this society. They have printed a second edition from the same plates, and annually 
distribute, gratuitously, from 100 to 300 volumes. It had ceased to be a matter of 
surprise in the United States that the blind could read, before the public attention was 
loudly called to the subject in Great Britain; for we see that, in 1836, there were two 
active printing establishments for the blind in the United States ; by one, the whole of 
the New Testament had been published in a cheap form, in the common lower-case 
letters ; and by the other the four Gospels in Roman capitals. Let us now return to the 
Society of Arts of Edinburgh, and their prize medal, to which we have already referred. 
It was not until the 31st of May, 1837, that the society's medal was awarded. In 1836, 
when the nineteen different alphabets were before the committee of the society, circu- 
lars were drawn up and distributed, with specimens of the several alphabets, to the 
various institutions for the blind in England and Scotland, and every means employed to 
arrive at a correct result. The opinions of Mr. Taylor, of York, and. Mr. Alston, of 
Glasgow, seem to have been those which the society chiefly followed. They were in 
favour of the common Roman capital letter, merely deprived of the seruphs, or small 
strokes at their extremities, and, accordingly, the prize was awarded to Dr. Fry, of Lon- 
don; and on the 31st of May, 1837, a medal was granted to him for the invention of an 
alphabet which appears to have been in use, since 1833, in Philadelphia. 

On receiving the society's circular, in 1836, submitting the forms of all the competing 
alphabets to him, Mr. Alston was struck with the simplicity of Fry's, and immediately. 


conceived the idea of making such alterations as he thought necessary, and putting it to 
the test. The changes made were simply to reduce the size of the letters and render the 
faces thinner. On the 36th of October, 1836, he exhibited his first specimen of printin-' 
in relief in the Roman capital letter at a public examination of the blind. It was Fry's 
•alphabet, slightly changed to improve the sharpness of the embossing. He then made a 
successful appeal for a printing fund. After great exertions and most commendable per- 
severance, he procured a printing press, with two founts of type, and the other necessary 
printing apparatus. In January, 1837, he issued a few elementary works. By March, 
1838, he had made such progress, that the whole of the New Testament was printed in 
four super-royal quarto volumes; the type is great primer; and there are, in the four 
volumes, 633 leaves, of forty-two lines to a page. In December, 1840, Mr. Alston com- 
pleted the printing of the Old Testament in fifteen super-royal quarto volumes, in 
double pica type. Of nine of the volumes he printed 200, and of the remaining six, 250 
copies. There are in all these fifteen volumes, 2,.505 pa,ges, with thirty-seven lines on a 
page. Mr. Alston was justly proud of his great work, the entire Bible, containing the 
Old and New Testaments, in nineteen volumes. In his Statement of the Education, 
Employment, and Internal Arrangements adopted at the Asylum for the Blind, Glasgow ; 
with a short Account of its Founder, Sgc, tenth edition, 1846, 8vo, p. 80, he says, " this 
is the first bible ever printed for the blind;" but in this he was evidently in error, as we 
have shown that the greater part of it had long before been printed in Boston. We 
allude to these facts, merely because it seems a matter of much regret that Mr. Alston 
should have devoted so much enterprise and money in producing the Scriptures, when 
he might have ascertained that they had already been printed, and could have been 
bought at less money than it would cost him to print them. The main difierence 
between the Glasgow and the Boston alphabets is, that one is in the upper and the 
other is in the lower case, which difference is certainly not of sufficient consequence to 
demand two editions. Had he expended the same energy and money in producing other 
valuable works, and exchanged them with the Boston and Philadelphia Institutions, as 
he was urged to do, the three institutions would have been greatly benefited by the large 
outlay, and the blind of both countries would have had a great increase to their library. 
On the 18th of January, 1838, the officers of the Philadelphia Institution wrote to Mr. 
Alston, informing him that they possessed a printing press, and " understanding that you 
adopt the same character, it appears to our board of management that both institutions 
would gain by an interchange of volumes." Mr. Alston at once acceded to this propo- 
sition, and immediately shipped 150 volumes, being ten full sets of the New Testament, 
and fifty single copies of the gospels, besides multiplication tables and other works. 

Since the death of Mr. Alston, on the 30th of August, 1846, the Glasgow press has 
almost ceased to work. A few of the volumes have been reprinted. It is at present 
engaged in reprinting the Gospel of St. John and the Acts of the Apostles. Since 1837, 
it has been almost the only press that has supplied England, Ireland, and Scotland with 
embossed books in B,oman type. These books are typographically well executed, and 
the jury think Mr. Alston and the Glasgow press are deserving of great praise. The 
objections, however, to the small Roman capitals, in which most of the books are printed, 
are such that it is to be hoped that ere long this press will follow the example of that 
at Philadelphia, and adopt Howe's typography, It has generally been supposed that the 
Glasgow press was the only one in Great Britain that printed anything of consequence 
in the common letter. But we cannot omit to mention a valuable work that has come 
under our notice ; it is a Magazine for the Blind. London; Simpkin, Marshall and Co., 
Stationers'-court; price 6s.; in twelve monthly parts. 1839-40. After two volumes 
were printed, the first magazine for the blind in this country was discontinued. It is in 


quarto form, and has twenty-three lines on a full page. The type is the ordinary mixture 
of the upper and lower-case of Roman letter, and the work is beautifully printed. The 
first volume contains seventy-eight pages, and the second seventy-three. It is to be 
regretted that so valuable a contribution to the literature of the blind should not have 
found better support. It consists of miscellaneous information, with fragments of authors, 
poetry, anecdotes, woodcuts, &c. In 1806, an institution for the blind was established at 
Stockholm, and it is with pleasure that we learn that Mr. Watts, of Crown-court, Lon- 
don, has, at the expense of the British and Foreign Bible Society, printed in relief, with 
the ordinary Roman type, in capitals and lower-case, the Gospel according to St. Luke, 
in Swedish, for this institution. The volume was printed in 1848, and is a beautiful 
specimen of embossed typography. It is in quarto, consisting of 132 pages, twenty-seven 
lines on a page of seventy square inches. Price, as sold by the Bible Society, at cost, 
6*. ; 500 copies were printed. 

In France, Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Switzerland, Sweden, and the United States, the 
Roman lower-case alphabet is used. In most, if not all, of these countries, the institu- 
tions for the blind are supported and partially controlled by government, and perhaps this 
is the reason why, in all of them nearlj', the same system of typography prevails. In 
Great Britain, however, the case is different. There are now five entirely different systems 
of typography in use here, and vigorously pressed upon the benevolent public. The un- 
fortunate blind are thus deprived of the advantages they might have, if harmony of 
action and uniformity of typography were adopted. This diversity of opinion is causing 
great injustice to them, and the jury cannot but urge upon the parties concerned the 
speedy adoption of some one system throughout the country. Our opinion is decidedly 
in favour of Howe's American typography. Perfection is not claimed for this system, 
but it seems to us that there are fewer objections to it than to any of the others, and 
it may be the more easily improved ; but any one of the five principal systems now used 
in England is far better than so many. The present state of printing in the Roman 
character in Great Britain, is, as we have seen already, that every press has been stopped, 
while the books in arbitrary characters seem to be increasing and gaining public favour. 
The principal of these is one known as Lucas's. It was devised by T. M. Lucas, of 
Bristol, about the year 1835. It consists of arbitrary characters, and is said to be founded 
on Byron's system of stenography. It is simple, speedily learned, and easily read by the 
touch, and is generally acknowledged to be, of all the arbitrary systems, the best. The 
printing on this system began at Bristol, and the following are the works published 
there: — 1. The Gospel according to St. John, edited by T. M. Lucas, inventor of the 
system for teaching the blind to read by embossed stenographic character; July, 1837; 
Bristol : in 4to, sixty-six pages, and twenty-seven lines to a page. Two pages are pasted 
together. — 2. The Acts of the Apostles (according to the authorised Version), in T. M. 
Lucas's embossed stenographic character ; 1838. Published under the direction of the 
Bristol Society for Embossing and Circulating the Authorised Version of the Bible for 
the use of the Blind; Bristol; in 4to, 118 pages, twenty-seven lines on a page.— (This 
second publication of Mr. Lucas was announced as containing some improvements : as 
widening the spaces and lessening the abbreviations.) — 3. The Gospel according to St. 
Matthew (according to the authorised version), in T. M, Lucas's embossed stenographic 
character, 1839; published, &c. ; Bristol; 4to, 116 pages. — (In this third publication is 
announced the firm conviction that this system will prevail over any other plan, on 
account of its tangibility.) — 4. The Gospel according to St. Mark, &c. ; Bristol 1840 • 
4to, seventy-one pages. The above, with the exception of a few small elementary works, 
are, we believe, all that appeared at Bristol. In the year 1839, a society was formed, 
called " The London Society for Teaching the Blind to Read." They adopted Lucas's 


system, and have been gradually improving it. The following year the types and printing 
apparatus were transferred from Bristol to London j and in 1841 the society issued 
The Epistle to the Romans. Since then their press has not been idle, and the printing 
is now done by the blind at the institution in the Avenue-road, Regeut's-park. 

In May, 1838, the " London and Blackbeath Association for Embossing the Scrip- 
tures in various languages, and for Teaching the Blind to Read on the Phonetic System," 
was established. Its object is to stereotype the Holy Scriptures in James Hartley Frere's 
phonetic characters. About the year 1839, Mr. Prere devised a cheap plan for embos- 
sing or stereotyping. It consists simply of small wires, drawn with angles, laid down 
upon tin plates. The wires are bent, and cut by means of ingenious spincQes to form 
the characters, which are similar to those of Gurney's system of short-hand. The wires 
are attached to the plate by heating it sufficiently to melt the coating of tin, into which 
the wire sinks, and is fast, when cold. The common printing press is used in em- 
bossing. Mr. Frere's books are read from left to right and back, after the manner of 
the ancient Greek boustrophedon writing. Mr. Frere's books are well embossed, and 
from his plates the books can be printed as they are wanted. The objections to phonetic 
alphabets are obvious. Mr. Frere, however, does not claim to supersede the common 
spelling, or the common printing, or common embossing, but to form an easy introduc- 
tion to them. More recently still, another system has been devised by Mr. W. Moon, 
master of the Brighton Blind Asylum. The characters are arbitrary, though Mr. Moon 
defines them as the " Common Alphabet Simplified." He claims also a new mode of 
stereotyping, by which the characters are rendered sharp and prominent. The lines are 
read forwards and back like Frere's plan, and it is even more bulky and expensive than 
his. The new mode of stereotyping is believed to be quite the same ss Frere'Sj by means 
of wires laid on tin plates. 



We have already in an earlier part of this work noticed at some length Prince Albert's 
Model Houses. The building was designed and practically superintended by Mr. Roberts, 
the honorary architect to the excellent " Society for Improving the Condition of the 
Working Classes," the president. Prince Albert, having supplied the means, and obtained 
the advantageous site on which it stood. The following additional particulars are from 
those drawn up by the architect -.—"In its general arrangement the bmlding is adapted 
for the occupation of four famiUes of the class of manufacturing and mechamcal opera- 
tives who usually reside in towns, or in their immediate vicinity; and as the value 
of land, which leads to the economising of space, by the placing of more than one family 
under the same roof, in some cases, renders the addition of a third, and even of a 
fourth story desirable, the plan has been suited to such an arrangement, without any 
other alteration than the requisite increase in the strength of the waUs. The most 
prominent peculiaxity of the design is that of the receding and protected central open 
staircase, with the connecting gallery on the first floor, formed of slate, and sheltered 

VOL. II. 2 ^ 


from the weather by the continuation of the main roof, which also screens the entrances 
to the dwellings. The four tenements are arranged on precisely the same plan, two on 
each floor. The entrance is through a small lobby, lighted from the upper part of the 
door. The living room has a superficial area of about 150 feet, with a closet on one side 
of the fire-place, to which warm air may be introduced from the back of the range ; 
over the fire-place is an iron rod for hanging pictures ; and on the opposite side of the 
room a shelf is carried above the doors, with a rail fixed between them. The scullery 
is fitted up with a sink, beneath which is a coal-bin of slate ; a plate-rack at one end, 
drained by a slate slab into the sink, covers the entrance to the dust-shaft, which is 
inclosed by a balanced self-acting iron door. The dust-shaft leads into a closed deposi- 
tory under the stairs, and has a ventilating flue, carried up above the roof. The meat- 
safe is ventilated through the hollow brickwork, and shelves are fixed over the doors. A 
dresser-flap may be fixed against the partition. The sleeping apartments, beiug three 
in number, provide for that separation which, with a family, is so essential to morality 
and decency. Each has its distinct access, and a window into the open air ; two have 
fireplaces. The children's bed-rooms contain 50 feet superficial each, and, opening out 
of the living room, an opportunity is afforded for the exercise of parental watchfulness, 
without the unwholesome crowding of the living room, by its use as a sleeping apartment. 
The parents' bed-room, with a superficial area of about 100 feet, is entered through the 
scullery — an arrangement in many respects preferable to a direct approach from the 
living room, particularly in cases of sickness. The recess in this room provides a closet 
for linen ; and a shelf is carried over the door, with a rail fixed beneath it — a provision 
which is made in each of the other bed-rooms. The water-closet is fitted up with a 
Staffordshire glazed basin, which is complete without any wood fittings, and supplied 
with water from a slate cistern, in common, of 160 gallons, placed on the roof over the 
'party and staircase walls. The same pipes which carry away the rainwater from the roof 
serve for the use of the closets." 

With reference to the cost of construction, the following statement is made : — " In most 
parts of England the cost of four houses, built on the plan of this model structure, with 
ordinary materials, and finished similar to the ground floor apartments, may be stated at 
£44<0 to £480, or from £110 to £120 for each tenement, contingent on the facilities for 
obtaining materials and the value of labour. Such dwellings, let at 3s. 6d. to 4s. a- week 
would, after deducting ground-rent and taxes, afford a return of seven per cent, on the 
amount of outlay. Where hollow bricks are obtainable at a fair price, their use ought 
to effect a reduction of about 25 per cent, on the cost of the brickwork ; or equal on these 
four houses to about £40." It is diflicult to over-estimate the magnitude and impor- 
tance of the effects of such a change as would be induced upon the population of the 
country, by the introduction of such dwellings as these for the poorer classes of the com- 
munitj ; whether as adding to their individual happiness, or improving their physical and 
moral condition, and thus rendering them more valuable and useful members of society. 
The jury unanimously recommended to the council that they should award the medal 
reserved to their gift to His Royal Highness Prince Albert, as the exhibitor of this most 
useful and interesting contribution to the exhibition, and to whom the nation at large 
is so deeply indebted for the promotion of this important subject. The claims of the 
prince to the original idea of collecting under one roof examples of the varied industry 
and talent of the whole world are so fully admitted that we need not advance them anew 
to our readers. In addition, however, to what we have already laid before them, numer- 
ous examples might be adduced of the interest taken by his Royal Highness with respect 
to the success of the Exhibition, which display with what unwearied zeal he constantly 
endeavoured to promote its advancement. A variety of objects of art, as well as of 


agricultural produce, were contributed by His Royal Highness, several of which received 
the award of prize medals, in testimony of the approbation of the jury. Many eloquent 
addresses were also delivered, on various occasions, by the accomplished prince, in fur- 
therance of the views of the Great Exhibition. The testimony of His Royal Highness 
in favour of the support which had been afforded by foreign countries to our great 
national undertaking, is in particular so well expressed, and contains so many true and 
beautiful sentiments, that we feel justified in laying it before our readers ; and we shall 
accordingly transcribe it from the speech of His Royal Highness, in reply to the report 
of Lord Canning, on presenting the awards of the juries to the royal commission. 

" It now becomes my pleasing duty," observed His Royal Highness, " on behalf of the 
royal commissioners, to deliver my most sincere acknowledgments and thanks for the 
hearty co-operation and support which the Exhibition has constantly received from 
foreign countries. The foreign commissioners who have left their own countries to super- 
intend the illustration of their respective national industries at the Exhibition, have ever 
shown that desire to aid the general arrangements which alone has rendered possible the 
success of the undertaking. To the Society of Arts, which by its exhibitions of works 
of national industry prepared the way for this international Exhibition, the royal com- 
mission and the public feel that their acknowledgments are specially due, and the com- 
mission have to thank that body for having carried out the preliminary arrangements 
to an extent which justified me, as their president, in the application which I made to 
the crown for the issue of a royal commission. The commission have also to acknowledge 
the valuable services afforded by the eminent, scientific, and professional men, who, on 
the sectional committees, aided most materially in founding a scientific basis on which to 
rear the Exhibition. To the local commissioners and members of local committees, but 
more especially to those who have undertaken the onerous duties of secretaries, our best 
acknowledgments are also due. "Without their zealous aid it would have been impossible 
to have obtained an efficient representation of the industrial products of their respective 
localities. And finally, we cannot forget that all the labours of those thus officially con- 
nected with the Exhibition would have been in vain, had it not been for the hearty 
good-will and assistance of the whole body of exhibitors, both foreign and British. The 
zeal which they have displayed in affording a worthy illustration of the state of the in- 
dustry of the nations to which they belong, can only be equalled by the successful efforts 
of their industrial skill. The commission have always had support and encouragement 
from them during the progress of the undertaking, and they cannot forget how cheerfully 
they submitted to regulations essential for their general good, although sometimes pro- 
ducing personal inconvenience to themselves. If the Exhibition be successful in aiding 
the healthy progress of manufactures, we trust that their efforts will meet with a due 

" In now taking leave of all those who have so materially aided us in their respective 
characters of jurors and associates, foreign and local commissioners, members and secre- 
taries of local and sectional committees, members of the Society of Arts, and exhibitors, 
I cannot refrain from remarking, with heartfelt pleasure, the singular harmony which 
has prevailed amongst the eminent men representing so many national interests— a 
harmony which cannot end with the event which produced it. Let us receive it as an 
auspicious omen for the future ; and while we return our humble and hearty thanks to 
Almighty God for the blessing he has vouchsafed to our labours, let us all earnestly pray 
that Divine Providence, which has so benignantly watched over and shielded this illustra- 
tion of nature's productions, conceived by human intellect, and fashioned by human 
skill, may still protect us, and may grant that the interchange of knowledge, resulting 
from the meeting of enlightened people in friendly rivalry, may be dispersed far and wide 


over distant lands ; and thus, by showing our mutual dependence upon each other, be a 
happy means of promoting unity among nations, and peace and good will among the 
various races of mankind. — Albekt." 

We may here be allowed to observe, in testimony of the high estimation in which 
the oratorical talent of His Eoyal Highness is held, the fact that his celebrated speech 
at the Mansion-house dinner was translated into several European and Oriental languages, 
and exhibited, among other specimens of fine printing, in the department appropriated 
to similar works in the Crystal Palace. In further evidence of the valuable nature of the 
services rendered by the Prince to the Great National Undertaking, we may quote the 
following passage from the juries' reports ; and we trust that the wish therein expressed, 
that a statue of His Royal Highness should be erected on the site of the late building, 
in lasting token of the grateful acknowledgment of the nation, should at no very distant 
period be realised. 

" The Jury of Class XXX.," says our learned reporter, " having brought their labours 
to a conclusion, cannot refrain from expressing their hope that steps may be taken for 
rendering the Great Exhibition as useful now it has ceased to be, as it has proved 
gratifying and instructive in the course of its short existence. It is the wish to see 
these hopes realized, that impels the jury, even at the risk of overstepping the strict 
limits of their functions, to submit, with great deference, their views on this point to the 
royal commissioners. The foundation of a permanent industrial museum in the heart of 
the metropolis of trade and industry, seems to the jury the logical and practical con- 
sequence of this Exhibition. It is in the Crystal Palace that the great truth has been 
impressed upon us, that art and taste are henceforth to be considered as elements of 
industry and trade — of scarcely less importance than the most powerful machinery. It 
seems also natural that this museum should, in the first instance, consist of the objects to 
which the several juries have called public attention as happy types and models for 
imitation. While such a museum, on the one hand, would be a lasting depository of 
industry and of the arts ; it would, on the other, serve as the best and easiest standard 
of comparison by which human ingenuity might mark its progress, on the opening, ten 
years hence, of a new Great Exhibition ; it would serve alike as a guide and as a beacon. 
Thus the Great Exhibition of 1851, which already stands out so prominently in the 
past, would bear fruitful and lasting consequences for the future, and would acquire an 
additional claim to a grateful record in the annals of mankind. The Greeks, our masters 
in the nobler arts, did not trust to the historian and the poet alone for the record of 
their achievements, but committed to the greatest artists the task of immortalising their 
military triumphs. The Great Exhibition deserves to be celebrated as the triumph of 
industry and invention over commercial routine and international jealousies. Whether 
the Crystal Palace shall be removed or not, posterity will look for some mark of gratitude 
to the illustrious prince to whom the present generation owe the realisation of a gigantic 
thought ; a thought which may have fioated in the minds of others, but which received 
consistency, and was brought to maturity by his energy and perseverance. The Jury of 
Class XXX., therefore, hope that on the site of the Exhibition Building a statue will be 
erected to Prince Albert. On its base should be recorded the share which statesmen 
and others have borne in bringing such an undertaking to completion. The Pine Arts 
would thus be called upon to perpetuate the memory of the Great Exhibition, to the 
attractions of which they have so variously and so powerfully contributed." 

In anticipation of the foregoing wish, a design for a National Monument to Prince 
Albert was exhibited by Bennett, in the Fine Arts' Court. The design was square in 
plan. On the four sides were four large panel castings in reUef, to commemorate the 
Industrial Exhibition of 1851, and the chief events connected therewith. The first repre- 


sented the exterior of the Exhibition j the second, its interior ; the third, the grand open- 
ing to all nations ; and the fourth, the distribution of prizes. These compartments were 
intended to be twice the size of those on the base of the Nelson column in Trafalgar- 
square, and to have sculptured figures in niches, on either side, to give the subjects 
of the castings in an emblematic sense, showing the noble intention of His Royal High- 
ness relative to each ; and at the extreme angles of the base, carried out as abutments, 
were sculptured blocks, upon which were illustrated the emblems of royalty and peace. 
Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, as emblematic figures, were seated at the four angles 
of the base ; above which the globe of the earth was represented in polished granite, on 
which was placed a marble statue of the prince, in a metal temple, gilt, and dedicated to 
Prosperity and Fame, with the crown of England above, to denote the royal auspices 
under which the Great Exhibition had been so successfully accomplished. 





We extract the following able remarks from the Inaugural Lecture, delivered by the 
learned and philosophic Dr. Whewell, at the request of the Council of the Society of Arts, 
on " The general bearing of the Great Exhibition on the progress of Art and Science." 

" It seems to me," observes the modest, though talented lecturer, " as if I were 
one of the persons who have the least right of any to address an audience like this 
on the subject of the Great Exhibition of the Art and Industry of All Nations, of 
which the doors have so lately closed ; inasmuch as I have had no connexion with that 
great event, nor relation to it, except that of a mere spectator — one of the many millions 
there. The eminent and zealous men in whose wide views it originated, by whose 
indomitable energy and perseverance the great thought of such a spectacle was 
embodied in a visible, material shape; those who, from our own countries or from 
foreign lands, supplied it with the treasures and wonders of art; those who, with 
scrutinizing eye arnd judicial mind, compared those treasures and those wonders, and 
stamped their approval on the worthiest; those who can point to the glories of the 
Exhibition, and say, quorum pars magna fui ,— those persons may well be considered 
as having a right to express to you the thoughts which have been suggested by 
the scenes in which they have thus had to live ; but of these, I am not one. I have 
been in the Exhibition, as I have said, a mere spectator. Nevertheless, the Council 
of the Society of Arts have done me the honour to express a wish that I should otter to 
vou such reflections as the spectacle of the Great Exhibition has suggested to me; and, 
in deference to their wishes, and especially as a token of my admiration of the truly 
royal mind, which saw clearly, in despite of the maxims of antiquity, that there wa.'! 
such a royal road to knowledge, I shall venture to offer you a few remarks— whick 
precisely on account of the circumstances I have stated, may be considered as repre 
senting the views of an unconnected spectator of the great spectacle. 

VOL. II. * *^ 


To write or speak the epilogue after any great and grand drama, is by no means 
an easy task. We see the confession of the difficulty in the very incongruity of the 
manner in which the task is sometimes attempted: as when, after the curtain has 
fallen upon a deep and solemn tragedy, some startling attempt at wit and pleasantry is 
uttered to the audience ; it may be by one of the characters whose deep sorrows or 
lofty aims we have been following with the profoundest interest. You will, at least, 
on the present occasion, not have the difficulty of the task shown in this manner. Nor, 
indeed, is it my office, in any sense, to speak an epilogue at all. Perhaps such remarks 
as I have to make may rather be likened to the criticism which comes after the drama. 
For, as you know, criticism does come after poetry; the age of criticism after the age 
of poetry; Aristotle after Sophocles, Longinus after Homer. And the reason of this 
has been well pointed out in our time ; that words, that human language, appear in 
the form in which the poet utters them and works with them for his purposes, before 
they appear in the form in which the critic must use them : language is picturesque 
and affecting first ; it is philosophical and critical afterwards : it is first concrete, then 
abstract : it acts first, it analyses afterwards. And this is the case, not with words 
only, but with works also. The poet, as the Greeks called him, was the maker, as our 
English fathers, also, were wont to call him. And man's power of making may show 
itself not only in the beautiful texture of language, the grand machinery of the epic, the 
sublime display of poetical imagery, but in those material works which supply the 
originals from which are taken the derivative terms which I have just been compelled 
to use : in the textures of soft wool, or fine linen, or glossy silk, where the fancy 
disports itself in wreaths of visible flowers ; in the machinery, mighty as the thunder- 
bolt, to rend the oak — or light as the breath of air which carries the flower-dust to its 
appointed place ; in the images which express to the eye beauty and dignity, as the poet's 
verse does to the mind ; so that it is difficult to say whether Homer or Phidias be more 
truly a poet. That mighty building, then, along the aisles of which we have wandered 
day after day in past months, full as it was of the works of man, contained also the works 
of many who were truly makers; who stamped upon matter and the combinations of 
matter, that significance and efficacy which makes it a true exponent of the inward activity 
of man. The objects there, the symbols, instruments and manifestations of beauty and 
power, were utterances, — articulate utterances of the human mind, no less than if they 
had been audible words and melodious sentences. There were expressed in the ranks 
of that great display many beautiful and many powerful thoughts of gifted men of our 
own and of other lands. The Crystal Palace was the cabinet in which were contained a 
vast multitude of compositions — not of words but of things, which we, who wandered 
along its corridors and galleries might con, day by day, so as to possess ourselves in 
some measure, and according to .our ability, of their meaning, power, and spirit. And 
now, that season of the perusal of such a collection of works being past ; those days of 
wonderment at the creations of such a poetry being gone by; the office of reading and 
enjoying being over ; the time for criticism seems to have arrived. We must now con- 
sider what it is that we have admired, and why ; must try to analyse the works which 
we have thus gazed upon and to discover the principles of their excellence. As the critic 
of literary art endeavours to discern the laws of man's nature, by which he can pro- 
duce that which is beautiful and powerful, operating through the medium of language ; 
so the critic of such art as we have had here presented to us — of material art, as we may 
term it — endeavours to discern the laws of material nature ; to learn how man can act by 
these, operating through the medium of matter, and thus produce beauty, and utility, 
and power. This kind of criticism appears to be the natural and proper sequel to such 
a great burst of production and exhibition as we have had to witness ; to discover what 


the laws of operative power are, after having had so great a manifestation of what 
they do." 

After an ahle exposition of the nature of these laws, the learned lecturer proceeds to 
descant on the " great and unique" opportunity we have had in the grand display of our 
late Exhibition, of taking a survey, at a glance, as it were, of the state of art in every 
part of the world. To have inspected all these treasures in the various countries from 
whence they were drawn, would have been the work of a life, and of a long and laborious 
one ; and would moreover have required the most felicitous combination of opportunity^ 
wealth, and power. Whereas, as if by the magic influence of some fairy wand, the 
whole glorious spectacle has been presented to the wondering eyes of assembled multi- 
tudes in its crystal bounds ; in the magic palace that, indeed, rose like an exhalation 
before their charmed sight. We had there collected examples of the food and clothing, 
and other works of art of nations in every stage of the progress of art. From Otaheite, 
so long in the eyes of Englishmen the type of gentle but uncultured life, queen Pomare 
sent mats and cloth, head-dresses and female gear, which the native art of her women 
fabricates from their indigenous plants. Erom Labuan, we had clothes *'and armour, 
weapons and musical instruments. From our wide Indian empire we had a profusion of 
contributions ; from Singapore and Ceylon, Celebes and Java, Mengatal and Palembang. 
From Sumatra the loom, the plough, lacquered-work and silken wares; and from 
Central and Ancient India innumerable treasures of skill and ingenuity, of magnificence 
and beauty. 

" And yet," continues Dr. Whewell, " we perceive that, in advancing from these to 
the productions of our own form of civilisation, which has even in that country, shown 
its greater power, we advance also to a more skilful, powerful, comprehensive, and pro- 
gressive form of art. And looking at the whole of this spectacle of the arts of life in all 
their successive stages, there is one train of reflection which cannot fail, I think, to strike 
us ; viz., this : — In the first place, that man is by nature and universally, an artificer, an 
artizan, an artist. We call the nations from which such specimens came as those which 
I first mentioned, rude and savage, and yet how much is there of ingenuity, of inven- 
tion, of practical knowledge of the properties of branch and leaf, of vegetable texture 
and fibre, in the works of the rudest tribes ! How much, again, of manual dexterity, 
acquired by long and persevering practice, and even so, not easy ! And then, again, 
not only how well adapted are these works of art to the mere needs of life, but how 
much of neatness, of prettiness, even of beauty, do they often possess, even when the 
work of savage hands ! So that man is naturally, as I have said, not only an artificer, 
but an artist. Even we, while we look down from our lofty summit of civilized and 
mechanically-aided skill upon the infancy of art, may often learn from them lessons of 
taste. So wonderfully and efiectually has providence planted in man the impulse which 
urges him on to his destination, — which is, to mould the bounty of nature into such 
forms as utility demands, and to show at every step that with mere utility he cannot be 
content. And when we come to the higher stages of cultured art— to the works of 
nations long civilized, though inferior to ourselves, it may be, in progressive civilization 
and mechanical power, how much do we find in their works which we must admire; 
which we might envy ; which, indeed might drive us to despair ! Even still, the tassues 
and ornamented works of Persia and of India have beauties which we, with al our 
appliances and means, cannot surpass. The gorgeous East showers its barbaric pearl and 
gold into its magnificent textures. But is there really anythmg barbaric xn the skill 
Ind taste which they display ? Does the Oriental prince or monarch, even if he confine 
his magnificence to native manufactm-es, present himself to the eyes of his slaves m 
a less splendid or less elegant attire than the nobles and the sovereigns of this our 


western world — more highly civilized as we nevertheless deem it? Few persons, I 
think, would answer in the affirmative. The silks and shawls, the embroidery and jewel- 
lery, the moulding and carving which those countries can produce, and which decorate 
their palaces and their dwellers in palaces, are even now such as we cannot excel. 
Oriental magnificence is still a proverbial mode of describing a degree of splendour and 
artistical richness which is not found among ourselves." 

The learned master of Trinity then proceeds to describe the difference between thearts 
of " nations rich, but in a condition of nearly stationary civihzation, like Oriental nations, 
and nations which have felt the full influence of progress like ourselves." " If I am not 
mistaken," says he, " the difference may be briefly expressed thus : — that in those coun- 
tries the arts are mainly exercised to gratify the tastes of the few ; with us to supply 
the wants of the many. There, the wealth of a province is absorbed in the dress of a 
mighty warrior ; here, the gigantic weapons of the peaceful potentate are used to provide 
clothing for the world. For that which makes it suitable that machinery, constructed on 
a vast scale, and embodying enormous capital, should be used in manufacture, is that 
the wares produced should be very great in quantity ; so that the smallest advantage in 
the power of working, being multiplied a million-fold, shall turn the scale of profit. 
And thus such machinery is applied when wares are manufactured for a vast population ; 
— when millions upon milhons have to be clothed, or fed, or ornamented, or pleased with 
the things so produced. This, therefore, is the meaning of the vast and astonishing 
prevalence of machine-work in this country : that the machine with its million fingers 
works for millions of purchasers ; while, in remote countries, where magnificence and 
savagery stand side by side, tens of thousands work for one. There art labours for the 
rich alone; here she works for the poor no less. There the multitude produce only to 
give splendour and grace to the despot or the warrior, whose slaves they are, and whom 
they enrich ; here the man who is powerful in the weapons of peace, capital and machi- 
nery, uses them to give comfort and enjoyment to the public, whose servant he is, and 
thus becomes rich while he enriches others with his goods. If this be truly the relation 
between the condition of the arts of life in this country and in those of others, may we 
not with reason and with gratitude say, that we have indeed, reached a point beyond 
theirs in the social progress of nations ?" 

The learned lecturer then proceeds to the subject of classification, and after shewing 
the errors and deficiencies in classifying in the French Exposition of 1806, and the 
gradual improvement that took place in the succeeding ones till the year 1849, bestows 
great commendation upon the system that was adopted in the Great Exhibition of 1851, 
the superior advantages of which he very clearly points out. " I do not think," says 
he, " there is any presumption in claiming, for the classification which has been adopted 
in the Great Exhibition of 1851, a more satisfactory character than we can allow for 
any of those just mentioned, if we ground our opinion either upon the way in which 
this last classification was constructed, or upon the manner in which it has been found 
to work. And there is one leading feature in it, which, simple as it may seem, at once 
gives it a new recommendation. In the systems already mentioned there were no 
gradations of classification. There were a certain number, thirty-nine, or five, nine or 
eight, of co-ordinate classes, and that was all. In the arrangements of the Great Exhi- 
bition of 1851, by a just and happy thought, a division was adopted of the subjects 
to be exhibited into four great Sections, to which other classes, afterwards established, 
were to be subordinate ; these sections being. Raw Materials, Machinery, Manufactured 
Goods, and the works of the Fine Arts. The effect of this grand division was highly bene- 
ficial, for, within each of these sections, classes could be formed, far more homogenous 
than was possible while these sections were all thrown into one mass : when, for instance, 


the cotton-trecj the loom, and the muslin, stood side by side, as belonging to vestiary 
art; or when woven or dyed goods were far removed, as being examples, the former 
of mechanical, the latter of chemical processes. Suitable gradation is the felicity of 
the classifying art, and so it was found to be in this instance." We are next favoured 
■with an able discussion upon the immense advantage that will accrue to the world of 
science and of art, from the introduction of a coherent, sound, and graduated classi- 
fication, such as was, in fact, adopted in the Great Exhibition ; to the formation of which, 
we are assured in the Illustrated Catalogue, " eminent men of science, and of manu- 
factures in all branches, were invited to assist in drawing each one the boundaries of 
his own special class of productions." And it was resolved, for the general purposes of 
the Exhibition, to adopt thirty broad divisions; of which classes, tour were of Raw 
Materials; six of Machinery; nineteen of Manufactures; and one of the Fine Arts. 

" There is yet," continues our eloquent lecturer, " one other remark which I should 
•wish to make, suggested by the classification of the objects of the Exhibition; or, 
rather, a remark which it is possible to express, only because we have such a classifi- 
cation before us. It is an important character of a right classification, that it makes 
general propositions possible ; a maxim which we may safely regard as well grounded, 
since it has been delivered independently by two persons, no less different from one 
another than Cuvier and Jeremy Bentham. Now, in accordance with this maxim, I 
would remark, that there are general reflections appropriate to several of the divisions 
into which the Exhibition is by its classification distributed. For example: let us 
compare the first class. Mining and Mineral Products, with the second class. Chemical 
"Processes and Products. In looking at these two classes, we may see some remarkable 
contrasts between them. The first class of arts, those which are employed in obtaining 
and working the metals, are among the most ancient; the second, the arts of manu- 
facturing chemical products on a large scale, ai-e among the most modern which exist. 
In the former class, as I have said. Art existed before Science ; men could shape, and 
melt, and purify, and combine the metals for their practical purposes, before they knew 
anything of the chemistry of metals ; before they knew that to purify them was to expel 
oxygen or sulphur ; that combination may be definite or indefinite. Tubal-Cain, in the 
first ages of the world, was ' the instructor of every artificer in brass and iron ;' but 
it was very long before there came an instructor to teach what was the philosophical 
import of the artificer's practices. In this case, as I have already said, art preceded 
science : if even now science has overtaken art ; if even now science can tell us why the 
Swedish steel is still unmatched, or to what peculiar composition the Toledo blade owes 
its fine temper, which allows it to coil itself up in its sheath when its rigid thrust is not 
needed. Here art has preceded science, and science has barely overtaken art. But in 
the second class, science has not only overtaken art, but is the whole foundation, the 
entire creator of the art. Here art is the daughter of science. The great chemical 
manufactories which have sprung up at Liverpool, at Newcastle, at Glasgow, owe their 
existence entirely to a profound and scientific knowledge of chemistry. These arts 
never could have existed if there had not been a science of chemistry; and that, 
an exact and philosophical science. These manufactories are now on a scale at least 
equal to the largest establishments which exist among the successors of Tubal-Cain. 
They occupy spaces not smaller than that great building, in which the productions of all 
the arts of the world were gathered, and where we so often wandered till our feet were 
weary. They employ, some of them, five or six large steam-engines ; they shoot up the 
obelisks which convey away their smoke and fumes to the height of the highest steeples 
in the world ; they occupy a population equal to that of a town, whose streets gather 
round the walls of the mighty work-shop. Yet these processes are all derived from the 

VOL. II. ^ ^ 


chemical theories of the last and the present century; from the investigations carried on 
in the laboratories of Scheele and Kirwan, Berthollet and Lavoisieur. So rapidly in 
this case has the tree of art blossomed from the root of science ; upon so gigantic a 
scale have the truths of science been embodied in the domain of art. 

Again, there is another remark which we may make in comparing the first class, 
Minerals, with the third class ; or rather with the fourth, Vegetable and Animal substances 
used in Manufactures, or as implements or ornaments. And I wish to speak especially of 
vegetable substances. In the class of Minerals, all the great members of the class are 
still what they were in ancient times. No doubt a number of new metals and mineral 
substances have been discovered ; and these have their use ; and of these the Exhibi- 
tion presented fine examples. But still, their use is upon a small scale. Gold and iron, 
at the present day, as in ancient times, are the rulers of the world ; and the great 
events in the world of mineral art, are not the discovery of new substances, but of new 
and rich localities of old ones, — the opening of the treasures of the earth in Mexico 
and Peru in the sixteenth century, in California and Australia in our own day. But 
in the vegetable world the case is different; there, we have not only a constant accu- 
mulation and reproduction, but also a constantly growing variety of objects, fitted to the 
needs and uses of man. Tea, coffee, tobacco, sugar, cotton, have made man's life, and the 
arts which sustain it, very different from what they were in ancient times. And no one 
I think can have looked at the vegetable treasures of the Crystal Palace without 
seeing that the various wealth of the vegetable world is far from exhausted. The 
Liverpool local committee have enabled us to take a starting point for such a survey, 
by sending to the Exhibition a noble collection of specimens of every kind of import 
of that great emporium ; among which, as might be expected, the varieties of vegetable 
produce are the most numerous. But that objects should be reckoned among imports, 
implies that already they are extensively used. If we look at the multiplied collections 
of objects of the same kind, some from various countries, not as wares to a known 
market, but as specimens and suggestions of unexplored wealth, we can have no doubt 
that the list of imports will hereafter, with great advantage, be enlarged. Who knows 
what beautiful materials for the makers of furniture are to be found in the collections of 
woods from the various forests of the Indian Archipelago, or of Australia, or of Tasmania, 
or of New Zealand? Who knows what we may hereafter discover to have been collected 
of fruits and oils, and medicines and dyes ; of threads and cordage, as we had here from 
New Zealand and from China, examples of such novelties ; of gums and vegetable sub- 
stances, which may, in some unforeseen manner, promote and facilitate the processes of 
art ? How recent is the application of caoutchouc to general purposes ? Yet we know 
now — and on this occasion America would have taught us if we had not known — that 
there is scarcely any use to which it may not be applied with advantage. Again, how 
recent is the discovery of the uses of gutta percha ? In the great collection were some 
of the original specimens sent by Dr. Montgomery to various experimentalists. Yet how 
various and peculiar are now its uses, such as no other substance could replace ! And 
is it not to be expected that our contemporaries, joining the insight of science to the 
instinct of art, shall discover, among the various sources of vegetable wealth which the 
Great Exhibition has disclosed to them, substances as peculiar and precious, in the man- 
ner of their utility, as those aids thus recently obtained for the uses of life ? Before we 
quit this subject, let us reflect — as it is impossible, I think, not to reflect when viewing 
thus the constantly enlarging sphere of the utility which man draws, from the vegetable 
world — what a view this also gives us of the bounty of Providence to man ; thus bring- 
ing out of the earth, in every varying clime, endless forms of vegetable life, of which so 
many, and so many more than we yet can tell, are adapted to sustain, to cheer, to 


l^^fk *° ^^^'^'^* ""^^if 7T r^' ki'id, ever large, ever new, and of which the novelty 
itselt IS a new source of delighted contemplation." 

1 ^■^"* M' *'""!*i' ''i°'^ "''^ •^'*P*^'" ^""^ ^^^^ 1^^^^ of t^« learned Doctor, dulv acknow- 
ledging the gratification and instruction he has afforded us. 






There can, we apprehend, be little doubt in the opinion of all connected with, or in- 
terested in, naval art and the national science of ship-building, that Great Britain, in 
ner maritime capacity, was not adequately represented in the Exhibition. If there was 
any one department of industry — any one national pursuit to which, more than another, 
the place of honour, in all the meanings of the phrase, ought to have been assigned, 
it was surely that connected with our much-boasted empire of the seas; we ought tq 
have had a complete epitome of the naval architecture of the realm, and, if possible, 
also, a complete epitome (both by means of models, of course) of the history of ship- 
building in England from the earliest times ; we ought to have been able to trace our 
progress from the days of the coracle and the primitive galley, founded, perhaps, in a 
great measure, upon Roman models, to the last screw-propeller man-of-war, launched 
from Woolwich or Plymouth, or the last crack yacht set afloat at Cowes. A few ancient 
models were certainly to be found in the naval gallery ; we had a model of a Eoman 
war-galley, with four banks of oars, very curious; and another of the famed ship of 
Henry VIII., which carried him to the conference of the Field of the Cloth of Gold ; 
another of a first-rate, built in the time of Charles I. ; and several of the not ancient, 
but old-fashioned, tubs in which Rodney and his sea-dogs won their battles. The col- 
lection was, however, but fragmentary ; we had only scattered links of the chain, which, 
if completed, would have formed one of the most interesting and purely national portions 
of the Exhibition. With these remarks, which we will not extend, we now proceed to 
describe the main features of the collection which was actually brought together. 

It consisted, then, principally, of models of ships of war, showing their lines ; and, 
in a few cases, of section models, showing the arrangements between decks. Many of 
the former class of models were in what may be called bas-relief— that is, only one side 
of the vessel was represented, the object simply being to show her mould and run. 
These were arranged upon the western wall of the Exhibition, and were principally re- 
presentations of vessels constructed in our naval dockyards within the last twenty years, 
many of them having been built during the long contest which agitated the naval world 
between the surveyor of the navy and his numerous antagonists. There were also a fair 
number of models of steam-boats — some screw and some paddle— some in relief and 
others entire. A large passenger-ship or two were exhibited, showing some of the most 
recent improvements in interior arrangements ; and, after glancing at a number of minor 


rigged models of schooners and cutters^ introduced rather as specimens of the skilled neat- 
handedness of their builders, than as exemplifying any principles of naval architecture, 
■we came upon a vast variety of plans and inventions for life-boats. On the other side 
of the stall on which the life-boats, of which we shall treat hereafter, made , so con- 
spicuous a figure, was arranged a great variety of models of ship machinery, particularly 
that connected with anchorage, such as capstans, windlases, chains, and anchors them- 
selves. We had then a number of compasses and graceful designs for binnacles ; and, 
lastly, after inspecting an omnium gatherum of naval odds and ends, such as the gun- 
harpoons for striking whales, and almost equally formidable weapons for shooting ducks 
from punts, models of oddly-shaped ships with sliding keels, catamarans constructed out 
of apars of wood, and air-tight bags acting as buoys, we came to an infinity of diving 
apparatus, illustrative of the entire process of adventuring, remaining, and working below 

We will first briefly remark upon the bas-relief models of men-of-war. Had the set 
been complete, or had specimens of different ages been copiously given, the observation 
of the gradually shifting forms adopted in our dockyards would have been specially in- 
teresting. As it was, however, we could gather from the collection hints not without 
significance. The first thing which strikes one in modern ship-building is the cutting 
down of the hulk, which our ancestors were fond of rearing above the water. The castles, 
quarter-decks and poops, with which they delighted to encumber their vessels, began first 
to give way at the bows ; and the forecastle has long been a mere name, the thing having 
vanished more than a century ago. It was not, however, until a much more recent period 
that the mountains of timber piled up astern began to be reduced ; and the naval battles 
in the latter third of the last century were fought by ships of the line with tafii'ails rising 
forty and sixty feet above the water. The tendency of improved ship-building is now to 
lay the whole expanse of deck as nearly as possible upon the same level. A few smaller 
vessels, we believe, have been actually built flush from stem to stern ; but, at all events, 
the modest height of the quarter-decks now constructed contrasts strangely with the old 
notion of the symmetry and propriety of a towering poop, ornamented with all the art oi 
the carver, and furnished with range over range of quarter galleries* Beneath the water- 
mark the tendency of advancing ship-building has been to adapt the curve of the swel- 
ling side and the concave portions of the ship, which, in nautical phrase, "take most 
hold of the water j" so as to prevent, as much as possible, the heavy and injurious 
rolling motion, which is increased by the quantity of weight a man-of-war must carry 
above the water to cause the ship to sit as stiffly as may be, and heel over as little as pos- 
sible — thespecial desideratum in a fighting vessel — and to arrange the lines of flotation 
so that the lowest tier of guns shall be carried at least three or four feet above the water 
line. To these divers qualities the naval architect has, of course, to add the consider- 
ations of that of speed, and the delicacy of the ship in answering the slightest touch of 
her helm. The peculiarities of modem improvement in all these respects are easily 
observable, upon comparison of an old-fashioued with a newly-built hull. The bows of 
modern men-of-war are sharper and far finer than the old style ; and there is more of the 
concave shape about them — a form which flings the seas sideways and backwards instead 
of abroad, as the old bins' bows used to do : the belly of the ship is by no means so 
round as it used to be, the sides or walls being far flatter, an improvement which dimin- 
ishes the tendency to roll ; and the dimensions of the part of the ship immediately before 
the rudder, called " the run," and in which the convex form changes into a pure and 
finely modelled concave, diminish so as to allow the body of water displaced to close 
quickly and easily, flinging its full force upon the helm. The spectator will observe that 
in modern ships this run is of larger dimensions than in the olden craft. An exception 


to this rule is, however, in some degree to be found in the vessels built under the survey 
of the navy. Take the Queen for example, a first class man-of-war of 116 guns : a full 
model of her hull was exhibited, which for bluffness, and, to modern eyes, clumsy ugliness 
of mould, could not be beaten by any of the ships which carried the flags of Byng or 
Rodney. The merits of the Queen have accordingly been long a fruitful theme of con- 
troversy in the naval world. Her best qualification is, we believe, that she carries her 
guns well out of the water j but she is slow, and rolls tremendously in a sea-way. In the 
lines shown of new frigates and gun brigs, it is curious to observe the approach to the 
style of building which has been long ago adopted in the construction of yachts — the 
bows sharper and finer than ever ; " the runs" of great size and delicacy of mould ; and 
the height of the ship attaining its extreme point when measured from the tafirail to the 
lower extremity of the stern-post. The effect of this latter arrangement, taking into con- 
sideration that the ships in question are made to sit with the stern low in the water, is 
to cause them to draw many more feet of water aft than forward, to give them great 
steering power, and a strong, firm hold of the water. The attention of the spectator 
might be profitably directed to the models of the Pique and the Inconstant, two of our 
heavy first-class frigates. Of these, the former seems the more graceful ; but the latter 
has proved herself the most efiScient vessel. Both the Piqv£ and Inconstant, however, 
belong to the old school. Our first-class frigates are now rated to carry fifty guns, and 
beautiful specimens of these are found in the models of the lines of the Raleigh and the 
Arrogant — two of the noblest ships on the water, and bigger than Lord Nelson's old 

After inspecting the new-fashioned men-of-war, furnished with auxiliary screw propel- 
lers, such as the Hogue and the Agamemnon — vessels carrying the most formidable bat- 
teries of cannon ever borne across the ocean, and no doubt destined to take a conspicuous 
part in our next naval war — if ever such a misfortune should arise — we may advantage- 
ously study the moulds of the little squadron of experimental gun-brigs, the evolutions 
of which excited so much interest some five or six years ago. There is no department 
of our naval architecture in which we have made more progress, than in- the construc- 
tion of the small men-of-war, called gun-brigs. The old vessels of this class were a dis- 
grace and a reproach to our dockyards. Over-masted, deep-waisted, ill-modelled, they 
went down or went ashore with such sad regularity, that they acquired the significant 
nick -name of " coffins ;" but were still — not much to the credit of successive governments 
— employed as packets, until the last of the fleet was either wrecked or worn out. Now- 
a-days, the gun-brigs form one of the most creditable departments of the navy. In this 
department of the Exhibition we saw the models — and beautiful they are — of the fleet, 
built both by private and official enterprise, the peaceful records of whose cruizes filled so 
many newspaper columns half-a-dozen years ago. The precise question of their merits 
was never very fairly settled j but the general opinion was, that the MutinA, the Daring, 
and the Espiegle were the flowers of the fleet. The Muting afterwards greatly distin- 
guished herself on the coast of Africa. The Flying-Fish, one of the quickest of the 
squadron, was so wet, as seriously to interfere with the comfort of all on board ; but stilly 
altogether, the vessels in question formed, perhaps, the most beautiful and best adapted 
squadron which ever went to sea. 

A few, but only a few, models of merchant sailing-vessels were exhibited. . One of 
these was' a perfect specimen of the latest improvements in first-class passenger-ships ; 
we allude to the model of the hull of the Owen Glendower, one of Mr. Green's splendid 
fleet of frigate-like merchantmen, built at Blackwall. The capacity for stowage in this 
fine ship is beautifully combined with a faultless outward mould. Her bows are sharp, 
and have that slightly concave tendency which denotes speed and dryness, and the run 

VOL. II. 2 ^ 


is beautifully fine, and what sailors call "clean." In one respect the Owen Glendower 
diflfers from the new fashion of flush building, now so prevalent. She carries a quarter- 
deck not too high, but of more than ordinary length, and sufficiently lofty to allow an 
airy and comfortable cabin, with berths and state rooms to extend below it. Thus the 
passengers are accommodated upon the level of the main deck. They have plenty of air 
and ventilation. The height at which they stand above the sea allows of larger windows 
being formed than would be possible had they to descend a " companion" to attain their 
cabin, and thus a handsome airy apartment is secured, removed as much as possible from 
unpleasant smells, which are always the stronger the further down you go in a ship ; 
while a considerable space is gained beneath for extra stowage. A similar arrangement 
now very generally holds in the American packets ; and dififerent modifications of the 
same plan, such as round-houses, cuddies, and so forth, have been long familiar to the 
passengers of East India ships. Forward of the deck cabin, in the Owen Glendower, is 
an excellent arrangement of pens for live stock, and a compact cooking apparatus; 
while the crew are accommodated beneath a raised forecastle upon exactly the same 
principle as the passengers abaft. 

Above Mr. Green's fine ship stood a rigged model of a class of vessels which is making 
great and rapid innovations on our old-fashioned mercantile marine — an Aberdeen clipper 
schooner. The port in question has taken the lead in the production of this very beau- 
tiful, very safe, and very fast class of vessel. Indeed, the Scotch ports on the eastern 
coast, particularly Leith and Dundee, stand conspicuously out for their excellence in con- 
structing a new class of exceedingly elegant and exceedingly fast-going ships, which will, 
no doubt, gradually come into universal use. The " clipper" is constructed upon the 
general theory, that a small amount of stowage-room may be advantageously given up to 
secure a great amount of speed, and with that speed a preference for cargo and a greater 
degree of safety from the accidental risks of the sea ; since no one can dispute that a 
vessel able to go ten or twelve miles an hour, stability not being sacrificed, must, in the 
nature of things, be a more secure ship in every respect than one which is able to go only 
five or six. The clippers were, we believe, first built to carry up perishable cargoes of 
salmon from Norway and the north of Scotland to the Thames. They are now com- 
monly used in traffic fop the conveyance of easily-spoiled goods, and for that of cattle, 
which are deteriorated in condition by being long at sea. The general fruit trade from 
the Mediterranean, the orange trade from the Azores, as well as the Scotch coasting 
traffic, are now almost entirely carried on by clippers — craft of as beautiful an appear- 
ance on the water, as any of Cooper's slaving, pirate, or privateer schooners, and able to 
go from the Nore to the Humber in the time which a clumsy Newcastle brig would take 
to work down the Swin to Harwich. The fast increasing class of screw-propeller boats — 
principally devoted to traffic in cattle, between the Thames and Ireland, and Holland — 
are also built and rigged on clipper principles ; and Aberdeen has recently been asserting 
her right still to continue in the van of the race in naval architecture, by building clipper 
ships of large tonnage, one of which, in a voyage from China lately, beat an American 

ship, loudly trumpeted as the fastest vessel which ever bore the stars and stripes and 

consequently, of course, in the opinion of Yankecrland, the fastest in the world. The 
model in the Exhibition showed that the Aberdeen clipper schooners, while they are 
formed abaft much upon the ordinary moulding of a yachts— that is, as we have explained, 
with a long and fine run, and very high from the bottom of the stern-post to the tafirail 
— are modelled forward upon the principle of the bows of a Clyde steamer — involving 
great sharpness, rising into a concave shoulder of exaggerated hollowness, compared with 
that mere tendency to concavity that we have described as characterizing many new 
vessels, both menrof-war and merchantmen. The effect of this construction is not to 


prevent the vessel pitching, but to cause her to pitch without being wet; the overlapping 
portion ot the bows flinging the water downwards and backwards from the obstacle, 
while the sharpness beneath enables the ship to slide quickly and steadily through the 
water. As yet, with few exceptions, the clipper-build is confined to coasting craft, but 
the initiative has been taken in the construction of large full-rigged ships upon the 
same principle; the success of more than one of which, sailing from Liverpool and 
Aberdeen, has lately formed the subject of newspaper paragraphs. Of the coasting 
craft, a few, but only a few, clipper brigs have been buUt, the majority of the smaller 
vessels being schooners. In the rigging, considerable improvements, both as respects 
lightness and elegance, have taken place. The clipper is less towering aloft than the 
old-fashioned hermaphrodite schooner; but her yards are squarer, her boom and gaff 
longer, and she is thus enabled to carry as great a spread of canvass and to manage the 
cloth with more facility than the loftier rigged vessels. The old hermaphrodite schooner 
carried fore-mast, fore-tOp-mast, and forc'tap-gallant-mast, and occasionally even a fore- 
royal-mast, in all four pieces. The clipper uniformly contents herself with a fore-mast 
and fore-top-mast, making up for the diminished height of the " stick," by the great 
squareness of the j^ards — the- fore-top-gallant-yard being sometimes, if we mistake not, 
made to come 'dov^n upon the fore-top-sail-yard, so as to compact the rigging and 
diminish the leverage of the swing of high and heavy top hamper. The clipper has, 
further, an air of smartness and ship-^shape which the ordinary merchant coaster is 
far from pretending to. She can go at double the speed of the lumbering collier brig or 
coast schooner, and shows beside them, top, like a hunter compared with a couple of 

The steam-boat models were numerous, and not uninteresting. A number of bas- 
reliefs were shown of vessels in the process of construction by Mr. Mare, for the 
General Steam Navigation Company — craft of beautiful design, and which will, no doubt, 
turn out very fast; and there was a half-model of a 2,000-ton steam screw-propeller 
yacht on the stocks, for the Viceroy of Egypt, which has since been launched, and 
which deservedly attracted a great deal of admiration. A large model of a new paddle- 
wheel steamer, fully rigged and complete, down to the minutest details of finish, 
was placed in a prominent position, facing the eastward-running inner gallery, and 
repaid minute inspection as a peculiarly perfect model of a first-class eraft of her species. 
She was flush-decked and carried swivel signal guns upon her paddle platform. The floats 
of the wheels were disposed, not after the too common fashion, in a plane with spokes, 
but perpendicularly, so as to strike the water edgewise, and to expend the whole force of 
the paddle upon a productive lateral, and not an unproductive downward movement. 
A numoer of contrivances, more or less ingenious, of feathering paddle floats were dis- 
played, but we understand that it is found in practice that machinery of this sort, 
however theoretically plausible, and however supported by abstract scientific laws, has 
such an unfortunate tendency to get out of order, as to counterbalance the nominal 
advantages. With improved mechanical contrivances, however, it is quite possible 
that the feathering system may yet be made practically available — unless, indeed, the 
screw achieve the final overthrow of the paddle-wheel. 

