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Full text of "The Symposium of Plato"

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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924073426151 



THE SYMPOSIUM 

OF 

PLATO 

EDITED 

WITH INTRODUCTION, CRITICAL NOTES 
AND COMMENTARY 



BY 



R. G. BURY, M.A. 

r 
FOnMEItLY SCHOLAB OF TBINITY COLLEGE, OAMBBIDOE 

LATE LECTUBEE IN CLASSICS, BBYN MAWB COLLEGE, U.S.A. 

EDITOB OP "the PHILEBUS" OF PLATO 



CAMBRIDGE: 

W. HEFFER AND SONS 

LONDON: SIMPKIN, MAESHALL AND CO. Ltd. 

1909 

T3 



Zh 



Mto 






TED BY JOHN Cl.AY, M.A(i 



PKIN 

AT THE UNIYEBRITY PRESS 




UiL 



PREFACE 

T)LATO'S Symposivm, is undeniably one of the masterpieces 
-*- of classical literature. The subtlest and most brilliant of 
Greek artists in prose has left us no finer, no more fascinating 
specimen of his skill than this dialogue in which, with the 
throbbing pulse of life for his theme, he matches that theme by 
the dramatic verve and vigour of his style. The interest of the 
book is not merely literary or philosophical : it appeals also to the 
wider circle of the students of culture and of life and of the 
"criticism of life " by its richness of suggestion and by its vividness 
of portraiture. To mention one point alone, — nowhere else, not 
even in the Phaedo, does the personality of Socrates shine before 
us so full and clear, " in form and gesture so express and ad- 
mirable," as in the pages of the Symposium. To miss reading it is 
to miss the enjoyment of a veritable iarlafia Xoycov, blended and 
seasoned with curious art. 

In the preparation of this edition I have been indebted mainly 
to the labours of continental scholars, for the sufficient, if sur- 
prising, reason that no English commentary has existed hereto- 
fore. It was, indeed, this singular fact, together with the recent 
publication of an interesting Papyrus fragment of the text, which 
chiefly moved me to attempt a commentary myself. On many of 
the interesting questions connected with the literary form and 
philosophical substance of the dialogue much more might have 
been said, but I have thought it best to keep both the Introduction 
and the Notes within a moderate compass. In the framing of the 

a2 



iv PREFACE 

text, although I have ventured on several innovations of my own, 
I have been more conservative than the majority of the foreign 
critics, a considerable selection of whose "restorations" will be 
found in the Critical Notes in addition to the evidence of the 
leading Mss. and of the Papyrus : in all doubtful cases I have cited 
also the opinion of Schanz and of the Oxford editor, Prof Burnet, 
whose admirable recension has been before me constantly and has 
aided me much. For expository material I must acknowledge 
in special my indebtedness to the useful and scholarly edition 
of A. Hug. 

To gild with comment the refined gold of Plato's work is at the 
best a temerarious task ; but if my book helps a single reader 
more justly to appraise the gold it will not have been wrought 
wholly in vain. 

R. G. B. 

October 4, 1909. 



CONTENTS 



Introduction : 

§ i. Summary of the Argument 

ii. The Framework of the Dialogue 

iii. The first five Speeches 

iv. Socrates and Diotima . 

V. Alcibiadcs and his Speech . 

vi. The Order and Connexion of the Speeches 

vii. The Dialogue as a whole: its Scope and Design 

viii. The Date . .... 

ix. The Text . . 

X. Bibliography 

Text, Ciutical Notes, and Commentary 

Index I., Greek 

„ II., English . . ... 



PAGE 

vii 

XV 

xxiv 

xxxvi 

li 

Iii 

Ixiv 

Ixvi 

Ixviii 

Ixxi 

1 

173 

178 



INTRODUCTION 



§ i. Summary of the Argument. 

I. The Preface: 172 a— 174 a. 

ApoUodorus, in reply to the enquiiy of some friends, explains 
the occasion on which the supper-party at Agathon's was held, when 
Socrates and others delivered Discourses on Eros. The matter is fresh 
in his memory and, as a <^iXo'\oyos himself, he is quite ready to repeat 
the whole story as he had it from Aristodemus, — an eye-witness and 
an intimate disciple of Socrates, — just as he had repeated it a few days 
before to his friend Glaucon. 



II. Aristodemus' s Prologue: 174 a — 178 a. 

Aristodemus meeting Socrates smartly attired expresses his surprise 
at so unusual a circumstance. Socrates explains that being invited to 
dine with Agathon he feels bound to go "in finery to the fine"; and 
he presses Aristodemus, although uninvited, to accompany him. On 
the road Socrates, immersed in thought, lags behind, and Aristodemus 
arrives at Agathon's alone. Not till they are half-way through the 
meal does Socrates appear ; and Agathon rallies him on his devotion to 
o-oi^io. The proposal of Pausanias to restrict the potations, in view of 
yesterday's banquet, and that of Eryximachus to dismiss the flute-girl 
and amuse themselves by Aoyoi, are unanimously agreed to. Then 
Eryximachus propounds an idea of Phaedrus, that Eros is the best 
possible theme for encomia, and suggests that each of the party in turn, 
commencing with Phaedrus, should now deliver an encomium on Eros. 
This suggestion is applauded by Socrates. Of the encomia the most 
noteworthy were the following : — 



viii INTRODUCTION 

III. The Biscov/rse of Phaedrus : 178 A — 180 B. 

Prologue : Eros is a great and wondrous god. 

(a) He is wondrous in origin, being eldest of gods and unbegofcten 
— witness what Homer and others say of him. 

(6) He is the supreme benefactor of mankind, (1) as inspiring 
a high sense of honour in private, civic and military life ; (2) as in- 
spiring self-sacrifice, which wins divine favour (e.g. Aloestis and 
Achilles, contrasted with the cowardly Orpheus). 

Epilogue : Thus Eros is most ancient, venerable, and beneficent. 

TV. The Discourse of Pausanias : 180 c — 185 c. 

Prologue: Eros being not single but dual, we must begin by de- 
fining which Eros is to be our theme. 

(a) The dual nature of Eros follows from the dual nature of 
Aphrodite : as there is an Aphrodite Urania and an Aphrodite 
Pandemos, so there is Eros Uranios and Eros Pandemos. 

(6) From the principle that no action is in the abstract good 
or bad but derives its moral quality solely from the manner of its 
execution it follows that Eros is bad or good according to the kind 
of love-making to which it prompts. 

(c) The general characteristics (1) of Eros Pandemos are that it is 
directed to women as well as boys, to the body rather than the soul, to 
unscrupulous satisfaction of lust ; (2) whereas Eros Uranios shuns 
females and seeks only such males as are noble and nearly mature both 
in mind and body. It is the followers of Eros Pandemos who have 
brought paederastia into disrepute. 

(d) The varying vofioi concerning Eros may be classified thus : — 

(1) In all Greek states except Athens the i/o/xo; is simple, either 
(a) approving paederastia, as in Elis and Boeotia ; or {^) condemning 
it, as in Ionia and states subject to barbarian rule, where it is lield to 
foster a dangerous spirit of independence (e.g. Harmodius and Aris- 
togiton). 

(2) At Athens the vo/xos is complex, (a) Eros is approved, and its 
excesses condoned, when directed towards superior youtlis approacliing 
manhood. (/8) It appears to be condemned, in so far as parents forbid 
their boys to hold converse with "erastae." Tiie explanation of this 
ambiguous attitude must be sought in the principle laid down abo\'e. 



INTRODUCTION ix 

that the moral quality of an act depends upon the conditions of its per- 
formance. The Athenian j/d/ios provides a test for distinguishing 
between good and bad forms of Eros : the test of time shows whether 
or not the right motive (desire for dpenj) actuates both the lover and 
his object. This motive alone justifies all erotic pursuits and sur- 
renders, even mutual deception : hence we conclude that KaXbv aptrrji 
evfKa y^apitfitrOai, 

Epilogue; This Eros Uranios, which inspires zeal for apen;, 
possesses the highest value alike for the individual and for the 
State. 

V. The first Interlude: 18.5 c — E. 

It was the turn of Aristophanes next; but being seized with a 
hiccough he called upon Eryximachus either to cure him or to speak 
in his stead. So Eryximachus, having first prescribed a number of 
remedies, spoke next. 

VI. The Discourse of Eryximachus : 185 E — 188 b. 

Prologue: Pausanias was right in asserting the dual nature of 
Eros; but he failed to observe that the god's sway extends over the 
entire universe. 

(a) The body, with its healthy and diseased appetites, exhibits 
the duality of Eros ; and medicine is " the science of bodily erotics in 
regard to replenishment and depletion." It is the object of " the Art " 
of Asclepios to produce the Eros which is harmony between the 
opposite elements — the hot and the cold, the wet and the dry, etc. 
Eros is, likewise, the patron-god of gymnastics and husbandry. 

(h) Similarly with m,usic. The " discordant concord " of Heraclitus 
hints at the power of music to harmonize sounds previously in discord, 
and divergent times. Thus music is " the science of Erotics in regard 
to harmony and rhythm." It is less in the pure theory than in applied 
music (metrical compositions and their educational use) that the dual 
nature of Eros comes to light ; when it does, the Eros Pandemos must 
be carefully guarded against. 

(c) Again, in the spheres of meteorology and astronomy we see the 
effects of the orderly Eros in a wholesome temperate climate, of the dis- 
orderly Eros in blights and pestilences ; for astronomy is " the science 
of Erotics in regard to stellar motions and the seasons of the year." 

(d) Lastly, in religion, it is the disorderly Eros which produces the 
B. P. b 



X INTRODUCTION 

impiety which it is the function of divination to cure ; and religion may 
be defined as "the science of human Erotics in regard to piety." 

Epilogue : To Eros, as a whole, belongs great power ; to the virtuous 
Eros great influence in effecting human concord and happiness. — If my 
eulogy is incomplete, it is for you, Aristophanes, to supplement it, if you 
choose. 

VII. The second Interlude: 189 A — c. 

Aristophanes explains that he is now cured of his hiccough, as a 
result of sneezing according to Eryximachus' presciiption. He makes 
a jocular allusion to Eryximachus' discourse, to which the latter retorts, 
and after some further banter Aristophanes proceeds to deliver his 
encomium. 

VIII. The Discourse of Aristophanes: 189 c — 193 d. 

Prologue : Men have failed to pay due honour to Eros, the most 
" philanthropic " of gods, who blesses us by his healing power, as I 
shall show. 

(a) Man's original nature was different from what it now is. It 
had three sexes — male, female, androgynous ; all globular in shape and 
with double limbs and organs ; derived respectively from sun, earth 
and moon. 

(6) Man's woes were due to the pride of these primal men which 
stirred them to attempt to carry Heaven by assault. In punishment 
Zeus sliced them each in two, and then handed them to Apollo to 
stitch up their wounds. But, because they then kept dying of hunger, 
owing to the yearning of each for his other-half, Zeus devised for them 
the present mode of reproduction, altering the position of the sex- 
organs accordingly. Thus Eros aims at restoring the primal unity and 
healing the cleft in man's nature. 

(c) Each of us is a split-half of an original male, female, or an- 
drogynon ; and the other-halves we seek in love are determined ac- 
cordingly. Courage is the mark of boy-loving men and of man-loving 
boys, as both derived from the primal male. In the intense passion of 
Eros it is not merely sexual intercourse that is sought but a permanent 
fusing into one (as by the brazing of an Hephaestus); for Love is "the 
pursuit of wholeness." 

(d) As it was impiety that caused our " dioikismos " and bisection, 
so in piety towards the god Eros lies the hope of meeting with our 
proper halves and regaining our pristine wlioleness. 

Epilogue : Let us, then, laud Eros as the giver both of present 
blessings and of bright hopes of healing and restoration in the future. 



INTRODUCTION xi 

IX. Tlie third Interlude: 193 D— 194 e. 

Some conversation ensues between Aristophanes, Eryximachus, 
Socrates, and Agathon. Upon Socrates attempting to entangle 
Agathon in an argument, Phaedrus intervenes and bids Agathon 
proceed without further delay to offer his meed of praise to the god. 

X. The Discourse of Agathon: 194 E — 197 e. 

Prologue : Tlie method of previous speakers needs amendment. 
Tlie correct method, which I shall adopt, is to laud first the character 
of Eros, and secondly his gifts to men. 

(A) The attributes of Eros are (1) supreme felicitj', (due to) (2) 
supreme beauty and (3) goodness. 

(2) Eros is most beautiful, since he is {a) the youngest of gods 
(all tales to the contrary being false), witness his aversion to old-age ; 
(6) most tender, witness his choosing soft souls for his abode ; 
(c) supple, witness his power to steal unnoticed in and out of souls ; 
{(1) symmetrical, because comely as all allow ; (e) fair-of-skin, for he 
feeds on flowers amid sweet scents. 

(3) Eros is supremely good, since he is (a) most just, having no lot 
in violence or injustice ; (6) most temperate, for he is the master of 
pleasure since no pleasure is greater than love ; (c) most courageous, as 
holding sway over Ares, the most courageous of the gods ; {d) most 
wise, being expert (a) in both musical and creative poesy, and (/3) in 
the practical arts, as instructor of Zeus, Apollo and Athene in their 
respective crafts (he, too, inspired the gods with love of beauty and de- 
throned Necessity). 

(B) The blessings conferred by Eros are, like his attributes, beauty 
and goodness. He produces peace and pleasantness in all spheres of 
life : he is the object of universal admiration, the author of all delights, 
best guide and captain for gods and men alike, whose praises it behoves 
all to chant in unison. 

Epilogue : Such is my tribute of eulogy, not wholly serious nor 
wholly playful. 

XI. The fourth Interlude: 198 A— 199 c. 

Agathon " brought down the house " with his peroration ; and 
Socrates remarked to Eryximachus that its eloquence left him in despair 
— petrified by the Gorgon of Agathon's brilliant Gorgianisms. "Now," 

6 2 



xii INTRODUCTION 

he said, "I must retract my rash tongue-pledge to join in a eulogy of 
Eros, since I perceive that I was quite astray in my ideas about the 
encomiastic art : for I supposed that truth came first, ornamental com- 
pliment second, whereas the contrary is evidently the fact. Such an 
encomium is quite beyond my poor powers ; but if you care for an un- 
varnished speech about Eros, that I am ready to make." Phaedrus 
and the rest bidding him proceed in his own fashion, Socrates began 
by the following conversation with Agathon. 



XII. Socrates' preliminary Discussion with Agathon: 
199 c— 201 D. 

(1) "Your exordium on Method was admirable, Agathon. But 
tell me further, is Eros a relative notion, like ' father' or ' brother' ?" 
" Certainly it is." 

(2) " Next, you agree that if Eros desires its object it must lack 
it ; and if a man wishes for some good he already possesses, what he 
really desires is what he lacks, viz. the future possession of that good." 
"True." 

(3) "Again, if Eros is (as you said) love for beauty, Eros must 
lack beauty, and therefore goodness too, and be neither beautiful nor 
good." "I cannot gainsay you." 

XIII. The Discourse of Socrates (Diotima): 201 d — 212 c. 

Prologue: I will now repeat the discourse on Eros which I once 
heard from my instructress in Erotics, Diotima the prophetess— as- 
suming the conclusions formulated just now, and treating first of the 
character and secondly of the effects of Eros, according to Agathon's 
own method. 

A. [The nature of Eros, 201 e— 204 c.J 

(1) Diotima showed me that Eros, although (as we have seen) 
neither beautiful nor good, is not therefore ugly and bad but rather 
a mean between these contraries. 

(2) She argued also that Eros is not a god, since godhead involves 
the possession of just those goods which Eros desires and lacks. But 
neither is he a mortal, but stands midway between the two, being 
a great daemon ; and the function of the daemonian is to mediate 
between gods and meu. 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

(3) As to origin, Eros is son of Poros and Penia, and partakes of 
the nature of both parents — the fertile vigour of the one, the wastrel 
neediness of the other. As he is a mean between the mortal and the 
immortal, so he is a mean between the wise and the unwise, i.e. a 
wisdom-lover (philosopher). The notion that Eros is a beautiful god is 
due to a confusion between subjective Eros and the object loved. 

B. [The effects, or utility, of Eros, 204 d— 212 a.] 

(1) [The object or end of Eros.] 

What does Eros as "love of the beautiful" precisely imply? In the 
case of the good, its acquisition is a means to happiness as end. But 
Eros is not used in this generic sense of " desire for happiness," so much 
as in a narrower specific sense. And if we say that Eros is "the desire 
for the good," we must expand this definition into " the desire for the 
everlasting possession of the good." 

(2) [The method or mode of action of Eros.J 

Eros works by means of generation, both physical and psychical, in 
the beautiful. 

(a) Generation, being an immortal thing, requires harmony with 
the divine, i.e. beauty ; without which the process is hindered. And 
generation is sought because it is, for mortals, the nearest approach to 
immortality. It is in the desire for immortality that we must find 
the explanation of all the sexual passion and love of ofispring which we 
see in the animal world, since it is only by the way of leaving a suc- 
cessor to take its place that the mortal creature, in this world of flux, 
can secure a kind of perpetuity. 

(b) But the soul has its oflFspring as well as the body. Laws, 
inventions and noble deeds, which spring from love of fame, have for 
their motive the same passion for immortality. The lover seeks a 
beautiful soul in order to generate therein ofispring which shall live 
for ever ; and the bonds of such soul-marriages are stronger than any 
carnal ties. 

(c) After this elementary prelude, we reach the highest stage 
of the Mysteries of Love. The right method in Erotic procedure is to 
pass in upward course from love of bodily beauty to love of soul beauty, 
thence to the beauty of the sciences, until finally one science is reached 
which corresponds to the Absolute, Ideal Beauty, in which all finite 
things of beauty partake. To gain the vision of this is the goal of 
Love's endeavour, and to live in its presence were life indeed. There, 
if anywhere, with truth for the issue of his soul, might the lover hope 
to attain to immortality. 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

Epilogue : Believing that for the gaining of this boon Eros is man's 
best helper, I myself praise Eros and practise Erotics above all things 
and I urge others to do likewise. Such is my "encomium," Phaedrus, 
if you choose to call it so. 

XIV. The fifth Interlude: 212 c— 215 a. 

Applause followed. Then suddenly, when Aristophanes was on the 
point of making an observation, a loud knocking was heard at the 
door. Presently Alcibiades, leaning on a flute-girl, appeared. " I am 
come to crown Agathon,'' he cried, "if you will admit a drunken 
reveller." Being heartily welcomed, he took the seat next Agathon, 
where Socrates had made room for him. And as soon as he perceived 
Socrates, he began playfully to abuse him. Then, taking some of 
the ribbands with which he had bedecked Agathon, he crowned " the 
marvellous head of Socrates, the invincible in words." 

Next Alcibiades insisted on all the company drinking along with 
him. And, when Eryximachus protested against bare drinking without 
song or speech and explained to him what the previous order of procedure 
had been, Alcibiades replied, "In the presence of Socrates I dare not 
eulogize anyone else, so that if I am to deliver an encomium like the 
rest, Socrates must be my theme." 

XV. Alcibiades^ eulogy of Socrates : 215 a — 222 c. 

Prologue : My eulogy will take the form of parables — aiming not 
at mockery but at truth. Socrates resembles (a) Silenus-statuettes which 
serve as caskets for sacred images ; (6) the Satyr Marsyas. 

I. Inform he resembles both (a) the Sileni, and (6) the Satyr. 

II. (/w cliaracter) he resembles (6) the Satyr, being (1) a mocker, 
(2) a flute-player. As to (2) he excels Marsyas, since his words alone, 
without an instrument, fascinate all, old and young. Me he charms 
far more than even Pericles could, filling me with shame and self- 
contempt, and driving me to my wit's end. 

III. He resembles (a) the Sileni in the contrast between his ex- 
terior and interior, (o) Externally he adopts an erotic attitude towards 
beautiful youths : (j8) but internally he despises beauty and wealth, as 
I know from experience. For I tried to bribe him with my beauty, 
but all my many attempts came to nothing. Private conversations, 
gymnastics together, a supper-party d, deux, even a night on the same 
couch — all was of no use. Against my battery of charms he was 



INTRODUCTION xv 

arlned (by his temperance) in "complete steel"; and I charge him now 
before you with the crime of v/SpK. His hardihood was shown in the 
Potidaea campaign, where none could stand the cold like him. His 
valour was displayed in the battle where he saved my life, and in 
the retreat from Delium. Especially amazing is his unique originality, 
which makes it impossible to find anyone else like him — except Satyrs 
and Sileni. 

IV. His speeches too, I forgot to say, are like the Silenus-statuettes, 
in outward seeming ridiculous, but in inner content supremely rational 
and full of images of virtue and wisdom. 

Epilogue : Such is my eulogy, half praise, half blame. Let my 
experience, and that of many another, be a warning to you, Agathon : 
court Socrates less as an "erastes"' than as an "anterastes" ! 

XVI. Concluding Scene : 222 c — end. 

The company laughed at the erotic candour of Alcibiades. Then 
ensued some banter between Socrates and Alcibiades as rival "erastae" 
of Agathon, which was interrupted by the entrance of a band of re- 
vellers who filled the room with uproar. Some of the guests left, and 
Aristodemus himself fell asleep. On awaking, about dawn, he found 
only three of the party still present and awake — Agathon, Aristophanes, 
and Socrates: Socrates was trying to convince the others that the 
scientific tragedy-writer must be capable also of writing comedy. 
Presently Aristophanes, and then Agathon, dozed off; whereupon 
Socrates, still " shadowed " by Aristodemus, departed. 



§ ii. The Framework of the Dialogue. 
(A) T/ie Method of Narration and the Prejace. 

The Platonic dialogues, viewed from the point of view of literary 
form, may be divided into two chief classes. To the first class belong 
those in which the story of the discussion is told directly by one of the 
protagonists; to the second class belong those in which the story is 
told indirectly or at second-hand, — a mode of narration which involves 
the further characteristic that dialogues of this class are necessarily 
prefaced (and concluded) by some explanatory paragraphs. This 
second class, moreover, falls into two subdivisions, according as the 
narrator is or is not represented as being himself present at the 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

discussion. It is to the latter of these subdivisions, in which the 
narrator is not an eye-witness but reports the matter only at second- 
hand, that the Symposium (together with the Theaetetus and Par- 
menides) belongs. 

It is noteworthy also that, with the exception of the Phaedo and 
Parmenides, ours is the only dialogue in which the narrating witness 
is not Socrates himself. The reason for this is obvious : eulogy of 
Socrates being one of the main purposes of the dialogue, it would be 
unfitting to put the story into his mouth, and make him the trumpeter 
of his own praises. Instead of doing so, Plato selects as the sources 
of the narrative persons of such a character as to produce the effect of 
verisimilitude. The way in which Aristodemus, the primary source, 
and ApoUodorus, the secondary source, are described is evidently 
intended to produce the impression that in them we have reliable 
witnesses. ApoUodorus^, " the fanatic," is put before us not only as 
a worshipper of Socrates, imbued with a passionate interest in philo- 
sophical discourses such as are here to be related, but also as an 
intimate disciple who had " companied with " Socrates for the space 
of nearly three years past and during that time had made it his 
peculiar task to study the every act and word of the Master (172 e). 
Moreover, the story of the special occasion in question he had diligently 
conned (ovk o/ieXenjTos, 172 A, 173 c). 

Aristodemus", the primary source and actual narrator, is spoken of 
by ApoUodorus as " an old disciple " and one of the most intimate with 
the Master in earlier years, and in his own narrative he represents 
himself as following Socrates with dog-like fidelity, and showing the 
closest familiarity with his ways and habits — a man so single-hearted, 
so engrossed in matters of fact, as to be constitutionally incapable of 
tampering with the truth. As the " minute biographer," Aristodemus 
is the prototype of all later Boswells. 

Further, the impression of veracity made by the character of the 

' ApoUodorus appears also in Phaedo 59 a, b as one of those present with Socrates 
" on the day when he drank the poison in the prison " ; as characteristically ex- 
hibiting most marked symptoms of grief [this statement would support the 
epithet /iaXaxij as well as /uokikAs in Symp. 173 d] ; and as a native of Athens (tuk 
iiTix^piuv). In Apol. 3<t A he is one of those present at the trial of Socrates; and 
(in 38 b) one of those who offered to go bail to the extent of 30 minae. Pfleiderer 
takes ApoUodorus to represent Plato himself, by a piece of ironical " Selbstobjek- 
tivieruDg," a notion which had already occurred to me. 

" For Aristodemus, see also Xen. Mem. i. 4. 2 where Socrates converses Trepl roC 
daifioviov irpbi 'ApiffrdSTjuov toi> fiiKpby iirtKaXoi^eifoi', KarafiaOthv auTin/ otJre Ot^iofra rots 
ffeoU ollre fiavTiKfj -xjpiinaiov, iXKh Kal tuiii iroioii'TUi' raura KaTayeKwvra. 



INTRODUCTION xvii 

narrators is enhanced by the express statement that in regard to some 
points at least (ci/ta 173 b) the account of Aristodemus was confirmed 
by Socrates. The points in question are probably (as Hug observes) 
those which specially concern the picture drawn of Socrates himself. 
At any rate, it is in regard to these that we have the detailed 
testimony of Alcibiades, emphasized by repeated asseverations (214 e, 
21-5 A, etc.), and endorsed by the silence of Socrates. 

In addition to the evidence it contains for the dates of tlie 
narration and of the banquet', and the vivid picture in miniature 
which it presents of a certain group of Socratics in whom an ardent 
admiration for the Master was blended with a limited capacity for 
understanding the deeper side of his practice and doctrine — as if to 
go barefoot and to rail at filthy lucre were the sum and substance 
of Socraticism, — there are two further points in the Preface which 
deserve attention. 

Apollodorus, although asked only for the Xo'yoi spoken at the 
banquet (172 b, 173 e), proceeds to give a full account of the ac- 
companying incidents as well (e^ dp)^^ . . .Siryyi^a-aa-Oai 174 a). This 
may be taken to indicate that for estimating the efifect of the dialogue 
as a whole we are meant to pay regard not only to the series of 
encomia but also to the framework of incident and conversation in 
wluch they are set. 

Glaucon, in asking Apollodorus for the desired information con- 
cerning the "erotic discourses," states (172 b) that he has already 
heard an account of them from " another man " (aAAos ns), which 
account was unsatisfactory (ouSei' a-a<f>U), and that the authority 
quoted by this unnamed informant was "Phoenix, son of Philippos." 
To this Apollodorus adds the fact (173 b) that this Phoenix was 
indebted to the same source as himself, namely Aristodemus. What 
precisely tliese statements signify it is not easy to determine, since 
the identity of Phoenix, as well as that of the anonymous informant 
(aWos Tis), is unknown to us. But it seems reasonable to infer that 
there was already in existence, when Plato wrote, at least one other 
account of a banquet at which Socrates, Alcibiades and Agathon 
figured, and that it is Plato's intention to discredit it. That such 
is the intention is shown not only by the phrase ovSei' ilx^ <Ta<j>h A.c'yeii', 
but also by the statement that the evidence of aWos tis was one 
degree further off from the primary source (Aristodemus) than is that 
of Apollodorus. Further, the assumption of some such controversial 

J With regard to this evidence, see Introd. § viii. 



xviii INTRODUCTION 

intention throws light on the emphasis laid on the veracity of the 
narrative — to which attention has been drawn above — and gives it 
a more definite motive. It is as if the author means us to read into 
his preface something to this effect : "Socrates has been misrepresented: 
it is my task to clear his reputation by putting the facts in their true 
light." 

If this, then, be a right reading of the hints thus given, what is 
the distorted account which Plato thus discredits, and who its author 1 
Unfortunately this must remain a matter of conjecture. The most 
obvious suggestion to make is that the author in question is Xenophon, 
and the account alluded to his Symposium. But Xenophon's Symr- 
posium is most probably a later work tlian Plato's ; and it is a further 
objection that the persons represented by Xenophon as present at 
the banquet are not — with the exception of Socrates — the persons 
mentioned by Glaucon. 

We are obliged, therefore, to look further afield for the author 
whose identity is thus shrouded. The best suggestion I can offer is 
that Polycrates the rhetor is the writer intended. In favour of this 
we may adduce the fact that Polycrates is 6 Karij-yopos whose calumnies 
Xenophon aims at refuting in his Memorabilia^. It is by no means 
improbable & priori that Polycrates in his attacks on Socrates de- 
scribed, amongst other incidents, a banqueting-scene in which Socrates 
and Alcibiades were pictured in an odious light. And if we take 
the Banquet of Xenophon to be a genuine work, the very fact that 
Xenophon thought it necessary to supplement his Memxyrahilia by such 
a work might be construed as showing that the author of the slanders 
he is at such pains to refute had already libelled Socrates in connexion 
with a similar scene. But unless, by some happy chance, further light 



' See Cobet, Nov. Led. pp. 662 £f.; Gomperz, 6. T. ii. pp. 63, 118. Gomperz 
(II. 843) supposes the Oorijiaa to be a counterblast to Polycrates' indictment of 
Socrates, and Alcibiades' eulogy in Sympos. to have the same motive: "Plato had a 
definite motive for placing such praise in the mouth of Alcibiades — we refer to the 
pamphlet of Polycrates.... This writer had spoken of Socrates as the teacher of 
Alcibiades — in what tone and with what intention can easily be guessed.... Plato 
himself had touched on the subject (of the liaison between the two men), harm- 
lessly enough, in his youthful works, as, for example, in the introduction to the 
'Protagoras.'... But after the appearance of Polycrates' libel, he may well have 
thought it advisable to speak a word of enlightenment on the subject; which is 
exactly what he does, with a plainness that could not be surpassed, in the present 
encomium " {op. cit. 394-5). Gomperz, however, does not bring this hypothesis 
into connexion with the passage in the Preface of Symp. discussed above. There 
may be an allusion to the same matter in Protag. 847 o (cp. Xen. Symp. vii. 1). 



INTRODUCTION xix 

should be shed upon the history of Polycrates' literary activity, it is 
hardly possible to get beyond the region of conjectural speculation, or 
to hope for a definitive solution of this obscure literary problem. 

(B) The Prologue of Aristodemus. 

In the Prologue, with which Aristodemus's narrative opens, special 
attention may be drawn to the following points : — 

(a) It is significant that the first person to appear on the scene is 
Socrates. We are led at once to admire his good humour and ready 
wit as shown in the playful tone of his conversation (1) with Aristo- 
demus (174 A, b), in which he makes jesting quotations from Homer 
and indulges in a pun on the name of Agathon (op. the pun he makes 
on Gorgias, 198 c) ; and (2) with Agathon (175 c^ — e). These amiable 
traits in the character of Socrates are further illustrated in other parts 
of the dialogue. 

{h) Socrates on the way becomes lost in thought and fails to put 
in an appearance till the banquet is already far advanced (174 d, 175 c). 
Aristodemus explains to Agathon (175 b) that this is no exceptional 
occurrence (e^os ti tovt €;^ei). That this incident is intended to be 
specially emphasized as typical of Socrates' habits becomes clear when 
we notice how Alcibiades in his speech (220 c) describes a similar 
incident as taking place in one of the campaigns in which he served. 
The corroboration thus efiected is one of many examples of the literary 
care and ingenuity with which Plato in this dialogue interweaves 
incident with speech. Another example occurs a little further on 
(176 c) where Eryximachus, discussing the question "to drink or not 
to drink,'' describes Socrates as ikovos aft^drepa : this statement, too, 
we find amplified and confirmed by Alcibiades (220 a). Both these 
matters illustrate that entire subordination of flesh to spirit in which 
Socrates was unique. 

(c) Agathon (175 off.) expresses a desire to share in the "witty 
invention " which Socrates had discovered on his way : Socrates with 
his usual mock-modesty disclaims for himself the possession of <fo<j>ia, 
except of a poor kind, but congratulates Agathon on the fine and 
abundant a-o^ia he has just been displaying so conspicuously : and the 
conversational banter concludes with Agathon's remark — " Presently, 
with the Wine-god as umpire, you and I will fight out our wisdom- 
match." Here, at this early stage, we have struck for us one of the 
key-notes of the dialogue. For one main motive of the dialogue as a (/' 
whole is to exhibit the (ro<j>ia of Socrates, his intellectual as well as 



XX INTRODUCTION 

moral supremacy. And we fijid, in the sequel, that this is done largely 
by pitting him against Agathon, over the wine-bowl. In this we have 
the reason for the juxtaposition of the two speeches, matched, as it 
were, one against the other. His speech is, in itself, one sufficient 
proof of the superiority of Socrates over his rival. But there are also 
other proofs : there is the masterly criticism and confutation to which 
Socrates subjects the belauded poet; there is the express statement, 
confli-med by expressive action, of Alcibiades, in which is asserted the 
superiority of Socrates not merely to Agathon but to all others who 
make claim to <ro</>ta (213e, 215cflf.); and finally the Wine-god himself 
bestows on Socrates the palm when, in the concluding scene, we see 
him alone pursuing discussion with unflagging zeal and with a clear- 
ness of head undimmed by long and deep potations while his rival 
drowses and succumbs to sleep. Thus the SiaSiKuo-ia trtpl r^s tro^tas 
runs through the book, and always, from beginning to end, vikS. 6 
^laKpaTTjs. 

To this we may add one minor point. Agathon, in this preliminary 
play of wit, applies to Socrates the epithet i^pia-Tiji, " a mocker." And 
this, too, is a trait upon which Alcibiades, in the sequel, lays much 
stress, v^pii is one of the most striking characteristics of the Satyr- 
Socrates (216 e, 219 c). 

(d) Another example of the literary interweaving — or the method 
of ■' responsions,'' as we might term it, — which is so marked a feature 
of the dialogue, is to be found in the statement of Socrates concerning 
the character of his own knowledge. His speciality in the way of 
science is, he announces, " erotics," and this is his only speciality 
(177 d). Accordingly, when we find Socrates in the sequel delivering 
a discourse on this subject we are evidently intended by Plato to feel 
that his views are to be taken seriously as those of one who professed 
to be an expert in this subject if in nothing else. And this intention 
is emphasized when we come to the later passage (the " responsion ") 
in 198 D where Socrates again refers to his conviction that concerning 
"erotics" he knew the truth (ciScus t^i/ dkijOtiav). It is hardly necessary 
to add that "erotics," construed in the Sooratio sense, constitutes by 
no means an insignificant department of knowledge {^av\rj tk crotjiia 
175 e), as Socrates modestly implies, inasmuch as it is practically 
coextensive with a theory of education and involves an insight into 
the origin, nature and destiny of the human soul. 

(e) In 177 B we have an interesting parallel between Plato's 
language and that of Isocrates. In J/el. 210 u (t<ui' fiev yap roiis 



INTRODUCTION xxi 

Poix^vkiovs KOI Toiis aXas Kal to. toiovto povXr/OcvTuiv iwaivuv k.t.X.) 
Isocrates scoffs at the eulogists of "bees and salt and such-like 
trumpery," and his language is echoed in the allusion (put in the 
mouth of Eryximachus quoting Phaedrus) to a fii^Kiov dvSpos <to<J)ov 
€V <a iinja-av a\es eTratvov 6avf),d(nov e)(Ovm irpos w<f>e\tiav (177 b). This 
eulogist of salt is commonly supposed to be Polycrates, since encomia 
on similar paltry subjects— mice, x^'^P'^'-, i/'^<^06— are ascribed to him^. 
Dummler, however^, takes the reference to be to Antisthenes (Fro- 
treptikos), on the strength of the statement in Pollux vi. 16. 98: 
Po/x^vKio's §€ TO (TT€vbv Ixiroi/xa koX Po/Jt-^ovv iv t-^ Trdtret, tos ' kvrifTOivr]^ 
Iv TrpoTpeTTTiKw. And for oXes as eulogized in the same work he quotes 
also Bep. 372 b ff. {^ov l^ouo-iv dEXas). It may be added that a further 
allusion to the ^op.^v\io9, as a-nvhv ckitm/jio, may be discovered in the 
mention of iKTria/xa /le'ya in Sympos. 213 E. Since Antisthenes seems 
to have devoted a good deal of attention to the subject of /^e'^i;', one 
is inclined to suppose that his views are alluded to in Sympos. (176, 
213-14); and another allusion to him may be found in the mention 
of the ■xpy)(TToi o-o<^to-Tai who eulogized Heracles (177 b), since Heracles 
was, notoriously, the patron-saint of the Oynics^. However much they 
might differ on other points, Plato and Isocrates were agreed in so far 
as both found the Cynic leader an objectionable person. 

(/) A significant indication is given us at the conclusion of the 
Prologue that the account of the speeches which follows is not an 
exhaustive account, but only a selection. And it is a selection that 
has been sifted twice. For Apollodorus states (178 a) that neither did 
Aristodemus remember all the views put forward by every speaker, nor 
did he (Apollodorus) remember all that Aristodemus had related. This 
statement is further confirmed by the later statement (180 c) that 
Aristodemus passed over the discourses of several speakers who 
followed next after Phaedrus. We are to infer, therefore, that there 
was a good deal of speechifying at the banquet which was not afto- 
fivrjfwvevTov. But why Plato is at pains to emphasize this point is 

' So Hug {Sympos. ad loc.) following Sanppe and Blasa: also Jebb, Att. Or. ii. 
99. I may note here an inconsistency as to the date of Polycrates' " Accusation " in 
Jebb, Att. Or. i. 150-51 compared with ib. xlv: in the latter place it is set in 
393 B.C. 

^ In this Dummler {Ahad. p. 66) follows Winckelmann {Antisth. fr. p. 21). 
Polycrates, however, may be alluded to as well as Antisthenes, as the terms of the 
reference are wide (4X\o roiaCra avxi>£) ; moreover, a close relation may have existed 
between these two writers. 

' See Dummler, Antisthenica, pp. 17 ff. 

' See Gomperz, G. T. ii. p. 151 ; Diimmler, Akad. p. 66. 



xxii INTRODUCTION 

not wholly clear. It may, of course, be merely a literary device 
meant to enhance the verisimilitude of the account, since the speeches 
actually related might be thought insufficient to occupy the length of 
time supposed to elapse between the end of the Sciin'ov and the hour 
of Alcibiades' arrival — which would probably not be early. It is 
possible, however, that we should look for a deeper reason. If so, 
may not the intention be to brush aside and discredit other speeches 
stated by another author' (aA\os rts, 172 b) to have been delivered on 
this occasion? 

(C) The Interludes. 

The first Interlude, worthy of the name, occurs between the second 
and third encomia (185 c — e), and it is noticeable, first, for the 
reference to the "isology" of the rhetorical sophists; secondly, for 
the device by which the natural order of speakers is changed (Eryxi- 
machus taking the place of Aristophanes) ; and thirdly, for the alleged 
cause which renders such a change necessary, namely the hiccough 
(Xvy^) of Aristophanes. As regards the significance of this last matter 
considerable diversity of opinion exists among the commentators. Of 
the ancients, Olympiodorus {vit. Plat. 3) supposed that Plato here 
eK(ii/xaiS)ja-£ 'ApicrTO<f)dvr] when he eio-ayei airov [itra^ Xvyyl irepiTreaoi/Ta 
KOI /xij Swa/xcvov irXripaiaai tov v/jlvov : and similarly Athenaeus (187 c) 
writes tov ixiv irrb njs Xvyyos o;^Xov/«.£i'oi'...Kai/x(iiS£tv rjOeXe koI Siatrvpeiv : 
and ArLstides (or. 46, II. p. 287), a\X' oT/xai Xv^eiv airov eSei, iva tis 
airXrjo-Ttai' a-Kii><l>6y. Of the moderns, some have followed the ancients 
in supposing that the incident is meant to satirize Aristophanes and 
his intemperate habits (so Stallbaum, Ruckert, Steinhart) ; while some 
(Stephens, Sydenham, Wolf, Schwegler) take the object of the ridicule 
to be not so much the habits of the poet as his speech with its 
"indelicate ingredients." On the other hand, Schleiermaclier held the 
view that Eryximachus with his " physiological and medical notion of 
love " is here being satirized ; while Ast — whose view is shared in the 
main by Hommel, van Prinsterer and Rettig — argued that the real 
object of the ridicule is Pausanias, by whose speech Aristophanes 
implies that he has been "fed up" to the point of loathing. This 
view Rettig thinks is supported by the phrase Havaavtov iravo-a/xo/ou, 
which he takes to indicate Apollodorus' ridicule, — by the allusion made 
by Aristophanes to Pausanias' speech in 189 o, — and by his mention 
of Pausanias again in 193 b; and he construes the hint of another 

1 See above, § ii. A, adfm. 



INTRODUCTION xxiii 

possible cause (jj vtto tivos aWou, 185 c) as "affording the key to the 

hidden meaning of the word ■n-Krja-iJi.ovij." This view, however, is open 

to the objections (urged by Riickert against Ast) that, first, it makes 

Aristophanes guilty of excessive rudeness in feigning a hiccough to 

show his disgust ("aliud est in convivio iocari, aliud in scena," e.g. 

Nvh. 906 ff., Ach. 585 ff., the places cited by Rettig) ; and that, further, 

there is no plain sign that the hiccough was feigned, but on the 

contrary the whole incident is stated by Aristodemus as matter-of-fact. 

It seems safe, therefore, to conclude that the most obvious view — 

that of the ancients — is nearest to the truth. The incident shows up 

Aristophanes in a ludicrous light, and at the same time it gives further 

occasion to Eryximachus to air his medical lore ; so that we can read 

in it the intention of satirizing gently both these personages. But to 

construe it as aimed at Pausanias is far-fetched and improbable : he is 

already disposed of in the satirical reference to sophistical " isology " ; 

and to discover a fresh allusion to him in the " other cause " of the 

hiccough is to discover a mare's nest, for — as the Scholiast ad loc. 

informs us — other physical causes of this symptom were as a matter 

of fact recognized by the medical profession, and it is only polite on 

the part of Aristodemus to leave the matter open. 

The second Interlude (189 a — c) and the third (193 d — 194 e) call 
for no special remark. 

The fourth Interlude (198 A— 199 c), which follows on the speech 
of Agathon, is linked to the third both by a remark which Socrates 
addresses to Eryximachus, and also, at the close, by his appeal to 
Phaedrus (cp. 199 b with 194 d). Here, in even a greater degree than 
in the previous Interludes, Socrates is the central figure of interest, 
and this position he continues to hold throughout the rest of the 
dialogue. This Interlude, indeed, may be regarded as one of the 
cardinal points of the structure, in which the First Act, as we may 
term it, passes on into the Second ; and in the Second Act we reach 
at length the theoretical climax, in the doctrine of Socrates-Diotima. 
To this climax the present Interlude, wherein is laid before us Socrates' 
confession of rhetorical faith, serves as prologue. 

The fifth Interlude (212 c — 215 a) is by far the longest and, as 
regards the action of the piece, the most important. For it introduces 
a new actor, and he a protagonist, in the person of Alcibiades. The 
contrast is striking between the prophetess in her soaring flights to the 
heavenly places of the spirit and the tipsy reveller with his lewd train 
who takes her place in claiming the attention of the audience. The 



xxiv INTRODUCTION 

comic relief which, in the earlier scenes, had been supplied by Aristo- 
phanes, as ycXtoTOTToios, is now supplied by Alcibiades. We should 
notice also how a link with the Second Act is furnished here, at the 
commencement of the Third Act, by the mention of an attempt by 
Aristophanes to reply to an observation made by Socrates in the 
course of his speech. But apart from this, the rest of the speakers 
and banqueters are left out of account except only Agathon, Socrates 
and Eryximachus. The action of the last of these here is parallel to 
his action at the commencement of the First Act where he had taken 
the lead in fixing the rules for the conduct of the symposium. As 
regards Agathon and Socrates, the most important incident in this 
Interlude is the decision concerning their contest in a-o^ia which is 
pronounced by Alcibiades, when, acting the not inappropriate part 
of Dionysus, he awards the crown to Socrates, — an incident to the 
significance of which we have already (§ ii. B, C) drawn attention. 

Of the Epilogue or concluding scene (222 c — end) it is unnecessary 
to say much. The persons that figure most largely in it are the three 
central characters, Alcibiades, Agathon and Socrates ; while towards 
the close the rest of the characters receive, as it were, a farewell notice. 
When the curtain finally falls, it falls significantly on the solitary figure 
of Socrates, the incarnation of the Eros-daemon, behind whom in his 
shadow stands the form of his erastes, the "shadow "-biographer Aristo- 
demus. 

§ iii. The First Five Speeches. 

1. Phaedrus, son of Pythocles, belonged to the Attic deme 
Myrrhinus. Lysias describes him as "impoverished" in circumstances, 
but respectable. In the Protagm-as he is represented as a disciple of 
Hippias ; while in the Phaedrus — named after him — his chief charac- 
teristic is his ardent interest in erotic oratory (Xoyot ipuiTiKoC), a 
specimen of which, by Lysias, he has learnt almost completely by 
heart. It is, then, in accordance with this character that we find 
Phaedrus, in the Symposium, made responsible for the theme of the 
series of speeches (viz. eiraivo^ 'Epcoros, 177 d), and entitled TrarTip toC 
\6yov. We may gather also from certain indications contained both 
in the Phaedrus and in the Symposium that Phaedrus was neither 
physically strong nor mentally vigorous'. The ostensibly prominent 

' See Phaedr. 227 a, Symp. 176 o, 223 b, and, generally, his cultivation of 
medical friends. Also the probable word-play in the deme-name Mvppiyoiaios, 
Symp. 176 d, riiaedr. 244 a. 



INTRODUCTION xxv 

position iiHsigiicil to sueli a nuiii in tlio Symposium is inoro natural if 
we assume that it is due to the desire to make him a link between this 
dialogue and the Phaedrus^. 

Phaedrus's speech, although not without merit in point of simplicity 
of style and arrangement, is poor in substance. The moral standpoint 
is in no respect raised above the level of the average citizen; the speaker 
pays little regard to consistency, and the method of argument, with its 
want of logical coherence, savours much of the sophists. As examples 
of this self-contradiction we may point to the statement that Achilles, 
as younger than Patroclus, must be iraiStKa not ipacrrrj^, whereas 
Alcestis, though younger than Admetus, is treated as the ipwcra, not 
the Iprnft-ivri ; we may point also to the other inconsequence, that the 
self-sacrifice of Achilles, the iraiStxa, is cited in support of the con- 
tention that oi cpcofTts jxovoi are capable of such self-sacrifice. The 
arbitrary handling of the Orpheus myth is another striking illustration 
of the sophistic manner. 

What is, however, most characteristic of the speech of Phaedrus is 
its richness of mythological allusion. Lacking, it would seem, in native 
force of intellect, Phaedrus relies upon authority and tradition. He 
quotes Hesiod and Homer, Acusilaos and Parmenides : he builds his 
argument, such as it is, on the sayings of " them of old time,'' and on 
the legendary histories of the son of Oeagrus and the daughter of 
Pelias ; and when he can confute Aeschylus on a point of mythology 
his joy is great. As a lover of religious tradition, we may credit 
Phaedrus with a capacity for genuine religious feeling; certainly, in 
his r6le as high-priest of Eros, on the present occasion, he shows a 
strict regard for ritual propriety when he rebukes Socrates for inter- 
rupting the service of speech-offerings to the god (194 d)''. 

In point of literary style we may notice the following features : — 

(a) liJietorical ornamentation: chiasmus (178 d), paronomasia 
(179 c), special compound verbs {ayaa-Oivres 179 C, virepayaa-Oevre^ 
180 A; ixTroOavtiv 179 E, virepaTroOaveiv, liranoBaviiv 180 a) ; 

> Cf. P. Grain, p. 7: Vera causa, our Plato sermonis in Symposio Phaedrum 
parentem praedioaverit, haec mihi videtur esBe : rediens ad eas cogitationes quas in 
Pbaedro dialogo instituerat, eundera quoque auctorem coUoquii reduxit. 

2 Hug sums up the position of Phaedrus thus (p. xlvi) : " Phadros stellt den 
gewohnlichen athenischen Burger dar, den eine rastlose Neugierde zu den rhetori- 
schen und philosophischen Kreisen hindrangt, der da und dort etwas aufschnappt 
und sioh aneignet, jedoch ohne tieferes Verstandnis, aber mit desto grosserem 
Selbstbewusstsein." Cp. Jowett (Plato i. p. 528): "The discourse of Phaedrus is 
half-mythical, half-ethical; and he himself.. .is half-sophist, half-enthusiast." 

B. P. C 



xxvi INTRODUCTION 

(b) Monotony of expression {ovTe...ovTe 178 c (4), 178 D (2); 
0UTa)S...aJS 178 D (2), 0VT(i)...tua-T£ 179 A, C, TO(TovTOV...<acrTe 179 C; 
Ktti iJLriv...ye 179 A, BJ ovToi xai 179 D, roiydpTOi Sto, ravra 179 D, oOtv 
Br) KOL 180 a) ; 

(c) Anacolutha : 177 A (oi huvov kt\.), 179 a (koi /x'^j'...oi)t(o 

KOKOS). 

2. Of Pausanias, of the deme Yiepafirj's, little is known beyond 
■what we are told in this dialogue' and in Xenophon's Symposium, 
where also he appears as notorious for his love for the tragedian 
Agathon. Xenophon represents Pausanias as a vigorous champion of 
TraiSepadTia^ and Plato here assigns to him a similar rfile, although 
he paints the fashion of the man in less crude colours. 

The speech of Pausanias is a composition of considerable ability. 
Although, like Phaedrus, he starts by grounding his conception of 
the dual Eros on mythological tradition, yet when this conception is 
once stated the distinction is maintained and its consequences followed 
out with no little power of exposition. The manner in which the laws 
regarding iraiSepaa-Tia in the various states are distinguished, and in 
special the treatment of the complex Athenian voixoi, display the 
cleverness of a first-rate pleader. The general impression, in fact, 
given us by the speech is that it forms an exceedingly smart piece 
of special pleading in favour of the proposition KaXbv ipaa-raU x"P'" 
t,€<TOai. The nakedness of this proposition is cloked by the device of 
distinguishing between a noble and a base Eros, and by the addition 
of the saving clause aperrji iveKa^. None the less, it would seem that 
the speaker's main interest is in the x"-P^i^"'^"-h rather than in the 
accruing apcri;, and that he is fundamentally a sensualist, however 
refined and specious may be the form in which he gives expression 
to his sensualism. 

Pausanias is a lawyer-like person in his style of argumentation ; 
and, appropriately enough, much of his speech is concerned with vofwi. 

^ He is also mentioned in Protag. 315 d. 

'" Xen. Symp. viil. 32 d7ro\o70i)yite>'os iirep t&v dxpaal^ (rvyKvXLuSov/iii'ui'. 

3 We must, of course, bear in mind that, as Jowett puts it (Plato, vol. i. 
p. 529), "the value which he attributes to such loves as motives to virtue and 
philosophy, (though) at variance with modern and Christian notions, is in accord- 
ance with Hellenic sentiment." Nor does the Platonic Socrates, in the sequel, fail 
to take account of them. For some judicious observations on the general question 
of the Gk. attitude to paederastia, see Jowett, op. cit. pp. 534 fi. ; Gomperz, Gk. 
Thinkers (E. Tr.) ii. pp. 380 ff.; for Eros in Gk. religion, see Miss J. E. Harrison, 
Prolegom. pp. 630 ff.; for Plato's and Xenophon's theories of Love, see I. Bruns, 
Vortriige etc., pp. 118 ff.; P. Grain, pp. 23 ff. 



INTRODUCTION xxvii 

The term is noteworthy, since it inevitably suggests that antithesis 
vdjuos )( ^wis which was so widely debated among the sophists and 
thinkers of the close of the fifth century. Is the moral standard fixed 
by nature (<^u<ret) or merely by convention (vo'/iu) 1 This was one form 
of the question ; and closely connected with this was the other form : 
Is knowledge absolute or relative? Pausanias poses as a conven- 
tionalist, and a relativist, a champion of law as against nature (irao-a 
irptt^ts avT^ €<^' kaVTtjs ovre Kakr/ ouTe al(j-)^pd) ; and this is of itself 
sufficient to show that, in Plato's eyes, he is a specimen of the results 
of sophistic teaching. 

Nor is it only in his adoption of this principle of moral indifference, 
as we might call it, and in his capacity tov ^ttw \6yov KpetTTO) Troteii/, 
that Pausanias stands before us as a downright sophist; his argumenta- 
tion also is chargeable with the sophistical vices of inconsistency and 
self-contradiction \ For example, with what right, we may ask, does 
Pausanias condemn the vo/aoi of other states than Athens regarding 
TToiSepatrTia, while laying down to i/d/xi/iiov as the standard of morality ? 
For such a distinction necessarily involves reference to another, superior, 
standard ; whereas, by his own hypothesis, no such standard exists. 
Again, the section on the koX^ diraT-q (181 sf.) stands out in curious 
contradiction with the section immediately preceding, in which fidelity 
and sincerity (to pipaiov) are put forward as the necessary conditions 
of a love that is fair (KaXds) and irreproachable (ovk €7rov£i8«7Tos). 

In literary style the speech of Pausanias displays, in a much higher 
degree than that of Phaedrus, the tricks and ornaments proper to the 
sophistical schools of rhetoric. Thus we find : — 

Paronomasia: tpya ipya^oixevio 182 B; SouXttas SovXevfiv 183 A j 
Trpa.TT£iv TTjv trpd^iv 181 A, cp. 183 B. 

Alliteration : lOiXovrei hovXtia^ SovXeueiv oias ou8 av SovXos ouSets 
(X, 8, o, ov). 

Rhythmic correspondence of clauses and periods {tvpv6ix.ia., to-dxuXa) : 
This is an important feature of Greek rhetoric", the invention of which 
is ascribed to Thrasymachus ; and it is especially characteristic of the 
style of Isocrates'. The following examples (as formulated by Hug) 

1 So Jowett {Plato i. p. 529) writes: "(The speech of Pausanias) is at once 
hyperlogical in form and also extremely confused and pedantic." 

2 Cp. Ar. Rhet. in. 9, 1409* 25 X^|is KaTcffrpa/J./iii'iii Kal bixola tois t&v ipxalwy 
iroiTjTWV &VTia'Tp6^oti. 

3 A good example occurs in Helena 17: 

TOV fUv iirlnovov xal tpiKoKliiSvvov rbv piov /car^o-Tijtre 
TTJs di irepljSXeiTToi' Kal irepi/idx'/roi' riiv tpitriv irolrjfre. 

c2 



INTRODUCTION 



will serve to indicate the extent to which Fausanias makes use of these 
artifices: — 

(1. TrScra yap TrpSfis 0)8' £X"' 
2. avT'^ i<l> iavTq'i, 
3. ovre KaXij out alaxpoi. 



II. 



III. 



4. otov o vvv iJ/icT? iroiovnev, 

5. ^ irivuv rj aSeiv ^ SiaXiytcr6<u, 

6. ouK Ictti tovtojv avTO KttXoi' ouSec, 



9. 



dW iv T]g Trpa^ei, 
(OS av TrpayO^, 
roiovTov aTrlprj- 



10. Ka\(lj$ juei/ yap irpaTTOfJi.evov Kol opdus KaXoi' •ytyi'CTai, 

11. /i.'^ opdmi Si alcr^pov, 
IV. -(12. ovr(i> KOI TO ipav Kai 6 'Epojs ou ttSs eo-Ti /caXos oiJSe a^ios 

13. aWa 6 Ka\b)s TTpoTpiiriov ipav. [180 K ad Jin. — 181 A.] 

Here we have four TrepioSoi of wliich the first three are TpiKioXoi, the 
fourth T£TpaK(i)Xos : in the three TpocuXoi, the KiSXa of each are approxi- 
mately equal ; while in the TerpaKioKos, long and short K<3A.a alternate. 

Other instances of strophic correspondence are 184 d — e, ISSaAF. 
(see Hug ad loo.). 

3. JSryximaehus, son of Akumenus, is like his father a physician 
and a member of the Asclepiad guild (186 e); he is also a special friend 
of Phaedrus (177 a). Alcibiades alludes to Akumenus as " the most 
temperate sire'' of Eryximachus, and he is mentioned also by Xenophon 
as an authority on diet. The same "temperance" (a-uxjtpotrvvr]) is a 
marked characteristic of Eryximachus in our dialogue : he is the 
champion of moderation in drinking (176 b If., 214 b), and when, near 
the close, the revellers enter and the fun waxes fast and furious, 
Eryximachus, together with his comrade Phaedrus, is the first to 
make his escape (223 b). Another characteristic of the man is his 
pedantic manner. He is incapable of laying aside his professional 
solemnity even for a moment, and he seizes every possible occasion to 
air his medicinal lore, now with a lecture on fitOri (176 d), presently 
with another on \vy$ (185 D, e). 

Scientific pedantry is, similarly, the characteristic of Eryximachus's 
speech. He starts with a conception of Eros as a cosmic principle, from 



INTRODUCTION xxix 

the standpoint of natural philosophy^ This conception he applies and 
developes with equal rigour in the spheres of medicine, music, astronomy 
and religion, so that definitions of a precisely parallel kind for each of 
these departments are evolved. The dogmatic manner appears also in 
his treatment of the dictum of Heraclitus (187 a), which corresponds 
to the treatment of Aeschylus by his friend Phaedrus. He resembles 
Phaedrus also in his fondness for displaying erudition : he knows his 
Empedocles and his Hippocrates^, as well as the experts in musical 
theory. 

The theory of the duality of Eros Eryximachus takes over from 
Pausanias, but he naturally finds a difficulty in applying this concept 
to other spheres, such as that of music, and in attempting to elude the 
difficulty he falls into the sophistical vices of ambiguity and incon- 
sistency. E.g. in 187 D the reference of Sci xo-pt^^c&a-i- is obscure ; and, 
in the same context, the substitutions of tj Ovpavia MoCcra for 'Ai^poSiTjy 
Ovpavia and of IloXu/ti'ia for 'A(t>poSiTrj lla'fSTj/xos are arbitrary'''. 

As regards literary style there is little to notice in the speech, 
beyond its plainness and lack of ornament. The monotony of ex- 
pression (seen, e.g., in tlie recurrence of such formulae as cctti 8^ 187 b, 
eo-Tt yap 187 c, etrri 8e 187 d) marks it as the product of a pedantic, 
would-be scientific mind, in which literary taste is but slightly de- 
veloped and the ruling interest is the . schematization of physical 
doctrines. 

4. Aristophanes. The greatest of Greek comic poets, the author .--. 
of the Clouds, was a pronounced anti-Socratic. None the less, Plato ,' '" - 

' Of. Eurip. fr. 839 rijv 'A<fipoStTitv oix opifs Sarj 6e6s; \ ^k oi5S' fty efirois, oiSe 
//.e-^p^ffCMS B.V I H(Tii ni^vKe Kaif) o(rov diipxerat. \ ...ipg, fiiv o/i^pov yat',...ip^ S' 6 -■ 
irefivis oipavis kt\. ^ ' 

" Pfleiderer {Sokr. u. Plato, pp. 551 ff.) broaches the theory that Eryx.'a speech 
is intended as a parody of (Pseudo-) Hippocr. jrepl SmIttis, and that the real author 
of that work was Eryx. himself. There are, certainly, a number of similarities, 
but hardly sufficient to prove the case. Obviously, it is a parody of the style of 
some one or more medical writers, but more than that cannot safely be said: some 
Hippocratean parallels in matters of detail will be found in the notes. See also my 
remarks on the next speech (Aristophanes'). Teuffel drew attention to the etymo- 
logical significance of the name {ipvU-frnxos); this, however, cannot be an invention 
of Plato's, although it may partly account for the introduction of the Xi^yf incident. 
' The doctrine of Love as a harmony of opposites, which plays so large a part 
in Bryx.'s discourse, may be illustrated from Spenser (" Hymn to Love") : 
"Ayre hated earth and water hated fyre, 
Till Love relented their rebellious yre. 
He then them tooke, and, tempering goodly well 
Their contrary dislikes with loved meanes, 
Did place them all in order," etc. 



XXX INTRODUCTION 

paints him here in no dark colours, but does justice to his mastery of 
language, his fertility of imagination, his surprising wit, his hearty 
joviality. In contrast to the puritanism of the pragmatical doctor, 
Aristophanes appears as a man of strength to mingle strong drink, 
who jokes about his "baptism" by liquor (176 b), and turns the 
scientific axioms of the "man of art" to ridicule (189 a). His r61e is, 
in fact, throughout that of a yeXmro-iroios (189 a), and he supplies the 
comic business of the piece with admirable gusto'. Yet the part he 
plays is by no means that of a vulgar buffoon : he is poet as well as 
jester, — a poet of the first magnitude, as is clearly indicated by the 
speech which Plato here puts in his mouth. 

That speech is a raastei-piece of grotesque fantasy worthy of 
Rabelais himself. The picture drawn of the globular four-legged 
men is intensely comic, and the serious manner in which the king 
of gods and men ponders the problem of their punishment shows a 
very pretty wit. Their sexual troubles, too, are expounded with 
characteristic frankness. And it is with the development of the sex- 
problem that we arrive at the heart of this comedy in miniature, — 
the definition of Eros as " the craving for wholeness " {tov o\ov 
(TTidv^uLa 192 e). 

This thought, which is the final outcome of the speech, is not 
without depth and beauty^ It suggests that in Love there is some- 
thing deeper and more ultimate than merely a passion for sensual 
gratification ; it implies that sexual intercourse is something less than 
an end in itself. But Aristophanes, while suggesting these more 
profound reflexions, can provide no solid ground for their support; 
lie bases them on the most portentous of comic absurdities. Here, 
as so often elsewhere in the genuine creations of the poet, we find 
it difficult to determine where iraLZid ends and o-ttouSij begins'. How 
far, we ask ourselves, are the suggestions of an idealistic attitude 
towards the problems of life seriously meant? Does the cloke of 
cynicism and buffoonery hide a sincere moralist ? Or is it not rather 
the case that the mockery is the man, and the rest but a momentary 

' Cp. Plut. Q. Conv. VII. 7. 710 o liK&Tiav Si tAk t' 'Api<rTo4>dvovs Myoy ircpl toO 
ipti}TOi (hs Kti}fi(f}dlav ip.^i^'K'qKiv els rd avfiirbfriov. 

'^ Op. Zeller (?i. on 192 o ff. dXV dXXo ti, ktX.) "Diese Stelle, in weloher der 
ernsthafte Grundgedanke unserer Stelle am Deutlichsten zu Tage kommt, gehort 
wohl zu dem Tiefsten, was von alten Sohriftstellern iiber die Liebe geaagt ist." 

' See Jevons, Hist, of Gh. Lit. pp. 258 fl. for some judicious oritiolsms of the 
view that "behind the grinning mask of comedy is the serious face of a great 
political teacher." 



INTRODUCTION xxxi 

disguise? Certainly, the view maintained by Rettig that the chief 
purpose of Aristophanes is to impugn TraiSepaa-TLa, and to preach up 
legitimate matrimony as the only true form of love and the sole road 
to happiness, is a view that is wholly untenable. And while we may 
acknowledge with Horn {Platonstvd. p. 261) that the speech of Aristo- 
phanes marks a great advance upon the previous \6yoi, in so far as it 
recognizes the difficulty of the problem presented by the phenomena 
of Eros and looks below the surface for a solution, — yet how far we 
are intended to ascribe this sagacity on the part of the speaker to 
superior reasoning ])ower rather than to a lucky inspiration {6iia 
/Aotpg.) is by no means clear. 

In connexion with this question aa to the design of the speech 
there is one point which seems to have been generally overlooked by 
the expositors, — the topical character, as we might term it, of its main 
substance. This appears, obviously enough, in the jesting reference 
(193 b) to the love-affairs of Pausanias and Agathon; and obvious 
enough too are the allusions to Eryximachus and his much-vaunted 
"art" in the mention made, both at the beginning (189 d) and at 
the end (193d), of the healing power of Love, the good "physician." 
But in addition to these topical allusions which sautent aux yeux, 
we are justified, I think, in regarding the great bulk of the discourse 
as being neither more nor less than a caricature of the physiological 
opinions held and taught by the medical profession of tlie day. The 
Hippocratean tract irepi (jfruo-ios oAiQpw-Kov is sufficient evidence that 
there raged in medical circles a controversy concerning the unity or 
multiplicity of man's nature : the author of the tract was himself 
an anti-unity man and assailed with equal vigour the views of all 
opponents, whether the unity they stood for was ai/ia or xoky\ or 
<j)\€yiJLa — ev yap ti ttvai (}>a(nv, on cKatrTos avrtoiv jBovXerai oi/oju.atras, 
Kol TovTo ev iov fjLiTaWd(7<Tiiv TTjv ISirjv kol t^j/ 8vvap.iv. To this con- 
troversy Aristophanes, we may suppose, alludes when he speaks of 
man's dp^^aia c^wis, which was a unity until by the machinations of 
Zeus it became a duality. But with this theory of primeval unity 
of nature the poet combines a theory of sex-characteristics. And, 
here again, even more definitely, we can discover traces of allusion 
to current physiological doctrines. Aristophanes derives the different 
varieties of sex-characters from the bisection of the three primitive 
oA.a, viz. ijsCKavSpoi women and <j>i\oyvvaiKfi men from the dvSpoyvvov, 
KJyiKoyvvaiKe^ women (iTaipia-Tptai) from the original 6-^\v, and (^tXai/Spoi 
men from the original dpptv. Thus we see that Aristophanes analyses 



y 



xxxii INTRODUCTION 

existing sex-characters, classifies them under two heads for each sex, 
and explains them by reference to a three-fold original. If we turn 
now to Hippocrates irepl SiatTijs (co. 28 f.) we find there also a theory 
of "the evolution of sex." Premising that the female principle is akin 
to water and the male to fire, the writer proceeds thus : " If the bodies 
secreted by both parents are male (a/oo-£i'a)...they become men {avBpes) 
brilliant in soul and strong in body, unless damaged by after regiment 
(i.e. by lack of irjpuiv koX Oepfitiiv o-itidv, etc.). If, however, the body 
secreted by the male parent is male and that by the female female, and 
the male element proves the stronger... then men are produced, less 
brilliant (Xafiirpol), indeed, than the preceding class, yet justly deserving 
of the name of 'manly' (dvSpeioi). And again, if the male parent 
secretes a female body and the female a male body, and the latter 
proves the stronger, the male element deteriorates and the men so 
produced are ' effeminates ' (avSpoyvvoi). Similarlj'- with the generation 
of women. When both parents alike secrete female elements, the most 
feminine and comely women (BrjXvKdraTa kul eviftvecnaTa) are produced. 
If the woman secretes a female, the man a male body, and the former 
proves the stronger, the women so produced are bolder (Opao-vTepaL) but 
modest (KoV/niat). While if, lastly, the female element prevails, when 
the female element comes from the male parent and the male element 
from the female, then the women so produced are more audacious (to\- 
IxripoTipai) than the last class and are termed 'masculine' (ai/Spciat)." 

Here we find the sex-characters arranged under three heads for 
each sex, and explained by reference to four originals, two from eacli 
parent. Obviously, this theory is more complicated than the one which 
Aristophanes puts forward, but in its main lines it is very similar. 
According to both the best class of men is derived from a dual male 
element, and the best class of women from a dual female element 
(although the poet is less complimentary than the physician in his 
description of this class). The similarity between the two is less close 
in regard to the intermediate classes ; for while Aristophanes derives 
from his dvSpoyvvov but one inferior class of men and one of women, 
Hippocrates derives from various combinations of his mixed (OrjXv + 
dpa-(v) secretions two inferior classes of both sexes. Yet here, too, 
under the difference lies a consentience in principle, since both theorists 
derive all their inferior sex-characters from a mixed type. 

We may iuiagine, then, that Aristophanes, having before his mind 
some such physiological theory as this, proceeded to adapt it to his 
purpose somehow as follows. Suppose we take the male element latent, 



INTRODUCTION xxxiii 

as the Hippocrateatis tell us, in each sex, combine them, and magnify 
them into a concrete personality, the result will be a Double-man. 
A similar imaginative treatment of the female elements will yield us 
a Double-wife. While, if — discarding the perplexing minutiae of the 
physiological combinations assumed by the doctors — we take a female 
element from one parent and blend it with a male element from the 
other, and magnify it according to our receipt, we shall thereby arrive 
at the Man-wife as our third primeval personality. Such a treatment 
of a serious scientific theory would have all the effect of a caricature ; 
and it is natural to suppose that in choosing to treat the matter in this 
way Aristophanes intended to satirize the theories of generation and 
of sex-evolution which were argued so solemnly and so elaborately by 
the confreres of Eryximachus. 

If in tliis regard the topical character of the speech be granted, 
one can discern an added point in the short preliminary conversation 
between Aristophnnes and Eryximaclius by which it is picfacod. The 
latter gives a warning (189 a — b) that he will be on the watch for any 
ludicrous statement that may be made ; to which the former replies : 
" I am not afraid lest I should say what is ludicrous (yeXoia) but rather 
what is absurd (KarayeXao-Ta)." In view of what follows, we may con- 
strue this to mean that Aristophanes regards as KarayiXacrTa theories 
such as those of Eryximachus and his fellow-Asclepiads. Moreover, 
this view of the relation in which Aristophanes' speech stands to the 
treatises of the medical doctrinaires — of whom Eryximachus is a 
type — -helps to throw light on the relative position of the speeches, 
and on the incident by which that position is secured and emphasized. 
For unless we can discover some leading line of connexion between the 
two which necessitates the priority of the medico's exposition, the 
motive for tlie alteration in the order of the speeches must remain 
obscure. 

It may be added that the allusions in 189 e (see notes ad loc.) to 
the evolutionary theories of Empedocles confirm the supposition that 
Aristophanes is directly aiming the shafts of his wit at current medical 
doctrines ; the more so as Empedocles shares with Hippocrates the 
view that the male element is hot, the female cold, and that the 
offspring is produced by a combination of elements derived from both 
parents. Other references to Empedocles may be discerned in the 
mention of Hephaestus (192 d) who, as personified Fire, is one of 
Empedocles' "four roots," and in the mention of Zeus (190 c), another 
of the "roots"; and the fact that these two deities play opposite 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION 

parts, the one as bisector, the other as unifier, is in accordance with 
Empedoclean doctrine. Also the statement that the moon "partakes 
of both sun and earth" (190b) is, in part at least, Empedoclean. 

In point of style and diction, the speech of Aristophanes stands 
out as an admirable piece of simple Attic prose, free at once from the 
awkwardness and monotony which render the speeches of Phaedrus 
and Eryximachus tedious and from the over-elaboration and artificial 
ornamentatioi\ which mar the discourses of Pausanias and Agathon. 
In spite of occasional poetic colouring — as, e.g., in the finely-painted 
scene between Hephaestus and the lovers (192 cff.)— the speech as a 
whole remains on the level of pure, easy-flowing, rhytiimical prose, in 
which lucidity is combined with variety and vivacity of expression. 

5. Agathon, the tragic poet, if born in 448 B.C., would be a little 
over thirty at the date of the Symposium (416). He was the TratSixa 
of Pausanias (193 b), and a man of remarkable beauty as well as of 
reputed effeminacy'. He appears in the dialogue as not only a person 
of wealth, position and popularity, but a man of refinement, education 
and social tact. The banquet itself is given by him to a select company 
of his friends in honour of his recent victory in the tragic contest, and 
throughout the dialogue he is, formally at least, the central figure — 
both as host and as victor, and, what is more, as the embodiment of 
external KaXXos alike in his person (elSos) and in his speech (Xdyoi). 
His graceful politeness to his guests never varies, even when Socrates 
sharply criticises his oration, or when Alcibiades transfers the wreath 
from his head to that of Socrates (213 e); he himself shares in the 
admiration for Socrates, welcomes him most warmly and displays the 

' Ar. Thesm. 191-2 ai/ 5' edirpStruiros, \€vk6s, i^vprifi^vo^t 
yvvaiK6(j>tavoi, airaKos, einrpeiTTjs Ideiv. 

ib. 200 fi. Kal [xtiv ffO y, w Kardirvyov, eupO-TrpuKTos et 

oi) Tois \iyounv, d\\4 Tois ira9i)naaLV, ktK 

And Mnesilochus' comments on Agathon's speech aud womanish appearance 
in 130 ff. lis r)bi rb ni\os, w irdryiai TevervWiSei, 

Kal dtjXvdpLwSes Kal Karey'SwrrLa/iitfoi', kt\. 

In estimating the value of Aristophanes' abuse of his oontemporary — in the 
case of Agathon as in the case of Euripides — we must malte due allowance for Ar.'s 
comic style. As Jevons well observes (Hist, of Gk. Lit. p. 274): "In polemics, as 
in other things, the standard of decency is a shifting one. Terms which one age 
would hesitate to apply to the most abandoned villain are in another century of 
such frequent use as practically to be meaningless.. ..The charges of immorality 
which Ar. brings against Eur. and his plays are simply Ar.'s way of saying that on 
various points he totally disagrees with Eur." Probably the same holds good of his 
treatment of Agathon. 



INTRODUCTION xxxv 

utmost jubilation when Socrates promises to eulogize him (223 a). 
Finally, his consideration is shown in the social Kaprepia with 
which he sticks to his post, drinking and talking, till all his 
guests, except Socrates, have either left or succumbed to drowsiness 
(223 d). 

In his speech Agathon claims that he will improve on the method of 
his predecessors. In his attention to method he is probably taking 
a leaf out of the book of Gorgias, his rhetorical master and model. 
Besides the initial distinction between the nature and eflFects of Eros, 
another mark of formal method is his practice of recapitulation : at the 
close of each section of his discourse he summarises the results'. In 
his portrait of the nature of Eros — his youth, beauty, suppleness of 
form and delicacy of complexion — Agathon does little more than 
formulate the conventional traits of the god as depicted in poetry and 
art. His attempts to deduce these attributes are mere naiSid (197 e), 
pieces of sophistical word-play. Somewhat deeper goes his explanation 
of the working of Eros upon the soul, as well as the body ; but the 
thought that Eros aims at the beautiful (197 b) is his most fruitful 
deliverance and the only one which Socrates, later on, takes up and 
developes^. 

We may observe, further, how Agathon, like Phaedrus, indulges in 
mythological references, and how — like most of his predecessors (cp. 
180 D, 185 b) — he makes a point of criticising and correcting the views 
of others (194 e, 195 b). Cp. Isocr. Busir. 222 b, 230 a. 

In style and diction the speech of Agathon gives abundant evidence 
of the influence of the school of Gorgias, especially in the preface 
(194 E — 195 a) and in the 2nd part (197 c — b). Thus we find repeated 
instances of : — 

' See 195 e, 190 c, d, 197 c; and cp. Gorg. Hel. (e.g.) 15 itai on iiei/...ovK iiUKTiafv 
iXX i)Tix'ilCf'>, ctpriTai- tV 5e Terdpriji' alrlav T(f reripTip \6yti> Sii^eiiu. Cp. Blass, 
att. Bered. p. 77. 

^ Jowett is somewhat flattering when he writes {Plato i. p. 531) : " The speech 
of Agathon is conceived in a higher strain (sc, than Aristophanes'), and receives the 
real if half-ironical approval of Socrates. It is the speech of the tragic poet and a 
sort of poem, like tragedy, moving among the gods of Olympus, and not among the 
elder or Orphic deities.. ..The speech may be compared with that speech of Socrates 
in the Phaedrus (239 a, d) in which he describes himself as talking dithyrambs.... 
The rhetoric of Agathon elevates the soul to ' sunlit heights '." One suspects that 
" the approval of Socrates " is more ironical than real. Agathon's speech belongs 
to the class condemned by Alcidamas, de Soph. 12 oi rots dud/juuriv dxpi/Sus i^apyair- 
ixivoi KoL fiSXKov iroiiiimaiv ti \6yoi.s ioiKbm: cp. ib. 14 i.vi.yKti...Ta. i>iv iwoKplaa Kal 
jta^jiuSlf TTapair\-f)aia SoKeiv ehai. 



xxxvi INTRODUCTION 

Short parallel Kola^ with homoeoteleuton : e.g. 194 E l\yti> St 8^ | 
PovkofxaL I irpoiTov fiev elvelv | oSs )(pT] fie ibreLV | tTreira eiTreii' : 197 D 
aXkoTpiorrjTos fitv Kivol, oiKetdrijTos Si 7r\ijpot. 

Homoeoteleuton and assonance : e.g. t£v dyaOiSv cSi/ o dtoi avTois 
amos (194 e); rpoTros op^os 7rai'Tos...7repi 7ravTos...oros <tDV> oiwi' airtos 
cov (195 a); ■TrdvTuiv Otiav «iJSai/iovo)i' oi/todv (195 a). 

These rhetorical artifices are especially pronounced in the concluding 
section, as is indicated by the sarcastic comment of Socrates (198 b to 
8' eTTi reXevr^s, ktX.) ; in fact, the whole of this section is, as Hug puts 
it, a " formliche Monodie.'' Another feature of A.'s style is his fondness 
for quotation, especiallj' from the poets (196 c, e, 196 a, 197 b), and his 
tendency to break into verse himself — iirepxerai Se fioi rt koi l/ijuerpov 
tbrciv (197 c). He has no clear idea of the limits of a prose style, as 
distinguished from verse ; and the verses he produces are marked by 
the same Gorgianic features of assonance and alliteration. In fine, we 
can liardly describe the general impression made on us by the style of 
Agathon better than by adapting the Pauline phrase — " Though he 
speak with the tongues of men and of angels, he is become as sounding 
brass or a tinkling cymbaP." 



§ iv. Socrates and Diotima. 

To Socrates it falls to deliver the last of the encomia on Eros. This 
is no mere accident, but artistically contrived in order to indicate 
the relative importance of his encomium as the climax of the series. 
In form and content, as well as in extent, it holds the highest place, 
although to its speaker is assigned the ea-xa.Tr] kXivij. 

(A) The substance and form of Socrates' Xoyot. 

(a) The encomium proper is preceded by a preliminary dialectical 
discussion with Agathon, the object of which is to clear the ground of 
some popular misconceptions of the nature of Eros. The notion of 
Eros, it is sliown, is equivalent to that of Desire (£p(i)9 = To tViOu/toJii') 

> Distinguiah this from the more Isocratean style of the speech of Fausauias 
with its more developed f<ro and eipuOfula of periods. Cp. Aristoph. frag. 300 xal 
KUT 'A.yi.Bwv' ivrlBerov i^vfnmivov , " shaved Agathon's shorn antithesis." 

' Horn summarises thus (Platonat%ul. p. 264): "Die gauze Bede mit ihrem 
auspruchsvoUen Eingang, ihrem nichtigen Inhalt, ihren wolklingenden Phraseu und 
Sophismeu und insbesondere mit dem grossen Schlussfeuerwerke von Antithesen 
und Assonanzen ist demnach uichts anderes als ein mit grosser Qeschicklichkeit 
entworfenes Musteratiick der.,.gorgianisch-aophistischen Bhetorik." See also the 
rhythmic analysis (of 195 o fi.) worked out by Blass, Rhythmen, pp. 76 ft. 



INTRODUCTION xxxvii 

— a quality, not a person. And the object of this Desire is the 
beautiful (to KaXov), as had been asserted by Agathon (201 A — b). 
That Socrates refuses to embark on an eulogistic description of Eros 
without this preliminary analj'sis of the meaning of the name serves, at 
the start, to diiferentiate his treatment of the theme from that of all 
the preceding speakers : it is, in fact, an object-lesson in method, an 
assertion of the Platonic principle that dialectic must form the basis of 
rhetoric, and that argument founded on untested assumptions is 
valueless. 

(b) The speech proper begins with a mythological derivation of 
Eros, in which his conflicting attributes as a Saiixwv — a being midway 
between gods and men — are accounted for by his parentage. Eros is 
at once poor, with the poverty of Desire which lacks its object, and 
rich, with the vigour with which Desire strives after its object. And 
in all its features the Eros of Socrates and Diotima stands in marked 
contrast to the Eros of conventional poetry and art, the divine Eros of 
Agathon. 

Eros is defined as Desire and as Daemon ; and, in the next place, 
its potency' is shown to lie in the striving after the everlasting 
possession of happiness. But Eros implies also propagation in the 
sphere of beauty. It is the impulse towards immortality — the impulse 
displayed alike by animals and by men, the ground of parental love 
towards both physical and mental (<f>i,\oTifiia) offspring. 

But when we arrive at this point, the question suggests itself as to 
how, more precisely, these different determinations of Eros are related 
to one another. What is the link between Eros defined as " the desire 
for the abiding possession of the good " and Eros defined as " the desire 
for procreation in the beautiful " 1 The former conception involves a 
desire for abiding existence, in other words for immortality, inasmuch 
as the existence of the possessor is a necessary condition of possession ; 
while the latter also involves a similar desire, inasmuch as procreation is 
the one means bj' which racial immortality can be secured. Thus the 
link between the two conceptions of Eros is to be found in the implicit 
notion common to both that Eros is the striving after immortality or 
self-perpetuation. But there is another point to be borne in mind in 
order to grasp clearly the connexion of the argument. The beautiful 
includes the good (rdyaBa KoXa 201 c) ; so that the desire for the good 
is already, implicitly, a desire for the beautiful (and vice versa). 

' I.e. its generic notion (cZvai, tA Kc^iXatov 205 d) as distinguished from the 
specific limitation ((taXeifffloi 205 0, 206 b) to sex-love. See W. Gilbert in Philologus 
Lxviii. 1, pp. 52 ff. 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION 

Thus the main results of the argument so far are these : Eros is the 
striving after the lasting possession of the Good, and thereby after 
immortality ; but immortality can be secured only through procreation 
(tokos), and the act of procreation requires as its condition the presence 
of Beauty. We are, therefore, led on to an examination of the nature 
of Beauty, and it is shown that beauty is manifested in a variuty of 
forms, physical, moral and mental — beauty of body, of soul, of arts and 
sciences, culminating in the arch-science and the Idea of absolute 
Beauty. Accordingly the Erastes must proceed in upward course' 
from grade to grade of these various forms of beauty till he finally 
reaches the summit, the Idea. On the level of each grade, moreover, 
he is moved by the erotic impulse not merely to apprehend the kuXov 
presented and to appreciate it, but also to reproduce it in another : 
there are two moments in each such experience, that of " conception " 
(kvjjo-is) or inward apprehension, and that of " delivery " (tokos) or 
outward reproduction. 

The emphasis here laid on the notion of reproduction and delivery 
(ti'ktciv, yivvav), as applied to the intellectual sphere, deserves special 
notice. The work of the intelligence, according to the Socratic method, 
is not carried on in solitary silence but requires the presence of a 
second mind, an interlocutor, an answerer of questions. For the 
correct method of testing hypotheses and searching out truth is the 
conversational method, " dialectic," in which mind cooperates with 
mind. The practical illustration of this is to be seen in Socrates 
himself, the pursuer of beautiful youths who delights in converse with 
them and, warmed by the stimulus of their beauty, \dyovs toioijtovs 
TiKTti oiTivts iroHjo'ovo-t jScXtious tovs veoDs (210 c). 

(c) As the conception of Eros as a striving after the Ideal pursued 
not in isolation but in spiritual fellowship (Koivwvta) constitutes the core 
of the Socratic exposition, so the form ©/"that exposition is so contrived 
as to give appropriate expression to this central conception. It com- 
mences with a piece of dialectic — the conversation between Socrates 
and Agathon. Agathon is the embodiment of that KaWos which here 
stimulates the epao-Tjjs in his search for truth : it is in Agathon's soul 
(iv koKS) that Socrates deposits the fruits of his pregnant mind. In 
much, too, of the exposition of Diotima tlie semblance, at least, of 
intellectual Kounavi-a. is retained, illustrating the speaker's principle of 
philosophic co-operation. Thus the speech as a whole may be regarded 

' It is interesting to observe how Emerson makes use of this Platonic "anabasis" 
when he writes: — "There is a climbing scale of culture.. .up to the ineffable 
mysteries of the intellect." 



INTRODUCTION xxxix 

simply as a Platonic dialogue in miniature, which differs from the 
average dialogue mainly in the fact that the chief speaker and guiding 
spirit is not Socrates but another, and that other a woman. If asked 
for a reason why Socrates here is not the questioner but the answerer, 
a sufficient motive may be found in the desire to represent him as 
a man of social tact. Socrates begins by exposing the ignorance of 
Agathon : next he makes the amend honourable by explaining that he 
had formerly shared that ignorance, until instructed by Diotima'. 

(B) Diotima and her philosophy. 

(1) Diotima. Diotima is a fictitious personage. Plato, no doubt 
purposely, avoids putting his exposition of Eros into the mouth of any 
historical person : to do so would be to imply that the theory conveyed 
is not original but derived. It is only for purposes of literary art that 
Diotima here supplants the Platonic Socrates : she is presented, by 
a iiction, as his instructor, whereas in facts he merely gives utterance 
to his own thoughts. These thoughts, however, and this theory are, by 
means of this fiction, represented as partaking of the nature of divine 
revelation ; since in Diotima of Mantinea we find a combination of two 
significant names. The description yvvif MavTii'iKi; inevitably implies t 
the " mautic " art, which deals with the converse between men and i 
gods of which to Sai/idi/tov, and therefore the Eros-daemon, is the 
mediating agent (202 e) ; while the name AioTi/xa, " She that has 
honour from Zeus," suggests the possession of highest wisdom and 
authority. This is made clear by the r61e assigned to Zeus and his 
servants in the Phaedrus : 6 /aci/ 8-^ /i.eya's -^yt/jt-iav IvovpavQ Zci)s...wp(3Tos 
TTopiViTai, ktX. (246 e) J oi ixiv 8^ ovv Alos SioV Tiva eivat t^ijTOvcri Tr/v 
i/fu^^f Tov v<l>' avTwv ipm/iLfvov' CKOiroviTiv ovv el <j>iXo<70<l>o<; re koI 
r'/ytfjioviKO^ Tr/v ffivcriv Kai.,.Trav Troiowo'ti' ojro>s toioCtos ccrrat, ktX. (252 E ff.). 
The characteristics of Zeus, namely guiding power (i^yefjiovia) and 
wisdom (o-o<^ia), attach also to his on-aSot: consistently with this 
Diotima is a-ofjiij (201 d), and " hegemonic " as pointing out the opOrj 
oSo's to her pupil, and guiding him along it in a masterful manner 
(210 A ff., 211 Bff.)". 

1 Cp. Jowett (Flato i. p. 527): "As at a banquet good manners would not allow 
him (Soor.) to win a victory either over his host or any of the guests, the superiority 
which he gains over Agathon is ingeniously represented as having been already 
gained over himself by her. The artifice has the further advantage of maintaining 
his accustomed profession of ignorance (cp. Menex. 236 fol.)." 

'^ Gomperz's suggestion (G.T. ii. p. 396) that "the chief object of this etherea- 
lized affection " which Plato had in mind when " in the teaching (of Diotima) he 



xl INTRODUCTION 

In the person of Diotima, " the wise woman," Plato offers us — in 
Mr Stewart's phrase — "a study in the prophetic temperament' "; she 
represents, that is to say, the mystical element in Platonism, and her 
discourse is a blend of allegory, philosophy, and myth. As a whole it 
is pliilosophical : the allegory we find in the imaginative account of the 
parentage and nature of Eros, as son of Poros and Penia ; the mythical 
element appears in the concluding portion, in so far as it " sets forth in 
impassioned imaginative language the Transcendental Idea of the SouP." 
And as in tfie allegory the setting is derived from current religious 
tradition, so in the myth the language is suggested by the enthusiastic 
cult of the Orphics. It may be well to examine somewhat more 
closely the doctrine of the prophetess on these various sides. 

(2) Diotima's allegory. The first point to notice is the artistic 
motive for introducing an allegory. It is intended to balance at once 
the traditional derivations of the God Eros in the earlier speeches, and 
the grotesque myth of Aristophanes. Socrates can match his rivals in 
imagination and inventive fancy. It also serves the purpose of putting 
into a concrete picture those characteristic features of the love-impulse 
which are subsequently developed in an abstract form. And, thirdly, 
the concrete picture of Eros thus presented allows us to study more 
clearly the features in which Socrates, as described by Alcibiades, 
resembles Eros and embodies the ideal of the philosophic character. 

In the allegory the qualities which characterise Eros are fancifully 
deduced from an origin which is related in the authoritative manner of 
an ancient theogony. The parents of Eros are Poros and Penia. 
Poros is clearly intended to be regarded as a God (203 b oi 6eoi, oT tc 
a\Aoi Ktti 6...no'pos) : he attends the celestial banquet and drinks nectar 
like the rest. The nature of Penia is less clearly stated : she cannot 
be a divine being according to the description of the divine nature as 
ivSaifiuiv and possessing TayaOa. koi koKo. given in the context preceding 
(202 c ff.) ; and the list of the qualities which she hands down to her 
son Eros shows that she is in all respects the very antithesis of Poros. 
We must conclude, therefore, that as Poros is the source of the divine 
side of the nature of Eros, so Penia is the source of the anti-divine side ; 
and from the description of Eros as Satju.ui', combined with the definition 
of TO ia.Lii.ovwv as jiitrafv Oiov re Koi Ovtjtov (202 e), we are justified 

gave utterance to his own deepest feeling and most intimate experience " was Dion 
of {Syracuse would supply, if admitted, a, further significance to the name Diotima. 

1 J. A. Stewart, The Myths of Vlato, p. 428. 

'^ J. A. Stewart, loc. cit. 



INTRODUCTION xli 

in identifying this anti-divine side with mortality, and in regarding 
i; Ilei'ia as a personification of 7; Ovrirr] <^rj(r«^. It is interesting here to 
notice that Penia had already been personified by Aristophanes in his 
Plutus, and personified as one member of an antithesis'. 

In the description of Poros, the father of Eros, it is significant that 
he is stated to be the son of Mijtw. The idea of Plenty (IIopos) had 
already been personified by Alcman, whether or not the Scholiast 
ad loc. is correct in identifying that Poros with the Hesiodic Chaos. 
And the idea of Wisdom (M^tis) also had played a part, as a personified 
being, in the speculations of the theogonists. For it seems, at least, 
probable that the Orphic theologians had already in Plato's time 
evolved the equation Phanes = Ericapaeus = Metis', and that here as 
elsewhere in the language of Diotima there lie allusions to the doctrines 
of that school of mystics. 

Of the incidental details of the allegory, such as " the garden of 
Zeus " where the intercourse between Penia and Poros took place 
and the intoxication of Poros which led up to that intercourse, the 
Neoplatonic commentators, as is their Wont, have much to say. But 
we may more discreetly follow Zeller and Stallbaum in regarding such 
details as merely put in for purposes of literary effect, to fill up and 
round off the story. Poros could never have fallen a victim to the 
charms of Penia, since she had none ; nor could Penia ever have hoped 
to win over Poros by persuasion or force, he being endowed with the 
strength and wisdom of a god. Obviously, therefore, the god must be 
tricked and his senses blinded — as in the case of the sleeping Samson 
or of the intoxicated Noah — that the woman might work her will upon 
him. Nor need we look for any mystical significance in. 6 tov Aios 
jc^TTos. The celestial banquet would naturally be held in the halls of 
the King of the gods; that a king's palace should have a park or 
garden attached is not extraordinary ; nor is it more strange that one 

' So Plotinus is not far astray when he equates ireula with BXij, matter, potency 
{Enn. III. p. 299 r). 

" Cp. Plato's U6pos )( Jlmla with Ar.'s IIXoCtos ){ Uevla: also the description of 
TTToixeio as intermediate between ttXoCtos and irevla in Plut. 552 with the description 
of Bros as intermediate between irSpos and irepla in Synvp. 203 e (aire aropu "Epiat 
olire TrXouT-ei). Cp. also Plut. 80 ft. {riXouTos...oi>x/''I''' /3a5(fets) with Symj). 203 C 
("Bpois aixu.rtp6s). The date of the Plutus is probably 388 B.C. 

Such pairs of opposites were common in earlier speculation. Cp. Spenser, 
" Hymn in Honour of Love " : — 

" When thy great mother Venus first thee bare, 
Begot of Plentie and of Pennrie." 

' Plato's mention of a single parent of Poros is in aecordanoe with the Orphic 
notion of Fhanes-Metis as bisezed. 

B. P. d 



^ 



xlii INTRODUCTION 

of the banqueters, when overcome with the potent wine of the gods, 
should seek retirement in a secluded corner of the garden to sleep off 
the effects of his revels. 

More important than these details is the statement that the celestial 
banquet was held in celebration of the birth of Aphrodite, so that the 
begetting of Eros synchronized with the birthday of that goddess. The 
narrative itself explains the reason of this synchronism : it is intended 
to account for the fact that Eros is the "attendant and minister" of 
Aphrodite. Plotinus identifies Aphrodite with "the soul," or more 
definitely with "the soul of Zeus" (Zeus himself being o vovi), but 
it seems clear from Plato's language that she is rather the personifica- 
tion of beauty ('A<^po8iTj;s Kakrjs ovo-jjs 203 c). 

As regards the list of opposite qualities which Eros derives from his 
parents, given in 203 c — e, there are two points which should be 
especially observed. In the first place, all these qualities, as so derived, 
are to be regarded not as merely accidental but inborn (^wet) and 
forming part of the essential nature of Eros. And secondly, each of 
these characteristics of Eros, both on the side of his wealth and 
on the side of his poverty, has its counterpart— as will be shown 
presently' — in the characteristics of Socrates, the historical embodiment 
of Eros. 

Lastly, we should notice the emphasis laid on the fluctuating 
character of Eros, whose existence is a continual ebb and flow, from 
plenitude to vacuity, from birth to death. By this is symbolised the 
experience of the </)tXoKa\os and the <^i\ocro<^o9, who by a law of their 
nature are incapable of remaining satisfied for long with the temporal 
objects of their desire and are moved by a divine discontent to seek 
continually for new sources of gratification. This law of love, by which 
TO TTopi^o/xecov del vireKpei, is parallel to the law of mortal existence by 
which TO. /xiv (aei) yiyvtrai, to. 8i diroXXvTai (207 D ff.) — a law which 
controls not merely the physical life but also the mental life (emflu/ittai, 
iTTia-Trjfiai, etc.)". Accordingly, the Eros-daemon is neither mortal nor 
immortal in nature (TretftvKtv 203 k), neither wise nor foolish, but 
a combination of these opposites — croc^os-afia^j/s and ^i-jjTos-a^avaTos — 
and it is in virtue of this combination that the most characteristic title 
of Eros is <l>i\6a-otf)oi (which implies also <j>i.X.-a6avaa-ia.). 

(3) Diotima'ss Philosophy. The philosophic interest of the 

1 See § vi. 3. 

■^ For an expansion in English of this thought see Spenser's " Two Cantos of 
Mutabilitie " (F. Q. vii.). 



INTRODUCTION xliii 

remainder of Diotima's discourse (from 204 A to its end) lies mainly 
in the relations it affirms to exist between Eros and certain leading 
concepts, viz. the Good, Beauty and Immortality. 

(a) The Problem of Immortality. Enough has been said already 
as to determination of these various concepts as expounded in the 
earlier part of the discourse (up to 209 e). But the concluding section, 
in which " the final mysteries " (to, Te\£a kol eiroirTiKo) are set forth, calls 
for further investigation. We have already learnt that Eros is " the 
desire for procreation in the sphere of the beautiful with a view to 
achieving immortality " ; and we have found also that, so far, all the 
efforts of Eros to achieve this end have been crowned with very 
imperfect success. Neither by way of the body, nor by way of the 
mind, can " the mortal nature " succeed, through procreation, in 
attaining anything better than a posthumous permanence and an im- 
mortality by proxy. We have to enquire, therefore, whether any 
better result can be reached when Eros pursues the opO-^ 68os under the 
guidance of the inspired iraiSaywyo's. The process that goes on during 
this educational progress is similar in the main to what has been 
already described. Beauty is discovered under various forms, and the 
vision of beauty leads to procreation ; and procreation is followed by a 
search for fresh beauty. But there are two new points to observe in 
the description of the process. First, the systematic method and 
regularity of procedure, by which it advances from the more material 
to the less material objects in graduated ascent. And secondly, the 
part played throughout this progress by the activity of the intellect 
(voSs), which discerns the one in the many and performs acts of 
identification (210 b) and generalisation (210 c). Thus, the whole 
process is, in a word, a system of intellectual training in the art of 
dialectic, in so far as it concerns to KaXov. And the end to which it leads 
is the vision of and converse with Ideal Beauty, followed by the pro- 
creation of veritable virtue. It is to be observed that this is expressly 
stated to be not only the final stage in the progress of Eros but the 
most perfect state attainable on earth by man (to tcX.os 211 b, ivraWa 
Tov /3iov ^twTOV dvOpiuTTW 211 D, T€KovTi...in-apx«' 6io<l>i\Ei yivivOai 212 a). 
But the question remains, does the attainment of this state convey also 
personal immortality? It must be granted that this question is 
answered by Plato, as Horn points out, somewhat ambiguously, "To 
the man who beholds the Beautiful and thereby is delivered of true 
dptTTj it is given to become ^eo<^tX>7s and to become dda.va.To% — to him 
cwrep TM aWio avOpunruiv " : but in this last ^clause there still lies 



xliv INTRODUCTION 

a possible ground for doubts We cannot gain full assurance on the 
point from this sentence taken by itself ; we must supplement it either 
by other indications derived from other parts of Diotima's argument, or 
by statements made by Plato outside the Symposium. Now it may be 
taken as certain — from passages in the Fhaedrus, Phaedo and Republic 
— that personal immortality was a doctrine held and taught by Plato. 
It is natural, therefore, to expect that this doctrine will be also taught in 
the Symposium ; or, at least, tliat the teaching of the Symposium will not 
contravene this doctrine. And this is, I believe, the case, in spite of 
a certain oracular obscurity which veils the clearness of the teaching. 
"When we recal the statement that the generic Eros, as inherent in the 
individual, aims at the " everlasting possession " of the good as its reXos, 
and when we are told that the £po)TiKos-^iA.oo-o<^os at the end of his 
progress arrives at the "possession" {KTrjfji.a) of that specific form of 
Good which is Beauty, and finds in it his tcXos, and when emphasis is 
laid on the everlastingness (dei ov) of that possession, then it is reason- 
able to suppose that the dOavaa-ta of tlie cpurtKos who has reached this 
goal and achieved this possession is implied. It is to be noticed, 
further, that the phrase here used is no longer /x«t«xe' tov dOavdrov nor 
ddava.TuiTip6<i icrri but dOdvaro'S iyeveTo. Nor does the language of the 
clause iLirep T(j) aXXo) necessarily convey any real doubt : " he, if any 
man '' may be simply an equivalent for " he above all," " he most 
certainly^." The point of this saving clause may rather be this. The 
complete philosopher achieves his vision of eternal Beauty by means of 
voJs (or avTT] ij </'>'X'?)> *^ *''® proper organ <S bparov to Ka\ov (212 a) : it 
is in virtue of the possession of that immortal object that he himself 
is immortalised : and accordingly immortality accrues to him not qua 
avdpunroi SO much as qua voijTiKOi or AoytKos. In other words, while in 
so far as he is an dvOpioTros, a ^i^ov, a oXov compounded of two diverse 

1 See F. Horn, Platonstud. pp. 276 ft. Horn also criticises the phrase idavaros 
ycviadai: "die Unsterblichkeit im eigcntlichen Sinne des Wortes...kanu nicht 
erworben werden. Der Mensoh kann nur unsterblich sein oder es nicht sein, er 
kann aber nicht unsterblich werden." But what Plato means by iffdv. yeviaBiu. ia 
to regain the life of the soul in its divine purity — the result of right education, as a 
K&Safxrii or ixeKhrj Bavirov. See J. Adam, R. T. O. pp. 383 ff. 

It seems quite certain that Plato— whether or not in earnest with his various 
attempts to prove it — did believe in personal immortality, and would assent to the 
dictum of Sir Thoa. Browne, " There is surely a piece of divinity in us, something 
that was before the elements, and owes no homage unto the sun." 

" See my note ad loc. It is to be noticed that similar expressions are used in 
a similar context in Phaedr. 253 a {iipaTT6iJ.eiioi (0eov)...Kae' Saov Swarhv 6eo0 
&v8ptlnrtf ixeraffxeiv) : Tim. 90 B, 0. Cp. Bctoi Sv 209 B, Behv KaMf 211 K, 8eoipi\e!: 
212 A. That the Idea {Tiya86i') is oUeiov to the Soul seems implied by 205 e. 



INTRODUCTION xlv 

elements body and soul, the philosopher is not entirely dOdvaToi but still 
subject to the sway of sad mortality, yet in so far as he is a philosopher, 
a purely rational soul, grasping eternal objects, he is immortal. If we 
choose to press the meaning of the clauses in question, such would seem 
to be their most probable significance'. 

Another criticism of this passage suggested by Horn is this. If it 
be true that the philosopher, or epwriKos, does at this final stage attain 
to immortality, this does not involve the truth of the doctrine of 
immortality in general, but rather implies that men as such are not 
immortal and that immortality is the exceptional endowment of a few. 
Here again we must recal the distinction between dvOpunro^ and pure 
xj/vxi] and i/oCs. The soul as immortal is concerned with the objects of 
immortal life". In so far as it has drunk of the waters of Lethe and 
forgotten those objects, in so far as it is engrossed in the world of sense, 
it has practically lost its hold on immortality, and no longer possesses 
any guarantee of its own permanence. Although it may remain, in a 
latent way, in age-long identity, it cannot be self-consciously immortal 
when divorced from a perception of the eternally self-identical objects. 
If we may assume that Plato looked at the question from this point of 
view it becomes intelligible that he might refuse to predicate im- 
mortality of a soul that seems so entirely " of the earth, earthy " that 
the noetic element in it remains wholly in abeyance. 

All that has been said, however, does not alter the fact that 
individual and personal immortality, in our ordinary sense, is nowhere 
directly proved nor even expressly stated in a clear and definite way in 
the Sym/posium. All that is clearly shown is the fact of posthumous 
survival and influence. That Plato regarded this athanasia of personal 
Zivafii^ as an athanasia of personal ova-la, and identified "Fortwirken" 
with " Fortleben," has been suggested by Horn, as an explanation of 
the "ganz neue Begriff der TJnsterblichkeit " which, as he contends, is 
propounded in this dialogue. But it is certainly a rash proceeding to 

' For this notion of immortality by " communion " or "participation" in the 
divine life as Platonic, see the passages cited in the last note, also Theaet. 176 A. 
Op. also the Orphic idea of the mystic as li/Oeos, "God-possessed." This idea of 
supersession of personality by divinity (" not I but Christ that dwelleth in me ") is 
a regular feature of all mystic religion. 

^ In other words, dSarao-te may be used not simply of quantity but of quality of 
existence. This is probably the case in 212 A: "immortality" is rather "eternal 
life " than " everlastinguess," as connoting " heavenliness " or the kind of life that 
is proper to divinities. So, as the " spark divine " in man is the i-oOs, aOavatrla is 
practically equivalent to pure virion. On the other hand, in the earlier parts of the 
discourse the word denotes only duration {Addrarov fTi>ai. = i,el elvai). 



xlvi INTRODUCTION 

go thus to the Sophist — an evidently late dialogue — for an elucidation 
of the problem. A sufficient elucidation, as has been suggested, lies 
much nearer to hand, in the doctrine of the Phaedo and Phaedrus. It 
is merely perverse to attempt to isolate the doctrine of the Symposium 
from that of its natural fellows, or to assume that the teaching of 
Diotima is intended to be a complete exposition of the subject of 
immortality. " Plato," we do well to remember, " is not bound to say 
all he knows in ^ every dialogue"; and if, in the Symposium, he treats 
the subject from the point of view of the facts and possibilities of our 
earthly life, this must not be taken to imply that he has forgotten or 
surrendered the other point of view in which the soul is naturally 
immortal and possesses pre-existence as well as after-existence. 

(6) The Problem of Beauty. A further point of interest in the 
latter section of this discourse is the difllerent value attached to to 
KaXoV in the highest grade of love's progress as compared with the lower 
grades. In the latter it appeared as merely a means to tokos and 
thereby to dOavacrCa ; whereas in the former it seems to constitute in 
itself the final end. Horn, who notices this apparent reversal of the 
relations between these two concepts, explains it as due to the fact 
that in the highest grade Eros is supplanted by Dialectic, or "the 
philosophic impulse," which alone gives cognition of the Idea. But 
if this be so, how are we to account for the use of the term tekoi'ti in 
the concluding sentence, where the attainment of dOavaa-ia is described 
as having for its pre-condition not merely to opav but to t£k«ii' ? This 
is precisely parallel to the language elsewhere used of the action of 
Eros in the lower grades, and precludes the supposition that Eros 
ceases to be operant on the highest grade. The truth is rather that, in 
this final stage, the Eros that is operant is the Eros of pure vovs — 
enthusiastic and prolific intellection, "the passion of the reason." And 
the fact that to Ka\6v in this stage is no longer subordinated to 
dOavaaia as means to end of desire is to be explained by the fact that 
this ultimate raWos being Ideal is dOavarov in itself, so that he who 
gains it thereby gains dOavaa-ia. 

That there are difficulties and obscurities of detail in this exposition 
of the concepts we have been considering may be freely admitted. But 
the line of doctrine, in its general trend, is clear enough, and quite in 
harmony with the main features of Platonic doctrine as expounded in 
other dialogues of the same (middle) period. Nor must the interpreter 
of the dialogue lose sight of the fact that he is dealing here not 
with the precise phrases of a professor of formal logic but with the 



INTRODUCTION xlvii 

inspired utterances of a prophetess, not with the dialectic of a 
Parmehides but with the hierophantio dogmata of the Symposium. 

(c) JEros as Philosophy. The fact that Socrates himself is evidently 
presented in the dialogue as at once the exemplar of Philosophy and 
the living embodiment of Eros might be sufficient to indicate that the 
most essential result of the Socratic discussion of Eros is to show its 
ultimate identity with " the philosophic impulse." Since, however, 
this identification has been sometimes denied, it may be well to 
indicate more particularly how far this leading idea as to the nature of 
Eros influences the whole trend of the discussion. We notice, to begin 
with, the stress laid on the midway condition of Eros, as son of Poros 
and Penia, between wisdom and ignorance, in virtue of which he is 
essentially a philosopher ((^poi/ijcrews iTn6vf».ryrr]<;...^iKoo-o<i>f'i 203Dff.). We 
notice next how the children of the soul (Xdyoi irtpl dptTtj^) are pro- 
nounced superior in beauty to the children of the body (209 c), and 
ao4>La, we know, is one form of dptTij. Then, in the concluding section 
(210 A ff.) we find it expressly stated that xaWos attaches to iirurrijfiai 
(210 c), and that i^iXoa-oi^ia itself is the sphere in which the production 
of KaXol Xoyoi is occasioned by the sight of to ttoXv Tre'Xayos tov 
KaXov. Thus it is clearly implied throughout the discussion that a-oipia, 
as the highest division of apeTij (being the specific aptr^ of voSs), is the 
highest and most essential form of to dyaOov for man ; whence it follows 
that, if Eros be defined as " the craving for the good," this implies in 
the first place the " craving for a-o<j>La," which is but another way of 
stating " the philosophic impulse," or in a word ^iKoa-o^La. 

It must not be supposed, however, that in virtue of this identifica- 
tion the love-impulse (Eros) is narrowed and devitalised. For (^(\ocro<^ia 
is not merely a matter of book-study, it is also a method of life and 
a system of education. In reaching the ultimate goal, which is the 
union of the finite with the infinite in the comprehension of the 
Idea, the man who is driven by the spirit of Eros passes through all 
the possible grades of experience in which Beauty plays a part ; and 
from social and intellectual intercourse and study of every kind he 
enriches his soul. He does not begin and end with what is abstract 
and spiritual — with pure intellection ; nor does he begin and end with 
the lust after sensual beauty : like the Eros-daemon who is his genius, 
the true Erastes is ovTt Brjpiov ovre 6e6% and his life is an anabasis from 
the concrete and the particular beauties of sense to the larger and more 
spiritual beauties of the mind. 

Thus in its actual manifestation in life the Eros-impulse is far- 



xlviii INTRODUCTION 

reaching. And, as already noticed, it is essentially propagative. The 
philosopher is not only a student, he is also, by the necessity of his 
nature, a teacher. This is a point of much importance in the eyes of 
Plato, the Head of the Academy : philosophy must be cultivated in a 
school of philosophy. 

The significance of Eros, as thus conceived, has been finely expressed 
f "" by Jowett (Plato i. p. 532): "(Diotima) has taught him (Socr.) that 
. love is another aspect of philosophy. The same v^ant in the human 
^soul which is satisfied in the vulgar by the procreation of children, may 
become the highest aspiration of intellectual desire. As the Christian 
might speak of hungering and thirsting after righteousness ; or of 
divine loves under the figure of human (cp. Eph. v. 32) ; as the 
mediaeval saint might speak of the ' fruitio Dei ' ; as Dante saw all 
things contained in his love of Beatrice, so Plato would have us absorb 
all other loves and desires in the love of knowledge. Here is the 
beginning of Neoplatonism, or rather, perhaps, a proof (of which there 
are many) that the so-called mysticism of the East was not strange to 
the Greek of the fifth century before Christ. The first tumult of the 
affections was not wholly subdued ; there were longings of a creature 
' moving about in worlds not realised,' which no art could satisfy. To 
most men reason and passion appear to be antagonistic both in idea 
and fact. The union of the greatest comprehension of knowledge and 
the burning intensity of love is a contradiction in nature, which may 
have existed in a far-off primeval age in the mind of some Hebrew 
prophet or other Eastern sage, but has now become an imagination 
only. Yet this 'passion of the reason' is the theme of the Symposium 
of Plato'." 

{d) Eros as Religion. We thus see how to " the prophetic tempera- 
ment" passion becomes blended with reason, and cognition with 
emotion. We have seen also how this passion of the intellect is 
regarded as essentially expansive and propagative. We have next to 
notice more particularly the point already suggested in the words 
quoted from Jowett — how, namely, this blend of passion and reason is 
accompanied by the further quality of religious emotion and awe. We 
are already prepared for finding our theme pass definitely into the 
atmosphere of religion not only by the fact that the instructress is 
herself a religious person bearing a significant name, but also by the 
semi-divine origin and by the mediatorial r61e ascribed to Eros. When 
we come, then, to " the greater mysteries " we find the passion of the 

' See also J. Adam, Religious TeacJiers of Greece, pp. 396 f. 



INTRODUCTION xlix 

intellect passing into a still higher feeling of the kind described by the 
Psalmist as " thirst for God." This change of atmosphere results from 
the new vision of the goal of Eros, no longer identified with any earthly 
object but with the celestial and divine Idea (avroKaXov). Thus the 
pursuit of beauty becomes in the truest sense a religious exercise, the 
efforts spent on beauty become genuine devotions, and the honours paid 
to beautj^ veritable oblations. By thus carrying up with her to the 
highest region of spiritual emotion both erotic passion and intellectual 
aspiration, Diotima justifies her character as a prophetess of the 
most high Zeus; while at the same time we find, in this theological 
passage of the Socratic \oyoi, the doctrine necessary at once to 
balance and to correct the passages in the previous Xo'yot which had 
magnified Eros as an object of religious worship, a great and beneficent 
deity. 

This side of Diotima's philosophising, which brings into full light 
what we may call as we please either the erotic aspect of religion or the 
religious aspect of Eros, might be illustrated abundantly both from the 
writers of romantic love-poetry and from the religious mystics. ' To 
a few such illustrations from obvious English sources I here confine 
myself. Sir Thos. Browne is platonizing when he writes (Eel. Med.) 
" All that is truly amiable is of God, or as it were a divided piece of 
him that retains a reflex or shadow of himself." Very similar is the 
thought expressed by Emerson in the words, " Into every beautiful 
object there enters something immeasurable and divine " ; and again, 
"all high beauty has a moral element in it.'' "Emerson, too, supplies 
us with a description that might fitly be applied to the Socratic Xo'yoi 
of the Symposium, and indeed to Plato generally in his prophetic 
moods, when he defines "what is best in literature" to be "the 
affirming, prophesying, spermatic words of man-making poets.'' To Sir 
Thos. Browne we may turn again, if we desire an illustration of that 
mental phase, so vividly portrayed by Diotima, in which enjoyment of 
the things eternal is mingled with contempt of things temporal. " If 
any have been so happy " — so runs the twice-repeated sentence — " as 
truly to understand Christian annihilation, ecstasies, exolution, lique- 
faction, transformation, the kiss of the spouse, gustation of God, and 
ingression into the divine shadow, they have already had an handsome 
anticipation of heaven ; the glory of the world is surely over, and the 
earth in ashes with them" (IJydriotaphia, ad Jin.). A similar phase 
of feeling is eloquently voiced by Spenser more than once in his 
" Hymns." Read, for instance, the concluding stanzas of the " Hymne 



1 INTRODUCTION 

of Heavenly Love " which tell of the fruits of devotion to the " loving 
Lord " :— 

"Then shalt thou feele thy spirit so possest, 

And ravisht with devouring great desire 

Of his deare self... 

That in no earthly thing thou shalt delight, 

But iu his sweet and amiable sight. 
"Thenceforth all worlds desire will in thee dye, 

And all earthes glorie, on which men do gaze, 

Seeme durt and drosae in thy pure-sighted eye, 

Compar'd to that celestiall beauties blaze,... 
"Then shall thy ravisht soule inspired bee 

With heavenly thoughts farre above humane skil, 

And thy bright radiant eyes shall plainely see 

Th' Idee of his pure glorie present still 

Before thy face, that all thy spirits shall fill 

With sweete enragement of celestiall love, 

Kindled through sight of those faire things above." 

From Plato, too, Spenser borrovirs the idea of the soul's " anabasis " 
through lower grades of beauty to " the most faire, whereto they all do 
strive," which he celebrates in his " Hymne of Heavenly Beautie." A 
few lines of quotation must here suffice : 

"Beginning then below, with th' easie vew 
Of this base world, subject to fleshly eye, 
From thence to mount aloft, by order dew. 
To contemplation of th' immortall sky.... 

" Thence gathering plumes of perfect speculation. 
To impc the wings of thy high flying mynd, 
Mount up aloft through heavenly contemplation, 
From this darke world, whose damps the soule do blynd, 
And, like the native brood of Eagles kynd. 
On that bright Sunns of Glorie fixe thine eyes, 
Clear'd from grosse mists of fraile infirmities." 

These few "modern instances" may be sufficient to indicate in brief 
how the doctrines of Plato, and of the Symposium in special, have 
permeated the mind of Europe. 

The doctrine of love in its highest grades is delivered, as we have 
seen, by the prophetess in language savouring of " the mysteries," 
language appropriate to express a mystical revelation. 

On the mind of a sympathetic reader, sensitive to literary nuances, 
Plato produces something of the effect of the mystic ^eyyos by his 
TO iroXri 7r«\ayos tov koKov and his e^at<^vijs Karoij/fTai tl OaviiacTTOv ktK, 
Such phrases stir and transport one as " in the Spirit on the Lord's 
day " to heavenly pi aces " which eye hath not seen nor ear heard " ; 



INTRODUCTION li 

they awake in us emotions similar to those which the first reading of 
Homer evoked in Keats : 

" Then felt I like some watcher of the skies 
When a new planet swims into his ken; 
Or like stout Cortes when with eagle eyes 
He stared at the Pacific. ..Silent, upon a peak in Darien." 



§ V. Alcibiades and his Speech. 

Alcibiades was about 34 years old at this time (416 B.C.), and at the 
height of his reputation'. The most brilliant party-leader in Athens, 
he was a man of great intellectual ability and of remarkable personal 
beauty, of which he was not a little vain. It was, ostensibly at least, 
because of his beauty tliat Socrates posed as his "erastes"; while 
Alcibiades, on his side, attempted to inflame the supposed passion of 
Socrates and displayed jealousy whenever his " erastes '' showed a 
tendency to woo the favour of rival beauties such as Agathon. Other 
indications of Alcibiades' character and position which are given in the 
dialogue show him to us as a man of wealth, an important and popular 
figure in the smart society of his day, full of ambition for social and 
political distinction, and not a little influenced, even against his better 
judgment, by the force of public opinion and the on dit of his set. 
With extraordinary naivety and frankness he exposes his own moral 
infirmity, and proves how applicable to his case is the confession of the 
Latin poet, " video meliora proboque, deteriora sequor." He is guilt- 
less, as he says, of pudency, nor would ever have known the meaning 
of the word " shame " (ato-xwi;) had it not been for Socrates. 

Yet, totally lacking in virtue though he be, the Alcibiades of the 
Symposium is a delightful, even an attractive and lovable person. 
Although actually a very son of Belial, we feel that potentially he is 
little short of a hero and a saint. And that because he possesses the 
capacity for both understanding and loving Socrates ; and to love 
Socrates is to love the Ideal. Nominally it is Socrates who is the 
lover of Alcibiades, but as the story developes we see that the converse 
is more near the truth : Alcibiades is possessed with a consuming 
passion, an intense and persistent infatuation for Socrates. And in 

1 "The character of Alcibiades, who is the same strange contrast of great 
powers and great vices which meets us in history, is drawn to the life " (Jowett, 
Plato I. p. 526). 



lii INTRODUCTION 

the virtue of this "eros" we find something that more than outweighs 
his many vices: it acts as the charity that "covers a multitude of sins." 

The speech of Alcibiades, in spite of its resemblance in tone to a 
satyric drama composed under the influence of the Wine-god, fulfils a 
serious purpose — the purpose of vindicating the memory of Socrates 
from slanderous aspersions and setting in the right light his relations 
with Alcibiades'. And as a means to this end, the general theme of 
the dialogue, Eros, is cleverly taken up and employed, as will be shown 
in a later section^. 

In regard to style and diction the following points may be noticed. 
In the disposition and arrangement there is a certain amount of 
confusion and incoherence. Alcibiades starts with a double parable, 
but fails — as he confesses — to work out his comparisons with full 
precision and with logical exactitude. This failure is only in keeping 
with his role as a devotee of Dionysus. 

Frequency of similes : 216 a wcnrep oLtto twv ^eiprjvuiv: 21 7a to tou 
Sr]x6evT0i . . .wddoi : 218 B K£Kotv<i)i'if/caT£.../8aK;^£tas. 

Mliptical expressions : 215 A, c; 216 u, D, e; 220 c, d; 221 D; 222 B. 

Anacolutha: 217 e; 218 a. 



§ vi. The Order and Connexion of the Speeches. 

