(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The National Park Service : its history, activities and organization"

32:2 la 



Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this bool< is in 
the Corneii University Library. 

There are no l<nown copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/cletaiis/cu31924073870259 



3 1924 073 870 259 



Production Note 



Cornell University Library produced this volume to replace 
the irreparably deteriorateid original. It was scanned at 600 
dots per inch resolution and compressed prior to storage 
using CCrnymJ Group 4 compression. The digital data 
were used to create Cornell's replacement volume on paper 
that meets the ANSI Standard Z39.48-1992. The pixxiuction 
of this volume was supported by the United States 
Department of Education, Higher Education Act, Tide H-C. 

Scanned as part of the A. R. Mann Library project to 
preserve and enhance access to the Core Historical Literature 
of the Agricultural Sciences. Titles included in this 
collection are listed in the volumes published by the Cornell 
University Press in the series The Literature of the 
Agricultural Sciences. 1991-1996, Wallace C. Olsen, series 
editor. 



THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

ITS HISTORY, ACTIVITIES 
AND ORGANIZATION 



THE INSTITUTE FOR GOVERNMENT RESEARCH 

Washington, D. C. 

_ The Institute for Government Research is an association of 
citizens for cooperating with pubUc officials in the scientific 
study of government with a view to promoting efficiency and 
economy in its operations and advancing the science of ad- 
ministration. It aims to bring into existence such informa- 
tion and materials as will aid in the formation of public opin- 
ion and will assist officials, particularly those of the national 
government, in their efforts to put the public administration 
upon a more efficient basis. 

To this end, it seeks by the thoroughgoing study and exam- 
ination of the best administrative practice, public and private, 
American and foreign, to formulate those principles wjiich lie 
at the basis of all sound administration, and to determine their 
proper adaptation to the specific needs of our public adminis- 
tration. 

The accomplishment of specific reforms the Institute recog- 
nizes to be the task of those who are charged with the respon- 
sibility of legislation and administration; but it seeks to assist, 
by scientific study and research, in laying a solid foundation of 
information and experience upon which such reforms may be 
successfully built. 

While some of the Institute's studies find application only in 
the form of practical cooperation with the administrative of- 
ficers directly concerned, many are of interest to other admin- 
istrators and of general educational value. The results of 
such studies the Institute purposes to publish in such form as 
will insure for them the widest possible utilization. 

Officers 
Robert S. Brookings, Frank J. Goodnow, 

Chainnan Vice-Cbairman 

James F. Curtis, Frederick Strauss, 

Secretary Treasurer 

Trustees 

Edwin A. Alderman Edwin F. Gay Charles D. Norton 

Robert S. Brookings Frank J. Goodnow Martin A. Ryerson 

James F. Curtis Jerome D. Greene Frederick Strauss 

R. Fulton Cutting Arthur T. Hadley Silas H. Strawn 

Frederic A. Delano Herbert C. Hoover William H. Taft 

Henry S. Dennison David F. Houston Ray Lyman Wilbur 

George Eastman A. Lawrence Lowell Robert S. Woodward 

Raymond B. Fosdick Samuel Mather 

Felix Frankfurter Richard B. Mellon 

Director 

W. F. Willoughby 

Editor 

F. W. Powell 



INSTITUTE FOR GOVERNMENT RESEARCH 
SERVICE MONOGRAPHS 

OF THE 

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 
No. 11 

THE 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

ITS HISTORY, ACTIVITIES 
AND ORGANIZATION 



JENKS CAMERON 




D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 
NEW YORK LONDON 

1922 



Copyright, 1922, by 
THE INSTITUTE FOR GOVERMENT RESEARCH 



PBINTSD IM THB DIOTID 8TATIS OF AMIBIOA 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE 
INSTITUTE FOR GOVERNMENT RESEARCH 



STUDIES IN ADMINISTRATION 

The System of Financial Administration of Great Britain 
By W. F. Willoughby, W. W. Willoughby, and S. M. Lindsay 
The Budget 
By Rene Stourm 
T. Plazinski, Translator; W. F. McCaleb. Editor 
The Canadian Budgetary System 

By H. G. Villard and W. W. Willoughby 
The Problem of a National Budget 

By W. F. Willoughby 
The Movement for Budgetary Rdorm in the States 

By W. F. Willoughby 
Teacher's Pension Systems in the United States 

By Paul Studensky 
Organized Efforts for die Improvement of Methods of Ad- 
ministration in the United States 
By Gustavus A., Wfeber 
The Federal Service: A Study of the System of Personal 
Administration of the United States Government 
By Lewis Mayers 
The System of Financial Administration of the United 
States (In Preparation) 

PRINCIPLES OF ADMINISTRATION 

Principles Governing the Retirement of Public Employees 

By Lewis Meriam 
Principles of Government Purchasing 

By Arthur G. Thomas 
Principles of Government Accounting and Reporting 

By Francis Oakey, C. P. A. 
Principles of Personnel Administration 

By Arthur W. Procter 

SERVICE MONOGRAPHS OF THE UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT 
The Geological Survey 
The Reclamation Service 
The Bureau of Mines 
The Alaskan Eng^ineering Commission 
The Tariff Commission 

The Federal Board for Vocational Education 
The Federal Trade Commission 
The Steamboat-Inssection Service 
The National Park Service 
The Public Health Service 
The Weather Bureau . . 