The models of the Victoria and Albert and the Fairy-^the well-known royal yachts 
— excited much attention. We do not know, however, whether we are to place perfect 
credence in the miniature presentment of the larger vessel. Soon after the launch, it 
was pretty generally reported that she was a contemptible botch, and that all sorts of 
tricks and sly patching had been resorted to in order to make her sail respectably. 
Whether these stories were true or not, we cannot vouch, but it was often asserted, 
and never denied, that, as in consequence of some mistake in her lines, tie Victoria 


and Albert went fastest when down by the head, she was ballasted so as to bring her into 
to this position, and then built up upon, so far, of course, merely as the bulwarks 
went, and newly painted, to conceal her awkward sit upon the water. Be that as it may, 
however, the Victoria and Albert now goes very quickly through the water ; a con- 
summation for which she has, in some degree at least, to thank the immense steam power 
wherewith she has been provided. The Fairy is a sweetly formed and almost faultless 
little craft. Her speed in smooth water is wonderful, and the good weather she manages 
to make in rough, considering her shallowness, is equally marvellous. In crossing the 
Irish Channel in a gale of wind, the day her Majesty returned from Belfast, we are told 
that, except mere spray, she did not ship a couple of buckets-full of water, while we 
can bear personal testimony to the fact, that the sea washed in tons over the fore part 
of the deck of the Caradoc, one of the new crack Holyhead and Kingstown packets, 
while crossing at the self-same hour. Not far from the models of the royal packets, 
was one of the screw steam yachts, built by Mr. White, of Cowes, for the Emperor of 
Eussia. The Peterhoff seems much such a vessel as the Fairy— very fast, extremely 
elegant and graceful upon the water, and made a good sea boat by the very force of her 
lightness and buoyancy, combined with a sharp wedge-like outline, which enables 
her to slip through head seas, offering them but a very trifling resistance. 

In the same case was a large handsome model of a Gravesend boat, the Jupiter, 
said to be the fastest on the river Thames. She is immensely long and narrow, with 
vast paddles, and will probably go at high velocity, but is only intended for smooth 
water. Close to her was deposited a curiQus contrast, in the shape of a model of a 
Boman galley, showing the way in which the oars were worked on board these 
eminently clumsy vessels. Beneath the water-Hne, the model is round and lumpy, with 
very little indication of a run, but we much doubt whether any authority exists for the 
exact mathematical proportions actually observed by the early Italian shipwrights. 
What may be called the main deck is very low down indeed — a mere flooring, in fact, 
above the keel; but upon it are erected double platforms of four different heights, 
each platform seating five or six rowers, who grasp the vast sweeps by which the 
vessel is propelled. The arrangement of these sweeps is curious. The circular holes 
through which they pass, run diagonally from the upper gunwale sternwise towards 
the keel, the benches within, of course, observing a similar disposition. Upon small 
patches of deck, running round the bulwarks, and crossing from side to side — somewhat 
in the fashion of a steamer's paddle-bridges — the warriors stand ; and at the stem and 
stern there are species of covered receptacles surrounded by circular wooden roofs, which 
aflford shelter from the weather and the sea. It is difficult to get anything Uke a clue 
to the actual accommodations for the residence of a number of men in these ships. 
The slaves who rowed — and awful slavery it must have been to tug these long heavy 
sweeps — probably took up their sleeping quarters upon the pricking for the softest 
plank" principle. 

The two moyen-age ships — the Harry Grace de Dieu and the Royal Sovereign, built by 
Charles II., were well worthy inspection. The former model was rigged, the latter only 
a hull ; her form and general mould, however, differing in no remarkable respect from, 
and showing little advance in construction, over her predecessor, although the latter was 
built not less than 113 years before her. Both ships are piled up with huge unwieldy 
masses of forecastle and poop. In the Harry Grace de Dieu, a number of circular sentry- 
boxes, or watch-towers, rise all round the bulwark, as though it had been the outer wall 
of a fortification ; and the port-holes are surmounted by ranges of loop-holes for musketry. 
The Royal Sovereign appears to have been built rather for purposes of pageantry than 
war. She is elaborately carved, principally with Roman emblems and devices : but we 


miss the warlike appendages of turrets and pepper-box towers which gave the true 
moyen-age ships the air of sailing castles— the idea of the architects having, indeed, 
manifestly been to manufacture a species of feudal floating fortress. The rigging of the 
Harry Grace de Dieu shows us the earlier stages of the combination of the still existing 
square rig, with the lateen disposition of yards common to feluccas and their northern 
offspring — luggers. She carries three masts rigged square, with huge round tops ; the 
two after-masts showing the lateen rig, which afterwards changed into the common 
schooner fore-and-aft mode of slinging the yards, still in existence, and which is based 
upon the same principle as the felucca arrangement of the Mediterranean. Altogether, 
the two models are so interesting as to make us again regret that they only show two 
incidental eras in the history of our naval architecture — two accidental links in the 
chain which began with the log or bark canoe, and ends for the present with the 120-gun 
ship, carrying 84-pounders on her lower decks, and flinging thousands of pounds of 
iron at every broadside. 

The general characteristics of the life-boats exhibited, took for their common prin 
ciple of buoyancy the construction of an air-tight lining in the interior of the boat — the 
space between the outward and the inward sides of the vessel gradually widening until 
a very broad gunwale is formed. In other specimens, the air-tight cell was placed 
lower, running in the form of a square or circular box round the boat. A few speci- 
mens were fitted with cork belts and finishings. There were several adaptations of 
surf-boats, built open beneath, the buoyant agency being placed entirely in the sides, 
thus letting the seas break in and out — the level in the water of the boat being never 
altered : the bottoms of some of the life-boats consisted merely of cross bars, on which 
to rest the men's feet. The United States showed several surf-boats, or oblong spherical 
cases of metal to contain air, for passengers to be conveyed in them, for a short transit 
through the breakers. The Lowestoft and Yarmouth life-boats had their buoyant 
apparatus in the sides beneath the thafts ; the oars double-banked, and beside every man 
was a pump for getting rid of the sea when it filled the boat. A label attached to these 
boats stated that they are in use over a range of coast of about twenty miles ; that not 
one of them has been ever upset, and that they have saved from 500 to 600 lives. 
The " Infallible Life-boat" was a whimsical construction, entirely open at the bottom ; 
and made, indeed, exactly after the same fashion, bottom and top. A Land's-end life- 
boat was remarkable for the horizontal cuts or longitudinal openings, like loop-holes, 
piercing her sides in continuous lines ; beneath she was open to the water. Holbrook's 
iron bottomless life-boat was well worthy attention ; as was also Bonney's life-boat, which 
'had been experimented on in the Serpentine and the Thames with unvaried success. 
Two boats, also of a novel kind, were exhibited by Erskine : one propelled by new pinion- 
wheels and self-acting syphon pump ; the other fitted with revolving air-tight cylinders, 
life-protecting rings, &c. Haly exhibited his "Catamaran," and a salvage-boat, wholly 
formed of metallic tubes, serving as atmospheric and hydraulic chambers, with loaded 
keel and self-shifting wheels. South Shields and Whitby also had their respective 
ingenious inventions ; and Skinner exhibited his Aberdeen " Momentary-motion Life- 
boat," possessing the self-righting power under all interruptions. Dyne's Life-boat is 
built with diagonal battens, laid lattice-wise ; its outer sheathing formed of gutta-percha : 
its buoyancy is 350 cubic feet of air, capable of sustaining upwards of niue-and-a-half tons, 
and letting off shipped water by 3,600 holes ; in the convexed bottom are three perforated 
steadying fins, and between them two tons of water, not one ounce weight to the boat 
when upright : there are also galvanised springs placed at the stern, to act like railway 
buffers in collisions; besides fusees, rockets, and other hghts. The same inventor exhibited 
a Portable and Folding Emigration Life-boat, to be put in requisition in a few minutes; 

VOL. II. 2 ^ 


andj in wreck, to carry provisions for 100 persons seven days. The Patent Collapsible 
Life-boat was exhibited by the Kev. E. L. Berthon, and was stated to enable passenger 
vessels to take to sea enough boats for any emergency, without crowding the decks : 
they are always ready for use, " frapped to under the davits ;" and, on casting off the 
gasketts, the boat flies open^ and takes into fore and aft cells a large supply of air. 

The Northumberland Prize Life-baat. — It will be recollected, that in October, 1850, in 
consequence of the accidents that had happened to life-boats around the coasts of Great 
Britain, and more especially the lamentable case off Shields, in December, 1849, when, 
by the upsetting of the life-boat, twenty of the best pilots out of the Tyne were drowned, 
his grace the Duke of Northumberland offered a reward of 100 guineas for the best model 
of a life-boat ; the result being that 280 models and plans were sent to Somerset-house for 
competition. After a laborious examination of the several models, the six boats that stood 
first on the list were, for the third time, placed side by side, their several points again 
examined, and the models carefully compared with each other ; the result was a confir- 
mation of the former numbers, and to Mr. James Beechiug, boat-builder, of Great 
Yarmouth, was adjudged the premium for the best model. The report of the committee 
appointed to examine the models is a very important and interesting document; and, 
besides recapitulating the peculiar features of several of them, details the requisite 
qualities of a life-boat ; the accidents to life-boats ; the number of shipwrecks on the coasts 
of the United Kingdom ; the life-boat, rocket, and mortar stations ; the meritorious 
conduct of the coast-guard service; and suggestions for decreasing the number of 
wrecks, &c. The form given to this boat would make her efficient either for pulling 
or sailing in all weathers ; she would prove a good sea boat, and in places such as 
Yarmouth, where there are always plenty of hands to launch a boat, her weight would 
cause no difficulty. By means of the raised air-cases placed at the extremes, the absence 
of side air-cases for a length of ten feet amid-ships, the introduction of two-and-a-quarter 
tons of water-ballast into her bottom when afloat, and her iron keel, this boat would 
right herself in the event of being capsized; although, from the form given to her, 
it is highly improbable that such an accident should occur. One day in November last 
this prize boat made a trial trip out to the Goodwin Sands, and proved herself of the 
most extraordinary qualities as a sea boat. Captain Charlwood, the inspecting commander 
of the district of the coast-guard, with Lieutenant Simmons and Mr. M'Donald, the 
master of the Rose revenue cutter, and a crew of fourteen picked men, went out in her 
to the Goodwin, where she was placed in such positions as to allow the surf to have the 
greatest effect upon her. Nothing could exceed the admirable style in which she 
behaved ; and enough was seen to satisfy the officers and men who were in her that she 
would weather the most tempestuous sea. Her sailing qualities were also tested with the 
most successful results ; indeed, it is said that if it were possible to throw her on her beam 
ends she would not go over. Such was her buoyancy, that when filled with water she 
cleared herself to the grating in about twelve seconds. The success of the boat has been 
the source of much gratification along the coast. 

Life-Preserving Contrivances. — A variety of buoyant articles of clothing were exhibited : 
they might be worn as every-day clothes; and included "yachting jackets" and ladies' 
paletots, described as capable of supporting the wearer in the water. Many other 
means of support in the water were shown ; such as belts, to be inflated by the breath, 
and lumps of cork, threaded like beads, to be put round the body. Waterproof trunks, 
made so as to serve as supporting media in the case of shipwreck, were exhibited, with 
models illustrating their easy adaptation to the purposes of rafts. Air-tight mattresses 
were shown, suitable for hammocks and berths, and which, of course, are exceedingly 
buoyant ; together with " floating buoyant settees," (with air-tight gutta-percha cases, 


for the decks of passenger steamers; and a marine floating chair for three persons. 
There were likewise exhibited Carte's life-buoy (circular belts) ; swimming-gloves, web- 
fingered ; and swimming-boots, the soles fastened to flat pieces of wood, to which are 
attached flaps or leaves working by hinges ; India-rubber cloaks, capable of being inflated, 
when they become small buoys or boats; and Caulcher's cork-ribbed jacket, to be worn, 
without inconvenience, whilst rowing a boat. In the American department were several 
buoyant contrivances, made of vulcanised India-rubber, for saving life under peculiar 
circumstances. The apparatus of the Royal Humane Society was exhibited ; including 
their ice-boat, constructed of wicker-work, covered with raw hides, and from its lightness 
easily propelled on the ice to the broken spot ; the breaker ladder, with air-tight barrels, 
on wheels ; the ice-sledge — two canoes united by thwarts into a floating platform ; rope- 
drag, and pole-drag ; the latter by an air-tight cylinder rendered a floating-drag. Here, 
too, were exhibited the life-boat and models of the National Institution for the Preservation 
of Life from Shipwreck. There was also shown Light's invention for rendering ships' 
boats so buoyant that they become life-boats j by filling the spaces between the timbers 
and beneath the thwarts with a very light material, and covering it with thin boards ; and, 
should the bottom be stove in, the frame, held together by the fibrous material, would float 
as a raft. The process can also be applied to any part of a ship, or boat, its mattresses, or 
other furniture, so that each naay become a life-buoy. Grapnel shots, with mortars for 
their piojection, to aid wrecks, were exhibited. The shot had attached to it a strong 
but light line ; and consisted of loose curved arms, which fly out on being disengaged 
from the gun : when the line being pulled from the shore, the implement fixed in the 
bottom, anchor-like, and the boat's crew had the means of warping themselves ofi". Of 
the same class was the rocket-gun, for carrying a 600-yard line from the shore to a wreck, 
or vice versa. Another model proposed to project a small anchor to the wreck ; another 
to propel a line without the use of gunpowder ; and next were shown the life-boat and 
mortar apparatus of Captain Manby, the venerable patriarch of this family of humanities. 
Sir W. S. Harris's Lightning Conductors for Ships. — Among the nautical inventions, 
were exhibited practical models to illustrate the system of Conductors, invented by Sir W. 
Snow Harris, and now employed to protect the ships of her Majesty's navy from lightning. 
In the principal model was shown the line of conduction on the masts irova. the vane- 
spindle to the step ; to the keel at the sides, and at stem and stern ; and in the other 
models were seen the plan and construction of the conducting plates, showing the alternate 
jointing of the plates, &c. Copper was selected as the best conducting metal, and was in 
rods three-quarters of an inch in diameter ; each mast having its conductor, " permanently 
fixed and connected with bands of copper passing through the sides of the ship, under 
the deck-beams, and with large bolts leading through the keels and keelson ; and including, 
by other connections, all the principal metaUic masses employed in the construction of the 
hull. Under such a system, a discharge of hghtniug falling on a house or a ship, finds 
its way to the earth or the sea, without the possibility of danger. The great principle in 
applying such conductor, is to place the ship or building in the same electrical condition 
it would assume supposing the whole were a soUd mass of metal, or as nearly as may 
be ; and the conductor should be applied so that a discharge of lightning falling on the 
general mass cannot enter upon any circuit of which the conductor does not form a part." 
Since these conductors have been employed in our navy, no damage from lightning has 
been recorded. 








The first, and perhaps the most powerful and lasting impression received by an attentive 
visitor at the Exhibition, when looking through its vrast collection of articles from every 
region on earth, was this — that all men, differ as they may in other important points, 
more especially the uncivilised from the civilised, nevertheless obey at least one law in 
common : they all, without exception, but in very different degrees of intensity, labour. 
The judgment that man shall live by the sweat of his brow was here exemplified to the 
full, although a consolatory experience also proves that the curse may largely bring out its 
own relief. The most careless glance, however, at the multitudinous display of the 
material results of all men's industry, established some striking distinction in quality 
among them, even whilst unity in one respect of effort was recognised ; and it cannot but 
be useful to examine the several masses of products in detail, in order to search out the 
causes of the obvious difference in their respective values. The articles indicated in the 
title of this chapter — for example, the productions of those who are commonly called 
Aborigines, or the less civilised races — are substantially the inferior fruits of human 
industry. Yet they illustrate the primitive elements, out of which the most advanced 
nations have elaborated their gorgeous and graceful, their eminently useful produc- 
tions. The most polished nations may in them trace their own perfection backward to 
its source. Then, these aboriginal productions suggest, in their rude aptitude of purpose, 
sometimes in their skilfulness, irresistible arguments to the more refined, to look with 
greater indulgence upon their struggling fellows, by whom such interesting productions 
are made. The highly civilised man, rendered by science familiar with the works of 
uncivilised people, will subdue his own prejudices in regard to their incapacity, and soon 
come practically to aid them to acquire the superior qualifications that shall rightfully 
place them on his level. China and India have so much in common with us, in their 
manufactures, their arts, and their agriculture; and they have made so much progress 
already in many respects, that purely aboriffinal products are comparatively few in those 
countries ; but both possess some worthy of notice. Ceylon and the Indian Archipelago 
have sent us more such ; and Africa still more, from all its quarters — east, north, west, 
and south. Turkey, although still too resplendent in "barbaric gold," instead of culti- 
vating the best taste, is fast assuming the great forms of our civilisation ; and Russia will 
bring from its remoter tribes only, anything of a purely aboriginal character. North 
America, in its prodigious new wealth of products of art and industry, offers some 
scanty memorials of deep interest from its aboriginal tribes. Central and South America 
could have presented most curious combinations of civilised and uncivilised manners as 
now existing, and have sent us remarkable means of comparing the civilisation that 
existed before the New World was revealed to Europe, with the improvement intro- 
duced by Christians at a frightful cost of human life. Both regions, distracted with 
civil discord, have contributed a little — very little ; but one South American British 
colony, Guiana, has made a zealous response to the call from home. A rapid survey of 


these poor treasures of the primitive man's ingenuity, still in his own hands, will 
unquestionably tend to allay the melancholy feeling too prevalent among us, that 
numerous portions of our race should be doomed by Providence to perish at the approach 
of their more instructed brethren. Facts encourage a nobler and a wiser prospect. A 
capacity for a safer and better condition of life is clearly established by these produc- 
tions of industry — exercised in every climate, within the burning tropic and at the pole, 
by Negro and Esquimaux ; by the gloomy American forests, and over the bare steppes of 
Tartary : by the half-amphibious islander of the Pacific equally as by the KaflBr, to whom 
an iron-bound coast and unnavigable mountain streams refuse the use of the simplest 
boat — each, however, having his peculiar occupation. All this confirms the oft-repeated 
judgment, that art is natural to man, and that the skill he acquires after many ages of 
practice, is only the improvement of a talent he possessed at first. Destined to cultivate 
his own nature and to mend his situation, man finds a continual subject of attention, of 
ingenuity, and of labour. The same satisfactory conclusion was supported by analogous 
materials in the Exhibition, and more abundant ones than the purely aboriginal products. 
These were the contributions obtained for our daily use by the combined labours of 
civilised and aboriginal men. They are the raw materials of commerce to an enormous 
amount in quantity and value ; the dyes, the gums, the drugs, the oils, the seeds, the 
woods, the woven and textile plants, the leaves, the roots, the skins, the furs, the feathers, 
the shells, which promote so largely the comfort and adornment of social life. The 
several departments of each civilised nation in turn have received these contributions 
from the barbarian, and sometimes from the savage — the aborigines — whom, in return, 
civilisation has not yet discovered a better way to manage, than by almost incessant 
warfare. It is a capital point, in considering these raw materials of the arts, to know 
how to obtain them in a genuine condition ; and on this point it will be found that our 
interests as manufacturers and merchants, and consumers, coincide happily with our 
duties as men. Exactly in proportion as the native collectors of nature's stores are 
well treated and well instructed in the best ways of civilisation, the more expert are 
they, and the more disposed to be vigilant and honest in their work. 

British Guiana. — The survey of aboriginal products in the Exhibition may be 
conveniently begun with British Guiana, as the collections from the colony were 
remarkably complete, and it is a country admirably described by Sir Robert H. Schom- 
burgk, one of the most accomplished of modem travellers. It is a portion of South 
America on the Atlantic, in latitude six degrees north of the equator, and contains 
forty-eight and-a-half millions of acres of land. The staple produce is sugar, rum, and 
cofiee, with some cotton. Other produce of less value are its plantains and various 
esculents, with timber and other articles approved by the experience of the aborigines. 
The chief food of the natives, the cassava bread, was to be seen here ; which it is seriously 
proposed to export to England, as being superior to the potato in nutritious quality, 
and so much more abundant than any meal known, that a profit of £50 per acre may 
be gained by its culture. The graters used by the natives in preparing the cassava meal 
from the root are the manufacture of particular tribes, famous for this busmess, as others 
are especially famous for the manufacture of hammocks— the materials probably m both 
cases being abundant in their countries; as Manchester owes its ancient celebrity to the 
streams and coals of its neighbourhood. The cassava bread is made in an elastic 
tube, caUed the metappeS, a very ingenious contrivance of the Indians, says Sir R. Schom- 
burgk, to press the juice from the root, which is one of the most violent poisons before 
being pressed. After the root is scraped, it is pressed in this tube, plaited of the stems of 
the calathea. A pole in the tube is used as a powerful lever, and weighed down by 
two persons sitting on it. The juice escapes through the plaited work, and the dried 


meal is baked in a pan in a few minutes. A specimen of the macliine, as well as of the 
bread, was in the Exhibition. Another new article of food was also exhibited — the 
plantain meal — which the Indians use; and our settlers calculate it may be made to 
produce a gross return of £112 per acre' Well may Europeans be surprised, as 
Humboldt says they are, upon arri^dng within the tropics, at seeing the small space of 
ground that keeps an Indian family. The juice of the cow-tree, sometimes used as a 
substitute for milk, is perhaps more valuable as one of the numerous materials for 
India-rubber. The physic nut, in common use by the natives, is one of the hundred 
vegetable medicines of the American forests, well worth further study. There is also a 
species of Jesuits' bark, of far greater importance, considering its dearness almost prohibits 
its proper application in our hospitals; and this, also, is well known by the Indians. 
But the most valuable articles exhibited from Guiana were the woods, originally made 
known to us by native experience. For ship-building, they are certainly superior to oak 
and teak ; and the bright colours of the specimens strongly recommend them for furni- 
ture. In regard to ship-building, it is a curious fact, attested by Sir R. Schomburgk, that 
one tribe in particular, the Warraus, have been famous builders of canoes and eorrials, the 
durability and speed of which far surpassed any boats from Europe. They made a 
class of launches, carrying from fifty to seventy men, celebrated in the last revo- 
lutionary wars. The timber they selected, the mora tree, is now acknowledged to be the 
very best for the purpose. Specimens were in the Exhibition. A more primitive canoe 
was exhibited also, made of the bark of a tree, quickly constructed, of extremely light 
draught, and portable. Its convenient use in this last respect, carries us back to the 
days of our most primitive forefathers, when the wicker and skin boat, still to be 
seen on the Wye and in Ireland, was easily borne on the shoulders of the adventurous 
waterman, when obstacles impeded his navigation, or he wished to surprise a neighbour at 
a distant stream. In this collection, too, we observed the original hammock, which we 
have so extensively adopted at sea, and which in France is wisely used in crowded rooms, 
from which it can be removed by day to purify the air. It is interesting to know 
that the Indians make their hammocks of extraordinarily strong textile materials, new to 
us, and of excellent cotton. Nor is it less interesting to learn that the sugar of Guiana, 
of which specimens were exhibited, has furnished the native people with one comfort 
from us, which they appreciate. They now grow sugar for domestic use ; and the cane 
they cultivate is universally of the kind introduced by us from the French. Cook found 
it in the South Seas; Bougainville carried it to Mauritius; and thence, by way ot 
the French West Indian Islands, it has spread, within about seventy years, over the 
civilised and aboriginal Western World. These aborigines, then, can adopt our improve- 
ments. They possess, also, the elements of the potter's art, which usually denotes a 
decided advance from savage life. The mere savage is content with what nature has 
provided to put liquids in — a sea-shell, a gourd, a part of an egg ; the Indian of Guiana 
manufactures his buck-pots of clay, a specimen of which was exhibited. In a new 
edition of Marryat's beautiful History of Porcelain, the catalogue of such utensils, from 
those of Egypt to those of Peru, should be enriched by well-authenticated examples 
such as these among aborigines. In some instances the aborigines are proved to have 
completely adopted our usages. From Nova Scotia samples of wheat grown by Indians 
were sent of the same respectable weight (64 lb. 1 1 oz. to the bushel) as our own farmers' 
wheat. The Sioux saddle and hunter's belt, wrought by an Indian maiden, sent by a 
citizen of the United States, is entitled to be accounted a work of " honest housewifery," 
quite as much as the carpet wrought for our gracious queen by the three hundred 
English women. So the New Zealand chief, Tao Nui, who sent his contributions through 
his London agent, Mr. Gilman surely has ceased to be an uncivilised man. These con- 


tributions -were, however, thoroughly aboriginal " specimens of New Zealand woods, gums, 
and bark, flax and flax manufactures." The same conclusions may be drawn in favour of 
the capacity of the North American Indian to adopt our usage, from the model of the 
house of the once wild Carib, the cannibal of Columbus, with every household convenience 
most minutely represented. The easy chair, the wax taper, the neat table, the tinder- 
box, the old man's modern bed, as well as the aboriginal hammock, various musical instru- 
ments, various cooking utensils, the sugar-press, cassava-pot, the grind-stone, the neat 
mat, even the grog-can and a hundred other articles were there, to show the profusion of 
comforts which civilisation produces. And yet this is the race, thus making progress 
under a little protection, to which we often refuse common justice; and then we wonder 
that they flee to' the bush. This little Indian picture of civilised barbarism is a lesson 
that should be perpetuated by such a simple work being deposited in the British 
Museum, now that the Exhibition is broken up. The models of Guiana native dwellings, 
also, were very interesting, as furnishing, in the abundance of their domestic comforts, 
some guarantee for their permanence in one place, so that they have clearly arrived at a 
condition beyond that of nomadic life. Other South American models were exhibited ; 
for instance, there was one of a native raft in the Brazil department, although none, 
as far as we could find, of the far more curious flying bridges which span the awful abysses 
of the mountains. Mexico and New Grenada, Chili and Peru, are no longer subject to 
civil disturbance so continually, whatever may be the case with Central America, but 
that their engineering wonders of that character, from very old times, might have been 
produced with advantage. 

Western Africa offered articles so various in kind, so abundant, and so valuable in 
commerce, that when compared with the barbarism of the people, they irresistibly compel 
the admission, that trade alone does not solve the problem how men are to be civilised. 
These Africans, in particular, are most active merchants ; and they have one usage which 
should strongly recommend them, as it furnishes a proof of their respect for honest 
dealing. If a bale of goods is not found at its place of destination to answer the 
sample, it may be returned to the broker, who is bound to get compensation from the 
original seller for the purchaser. The specimens of cotton, both raw and manufactured, 
from this region, were numerous. The plant grows everywhere; and if our best sort 
should be found worth substituting for the native varieties, the habits of the people are 
prepared for its adoption. The pottery works were very various, although calabashes, 
or vegetable vessels, were common. Dyes and medicines were abundant ; and it is to be 
-noted with regret, that poisons are familiar to the natives for the worst purposes. One 
article of export collected by the rudest people of West Africa is of great value, and it 
has an interesting history. This is palm oil, the import of which has increased, since 
the abolition of the slave-trade, from a small amount, to more than 30,000 tons a year, 
worth more than £600,000. This new African trade in a legitimate commodity is 
interesting, as a proof of the correctness of judgment in one of the earlier friends of 
negro emancipation, whose very name has been forgotten in the long catalogue of the 
friends of that cause. Mr. Thomas Bentley, of Liverpool, a predecessor of Sharp, and 
Clarkson, and Wilberforce, was sagacious enough to perceive, and bold enough to 
maintain, when a merchant in that slave-trading port, that some articles existed in Africa 
more suited to the conscience and commerce of Englishmen than negroes. He told his 
fellow-townsmen that they should send their ships, not for slaves, but for palm oil ; and 
now it is for Mr. Thomas Bentley's palm oil that the very fleets are sent, which, but 
for the efibrts of such men as he, would still be groaning with human victims. This 
good man became the partizan of Wedgewood, in the famous potteries, to the beauty of 
.which bis excellent taste secured their most successful character. From Western Africa 


were also sent the small leathern bottles of dye for the eyelids, which along with other 
like usages have been cited to prove the assimilation of the negroes with ancient Egypt. 
The real aboriginal products of both regions are well worth comparing together, in order 
to illustrate the question. 

Let us now take a survey of the contributions of Egypt and Tunis; the former of 
which, in addition to their intrinsic merit, were interesting from the imperishable halo of 
association that surrounds the land from which they came — a land which has been the 
seat of four civilisations, essentially differing from each other, and spread over the lapse of 
4,000 years ; for while Italy and Greece have been at particular periods more resplendent 
by cultivation of the arts, Egypt is the only country that still shows in its monuments 
distinct traces of four successive epochs of civilisation — a Pharaonic, a Greek, a Roman, 
and an Arabic. This, no doubt, springs from the peculiarity of its physical geography, as 
a colmtry of vast territorial wealth within a narrow space, and forming the connecting 
link between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean ; while to the Englishman, more than to 
any other inhabitant in Europe, Egypt has become, since the development of steam navi- 
gation, the portion of the East, the political condition of which bears most immediately 
on the communications between our vast Indian empire and the metropolis. There was 
a time, and that not long since, when our relations with the government of that country 
were of the most hostile nature ; but it is satisfactory to think that the most amicable 
intercourse now reigns between them. No Englishman in his senses thinks of a military 
occupation in Egypt similar to that which was attempted by France. The objects of the 
British government limit themselves, — first, to the exclusion of any European power from 
military possession of the key of the Mediterranean and Indian seas ; secondly, to the 
development of our commerce in Egypt; thirdly, to the facilitation of the Overland traffic. 
And it is satisfactory to find, that the present pacha shows every disposition not only to 
promote and protect our passenger traffic, but to cultivate the most amicable relations 
with the government and inhabitants of this country. In Egypt the extraordinary change 
that has been imprinted upon the administration, the commerce, the agriculture, and the 
manners of the higher classes (for those of the great majority of the people remain 
untouched) has been effected by the will of one man. It is true that Mahomed Ali some- 
times misapplied his resources, but there can be no doubt of the extraordinary mental 
activity of the individual ; there can be no doubt that all the productions of Europe have 
been subjected to study — that their application to European commerce has been tested — 
that the cHmate and soil have been studied, and that vast numbers of experiments have 
been made in the vegetable world, and that many plants have been successfully naturalised, 
while the indigenous products have been much improved in quality. The Nile is the 
great feature of Egypt ; let us, therefore, begin with the upper country. Highest of all 
were the articles from the Belledes-Asoudin ; elephants' tusks, sections of ebony from 
Senaar ; a rhinoceros horn, and other objects from the " land of the blacks," as the term 
means, of which the most valuable is gum. Upon this trade the genius of Mahomed 
Ali, remarkable as it was in many respects, had not a favourable influence ; the European 
regulations and police, which he established with absolute power, rather frightened away 
than encouraged those who had objects of this description to sell from the interior of 
Africa ; but, as the system of the present pacha is less stringent, there is every prospect 
of an extension of this portion of the trade. And to this object, unquestionably, nothing 
would so much tend as the establishment of a fair, once every winter, at Essowan, which 
is the highest point that can be reached by steamers from Cairo, and is on the borders 
of Nubia. 

In Upper Egypt itself, the principal objects of production are dates, oorn, sugar, and 
Indian corn ; the first of which is the most striking feature of the Egyptian landscape, 


and which is almost as familiar to the eye of the European, by thousands of faithful 
representations, as to the Egyptian himself. On closer examination of the vases in which 
they are kept, we see the varieties of their colour, some being of a dark red, some of a 
Jight brown, and others of a cream colour. Not only is the date an excellent food for the 
common people of Egypt, but we saw in this Exhibition illustrations of the varietv of 
purposes to which they are applied : here were the crates of the branch of the palm; 'the 
fly-flappers of palm lea,ves, used by servants while the masters dinej and, moreover, speci- 
mens of the cordage into which the palm fibres are made, and a coarser description of 
which is in universal use in the Nile boats. When we add, that the trunk of the p"alm 
is used for timber, that the nuts are used both as camel fodder and as a combustible 
for the preparation of human food, and that, moreover, a tenacious hairy sort of fibre from 
the palm is used in cleansing the skin in baths, it is scarcely possible to over-rate the 
value of this tree. Sugar-cane and sugar-loaves were also exhibited, the latter from Ibra- 
him Pacha's refinery. This remarkable man made great efi'orts to push the sugar cul- 
tivation in Egypt, for which there can be no doubt that both soil and climate are well 
adapted; but the great proportion of the sugar used in Egypt is still imported from 
Europe ; for, whatever the will of Ibrahim Pacha may have been or whatever may be the 
natural capacities of Egypt, the incurable indolence of the people and their indisposition 
to labour, seem to be an invincible obstacle to Egypt ever competing with Europe in price 
and quality as far as this article is concerned. The true calling of Egypt is, unquestion- 
ably, that in which nature herself— the sun and the Nile — have the largest share in the 
production. It is by her wheat, her cotton, her beans, her barley, her sesame, her 
linseed, and her flax, that Egypt can increase her wealth with certainty. It is agri- 
culture and commerce, not manufactures, that nature has assigned to Egypt in the terri- 
torial division of labour. Of these the most important is certainly cotton, from the great 
extension of its culture during late years. We particularly remarked a specimen of Sea 
Island cotton, cultivated by Mr. Larking, in the environs of Alexandria. This ingenious 
gentleman has devoted many years to the horticulture and agriculture of the Egyptian 
climate, and has been the means of reclaiming from the Lake Mareotis a large tract of 
land, which would otherwise have been useless, by diverting from the canal a portion 
of fresh water, which, washing away from the alluvial soil the saline particles, has left the 
earth cleansed and productive. He has also been at pains to introduce, upon a most 
extensive scale, the British system of agriculture, and the Belgian method of cultivating 
flax ; but the inveterate habits of indolence and pilfering in the natives have prevented 
the experiment from being so successful as could have been wished. 

In the Exhibition was to be seen one of those curious machines with which the Egyp- 
tians conduct their agricultural operations (marked 174 in the catalogue), which show that 
the ease-loving countryman makes his own weight contribute to do the work, while he is 
saved the trouble of walking. The catalogue stated that the object of this machine was 
to sow seed ; but, unless we were much mistaken, it was the machine used for the double 
purpose of thrashing corn and cutting the straw ; the oxen performing a rotary motion 
until all the straw be cut and the corn squeezed out. Of other vegetable productions 
were specimens of opium and senna, which are well suited to the climate ; tombak, which 
is used as a substitute for tobacco ; and rice, which is grown in very large quantities 
on the low grounds of the Delta, not far from the sea, and cleaned for the most part at 
Damietta and Eosetta, where mills have been estabhshed on the American principle with 
great success. Nor must we, in our list of vegetable products, omit the rose-water of 
the Payoua, which is so frequently mentioned in the songs of the Arab poets ; whole 
tracts of land being devoted to this culture, and, in the season of plucking, diffusing 
fragrance through the smiling land. It is also in the Fayoum (which is a district to the 

VOL. II, 2 M 


west of the Nile above Cairo) that are to be found the greatest quantity of olives, large 
plantations of which have been re-established by Ibrahim Paoha in various parts of Egypt ; 
for the culture of olives had much fallen off under the Mamelukes. The mineral produc- 
tions of Egypt were very numerous, the most magnificent of which, in the Exhibition, 
were the slabs of Oriental alabaster, from the quarries to the south-east of Cairo, in the 
desert, and out of which material the columns of the new mosque of Mahomed Ali, in 
the citadel of Cairo, have been constructed. There can be no doubt, that, if the value 
and the beauty of this mineral were better known in Europe, and if a railway, of however 
rude and cheap construction, could be established to Beni Souef, on the Nile, it might 
become an article of export of the greatest importance. As a native manufacture, having 
a mineral for its component, we may also draw attention to the porous water-bottles 
made at Gheneh, on the Nile, which are in universal use in all parts of Egypt, from 
their peculiar quality of exuding the moisture, which by evaporation cools the water 
within. If we descend the Nile. to the entrance of Cairo, we see another mineral pro- 
duction, in specimens of the petrified forest of a valley in Mount Mokattam. The 
Cairo articles must be regarded under two aspects — those which are indigenous, and 
those which have been introduced by the late pacha as subservient to his military and 
political system. The latter need not engage our attention, as they have no local pecu- 
liarity, however illustrative they may be of the superior mental activity of the family of 
the present pacha. Of the former, we may mention the saddles of crimson velvet, the 
padded one being most easy and convenient for riding, giving a good hold to the knee ; 
but the high cantled saddle is the most interesting, for it is of the same form as that in 
which Saladin and the Paynim host used to receive the shock of the Frank crusader ; the 
saddle of Negm-Eddin, whose name is so associated with the expedition of St. Louis to 
Damietta, being still an appendage of the mosque, that, after six centuries, bears his 
name. In no respect had the desire of Mahomed Ali to leave his impress upon his 
country been more successful than in his efforts to promote public instruction ; and the 
schools he established in Egypt will unquestionably do more for his reputation than the 
wars in which he was engaged. The printing-press at Boulak has been sufficiently 
described by travellers ; and we have had specimens of its work in an Egyptian edition of 
the "Arabian Nights," and other productions of typography; the works themselves being 
remarkable, not so much for their beauty of print and paper, in which they cannot 
compete with Europe, as for the excessive lowness of price. The articles of dress are so 
numerous, and are brought in such quantities by travellers to this country, that we 
need not up take the reader's time any further ; simply remarking, that while many of 
the imitations of European manufactures have not been successful as pecuniary specula- 
tions, that of Tunis caps, estabhshed at Fouah, has been in operation for many years, and 
has been eminently prosperous. 

The Tunis court was the first on the right hand after passing through the iron gates 
at the, south entrance. In front it was the width of a single division; but in the rear 
it was more extensive. The collection of Tunisian productions which were sent for 
exhibition by the bey of Tunis, under the care of Sy Hamda Elmkadden, pro-commissary 
appointed for the occasion, and Moses Santillana, interpreter to his Excellency General 
Sidy Mahmoud Benyad, the bey's commissioner, were more remarkable as matters of 
curiosity than for their intrinsic value or importance. The most striking features in the 
outward show were some carpets, rugs, and blankets, and a variety of singularly- 
fashioned garments, for male and female, of a mixed material of silk and worsted, and 
of all shades and mixture of colour ; caps of various denominations— calabash, orta, sake 
majidia, kaleb-shed, &c.— turbans, and other head-gear; silk scarfs; in short 'an endless 
stock of gentlemen's and ladies' "left-off-clothing"— just such a stock as one might 




expect to see in a native old clothes^ shop at Algiers or at Caii-o. Two hats of gigantic 
proportions, in red morocco, were the astonishment; 6f all beholders. In the inner room 
were others of similar dimensions, but made of straw, and ornamented with leather 
patches. The shoes, boots, and slippers of- red, green, and yellow morocco, attracted the 
attention of the curious, as also some very substantial saddle-bags of the same material, 
which, divided in two, might form very serviceable packs for a walking tour in Wales or 
Switzerland. Then there were samples of seeds, of saffron, of indigo, and glass jars full 
of sweetmeats, which last-named the good-natured Turk in charge very freely dispensed, 
with wild gestures of welcome, to gaping juveniles as they passed. Arms and gun-locks, 
of cluTiisy niake, were displayed in another compartment; in ariother various articles for^ 
domestic use, made of iron, tin, leather, and pottery, and of very primitive fashion ; 
squares of " household soap," some candles also,' veritable "dips"-bf a dirty brown colour. 
In another we found musical, instruments, including a lute and a timbrel; and strewed 
about in all directions vvere skins of animals, dressed and undressed; pieces of matting, 
parasols, fans, ornaments in gold and silver; claret-bottles filled, some with scented 
waters, some with Begia snuff; and all sorts of odds and ends, mostly of the rudest 
description, but all admirably calculated to afford an illustration of the menage and con- 
venances of the North African tribes. A tent made of camel's hair cloth, which stood 
in the middle of the room, was a perfect picture ; low, dark, dismal — a mere shelter for 
the mountain wanderer from the blast and the rain; in which saddles, saddle-bags, 
leather water-bags, leather bottles, leather mats, clumsy arms, and other articles for 
immediate use, and adapted for prompt removal, were scattered about in admired disorder. 
In strange contrast to this tatterdemalion lot stood two glass cases, containing some very 
splendid specimens of gold embroidered dresses and horse caparisons, and other articles 
of vertu selected from the bey's private wardrobe. Nor must we omit to mention some 
very curious models of arabesque carvings in gypsum, intended for the decoration of the 
interior of Moorish rooms. Their workmanship was of a bold character, the devices elabo- 
rate and pleasing ; and the material being pierced through, must have a very light and 
graceful effect when applied to the purposes intended. Preparatory to the process of 
carving, the gypsum is inclosed in a wooden frame, with a back to it, which supports 
and protects it till the design is completed. 

Maltese contributions. — The interesting and historical island of Malta — the ancient 
Iberia ; the rock made fertile by the labour of man ; the conquered of the Greeks, the 
Eomans, the Carthaginians, the Goths, the old Normans, the French, and the British — 
made a goodly show at the Great Industrial Gathering. There is a lingering tinge of 
romance about the island of so many possessors ; and as we gazed on the products of the 
industry of its inhabitants, we recalled to our mind recollections of the chivalric band, the 
heroic knights of Jerusalem, successively driven from Palestine and B,hodes ; and at last, 
in 1583, taking refuge, through the favour of Charles V., of the little island in the 
Mediterranean, the name of which -they subsequently assumed. We thought of their 
grand master, Villiers de I'lsle, wl^o: fortified the rock and resisted the designs of the 
Turkish emperor Soliman; and the words of Sinan, when -he surveyed the castle of St. 
Angelo, rose to our lips: "Dost thou see that castle?" he asks of the corsair, Dragut, 
when pressed to commence the attack ; " ihe eagle makes not his nest on the summit of 
a steeper rock. To take it we must have the wings of the eagle, and the courage of the 
lion; for all the troops in the world would fail in the attempt." A few years later, 
and we are in the midst oif a siege, in which Tiirks and knights were alternately 
victorious and defeated— the latter at one time overjoyed and triumphant, and at 
another retiring to the convent and town of La Valette, carrying^ on the erection of houses 
and churches by means of copper coins, on which were inscribed the words, iVo» aes sed 


fides. Years pass. The kniglitsof Malta disappear from the scene for ever; commerce 
takes the place of chivalry; romance retires to its congenial woods and streams; a good 
queen takes up her residence within view of the waters on which St. Paul suffered ship- 
wreck; the year of jubilee dawns upon the world; and Malta takes her place among the 
nations in the Crystal Palace. Besides many interesting specimens of Maltese cottons^ 
silks, lace, flowers, and jewellery — wheat and cinnamon, aniseed and sea-shells, were 
among the contributions of Malta. The gold and filagree-work of the Maltese has 
been long celebrated, and many highly valuable illustrations of this important branch 
of industry were exhibited. Besides these, we had bracelets, brooches, chatelaines, breast 
and head pins, dishes, plates, bouquet holders, shawl pins, shirt studs, card cases, 
candlesticks, and pincushions. But perhaps the most important and certainly the most 
interesting objects in a pictorial point of view, were the vases, jugs, pedestals, and 
carvings, in Maltese stone, a material highly useful in many respects, as was shown by 
the specimens oiled and prepared for pavements, the drip stone, &c. In these productions 
the elaboration of the carvers had been well seconded by the efforts of the artist ; and as 
good specimens of Maltese ingenuity, they were highly valuable. An inlaid marble 
table, with the arms and emblems of the island in coral and lapis lazuli, with some table 
tops of a similar description; a vase, with a ■ pedestal ofredGoza marble; several rare 
figures, and some fine stalactites, were exhibited by Messrs. Darmanni and Son, of Valetta, 
and sufBciently indicated the talents of the manufacturers and the resources of the island. 
Malta, in the Exhibition, was situated between India and Ceylon, and next to the 
Channel Islands; or, to make the description still more accurate, we may say that it was 
situated N.N.W. of the Crystal Fountain. Thousands of travellers journeyed thither 
without the fear of sea sickness. 







Models are still more instructive than drawings, or even than the machines themselves. 
The Exhibition afforded some striking and interesting examples of the advantages of such 
means of illustration. We would especially direct attention to the model of a coUierv, 
which was to be found in the department of machinery. No one, even amongst those 
who have themselves practically explored coal mines, can fail to be struck with the clear- 
ness of perception which is obtained of such works from this model. Thus we had, first, 
those parts of the works which are above ground exhibited, such as the mouths of the 
shafts and the engines which work them. There was, first, the shaft by which the coal 
is raised ; next, that by which the mine is drained ;, and , third, that' by which it is 
ventilated. This latter process is usually accomplished by a furnace, which creates a 
draught of air up one of the shafts, and is necessarily followed by currents of air down 
the others. In the lower part of the model was exhibited the state of the workings. The 



















Dy cuttings through it j the railways being shown upon which the waggons move in which 
?nwrf1l,'°?^''**°*^' ^°**°^°^ '^' '^^^'' -^d through which KeSvated by £ 
Sate tie vtXr^'f T'''^ ,"* '^' *°P- '^^^ P^^^^*^"- ^^^ «*^r contrivancL to 
Modif ThpZbi . ' Tf' were represented by brickwork in this interesting 

rn.l LI^ ni 1 fl"?r'*' tT^ ^°' sustaining the roof of the workings were also shown 
Coal mines or coal fields, as they are sometimes called, differ from one another in the 
thickness of the bed of coal and m the position in which it lies. In some the thickness 
does not exceed eighteen inches ; in others it amounts to many feet. In the coal fields 
of Northumberland and Durham (from which the model was sent) the average thickness 
IS twelve teet ; and, consequently, each acre contains 19,360 cubic yards of coal, each 
cubic yard weighing, on the average, one ton. The extent of the coal area in Northum- 
berland and Durham is, in round numbers, 500,000 acres, and, consequently, its total 
contents amount to not less than 10,000,000.000 tons of coal, of which 1,500,000,000 
?A La nnn • T worked. The present annual consumption of coal is estimated at 
10,000,000, including the waste; and it consequently follows that, at this rate, it would 
take above eight centuries to exhaust this single field ! Not the least remarkable circum- 
stance suggested by this model, is the prodigious depth at which this subterranean 
industry is carried on. In some cases, the depth of the workings is 1,800 perpendicular 
feet, or one-third of a mile; and the area of a single set of pits sometimes amounts to 
1,000 acres. The manner of working the beds might be collected, in some measure, from 
inspecting the model. The coal itself is first cut in narrow galleries— that is to say, a 
space IS excavated twelve feet high and four or five feet wide,— and such a gallery is con- 
tinued in a given direction for a certain distance, as represented in the model. Others 
axe then excavated parallel to it ; afterwards a series of similar excavations are made at 
right angles to these; the result of which is, that there will remain square pillars of 
nncut coal, formed by the intersection of these rectangular galleries; and the plan of the 
bed will resemble a chess-board, the black squares indicating the uncut pillars, and the 
white the open cuttings, only that the square pillars do not touch each other diagonally, 
as in the case of the chess-board. The use of these square pillars is to support the 
roof, which would otherwise fall in. After the bed has been worked in this way by 
parallel and rectangular galleries, the square pillars of coal are removed one by one, and 
the roof of the working is allowed to fall. This method of working a coal mine is 
called technically the method of "pillar and stall." 

The apparatus for the ventilation of the mine, as indicated in the model, is extremely 
important, inasmuch as upon its efficiency the safety of this class of industrial labourers 
mainly depends. The gas, which by artificial processes is extricated from coal for the 
purposes of illumination, is found to issue spontaneously from the coal in the mine, in 
more or less quantity; so much so, that by holding a candle against the walls of the 
workings, jets of flame may be often produced. When this gas is mixed in a certain pro- 
portion with atmospheric air, which fills the workings — a mixture highly explosive — if a 
flame or spark comes in contact with it, a destructive catastrophe ensues. Good ventilation 
prevents this evil. The current of air kept continually flowing through the workings, 
descending at the shaft No. 1 and No. 2 in the model, and rising at the shaft No. 3, is 
a safeguard against the evil ; but, as this ventilation sometimes fails, a further security is 
afforded in the safety-lamp, which, as is well known, is a lantern surrounded with fiiie 
wire gauze, instead of glass or horn. This wire gauze has the property of preventing 
the passage of flame through it. Flame is nothing more or less than gas rendered 
luminous by intense heat. In passing through the wire gauze, it parts with so much of 
its heat to the metal of the wire, that when it has issued from the meshes, it loses the 

VOL. II. 3 N 


character of flame, and is incapable of producing explosion. According to the returns, it 
appears that in the Newcastle and Durham coal field, represented by this model, there are 
about 200 pits or different collieries, employing 26,000 pairs of hands ; the value of the 
coal at the port, where it is shipped, being about lis. per ton. This, however, is only one 
of the many astounding examples which the Exhibition presented to the foreign visitor, of 
the inexhaustible stock of this valuable mineral, which lies embedded in this island-— to 
say nothing of the Irish and Scotch specimens. 

There were samples from South Wales, accompanied by models of the apparatus used 
for shipping the coals at Cardiff dock, where 400 tons per day can be shipped by steam- 
power, from a coal field presenting about 600,000 acres of coal area, consisting of the 
sorts best adapted for steam navigation, and thence called " steam coal." There were also, 
supplied by the Butterly Company, specimens of the Derbyshire coal field, consisting of 
seams of coal of great thickness. Mr. Atkinson sent specimens of coal from the Forest 
of Dean, where there is an area of 36,000 acres, the total thickness being about thirty- 
seven feet. Specimens were sent from Barnsley, from a bed ten feet thick, forming part 
of the South Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire coal field, which includes 
650,000 acres, of which there are twelve workable seams, of the total thickness of twenty 
feet. It appears, in fine, that the total extent of coal area of the British Islands amounts 
to 12,000 square miles, being about one-tenth of the entire area of the country ; their 
annual production, 32,000,000 tons. With such a stock, and the prospects of those 
improvements in mechanical science, which will probably supersede steam-power by 
electricity, the fears of the timid respecting the exhaustion of our coal mines may well 
be tranquillised. With a knowledge of our resources, we may yet sit round our firesides 
in comfort. 

Fourdrinier's Patent Safety Apparatus for ascending and descending Mines. — Doubtless 
many thousands of the visitors to the Crystal Palace passed the model of this safety 
apparatus, without being at all aware of its utility and importance. The national great- 
ness of this country, in a commercial point of view, in a great degree arises from the 
immense mineral wealth it possesses, more especially of iron and coal. Under the most 
favourable circumstanstances, the operation of exploring for these valuable products 
beneath the surface of the earth, is fraught with many and great dangers ; and, it is he 
only who has actually passed through the ordeal of descending and ascending a mine, that 
can form any adequate conception of the dangers of a miner's life. We were particularly 
struck with this fact a few days since, whilst reading the returns of the population of the 
mining districts of Cornwall, and noticing the number of widows in those returns. The 
mere fact of working at great depths below the surface, where the exhilarating influences 
of the sunbeam — so essential to health and life — never penetrate, is of itself sufiiciently 
toilsome and wearying, even if the miner were never subject to any other ills. The 
terrors of the fire-damp we shall not at present notice ; but confine our attention to the 
dangers attending the mode of ascending and descending mines. The miners place 
themselves in a basket, or "cage," as it is commonly called, and are lowered to, or 
raised from, their work by a rope or chain. If either of these break from any accidental 
circumstance, or are, as is unfortunately sometimes the case, wilfully cut, the unfortunate 
men are dashed to pieces at the bottom of the shaft. From a return of the number of 
deaths from accidents in mines, in ISiS, we find that out of 415 cases, eighty-nine were 
from breakage of ropes or chains. The apparatus has been severely tested in several 
mines, and has been proved to afford an amount of safety to the miner, which he has not 
hitherto enjoyed. It consists of a cage or basket, attached to guide-rods or chains, and 
was represented as carrying two tubs of coal down the sides of the shaft, and the rope or 
chain holding the cage was shown as broken ; the self-acting springs or arms, forming 


levers attached to the top of the cage, were liberated, and these being wedged most 
securely upon the guide-rods, the cage became necessarily fixed and its descent arrested. 
The apparatus has thus no chance of falling more than a few inches, after the rope or 
chain is broken, and the stop is at the same time so complete, that no danger is to be 
feared from any recoil. In an experiment made at Usworth Colliery, Durham— the cage, 
containing two tubs loaded with coal, the whole weight of cage, tubs and coal, being 
48 cwt. — when the rope was disengaged, the apparatus instantaneously took eflfect, and 
the whole mass was firmly fixed to the guide-rods. On another occasion, at the same 
colliery, the cage, with a total weight of 50 cwt., was safely arrested in its descent, which, 
but for the " safety" arrangement, must have been precipitated to the bottom of the shaft, 
1,000 feet below. But this was not all : two of the workmen then placed themselves in 
the cage, and by a touch of their hands, stopped this weight of 50 cwt. and themselves 
in addition, instantaneously; and so satisfied were four of the gentlemen present of 
its efficient nature, that they unhesitatingly committed themselves with a load of upwards 
of 40 cwt., to its protecting operations, with the same successful results. Another arrange- 
ment has been introduced, by which the casualties arising from the rope being drawn over 
the pulley are entirely prevented. It must be understood that this apparatus is perfectly, 
self-acting, and that the greater the weights which may be in the cage, the tighter do 
the wedges hold upon the guide-rods, in the event of any accident taking place. The 
inventors of such an apparatus are well deserving of a " civic crown." 