Disregarding the introductory and concluding scenes and looking 
at the rest of the dialogue as a whole, we see that it falls most 
naturally into three main divisions, three Acts as we might call them. 
In the First Act are comprised all the first five discourses; the Second, 
and central. Act contains the whole of the deliverances of Socrates; 
the Third Act consists of Alcibiades' encomium of Socrates*. We have 
to consider, accordingly, how each of these Acts is related to the 
others; and further, in regard to the first, we have to investigate the 
relative significance of each of its five sub-divisions or scenes. 

1. The first five speeches and their relative significance. 
Plato's own opinion of the earlier speeches appears clearly enough 
in the criticism which he puts in the mouth of Socrates (198 off.). 

' See Introd. § ii. (A) ad fin.; and Gomperz, G. T. ii. pp. 394 ft". 

^ See Introd. % vi. 3, where some details of the way in which Aleib. echoes the 
language of the earlier speakers will be found. 

^ Eettig and von Sybel make the First Act conclude with Arist.'s speech, and the 
Second Act begin with Agathon's : but that this is a perverse arrangement is well 
shown by P. Horn, Platonst. p. 254 (op. Zeller, Sijmp.). 



INTRODUCTION liii 

Although that criticism is aimed primarily at the discourse of Agathon, 
it obviously applies, in the main, to the whole series of which his 
discourse formed the climax. Instead of endeavouring to ascertain 
and state the truth about the object of their encomia — such is the gist 
of Socrates' criticism — the previous speakers had heaped up tlieir 
praises regardless of their applicability to that object (198 e adinit.). 
What they considered was not facts but appearances (ottus lyKiaixid^eiv 
So^ei); consequently they described both the nature of Eros and the 
effects of his activity in such terms as to make him appear — in the 
eyes of the unsophisticated — supremely good and beautiful, drawing 
upon every possible source (198 e — 199 a). 

It thus seems clear that Plato intends us to regard all the first five ' 
^ speeches as on the same level, in so far as all alike possess the common 
■^defect of aiming at appearance only (So^a), not at reality (aKijOtia), in 
■virtue of which no one of them can claim to rank as a scientific 
contribution (iiria-T-^fji,r]) to the discussion. 

The relative order of tlie first five speeches. The question as to the 
principle upon which the order and arrangement of these speeches 
depends is an interesting one and has given rise to some controversy. 

(a) It has been suggested {e.g. by Eotscher) that the speeches are 
arranged in the order of ascending importance, beginning with that of 
Phaedrus, which is generally admitted to be the slightest and most 
superficial, and proceeding gradually upwards till the culminating 
point is reached in the speech of Agathon'. This view, however, is 
untenable in the face of the obvious fact that Agathon's speech is in 
no real sense the best or most important of the series; rather, from the 
point of view of Socrates, it is the worst. The fact that each speaker 
commences his oration by a critique of his predecessor might seem, at 
first sight, to lend some colour to the view that each was actually 
making some improvement, some advance; but this preliminary 
critique is plainly nothing more than a rhetorical trick of method ^ 

(b) Steinhart' would arrange the speeches in pairs, distinguishing 
each pair from the others according to the special spheres of the activity 
of Eros with which they deal. Phaedrus and Pausanias deal with the 

• Cp. Susemihl, Genet. Entwick. d. plat. Phil. p. 407 : " So bildet denn der 
Vortrag des Sokrates den eigentlicheu theoretiechen Mittelpunkt des Werkes, die 
iibrigen aber mit dem Alkibiades eine aufateigende Stufenreihe." 

^ Observe also how, in 193 b, Eryx. characterizes the first four speeches as 
iroXXi Kal TravToSaird, " motley and heterogeneous." 

' Similarly Deinhardt, Ubei- Inhalt von PI. Symp. 



liv INTRODUCTION 

ethical sphere; Eryximachus and Aristophanes with the physical; 
Agathon and Socrates with the higher spiritual sphere. 

This scheme, however, is no less artificial, although it contains 
some elements of truth ; and a suihcient ground for rejecting it lies in 
the fact that the speech of Socrates cannot be classed along with the 
other five'- 

(c) Hug's view is that the speeches are arranged from the aesthetic, 
rather than the logical, point of view, in groups of two each. The 
second speech in each of the groups is, he holds, richer in content than 
the first ; and the groups themselves are arranged witli a view to 
contrast and variety. But here again, little seems gained by the 
device of pair-grouping; and the development within the groups is 
obscure. Hug, however, is no doubt correct in recognizing that the 
arrangement of the speeches is governed mainly, if not entirely, by 
artistic considerations, and with a view to literary effect; and that an 
artistic efifect depends largely upon the presence of variety and of 
contrast is beyond dispute. 

(d) Any satisfactory explanation of the order in which the 
speeches are arranged must be based upon the internal indications 
supplied by the dialogue itself. 

The first inference to be drawn from such indications is this : the 
speech of Socrates must be left to stand by itself, and cannot be 
grouped with any one of the first five speeches". This is made quite 
evident by the tone of the whole interlude (198 a — 199 c) which 
divides Agathon's discourse from that of Socrate.s, and in special by 
the definite expression ov yap Iti iyKoi/xcd^m toStov tov Tp6iTov...dWa. to, 

' Cp. Jowett (Plato i. p. 527): "The speeches have been said to follow each 
other in pairs.... But these and similar distinctions are not found in Plato; they are 
the points of view of his critics, and seem to impede rather than to assist us in 
understanding him." This is sensibly observed; still, Jowett is inclined to dismiss 
the matter too lightly, I may add that, while from the artistic point of view it is 
absurd to class together the speeches of Arist. and Eryx., there is a certain con- 
nexion of thought between the two, in their common relation to physiological 
theories, and so far we may allow that Steinhart points in the right direction 
(see § iii. 4, above). 

2 Cp. Jowett (Plato i. p. 256): " The successive speeches... contribute in various 
degrees to the final result ; they are all designed to prepare the way for Socrates, 
who gathers up the threads anew, and skims the highest points of each of them. 
But they are not to be regarded as the stages of an idea, rising above one another 
to a climax. They are fanciful, partly facetious, performances. .. .All of them are 
rhetorical and poetical rather than dialectical, but glimpses of truth appear in 
them." This is well said. 



INTRODUCTION Iv 

■ye a\yi0-^...l6i\iii uiniv Kar' ifiavTov, ov irpos tov? v/XiTipovi Xoyous 
{199 a — b); these last words should finally settle the matter. 

We are thus left with five speeches, not six; and this of itself 
might be enough to show that a division into pair-groups is not 
feasible. And when we further examine the internal indications, 
the arbitrary character of any such grouping becomes yet more 
obvious. For although the first two speeches possess a good deal in 
common, and were, apparently, confounded together by Xenophon, the 
method of grouping them in one pair tends to obscure the great 
difierence between them in point of substance, stjde, and general 
ability of statement, and to obscure also the fact that a number of 
other discourses intervened between these two (fitra Si ^aiSpov aWovs 
Tivas tlvai 180 c). The express mention of this last fact is a land-mark 
not to be ignored. 

Moreover, while this distinction is marked between the first speech 
and tiie second, there are internal indications which point to a special 
connexion between the third and the second. Eryximachus starts 
from the same assumption (the duality of Eros) as Pausanias; and, 
moreover, he expressly states that his speech is intended to supplement 
that of Pausanias (186 a ad init). Furthermore, we find Aristophanes 
classing together these two (189 c). 

As regards the fourth discourse (Aristophanes'), we are forbidden 
by similar internal indications to class it along with any of the pre- 
ceding discourses. Although much of its point lies in its allusiveness 
to Eryximachus' theories, Aristophanes himself expressly emphasizes the 
difierence between his speech and the others (189 c, 193 d); and indeed 
it is evident to the most cursory inspection. Nor is it possible, without 
reducing the group-system to the level of an unmeaning artifice, to 
pair the speech of Aristophanes with that of Agathon, which follows 
next in order. The only ground for such a grouping would be the purely 
fortuitous and external fact that both the speakers are professional 
poets : in style and substance the two speeches lie leagues apart, while 
not even an incidental connexion of any kind is hinted at in the text. 

The reason for the position of the fifth discourse (Agathon's) is not 
hard to discover. Once the general plan of the dialogue, as consisting 
of three Acts, with the discourse of Socrates for the central Act, was 
fixed in the author's mind, it was inevitable, on artistic grounds, that 
Agathon's oration should be set in the closest juxtaposition with that 
of Socrates, — in other words, at the close of the first Act. This dis- 
position is already pointed to in the introductory incident, where 
Agathon promises to engage in a match "concerning wisdom" with 



Ivi INTRODUCTION 

Socrates (175 e) ; and we have another indication of it at the very- 
opening of the dialogue, where Glaucon in speaking of the banqueters 
mentions these three names only — Agathon, Socrates, Alcibiades 
(172 a). If then, for the purpose of the dialogue as a whole, Agathon 
is the most important of the first five speakers, it is essential that his 
discourse should form the climax of the series, and stand side by side 
with that of Socrates his rival, to point the contrast. 

This gives us one fixed point. Another fixed point is the first 
speech : once Phaedrus has been designated irarijp tov \6yov, the 
primary inventor of the theme^ the task of initiating the series can 
scarcely fall to other hands than his. Why the three intermediate 
discourses are placed in their present order is not so clear. Considera- 
tions of variety and contrast count for something, and it may be 
noticed that the principle of alternating longer and shorter speeches is 
observed". Similarity in method of treatment counts for something 
too ; and from this point of view we can see that the order Phaedrus — 
Pausanias— Eryxiniachus is more natural than the order Phaedrus — 
Eryximachus — Pausanias; since the middle speech of Pausanias has 
some points in common with both the others, whereas the speech of 
Eryximachus has practically nothing in common with that of Phaedrus. 
Granting, then, that on grounds at once of continuity and of variety of 
extent these three speeches may most artistically be set in their present 
order, and granting, further, that the proper place for Agathon's speech 
is the last of the series, the only vacant place left for the speech of 
Aristophanes is the fourth. Although it is a speech sui generis, 
possessing nothing in common with that of Agathon, yet the mere fact 
of the juxtaposition of the two famous poets is aesthetically pleasing; 
while a delightful variation is secured by the interposition of a splendid 
grotesque which, alike in style and in substance, affords so signal a 
contrast both to the following and to the preceding speeches'. More- 

1 That he is so dcsignnted may be due, as Grain thinks, to the desire to connect 
this dialogue with the Phaedrus. 

^ The comparative lengths of the speeches, counted by pages of the Oxford text, 
are roughly these: Phaedrus 3pp.; Faus. 6J; Eryx. 3}; Arist. 6; Agathon 4; Socr. 
(a) 3, (b) 14^; Ale. 9J. Thus, in round numbers, the total of the first five speeches 
comes to 23 pp., which very nearly balances the 24 pp. occupied by Socr. (6) and 
Aloib. 

' Jowett explains {Plato i. p. 530) that the transposition of the speeches of 
Arist. and Eryx. is made " partly to avoid monotony, partly for the sake of making 
Aristophanes ' the cause of wit in others,' and also in order to bring the comic and 
tragic poet into juxtaposition, as if by accident." No doubt these considerations 
count for something, but, as I have already tried to show, there is another and a 
deeper reason for the transposition (see§ iii. 4). 



INTRODUCTION Ivii 

over, as is elsewhere shown, Aristophanes handles his theme with 
special reference to the medical theorists of whom Eryximachus is 
a type. 

The first five speakers are all actual historical personages, not mere 
lay figures. None the less, we must recognize the probability that 
Plato is not literally true, in all details, to historical facts but, choosing 
his characters with a view to scenic efiect, adapts their personalities to 
suit the requirements of his literary purpose. That is to say, we 
probably ought to regard these persons less as individuals than as 
types, and their speeches loss as characteristic utterances of the 
individual speakers tlian as the expressions of well-marked tendencies 
in current opinion. The view proposed by Sydenham, approved by 
Schleiermacher, and developed by Ruckert', that under the disguise of 
the personages named other and more important persons were aimed 
at by Plato probably goes too far. It is true that some of the traits 
of Crorgias are reproduced in Agathon, and some of those of Isocrates 
in Pausanias J but where is the alter ego of Aristophanes to be found? 
Nor, in fact, was Plato at any time much concerned to attack 
individuals as such : the objects of his satire were rather the false 
tendencies and the tricks of style which belonged to certain sets and 
schools of rhetors and writers. And here in the Symposium his 
purpose seems to be to exhibit the general results of sophistic teaching 
in various contemporary circles at Athens; which purpose would be 
obscured were we to identify any of the characters of the dialogue with 
non- Attic personages. 

The five intellectual types of which Plato here presents us with 
studied portraits are distinct, yet all the five are merely species of one 
and the same genus, inasmuch as all represent various phases of un- 
grounded opinion (So^a), and inasmuch as all alike, in contrast to tlic 
philosopher Socrates, are men of unphiloso2)hic mind''. 

2. T}ie relation o/tlie speech of Socrates to the first five speeches. 
The speech of Socrates, as we have seen, stands in contrast not 
only to the speech of Agathon but also to the whole series of which 

' Buckert makes the following identifications: Phaedrus=Ti9ias ; Pausanias 
= Protagoras or Xenophon ; Eryximachus = Hippias ; Aristophanes = Prodicus ; 
Agathon =Gorgias. Jowett (Plato i. p. 529) says of Pausanias: "his speech might 
have been composed by a pupil of Lyslas or of Prodicus, although there is no hint 
given that Plato is specially referring to them." Sydenham supposed that Phaedrus 
stands for Lysias. 

* So Resl, VerhaUnis, etc., p. 31 : "Alle diese fiinf Bedeu eine breite Basis, fast 
auf demselben Niveau stehend, bUden soUen fiir die spater folgenden Beden des 
Sokrates und Alkibiades." 

B. P. e 



Iviii INTRODUCTION 

Agathon's speech forms the climax and conclusion; since all of them 
alike are tainted with the same vice of sophistry. We have now to 
examine this cotitrast in detail. 

(a) Socrates v. Phaedrus. Phaedrus had declared Eros to be 
fieyas Otoi Ktti ^ou/toCT-Tos (178 a): Socrates, on the contrary, argues 
that Eros is no 6c6s but a Sat/xui' (202 c flf.). Phaedrus had relied 
for his proofs on ancient tradition (rtK/tr/ptov hi tovtov ktX., 178b; 
o/xoXoytTrat, 178 c): Socrates bases his argument on dialectic, and on 
the conclusions of pure reason (Diotima being Reason personified). 
Phaedrus had ascribed the noble acts of Alcestis and Achilles to 
the working of sensual Eros (179 Bff.): Socrates ascribes the same 
acts to a more deeply seated desire — that for everlasting fame (vTrip 
dpiTTJ'S dOavdrov ktX., 208 d) : 

(6) Socrates v. Pausanias. Pausanias had distinguished two 
kinds of Eros — Uranios and Pandemos (180 d — e): Socrates, on the 
other hand, treats Eros as a unity which comprises in its single 
nature opposite qualities (202 b, 203 c ff.) ; further, he shows that an 
apparent duality in the nature of Eros is to be explained as due to a 
confusion between Eros as genus ( = Desire) and Eros in the specific 
sense of sex-passion (205 b fF.). 

Pausanias had argued that sensual Eros, of the higher kind, is a 
thing of value in social and political life as a source of dperri and 
avSjDEia (182 b — c, 184 D — E, 185 b)^: Socrates shows that the produc- 
tion of dpiTYj in the sphere of politics and law is due to an Eros which 
aims at begetting offspring of the soul for the purpose of securing an 
immortality of fame (209 a ff., 209 0)". And Socrates shows further 
that for the true Eros to iv tois eiririjSeij/xao't koX tois vojliois KaXoi' 
(210 c) is not the reXos. Lastly, the connexion between Eros (in the 
form of -jroiSepao-Tia) with tfiikocro^ia which had been merely hinted at 
by Pausanias in 182 c, and superficially treated in 182 d — e, is ex- 
plained at length by Socrates. 

' This is the point noticed by Jowett {Plato i. p. 531): "From PhaetUua he 
(Socr.) takes the thought that love is stronger than death." 

2 Cp. Jowett (Plato i. p. 531) : "From Pausanias (Socr. takes the thought) that 
the true love is akia to intellect and political activity." 

^ Gomperz (Gf. T. ii. p. 396), a propos of his view that Plato is thinking of his 
iraiStKi Dion in Symp., writes : " they were busy with projects of political and social 
regeneration, which the philosopher hoped he might one day realise by the aid of 
the prince. On this view there is point and pertinence in that otherwise irrelevant 
mention of legislative achievement among the fruits of the love-bond." The sugges- 
tion is intercBting, but the relevance does not depend upon its being true: Plato, in 
any cause, taught politics. 



INTRODUCTION lix 

(c) Socrates v. Eryximachus. Eryximachus, following Fausanias, 
had adopted the assumption of the duality of Eros : this Socrates 
denies (202 b). 

Eryximachus had extended the sphere of influence of Eros so as to 
include the whole of nature (the objects of medicine, music, astronomy, 
religion) : Socrates shows that the Eros-instinct affects animals as well 
as men (207 a) — as equally included under the head of Ov-qTo. (207 d), — 
and he ascribes to the Eros-daemon the mediation between gods and 
men and the control of the whole sphere of religion ; but he confines 
his treatment in the main to the narrower subject of Eros proper 
as concerned with humanity'. 

{d) Socrates v. Aristophanes. Aristophanes had defined Eros as 
" the desire and pursuit of wholeness '' (to3 oXov ry iiridv/j-ia koI Sicuf ei 
lp<os ovo/ia 192 B : cp. 192 B OTav...ei'Tu^j; t<o avTOV TJixCcrei) : Socrates 
corrects this by showing that wholeness, or one's other half, is only 
sought when it is good (ovn tjij.iarios tTvai 701/ ipurra ovre o\ov lav fir/... 
aya^ov 6v 205 e''). Both, however, agree in maintaining the negative 
position that Eros is not simply the desire for rj ruiv d<j>poSiuC(ov 
(TVVOVfTia (192 c). 

(e) Socrates v. Agathon. The strictly dialectical part of Socrates' 
speech (199 c — 201 c), which takes the form of a cross-questioning of 
Agathon, consists, in the main, of a hostile critique and refutation of 
his speech. But in some few particulars Socrates indicates his agree- 
ment with statements made by Agathon. We may, therefore, sum- 
marize thus : — ■ 

(1) Points of Agreement : Socrates approves (199 c) of the rule 
of method laid down by Agathon (195 a) and of the distinction it 
implies (201 d ad fin.). Agathon stated the object of Eros to be the 
beautiful (197 b) : Socrates adopts and developes this statement 
(201 a). Agathon ascribed dvSptia to Eros (196 c — -d) : so does 
Socrates (203 d"). 

1 It is hardly correct to say with Jowett (Plato i. p. 531) that " from Eryximachus ^ 
Socrates takes the thought that love is a universal phenomenon and the great 
power of nature": this statement requires limitation. 

' It may be observed, however, that while the Platonic Socrates is here simply 
in contradiction to Arist., the idea of a " fall " from a primeval state of perfection ' 
which underlies the myth of Arist. is very similar to the view put forth by Plato in 
the Plmedrus and elsewhere that the earthly life of the soul involves a " fall" from 
its pristine state of purity in a super-terrestrial sphere. And in both Eros is the 
impulse towards restoration : to achieve communion with the Idea is to regain 
tA oUctov, tA oXoc, ii dpx"'" ^''C's (193 d). 

3 Another "glimpse of truth" which appears in A.'s speech is thus indicated by 

e 2 



Ix INTRODUCTION 

(2) Points of Difference : Agathon's Eros is KaXXio-ros koI apurros 
(197 c) : Socrates makes out Eros to be ovre koXos ovre dyaOoi (201 e). 
In particular Socrates denies that Eros is (ro<^os (203 e f.), or dn-aXo's 
(203 c), as Agathon (196 e f., 195 c, d) had affirmed. Agathon had 
assumed Eros to be 0(6^ (194 e, et passim): this Socrates corrects 
(202 B ff., e). 

Agathon, like the rest, in his lavish laudations had confused 
Eros with the object of love (to epiancvov, to ipaa-rov) ; whereas Socrates 
points out that Eros is to be identified rather with the subject (to ipiSv, 
TO iwiOvixovv, 204 c). 

3. The relation of Alcibiades' speech to the rest. 

(a) The speech of Alcibiades is related to that of Socrates "as 
Praxis to Theory'." Its main purpose is to present to us a vivid 
portrait of Socrates as the perfect exemplar of Eros (o rtXeus iptoriKo^) ; 
and thus to compel us to acknowledge that in the living Socrates 
we have before us both a complete <^tXdo-o^o$ — even as Eros is (juXocro- 
^(Si/ Sio. TravTos tov )3iov (203 d), — and a Sai/xdi/ios av^p — even as Eros is 
a Sat/tiDv. In addition to this main purpose, the speech serves the 
secondary purpose of vindicating the master against the charge of 
indulging in impure relations with his disciples (see § ii. a ad Jin.). 

But the language of Alcibiades echoes not only that of Socrates, in 
part, but also, in part, that of the earlier encomiasts of Eros. And 
this is due to the fact that Socrates — the Eros of Alcibiades — plays 
a double r61e ; he is both o iprnp-evo's and o ip<Sv. Tliis ambiguity of tlie 
Socratic nature is already implied in the comparisons with satyrs and 
Sileni made by Alcibiades, which point to a character that is ipaaro's, 
however ivSeiji in outward appearance. We may therefore tabulate 
the more detailed points of inter-relation as follows : — 

{a) The Eros of the ipaiTT'^s {as exhibit- Socrates as ipaar^s {his outtcard ap. 

ing Ivdcta), Socrates' encomium. pearance of JcSeio) in Alcibiades' en- 

comium. 

203 D iwipovXds iari toU koKoU Kal tois 213 dieiirixav^au Sirus Trapd r<^ toX- 

ayadoh . . .del Tivai ir\4Kwv /XT^xai'cEs. \i(7Ttfj...KaTaKelffji. 

203 0i)0'e( ipasTTii wv Tepl to KoKdv. 216 D ZwKpdri): ipunKus Sid/cetrai Tuy 

KoKCjv. 

Jowett {Plato I. p. 526) : ' ' When Agathon says that no man ' can be wronged of his 
own free will,' he is alluding playfully to a serious problem of Greek philosophy 
(cp. Arist. Nic. Ethics, v. 9)": see Symp. 190 c ad init. But, so far as I see, no 
reference is made to this point by Socrates. 
• Hug, p. Ixvii. 



INTRODUCTION 



Ixi 



203 D ivvirdSriTos Kal aoiKos, xoAwt'Tfrls 
del an Kal d<rTpuTos...iiraWpios Koipui- 

/UEVOS. 

203 D <t>povfi(reiai eiriOviiijT'^s. 

203 D Seivbs 76)75 xai ^ap/taxcus Kal <ro- 

^effTiJs. . .Jr6pi/ios.. .iraK e^jropijerjj. 
209 B ci$ii eiwopel \iyuv irepl Aperrji. 



220b (li'i;irW))Tos...^iro/)ei!6TO. 

220 » elffT-fiKfi fUxpt ^ws iyivero (with the 

context)! 
220 if iuOaiov (jipovrliuiv ri iffTi)Ke (ep. 

174 D ft.). 

215 ft. (o;\ct Tois irBpiirov! {Karix^^i 
i(or\i)TT«i), ktX. 223 A einrSpus Kal 
TTiSanbv Xi-yoi" r/vpev. 



Ifc will be noticed that in this list the passages which find 
responsions in the language of Alcibiades are all drawn from the 
discourse of Socrates. This is due to the fact that it is his discourse 
alone, of the earlier encomia, which treats "Epws on the side of its 
li'Scia. The previous speakers had, as we have seen, regarded 'Epms as 
altogether lovely, i.e. as to ipwiitvov. Accordingly, it is to the next list 
of parallels that we must look for the passages where Alcibiades echoes 
their sentiments. 



(/3) 'Epb>S-ip(ip.fVO! as KdWtfTTO! Kal 

ipuTTOs in the earlier encomia. 

(1) Courage. 

178 E (Pbaedrus) aTparbireSov ipaarwv 
. . .iiax^l^^voi 7* h.v viKt^ev, kt\. 

197 D (Agathon) iv irbvip iv <j>bp(f,„ 
irapaa-TdrTji re Kal auTTjp apurros. 

203 D (Socrates) ivdpeTos uc Kal triis Kal 
aivTovos. 

(2) Tempefance. 

196 c (Agathon) i 'Epus diaipepivrus Ac 

(TU^pOVOl. 

(3) Complete virtue, 

19G D irepl /liv oSv SiKaioffiviji Kal trdiippo- 
(Tiinjs Kal dvSpeiat rod Biov etprjraif 
irepl Si iToiptas Xcttrerai. 

(4) Adtnirableness. 

180b (Phaedrus) ol flcot.../toXXov dav/iA- 
{bvffiv Kal &yaVTai,..Srav epib/icnos 
{e.g. Achilles) t6v ipaarrpi dyawg,, ktX. 

197 D (Agatlion) Ofarot iroipou, Ayarrot 
8(ois. 

210 E (Socrates) Karb\j/cral n Oav/xaixTov 
Trp> ipiffw KaXdv. 

(5) Inspiration of a sense of honour. 
178 D (PbaediQs) (i tpas invmet) ttjk 

M ij,ev roU aUrxpots aiax'^"^"- 



Socrates as the embodiment of "Bpus- 
ipii/uvos in Alcibiades' encomium. 

220e STi...((ivy^ Avexiipei rb VTpaT&ireSoii, 

kt\. 
220e <rvvSii<TOKre.,,aiTbv ifU. 
221 B ii&Ka ippu/iAvas A/ivveiTot, 

219 E TO(S ir6voii,.,ilwv irepiijv, kt\. 

220 E iKiKevov coi 5i56;'at rApiaTcia. 

216d iriffijs oteaSe yiiiei...awtt>po(Tirii^i 



219 D AyAfi,ei>oi>...iru^po(rii'riv Kal avSpetai/ 
,,,cls tppbrrjinv Kal els Kapreplap. 



219 D AyAfievQv tijp to6tov tpdtny, kt\. 
221 Socr., as oiSevl S/ioios, is superior 

to Achilles. 

220 E A^iov rpi OedtraaOai Zuxpiiri}. 

216b t& ivrbs Ayd\iiaTa...etSoi',,.vdyKa\a 
Kal BavixaarA. 

216 B iyti) Si TovTov pivov ala-xivonai. 



Ixii INTRODUCTION" 

(6) Indifference to personal beauty. 

210 b (Socrates) ivbi Sk (rh xdWos) 9\^o inov,..KaTe<t>pbv7ia(v koX KanySKaaev 
KaTatjypoviiaavTa, ktK, (cp. 210 s, t^s in^t upas. 

211 e). 

(7) Fruitfulnesi. 

210 (Socrates) tIktcip \6yovs.,,oiTives 222 a {tovs \6yovs airoO eipi^aei) deioTdrovs 

woiijffouffi ^eXrlovs rovs viovs (cp. koX irKsiffTa d^dX/iara dpcT^s ^i' avTols 

210 d). ^X""'''" ital...T«icoi'Tos...^7ri ttok oVok 

212 A tIktciv oiK etSu\a dpeT?s...dXV 7rpo<rjjif« ffKOTreu' t(? fUWovri xoXt? /cd- 

(IX»)9^. 7o9iJ) (aeaSai. (cp. 218d (is «ti piXriaTov 

209 B Ei)iro/)e( XiYUK n-epl d/jcr^s (to! olov y^veavai). 
XpV ftvai rbv &,v5pa rbv iyadbv (cp. 

185 b ttoXX^;* iirefiiXeLav . . .irpbs &p€- 

TliK). 

210d KaXois \&yovs...TtKTii...lv ipiKoao- 218a Sr)x6eU iirb t&v iv </>i\o<TO<fili} \byoH>. 
tpig. aijtdbvifi, 

(8) Range of Influence. 

186 B (EryximachuB) iirX vav b 9eh 222 A (roiis \byov% oiiroO eip^aci) iirl 
Telnet. irXewTov refi'Oi'Tas, /iSXXoi' 5^ ^ttI wdv, 

210 D (Socrates) ^ttI tA iroXA WXa7os «tX. 
...ToS KoXoB. 

The foregoing lists contain, I believe, most if not all of the passages 
in which Alcibiades, describing Socrg,,tes, uses phrases which definitely 
echo the language or repeat the thought of the earlier encomiasts. 
When one considers the number of these " responsions " and the 
natural way in which they are introduced, one is struck at once both 
with tho elaborate technique of Plato and, still more, with the higher 
art which so skilfully conceals that technique. For all its appearance 
of spontaneity, a careful analysis and comparison prove that the 
encomium by Alcibiades is a very carefully wrought piece of work in 
which every phrase has its significance, every turn of expression its 
bearing on the literary effect of the dialogue as g, whole. Moreover, 
as we are now to see, the list of parallels already given by no means 
exhausts the "responsions" offered by Alcibiades. 

(i) The speech of Alcibiades, although primarily concerned with 
Socrates, is also, in a secondary degree, concerned with Alcibiades 
himself. And Alcibiades, like Socrates, plays a double part : he is at 
once the TraiSixa of Socrates the epao-Ti/s, and the epoon/s of Socrates the 
ipiLfjievos. In his r61e of epoo-nf? Alcibiades exhibits a spirit very 
similar to that described in the earlier speeches, in which every display 
of erotic passion is regarded as excusable if not actually commendable. 
We may call attention to the following echoes : — 



INTRODUCTION 



Ixiii 



218 A iroK irSS/jui Spav re xal \4yeu>. 



219 E Tjirdpow Sr] KaradeSovKuinivos, 
218 D (iJLol /liv yap oiSiv ian irpcapirepov 
Tov ws 6ti p^TiffTov i/j^ ycviaOaL, roirov 
di olfjiAiL iioi (ruXXiJjTTO/ja oirS^va Kvptih- 
Tepov eXvai troD. iyiij 5^ Toioirif dvdpl.., 
ftK fi,^ X'^P'^'^i"^""' alffxwot/iriv Tois 
(ppovl/iovs. 

218 D ef7rep...Tis ?(7t' iv i/iol Siva/ui Si' ijs 

222 B ofls o!nos i^airaTuif uis ipciffTTjs irai- 
dLKcL,,,ft^ i^atraraadaL virit toOtou. 

217 C waircp ipaffTTis iraiStKoU iTipovXeiuv 
...D aS$ts S' ^iri/3ouXei5(ras. 

219 B TavTa,.,a4>cU wairep piXr). 

219 B uir4 t6i' rplfiuiva KaTa.K\tvAi rbv 

flTjV TTjV V^KTa 6\7]V, 



216 D iKireirXriyiiivoi ianh Kal Korex*- 

Ix^Ba. 
219 D o<S9'...eTxoy [Siron) AiroaTepriOdriv 

TTJs toOtov irxfpovtriai. 

221 A TrapaK(\eiiop,al re aiTorK Bappeiv, koX 
l\eyov Sri oi5k AvoXelxj/u ouTii. 



182 E (PausaniaB) BaviiaaTi, (pya ipya- 
l^ofUp(ft...vot€iv oldTTcp ol ipaaral vpbs 
tA iraiStKhf ktX. 

184 c (Paus.) idp rts iiiXji rivi, Oepaweieiv 
7jyo6^vos 5i* iKeivov A^htav iffeffBai... 
a&TTj aH y] iSeKoBovKeUi oiiK cUa-xpd. 

184e t6t€ Sij...ffvfnriTrTei rb Ka\by ilvoA, 
iratSiKob ipasT^ x''p'<"*<''^<"- 

185 b irav Tr&vTUi ye KoKof ApeTiJ! IveKO, 
Xapifeirflat. 

184 D 6 pL€v dvvAfievos els.,,&peTTiv cru/i- 
^dXXeffflai. 

184 E ^7ri To^Ttp Kal i^airaTTjBijvaL oiS^v 
alaxpiv. 

185 B KoK^ ij dirdTi), 

203 D (Socrates) iiripov\6s ian (o "Epus) 
Tois KaXois Kol dvoflois. 

203 D (Socr.) e-rtpevTij! deivds. 

191 E f[. (Aristopb.) x^^P°^^^ (rvyKaraKet' 
fievoi Kal (rvfiirevKeyixivoi rots dvhpAffi.., 
oi yap uir' avaiffxwTla^ toVto dpQffiv 
dXX' i^7r6 Bdppovs . . .dno^ahoviTiv els rh 
iroXtrtKa avdpes ol toiovtoi. 

192 B (Aristoph.) Bav/iaffTi. ^KTrXiJTTocTai 
0tX((t...Ka! (pan, oiK i0i\ovT€!...xi'pl' 
feffflai dXX^Xwx oi)5i a/UKpbv xf^'""- 



179 A (Phaedrus) ^7/taToX(7rcti' ye rk 
natdtKcL ij fjLTj ^orjdijtrat KivSweOovTt^ 
oiSels oStu xaKos, kt\. 



Since in this list echoes are found of the only two earlier 
encomiasts who were not represented in the former lists (viz. Fausanias 
and Aristophanes), it will be seen that the speech of Alcibiades con- 
tains references, more or less frequent, to sentiments and sayings 
expressed by every one of the previous speakers. It is chiefly in his 
description of himself that Alcibiades echoes the language of the first 
five speakers, and in his description of Socrates that he echoes the 
language of Socrates. The general impression made on the mind of 
the reader who attends to the significance of the facts might be 
summed up briefly in the form of a proportion : as Alcibiades is to 
Socrates in point of practical excellence and truth, so are the first five 
speeches to the discourse of Socrates-Diotima in point of theoretical 
truth and excellence. But while this is, broadly speaking, true of the 



Ixiv INTRODUCTION 

inner nature (^vo-is, to. tvSov) of Socrates as contrasted with that of 
Alcibiades, we must bear in mind that in his outward appearance 
(<rxi;/xa) Socrates is " conformed to this world " and, posing as an erastes 
of a similar type to Alcibiades himself, serves to illustrate the theories 
and sentiments of the earlier speeches. 

Lastly, attention may be drawn to one other parallel in Alcibiades' 
discourse which appears to have passed unnoticed hitherto. It can 
scarcely be a mere coincidence that Alcibiades' progress in erotics — in 
other words, " the temptation of saint " Socrates — is marked by a 
series of stages (vvvovcrCa, cuyyu^vacrio, o'ui'Seiiri'eri', 217 A ff.) until it 
reaches its climax in crvyKela-Oai, and that a similar avoSos by gradual 
stages (210 a ff., 211 c ff.) up to the final communion with Ideal 
Beauty had been described as the characteristic method of the true 
erastes. It seems reasonable to suppose that the method oi false love is 
designedly represented as thus in detail contrasting with, and as it were 
caricaturing, the method of true love: for thereby an added emphasis 
is laid upon the latter. 



§ vii. The Dialoguk as a whole : its Scopk and Design. 

No small degree of attention has been paid by the expositors of our 
dialogue to the question regarding its main purport — " de universi operis 
consilio." It is plausibly argued that there must be some one leading 
thought, some fundamental idea, which serves to knit together its 
various parts and to furnish it with that " unity " which should belong 
to it as an artistic whole. But wherein this leading idea consists has 
been matter of controversy. Some, like Stallbaum, are content to 
adopt the simplest and most obvious view that Eros is the central idea, 
and tliat the design of the whole is to establish a doctrine of Eros. 
Others, again, have supposed that Plato was mainly concerned to 
furnish his readers with another specimen of the right method of 
handling philosophical problems. But although either of these views, 
or both combined, might be thought to supply an adequate account of 
the design and scope of the dialogue if it had ended with the speech of 
Socrates, they are evidently inadequate when applied to the dialogue 
as it stands, with the addition of the Alcibiades scenes. In fact, this 
last part of the dialogue — the Third Act, as we have called it — might 
be construed as suggesting an entirely different motif, — namely, lauda- 
tion of Socrates in general, or perhaps rather (as Wolf argued) a 
defence of Socrates against the more specific charge of unchastity. 



INTRODUCTION Ixv 

That this is one purpose of the dialogue is beyond dispute : many 
indications testify, as has been shown, that Plato intended here to 
offer an apologiam pro vita Socratis. Yet it would be a mistake to 
argue from this that the main design of the dialogue as a whole lies in 
this apologetic. Rather it is necessary to combine the leading idea of 
this last Act with those of the earlier Acts in such a way as to reduce 
them, as it were, to a common denominator. And when we do this, 
we find — as I agree with Riickert in believing — that the dominant 
factor common to all three Acts is nothing else than the personality 
of Socrates, — Socrates as tlio ideal both of philosophy and of love, 
Socrates as at once the type of temperance and the master of magic. 
Our study of the framework as well as of the speeches has shown us 
how both the figure of Socrates and his theory dominate the dialogue, 
and that to throw these into bolder relief constitutes the main value 
of all the other theories and figures. This point has been rightly 
emphasized by Riickert (p. 252): "utique ad Socratem animus ad- 
vertitur ; quasi sol in medio positus, quem omnes circummeant, cuius 
luce omnia coUustrantur, vimquo accipiunt vitalem, Socrates pro- 
pouitur, et Socrates quidem philosophus, sapiens, temperans. Quem 
iuxta multi plane evanescunt, ceteri vix obscure comparent, ipse 
AgathOj splendidissimum licet sidus ex omnibus, ut coram sole luna 
pallescit." 

It seems clear, therefore, that the explanation of the " Hauptzweck " 
of our dialogue which was given long ago by Schleiermacher is the 
right one — " propositum est Platoni in Convivio ut philosophum 
qualem in vita se exhiberet, viva imagine depingeret": it is in the 
portrait of the ideal Socrates that the main object of the dialogue is to 
be sought. 

The theory of Teichmiiller and Wilamowitz as to the occasion on 
which the dialogue was produced has no direct bearing on the question 
of design. They suppose that it was written specially for recital at 
a banquet in Plato's Academy ; and, further, that it was intended to 
provide the friends and pupils of Plato with a model of what such 
a banquet ought to be. But it would be absurd to estimate the design 
of a work of literary art by the temporary purpose which it subserved ; 
nor can we easily suppose that Plato's main interest lay in either 
imagining or recording gastronomic successes as such. Equally un- 
proven, though inore suggestive, is the idea of Gomperz that this 
dialogue trepl ipwro'i was inspired by an affection for Dion. 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION 

§ viii. The Date. 

We must begin by drawing a distinction between (a) the date of 
the actual Banquet, (6) that' of ApoUodorus' narrative, and (c) that of 
the composition of the dialogue by Plato. 

(a) That the date of the Banquet is b.o. 416 {01. 90. 4) is 
asserted by Athenaeus (v. 217 A) : o [lev yap {sc. 'AydOiav) eirl ap\ovTOi 
Ei<^i;/tov a-Tifj^avovTai Arjvaion. It i.s true, as Sauppe and others have 
pointed out, that the description in 175 e (tv it.a.pTvij-i...TpuTit.vpLoii, cp. 
223 B w.), would suit the Great Dionysia better than the Lenaea ; but 
this discrepancy need not shake our confidence in the date assigned by 
Athenaeus. The year 416 agrees with the mention of Agathon as 
j/fos (175 b), and of Alcibiades as at the height of his influence (216 b) 
before the ill-fated Sicilian expedition. 

(5) The date of the prefatory scene may be approximately fixed 
from the following indications : (1) It was a considerable number of 
years after the actual Banquet (oi veaxTrC 172 C, vaCSmv ovtcdv ijftoJv Iti 
173 a); (2) several years (iroXXa en; 172 c) after Agathon's departure 
from Athens ; (3) within three years of the commencement of ApoUo- 
dorus' close association with Socrates (172 c) ; (4) before the death 
of Socrates (as shown by the pres. tense a-vvSiaTpi^io 172 c); (5) before 
the death of Agathon (as shown by the perf. eiriSeSij/xi/Kcv 172 c). 
It seems probable that Agathon left Athens about 408, at the 
latest, and resided till 399 at the court of Archelaus of Macedon'. 
Hence any date before 399 will satisfy the two last data. And since 
the two first data demand a date as far removed as possible from the 
years 416 and 408, we can hardly go far wrong if we date the dramatic 
setting circ. 400 B.C. 

(c) We come now to the more important question of the date of 
composition. The external evidence available is but slight. A posterior 
limit is afforded by two references in Aristotle (Pol. ii. 4. 1262'' 12: 
de An. ii. 415" 26), a possible allusion by Aeschines {in Timarch. 
345 B.C.), and a probable comic allusion by Alexis in his Pluxedrus {ap. 
Athen. xiii. 562 a) — a work which probably cannot be dated before 
370 at the earliest. 

The internal evidence is more extensive but somewhat indefinite. 
It is commonly assumed' that in 193 A (8iuiKicrd'>;ju,Ei/...AaKcSaiju.ov(W) 

^ Fritzache'B view that Ar. Ran. 72 implies the previous death (i.e. ante 405) of 
A. is refuted by Bettig, Sijmp. pp. S9 ff. 

2 See e.g. Zeller, Plato (E.T.) p. 139 n.; TeichmuUer, Litt. Fehd. ii. 262. 



INTRODUCTION Ixvii 

■we have a definite reference to the 8(01x10-/109 of Mantinea in 385 B.C. 
But even if this be granted — as I think it must, in spite of the contra- 
diction of Wilamowitz — it by no means follows that the dialogue must 
be dated 385 — 4. We find Isocrates {Panegyr. 126) mentioning the 
same event five years later. All that it affords us is a prior limit. 
Little weight can be given to Dummler's view that the previous 
death of Gorgias (circ. 380) is implied by the allusion to him in 198 c 
(Topyiov KitpaXr/v KrX.y. Nor can we lay much stress on the conclusions 
drawn (by Riickert and others) from the absence of reference to the 
re-establishment of Mantinea in 370, or to the exploits of the Theban 
"Sacred Band" at Leuctra (371), which (as Hug thinks) might 
naturally have been alluded to in 178 e. 

The evidence of date afforded by " stylometric " observations is not 
of a convincing character. M. Lutoslawski, it is true, dogmatically 
asserts that the Symposium stands between the Gratylus and Phaedo 
in the " First Platonic Group " ; but his arguments, when fexamined, 
prove to be of the most flimsy character. Beyond affording a con- 
firmation of the general impression that our dialogue stands somewhere 
in the " middle " period, the labours of the stylometrists give us little 
assistance. If we choose to date it in 390 they cannot refute us, nor 
yet if we date it 10 or 15 years later. The question as to whether the 
Symposium preceded the Pimedrus or followed it is one of special 
interest in view of the number of points at which the two writings 
touch each other. The evidence on the whole seems in favour of the 
priority of the Phaedrus''; but, even if this be granted, little light 
is shed on the date of composition of the Symp,, since that of the 
Phaedrus eludes precise determination. 

Equally difficult is it to draw any certain conclusions from the 
relation in which our dialogue stands to the Symposium of Xenophon. 
That there are many points of connexion, many close parallels, between 

1 See Diimmler, Akademica, p. 40; and the refutation by Vahlen, op. Acad. i. 
482 ff. 

° So I hold with Schleierm., Zeller, I. Bruns, Hahn and others; against Lutosl., 
Gomperz and Kaeder. It is monstrous to assert, as Lutosl. does, " that the date of 
the Phaedrus as written about 379 B.C. is now quite as well confirmed as the date of 
the Symp. about 385 B.C." I agree rather with the view which makes Phaedr. P.'s 
first publication after he opened his Academy, i.e. circ. 388-6 (a view recently 
supported in England by B. S. Thompson, Meno xliiiff., and Gifiord, Euthyd. 20 ff.). 
The foil, are some of the parallels: Ph. iZ2z = Symp. 181e, 18Be; 234a=183e; 
234b = 183c;250c=209e;251d(240c) = 215b, 218a; 251a=215b, 222a; 252a = 
189d; 266a = 180e; 267a (273 a) = 200 a; 272a=198d; 276a=222a; 276b = 209b; 
278d = 203e; 279b = 216d, 215 b. 



Ixviii INTRODUCTION 

the two works is obvious, but which of the two is prior in date is 
a problem which has called forth prolonged controversy'- This is not 
the place to investigate the problem : I can only state my firm opinion 
that the Xenophontic Sympoa. (whether genuine or not) is the later 
work. But attempts to fix its date are little better than guess-work : 
Roquette puts it circ. 380 — 76 ; Schanz, after 371 ; K. Lincke (Neue 
Jahrb. 1897), after 350. 

It will be seen that the available evidence is not sufficient to 
justify us in dogmatizing about the precise date of composition of our 
dialogue. The most we can say is that circ. 383 — 5 seems on the 
whole the most probable period. 



§ ix. The Text. 

(1) Ancient authmities. The chief manuscripts which contain the 
text of the Symposium are : — 

B = codex Bodleianus (or Clarkianus or Oxoniensis) ; Bekker's SI. 
T = codex Venetus append, class. 4, cod. 1 : Bekker's t ("omnium 
librorum secundae familiae fons " Schanz). 

> Among those who claim priority for Xenophon are Bockh, Ast, Delbriick, 
Bettig, TeichmuUer, Hug, Dummler, Pfleiderer ; on the other side are G. F. Hermann, 
I. Bruns, Schenkl, Gomperz. Beside the broader resemblances set forth by Hag, 
the foil. refs. to' echoes may be of interest : — 

Xen. Plat. Xen. Plat. 

i. 1 = 178 A, 197 E iv. 53= 219 b 

ii. 23 =213 E, 214 a v. I, 7 =218 e (175 e) 

ii. 26 (iv. 24) = 185 o, 198 o viii. 1 =218 b (187 d) 

iv. 14= 183 A, 184b, 179a „ 8 =219d 

„ 15 = 178 E, 179 b, 182 „ 18 = 184b 

„ 16=178e „ 21 = 214o 

„ 17 = 181 E, 183 E „ 23 = 183a (203 b), 172 

„ 19 (v. 7) = 215 A (216 D, 221 d) „ 24 = 217 e, 222 o 

„ 23 = 181d „ 31 = 179e 

„ 25 = 193 D „ 38 = 209 E 

„ 28 = 217e ,, 32 (iv. 16) = 178e 

„ 47— 8 = 188d ,, 34 =182 b ■ 

„ 48 = 188d „ 35 =179 a 

„ 50= 189 A, 197 E 

The last three parallels are specially interesting, since Xen. ascribes to Pausan. 
some of the sentiments which PI. gives to Fhaedrus. Possibly (as Hug, Teichm. 
and others suppose) both writers are indebted to an actual apologia of the real 
Pausan., which PI. is handling more freely, Xen. more exactly (op. I. Bruns, 
VorlrUge, p. 152). 



INTRODUCTION Ixix 

W = codex Vindobonensis 54, Suppl. phil. Gr. 7 : Stallbaum's 
Vind. I. 

To these we have now to add, as a new authority, 

O.-P. = Oxyrhynchus Papyrus (no. 843 in Grenfell and Hunt's 
collection). 

Since this last authority for the text was not forthcoming until 
after the publication of the latest critical text of the Symposium, I add 
the description of it given by the editors : — 

" The part covered is from 200 b [beginning with the word fiov- 
Xoi[to] after which 40 lines are lost, the next words being av tvSfia at 
the end of 200 e] to tlie end, comprised in 31 columns, of which four 
(xix — xxii) are missing entirely, while two others (i and xviii) are 
represented by small fragments ; but the remainder is in a very fair 
state of preservation. .. .The small and well-formed but somewhat heavy 
writing exemplifies a common type of book hand, and probably dates 
from about the year 200 A.D....The corrector's ink does not differ 
markedly in colour from that of the text, and in the case of minor 
insertions the two hands are at times difficult to distinguish. But as 
they are certainly not separated by any wide interval of time the 

question has no great practical importance The text, as so often with 

papyri, is of an eclectic character, showing a decided affinity with 
no single Ms. Compared with the three principal witnesses for the 
Symposium it agrees now with B against TW, now with the two latter 
as against the former, rarely with T against BW or with W against 
BT^ Similarly in a passage cited by Stobaeus some agreements with 
his readings against the consensus of BTW are counterbalanced by 
a number of variations from Stobaeus' text'- A few coincidences 
occur with variants peculiar to the inferior MSS., the more noticeable 
being those with Vindob. 21 alone or in combination with Venet. 184^ 
and Parisin. 1642 alone or with Vat. 229". Of the readings for which 
there is no other authority, including several variations in the order of 
the words, the majority, if unobjectionable, are unconvincing. The 
more valuable contributions, some of which are plainly superior 
to anything found in other mss., are ; 1. 92 [201 d] tir, 1. 112 [202 a] 
the omission of KaC (so Stallbaum), 1. 239 [204 b] av trnj, where BTW 
have a meaningless av, 1. 368 [206 c] koKw as conjectured by Badham 

1 See crit. notes on 202 a, 203 a, 205 b, 206 b, 207 d, 211c. 

2 See crit. notes on 203 b, 211 d, 213 B, 219 e, 220 o (Ms). 
' See crit. notes on 202 c— 203 A. 

See crit. notes on 201 a (ad fin.), 218 d, 220 a, 220 b, 223 o. 
» See crit. notes on 206 b (ad init.), 208 A, 223 o. 



Ixx INTRODUCTION 

for TO) K., 1. ;471 [208 b] fitTtx^i- as restored by Stephanus {/ifTexeiv 
Mss.), 1. 517 [209 a] TCKciv confirming a conjecture of Hug (Kveiv mss.), 
1. 529 [209 b] firtOvixri as conjectured by Stephanus {iirSyfid mss.), 
1. 577 [210 a] ko.1 (TV omitted by mss., 1. 699 [212 a] deocftiXei {-rj BTW), 
1. 770 [213 b] KaTiB€[v (?) {Kaeiiiiv mss), 1. 898 [218 d] /toi (probably) 
with Vind. 21 (/iou BTW), 1. 1142 [222 d] Sia/SaXei as conjectured by 
Hirschig (Sia/3aXij BTW). On the other hand in many cases the 
papyrus once more proves the antiquity of readings which modern 
criticism rejects or suspects." 

It may be added that the editors of the papyrus in citing W have 
made use of a new collation of that MS. by Prof. H. Schone of Basel 
" which often supplements and sometimes corrects the report of 
Burnet." And in this edition I have followed the report of W in 
their apparatus, where available, while relying elsewhere upon that 
given by Burnet. 

(2) Modern criticism. Much attention has been paid by Conti- 
nental critics during the last century to the text of the Symposium, 
and for the most part they have proceeded on the assumption that the 
text is largely vitiated by interpolations'. Even Schanz and Hug, 
who may be regarded as moderate and cautious critics in comparison 
with such extremists as Jahn and Badham, have gone to unnecessary 
lengths in their use of the obelus. Hug, while admitting that we must 
take into account the freedom and variety of Plato's style and that it 
is folly to rob a writer of his individuality by pruning away any and 
every expression which is in strict logic superiluous, and while ad- 
mitting also that regard must be paid to the characteristic differences 
of the various speeches in our dialogue, which forbid our taking any 
one speech as the norm with which others should be squared, — yet 
maintains that in the speeches, and especially in those of Pausanias 
and Socrates, he can detect a number of unquestionable glosses. No 
doubt there are some cases in these speeches in which it is not un- 
reasonable to suspect interpolation, but even Hug and Schanz have, 
I believe, greatly exaggerated the number of such cases ; and I agree 
with the editor of the Oxford text in regarding the certain instances 
of corruption or interpolation as extremely few. Consequently, in the 
text here printed I have diverged but seldom from the ancient tradi- 
tion, and such changes as I have made have been more often in the 

' E.g. 0. Jahn, Hirschig, Badham, Cobet, Naber, Hartmann. On the other 
hand, sensible protests have been made by Teu£fel and Vahlen ; and Eettig's text 
is, if anything, ultra-conservative. 



INTRODUCTION Ixxi 

direction of verbal alteration than of omission. I have, however, 
recorded in the textual notes a selection of the proposed alterations, 
futile though I consider most of them to be. 



§ X. Bibliography. 

The main authorities which I have cited or consulted are': — 

i. Texts: Bekker (1826), the Zurich ed. (Baiter, Orelli and 
Winckelmann, 1839), C. F. Hermann (1851), O. Jahn (1864), Jahn- 
Usener (1875), C. Badham (1866), M. Schanz (1881), J. Burnet (1901). 

Critical essays or notes by Bast (1794), Voegelin, Naber, Teuffel, 
M. Vermehren (1870), J. J. Hartmann (1898). 

ii. Annotated Editions: J. F. Fischer (1776), F. A. Wolf (1782), 
P. A. Reynders (1825), L. I. Ruckert (1829), A. Hommel (1834), 
G. Stallbaum (2nd ed. 1836), G. F. Rettig (2 vols. 1875—6), A. Hug 
(2nd ed. 1884). 

iii. Treatises on the subject-matter : M. H. L. Hartmann 
{Chronol. Symp. PL 1798), G. Schwanitz (Observ. in PI. Conv. 1842), 
M. Lindemann {De Pliaedri orat. 1853, De Agath. or. 1871), J. H. 
Deinhardt {Ueber den Inhalt u. s. w. von PL Symp. 1865), M. Koch 
{Die liede d. Sokr. u. das Problem der Erotik, 1886), W. Resl (Ver- 
haltnis der 5 erster in PL Symp, Reden u.s.w. 1886), C. Boetticher 
(Eros u. Erkenntnis bei PL 1894), C Schirlitz (JBeitrdge z. Erkldrung d. 
Rede d. Sokr. u.s.w. 1890), P. Grain {De ratione quae inter PL Phaedr. 
et Symp. intercedat, 1906). 

Other more general works consulted are ; Teichmiiller (Litt. 
Fehden, 1881), F. Horn (Platonstudien, 1893), W. Lutoslawski (Plato's 
Logic, 1897), T. Gomperz {Greek Thinkers, E.T. ii. 1905), H. Raeder 
{Platons Philos. Entimckelung, 1905), J. Adam {Religious Teachers of 
Greece, 1908). 

iv. Translations: E. Zeller (1857), A. Jung (2nd ed. 1900), B. 
Jowett, J. A. Stewart (selections, in The Myths of Plato, 1905). 

1 Ahhreviations wseA ara — Bdhni. = Badham; Bt. = Burnet; Jn.:=Jabn; J.-U.= 
Jahn-Usener ; Sz. = Schanz; Verm. = Vermehren; Voeg.= Voegelin. 



nAATfiNOS 5YMn05ION 

[H HEPI AFAOOY- H®IKOS] 

St. m. 
P- 
I. AoKw fjLot Trepl tSv irvvQaveaOe ovk afjLeXeTrjTO'i elvai. koI 172 

yap eTvy-)(^avov irpwriv et? darv oiKoOev dvto)v ^a\r]p60ev rail' ovv 

yvwpt./j.aiv Tt? oTTicrdev KariStov fie •jro'ppcoOev eKoXeae, koI Tral^mv 

a/ia Ty KXi^crei, TI ^aXr}pev<;, e(f)r}, outo? ['ATroWoSwpo?], ov irepi- 

fieveif ; Kitym eTriaTai; ■rrepii/j.eiva. Kai 09, 'ATroWoSwpe, e^T], ical 

172 A (vvv) ouK Methodius vulg. ^a\rip66fv del. Naber J : 6 vulg. 
'AwoWoSmpos seel. Bdhm. J.-U. ov (a-ii) Sauppe irfpifieveis vulg. Sz. : 

Trepi/xfvety B : TTfpt^fVetr TW, Bt. (<J) 'ATroXXdSmpe Sz. 'ATroXXdSmpf... 

i^r]Tovv om. Coisl. 

172 A AoKiS (tot ktK. The speaker, ApoUodorus (see Introd. § 11. a), is 
replying to certain unnamed Iroipot who had been questioning him concerning 
the incidents and speeches which took place at Agathon's banquet. The plural 
Trvv6dvf<r6e (and i/xtv, i/xe« 173 c, D infra) indicates that there were several 
iraipoi present : the traditional heading of the dialogue, ETAIPOS, is due to 
the fact that all but one are KoKJja wpoa-awa. 

OVK d)j.eX^TT|Tos. p.e\(T7] and jufXtrai/ are regular terms for the "conning 
over " of a speech or " part " : cp. Phaedr. 228 b. 

Kal 7dp Wiyyiavov. These words explain the preceding statement doxm... 
OVK afieXeTTjTos elvat, and serve to introduce not only the sentence immediately 
following but the whole of the succeeding passage down to 173 b where the 
initial statement is resumed by the words &o~re...ovK. ifieKeTtyrais e^o). 

#(xXT]pa0ev. Phalerum, the old port of Athens, was about 20 stadia 
(2^ miles) distant from the city on the S.E. 

KaV ira(t<>>v...irepi|ii€vcts; Where does the joke come in 1 

(1) Ast, Hommel, Stallbaum and Jowett look for it in the word ^aXripfvs, 
which they take to be a play on <j)a\ap6s ("bald-headed," so Jowett) or 
(f>d\apU ("bald-coot") in allusion to the bald crown or the peculiar gait of 
ApoUodorus. But what evidence is there to show that A. either was bald or 
walked like a coot ? 

(2) Another suggestion of Hommel's is to write (with the vulgate) 6 
'AnoWoSaipos and assume an etymological allusion to the opportuneness of 
the meeting (as "Apollo-given"). This also is far-fetched. 

(3) Schiitz, followed by Wolf and Hug, finds the TraiSta in the playfully 

B. P. 1 



2 nAATDNOZ [172 a 

firfv Koi evayx^ov ere e^rjTovv 'l3ov\ofievo<! SiawvOeaffai, rf/v 'Ayd- 
B $Q)vo<s ^vvovaiav ical ZitoKpaTovi koX 'AkKi^idSov koI r<ov dWav 
r&v Tore ev t£ avvhelirvto irapwyevofievav, Trepl t&v ipooTiK&v 
\6jmv TtVe9 ijaav. a\Xo<; yap Ti<s fioi SitfyeiTO dKr)Koco<{ •J'oii'tKO? 
Tov ^iXiTTTTOv, e(f>r} Se Koi ce elSevai. dWd yap ovSev et^e aa^e<i 
Xeyetv. av oZv fioi Sii^yr/aai,' SiKaioraTov yap el rovi tov eraipov 
X6yov<! dirayyeXXeiv. irpoTepov Se /xoi, i jJ S' 09, elire, av avTO<s 
C irapeyevov Trj avvovaia ravrr] rj ov ; Kaym eiirov bri, Wavrairaaiv 

eZv 
172 B fv ra avvheiiTvai secl. Baiter J.-U. (rwScmveTv T : avvbe'nrva W 



official style of the address, in which the person is designated hy the name of 
his deme, this being the regular practice in legal and formal proceedings (cp. 
Oorg. 495 D KaXXixX^r t^j) 'hxapveis...'SaKpaTr)s...6 'AXairenTJdev. Ar. J/^ub. 
134) ; but (as Stallb. objected) the order of the words in that case should be 
rather & oStos 'A. d ^oKrjpeis. Hug also finds iraiSid in the hendecasyllabic 
rhythm (£ *aX. ovtos 'An.), and the poetic combination £ ovtos (Soph. 0. G. 
1627, Aj. 89). 

(4) Rettig, reading 6 iaXijpeur, omits (with Badham) the proper name 
'AjToXXoSapor as an adscript. This seems, on the whole, the best and simplest 
solution. Glaucon, at a distance behind, feigns ignorance of the identity of 
"the Phalerian," and shouts after Apollodorus "Ho there! you Phalerian, 
halt,'' in a "stop thief!" tone. It is plausible to suppose also that a certain 
contempt is conveyed in the description <taKt]pevs ("Wapping-ite"): port- 
towns are often places of unsavoury repute: cp. Phaedr. 243c iv vavrms trov 
Te6pap.jievov : Juv. Sat. VIII. 174 "permixtum nautis et furibus ac fugitivis." 

For the summons to halt cp. Ar. I'lut. 440 ovtos, n Spas; & &ei\6TaTov av 
Bfjpiov, I ov nfpijxevtis ; Tkesm. 689 noX TTOi av (JKvyeis; oJVor, ovtos, oii fievels; 
also J<:q. 240, 1354. These passages support the future nfpiixevds rather than 
the present : " futurum est fortius imperantis ; praesens modeste cohortantis 
aut lenius postulantis " (Stallb.). For the future as a lively imperative cp. 
175 a, 212 d. 

172 B iv Tu <riiv8c(irv(i>. Similarly in Aristoph. Oerytades {frag. 204 iv 
Toiai avvSeinvois inaiviav Aio-^i'Xov) avvSeitrvov is used for the more precise 
avfitroawv : and a lost play of Sophocles bore the title 'Axaiiiv avKKoyos rj 
avvSemvov rj avvSfiirvoi (see fragg. 146 ff., Dindf.). 

rCvts ^<rav. For phrases of this kind, " satis libere subjecta orationi," see 
Vahlen, O'p. Acad. ii. 393. 

^oCviKos To6 *iX£irirov. Nothing is known of this man. See Introd. g ii. a. 

SiKaidraros "yAp ktX. tov haipov is almost equivalent to cTaipov ye ovtos, 
giving the reason why Apollodorus is SiKmoTOTos. 

napiyivov TJ (rvvovir((|^. Cp. Hom. Od. XVII. 173 xai a(j>iv itapeylyveTO 
Bain : and the exordium of the Phaedo (57 a) avTos, i> *., napiyivov 2<oKpdTci 
...fj HXKov TOV rjKovaas; 

navToirocriv toixi iroi ktX. " It is quite evident that his narration was of 



1T3A] lYMnOZION 3 

eoiKe <roi oi/Sev SiTjyeta-dat <ra<f)e^ 6 Birjyovfievo<;, el vecoo'Tl rfyel rr/v 
avvovtriav yeyovevai ravrtju ■f/v ipcDTO,^, wcrre kol ifie irapaje- ,^ 
vevOai. "Eymye Sj;, <e<^j;>, Uodev, rjv 8' eya>, m TXavKcav; ovk' 
oiad' on iroXKav ir&v ^Ayddcov ivddSe ovk itriBeSijfjLrjKev, a(^' ov 
iyco 'EcoKparei avvSiarpi^io koI i-jrifieXe<; TreTroirjfiai eKa.aTri<; 
Tj/iepai elBevai o rt &v Xeyj; ^ nrpdrry, oiihetrto rpia err} ia-riv ; 
Trpo Tov Se trepnpe')(tov otttj TV)(oifj,t koI ol6/j,evo<; Tt iroieiv dQXtm- 173 
T6po9 rj orovovv, ov^ ■^TTOV tj crii vvvi, oiofMevo'; Beiv irdvja /MaWov 
TTpaTTeipi 7] ^iXoav^eiv. Kal 09, M^ a-K&TTT, 'i^t), dXX' etVe fioi 
TToTe iyevero f) avvovaia avrrj. Kaym elirov on JlaiSav ovrcav 
r]fJM)v en, ore rfj Trpwrrj TpaytpBia eviKrfvev 'AydOcov, rrj vaTepaia 
TJ ra eTTivuKta edvev avroi re Kal ol ')(opevrai. Tldvv, e<f>r], dpa 

172 Kane Athenaeus, Sz. eym ye 81), e(f>ri Bt.: eyai ye 81} BTW : eya 

yap e(j)ri{v) Athen. : cycoye yap, e(^i; Voeg. : eyary, e<^r) Bdhm. c^' Avko)!" 

Athen.' (VflaSf om. Athen. 173 A ^ Tb: r> pr. B: ^ Wt vOi/ TW 
en ovTtiv rifxav Athen. irpaTri om. Athen. : ro npaTov Usenet ^ om. 

Priscian : fj ^T: ^ Sz. TawivUia Cobet 

the vaguest kind." Sitj-yelaSai is here the infin. of Siijyeiro. The emphatic 
repetition of ovSev a-a(l>4s is a ground for suspecting that the reference is to a 
published account in which the facts were distorted. 

172 C no9ev...<3 rXaiKwv; " What makes you think so, Glaucon ?" There 
is an implicit negation in the question put thus: cp. Gorg. 471 d, Menex. 235c. 
This Glaucon is perhaps the same as the father of Charmides {Charm. 154 a, 
etc.), but probably not the same as the Glaucon of the Republic, though 
Bockh and Munk would identify the two. 

iroXXiSv 4tov ktX. For the bearing of this passage on the dramatic date of 
this prologue, see Introd. § vill. 

eiri|i,cXh ■ir«iroCTi|ioi...6l84voi. The nearest Platonic parallel for this con- 
struction is Ep. vii. 334 a vo>i\ois...vp.ve'iv ravra eirtp^Xec. 

173 A iTfpiTplxwv oirxi Ti5x,oi.ni, i.e. with no fixed principle of conduct, — 
"like a wave of the sea, driven with the wind and tossed." Cp. Tim. 43 b 
araKTas onj] Tvxot npoievai: Seneca de vita beata I. 2 "quamdiu quidem 
passim vagamur non ducem secuti...conteretur vita inter errores brevis," etc. 

ol6|i.«vos tI iroiciv. For n, magnum quid, cp. 219 0, Phaedr. 242 E, etc. 

IlaCScav ovTtov r\fiav In. Sc. ApoUodorus and Glaucon. Plato, too, bom 
about 427 B.C., was a nais at the date of Agathon's victory (416 B.C.). 

TJj irpioTfl Tpa7ii>8(f . " Respicit Plato ad tetralogias " (Reynders). 

Tfl virT6ptt£(j fj. For this (compendious) construction cp. Thuc. I. 60 
TeiriTapaKoiTTrj rip,epa varepov ...j] Jlorldaia dneoTTj (with Shilleto's note); 
Lys. XIX. 22. 

Ti 4iriv(Kio iivev. " Made a sacrificial feast in honour of his victory." On 
this occasion it was the author himself who provided the feast and oflbred the 
sacrifice. Sometimes however it was the Choregus {e.g. Ar. Aeh. 886), and 

• 1—2 



4 yl nAATQNOS [173 a 

irdXai, ft)S eoiKev. j aXXa tis aot, Sirjyelro ; rj outo? 2a)«/3aT»;9 ; Ov 
B fia rov Aia, ■^v B' iyo), aXX' oairep ^oLvikl- 'Apia-roSTjfiov t]v rt?, 
K.vBa6r)vaiev<i, afiiKpo<{. avvriroBr)ro<i del,' irapeyeyovei S' iv ry 
avvovcria, ^coKparovs ipaaTfji} mv iv rot? /idXiara t&v tots, ta? 
ifiol SoK€i. ov jlevTOi, dXkd kuX ^coKpaTt) ye evia ijSr) dvTjpofiTjv 
mv SKeivov fiKovaa, Kal fjLOi wfioXoyei Kaddirep eKelvov Sirjyeiro. ^ Tt 
ovv, eKbf], ov SiT]yijaa) fioi ; ■irdvTU><; Be r) oBo<i rj el<s dcrrv eirirrjBela 
iropevofievoK km Xeyeiv xai, axoveiv. 
C OuTO) 8^ lovTe^ 'd/j,a rov<; \6yov<! irepl avTOiv eiroiovfieda, wtrre, 
oirep dp-)(pii,evo<; eltrov, iPVK dfieXer-qTO)^ ^%<"' ^'' "wi/ Bel Kal v/iiv 
Biriyrjcraadai, ravra 'xprj iroteiv. ical yap eyioye Kal dX\eo<i, orav 
fiev Tiva<; irepl (^Cko(TO<^la<; X6yov<; //rj ai/Toii^ iroiSifun rj dXKav 

173 A TL TW B aXXoa-TTcp BT avvnoSrjros t Ast 

napayeyovei BT xai om. T SiT]yfi<Ti) W : Sirjyjj (TV vulg. 8e 

om. al. : ye J.-U. : yap Susemihl Sei : 8ok« Hirschig 

sometimes the friends of the successful competitor {e.g. Xen. Symp. i. 4). 
Similarly at Rome it was customary for the dux gregis to entertain his troupe 
after a victory (see Plaut. Rud. 1417 if.)- 

173 B "ApurrfSSijuos. See Introd. § il. a. 

ICu8a6i]vai€v$. Schol. Kvdadrjvaiov • Srjpos ev aarei T^ff Ilavdiovldos <l}v\ijs. 
KoKe'iTm Se Koi KvSadov. The poet Aristophanes also belonged to this deme. 

dvviriSSifTos. In this peculiarity A. imitated Socrates, see 174 a, 220 B, 
Ar. Jfub. 103 Toi/s dwnoSrjTovs Xeyftr- | av 6 KaKobaiiiCov ^(OKpaTT)e koi 
Xotpf</)mv, ibid. 362. It is a peculiarity which would appeal to disciples 
with a penchant for the simple life, such as those of the Cynic persuasion. 

<pao"r^s. " An admirer.'' Cp. the application of cVnlpot in 112^ su])i-a. 

kK(lvov...lKfivos. Both pronouns refer to the same person, Aristodemus. 
The statement here made is not without significance, see Introd. g ii. a. 

TC o«v...oi 8n)7Ti<roi. " Haec interrogatio alacritatem quandam animi et 
aviditatem sciendi indicat" (Stallb.). Cp. Meno 92 d (with E. S. Thompson's 
note, where a full list of the Platonic exx. is given). 

■n-dvTus Si KT-A. " For to be sure," confirming the preceding clause with a 
new argument. A good parallel is Laws I. 625 a n-dirwr S' rj ye c'k Kvaa-ov 
686s els TO Tov Aios avrpov Koi iepov, i>s aKovopev, 'iKavrj. 

173 OTTfp dpxo|tevos tlirov. See 172 A ad init. 

A ovv Sei...xpil- The comma is better placed before raCra, with Usener 
and Burnet, than after it, with Hug and earlier editors. A similar turn of 
expression is Soph. Track. 749 el XPV paBelv tre, travTa bfj (jxuveXy xpeiiv. 

avris iroiupioi. Here ApoUodorus seems to claim to be no mere disciple, 
but himself an exponent of philosophy. So far as it goes this might indicate 
that ApoUodorus represents the real author, Plato. For A.'s delight in 
philosophic Xoyoi, cp. what is said of Phaedrus in Phaedr. 228 b, where Socr. 
too is called o voa5>v itepX \6yav. 



173 d] ZYMnOZION 5 

aKovw, Xtoplt Tov oietrOat mcfieXeia-Oai UTrep^uw? eu? ■yaipta' orav 
0€ aWou? Tivd<;, aWo)? re KaX roiii v/ierdpov; tov? ra>v irXovtritov 
KoX 'X^pTjfiaTia-TiK&v, auTo? re ayfiofiai vfia,<s re tou? eraipovi e\.€&, 
y' on oteaOe tI Troieiv/' ovSev iroiovvre';. koI to-w? ai vfieif ifik D 
•^yeiaOe KaKoBaifiova elvai, ical otofiai v/ia<! aXi)0i] oieaOai,' iym 
fievroi v/jia<s ovk otofiai dW' ev olSa. 

ETAI. Aei ofioio<; el, m ' AiroWoSwpe' del yap (ravTov re 
KaKtjyopeli; Kai tou? aWou?, Koi BoKeit fioi ctTevi'w? iravTat 
d0\iov<; ■qyelcrdat irXf/v ZcoKpaTovf, dwo aavrov dp^dfievo<!. koi 

173 xpr)iiaTUTTS>v vulg. D riycltrBe Ooisl. : f/yeiadai BT 

vircp<)>vu$ us x^'P"- This may be explained as a mixture of two con- 
structions, viz. (1) vwei)(j)v4s iimv mr x^'P**! (^) vnfpfj)vS>s x"'P<"' it is found 
also in Oorg. 496 c, Phaedo 66 a, Theaet. 155 c (but in all these places some'/ 
codd. and edd. omit mr). y, 

XpTHWTioTiKwv. For this word in the masc, ''money-makers," cp. Rep. 

581 Q Q y€ )^prjp.aTt(mKos irpos to KepSalveiv Trfv tov TifiatrOat fibovrjv rj ttjv tov 
pavBavfiv ovbivos d^iav (j}ffa-ei eivai, el fifj ei ti avT&v apyvpiov noisi : also 
Phciedr. 248 d. In Meno 78 c {dyada,..^pv(rtov Xeya kuX dpyvpiou KTatrBai) we 
have an expression of the sentiments of a xP';/'"''""''"'")?- Fo"" Apollodorus' 
sentiment, cp. Isocr. c. Soph. 291 d Xcyoucri /icw as ovScv Seovrai xp^f^ortov, 
dpyvplhiov Kai xpwihiov tov ttKovtov diroKaKovvTfs (where the ref. is probably 
to Antisthenes) : cp. also what Alcib. says of Socr., 216 E, 219 e. The gloss- 
hunting critics, strangely enough (as Vahlen remarks), have left the words 
vpds Tovs iralpovs unscathed. 

173 D aXi)STJ oIco-Bai. oUa-Bai here is substituted for fiyf'iadai, a ad the 
following ouK oiofuu is in antithesis, not to the oiopm preceding, but to 
fiyeicrdf. Apollodorus, conscious of his inferiority to Socrates, his ideal, is 
willing to admit that he is not as yet wholly tvSaipav. 

dW e5 olSo. So. oTi KaKoSaifiovh fare. For this exposure of the true 
condition of "the children of this world" who are evSalpoves in their own 
conceit, and despise others, one may cite Apoc. iii. 17 "Thou sayest, I am 
rich and increased with goods and have need of nothing; and knowest not 
that thou art wretched and miserable and poor and blind and naked." 

' AtV ofioios tt. " Semper tibi hac in re constas " (Stallb.) : " you are quite 
incorrigible." So below we have del toiovtos el. Cp. Charm. 170 a dXK' tyw 
KivBvveiKO del ofiows eivai. 

dTCYvws irovras. This seems to be the sole instance in Plato of this 
combination "all without exception"; but cp. Hep. 432 a di oXrjs dTexvS>s 
TeTorai. 

dOXCovs. Here a synonym for KaxoSaipovas, the word used above. Cp. 
Meno 78 a tovs fie dOXlovs ov KaxoSaipovas; Oip,ai, ey<oye,..Ti yap aXXo eo'Tiu 
affkiov eivai rj imdvp-eXv re tSjv kokSiv Koi KTaaSai; 

irXfjv StiiKpiTovs. " Save Socrates only " : notice the emphasis on these 
words, repeated twice. We may discern, perhaps, in this an allusion, by way 



6 nAATQNOZ [173 d 

oTToOev TTore TavTTjv Trjv eiravvfiiav eXaySe? ro naviKoi KoXeiadai, 
ovK oiSa e7a)7e" ei* fiev yap rot? XoyoLt del TOiovTO<i ef aavToi re 
Koi Tol<i aXXot.<; d<ypiaivei<; TrXr/v "XaKpiirovi. (, \ 

E AIIOA. 'fl (piXrare, koL SrjXov ye Brj on oyrco Biavoovfievoi; 
KOI TTepl ifiavrov Kal "jrepl iifi&v fiaivbfiai koI irapdiraico ; 

ETAI. OvK d^iov Trepl tovtwv, ' AiroXXoSape, vvv epi^etv 
a\V oirep eBeofieOd crov, fit) dXX(0<! iroirja-rit;, dXXa Sirjyrjo-ai riv€<; 
rjaav oi Xoyoi. 

AIIOA. ''Haav TOivvv eKecvoi ToioLBe ri,ve<; — ^dXXov 8' 

vt 

173 D fiaXaxosTW: /loXoKos B, Naber. oIk: cu Bast nev yap: 

fiiv -ye Bdhm. Sz.: /icVr' apa Mdvg. E <&> ' kiroKKohape Method. Sz. 

of antithesis, to the Karrjyopia SaKparovs of the sophist Polycrates (see 
Introd. § II. a). 

tit (laviKos KaXticrOai. There can be little doubt {pace Naber) that /xaviKos, 
not /iaXdxot, is the true reading: it is supported by the words /jLolvopai koi 
jrapaTraiai in ApoUodorus's reply. Stall baum supposes an ellipse of some 
such phrase as SokcU Se Xa/Sfiv airodev before ev fitv yap kt\., and (with 
Wolf) explains fiaviKos as referring to the vehemence and excess of Apol- 
lodorus both in praise and blame : cp. Polit. 307 b, and Apol. 21 a where 
Chaerephon (termed pavtKos in Charm. 153 b) is described as a-(f>o8p6s e<f)' S n 
Apitr)a-etev. But the connexion of the sentence iv p-ev yap kt\. with the 
preceding clause is better brought out by Hug ; he supplie.s (after ovk olSa) 
" so ganz ohne Grund wirds wohl nicht sein," so that the line of thought is — 
" Though I do not know exactly why you got the nickname ' fanatic ' — yet in 
your speeches at any rate you do something to justify the title." For a 
similar use of piv yap cp. Polit. 264 O ev pev yap rais Kpj)vais rax' &v tcrcar 
el'ijs rjirdrjfievos. For paviKos cp. also Meno 91 c where Anytus regards wapa 
(ro(j>i(TTas €\6(7v as a sign of pavin: and Acts xxvi. 24 Maivn IlaCXf ra ttoXXu 
o"e ypappnra els paviav TrepiTpenei. 

dypiaCvcis. " Rage like a wild beast," " snarl and snap." Cp. Eep. 493 B 
{Opeppa peya) Tjpepovrai re Ka\ dypialvei. 

173 E 'O 4)£XTaT€ KT-X. Ironical — " Why, my very dear Sir, it is sm-ely 
quite obvious that in holding this view about myself and others I display 
madness and eccentricity ! " 

irapaTraCu. A ana^ elprjpevov in Plato. For the musical metaphor cp. 
Ophelia's "I see that sovereign and most noble reason, Like sweet bells 
jangled, out of tune and harsh." 

OuK &£i.ov...4pCtciv. "We mustn't quarrel." e'pi^eiv, though here used 
jocularly, is properly a strong term, op. Prot. 337 B ap<l>La-^rjre'iv pev, epiCeiv 
Se prj : Rep. 454 A ovk ipi^eiv, aWa SidKeyeaSai (see Adam ad foe). 

p.aXXov 8'. Instead of beginning at once with the speech of Phaedrus, 
Apollodorus proceeds to give an account of the preliminary incidents which 
led up to the Xdyoi. For the significance of this, see Introd. § ii. a. 



174 b] lYMnoZION 7 

e^ o-pxi'i ^fuv to? €Kelvo<; BitiyeiTO koI iyo) ireipdaofiai Sirjy^- 174 
aacOai. 

II. ''E(f)r) rydp ol XmrcpaTT) evTV)(jHv XeKovfievov re Koi ra? 
/SXauTa? v-TToSeSe/Mevov, a eKelvo<; oXiyd/ci,'; iiroiei' kov ipeadai 
avTov OTTOi loi ovTo) Ka\o9 yeyevrj/Aevo';. koX tov evTrelv on Evrt 
Sehrvov el<; ^K<yd6avo<s. ^^e? yap avTov Sii^vyov rot? iTnviKloi<;, 
4>ol3r}deL<! TOV o)(\ov o>fio\6yr)cra h^ eh Truxepovirapecrea-Oai,. ravra 
or) iKaWwTriad/irjv, iva KaXo<i irapai, koKov ito. dWd av, rj 8' 09, 
7ro)9 eT^et9 7rpo9 to i6e\et,v av levai dicKrjTO'; iirl hehrvov ; Kayto, B 

174 A a: o Hertlein (e) ipiaOai Voeg. Sz. rrniepov : TTfv 

a-fiixfpov vulg. B e6e\fiv &v seel. Cobet Jn. &v Uvai Steph. : aviivai BT 



15 dpxiis...'n'cipdo-o|iai 8iT]7i](ra<r9ai.. The same formula occurs in Phaedo 
59 c, Euthyd. 272 d, Epist. vii. 324 b. 

174 A "E<|>r) vdp. (Sc. 6 ' KpuTTohr^iioi. The whole narrative of the dialogue 
from this point on is dependent upon this initial e^r) and therefore written in 
or. ohliqua. oI («i6i) = " Apio-ToSij/io). 

X«Xov|i^vov. For the practice of bathing and anointing before meals see 
Horn. Od. VI. 96 — 7, Xen. Symp. i. 7: Ar. Plut. 614 evaxu<T6ai...\ov(Ta.pfvos, 
Xmapos ;(copmi» ex fioKaveiov. The comic poets were fond of gibing at Socrates 
and philosophers in general as "unwashed," e.g. Ar. Av. 1554 aXovros oS 
\lrvxaya>yft SmicpaTiyr : id. Nub. 835 ff. : Aristophon ap. Mein. iii. 360 ff. 
Aristotle, however, was a champion of the bath, Athen. 178 p anpfnes yap 
riv, <j)rjcr\v 'ApioToreAijr {fr. 165), fJKeiv eh to (rvp,n6a-iov crvv iSpSin woWa 
Koi Koviopra. 

rds pXavras. Schol. ^Xavras' vno^rfpara. oi fie /SXauria, fravddXia £(r;^i'd. 
For Socrates' habit of going barefoot, see 220 b infra, Pkaedr. 229 a, Xen. 
Mem. I. 6. 2, and the note on dwnoSriTos, 173 b supra. 

Tolra Stj iKaXXMiricrdiiiiv. ravra is better taken (with Hug and Hommel) 
as accus. of "internal object" than (with Stallb.) as accus. of "remoter 
object,'' equiv. to 8i(i tiiCth (cp. Prot 310 )s). Elsowhcro in Plato kuWiotti- 
(ea-dai means to " plume oneself," " swagger," e.g. Hep. 605 d. Observe the 
word-play: "I have put on my finery, because he is such a fine man" 
(Jowett): cp. the proverb Spows opolw (195 b). 

irapd KoXov. Sc. 'AydBojva — "to Agathon's (house)"; equiv. to els 'Ayd- 
6a>vos above. For " the handsome Agathon," see Prot. 315 d — e {tt)v ISeav 
Trdvv KoXdr), Ar. Tliesm. 191 ff. 

irws ?X''S TTpis ktK. Cp. 176 B TTwi e^et npos to eppSxrBai Triveiv; Prot. 
352b, Parm. 131 E. Cobet's excision of e64\eiv 'w is wanton: cp. (with Ast) 
Phaedo 62 C to tovs <j>i\o(r6<j>ovs pabtas civ eSeXetv aTrodvrjfTKeiv. 

174 B okXi]tos. The jester (yeXayroirotos) who frequents feasts as an 
uninvited guest seems to have been a stock character in Epicharmus; and 
in Xen. Symp. Philippus is a person of this type. Araros the comic poet 
was, apparently, the first to dub them irapda-iroi. Cp. also Archil. 78. 3 oi8e 



1^ 



8 nAATfiNOZ [174 b 

e(f>7), elirov on Owto)? oiroxs av crii KeXevy^. "Ettov to'lvvv, e<}>7], 
Iva Kat Trjv irapoifilav Sia<f}0eipcofiev fiera^dWovre^, a)? apa Kol 

174 B utTafiaWovres B, Athen., Sz.: iieTa^aKovTcs T, Bt. 

fifiv Kktideic (yip' fffiav) ^\6es, ola fi^ ^tXor ; and Plut. Q. Conv. VII. 6. 1, p. 707 B 
TO 8e Tav €7rtK\r]Taiv edos, ovs vvv *^ (TKias " KoKovfTiv, ov KeK\r]fievovs ai/Tovs, 
dXX' vno tS>v KfieXtjiifvav «7rl to Sfiirvoi/ dyo/ievovs, ffi/Tfiro irodev e(r\e Ttpi 
ap)(Tjv. cdoKet 8' dn6 ^(OKpaTOvs Aptarodrffiov dvaneitravTos ov KeK\ijfievov €is 
'AydOavoi Uvai avv aiiTa icai iraBovra "ri •yfXoiov" (see 174 0, with note). In 
Lat. vocare is similarly used of " inviting " (aliquem ad cenam Ter. And. 2. 6. 
22), and invocatus=aK.\TiTos in Plant. Gapt. 1. 1. 2 ("invocatus soleo esse in 
convivio "). 

Sia^OcCpuficv (xcTapdWovTEs. hia^deipa is sometimes used of " spoiling " or 
" stultifying " a statement or argument, e.g. Oorg. 495 A, Prot. 338 D. And 
fieTa^oKKfiv of linguistic alteration (transposition, etc.), as in Cratyl. 404 c 

{^fp<Tf<f>6vj] for ^€ppi(f>aTTa), 

«s fipa ktX The force of Spa is to indicate that the proverh, when 
amended, " still, after all " holds good. Two forms of the proverb are extant, 
viz. (1) avTOfiOTOi 8' dyadoi SeiXcSv cttI Sairas lacrt (see Schol. ad h. I., Athen. 
IV. 27) ; and (2) avTo/iaToi 8' dyaBoi d7a6(Sv «Vi Sairas lairi. The latter form is 
vouched for by the poeta anon, quoted by Athen. i. 8 a (Bergk P. L. G. p. 704), 
dyaOhs irphs dyadovs avSpas (iortaa-dpevos fiKov : Bacchyl. fr. 33 (22 Blass) 
aiiTopuToi 8' dyaSav fiaiTar ev6)(6ovs irrfpxovrai SiKaioi (j>S>Tes [cp. Zenob. II. 19 
avTOfiOTOt S dyadoX dyadatv KTe. • ovrtos 6 BaK^vKiSrjs ixp^o'aTO Trj irapoifjita, as 
lipaK\4ovs €7ri<poiTrjtravTos eir\ Tqv oiKLav Ktjvkos tov Tpaxiviov Koi ovTas 
fliTovTos]: Cratinus/r. Ill (Mein.) o18' aS6' ^fiels, as 6 waXaios | Xdyor, avro- 
fiOTOvs dyaBois livai | KOfi^Stv in\ baira Bearav : also a number of post-Platonic 

passages cited by Hug, such as Plut. Q. Conv. vii. 6 ad fin. According to the 
Scholiast (I) is the original formj which was altered (fieraXXu^ar) to (2) by 
Cratinu.s and Eupolis ; and this is the view adopted by Stallbaum, Rettig and 
others. But Hug's elaborate investigation of the matter proves convincingly, 
1 think, that the Scholiast is wrong and that the form with dya6o\ dyad&v 
was the original, of which the form with dya6oi 8(i\av is a parody by Eupolis 
(or Cratinus). This view, first suggested by Schleiermacher, is also supported 
by Bergk (ad Bacchyl. Jr. 33) : " SchoL Plat. Symp. 174 d a voro aberrat cum 
dicit a principio 8ei\S>v e'irl 8aiTas fuisse, quamquam fidem habuerunt cum 
alii tum Miiller Dor. ll. 481 : neque enim par fuit Herculem tam gravi 
opprobrio hospitem laedere. Eupolis primus, ut videtur, ludibundus SeiXuv 
substituit. Locum difficilem Platonis, qui falso criminatur Homerum cor- 
rupisse proverbium quod ille omnino non respexit, nemodum probabiliter 
expedivit. Alia varietas, quam nostri homines oommenti sunt, SctXoi 8ii\av, 
omni auctoritate destituta est." The main difficulty in the way of accepting 
this view lies in the words 8iaipd(ipa>p.ev fuTa^dWovTcs. For even if (with most 
modem editors) we accept Lachmann's brilliant conjecture 'Aya6<ov'{i), the 
change thus involved is so slight that it could hardly be called a 8i.acl}dopd, 
nor could the alteration involved in the Homeric account be spoken of as a 



174.C] ZYMnOIION 9 

" 'AydOwv 67rl Satra? laaiv avrofiaToi dyaOoL" "Ofif}po<; ftev yhp 
Kivhvvevei ov fiovov Sia(j>6elpai, aXXa Kal v^piaai ei? ravTrjv rijv 
Trapoifiiav TTCTjo-a? yhp top ^ Ayafie/ivova Si,a^ep6vT(i)<; dyadov C 
avSpa Ta troXefU^a, top Be M.eve\emv " fiaX0aKov al'XjirjTijv," 
dvaiav TToiovfievov xal k(TTi&VTO<; tov ' Ayafji,efivovo<; aK\r)Tov iiroirj- 
aev eKdovra tov MeveXemi' eVt Tr]v Ooivrjv, xetpo) ovTa eTrl tt/v tov 

174 B 'Ayddav' Lachmann: ayadS>v BT 8ia(f)fp6vTa)S-i-av8pa + Kai 

i<rTiS)VTos om. Athen. 

double one {8ia(f>6tlpai Koi i^pla-ai). The former objection, if it stood alone, 
might bo obviated by the device of inserting /xri before Sia<^6fipwpfv : but in 
view of the passage as a whole this device is inadmissible. We seem forced 
to conclude that, whatever the original form of the proverb may have been 
(and as to this Hug's view is probably right), the form which Plato had here 
in mind was the form (1) given by Eupolis : and if Plato knew this form to 
be only a parody of the original (2), we must suppose further that the serious 
way in which he deals with it, as if it really were a "wise saw," is only a 
piece of his fun — a playful display of Socratic irony. (Cp. Teuffel, Rhein. 
Mus. XXIX. pp. 141 — 2.) 

'A'yil8<av'...a7aeoC. For the dative cp. Prot. 321 c avopovvn bk avrw epxfrai 
Upopridevs. Similar exx. of paronomasia occur in 185 c, 198 c, Gorff. 513 b 
{Sij/ios and Demus, son of Pyrilampes), Rep. 614 b (nXxt/jor, Alcinous) : cp. 
Riddell Digest § 323. Teuifel (loc. cit.) prefers to retain ayaBSiv, partly 
because of the plur. hairas, partly to avoid the elision of the iota ; but neither 
of these objections is serious, and as to bairas, the feast in question lasted at 
least two days, which might in itself suffice to justify the plural. Jowett's 
transl. implies that he retains aya6S>v and supposes (1) to have been the 
original form of the proverb "demolished" by Socr. and Homer. 

"OjJLT^pos yjkv Y^p. The antithesis — f]fj.eis be povov bia<j)$€lpop€v^ or the like — 
is easily supplied from the context : for pkv yap, elliptical, cp. 176 c, and 173 d 
supra. The suggestion that Homer wilfully distorted a proverb which in his 
day was non-existent is, as Hug observes, obviously jocose. 

vppCirai. The word may retain a flavour of its juridical sense — " liable to 
a criminal prosecution for assault and battery" : and if so, Siacpdelpa too may 
hint at the crime of "seduction."' Homer is chargeable not only with seducing 
but with committing a criminal assault upon the virgin soundness of the 
proverb. 

174 (loXOaKiv a\.\\Lryr^v. "A craven spearman." II. xvii. 587 oiov bri 
MfveXaov vneTpftras, ot to wdpos jrcp | /inXdoKor alxPITris. pa\6aK6s, as a 
variant for pdKaKos, is used by P. also in 195 d, Phaedr. 239 c. Both forms, 
Mfrt'Xfws and Mfvf Xnos, are found in Attic prose; the latter, e.g., in Euthyd. 
288 c. In Athenaeus v. 3, 188 b we have a criticism of this treatment of 
Menelaus. 

£kXi]tov lTroCT)irev iXBovra. See II. II. 408 airopaTot bi oi rjKde fioriv dya66s 
Mevi\aos : cp. Athen. v. 178 a. Thus the vfipis with which Homer is charged 



10 nAATQNOI [174 c 

afieivovo<;. tuvt aKOvaa^ elireiv e^T) "lo-w? fievToi KivSwevao) Kal 
ijo) ov-^^ «B? (rii XeyeK, to Sw/cpare?, aXX.a Kaff' "O/jirjpov <f>av\,o'; wv 
eVt ao(j>ov dvBpo<; livat OoivTjv aicKrjTO's. opa oiv aycov fie rl diro- 

D Xoyijar/, w? eyci /j,ev ov'X^ 6fio\oyi](Teo dK\7jT0<; rjKeiv, aW' vtro aov 
KeK\r]fji,evoi. " Ivv re Sv," e^rj, " ip'^ofieveo irpo 6 tov" ^ovXev- 
aofieda 6 ri ipovfiev. aXKa icofiev. 

ToiavT arra a<^d<} e^T) StaXe^^ej'Ta? levai. tov oZv 'S.coKpa.TT) 
eavTm ttw? irpocre'XpvTa tov vovv kuto, rr/v oSov iropeveaOai vtto- 
XeiTTOfievov, Kal ireptfievovTo'} ov KeXevetv irpoievai et? to irpoadev. 
eVetS^ Be yevicrOat i-jrl rfj olKia Ty ' AydOavo^, dveaiyfievrjv Kara- 

E Xafifidveiv rtjv Qvpav, Kai tl e<f>rj avToOt yeXoiov iradelv. ol p.ev 
yap evdv<s iralSd Tiva evBodev aTravTijaavTa dyeiv ov KaTeKeivTO ol 
dXXoi, Kal KaToXafi^dveiv ijSr] fieXXovTa<i Benrveiv evdv<; S" o5v 

174 opa...Ti Bdhm. : apa. ..rtB: 3pa...nT (riW) ayaywv Creuzer 

D 6 TOV Gottleber (Horn. K 224) : dSoO BTW : om. Hermog. dXXd la/ifv 

T : dXK' faififv B TTopivofifvov viroKe'imadai Rohde Sz. Se (I) Cobet Sz. : 

8' i Baiter J.-U. E of Photius, b : oi BT : tov W {rav) evhoBtv 

Poraon Sz. J.U. Bt. : tov evSov Photius, Jn. 

consists in making not an dya66s but a fiaKOoKos ( = Sei.\6s) come axXi/rop 
dyadtov eirt SaiTas. 

4irl <ro<|>ou dv8po$. tro^os, "accomplished," was " a fashionable epithet of 
praise in Plato's time, especially applied to poets" (see Rep. 331 e, 489 b, 
with Adam's notes). 

opa o«v kt\. This correction of the traditional S/>a...rj is certain. Cp. 
189 a opa ri irouls: Phaedo 86 d opa ovv...Ti (j>ria-opev. For the dangers of 
violating etiquette on such occasions, see Ar. Av. 983 ff. avTap inrjv aiaXriTos 
id)!' avoptairos d\a^Q}v | Xvirij dvovTas Ka\ cmXay^veviLU ijrtdvfijj, | drj Tore )(prj 
TVTTTCiv avTQV irXcvpSiv TO fiera^v. 

174 D 2iiv T€ 8v' K7-X. See II. x. 224 (Diomedes loq.) aiv t€ dv ipxofUvo) 
Kai re npb 6 tov c'vorjcrfp | oTTTrtos KtpSos crj- The same verses are quoted more 
exactly in Prot. 348 c: cp. also Arist. Pol. iii. 1287'' 13; Cic. ad fain. ix. 7. 
For cxx. of how Plato "variia modis multis aftcrt aliena," see Vahlen Op. 
Acad. I. jip. 476 ft". 

4irei8i] 8i yivia-9ai. The infin. in place of the indie, is due to assimilation : 

cp. Rep. 614 D fcjirj 8e, e'naSij ou eK^rjvat Tr)v ijfV](riv, noptvttrBai,: see Goodwin 
O. M. T. § 755. 

174 E Ka£ Ti...'ycXotov iraOeiv. It was an awkward situation in smart 
society. Cp. Plut. Conv. 6 p. 628 iXaBe yap Kara Trjv odov vnoXei.<j)6e\s 6 
SaKpaTTjS, 6 St irapetfri)\6(v, oTexyS'S (TKia npo^aSl^ovaa o-apiaTOs i^oirtaBc to 
(jiuis e^otfTOS. 

ot {sibi) goes with diravTijo-avra. Porson's insertion (from Photius) of tS>v 
before cvSodev is no improvement : evSoOev is to be taken with diravTrjo-avTa, 
and there is no indication that there were any c^adtv TraiSes. ' 



175 A] ZYMnOZION 11 

to? ISelv Tov 'AydOwva, 'Xi, (fxivai, 'Apia-roSijfie, «'? koXov ^/eet? 
OTTft)? (yvvhenrvriariif el S' aWov tivo^ eveica rj\6ev, el<; av0i<; dva- 
l3a\.ov, a>9 Kal ^^e? ^tjt&v ae "va KoXeaaifiii ovx olot t ^ IBelv. 
aWa 'ZtOKparr) rjfilv ttw? ovk dyei^ ; Kal iym, e<f)r], fieTaarpe^o- 
{jjevot ovBa/iov opw Xco/epdrr) errofievov' eiirov oZv on Kal auTo? 
/lera 'EtoKpaTovt ^KOi/jut, KX'r}6el<! inr eKeivov Bevp' eVi Selttvov. 
K.aX&<s y', e<f>ri, iroiciv cv • aXXa Trot) eariv outo? ; "OTria-dev ep,ov 175 
apri ela-pef aWa Oavfid^m Kal avTO'i irov av eirj. Ov aKeyjrr}, 
eipT), Trai, <})dvai, tov 'Ayd0(eva, Kal elffd^ei'; XtOKpaTTi ; crii S', fj K 
09, ApicrToSij/Me, nap' ^Epv^ifiaj(ov KaraKXivov. 

III. Kat § fiev etf}rj dirovi^eiv rov valSa, "va KaraKeoiTO' 
aXKov Be riva r&v tralBcav rjKetv dyyeWovTa on ^(OKpdrtji; ovto'; 
ava-)(a>pri<Taf; iv tw TUiv yeiTovcov Trpodvp^ earrjKe Kal ov KaXovv- 
To? OVK eOeXei eiaievai. "Atottov y, e<pr), Xeyet?" ovkovv AcaXets 
amhv Kal firj a<j)'^aei<! ; Kal os e^ eiTrelv Mi^Sa/iw?, dXX' edre 

174 E & T ; w B srvvSeiTrvfiirfK Laur. XIV. 85, Bekk. Sz. t fjT: 

T( B e(j)Tjv T ovSa/iij TW iJKoiiu Tb : ^Koi /17 B y T : otn. B 

175 A (Ifrjjt IV Cohct ojrou Hirschig e^EVBast: t Stopli.: f'/te BT 

c</)i;l/ T iva (irou) vulg. : oirov Tmg. tv TO) Steph. J.-U.: i'v TOV Mdvg. 

Kal ov BT: KafjLOv W, Bt. : koI erou t KaXoic Tmg. W: kuXci rec. b 

avTov : avBis Herwerden aipri<r7)s T 



«ls KoXov i]K«is. " Soj'ez le bienvenu ! " For the construction see Goodwin, 
§317. 

\6h SuTOv o-« ktX. Hug regards this as a piece of polite mendacity on the 
part of Agathon. Are we, then, to construe Alcibiades' statement, x^" H-^^ 
ovx olos T( ktX (212 e) as a similar exhibition of " Salonweltlichkeit " ? 

175 A irap' "E. KaraKXCvov. Usually each kXiVi; held two, but in 175 C 
it is said that Agathon had a couch to himself, while in 213 a we find three 
on the same couch. 

airovf^civ t4v iraiSo. The article indicates that a special slave was set 
apart for this duty. For the custom of foot-washing see Plut. Phoc. 20; 
Petron. Sat. 31 ; Evang. Luc. vii. 44 ; Joann. xiii. 5. For the hand-washing 
see Ar. frag. 427 (pepe, nal, raxfOKS Kara p^eipos vSiop, | Trapdnciine to x^'P"" 
p-aKTpov. 

ZuKpdnjs oStos ktX. The ipsissima verba of the nais are here repeated, 
hence the use of oItos and of the def. article with npoBipa : in the corrections 
proposed by Madvig and Herwerden this point is overlooked. For trpodvpov, 
"porch," i.e. the space between the house-door (avXeia) and the street, see 
Smith D. A. I. 661*. 

OVKOVV KaXcis ktX. KoKeh is of course future, not pres. as Ruckert wrongly 
supposed. For the constr. see Goodwin G. M. T. § 299. 



12 nAATQNOZ [175 a 

B avTOV. 60o<; yap ri tout' ej^ef iviore airoarat oiroi av Tf^J? 
etTTijKev. ^fei 8e aiirUa, w? 67<» ol/iai. firj oiv kwuts, aW' 
eaT6. 'AW' ovrm XPV froieiv, el aol SoKei, e^r] <f)avai tov 'Aya- 
da>va. dW' rifji.a<s, m TrotSe?, tov<; dWov<; eariaTe. Trai'TW? nrapa- 
rlOere o ti av ^ovXtjcrde, iireiSdp Tt? vfiip (i-q e^ecnr}Kri — o eym 
ovSeircoTrore iiroirjaa' vvv oZv, vo/ii^ovre^ Kai efie u</) vfi&v KeKXij- 

C <T0ai, eTTL SeiTTVov Koi TOi/ffSe tous aWous, depaTrevere, tpa v/id<s 
eiraiv&fiev. ' 

McTa TavTa e^i} <r<^a? fiev SeiTri'eti', tov Se 2ta«cpaTJj ov/e 

175 B toJto T Priscian: roiovrov W iviore... ea-rqKiv del. Voeg. 

ei^r) T: om. B iircibav Tis...iifi BT: iirei ris...ov ixfj L. Schmidt: ciret 

ov Sfj Tis.../i^ Hug: eVei S^ Tir...oi /i^ Sz.: e'jrel koi Wo-is.../*^ (f</)eo-TijKOi) 
Verm.: €1 -y' 6 7-a/iiar.../i4 Usener; tireiSav avr6c.../i^ cj. Bt.: eiye dvayKi; tw... 
;i^ coniciebam ecjtea-TrjKji T : e^eur^KijW: i^earrjuei ^ : "latet f^forijicei'' 
Usener 



175 B iravTws iraparCOtTj. For the use of Travras with imper., cp. Xen. 
Cyrop. VIII. 3. 27 navras Toivvv...8ei^iu /ioc irf. Oecon. XII. 11, III. 12. For 
irapanOrjfu of " putting on the table," cp. iSep. 372 C TpaytjfiaTa ttov rrapa- 
dfjao/itv airois ktX. Reynders adopts the reading wavras, koi irapaTiBcTe. 

lirnSdv...)!^ l(j>€<mJKD. These words are difficult. They should naturally 
mean (as Stallb. puts it) "si quando nemo vobis est propositus"; and so 
Stallb. proposes to construe them, taking the clause as dependent on and 
limiting o ti hv Bov\r]a-6e. This, however, is, as Hug argues, almost certainly 
wrong. If we retain the text of the mss. we can only explain the phrase by 
assuming an ellipse — ''serve up what dishes you like (as you usually do) 
whenever no one is in command." So Zeller renders " tragt uns getrost auf, 
was ihr woUt, wie ihr es gewohnt seid, wenn man euch nicht unter Aufsioht 
nimmt," etc. ; and Rieckher (Rhein. Mus. xxxiii. p. 307) " Machet es wie ihr 
es immer macht, wenn man euch nicht beaufsichtigt (und das habe ich ja 
noch nie gethan), und setzt uns vor was ihr mBget." Most of the emendations 
offered (see crit. n.) are based on the assumption that the clause in question 
qualifies the leading clause (jtuvt-ws irapanBere) : none of them are convincing, 
and the construction oi /i^.-.e^eor^Kfl (the pres.-perf.) assumed by Schanz 
and llug lacks support. If compelled to resort to conjecture, the best device 
might be to read ei ye p.rj for ineihav, cut out the /i^ after vpiv, and change 
the mood of the verb to e'<f>iaTT]Kev — following in part the suggestions of 
Usener. The ordinary text does not admit of Jowett's rendering, "serve up 
whatever you please, for there is no one to give you orders ; hitherto I have 
never left you to yourselves." As regards the force of o...inoii)aa, L. Schmidt 
explains the clause to mean "nunquam autem rem ita ut nunc institui," 
implying that the concession to the slaves was unusual: Teuffel, on the 
contrary, sees in it a piece of ostentation on the part of Agathon, boasting 
of his humanity. The former is clearly wrong. 



175 d] lYMnOIION 13 

eiaievai. tov oiv ^Ayadcova 7roWa/ct9 KeKeveiv fieTairkfi-'^aadat 
Tov "ZcoKparr], I Se ovk iav, rjiceiv oiv avTOV ov ttoXvv ■)^p6vov, 
0)9 eltiidei, BiarpiylravTa, dWh fiuKitrra <r<^a<i fiecovv SenrvovvTa<;. 
TOV ovv 'Ayddava — rvy^dveiv yap ecrxo-Tov KaraKeifievov fiovov — / 
Aefip , e<^r) ^dvai, ScuAC/sare?, Trap' e'/te KaraKeia-o, 'iva Kol tov D 
aoijiov diTTOfievo'; trov diroXavaw, o aoi "irpoa-eaTT) iv rots irpodv- 

175 G f 8( BW : *** 8c T (tov 8e fuisse videtur) : airov 8e vulg. : t Sc 
cj. Bekk. OVK iav B: ovKav T D AtrToiitvos (rov TW: om. B, J.-U. Sz. 

npotrearrj T : 7rp6<rf(rTiv B 



175 iroXXaKts KtXtveiv. This is an ex. of the prea. infin. representing 
an inipf. indie. : "He said, iheiirvovfiev, 6 8e S. ovk. dirfifi- 6 ovv *A. cKtkfvtv 
iya> St OVK e'iav" (Goodwin 0. M. T. § 119, where see parallels). The accus. ?, 
of the speaker, is here used in proferoucG to the more regular iiomin. (ainit) 
in order to balance the accus. roc 'KyaBava : cp. Gorg. 474 b iya o'/iai koI ifii 
Koi (re...fiyfia-6ai, and below 175 E. 

us cluSci. To be taken closely with ov n. xp- '■ '^^ should rather say 
"contrary to his usual custom," the sense being "he arrived unusually soon 
for him." For a striking instance of Socrates' i6os see 220 c, where 7ro\vv 
Xpovov dUTpiyjrev* 

H(tXi.(rTa...S6nrvovvTas. For pAurra of approximate measurement, cp. 
Parm. 127b irepl errj poKurra jreVre koI f^r/KovTa: Tim. 21 B, Crito 43 a. 
Nowhere else in Plato is peaovv joined with a participle, nor does L. and S. 
supply any parallel. 

iaxttTov...|tovov. Agathon occupied the last kXivt] on the right: this was 
the "lowest seat" at the table, and commonly taken, in politeness, by the 
host. The seat of honour {npovopi)) was the left-hand place on the kXiVi; 
furthest to the left. Thus if four KKivai are placed in a row, numbered 
A — D, and each seating two persons, the person who occupies A' is termed 
irpmToc, and the occupant of D* taxaTos: as thus 

r-T— 1 i—pn r~i~i r~r~i 

At this "Banquet" Phaedrus as occupying A' is described as n-pSros in 177 d: 
see also the discussion between Socrates and Alcibiades in 222 b. Cp. Theophr. 
Char. 21 6 Be ptKpo(f>iK6Tipos toiovtos tk olos (TTrovbdatu enl SfiTri/oi/ icXijflfif Trap' 
avTov TOV KaXeVavra 8cinvrl(Tat : Stob. Flor. XIII. 36 Aiovi(TiOi..,a.Tipa^a>v airrov... 
KaTeK\iVfv avTov iv Trj itrxaTji X^'Pf- 

175 D ToC <ro<|)ov. . .diroXtt<l<r<ii. tov itoi^ov is neut., being the antecedent of 
o, not in agreement with aov : " that I may enjoy the piece of wisdom which 
occurred to you." The omission of ATTTopevos a-ov by B is probably accidental : 
without the words (as Teufifel observes) Socr.'s remark {iav Attt.) would be less 
natural. 



14 nAATQNOZ [175 D 

pot?. SrjXov ryap on €vpe<; avro koI ej^et?* ov yap av irpoaireaTr)';. 
Koi rov "liOSKpaTT) KaOii^ecrOav koX elweiv ori Ew av e'xpi, (jydvai, (2 
^AiydOav, el toiovtov e'ii) rj ao^ia &<tt e« rov irXrjpearepov et? ro 
Kevarepov peiv ■qfiSiv, eav airrcofieOa aXXr/Xav, ooairep to iv Tai<i 
KvXi^iv vBcop TO Bi^ Tov iplov peov eK Trj^ TrXrjpearTepat et? ttjv 
E Kevcorepav. el yap ovTto'i ey(et Kal rj <TO(f>ia, ttoXKov Ti/jLa)p,at ttjv 
irapa ao\ KardicXicnv olpai yap fie irapd aov ttoW^? Ka\ KaXrj<i 
ao<^ia<; TrXijpad'^aeaffai. rj nev yap ifir) <f)avXr) Tts av eirj Kal 
dfi<f>i<T^7]Ti]cn,fio<;, wcrTrep ovap o?icra, rj he arj Xap,irpa\Te Kal iroKXrjv 
eirihoaiv e-)(ovaa, fj ye irapd aov veov ovto<; ovtco a^oBpa i^eXafiyjfe 
Kal eK^avrj^ eyevero irpunjv ev fidpTvai tcov 'EXXj^wwi/ irXeov rj 
Tpicr/jLvpioi<;. 'T^SptoTT^? el, e(j>7], u> 'ZaKpare^, 6 'Ayddcov. Kal 
ravra fiev Kal oXiyov varepov BiaSiKaaoiJ.eda eyco re Kal ai) 

175 D 7-0 BT : tov corr. Coisl., J.-U. Sz. cplov : opyavmi Cornarius : 

v\iarr]piov vel ijBrjviov Fischer ex Trjs..,Kfva>r4pav del. Voeg. Naber 

Ii Tifiaiiiai T : TijxS>iiev B : TifiSt /lev Stallb. /jie del. Usener koi B : 

^ Koi TW rj yeT: tt y€ B Koi : aWa vulg. 

ov 7oLp av irpoair^o-Ti]s. The protasis is suppressed : Stallbaum supplies 
£1 fifi cvpcs avTo : while Hug explains the phrase as a conflate of two thoughts, 
viz, (1) oitK CIV airifTTT^s el fir) eSpes, and (2) ov •jrpoaTTea'njs np\v evpeiv. 

€ls TO KtvwTcpov. FiciHUs renders "ut in vacuum hominem ex pleniore 
ipso contactu proflueret," and many edd. adopt t6v in preference to to (so 
too Jowett's transl.). 

uo-irep To...vSii>p ktX. Editors from Riickert down generally accept the 
explanation of this passage offered by Geol. Two cups, one empty the other 
full, are placed in contact : a woollen thread, with ono end inserted in the full 
cup, the other hanging into the empty cup, serves by the law of capillarity to 
convey the fluid from the one to the other. 

175 E c|>avXi)...Kal a|ji<|>io-P'i]n<o-ip.os. "Meagre" in quantity and "question- 
able" in quality, in antithesis to ttoXX^ in quantity and koX^ in quality. 

ttoXXtiv «irC8oo-iv ^xovo-a. Hug supposes an astral allusion — "like a quickly- 
rising star." This, however, is not necessarily conveyed by the term «7riSoo-ir, 
for which cp. Theaet. 146 n tj vemr)s els nav twiSoatv ex"> "■"^ tlio intrans. use 
of iniSMvai, I'rot. 318 A, T/ieaet. ISO D, etc. 

oStw o-ifiaSpa (crX. Notice the ironical tone — exaggeration coupled with 
a purple patch of poetic diction : " shone out with such dazzling splendour 
before the eyes of three myriads of Greek spectators." 

'Yppio-Tiis «l. " What a scoffer you are !" Observe that v^pis is one of the 
main charges laid against Socr. by Alcibiades also (219c, etc.); cp. Introd. 
§ n. B. 

Ta£Ta...Sia8iKairo|iE8a. "We will formally plead our claims in regard to 
these heads." " Technically diadicada denotes the proceedings in a contest 
for preference between two or more rival parties either as to the iiossession 



176 a] ZYMnOIION 15 

irepl T?)? (ro<j)ia<!, 8iKa<rrf} j(pa>fievoi rm Aiovva'a' vvv he Trpbt to 
Seiirvov irpwra Tpeirou. / 

IV. MeTii TavTa, e^rj, KaraKKivevroi; tov %o)Kpdrov<; Koi 176 
henrvrj<Tavro<; koX rmv aXKwv, (nrovZd<; re a<^a<; Troiija'acrOai, kul 
aaavra'! tov Oeov Koi rdWa to, vofjii^6/j.eva Tpeireadat irpoi tov 
troTov Tiiv ovv Ylavaaviav e^rj \oyov TotovTov rivo^ Karap'X^eiv. 
Etei/, avBpes, <}>dvat, Tiva rpoirov paara Triop,e6a ; iyo) fikv ovv 
Xeiyw Vfuv on rm ovTt irdvv ^aXeTrw? e^^w viro tov %^e? ttotov Kal 

175 E nepi Trjs (roqylas del. Hirschig 176 A (ms) Kai Ta>v Rohde 

Kal TaXXa : Kara Ast : Ka\...voiii^6iicva post TroirjcratTdat transp. Steinhart 
&v8pfs : ^vdpfs Sauppe Sz. pfio-ra BT : jj8i<TTa yp. t 

of property or as to exemption from personal or pecuniary liabilities.... The 
essential difference between diadicada and the ordinary hUm is, that all 
claimants are similarly situated with respect to the subject of dispute, and 
no longer classified as plaintiffs and defendants" (Smith, D. A. i. 620''). 
TTcpi TTjs (ro<j)ias, added loosely as an afterthought, serves to define roOra: 
Teuffel, as against Jahn, rightly defends the words ; and they serve to strike 
one of the keynotes of the dialogue. 

SiKacrTxj...T$ Aiovia-ia. Dionysus is an appropriate choice since it was 
under his auspices that Agathon {nparjv) had engaged in an dyav and won 
a prize for poetic a-otjiia. There may also lie in the words (as Wolf and Rettig 
suppose) a jocular allusion to the o-o<j}ta which is ars bibendi, wherein also 
Agathon was SwaTaraTos (176 c). Compare also the pastoral pipe-contests 
of Theocritus, and Theognis 993 ff. ft...a6'\ov... \ troi t fti/ koi f'/xoi a-off^iijs wipi 
BtjpiaravToiv, \ yvoirjs \' otraov ovav Kpi(T(rov(S fjfiiovoi. Cp. Introd. § II. B. 

176 A o-irov8as...vopt(S(i.€vo. Plato spares us the details of the ritual 
proper to such occasions. From other sources we may gather that it included 
(1) a libation of unmixed wine to ayaBbs haipxov (Ar. Eq. 105, etc.) ; (2) the 
clearing, or removal, of the tables (Xen. Symp. ii. 1); (3) the fetching, by 
the jraiSef, of a second supply of water for the hands (Ar. Vesp. 1217 etc.); 
(4) the distribution of wreaths among the guests (Theogu. 1001, Ar. Acharn. 
1145); (5) the pouring out of three libations, viz. (a) to Zeus Olympios and 
the Olympian gods, (6) to the Heroes, and (c) to Zeus Soter (Schol. ad Phileb. 
66 D ; Aesch. Suppl. 27, etc.) ; (6) the singing of a Te Beum (aStiv tov 6f6v, 
wmaviCfiv Xen. Symp. il. 1, Alcman/r. 24b, etc.): see Hug's exhaustive note. 
Riickert wrongly makes rSXKa ra vopi^opeva depend on Sa-avras : supply (as 
Reynders) iroirja-apivovs. For koi tgXXo, cp. (with Vahlen) Euthyd. 294 c, 
Rep. 400 D : for ra vopi^opeva, quae maris sunt, cp. //. Ale. 151 B. 

rlva Tp6irov p^irro. Schol. paara- to rjSiiTTa evravSa ar/paivci. Cp. Od. IV. 
565 rfj irep {sc. in Elysium) prjiarq ^iot^ : and the combination paara sal 
TJSurra, Xen. Mem. ll. 1. 9. (See also Vahlen Op. Acad. il. 212 ff. ctd 
Phaedo 81 o). 

irilvu x*'^'^™* ^X"- The notion is " I was roughly handled in my bout with 
the wine-god yesterday " : cp. Theaet. 142 b p^aXeTrSr ^x^i- ^"'o Tpavjiarav rtvav. 



16 nAATQNOZ [176 a 

Biofiai avaylrvx^<! rivoi, dlfiai Bk koX vfi&v tovs ttoWovs — Traprjare 

B yap x^^^' <TK0Treia6e o?>u, rivi Tpoira av mi paara irivoi/xev. rov 

otiv ^ kpiaro^avr) eliTfiv, ToOto fievroi e3 XiyeK, do Tlavaavia, to 

/' ttuvtI rpoiru) irapaa-Kevda-aadai, paarmvqv Tiva rrji Trocreo)?- Kal 

yap avTOi elfii t&v X^^'' ^e^aTrTia/jievcov. aKovcravra o^v ainStv 

e^T] 'Eipv^ifiaxov tov 'AKovfievov 'H Ka\&i, ^dvai, Xeyere. Kat 

'in evb<; Beofiai v/jL&v aKovaai, trSi'; exet Trpo? to eppaxrffai, viveiv 

'Ayddtov. OvSa/jicoi, (}>dvat, ov8' aiTO<! eppio/xai. '^p/iaiov av eirj 

C '^P'lv, r] S' 6'?, a>? eoiKev, ifioi re Kal ' ApicnohrjiJiat Kal ^aiBpo) kul 

TotcrBe, el u/tet? ol BwaTcoTaroi Trivecv vvv dTreiprjKare' rifieL<; /lev 

yap del dBvvaroi. ^axpaTr) B' e^aipSt \oyov iKavot yap Kai 

dfKftorepa, Hxxr i^apKeaei avrm OTrorep' av iroiGip.ev. eiretBrj ovv 

fioi BoKel ovBeli r&v irapovTwv Trpo0v/J-a><s exeiv ttjOo? to ttoKvv 

iriveiv oTvov, iVto? av iym irepl tov fiediffKeadai olov eart TdXTjdi) 

Xeycov ^ttov av elr}u driBri<;. ifiol yap Brj toOto ye olfiai Kard- 

D BrfKov yeyovevai e'/c tjjs laTpiKfj<i, on pj;a\e7roi' TOt? dvOpdnroK; rj 

fjieOri ecTTi" Kal ovre avTO'{ eKwv elvai iroppco e9eXi]aaifii av irieiv 

176 A jrap^o-T6 BTW: Trap^re in mg. rec. b B irapaaKevda-aa-dai TW : 

7rapacrK€vd{l€t7daL B ai/rcov T ; avTov B ''Epv^ifia^ov T : tov *'Epv^ip.a\ov B 

aKOvpevov W : anovfiivov BT xni : /caiVoi Rohde epp&trdai aecl. Cobet 

TTiVfiv, 'Aya^wvos Vahlen C c'^atpG Heindorf : f ^aipo) BT aijS^yT: dijXijyB 

176 B p«pairTio-|x^vuv : "soaked," "drenched." Cp. Lucian £accA. 7 xapij- 
Kol fif^aiTTia-peva : and the use of ^e^peyficvos, Eubul. Incert. 5 ; fii9ij fiapovvri 
Ppcx^eis Eur. El. 326 : Sen. Ep. 83 mersus vino et madens ; Hor. C. iv. 5. 39 
dicimus...sicci...dicimus uvidi. A similar "baptism" is described in Evenos 
2. 5—6, « Sf rrokis TTveiacicv {sc. o 'RaK)(Os) dniarpairTai pev epwras, | jSaTTTifet 
S' vTTvto yelrovi tov 6avdrov : of which we lind an echo in Clem. Alex. Paed. 
II. ii. 27^ (Stahlin) iiro piSr/s ^avn^optvos eis vrrvov. There may be an 
underlying allusion to Eupolis' play BaTrrai (cp. Bergk P. L. O. ii. p. 268). 