The Employee's Compensation Commission 



FOREWORD 

The first essential to efficient administration of any enter- 
prise is full knowledge of its present make-up and operation. 
Without full and complete information before them, as to 
existing organization, personnel, plant, and methods of oper- 
ation and control, neither legislators nor administrators can 
properly perform their functions. 

The greater the work, the more varied the activities en- 
gaged in, and the more complex the organization employed, 
and more imperative becomes the necessity that this informa- 
tion shall be available — and available in such a form that it 
can readily be utilized. 

Of all undertakings, none in the United States, and few, if 
any, in the world, approach in magnitude, complexity, and 
importance that of the national government of the United 
States. As President Taft expressed it in his message to Con- 
gress of January 17, 1912, in referring to the inquiry being 
made under his direction into the efficiency and economy of the 
methods of prosecuting public business, the activities of the 
national government "are almost as varied as those of the en- 
tire business world. The operations of the government affect 
the interest of every person living within the jurisdiction of 
the United States. Its organization embraces stations and 
centers of work located in every city and in many local sub- 
divisions of the country. Its gross expenditures amount to 
billions annually. Including the personnel of the military and 
naval establishments, more than half a million persons are re- 
quired to do the work imposed by law upon the executive 
branch of the government. 

"This vast organization has never been studied in detail as 
one piece of administrative mechanism. Never have the 
foundations been laid for a thorough consideration of the re- 
lations of all its parts. No comprehensive effort has been 
made to list its multifarious activities or to group them in such 
a way as to present a clear picture of what the government is 
doing. Never has a complete description been given of the 
agencies through which these activities are performed. At 



viii FOREWORD 

no time has the attempt been made to study all of these activ- 
ities and agencies with a view to the assignment of each activ- 
ity to the agency best fitted for its performance, to the avoid- 
ance of duplication of plant and work, to the integration of all 
administrative agencies of the government, so far as may be 
practicable, into a unified organization for the most effective 
and economical dispatch of public business." 

To lay the basis for such a comprehensive study of the or- 
ganization and operations of the national government as Pres- 
ident Taft outlined, the Institute for Government Research 
has undertaken the preparation of a series of monographs, of 
which the present study is one, giving a detailed description of 
each of the fifty or more distinct services of the government. 
These studies are being vigorously prosecuted, and it is hoped 
that all services of the government will be covered in a com- 
paratively brief space of time. Thereafter, revisions of the 
monographs will be made from time to time as need arises, to 
the end that they may, as far as practicable, represent current 
conditions. 

These monographs are all prepared according to a uniform 
plan. They give: first, the history of the establishment and 
development of the service; second, its functions, described 
not in general terms, but by detailing its specific activities; 
third, its organization for the handling of these activities; 
fourth, the character of its plant; fifth, a compilation of, or 
reference to, the laws and regulations governing its operaitions ; 
sixth, financial statements showing its appropriations, expen- 
ditures and other data for a period of years ; and finally, a full 
bibliography of the sources of information, official and private, 
bearing on the service and its operaitions. 

In the preparation of these monographs the Institute has 
kept steadily in mind the aim to produce dociunents that will 
be of direct value and assistance in the administration of public 
affairs. To executive officials they offer valuable tools of ad- 
ministration. Through them, such officers can, with a min- 
imum of effort, inform themselves regarding the details, not 
only of their own services, but of others with whose facilities, 
activities, and methods it is desirable that they should be fa- 
miliar. Under present conditions services frequently engage 
in activities in ignorance of the fact that the work projected 
has already been dorej, or is in process of execution by other 
services. Many cases exist where one service could make ef- 
fective use of the organization, plant or results of other serv- 



FOREWORD ix 

ices had they knowledge that such facilities were in existence. 
With the consitant shifting of directing personnel that takes 
place in the administrative branch of the national government, 
the existence of means by which incoming officials may thus 
readily secure information regarding their own and other serv- 
ices is a matter of great importance. 