Suspension-Bridge over the Dnieper. — This model, by Mr. James, of Broadwall, South- 
wark, gave an accurate idea of the stupendous works erected over the river Dnieper, 
by command of the Emperor of Russia. It was designed by Mr. C. VignoUes, and is 
the counterpart of a similar model made for the emperor, at a cost of more than 
jE12,000. Considered as a work of great engineering skill, it was the most perfect thing 
in the whole building. Only fancy the difierence between the state of Russia — by no 
means a first-class nation — now-a-days, and its condition when Peter the Great came to 
England for information, and worked as a ship's carpenter in Plymouth dockyard ! And 
these improvements come not out of a spirit of conciliation existing among the nobles of 
the imperial court, but are thrust on its attention by the irresistible force of that pro- 
gressive feeling, which has found a voice even among the serfs of South Russia. 
Nicholas the First may not know the fact — but it is nevertheless a fact — that in building 
the suspension-bridge over the Dnieper at Kiefij he is not only providing his subjects 
with a safe and commodious means of passage over the deep and rapid river, but that he 
is advancing the cause of science and liberty all over the world. The suspension-bridge, 
a quarter of a mile long, in place of the crazy erection of boats hitherto employed, is only 
another instance of the march of mind, and the supremacy of nineteenth century civilisa- 
tion. As to the model itself, it will be sufficient to say that it was constructed on a scale 
of an eighth of an inch ; aU the details were finished with such nicety, even to the size 
of the bolts and chains, that a perfect bridge on a large scale might have been executed 
from it ; and that it consisted of 6,880 pieces of wood and 87,097 separate pieces of metal. 
The Emperor of Russia was so pleased with the model, of which this was a fac-simile, that 
he gave Mr. James a diamond ring, said to be worth £200. It is now set up in the 
winter garden of St. Petersburg. The models of the great Britannia Tubular-bridge, 
connecting the island of Anglesea with the main land, and that of Mr. Brunei's bridge 
over the Wye, were extremely interesting ; the first especially, as forming part of our 
great net- work of railways which are rapidly intersecting the country. 

Salter's Model of the Great Opening Bridge at Selby. — Amongst the interesting models 
exhibited, that by Salter of the great opening bridge at Selby, on the line of the Hull 
and Selby Railway, was particularly worthy of notice, the work represented being of so 


novel a cliaractet, on account of its large span. The river Ouse is at all times rapid,, 
and particularly so during the times of the frequent freshes or floods; it required, 
therefore, that a bridge of peculiar construction should be resorted to, in order to meet 
the requirements of the case. By the act of parliament for the Hull and Selby 
Railway, which obtained the sanction of the legislature in 1836, it was stipulated" that 
the bridge at Selby should have an opening arch of forty-four feet span, for the sea-borne 
vessels trading to York. Messrs. Walker and Burges, who have erected so many of the 
cast-iron bridges which are dotted about in different parts of the kingdom, were engineers 
for the railway ; the bridge, therefore, was executed under their direction ; the contract 
for the iron work being undertaken by the Butterfly Iron Company, and carried out 
with the usual spirit displayed by that firm. The river, at the point of crossing, is 
about 200 feet in width and, at low water, fourteen feet in depth, the tide rising nine feet 
at springs and four feet at neaps. The bed of the river consists of silt, resting on a thin 
bed of sand, beneath which is clay of a hard quality. The bridge was commenced in the 
autumn of 1837, and finished in the spring of 1840. The land abutments are con- 
structed of brickwork and masonry, resting on piles ; those under the west abutment 
„being eighteen feet, and those under the opposite abutment, twenty-eight feet long 
respectively. The intermediate piers for the support of the superstructure are formed of 
open pile work, the piles being driven fifteen feet into the solid clay, and their tops 
surmounted with cap sills of large scantling, upon which the iron-work is bedded. To 
give additional stiffness to the two centre piers, a plan was resorted to in the bracing, 
which, although novel in itself, was executed with very little difficulty, and is found, after 
years of experience, fully to answer the purpose. This was effected by rounding the 
centre piles for a portion of their length, so as to allow the cast-iron sockets to descend 
and take a solid bearing on the square shoulders of the piles, to which were connected 
the long timber braces; so that when the socket, with the braces attached, were let 
down to their bearings, the tops of these braces were brought to their places at once, and 
secured to the cap sills. 

Stephenson's Britannia Bridge. — The model executed by James, of Broadwall, was to 
a scale ; all the parts bore an exact proportion to things as they were. The bridge 
consisted of two tubes, forming the up and down lines ; and each tube was made of 
four different parts, namely, two land tubes, of 230 feet span each, and two centre 
tubes, of 460 feet span ; when these had been raised to their proper position on the piers 
(at a height of 103 feet above high- water mark,) they were joined together to form one. 
The total weight of the two tubes was about 11,000 tons. In the model, one tube was 
shown complete, stretching across the Straits ; and the land tubes having been built on 
scaffolding in the position they now occupy, the scaffolding was shown. Tlie two central 
portions of the second tube illustrated the transits of the tubes from the platforms on 
which they were built, to their ultimate destination on the piers ; one tube was shown 
being floated to the basement of the piers, and the other in the act of being raised by the 
hydraulic presses. 

The Railway Bridge over the Wye, at Chepstow, by Brunei, was a novelty in engineering. 
It was composed entirely of wrought-iron. One span was 300 feet, and the others 100. 
The principle of construction adopted in spanning the 300 feet, seems to have been that 
of an extravagant trelhs ; the principle of the trellis was of the same character as the 
Britannia tubes or any other beams or girders, — that is, the top was subject to compres- 
sion, and the bottom to extension. This bridge had two lines for the up and down trains. 
The span of 300 feet consisted of two huge trussed girders, the bottom of each being 
composed of two simple wrought-iron beams, which resist tension, and between which 
one of the lines ran these beams being formed of boiler-plate and riveted together. These 


two girders were supported at two points, 100 feet apart from each end, from a wrought- 
iron tube above, which stretched across the whole span, and this tube resisted the com- 
pression. Tins tube also was raised at a considerable elevation above the bottom 
girders, so that the weight, such as trains, &c., passing along the line, might be 
properly resolved or distributed over the tube by means of the tye-rods and stays: the 
lUU teet spans being crossed simply by \(^ought-iron beams. 

Stephenson's High-level Bridge, at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, was also exhibited in model, 
by Hawks and Co., who were contractors for the iron-work. The banks of the Tyne 
, oL** Newcastle and Gateshead, are exceedingly steep, and are connected by a viaduct! 
1,375 feet m length, running at a height of 112 feet above high-water mark. There are 
six principal openings, each of 126 feet span. The principle of construction is the bow and 
string; the arches, which form the bow, are of cast-iron, and the rods, which form the 
strings, are of wrought-iron, to resist tension; there are four arches to each span, two on 
each side; which bear properly on the piers, through the medium of bed-plates, on which 
the arches rest ; and the strings of each arch consist of two wrought-iron rods, keyed to 
the arches of the abutments. Cast-iron columns, connected to the arches, support a 
platform above, on which three sets of rails are laid, and they also support another platform 
below for a carriage-road, the footpaths running between the two arches on each side ; 
this road, in fact, runs along the strings, but has no connexion with them ; the arches 
take the whole weight of both platforms, above and below, leaving the strings independent, 
to resist only the tension. The iron-work required the adjustment of an immense 
number of parts ; yet no joints, and hardly any fastenings are to be seen ; in fact, it 
is diflScult to make out how it has been put together. 

Ouse-burn Viaduct.— Kmongst other objects of interest exhibited by B. Green, of 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, was a model of the central arch of the Ouse-burn viaduct, on the 
Newcastle and North Shields Railway ; the arches were of timber, built up of layers or 
planks sufficiently thin to allow being bent to the required sweep. The arch having thus 
been built up to the required size, was bound together by iron straps, bolts, &c. It was 
then scientifically strutted, to resist and distribute the thrust properly. 

Shields' Models of Bridges, &c., from New South Wales, were exhibited in the 
colonial department. These engineering contrivances are especially suitable for New 
South Wales, where, the cost of iron-work being very considerable, the engineer has to 
economise to the utmost extent the use of this valuable material, and in cases, where 
practicable, to dispense with it altogether. Mr. Shields' model of a " lattice bridge," 
and also that of a " railway trestle frame," were of the latter character ; and were, 
therefore, suitable for many other parts of the world — New Zealand, for instance, which 
abounds with valuable timber, suitable for bridges and similar works. The American 
engineers have long paid considerable attention to the best disposition of timbers in the 
construction of their bridges and extensive railway viaducts ; and these have been 
followed, to some extent, both in the railways of England and Ireland. Mr. Shields' 
lattice bridge is of round timber, thus getting rid of much expense in the shape of 
labour, and also in the entire absence of iron fastenings. The model consisted of three 
lines of vertical round timbers, properly notched, and having two perforations to receive 
the horizontal timbers. Between each pair of vertical timbers were two diagonal pieces, 
resting at the bottom on cross-timbers, and framed into the vertical timbers at the top. 
There were three double sets of horizontal timbers, the upper ones supporting the joists 
placed transversely, and to which the floor-boards were secured. These joists projected 
on either side of the bridge, in order to gain additional width of roadway ; a wooden 
railing, properly strutted, completing the whole. The "railway trestle frame" was 
intended specially as a substitute for embankments in countries where labour is dear 

VOL. II. 2 o 


and timber plentiful. The framing was similar to that of the lattice bridge. A third 
model showed Mr. Shields' economical method of laying the rails in New South Wales, 
which is the same as that adopted in the north of England, and to a great extent in 
America ; but the peculiar mode of placing the rails and securing them to the timbers 
were the novel parts of the design. 

Model of the Falls of Niagara. — Among the various models found in several parts 
of the Great Exhibition, was one of the Falls of Niagara, which deservedly attracted a 
large share of public attention. This model was transferred by Mr. Catlin, from his 
collection of American Indian productions, and faithfully represented the " Horse shoe" 
and American Falls (the former descending 150 feet, and the latter 163 feet). The 
various mills, hotels, residences, roads and Goat Island, extending to seventy-five acres, 
embraced an extent of country equal to nearly a square mile ; and, being constructed to 
the scale of ninety feet to an inch, every object was very distinctly shown. The amount 
of water descending over the two falls is said to be equal to 1,715,000 tons per minute, 
and which is chiefly derived from the drainage of Lake Superior, Lake of the Woods, 
Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie. The sublime and reverential 
feelings the object itself inspires, are finely set forth in the following stanzas, written on 
the spot, on beholding it for the first time, by that intrepid traveller, James Silk 
Buckingham, who has left scarcely any part of the civilised globe unvisited; and who, 
wherever he has turned his steps, has always made the existing condition of the human 
race the subject of his most eager enquiries, as its advancement and happiness have 
ever been the objects of his unwearied benevolence. 

Hail ! sovereign of the world of floods, whose majesty and might, 
First dazzles, then enraptures, then o'erawes the aching sight. 
The pomp of kings and emperors, in every clime and zone, 
Grows dim beneath the splendour of thy glorious watery throne. 

No fleets can stop thy progress, no armies bid thee stay — 

But onward, onward, onward, thy march still holds its way. 

The rising mist that veils thee, as thine herald goes before ; 

And the music that proclaims thee, is the thundering cataract's roar. 

Thy diadem is an emerald green, of the clearest, purest hue. 
Set round with waves of snow-white foam, and spray of feathery dew ; 
While tresses of the brightest pearls float o'er thine ample sheet. 
And the rainbow lays its gorgeous gems in tribute at thy feet. 

Thy reign is of the ancient days, thy sceptre from on high, 
Thy birth was when the morning stars together sung for joy. 
The sun, the moon, and all the orbs that shine upon thee now 
Saw the first wreath of glory that entwined thine infant brow. 

And from that hour to this, in which I gaze upon thy stream, 
From age to age in winter's frost, or summer's sultry beam. 
By day, by night, without a pause, thy waves, with loud acclaim. 
In ceaseless sounds have still proclaimed the great Eternal's name. 

And whether on thy forest banks the Indian of the wood. 
Or, since his days, the red man's foe on his fatherland hath stood ; 
Who'er hath seen thine incense rise, or heard thy torrent's roar. 
Must have bent before the God of all, to worship and adore. 

Accept then, Supremely Great ! Infinite ! O God ! 

From this primeval altar, the green and virgin sod. 

The humble homage that my soul in gratitude would pay 

To Thee ! whose shield has guarded me in all my wandering way. 


For if the ocean be as naught in the hollow of thine hand, 

And the stars of the bright firmament, in thy balance grains of sand : 

If Niagara's rolling ilood seem great to us who lowly bow, 

Oh ! great Creator of the whole, how passing great art Thou ! 

But though thy power be greater than the finite mind may scan. 
Still greater is thy mercy, shown to weak, dependent man — 
For him Thou cloth'st the fertile fields, with herb, and fruit, and seed. 
For him, the woods, the lakes, the seas, supply his hourly need. 

Around, on high, or far, or near, the universal whole 
Proclaims thy glory, as the orbs in their fixed courses roll ; 
And from Creation's grateful voice the hymn ascends above, 
While Heaven re-echoes back to Earth, the chorus, ' God is Love. 







moulenboegh's CANDELABEUM. 

The Railway Printing Ticket. — What a simple thing is a railway ticket ! merely a square 
inch of cardboard, coloured blue, white, or green, as the case may be, with certain caba- 
listic figures across its face, and the names of the towns of departure and arrival printed 
thereon ! Passengers by railway — and they are numbered, now-a-days, by tens of thou- 
sands — step from their cabs or omnibuses, not always without a dispute with the driver, 
pass into the station, walk up to the counter, pay their money, and receive, in return, 
the little ticket before mentioned. How few travellers by rail ever bethought themselves 
how that ticket was produced. To be sure, they saw the station clerk pass a piece 
of pasteboard into a sort of iron cylinder, heard a sharp click, and the next instant saw 
the ticket skimming across the counter towards them, by means of au ofi&cial filhp, 
acquired by long practice ; but of the ticket itself they knew nothing, and, of course, 
cared nothing about it, except as to its actual use. The piece of paper which is to frank 
them aU the way to Liverpool, Edinburgh, Ireland, or elsewhere, is shown to the guard 
in waiting, as soon as the passengers by that train are seated and ready to start ; is passed 
into a side-pocket, or watch-fob, if the passenger happen to be a gentleman, or carefully 
deposited in a purse or a glove, if the aforesaid passenger be a lady'; and is altogether 
forgotten by the habitues of railways, or nervously felt for, and looked at every now and 
then, by the noviciates in travelling experiences, till it is peremptorily called for at the 
end of the journey — "Get your tickets ready!" "Your ticket, ma^am, if you please," is the 
porter's manner to the first-class passengers; "Ticket, sir," is the style of that official to 
travellers by the second-class; and "Now, then, tickets!" the ordinary phrase and 
demeanour adopted towards the riders in parliamentary trains, or the open cattle-trucks, 
popularly known as the third class. All have their tickets, and all the tickets are 
alike in form and substance, difiering only in colour and numbering. Let us look to the 


antecedents of these interesting bits of paper. In the infancy of railway travelling — and 
even now on some small branches — the passenger-tickets were slips of paper torn from a 
cheque-book and given to the purchaser, to be delivered up to the guard at the end of the 
journey. This plan was soon found to be inconvenient ; as, although the tickets were 
made to correspond with the counterfoil in the book, a vast deal of small peddling, no little 
purloining by the officials themselves, and many mistakes were continually occurring. To 
avoid all this, the machine at present in use was invented. By it, all the tickets are 
numbered consecutively from one to any determinate number. The money taken at 
each station should correspond with the tickets collected at night; and if the chain 
in the numbering of the latter be broken, then it is known that there is a ticket lost, 
or that the guard in attendance has neglected to collect it; on the contrary, if the 
number of tickets exceeds the amount, then it is certain that some individual must 
have taken a ride without paying for it, through some collusion with the money-takers 
or guards. In these cases, the money-takers are held responsible. Suppose the tickets 
issued on, say June 1st, run from 1,500 to 3,500, and a ticket is discovered with 750 
marked on it, which will correspond with a number missing from the previous day's 
reckoning, then it is discovered at once that some person has travelled twice with the 
same ticket ; and the poor fellow whose duty it is to take the passengers' tickets, is 
punished for not having exercised proper vigilance, by having to pay the amount of 
the deficiency out of his own pocket. It is interesting to know that all these mistakes 
are now rendered of very rare occurrence, and that the loss of tickets by pilfering 
or collusion is made next to impossible by the invention of this admirable machine — 
which not only cuts millboards into the proper sizes for railway tickets, but prints, 
numbers, counts, and packs them as well. The consecutive numbering of the tickets 
is managed by an automatic wheel, which changes the numbers from one to 9999 without 
any attention on the part of the workman. The reason for thus consecutively numbering 
the tickets is in order to avoid forgery and the purloining of the tickets from the cabinets 
in which they are kept. As a clerk removes a ticket, previous to dating it he always 
looks at the preceding ticket to see if the numbers correspond, that he may know if any 
have been stolen. When the tickets are collected at the end of the journey they are 
again arranged numerically, as has been before stated; and thus all chance of wrong-doing 
is prevented. "Where there is little temptation, there is little crime. This machine is 
now in use on several of the large railway lines. 

Curious facts connected with the Exhibition. — Of the money received at the doors, 
£275,000 was in silver, and £81,000 in gold. The weight of the silver coin so taken (at 
the rate of 38 lb. per JlOO) would be thirty-five tons, and its bulk 900 cubit feet ! The 
rapid flow of the coin into the hands of the money-takers prevented all examination of 
each piece as it was received, and Jt90 of bad silver was taken, but only one piece of 
bad gold, and that was a half-sovereign. The half-crown was the most usual bad coin ; 
but a much more noticeable fact is, that nearly all the bad money was taken on the 
half-crown and five shilling days. The cash was received by eighteen money-takers : on 
the very heavy days six extra ones being employed during the busiest hours. From 
them it was gathered by three or four money-porters, who carried it to four collectors, 
charged with the task of counting it. From them it went to two tellers, who verified the 
sums, and handed it to the final custody of the chief financial officer, Mr. Carpenter, 
who locked each day's amount in his peculiar iron chests in the buildin"' till next 
morning, when, in boxes, each holding £600, it was borne off in a hackney cab, in 
charge of a bank of England clerk and a bank porter. The money was received in aU 
forms, ranging between farthings and ten pound notes. Contrary to the notices exhibited, 
change was given. Occasionally foreigners gave Napoleons, and these coins being mistaken 








W«r'''ir "^^^ ""'/r^ ^^"'*Tf "^ l^'^^""^' °^*' ^^^ liberty of admission into the 
anffikn The monies of America, Hamburg, Germany, and France, were often tendered 

e/fesSse." ''''"''' '"''*°''' *^^ ^'* °^ ^^^ ^'^ *^^ ^^'^ ^^ O''*"^^^ ^^« 

pl,St ?."'""'* iJ'-aM^w^-raom «^ the Crystal Palace.-This elegant little apartment was 
S^r ^fl,n^%v, /'"V'P"'*^'"^' the interior being lined with pale blue and white 
silk, fluted. The furniture was of a very costly character, combining lightness of 
appearance with splendour of effect. The sofa and chairs were carved and gilt, and 
covered ^'th hght blue silk damask. The carpet, of rich Brussels, was a flowered pattern, 
llowers, tastefolly disposed, lent their aid to give a pleasing and lively effect to the 
picture. In the rear of the principal room was a smaller, apartment, separated from 
it merely by a draped partition, in which was a handsome cheval glass,, in a gilt frame 
and stand. Crowds of persons daily thronged to view this little bijou of a boudoir— at a 
respecttuJ distance, however— a cordon being drawn around it, guarded by a policeman. 
'■ IVardmn Cases.— In various parts of the Great Exhibition building, were to be seen 
live plants, growing, in some instances, under handsome glass shades, and in other cases 
m glass frames, of so unprepossessing an appearance that one might naturally be at a loss 
to account for the reason why objects so uninteresting had been sent to the "World's 
Jbair. ' These contrivances are called Wardian cases; it having been first discovered by 
Mr. Ward, that by them plants can be transported to and from distant regions of the 
globe, and also that by their aid the Londoner can succeed in growing a few flowers to 
cheer his habitation. Some years ago we remember to have seen the vessel about 
to start to survey the settlement of Adelaide, in Australia, and we were miicb delighted 
to see two or three of these cases filled with small gooseberry and currant trees, in order 
that the emigrants might enjoy those delicious fruits which we have in such perfection in 
this country; and now not a week passes but ships arrive bringing plants from the 
remotest habitable regions in these Wardian cases, which have thus conferred upon us a 
power of procuring exotic vegetable productions, which before their introduction was 
never possessed. These cases formed, as it were, a little world of themselves, in which, 
those who cultivate plants might observe many peculiarities. From being closed, the heat 
of the sun bestowed upon them a very high temperature at times, and the hygrometric 
state of the atmosphere within varied according to circumstances, in a manner which 
interested the cultivator of plants, and gave him ample means to exercise his, observation 
and talent. In London but very few plants will thrive. The Oriental plane rears its 
head in the heart of the City, in Cheapside, and forms a stately tree. RusseJi-square and 
Guildford-street exhibit, also, noble specimens of this beautiful tree; but coining into 
leaf late, and shedding its foliage early, it is not so susceptible of those influences which 
injure other plants. The lime-tree will also partially flourish; and in the very centre 
of the bank two noble and ancient limes shade the parlour from the scorching sun of 
summer, and yearly east forth delicious perfume from abundant flowers. With these 
exceptions, flowers and vegetable productions can scarcely be cultivated in London, except 
with the aid of a Ward''s case. Residing in the very centre of the metropolis,. we now 
write with two beautiful Ward's cases before us, which exhibit the most luxuriant foliage. 
In these cases we have at this moment the beautiful wax plant, or Hoy a carnosa, in 
abundant flower. We have recently introduced the newly imported and lovely Hoya bella, 
which is also now in flower ; and the odoriferous Francisea Hopeana is always ready to 
refresh us by its scent, on opening the door of the case. We have five species of 
Lycopodia, which gratify the eye by their luxuriant green; iand no less than fifteen or 
sixteen species of exotic ferns gladden the sight by their charming forms, their verdant 
foliage, and luxuriant appearance. The leaves of the ilf «?•««/« bicolor, never soiled by 



wet, are of surpassiug beauty; and several species of Achemenes are rapidly growing to 
display their brilliant colours in the latter part of summer. Many of our plants have 
been in their present situation for ten years. In one of the cases exhibited, was a 
specimen of the celebrated Irish fern growing in full health, and the lovely little 
Tunbridge Wells' filmy fern also luxuriating. Our country friends will, doubtless, be 
much surprised when they are told that a small plant of the former fern, which grows 
wild in the British isles, fetches from ten to thirty shillings in London. The sale of 
ferns and native orchids has become a trade in London. Mr. Marshall has lately con- 
structed a Wardian aquatic case, wherein he grows many curious plants; and the 
miniature pond is overhung by ferns, which, doubtless, will thrive weU in that situation. 
By simply preventing the access of the London smoke to injure the leaves, we have this 
year succeeded in growing cucumbers in the very centre of the metropolis; showing 
what may be effected when the deleterious gases which emanate from the combustion of 
coal are prevented from exercising their baneful influence. 

Fox's Magnetised Balance. — One of the most interesting objects in the department of 
philosophical instruments, was Fox's magnetised balance, capable, as was stated, of 
weighing to the , oiuo ^h of a grain : what was the extreme weight which it would 
bear was not mentioned. The most delicate balance previously in existence, that of the 
Institute of France, turns we believe, with the , „'„ ^th of a grain. Various othjer chemical 
balances, as by De Grave and Co., and especially one by Oertling (performing to the 
— oVoth of a grain, when loaded with 1000 grains, or -rooooooth of the entire weight), 
was also worthy of notice. Several balances of foreign make (Lumhe of Berlin) 
seemed very carefully executed. It is to be regretted that these and various other 
articles for scientific purposes of foreign make could not have had their prices affixed for 
the information of the apparatus-buying public in England. 

India-rubber Air-gun. — Among the newly invented articles which the Exhibition 
enabled inventors to bring before the public — although they were not so numerous as 
they would have been, had a system of protection for inventions been assured at an 
earlier period — there were some which displayed a considerable amount of ingenuity. As 
an instance, we may mention the new India-rubber air-gun which was exhibited in class 
eight, and bearing the catalogue number, 254. It was the invention of Mr. John Shaw, 
musical-instrument maker of Glossop, favourably known as the author of one or two 
important improvements in wind instruments. The great singularity of the new air-gun 
consisted in the entire absence of air-pump, reservoir, and valves, which in the commou 
air-gun are attended by no small amount of trouble, and some personal danger. The 
air which expelled the ball was powerfully compressed at the moment of discharge, by a 
piston acting within a cylinder, and moved with great force and rapidity by the sudden 
contraction of a spring, composed of a number of vulcanised India-rubber rings, previously 
extended by hand in a very simple and easy manner ; and the ball was propelled with a 
force quite equal to that exerted in the common air-gun. It had this advantage, also, 
that its discharges were always uniform in strength, and could be made with great 
precision, facility, and safety. Specimens of flattened bullets were exhibited in the case, 
which shewed its power to be fully equal to the average shots of the ordinary air-gun. 

The invention was certainly a most ingenious application of the elastic force of 
vulcanised India-rubber, an article which possesses so many useful qualities, and the 
application of which, to a vast variety of purposes, is now so general and progressive. 

G. R. Smith's Comic Electric Telegraph. — Among the telegraphs exhibited in that 
portion of the middle, gallery north of the British side of the nave, which was appro- 
priated to philosophical instruments, one was always sure to attract the attention of 
those who chose to pause to examine the numerous examples of the application of 


electricity, to_ the trausmission of signals between distant places. Surely, the inventor 
of this contrivance — called a comic electric telegraph — must have determined in his 
own mind to produce an instrument, at any rate, in external appearance, wholly different 
from anything of the kind which had previously appeared. In this he has certainly 
succeeded ; but we are not at present prepared to say to what extent a communication, 
by this instrument, may be transmitted. As the inventor truly says, the instrument 
would, no doubt, prove an amusing and instructive addition to the ornaments of the 
drawing-room, as it might be used to illustrate the principle of magnetic induction. The 
action on the eyes and mouth of the comic face was produced by three bent iron bars 
within the figure, which were rendered magnetic by induction, and attracted either of 
the features, by means of armatures attached thereto. In addition to these novel signals, 
there were also the signs — , +, \, by which not only all the letters of the alphabet 
were represented, but also the end of each word and sentence respectively properly 
indicated. These signals were shown by the elevation of shutters above the face. As 
each of the bars were capable of being separately magnetised, either of the signals could 
be shown at the will of the manipulator, by touching the corresponding key in front of 
the figure. The telegraphic alphabet of Mr. Smith was made up of combinations of 
lines and crosses, and was, therefore, rather of a retrograding character as regards this 
important branch of telegraphy, which has been sadly neglected by most of the inventors 
of telegraphs. A bell, used to call attention, was placed inside the figure. 

Fire -extinguishing Ceiling. — This automatic contrivance was exhibited by Mr. Bergin, 
for extinguishing fires in laundries, and other parts of a building, specially liable 
to such accidents. The inventor proposes to have a large tank, containing water, fixed at 
the top of the room ; this tank to be perforated with holes, and to be fitted with a valve 
plug, like a shower bath ; the plug to be held down by a string, to be fixed near the 
most combustible materials ; in case of fire, the string would be burnt, the plug would 
rise, and a deluge of water would be showered down on the incipient conflagration. 

Spitalfields Silk Trophy. — It was intended at first that the silks of Spitalfields should 
be contributed by various manufacturers ; and that exhibitors in this class should unite 
in forming a great silken trophy emblematical of their trade. This arrangement, however, 
was found difficult to carry out, and Messrs. Keith and Co., as manufacturers of the 
largest kind of silk goods, for damasks, &c., undertook to provide sufficient materials to 
form a splendid type of the metropolitan silk looms. This was in every way an inter- 
esting object; for it showed at one view the industrial products of the Spitalfields 
weavers, the descendants of those poor French emigrants whom the revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes drove to our shores — then, as now, the refuge of the destitute and the 
oppressed of all nations. It consisted of an elegant arrangement of silk brocades, , 
tabarets, damasks, brocatelles, &c., to the height of upwards of fifty feet ; the sides of the 
lower part being intersected with mirrors of immense dimensions, which reflected in 
certain angles the draped and curtain-like arrangement of the rich and gorgeous 
materials, — the whole producing an effect at once grand and imposing. The trophy 
was erected under the superintendence of Mr. George Wallis, the superintendent of textile 
fabrics whose original drawings and suggestions were ably carried out and extended by 
Messrs. Laugher, Dyer, and Co., of Poland-street, Soho, to whom great merit was due for 
the tasteful and elegant design presented to the pubUc. It was surmounted by flags and 
emblems, the centre banner being emblazoned with the royal arms ; and not the least 
merit of this elegant arrangement of rich materials was that, by means of interior steps 
and ladders, the whole might be taken down and re-arranged at intervals with compa- 
ratively little trouble or expense.. 

The Fur and Feather Trophies. — The former exhibited by Messrs. Nicolay, and the 


latter by Mr. Adcock, were very attractive, if only for the extreme beauty and intrinsic 
value of the articles themselves. But considered in another light, and viewed as the pro- 
ducts of labour — as the rewards for the hunter's toil in deep, rugged forests, or along the 
banks of unknown and dangerous streams — these trophies became significant. Suspended 
from the walls might also be seen numerous specimens of magnificent furs, the outer 
coverings of numerous varieties of animals. 

The Ladies' Carpet. — This praiseworthy specimen of needlework, the joint production 
of a number of our fair countrywomen, was [placed in the left-hand north gallery, just 
above the crystal fountain, and afibrded a valuable testimony of the profitable employ- 
ment of their leisure hours. They were assisted in their labours by a small committee 
of gentlemen, who, with Mr. Papworth, the architect, produced a most beautiful design. 
The carpet was exhibited at the rooms of the Society of Arts, when tiie ladies who had 
assembled to inspect the work unanimously pronounced it to be worthy of presentation 
to Her Majesty. Mr. Francis Fuller, the chairman of the committee, was therefore 
deputed to learn Her Majesty's pleasure on the subject, and the result was that he 
had the honour of introducing the Misses Lawrence, Marshall, Cubitt, Simpson, Witten, 
and Fuller, being a deputation from the lady executants, to Her Majesty, to whom the 
carpet was presented. The following address was read by Miss Lawrence, who was 
selected by the deputation to fill the office of spokeswoman: — "May it please your 
Majesty — On the part of the ladies of Great Britain, we humbly present for your 
gracious acceptance a specimen of the work that employs the leisure time of our country- 
women. It was commenced with a wish that their skill should have been represented at 
the Industrial Exhibition of all Nations, but the opinions expressed of their work have so 
far exceeded their expectations, that they are led to trust it is not unworthy of your 
Majesty's favourable notice. It is hoped that it illustrates an elegant, branch of 
British industry and taste, and that it develops a source of manufacture which may afford 
employment to many, especially to those on whom the hand of adversity has been laid. 
The names of the ladies who have taken a part in the work will be found in the 
accompanying list, and their initials form the border of the carpet. With deep and 
loyal feelings of gratitude for the noble patronage bestowed on British industry, particularly 
in the present year, we offer this specimen of a work of art fit for your Majesty's gracious 
acceptance." Here followed the list of the subscribers and executants. Her Majesty 
was graciously pleased to express her acceptance of the carpet, and also her satisfaction 
at the careful manner in which the ladies had executed the work. The carpet consisted 
of a large pattern worked out in Berlin wool, by a hundred and fifty ladies of Great 
Britain. It was thirty feet in length and twenty in breadth, and was produced in the 
following manner : — The pattern, originally designed and painted by the artist, was 
subdivided into detached squares, which were worked by different ladies, and on their 
completion the squares were reunited so as to complete the design. In the pattern, 
which consisted partly of geometrical and partly of floral forms, heraldic emblems were 
also introduced. The initials of the executants were ornamentally arranged, so as to 
form the external border. The whole design was connected by wreaths or bands of 
leaves and foliage, the centre group representing the store from whence they had been 
distributed. This beautiful specimen of ladies' work was exhibited by Her Majesty. 

Facey's Orrery. — This ingenious piece of mechanism was designed to assist students 
of astronomy, and was nine feet in diameter. It represented the principal bodies in the 
solar system, and showed all the planets and their attendant satellites revolvino- round 
the sun in their proper order. To effect this in the machine, it was necessary to employ 
no fewer than 194 accurately adjusted wheels to other apparatus fitted up on a new 
principle. In the limited space within which the exemplifications were confined, it was 


of course, impossible to show either the comparative sizes or distances of the heavenly 
bodies. The orrery, however, gave a general idea of the relative positions and revolu- 
tions of the planets and satellites, whilst a gentleman attended and gave a description 
of some particulars relating to them. The inventor was a Mr. Facey, who, we under- 
stand, IS a working man, who, by becoming a member of the Temperance Societv, felt it 
necessary to do something to fill up the vacancy of his idle hours. Accordingly^ he was 
led to the study of astronomy, and this was the result of his labour and ingenuity. 

Self-acting Fire Alarum and Railway Whistle.— This was an invention by Mr. D. 
Lloyd Price, a watchmaker of Breconshire, the novelty of which consisted of an extremely 
delicate and sensitive expanding compound metallic segment, which might be adjusted 
to suit any temperature by means of a small screw. The exhibitor deposited two of his 
instruments in the Exhibition, one of which was removed, by permission of the com- 
missioners, to Somerset House, where it was tested by being placed in a room containing 
about 3,000 cubic feet of air. The machine being adjusted a few degrees above the 
temperature in the room, a sheet of paper was ignited, and was found sufiicient to raise 
the temperature so as to set the alarum in motion. The mechanism of the instrument 
consisted simply of a pulley and weight, and a small lever, which was detached by a helix, 
the whole being enclosed in a small case about 15 by 18 inches, including the small 
permanent voltaic battery; and, when once fixed, the inventor states that it would 
not requira to be touched for years, and would always remain like a sentinel ready 
charged, giving instantaneous notice of the approach of the enemy. One of these 
instruments is sufficient for a whole building, containing any number of rooms, and it 
may be fixed in any convenient position for alarming the inmates or police in the event 
of an unusual increase of temperament in any part of the edifice. It is also applicable 
to the holds of vessels, where, in long voyages, spontaneous combustion and other 
accidents by fire are likely to happen. The same principle of construction was applied to 
the steam-whistle invented by the exhibitor, and may be adapted to steam vessels, or 
railway carriages. 

Graphic Delineation. — It is to the general public that the producer of every article of 
utility turns for encouragement and support — and it is therefore in the hands of the great 
body of purchasers that the fate of artistic design as applied to manufactures lies. By 
their judgment, whether good or bad, the key must be given, in harmony with which the 
artist and the workman must tune their inspirations. Many, we have little doubt, first 
turned their attention to their responsibilities in this matter on the occasion of their 
repeated visits to the galleries of the Crystal Palace. There, probably for the first 
time, they entered on the task of selection in a serious spirit. Actual comparison fur- 
nished them with an unerring test of excellence ; and many a lesson on the combination 
of utility and beauty was doubtless there intuitively acquired. The forms of many of the 
objects displayed were thus imprinted on their imaginations, as standards wherewith 
to compare others on which their faculties as judicious purchasers might be sub- 
sequently exercised. It is not to be expected, however, that the ideas thus formed could 
be otherwise than crude and imperfect; and it is fortunate that the power of graphic 
illustration which is now, happily, so universal amongst us, should bring to their aid the 
materials requisite for fortifying their memories and reviving their original impressions. 
Who that remembers the costly engravings which illustrate such works as Stuart and 
Eevett's " Athens," and the early publications of the Dilettanti Society and of the Society 
of Antiquaries — and turns from them to that wonder of the nineteenth century, the 
" Illustrated London News" — can fail to recognise the remarkable extension of the power 
of graphic delineation in this country during the last hundred years ? Every draughts- 
man will at once acknowledge the impossibility of depicting rapidlv and correctly an 

VOL. II. 2 Q 


unceasing variety of subjects without the constant exercise of a nice power of dis- 
crimination between those peculiarities of form which confer either beauty or deformity 
on each different object. The plethora of sketching, which is the great characteristic of 
the present age, as compared with the habit of our forefathers, may be considered to 
amount almost to a mania; but, while it indicates the excitable temperament of a 
public ever craving after fresh food for imagination, it by no means implies the absence 
of that balance of judgment which should exist in every well-regulated mind. While the 
unceasing swarm of modern periodical publications ' accumulates from week to week, 
and almost from day to day, abundant material for the study of the artist, it ministers 
largely to the amusement of the public; and not to their amusement only — since it 
provides for those who are willing to use them, lessons of no slight importance. How 
many are there whose impressions of picturesque form are derived almost exclusively 
from these sources — the Protaean variety of which serves to demonstrate, that, when 
:treated by the artist's mind and touched by his skill, almost every diversity of style may 
be alike invested with the aspect of grace and beauty. 

A curious and perfectly unique collection of ivory carvin&s was furnished by 
W. D. Hemphill, M.D., Clonmel. Nothing could exceed the delicacy and grace of 
these specimens. We had a cup. covered with intricate tracery, and yet so miraculously 
thin in texture as to be quite transparent, and standing upon a stem reduced to the 
slenderness of a knitting-needle. A hyacinth stalk, with its pendant flowers and leaves 
carved into a. delicate and web-like tissue, that appeared absolutely evanescent, stood 
beside. It seemed as if a breath would dissolve them, so filmy were the ivory leaves,, thin 
as beater's gold, left by the laborious graver of the artist. The specimens were as 
beautiful in design as they were exquisite in workmanship. The following were among 
the most conspicuous: — An ivory vase, on an octagonal pillar, ornamented in the 
Elizabethan style. The pillar of this vase was double spiral, the outside perforated. 
It was the best thing in the case. A vase of Hippopotamus ivory, perforated, con- 
taining white single hyacinth and jonquil, and standing on a fluted pillar of walrus tooth. 
A vase of ivory on a walrus-tooth piUar, containing a fuchsia and a lily of the valley. 
The flowers in this and the preceding were accurately copied from nature. The piUar oJ 
the cup was the enamel of the walrus-tooth, which showed its great strength in being able 
to support the cup without losing its perpendicularity. We are not aware that this 
substance has hitherto been used for such purposes, as it is generally considered as 
valueless to the turner. A small cup of Hippopotamus ivory. One dozen dessert 
knife-handles of African ivory, each of a different pattern, and forming a harlequin set. 
A pastUe burner, of ivory and walrus-tooth, shaped like a Grecian temple. The altar was 
hollow : on being raised from its plinth a little silver dish appeared, in which was to be 
placed the lighted pastile, the smoke of which ascended as incense from the altar. A 
match-holder of African black-wood and ivory. A crochet needle, &c. 

The colossal Porphyry Vase graced the avenue of the eastern or foreign side of the 
Crystal Palace. It was, when exhibited, the property of the king of Sweden ; but it has 
since been presented by that monarch to the prince consort. It, together with a table 
with inlaid top composed of different descriptions of Swedish stones, was manufactured 
at the porphyry works at Elfdahl. These, with some carriages, a spinning-wheel, and 
other curious objects, formed the principal attractions of the closing days of the Ex- 
hibition — at least as far as the foreign half of the building was concerned. A large and 
magnificent Candelabrum, by MoUenborgh, althbagh perhaps not purely artistic, exhibited 
great originality. It consisted of a stem made to imitate that of a tree, on either side 
of which was sitting a knight in fuU northern hunting costume, with dog, gun, spear, and 
sword. On the upper part of the object, however, there was an addition never seen on 














a candlestick before, at least in England ; namely, a painting on glass. But notwith- 
standing the anomaly of such an addition, the effect was decidedly good. The picture 
represented the interior of a Swedish dwelling-house, with groups of figures variously 
employed, the frame being formed of the foliage of the tree beneath. The whole was 
formed in chiselled silver, and displayed considerable taste in execution, not to say 
genius in design. 






From the earliest history of painting, we learn that ar.tists were invariably in the habit of 
mixing their own colours and making their own brushes. This practice has continued 
within comparatively a few years of our own time. For information with reference to 
the former fact, we would refer to Mrs. Merrifield's elegant translation of Cennino 
Cennini's Treatise on Painting, which was contributed to our art literature in 1844, and 
deserves to be extensively known. There are but few, if any, of our artists who now 
grind or temper their colours, but they, on the contrary, prefer purchasing them from the 
colourmen ready for use. This practice forms a new era in art, and it may be one of 
considerable consequence to its progress. The artists, it must be admitted, thus gain 
some advantage over the old method ; although that knowledge of the properties of each 
colour, its durability or fugaciousness, with which the masters of old were necessarily 
acquainted, is by this course, in most cases, denied to the moderns. So seductive is this 
plan, that even the artists of Italy, of Holland, &c., have, upon their arrival in England, 
fallen into it. It is well known that Mr. Sang, amongst these, when he left Rome for 
England, partook of the system generally adopted here. This facility he found to his 
cost not always advisable with regard to every colour ; and he had to fall bank upon the 
practice of his native country, and that of many of his Munich brethren in art, and he 
prepares most of his media now himself, and hence that unrivalled brilliancy and trans- 
parency of tints as exemplified in all those of his works painted within the last six years. 
It may be questioned whether the performance of ancient pictures is not attributable to 
the elaborate inlight of their painters into the nature of the pigments they made use of; 
and, above all, to the simple manipulation of their works, and the few colours actually 
enlisted into their service. It is obvious that the number of colours since the time 
referred to has been considerably augmented ; and now, as may be seen by any list pro- 
curable at artists' warehouses, they amount to an aggregate almost sufficient to deter the 
beginner from entering the lists of art. To those who would wish to make themselves 
conversant with the several names and the properties of pigments, we would recommend 
an attentive study of Mr. Field's Chromatopography,ytho, to a profound chemical research 
into the capacities of all colours for good or ill, adds much information invaluable to artists. 
Upon matters of detail it must be obvious we should be necessarily terse; although it is 


difficultj at the same time, to confine ourselves to generalities where the subject is so 
replete and tempting; and therefore we plange at once in medias res. lb is then with 
"Artists' Implements" of our own period with which we have to deal, and as they were 
represented at the- Exhibition of which wp have to write. 

No. 1, in the Pine Art Court, showed us several contributions from Mr. T. Miller, 
of Long Acre. These consisted of specimens of paintings in " silica colours" and "glass 
medium," but which appeared to exemplify no one particular virtue unattainable by 
other pigments. Most of the pictures themselves, more particularly that of the " Genius 
of Peace," were distinguished for considerable ability in handling, and a correct pro- 
bationary course of study. In that of Mr. Corbould's " Britons deploring the Departure 
of the Romans," we fancy we detected amidst its "trick," more particularly in the 
orange mantle, in the surge of the sea, and on the shore, an indication of " body," and 
the presence of a medium which belongs less to the element of water, than to that of 
gums, resinous compounds, or of oil. As a work of art, we object not to the use of 
any extraneous aid ; we have to deal with it as an evidence of the powers of a particular 
and express fact ; and we could, therefore, have desired that, for the sake of art, that which 
appeals to us as possessing extraordinary claims upon attention, should have brought 
with it the first necessary proofs of superiority. The brushes in this case appeared 
admirably made ; and, in this respect, Mr. Miller, we believe, stands almost alone, having 
had a long practical experience in this branch of trade, which requires an intimate 
knowledge of the wants and caprices of the artist. 

Rowney and Co., of Rathbone-place. — These exhibitors savour a good deal of the fashion 
of the time, and gave us an almost bewildering classification of colours. Their dividing 
Naples yellow into tints is, however, a valuable exception, and their desire to supply 
the artist with a cheap, and, at the same time, a good article, is entitled to praise. 
W. H. Kearney, Brompton, gave examples of crayon painting, executed with his Venetian 
pastils, which are impervious to damp, and, therefore, adapted to many decorations 
hitherto beyond the reach of ordinary painting. Roberson and Co., of Long-acre, 
showed a very good selection of canvass painting-brushes, and pencils, which was indicative 
of a sterling respectability without meretricious allurement. The palette-knife, for placing 
the colour on the canvas or panel, without the aid of the brush, is a neat adaptation of 
the common trowel-handle, and will be found of much service, where boldness of 
impasto is required. There were several specimens of water-colours, in collapsible tubes, 
admirably adapted for sketching from nature; and a newly-invented oil sketch-book, 
very light and convenient, and which enables the sketcher to carry two wet paintings 
without injury. The prepared canvas in the same case was worthy of remark, from its 
being a successful attempt to give to that fabric the surface of fine panel. Messrs. 
Reeves and Sons, of Cheapside, contributed a case of some importance to artists, 
inasmuch as it contained the proofs of an eificient substitute for the far-famed black-lead 
mine of Cumberland, which is now thoroughly exhausted. It is well known, that, 
for all purposes having reference to art, this lead of Cumberland was unsurpassable ; 
that no other could compare with it in quality of colour, absence of grit, nor was any so 
easy to erase ; indeed, that no other yet found could be thus made use of in its natural 
state. That from the Balearic Islands is " cindery," that from Ceylon, though purer than 
any plumbago known, in the excess of its carbon, and the small portion of iron and 
earthy matter, is too soft and flaky; that termed Mexican is really produced from 
mines in Bohemia, and is also friable and earthy. Other varieties, from Sicily, from 
California, from Davis' Straits', and elsewhere, have been tried, but all have proved unfit 
for the use of the artist. Cumberland lead was the only black-lead that in its native 
state could be cut into slices; and thus be inserted into the channels of the cedar 


pencils; this being alone a remarkable test of its superior fitness as a native lead. 
The substitutes for Cumberland lead are manifold, some or all of the varieties of the 
leads before mentioned being worked into pencils variously designated " prepared/' 
" purified," or " composition." These different leads, by means of gums and resinous 
matters, are either kneaded in a plastic state and forced into the channels of the cedar 
wood, or more frequently combined and ground with substances with which they will 
bake to the required hardness, or with others which will fuse, and the mass solidify 
when cold. Lustre, intense colour, freedom in working, and ready erasure, Cumberland 
lead possessed in an eminent degree beyond all other leads known ; but its uncertain 
temper and occasional grit — properties common to all leads in a natural state — gave rise 
to its amalgamation with other substances which have been enumerated ; and though 
some of the qualities in which Cumberland lead failed have been obtained with varying 
success by these amalgamations, its especial and valuable qualities when pure have in 
the same ratio been deteriorated and destroyed. Thus the artist has been left to 
choose between the evils of a native and a spurious lead, until the somewhat recent 
discovery by Mr. Brockedon of a process by which lead is made perfect. It would seem 
that these pencils are especially made for Messrs. Reeves and Sons, and that they are 
unquestionably what they affect to be. 

Another important evidence of successful trade enterprise in aid of art is to be found 
n the water-colours prepared with wax, as was shown in this case. They dissolve with 
ease, possess great volume and transparency ; and, moreover, they cannot be converted 
into flint by hot temperatures, so often the fate of the ordinary water-colour. The intro- 
duction of a medium of the purest wax into the manufacture of water-colours was a stage 
in the art of water-colour painting deserving of honourable mention. It has given to this 
delightful department of art facilities of unapproachable character, and tended to rank it 
very close to that of oil, which it surpasses in its powers of drying, the advantages of 
smaller space, and ease of carriage. Very many have been the attempts to give body to 
the colours used with water, and a variety of 'media have been used for this purpose. 
One of these is the more particularly worth mentioning, as showing the avidity with 
which anything new is seized upon, even by the intelligent and discerning, and the effects 
which followed a too confiding credulity. We allude to the use of honey for the purposes 
above stated. This medium certainly had the desired result of keeping the colour with 
which it was mixed in a moist state ; indeed, if the brush was too fully charged with it, 
those parts of the drawing to which it was applied would not, unless m hot weather, or in 
a warm room, dry for some time; and even when dry, such drawings, if exposed to a 
humid atmosphere, became "tacky" again in the foUo or elsewhere, and stuck to their 
unctuous companions in the most sweet but destructive union. A drawing finished with 
these colours could not be left a moment with safety. The flies attracted by the 
tempting treat, would moisten the choicest parts with their probosci, and tattoo the human 
face divine, or give to that of lovely woman all the appearance of being ravaged by small- 
vox It WBS no unusual thing to find a flock of sheep disappear from a common, a ch&teau 
shattered and unroofed in a night, and a litter of pigs and a cow or two carried away m a 
fly Nor was the artist himself exempt from the annoyance of their perseverance and 
pilferings. To paint from summer nature in the open air was to look through a swarm ; 
and the head of the luckless draughtsman became like a hive m the midst of it. 

The allusion to a temporary false step in the onward progress of chemical research in 
art naturally, although in a ve/y opposite category, directs our attention to the subject of 
"frauds," a very strong term, but nevertheless true-frauds upon artists. It must be in 
every fa her's eJperienfe-in\hat of every director of youth-that there is a particular 
piriod in a boy's life when the yearning for a « box of paints" becomes positively painful, 

VOL. II. ^ ^ 


according to the amount of difficulty which surrounds its possession. A guinea obtained, 
the next fancy-stationer's is resorted to for the much-coveted box. There it lies upon the 
counter, with its lid slightly and mysteriously raised, displaying just enough of its 
contents to increase a desire of ownership. The prize secured and borne homeward, paper 
ready, and plate upturned, the attractive colours are rubbed one by one iu neat array upon 
the delf.- A good specimen of water-colour has been "lent to copy," and now comes the 
first essay. All the efforts of the tyro to imitate the flat tint of its sky or the rich 
impasto of the foreground are of no avail. Time and perseverance but add to the vexa- 
tion. His colours are poor, weak, thin, and washy. He is, however, ignorant of this fact. 
Young and confiding, the shop which boasts of being " established" at a period when his 
father was a boy, would never stoop to cheat. He throws aside his attempt and tries again. 
The acrid qualities of the colours either penetrate through the paper, or, for want of 
sufficient grinding, their crude and earthy particles are floated about for an instant on the 
surface, and the next left in spots and patches. Here is a young and ardent lover of 
nature, stimulated by a noble mind and an intellect delighting in invention, shamefully 
surrounded in his first encounter by disheartening difficulties which are the more serious 
because their cause is not understood. At the very threshold of the temple of art he is 
rudely repulsed by the sordid and fee-seeking, who sell him a clumsy and useless key, and 
falsely deny that either Talent, or his senior partner Genius, are within. There exists 
not the shadow of excuse for this abrupt rebufi". The profits upon art appurtenances 
are large and ample; and the thus adding to positive extortion, the intimidation to 
modest merit, is as cruel as it is dishonest. But, says the advocate for cupidity, any 
description of colours will do for a boy to begin with. Then, if such be the case, why 
charge as for the best ? But it is not the fact. It is true that there are professors (save 
the mark ! it is a correct one) of music, who do not hesitate to set a girl down to a piano 
" of any sort ;" but will any rational person, who is impressed with the divine gift of the 
appreciation of sweet and harmonious sounds, affirm that such a course would not tend to 
vitiate taste and injure an otherwise correct ear? 

We shall add a few more remarks, partly borrowed from an article by Mr. Brockedon, 
upon the black-lead pencil, a more important auxiliaiy to art than would at the first 
thought be supposed. It is not generally known that lead dust, or inferior plumbago, is 
combined with sulphuret of antimony, or pure sulphur ; and the greater the proportion of 
this ingredient, the harder the composition. When ground with the lead — generally that 
called Mexican — the compound is put into an iron pot, or frame, and subjected to the 
degree of heat required to semifuse the combining ingredients. It is then, whilst hot, put 
under a press, and kept there until it is cold ; when it is turned out as a block, ready to 
be cut into slices, and inserted in the cedars. The impossibility of rubbing out a compo- 
sition when sulphuret of antimony is used, led to the rejection of the sulphuret and the 
employment of sulphur only, treating these ingredients as before. This makes a better 
composition in the quality of rubbing out ; but possesses, in a greater degree than the 
former, a serious evil. The sulphur is readily set free by bodies which attract it, and 
memoranda made with this composition can be reproduced although rubbed out, so far as 
with such composition is practicable. If the place where the writing was be wetted with 
an alkaline liquor, a sulphate will be formed; and if, after drying, it be again wetted with 
acetate of lead, it will exhibit the writing in sulphuret of lead. This is obviously a most 
dangerous property for persons who may require to make notes not intended to remain or 
be again producible. To an artist it may be very injurious as regards the purity and 
security of his productions, for many of the colours which have metallic bases, are liable 
to be afi'ected if they come in contact with the lead of sulphured pencils. A readv and 
simple experiment will place our readers in possession of an infallible test, and thus' pro- 


tect that portion of them with whom the fact is of consideration from so deceitful an 
instrument. Draw some lines with the suspected pencil on a' sheet of paper, and place 
these lines in contact with any bright, smooth, silver surface — a spoon for instance; in 
a few hours, if these lines contain sulphur, corresponding dark lines will be found on 
the spoon, formed by the action of the sulphur on the metal. A good black-lead pencil 
may yet more readily be known. It should work freely ; be free from grit, yet without a 
greasy, soapy touch ; bear moderate pressure, have a lustrous and intense black colour, 
and its marks be easily erased. It should be borne in mind, however, that no pencil 
appears to be the same at all times. This arises from the nature of the paper, whether 
hard or soft, or the condition of the atmosphere, which affects it materially. The same 
pencil, on smooth or rough, moist or dry paper, will mark as if four different pencils 
had been used. The softer or darker degrees of lead are weaker, and yield more readily 
than the harder varieties. 