176 ifaipu X^Yov ; " I leave out of account" : cp. Phaedr. 242 b, Rep. 
394 b, 492 e. For Socrates as inconvincible "with wine and wassail," see 
Alcibiades' description, 220 a. 

ir«pl Toii jxeBuo-KEo-Sai. A favourite subject of discussion with moralists, 
e.g. Theognis 473 ff., 600 ff. ; Laws l. 677 d fif., Xen. Symp. il. ; and the treatise 
irepX piBrjs of Antisthenes. 

fTT0v...cin8tjs. "Less likely to bore you," sc. than if you were in the mood 
for wine-bibbing. Compare (with Wolf) Hor. Sat. li. ii. 1 fi'. quae virtus ct 
quanta, boni, sit vivere parvo...discite non inter lances mensasque nitentes. 

176 D x*^"''*'''"'^ V-^^- Similarly in 180 b we have neut. adj. with 
masc. subst. {6(i,crrepov...ipa<TTr]s). For the sentiment op. Ar. Vesp. 1253 

KUKOV TO iriveiv ktX. : Theogn. 211 olvov roi irivetv irovKi/v KaKov : Xen. 



176 E] lYMnOIION 17 

ovre aXKij) a-vfi/SovKevcrai/jLi, aWa)<; t6 xal KpanraX&vra en ex rrj<; 
'rrpoTepai,a<s. A\Xa fiijv, 6<j)i} <j)dvai inroXa^ovra ^aiBpov rov 
M.vpptvovaiov, eycoyi croi emda ireideaOai aXXo)? re Koi cltt &v 
irepi larpiKri<; \6777if' vvv 8', av ei5 fiovXevrnvrai, xal oi Xonrot. 
ravTa Sr/ dKova-avTa<; crvyxaipelv Travraf jj,tj Sici fiidr]'; iroirjaacrdai E 
TTjv iv Tm irapovTi crvvovcrLav, dW' ovrw irivovra'; irpbi ■^Sovtjv. 

V. 'ETretS'^ toLvvv, <f)dvai, rov '^pv^ifiaj(pv, tovto fiev SeSoK- 
rai, TTiveiv oaov av eKaaroi ^ovXr/rai, ivdvayKei; Se p/qZev elvai, 
TO fiera tovto elaTfyovfiai Tr]v p,ev dpTi elaekdovaav avKrjrpihcb 
'XCLupeiv edv, avKovaav eavrfj fj av ^ovKqTai ral<; yvvai^l toi? 
evQov, rjp.a'i Be Bia Xoycov dWi]Xoi<; avvelvai to Tijuepov Kol 

176 D KpaiTToKStvTa T : KpatnaKovvTa B : KpaiwdKavTi Hirschig <j)alhpou 
T : <j)ai8p<ov B nvpivoicriov T Xf'yeir T itv TW : av B /SouXeiJ- 

avrai COIT. Ooisl. Bast : /SouXtoiroi BTW : fiovKovrai vulg. : (au) ^ovKoivT &v 
Thiersch : (nS) ^ovXovrai Ast : (av) av ^nvXavrai Kreyenbiihl E auXij- 

TpiSa T ; avKiTplda B fj civ: rjav B : €av T 

Synvp. II. 26 fjv fiev ddponv TO noTov iy^ea/ifSa, Ta)(v rjpXv nai to. (rmjiaTa kox 
a'l yvStfiai (r<f>aKovvTat ktX. For the pedantic reference to ^ larpiKf), cp. 186 a. 

KpaiiraXuvra. Tim. Lex. Plat, explains by ?n dn-o Ttjs fifdrjs ^apwo/ievov. 
For the accus., in place of dat. (in appos. to aXXm), cp. 188 d fiiuv...Svva- 
p-ivovs : Rep. 414 a, etc. 

viv 8'... 01 XoiiroC. With oi Xoittoi we must supply o-ol Treta-ovrai, as Stallb. 
and Winckelmann observed. Rettig alone, of later editors, retains the reading 
vvv 8' av (S ^ovXovTai, with Wolf's rendering, "nunc bene est, quod item 
reliquos id velle video"; but, as Hug remarks, that ev fiovXavrai can mean 
" bene est quod volunt " lacks proof. 

1761! o«Tco...irpAs ■qSoviiv. ovTas is frequently used thus in combination 
with adverbs (esp. paSias, etKtj, dirXSr, and the like ; see Blaydes on Ar. Vesp. 
461) where it has "a diminishing power" (L. and S.), e.cf. 180 c infra, Gorg. 
503 d; cp. the force of sic in such phrases as "iacentes sic temorc" (Hor. 
G. II. xi. 14). 

TouTo iilv kt\. The antithesis to the juew-clause lies, not in the clause 
i-iravayKts Se /i. eivai, but in to peTa tovto kt\. Op. Arist. Pol. 1278'' 6 tTrel 
8e TavTa dicopKrraij to pera TavTa O'Keirreov irorepov kt\. 

ivdvayMS. Cp. Theogn. 472 »rai» yap avaynaiov XPW* avirjpov e(j)v | rcS 
niveiv 8' i6fKovTi irapatrTahov olvoxofiTO) — where a similar relaxation of com- 
pulsory rules is advocated. 

tlo-tiYoCntti. " I propose," suadeo : cp. Crito 48 a ; Xen. Mem. 11. 7. 10. 

TTjv...a«XT)TpC8o. It was the fashion at convivia to provide pipers, dancers, 
jesters, jugglers et hoc genus omne to amuse the guests. Cp. Xen. Symp. 11. 1, 
Rep. 373 a kXivoi r«...(cal fToipai koi ntppaTa (with Adam's note); Ar. Ack. 
1090 ff. ; also Protag. 347 c, d (see next page). 

Tats ?v8ov. Sc. iv T» yvvaiKfim. 

B. P. 2 



18 nAATQNOI [176 E 

177 Bi o'imv Xo'yiui', el ^ovKeade, edeXto vfuv elarjiy^aaadai. ^dvai St; 
7rdvTa<; Koi ^ovXecrdai Kal KeKeveiv avrov ela7]iyeia-dai. elveiv ovv 
Tov 'Eipv^lfiaj(^ov on 'H fiev jjloi dp'xrj rov Xoyov eVrl Kara rr/v 
EivpiniBov MeXaviTrirTiv ov yap e'/io? o /Mvdoi, dXXa ^aiSpov 
TovSe, ov fieXXio Xeyeiv.( 't>alBpo<; yap eKacrTOTe tt/so? fxe dyavax- 
r&v Xeyei Ov Seivov, <f)r]a-l,v, u> 'Ejou^t/ta^j^e, aKXoi,<i fiev riai 9e5)v 
vfj,vov<i Kal irai&va'i elvai virb rSsv iroirjTwv 'ire7roii]fiivov<;, rm Se 

177 A Kai ante /3ouX. seel. Hermann Sz.; kuI fiovXio-dm del. Voeg. 

Tratavas W : naiovas BT : irmavas bt 



8i otuv X^Yuiv. For an appreciation of the a-wovirla 8ia Xdymi', cp. Theogn. 
493 fiP. vfiels 5' ev ^vdeiaBe napa KprjTTJpi fievovres... \ is to peaov <j>a>v€vvT€s 
6p£>s ev\ Koi avvdnaa-iv | ;(oi/ri»r a-vp-woaiov yiverai ovk ti)^api- Simplio. in 
£!jpici. 33. 6, p. 266 KoKSiS e^prjrai oTi rj X<iipis \6ry(ov rpdne^a <l>dTvrjs ovdev 
Stafjiepti which is probably a reminiscence of Protag. 347 c, D koi yap ovroi 
{^sc. ol ^avKoi Koi ayopaioijy 8ia to prj dvvaaBai dWrfKois dt* eavT&v avveivai ev 
T6> TTOTft) /AJjSe fita TTJs coVTOtv (fxovijs Kal TOiV \6yaiv TU)V iavToiv VTTO diraiSeva-iaSf 
Tiplas iToiovtTL Tas aiXrjTplSas ktX. Cp. Phaedr. 276 D. 

177 A ^o'vai St| kt\. It is tempting to excise (with Hermann, Teufi'el 
and Hug) the first Kai and to construe i^dvai closely with pov\ea-6ai, as 
balancing KcXeveiv eia-rjyeia-Oai, ■n-dvTas being the subject of both the leading 
inflnn., (jtdvai and KiXeieiv : cp. 177 e ^vv4<j>aa-dv Te koi (KfXfvov : Euthyd. 274 c 
o T€ ovv KTjjaiTfiros a-vv€<f>ri...Kai oi oXXoi, xai iKeKevov...inihfl^atT6ai kt\. If 
the first Kai be retained, it seems most natural to take KeXevcti' as dependent 
on (jidvai: Stallb., however, puts a C07nma after fiovXfo-dai, as if making 
KfXevfii/ parallel to <j)dvm : and so too, apparently, Zellcr. 

KaTo Ti^v MtXavdriTTiv. Euripides wrote two plays of this name, M. ij o-o0ij 
and M. SfcrpSiTis. The reference here is to the former {Frag. 488 Nauck), ovk 
cfjios 6 piiBos dXX' ijiris ^ijrpos ndpa, ktX. Melanippe, a daughter of Aeolus, 
bore two sons to Poseidon; they were suckled by a cow, and brought to 
their grandfather Aeolus as ^ovyfvjj HpaTa : when he proposed to burn them, 
Melanippe appeared and tried to dissuade him, arguing Sti oiiSev Tipas ioTiv. 
According to another account, M. was a daughter of Choiron, seduced by 
Aeolus, and finally metamorphosed into a mare. Cp. Apol. 20 e ov yap ep6v 
ip5> TOV \6yov, ktX. : Hor. Sat. ir. ii. 2 neo meus hie sermo est sed quae 
j)raecepit Ofellus. 

Oi Seivov ktX. With this passage, cp. Isocr. ix. 5 — 8, and x. 12 with its 
scornful reference to encomiasts of "humble-bees, salt-diets, and the like" 
(see Introd, § ii. b (e)). 

v)i,vavs Kol iraiuvas. Properly speaking il/ii/ot are odes set for the lyre, 
TratScff odes set for the flute and sung esp. in honour of Apollo. "The paean 
is a hymn (1) of supplication or propitiation during the pain or danger; (2) a 
thanksgiving after it is past" (see Smith, D. A. ll. 307 s.v.). 



177 c] ZYMnOIION 19 

' EpWTt, TrfKlKOVTffi OVTl Kol TOtTOWTO) ^6&5, firjSk eva TTCOTTOTe Tocrov- B 

Twv yejovoTiov TroirjTtbv ireiroirjKevai firjSev iyKco/jUov ; el Be ^ovKei 
av aKe-^aa-dai tov<; ')(pijaTov<; aoif)i(TTd<i, 'UpaKXeovt jxev Kot 
aWaiv iiraivov<! KaraXoydBriv ^vyypd<peiv, wairep o ^eXTiiTTo^ 
Tlp68iKO<:' Kal TOVTO fjLev rjTTOv Kul dav/iaarov, aW' eycoye rjSr] 
TH/i evervxpv ^i^Xirp avBpov <ro^ov, ev & ivrja-av a\e<i etraivov 
Bavfidcriov e^oi/re? Trpo? d)<f>e\,eiav, Kal aXXa Toiavra (TV)(ya iSoi^ 
av eyic€Katp,ia<Tfjbeva' to ovv toiovtcov fiev nepi 7roXXr)V cnrovhrjv C 
TToirjcracrOai, "Epmra Be firjBeva -Trco dvOpmirmv TeroXfiT/Kevai ell 
TavTTjvl rrjv ■^fiepav a^t'ffl? vfivfjcrai • dXX ovTa><; rffxeXriTai to(tovto<; 
6e6<;. Tavra Bij /Moi BoKec ev X67en/ ^aiSpo^. eym ovv eindvfio) 

177 B /wjSei' : )xi;8e Valckenaer koi ante tovto del. Thiersch koi 

Ijrrov davfiaarov Wolf Thiei'sch koi ante davfiaa-rov oin. Steph. Bast. 

avSfHts (TO(j)ov T : om. B, Sz. aXJjeXiav T : wfjieXeiav B C (ttoXXoit) 

ttoXXt/v Hirsclug cifi'ms T: (i^iS B {Sn) ovras Wyttcnbach 

rmeXijadai TO(rovTov 6eiv Steph. XiydV. ■^iynv cj. Bdhm. 

ti)Xiko£t<u. " A god SO venerable" : Phaedrus holds Eros to be the most 
ancient of deities, see 178 b. The complaint was not entirely well-grounded, 
since before this date (416 B.c.) hymns to Eros of a eulogistic character had 
already been published by Sophocles {Antig. 781 ff.), and Euripides (ffippol. 
525 S.), and possibly others. 

177 B el Si poiXet. This phrase serves to introduce a fresh point, marking 
the transition from poets to "sophists"; cp. 209 D, 220 D («' de ^ov\ea6e), 
Lack. 188 c, etc. : but to add an infin., as here {iTKi-^airBai.), is unusual. 

Tovs xp1'"'">^s <ro(j)«rT(ls. " The worthy sophists " ; considering that ' 
Phaedrus is the speaker, we must suppose that the adj. is seriously meant, 
not ironical. 

KaraXoYdSifv $vYypa(j>civ. "Writing in prose," oratione soluta. Cp. Isocr. 
II. 7 Kai tS>v ficra itirpov iroirjiiarav Kal tS>v KaTa\oyd8rjv (TvyypajifiaTmv : Lysis 
204 D, Laws 811 E, 975 D. 

ua-ir€p...np6StKos. This alludes to Prodicus's celebrated parable "The 
Choice of Heracles," for which see Xen. Mem. ll. i. 21 fi'. For Prodicus of 
Geos, see Zeller Presocr. Phil. vol. li. pp. 416 ff., 473 (E. T.); Gomperz 
Or. Thinkers (E. T.) i. pp. 425 ff. 

■^TTov Kal. For the unusual position of uai after the comparative, cp. Xen. 
Cyr. I. vi. 38 ravra yap pSXKov koi i^airarav Svvarai. 

IvTJa-av oXes- Logically, of coiu'se, the subject ought to be ewaivos, not 
aXey. The same ^i^Xiov is alluded to in Isocr. x. 12 TSyv...Tovs ^op^vKiovs 
Kai TOVS ciKas koi to TOiavra ^ovXrjdfvrtov e'naivt'iv : its authorship is now 
generally ascribed (as by Sauppe, Blass, Hug) to the rhetor Polycrates : see 
further Introd. § ii. B (e). 

177 TO ovv...v|ivTifrat. The infin. may be explained (with Ast) as an ex. 
of the infin. "indignantis," cp. Ar. Nuh. 819 ro Am vofii^eiv Svra TrjKiKovTovi 

2—2 



20 nAATfiNOI [177 c 

ajj^a fiev tovto) epavov elaeveyKeiv xal ')(api<jaadai,, ap,a K ev tc3 
TrapovTt-^irpeTrov fioi Soxei elvai, rjpZv rot? irapovat Kocr/itjaai rov 

Jl-Qeov. ^ el otiv ^vvSoKei kol vfiiv, yevoir av ■^/iiv ev \d70t? Ixavr) 
Siarpi^ij' SoKei <ydp fioi, •x^pfjvai, eKoarov -^ficip \6yov elirelv eirauvov 
"^paTO's iiri Se^ia cJ? av hvvrjrai KdWiarov, ap')(eiv Be ^aiBpov 
TrpSiTOV, etreihr] koI tt/swto? KaraKeirai Kot eariv (ifia irarrjp rov 
Xoyov. OiSeii trot, c3 'Epv^C/jLwx^e, (f>dvai, rov ^coKpaTi), evavna 
yjrTjcfiieiTai. oiire yap av irov eyoi diro<f)r)a-aifH,, o? ovSev (fyjfic dXXo 

E €iri(TTaa6ai rj ra eptoriKa, ovre ttov ^Ayddcov Kal Ilaucrai'ia?, ovSe 
p,r)v ApiaTO<])dv'rj(}, w irepl Aiovvaov Kal 'A^poSirijv iraaa fj Sia- 

177 C TovTOH Bdhm. Koi )(apiaaa6ai del. Hartmann D {irepi) 

"EpioTos Hirschig KdWia-ra W apxeiv : \iyeiv Hirachig St irparov 

^aidpov vulg. E a^poh'iTT] T 17 om. T 

Spavov elo-evfyKtiv. Symholum dare: cp. Laws 915 E, 927c its i'pavov ela-- 
<f)ipovTa iavTm — the only other instances of epavos in Plato. For a defence of 
the text against Hartmann, who excises icai xa/JiVao-tfai, see Vahlen Op. Acad. 
II. 296. This passage is echoed in Aristid. Or. t. i. p. 18. 

177 D 80K61 7dp (101. " My sentence is," an official formula : cf. Dem. i. 2, 
IV. 17. Hence the point of Socrates' phrase ivavria i/ojc^ietrat, four lines below. 

\6yov...'iiTaivov. Cp. 214 B, Phaedr. 260 B itvvtiBus \6yov inaivov Kara 
TOV ovov, 

ml Be^id. "From left to right": cp. Hep. 420 E (with Adam's note); 
Theaet. 175 E. Critias 2. 7 koi Trporrocnis opiyeiv iirtbi^ia. 

KiiXXio-Tov. Notice that, in Eryximachus' view, the first requisite is 
KoKKos, and contrast the view of Socrates in 198 Dfi". 

TTttT'^p Tou X070V. I.e. eloTjyiiTfis TOV X., as Plutarch explains (Plat. Q. 
1000 f) : the same phrase recurs in Phaedr. 257 B, cp. Theaet. 164 e 6 irurfip 
TOV pvBov : Lys. 214 a waripes ttjs <To<j)ias koi r)yepAves. 

TO ^puTiKd. The objects or principles with which ^ ipaniKri Hx"') {Phaedr. 
257 a) is concerned; cp. 186c, 212b, Lysis 204b. This passage is alluded to 
by Themist. Or. xill. p. 161, Max. Tyr. diss. xxiv. p. 288 : for its significance 
here, see Introd. § 11. b. 

ovTt 7rov...Kal. naX is used rather than oSt€ because Pausanias and Agathon 
formed "ein Liebespaar'' (Hug). 

177 E irepl Ai6vu(rav Kal 'A<|>poS{TT|v. There are many points of mutual 
connexion between Eros, Dionysus and Aphrodite. Thus, Dionysus is the 
patron-god of the theatre, as shown by the phrases oi 7C€p\ tov a. Texy^'ai, 
"actors" (Arist. Probl. xxx. 10), and Atovuo-oKdXaxff, "stage-lackeys" (Arist. 
Rhet. III. 1205* 23); and on the comic stage erotic scenes were frequent. 
Moreover, Dionysus was sometimes represented (as by Praxilla of Sicyon, 
c. 450 B.C.) to be a son of Aphrodite ; and in Aristoph. fr. incert. 490 (Df.) 
otvos is termed 'Ai^poSiVi/r yd\a. For the traditional inter-connexion of 
"Wein, Weib und Gesang," we may also compare Solon 26 epya &i Kvirpo- 



178 a] SYMnOIION 21 

Tpt/3jj, ovBe dWo<! ov8el<; tovtoivI mv iya> 6pS>. KaiToi ovk ef laov 
yiyverai rjfxlv rot? vaTO.roi'i KaTaKeifievoi^' a\\' iav ol irpoaOev 
iKavcb'; KaX KaXw<; etiraiaiv, i^apxeaei, ■^/uv. aWa tv^xj] ayaOrj 
KaTapj(ir(o ^alhpo<s Koi eyKtofiia^erco tov "Epcora. ravra hr] Kai 
ol aX\oi iravre^ apa ^vve^aaav re koX sKeXevov airep 6 'S.coKpaTrji;. 
iravTcav fiev o?iv a eKa(rTO<s ehrev, ovre irdvv 6 'ApiaroSrjfioi efie- 178 
fivT]TO ovT av eym a iKeivo<; eXeje iravra' a Sk fiaXi<TTa Kai wv 
eSofe jj-oi d^iofjLvr]fi6vevTov, tovtcov vfilv epS eKaaTov rbv Xojov. 

VI. IJpwTov fiev yap, uxrirep Xeym, e^rj ^aiBpov ap^afievov 
ivOivBe iToOkv Xeyeiv, on fie<ya<} 6eo<; e'ir) 6 "Epa)9 koi 6avfiaaT0<; ev 

177 E KQi icaXSr del. Naber Tjfiiv: upv J.-U. ravra: raira Usener 
Spa : a/ia Wy ttenbach 178 A & BT : Sa-a mg. t a^wiivrniovfvTov 
{elvai.) TW: a^iofivrjiiovfirau b: a^iojivrfiiovfVTa (ivai vulg. : a^ia /ivtjiiovevdv 
cj. Liebhold tKatrra Bdhm. tov Xoyoi' seol. Bdhm. 

•ycvoCf vvv fioi <l)l\a koX Aiovv<rov \ Koi Movaeav, a rWi/o' dv8pd(rtv fv<f)potrvvas. 
Echoes of this phrase are to be found in Aristaen. I. ep. 3, p. H ; Plut. amat. 
750 A ; Lucian Symp. p. 444. 

■qiiiv Tots ioTOTois. viTTaTos here is equivalent to ta-xaros as used in 175 c 
(where see note), i.e. placed on the extreme right. 

4|apK^irci. i|(iiv. " We shall be content," i.e. we shall not be called upon to 
speak : for the impers. e^apKci c. dat. cp. 176 C, 192 b, 210 c. 

T«xt| a-yaeii. " In Gottes Namen " (Wolf) ; cp. Phileb. 57 e, Tim. 26 B. 

iravTts apo. For the position of apa cp. Prot. 319 a ij (cnXdi/, iji/ 8' cya>, 
T4)(yi)p.a apa KeKTija-ai: Rep. 358 C TroXii yap dpelvav apa kt\. 

178 A d|ionvii|i6ve«Tov. We should expect rather the plural. We must 
suppose that the sentence is slightly confused, the original idea being to put 
a 8c lioKiirra tSo^e poi d|iofii'i)/idi'fura (ravra ipw), which was altered owing to 
the insertion, as an afterthought, of kqI av : then, instead of proceeding Jv 
fSo$4 poi li^iov TO pfpvljcdai. (or pfpiv^adai tov \6yov), the word originally in 
mind was put down, but in the sing. : but it is tempting to restore either 
a^iopvt)p.6vfvT' ehai (supposing elvai to be corrupted from a compendium), or 
a^wv pvrip.ovcvfiv. Prot. 343 a {pr)p.aTa ^pax^a d^iopvtip.6vevTa) is the only 
other instance of the word in Plato : there may be an echo of the present 
passage in Xen. Symp. I. 1 ipo\ Soxti tS>v KaXmv KayaBmv dv^pav tpya...a^io- 
pvripovevra fivai. For the significance of the statement here made by ApoUod., 
see Introd. § li. b (g). 

ZlpcSrov y.\v y&p ktX. For the discourse of Phaedrus (178 a— 180 b) see 
Introd. § I. (analysis), § in. (1). 

Mo-irep Xiya. " As has been stated " : the present tense (186 e, 193 a, etc.) 
is commoner than the past tense {tlnov 173 c, 182 D, etc.) in this formula. 
The reference is to 177 D. 

IvBfvSf iroilv. " Roughly at this point," hinc fere : the combination recurs 
199c, Phaedr. 229b, Euthyd. 275 e ; so ivTevBiv wodev Phaedr. 270a, Rep. 524c. 



22 nAATQNOI [178 A 

dvdpmiroi<{ re koX deoh, ■7roXKa')(,f} fi^ev Kal dWrjy ov'x^ rfKiara he 
KaTO, TTjv 'yevecrtv. to yap ev rot? irpea-^VTarov elvai tov Oeov 
B Ttfiiov, 7j 8' OS" TeKfiripiov he tovtov ryovr)'! yap "Eptaro? ovt eiffiv 
ovre Xeyovrai vir ovhevcx; ovre iBi(i)Tov ovre ttoltjtov, dW' 'Ho-t'ooo? 
TrpwTov fiev X.do'; <}>7)al yeveaOai, 

avrap eTreira 
Val' eupvarepvoi, Trdvrcov eSos d<7<})a\€<s aiei, 
i)8' "E/so?. 

178 A aXKoi Stobaeua npia^vTarov BW, Stob. : irpecr^vraTois T 

TOV deov W: rSi' Seav BT B § fi' oi del. Bast: oveihos Creuzer TeKfifj- 
piov Si- TOVTOV ("EpaTOE deleto) Naber yovai Stob., vulg. "Eparos: 

Xdovs cj. Bdhm. 'HcioSos <oi) Heindorf yai'..!'Epos seel. Herm. 

KaTO Tijv yivta-iv. " In respect of his origin." 

4v Tois irpeo-piTOTov. For the doctrine of the antiquity of Eros, cp. Xen. 
Symp, VIII. 1 T& pev xP°'"f l<rri\tKos tois aeiyiviai 6eo7s...''Epa>Tos : Ar. Av. 700 
TrpoTtpov 8' ov(C ^v yevos dSavarav, wpiv "Epas crvvepi^fv anavra. Agathon, 
in 195 A, expressly contradicts Phaedrus on this point. Bast excised r/ 8' ot 
on the ground that "in fine periodi Platonicae non magis usurpatur quam 
inquit Latinorum.'' 

178 B TeK|jLT(piov 8J...-yap. Cp. Gritios 110 e, Apol. 40 o: Xen. Symp. iv. 

17 T€Kpi}piov di' Ba\\o<l}6povs yap...€K\€yovTau 

7ovTis...oiJTe X^YovTot. This is a rash statement on the part of Phaedrus ; 
for Alcaeus {fr. 13 Bgk.) makes Eros son of Zephyros and Iris ; Simonides 
{fr. 43), son of Ares and Aphrodite ; Euripides (Hippol. 534), son of Zeus ; 
Sappho (/)'. 132), of Q6 and Uranos; Ibycus {fr. 31), of Chaos ; see also the 
statements in 199 D, 203 ff. infra. On the other hand ignorance or doubt as 
to the parentage of Eros is expressed in Theocr. Id. xill. 1, 2 ovx dp.lv tov 
"Epayra povois (T(}('...Srivi tovto $eS>v noKa TfKvov fyevTo; Anth. Pal. V. 176. 
7 — 8 naTpos 8* ovKfT e)((o tppd^etv tIvos' ovtc yap AWrjp, \ ov \$aiv (^rftri TeAceiv 
TOV dpaavv, ov TleXayos. For the usual Greek assumption that the poets are 
religious teachers, cp. Ar. Ran. 1054 tok pev yap iraihapiouriv | tori fij8a- 
(TKoKos oiTTis (jipd^ei, Tols Tj^oMTiv Si noiTfTal : and see Adam, R. T. Q. pp. 9 ff. 

ISu6tov. For this distinction between the prose-writer and the poet, cp. 
Phaedr. 258 D ; Zaws 890 a ; Rep. 366 B. The term tSttoTi)? may be taken as 
a survival of the time when the poet alone had his work " published " — at 
religious festivals, theatrical shows, Kapoi, etc. 

'Ho-CoSos kt\. The reference is to Theog. 116 ff. iJToi pev npaTiara Xdoy 
yevfT, avTap ktX. Cp. Ar. Av. 693 ff. Xdor rjv Ka\ Nii^ icrX. The order of the 
text I have adopted, in the passage following, is that proposed by Schanz, 
except that he reads dpoXoyd {os) (f>r]a-i., while Burnet, accepting the trans- 
position, piints <Tvp(j)riai instead of opokoyel (pr/a^i. Hug and others eject the 
clause (^)j(rt...*Ep<oTa as a marginal prose paraphrase of the words of Hesiod ; 
since, as it stands in the traditional order, the clause is obviously tautologous : 
but tautology is in itself no objection, but rather characteristic of Ph.'a style 



178 c] ZYMnOIION 23 

HaioSm Be KaX 'A«ou<rt\6a)5 ofioXo^el \<^r)a\ fjuera to Xao? hvo 
Tovrw yevea-Oai, Trjv re koI "Epwra]. Ha/a/xei'tSi;? Be rrjv Tivea-iv 

vptoTiarov /lev "Epara demv '/i-qTiaaTO iravrcav. 
ovrto 7roX\aj(^60ev ofioXoyetrat 6 "EptBS ev toI<; Trpe<r^vTaTO<s elvai. 

178 B 'H<Ti68ai...6iio\oyfi (quae in BT post Travrmi' extant) transposui, 
auctorr. Wolf Sz. Bt. o/wKoytt BT : (viKJyrjmv Stob. : (riix<f)T]a-iv Bt. 

(t>t)<rl...''Eptt>Ta seel. Hommel Jn. Hug: (^i/o-t.-.n-avTmi/ seel. Ast Turr. J.-U. 
(/»)(ri om. Stob.: (Sr) </)ij(ri Schanz Ilapiifvt8ris...7rdvTav om. Stob., 

Heyne Wunder ti)i/ Tcvea-iv Xf'yft seel. Jn. : rfiv yeveaiv seel. Rettig 

C npear^vTaTOK Stob. 

(see Teuffel in Rkein. Mus. xxix. p. 133); and there is force in Hermann's 
remark "aegre intelligo quomodo aliquis clarissimis poetae verbis (para- 
phrasin) addendam existimaverit, multoque verisimilius videtur Hesiodi 
locum... poatmodo adscriptum...irrepsisse." I bracket the clause as a gloss 
on ofwKoyfi. The clause U.apfi.(vihr)s...navTatv is rightly defended by Hug, 
against Voegelin and others, on the grounds that (1) oZt-m voWaxoOtv in the 
following sentence is more appropriate after three than after two instances, 
and (2) Agathon in 195 c, when alluding to Phaedrus's speech, expressly 
mentions 'Ho-ioSor koI XlapfitvlSr)!. The authority of Hesiod is similarly cited 
by Plut. amat. 756 b. 

'Akovo-IXcus. Acusilaus of Argos, the "logographer," about B.C. 476 (?), 
wrote in the Ionic dialect several books of Genealogies, largely based 
on Hesiod (see the fragg. in A. Kordt, De Acusilao, 1903). But the re- 
puted work of A., extant in the time of Hadrian, was probably a forgery : 
a collector of myths is not, properly speaking, a ''logographer" at all (see 
Jevons, Gk. Lit. p. 299). Cp. Clem. Alex. vi. ii. 26. 7 to. 8e 'Ho-idSou /xeri/X- 
"Ka^av fir wf^ov Xdyow Km i>s iSm c^eveyKOV Evp,ri\6s re Km 'AKOvo-iXaor ol 
l<TTopioypd<j)oi. Hug, retaining the order of the mss., would explain the fact 
that A. is put last as due to his being an iSuoT-i/r, the others jroiijrm'. 

nap)i,«v(Si]s. See Parmen. frag. 132 (Karsten), R. and P. 101 a ; Arist. 
Met. I. 4. 984'' 25 ; Plut. amat. 756 F. It is to be presumed that the famous 
Eleate relegated this theogony to his "Way of Opinion." Cp. Spenser's 
lines (jff. to Love), " Or who alive can perfectly declare The wondrous cradle 
of thine infancie... For ere this worlds still moving mightie masse Out of 
great Chaos ugly prison crept... Love... Gan reare his head, by Clotho being 
waked." 

T^v r^v«(riv...|ir|Tt<raTo. Hermann and Hug follow Stallbaum in supplying 
rivetris as the subject of ^i/nVaro : cp. Phaedo 94 D ov Xeyti tov 'Obvtraia 
(TTrjdos 8e nXfj^as KpaSlrjv rivinane p-vBa. For the personification of yiveiris, 
cp. Horn. II. XIV. 201 'SlKcaviv re 6eS)v yfvf<nv Koi p.r)T4pa Tridvv (cited by 
Plato in Theaet. 180 d, Crat. 402 b). Plutarch {loc. cit.) diEFers by making 
'AdtpoStTt] the subject of prjTlaraTo.. It is, of course, possible that another 
(suppressed) subject is intended ; since we do not know what the context was 
in the original. 



24 nAATONOI [178 c 

irpea^vraTO'i he mv fieyitrrmv dyaOcSv rjfiiv atVios iariv. ov yap 
eyay e%«a eiireiv o ti fieil^ov eanv nyaaov evuv<s vetfi ovri fj 
epa<TTr)^ j(p7)(Tro<; koI epaarfj iraihiKa. o yap '^pr/ avd pwiroit; 
ijyeia-dat Trai'To? tov ^Lov rot? jMeWova-i /«;a\<u9 ^icocreadai, tovto 
0VT6 avyy iveia oXa re einroielv ovtco Ka\w<i ovre rifxal ovre 
D irXovTOi out' aXKo ovSev uj? epa^. Xiyo) Be Sr) tI tovto ; ttjv iirl 
fiev Tot9 ala-')(^poi<; alcr'xvvrjv, eirl Se toIi KaXoii; ^iXoTifilav ov 
yap ecTTiv nvev TovTmv ovre iroXiv ovt6 lSi,(OTr)i> fj,eyaKa xal xaXa 
epya e^epya^eadai. ^pX tolvvp eym dvSpa ocm? ipa, ei ti 
aiiy^pov TTOimv KaTa.BtjXo'} yiyvoiTO rj Traaybiv xiiro tov Si dpav- 

178 C ir p€(r^vTaTos 8e &>v '. npos 8i TOvTto tS>v Bast ^eyiaros re Koi) 

fi-eyia-Tav Bdhm. ainos ijiuv Stob. {fj) jraiSticd Hommel Jn. dyeveta 

Wyttenbach koKos {ovre koKKos) vulg. : ovras ovre koWos Reynd. Jacobs 

178 C irpeo-p^raTos hi wv ktX. The partic. gives the impression of a 
causal connexion — as if beneficence must be in direct proportion to antiquity ! 

|ic7(o-Tuv...atTios. Op. 197 cinfra; Ar. Phit. 469 dyaOmv dirdvrav cuTtav. 

ev6{is via (jvTi. "From his earliest youth": this properly applies only to 
the iraiSiKa. With iraihiKo. Supply xP'O"^'''^- ^01' ^ similar estimate of the 
value of (^t'Xoi, see Lys. 211 e, Xen. Mem. li. 4. 1 ff. 

av6pti!iroi.s...pCou. For iiydcrBai c. dat. of person and gen. of thing, cp. 
Horn. Od. XXIII. 134 rijiiv {jye'urBa opxriBfiolo : Xen. Cyr. viii. 7. 1 tov xopov 
fjyria-aTo Tlipams. It would be easy, however, by inserting Sid after the 
termin. -m, to restore a favourite Platonic phrase hia navTos tov /Siou (cp. 
203 D, Phil. 39 e). 

iru'YY^vci.a. " Kindred," implying nobility of kin : for the concrete use cp. 
Oorg. 472 b, Laws 730 b, 874 a, etc., and esp. Rep. 491 C koKXos koi nXomos 
Koi l(Txvs critpaTos koi ^vyyiveia eppapevj) t'v iroKfi. Taking (rvyyiveia here in a 
similar sense, we can dispense with Wyttenbach's plausible conj., evyeveia 
(for which cp. Euthyd. 279 b, Ar. Rhet. ll. 15, Soph. Antig. 38), which 
Eeynders adopts. 

178 D altrxilvnv...i|>iXoTinCttv. Op. Lys. xiv. 2, and 42 {in Aleih.) tVl piv 
Toit KoXotr vXaxvvfadai, iir\ Se tois kukoIs </>i\ort/ici(rda(, "taking glory for 
shame and shame for glory." llemembering that Pliaedrus was a professed 
admirer of Lysias, we may, perhaps, recognize here a verbal echo. For a 
discussion of alirxivr] (not distinguished from aiSur) see Arist. Eth. Nic. iv. 
ix. 1128'> 10, and Rhet. ll. vi. 1383'' 12. 

oBre ir^Xiv ovrt ISuirtiv. Notice that in the subsequent treatment of these 
two heads the order is reversed (to secure rhetorical "Chiasmus"). 

cl Ti al<rxp&v ktX. Op. Xen. Cyneg. XII. 20 otov piv yap tis oparai vno tov 
ipapivov airas eavTov iaTi ^eKTiav km oSTf Xt'yti ovtc notfX alaxpa oiSe xaKa, 
Ji/a pfj ocpBjj vir' indvav. Also 194 infra. 

TJ irdirxwv ktX. Cp. "It hath been said by them of old time. An eye for an 
eye, and a tooth for a tooth." Ordinary Greek ethics approved of retaliation : 



179 a] ZYMnOZION 25 

opiav fjii] afivv6fi€Vo<;, ovt av virb TraTjOO? o^OevTa ovt(o<; aXjfitTai 
ovre VTTO eraipcov oiire utt' dWov otiSevo? w? vtro traihiKwv. 
ravTov Be tovto Kal rov epw/ievou opwfiev, on Sia(f>ep6vro)<; tou? E 
epaaTWi alcT'xyveTai, orav 6(f>dy iv ala-^pm Tiv\ cSv. el o&v firi'^avij 
Ti<! jevotTo ware iroKiv lyeveadai ^ crrpaTOTrehov epacrruv re Kal 
TraioiKwv, ovK eariv OTrto? av dfieivov oiKycreiav ttjv kavTwv [17] 
aire'xofievoi trdvToav twv aicr'^pwv Kal <j)i\,oTifiovfievoi Trpoi aWi]- 
Xow Kal fia-)(6p,evoi y av /Mer dXkijXwv ol tolovtov viKmev aif 179 
o\iyoi ovT€% (6<s eiroi elireiv ,TrdvTa'iidvdpo)Trov<;. epwv yap dvrjp 

178 E Tor ipatrrrfv Hil'Schig rj (rrpaToirfSov seol. J.-U. (f'l) ipacTTav 

Hirschig eavrmv (rrdXii') Hirsohig 5 seclusi, auctoiT. Eviokert Jn. 

Bdhm. Sz. Naber : Koi J.-U. Koi (eVi toTs koXois) 0. Ast 179 A y &v 

BT : y' aS Verm. J.-U. : 8' y &v W 



cp. Xeti. Cyrop. viil. 7. 7 ; see Dobbs, Pliilos. and Popular Morals, etc. p. 39. 
For another incentive to courage, see Rep. 467 B. 

178 E Tttixov 8i toiIto. "In exactly similar fashion," adverbial accus.: 
so ravTO. Tavra Mend 90 B. 

Tols epao-Tos. The plural is due to the fact that it was usual for a number 
of epaarai to pay court to the same wmSiKa (cp. Charm. 154 a). 

el ovv inixavij Tis ktX. Here Ph. passes on to his second head, — the benefits 
derived from Bros in civic and national life (ttoXh/, 178 d supra). For the 
phrase cp. Lazes 640 b «' S' rjv ns p-rixavr) ktK. : Farm. 132 d, Phileb. 16 A. 

<rrpaTivtSov ipatrrav. It ia noteworthy that Xen. {Synip. viii. 32) puts a 
similar statement in the mouth of Pausanias — Uavtravias yc.eXpriKev as koI 
(TTpaTev/ia d\KipmTaTov av yevoiro e'/c iraiSlKav re koi fpaormi' (cp. Introd. 
§ VIII. ad fin.). Cp. also Xen. Cyrop. VII. 1. 30 ov< ta-nv la-xvporepa <f>a\ay^ 
^ orav f K (jjiXav a-viip,d)(a>v rjdpourpivrj fj. This principle was exemplified in the 
famous Upos \6xos of the Thebans, organized by Gorgidas (or Epaminondas), 
which fought first at Leuctra, 371 B.C., see Athen. xiil. 561 f, 602 a. A 
Boman analogy is afforded by Scipio'a (piKav iXi/. The parallel in Xeuophon 
is of itself sufficient to refute Jahn's athetesis of rj arpaToiredov. 

OVK Ua-Tiv oirtos civ ktX. Hug, retaining rj before awexop-fvoi, would supply, 
with the participles, from the context " welche Gefiihle allein durch den Eros 
in wirksamer Weise erregt werden.'' This, however, is exceedingly awkward ; 
and his further remark that oix apeivov ol<r)<Tci.av av fj dnexof-^voi is equivalent 
to apia-T av oik. arrfx- does nothing to lessen the difficulty. By ejecting fj, as 
a very natural interpolation after the comparative by a copyist careless of 
the sense, we obtain the meaning required — "it would be impossible for 
them to secure a better constitution of their city, since thus they would 
abstain" etc. 

179 A (i.a)^o(i«voi ktX. Cp. Rep. 471 D apurr &v pd^oiVTO tm lyKiora 
aiTroXflnciv dX\ri\ovs..,np,a\oi av fifv : Xen. Symp. VIII. 32 ff. 



26 nAATfiNOZ [179 a 

vTTo TraiSiKwv oc/j^Tji/at rj Xnrmv rd^iv rj oirXa airo^aXmv yjttov &v 
Sjj ttov Be^airo rj viro iravTCDv rwv aXXcjv, koI irpo tovtov redvdvai 
av 7ro\Xa«i? eXotro* Kal jjltjv iyKUTaXiTreiv ye ra iraiSiKa ^ fir] 
^or)drj<rai KivSwevovTi, ovBelv ovtw KaKO<i '6vTiva ovk av avTO'; o 
"Epffls evdeov iroii^aete Tvpov apeTrjv, wad' ofioiov elvai TaJ apiarw 
B (J3vaei' Kal arexvcHx!, o ecfyr] "Ofiripo<;, " fj-evof efiTTvevtrai" ivioi<; r&v 
r/paxov rbv Oeov, tovto o "Epw? rot? ipcoai irape^et yiyvo/ievov 
Trap' avTofi. 

VII. Kat firjv virepaiTodvria'Keiv ye fiovoi eOeXovcriv oi ep&v- 
T€9, ov fiovov OTi avBpe<;, aWa Kal al yvvalKei. tovtov 8e Kal r) 

179 A firiv B: /i^ T hiatum ante olhih notav. J.-U. B {iraa-i) 

napi^ei Orelli oi fiovov on : ov /iovoi/ oi Steph. Sz. : ol\ on Fischer J.-U. 

a'i B : om. T toutou : bo<ei Verm. 



Xiiriiv Tafiv 1] oirXa diropoXiiv. " The principal military offences at Athens 
were dealt with by one law. A citizen was liable to indictment, and, if con- 
victed, to disfranchisement for (1) Failure to join the army — aaTpareias: 
(2) Cowardice in battle — beiklas: (3) Desertion of his post — XinoTa^iov: 
(4) Desertion from the army — Xnroorpariou. Of these terms, XnroTa^iou was 
that used in the widest sense, and might include any of the others " (Smith, 
D. A. I. SIS'"). Cp. Rep. 468 a, Laws 943 d ff., and the compounds pi'^acnris 
{Laws 944 B, ; Ar. Vesp. 19), do-TriSaTro^Xijr ( Vesp. 592). The conduct of the 
ideal ipaaTx]s on such an occasion is shown in 220 e infra. 

KivSvvcvovTi. For the sing. dat. referring to nmtiKois, cp. Pkaedr. 239 a, 
and 184 D infra. After KwbvvevovTi we should expect the sentence to conclude 
with oiSeif ToXjitit] &v Or the like ; the fact that a new ending is substituted 
may be regarded (with Ast) as due to the agitation (real or pretended) of the 
speaker " vom furor eroticus ergriffen." 

ivdfov irpos opcTiiv. For evBcos, " god-inhabited," " inspired," cp. Ion 533 e 
evdeoi ovTcf Kal KaT€x6p.(voi.: ibid. 534 B and below, 180 b. (piarei, denoting 
"natural" temper, is here opposed to this supervenient grace. For the 
thought cp. Spenser {H. to Love), "(The lover) dreads no danger, nor mis- 
fortune foares...Thou carjest him to that which he hath cyde Through seas, 
through flames, through thousand swords and speares." 

179 B "0|i.i]pos. See ]l. X. 482 t<S S' (jxirvevire liivos yKavKCOTris 'Adrjvrj: 
ib. XV. 262, Od. ix. 381. Op. the (Lacedaemonian) term eio-n-i'ijXay for ipaa-Trjs: 
also Xen. Symp. iv. 15. 

vircpairoOvijo-KCiv. Op. Isocr. Hel. 217 C 1)S evcKa ttoXXoi tS>v ripideav dnodvri- 
UKetv r]6i\rj(Tav. 

ov piovov oTi. This expression may be defended by Thuc. iv. 85. 3 xal yap 
oil fiovov ort avTOi avvltTraaoe, aXKa Koi oiff Av iirlto, rurcrov tis ifio\ Trpoaeicnv : 
Arist. Pol. VII. 11. 1331" 11 oix on reixri ^di/o>/ irfpi^Xr^riov (with Newman's 
note) : Xen. Mem. ii. 9. 8. Jahn's ovx on would give, as Teuffel argues, the 



179 D] lYMnOIION 27 

IleXtou durydT')jp "A\«7;(7-Tt5 licavTjv fiaprvplav irapi'X^eTai vtrep 
royoe tov \6<yov eh roi? "EW7;i'a9, eOeKrjaaaa /jiovr} virep rov 
avTrjv avhpo<i airodavelv, ovtcov avTw irarpo'; re Kal /ir]Tp6<S' ov<; C 
eKeivr] to<tovtov v-rrepe^dXero ttj <f)i\,La Sia rov epeora, Strre diro- 
oei^ai aiiToi)^ dWoTpiov; ovtw; rm vlei Kal ovojiaTt fiovov irpoa-rj- 
KovTa<s' Kai TovT ep^aaap-evT) to epyov ovrm koXov eSo^ev ipjd- 
craa-aai ov fiovov dvOpmiraif dXKa koI 0eoi<;, ware iroW&v ttoWo. 
Kai KoXa. epya<Ta/j,iv(ov evapiB/jLijToi^ Sj; -Ticriv eSoaav tovto yepai; 
01 6eol, i^ "AiBov dveivai irdKiv tt/v '^v)(;^v, dWd rrjv eKelvr}<; 
avelaav d<yaad6VTe<; rm epy^ • ovto) Kal deol ttjv irepl rov' epoyra D 

179 B wapixfcrdai 'Veim. i7r«p..."EXXi)i/ar secl. Bdhm. : virip... 

Xoyov seel. Wolf Sz., post 'EXXi/rar poauit Bast : vnep TovSe del. et tov \6yov 
post TovTov 8f posuit Steph. ; vnep rovSe del. Wyttenbaoh Winckelmann 
C Karfpyafra/ievav Methodius Sr/ tovto TW to yepas vulg. dvievai 

Hotumel dXX' airriu fKelvrfv Earle tm epyw seel. Baiter; Ta...&eoL 

seel. Bdhm. 



wrong sense " I do not say men do so, cela va sans dire." We may explain 
ov fiovov oTi as elliptical for ov novov (Xeyta) ort, 

&vSpcs...ai YwaiKcs. The addition of the article serves to signalize the 
second case as the more striking: cp. /. Alcib. 105 B dv ''E\Xri(nv...ev rots 
fiap^dpoK : Phileb. 45 b, ih. 64 c ; Vahlen on Arist. Poet. iv. 1449" 1. 

"AXktio-tis. Besides Euripides, Phrynichus (438 B.C.) and later Antiphanes 
(354 B.C.) made Alcestis the theme of a tragedy : see also the Skolion by 
Praxilla in Bergk P. L. G. in. § 1293. 

iirip To«8« Tou Xo-you. " In support of my argument." 

«ls Tois "EXXT|vas. Cp. Prolog. 312 a tis tovs ''EXXi7i'ar (ravrov a-o<f>UTTrfv 
wapixaiv : Oorg. 526 B : Thue. I^ 33. 2. 

46eXTJ<ra<ra |i6vt) ktX. Cp. Eur. Ale. 15 ftl iravras 8' fKey^as...Ovx (vpe ttXijc 
yvvaiKos ijtis rjdeXc | davelv wpo Kflvov. 

179 C oOs iKi(,vi\ ktX. See Eur. Ale. 683 flf. where the appeal of Admetus 
is thus answered by his father Pheres : ov yap waTpaov tovB' eSe^dprjv v6p.ov \ 
naidtov ■jTpoOvrjtrKeiv naTfpas ov8* ^'EWrjviicov. 

dXXoTpCovs. Admetus might have described his dWoTpioi Trpoa-riKovTes as 
" a little more than kin and less than kind." 

cvaptSjiiiTois. A grandiose synonym for oXi'yoir. 

{Soirav toCto y^pas. . .dyturSivrii. Cp. Phaedr. 259 B b yipas jrapd 6eS>v 
iXpvcriv dvdpanois SiSovai, Ta^ av 8oUv dyatrSevTes. ayapai can take either 
the genitive (Rep. 426 d, etc.) or the accus. {Symp. 219 D, etc.). This passage 
is alluded to by Plut. aniat. 762 A XiyovTcs e| abov tois ipanKols auoSov tls (j>S>s 
vtrdpx^iv. 

ovTcii...Tip.w<riv. Cp. Xen. Symp. VIII. 28 oKKa koi 6eo\ Kai rjptofs rffv T^r 
^Ifv^ris <j)iX.lav ncpi jrXfiovor...7roiowrat. 



28 nAATONOS [179 D 

crirovBi^v re Kal dpeTr)v fiaKtcrra rcfiaxriv. 'Op<f>ea Be tov Oidypov 
areki] a-n-iire^-^av ef "AtSou, ^dcr/j,a Sei^avre? rij? ywaiKOt e<l> 
rjv riKev, avTTjv Be ov BoPTe'!, on fiaX0aKi^e<T0ai eBoKei, are wv 
Kidap(fiB6<;, Kal ov ToXfxdv eveKa tov epeorof dirodvqaiceiv wa-rrep 
"AX«7;crTt9, dWa Biafir}-)(ava<Tdai ^&v elaievat eh "AiBov. roi- 
ydpToi Bia Tavra SiKrju^ ainat iireQeaav, koX erroiricrav tov ddvuTOV 
E avTov viro yvpaiK&v yeveaOai, oi)(^ wairep 'A'x^iXKea tov tjjs @6Tt- 
So? v'tov iTifirjarav Kal el<; /Maxapeov vqaovi; a-jreTre/iyjrav, oti ireirv- 
tTfiivo'S irapa Trji nrjTpo<; o)? dtrodavolTO diroKTetvaii ' EiKTopa, /xr} 
diroKTeivaii Be tovtov oiKaB' iXdmv yr)paio<; TeXevTrjaoi, eToXfi/rtaev 

179 D fioKurra nfiSxriu secl. Bdhtn. </>iii'rna'/xa TW to\iiS>v Nabor 

Siafirixavfia-atrdai W, vulg. f^v Uvai T ino'ir^irav epyov yeviaBai yvvaiKav 

Naber E Kai...d7r«'7re/i\/'ai' damnat Naber awoddvoiTo T : anoddvoi B 
dnoKTetvas dt roiiTov B : iroifjtTas 8e roCro T oiKab* T : oiKade 8* B 

179 D 'Op<|>^a. For the legend of Orpheus and his wife Eurydice, see 
Paus. IX. 30, Virg. Georg. iv. 454 ff., Ovid Met. x. 1 flf. Phaedrua modifies 
the usual story (1) by making Eurydice a (pda-na, and Orpheus consequently 
uTfXijy (cp. Stesichorus' treatment of the Helen-legend, followed also by 
Euripides in his Helena, and Phaedr. 243 b) : (2) by making O.'s descent 
an act of juiKaKla rather than of roX/ia (as Hermesianax 2. 7, Ov. Met. x. 13 
ad Styga Taenaria eat ausus descendere porta) : (3) by representing O.'s death 
to be a penalty for this cowardice rather than for his irreverence to Dionysus 
(as Aeschylus Dassarai, etc.). For Orpheus and Orphism in general, see 
Miss J. Harrison Proleg. pp. 455 ff. 

aT« uv Ki0apu8is. As if the "soft Lydian airs" of the cithara conduced to 
effeminacy. For the cithara, as distinguished from the "Kipa, see Rep. 
399 D — B (with Adam's Jioie). It is worth noticing that Spenser (//. to 
Love) cites Orpheus as an instance of evdeos rdX^a — "Orpheus daring to 
provoke the yre Of damned fiends, to get his love retyre." 

ToiYttpToi 8ia TovTo. Cp. Isoor. VII. 52, Andoc. I. 108, Dem. XXIII. 203; 
an examjile of the rhetorical trick of amplitude. Phaedrus, as Hug observes, 
is blind to the obvious corollary that Eros sometimes fails to implant riiX/id. 

179 E oix wirircp. "Wliorcas, on tlie contrary": op. Oorg. 522 a, 189 c 
infra. 

els (laKdpciiv viio-ovs. Cp. Pind. 01. II. 78 ff., Skolion ap. Bgk. P. L. O. iii. 1290. 
Achilles, after death, is variously located, by Homer {Od. xi. 467 ff.) in Hades, 
by Ibycus (/r. 37) in Elysium, by Arctinus and others in Leuke ("white- 
island"), for which see Pind. Nmi. iv. 49, and Rohde Psyche il. 369 8'. For 
the situation of the /i. vrjo-oi, see Strabo i. 3 : cp. Adam R. T. Q. 135 f. 

MS oiroOovotTO. See Horn. II. XVIII. 96 airiKa yap Toi iTreiTa fied' "ExTopa 
■jroTpos eVoi/xor : ibid. IX. 410 ff.; ^4^0?. 28 0, D. 

otKa8',..TcXcvn^(roi. This clause is echoed, as Wolf observed, by Aeschines 
I. 145 e7ravf\6a>v oixaSe yqpatos . ..dnoSaveWai. 



180 b] lYMnOZION 29 

eXiadai ^or]6'i]aa<s_T^ Ipatn^ TlarpoKXtp KaX rifitopi^a-a'; oil fiovov 
virepaTToQavelv oiXKa koX etrairoOavelv TereK,evrr}KQTi, • o6ev hrj koX 180 
virepao/aadkvTe'; oi 0eol Zia^epovTw; avrov iTifirj<Tav, art tov 
ipaarrjv ovto) Trepl ttoWov eiroielro. Aiay(y\o<{ Be ^Xvapei tpaa- 
Kwv 'A^tWea TLarpoKKov epav, o? rjv KaWitov oil fiovov UarpoKXav 
a\X' dpa KoX t&v ripmtov airdvroiv, koI en dr/eveio<;, eireira vem- 
Tepo<; TToXv, &<; (jtrjaiv "OfiTjpo<;. dWa yap tw ovti fidXiara fiev 
TavTrjv rr)v dpeTT/v oi deol rifiwo'i Tr)v irepi rov epcora, fiaXXov B 
fiivroi 6avfid^ov(Ti koI ayavTat koi ev •jroiovaiv, orav o ep(Ofievo<; 
TOV ipaffTrjv dyaird, rj orav 6 e/oacrr^? t^ TraiSixd. aeiorepov yap 
epaa'Tr)<; TraiBtKcov ev6eo<i ydp iari. Bia Tavra Kai tov A^tWea 

179 E Po7]6JjiTai W UaTpoKkm del. Naber 180 A AicrxuXoy... 
"Ofiijpos del. Valckeuaer dXX' Upa W : aWa apa T : a\Xa B : dXX' Sp-a Bt. 
Ka\...ayfvfios popt jroXu transp. Petersen B ipcuTTr)s...i(TTi seel. Bdhiu. 

PoT|6i]<ras. Op. Arist. Khet. I. 3. 1359' 3 olov 'h^iKKca iiraivovtriv on «/3o^- 
Qrjcre rat eraipco IlarpoKXa) eldois on Set avrov dwodavelv e^ov ^rjv. Isocrates (in 
Panegyr. 53) lauds the Athenians for a similar nobility of conduct. 

180 A lirairo6av6tv. This and 208 D are the only classical instances cited 
of this compound ; nor does there seem to be another class, instance of vncpa- 
yatrdrjvat. 

Alo-x^Xos 8J <|>Xvapci. The reference is to Aesch. Myrmidons (fr. 135, 
136 N.). Sophocles, too, wrote an 'Ax'XXecor 'Epaa-ral: cp. also Xen. Symp. 
VIII. 31. Achilles, like Asclepius and others, was worshipped in some places 
{e.g. Epirus) as a god, in others {e.g. Elis) as a hero. 

diXX' apo Kol. ""Apa h. 1. stare potest, valet: nimirum'' (Wyttenbach) : 
for Spa affirmative in a universal statement, cp. 177 E, Rep. 595 a. To alter 
to Spa, as Burnet, is unnecessary. 

KaXXUv. For the beauty of Achilles, see II. ii. 673. Ov. Trist. li. 411 
refers to Sophocles' play — "neo nocet auotori moUem qui fecit Achillem": 
cp. Lucian dial. mart. 18. 1. 

a-ylvetos. The hero is so represented in art; and the Schol. ad E. i. 131 
applies to him the epithet ywaiKonpoaanos. Similarly Apollo, in Callim. H. 
II. 36 f. ovTVOTf ^olpov I drjXflijtr' oiiS' oaiTov eiri ^''oos ^\de napfials. 

vcuTCpos. See II. XI. 786 yev^.i; piv vneprepos ea-nv 'A;^tXX€uy | Trpea-^vrepos 
Be (TV {sc. ndrpoKXor) t (reri : and Schol. ad II. xxiil. 94. For the relative ages 
of TraihiKo. and ipaiTTrfs, see 181 B if. infra ; Xen. Anah. II. 6. 28 avrbs 8e {sc. 
Meno) naihiKa etj^f Qapvrrav ay4veios i>v yevetavra (mentioned as an enoraiity); 
Ov. Met. X. 83 ff. 

lidXiirra |iiv...naXXov (x^vtoi. This savours of a Hibernicism: cp. Oorg. 
509 B piyuTTOv rmv KaKa>v...Ka\ tn rovrov pel^ov. 

180 B flaupictjovtri. Cp. Rep. 551 A iiraivovai re Kal 0au/jdfot)(ri Kai fir 
ras apxas Hyova-f. Xen. Symp. IV. 44. 

6£i6Tcpov...^v6eos. Cp. 179 a, 209 b ad init.; Schol. ad Eur. Hippol. 144 



30 nAATQNOZ [180 b 

T?j5 'AXw^ffTtSo? fidXkov enfiriaav, el';'' fiaKapmv vr)aov<i airoireiJ.- 

■\}ravT€<;. 

OvTco Bt) 670)76 <p'rifit "EjOWTa 06&v Kal irpetr^VTarov Kal 

Tifj-iwraTov Kal Kvpiwrarov elvai ei<i dperrj^ koX eiiBaifiovla'i Krrjcriv 

dv9pa)Troi<: Kal fwcrt Kal TekevTrjaaaiv. , 
C VIII. ^alhpov /tei( tolovtov riva Xoyop e^j] elireiv, ixerd he 

^aiSpov aXXov^ Tiva<! 'elvat, wv ov irdw 8te/xvr]fi6vevev' oft? 

Trapels! tov Ylavcraviov \6yov Smjelro. elirelv 8' aiirov ori Ov 

«a\ws fioi SoK€i, (S ^aiSpe, irpo^epXijadai ■^fuv 6 \0709, ro dirK&<! 

ovTic; iraprjyyeXdai iyKafiid^eiv "Epcora. el /xep rydp el^ fjv 6 

"E^M?, KaXSi<; av 6t%6, vvv he ov yap eariv el?' fii] ovtoi he Jfo?, 
D opOoTepov iari irporepov TrpoppirjBfjvai ottoiov Bel eiraiveiv. iiyo) 

ovv ireipacro/jLai tovto eTravopptoaaaaai,, irptoTov fiev bjpcora <ppa- 

crai ov Set iiraivelv, eveira iiraiveaai d^i(o<} tov 6eov. travTei yap 

180 B TTJs 'aXkijcttiSos del. Schiitz Bdhm. Kai post deZv om. T 

KOI Ti/iiaraTov om. T (add. in mg. t) Kvpiuynpov T elvai del. 

Hirschig : tlireiv postea idem cj. D onoiov : oTrorepov Hertn. 

cvBfoi \4yovTai oi vno ^dcfiuTos tivos a(f>aipe6ivTes tov vovv, koi vw' iiceivov 
TOV 6eov TOV KJjaa-fiaTOTTOLOV KaTe)^6p€voi Kai Ta doKOvvTa tKetvai iroiovvTes, See 
Rohde Psyche 11. 19 ff. 

O'ira 81^ ktX. In this epilogue koX wpecr^. Koi rip,, summarize the first part 
of the speech ; Koi KvpiaTorov ktX., the second part. Cp. Isocr. Hel. 218 D 
KaXXovff.../ucrf(r;^ei' o (repvoraTOv Koi TipiatTaTOv Kal Oei&raTOv Tav SvTtov fariv, 

180 ttXXous Tivas ttvai. The construction here has been misunderstood : 
Hirschig proposed to write elireiv for flvai, while Ilug bid."! us supply \eyovTas. 
Evidently both suppose tliat liWoi tiv(s moan persons, but it seems better to 
take them to be Xoyot and to construe pera iaiSpov as a compendium for pera 
TOV ^aiSpov \6yov. By this means we secure the word required, Xdyovr, as 
the antecedent to &v : for Siapvrjpoveieiv would be less naturally used of a 
person than of a speech (cp. 178 a 7ravT(>>v...ipipvr)To). For the brachylogy, 
cp. Thuc. I. 71. 2 dpxoiOTpoTTa vpav to emTi]8fipaTa jrpor airoii ioTiv (with 
Shilleto's n.). 

To...k-^viii>^\.aX,av "Epcura. This clause is best taken, with Stallb. and Hug, as 
nomin. in epexegetic apposition to irpo/Sf^X^o-flot 6 Xoyos. Equally improbable 
are Riickert's view that the clause is accus. ("quatenus sic simpliciter" etc.), 
and Horamel's that it is exclamatory. 

dirXus ovTUS. Cp. 176 E. 

vvv 8i ov 7ctp. We may assume the ellipse of oi koKSis tx^i after vvv fie : 
cp. Theaet. 143 E, Apol. 38 b, etc. 

irpoppniSTJvai. Hommel renders by "prius praefari," Hug by "edicere." 
In favour of Hommel's view cp. npovppr)6r) 198 E, roirtov npoppr/BcvTav Laws 
823 D ; Rep. 504 a. 



181 A] lYMnOIION 31 

ia/xev oTi ovK ecmv afgi/J'E/SMTo? 'Ac^poStTT;. /ita? tiev oyv ovarj'; 
eZs av rjv ^^pa)<i' iireX Be Br) Bvo earov, Bvo dvayKt] Kal "Eipaire 
eipai. TTw? S' oil Bvo tq) 0ed ; rj fiev yi trov •jrpeo'^VTepa Kal 
dfjiijTaip Ovpavov dvydrrjp, rjv Btj koi Ovpaviav i'jrd'vo/jid^o/x.ev ?] 
Be veanepa A(o<; KaX Ai(ii)vr}<;, ■fjv Br] TldvBrjfiov KaXovfiev, dvay- E 
Koiov Br) Kal "Epwra tov fiev t^ eripa crvvepyov IldvBr)fiov opdw 

KaXelaOai, tov Be Ovpdviov. eTraivelv /Mev ovv Bel 7rdvTa<; 0eov<;, 

AX' , , / t- „- ■ '■• ■■'■-/'■'■)' *»'■:' „ , „f. 'J 4'* 
a o ovv e/carepo? ei\,r)'^e ireipareov enreiv. iraaa yap 7rpa^i<! ooo 

e'xet' avTr) e^' eavrris [irpaTTOfiivr]] ovTe KaXrj ovre aiaxpd. olov 181 

180 D avcv 'Epms 'A</)po8iVt;r. 'Afjtpodlrtjs 8e nias Graser {^r) fiias 

Ruckert oSv om. Stob. Bekk. Si Sf, BW: 8e T, Stob. i'pcoTas Stob. 

TO 6ed Stob. : Tcb Oeii Cobet diavTis T : Siovris B E iiraivciv . . , 

Beovs del. Orelli J.-TJ. bfl vavras 6fOVS : ov 8et iravTa' Bast: ov del iravTa 

y o/ioias- Vermehreu : hiatum ante a notavit Sz. 8' ovv : ovv Orelli : 8' 

Ast {TrpaTT(iv) TTfipartov KroyenbUlll oi8i Stob. irparrnpcvri BT, 

stob. GcU. : om. Proclus Stoph. Sz. : TOTTopivr] Bcnuiyss : i^era^ofiivrf Licbhold. 

180 D ouK ?<rTtv...'A<j)po8CTri. Cp. Hes. Theog. 201 rrj 8' "'Epos i>p.dpTria-e 
Koi "ipfpos efTirero KoKbs \ yeivofievij ra irpSyra QfSiv t' (is <pv\ov lova-rj : Orph. 
S. 55. 1 OvpaviT} TroXivp-vf, </)iXo/ijiiet849 'AKJypoSiTtj... (8) prJTcp epayrav. 

|iias oij(n]S. Cp. Xen. Symp. VIU. 9 et /ieV ovv pla iariv 'A(j)p. ^ Sirrai ktX. 

Tcl Bta. Plato uses both 6f6s (181 c, Rep. 327 a, etc.) and 6ed {Rep. 388 a, 
391 c, etc.) for "goddess,"' and 6fd here serves to preclude confusion with 
"Epas. For the notion of a dual Aphrodite cp. Xen. I. c, Apuleius apol. 12, 
Plotin. JSnn. iii. 5. 293 B. For Aphrodite Urania, with a temple in Athens, 
see Hdt. i. 105, 131, etc.; Pans. i. 14. 6. See also Cic. N. £>. iii. 23; Pind./r. 87. 

ndvSiiitov. For the temple in honour of A. Pandemos, see Pans. i. 22. 3. 
It is doubtful whether the title originally attached to her as the common 
deity of the deme, or as the patroness of the iralpai. But whatever its origin, 
the recognized use of the title at the close of the 5th century was to indicate 
Venus meretrix. 

180 £ Kul "EpwTa ktX. The notion of a duality, or plurality, in Eros is 
also hinted at in Eurip. fr. 50O hos 8' "Eparos Svtos ov /it" riSovij- \ ol piv 
KaKwv epwo'iv, oi 8e rav KoKStv : fv, adesp. 151 hiotra nvevpara irveis "Epios. 
Cp. Phaedr. 266 A. 

liraivciv...6eovs. This is merely a formal saving clause, to avert possible 
Nemesis, and although it involves the speaker in something like self- 
contradiction, there is no good reason to suspect corruption in the text (if 
correction be required, the easiest would be fifjyripelv, cp. Epin. 992 d difirjpf'iv 
ndvras deovs ktX.). The laudation of base gods would sound less strange in 
ancient than in modern ears; and Eryximachus uses very similar language 
in 188 D (cp. 195 a). 

181 A airff i^' IttuTrjs ktK. Gellius XVII. 20 ignores npaTTopivt] in his 
rendering (" Omne," inquit, " omnino factum sic sese habet : neque turpe est, \ 



32 nAATQNOI [181 A 

o yvv Jj/iei?. irotovfiev, rj nriveiv rj aSeiv t) SiaXiyeadai, ovk ecrri. 
Tovrav avTO koXov ovBev, a'W' eV rfj -rrpd^ei, to? av irpa')(jSrj, 
ToiovTov dire^rj^' KoKm fiev yap irparro/jievov koX qp6&<; kuXop 
yif^veTai, fit] oppw? be aia^xpov. ovrco of] Kai to epav^Kai o bjpcoi; 
ov 7r»9 eVrt Koko^ ovSe a^ioq iyKcofiid^eadat, d\X' 6 /caXw? irpo- 
Tpeiriov epav. , 

IX. 'O nev o5v TT]^ jn.avB'^p,ov2A(j>poSiT7)i} &<: d\i]6(Sv iravhi]- 

B /A09 eVrt Kol e^epyd^erai o ri av tv^J)' Kal outo? ia-riv ov oi 
(ftavXoi rwv dvOpwircov eptSfftv. epwcrt Be oi toiovtoi, irpwTOP jxev 
ovx TfTTOv yvvaiKwv 7} iraiBav, eireira wv Kal epSai tSv (j-cofiaTcov 
fiaXkov rj TcSi/ i^v^fwy, eireira w? av BvvccvTai , dvorfTOTdrtov, Trpb^i 
TO oiaTrpd^aadai /jlSvov ^Xiirovfe^, dfieXovvTei; Be tov kuXooi; rj firj. 
odev Btj ^vp,paivei avToi^, 6 rt av TV')(acri, tovto irpdrreiv, 6p,oi(o<; 
/j,€V dyadov, 6p,oi,eo<; Be rovvavTtov. ecrri yap Kot aTro tjj? 6eov 

C vecoTepa<; re ova-ri<; -iroKv i) Tr]<: eTepai,/ xat ixeTe-)(ovai)<; ev rf) 
yevia-ei Kal dTjXeot; koI appevo<!. 6 Be tjj? Ovpavia^ irpSrov fiev ov 
p.ere'x^ovar]^ 0i]\eo<; aW' appevo<; fiovov, [jcaX eariv oi/to? o t£v 

181 A avTO (xad* aiiTo) t rtj ova. Stob. koKos B : KoKas T 

B avorjroTOTbiS W otto rijy : aTro secl. Sz. Hug : ToiavTrjs J.-U. 

Kat...epa>s seol. Schutz Teuffel Hug Sz. Bdhm. J.-U. 



quantum in eo est, neque honestum, uelut est quas nunc facimus ipsi res, 
bibere cantare disserere. nihil namque horum ipsum ex se honestum est; 
quali cum fieret modo factum est, tale extitit," etc.) : Proclus also (in Alcib. I. 
p. 215) omits it. It must certainly, 1 think, be ejected, since it only serves to 
copfuse the argument ; none of the alternatives proposed are at all probable ; 
while Rettig's attempt to justify its retention by the device of setting a 
comma before it is merely absurd. For the language cp. M&no 88 o iravra ra 
KOTa Tr)v i\rv)(riv avra fiev Kad' avra oCre a>0eX(/ia oi/Te /SXajSepa f<TTiv : Phaedr. 

258 c, D. See also Eryx. 397 e ; Arist. Pol. 1333" 9, for the moral indifference 
of 7rpa^€ts Kad' avrus. 

Ti av TvxTl- " -A^t random " ; so o ti fiv tvxoxti 181 B infra : Prot. 353 a 
oi o TL hv TV)((o(ri tovto Xeyovat. 

181 B uv KaV Ipuo-i. " In the actual objects of their passion " : the full 

statement would be ipS>ai tS>v crafiaTav eKeivav (sc. naiSav tj yufaiK^K) av 
f'pSxri, paWov ^ tS>v ^. 

TO Siairpiilao'Sai. A polite euphemism for the sexual act: cp. 182 c, 
Phaedr. 256 c ; Lysias I. 33. 

8o-Ti 'ydp...appevos. Observe that the reasons are put in chiastic ordei\ 
181 C KaV 2<rTiv...''Epus. This clause is obviously open to suspicion as 
(1) anticipating the sense of o6fv Stj kt\., and (2) standing in partial con- 
tradiction to the later statement (181 d ad init.) oi yap fpSxri naiSav. 



181 E] lYMnOIION 33 

ij / /. ' ||. 

iraihwv epo)?-] eireiTa TrpeaSvTepa^, vBpeay; daoipov odev Ev 

'„i ^ « ' ■v^wUv'i'^v't •I-'-"; i5*„' „ ",; ^'vJ.^ 

eTTi TO appev TpeirovTai oi ex tovtov rov^eppOTOv eTnirvoij^.To 
<f>v<rei ipptofieveaTepov Kal vovv uaXKov eyov aydTrSvTfi;. xai 
Tts cti/ 7i/oti7 feai ev avry ttj vaioepaa-ria, tov<{ ei,\tKpivw<! viro 
TOVTOV Tpv^ epioTO'; (iopfirjfievovf ov yap ipSxri TraiBcov, a'W' D 
eVetSai' rjSi) dpx<0VTai vovv IV^eti/, tovto Be -rrXriaid^ei t<^ 
yeveiaaKeiv. r^irapecTKevaafievoi yap, oiftai, elalv ol evrevOev 
o-PX"!^^'".'^'' epav w^ Tov piov airavra ^vveaofievoi icai Koivrj a-v/i- 
piayao/ievoi,, aX\ ovk i^airaTrjaavTe';, iv d^poavvy Xa06vTe^ m<; 
veov, KaTayeKaaavT€<; olx^creadai eir oKKov a7roTp6%oi'T69. %/3^i' 
he Koi vofj-oy elvai '/jltj epav ■jraiBwv, Xva fir) et? aZrfKov TroXki) 
crirdvOT) dvrjXla-KeTo ' to yap twv iraiBcov reXo? ahrfKov ol TeXevTo, E 

181 TraiSav ill iraiS€pa<TrS>v mutato post ayairavres trs. Verm. npe<T- 

^vripas (ovot/s Kai) Christ afioipov libri : Spoipos Fioinus Bast Bdhra. : 

v^peais ap.ot.pov addub. Sz. D eiW {fj) Steph. Hug oi)^ea-6m Herwerden 

naiSas Markland E 7-eXor seel. Bdhm. 



vPpEws d|j.oCpou. For vPpis as especially associated with juvenile " lustihead," 
cp. Euthyd. 273 b v^pia-rfie ha to v4os elvai: Lysias XXIV. 16 v^piCeiv eUos... 
Tois fTi viovs Koi vfais rats Stavoiais p^pco/icVous : Soph. ^n 705 v^pis 8e Toi...ev 
veois dvOei re Ka\ <ji6iv€i naXiv. 

iirnrvoi. " Driven by the spirit " : the only other exx. of the word in Plato 
are Cratyl. 428 C and Meno 99 D (jjaipev &v Beiovs re elvai koi evdova-id^civ, 
iiriiTvovs ovras koi Karf^opevovs ck tov 6eov (cp. 179 A n., 180 B n.). 

181 D toSto %\. So. TO vovv to-p^ew. This is in contradiction to the 
statements of Phaedrus, 178 o (eiSiis via ovti), 180 a (?rt dyevews i]v). For 
yeveidfrneiv {puhescere\ cp. Solon 27. 5 — 6 tjj TpvrdTrf fie yeveiov de^opeva>v ert 
yu/coj' I 'KaxvovTot, xp°i-'i^ avBot dpei^opAvrjs. Cp. Spenser F. Q. II. xii. 79 "And 
on his tender lips the downy heare Did now but freshly spring, and silken 
blossoms bcarc": Hor. C. xv. 10. 2 (plnma). 

irapeiTK(viurf>.ivoi ktX. For the change of construction from wr with fut. 
partic. to (fut.) infin., cp. Charm. 164 d, Rep. 383 a noifiv i>s pr^Te... ovras... 
priTc.napdyeiv. The clause iv d^poa-vvr] . . .viov is best taken closely with the 
preceding participle, and KarayeXdo-avTes. . .dnoTpixovres closely together. For 
i^aTraTi^travTiS cp. 184 E, 185 A : Theogn. 254 aXX' aa-Trep piKpov iraiba Xoyotr 
p dnaras. This dtraTi] and KOTayeXdv are forms of the vfipis mentioned above, 
181 a : cp. 219 c, 222 a. 

|ii^ ^pav iraCSuv. jrais, as here used, is Theognis' piKpos nais, the iraiSapiov 
of 210 B infra. 

181 E oSiiXov ot T«\evT§. Cp. Phaedr. 232 B rav pev ipavTav n-oWo). 
TrpoTtpov TOV (TotpaTos eTTcBvprjaav ^ tov Tpowov eyvonrav KrX. : Theogn. 1075 ff. 
TTprjypaTos dnprjKTOV p^aXeTrwTaroi' ifTTi TeXevTfjv | yv5ivai...op^vri yap Tcrarm : 
Alcid. Odyss. 5 irdird re dnopia rpi iro't jroTf npo^r)<ToiTo ^...TeXeuTi?. A similar 

B. P. 3 



34 nAATfiNOZ [181 e 

KaKiat KoX dpeTTJ^ ■hlrvxrj<; re iripi koX aa>fiaro^. ol fiev o?)v 
dyadol Tov vofiov^Tovrov avTol avTOi<! eKOvre^ riuevrai, %p»)«' 8e 
Kai TovTovi TOW? iravorjfiov'i epaana<i irpoaavayKa^eiv to roiovTov, 
(fnairep Kai rtov^eXevoep^v-iyvvaiKUv irpoa-avayKa^ofiep avTovi^ 
182 KaO^ oaov Bvvd/ieOa pJq'epdv. ovtoi yap eiariv oi Kai to ovetSo^ 
•TreiroirjKOTe^, axrre ri,va<! ToXfiav \eyeiv w? alaj^pop ')(api^e(T0ai, 
epaa-Tut^' xeyovai, be et? tovtov<! a'7roa\eirovTe<;, opcovTe<; avrcov 
Tvv aicaipiav Kai abiKiav, etrei, ov on ttov Koaiikcn'; 76 Kai voutuoi'i 
OTiovv 'irpaTTO/ievov''Yoyov av oiKaico^ (pepoi. 

Kal Srj Kot o Trepl tov epcoTa vofioi' ev p,ev rat? aWat? TroXetrt 

181 E KUKtas ij edd. Stobaei, Hommel xPV" ^V: xpl" B: xP"? T 

Totv ToiovTov W 182 A TLva vulg. aKaipluv : itKoafilnv Liebhold 

ye : T€ vulg. OTIOVV {irpayfia) rug. t, Bt. 



sentiment occurs in the Clown's song in Twelfth- Night : " What's to come is 
still unaurc... Youth's a stuff will not enduie." 

KaK^as Kttl dptTTJs. Possibly those genitives are to be construed (with 
Kiickert) as dependent on the preceding adverb 01: cp. Soph. 0. T. 413 oh 
^Xe'jTfiy iv' ei Kanoy (Madv. Or. Si/nt. § 50 b). Hug, however, takes them to 
be governed by nipi, comparing for the sejiaration of prepos. from case Apol. 
19 c, Soph. Aj. 793. 

To\iTov5...lpacrTds. For oiiros contemptuous cp. Apol. 17 B, Rep. 492 D ovtoi 
oi naiScvToi re koi crocJMrTal {"ovtoi is the contemptuous isti" Adam). 

TO ToiouTov. Sc. fir) epav naiSav (D ad Jin.). For the db. accus. with 
■avayKa^io, cp. Rep. 473 A tovto /jlti avayKa(e pe : Phaedr. 242 B. Hommel, 
perversely, construes to towvtov as an adverbial accus., " ganz in der Weise 
wie " etc. 

Twv ^XevBe'puv ■yuvaiKcSv. For the legal penalties (by a ypa^rj poixeias or 
v^pcas or a bUri ^uiiaiv) for rape and adultery, see Lysias I. 26, 30, 49. One 
of the lesser penalties was that alluded to by Catullus xv. 18 f., Quem...Per- 
current raphaniqiie mugilesque. 

182 A x'^p't'"'^"''' ^pao-Tals. ;(a/)/ff(r5ai, obsequi, "to grant favours" — the 
converse of Sianpd^aaBai — is a vox propria in this connexion : cp. Schol. ad 
I'haedr. 227 c to p^aptcTt'ov eirT\v...T6 irpiis dcl>po8ia-iov iavrov (Tvvovirlav fTTiSi- 
86v(u nvi. For the sentiment here disputed, see Xen. Symp. viii. 19 ff. ; 
Mem. I. 2. 29 ; and the paradox in Phaedr. 233 K icras irpoa-riKei ov toXs a(j>66pa 
Seopevois xap'X'"'^'"- Aeschines i. 136 agrees with Pausanias. 

T^v uKaipCav. " Impropriety" or "tactlessness" : for exx. of such aKaipia, 
see 181 D, Phaedr. 231 d ff. 

6...v6|jios- vo/xos.here includes both "law" proper and "public sentiment" 
or " custom " (" die Anschauungen des Volkes," Hug) which are distinguished 
ill Dcm. de Cor. 114: cp. Time. vi. 18. 7: but in Time. vi. IG. 2 i/<i/i()£ is 
" custom." 



182 B] SYMnpilON 35 

-voTjaai pahw;, aTrXm? ryap wpiaraf 6 S' IvOaZe [koI ev Aaice^al- 
fiovi] TTotKiXo?. ev "HXtSt fjLev yap Kal ev BotwTot?, ical ov /irj B 
(TO<j)oi Xeyeiv, dv'Kw<; vevofioOerriTat Kokov ro y^api^eaffat epaaral^, 
Kai ovK av Ti<! e'lTTOi oine veot ovre TraXato^'ew? aia'xpov, "va, ol/nai, 
/in nrpdyfiuT ~,e')((ocn Xoyat ireipcofievoi' Treiffeiv rov<; veov;, are ■ 
aovvarot, \eyeiv; rr)? Se 'Icui/ia? Kal aX\offt^7r6\\a')(^ov alir'^pov 
vevofiiardi,' ovot virb ^ap^dpoi^ oIkovctl. rot? yap ^ap0dpoi<; 
oia ra<; rvpavviha';' alu'^pov tovto ye Kal rj ye <f)iKoao^l,a Kal rj 

I'! 
182 A (6) iv Hirschig koI ev AaKeSaifiovi seol. Winckelmann Hug 

Sz. J.-U.: fort, post yap transpon. (cf. Teuffel) d aupra eV A.aKfSalfwvi 

add. T B ou T: ou B to BT; del. t roir 8e 'lavias Ast: 

rfj 8e 'lavta Thiersch ■jroWaxov Koi aWoSi cj. Steph. (cat) oo-ot 

Riickert ye (post tovto): tc Herm. Sz. 

182 A Kal iv AaKcSaCpLovi. I follow Wiiickehnami and others (sco crit. n.) 
in bracketing these words: possibly thoy should bo transposed to a place iu 
the next clause, either after yap or after Boimrolr (in suggesting this I find 
myself anticipated by an anonymous critic, ap, Teuffel, Rhein. Mus. xxix. 
p. 145). That Laconia was a hot-bed of paederasty might be inferred d, priori 
from its military-oligarchical constitution, and is betokened by the verb XaKta- 
viietv used as a synonym for iraibiKols xfiV^^Sai (Ar. frag. 322), and the adj. 
Kvao\aKa>v for naidepaa-Trjs. It is certainly unlikely that a ttoikIXos vopos 
would be ascribed to the Laconians, and unlikely too that they would be 
classed apart from the fifj a-o<f)o\ \4yeiv. Moreover, in 182 d S. it is 6 ivddSc 
(ij/icTfpor) I'd/tor which is treated as itoikiKos, and no mention is made there 
of a similar Laconian vop-os. For Laconian mores, Stallb. cites Xen. Rep. 
Lac. II. 13; Plut. Lac. Inst. p. 237 b; Aelian F.iT. iii. 10. 12. In Xen. Symp. 
VIII. 35 the Lacedaemonians are lauded — Beav yap ov t^v 'Avaideiav dWa ttjv 
AlSa Ko/xi'fovo-i (which ought, perhaps, to be construed as implying that they 
are slighted here). 

182 B Iv "HXiSi (crX. Cp. Xen. Symp. viii. 34, Rep. Lac. I.e., Athen. xiii. 2. 
The Cretan Apnayiios -n-aiSmv {Laws viii. 836) points to a similar state of things. 

TTJs 8J 'luvCas. The genitive is taken by Hug as dependent on noWaxov, 
by Stallb. as dependent on Sa-oi, "vel potius ex demonstrativo ante ocroi 
intelligendo." Hug quotes Xen. Sell. iv. 4. 16 iroXKaxoire koX tIjs 'ApKaSias 
cH^aXuvTcs. 

oo-ot... oIkovo-i. The grammar is loose— "per synesin additur oo-oi perinde 
ac si praecessisset 'apud lonas autem et multos alios'" (Stallb.). The 
language is most appropriate to a time after the Peace of Antalcidas (387 B.C.), 
when the Greeks of Asia Minor were again reduced to subjection to the 
Great King (see Bury, Hist. Gr. p. 552); cp. Cratyl. 409 b ol vnb toU ^ap- 
pipois olKovvTfs : Laws 693 A. 

TOVTO y( Kal kt\. Strictly we should supply, with roCro, to xop'fftr^"' 
epa<TTaTs, but the notion latent is probably the more general one to epav 
(iraiSav). The palaestrae (gymnasia) were recognized as the chief seats of 

3—2 



36 nAATfiNOI [182 b 

Cj ^ > > / ■» 1 1 ■:•■,','■"( 'I „ „ , 1' ' '^'It''" " " 

^iKoyvfipaaTia' ov yap, oijxat, <TVfi<pepei, Toi<i apyovai (ppovrjfiaTa 

fieyaXa iyylyvea-aai tmv dpyofieveov, ovBe <l)iXia<s lavvpa^ Kal 

Koiva>via<s, in] fia\caTa^<pt\ei ra re aWa nravTa Kal o epoii 

efiTTOieiv. epyqy de tovto e/iauov Kal oi evffabe rvpavvof o yap 

A.picnoyeirovo<; epa><i Kal r) 'ApfioBCov (j>iKia /Se^aio^ yevofievr) 

KureXvaev avTwv rrjv ap')(riv. ovTeo<; pv fiev al<Ty^pbv,.iTed7) %a/3t- 

182 ylyuta-dat Jn. rois apxa/ievois ex emend. Vindob. 21 : ra 

ap)(oiiivtf Rohde : rav apxoiiivaiv {rais i/^up^ait) Bdhm. jiaKiiTTa post kol 

trs. Ast aKKa : noKa J.-U. iravTa : ravra Schleierm. Kai o : Kal secl. 
Bdhm. Sz. ol Tb : ou B 

<f>iXotTo^ia and TrmScpaa-Tia aS well as of (piKoyv/ivairTia. Op. (for iraihepaaTta) 
Ar. Nuh. 973 ff., 980 airor iavrov rrpoaycoyevav Tols 6(j>da\nois : Laws 636 B : 
Xen. Cyrcyp. ii. 3. 21 : Cic. Tuac. iv. 33. 70 in Graecorum gymnasiis...isti 
liberi et concessi sunt amores. Bene ergo Ennius: flagiti principium est 
nudare inter cives corpora : Pint. amat. 751 f £F. The gymnasia also served, 
at Athens, as headquarters of political clubs, cp. Athen. xiii. 602. 

182 C <j>p0VT]|iaTO...IyY£'yv£<r9ai,. For <j>pov. fifydXa cp. 190 b. For iyyiy- 
vfirdai cp. Xen. Rep. Lao. v. 6 cSo-t' ixei rJKtara piv v^piv...eyytyi/ecrdai: and 
184 A infra. The genitive tS>v ap^opivav, in place of the more natural dative, 
may be explained, with Stallb., as due to " a confusion of two constructions," 
the gen. being dependent on tjipov. pey. and the dat. after the verb omitted. 
For the thought, cp. (with Jowett) Arist. Pol. v. 11. 15. 

8 8i\...l|iiraiEiv. The neut. sing., which is aco. after ipnoulv, serves to grasp 
under one general head the preceding plurals. For this common use of <^CKfi, 
solet, cp. 188 B infra, Phileh. 37 b. Hug, excising the <a\ after iravTa, con- 
strues TO. aWa wavra as a second object, parallel to o. But no change is 
needed : the phrase means " prae ceteris omnibus maxime amor," as Stallb. 
renders, cp. the usage of aWos re nai, ra re nWa Kai in 220 A, Apol. 36 a, etc. 

6 •yap 'Apio-TcyeCTovos kt\. For the exploits of these tyrannicides, who 
slew the Pisistratids in 51 4 B.C., see Bury //. G. p. 205. Aristogeiton was the 
epaa-TTjs of Harmodius, and popular sentiment invested the pair, in later days, 
with a halo of glory as the patron-saints and martyrs of Love and Liberty. 
Cp. Skolia 9 (Bgk. P. L. O. in. p. 646) iv piprov xXnSi to ^i(jios tpopifaa, \ 
(Sirirep 'AppoSios kcu 'Apta-TOyeiTtiiii, | ore tov Tvpavvov KTaverrfv | laoviipovs r' 
'A.dr]vus (■n-oaicruTrjv : Ar. Ach. 980, Lys. 632. Tho exploit was also com- 
memorated by Autenor's bronzes and a group by Critias and Nesiotes (repro- 
duced in Bury H. O. p. 209). 

WBtj. As aor. pass, of Tideo-Oat, this is equiv. to evopio-Bq (cp. two 
11. below). It is plain that Bepevtav must here be taken to include both rulers 
and subjects. For irkeove^ia, " arrogant greed," as opposed to ij rov ta-ov ripr), 
see Rep. 359 c. For the theory implied in the following passage, that Upas 
and avSpeia go together (as Phaedrus also had contended, 178 DfK), cp. 
Bacon, Bssay x. {Of Love) : " I know not how, but Martiall men are given to 
Love : I think it is but as they are given to Wine ; for perils commonly aske 
to be paid in pleasures." 



183 a] ZYMnOIION 37 

^earOai epaarai^, KUKia t&v defiivwv KeiT/n, r&v fiev ap'XpvTwv 
irKeove^ia, tS>v Se a.pj(pfieva)v dvavSpia- o5 Se koXov a7r\w? ivo- D 
ixla-ffr), Bia Trjv rStv Oe/ievtov' Trj^ ^Irvym atyytav. ivOdSe Se ttoXu 
TovTQjv KaKKiov pevofioueTrjTai, Kai oirep eiirov, ov paoiov Kara- 
vorjaai. , , 

X. ^v6vfJir]6evTi lykp on Xeyerai koKKiov to <f>avepw ipdv 
Tov XdOpa, Kol fjbdXiaTa 't&v ryevvaiOTaTcov kuI dpiarwv, kcLv 
ai(T')(^iov<; aXXmv wcri, Kal oti av r/ irapaKekevaK tw epmvTi irapd 
nravTtov 0avfia<TT'^, ou^^ S<s tc ala-'x^pbv •jtoiovvti, koI ekovTi re 
KoXov SoKei elvai koI fit) eKovTi alcr'^pov, koX Trpo^ to iTri')(eipelv E 
eXeiv i^ovaiav 6 v6fjLo<; BeSaKe tw ipaary OavfLaaTo, epya ipya- 
^ofj-evm eiraiveladai, & e'i Ti? ToX/icpr/ irotelv aXX' oTiovv SidiKwv 
Kai ^ovXofievoi; SiaTrpd^aaffai trX-qv tovto [<j)iXoao<})ia<;], to. fie- 183 
lyiaTa KapTTOiT av oveiST)' el yap rj 'XpijfiaTa /3ovX6fievo<; irapd 

182 D ou 8f T : ou 8e B 8e B : om. TW KaTovoijfrai iv6. y oti 

Bdhm. evedv/iridriv iu mg. W 7-6 T : om. B E Trpos tw Ast 

a fl TW : aU\ B : yp. Koi aU\ W 183 A <f>i\o(To<j}ias seol. Schleierm. Bekk. 

Hug Sz. Bdhm. Bt.: (piKias, tovto delete, Herm.: (j>iXois 6(j)6eis cj. Bdhm.: 
alii alia el BT : § W 

182 D 'Ev6«|i,i)6^VTi 7ap (crX. The construction is grammatically incom- 
plete: one would expect Sd^etfi' av, or the like, to govern the dative. It is 
not till we get to 183 c (tout-i; nev ovv kt\.) that we find the sense resumed. 

irapct ircivTCDv. Jowett's "all the world" is misleading: the treatment is 
here confined to Athenian vo/ios. 

182 E irpos TO 4irix«i.peiv ktX "Quod attinet ad amasii capiendi conatum" 
(Stallb.). 

£^ou(r(av...liraivEi<r8ai. Here, as often, the main idea is put in the 
participle. Again Jowett misleads, in rendering 6 vofios "the custom of 
mankind." 

6avp.a<rTck. ^p^a. "SavftacTa vel Oavfiaaia irotctv vel epyd(fir6ai est sich 
wutiderlich ffeberden... quod dicitur de iis qui vel propter dolorem et indigna- 
tionem vel ob ingentem laetitiam vel etiam prae vehement! aliqua cupiditate 
insolito more se gerunt" (Stallb.). Op. 213 d, Apol. 35 a, Theaet. 151 a. 

183 A irX^v TOVTO [c|ii\a<roit>(as]. 0t\oiro(^ias is most probably corrupt : if 
retained, it would be better to construe it as genit. of object ("the reproaches 
levelled against philosophy") than as genit. of subject or origin (as Ast, 
Stallb., Kreyenbiihl), for which we should expect rather (jtiKoa-o^mv. The 
simplest and best remedy is, with Schleiermacher, to eject (/iiXo<ro(^iar as a 
gloss on the misreading tovtov. For SveiSos, cp. Rep. 347 b to (/KXort/iox re 
KOI (f>i\dpyvpov civai ovtiSos Xcyerai. For KapTrov(r6ai, in malam partem, cp. 
Rep. 579 c ; Eur. Hipp. 1427 k. w4v6ri. In their translations, Jowett follows 
Ast, but Zeller adopts Schl.'s excision. 



38 nAATQNOZ [183 a 

Tov Xa^etp rj dpxvv ap^ai ij tip' aWrjv hvvafiiv eOeXot iroielv 
olaTrep ol ipaaral Trpo? to, TraiSiKti, lKeTeia<i re koI ai'TtySoXjjcrets 
eV Tat? Serjaeat ■jroiov/xevoi, koi opKov<s o/MPvPTe^;, koX K0i/j,7jcrei<s iirl 
6vpai<;, Kal ideXovre<; SovXeia^ BovXeveiP ota? oils' ap SovXo<; ovSei<;, 
ifiTToBi^oiro ap p.r) irpdrreip ovrco ttjp irpa^ip Kal virb ^IXcop ical 
B vTTO e')(i9pSiP, T&p fj,£p 6peiBi^6pT(ov KoXaKela'i kuX aveXevdepiai;, 
Tcbp Se povderovpTcop Kal aicr'x^vpofiipmv virep aintSv ,tc3 S' ip&pTi 
iravTa ravTa ttoiovvti %a/34? e-irea-ri, xal SeSorai virb tov vop-ou 
apev oveiSov! TrpuTTSip, m? TrdyKuXop Ti irpdyiia hiairpaTTop.epoV 
o Be SeiPOTUTOP, S<} ye Xeyovcrip ol iroXXoi, oti Kal ofwvPTi fiopa 
avyyvMfiT] irapa 0eS)P eK^dpri tcop opKcov — d^poSicriop yap opKOp 

183 A Sp^m seel. Verm. Hug Sz. ^ nv' : 8^ nv' Bdhm. «XXi)j/ 

Suvojuti' seel. Bdhm. cBeKeiT Kai...of»i'uj'ref del. Voeg. J.-U. : ofivvvres 

seel. Hertz Hug Sz. K.a\ koi/i dvpais seel. Wolf Jn.: post ■jroiov/j.evoi 

transp. Eiickert idtXovTas vulg. : eOcXovToi (S. SovXeiovTfs) Ast B airav : 
avTov Orelli Sz. ravra tvavra T iitioTi T ; f rrerat B : eirfTm J.-U. Sz. 

dia7rpaTTop.4v(a Vulg. fwvov Stob. tS>v opKcov T: Ta)v opKov B: tov opKOv 

al., J.-U. SpKov {iivpiov) scrips! : opKov {opuov) Hertz Hug 

Koi|i.i)irns ^irX Svpais. Cp. 203 D; Ov. A. A. II. 238 frigidus et nuda saepe 
iaeebis humo : Hor. C. ill. 10. 2 asperas | porrectutn ante fores, ete. For the 
other love-symptoms ep. also Xen. Cyrop. v. 1. 12. 

183 B al<rx,viv>|i.^v<<>v vv\f airiov. For this construetion ep. Exithyd. 305 A, 
Charm. 175 d. With the whole of this passage cp. Xen. Symp. iv. 15, viii. 
12 fF. : Isoer. Mel. 219 B p.ovovs avroiis (sc. tovs KaXovr) &<nrep roiis deovs ovk 
anayopevofiev depatrevovreSt aXX ijSiov dovXevopeu Tois toiovtols fj Tav oKKfov 
apXopfv...Kat Totis pen vir' aWrj Ttvl dwapfi yiyvopivovs XoiSopoipiv Koi KoXuKas 
diroKoXovpev^ Toits be ra KoKXei XarpevovTcs ff)i\oKd\ovs Ka\ (jitXoTrovovs elvat 
vopi(opev (with which cp. also 184 c infra). 

T$ 8' 2p(SvTi,,,8iairpaTTopL^vov. For the gen. absolute after a dative, cp. 
Laws 839 b ^piv rtt napaaras dvrip...\oL8opr]iTei€v &p o)r ai'oi/Ta...rt^6vra>v : 
Phileh. 44 c is a less certain case. For the sense of the passage, cp. Bacon, 
Essay x. {Of Love) : "It is a strange thing to note the oxcesse of this passion ; 
and how it braves the nature and value of things; by this, that the speaking 
in a perpetual hyperbole is comely in nothing hut in Love." 

la% 7« Xf-yovo-iv ktK. These words qualify the following, not the preceding, 
clause : Pausanias himself censures perjury in 183 e. For as ye, cp. Rep. 
352 D, 432 B. 

aij>poS(o-iov vdp opKov kt\. This proverbial expression is found in two 
forms, — d(j>poSi<nos opKos ov baKvei (Hesych.) and d^p. SpKos ovk epwoivipos 
(Suid.). The Scholiast quotes Hesiod (/»-. 5 Q.) « toCS' ipKov edijxev dpeLvova 
(dnrjpova G. Hermann) avSpairotxri- | voir<f>i8latv epyav irept Kvnptdas. Cp. 
Soph. fr. 694 opKovs he poi^^v els Te(f>pav eya ypdcfxo : Callim. Epigr. 27 {Anth. 
Pal. V. 5. 3) dXXa \eyov(raf oK-qQea, tovs ev eptoTi | opKovs pff dvpeiv oSaT* es 



183 d] SYMnOIION 39 

<Kvpiov> ov ^aaiv elvat, — ovto) koI ol deol Kal ol avOpmiroi iraa-av 
i^ovalav ireTroi'^Kacri T<p ep&vri, o)9 o vo/jloi; tprjalv o ivddSe' C 
TavTT) /lev ovv oiijoeirj av rt? TrayKaXov vofii^eaOai, iv TjjSe ry 
TToXet Koi TO epav koX to ^i\ov<: yiyveadat rots ipaaTal<;. e-rteihav 
he vaiSaycoyoi)'; eirurTriaavTe<; ol iraTepe^ toI<; ipoofiivois p-r) iSxri 
SiaXejeadai rot? ipaa-Tal<;, Kai Tm traiSayeoym TavTa -irpoaTeTay- 
/jbiva 77, TjXiKi&Tat Be Kal eTotpoi oveiBi^eoaiv, edv ti opSxri tolovto 
yiyvojxevov, koX tov<; 6veiBi,^ovTa<; av oi -Trpea^VTepoi firj SiaKco- D 
Xvcccri fJLtjBe XotBopaxriv 0)9 ovk opBw'; XiyovTa^, ei? Be Tavrd rt? 
av /3\6i/ra? r)yrja-atT av irdXiv a'l,(T')(C(7TOV to toiovtov evOdhe vofii- 
^eadai. to Be, otfiai, wS' e'xet' ou% aTrXovv ianv, owep e^ d,p')(fi<; 

183 B flvai BT Stob. Cyril.. SaKvav TeuflFel: flvai ifinolviiMv Osann Jn. 
Sz. Kal 6eo\ Kal Svdpcorroi W. Cyril, vulg. C TrfnoiijKaai naa-av Cyril. 

StaX. Toiis ipaaras Orelli koi...^ seel. Jn.: KaX-.-npomfTayiiAva seel. Hug Sz. 
TJ TW : ol B : _^ o! al. iraipoi Heindorf : trepoi BT D ovx 6.n\ovv : 

airXovv Bast ; oi;^ A-nKms Ast 

adavarav. Aristaen. II. 20: Ov. A. A. i. 633 luppiter ex alto periuria ridet 
amantum: TibuU. i. 4. 21 ff. nee iurare time: Veneris periuria venti | irrita... 
ferunt, etc. As to the text, the parallels quoted lead us to expeet a fuller 
expression. Hertz's opKor (opKov), adopted by Hug, is ingenious but rather 
weak in sense. I prefer to insert Kvpwv (abbreviated k.6v) after opKov. For 
Kvpios, " valid," cp. Laws 926 d : Ep. vi. 323 c, and see L. and S. s.v. 11. 2 : ov 
Kvpios is equiv. to liKvpos, irritus. To Jahn's insertion {(pnotvipov) Teuffol 
rightly objects that it smacks but little of the proverbial manner. 

KaV 01 6tol Kttl 01 ov6pcoiroi. This seems to balance the statement made by 
Phaedrus, 179 c— D. 

183 Tois lp<a|i.4vois. From this dative (governed by initTTrjtravTts), we 
must supply an ace. {tovs ipapivovs) to act as subject to hioKiyfcrQai. For 
the general sense of the passage, cp. Phaedr. 255 a iav...vno ^vp^oiti)tS>v fj 
Tivwu aW(ov fiia^f^Xij/xtvor y, '\fy6vTav as altrxpov ipmvn TrX^o-idffii' : ibid. 
234 b. 

Kttl...Trpo<rT€TaY|ii^vo fl. Hug, after Jahn and others, condemns this clause 
on the grounds that (1) r' is wanting in B ; (2) the change of number, from 
nmdayayovs to naiSayaiy^, is awkward ; (3) the clause contains nothing new. 
But there is point in the change from plur. to sing, as serving to individualize 
the parents' action ; and the clause does add to the statement in the context 
the further idea that the paedagogi are appointed not only as a general safe- 
guard, but with special instructions to ward off this particular danger. TaOra, 
the subject of npoa-T. fi, represents (as Stallb. notes) /ii) eSo-i SiaKeyardai tois 

fpatTTOLS. 

183 D t4 Si...i\a. For this formula, introducing the solution of a 
problem, cp. 198 d; Theaet. 166 A. 

ovx dirXovv IotCv. Stallbaum, ejecting oix with Bast, renders AnXovv by 



40 nAATQNOZ [183 d 

ekeyjdi) ovre KaXov elvat avro Kud' avro ovre ala'xpov, aXKa KaX&i 
[xev irparTOfMevov koXov, al(T')(pS>'i he ala'X^pov. alaxP^'^ M^" °^^ 
ia-Ti irovripai re Koi ttoi/i^/xS? '^apl^ecrdai, KoK&i Be 'X^prja-rw re koI • 
E KokSx;. 7rovripo<: 8' ea-rlv e/ceii'o? d epaaTr)'; 6 irdvBrjfio<;, o tov 
CTW/iaTO? fiaXKov ^ t?)? yjrvxv^ epmv • koX yap ovSe ixovifio<i ecrnv, 
are ov fiovi/j-ov ipStv irpar/fiaTO';. afia yap tw tov a-(Ofj,afo<! 
av0ei Xijyovri, ovirep ripa, " oi')(eTav airoiTTdfievo';'' ttoWow? Xoyovt 
Kul viroa')(jkaei<; KaTai,<T')(yva<i- 6 Se tov fjOovi '^prja-TOV bvTO<i 
epa(7Tr)<i Bca ^Lov /Mevei, are fiovifia> (TVVTa/cei^. TOVTOvi Si) ^ov- 

183 D elvai del. Stepb. Ast (oiSev) oUre Bdhm. al<rxpS>s iiiv : alaxpov 
fiiv Steph. KoKas Se Par. 1810: koKov 8e BT koi KoKas: koi xpwt&s 

Sauppe Sz. E ipmv t) t^s V'^'X^* '^ "" °" ^ ■ """^ °"^^ '^ 

" verum simpliciter," citing Phaedo 62 a, Phaedr. 244 a, Protag. 331 b. Re- 
taining oi^) W2 cannot take the foil, accus. and infin. as the subject (with 
Wolf), but must supply tA xap'T^ <^^'" (with Hug) from the context. 

alo-xpus |i^>'"-KaXi3s 8i. With each adverb, sc. xaptX'o-^m: cp. Rep. 339 c 
tA he op6a>i...TO 8c p-q opdas {sc. ridivm). 

183 E t£ toO o-u)j,aTos ov6£t X. Youth " is like the flower of the field, -so 
soon passeth it away, and it is gone." Cp. Mimn. 2. 7 ixivwOa he ylyverm fj^qs 
Kapnos: Theogn. 1305 naiielas TroXuijpdrou avBos | aKVTepov araSioV. S^gur's 
refrain "Ah ! le Temps fait passer TAmour" : Spenser {ff. to Beautie) " For 
that same goodly hew of white and red, With which the cheeks are sprinckled, 
shal decay. And those sweete rosy leaves, so fairely spred Upon the lips, shall 
fade and fall away" etc.: Rep. 601 B ovkovv eoiKev rois rmv apaiav npocramois... 
Srav avTO. to avdoi irpokiirr) : Xon. Symp. VIII. 14 to pev tt)! &pas avBos raxy 
htjnov napaKjia^ei, ktX. : Tyrt. 10. 28 o^/)' eparrit rjfiqi dyXabv tivBos ?x?/ • 
Mimnorm. 1. 4. So Emerson {On Beauty) "The radiance of the human 
form... is only a burst of beauty for a few years or a few months, at the 
perfection of youth, and in most rapidly declines. But we remain lovers 
of it, only transferring our interest to interior excellence." 

otx'Tai airoTrTd(i.evos. A reminiscence of 11. II. 71. For the thought, cp. 
181 D supi'a : Xen. Symp. I.e. arroKelirovTos he tovtov {sc. tov t^s &pas avOovs), 
dvdyKtj KOI Trjv (jiiXiav crvvaTTopapaivearffai. Cp. also Phaedr. 232 E, 234 A. 

cruvTttKtfs. " Fused into one " by the flame of love. Cp. 192 d, Eur. 
fr. 964 jraaa yap dyaOr) yui'^ | ^tis avSp\ (rvvTiTrjKe ira^pove'tv iiriaraTai. : 
id. Swpp. 1029. 

To^Tovs B'q. With the text as it stands in the mss., toi'tous refers to the 
cpaa-Tcti only, who are divided into two classes, the good {to7s pev) and the bad 
{roi/s 8e). But in the next clause tois pev refers to the epaa-Tcii en bloc, and 
Tols Se to the epmpevot. This is extremely awkward ; and it is a further 
objection to the clause that the statement it contains is premature, and 
would fit in better below (184 D — e). I therefore follow Voegelin and Hug 
in obelizing. For the language, cp. Theogn. 1299 ff. & ira'i, pexpt tIvos p.e 
■jTpo(j>ev^em! &s ere fiia>K(i>i> | 8ifi)/i'...dXX' e'lrineivov, e'juoi he SiSov X''/""- 



184 c] ZYMnOllON 41 

Xerai o ij/xerepo? vofio<: eZ koX koXco'; ^aa-avi^eiv [, Koi rot? /j,ev 184 
Xctpt'Oraa-dai, tov<} Se Bia<j)€vyeiv], 8ia ravra oZv rot? fiev SiojKeiv 
TrapaKeXeverai, Tot<! Se ^evyeiv, dyavoOer&v koX ^aaavi^cov Trore- 
po)v iroTe iariv 6 epStv Koi troTepwv 6 ipmfievo^. ovrm hrf viro 
TavTr)^ rr)? aiVia? Trp&Tov fiev to dXiaKea-Bai rax^ aicrxpov vevo- 
fiiarai, iva ^poi/o? eyyevriTai, 09 8^ SoKei ra TroWd Ka\w<; ^aaa- 
vt^eiv, eireiTa to yiro ^pi;/i<iTtBi' koi vtto iroXiriK&v Bwdfieav 
aXwvai, aia")(pov, idv re KaK&'i irda'^^tov iTTtj^r} Kal fir/ KapTepriffy, B 
av T evepyeTovfi€vo<; ei<; j^p^/tara rj el<; BioTrpd^eii; TToXtTtKa? fit) 
KaTa^povrjcrri' ovBev yap SoKel tovtojv ovTe ^e^aiov ovTe fiovifiov 
eivai, ^wpli; rov firiSe ire^vKevai, dir avrmv yevvaiav ^iKiav. fiia 
617 XeiireTai tS rj/xeTepo} vo/Mtp 6S6<;, el fieWei Ka\(o<; %aptetcr^ai 
epcKTTrj TraiStKd. ecTTi yap ^fj,iv v6/j,o<!, wcrirep iirl rots ipaaTol's rjv 
BovKeveiv iOeKovTa rjVTivovv BovXeiav iraihiKolf fir) KoXaKeiav elvai C 

184 A Kai...dui<j)evyeiv secl. Bdhm. Sz. Bia^vyeiv Hirschig Sia... 

epaftcvos del. Sohutz Ast icai TToTfpmv del. Bast: Kai...ipa>ii(vos secl. J.-U. 

Si) BT : Sfj (cat W v7r6...aLTias del. Baiter to (rj) Hirschig koi ino: 

r; vno Hirschig B aicrxpov del. Hirschig avTcvcpyfTovfifvos T tis 

;;(p....7roXtrt)ca9 secl. Hirschig J.-U. Hug Sz. iiovifiov: vofiifiov Wolf €ittl: 

i>t J.-U.: Sxrnep Bdhm.: ?a-Tt...v6p.os om. Verm. Sz. Hug Sxrirtp T: oirnep 
B Stob. Jn.: aa-ntp yap Verm. Sz.: i)s yap Hug: del. Bdhm. eOiXovra BT: 
ediXovTas vel efleXoiror Stob. Sz. : edfXovrfiv Bast : ediXovri Bdhm. 

184 A tva xpovos ktX. For the touchstone of time, cp. Simon, fr. 175 
ovK €<rTiv p-ei^tov ^daavos xpovov ovdevos epyov \ os kol vtto oT€pvots dvbpos 
edct^e voov : Soph. 0, T. 614 ^povo^ 8i<aiov avbpa teiKwaiv fiovos : Eur. 
Hvppol. 1051 pr\v\rrr\v xpovov. On the signif. of Pa<ravoi, see Vahlen Op. Acad. 
II. 7 S. : cp. Gorg. 486 D, Rep. 413 B ; Clem. Al. Strom, i. 291 d. 

tA vtto xpifiiaroiv. ..dXcovai. Op. 185 A itXovtov eveKa xapi(rdp.cvos '. 216 D 
fi.f\fi avra ovBev...ti Tts wXoiktws: Ar. Pllit. 153 ff. koi tovs ye 7rm8ar...8pai'... 
Tapyvpiov x'V"'- ^ against the deletion of the second alaxP"" ^7 Hirschig, 
see the parallels collected by Vahlen Op. Acad. ii. 359. For jroXtr. Swdfieav, 
cp. Xen. Mem. iv. 2. 35 ; this may be a hit at Alcibiades, cp. 216 b. 

184 B sis xp'j|J''«>-'''a...iroXiTtKtts. The reasons for which Hug, after Hirschig 
and others, rejects these words — as (1) superfluous for the sense, and (2) 
spoiling the responsion of the clauses idv re Kaprfprjo-i] and av Tf...KaTa(f>po- 
vrjo-Tj — are not convincing. This is the only ex. of Sidirpa^is, actio, cited by 
L. and S. 

ia-n 7ap kt\. Hug, objecting to the "ganz unertriiglioho Anakoluthic," 
follows Vermehren in excising the clause e(rTi...v6p.os, as a gloss on the 
following vfvoiua-Tcu, and writing ms yap for aairep. This is too rash. For 
the sense, cp. 183 B and the passage from Isocr. Hel. 219 B there quoted. 

^v...ctvai. For simple §v (fori) with accus. and infin. cp. Phaedo 72 D 
dXX' eoT( Tffl ovTi,..Tas tS>v Tf6vea)Ta>v ijrvxas clvai. For fSiXtov as adj. ("volun- 



42 nAATQNOI [184 c 

/jLrjBe iiToveiZiaTOV, ovrat Srj koI aWi) fiia jjlovov hovkeia eKovaiof 
Xeirrerai ovk eirovelhiaTOf avrrj Se icmv r) irepX rrjv dpsT'^v. 

XI. Nevd/iKTTat yap Br) rj/Miv, edv tk edeXt) rivd Oepatreveiv 
^yovfievo<i St eicelvov dfietfcov ecreaOai r) Kara cro^iav riva r] Kara 
aXXo oTtovv fMepo<; dpeTrj<;, avTf] av r) idekohovkeia ovk ala-ypa 
elvai ovZe KoKaiceia. Set h-q ra) v6p,a) tovtco ^v/M^aKeiv eh ravro, 
D Tov re Trepl rf/v iraiSepacrTcav koI top irepi tijv <f)i\o(ro(piav re Kai 
TTjv SXKtjV dpeTrjv, el p-eKKei ^vp-^rjuai koXov yeviaOai^TO epaaTrj 
TraiSiKa ■x^apiaacrOat. orav yap et's to avTo e\0coeriv epaaT^<s re 
Kal iraiSiKa, v6p,ov ep^wi" e^are/jo?, 6 fiev ■)(^apiaap,kvoi'; 7rai8iK0i<i 
virtjpeT&v oTiovv Bixaia^ dv vTrijpereiv, 6 Se tc3 ttoiovvti avTov 
ao(f)6v re Kal dyaOov SiKaiax; av oriovv uv virovpy&v <virovpyelv>, 

184 fila fjLOVov T : fita fiuiv B : fiovrj /ila Stob. : fiia flour) vulg., Bt. : fila 
vofua Ficinus : fiia naiSiKoiv Verm. : /lia epafieva Usener ; fiia viaiv Hug ; r\fi\.v 
v6fi<a Kreyenbiihl : fita (rav e/xu/ievcov ra T][X€Tep(a vo)pa Sz ; pia rm eptapevio 
Steinhait: ^Si» fiouXeia seol. Bdhra. : /j£i'...fKou(riof fort, deleiida rls nvu 

flt'Xi; Stob. tKeii/ov T, Stob. : eKfivo B rivu del. Hirschig etvai: iariv 
Stob. TO) vofLto TovT<o apograjjha ; ra vopui tout6> BT D ttju trofpiav 

Hirsohig toT: tm BW ;fopi(ra/ieVotf seel. J.-U.: (tois) ;^ap. Hirschig : 

X^p- (joi-s) Baiter hv T : ovv B vir-qpeToiv Bast avrov Sauppe 

{yiTOvpyoav) diKatcof Kettig: diKaicor i^novpySiv) Sz. hv T: av B vTTOvpyoiv 

(uTTOup-yeii/) Baiter Vahlen : vnovpy&v BTW: irrovpyflv Vulg., J.-U.: {iirovpyfiv) 
VTTOvpyav Bt. 

tarily ") in prose, cp. Xen. Anab. vi. 2. 6 ; Lys. xix. 6 ; in poetry the use is 
common, e.ff. Soph. 0. T. 649. 

184 C ouTo) 8ii K7-X. In this clause the method of action permissible to 
TTQiSi/cd is presented as parallel to that permissible to ipaarai. That there is 
some corruption in the text is indicated by the divergence of the Mss. in regard 
to the words after aWx) : but of the many emendations suggested (see a-it. n.) 
none is convincing. Perhaps the safest plan is to bracket pS>v...eKov<Tios, as 
an adscript meant to suggest a subject for XeiVcTat, and to supply 686s as 
subject from the preceding context. 

o-oiJ>Cav...|i^pos apenfis. Cp. I'rotag. 329 B, Rep. 427 E (with Adam's n.): 
" the nearest approach to the doctrine before Plato is in Xen. Mum. iii. 
9. 1 — 5." How many pipr) dper^j are assumed here by Pausanias is, of course, 
left indefinite. (See also 196 B n.) 

184 D orav 7ap ktX. Notice the balance and rhythm of the clauses in 

this sentence— (a') OTav...f<aTepos, (6') 6 pev...v-irr]pfTS)V, (6^) 6 SL..xiwovpyS>v, 
(c') 6 pev...^vp^aX\c(Tdat, (c^) o 8e...KTd<T6at, (a^) Tore 8fi...ivTai6a, (a^) j^vp.- 
TTiiTTei . . ,ov8apou. 

iiriip£T€tv...«irovpYciv. Both words are used in an erotic sense. So iwovpyia 
is used in re venerea, Amphis 'laX. That virovpyav {vrrovpyelv) is the best 
restoration is shown by Vahlen Op. Acad. I. 499 ft'. : cp. 193 o. 