To members of Congress the monographs should prove of 
no less value. At present these officials are called upon to 
legislate and appropriate money for services concerning whose 
needs and real problems they can secure but imperfect infor- 
mation. That the possession by each member of a set of 
monographs, such as is here projected, prepared according to 
a uniform plan, will be a great aid to intelligent legislation 
and appropriation of funds can hardly be questioned. 

To the public, finally, these monographs will give that 
knowledge of the organization and operations of their gov- 
ernment which must be had if an enlightened public opinion 
is to be brought to bear upon the conduct of governmental 
affairs. 

These studies are wholly descriptive in character. No at- 
tempt is made in them to subject the conditions described to 
criticism, nor to indicate features in respect to which changes 
might with advantage be made. Upon administrators them- 
selves falls responsibility for making or proposing changes 
which will result in the improvement of methods of adminis- 
tration. The primary aim of outside agencies should be to 
emphasize this responsibility and facilitate its fulfillment. 

While the monographs thus make no direct recommenda- 
tions for improvement, they cannot fail greatly to stimulate 
efforts in that direction. Prepared as they are according to a 
uniform plan, and setting forth as they do the activities, plant, 
organization, personnel and laws governing the several serv- 
ices of the government, they will automatically, as it were, 
reveal, for example, the extent to which work in the same field 
is being performed by different services, and thus furnish the 
information that is essential to a consideration of the great 
question of the better distribution and coordination of activi- 
ties among the several departments, establishments, and bu- 
reaus, and the elimination of duplications of plant, organiza- 
tion and work. Through them it will also be possible to sub- 
ject any particular feature of the administrative work of the 
government to exhaustive study, to determine, for example, 
what facilities, in the way of laboratories and other plant and 



X FOREWORD 

equipment, exist for the prosecution of any line of work and 
where those facilities are located ; or what work is being done 
in any field of administration or research, such as the promo- 
tion, protection and regulation of the maritime interests of the 
country, the planning and execution of works of an engineer- 
ing character, or the collection, compilation and publication of 
statistical data, or what differences of practice prevail in re- 
spect to organization, classification, appointment, and promo- 
tion of personnel. 

To recapitulate, the monographs will serve the double pur- 
pose of furnishing an essential tool for efficient legislation, ad- 
ministration and popular control, and of laying the basis for 
critical and constructive work on the part of those upon whom 
responsibility for such work primarily rests. 

Whenever possible the language of official statements or re- 
ports has been employed, and it has not been practicable in all 
cases to make specific indication of the language so quoted. 



CONTENTS 

OHAFTXB PAQB 

Foreword 

I. History i 
The National Park System a Development of the "National 

Park Idea" i 

Distinction Between Parks and Monuments 7 

The Parks and Monuments Prior to 1916 8 

The Movement for the Establishment of the National Park 

Service 11 

The National Park Service Since 1916 12 

The Several Parks 31 

Yellowstone 31 

Yosemite 33 

Sequoia and General Grant 34 

Mount Rainier 35 

Crater Lake 36 

Wind Cave 36 

Piatt 36 

SuUys Hill 37 

Mesa Verde 37 

Glacier 38 

Rocky Mountain 39 

Hawaii 39 

Lassen 39 

Mount McKinley 40 

Grand Canyon 4° 

Lafayette 4i 

Zion 4^ 

Hot Springs 42 

The National Monuments 43 

Parks and Monuments Not Administered by the National 

Pn^j^ Service 44 

Growth of Popular Interest in the Park System ... 44 

II. Activities 5° 

Conservation of Physical Features 50 

Natural Wonders Si 

Ruins and Historical Structures 51 

Forests and Plants S2 

Lakes and Streams S3 

Conservation of Wild Life S3 

Improvement SS 

Maintenance 57 

Protection Service . 57 

Publicity : 5° 

zi 



xii CONTENTS 

OHAPTEB PACnB 

III. Organization 6o 

Administration 60 

Field Service 61 

Editorial Section 62 

Law Section 62 

Publications Section 63 

Individual Park Organization — The Yellowstone ... 63 



APPENDIX 



1. Outline of Organization 67 

2. Classification of Activities 76 

3. Publications 78 

4. Laws 80 

5. Financial Statements 131 

6. Statistics of Visitors 137 

7. Bibliography 141 

Index 167 



THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE: 
ITS HISTORY, ACTIVITIES AND 
ORGANIZATION 

CHAPTER I 

HISTORY 

The National Park Service is a bureau of the Department 
of the Interior, being the ninth bureau to be established in 
that department. It is engaged in the supervision, manage- 
ment, and control of those national parks and monuments which 
are under that department's jurisdiction. It was created by 
the act of August 25, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 535), but did not be- 
gin to function until after the approval of the deficiency ap- 
propriation act of April 17, 1917 (40 Stat. L., 20) which pro- 
vided funds for its establishment. 