The varieties of German pencils, with ornamental exteriors, which have recently been 
imported in large quantities, are, it appears, made of clay mixed with Bohemian lead, and 
a glass which fuses at a moderate temperature j these materials are ground in water 
together, and dried slowly to a stiff plastic state, and then put into a vessel like that used 
for forming maccaroni ; under a powerful press this composition is forced through holes 
in the bottom of the vessel, thus forming the material into square threads of the 
required sizes. These are laid in convenient lengths in wooden troughs, which keep them 
straight until they are thoroughly dried. They are then laid in similar troughs or channels 
on iron plates, and put in a muffle or furnace, subjected to a degree of heat sufficient to 
render them hard and insoluble, and are then placed in the channels cut into the wood, 
and glued there ; the degi'ees of hardness depend upon the proportion of the ingredients. 
All these pencils, however, are harsh in use, and their marks cannot be entirely erased. 

Green and Fahey, of Charlotte-street, Portman-place, exhibited folding drawing 
models in three series, illustrative of perspective, and the principles of light and 
shade, which will be found of service, both to master and pupil, in the elementary studies 
of art. J. E. Cook, of Greenock, exhibited prepared panel for amateur painting, which 
requires but a day or two to be ready for the artist. Mr. Cook is deserving of much 
praise for this attempt to give facilities for obtaining material to the young beginner, who 
is too often cramped for the want of the necessary funds. It is related of Wilkie, 
that, by partly pulling out a drawer from a set, he made himself an efficient easel j and of 
Sir Benjamin" West, that he obtained his first brushes by taking the hair off the tail of a 
favourite cat. F. Harvey, of Oxford, showed an easel for artists sketching out of doors, 
containing everything required. This is a judicious arrangement of materials, and one 
hitherto much wanted. We trust, it will not be long ere greater activity be given to the 
trade of which Mr. Harvey is a member, by the appointment of professorships of painting, 
sculpture, and architecture, at our universities. Why should not the youth of England, 
in their more docile years, acquire a taste for, and a love of art, the more as they are, in 
after life, to become patrons, and sit in learned conclave at committees of taste upon the 
merits of the rival works of tiie greatest men of their day. It would tend greatly to 
rescue them from egg-throwing and chicken-hazard, and other low and frivolous pursuits, 
too often the resource of those who have nothing to do, rather than the offspring of innate 
vice. The sister arts have their professorships ; why, then, should painting be driven from 
the seats of learning? E. F. Watson, of Piccadilly, sent some excellent specimens of 
gilding, which contrasted strangely with the cheap gold frames around. There are few 
artists but are aware how much their productions depend upon the frame by which they 
are surrounded ; and while a picture shall appear surpassingly beautiful in one frame, it 
shall seem poor and ill-conditioned in another. 


It may here be remarked, that the " cheap" frames, now so much in vogue, which meet 
us at every turn, are the dearest the artist can purchase. The yellow preparation of their 
groundwork, but once, and barely, covered with gold (and that "gold" too often of a 
spurious Dutch character), peers through in unutterable poverty of aspect upon the 
slightest contact or friction, while the warmth of a room creates gaping crevices at each 
juncture, and cracks and shrivels the composition ornaments as though they consciously 
shrunk from contact with the green wood and its shabby disguise, upon which they had 
been so unceremoniously placed. 

J. W. Gear exhibited a composition to supersede ivory for large water-colour paintings. 
The inventor, who is likewise an artist, informs us that it can be manufactured of any 
requisite size without a join; the colours, he adds, appear brilliant and clear upon it; and, 
as it is capable of being used in every respect as ivory, without the brittleness of other 
substitutes, it will be found deserving at least of the attention of the artist. We have no 
other means of judging of its merits than by the single sample shown in the Exhibition, 
which, being completely covered with a drawing of but average talent, denied us all 
opportunity of doing more than quote its discoverer's book. This and similar inventions 
to supersede ivory, which once could only be obtained of a limited size, however praise- 
worthy, are, where this is the object, no longer of importance, as ivory, by rotatory motion 
and fixed vertical saws, can now be cut into sheefs of almost any extent. This observation 
will, therefore, apply to Sir W. Newton, who contributed several miniatiu-e paintings of 
his own, to exemplify a power he possesses in secret of "joining ivory together without 
the seam becoming apparent." These specimens were, however, unfortunately selected 
for the purpose. The seams, to our eye, were apparent, and more particularly in 
that of "The Homage," where a join ran the full length and breadth of the picture, 
in defiance of the thick and heavy " handling," obviously intended to hide it. 

In Class 2, amongst the " Chemicals," was an exceedingly interesting case from 
the firm of Messrs. Winsor and Newton, of Rathbone-place. It is well known in 
the profession that these exhibitors are essentially practical men, and have very 
extensive chemical works for artists' colours in the neighbourhood of Kentish Town. 

In No. 1, Class 17, a somewhat dark place, was a selection of fancy stationery from 
the old-established house of Ackermann and Co., of the Strand. Amongst it was a 
colour-box, fitted up with every requisite the amateur might desire ; the whole arranged 
with great elegance and taste. Mr. Grundy, of Manchester, exhioited, in Class 26, 
No. 121, some very beautiful specimens of frames, intended to display, to the best advan- 
tage, fine engravings, drawings, and other works of art, and adapting them for the tasteful 
embellishment of the drawing-room, boudoir, &c. Those for drawings were exquisitely 
beautiful; and by a simple contrivance the works wei-e sunk or inlaid in the wja^^e, or 
mounting, which preserved them from injury, whUe they were likewise kept perfectly flat, 
and did not touch the glass. The frames were altogether lighter than usual, took up less 
space upon the walls, and had a charming appearance when relieved by a buff or scarlet 
ground. Water-colour drawings, and the lighter descriptions of oil-paintings, are 
surprisingly benefited by this, ornamentation, while prints appear to be very considerably 
enhanced in value by such means. The new method of mounting water-colour and 
other drawings, without cutting their edges, we believe, is due to Mr. Grundy ; and the 
advantage of placing them beneath, instead of above, the card-board, &c., owes its origin 
to his brother, of Regent-street. 

The exclusion of the painter's art from participation in the scheme of the Great 
Exhibition, was an error of judgment on the part of the commissioners, which it seems 
utterly impossible to account for. At a time when the application of decoration upon 
the true principles of design is being attempted, under the auspices of government com- 


mittees, not only in the palaces of the nation and the houses of the great, but also in 
the more humble abodes of the middle classes (through the operation of schools of design) 
— at a time when furniture, dress, and utensils for the table, all come in for a share of 
the improved taste of an age ambitious in art, it seemed an act of fatuity, when preparing 
a. Grand Exposition of the Works of Industry of all Nations, to have excluded from the 
lists that very branch of art which affords the highest resources for decoration, as well as 
the most abundant and varied examples both of composition and colouring. The assiduity 
and interest with which the thousands who thronged to the Exhibition in Hyde-park 
examined the miscellaneous contributions of sculpture from all nations, must assure 
us that the masses are susceptible of enjoyment from the contemplation of works of 
fine art ; and although many of the specimens there presented to them fell far short 
of the standard of excellence, and although the impromptu criticisms of the multitude 
by no means evinced an advanced taste, yet we feel so much confidence in the ultimate 
triumph of truth, which in art is beauty, that we are inclined to look for good practical 
results even from this scrambling course of self-education, amid a sort of wilderness of 
wild flowers. And if good so result from observations on sculpture obtained in this way, 
by millions who never saw a work of sculpture before, how much more useful to them 
would be some notion of the principles and practice of painting, involving both com- 
position and colouring — an art much more intimately and generally applicable to the 
purposes and requirements of social life — and if a comparison by the more critical portion 
of the community of the works, we can hardly venture to say the schools, of sculpture 
of various nations, be interesting and instructive, would not a similar comparison of 
works of painting be at least equally so? The importance of such a comparison 
to English art it would be impossible to over-rate, when we reflect upon the compara- 
tively short and chequered career which art, since its revival, has had in this country. 
It is scarcely more than a century and-a-half that art has held any position amongst us ; 
since Sir James Thornhill, starting in rivalry to La Guerre, the favourite decorator of the 
mansions of the nobility of that day, received a commission from the state to paint the 
interior of St. Paul's Cathedral and the hall of Greenwich Hospital, in which he was 
assisted by a German named Andre, and which he contracted to do at the rate of £2 per 
square yard ! It is not a century since the first attempt to establish an academy of art 
was made, inaugurated by the learned and admirable discourses of Sir Joshua Reynolds; 
and in the course of that period, what have we done towards the formation of a school of 
art ? what definite purpose or rules of taste have we arrived at ? The answer to these 
questions must be given by a silent and significant pointing to the walls of the various 
exhibition rooms in Trafalgar-square, Suffolk-street, and Pall Mall, where all has long 
been caprice, and glitter, and wild confusion, and where now a portion of our exhibitauts 
seem to seek for unity of purpose,. by devoting their pencils to a miserable copyism of the 
poorest mediseval models. Thus, whilst in little more than two centuries (Giotto died 
in 1336, Raffaelle in 1520), revived art in Italy arrived at its highest point of excellence 
and power under a EafFaelle, who founded a school which, in the persons of a Giulio 
Eomano, a Garofalo, and a Parmegiano, survived some time after him — in England, in 
about the same period, after various unconcerted efforts, and fostered by much indis- 
criminating patronage, we find art, having never once attempted a flight of the highest 
ambition, degenerating at once into the stiff and inanimate mannerism of the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries. 

There is no hope of remedy for such a state of things, but in wholesome exposure in 
the broad daylight of public scrutiny. We must meet extravagance with extravagance ; 
and native affectation being confronted by conceits from abroad (where there is much 
of the same error to complain of), shame and mutual ridicule may correct much ; whilst 

VOL. II. 2 s 


the strong arm of criticism and the loud voice of popular condemnation will do the I'est. 
But it is not only to an exhibition of modern art of all nations that we should have 
looked as the means of educating the public taste. The vast avenues of the Crystal 
Palace, which might, without much trouble, have been prepared for the purpose, vrould 
have afforded an admirable opportunity for forming an exhibition of bygone art, arranged 
in order of schools ; an exhibition of the highest interest and utility, which, from the 
nature of circumstances, has never yet been carried into effect, and for which the 
spacious resources of the World's Fair in Hyde-park afforded the first, we trust not 
the last, opportunity. Of the forthcoming of the necessary materials for furnishing 
such an exhibition, we cannot entertain a doubt, had the opportunity been afforded, 
seeing the alacrity with which foreign potentates, and our own most gracious sovereign 
and her consort freely sent in the costliest articles of jewellery and vertk in their 
possession, to enhance the attraction of the Exhibition; and how their example was 
followed by wealthy public companies, by noblemen and private gentlemen, each anxious 
to contribute their or his mite to the general splendour, but who, we are convinced, 
would have been far more proud to have shown a Raffaelle or a Rembrandt, than a 
"jewelled hawk" or a necklace once the property of the poor King of Kandy; and the 
public — the more intellectual portipn of it — would have been much more obliged to them 
for such contributions, and the men of art, and the men of taste of all Eiirope, would 
have thanked them for helping to make up a show of precious worth and enduring 
interest, the recollection of which would have served to light their paths during a life of 
toil and study in the pursuit of excellence and beauty iu art. 

It is useless to enlarge upon the practical advantages and the intellectual charm of 
such an exhibition; it was denied us: and although a department in the Crystal 
Palace was named the " Fine Arts Court," the very existence of such a compartment 
was a mockery when coupled with the announcement that — Oil paintings and water- 
colour paintings, frescoes, drawings, and engravings, were not to be admitted, except as 
illustrations or examples of materials and processes employed, neither were portrait busts 
to be admitted ; and no single artist was allowed to exhibit more than three works. It is 
true that this regulation was not very clearly worded, and that it might have been evaded, 
as all ill-advised and purposeless laws generally may be. Indeed, we could mention 
several publishing houses who managed to gain admission for a variety of engravings 
and water-coloured drawings. But still the general object of the rule was effected, and 
the Fine Arts' Court was crowded with very ordinary terra cotta casts, including brick- 
coloured and by no means delicately treated nymphs of heavy proportions, wax models, 
wax flowers, nicknackeries in colour-printing, and fancy stationery ; card models of 
houses and gardens, dolls dressed in court and other costume, eggshells carved and 
engraved with fancy views, models in willow-wood, models in paper, and every con- 
ceivable absurd toy which could enter into the conception of a boarding-school miss, 
and which rendered this department, as far as it went, a positive blot upon the otherwise 
fair face of the Great Industrial Exhibition of aU Nations. And it was really curious to 
see the shifts which poor Art, being excluded under its ordinary forms, managed to 
represent itself in the Great Congress of Industry, and what inconsistencies and waste 
of space this led to. Although " oil painting and water-colour painting, fresco, drawing, 
and engraving," had been declared inadmissible in their general sense — that is, in their 
best and noblest performances — the pictorial genius of Europe manifested itself abun- 
dantly on all sides iu almost every conceivable material but the prohibited canvass; upon 
porcelain, from France, from Vienna, from Milan, from Dresden; upon glass from Berlin 
and other parts of Germany ; upon tin from Wirtemburg ; upon plate-iron from Thuringia. 
Then we had mosaics from Rome not a few, and beautiful of their kind ; and from Munich 


we had a collection of " stereochromic" pictures, executed upon wood covered with 
mortar, " a process intended as a substitute for the (prohibited) fresco-painting." Sir 
William Newton was allowed wall-room for several pictures upon ivory, representing 
" The Homage at the Coronation," " The Marriage of her Majesty," the " Christening of 
the Prince of Wales," &c. ; but their reception in his case may, perhaps, be explained by 
the announcement that the ivory in these works was "joined together by a process of his 
own invention." Mr. Haslem and Mr. Bone had some enamel pictures in gold — many 
of them royal portraits, others copies from old masters ; and Mr. Essex showed " an 
extensive collection of enamel paintings," copies from works in royal and noble collections. 
In short, whilst High Art was rigorously excluded. Little Art was greatly favoured. As 
to the prohibition of engravings, it was impossible to carry it out ; and accordingly we 
found whole shop-loads of them in various styles in different parts of the building, some 
framed, others loose. In addition, we were startled, here and there, with some wonderful 
imitations of engravings, and pen and ink drawings, in silk, in human hair, in crape, &c. : 
which, as soon as the first impulse of curiosity was over, only left upon the mind of the 
spectator a feeling of disappointment and irritation. 

Whilst upon the subject of simulative processes, we may refer to some "poker 
drawings," upon wood, by the Rev. W, C. Calvert, and some specimens of the art of 
" xulopyrography," or chanred wood engraving, exhibited by Lieutenant C. Marshall and 
Mr. J. T. Mitchell, and which were entitled to rank in a higher category than the con- 
trivances named at the close of the preceding paragraph. The latter productions were 
somewhat similar in appearance to old sepia drawings, and in their process of working had 
something in common with poker drawings. The difference between charred wood 
carvings, or engravings, and the said " poker drawings" was, that the former were cut 
from the surface of hard and white wood, which had been previously completely charred 
over, the lights and shadows being effected by scraping gradually away the black surface to 
the necessary depth, according to the shade required, going below where the burning 
extends for the absolute Hghts : whereas " poker drawings" are burnt on the surface of 
white wood, the lights being left and the shades burnt in. One of Mr. Mitchell's speci- 
mens was taken from a rare mezzotinto engraving by Prince Rupert, who, by the way, was 
long supposed to have been the inventor of the last-named process, though of this there is 
some doubt, it being probable that he learnt the art from Colonel Louis Von Siegan. The 
subject wa& "The Execution of St. John the Baptist," after Spagnoletti. The other 
specimen by this exhibitor was taken from Uwin's "Chapeau de Brigand" (in the Vernon 
collection. Lieutenant Marshall exhibited, we think, three or more of his works in this line, 
the most important of which was after Raffaelle's cartoon of " St. Paul Preaching." 

A small picture ("the Origin of the Quarrel of the Guelphs and the Ghibellines"), 
by P. R. Pickersgill, A.R.A., was also admitted, not as a specimen of art, but of Rowney's 
silica" colours, in which it was painted. Besides this, we had one or two other specimens 
of a like kind, and exhibited for a like purpose; as, for instance, two of Concannon's new 
method of aerial tinting by calcined colours, and some designs in the crayons and chalks 
of some other manufacturer, whose name we have forgotten. Beneath these, and some 
other gaudier displays of colours, rainbow or prism fashion, were ranged the brushes, 
palettes, and other implements necessary for using them ; and so complete and mstructive 
was this exposition of art requirements considered by Mr. Rowney, one of the exhibitors, 
that he placed a little plaster group, entitled " Letting the Cat out of the Bag," m the 
midst of his compartment, as much as to say that the mysteries of the craft existed no 
lono-er, and that amateurs might all be artists, if they pleased to lay m a stock of the 
necessary materials. In Mr. Ackermann's department we were agreeably struck with a 
very elegant colour-box, made of papier mache; 


The above flying notes, though unimportant in themselves, may be interesting some 
future day, as affording a notion of the position held by the Fine Arts in the Great Exhi- 
bition of Industry of All Nations of 1851. 


CUTLEKY— JVom the Juries' Report. 




It appeared, according to the information laid before the jury, that there were, altogether, 
about 368 exhibitors in this class, distributed, very unequally, among twenty-two of the 
geographical divisions contained in the oflBcial catalogue. The United Kingdom, as was 
to be expected, furnished a proportion amounting to not less than forty-five per cent, of 
the whole list: and among these were to be found many contributors, on so extensive and 
varied a scale, that its share in the total display of these articles was much larger than 
the above numbers would imply. The second place was occupied by Austria, whose 
exhibitors constituted twenty-seven per cent, of the entire sum. After her the 
Zollverein States of Germany furnished about eight per cent., France about three per 
cent., Sweden and Norway in nearly the same proportion. A very small number of 
exhibitors from the remaining countries completed the list, though some of these 
national collections, however confined to few individuals, contained objects well worthy of 
attention. These results must not be taken as any certain indication of the comparative 
proficiency of the respective countries in the production of commodities of this kind, or of 
the value of their contributions. It is probable that, in some degree, they might have 
shown the character and nature of the manufacture as carried on in these different states, 
and corresponded with its subdivision among more or less numerous hands in comparison 
with its total extent. In Austria, for instance, we found by the catalogue, that the 
collections specified as assignable to each exhibitor consisted, for the most part, of one 
kind of manufactured article, scarcely any of more than two or three ; and we might, 
therefore, perhaps venture to infer that the high number of these, as compared with 
some departments where they were individually more comprehensive, arose from a very 
different distribution of capital among their separate establishments in this branch of 
industry. But this is not to be considered as a disparagement to their contributions. 
Such a condition of the manufacture may be best adapted to the supply of the particular 
demand for which it exists ; and, as regards the late Exhbition, even apart from such con- 
siderations, the appearance of a numerous list of exhibitors from any one country might 
have been reasonably taken as a gratifying evidence of the interest and activity awakeued 
there by the invitation to co-operate in a display of the works of universal industry, and 
of an active desire to share in its honours. The characteristics of the different national 
collections were, however, interesting in more than one point of view. We detected, in 
various instances, indications of the peculiar condition and habits of the people whence 
they came, of their social and industrial wants and aims, as well as of their natural or 
acquired advantages. 

In England, the close proximity of coal and iron, together with abundant facilities 


for converting the latter into steel, gave, at an early epoch, to this branch of \ts 
manufactures, remarkable energy and importance. Its steel wares had a wide-spread 
reputation even in the middle ages. The authority of Chaucer assures us that, in the 
fourteenth century, the "Sheffield whittle" was an article of choice estimation ; and, 
within their respective sphere, the blades of Toledo and Damascus were scarcely more 
valued than the more homely cutlery of England. This pre-eminence, the jury had 
no hesitation in pronouncing, she retained to a very remarkable degree in the late 
exhibition; though the general statement must now admit of modification, and it 
would be untrue and unfair to make it without adding, that she had, in certain 
branches of the manufacture, some formidable rivals. Still, the long-established trade 
of this country in steel goods of every description, and her ancient practice of forging 
them for the supply of all markets, were shown in the great variety, as well as excellence, 
of her contributions, which comprised specimens of almost every conceivable article of this 
description. But in other countries, where the manufacture has been of more recent 
growth, it is evident that the energies of their artizans have been directed, by a natural 
consequence, to the production of those particular articles more especially called for by 
their individual position or exigencies. One of the chief objects of the German Cus- 
toms' Union, for instance, has been to encourage the supply from their own workshops of 
those commodities of general and ordinary use, which were formerly in great part derived 
from importation. From the Zollverein states, accordingly, we found a mixed collection 
of that character, together with some few objects of the plainer kind for certain foreign 
markets. IVom Austria, where the mines and manufactures are in the immediata 
neighbourhood of a large agricultural and pastoral population, it was observed that the 
collection consisted chiefly of scythes, sickles, and the simpler implements of husbandry. 
In Switzerland, the traditional manufacture of fine watch-work renders delicate files a 
matter of primary necessity, and there was, therefore, a predominance of these among 
the better articles in that department. The Belgian collection was distinguished by " spiral 
cutters" of superior quality, required in the finishing of the woollen fabrics for which 
that country has long been famous. In France, we of course found a very miscellaneous 
collection; but it displayed, in a marked manner, productions, indicating " on the one 
hand the highest scale of social civilization and of manufacturing skill in certain spheres 
and localities ; and, on the other, the simplest wants of a primitive provincial population ; 
- while in the United States and Canada, where the occupation of the population is an 
incessant war upon the forest, the manufacture of axes and woodmen's implements 
assumes an importance which has raised them to the highest perfection, and which ren- 
dered this class the most perfect part of the transatlantic exhibition. But it appears 
advisable to add some more precise notices of the peculiar contents of each national col- 
lection ; and for this purpose it will be most convenient to take the two great divisions in 
the order adopted in the official catalogue. 

First, then, with respect to the United Kingdom, we found that articles in the class 
of cutlery and edge-tools had been sent from a great variety of places. In England, from 
London, Sheffield, Birmingham, Warrington, Stourbridge, and a few other towns of less 
note ; from Glasgow and Edinburgh, but chiefly from the former, in Scotland j and from 
Cork, Clonmel, and Limerick, in Ireland. Among these seats of the manufacture there 
was none, as might naturally be expected, which for extent, variety, and excellence of 
collection, could compare with Sheffield — its most ancient home. We here found every 
article, from the most exquisite razor down to the plainest pocket-knife, and from the 
finest saw or file to the most ordinary chisel displayed — with various degrees of merit, it 
is true, but with a large proportion of the highest. From this collection, the jury thought 
themselves justified in awarding, for one remarkable object, a council medal. Messrs. 

VOL. II. 3 T 


Spear and Jacksou exhibited, among an assortment of edge-tools of great excellence, a 
cast-steel circular saw, of the large size of five feet diameter, and of such signal beauty 
and perfection, that it stood far above comparison with any other in the building. The 
mere excellence of its quality and workmanship, however, would not, the jury declared, 
have enabled them to distinguish it by a council medal, if they had not been able to satisfy 
themselves that its merit was the result of a new and peculiar process of manufacture. 
But they entertained no doubt, from the information they received, that mechanical 
ingenuity of a novel and special character had been employed by these manufacturers for 
the production of such articles, without which they could not have been carried to equal 
perfection; and they therefore considered them justly entitled to the highest mark of 

There were two other contributions to which the jury would have felt themselves 
called upon to award a similar honour, if they had been at liberty to regard singular 
excellence of workmanship and quality as of itself a suflBcient title. Messrs. Turton 
and Sons, of SheflSeld, and Messrs. Stubbs, of Warrington, each displayed a complete 
assortment of files of various sizes — the former for ordinary manufacturing purposes ; the 
latter for the finer operations of the watchmaker — which, the one for large dimensions, 
and the other for minute delicacy, combined with the utmost strength and efficiency 
of material, far surpassed any other objects of the same class. They would have 
deserved the highest assignable reward in respect of these points of merit. Prize 
medals, however, were awarded to them in common with a number of associates not 
wnworthy of their company. It will be found that the list of these contains a series of 
names of which many are of high note in the estimation of the public, and whose con- 
tributions — some extensive, and comprising, in a high degree, almost every variety of 
excellence, others limited, but of marked merit throughout — displayed the choicest pro- 
ductions in, the most finished cutlery, and the finest mechanical tools. 

The attention of the jury was particularly called to one novelty exhibited by Messrs. 
Blake and Parkin, of Shefl6.eld, consisting of the union of two qualities of cast steel, hard 
and soft, in the same article; having carefully examined these specimens, which were 
manufactured with much skill, they saw no reason to doubt that the process was peculiar 
to the exhibitors ; but they could not satisfy themselves that it involved any clear advan- 
tage over the combinations of cast and bar steel, and of cast steel and iron, the methods 
of cementing which have been long known and practised. The contribution «from Lon- 
don was, of course, on a more limited scale than that from Sheffield ; but it consisted 
of that superior order of cutlery for which the metropolis has a long-established reputa- 
tion, and contained articles of high merit in this class. Among the exhibitors from 
London, Mr. Durham, of Oxford-street, would have been considered by his colleagues 
deserving of a prize medal, if his consent to act as a juror had not disqualified him from 
accepting it. The finer descriptions of cutlery were nearly confined, in England, to the 
Sheffield and London departments; but there were a few articles contributed by 
individual manufacturers from other places, whose names may be found in the award list; 
and there were some also furnished from Ireland and Scotland, which, though not equal 
to the best from the chief seats of the manufacture, were still of considerable excellence. 

Manufacturing tools were supplied largely from Birmingham, and sparingly from 
Scotland; scythes and files from Stourbridge and "Warrington; which latter place 
furnished the beautiful collection of watch-files by Messrs. Stubbs, already mentioned. 
On the whole, it appeared that the British manufacture of cutlery remains still, as 
heretofore, mainly seated at Sheffield, though it has been established also, to a limited 
extent, in some other quarters. The same gradual change of circumstances which has 
operated to transfer, in a great degree, the silk and some other trades from London to 


the provinces, has had the effect of withdrawing much of this branch of industry from the 
capital; though a portion, chiefly directed to the production of the higher order of 
articles, still retains its footing there, and sustains its reputation. On the other hand, 
the manufacture of the coarser goods, such as tools and mechanical implements, is now 
extensively shared by several localities which afford the requisite facilities for its successful 
prosecution, and where the various other forms of industry which surround it create a 
continued demand for its productions. 

Extending our survey beyond the limits of the United Kingdom, from its provinces 
to its dependencies, it was found that these presented aspects so very different, that 
certain distinctions were indispensable, with reference to a proper estimate of their position 
as exhibitors. It is not to be expected that in infaint communities, such as most of the 
colonies, properly so called, a manufacture of this kind could have attained any con- 
siderable growth or perfection, though the greater progress and development of some 
few have enabled them to meet their peculiar local exigencies with considerable success. 
We found in this category a small contribution from the Cape of Good Hope, by 
the missionary station at Gnathendal, consisting of various forms of knives adapted to 
the uses of that country ; and froni Nova Scotia another, of cutlery made of Nova Scotia 
steel, though manufactured in Sheffield. Both were creditable to these colonies — 
while from Canada (Westj there was a larger assortment, consisting entirely of axes 
and tools, the former especially of excellent quality, and proving the skill and power of 
her artisans to supply those particular articles to which her physical exigencies give the 
highest importance. On the other hand, there were contributions from dependencies 
which are to be considered in a very different light, not newly -peopled, but ancient 
communities, variously advanced in civilisation, and having their own established and 
characteristic industrial pursuits, often of the highest order of manual dexterity. In 
this division there were some from the vast territories of the East India Company, which 
well deserved notice; and a small contribution from Jersey. The Indian department 
contained various Hindoo and Malay tools for the use of carpenters and workers in 
metals; and among them were found, from Moorshedabad, in Bengal, a set of the 
implements employed by the native artificers in carving the beautiful ivory articles 
which have so long been admired in the western world, and which present such rare 
examples of ingenuity, taste, and skill. Articles of this kind, however, are of so peculiar 
a nature, and of so hmited an application, that they can scarcely be considered as bring- 
ing into play any principle of general competition or comparison. It is not so with the 
foreign neighbours of Great Britain, whose productions come next under notice. They 
will be found to extend, with various degrees of excellence, through all the class of 
commodities which proceed from the workshops of the United Kingdom, and" to include 
some, also, of a peculiar and distinctive character. Looking first to Europe, its foreign 
exhibitors might have been classed under certain great subdivisions, naturally suggested 
by the position and relations of its different members, and necessary to the clearness 
and convenience of the survey. Thus the several national departments contained in 
the total list might have been advantageously connected as follows : — 

1. France, Belgium, and Switzerland. 2. Austria and the southern states of Germany. 
3. The Zollverein and northern states. 4. Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. 6. Hussia. 
6. Spain and Portugal. 7. Turkey, Egypt, and Tunis. 8. China. 9. The United 
States of America, to complete the distribution over the remainder of the world. 

1. From France there was an extensive assortment, ranging from the finest orna- 
mental cutlery down to the rudest and cheapest articles for domestic use, which in 
general character was very good, and in some instances of superior quality. The greater 
portion appeared to be supplied from Paris ; but there were a few exhibitors also from 


the provinces — from Moulins (an ancient seat of this manufacture), from St, Etienne, 
and from places in the districts bordering on the Ehine. 

In cutlery, the best specimens were those of razors> pen-knives, scissors, and table- 
knives, many of which were very highly finished and elaborately ornamented, and dis- 
played great skill as well as superior quality. Among the tools and implements were to 
be found a very excellent circular saw, showing high proficiency in this branch of the 
manufacture, and assortments of files, also of considerable merit as to workmanship, 
though found, after a careful trial, to be not quite perfect as to the quality of the steel. 
On the other hand, we may mention particularly the samples of " web-saws," which 
were of the very highest class, and, indeed, superior to anything of the same description 
contained in the English collection. Belgium supphed cutlery, together with files, 
scythes, " ledger blades," and " spiral cutters." These last articles are portions of the 
machinery used in the dressing of cloth, and were of a high degree of merit. The 
cutlery, principally of the table kind, was well finished, but the metal was somewhat 
soft, and unequal to the workmanship. The same must be said of the scythes and 
files. From Switzerland, the articles consisted mainly of razors, and of small files 
adapted to the use of the watchmaker. The former were of fair quality; the latter 
of the most delicate workmanship, and well suited to the trade for which they were 
designed, and which has been long successfully pursued in that country. The attention 
of the jury was called, in the French department, to a collection of articles, as examples 
of remarkable cheapness, wliich they would not have deemed worthy of mention on any 
other grounds. These were a certain description of extremely rude pocket-knife, said to 
be in very universal use amongst the peasantry of France, for cutting their provisions and 
other purposes. They are formed of a rough blade of soft iron, folding into an equally 
rough turned cylindrical handle of wood. It is obvious that, with such materials, their 
utility must be very limited ; but they are sold for five centimes, or about one halfpenny 
each, and are therefore in general use among the poorer classes. In France, Belgium, 
and Switzerland, the manufacture of cutlery and edge-tools has greatly improved, and 
seems likely to continue to do so. 

2. Of the sub-division of states, which we have placed next in order, the same 
improvement was, to a considerable extent, observed. Including therein Austria, 
Wurtemberg, and Saxony, we found that the two latter, at least, exhibited specimens of 
general knife cutlery, and of hunting-knives, which, though they could not be pro- 
nounced equal to the best Enghsh, were of very good quality, well finished (especially 
in the Saxon portion), and mounted with much costly ornament. From Austria the 
display was not of so high a class ; the cutlery from that country was of a very ordinary 
description, chiefly the produce of Styria, and was stated to be exhibited, in a great 
measure, as an example of cheapness. After such consideration, however, as the jury 
had the means of giving to this point, they concluded that the price was not below what 
goods of the same quality might be produced for in other countries. The articles were 
very deficient in merit of any other kind, many of them not even being of steel. 

These remarks apply in a great measure to the tools and implements in this depart- 
ment. There were some from Wurtemberg of fair quality ; but the assortments of files 
and other such objects from Austria were indifferent, and not, apparently, very low in 
price. There was here, however, one description of article deserving of notice, as a curious 
example of the modification which all tests of merit must undergo when judged by the 
peculiar uses for which the production is designed. We allude to assortments of scythes, 
from the southern provinces of Austria, worked thin, and with a concave surface, very 
difficult to forge, and therefore requiring much skill in the workmanship, but of metal so 
soft and inferior, that they would not have been considered worthy of any notice were 


it not tha,t they are so made purposely to suit the particular habits of an agricultural 
pop^ilatioH, who mow all crops, whether of grain or other kinds, close to the surface of a 
sojl generally abounding in stones. A scythe of hard steel, with a fine edge, though it 
might perform its work better where unimpeded, would be hable to constant injury, very 
dij^cult of repair, under such circumstances ; whereas these Tyrolese or Styriah scythes 
yield at once to the blows which they receive upon their edge. The labourer carries 
with him a small hskmiper j, ^nd whenever the b.l?,de has so far lost its shape as to need 
renewa.1, he beq,ts it out in a few moments to its original form ; hence the softness of the 
metal, in most cases considered wholly incousistent with excellence in this branch of 
manufacture, becomes an essential property. 

3. From the States of the Zollverein, and from Hamburg and Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 
in Northern Germany, there was a collection: of articles of almost every description. The 
two latter States contributed only on a limited scale ; Mecklenburg some razors, and 
Hamburg also, together with a small collection of took, of fair quality. The former com- 
modities were not good of their kind, ?,nd those from Mecklenburg apparently very high 
in price. Of the cutlery from the Zollverein, much, though highly finished, was of an 
ordinary description, consisting of table and pocket knives in considerable variety ; but 
there were also certaiii " spear knives," designed for fishing by the natives in the South 
Agierican rivers, and adapted for their markets, which deserved notice as of superior 
luanufacture. Among the tools the same character prevailed as in the cutlery, though 
there were certain " web-saws" which evinced higher skill, There was an assortment of 
scissors, chiefly from §olin,gen in West Prussia, worthy of attention as being manufactured 
in great numbers from an ore producing a "natural steel," which is of such quality as 
tp suflBce for the purpose to which it was here applied, and to save the manufacturer the 
cost and labour of the converting process, thereby enabling him to produce such goods at 
^ price much lower than would be profitable with the ordinary methods. The workman- 
ship of these scissors appeared to be fair j but the jury were unable, after much attention 
to the point, assisted by the judginent of Mr. Ragg, an experienced workman, to satisfy 
themselves entirely as to the real quality of the metal, although the material from which 
they were said to be manufactured had been examined by Mr. Henry, and was pronounced 
by fi-iJn to be steel. 

4. The cpUections from Denmark, Sweden, and Norway were small, and contained little 
that required notice. Erom the two latter countries the number of exhibitors bore a 
large proportion to the extent of the contributions, indicating establishments on a very 
limited scale ; and although Sweden has long produced the most valuable iron, as the 
raw material of the finest steel and of the most finished cutlery, it does not appear 
that the manufacture itsielf has made any great advance. The collection consisted of some 
razors, spring-knives, and other cutlery tools of an ordinary kind. From Denmark there 
was one singular article, a set of files, hoUowed, and made to fit within each other: they 
were curious, and difiScult of manufacture, but of no apparent utihty. 

5. Of the three contributions from Russia, one only was from a private individual, the 
other two were from imperial establishments. The former contributed a varied assortment 
of cutlery of all kinds, and of fair qwlity ; the latter some tools, which cpuld not be 
ranked very high, and some scythes of the same kind as those whose peculiarities were 
described in the Austrian department. The Russian implements of this description were 

6 From Spain and Portugal the contributions were very small. The former exhi- 
bited only an assortment of files from Placenzia, of very fair quality ; the latter, some 
" agricultural implements," consisting of pruning- knives and scissors, probably adapted 
to the vine cultivation, but of little merit as manufactured goods. 

VOL. II. ^ " 


7. Of the three States in the next division, Turkey, Egypt, and Tunis, the two latter 
were only slender contributors in this class. One or two articles contained in the list 
furnished by the Egyptian government, and a few pairs of Tunisian scissors of the 
roughest workmanship, constituted the entire collections. Turkey, however, appeared 
with articles of greater interest, such as scissors and hunting-knives, few in number, but 
well made. The knives had blades of Damascus steel ; the scissors were of a singular 
form, and well deserved notice. They were so fashioned that each blade was half of a 
hollow cone, and the two therefore produced an entire cone when closed. The sides of 
each of these halves formed the cutting edges. They were well finished, and must have 
required much skill and great labour in their fabrication, rendering their cost high j but 
it did not appear that they possessed any superior utility. It was not stated that they 
were so made for any special purpose ; and, if not, they involve considerable waste of toil 
and skill. 

8. Prom China there were only a very few articles ; but one of them was a singular 
instrument, and should be noticed, as characteristic of the people from whose workshops 
it proceeded. It was a small blade of a triangular form, 2i-in. long, Ij-in. wide, and 
5-in. thick, folding upon a slender wooden cylindrical handle, and was used as a razor 
for shaving a part of the head, according to general practice among the Chinese. It 
is not easy for us to comprehend how the operation can be successfully performed with 
such an implement ; but it is said to be in common use among the natives, and to effect 
its purpose in their hands with the utmost nicety and dispatch, and it cannot, therefore, 
be ill-adapted to its object. The workmanship was, to European eyes, of a very rude 
description, and even the surface of the metal displayed none of the' finish which was so 
diligently bestowed on many Chinese productions ; but the edge it carried was cer- 
tainly good, and its quality, no doubt, surpassed its appearance. 

9. Lastly, the opposite hemisphere supplied, from the United States of America, a 
collection which, though not very extensive, contained some signal proofs of proficiency in 
such manufactures, and was strongly characteristic of the natural and social exigencies of 
the people from whom it came. It consisted of a few articles of the finer cutlery, but 
mainly of assortments of the larger edge-tools and implements, such as scythes and axes, 
and other objects of that nature. The former were finished with great care, and decorated 
with much costly ornament ; but the jury could not pronounce them to be of the first 
degree of excellence in workmanship, and their temper was wanting in the hardness 
proper to the best cutlery. With respect to the other articles, however, the case was 
different. There was a set of joiner's tools, which, though few in number, were excellent; 
and the same might be said of the scythes, which were of the best quality. Good as these 
productions were, they were, perhaps, surpassed by the axes, to which nothing of the 
kind could be superior. They were admirably finished, and at the same time displayed 
all those more valuable qualities which are the necessary conditions and evidence of 
perfection in such commodities. It was evident that the great prevailing want of the popu- 
lation had created and encouraged to perfection, in its own neighbourhood, the trade 
which was to supply it. The jury believe, that in the above general survey of the con- 
tributions presented by this class of the Exhibition, they have left nothing unmentioned 
of any note or merit. 




The limits assigned to the display of articles of hardware were necessarily occupied by an 
extensive and miscellaneous collection, embracing the most minute as well as the most 
gigantic of manufactured articles ; from the delicately formed tiny ribbon pin, to the 
ponderous and unwieldy anchor ; from the commonest implement of domestic utility, 
to the monster engine of destruction, the enormous cannon exhibited by the Low Moor 
ironworks. What wonders might there not be revealed, had we time for entering 
minutely into the subject, in the description of the various modes of manufacture, and 
the no less various uses of the numerous articles that were ranged under the title of 
this chapter ? We shall briefly notice a few of the most serviceable appliances to the 
requirements of civilised man; and, as "ex pede Herculem" is our motto, for the 
present we shall commence with the apparently insignificant article of " pins," as illus- 
trated in the Great Industrial Exhibition of 1851. The number of exhibitors of pins 
was very limited. In the Birmingham compartment there were but two — Messrs. 
Eddelston and Williams, and Mr. Goodman ; Messrs. Kirby, Beard, and Co., exhibiting 
in the north transept gallery : and it was a matter of regret that in the machinery depart- 
ment none of the mechanism by which pins are made was exhibited. After examining 
the finish and form of the pins in the collection of Messrs. Eddelston and Williams, 
we cannot avoid being struck with the immense advance which must have been made 
since the time of Queen Elizabeth, when wooden skewers formed an indispensable 
adjunct to her Majesty's toilet table. Even during the last (twenty years the improve- 
ments have been very considerable. Previously to that time the head of the pin consisted 
of a spiral ring of wire, placed upon the shank or shaft of the pin, and fastened to it 
by blows of the liammer. The inconvenience which resulted from the heads becoming 
loose led to the adoption of a plan, now very general, for making pins with solid heads. 
Messrs. Eddelston and Co. exhibited a series of examples, showing the various processes 
which a pin undergoes in its progress towards completion. We first saw a small block 
of copper and one of spelter ; next to these there was a block of brass, formed of the 
union of those two metals. These blocks were then shown cut into smaller flat strips — 
then partially drawn — and finally drawn out into difi'erent thicknesses of wire. The 
wire was next seen cut into the required lengths, in the form of " pin blanks" — afterwards 
" pointed" and " headed" — and finally, the silvered or finished pin. A pair of dies and a 
punch, used in ' forming the head of the pin, were also shown. By means of this 
instrument or machine the pin was formed, complete with the head and shaft, out of one 
solid piece of wire, instead of by the old process of the wire heads. The solid-headed pin 
was invented by Messrs. Taylor and Co. about twenty years since, and was patented by 
them, but the patent .has now expired. In order to produce the head, the shaft of the 
pin is cut a trifle longer than the finished pin is required to be made. The wire thus 
cut passes into a mould of the exact length of the pin, and the end of the wire pro- 
jecting beyond the length of the mould, is by a sharp blow flattened, and shapedinto the 
form required for the head. The heads are afterwards burnished, an operation which 
adds greatly to their finished appearance. The finished pins we observed were most 


tastefully arranged around a centre, being of all sizes, from the large blanket-pin, of 
three inches in lengths to the smallest ribbon pin used by the ribbon manufacturers, 
of which 300,000 weigh only one pound. The collection of insect pins used by entomo- 
logists was worthy of attention, as showing what minute specimens may be produced by 
the aid of machinery. They are made of much finer wire than the ordinary pin, and 
vary in length from two to three inches to a size considerably smaller than the tiny 
ribbon pin. Some smooth elastic hair pins, highly approved of by the fair sex, and 
of which some tons weight are annually made by Messrs. Eddelston, were also shown in 
their case. The smoothness of the wire, and its fineness and elasticity, are certainly most 
surprising. In connection with the manufacture of the solid-headed pins it is a curious 
fact, that although so vastly superior to the old-fashioned pin, they are produced at a con- 
siderably less price, in consequence of the great perfection of the machinery employed. 
In addition to the improvements naade in the heads, machines have recently been 
constructed by the firm, each of which is capable of pointing pins at the rate of upwards 
of six hundred per minute. These and various other improvements in the process of 
manufacture enable the makers to sell the gjceat majority of the pins at the merest trifle 
over and above the cost of the raw nietal ; ^ large number of the pins manufactured 
being sold at not more than twopence per pound over the cost of the metal of which 
they are formed. Upwards of 200 hands are constantly employed by Messrs. Eddelston 
in this branch of manufacture; and the number of pins made by them is, in con- 
sequence of the improved machinery, more than three times that which could bq 
produced by the same number of workmen only a few years since. Upwards of 150 tons 
weight of copper and spelter are annually worked up into pins by this one Birminghani 
house alone. Were the whole of the metal which is worked up during the year, in 
this one manufactory, converted into ribbon-pins, half an inch in length, it would produce 
the enormous number of 100,800,000,000, or about 100 to each inhabitant of the globe, 
If placed^in a straight line, they would be 787,500 miles in length, or sufficient to extend 
upwards of thirty times round the globe, or more than three times the distance of the 
moon from the earth. Some idea may be formed from these figures, not only of the 
extraordinary malleability of the metal, but of the astonishing consumption of the ?irticles 
formed from it. Indeed, ,we can scarcely conceive any qsiestion more completelv 
unanswerable than that of "What becomes of all the pins made?" 

Messrs. Kirby, Beard, and Co. made an interesting display of pins in their stand ; the 
back of which was ornamented with the words " Peace and Industry," and with various 
other decorations produced in steel beads, closely imitating the heads of pins. In the 
case itself were shown the pins in various stages of progress, and a large assortment of 
" toilet," " hatters'," "jet," " ribbon," and " milliners' " pins. Mr. Goodman, of Birming- 
ham, and Mr. Chambers and Mr. James, of Redditch, also exhibited a variety of pins, 
which, so far as we were enabled to judge of them in the case, were well-finished spe.^ 
cimens. In the machinery department was shown an ingenious and interesting machine, 
by Mr. lies, of Bardesley Works, Birmingham, used for sticking pins in circular tablets. 
We may add that Messrs. Eddelston and Co. have since constructed a machine, 
by which they are enabled to stick the pins upon the papers upon which they are sold, 
and which performs its work with marvellous rapidity and accuracy. M. Eeineker of 
Cologne, in the ZoUverein division, showed several varieties of pins : some with com- 
position metal heads, cast in the same mode as shot, with a hole in the centre and secured 
to the shaft. Samples of iron wire in hanks with a coating of copper, were also shown iu 
the neighbourhood of the finished article. The pin manufacture of Austria was repre- 
sented by M. Struntz, of Vienna ; and M. Vantillard, of M^rouvel, TVance, showed some 
specimens of iron pins, tinned by a process recently patented both in France and England, 


Sheffield Manufactures. — The conversion of iron into steel, (to the extent of many 
thousand tons annually,) is the principal manufacture of SheflSeld ; and the several pro- 
cesses of cementation, blistering, shearing, casting, tilting, and tempering, were illus- 
trated by specimens in the Exhibition. Thus Messrs. Johnson, Cammell and Co., of the 
Cyclops Works, exhibited progressive specimens, from the imported iron up to the most 
refined state of the metal — in the varieties of " cemented blister," " double-refined cast," 
" double-^hear," or " elastic spring." Their display of tools included their " curvilinear 
tanged file;" and their "continuous tooth concave and convex file;" the latter rewarded 
by a medal from the Society of Arts. The careful finish of their work was also shown in 
their springs for railway carriages ; and in a piston-rod, weighing 16 cwt., the finest and 
largest piece of steel in the Exhibition. Another assortment, forwarded by Turton and 
Son, illustrated steel manufacture from Swedish bar-iron. The same firm contributed a 
steel ingot, weighing upwards of 1 ton 4 cwt., intended for one of a pair of piston-rods 
for a marine engine. It consisted of the contents of 48 crucibles, each charged twice 
with 801b. weight of steel ; the operation was performed by forty work-people, and the 
pouring of the melted liquid steel into the mould was accomplished by three men in 
eight minutes. 

Messrs. Turner and Co. displayed a pair of Albert venison-carvers, with stag antlers ; 
and the Prince of Wales's sailor's knife. We must not, however, omit to record a 
brilliant trophy of Shefiield cutlery, which was arranged in a case in the western nave of 
the building. It contained 230 pairs of scissors, of every size and pattern, grouped and 
mounted upon a white ground; the centre object being a pair of huge scissors, twenty-two 
inches long, the bows and shanks representing in outline two crowns; the upper one 
surmounted by a thistle : aU the ornamental work was wrought with the file, some portions 
of the surface being chased. This object was by far the most expensive pair of scissors 
ever produced in Sheffield. On each side of this appeared another pair, nearly the same 
size, and scarcely less beautiful or costly. One pair represented, in chasing, the bruising 
of the serpent's head ; in the centre was wrought out with the file the Prince of Wales's 
feathers; and the bow was the shamrock, rose, and thistle, and scrollwork — all wrought out 
with the file. Next was illustrated the scissors' manufacture, in its ten stages. Among 
the most striking specimens was a pair of 16-inch fancy nail-scissors, ornamented with 
etching; a group of surgeon's scissors, curved, angular, and distorted for difficult opera- 
tions : a sportsman's knife, containing eighty blades, and other instruments ; also one 
three-quarters of an inch long, with fifty- one blades and other inetrumeuts; and a case 
containing twelve perfect pairs of scissors, yet so small that they did not weigh half a grain. 
Another striking feature was the variety of stoves; register and air, cooking and gas, 
heat-reflecting, smoke-curing, &c. 

Among the gas-burners exhibited was the self-regulating apparatus, by Mr. Biddell, who 
introduced into the centre of the burner a vertical compound rod of about a quarter of an 
inch in diameter, the cylindrical case being of brass, and the core within of steel. By the 
expansion and contraction of this rod, which is surrounded by the flame, a small lever 
and simple valve, in connection with the bottom of the rod, are acted upon so delicately, 
that the exact amount of gas required to keep up uniformity of flame is preserved. 

One exhibitor, who had great faith in a new name, sent a saucepan with a false bottom, 
upon which, potatoes being placed, covered up, and set upon the fire, steam was generated, 
and thus the potatoes were cooked in the water they contained — a contrivance called the 

Dr. Arnott's stoves and ventilating apparatus were exhibited: with Peirce's pyro- 
pneumatic stove, made of fire-clay in pieces, through which are air-keys, the whole cased 
with iron ; an open fire warms the fire-bricks, the passages between which are connected 

VOL. II. 2 X 


with a pipe' leading to the external air, when the warmed air rises into the apartments, 
and a supply^^ of fresh air is obtained from without. Edwards's patent Atmopyre was 
shownT^it. "consists of a porcelain chamber ; within it is the gas fire, which escapes through 
miniltie • perforations ; the mass thus becomes red hot, or, in the words of the patentee, a 
" solid gas tire" cooking stove. ' Several gas meters were also shown here. The stove- 
grates tastefully displayed painted china and ormolu, encaustic tiles, gold medallions and 
scrollwork^ rn^rble and alabaster ; and we leaia froiii Mr. Hunt's excellent Hand-Book, 
that seven of these grates and six fenders had been designed by pupils of the government 
school. The fire-irons and fenders were alsojof corresponding elegance.. 

There were several specimens of patent wire ropes exhibited by Messrs. -Newall ; and of 
flat chains with wooden keys, for collieries, by Mr. Edge. Messrs. Henn and Bradley 
supplied a good assortment of their crown-tapered, screws, of the most delicate structure, 
for pianofortes, as well as for the heaviest railway purposes. 

^effield Plating. — Although the electro-plating process is extensively applied, Mr. 
J. G. A. Creswick, of Sheffield, states, in a letter to the Times, that the old and substantial 
method ^f plating on the ingot, by. fire is still employedi in that, town, and is almost 
entirely used in articles for the London trade — such as dishes and covers, tea-sets, cande- 
labra, &c. ; and in many cases such goods (made by the first' class of the Sheffield manufac- 
turei"s) have stood the wear of from twenty to thirty yea»s' use. Mr. John Gray, of 
Billiter-square, exhibited a series of articles illustrative of this method of plating, com- 
mencing from the ingot and terminatinf^ in the finished article. The ingot is .composed of 
copper alloyed with other metal, so as to impart to it the necessary roughness and rigidity. 
The plate of silver is tied upon its polished surface with wire, and the combined 
metals are then heated in a furnace, till both bodies are in a molten state, and thus 
become most efiectually united. After this process, the two metals united form an ingot, 
which is subjected to rolling and hammering into form — which test the electro process 
never subjects articles to, as they are all coated after the goods are finished, so far as 
manipulation and annealing is concerned. Soldering the silver upon any baser metal is 
only practised in making cutlery, and does not at all apply to plated manufacture, being a 
distinct branch of business. Mr. Gray also exhibited an ingot of copper, previous to this 
process, with the plate of silver tied upon it with wire; ingots of copper and white 
metal after the silver plate has been united to them by an elevation of temperature only; 
and a sheet of plated metal, rolled from a plated ingot. A table-dish, made from the 
rolled metal, was the next in the series, with the silver mountings laid upon it, but not 
yet soldered. The steel dies in which the silver mountings are struck, together with the 
mountings produced by them, were also shown ; in fine, the table-dish was exhibited in 
its finished state, as well as a specimen of a salver likewise produced by this manufacturer. 

Metallic Pdns. — A steel pen is as great a wonder of the present day as a pin was to 
our ancestors. Large black and red pens were made of steel early in the present cen- 
tury ; but the extensive introduction of steel pens dates from 1838, when Mr. Gillott, 
of Birmingham, patented a machine for making, them j and 1830, when Mr. Perry, of 
Londian, added to their flexibility " by apertures between the shoulder and the point." 
About the years 1820 and 1821, the first gross of three-slit pens was sold wholesale at 
71. 4s. the gross ; the cheapest pens are now sold at tivopence the gross, and the price 
■rises with the elasticity and finish of the pen up to 3s. 6d. and 5s. the gross. Nearly 
150 tons of steel are stated to be- now annually made into pens; and, in one Birming- 
ham establishment, 500 hands are daily employed. Here is an outline of the several 
stages <)f the manufacture. The rolled sheet steel being jrecieived from Sheffield, is cut 
into stripsj put into cast-iron boxes and scrftened by heat, and rolled between metal 
-cylinders to the required thickness. The steel is then passed to a woman, who, with a 

^. M^^MsM^Mi^^M 




..lL>l,I\rHj b> M^.i11,.^ iJ^i. ,.] 


hand-press, cuts out at a single blow the future pen; and a good hand will cut 28,000 
per day of ten hours. The central hole and side slits are cut by another press: the 
semi-pens are then softened by heat, by a die worked by the foot-are stamped with the 
maker s name, and then by a machine pressed into a cylindrical form. The pens are 
again heated, and then thrown into oil, which makes them very brittle ; but they are 
cleansed and restored to elasticity by placing them in a tin cylinder, turned over a 
fire, hke a coffee-roaster; the pens are next scoured with sawdust, in cans placed in a 
frame which revolves by steam. Each pen is then ground at the back, in two ways, at 
right angles to each other, or rather over each other; the girl holding the pen with 
nippers for a moment on a revolving " bob." The pens are then slit with a tool very 
nicely fitted into a hand-press, turned by a handle. They are next examined and sorted ; 
and lastly, varnished with lac dissolved in naptha, evaporated by heat. Messrs. Gil- 
lott's specimens ranged from a monster pen, weighing five pounds, and measuring one 
yard in length, to a Lilliputian weighing four grains ; the monster containing metal 
enough to make 1,092,327 of the tiny ones: the colouring of the metal was very rich. 
In a glass case, too, the whole history of the manufacture was wonderfully told. In 
an adjoining case, by Wiley and Co., were shown silver and gold pens, some tipped with 
iridium and osmium, the hardest of known metals ; and in Hinckes and Co.'s case was 
a series of nut-shells, each containing an incredible number of infinitesimal pens of 
great finish, which it required a microscope properly to appreciate. Messrs. Perry 
also exhibited some fine specimens. 