185 a] ZYMnOIION 43 

Kol 6 ftev Svvafievo<s el<; <i>p6vr]<riv koX rrjv aWrjv dpeTT)v ^vfi^aK- 
XetrOat, o Be Se6fievo<; et? iralhevaiv Koi Tfjv oXXtiv <TO<^iav KTaadai, E 
T0T6 S^ TovTcov ^vviovTcoueh TavTov TMV voficov fiova'x^ov evravda ^ 
^vfiiritTTTei TO koXov etvai iraihiKo, epaarrfj ■)(apicTa<r6ai, aXKodt Be 
ovSafiov. eTTi Tovrq) koX e^aTraTr]0rjvai ovBev ala'Xpop • eVi Be 
Tot? aWot9 iraai Kai e^airaTwp.evtp ai<T')(yv7)v ^epei koX firj. ei 
yap Tt? epaarfj cb? irXovcrL^ irXovTov evexa ')^apiadfievo<; e^aira- 185 
rrjOeirj Koi fir] X«/Soi 'X^prjp.ara, dva^avevTO<! rov ipacrrov ■jrevrjTO';, 
ovBevjrjTTOv ala'^pov SoKel <yap 6 toiovto^ to ye avrov eiriBel^ai, 
oTi eveKa 'X^prj/ji.armv oriovv av orcpovv inrrjpeTOi, tovto Be ov koKov. i- 
Karh. rov avrbv Bij \6yov Kav e'l ti<; 0)9 dyaOS '^api(Tdp,evo<; koI 
avTO'i mi ap,eiva>v eaop.evof Bid tijv ^iKiav epaarov e^airarr^deLr), 

184:1) ^vfi^aWeardatT: ^vn^aXia-dmB E fir del. Schutz J.-U. KTao-^ni: 
la-Taa-Oai Sz.: KraaSai ti oj. Hug Tore 8e Wolf tSiv vofioiv del. Bast 

185 A 0)9 TrXoufrim seol. Cobet Kai...;(p^/iara del. Cobet kAv : Kol 

Hirschig x'^P''"'"!'-^''"' '^h Steph. Sia...epaa-Tov seel. Hug rov epaa-Tov 
apogr. Coisl. 155 

184 E tls •ira£8cu(riv...KTao-flai. If the text is right we must suppose thcat 
KTaa-Oai is here equiv. to &<rTe KTcurBai, appended to the main verb ^vpfidX- 
Xeo-dai which is to be supplied with fir iraideva-tv kt\. (so Vahlen). Of the 
corrections suggested (see crit. n.) Schanz's is the neatest, but spoils the 
sense-balance with ^vfi^aWeo-Bm. The corruption is, perhaps, to be sought 
elsewhere : the expression Tfjv aXXijv aofjtlav is open to suspicion, since cro^iav 
as here used after aXXt/x stands as a generic subst. whereas <ro(|)ia has just 
been termed (184 c) pipos dpeTtjs : moreover, we should expect that o-o0ta 
should itself constitute the xrij/xa of the recipient, just as c/jpowija-ts is itself 
the contribution of 6 ^vp.^a\\6p,evos. On these grounds, I venture to suggest 
that another fem. subst., such as SiSaxri", may have fallen out after SWrjv 
{iK-n-mdevfrtv for fis tt. is just possible). 

4irl TouTcp. " In this case," i.e. in the quest for dpfrr), in contrast to " the 
other cases" where lucre or position is coveted (184 a). 

A 7dp Tts ktX. Observe the effort after rhythm, with strophe and anti- 
strophe. For the thought, see 184 a and cp. Isocr. Hel. 219 c rav ixpvTav to 
KaK\os Toiis p.iv pia-dapurjiravTas. . .aTip,d(opfv. 

185 A Kttl (ti) Xctpoi xP'll'O'Ta. In defence of the text here, against the 
excisions of Cobet and Hug, see Vahlen, Op. Acad. 11. 366 : cp. Hipp. Min. 
372 E <TV ovv xapio''" Kal A"7 <j>dovria-ris ld(ra(rBai rfiv ^|'l'x^•' l^ov; Thuc. II. 13. 1 
firj Toiis dypovs avrov TrapaKlirrj Koi jx.r] Stiaxrt]. 

8ia T^v <|>iXCav Ipao-Tov. This phrase also is rejected by Hug (followed by 
Hirzel) on the grounds that (1) "an der correspondierenden Stelle nichts 
steht," (2) we should expect rather Sta rov tpan-a rov ipatrrov (cp. 182 c). 
The latter objection falls if, with Riickert, we take epatrrov as object, gen. 
(" suam caritatem erga amatorem "). ^CKia epaarov here is, I take it, equiv. 
to the compound (juXepaa-rla (213 D, cp. 192 b). 



44 nAATQNOS [185 a 

B dpa^av6VT0<i eKeivov kukov Koi ov K€KTrjfj,evov aperrjv, Ofito<i koXt] 
■fj dtraTTf ' BoKet <yap av Kal oi>TO'; to kuO' avrov BeBrjXaKevai, on 
a/)6T>)9 7' eveKa Koi rov /SeKTieov jepecrOai Trap av iravri irpoOufir]- 
deirj, TOVTO Be av irdvTcov KoKXia-TOV' ovrco Trai/T&j? ye KaXov 
dpeTr)<! eveKa 'y^api^eo'dai. 

OuTo? ea-riv 6 tt)? ovpavva<; deov epo)<s Kal ovpdvio<i Kal 
TToWov a^io<i Kal rroKei Kal IBicoTaa, ttoW^v i'mfieXeiav avay- 

C Ka^cov iroieladai irpoi dper-qv tov re ep&vra avrov avrov Kal rov 
epca/xevov ol K erepoi Trai/re? t^s krepat;, t^? TravBrjixov. ravrd 
aoi, e^r), «? e« rov 7rapaxPVf^^> ^ ^atBpe, irepl "Ejowto? crv/t- 
^dXKofiai. 

Havaavlov Be iravcafievov, BiBdcrKovai yap fie laa XeYeti" 
ovTcoal ol (To^oi, ecfni 6 'Api,ar6Bi]fio<; Beiv p.ev 'Api(rTO<f)dvr] Xeyeiv, 
rv^eiv Be avrm riva r] inro 7rK7]crfj,ovi]i rj viro rivo<; aXXov Xvyya 

185 B Km oi...dp£7-^v seol. Hug ^ om. pr. T (wav) irdvTas Stoh.,^t. 
apfTrjs y eveKa T : evena dperrjs Stob. epara Stob. avrov (re) Ast 

Tou epafievov Bast Ast (rv/x/SaXXo/xat T, Method. : a-vp^aWonev B ovTCixri 

ora. Hermog. 

185 B KoXi^ V airaTTj. *S'c. ra e^airaroifievta. 

SoKEi ydp au Kal oSros. This corresponds to SoxeT yap 6 toiovtos ktX. in 
185 a. " 

185 C Ik to5 -irapaxpii|i.a. For the sense subito a. ex tempore, cp. Crat. 
399 D, Critias 107 e. On extempore, as opposed to premeditated orations, 
see Alcidamas de Soph. 3 elnelv eV roii wapavrUa kt\. 

o-v)iLpaXXo)i.ai. "This is my contribution," with aUusion to the literary 
epavos mentioned in 177 c. 

I!<ra \iyav. This aUudes to the la-a axrjpara (including sound-echoes etc., 
as well as "isokolia") of the rhetorical Texv'iTai. (see Spengel, rhet. Qr. ll. 
pp. 436 — 7). We may render (after Jowett) : " When PausSnYas had come 
tS a patise— a pretty piece of 'isology' I have been taught by the professors — " 
etc. The title o'l o-o^oi is variously applied in Plato to the Orphics {Rep. 
683 b), to poets {Rep. 489 b), and, as here, to linguistic craftsmen. For auc^la 
as applied to etymological " puns,'' op. Crat. 396 c, d, and the use of o-o^t- 
{^eadai (in connexion with the etymology of ovpav6s) in Rep. 509 d (see 
Adam's n. ad loo.). For a rhetorical repetition of the same word {irava>), 
see Qorg. Jlel. 2 rfiv pev Kaxas dKovov(rav irav<rai ttjs alrias, roi/s 8e pep(f)o- 
Hevovs...iravarai ttjs dpaBlas. 

Xi'Y'Ya. The Scholiast has a long note here: to tov \vypov tripirTaua 
^iTiyiveTai Ta aTopd^a dta w\i]pa)(riv fj KevaxTLV rj ^O^ip, eviore 8e Ka\ dia drj^tv 
dpipeciv vypav Kal (jiappaKOidav Tois Troion^ffiv ,..0Tav he vit6 7r\7jpaae<os \vyu6s 
yevrjTai, eperos tovtois lapa Ka\ T&v aKpav rpi^jris koi TrveipaTOS Karo;^ij. The 
hiccough of Aristophanes is part of the comic relief in the piece (see Introd. 
§ II. c). For n\r]irpovri, as a cause of disorder, cp. 186 O n., Hippocr. de diaet. 
III. 72 fi. 



186 A] ZYMnOIION 45 

eTrnreTTTfOKvlav koI ov^^ olov re elvai Xeyeiv, aX\' elirelv avrov — 
iv Tj} KOLTuy yap avrov tov larpov '^pv^lfxa'xpv KaraKeiaOai — -'O D 
Epv^i/jia'xe, BtKaio^ el rj iravaai fie t^9 Xvyyb<; rj Xeyeiv inrep epjov, 
ems av £70) irava-afiac. koI tov ^ Eipv^ifjMy(^ov eiirelv 'A\X.a iroiriaai 
afi^oTepa ravra • eya> fiev yap epS> iv raJ aS ftepei, crv S' eireihav 
■navari, iv Tut e/im. iv a> S' av iya) Xeya, iav fiev (toi ideXrj 
aTTvevarl e')(ovri, ttoXvv ^(^povov iraveaOai 17 Xiy^' el Se firj, iiSari 
avaKoyyvXiaaov. el K apa irdvv la-')(ypd iaziv, dvaXa^mv ti E 
ToiovTov oi<p KVT^crai'; av rrjv piva, irrdpe' Kal iav tovto •troirjffri's 
aira^ rj hit, Koi el irdvv la")(ypd icrri, TravaeTai. OiiK av (jjOdvoa 
Xeytov, <f>avai, tov ApiaTo^dvt]' iya) Se Tavra Troiija'a). 

XII. TSilirelv Srj tov 'Epuft/Lta^ov, AoKei toLvvv fiot dvayxaiov 
eivai, eTreiBr) Uav<javia<; opfirjaat iirX tov Xoyov KaX5)<i oi^ iKavS)^ 186 
(iTreTeXeae, Beiv e'/ue ireipaaOai TeXo<; eTTiOeivai tm Xoyep. to fiev 
yhp BnrXovv elvai tov "EpioTa BoKei fioi KaX&<; SteXeaOaf oti he 

185 \iyfiv om. W D iv TTj Kara : iyyvTaTm Steph. tov larpov T: 

Tujv larpaiv B (oii) noXitv Sauppe Travaaadai Stob. E avaXa^atv : 

Xa^atv Stob. 0101 : oTO) Cobet xvijo-aei Wyttenbach: Kvrjiraio Luzac : 

Kivrfo-ais BT, stob. Athen. mapav Stob. <j)avm B : dnflv TW 

dvayKoiov eivai del. Sz. ov^ iKavSts : ov^t Ka\S)s olim Sz. 186 A. 8e1v 

om. Method. Sz. : 8uv ifii del. Hirschig 

iv Tfj kcCtco avTov. Sc. kXIvji — referring to what might jocosely be termed 
the clinical position of the worthy doctor. Cp. n. on ea-xarov KaTaKeifievov, 
175 c. 

185 D Iv TW o"w |i4pei. Cp. Meno 92 E dWa cw dfj eV ra p-epci avTov elire. 

iav ^iv o-oi ktX. We have here a case of " aposiopesis " or suppressed 
apodosis; cp. Prolog. 311 d; Horn. II. i. 135 ff.: see Goodwin (?. M. T. § 482. 

dvaKcy^vXiacrov. Schol. dvaKoyxyXidfraf to fcXutrai tiji/ (jyapvyya, o \4yofiev 
dvayapyapmai. With Eryximachus'a treatment of Xuy^, cp. Hippocr. de diaet. 
III. 75 ff. yivfrai de Kal Toidde 7r\rj(TpovT] • es ttjv varepairjv rbv &ltov ipvy- 
ydvirai ktX 

185 E iTTope. Cp. Hippocr. Aphor. VI. 13 inro Xvy/iov ixppivm jrrap/iol 
iniyevoiifvot Xvovcri tov Xvyftoi/ : Ari.st. Prohl. 33. 

OvK av <{>9avoi.s Xiyav. A familiar idiom : "the sooner you speak the better" 
(see Goodwin <?. M. T. § 894) : more rarely of 1st person, 214 b infra. 

ovx iKavus. Schanz's ov^' <a\uis is ingenious but needless: for a similar 
variety in antithesis Vahlen cites Theaet. 187 e KpetrTov ydp nov a-iuKpov 
ev rj jroXti pfi Uavms nepdvai. For helv redundant cp. Alc. II. 144 D, 146 B, 
Rep. 535 a, Laws 731 D, B : Schanz in nov. coram, p. 83 regards both arayKoiov 
(Ivai and fieiv ip.i as interpolations by copyists who failed to see the force of 
8oKel=aptum videtur ; but in his text he excises only htlv : against this, see 
Teuffel, Rh. Mus. xxix. p. 140. 



46 nAATfiNOZ [186 a 

ov fiovov iarlv eVt rais ylrvx^aii tmv dv0pa)Treov 7rpo<} roii^ xaXovi 
aWa Kal 7rpo<i aWa TroXXa Kal ev Tot? aWot?, rot? re acafiaai 
rtov TTcivTcov fwo)!/ Kal Tot? ev t^ yfj <f>vofievoi<i Kal to? Itto? elireiv 
ev TTciai roll oixri, KadetopaKevat fioi SokS) e« Tij<i larpiKTJ^, Tf)<i 

B r)fieTepa<s re')(yr)'i, to? p,eya<; xal 6avp,a(no<; koI eVl irav o 6eo<i 
reivei Kal Kar avOpcoiriva Kal Kara 6eia irpdr/paTa. dp^ofiai he 
airo Tj}s laTpiKrji; Xeyiov, Xva Kal irpeafievcofiep rrjv Te'^vrju. rj yap 
^ucrt? tS)v acofidriav top SiirXovv Epara tovtov epjjet. to yap 
vyieii Tov trtop-aTOi koI to voaovv op-oXoyov/xevcov eTepov re Kac 
av6p,oi6v ecTTi, to 8e dvojioiov dvo/Moiav eiridvfiei Kat epa. aWo? 
fiev o^v o eVt t«S vyieivu) ep(o<;, aXKo<; Be 6 eirl tw voa-coBei. eaTi 
Sjj, coairep dpTi Tlav<ravLa<i eXeye rot? p.ev dr/a6o'i<i KaXov xapi- 

C i^eaOai t&v dvdpooTrav, rot? Se dKoXda-Toii ala'X^pop, ovtco Kal ev 

186 A iravTotv tSiv Hirschig 8okS> {yvoiis) Herwerden Ttjs laTpiKijs 

seel. Hirschig i>s (sai) Ficinus Steph. B Kara Tdvdpa-n-iva Stob. 

Karii Tu dflit Stob. Kui 0111. Stob. 7ri)f(rfi(va> fiov Bdlini. j] yitp : 

ij re yap Sivuppe : K«i yitp J.-U. e;(€i T : ixji B opoKoyovnev its TW, 

fcitob. Tf : Ti Stob., Thiersch iyieiva epas T : iyieivoepos B ecrri 

Srj : en S« Bdhm. tS>v a.v6pi>n<av del. Thiersch 

186 A TTJs laTpiKTJs. Eryx. speaks, as a member of the Asclepiad guild, 
of "our art": for his glorification of "the art,'' see also 176 d, 196a, and 
Agathon's allusion in 196 d. Cp. Theaet. 161 e to 8e br) f/idv re koI T^y ipTjs 
T€xvrjs Tijs patfvTiKris ktX., where also Naber excises rijs p. (cp. Vahlen Op. 
Ac. II. 273). 

<5s fUyas ktX. This ws-clause serves to repeat in another form the initial 
oTi-clause, thus making two object-clauses to one main clause in the sentence, 
for which cp. 211 e infra, Apol. 20 c. 

186 B iir\ ■ir3.v...Ttlvti. Cp. 222 B e'tti nXf'iaTov Tfivovrts (Xdyovs) : we might 
render " of universal scope." 

irpE<rpcvci>|i.cv. For the sense, "venerate,'' cp. 188 c, and rrpea^vTepov 218 d ; 
Crilo 46 C Toiis (lirour npta-fitia koi rtjum : Itep. 591 C. 

tA si av6|i.oi.ov kt-X. " Things dissimilar in themselves crave dissimilar 
objects": e.g. the appetites of the sound body difter from those of the sick 
body. Cp. Hippocr. de nat. horn. 9 oKoaa nXijo-povij tikto. vovirripaTd, Kevaats 
l^Tm, oKotra Se dno Kevoxrios yeverat vova-ijpara, TrXijo-^oyi) i^Tai...T6 8e ^vpirav 
yv&vai, Set rov Irfrpov ivavriov XaraaBai Toitri KaSeaTtSxrt KaX vuvarjpaai Kal 
e'ldeaL kt\. 

o hr\ rii iyitiva £pci>5. " The craving felt by the sound body " : cp. cVi raiy 
yjfvxais, 186 a. In the doctor's parable, tA vyitti'di' corresponds to the good, 
tA voaades to the bad epaarifs. 

ia-ri 8ij. This is, as Hug observes, a favourite opening with Eryx. : cp. 
<o-7-i yap, 180 C; eo-7-i 84, 186 D, 187 A. 



186 D] lYMnOIION 47 

auTot? Tot9 amfiaa-i rot? fiev ar/a0ot^ eKaarov rov a(o/MaTO<; koI 
vyieivol<; fcaXov ;)^a/3if6o-^at xal Bel, koX tovto ia-Tiv eS ovofia to 
larptKov, Tot? Se KaK0i<; Koi voa-daheaiv aia-x^pov re koI Set a-yapi- ^■' 
<nelv, €1 fieWei rit T€j(yiKo<! elvai. eaTi yap larpiKij, to? eV Ke<j)a- 
\at^ enreiv, eiriarrjfiT) r&v rod <TWfiaTO<i epcoTiK&v tt/jo? irXrja-- 
fiovrjv Kal Kevmaiv, koi 6 Bcaryiyvaa-Kav iv tovtoi<! top KaXov re 
Koi ala^pov eptora, oin6<; ia-riv 6 iarpiK(0raTO<i, koX 6 /jieTa^dXKeiv D 
•jToi&v, axTTe avTb toO erepov ep<OTO<; tov erepov KTaadai, koX oI? 
/u,77 evetrriv epm<!, Set S' iyyeveadai, eTn<ndfievo<; efitrovr^aai, Kal 
dvovra i^eXelv, dyado'! dp eirj Sr)fiiovpy6<;. Set yap Brj rd e^xdicrra 

186 C avTois: nv Rohde Koi Stl, koI: koi 817 koi Naber rov ante 

KoKov delend. cj. Usener D KraaBm B : KTrjiraa-Oai, T : fort. "(rraoSai 

<pa)s seel. J.-U. Ka\...i^fKflv secl. Sz. evovra (ofr fifj 8ft) Herw. 

186 G ?a-Ti ydp tarpiKij ictX. Cp. (with Poschenrieder) Hippocr. cfey?a<. I. 

p. 570 K. iraKiv av irXrja-fioufjv Irjrai K4v(o(riS' Kivwa-iv 8e 7r'kTja-fiovr]...Ta evav- 
Tia Twv ivavTiaiV cVriv Irj^iara, IrjTptKti yap eort TrpofrOerrts kcli d(j>aipfaiy, 
a^alp^ms pev ratv v-jrep^aXKovTmVj npotrOiVis 8e Tmv eXXiTrdvrtwr • 6 86 KaXXiora 
Toin-o TToiimv apiaros irfrpm. Also Phileh. 32 A, 35 A for " repletion " and 
" depletion " in connexion with bodily <pv<rts : and I'im. 82 A yrjs nvpis vSaros 
T€ KoX depos...rf Trapa t^uo'ti' TrXeove^ia kol ev8eta...o'Tdo*eiff Koi votrovs 7rape)(ei. 

o Sia-yiYvuarKuv kt\. In this passage there is a distinction implied between 
pure and applied larpiKr), between medicine as a science {iniaTrfprj) and as an 
art {t€X'"])- SiayiyvaxTKio is here used almost in the technical sense of 
making a medical diagnosis (cp. Hippocr. de nat. horn. 9 Ti)v hiayvaxrw... 
nouea-Sm) : possibly earlier " Asclepiads " than Hippocrates may have ear- 
marked Sidyvaats as a medical term. Cf. the distinction between koto. 
yvafirfv and Kara x^ipovpyiijv in Hippocr. de morbis i. 6. 

186 D 6 n€TttPdXXeiv iroicov kt-X. Cp. Hippocr. de mo7-bo sacro, p. 396 L. 
ocrrts 86 €7rt<TTaTai iv dvdpayTTOKTi Trjv roiavrqv peTa^oXrjV koI duvarai vypov koI 
^rjpov noUfiv Koi Bepfwv Ka\ yJAVXpov vno diaiTrjs rov livBpairov, ovros kul TavTrjv 
rrjv vovcrov iaro aV. id. de nat. hom. 9 Ti)V 6(panfli)v XP'I ■'Toiffudai...Tri Tmv 
StaiTtjparav /iera/SoXij ktX. In later Greek dtipiovpyos becomes the vox propria 
for a medical "practitioner," as Sripoaievetv for "to practise" : similarly x^^P°- 
T€XV>]S, Hippocr. ircpl Tradav 1. 

«SaT«...KTa(r6ai. Supply as subject to a-mpara. 

Kal Ivovra elcXctv. Schanz would excise these words ; but though they 
present a rather awkward case of brachylogy, they are otherwise unobjection- v^ 
able. Herwerden's proposal (see crii. n.), though supplying the right sense, 
is needless ; while Lehrs is obviously blundering when he construes evovra as 
neut. plural, " und wieder auch das Vorhandene fortzubringen.'' Hommel 
gives the meaning rightly, " und die einwohnende (Neigung), die nicht ein- 
wohnen darf, heraus siu treiben." 

Sti Y^p 8^. " For he must, as a matter of fact " — an appeal to recognized 



48 HAATfiNOZ [18^ d 

6vTa iv rm amjiari <f>[Xa olov t elvai iroieiv xal ipdv aXX'qXtov. 
ecrri, Be e'xOiiTTa-Ta ivavri<i>rara, ■y^iy)(pov depfi^, iriKpov yKvKei, 
E ^Tfpov vypM, irdvTa to. roiavra' rovTOit eTri<TTr)del<! epeora ifiwoii]- 
aai Kol ojiovoiav 6 rip,eTepo<i irp6yovo<i 'AaK\7}Tri6<;, Si (jtacriv oiSe 
oi iroirjTal Kal iyo) ireiOofiai, avvecrTqa-e ttjv ^fierepav re'xvrjv. 
r) re ovv larpiKij, Scrirep Xeyco, traaa Sta tov deov tovtov KV^ep- 
187 varai, wcravTW? Be Kal yvfivao'Tiicr) koI yecopyia- fiovffiKTj Be Kal 

186 D i^iXm Hirschig irixpov ykvKel. del. Thiersch Hug {koL) navra 
Wolf E TOV 6eov seel. Bdhm. 187 A koI ycapyla del. Sauppe Jn. 

axioms of "the Art." Hippocrates based his medical theory on the as- 
sumption of two pairs of opposite and primary qualities, yjfvxp6v){6epij.6v, and 
^T]p6v){vyp6v. By the permutations and combinations of these he sought to 
account for all varieties of physical health and disease : see e.g. Hippocr. de 
morb. 1.2; de affect. 1. Op. Lj/s. 215 e: Theo. Smym. Math. p. 15 Bull. 
Kal TOVTO TO p.eyiaTov epyov deov Kara povaiicrjv tc aal laTpucfjv, ra f'x^P" c^i'Xa 
iroieiv : also Tim. 82 a for the " hot " and " cold " in health and disease. 

iriKpov 7\i)Kei. Ast's excision of these words (approved by Stallb., Hug, 
and others) is, at first sight, plausible, inasmuch as these opposites of taste 
seem hardly on a par with the other two pairs of primary opposites. But in 
Li/sis 215 E the same three pairs are mentioned, with 6^v){dfi^\v as a fourth, 
as exx. of the law of en-idv/iia rSiv Ivavriav. Moreover, it is obvious that the 
question of savours is of special importance in medical science : cp. Theaet. 
166b Tia...acr6evovvTi iriicpa (j>aiveTai a iaBUi. Koi can: Hippocr. irepX SiaiTijs II. 
56 TO y\vKfa...Ka'i rd itiKpa,,,6epp,aiveiv 7re(f)VKf, Km oora ^pd can Kal oaa 
vypu: id. de nat. hom. 2, 6: and the connexion between iriKporrjs and x"^"? 
brought out in Tim. 83 a ff. Further, as Hommel observed, mivTa ra rouivm 
after only two exx. is unusual. 

186 E 6 i^|i^Tcpas irpA-yovos 'A. Asclepius in Homer is not more than 
IrjTrip dpipav : in Pindar {Pyth. III.) and later poets he is the son of Apollo 
and Coronis. The earliest seats of his worship seem to have been Thessaly 
and Boeotia, and his cult, as a " chthonic " and " mantic " deity, may have 
its roots in a primitive ophiolatry (see Rohde, Psyche i. 141 ff!). Cp. Orph. 
Fr. 272 SiA kqi oi 6eo\6yoi Trjv pev els 'Ao'KXi/irioi' dva(l>epovaw vytetav rfiv 
larpiKriv nuaav tS>v irapa (jtvaiv ktX. Also Orph. II. 67, adch'Osaod to A. as 
'irjTTjp TTiivTMV, 'haKKrfjnc, SeanOTa Trmdv kt\. The Asclepiadae were a 
recognized medical guild, with hereditary traditions ; their most famous 
schools were at Cos and Cnidus, for which see the account in Gomperz O. T. 
(E. tr.) vol. I. pp. 275 fi". : cp. Phaedr. 270 o (with Thompson's note). 

oUt oi iroinxal. The "deictic" oidc points to the presence of Aristophanes 
and Agathon. 

187 A 7v|i.vo<rTiK^. The curative value of physical training is said to 
have been emphasized especially by Iccos of Tarentum and Herodicus of 
Selymbria, both 5th century experts in dieting. For the latter as an ad- 
vocate of walking exercise see Phaedr. 227 D (with Schol. ad loo.) ; cp. Rep. 



187 b] lYMnOIION 49 

•jravrl KaTdBr]Xo<; tw koI afitKpov irpo<re\^ovTi rov vovv on Kara 
TavTCi e'x^et toutoi?, olxrirep icra)? Kal 'HpaaXetTO? ^ovXerai Xeyeiv, 
irrrel rot? 76 fnjfiaaiv ov Ka\(b<; X67et. to ev yap <f)'r]ai " hia^epo- 
fievov avTO ' avTU) ^Vfj,(f>€pecr6ai, axrirep apfioviav ro^ov re Kot 
Xvpa';." ecTTt Be ttoWtj dXoyia dpfioviav (f)dvat, Bia<j)epecrdai rj etc 
Bia<l)epo/j,eva}v en dvai. dXX' to-co? ToSe e/3ovXeTO Xeyeiv, on iK 
hiat^epojjbivaiv nrporepov rov o^eo^ Kal ^apeo<;, eireira varepov B 

187 A e)(OVTi vovv Hirsohig Tavra T: Taira B tv. ov vel 

nav Asfc To^ov . . .\vpas '. tov o^eos re koi ^ap4os East Gladiscll Xvpas '. 

vtvpas Bergk 

406 A : for the former, as an example of abstinence, see Laws 839 B. That 
Plato himself recognizes the connexion between larpiKi] and yu/ii/ao-TiKi) is 
shown by such pas«,igo.s as Qorg. 452 A tf'., 464 B ft'., Soph. 228 e, Polit. 295 c. 

Kal Ycoip-yCa. The appositeness of yeapyia is not so evident as that of 
■yvpvaa-TLKi), but the use of the word here is defended by 186 a (roir ev ttj yrj 
(pvofievois) and by other exx. of a similar collocation, such as Lack. 198 d, Laws 
889 D (cp. also Protag. 334 a f.). The art which deals with ^vra is regarded 
as analogous to that which deals with f<»a, involving a similar command of 
the permutations and combinations, the attractions and repulsions (to ipa- 
TiKo), of the fundamental qualities. 

TO Sv 7dp <|)r)iri ktA. The -words of Heraclitus {Fr. 45) are given in Hippol. 
refut. haer. IX. 9 thus : ov ^vviaaiv okios ?lta(f)fp6iievov iavrm ofioXoyiei • TraXiv- 
rpairos lip/iovitj oKuxTTCtp to^ov K.a\ \vpr)s : cp. Plut. de Is. 45 naXivTovos yap 
dpfiovirj Kua-p-ov oKoxrTrep Xvprjs Kot To^ov Ka6' 'HpoKXeiTov : Soph. 242 E. Pro- 
bably, as Burnet holds, the original word used by H. was waXivTovos, not 
TToKivrpoTTos, and hpfiovit) combines the original sense of "structure" with 
the musical sense "octave," the point of the simile being (see Campbell, 
Tlieaet. p. 244) "as the arrow leaves the string the hands are pulling opposite 
ways to each other, and to the different jjarts of the bow (cf. Plato, Rep. 
4. 439) ; and the sweet note of the lyre is due to a similar tension and retention. 
The secret of the universe is the same." That is to say, the world, both as a 
whole and in its parts, is maintained by the equilibrium resultant from 
opposite tensions. For more detailed discussion of the theory see Burnet, 
Early Ok. Phil. pp. 158 ff., Zeller, Pre-Socr. (E. T.) vol. ii. pp. 33 ff. The 
To^ov H. had in mind is probably, as Bernays suggested, the Scythian bow— 
the f^dp/iiyl axopSos of Arist. Ehet. iii. 14121^ 35 (see the woodcut in Smith, 
D. A. s.v. "arcus"). 

dXX' Xa-as ktX. Eryximachus argues that H.'s dictum is defensible only if 
we understand the opposites to be not co-existent : the discordant cannot be 
simultaneously concordant, though it may be capable of becoming so in 
lapse of time {Trp6Tfpov...v<TTepov). For to 6^v kqi fiapv as matter for &pp.ovia 
cp. Heraclit. Fr. 43 (R. and P. !^ 27) ov yap Hv etvat &pp.oviav pfi ovtos o^ios 
Ka\ ^apios, ovhk ra f Ma avfv $t]\4os <ai appfvos, evavTiav ovraiv : Soph. 253 A ; 
Phileb. 17 c, 26 A ; Laios 665 b. 

B. P. 4: 



50 nAATQNOZ [187 b 

o/xoKoyrjadvTcov ryiyovev itriro tjjs fjiOvcrtKrj'i Te^vr]^- ov yap Sij irov 
en Si,a<pepo/j,eva}v ye ert rov o^eo'; koX ^apio<! apfiovia av e'ir)' r) 
yap dpfiovia avfi^aivia icrri, avfi^covia Se ofioXoyM rt?. o/moXo- 
yiav he eK hiat^eponevcov, ecus dv Sia<j>epo)VTai, dhwarov elvai. Sia- 
<^ep6fL€vov Se av Kal fifj ofioXoyeiv dSwarovv <BvvaTOV> dpfioaai, 
C uKTirep ye Kal 6 pvd/j,o<; ex tov rap^eo? koI /S/saSeo? ix hievriveyfxeviov 
•jTpoTepov, vcrrepov Be o/MoXoyrjo'dvTtov yeyove. ttjv Be ofMoXoyuav 
iraai rovToit, ooairep exel rj larpiKij, ivTavda rj fiovcriKr) evTidrjcriv, 
epcoTa Kal ofiovoiav dXX'^XoJv ifjiiroirjcracTa' Kal 'icmv ah fxavaiKr) 
•Kepi dpfiovlav Kal pvdfibv ipcoTiKcov eTn(TTrjp,r], Kal ev fiev ye 
avTjj rfi avcrrdaei, dp/xovla<; re xal pvOfiov ovBev ■)(aXenrov rd 

187 B Tcx"'!' (v iipf»ovia) vulg. Se av : 8c Sfj Sz. : Sr) ovv Rollde o/xoXoyeiv 
scripsi : OfioXoyoiJi/ codd., edd. abwarovv {Swarhv) scripsi : aSivarov 

codd. . SuvoToy Susem. C t k post fipadeos Ota. edd. recc. cum Vindob. 21 

ofiovoiav : Apfiovlav Wolf dXX^Xotff T (rail') irepi Ast 

187 B o|iioXoY>)<rdvTuv ktX. Cp. Theo. Smyrn. math. p. 15 kqi oi Xlu^a- 
yoptKol dsf ois 7roWaj(ij enerai TlXdraVj Trjv p.ovaiKTjv (jiatrtv evavrluv avvap- 
poyr]v Ka\ rSiv noWav svaxriv KOi ratv hlxa <l>povovvT(iJv 0'Vfi<f)p6vr](rLV, ov yap 
pv6p,S>v fiovov K(ji /xeXovf (ivvTaKTiKr)v, CMC AirXas ituvtos <TV<TTr]fiaTos • Te'Xos 
yap avTTJs to ivovv re xai <rvvapfi6(eiv. For the Pythagorean appovla see 
Phllolaus, jr. 4. 3 (R. and P. § 56) ra be dv6fL0ia,.,dvdyKa ra Toiavra dp^ovia 
o-uyKeKKfla-dai kj-X. The same notion of a cosmic dppovla or 6po\oyia appears 
in Orph. fr. 139 rifv 'A0po8tVi;i'...Ta^ii' Ka\ dpp.oviav kcli KOivtoviav Trdcri rois 
eyicoafiLOts...{6 brifiiovpyos) <j)t\ias eaT\v a'lTios TOis 8rffitovpyrjp.aaiv Kal ofioXoyias. 

o-v^(J>uvCa. Cp. Cl'at. 405 D jrept rrjv iv ttj tadfj app-oviav, fj dfj (Tvp.<j){i)via 
KaXeiToi : Hep. 430 b, 398 d, e with Adam's notes : "in its musical application 
avfKpavia is used both of consonance in the octave or double octave and also 
of other musical intervals'' : "dp/jLovia 'reconciles' 6^v and ^apv by a proper 
arrangement of notes of higher and lower pitch. In the wider sense, there- 
fore, any 6p.o\oyia of 6^v and /3npi5 is a ipfwvia, but in practice the word was 
used specifically of certain scales or modes." 

Siaij>ipj|j.cvoy Si au ktK. With the MS. text the sequence of thought is dis- 
jointed and obscure ; aS seems out of place, and the next clause {iSa-irep ye 
KOI (ctX.) seems to imply that the possibility rather than the impossibility of 
harmonizing opposites is stated in the present clause (cp. Susemihl, Philol. 
Anz. VII. 412). Hence, rather than alter ai with Schanz, I prefer to read 
bia<^ep6ii.evov be av Kal fifj opioXoyelv dbvvaTovv (or dSvvarov) {bvvarov) (ipuocrai : 
this gives a proper antithesis to the clause preceding. 

187 6|i,<Svoiav. It is possible that this word may contain an allusion 
to Antiphon's work nepl ainovoias, for which see Diimmler, Akad. p. 79. 

ouTiJ rfj o-vcrrao-ci dp|i.ov£as. " In the constitution of harmony per se " : 
ev avrrj Tjj dpfiovla might have sufficed, but the addition of avardaei serves 
to emphasize the fact that Apfiovla is a synthesis — 6p.o\oyia — of a plurality of 



187 E] lYMnOZION 51 

epcoTiKa BiaycyvcocTKeLv, ovSe 6 BnrXov<! epa)<; ivravdd ttco eanv 
aXK eTreihav Berj Trpo? Toii? avOpanrovi KaTa-)(^pricTdai pv6fi<p re D 
Kai, apjjjovia rj iroiovvTa, b Ef) fieKoTTOliav KoKovaiv, rj j^^pcofievov 
op6w<; Tolt Tr€'7roi7)/ji,evoi'i fxeKeari re Koi /Merpoi^, o Srj nraiheia 
eK\r]6r), ivravOa Br) icaX j^aXetrov koX ajadov STj/xiovpyov Set. ■! ' r 
rraXiv yap rjKei o avro<; \6yo<!, on roi<! fiev Koafiioi'j rS>v dvdpdo- 
TTdov, Kol a)9 av Koa/Micorepot yiyvotvro oi firjirco 6vre<;, hel %apt- 
^effOai Kai (pvXdrreiv rov rovrav epcora, Kal ovro^ ecrriv 6 KcCKoii, 
o ovpdviov, rrj<; Ovpavlai yttoutrT;? "Epto?" o Se Tlo\v/j,via<; o irdv- E 
Br)ij,o<;, ov Bel evKa^ovfievov •irpoa<pepetv oI? dv Trpocr^epr;, otto)? <lv 
rfjv /lev r)Bovr)v avrov Kaprrwa'rjrat,, dKokaariav Be fiTjSefiiav ifi- <-'>'• 
"TTOiija-rj, ilxT-jrep ev rrj rjfj,erepq, rejQiri jxeya epyov raZs rrepi rrjv 
6y{ro7roiiKr)v re')(V'qv eTTidvfiiaL<i Ka\S)<; 'xpr/adai, wcrr dvev voaov 
rr)v rjBovrjv Kapircoaaadai. Kal ev fiovaiK^ Brj Kal ev larpLKr} Kal 
ev roi<; d\\oi<; Trdcri Kal rot? dv9pco'jreloi.<; Kal rol<; 6eLoi,<;, KaG" '{ 
■ oo'ov rrapeiKei, <}>v\.aKreov eKarepov rov'T&pcora' evearov yap. 

187 C ou8c...e(rTH' del. Schiitz n-o) Bdlim. Mdvg.: TrmjBT D fiirpois 

BT : pvdfioii W Toirav BT : ToiovTiav W /loutrijs del. Sauppe E i'pyov 
Toif Tb : f'p-ymi/rfs B jrapf iKf t W rec. t : Trap^Kfi BT ev {Vtov W 

elements: op. Lavjs 812c tos twv apfwvtav o-uo-Tao-tis : JSpin. 991k lippovias 
(Tvo-Taaiv anaa-av. For pv6p6s, see Adam's note on Rep. 398 D : "The elements 
of music arc pvSjjuk and appovia. The former ' reconciles ' raxv and fipaSv by 
arranging a proper sequence of short and long notes and syllables " : also 
Laws 665 a rlj 8e ttJs KtK^o-fms rd^ei pvBpos ovopa eiT;, rfi fie av T^s (^(Bx^s... 
Appovla, ktK., Phileb. 17 D (with my note). 

Eryximachus analyses Music into Theory (outtj ^ o-uo-ratris) and Practice 
{KaraxprifrBai p.), the latter being further subdivided into peXonoda and TaiSeia. 

187 D iraiSeCa iKXtjOi]. For " education " as " the right use of melody 
and verse," compare what Plato has to say about the psychological effects 
of music and its place in education in Hep. li., ill., Laws li., viii. Of course 
iraiScia in the ordinary sense includes also gymnastic ; cp. Bep. ii. 376 E, 
Laws 659 d: in dancing to music (opxwTiKri Laws 816 a) we have a com- 
bination of both. It is worth noticing that in the Pythagorean quadnvium 
pov<TiRT) had a place beside apiBprjnKr], yf wpeTpla and cr(f>aipiKri or da-Tpovofiia: 
see Adam's Republic vol. ii. pp. 163 ff. 

irdXtv.-.o a«Tos X6-yos. Pausanias was the author of the Xoyor, cp. 186 b 
supra. 

187 E noXv|ivtas. " The Muse of the sublime hymn " here replaces 
Aphrodite, being selected out of the Nine probably, as Ast supposes, because 
the first part of her name is congruous with the character of Aphr. TrdfSv/ior. 

irpoo-<|)ipTl...Kttpiri5(rriToi...ln'ironj(ri|. Supply as subject the indef. tk. 

Ktte* otrov irapttKti. " So far as possible." Cp. Rep. 374 e, Laws 734 b. 

4—2 



52 nAATfiNOZ [188 a 

188 XIII. 'ET7ei Kal f) rmv mpwv tov iviavTOv crv&raen<; /xecrTij 
ecTTiv afi(f)OTepo)v tovtcov, kuI i-TretBav fiev Trpo? aWijXa tov 
Koafiiov TV^JI epcoTO^ a viiv Srj iyco hXeyov, rd re depfia Kau ra 
yjrvx^pa Kal ^Tfpa Kal iiypd, Kul dpjjLOviav Kal Kpaaiv Xd^rj crco- 
({)pova, T^Kei (pepovra eveTqplav re Kal vyieiav dv0pd>Troi(; Kat rot? 
dWoi<s ^d)oi<; re Kal (\>VTol<i, Kal oiiSev rjhiKria-ev orav Se o fxera 
T^S v^pecg<; "Eptos iyKpaTeaTepo<! irepl rd'; rod eviavrov copa<i 
B yevrjTai, Zie^deipev re iroWd Kal ■^qSiKfjcrev. o'i re <yap \oifioi, 
^iKovari yiyveadai eK ratv tomvtcov koi dX)C avofjLoia iroWa vocrrj- 
p,aTa Kal rot? drjploi'i Kal rot? <f>VTOi<s' Kai yap ira')(yai Kat, 
'^(aXal^ai, Kal ipval^ai sk ifKeove^uaf Kat aKoa'/jL,i,a<; irepi aTCKifKa 
TMV TOiovTcav yiyveTat, ipcoTiKmv, cSv eiriar^jfiT) irepl darpaiv re 

188 A KO(r/iiov Bt, Stob.: Kocrfiov T eyi) TKfyov BT : Xe'ym Stob. : f\eyov 

Wolf TO irjpa Stob. (/cal) irepl Stob. B SU<l)6cipev T ; SU<f)deipe Stob. : 
5ia0deipci B avd^omBT: avd/iom xni Stob. : o^oia Schutz Bdhm. : liv 

ofioKi OvoUi : av Sfjiout lloriimiin : Si) o/xma Sivuppo : «tt' o/iom Ast Jii. : livofia 
Sommer : <iXXi)K07-a Rohde : iravTola Winckelmann : avfiwra Stallb. yiyverai 
dol. Sauppe ; ■y/yi'oi'Tat Ceinter ; fort, yiyvfrai. epaynnav ovv f 7ricrT^/ii) ktX. 
J)!/... KoXeiTm del. Schiitz re: -ye Christ 



188 A 1] Twv «pi!)v...(ruo-Ta(rts. For the influence of the seasons on health 
see Hippocr. de nat. horn. 1 ms yap 6 eviavros juerepffi pev iras iravrav K.a\ rS>v 
Beppav Koi rcou yjrv)(p^v kol rav ^Tjpau Koi rSiv vypav ktX. : cp. Phileh. 26 B. 

a v5v 8'f|...?X«-yov. See above, 186 d. 

oiSiv r\UKi\<rtv kt\. For these aorists, following presents, see Goodwin 
G. II. T. § 155. 

188 B dv6|u>i.a...vo(ri^|xaTa. " Divers diseases " : the adj. is similarly used 
in Arist. Poet. 24. 1459'' 30 irrfKrohiovv avopotois ineiaohiots, "relieving the 
story with varying episodes " (Butcher) : cp. id. H. An. iv. 1. 523'' 12 : 
Hippocr. de flat. 3 BoKeei pev ovv ra vova-rjpaTa ovBiv dWrjXotatv ioiKivai dta 
TTjv oKKoiorr^Ta Kai dvopotOTjjra tS>v tottchv. 

■iraxvoi...Kol cpvoripai. Timaeus defines thus: ipval^r) piXraSijy bpoaos- 
naxvr] Se Sp6(ros x^ov&Srjs. Roman religion had a goddess Robigo. Kuhnkon 
{ad Tim. p. 122) cites Orph. de lap. 15, v. 91 koi al6eplr)v epvo-i^tjv, | ijTt kotov- 
pavodev nrapevrj ttoti Kapirov epvdprj, | ap(j)i Trepl (rraxveaa-t 7repi<Tpi)(ovaa 
Kadrjrat. 

T«v TotoiiTwv YtvvcTat ktX. There are two difficulties in this passage: 
(1) the singular verb after the plui'al subjects is harsh ; to explain it we 
must assume a mental unification of the subjects, of which similar but easier 
instances occur in Rep. 363 A, 618 d, Zaws 925 e. We might evade this 
difficulty by removing the colon at (jivTo'ts, marking koi yap...epvcrl^ai as 
parenthetic, and thus construing aK\a...vo(TripaTa as the direct subject of 
yiyverai. (2) We should naturally expect Toioirav to have the same reference 



188 D] ZYMnOZION 53 

<f>opa<; nai iviavT&v wpa<! aaTpovofiia KoXeiTai, en toivvv Kai 
al Gvaiai iracrat, koX ol<; fiavTiKf) eTTKnaTel—^TavTa h icnlv rj irept' ■ 
^eov<s re Koi avOpm-rrov; Trpo? aXKrfKov; Koivavla — ov irepl aXXo C 
Tt ia-Tiv fj irepl "Epwro? ^vKaKrjv re koi 'iaatv. iratra yap [tj]-'-' 
diri^eta ^tXel yiyveadai, eav firj rt? rm Koa-fiicp "Eptort ')(ap[^7jrai 
firjhe rtfia re avrbv teal Trpea-^evrj iv TravTi epy^, aWd [jrrepi] tov 
■erepov, koi trepl yovea<; koi ^&vTa<; koi rereKevjrjKOTaii Kav irepi 
Oeov'i • a hr) irpocrreTaKrai 'Ttj /MavTiKTJ eirKTKoirelv tov; ' Epcora? 
Kal iarpeveiv, Kol 'iariv av rj fiavTiKr) ^iXia? ffe&v Koi avopcoTrwv 
&r]fj,iovpyo<! T&5 iiTiaTaadai to, Kara dvdpwTrov^ iponriKa, bcra D 
reivet, Trpo? difiiv kol evcre^eiav. 

188 B <f>opas W, Stob.: (j)opas B: (popas T Ka.l...a>pas del. Bast. 

■&pas: Spovs Creuzer oi T, Stob.: otn. B iraa-m B Stob.: anaa-ai T 

(ij) p-avTiKV) Fischer enuTTaTfl {t4x'"i) Stob. TavTa...Kmva>via del. Schutz 

C aa-e^eia Stob. : t) aae^eia BT prj ris : fiijrf ev Stob. (m'") ^^ PAugk 

TOV Stob.: TTEpi Toi/ BT : Trfpn-Tw? tov Koch : flfpun-tui; Winckelm.: ■ncpmoTepov 
TOV Pflugk : fort, irri tov {■"ep'i) a Verm. irporiTaKTm Stob. iparas 

BT : ipavTas Stob., Bt.: epioTavTas cj. Verm.: Tour tptoTas secl. Herm. Hug Sz. 
33 fva-ffifiav Stob. : airi^eiav BT 

here as twv toiovtoiv has above {viz. to the combinations of elements in which 
the bad Eros predominates), whereas it seemingly stands in agreement with 
roaTiKav. this being so, what does ipariKav precisely mean? For it cannot 
T.pell retain, in this connexion, its proper meaning as genitive of Wt epariKo. 
" the laws of affinity " (186 c, 187 c). Ought we, then, to put a stop after 
ylyvfTni and begin a new sentence with fprnTiKwi' ovv iniiTTrifn] ktX. 1 

d(rTpovo|j.{a. The term as here used includes what we should rather call 
"meteorology": cp. Rep. 527 d Tplrov dS>pev atxTpovopiav ;...t6 yap irepX &pas 
evatfrOrjTOTepais ep^ftv Ka\ firjvaiv koi €ViavTcov...vavTi\ia TTpo(rr\K€i. For as- 
tronomy " as a regular part of the school curriculum see n. on nmbela 187 d, 
and cp. Tlicact. 145 c, i>; I'rolag. 318 k. 

11 irepl 9«o«s...Koiv«vCo. Simpler would have been r) 6fS>v...Kotva>vla, but, as 
Hug remarks, " Eryximachus liebt das unbestimmte nepi c. accus." 

188 C do-c'Peia. " Undutifulness," impietas. Reverence to parents and 
country was a matter of religious obligation; cp. Xen. Mem. li. 2. 13 iav 84 
Tir yoveas ftfj depanevi], tovtco SiKrjv Tf imTiOrffri {rf jrdXtf ) ktX. ; ib. IV. 4. 20 ; 
Rep. 615 c. 

[irepl] riv Erepov. Perhaps an original ttti was mistaken for a compendium 
of Trfpi: for the combination dXXa n-i;, cp. Theaet. 191 b dXXa ttj bwarov. 

a 8^...laTp€««iv. The infinitives may be taken as epexegetic of a (so Stallb., 
Zeller), or d may be construed separately as accus. of respect ("qua in caussa" 
Ast ; "in welcher Beziehung" Hommel). There is no need to eject or emend 
Toiis "EpuTar: the phrase used 4 11. above, nepX 'EptoTos (pvKoKrjv Tt xm lao-ti', 
supports "Eparas here. 



y 



54 nAATQNOZ [188 d 

OvTO) -TToWriv Kal fiery akriv, fiSXkov Se irdaav hvvafiiv e'xet 
^vKkrj^hr)v fiev 6 Trd<; "Epw?, o Se Trept TajaOa fieTo, crcocppocrvvrji; 
Kot 8t.Kaioavvr]<; aTroTeXovfievo<; Kal Trap' jj/atf Kal irapa deoi<;, 
ovTO<; rrjv fieyicrrrfv Bvvafiiv ex^t Kal irdaav rjfuv eiiZaifiovLav 
TrapacTKevd^ei Kal dWijXoi'i Swafievov; ofiiKelv Kal (jiLXov; elvai 
E Kal roi<s KpecTToa-iv ■qfiwv 6eol<;. iaco<; fiev ovv Kal iryca tw "EpcoTa 
eirabvSiv ttoXKcl irapaXei'Tro), ov fjcevroi, eKcov ye. aXX' ei ri e^e- 
XiTTov, aov epyov, a> 'ApiaTocpavei;, dvaTrXrjpcJaai • r} ei ■7reo<; dXXco<; 
ev vw exeit; eyKiofiid^eiv top deov, eyKco/j,ia^e, eTreiSrj Kal t^s 
Xvyyot Treiravaai. 
189 EiKSe^dfievov ovv ecfyq el-rrelv top ^Apiaroijjdvr] on, Kal fidX' 

eiravaaTO, ov fj,evToi irpiv ye rov irrapp.ov irpoaevex^^vai avrj}, 
mcTTe jxe Bavfid^eiv el to Koafxiov rov trtu/uaTo? iiriOvfiel toiovtcov 
i/fo^o)!' Kal yapyaXiafi&v, olov Kal 6 Trra/a/io? eVrf irdvv yap 
ev6v<; eiravcraTo, eireiBr] avrS rov Trrapfiov irpoarjveyKa. Kal tov 

188 D Kn\ Trap* r)fiLV,.,S€6LS secl. Hug SvvafievoLS Stob. (jitXois 

Stob. E Kin del. Riiokert rjfiSiv 6eois secl. J.-U. 189 A Sktt 

cfie Bekk. 



188 D OuTu iroXXiiv. The German translators mostly take ovtco as 
qualifying the adjj., "so vielfach und gross" (Zeller, Schleierm.), but Hommel 
is probably right in taking ovtod by itself (" hoc modo," " itaque "; comparing 
ouTo) 7roXXa)(6d(p 178 C. Cp. Hippocr. de flat. 3 ovros {sc. 6 dijp) St ficyia-ros ev 
roiai irao'i T<ov TrnvTUiv dvviitrTTjs iarlv • ii^iov de aiiTOV deqaaadat rqv dvvafitu. 

Kal...Trapd 6toIs. Hug condemns these woi'ds, as implying a slur on the 
righteousness (jf the gods. But the phrase is merely a stock formula, like 
our " heaven and earth," not intended to bear rigid analysis ; cp. 186 b, 187 e 
Kal Tois dvdptoTreioLS Koi toIs delois. 

Kal d\Xi]\ot$,..6eois. For the accus. Swa/ievovs after ij^Tv cp. 176 d. The 
KQi after elvai is rendered " auch " by Hug, as if o/iiXeiv governed dW^Xoir and 
cjilXovs elvai the other datives, but Zeller's rendering, which makes both the 
infinitives govern both sets of datives, seems more natural. 

188 E Kal iyu, i.e. " I as well as Pausanias " : see 185 e ad fin. 

emi.Sr\ Kal. Km implies a suppressed reason — " since (it is your turn) and 
you are cured of your cough.'' 

189 A TOV irrapiiav. This was one of the remedies prescribed by Eryx. 
in 185 E, hence the def. article. Trpoo-^epeii/ is a vox propria for medical 
"applications," cp. 187 e, Phaedr. 268 a ; Hippocr. de flat. 1 oiot r' hv 
7rpo(TCJ)epetv ra ^viiCfiepovTa ra trapaTt : id. de affect. 1 otra he Toiis X"P'"'f'X''"^ 
fiKOS iniaraaBai Ka\ irpoacfjepfiv koi 8ia)(eipl^eiv ktX 

TO Koo-|Jiiov. This is in ridicule of the theory of medicine stated in 186 c ff 
and of the use of the term Koo-ptos in 187 d, 188 c. 



189 c] lYMilOIION 55 

[^pv^iHa-)(ov, riyade, ipdvai, [ ApicrTor^ai/es,] opa t'l Troiel^. yeXw- 
TOTToiet? fieWtov Xeyeiv, Kal <^v\aKa, fie tov Xoyov avayKa^ei<; 
jiyvea-Oai, tov creavTOV, idv n yeXoiov e'iTrr]<s, e^ov croi iv eiprjvr) B 
Xeyeiv. Koi rov Apia'To<j)dvr] yeXdcravTa evTretv E5 Xeyeif, on 
Eipv^ifia')(^e, Kai fioi earm apprjTa ra eiprj/ieva. aWa fit) /ie 
(^vKarre, to? eym (f)o0ovfiai,j7repl twv fieWovTcov pridrjaeffOai, ov ji 
(Mr) yeXola etTrta, — tovto fiev yap cLv icephot eir) Kal tj)? riixeTepa<; 
fiovat]<i eirf^copiov, — dXXa fir) KarayeXatTTa. HaXmv ye, (f>avai, (o 
'ApiaT6^ave<t, otei iK<j)ev^e<rdai; dXXa Trpocep^e top vovv Kah ovtw 
Xeye O)? haxrwv Xoyov icros<; fievToi, av So^t) fioi, a(f>r]<TO) tre. C 

XIV. Kal-fiijv, w 'Epv^Lfha'xe/el'Tretv top 'Api(TT0(f)dpr];dXX7] 
rye irr) ep pco eyio Xeyeiv, ri rj av ts Kal Ilav(Tavla<; eiireTVP. ,iiiol 
yap ooKovaip apapwTroi TrapTairao'i Tnp tov epcoTOi . ovpaiiip ovk 
j](r6)]a6ai, evret aicrdapofiepoi ye fieyicrT av avTov lepa icara- 

189 A &yn5e <^vai T : Z>ya6k tpavai &yade B ^ApicTTOffiapes del. Sauppe 

Hug B ^ om. vulg. fxri ye Bdhtn. prjdrja-ea-Sai T : f]TTri6i)(Teo-6m 

(sed r)T extra versum) B : ijbrj ptidrjaea-Sm Rettig : fort, en p. C eiireTov 

Blass' avdpmwoi Bekk. : avdpmnoi BT : oi avBpaiTOi W, vulg. 



['ApioTo^iaves]. I follow Sauppe aud Hug in regarding the proper name 
as a glo.s.s on aya6e : as a rule, ayade stands alone. 

189 B oi Ti...£i:iro). In ytXola Arist. applies the term used by Eryx. in 
a different sense, distinguishing between yeXoia, ridieula, and Karayekama, 
deridenda ; whereas Eryx. had meant by yeKolov what A. calls Kara-yAao-Tov, 
cp. 199 D, 221 B. 

Tf s ij|ieT«'pas (loio-ns. This may allude (as Rettig thinks) to Eryximachus's 
Ovpavla fiova-a and IloXvpivia, and to his phrase iv rtj vfieripa rixyn (187 D, e). 

BoXuv 7« KrX. " So you think you are going to get off scot-free ! " Suidas 
S.V. ^aXciv explains by n-pus tovs kokov Tt Spaa-avras xni olop-ivovs eKc/jfuyfiK. 
Cp. Rep. 344 D olov ipfiaXiiv \6yov iv va tx^is dnievai: Pliaedo 91 C ; Plut. 
de S. n. V. 548 D nXX' oi8' el ^oKtov, elnev, awr)Wayr), KoXSr el^e rrepiopav to /3e'Xor 
eyKeipevov, 

189 C Kol (iiiv KT-X. This clause has reference to what Eryx. had said, 
not in 189 b, but in 188 e (ft ntos aWas iv va exeis lerX.)— " Yea verily, it is 
my intention to act as you suggested." 

■iravToirao-i...ouK. "To have completely failed to discern.'' For Sivaixis 
( )( (pva-is) as a rhetorical category, cp. Isocr. Eel. 218 D paSwv 8c yvavm t^k 
hvvap.iv avTov ktX. 

^ire'i ttlcre. yt ktX. For iwei...ye op. Rep. 352 c. The following infinitives 
(with tiv) are governed by boKovo-iv, repeated in thought from the main clause. 
For the sense, cp. Isocr. Hel. 221 a i)S...8vvapLevriv, avadlipacri xai ffva-iais KOI 
roij aXXoif jrpotrdSoir IKda-Kea-dai. koi npav airriv XPV- 



Il-I*- " 



56 nAATQiMOZ [189 c 

aicevdaai koX ^cofiov<;, /cal Ovaiaifav Troieiv /xeyiarai;, ov-)(^ uKTirep 

, -^i iV- ^■"■■/ -"' ■•.■' V . v'' .'f- / r>,JA 

vvv TOVTuu ovoev lyiyveTai irepi avrov, oeov ttuvtcov ixaKiara 

D yLyvecrtlai: ecrrt yap aecoy (pi\.avapo}7roTaTO<;, eiri.Kovpo'i re wv tu>v , 
dvOpcoTTcov Kal iaTpo<; tovtcov, cov laOevTcov /xeytcrrri €vSai./u.ovt,a ay 
Tw dvOpanreltp yeveu e'er]. eyu> ovv 7reipd<T0fj.ai, vfiiv elarjyijaacraai, 
rrjv Bwafiiv avTov, vfiel^ 8e r&v oKKwv hihuaKoXot, ecreade. Set 
Be irpotiTov u/ua? /j-adeiv ttjv dv6pai'rrlv7}v (^vaiv Kal to. TraO^/j-ara ■ 
avTi)<i. rj yap TrdXai rjfioiv <^vai<; ov')( avTrj fjv Vjirep viiv, oKhJ 
oKXoia. irpoiTov fiev yap rpia rjv ra yevrj Ta rSiv dydpuiiruiv, ov^ 

E (oa-irip vvv Bvo, appev Kal dffkv, dXKa Kal rpirovTrpoariv koivov ov 
ap,<poTepcov tovtcov, ov vvv ovofia Xonrov, avro 8e rjcbaviaTat' 
dvhpoyvvov yap ev tots fiev rjv Kal eZSo? Kal ovofxa i^ d/j,(j)OTepQ)v 

189 C KOI ^a/iovs del. Blass voiciirBm Hirschig D evbaifiovia av 

BTW: hv fiSaifiOvia vulg. elirriyfiaraadai, post avTOv trs. Blass eaeaBm T 

Sei Si) Blass iraXata Blass cwtti B: avTj] T, Stob.: 17 avrfj Euseb., Blass 

(iXXii aXXij Euseb. npara W ra Tav BT : rav W, Euseb. Stob. E Suo 

om. Stob. (IXXarai: (!XX« Stob. Eusebii codd. aliquot ok oni. Stob. 

EiLseb. (V B : oni. T, Euseb. Stob., Sz. 



oi\ua-n-fp. "AVhereas": cp. 179 e. 

189 D tarpos. This term recalls the doctor's ■ speech, esi^. 186 b ff., 

188 cff.; cp. Phaedr. 252 a. 

e-yii o5v ireipaa-0|jLai. " Parodie des Pausanias (180 D) und Eryximachos 
(186 a)" (Eettig). 

Elirt)7ijcracr6ai,. The force of this word is lost if we render it "narrate," 
"relate" with L. and S. : it means "to initiate into": cp. 176 e, Xen. Mem. 
II. 7. 10. For the next clause cp. Menex. 240 D rjyefiovfi cal SfSiitrKaXoi roir 
nXXoiff ysvo^ievoi. 

<{>v(riv...7ra6TJ)iaTa. This is the order of A.'s exposition — nepX ipva-fws 

189 D — 190 c, TTff)! wadrjfiaTaiv 190 — 193 A. For various views of physio- 
logists as to the (pCa-is ilvdi>anov, see Hippocrates' tract with this title, 
where the theory that man ev ti dvm (ai/jn, x"^"?) 0Xf'y^i«, etc.) is combated. 
Aristotle's exposition is intended, no doubt, as a caricature of the medicos 
of his age (see Introd. g iii. 4). 

189 E avSpiS-yuvov kj-X. Suidas avhpuywos' 6 TO avhpos noiaiv Ka\ ra 
yvvaiKoiv jrda)(u>v. Riickert wrongly renders eiSor by "genus": it means 
"forma" (as Stallb.). eiSor aal oVo/ia are taken by Riickert and Hug as 
nomin., by Stallb. as accus. of respect, the construction being iv yap (so. t£>v 
•yei'wi') !jv Tore dvSpoyvvov : the latter way seems the better. Rettig proposes 
to insert to before tv, which would give the same sense. If eiSos xni Svofia 
are construed as acc\is., it is better to take them closely with dvSpnywov 



( 



190 a] lYMnOZION 57 

icoivov TOW re appevoi koX 6rfKeo<;, vvv 8e ovk kariv oKK rj ev 
oveiSei ovo/xa Keifievov. eireira o\ov rjv eKacTov tov avOpwiTov ro 
elSo? afTpojyvXov, v&tov koX •7r\evpa<; kvkXoi e'^oi', %et/3a9 oe 
reTTapa<; eZ^e, Koi crKeKt) tA 'icra Tai<; ')(ep(TL, koX -TrpoffcoTra Sv eV 
av'x^evi KVKXorepel, ofioia iravTy Ke<paXr)v 8' eV' afjL<f>oTepoi,<; rot? 190 
7rpo(7W7rot9 ivavTioits iceifievoi'; /Miav, ical wra Terrapa, koi alBoia 
Svo, Koi jaXKxi TTavra a)9 airo tovtwv av ri<} eiKda-eiev. iiropevero 
Se Koi opOov cicTTrep vvv, oTTOTepfiXTe ^ovKrjOei/r)' koX ottote ra')(y 

op/xtjaeie Oeiv, axrirep ol KK/Sttrrwi'Te? Koi el<s opdov rh crKeXr] irepi- 

-) 

189 E (roC> flijXfos Euseb., Blass « v ovf i8ei T : ev w e'i8€t B vanov Tt 
KQi Stob., Blass TO. o-keXi; lo-a Hirschig : o-xeXi) t^i) Blass 190 A k«- 

fjLCvois om. Stob. o>s : oa-a Stob. onoripuis Stob. 6fiv B, stob. : eKBciv T 
Koi BT, Stob. : om. al. op66v ra : 6p6a ovra stob. : opda Blass 



than with e'^ afujior. ktX. (as Stallb.). For dvdpoywos, see also Hippocr. 
de diaet. 28. 

For the description cp. Emped. 257 ff. (St.) ttoXXo ^eV aii.(j>nrp6<rwTra koi 
dfi<j)io-T€pva (jyvecrOat \ *..p.€fjLiy[x4vaTr} fiev dn^ dv8pa>v | ttj fie yvvaiKo(j>vrjj aTetpois 
r]a-Krjp(i>a yvinis : Lucr. V. 837 ff'. portenta...androgynum, interutrasque nee 
utrum, utrimque reniotum : Ov. Met. iv. 378 nee femina dici | nee puer ut 
possint ; neutrumque et utrumque videntur : Livy x.wii. 11.4. Thcophrastns 
(C/iar. 16) mentions Hcrmaphroditus-statucs ; and the Orphic conception of 
EroH-Phaiioa may also bo compared. 

vvv h\ kt\. " Bvit now the name exists solely as a term of reproach " : cp. 
the use in Latin of semivir, Virg. A. iv. 215 ille Paris cum semiviro comitatu : 
Livy XXXIII. 28. 7. 

oXov ■qv ktX. Cp. Emped. 265 (St.) ov\o(f)vf'is pev nprnra Tvnoi x^"""' 
€^oi/e'reXXov. oXov is predicate and not merely (as Ast, Schleierm.) a quali- 
fying adj. with TO ciSos. Certainly, as Rettig notes, Zeller's " ganz rund " is 
impossible. B^belais (l. 8) has a reference to this passage— "uug corps 
humain ayant deux testes, I'une viree vers I'autre, quatre bras, quatre pieds, 
et deux ciils; tel que diet Platon, in Symposia, avoir este I'humaine nature 
h son commencement mysticq" — in his description of (Jargantua's equipment. 

190 A KfijiaXiiv 8' ^ir' ktX. "Quis uon lani meminorit?" (Homniel). The 
notion of a similar double-fronted, androgynous being is found in the Talmud, 
and Euseb. pr. Evatig. xii. 12 quotes our passage as a plagiarism from Moses. 

01 KuPto-TuvTcs. Schol. Kv^urrfip 6 opxiiTTrjs, Kol Kv^io-Tiiv T(i opxf'i<rdai. Cp. 
II. XVI. 750, and the evolutions of the 'Humbler" Hippoclides described in 
Hdt. VI. 129: also Xen. Si/mp. ii. 11, vii. 3. The xai before fls opBov reads 
awkwardly; if retained, we must render it "actually" {adeo, Wolf), but 
possibly ia-a ov "ura koi may have been the original, llettig quotes Cic. 
.J Fiji. v. 35 si aut manibus ingrcdiatur quis aut non ante sed retro fiigerc, 
plane se ipse et hominen lens ex homine naturam odisse (videtur). 



58 nAATnNOZ [190 a 

(f)epofjievoL Kv^taTcoai kvkKw, o/cto) Tore ovctl toI^ fieXecriv aTrepei-'i 

is Toiavra, on to fxev appev rjv tov rfKioy rrjv ap'yrjv eKyovov, to oe 
dfjXv TJj? 'Y'll, TO Be diJ,cf>0TepeoT' Liejeypv tj)? (reX'ijvrj'i, OTi koX r) 
aeKrjVT) dfj,(poTepQ)v fieTkyei,'/ ■iTepL<^eprj he hr) ^v koX aiiTO, Kal f) 
TTopeia avTMP Sta to T0i9 yovevcnv ouota elvai. nv oiv tvv Icryiiv 
oet,va Kai ttjv pQ)/j,r]v, Ikui tu (ppovjjfiaTa - fieyaXa eiypv, e-rreyei- 
pvaav Se ToZ<i 6eol<{, Kal b \e<yet "Ourjpoi; trepl 'E(i£a\TOU re koX 
llTov, irepi eKeivcov AeyeTai, to et? top ovpavov avapaaiv eiriyei- 

C pelv TTOielv, dx; iiriffrjcro/ievcov rot? 6eoL<!. ,, , j 

XV. 'O ovv Zeili? Kcd ol aXkoi 6eo\ i^ovXevovTO o Tt ypii 
avTov<; TTOirja-ai,, Kai rjTropovv ovTe <yap otto)? atroKTetpaiev eiypp 

190 A Kv^urraa-i kvkXco del. Sauppe Bdhin Sz. rare oktiu T, Stob. 

anepetdoiievoi T; drrep €i8ofievaL B: eirepeidofievoi GJ. Steph. B dficjiorepov T 

OT(.../ieT-€';(ei del. Jn. /jerei'xfi' Stob., Blass {kqi) irepupeprj Blass 6^ oni. 
Stob. aiTrnv del. Blass re/caiBT: KOI W C a)j...^eo(S post "firou 

transp. Stoinhart o yovv Stobaei A 



190 B oTi TO n^v appcv ktX. Aristophanes too can pose as an erudite 
physicist. His astronomical lore may come partly from Parraenides, partly 
from the Pythagoreans. Cp. Arist. de ge>i. an. I. 2 appev yap Xiyo/ifv fajoi/ 
TO ets aWo yei'i'aiv, 6^\v de to els avro' 5i6 Kai ev roi oXa rrjv rrjs yrjs ^vtriv as 
drjXv KaX p.r)Tepa vopi^ovaiVj ovpavov de Ka\ rj\iov..>6is yevvavras Kat irarepas 
7r poa-ayopevovaiv. For the moon as bisexed, cp. Orph. Hymn. ix. 4 {BrjKvs Te 
Koi apaijv) ; Macrob. III. 8 Philochorus affirmat Venerem esse lunam et ei 
sacrificium facere viros cum veste muliebri, mulieres cum virili, quod eadem 
et mas aestimetur et femina. Procl. in Tim. p. 326 c (ourm Sij koi a-fXi^vtaKi^i' 
y(rv)(rjv els dvdpos Karievai <j)v(nv, Ka6a ttjv Movaaiov (j>acri, Kai dTroXKiaviaKqv 
(ijAiafciji/ Jahn) els ywaiKos, KaBdtrep iOTopoOcrt ttjv Si|3vXXai>) shows that 
opinion on the matter was not uniform: see also Plutarch, Is. et Os. ll. 
368 c, 371 F fF. 

oTi...)icT^X.'i. Vogelin and others rightly defend this clause against athe- 
tizers like Jahn: it adds to the impression of "komische Gelehrsamkeit." 

ircpii)>epii. " Globular " rather than " circular " (" kreisformig," Ast, 
Sohleierm.). For nopeia, inoessus, cp. Tim. 45 a, Polit. 266 b. 

rd 4>povij|i.aTa (jLC^ifXa tlxov. They were " high minded " and had " proud 
looks" ; they did not " refrain their soul and keep it low" : "peydXa (fipovripaTa 
dicuntur habere qui contra domiuos conspirant, cp. 182 c " (Hommel). 

\iya "Op.npos. See Od. XI. 305 ff., II. v. 385 ff. We may compare also 
Fs. ii. 2, "The kings of the earth set themselves. ..against the Lord"; and 
the Babel tradition (Gere. xi. 4 ff. ; cp. Orig. c. Gels. iv. p. 515 a ff.). 

190 ouT€ 7ap...ctxov. This obviously implies, as Hug remarks, moral 
rather than physical impossibility — the inexpedience of killing the goose that 
lays the golden egg. Supply T)<l}dvio-av with Kepa ravres. 



190 D] lYMnOIION 59 

Kai (liairep tov? lyiyavTa^ KepavvwcravTet to yevo^ acpavio'aiei' — ai 
Ttfiai yap avTol<; kuI lepii rd irapa Trnv avOpwvcov vSavi^eTO — 
ova OTTO)? ewev aaeKyaweiv. /xoyit or; o /jev^ ey^ixyja^a'; \eyei, 
OTi AoKoJ uoi, e(j}7], eveiv u/qyavrjv, e!)? ai/ elkv re avOpmiroi Kai, 
irava-atiVTO tw? aKoXacria^ aaoeve(TTepot-<yeyoiievoi. vvv uev yap u 
avrovi, e(pT), oiare/jLO) oiya eKacrrov, Kai afia fiep aat/evearepoi, 
eaovrai, aua oe T/pvaiacoTepoi niiiv boa to ttmlov^ tov Mpiouov 
yeyovevai' Kat paoiovvTai opooi 67rt ovoiv crKeXoiv. eav o 6ti 
hoKOXTiv dcreX'vaiveiv Koi iin 'di\o)o-iv ■ncrvyiav ayeiv, iraXiv av, 
607J, T€fMO} oi'Xa, cocTT e<p €J'o? •jTopevcTOVTai aKe\ov<! a<TKw\LQovTe<i. 
TavTa^lTrmv eTefive Tovt dv6pdnrov<; Si)(^a, Scnrep ot ra oa re/t- 

190 yap (av) Ast (to) Upa Stob., J.-U. /xoXif 6c Stob. f ifV Tf : 

ImvTai Stob. avBpaiToi Vocg. : avdpconot BT aadevfcrrcpoi yfvoficvoi. secl. 

Kreyenbiihl Sz. D 8' tVt Stob., vulg. : 8i rt BT 'diXoixnv Baiter Bt. : 

6i\a<n.v B, stob. : idiXaxTiv T rio-xaXifoi/Tfr Stob. oa Tiiiiaeus Pollux : 

i>ia BT, Suidas : mi Stob. Photius : hra Euseb. 



■■ i^()>av(^ETo. For the impf. without av, cp. (with Stallb.) Rep. 450 d, Euthyd. 
304 D; Ar. iVM&. 1212. 

)i.iYis...ivvoi^cras. Notice the comic touch: tlie omniscient Zeu.s has to 
cudgel his brains over the business! 

cos av ttev. For this construction after a present, cp. Xen. Cyrop. i. 2. 5 
(Goodwin G. M. T. % 349, cp. § 351). 

ao-eev^iTTepoi Yeva|i.evoi. Although these words are superfluous, a little legal 
verbosity may be excused in a comedian's Zeus. 

190 D xprfn^Mnipoi. " More lucrative." Zeua, with a sharp eye to " the 
loaves and fishes," contrives to l^ill two birds with one stone. The propagation 
of piety by making fissures in men is an idea that tickles, and the discovery 
of the benefits — from the Olympian point of view — which result from schisms 
of this sort is vor^pa ycKoioraTov. This passage is alluded to by Musonias ap. 
Stob. ^or. Lxvii. 20; Julian, Ep. LX. p. 448 c. 

iav 8' in ktK. The ingenious Deity has still "a rod in pickle": the 
process of bisection may be repeated ad lib. until the wicked are left literally 
with not a leg to stand on. 

ao-KcoXC^ovTCS. Schol. ao-KoiXiaffii' Kvpias pfv to fTTi tovs d<rKovs aX\e<rdai 
dXrjXippcvovs, fff)' our enrjSaiv yiXoiov evfKa- Tii/er 8e Kai fVl toiv <Tvpne(l)vK6(ri 
Tols (TKfXfcnv AWopfvoiv. j/8i) 6c TidfiKTi KOI cVl TOV aXKcadai TO vevpov (tov 
€T€pov cj. Bekk.) tSjv tto^wp dvi^ovTa, fj ays vvv cVl (TKfXovs ivits ^aivovTa. 
((TTi 6c KOI TO xwXalveiv. Hesych. diT<a>\i^ovT(s- c'(^' cfor noSos €<j)aX\6pevoi. 
Cp. Schol. ad Ar. Flut. 1130 : Virg. Georg. n. 383 inter pocula laeti | moUibus 
in pratis unctos saluere per utres. See also Smith D. A. s.v. " ascoliasmus." 

uirtrcp ol Ta oo ktX. For oa (see cnt. n.) cp. Pollux VI. 79 ijv 6c TpaydXia 
Kapva pvpTiSes p4(TniXa, a xai oa KaXelrai: Tim. (Phot., Suid.) oa- aKpoSpvcov 



GO nAATQNOI [190 D 

E z/ovre? K.al fieK\ovTe<; Tapix^vei-v [, t) wcnrep ol to, oaa ral<; Opi^iv] • 
ovTiva Be reaoi, tov 'AttoWq) eiceKeve to re irpocrcoTroy iieracnpe- 
(peiv Kai TO TOV av')(evo^'-r)fit,(Tv tt/jo? rrjv TOfxiqv, iva tfecofj,evo<; Trjv 
auTou r/irjaiv KO(Tfii(oTepo<f- eir] o avOpwrro'i, Kai raKKa paauai 
eKsKevev. 6 Be to Te Trpoawirov u,eT6aTp€(f>e, Kai, crvveXKCov -rravTa- 
Xooev TO oepfia eiri rrjv yaarepa vvv Ka\ov/u.evr]v, mairep ra 
avcnraara paWavria, ev a-To/ia ttokov aweoei Kara fiecrrjp tvv 
<ya<TTepa, 8 Br] tov 6fi(f)aXbv KoKovcn. koX Ta<; fiev a\Xa<; pvTiBai; 

190 D TfuvovTis KOI seel. Kreyenbuhl Bt. : zeal seel. Bdhm. Hug Sz. 
E Tapixfvaeiv Photius Suidas f)...6pL^lv seel. Sydenham Sz. Bt. oi T, 
Stob. : om. B 6pi^\ (SmipovvTes) Toup Kai...^piav del. Sauppe 

K(u to: Kara to Verm. avTov T: avTov B, Stob. TpTjtrtv : npoTp-rjaiv 

Naber ^oKXdvTia T : ffdWovTa B drreSea-f Stob. tov del. Hommel 

Tar om. stob. 

f?8os /ii)Xois piKpo'is iptpepis. It is the "sorb-apple" or "service-berry," Lat. 
sorhum; for the mode of preserving these cp. Varro de re rust. i. 59 (putant 
ijianore) sorba quidam dissecta et in sole macerata, ut pira, et sorba per se 
iibicuni([uo Mint posita, in arido facile niancrc: and for Tupixfveiv in this .sense 
ijf "drying," cp. Phot. (Suid.) Tapix^v(iv...<Tr)pmv(iv te k<h to ^qptiiveiv. 

The clause f) aa-7rfp...Tals dpi^iv is condemned by most edd. It is an 
objection to the phrase that, as Rettig notes, we ought naturally to supply 
with it not only the appropriate ripvovrfs but also the inappropriate fieXXovres 
Tapix^ifiv : this objection however is not insuperable, and if necessary rep- 
vovTer might be ti-ansposed. It is argued on the other hand by Hommel and 
Vijgelin that a second simile is really required, the sorb-slicing describing 
only the mode of operation, whereas the egg-slicing adds the idea of ease 
and facility. That aa dpi^l Si.ai.pelv was a proverbial saying is shown by 
Plut. arnat. 24, p. 770 B oicrBa tovs nmSiKoiis eparas {els} d^e^aiOTr/Ta woWa 
\4yovai koI aKwiTTOva-L X^yoirff oio-jrep woi/ al/TOiV r/jt;^l diaLpeiaOai Tqv (fytXiav, 
Riickert supposes "ovorum per crines dissectionem hidi genus fuisse ; 
foi-tasse ex ovorum dissectione per criues facta convivae fiitura praedicere 
solebant" ; Zeller writes " vielleicht ein Gesellschafts- oder Liebesspiel, das 
darin bestandcn haben konntc, dass zwei Tischgenosscn sich in die zwei 
Hfilften eines hartgesottenen Eies theilten, nachdem es mit oinem dem 
Einon von ihnen auiigezogenen Haarc zcrschnitton war, also ein griechisches 
Viellielichen." It is, perhaps, possible that it had some connexion with 
(Orphic) magic and divination by woo-xoTrin. For the process of bisection, 
cp. Phaedr. 265 e. 

190 E Ti^v aixov Tf>.f[criv. Here Tprjo-is denotes, of course, the result rather 
than the process : Naber's npoTprjo-w, umbilicum, is ingenious but needless. 

raXXa lacrSai. Apollo, as nKf'a-ior and Irjrfjp, very properly plays the part 
of surgeon's assi.stant. 

TO. o-uo-irao-Ta paXXdvria. "Round pouches with strings to draw": see 
Smith D. A. i. 565. 



191 c] lYMnOIION 61 

, ^ , ..<.. ^/,.-/- ^ ^ '■^''' '/'-/■"' '"'-■ j ;-.,....-' .-r 

Ta? TToWa? e^eXeaive koI to. arfrjOr) hirjpdpov, eymv ti toiovtov 191 

opyavov plov ot aKVTOToaoi irepi Toy, KoXairoba Xeaivovn^ Ta<i 

Ttoi' (TKVTWV pvTLOa<; • oKiyat be KareXcTre, Tq<; irepi avrvv /rhv 

yacTTepa kui tov oucbaXov, iivriueiov eivai tov ■KaXaiov-iraOov';.' 

€Trei,07} ovv rj <pvcn,'; oi-ya er/j-rjOrj Troaovv^eKacrrov to nuicrv-TO-i, 

->avTov tvyxiei, Kai '!r€pipa\KoyTe<i-jra^ yeipa'; Kai avairXeKoaevoi 

aA,\,r]Mi<;.eTrit>vfiovvT€<; crvfi<pvvai, aireovriaKOv viro Xifiov Kai Tr]<; 

a,XkTj^^dpyia<; Bid to firjBev eOkXeiv ^co/Dt? aXKriXav -rroielv. koI B 

OTTOTs Ti diroQavoi twv vuicreoyv, to Be Xeicbdeiv, to Xei<bdev dXXo 

6fr;T6t KUi avveirXeKeTO, elVe yvvaiKO<; Tr]<; oA,7/9 evTvyoi f]fiiarei, 

o Sri yvv yvvaiKa KaXovuev, eoTe dvSp6<;' Kai ovt(o<; dirwXXvvTO. 

eA-ej^cra? de o Z/ei/f aKXT]v-.fi7)yai'T)ii iropi^eTai, Kai fiejaTiurjaiv 

avTOiv Ta aiooia et? to irpoaaev xeo)? 700 Aiat TavTa e«T09 eiyoj/, 

Kai eyevvcov Kai stiktov ovk et? dXX)]Xov<; aXV et? 7'^j/, axnvep 01 C 

191 A opyavov del. Creuzer xaXaTroSa T, Pollux Stob. : KaXcjTroSa B 

enfiSfi : «Vei Stob. ^ <j)vais (avrSiv) vel (i7^a)>') Ast cVd^oui' Verm. J.-U. 

fKaaroL ra r)ij.i(rei Verm. to libri : re Stob. Prisoian : r<» Verm. J.-U. 

avTov om. Priscian $vvijfi T, Stob. Prisoian : ^welvm B, Verm. J.-U. : del. 
Rettig dfinXf KOfievoi Stoh. XifiovB: t-oO Xi/noO T, Stob. : tijs Xtfiov W, 

vulg. B ro 8c T : ToSe B IweTrfTrXf kto Stob. tjiXKrdas Stob. 

dnwWovTO T : OTToXXvi'TO B : nTrcoXXuro Stob. 



191 A 8iiip9poD. "Shaped out," "moulded"; cp. Phaedr. 253d. Op. 
Aelian, H. A. 11. 19, v. 39, vi. 3. 

TOV KaXeiiroSo. "The (cobbler's) last": l>&\,. forma (Hor. Sat. 11. 3. 106), 
or tentipellium. Suidas (s.v. Koka) koXov yap to ^vKov e| ov koi xaXoTrour, 6 

^15X11*0? TTOVS. 

[i.vT](ieiov...ira6ous. The residue of the wrinkles was intended to serve as a 
memorial "of man's first disobedience... and all our woe." This repeats the 
idea already expressed in 190 e supu (Jva deap-ivos ktX.). 

i| ^ia-i.%. Oreuzer renders this by "uos homines," disapproving of Ficiuus' 
"natura" and Schleierm.'s "forma": but <f>va^is is no mere periphrasis but 
connotes original nature or form. 

iroflovv ?Kao-Tov ktX. To attempt to restore the Bodleian reading ^vvelvai, 
as several of the later critics do, involves too much alteration; tluis Hug 
writes r(5 avrov ^ureirat, Usener i7r66ovv...Tai avTov ^vvelvai. Notice the 
"constructio ad sensum," ■7ro6ovv...7repiSdWovTfs...ajTtdvrja-Kov. There is an 
echo of this passage in Philo de op. nuind. 53 p. 36 M. 

TTJs ttXXris ttpYtos. " General inactivity," implying that the Xi/idr itself was 
due to dpyia. Cp. Rep. 554 A, c (with Adam ad loc). 

191 B Art ttv8p6s. Abbreviated for eXre dvSpos tov 5Xov ivTV)(oi f)pi(Tu. 
Notice that the third possibility (flV dvhpayvvov) is omitted. 

191 oSo-irep 01 T^TTi^es. This is not merely a piece of natural history ; 



62 nAATQNOl [191 c 

Temyei; ' fxeredrjice re oiv ovt(o <TavT> aircov el<! to irpocrdev 
KoX hia TOVTCOV rnv fyeveaiv ev aWri\.OL<; liroitfae, Bia tov ap6evo<; 
€1) Tct) orfKev, rwvbe eveKa, iva ev ttj crvfxirAOKr} afia fiev ei, avrjp 
yvvaiKl ivTvyoi, lyewccey ical r^iyvoiTO to yevoi;, tifia S' el Koi appijv 
(ippevi, 'rrXrjcr/Mov'i) 'yovv yLjvotro rr]^ avvovcnai Kai oiayavoivTO 
Kai 6771 ra epya rpe-TTOtvTO Kai tov axXov pt,ov eTTifieKoivro. ecTTi 
D Srj ovv SK, TOdov o epw<; e/^ivro? aKXijXcov toi<; dvOpcoTTOit kol t?js 
ap')(at,a<; ^<f>v<Tea><! (rvvayayev; kul eir t')(eipwv Trotrjaai ev e/c ovoiv' 
Kai Idaaa-Oai rrjv ^vaiv tijv dvdpw'Triv'rjv. 

191 C re : Se Ast ovto> avToiv : Ofiov mii'Tti)!' cj. Usener {tovt') avrav 
scripsi : aui-mi/ B: airS>vT: auSchauz: aixd viilg.: del. Riickert airai/... 

np6(T0cv del. Jn. Hug eiinpotrdtv Stob. fort, (rn alSola) koI 8ia rovro 

Stob. yivvrjtrtv Verm. Sz. fv : v4av Stob. Sia...dfi\ei del. Jn. Sz. 

(crmi') (vel en) yiyvotro Ruokert : ■yti/oiro Stob. : o-a)foiTO Susemihl ro yivos 

BT, Stob.: yEVof J.-U.: tokos Verm.: o yovos Hommel appev apogr. Coisl. 
155 Stob. D a-vvayayos Stob. eva Stobaei A 



it contains also an allusion to the cicada as the symbol of Athenian auto- 
chthony : op. Polit. 271 a ro fiiv i^ aXKriKav ovk ^v iv TJj Ti'rrf <pv(Tci yevvaficvov, 
TO Se Stj yriyeves flvai nore yivos \(\6ev ktX. : Thuc. I. 6, Ar. £q. 1331. For 
the mode of propagation of cicadae, op. Ael. H. A. ii. 22 rais d(j>vais 6 TrijXoj 
yivftris i(TTL' di dWrjXoiv fie ov TiKTOvatv oufie eiriylvoi'Tai kt\. : the female lays 
her eggs in the sand, where the young are hatched out by the sun's heat. 
Cp. also Plut. amat. 767 c. 

ovTtD...irpacr6ev. Hommel explains ovrta by hac ratione, qua dixi; Riickert 
by uti imnc posita sunt, which seem.s preferable. aiiToiv (se. ra alSo'ia) by itself 
reads rather awkwardly; but, as Vogelin points out, a glossator would cer- 
tainly have added the missing words. It is, perhaps, just possible that 
TO alSola fell out before koi Sm, owing to similarity of letters; but the 
insertion of toCt' is a simpler change. 

^t^voiTO Ti 7^vos, i.e. to av6pi>iri.vov yivos, cp. 190 D to yivos. ..av6p<DTroi. 
There is no reason to tamper with the text : the present tense secures the 
notion of continuance without need of supplements such as Riickert's o-mv 
or eTi. (A neater change would be reiVoiTo.) 

M. TO, ifio.. In contrast to their former apyia (191 b). Cp. Hesiod's title 
epya Kai f/fiipai. /3ior is here practically equiv. to rj tov plov KaracrKcvi) {Laws 
842 c) J and the phrase means "husbandry and. other means of subsistence.'' 

JoTTi 8^ o5v. Here at last we come to the point of the whole tale — the 
function and value of Eros. 

U Too-ov. " From such early times," torn longo ex tempore : the only other 
ex. in Plato is Laws 642 b, but the phrase is common in Hdt., e.g. v. 88, vi. 84. 

191 D <rwo7W7eus. "A unifier," in the sense of "restorer." This subst. 
is unique in Plato, and rare elsewhere ; cp. the use of awayayos, Prot. 322 c, 
Tim. 31 c. 



191 E] lYMnOZION 63 

XVI. "E«aerTOs oSv rjficov iarlv dvdpcoTrov ^v/i/3o\ov, &.Te ''" 
T€T fj,rifievo<} coinrep al yjrrJTTai, e'f evo? Bvo. ^rjTel Sij del to avrov 
eKacTTO^ ^Vfi^oXov. oaoi fiev ovv twv dvhpwv tov kolvov T/jbijfid 
eiaiv, o hr) rore dvSpoyvvov eKaXelro, ^iXojvvatKh r elal Koi. oi 
TToWoi Twv /jloc'X^wv ek tovtov TOV jevov<! <yey6vacn, koI ocrai ad E 
yvvaiKe'; ^iXavBpoi re Kal fioiy^evrpiai [e'/c tovtov tov yevovi; 
yiyvovTai]. bcrai Se tmv jvvaiKwv yvvaiKot; Tfirjixd elaiv, ov irdvv 
avrai toi<; avBpda-t, tov vovv 'irpoaej(pvaiv, dWd p,aX\ov tt/jo? rri? 
yvvacKa<} TeTpafifievai eiai, koi al eTatpiaTpiai ex tovtov tov 

191 D ovv: -yoOi/ cj. Useuer eKaaros TW: CKaarov B, Stob. TfirjiiaTos 
Stob. E (j)i\oii.oixfVTpiat stob. iK...ylyvovTai del. Bdhm. Sz. 

yvvaiKwv'Vf koi ai-.-yiyfovTai del. Voeg. ai om. Stob. 

dvSpuTTov |v|j,poXov. " But the indenture of a man " ( Jowett) : a-ifilioXov 
here is the tessera hospitalis ; the host presents his departing guest with one 
half of a broken die {Aa-TpaydKos), retaining the other half himself (see Smith 
D. A. s.v. "hospitium"). Cp. the use of the word by Empedocles, in his theory 
of reproduction stated in Arist. de gen. an. i. 18. 772'' 10 'E/i7re8oKX7r...(/)?)o-i 
ev TO) appevL KOi ev ra drjXei olov o-vp^o\ov eivcUj q\ov 8' air* ovderepov dnUvat — 
"ad quod decretum philosophi respexit fortasse Aristophanes" (Stallb.). 

at <|»t)TTai. Lat. rhombi, a kind of flat-fish (perhaps plaice or turbot) : 
Schol. l^Svhiov Ti t5)v TrXaretwi/ fj i/r^rra, eK dvo Bepfidrtov trvyKe'ia'Bai Trjv IBcav 
SoKovv, o Tivfs (TavSiiXtov Ka\ov(Tiv ktX. : "genus piscium, quod oculos ct nares 
in altera tantum parte capitis habot" (Stallb.). Cp. Ar. Lt/s. 115 (where the 
Schol. curiously defines ^. as Spveov Tfrprjiiivov Kara ni pia-ov, as oi <r(/>^Kfs), 
Atheu. VIII. p. 329. 

4>iXo7vvaiK^s. Cp. Cic. Tttso. IV. 11. 25 similiterque ceteri morbi...ut 
mulierositas, ut ita appellem earn, quae Graece <j)i\oyvuia dicitur, etc. The 
sing, is (jjiXoyvvrjs (see L. and S.). 

191 E ij>£Xav8po(. The word here has the bad sense noted in Hermog. 
de id. III. p. 324 W. rrfv yap aKoXatriav j3ovXeTai vvv dfjTrov (rrjpaivfLV koi to 
poL^fvefrdai. Somewhat different is the force in Soph. fr. 1006 N. (Hermog. 
Rhet. III. p. 324) koi o So0okX^: Se (j)C\av8p6v nov rijr 'AraXavTriv fin€ 8ia to 
do-Trdfetrdai <tvv dvSpacriv dvai: and Eur. Andro7n. 229; while in Ep. TiUts ii. 4 
(fiiXavSpia is a virtue. 

cK ToilTou...7£-yvovTai. I follow Badham and Hug in rejecting these words 
as an adscript derived from the context (a view already suggested by 
Hommel). Badham writes, " si altero praedicato opus esse credidisiset Plato, 
quod aegre adducar ut credam, aliquanto pulcrius orationem variasset quam 
yeyovaa-i in yiyvovrai mutando." The three-fold repetition sounds clumsy. 

'yvvaiK&s T(jii}|io, i.e. a section of the yvvfi SXt) (" Doppelweib ") of 191 B. 
Similarly below Upptvos Tprjpa refers to the di/ijp oXor ("Doppelmann"). *\Vith 
the theory of sex-characters here expounded, cp. Hippocr. de diaet. I. 28 fl: 

at Iraipto-Tpiot. Timaeus cVatpiorptai" ai KaXovfievai rpi^abes. Cp. Clem. 
Alex. Paed. III. 21, p. 264 P. ywaiKes rndplCovrai napa (^uo-tx yafioipeval rt 
KOI yapovaat yvvaiKfs : and Ep. Rom. i. 26. 



64 nAATQNOI [191 e 

7ej'oi;9 jiyvovTai. oaoi Se dppevo<i r/xrjfid elcn, rd appeva Siw- 
Kovai, KoX Te'tBS (lev av TratSes' waiv, are Te/xci'^^^ta ovra tov dppevo<i, 
192 <piXovcri Toi)? dvSpa<! Kal ')(aipovai, avyKaraKelfievoi xal avfiire- 
irXeyfievoi rot? dvSpdari, icaL eiffiv ovroi ^eXrtcrToi, rwv iralBcop Kal 
fietpaKiccv, are dpBpetoraTOi ovtb': (piiaei. (jjaal Se Srj Tive<; avTov<; 
avaia'xyvTOV'i elvai, ■\frevS6fiepof ov yap vir dvaiay^ypTiai; rovro 
hpaxTiP dXk' viro 6dppov<; koi dphpeiw; Kal dppepa-iria'i, to ojxolop 
avTolf daTTa^o/xepoi. p.eya Be TeK/j,^pLOP' Kal yap TeKecoBePTei 
fiovot diTo^aLpova-ip els rd nvokiriKa dpBpe<; ol toiovtoi. iireiBdv 
B Be dpBpwdwat,, iraiBepacrTovai Kal irpbi; ydp.ov<i Kal iratSoTTOila'; ov 
Trpoare'X^ovai top povp <f)vcrei, dWd vtto tov pofiov dpayKa^opTaf 

191 E {appeves) appevos Bast Teas : fas Ast Sz. rep-dxta om. Stob. 

192 A ovToi (oi) Hommel Sz. tS>p fieipaKiav Stob. Se fii) : 6^ Stob. 

oiJrf yap Stob. aurois vulg. B (j)i<r€t...dvayica^oi>Tai del. }iug dXKa... 

dvayxd^ovTai del. Jn. Sz. 

T^»s av. " I.q. cas av, quamdiu " (Ast). As this use is unique in Plato, 
Ast proitoaod to write (as av. In 191 n Has lias its usual force, adliuc. 

T€)idx.ia. "Slices": this recalls the comparison with yjriJTTat, refiaxos being 
used asp. of fish. 

o-vYKaTaKcC|Jievoi. An example of this is Alcibiades : see his own account 
in 217 D ff. 

192 A dvSpMOTaToi. An allusion, as Hommel remarks, to the ambiguity 
of the word dvSpews. Cp. Hippocr. de diaet. I. 28 ^v p.ev oSv cs apaeva ra aafUiTa 
arroKpidevTa d/Kporepav rixn-.-ylvovrai otroi avBpes XafiTrpoi rds tJ/vx^s koi to 
aafia laxvpoL 

<|>ao-l. . .Tivts. Cp. what Pausanias says in 182 a (aa-re nvas ruXfidv 
XeycLv ktX.). 

app€V(i>irCas. Etym. M. S.V. dppevairos- 6 Sppevos npoa'airov ex'^^t Kara 
a-vvcKdoxriv. rjyovv 6 dvbpeios Ka\ la-xvpoe koi Svvdpievos npos e;^flpov diri- 
Taxdrjvai. The subst. is an. Xey., but the adj. oocui-s in Laws 802 b to 8ij 
lifyaXonpeires ovv Kal to ttjv npos dvSpfiav penov dppevarrov ^areov eivai. 
Rettig regards all these apparently encomiastic terms as ironical. 

teXcuS^vtes. " When grown up," cp. Rep. 377 B, 466 E. 

avSpcs is predicative : " Such as these, and they alone, turn out meii {i.e. 
manly, capable) in public affairs": Ficinus wrongly renders "cum adoleverint, 
soli ad civilem administrationem conversi, viri praestantes evadunt"; and 
Schleierm. also goes wrong. For the connexion between the paederastic 
temper and politics, cp. 182 o, Ar. A''ub. 1093, Hq. 333 ff., etc. 

avSpuSuo-i. This verb is not found elsewhere in Plato: cp.Hdt. i. 123, 
Eur.Hlff. F. 42. 

192 B i)>va-ci...dva7KdtovTai. Hug, on quite insufficient gi'ounds, expunges 
these words. It is true that there svas, so far as is known, no la^e at Athens to 
enforce matrimony, though there was such a law at Sparta, according to Stob. 
{Serm. 65 p. 410) and Pollux (vill. 40), by which citizens were liable to a 



192 D] ZYMnOZION 65 

aW e^apKei aurots fier aW'^Xtop Kara^i^v dya/jLoi,<;. vdvTco's fiev 
ovv o ToiovTo<i TraiSepaaT'^'i re ical ^CKepaarr}<s yiyveTac, del to 
^vyyeve<: daTra^ofievo';. orav fiev oZv koI avrw i/ceivq) ivrv'^r) r5> 
avTov ■fjfiiaei Kai o Trai,hepa<TTr]<; koX aKKo<; Ira's, tots kuI davfiacrr^ 
eKTr\r}TTOVTai, tjiiXia re koi oliceioTijTi Kol epWTi, ovk e6e\ovTe<;, ta? C 
eTTO? eiirelv, ■x^copt^eadai aWrjXmv ovSe afiiKpov ')(^p6vov. koX oi 
BiaTeX6vvTe<; fier dXXijXav Sia ^iov ovToi elcriv, oi ovS' av e^oiev 
eiirelv b n ^ovXovrai ai^urt Trap' dXXrjXav yiypeadai. ovBevl yap 
av Bo^eie tovt elvai f) twv d^poZicriwv avvovaia, ft>9 dpa tovtov 
eveKa 'erepo<; erepa ')(aipei ^vvwv ovrtu? eVl /j,eydXr]<; ctttouS^?" 
aW' dXXo Ti ^ovXofi.evTj eKarepov -q ifrvx^t] SijXrj eariv, o ov Zvvarai D 

192 B aycifiois ovtTf Stob. jiiei' ouv (post oral') : fievToi Sauppe : juti/ Sz. 
KOI om. Stob. dnu^ao-Tcirar' Bdhra. tKTrX/jrroi/rai T : £K7rXi)TT0i/ra B 

(eVi) iTfUKpov Stob. ovhivX Stob., Bt.: oihkv BTW: ouSe recc, J.-U. 

irepa: CKarepm Stob. X"'?*' 1" • X^'P"" ^ -^ V ^"XV fnaripov Stob. 

ypa<f>ri dyapiov (or o'^tyapiov). But, as Hommel notes, vo^os covers not only 
law but custom; and it appears that "certain disabilities attached, at Athens, 
to the state of celibacy ; those who entered public life, as pryropts or oTparriyoi, 
were required nmSoiroieladai Kara roiis vd/tous (Deinarch. c. Demosth. p. 99 
§ 72)": see Smith D. A. I. 43 a. And it is to be noticed that it is precisely 
public men who are spoken of in the text. The antithesis tjivaei )( vupm 
derives from the Sophists (Hipi)ias v. Protagoras), see my Pliilehus p. xxviiiw., 
Adam R. T. G. pp. 279 ff., Qomperz G. T. I. pp. 401 ff. 

<|ii\cpa(rTi^s. This applies to the fpa>p.fvoS) cp. the use of (jjiKepaaria in 
213 D. Those who are jraiSe paa-rai in manhood were (jjiKepaaTai in boyhood 
{(f>i\ova-i Toiis avSpas 191 e), SO that the words here are put in chiastic order, 
as Stallb. observes. Hommel absurdly suggests that w. re kol (jjiXepam-fis may 
denote "virum qui neque alios vituperet amatores puerorum, et ipse pueros 
amet." The point is also missed by Riickert's "amicorum amator," and 
Wolf's "sodalium amator." 

avTij>...i]|iC<r€i.. This refers to 191 D, fi;r€i Sq dA to airov ^u/x/SoXor. 

&XXos irds. This is a short way of referring comprehensively to the 
segments of the other oXa, viz. the androgynous and the "Doppelweib" 
(191 D, e). 

6av|ia<rTil iKirXiiTTOvxai. ktX. Cp. 211 D. 

192 C cos iiros elirtlv. This qualifies the negatives in the clause, like 
paene dixerim: "Barely consenting to be sundered for even a moment." 

Kal ol 8ioTeXotivT€s ktX. "It is these who continue in fellowship their 
life long, although they could not so much as say what gain they expect 
from one another." Sohleierm. misses the force of ovtoi by making it direct 
antecedent to ot ("diese sind es welche" etc.). For the thought of this 
passage, cp. 181 d, 183 B, Phaedr. 254 A ff., 255 E E 

Totirou ivcKa, i.e. r^r tS>v axf>p. avvovalas ivtKa. 

B. P. 5 



66 nAATQNOZ [192 D 

el-TTCiv, dXXa /lavTeverat h fiovKerai koi alvirrerai. koI et avT0i<: 
iv T<p avTm KaTaKeifievoi<! i'iricrTa<} o"H^atffTO?, e^eui/ ra opyava, 
epbno' T[ ecrd' o 0ov\ea6e, c3 avOpawoi, vfiiv Trap oiXKrfKmv 
i^eveadai ; koX el diropovvra^ avTov<s trakiv epotro ■ ^Apa rye rovoe 
eiriOvfieiTe, iv tw avrm yeveadai o ri fidXiara dX\r]\oi<;, mare km 
vv/cra Koi rjfiepav firj dTroXehreadai aXkrjXcov ; ei yap tovtov 
E eTTiOvfieiTe, eOeXco vfid<s avvrrj^ai xal avfitfivarjaai et? to avTo, 
too"Te Bv' ^vrai eva yeyovevat KOi 6co<} r &p fjjre, a>? eva ovra, 
Koivjj d/j,<f)or6pov<; ^fjv, Koi iireiBdv diroddvrjTe, ixet av ev ' AiSov 
dvTi 8votv eva elvai KOivfj redvecore' dW' opdre el tovtov epaTe 
Ka\ e^apxei vfiiv av tovtov Tv'XTjTe' TavTa dKovaa<; lafiev oti 
ovS" av els i^apvTjdeirj ovB' dXXo ti av (paveir) ^ovX6fievo<s, aXX' 
aTe'xytiu'; oXoit av dKrjKoevai tovto o iraTuii dpa iiredviiei, crvveXdoiv 
Kai avvTaKei<i Ta> epto/jLevq) eK Bvolv el^ yevecrOai. tovto yap iari 
TO a'lTiov, OTi rj ap')(ai,a <}>vai<i ■fjfxwv fjv avTrj kuI rjfiev oXol- tov 
193 oXov ovv Tfi eiriOvfiia /cat Biuret epw: ovofia. Kal irpo tov, oicrirep 
Xeyco, ev r/fiev, vvvi Be Bid ttjv aBiKiav BitpKiaOijfiev viro tov 6eov, 

192 B 64\a B E arviJ.<f)v<ir)(rai BTW : av/icjivo-ai b fc, vulg. f ijre its 

T : fijT^fffCBf B aWo OTI TW TOVTO 6 : tov ov Bdhm. tovtov yap 

Ficinus Bast : tovtov ap' Wolf 193 A SiaKia-Otjpfv : bu<rxi^<r6rjpev 

Cornarius vno : ano Hommel 



192 D Kal cl...£poiTo. The apodosis to this dupUcated protasis is to be 
found in lapev oti kt\. (192 e). For Hephaestus and his tools, see Od. viii. 
366 ft'., esp. 274 iv h' (Bct dicpoBeTco jiiyav axpova, kotttc tc 8i<rpovs \ dppTjKTOvs 
dXvTovs o(t>p' e/iweSov av6i pivoiev. He would also have his bellows (<^0o-ot), 
tongs (wvpaypa), and hammer {a-(f>vpa, pmarrip) : see II. xviil. 372 ff., 474 ff. 

192 £ o-vvTtjJai. Cp. 183 E, Tim. 43 a irvKvots y6fuf>ois ^wttikovtcs : Eur. 
fr. 964 Tracra yap aya6ij yvvij, | rj Tis dvSp\ cri/i'TeTTjKe, aaxfipoveiv iiriaTOTai. For 
TrjKfiv of the effects of love, cp. Theocr. id. i. 66 ; Xen. Symp. vill. 3. 

(rv|M|iv(rf)(rai. Stallb., Hommel and Jowett retain the vulgate, a-vp.<f>v<Tai, 
but the other lection gives a better sense — "to weld together," conjlare: 
cp. II. XVIII. 470. There is a ref. to this passage in Arist. Pol. ll. 4. 
1262^ 11 Kaddirep ev toIs epcoTiKols Xoyois itrpev \iyovTa Tov ' ApiarTofjydvrjv ais 
Ta>v epatVTav 8td t6 tr^obpa t^fXeiv imdvpovvTav iTVp.(jiVvai Kal yeveaQai €k hvo 
ovTiov dp<poTfpovs eva (Newman here reads (Tvp(f>vfjvai), but the word a-vp,(j)vvai 
is probably due to a reminiscence of 191 a. For the sense, cp. Orph. Fr. 139 
'irapjiyayev...Thv'*^puiTay evoiroLov ovTa t&v oXoii/. 

TOV oXov...avo|i.a. This definition sums up the description of Eros given in 
191 D ad init. 

193 A 8i(pKC(r6i)|j.cv ktX. This is apparently a reference — in spite of the 
audacious anachronism (cp. Introd. § viii.), to the 8ioiKia-p,6s of Mantinea in 



193 c] ZYMnOZION 67 

KaOairep kpKaZe<; inro AaxeSaifiovlcov. <\>6^o<; ovv eariv, idv fit) 
Koa-fiioi (ofiev tt/jo? toi)s 0eov<;, ottws fJ-rj ical av6t<; Ziaa-)(i,a-dr)<T6- 
fieOa, Kal Trepufiev e^oi/re? &<T'Trep ol ev rat? arrfK.ai'i Karaypa(j>r)v 
eKT€TVTrtofj,ivoi, BiaTreTTpicTfievoi Kara rd<; plva<;, 76701/0x69 wairep 
Xi<T'7rai. aWa tovtwv evexa irdvT dvBpa 'x^prj liiravTa irapaKe- 
\ev€(T0ai evae^elv trepl Beovv, "va rd p,ev iK(f)vyo}fj,€v, tSv 8e B 
Tvy(cop,€v, (1)9 o "E/3a)9 17/1.41/ ^yepwv koI a-TpaTrjyo';. w /MtjSel^ 
evavria TrpaTterco — Trpdrret S" ivavria, oaTC<; deot<; drrej(6dverat, — 
<j)i,Xo(, yap yevo/Mevot Kal SiaX\ayevTe<; tw 6eS e^evpijcrofiev re Kal 
ivT€v^6p,eda toi<; TraiSiKoh T0t9 rip.erepoi<; avTwv, o Ttoj/ vvv oKiyoi 
TTOiovai. 'Kal /i?7 fiob viroXd^rj 'Epi'^t/(.a^09, Koi/JimSoiiv tod \6yov, 
to? Tlavaapiav Kal ' Kyadcava X67<o • 'iaatf p.ev yap Kai ovtoi, tovtcov 
Tvyxdvovaiv 6vre<; Kal eia-lv dp,(j}6Tepoi rrjv (fiva-iv dppeve<;' Xeycc C 

193 A biaiT\i<T6rf<T6ii.(6a T : 8iaa-xi'r6'](ra>ii(6a B Koraypa^J Schneider : 

Kara ypafjyrju Ruhnken Sz. Sianenpur^evm T : hiairinpritTiiivoi B : 8i;(a 

nenpiaiifvoi Buhnken Snavn Hirschig Sz. B o>s BT : S)v recc. vulg., 

Herm. J.-U.: fort, otrav fipiro/iots avrwv Bast poi B: fiov T yap 

Kal : yap Wolf Sppevos Bast : appevos evos Orelli 

385 B.C., for which see Xen. Sell. v. 2. 1 ff. c'k Se rovrov KadupeBt] pkv to rtixos, 
SuoKitrBr) Se 17 MavTiveia Tfrpa)(ij Kaffairtp to dp^alov wkovv {i.e. KaTa Kafuis) : 
Isocr. Pan. 67 a : Arist. Pol. 11. 2, § 3. 

KaTa'ypa(|>i\i'. Many editors divide the word khto ypaijiviv. Probably 
whichever reading we adopt the meaning is the same, " in profile," the figures 
being bas-reliefs (crusia). Cp. Plin. xxxv. 34 hie catagrapha invenit, hoc est 
obliquas imagines. 

a<nr(p Xto-irai. These are Siaircnpurpivoi darpdyoKot (Schol. ad loc, Suidas), 
hke the aip^o^ov of 191 D : cp. Ar. Ban. 826, Schol. ad Eur. Med. 610. 

193 B MS o "Epus- The Bodleian's i>s, though doubtful, is possible. 
Perhaps the variants arose from an original Sa-av or ev m. 

•TrpdTTei...aiT«xfl<*v«Tai. This may contain an allusion, as Usener suggests, 
to some familiar verse such as, e.g., npdrrfi 8' ivavTi os Btols dnrixScTo. 

itij uoi uiroXaPij. This is one of three cases in Plato of " p.ri with the 
(independent) subjunctive implying apprehension coupled with the desire to 
avei-t the object of fear," — the other cases being Euthyd. 272 c. Laws 861 b 
(see Goodwin Q. M. T. § 264). 

KupiiaSuv tJv Xoyov. " Ridiculing my discourse,'' cp. 189 b : so (■m.KwpcoBSiv, 
Apol. 31 D. As Hug observes, A. is really KapaSav himself when, in comic 
contrast to the picture drawn of Agathon in T/mm. 31 flF., he here suggests 
that he is rfiv <f>i<nv &ppr)v. 

193 C d[i.<|>6T«poi...appev«s. "H. e. nppevos ivos" Stallb. As Wolf (like 
Stallb.) says, &pp€ves Trjv (picriv means "mares origine, Tp.i]p,aTa seu Ttp.dxui 
Tov appfvos," and implies further, as Rettig notes, "mares natura, geborene 
Paderasten." 

5—2 



68 nAATONOZ [193 c 

Se oZv eymye Kaff" dvavTcov Kal dvSpSv Koi yvvaiK&v, ori, owtoj? 
av rj/i&v TO yevot evBaifiov yevoiTO, el eKreXeaacfiev tov epana koL 
T&v TraiSiKwv tSjv avrov eKaa-TO<s TV%o{jet9 rrjv ap-^aiav aireXOwv 
(^vcnv. el Be tovto apiarov, avayKolov Kal t&v vvv irapovrcov to 
TovTov eyyvTUTio dpiaTov elvaf tovto S' eVrt rraiSiK&v TV^^etv 
KUTa vovv avT^ -jre^vicoTcov ov Srj tov aiTiov-Oeov vfxvovvTe'; 

D hiKaiWi av iifivotjiev 'KptoTa, o? iv re tw irapovri •^fj.a.'i irXelaTa 
6viv7)<nv el's TO olxeiov ayeov, kol et? to eireiTU eXtriSa'i fieylaTa^ 
Trape^erat, Tjfiav 'Trape')(pfjLevcov irpo<; 6eoii<; evae/Seiav, KaTaaT'i]<Ta(; 
■^fia<} et? Tr)v ap')(ai,av (jivaiv Kal laadiJLevo<; fiaKapiovi Kal evhai- 
fiova'; iroiTJcrai. 

OuTO?, e<})T], w 'Epv^tfiaxe, 6 e/to? \6yo<! eaTi Trepl "Epcaro?, 
riWoto? rj o cros. (oairep ovv iSei]6r)v crov, fif) KoyfiaBijcrr]'; avTOv, 

E Iva Kal T&v \017rcbv dKOva-cofiev tI eKaaTo^ epei, fj,d\Xov Be t'l 
eKdTepo^' 'Ayddcov ydp Kal XcoKpaTTji XotiroL 

193 C an-e'kOav : e7rave\6a)v Mehler Naber tovto S' T : tovtov &' B 

D 'EpuTa del. Voeg. tc T: om. B ^iiS>v...eva-4Pftav del. Voeg. 

iroiifcrfiv Hirschig E Xojjroi {ji-ovoi) Naber 



direXOuv. " Returning," " being restored to " : so, perhaps, anrjyiev irpbs to 
aarv Rep. 327 B ; cp. iraXw cLTrUvai Phaedr. 227 E, etc. Hence Mehler's 
eiraviKOmv is superfluous. 

V|ivovvTCS...V|ivoi|icv. Cp. 184 D VTTrjpeTttiv OTiovv SiKaicos av vn-rjpcTelv ktX. : 
and Agathon's echo of the word {((^vfi-vovvTa) in 197 e. 

193 D «ls ri oIkciov. Cp. Charm. 163 D on ra oiKcm re koi to avTOv ayaBa 
KaXoi'i/r; Rep. 586 E. Pcssibly there is an intentional echo in the word of 
SiaKicrdtjiiev, as used in 193 a. 

iXirtSas (i. Tropfx«Tai. Op. 179 B paprvpiav napixcTai: Xen. Symp. IV. 25. 
For the aor. infin. (without av) after a verb of " hoping," cp. Phaedo 67 b 
(Goodwin O. M. T. § 136). Notice the rhetorical care with which this 
peroration echoes {la(rap€vos...tvhainovas) the exordium (laTpos...ei8aipovla, 
189 d) ; also, in eia-e^eiav we have an echo of eiia-eftelv, 193 a ad fin. : and the 
emphasis on la<Tap.cvos (with 'Epv^ifiaxe in the next line) should not be 
missed. 

aXXoios TJ 6 o-os. This serves to emphasize, by repetition, the statement 
made by A. in 189 C (a\\ji ye ■irj]...\fyfiv kt\.). 

uo-ircp oSv IScr,ei)V o-ov. See 189 B, 193 B. 

193 £ t£ iKaTcpos. A. corrects himself with a precision worthy of 
Prodicus, the comparative form being more proper than the superlative 
(fKaaros) in speaking of two only. Observe that Aristodemus (the narrator) 
should have spoken next after Eryx., but is here ignored : to have represented 
him as a chief speaker " ware auch nicht richt passend gewesen " (Zeller). 



194 a] ZYMnOIION 69 

XVI r. 'AXKa treiaofiaL croi, e^rj <^avai tov 'Epv^Lfia^ov Kai 
'yap fioi o X0709 riB4a)<; ipprjOrj. Koi el fir) ^vvpSr) "SiCOKpdrei re Kai 
'AydOavi Beivoi<; ovai irepl rh ipmriicd, irdvv civ iipo^ovfi'rjv p.r] 
aTTopijaojai, \6ycov Bia rb TroWa xal iravToBaTra elprjadaL' vvv Se 
'op,Q}<; 6appa>. tov ovv ^coKpdrTj etTreiv Ko\o)5 yap avTO? ^ycovia-ai, 194 
do 'Epi/fi/iap^€" el 8e yevoio ov vvv eyd> eifii, fiaWov Se i(Tco<s ov 
ea-o/iat, i-rreiSav Kai 'Ayddcov etTrrj ev, Kai /tiaV av (pojSolo KUi ev 

193 E lui'riSv Cobet : ^w^Seiv libri avopffauxri T : awoprjao) B 

194 A ov vvv 13 ttrojff ou li : ov ttrw? Sz. : o5 Jn. fu, Kill fitiK* distinxi 

auctore Vahlen : fv kcu. fid\' BT, Bfc.: fv /laX' Hirschig Sz. : koi /idX' Verm. 



Kai 7ap. . .tpfnfir\. " Indeed I was quite pleased with your discourse " : hence, 
Eryxitnachus could "lot off" Aristophanes (cp. 189 c irrMf...a(/)ii<rM o-f). What- 
ever the esoteric meaning of A.'s discourse may have been, Eryx. apparently 
regards it simply as a piece of pleasantry — ■'' er hat sich also oft'cnbar nicht 
verstanden, sondern hat sioh bios an die lustige Aussenseite derselben 
gehalten " (Rettig). 

A |iii ivvflSr) ktX. For this construction with ^vvoiSa, cp. Prot. 348 B iva 
TovTio fiiv TavTa a-vvfiSmfiev (with Adam's note) ; Phaedo 92 d, Apol. 34 B. 

irdvv civ ^<)>oPoi|ir)v. For the imperf. here (in an unfulfilled condition) as a 
primary tense, cp. TAeaet. 143 b (Goodwin G. M. T. § 172). 

194 A KttX(;s...^'y'"''i.<rai. This implies that the various encomiasts are 
engaged in a rhetorical contest (dywv) : " your display in the competition was 
a fine one." 

cl 8^ 7<voio kt\. Cp. Ter. Andr. 11. 1. 9 tu si hie sis, aliter censeas. For 
fiaXKov 8e "uras (rashly altered by critics) cp. Hep. 589 d, Ar. Vesp. 1486, and 
see Vahlen Op. Acad. i. 494 f. 

lirciSdv kt\. Notice the elaborate courtesy, not devoid of irony, with 
which S. treats Agathon, who evidently is a man with a taste for flattery. 
Since the combination ev koi fiaXa is open to suspicion, the regular forms 
being either tv pLoXa (Gorff. 496 c, etc.) or Kai fidXa {Pliaedr. 265 A, etc.), 1 
adopt the punctuation suggested by Vahlen. Other critics have proposed to 
eject either the koi or the tv : it would be equally easy to alter ev to av, or 
transpose to koi tl. The text, punctuated after dirji, has been construed 
(1) as "plenius dictum pro eu /laXa" (Stallb.), the xai connecting fi-aKa with 
e^ (Hommel), or (2) as tv fia\a with koi, corresponding to the following koL, 
interjected (so Ast) ; but neither of these explanations is tenable. In favour 
of construing ei with ftnr) may be cited fS cpovvros three 11. below and fl ipil 
198 A : for the order, cp. Rep. 613 b otroi hv 64coa-tv €v : Laws 805 b, 913 b (see 
Vahlen Op. Acad. I. 494 fif.): add Thuc. I. 71. 7 wpos raSe ^ovXevfaBe ev, 

KOI KtX. 

Iv iravrl tit\i. " You would be at your wits' end," in summa consilii inopia 
(Ast). Q'g. Euthyd. 301 A iv iravrl iyfvop-qv vno diTopias: Rep. 579 B ; Xen. 
IJell. V. 4. 29. Cp. the use of navTolos ctvai (yiyvfO-Sat). 