The National Park System a Development of the "National 
Park Idea." Though the National Park Service is of recent 
origin the system of national parks of which it is an out- 
growth dates back half a century to the creation, in 1872, 
of the Yellowstone National Park, the first true national park 
established in the United States. Inasmuch as the creation 
of the Yellowstone was the result of a conception of the con- 
servation of natural wonders which has come to be known as 
the "National Park Idea," it will be proper at this point to 
discuss briefly, first the events leading up to the inception of 
the idea; and, second, its subsequent development. 

The existence of the natural wonders which occur in such 
profusion in the upper Yellowstone country had been known 



2 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

early in the last century to a few wandering hunters and trap- 
pers who visited the region in search of beaver. John Colter, 
a hunter who had accompanied Lewis and Clark on their expe- 
dition to the Pacific, visited the park region in 1807, and was 
probably the first white man to see the curiosities it contained. 
Lewis and Qark themselves, in 1806, skirted the region, and 
just missed becoming its discoverers by about fifty miles. 

During the heyday of the fur trade a few other trappers 
found their way into the neighborhood, and in the era of 
gold-hunting which went on over the entire mountain country 
after 1849, some prospectors also visited it. 

Practically all of these men, from Colter down, brought 
back accounts, some truthful, some exaggerated, of the won- 
ders they had seen in the shape of geysers, hot springs, etc. 
These accounts, however, were almost universally disbelieved. 
Colter's being hailed with especial derision, and the thermal 
region he described coming to be known popularly as "Col- 
ter's Hell." 

TTie persistency of these hunters' tales, however, and their 
essential agreement resulted eventually in the arousing of 
curiosity. In Montana especially there developed a desire 
to settle definitely the truth or falsity of the rumors of amaz- 
ing phenomena around the upper reaches of the Yellowstone. 
This resulted, in 1869, in the first expedition which had for 
its definite object the exploration of the much-talked-of area. 
This expedition, consisting of David E. Folsom, C. W. 
Cook, and William Peterson, spent a month in the park region 
in September-October, 1869, during which time they investi- 
gated a considerable number of the principal phenomena which 
it contains. Mr. Folsom afterwards wrote an excellent nar- 
rative of the party's exploration which was first published in 
the "Western Monthly" of Chicago, and subsequently (1894) 
published in pamphlet form by Hon. N. P. Langford, the 
first superintendent of the Yellowstone Park, who added an 
interesting preface. 

In the following year, Mr. Langford was a member of the 



HISTORY 3 

second exploring expedition to enter the region, the Wash- 
bum-Doane expedition, so-called from its being led by Genei'al 
Henry D. Washburn, Surveyor-General of Montana, and 
Lieutenant G. C. Doane of the United States Army, who com- 
manded a military escort detailed by the War Department. 
This expedition spent about a month in the region, but ex- 
plored it somewhat more thoroughly than the Folsom party 
had done. 

The published reports of these two expeditions aroused in- 
tense interest throughout the entire country, and had much 
to do with the sending out of a government expedition in 
187 1 under the joint auspices of the Geological Survey and 
the Engineer Corps of the Army, well equipped for the mak- 
ing of precise scientific observations. This expedition made 
a large collection of accurate data concerning the entire region 
and took a great many photographs. From the standpoint 
of exact information obtained it was the most important of 
the three expeditions. 

For a less ponderable but far more momentous reason, 
when viewed in the light of its effect upon subsequent events, 
the Washbum-Doane expedition, nevertheless, must be given 
first place among these pioneer explorations of the Yellowstone 
region. It was on this expedition that expression was first 
given to the thought which has been responsible for the crea- 
tion and development of the Country's system of national 
parks. At a camp fire of this expedition, on September 19, 
1870, the members were discussing the wonders they had seen 
and the certainity of the remarkable area becoming a mecca 
for tourists. This led to the suggestion by several that it 
would be a "profitable speculation" to take up land surround- 
ing the principal phenomena and exploit them as commercial 
enterprises. Objection to this point of view was expressed 
by Cornelius Hedges, a member of the party, to the effect 
that the recently discovered wonderland should never be al- 
lowed to pass into private ownership, but should be set aside 
for the use and enjoyment of all the people. The other 



4 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

members of the party at once fell in with this higher concep- 
tion of the matter, and all agreed to unite in an endeavor to 
make it an accomplished fact. This was the beginning of 
the "National Park Idea." 