Buttons. — The oldest of the Birmingham buttons seem to have been a plain flat 
button, of the waistcoat size, which, a hundred years ago, was sold at 4s. 6^. a gross, 
and which is still manufactured at Is. 6c?. a gross. Then came a very large button, of 
the size of half-a crown, with ornamental devices on it ; but this was dear. It was 
the gilt and plated button, introduced between 1797 and 1800, which made the great 
"hit" in the trade. This button became immediately fashionable, and continued so 
for a quarter of a century. Everybody must remember the days when the blue coat, 
with its seemly array of glittering brass buttons, was the not unbeconiing garb of a gen- 
tleman. At the end of twenty-five years, it was pushed from its popularity by the 
-covered, or Florentine button; but some years ago a dashing attempt was made to revive 
its glories by means of a deputation which the trade despatched to London. We 
do not learn that they committed a similar inadventure to that of the poor wig- 
makers, who went up to petition the throne, some years previously, against the 
practice of wearing one's own hair — but, going in their own natural hair, so scan- 
dalised the mob by their inconsistency, that they had it all cutoff for them by the rabble. 
Armed with sets of beautiful bright buttons, the discomfited maikers forced their way 
to the foot of the throne, and, tendering their article, besought royalty to pity their 
misfortunes. They represented that the old button was very handsome, and that thou- 
sands were reduced to poverty by the introduction of the new one ; and they therefore 
entreated the king (George IV.) to encourage the metal button trade by wearing that 
article. The same appeal was made to other influential persons; and not only the king, 
but the Duke of Clarence, several of the ministers, many members of the nobility, the 
Lord Mayor, and other notables, accepted the proffered buttons, and promised to wear 
them. The experiment was successftil; a reaction took place, and the dark button, as 
we well remember, went aside for a few seasons. Again we all came out glittering — 

" To midnight dances and the public show." 

But the triumph was not long j and that it was not longer was the fault of the Bir- 
mingham people themselves. Some manufacturer invented or introduced a cheap 


method of gilding tLo buttons. The trade called it French gilding, the woikmcn 
named it " slap-dash." It made the buttons look remarkably brilliant for a very little 
while, but they tarnished almost immediately, even before the retailers could sell them ; 
and if placed in all their brightness on a new coat, they looked shabby in a fortnight. 
This discovery — perhaps it is refining too much to suppose that it was introduced by 
a friend to the Florentine button— fatally and finally damaged the metallic cause, by 
casting discredit upon the whole manufacture : people left off ordering brass buttons, 
and by 1840 the trade was again ruined. A second attempt at obtaining illustrious 
intervention was made : Prince Albert was assailed by a deputation, and the sympathies 
of the press were invoked by the metal buttonist. But the charm would not work 
twice, and you never see a gilt button now except upon the terribly high-collared coat of 
some terribly devoted adherent to old fashions, who may be observed nestling in the 
corner of the stage box on first nights, and who, if he speaks to you, is sure to growl out 
the unreasonable intimation, that "You ought to have seen Joe Munden, sir, in a 
character like this. Munden, sir, was an actor." Except the buttons required for the 
military and naval services, and for " Jeames," the metal article is out of date, and 
covered buttons have it all their own waJ^ The Florentine or covered button was first 
introduced into Birmingham in 1820, and it derives its name from the Florentine cloth 
with which it is covered. It is composed of five pieces : first, the cover of Florentine 
cloth or silk ; second, a disc of metal, which gives the shape to the button ; third, a some- 
what smaller disc of brown pasteboard or wadding; fourth, a disc of coarse black 
linen or calico ; and fifth, a disc of metal, from which an inner circle has been punched 
out, so that the cloth or calico above may slightly protrude, and form a shank of the 
button. Young girls cut the various discs with a punching machine, and the last 
operation is to place the five pieces in regular order in a small machine constructed to 
hold them — an arrangement carried out by a number of little children under a woman's 
superintendence; and then this machine, which has been compared to a dice-box, is 
brought under a press, which, with a touch, fastens the whole bottom together with a 
neatness and a completeness to which any one who will examine his coat-button can be 

Horn buttons are made from the hoofs of horned cattle : those of horses are not 
available for the purpose. The hoofs are boiled until soft, and cut into halves ; then 
" blanks" are punched out. The blanks are placed in vats containing a strong dye, 
red, green, or black, and the shank is next fixed in. The button is then placed 
in a mould, where the under surface is stamped with the maker's name. A dozen 
moulds are put into an iron box, and heated over an oven until the horn is as soft as 
wax, and then an upper mould with the pattern for the top of the button is pressed 
down, fitting close to the lower mould. The moulds having been placed in the press, 
and submitted to its action, the buttons are complete, except that the rough edges 
require paring. Brushes, worked by steam, then run over and pohsh the buttons, and 
they are ready for the sorter. There were numerous beautiful specimens of these buttons 
in the cases to which we shall presently refer. There are still many other kinds of 
buttons to be noted. The pearl button gives employment to 2,000 people in Birming- 
ham alone. We must not forget glass buttons, with which it was lately the pleasure 
of admiring mothers to sprinkle their little boys very profusely, and which are also 
much in demand for exportation to the African chiefs, who have the true barbarian 
love of glitter. There are two sorts, the round and the knob-shaped. The former are 
made of sheet glass, of various colours, and coated with lead, which is cut by hand into 
small squares, the corners of which are rounded with scissors, and the edges are ground 
on a wheel. The shank is then fastened ; it is joined to a round piece of zinc the 


size of the button, and soldered to it. The knob buttons are made in a mould : a long 
rod of glass being softened in a furnace and clasped in the mould, jn which the 
shank has previously been fitted. The black glass buttons, for coat-links, are made 
at a lathe. Agate, cornelian, and stone buttons are imported from Bohemia, and shanked 
and finished in Birmingham. There were several other kinds of buttons, as the iron and 
brass buttons with four holes, used for trowsers, steel buttons for ladies' dresses, 
wooden buttons and bone buttons for under clothing. The former are punched by one 
press, rendered concave by another, and pierced by a third, and then a hand-pierder is 
introduced from the opposite side to that which receives the blow, in order to smooth the 
edges of the holes. Having been cleaned, the buttons receive a white coating, by means 
of a chemical process. The steel buttons are made by the steel toy manufacturers. 
The wood buttons are made by wood turners ; and the bone buttons are chiefly made 
by the horn button makers. 

Having thus enumerated the principal forms of buttons, we will pass in review 
some of the specimens exhibited. Messrs. Twigg had some very handsome specimens of 
the "Jeames" button, and some boldly embossed naval buttons, with appropriate 
ornaments. Some of their cut-glass buttons in metal were efiective. Messrs. Pigott's 
bronzed buttons, with sporting subjects, were among the best we have ever seen: 
and Messrs. Hammond had some particularly bold and well-executed device-buttons — 
a set which we noticed, as made for a " curling club," being very characteristic. 
Messrs. Ashton not only showed a handsome assortment of all kinds, especially of the 
Florentine class, but they introduced a series designed to illustrate their manufac- 
ture — a course which was very much in conformity with the spirit of the Exhibition, 
and one which we could wish had been adopted wherever it was conveniently prac- 
ticable. Messrs. Inman had also some bold and well-executed buttons, some of them 
honoured with the episcopal insignia, and others for the servants of the London Docks. - 
Some of the prettiest cut-glass buttons in the Exhibition were those of Messrs. Neal 
and Tonks; and Messrs. Chatwin's case contained as highly-finished specimens as any 
assortment around them. In connexion with Mr. Banks's buttons, we observed some 
large and fine specimens of the shells used in the manufacture of pearl-buttons, above 
described, which were brought from the Gulf of Persia, and from the Sooloo Isles. A 
very small but pretty contribution was made by Mr. Knowles, consisting of gold plated 
and enamelled buttons : there were, we think, about a dozen only. Mr. Wells 
exhibited some horn buttons of considerable merit. A case contributed by Messrs. 
Smith, Kemp, and Wright, showed us a very brilliant assortment. The sporting 
buttons, representing the neck-and-neck end of a race, the hunter clearing a hedge, the 
sportsman bringing down his, partridge, with other varieties of amusements, were very 
cleverly designed. There was a good St. George and the dragon, and indeed a very rich 
multiplicity of devices, enamels, crests, buildings, military and naval buttons, a capital 
lion, and other designs for ornamental buttons. Messrs. Allen and Moore, amoug 
many choice and beautiful articles in hardware, exhibited metal buttons of fine finish ; 
and Mr. Ashton, showed velvet buttons, which we marked as very rich in their efiiect. 
We have spoken of the manufacture of pearl buttons, and Messrs. Elliott exhibited some 
with metallic rims — an arrangement which conveyed the" desirable idea of exceeding care 
in the finish. Messrs. Ingram illustrated very fully the horn button in its history and 
varieties. Messrs. Heeley also had some metal articles amid their beautiful hardware. 
Mr. Nash, a die sinker, showed the dies by which the metal buttons were stamped. 
In a case exhibited by Mr. Brissrabb, were specimens of the mother-o'-pearl button, and 
among them some of the black pearl. 

The general characteristics of the specimens of button manufacture must, of course be, 

VOL. II. 2 Y 


to a great extent, similar, the contributions having been chiefly sent by first-rate pro- 
ducers, who, in running an honourable race with their rivals, all attained the point of 
excellence, which left little room" for diversity. In some of the cases there was more 
artistic taste, as regards the designs of ornament, than in others ; but the mechanical 
finish of the whole array defied censure. The button manufacture of England was 
obviously and decidedly creditable to the country. 





The magnitude of the manufacture of soap, the importance of the trade, and the enormous 
capital embarked in it, as well as the wonderful relation which it bears with regard to 
the most important links in the chain of chemical industry, is not often sufficiently esti- 
mated. A distinguished chemist of the present day says : — " The quantity of soap con- 
sumed by a nation would be no inaccurate measure whereby to estimate its wealth and 
civilisation. Political economists, indeed, will not give it this rank; but, whether we 
regard it as joke or earnest, it is not the less true that, of two countries of an equal 
amount of population, we may declare with positive certainty, that the wealthiest and 
most highly civilised is that which consumes the greatest weight of soap. The con- 
sumption does not subserve sensual gratification, nor depend upon fashion, but upon 
the feeling of the beauty, comfort, and welfare attendant upon cleanliness; and a 
regard to this feeling is coincident with wealth and civilisation. The rich in the middle 
ages, who concealed a want of cleanliness in their clothes and persons under a pro- 
fusion of costly scents and essences, were more luxurious than we are in eating and 
drinking, in apparel and horses; but how great is the difference between their days 
and our own, when a want of cleanliness is equivalent to insupportable misery and mis- 
fortune !" It is interesting to cast a glance upon the early history of this important 
branch of trade. No mention of soap is to be found in the works of authors prior to the 
Christian era. The term soap occurs repeatedly in the Old Testament, but the learned 
Beckmaun has proved, in his Treatise on Soap, that the Hebrew word borith, which has 
been rendered soap, rather means alkali. One of the most ancient descriptions of 
bathing and washing is to be found in Homer's narrative of the preparations made by 
the mother of the lovely Nausicase, for the washing expedition to the river. Life- 
sustaining meats and refreshing wines, softening oil in golden vessels for anointing the 
skin, are carefully enumerated; but soap formed no part of the inventory. The Homeric 
virgins were ignorant of this invaluable oleo-alkaline compound. Pliny is the first writer 
who gives us an authentic account of soap. He states that it is made from tallow and 
kshes, the best materials being goats'-tallow and beech-ash. He was also acquainted 
with the hard and soft varieties of soap ; he calls it a Gallic invention, but states that 
it was particularly well prepared in Germany, where the men were more in the habit of 
using it than the women. It served to colour the hair yellow. From the description of 


Pliny, it is evident that he really means soap, although the purpose for which it was 
employed creates some difficulty; and it would appear that the soap of the ancients 
contained some colouring agent, and served chiefly as a hair-dye, and likewise as a 
remedial agent. It does not seem that it was used for the purposes for which it is now 
almost exclusively employed. Besides several kinds of fullers'-earth, and plants with 
saponaceous juices {struthium), the ancients availed themselves of solutions of soda and 
potash, which continue in use for washing in the present day. Strabo speaks of an alka- 
line water (soda) in Armenia, which was used by the scourers for washing clothes, and 
we find express mention of the employment of a lye made with the ashes of plants 
(potashes), in cleansing oil and wine jars, and the images of the gods in the temples. The 
method of strengthening the lye by means of quick-lime was known, undoubtedly, in the 
time of Paulus JSgineta. The agent most commonly used for washing garments, however, 
was putrid urine, which is still employed in the cloth districts for washing wool. The 
fullers were literally and metaphorically in bad odour, and were required to exercise their 
trade outside the town, or in unfrequented streets, but they were permitted to place tubs 
at the corners of the streets, for the convenience of passengers and their own profit. 
Regarding urine in the light of soap, the Emperor Vespasian may be said to have 
originated the soap duty, as this source of revenue was not lost sight of by him, though, 
as Beckmann remarks, it does not appear very clear how the tax was collected. 

After Pliny, soap is mentioned by Geber, in the second century of the Christian era, 
and at a later period, frequently by the Arab writers : but although undoubtedly used 
for washing, it is spoken of chiefly as a remedial agent for external appUcation. It 
would be a difficult matter to trace the onward progress of soap-making, step by step, 
but it is certain that the boiling of soap flourished in the seventeenth century, as we possess 
extensive directions of that date for its preparation. It is only in the most modern 
times, that the_ soap-manufacture has attained that extraordinary development which 
distinguishes this branch of trade ; various circumstances have contributed to produce it. 
The valuable researches of Chevreul, although they explain the nature of saponification, 
have contributed less to the advance of the soap manufacture than to that of candle- 
making, hereafter to be described. On the other hand, the development of the manufac- 
ture of soda has proved a most powerful stimulus to that of soap, which, when freed from 
its dependence on the uncertain and limited supply of barilla and kelp, made such strides 
as could not have been anticipated. Mr. James Muspratt, who was the first in England 
to carry out successfully, and on a large scale, Leblanc's method of preparing soda from 
chloride of sodium (sea-salt), informs us that he was compelled to give away soda by tons 
to the soap-boilers, before he succeeded in convincing them of the extraordinary advan- 
tages to be derived from the adoption of this material. As soon, however, as he had 
efi:ected this, and when the soap-boilers discovered how much time and money they 
saved by using artificial soda, orders came in so rapidly, that Mr. Muspratt, to satisfy 
the demand, had his soda discharged red-hot into iron carts, and thus conveyed to the 
soap-manufactories. From that period, a constant race was kept up between soap-making 
and the artificial production of soda; every improvement in Leblanc's process was 
followed by an extension of the soap-trade; and it is a curious fact, that the single sea- 
port of Liverpool, exports annually more soap at present, than did all those of Great 
Britain previous to the conversion of chloride of sodium into carbonate of soda. The 
manufacture of soap has, on the other hand, been a powerful stimulus to the prepara- 
tion of soda and of the important secondary product, hypochlorite of hme (bleachmg 
powder) which are so intimately allied with almost all branches of chemical trades. Thus 
soap occupies one of the most important pages in the history of applied chemistry. The 
increase in the consumption of this article has led, moreover, to the discovery of new 


materials for its production. It has opened new channels to commerce, and thus it has 
become the means, as well as the mark .of civilisation. Almost simultaneous with the 
employment of soda, the oils of the cocoa-nut and the palm have been introduced into the 
manufacture of soap. The statistics respecting the imports into the United Kingdom and 
France, demonstrate the increasing consumption of these oils. The development of the 
trade in palm oil has contributed largely to the abolition of the iniquitous slave-trade on 
the west coast of Africa, and in many parts of the coast, has entirely suspended it. 

Before we proceed to the examination of the separate specimens of the soaps which were 
exhibited, a few words may be said respecting the materials employed in their manufacture. 
They are, on the one hand, alkalies, and on the other, fatty and resinous substances derived 
from the organism of animals and plants, especially tallow, lard, palm oil, cocoa-nut oil, 
olive oil, linseed oil, fish oil, and common resin. Although physically and chemically 
widely distinguished from one another, fats and oils present numerous analogies. Neither 
of these substances is a pure chemical compound; the majority are mixtures in varying 
proportions of different chemical bodies, which may be isolated by mechanical or chemical 
processes. When this separation has been effected, the isolated substances, which are the 
proximate principles of the fatty or oily bodies, though again differing much from one 
another, exhibit one common chemical character ; when exposed to the influence or 
powerful decomposing agents, they are broken up in a similar manner, yielding on the 
one hand an acid, and on the other a neutral body. All fats may be resolved into two 
proximate fatty substances, one of which is fluid at the common temperature — it is termed 
olein; the other is solid, and is called stearin. The preponderance of one or the other of 
these proximate constituents determines the state of aggregation of the fat. The body 
usually designated stearine is generally a mixture of the stearin of the chemist and an 
analogous body, margarin ; the two substances differing in their relative proportion 
according to the source from which the fat is obtained. Thus, the solid fat from sheep 
(tallow) contains chiefly stearin; that of the pig (lard) and of olive oil, chiefly margarin; the 
solid fat of palm oil is palmitin ; that of cocoa-nut oil, cocin. Stearin, margarin, olein, 
palraitin, and cocin are all compounds of certain fatty acids, with oxide of glyceryl, and 
may be viewed as substances resembling neutral salts, or rather compound ethers. The 
changes which all these substances undergo, when submitted to the action of powerful • 
bases, is well illustrated by the deportment of olein with oxide of lead (litharge). When 
boiled with this base, the olein is decomposed into oleic acid and oxide of glyceryl. 
The former combines with the base, forming an insoluble soap, called oleate of oxide of 
lead (diachylon plaster) ; and the oxide of glyceryl, separating in combination with water, 
forms glycerin (hydrated oxide of glyceryl), a substance having a certain analogy with the 
group of bodies termed alcohols. It remains dissolved in the water employed. If olein' 
is boiled with a solution of potash or soda, oleates of potash or soda are obtained ; but being 
soluble in water, they remain dissolved together with the glycerin. 

The oleates of potash or soda, when separated from the water by processes immediately 
to be discussed, are what we call, in common life, soaps. Similar soaps are formed by the 
remainder of the fatty acids; for example, stearic and margaric acids. Palmitate of soda, 
obtained by boiling palm oil with soda, likewise forms a chief ingredient of many soaps! 
Potash and soda, as they occur in commerce, are combinations of the alkaline bases thus 
denominated by the chemists, with carbonic acid, and though by long boiling they could 
decompose (saponify) fats, yet the operation is tedious, and the saponification generally 
incomplete. It is better to deprive the alkalies of their carbonic acid, which is done by 
mixing them with quicklime and water ; the quick-lime combines with the carbonic acid 
forming an insoluble carbonate of Hme (chalk), and the water retains the potash or soda 
in solution, contaminated still with such impurities as the alkalies contained (sulphates 


and chlorides, for example), and a minute quantity of caustic-lime. Common resin (colo- 
pony) is the residue of the distillation of natural turpentines, and consists principally of 
pinic acid, together with a litte sylvic and colophonic acids. When resin is boiled with 
alkalies, carbonated or not, a compound is readily obtained, but of course no glycerin. 
Thus, when it is boiled with soda, a pinate of soda is chiefly produced. This compound 
exists in considerable quantity in yellow soap, and gives to it its distinctive character. 
The character of soap is not only affected by the nature of the acids which it contains, 
but also by that of the alkali which has served for its preparation ; the soaps containing 
potash are generally soft and pasty ; those prepared with soda are hard and solid. 

The compounds of stearic, margaric, oleic, palmitic, cocinic, pinic, and sylvic acids, with 
potash and soda, are all readily soluble in alcohol and hot water, but more so in the 
former, which, on evaporation, leaves the soap iu a translucent state ; hence its application 
in the preparation of " transparent soaps." Soaps, however, are insoluble in a solution 
of many neutral salts, particularly when concentrated ; this property is of great use to the 
soap-boiler, who employs it for the separation of the soap from its solution in water, 
generally adding common salt to set the soap at hberty. As soaps are likewise insoluble 
in strong alkaline lyes, the same end is sometimes attained by boiling down the soap to a 
certain consistence, when it separates from the excess of lye. The soap made with cocoa- 
nut oil is, however, soluble in a very strong brine, and the same plan of separation does 
not succeed with it ; but, as it is more generally employed together with other fats, this 
difficulty is then overcome. Its property of dissolving in salt water renders it peculiarly 
adapted to the formation of a marine soap. One remarkable property of cocoa-nut oil 
soap is, that of solidifying with a much larger quantity of water than most other 
soaps, thus giving a larger yield, but, of course, being of proportionally less value. This 
property is, however, unfortunately, often turned to profitable account by the soap-maker. 
As an instance, may be quoted an analysis of Dr. Ure, who found a London cocoa-nnt oil 
soap to contain seventy-five per cent, of water, whereas tweniy-five per cent, of water is a 
large quantity for any but potash soaps to contain, and these generally contain less 
than fifty per cent. The greater part of our knowledge concerning the chemical con- 
stitution of fats, and the changes which accompany their decomposition under the 
influence of alkahes, is due to the masterly researches of Chevreul, prosecuted with 
wonderful acuteness and perseverance, from 1813 to 1833, when they were published in 
Paris in a collected form, under the title of Recherches Chimiques sur les Corps Gras 
d'Origine Animale, a work which will ever remain a model of philosophical inquiry. 

There are two processes chiefly employed in the preparation of soaps, the most simple of 
which is that called the cold process, or the small-boiler process. For the purpose of 
making soap in this manner, the alkaline lye is prepared from the purest commercial soda, 
and concentrated by evaporation. As the chloride of sodium and sulphate of soda, which 
commercial soda contains, are nearly insoluble in a strong alkaline solution, they crystallize 
out, especially on allowing the lye to stand for some days, thus leaving it much purer. 
A weighed quantity of fat is melted, and the strength of the lye having been pre- 
viously ascertained by taking its specific gravity, a certain portion is weighed or measured, 
and separately heated, and then stirred with the melted fat. Saponification soon occurs, 
and on cooling, the soap soUdifies. It is very evident that soap made in this manner must 
contain the glycerin ; moreover, as it is very difficult to obtain an exact neutralization of 
the fat or alkali, one or the other is often in excess, generally the fat; this prevents such 
soap from giving so good a lather as those prepared by the more usual method. 

The ordinary method is called the large-boiler process, and it is usually conducted 
on a very large scale, in boilers capable of holding many tons. A quantity of weak 
soda-lye is put into the iron or copper boiler, and raised to the boiling point; and 
VOL. n. 2 z 


the whole of the fat is generally added at one time. The ebullition is then carried on for 
some timej and when the lye has become exhausted of its alkali, it is pumped away, 
and a fresh portion of lye is added. After repeated boilings and pumpings, the 
saponification is completed, and the soap is brought to strength by boiling down. 

Now the soap-boiler may wish to prepare either white or mottled soap. If a white or 
curd soap is required, the soap is "fitted," that is, boiled with a certain quantity of 
water or weak lye, and allowed to settle, when the black impurities (" nigre") fall to the 
bottom, and the soap is then removed to the frames, and allowed to cool. These frames 
are composed of a number of separate planks, to facilitate the removal of the soap. 
The mottled soap is prepared in a similar manner, except that the operation of fitting is 
dispensed with, the " nigre" is left in the soap. This " nigre" consists chiefly of sulphide 
of iron, produced by the action of the lye, which always contains a minute quantity of 
sulphate of sodium, on the vessel. In Marseilles and other countries where olive-oil-soap 
is made, a quantity of sulphate of iron (green copperas) is added ; and in this case the 
mottling is produced jointly by the sulphide of iron (the black portion) and a true iron 
soap (the red portion). In order that the metallic compound may not fall to the bottom 
(as in fitting), the soap has to be much more concentrated ; when removed from the boiler 
it is of one uniform slate tint, but as it cools, the metallic compounds separate into 
nodules, and by trickling off the excess of lye through the mass, they take up certain 
forms, which produce the appearance called mottling. Hence mottled soap is of more 
value, from its containing a less proportion of water. It is evident, in comparing this 
with the cold process, that it is much more scientific ; as an excess of alkali may be 
employed to ensure complete saponification, with the perfect certainty that it can be got 
rid of in the lyes : the glycerin is also removed, with the impurities contained in the fat, 
at each pumping ; and a very pure chemical compound is obtained, notwithstanding the 
employment of comparatively impure materials. If the soda-ash employed does not 
contain suflacient saline impurities to throw up the soap, it is necessary to add a solu- 
tion of common salt to effect this object each time the exhausted lye is pumped off. 

The detergent property of soap is usually considered to be dependent entirely on the 
quantity of alkali which it contains, and hence the question arises, why pure alkali 
should not be employed in preference. An objection to this is the caustic character 
of the alkali, which is injurious, not only to the hands of the person using it, but also 
destructive of the articles washed, and especially of some colours of dyed goods. By com- 
bining with fatty acids, the alkalies are rendered essentially milder in their action, without 
being deprived of their capability of entering into combination with various impurities, and 
more particularly with certain fatty bodies. The most common explanation of the 
washing power of soap is founded upon Chevreul's observation, that soaps are decomposed 
by large quantities of water, giving rise on the one hand to acid soaps, and, on the other, 
liberating a quantity of free alkali which remains in solution. According to this view, soap 
ia a sort of magazine of alkali, which it gives up in the exact quantity required at any 
moment when it is rubbed with water. The combination of the alkali with some part of 
the dirt cannot be denied. Several constituents of this very indefinite admixture of many 
substances are of an essentially acid character, especially those derived from perspiration : 
others become acid when exposed on a large surface to the action of the air, in conse- 
quence of a sort of spontaneous saponification. This action cannot, however, be the sole 
modus operandi of soap, the valuable properties of which, without doubt, arise, in a great 
measure, from its power of dissolving substances which are insoluble in water. We 
know that certain mineral salts exert a solvent power upon substances which are 
entirely insoluble in water : thus it is well known that borax causes shell-lac to dissolve 
with great facility, and the chemist will at once call to mind the remarkable solvent pro- 


perty possessed by a soapy compound ready formed in the animal organism — bile is esseh- 
tiaily a combination of an alkali with fatty acids (glycocholic and taurocholic), and it 
dissolves with great facility the neutral body, cholesterin, which, like fats, is soluble in 
water. In addition to these two modes of operation, soap doubtless also produces a 
mechanical effect. The property which it has of increasing the cohesion of water, 
so as to enable it to form a lather or froth, is most valuable in the removal of solid 
insoluble particles of dirt, which are carried away by the frictional action of the suds 
when forced into and out of the minute interstices of the substances subjected to the 
operation of washing, and are kept suspended by the froth, and thus prevented from again 
soiling them. 

There were in the great Exhibition sixty-two exhibitors of soap. Many of these 
received prize medals, and not a few obtained honourable mention. In no country in the 
world is the manufacture of soap carried on to so large an extent as in the United King- 
dom, in which there are 329 makers. Ireland not being subject to a duty on soap, there 
are no ready means of ascertaining the quantity which is there manufactured ; but in Great 
Britain alone the production amounted, in the year 1850, to 304,410,836 lbs., and 
yieided an excise duty of £1,399,332 10s. 2d. Of this quantity 13,555,493 lbs. were 
exported to foreign parts, the drawback on it being j683,308 18s. 9^. The total quantity 
consumed in Great Britain, therefore, amounted to 191,855,333 lbs. Of this quantity 
33,858,383 lbs. were used by manufacturers, on which the duty, amounting to £97,343 
Os. l\d. was remitted. This leaves the net revenue derived from the soap-duty at 
£1,119,581 10s. 6d., after deducting the drawback and the remission to manufacturers. 
Deducting the quantity exported, and that used by manufacturers, it appears that 
168,996,951 lbs., or, in round numbers, 75,445 tons, were consumed in 1850 for domestic 
use in Great Britain (making 8 lbs. 1 oz. each person) ; besides that manufactured in 
Ireland, of which there are no returns. Of the different varieties of toilet and scented 
soaps, and of their general claims to prize medals and honourable mention, we have 
already spoken in a former chapter, when treating on the subject of "perfumery." 








As our object in describing the contents of the vast Emporium of Industry and Art, 
which forms the subject of our lucubrations, has, from the outset, been to give our 
readers as much variety as possible, we will now pause awhile in our dissertation on 
things produced, and indulge in a brief consideration of the original producers— those 
master minds which from time to time have appeared among us, and have diffused far 
and wide their light and their intelligence to the improvement of science and the benefit 
of mankind. "We shall, therefore, in our present chapter, give a few brief sketches of the 


lives of "working men," who, by their well-directed industry and ingenuity, have dis- 
tinguished themselves above their fellows, and contributed new or improved principles of 
importance to the manufacturing resources of the world. We trust these notices will be 
interesting, as illustrative of the progress of art culture, and will also serve as an encou- 
raging excitement to thousands of " working-men" of our own day, any one of whom may 
possibly have it in his power to add his mite to the general store of valuable experienceSj 
and to receive his reward in fame and fortune for himself and his descendants. 

James Watt. — The celebrity of some men may be compared to a meteor which appears 
for a short time and then vanishes away ; their memory is only found in their marble 
monuments. Others, again, like planets, have succeeded in attaining a more permanent 
distinction ; they have conferred benefits upon their fellow men which remain after them ; 
they require no busts — no empty gorgeous structures to tell that they have lived ; their 
memory is in their works. Of the latter class was James Watt, the immortal discoverer 
of the steam-engine. He was born in 1736, at Greenock, in Scotland, where his father 
was a merchant and magistrate. His grandfather and uncle both distinguished them- 
selves as mathematicians and engineers. The subject of our memoir was educated in his 
native town, which has long been distinguished as a port of extensive commercial relations 
and for the elegance and substantiality of the works of its mechanics, especially in refer- 
ence to navigation. Till the age of sixteen he continued at the grammar-school. At 
the age of eighteen he was sent to London, being bound to a distinguished mathematical 
instrument maker. Here, however, the delicacy of his health, from an attack of rheu- 
matism, occasioned by working one winter's day in the open air, prevented him from 
deriving any advantage from his situation, and he was soon obliged to return to his native 
country. In 1757 he went to reside in the University of Glasgow, being appointed philo- 
sophical instrument maker to that seminary, with apartments in the building. In this ' 
situation he remained till 1764, when he married his cousin. Miss MiUer. He then 
established himself in the town as an engineer. While in this capacity, he was consulted 
with regard to the great canal which traverses Scotland from east to west, termed the 
Caledonian Canal; and he is said to have projected the canal which unites the Clyde 
and the Forth. An accidental circumstance, however, had given a different bent to his 
pursuits. One of Newcomen's steam-engines had been sent to him from the Natural 
Philosophy class for the purpose of being repaired, and this turned his attention to the 
power of steam, of which he was destined to make such splendid applications. 

It has been usually admitted that the first individual who ascertained the fact that steam 
was capable of raising weights or water, was the marquis of Worcester. M. Arago, however, 
in the Annuaire for 1837, denies the accuracy of this conclusion, and claims the discovery 
for Salomon de Caus, a countryman of his own. A few extracts in the words of the 
respective authors will enable the reader to draw his own inferences. Hiero, of Alexan- 
dria, 120 years before the Christian era, was acquainted with the fact that steam, under 
certain circumstances, could give rise to motion. In 1543, Blasco de Garay, a sea captain, 
proposed to the emperor Charles V., to make embarkations even when there was a perfect 
calm, and without sails and oars. In June of the same year he is said to have made an 
experiment with a vessel of 200 tons, which he carried into Barcelona, according to some 
at the rate of a league per hour ; according to others at the rate of two leagues in three 
hours. The apparatus which he employed was a large cauldron of water attached to 
wheels connected with the sides of the vessel. This account is given by M. Gonzalez, in 
Zach's astronomical correspondence for 1826. It is altogether, however, so improbable 
that little importance can be attached to it j such is the Spanish claim to the discovery of 
the force of vapour. In 1615, Salomon de Caus wrote a work entitled Les liaisons des 
Forces Mouvantes, Sfc. In this he states that if water be introduced into a copper globe 


with a lube passing vertically through the upper part of the globe, and dipping under the 
surface of the water, on the application of heat to the globe the water will be driven up 
the tube ; he observes — " the force of the vapour (produced by the action of fire) which 
causes the water to rise is produced from the said water, which vapour will depart after 
the water shall have passed out with great force." This is the French claim to the inven- 
tion of the steam-engine. In 1629, Branca, of Rome, described the eolipyle, or vapour 
blow-pipe. This, however, has little connection with the subject. In 1663, the marquis 
of Worcester published his Century of Imentions. In his sixty-eighth invention, he states 
that he has discovered an admirable and very powerful method of raising water by the 
assistance of fire, not by aspiration, for as the philosophers say, intra sphoerum activitatis, the 
aspiration acting only at certain distances ; " but my method has no limits if the vessel pos- 
sesses suflBcient strength." He took a cannon, filled it to three-fourths with water, and shut 
up the open end ; he then kept up a constant fire around it, and in the course of twenty- 
four hours the cannon burst with a great noise. " Having a way to make my vessels so 
that they are strengthened by the force within them, and that they are filled in succes- 
sion, I have seen water run in a continuous manner, as from a fountain, to the height of 
forty feet. A vessel full of water rarefied by the action of fire, raised forty vessels of cold 
water. The person who superintends this experiment has only two stop-cocks to open, so 
that at the instant when one of the two vessels is emptied, it is filled with cold water 
during the time that the other begins to act, and this in succession. The fire is kept in a 
constant degree of activity by the same person, he has sufficient time for this during the 
intervals which remain after turning the stop-cocks." Such is the English claim to the 
discovery of the steam-engine. Whatever opinion may be arrived at, one thing is certain, 
that if his predecessors were ignorant of the force of vapour and its moving power, the 
marquis of Worcester was quite familiar with them. In 1683, sir Samuel Moreland wrote 
his Elevations of Water by all kinds of Machines, ^c, a manuscript preserved in the British 
Museum. He observes, that " water being evaporated by the force of fire, its vapours 
require a much greater space (about 3,000 times) than the water previously occupied, and 
rather than be confined will burst a piece of cannon. But being well regulated according 
to the rules of statics, and by science reduced to measure, to weight, and to balance, then 
they will carry their burdens peaceably (like good horses) ; and thus they will be of great 
use to the human race, particularly for raising water." In 1690, Denis Papin, a native of 
Blois, in France, first .thought of placing a piston in a cylinder, and acting upon it by 
the force of steam. It is unnecessary to enter into the question of the priority of the dis- 
covery of the steam-engine from the preceding details, because they appear merely to 
demonstrate the force of steam, or its moving power— the alphabet of the steam-engine. 

In. 1698, captain Savery obtained a patent for an instrument in which the power of steam 
was applied to practical purposes. The water was placed in a boiler, the steam escaped by 
a tube at the upper part of the boiler into a large spherical vessel, where, upon being con- 
densed, a vacuum was formed, which enabled the atmosphere to act. It was, therefore, the 
atmosphere, and not the steam which was the moving power. In 1705, a patent was taken 
out for an improved engine on the same principle, in the names of Newcomen, Crawley, 
and Savery. It was in 1764, that James Watt was employed to repair a model of one of 
these engines belonging to the Natural Philosophy class in Glasgow college. He was 
struck with the defects of the machine, and set about improving it. In 1768, he com- 
pleted his first engine, which, as with those now in use, differed from that of Newcomen 
by the condensation of the steam taking place in a second vessel, so that the descent 
of the piston was produced by the force of the steam, and not by atmospheric pressure ; 
the ascent of the piston was also produced by the power of the steam. The engine of Watt 
was therefore a true steam-engine; those which preceded it can only be considered as 
VOL. ir. 3 A 


machines which produced certain effects by the atmosphere acting on a vacuum produced 
by the condensation of steam. 

Dr. Roebuck supplied Watt with the means of accomplishing this great work, and in 
1769 he obtained his first patent. Watt had remarked that two-thirds of the steam were 
condensed by the contact with cold water ; hence there was a loss of two-thirds of the fuel. 
He first attempted to substitute a wooden pipe for a tube of iron, considering that the 
wood is a worse conductor of heat; but he found that the wood had less resistance to 
the sudden alternations of temperature. He then thought of passing the steam into an 
iron tube without cooling the walls of the tube ; this constituted the invention of the 
condenser. This vessel, free from air, and communicating with the water, being opened at 
the moment when the tube is filled with steam, draws the latter towards it, and when the 
vessel receives at the same time a jet of cold water, the steam which is passing to fill it is 
condensed; the remaining part of the steam in the pipe is removed into the vacuum 
caused by condensation, and thus the piston is allowed free play. To get rid of the water 
in the condenser, a small air-pump was applied, which was worked by the piston. The 
invention of the condenser was then Watt's first great improvement. The second was 
the admission of steam above and below the piston according as it was to be depressed 
or raised. He surrounded the metal tubes with wood in order to keep in the heat. He 
calculated with precision the quantity of fuel necessary for producing a certain portion of 
steam and the volume of cold water required to condense it. Such were the inventions 
for which the new patent was obtained, but funds were wanted to extend the utility of the 
discovery. Fortunately, in 1776, Dr. Roebuck, who had exhausted his means, met with a 
purchaser of his interests in the patent in the person of Matthew Bolton, of Birmingham, 
To him, therefore, it may with justice be said that the country owes the present diffusion 
and importance of the steam-engine. The firm of Watt and Bolton commenced their 
manufactory at Birmingham by constructing a steam-engine, which all those interested in 
mining were requested to inspect. The invention began gradually to be appreciated, espe- 
cially in Cornwall, and Watt's engine very soon replaced that of Newcomen. One great 
encouragement to adopt the new engine was the terms upon which it was supplied. The 
agreement was, that one-third of the saving of fuel over the old engine should be the 
price of the new engine. The sa^dng was carefully ascertained in this way : the quantity 
of fuel necessary for producing a certain number of strokes of the piston was ascertained 
by Newcomen's engine and by a new one of the same dimensions. The number of strokes 
were determined by means of a piece of clock-work, termed the counter, attached to the 
engine, and so arranged that every stroke advanced the hand one division. The instru- 
ment was placed in a box supplied with two keys, and was opened at the time for settling 
accounts in presence of the agent of Watt and Bolton, and of the director of the mine, 
U'o show the amount of saving it is only necessary to state that the sum which the firm 
derived from three engines in one year at the Chace-water mine, iu Cornwall, amounted 
to j63,382, proving that the saving of fuel by the new plan was equal to upwards of j67,000 
per annum, being equivalent to J62,383 per annum on each engine. 

The manufactory of Soho speedily extended its limits, and what was once a sterile hill 
soon became a populous and fertile hamlet. The firm obtained an extension of their 
patent to 1800, To this period the engine had only been employed to raise water; but 
in 1800, Watt began to think of applying it to mills. This, he conceived, might be 
effected on the principle of the spinning-wheel, where the impulse which turns it one-half, 
completes the revolution. While engaged with his models, he learned that a manufac- 
turer of Birmingham, named Richards, had constructed what he was in search of. He 
procured a plan of it, and found that it was precisely his own; he ascertained that 
his own plan had been sold by one of his faithless workmen to Richards, who had procured 


a patent. It was too late to claim the inventionj and he therefore sought for a new plan. 
He accordingly invented what is termed the sun and planet motion. 

The intelligent and aspiring mind of Watt, however, was not content with directing its 
attention to one subject alone. He invented, in 1779, a copying-press, consisting of 
two cylinders, between which a sheet of moistened paper was passed and applied over 
a printed sheet; this contrivance was very successful. In March, 1787, he introduced 
into Great Britain the method of bleaching cotton by means of chlorine, which had 
been discovered in France by BerthoUet. 

This claim was at one time disputed in favour of Professor Copland, of Aberdeen ; but 
it was quickly set at rest on the side of Mr. Watt. In 1800 he retired from the firm 
with a handsome fortune, and was succeeded by his son, who continued along with the 
son of Mr. Bolton to carry on the manufactory. During his residence in Glasgow his 
first wife died. At Birmingham he married the daughter of Mr. Macgregor, a manufac- 
turer in Scotland ; with whom, in the heart of his family, he happily spent the evening of 
his days. He was elected a fellow of the Eoyal Societies of London and Edinburgh, and 
the Institute of Paris, in 1808, made him one of their eight foreign associates. In 1817 
he visited Scotland for the last time. In the course of two years afterwards his health 
broke down, and he died on the 25th of August, 1819, aged eighty-four years, beloved 
and respected by all. Mr. Watt was one of the most extraordinary men of any age. He 
was not only a mechanic, he was an accomplished scholar, and yet in a great measure self- 
taught. He was familiar with the modern languages, and had an excellent acquaintance 
with chemistry, physics, antiquities, architecture, and music; in short, he was generally 
well-informed. Possessing all these requisites, and a splendid benefactor of his country, 
it is remarkable that government never conferred any honour upon him. Immersed in 
expensive wars, which deluged foreign lands with the blood of our fellow-creatures, and 
impoverished our own people, it sought only to bestow rewards on those who were 
foremost in the fight. It was perhaps well; the days of these men are past, but those 
of Watt will endure for ever. The visitor to the ancient relics of Westminster Abbey 
may have noticed many a gorgeous monument in memory of individuals who have left no 
record behind them, save these heartless stones, or a notice, perhaps, in the history of 
battles of their having assisted in the premature death of some friend of freedom, or unfor- 
tunate foe; he looks long in vain for the monuments of those who have succeeded in 
advancing the powers of the mind, and at last espies an obscure tablet which tells that 
only a mere spot can be spared for the truly mighty dead. The memory of Watt was left 
to be established in peaceful times, when a philosopher, the hero of intellect, is valued 
above a hundred warriors, the heroes of the passions ; for Watt assisted in superseding 
the barbarism of war. A handsome statue of Watt was erected, in 1824, at Birmingham. 
Glasgow has a similar tribute to his memory, and Westminster Abbey can now boast of 
having deposited within its walls a marble statue of one who has conferred greater benefits 
on his country and on the world than perhaps any individual commemorated by its 

Our next "worthy" we select from our transatlantic brethren. Jacob Perkins was 
descended from one of the oldest families of that ancient portion of the state of 
Massachusetts, the county of Essex — a region of stubborn -soU, but rich in its production 
of men. Matthew Perkins, his father, was a native of Ipswich, and his ancestor was one 
of the first settlers of that town. Matthew Perkins removed to Newburyport in early 
life, and here Jacob Perkins was born, July 9th, 1766. He received such education as the 
common schools of that day furnished, and nothing more. What they were in 1770 
may be guessed. At the age of twelve he was put apprentice to a goldsmith of Newbury- 
port, of the name of Davis. His mastei: died three years afterwards; and Perkins, at 


fifteen, was left with the management of the business. This was the age of gold 
beadsj which our grandmothers still hold in fond remembrance — and who wonders ? The 
young goldsmith gained great reputation for the skill and honesty with which he trans- 
formed the old Portuguese joe«, then in circulation, into those showy ornaments for the 
female bosom. Shoe-buckles were another article in great vogue; and Perkins, whose 
inventive powers had begun to expand during his apprenticeship, turned his attention to 
the manufacturing of them. He discovered a new method of plating, by which he could 
undersell the imported buckles. This was a profitable branch of business, tiU the revolu- 
tions of fashion drove shoe-buckles out of the market. Nothing could be done with 
strings, and Perkins put his head-work upon other matters. Machinery of all sorts was 
then in a very rude state, and a clever artizan was scarcely to be found. It was regarded 
as a great achievement to efifect a rude copy of some imported machine. Under the 
old confederation, the state of Massachusetts established a mint for striking copper coin ; 
but it was not so easy to find a mechanic equal to the task of making a dye. Perkins 
was but twenty-one years of age when he was employed by the government for this pur- 
pose ; and the old Massachusetts cents, stamped with the Indian and the Eagle, now to 
be seen only in collections of curiosities, are the work of his skill. He next displayed 
his ingenuity in nail machinery, and at the age of twenty-four, invented a machine which 
cut and headed nails at one operation. This was first put in operation at Newburyport, 
and afterwards at Amesbury, on the Merrimac, where the manufacture of nails has 
been carried on for more than half a century. Perkins would have realised a great 
fortune from this invention, had his knowledge of the world and the tricks of trade been 
in any way equal to his mechanical skiU. Others, however, made a great gain from 
his loss; and he turned his attention to various other branches of mechanical arts, in 
several of which he made essential improvements, as fire-engines, hydraulic machines, &c. 
One of the most important of his inventions was in the engraving of bank bills. Forty 
years ago, counterfeiting was carried on with an audacity and a success which would seem 
incredible at the present time. The ease with which the clumsy engravings of the bank 
bills of the day were imitated, was a temptation to every knave who could scratch copper ; 
and counterfeits flooded the country, to the serious detriment of trade. Perkins invented 
the stereotype check-plate, which no art of counterfeiting could match ; and a security was 
thus given to bank paper which it had never before known. There was hardly any 
mechanical science in which Perkins did not exercise his inquiring and inventive spirit. 
The town of Newburyport enjoyed the benefit of his skill in every way in which he could 
contribute to the public welfare or amusement. During the war of 1813, his ingenuity was 
employed in constructing machinery for boring out old honeycombed cannon, and in perfect- 
ing the science of gunnery. He was a skilful pyrotechnist, and the Newburyport fireworks 
of that day were thought to be unrivalled in the United States. The boys,' we remember, 
looked up to him as a second Faust or Cornehus Agrippa ; and the writer of this article has 
not forgotten the dehght and amazement with which he learned from Jacob Perkins the 
mystery of compounding serpents and rockets. About this time, a person named Redheffer, 
made pretensions to a discovery of the perpetual motion. He was traversing the United 
States with a machine exhibiting his discovery. Certain weights moved the wheels, and when 
they had run down, certain other weights restored the first. The experiment seemed per- 
fect, for the machine continued to move without cessation ; and Redheffer was trumpeted 
to the world as the man who had solved the great problem. Perkins gave the machine 
an examination, and his knowledge of the powers of mechanism enabled him to perceive 
at once that the visible appliances were inadequate to the results. He saw that a hidden 
power existed somewhere, and his skilful calculations detected the corner of the machine 
from which it proceeded. " Pass a saw through that post," said he, and your perpetual 


motion will stop." The impostor refused to put his machine to such a test ; and for a 
sufficient reason. It was afterwards discovered that a cord passed through this post into 
the cellar, where an individual was stationed to restore the weights at every revolution. 
The studies, labours, and ingenuity of Perkins were employed on so great a variety of 
subjects, that the task of specifying and describing them must be left to one more fully 
acquainted with the history .of the mechanical arts in the United States. He discovered 
a method of softening and hardening steel at pleasure, by which the process of engraving 
on that metal was facilitated in a most essential degree. He instituted a series of ex- 
periments, by which he demonstrated the compressibility of water, a problem which for 
centuries had baffled the ingenuity of natural philosophers. In connexion with this dis- 
covery, Perkins also invented the bathometer, an instrument for measuring the depth of 
the sea by the pressure of the water ; and the pleometer, to measure a ship's rate of sail- 
ing. Perkins continued to reside in his birth-place till 1816, when he removed from 
Newburyport to Boston, and subsequently to PMladelphia. His attention was occupied 
by steam machinery, which was beginning to acquire importance in the United States. 
His researches led to the invention of a new method of generating steam, by suddenly 
letting a small quantity of water into a heated vessel. After a short residence in Phila- 
delphia, he removed to London, where his experiments with high-pressure steam and 
other exhibitions which he gave of his inventive powers, at once brought him into general 
notice. His uncommon mechanical genius was highly appreciated ; and his steam-gun 
was for some time the wonder of the British metropolis. This gun he invented in the 
United States, and took out a patent for it in 1810. It attracted the notice of the 
British government in 1823, and Perkins made experiments with it before the Duke ol 
Wellington and a numerous party of officers. At a distance of thirty-five yards he 
shattered iron targets to pieces, and sent his balls through eleven planks, one inch thick 
each, and placed an inch apart from one another. This gun was a very ingenious piece 
of workmanship, and could discharge about one thousand balls per minute. Perkins con- 
tinued in London during the remainder of his life. He never became rich. He lacked 
one quality to secure success in the world — financial thrift. Everybody but himself pro 
fited by his inventions. He was, in fact, too much in love with the excitement of the 
chase, to look very strongly at the pecuniary value of the game. 

TVe shall close our present chapter with a short notice of Josiah Wedgwood, whose 
name fully deserves to be recorded in the list of English worthies. To many artists this 
may be a name but little known ; it therefore becomes the more necessary, in a work of 
this description, to state a few facts connected with the life of this extraordinary man. 
He was born on the 12th of July, 1730, at Burslem, in Staffordshire, where his father car- 
ried on business as a potter. The limited opportunities afforded him for acquiring edu- 
cation may be judged of by the statement of his biographer ; that at eleven years of age 
he worked in his elder brothei-'s pottery as a " thrower." This occupation he was com- 
pelled to relinquish in consequence of an incurable lameness in his right leg, caused by 
the small pox. After a time he entered into partnership with a person named Harrison, 
at Stoke ; and during this period his talent for the production of ornamental pottery first 
displayed itself. A dissolution of partnership ensued, and, in connection with a person 
named Wheildon, he manufactured knife-handles in imitation of agate and tortoise-shell, 
also imitative leaves, and similar articles. Wedgwood returned to Burslem, and com- 
menced the manufacture of a cream-coloured ware called " Queen's" ware. He was, by 
Queen Charlotte, appointed her potter. His business greatly improving, he, in conjunc- 
tion with Mr. Bentley, a man of taste and scientific attainments, obtained the loan of 
specimens of sculpture, vases, cameos, intaglios, medallions, and seals, suitable for imita- 
tion by the processes Wedgwood had discovered. His ingenious workmen, trained in his 

VOL. II. 3 B 


manufactory, produced the most accurate and beautiful copies of vase? from Herculaneumj 
lent by Sir William Hamilton. 

About this time, 1763, the celebrated Barberini vase (in the British Museum, sometime 
since broken by a lunatic, but now admirably restored), was offered for sale, and Wedg- 
wood bid against the Duchess of Portland ; but on her promising to lend it to him to 
copy, he withdrew from bidding, and the duchess became the purchaser, at the price of 
eighteen hundred guineas. Wedgwood sold fifty copies of it at fifty guineas each ; but 
the cost of producing them exceeded the amount of the sum thus obtained. After numer- 
ous experiments upon various kinds of clay and colouring substances, he succeeded in 
producing the most delicate cameos, medallions, and miniature pieces of sculpture in a 
substance so hard as to resist all ordinary causes of destruction or injury. Another 
important discovery made by him was that of painting on vases and other similar articles, 
without the glossy appearance of ordinary painting on porcelain or earthenware — an art 
practised by the ancient Etruscans, but lost since the time of Pliny. Amongst other 
artists employed by Wedgwood was Flaxman, who assisted him in producing those beau- 
tiful sculpturesque ornaments which he was the first in modern times to execute in pottery. 
In 1771 he removed to a village which he erected near Newcastle-under-Lyne, and 
characteristically called Etruria. Here his works became a point of attraction to aU 
civilised Europe. Not only did he encourage artists ; but he created a great trade in 
pottery, and by his talent improved the national taste. Wedgwood's success led to 
the establishment of improved potteries in various parts of the continent of Europe, 
as well as in several places in Great Britain and Ireland. His exertions were not merely 
confined to his own manufactory, but were cheerfully given to the establishing of several 
useful measures. On the 17th of July, 1766, he cut the first clod for the formation 
of the Trent and Mersey Canal, which, by the skill of Brindley, completed a navigable 
communication between the potteries of Staffordshire and the shores of Devonshire, Dor- 
setshire, and Kent. Wedgwood was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and of the Society of 
Antiquaries, and had bestowed considerable attention on the science of the action of 
light, with a view to fixing the images produced by the camera ; but neither he nor Sir 
Humphrey Davy, who also investigated the subject, were fortunate enough to discover 
any method of retaining these images — a wonderful step in chemistry applied to the arts, 
which was reserved for Niepce, nearly half a century later. After a successful and hon- 
ourable career, by which Wedgwood amassed an ample fortune, he died, at the age of 
sixty-five, on the 3rd of January, 1795. A very fine portrait of this son of genius was 
painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, which still exhibits all its original freshness and truth 
of colour. Indeed, it has been observed that Sir Joshua never tried any of his dangerous 
experiments in art, when he had a sitter whose fame he deemed worthy to descend to 
posterity; and such a compliment he deservedly paid to the subject of this memoir. 









The art of stuffing animals is generally supposed to be an invention of modern date, and 
to have originated about the period when the various museums of natural history were 
founded in Europe. But traces of the art are to be discovered in the earliest records 
of antiquity, although the methods then employed differ much from those now practised. 
The procedure of the ancient Egyptians in embalming human remains and dead animals, 
in some measure resembles the manipulations of the taxidermist ; inasmuch as in both, 
the parts peculiarly subject to decomposition are removed and replaced by more durable 
materials. But whilst the Egyptian embalmer desired rather to preserve the substance 
of the body than its form, the taxidermist sacrifices all, except the skin, to the obtaining 
of a natural representation of the aspect of the living animal. The ancient Greeks 
and B,omans, however, endeavoured to preserve the form, as well as the substance, of the 
body; but their methods fulfilled the object very imperfectly. The ordinary proceeding 
consisted in immersion in melted wax or in honey j this necessarily disguised the shape, 
even though it remained unimpaired. Perhaps the best of the ancient methods for the 
preservation of animal substances consisted in placing them in a solution of common 
salt ; which is still done, though for very different purposes. In this manner the sow, 
which, by bringing forth a litter of thirty pigs, afforded a happy omen to JEneas, was 
preserved by the priests ; and it remained in such excellent preservation, that it was said 
to have been in existence at Lavinium in the time of Varro. In the same way were 
preserved two hippocentaurs (probably monstrous births), and also an ape, which, having 
been sent by the Indians to the Emperor Constantius, happened to die on the road. 

It appears to have been the business of the priests to preserve rare animals, or rare 
natural specimens generally ; and this was so prevalent, that we are almost tempted to 
refer the origin of museums of natural history to the temples of antiquity. Indeed 
Beckmann, in his History of Inventions, quotes a number of instances which support this 
view. And although it cannot be positively* asserted, from the notices in the Greek 
and Latin authors, on the subject under review, that methods resembling those used 
by the animal-stuffer were employed by the ancients ; still the circumstance that animals 
were frequently suspended in the temples, shows that they were not invariably preserved 

* In one of the epistles of Horace (Epist. lib. i., Epist. 2, i., 65), addressed to LoUius, a passage is 
met with, which has been generally construed into a knowledge of taxidermy among the ancients. The 

words are — 

" Venaticus, ex quo 

Tempore cervinam pellem latravit in aula 

Militat in silvis catulus." 
Many interpret ^e«is cervina as a stufiFed stag, placed in the hall, and barked at by the dog. This explana- 
tion assumes that the ancients decorated their halls in such manner ; like a modern hunting-box. The 
passage is however, intelligible if we translate j?eWw cervina as the mere skin of the stag. 


in salt or honey. The ancients must consequently have possessed methods of preserving 
animal substances in the dry state ; but they appear to have been ill-adapted to the 
purpose, for the head of the celebrated Caledonian boar, which Pausanius saw in one 
of the temples of Greece, had evidently suffered by time or the ravages of insects, and 
had lost the greater part of its bristles. 