70 nAATnNOI [194 a 

TTavrl 6ti;s watrep eyw vvv. ^ap/jLarreiv fiovKei fie, co 'EcaKparei;, 
elireiv rbv ' AydOmva, "va Sopv^rjOco StA to o'UaOai to Oearpov 
irpoa-Soiciav neyaXrjv e')(eiv to? eS epovvTot ifiov. EiTriXrja/iav 
/levrav eiTjp, tJ ^Ayadwv, el-rreiv tov XcoKparij, el IStov rr)V <j7)v 
B avhpelav Kal fieyaXo^poa-vvrji' ava^aLvovTO's eirl rbv oKpi^avra 
fiera twv viroKpnuiv, Kal ^\e-\fravTO<; ivavria Toaovrm Oearpto, 
lieXKovTO<s eiriSei^ea-dai cravrov Xoyov;, koI ovS ottcoo-tcovv i/c- 
irXayivTO'}, vvv olrjdeCrjv ere dopv^rjdija-eadai eveica ■qp.icv oKiya>v 
avOpaiTrav. Tt Se, m ^coKparei; ; tov 'Ayadcova (fidvai, ov h-q irov 

194 B uKpi^avra B iireSei^acrdat T dopv^ij(r((r6ai TW aii Sij 

TToi) cj. Stoph. 

^ap|i,o(TTeiv p. (it. "To oast a spell upon me." Extravagant praise was 
liable to cause nemesis and the evil eye : cp. Phaedo 95 b /i^ /icya Xeyf, ^^ m 
fjfiiu ^atTKavia •mpvrpe^rj tov \6yov tov fiiWovTa Xeyeadai (with Stallb. ad loG.) : 
Virg. Eel. VII. 27, and the Latin tevma faseinum, mala lingua. Foi- (j)app.arTciv, 
cp. Meno 80 a yorjTeveis fie koi (jiapfidrTeis. Both here and in Meno I. c. the 
phrase may be reminiscent of Qorg. Ilel. 15 oi Se t&v Xoyuw irtidoi nvi KaKJj 
Trjv ^vxrjv efpapfiaKtvfrav Koi e^eyorjTevaav. 

T& S^aTpov. " The house," — rather absurdly applied to the small gathering 
of banqueters, but A. is still full of his recent triumph in the Bearpnv proper 
and readily takes up the idea that he is again engaged in a literary ayi>v (cp. 
TjyoiviaaLj 194 A n.). 

'EiriXij<r|ia>y. Cp. Ar. Nub. 129 yeptav i>v KaniKjiaiiiov Koi ^paSvs. As 
Hommel notes, the word is "senum decrepitorum constans epitheton." 
Socrates applies it to himself also in I'rot. 334 c, d. 

Ti\v o-i^v...dvaPtt£vovTos. For the construction, cp. Ar. Ach. 93 (fKKoyjrnf...) 
TOV ye o-bv {d(j)da\p6v) tov jrpeV^ewf. See Madv. Or. Syntax § 67. 

194 B 4irl riv oKptpavra. It seems to have been usual for the poet, as well 
as the players and choreutae, to appear before the audience, wearing crowns 
but not in costume, at the irpoayav of the great Dionysia held in the Odeum 
of Pericles on the 8th of Elaphebolion : see Aesch. iii. 67 (Schol.), Ar. Vesp. 
1109 (Schol.). The oupl^as was apparently a platform {^rjpa, cp. Ion 535 e) 
in the Odeum, and not, as formerly supposed, the Xoye'iov or stage in the 
theatre itself (cp. Smith D. A. il. 813 b, 818 b) : Schol. oKpifiavTa- to \oyeiov, 
eif)* ov ol Tpayco8o\ rjytovi^ovTO. Tives 5e KtWl^avTa TpLarKe\jj (jyaaiv, e<^* ov 
laravTai oi VTrOKpiTol Kal to ck peTcapov Xeyova-iv. Another meaning of o/cpi/Sac 

is a painter's "easel." 

(i^XXovTos liri8eC5c<r9ai. The force of peWovTos is seen when we remember 
that the di/d/Sao-ir of the poets took place at the irpoayav, before the actual 
performance of the play. For ewiSeUvvcrBai of theatrical displays, cp. Ar. 
Ran. 771 ore Si) Kar^\0' Evpiiribtjr, ewiSeUvvro tois XtoTroSuTatr kt-X. With 
Agathon's self-assurance cp. Isoor. Paneg. 43 O piKphv iirep e'pavTov dpatrvvd- 
pfvos,..7roirj<Topai Toiis \6yovs. 



194 D] ZYMnOIION 71 

fie ovrto dedrpov fiearov rjyei, ma-re Kal dyvoetv oto vovv e)(pvTi 
oXiyot e/jL^povei iroWwv d^povwv ^o/3epwTepoi ; Ov /Mevrav koXcS^ C 
Troiotrjv, tfjavai top ^mKpdrr], cu ^AydOtov, irepX aov n iyci> aypoiKov 
oo^d^av dW' eS ol8a, oti e'i Tiaiv ivrvxcil ov<s 577010 iTO(f>ov^, 
p.5XKov civ avTwv <j)povrl,^oi,<; 17 rwv iroWoSv dWd p-rj oii'X^ 
ovTOi i7/i£t9 wp,ev — ripelf fiev ydp koX exet irapfjp^v Kal ^/iev twv 
TToWtoi; — el Se dXKoi<; evrv')(pi<; cro^oii, rd')^ oLv ala^vvoio avTov<;, 
ei Tt laco'i o'ioio aia-y^pov ov troielv rj irw<; \eyei,<; ; 'AXrjdr] Xiyei<;, 
(ftavai. Toil? Se ttoXKoik; ovk dv alcr'^vvoio, ei ti oioio ai<T\pov D 
TToielv ; Kal rbv 'PalSpov e^r] viroKa^ovra elweiv^D, (f)lXe 'Aydffmv, 
iav diroKpivr) Sta/cporee, ovhkv en htoicrei avrcS ovrjovv rwv ivddSe 
OTiovv yiyveadai, idv povov e-yri ortp Sia\eyr)Tai, dXX(0<; re xal 
KaXm. iycn Be ijSem? p,ev dKovm %<oKpdTov<; StaXeyopivov, dvay- 
Kalov he p,oi eTTipeXrjdrjvai tov iyKcop^iov toU "HLpfuri Kal diroSe^aaOat 

194 C (jyavai rhv SioKparri VUlg. aXKoK : dXX' Bdhm. i(r(BS secl. Sz. 

Bt.: iras cj. Usener: fort, transp. post rdx' av Sv secl. Wolf: av cj. Bt. 

D oioiTO B. ylypfTai Mdvg. 

ovTu SEarpov (leo-Tov. This means " theatri applausu inflatum esse " 
(Stallb.) ; rather than "stage-struck," cp. Themist. 26. 311b; Synes. de 
provid. 105 B Bedrpmi kqi ayopas STrXijoror. 

1940 iroXXuv aijipavuv. As Wolf observes, "ein feines Compliment fiir das 
Parterre in Athen." But such a lofty contempt for the bourgeois of the pit 
and gallery is quite in keeping with A.'s position as the artistic aristocrat. 
If Aristophanes flatters his public on their a-oipia (as ih Ran, 1109 ff.), it is 
obvious that he docs so with his tongue in his cheek. Cp. Laws 659 a, 
oilre yap napa dedrpov 8fi tov yf aXi;fli) KpiTrjV xpivciv fiavBavovra. 

irepV <rov ti l-yw. "Nota vim pronominum... : de te, viro tanto tamque 
insigui, ego, homo vilis " (Hommel). For aypoiKos, cp. 218 b. Laws 880 a 
Theaet. 174 D aypoiKov Se koI dirmSfVTOv...yiyveiT9m. 

f,r\ ovX'>.<a|i.Ev. For Platonic exx. of /t^ or /i^ ov in "cautions assertions or 
negations," see Goodwin G. M. T. § 265. 

&XXois...o-o<|>oi$. Not "other wise men" but "others who are wise" 
(so. unlike us). 

to-us. This word is probably genuine. Possibly, however, it should be 
transferred to a place before, or after, rap^' av (for the combination itras rdx 
av, cp. Tim. 38 E, Laws 676 c, etc.; Schanz nov. comm. p. 14). The ov after 
aiVxpoi' is sufficiently confirmed by Rep. 425 0, Phaedo 77 A (see Vahlen, 
Op. Acad. I. 496 f. on the whole passage). 

194 D oiSiv 2ti 8ioCir6i...7£7vecr9at. For Socrates as i^iXdXoyoE, see Apol. 
38 A, Phaedo 61 B ; and for his " cramp-fish " style of dialectic, Laches 187. 

&XXus T6 Kttl KoX^. For Socrates as ^iXoKoXor, cp. 213 c, 216 D : it is a 
mark of the ipariKos. 



72 nAATDNOI [194 D 

Trap' evo<: eKciarov vfiwv tov Xoyov aTroBoix; oiv kKarepo'; ra 0eS 
E ovT(o^ i]Sj] SiaXe'yicrOci}, 'AWa «aX.c3? \e<yei<;, co ^alBpe, (jtapat tov 
^Ajadcova, Kal ovBiv fie KcoXvei Xejeiv XcoKparei yap xal aiiOi<} 
earai 7roWdKi<; BiaXeye<rdai. 

XVIII. 'E7C1) Se Bf) ^ovKofiai Trp&rov fiev elirelv to? XPV M^ 
elirelv, eireira etirelv. BoKOvai yap fioi iravTei ol -irpoaOev elp7]K6Tev 
ov TOP Beov eyKco/xid^eiv, aX\a tov<; avOpwirovf evBaifiopi^eiv t&v 
dyadwv &v o 0eo? avrol'; aiTi.o<i' oTroto? Be rt? avrd^ <ov tuvtu 
195 eBayp^aaTO, ovBelf eiprjKev. el<i Be rpoiroi; opdo^ iravTOi; iiralvov 
irepX iravTO^, Xoiyw BieXdeip olo<! wv <o'i(ov> atrto? up rvyxavei, 
irepl 01) ap X6709 y. ovTca Br) top "Eipcora xal rjp,a<i BIkuiop 
eiracvecrai irp&rov avrop ol6<; iarip, eireira ra? B6(rei<!. 

^r]fu oip eyco irdpTcov OeSiv eiiBaip-opcov optcop "Epara, el Oefii^ 
KUL avefiearfTov elireip, evBaifiopecrrarov eipai aiiTcop, KaXkicTTOP 

194 E MsBTW: 3Vulg. iirmveiv, tueir iivaivelv Hvcachlg 195 A opBos 
om. T iravTos om. Bdhm. ofor &>v {olatv) scripsi: ofos aiav Sz. Bt.: 

oh oiav ex emend. T: olos i>v BT: olos &v vulg., J.-U. : ofor oirav Baiter: oios 
av {oa-a>v)Yoeg.: ofor Bdhm. aurios: airor Bdhm. 



diroSoiis o3v. Cp. Polit. 267 A koK&s <a\ KaBanepel xp^^s dniSioKas iioi tov 
Xoyov : Rep. 612 B, c ; 220 D infra. 

194 E irpuTov |i^v...2ir€iTa elireiv. Stallbaum, though reading mr, punctuate.s 
like Hommel (who keeps the vulgate fi) after the first as well as after the 
second dwciv, as if the meaning were " to speak in the way in which I ought 
to speak," which is nonsense. The first eiVeli/ { = hrjKovv) is different in force 
from the other two ( = Xoyov Troieio-^oi), the sense being "first to state the 
proper method I am to adopt in my oration, and secondly to deliver it." 
Agathon has imbibed a " worshiiJ of machinery " — the machinery of method — 
from the fashionable schools of rhetoric. 

SoKoSo-i Y«ip v-°'" Agathon, like the rest (cp. 180 d, 185 e), adopts the 
favourite rhetorical device of criticizing the manner or thought of previous 
speakers : cp. Isocr. Busir. 222 b, 230 a ; Hel. 210 b (^tjai fiev yap eyKw/niov... 
Tvyxovii 6* aTro\oyiav elprjKas kt\.: Pobnegyr. 41 B ff'., 44 C. 

195 A olos fiv (otwv). This doubling of relatives is a favourite trick of poets 
and rhetors ; cp. Soph. Aj. 923 oros av olas ex^ts (" mighty and mightily 
fallen"), ib. 557, Track. 995, 1045; Eur. Ale. 144; Gorg. Falam. 22 olos av 
ota XoiSopfl: id. Hel. 11 oo"ot Se oaovi irepl oarav koI eireia-av kol Tretaovai. 

A di[Lis Kol ov«(i.^o-i]Tov. For excess in laudation as liable to provoke 
vepeo-is, see n. on (jjapfidrrfiv, 194 A. For the thought (here and at the end of 
A.'s speech) cp. Spenser, R. to Love, " Then would I sing of thine immortall 
praise. ..And thy triumphant name then would I raise Bove all the gods, thee 
onely honoring, My guide, my God, my victor, and my king." 



195 b] ZYMnOZION 73 

ovTa Kai apiffTov. ecrrt Se KaXXtcrTo<; dup roioahe. irpcoTov fiev 
ve(OTaTo<; Oemv, w ^alSpe. fieya Be reKfjiijptov TtS X070) avTO<; B 
irapej^erai, <f)€vyeov <j>vy^ to jijpa<;, Ta')(y ov hffkov on' Oarrov 
yovv Tov SeovTo<! r/fitv irpoaep-x^erai. o Srj iretfyvKev "Epoj? /xiaelv 
Kai ovB' evTo<; iroWov irXrjcxid^eiv. fiera Be vetov ael ^vvecrri re 
Kai ea-Tiv o yap 7ra\aio<; X0709 ev 6'%et, to? " ofiotov ofioim ael 
ireXa^et." iya> Be ^aiBpw troWa dX\a 6fio\oy&v rovro ov'^ 
o/jLo\oyw, (US "E/3CU9 K.p6vov Kai 'laTrerou ap'xa,i6rep6<; iaTiv, aXka 

195 B ruiv \6ytov Stob. (eV) <j>vyfi Stob. Ta^if,..7rpoiTep^eTaL 

del. Heusde ok B: olv T tpcaros B oiS' tVror Stob.: ovSovtocB: 

oiS ovTos T nkrjtTia^fiv T, Stob.: TrXi/o-iaffi B eori (yeos) Sauppe J.-U. 

Sz. : tTrerai Winckelmann 8ft neXd^av Stob. SWa noWa Hirsohig 

195 B i3 4>atSpe. Phaedrua is specially addressed because it is his thesis 
(eV Tois n pftT^xiTarns 6*Epo>s 178 A, c) which is here challenged. 

H^ya Si TEKpujpiov. This serves to echo, and reply to, Phaedrus's reKfifipiov 
8e TovTov 178 B (cp. 192 a). For the attributes youth and beauty, cp. Callim. 
H. II. 36 Kai fiev d(\ KoXor Kai aft vfos (of Phoebus). 

^iiyav (|)«7xi. A poetical mode of giving emphasis. "</)v75 4'^vyeiv nun- 
quam sic legitur ut simplex (^Euyttv de victis militibus, sed per transla- 
tionem, fugientium modo, h. e. omni contentione aliquid defugere atque 
abhorrere " (Lobeck Farall. li. p. 524). Prose exx. are Epin. 974 b, Epist. 
viii. 354 c ; Lucian adv. indoct. 16. 

Tox* ov...irpo(r^pxcTai. Bast, "motus aroitla sententiae," condemned these 
words ; but the presence of sophistical word-play fs no reason for suspicion 
in A.'s speech. A. argues that Age, in spite of its "lean shrunk shanks," is 
nimble, only too nimble indeed in its pursuit of men : therefore, d fortiori, 
the god who can elude its swift pursuit must be still more nimble. For the 
agility of Eros, cp. Orph. H. 58. 1, 2 (KtKXi)'<rK<o)'Ep(i)Ta...fu6po/ioi' opp.ri. 

4vT0S iroXXou. Cp. Thuc. II. 77 firof yap jroXXoO j^copiov Trjs TrdXewr ovk ^v 
■jreXdcrm. For the sense (abhorrence of age), cp. Anacr. 14. 5 ^ fie (i'^vif)...T^i' 
pfu ep.f]v Kop.rjv, I XfUK^ ■y''ft KaTap.fp<j)fTm kt\. 

del ^ivea-rl re Kai ia-riv. Hug adopts Sauppe's addition (fe'or), but this 
spoils the ring of the clause and it is best to leave it to be mentally supplied : 
for the ellipse, cp. 213 C ytXoios ean re koi ^ovKfTai. For pfTd...(rvveam, cp. 
Laws 639 e ; Plut. de Is. et Os. 352 a irap airij koi per avTtjs ovra koi (rvvovra. 

ofioiov o|ioC<>>. The original of this is Hom. Od. xvii. 218 as act tov 6p,6iov 
ayei fffos *>r tov opo'iov. Cp. 186 B supra, lysis 214 A, /Jep. 329 A ; Aristaen. 
Ep. I. 10 : and for a Latin equivalent, Cic. de Senect. 3. 7 pares cum paribus, 
vctere proverbio, facillirne congregantur : so Anglic^, " birds of a feather 
flock together." Similar in sense is iJXt^ ^Xiko Tip-mi (Arist. Rhet. i. 11. 25). 

4>aC8p(>>. The reference is to 178 b. Spenser {H. to Love) combines these 
opposite views, — " And yet a chyld, renewing still thy yeares. And yet the 
eldest of the heavenly Peares.'' 

Kpovou Kai 'loirtToB apxaidrepos. A proverbial expression to denote the 



74. nAATQNOZ [195 b 

C ^rjfil vecoTUTov avTOV elvai 6eS)v Koi aei veov, ra Be iraKaia Trpay- 
fiara irepl Oeow, a 'Hcrt'oSo? koi, IlapfJ.evlSr]<; Xijovcriv, 'Avdr/Kr} 
Kal ovK "EjOcoTt yeyovevat, el eKelvoi aXrjOfi eXeyov ov yap av 
eKTOfial ovSe Beafiol aWijXav eyiyvovTO Kai aXKa TroWa /ca^ 
^laia, el "Eipa><! ev avTol<; rjv, aX\a (j)iKia koI elp'^vr/, wcnrep vvv, 
i^ oil "EptB? TWi/ de&v ^aatXevei. veoi fiev ovv earl, tt/so? Be tm 

D via) aTraXo?' ttoitjtov S' eariv evBerji oto<i rjv "Ofirjpo^ irpoi to 
eiriBei^at '6eov airaXoTTjTa. "Ofi7]po<: yap "Attjv 6e6v re ^rjaiv 
elvai Kal diraXt^v — tou? yovv TroSas avT7J<i d-TraXoi/': eivai — Xeyoiv 

195 C vfararov re Stob. npayfiara T, Stob. : ypafifiaTa B wap- 

fifviSijf T : jra/j/uEKeiSijs B : 'EniiievlSrjs Ast ei cKuvoi om. Stob. \iyovoriv 
Stob. iyivovTO Stoh. D ofor irtp ^v o 'O/iijpoj Stob. Tovs...fivai. 

seel. Jn. Sz. : Tovs...^aivei seel. Orelli. {cj>r)a-iv) elvai Stob. 



" ne plus ultra " of antiquity : cp. Moeris p. 200 'loTrfrds ■ avri roC yipav. koi 
Tldavos Kol Kpovos' fwl rav yepovrav: Lucian dial. deor. 2. 1 ; Ar. Nv,h. 398, 
I'lut. 581. Cronus and lapetus were both Titans, sons of Uranus and G6 
(Hes. Th. 507), and imprisoned together in Tartarus {11. viii. 479). lapetus 
was father of Prometheus, and grandfather of Deucalion, the Greek " Adam " : 
hence " older than lapetus " might be rendered " ante-preadamite." 

195 C & "Ho-CoSos Kal n. X^-youo-iv. These wore the authorities adduced by 
Phaedrus (178 b). Hesiod relates such -naKaui Trpdypara in Theog. 176 ff., 
746 ff. ; but no such accounts by Parmenides are extant. Accordingly, it has 
been supposed {e.g. by Schleierm.) that A. is mistaken, and Ast proposed to 
read 'EiripeviSris : but cp. Macrob. somn. Scip. i. 2 Parmenides quoque et 
Heraclitus de diis fabulati sunt. If P. did relate such matters in the poem of 
which portions remain, clearly (as Stallb. observed) it could only have been 
in Pt. II. (" The Way of Opinion "). Cp. Ritter and Pr. § 101 d, « Generati 
sunt deinceps {i.e. post Amorem) ceteri dei, de quibus more antiquiorum 
poetarum noKma ir pay para narravit, V. Plat. Symp. 195 C, Cic. D. Nat. 1. 11" ; 
Zeller, Presocr. p. 596 (E. Tr.) ; Krische Forsch. p. Ill f. For "AKayicij in 
the cosmogonists, cp. Parmen. 84 K., Kparepfi yap 'AvdyKt) \ rreipuTos ev 6eo- 
poia-iv fx^i, TO piv dp<j)\c iipyei : id. 138 cor piv ayova iiribtjaev 'kvayKt) : 
Emped. 369 eariv 'AvdyKrjs XPW" '"■^■ 

(L.-^Xryov. Rettig and Stallb. rightly explain the iraperf. as due to the 
reference to Phaedrus's mention of H. and P. (178 b). 

iKTOfial oiSi Seo-|xoI. Cp. Euthyphro 5 E ff.. Rep. ZTl e where such tales of 
divine immorality are criticized. 

195 D airaXos. Cp. Theogn. 1341 alai, TraiSor epS> iiraXixpoos: Archil. 100 
daWfis AitoKov xpo" : Phaedr. 245 a Xa^ovira AnoKTiv koi a^arov ^vp^iji/. 

"0(jn)pos Yop. See II. XIV. 92 — 3. Schol. jTiXvarai- Trpoo-TTtXafft, Trpoaey- 
■yi'fei. 

Tovs 7ovi'...Etvai. As Hug observes, the occurrence of koi ttoo-i koi Travrr) 
below is sufficient to establish the soundness of these words. 



196 A] ZYMnOIION 75 

TTj? iievd^ aTToXol •troZe':' ov yap iir oi/Seo? 
TriKvarai, aXX' apa tj ye Kar avSp&v Kpdara ^aivei. 
KaXw ovv BoK€t fioi reiefiTfpiqi t^i/ airdKoTrjra a'iro<\)aivei,v, on ovie 
eVi <TK\ijpov fiaivei, aW' eVt fiaXduKov, tcS uvtw Sr] koI '^fieL<i 
"X^prfcriiiieda TeKfirjpi^ wepl "E/atBra on airaXo'!. ov yap inl yij<; e 
0aivei ovB' eVt Kpavimv, a eanv oi) irdvv fiaXaKO,, a\X' ev rot? 
fiaXaKtoTaToi'; t&v ovtcov Kal ^aivei ical oiKei. iv yap rjOeai ical 
■\(rvx^ai<! 6eS)v Kal avffpceirmv rr)v oiKrjaiv iSpvrac, zeal ovk av efjj? 
eV irdarai'; rat? ylrvx^ait, dXX! fJTivi hv (TKXi^pov rj0o<! i'xpvo'y evrv)(r], 
a,irep')(eTai, y B' 5,v fiaXaKov, olKi^erai, diTTo/ievov oiiv del Kal Troal 
Kav travrri ev fiaXaKwrdTOK; rmv fiaXaKtoTaTwv, diraXuiraTov 
dvdyKT) elvai. veanarc; fiev Si] ecrrt Kal diraXajTarov, irpa he 196 
T0UT0t9 vypo<; to elSo<;. ov yap av olos t' tjv TrdvTy 7repnrTV(Taea6ai, 

195 D T^y BT, Stob.: rrj Aristarchus, Homeri (T 92) codd. oi!8eor BT, 
Stob. : oiJSei W, vulg., Horn. codd. nlXvarai ex TrlSvarat T : irfiSvarm B : 

TTtTvaraL Stob. fioi 8oKfl Stob. r(5 avTm TW, Stob.: TO avTO B "E XP^' 

a-o/ieda Stob., vulg. Kal (ante fiaivfi) om. Stob. e^^r T : i^ f)t B eVoi- 
Kiferai Naber iv naKaKois t. /i. Naber aTraXmraroi' om. Stob. 

195 E rfivri Kol i|/ux<*'s. "In the tempers and souls": here ^doc seems 
to bo co-ordinate with ^vxr], but below (ij^os ex"""^!!' '"• '^"xfl) subordinate, 
i.e. A. uses the word loosely with more attention to sound than sense : cp. 
X/J/S. 222 A Kara rrfv yjrvx^v ff Kara Tt rijff yjfvx^s Tjdos rj rponovs rj ei8os : 183 E 
supra, 207 e infra. Notice also the material way in which ^6r\ and -^vxai are 
here conceived: cp. Moschus i. 17 twl <7-7rXd;(i'ois 8e Kadijrat: and the figure in 
such a phrase as " the iron entered into his soul." 

Kttl iroo-l KoV irdvTxi. "With feet and with form entire," "nicht wie Ate 
bios mit Fiissen" (Wolf): ndvrri, like del, is A.'s own extension of the Homeric 
statement. 

Iv (laXaKMraTois twv f,. The genitive is governed by dnTofievov, and eV 
fiaXaKaTaTois is parallel to ev Tols {wpea^vraTov) 178 A : "the most soft of 
softest things." 

196 A vewTOTOS. . .airaXwTttTOS. Cp. iJep. 377 A vew Koi ^ttoXm otojoCi'. 
vypis TO elSos. iiypos, here opposed to a-KXr/pos, is often used " de rebus 

lubricis, lentis, flexibilibus, moUibus" (Stallb.): cp. Theaet. 162 b t^ Sc 87 
vctoTepo) T€ Koi vyporepca ovri (opp. to itkXijp^ ovti) TrpofrnaKaUtv ; Pind. Pyth, 
I. 17 (11) o St (aieTor) Kvaxrirav vypov vmTov alape'i: Callistr. descript. 3 (of a 
bronze of Eros) vypbs /lev ffv dpoip&v /laKaKOTrjTos, Another sense of vypos, in 
erotic terminology, is "melting," "languishing," e.g. Anth. Plan. 306 tV 
onfiaa-iv vypa SeSopKois : Anacr. XXVIII. 21 : and in hymn. Rom. xviii. 33 vypos 
is an epithet of ttoOoc. " Supple of form " is the best rendering here. Arist. 
G. A. I. 7. 3 applies vyporrjs (tov <ra>paTos) to serpents. — nepinTva^irtadai is 
5jr. Xfy. in Plato, and mainly used in poetry. 



76 nAATQNOZ [196 a 

ovSe Sta Trda-7j<; '>^vxfj<s Kal elcncov to wpoiTov \avddveiv kuX i^id>v, el 
aKKrjpo'i rjv. <TVfj,fieTpov Se Koi vypd^ ISea^ fiiya reKfirjpiov rj evaxv 
/xoavvT), b 8r) Sia<j)ep6vTCi)^ eK irdvrwv o/MoXoyovfievm'; "Ep«u? ex^'" 
aiT'x^Tf/j.ocrvvr) yap koi "^pcori irpoi dW-^Xovs del TroXe/to?. ')(^poa<i Se 
KaXKo<; rj Kar av0r] Siaira rov 0eov a-Tjfiaivei' dvavOel <ydp Kal 
B aTrrjvdrjKOTi Kal a-cofiUTt Kal '>}rvxV ""''■ oX\a> 6to)ovv ovk eVifet "Rpox;, 
ov S' av 6vav6ri<s re Kal evcoBrj^ roiro'; y, evTavda Kal i^ei Kal fievei. 

196 A Km (ante elaiaiv) om. W kcli iypas seel. Jn. Sz. : /cai Tpvtfiepas 

Verm.: /cm d/SpSs Sehrwald Ibias: oio-i'ay Stob. !) kut : ^ koi to Stob. 

SiatTfi : Sij ra Stob. B ciaSqs re kol tvav6r)s Stob. ivTavBa (St) Stob., Bt. 

a-u|x|ji^rpov...lS^as. "Acute vidit Astius aviijieTpov referendum esse ad 
nepiJTTVo-a-fa-dai. Arnor enim, quia potest ttovtij nepnrTva-a-ecrOai, recte 
a-ippeTpos vooatur. Itaque ne hie quidem audiendus est Orellius qui trip- 
piTpos legendum putabat" (Stallb., so too Rlickert and Homrael). Rettig 
takes aipperpos to be merely a synonym for iypos, supposing that the proof 
of the statement vypos to eiSos, which was first stated negatively, is here 
being stated positively — "nun hangt aupperpia mit der fva-xr]poavvrj zusammen 
und ebenso vypurris mit avppfTpla. Vgl. Legg. vi. 773 a, Phileb. 66 u." On 
the other hand Hug, supposing that avppcrpUi is introduced as a new attribute 
distinct from vypo-njs, follows Jahn in ejecting the words koI iypas. Rettig's 
view, adopted also by Teuffel, seems the most reasonable : A., with sophistical 
looseness, smuggles in the extra term a-iipperpos beside vypos in order to 
secure the applicability of eiaxrjpoa-ivr]. By avppeTpia, properly used, is 
meant the perfect proportion of the parts in relation to one another which 
results in a harmonious whole: see my Phileh. p. 176. For Eio-xij^oo-uvij, cp. 
Rep. 400 off. 

4k iravTwv. Cp. Theaet. 171 B e^ dvravTav apa...ap(j>i.o-^r]TTia-eTai, "on all 
hands, then,. ..we find it disputed" (so Campbell ad loc, who observes that 
"this use of i^ has been needlessly disputed Viy Heindorf and othei-s"). Ficinus 
seems to connect ix tt. with Siacj}., which is possible but less probable. 

Xp6as 8i KdXXos ktX. Possibly we have here a reminiscence of some 
passage in poetry: xfo<>f---avdri admits, as Hug observes, of being scanned 
as a "catalectic pontapody" (like Eur. Phoen. 29-1). In the repeated nioulion 
in these lines of avBos and its compounds, we may discern an allusion to 
Agathon's tragedy 'kvdtvs. Cp. Plato 32 {P. L. 0. li. 311) avros S' {ic. 6 "iLpms) 
iv KoKvKfafriv poSav wcirfSijpevos v^rva \ evheu peiSioaiv : Alcman 38 pApyos 8' 
Epur oia irais 7rm'(rS«...aKp' iir' av0t) Ka^aiva>K...rm Kujrmpio-Kw : Simon.^. 47 
opiKfi 8' av6e<TLv, {&Te) p4Xia-(ra ^av&ov p4\i pqSopfva : Eros, like Titania, loves 
"a bank where the wild thyme blows" (eiciSijf towos), and might echo the 
song "where the bee aucks, there suck I," etc. For the negative thought 
dvav6e'i...ovK fvi^ei, cp. Philo de meretr. mere. ii. 264 i^iapois ycvopivats ("when 
past the flower of their age,'' SC. raXs iraipais) ouSfW en npoa-eta-iv, diropa>pav- 
Bfiarjs Hiairep nvav dvdav Trjs aKptjs. For eumSijf Toiros, cp. Phaedr. 230 B. 
The description of Eros lying soft in Soph. Antig. 781 ff. is somewhat similar. 



196 c] lYMnOIION 77 

XIX. Ylepl fj,ev oZv KaK\ov<; tov deov Kal ravd' ixava xal en 
TToWa XeiTrerat, irepl Be apeTTJi; "Epmro? fiera ravra Xetcreov, to 
/U.61/ fieyicTTov on hjpoo^ ovt aoixet out aoiKeirai ova vtto aeov 
ovre Oeov, ovd' inr avOpmirov ovTe avOpairov. ovre ryap avToi ^La 
irdayii, eX n irdayei,' ^ia yap "Epwro? ou;;^ airreTat' oiire iroimv 
TTOtet' 7ra9 yap eKmv "Epcon trav virripeTel, a B' av excav knovri, C 
ojioXoyrjcrri, (jjaalv '' ol TToXew? ^amXf)<; vofioi " BiKaia elvai. 7rpo<r 

196 L erf. oTi Stob. oSt dSiKfi om. Stob. olire 6eS>v Stob. 

avBpavav. oi8e Stob. C n-di/fl* Stob. ai/ BT, Stob.: ar nr vulg. 

rS>v noKewv Stob. (tSv om. Stobaei A). 

("Epeos) Off iv fioKaKois iraptiais \ veavldos evvvxcvfis : cp. Hor. C. lY. 13. 6 if. 
(Amor) virentis...pulcris excubat in genis. Also the echo of our passage in 
Aristaen. Ep. il. 1. 

196 B IlEpl |ilv o«v...ir«pl Si ktX. Cp. Isocr. I'an. 47 ntpl p-kv ovv tov 
pieyiarTov...TavT' elnfiv e^o/ifv. nfpl be Toiis avToiif xpovovs kt\.: Phaedr. 246 A. 
irtpl 8i dpei-qs. In drawing out this part of his theme Agathon follows the 
customary four-fold division of dperfi into SiKaioo-vvr], trat^potrvvr), avhpela, 
a-o<}>ia. Adam (on Rep. 427b) writes "There is no evidence to shew that 
these four virtues and no others were regarded as the essential elements of 
a perfect character before Plato." Yet it certainly seems probable that these 
four were commonly recognized as leading aperai at an earlier date (see the 
rest of the evidence cited by Adam), and a peculiarly Platonic tenet would 
hardly be put into the mouth of Agathon. Cp. Protag. 329 cff.; and for a 
similar use made of this classification in encomiastic oratory, see Isocr. lid. 
31 ft'., Nicod. 31 ff., 36 ft', (cp. n. on 184 c). 

oSt dSiKci oiJT dSiKetrat. The maxims "love your enemies, do good to 
them which despitefully treat you " formed no part of current Greek ethics : 
cp. Meno 71 E avrjf earXv dvSpos dpcr^,...rous pev <f>i\ovs fv TroiEtr, roiis 8 
ixSpovs KOKwr: Crito 49 b: Xen. Mem. II. 3. 14; and other passages cited by 
Adam on Rep. 331 e. See also Dobbs, Philos. etc. pp. 39, 127, 243. Notice 
the chiasmus dbiKel...ahiKeiTai...\nTO 6eov...6f6v. 

^U^ irdo-xei. These words form one notion and are put as a substitute for 
ahiKfiTai, just as ffotf 1 (sc. /3m) below is a substitute for dSiKci. Cp. Polit. 280 D 
ras pia irpd^eir. There may be a ref. here to the fptoros avayRai of Gorgias 
Hel. 19. 

irds vip <rK. With but slight modification this would form an iambic 
trimeter. Cp. Gorgias ap. Phileb. 58 a ^ tov neiSeiv vroKii Sia<j)4pei iraaav 
Tev""'^ ' "■""'■n 7"P *''^' "^a ^ov\a bi ckovtiov dXX' oi Sia jSiaf, of which our 
passage may be a reminiscence. 

196 C a 8' av kt\. The argument is that where mutual consent obtains, 
since /3ia is absent, there can be no dSiKia. For a different view of SiKaiorrvvj] 
see Arist. Eth. N. v. 9. llSe* 32 fi'. trepov yap to vopiKov SUatov leai to npwTov 
ktX. : Crito 62 E : Xen. iSymp. vill. 20. 

Ol ir6Xt<os...v6nov. Apparently a quotation from Aloidamas, a rhetor of the 



78 nAATQNOZ [196 c 

Be rrj StKaioa-vvr) cra}<f>po(rvpr]<: 7rXeicrTri<; fierexei- eivai yap Ofio- 
Xoyetrai acoSpoavvT) to Kpareiv rjSovciv Kal eiriOvfii&v, EpiBTO? oe 
fjajSefiCav ■qSovr)v Kpei-TTm elvar el Se t^ttovs, Kparolvr av viro 
"EpcoTO^, 6 Be Kparol, xpar&v Se riBov&v Kal eTridv/jitSiv 6 "E^to? 
Bia<l>ep'6vTa)<; av ao}(f>povoi. Kal fiijv eU ye avhpeLav "EpwTt "' ovo 
D "ApT]^ avBLaraTai,." ov yap exei "Epoira "Aprji;, aXX' "Epaxs "Apr), 
'A^poBi,Tri<;, o)s \6yo<:- KpeLTTav Be 6 6%a)i' rov exop^evov tov S' 
avBpeioraTov rStv dWa>v KparSiv ttuvtuv av dvBpecoTaTo<; eirj. 
irepl pev ovv BiKaioavvTj'i Kal a(i>(})pocrvvr}<; Kal avBpela'; tov aeov 
eiprjTai, wepl Be aoipt,a<; XelireTai • oaov ovv BvvaTov, ireipaTeov firj 
eWeiTreiv. Kal irpSiTOv fiev, 'iv ax) Kal iya) Trjv f)p,eTepav Texvrjv 

196 TrXfTffTov Cobet Kparti Stob., Naber : Kparolrj Bdhm. o-a^povoiT] 
Stob. avhpiav BT D apr^v Stob. ' AifipoSirijs del. Naber &v om. B 

iv' ou T : au B : iv' oiv stob. 

school of Gorgias : see Arist. Rhet. III. 1406" 18 ff. 8io to. 'AXKiSapavroc ^vxpa 
cfxiivfTai- oil yap rjbvirpaTi, y^prfrai «XX' a>s iiiapari Tois eiriOeTOis, ovToi irvKvois 
Kui pfi(6(n Koi entSriKois, oiov.,.oix\ i/d/xovr aWaToiis tS>v noXcav jiaaiXfts I'd/lour 
(see Cope ad loc). Two extant works are ascribed to Aloidamas, viz. an 
Odysseus and a de Sophistis : the latter is probably genuine and " seems to 
justify Aristotle's strictures on his want of taste in the use of epithets" (Cope 
loc. cit.). See further Vahlen, Alkidamas etc. pp. 508 fi'.; Blass, Att. Bereds. 
II. 328. 

tlvai YDlp...iru(|>po(rvvT). This definition of "temperance" is common to 
both scientific and popular morals. Cp. Rep. 389 d a-a>({>poa-vvr]c...aiTovs 
(elvat) apxovTos tSsv irep'i ttotovs koi dcj)poSiirm Kal irepl eSaSas riSov&v ("tem- 
perance, soberness and chastity ") : ib. 430 b, Phaedo 68 c : Autiphon fr. 6 
{Tai<l)po(rvv7jv 8* dvdp6s...otms tov dvpov ras 'irapaj(prjpa fjbovas efi^pdaatov 
KpoTfiv re koi vikuv TiSvvrjdr) airos iavrov. See Dobbs op. cit. pp. 149 ff. ; 
Nagelsbach, Nachhom. Theol. pp. 227 ff. 

"Epo)Tos 8i ktX. The argument is vitiated both by the ambiguity in the 
use of Eros (as affection and as person) and by the ambiguity in Kparei 
ijhovSiv, which in the minor premiss is equivalent to iarlv 17 KpanWi; rjhovri. 
For similar fallacies, see Euthyd. 276 D ff.; Arist. soph. el. 165'' 32 fi". For tpias 
as a master-passion, cp. Rep. 572 e ff. Agathon here again echoes Gorgias 
{Hel. 6 7r«'(/)iiKt yap ov to Kpelairov vttA tov rj<T(Tovos K&iXuca-dai, oKKa to TJa-aov 
vtt6 Toil KpfiariTovos Hp^^eadai Kal aytaOai ktX.). 

oiS' " Api)s av6£(rTOTai. This comes from Soph. ( Thyestes) fr. 235 N. Trpoy 
TTjv dvdyKtjv ov8' 'Apr/s dvBiaTarai. Cp. Anacreontea 27 A, 13 eka^fv PeXepvov 
(so. "EpcoToc) "Aprjs. 

196 D us Xdyos. See Hom. Od. viii. 266 ff., already alluded to in 192 d. 

irdvTuv ttv...eti). Another illegitimate conclusion. By means of a tacit 
substitution of the notion dvSpela for KpaTog, it is assumed that 6 KpaTS>v 
TOV dvSpeiov must be dvSpeiorepos. 



197 a] lYAAnOllON 79 

Tifirjam ioairep 'Epv^ifia'X^O'; ttjv avTov, iroiriTT)'; 6 Oeo^ ao^ot ovTa)<} E 
wcTTe Kal oKKov 7roirj<Tai' va<; yovv iroirfTrj^ yir/verai,, " Kciv dfiovao<! 
y TO irpLv," ov av "Epco^ ayjrriTai,, w Sr/ irpeTrei, ■f)fia<; fiaprvpi^ 
')(^pri<Ta<T6ai, on, ttomjt^? o''Ep&)i> dya6o<; iv Ke^oKaifp iraaav TTOirjaiv 
TTJV Kara fiovaiK'qv a yap ril 7] /Mr) e^^i rj firj olSev, ovt av ereptp 
Soir] OVT av aXXov SiBd^eie. Kal fiev 8rj ttjv ye t&v ^mwv irolrjaiv 197 
•jrdvTwv Ti? ivavTidxrerai fir; ovx^ "EjotoTO? elvat ao<j)iav, y yiyverai 
■ T6 Ka\ <}}veTai -iravra to, f&Ja ; oWa t^v tSjv re'xy&v Sr]p.iovpyiav 
ovK lafiev, oTi ov ph> av 6 6eo<; outo? SiBacrKdKo<: yivijTai, iXKoyifioi 
Kal ^avb<; dire^r], ov S' civ "Epcot fir) i<j)d'^r)Tai, aKoreivof ; to^lktjv 
ye fjLrjv Kal laTpiKrjv Kal fiavTiKtjv 'ATrdWeoi' dvevpev eTTiOv/Jnai; Kai 

196 E Kai» T: Kot B ;(p^(rao-flai Stob., Blass : XP^<''^«' BT, cet. rr}v... 

fiovaiKrjv del. Sauppe Jn. exv !"■ l^^ -A- M^" ^h -'^T • M" ^h ^ '■ M" 

Stob. TToirjiTiv del. Blass navras Stob. re om. Stob. ra fma navTa 
Blass OVK del. Blass 



196 E uo-ircp'Epu|C|iaxas. See 186 B. 

iras 70SV (ctX. An allusion to Eurip. (Stheneboea) fr. 663 N. noirjrfiv S' 
tipa I "Epwt StSatTKft, xav a/iova-os rj to irpiv. This last phrase had a vogue : 
cp. Ar. Vesp. 1074 ; Menander Com. 4, p. 146 ; Plut. amat. 17. 762 b, Symp. i. 
622 c ; Longin. de suhl. 39. 2 (quoted with other passages by Nauok). For 
the ditties of a love-sick swain, cp. Lysis 204 d. See also Aristid. t. i. Or. iv. 
p. 30. 

irao-av...|i.ouo-iKi^v. With A.'s bisection of nolrjais cp. the analysis of the 
notion by Socrates, 205 b infra. 

197 A KoV |iiv 81^... 7€. Porro etiam, quin etiam. (See Madv. Or. Synt. 
§ 236.) 

"Ep(oTos...<roit)£ttv. o-o<j}lav is here predicate (against Ruckert) and stands 
for a^o(f>ias epyov. For Eros as "poetic" in this sense, cp. Spenser {H. to Love), 
" But if thou be indeedo, as men thee call, The worlds great Parent." 

Ti^v...8ii(iiovp7£ov. This branch of ttoi'i/o-is is really a distinct kind from 
the other two, as not involving invention or creation. For "demiurgic arts," 
see Phileb. 55 D S., and for larpiKr] as an example Phileb. 56 a ; cp. 186 c, D 
supra. Cp. Isocr. Hel. 219 b (where H. is eulogized as the cause rex^v&v Koi 
<l}t\o<TO(j)tS>v Kol Twv oKKwv uxpfKeiav). 

<f>avos. Illustris: Hesych, (^ai/di'" ^arfivov KoiXaimpov: cp. /"Aaerfn 256 D. 
For gods as hibacrKoKoi and ^yf/iidi/er (197 b), cp. Isocr. Busir. 229 B — C roiis 
6eovs...rjyovfiai...avTovs re Tracras E^^oirar ras dperar <j)vvai Koi to'is aWots t£>v 
KaWlaTtov emTrfbfvuaraiv riyep,6vas Kai StSaa-KciXovs yeyevijo'Bat. 

'AiriWcov dveipev. For Apollo as the inventor of To^iKri, see Horn. II. 11. 
827 ; of fiavTiKTi, 11. r. 72; of larptKri, 190 E ff. supra. See also h. Horn. Apoll. 
131 ff.; and for fiavTiKrj in connexion with the cult of A., Kohde Psyche 11. 
pp. 56 ff. 



80 nAATnNOZ [197 a 

B ep(i>TO<! '^yefiovevffavro'!, ware koi outo? 'Epcorof av eiTj fiadrjT'^^, 
Kai Movcrai /xovcnKrji; Kat"H^atcrT09 j^aXweia? koI 'A0i}vd larovp- 
yia<! KOi Zeu? " Kv^epvav ffe&v re icai avOpanruiv." oOev Br/ ical 
KareaKevaadr) t&v 6eS>v ra TrpdyfiaTa "Epmro? iyyevofievov, SrjXov 
OTi KaX\ov<i' atcrj(^ei yap ovk eVt "Epw?* irpo rov Be, axrirep ev 
o,pxV eliTov, TToWa Koi Seivd Oeoig iyiyvero, tu? XeyeTai, Sid rrjv 
rrj<; 'AvdyKr]<; ^aaiXeiav eTreiSrj S' o 6eo? oiiroc; e<^v, e« rov epdv 
rStv KaXSiV irdvr dyaOd yeyove Kal deol<; Koi dvdpairoi';. 

C Ovra><i ejioXBoKel, tu <^aiSpe, "Epcu? Trpwro? avTO<s wv KdWi(rro(! 
Kai apn7ro<; fiera rovro rot? aX\.oi<; aXXcov roiovrwv aXno^ elvai. 

197 B Kai oiiTos del. Blass (xf) ;(aXi£6iar BlaSS Ka\Zevs...av6pu>Trav oxa. 
Stobaei ed. princ. Kv^epvav BTW, Stob. : Kv^fpvrjafas Vindob. 21, vulg.: 

Kv^epvav ra cj. Voeg. iyyiyvop,4vov Stob. atcrpfous Ast eiri Blass Bt. 

(ejTt vel en B) : enea-Tiv T, Stob. : tvi corr. b, Porson J.-U. : eveartv in mg. 
rec. b : ea-riv D, Ast nparov Se Stob. C npSirov Stob. 

197 B fpuTos...''Ep(i>Tos. Hero, as elsewhere in those Xiiyoi, there is a play 
on tlic (limble scnao of the word as (1) a mental afloctiou (i.q. (iriOvfiii), and 
(2) a personal agent. 

Kal Movo-ai piovo-LKris. Supply (as Stallb. and Hug) "Eparos av fliv 
pjiOrfTai. Less probable is the explanation of Ast and Riickert who, regarding 
(S(TTe...fia6r]Tr}i as parenthetic, supply avevpov with MoCo-ai (and the other 
nominatives) and take iiov(tiktjs (and the other genitives) as dependent on 
f7n8vpias...Tiyepovfv<TavTos mentally repeated. For the double genitive of 
person and thing, cp. Rep. 599 C rivas paOrjras laTpiKJjs KOT-eXin-ero. 

XaXK«£tts...ioTovpYCas. For Hephaestus, cp. 192 D?i.; and for Athene as 
patroness of weavers II. xiv. 178, v. 735 ; Hes. 0/>. D. 63. 

Zeis K«p€pvav. The sudden change of construction from genitive to bare 
infin., together with the unusual genit. after Kv^epvav, are best explained by 
assuming (with Usener) that we have here another of Agathon's poetical tags. 
For Zeus as world-pilot, see II. ii. 205, ix. 98: cp. Parmen. fi: 128 M. Saifuav, 
^ iravra Kv^epva : and below, 197 E ad init., KvPepvrjrrjs is applied to Eros 
(cp. 186 e). 

KaTco-Kcvdo-Si] ktX. This sentence is quoted later on (201 a) by Socrates. 
ra irpdyfiaTa echoes the naXaia npaypara of 195 C. koWovs is object, gen. 
after "Eparos. 

aiayti yelp kt\. This repeats the assertion of 196 A — B. Eettig reads 
aurxei...etrTiu, arguing that tcmv, not evi, is required by the ref. in 201a: 
but aia-xfi lortv as an equiv. for aicrxovs timv would be a strange use. The 
restoration cwi is as certain as such things can be. 

tv dpxii tlirov. See 195 c. Notice that here as there A. refuses to make 
himself responsible for the ascription of violence to the gods, as shown by the 
saving clause in XeyeTai. 

197 C fiXXdiv Toio^Twv. Sc. ola naKXos Koi apeTT) : cp. Sep. 372 D. 



191 D] lYMnOZION 81 

eirep')(eTat Be (loL ri koX e/i/ierpop elireiv, on ovro^ icniv 6 iroi&v 
eiprjvrjv fiev iv av6pwiroi<;, ■jreXd'yei Be yaXijvrjv 
vrjvefjiiau, avefiasv Koirrjv vttvov t iv\ KrjBei. 
ovTo<; Be i7/ta? aWoTptoTTjro? p-ev Kevoi, ovKeioTrjTov Be TrXTjpol, rav D 
ToiacrBe ^vv6Bov<; fier aWi^Xtav Traaa? ridels ^vvievat, iv eoprai<;, 

197 C fii/ieTpms Hermog. Method. avifiav BT : t avifiav Stob. vulg. : 

8' ave/jMK Hermog. koiVt/i/ BT : koItijv t Stob. : koiti; Hermog. cod. Monac. : 
KoiTTi 6' Dindorf Jn. : koiV.j; 8' Herm. t ivi ktjSci Stob. Hermog. : re vixi/Sct 
B: Te vriKtjSrj T: Tf i/tKijfiei W (ill mg. yp. Km vi/KijSet) : t' cVi y^fl« Bast: 
vrjKtjSrj.D'mdt Herm. Jn. : \a6iKTiSrj Winckelmann: t evl Krjrti Hommel Christ 
{yirvov T iv\ Koi'ri/ dKi)8^ Bdhm.) D ovtos yap Stob. aXXorpiOTaror Stob. 

i-n-ip\tTai hi (jioC xrX. Here Agathon breaks out into verse of his own, 
whereas hitherto he had contented himself with quoting from others (196 c, e). 
Observe the alliterative effect, dear to the school of Gorgias, of the play with 
p and I', y and X, in the former, and of v and p in the latter of the two verses. 

VT)vc)i,(av...Ki{8ci. Both the punctuation and reading of this verse are 
doubtful. Kiickert, Stallb., and the Zurich edd. print commas after yaKfivrjv 
and dvepaiv, Hug and Burnet only after dvepiov, Hommel after yaXiji'i;i' and 
Koirrfv. It would appear, however, from the Homeric passage {Od. v. 391 = 
XII. 168, avepos ptv inavfraro Tj8e yoKrjvT) | cTrXcro vrjveplrj), of which this is 
obviously an echo, that no stop should be placed after yaX^v^v, but rather 
after vrjvfpiav or avepav : while the compound word avepoKoiTm, applied to a 
sect (-yeVor) in Corinth who claimed to be able rovs dvepovs Koipl^eiv (see 
Hesych. and Suid. s.v. ; also Welcker Kl. Schr. 3. 63 ; Rohde Psyche ii. p. 88 ; 
and 202 E n.), makes it probable that dvepav koiViji/ are meant to go closely 
together. Further, although as Zeller argues it is appropriate enough in 
general to describe Love as "is qui non aequoris solum sed etiam humani 
pectoris turbas sedat" (cp. II. xxiv. 128 ff., Catull. 68. 1 — 8), still the reversion 
to human k^Sos after mentioning waves and winds is a little curious, and it is 
tempting to adopt Hommel's conjecture evl KrjTei which, if k^toj can bear the 
sense of " sea-depths " (see L. and S. s.vv. KiJTos, /ieyoKijTijr) would furnish a 
more satisfactory disposition of ideas — " peace ou land and on sea, repose in 
heaven above and in the depths below." Or, if we assumed that an original 

tVi veUri ( = i/etKet) was corrupted by haplography to iv\ kij, a fair sense would 
be obtained. If the ordinary text be kept, we may notice (with Vogelin) how 
the force of the prepos. in cv d.v6p....iv\ ic^Sfi varies "in the style of the 
Sophists." In Theaet. 153 c we have a similar combination, vr)V€pias re xai 
yaKr)vas, the only other Platonic ex. of vijvipta being Phaedo 77 E. ydkrivos 
as an adj. occurs in Ax. 370 D. 

197 D olXXoTpiiSTriTos ktX. For Eros as the peace-maker, cp. Isocr. Hel. 
221b (vpr)<Top(v TOur "'EXKqvas hC aiTr\v 6povo^(TavTas Koi Koivr)u (TTpdrfiav... 
noirjirapfvovs. 

TOS Toido-Be IwiSSous. " Haec SeiKTucas dicta sunt : quale est hoc convivium 
nostrum" (Stallb.). 

B. P. 6 



82 nAATfiNOI [197 D 

eV ')(^opoi<;, eu Ovtriai's yfyvoiMevoi; ■^yefioov irpaoTTfra fiev •jropl^aiv, 
aypioTTjTa S' i^opi^oiv <f>iX6So}po<; evfiev6ta<i, aScDpoi Bv<rfi£vei.a<:' 
tXeco'} ayavo'i' dearov ao<f>oi<;, dyaaTOi Oeoii' ^ri\mTO<! ajMOipoi's, 
«Ti)T09 ev/ioipoi^' Tpv^r}<;, a^p6T7]ro<i, ■)(\.ihrj';, 'x^apiTcov, Ifiepov, 
iTodov iraTrip' itn/jLeXTj^ dyaO&i', dfieXr)^ KaK&v ev irovcp, iv ^6^(p, 

197 D Ova-iais BT : Bva-tata-i W : eidvfiiais Stob., Jn. : fort. Biaa-ois 
ayavos Usener Bt. : ayaOos BT : ayaOois Stob., Jn. Sz. : tKea>s ayaOois sccl. 
Eettig : Ifiepros dyaBois Schulthesa TpvKprjs seel. J.-U. Sz. ^^I'S^s T : 

xXi/Sijr B : x^l^V' W fintpov B iroBov om. Stob., seel. Voeg. Sz. 

dveXrjs B 

iv OucrCttis. For B. Stob. ha3 elBv/jilais, which looks like a gloss on some 
word other than Bvaiais. I am inclined to suspect that Biacrois should be 
restored : the word would fit in well between xop"^' S'Hd riye/iav, " in festive 
bands." The corruption might be due to the loss of the termination, after 
which Bids was mistaken for Bvonds. Cp. Xen. Symp. vill. 1 wdvTcs icrfuv tov 
Beov TovTov BtatrSiTai. 

a7avos. The dyaBos of the MSS. cannot stand, and Stobaeus'a dyaBoU 
(adopted by most edd. since Wolf) is open to objection both as spoiling the 
symmetry and because of the occurrence of dyaB<ov just below. We want a 
more exquisite word, and Usener's dyavus is more appropriate in sense than 
such possible alternatives as dyavos or dyXaos. For Agathon's antitheses, cp. 
Clem. Al. Strom, v. 614 D ; Athen. v. 11. 

TpDi|>iJs...xJ^i8tis. Moeris: x^'^^ 'Attikoi, Tpv(j>r) "EXXiji/es. Hence Hug 
omits Tpv(f>tjs as a gloss on xX'S^y, and (to preserve symmetry) omits itoBov 
also. 

iv irovu (ctX. These words have given rise to much discussion and many 
emendations (see crit. «.). Two main lines of interpretation are possible: 
either (1) we may suppose that maritime allusions are to be sought in these 
words to match those in Kv^tpvrirqs ktK.; or (2) we may suppose the latter 
set of words to be used in a merely metaphorical sense. Badham adopts 
line (1) ; so too Sohiitz regards the whole figure as borrowed " e re nautica. 
Nautis enim saepe timor naufragii, desiderium terrae, labor in difficultate 
navigandi, aerumna nauseantibus...accidere solet" ; and he takes the following 
four substt. (nv^epv. kt\.) as referring in order to these four conditions. And, 
adopting this line, I myself formerly proposed to read (for iv noBa, iv \6ya>) 
iv iropa, iv pnda. The 2ud line of explanation is adopted (a) by those who 
attempt to defend the vulgate, and (b) by some who have recourse to emen- 
dation. Thus (a) Stallb. commends Ast's view that Xdyoy can stand here 
because Agathon's speech is full of "merus verborum lusus"; while Hommel 
takes the words iv irovcf etc. as "e re amatoria depromta," expressing the 
afiections of the lover while seeking the society of his beloved, and connects 
(in the reverse order) \6ya with Kv^epv., noBa with im^., <^6^(f with irapaar., 
and iriva with o-arrip. On the other hand, (b) Eettig — while altering the 
second pair to iv fioBto, iv Xo^m — also disregards the maritime metaphor and 



197 e] lYMnOZION 83 

ev '7T0T<p, ev Xo75> KV^epvtJTrji;, eVi^Sarij?, Tra/aatrTaTij? re kol <Ta>rr)p E 
apKTTO^, ^ufnrdvToov re 6eS>v kuI avdpcoTrav Koa-fio's, ffyefimv koX- 
XtcTTO? KoX apianof;, w ^(pr} 'iireadai, irdvra avSpa ef^v/j-vovvra 

197 D iv nova iu (jyo^a ev iror<» iv \6yw scrips! ; iv novto ev <j)6P(a ev 
TToda ev Xoyo) codd. : ev <j)6fi<f ev n66if ev irova ev /ioya Schutz : ev irovw ev 
(^o/3&) iv fx60<o ev fioyta Jn. : ev it. ev <j). ev fi66(o ev Xo;^q) Rettig ; ev n. ev (ji. ev 
iroBm ev voum Winckelmann : iv w. iv <^. ev iroBco ev traKm Usener : iv n-XoJ ev 
■n-ovm iv <j)6fim Bdhm. E iirt^aTrjs del. Bdhm. : ini8a>Tr)s Usener re koi 

del. Bdhm. 

understands the passage " uberhaupt von Kriegsgefahren und dem in solcheri 
geleisteten Beistand," comparing the allusions to such matters by Phaedrus 
(179 a) and Alcibiades (220 D ff.). Here Rettig is, I believe, partly on the 
right track; since the clue to the sense (and reading) here is to be looked 
for in Alcibiades' eulogy of Socrates. We find ttovm echoed there (219 e toIs 
iT6voK...nepi^v), and <j)6P(i> also (220 E (jjvyrj avexapei, 221 A iv <j)6fim) and 
iv \6ym may be defended by the allusions to Socrates' Xoyot (215 c ff., 221 D ff.). 
Thus the only doubtful phrase is iv iroda, which has no parallel in Alcib.'s 
speech, and is also objectionable here because of the proximity of n-odou. 
In place of it I propose iv irora (cp. Phileh. 48 a), of which we find 
an echo (in sense if not in sound) in 220 a iv t av rats eva)xiaK...Kai nivetv... 
■n-avras iKpdrei. For maritime terms in connexion with Xoyor, cp. ZacA. 194 c 
dvBpd(rt <j)iXots ^eip-a^opAvots iv Xdym Koi diropov(Ti ^oifdrjaov : Parm. 137 A 
8iaveva-M. . .Torroiirov ire\ayos Xdywi' : Phaedr. 264 A ; Phileh. 29 B. So both Xdyor 
and TTOTos in Dionys. Chalc. 4. 1 ff. vpvovs oivo)(oe'iv.,.T6vhe...eipetTL7j yXunnrrjs 
ilnonep'\jfnpev...Tovb' int (rvfinoirlov Sf^iorijr re Xdyou | 'I'diOKor Mnvcraiv iperas 
eVi fffX/xara jreixirei : id. 5. 1 ff. Kal Tives oivnv nyoires iv elpea-iji Atovv<rov, \ 
fTvpirotriov vavrai koi KvK'iKav ipirai \ (jiapvavrai) irepi Tov8e. Cp. also Cic. Tusc. 

IV. 5. 9 quaerebam utrum panderem vela orationis statim, an eam...dialecti- 
corum remis propellerem. For 7rapa<TTdTris, of Eros, cp. d nap' eKaa-ra balfiaiv 
in later Stoic literature (Rohde Psyche li. 316): Epict. diss. i. 14. 12; 
Menander {ap. Mein. Com, IV. 238) airavri Sai/imv dvSpi avpnapiiTTaTai | evOiis 
yevopivio pvarayayos tov ^iov. For Socrates as iraTrjp, see 220 Dff.: the 
term is regularly applied to a rjpas, e.g. Soph. 0. C. 460 (Oedipus); Thuc. 

V. 11. 2 (Brasidas); Eur. Heracl. 1032 (Eurystheus) : Find. fr. 132 has the 
same combination, (rarnjp tipuTTos: cp. Spenser, "(Love) the most kind 
preserver Of living wights." iv nova might be a reminiscence of Find. 
Nem. X. 78 navpot...iv nova nuTToi: or used, Homerically, of "the toil of 
war" { = iv paxals, cp. 220d). For Kvjiepvr^Tris used raetonymously, cp. 197b 
{n. on Kv^epvav); so Emerson, "Beauty is the pilot of the young soul." 
inifidrris, in the present context, must mean "a marine," classiarius miles, 
and hence, by metonymy, "a comrade" in general. — The general sense of the 
passage is this : " in the contests both of war and peace the best guide and 
warden, comrade and rescuer is Eros." Cp. also Procl. in I Ale. p. 40. 

197 E JiPitiriivTWV. ..K6ir|ios. Cp. Gorg. JEfel. 1 Kotrpos TrdXft pev evavSpia, 
(TwpaTt Sc KaXXor. 

rJ7eu,civ...4i|)«|i.voSvTa. The image is that of Eros as coryphaeus leading a 

6—2 



84 nAATQNOZ [197 e 

KdK&<s, mBrjq fLeTe')(pvTa rjv aSei diXycov -jravTcov de&v re xal dv- 
ffpaireov vorifia. 

OvTO<s, ecj)r}, 6 Trap' ifiov \070s, w <l>atSpe, to3 6em dvaxeicrdai, ra 
/JjIv 7raiBi,a<:, ra Be o-ttouSj)? fierpia<s, Kad' oaov eya> Bvvafiai, fiere'x^eov. 
198 XX. EtVoi'TO? Be tov 'AiydOojvo^ iravTO,'} 6if>r] 6 Api,aT6BriiJio<s 
avaBopv^ijcrai Tov<i 7rap6vTa<i, a>9 irpetrovro)^ rov veaviaKOV elprj- 
k6to<! Kal avTm Koi rat 6e(p. tov o?iv ^tOKparr) elirelv ^Xeyfravra 
649 TOV 'Eipv^i/j.a'^^ov, ^Apd aoi Bokm, (f)dvai, m irat ^AKOvfievov, 
(iBee<; irdXai Seo? SeBievai, a\X' ov fiavTi,Koi)<i a vvv Br) eXejov elirelv, 
OTi, Aya0Q)v 6avfj,aaTa><{ epol, iyco 8' diroprjaoiin; To fxlv erepov, 
(pdvai, TOV '¥ipv^iiia')(pv, navTiKS)<i fioi BoKel<; elprjKevat,, on ^ AydOwv 
ev epel' to Be ae atroprjcyeiv, ovk olfjuai. 

197 £ KiiKSit BT : KoX^r Stob. : k.iiKS>s KoKfji vulg. : KoKas ttjs Ast : <dKa>s 
Kai T^s Orelli TeufFel : koi Mdvg. Sz. Se (xai) Method. 198 A irpenovTtos 
b t: irpiiTovTos BTW tipa B ipolr) Cobet Jn. doKcTr poi T 

procession of .singers, and singing (" a song of my beloved ") himself (u8^r tjv 
aSei). Notice how Agathon repeats the phrase 6fS)v re koi iivdpaTrav (cp. 
197 d). For Tjyepiiv, cp. Spenser (ZT. to Love) " Thou art his god, thou art his 
mighty guide." /caX^r is omitted in Ficinus' transl. 

voT]|jia. Here used, poetically, as equivalent to vovs : cp. Find. Pyth. vi. 
29; Theogn. 435; Emped. 329 St., nf/ia yap avBpinrnis irtpiKaphiov iari vojjpa. 

T$ 6ta dvaKcCo-Su. "Let it be presented as a votive-offering (dydflij/ia) to 
the God {sc. Eros)." 

irai8ias.-.<rirovSfs. Possibly an echo of Gorg. Hel. ad fin. 'EXc'vijr p.tv 
iyKat/uov, f/iov 6e naiyviov. For the antithesis, cp. 216 E ; Laws 647 D ; Phileb. 
30 E ; Ar. Ran. 389. 

|j.cTp(as. "H.e. Koa-fiias" (Stallb.), with, perhaps, a latent play on the other 
sense of pirpov, in allusion to the rhythmical style of A.'s oration ; cp. 187 d 
205 C, Phaedr. 267 A iv pirpa \eyeiv. 

198 A civaSopvpija-ai. Op. Protag. 334 C el-irovTos otv ravra airoi ol 
napovTes avtdopv^rjirav as eu Xe'yoi : Euthyd. 276 B ; Cic. Sen. 18. 64 a ouncto 
consessu plausus multiplex datus. 

'irp€irdvT»)s...Tu 6eu. Op. Laws 699 D eiprfKCs aavra re koX ttj jrarpiSi irpc- 



irovTios. 



a irot ' Akov|jievou. Observe the mock-solemnity of this mode of address : 
op. 172 A, 214 B. Socrates addresses Eryx. with allusion to his language in 
193 B (ei pfj ^vvtjSt) kt\.). 

aSc^.-.S^os SeSUvai. Schol. dSeisSeoc- eni tS>v to pr} a^ia (jiofiov SeStoTuv. 
Spoiov TovTif Kal TO yjfocfioSfTis SvBpumoc (^Phaedr. 257 D). Observe how Socr. 
here, in caricature of Agathon's style (e.g. 197 d), combines in one phrase the 
figura etymologica and the figure oxymoron : cp. Eur. /. T. 216 vip(j>av Sia-vvp- 
(j>ov : ib. 566 X^P'" "X"/"" • *''• ^^^^ 690 yapov ayapov. 

Sl vvv 8f i!Xc7ov. The reference is to 194 A. 



198 c] ZYMnOZION 85 

Kat TTci)?, cS fiaKapie, ehrelv rov XfOKpdrr], ov fieXXw diropelv B 
Kai e7(» /cat, aKXof oo'rtaovv, fieXXcov Xe^eiv jieTo, koXov ovtco kui 
TravToBairov \6jov ptfOevra; KaX to, /lev aXXa ovx 6/J.Qi(o<; fiev 
6avp,a(7Ta.' ro he 67rt TcXeuT^? rov KoXKovi tSiv ovo/MaTcov Koi 
prjfjbdTcov rl<! ovk av e^eTrXdytj aKoveop ; iirel 670)76 iv9vfiovfievo<; 
OTi avTO<; ou^ olo^ r ea-ofiai ov8' 6771/9 tovtcov ovSev koXov elTrelv, 
VTT aia-^vvrji; oXbyov OTroSpa? u>-)(piJ,riv, e'l Trrj el'Xpv. KaX yap fie C 
Topyiov 6 X0709 dve/.ufiVr)crKev, ware dre'xySi'; ro rov 'Ofirfpov 

198 B KOI naVTohanov ovra TW jiev om. Vind. 21, vulg. Sz. : {jUv, 

Bav/iaaTa 54- Bdhm.) aKovav om. W 

198 B ov \i.iWm kt\. Notice the change of tense in anope'iv...\f^fiv: Plato 
uses pres., fut., and aor. infinitives after fuXKa, of which the last is the rarest 
construction. For the sense, cp. Soph. 231 B. 

■irttvToSairJv Xo^ov. There is irony in the opitliot. Socr. implies that he 
regards it as a motley Xdyor, " a thing of shreds and patches." Op. 193 B, 
and 198 E (Traira \6yov KivovvT€s ktX.). 

oix o|io£<i)s n^v 6ai)|jia(rTtt. The antithesis must be mentally supplied : "the 
earlier parts were not equally marvellous (although they were marvellous)." 
Stallb. explains differently, "ra fiev aWa accipi potest absolute pro ei quod 
cetera quideni attinet; quo facto non inepte pergitur sic: oi^ ofioias fitv 
BaviiauTii, particula fiei/ denuo iterata." But the former explanation (adopted 
by Eettig and Hug, after Zeller) is the simpler and better. 

TO t\ 4irl TcXcvTTJs ktX. to Is accus. of respect, going closely with eVi 
TfXeur^r, not with toO KaXXour (as EUckert) : " quod autem exitum orationis 
tuae attinet" (Stallb., and so Hommel). toC koKKovs is governed by c'^e- 
■n-Xayq, as gen. of causative object (cp. Madv. Gr. Synt. § 61 6). aKoitov, '' as 
he heard." 

T<3v 6vof.a.r<av Kal ^f,i,rav. Cp. 199 B ovo/iacn 8e Kai Sinfi prifiaTcov. 
Properly, Svofia and prj/ia are distinguished as, in logic, the subject and predi- 
cate and, in grammar, the noun and verb respectively. But commonly ovoiia 
is used of any single word, and p^fia of a clause, or proposition (e.gf. Protag. 
341 E) ; cp. Apol. 17 B ; Cratyl. 399 A, 431 B. Both here and below, as 
Athenaeus observes (v. 187 C), IZXaTwi' x^tva^n re tu tVuKuXa ra 'hyaQuivos 

Kai TO avTietra. Cp. the criticism of the Sophistic style in Alcid. de Soph. 12 
o( roll! ovo/iaa-iv aKpijSSy e^eipyaarfiiv oi koi paKKov notrfpaatv t] Xdyotr coikotcs 
KoX TO pev avToparov naX nXtav d\r]6eias UTTO/Sf^XijicdTcs : Isocr. c. Soph. 294 D 
Totr evdvprjpaai rrpenovTois o\ov rov \6yov KOTajrotKiXat Km roir ovopaai evpu6- 
pats Koi poviTiKOiS flireip. 

oiS' 4774s ToixfflV. Cp. 221 D infra; Rep. 378 D roiis rrotrjTas iyyis TOVTav 
dvayKa<TTfOV Xoyonotelv. 

6\lyov. I.e. oKlyov he'iv. Cp. Theaet. 180 D; Euthyd. 279 D. 

198 C rop7£o«...dv€(i.CH.VTio-K€v. For Agathon as a "Gorgiast," see Introd. 
§ III. 5. Cp. Philostr. de vit. Soph. I. koi 'A7d5(Bi'...7roXXaxoi; tSv lap^e'uav 
yopyia^fi: Xen. Symp. II. 26, IV. 24. 

t4 toS 'Oniipov. See Od. XI. 632 ipt Si x^'^P"" ^^°' »P" I M /"" yopyf^l" 



86 nAATQNOS [198 c 

iireTTOvOr]' i^o^ovjj/rjv fj.r] /loi reXevruv 6 'Ayadcov TopyCov Ke<paXr)v 
Seivov Xeyeiv ev tw Xoyqi eVi rbv ifiov \6yov 7re/ii/ras avTOv ixe 
X'lOov tt) a(f)a)Via ironjaeie. xal evevorjaa tots dpa KarayeXaaTOi 
wv, rfVLKa v/ilv utjioXoyovv ev tu> fiepei fieO' vfi&v eyKCOfJuaaeffdai 
D rbv "Eipcora koI e<f)r)v elvai Setvo? rd epeoTiKa, ovSep elBa><; apa rod 
7rpdyfjLaT0<;, o)? eSei eyKcofiid^eiv otiovv. eyai /j,ev yap vir d/3eX- 
TepLw; wfiTjv Zelv rdXijdrj Xeyeiv trepl eKaa-rov rov eyKafiia^ofievov, 
Koi TOVTO fiev VTrdp'^eiv, e^ avr&v Se tovtcov rd KaXXiara ixXe- 
yofievov; co? evTrpeirearaTa Tidevaf koI Trdvv S^ fiiya i(f>p6vovv ws 

198 C ev Tea Xoyo) secl. J.-U. : ireKi>pov Bdhm. tji afjiavla del. Hartmann 
D d/3eXn;ptar T Tov (post e<cdo-rou) del. Hommel roCro irpSiTOv fiev Bast 



KCCJiaXfiv Seivoio TreXapov \ i^ 'Kibea> irep-^ticv ayavt) Hepa-e^oveta. Miss 
Harrison {Proleg. p. 191) renders yopyeitjv by "grizzly," with the note 
"Homer does not commit himself to a definite Gorgon": his Qorgoneion 
is "an underworld bogey, an diroTpoirmov." That "the Gorgon was regarded 
as a sort of incarnate evil eye " (ibid. p. 196) appears from Athen. v. 64. 221 
KTeivei TOV vir' nvTrjs 6ea>pT]6ivTU, oil ru irvfvpaTi ciXXa TJ/ yiyvii/ifU]! (ivro rijs 
tS)v dnnaTiov (jticreios <f>opa xni vexpov noie'i. Rohde (Psyche II. 407) points out 
that " Hekate selbst wird angerufen als Topyi> koL Mop/t&> koi Miji/i; koi ttoXu- 
popcfie: hymn, bei Hippol. ref. liaer. 4. 35 p. 73 Mill" ; and that Topyia appears 
to be a shorter form for Topyvpa {'Axepovros yvvrj, ApoUod.). For the pun 
on Oorgias-Oorgon, cp. that on ayaOStv (174 B n.). As against Dummler's 
inference that Gorgias' previous death is here implied, see Vahlen op. Acad. 
I. 482 ff. 

iv T^ "Kiyio. Cp. 201 A, Oorg. 457 D, Theaet. 169 B. To eject these words 
with Hug, or to substitute TreKapov with Badham, would (as Voegelin and 
Rettig contend) destroy the antithesis iv tw X. )( eVl tov ipov X., and spoil 
the "Gorgianische Wortspiel." Further, the phrase serves as a parallel to 
the Homeric i^ 'AiSea. Observe, as a feature of the parody, the different 
sense in which Socr. uses deivos : also, how the sentence as a whole forms a 
playful retort to Agathon's remark in 194 a {<j>appdTTfiv jSoiXtt pe ktX). For 
the adverbial use of reXivTav, cp. Phaedr. 228 B, c ; Oorg. 457 d. (See also 
Vahlen, I.e. for a discussion and defence of the text.) 

■r6ri...rfl/lKa. The totc goes with &v which is imperf. partic: the ref. is to 
177 D. 

198 D iya |ji4v kt\. The pev here is answered by the 84 in to Se Spa 
below. For dfieXrepia, cp. Theaet. 174 c, Phil. 48 (see my note ad loc). 

toSto (liv virdpx€iv. "That this (viz. the statement of the facts) should be 
the ground- work": there is no need to insert, with Bast, irparov or piyiarov 
after tovto. For this sense of vnapxfiv, cp. Menex. 237 B. For the thought, 
cp. Emerson "Veracity first of all and forever. Rim de beau que le vrai." 

kl avTuv Si Toiirwv. Rettig's comment on this is " mit Beziehung auf das 
collective in tovto gedachte T-dXijfl^." This is misleading, since tovto means 



198 E] ZYMnOSION 87 

ev eptav, cot etow? rrjv aXtjOetav [rov STraiveiv otiovv]. to be apa, 
0)9 eoiKfv, ov rovTo r\v to KaXa><; iiraiveiv otiovv, dXXa to co? fieyicTTa E 
dvaTidivai T(p irpdyfiaTi icaX ct)? KoXKia-Ta, edv re r/ ovTm<i e-yovTa 
eav re firi' el Se '^jrevSrj, ovhev ap' rjv Trpdjfia, trpovpprfOri yap, <»? 
eoiKev, 0776)9 6/cac7T09 riij.S)v tov "EpeoTa iyKtofiid^eiv So^ei, ov^ 
bTra)<i eyKcofiidcreTai. Sid Tavra Br], olfiai, irdvTa \oyov KivovvTe^ 

198 D roi!...6Ttovv seol. Bdhm. Sz. tovtois rjv 'Baai E So|et 

Steph.: 8<Jf7 BT 



TO TaKr)dfi \4yfiv, a singular notion, and avra ravra here represents simply 
TCLKr}6rj. In the Socratic theory of rhetoric here stated we have the following 
order of treatment proposed : (1) to toXi;^^ Xiyav, (2) rj r&v KoWlarmv tKKoyr), 
(3) J] evirpenfis 6(<tis. But it is implied that the 2nd and 3rd of these — artistic 
selection and arrangement — are valueless, except in so far as they are based 
on the 1st requisite : in other words, matter is more important than form. 
Cp. Procl. 171 Tim. p. 27 at yap arrh T^ff ovaias €v(l>r]fiiai iraaatv vrpoi^ovtrtv, as 
Koi 6 eV TO* Su^TTOO'io) ^atKpaTTjs napadldaaiv. 

<Ss €l8(is Ti]v dX.i]6ciav. I follow Badbam and Hug in bracketing the next 
words (toO iiraiveiv otiovv) as an erroneous gloss on aKfi^eiav, with which we 
must supply irfpi tov (paros, as required by Seivbs ra (ptoTiKo. above and the 
passage there alluded to (175 d). Cp. Phaedr. 259 b ap' ovv ovx vwapxeiv Set toXs 
fv y€ Knt Ka\Sts ptjStjtrop.fVois ttju tov \4yovTOS ^idvoiav eldvlav to aKrjdes av av 
fpflv iripi plWji. Rettig defends the traditional text, asking "ist denn ^ 
aKr]6eia tov ijraivfiv otiovv hier nicht identisch mit ^ dX^dcia nip) 'EpaTosV 
To this the answer is " no ! " : for if the tradition be kept we must take ttju 
oKfjOetav as equivalent to Tfjv dXi;^^ (or rather 6p6r)v) /leBoSov, which is a very 
unlikely equation, especially so soon after Td\r]6ij in another sense : Stallb.'s 
rendering may serve to indicate the difficulty involved, — "utpote veram 
tenens laudationis cujuslibet naturani et rationem": Jowett's "thinking I 
knew the nature of true praise " shirks the difficulty. 

t4 8J opo. For to Se, " but in reality," cp. Meiw 97 c (with Thompson's 
note), Apol. 23 a (with Stallb.'s note). 

198 E ov TowTO, i.e. oil TO ToKijOri Xcyeti'. 

T&...(ivaTi9lvai.. Perhaps an allusion to the term used by Agathon, ava- 
Kfia-do) 197 E. For Socrates' criticism, cp. Phaedr. 272 a, Menex. 234 o oX 
ovTw KoKSis eiraivova-tv, StTTe koi Ta irpoirovTa Koi Ta p.fj Trcpi eKaaTov \iyovTCi, 
KaWiiTTa TTias toIs ovofiao'i iroiKiWovTfs yotjTcvovtriv ^ficav Tas yj/v^as '. Isocr. 
Busir. 222 B Set tov^ p.kv eiAoyelv nvas /SouXo/ic'votf TrXeioj tSiv vnapxovTav 
ayadStv irpoo-ovT diro(j)aivetv (which sentiment is, perhaps, referred to here). 

irpovppvjSr). Cp. 180 D. The reference is to 177 d. 

l7K(i>|iiat«'V 86|€i. The emphasis is on 8d|€(, implying the regular Platonic 
antithesis 86^a )( aXriOfia. Cp. Simon. 76 to SokcIv koi rav aKadfiav /SiSrai 
(cited in Rep. 365 c). 

ircivTa X670V KivoCvrts. " Raking up every tale.'' Cp. Phileh. 15 E ; Theaet. 
163 A ; Rep. 450 A. 



88 nAATQNOZ [198 e 

dvaridere tc3 "E/jwrt, km ^are aiirov toioutov re elvai Kal toctov- 
199 TU)V aiTtov, OTTO)? av <f>aivr)Tai ea? KaXXia-To<i Koi dpiaro^, SriXov on 
Toii fiT) ryiyvcoa-Kova-iv — ov <ydp B>] irov TOi<; ye elhoai — , Kai /caXw? 7 
6^6t KaX crefiv&<; 6 eiravvo';. nXKa yap eym ovk 17S1/ apa top Tpoirov 
rov iwaivov, ov S' etSm? v/xiv mpjoXoyifaa Kal avTd<; ev ro) /lepet 
iiraiveaecrdai,. " ij yXSxraa " oZv virea-xeTo, " fj Be ipprjv " ov • 
y^aiperco Srj. ov yap ert eyK(op.id^ca rovrov tov rpoirov • ov yap 
av Bvvat,/£T]v. ov jxevroi dXKa rd ye dXrjffrj, el ^ovXeade, eOeXca 
B elirelv xar e/xavTov, ov tt/jo? toii? vpLeTepov; \6yov<;, iva fir) yeXiora 
6<f)Xco. opa oiv, (S ^aiSpe, et Tt Kal toiovtov Xoyov Sir), "Kept, 
EpojTO? rdXrjdfi Xeyofieva aKoveiv, ovofiaai he Kal decret prjfiarcov 
TotavTT} OTTOia 8av rt? t^xj) e-rreXdovaa. 

198 E ToiovTav re elvai Steph. 199 A bijirov Cobet Bt. : av irov T : 
wov B, Sz. ^Si) apa T : ijdij B ov 8' Sauppe : olb BT yXaxraa W : 
■yXcoTT-a BT fyKti)/uia(r<B Wolf Jn. B fie« Bekk. Sz. 7rcpi...\ey6neva 
del. Hlrschig ovo/ida-ei W Vind. suppl. 7 Sav J.-U. Sz. Bt. : S^ &v 
Stallb.: 8" di/ B: S' av T : Sv apogr. Vat. 1030 

199 A oirios av ^a(vi\Tai. <j>aivr]Tai here, as 8o^€i above, is emphatic. A com- 
parison with 195 A shows that Socr. is alluding especially to Agathon's oration. 

ov yap 8ij irou ktX. Cp. Gorcf, 459 A ov yap drj irov ev ye rots eldtia-i tov larpov 
TTiduvaTepos earrai: and for ou yap irov... 200 Jl, Eutkyph. 13 A. 

Kal KaXus 7* ktX. Earlier editors generally print a full stop after elhoai. 
Socr. here sarcastically endorses the approval with which Agathon's evaivos 
had been received {as irpenovras elprjKOTos ktX., 198 a). 

V 'yXwo-cra ouv ktX. Euripides' line (Jj y\a>cr(r o/ioijuo;^ , tj 8e <^pi)v avaporos 
Ilippol. 612) soon became a familiar quotation : see Ar. Tlicsm. 275,l{a7i. 101, 
1471 ; TAeaet. 154 d ; Cic. de oj/ic. lii. 29. 108 iuravi lingua, mentcm iniuratam 
gero. 

xaip^Tu 8i]. "I say good-bye to it": cp. Laws 636d to. ..tov pvBov xoi^peTcD : 
id. 886 D. Rettig suggests that here the formula may be intended as another 
echo of Euripides: cp. Med. 1044 ouk av Swaifujv x<"P«'ro) ^ovXevpara \ to 
irpoa-Sev: Ilippol. 113. 

oi 709 in ktX. " I withdraw my offer to eulogize." eyxapia^a must here 
be a "present for future " (see Madv. Or. Synt. § 110. 3), since Socr. has not 
yet begun the eulogy. 

199 B KOT {|iauT<Sv, ov irpis (ctX. " In my own fashion, not entering into 
competition with your orations." For Kara c. ace. in this sense, cp. Apol. 17 b 
ov Kara tovtovs elvai prjTiop ("not after their pattern ") : Oorg. 505 D. 

y4\taTa 'i^Xa. This resumes the notion in KorayeXaoT-or <Sv, 198 C. 

u 4>aiSpc. Socrates, like Agathon (197 e), politely appeals to Ph. as the 
iraTrjp Xoyov : cp. 194 D. 

(( Ti KrX. For ft TL, numquid, cp. Rep. 526 E aKoire'ttrBai &e~i el ti irpos 
eKelvo Teivfi kt\. 

ov^cao-i Si kt\. See 198 b n. Of onola Sfj Ast cites no instance ; the 



199 D] lYMnOZION 89 

Toi/ ovv ^aiSpov e(f>rj koi tov<; aWov^ KeXeveiv Xeyeiv, Sttji 
avTo<; oloiro Setv eliretv, rainrj. "Ert roivvv, (ftdvai,, w ^alSpe, 
Trapes fioi Ayddcova a-fiiiep arra ipkadai, 'iva dvofioKoyrja-dfi.evo'; 
Trap avTov ovtw? •tjSr) Xeym. 'AXKd Trapirjp.i, <^dvai tov ^aXSpov, C 
aW epcora. fiera ravra Brj tov "S.WKpdr'q ecfyrj evdevSe iroffev 
ap^acrOai. 

XXI. K.al fJLr]v, to ^iKe ' Ayddojv, AcaXw? fioi eSofas KaSr/- 
ytjcraaOai tov Xoyov, Xeyav oti trpwTov fiev Seat avrov iiriSel^ai, 
OTToto? T^? eoTiv o EjOto?, vaTepov Be to, epya avTov. TavTrjv ttjp 
o^XV" '"'dvv dyap,ai. Wi o5v p,oi irepX "^pasTO'i, eTreiStj Kal TaWa 
KoXwi Kal p,eyaXo7rpeTrw<;^ StJ}\^e? ol6<i ecTTi, xal roSe etVe" D 
TTOTepov icTTi ToiovTOs oloi; elvav tivoi; o "Eptas epoaf, rj ovBevo'i ; 
ipcoTw S' ovK el fir}Tp6<; tu'0<; rj Trarpo? eaTi — yeXolov yap av elr] to 

199 C aW epara Agath6ni tribuit B, Naber D ol6s t TW epas 

epas B : fpas T 

force of Sij is to heighten the notion of indefiuitenesa which lies in onoia 
(so Hug). 

in roivvv kt\. en goes with ipeaBai. Socrates appeals thus to Ph. 
because Ph. had previously (194 D, e) debarred him from catechizing A. 

dva|i,oXo'Yi)<ra|iEvos xrX. Cf. 200 B, Oorg. 489 A. For ovras rj&r], cp. 194 D. 
For €v6ivbe iraOiv, 178 A. 

199 C KaflTi-yijo-a<r9at. The rcf. is to A.'s exordium, 195 a. 

(Oi ovv. agedum ; cp. Gorg. 452 d, Rep. 376 D. 

199 D Tivos. . .Ti ovSeviSs. These are objective genitives to be construed with 
the second epas : " Is Love love for some object or for none ? " For the use 
of the indef. in such phrases, cp. Phileh. 35 b o y' iniBvpSiv nvbs errtSviJLei. 

ovK «l piT)Tp6s Tivos kt\. Thcsc words have been variously interpreted : 
(1) Lehrs and Prantl construe the genitives as subjective ("love felt 6y a 
mother"); (2) Ast as objective ("love for a mother"): (3) Riickert, followed 
by liommel and Hug, takes them to be genn. of origin ; so too Zellor renders 
" ich meine damit aber nicht, ob er eine Mutter oder einen Vater hat." Of 
these, (1) seems the least probable in point of sense, and with subjective 
genitives tivos would be superfluous. It is a serious objection (as Hug 
admits) to (3) that it compels us to regard the "absurdity" (yfXoioi/) of the 
question as lying in its form rather than its substance. That the "absurdity " 
lies in the substance of the statement is shown, e.g., by Lys. 221 a 5 ■yfXoioi' to 
dparripa, o Ti nor forai Tore rj p.}) tarai; Ti'r yap oiSfv ; (cp. Phaedr. 274 o). 
But if so, recourse must be had to textual alteration : we must strike out 
either the second ipas, with Sommer, or the whole block of words ei'Epajs... 
irarpos, as Hug (followed by Jowett) suggests. This, however, is a hazardous 
alternative. On the whole, then, the explanation (2) put forward by Ast 
seems the most probable. Construing, " I do not ask whether Eros has for 
its object a father or a mother, since to ask whether Eros is eras for a parent 



90 nAATfiNOZ [199 D 

epmrijfia, el "E/aw? eo-tIv epci)<; /j,rjTp6<; rj iraTpoi; — a\V &airep av ei 

■ avTO rovTO irarepa •^pmrtov, apa o irarrip iari Trari^p Tivot rj ov ; 

etTre? av St; ttov p,oi, el e^ovKov koXmi atroKplvacrOat,, on eVrtv 

w(€09 76 rj 9vyaTpo<; 6 Trarrjp irarrjp • rj ov ; Yldvv ye, <f>dvat rov 

'Ayd9ci)va. Ovkovv icaX jj p^riT-qp ataaina)<; ; 'OfioXoyetadai. xal 

E TOVTO. "Ert roLvvv, elirelv rov XeoKparr], diroKpivai oKiytp irXeiO), 

Xva fiaXKov KaTafiddrj^ o ^ovXofiai. el yap epoifir/v, Tt Be ; aSeX<^o?, 

avTO Taxis' oirep ecrnv, eari rivb<; dBeX<pb'{ rj ov ; ^dvai elvai. 

Ovkovv dBeX^ov rj dBe\^rj<i ; 'OfioXoyeiv. UeipS) S?;, ipdvai, Kai 

rov epcara elrreiv. 6 "Epw? e/>0)9 ea-rlv ovSevo<; •q tiv6<s ; Udvv fiev 

200 ovv ecrnv. Tovto fiev roivvv, elirelv rov ZcoKpdrrj, ^vXa^ov irapa 

advrco p,efj,VT]iMevo<; otov rocrovSe Be elire, iroTepov 6 "Eipio<; eicekvov 

199 D fi*Ep<or...jraTpoi seel. Hug ci 6 Hirschig epuc del. Sommer 
ofiokoyeiirdai BTW : o/ioXoy^ffat vulg. : oftoKoyeiv Stallb. Sz. E dScXi^dc 

Cobet Sz. : a8e\<fi6s libri, Bt. dSfX^Aj del. Bdhm. 200 A /if/xvij/ieVoy 

del. Bdhm. onov Mdvg. 

were an absurd question," the point will be taken to lie in the fact that ep<ar, 
aa properly denoting sexual passion, cannot naturally have for its object a 
parent. The same interpretation might be kept if we struck out — as perhaps 
we ought — the words /iijrpor fj narpos, and construed " the question would be 
absurd if {or granting that) Eros is (really) epas {i.e. sex-love)." 

ovTo toCto iraT^pa lipwTuv. Rettig approves Stallbaum's explanation, 
" h. e. irarepa, avTo tovto oirep fariv ut mox loquitur. Vult auteni cogitari de 
patris notione, qualem mente informatum haberaus." But the use of the 
neuter in apposition to the masc. is sufficient to indicate that " cogitari de 
patris notione " ; and it is most natural to regard airo touto as implying a 
reference to the previous use of " this very word, narrip." 

tlirts &v. " You would at once reply." (See Goodwin O. M. T. § 414, 
Thompson on Meno 72 B.) 

1] (ii^TTip uo-auTUs- So. eVriv vUos ye ^ dvynrpos /i^njp, 

199 E El 7olp 4potp.T]v. For apodosis we may supply 7-1 av (fxilijs ; or 
the like : cp. 204 d, Prot. 311 e. 

airb Tov9' otrtp So-tiv. " Notionally," " in its abstract significance." 

200 A Touto |i,iv...0Tov. Rettig, Riickert and Lehi-s put a comma before 
lie/ivrjpevos, rendering " hoc igitur apud animum serva {sc. alicujus esse) atque 
cujus sit, memento." Hommel and Hug, on the other hand, follow Ast and 
Schleierm. in removing the comma, explaining orou {sc. 6 "Epais Ipas ea-riv) as 
epexegetic of ToOro, and construing (jjiXa^ov /ie/ivTiiievos closely together : thus 
Schleierm. renders " Dieses nun, habe Socrates gesagt, halte noch bei dir fast 
in Gedanken, woven sie (er) Liebe ist." On this latter view — which is 
certainly preferable— we must suppose Socrates to be alluding to the definition 
of the object of love {viz. xnXXot) previously given by Agathon (in 197 b), 
while debarring him from restating it at this point in the discussion. 



200 c] lYMnOIION 91 

ov ea-riv eprnt, etndvfiel avrov rj oii ; Udvv ye, <f)a.i'ai. Uorepov 
k'Xtov avro o5 eiriOvfiel re koX epa, elra eiriOvfiel re xal ipa, fj ovk 
exav; Ovk e-)(a>v, to? to et/ico? 76, <f>dvai. S«07ret S77, elirelv top 
AtoKpoLTT], avTi Tov etKOTO^ 61 (ivdyKij ovTa)<;, to itridufiovv inri,- 
dvfietv ov eVSee? io'Tiv, r) jifi i-jridv/jbeiv, iav firj eVSee? 17 ; ifiol fiev 
jap davfji,aaTt!)<! BoKei, to 'AydOcav, to? dvdyKTj elvar aol he ttw?; B 
\adfioL, <f>dvai, SoKet. KaXto? Xeyetv. dp' ovv ^ovXoiT dv rc<; 
fieya<; wv iiiya<i elvai, rj la-)(ypo<i mv l<TXvpo<s; 'ASvvaTov eK tS>v 
d)fio\oyriixevo)v. Ou ydp ttov evBeTj<! av e'ir} tovto)i> o ye wv. 

AXrjdf) \eryei<;. Et ydp Koi la'xypb^ wv ^ovXoiro i<T')(vpo<i elvac, 
(jsavai TOV "ZcoKpdTrj, koI Ta-)(b<i wv Ta^v<;, koi vyfr)<; wv vyiij<; — 
(o-fOT yap dv tk Tavra olrjOeir] Koi, TrdvTa tA Toiavra, tow ovTa<! 
re TotouToi/9 kuI e')(pvTa<; TavTa tovtwv atrep e')(pvai, /cat eiriOv- C 
lielv, IV ovv fiT] i^atraTrjOwfiev, tovtov evexa Xeym • tovtoi<; ydp, w 

Ayddwv, el evvoel<!, e')(eiv iiev exaaTa tovtwv ev toJ irapovTi 
avayKT) a k'xpvaiv, idv re /3ov\wj)Tai edv re fiij, Kal tovtov ye St; 

200 B ofJLoXoyijfifVOiv W : 6fio\oyoviUvtav vulg. ct fi* apa Stallb. yap 

Koi BT : yap W Tavrl T C tKatrrnv VUlg. 

liri6v|i.Ei aiiTou. For airoC resuming ckciVov, cp. 195 A, Soph. 0. T. 248. 
Observe that the entire argument here is based on the identification of epmr 
with (TTiBvpia (see 205 d) : cp. the use of ipav in Theogn. 256 ■npr^yp.a hi 
TcpTTvoTarov, roil tk epa, to Tvxflv. Cp., for the question here discussed, 
Lj/s. 221 D f. 

clvtV toS eIk6tos. Cp. Phaedr. 267 A, 269 D ; see Blass, Att. Bereds. 1. 78. 

Iiri0v|iciv ov ^vSc^s ^iTTiv. Cp. Lysis 221 D ro ye emdvfiovv, ov hv ivbfis ij, 
TOVTOV imdvfxei: Eryx. 405 E ai 8 iiridvfilai naa-ai ovdiu erepov fj ^vdeial Tivwv : 
Oorg. 496 d. A similar theory is implied in Phileh. 35 a 6 Kevoipevoi... 
cniBvpel tS)v ivavriav ^ 7ra(T;^«- Kfvovpevos yap ipa n\tjpovir6ai (which also 
illustrates the use of ipav and iniBvptiv as synonyms). Cp. also Isocr. Uel. 
219 A (quoted below, on 200 c). 

200 B 6avnoo-Tms...<»s- For as thus separated from its adverb, cp. 
Phaedo 95 a, 99 T>, Theaet. 157 D. Thus Bast's suspicions as to the soundness 
of the text were unfounded. 

El -yap KaV ktX. In this sentence we have an ex. of anacoluthon : after the 
protasis the sentence is interrupted by a parenthesis (^<Tii>s...\iyio), then the 
protasis is resumed in an altered form (dXX" Srav ns xrX.), which leads up 
finally to the apodosis in the form einoiptv av aura ktX. The main purpose 
of the whole paragraph is to guard against a possible misunderstanding as to 
the nature of ^ouXijo-is and imdvpia which might arise from carelessness in 
analyzing the sense of popular phraseology. 

raiJTa oIi]9cCt|. toCto and wavra to. Toiavra are accusatives of "remoter 
object " with oiriddrj, " with regard to these and all similar cases." 



92 nAATONOl [200 c 

TTov T19 av eTTidufiijaeiep ; aX\' orav Tt? X.671; on, eyco vyiaLvav 
^ovXofiai Kal vyiaiveiv, Kal irXovT&v ^ovXafiai koI irXovrelv, Kav 
iiriOvfia) avTuv tovtuv a ej^t"), etiroifiev av aiira on av, co avopcoire, 

D ifKovTov K6KTr}fievo<i Kal vyieiav Kal la")(vv ^ovKei Ka\ et? tov 
e-ireiTU 'xpovov ravra KeKTrjaOai, eVel iv rm 76 vvv irapovTi, 
eire ^ovXei etVe /irj, e;]^et9* aKOirei, ovv, orav tovto Xeyyt, ort ein- 
OvfiS) T&v irapovTcop, el aWo ri Xeyei^ rj roSe, otl ^ovXofiai tu vvv 
irapovTa Kal ei's rov eTreiTa ')(povov irapelvat. aXKo ri ofioXoyoL av ; 
^Vficfxivai ecjbij tov 'AydOoiva. elirelv Stj tov XcoKparr), Ovkovv 
TOVTO y ea-Tiv eKeivov epav, o ovirco eToifiov avTa sotIv oiiSe ex^i'i to 
ett TOV eireiTa '^povov TavTa eivai avTw au>^o/ieva Kai < aet, > 

E irapovTa; Tiavvye, (^avat,. Kat ovtoi; apa Kal aWoi; ird'i o eiri- 
dvfi&v Tov /JLT) eToifiov iiridvfiet Kal rov fir) irapovTO^, kul o p,r] e^et 

200 C KOI TrXouT-eii' B : irXovTflv T D ex"f T • ^XV ^ 6/ioXo-yoir b : 

o^oXoyoi' Steph. ovKovv 8^ pr. T T6...irap6vTa secl. Bdhm. Sz. ro T : 
TO B : TO TOV oj. Usener ravra : roiavTo Liebhold <ra)fo/ifj'a secl. Liebhold 
(cm TW, Bt. : /ioi B : to vvv Vindob. 21 : ra /iij Sauppe : fifj Rettig : oi Voeg. : 
ijToi cj. Usener: del Schirlitz: koi cici scripsi fj-oi irapovra secl. Herm. J.-U. 
Hug E 6 axXof T 

200 C PovXa|iai...Kal im6v|ia. The point here emphasized is that ^ovXija-is 
and iniBviiia, when their sense is investigated, are found to apply only to the 
future (fiE TOV eirciTa xpovov), not to the present («V rm wapovrt). For investi- 
gation shows that " I wish for what I have " is really an abbreviated phrase 
for " I wish to continue having in the future what I now at present have " 
(^oiXojiiai ra vvv napovra Trapfivai). For the foi'ce of PovKrj<T^s, cp. Isocr. Hel. 
219 a TOtv pev yap aWav, av tiv iv X^*'? ytvapiOa, TV^flv povov ^ovXopcBa... 
TOiv &€ KoKoiV ^pcas ripiv eyyiyvfTai, to(tovt(o pei^to rov ^ov\€(r6ai papj]v e^av, 
oaaiTfp Kai to irpaypa KpeiTTov ia-nv (with which op. also 205 D infra). 

200 D aXXo Ti 0)10X0701 av ; For the interrogative aXXo n, aXXo n ij, see 
Meno 82 c (with Thompson's note) ; Prot. 353 (with Adam's note). 

OvKoiiv TOVTO 7' ia-rXv kt\. The main construction is rightly explained by 
Stallb. : " TO els tAi/ erreira xp- "tX. relative pronomini per epexegesin ad- 
duntur, nee assentior Ruckerto interpunctionem post avra e<mv inferenti": 
TO is in the nominative, where we should rather expect toC in apposition to 
exeivov, owing to assimilation to 0. For the reading of the last words in the 
sentence, see crit. n. Rettig reads /ii) napovra "in hypothetisch-causalem 
Sinne." More attractive is Usener's excision of the words poi vapovra, 
adopted by Hug. The objection to xoi, printed by Burnet, is that it fails to 
supply an explanation of B's ^01 : hence I prefer to read kuX ae\, supposing 
that an abbreviated koi blending with ae\ might account for both variants. 

200 E Kal ovTos ktX. ofror represents the typical tk and iivOpanos of 
200 ; and ilXXor iras serves to generalise, cp. 192 b. 



201b] lYMnOIION 93 

Kai o fir] ea-riv avTO<; Kai ov eVSej;? eari, roiavr arra icnlv wv 
■f] iiriOvfiia re koX o epay; ea-riv; Tldvv j, elnrelv. "I6i B^, (jxzvai 
Tov ZcoKparr), avofio\oyr]a-d)fie0a ra elprjfieva. dWo ti ecntv o 
EjOQ)? Trp&Tov fj,6v Tiv&v, €Tr€iTa TOVTCov wv hv BvSeia irapr} avrai ; 
Nat, <f>avai. 'EttI Sf) tovtoi<; avafivrja-dtjTt rivcav e(j)r)(rOa iv tc3 201 
X070) eivai TOV 'Epiora- el Se ^ovXei, iym ere dvafivt^acu. olfiai, 
yap ae ovraxrv ttw? elirelv, on rot? 6eol<; KaTea-KevdcrOr} to, irpay- 
p.ara ot epcora KoKSiV ai<T')(pS)V yap ovk eirj epax;. ov^x^ ovrwai 
7ra>9 6X676? ; EfTTOf yap, ^dvai tov 'Aya6tova. Kai e7neiKW<; y 
kXeyet;, to STalpe, ^dvat tov XooKparrj' xal el tovto oi/rto? 6;;^;6t, 
aWo Tt o "Epeo? KoXKovi av e'irj €pa)<;, aia'X^ov^ S* ov ; 'flfioXoyei. 
OvKOVV mfioXoyrjTai, ov ei/Se?;? eVrt kuI fjur) e^ft, rovrov ipav ; Nat, B 
enrelv. 'EvSe^? ap' earl Kai ovk e-)(ei o "Epoj? koWo?. 'AvdyKt], v 
<f>avai. Tt Se ; to eVSee? Kd\Xou<; koi p,rjBafirj K€KTr]p,evov KdXXo<; 
apa Xeyei,!; av KaXov ecvai; Ov SrJTa. "Ert ovv op.oXoyei<i Eptura 
KaXov etvai, el ravra oiirto? e^et; Kai tov Ayddcova elirelv Ktv- 
ivvevw, w 'Ed>KpaTe<!, oiiSev elBevai wv TOTe elirov. Kai ij,rjv KaXa><; ^ 

200 E re KOI BT: kw, W avo/ioXoyijO'd/ic^a W av evheta kt\. (usque>' 
ad 213 b oT-i) exstat in Oxyr. Pap. 843 irapriv 0.-7. 201 A Si fparos 
O.-P.; 81 (paiTa O.-P. corr. epas BT O.-P.: 6 ipas W y fXeyft scrips! : 
ye Xe'yeir libri, odd.: ye Xey€[t]r O.-P. nXXo ti ^ O.-P. corr., Vcn. 184 Vind 21 
B (xfi W: (x;i BT tou[t]ou O.-P. corr,; tov O.-P. o> ^axparfs kivBv- 
vevoi O.-P. 

^vSeia iropfj. This sounds like a jocular contradiction in terms : in Eros 
there is a plentiful lack. 

201 A ?(J)T|o-9a iv Tu \6yio. See 197 b : cp. Isocr. ffel. 219 a rav 8c koXuv 
epas rjplv iyyiyverat. 

l-irwiKws y SXcyes. For emeiKas, probe, recte, cp. Rep. 431 B, Laws 635 A. 
I have ventured to read eXfyfi for the traditional \4yfis. In the present 
context Xf'ycw seems objectionable because of its ambiguity, since " You say 
well " would more naturally be taken to refer to A.'s reply (elirov yap) than 
to his previous statement. This objection is not touched by Rettig's defence 
of the tense : " auch das Prasens ist ganz an seinem Platze. Da Agathon 
bestatigt, dass er sich so geaussert habe, wie Sokrates angebe, so gilt seine 
obige Aeusserung auch jetzt." 

201 B o5...Kol |ii\ U\a. "Sic dictum est ut o apud exei repetendum est" 
(Stallb.). 

ri IvSeJs Kc£XXovs. With reference to this Proclus (in Tim. p. 128) com- 
ments : evSees koXKovs ev (rUjUTrotrio) npoaelne to p,^ Trpmrms koXov dWa peTe\ov 
KuXXour : cp. ib. p. 110. For the tautologous form of expression, cp. 185 A n. ; 
Eur. Ion 680 avTjj 8' anais ^ koi XeXet/i/ieVij reKvav : id. Heracl. 530, etc. 
(see Vahlen op. Acad. 11. 366). 

Kiv8vvcv(o...ctirov. elSevai is past, not present, in sense. 

KoV |iAv...€tires. Not "recte dixisti" (Ficinus), but "praeclare dixisti" 



94 nAATnNOI [201 c 

C <ye elire<i, (f)dvai, c3 'AydOcov. aWA a-fiiKpov en el-rri' rar^aQa ov 
Kol KoKa SoKel aot elvai; "Efioiye. Et dpa 6 "Epw? t&v koXcov 
evherjts iari, ra Se diyaOa KoKa, kov toiv dyaOwv ivBerj<{ el'ij. ^yco, 
^civai, (S %a)KpaTe<;, aol ovk &v Svvaifj,rjv dvnXeyeiv, a\\ ovTOi^ 
e')(eTco ft)? ai) Xeyei^. Ov fiev ovv ry d\i}de'ia, <f)dvai, m ^iXov/xepe 
'AydOcov, Bvvacrai dvrCKeyeiv, iirel "Sifoxparei ye ovSev ^aXcTroi/. 

D XXII. Kal ae fiev ye ■tjSr] edaoo- tov Se Xoyov rov Trepl tov 
"E/)0)T09, 'iv ttot' TjKovcra yvvaiKO<; Mavrti'tKij? ^iOTi/J.a<;, ij ravra 
re <Toij)rj rjv Kal aWa iroWd, koX 'A6r]vaioi<; jrore SvaafJ,evoi<; irpo 
TOV Xoi/xov BeKa eVi; dva^oXfjv etroiija-e t'^? voaov, rj Sr} Koi e/xe ra 

201 C tliras O.-P. Vat. 227 ^CKoiyavf : (l>iK( O.-P. (oi) 8iva<rai 

Sauppe D liavriviKijc BT O.-P. : navTiKJjs W vulg. Aionvas O.-P. 

ijv : etvai O.-P.^ BvcrafiivT) Steph. SfKCTT] Bdhm. Sz. [^f^TTOirjcraTO 

voaov O.-P. 



(Wolf). What Socr. alludes to is not A.'s foregoing reply, but his oration 
(cp. 198 b, 199 c); and the point of his remark is to suggest that formal 
beauty of diction does not necessarily involve the more essential beauty 
of dXTfOeia. 

201 Td Si aYaBd KaXd. For the coincidence of these two concepts, cp. 
Prot. 360 B, Hipp. Maj. 297 b, c, Phileb. 64 e ft'. It might be near the truth 
to say that to koXov is neither less nor more than ro ayadov in its external 
aspect, "goodness" as apprehended by the aesthetic faculty, or goodness qua 
attractive and soul-stirring. See also Plotin. de pular. p. 46 ; Procl. in I A Ic. 
p. 329. 

■E7«...<rol,.,crii. The personal pronouns are, by position and repetition, 
emphatic. Agathon moans to imply that ho yield.s not so much to the force 
of argument as to the wordplay of Socrates' invincible dialectic : cp. 216 b 
infra : Xen. Symp. v. 8. 

201 D KaV a\...kaxra. "You I will now release": this is said with 
reference to the phrase used in 199 b cTi...7rdpcr /lot 'A.ya6a>va ktK. 

MavTtviKTis AioT^nas. Probably both these names are meant to be ety- 
mologically significant : the resemblance of the adj. to fiavriKX] is patent (in 
fact some Msa. give navTiKrjs, and Ficin. fatidica muliere), while as illustrating 
the omen of AwTlfia one might cite Soph. fr. 226 N. a-otjios yap oiiSeU jrXrjv ov 
av Ttfia 6(6s. See further Introd. § iv. c. Hug quotes an imitative passage 
from Dio. Chrys. I. p. 59 R. fi.v6ov.,.6v iyi> irorre ^Kovaa yvvamos "HXfi'ar rj 
'ApKoSias inrep 'HpaxXeous Stijyov/ieVijr. See also Max. Tyr. diss. xxiv. 4, 
p. 588 ; Clem. Al. Strom, vi. p. 631 B. 

xpo Tou XoLjiou K7-X. For the Great Plague at Athens in 430 B.C. see 
Thuc. II. 47, Bury H. O. p. 407. That the plague had been rife elsewhere for 
some time previously is implied by Thuc. I. o. For similar instances of the 
averting or postponing of impending evils by divine or prophetic agency, 
see Hdt. I. 91 rpia yap erea enave^aXfTO {so. 6 Ao^irji) rfju iapSiav akaxriv : 



201 e] ZYMnOZION 95 

epwTiKa iBtBa^ev, — ov ovv eKeCvt] eXeye \6yov, ireipaaofiai, vfilv 
oieXdelv eK rwv mfio\oy7]/j,evcov e'/iot Kal ' Ayddcovi, avT6<; iir ifiav- 
rov, OTTJBS av hvva>p,at. Set hrj, w 'AydOcov, matrep <tv Birjy^aco, 
SieXOelv avTov irpmrov, rh ecrriv 6"E/9<»? koI ttoiov ti9, eireira ra E 
epya avrov. BoKei o5v fioi, paaTov elvat ovtco BieXdelv, Sq trore fie 
r) ^evT) dvaicpLvova-a Zirjei. cr')(ehov yap n Kal iym tt/so? avrrjv 
erepa Toiavra eXeyov oldirep vvv irpb<; e/xe 'Ayddcov, w? eiT; o "E/jcb? 
fieyas 6eo<i, e'lr] Be twv kcCXQiv' r\Xe.y)(e Bt] /Me tovtoi<; toi'; Xoyoi<; , 
olairep eya> tovtov, w? ovte KaX6<; eit] Kara top kjMOV Xoyov ovre 
ayaff6<{. Kal kyo), XltSf Xeyei<;, e^r)V, co AioTifia; alar')(po<; apa 

201 D Xoyov cKfivrj eXpytr O.-P. iw' Coisl. corr. Paris 1642 O.-P., Baat: 
in BTW S« 8^ TW O.-P. : bilXr, B bir,y},<T<o BT O.-P. : hi, .jyV" Sz. 

Bt. : Kadt,yr,trtt> Hirachig : v(j)r,yTi<r(o Sauppe : Si^prjirai Usener : ^-y^trm olim 
Hcrni. E jrottir: oTroior O.-P. ttot' e'/ie vulg. yap: 8f O.-P. e(/)i)1' 

Xf-yttr O.-P. ai(TXpo[v] O.-P. 

Athen. xm. 602 b : Euseb. praep. evang. v. 35, p. 233 b, o : cp. Virg. Aen. 
VII. 313 ff., VIII. 398 ff. (where "decern annos" is the interval named). A 
specially interesting parallel, as mentioning the same 10 years' interval, is 
Laws 642 D ctK-f^Koas uis ^'Enip.evldrjs ytyovev dvTfp df'ios,..€K6mv be npo rSiv 
UepatKOiv dfKa eretri irpoTfpov irap* vp.as...6v(rlas re edvaaro Tivas.^.Koi 8rj koI 
<l)o^ovfi€V(ov Tov XlepaiKov *A6t]vai(ov o'toXov fiirtv on 8cKa pkv eroyv ovx 
rj^ovtriv kt\, 

ttiris iir l)iavTov. RUckert alone retains the lection dir' eVut/xoO. Cp. 

I Ale. 114 b et pev ^ovXfi, tpwrtav pf^ ao'Trep iyio 0"€, ft 5e Kal avTos eVi travTov 
Xdyo) hU^eX6e: Soph. 217 C. 

wo-ircp <ru 8tT|7ii(rM. I think the traditional text, supported also by the 
Papyrus, may stand, taking dirfyfjo-a to imply — with veiled contempt — a 
lengthy or meticulous disquisition. Schanz's Sq f,yi}aa is open to a double 
objection, (1) the repeated S^ is unpleasing, and (2) ^y^o-o) is a feeble word to 
apply to Agathon's dogmatic exposition (in 195 a) of the rules of method. 
Sauppe's v^rfyr,cra is appropriate enough (cp. Qorg. 455 D, Crat. 392 d), but 
does not explain the corruption. 

201 E SwX9etv avTov ktX. Here Socrates cites almost verbatim the 
language used by Agathon in 195 a Xoya btc\6dv ...Sotrtis. Observe however 
the significant addition by Socr. of the words Wr ianv : he requires a state- 
ment of the essential notion (rtc etm) as well as of the attributes (ttoIos tk). 

ctr) 8i Tc3v koXmv. The genitive is not masc. nor one of origin (=€k toiv 
KoXav) as Wolf thought, but as Stallb. rightly notes " koXSi/ pendet ex 'Epas, 
quod etiam hie positum est ut p. 196 D " : cp. 201 a, 204 d, for similar genn. 
of the object. 

alirxpos apa kt\. Socrates represents himself (ironically) as unversed in 
the rules of logic, and habituall}' confusing contradictory with contrary 
notions (ou-KoXdr with ala-xpos) : for the distinction, cp. Soph. 257 b, 257 D ff. ; 
Ewthyd. 283 b, 285 a ff., Cratyl. 429 b ff. ' 



96 nAATQNOZ [201 e 

o "Epa><; eVrl Kal KaKOi; ; Kal r), Ovk ev<f)r]fi'^creiv ; etfir)- rj o'Ui, '6 ri 
202 av /XT) KoXov rj, dvayKoiov avTO elvai ala-^pov ; MaXto-ra 76. 'H 
KoX cLv fir) <70<f>6v, dfiade<; ; rj ovk rja-Orjaai '6rt. etrri Ti fiera^i) 
<To^ia<! Kal dfia0ia<i ; Tt rovro ; To opda So^d^etv [«at] dvev rov 
6')(eiv Xoryov Bovvai ovk olad', e^r), on ovre iiriaTaaffai e<TTiv 
aXoyov yap irpayfia ttw? av eiT) itncrrrjfiiq ; ovre dfiaQla • t6 yap 
rov ovTO<! Tvyyavov ttcS? av e'irj dfiaOia ; eari Be Bij ttov toiovtov 
ri opOrj Bo^a, (leTa^ii <f)pov'>]a€(o<i Kal dfiadiai. 'AXr/drj, ^v B' iyw, 
B Xeyei<}. M^ roivvv dvdyKa^e o firj Ka\6v icrTtv aia^pov elvai, 
firiBe fir] dyadov, KaKOV. ovt(o Be Kal rov "lipwra eireiBrj avTOi; 
o/Mo\oyel<i fir) elvai uyaOov /j,r]Be KaXov, firjBev ti fiaXXov oXov Belv 
avTov aia'xpov Kal KaKov elvai, dlO^.d ti p,6Ta^v, e4>7}, tovtoiv. 
Kal fJirjv, rjv 8' eym, ofioXoyeirai, ye irapa irdvTcov p.kya<; 0eo<; elvai. 
T&v fit] eiBoTcov, e^rj, irdvrcov Xiyeii, ■q Kal t&v eiBoTcov ; 3vfi- 
•TrdvTcov fiev ovv. Kal rj yeXdcracra, K.al ttw? av, e(f>rj, w "SiCOKpare^, 

201 E ?^i)- §: f^iji/ O.-P.i 202 A ai/(post /cdl): <6)av AstMdvg.Sz.: 
o TI av Steph. Hirschig : on &u, deleto ko.), Reynders : &v oioio Hommel to 

opda So^affti/ T O.-P.: ro ra opBa S. W : to op(9oSo^<iffH/ B Km om. O.-P., 

del. Stallb. Bdhm. Sz. toiouto O.-P. : towvtov ti Hiraohig r/ op6r] 8o|a del. 
Bdhm. B touto.v f</).; O.-P. ye BT O.-P. ; noi W 

202 A .'H Kal ov |ii^ ktX. "H. e. av Ti jii] ao^ov. Nam Tt 6 superiore tl 
facile intelligas " (Stallb.). 
I To op8d So^d^dv ktX. This distinction between 8o|a and iiriaTrfpri is much 

I insisted on by Plato ; sec esp. llep. 477 fl'. ; Meuo 9!) a : cp. Isocr. Ud. 209 a. 
Kor TO ex*'" ^"7"" SoOvat as the distinctive marlc of iincrTi]^r], cp. Meno 98 A ; 
but this definition is criticised unfavourably in Tlieaet. 201 c 11'. (see Zeller, 
Plato, pp. 171 ff'.). I bracket cal before avev. if retained, we must render 
with Ruckert (and Hug) " auch ohne Bechenschaft geben zu konnen." For 
this "intensive" use of koi, see Thompson on Meno 71 b. Rettig defends the 
Bodleian 6p6obo^a((iv thus " 6p6a bo^a^eiv ginge auf Einzelncs und Thataach- 
liches, nicht auf den Begrift' als solchen und die geistige Eigenschaft " : but 
this distinction is imaginary, and there is no other evidence, in Plato or 
elsewhere, for the existence of this compound, Aristotle's word {E. N. vii. 
8. 4) being op6o&o^ia. Possibly we should write koI (ovTa) <?., cp. Rep. 413 a. 

(jLCraSii <j>povro-€<os ktX. Cp. Itep. 477 A fiera^v n...dyvoias Tt Kal cirttTTrj/irii: 
ib. 478 D. 

202 B Mi\ ToCvuv dva^KoSt. " I. q. fifi dvayKawv vofit^e, V. Heindorf ad 
Euthyd. (sic) p. 432 c" (Stallb.). For this use to denote logical compulsion, cp. 
also Cratyl. 432 e fnif avdyKa^e iravT e)(eiv to ypdiip,aTa...aW' ca ktX. : Parmen. 
1330. 

T<3v f.r\ «186t<ov. So. irapa : cp. 0)-at. 408 D, Soph. 243 D, etc. A similar 
distinction had been drawn twice by Socr. himself, see 194 B IF., 199 a. 