»v So widespread was the popular interest resulting from the 
publication of articles by various members of the several ex- 
peditions ; and so vigorously was the project for the erection 
of the Yellowstone Country into a public park pushed by sev- 
eral leading members of the Washburn-Doane expedition and 
by Dr. F. V. Hayden of the Geological Survey, one of the 
leaders of the Government expedition of 1871, that in less 
than two years after Mr. Hedges made his novel proposition 
the Act of Dedication creating the Yellowstone National Park, 
received the signature of President Grant (Act of March i, 
1872; 17 Stat. L., 32.) ■ 

The text of this measure will be found in the appendix. At- 
tention will be called at this point to its three outstanding 
features : 

The setting aside of the Yellowstone region "as a public 
park or pleasuring-ground" ; 

A provision making mandatory "the preservation, from in- 
jury or spoliation, of all timber, mineral deposits, natural 
curiosities, or wonders within said park, and their retention 
in their natural condition" ; 

A provision making mandatory the protection of the fish and 
game in the park area against "wanton destruction" or "cap- 
ture or destruction for the purposes of merchandise or profit." 

The law also provides that the Secretary of the Interior 
shall have exclusive control of the park, and it charges him 
with the making of rules and regulations necessary for the 
carrying out of its provisions. 

The national park system began with the passage of this 
law, the large significance of which is well expressed by Gen- 
eral Hiram M. Chittenden: 

It was, a notable act, not only on account of the transcend- 



HISTORY 5 

ent importance of the territory it was designed to protect, 
but because it was a marked innovation in the traditional 
policy of governments. From time immemorial privileged 
classes have been protected by law, in the withdrawal, for 
their exclusive enjoyment, of immense tracts for] forests, 
parks and game preserves. But never before was a region 
of such vast extent as the Yellowstone Park set apart for 
the use of all the people without distinction of rank or wealth.^ 

It is proper, at this point, to make a slight digression in 
order to make clear a somewhat anomalous situation that has 
long existed with regard to the question — if it be a question — 
as to what park of the present national park system was the 
first to be established. The Yellowstone has been referred to 
above as the first true national park. As has just been pointed 
out, its establishment was the direct result of the birth 
of the national park idea. Nevertheless there is another park 
of the system, the Hot Springs National Park, which was set 
aside almost forty years to a day before the creation of the 
Yellowstone (Act of April 20, 1832; 4 Stat. L., 505) and 
which is frequently referred to as the first national park. 

To refer to it thus is incorrect, although it might be proper 
to call it the oldest member of the national park system. 
The confusion has arisen through the fact that at the time 
of the creation of the Yellowstone the Hot Springs Reserva- 
tion in Arkansas was being administered by the Secretary of 
the Interior, not as a national park, because up until that time 
such a thing as a national park in the sense we imderstand it 
to-day was not dreamed of, but merely as a portion of the 
public domain which for certain reasons had been withdrawn 
from settlement or sale. Those reasons pertained to the me- 
dicinal springs which the area contained. Their curative prop- 
erties becoming widely known throughout the country, a fear 
arose that they might pass into private ownership and be pri- 
vately exploited. To prevent this was the purpose of the 
Act of 1832. This law merely states that the area containing 

1 Chittenden, The Yellowstone NationaJ Park, p. 79. 



6 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

the springs "shall be reserved for the future disposal of the 
United States," and makes no mention of the preservation 
of natural curiosities in their original state, the protection 
of wild life, the public pleasure-ground feature, or of any 
of the elements of the national park idea; and as a matter of 
fact Congress had no such idea in mind when it set the Hot 
Springs area aside. Reservation to prevent private exploita- 
tion was its only thought. 

It may be argued that this was precisely the thought back 
of the setting aside of the Yellowstone. But there was this 
difference: Hot Springs represented mere reservation, Yel- 
lowstone represented reservation plus development toward a 
particular end, — the working out of the national park idea. 

After the Yellowstone was established the two areas were 
administered together in the office of the Secretary of the 
Interior. As other parks were established from time to time — 
fourteen ^ were created betweeA the founding of the Yellow- 
stone and the establishment of the National Park Service in 
April, 1917 — they were grouped for administrative pur- 
poses with Yellowstone and Hot Springs, and they came to be 
spoken of collectively as the National Parks and the Hot 
Springs Reservation. They continued to be so referred to 
even after the creation of the National Park Service in 19 16, 
Hot Springs being called a reservation until the passage of the 
sundry civil appropriation act for 1 921, in which a clause was 
inserted providing that it should thenceforth be known as "Hot 
Springs National Park" (Act of March 4, 1921 ; 41 Stat. L., 
1407). As a matter of fact, the real status of Hot Springs, 
until the time at least of the creation of the Yellowstone, was 
less that of one of the national parks than of one of the national 
monuments, of which there are at present twenty- four in the 
national park system, twenty of which had been created prior 
to the organization of the National Park Service. Detailed 
reference to the monuments is made below. 

''Including one park, Casa Grande, which was later given monu- 
ment status. 