The art of preserving animals appears to have been but little, if at all, practised during 
the middle ages ; for we rarely meet with a notice of natural objects being kept as curi- 
osities in the treasuries of emperors, kings, and princes. It is only in the records of the 
period when the study of natural science was resuscitated, that passages are to be met 
with indicative of a knowledge of taxidermy, though sportsmen had undoubtedly prac- 
tised it much earlier, in a rough manner,* for the purpose of making effigies of callbirds, 
in the absence of the living bird, while they imitated the note of the bird with their own 
voice, or some artificial contrivance. 

The first records of collections of objects of natural history relate to the second half of 
the sixteenth century ; and it appears from them that such museums existed chiefly in 
Italy, in relation to which the name of Francesco Calceolari deserves especial mention 
(Verona, 1584). These collections, which were commenced by private individuals, from 
purely scientific motives, increased in number and importance in the seventeenth century. 
This period gave birth to the collection of the Tradescants (father and son), which was 
purchased in 1659, by Elias Ashmole, who presented it, in 1683, to the university of 
Oxford, and thus founded the Ashmolean museum ; and also to the collection of James 
Petiver, which was much enriched by Sir Hans Sloane, and, on the death of this dis- 
tinguished naturalist, became the nucleus of the British Museum. It is from this epoch, 
in which the majority of continental collections took their origin, that the art of pre- 
serving skins must be dated ; and, from the moment it became subservient to science, 
it kept pace with the growth and requirements of these institutions. 

It was a point of extreme interest, to compare the admirable productions in taxidermy 
contributed to the Great Exhibition with the old specimens of the art of animal stuffing 
to be met with here and there in the museums of natural history. Nothing more dis- 
similar can be imagined ; for while the successful productions of modern times present 
nature to our eyes, and show that the artist has closely studied her hidden secrets, the 
animals of the old stufFers resemble anything but that which they are intended to 
represent. It would appear that the study of nature was not deemed to be essential, 
and that imagination took its place and was allowed great latitude in the putting up of 
the stuffed effigies; so much so, that the living prototype would have recoiled in 
horror from the contemplation of its defunct representative. The older taxidermists 
had evidently to direct their entire attention to overcoming the difficulties presented by 
the material, the preservation of which was the main point. At first they contented 
themselves with removing the intestines and the brain, especially in birds ; they then 
attempted to prevent the putrefaction of the remaining parts, by exposing the bodies to 
a gradually increasing temperature, for the purpose of expelling all the water. But, 
however carefully the drying was attended to, it is evident that these productions were of 

* Although the foregoing sketch suffices to show that the art of taxidermy can only have been very 
gradually developed, still it will not be inappropriate to introduce in this place the often-told, but im- 
probable, anecdote of a rich gentleman of London, named Lever, who is said to have possessed a valu- 
able collection of living birds. These all died in one night, owing to the stove used in the aviary 
having cracked, and the vapours suffocating them. The intensity of Mr. Lever's grief at the loss of his 
favourites, induced him to make an effort at preserving their dead bodies, and he is said to have succeeded 
-in this by the aid of a physician, who invented animal stuffing for the occasion. These birds are reported 
to have given rise to the Leverian Museum, specimens from which may yet be met with in the British 


au ephemeral character, as they aiforded a tempting prey to many descriptions of msects. 
An improvement was next effected by removing the large fleshy muscles, the entire 
skeleton stiU remaining. At present, the skin alone is preserved j all parts that rapidly 
undergo putrefaction being carefully removed. By this means, and by the aid of modern 
chemistry, which has yielded a series of useful preparations to the taxidermist, the putre- 
faction of the stuffed animals is prevented. The operator is consequently enabled to 
direct his attention to other points of great importance ; and, from the moment of 
being freed from anxiety respecting the preservation of his subject, he strives to perfect 
his mode of representing nature, and thus completely alters the range of his art. The 
skin of the animal has now become, in the hands of the taxidermist, a crude material, 
to be endowed with form and life-like attributes, as the marble under the chisel and 
mallet of the sculptor ; and unless, like him, he prepares his mind by anatomical studies, 
and a close observation of nature, he will surely fail to realize a satisfactory production. 
The works of art — for, to many of the specimens the term might be well applied — ex- 
hibited in this department, proved that animal stuffing had been cultivated with un- 
equivocal success. 

Among the many interesting specimens of stuffed animals which we noticed in the 
Great Exhibition, one of the most remarkable was an elk, from the zoological museum at 
Turin. It exhibited to perfection the art of representing the living animal, not only in 
its general form and character, but marking also the fine and delicate undulations of the 
flesh and muscles, and all the anatomical details which are externally traceable. The 
difficulty of effecting this is so great that in general it is scarcely attempted; but in 
the present instance the artist was completely successful. The process adopted by Sig. 
Comba, the exhibitor of this specimen, was that of modelling the animal in clay, and 
from that model forming a mould ; which mould enabled him to construct a figure of a 
material resembling papier-mache, retaining all the fidelity of the original model ; upon 
this figure the skin is stretched. The number of British exhibitors was thirteen, among 
whom the following deserved especial notice. A. D. Bartlett exhibited an ingenious 
example of the art in the constructed figure of the Dodo — a bird which was once a 
native of Mauritius, and found there in considerable numbers at the beginning of the last 
century ; but which now, as far as is known, is entirely extinct. The drawings of Savery, 
preserved in the Belvedere at Vienna, and in the Royal Gallery at Berlin, and some 
remains of a skeleton, formerly in the collection, already alluded to, of Elias Ashmole, 
consisting now but of the head and one foot, are the data from which the figure has 
been compiled. The process is of course very different from that of preserving a real 
animal, the skeleton and skin of which are entire; an artificial body has to be con- 
structed, and then covered, feather by feather, with such plumage as is most in accord- 
ance with our knowledge of the bird. This was very skilfully executed ; and the result, 
by the testimony of Mr. Strickland, and of Mr. Gray of the British Museum, "repre- 
sented with great accuracy the form, dimensions, and colom- of the Dodo, as far as these 
characteristics can be ascertained from the evidences which exist, whilst it reflected great 
credit on Mr. Bartlett's skUl, and his practical acquaintance with the structure of birds." 

There were other specimens exhibited by Mr. Bartlett, which were pprhaps more attrac- 
tive, inasmuch as they represented nature with a fidelity of which all could judge. The 
pair of Impeyan Pheasants, entitled " Courtship," and the sleeping Ourang-outan, " Re- 
pose," were especially deserving of notice. The fleshy parts of the latter were very skill- 
fully treated; and the dried and shrivelled appearance which they so often assume was 
entirely avoided. J. A. Hancock, of Newcastle, exhibited, in the North Transept, some 
beautiful examples, not only of a faithful and spirited adherence to life and nature, but 
of a skilful and harmonious combination of forms and colours. The three illustrations 
VOL. II. 3 


of hawking, and the scene in the tropics will go far towards raising the art of Taxi- 
dermy to a level with other arts, which have hitherto held higher pretensions. The first 
of the three objects, illustrating the ancient sport of falconry, was the Hooded Hawk, 
looking lean and hungry, with the strap attached to his leg, by which he is held on 
the falconer's fist. In the second group, the falcon has struck to the ground, and is in 
combat with the Quarry, a powerful heron, who is struggling in vain against the attacks 
of his enemy ; whilst the eel, which, but for the interposition of the hawk, would have 
been soon devoured by the heron, is quietly making his escape. The third tableau eK- 
hibited the gorged falcon j what a contrast was here presented ! the blood-thirsty enemy 
of the heron is scarcely to be recognised in the drowsy figure ; standing on one foot, the 
other "being drawn up under his breast, the eye half-closed, he is the very image of 
gluttony. The tropical group comprised cockatoos and parrots, disporting in a rich 
tropical vegetation, with brilliant butterflies and beetles, lizards, and other reptiles. The 
stolid, heavy, self-satisfied expression of the parrots was well brought out by comparison 
with the anxiety and trepidation of the Mate of the Dead Gull, in another group ; or, 
with the restless gaze of the Lammergeyer of the Alps. The contrast between life and 
death was also well kept up, by the display of a group of dead game, the ruffled state 
of the feathers being exceedingly truthflil. 

C. Gordon exhibited a representation of an owl " mobbed by small birds," in which 
the action of the owl and of his tormentors was given with great liveliness and fidelity. 
A dog, exhibited by Dr. Beevpr of Newark, prepared much in the same way as the elk 
contributed from Sardinia, was deserving of favourable notice. J. Leadbeater exhibited 
an instructive and curious collection of Indian gallinaceous birds ; and an extensive col- 
lection of humming-birds, comprising about 300 or 400 varieties, in the North Transept, 
which were most beautifully set up. A brilliant assemblage of richly-plumaged birds 
from various parts of the world was also exhibited by Messrs. T. Williams and Gardiner. 
They were, however, apparently of a class rather for the drawing-room than the cabinet 
of the naturalist. Those denizens of the air were chiefly selected which were most dis- 
tinguished for the brilliant colouring of their plumage ; and, so far as the careful preser- 
vation of it was concerned, they deserved commendation ; but in respect to a delineation 
of the habits of the birds by appropriate scenery, they fell short of the excellencies attain- 
able in this art. We have already in a former chapter briefly alluded to the collection 
of stuffed animals from Wurtemburg. As, however, the subject was so popular in the 
Great Exhibition, it will, perhaps, be not altogether unacceptable, at least to the more 
juvenile portion of our readers, if we again refer to the subject. 

" We shall not ask Jean Jacques Rousseau 
If birds confabulate] or no ;" 

It is enough for us that from the days of wise jEsop to those of Fontenelle and Gay 
they have been supposed to do so; and the learned Dean of St. Patrick, in his im- 
mortal Gulliver, has sanctioned the same idea : we shall therefore without further pre- 
amble, encouraged by the sage remark of our friend Horatius Maccus, — 

" Dulce est desipere in loco," 

indulge, for a time, our more mirthful propensities in an investigation of the " Comi- 
calities," if we may so term them, exhibited by the playful imagination of Hermann 
Ploucquet ; who, besides an amusing display of numerous lively and spirited groups ot 
birds, weasels, cats, hares, and other animals, in a variety of laughable situations, also 
illustrated, from the designs of Kaulbach, the story of " Reynard the Fox," a work which 
in Germany is as popular as our " Jack the Giant-killer." Carlyle says, " Among the 
people it was long a house-book, and universal best-companion ; it has been lectured on 


in universities, quoted in imperial council-halls; it lay on the toilets of princes, and was 
thumbed to pieces on the bench of the artizan." We shall proceed seriatim to describe 
the several points of action which our taxidermist laid before an admiring public. - 

In the opening scene we beheld the hero of the piece at home in his castle of Male- 
pardus, reposing on a couch, and apparently ignorant of the heavy crimes that were 
brought against him at the royal court of the lion. One of these delinquencies was 
told in the next group, which represented the fox as a penitent hermit with his rosary, 
imposing upon a credulous coot, who, " with spectacles on nose," was perusing a 
forged document from the king of beasts, to the subsequent destruction of a part of his 
feathered brood. We read in our old English version of this tale how the fox was 
next summoned to the court of his royal master, and how Bruin, the bear, in an evil 
hour, undertook to bring the false knave into the hall of justice. Beynard, however, 
by an ingenious . stratagem, defeats his enemy, and sends him back discomfited and 
sorely wounded. The wrath of the lion may be easily imagined at the insult offered 
to his messenger ; taking wiser counsel, however, he despatches Sir Tibert, the cat, to 
bring the offender before his royal presence. The wily fox is, nevertheless, more than a 
match for his subtle betrayer, and, pretending to introduce the unwary grimalkin into 
the priest's barn on a mouse-catching party, decoys the poor cat into a trap ; where, 
being mistaken for the fox, he is sorely beaten by the priest and his servants, and barely 
escapes with his life to tell his tale of grievance to the incensed king. A variety of 
similar attempts and similar failures to secure the culprit are next recorded in this 
amusing tale, until at length Reynard, bothered out of his life, resolves to go to court at 
once, which he accordingly does, and pretends he is acquainted with a hidden treasure, 
the possession of which he can secure to his majesty. Accordingly, in the next group 
we behold him dragging on Kyward, the hare, a reluctant witness to his statement. 
The king, blinded by his avarice, is easily imposed upon ; he therefore pardons the fox, 
who, to get entirely out of the king's way, pretends that he has been excommunicated, 
and that it is necessary he should go on a pilgrimage to Rome. We accordingly next be- 
hold him on his way to the eternal city with staff and beads, devoutly meditating. After 
a variety of adventures, however, he arrives at his own castle of Malepardus, before 
which, in the last group, we behold him inflicting signal punishment on Laprell, the 
rabbit, for having betrayed him to the king, who naturally showed himself greatly in- 
censed at Reynard's falsehood and duplicity. The fox, however, finally contrives to get 
out of aU his difficidties ; and, according to our sage chronicler, he passes the remainder 
of his days in peaceful prosperity. 

Besides this amusing episode of " the fox," M. Ploucquet exhibited two large hunting 
scenes, such as form the subject of Snyder's pictures ; one, an attack of dogs upon a 
wild boar ; the other, a stag pulled down by hoimds. These evinced great spirit, and 
a close study of nature ; although, in one or two instances, the action of the limbs and 
muscles were not minutely correct. These inaccurcies, however, were so few and so 
slight that they could not be considered to detract from the very great merit which 
belonged to the whole of M. Ploucquet's exhibition. The process employed by M. 
Ploucquet in preparing some of his smaller specimens, was to mould the figure of the 
animal in plaster of Paris, and to stretch the skin upon the model; and it proved 
most successful. The groups of M. Ploucquet attracted by far the largest share of 
public attention. 

There were twenty-six exhibitors of taxidermy, of whom four received prize medals, 
and one obtained honourable mention. 



Under this title we shall describe a few collections of small figures illustrative of 
foreign costumes and manners. These, apart from their excellence as works of art, 
possessed a very high interest, as conveying, through the eye, a vivid representation 
of the customs, occupations, and habits of the natives of distant countries, not so 
easily apprehended from any written description, however well illustrated by drawings. 
These models were confined to the Court of the Fine Arts, with the Maltese, the Indian, 
and the Spanish Courts. Those contained in the first-named department attracted by 
far the largest share of public attention; although in respect of the particular ex- 
cellence which was there contemplated, they possessed, perhaps, less interest than the 
very diversified and most extensive series in the Indian Court. 

United Kingdom. — The Fine Art Court contained a collection of very beautiful, life- 
like, and spirited figures, modelled in wax, with most surprising minuteness and artistic 
feeling, both in the position and grouping. They represented the natives of Mexico, 
and also the American Indians habited in their proper costume, and displaying their 
characteristic customs in the several phases of civilized and savage life, with a truthful- 
ness, in the varied expressions and anatomical development of the dificrent efi&gies, 
which was most remarkable. An Indian, rejoicing in triumph over the despair of a 
white victim, whom he had bound and was about to scalp, but whose sufiierings he was 
prolonging with savage cruelty, might be especially cited in illustration of this particular 
excellence; and the group of three figures, entitled "a confessional," as an instance 
displaying a rich vein of humour. The Aquador, or water-carrier; the Ramendor, or 
street -cobbler, in his tattered garments; the group of civilized Indians, laden with pro- 
duce; the group of savage Indians, called Mecos; ihe fandango, a national dance, illus- 
trated by two Indian women dancing to the guitar, played by a male figure, with 
numerous other examples which might be adduced, were also all deserving of equal 

India. — The figures in the Indian Courts, which were contributed by several exhibitors, 
were either modelled in clay or plaster, or else carved in wood, and painted to represent 
the natural colours of the various objects. The largest group, which was contributed by 
Mr. Mansfield, of the East India Company's Civil Service, was contained in a model 
of the Jamma Bundi ; or the encampment of a government collector, whilst moving 
about on his annual tour through his district. The figures were of plaster, and the 
buildings of wood. The double-poled tent of the collector was pitched at a short distance 
from the village ; and he was represented as sitting within it, surrounded by the Maulet- 
dar and other revenue-officers. Several petitioners were congregated round the door 
of the tent, soliciting a remission of part of the payments due from them. The figures 
of men and females and animals were about 300 in number, and presented a lively 
representation of Indian Ufe and character. Some were indolently lying under the 
trees, some were gazing at the performance of a snake-charmer, and some feeding an 
elephant ; whilst others, more intent on the business of the day, were having their 
petitions written out by the village accountants, or Coolkurnees. The vUlage near 
which the encampment was formed, was represented insidq a fortified wall which sur- 
rounded it, and which was shown in sections. There were also to be seen the nume- 
rous shops and rows of houses in the village, with the inhabitants engaged in their 
various pursuits. 

The best executed and most instructive models, however, wei-e those of clay, manu- 
factured in Kisnaghur, representing the various castes and professions of the Hindoos ; 
which collection comprised upwards of sixty illustrations, some consisting of several 











L7.frr«v^ (J Oj'oti^d L,-am a Driwuig by J FomJiEsc 





figures. Here, almost in closest juxta-position with splendid cotton-carding, spinning, 
and weaving machinery, there was to be seen a Bengal woman cleaning cotton with the 
strung-bow, and another spinning with the most primitive of apparatus ; and the weaver 
preparing his thread on his roughly-made loom. Not far from Nasmyth's steam-hammer, 
the Khamar, or Bengal blacksmith, was represented with his simple bellows, forge, and 
anvil; and within a very short distance from the latest refinements in agricultural imple'- 
ments and machinery, were illustrations of ploughing and harrowing with apparatus 
which no European could use, and rice-grinding, that must have required all the 
patience of an Indian to perform. On a line with the locomotive engines, which convey 
our correspondence with a celerity not dreamed of a few years since, and even now 
insignificant in comparison with the lightning speed of the electro-telegraph, were 
eflSgies of the Dav)k-runner, or bearer of the government mail-bags ; and the Dawk- 
bundy-burdar, or messenger who carries post-oflBce parcels ; and closely watched by the 
unarmed policeman, were the Bro-jabassee, or armed watchman, and the ChoiJokeedaT,, or 
village watchman. These were only a few of the groups of this most suggestive and 
well-executed collection. 

Less perfect in point of execution than the Kisnaghur clay figures, but still most 
interesting, were the models manufactured at Gokak, which it {ippears are not made as 
articles of export, but only to order. This collection comprised about forty illustrations, 
out of which might be especially noticed, as representing trades, the cotton-printer, 
the potter, the woman grinding meal, the Bengal water-carrier, or Bheestee, and the 
washerwoman or Dhobie. 

The models illustrating the practices of the Thug murderers, excited the most painful 
interest, and represented the following incidents : a traveller, induced to sit down and 
smoke, has his attention directed to the heavens, when the fatal handkerchief is applied 
by a Thug, who stands behind him-; but in another group a horseman was successfully 
defending himself from an attack on the part of the Thugs, one of whom he had slain. 
The mutilation of the bodies of the murdered, and their concealment in a well, and 
the strangling of travellers on horseback and on foot, were also represented. It is stated 
that some of these Thug murderers, after having been arrested and reclaimed, and 
domiciled in a school of industry, were the manufacturers of the carpets exhibited in the 
Indian tent. The other models contained in the Indian Court comprised thirty-five 
figures in wood from the Rajah of Joudpore; a model of a European court of justice, 
and also one of a native court j models of a silk factory and an indigo factory, of a 
native oil mill, and of a farm establishment. A series of male and female figures, ex- 
hibited by T. E. J. Boileau, represented the principal sects in Cochin China and Tra- 

Malta. — The figures from Malta, which were modelled in wax, had not the same 
claims to merit as those before described, but had still a certain amount of excellence. 
They represented the Grand Master Valetta, the Grand Master Lonzadari, with the 
Master of the Order of Malta, and a knight, in their propercostume. 

Spain. — Three exhibitors contributed models illustrative of the manners and dresses 
of Spain. Two of these sent figures in painted terra-cotta, representing the inhabitants 
of Andalusia and Malaga; but the examples were not numerous, though they were re- 
markable for the beauty and correctness of the modelling. The other exhibitor sent 
a model of one-half of the interior of the arena for bull-fights at Madrid, made in 
wood, and containing, it was said, about 4,000 figures, exhibiting the various incidents 
proper to the place. 

The number of exhibitors from various countries was eleven, of these four received 
prize medals, and one honourable mention. 

VOL. II. ^ ° 







It was a wise and useful suggestion of Prince Albert's, that our most eminent philoso- 
phers should be engaged to deliver a series of lectures on the subject of the Great 
Industrial Exhibition, before the "Society of Arts. We have already given copious 
extracts from the admirable Inaugural Discourse by Dr. Whewellj and we now propose, 
in the present chapter, to offer a few of equal importance from the no less admirable 
lecture of Dr. Lyon Playfair. " A rapid transition," observes the learned doctor, " is 
taking place in industry; the raw material, formerly our capital advantage over other 
nations, is gradually being equalised in price, and made available to all by the im- 
provements in locomotion : industry must in future be supported, not by a competition 
of local advantages, but by a competition of intellect. AH European nations, except 
England, have recognised this fact; their thinking men have proclaimed it; their govern- 
ments have adopted it as a principle of state ; and every town has now its schools, in 
which are taught the scientific principles involved in manufactures, while each metro- 
polis rejoices in an industrial university, teaching how to use the alphabet of science in 
reading manufactures aright. Were there any effects observed in the Exhibition from 
this intellectual training of their industrial populations ? The ofi&cial reserve, necessarily 
imposed upon me as the commissioner appointed to aid the juries, need exist no longer, 
and from my personal conviction, I answer, without qualification, in the affirmative, The 
result of the Exhibition was one that England may well be startled at. Wherever — 
and that implies in almost every manufacture — science or art was involved as an element 
of progress, we saw, as an inevitable law, that the nation which most cultivated them 
was in the ascendant. Our manufacturers were justly astonished at seeing most of the 
foreign countries rapidly approaching and sometimes excelling us in manufactures, our 
own by hereditary and traditional right. Though certainly very superior in our common 
cutlery, we could not claim decided superiority in that applied to surgical instruments ; 
and were beaten in some kind of edge-tools. Neither our swords nor our guns were 
left with an unquestioned victory. In our plate-glass, my own opinion — and I am sure 
that of many others — is, that if we were not beaten by Belgium, we certainly were by 
France. In flint-glass, our ancient prestige was left very doubtful, and the only impor- 
tant discoveries in this manufacture were not those shown on the English side. Belgium, 
which has deprived us of so much of our American trade in woollen manufactures, found 
herself approached by competitors hitherto almost unknown ; for Russia bad risen to 
eminence in this branch, and the German woollens did not shame their birth-place. 
In silversmith work we had introduced a large number of foreign workmen as modellers 
and designers, but, nevertheless, we met with worthy competitors. In calico-printing 
and paper-staining our designs looked wonderfully Trench ; whilst our colours, though 
generally as brilliant in themselves, did not appear to nearly so much advantage, from a 


want of harmony in their arrangement. In earthenware we were masters, as of old; 
but in china and in porcelain our general excellence was stoutly denied; although indi- 
vidual excellencies were very apparent. In hardware we maintained our superiority, 
but were manifestly surprised at the rapid advances making by many other nations. Do 
not let us nourish our national vanity by fondly congratulating ourselves that, as we 
were successful we had Uttle to fear. I believe this is not the opinion of most candid 
and intelligent observers. It is a grave matter for reflection, whether the Exhibition did 
not show very clearly and distinctly that the rate of industrial advance of many Euro- 
pean nations, even of those who were obviously in our rear, was greater than 
our own; and if it were so, as I believe it to have been, it does not require much 
acumen to perceive that in a long race the fastest-sailing ships will win, even though 
they are for a time behind. The Exhibition will have produced infinite good, if we are 
compelled as a nation to acknowledge this truth. The Roman empire fell rapidly, be- 
cause, nourishing its national vanity, it refused the lessons of defeat, and construed 
them into victories. All the visitors, both foreign and British, were agreed upon one 
point, that, whichever might be the first of the exhibiting nations, regarding which there 
were many opinions, that certainly our great rival, France, was the second. Let us hope 
that in this there is no historical parallel. After the battle of Salamis, the generals, 
though claiming for each other the first consideration as to generalship, unanimously 
admitted that Themistocles deserved the second ; and the world, ever since, as Smith 
remarks, has accepted this as a proof that Themistocles was, beyond all question, the 
first general. Let us acknowledge our defeats when they are real, and our English 
character and energy wiU. make them victories on another occasion. But our great 
danger is, that, in our national vanity, we should exult in our conquests, forgetting our 
defeats ; though I have much confidence that the truthfulness of our nation will save 
us from this peril. A competition in industry must, in an advanced state of civilisation, 
be a competition of intellect. The influence of capital may purchase you for a time 
foreign talent. Our Manchester calico-printers may, and do, keep foreign designers in 
France at liberal salaries. Our glass-works may, and do, buy foreign science to aid 
them in their management. Our potteries may, and do, use foreign talent both in 
management and design. Our silversmiths and diamond setters may, and do, depend 
much upon foreign talent in art and foreign skill in execution; but is all this not a 
suicidal policy, which must have a termination, not for the individual manufacturer, 
who wisely buys the talent wherever he can get it, but for the nation, which, careless of 
the education of her sons, sends our capital abroad as a premium to that intellectual pro- 
gress which, in our present apathy is our greatest danger ? 

"It is well to inquire in what we are so deficient, and what is the reason of this 
deficiency. Assuredly it does not consist in the absence of public philanthropy or want 
of private zeal for education, but chiefly rests in that education being utterly unsuited 
to the wants of the age. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, classical learning 
was, after its revival, highly esteemed ; and its language became the common medium 
for expression in all nations. A thorough acquaintance with it was an absolute necessity 
to any one with pretensions to learning. It had a glorious literature, one as fresh as 
when it grew on the rich soils of Kome and Greece. Its truths were eternal, and were 
received by us in their traditional mythology, as Bacon beautifully says, like " the 
breath and purer spirit of the earliest knowledge floating to us in tones made musical by 
Grecian flutes." And why was that bewitching literature made the groundwork of our 
educational systems ? Does it not show that literature, like art, may have a standard 
excellence ; and that we are content to imitate where we cannot surpass. If the main 
object of life were to fabricate literati, I would not dispute the wisdom of making classics 


the ^oundwork of our education. They are not utterly dead, but, like the dry bones 
of the valley, they may come together,, and have breathed into them the breath of 
life. In the world there is a constant system of regeneration. Theories exist for a time, 
but like the phoenix, are destroyed, and rise yet more glorious from their ashes. 
Animals die, and by their decay pass into the atmosphere, whence vegetables derive 
theii- nutriment, and thus death becomes the source of life. But in all this there is no 
incongruity. A phoenix does not from its ashes produce an eagle, but a phoenix as 
before. The dry bones of dead literature may vivify into new forms of literary life. 
Classical literature and exact science, are, however, wholly antithetic. If classical 
literature be sufficient to construct your spinning-jennies and bleach your cottons, your 
system of instruction is right ; but if you are to be braced, and your sinews strengthened 
for a hard struggle of industry, is it wise that you should devouj poetry, while your 
competitors eat that which forms the muscles and gives vigour to the sinews ? With 
such diiferent trainings, who in the end will win the race ? Science has not, like 
literature and art, a standard of excellence. It is as infinite as the wisdom of God, 
from whom it emanates. All ordinary powers decrease as you depart from the centre ; 
but the power of knowledge augments the farther it is removed from the human 
source from which it was transmitted. God has given to man much mental gratification 
in trying to understand and apply to human uses His laws. The great philosopher of 
scripture has said, " It is the glory of God to conceal a thing, but the honour of kings 
to search out a matter." The poet-prophet of the Bible has also told us, that God 
" turneth wise men backward, and maketh their knowledge foolish." And, therefore, 
as surely as He is infinite and man finite, until earth passes away, you will have no hu- 
man standard of scientific knowledge. As this is so, how can we as a nation expect to 
carry on those manufactures by our sons of industry, when we do not teach them the 
nature of the principles involved in their successful prosecution ? Solace ourselves as 
we will with vain thoughts of our gigantic position among nations — Greece was higher 
than we are, and where is she now ? It does not require a lofty stature to see the far- 
thest ; for a dwarf on the shoulders of a giant sees farther than the giant, — not that he 
is less a dwarf, but that he has added the giant's height to his own. The Exhibition 
showed us many small states which had thus raised themselves on the shoulders of 
science within the last few years, while we are merely hovering about its skirts. Let us 
take care that our excess of pride in the so-termed " practical " power of our population 
may not be 'punished as Arachne was of old. Arachne was wonderfully skilled in needle- 
work, but presumptuously challenged Minerva to a trial of skill. What chance was 
there in such an unequal contest? Minerva united science to her handicraft skill, 
and this combination insured success. Arachne was justly cast from her proud position 
among mortals by being changed into a spider, ever spinning the same web in the 
same way, — the same for wintry blasts as for gentle summer zephyrs. 

" ' You have excelled all other people in the products of industry. But why ? Because 
you have assisted industry by science. Do not regard as indifferent what is your true 
and greatest glory. Except in these respects, in what are you superior to Athens and 
Home ? Do you carry away from them the palm in literature and the fine arts ? Do 
you not rather glory, and justly too, in being, in these respects, their imitators? Is 
it not demonstrated by the nature of your system of public education and by vour 
popular amusements ? In what, then, are you their superiors ? In everything connected 
with physical science ; with the experimental arts. These are your characteristics. Do 
not neglect them. You have a Newton, who is the glory, not only of your own country, 
but of the human race. You have a Bacon, whose precepts may still be attended to with 
advantage. Shall Englishmen slumber in that path which these great men have opened. 


and be overtaken by their neighbours ? Say, rather, that all assistance shall be given to 
their eflorts ; that they shall be attended to, encouraged, and supported.' " Davy. 

"AU the aspirations of youth are towards science, especially that depending on "obser- 
vation, but we quench the God-born flame by 'freezing drenches of scholastic lore,' In 
the language of ' Bothen,' ' You feel so keenly the delights of early knowledge ! You 
form strange mystic friendships with the mere names of mountains, and seas, and con- 
tinents, and mighty rivers; you learn the ways of the planets and transcend their narrow 
limits, and ask for the end of space; you vex the electric cylinder till it yields you, for 
your toy to play with, that subtle fire in which our earth was forged. You know of 
the nations that have towered high in the world, and the lives of men who have saved 
whole empires from oblivion. What more will you ever learn? Yet the dismal change 
is ordained, and then, thin meagre Latin (the same for everybody) with small shreds 
and patches of Greek, is thrown, like a pauper's pall, over all your early lore; instead 
of sweet knowledge, vile, monkish, doggrel grammars and graduses, dictionaries and 
lexicons, and horrible odds and ends of dead languages, are given you for your portion, 
and down you fall from Roman story to a three-inch scrap of ' Scriptores Romani' — from 
Greek poetry, down, down, to the cold rations of ' PoettB GrcBci,' cut up by commen- 
tators and served out by schoolmasters.' Is this horrible quenching of all our youthful 
innate love of God's truth, the education for the youth of a nation, depending for its 
progress on their development ? How is it possible that dead literature can be the 
parent of living science and of active industry ? 

" I need not explain myself as meaning that our youthful aspirations point to science 
as a fit means for developing our intellectual capacities, and that boyhood is scarcely 
the time rudely to exercise all our longings for an acquaintance with the wisdom of 
creation, or to cramp and torture the mind by the acquisition of dead languages to the 
exclusion of all other knowledge. In quoting the beautiful language of ' Eothen,' I 
intend only to express the violence done to our natural instincts, and not to question 
the excellence of the means employed in teaching classics. It would ill become me, or 
any one, to speak disparagingly of the wisdom to be derived from a study of ancient 
authors, or to deny the immense importance of a knowledge of classical literature to 
education generally ; nor should I like to see that education confined to stern realities, 
divested of the graces and poetry of polite literature. But I do, at the same time, 
vehemently protest against the exhaustion of all our youthful years by a mere classical 
tuition, especially in the case of that large class of the community who, by their exertions 
in industry, have confided to them, in a great degree, the prosperity of their country. 
As I do not think the teaching of classical literature, as practised in our schools, to be 
worthy of the name of education, neither do I apply that title to the communication 
of s'cientific knowledge alone — and you will observe that I have always spoken of it 
by the term 'instruction.' — I am propounding no scheme of education, but strongly 
insisting that instruction in science should form an important part of the education 
of our youth. 

" Do not conceal from yourselves that this is the vital difficulty of the question. You 
may, and I hope will, soon raise an Industrial University; but this should have its 
pupils ready trained before it adopts them. Now, it must from itself act downwards, 
instead of working from the schools upwards. Until our schools accept as a living 
faith that a study of God's works is more fitted to increase the resources of the nation 
than a study of the amours of Jupiter or of Venus, our industrial colleges will make no 
material headway against those of the continent. In Paris we find a Central College of 
Arts and Manufactures, into which the students enter at an average age of nineteen 
years, already well trained in the elements of science, and going there to be taught how 

VOL. II. 8 E 


to use these elements for industrial application. Three hundred of the best youth of 
France are annually receiving at this college the most elaborate education j and the 
best proof of its practical value is the great demand among manufacturers for its 
pupilsj a diploma from it being equivalent to assured success in life. Can you wonder 
at the progress making by France in industry, when she pours every year an hundred 
and fifty of these highly educated manufacturers into her provinces ? A similar educa- 
tion to this is going on in almost all parts of Europe j but in England only one such 
institution exists. We have our University and King's College, it is true, and they are 
productive of much good, and similar colleges exist in Scotland and Ireland ; but their 
instruction in science terminates just where the industrial colleges of the continent 
begin. In fact, the latter would be supplementary and a great support to the former. 
Government, acting on its own perception of right, in its first national recognition of 
these truths, now happily dawning on England, has established a school of mines ; and 
the experience of this has shown that it is much appreciated, although it labours un- 
der the disadvantage of the want of a preliminary education in its pupils — compelling its 
professors, in its commencement, to be more elementary in their instruction than is 
well compatible with the proper objects of such a school. Now, while I urge the im- 
policy of a mere classical instruction to the yoath of this country with all the expression 
which I can give to a matured conviction, do not suppose that I would wish to put all 
our youth in one Procrustean bed. I again allege, that it is the present system which 
follows this singular love of uniformity, and clips or extends the dimension of each 
youth to one common standard. It is against this very confined system that I protest. 
I think the glorious wisdom displayed in creation, even in the limited extent to which 
we are permitted to behold it, forms no unapt means of leading man to a worship of 
its Creator ; and, sympathizing as I do to the utmost in our educational endeavours to 
unite and not to dissever the acquirement of knowledge from that of religion — a union 
which, I think, is at once the glory, the pride, and the peace of England — I cannot 
perceive how the mere teaching of profane literature can tend to this end in any 
degree, so much as the reverential teaching of God's wisdom displayed in His works ; 
especially when every step in advance of this knowledge produces a social amelioration 
of the human race. But, while I should regret to see our colleges retrograde one step in 
their teaching of classical literature, it is truly lamentable that Oxford and Cambridge 
so httle encourage the sciences ; for, until the colleges throw open their widest portals to 
these, the schools in the country, deriving their life from them, will do little to reform 
the present vices of a limited and exclusive education. 

In this country we are, in many respects, remarkably unchangeable. Three pro- 
fessions — the church, the law, and medicine, were supposed, some centuries since, to 
represent learning, and, with a wonderful blindness, they are still accepted as all-suffi- 
cient. Industry, to which this country owes her success among nations, has never been 
raised to the rank of a profession. For her sons there are no honours, no recognised or 
social position. Her native dignity, if tacitly understood, has never formally been 
acknowledged. Science, which has raised her to this eminence, is equally unrecognised 
in position or honours, and, from her very nature, cannot attain the wealth which in in- 
dustry solaces the absence of social position. This restriction of learned honours to 
three recognised professions has a lamentable effect both on the progress of science 
and of industry. Its consequence is, that each profession becomes glutted with am- 
bitious aspirants, who, finding a greater supply than demand, sink into subordinate 
positions, becoming soured and disappointed, and therefore dangerous to the community. 
B:aise industry to the rank of a profession — as it is in other countries — give to your in- 
dustrial universities the power of granting degrees involving high social recognition 


to those who attain them, and you will draw off the excess of those talented men, to whom 
the church, the bar, and medicine, offer only a slender chance of attaining eminence ; 
and by infiising such talent into industry, depend upon it, the effects will soon become 
apparent. In foreign countries professions involving social rank and position arise with 
their requirements; in our nation we are content with a meagre classification, scarcely 
sufficient for the middle ages, and not even a reflection of our present wants. These 
considerations are not mean ones, for, as long as ambition exists in the human mind, 
their good or bad adjustment will exercise a beneficial or pernicious influence on society. 

"In the establishment of institutions for industrial instruction, you, at the same 
time, create the wanting means for the advancement of science in this country. I have 
alluded in this lecture, and have shown in another, that the progress of science and of 
industry in countries which have reached a certain stage of civilisation ought actually 
to be synonymous expressions ; and hence it follows that it is essentially the policy of 
a nation to promote the one which forms the springs for the action of the other. 
I think it, therefore, no mean advantage to this nation, that the establishment of 
industrial colleges will materially aid the progress of science by creating positions for its 
professors and for those who would wilhngly cultivate science, but are scared from it by 
the difficulties they have to encounter in its prosecution. The great Davy says, ' Science, 
for its progression, requires patronage ; but it must be a patronage bestowed, a patronage 
received with dignity. It must be preserved independent. It can bear no fetters; not 
even fetters of gold ; and, least of all, those fetters in which ignorance or selfishness may 
attempt to shackle it. And there is no country which ought so much to glory in its 
progress, which is so much interested in its success, as this happy island. Science has 
been a prime cause of creating for us the inexhaustible wealth of manufactures ; and it 
is by science that it must be preserved and extended. We are interested as a commercial 
people— we are interested as a free people. The age of glory of a nation is likewise the 
age of its security. The same dignified feeling which urges men to gain a dominion 
over nature will preserve them from the dominion of slavery. Natural, moral, and religious 
knowledge are of one family, and happy is the country and great its strength where they 
dwell together in union.' Let me quote, also, from the immortal Bacon on this point — 
who, as lord chancellor, when he wrote could not be actuated by personal ambition, — 
' And as founders of colleges plant and founders of lectures water, we must next note a 
defect in public lectures, whether in arts or professions, viz., the smallness of the salary 
generally assigned them, for it is necessary to the progress of the sciences that lecturers 
be of the ablest kind, as men intended for propagating the sciences in future ages and 
not for transitory use. And this cannot be, unless the profits content the most eminent 
in every art to appropriate their lives and labours to this sole purpose, who must, there- 
fore, have a competency allowed to them proportionable to what might be expected from 
the practice of a profession. For, to make the sciences flourish, David's military law 
should be observed — " that those who stay with the stores have equal with those who are 
in the action," or otherwise the stores will be ill-attended ; so lecturers in the sciences, 
as being the guardians of the stores and provisions, whence men in active life are fur- 
nished, ought to share equal advantages with them ; for, if the fathers of the sciences be 
weak or ill-maintained, the children will feel the effect of it.' I will not weaken this 
admirable opinion of Bacon by any remark of my own, for I believe it to contain the 
real cause of the low state of science in England. But, lest you should think my views 
partake too much of the argumentum ad sacculum, I will protect myself under the caustic 
wit of Diogenes, who, on being asked, 'How it happened that philosophers followed the 
rich and not the rich the philosophers ?' answered, ' Because the philosophers know what 
they want, but the rich do not.' 


" I must now conclude this lecture, already much too long, and I do so by once more 
recalling to your minds its general argument. Chemistry, viewed here as a type of 
science generally, has exercised immense influence upon manufactures, having increased 
human power, economised human time, and communicated important values to bodies 
apparently the most worthless. Foreign states have acknowledged the fact, that successful 
competition can only be attained by an attentive study of science — by making their 
sons of industry themselves disciples of science. England, except in one instance, 
has hitherto not recognised this truth as a principle of State, and hence her science 
languishes, and her capital has to import from other lands. This points to the necessity 
of the establishment of industrial colleges ; but it implies, at the same time, an adaptation 
of juvenile education to the wants of the age. All this impresses itself upon my mind 
with a conviction as strong as that the glorious sun sheds its light-giving rays to this 
naturally dark world of ours. May the Exhibition be the means of raying forth this 
truth to our darkening industry ! Do not dream of that Exhibition as a thing of the 
past; rather think of it as a glorious emblem of the future. "When Neptune and 
Minerva disputed as to who should name the capital of Cecropia, the gods resolved that 
the right should be given to the one who granted to man the greatest benefit. Neptune 
struck with his trident the earth, from whence sprung a war-horse ; while Minerva produced 
an olive-tree. England, though sharing with Neptune the empire of the sea, ratified the 
decision of the gods by rearing the emblem o{ peace. The Exhibition has been an 
olive-tree, the branches of which have now been spread among all nations, and success 
for the future will depend upon the care and wisdom with which they are tended, so as to 
grow into goodly trees. Do not let us, by severing industry from science, like a tree from 
its roots, have the unhappiness of seeing our goodly stem wither and perish by a pre- 
mature decay ; but, as the tree itself stretches out its arms to heaven to pray for food, 
let us, in all humility, ask God also to give us that knowledge of His works which will 
enable us to use them in promoting the comfort and happiness of his creatures. Our 
duties in this respect are clearly indicated in the motto of our catalogue : — 







To pursue the dif&cult question of the tendency of mechanical production, and the 
influence of increased facilities upon the condition of the workman, would involve us 
in a greater length than we propose in this present chapter. Unquestionably, the 
immediate results are often suffering and hardship to individual workmen, and often to 
a whole trade. But we cannot quite address ourselves to the logic of arguments, that 
improved modes of production, which confessedly place the article within the reach of a 
greater number, are to be retarded, in order to benefit a minority ; that the course of 
science is to be checked; that knowledge is baneful; and that either particular modes 
of production, or particular habits and manners in men, are to be kept up solely for the 
existence of particular trades and particular classes of artisans. Moreover, those who 
enter into these arguments are prepared to show, that the social machine rights itself 
in a much shorter time than might have been anticipated. We well recollect the fearful 
prognostications at the commencement of the railway system. Caricatures of distracted 
innkeepers and delighted horses were to be seen ; and what was shown in caricature 
was true at least for the time, aa to the innkeepers. The coaching glories of Lichfield 


Northampton, and St. Alban's, passed to places which had been too small to dread 
railways; new towns rose with wonderful rapidity, and the old became melancholy and 
deserted. We need not tell what every one knows; though let the artisan class bear 
in mind, that from the development of the railway system a great amount of new employ- 
ment, has been gained, and famiUes once struggling against reverse of fortune are now 
contented and happy. And if we say the very innkeepers and horses had soon more 
to do than ever before, and that towns which had rejected railways got looped in, bit^ 
terly lamenting, then we shall have simply told the story of the last sixteen years. 
But the moral we cannot omit. It is, that the antidote to these temporary hardships 
must be supplied by education, by the development of mind in the workman; and 
for this antidote, the means existed in the Exhibition. By debasing the workman" to a 
mere machine, it has followed necessarily that the human machine was superseded, 
sooner or later, by the superior mechanism which springs from mind. Immediate 
advantages of concentration of attention and subdivision of labour were the limitation; 
and it may not unreasonably be inferred, that the recent prevalence of insanity even 
has been the result. Improved education, and the development of mental energy, would 
not only lead to the discovery of new sources of employment, , indispensable in a state 
of progress, but would, at the same time, substitute an honest pride and pleasure 
in the perfect execution of even mechanical work ; the increasing want of which is a 
main cause of the inferiority of many works of art, and a constant source of annoyance 
to architects, and loss in buildings to the public. Prom the brickwork and joiner's work, 
or ironmongery in a house, down to a chair or an umbrella, lowness of price without the 
asserted durability, is universal ; and the ingenuity, and even pleasure, which both dealers 
and workmen evince in the practice of a deception, is equalled by the readiness of the 
public to deceive themselves. As we cannot grasp the reasoning of a Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, that because chicory is sold, coffee has been available to a class which had 
not before used it, so we regret the prevalence of the delusion which exists in buildings 
as in every other commodity. Many amongst the class of building artisans appear to 
disregard directions as to work, for the mere pleasure of practising a deceit. For this 
pleasure, we must substitute the pride of producing a good work, and this antidote, we 
repeat, was to be found in the Exhibition. We coi2d have hoped that the influence of 
the Exhibition would have been exerted in the removal of a delusion before referred 
to, namely, that expense and elaborate work are indispensable to the production of beauty. 
Beautiful, indeed, and suggestive as were many of the objects of the Exhibition, there 
appears to have been an entire absence of that cheap beauty which would be within the 
reaich of all classes. The attainment of this ohject would have been the more desirable, 
since recent attempts to extend the influence of art, in association with objects of decoration 
and utility, have fostered rather than discouraged the delusion, and so have not advanced 
the objects of those who have made them. What has to be done, in fact, is to invest 
every form of utility with the attributes of art, and this alike from the most elaborate 
work of architecture, to the least important article of furniture, or the meanest utensil. 
Certain principles which have to be kept in view are alike in all these cases. They corre- 
spond with those which the most enlightened artists are endeavouring to bring to the 
regeneration of architecture; they are in many respects distinct from those which deter- 
mine the forms of painting and sculpture, and, perha;ps, have never yet been accurately 
perceived and exemplified in the architecture of any age. They depend, indeed, upon the 
constant recognition of the fact, that the reason must be satisfied as well as the eye 
delighted ; and the want of this recognition is the great fault in the numerous designs for 
decorative objects, now held up to notice as excellent works of art. We think that the 
late Exhibition has afforded us the means not only of contributing to the advancement of 

VOL. II. 3 F 


architecture, but of placing it in a position in which it has never yet stood; but there are 
particluar circumstances in connexion with manufactured art which should be guarded 
against, although not precisely in the manner urged by those who deny the value of 
multiplication of copies. As for the collection of grates, ironmongery, furniture, and all 
those objects which afford interest to the architect, they could not be viewed without 
advantage — since the greatest difficulty is often felt in obtaining knowledge of the exist- 
ence of particular inventions and contrivances. As a complete collection of these things, 
the Exhibition was, of course, not to be regarded. It is from the uses of the Exhibition, 
on which we have dwelt above, that its chief value will be felt; 









It is important, both for strength and good effect of furniture, that the principles of 
sound construction be well carried out; that the construction be evident, and that, if 
carving or other ornament be introduced, it should be by decorating that construction 
itself, not by overlaying it and disguising it. It is not necessary that an object be 
covered with ornament, or be extravagant in form, to obtain the element of beauty : 
articles of furniture are too often crowded with unnecessary embellishment, which, besides 
adding to their cost, interferes with their use, purpose, and convenience. The perfection 
of art manufacture consists in combining, with the greatest possible effect, the useful with 
the pleasing; and the execution of this can generaHy be most successfully carried out 
by adopting the simplest process. 

The jury, though fully sensible of the great beauty of many of the ornamental works 
in furniture collected at the Exhibition, yet regret that there have not been more 
specimens of ordinary furniture for general lise; works whose merits consist in correct 
proportion, simple but well-considered design, beauty of material, and perfect workman- 
ship. Few have the means of purchasing such beautiful works as the sideboard of 
M. Fourdinois, or the cabinets of M. Ringuet-Leprince, which come almost under the 
head of fine art, rather than of manufacture ; and it is much to be desired that attention 
be directed towards improving the taste of those more ordinary objects that come into 
daily use by the many. 

Cabinet furniture first became an article of general luxury about the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. At this period inlaid, as well as richly-carved furniture, was manu- 
factured in Italy, and exported to various parts of Europe. Among the works exhibited 
by Italy, some were distinguished by great excellence, particularly in the carved examples. 
M; A. Barbetti, from Florence, exhibited a casket of great merit, most elaborately carved, 
introducing bas-reliefs of figures, ornaments, chimeras, &c. A large cheval-screen frame, 
by Luigi Marchetti, of Sienna, was very beautifully wrought with delicate ornaments, of 



























§ !5 
































Sugcccvcd b^OGresitia^ti.ihimaJtn.'vaiig brllUAJMJi 



5iigE«vcdliy G- GreaLba^b irwn aDrawmg b)' JLUj 






good taste. An oval medallion frame, by Pietro Guisti, was also a fine specimen of carving. 
M. B. Capello, of Turin, exhibited a very elegant inlaid table, a currule chair, and a 
pedestal — all ornamented in very pure taste, in the Etruscan style, and of good execution. 

In France, ornamental cabinet work had acquired considerable reputation in the time 
of Louis XIV. Its manufacturers have, since then, continued to produce works of great 
beauty, and have brought the art of marqueterie inlay to a high state of perfection : 
this work consists in inlaying woods of a great variety of tints, in the form of flowers, 
ornaments, &c. ; and was greatly advanced, in the last century, by Reisner, who produced 
very beautiful specimens. In buhl-work, also, wherein metals are inlaid upon grounds of 
tortoiseshell or ebony, or vice versa, the French have greatly excelled. This kind of 
ornamental inlay takes its name from M. de Boule, a celebrated French cabinet-maker, in 
the time of Louis XIV. 

In Germany there has long been established cabinet-work of a high class, more 
especially for those exquisite ebony cabinets, inlaid with precious stones, and various 
woods and metals, surmounted with carved figures, and elaborately fitted with innumer- 
able drawers and with perspective recesses — presents fit for kings and princes ; of these 
an excellent example was. presented in the ebony cabinet of M. Groger, of Vienna, 
a most beautiful work, exquisitely finished. Cabinet-work, of a more useful description 
has been carried to a high state of perfection in Great Britain, whose manufacturers have 
studied to produce objects in which the prominent excellence is substantial quality and 
finished workmanship. It was in England that mahogany, now so generally used, was 
first employed for cabinet furniture, about 1720. Dr. Gibbons, an eminent physician, 
having had some planks of this wood given to him by his brother, a West-India captain, 
who had brought them in his vessel as ballast, wished to use them for a house he 
was building, in King-street, Covent-garden j but the carpenters complained that the 
wood was too hard ; it was therefore laid aside as useless. Soon after, Mrs. Gibbons 
wanted a candle-box, and the doctor called in his cabinet-maker, Mr. Wollaston, to make 
him one of this wood, then lying in the garden. He also declared that it was too hard. 
The doctor said he must get stronger tools. The candle-box was completed and approved, 
insomuch that the doctor then insisted on having a bureau made of the same wood, which 
was accordingly done ; and thp fine colour, polish, &c., were so pleasing, that he invited 
his friends to come and see it. Among them was the Duchess of Buckingham. Her 
grace begged some of the same wood from Dr. Gibbons, to make a bureau for her 
also; on which the fame of mahogany and Mr. Wollaston was much raised. The 
wood became the fashion, was much admired, and from that time has continued to 
be used for furniture more than any other. It will not be possible to give a description 
of the various details of the manufacture of cabinet-work ; but an account of some of the 
more ornamental processes and results connected with it may be desirable. Of these the 
marqueterie inlay is one of the most beautiful and interesting. In this work the design, 
having been first drawn on paper, and properly coloured, is pricked with a fine needle, 
so that the outline of the ornament or other objects can be pounced on the various 
coloured woods proposed to be employed ; these outlines being carefully marked in, are 
cut with a fine watch-spring saw, worked in a lathe; in most cases the wood forming 
the ground is cut with that forming the ornament, so that a piece cut out of white wood 
corresponds exactly, in shape and size, with the opening left in black wood, in which it 
therefore fits, and forms the required pattern. 

Tarsia-work, or the art of inlaying woods, had been practised from a very early date 
in Italy, and extensively employed in the decoration of wall-panelling; and remains of 
this kind of work, revived by Fra Giovanni di Verona, in the fifteenth century, still exist 
in some of the Italian churches, The earlier specimens of this work were executed in 


woods of different shades, but natural hues; afterwards, when flowers, birds, and 
coloured ornaments were introduced, various stained woods were employed; these, in 
most cases, have the disadvantage of fading, but in the admirable specimens of marque- 
terie inlay exhibited by M. Cremer, of Paris, the woods were stained by the process of 
M. Bouchene, which gives them a permanent . dye to a considerable depth. Notwith- 
standing, however, the beautiful effect of this work, it is desirable to adopt, as far as 
possible, the employment of woods of natural hues, as being more harmonious and more 
consistent with the nature of the work. In those ornaments which are shaded, the 
effect is given by immersing the pieces in hot sand. The various parts being cut, one of 
the required tints in the proper form are then placed according to the design, -and fixed 
on paper ; afterwards they are applied, like veneer, to the piece of furniture : being 
mounted, they are cleaned off, and slightly polished, and the finer lines are then engraved. 
Buhl inlay is manufactured by exactly the same process, only that metals, tortoiseshell, 
and ebony, are here the materials employed; the nature of the design is somewhat 
different, depending more upon simple outline forms. There were many beautiful speci- 
mens of this kind of work in the Exhibition, more particularly the cabinets of M. 
Tortner, of Wurtzburg, Bavaria, where the figures and ornaments were designed and 
finished with infinite taste and skill. There is another kind of inlay applied to furniture, 
which may be called Mosaic inlay. The beautiful boxes made in India gave some 
good specimens of this work, in ivory and metal, equalled, however, by the inlaid furni- 
ture and boxes of M. Marcelin, of Paris. The extraordinary table of Senor Perez, of 
Spain, gave a fine example of this style of work, executed entirely in minute portions of 
wood ; the same principle was carried out in a table, by Nye, of Tonbridge Wells. 
Where the patterns assume geometric forms, this kind of work is executed by laying 
together slips of wood or metal, &c., in the particular forms required; these united 
slips are then cut transversely, and affixed to the grounds as in marqueterie. Imme- 
diately connected with inlaid cabinet-work is the manufacture of parqueterie, for floors ; 
in this work the same principle is carried out as in marqueterie, only on a bolder scale : 
woods of different colours are cut to pattern, and inlaid one in the other, or so arranged 
as to produce very beautiful effects for floors. The specimens exhibited of MM. Couvert 
and Lucas, and M. de Keyn, of Belgium; of MM. Leistler and Son, of Vienna; 
and of Mr. Miller, of Eussia, showed the perfection to which this art has been brought. 
A very beautiful novelty at the Exhibition was the introduction of porcelain inlaid in 
furniture, like marqueterie, by Messrs. Rivart and Andrieux ; in these examples, not 
only were panels of porcelain inserted, but the painted flowers were cut to form, and 
inlaid like the ornamental woods. In the cabinet of Mr. Dowbiggin, of London, 
porcelain, of a very high class of art, was mounted in the panels and pilasters ; 
and M. Gambs, of St. Petersburg, contributed a cabinet in tulip wood, mounted in 
or-molu, containing beautiful panels in porcelain. M. A. E. Ringuet-Leprince intro- 
duced carvings of ivory, mounted with or-molu, on one of his cabinets, with excellent 
effect; and in his most beautiful ebony cabinet for medals, relieved with exquisite 
carvings, fine stones were inlaid so as to form part of its decoration. Many of the 
pieces of furniture owed much of their attraction to the metal ornaments with which 
they were mounted ; but the ebony cabinet of M. Barbedienne combined, in the very 
element of its construction, bronze ornaments and figures, of a high class of art^ so 
arranged as to form one united whole. Of the carved furniture in the exhibition 
we have already given ample description : we shall therefore pass over to another branch 
of cabinet-work, which merits particular notice — that in which mechanical action is intro- 
duced ; the specimens exhibited by MM. Daubet and Daumaret, of Lyons, were most 
ingenious and curious; in their secretaire, which was full of contrivances, one key 




— en 











unlocks all the drawers, These run in the most easy and perfect manner, if touched in 
the shghtest degree; and the closing of one particular drawer shuts and fastens all the 
others. M. Krieger, of :paris, also exhibited some furniture of excellent mechanical 
action, such as card-tables, toilets, &c.; and M. Von Hagen, of Erfurt, had a cabinet of 
fine workmanship, in which the secret mechanism was skilfully carried out. In the 
Austrian collection were some curious chairs and furniture, by M. Thouet, of Vienna, in 
which the wood, inlaid with metal lines, was bent to the required forms, without the 
usual framing. Many excellent billiard-tables were exhibited : in one, by M. Bou- 
hardet, of Paris, tte carving was of very beautiful design ; another, by M. Knill, of Vienna, 
wa? handsomely mounted in buhl inlaj; and the, inlaid cues of this manufacturer were 
very beautiful spepiniqns. The billiard tf^bles of Messrs. Thurston, and of Messrs. 
Burroughs and Watts, of Iiondpn, were of simpler construction, but solid, and of 
excellent workjnanship. 