IJ^ 



202 D] lYMnOSION 97 

ofMoXoyoiTO fieya<; 0€o? elvat traph Tovrav, oX ^acriv avrov ovBe C 
0eov etvai ; Tt,ve<s ovrot ; fjv S' eyw. EZ? fiev, e(f)ri, av, fiLa S' eyai. 
Kaym elirov, Ilftj? toOto, e^tfv, \676t?; koI ri, 'Pa8ia)<!, e<f)r]. Xeye 
yap fjjOi, ov irdvTai; 0€ov<; ^^9 evBa[fiova<! elvai koX Ka\ov<! ; rj 
ToX/Mtjaai,^ av riva fit) tf)dvai koXov re koX evSaifiova ffe&v elvai; 
M(i At" ovK €70)7', e<f>7]v. EvSat/j,ova<! Se St) Xiyeif ov roii'; TayaOa 1 f;/ 
Kol ra KaXa KeKT7]/j,evov^ ; Udvv ye. 'A Wa /ir)v "Epmrd ye m/j,o- 
XoyriKat Sc evheiav t5)v dyadoav Ka\ KcCXSiV eiridvfielv avrSiv D 
TovTwv dav e'l/ScTf? eaTiv. ' H/jioX6yr]Ka ydp. Ilaj? Sav ovv 0€o<; : •> 
elri o ye t&v KaX&v koX ayaOwv a/ioipo<; ; OvSa/itw?, oi? 7' eoiKev, 
Opa<; ovv, e^rj) o^i koX <tv "Kpcora ov Qeov vo/j,i^€t<;; /, : „), 

XXIII. Ti oSv av, e<jyr]v, eit) 6 "Ep<»9; Ovrjro'i ; "Yiicicrrd ye. 

202 C e<j)r]v om. O.-P. (cal koXous secl. Bdhm. Sz. koXov rt xai seel. 
Bdhm. Sz. d^&v BT O.-P. : 6e6v pr. W rais riyad^ BT Stob. O.-P.: 

Toiis ayaeovs W to koXo B O.-P., J.-U.; icaXa TW Stob., Sz. Bt. Ttrav 

KaXav Ka'i tS>v ayaBStv Stob. iras hhv scripsi : ttSs hv B Stob. O.-P., J.-U. : 

ttSs S' &v TW, Bt. tS>v TW stob. O.-P.: y' i>v B (Sot" ^oi<(v Stob. 

Ti our; 'd<l>ifv (irj av 6 "Epas BvrfTos; cj. Steph. 6 epas etri Stob. ?(^);i» B 

Stob., J.-U. Sz. Bt.: ^r, TW O.-P., Jn. 

202 C KOYci ttirov. . .?<t>i]v. We might avoid this tautology (for which cp. 
177 a) by reading Kayii, Elwov nios ktX., construing elirov as 1st aor. imper., 
as in Meno 71 D. Cp. Rep. 338 d dWa a-a^etrTepnv tiVe ri Xe'-yftr. 

'P^8£(os. Sc. TovTo Xf'-yo). For the use of paSias with Xf'yo) and the like, 
often with a bad meaning, of ill-timed lightness, cp. Meno 94 E (with 
Thompson's note), Rep. 377 b, 378 A. Here, however, the meaning is probably 
pabiov fo-Ttv o \4yw (so Rettig), or as Stallb. " sic ut res facilem habet expli- 
cationem " : cp. Rep. 475 E aXKa iras avro Xfyets ; OiSapas, jjk 8' e'yo), paSitas 
irpos ye aXXov • ire be olpai kt\. It would also be possible to suppose that 
Diotima is, playfully, adapting her reply to the form rather than the sense of 
Socr.'s question : " In what way do you speak thus ? " "I speak it lightly " 
(without compunction): i.e. the Xe'yw to be supplied with paSimr may mean 
" I say, utter the word," whereas the Xiyets of Socr. meant " do you mean." 

€vSat|iovas elvai. kt\. Badham's excision of both cm koKovs and koXoi' 
re Koi is plausible : if the words are sound, we must assume the stress in each 
clause to be laid on the terms here in question, eiSaipovas. . .eiSaipova. 

EvSaCpiovas Si Si^ ktX. Op. the phrases used by Agathon in 195 a. 

202 D 'njioXAYiiKa -yap. Socr. represents himself as having already con- 
ceded to Diotima exactly as much as Agathon had conceded to him (cp. 
201 E <rxe8bv ydp ti ktX.) : for A.'s concession of the point here in question, 
see 200 a, e. 

a)ioipos. This word had already been employed by Agathon, 197 D (cp. 
181 c) ; it is a poetical word rarely used by Plato elsewhere, except in Laws 
(693 E, etc.). 

B. p. 7 



98 nAATQNOZ [202 D 

'A\\^ T^ fiijv ; "Slatrep to, irporepa e^rjv, fiera^ii dvrjrov km 
adavdrov. Ti oSv, w Aiorifia; Aaifiiov fiiyw;, <a Sco/epaTe? ■ Koi 
E yap irav to Saifioviov fiera^v iari Oeov re Koi 6vt}tov. Tiva, r)v 
S' iyto, Bvv3,f/,iv e%oi/; 'Eipfirjvevov koX BiaTrofidfievop 9eoi<: ra irap 
dvOpaiircav koX avOptotrofi ja irapa OeSiv, twv /lev ra? Sei]a€i.<i koi 
6vaLa<;, twv Se ra? eVtTa^et? re koX dfiotjSa,'; [Tajv 6v<tiwv], iv fieaip 
he ov dfi^oTeptov 'crvfnrX'rjpol, SxJTe to irav avTo avrai ^vvBeSeadai. 

202 E re Ka\ BT O.-P. : Kol W Stob. nVa S' ^v Stob. biairpod- 

jifvov O.-P. dcoTs Tf TO stob. tS>v 6variS>v om. Pollux, seel. Sz. ^ro) iv 
ficaa 8eov Vermehren e/i fiea-a O.-P. : enfiea-a Lobeck 8e tv : 8fi hv Peipers : 
SSfvov cj. anon. ov (ra) Bergk (rn SKa) cu/iTrXi/poi Reynders: {ajK^ori- 

povs) <r. Bdhm. to nav aa-Tf avro Orelli aliro om. Stob. 

"floTTcp Td. irpoTcpa. Viz. the exx. of a mean between extremes given in 
202 A, B. 

Aai^Mv ftiyai. The epithet serves to point the correction of Socrates' 
definition, fifyas 6e6i (202 b). Cp. Olympiod. in Aleib. I. p. 22 "Saifiova" 8e 
ins petTOv avTov npocrayopevef peaos yap eariv 6 Epms ovtrias KOi ivepyeias koi 
epatpevov Koi ipaarov' ^^peyav^' 5f, iirfidfj virip alfrdr^aiv koi voepSis evepyet. 
Procl. in Alcih. 1. p. 64 Cr., p. 66. For to Sai/idi'ioi' as pera^v, cp. Eur. Troad. 
55—6 : Med. 1391 : Hel. 1137 o ti 6e6s rj pr; deos ^ to pia-ov kt\. (see Eohde, 
Psyche li. 249 n. 1). 

202 E 'Sp|ir)V€vov ktX. For the term eppr^veitiv to describe the mediating 
office of batpoves, cp. Epin. 985 B epprjvevfadat (daipovas) irpos aSXi}\ovs Te Koi 
Toiis . . .Beoiis irdvTas t€ koi ndvTa, Hommel bids US take epprjvevov with dvdp. 
TO napa 6eS>v (as "eiusdem atque 'Kp/n^r radicis ") and SiawopBpeCov with deoTs 
tA nap' avBpainmv (the office of the nopBpevs, Charon, being " animas e ten-a 
ad sedes deorum transvehere "). This is probably right ; but in any case it is 
a mistake to regard the two words as synonymous, as do L. and S. (s. v. 
iiairopdpeva, " to translate from one tongue into another, to intei-pret "). 

a|xoi,pds [twv 9u<riwv]. apoi^fj as a "return-present" (in transactions 
between gods and men) is used in Horn. Od. i. 318 o-ol 8' a^iov tarai dpoifirjs 
{so. TO 8£>pov) : ib. ill. 58 &Woia-i Si'Sov X"?''-^'^"^"^ dpoi^riv,..dyaKXfiTijs ena- 
■Top^ris: cp. Eur. Or. 467 ois...dire8a>K' dpoi^as ov KnXtir. Pollux (vi. 187) 
when quoting our passage ignores rav 6va-iStv. Cp. also Procl. in Alcih. I. 
p. 46, 63 : Plut. de Is. et Os. 26, p. 361 b o t« Hkdrav ippr]vevTiK6v to toioOtoi/ 
6vopd^€i yivos Ka\ StaKOviKov iv p4a<a Btoiv koi dvOpanruVf ev^as pfv eKii Ka\ 
d€rja'€is...dva7rip7rovTas, ineTdev 5e pavreta Bevpo Ka\ doareis dyadStv (jiipovTas : 
Apuleius de deo Socr. 6 hos Graeci nomine Saipovas nuncupant, inter homines 
caelicolasquo vectores hinc precum inde donorum, qui ultro citro portant hinc 
petitiones inde suppetias, ceu quidam utrisque iuterpretes et salutigeri. per 
hos eosdem, ut Plato in symposio autumat, ouncta denuntiata et magorum 
varia miracula omnesque praesagiorum species reguntur : see also Plut. de or. 
def. 415 a ; Philo Jud. de somn. p. 586 d (Salpoves) ras tov naTpos iniKiKevaeis 
Toif inyovois, KOI Tor tuiv iicyovaiv xpeias tm waTpi diayyiXKovari, 

iv |x^(ru Si bv. This calls for no alteration (such as is suggested by 



203 a] lYMnOIION 99 

Sia Tovrov Koi 17 fiavriKrjj'rraaa ;^<»/36t Koi f) r<Sv Upewv ri'xyr) twv 
re trepl Ta<; 6vala<; koI ra? reXera? koi ra? eTrmSw? Kal rrjv 203 
/lajyavelav nraaav Kal 'yo7]T€iay. 6eo<! Bk avOpwirtp ov fjiiyvVTai, 
aXXa Bid tovtov iraad eariv r} ofuXla Kal r/ BtdX€KTO<! Oeott 7rpo<; 
dvdpwirov^ < Kal ■jrpo<; 0eov<; dv6p(inT0i<i >, koi iyprfyopoai Kal 

202 E Up&v Stob. 203 A ras Tt\eTas B Stob. O.-P., J.-U. : TtAfi-aj 

TW, Bt. KOI Tas intoSac.yoijTeiav seel. Hug koi TTiv,..yor)Tciav secl. Voeg. 
Iiayyavelav Geel J.-U. Sz. : fjuivreiav BT Stob. O.-P.: fiayciav Bdhm. Bt. 
dv6pa>7rovs (icm Trpoj dtoi'S avdpanois) Wolf Usener Sz. : d. (koi avBpainocs npos 
dcois) Hcusde : avBpmirois Stobaei P e-j'Xj/yopo(r[<r]t O.-P. 

Vermehren) : with <TvpirKr)poi sc. aiufxuripovs. The pitrov serves as the Sf<Tp6s 
by which the extremes (here dvrjToi and dddvaToi) are united into an organic 
whole {o\ov). Cp. Procl. in Ale. I. pp. 69, 72, 77. 

203 A Ttts TtXerds. " Ritual" : cp. Rep. 365 a Xiafis rt xm KaBappoX dSiKij- 
pdTa>v...as St] TfXfrar KoKovtriv : Phaedr. 244 E (with Thompson's note): Laws 
738 C dvo-ias TeXerais ayppUrovs. That KoBappot (and reXeTai) included nepiBeia- 
treis, Xovrpa, vrepippavafis appears from Cratyl. 405 A. Rohde (jPsyehe II. 70 n. 3) 
points out that "diese pdvTfis entsprechen in allem Wesentlichen den Zaubern 
und Medicinmannern der Naturvolker. Wahrsager, Arzt, Zauberer, sind hier 
noch eine Person." jE.g. Apis in Aesch. Suppl. 260 ff. ; cp. Eur. Heracl. 401, 
Phoen. 1255 ff., and the part played by Erapedooles. In Hippocr. de morb. 
saer. p. 591 the pdvTds and KaBaprai are witch-doctors, claiming control of 
the elements, as rain-makers, etc. (KaBappoiis wpo(T(j>4povTes koi f'lraoiSds... 
7r fpiKaSaipayv Koi payfvwv,..Te Koi Bvtav trfXrjvrjv r« KoSaLprja-et koi rjXiov d<l)aviet 
Kal ^€tpa)va kol cv8lrjv TTOirpTfL ktX.) : cp. 197 C n. 

Ti^v (lOYvavtCov irao-av. Geel's correction payyaveiav is perhaps slightly 
preferable, on the ground of Platonic usage, to Badham's payetav. Op. 
Laws 908 D c^ ^v pdvTfis tc KaTafTKfvd^ovrai ttoXXoI koi irepi Trdtrav rrjv 
payyavflav KiKivrfpivoi : id. 933 A nXXij 8e (<j)appaKfM) fj payyaueiais ri tuti koi 
fntoSais Koi RaTaSfa-ffri Xiyopevais irelBfi kt\. (cp. 933 c) : Oorg. 484 A to. 
fjUiTepa ypdppara kcu payyavcvpara Km eVwSds : also [Dem.] XXV. 79 Xa^iav to. 
(pdppUKa KOL Tas iniitSas...payyavevfi koi (ftevaKi^fi. Hug objects to yorjrfiav, 
as elsewhere used by Plato in a bad sense. There is, however, no need to 
suppose that any of these terms are intended here to convey more than a 
neutral sense ; and to represent fi MavTivixij as a disbeliever in any of the 
arts of divination or wizardry would be less artistic than pedantic. Moreover, 
the language used here is supported by the echo it finds in the description of 
Eros below (203 d ad Jin.) as 8fivt>s yoijt koi <j)appaK(vs leni aroajyiiTTrjs. Hep. 
364 B, c shows Plato's own low opinion of current /iovtikij, but Socrates was 
probably more credulous, see Xen. Mem. I. 1. 9, 4. 15. 

9«ots irpos dvOpwirous <t\. Since the participles can neither be construed 
with dfois, because of the sense, nor with dvBpairovs, because of the case, it is 
necessary to supply some such supplement as that adopted in the text. 
Rettig accepts Stallbaum's explanation of the traditional text : " Quum enim 

7—2 



100 nAATHNOZ [203 a 

Ka6evBovaf koI 6 fiev nepl ra roiavTa cro^o? Sai,fi6vio<; dvi]p, 6 Se 
dXKo Tt <70(^o? (ov rj irepi re')(ya<i f) trepX ■x^etpovp<yia<;jnv4'i ^avava-oi. 
ovTOi Br) 01 SaifJLOve<; ttoWoi re koI •KavrbhairoL etaiv, el? Se tovt(ov 
ecTTt Kai o hjpeo^. 

Tiarpo^ Se, 7)v B'eym, rivot icrrl Kal /iT}Tp6<: ; MuKporepov fiev, 

B e^rj, Sirryr^aaadai,' ofj,co<; Se ffoi epat. ore yap iyeveTo rj 'A^ppBirr), 

eicmwvTo ol OeoL o'L re aXXoi, Kal 6 rn? MnrtSo? vlov Tlopo'i. 

eVetS)} Se eBeiirvqaav, TrpoaaiT'^<rov(Ta olov Zrj evaf^La<!'-:ova7]<; 

d<f>iKeTO r) Ylevia, Kal tjv trepl ra? 6vpa<;. 6 otiv ITopo? ixedvadeX<; 

(T 

203 A o-oc^os ; o<^o£ O.-P. : atfiohpos Stob. &v om. Stob. wepi 

P 
Xftpovpyias Stob. O.-P.: )^etpovpyias BTW, J.-U. Bt. nvavaovs O.-P. ttoXXoi 

re Stob. O.-P.: TToXXoi BTW Tovrtov O.-P. eorl om. Stob. tLvos 

eoTi Kfli firjrpos BW: Kai p.j]Tp6s Ttvos iari T^ O.-P. (eorii') B elariOivTO 

W b t, Hernaog., Sz. : larKopro O.-P. : rjaTiavTO T, Bt. : rjaTiavTO B oi re 

aXXot deoi Koi Hermog. npoaraiTfiaovaa T O.-P. : irpoaraiTfjs oSaa B : irpocraiTis 
ovaa Euseb. Origen 

(liuatur ofiiKuv rivi ct SuiKcyearBui tivi, ctiam (>^cXi'ii khI Siu\fKTos rivt recto dici 
potuit. Et quurn antea...perspicuitatis caussa usus esset praepositione -n-pos 
addito casu aocusativo, nunc ad legitiniam constructionem revertens, neglecta 
granimatica diligentia, dativum post accusativum reote inferri potuit." But 
at this rate one might justify anything in the way of distorted grammar ! 
Hug marks a lacuna after av6pa>7rovs. For the ref. to divine communications 
in sleep ("the visions of the head upon the bed"), cp. Pind. fr. 131. 3 flf. ; 
Jtep. 571 D ff. (with Adam's notes) ; Rohde, Psyche i. 6 ff. 

Saifiovios avijp. Compare the etymological definition (Sai/x<»>' = 8ai7/x(oi') in 
Cratyl. 398 c. For Socrates as an example of the Baifiovios avijp, see 219 b. 

irtpl Texvas...pavaiio-os. Cp. Theaet. 176 C, Laws 644 A ; Arist. lUiet. I. 9. 
1367" 31 {(Xevdepov ar)p.iiov) to p,i]8ffiiav epya^tcrBai jSai/auo-ov Te)(yr)v. The 
question as to why manual labour is held in contempt is asked in Rep. 590 c, 
and answered in Rep. 495 d (see Adam's notes ad foe). 

ol 8af|iov€s. Other Platonic passages mentioning those intermediary 
beings are Rep. 392 a, 427 b, 617 D (with Adam's note), Laws 713 d, 717 u. 
For later developments see esp. Plutarch {de defect, orac, de Is. et Os., de 
daem. Socr., etc.). Cp. Rohde, Psyche I. 153. 

IlaTpis 8I...tCvos kt\. These are genitives of origin. Here we have it 
tacitly assumed that Phaedrus's statement (178 b), that Eros is unbegotten, 
is untrue. 

203 B n^pos. We find in Alcman fr. 16 (with the Schol. on t6v IIopou 
f'lprjKe Tov avTov r^ vtto tov 'HcridSou fiepvdevpeva Xdei) a precedent for this 
personification of nipos. TLevia is personified by Aristophanes in the Plutiis, 
passim. For Mrjrts, see Hes. Theog. 886 Zeis be Beav fiaa-iXeiis wpa>Tj]v aXoxov 
Biro M^Tif, I TrXflora Beav T€ Idviav Ide BvijrSiV dvBpuTraiv : {prJTis is, in Epic, 
the especial attribute of Zeus, as ptfTiha) : M^nr was also an Orphic alias of 



203 c] ZYMnOZION 101 

joy veKTapof — Qtro? yap ovttco ^v — et? tov tov Ato? ktjttov eiaekOwv, 
pe^apijfiev6<i rjvBev. r) oSv Tlevia e-m^ovXevovcTa hia Trjv avrfj'i 
airopLCLv' -iraihiov TTOincraa-Bai sk tov Hooou, KaTaKXtverai re Trap' 
avjm Kai exvijae tov "EptoTa. Sid Sij Kal rij? 'A<J3poSlT'r]<; clko- C 
Xoi/^09 KCbi Bipairmy ykyovev o "Epo)?, >y€vvr]0eiv iv rot? eKeivrj'} 
yeveOXboit;, Kal afia Avtrei ipa<TTrj<; wv Trepl to KaXbv Kol t^9 'A(j>po- ' 
otTi?? Ka\M9 ova-7)<;. aTe ovv Uopov Kal Ilei'ta? uto? (ov 6 "Epws eV 
ToiavTrj-TV)(r) KadeaTrjKe. irpoaTOv /j,ev "Trevrji; asL ecTTi, Kal iroXXov >■■' 

203 B efeXflwi/ O.-P. .jSSf 1/ BTW : tSSfi- O.-P., al. ■n-atSonoir,a-aa-dac 

Naber J.-U. 8^ nm BT O.-P.: 817 W xai etpairav : xm om. Orig. 

inelvav Orig. f'paorijr del. Bdhm. kqXok Kai BT O.-P. : xai om. W : 

fort. KoKov, its Km r5r...ouo-iJi del. Bdhm. Tre'i/ijr TW O.-P.: nevirjs B 

Eros. For nectar as the primeval substituto for wine, cp. Horn. Jl. v. 341, 
etc., also Phaedr. 247 E rois r7r7rour...i'e'icTap enoTiorf. The celestial 8«i7ri'oi' 
was, it appears, followed by a trvfinoaiov. Spenser, H. to Love, speaks of the 
god as " Begot of Plentie and of Penury." See further Introd. § iv. 2. 

els t4v toO Atos Krirov. Cp. Soph. fr. (Ion) 297 N. eV Aios ktjttok dpovtrdai 
/ioyoi/ cvSal/jiovas oX/3ovr. It is interesting to notice that Origen (Contra Cels. 
IV. 39) identifies the "garden of Zeus" with Paradise, Poros with Adam, 
Penia with the Serpent. With the intoxication and its results we might 
compare the O. T. stories of Noah and his sons and of Lot and his daughters. 
For the neo-Platonic interpretation of the myth, see Plotinus JEnn. in. 5. 2, 
292 F ff., 298 F : cp. also Introd. § iv. o 2. A similar Orphic legend is 
mentioned by Porphyry de antr. nymph. 16 (Orphica p. 180) napa hi ro) 
Opc^ci 6 Kpovo? fifXiTi vTTo Alos fvftpevfrai • n\Tj(rd€\s yap fjLfXiros fi(6v€i koi 

VKOTOVTai 0)5 VTTO oXvOV KoX VITVOly 0)f TTOph XiXoTtOVl 6 TlupoS TOV VeKTOpOS 

TrXr/a-dfif, ovnm yap olvos ijr. Another classical example is the trick played 
by Lady Macbeth on Duncan's "spongy officers" ("his two chamberlains 
Will I with wine and wassail so convince" etc.). 

PfPapr\iUvos. A later form for the Epic Pf^aprjas (Od. in. 139): cp. 
Theocr. XVII. 61 Pe^aprjiifva wSlufa-mv. 

iraiSCov iroii]crao-8ai Ik (ctX. So Andoc. IV. 22 vlov e^ airris irevolrirai : and 
TrniSar note'ia-dai in Crito 45 D, Laws 674 B, 783 D, as equiv. to the cpd. 
naiSoTToieta-dai (Rep. 449 D, Laws 784 A, B, e). These parallels are sufficient 
to defend the text (see crit. n.), without resorting to Rettig's absurd notion 
that jraiSiov n. is " verecundior " than the cpd. 

203 C Tt)S 'A<|>po8£THS...9tpilTr<ov. Cp. Orph. fr. 139 t^v yap ^ A.<ppo&iTr)v 
naprjyayfv 6 Sr]iuovpyos...Kat tov 'Epara OTraSov aiiTrjs: Sappho fr. 74 (Xe'-y€i fj 
' f^(f)pohiTif) <TV Tf Kokos (Kafios Bgk.) 6epdnav 'Epos: Hes. TJieog. 201 rrj 8' (sc. 
'A<j)po8iTri) 'Epos i>iiapTr]<re Kal "iptpos firweTO koKos | yeivofiivii ran para ktX. : 

Max. Tyr. diss. xxiv. p. 297. 

ipoo-T^s fiv irepl TO KaX6v. Cp. 204 B, 206 E. For the thought, cp. Sir 
T. Browne (Rel. Med.) " I am naturally amorous of all that is beautiful." 

irpuTov (iJv KrX. Here follows a list of the properties which attach to 
Eroa in virtue of his descent from Penia. Observe that the order is chiastic — 
here Penia-Poros, above Poros-Penia. 



102 nAATfiNOZ [203 c 

1. •-• . '"■»=' U , 

Set a7ra\os re Kal Ka\6<;, olov oi TroXKoii oiovrai, aWa aicXripo<; 

D Koi av'x^fiTjpo'i Kal avviroBriTO'i Kal doiico<;, ■j^aiiaiiferfii' det u>v Ka\ 

acTTpatTOi, i-rrl dvpai<i Kal iv oSot? viraidpiot^Koificofievoi}, ttjv t)}? 

fir)Tp6<; (j>v<riv e'x^aiv, del evBeia ^vvoiko>;. icaTa Se av rov trarepa 

eTTi^ovKoi iaTi rot? «a\oi9 xal tok dyadoi^, dvBpeio^jiv Kal trij?' 

Kal <TVVTOvo<;, 6rjpeuT7]<; Seivo<:, d^L rival irKeKWv firjj^avdii, Kal 

203 D Ktii oIkos Themistius viraiBpios BW O.-P., Orig.: vnai- 

Bpiois T {e(TTi jiiv ovv) rrjv cj. Sotnmer rois ayadois libri: ayaddii O.-P. 

SeiKos 001. apogr. Paris. 1810, del. Kreyenbiihl aei irpoa-irXiKiov Orig. 

prjxavas : [(i]i/as Pas O.-P. {i.e. afioifias O.-P.^) 

otov 01 iroXXol oVovToi. This popular opinion had been esp. voiced by 
Agathon, 195 c ff. ; and he had used the term o-KXijpor in 195 e, 196 a. The 
properties of Eros are, as observed by Max. Tyr. diss. xxiv. 4. p. 461, drcxvas 
ola els avTov StoKpdrijv taKtonrov iv Aiovvaiois oi Koi/ioiSot: cp. Themist. or. 13. 

p. 161 D b: 

203 D avx)i''npos- This is evidently intended as the contrary of Agathon's 
epithet iypos, 196 a. Cp. Ar. Plut. 80 ff. (nXoCror) ddXlas SiaKelp.evos...aixfiS>v 
jSaSi'f f ij ; and the echoes in Plut. de fort. p. 98 d, in amat. 759 a. 

ai'vir<SSi]Tos...acrTp(OTos. These, too, are characteristics of the Socratic (and 
Cynic) way of life. For dvuTrdSijT-oy, see 173 b, 220 B ; for xapaimTtis am aarpo)- 
Tos the account given by Alcibiades in 220 b, c. Compare also the description 
of the 'S.cWoL (" fakirs ") in R. XVI. 234 ff. SeXXot, aviwTonobes, xa/iaieCwai ktK. 
(see Welcker Kl. Schr. 3. 90 f. ; Rohde, Psyche I. 122). 

ktti Svpais ktX. For the BvpavKiai of ipatTTal, see 183 A, Anthol. v. 5 ; and 
for this phrase as applicable to Socrates, 175 a, 220 c, Ar. Nuh. 169 fF. So too 
Penia was described in 203 b as {ovaa) irep\ ras Bvpas. viraidpios and o-Cvoikoc 
are words of a poetical flavour : cp. Xen. Symp. vill. 24 d dt i o-vvoikos 
€fio\ epos. 

tT>]s. "Energetic" ("go-ahead"): Sohol. ittjs- iarap, imtrTripav, as 
ivTavBa. Xap^dveTOL &€ Kal eir\ rov iTapov Kai dpatrios. The Scholiast's ds 
ivTavBa is clearly wrong, and that Plato connected the word with Uvai is 
shown by Protag. 349 E ir&repov rois avSpetovs dappaXeovs X«y«r § "XXo rt ; 
Kai iTus y\ f</)i;, f'(j)' a oi ttoXXoi (j>ufii>wTm icvat. Cp. Prot. 3f)9 : Callinus 
I. 9 — 10 dWd Tis Wi/s tro) | tyx"' dvao-xtipfvos (crX. Hero, however, the special 
sense of intellectual progress (pfOodos, avoSos) may be implied, cp. 210 a 
(perirj, lovra, Ifvai), and my note on dvbpelav 212 B (also 205 d). 

6i)pcvn)s 8eiv6s. "A mighty hunter," a very Nimrod. For the notion of 
the chase in erotics, cp. the use of iXeiv and 8imk«v in 182 e, etc., and of 6ripa 
in Sop/i. 222 D tji rav (pavrav Bijpa (cp. SrjpSipai in Isocr. Hel. 219 d) : for the 
same notion applied to philosophical enquiry, cp. Phaedo 66 c riji/ rov ovtos 
6tjpav: Oorg. 500 d, Theaet. 198 a ff. So Emerson (On BeaiUy), "The sharpest- 
sighted hunter in the wox-ld is Love, for finding what he seeks and only that." 

irX^Kuv iiTixavds. "Weaving plots," "intriguing": cp. Eur. Androm. 66 Tromr 
pt))(avas nXcKOva-iv av; Orph. H. 55. 3 ('A</)pofiiVi)) SoXoTrXoKt : Aelian H. A. 
III. 30 (ro(j)a)TaTos 6 kokkv^, koi nXcKeiv finopovs f^ diropiou pr])(avas deivoTaros. 



204 a] lYMnOZION 103 

■ ^ '■■'"' "' ,1- . cf ■' ■ •■■•. u. (.,.!'. 

<l)povrj(Tea)<; eiridviiijTrj'i Koi ^ Trdot/AO?, <^iKoao^wv iia iravrb'; tov 
^Lov, heiv6<: •yorj'i' KaX tj)apfJbaKev<i Kal (ro<j)i(rTij^' Kal^ovre w? 
^pavaro<; ire^VKev ovre to? 0vr)T6<;, dXXa rare fjuev tiJ? aurJ}? ■^fj,epa<; E 
6aX\.e(, Kal ^y, OTav evTropi]a-ij, tote Se aTrodvya-Ket, ttoXiv Se ava- 
piaxTKeTab oia rrju tov iraTpo<; <pv<Tiv, to be iropi^ofievov aei 
vireKpel • (ocrre ovts mropel ' Epo)^ ttotc ovte irXovTel, cro^ia<! re av 
Kal dfiadia'i ev fiiaq) ea-Tuv. ejjjet yap wSe. dewv ovBel<; <^iKoao^el 
ouS' iiTiOvfiel ao(f)6<; >yevecr6ai — etrrt yap — oiiS' el' rts aKX,o<; troc^d?, 204 
on ^iKocro(f)ei. ovS" at ol dfiaOel^ i^Cko<ro<^ovaiv ovK eiriOvixovai 

203 D iropi/ior T O.-P. corr. : nopurfios B : (fypovifios O.-P.' ^iKoiro^Syv 

T : (j)iKo(T6(j)a)v B ■yo»;s koi : koI om. O.-P. I! avTrjs om. O.-P. icai 

fS B O.-P.: re Kal (fj TW, Orig. orai/ (vnoprjfTr) Secl. Jn. Hug: orax airoprjirri 
Hommel ivoKiv : naKiv niiKiv O.-P. corr., Orig. ara/Sioo-Kf [i]rat O.-P. 

iroT 'Epmr vulg. Hirschig re av T, Bt.: te B, Herm.: 8' au Orig.: au O.-P.: 
hi Sommer Sz. 

ir6pip.os. As son of ndpor. Agathon, too, had described Eros as {npaorryraj 
nopi^aVf 197 D. 

Sciv&s 7(5t)s ktX. For yo?;?, see 203 A n. ; and for Socrates as wizard or 
charmer, 215 c ff., Meno 80 a fF., Xen. Me7ii. ill. 11. 17 — 18. For ero(|>«rTijs, 
cp. 177 b, 208 C; Rep. 596 D; Xen. Cyrop. VI. 1. 41 vvv tovto ne<pi\o(r6<l)riKa 
piTa rov dSUov (to^uttov tov "EpioTos : Maxim. Tyr. xxiv. 9 ( = Sappho fr. 
125) TOV 'Eptora SiuKparijr (ro(j)i(rTfiv \eyfi, 2a7r<f>a> /ivBoirXoKov . The esoteric 
meaning of these epithets is thus explained by Hermias in Plat. Phaedr. 
p. 97 : {(in( TOV "Epara) ipiKoa-ofjtov fiiv as to XoytKoi' rjpaiv SieyeipovTa eni to. 
KoKa- yariTa 8e ir tov Bvjibv KaTaa-TfXKovra ■ <j)apiiaKea (8e) ur to eniBvfiriTiKov 
Kt)\ovvTa- (TOCpUTTriv 8c i>s Trjv (f>va'iv anaTWVTa Koi SfXeafovTO — this however 
must be taken " with a grain of salt." Op. also Procl. in Cratyl. p. 94, 158 
on ot8fi' 6 HXaraiv to Svo/ia tov (ro(j>io-Triv eVl iTfp.via ToTTdv TTpaypuTi- tov yap 
npos iavTov ra liWa Svvdp,(vov (TntrTpi^civ ovTas KoKel, olov tov dia [Min. 
319 C), tov "AiSrjv {Crat. 403 b), tov "Eptora. 

203 E SaXXci. Cp. Cratyl. 414 a avro ye to BdWtiv t^v aiS^rjv /xot 8oKei 
aneiKa^eiv Tr]v tS>v v4(ov. For the alternation of life and death in Eros, compare 
the case of Polydeuces in Pind. j^em. x. 87 ff. 

oTov euTropijo-i]. These words are condemned, on no sufficient grounds, by 
Hug and others as " sehr prosaische und abschwiichend." 

d«l vTTtKpet. "Die geistigeu G liter werden uns zu Theil nur insofern wir 
sie erwerben" (Rettig). The cpd. vneKpciv is air. Xcy. in Plato, but cp. Euthyd. 
291 B ai 8' {cTTKTTijfiai) del vnf^4<l>vyov. 

oSt€ d.irop€t...ovTe irXouTet. dwopia is a quality of the mother of Eros (Sia 
Tr)v avrfjs dtroplav 203 b), as ffXoiJTor of the father. On the other hand ntvia 
is described as a mean between TrXouTof and 7rT<»;^ei'a iu Ar. Plut. 552. 

204 A t<m Yap. Sc. ao<j)6s : cp. Simon. 5. 10 6f6s &v iiovos tovt' f^"' 
ytpas {sc. fa-6\ov efip-cvat). For the midway position of the (jyiXoo-o^os, cp. 
Phaedr. 278 D, Lysis 218 a; Plotin. Snn. vi. 7. 35 ff. 



104 nAATQNOI [204 a 

ao(f)ol yeveadai- avro yap tovto eari 'X^aXetrov dfiadia. to firj ovra 

KoKov KayaOov firjSe (f>p6vifiop BoKeif avra elvai iKavov ovkovv 

€7nou/j,ei fir) oiiOfievoi evoeyji eivat ov av /mtj oirjTai etnoeiaOat,. 

Tivet oiv, e^rjv iyw, a Aiorlfia, ol (f)iXocro<f)OVVTe<;, ei /f^re 

B oi a-o(j)ol /jLijre oi d/jLa6ei<s ; AtjXoz/ Srj, e<f>r), tovto ye tjBtj 'kui iraiSl, 

OTi oi jiieTa^v tovtcdv d/jL<f)OTepQ)v, &v av kuX 6 "Epo)?. eaTi yap orj 

t£v KaWCaTcov 17 croi^ia, "Epfi)? S' icrTiv epco<; trepl to Ka\6v, ciaTe 

dvayxaiov "E/jwra ^iXoaofjiov elvai, (^iXoao^ov Be oi'Ta fiera^v 

eivai <ro<f>ov Kal dfiadov<:. aiTia S' avTco kuI tovtcov r} yev6ai<;' 

iraTpo'! fiev yap crocjjov etrrl xal eviropov, fj.i)Tp6<i Be ov a'o<f)fj<; kuI 

■ ^ diropov. yP^v ovv (j)vcri^ tov Baifiovoq, m (f>i,\e S<B/cpaT6?, avTri • 

C 01' Se ail m-i]Or}<; "ISipatTa elvai, Oavp-aaTov ovBev eirade<;.' wrjOr)!; Be, 

(B? e/iot BoKel TeKpaipopevrj ef &v aii \eyei<;, to ipcop.evov^'EipaiTa 

4f- elvai, ov TO epciSv. Bid TavTa aoi, 6lp,ai, irdyicaXo'i etpaiyeTO 6 "Epws. 

icai yap eaTi to epaaTov to tw ovti icaXov Ka\ d^pov jcpX TeXeov 

KOI p-dKapicTTOv TO Be ye epwv dXXrjv^lBeav TOiavTriv e')(pv, o'lav 

eya> BirjXOov. 

204 A cro^oi yeveaBai: (ro<^otr y. O.-P. aira yap Tovra Yindoh. 2\, 

Sydenham xakcirov del. Homiuel Bdhm.: xaKenrj O.-P. d/iadias cj. Ast 
avra W b : avra T : avra O.-P. : avro B Uavov del. Hirschig B SrjXov 

Sri TW O.-P., vulg. Sz. Bt.: &q\ovari B : 8^\ov Herm. J.-U.: 8q\6v ivn Rettig 
hr/Kov TOVTO y, rj 8' ij, Koi Bdhm. av Ven. 184 Vind. 21, vulg. Bt.: &v eiq 

O.-P.: &u BTW: Sij Usener Sz.: del. Ruckert: fort, eh h(to$v O.-P. 

<a5i)s O.-P. TeKfiaipoiievt] ^^ Xf yftv : fXeyfs O.-P. ftvai Epmra O.-P. 

oioixai O.-P. TO ra: ra Bdhm. n/Spov O.-P. corr.: ayadov O.-P.* 

rf\eiov O.-P. 



oiri 7dp toSto ktX. " Precisely herein is ignorance a grievous thing, (viz.) 
that" etc. If, with Stallb., we take aM tovto as adverbial accus. of respect, 
with TO iJLfi...iKav6v as an epexegetic supplement, no emendation is required. 
For the neuter xo^f'^ov in appos. to duadia, cp. 176 D, Phileh. 12 c. 

204 B ArjXov Sii...KaV iraiSC. Op. Euthyd. 279 D tovto Se K&v TToIr yvoii): 
ib. 301 B, Li/s. 205 c (Schanz nov. conim. p. 72). Observe how sharply Diotima 
snubs Socrates, aa-irep oi TiXtoi aocjiia-Tai (208 o). For my cj. av eis, cp. 203 A. 

(|>i,X6o-o4>ov «tvoi. Cp. Prool. in Tim. 62 Suo tovtovs deoiis 6 UXoTav <f>iKo- 
iTocftovs cKaXeare, TOV Tc"EpaiTa Kal Tr/v 'Adrivav (Tim. 24t>),...^v yap 6 STj/iiovpyos 
" Ka\ MrJTis nparos yf veTtop Ka\ 'Epats iroXurepTr^r " {Orph. Theog. fr. 8. 11), Km 
a>s p.ev MrjTK tUto, ttjv 'Adrjvav, i)t Se *Epci>r diroyevva Tr/v epcoTiKriv o-eipdp. 

204 C dppiv. Agathon (here alluded to) had used the subst. d/SpoVijs 
(197 d), besides the epithets AttoKos and vypos (195 c ff.). 

pLaKapto-Tov. The only other Platonic exx. are Rep. 465 D, Phaedr. 256 C. 
Cp. the use of p.aKapi(a> in 216 E infra. 



204 E] ZYMnOIION 105 

XXIV. Kal iym elTrov, EZei/ 8>;, m ^evr}- A;a\c3? yap Xejeii;' 
TotouTo? wv 6 "Epoj? Tiva 'x^peiav e')(ei, rot? avBpwiroi';; ToOto Sj; 
/i6Ta TaOr', €(^j;, (u liOiKparef, ireipdcro/iai cr^- 8i,Bd^ai. eari /lev D 
yap Br) roiovTO<; Kal ovtco yeyovo}<; o "Epm?, eart S&f t&v koXSiv, &<; 
(TV (j^j;?. ei Be tk r}fi,a<; epoiTO' ti tcov KoXSiv eajlv 6 "Epw?, co 
"Zm.Kpareis re koI ^^lortfia ; wBe Be aa^iarepov epw' 6 ep&v jmv 
KoXSiv Ti epa; koi eVw .elirov on reveffdai avrcS. 'A\X' ert irodei, 
€()!)i7, r) aTroKpicri<i epoaTrjatv^roidvBe • n ecrrai, eKeivcp w av yevrjjai 
ra Ka\d;'Ou Trdvv e^rjv en e')(eiv iym Trpot ravTijv Trju epoiTijaivf 
Trpo')(eipa><; aTroKpivaadai. ' AX\', ecfyTj, wairep av e'i ti? /j,eTa0a\a)v E 
avil rov xaXov ra ayadm Xpa>fievo<; irvvBavono • ^epe, w 1,coKpare<;, 
Spa' 6 epmv rSiv dyad&v n epa ; Tevea-Qai,, rjv S' eyco, avrS. Kal ri 

204 C (8e) wv cj. Steph. 8^ (to) iiera Bdhni. D KM ovTo) superscr. 
O.-P. (TV f^jis: vifujijis 3n. rt B O.-P.: om. TW epS Alclin., edd. : 

ipm b : ipa BTW : tpa O.-P. : fort, opa (cf. E infra) m noOd TW 0.1'., 

Bt. : iirnrodei B, Sz. : en innroSfi Riickert Toiavhti O.-P. E nvvOavoiTO 

seel. Usener opa scripsi: ipa BTW O.-P.: ip& Aldin. vulg. Bt. : epoiro 

Herm. J.-U.: om. Ven. 184, Bast Sz.: e'ly ipq. Rohde tS>v dyadav ti 

distinxit Winckelmann : t-Sk ayadav tI; olim Voeg. airoi BT 

rCva xp«fa.v Kr\. Here begins the second section of Socrates-Diotima's 
e-xposition. For xP"'". " utility," — equiv. hero to the 8(!o-«r of 195 a, the 
epya of 199 C — cp. Gorg. 480 A, etc. 

TovTo 8^ (lerA TaCr" ktX. "Ebenso 180 D, 186 a, 189 d, 194 b. Also wohl 
parodisch und spottisch " (Bettig). 

204 D ?<rTi 8i Tuv KaXuv. This is object, genitive : cp. 201 e, 206 e. As 
Rettig notes, Diotima herself affects nepi ro KaXov in preference to rod Ka\ov 
(after cpmr, etc.) ; and this may be used as an argument against Jahn-Usener's 

(TVfl^TJS. 

A S4 Tis kt\. For the omission of the apodosis, cp. 199 e el yap epolfinv kt\. 

o-a<{>^a-Tcpov Ipc5. The preceding query had been ambiguously worded, since 
rav KoXmv might be taken either as a partitive gen. dependent on ti, or as an 
object, gen. with "Epas (ti being adverbial accus.): that the latter was the 
construction intended is now shown by the revised statement of the query — 
o f'pS)v.,.Ti ipa ; I am inclined to suspect that we should read Spa (see 204 e n.) 
for ipai (ipa MSS.). 

?Ti iro6ci. If we read iirmodel we must ascribe to the proposition its full 
force, " craves further " ; the other exx. of the cpd. in Plato are Prot. 329 d 
rovT ia-Tw o en iniwoda : Laws 855 E. The former of these supports Ruckert's 
ert innToBel. 

04 irovv...?Ti.. For oh nam, cp. Meno 71 c (with Thompson's note). 

204 E (lerapaXdv. Here the participle " adverbii partes agit," cp. Gorg. 
480 B, Fhileh. 51 A. For the ellipse, cp. 204 d, 199 E. 

i|>^pe, u S., opo. Most editors bracket the mss.' ipa : Stallb., after 



/ 



106 nAATQNOZ [204 e 

earai eKeivu) a> &v yivtjrai ray add; TovT^ev7ropd)Tepov,^vB'eyo), 

205 exof^diroKpivaaOai/oTi evhaifimv earai. [ 'K.Trjcret yap, €(f>r], wyaOStv 

ol evSaifiove<!y\£vSalfiove<}, ical ovk^ti TtpocrSei epeadai, }ya ti oe 

^ovXeTai evSalfiiov elvat, 6 ^ov\ofjt.euo<;, aXKa reXos BoKel e^etv 

jy atroKpiai^. 'AM]6ij Xiyeci;, elirov iy<o. TaijTrjv Be rrjv ^ovKrjcny 

Kal Tov eptoTct rovTov iroTepa kolvov /o'lei elvai Trdvrcov avapm- 

TTcoi', Kai TravTa<i rayaaa povXecraai avroK etvai aei, rj ttw? 

\€7et?; O^Tois, ■'tii' 2' iytif koivov elvai irdvTwv. Tt hrf oiiv, 

B ediij, ft) 2,ft)KpaT€?, ov •iravTa'i epay (bauev, enrep ye 7ravre<i rmv 

auTft))/ epcacTi Kai aei, aXKa tivw; <pap,ev epav, rovi o ov ; ^avfia^co, 

nv S" iycl), Kal avrot. 'AWa an 0avuat', 'edm' dmeXovre^ yap dpa 

TOV eparov tl eioo? ovofxa^Ofiev, to tou oa,ou eimiOevTe'i ovofia, 

epcoTa, TO, Be dWa aWots Karaypdideda ovouaaiv. ' Hcrirep Tt; riv 

670). ilatrep robe. oiaO on ■jroirjcn,<; ecrTi ti iroXv • rj yap toi e/e 

205 A dyidavB Seriji' BO.-R, J.-U. Sz.: SijT^vTW, Bt. dvm 

OKI W B avrSiv : dyaB&v cj. Naber yap apa T O.-P., Bt. : yap BW, J.-U. 

ipavTos T (ev) n eiSos Hirsohig toi Vind. 21, viilg. Sz. Bt.: Tt BTW: 

TO, O.-P., cS O.-P. mg. 

Winckelmann, retains it with the punctuation epa 6 epS>v tS>v dyadav ■ ri 
ipa; — a mode of oxpreasion which is " vchementius quam ut aptum videri 
possit huic loco" (Eettig). lliiukert defends the Aldine reading ip5> as a 
permissible superfluity "in familiari sermone." I suspect that here, as above, 
we should read opa : cp. opa ri nouls 189 A; Rep. 596 c ; Crat. 385 d (f>epe...el7re. 

205 A Sva tC. So. yivjfrai : for this colloquial use see Goodwin O. M. T. 
§ 331. 

Tfl^os...?x*"'- Because it is recognized that el&aipovla constitutes in itself 
the ethical reXos or "summum bonum": cp. Clit. 410 b epTroSiov tou wpos 
Tt'Xof dpeTTJs eX66vTa (v8aipova yevf ardai: Arist. £!. N. I. 7. 1097* 33 &ir\S)s dfj 
TfXfiov TO Ka8' avTO aipiTov aci...Toio{)TO>< fi' r) eiibaipovia pdXuTT ejvai Sokci. Cp. 
also 210 E TTpos reXos ^&r] lav ktX, 

iriivTas...dc(. Here dei goes with ^ovXea-dai, not with auroii elvai (as in 
200 A infra). 

T£ 8^ o5v ktX. Diotima here points out an apparent contradiction between 
the previous conclusion (koii/ok ndiiTav) and common opinion, due to the 
ambiguity of the term epas (.tpdv) which is used both in a generic and in a 
specific sense. 

205 B "n<rir€pT£; "For example— ?" 

iroCi)a-Cs. The selection of this term as an ex. of varying connotation is 
partly, no doubt, due to the fact that it was one of the matters specially 
emphasized by Agathon, 197 a. For iroXv, multiplex, cp. Polit. 282 a. 

1^ ■ydp Toi kt\. For the definition, op. Soph. 219 b, 265 b 7roi,iiTiKfiv...Traa-av 
t(^apev elvat bvvapiv, ij rir &v aiTia yiyvryrai Tois p.i) nporepov oSaiv varepov 
yiyvea-dai : also Phileh. 26 D ; Xen. Mem. ll. 2. 3 ; Procl. inst. theol. p. 74. 



7 , 
ovofMara, 

flOV- 



205 D] ZYMnOIION , 107 

ToO /ij; ovTOi «? TO 01/ tovTt oTtpovv . alrCa •jrao'd ecrri iroiTjaK, merre 
«at ai vTTo tra(jai<i rat? reyvaK epiyaaLat "Koinaei'i eiai, /cat oi C 
TouTtoi/ orjiMiovpyoi, Trai/re? •jroirjTai. AXtjar] \eyei<;. A\a, o/it&)7, 
») o v, oiau OTi ov KoKovvTai Troivrai, aW aWa eyovcriv ovoi 
airo 06 Tracrr)<; tjj? Troirjo-eo)^ ev /iopiov a^opiaaev to Trepi rrjv 
ariK'hv Kai ra ueToaTw tov oA-ou ovoaari Trpoa-ar/opeveTat. iroiTiai'i 

yap TovTO fiovov KoXenai, Kai oi evovTev tovto to uopiov t»J9 

^ry>- i, .J .-. ,r p/'f/; .«^ /j-^/ ./i X*'^-" »■•'■•' V '5-'' 'v v 

7rot7jCT6<B9 TToiiiTai. AXrivin a,6'V6(9, eainv. UvTaToivuv /cat Trept 

TOV epaiTa' to fiev KeqtaXaiov ecrrt iraa-a ri t(ov ayaumv eiriav/ua D 

205 C V 8' "7 Bekker : rj 8 t) O.-P.: ^S;; BTW ov cm. "W exoucrti/ 

TW O.-P., Sz. : e^ovaiv B, Bt.: la-xovtriv Sauppe fiopiov BT O.-P.: /lovov 

pr. W yap tovto: y. ravra O.-P. f<^i)[i'] Xeyftt O.-P. D naa-a...fv8ai- 

/iovelv del. Bdhm. 

205 al...{p'YacrCai. Cp. Oorg. 450c tS>v jiiv (rexv&v) ipyatrla to iroXv tori. 
The word denotes manufacturing processes : cp. n. on ntpl Tt^""' ktX., 203 a. 
For VTTO c. dat., a construction rare in Attic prose, cp. Phileh. 58 A : Hipp. 
Maj. 295 D to. re vno ttj fiovfrtKrj Koi Ta viro Tntf aWats rep^vatp {opyava) : Hep. 
511 A. Cp. Aristotle's use of utto c. ace. to denote the subordination of arts, 
I^. A^. I. 1. 1094** 10 ff. otrai 6* fttri tcov toiovtwv vno piav Tiva Bvvap.iv ktX. 

Iv iiopiov. Equivalent to ev elSos (205 b) : for this logical use of the term 
cp. Gorcf. 464 b. Laws 696 b. For a(j)opi(o>, cp. Soph. 257 c, 268 D rrjs Trotria-ems 
atp<opicrp.f.vov iv \6yois . . .fiopiov. 

t4 ■ir€pl...TA (ilrpo. Cp. 187 D, 196 E. 

205 D TO ftiv Kc<{>dXai6v ktX. Opinions are divided as to the construction 
of TO Kt(f>d\awv : it may be construed (1) as nominative and subject, "the 
generic concept (se. tov eptoTos) is — "; so Hommel, Vermehren, Hug, Prantl, 
comparing Qorg. 463 A koXo) 8e airoC (sc. r^s pijToptK^r) to ki^oKoiov KoXaxeiav : 
or (2) as adverbial accus. (of respect), " in its generic aspect," cp. Phileb. 48 c 
(crn hr) Ttovtjpia pev Tis to Ke(j)aKaiov : Euthyphr. 8 B. The latter is certainly 
the more natural mode of constniing here, since no genitive {avrov) is added. 
But other difficulties remain : what is the subject of eWi, if to Ke(j)d\aiov is 
adverbial 1 Should we (a) construe with Ficinus (followed by Stallb.^, Lehrs, 
Zeller, Jowett and others) " nam summatim quidem omnis bonorum felicita- 
tisque appetitio maximus et insidiator amor est cuique"? Or (6) should we 
rather, with Stallb.i and Prantl, supply 6 tpms as the subject of eVn and 
construe n-ao-a fi...ev8atpovftv as the predicate? To my mind the latter is 
the more natural method. Next arises the question, how are we to deal 
with the last part of the sentence, 6 piyKrT6s...navTi'i If with most edd. 
(except Riickert, Stallb." and Bettig) we regard boXepbs as corrupt, the best 
plan is to excise the whole clause with Hug (and Stallb.'), since none of the 
corrections of doXepo; hitherto proposed (see crit. n.) are at all convincing. 
The chief objection to fioXcpor is, not so much the meaning of the word 
itself (which may be defended by 203 d), as rather (to quote Stallb.^) " con- 
junctio superlativi piyurros cum 8o\ep6s positive." But even this objection 



108 nAATQNOI [205 d 



(■' I. .'.. ., ^'tfi ' '■■ • ' ' ° -' "I I 



Kai 



al Tov evBaifiovelv, 6 " fieyia-TO'; re kol So\epos" epco<s iravri' dXK, 

, r^-'iv^w. t."'/' J- , , , , , * '^v - ! 

01 fiev aXKr) TpeTTOfievoi, TroWa'^r) eir avrov, t) Kara '^p'i]yi,aTV<yyt,ov 
7} Kara (l>i\,oyvavd(Triav rj Kara <biKoao<hiav, ovt epavKoKovvrai 
OUT epaarat., fit oe Kara eurt eioo'; iovTet/re Kai e<rirovoaKOTe<; to 
Tou oA,ou ovofid Lcr'^ovaiVi^pcoTa re «at epav «at epaarat. tS^tv- 
Bvv€vei<: dXTjOrj, e^rjv eyco, Xiyeiv. Kat Xiyerai, /lev ye rt?, e<f)7], 
E \0709, ta? 01 av TO f/fiKTv eavTcov ^TjTucriy, ovToi ep&aiv 6 S' e/io<; 
Xoyot ovd' ' r}fiia-e6<s ^r]cni> elvai top epcora ovO^ oXov, edv fi^ 
Tvyx^dpji ye irov, a eraipe, ayadbv 6v eVel avreov ye Kai vroSa? 
Kai ■)(elpa'i ideKovatv aTTOTe/Mveadai ol avOpcoiroi,, eav aiiTot<! BoKrj 

205 D 6...So\fpbs seel. Usener: 6...iravTi seel. Stallb. (ISSV) Hug fic- 

•yioTof : opiirfTiKoc Creuzer SoXepof : SoXtparaTos Stallb. (1852) : Sfivorarot 

Ast: Koivos Hommel: dXoxXrjpos Pflugk Mdvg. : oXos Bdhm. : dBpoos Verm.: 
npSiTos ej. Sz. : Td\p,Tjp6t Creuzer : o-tpoSpoTaTos Sydenham : acftobpos Cobet : 
/idvoj Sehirlitz : icepSaXe'oy Naber TrdvTi; Pflugk avrov. aird Voeg. Sz. : 

dyafldv Orelli ^pripuTUTiia 0.-^.^ etT)^ov O.-Y. epiord... f paiTTai aec\. Sz. 
(pas re Ilertlein ipaarai : fort, ipaa-rds KivSvvevovai O.-P.* E to 

idVTav tj/WTv Sz.; T<\ rjpiiTV tH cuvtSiv Sauppo Jll.: eavTav sccl. Uaeiier fVei 

T O.-P. ; fV< B 



is not, I think, insuperable ; for if we construe iravTi elosely with boKtpos as 
"all-ensnaring," we get a superlative idea which balances piyurros, while in 
sense it is supported by 203 b, d and Sappho's SoXon-XaKc 'AcppoSira. If, 
adopting this exx^lanation, we retain the traditional text, it seems best to 
regard the clause d piyuTT6s...iravT'i as an appositional quotation and to 
construe, with Prantl, "namlich jene grosste und fiir jeden verfangliche 
Liebe." Hommel is singular in taking tqv fiSmpoveiv {sc. ij eni6vpia), as well 
as TO Kf^aXatov, as subject (" und das Streben nach dem hbchsten Gute, d. i. 
nach Gluckseligkeit, ist die grBsste Liebe "). 

SpuTa...lpa<rTaC. This sequence is irregular. Usually with ovopa txetv the 
name is in the nominative, in apposition with the subject, e.g. Laws 956 c 
SiaiTrjTai 3i/ofia...6;^o>'rfr (so here ipanTai): but the accus. is also possible (in 
appos. with 'ovopa), as in Plut. Arist. 2. But the combination of the two 
constructions is certainly awkward, and the words may well be, as Sohanz 
supposes, a gloss. 

Kai X^YCToi K7-X. An allusion to Aristophanes' speech, esp. 192 b, e fi". : 
cp. 212 c. For oW oXou, below, cp. 192 e. 

205 E kvA avTuv 7e ktK. Cp. Xen. Mem. I. 2. 54 ?Xpye fi' on Kai fmi» cKaaros 
iavrov, o ndvTav /xaXiora <^iXe(, toC auipaTos S Ti fiv d)(peiov y Kai avu^eXer 
aiiTOS T( aipaipti Kai nXXa> ■napi^ei. avToi re yt airav ovv)(as re Kai rpivas Ka\ 
TvXovs d(l>aipnvcn ktX. : Ev. Matth. 5. 30 kui el ^ fie^id irou )(e\p orKavdaKl^ei <re, 
fKKoyjrov avrijv ktK. 



206 b] ZYMnOIION 109 

tA eavTwv irovripa elvai. ov '^ap to eavT&v, ol/xai, eKaaroi datrd- 
^ovTai, el fif) ei Tt? to fifv dyadov oiKelov KaXel koX eavrov, to Se 
KUKov dXXoTptov (B? ovSiv ye aXXo iariv ov epwaiv avOpwiroi, 206 
t) tow dyaOov. rj <to\ BoKovaiv ; Ma At" ovk efioiye, ■ijp 6' iym. 
Ap' ovv,-'^ B' i], ovTw; dirXovv ia-Ti XeYeiv, OTt oi dvOptotroi rov 
dyaOov ep&aiv ; Nat, e(j}T]v, Tt Si; ov irpoaOereov, e4>V> ot' Kal 
elvai TO dyaOov uvtok epSxriu ; Tlpocr6eTeov. ^Ap' oi>v, e<f>i], /cat ov 
fxovov eivai, aWa kov del eivat; Kal Tovto irpoaOeTeov. 'Eo"Tti^ 
dpa ^vXX'^^Srjv, e^r), 6 epw<; rov to dyadov aiiTw elvai dei. ^AXtj- 
dearara, e^r]V eym, \£7et9. 

XXV. ' Ore Br) rovrov 6 epa)<; earXv dei, fj B' rj, r&v riva B 
rpoirov BicoKOVTcov aiiTO Kal ev tIvi trpd^ei r} (TirovBrj Kal 17 (rvvraai'; 
6/30)9 av KaXoiTO ; r^ tovto Tvy^civei ov to epyov ; e^etf enrelv ; Ov 

205 E KoKel W : KaXri BT 206 A av6pa,noi. Bekk. Sz. Bt. : Hvdpanoi 

BT : avBpanroi O.-P. : oi avBpasnoi W : del. Baiter f) Taya66v Hirschig 

ri <To\...ayaeoi om. O.-P.i ij 8' ij Bekker : i;[S]7 O.-P. corr.: ijhr) BT on 

avdpanrm Sauppe Jn. tov ayadoS BW O.-P. COIT.: rayadov T, Bt. npoirBe- 
Taiov O.-P.i (bis) oSv BT O.-P. : om. W toO to T O.-P. : toCto B 

avra TW O.-P. : avTo B B 8^ : Se O.-P. Paris 1642 t-outou Bast Sz. 

Bt. : TOVTO libri, 0,-P. dei om. Vat., Bekk. Sz. : aye Usener tj 8' ij Bekk. : 
rjhr) BT : r)brj O.-P. twv T b O.-P.: TOV B aiiTov T (rvvTaais B O.-P.: 
tTvrrTains TW 

A (111 tV. See Goodwill G. M. T. g 47G*. 

TO fXv a7a9ov olKttov. Cp. Rep. 586 E einep to ^(Ktiittov eKivxTca, tovto koI 
olKcioraTov (with Adam's note): C/iarm. 163c, D ejxdvdavov t6v \6yov, ort to. 
o'lKe'id Te Koi to. avTov dyada KaXoir/e : Arist. £!. N. X. 7. 

206 A <i to« d7a6ov. For the assumption that rdyaBov is the final end 
of desire, op. Phileb. 20Bff., Gorff. 467 d if., etc. The statement here is 
referred to by Proclus in Alcib. I. p. 129. 

airXoCv. Equivalent to avev npocrSetreas dKr)6es : cp. 183 D ; Phaedr. 244 A 
el (lev yap fjv &it\ovv to p,aviav kokov elvai ktX. (" true without qualification,'' 
Thompson) ; Prot. 331 C. 

206 B o ?p*is IotIv del. Most edd. follow Bekker in ejecting del : Eettig, 
however, rightly keeps it with the note "aEi=die gegebene Definition gilt 
uberall und fur alle Falle" ; cp. 205 a, b. 

avT&. Sc. TO TayaBov avTols eivai aei. 

■n <ruVTao-ts. Cp. 203 D ("Epoir e<rTi) avvTovos : Phileb. 46 D avvTaaiv dypiav 
noie'i (with my note) : Euthyd. 288 D. For the limitation of the notion of Eros 
here {av koKoIto), cp. that in 205 A fi'. {koKovvtoi, c, d). 

TuvYovsi ov. Not "what does it happen to be," but "what in reality is it" : 
see Verrall on Eur. Med. 608 : cp. Phaedo 65 D— E. 

Ov (levxav ktX. For the suppressed protasis {sc. el tovto el^pv elire'iv), cp. 
175 D. 



110 nAATQNOS [206 b 

fxevTav ae, €<f>rjv iyco, w Atort/^a, idav/ia^ov errl aoifiia Kal i^oiruv 
irapa ere aira TavTa /ta^r/ffo/tlj/o?. 'AW' eyw trot, ecftri, ip&. earv 
yap TovTO roKoi ei> koXm koi Kara ro amfia Koi Kara rrjV •^v')(riv. 
MavTeia';, ^v S' eyw, BeiTai o tL Trore \e7et9, Kal ov jMavdavw. 
C 'AXX eyco, 17 S' r), aai^eeTTepov ip&. Kvovcri yap, ecfyrj, w %wKpare<i, 
TrdvTe'} avdpiiiTrot kuI Kara to aSifia kuI Kara rrjp "^vxnv, Kal 
i-7reiSdv ev ttj rfKiKLa yevcovrai, rlicreiv iiriffufiei rj/iSv 17 cf>v(Ti,<;. 
TiKTeiv Be ev fiev ala-^pw ov SvvaTai, ep Be [tc3] Ka\w. \r) yap 

206 B ?</»)>', iya> distinxit Ast koi oi /lavdava del. Naber ij &' ij 
Bekk.: ^Sij BT : 81; O.-P. av6paiToi Sauppe Ju. (cm Kara to TW O.-P., 

Bt. : Kara to B tijv om. T iv ttj Bdhm. J.-U. Sz. : ev Tivi libri, Bt. : 

iv Naber TUretv Sf-.-eoriV del. Rettig koXm Bdhm.: KaX<a O.-P. : rm 

(caXffl libri 15 yap...eaTiv del. Ast Sz. Bt. 



i^olrav irapa ori. (j>otTav is the regular word for "attending" lectures or 
a school, see I'rot. 326 C ei's &i8a<rKd\av...(jioiTav : Rep. 328 D Sevpn nap' ijfius 
(jioira : I'liaedo 59 D. 

tAkos iv KaXcu. The act of procreation appears to be called almost in- 
differently (1) TUKOS, as here, (2) yevvrja-K (206 c, is, 209 d), (3) yewrjiris k(ii 
TOKof (206 e), (4) in passive aspect ■yeVto-is (206 D, 207 d). Similarly with the 
verbs: we find rUrdv (206c, 210c, etc.), yevvdv (206 D, 207 a, etc.), tUtciv koi 
ytvvav (206 D, 209 b, c). 

MavTeCas..-)iav6avu. Notice the play on the stem-sound. Bettig, citing 
Eur. Hippol. 237 {rahe pavniat a^ia ttoXX^j), writes " Witzspiel mit Anklang 
an Eur. und Anspielung auf Diotima'a Heimath und Beruf " : the latter 
allusion is likely enough, but the "Anklang an Eur." is very problematical; 
had it been specially intended we should have had a^ta or jroXX^s echoed 
as well. 

206 Kipovo-i. Kvijats, "pregnancy," is properly the condition intermediate 
between conception (o-uXXi/i/'iy) and delivery, (tokos). Cp. Achill. Tat. i. 10 
Koi veavicTKOS epaiTos irpatTOKvpav ov fieirai SiSaiTKaXlas npos Tov TOKfrov. For 
the language and thought of this whole passage, cp. Theaet. 150 ff., Phaedr. 
251 A ff., Tim. 91 A : also Max. Tyr. diss. xvi. 4, p. 179 kuoSo-i 8« naaai pev 
^vxa\ (jivarct, aSivovari 8e edei, TiKTOvai de Xdyw (crX. : Clem. Al. Strom. V. 552 B : 
Themist. or. xxxil. p. 355 D. 

iv Tti riXiKt^ 7. I adopt Badham's correction tt]i for tivi since the change 
involved is very slight and ev tivi rjXiKia is unexampled in Plato : cp. Gorg. 
484 c ev Tij ijXiKi'a: Rep. 461 B; Phaedr. 209 b infi-a; 255 a; Mem 89 b. 
Plato also uses ev ijXiKia, e.g. Rep. 461 b ; Charm. 154 a : Laws 924 e. 

■rlKTtiv Si...KaXu. There is much to be said for Eettig'a view that this 
sentence (as well as the next) is a gloss. As he argues, the words " gehoren 
also ihrem Inhalte nach nicht an die Stelle, an welcher sie stehen, soudern sie 
miissten nach dem Satze ea-Ti 8e tovto ktX. folgen. An dieser Stelle coUidiren 
sie aber mit den gleiohbedeutenden Worten ra Se ev ra avapp6irTif...ipp6TTov, 



206 D] ZYMnOIION 111 

dvSpo<; leai yvvaiKO^ avvova-ia t6ko<; iarlv.] eari Bh tovto 6eiov to 
•rrpayfia, Kai tovto ev Bvi^tw ovti tco fww ddavaTov eveaTiv, rj 
Kvrja-ii; koI rj 'yivvr)ai<;. to, S' iv tw dvapfioaTm dhvvaTOV yeveadai. 
avapfiocTTov S' iaTi to ala'x^pov TravTi Tm 6ei(p, to Se koXov dpfioTTOv. D 
Motpo ovv Koi TSilXeidvia r) KaWoi/jy ecrrt Ty jevecrei. Sid tuvtu 

206 8« : yap Kohdo ev((TTiu B O.-P. : (<rT,v TW ra B O.-P. : 

ravTU TW D dflca TW: 6em B O.-P. tj •yfveVfi 8ta ravra' orav 

ktK. distinxit Schirlitz 

fiir deren Glosse ich sie ansehe. Worauf soil ten auch die Worte cVrt 8e... 
wpayfia gehen, wenn ihnen die Worte tiktciv 8e...Ka\a unmittelbar vor- 
angiugenV It is just possible, however, to retain the clause as a kind 
of parenthetic addendum to the preceding sentence, which forestalls, some- 
what confusingly, the sentences ra S'...&pim6ttov. The omission of the article 
before KaXa, confirmed by the Papyfus, is certainly an improvement. For 
the thought, cp. Plotin. Enn. ill. v. p. 157 B. 

[r\ 7dp... TOKOS Io-tCv.] Most edd. (except Hommel and Stallb.) agree in 
excising this clause as a meaningless intrusion. Hommel and Stallb. explain 
the words as intended to introduce the first part of the exposition of tokos, 
viz. TOKor Kara trafia: and Stallb. renders "nam (-ydp = nemlich) viri et 
mulieris coitus, est ille nihil aliud nisi toko?." Susemihl's comment is "die 
Zeugung werde als die wahrhafte Aufhebung der Qeschlechtsdifferenz be- 
zeichnet." But, as Rettig shows, none of these attempts to justify the clause 
are satisfactory. Perhaps it is a gloss on r/KiKia. 

ia-TK Si tovto ktK. Cp. Laws 773 E, 721 C yafidv be...8tavoridfVTa as (trriv 
7/ TO dvBpanivov yivos (j)viTfi Tivt ftfT(l\r]<j)fv aBavnaiaf ov Koi nf^VKCv iiriBv- 
piav ta-xfiv nas naarav kt\. : Cicero Tusc. I. 3.5 quid procreatio libcrorum, quid 
propagatio nominis... significant, nisi nos futura etiam cogitare?: Clem. Al. 
Strom. II. p. 421 C c7rtO"Kcuaeraff rfjv aOavatriav tov yevovs rjfiMV {sc. bia tov 
ydfiov), Ka\ oiovei diafiovrjv Tiva iraia-l naidcov pLfTa\ap.7ra5evofi4vr]v. 

iv Tu ttvapn.oo-T(ji. For the connexion of Eros with ipfiovia, see 187 A ff. ; 
for harmony of the body, cp. Rep. 591 D ; and of the soul. Rep. 430 e ff., 
riiaedo 85 E fF. 

206 D ]VIotpa...ElX€£9via. Cp. Find. 01. VI. 41 to p.iv 6 Xpya-OKop-ai 
IT pavfirjTtv T 'EKeWvtav napiaratriv re Moipas : id. Nem. VII. 1 'EKelBvia 
napchpt Moipav ^advippovav. Moipa ("the Dispenser") is a birth-goddess 
also in Hom. II. XXIV. 209 twS' as ttoOi Moipa Kparalri | yiyvofiiva infvr](r€ 
\lva. For Eileithyia, see also iZ. xii. 270, Hes. Theog. 922 ; and it is note- 
worthy that Olen made out Eros to be the son of Eileithyia (see Pans. ix. 27). 
Libanius {or. v. t. I. p. 231 R.) identifies Eil. with Artemis. 

r\ KaXXovn. Usener was no doubt right in taking KoKKovit here as a 
proper name, in spite of Rettig's objection that "deren Existenz nachzuweison 
ihm aber nicht gelungen ist"; for such a personification, in this context, 
requires no precedent. " Beauty acts the part of our Lady of Travail at the 
Tairth." Possibly we ought to insert iirX after e(r«(r) or read ctti in i)laco 

of ilTTl. 



112 nAATQNOZ [206 D 

orav fiev KoXa TrpoaireXn^ji ro kvovv, rXcMi' re yiyverai Kai ev- 
(^paivofievov Bia'X,elTai Kol TLKrei re Koi yevva' orav Be alaxppi 
crKvdpairop re xal Xvirovfievov ovaireipaTai Koi airoTpeirerai, xal 
dveiXKeTai Kal ov yevva, aWd Xa'^^ov to Kvr)fia ^aXe7ra)9 <j)epei. 
oOev Br) TO) kvovvtL re Kal r]Br) aTrapycovri TroXXr] rj TTToiTjo-t? yiyove 

206 D a-Kv6pair6v re (ylyvfrai) cj. Usener tTvaireiparai TW : ^u[j'](r7rei- 
parai O.-P. : frvvaneipeTat, B Kai anorpi-jreTai secl, Useiier Sz. dviXkeTai 

O.-P. : dvciXXerai B : avfiXXerni W : dviikXeirai T orirapyovvTL W TTTolrjtTis 
TW O.-P., Abresch : iroitjais B : wtoijo-is Bekk. Sz. : wovijiris Sydenham 



irpooTreXdtll. For this poetical word, cp. Horn. Od. ix. 285, and (of sexual 
converse) Soph. 0. T. 1101 navot jrpoo-TreXao-deio-a. 

XKtav. Cp. 197 D. 

Siaxel^rai. This word may signify both physical and emotional effects: 
for the former cp. Laws 11h C rav (ranarav biaKcxvfiivwv vno /ledrjs : for the 
latter, Suidas (Hesych.) Siaxelrai- x^'P'^ 8»ox"'''"> ^^d the Psalmist's "I am 
poured out like water." 

o-i«r'ir«i.paTai xrX. Schol. avaneiparai- (rv(rTpecj)eTai. Said. Kvplas 8« 
dviWeirBm to dira^iovv. They are realistic terms to express aversion, derived 
perhaps from the action of a snail in drawing in its horns and rolling itself v 
into a ball. Cp. Plotin. Enn. I. VI. 2. 51 ij ■\jfvx')..-wpbs to alaxpov irpotr^a- 
\ov(ra di/i'XXcrat Kal apvevrai koi dvavevei ctt* avTov ov (rvfiffxavovtra Kal dWoTpiov- 
fifvr). Usener and Hug may be right in bracketing nai diroTpeireTm, on which 
Hug comments "Zwischen dem der Gleichnissprache angehorenden avawfipaTai 
und dviKKerac ist das matte, prosaische diroTpintTai unpassend"; but the 
extra word helps to add emphasis, if nothing more, and Plotinus too uses 
three verbs. In dvctXXcrai Rettig sees an "Anspielung auf dveiK(i9vi.a" (cp. 
Eur. Ion 453). Cp. Plut. de s. n. v. p. 562 a. 

o-irap7uvTi,. For airapydv, lade turgere, cp. Rep. 460 c : in Phaedr. 256 A 
(crnapyav 8e Kai dnopav 7re/)i/3iiXX«i tov epa<TTrjv koi c^iXei) (rnapyS>v= Venere 
tumens. The Scholiast here has irirapySivTf opfiavTi, opySivn, Tapavrofiiva, 
5 dvdovvTi. Xap^avfTai 8e koi tVi tS>v paaTav TrenXjjpafiivav yaXoKTOs. Here 
the realism of the language and the juxtaposition of kvovvti. compels us to 
construe "great with child" (as L. and S.) or "with swelling bosom" — not 
merely "bursting with desire" or excitement. Cp. a-tjjpiyS) as used in 
Ar. Lysiatr. 80. 

■q irToCtiiris. "Sic feliciter emendavit Abresch" — his conj. turning out 
to have some MS. support. The subst. occurs also in Prot. 310 d yiyvoio-Kwi/ 
aiirov ttjv dvSptlav koi ttjv nTolT)aiv : Gvat. 404 A Tr^v tov o'mfiaTOs nToirjtriv kol 
jxaviav : and the verb (fTTTorja-Bat) in Rep. 439 d, Phaedo 68 c, 108 a. Cp. 
Mimnermus 5. 2 wToiapai S' ea-op&v &v8os ojiijXiKi'ijr. It seems a vox propria 
for the condition of the lover "sighing like a furnace": cp. Plotin. de pidor. 
IJ. 26 (with Creuzor's note). 



207 A] lYMnOIION 113 

irepl TO KaXov Sia to fieydXr)!; mSlvo'; diroXveiv tov ej(pvTa. eVrt E • '" 
yap, w "SiWKpaTei;, e(j)7], ov tov KaXov 6 epm<;, <09 <tv o'iei. 'AWa tI 
lirjv ; T^9 yevvTi(7i(a<; koX tov tokov ev tw KaXw. EZei/ ; r]v S' iyw. /. 

Tiavv jxev oiv, e<f)r]. tL St) ovv t^? y6vvr]<TeQ)<; ; '6ti deiyevet ia-Ti i 
Kai addvaTOV &>? BvqTw r) yevvr)ai<;. ddavaaiav Se dvayKotov iiri- 207 
dvfieiv /leTa dyaOov 6« twv mfioXoyrj/ievmv, eiirep tov dyaOov 
iavTw elvai del epw? eVriV. dpayaaiov Sr/ ex tovtov tov Xoyov 
Kal Tj}? ddavacTLai tov epa>Ta elvai. 

XXVI. TauTft Te o5v iravTa iSlSacrKe fie, oiroTe irepl twv 

206 E dno\v(iv TW O.-P. : dnoXavav B: anotravetv cj. Naber e)(ovTa: 
€pS>VTaYoeg. Ti'i/or fi^i/ Stepll. Trai'u...?^!; del. Bdhm. Tl...yfvvria-f<os 

vulgo Socrati tribuunt, Diotimae Herm. (Voeg.) reddidit S^ BT O.-P. : 

8« W ytvvr)(Tfa>s : yfve<Tca>s O.-P. dciyeves : afi yeveais O.-P. 207 A dya- 
66v scripsi : dyadou BT O.-P. : rdyaBov W Vind. Suppl. 7, vulg. Bast {6) epas 
Bckk. Sz. 



206 E iJStvos airoXieiv. This is the office of KnXXoi/ij as ElXfldvia : cp. 
77ieaet. 151 a TavTrjv...Tf}v wSlva eycipeiv tc kol airoTravfiv rj epff re^vt] (sc. ff 
paicvTiKT)) bvvarai : R&p. 490 B (5 irXria-ida'as Koi piyeis r<S ovTias ovtl, yevvrjtras 
vovv Koi d\r]6fi.av...Ka\ ovTa> Xrjyoi clSixor: Max. Tyr. diss. xvi. 4, p. 179 \6yos 
paicverai ^V)(tjv Kvovcrav koi adivav pearrjv. 

TOV H\ovTa. "Sc. TiivTtfv Tt)v oiU'tvii" (Wolf ) 1 but IToraracl and SUUb. 
supply avTo, i.e. to koKov. Cp. I'haedr. 252 a tov to kuXXos 'dxovTa larpov 
cvprjKe ^dvoi/ tS)u peyiaTwv noviov, — which settles the question. 

t(. . .76vviio-eo>s ; Ti, answered by on, means "why" or "wherein" rather 
than "what" (as in 204 d), and the genitive, like those preceding, is objective. 
Supply ((TTtv 6 fpmf. 

ddYEv^s. This is practically a re-assertion of the statement in 206 c {6fS>v 
TO TTpdypa ktX.). Cp. Laws 773 E ats \pri rijff deiyevovs (jyvaeoys dvTi\e<TBai ra> 
7rm8aff iralSav KornXetTrovra kt\. 

207 A t'llirtp ToS d^aBov ktX. Against Bekker, Dindorf, Ast, Stallb.' who 
adopted tov Tayadov KUckert wrote: "etiam vulg. proba est. Construe : etn-fp 
ToO dyaSov cp<os carXv, quibus f^ijyi/Tttccor addita sunt verba tavrw dvat dei. In 
quibus supplendum est subj. 6 epas." To this Stallb.^ and Rettig assent, 
comparing Pind. 01. ill. 33 t&v viv y\vKvs ipepos f<Txfv...(j)vTfvtrm: Thuc. v. 
15. 1 €7ridvfiia Twv dvbpwv twv €k r^ff vrj(rov Kop.i(ra<rdai (where Poppo cites for 
the epexegetic infin. Crito 52 c, Xen. Ci/r. v. 231). None the less, the mss.' 
text seems— if not " sine uUo sensu " as Wolf put it — at least very awkward 
Greek. The obvious allusion to the former definition, 6 tpms cVt-i tov to 
dyadov avTw clvai dfl (206 A ad fin.), supports Bekker's .reading here as the 
right one : but if we read tov rdyadou here consistency requires that wo also 
read peTa Tayadov in the preceding line, an easy change but supported by no 
authority. Hence I content myself with the minimum of alteration, viz. 
dyaBov for dyaOov. 

B. P. 8 



114 nAATQNOZ [207 A 

epo)riK0v X070U9 iroioiTo, xai irore ijpero Tt o'iei, w StB^/sares, oltiov 
ecvai TOVTOV tov epmro^ Koi t^s eiridvfiia'; ; ^ ovk alaOavei tu? 
oeti/fu? Siariderai irdvra to, drjpia, eireiSav yevvav iiriOv/jLijar), Kal 

B Ta ire^d xal rd TTTrjvd, voaovvrd re iravra Kal ep(OTi,K&^ Siari- 
6efj,eva, Trpwrov fiev trepX to ^Vfji,/j,iyfjvai, dXKtj\oi<!, eiretra irepl rrjv 
Tpocfirjv TOV yevo/j.ivov, Kal eTot/j,d eariv virep tovt(ov kuI Biap-d- 
■Xeirdai Ta dadevearTara toi<; tV^upoTarots Kal vvepairoOvfiaKeiv, 
Kai avTa r^Xifim TrapaTeivofieva Sicrr eKeiva eKTpi<f>ei,v, Kal aWo 
irav TTOtovvra ; tov^ fiev <ydp dvOpmirov's, €cf>7], oXoit av Tit Ik 
Xo'fiafiov TavTa nroietv Ta he 0r)pla Ti'i aWia ovt(o<; epcoTiKwt 

C hiariOea-Qai,; e^ei? Keyeip ; Kal eyo) av eXejov oti ovk elBelijv 
ij S' etTre, Aiavoei oip Bei-v6<; •jrore yev^a-eardai to, epcoriKa, idv 
TavTa /XT] evvofj's ; AXka Bia TavTa too, at ^lorifia, o-rrep vw Brj 
eiTTOv, vapa are i)Ka>, yvoiit OTi SiBacrKaXcop BkopMi. dWd fioi \eye 

207 A altrdavT) Bt. fTrtflu/ioxn O.-P.' B ia-nv del. Bdhm. TovTtov 

KOI BT O.-P. : TOVTcav W aira: avrai O.-P. tu del. Bdhm. napaTet- 

vo/icvm O.-P.' epcuTiKas del. Naber av fKeyov b, vulg. Sz. Bt. : 
dveXeyov B : &v eXeyov TW : eXeyov O.-P. 



us Stivios SiaTCOerai. " In welchem gewaltsamen Zustande sich die Thiere 
befinden" (Schlei.). The phrase is echoed by Alcibiades in 215 e, cp. 207 b, 
208 c. For SiiiSfins see Phileh. 11 d, with my note. 

207 B voiravVTa. . .irepl. Cp. Phaedr. 228b vocrovvri nep\ \6yuiv aKo!]v: 
Soph. fr. 162 (Dindf.) voarift eparos tovt ^(jiipepov kukov (but Nauok fr. 153 
reads the verse otherwise). 

Kol Siafj.dxio'Bai ktX. This is a correction of Pliaedrus's statement 
(179 a ffi): cp. 220 D ff. For the fact, cp. Aelian 21. A. i. 18, ii. 40: Laws 
814 b pr/S' Sairep SpviSas vfpi tckvodv paxop4vas...4BeKeiv dnodvjjiTKeiv kt\. 

Kol oCtcI ktX. "Schleiermacher: um sie nur zu ernahren. Recte. Fallitur 
enim Honimel, aa-re sic usurpari negans ideoque voculam ejectam cupiens. 
Conf. De Rep. viii. p. 549 c al." (Stallb.). As Stallb. explains, avTa kt\. 
depend on aiadavti, the construction being changed, and avTa = sponte. For 
irapuTilvecrOm, "racked," cp. Lys. 204 o: Ar./n 421. 

rfe alrta ktK. For airm with the (anarthrous) iniin., cp. Pliaedo 91 a. 
alTia...yevi<r6ai. For the foregoing description of the phenomena connected 
with reproduction in the animal-world, cp. (with Rettig) Od. xvi. 216 ff. ; 
Laws 814 B ; Arist. Hist. An. vill. 1 ; Cic. de fin. III. 19. 62. 

207 C Aiavoel. "Do you fancy — ?": cp. Laws 755 b pr)KeTi...Trjv tijXi- 
KavTrjv apxrjv iis ilp^av SiavoridriTa. Notice the tone of indignant scorn in 
which Diotima speaks, cp. 204 b. 

8eivAs T(i ipcoTiKci. Cp. 193 E, 198 D. 

oircp vvv Si] elirov. See 206 B. 



207 D] lYMnOIION 115 

Kai, TOVTcov TT)V atTiav Koi rS)V aXKcov r&v irepl to. ipmTiKa. 
Et Toivvv, e(f>r], ■m,<TTevei<; eKeivoO elvai <j>v(Tet top epcora, ov ttoK- 
XdKi<! mfioXoy^xafiev, firj Oavfia^e. evravda yap top avrop ixelvq) D 
Xoyop r) OvrjTr) <f)va-i<; ^T)Tel Kara to BvvaTov ael to eipai affdpa- 
T09. hvpaTai Se ravrrj fiopov, rfj yepiirei, OTt del icaraXeLtrei eTspov 
peop dpTi Tov TToXacov, iwel koX iv c5 ep exaa-Top t&p ^tpcop ^rjp 

207 D {koto) tov aiiTov Hirschig alel TO eivai aBdvaros B : dci tc civai Koi. 

dSdvaros T O.-P., Jn. Bt. : TO df\ etvai Sz. : to fivai del J.-U. Trj yeviaei 

libri, O.-P.: tji yfvvr)a-fi Wolf Bdhm. J.-U.: seel. Verm. Sz. Bt. on: Srav 
Usener KaToKelnr] Usener (v.-.^wav del. Ast 

o5 iroXXaKis <o(i.. ov means dffavaa-ias : jroXXoKiy refers not only to 206 e f. 
but also to other conversations such as are implied in 207 a (eSiSao-Kf /le 
OTTore ktX.). 

207 D IvTaCeo. " Here," i.e. in the case of ra Brjpla, as distinguished from 
that of humans. 

TOV ovt4v...Xo'yov. Adv. accus. ; cp. 178 b. 

KarA TO 8uvaT&v. This implies (cp. 208 A ad fin., b) that only partial 
immortality, at the best, can attach to ^ SvrjTrj (/>ucris. 

dtX TO rival dedvaTos. I retain the reading of B rejected by recent edd. (see 
crit. ?i.) : del goes with the preceding words, cp. Eep. 618 c tov /ScXt-iib ck tS>v 
Suvarmv del iravraxov aipeio-^at : and 206 A, B supra. If, with Burnet, we 
adopt the reading of T, we must suppose etvai to be doing double duty, 
"both to exist (elvai) always and to be (eivm) immortal." For the desire 
of this mortal "to put on immortality," cp. Eur. fr. 808 S </)»Xof<ooi j3/>otoi... 
ovT(os epa>s /3pdroi(Tiv eyKeirai plov : Browne Hydriot. c. 5 " Restless inquietude 
for the diuturnity of our memories unto present considerations seems a 
vanity almost out of date, and superannuated piece of folly." 

SvvaTai ktX. This introduces the explanation of the saving phrase Kara 
TO SuvaTov. TavTjj is adverbial (equiv. to Tain-ri rfj firf^dvj) in 208 B ad init.), 
and T7 yivco-fi, if genuine, is an opexogetic supplement. Possibly we should 
excise Tjj -yeveVet, with Vcrniehrcn ; or else alter to t^ yewi/o-ei. But tlic use 
of Tfl yfvea-et above (206 d) in the sense of " the process of generation," com- 
bined with the emphasis, by repetition of its moods and tenses, laid on 
yiyvta-6m in the sequel (207 D — 208 a), may make us hesitate to adopt any 
change ; cp. also the passage quoted in the next note. 

del KaTttXefirei ktX. Cp. Laws 721 C yivos ovv dvBpiiiraiv ...tovtm tm Tpoirto 
dddvarov ov, tw iraihas Traidoiv KaraXeiTrd^^ievov TauTov koX ev ov del yevcVet ttjs 
dSavaaias fi.eT(iKi]<p4vai: ib. 773 E (cited above). On this "conceit" of "a 
fruitful issue wherein, as in the truest chronicle, they seem to outlive them- 
selves," Sir T. Browne (Rel. Med. § 41) observes " This counterfeit subsisting 
in our progenies seems to me a mere fallacy " etc. 

4ir«l Kol kt\. We should expect this first clause to be followed by some- 
thing like OVK eirri to ai/TO dWa ve'ov del •yi'yveToi, tcV 8e dn-oXXucri or ouSeVoTe 

TO avTci e^ei e'v iavra, but, afl'ected by the parenthetic clause olov...y(vryrai, the 

8—2 



116 nAATfiNOI [207 d 

KaXeirai xal elvai to avro, olov ex "TraiSapiov 6 avTO? Xiyerai ea)9 

av "TTpeajSvTrji yevrjTaf ovto^ fievTot ovBeiroTe to, avra eyav ev 

avTm o/jico<; 6 avrb<! KoXeiTai, aXKa veo<; del yiyvofievot, rk he 

E airoKXvi, Ka\ Karh ra? Tp't,')(a^ xal adpKa koI oara koX alfia koX 

■ ^Vfiirav TO <TCi)/j,a, koI /ir/ on kuto, to (rai/xa, aWa xal kutcl Tr/v 

■\jrv)^r)v 01 Tpoiroi, Ta ijdrj, So^ai, eTri6v/j,iac, rjhoval, Xvirai, <p6^oi, 

TovTcop e/cacTTa ouSeVore to, uvt^ irdpeaTiv iicda'Ta), dXKd Ta fiev 

ytyveTai,, Ta Be dTroXK.vTai. iroXii Se tovtodv aToirdtTepov ert, ort 

208 Kui at, eTTiaTfjfMai fir) oti ai fiev yiyvovTai, at Be diroWvvTai rjfilv, 

Ka\ ovSeiroTe oi avToi eafiev ovSe kutu ra? eVtCTJ^/ia?, aWa Kal 

fxia e/cuaTT] tu>v eTnaTrjfiMv tuvtov Trdaj^ei. b yap KaXeiTai fieXe- 

207 D TO aura : raura O.-P. : ravT Bdhm. dWa vios : dXXoioj Steph. : 

oKKa vios Ta jikv Sommer : fort, (ra fitv) afia vios {to. jiev irpoaXafi^dvav) ra 
Si Wolf: Ta 8e (iraXaid) Bast E Tponot T O.-P. : Tonoi B (Or, Fischer 

?Ti B O.-P. : daTiv TW 



sentence follows a different course. Op. the cases of anacoluthon in 177 b, 
182 D. 

v^os...Ta 8J a'TToWiis. For the omission of to fiev, cp. Theaet. 181 d, Protag. 
330 a, Rep. 451 D. I think it not unlikely that for a>Xd we should read a^ka : 
"^the processes of growth and decay are synchronous. For the substance of 
this passage cp. Heraclitus fr. 41 Sit es top airov noTafiov ovk &v iii^aijjs : 
(Heraclitus ap.) Plut. de EI Ddph. c. 18 o ;(fley (ttvdpanos) els tow aijpepov 
ridvijKev, o Si arjjfiepov eif tox aiSpiov dnoBvfja-Kfi. fiivei 8' ovSfls, ovS' eaTtv els, 
AXKa yiyvopeda jroXXoi nepi Iv cj)dvTaapa : Max. Tyr. diss. XLI. 4 /jeTn/3oX)ji/ 
opas (r(MifidTb)v Koi yeviaetos dWayT}v, 68ov avo> Koi KaToi kutci tov ^UpaKXetrov 
ktX.: Plut. cons, ad Apoll. 10: Cratyl. 439 d IF.; see also Rohde Psyche ll. 148. 
The influence of "the flowing philosophers" is noticeable also in Epicharm. 
fr. 40. 12 ff. (Lorenz)— 

£)5e vvv opi} 
Ka\ Tos dvSpanovs- 6 piv yap av^tO', 6 8i ya pav ^divei. 
€v p€TaX\aya Si irdvTes evTi irdvTa tov ^povov. 
6 de peTaWdatrei KaTa fpvo'iv KuivirOK* ev rcourcG pevet, 
aTepov eitj Ka t6S' ^8r] tov irape^eaTaxoTOS. 
Ka\ TV Sij Koycb x^" nXXoi Ka\ vvv aXXoi reXedopes, 
KaSBts aXXoi KoiCTTop^' uuroi kottov avTov av \6yov. 
Cp. Spenser F. Q. vii. 7. 19 And men themselves do change continually, | 
From youth to eld from wealth to poverty... Ne doe their bodies only flit and 
fly, I But eeke their minds (which they immortall call) | Still change and vary 
thoughts, as new occasions fall." 

208 A oi {Trurrijiiai. The word is used here in the popular sense — 
" notitiae rerum in sensus cadentium " (Riickert) ; cp. Rep. 476 D ff. 
ItcXerdv. See note on u/icXe'ri/ror 172 A supra. 



208 b] lYMnOIION 117 

Tav, d)<! e'ftouo-i;? earl Trj<; eVtcrTjf/ii;? • \ijdt] yap inrianqfJ/q^ €^oBo<!, 
fieXerr) Be -rraXiv tcatvrjv e/jLTroiovaa avrl Trj<s airiovcrrj'i [fiv>}fir]v] 
croj^ei TTjv eTri<rT7]fir]v, &arre rrjv avTr)v BoKetv elvai. tovt^ yap tw 
TpoTTip irav TO OvrjTov (rm^erat, ov t&5 iravTairao'i to avro aeX eivai 
(txTirep TO Oeiov, dWd to3 to diriov Kal iraXaiovfievov CTepov veov B 
eyKaraXevTreiv olov avro rjv. TavTr) tj} ij,rj)(^av^, m ^coKpaTe';, e<j)i], 
ovrjTov aQavaa-'ia'i /tiere^et, Kal aw/ia Kal ToXXa TravTW dEvvarov 
Be aXKy. /irj ovv dav/xa^e el to aurov diro^Xd(TTt)fia (]}vaei Trdv 
Tifia' dOavacrlas ydp ')(dpLv ttuvtI avrrj 97 cnrovBr} Kal epco^ 
eneTai. 

208 A /"'ij^'ji' aecl. Baiter Sz. Bt. : tivijfir) O.-V. : fivrmn Sauppe Jn. 
6vr)Tov T O.-P. : ovriTov B oi Tw T O.-P. : ouT-o) B TO avTov B O.-P. : 

TavTov Bdhm. J.-U. B Ta to: tm Liebhold : t<m to del Usener koI 

TraXatou/ifvoi' om. Stob., J.-U. eyKaToKfiwfiV. evKaTaXtireiv O.-P.: KOTaXfiTrfiv 
Stob.: del KaraXEiTreii' Hirschig Jn. TavTrj,..S.X\ri om. Stoh. iJieT€\fi. 

Sfceph., O.-P.: jifTix^iv libri, Voeg. ahvvaTov Creuzer Sz. Bt.: hwarov, 

dhivoTov Voeg.- addvoTov libri, O.-P. anav Stob. 



Xrfirf 7ap xrX. Cp. Phaedo 75 D ov tovto \r)6Tjv \eyoiiev...iniarrifii]s dno- 
^nXi'/x ; r/dleh. 33 K eort yap \ij6t) /ii'ty/xi/r t^nSor : Meno 81 ; Laws 732 C. 
For the Tri/yiy Ai'i&rjs {Mvijfioo-iviis) in Hades, see Pind. fr. 130; llolide, I'sycke 
II. 200^ 390'. 

[piviip,T]v]. Tliis word is either interpolated or corrupted {pace llcttig who 
attempts to defend it by citing Phileb. 34 b) : djrtouo-ijy must refer to the same 
subst. as f^iou<rijs above, viz. r^r iwurn)iir)s, while koivtjv must qualify the 
same subst. as djriouo-i;r. For later reff. to this doctrine, see Philo Jud. 
de nom. mut. p. 1060; Nemes. de nat. horn. 13, p. 166. 

208 B aXXd t5...oIov oiri ijv. This view is reproduced by Aristotle, 
de an. II. 4. 415* 26 ff. cjivtrtKaTaTOV yap tS>v tpywv rdis (S>(nv...T6 noiija-ai 
eTfpov olov avT6...iva rov del koi tov Belov p.eTe)(a>(Tiv...iTrel ovv Koivaveiv 
dhware'i tov del kolI tov 6elov TJj <TVve\fia..,KOivavel TavTji...Kal 8iap.4vei ovk 
avTo dXX' olov avTO, dpiBp-a fiev oix ev, siSti 8' ev : cp. id. Pol. I. 1252* 26 ff. ; 
de gen. an. ii. 735" 17 tf. 

To«Tfl Tjj 11. Cp. TavTT], 207 D od iuit. 

aSvvaTov SJ aXXx|. Stallb.'', retaining the traditional ddivarov, comments : 
"haec addita videntur et oppositionis gratia et propter verba extrema urn 
ToXKa ndvTa: quae ne false iutelligerentur, sane cavendum fuit" — which, as 
Hommel points out, is unsatisfactory. Against dSivarov Riickert absurdly 
objects that Plato would have written aWij Se ddivarov. 

■iravTl...!!ir€Tai. Since eirea-ffai is more naturally used of attendance on a 
divinity (cp. 197 E, Phaedr. 248 A etc.) perhaps enctmv ought to be read 
(cp. 183 B crit. n.). ^ a-n-ovSri serves to recall 206 B. 



118 nAATfiNOI [208 b 

XXVII. Kat 6<ya) aKovaa<s rov \6yov idavfiaad re Koi eiirov 
Etei/, ^v S" ijd), <u cro(f)(OTdTr) Aiorifia, ravra tu? d\'r)d&<; oi/tw? 

C 6'%6t; Kal r), cicnrep ol TeXeot ao<f>icrTac, ES iaOi, e(f)7), w 'S,d}KpaTe<;' 
6Trel Kal rSiv dvdpcovcov el iOeXec; ei? Tr}v (piXoTifiiav ^Xk-^ai, 
davfid^oi<; av rrj<; dXoyl,a<i [irepl] a iyco e'ipijKa el fir/ evvoei<;, evdv- 
fi7}6el<! w? Beivw SidKeivrat epcoTi rov ovoiMaaToii yeveadai " xai 
«Xeo? £9 TOP del ^(^povov dddvarov Karadecrdai," Kal virep tovtov 
KivSvvovi TS KivSvveveiv eToifioi elcri irdvTa'; en fidWov r] virep ra>v 

D iraiBcov, Kal 'X^p'^fiar dva\'iaKeiv Kal irovov! •jrovelv ovaTLvacrovv 

208 c(j)r, BT O.-R: ora. W iTrel B O.-R, Sz. : inei ye TW, Bt. 

e^c'Xoif Steph. TTfplBT: n-tpi Vind. 21, Bast Herm. : Trepi O.-P.: seel. Aat 
Sz. h B, Sz. Bt.: (Is TW O.-R dddvaTov del. Wolf ndvris W 
nSWov om. T 

EJev. "Really!": "In irrisione verti potest «o.?" (Ast). This is a some- 
what rare use ; cp. Rep. 350 E iya> 8e trot, Sxrirep rais ypava-iv rats roiis fivBovs 
\eyoi<rai.s, " eUv " ipa : lb. 424 E ; Euthyd. 290 c. For the doubled " verbum 
dicendi" {elnov...riv), cp. 177a, 202c. 

208 C uo-ircp Ol T^eoi <ro(|>LarTa(. We might render " in true professorial 
style." The reference may be partly (as Wolf and Hommel suggest) to the 
fact that the sophistic, as contrasted with the Socratic, method was that of 
didactic monologue (SuXip^ov KaTareivova-c Tov \6yov Prot. 329 a) — the lecture 
rather than the conversation. Thus in the sequel (208 c — 212 a) Diotima 
developes her own doctrine without the aid of further question-and-answer. 
Stallb., however, explains the phrase as intended to ridicule the pretended 
omniscience of the sophists ; Rettig sees in it an indication that what follows 
is meant, in part, as a parody of the earlier speeches; and by Ast and 
Schleierm. it is taken to refer only to the dogmatic tone of «u Xa-Bi.. For 
Tc'Xeof a-o<f>i<TTrjs, cp. Crat. 403 E (applied to Hades) ; a-ocjyia-Tfis applied to Eros, 
203 D ; 01 xprj<TTol croi^iaTai, 177 B ; oi crocfioi, 185 0. It is possible also that in 
TiXeos there may be a hint at the mystery-element in D.'s speech (cp. 210 a 
and TTpbs HXos 210 e). 

A i6i\a% ktK. For (j)iKoTip.ia, cp. 178 D. The thought here recalls Milton's 
" Fame is the spur that the clear spirit doth raise " etc. 

eau|j.d£ois ov ktX. Stallb., defending nepl, says "ad iwoeU facillime e 
superioribus intelligitur aird." But we may justly complain here, as Badham 
does at Phileb. 49 a, of " the dunce who inserted TrepV 

Kal KXto$...KaTa6^<r6ai. "Ex poeta aliquo petita esse ipse verborum 
numerus declarat " (Stallb.) : but it is just as probable that Diotima herself 
is the authoress —rivalling Agathon. Op. Tyrtaeus 12. 31 — 2 oiSe itote KXe'ot 
€(rd\6v dnoWvTat ov8 tivop.^ cwtov | ciXX' V7r6 yrjs irep iav yiyverai dddvaros : 
Theogn. 245 — 6 ovSe tot' oiSt Qaviav dnokeii k\4os, dWd ^cX^cfif | a(pdiTov 
dvBpanois aUv e^av ovofia: Simon. 99. 1 aii^fCTTOv kXcos... divres. For the 
thought, see also Oic. Tusc. l. p, 303; Cat. Mai. 22. 3. 



208 D] ZYMnOZION 119 

Kai vTrepa-7ro6vpa-K€iv. eVet ot'et crv, etprj, "AkKr/aTiv virep 'ASfiijTov 
aTToOavelv av, rj 'A;y;(X\ea UarpoKKp eirairoOavelv, rj TrpoairoOavelv 
Tov v/ieTepov KoSpov vTrep tjJ? 0acriXeia<; tmv iraLhav, fir) olofievov^ 
" adavarov fivijfiriv dpsTrj'; iripi " eavT&v etrea-dai, rjv vvv '^fiel<; 
e'x^ofj.ev ; iroWov ye Set, e(^j;, aW', olfjuai, virep dperrj^ dOavdrou 
Kai TOiavTrji; Bo^iji; eu/cXeoO? Trai/re? irdvTa iroiovaiv, oaw av dfiet- 

208 D (iv. .. npoaTTodavelv om.W /SaXtms O.-P. TTf'pi Ast Sz. Bt. : 

n€p\ BT 

208 D vircpaTToSviQo-Kav. An obvious allusion to 180 A flf.: Diotima corrects 
Phaedrus by showing the motive for self-sacrifice to be not so much personal 
i'pas as epas for immortal fame. The use of the cognate accus. {kivSvvovs, 
TToyour) is another poetical feature in this passage — reminiscent of Agathon's 
style. 

KoSpov. Schol. : noXffiov roir Atopievaiv ovros rrpos 'A.6r)vaiovs, (^pijcrev 
6 6e6s Tois Aapievo-iv aiprjo-fiv ras 'Adr/vas, el KoSpov tov ^acriKea fiij (jiovei- 
(rovmv. ■yi'oui 8e roCro o KoSpos, <7Tf[\as eavTov furtXci a-Kfir/ i>s ^uXtor^i' Kai 
Opiiravov Xa^av, enl tov x^dpoKa Tatv TToXe/ximi' npoijei. Sio 8e avTw airavTr)- 
a-avTav noXep-iav tov p.ev eva naTa^as KaTe^oKev, vtto 8e tov crdpov dyvorjdeis 
ooTtf ^v, TrXi/ycis aniBavf. This "popular story" is late: "according to the 
older tradition Codrus fell in battle " (see Bury Hist. Gr. p. 169) : the 
traditional date of the .event is about 1068 B.C. Notice the rare npoano- 
6avfiv (once each in Hdt., Antiphon, Xen.), and the "sophistic" jingle in 
npo-, €7r-, anoBaveiv. For later allusions to Codrus, see Cic. Tusc. i. 48; 
Hor. C. III. 19. 2. 

d6ovaTov (ivii(iiiv ktX. Cp. Simon. 123 /JiV^fia 8' d7ro(f>diii4voi(ri iraTr^p 
MeydpKTTOs eOrjKcv | addvarov Svj^Tois nma\ xapi^ofievos : id. 4. 8 (AfcoviSas) 
(ijOETas XfXo£7rcl>r | koct/jlov aivaov k\4os t( : id. 96. Observe how near AQdvaTov 
...(o-etrBai goes to forming a complete hexameter. 

dpcTtjs dSavdrov. Cp. Soph. Philoct. 1419 oo-our novrjtras Ka\ Sie^fXSaiv 
TTovovs 1 nSdvaTov dpeTqv etrxov : Pind. 01. VII. 163 avhpa tc ttv^ dperav €v- 
povTa: id. Nem. X. 2 <^\iyfTai 8' dpfTats jxvpiait i'pyaiv BpaiTtrnv evfKev 
("countless monuments ' J. B. Bury, see Append. A in his ed.): id. Isthiii. 
IV. 17 (with Bury, App. F): Thuc. I. 33. 2; Rep. 618 b eVi yeVta-i xm npoyovwv 
dpeTois : Xen. Cyrop. viii. 1. 29 : Anth. Pal. vii. 252. These passages show 
that dpeTj) can denote not only "excellence" but its result, reward or token, 
"renown," "distinction," whether or not embodied in a concrete "monument." 
For the thought cp. Spenser F. Q. lli. iii. 1 " Most sacred fyre, that burnest 
mightily In living brests... which men call Love... Whence spring all noble 
deedes and never dying fame." 

(vkXcovs. Cp. Simon. 95 euxXear aia Kinevde, Aeavlda, oS iiera (reio | t!j8' 
fSavov : Menex. 247 d. With the thought of this passage, cp. Sir T. Browne 
Hydriot. c. 5 "There is no antidote against the opium of time.. ..But the 
iniquity of oblivion blindly scattereth her poppy, and deals with the memory 
of men without distinction to merit of perpetuity.. ..In vain do individuals 



120 nAATQNOZ [208 d 

E vov<; dSai, roaoirta /jloXXov rov yap ddavdrov ip&criv, oi fiev ovv 
ejKVfiove^, e(}>rj, Kara rd adofiara ovre^ tt/oo? to? jvvaiKa<: fiaXXov 
TpeTTovrai Koi ravTy iptoTiKoi eicri, Sid -TraiSoyoviwi adavaaiav Kai 
fivijfirjv Kal evSaifioviav, &)? oiovTat, avTOti " et? rov eireira '^povov 
209 irdvra iropi^ofievoi" • oi he Kara rrjv ■^t/x^V" — ^tcri yap ovv, e<f)ri, ot 
ev Tai? ■^v)(al(; Kvovaiv en fiaXKov rj ev rot? aco/xaaiv, a "^vxj} 
rrpoarjKei kuI Kvfja-ai kuI rsKeiv ri ovv TrpocrijKei ; (ppovtjaiv re 
■ Kal rrjv aXkrjv dperrjv ^v Si] elcn Kal oi -Troir/ral irdvre'! yevvrj- 

208 E icarh TO O.-R, Paris 1812, vulg. Sz. : Kara BTW, Bt. olov « Vind. 21 
209 A 5 (m) eV Naber Kvrjo-frat O.-P.' : Kvtiaain O.-P. corr. : Kveio-dai 

Bdhm. T€Keiv Hug Sz., O.-P.: Kveiv Hbri: tUtuv Jn. : yevvav cj. Teuffel 

hope for immortality, or any patent from oblivion, in preservations below the 
moone." Also Soph. Pkiloct. 1422 « rav novav tS>v8' fiK\(a deo-dat ^Lov. 

208 E ot fXv ovv iyKvyiovts. Here first the two kinds of pregnancy, bodily 
and mental, — mentioned together in 206 b, c — are definitely separated. 

irpos TcLs 7. f~ Tpftrovrai. Cp. 181 C, 191 E. 

dSavao-Cav ktX. Hug points out that by a few slight alterations this can 
be turned into an elegiac couplet : — 

addvarov iivrjjirjv Ktihaifiovlav a^'i<riv airots 
els Tov eireira ^povov napra iropt^ofievot. 
Hommel had already printed €ts...xpovov as a half-verse. 

209 A ot 8i Kara t^v 'Imx'!"- '^''- ^y<vjioves ovres. In this anacoluthic 
period Rettig sees a parody of Phaedrus's style with its " langathmigen, 
anakoluthischen und regellosen Perioden.'' 

Kal KvT|o-ai. Kal TCKctv. Hug's conjecture, Tf/cfiv for kveiv, is fortunate 
in finding confirmation in the Papyrus. If Kvf'iv be read, what is the 
point of the distinction of tenses? Schleierm. renders by "erzeugen und 
erzeugen zu woUen"; Schulthess, "zeugen und empfangen"; Rettig explains 
that " Kvuv geht auf den daueruden, Kvrjo-ai auf den voUendeten Process " ; 
Stallb. "et concepisse (quae est actio semel...perfecta) et conceptum tenere." 
But there is certainly not much point here in making any such fine-spun 
distinction, unless it be to imply that Diotima is playing the part of a 
(ro<l>i<TTfis ! 

i{>p6vi)a-iv...apcTijv. "Moral wisdom and virtue in general": the phrase is 
an echo of that in 184D. For (ppovrjiris, cp. Rep. 427 e (with Adam's note) ; 
Meno 88 B (with Thompson's note). 

01 iroiT|Tal. That the poets were ethical teachers and the stage a pulpit — 
just as Homer was the Greek Bible — was au axiom in the Hellenic world. 
See the appeal to the authority of poets in the Protagoras (and Adam's note 
on 338 e) ; Ar. Ran. 1009 (Eurip. loquitur) jSeXriovr re noiovptv tovs avdpa- 
TTovs ev Tats noXeaiv : Lysis 214 A ofrot yap (sc. ot Troiijrai) fjpiv Siaitep rrarepes 
Ttjs troipias €tcr\ xai fiye/ioves. The fact that most kinds of poetry were pro- 
duced in connexion with, and under the sanction of, religion, had no doubt 
something to do with this estimate of it. See further Adam R. T. O. pp. 9 fi". 



209 b] ZYMnOZION 121 

Tope? Koi T&v Brjfiiovpy&v oaoi Xeyovrac evperiKol elvai' iroXii Se 
/leyta-Tr), e<f>7), koi KaWicrrTj t^? ^povi]a-e(o<s r] nepl Ta? t&v TToXecov 
Te Kai otKtjaetov oiaKoafirjO'ei'i, y hrj ovofid io'Tt ffwi^poavvrj re Kol 
oiKaiocrvvT] • tovtcov av orav tk sk veov iryKvixaiv ■§ rrjv '^vyhv B 
6elo<; m> Koi ^kovot)^ tij? rfKiKiaii riKTeiv re koi yevvdv 'i^Brj eiri- 
Ovfifj, ^7)Tel Stj, ol/iai, Kal ovto<; irepiimv to koXov iv ^ av yevvij- 
aeiev ev tou ynp al(f)(pip ovScTTOTe yevvJjaei. to, t6 ovv amfiaTa to. 
KoKa /jLoXXov T] to. ala')(pd dcnrd^eTai uTe KVtbv, Kal av evTv^xji 
"^vxv icdky Kal yevvaia Kal ev(j)vei, irdw Srj daird^eTai, to ^vva/j,- 

209 A Tar libri, O.-P. : ra Sommer Bt. 8inKoo-/iijo-«E Vind. 21, vulg. 

Bast Heindorf J.-U. Sz.: SiaKoo-juijcrtr libri, O.-P., Sommer Bt. B aS B 

O.-P., J.-U. Sz.: 8' aS TW, Bt. i^vx^v, {t!,v <t>i<riv) Heusde ^«os- libri, 

O.-P., Sz. : jjdeos Parmentier Bt. : Bf'ws av del. Jn. (nidvuy Steph. J.-U. 

Sz. : enievixri O.-P. : iTridvixe'i libri, Bt. 87 BT O.-P. : 8e W wcpuav T 

O.-P. : nep'i &v B iv w hi] yivvrj^rri Bdhm. fj Ta ala-xpa del. Bdhm. 

art : ye Usener 

St))ii.ovp7wv. . .evpcTiKol. An allusion to 197 a hrffuovpyiav ...avfiipev. 

|i«7£<rTi]...TTis <|>povij<re€os. Cp. Crat. 391 B opdoTarr] rqe a-Keyjretos : Rep, 416 B ; 
Thuc. I. 2 r^s y^r fj apiuTr) : see Madv. Gr. S. § 50 a, R. 3. 

<ra!(j>po<r{>vT| re Kal SiKaioo-uvr). Cp. Phaedo 82 A. ot rrfv brjpioTiKjjv re kqi ttoXi- 
TtKTjv apeT^v CTrtTeTijBevKores, i]v 817 KoXovai ir<o(j}pO(rvvi)v tc Kai diKatO(Tvvr]Vj c^ 
edovs T€ Kai pfXiTfjs yeyovv'uiv livev (/jiXoeroc^ias rf (cni vov : Meno 73 A. For 
these virtues in the UepiMic, see Adam on 432 A, 434 c. Here they combine 
to form a description of " ordinary civil virtue." 

209 B ToOrmv aS ktK. Here the main statement is resumed. With 
Stephens (followed by Ast, Ruckert and Hug) I read eniBvp^, whereas 
Bui'net prints e7rt6vp.ei. CtjTft Sq kt\., with commas after i/'uxi" ^'^'^ ^Xtxiar. 
Stallb. takes koi as intensive rather than connective, and renders 6(ios civ 
" quippe divinus." Burnet adopts Parmentier's Ijdfos, but there seems little 
point in emphasizing the celibacy of the youth. If alteration be required, 
the best would be evBeos, for which cp. 179 a, 180 b. But in Meno 99cff. 
^elor, in much the same sense as evBeos, is applied to the very classes here 
mentioned — 6pdS>s av KoKoiptv fftlovs n, otis vvv 8^ iXiyopev xP't'^l'-'^hovs koi 
fidvTeis Kai tovs troirjriKOVs dnavras' Kai tovs iro\iTiKOvs.,.<j)a'ifi.€v &v Oeiovs T€ 
(Ivai Ka\ ivdoviria^tiv kt\. (see Thompson ad loc.) : hence the word may well 
be sound here also. For Trjs ^Xticmc (and 6fins) cp. 206 c. 

jT)Ttt...irtpiulv. Cp. Proi. 348 D irepiiaiv (r)Tei ot<o iiriSei^rirai: Rep. 620 C : 
Apol. 23 b. ntpiievai occurs also in 193 a, 219 e. 

iv T§ 7dp ttl<rxp$- A repetition of 206 c : cp. Rep. 402 d, Phaedr. 253 A ff. 

Kal ov...ewi|>«et. Notice the iambic rhythm. For the sense of ytwaioi, 
" well-bred " (of a dog, Rep. 375 a), cp. (Eurip. op.) Oorg. 485 e. For ev^vr]s 
also cp. (Eurip. ap.) Oorg. 484cflF. ; Rep. 409 e. Cp. for the sense Plotin. de 
pulcr. 309 (Cr.) ; Rep. 620 b ; Cic. Lael. 14 ; and esp. Phaedr. 276 E. 

TO |vyap.fj>6Tcpov. Cp. /. Alc. 130 A ^vx^iv rj o'Ssp.a rj ^vvap.(j>6Tfpov. 



122 nAATQNOI [209 b 

<f>OTepov, Koi irp6<! TOVTov TOP dvOpcoTTOV ev6v<; evTTopel X6yo)v irepX 
C apeTTji; koi [Trept] olov XPV ^^vai tov dvSpa top ayaOov koL d itriTr]- 
Beveiv, KoX eTTi'^eipei TratBeveiv. aTrro/ievo'; yap, ol/j-ai, tov kuXov 
Kai oixi\S)v avrS, a iraXai ixvei . tiktsi koI yevva, kui Trapmu Kai 
aTraiv /j,6/u,v>)fievoi, Kal to yevvr)6ev a-vveKrpe<f)ei, Koivrj fier' i/ceuvov, 
ware ttoKv fiet^oy KOtvaviav [t^? tiSi/ ■jtmScov^ ■trpoi; dXKrfKov^ ol 
roiovTOi icT'^ovcn koI ^iXLav ^e^atoTepav, are KaWiovcov /cat 
dOavaTOirepcou iraiSaiv KeKoivcovTjKore^. xal 7ra? av Be^aiTO eavTw 
D ToiovTOvs TratSa? fiaXXov yeyovivai rj rov<; avdpcoTnvovi, kui et? 
' Ofiripov a7rojSXei|ra? Kal <et?> 'Ha-ioSov koI roii^ oKKov; 7roir]Ta<: 
Toi'9 aya0oii<; ^rjXwv ola exyova eavroiv KaToXeiirovaiv, a e'/ceti'ots 

209 irepX seel. Steph. Mdvg. Sz. Bt: nepi tov Coisl.: Trepi olov Sommer 
an-oiK Ka\ napcov T cat (ante to) om. Vind. 21, Bast r^r. . . TratSmi/ 

seclusi tS>v waiSmv : aWav waiSav Hug' : 6vr)Ta>v naiSav Schirlitz : tS>v 

TToWStv Rohde : ratv iratSoyovoiv Bast : fort, rav {yrjlvatv) iraihiav KoKKiuiv 

utv B naiSiov seol. Creuzer J.-U. D eis Ho-ioSov O.-P. : 'Ho-t'oSov libri, 

edd. fijTwi' Sa-a Proclus : fijXoiij ola Ast KaTaXeXoinacriv Method. Bdhni. 



Eviropci Xo'yuv. Op. 223 A ; Tim. 26 D iva (viropotev Xoywi' per ipov. 

209 C Kal [irepl] olov ktX. nep\ is retained by Hommel and Stallb. who 
renders " quale sit in quo traotando versari debeat is qui boni viri nomen et 
dignitatem obtinere velit," taking orov as neut., and by Rettig who regards 
the "redundance and tautology" of the words as due to the "sophistical 
character" of the passage. 

ToB KoXoii. This is masc, not neuter, as the context shows. 

Kal irapiiv Kal diriiv. A rhetorical formula; cp. Soph. Antig. 1109 ol -r 
ovTes 01 T anovres: id. El. 305: Crat. 420 a, Laws 635 a. As Hommel 
observes, pepvi}pivos (so. airov) can in strictness apply only to dnaiu. 

t6 yevvr\6lv kt\. Cp. 207 B, Pkaedr. 276 e. 

TTJs Tiiiv TraCSwv. HugprintsrSv ^ x x 7rai'8(ai' with the note (after Vermehren) 
"es scheint ein Epitheton wie 0uo-ei o. ahul. ausgefallen zu seiu." Stallb. 
explains 17 Koivavla rav naiSwv to mean "conjunctio ex liberorum procreatioue 
oriunda." The simplest remedy is to bracket the words t^s tS>v naiStov (see 
crit. n.). 

dSavarioT^puv. For this Hibernian comparison cp. Phaedo 99 c. 

209 D Jt)Xwv ola kt\. I.e. ^rfKav avTovs on Toiavra ktX., " With envy for 
the noble oS'spring they leave." For oror = oTi toiovtos, cp. Xen. Cyr. vii. 3. 13 
(Sfadv. Or. S. § 198 R. 3). Rlickcrt punctuates after 'Hu-io8oi/, Hommel after 
njro/3Xei|rnt, and it is evident from Rcttig's note, — "Homer kann man nur 
bewundern, mit andern Dichtern ist es eher moglich zu wetteifern," — that 
he too mistakes the construction: we must supply avrovs (as Stallb.) with 
(i)KS>v and construe all the accusatives as depending on els: cp. /. Ale. 120 a, 
122 B, c. This passage is quoted by Proclus ad PL Rep. p. 393. 