HISTORY 7 

To summarize, the Yellowstone was the first national park, 
and the system of parks and monuments — including Hot 
Springs — of which it was the beginning was the direct result 
of the conception of the National Park Idea. 

Distinction between Parks and Monuments. The act of 
June 8, 1906 (34 Stat. L., 225), entitled "An act for the 
preservation of American antiquities," gave the President 
discretionary power to set aside by proclamation any lands 
owned or controlled by the United States containing "historic 
landmarks, historic or prehistoric structures, and other ob- 
jects of historic or scientific interest" as "national monuments." 
Provision was made also for the punishment by fine or im- 
prisonment of persons injuring the monuments, and juris- 
diction over the monuments was given to the Secretary of the 
Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, or the Secretary of 
War, depending upon which department had jurisdiction over 
the areas in which the monuments were severally located. 

Section 4 of the act provides that the secretaries of the 
three departments — Interior, Agriculture, and War — shall 
make uniform rules and regulations for the purpose of carry- 
ing out its provisions. Secretaries Hitchcock, Wilson, and 
Taft promptly complied by promulgating — Dec. 28, 1906 — an 
appropriate set of rules which are still in effect without change. 

The passage of this act was the culmination of an organ- 
ized movement by a group of archaeologists, scientists, and 
others, to put such safeguards about the unique archaeological 
treasures which the country possesses in the ancient pueblos 
and cliff dwellings of the Southwest as would prevent their 
spoliation and ultimate destruction. Their protection by the 
creation of additional park areas had been found impractic- 
able because a special congressional enactment was necessary 
in each case, and because Congress was unwiUing to create a 
great number of parks, many of which would be, necessarily, 
of very limited area. The original idea had been to protect 
ancient ruins only, but the act was broadened so as to include 



8 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

within its scope other objects of historic or scientific value, 
natural as well as artificial. The first monument created, as 
a matter-of-fact, was the Devils Tower, in Wyoming, a 
natural formation. 

Some confusion has arisen as to the difference between 
parks and monuments. It has been asked, for example, why, 
of two reserved areas, the basic reasons for the reservation in 
each case being the preservation of a natural wonder, one 
should be a park and the other a monument. 

The simplest way to answer this question is to say what has 
been said above in speaking of the setting-aside of Hot 
Springs. The object of a monument is the preservation from 
destruction or spoliation of some object of historic, scientific, 
or other interest. The object of a park is that and something 
more; namely, the development of the area reserved for its 
more complete and perfect enjoyment by the people. It might 
be said that a monument is park raw material, because many 
of the existing monuments, in all probability, will receive park 
status when their development as parks is practicable. Sev- 
eral of the present parks of the system originally had monu- 
ment status, notably Grand Canyon, Lafayette, and Zion Parks. 

The Parks and Monuments Prior to 1916. From the set- 
ting-aside of the Yellowstone Park in 1872 imtil 1890 no new 
parks were added to the park system. Sequoia, Yosemite, 
and General Grant parks were added in 1890, and by the 
time the National Park Service was created in August, 1916, 
the system totalled sixteen parks and eighteen monuments. 
This includes the Hot Springs Reservation, and one park, Casa 
Grande, which was given monument status in 1918. 

The history of the parks and monuments during this period 
is almost altogether a history of individual rather than group 
development. New parks and monuments were created from 
time to time and became, thereupon, so many new individual 
problems rather than parts of a general problem. No note- 
worthy legislation of a general nature applying to the park 



HISTORY 9 

system in common was enacted during this period except the 
act for the preservation of American antiquities. There 
was, moreover, no such thing within the Department of the 
Interior as a section or division charged with the administra- 
tion of the park system to the exclusion of everything else. 
The Patents and Miscellaneous Division, in the office of the 
Secretary, already occupied with an abundance of other duties, 
gave such attention to the parks as time could be found for. 
It cannot be said that such a thing as a park system existed, 
if the word system be used in the sense of a disciplined, coor- 
dinated unit. Every park was in a very real sense a law unto 
itself, and the parks were more of a conglomeration at this 
time than a system. When the Secretary's office was reor- 
ganized in 1907, the miscellaneous duties of this division were 
given to the Miscellaneous Section in the Secretary's office, and 
the former chief of division was placed in charge of the section 
as Assistant Attorney. The work of this section embraced, be- 
sides the management of the parks and monuments, the ad- 
ministration of Alaska and Hawaii, the care of several elee- 
mosynary institutions, etc. 