Decorations.— Thgi specimens exhibited under this head were decorations for walls and 
ceilings, imitations of woods and marbles, and painted blinds. Several of the ceilings 
under the galleries of the exhibition building were decorated with more or less taste, 
principally in the Arabesque style. One, paipted by SJgnor Montanari, of Milan, in 
one of the Austrian departments, deserved particular notice : it was a carved ceiling, 
executed with great breadth of efifect. The imitation of gold was excellent, and the 
general treatment was full of spirit and force. In wall decoration Mr. Morant exhibited 
a handsome panel, mounted with gilt ornaments and mouldings ; the latter upon a ground 
of looking-glass. In the centre of the panel was painted a figure, surrounded by foliage 
Arabesqpie. Mr. Moxon's panelling, over a chimney-piece by Mr. Thomas, in the English 
furniture court, was a tasteful specimen of decoration ; and the imitations of woods and 
marbles, by this gentleman, were executed in a very superior manner, united with an 
ornamental character of a high class. Messrs. Holland, of Warwick, exhibited table-tops 
in imitation of marbles, ornamentally arranged in the old Italian style, with good effect. 
Mr. Kershaw's imitations of woods were also very excellent; and those by Messrs. 
Nicpll and Allen, of wood and marble, had also considerable merit. Some of these 
imitations of wood were painted on glass, the polished surface of which gave great 
finish to the work. Among the painted blinds, those by M. Bach Peres, of Paris, were 
cojisidered good specimens. The wax-cloth hangings, by M. Vivet, of Paris, were painted 
ornamentally in the style of Francis I., and were stated to be so prepared as to resist the 
effects of moisture. 

Pope*-- Aa^J^^w^a.—rPaper- hangings form a manufacture of considerable importance, 
carried on in most of the principal cities of Europe, employing many artists and 
designers, and thojii^ands of operatives ; consuming also vast quantities of paper, colours, 
wool, and metal. They are importg,nt, also, because they may be made the means 
pf extensively diffusing taste for art ; and, from the low price of the cheaper kinds, 
enabling the humblest mechanic to give tohis home an air of elegance and comforti It is 
difficult to determine the period when paper-hangings were invented. They are supppsed 
to h3,ye been first made in China ; and the introduction of these hangings into 
Europe probably, suggested the manufacture here. They may be divided, into > three 
kinds — ^tlje flock, the metal, apd the coloiired ; and each, of these seems to have been 
invented at a different time, as an imitation of a distinct material. The flock, to imitate 
the figured tapestries and sti^ffs ; the metal, in imitation of the gilt leather hangings ; and 
the cplpured, as a substitute for painted decoration. It is generally allowed that flock 
hangings were ^st manufactured in England, and invented by Jerome Lanyer, who 
obtained a patent in the reign of King Charles L, da^ed May, 1634, and carried on 
his art in London. In this patent it is stated "that, by hi.s. endeavours, he hath found 
voL. II. 3 G 


out an art and mystery of aifixing wool, silk, and other materials, of divers colours, 
upon cloth, silk, cotton, leather, and other substances, with oil, size, and other cements, 
to make them useful for hangings and other occasions, which he calleth Londriniana ; 
and that the said art is of his own invention." 

M. Savary, in his Dictionary of Commerce, 1720, says that tonture-de-laine, or flock- 
hangings, were first made at Rouen, but in a coarse manner, being only used for 
grounds, on which, with flocks of different kinds, were formed designs of brocades. 
They essayed to imitate tapestry-hanging, but not successfully ; and at last a manufactory 
was established at Paris, in the Faubourg St. Antoine, and there flowers and grotesques 
were introduced with success. The manufacture is thus described by him : — " The 
artist having prepared his design, drew on the cloth with a fat oil or varnish the subject 
intended to be represented ; and then the flocker, from a tray containing the different 
tints of flocks, arranged in divisions, took the colours he required, and sprinkled them 
in a peculiar manner with his finger and thumb, so that the various shades and colours 
were properly blended, and an imitation of the wove tapestry produced." These descrip- 
tions, though detailing the manufacture of flock-hangings, yet do not aUude to the use 
of paper as a ground, nor to blocks for printing. A French author, writing in 1723, says 
that paper-hangings, called tapestry in paper, were, till lately, only employed by the country 
people for their cottages, or by small tradesmen in their shops and rooms ; but towards 
the end of the seventeenth century, the manufacture was raised to such a point of 
perfection and beauty, that besides the quantities that were exported abroad, and to 
the principal cities of the kingdom, there was scarcely a house in Paris not decorated 
with it. The manufacture at that time is thus described : — " The design, having been 
drawn in outline on paper, pasted together, of the size required, was then divided into 
parts of a suitable form, and given to the carver or wood-engraver, to cut the design on 
blocks of pear-tree, much in the same manner as at present. The outline thus cut 
was printed in ink, with a press, on separate sheets of paper: when dry, these were 
painted by hand in distemper colours, and afterwards joined together, so as to form 
the required design. Grotesques and panels, in which were intermingled flowers, 
fruits, animals, and small figures, were then executed by the above process." • M. Reveil- 
lon, of Paris, is considered to have introduced many improvements in this manufacture, 
and was celebrated for the beauty of his productions in the latter end of the last century. 
The pillage of the workshops of this manufacturer in the Faubourg St. Antoine was one 
of the first incidents of the revolution in 1789. 

In England this manufacture continued from the time of Lanyer, and obtained a high 
reputation. In 1712, a duty of Ifrf. per square yard was imposed; and a Mr. 
Jackson, who established a factory at Battersea, for paper-hangings of classic design in 
chiaro-'scuro, writes, in a work published in 1754, in praise of his own productions, and 
condemns the fanciful paper-hangings at that time so much used, comparing them with 
the Chinese. In the year 1786, there was established at Chelsea a manufactory for paper- 
hangings of a very superior description, by George and Frederick Echardts. Works 
excelling even those of the present day were produced at this place; some of the 
blocks used are at present in possession of the writer of this report : they have great 
merit in the designs, and are some of them eight feet in length. These manufacturers 
carried the art to its highest point in England ; they printed not only on paper, but 
also on silk and linen, and employed a number of artists, in addition to workmen and 
children. Mr. Sheringham, of London, also excelled at that time in decorative paper- 
hangings. During the present century, the French have not only restored this branch 
of manufacture to a high state of perfection, but have also introduced many important 
improvements, such as the embossed flocks and the shading of flocks, the perfect 


imitation of chintz, improvements in the satin-grounds, and the introduction of work 
prmted from engraved cylinders. 

In England, the trade was protected by a duty of Is. per square yard, up to the 
year 1846, when sir Robert Peel reduced it to 2d. This high duty acted almost as an 
exclusion to foreign makers, and there was therefore no competition with them, nor any 
inducement to improve. Since that time, however, the EagUsh manufacturers have made 
great progress in their art, both in style and workmanship, the trade has greatly 
increased, and the improved productions are sold at a greatly reduced price. They 
have, besides, applied themselves to the improved application of machinery, by which 
very beautiful papers are made at an extremely cheap rate. 

The process of manufacturing ordinary paper-hangings, as now carried on, may be thus 
briefly described :— " The pattern being first carefully drawn, is then pricked, and the 
outlines of the various tints are pounced each on a separate wood block made of pear- 
tree, mounted on pine. These blocks are pressed on the sieves of colour, and then applied, 
to the paper, each block following the other on the guide marks left by the previous 
impression. An idea may be formed of the enterprise and labour required to produce 
some of the decorative paper-hangings for the Great Exhibition, by stating that more 
than twelve thousand have been employed on a single one of them. In making 
flock-paper, the pattern is first printed in size, and then with a preparation of varnish oi* 
japan gold size. "When this is partly dry, coloured flock, prepared from wools, is 
sifted on the varnish pattern, to which it adheres. Great improvements have been made 
of late years in this manipulation, more especially by French manufactures. Paper- 
hangings, where gilding is introduced, are prepared much in the same way as for flock : 
the leaf-metal is laid on the varnish pattern, or, if worked in bronze powder, it is brushed 
over with a hare's foot. The English manufacturers have attained great perfection in 
the preparation of metal-papers. The gilding having to encounter the damp and variable 
climate, is most severely tested j but by means of good material, careful manipulation, 
and a preparation washed over it, it remains unchanged for a considerable period." 
. Paper-hangings have been printed in England by means of hand-machines for many 
years, the papers being made in lengths of twelve yards, or single pieces, in one or two 
colours, and these colours falling separately on the ground. It was not until about ten 
years since, what is now understood as machine-printing was fully introduced j and this 
was done by Messrs. Potter, of Darwen, who, by means of steam-power, artiflcial drying, 
and an endless roll of paper, were enabled to produce patterns with good effect, by 
surface-roller-printing in several coloiu"s, on the principle of calico-printing : specimens 
showing fourteen colours were exhibited by this house. Messrs. Heywoofl, Higginbottom, 
and Co., of Manchester, have also effected great improvements in the manufacture, and 
exhibited patterns showing twenty colours made by fourteen rollers; and Messrs. J. 
Woollams and Co., of London, likewise exhibited excellent specimens made by machi- 
nery, in addition to those they make by block-printing. These machines are now each 
capable of printing from one thousand to one thousand five hundred pieces per day; 
and, although the work is not equal to block-printing in the solidity or permanence of 
the colours, yet the small price at which it is produced commands an extensive sale, 
superseding, to a great extent, the cheaper kinds made by hand. The above remarks 
apply only to paper-hangings of the cheaper qualities, for machine-printing has not yet 
been successfully applied to those with glazed or satin grounds. There is also another 
evil which it is most desirable to remedy — the colours are liable to run, without great 
care, in the hanging. There were very beautiful specimens of paper-hangings in the 
Great Exhibition ; works which not only possessed considerable artistic excellence, but 
also showed great progress in the manufacture. 


France has justly acquired a high renown for her works in this branch of industry. 
M. Delicourt, of Paris, exhibited a tapestry-like picture, entirely printed by blocks, 
representing a chase in 9, forest, surrounded by a rich, ornamental frame, with pilasters 
containing animals, birds, and attributes of the chase : twelve thousand blocks were 
required to execute this most creditable work. He likewise exhibited flower decorations, 
entirely executed in flocks, of which there were about seventy different shades ; also very 
beautifully-finished plain flock-papers, called silk and wool. His two bas-reliefs of The 
Descent from the Cross, and The Resurrection, were good specimens of printing. M. Zaber, 
of Rixheim, exhibited one of his beautifully-executed landscape papers — one of a series of 
works for which this house is so celebrated ; it represented the floral vegetation of the 
four quarters of the globe, and the richness and brilliancy of the colouring and the perfect 
workmanship -v^ere alike remarkable. M. Zuber also exhibited many other excellent 
specimens of the various kinds of paper-hangings, &c. : he is, besides, the author of 
many improvements in this trade. Messrs. Mader, of Paris, exhibited a picture repre- 
senting a garden-scene — a very clever example of paper-printing, left, perhaps purposely, 
in a state where a few touches, by the hand of a clever artist would complete a beautiful 
efiect. A welUexecuted figure in a panel, and other decorations of flowers and 
ornaments, besides some specimens of the more ordinary kinds of paper-hangings, 
attested the skilful workmanship of this house. 

The English manufacturers of paper-hangings have produced many beautiful specimens 
also, both as decorative, damask, chintz, and flock-papers ; those made by machinery 
have been previously alluded to. Messrs. Townsend and Parker, of London, exhibited 
paper-hangings of various kinds, of considerable beauty of design and execution ; two of 
their decorations introduced fruit, flowers, and arabesque ornament of excellent execution. 
Messrs. Hinchliff and Co., of London, also produced good specimens of decorative and 
other paper-hangings; and the collections of Messrs. Williams and Co., and Messrs. 
Turner and Co., included many examples, showing that the art is well carried on in this 
country. Messrs. Sportin and Zimmermann, of Vienna, exhibited paper-hanging 
decorations for ceilings, &c., in good taste. They have also adapted the process of 
block-sprinting in distemper colours, as a cheap form of illustrating workq of science 
and art; the specimens they exhibited gave illustrations of machinery in isometrical 
perspective, very beautifully executed. M. Devis, of Brussels, exhibited a large collec- 
tion of paper-hangings, more particularly in flock, of excellent execution. M. M. Rahn 
and Vetter, of Warsaw, forwarded a collection of paper-hangings, which possessed 
considerable merit, both as regards design, cplonring, and execution. 






" It has pleased the beneficent designer of ' the world, and all that therein is,' " says our 
accomplished lecturer, "not only to surround man with the ever-varying and inex- 
haustible beauties of nature, and to endow him with the gift of sight to perceive her 


graces; but he has been pleased also to confer upon him a mind to understand, 
and a hand to imitate them. These gifts are clearly talents committed to our charge, 
and to be accounted for by us. The same power — 

' That gave us in this dark estate 
To know the good from ill,' 

conferred upon us also an unerring natural test to distinguish the beautiful from the 
mean or ugly. That test is the sensation of delight which invariably accompanies 
our recognition of beauty, moral or physical. Whenever the powers of the mind are 
concentrated upon any of the great external evidences of Omnipotence — upon 'the 
heavens above, or on the earth beneath, or on the waters which are under the earth •* — it 
is impossible to refrain from pouring forth a tribute of silent but heartfelt admiration ; 
and at such moments the Creator, as if to mark his approbation of the sacrifice, lulls 
for a while all memory of earthly pain or care, and pours peace and happiness into 
the soul. Thus it is that ' a thing of beauty is a joy for ever.' It is impossible to 
examine the smallest object upon which the skill of divinity has been exercised — a 
shell, a flower, or an insect— without feeling a longing to know somewhat of the 
mysterious laws which make that individual specimen of design so perfect, and without 
experiencing a desire to emulate the marvellous powers of creation. The first sensation 
of the exercise of such powers we feel to be godlike. Thus it is that man naturally 
attempts, in his feeble way, to emulate the loftier faculties of divinity ; and thus ' 'tis to 
create, and in creating live a being more intense, that we endow with form our fancy.' 
From such exertions spring all that is ideal or poetical in every art. 

"Whenever we attempt to penetrate the wondrous system that makes all nature one 
vast harmony it is impossible to refrain from feeling that — 

' God moves in a mysterious way 
His wonders to perform ;' 

and that it is as yet our portion only to see the full light of his majesty as ' through a 
^lass darkly.' Enough, however, is still apparent to teach us that there are conditions of 
harmonious relation which pervade the most exquisite forms in divine creation ; and it 
is only while catching a faint reflection from their glories that we can hope to succeed 
in the slightest degree, in throwing a veil of beauty over our comparatively insigni- 
ficant productions. The first operation indispensable to any attempt to define the 
principles which should determine form in decorative art, must obviously be an in- 
vestigation into those conditions of divine design in concord with which all human 
attempts at its imitation niust be moulded, before a supreme sensation of delight can be 
produced. The occurrence of such a sensation we have already pointed out as the 
constant and unerring test of real beauty. We purppse, therefore, in the first place, 
to draw such general inferences together, concerning the great scheme of design 
manifested in the noblest works of nature, as we have been enabled to collect, either 
from the experiences of others, or our own study of the subject. The second operation 
must evidently be, to trace the application of these general inferences to the various 
material branches into which the different necessities of man, or his sympathies, have 
divided all those decorative arts which minister to his cravings for enjoyment on all 
occasions. We purpose, therefore, in the second place, to take a rapid survey of the 
principal members of that great family, and to point out some of the innumerable 
enactments of nature, specially affecting several of the most important individual ' depart.- 
ments of practical art.' Never in the whole history of the past has such a body of 
appropriate illustration of this branch of our subject been collected as was brought 

VOL. II. 3 H 



together in the vast extent of the ever-memorable Palace of Industry; and it was im- 
possible to examine carefully the rich store of material enclosed within its glassy walls, 
without gathering some few valuable hints. In entering on the first division of our, 
perhaps, too ambitious attempt, we are overcome with a sense of the infinite minuteness 
of our knowledge of the great conditions of creation. We recognise an almost universal 
beauty throughout the works of nature by the exercise of some faculty, as intuitive as 
memory, and not less inexplicable when we essay to predicate concerning its inefiably 
mysterious constitution. It has been well observed by some metaphysical writers, that in 
the development of the intellectual powers, the first effort is to realise, the second to 
enjoy, and the third to reason. In obedience to this theory, the first and constant effort 
of every child is to feel, to see, to use its senses, and to verify the fact of its existence 
by ascertaining its physical relation to all by which it is surrounded. Its second and 
occasional effort is to eat, to drink, to smell, to show pain and pleasure, likes and 
dislikes, and to observe and treasure up such experiences as can affect its subsequent 
enjoyment. The third effort is to exercise the gift of thought, and to form conclusions 
by other processes than those of direct sensation. Now we, as respects our knowledge of 
divine beauty, can be regarded only as very little children ; and, if we would improve 
upon our condition of ignorance, instinct leads us onwards through parallel states of 
progress. Let but the first effort of one totally uneducated in art be to see and to feel 
nature, to look upon her works with an observant eye, and he will almost instantly 
find himself led on by unerring sensations of delight to the second stage of advance- 
ment. In that stage he wiU enjoy, discrimiuate, select, store in his memory, and at length 
endeavour either to reproduce, or cause to be reproduced, those natural objects, contact 
with which has caused him the greatest amount of pleasure. Thus the first phase of 
all art is rude direct imitation. No sooner does he arrive at the full development of his 
secondary condition, than he passes into the third. He begins to speculate upon the 
sensations he experiences, upon the phenomena of recurrence, and on the means whereby 
he may be enabled, by his own description or imitations of the original types, to convey 
to others the pleasures he himself derived from a contemplation of them — thus the 
ignorant may grow into the connoisseur, and thus the child into the artist. 

"A knowledge of the sequence of these natural phases of transition points out the 
course by which alone special education in decorative art can be brought to a successful 
issue. Surround the pupil with every attainable example of general beauty of form, if he 
is to be a general artist or draughtsman ; make him acquainted with all the antecedent 
productions in his speciality, if he is to be a special designer. Show him only as much as 
possible of what is good, whether general or special ; then his sense of enjoyment will 
teach him selection, and he will store his memory with the best. Practise his hand as 
you educate his senses, and the feeling of power wiU soon come upon him. Reason will 
assert its empire, and inquiry will be stimulated. Once roused, effort will succeed effort, 
and thus in time the pupil will grow into the master. As it is impossible to arrive at 
correct theories in science, except by the analysis of accumulated observations — firstly, 
of things; secondly, of properties; and thirdly, of relations — so it is impossible to assume 
any general conclusions concerning divine design without passing through the three stages 
of realization, enjoyment, and reflection. When we take into consideration, on the one 
hand, the shortness of life and the limitation of the powers of man, and on the other the 
extent and illimitable divisibility of matter and its incessant changes in form and applica- 
tion, we cannot but feel conscious in how slight a degree the best disposed and most 
talented student of nature can have become acquainted with her innumerable phenomena 
a thorough knowledge and enjoyment of which we have shown to be indispensable to 
any just general conclusions. It is only by the transpiissiou from generation to genera- 


tion of accumulating experiences and deductions, that the very few points we are about to 
indicate have been assumed as universal recurrences in the external forms in which nature 
pours forth her bounteous gifts to man. The first quahty with which the observer must 
be struck is the infinite variety of form which pervades creation. On attempting to 
reason concerning it, he perceives its dependence upon the fuuctions each object, and the 
component parts of each object, are ordained to fulfil; hence he will at once recognise 
the fact, that form is in every case, if not dependent on, at least coincident with, 
structural fitness. When the most complex flower is submitted to the test of a scientific 
botanical examination, no particles are found to be adventitious — all are concerned in 
fulfilling the appointed functions of vegetable physiology. As those functions vary with 
the growth of the plant, so in every case does its form — changing from tender bud to 
blooming flower, and from blooming flower to reproductive seed-pod, as each successive 
change of purpose progresses. Infinite variety and unerring fitness thus appear to 
govern all form in nature. While the former of these properties demonstrates her 
infinite power of complexity, the latter restrains the former, and binds all in beautiful 
simplicity. In every case ornament appears the ofi'spring of necessity alone ; and, where- 
ever structural necessity permits, the simplest lines, in every case consistent with the 
variety of uses of the object, are adopted. Thus, the principal forest-trees, which spring 
erect and hardy from the ground, in their normal state, uninfluenced by special con- 
ditions of light or heat, shoot straight aloft, with boughs equally balanced on all sides, 
growing so symmetrically, that a regular cone or oviform would, in most cases, pre- 
cisely deflne their outline ; and thus the climbing plants, from their first appearance, 
creep along the ground in weak and wayward lines, until they reach something stronger 
and more erect than themselves ; to this they cling, and from it hang either vertically 
or in the most graceful festoons ; to each its character of form as of purpose — to each the 
simplest line consistent with its appointed function and propriety of expression. From 
nature's delight in simplicity, man probably derived his earliest perception of geometrical 
figures. The term horizontal at once betrays the source from. which our idea of such a 
line may have been derived. Upon the horizon, as a base, endless perpendiculars are 
erected in every plant that pierces the soil at right angles to its tangent.; A plain in 
nature furnishes the idea of a plane in geometry. Every variety of triangle is indicated 
by the outUne of the snow-clad peaks of the loftiest mountains ; every kind of cone by 
their substance. The thin clouds that sweep along the sky at sunset, hanging over the 
distant blue line of the ocean, form exquisite parallels ; and where cut by the lines of 
trees and plants suggest every variety of square and oblong, rhombus and parallelogram. 
Where compactness is indispensable, the honey^yielding hexagons abound; and in her 
endless variety of crystals, nature has furnished us with models of the most exquisite 
solids. In the rainbow we have her noblest arch ; in the parabola at once one of her 
most graceful curves and most elegant formulae of projection. 

" While a consideration of the quality of fitness binds us to simplicity, that of variety, 
as if in counterbalance, conducts us to a just recognition of the value of contrast through- 
out all the works of creation. Simplicity becomes appreciable only when opposed to com- 
plexity; while complexity itself will, on analysis, be found to consist only of the combi- 
nation of parts, individually of extreme simplicity. The researches of Mr. Penrose 
have lately developed many of the most interesting phenomena respecting the 'simul- 
taneous contrast of form;' and have not only demonstrated the fact of the scientific 
acquaintance of the Greeks with their peculiarities, but have shown how essential an 
attempt to apply such knowledge has been to the production of those exquisite monu- 
ments which from the first moment of their creation to the present time, have maintained 
a position of unquestionable supremacy over every other wqrk which human art has yet 


produced. The general result of Mr. Penrose's investigation tends to the assumption, 
that no two lines can come in contrast with one another, either in nature or in art, 
without the direction of the one acting, either attractively or repulsively, upon the 
other, and tending to diminish or exaggerate the mutual divergence of both lines, i. e. 
to increase or lessen to the eye the angle at which they meet. Thus, if to a perfectly 
horizontal line another be drawn, meeting it at an angle of six degrees (about half the 
angle at which the inclined sides of the best Greek pediments leave the surface of the 
cornice), it will be difficult to convince the eye, as it traces the direction of each line, 
that the angle has not been materially increased by an apparent deflection of the base 
line, and an apparent very slight drawing down of that with which it actually forms an 
angle of six degrees only. In order to remedy similar apparent distortions in their monu- 
ments, the Greeks have given Entasis, or swelling to their columns, inclination of the axes 
of their pillars towards a central line, a tendency outwards to their antse, and exquisite 
convex curves to the horizontal lines of their cornices and stylobates, which would 
otherwise have appeared bent and crooked. Nature, in working out her harmonies of 
contrast, abounds with similar optical corrections. The infinitely gentle convexity of 
her water sky-line is precisely corrected into perfect apparent horizontality by contrast 
with any line at right angles to a tangent to its curve. It is by attention to the optical 
effects produced by the impact of lines upon one another in nature, that the artist can 
alone store his mind with the most graceful varieties of delicate contrast. Thus it is alone 
that he can appreciate the extreme beauty of her constant, minute, and generally inappre- 
ciable divergence from the precise mathematical figures, in approximation to which 
simplicity demands, as we have already shown, that her leading forms should be modelled. 

" We have now arrived at a recognition of the four principal elements which invariably 
concur in producing those emotions of delight, which may be regarded as infallible tests 
of our contact with real beauty in the productions of nature — variety, fitness, simplicity, 
and contrast. Before leaving our consideration of these elements, we cannot refrain 
from drawing attention to that which is the crowning illustration of the effects of their 
co-operation — the human body ; that theme, upon the re-production of the external 
features of which the highest powers and the profoundest study have been lavished by the 
greatest artists of all time. In its structure, the anatomist, aided by microscopic 
examination, discovers a variety, to which, that of the Great Exhibition was monotony 
itself; a fitness, to which the most exquisite machines therein contained displayed no 
parallel; a simplicity of external form, which, without the slightest display of all that 
marvellous internal mechanism, confines the whole in a space precisely adapted for the free 
working and protection of every part, and yet covers all with a soft and undulating 
surface, the curves of which are gentleness and simplicity itself. Contrast between curve 
and curve, between one line of limb and another, produces in motion incessant variety 
of expression, still in obedience to the bounding conditions of simplicity. The swelling 
muscles, increasing as the angles of approach are diminished by their action, counteract 
otherwise apparently ungraceful concavities, and in that loveliest of created things, the 
perfect female form, every quality of beauty is freely and exquisitely balanced and united. 

" To recapitulate the sequence of these four great impressions, we may state, that when 
the attention of the student of nature is first concentrated earnestly upon her works, his 
senses are bewildered by the variety of her charms. His first discovery will probably be 
that of the perfect individual fitness of some one object upon which he may fix for analysis ; 
he will subsequently recognise fitness as universal. In perfect fitness he will marvel at 
perfect simplicity ; and as he becomes acquainted with normal forms, isolated or at rest, 
he will learn to gather general impressions when he witnesses their combination, or vary- 
ing forms in contrasted action. As from this point his experiences increase, he will 


begin to appreciate marvellous affinities ; hfe will find certain conditions universally form- 
ing the basis of propriety in all imitations of nature. Thus he will recogliise that she has 
a style of form and detail peculiar and appropriate to every material in which she works, 
and that this style of form and detail is, in every case, modified by the exact method in 
which her operations of manufacture are conducted. Of this no more perfect illustration 
can be given than the lines of fibrous reticulation which constitute the substance, and at 
the same time forioa the ornament, of every leaf that blows. Ih. the aggregate of every 
class he will trace general character, while the slightest variety of structure will infallibly 
be testified by some change in external outline. Gradually form will become with him 
an index to all leading attributes ; a clue by which he will at once recognise the relation 
of bodies, or their properties, to one another. Thils, from form alone he will soon discern 
at a glance of what materials, and how, any particular object he may examine has been 
executed. This index or clue, be it remarked, never misleads ; the * laihp of truth' never 
in nature bums dimly, nor with fallacious fires ; never refuses to illuminate those who 
incline to learn in a truthful and reverential spirit. One material in her productions 
never looks like another. Bocks have their rugged outlines ; minerals their appropriate 
crystal; metals their colours and glittering aspects; timber its bark and cellular sec- 
tion ; flowers their delicacy and evident fragility ; even transparent bodies their varying 
angles of refraction ; water its glassy surface when at rest, and unmistakeable curves when 
agitated. Never does a flower look like a piece of metal ; never a piece of timber like 
a rock. 

'•' As the student's acquaintance with these consistencies in nature increases, his power 
of generalizing wiU become developed. He will learn to separate constants from acci- 
dents, and to trace the distinctive lines which convey the idea of each general family of 
materials, or modes of formation. He will begin to select, and to treasure up in his 
memory, those symbols of expression with which nature indicaites the leading characteris- 
tics of every variety of objects she produces. On the aitiount 6f the artist's ac- 
quaintance with such conventionalities, or, in other words, with the written language Of 
nature, will entirely depend his possible success in producing by his labours sensations 
of delight at all equivalent to those excited by the aspect of her noblest works. Direct 
imitation will do next to nothing ; fanciful and ignorant inventioli still less : it is alone 
by his power of wielding her weapons of expression, and making ill all cases the form 
and the object strictly concordant, as she does, that the artist may aspire to emulate the 
power of giving delight, which, above all others, appears to be her paramount prerogative. 
Time will not permit our dwelling further upon the general inferences dediicible from a 
study of the wonderftd beauties of nature. Enough may, however, have been enunciated 
concerning the most palpable principles, to Warrant our assertion, that there exist condi- 
tions of harmonious relation which pervade the most exquisite forms in divine creation. 
It will be our pleasing task now to show, how essential it is that we shcfuld catch a faint 
reflection from their glories, before we can hope to succeed in the slightest degree in 
throwing a veil of beauty over our comparatively insignificant productions. 

" In entering on the second division of our subject, we shall endeavour to trace the 
application of principles analogous to those on which we have lately dwelt — in the 
first place, generally ; and in the second, to the respective leading and special depart- 
ments of practical art. In the first place, then, it may be observed generally, that the 
endless diversity of men's tastes, and the ever-changing conditions of their education and 
association of ideas, demand for their productions a variety almost as incessant as that 
which pervades creation. Whenever that craving after variety has been gratified, 
irrespective of fitness, novelty has degenerated into frivolity, design into conceits, and 
style into mannerism and vulgarity. Without a due attention to simplicity, fitness has 

■VOL. II. 3 I 


never been adequately carried out ; attention has been diverted from a proper estiilaate 
of every work of art or object of manufacture ; and false impressions concerning its 
true and legitimate functions have been generated. 

" Contrast teaches us to give a due relief to all to which we would desire to call atten- 
tion. A sudden break in a long straight line, a slender necking in a continuous sweep, 
a sudden concavity in a generally convex outline, a bold projection starting forward 
from an even plane, right Hues opposed to curves, segments to sections of the cone, smooth 
to rough surfaces, conventional forms to direct imitations of nature, all carry out the 
desired object, and are every one subjedt to the phenomena of simultaneous contrast of 
form. To obviate such optical delusions, allowances must be made in every case by the 
artist ; many such corrections are constantly perceived and effected by the eye ; but few, 
alas ! by rule. In reference to such corrections, it is justly remarked by so ancient a 
writer as Vitruvius, that ' the deception to which the sight is liable should be coun- 
teracted by means suggested by the faculty of reasoning. Since the eye alone,' he con- 
tinues, ' is the judge of beauty, and where a false impression is made upon it, through 
the natural defects of vision, we must correct the apparent want of harmony in the whole 
by instituting peculiar proportions in particular parts.' 

" When we turn to a consideration of the united action upon human design of the 
general principles of consistency, exhibited in the works of nature, we find that of all 
qualities which can be expressed by the objects upon which our executive ability may 
be occupied, the noblest, and most universally to be aimed at, is plain and manly truth. 
Let it ever be borne in mind that design is but a variety of speech or writing. By 
means of design we inscribe, or ought to inscribe, upon every object of which we 
determine the form, all essential particulars concerning its material, its method of con- 
struction, and its uses; by varying ornaments, and by peculiar styles of conventional 
treatment, we know that we shall excite certain trains of thought and certain associa- 
tions of idea. The highest property of design is, that it speaks the universal language 
of nature, which all can read. If, therefore, men be found to systematically deceive ; 
by too direct an imitation of nature, pretending to be nature ; by using one material in 
the peculiar style of conventionality universally recognised as incident to another; by 
borrowing ornaments expressive of lofty associations, and applying them to mean objects; 
by hiding the structural purpose of the article, and sanctioning, by a borrowed form, 
the presumption that it may have been made for a totally different object, or in a perfectly 
different way — such men cannot clear themselves from the charge of degrading art by 
systematic misrepresentation, as they would lower human nature by writing or speaking 
a falsehood. Unfortunately, temptations to such perversions of truth surround the 
growing designer. The debilitating effects of nearly a century's incessant copying 
without discrimination, appropriating without compunction, and falsifying vrithout blush- 
ing, still bind our powers in a vicious circle, from which we have hardly yet strength 
to burst the spell. Some extraordinary stimulant could alone awaken all our energies, 
and that stimulant came — it may not, perhaps, be impious to esteem providentially — in 
the form of the great and glorious Exhibition. It was but natural that we should be 
startled when we found that in consistency of design in industrial art, those we had been 
too apt to regard as almost savages were infinitely our superiors. Men's minds are now 
earnestly directed to the subject of restoring to symmetry all that had fallen into disorder. 
The conventionalities of form peculiar to every class of object, to every kind of material, to 
every process of manufacture, are now beginning to be ardently studied ; and, instead of 
that vague system of instruction by which pupils were taught, that anything that was 
pretty in one shape was equally pretty in another, a more correct recognition of the 
claims of the various branches of special design, and the necessity of a far closer identifi- 


cation of the artist with the manufacturer, in point of technical knowledge, have been 
gradually stealing upwards in public estimation. Let us hope that success will crown 
exertion, and that in time the system of design universally adopted in this country will 
offer a happy coincidence with those lofty principles by means of which the seals of 
truth and beauty are stamped on every emanation from the creative skill of divinity. 

" In approaching the more directly, though not essentially, practical portion of our 
subject — that of the application of nature's principles to some of the special departments 
of practical ai-t, represented in the Exhibition, we shall premise by a few considerations 
on architecture and sculpture, and the plastic arts. It would be difficult to imagine 
a juster and more comprehensive view of the extent of direct imitation admissible in 
each department of the fine arts than that which was presented in the Appendix to 
the Third Report of the Commissioners, by Sir Charles Lock Eastlake. In a note to one 
of those important essays the writer observes, that ' the general style of the formative 
arts is the result of a principle of selection, as opposed to indiscriminate imitation. It 
consists, therefore, in qualities which may be said to distinguish those arts from nature. 
The specific style of any one of the arts consists in the effective use of those particular 
means of imitation which distinguish it from other arts. Style is complete when the 
spectator is not reminded of any want which another art, or which nature, could supply.' 
Now, the specific style of architecture is especially worthy of study ; since, not only do 
similar conditions pervade all branches of design into which structural forms enter as 
principal elements, but of all the arts it is obviously the least imitative, and the most 
abstract. The effects of delight which can be produced by it, are dependent, not upon 
a reproduction of any objects existing in creation, but upon a just display by the architect 
of his knowledge of those subtle general conditions, a few of which we have recognised 
as pervading every perfect work of nature. The beauty of civil architecture, we are told 
by the best writers upon the subject, depends upon — 1st. Convenience; 2nd. Symmetry, 
or proportion; 3rd. Eurythmia, or such a balance and disposition of parts as evidences 
design and order ; and, 4thly, On ornament. In too many modern buildings, alas ! 
we find that either convenience has been attended to and all other qualities left to 
chance, or, what is still worse, ornament alone aimed at, and all other considerations 
disregarded. Let us, for the sake of example, trace the operation of the principles to 
which we have alluded, all of which will be found to have their origin in the provisions of 
nature. The wise architect will begin by considering the purpose of his building; and 
will so contrive its plan and leading form, as to fulfil all the utilitarian objects for which 
it was proposed to be constructed ; in other words, he will be governed by a sense of 
convenience or fitness. 

" He will then consider how all the requisites can be most agreeably provided, and har- 
monious proportion combined with an expression of purpose. He will find, on recurring 
to nature, that every substance suitable to be employed in construction, exhibits endless 
variety in strength, weight, and texture. He will study these various qualities, and by 
experiment ascertain that each material possesses a certain scale of proportions, and a 
certain series of solids, by the employment of which, in fixed positions, its functions may 
be at once most economically and most fitly employed. Acting on such data, he will 
distribute his lines of sub-structure, his columns of support— his load supported, his walls 
to resist the driving of the elements ; and he will assign to each its special proportion and 
form— never confounding those of one substance with another— never using iron as he 
would stone, or wood as glass should be. Thus aided by his sense of the functions 
of each portion of the structure, the material of which it may be constructed, and its con- 
dition of relative importance, the architect adjusts the appropriate dimension of every part. 
His work is as yet, however, only half done; his materials require bringina into graceful 


and regulated distribution. At this point, EUrythiriia, the original of ' the fairy order/ 
steps in, bringing geometry in her train. Doors, windows, columns, cornices, string-courses, 
roofs, and chimneys, are instantly disposed so as to contrast with, and balance one another, 
showing, by the symmetry of their arrangements, the artist's appreciation of that method 
and evidence of design which indicate the restraining power of mind over matter 
throughout all nature — wild as her graces may occasionally appear. The crowning diffi- 
culty yet remains behind in the adjustmeiit of appropriate ornament. In all other 
departments of his art, the architect employs only pure abstractions, harmonizing with his 
general deductions of leading principles of beauty: in his application of ornament, 
however, his resources are somewhat more expanded. All decoration, the forms of which 
are borrowed from nature, to be pleasing^ must uiidergo a process of conventionalizing ; 
direct imitation, such as that which would be produced by casting from a gelatine mould, 
would infallibly disappoint, since the perfect reproduction of the form would lead to 
demands for reality — in colour, in texture, and in other qualities Which it might be 
utterly beyond the power of any other material or processes to render, than those which 
nature has herself employed in the original. The duty of the architect is, therefore, to 
study, first of all, to employ such forms as harmonize and contrast with his leading lines 
of structure ; and then, in those few instances where, for the sake of adding more imme- 
diately human interest to his work, or for explaining its purpose more directly, he may 
desire to suggest the idea of some object existent in nature — thfen, and in such a case, it 
is his duty to symbolize rather than to express, and to strive to convey an idea of par- 
ticulars and c(ualities only, instead of to make a necessarily imperfect reproduction, which 
conveys no idea at aU. As a general rule, the less closely the artist attefnpts to embody 
nature the more safe he will be, but as there are, we conceivei, some few cases which justify 
a nearer approximation than is generally admissible, we shall proceed to enumerate the 
most important of them, premising that, paramount over every other consideration, must 
reign an exact regard to the conventionalities incident to the material employed, and the 
absolute necessity of arranging the forms of the ornament, so as to contrast rightly with 
the adjacent geometrical lines of structure. 

" 1st. That imitation may approximate to nature only in an inverse ratio to the resem- 
blance of the material in which the work is to be executed to the object to be copied. 
Thus, the smoothness of flesh may be imitated with delicacy in white mai^ble, and the 
idea of rock-work only conveyed in the same material by a completely formal and 
geometrical method of representation. 3nd. That as imitation, in all cases, interests and 
attracts attention, it becomes necessary to restrict its use sparingly to particular situatiotsj 
thus, we may, on the one hand, with propriety employ decorations suggestive of natural 
types, in those few important points on which we wish the eye to dwell, such as the centre 
of a fagade, the principal doorway, or window, the starting of a staircase, or the end of 
a boudoir; but if, on the other hand, we employed in such leading situations mere 
conventional patterns, and in less important parts, ornaments in convention approaching 
imitation, then we should find attention concentrated on those meaner portiolis of the 
structure, and the really principal features of the design passed over and neglected. A 
striking illustration of the cOnsequences of this want of discrimination was shown by the 
sculptor Lequesne, in his various groups in the great Exhibition ; the care he bestowed 
in working up his accessories, his weeds, foliage, rocks, earth, and everything else, almost 
entirely neutralized the interest which should have been excited by the finished treatment 
of the flesh of the unhappy mother and her miserable infant. The admiration which 
might otherwise have been given to his two groups of dogs and boys, were completely 
absorbed by admiration at the patience with which ' each particular hair' was made to 
curl. To all the above-described faults the works of ii. Etex offered a truly remarkable 


cqntiEast, the labour in them being applied at exactly the righb points. Srdly. That, 

where ornament is contrasted by evident connexion with geometrical lines of structure, 

conventio^al imitation may bp introduced. Thus, in many of the marble chimney-pieces 

iu the Exhibition, and jn much of the furniture, the structural forms of which made regular 

panels, or conventional frame-wofk, the introduction of nicely-carved flowers or fruit, of 

the size of nature, and in low relief, produced an agreeable effect. Where, in others (and 

more particulp,rly in some of the Austrian), the foliage, scrolls, cupids, and all sorts of 

things, completely ate up the whole surface, and made up the whole structure, the effect 

was eminently objectionable. 4thly. That where the copy differs absolutely in bulk from 

the original, miuiftise of surfape detail may be introduced. Thus, when we reduce a subject, 

such as a bunch of grapes, frpm the round or full relief to the lowest relievo, much 

of the conventionality which would otherwise be essential may be dispensed with. 5thly. 

That considerable differences of scale in things pf unvarying dimension, justify an approach 

to natural form. Thus, when we materially diminish in our reproduction any object, the 

smallest size of which is generally known never to equal that to which it is lowered in 

our copy, we may safely attempt as close a conventional transcript as the material in 

which we work admits of. On this account delicate flowers, such as those which decorate 

small Dresden china vases, and which are executed with such skill in biscuit by Mr. 

Alderman Copeland, M^- Minton, Mr. Grainger of Worcester, and others, form not 

unappropriate ornaments when confined to a scale considerably smaller than nature. In 

cases, however, such as th^t of the Dresden white camelia tree of the Exhibition, where 

an attempt is made to copy nature on her own scale, the effort altogether fails, and the 

labour, so far from giving pleasure, is utterly useless and becomes a trick not less inimical 

to good taste than fiie veiled figures. 6thly. That where, in ornament, the leading forms 

are geometrically disposed, as in regularly recurring scrolls or other curves, which could 

never take so formjal a position in nature, a rendering of her spirit, though not of her 

substance, inay be permitted in the leaves and accessories. Thus, in much of the 

elaborate wood-carving produced by Mr. Rogers and others, the artificial disposition alone 

of the beautifully executed objects redeemed many of the groups from the charge of too 

close a reproduction of nature. 

" Befpre proceeding to the .subject of sculpture, we would fain offer one or two remarks 
concerning what is called style in art, for fear lest our recommendations to systematic 
study of elementary principles shovild bp jpigapiprehended. In what are generally under- 
stood as styles in the history of art, such as the Grecian, the Roman, the Gothic, the 
Rejjaissanee, &c,, may be recognised deeply-interesting accumulations of experience 
coijicerning ^e ?ia,tflye of men's intuitive affections for certain concatenations of form. 
Styles are usually complete in themselyesj and though not of uniform excellence, are 
still generally concordani ai^ng all the various itnepabers that compose them. Whatever 
may have bepn the 4oP'ii03''it form in each, or whatever the favourite set of ratios, 
proportion usually pprvades each wjiple jnonument, as it may be generally traced in a few 
detaoined mpuldings, Styles, jtjiej-eiore, naay be regarded- as storehouses of experiments 
tried, and j-esults ascertainpd, concerning various methods of coi^ventionalizing, from 
whence the designer of the present day may learn the general expression to be obtained, 
by modifying his imitations of nature on the basis of recorded experience, instead of his 
own wayward impulses alone. Canova, Gibson, and many of the greatest masters in art, 
held and hold the creed, that nature, as developed in the human form, can only be rightly 
appreciated by constant recurrence to, and comparison with, the conventionalities of the 
ancient sculpture of Greece. Mr. Penrose has shown us what beautiful illustrations of 
optical corrections in line may be gathered from the study of her architectural remains. 
Mr. Dvce, who has made himself deeply acquainted with ancient styles, thus expresses 

V0I-. II. 3 ^ 


himself on the subject :— ' In the first place,' he remarks, ' the beauties of form or of 
colour, abstracted from nature by the ornamentist, from the very circumstance that they 
are abstractions, assume in relation to the whole progress of the art the character of prin- 
ciples or facts, that tend, by accumulation, to bring it to perfection. The accumulated 
labours of each successive race of ornamentists are so many discoveries made — so many 
facts to be learned, treasured up, applied to a new use, submitted to the process of 
artistic generalization, or added to. A language and a literaiture of ornamental design 
are constituted ; the former of which must be mastered before the latter can be understood ; 
and the latter known before we are in a condition to add to its treasures. The first step, 
therefore, in the education of ornamentists, must be their initiation into the current and 
conventional language of their art, and by this means into its existing literature.' By this 
last passage^ we may fairly assume that Mr. Dyce would recommend, first the study of 
the conventionalities of the student's speciality, and then as much as life is long enough 
to learn. The great previous error in art-education has been to grasp at so much 
vaguely, and attain so little practically. 

" The modifications which nature receives at the hands of the intelligent sculptor are 
so various, and frequently so subtle, that it would require a volume to enumerate them, 
and an Eastlake to write it. We can glance but at a very few. The first condition of 
the highest class of sculpture is, that it should be allied with the noblest architecture, 
to which it should serve as an inscription, explaining to those capable of reading its ideal 
expression those purposes of the structure which it is not in the power of architecture 
alone to convey. In all such cases fitness prescribes the subject — simplicity, its sublimest 
treatment — contrast, the general condition of the lines of its composition. In order to 
give to his works that commanding language which speaks to the heart (the phonetic 
quality in Mr. Fergusson's admirable theory of beauty in art), the sculptor requires to 
select from his observation of the expression of individual forms, those precise lines, 
which, he learns from study and experience, invariably convey the particular sensations it 
is his office to communicate to the mind of the beholder. It was by some such process that 
an approach was made by the Greek sculptors of old to attain an embodiment of their 
conceptions of divinity, and the beoM ideal in loveliness of form. The peculiar refinements 
of form and texture which fall within the especial province of the sculptor to carry to 
their highest pitch of perfection, he constantly heightens by availing himself of the effect 
on the senses of the simultaneous contrast of form. Thus he exaggerates the roughness 
of the hair and the coarse texture of every object coming in contact with his flesh, in 
order to give to it the exquisite smoothness of nature; he introduces straight lines, 
equally balanced folds, and angular breaks into his draperies, in order to bring out the 
tender sweeping curves of the outlines of the limbs he so gracefully disposes. His is, 
of a truth, the happy art which begins by collecting all that is most sweet and fresh; 
and then by one additional touch, one further artful contrast, he 'throws a perfume 
on the violet.' In sculpture, as in every other of the decorative arts, changing circum- 
stances bring ever-changing conventionalities ; and, as supreme arbiters over the propriety 
of one and all, still preside our original great principles — variety, fitness, simplicity, and 





Having made our readers acquainted with Mr. Digby Wyatt's admirable definition 
of the principles which should determine Form, — we will now turn to the no less 
successful attempt of Mr. Owen Jones to define those which should regulate Colour, 
in the decorative arts : — " It can scarcely too often be repeated," says our author, in 
the commencement of his learned discourse, " that among the many advantages which 
must result to England from the gathering of the products of the world's industry 
in the great exhibition, no one is so prominent as that we have thereby learned 
wherein we were deficient j and although we may gather from the lectures which have 
already been delivered before this society a high idea of the power, wealth, and industry 
of this great country ; of the untiring enterprise which gathers from a distance the pro- 
ducts of every clime ; of the persevering industry which makes them available to the 
wants of man; and we may further witness the constant struggle to utilize every gift of 
nature, till truly it may be said, nothing has been made in vain; yet, side by side with 
success, we have seen much of labour wasted, much knowledge imperfect, much energy 
misapplied : and when we leave the field of science and industry and turn to art, we have 
to learn from the Great Exhibition a fruitful lesson ; from leading the van in the march 
of progress, we must fall into the rear, and suffer to pass before us nations whose efforts 
we have hitherto but imperfectly appreciated. 

" In the employment of colour we were not only behind some of our European neigh- 
bours, but, in common with these, were far outstripped by the nations of the east. Let 
us endeavour to trace the cause of this, and, if possible, discover the principles which 
in their case have led to so signal a success. As architecture is the great parent of all 
ornamentation, it is from the study of architectural monuments that we shall best obtain 
a knowledge of the principles which govern the employment of ornament and of colour 
generally. In all ages but our own, the same ornaments, the same system of colouring 
which prevailed upon their buildings, pervaded all they did, even to their humblest utensils : 
the ornaments on a mummy-case are analogous with those of the Egyptian temple ; the 
painted vases of the Greeks are but the reflex of the paintings of their temples ; the 
beautiful cushions and slippers of Morocco of the present day are adorned with similar 
ornaments, having the same colours as are to be found on the walls of the Alhambra. 
It is far different with ourselves. We have no principles, no unity; the architect, the 
upholsterer, the paper-stainer, the weaver, the calico-printer, and the potter, run each 
their independent course ; each struggles fruitlessly, each produces in art novelty without 
beauty, or beauty without intelligence. The architect, the natural head and chief of all 
who minister to the comforts and adornments of our homes, has abdicated his high oflBce ; 
he has been content to form the skeleton which it should also have been his task to clothe, 
and has relinquished to inferior and unguided hands, the delicate modelling of the tissues 
and the varied colouring of the surface : who can wonder at the discordance and incongruity 
of the result? Until very recently, the employment of colour on buildings has had 
but few advocates in this country ; we are still imbued with the prejudices left us by 
our immediate ancestors and developed in our early education. Although we now know 


that many of the monuments of antiquity were entirely covered with colour and orna- 
ment, while of others we have evidence that they were partially painted, and are further 
bound to conclude that they were entirely so, yet this is still disputed, and not long 
since the Royal Institute of British Architects were unable to vanquish this prejudice 
amongst their own body; and it remains to this day with them, alas ! a disputed question, 
to what extent the monuments of Greece were coloured. There are artists more willing 
to believe that the Greeks were imperfectly organised for the appreciation of colour, and 
consequently misapplied it, than that the defect can lie with ourselves, and our imperfect 
knowledge of what they did and why they did it. I will ask you to believe that the 
stupendous monuments of the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Arabs, and other eastern 
civilisations, with the nearer to us Gothic buildings of our own fDrefathers, were not in 
vain covered with a most elaborate system of ornamentation requiring colour for its 
development, but rather in obedience to a patient observation of nature's works, where 
we find everywhere colour assisting in the development of form and adding many 
charms which but for this were wanting, In asking you to watch the means by which 
these additional charms were given, I do not wish you to understand that what the ancients 
did we should now repeat, but should follow them only so far as we find they acted on 
principles by them universally recognised and running through all time, and which we 
may now presume to be discovered truths, and therefore not wisely to be rejected." 

Our lecturer proceeds to lay down a series of propositions, which he endeavours, success- 
fully we think, to establish as axioms, and from them justifies the practice of the ancients 
in colouring their architecture. " Colour," he observes, " is used to assist in the develop- 
ment of form, and also to assist light and shade, helping the undulations of form by the 
proper distribution of the several colours. And these objects are best attained by the 
use of the primary colours on small surfaces, and in small quantities, balanced and sup- 
ported by the secondary and tertiary colours, on the larger masses. There are many 
who win object that the primary colours a,re the delight only of the savage and the 
uncultivated, but I answer that the primary colours are never vulgar or discordant 
when properly g,pplied ; the defect will he, not with the colours, but with the want of skill 
of the hand that applies them. They must be used as in nature, with a sparing hand, 
on small surfaces, and in small quantities; the secondaries and tertiaries in larger 
masses, and on larger surfaces, atoning for their lesser brilliancy by their greater volume. 
We find in the w,orks of the Egyptians, Greeks, Arabs, and Moors, during the best periods 
of their art, this beautiful law invariably followed : but, on the contrary, when the art 
of each civilisation declined, the primaries are no longer the ruling harmonies ; the 
secondaries and tertiaries, from being subordinate became dominant, and muddiness and 
indistinctness resulted. In Egypt, during the reigns of her native kings, the primaries 
naainly prevailed ; whilst under her Greek rulers art languished, and being practised rather 
from imperfect tradition than from poetic inspiration, the secondaries usurped the place 
of the primaries, and the beautiful harmonies which had before been produced by their 
combination were lost. When the truly enchanted palaces of the Moors fell into the 
hands of the Catholic kings, who despised a civilisation they were unable to appreciate, 
the true principles which ithe Moors had learned in l^heir worship and observation of 
nature's worfes were despised a,nd irejected, because, as now, not understood. Their 
blues apd reds were repainted with green and purple, without law or reason." Our 
author next proceeds to show that the primary colpurs should be used on the upper 
portions of objects, the secondary and terti3,ry on the lower. And he illustrates the 
practical working out of his pjcopoaitions by referring to the colouring he adopted 
for the interior of the Great Exhibition, which, after running the gauntlet of much 
adverse criticism, was ultimately favourably received by the public. 


"We extract some valuable remarks on "imitations; " such as the graining of woods, 
u ■ ■"T"c principle which should regulate the employment of imitations has never yet 
been defined : it appears to me, that imitations are allowable whenever the employment oj 
the thing imitated would not have been inconsistent. For instance, there can be no objec- 
tion to grain a deal door in imitation of oak, because the mind would be perfectly 
satisfied if the door were oak; but it would be an absurdity and abuse of means to paint 
it in imitation of marble. Again, the practice of covering the walls of halls and staircases 
with paper in imitation of costly marbles, is very objectionable ; because the employment 
of marble to such an extent would be inconsistent with the character of most houses, and, 
consequently, the sham is much too glaring : on the contrary, were the pilasters and 
columns of a hall only painted, the objection would cease, seeing that the mind would 
be satisfied with the reality. A violent instance of the abuse of graining existed for- 
merly in the Elgin Room at the British Museum, where beams on the ceiling, thirty 
feet long, were splashed in imitation of granite. Here was a manifold absurdity, as 
no granite beam could have supported itself in any such situation. The door-jambs of 
an opening, on the contrary, might be imitation granite without inconsistency, as in such 
a situation granite would be useful as indicating strength. In the outcry against the 
mode of colouring I proposed for the interior of the Great Exhibition, my opponents 
fell into an error of this kind ; led away by the desire of having the metallic character 
of the building expressed, the majority were in favour of colouring the whole of that 
vast edifice in imitation of bronze, entirely forgetting that the employment of so costly 
a material for such a structure would have been impossible, and would have had the 
further disadvantage of being too weak to stand: therefore its imitation would have 
been an absurdity, quite independent of the artistic objections to such a mode of colouring, 
which were many. The mode I adopted treated the whole as a painted surface, and the 
eye was left at liberty, and was quite able to distinguish the material painted, by its form 
and scantling ; no one, as was so often prophesied, mistook the columns for wooden posts, 
because no wooden posts could have existed in such a form under such circumstances." 