209 E] lYMnOZION 123 

aOdvarov KXeo<; kol fivt^fitjv Tra/se^erat avra Totavra ovra' el oe 
^ovXet, e(f}'r], oiov? AvKovpyoi; TraiSa<; KareKiTreTO iv AaKeBai/Movi 
(TWTrjpa^ TJJ9 AaKeSaifiovo<; kuI ox; 67ro9 elireiv ttj? 'EWaoo?. 
Tifiio<; Se Trap" vfuv Kal SoXwv Bid rrjv twv vofiMV yevvrja-iv, Kai 
dWoi a\Xo9i, TToWa'x^ov avBpe^, Kal €v"EK\r]ai Koi iv ^apfBapoi';, E 
TToWa Kal KoXd dvoKfirjvd/Mevoi epya, ryevvijaavTev iravTOiav aperrjv 
(Sv Kal iepd TroWd ijSr] yeyove Sid Toii? toiovtov; TraiSa<!, Bia Be 
Toil? dvdpanrivov(; ovBev6<; irco. 

XXVIII. TauTa f^iev ovv Ta epasTiKa tVctf?, w 2,wKpaTe<;, kcLv 

209 D KarfXiVfTO b O.-P, J.-U. Sz. Bt. : KaTEXt7rfi'...To B: KareXdrrfTO 
T : KorfXiTTf Tois vulg. : KareXirrti/ avrov Rettig i/xiv TW vulg. : rjjxiv B O.-P. 
(probab.) (o) SoXmv O.-P. E iv "EXXijcrt : EXXr/iri O.-P. eV ^ap^dpots : 

/3a/>/3apotr Clement 7roXXa...fpya seel. Hartmann koKo.: uXXa O.-P. (koi) 
yfuvtja-avTfS O.-P. (oiSeV) oiSevos na Hirschig 



dBdvaTov kX^os Kal |i.vij|ii]V. Op. 208 D ( 

avTo. Toiaixo. Rettig says "so. aBavara" ; but the words imply kXc'os as well 
as dSavacria. 

A %\ po<IX«i. See on 177 D. This is a brachylogy for «' he fiovKfi, ^rfXav 
AvKOvpyov oiovs ndidas kt\. 

iratSas KareXCTrexo. For the middle, cp. Laws 721 C, Rep. 594 C. 

(TUTiJpas TTJs A. " Dadurch, dass sie den revolutionaren Bewegungen ein 
Endc machten" (Rettig). Agathon had already applied a-iorrip to Eros (197 b). 
For Plato'.s philo-Laconisni, sec Zcller's Flaio (E. T.) p. 484. For tlic 
mythical lawgiver "Lycurgus'' (vulgarly dated at 885 B.O.), see Bury //. Gr. 
p. 135. The statement that his laws were the salvation " practically " of 
Hellas may be taken to refer to the part played by the Spartans during 
the Persian invasions, cp. Pind. Pi/th. i. 77 ff. See also the parallel passage 
in Xen. Symp. viii. 38 — 9. 

t(|iios 8i ktX. For this emphatic position of the adj., cp. Laws 730 d rifuos 
fiev 8q Koi 6 fir)8kv adiKwr. 

209 E aXXoi aXXoOi TToXXaxov. An echo of 182 B : cp. Prot. 326 D. This 
passage is alluded to by Clem. Al. Strom. I. p. 130. 38 ev tc rm (rvfiiroaia 
iwatvatv IlXdrwy Tois ^ap^dpovs kt\. 

iroXXd. . .^P7a. Another rhetorical "tag," as is shown by the parallel 
in Mene.V. 239a jroXXa...Kat koKo. epya aTrecfirjvavTO els ndvrns dvdpanovs: 
cp. Phaedrus's expressions in 179 b, c. 

TravToCav aperijv. Cp. Critias 112 E Kara ttjv rcav TJrv^Siv jravrolav dpeTrjv ; 
Eur. Med. 845 {eparas) navToias dperds ^vvepyovs. 

UpA iroXXA. For the shrine of Lycurgas, see Hdt. I. 66, Plut. Lye. 31. The 
language echoes Aristophanes' p-eyurr tw avrov lepa Karao-Kevda-ai (189 c); and 
it is cited by Clem. Al. Strom, i. p. 300 P. 

ToBTa...Kav <ri )jivt|6€Ctis. Here Diotima passes on to the final section of 
her discourse on erotics (see 210 D ».). Hug and P. Crain (following 
C. F. Hermann and Sohwegler) suppose that kcLv <rv p.. indicates that what 
follows is something beyond the ken of the historical Socrates, whose view 



124 nAATQNOZ [209 E 

210 crv fj.V7)0elrj<!' to. Be reXea koI iiroirTiKd, wv eveKa Koi ravra eariv, 
eav Tt9 opOw'i neriT], ovk olK el olo^ t av etij?. epSi fiev oiv, e^r)> 
eyco Koi irpoffvfMia'; ovSev aTroXei-^co' ireipSi hi. <Kal crv> erreadai, 

210 A &v post oi8' transp. Naber f(j)i]v O.-P. Km av eirtaOai O.-P. : 
eireaQai libri, edd. 

they regard as correctly represented in Xen. Symp. vm. 97 ff. But although 
we may admit (with Thompson, Meno p. 158) that " we often find Plato 
making his ideal Socrates criticise the views the real Socrates held," we are 
not hereby justified in assuming such criticism on every possible occasion. 
And, in the case before us, another and more probable explanation of the 
words lies to hand. Socrates throughout — with his usual irony — depicts 
himself as a mere tiro in the hands of the Mantinean mistress; but he is 
still, in spite of his mock-modesty, the ideal philosopher of Alcibiades' 
encomium. As it was a part of his irony that he had already (201 e) put 
himself on the level of Agathon and the rest of the unphilosophic, so the 
contemptuous kuv a-ii here serves to keep up the same ironical fiction, — i.e. 
it applies neither to the ideal nor to the real (historical) Socrates, but to 
the hypothetical Socrates — the disguise assumed by the ideal Socrates when 
he played the part of pupil (cp. Rettig's note, and F. Horn Plaionstud. p. 248). 
The attitude of Socr. may be illustrated by the words of S. Paul (1 Cor. iv. 6) 
Taitra 5e, ndeX^oi, fi€Ts(T\rniarL(ra els e^avTov koX AttoXXo) 8i vfias, Lva iv Vfuv 
liaBrjTe ktX. For ^tvt)6cii]s, see next note. 

210 A Ta Si...liro'irTiKa. Cp. Phaedr. 250c evSaliiova cpda/iaTa fivoifjifvoi 
T€ Koi iiroTTTEvovres '. ib. 249 C TcKiovs acl TeXeras reXovftevos. On the former 
passage Thompson comments, " fivovfievoi and eTronreCovTes are not to be 
distinguished here, except in so far as the latter word defines the sense of 
the former. Properly speaking /xvijo-tr is the generic term for the entire 
process, including the eironreia, or state of the epopt or adept, who after 
due previous lustrations and the like is admitted into the adytum to behold 
the avToirTiKfi dyaX|iara (Iambi. Myst. II. 10. 53)": "the distinction between 
the two words (/jvijo-ir and iironTeia), as if they implied, the one an earlier, 
the other a more advanced stage of imitation, was a later refinement." Ac- 
cording to Theo Smyrnaeus {Math. p. 18) there were five grades of initiation, 
viz. Kadapfios, f) TTJs Tf\eTqs napdSoais, eVoiTTfia, dvdSeais koi tTTe/iitdTav 
(ni6fcris, fj 0eo(j>i\T)s Kal Bfois <Tvv8iaiTOS ivSaiftovia. For the language and 
rites used in the mysteries, see also Plut. de Is. c. 78 ; id. Demelr. 26 ; Clem. 
Al. Strom, v. p. C89 ; Rohde Psyche li. 284 ; and the designs from a cinerary 
urn reproduced in Harrison, Proleg. p. 547. 

uv «vcKa. " The final cause " : cp. 210 E, Charm. 165 a. 

TauTa. Repeating raOra...™ epoTiKa: see the recapitulation in 211 c. 

otos t' av e£i)s. So. pvriBjjvm : this, as Thompson observes, shows that 
fivrjais includes iiroirTela. Notice the emphasis laid, here at the start and 
throughout, on educational method, ro 6p6S>s penivai. 

irpaSu|iCas---diraXcC<|/(i>. Cp. Itep. 533 A ro y e'pov ovSev Av npoBvpias 
dnoXfiTTOi. 

TTcipw 8i (koI o-ii) Sirco-fiai. I have added koi <tv from the Papyrus ; it serves 



210 b] lYMnOZION 125 

av olo? T6 179. Set yap, etjtr), tov opd5><! lovra STrl tovto to irpayfia 
apyeaOai fiev veov ovra levai cttI to, Ka\a awiiaTa, Koi irpSyTov 
fiev, eap op0w<; ■^yrjrai 6 'qyovfievo<;, ev6<; avTov (Tw/jLaro'; ipdv koi 
evTavda yevvav \6yov<s Ka\ov<;, eireiTO, Se avrov KaTavorjaai, on ro 
/caWo? TO 6Trt oraovv acofiart toJ iiri erepu) acofiari aSeXSov ian, B 
KOI el Bel Simiceiv to eV etSei koKov, ttoWt) avoia fir] ovj^^ ev re 
Kat TavTov rjyelaOat to iirl iraai toI<; (rmfiacrt Ka\Xo9* tovto 8' 
evvoTjtxavTa KaTaaTfivair-.irdvTav tSjv xaX&v (TcofiaTcov epaaTi]V, 
evo<! Be TO ari^oBpa tovto ^(aXdaai KaTa^pov^aavTa koX ap-cKpov 

210 A &v : lav O.-P. avT6v TW O.-P. : avTS,v P., Sz. Bt. : aS rnv Verm. 
a-a/iaTOS secl. (Eiickert) Voeg. J.-U. Hug eneira dc libri, O.-P.: eneiTa KoX 

Themist. : fneira ITsener airov : fort, av B koXKos to ini BT O.-P. : 

ic. Tai iir\ W a-anari rm TW O.-P. : O". to B eVi eTe/ia B O.-P. : irfpa T 

f( (8ij) fifi cj. Jll. TOVTo'e' BW O.-P. : TourmS' T 

to lay an appropriate stress on the personal effort required on the part 
of the disciple, the incapacity of whose "natural man" is so persistently 
emphasized. 

Set 7dp ktX. The sentence runs on without a full stop till we reach the 
close of 210 D : Rettig sees in this straggling style a parody of the style of 
Pausanias. The passage following was a favourite with the neo-Platouists ; 
sec the reff. in Alcinous (sag. 5; Pint, quaesi. Plat. 3. 2. 1002 k; Themist. or. 
13, p. 168 c; Plotin. Enn. I. 6. 1, p. 50; Procl. in Alcib. I. p. 330. 

o iJ7o{))icvos. The educational "conductor" is represented as a nvmayayut. 
So we have dyayeiv 210 c, TraiSayayrjdtj 210 B, ayiuBai 211 C. 

tvis airov <ru|j.aTas. If we retain awfiaTos — and emphasis requires its 
retention, — it is difficult to justify the Bodleian avrSiv : and airov, which 
has the support of the Papyrus, although rather otiose, is preferable to 
such substitutes as Hommel's av rmv {<raix.dTwv) or Vermehren's aS tov, since 
av is hardly in place here. Voegelin's objection to avTov, endorsed by Rettig, 
that it should involve the repetition of Sei, does not strike one as fatal ; and 
I follow Ruckert and Stallb. in adopting it. 

210 B tJ 4irl...ir«naTi. Cp. 186 A. 

TO lir' cl'Sei KoXdv. This has been interpreted in three ways: (1) "das in 
der Idee Schone" (Schleierm.), "das Schone der Gesammtgattung" (Schulthess); 
so too Zeller and F. Horn ; (2) " quod in specie (opp. to ' summo genere ') 
pulchrum est " (Stallb., after Wyttenbaoh), so too Hommel ; (3) " das in der 
Gestalt Schone" (Ruge), "pulcritudo quae in forma est atque sensibus per- 
cipitur" (Ruckert). The last of these is undoubtedly right, and has the 
support also of VermShren, Rettig and Hug ; for dSos of physical " form " 
or " outward appearance,'' cp. 196 A, 215 b. 

(i.'q oux. . .ii7«io-eai. See Goodwin O. M. T. § 817. 

4vvoro-ovTa KaTao-Ti}vai. Sc. avTov Sti, resuming the oblique construction. 

ri o-<|>6Spa TOVTO. " Idem est quod tovto to a<f>68pa ipav vel tov a-^obpov 
TovTov eptoTa" (Stallb.). We have had a description of this a-fjyoSpoTrjs already, 
in 183 A ff. 



/. e./. 



126 nAATQNOZ [210 b 

riyTjad/ievop' fiera Be ravra to eV rat? ■\^i/;]^ais KdX\o<; TifiicoTepov 
^yqaaaOai tov iv tw adifiaTi, &aTe koa, iav iirieiKT)'; wv ttjv 

C yfrvxvv Tt? xav trfiiKpov avdo<; ej(r}, i^apKeiv avrw koi epav Koi 
KriheffOai koI TiKTeiv Xojovi toiovtov! [koI ^Tjreiv] oiTive<i ttoiij- 
cTovcri y9e\Tt'oi»9 rov<i veov<;, iva dvayKao'df] oS Oedaaadat to iv 
roi<! eiriTr}Bevfiaai Kal rot? v6/j,oi<; xaXop /cat tovt ISeiv on, irdv 
avTO avr<p ^v^'yeve's eariv, Xva to rrepX to crS>fia koXov afiiKpov Ti 
TjiyrjariTai elvaf fiera Be to, iiriTrjBev/^aTa eirl ra? eVto-TjJ/ta? 
dyayelv, Tva iBtj ai itnaTrj/xMu KaWo?, teal ^Xeircav tt/jo? iroXv ijBri 

D TO KoXov /MrjKeTi t£ Trap' kvi, wairep ot/cerij?, dyuTrmv iratBapiov 

210 C K&v Herm. Bdhm. Bt. : koI ikv BT O.-P. : km hv W : «:ai Ast Sz. 
KOI fijTeix seel. Ast (fort, transp. post aira) : sal seel. Bdhm. Mdvg. Sz. Bt. 
61 TJves W avayKaaBiis Ast ri'a...cr>'ai secl. Hug: fx a del. Ast Iva 

18171 T : iva (iSri O.-P. : Iv' aiSqi B : fort, iva Sh'Sij av (to rav) Hirschig 
D T» Schleierm. Sz. Bt. : to libri, O.-P. oiKertjs : 6 Jkc'ti/s Hommel 

naihapiov del. Ast 

iixnt Ka\ lAv ktX. The uncontraoted form kqI idv is very rare in Plato, see 
Schanz nov. comm. p. 95. For twdos, cp. 183 e. 

210 [Kal tr)«tv]. Ast rightly condemned these words as "ineptum 
glossema.'' To excise cat only (as Badham) is unsatisfactory, since as Hug 
justly observes t'iktciv ^r)ri'iv \oymis "ist unertraglich matt." Stallb. attempts 
to justify the words thus : " Diotima hoc dicit, talem amatorem non niodo 
ipsum parere quaisi et ex se procreare, sed etiam aliunde quaerere et in- 
vestigare eiusmodi sermones, qui iuvenes reddant meliores"; so too Rettig. 
But this is futile. 

iv Tois iiriTi)8€i5(io(ri. "In Morals " (Stewart) : cp. Laws 793d oaa j-d/iour 
tj edri Tit fj irriTTiSdiiaTa xaXei : Hep. 444 E : Gore/. 474 E. 

I'va To...ctvai. This clause is subordinate to, rather than coordinate with, 
the preceding iva clause (like the eas &v clause in d infra), — a juxtaposition 
which sounds awkward. Hence it is tempting either to excise this clause 
with Hug, or with Ast to read dvayKairBfls for avayKaaBjj, and delete the 
second iva. Against Hug's method it may be urged that the words are 
wanted to correspond to evos...aniKp6v ijyrfaafievov in 210b above, and to 
emphasize the " littleness " of corporeal beauty even when taken in the mass. 
For this belittling of things of the earth, cp. Tlieact. 173 b fj Se biavoia, ravTa 
■ndvTa Tjyrjaajiivi] trp-iKpa xni ovdev, driijuia-aa-a. . .(j^eperat ktX. Observe how Trai' 
...^vyyeves here balances (ttoi') KdX\os,,.d8e\(f)av in 210b. 

aYayciv. The construction is still dependent upon 8e7, but the subject to 
be supplied (viz. t6v jjyovpevov) is changed. 

210 D |ir]K^Ti Tu irop' ivi kt\. tw, so. KoKa, is governed by SovKeiav, and 
the phrase contains a clear reference to the language of Pausanias in 183 a fF. 
Sxrnep olKeTtji, "like a lackey," is of course contemptuous, as in Theaet. 172 d 
Kivhvvsiova-tv ...Ins oiKerai jrpAs e\evdepovs Te6pd(f>dai. For dyajrav, "contented 
with,'' cp. Menex. 240 o. If we retain the mss.' tA Trap' ivi the construction is 



210 E] ZYMnOllON 127 

KaXXo<! 7] avOpmirov Ttvo<; rj iiriTijSevfiaro^ kv6<i, hovKevav ^avKo'; 
r) Koi <7/Miicpo\6jo<!, aXK' eVt to ttoXv TreXayo? Terpa/MiJ.evo9 tov 
KoXov Kat, detopwv •rroKKov<; koI KaXoi/'s Xo'^ov; koX fieyaXoTrpeTretv 
riKTT] Kot Siavotjfiara iv (j)iKoao(j>ia a^dovtp, ew^ av evraiiBa pco- 
aBeli Koi av^r]6el<i KarlBr] Tiva iiriaTrjixrjv /xlav TOiavrrjv, r) iaTi 
KaXov ToiovSe. treipS) Se fioi, e^t), tov vovv Trpoo-e^eti' cos olov re E 
fidXiarTa. 

210 D KaXXor del. Bdhm. rj dv6pa>nov del. Schirlitz: fort, ai/ou 

fvos : Tivos O.-P.^ bovXfvav del. Bast '"'TV Coisl. corr. : tIkto. BT 

Koi hiavorjjxaTa del. Bdhm. : ante t'lktji transp. Homrael n<p6ova Asfc 

pwffeis W 

awkward, as Stallb.'' admits — " quod olim accusativum defendendum susce- 
pimus, videtur nunc interpretatio loci quam proposuimus, quamvis Riickerto 
et Hommelio probata, nimis contorta nee satis simplex esse." I am inclined 
to su.spect the phrase rj avdpmtrov vivos. Schirlitz proposed to excise fj audpot- 
nov : I suggest Trmdaplov KaWos [^] avov Tivos, " of some witless urchin," and 
suppose a reference to what Pausanias said in 181 B ipS><Ti...as av SvvmvTm 
avof]TOTdTav : 181 D ov yap epaxri TTalhmv, dXX' cVcidav 781; Spj^avrai vovv ta\etv 
(cp. next n.). 

ct>auXos...o-|iiKpoXo7os. Cp. 181 B, where thoise who follow Aphrodite Pan- 
demos (loving women and boys) are described as ol cjjavXoi tS>v avdpmTrav. 

i-irl TO iroXi ir^Xa-yos. irfKayos of itself connotes vastnoss ; cp. Rep. 4b3 n 
fls TO fifytiTTov ireXayns pi(rov {liv th f'fiirttT;i) : I'rot. 338 A <f>cvyew (Is To neXayos 
Twv \6yav. The phi'ase is alluded to in Clem. Al. proirept. 69 a ; Plut. quaest. 
Plat. 1001 e; Themist. or. xiil. p. 177 c. 

Oeupcav. This should be taken closely (supplying avTo) with what precedes, 
not with noWovs . . .\6yovs (as Ast's Diet. s.v. implies). The parable suggests 
that the spectator, having reached the hill-top, turns himself about and 
gazes, wonder-struck, at the mighty ocean of beauty which lies spread before 
him, till the spectacle quickens his soul and moves it to deliver itself of many 
a deep-lying thought. 

KaXovs...)i.EYaXoirpEirct$. Cp. Menex. 247 B: ih. 234 C: Rep. 503 c vtaviKol tc 
Kai p. ras Suivoias : ih. 486 A, 496 A yevvav StavofipaTa tc koi do^as. Cp. for the 
sense Plotin. de pulcr. 8 c (Cr.). 

a4>eov<!>. a^6ovos is used alike of fruits {Polit. 272 a) and of soils {Soph. 
222a), thus meaning both "abundant" and "bountiful" — "unstinted" and 
" unstinting.'' 

pcoo-eds. Cp. Phaedr. 238 C; 176 B supra. 

4irierTii(i.i)v |i(ov. This unitary science — iiriiTTfjpr) in the strict Platonic 
sense, called also (211 c) pa6r)iia — is dialectic: cp. Phaedr. 247b t-iJv iv tS> 
i(TTiv ov ovTcos f TTtoTij/iTjv oviTov. Soc parallels lu Plotin. de pulcr. 2 a (Cr.) ; 
Procl. in I. Ale. p. 246. 

210 E irtipw 8^ (J.01 kt\. Here again, as at 210 a (ncipm 8e eirta-dai ktX.), 
a climax in tlie exposition is marked. 



128 ' nAATQNOZ [210 E 

XXIX. '^O? 7ap av f^e^pi evravOa 7r/)o? to ipariKa iraiSa- 
jfoytjdrj, d€c!)fievo<i e'^e^? re Kol op6Si<; ra icaXd, irpo'i reXos ijBr] 
Itbv T&v ep(OT(,K(ov e^ai^vrji KaroyfreraL rt davfiaarov, Trjv (jivaiv 
KoXov, TOVTO 6Keivo, w 'ZcoKpare'!, ov Br) evexev Kal ol efnrpoadev 
211 'TdvT€<! irovoi rjaav, Trp&Tov p,ev del ov ical ovt€ yiyvofievov ovre 
diroXKvfievov, ovt6 ai^avofievov ovre (f)6ivov, eireira ov rrj fiev 
/cd\6v, T^ Se ala-'xpov, ovSe Tore fiiv, Tore Be ov, ovSe 7r/309 fiev to 
KoXov, Trpbt Be to ai(T')(^p6v, ovB' evOa fiev koKov, ev6a Be alaj(^p6v 

211 A roSfgfO.-P. 

c4>«£'ns Tt KaX opSus. "In correct and orderly succession " ; see 211b ad fin. 
TOVTO •yap Si) fcTTi to 6pdS)s...Uvai ktX., and 210 A where the right order of 
procedure (7rpS>Tov...e7reiTa, etc.) is specially emphasized. 

irpos TtXos ffii\ Iwv. " npos rc'Xos Uvai dicebantur ii, qui superatis gradibus 
tandem ad spectanda arcana admittebantur " (Hommel). Cp. the use of rcXea 
in 210 A, TcXeov 204 c, tcXos 205 a. 

c|aC({>vT]s. " On a sudden " : this suggests the final stage in the mystery- 
rites, when out of darkness there blazed forth suddenly the mystical (peyyos, 
and fv avyfi KoBapa the (piiafiaTa (I'/iaedr. 250 C) or lepa /iuotikh — consisting 
probably of images of Demeter, lacchus and Persephone, and other sacred 
emblems — were displayed to the awe-struck worshipper (panapia oi/ru re koI 
6ia). Cp. Plotin. Enn. 43. 17 orav fj ^x'l e|ai</>i")f ^«t XajSi; kt\. ; Plato Sp. 
vii. 341 C i^al(l>vrjs, oiov diro Trvpos irrjdrjaavTos e^a<f)6€v <l>a)S, ev ttj ^vxf/ yevd- 
pevov (sc. the highest ptidrjpa). See further Rohde, Psi/che ii. 284. 

KaTo\|/ETai. Cp. 210 D supra, and Phaedr. 247 D {naBopa piv avTjjv SiKotn- 
(Tvvrjv ktX.), which suggest that KoBopav was a vox propria for viewing ritual 
displays. 

6av|j.aa-Tov...KaX6v. Similarly Phaedr. 250b koKXos be tut ^v ISiiv Xapirpov. 
For Buvpan^Tov cp. 219 u: it often connotes the supernatural, e.ff. llep. 398 a 
TTpotrKWolpev av nvTov o)f Upbv Koi B. Koi ffdvv. 

ol 8i] iviKiv KT^i. " The goal to which all our efforts have been directed " : 
cp. 210 a; Phaedr. 248 B oS 6' (vt^.' '1 noXKfi anovSfj kt-X. See the parallel in 
Plotin. de pulcr. 42 c, d (Cr.). 

211 A irpuTov p.iv...iirciTa...ovS' av KrX. The Ideal object is distinguished 
by three leading characteristics, viz. (1) eternity and immutability; (2) abso- 
luteness, or freedom from relativity ; (3) self-existence. Compare the accounts 
of Ideal being given in Phaedo 78 c ff., Phaedr. 247 c ff., Cratyl. 386 d, 439 c ff., 
Rep. 476 A, 479 A ff., Soph. 249 B ff., Phileb. 15 b, 58 a, Tim. 51 d ff. The 
description has, necessarily, to be conveyed by means of negative propositions, 
i.e. by way of contrast with phenomenal objects. See also the parallels in 
Plotin. Enn. v. viii. 546 c, vi. vii. 727 c. 

Tfi iiiv...TJj 8i. "In part. ..in part": so Theaet. 158 e, Polit. 274b, Laws 
635 D. 

irpis v^v TO... TO. This denotes varying "relation," as in the Aristotelian 

■ TO irpos Tl. 



211 b] lYMnOIION 129 

[to? Ttcri fiev ov koKov, no), Se at<r%/30i'] • ovK av (^avTaaOrjaerai 
avTO) TO KoXhv olov TrpocrcoTTov ri oiiBe 'x^eipe^ ovBe dWo ovBev wv 
aw/Ma fiere'^et, ovSe Tt? \6709 oiiBi ti<; iirio'TT^/j.r), ovSe irov ov ev 
erepw tivI, olov ev ^coy r) ev yfi rj ev oiipavw rj ev rip dW^, aXXa B 
avTo Ka6' avTo fied' avTov fiovoei5e<; del ov, Tci, Bk dWa iravra KoXa 
iiceivov ixeTe-xpvTa rpoirov nvd toiovtov, olov yir/vofievav re Ttbv 

211 A 6)9.. .atVxpoi' seel. Voeg. J.-U. Hug Sz. Bt. 6v om. W ai! BT 
O.-P. : avTo W auTO BT O.-P. : avrh W oiSfi' ai/ libri, edd.: ou8e «/ O.-P. 
B fifT avTov O.-P.: del. Naber rponov riva B O.-P.: nva rponov TW 

ws Turl...ol<rxp6v. Rettig defends this clause, quoting Wolf's note, "tutI 
(geht) auf alle vier (vorher genamiten) Ideen, Theile, Zeit, Verhaltniss, Ort." 
Teuffel argues that "ausser Platon selbst hatte nicht leicht Jemand einen 
Anlass gehalt einen Beisatz zu machen." None the less, I believe we have 
here another " ineptum glossema." 

<j>ttVTO<r9ij(r€Tai avriS. Sc. tw 6(U)fiivw. (jjavrd^eadai often connotes illusive 
semblance; cp. Phaedo IIOd, Rep. 572 6. 

oiSi Tis X070S. It is difi&cult to be sure of the sense in which Xdyor m 
used here. (1) It is most natural to refer it, and enurrrifir] following, to the 
Xdyoi and enia-Tijiiai of 210 c, and to render by "discourse," "argument" (with 
Gomperz, Stewart and Zeller). This rendering has in its favour the fact that 
this is the usual sense of Xdyor (Xoyot) throughout this dialogue. (2) Or 
Xdyos may mean "concept"; so Rettig, who comments: "Die Ideen sind 
nicht blosse Begriffe, sie sind vielmehr Existenzen, ^apiarai, wie Aristoteles 
sich ausdriickt, und Bedingungen des Seins und Werdens der Dinge der 
Sinnenwelt." Cp. Phaedr. 245 e, Laws 895 b, Phaedo 78 c, in which places 
(to quote Thompson) " \6yos is equivalent to opos or opior/xos, of which ova-ia 
is the objective counterpart." This more technical sense is, perhaps, less 
probable in the present context; but, after all, the difference between the 
two renderings is not of vital importance. The essence of the statement, 
in either case, is that the Idea is not dependent upon either corporeal or 
mental realization, i.e. that it is not subjective, as a quality or product of 
body or mind, but an objective, self-conditioned entity. A third possible 
sense of Xoyos is "ratio," or mathematical relation. Perhaps "formula" would 
best render the word here. 

o«8^ iron ov. nov is probably used in a local sense : cp. Arist. Phys. ill. 4. 
203* 7 nXartwj' bi c^co ptv ovbev eivai traifia, ov8e ras Ideas, 8ia to firjSe ttou 
fivm avTik. But though the Ideas are extra-spatial, it is Platonic (as Aristotle 
implies, de An. iii. 4. 429" 27) to say tiji' •vJ'uxv" flvai tottov elSwv. 

211 B fiovo€i82s. Cp. Phaedo 78 1> p., ov avro Ka6^ avro: lb. 80 B povoftdcT 
KOI dSmXtJro) : Theaet. 205 D : Tim. 59 B : Rep. 612 A site TroXuftSijr fire ^oi/oet- 
Sf)! (fi aXrjdfis (jyvcris). Stewart renders " of one Form," but the full force may 
be rather "specifically unique," implying that it is the sole member of its class. 

jieWx"'"'''"- ^^^ ^^^ doctrine of " participation," see esp. Phaedo 100 c ff., 
Parmen. 130 B ff. 

TOIOVTOV, otov. Equiv. to TotoCTov aare (see Madv. Gr. S. § 166 c). 

B. P. 9 



130 nAATfiNOS [211b 

aWeov Kol diroWvfjiepcov firjSep eKeivo fiijre ri irkeov firjTe eXuTTOV 
ryiyveadai /tijSe 7ra<7^6ti' fj/qhlv, orav Bij Tt? diro T&vSe Sia to 
6pd&<s TraiSepacrrelv eiraviiov eKeivo to koKov ap^^'J/Tat Kadopdv, 
ff'X^eBov av TL oTTTOiTo Tov TeXov<;. TovTo yap Si] etrrt to opdw eVt 
C TO, epeoTiKO. levai fj vir' aXXov ayeerdai, dp^o/ievov diro TiovSe twv 
KoXtov eKelvov evexa tov xaXov del eiravievai, &(Ttrep kirava^ad fiol^s 
•^ptofisvov, diro ivoi eirl Bvo Kal diro Suoiv eVt TrdvTa ra KoXd 
au)fiaTa, Kol diro tS)v koKSiv ct(o/jmt(ov eirl to, /caXd eiriTrjSevfiaTa, 
Koi diro TOiv eirLTrihevfjudTUiv em, to, KoXd /xadijiLiaTa, koI diro 
tS)V fiaOr^fiaTuii' eir eKeivo to fj,d0r)/ia TeXevTrjcai, o icrnv ovk 
211 B fKei^o B O.-P.: ^Kfiixf TW /xiJT-e Ti BTW: fi^ire Vind. 31 Paris 

1642 O.-P. orav 8ri B O.-P.: Srav 8€ dii TW fTTava^adiioU W : iir' 

dva^adfiois B : ewava^aafiots T O.-P. aiofidrav (cttI ray Ka\as ■^u;^aff, kol otto 
tS)V Ka\S)V yjrvx^v) e'jrt Sydeijham ottA rav {iiaKSiv) eniT. vulg. jxaBrjyLOTa, 

(cni libri O.-P., Bdhm. Usener Hug: fiaB., is Sz. Bt. : /tafl., ear' hv vulg.: p.., 
«or av Stallb.: fi. eas Herm.: /*., tva Sauppe: fi., tva koI Winckelmanii ro 
fiddrj/ia rfXfur^ffij del. Bdhm. Tc\evT^a-m Usener Hvig : rfXeur^o-i; libri, Sz. 

Bt. : ante reXevTrjarj lacunam statuit Voeg. 

^K(ivo. Sc. (avTo) TO KaXuv. So frequently " cKe'ivo et cKciva das Ueher- 
dnnliche significat, rdSe vero vel ravra das Sinnliche" (Ast): cp. Phaedr. 

250 A, Phaedo 74 B, etc. 

f.rfi\ irdtrxeiv fir|S^v. As to the dirddcia of the Idea, see Soph. 248 a if., 

251 c ff., and my article on " The Later Platonism " in Journal of Philol. 
XXIII. pp. 189 ff. 

ciraviuv. Cp. B^J). 521 C tov ovtos ovtrav endvoSov, fjv Srj (jiiKoaoCJiiav dXrjdjj 
<j>tj(Toiifv eivat : lb. 532 I!, 0. 

ToB TcXovs. This combines the senses " goal " and " sacred symbol " : cf. 
210 a; Soph. _/»•. 753 N. its rpis oX/3(o( | kcivoi fipoTav, at tovtu Sep^Sevres tcXtj | 
/xdXojo"* €s Aidov. 

TOVTO yip 813 ktX. Here commences a recapitulation of " the Ascent of 
Love" as described in 210 a — 211 b; cp. Eep. vi., vil. for both language and 
thought. 

211 C itr' ciXXov a7Eo-8ai. This refers to the 7rai&aya>y6s or fiviTTayayos 
of 210 E, not (as Wolf thought) to the operation of a Satpav. 

iiravapaeitots. For the notion of a ladder of ascent cp. liep. 510 B ff., 511b 
Tas vnodeffeis noiovfjievos ovk dp)(ds dXKd...otov CTri^daeis re nai dppds tva pe^pi 
TOV dvvirodeTOv CTri rrjv tov ttovtos dp^^rfv iojv,..ovTWS eVi TfXeur^v KaTa^aivjf kt\. 
Cp. Tennyson's " the great world's altar-stairs " ; the dream-ladder at Bethel ; 
and the Titanic heaven-scaling of 190 B. Possibly a contrast is intended 
between the futile attempt of the Earth-born 6ir t6v ovpavov avd^aa-w n-oieiv, 
and the successful efforts of the Heaven-born lover en-l ro koXov iiravUvai. 
For later parallels, see Plotin. de pulcr. 60 b (Cr.) ; Clem. Al. Strom, v. 
p. 611 D. 

Kol oiro Twv |ia6r||jiclT<ov ktX. The reading and construction of this passage 



211 e] ZYMnOIION 131 

aXKov rj avTov exeivov tov koKov /Ji.d6r]/ia, <iva> koX lyvm avTo 
TeXevTmv o eari koXov. evrav6a tov ^Lov, t3 (^iXe Sto/cpare?, e^r) D 
■f) MavTtviKrj ^ivT), eiirep irov aXKoOi, ^tcoTov dvOpanrip, Oeoofievco 
avTo TO KoXov. o idv iroTe i8r}<!, ov Karat '^(pvcnov re koX eaQrjTa ■' 
Kai Tov<i Ka\ov<! TralSdi t6 kuI veavtaKOW Bo^ei aoi eivat, ov<; vvv 
opwv eKireifKrf^at, Koi 6Toifio<! el koX crii Koi aWoi iroKKoi, optoi'Te? 
TO, iratStKci Koi ^vv6vre<; del avToi<;, eX irm'; olov r f/v, fi^Te ea-dieiv 
fiijTe Trlveiv, dXKd ffedadai fiovov koI ^vvelvai. rt hrira, e<prj, 
olofieOa, 6t TO) yevoiTo avro to koXov IBelv eiXiKptvef, KaOapov, E 
afiiKTov, aXXa p-rj avdirXecov crapKwv re dvOpcoTruvcov koi '^^pcopdrcov 

211 C (iva) KOI scripsi: xm libri: iva Usener: k&v Bdhm.: icai yva...Ka\6v 
seel. Hug avTO : avrai O.-P. D fiavriKri vulg., Themistius iroTf i8r)S 

O.-P. : TTOT^ €i8rjf a : TTOT* f iSi/ff T : ttot' iStjs apographa, Sz. ^pva-lov: ^pva-ov 
O.-P. del post fiovov KOI transp. Ast Beaa-Bai fiovov TW : dfdaaaOai 

fxovov B : fiovov 6ea<raa-0iu O.-P. E SfiiKTov post BvtfTrjs, dXX' transp. 

Liebhold dWa del. Ast Liebhold avoTrXea O.-P. 

are uncertain. I follow Usener in changing reXfur^o-i; to the infinitive and in 
inserting tva after fidSrjfia (retaining, however, koi before yvm which he need- 
lessly deletes). The objection to Schanz's as (for koi) aTro tS>v fi. is that as, 
in the final use, occurs but once elsewhere in Plato, according to Weber's 
statistics (see Goodwin, 0. M. T. p. 398), being very rare in all good prose- 
writers except Xenophon. Another possible expedient would be to read 
yvavai in place of yvM. ecrr' tiv is a non-Platonic form. 

TeX£«TT}o-ai...Te\6VTOv. The repetition serves to emphasize the finality of 
the Idea. 

avT&...S ?<rTi. For this formula to express ideality, cp. Phaedo 74 b, 
75 B ols iiTi<T<f>payi^6iu6a tovto o eort : Theaet. 146 E. 

211 D lvTaS9a...€i:ir€p irov aXXoSi. "There above all places"; so Phaedo 
67b eic€i...flVfp wov aXXoflj : Cp. '2,\ijk f'lnfp ra aX\a...(Keiva. For (vravBa 
c. gen. cp. Theaet. 177 c, Rep. 328 e. For /3i'or Piaros, cp. Apol. 38 a, Eur. 
Ale. 802. 

ov Kara xpirW ktX. Similar is Proverbs viii. 11 "Wisdom is better than 
rubies ; and all the things that may be desired are not to be compared to it." 
That Socr. held this view is shown in 216 d, e. For Kara c. ace, of comparison, 
cp. Gorg. 512 B, Rep. 466 b. 

{w6vTes...|i.'iiT6 irtveiv. Cp. lOlAff.j also Sappho 2, Archil. 103, Soph. /n 
161 N. (dfifiaTfws nodos): Rel. Med. "There are wonders in true affection — 
when I am from him I am dead till I be with him," etc. 

t£ 8T{Ta...ol6|i€6a. Sc. yevitrdai avra, or the like. 

211 E elXiKpivis ktX. Cp. Phileh. 52 D to Kadapov re koi flKiKptvis : Phaedo 
66 A, Rep. 478 e. 

(ir dvdirXctov. Tim. dvdirXfas- dvaTreTrXj/tr/xei'oy p^p^rai 8c fVi tov pefio- 
'Kva-fievov. cp. Phaedo 83 d and the use of the verb in Phaedo 67 a /«j8e 

9—2 



132 nAATnNOZ [211 E 

Koi dX\r)<! TToXkrii <f>\vapl,a's^0vr]Ti}<;, dW' avTo to deiov koKov 
hvvaiTO fi.ovoeiSe'! KarcSeiv ; dp oXet, e^Vi ^'dvXov fiiov lyiyvecrOai 
212 eVeiffe ^XeirovTOf: dvdpconrov koI eKelvo at Set Beio/xivov koL 
^vp6vro<} avTM; r) ovk evOvfiy, 6(J3T}, oti ivravda avrm p,ova')(pv 
yevrjaerai, opdavri eS oparbv to koXov, Tiicreiv ovk eiScoXa dpe- 
tt}?, are ovk elBcoKov 6<^aiTT0tJ,ev(p, aW' dXTjdij, are rov dXijdov's 
i^aiTTOnivu) • reKovri, Se dperrfv dXijdrj koI dpeyjrafievq) virdp')(ei 

211 E flvijT^s del. Bdhm. aK\\..KaTiMv del. Bdhin. cc^i) om. T 
212 A & Se'i Ast : & Sf I B : mSi b : o Set T : Sfj Schleierm. : del Eohde Sz. 

e(j>a7rTOfievo> del. Voeg. 



avanifiirXuifieda rrjs tovtov (sc. tov tra>naTOs) 0uo'coif, aWa Ka6apevto^€V dir* 
avTov. Also Rep. 516 E, Theaet. 196 E. This passage is cited by Plotin. Enn. 
I. vi. 7, p. 56. 

Xpu|iaT<i>v. For the Idea as dxp<^;x(iTo; oia-ia, see Phaedr. 247 c. 

<|>Xvapfas 6i/r|Tr)s. " Lumbci' of mortality " : cp. Pliaedo 66 c iponTav be koi 
CTnOvfitoiv Kill (ju'ijiav Kul d'SuXui' w<WToS<iiraiv KUt c/)Xv(i()i'(ir (fmtnXi^tTiv ijpas 
iroWijs {sc. TO aapa); Oorg. 490 C; Rep. 581 D. 

(|>avXov p£ov. For the sense, op. Soph./*-. 753 N., Eur. fr. 965 D. oX^ios oittis 
...ddavaTov Kodop&v ^vtretos | Koirfiov ayTjpot kt\. 

212 A ^Kctvo ^ Sii. " With the proper organ," sc. ra va : cp. Phaedr. 
247 17 'yap...(iva(l}fjs ova-la^ ovTOis oSaa, ^v)(TJs Kvj3epvr]Trf fiovoi BcaTq va kt\. '. 
Phaedo 65 E ; Rep. 490 B avrov 6 eariv eKaarov r^f (pvaeas dyj^aadai ca TrpoarjKei 
yjfvx^s ('(ftdirTeadat tov toiovtov : ib. 532 A wplv hv avTo o etrnv dya6ov avTTJ 
voTjcrei Xiify. For the organ of intellectual vision (to opyavov £ KaTap,avddvei 
ccao-TOf... oloi/ ill o/ifia), see Rep. 618 0: cp. S. Matth. vi. 22 ff. So Browne 
Hydriot. "Let intellectual tubes give thee a glance of things which visive 
organs reach not": cp. Plotin. depulcr. 60b (Cr.). 

OVK cC8(>i\a...dXX' dXT|9f. Rettig writes, "«i8s>Xov ist hier nicht Tnigbild, 
sondern Ahbild. eiduXa dptrris sind...Tugenden zweiten Grades. Vgl. Pol. vii. 
516 a, 534 0, X. 596 a, 598ii...Coinniontar zu unserer StoUe ist Syinp. 206 D." 
On the other hand, cp. Theaet. 150 a eiSmXa rUTtiv, with 150 c rroTtpov eiduXoi/ 
Kal ■v^f CSof dTToTiKTfi TOV viov fj Sidvom rj yovipov re Kal dXrjBis. Evidently here 
the point of eiStuXa lies in the inferiority rather than the similarity of the 
objects when compared with ovTcas Svra. But it is scarcely probable that'an 
allusion is intended, as Zeller suggests, to the myth of Ixion "der seine 
frevelnden Wiinsche zu Here erhob, aber statt ihrer ein Wolkenbild umarmto 
und mit ihm die Centauren erzeugte." 

i4>airT0|i.^v<ii. Of mental action, cp. Rep. 490 B (quoted above). Voegelin 
proposed to omit the second ((ftanTofievif, but Plato never omits the participle 
with arc. For parallels, see Phaedo 67 B, Rep. 534 ; Plotin. de pulcr. 
46 E (Cr.). 

epcipaii^vu). Cp. 209 c. 



212 b] ZYMnOIION 133 

6eo<j}iXei yevicrOai, Koi e'iirep Tq> aWqi dvOpwircav d6avaT<p koX 
eKeivcp ; 

TavTa Sij, u) ^alBpi re koI ol aXKoi, e^T] fiev Aiorifia, ireireiaiiai B 
8' iryoi' 7r67reicr/i.6i/oi) Se ireipwfiai, xal tow? a\Xoi»? ireiOeiv on rov- 
Tov Tov KTi]fiaTo<; rfj dvOpanrela ^vaet crwepyov dfieivco "Epwro? 
ovK av TK paBia)<; XaySot. Sio 8f] eycoye (prjfii ■)(^privai irdvTa avSpa 
TOV "EpcoTa Tifiav koX avTd<; Tip,m, <ical> rd epcoTiKa Kal Sia- 
(f)ep6vT(i)<; da-Kw koX rot? aWoi? irapaKeXevofiai, koI vvv re Kal del 
eyKcofiid^o)' TTjv Svvd/Mv Kal dvSpeiav tov "E/awro? Ka9' ocrov ol6<; t 

212 A 5fo</)i.X« rec. t O.-R, vulg.: 6fo<f>CKJ, BTW B S, om. O.-P. 

iya> xprjvai ^fxi Method, ("oi) rh ipcoTiKa Koi Sz. : koi to epaTiKa Usener : 

TO 8' epwTiKa KOI Bdhm. aiTKatv Vahlen tov fpcara post cyxcujutd^iu add. 

O.-P.' Koi dvSpfiav seel. Hug: rt Kni ^pfiav Bdhm. 

9€0(|>iX€t. Cp. Ttep. 612 b, PAi'i. 39e. 

etirtp TCj> aXXip. Cp. Phaedo 58 E, 66 A ; and 211 D supra {ad init.). 

dSavotTo). Cp. Soph. fr. 864 N. ovk tan yripas tS>v (roffimv, iv oir o vovs \ 
6eia ^ivetrriv tifiipa Tt6pappevot. A passage such as this might have evoked 
the remark in Isocr. c. Soph. 291 b fxovov ouk ddavdrovs VTrurxvovvTai rois 
<rvv6vTas TroirjiTetv, 

212 B ir^ireio-piai ktX. " Beachte man das Spiel mit irindo-fiai,, -iremia-- 
jievos, TTtipS/ini, nfidfiv " (Rettig). Cp. 189 D eya ovv neipdaopai ktX. 

KTi]|iaTOS. I.e. avTOV TOV Kn\ov. Cp. P/lU. 19 C n tS>v avSpanlvtov KTi/judrmx 
apiiTTov : ib. 66 A. 

o-uvepY^v. Cp. 180 E ; and 218 D tovtov Si ol/ial fiov <rvWr)wTopa oiStva 
KvpiaiTfpov eivai (rov. 

Sio S'q...Ti.)i.av. This echoes both Phaedrus's ovra Sf/ tyaiyi ipijiu 'Epara 
6fS)V...Tifua>TaT0v (180 b) and Agathon's m XPV h^^f^ai iravT avSpa (197 e). 
Probably Tifiav here implies practical veneration ; cp. the Homeric use of 
Tip.fl (P 251, X 304, (0 30, etc.), and Hes. Theog. 142. 

Ttt lpciiTiKd...dcrKt3. For Socrates' devotion to "erotics," see 177 d ov84v 
^r)pi. nXXo ini(TTa<r6ai r) Tit epuTiKa, 198 D ad init. Probably uo-kS) (liko ri/iS) 
has a religious connotation here, " I am a devotee of" ; cp. Hcsych. aa-Keia • 
6pr\<TKfia, eva-f^fia: Pind. Nem. IX. 9 (with J. B. Bury's note). In spite of 
Rettig's objection that Usener's conj. (see crit. n.) "bewirkt eine Tautologie 
mit dem Folgenden koX vvv..'Epa>Tos," it seems to me — as to Hug — an im- 
provement, and (as modified by Schanz) I adopt it: a certain amount of 
tautology is inevitable, unless we resort to excision. For koi (intensive) 
Sia(j)ep6vTa)s cp. Phaedo 59 A, Rep. 528 D. Vahlen, reading da-K&v, construes 
KM aiiTos T. and Kai t. a. irapaK. as parallel : but in this case I should expect 
avTos {re). Most edd. (Bekk., Bt., etc.) put commas after ripdv and oo-kZ. 

Ti^v 84va|iiv Kal dvSpcCav. For the Svvapts of Eros cp. 188 D (Eryx.) nairav 
Sivapiv fX"-"° ^^' "Epas: and for his dvSpda, 179a (Phaedr.), 196 off. 
(Agathon) eis ye dvSpflav ktX., 203 d (Socr.) dvSpflor &v (cp. 219 D ff.). The 
intention here may be (as I find suggested also by Schirlitz) that the long 



134 nAATnNOZ [212 b 

C elfiL rovTOV o5v top Xoyov, w ^aiSpe, el /^ev ^ovXec, w? ij/caifiiov 
ei'? "Epara vofjLiaov elprjaOai, el Be, o ri koX OTry ')(aipei<; 6vo/j,d^(ov, 
TOVTo ovSfia^e. 

XXX. ElirovToi Se ravra rov 'S.coKpdrov'; Toii^ /m€v evaiveiv, 
rov he^Api(TTO(f)dvr} Xeyeiv ri eirix^ipelv, otl e/ji,vi]a-07] avrov Xeycov 
6 SwKpaTiy? Trepl rov \6yov Kal e^atc^j/i;? t^v avXeiov dvpav 
Kpovofj,6vr]v TToXvp y^6<^ov 'irapaa')(elv d}^ KcofiaardSv, Kal avXi/rptSo? 

D (fxovTjv aKoveiv. top ovv ^ Kyddmva, IlatSes, (pdvai, ov aKe-^eaae; 
KaX idv /lev rt? twv eiriTq^eicdv rj, KaKeire- el Se fit], Xeyere oti ov 

212 ewixdpfiv \eyeiv Ti O.-P. av\eiov rec. t O.-P., vulg. : avXiov BT 

KpoTov/Uvtjv T (Kai) fflr Bdhm. : is (uiro) Naber : Km Ast D xfip-caBe 

O.-P. iiip : av O.-P. 

course of ivaibayayia described above requires avSpeta in the learner wlio 
is to attain irpor to Tf'Xor : cp. Meno 81 D eav Tts avSpelos jj kqX fifj diroKOfiri 
(rjTav. Neither Badham's xp"'"" (cp- 204 c) nor Hug's athetesis of dvSpeiav is 
probable. 

212 C el (iJv poiXsi. ..A Si. Cp. Euthyd. 285 o (with Gifford's n.) ; Goodwin 

0. M. T. § 478. 

Ti,...xaCp£isovo|jidJwv. Cp. Pro*. 358 A; P/iaedr.iISc; Eur./?-. 967 D. aro\... 
Zfi/s €tT Aidijs I ovopa^opevos arepyets. 

Tois [liv eiraivetv. Observe that Socr. is not so enthusiastically applauded 
as Agathon {navras dvadopv^ijcrm, 198 a): Socrates appealed rather ra exovn 
Sxra aKOvstv. 

X^7ci>v. . .irepl Toi Xo'yov. See 205 D S. koI Xc'yerat...Xdyoi ktX. 

Ti\v aiJXeiov 6upav. For this "street-door," which generally opened in- 
wards and gave admittance to a narrow passage {dvpapiiov), see Smith D. A. 

1. 661 h. 

Kpovo|i^vT]v. As the Porter in Macbeth would say, "there was old knocking 
at the door." For Kpoiciv cp. Prot. 310 a, 314 d ; but the usual Attic word is 

KOTTTflV (MoeriS KOVrTtl TIJJ/ dvpav C ^(oB CV . . .' hTTlKUtS, KpOTfl Si 'EXXlJVtKu; I Schol. 

ad Ar. Nllb, 132 tVi pev rStv e^ad^v KpovovTtov Konrftv Xeyovaiv, tni Se Tiov 
ecradev i/ro^eii'), Or iraTaa-a-eiv Ar. Ran. 38. Cp. Smith B. A. I. 990 6. 

us Ko)|jia<rT<ov. "Ut comissatorum, h. e. quasi coraissatores eum (so. strepi- 
tum) excitarent" (Stallb.). Stallb. rightly removed the comma placed after 
Trapaaxe'tv in Bekker's text. Kapacrrai, "^flown with insolence and wine," 
would naturally be in a noisy mood. For Alcib. as a reveller, see Plut. 
Alcib. 193 d. 

avXT)TpISos ({""vi^v. Not "tibicinae vocem," as Wolf, but rather "sonum 
tibiae, quam ilia inflavit," as Stallb. For (fiavfi thus (poetically) applied to 
instrumental music, cp. Hep. 397 a Travrav opydvav (l>avds: similarly Xen. 
Symp. VI. 3 oTav 6 aiikht (^^e'yyijrai. For the aiXtjTpis as a regular accessory 
of Koipoi, cp. 176 B, Theaet. 173 D : similar are the haipai of Pep. 373 a, 573 d : 
cp. CatuUus's "cenam non sine Candida puella." 

212 D KoXetre. " Invite him in " ; cp. 174 D, b, 175 b. 



212 e] ZYMnOZION 135 

TTivofiev dXXa dvaTravofjueOa j'/St;. kuI ov ttoXv varepov ' AXki- 
^lahov TT/v (jxovTjv aKOveiv iv rrj aiiXfj a(f)6Spa fiedvovTO<; Koi /jieya 
^owvTO<;, ipa>Ta)VTO<; oirov 'Ayadcov Kal K6Xevovro<; wyetv irap 
Ayadoyva. ayeiv o5v avrov irapa trc^a? rr/v re av\r)Tpiha vnro- 
\a^ov(Tav KoX a'KKov<; riva<; rdov aKoXovdojv, koi eTritTTrjuai eVi rd^ 
6vpa<; iaT€^avcofievov avrov kittov re rivi arTe^dvo) Sacret kuI 'icov, E 
«ai rau/ta? k'X^ovTa iirl Trj<; KecfjaXij'; irdvv "jroWds, koI eltrelv 
"Avope's, 'x^aipere' /xeOvovTa dvSpa irdvv a<j)6Bpa Si^eaOe avfnroTrjv, 

212 D aXKa navofifBa O.-P. <T<f)6hpa fi. koi del. Hartmann (koi) 

ipaTwvTos vulg. Hirschig : del. Hommel Hartmann KfKevovTos (I) Hirschig 
Sz. E Taii/i'ar T O.-P.: Tfr/ar B (et mox) Si/fipfj Sz.: & 'ySpfr Usener 

Se'^fO-tfe B O.-P. corr.: Se'^ao-fle T: h^ea-dai 0.-P.> 



dvairav6|u6a T\%r\. " We are retiring already," rather than " the drinking 
is over" (Jowett): cp. Prot. 310 c f'jrftS^...8c8€t7ri/ijKorEs ^/itv Km eiiiWofiev 
avanav(cr6ai ktK. The statement here would be a social fiction (see 174 d n.). 

<r(j>68pa |ie6iiovTos ktX. Hommel and Hartman may be right in regarding 
fparavTos as a gloss : for poav followed directly by a question the former 
quotes Asclep. Epigr. xix. 5 rfj 8c too-oCt' (^orjo-a 0f ^pty/teVos ■ axpi rivos, 
Zev; 

aytiv ouv. Evidently the subject of this infin. is not Agathon'a TratSf j, as 
implied in Schleierm.'s transl., but Alcib.'s own attendants. 

viroXoPov<rov. For vwokafifiv in this physical sense, "oasurum sustcntaro," 
cp. liep. 453 D (the only other ex. in Plato), and Hdt. i. 24 of the dolphin 
"supporting" by "getting under" Arion (L. and S.'s "take by the hand" is 
probably wrong). 

kir\ tAs fliJpas. " Intellige fores ipsius domus, in qua convivae erant, sive 
Tr)v fiiravKov Bvpav " (Stallb.). 

212 E a4Tov...tciiv. "More Graecorum abundat airoi/ propter oppositio- 
nem taeniarum quas gestabat in capita" (Wolf). Violets were specially in 
fashion at Athens, as implied in the epithet lo<rTe<j)avoi (Pind. fr. 46). Other 
favourite materials for wreaths were myrtle and roses ; cp. Stesich. 29 noWa 
Se fivptriva (fyiWa \ Koi poSivovs (TTf^jidvovs 'layv re KopavlSas oCXnr. 

TaivCas. Cp. Thuc. IV. 121 8r)noa-ia p-ev XP'""^^ <TTe<f>ava du€8ri(rav...i5la 8e 
haiviovv ktX. : Pind. Pyth. iv. 240; Hor. Carm. iv. 11. 2. See Holden on 
Plut. Timol. p. 266 : " rmvia, taenia, lemniscus, a sort of fillet or riband, given 
as a reward of honour, either by itself, or more commonly as a decoration to 
be fastened upon other prizes, such as crowns, wreaths, which were considered 
more honourable when accompanied with a lemniscus than when they were 
simply given by themselves. Originally it was made of linden-bark or of wool, 
but afterwards of gold and silver tinsel (Plin. N. II. 21. 4)." 

u.c6<)ovTa...iravv a-<)>o8pa. The peculiar order — "a drunken fellow right 
royally (drunk) " — seems intended to indicate that the speaker is, or feigns 
to be, considerably mixed. 



136 nAATQNOI [212 E 

Tj dirlaifiev avahrjaavref fiovov ^Ayddava, ecj) ^irep ijXdofiev ; €j(o 
r/dp Tot, (j>dvai, %^69 fiev ov'X^ olof t iyevo/iriv d^iicecrdat, vvv Se 
iJKO) eirl Tf} KS^aXfi e'^wi' ra? Tatvla<;, "va diro rij? e'/i^? Ke^aXrj^ 
rrjv Tov crodiasTdTOV Koi KaWiaTOV ice<f>aXr}v fidv eiTrwf" ovTioai 
dvaSi^a-o). apa KarayeXdaecrOi fiov tu? p.eOvovTO'i ; iy<i) Se, Kav 
213 vfieif 76XaT6, o/xw? eS olS" OTi dXr]6rj Xiyco. dXXd fioi Xeyere 
avTodev, eirl pT)Toi<; elirico rf fiij ; a-vii-meade rj ov ; 

TldvTa'i ' oiiv dvadopv^TJcrai kuI KeXeveiv elcnevai koI nara- 
KXiveadai, Koi tov 'KydOoova KaXelv avrov. Kal top Uvai dyo/ievov 
VTTO Twv dv0pu>iTa>v, Kal Trepiaipovfievov dfia ra? Taivla<: q)<! dvaBr)- 
aovTa, iirtirpoade Ttov 6<j>0aXfi&v expvTa ov KUTiBelv tov ItUiKpaTTf, 
dXkd Kadi^eaBai, irapa tov 'AydOcova ev fieira) '%<oK:pdTOV<i re icaX 

212 E &ncp B: Stt^p TW O.-P. ijUo^iv TW O.-P.: ^x^o^xei/ B 
EX^es O.-P. oidjt'T O.-P.; oTs t' B f7ri...Taii/tar del. Naber eav ciiru 
oiroxrl BT: Ke<^aKr)v add. W: post dvaS^o-m transp. cj. Steph., post apa Ast: 
seel. Wolf J.-U. Bt. : avunav (vel iav aviinai) ovToxri Winckelraann : Sv elSov 
ovT. Usener : eav elata ovT. Bergk : eav en olos T S, ovT. temptabam Kura- 
yf\ii<raa-&M W 213 A KfXfufii'T; KcXcufi B 

xBb. i.e. at the main celebration of Agathon's victory, cp. 174 a. 

tiv liira oiToxrl. Since Wolf most edd. agree in obelizing these words as 
a (misplaced) gloss on the following clause. Hommel'a conj. is ingenious, 
though far-fetched— f'ai/ elnov (addressed to his attendants) "dixi iam saepius, 
mitti me velle liberum a vestris manibus." I have proposed eav m ofor r &, 
oirmo-i dyaSijo-u, " if I am Still capable of doing so," in jesting allusion to his 
own incapable condition: or perhaps the original had veavia-Kov. The scenic 
effectiveness of oiratn, used SeiKTiKas, I should be loth to use. Jowett'a "as 
I may be allowed to call him " cannot be got out of the Greek. 

213 A avToBev. Statim, illico (Stallb.) ; cp. Thuc. VI. 21. 2. 

ht\ pT]Tois. " On the terms stated " (cp. Laws 850 a), i.e. as a cru/ijrdTijr. 
This is made clear by the following clause, o-vfiTriea-de ij oil; which repeats the 
condition already stated in 212tl {iifdiovTa...Se^e<rde aviinoTJjv): Riickert, as 
Stallb. observes, is wrong in saying "at nullam (conditionem) dixit adhuc.'' 
That Alcibiades meant his " conditions " to be taken seriously is shown by 
the sequel, 213 E ff. 

dvaeopvpijo-au Cp. 198 A. For KoKtiv, see 212 D ad init. 

viro Tuv dvBpuiruv. Including, we may suppose, the avKrfrpis, see 212 D. 

lirC'irpoo-6c...2uKpdTT|. " Und da er sie sich vor die Augen hielt, bemerkte 
er Sokrates nicht" (Zeller). Ficinus, followed by Wolf and Schleierm., wrongly 
renders " Socratem, licet e conspectu adstantem, non vidit " ; so too Hommel 
writes "ante oculos habuit et vidit Socratem, sed eum non agnovit." For 
iirlnpoaOev 6x*"'> "P- Critias 108 0. 

irapd rhv 'A7d6uva. I.e. on the ea-xdri) kXiVi; : for the disposition of the 
company see 175 c. 



213 c] ZYMnoilON 137 

eKeCvov •7rapa-)(^a)pr](Tai yap tov %a>Kpdrr) (w? sKelvov Kareihev. B 
TrapaKade^ofievov 8e avrov da-ird^eaOai re rov 'Ayd6cova Kal 
avaSelv, elirelv ovv tov 'AydOajva "Tr/roKveTe, TratSes, 'AXKi^idSrjif, 
iva e« rpircov KaraKeTjrai. Tldvv ye, ehrelv rov 'A\Ki^idBr]v 
aWa Tt? ■^fuv oBe rpLro<; av/nrorij'; ; koX S,fia fieraarpecliOfievov 
aiiTov opdv rov ^aKpdrTj, iBovra Se dvairr]Brj<TaL Kal elirelv 'Xl 
HpawXet?, Tovri ri ■>\v ; %mKpdrrj<; ovto<; ; eWo')(^a)V av fie ivravda 
KareKeiao, marrep elcodei<i i^ai^vrji; dva^aivecrOai ottov iyco wfirjv C 
rjKia-ra are ea-ecrOai. KaX vvv ri ^Keis' ; Kal ri av ivravOa Kare- 
KXivt]'}, Kat ov rrapd 'Apt(rro(f>dvei ov8e ei ti<; aXXo<; ye\olo<; eari 

213 B KnreiSei/ scripsi : KanSe[v] O.-T. : Kadi^fiv lihri: as. ..KaBi^civ seel. 
Bdhm. Sz. Bt. S8f rpiros W O.-P., Sz. Bt. : a!Se rpiros B, J.-U. : Tp'iTos o8e T 
opav T O.-P.: opa B TOVTi tI r/v TW O.-P. : tout' eliretv B Wmg. 'S,u>KpaTr]s 
del. Naber ivKaxStv^ C tiii^ijs vulg. kqi ou Herm. Sz. Bt.: <urouB: 

irws oi Hug ovbk B : o^e T 



213 B irapaxuptjo-ai. " Locum dedisse " : cp. Prot. 336 B. 

us eKstvov KttretSev. The adoption of this reading ft-om the Papyrus obviates 
the necessity of bracketing the words (see crit. n.). Adam on Rep. 365 d 
writes "wr for mirTt... is a curious archaism, tolerably frequent in Xenophon... 
but almost unexampled in Plato," citing as instances I'rot. 3301!, I'liaeilo 
108 E, //. Ale. 141 B, and our passage: Goodwin, however {0. M. T. § 609), 
recognizes only one instance of a>s = w<rTf c. infin. in Plato (viz. Hep. I.e.). 
Certainly this is no fit context for the introduction of a " curious archaism.'' 

'Yvo\ien. " Calceos solvite " : see Smith D. A. i. 393 b. The opposite 
process is inoddv (174 a). 

Ik TpCrcov. Cp. Gorg. 500 A, Tim. 54 a; Eur. Or. 1178. 

toutI t£ t!v ; " Mirandi formula, qua utuntur, quibus aliquid subito et 
praeter exspectationera accidit" (Stallb.). The idiom is common in Aristo- 
phanes, e.g. Vesp. 183, 1509, Ran. 39, etc. The words 2. avros are, as 
Eettig observes, " nicht Ausruf, sondern an sich selbst gerichtete Frage des 
Alcibiades." 

4XXoxfiv. Cp. Prot. 309 a otto Kvvrjyeiriov tov irepi Trfv 'A\Ki^idSov wpav J 

/. Ale. 104 0. See also the description of Eros in 203 d (eiri^ovXos ktX.). 

213 cSa(4>vT|$ dva<|>a(v€(r6at. Cp. 210 B; Theaet. 162 C ei f^al(j)vr]s ovtcos 
ava<l>avrjo-et kt\. 

Kol oi irapd kt\. I adopt Hermann's koi for the as of the mss. Stallb. 
explains as by "quippe, nam, ut mox in verbis o>r ip.o\...y(yovev" ■ Hommel, 
putting a question-mark after PovKtrai, renders "warum setzest du dich grade 
dahin, als zum Beispiel nicht neben A." etc. : but, if is be kept, it would be 
best to mark a question after KOTfKXlvrjs. 

7«Xoios...po6X£Tai. With jSouXtTat, supply yeXoiot etvai. For Aristoph. as 
■yeXoior, cp. 189 B. The sense is, as Eettig puts it, " Was hast du yeXoios und 



138 nAATQNOI [213 c 

T6 Kai ^ovXerai, dWa Biefirj'x^av'^aeo ottw? irapa tw KoXKiaTa TciiV 
evBov KaraKelcrrj ; koX rbv "LcoKpdrr}, 'Ayddeov, (jidvai, opa e'l fioi 
eira/jLvvei^- li? ep,oi o tovtov epav rov dvdpwTrov oil (pavXov 
Trpdyfia yeyovev. dir eKeivov yap rod ypovov, d<j) ov tovtov 
D rjpdadtjv, ovKeTi e^eari fioi ovre 'rrpocr0\e\jrai, ovt€ hiaXex^W^'' 
KoXa ovS evi, rj ovtoo'I ^rjXoTVTrcov p,e Koi ^dov&v davfiaaTO, 
epya^eTUi kol XoiSopeiTal, re kuI to) %eijoe p.oyi'i d'jre-)(eTai. opa 
ovv fir) Ti Kal vvv epydar)Tai, dWa SidXKa^ov ■fjpd';, rj eav 
eTTi'x^eipi) ^id^ea-ffai, ivdfivve, w? eyoi Tr)v tovtov jMaviav re Kot 
<^iX6pa<TTiav Trdw opproBS). 'AW' ovk sctti, <f)dvai, tov 'A\Ki^idBr]V, 
ep.01, Kai (Tol StaWay^. dWd tovtodv p,ev eluavOi'i ae Tificopij- 

213 ^ovKerat {elvai) Bdhm. Sieiujxavrjtra : ri f/i7/;;^ai'i)<ria O.-P. (S) 

'AydBav vulg. Jn. iirafjLvveLi libri, Bt. : eirafivveU Stejjh. J.-U. Sz. ov T : 

o5 B D ovTotA , , J T : ovroa-i vas Coisl. Bavfiaa-ra B O.-P. : flau/idcria 

TW endfivve T : iirdiaivai B 



ippKTTrjs l)oi dcm liebenswurdigoii Tragiker zu thun, du gchorst zu dem Spott- 
vogol Aristoi)lianes " : " birds of a feather should flock together." lliickert 
suggests that the antithesis ■yeXoioy )( /criXXioroj may imply a reflection on 
"Aristophanis forma." 

Sic)i.i]xavi](ri>>. For erotic scheming, cp. 203 d ff. 

{ira|i,iSvets. " In animated language the present often refers to the future, 
to express likelihood, intention, or danger " (Goodwin, O. U. T. § 32). 

213 D 'irpo(rpX.^\|/ai. This may have been the vox propria for a lover's 
glance, cp. Ar. Plut. 1014 (quoted below). 

T[ oiroo-l. This (elliptical) use of ^, alioquin, " but that," is " regular with 
8eT, TTpotrriKet, and the like, in the preceding clause" (Adam on Prot. 323 a). 

ST)XoTvir(ov. This is a air. elp. in Plato : cp. Ar. Plut. 1014 ff. on Trpoa-e^Xeijrev 
pi Tis, I eTVTTTdprjv Sia Toid' oXrjv tt)v rjpipav. \ ovTa <r(f>6Spa fi/Xoxujror 6 
veavlaKos rjv. 

6av|i.ao~ra IpYd^crai. Cp. Laws 686 C 6. tpyaa-dpevov ; Theaet. 151 A 6. 
8pS>vT(s; 182 E supra 6. epya ipya^opiva: similarly 218 a ttoioCo-i bpav re cm 
Xeyfiv OTioitv. 

T» x''P'' 'This and 214 D infra are the only exx. in Plato of airix^irSai in 
the sense continere (manum) : elsewhere it occurs mainly in poetry {Od. xxii. 
316, etc.). 

|xav(av. Cp. Laws 839 a Xu7Tijr...€p<i)TiK^r koi pavias: Soph, fi: 162 voat/p' 
epcDTos toOt' ('(pipfpop KaKov : and 173 D supra. 

<j>iXcpaorr(av. " Amor quo quis amatorem amplectitur " (Ast) ; equivalent 
to dvTcpas (Phaedr. 255 d) : cp. 192 b. 

oppuScS. fforresco, a strong word for " quaking with fear." 

SiaXXa^i]. Alcib. catches up Socrates' word SidWa^ov and negatives it 
with a " What hast thou to do with peace 1 " " But," he proceeds, " I'll have 



213 E] ZYMnOIION 139 

aofiaf vvv Se fiot, 'Aryddav, ^dvai, fieTaZo<; t&v Taiviwv, %va 
avaZr)CT(i) Koi rfjv tovtov ravrrivl ttjv 0av/JUi(TTT)V Ke<^aKriv, koX fit] E 
fioi fie/KJjrjTai, on ae fiev dveSrjcra, avrbv 8e vikwvtu iv 'K6<yoi<; 
7ravra<{ dvdpmirov;, ov fiovov irpayqv axrirep av, a\X' dei, eiruTa 
ovK dveZrfcra. koX afi avrbv Xa^ovra twv raiviwv avaBelv tov 
%a)KpdT7) KoX KaraKXivecrdai. 

XXXI. 'EiTreiBrj Be KareKKivq, elirelv EZei/ S?;, dvSpe<;' 
SoKetre yap fioi v>j<j)eiv ovk eiriTpeirreov ovv v/uv, dWa iroreov 
wfioXoyijTai yap Tav6' tj/jllv. apj(ovTa ovv alpovfiai rrj^ Trocrew?, 
60)9 av vfiels lKavw<; iriqT^, ifiavTov. dXXd ^epero), 'Ayddmv, e'l rt 
ecTTiv eKTTCDfia fieya. fidXXov Se ovSev Bel, dXXd <f>epe, iral, <})dvat, 

213 D (&) 'Aya^mv Sauppe Jn. Sz. : &'yada>v 3.-\J. E ai/aSijo-oi Koi 

TW O.-P., Sz. Bt. : ava8t]iTa>iie6a B : dvaSritraiifV (cai Herm. J.-U. rf/v tovtov 
seel. Jn. iivSpes : ^vSpts Sz. J.-TJ. ovv vjilv T, Winokelmanii Bt. : i/iiv B, 
J.-U. Sz. (jyfpeTO), 'hyiBtav Bt. : (^fpe'rto 'Ay. libri : (jjipcT, & 'Ay. Cobet 

J.-U.: <f>ep4Ta), & 'Ay. Naber: 'AydBav seel. Sz. €Kira>pa T: (Kvo/ia B 



that out with you by-and-bye ! " (see 214 c ad Jin. ff.). Then, with a sudden 
change of tone from bullying and banter to affectionate earnestness, he begins 

vvv 8f p.01 kt\. 

213 £ T11V To«Toii...K«<|)o\ijv. " Incipit Ale. dicere Tfjv tovtov Kf<f)d\r)v, 
quod priusquam elocutus est, scntit nimis laiiguidum esse; iiido revcrtitur 
quasi ac denuo progreditur, positis verbis TavTr)v\ ttjv 6. k." (RUckert). Per- 
haps as Ale. say.? these words (notice the deictic toutiji/i) he playfully strokes 
the head of Socr. tovtov is expanded by Jowett into "of this universal 
despot." 

viKwvTtt. The present symposium was part of Agathon's epinikian celebra- 
tion (see 174 a), and his victory also was gained by Xoyot (cp. 194 b). 

^irtiTO. Tamen, " yet after all," i.e. in spite of the fact of his perpetual 
victoriousncss. Cp. I'rot. 319 D, 343 D. 

KaraKXCvetrSai. Ever since he first discovered Socrates, Alcibiades had' 
been standing (see 213 b ad fin. dvainjSfia-m). 

EUv Sr^. "Come now": "die Worte enthalten hier eine Aufforderung" 
(Rettig). Cp. 204 c, Phaedo 95 a. The question to drink or not to drink is 
now resumed from 213 a ad init. 

OVK ^iriTpeirT^ov. "This can't be allowed": cp. Rep. 379a and 219c infra. 

^^oKoytyrox ktX. See 212 E f. 

opxovTa...Tfis irio-ews. "As symposiarch" : cp. the Latin arbiter (magister) 
bibendi Hon C. i. 4. 17, ll. 7. 25. For the qualifications proper in such 
" arehons," see Laws 640 c ff. ; and for other details, Smith B. A. ii. 740 b ff. 
The emphatic position of efiavTov is to be noticed. 

^tpira, 'AyaSav. So. 6 irais : 1 adopt Burnet's improved punctuation, 
which renders further change needless. 



140 nAATONOZ [213 E 

214 Tov i^vKrripa SKelvov, IBovra aiirov irKeov fj oktoi KOTvXai yapovvTa. 
TOVTOV ifiirK'qa'diievov trpwrov fiev avrov eicinelv, eireira rS 2a>- 
Kpdrei KeXeveiv eyy^eiv Kal Hfia eltrelv II^09 fiev XaKpaTt), o> 
avSpe<;, to ao^ic/iii fiot ovSev ■ oiroaov yap oLv KeKevy ti<s, toctovtov 
imrtcbv ovBev fiaXXov fit) irore fiedva-dfj. tov fiev ovv '^eoKparr) 
iyX^iavToi; rov TratSo? iriveiv tov S' '^pv^i^a'yov ITq)? oiiv, (fidvai, 
(S AXKi^idSj), TToiov/Mev ; ovt(o<; ovre ti Xeyofiev cttj tjj kvKiki, 
B ovTe Ti aSo'fiev, aXX' are^i'M? wairep ol BiijrcovTe'i irto/ieda; tov otiv 

214 A TrXeoK : TrXetK J.-U. tovtov {nvv) Athenaeus KfXeug B : 

Kf\eva-i] T iroi&fiev apogr. Laur. ix. 85, Hirschig Naber {noiajiiv — Xe'yu/iev — 
aSio/ifv Sonimer) B oSre ti aSofiev T, Bt. : ovt enaSofuv B, J.-U. Sz. 



214 A riv il/uKTTJpa. " Yonder wine-cooler.'' Suid. i/n^xr^pa- koSSov ^ ttot^- 
piov /*«7«, ciTTO TOV BaTTOv '^v^ecrBai ev airra Trjv Kpatriv : Poll. VI. 99 6 Se ^VKTrjp 
7r6\v6pv\r]TaSf ov koL dlvov eKoKovv, iv a r/v 6 aKpuTOS' ol ttoXXoI be aKpaTofpopov 
avTov KoKoviTiv. ov prjv fp^ft irvBpiva dXX' aoTpaydKlcrKovs. Other names for 
it were irpixvpa (Moeria, Schol. Ar. Yesp. 617) and KoKaBos (Hesych. a.v.) : 
for details see Smith D. A. s.v. Psycter; cp. Xen. Mem. ll. i. 30 iva de ijSias 
irlrjS,...TOv Bipovs p^tiiKa TTtpiBiovfra (rjTfis; Xen. Sym/p. II. 23 tf. 

oKTw KOTvXas. The Korvkt) or ifpiva ( = 6 KvaBoC) was '48 of a pint, so 
that 8 KOTuXai are nearly equal to 2 quarts. For a yfrvKTrjp this seems to 
have been a small size, since Athenaeus (v. 199) mentions -^vKTijpes holding 
18 to 54 gallon.s. Alcib. was not alone in his taste for an tuirapa peya: 
cp. Anacr. 32 rpiKvaBov KeKe^rjv exovcra: Alcaeus 41. 2 koS' 8' aetpe Kv\ixvais 
peyakais : Xen. Symp. I.e. 6 wais iyxfara poi t^w peyoKtjv i^iaKrjv : GoufiK (ie 
Verre) " Nous devons aux petites gens Laisser les petits verres." 

l|iirXi)<rd|xevov. " Ast : implevisse. Immo implendum curasse " (Riickert). 

l7X«tv. Op. Soph. fr. 149 D (jtopCvre, paaaiTtn rir, fyxf ^Ta fiaBiiv Kprjrijpa : 
Alcaeus 31. 4 eyx^f xipvais eva Kai 8vo kt\. : Thcogn. 487 cu S' fyx" touto 
pdrawv { Kmri'XXet; act- TovufKa rot peBvcis. Notice that Alcib. adopts the 
order eVi Sf^id, see 175 e. 

tA o-oi|>i(r|id |ioi ovSlv. "My trick avails nothing." For a-oKJua-pLa, "a witty 
invention," cp. Lack. 183 D, Rep. 496 a ; Aesch. F. V. 470. Alcib., with his 
aroipia-pa, recals Eros the ao(j)iarTrjs (203 d). 

ovSiv...|iEe>io-0{i. See Goodwin O.M.T. § 295. For Socrates' invincible head 
for wine, see also 176 c, 220 b, 223 c. 

Has olv...'7roioC(Mv. The present indie, differs from the subjunctive, "quod 
dicitur de eo quod revera iam fit, neque adhuc suscipiendum est" (Stallb.) : 
contrast oKKa ti noiSipLfv (deliberative) just below. For the indignant ovtio 
cp. Horn. II. II. 158 ovTU) hi) oiKOvSf . . .(ftfi^ovrat. 

214 B ovTc Ti ^Soficv. This lection is preferable to B.'s our' eirdSopev 
which is accepted by most later editors. Eryx. would not propose to " chant 
spells," the only sense in which the compound word is used by Plato. For 
the idea of trolling a catch over one's cups, cp. GoufiK (Couplets) " On boit 



214 c] ZYMnOZION 141 

A\Ki^idSr]v elveiv 'fl 'Epuftjita;y;6, jSeX-rtcrTe ^eKriarov irarpo'; 
Kai aca^povea-TCLTOv, ^(aipe. Kai '■^ap av, <f)dvai tov ^Epv^ifia^ov 
aXXa Ti TTOiwfiev ; "O n Bav crii KeKevy^. Set yap <toi, ireLOeaQai • 

i,r)Tp6<i yap dvrjp ttoXXwv avrd^iof aXXcov 
eiriTaTTS ovv 6 rt ^ovXet. "Akovctov 8>j, elnelv tov 'Epv^ifia'xpv. 
Tjfilv Trplv ere eiaeXdelv eBo^e 'X^pfjvat eVi Se^ik e/caarov iv fiepei 
\oyov irepl "EpcoTO? elirelv o)? Bvvano KoXXiarov, koI iyKOjfiida-ai. C 
01 fxev ovv aXXoi •tTavTet r)fiel<; elpijicafiev av 8' eTreiBf) ovk eiprjKai; 
Kai eKTreTTcoKa^, BiKato<; el elirelv, elirmv S' einTa^at, Xtoxparei 6 ti 
av ^ovXj], Kot TOVTov To5 eVt Be^ia xal ovtoj tov<; dXXov<;. 'AXXa, 
^ai/a(, w ^Epv^ifia'xe, tov 'AXKi0idSr)v, KaXS)<; p,ev Xeyei<;, /xedvovTa 
Be avBpa irapa vij^ovtccv Xoyov^ "Trapa^dXXeiv fif) ovk i^ Xaov fj. 

214 B 'Epv^inaxe del. Naber 8av Bt. : 8' avT: av B, J.-U. nieiaBai 

Bdhtu. Irfrpbs T, Sz. Bt. : iarpos B C o>r {av) Sauppe {tovs) vr/^ovTiov 

vel vrjCJiovTas cj. Steph. \6yovs {\6yov) Bast 



chez eux, on boit beaucoup Et de bourgogne et de champagne ; Mais rien ne 
vaut un petit coup Qu'un petit couplet acoompagne." 

For Xoyoi cVikuX/kcioi, cp. Athen. 2 a; Lucian Timon, c. 55. 

*fl 'Epv|C|jiox€ ktX. Alcibiades — as if to show how ready he is aSEii/ n — 
replies with an iambic trimeter — " A noble sire's most noble, sober son ! " 
The superlatives are not without irony, cp. 177 b, Xen. Mem. iii. 13. 2. 

xaipc. " All hail ! " Alcibiades pretends not to have noticed the doctor 
before. 

lT]Tpas 7Ap...o\.X<ov. From II. XI. 514: "Surely one learn&d leech is a 
match for an army of laymen." Pope's rendering — " the wise physician skilled 
our wounds to heal " — hardly deserves the name, although Jowett paid it the 
compliment of borrowing it. 

lirCxttTTe. " Prescribe " : the techn. term for a medical prescription, cp. 
Rep. 347 A Kara rrjv Tex'"!" iiriTOTTfov : Polit. 294 D, Laws 722 E. 

«8oSe ktX. See 177 D. 

214 C «s SvvaiTo KilXXio"TOV. Cp. Thuc. VII. 21 vavs wr Bvvavrai TrXeiVray 
nXrjpova-iv (Madv. Gr. S. § 96): there is no need to insert av, as Sauppe 
suggested. 

Kol iKir^iTMKos. " But have finished your draught." 

|i.e6uovTa...irapapaXX6tv. " fieBvovra negligentius dictum est pro Xoyov 
avSpbs iieBvovTos" (Wolf). For the brachylogy cp. 180c /itra 8e <ta'i8pov 
ktX. (see note ad loc.) ; 217 D iv rrj ixop,4vrj e/iov (cXtVp. With 7rapa/3aXXen/ 
we must supply as subject nva (with Rettig) rather than at, i.e. 'Epv^ifiax"v 
(with Wolf). Of conjectures Bast's is the most plausible. Cp. Theogn. 627 
alcxpov Tot ptBvovTa nap' dvSpd<n vrjKJjoai fie'ivai. 

JFor a stricture on eiraivoi fifdiovros, see Phaedr. 240 E. 



142 nAATQNOZ [214 c 

D KaX afia, w /laKapie, ireiOei tI tre liCOKparrj'! uiv dpTi elirev ; rj 
olaffa OTi TOvvavTiop earl Trap rj b eXeyev ; ovro^ 7ap, idv riva £70) 
iTratvecrco tovtov TrapovTOV rj Oeov rj avdpanrov aWov rj tovtov, ovk 
d<f>e^eTal, fiou tw X«pe. Ovk ev(^rip,riaei<} ; ^dvai tov '^(OKparr). 
Ma TOV Hoa-ecBo), elireiv tov 'A\Ki0id8r}v, firjSev Xeye tt/jo? Tavra, 
(is 67a) ovB' av eva aXXov iiraiveaaifii aov irapovTo<:. AXX ovtco 
TToiei, (j>dvai tov '^pu^i/Maxov, el ^ovXef XuKpaTt) iiraiveaov. 

E nw? \e<yei'is; elireiv tov 'AXKifiidSrjv hoKelxPlvai, w 'E/jff t/ia^^e ; 
iTTiOuifjiat Tc3 dvSpl Koi Tifi(opij(Tiofj,ai vp.u)V evavTiov; Ovto<:, (ftavai 
TOV '2(0KpdTrj, tL ev vw e'x,€i<s ; iirl to, ryeXoioTepd fie iiraiviijei ; rj tL 
TTOi'^crei's ; TdXTjOrj ipdo. dXX Spa el irapir)^. AXXa fievroi, ^iivai, 
Td rye aXTjOr) ■jrapirjp.i KaX KeXevco Xeyeiv. Ovk av ^ddvocp.i, elireiv 
TOV 'AXKi^idSrjv. Kal fiivroi ovtcoctI iroirjerov. edv Tt, firj dXr]6e<; 
Xeyai, fieTa^ii iirtXa^ov, av ^ovXrj, Kal elire on tovto yjrevBofiai • 

214 D jj oiard' J.-U. E Tifiaprjo-onai W iiraiviaei Bekk. Sz. : 

iiraiviafis BTW : inaiviaai Bt. irapiels Schanz 

214 D u (laKapie. " Qiitmuthig-ironisch" (Rettig): cp. 219 A. 

ireCSci. ..(tircv; "H. e. irelBn tre ti tovtov a S. apri tTtrev i...)^. e. noli 
quidquam eorum credere quae modo dixit S." (Stallb.). A. is alluding to 
213 c — D {air' (Keivov yap tov -j^povov ktK.). 

ouK di|>^|eTai /crX. " Satis lepide iisdem fere verbis hie utitur Alcib. quae 
Socr. 1. 1. exhibuit" (Hommel) ; A. is turning the tables on S. 

Ma TOV IlocreiSS. This form of oath is rare in Plato, see Schanz rwv. comm. 
Plat. !>. 23. Tlio main reason why A. chooses Poseidon to swear by is, no 
doubt, because P. was the special doity of the ancient aristocracy of Athens 
(see U. A. Neile's ed. of Ar. Knights, p. 83) ; but A. may also be punning on 
TToo-if, as if IIoo-fiScBi' meant " drink-giver," and invoking a " deus madidus " 
as appropriate to his own "madid" condition. Cp. Euthyd. 301 e, 303 a. 

214 E Tiniiipi]o-ii)nai. This echoes the ripaprjtropai of 213 D. 

OStos. "Ho, there!" Cp. 172 a. 

4irl ri 7£Xoi6t«po. " To make fun of me '' : cp. Phileb. 40 c (^Soval) /it^t- 
piripfvai TOf dXijflf ir ctti ra yeXoiuTepa (" caricatures ") : so eir\ ra alaxiova Polit, 
293 B, 297 C. 

iiraivia-a. Plato always uses the middle form of the future, with the 
doubtful exception of Laws 719 E (where Burnet, after Bekker, coi'rects iirai- 
viaoi to eiraiv4o-ai), see Veitch Ok. Verbs s.v. 

OuK iiv <|)flavoi(jii. So. TaXrjdlj Xeyav : iamiam dicam. Cp. 185 E, Phaedo 
100 c, Euthyd. 272 D (in all which places the participle is expressed). 

KoL-.-iroCiio-ov. Hommel rashly proposes to read Troiijcrmv for tto/ijo-ov and 
remove the stop after the word. For koi pe'vroi, see Madv. Or. S. § 254. 

^iXaPov. "Pull me up," "call me to order." Cp. Oorg. 469c, 506b 
itrCKaji^avov iav ri aoi doKa iirj KuXas Xe'yfii'. 



215 A] ZYMnOZION 143 

eKOiv ^ap eivai ovBev ■^jrevcrofiai,. eav fievroi ava/jiifivT}crK6fjbevo<; 215 
aXXo aWodev Xijo), firjSev 6avixaari<s' ov <yap to paSiov ttjv crrjv 
aTOTTiav cSS' e-xovTi, evTr6p(o<; Kal e'^e^^? /carapiOfiTJaai. 

XXXII. XctyKpdrr) S' eyo) eTraivelv, w avhpe';, ovtco<; eTTfyeiprjam, 

Si elKovcov. ovTo? fiev ovv Xaco<; oiija-eTat, iirl rd yeKoiorepa, ecrrat 

S' Tj etKOJV Tov d\r]6ovi; evsKa, ov tov yeXoiov. (prj/xX yap St) o/Moio- 

rarov avTOv eivac rot? (7i\r)vol<; Tovroit rot? iv rot? €pfioy\v^eioi<; 

215 A Ti : Tot vulg. Hirschig ipiioyXvcjyiois T 

215 A oXXo aXXo6cv. " In a wrong order,'' or " in promiscuous fashion " : 
op. II. II. 75, Aesch. Aff. 92, etc. Alcib. forestalls criticism by this apology for 
the " mixed " style of his reminiscences, on the ground of what he calls his 
"present condition" (mS" 'cxovti= luBvovn, crapula lahoranti). 

ov 7tlp Ti p^Siov. For otiri, handquaquaTn, cp. 189 b. 

dToir£ttv. Cp. Gorg. 494 d ; 221 c infra. That Socrates is an "out-of-the- 
way" character, a walking conundrum, is, in fact, the main theme of Ale's 
speech : it is a mistake to limit this aToirla to the contradiction between his 
outer and inner man, as Susemihl does. 

01JTWS...81* cIkovuv. For ouTcor with an epexegetic phrase, cp. 193 c, Laws 
633d, Rep. 551 c ovTa>...aTro TifitifioTtov. For eiKovfs, "similes," see Ar. Rhet. 
III. 4, where they are described as a kind of jxiTa(^opai ("A simile is a metaphor 
vrrit large, with the details tilled in," Cope ad toe). eUaa-im ("conundrums") 
were also " a fashionable amusement at Greek social gatherings " (Thompson 
on Metio 80 c), see for exx. Ar. Vesp. 1308 ff., Av. 804 ff. : cp. Rep. 487 E, Pliaedo 
87 B ; Xen. Symp. vi. 8 ff. 

hr\ rd yiKoi&ripa. JSc. euros jroirjo-fiv, or the like : cp. 214 B. 

Tois <ri\i]vois ktX. These were statuettes representing a Silenus playing a 
flute or pipe ; the interiors were hollow and served as caskets to hold little 
figures of gods wrought in gold or other precious materials. But the precise 
fashion of their construction and how they opened (Stp^aSc bioixOivrts) is by no 
means clear. (I) Hug thinks they were made with a double door {biKKlhts) : 
similarly Stallb. and Hommel (" in contrariis Silenorum lateribus duobus duo 
foramina erant, quae epistomio quodam claudi poterant"). (2) Schulthess 
supposes that one section telescoped into the other ("Schiebt man sie aus- 
einander, so erblickt man inwendig Gotterbilder"). (3) Panofka, with 
Schleiermacher, supposes that the top came off like a lid. (4) Lastly, 
Eettig "denkt an ein Auseinandernehmen in zwei Halfte," though exactly 
how this differs from (3) he does not clearly explain. But — as Eettig himself 
observes — " mag es verschiedene Arten solche Gehause gegeben haben," and 
in the absence of further evidence it would be rash to decide which of the 
possible patterns is here intended: the language {jbixahc hioix^ivreij rather 
favours the idea that the figures split into two, either horizontally or 
vertioally^possibly, also, with a hinge. Cp. Synes. Ep. 153, p. 292 b ma-irfp 
ivoiovv 'Adrjvr]iriv oi Srjfuovpyol ' A(j)poSiTrjv koI Xapiras Kal TotnOra KaXXri 0fS>v 
dyaKfiaiTi (TiXijvav Koi traTvpcov apTriaxovrfs '. Maximus cOTiim. in Dion. Areop. 
de div. nom. c. ix. t. 11. p. 201 f. (ed. Cord.) cKtivoi yap old nvas dvSpidvras 



144 nAATQNOZ [215 a 

B KaQrfixevoit, 01/9 Tti'a9 epya^ovTai 01 Brjfji,i,ovpyol avpi'yya<; rj av\ov<i 
e-xpvra^, o'l hi.')(c'ihe hi,oi')(j9evTe<i ^alvovrai evSoOev a/ydX/jLara 6%oi'T69 
dewv. Kal (f>ri/u ai eoiKevai avrov tw craTvpo) t&j Maptrva. on 
fiev ovv TO 76 6tSo9 0/A0109 el rovTot<s,(o "ZcoKparet, ovB <av> avro? 
St; ttov d/j.^io'^rjTija'ai'! • mi 8e Kal rdXXa eoiKai, (lera tovto 
uKOve. v^pLo-TTfi el' fj ov ; edv yap firi ofioXoyrji, fiaprvpai 
"Trape^oftai. dW' ovk avXrjTt]': ; ttoXv ye 6avpt,aaia)Tepoi eKevvov. 

C o jxev ye St' opydvutv eKTrfKei tou9 dvOpmirovi tj} diro rov aTop-aroi 

hvvdfiei, Kal en vvpl 09 av rd eKeivov avXy' d yap "OXvfnro'; rjvXei, 

215 B SixaSf : Si'xa Steph. Ast oiS' {&v) airos Stallb. S^n-ou BT, 

vulg. : av SijTTou Sauppe: av jrov Baiter Sz. Bt.: om. Stallb. ajK^ifr^iyrijirfis 
vulg. 

iiToiovv fJ.T]Te )^elpas fxrjTe irohas Z^ovras, oiis epfid^ eKoXovv' inoiovv be avTovs 
8iaK€vovSf Bvpas exovras, KaBdrrep T0i\OTrvpyiarK0vs' e(r(o$€v ovv aiiTOiV erlBea-av 
dyaX/iara av ea-e^ov 6(&v ktK. (cp. Btym. Magn. s.v. apfidpiov): Xen. Symp. 
IV. 19; Julian Or. vi. p. 187 a. 

Tols 4p|io7\v<|)t(oi.s. " The statuaries' shops," apparently a una^ dp. : 
cj). Jjuc. Himiit. 2. 7. 

215 B a-yd\|ittTo...fle<3v. Cp. 222 a, Phaedr. 251 A. 

(|>r]|il av ktK. This second comparison arises out of the first, since the 
Satyr is himself akin to the Sileni : on the connexion between the two (as 
both originally horse-demons) see Harrison, Proleg. p. 388. Sohol. : Maptrias 
be auXijT^f, OikvpTTOV utoff, os...rjpitr€V ATroXXcai/t nepl povaiKTJs Kal fjTTTjdrjy Kal 
iroivriv beSiUKe to beppa bapeis, ktX. 

TO -ye etSos. For the Satyr-like ugliness of Socr., cp. Schol. ad Ar. Nub. 223 
eKiytTO be 6 SuK^UTijr xijv oi^fii/ leiKrivm trapepfjiaiveiv ' aipos re yap Kal (jiaKaKpos 
r]v : Theaet. 143 E npoaeoiKe be a-ol ttjv re aipoTrfra Kal to e^at rSiv o/ipaTav : ib, 
209 B, Meno 80 a f. ; Xen. Symp. iv. 19, v. 7. — brjirov {av) ap<pia-p. (cp. 
Meno 72 c) is another possible order of words. 

ti|3pio-Ti]s el. " You are a mocker " or " a bully " (Jowett) ; so too Agathon 
had said, in 175 e. For the present Alcib. forbears to enlarge on this Satyr-like 
quality, but he resumes the subject in 216 c ft'., see esp. 219 c, 222 a. Observe 
also that Alcib. is here turning the tables on Socr., who had brought practically 
the same charge against A. in 213 c, D. Schleierm.'s rendering, " Bist du iiber- 
miithig, odor nicht t ", is based on a wrong punctuation. 

ouK av\i]T7]$. I.e. (as Schol. B puts it) ev rjBei. eKeivov, so. JAapariov. 

215 C "OXDjinros. ¥or "OXvpwos 6 ^pv^ lis Ta waibiKaot M.a,Tayas,cp. Minos 
318b; Paus. x. 30; also Laws 677 d, 790 D ft". ; Arist. Pol. v. 5. 1340" 8 ft'.; 
Clem. Al. Strom. I. p. 307 o. 

For KarexeaBai of " possession " (by supernal or infernal powers), op. Meno 
99 D, Phaedr. 244 e; Ion 633 E ft: (Rohde Psyche li. pp. 11, 18 ft'., 48i, 88). 
The orgiastic flute-music (having a cathartic efiect parallel to that of tragedy) 
provided, as Aristotle explains, a kind of homoeopathic remedy for the fit of 
evBovtriaapos. 



215 e] ZYMnOZION 145 

Mapavov \irym irov, rov BiSd^avTo<: • ra oliv exeivov eav re dya66(: 
avK7]Tr]<s avXrj iav re ^avXrj avXrjTpi';, fiova Kare^xeirOai, iroiel koX 
orfkot Tou? Twv dewv re Kot reXerwv Seofievov<;;Std to 6ela etvai, 
crv SKeivov toctovtov fiovov Bia<f)ep€i<;, on dvev opydvav yfriXol^ 
Xoyot? ravTov tovto Trotet?. 17/11619 yovv orav fiiv tov dWov dKOv- D 
o)fiev \eyovTO<; koX irdvv dyadov pijTopov aXKov<i \070u?, ovSep 
fieXei 609 67ro9 eiirelv ovhevL' iireiBdv Be a-ov n<; oKOVy rj t&v crwv 
\oy(ov aXKov XeyovTo<;, kcLv irdvv ^avXo'; y 6 Xeycav, idv re yvvr) 
aKOVT) eav re dvr/p idv re /MeipdKiov, eKireTrXijyfiivoi ea-p-ev koX 
KaTe'XpfieOa. 67&) yoDv, « dvSpe^, el /j,f] efieXXov Kop,tBfj Bo^eiv 
fie6veiv, elTTov op.oaa'i av vpiv, ola Bi] ireirovOd J)h5to9 vtto twv 
TOVTOV Xoycov Kai 'iraa")((ii> en Koi vvvL orav yap aKovw, iroXv fioi, E 
p-dXXov rj rmv KopvfiavTitovTcov ^''re xapBla irr)Ba KaX Bdxpva 

215 irov, TOV scripsi : tovtov BT, Bt. : rov toCtou Voeg. : roC Bdhm. Sz. : 
ToSrov Sommer : avrov Liebhold /iovovs olim Orelli : /tavia "Winckelmann 

dtj'Kol Tovs: 8. BvrjToiit Hommel : Ki/Xft tovs Orelli D rtr aKovrj del. Hirschig 
cy<uy' ovv T Ko^iiSij B enofioa-as cj. Naber E vvv T 

M. \iya irov, tou 8. I venture on this slight innovation: otherwise it 
were best, with Badham, to cut down the tovtov to tov. 

St|Xot...Sco|ji^vovs. Op. the imitative passage in Minos 318 b km fiwa Kivfi 
Kai fKtjmivfi Toi/s t5>v 6fu>v iv XP"? ovTas. 6eo>v dcci/xd/ot is virtually cquiv. to 
Ko/)i;/3ai'Tt5i'Ter (215 e); cp. Rohde PsycAe II. 48'. " /iora = vorzugsweise. Vgl. 
Symp. 222A"(Rettig). 

i|/iXois XoYois. I.e. "in prose," devoid of metrical form as well as of 
musical accompaniment (avev opyavwv). Op. Laws 669 D Xoyour i/f. eis fiiTpa 
TiBivTfs : Mene.v. 239 c. 

215 D oTov fiiv kt\. Observe the antitheses (rov )( tov hXXou — twv crSiv 

\6y6)v )( iiWovs \6yovs — wdvv ^avXoff . . .Xeyo)!' )( iravi) dyaBov prjTopos. 

T). . .aXXov X^yovTos. A case in point is the Symposium itself, where Socrates' 
Xo-yot are reported at second-hand. 

ioLV re yvvl\ ktX. "No sex or age is impervious to the impression" — in 
antithesis to the preceding universal negative ovSevl. For cKwXrj^is as a 
love-symptom, cp. Charm. 154 C. 

KO|JLiS||. ..fi€0v€iv. Schol. Ko^id^7 ' (CToSuva/xf 7. . .rm cTf^oSpa Kat TcXco)? . Op. 212e. 

ctirov oftoo-as ov. " I would have stated on my oath," i.e. I would not 
merely have described the facts, as I am about to do, but would have called 
Heaven to witness by a op/cos (cp. 183 a). Hommel supposes that Alcib. 
"rem silentio praeterire apud se constituit"; but this is confuted by the 
context. For a ref. to this passage, see Procl. in I. Ale. p. 89. 

215 E tSv KOpvPovTuSvTwv. Tim. KopvfiavTiav ■ napcppaiv((T6ai Kai ivdov- 
o-iaoTiKas Ktvf'urBai ; Schol. ad Ar. Vesp. 9 Kopv^avTiav ' to Kopifiaat Kari^firdai. 
Cp. Crito 54 D TavTa..,fyi) 8okS> aKovfiv, Sinrep oi Kopv^avTiavTts tS>v av\S>v 

B. P. 10 



'I 



146 nAAinNOI [215 e 

eKxetTai vtto twv Xojap ruiv rovrov • 6pm Be KoX SXKov<i irafi- 
TToWou? TO, avTo, '!rda')(pvTa<i. TlepiKXeov; 2e atcovav Koi aXKav 
ayadwv. pyjTopoav ev fiev yyov/iriv Xeyeiv, rotovrov 8' ovSep eiraavov, 
ovS" eTedopv^rjTO fiov rj y}rv)(r) ovS" r/yavaKrei w? dvBpairoBaBm^ 
BiaKeifievov o'W' inro tovtovI' tov M^apavov "TroXXuKK Brj ovrat 
216 BieTe6r}v, (ixTTe fioi Bo^ai fj,rj ^teordv elvat 'i'XpvTi co? ^X^- "^"^ 
ravra, '^coKpare':, ovk epet<! <u? ovk dXufdrj. koL en ye vvv fui/otS' 
i^avTUt on el ideXoi/ni Trapeyeiv rd mra, ovk av Kapreprja-aifii 
d\Xa TavTa av iraajdoifii. avayKa^ei yap fie 6/jioXoyetv oti 
iroXXov evBeri<! wv auTO? en efiavrov fiev dfieXw, rd K 'AOrfvaioiv 

215 £ iino... TovTov seel. Voeg. Hug tS>v tovtov TW : tovtov B: tovtov 
seol. J.-U. raira (raSra) TT. Naber 216 A Su/cpaTfr B, J.-U.: S 2. T, 
Jn. Bt. (cf. 217 b) raiirh : raira BT en T : ri B 

toKoitnv aKoveii': Ion 533 B, 536 c. Among the symptoms of Kopv^avTiaafios 
were the hearing of faery flute-notes, visions, hypnotic dreams, dance-motions 
etc. (see Rohde Psyche ll. 47 fif.); cp. also Plut. adv. Colot. 1123 d. 

li Tc KapS£a iriiB^. Cp. Ion 535 c, Phaedr. 251 c ; Sappho 2. 5 to /iot fiav \ 
Kafihiav ev trTrjOeaiv iiTToatrev \ Ar. Nich. 1393 oijxalye TUiv vemTtputv rhs Kapditts | 
TTtjdav OTi Xf^et. 

iiro T<5v X. T. TovTou. Rettig seems right in arguing that a Glassator would 
be unlikely to write thus ; and repetitions of this kind are characteristic of 
Ale's speech (cp. 221 d). 

IltpiKXeoiis Si uKovuv. For the oratorical powers of Pericles, cp. Phaedr. 
269 E, Meno 94 a, Menex. 235 e ; Thuo. ii. 65 ; Ar. Ach. 530 ff. ; Cic. Brut. xi. 
44, de or. ill. 34 ; and esp. Eupolis A^px>i (fr. 6. 34) Kpana-Tos oSt-oj (_sc. nfpiKXrjs) 
eyivcT av6pa)iTtov\iyeiv \ ...neiBaTii iiriKadi^tv iir\Toit xfCKuriv \ ovrais (Kij^ei, 
Koi povos rav pjjTopcov to KevTpov iyKarfKenre tols aKpocopevois. Comparing this 
■with our passage, — taken in conjunction with 213 D (viKavra ev \6yois wavTas 
dv$pmnovs)y 215 B (^eKrjXei tovs av6piinrovs)y 218 A {^irX-qyeis re Koi drj^deis two 
rav-.-Xoyav), 221 c (oTos av TIepiKXijs (crX.), — it seems probable that Plato has 
this passage of Eupolis in mind, and represents Alcib. aa confuting Eupolis — 
as a return for the raillery he had suffered at the hands of E. in his 'RanTai : 
cp. the story told in Cic. Att. vi. 1 that Alcib. got Eupolis drowned. 

|iou ij '^■<>\r. For this position of the genitive of the pronoun, which gives 
it nearly the force of an ethic dat., cp. Rep. 518 c, Phaedo 117 b (cp. Vahlen 
op. Acad. I. 440 &.). 

us dvBpairoSwSus 8. Cp. Xen. Mem. IV. 2. 39: 210 D aanep otKerrir... 
dovXeiiov. 

216 A |J.i] piuxiv. This echoes, by way of contrast, 211 D evTav6a... 
fiiarov. 

^XOVTi (is i\<a. Cp. «S' exovri, 215 A. 

ovK...dXiiSTJ. Notice these repeated protestations of veracity: cp. 214 e, 
215 B (and see Introd. § ii. a). 

oiK av Kttf)T€pT<irtti(ii. Contrast with this the Kaprepla of Socr., 219 D, 220 A. 



216 c] lYMnOZION 147 

TrpaTTft). Bia ovv wawep d-jro rwv Xeipriviov iiricryoui.evo'; ra mra 

»'■ .' ^ 'i ./ X ^,*-"A - 'A'-r-^i '^tv^', ■• , '^ "^.. .... v^, ■-11 

oij^ojxai cpevywv, iva fir/ avrov KatfTjfjievo'; "rrapa^TOvrep Karar/rfpaaa. , 
TTe-TTovBa he ttoo? tovtov uovov dvOpcaTrav, o ovk av rt? oioiTo iv B 

".'';";■"- r ,-ti.' '/ ■''■0/1 "'^.^ *-'-«- . V sff.^'ji'^'' '"■ ■, >^-.-,M «- 

6itot Ei>6(i/a(, TO aiayvveavat, ovtivovv eym oe tovtov uouou acayv- 
voaai. tvyoioa yap euavTO) avTtA,eyeiv tiev ov ovvajievio, m<; ov oei 
TToieiv a 0UT09 KeXevei, eireioav be aireXtfBoJriTTriaevQ) tij? Ttww9 t»j9 ' 

,'.^x"'' "-W- /i'' ■'" ■ /''■"%'^-",'-'^--vr T-^f'5'. .W',,^.! u----. 

UTTO Twi' TToWwi/. / opaireTevo) ovv,avTov Kai mevyo), Kai orav ibo), 
aiayvvofiai tu (oiioXo'ynu.eva. Kai 7roWaKi<; uev noeo)? af lootai 

j^A, ^r_,,., ^ ^/^,..i //^ fa-z/^V-^'t'; .'^Hv- )-■(''■'•' V-4s ■. 'V 

avTov lit) ovja ev avapcoTroi^' et o au touto yevoiTo, fv oiba otv , 
TToKv fjLei^ov av a-^^noiixiqv, (oaTe ovk ep^w o Tt '^prjacofiai tovtw tw 
dvOptoTTw. 

216 A /3ia: /Stimi/ Abresch J.-U. iirurxifitevos sccl. }.-\J. C iSi' 

lxfi(ov Sauppe xPV"''"/"" corr. Ven. 185, Bekk.: x.pWOH-'^'- ^^T 

ptf ...(f>cilYa>v. " Invitus mihique ipsi vim inferens aufugio" (Riickert). 
Hommel wrongly takes ^la with inurxofuvos. fivav, the conjecture of 
Abresch, based on Hesych. {fivav to. tSra' eirappdrroiv) makes the order 
awkward and produces tautology, firurxoufvos ra cSra is the opposite of 
the foregoing nap4xfi-v to. tSra : cp. Plut. Pomp. 55 ; Hor. £p. ll. 2. 105 
obturem patulas impune legentibus aures; Acts vii. 57 awiaxov ra Sra 
avTav : Ps. Iviii. 4, 5 (A. V.) " they are like the deaf adder that stoppeth her 
ear ; which will not hearken to the voice of charmers, charming never so 
wi.scly." For the T.tipijVfi, cp. llom. Od. xil. 39 ff., and see Harrison Prolog. 
pp. 197 ff. 

aiTov...'iropA tov'tw. avrov is not really "redundant" (as Ast) — "sitting 
still here beside him," i.e. "miissig und entfernt von Staatsgeschaften " etc. 
(Rettig); cp. Ar. Ban. 1490 ff. ; Apol. 31 c ff. 

KaTa7i)pao-iii. Perhaps a double entendre — A. implying that S.'s moralizings 
(" rumores senum severiorum ") would soon make an old man of him. 

216 B S ovK...lvctvat. This is a specimen of the naive candour which 
characterizes Alcib. throughout. For Alcib.'s self-assurance, cp. Xen. Mem. 
I. 2. 47. 

iJTTi]n&ij>...iroXX(Sv. "Me honori, quo me ornet populi multitude, suc- 
cumbere" (Stallb.). 0^. Rep. 359 a: Xen. Cyrop. iii. 3. 2 Ij&iaBai rfj iiiro 
irdvTtov Tiiifi : Thuc. I. 130. 1. For the thought, cp. llep. 491 c ff. 

8poir€T«wii). " I take to my heels," like a runaway slave {SpaneTiis, Meno 
97 E). 

TO €5(i.o\oYii(ilvo. I.e. the conclusions as to his own cvfieta forced upon him 
by S. ; cp. 216 a avayKd^fi,..oiioXoy€'lv. 

216 C iroXi (lei^ov. So p-tya x^Serat II. II. 26. 

ouK ^x" ° ""■ XP'i"''*'!""'' Since Alcib. is here generalizing, the (dubitative) 
subj. seems preferable to the more definite fut., as Hommel argues against 
Stallb. 

Alcib. is in the position of a " Dipsychus," " halting between two opinions " 

10—2 



148 nAATQNOZ [216 c 

XXXIII. Kat viro /lev^r) t&v avXtffiaTcov xal iyo> koi aXKoi 

TToXXol roiavrdmirovOaaiv viro rpvhe rov trarvpov aXKa Be iuov 

aKOvcrare co? otioiof r ecTTiv oli; eym vKaaa avTOv Kat, rvv bvvauiv 

CO? aavp,aaiav eyet. ev yap la-re qri ovoeip vuaiv tovtov jyiyvcocrKei' 

D aWa iyoi 6«\o)<rw, eireLtrep mpPdiirivi ' opare yap oti Sta/cpaTi?? 

epcoTiKCi)'} oiaxeirai, rcov KoXoiv xai aei irepl tovtovi eari kul 

J^j, y. ... (..(..,,, i-'-^iyv' V-' ■■ '■■■'.'■' " ;':n"'"vM ",'i.{^-Vsf' J.-^ '< "• *--"' 
eKireTrKrjKTat, icai av ayvoei iravTa Kai ovoev oioev, w? to a')(r)/A,a 

216 nKoo-a Fischer: fiKao-alibri D koI a3...o'So' seel. Jn. Bdhm. 

Sz. au B : om. TW dyi/oet jrdvTi; (/cai...o'Sfi' deletis) Bast oiSev. as 

distinxit Bt. as : n-ar Ast : ij Usener 

or rather two instincts. Cp. Soph. fr. 162. 8 ouriB ye rour ipavras avros i/icpos \ 
bpav (cat to /i^ Spav TroXXd/ciy Trpoterai: Anacr.^r. 89 epm re Srjvre kovk ipa \ KOi 
palvopai Kov palvopat, 

ots iyii fJKoora avriv. Sc. rois (riXiji'oir. yxaira recals the 8t' iiKovav of 215 A. 

ovSel$...7i'yvii(rKci. Flato may mean by this, as Hug suggests, that the 
majority of the admirers and followers of Socr. possessed a very dim insight 
into the sources of his real greatness— dXX' tyoi (Plato, behind the mask of 
Alcib.) SijXuo'u. 

216 D {puTiKus StdKeirai (ctX. For Socrates as (professing to be) .subject 
to intense erotic emotion, see the vivid description in Cliann. 155 c fF. iya> 
^8r] TjiropavVy Kat pov tj TrpotrOev dpaavrrjs c^fK€K07rro...Kal €(p\eyoprjv Kat ovkct 
ev epavTov ^v kt\. 

Kal a{...ot8€v. Most of the later critics (including Voeg., Teuffel, Hug) 
agree in ejecting this clause. Rettig, who defends it, writes: "die Worte 
gehen auf den vermeintlichen Stumpfsinn des S., wie er so haufig mit roher 
Sinnlichkeit verbunden ist...Die Worte elpavfv6pevos...SiaTe\ft den obigen 
(cm av...oiSev gegensatzlich gegenuberstanden...Da nicht bios die Silene epu>- 
TtKas SiaKetvTat ktX., SO wiirde ohne unsere Worte die folgende Frage as to 
tTxripa...ov ai\r]vS)Ses; kaum motivirt sein." But (as generally interpreted) 
the clause seems hardly pertinent to the main argument, which is the contrast 
between the outward appearance of eroticism and the inner a-ax^poavvj) of 
Socr. : the clause etpavevopevos ktX. does nothing to strengthen the case for 
the reference to yvaats here; while there is no reason to suppose that 
professions of ignorance were specially characteristic of Sileni (in spite of 
the story of Midas and Silenus in Plut. ad Ap. de consol. 115 c (SeiX.) ouSeV 
idfXev ttireiv dWa aianav dppijTws). If retained as it stands the clause is 
best taken closely with the previous words, as expressing an erotic symptom. 
[Possibly, however, for navra we should read Travras and for oiSev, oiSe'i'', 
taking the words as masc. (so. roiis koXous).] This implies of course that olSev 
bears the sense " agnoseit " (and dyvoe'i the opposite), for which cp. Eur. B. F. 
1105 ff. fK Tot 7ri7r\r}ypat,..TiS"'8iKTyvotav otrrts rrju fprjv maerat; ua^SiS yap 
oiidiv oida TOiv flaOortov : id. El. 767 €k rot bfiparos bvtryvtotTtav \ €t)(ov irpotra- 
TTov- vi)v Se ytyvoia-Ka <rf br\. (Cp. for this sense, Vahlen op. Ac. II. 63 f.) 

<is rh irxTJiJia oiTou. " Which is the r61e he affects." For this use of a-x^jpa 



216 E] ZYMnOIION 149 

ayrov. ^ royro ov at\,7}vS)Se<! ; (T<j}6Spa y€. tovto yap ovro<; 
kPfodev ■7repi0e^\nTai, ma-irep' 6 ryeyXvu'uevo^ criXnvo'i' evooOev oe 

avoiy^aej,^ maw oieatfe yeuei, to av6pe<!-a-v/jLTroTai, araxppoavvr}'^ ; 

V'- „■ ^sV ;'//.■'■'/'-'■'•><■•,'•'■', 'V-i' °"3^"'-'"'',fe';'-"".-v<« \ '^' ■■'■ i ' •■' ■ -, 
t<rT6 oTt ovT ei T19 «aA,09 etrri ueXet avrm ovoev, aWa KaraApovei 

TocrouToi' oo-oi' ouo av €l<; olriaein, ovt e'i tk •jrXovat.o'!, ovt el E 

^^^.^r.A... .^,.,,,.r -^^\^^ ^ ,^, /iL -y--^ ie.h^V-^.-^, b' r>r{, 'i';/t-,'4..J/ 

aWrjv Tiva Ttp.rjV e'xcov rwv vifo •n-KrfOpv'; fiaKapigo/ieveovi rjyeirat, 

KA_''" ■' '" •' f'\-' > • ""'■■''■. t'^N*- ■'»i;"'5 ■' v" i' 'r. '''.f; '" .»- 

06 iravra ravra ra KTr/fiara ovo€vo<; a^ia kul rj/jta^ ovoev eivai — 

216 D avTov. ToSro (listing, vulg. Schleierm. Sz. tovto- ov distinxit 

Bernhardy iyXv/iiitvos J.-U. (,fS) tare cj. Bdhm. E Ijiias : Tt/*or 

Heusde 

of an acted part, cp. /. Ale. 135 D, Rep. 576 a: similarly trxiiiaTi^a, simido, 
Phaedr. 255 a ou;^ utto fTxyjiiaTi^ojiivov roO ipavroSy dXX* a\rjB(os tovto irewov- 
BoToi. This is preferable to rendering by "forma et habitus," as Stallb. 
The punctuation of the passage has been disputed: "vulgo enim legebatur 
Koi ovdiv oiSev, as t6 fr)(rjfia avTov tovto oil a€i\rjva>des a^obpa ye, quod 
Stephauus ita corrigebat ut pro ov adKrivmbes scriberet ov ceCK." (Stallb.) : 
Stallb., Riicljert, Badham, Schanz and Hug follow Belik. and Schleierm. in 
putting a comma after olbtv and a full stop after avrov (so too Hommel, but 
proposing ohhe for ovhiv) : Kottig follows Bernhardy in putting the full stop 
after toCto, with a comma at olhev : Burnet puts a full stop at olbfv, and no 
further stop before o-iXi/voifier; : Ast proposed jrmj for as. Bast, reading ttoitij 
for navTa and ejecting cat ovhtv olStv, construed i>s.,.a<j)6Spa ye as dependent 
on dyvod : and Stephens's ov84 involves a similar construction. 

TTtpipipKrfTai. " Has donned " as it were a " cloak '' of dissimulation : cp. 
Xen. Oec. II. 5 els 8e to arov a-xrjp-a S <ru iripi^i^\r]ariu : Ps. cix. 18 " he clothed 
himself with cursing like as with his garment." 

2v8oe€v 8i dvoixOeW. Cp. 216 b: Soph. Antig. 709. The word €v6o9ev 
recals Socrates' prayer in Phaedr. 279 b S...6eoi, bolrjTt poi KoKa yevivdai 

TOvhodiV. 

Vo-Tt oTi ktX. For the general sense, cp. Charm. 154 b. 

216 E oo-ov ovS' av cts. Cp. 214 D. 

■irXoiio-ios...Ti(i.'^v ^x"*"' Stallb. renders "aut praeterea honore aliquo 
omatus," distinguishing Tipr^ from KdXXoj and TrXoCro? ; whereas Riickert 
states that "ri/xi) dicta est h. 1. de re, quae honorem habet efficitque Tipia, 
ita ut KtiXXor et ir\ovros etiam Tipai esse possint." Rettig supports Stallb., 
but probably the other two dya^d are also classed in A.'s mind as rt'/iia. Cp. 
178 c, 216 b: Pind./r. ine. 25. 

Tav...fAKapitpf,lvav. Se. Tifiav. 

Kal TJiias ovSiv Aval. "h. e. atque nos, qui talia magni faciamus nullo in 
numero habendos ccnset" (Stallb.), This, — or Riickert's "nos ipsos qui pulcri, 
qui divites sumus," — seems to bring out rightly the point of the personal 
reference; in spite of Kettig, who writes "vollig fremd ist der Platonischen 
Stelle der Zusatz, welchen Stallb. hier macht." For this use of ovSev ( = ov8ev6s 
a^iovs) cp. 219 a, 220 a. The attitude here ascribed to Socr. is very like that 
ascribed to his admirer Apollodorus in 1730, D. 