A series of national park conferences held in 191 1, 1912, 
and 191 5 at the Yellowstone, Yosemite, and Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia, respectively, and participated in by all the park super- 
intendents and many of the department officers concerned in 
park administration, had much to do with bringing about an 
improved system of park control in the department. * 

The first step in this direction was made in 1913, when 
Secretary Lane placed the Assistant to the Secretary in gen- 
eral charge of park administration. This was followed, June 
5, 1914, by the appointment of a General Superintendent and 
Landscape Engineer of the national parks, to reside at San 
Francisco and have general supervision over all the park super- 
intendents. Thereafter a still further advance was made when 

* A fourth conference, held in Washington, January 2-6, 1917, was 
in the nature of a celebration of the success of the movement for 
a national park service. 



lo THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

the urgent deficiency appropriation act of February 28, 19 16 
(39 Stat. L., 23) conferred authority upon the Secretary to 
employ a Greneral Superintendent in the District of Columbia 
and in the field, the salary of the new officer and other neces- 
sary expenses of administration to be taken from the appro- 
priations and revenues of the several parks on a pro rata basis. 
Under this authority the office of the General Superintendent 
was moved to Washington. In the sundry civil appropriation 
act of July I, 19 1 6, (39 Stat. L., 309) authorization was 
given for the employment of a General Superintendent, to- 
gether with such clerical or other assistants, not exceeding 
four persons, as the Secretary might determine. 

In December 1913, a piece of legislation was enacted which, 
while it directly affected but one park, the Yosemite, was of 
indirect effect upon the entire system by reason of the pre- 
cedent which it established. This was the law (Act of Dec- 
ember 19, 1913; 38 Stat. L., 242) giving to the City of San 
Francisco the right to use certain lands in the Yosemite Park, 
specifically the Hetch Hetchy Valley, for the construction of 
a reservoir to supply the city with water and to generate 
electric power. 

This legislation was only enacted after a struggle extend- 
ing over the better part of a decade. It was fought by many 
civic organizations of standing and was strongly opposed by 
naturalists of note like John Muir and by many citizens, who 
believed that that part of the national park idea which called 
for the preservation of the parks in their original state should 
be rigidly lived up to. 

The city, on the other hand, claimed that the water to be 
obtained from the project was essential to the city's life in the 
years to come, and that it was impracticable to obtain it from 
any other source. Its point of view finally triumphed. As 
to whether this triumph was a rightful one ; and as to whether 
it will be a precedent for commercial raiding of the parks, 
or an example constituting a warning against that danger arg 
questions for the future to answer. 



HISTORY II 

The Movement for the Establishment of the National 
Park Service. A number of years before Secretary Lane in- 
troduced the reforms in park administration which have been 
described in the preceding section, a feeling had been growing 
up among friends of the parks that they should be admin- 
istered by a special bureau devoting its time to park affairs 
and nothing else. Secretary Lane's innovations were hailed 
as strides in the right direction, but it was felt that they did 
not go far enough. 

Secretary Ballinger had recommended the creation of a 
"bureau of national parks and resorts under the supervision 
of a competent commissioner" in his annual report for 1910. 
The American Civic Association, a society which has always 
been active in any movement for park betterment, took up the 
cause of a park bureau at about the same time. It is not too 
much to say that the untiring zeal of this organization in keep- 
ing up interest in the project, both in and out of Congress, by 
meetings, publications, and influence brought to bear through 
the most powerful press organs, had more to do with the final 
successful issue of the movement than any other one factor. 
Sentiment in general was in favor of the creation of the bu- 
reau, but it was not organized and was largely passive. But 
for the life the American Civic Association put into the 
movement it is to be doubted if Congress could have been 
induced to create a new bureau to do work that had been 
getting done somehow for so long a time without it. 

Another important factor in this movement was the series 
of national park conferences already referred to. At these 
meetings of practical park men, with a practical understanding 
of park problems, the park bureau project found many cham- 
pions. 

What may be termed the "Canadian Argument" was much 
used by proponents of the bureau idea throughout the move- 
ment. It was pointed out that Canada had already established 
a bureau of parks which was functioning with brilliant suc- 
cess. Secretaries Fisher and Lane were both in favor of the 



12 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

creation of the bureau and recommended it in their reports. 
President Taft thought well enough of it to address a special 
message to Congress on the subject. This was afterwards in- 
corporated in a bulletin of the American Civic Association and 
given wide publicity. President Taft said in part: 

I earnestly recommend the establishment of a bureau of 
national parks. Such legislation is essential to the proper 
management of those wondrous manifestations of nature. 
Every consideration of patriotism and the love of nature 
and of beauty and of art requires us to expend money enough 
to bring all these natural wonders within easy reach of our 
people. The first step in that direction is the establishment 
of a responsible bureau which shall take upon itself the 
burden of supervising the parks and of making recommenda- 
tions as to the best methods of improving their accessibility and 
usefulness. 