With respect to flowers or other natural objects our author is of opinion that they should 
not be used as ornament, but conventional representations founded upon them, sufficiently 
suggestive to convey the intended image to the mind without destroying the unity of the 
object they are employed to decorate. , 

" We find this law universally obeyed in all the best periods of art, and equally violated 
when art declines ; those who conventionalised the most were the Mahommedan races ; 
who, forbidden by their creed to represent living forms, carried the conventionality of 
ornament to the highest perfection. The Egyptians, with whom every ornament was a 
symbol, yet took care so to use them as never to violate a sense of propriety. The Greeks 
equally conventionalised in their ornament ; and, although the law will not appear to hold 
good in their application of sculpture to architecture, yet we see here they adopted a 
conventional treatment both of pose and .relief, and very different to that of their isolated 
works. In the later Gothic buildings the floral ornaments have a much nearer approach 
to nature, and are less conventional in arrangement than those in the earlier buildings. 
In the early illuminated MSS. the ornaments were conventional, and their illuminations 
were in flat tints with little shade and no shadow ; whilst in those of a later period highly- 
finished representations of natural flowers were used as ornament, casting their shadows 
upon the page ; the illuminations, also, were highly-finished pictures, evidently unfit for 
the pages of a book where the affected relief was in danger of crushing. The Chinese, 
whose works, however wanting refinement and art-knowledge, yet steer clear of this ; and 
all their figures, buildings, flowers, are so conventional in treatment, that they never shock 
the eye or destroy the unity of the object which they decorate. If our proposition, then, 

VOL. II. 3 L 


be sound in theory^ and be fortified by the practice of past ages, it applies with great 
force to the mural decorator, the paper-stainer, the calico-printer, the weaver, and the 
potter ; and, in fact, to all engaged in the decorative arts. It is evideiit, that one of the 
first principles to be attended to in the adornment of the walls of an apartment is, 
that nothing should disturb their flatness j yet it is very diflicult to find a paper that 
does not in some way violate this rule: they are either large masses of conventional 
foliage, generally a variation of the eternal acanthus-leaf surrounding patches of un- 
broken colour, or representations of fruits or flowers twisted into the most unwarrant- 
able of positions. 

" We say that all direct representations of natural objects in paper-hangings should be 
avoided : first, because it places these objects in unseemly positions ; secondly, because 
it is customary in almost every apartment to suspend on the walls pictures, engravings, 
or other ornamental works, and therefore the paper should serve as a background, and 
nothing on it should be obtrusive or advancing to the eye. Diaper-patterns in self- 
tints are safest for this purpose, but when varieties of colours are used, the oriental 
rule of so interweaving the form and colour as that they may present a neutralised 
bloom when viewed at a distance should never be departed from. The prevailing colours 
of the walls of rooms hung with printed paper should, of course, vary with the character 
of the room and the aspect. Halls and 'staircases look well hung with green, because 
the eye on entering a house is generally fatigued with the strong glare of daylight, and 
the -green is the most refreshing. Studies and dining-rooms look well with dull redS 
in diapers or flocks, which may be enriched with gold ; these form good back-grounds foi* 
engravings or pictures, but the reds or greens must never be positive colours, but low- 
toned and broken, so as not to disagreeably impinge upon the eye. In drawing-rooms, 
where the paper has to do more towards furnishing and beautifying a room, they may 
be more gay : almost any tone and shade of colour heightened with gold may be used 
provided always that the colours are so arranged and the forms so interwoven that a 
perfect balance be obtained and the eye never attracted to any one pbrtion." 

Our lecturer concludes with a few remarks on the necessity of an architectural educa- 
tion on the part of the public. " I have endeavoured," says he, " to establish, that, in all 
times but our own, all ornamentation resulted from architecture ; that in the present age 
we have no guiding principle in its design or unity in its application ; that the architect 
had abandoned to inferior hands that which was his espeCial provihce. I have described 
much of the disorder which has resulted from this, and have still more to add on the 
same subject. I will further endeavour to establish two points : first, that the educati6n 
of our architects must undergo some change before we can hope thst architecture and its 
attendant arts shall faithfully represent the wants, feelings, and faculties of our time ; and, 
secondly, that this result can never be eflfectually obtained till a much higher amount 
of art-knowledge exists in us as a nation. How is *any change for the better to be brought 
about ? It is certain that the production of a national style must be, as it ever has been, 
a work of slow development ; yet, if never attempted, the problem never can be solved. 
It seems to me, now that we have so many schools devoted to the improvement of design 
as applied to manufactures, and that a movement in this direction, aided by this socifety, 
is receiving a fresh impulse, that if the government were to undertake to gather together 
all the records of the past, and would disseminate that knowledge With correct principles 
for making use of it, a vast stride would be made in the right direction. 

" The system of architectural education followed in France is very superior to that 
pursued in this country. Here the young architect is apprenticed to an architect in 
practice as to a trade, and is engaged for five or seven years on the works of his master : 
he gains thereby a good knowledge of construction and of the business of an architect. 


but has but little dppcfrtunity of studying arcKitecture as a fine art. In France, on the 
contrary, besides the drawing-schools which exist in every town, where the yOUng 
may obtain much elementary knowledge, there are in Paris many studios where professors 
devote their time to the instruction of a large number of pupils, making them thoroughly 
acquainted with the works of every period, and giving them a thorough knowledge both 
of architecture as a fine art and of construction in theory. The pupils of these various 
studios are mostly attendants at the Architectural Academy, where they once a month 
produce designs in competition for a given subject j and they are assisted in the formation 
of these by their professors. One consequence resulting from this system is, that we see 
in France at any given period a much greater unity in the character of their works j 
and there is not that disorder and waste of forces which we see in this country, where 
each architect is pulling in a different direction. Works executed in France have a 
family resemblance not to be found in those of this country ; the influence of the pro- 
fessor is much more felt, and schools of architecture are thereby formed, much as 
were the ancient schools of painting. 

" All these architectural students do not become architects ; those who do so, when 
they have finished their studies, become clerks of the works under government architects, 
where they learn the practice of their profession, and ultimately practise on their own 
account. Many of those who have not been sufficiently advanced, or who want govern- 
ment influence to be so placed, turn to other professions connected with architecture ; 
become decorators and designers for manufacturers. It is this cause which gives to 
the designs of France the superiority they have. Mostly all their designers have had an 
architectural education. I do not mean to say that the French have made much more 
progress towards the formation of a national style than we have ; what they have done 
is, that, at any one period, they have carried out the reproduction of any extinct style 
with mnch more unity. The fashion, as long as it lasted, has been general; and we do 
not see in France, as we see here every day, the building of one style of architecture, 
the decorations of another, and the furniture of a third, with every variety of age and 
period. However, it is the kind of education as pursued in France which I think it would 
be useful if our government could be prevailed upon to foster. The schools of design 
have not hitherto produced any marked improvement in the designs of our manufacturers^ 
and have been conducted as if it were the intention 6nly to make painters. The study 
of the human figure has been carried to excess, and much labour wasted upon it ; useful 
as it is for refining the taste and teaching accurate observktion, yet it is a round-about 
way of learning to draw for the designer fbr manufactures, I may here remind you that 
the Eastern nations, who appear to excel all others in their works of ornamentation, are 
forbidden by their creed to make any representation of the human figure ; and it is, 
probably, to this cause that we may attribute their excellence in ornament. I cannot 
but feel that if the education of the government schools were made more atchitectural, 
much real benefit would result to this country j besides that the study of architectural 
forms must be the best preparation for the designer of ornament, they would do more 
good in helping to make architects than painters, to whom individuality is less of an evil. 
Architects should be educiited in masses, because it is their duty to give expression to 
common wants and common feelings. The opposite, system has been in use in this 
country, and has most assuredly failed. The knowledge we have acquired of the works 
of past ages has been procuted by individual efforts, but, unfortunately, with but small 
results. Each has been tempted to exaggerate the importance of the style of his predi- 
lection, and which he Undertook to illustrate. That a little knowledge is a dangerous 
thing has proved most true in architecture and its attendant arts. As each new archi- 
tectural publication appears, it immediately generates a mania for that particular style. 


When Stuart and Revett returned from Athens, and published their work on Greece, 
it generated a mania for Greek architecture, from which we are barely yet recovered. 
Taylor and Cresy did as much for the architecture of Rome. The travels of Belzoni 
and his successors produced the Egyptian Hall, and even Egyptian-faced railway tunnels. 
The celebrated French work on the architecture of Tuscany, and Letarouilly's ' Modern 
Rome,' have more recently inspired us with a desire for Italian palaces. 

"The works of the elder Pugin and Britton, with a host of followers, have flooded 
the country with Gothic buildings ; with which, notwithstanding the learning and research 
they exhibit, I must frankly avow I have but little sympathy. I admire and appreciate 
the Gothic buildings, which were the expression of the feelings of the age in which 
they were created j but I mourn over the loss which this age has suffered, and still con- 
tinues to suffer, by so many fine minds devoting all their talents to the reproduction ot 
a galvanised corpse. Instead of exhausting themselves in the vain attempt, who will 
dare say that, had these same men of genius, as they certainly are, directed their steps 
forwai'd instead of backward, architecture would not have made some progress towards 
becoming, as it is its office, the true expression of the wants, the faculties, and the 
sentiments of the age in which we live? Could the new wants be supplied, the new 
materials at command, the new sentiments to be expressed, find no echo to their 
admonitions ? Alas ! iron has been forged in vain — the teachings of science disregarded 
— the voice of the poet has fallen upon ears like those of the deaf adder, which move 
not, charm the musician never so wisely. More than this; instead of new materials 
and processes suggesting to the artist new forms, more in harmony with them, he has 
moulded them to his own will, and made them, so to speak, accomplices of his crime. 
The tracery of Gothic windows, generated by the mason's art, have been reproduced in 
cast-iron ; the Doric or Greek temples, which owe their peculiar form and bulk to the 
necessities of stone, have been but a hollow iron sham. We have gone on from bad to 
worse : from the Gothic mania we fell into the Elizabethian ; a malady, fortunately, of 
shorter duration ; for we then even worshipped not only a dead body, but a corrupt one. 
We have had an Italian mania without an Italian sky ; and we are even now threatened 
with the importation of a Renaissance mania from France. It would be most unfortunate 
if the attention which has been directed to the peculiar beauties of the East Indian 
collection of the Great Exhibition should result in an Indian mania; but if this 
disease, like measles, must come, the sooner it comes and goes the better. What 
we want to be convinced of is, that there is good mixed with evil in all these styles ; 
and I trust, when each has strutted its brief hour on the stage, recording for posterity the 
prevailing affectation of the day, we shall. We want to be convinced that all these 
styles do but express the same eternal truth, though in a different language: let us 
retain the ideas, but discard the language in which they are expressed, and endeavour 
to employ our own for the same purpose. We have no more business to clothe ourselves 
in mediaeval garments, than to shut ourselves in cloisters and talk Latin; to wrap 
ourselves in Indian robes, than to sit all day on divans, leading a life of voluptuous 
contemplation. After the expression of so much heresy, I must beg to say that the 
fault does not at all lie with the architectural profession, to which I esteem it an honour 
to belong. The fault lies with the public ; the public must educate themselves on this 
question. Architects, unfortunately, can but obey their clients ; this one will have an 
Elizabethian mansion; this clergyman can admit no other than a mediaeval church- 
this club of gentlemen must be accommodated in an Italian palace; this mechanics' 
institute committee must be located in a Greek temple, for there alone wisdom can be 
found or philosophy taught ; this railway director has a fancy for Moorish tunnels or 
Doric termini ; this company, again, an Egyptian suspension-bridge — the happy union of 


the alpha and the omega of science j the retired merchant must spend his surplus in 
Chinese follies and pagodas. And, to wind up the list of ihese melancholy reproductions, 
I will cite the worst I ever saw, though, fortunately, not an English one. In the case 
of a client, who, requiring a steam-engine for the purpose of irrigation for his garden, 
caused his architect to build an engine-house in fac-simile of one of the beautiful mosque- 
tombs of the caliphs of Cairo. The minaret was the chimney-shaft. Nothing was omitted ; 
even the beautiful galleries, which you all know were used for the purpose of calling the 
Moslem to his prayers, here surrounded a chimney without a means of access. 

" I again repeat, the fault lies with the public j an ignorant public will make com- 
plaisant and indolent architects. Manufacturers, again, will always tell you, in answer to 
a reproach for the bad designs they produce, that they are only what the public require, 
and will have: let us trust that this excuse will no longer avail them. The Great 
Exhibition has opened the eyes of the British public to our deficiencies in art ; although 
they were unable to suggest better things, they were found quite able to appreciate 
them when put before them. There must be on the part of manufacturers, architects, 
artists, and all who in any way minister to the wants and luxuries of life, a long pull 
and a strong pull, and a pull altogether ; they have one and all, like dramatic authors, 
written down to the taste of the audience, instead of trying to elevate it. The public, on 
the other hand, must do their part, and exercise a little pressure from without. 

" I know that I shall be told that the production of a new style of architecture is 
not so easy a matter ; that it has never been the work of any man, or set of men, but 
rather something in the like of a revelation; for which, probably, we may be told to wait. 
Some will say architecture is a thing of five orders, discovered and perfected once for all, 
beyond which we cannot go, and all that is left us is an adaptation of it to our own 
wants ; others will tell you that a Christian people should have no other than Christian 
architecture, and will tell us to go back to the thirteenth century in search of architecture, 
and that beyond this there is no salvation ; but I answer, that this architecture is dead 
and gone j it has passed through its several periods of faith, prosperity, and decay ; and 
had it not been so, the Reformation, which separated the only tie which ever existed 
between religion and art, gave to Christian architecture its death-blow." 

We will at present, however, detain our readers no longer than to quote the farewell 
words of our lecturer, delivered at a time when the destruction of the Great Building 
in Hyde Park was talked of. 

Decidedly in favour of its preservation, for the new Crystal Palace at Sydenham 
was not then contemplated, — "There is no doubt whatever," says he, "that the free 
mixing of the several classes which took place in the Great Exhibition has produced a 
feeling of higher appreciation of each other, both with the great and the humble ; the 
great have a higher respect for the humble, the humble look with much less of envy on 
the great. Were the opportunity for this continued, the impression would become per- 
manent instead of being transitory, or worse. This civilising influence, I say, would result 
from the empty building j but when we imagine, in addition, its vast nave, adorned with 
a complete history of civilisation recorded in sculpture from the earliest times to the 
present, with casts of the statues of our great men which now adorn our squares and 
public places, invisible from London smoke ; — when we imagine the plants of every region, 
however distant, climbing each column, and spanning each girder; — the sides of the 
building set apart for the formation of collections, recording man's conquests over 
nature, where hundreds daily may be taught to see, with the mind as well as the eye, an 
education as necessary to the governors as to the governed ; were such a scheme carried 
out nobly and lovingly, the success of the Great Exhibition would be, in comparison, 
failure itself. To eflTect this, and in further developing the movement in favour of 

VOL. II. 3 M 


bringing art-knowledge within the reach of all, the government may do much, but the 
public must do more ; it must depend for success on the co-operation of all. It is a 
movement that may not be delayed ; we must be up and stirring, if we would not that 
England, in the midst of her material greatness, become a byword and a reproach 
amongst nations." 


PRINTING.— JVoTO the Juries' Reports. 






Aftee the interval of four centuries, the date of the Great Exhibition of the world^s 
industry was coincident with the anniversary of that of the invention of printing. It 
seemed as if aU. nations were assembled in the capital of England to celebrate the 
centennial birthday of the press — the most powerful instrument of their civilization. It is 
by the aid of printing that different nations have imparted to each other their thoughts 
and their feelings, and have received in some degree a combined existence. "Without 
this marvellous bond, they would have been left to the ignorance and prejudices which 
foster nations' warfare, and could never have presented this admirable display of universal 
harmony and of general emulation. When we consider the great costliness of manu- 
scripts at a former period, the difficulty of procuring them, and all the benefits of which 
society was devoid before the discovery of printing, every friend of study and of exalted 
intellectual speculations should deem himself fortunate in living at a period when so many 
stores of instruction are placed within the reach of all. 

In every age, and in all countries, printing denotes the state of civilization, of which 
books are the reflex, and the history of the human mind is written in the progress of 
bibliography. Thus the first printed books of Germany were almost all devoted to 
theology and scholastic philosophy, while at Paris ancient literature occupied an equal 
rank with theology ; thus, also at Rome, where the remembrance of ancient literature 
maintained a still stronger empire, printing, under the guidance of the bishops of 
Aleria and Teramo, principally reproduced the master-pieces of classic times. In 
France, however, under the influence of the chivalrous reign of Francis I., a great 
number of works upon chivalry soon appeared, and the desire of becoming acquainted with 
narratives so much in conformity with the prevailing taste, was one cause of the introduc- 
tion of printing into England. Of the sixty-two works printed in England by Caxton, 
those upon theology do not amount to ten, the remainder being devoted to chivalry, to 
history more or less romantic, to literature, and to manners and customs. Without 
expatiating upon this subject, we will confine ourselves to observing that, at the 
period when the pope founded at Rome the celebrated printing-office for the "Propaga- 
tion of the Faith," there was no corresponding activity on the subject in London • and 
that, at the present day, whilst the great printing establishment of the " Propaganda" 
remains inactive, England, every year, sends forth to the world a million of Bibles and 
New Testaments. 

f 1 

































Soon after its first origin, the art of printing had attained a great degree of perfec- 
tion, and it was not till the second half of the last century that, owing to the efforts of 
Ibarra, in Spain j of Baskerville and of Bulmer, in England; of the Foulises and the 
Ruddimans, in Scotland; of Bodoni, in Italy; and of the Didot family, in Paris, any 
real progress can be pointed out. The types were better cut and better cast, the ink as 
good as that of the earliest printers, the paper was improved in its make, and the press- 
work more uniform. At that time the greatest admiration and astonishment were 
created by the rapidity with which, at each action of the lever, moved by the hand of the 
workman, all the pages which a whole sheet of paper was capable of containing, were 
imprinted at a single stroke ; but this rapidity which enabled a workman to produce in one 
day more than a thousand transcribers could write, could not long suffice to supply the 
constantly increasing demands caused by the march of intellect. 

About the beginning of the present century, Charles, the third earl Stanhope, by 
the invention of the press which bears his name, and a new process of stereotyping, 
more simple and more economical, had made a great improvement in the typo- 
graphical art. Subsequently Messrs. Bauer and Koenig, aided by the genius and know- 
ledge of English engineers, and by the intelligence and perseverance of Messrs. Bensley 
and Walter, applied steam power to a new system, which created a revolution in the art 
of printing. In lieu of the platten, which the workman's arm slowly brought down 
upon the types, two cylinders printed with rapidity both sides of the sheet, whatever its 
size might be. In November, 1814, by means of this machine, which was subse- 
quently much simplified, the T^mes newspaper was printed with a rapidity which sur- 
passed Guttemberg's press even more than the latter did the hand of the transcribers. 
It might have seemed that the rapidity of production in printing could proceed no 
further; but, after having been repeatedly altered in its form, the printing machine 
appears before us now in an entirely novel shape ; and we might believe, on seeing the 
Times newspaper printed by Applegath's new system, that the highest degree of speed had 
been attained, did not experience prevent mankind from assigning a limit to the perfecti- 
bility of human inventions, and to the inscrutable designs of Providence. 

M. Koenig's machines, patented in 1814, were far too complicated and expensive, and 
the inking too imperfect, for general adoption. They were superseded by Mr. Edward 
Cowper's machine, which he inveiited and patented in 1816. Almost all the large 
editions of modern works are printed by Cowper's machines, and the influence they have 
had on the publication of books of all kinds is far beyond any expectation entertained at 
the time the machine was invented. After it had been in use sometime, it was stated in 
court, by an eminent lawyer, (now a noble lord), that, "if it had not been for Mr. 
Cowper's machine, it would have been impossible to supply the demand for books:" 
this is not correct, for at that time the hand-press did supply the demand : but the 
striking and important fact is, that the machine created a demand, and called into exis- 
tence books which, but for it, would scarcely have been thought of. As the machine- 
work from tvpe and wood-cuts was far better than the ordinary printing of the day, 
booksellers were induced to print extensive editions, because they saw the machine 
could accomplish all they required. One of the first booksellers who availed himself of 
this power was Mr. Charles Knight, who projected the Penny Magazine, on a hint from 
Mr. M. D. Hill, Queen's counsel. Each number, published weekly, consisted of eight 
pages of letter-press, illustrated with good wood-engravings. The public was astonished 
at the cheapness and good quality of the work, but it was its immense sale which 
rendered it profitable ; for some years it amounted to 180,000 copies weekly. Mr. Knight, 
whose services in the cause of educational literature entitle him to the highest praise, 
expended £5,000 a-year in wood-cuts for this work. The Cowper machine has been the 


cause of the many pictorial illustrations which characterise so large a portion' of modern 
publications. The Saturday Magazine, Chambers' Journal, the Magazin Pittoresque, in 
France, and numerous others owe their existence to this printing-machine. The 
principle of cheap editions and large sales soon extended to established works of a higher 
value. A remarkable instance of this was the edition of sir Walter Scott's works ; 
instead of the old price of ten shillings, they w^ere sold at five shillings a volume, and the 
demand created by this reduction of price was so great, that, although the printer had a 
strong prejudice against machines, he was compelled to have them, the presses of his 
large establishment proving totally unable to perform the work, which amounted to 
upwards of 1,000 volumes per day, for about two years. The Universities of Cambridge 
and Oxford have adopted Mr. Cowper's machines for printing vast numbers of Bibles, 
Prayer-books, &c. &c. A Bible which formerly cost three shillings, may now be had for 
one shilling. Mr. Cowper recommended the Religious Tract Society to put aside their 
coarse wood-cuts, to have superior wood engravings, and to print them with his machine. 
The Society adopted these suggestions, and the result is, that by sending forth well-printed 
books, it coidd now support itself by their sale, without any aid from subscriptions. 

As to newspapers, the Times, for instance, prints about thirty-five thousand copies 
every day, and as this newspaper is of a very large size, often with a supplement, the 
aggregate amount is more than thirty acres of printed surface per day — a quantity 
that could not possibly have been effected by hand-presses. At the Times office there 
are four machines, invented by Cowper and Applegath, printing from 4,500 to 5,000 
impressions per hour — a hand-press producing only 300 impressions per hour. The 
great point obtained in these machines is the perfect distribution of the ink, and the 
power of causing the type to pass under the inking-roUers twice for newspaper-work, or 
from four to eight times for book-work, thus insuring the type being well inked. The 
effect was so striking, as to induce Mr. Cowper to apply the inking-roller and table to the 
common press, and this method has entirely superseded the old printing-balls, and com- 
pletely abolished the imperfect inking, technically called " monks and friars," so fre- 
quently seen in books printed by the old system. The effect of Mr. Cowper's ingenious 
invention is, that books are well, cheaply, and quickly printed, an abundance of illustra- 
tions introduced, and the quality of printing improved all over the world ; thus 
rendering literature accessible to millions. 

Austria. — ^Printing invented at Strasburg and Mayence, and patronised by the emperor 
Maximilian, who obtained master-pieces from it at its commencement, appeared in the 
Exhibition, with a degree of splendour which caused general surprise. No less 
encouraged in our day by its present sovereign, the Imperial printing-office of Austria 
has proved itself equal to its duties, and has accelerated the progress of the art by 
numerous experiments of all kinds. Xylography, engraving, type-founding, stereotyping, 
whether by plaster moulds, or by means of gutta-percha and the galvano-plastic process, 
electro-metallurgis, by which fossil fishes and animals buried in the antediluvian era are 
reproduced upon paper ; galvanography, galvanotype, chymitype, all those new appliances 
of art and science which dimly foreshadow an unknown future, were represented there ■ 
and lithography, that new sister of typography also appeared, with the new adjuncts of 
chromotypy and chromo-lithography. 

By the side of so many objects relating to typography, we were compelled to admire 
the typographic plates, each measuring 540 square inches, formed by the galvanic 
process, and producing in copper, letters of all languages, from which many millions of 
copies may be printed without appearance of wear and tear. 

Prussia. — Next to the imperial printing-office of Austria, we noticed that of M. Decker 
the printer to the B.oyal Academy of Berlin. The large folio New Testament, the German 


translation by Luther, was a master-piece of typographic art. The printing of it was 
perfect ; the types were well cut and cast, the ink was black and brilliant, and the paper 
excellent. Great praise must also be accorded to the edition of the complete works of 
Frederick the Great, a literary and typographic monument of great beauty, raised by 
Prussia to its hero. The five volumes in large quarto, already published, were worthy 
in every respect, by their typographic execution, of the importance of such a work. M. 
Decker exhibited, amongst the specimens of types from his foundry, some Oriental types, 
engraved in part with the co-operation of the Academy of Berlin; and also specimens of 
brass rules, .of great depth in the engraving, and of very superior execution. M. 
Liepmann's ingenious invention for printing in oil, from a mass of solid colours, as a 
substitute for semi-fluid printing inks, attracted the notice of the jury, and they hope 
that when it has been sufficiently improved, it may be a valuable adjunct to ornamental 
printing. M. G. Westermann, of Brunswick, showed a specimen of good printing, in 
the work entitled European Gallery, printed upon German paper. Prom Eberfield, 
M. Baedeker's German Bible, in folio, was a specimen of small and neat type printing. 
M. Haenel, of Berlin, exhibited bank-notes and labels, in gold and colours, possessing 
some merit. 

Saxony. — M. Hirschfeld's of Leipzic, and some other typographic establishments, 
maintain printing in an honourable position in Germany. In general, the jury have 
observed, in all the books exhibited in the German department, great improvements 
in the paper, in the clearness and neatness of the type, and the quality of the ink. 

Italy. — Printing, soon after its discovery, was carried to Rome by some German 
printers. The popes, Sixtus V., Leo X., and Clement XIV., founded the celebrated 
printing-office of the Vatican, for the purpose of printing the works of the holy fathers 
and the Holy Scriptures, and of propagating the Catholic faith. Their beautiful 
Oriental types give this printing-office an honourable standing, but its publications are 
few, and do not keep pace with the progress of the times. The Vendelins of Spires, 
and the Jensons, were early established in Venice. They introduced some happy 
modifications into the types, by making them approach nearer to the beautiful letters of 
Roman inscriptions. The Aldi still fui'ther improved them, and invented the sloping 
types called italic. Their beautiful and erudite publications, are remarkable even in 
the present day, for their typographic execution. At the end of the last century, and at 
the commencement, of the present, Bodoni, a typographer of consummate skill, who 
was at the same time, the engraver and founder of the types which he so carefully 
printed, published his beautiful editions — true master-pieces — which have earned for him 
the highest renown; but in which, he perhaps sacrificed too much to typographical 
luxury. Italy sent but few typographical productions to the Exhibition ; nevertheless, 
the Jury remarked with interest, the large folio volume of the History of the Abbey of 
Altacomba, skilfully printed at Turin, by MM. Chirio and Mina. The type was very 
beautiful, and each page was surrounded by a border, imitated from one of the exquisite 
manuscripts of the fifteenth century. The wood engravings have been multiplied by the 
galvanoplastic process. 

England. — The first book printed by Caxton, after a long residence in the Low 
Countries, appeared in London, 1474 ; and it is worthy of note, that the first book in the 
English language was printed by him, not in England, but on the continent, in 1471. 
Almost all those which he printed, and which he translated himself, to please the 
Princess Margaret, sister of King Edward the Fourth, and at the solicitation of the 
great lords and ladies of that time, were devoted to chivalry. His types, and those 
of his successors, Wynkyn de Worde and Pynson, are a not very elegant imitation of 
the writing then used in England. Up to the time of Buckley, in 1733, the art of 

VOL. II. 3 N 


printing made little progress in this country. It was Baskerville, who^ in 1750, 
turning his thoughts from japanning to type-founding and printing, first gave to the 
art a real impulse. He spent several years and much of his fortune before he was able 
to produce types to his own satisfaction' In 1757, he issued his first book— a "Virgil," 
in quarto. Between this date and 1763, he printed those charming editions of 
" Milton," " Addison," the " Common Prayer," the " Bible," " Juvenal and Persius," 
" Horace," &c., which are still celebrated for their typographical beauty, and cause the 
name of Baskerville to be ranked among the most eminent men who have contributed to 
the improvement of the art of printing. The paper which he caused to be made was 
superior, and all his apparatus for printing, including his ink, presses, chases, punches, 
matrices, moulds, and types, were produced by himself, and were all great improvements. 
His process of drying and glazing his paper and ink, as soon as printed, by means of 
hot plates of copper, was expensive, and had some other faults ; but the taste of the 
period was not then ripe for luxury in printing ; and, notwithstanding too, he offered 
to print for the London booksellers within five per cent, as low as the printers they 
employed, he complained that he was unable to get work from them. Accordingly, 
in 1767, we find him writing to his old friend Franklin :—" After having obtained 
the reputation of excelling in the most useful art known to mankind, of which I have 
your testimony, is it not to the last degree provoking that I cannot even get bread by 
it ?" Then, as now^ many persons would encourage bad printing, because it was cheaper. 
His types, though rather lean for large books, were held in much estimation; and, 
in 1779, four years after his death, were sold to a literary society in Paris for £3,700, 
and were in 1784, first employed in printing Beaumarchais' celebrated edition of 
"Voltaire," in seventy volumes, a work at that day unsurpassed in typographical 
luxury. Thus ended the first real attempt at improvement in England. 

At the end of the last century, Mr. William Bulmer and Mr. Thomas Bensley made 
a fresh progress in the art of printing. Their beautiful publications rivalled the most 
remarkable productions of France, Spain, and Italy ; and the magnificent edition of the 
works of " Shakspere," in nine folio volumes, embellished with engravings after the 
most able artists of England, and printed by Bulmer with great skill, excited the zeal 
of MM. Didot, who wished to raise in France a like monument to Ilacine,,and printed a 
folio edition, unequalled for its typographical perfection. At the commencement of the 
present century, Mr. Charles Whittingham brought out the elegant editions, which have 
rendered the Chiswick press so celebrated. Until that time, no one had printed wood 
engravings so perfectly, by the application of overlays, necessary for obtaining gradations 
in the tints. This success encouraged the engravers to give to wood-cuts a fineness 
unknown in the times of Albert Durer, Wolmeguth, and other engravers, who were 
obliged to employ broa-d lines, the unevenness of the paper and the imperfection 
of the presses rendering the printing of fine lines impossible. At the present day, 
when speed is imperatively demanded by the public, the means of satisfying this 
demand, are everywhere numerous and powerful. The fact may be judged of in 
London by the printing-ofSce of Messrs. Clowes (printers of the Official Catalogues, 
and of the Reports by the Juries), in which two steam-engines put in motion twenty- 
six printing-machines ; and by that of the printing-offices of the Times, and other large 
London newspapers, which publish in the morning the long debates in parliament, so often 
continued until late in the night. This rapidity of execution would have appeared fabulous 
in the last century; and it ought to be remarked, that the speed does not, in England, in 
any way prevent the correctness of the work, which is in general remarkable, even in the 
immense daily newspapers. This advantage must be attributed, in a great measure, to the 
maintenance of the ancient custom of the printers in England. Here it is required that 


there should be seven entire years' apprenticeship of every working printer, whether he is 
destined to be a compositor or a pressman. This beneficial custom, by means of which the 
workman becomes more skilful and more attached to his profession, is gradually re-estab- 
lishing itself in all the countries in which, by reason of political commotions, it had faller 
into disuse, to the great detriment of the art. 

"While in most other countries in Europe, the patronage of the government appears in- 
dispensable to the creation or the development of a great number of branches of industry, 
more or less intimately connected with the fine arts and science, England affords a striking 
instance of how they are capable of being matured and developed without this support. 
The strength of its institutions, its spirit of association, the immensity of its capital, and 
its indomitable perseverance, enable the typographic art to develop itself solely by its own 
resources. The Tract and Bible Societies, which have printed the Holy Scriptures in all 
languages, are a remarkable proof of the power ot association, animated by a religious 
spirit. The numerous and voluminous encyclopaedias, of which the Encyclopmdia Britan- 
nica alone, in twenty-six large quarto volumes, has reached its seventh edition, and the 
large number of important popular publications, also prove the immense resources of 
this country. 

Although neither of the great universities of Oxford and Cambridge took any part in the 
Exhibition, the jury commemorate the high merit of the Clarendon press in the one, and 
of the Pitt press in the other. During a long series of years, Oxford has been remarkable 
for the well-sustained beauty of its Greek and Latin publications, as well as of those in the 
English tongue. Mr. Parker, the bookseller of the university of Oxford, exhibited as a 
publisher, several works on mediaeval architecture, remarkable for their correctness, the 
beautiful execution of the wood engravings, and the goodness of the paper. 

The jury strongly regretted, and this regret has been recorded on their minutes, that 
almost the whole of the printers of England refrained from exhibiting the beautiful pro- 
ductions of their presses, owing to the instructions given to the local commissioners, 
which stated that printed books were inadmissible. Howeverj some fine specimens of 
good printing crept in by mere chance, such as Messrs. Bradbury and Evans's beautiful 
work of Mr. Marryat, Collections towards a History of Pottery and Porcelain, neatly 
executed ; Mr. Pickering's Victoria Book of Common Prayer, in large Old English type, 
the Rubrics in red. This book had been carefully collated with the sealed book in the 
Tower of London. It was on superroyal paper, made by Mr. T. H. Saunders, of Dartford, 
Kent ; it was hand-made, hard tub-sized, from fine strong rags, without . any artificial 
colour ; the moulds were made expressly, the wires finer and closer placed, to imitate the 
old moulds. This is a supplemental volume to Pickering's series of the Common Prayer, 
which shows all the changes made in the Ritual from the Reformation to the Savoy con- 
ference. The Boohe of Common Prayer, noted by John Merbehe. This is a verbatim 
reprint, showing what parts of the service were chaunted in the reign of Edward VI. ; the 
notes are black, on red ledger-lines ; the paper the same quality and make as the " Victoria 
Praver-Book," but in water-leaf, without size. Also the first six books of " Euclid," with 
the 'diagrams and symbols printed in colours, which are used instead of letters, for the 
greater ease of learners : all these were from the press of Mr. Whittingham. Mr. Bagster's 
well printed and useful " Polyglot Bibles ;" Mr. Mackenzie's, of Glasgow, good specimens 
of Church Text, illuminated with red capitals ; Messrs Reed and Pardon's neatly executed 
specimen of their founts ; Mr. Smith's specimens of Hercules Ellis's Poetry ; Major Bell's 
well-got-up Tables of Universal History, &c. &c. The same principle which prevented the 
English printers from exhibiting their works also deprived the publishers of the opportunity 
of taking, at the great Exhibition of all Nations, that high position to which their beau- 
tiful and carefully edited works would have justly entitled them. The names of Longman, 


Murray, Moxorij Bohn, Pickering, and of a great many others, are for ever inseparable 
from the history of English literature ; and thousands would again have seen with satis- 
faction, and have shown with pride to foreigners, the numerous, cheap, neatly printed, 
and beautifully illustrated productions of Mr. Charles Knight, who, in ministering to the 
intellectual wants and pleasures of the people, has given in the right direction an impetus 
which is still felt in all branches of art and manufacture connected with this class. 

Chromotype, or Printing in Colours. — Hugo di Carpi is said to be the original projector 
of printing chiaro-oscuro by surface block-printing. In 1754, Jackson's Essays on the 
Invention of Engraving and Printing in chiaro-oscura, as practised by Albert Durer, Carpi, 
&c., was published. The editor in his preface states, that, " besides the superiority of 
taste," there is " yet a very essential advantage belonging to this mode, which is, that being 
done in oil, the colour will never fly off. By this means the same beauty continues as 
long as the paper can hold together." Unfortunately for this speculative opinion, after the 
lapse of 100 years, the colour of the ink did " fly off," for the specimens of the wood-cuts 
in oil scarcely retain any of the colours which were supposed to be imperishable as long as 
the paper lasted. The paper, on the contrary, continues good and strong to this day. 
The jury proceeds to state the causes of the neglect and decline of the art of printing in 
colours, and its subsequent revival in 1833, chiefly through the discoveries of Mr. De La 
E.ue, and speaks in terms of high commendation of the plates executed by Baxter. 
M. Silbermann, of Strasburg, also received praise for the productions he exhibited, such 
as the painted win'dow of the Strasburg cathedral, and some imitations of manuscripts, 
enriched with coloured vignettes, by surface printing. 

Printing in Gold. — Dibdin, in his Decameron, states that " This country has also an 
honour and a treasure to boast of in Mr. Whittaker's ' Magna Charta,' printed in letters 
of gold, with illuminations. There are some copies on vellum, beautiful, splendid, and 
characteristic, beyond any similar work (I had almost said ancient as well as modern^ 
which it has ever been my good fortune to behold. Indeed, taking it ' all in all,' those 
who have not seen such a union of typographical and graphical skill as those illuminated 
copies display, can have no idea of the extraordinary felicity of their execution." The 
method adopted by Mr. Whittaker is the following, for which the jury is indebted to the 
kindness of Mr. John Harris, who was employed on the work. The page is composed in 
moveable type in the usual way ; a stereotype plate is taken. A piece of iron of the size 
of the page, about half an inch in thickness, is made hot, and placed on the table of an 
ordinary typographical printing-press; the stereotype plate is then placed on the iron 
plate, and gets hot, and leaf-gold of an extra thickness, of the size of the plate, is laid 
very carefully on the surface of the plate; then the paper or vellum is placed on the 
tympan in the usual way, having been previously sifted over with dried glare of egg and 
rosin, finely pulverised, which adheres to it in sufiicient quantity ; the tympan is then turned 
down, and the pull dwelt on. The degree of heat must be ascertained by practice ; if the 
plate be too hot, the gold is dead and drossy ; if too cold, then it appears bright but 
imperfect. This process is similar to that now used by bookbinders in block gilding with 
an arming-press. Printing in gold by letter-press soon followed the method of copper- 
plate gold printing. Messrs. Vizetelly and Branston were the first to apply it; and 
their visiting and address cards, printed by letter-press, from rose-engine plates^ have 
never been surpassed for the brightness and beauty of execution. About the same period 
Mr. De La Rue, in conjunction with the late Mr. Balne, of Gracechurch-street, produced 
a large royal 8vo. edition of the New Testament, printed in gold, twenty-five copies of 
which were in pure gold powder. Nothing has since been produced equal to this 
unique edition. At the coronation of Queen Victoria, Mr. De La Rue undertook to 
produce +he Sun newspaper printed in gold. The rapidity with which this had to be 


effected was one of the many difficulties he had to encounter. Messrs. Clowes and Sons 
afforded him every aid by placing at his disposal the printing machines of their extensive 
establishment. Upwards of 100 persons were employed to rub the bronze on the 
printed sheets, which had to be brought from the printing-office in Stamford-street, as 
soon as printed, to Mr. De La Rue's works in Bunhill-row, to be there bronzed and 
finished. More than 100,000 copies were thus produced ; 10,000 in time for the publi- 
cation of the Sun on the coronation-day. Gold printing is now applied to numerous 
purposes in most countries. The following is the best method of producing good and 
bright results of letter-press printing. Take the best printer's varnish, grind it to a thick 
consistency with the best burnt sienna or brown umber, and reduce this with De La 
Rue's gold-size until it be of the thickness of thin treacle ; ink the form in the usual 
manner, and when printed apply the bronze by rubbing it gently over the article with 
cotton wool. If leaf-gold or leaf-metal is required, it must be laid on carefully, and 
when dry, the sheets should be wiped, to clear them of the superfluous bronze or metal. 
The gold printing is much improved by its being passed over polished steel plates, 
between powerful rollers. There were many exhibitors of printing in gold and silver, 
bronze, and in metal, displaying a variety of specimens, all possessing merit. 

Printing in France. — As early as 1470, printing was introduced into Paris by the 
influence of La Sorbonne : its progress was rapid. Rembold, the partner of Gering, 
Antoine Verard, Simon de Colines, Pigouchet, and others, carried the art of printing to 
a high degree of perfection. The typographical merit of the publications of Robert and 
Henry Stephens would itself be very remarkable, were it not surpassed by the high 
literary merit of those learned printers. The national printing-office of France was founded 
in 1640 by Louis XIII., who there collected the punches cut by Garamond by order of 
Francis I., and confided these punches to the most eminent printers of his time, who 
were honoured with the title of Royal Printers. Under the preceding reigns, this 
printing-office had distinguished itself by large publications, such as the collection ot 
ordonnances of the kings of France, that of the fathers of the Church and of the Councils, 
and that of the Byzantine historians, &c. At the fall of royalty it became a vast 
establishment, in which was concentrated all the printing of the government departments 

divided hitherto among private printing-offices. Napoleon confided the direction of it 

in 1809 to M. Marcel, who had accompanied the expedition to Egypt, and had founded 
a printing-office at Cairo. Making use of the types of the Propaganda of Rome, which 
had been removed to Paris, M. Marcel printed the Lord's-prayer in 150 languages. 
It was especially under the reign of Louis Philippe that the printing-office, then a royal 
establishment, improved its means of execution, and caused a great number of Oriental 
types to be engraved, under the special direction of the most learned Oriental scholars. 
The 150 foreign founts in the specimen-book of the national printing-office, offer an 
interesting subject of comparison with the rich collection of the Imperial printing-office 
of Austria. The jury particularly remarked the pure taste and perfect execution of the 
borders printed in gold and in colours, in imitation of the drawings and vignettes of 
the elegant Oriental manuscripts. The typographic execution, with reference to the 
types, the harmony, the clearness, and the purity of the designs executed by MM. 
Chenavard and Clerget, was perfect. Nothing could be more beautiful than the three 
volumes of the Oriental collection sent by the national printing-office. The jury found 
the bookseUing business of Paris honourably represented in the Great Exhibition by 
MM. Renouard Bailliere and Gaume ; for the sciences and literature by MM. Langlois 
and Leclercq ; and by M. Pagnerre for educational works ; by MM. Bance, Gide, and 
Charles Texier for architectural works ; by M. Mathias for his industrial and scientific 
library, so suitably adapted to the wants of mechanical science ; and, lastly, by Madame 
VOL. II. 3 o 


Huzard, for works upon agriculture. French printing was honourably represented at the 
Great Exhibition ; for Paris, by M. Dupont, whose extraordinary productions of fac- 
similes, of old books, in the style of anastatic reproductions, and whose general speci- 
mens of printing, as exhibited, deserved particular mention ; by M. Didot, who has raised 
monuments worthy of the old masters in his last three great publications, — The The- 
saurus of Stephanus, Ducange's Glossarium, and Bibliotheca Scriptorum Gracorum — 
all produced in a country village, the whole of the composition of the types being 
made by young girls ; by MM. Plon, Brothers, whose books, albums, &c., were of 
great merit; by M. Claye, whose illustrated books were of the first workmanship; 
and for the provinces by MM. Mame, who exhibited books neatly bound and fairly • 
printed, at most extraordinary low prices ; by M. Silbermann ; by M. Desrosiers, who, 
in a small provincial town, produced his Ancient Auvergne, &c., in a very creditable 
manner ; and by M. Barbat, who exhibited illustrated volumes of the Scriptures. 

The jury regretted that neither from Spain nor Portugal were there exhibited any 
proofs of the present state of printing in those countries. Denmark also was unrepre- 
sented. From Belgium and the Netherlands there were but few specimens. Hussia 
displayed " a single broadside sheet." Sweden, some good specimens of printing bank- 
notes by letter-press. Persia sent some beautiful manuscripts only, and some books 
printed in Europfe. Egypt had an interesting display of 165 volumes, printed in 
Arabic, in Turkish, and in Persian, at Cairo. Amongst these books some were enriched 
with Arabesque, tastefully executed by means of typography. These were printed upon 
a peculiar paper, manufactured at Boulac, by the old vat process. The pulp appeared to 
resemble that which is produced in China and in India by the use of raw materials, 
such as the bamboo and the ban ana- tree. It may be that the ancient papyrus is now 
re-appearing in Egypt under this new form. 

United States of America. — It is well known that there are some works printed in the 
United States which give a more favourable idea of the productions of America than 
those which appeared in the Exhibition. The American printers contented themselves 
with sending a number of newspapers, tlie printing of which was not remarkable. 
From Canada, the jury noticed some beautiful types, from the foundry of Mr. Palsgrave, 
at Montreal, who also exhibited some stereotype plates. 

Australia. — The jury examined with real interest several works printed in Van Diemen's 
Land, at Hobart Town, by Henry Bowling ; and two large volumes, accompanied with 
lithographs, Hkewise designed and printed in Australia. The same might be said of a 
a work printed at Sydney, by William John Row. 

It is to be regretted that — introduced as it now is, even to the confines of the earth — 
all the productions of the press were not represented in the " universal gathering ;" for 
printing is a gift almost as necessary to man as speech, for the manifestation of his 








Not to fatigue our kind readers with too long a wandering among the numerous recesses 
of the Crystal Palace, or too close an investigation of its various treasures of industry, of 
science, and of art, we will endeavour, for a brief space, to diversify the scene and intro- 
duce them to the acquaintance of the MaTquis D'Aveze, who has favoured us with an 
interesting account of 


Rather more than half a century since — 1897 — the first Exposition of the National 
Industry of France took place in the chateau of St. Cloud, under the presidency, and 
through the agency of the above-named nobleman. During the troubles of the revolu- 
tion, he found that the royal manufactories of Sevres and Gobelins had suffered, and 
that the workmen were wanting bread, though the warehouses were full of the choicest 
tapestry, china, and rich wares. To remedy this sad state of things, he bethought him of 
the sale of these products in a bazaar ; and in a few days, he tells us, the castle-walls were 
gay with hangings and the floors bright with the carpets, and the tables with china and 
bijouterie. But the marquis has told the history of the affair so well, that we may use 
his own words: — "In the year V. of the Republic (1797), I had not yet quitted the 
Opera, when the minister of the interior summoned me to undertake the office of Com- 
missioner to the Manufactures of the Gobelins (tapestries), of Sevres (china), and of the 
Savonnerie (carpets). I had no need to stay long in these establishments, to perceive 
the misery in which they were plunged. The workshops were deserted : for two years 
the artizans had remained in an almost starving condition; the warehouses were full 
of the results of their labours, and no commercial enterprise came to relieve the general 
embarrassment. Scarcely can I depict the effect produced upon me by such. a scene; but 
at that moment a sudden and luminous thought presented itself to my imagination, and 
appeared to console me for the miseries of the present in the hopes it offered for the 
future. I pictured to myself, in the most glowing colours, the idea of an exhibition of all 
the objects of industry of the national manufactures. I committed my project to paper; 
I detailed the mode of its execution ; and prepared a report, addressed to the minister 
of the interior, which was written tliroughout by my own hand, and delivered by me to 
M. Laucel, then at the head of the section of arts and manufactures, in whose office the 
document in question should still exist. My report soon received the approbation of the 
minister of the interior, M. Fran9ois de Neufchslteau, who commanded me to carry it into 
effect by every means useful and suitable to the government. The chateau of St. Cloud 
was then uninhabited and completely unfurnished; and this appeared to me the most 
appropriate and eligible spot for the exposition which I had projected, and likely to 
invest the exhibition with all the magnificence and eclat so necessary to attract stran- 
gers, and to further the sale of the objects exhibited, the produce of which might mitigate 
the sufferings of our unhappy workmen. The chateau of St. Cloud was obtained without 


difficulty. I established myself there, and requested the attendance of MM. Guillamont, 
Duvivier, and Salmon, directors of manufactures. I explained to them the intention of 
the government, and found all these gentlemen ready to further this object with zeal and 
activity. In a few days, by their obHging exertions, the walls of every apartment in 
the ch§,teau were hung with the finest Gobelin tapestry j the floors covered with the superb 
carpets of the Savonnerie, which long rivalled the carpets of Turkey, and latterly have far 
surpassed them ; the large and beautiful vases, the magnificent groups, and the exquisite 
pictures of Sevres china enriched these saloons, already glowing with the cJiefs-d' cmvre 
of GobeUns and the Savonnerie. The Chamber of Mars was converted into a receptacle 
for porcelain, where might be seen the most beautiful services of every kind ; vases for 
flowers ; in short, all the tasteful varieties which are originated by this incomparable 
manufacture. In the centre of the saloon, surrounded by all these beauties, was a 
wheel of fortune, containing lottery-tickets eventually to be drawn : every ticket was to 
obtain a prize of greater or less value ; the price of each ticket was twelve francs. I had 
attained to this point, when the minister gave me an assistant in the person of M. 
Lessure, a young man of great merit, with uncommon zeal and intelligence. I had 
already, for some time, enjoyed the advantage of the services of M. Peyre, a young 
architect of exquisite taste and distinguished talent. He it was who superintended the 
arrangement of the exposition ; and when this was completed, I referred to the ministei 
to fix the day for its being opened. It was decided that this should take place in the 
month of Fructidor ; but, previous to that time, a number of distinguished persons in 
Paris, and many foreigners, visited the exposition, and made purchases suflScient to afi'ord ~ 
a distribution to the workmen of the different manufactures, thus yielding a little tem- 
porary relief to their necessities. The fame of this forthcoming exposition inspired the 
citizens of Paris with an eager desire to enjoy it as soon as possible; they anticipated 
with impatience the 18th Fructidor, the day fixed for public admission to St. Cloud. 
The court-yard was filled with elegant equipages, whose owners graced the saloons of 
the exposition, when, in the midst of this good company, I received an official notice 
from the minister to attend him immediately, and to defer the opening of the exposition. 
I obeyed the mandate on the morning of the 18th. I waited on the minister, from whom 
I received an order to close the chateau. Already on the walls of our city was placarded 
the decree of the directory for the expulsion of the nobility, with an order for their 
retirement within four-and-twenty hours, to a distance of at least thirty leagues from 
Paris, and this under pain of death. My name was in the list; and, consequently, my 
immediate withdrawal was imperative. The barriers were strictly guarded, and it was 
impossible to pass them without the order of the commandant. My position was doubly 
painful : on the one hand, it was essential to obey the decree of the government ; on 
the other, I had an account to render of all the treasures in the chslteau of St. Cloud. 
I found no difficulty in explaining my situation to the minister and the commandant of 
the place, the Marshal Augereau. I requested him to furnish me with sufficient force 
for the protection of the chslteau, in which so many precious objects were deposited. He 
gave me a company of dragoons, under command of Captain Vatier, and ordered a 
passport for me, by means of which I could leave Paris and return to St. Cloud. I caused 
an inventory to be made in my presence, of all I left in the chateau. I closed the gates 
and delivered the keys to M. Marechau, the keeper, in compliance with the order of the 
minister. I posted the military which had been granted to me around the chateau, 
and, my duties fulfilled, hastened to obey the decree of the proscription. Such is the 
true and exact history of the first idea of National Exposition, and of the first attempt 
to realise that idea." 

The modest narrative of the originator of these exhibitions was written by the marquis 


so late as the year 1844, in reply to the reports of MM. Challamel and Burat, in which 
the honour of their origin was accorded to Frangois de Neufch^teau. The labours of 
the marquis, however, in the cause of the industrial arts did not terminate with his 
compulsory retirement ; for, on his return to Paris, at the beginning of the year 1798, he 
forthwith collected an exhibition of native art-manufactures within the spacious house 
and grounds of the Maison d'Orsay, Rue de Varennes. It was to be expected that the 
specimens of manufacture he assembled would consist entirely of costly goods, inasmuch 
as manufactures of any excellence were not within the reach of the great body of the 
people. The master-pieces of manufacturing skill were, therefore, to be found exclusively 
in the palaces of the rich ; and from these abodes of luxury he withdrew the gorgeous 
cabinet-work and marqueterie of Rilsoner and Boule ; the clocks of Leroy ; the 
gorgeous typograhical productions of De Thou and Grolier; Sevres and AngoulSme 
porcelain j the master-pieces of Vincent and David ; the choicest fabrics of Lyons ; and 
other costly products of the artist and the artizan. The exclusive character of the 
exhibition was the result, not of D'Aveze's wish, but of the condition of French society. 
He led the way which has been so faithfully and happily followed ; he created in the hearts 
of the manufacturing population of France, that enthusiasm for their calling — that anxiety 
for the excellence of their national manufactures, which have since distinguished them. 
MM. Challamel and Burat have been guilty of a palpable injustice towards the Marquis 
d'Aveze, by remaining wholly silent upon the subject of his enlightened labours in the 
cause of art-manufacture, in their zeal on behalf of the accomplished De NeufchMeau. 
The year 1798 was a most favourable one for an exhibition of native industry. Napoleon 
had achieved his most brilliant actions in Italy, and brought the war to a successful termi- 
nation ; the spoils of war had been inaugurated with prodigal pomp, and it was happily 
suggested that the little collection in the Rue de Varennes should be copied on a grander 
scale. The government, bearing in mind the efforts of the Marquis d'Aveze at St. 
Cloud, and more lately in Paris, determined to erect a "Temple of Industry" on the 
Champ de Mars. Here the triumphs of war had been celebrated, and here it was resolved 
that the nursling of peace should receive a national ovation : the olive should be 
intertwined with the blood-bespattered laurel; Lenoir should not be forgotten in the 
glory of the defenders of the batterie des hcmmes sans peur ! 

Angustin Challamel, in his Histoire-Mus^e de la Republique Fran^aise, vonchsafes not 
a word to the Marquis d'Aveze; but declares at once, and without preface, that only 
two of thQfdtes of 1798 are worth notice, from the impulse which they gave to the 
industry and art of the country, viz., that of the foundation of the republic, and that 
of liberty held on the 10th of August. At first, M. Challamel tells us, Fran9ois de 
Neufch&teau put a very happy and useful idea into execution ; but the writer dexterously 
refrains from naming the progenitor of the idea, upon which the accomplished minister 
acted. Under the superintendence of De Neufchslteau, M. Challamel continues, a fairy 
building was erected to the west of the national altar, containing long streets of stores 
and shops. This was the first national exhibitio