150 nAAinNOZ [216 E 

I t<i' :^ J... *-.-.-:,/•... J i:^ '\ <*■ ■ ' , , ■■ ,1 f\ 

Xeyo) vaiv, — elptovevouevoi; 8e Koi iraitav irdvra tov Biov vrpo? 

ovK oioa ei Tt? e<jopaKe ra evTO<; a/vaXuara' a\K eyca rjon ttot 

t,j-' «- ^ .(■ ■-■^'•■. - r. "-J, !» ji''^"-.-! ^ '/"'•^'^^ ., , V/^^nnV-i , 

217 eiSov, Kau not eSoPev ovrat Oela koX ypvaa elvai koi TrdyKoXa kuI 

-. ■ ■ I r v-f^w ! -■..■, J T*--,/.^ •'v ' i^'v^-'i I V " "'■ ■-^-'•; '■ 4. ■ ■•■;- 

oavaaara, tocrTe YiroiVTeov ,eivai eappayv o Ti KSKevoi ZiCoicpaTn';. 

,-hS,-- .■.', '^v '•' v«'A*-'»--;''?st4a«;"-r'?>,'^^j ^-;5%;-"/„/ ^- -f'-.-f-r'-.-^ 

riyovu,evo<; be avrov eairovoaicevat, eiri Tin eiiri ctipa/epfiatov vyri- 

Ah r,>-,5".i..,.l , «,.-.- o"^ ' °- ')■',"< c-^v- *'i"-V.KC''f,'-i>---^'-'V •/-'." 
aawnv eivai Kai evrvyniia eixov oavixatrToy, to? virapyov uot 

yapi.a-au.evo) ZojKparei travr uKovcrai oa-atrep ovTot voef ecppovovv 

<yap Br) iirl ttj cipa 0avfj,d<Tiov-O(rov. ravra ovv Siaporjdell, irpo rov 

216 E Xeyca vfiiv BT : \4ytou fiev oij Herm. : ^yovfJLevos Bdhm. : ipa \eyai 
vfiiv Sz. : riXX' ep£> vfiiv Usener : del. Voeg. : fort, transp. post aWa infra 
Tf Koi Usener 217 A xm /loi T, J.-U. Bt.: /cm e'^oi B: xd/ioi Hirschig Sz. 
efi^paxv Cobet Sz. Bt. : cv ^paxel BT o Ti {&v) Sauppe Jn. oStos : airos 
Bdhm. Sfi B : ^8.7 TW : en cj. Wolf 

\iya i(iiv. There is no objection, at least in A.'s speech, to this kind of 
parenthetic interjection (cp. oleade, d supra); cp. Apol. 30a, Thuc. vi. 37. 2, 
Eur. Med. 226. Similarly in Gorg. 464 c, 526 c " asseverandi causa orator ad 
ea quae maxime attendi vult addit ilia (firjui, Xiya" (see Vahlen op. Acad. I. 
479). I am, however, inclined to suspect that the words are misplaced, and 
originally stood after dWd, three lines lower down ; if so, we should read dWa — 
Xf-yo) Vfiiv — e-yoj ktX., or perh«aps ciXXa a Xeyo) vfiiv iyat ; this would serve to echo 
the aXX' e'yi) dijXaio-u of D ad init. Cp. also 222 B a Sij cai iroX \eyta. 

clpti>vev6|UVOs. Schol. elpav. : vTroKpivoficvoe, ;(Xeuaf toi/. Cp. 218 D; jRep. 
337 a ttvrr) fKfivj] r) eliodv'ia flpaveia 'ZcuKparovs. 

Ta ivTo% dydXiiaTa. See 215 A 72. : ayoKjxa, as i(f) a tis dydWerai, can fitly 
be applied to spiritual as well as material treasures : cp. the use of Up6p in Eur. 
Ifel. 1002. This passage is cited in Procl. in Ale. I. p. 89 ; Clem. Alex. Strom. 
VII. 5, J). 846 P. : cp. Cic. de Legg. I. 22 " ingeniumque in se suum sicut 
simulacrum aliquod dedicatum putabit." 

217 A xP^"^"!- "Nur ein poetischer mit koKos synonymer Ausdruck'' 
(Rettig); no doubt the material dyaKfiara referred to were of gold or gilt, 
cp. Gritias 116 D Xpv(Td...dyd'Kfiara iv4(rTri<rav. Eor the metapli. use, cp. Hipp. 
Mai. 301 A, Fliaedr. 235 E ^iKraros (I km as dXifdas p^putroOs : (/org. 486 D 
Xpvariv f ;((ai'. . .T^v yjfvxrjv: and Shakspere's "Golden lads and lasses." 

£|i.ppaxv. "In short," used to qualify a universal statement expressed 
by a relative such as Sa-ris : op. Oorg. 457 A (with Heindorf ad loc), Hipp. 
Min. 365 D; Ar. Veap. 1120. 

ia-irovSaKJvai lirl ktX. Observe how this contrasts with the vai^eiv of 216 b : 
A., we are to infer, had not as yet (at the date of the incident following) learnt the 
" irony " of Socr. AVith the attitude of Alcib. here op. what Pausanias says in 
184 B ff. 

upi]i. &pa as Jloa aetatis is nearly equiv. to iivOos (183 E, 210 0) : cp. 219 c, 
Phaedr, 234 A, /, Ale. 131 E Ta,,.fra \rjyti ^pas, trit 8* ^PX^^ dvOuv, 
6vovv ktX. For Ale's vanity, cp. /. Ale. 104 A. 






217 c] lYMnOIION 151 

ouK eicoOmj! dvev aicoXovOov^ fioyo'; fier axnov •yCyvearOai, rare airo- -^ 
irewTToiv rov aicoKovOov ii6vo<; (rvveytyvoiivv 8el yap Trpo? uwa? B 




ZiW/cpaTev, e^eMyve' (rvveyiyvofiriv yap, (o avdpe<;, fiovo<; fiov 
oiunv avTiKa SiaXeteadai avTov uot airep ,av ipacrrriv TraioCKOi<; ev 
epvLLia oioKeyueiv, Kai eyaipov. tovtcov o ov uaXa eyiyveTo ovoev, 
aW (oairep eimaec -avaXeyael'; av iioi Kai avvvu.epevaa'i coyero 
diricov. ueTO, ravra ^vyyvuvateaOai irpovKaXovuTiv avrov Kai 
avveyvfjLvaCofjirjv, co<; n evravaa vepaixoy.^ {Tweyvjiva^ero ovv ftoi u 

Kai Trpocre'TraXaie TrpXXttKt? oi/Sei'o? irapovTO^' Koi tL Bei.Xeyeiv ; 

/;.^ -r,,^,,,,- ,, ...^.^ «:,.^..,, ,t^v.- / ji«-,;A. ■, --'„/''■/- L ^, 
ovoev yap ix,oi irKeov m. eireion oe ovoaurt ravTV nvvxov, eooEe 

uot eirioeTeov eivao too avopi'Kara to Kaprepov Kai ovk avereov, 

, s'; ■;- ■'■'-•' ," r .A ( ■■;■ • -', - „f -'i ' ,^--' • V ■'• ■-■ 

eireiorjirep eveKeyeiprjKr], aX\a lareov ijor) ri ea-ri ro irpayfia. 

irpoKaXovfiai Sfj avrbv Trpo? to a-vvBenrveiv, are^i/d)? ticnrep -* 

217 A fiovos seel. Hirachig J.-U. Hug B (&) Saxpares Sz. 8' ov : 

8r) O.-P. av BT: au Wolf: S^ Sauppe Sz.: arra Ast: &\\a Rettig: del. 

Hommel Hirschig : fort, dei koX a-vvtyvij.va^6jij]v seel. Sauppe Sz. Hug 

evTavBa (yc) Naber dvfTfov : avcraiov O.-P.' It4ov rjbr) in\ to irp. 

Wyttenbach 

217B Ta\n9ii...+t«8omu. Cp. 216 a, 214 E for similar protestations. Observe 
the effectiveness of this pause in the narration, and of the challenge to contradic- 
tion, as marking an approaching climax : ep. Pliaedo 85 D. 

Iv 4p>||>'(<!'. " T6te-k-tgte " : cp. Rep. 604a, Phaedr. 236c i<rtt.iv...p.6va iv 
eprifiia. 

av...&\eTo. If av is right we must take it to denote repeated action, 
"solebat identidem discedere" (Stallb.): cp. Apol. 22 b (Madv. Gr. S. 
§ 117 6, R. 3; L. and S. s.v. avc). 

<rwii|i.€pe^o-as. The only other ex. in Plato is Phaedr. 240 c 7rai8iKotr... 
ipa(TTJ)i...els TO (Tvvrjiieptifiv iravrav aqSiararov. 

|uY7U|ivdt€(rSai. For this practice, ep. 182 c, Menex. 236 d, Rep. 452 a ff. ; 
and Xen. Symp. ii. 16 fF., where Socr. treats of public and private gymnastics. 

217 ovSiv...irXfov ^v. " Nihil enim proficiebam " (Stallb.) : ep. 222 d. 

lirciSi) Z\ ktX. Rettig supposes an allusion to Eur. Hipp. 390 fif. ineihrf 
ToicriS' OVK e^rjvvTov KvTrpiv | KpaT^<Tai, Kardavflv cSo^f pot. For other reflf. to 
Eurip., see 177 a, 189 c, 196 ffi. 

Urriov. . .irpoTiia. Rey nders is alone in approving of Wy ttenbach's " restora- 
tion," hiov rjbr] iirX to irpaypa : for, as Ruckert argues, this must imply either 
that A. had as yet made no " eonamen alliciendi S.," which is untrue, or that 
he had ni't as yet begun his narration, which is equally untrue. The sense of 
the text is " 1 must get to the bottom of the matter without more ado," 
i.e. discover the real ground of Socrates' indifierence. Cp. Apol. 20 c to croi' 
Ti iiTTi iTpaypa; 

irpoKaXov|iai 8^ ktX. Here comes the third and most desperate expedient, 



152 nAATHNOZ [217 c 

D ipaarrjf; •jraiSiKoi'! iviBavXevcov. km jioi ovBe tovto JolXV virri- 
Kovaev, o/j,(o<! S' ovv j(^p6va eireiad'q. iireiBrt Se d<plKeTO to irpSiTov,^ 
Zei'TTvfjcra'i ainevai i^ovXeTO. koX rare ixev afa-'xyvS/jievoi; d^rJKa 
avTov avOiv Be eiriBovXevaa^, eTreiSri eSeBenrvnKeuev, hieXeiOiivv 
aet TToppeo tcov vvktcov, kul evreto^ epovxero airievai, &K7)'inoii,evo's 
OTi oyfre eirj, irpoarrjvdyKaaa avTOV fieveiv. dveiravero ovv ev ry 
e'xp'^kvr) ifiov kXivt), ev fjirep eSelirvei, Koi ovhe\<; fv to!) olxi^fiaTi 

E aX\o?, Kadr}vSev rj rifiei<;. f'^e'Xfii' i^ev ovy S^ Sevpo tov \oyov 
KaX&<: av 'e')(pi koI Trpot qintvovv Xeyeiv to S evrevdev ovk av fjLOV 
r)Kova-aTe XeyovTO<;, el fir] TrpcoTov fiev, to Xejofievov, olvoi — avev 

217 D eSeSeiTTvrjKeiJLev Bt. : 'fieSciTrv^Kci/xei' Usener: 8eS«7rv^Ka/iei< Bekk. 
anecd. : f'SfSfiTri/vKfi BT O.-P. df i add. Bekk. anecd. : om. BT O.-P. eTretSij 
{ye) O.-P. avTov : aiiTov Sauppe ftiveiv : /lovov O.-P.' E ovv 

&fl B O.-P. Tmg.: 075.- TW koI {i^eirj) nphs cj. Liebhold 

in which Alcib. reverses their respective roles and acts towards Socr. no longer 
as jraiSiKo but as epao-r^s (cp. 213 c, 222 B, and see Introd. § vi. 3). For three as a 
climacteric number c\x Phil. 66 d, Euthyd. 277 c, Rep. 472 a. For ewifiovKfvav, 
cp. 203 B, 203 D. 

217 D del...vvKTuv. "Usque ad multam noctem" (Stallb.). For this force 
of del, cp. del 8in tov fitov Phaedo 75 B, etc. ; so with iroppa, Oorg. 486 A tous 
TToppa del (fitKoa-offjias (Kavvovras, For the plural vvktcs, " night- watches," 
cp. 223 c, Prot. 310 C iroppa tS>v vvktS>v : Phil. 50 D. 

Iv Tfl...KX(vT|. fV°" '^ short for T^r e'/i^r (or cpov) kXiVijs : cp. the similar 
brachylogy in 214 c: Hom. Od. vi. 308. 

olKi]|jiaTi. "Room": cp. Pro*. 315 D, P/iaerfo 116 A. 

217 £ (i^xpi. ..Scvpo. So Laws 814 D Trjs...bvvapita)s TO p^XP^ Sevpo rjpiv 
flpfjaBu). 

Kal irpos ovTLvovv X^Yciv. This reminds one of Diotima's language in 209 e ff. 
(TavTa pev ovv ktX). 

TO XcY^f^cvov KT-X. Photius explains thus : olvot avev iralSav Suo rrapoiplm ' 
f) piv oivos Koi dXri^eia, ij Se otvos Kni TralSer dXij^eif. For the first of these, cp. 
Alcaeus fr. 57 b, Theocr. Id. xxix. 1. We might render " In wine and wean 
is candour seen." Cp. Schol. ad h. I. ; Athen. ii. 37 e ^i\6xopos Se ^t)(riv on 
oi TTivovTes ov povov eavTOvs ep<^avi^ovtTiV otTtves elo'iv, dWa Koi t&v aXXui' 
eKatTTOv dvaKoXvirTovoif napprjiriav aynvTes. 66ev " oti'oy Koi dXrjdeia Xeyernt : 
Alcaeus fr. 53 oivos yap dvdpairois SionTpov : Hor. Sat. I. 4. 89 condita cum 
verax aperit praecordia Liber. Similar sayings about the effects of wine are 
Ar. Plut. 1048 peBiav o^vrepov ^\enei: Theogn. 479 ff. olvos...KOv(l>ov edr)Ke 
v6ov. The explanations of H. MUller ("Trunkene sagten die Wahrheit, mochten 
Diener zugegen sein oder nicht ") and of Hommel (" si proverbio illo vinum, 
quod neque praesentiam neque absentiam servorum curat (alluding to the 
uKoXouflof of 217 a), non esset veridicum") are clearly wrong. Cp. Xen. 
Symp. VIII. 24. 



218 a] lYMnOZION 153 

T6 iraiSmv xal /iera iraiScov — r^v aX,i;07jv, eireiTa di^dvLaai ^coicpd- 
^ Toi/9 epyov viTepri^av(fv et? eiraivov ikd'ovra dhiKOv /jloi ^aiverai. 
en Se to tov 8rjj(^9evTO<i viro toO, e^ep)? •rrd0o<; Kdjjue 6%et. <f)a(Tl 
yap rrov riva tovto iradovTa ovk iOeXeiv Xiyeiv olov rjv ttXtjv toi<! 
Beor)yfiev6i<;, to? fi6voi<; yv(o<xo/jieyoi<; re Kai <rvyyvco<rofj.evoi^, ei trdv 218 
iroX/ia Spdv re Kal Xiyetv vtto tm9 6Svvri<;. iym ovv SeSrjyp.evo'i re 
. VTTO dXyeivorepov koX^tq akykivoTdrov pSv av .Ti<i hr]-)(de'i,rj — rr]v , 
KapBiav fj y}rv')(r]v [fydp^ ■^ 6 ri Set ai/ro ovofido'ai irXrjyei^ re Kal 

218 A Tf Kni vno W aKycivoTOTOv Steph. Sij)(6fLi] T O.-P.: 8€(x^5 B 

y ylrvx'fv yap B : yap rj yjr. TW O.-P. : ^ yjr. non legit Schol. B, secl. Usener Sz. 
Bt. : fj \jf. yap secL Christ : yap seclusi : fort, rj yjr. rapa 



di)>avt(rat. "To keep dark": notice the play d(j>at>iaai...(j)aiv(Tm, which 
Lehrs represents by " eine helle That des S. ins Dunkle zu setzen." (/laiVeTai 
after the inipf. ^v is one of Ale's anacolutha. 

vircpi]<|>avov. The adj. here, though prima facie eulogistic, evidently contains 
(as Riickert notes) " grata quaedam ambiguitas," as alluding to the vfipis of 
Socr., cp. the use of vireptjcpavia to denote "superbia cum contemtione 
coniuncta" (Ast) in 219 o. For the good sense of the word, cp. Pliaedo 
96 a, Oorg. 511 d. 

tA Toii 8ijx9^VTos ktK. For this proverbial case, cp. Aristides or. 15, i. 
p. 234 tSrrnfp tov utto rrjs e;fi8i»7;s (jiao-i TrXijyi'vTa fir) iBeKciv Irepa Xe'yeti' liXX' t) 
oaris nenf Iparai : id. or. 49, II. p. 395 : Xen. Symp. IV. 28 aa-nep viro dtjptnv 
Ttvos 8€8r]yfi(Vos...ev rrj Kapbla aancp Kv^ap-d Ti fdoKovv €)(€iv '. id. Mem. 1. 3. 
12 if. fi/iijiTi yap n to. <j)a\dyyia koto to BTJypa...aaTf fiaivca^Bai jroieii'. This 
last passage refers to the " bite of love," for which cp. Soph. fr. 721 eparos 
Srjypa :. Socrates (Bergk P. L. G. ll. p. 288) tto^m Sri^dfis. Riickert is no doubt 
right in holding that there is allusion here " ad certam fabellam, nobis licet 
ignotam." Cp. also Aesoh. Cho. 996. 

218 A xav...X^-Y«iv. ''Alii de remediis totoque curationis genere (haec) 
verba intelligunt, alii de motibus, gestibus furibundis, dictisque quae doloris 
magnitude eliouerit, sanis hominibus nil nisi risum moturis " (Riickert). The 
former of these views is adopted by Stallb. and Rettig (who takes the phrase 
to refer to the superstitious use of charms, amulets, etc.), the latter by Hommel. 
The phrase recals 182 B BavpauTo. epya...To\pa>ri noulv : 208 d irdi/ra noiovaiv : 
cp. Rep. 576 a. It seems best here to interpret it broadly of the results of the 
briypa, whether or not directly aiming at a cure: i.e. as covering both the 
senses indicated above. 

xi ttX^eivoTOTov. " In my most sensitive part." 

rqv KapSCav. Schol. B, oti tjjv Kaphiav (Kapbiav Ttjv Herm.) ^XV" KoXei. 
This implies — as Usener inferred — that the words rj V^wxi" ^^''^ absent from 
the Scholiast's text : none the less, in view of the context, I think it rash to 
expunge the words, and content myself with obelizing yap. For rj on ktX., 
cp. 212 c. 



154 nAATfiNOI [218 a 

Srj'x^del'; vtto tcov iv if)i,\ot7o<f)ia Xoyonv, p'i €J(pvTai e'^ihvrj^ dypuo- 
repov, veov "Y^X^^ /^V n<f>vov<; orav 'Kdj3a)VTai, koX •rroiovai, Spdv re 
Kal Xeyetv otiovv — /cat op&v av '^aiBpovv, ' kr/adavai, 'Epu^t- 
B p,axov<i, TlavaavLa<i, ' A.piq-roS'^fiovi! re leal 'ApiaToSdvaii' AOJicparr} 
he avTOV Ti Set Xiyeiu, Kal oaoi aWoi ; ' •jrdvre'i yap keKOivavq- 
Kare Tr)<; <pi\.o(To<pov p.avie^<;^je kui paKveia<;' oio iravTe^ aKovcreerue' 
yvaxrecrt'e yap rpts re Tore ■irpavoeicn Kal Tot9 vvv XeyofievoK' 



(rvyyvaxrecrae yap Tgi<s Te'roreirpaxdelaC Ka\ tol<; vvv XeyofievoK' 
01 06 oLKerai, kui ei tk aAXg<! eo"Tt peprfKo<i re Kai aypoiKOV, nrvKai 
irap.p.eynKa'! rot? aalv iirWeade. 

XXXIV. 'EiretS^ yap ovv, w avSp£<;, o re Xt^^vo? direafiriKei 

C Kai 01 TraiSe? e^a> ■^aav, eSo^e fioi ■x^pfjvai firjBev iroLKiXKeiv Trpos 

avTov, aXK e\eu6epa><; eliretv a fj,ot eSoKSf koI elirov Kivrjcrwi 

218 A ,i.^BO.-P.: Kal/ti)T, Bt. B 8« kqI vulg. Tors«B(?): 

Tols T (?) eiTifTO.-P. : f J Tt B jra/j/icyaXar Naber J.-U. : waw fieyoKas 

libri, Sz. Bt. (/cal) Ktv^o-ac O.-P. 



\mh tcov...\(Jy(i)v. Cp. 210 l) \nyovs...iv (/)iXo(ro</)(u <i(j>6itva>. For TrXijyfir, CJ). 
Eutliyd. 303 a Sxrirep TrXijyfis iiTro Tiiv Xiiyou acjiavus fKfipiriv: Epint. vii. 347 D. 

viav <|'«x'is- Boat, removing the comma before viov, connected v. ilrvxrjs 
with f;^o>'ra4, wrongly : for txe(Tdai. without a genitive, cp. Oorg. 494 b. 

Observe the word-play ?;^-oi'7-ai e'x-'8>'>jr. 

fi-q d(J>vous. Cp. 209 B ^lfv)(tj. . ,cv(l>vfi, 

4>a(Spous ktK. For a similar (generalizing) use of the plural of proper 
names, cp. Menex. 245 d, Ar. Ran. 1040 ft", Av. 558 f. 

218 B fTu^Yvwo-eo-fls. This echoes the (ruyyi/Mo-o^ti/ois of 218 A «M^ra. 

oi i\ oiK^rai. This echoes Diotima's atrnep oIk4tijs, 210 D ad init. : cp. Ar. 
A ch. 242, Ran. 41 for the nomin. of address. 

P4pi)Xds. Cp. Sohol. Aristid. ill. p. 471 fort bk Kijpuy/xa /ivtrTiKOV TO "dvpas... 
/3€|3i;Xo(," as TTOV Kai 'OpKJievs SijXoi " (jiSey^ofiai off Bepic iari ' Bipas S' eiridfir6e 
jSf'^ijXoi": Tim. /3f'/3i;Xoi' d/tuijxoi. Alcib.'s language, like Diotima's, is sugges- 
tive of mystery-lore : cp. Thea£t. 155 E; Eur. £accA. 70 ff., 472 ; Horace's "odi 
profanum volgus et arceo." 

■)r^Xas...TOts uo-lv. Cp. Theogn. 421 ttoXXois avdpairav yXaxnrri Bvpai ovK 
fTTiKfivTai \ AppoSiai. 

o re Xv^vos oireo-piJKti. Cp. Ar. Plut. 668 its Si roiis \v}(vovs anoa-fiia-as... 
eyKaScidtiv : Juv. IX. 104, Hor. G. III. 6. 28. 

218 itoikCXXciv. "Artificiose, h. e. obscure vel ambigue loqui" (Ast) : 
"to beat about the bush." Cp. the use of TroiKiXor in 182 b: Laws 863 E to 
Tt SUaiov Koi TO fSSiKoi',. .o'a<^£f &v Siopia-aipijv oiSev iroiKiXXo>i> : Soph. Track. 
421, 1121. 

iXcvS^pus clirciv. Cp. Pind. Nem. IX. 49 daptroKea 8e rrapa KpaTtjpi (ftava 
ylvfTiii. Notice the word-play c8o^e...(86K(t. For Ktvria-as, cp. Rep. 329 D 
^ovXopevos €Ti XeyfLv avTOV €Kivovv Koi fiirov ktK. 



218 D] ZYMnOZION 155 

avrov, X(B/cpaT69, Ka0evBei<; ; Ov Sijra, ?5 8' 09. Olcrda ovv a fioi 
BeSoKTat; Tt fidXiara; e<j)ri. Sii i/ioi BoKei<;, jjv S' iyw, ifiov 
ipacTTrj<; a.^io<; yeyovevat fiovof;, Kal fiot ^aivrj oKvelv fivqadrjvai 
TTpot IMS. iym Se ovTcoal e%w irdvv avorjrov rjyovfiai elvai aol firj 
ov Kai Tovro yapu^eadat koX ei Tt SXKo ■^ Tfj<; outrta? tjJ? e'/i^9 Beoio 
rj Twv (^iXmv rSiv ifi&v. ifx.ol fjuev yap ovhev ean irpea^vrepov D 
Tou 0)9 6 Ti /SeXTtcTTov 6^6 ysveordai, tovtov Be olfial fiot <ri»X- 
XrjTTTOpa ovBeva KvpiooTepov elvai aov. €7&) Br/ roLovrtp dvBpl 
TToXv fiaXKov av fir) 'X^apt^ofj.evo's aia'X^woi/irjv tov<; <j>povlfj.ov<;, 
7] 'xapi^^ofievo'; tou? re 7roXXou9 icai a<j}pova<;. koI o5to9 dKOVaa<; 
fidXa elpaviKM^ Kal tr^oBpa eavrov re koi eladorco^ eXe^ev 'XI <^iXe 
AXKi^idBrj, KivBvvevet<; rw ovti ov (jjavXo'; elvai, e'iirep dXrjOrj 

218 ?x<» B O.-P. : rx"" TW x«P"^«'^^<« O.-P. A n B O.-R: ?« 
TW D 0)9 5 TiTW O.-P.: 5(70.7-1 B /ioi Vind. 21 O.-P. (prob.), vulg. : 

\>.ov BTW (""np') eauToC Stallb.: (Trpof) kawrov Herwerden iavrw fiai^oTcar 
vulg. i/jiXe om. O.-P.' Kiu8vvev(i...(j)av\' flvai Bdhm. 



i|ioS... alios. Whether enov goes closely with epaariys or with S^tos is open 
to doubt : Jowett renders " the only one who is worthy of me,'' whereas Rettig 
writes "«^iot absolut = wiirdig, bcachtenswcrth." 

<SKvctv kt\. "To bo shy of mentioning (your love) to mo": cp. /. Ale. 
103 a ol/ial (Tf 6aviia(fW on n-pwTOS epaarris <tov y€v6fUvos...roirovTti>v iruiv 
ov8e irpoafiTTov. 

TTis ow<r(as. . .T»v c|>(\eav. Cp. 183 A ^ ^prjfiaTa...VTr6 <f)l\(ov. For rj Tav f^iXcuf 
= ^ Ttjs T&v <^l\mv, cp. the brachylogy in 217 D {ifiov). 

218 D Trpeo-pi5T€pov. Poll. II. 12 kcu n-pfir/SfUfii' to npiav irapa TtKaravi Kai. 
TO " olbiv fiTTi npeor^vTepov " dvT) tov " ovBiv Tifuarfpov '' : 186 B, 188 C supra. 

o-vXXijiTTopa. For the ipatrrrfs as an aid to apfri), see 185 A ; cp. Socrates' 
description of Eros as o-ui/fpyos, 212 b. /iot wtis taken by Stallb. with o-uXXijtt- 
Topa, by Kiickert with clvai, but it is better to say with Hommel that, as an 
ethic dat., " ad totum verborum complexum refertur." 

KvpiuTcpov. " More competent " • cp. Theaet. 161 d. 

Tois <|)pov£|ious..-a<|)povos. Compare the similar aristocratic sentiment of 
Agathon, 194 b. It is worth noticing that whereas Pausanias had spoken of 
those who disapprove of x«P'f«<''^'" ^^ tiv4s, here they are termed ol noXKoi. 
Cp. Xen. item. I. 6. 13. Similarly Browne, Eel. Med. " This noble affection 
falls not on vulgar and common constitutions." 

<r^oSpa iavTov. " Very characteristically " : cp. " suum illud est" Cic. Tusc. 
I. 42. 99. ^ 

ou <|)a«Xos. "Kein Duramkopf" (Hug); cp. 174c, 175 E. Socr. means 
that if Alcib. proposes to make such a profitable bargain, bartering his own 
cheap KoXXor for the rare xaXXor of Socr., he evidently is a "cute" man of 



156 nAATQNOZ [218 d 

E Tvy)(^dv6t ovra a \e76t9 irepl i/xov, Kai Tt? ear' iv ifiol Svva/x.i<;, Bi 
»5s av ai) yevoio d/j^ivmv a^r)')^av6v toi /ca\A,05 oparj'i tiv ev e/xol 
Ka\ Tij? Trapd croi ev/Mop^ia^ irdfi-jroXv Sia<f>epov. el Brj Kadop&v 
avTO Koivaxrairdai re fioi eiri'xeipei^ koI dXXa^aaOai KaWo<; avn 
KaWov;, ovK 0X17^ fiov TrXeoveKTSiv Biavoy, dX\' dvrl B6^r)<: 
219 aX-qOetav koKwv KTaadai t7ri)(^eipei<; Kot tcS ovti "yjpvaea ')(aKKeL(ov 
Siafiel^eadai I'oet?. a\X', w /xaKapie, afieivov crKOirei, /jlt] tre \av- 
6dva) ovBev aiv. r) toi t^9 Biavoia<; oifn^ np'^^erai o^ii ^Xeireiv 
orav r) rmv ofifidrcov r^? dicfi7]<; Xijyeiv eTrfX^eipfj • aii Be tovtocv en 
iroppu). Kayo) dKovcra<;, Ta ixev irap efiov, e^rjv, ravT ecmv, (ov 
ovBev aXXco<; e'iprjTai rj m? Biavoovfiaf av Be auTos ovrco ^ovXevov 
o Ti aoi re dptarov koI efj.ol ijyet. 'AXX', ecf>r), tovto ye ev Xeyei<; • 
B ev yap to5 eiriovri j^^povu) ^ovXevofievoi Trpd^o/j,ev o av <\>ai- 
vrjrai vav irepi re tovtiov koI irepl rwv aKX<i)v dpioTov. 

218 E TOI BTW O.-P.: n al., Bekk.; rt viilg. re /loi BT O.-R: /loi W 

219 A KoKaiv del. Bdhm. i/oels seel. Voeg., J.-U. 17 toi W, Steph.: ^ro{. 

BT oi//-ir apxfTM om. Stob. c'fiov TW O.-P. : f'lxoi B [o-ot Tf ] o« O.-P. 

business. Op. Diog. L. III. 63 6 yoCv (fiaiiXos Xc'ycrat nap' aira (sc. Platoni) 
KOI iiri Tou in^ov, ijs Koi Trap' EvpiTriSji iv Aikv/xvi6i ktX. (see Eurip. fr. 476 N. 
^avKoVy aKOfi\jroVj ra fxeyiar dyaOov ktX.). 

218 E appTixavov ktX Supply from the context, with Stallb., " nam hoc 
ita si sit." Eiickert, after Sohleierm., wrongly connects this clause with the 
preceding, "qua fiat, ut tu melior evadas, atque exinde immensam in me 
puloritudinem cernas " ; while Honimel makes it depend upon eiinep. Op. Eep. 
509 B, 608 D ; Charm. 155 D. 

cv)iopi)>Cas. For the notion of a beauty-competition here suggested, cp. Xen. 
Symp. V. 1. Cp. also the o-o(^ia-match of 175 e. 

ovtV 8ofiis dXijBtiav k. "Real for sham beauties": aKr^deiav KoKav =:aKr]6i.va 
KaXd. Cp. Phil. 36 c fF. ; and for the antithesis, cp. 198 e, 212 a supra. 

219 A \fvma. xakKaav. A "familiar quotation'' from II. VI. 235 — 6 
(rXaO/cor) 6? irpos TvSfiSrjv Aio^^Sea Tev)(c' apu^fv \ \piaea \a\K(iatv, eKUTop- 
/3oi' ivvea^olav. Later reff. to the proverb are frequent, e.g. Plut. adv. Stoic. 
1063 IS ; Clern. Alex. Cohort, ad Gent. 71 C. Cp. Winter's Tale I. 2 "take eggs 
for money." In xpi<r(a there is an obvious allusion to the dydX/iara xpv"'^ of 
216 b. 

1) Toi...oi|>is. For this idea of the inverse development of vision, cp. Laws 
715 D, //. Ale. 150 D. Rettig thinks that in this passage there may lie a ref. 
to Phaedr. 253 d ff., and an indication that the views there put forward are 
crude and the book itself " eine jugendliche Schrift." 

219 B Iv Yap T^ ktX. Thus Socr. practically defers the consideration of 
the matter to " the Greek Kalends." Rettig calls attention to the catalectic 
hexameter in iv yap...fiov\(v6pevoi, which gives a touch of jocular liveliness. 



219 c] ZYMnOIION 157 

E7C1) fi€v Srj ravra a-Kovcra^ re Koi elirmv, KaX a<^el<; oiirvep 
I3e\r), rerpoSffdai avrov wurjv koX dvacrrrh 76, ovSe eTrirpei/ra? 
ToiiTp ei-ireiv ovBev en, dfi<j)ie<Ta<! to ijiariov to efiavrov tovtov — 
Koi yap rjv 'yeip^v — viro tov Tpi^mva KaraKXivel^ rbv tovtovi, 
irepi/SaXtov Tea %etp€ tovtw tm Sai/iovico ws a\,i]da)<; Koi 6aup,atTTm, C 
KaTeKeifiTjv ttjv vvktu 6\i]v. koX ovSe ravra all, m XdaKpare^, epet? 
brt ylrevoop-ai. iroirjaavro'; Se S^ TavTa epMV ovro<; rocrovrop irepie- 
yevero re Kao Kare<f>povr]a-e Kal KareyeKaae TJ79 e'/i^? &pa<; koi 
v^piae Kai rrepl eKelvo <6> ye ^{Mfv r\ elvac, w avSpe<; ZiKacrraL — 

219 B /3Aei TW O.-P. rovro> T, Thiersch: roJro B: tovtov W 

TovTovl TW O.-P. (prob.), Bt.: rourouB, J.-U. Sz. a5 B: om. TW 

Kai Trepi eKcivo (o) ye scripsi : [koi] nepi fKfivo ye O.-P.: Kolvep CKeivo ye TW: 
KatVfp iceii'd y€ B: (cm 'xeii/o ye Sz. : KaiVoi 'kcii/o ye Bt. : Kai'7rep...e?i'ai secl. Hug 

d<|>Els laa-Trtp p^t). Sc. Tois Xoyour. For this image applied to "winged 
words," cp. the use of ^aXa>i> 189 b; Phileh. 23 b /SAt; e^"" ""*P" '""" «/'- 
npoa-Bev \6yav : Theaet. 180 A; Pind. 01. I. 112. 

rerpuo-Oai. " I thought I had winged him." Cp. Theogn. 1287 aWd 
a iyw Tpoxrio (jifvyovTa wep : and the description of Eros as BtjpevT^s Setvos, 
203 d. 

Tpcpcava. Cp. Proi. 335 D ; Ar. Ach. 184, etc. The vogue of the "philosopher's 
cloak " (pallium) seems to date from Socrates ; cp. Plut. dc disc. ad. 56 c. For 
the incident, see also Lysias in Alcib. xiv. 25 (Teichmiiller Litt. F. ii. 267 ft'.); 
Theocr. Id. xviil. 19 ; cp. Theogn. 1063 fiF. eV 8' ijTjSi/ -napa piv ^vv Aprj^iKi koK 
Xid' (vSetv I IpfpTav epyav i^ epov Upevov. Notice the stylistic effect produced 
both by the row of successive participles, mostly asyndetic (" der Sturmlauf 
ist vergeblich " Rettig) ; and by the repetition of the pronoun (tovtoi, -tov, 
-rout, -To>, oStos). " Forsan haec iUustrat Soph. Track. 944. Respexit 
Alciphro'n I. 38" (Wyttenb.). 

219 C Sai|iov(tt>. Cp. 202 D. 

Kal oih\ ravra ktX. Alcib. 's fourth appeal to Socr. for confirmation, cp. 
217 b. 

too-oStov. " Dictum est SeixTiKas et per quandam exclamationem ut signi- 
fieet : mirum quantum me vicit" (Stallb.): Riickertand Hommel, on the other 
hand, suppose that " sequi debebat mart " so as to give the sense "ut non aliter 
ab eo surrexerim," etc. (Riickert), or <S(tt€ koi Koratfypovriaat kt\. (Hommel). 
Ruckert's view, which explains the change of construction as due to the 
intervening parenthesis, seems the most probable. 

irepiry^vero kt\. Alcib. is fond of piling up synonyms by way of emphasis ; 
cp. 207 A, 219 D, 221 e. 

vPpio-E. vfipis is a vox pro/n-ia in erotic literature for the " spretae iniuria 
formae"; cp. Anihol. Pal. v. 213 ouk olira tov dndXaiiTTpov v^piv. 

Anacreon /r. 129 i/Spiorai Kal drdcrBaXoi ('AvaKpfav aTrctXcl rois "Epaxrti'... 
eTreidfinep eapa tov i'<j)i}fiov oKlyov avrov (j)povTi^ovTa...fl pfj aiirw TixpinTKoiev 



158 nAATfiNOZ [219 c 

BiKa<rTal yap eare t^? Sw/cparou? VTreprj<f>avl,a<i. ev yap IVre p.a 
6eov<s, fJ^ Oedf, oiiBev TreptTTorepov KaTaSeSapdr)Ka)<i av^arTjv fiera 
D 'ZcoKparovi}, ^ el fieTa Trarpo? KaOrjvBov rj aSeX^ov Trpea^vTepov. 

XXXV. To Bt) fiera tovto riva o'ieaQe fie Bidvoiav e')(eiv, i)yav- 
fj.evov fiev ■^TifidaBai, dyd/ievov Be rr/p tovtov <^vcnv re xal a-axfypo- 
iTvvTjv Kal dvBpeiav, ivTeTV^riKora dvOpmirto roiovra o"a> iym ovk 

219 D f,elB O.-P. : t, TW 



avTiKa Tov ?(j>ri^ov ktX.). Cp. Spenser's, " Thou hast enfrosen her disdainefuU 
breat," and "Whilst thou tyrant Love doest laugh and scorne At their com- 
plaints, making their paine thy play, Whylest they lie languishing like thrals 
forlorne" (cp. KaTaSfSovXa/ievos 219 e infra). 

Kal irtpl cKcivo (o) -ye kt\. So I have ventured to write on the strength of the 
evidence of the Papyrus. 

Eettig keeps the Bodleian kelvo, as tolerable "in hao Alcibiadis oratione 
singularia amantis," and refers to Poppo ad Thuc. viii. 86, Lob. ad Phryn. p. 7, 
and other authorities : but to bolster up the double anomaly " vain is the 
strength of man": if ki'ivo be retained we must assume prodeliaion ('Keluo). 

tI (Ivai. " Magni quid ease " (RUckort) : cp. Oorg. 472 a : it is the opposite 
of oiScV elvat, 216 E, 219 A. 

SiKao-TaV. Alcib. appeals to the audience to try the case, the notion of a 
lawsuit (ypa(f)fi v^peas) having been suggested by the word v^purev. We have 
already had, in this speech, terms suggestive of legal proceedings, viz. 214 d 
Tifiaipfi(rci>p.aL vpaiv ivavriov : 215 B puprvpas napd^opai : and diKaarfjs itself was 
already used by Agathon in 175 b. 

(id ecous, f^ fltas. Such an invocation of the whole pantheon is unusual, 
but cj). Tim. 27 c. 

oiSiv iripiTT6rtpov. Haud aliter, cp. Isocr. III. 43. 

KaraScSapSTiKus. Cp. 223 c, Jpol. 40 D. For the incident cp. Petron. 128 
non tarn intactus Alcibiades in praeceptoris sui lecto iacuit : Lucian vit. auct. 
15 ; Corn. Nep. Aldb. c. ii. 

219 D T£va...8idvoiav. A.'s feelings were a blend of chagrin and venera- 
tion: cp. the perplexity described in 216 c; Theogn. 1091 ft'. apydKeas pot 
6vp6s i'xft nep\ <r^r ^iXdnjroy | oSrc yap c}(6alpfiv oSre (f>iKf'lv Svvap.at, ktX. 

iJTi|X<i(r8ai. Cp. Theogn. 1313 e'pfjv 8e peBrJKas aTiprjrov (^iXotijto. 

dY<i|i.Evov. This is an echo, both of Phaedrus's language in 179 c, 180 a, 
and of ayaa-Toi applied to Eros (197 d). Observe the assonance fiyoip.(vov... 
ayapivov. Cp. Xen. Si/mp. Vlll. 8. 

Tvv Toirov ^imv ktX. Hommel renders "des Mannes ganzem Wesen 
besonders seiner Besonnenheit und Charakterfestigkeit " etc. ; Kettig explains 
(jtva-is as " die geistige Naturanlage des S., seine theoretische und spekulative 
Begabung, ingenium, <ro(j>ia (vgl. Theaet. 144 a)." The former seems the more 
natural interpretation ; <j)varis may be intended also as an echo of Aristophanes' 
use of the word (189 D etc.). 



219 e] lYMnOSION 159 

&v <pfiriv "rrore ivrvyelv eli i^povqaiv koi et? Kaprepiav ; mare ovO' 
OTTO)? ovv opyi^ol/iijv el^ov Kal airoaTeptjdetTjv rfj^ tovtov avvov- 
<Ti,a<;, ovO' OTTTj irpoaayayoifjiTiv avrov rjinropovv. ev yap jfSr) otl E 
')(^p7}fiacn, ye "ttoXv (jloXXov a,rpajTO<; ■Pjv iravra'xri fj a-iSrjpo) 6 Ata?, 
ft) re (piJbrfv avTov fiov(p oKmaeaOai, Bteireipevyei fie. rjiropovv Stj, 
KaTaoeoov\a)/jLevo^ re inro tov avOpwirov ws oySet? vtt ovBevo<s 
aWov Trepifja. ravrd re yap fxot, airavra irpovyeyovet, Kal /terd 
Tavra crTpaTeva ■^fiiv et? IIoTiSatai/ iyevero Koivfj ical avvecriTovpev 
EKet. TrpwTov fj^ep ovv rot? Troi'ot? ov jxovov inov Trepifjv, aWa Kal 
T&v aWoiv aTravTmv oiror avayKaadeirjfiev diro\ri<^6evre<; ttou, 

219 T) (oo^Tjv O.-P. corr. Kaprepinv : cyKpartiav O.-P. ov$^ : ovd 

O.-P. corr. ft KOI O.-P. a-vvt]6fias O.-P.^ E oiroi vulg. jjdri B : 

jjSeiv W O.-P. yi TW O.-P., Jn.: rt B, J.-U. Sz. Bt. Sf, BT O.-P. : 

Tf W TavTa T Spa Bdhm. Koivij vulg. J.-U. Naber : Koivfj BT O.-P., 

Sz. Bt. ovv libri, Bt. : oSv {ev) Winckelmann J.-U. Sz. ottot' W, Herm.: 
OTTorav BT O.-P. : onoTav yovv vulg.: ottotc S' Sauppe Jn. : ottot* av Rohde: 
oTov oiroT cj. Uaener a7ro\i]<j)d€VTfs Cornarius, Sz. Bt. : anoXeKJidivTfs libri, 
O.-P. : diro\ei(j)0fVTfS (tItov, ola Heusde 

<|)p6vT|<riv...KttpT6p£ttv. " (f>p6vj](TLs verbundeQ mit Kaprepia ist doch nichts 
Anderes als die Aufiosung des Begriffs der a-oKJypoa-vvri in seine beiden Bestand- 
theile. Vgl. Pol. iv. 430 b, Phadr. 237 B, Krat. 411 e" (Rettig). 

ou9'...€txov. Of moral impossibility, as iTi 190c, Fhaedr. 241 A. 

219 E ctTpioTos. " Invulnorablo on all sidoa " : C[). reTpSxrBm 219 )1. For 
the incorruptibility of Socr., shown by his sending back Alcib.'s presents, see 
Stob. Flor. XVII. 17, Ael. v. h. ix. 29. 

o-i8i]piD o Alas. For the impregnable seven-fold shield of Ajax, see Pind. 
Isthm. V. 45 ; Soph. Aj. 576 ; Welcker Kl. Schr. ii. p. 267. 

u re mniv. Sc. 7-fl (Spa (cp. 219 c) : the antecedent, Kara tovto (SmTrtc^.), has 
to be supplied. 

KaTa8<Sov\(i>|i^vos. Cp. Euthyd. 303 c. Above, 215 e, we had avhpanohwhas 

8iaK€LlX€VOS. 

iTEpi^a. "I wandered about," suggestive of aimless despair: cp. Prot. 
348 D, Rep. 620 c; so TTepirpixav 173 a. 

o-TpaT«to...Koiv5. Potidaea revolted from Athens in 435 B.C. and after 
5 years of war was reduced in 430 (see Bury's Hist. Gr. pp. 392 — 3) : Socr.'s 
part in the campaign is alluded to also in Apol. 28 e. Charm. 153 a, c : cp. 
Plut. adv. Colot. p. 1117 E. 

iruve(riToilp.€v. " We were mess-mates " {o-kktititoi). This implies personal 
friendship rather than proximity of origin ; for Socr. and Alcib. belonged to 
different (f>vXai and to different ra^eis. 

Tois TTOVois. Cp. 197 b ("Epws) fv ■7r6v(o...apia~ros. 

airoXii((>94vT€s. "Cut off," "a commeatu intercepti et prohibiti" (Stallb.): 
cp. Hdt. II. 115. 2; Thuc. vi. 22; Gorg. 522 a. 



160 nAATnNOI [219 E 

220 ota St) eVt aTpaTe'i,a<i, aaireiv, oiiSev rjaav oi SXKoi Trpo? to Kap- 
repelv. ev t av rats euwi^iat? fiovo<! airdkaveiv oloii t rjv ra t 
aXXa teal iriveiv ovk edeKutv, oirore dvaiyKaa-Oeirj, Trai/ra? eKparei, 
Koi o irdvTcov OavfiaaroTaTov, ^eoKpaTri fiedvovra owSei? irayiroTe 
kwpaicev avOpanrcuv. tovtov /iev ovv fioi SoKei Koi avTiKa o eXey^'^'; 
eaeadai. irpo^ Be av TayjroO ^et/twi'o? Kaprepriaei<; — ieivoi yap 
avTodi 'x^eifi&ve'i — Oavp-daia elpyd^ero rd re dWa, «ai Trore ovTOt 
B irdr/ov o'iov SeivoTarov, Kal irdvTmv ^ ovk i^iovrtov evBodev rj et ri<s 
e^ioi ■^iJ,<l)iecr/jL£vcov re 6avfia<7Td Srj '6<ra Kal viroBeBefieviov kuI 
eveikiyfievatv Tovt iroBa^ et9 triXovi xal dpvaiciBa<;, ovtov B iv 

220 A irpor TO : irphs airov els to Sauppe : Trpos avTov ra Bdhm. cv S* 

av Wolf anoWvfiv O.-P.' oios t ^v del. Bdhm. re raXXa Bdhm. 

irivatv Usener rravTas: ndvToiv Hirschig 6 navrav TW O.-P. : on&rav B 
SavjiaaucTaTov O.-P. Vind. 21 iaipaKev TW O.-P.: eapanei B ^eifiS>ves 

del. Naber B irayov B O.-P.: toC vayov TW ri ovk B O.-P.: ouK TW 

Sfi TW O.-P.: i} B oStos 8' BTW : oStos O.-P. Vind. 21 



220 A ota 6r\ ktK. Se. c^iXtl ylyvfo-dm, or the like ; cp. Eep. 467 b ota 
8^ cV TToXf/iim {^tXfi {so. yiyveardai) ; Euthyd. 272 A. 

ovSiv iq<rav..."irpis ktX. Cp. 195 D olos i]v...np6s ktX., and 216 E ovScv 
€Lvai. 

fio\laxs. Cp. Laws 666 B fV roTi avirtriTioii fvaxiBevra : 203 B supra. 

TO. t" aXXa K7-X. The construction is loose ; we may either explain it (with 
Stallb.) as a brachylogy for ra t aXKa Ka\ Sq koi tovto oTi...eKpdTei, or say (with 
Wolf) that iKparei is carelessly put for xparav. Hug construes niveiv closely 
with avayKaaSeiq, marking ovk eBeXap as a parenthesis ; but it is simpler to 
regard irlveiv as a kind of accus. of respect (" at drinking ") with eKpiirei. For 
the dvdyKi] of the " symposiarch's '' ruling cp. 176 a, 223 b. 

cupaKiv. The plpf. iapdKci (in spite of Rettig, etc.) is inconsistent with 
iraiiTOTe. For Socr.'s invincibility in carousals, see 176 c, 214 a, 223 C; and 
cp. Theogn. 491 dviKijror 8e toi oiros | 6s ttoXXos Trivuv p,r] ti ndraiov cpel, 

avTCKa...£(r«r6ai. I.e. we shall have proof, before the night is over, of Socr.'s 
KaprepLa in this regard. 

Scivol. ..XEi|jiuves. Cp. Thuc. II. 70 opavres fitv r^t crrpaTias Tiji/ ToKaiirapiav 
ev xoapitf xeijxepivm : Aesch. Pers. 495 fl'. 

Sav)i.a<ria elp^dScTo. An echo of 182 E and 213 D. 

220 B otou SavoTarov. I.e. toiovtov olos heivoraTos eortv : cp, Apol. 23 A 
(Madv. Or. S. § 96. 1). 

ir(Xovs. Schol. TTiXoff • ipdriov e^ epiov ntXtjaeats yivopevoVj eis veTwv Ka\ 
xeipaviov apvuav. Cp. Latos 942 D ; Hes. Op. 541 fF. "Had their feet swathed 
in felt and fleeces " ( Jowett). 

dpvaK(Sas. Schol. apvuKihes Se dpvSiv KaSta: Suid. dpvaKis- to tov dpvos 
KoiSwv, to /ifTii tIov epiutv Sepfiu. Cp. Thcmiat. or. IV. 50 u. 



220 c] ZYMnOllON 161 

TouTot? e^rjei e'^mv l/iaTiov fiev toiovtov olovirep icai Trporepov 
eicoOei ^opelv, oi/i/ttoSt/to? Be Bta tov KpvaTaXKov paov eiropevero 
rf 01 aXkoi VTroBeSe/Mevoi. ol Se aTpariSiTai iiire^Xe'irov avTov a)? 
KaTa(j)povovvTa (r^wv. 

XXXVI. Kal ravTa fiev 87 Tavra' C 

oiov S' av ToB' epe^e Kal stXtj KapTepo<; dvrjp 
eKei TTOTe eVi arrpaTia<:, a^iov aKovcrai. ^vvvoi^<ra<! yap avTodt, 
emaev ri elaTriKei (tkottoiv, Kal eveiBij ov irpovx^apei avrw, ovk 
aviei aWa eiarrjKet l^rjrwv. Kal ijBrj f]v fiearjiJL^pia, Kal avOpaiiroi 
TjCTVavovTo, Kal davp.d^ovre'; aWo<; a'XXaj eXeyov oti ^coKparrj^ ef 
kcoOivov (jjpovTb^cov ft ea-TTjKe. re\evTaivTe<; Be rti/e? TtSy 'Iciz/wj/, 

220 B ol6vn(p B O.-R: olov TW C al t68' W O.-P., Cornarius : 

avTo BT i'ppf^^ B (TTpo-Ttos O.-P., Cobct Sz. Bt. : vTpaTdas libri, J.-U. 

€i(n->;Kf£ vulg. O.-P. ; eor^Kct libri Trpo^wp" B nviei: aveit] O.-V. av6pa>Tvoi 
Moblcr Cobct Sz. Bfc.: ilvdpairoi libri EXfyov Mchler Cobct Sz.: eXtyev 

libri, O.-P., Bt. f| : ear f| O.-P. xai ante TfXfvT&vTfs add. W 'Icii'mv 
libri, O.-P. : viav Mehler Hug Sz.: iSovrav Schmidt: Tlawvav Rettig 



t|iiaTi.ov...<|>opciv. Cp. 220 A n. ; Xen. Mem. I. 2. 1, 6. 2 Kal i/iaTiov rjiKJjUaai 
oil fioj'OV <l)au\ov aWa to avTo depovs re koX ^ftpoauoSy avU7ro5»/TOff 5c Kol d^^tro)!' 
fiioTcXfir. For awirobrfTos, See also 174 a, 203 d. 

iire'pXeirov. " Looked askance (suspiciously) at him,'' i.e. " quippe quern 
ipsos despicere opinarentur" (Stallb.). Cp. Eryx. 395 a vno^\i-^ai...a<rnfp 
rt ddLKOvpfvos : Crito 53 B u7ro/3Xe'i/rovrat (re 8ta(j)dop€a fiyovpevoi ratv voptov. 

220 Kal TaCTa...TovTa. For this formula of transition, dismissing the 
subject, cp. Laws 676 a. 

otov 8' av...dvTJp. From Horn. Od. iv. 242, with the slight alteration olov> 
8' av for nXX' olov : there it is spoken by Helen in describing Odysseus. 

5«vvoi1<ras. Rettig holds that the following section is an illustration of the 
"spekulative Begabung" (^iais 219 d) of Socr. ; but it describes, primarily, 
another phase of his Kaprepla. For S.'s habit of thought-immersion, cp. 
174 E ff., Gell. N. A. n. 1 ; similarly, in Indian gymnosophists, Plin. II. N. 
VII. 2. 22. The similar incident in 174 B fF. is there construed by Agathon 
as a symptom of o-otpia (see 175 c — d). 

'liivav. Ruckert comments " lones illo tempore sub Atheniensium ditione 
erant, unaque militabant " ; but most recent editors suspect corruption after 
Mehler (ad Xen. Symp. p. 75) "Neque fuere eorum in ordinibus, neque 
Platonis haec sunt verba." To Mehler's restoration, tS>v v(S>v, Rettig 
objects that "den Athenern gleichviel ob jung oder alt diese Weise des 
Sokrates kaum aufiallend war, da man ihn genugsam kannte''; while in 
favour of his own conj. TIai6vo>v, ho cites Thuc. I. 59, 61, etc. But I agree 
with Usoner {Rhein. JIfus. Liii. p. 372) that 'Iwvmi' may well be genuine. 

B. P. 11 



162 nAATQNOI [220 c 

D itreiS'^ eavepa ^v, Senrv^aavre'i — koI jap depot Tore y' rjv — )(^a- 
fievvia i^evey/cdfievoi, afia fiev ev to) i/'-u^et KadijvSov, (ifia Be 
e(f>v\aTTov avTov el koX rrjv vvKTa icrrij^oi,. 6 Se elarijicei /t%jOt 
eo)? eyeveTo koI ^Xio<; dvecfxev eireira ^X^t' utticov irpoaev^dfievof 

Tc3 ffKlU). 

Et Se ^ovKeade ev rat? fjbdj(ai,'; ' rovro yap Bi] BiKaiov ye avTa 
diToSovvaf ore yap r/ fJ^d'^ri rjv, e^ rjg ifiol Kol Tapiarela ehoaav ol 
(TTparrjyoi, ovSei<; aX\.o<; efie eaioaev dvOpmircov rj ovto<;, rerpo)- 
E fievov ovK edeXtov diroXnrelv, dXKd avvStecreocre Kal Ta oTrKa Kal 
avTov efie. Kal 6701 fiev, w %d)KpaTet, Kal rare eKeKevov crol 
BiBovai rdpicTTela roii'i aTparr]yov<;, Kal tovto ye fioi ovre fiefi-^ 

220 D IT poaev^o^evos b ev rais : /cat ev rais O.-P. ova eSeXav 

rerpajxevov T E SaKpaTrfv O.-P. 

220 D xajicvvia. Tairetva K^LVLdta (Schol.); ra eTTt rrjs ytjs trrpavvvfieva 
(Tim.) : cp. (Eros) xofiat^fTijs, 203 D : Hipponax 67 ev aradfiia re koI -jfonievvlm 
yvfivov. 

irpao-cv$i{|ievos tu i]X(i>i. Hesiod (Op. 339) proscribe.^ prayer at sunrise and 
sunset; cp. Laws 887 e, 966 D; Soph. 0. C. 477; Ar. Flut. 771 koi irpoancwS) 
ye Trpmra fiev tov rj^tov. The Suggestion here may be that the Sun-god 
{Plioehus, the revealor, " the hght of the world ") brings mental illumination, 
and that Socr.'s evxri was in part a thanksgiving therefor. As a parallel to 
Socr., we may refer to " the devotion of Orpheus to Helios " as pointed out in 
Harrison Proleg. p. 462. Moreover, Socr. regarded Apollo as his special 
patron-god, see Apol. 39 d ff., Phaedo 85 B, Tim. 40 a (Adam, R. T. O. 
pp. 325, 434 ff.) : and the sun is the symbol of ideal Good, see Rep. 530 a, 
Phileb. 28 d. For the content of a Socratic prayer, see Phaedi: 279 b — c ; 
Xen. Mem. I. 3. 2 rjvxeTo 8e irpos tovs deoi/s iiTrXas rdyada SiSovai. Of prayers 
to Helios we have exx. in Soph. Aj. 845 ff. ; id.fr. 772 "HtXtoy oUreipeie /le \ bv 
troipol \eyov(n yevvrjTfjv 6eS>v \ Kai narepa iravTuiv. 

El i\ povXeo-Sc. So. QKoOa-m olos ijv, or the like; cp. 177 B. Alcib. here 
passes on to treat of the dv&peia of Socr. 

airoSovvai. " Tanquam debitum persolvero " (Stallb.). 

r[ |*axi- "Ilia pugna (omnibus nota)" (Ruckert); i.e. the fight (in 
432 B.C.) which preceded the blockade of Potidaea, cp. 219 e «., Thuc. i. 
62 ff., II. 2. 

imia-tv. With this, and crvvbUaaxrev below, cp. Eros as aarrip apiaros, 
197 E. 

220 E oiK iACKiav oiroXiiretv. This passage echoes the language of 

Phaedrus in 179 A : e'yKaraXtTrfti' ye ra iraihiKO. ktK., and OTrXa awo^akav. To 
rescue a man's aims was to save him from the disgrace attaching to onXav 
dTTO^oKrj. 

oilre (x^ikI/t). Here for the fifth time Alcib. challenges Socr. to contradict 
him (cf. 219 c) : for fieii.<^op.at, cp. 213 e. 



221b] ZYMnOIION 163 

ovre epetf on ylrevBofiai' aXXa yap twv arpaTtjyoiv 7rpo9 to efiov 
a^icofia diTO^XeTrovTmv koX ^ovXo/ievoJv e/iol StSovai Tapurrela, 
avTO'! TTpoQvfjboTepos eyevov rcSv arpaTrjywv e/ie Xa^elv rj cravTov. 
en Toivvv, do dvSpe<{, d^iov ■^v OeaaacrOai ^(OKpcirr), ore diro Arfkiov 221 
^vyfj ave^ftipet to aTpaToireSov eTV)(ov yap 'jrapayev6fJ-evo<; tinrov 
e'xmv, ovTo<; Be oTrXa. ai/e^^ojpet ovv ea-KeBa<7fj,eveov ijBr) twv dv- 
dpwTTuv ovTo'; Te a/Ma Koi A.aj(r}<;' koX eyitJ TrepiTvyx^dvo), /cal lSa>v 
evOv<; irapaiceKevofial re avTolv dappeiv, koi eXeyov oti ovk diro- 
Xetyfro) avToo. ivTUvda Si) koi koXXiov edeaadftrjv AOJKpdTrj rj ev 
TloTihaia — at/ro? yap tjttov ev <f>60(p rj Bid to etj)' itrirov eivai — 
irpwTov fitv ocrov ireptijv Ad^r)TO<i to3 efiippcov elvaf eireiTU efjuoiye B 
eSoKei, w 'Api(TT6^ave<;, to aov hrj tovto, koI exel SiaTTopeuecrOai 
wairep Koi evOdSe, " l3pevdv6fievo<! Kal TOXjidaXfia} irapa^dXXwv," 

221 A o-WKpaTrjvT .y B: ^ TW: t; O.-P.: ^c vulg. B aa-ntp koi 

ivddSc seel. Jn. J.-U. ra o</>daX^a> T O.-P.: tw (pdaXiiw B: t 6<j>da\iJ.a W 

a|((D|i.a. "Social standing": "erat genere Alcmaeonida...ipse Periclis in 
tutela erat" (Ruckert). Op. /. Ale. 104 b; Thuc. ii. 37, v. 43, etc. 

ij o-ovTov. We should expect /laXKov ^ airSt, but the accus. is put in order 
to balance ifie, "propter oppositionis gravitatem " (Stallb.). For the omission 
of fiaWov after words " denoting a wish or choice," see Madv. Or. S. § 93 c. 

221 A diro Ai)XCou. For this famous battle in Boeotia (424 B.C.), when 
the Athenians under Hii)pocrates were routed by the Theban.s under Pagondas, 
sec Thuc. IV. 76 ff., Bury's Hist. Gr. pp. 442—3. 

KoV Adxus. Cp. Loch. 181 B. Athenaeus (v. 329 flf.) perversely contends 
that Socr. took part in no battle. 

■n-fpiTifyxavu. Cp. Hermann on Ar. Niib. 196, '' iniTvyxavfiv dicitur qui 
quaerit, wcpiTvyx- qui non quaerens in aliquid incidit." 

KaXXtov c9eao-d|ir|v. "I got a finer view of": cp. JRep. 467 e f<^' "iTrnaiv... 
KaX\i(TTa re ded(TOUTai.,.Ka\ d<r^a\4fjTaTa ktA. 

iv <|)oP<p. Cp. 197 D. 

J|jLc|>po>v. "Cool," "collected"; cp. Ion 535 B norepov epKJjpav el, ^ e'^a 
aavTov yiyvei; Laws 791 B avri paviKa>v...e^tK efKJjpovas f'x""- 

221 B t6 (tov 8p toSto. An accus. absol., like to Xeyoptvov : " ut tuo illo 
utar" (Stallb.). Cp. Soph. 233 b, Euthyd. 284 c (with Schanz, nov. comm. 
pp. 76 f.). The ref. is to Ar. JVub. 362 on ffpevSiet t eV rmKriv aSois koi 
Ta<p6aKfiM wapa^aWds. The Clouds was not produced until the year after 
the battle of Delium, viz. 423 B.C. 

pp(v6v6|j.cvos. "Stalking like a pelican" (Jowett): Schol. ad Nub. 362 
PpevOvff diTO(rfp.vvvfis aeavTov ev rm axrifian Koi ravpifSov Spas- KO/nrd^eis koX 
vneponnKas /SaSi'ffw : cp- Schol. ad Fax 25, ad Lysist. 887. " Nimirum 
ductum est verbum a Ppevdos, quod signiflcat avem aquaticam, frequenter ad 
paludes commorantem altisque pedibus incedentem" (Stallb.). 

Tu<f>6aX|i.ii irapapdWcov. " H. e. torvo vultu oculos in obliquum vertens " 

11—2 



164 nAATQNOZ [221 b 

rfpe^ia irapacrKoirwv Koi tow ^iXiovv ical rovi TroXefiiovi, S»j\o9 cov 
•jravTi KoX irdvv iroppcodev, '6ti et Tt? aylrerai tovtov tov dvSp6<;, 
p,aka ippafieveo^ ap,vveiTat. Sio /cat d(T(f>aXw airjjei Kai ovto<; 
Kal 6 eraijoo?" a'X^eBbv yap ti twv ovtco BiaKeifievav iv tw 
C iroXe/xq) ovBe airrovrai, aXXa rovt irpoTpoirdZ-qv <f>£vyovTa'; Bia>- 
Kovai. 

IloWa ptikv oSv av tk koX aX\a ej(pi ^(OKparr) iiraiveaai Kal 
Oavfidcria' dXXa r&v fiev dWcov .eTrcT7]S6vp,dTcov ^d^ av Tt? /cat 
irepl dXKov roiavra eiiroi, to Se fiTjBevl dvOpatTrtav ofioiov elvai, purjTe 
rSiV iraXai&p fi'qre r&v vvv ovtq)v, tovto a^iov iravTW davp,aTO<;. 
olo? yap A.')(^iXkev<i eyevero, aTreiKaaeiev av Tt? Kal UpacriSav Kal 

221 B nepuTKOTvav Ast Bekk. Sz. ^iXt'oui BTW : ^iKovs al, O.-P., 

Steph. a^aiTo O.-P. aiivvTjrai B 8i6...8ia>Kov(nv secl. Hartmann 

Sto 8fj KOL Arist. ovTos : avros O.-P. iToipos Ariat., Sz. Bt. : erepos libri, 
O.-P., J.-U. €v 7-5 iToKepa ante aXKa ponit Arist. /laXXov post <pev- 

yovTas addit Arist. Bavfiaaai. Hirschig t&v fiev : rav O.-P. (ut videtur) 

Se : Se Si/ O.-P. ilvtu /x^re TW. O.-P. : dvai p€ B 

(Stallb.). Rettig objects that this rendering is inconsistent with ripepa 
^iKiovs, and explains by " oculis prope admotis intueri, also scharf ansehen," 
cp. Phaedo 103 a, Rep. 531 a. Ast gives " oculos in aliquid immotos habere 
intentos": Eeynders, to ^'Kippa av<a koi /cdrw Kweiv. Jowett, "rolling his 
eyes." 

i\p^|ia irapaoTKoiruv. This verb is air. dp. in Plato, and perhaps conveys a 
literary allufsion: lluckert explains it to mean "oculis quasi comitari, ob- 
servare, ut omnes raotus lento oculorum motu notare videaris." 

8ii\os...ir6ppw9tv. "Similiter ApoUodorus, qui Socratis incessum imitatus 
est, Tii>v ovv...iroppa>6ev f'/cdXfo-ei' ktX." (Hommel). 

eraipos. So Jahn, after Aristides t. ii. p. 72 : the more definite term is 
preferable, as Rettig argues against Teuffel. For confusion of the two words 
in the codd., cp. 183 o {crit. n.), and see Schanz, nov. comm. p. 59. 

221 irpoTpoira8i)v. " In headlong rout " — an Epic {II. xvi. 304) word, 
ait. dp. in Plato. For the sense, cp. Tyrt. 11. 11 — 13 oJ piv yap roXpaxn... 
iravpurepoi dvrjcrKovcn ktX. : Seneca, Ep. 94 audentes fortuna iuvat (see Bergk, 
ad Simon, fr. 227) : II. v. 531 f. alSopivav 8' avSpav irXeoves crdoi rje irecjiav- 
raf I (j)cvy6vTa>v 8' our' lip kXcoc opwrai ovre tis oXkij : lb. XV. 561 ff. 

lEoXXa. ..Kal fi.XXa ktX Op. 195 B, 201 D. Hirschig's Bavpaaai. gives us 
(as Rettig argues) "einen raatten Gedanken." 

6av|taTos. "Of wonder" (the subjective feeling), cp. Phil. 36 d. Laws 
967 A : elsewhere in Plato Baiipa means " quod mirum est." 

otos vdp ktK. For Achilles, see Od. iv. 267 ff. ; and cp. 179 e f. 

Bpao-CSav. For this famous Spartan leader, who fell fighting at Amphi- 
polis in 422 B.C., see Thuc. ll. 25, 85 ff., v. 6 ; Bury, Hist. Or. pp. 445 ff. 



221 e] ZYMnOSION 165 

aWov^, Kal oto^ au IlepiK\i]<;, koI Necrropa Kal ^ KvTrjvopa, elcrl Se 
Kat erepof Kai tou? aXKov<; Kara ravr av Tt? airet/cd^of olo? D 
Se ovTocrl yeyove rr/v aroniav avOpat-tro^, koi avTo<; KaX ol Xoyoi 
avTov, onS' iyyv<! av evpoi Tt? ^i]tc!)v, ovre r&v vvv oure rmv 
iraXai&v, ei fir/ apa el ol<; eyo) Xeym aireiKd^oi ti<; avTov, dv- 
Bpanriov fiev /iijSevi,, Toi(i Se a-iXtjvoK Kol o-aTvpoK, avrov Koi tovi 
\670u?. 

XXXVII. Kal ycip ovv Kal tovto iv rot? irpmroi'; •jrapeKnrov, 
OTi KOL oi Xoyoi aiiTov ofioioTaroi elat roi<; <TiXr)vol<; rot? Sioiyo- 
/jLevoii;. el ytip edeXot, ri<i twv StB/CjOrjTou? aKoveiv Xoyoiv, cjiavelev E 
av TrayyiXoioi to irpMTov Toiavra Kal ovofiaTa Kal prjfiara e^coOev 
•jreptafnre'X^ovrai, (rarvpov [dv^ rtvd v^pi(TTov Sopdv. ovovt yap 

221c f(Vi. .. fTfpoi seol. Jn. J.-U. eiVl: ofot Bdhm. D roif del. 

Bdhm. : tovs (jifv) Hirschig ravT : ravr B : tovt W avdpanos Sauppe 

Sz. Bt.: avBpamos BT ouTf tS>v vvv...naXmZv del. (Hommel) Hirschig Jn. 

apa el B : apa TW O.-P. Xe'yo) TW O.-P. : Xeymi/ B avrov re koi vulg. 

E e'^cXot B : f ^eXet T TSv-.-Xdywi' TW O.-P. : Toi/.-.Xoyoi' B irayyeKoioi 

soripsi: naw ycXoioi TW O.-P., vulg. Bt.: ytKoloi B, J.-U. Sz. nva B O.-P., 
J.-U. Sz. : av Tiva TW : Sfj nva Baiter Cobet Bt. : aS nva Riickert 

IlepiKXiJs. Sco 215 K n., Oorg. 515 c fF., 519 a. 

NeVropa koI ' Avri^vopo. Coini)arablo to Poriclos on the ground of eloquence 
(cp. 215 E, Pericles as ayados pljTap)- For Nestor, see Horn. II. i. 247 ffl ; for 
Antenor, II. vii. 347 ff. ; Hor. Ep. i. 2. 9. 

221 D TT\v iroirtav. " Originalitat " (Wolf) : see 215 A n. 

dvOpiiiroiv p.^v xrX. See 215 a, b, 216 E. 

221 E iraYY^Xoioi. Cp. 189 B, 215 A; the context shows that -yCKoios here 
is nearly equiv. to xaraycXao-ror. Of Socr., as of S. Paul, it was said that " his 
speech was contemptible." 

ovof.ina, KttV piijiara. See 198 B ri. 

{|ca9ev irtptop.ir^X'"'''''''''- C!p. 216 B e^aOcv nepi^c^XrjTai. 

eroTippoii [av] nva. Stallb. vainly argues in a long note " Sv tenendum et 
per ellipsin verbi (i.e. ovo-av) explicandum esse." 

iPpio-ToC. Cp. 215 B, 175 E. In Sopav, the satyr's " hide,'' there is an 
allusion, no doubt, to the flaying of Marsyas by Apollo. 

ovo«s 7Ap ktX. " His talk is of pack-asses and smiths and cobblers and 
curriers" (Jowett). Sohol. navOrfKlovs- rovs ^paSfls i/o^o-ai ^ atjivfls. dno Kav- 
davos, OS icrnv ovns, eiprjpevot, kt\. : cp. Ar. Vesp. 170 ff., 177 ff. For ovoi in Plato, 
op. Gorg. 516 a. Rep. 563 c ; for xaXxtlr, Prot. 319 D, Crat. 388 D, 389 E. Cp. 
Oorg. 490 C ff., where Callicles objects drfp^rSr yt ae\ ixKvTeas re xni Kva<pea! 
Koi aayeipovs Xeycov Kat larpovs ovdev iravei ktK. : Xen. Mem. I. 2. 37 6 he 
KptTi'ar, 'AXXa tSjvSc toI are aTri)(e(T6ai, e(j>rj, 8f7J(T«, t» Saxpares, tSiv (TKurf'tov Kai 
tS>v reKTovav Koi tS>v p^aXKe'mv : t6. IV. 4. 5 — 6 : Max. Tyr. diss. IX. 1. 



166 nAATQNOI [221 E 

Kav6r)Xiov<; Xeyei koI ■)(^a\Kea<; rtva? koL (tkvtoto/mov^ koI ^vp- 
aoBiyfraii, xal del Sia t<ov avra>v ra avra (jyaiverai Xeyeiv, uxne 
aTreipo^ Kal dv6riTo<; avOpcoTTOt ird': cLv tcov Xoycov KaToyeXacreiev. 
222 Bioiyofievovg Be lBu>v av rt? koI eVro? avrav 'yir/v6fievo<; irpcoTov jxev 
vovv e-)(ovra'; evBov fiovow; evprfaei, rSsv Xoymv, erreira deiorarovi 
Kal irXeia-T diydX/MaT dpeTr}'; ev avTol<s e')(pVTat; koX iirl irXeiaTOV 
TeivovTw;, fiaXXop Be eVt Trav oaov TrpoarjKei, aKOirelv rm fj-eXXopTt 
KaXS KayaOiS eaeaOai. 

iavT eaTiv, (d avope<i, a eyco ZcoKpaTr) eiraivco' kul av a fie/i- 

^o/iai avfi/j.i^a'i vfiiv eVirov a fie v^piaev. Kai fievToi ovk e/te 

B fiovov ravra TreiroirfKev, d'hXd Kal X.apfii.B-rjv rov VXavKa)vo<; Kal 

EidvSj)fiov Tov A(okX60i>9 Kal dXXov^ Trdvv ttoWoi/?, ovi ovto<; 

e^aTrar&v a)? epaari}'; "jraiBiKa fjiaXXov avTO<! KaOiararai avT 

221 E KaverjKivovs O.-'?. 221 A. Sioiyov/teVouf B a5 Bekk. Hug Bt.: 
av libri, O.-P. : 8^ Sz. iyyvs avrmv ye Hommel evpfjcreif Usener tSjv 
\oyav TW O.-P.: TOV \6yov B: del. Wagner Voeg. relvovTas TW: tivovtus 
O.-P.: TfiVdiraf B fViTW O.-P.: €TiB B wdwom.O.-P. 

222 A ISilv aS Tts. "riv cum participio cohaeret hoc sensu, edv ns tSi;... 
si quis forte viderit " (Ruckert) ; Stallb., too, defends av, citing Rep. 589 E, 
Phaedo 61 c, Euthyd. 287 D ; the objection of Ruckert and Rettig, that av 
ought to stand after Swiyo/ievovs rather than after (Sou', is not fatal. 

|iovovs...Tuv XoY«v. For the contrast implied, cp. Homer's oios niirvvrai, 
Tcu 8e o-Kiai ata-aovaiv {Meno 100 a). A similar ascription of life to Xoyot is to 
be found in Phaedr. 276 a. 

ecioraTovs ktX. Cp. 216 D — B. The whole of this account of Socrates' 
Xdyot is virtually an encomium of his troipia. 

T£CvovTOS...W irdv. Cp. 188 B eVl jrav 6 6c6s Telvei: Rep. 581 B. For 
echoes of phrases in the previous speeches here, and throughout Alcib.'s 
speech, see Introd. § vi (3). 

a |i.C|i<)>o|iai ktX. "Verba ita connectenda sunt: koi o'v/ifil^as av a fif/i- 
c^ofiai flirov ifiiv a /if iJ/Spicre " (Stallb.). Stephens erroneously put a comma. 
Wolf a full stop, after fie/icjiofiac. Ruckert, agreeing with Stallb., put a comma 
after a-v/ifii^as, and Hommel added another after aS. Jowett's transl., — "I 
have added my blame of him for his ill-treatment of me " — seems to imply 
a different view of the construction. The points alluded to are those men- 
tioned in 217 B ff", 219 c. 

222 B Xap|iL(Si]v. For Charmides, Plato's avunetdus, see Charm. 154, 157 ; 
Xen. Mem. iii. 7, Symp. lii. 9 etc. 

£!u6i>Si||iov. This Euthydemus, son of Diodes (see Xen. Mem. iv. 2. 40), is 
not to be confounded with his namesake the sophist, who appears in the 
dialogue Euthyd. 

iraiSiKd...dvT' ipaoTov. "The object rather than the subject of love." 
This may fairly be construed, with Eottig, as an indication that Socr., the 



222 cl ZYMnOIION 167 

epaa-Tov. a Br) /cat arol \67c1), co 'Ayddcov, firj e.^atraTaaOai virb 
TovTov, aW OTTO Tftji/ rffieTepoiv TTadrffiaTatv yvovra ev\a0r)- 
Qrjvai, Kol fir) Kara ttjv irapoifiiav (oairep p^ttiov iraOovTa 
yvwvai. 

XXXVIII. EtTTOi'TO? hr) ravra tov 'AXki^iciSou yiXwra C 
yeveadai iirl rfj irapprfaLa avrov, on iSoKet en ipeoriKW^ exe'" tov 
^(o/cpaTovi. TOV ovv ^(OKpaTrj, N7/<^6H' /jioi So«et9, (fxivat, m 'AXwt- 
/3idBrj. ov yap av nroff' ovrm KOfi'^w'i kvkXm irept^aXKofJLevo'; 
a<f)avi,<Tai ive)(^eLpei<; ov eveica ravra iravra etpr)Ka<;, Koi to? ev 
irapkpytp Sr) Xeycov iirl reXeuTTj? avro edr)Ka'i, to? ov irdvra rovrov 

222 B i^airaraadf B aXX' vtto O.-P.' yvavra B C naprjaia O.-P. 

ehoKf t\i\ O.-P.l o/ii/fwr pr. B oi evcKa TW: oiS' eveca B: owexa O.-P. 

(r e 8 corr.) ; ov Bff evexa Uaener 



embodiment of the ideal kuWos, is exalted above Eros (op. 201 a) : contrast 
180 B 6(iarepov epaaTrjs wmhiKatv. For the reversal of the r61es of Ale. and 
Soar., op. I. Ale. 135 D Kivhvvsvtrofxev fiera^aXeXv to <T\r\p.af cJ StuKparer, to fiev 
(TOV cyo), trii 8e Tovp.6v. ov yap ftrriv ottojs ov •jraibaytayrjirta a"€ ktX Cp. also 
Xen. Symp. viii. 5 ; and see Introd. § vi. 3. 

a 8p. . .cSairarao-Sai. Hommel and Rettig, after Stallb., take the infin. clause 
to bo cpc.xegctic of 5. : Riickert construes i^arc. as a second accus. depending 
on Xf'yo) : Hug makes the infin. dopond on a \iya> (equiv. to " I givo you this 
warning") as on a "verbum voluntatis." It may be simply an oblique 
imperative. 

Kar^ T1^v irapoi|i.Cav. Cp. Horn. II. XVII. 33 p()(6iv Sf re vrjnws fyvco : ib. 
XX. 198 : Hes. Op. 218 Tra^ww 6e re vrjnios eyva : Hdt. I. 207 waOfipara paBf;- 
fuxTa: Aesoh. Ag. 177, Cho. 313: Soph. 0. C. 143: and our Enghsh proverb 
"a burnt child dreads the fire." Schol. pex6ev...eyv(o' in\ tS>v fiera t6 nade'tv 
<TvvifVTa>v TO apdpTTjiia. fVi to avro Mpa jrapoipia- 6 aXievs 7rXi;ycis vovv 
^vtTfi ' kt\. 

222 irappiia-t^. " Naivetat" (Wolf) ; see A.'s excuses for it in 217 e. 

Nii<t>6iv (toi SoKcts. Echoing the phrase previously used by Alcib. (fioxfiTe 
yap pxii. vij<p€iv 213 b), Socr. jocosely derides his repeated plea of intoxication 
212 B, 214 c, etc.), saying in efifect : " It's sober you are, not drunk ; otherwise 
you could never have excogitated so deep a scheme." 

Ko|i,i|>us. Of a "pretty" trick; cp. T/ieaet. 202 D, Sopk. 23C D. 

kvkXu ircpiPaXXopevos. See Ast ad Phaedr. 272 D " imago desumta est 
ab amictu, quem rhetores, priusquam perorarent, componere solebant: 
v. Quintil. xi. 3. 116": Cic. de or. iii. 39. 138 se ciroumvestit dictis. For 
kukXu cp. Ar. Rhet. I. 9. 33 (with Cope's note), ill. 14. 10, and Virgil's "per 
ambages" (G. ii. 45). 

Iirl TeXcvTTJs. 2.e. as if it were an after-thought only : cp. 198 B, Phaedr. 
267 D. 



168 nAATfiNOZ [222 c 

D eveKa elpijKm, tov i/xe xal 'Aydffcova Bia^iiWeiv, olojMevo'i helv ifie 
fi.ev (TOV epdv Koi /iT/Sei/o? dXXov, 'AydOcova Se inrb aov kpaavai 
KoX fj,r]B' v(f)' ei'o? dXKov. dW' ov/c eXaOei}, dWd to aaTvpiKov 
aov Spd/xa tovto icaX aiXrjviKov KurdBrjXov eyevero. aXX\ at <f>iXe 
^AydOcov, fiTjSev irXiov avra> yevrjrai, dXXd TrapacrKeva^ov oirw; 
epe Kol ae prjSeU Bia^aXei. tov ovv 'AydOcova elireiv, Kal prjv, 

E (u 'ZwKpaTe's, Ki,vBvv6vet<! dXrjOrj \eyei,v. TeKp,aipop,ai Se Kai, to? 
KaTeKXivi] ev fiea-qy ep.ov re Koi <roO, "va %<i)/>ts ■^pa,<; BtaXa^rj. 
ovSev ovv TrXeov avTca ecrrat, aX)C 670) irapd ae eXOtov xaTaKXivr)- 
aopai. Tldvv ye, ^dvai tov ^(OKpaTt], Sevpo viroKaTO) ep,ov Kara- 

222 D Sia^aAfl Hirschig Cobet Sz. Bt. : Sia^aXa O.-P. : 810^0X1, BTW 



222 D l|j.^..8iaPaXX.€tv. "To set us at variance " : cp. 222 D, Rep. 498 c. 

ol6|iEvos Setv kt\. I.e. thinking that you must at once monopolise Socr. as 
your ipaa-Tljs and Agathon as your irmdiKd. For Sfiv, cp. 222 b. 

oXV ouK SXaScs ktX. For the conversational carelessness of the repeated 
aXka, cp. 175 B (four times). 

tA orarvpiKov <rov 8pd|ia ktX. A playful allusion to the ehovis employed 
by Alcib. in his encomium (see 215 b). For "satyric drama" see Smith, 
J). A . II. 860 b : " The satyr-drama was so-called because the Chorus consisted 
of satyrs attendant on Dionysus... it was aptly described as iratfouo-a rpa- 
yaSia" : Jevons, Hist. Ok. Lit. p. 186. 

(iT]8^v irXfov ktX. An echo of the language of Alcib. in 217 c. 

222 E x"P^s SiaXdptl- '' Dictum hoc eleganter cum amphibolia quadam, 
ut ot do spatio possit cogitari et de animoruui disiunctione " (Stallb.): cp. 
Pldl. 55 D. 

viroKiiTu e|ioi;. The Original order of the places on this (eVxaTij) kXiVij was 

(1) Agathon, Socrates (see 175 c — d) : then Alcibiades on his entrance had 
seated himself in the middle (213 b ad init.), thus making the order 

(2) Agathon, Alcib., Socr. : now Socrates invites Agathon to shift his position 
so as to change the order to (3) Alcib., Socr., Agathon: presently, in the 
sentence following, Alcibiades suggests that, instead of this, Agathon should 
take the middle place {iv fiecra fjfimv), which would result in the order 
(4) Alcib., Agathon, Socrates. But the adoption of this last order is, as 
Socr. hastens to point out, impossible, inasmuch as it would cause serious 
dislocation in the series of Xoyot which are bound to proceed in order from left 
to right (see 214 c), each speaker taking for his theme his next neighbour on 
the right. If the order (4) were adopted, it would be the duty of the next 
speaker, Agathon, to eulogize Socrates, a task already performed by Alcib. 
himself; whereas by adopting the order (3), the next speech would fall to 
Socr., and he would have for his theme Agathon, an arrangement unobjection- 
able in itself and well-pleasing to Socr. {rruw iwidvfiSi airov eyKafudaai, 223 a) 
as well as to Agathon (loC loO ktX., 223 a). 



223 Aj ZYMnOZION 169 

kXivov. il Zev, ehrelv top ^AXKi,Pidht}v, ola av Trraffj^w iiiro rov 
avvpunrov. o'ierai fiov helv iravTayrj irepieivai. dXK' el fir) ri 
aXKo, to dav/idcrie, kv fiear<p f}fiwv ea ^ Ayddtava KaraKslaOai. 'AXX' 
aovvarov, ^dvai rov ^caupdrrj. a-ii fiev yap efie eTrjjj/ecra?, Bel S" 
€/x.€ av TOP €7rt Se^i' eiraivelv. edv ovv vtto a-ol KaTaKktvfi 'A<yd- 
vasv — ov or) ttov efie •jroKiv eiraivicrerai, irpiv vir efiov p,cbK\.ov 
eTTaivedfjvai ; aW' ea<rov, w Sai/j,6vie, xal /xtj ^Oovqari'; tw 223 
lieipaKLtp vTT efiov STraivedrjvai' koI yap irdvv kiriOvfiui avTOV 
eyKwfJLiaaai. \ov iov, <j)avai rov ' AydOcova, 'AXKi^idBrj, ovk herd 
oirto'; av evddhe fieivai,p,i, dWd ■7ravT0<; fidWov fieravacrrija'Ofj.ai, 
iva VTTO Xa>KpdTov<i eTraivedeS. Tavra eKslva, <f)dvat tov 'AXki- 
0iaSr}v, rd elcoOora' Sw/cparou? Trapovro? roov KaXdiv fjieraXa^eiv 
dBvvarov aWq). koI vvv eu? einropoof Kal iriOavov Xoyov T]vpev, 
(0(7Te Trap eavrm tovtovI KaraKeladai. 

222 £ ntpKivai: nepiifvai O.-V. yap f'/it B O.-P. : yap fie TW av tov 
Bekk.: av tov B O.-P.: airrbv T : av Tovb' Ast KaTaK\i6ri O.-P. oi S17 
TTOU : oi/ro) drjTTOv Bdhm. : fort, ov 5cT nov f7raiv4a(Tai : fort. cVati/cffat 
vel ewaLVfio'daL Trp\v : Sfiv Usener Hug: napov (vel irape\s...aWov) 
Bdhm. 223 A pSKXov B O.-P.: „, paXUv T: ora. Vind. 21: aXAoi/Mdvg. 

€ • 

eTraivedijvai; distinxit Ast Iov Iov T rravTos: 7rai/T0(r[a] O.-P. fvnopw 

O.-P. 

ota a5 ira<rxo>. " How I am fooled " (Jowett). This echoes 215 D ola Sfj 
ninovBa kt\. : cp. 184 B Kaxms iraa"}(a>v (so. o f'papevos). 

iliro <rol. 6 vrro nvi (or vnoKaTM Tivos) is equiv. to o cVi Scfid (cp. 175 C n.). 

ov Br\ TTOV htX. If we retain the MS. reading, this clause is best printed 
as interrogative (so Bt. and Lehrs) — taking the place of a regular apodosis, 
such as Ser/a-ei avTov f'/*E jraKiv enaiveiv. Against Badh., — who wrote " mon- 
stri vero simile est, vplv vir' fpov naWov iTraivedrjvai," — Rettig attempts 
to defend the text thus: "Statt der Worte: 'er wird eher wollen von mir 
gelobt werden, als mich loben,' setze man: es wird nicht verlangt werden 
konnen, dass er mich lobe, bevor ich vielmehr ihn gelobt habe" ; i.e. ov S^ttou 
itraivicreTai is equiv. to ov Srjnov inaiveiv i6e\r)(Tei. This, however, is awkward ; 
and some corruption must, I believe, be assumed : if so, the changes I have 
proposed seem the most plausible. 

223 A 'Iov loB. For a distinction between Iov, as a cry of joy, and Iov, of 
pain, see Schol. on Ar. Nvh. 1170. Here it denotes jubilation, not commisera- 
tion as Hommel suggests ("Wehe, weho, armer Alkibiades" etc.). 

TouTtt iKEiva. Cp. 210 E, Cluirm. 166 B (Schanz nov. comm. p. 16). 

cviropus. This echoes phrases in the description of Eros, son of Tlopos, see 
203 D (iropiixos), 203 E {evnoprjtrrj), 204 B {naTpos...fvir6porv). Similarly ntBavov 
suggests the plausible tongue of the yoi/r and o-o^itrr^r of 203 D. 

7ri6avov \6yov rjupev. For this " inventiveness of plausible argument " as 
belonging to the art of the sophistical rhetor, cp. Oorg. 457 a ff., Phaedr. 269 d. 



170 nAATQNOZ [223 b 

B XXXIX. Tdv fiev ovv ^Ayd6(ova &)? KaTaKeuTOjievov irapd raJ 
2o)K/3aT6t dviffTaaOai' e^al^vr/ii Se Kco/j.aaTa'; rjKeiv Tra/iTroWoi;? 
eirl Tffl? 6vpa<i, koX einTVXOvra<i dveay^ivai,^ e^i6vT0<s Ttvo? eh to 
avriKovt; tropeveaOai irapd a<^d<i koI KUTaKXiveaOat,, /cat 0opv0ov 
fj,€(TTii wavra elvai, xal ovKeri ev Koa-jxtp ovhevl, dvayKa^ecrOat 
TTiveiv TrdfiiroKvv olvov. tov fjiev ovv 'Epufi/iaj^oi' koX tov <^atSpov 
Kal dX\ov<; Tivdi; e^rj 6 'ApiarT6Srifj,o<; oi')(^ea8ai d'iri6vra<;, e oe 

C iiirvov \a^£iv, Koi KaraZapOelv irdvv iroXv, lire fiaKpwv T<Sv vvktcov 
ovawv, e^eypea-Oai, Se Tr/ao? r^fiepav fjZij dXeKTpiiovatv qZovrcov, 
e^eypofievoi; Se ISetv tou? /xev aX\ov<; Ka0evBovTa<; Koi ol')(pfievov<i, 
'Ayddciva Se Kal ^Apia-TO<f>dpT) Kal "ItoKpaTt} en /jlovov; iyprjyopevat 
Kal Trivetv ex ^idXr]<; fj^eydXij^ eirl Se^id. tov ovv "EcoKpaTt) avToii 

223 B avatayfievats 0.-7.^ ets ro: eia-a O.-P. (tous) aXXour O.-P. 

eSeBW: faSfT: favrov Se 0.-7. KOTaSapdciv 'Rettig irdvv : are 

O.-P.' StOKpaTT) KOI Api.a-TO(j>avr] O.-P. Ven. 184 Vind. 21 iieya\j)S 

(j)i[X]a\ris O.-P. Paris 1642 Vat. 229 

223 B 4|oC<|)vt|s 8i ktX. Cp. the "sudden" tumultuous entrance of 
Alcibiades (212 c koI e^ai<j>vrjs ktX.). The incursion here is devised in order 
to save .the situation. For the sake of artistic effect, the .series of Xoyoi must 
now stop: the climax having been reached in the encomium of Socr. by 
Alcib., to add a eulogy of any lesser personage would be bathos. 

l|i6vTos Tivos ktX. Hommel comments : "imaginemproponit oomissatorum 
contra nitente eo, qui iara exiturus erat, aditum vi expugnantium." But, as 
Rettig remarks, there is no hint in the text of vis or of nisus. The words 
e^iovTos Tivos are merely put in to explain how it was that they found the 
doors open, ets to avriKpvs is connected by Hommel and Stallb.^ with c^lovtos, 
but by Ruckert, Ast and Stallb.' with iropevfirBai: the former view is 
preferable. 

'Ep«5£("ix<"'- Eryx. and Phaedrus are represented throughout as "hunting 
in couples " ; and it is characteristic of the former, as an authority on health, 
and of the latter, as a valetudinarian, that they should be the first to escape 
from the scene of 66pv^os and nap.iroKvs olvos: cp. 176 B ff., 214 A ff. 

223 iiaKpuv Tuv vuKTwv. This indication of date would suit either the 
Lenaea in January or the Qreat Dionyaia in March, though rather favouring 
the former (cp. Introd. § vill a). 

oXtKTpvovwv 48^VT<DV. Cp. Tfieoet. 164 C d\(KTpv6vos dyevvovs SiKi;i'...a5«v. 
The hour of cock-crow was, theoretically, the 3rd watch (12 — 3 a.m.): cp. Ev. 
Mo. xiii. 35. Jowett's "he was awakened by a crowing of cooks" misses ijSi;, 
which goes with abovrav. 

KoV olxo(i4voiis. We should expect rj rather than ical: but (as Ruckert 
observes) oJ jih nXXoi fall into two subdivisions, — those absent in spirit 
(Kadfid.), and those absent in body (ojp^o^i.). 

47pT)7op^vtti kt\. Cp. Athen. v. 192 a 2a)KpdTrjs...iyprjyope...Kai trivci i^ 
dpyvpov (ppiaTos- KoKas yap tk to fieyaXa norifpia ovras a>v6p,a<re kt\. 



223 d] ZYMnOIION 171 

oia\eye(Tdai' koI to, fiev dWa 6 'Api(Tr6ST]fio<; ovk e(f>7) fie/ivrjcrOai 
rSiv Xoycov — ovre yap ef o,pyri<; irapayeviaOai, virovvcrrdl^eiv re* to D 
/jievToi Ke<f>dXaiov, efjsr], irpoaavayKd^eiv toi/ lioiKpaTTj ofioXoyelv 
avTov; rov avrov dvBpo^ elvai KcofiwBlav Kal rpaycpSlav eiriffTacrdai. 
iTotelv, Koi rov Te'xyrj rpa/ytohoTToiov ovra <Ka\> /cafimSoTroiov 
eivai. Tavra Sij dvayKa^ofiivov; avTov'j koi ov a<f)68pa €Trofievov<; 
vvcrra^eiv, Kal irp&Tov fiev KaraBapOeiv rov ^Api(7ro<j>dvT], t/Sij Se 
■qfj.epa'i yiyvofMev7]<! rov 'Ayddoava. rov ovv ^(OKparij, KaraKoifii- 
aavr eKeivov;, avaaravra dirievai, xal <e> ioarrep eld>dei eireadai, 
Kai eXQovra et? AvKeiov, dTrovf^djjLevov, oicnrep aXXore rrjv dWrjv 

223 D Kal KOtjuobonoiov Vind. 21, vulg. Sz. Bt. : Kafuahonoiov BTW O.-P. 

irpSyTov B : TTp&repov TW O.-P. Ap«rro(/)ai'[ovi] O.-P. yevofiivrfs Vulg. 

Hirschig KaraKoin'uravT BW O.-P.: naTaKoinrj<ravT T Km I Herm. Sz. 

Bt.: Km libri, O.-P. : xm i Bekker oKKrjv: oXiji' Ficiuus 



tA (ilv oXXa ktX. This is artistic selection disguised under the cloke of 
imperfect recollection, cp. 178 a, 180 c. 

223 D TO ii^vToi K«|>dXaiov. "The gist of it was...": cp. 205 d ad init. 

rov aMToB dvSp&s ktK. Cp. Ion 534 B Texvji ttoiovvtcs. Here both rtx"!! 
and ewl(TTa<rdni arc emphatic, with no distinction between them implied. 
The point of Socrates' argument is that the scientific poet must be master of 
the art of poetry in its universal, generic aspect, and therefore of both its 
included species, tragedy and comedy. This thought, if developed, might be 
shown to mean that full knowledge both of Aoyoi and of yjrvxal, and of the 
effects of the one on the other, is requisite to form a master-poet. Which is 
equivalent to saying that, just as the ideal State requires the philosopher- 
king, so ideal Art is impossible without the ^tXoo-o^or-jroir/T-^s. The thesis 
here maintained by Socrates fiiids in the supreme instance of Shakspere 
both illustration and confirmation : " The Merry Wives " came from the 
same hand as "Othello" and "Lear." 

The statement in Schol. ad Ar. Ran. 214 and Philostr. (vit. soph. i. 9, 
p. 439) that Agathon wrote comedies as well as tragedies is probably due to a 
blunder : see Bentley, 0}>usc. pMl. p. 613. 

oi a-(|>o8pa lirop.^vot)s. " Erant enim vino languidi. Ad fnofUvovs in- 
telligi potest rots Xeyo/itvoK Euthyphr. p. 12 a ovx eiro/iai Tois Xeyo/xeVoiy" 
(Stallb.). 

KaraKoiiiCo-avTa. An allusion, perhaps, to Agathon's koiVijv uTri/oi/ t eVi 
K^8ft, 197 0. Cp. Laws 790 D KaTaKOifil^ew to. hvavirvovvra rmv irmSiaiv. 

<t>. I.e. Aristodemus, the narrator : for his practice (fladei) of dogging 
the footsteps of the Master, cp. 173 b, 174 b (evrov). 

AuKciov. This was a gymnasium, sacred to Apollo Lyceus, situated in the 
eastern suburbs of Athens, though the exact site— whether s.e. or n. of the 



172 nAATQNOZ lYMnOIION [223 d 

rifiipav Siarpl^eip, koI ovt(o Siarpl-^avra et? ecrirepav oXkol ava- 
iraveaOai. 

223 D KM K[a]i ovra O.-P. 

Oynosarges — is uncertain. The Lyceum is mentioned also in the beginning 
of the Lysis and of the Euthyphro; cp. Xen. Mem. i. 1. 10, Paus. i. 19. 4. 
"Ibi Socr. vcrsabatur propterea quod sophistae in eo scholas habcbant, 
quorum insoitiam solebat convincere, et quod phirimos illic adolescentes 
nanciscebattfr, quibus cum sermonea instituere posset" (Stallb.). 



INDEX I. Greek. 



'Aya66v, TO 109 
ayaXfia 150 
aya<T6ai 27, 158 
ayavos 82 
ayanav 126 
ayiveios 29 
aypiaivdv 6 
^Sew, "to crow" 170 
aeX noppio c. gen. 152 
aetyevrjs 113 
ddavaTarrepos 122 
airta C. I'jl/En. 114 
aKaipia 34 

«K\?;TOff 7 

d\yfiv6s, "sensitive" 153 
aXtr, encomia on xxi 
a\i)eeia){ So$a liii, 156 
tiWo aWo6ev 143 
dfieXeTijTos 1 
dfioipfi 98 
Spoipos 33, 97 
ai/, of repeated action 151 
avaKO'y;^uXtao'at 45 
di/dTrXfcor 131 
dvSpoyvvos xxxii, 56 
dvdpovadai 64 
dvefjLearjTos 72 
^vflos 40, 76, 126 
dpiWeaOai 112 
dvo/iows 46, 52 
auTiKpvSf els to 170 
dfUTToSi^rop 4, 102 
d^iofivrjfiovevTov 21 
d^itofia 163 
dTraXds 74 
fin-XoCv, werMm 39 
dn-o/SdXXfii' OTrXa 26 
d7ro\ri(j)dtjvai 159 
dnovi^fiv 11 
dpcT^, "renown" 119 
„ divisions of 77 



Apfiovia 50, 111 
dpvauLs 160 
appevairia 64 
apxav Trjs noa-fas 139 
d(rf'/3fta 53 
do"K€ti/ 133 
afTKQjXt^etv 59 
daTpovopla 53 
aaTpmTos 102 
aroTTta 143, 165 
arpaiTos 159 
aiiXftor ^upa 134 
d(j)po8io-ws opKos 38 
d<f)vris 154 

BaXXdrrtov 60 
/3di»au(ros 100 
jSao-av/feiz/ 41 
PffiawTicrfifvos 16 
/3^/3i)Xor 154 
^f'Xor 157 
^tmi-df 131, 146 
jSXaurai 7 

jSouXo^Ltat, sense of 92 
PpevBveardai 163 

r^Xoioy xxxiii, 55, 137 
■ycXotdi-epa, eVl rd 142, 143 
•yeyeidffKeiv 33 
yivetns 22, 23, 115 
■ycvvatos 121 
•y6a>/>'yia 49 
y6r)s 103 
yoryreia 99 
yvjivaaTiKri 48 

Aaifidi/ios Ix, 100, 157 
Saifiav xxxvii, 98, 100 
Sfiv, redundant 45 
Srj\ov Koi iraiSt 104 
Sr/fiiovpyia 79 



174 



INDEX 



Sia/SaXXfH- 168 
8tayiyvo3(rKeiv 47 
StaSiKii^etrdai 14 (cp. xx) 
SiaXa^flv 168 
hianopBuevdv 98 
BiaTrpii^aadaL 32 
6tap$povif 61 
SiaTieea-eai 114 
Sia<t>( pea-Bat 49, 50 
Siacl>6fipfiv (napoiiJiiav) 8 
Stn;(ei(roat 112 
fitiyyetff^at 95 
diKaiocrvi'i} 77 
SioiKi^eadai 6G 
fio^a)(dX^fl«a liii, 87 

„ )( eniarrript] 96 
SpaTTfTeuetM 147 
Sivapis 55, 133 

'EauTou, "characteristically" 155 

iyKvpuiv 120 

iyx^iv 140 

«' Se ^ouXtt 19, 162 (cp. 134) 

€1 n, numquid 88 

£?8oy 56, 125 

dbaXov 132 

£?ei/ 118, 139 

flKoves 143 

(IKUr, TO 91 

EiXWflum 111 

elXLKpivrjs 131 

eiTrfiv, senses of 73 

flptiivevea'dat 150 

eiarjyelo'Bai 17, 56 

ex Tfitrou 62 

CK rpirav 137 

fKelvos, " supersensual " 130 

€Kniv\r)yp(VOS 145 

eXXo;^£ti/ 137 

ep^paxv 150 

ev, TO 49 

fv ipripla 151 

fV TravTi eiVat 69 

tV Toif c. superl. 22 

evdeia 93 

ei-^eor, xlv w., 26, 29 

evTos TToWov 73 

€^at<f>vi]s 128 

iirava^adpos 130 

itranoBaveiv 119 

fjreiTa, tamen 139 

CTTi fif^ia 20 

fVt prjTois 136 

ent^aTrfS 83 

inibeiKwaBai 70 

€7rl5o(TLV €)(€IV 14 



cVteiKur 93 
iniKa^eadai 142 
€7ri\r](Tpa>v 70 
tTTip-eXis irotelaSat 3 
eiTLVLKia 3 
eirLTTVovs 33 
iirnrodeiv 105 
iTTKTTtjpr) (Platonic) 127 

„ (popular) xlii, 116 
fni<rxf(T6m l47 
iniTaTTetv 141 
eiriTrjdevfia 126 
fnowTiKd, TO, xliii, 124 
i'pavos 20 
fpyaaia 107 
epl^eiv 6 
ipptjveveiv 98 
eppoyXvcjie'iov 144 
ipvaifirj 52 

€p(os = £7ridvpia xxxvii, 91 
c/)&)r(Kd, ra 20, 133 
ecxaTos 13 
fTaipi<TTpia xxxi, 63 
evavdrjs 76 
fiapidprjTOS 27 

CLiKXe^ff 119 

evnopelv 122 
tvnopas 169 

evpfTLKOS 121 

e\)<^v7)s 121 
€vo}8i]S 76 
efpdiTTea-dai 132 
eijbf^^s 128 
EX"") intrans. 146 
„ "be able" 159 

ZljXoT-UTTElI' 138 

"H, alioquin 138 

^ = /xaXXoi' ^ 163 

fiyetadai 0. dat. et gen. 24 

^^or)( ■v/'u;(^ 75 

r)\iKia, fv {tji) 110 

ij" c. acc'MS. e< i>i^?i. 41 

eaXXciv 103 

davpa, subjective sense of 164 

dnu/Kio-ia (-aorra) epya^earSai 138, 160, 

(37) _ 
flE(i, flsdr 31 
Bearpov 70, 71 
^flof xliv n., 121, 166 
6Eo</)iXi)r xliii, 133 
BrjpevTTji 102 

'larptKrj 46, 47 



GREEK 



176 



l8t<BTIJS )( vniTITtJS 22 

iva tI; 106 
IVa \ey€lv 44 
IfTTOvpyla 80 
lo-mr 69, 71 
IVijr 102 

KaSopav 128 

KOI, position of 19 

/cm cnv 126 
Koi fiaXa 69 

KttXaTTOUff 61 

KaXdv, "to invite" 134, 136 
KaWovl, 111 
KaXX(i)7rtfe(r^ai 7 

KoXdl', TO 94 

KapTToOtr^at 37 
Kaprepia 159 
KOT(i C. acctts. 131 
KarayeXai/ 33 
Kara-yAacTTor xxxiii, 56 
KaTayt)pa.v 147 
KaTaypafjjr) 67 
KaraSap^eli' 158 

KaTaKOtpi^€lV 171 

KaraXt7rea"^at 123 

KaraXoyaS?;!' 19 

KaTi^cfrSai 144 

Kfvaxris 47 

KfKJmXawu, TO 107, 171 

(c^TTos, 6 ToO Aloj xli, 101 

KidapaSos 28 

KH/ctr' 87, 154 

KXeos 118 

Koifirjaeis cVt 6vpas 38 

KopvfiavTiav 145 

KpniTraXai/ 17 

(cpoueiv 134 

Kv^fpvav c. gen. 80 

Kv^tpvJfrrjS 83 

Kv^iarav 57 

KvSadrjvaievs 4 

Kufii' 110 (cp. xxxviii) 

kukXo) 167 

KvpiuyTfpos 155 

Ka/iacTTris 134 

Kci>/ia)dfii' 67 

Aijfli;, defin. of 117 
XiTTOTa^iou ypa<l>ri 26 

XtCTTTat 67 

Xoyor 129 

Xuy^ xxii, xxviii, 44 

Mo ^eour, jua 5far 158 



fia Tov n.oo'fiSS) 142 

p,ayyavtla 99 

ptaKopi^eirBai 149, (-lordr) 104 

poKopav vij<roi 28 

/xaXSaKos 9 

fitiXttrTa, circiter 13 

/lavtKor xvi ?i., 6 

pdvTcis 99 

Mai'Tii'iKi), ■yuv^ xxxviii 

peydKoTrpeTTtis 127 

/i€^i; xxi, xxviii, 16 

petCov, magis 147 

/itXcrai' 116 

pe'XXo), constr. of 85 

pcpos dpfTtjs 42 

peiTovv c. partic. 13 

/if ra/3aXX€ii/, " to transpose " 8 

IxfTtx^iv 129 

peTpios 84 

/117 c. ««&;. 67 

ju^ ou 71, 125 

MfJTK xli, 100 

Motpa 111 

povofidrjs 129 

popiov 107 

povatKrj 80 

pvfitrBai 124: 

NcKTop 101 

vr](l>tiv 167 

vorjpti 84 

vii/ioi concerning Eros viii 

vofios, sense of 34 

voaflv n(pl c. accus. 114 

j/otroiSfr, to 46 

VUKTCff 152 

Svyyvp,v6.^ea8ai 151 
^vpfioXov 63 
^vvap<f)6Tepos 121 
luvoiSa 29 

'O ^ore, of Ideas 131 

oa 59 

01 c. 5'eTC. 34 

oia 817, with ellipse, 160 

oIkcIov, to xliv n., 68 

oiketi;e 126, 154 

ofor c. superl. 160 

,, ^OTt TOtOUTOff 122 

opoXoyfiv 50 
opovoia 50 
oi/etSoff 37 
ovopa 85, 88, 165 

„ ex"") constr. of 108 
oroy KavdrjXios 165 



176 



INDEX 



*6pdo8o^dCfiv 96 
oppoiSfiv 138 

oil IIOVOV OTl 26 

oiSev flvai 149 

,, (firjSfv) v\cov ^v 151, 168 

,, irpos c. accus. 160 
oSroif 17, 30, 54, 62, 89 
ovx aanep 28, 56 
o^»r Tijs Siavoias 156 

naiSeia 51 

iraMov TTOieurBai 101 

TTUlUKCf 18 

TTdjufieyas 154 
TTcii/dij/iOf 31 

TTHIToSaTTOS 85 

navTotos 123 

Trdi/Tuf c. imper. 12, tt. 8e' 4 

napa^oKKfiv 141, tt. rw^doKpoi 163 

irapairaUiv 6 

napaaKoirelv 164 

TrapaaTarrjs 83 

TrapaT€ivecr6ai 114 

7rapa)(p^pa, (k tov 44 

TrapeiKeiv 51 

Trapwi' Kat aTrwv 122 

TTua-xitv, of Ideas 130 

irarrip tov Koyov xsiv, 20 

TrAayof toO KaXoiJ I, 127 

ntvia xli, 100 

neptapTTex^frdaL 165 

TTepi^aKXeadai, 149, 167 

TTfpiTrdre/jov, aliter 158 

nipvrvyxaveiv 163 

■n-tpKJiepTis 58 

TTidavos \6yos 169 

TTiKpov )( yXuKU 48 

TTlXoff 160 

n\j]apovr) xxiii, 47 
iroijjais 79, 106 
TTotic/XXeti/ 154 
7roXXa;(oC C. (/em. 35 
TTOVOf Ix), 159 
TTOpipOS 103 

Ilopor xl, xli, 100 

TTpfTTOVTUIS 84 

Trpfo-fifvfiv 46 
7rpe<T^iTfpos 165 
TTpoaTToSaveiv 119 
iTpoppr)6r\vai 30, 87 
npoa-avayKa^eLV C. dh. acCUS. 34 
Tr/Joo-TTfXdfeii' 112 
npo(T(l>(peiv 54 
TTporpondSriv 164 
iTTapeiv (nrappos) 45, 54 

TTTOlI/fflf 112 



'PaS/my Xtyoj 97 
paaTa=^biiTTa 15 
(j^fia 85, 88 
putaOfis 127 

"XarvpiKov bpapa 168 

aarvpos 165 

(ri\r]i/oL 143 

(Totjiia, of Socrates xx, xxi 

o'6<f)t(rpa 140 

<roipi(rTrjS 103, 118 

aocjjos 10, 44 

fTirapydv 112 

awovdai 15 

ffrpaT-dTreSov ipaarav 25 

(Tu'yye'i'eta 24 

(TuXX^TTTiap 155 

(TVppiTpOS 76 

a-vp(jivadv 66 
(Tvpcfibivla 50 
(Tuvayajyeuy 62 
avvdetiTvov 2 
crvvepyos 133 
(TVVTjpepevetv 151 
crui'outrta fita Xdyojv 18 
trvvraais 109 

fTVVTl}KflV 40, 66 

aiKTTrao-Tos 60 
a-va-TTeipaadat 112 
o-vo-aiTeiv 159 
(rvoracTis 50, 52 
a-xvi"', "r61e" 148 
aarijp 83, 123 
aui^potrvvT] 78 

Tmvi'a 135 
raOra fKUva 169 
„ TaCra 161 
Tfi'vcii' eVi c. occit*. 46, 166 
TeXeoff 118 
TfXfrai 99 
TfXcuToii' 131 
7-cXoy xliii, 106, 128, 130 
Tcpdxiov 64 
TtTpSurSai 157 

TCTTl^ 61 

Tix"!! 171 

T«'a)ff ai/ 64 

T^ fiev,.*T7J fie 128 

TTjXlKoOrOf 19 

Ti, magnum quid 158 

tL.,ov; 4 

ri/xav 133 

Ti/iij 149 

Tprfaas 60 

ri Sf (exei). "1^"* i" rOftlity'V39, 87 



GREEK 



177 



TOKOS XXXVlll 

Too-ouTor, (?) mirum quanUim 157 

TOUTl Tl ^v; 137 
Tpi/Sar 157 

'Y/3p.'f«v 9, 157 
vjSpir XV, XX, 33 
vPpuTTTjs XX, 14, 144, 165 
vytfti'di', TO 46 
vypos 75 
vfivoi 18 
virdp\eiv 86 
vireKpetv xxxii, 103 
virtpanoOvjinKfiv 26, 119 
viTfpri^avos 163 

VTTfp^vSiS 0)ff 5 

vnrjpeTclv 42 
ijTo c. o?af. 169 
vnoPXeTTfiv 161 
UTTOKaTCD c, ^e?i. 168 
VTro\a^€iv 135 
iiTroXveji' 137 
UTToup-ycii/ 42 

U<TTaT0f 21 

*aXi)pei5s, play on 1 

<j)av6s 79 

(fyavTa^fcOai 129 

(jtappaTTfiv 70 

(fiavKos 14, 155 

<j)6dvois (-oi/ii), ouK av 45, 142 

(JMoXr) 170 

tplXavbpos xxxi, 63 

<l)iK€pa(rTTjs 65 

<})iXepaiTTia 138 



(/xXt'a fpacrrov 43 

(jiiKoyvvris xxxi, 63 

^(Xon/iia xxxvii, 118 

(pXvapia 132 

(j)oiTav 110 

(popelv ifidriov 161 

^povritris 120, 159 

^tiy5 <f>fvyfiv 73 

^uo-tr (-fftt) xlii, Ixiv, 26, 56, 61, 158 

^a>v^, of instruments 134 

Xaiperto 88 
^apevviov 162 
\api^e<T6ai 34 
xXtSij 82 
XP^ta 105 

XPIpaTliTTlKol 5 

Xpr]<niios 59 

XPl(rr6s 19 

Xpuo-our, metaph. 150 

H'iJTTa 63 
xj'iXoi Xoyoi 145 

^VKTTJp 140 

'9^) dtaipeiv 6pt^\ 60 
a>d/s 113 

Jv ci/exa 124, 128 
<opa, ^os aetatis 150 
o>f, conatr. with 33 

„ separated from adv. 91 

,, =a(rT( (?) 137 
o)S av c. o/i<. 59 
lor ye 38 
Mr eiror cijreii' 65 



B. P. 



12 



INDEX II. English. 



Accusative, absolute 163 

„ adverbial 104, 115 

„ after dative 54 

„ of remoter object 91 

Achilles viii, xxv, Iviii, 28, 29, 104 

Acusilaus xxv, 23 

Adjective, neut. with fern, subst. 16 

Aeschylus 29 

Agathon xxxiv 

Ajax 159 

Akumenus xxviii 

Alcestis viii, Iviii, 27 

Allegory, Diotima's xl 

Alliteration xxvii 

Amplitude, rhetorical 28 

Anacolutha xxvi, lii, 41, 91, 115, 
120 

Antenor 165 

Antisthenes xxi 

Aorist infin., after iXnit 68 

Aphrodite viii, xlii, 20, 31 

Apodosis, ellipse of 105 

Apollo X, xi, 79 

ApoUodorus xvi 

Aristodemus xvi 

Aristogiton 36 

Aristophanes xxix 

„ quoted 163 

Article, added with second subst. 27 

Asclepiadae 48 

Asclepius ix, 48 

Assimilation, of infln. 10 

Astronomy, defined ix 

Athene xi, 80 

Banquet, date of Agathon's Ixvi 
Bathing, before meals 7 
Beauty xxxvii, xlvi 
Brachylogy 30, 32, 123 
Brasidas 164 



Charmides 166 
Chiasmus xxv 
Compendious constr. 3 
Constructions, irregular 26, 36, 37 
Contradictory ) ( contrary 95 
Cronus 74 

Daemons, functions of xii, 98 

Delium, battle of 163 

Dialogues, classification of xiii 

Dionysus 15, 20 

Diotima xxxix, 94 

Dramatic setting, date of the Ixvi 

Elis, morals of 35 

Ellipse lii, 30, 85 
„ of apodosis 45, 90 
„ of predicate 17 
„ of protasis 14 

Empedocles xxxiii 

Eros, antiquity of viii, 22 
„ defined, x, xiii 
„ dual viii, ix, Iviii, 31 
„ Pandemos viii, ix 
„ parentage of viii, xl, 22 
„ properties of xi, xii, xl, 102 
„ Uranios viii, ix 

Eryximachus xxviii 

Euripides, alluded to 18, 79, 88 

Euthydemus 166 

Fallacies 78 

Genitive, absol. after dat. 38 
„ of cause 85 

„ of object 89, 95 

„ of origin 100 

Glaucon vii, 3 

Qorgiaa xxxv, 85 

Gorgon xi, 86 

Gymnasia 35 



ENGLISH 



179 



Harmodius 36 

Ilolios, prayer to 162 

Hephaestus x, xxxiii, 66 

Heraclitus ix, 49, 116 

Herodicus 48 

Hesiod, quoted or alluded to 22, 

74, 167 
Hippocrates xxix, xxxii, 48 
Homer, quoted or alluded to viii 

9, 10, 26, 40, 58, 74, 78, 81, (5, 

161 
Homoeoteleuton xxxvi 

lapetus 74 

Iccoa 48 

Ideas, charactei'istics of the 128 

Immortality xxxvii, xliii 

Imperfect, without av 59 

Infinitive, = accus. of respect 160 
„ epexegetic 30, 53 
„ " iudignantis " 19 

lonians 161 

Isocrates xx 

Isokola xxvii, xxxvi 

Isology xxii, xxiii 

Laches 163 
Laconia, morals of 35 
Lyceum, the 171 
Lycurgus 123 

Mantinea xxxix, 66 

Marsyas xiv 

Matrimony, laws concerning 64 

Medicine ix 

Melanippe 18 

Method, rhetorical xi, xii 

„ erotic xiii, xliii 
Metis xli 
Moon, bisexed 58 
Music ix 

Nestor 165 

Neuter, in appos. with masc. 90 

Orpheus viii, 28 
Oxymoron 84 



Parmenides 23, 74 

Paronomasia xxv, xxvii, 9, 80 

Pausanias xxvi 

Penia xl 

Pericles 165 

Phaedrus xxiv 

Phaedrus, connexion of with Symp. 

Ixvii 
Phalerum 1 

Philosophy, Eros as xlvii 
Phoenix xvii, 2 
Plague, at Athens 94 
Poets, as teachers 120 
Polycrates xviii, xxi, 19 
Polymnia 51 
Poros xl 

Potidaea 159, 162 
Present, =fut. 88 
Procreation, intellectual xxxviii 
Prodicus 19 
Protasis, ellipse of 109 

„ double 66 

Proverbs, cited 8, 55, 73, 167 

Relative, doubled 72 
Religion, defined x 

„ Eros as xlviii 

Responsions, or echoes xx, Ixi, Ixii 
Retaliation 24, 77 
Rhetoric, Socrates' theory of 87 
Rhythm, clausal xxvii, 42, 43 
Ritual, at symposia 15 

Sex-characteristics, theory of xxxi 

Sileni xiv 

Similes lii 

Socrates, qualities of xiv, Ix flf. 

Solon 123 

Sophists, rhetorical style of xxii, 

xxv, xxvii, ixxv, Ivii 
Sophocles, cited 78 

Tautology 93, 97 

Xenophon, the Symposium of Ixvii 

Zeus X, xxxiii, xxxix 



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