The work of the Division of Publications in the Secretary's 
office was also of material assistance in the bureau campaign. 
Its annual circulars on each park were widely distributed, and 
as a knowledge of what the country possessed in the parks 
became disseminated, sentiment in ^avor of their more effi- 
cient management was crystallized. The issuance by the divi- 
sion in 19 1 6, of an elaborate illustrated brochure entitled The 
National Parks Portfolio, in an edition of 275,000 copies, 
aroused popular interest in the parks, and copies of the publica- 
tion were eagerly sought. The resuh of this well-directed 
campaign was the introduction of a number of bills in Congress 
providing for the creation of a national park service. Hear- 
ings were held before the Public Lands committees in 1912, 
1914, and 1916, and on August 25, 1916, the National Park 
Service Act became a law (39 Stat. L., 535). 

The National Park Service Since 19 16. The text of the 
National Park Service law will be found in the appendix. 
The law as originally enacted is in force to-day except for two 
slight amendments. The first of these is a mere proviso 
in the act of February 26, 1919 (40 Stat. L., 1175), creating 



HISTORY 13 

the Grand Canyon National Park, to the effect that the pro- 
vision of the original law with regard to the granting of priv- 
ileges, leases, and permits shall, in the case of the Grand 
Canyon Park, be so construed that such privileges, leases, 
etc., "shall be let at public auction to the best and most re- 
sponsible bidder." The second amendment is part of the 
act of June 2, 1920 (41 Stat. L., 731), accepting, on the part 
of the National Government, the cession by the State of Cali- 
fornia, of jurisdiction over Sequoia, Yosemite, and General 
Grant Parks. A clause of that act makes a change in the pen- 
alties provided in the original act for violation of rules and 
regulations established by the Secretary of the Interior. 

Since the creation of the service in August, 1916, four new 
parks and five new monuments have been added to the sys- 
tem, which now totals nineteen parks and twenty-four monu- 
ments, with a total area of 12,674 square miles. A table of all 
the parks, together with a map, will be found near the end of 
this section. A table of the monuments is given with the sec- 
tion on the national monuments. 

One of these new monuments, Casa Grande, originally had 
the status of a park, as has been mentioned above. The reason 
for making the change cannot be better explained than by 
quoting from the report of the Director of the National Park 
Service for 1918, as follows : 

When the National Park Service was organized we had 17 
national parks and 21 national monuments. We now have 16 
national parks and 24. national monuments. The explanation 
is that one of the national parks of 1916, Casa Grande ruin, 
has been withdrawn from that classification and been made 
a national monument, and two other national rnonuments have 
been created. . . . The Casa Grande ruin had been reserved * 
and became loosely classed with Hot Springs and Yellowstone 
as a national park, notwithstanding that it possessed none 

* By an Executive Order of June 22, 1892, authorized by a clause 
in the sundry civil act of March 2, 1889 (25 Stat. L., 961) which also 
appropriated $2000 for the restoration of the ruin. A proclamation 
by President Taft, Dec. 10, 1909 (36 Stat. L., 2504), correcting 
Casa Grande's boundaries refers to it as a "reservation." 



14 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

of the accepted qualities of parkhood. . . . President Wil- 
son's proclamation of August 3, 1918 (40 Stat. L., 1818), 
declaring it a national monument, does little more than con- 
firm one of several opinions. 

Projects are now on foot looking to the creation of several 
additional parks. Prominent among these proposed parks 
are the region including the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, a 
large area in the sand dune region of Indiana bordering on 
Lake Michigan, and the region in Utah surrounding Bryce Can- 
yon. It is also proposed to enlarge the Yellowstone by taking 
in a large territory south of the park — ^the famous country of 
the Three Tetons and Jackson's Hole — and Sequoia by an- 
nexing the contiguous area, which contains the canyons of the 
King and Kern rivers and about seventy miles of the crest 
of the Sierra Nevada. This region is notable for scenic gran- 
deur and for the location within its confines of Mount Whit- 
ney, the highest peak in the continental United States. It 
is also the only known habitat of a unique and peculiarly 
"game" species of trout recently named after the late Presi- 
dent Roosevelt. This project is regarded by the National 
Park Service as the most meritorious of all the projects for 
park enlargement so far put forward. 

By Executive Orders of July 8, 191 8 (No. 2905) and Jan- 
uary 28, 1921 (No. 3394), the area of the proposed addition to 
the Yellowstone was set aside and reserved from settlement un- 
der authority of the act of June 25, 1910 (36 Stat. L., 847), as 
amended by the act of August 24, 1912 (37 Stat. L., 497). 
This prevents the acquisition of any private interests in the 
tract reserved — except mining claims. The total area with- 
drawn covers 844,800 acres, of which only slightly over 5cxx) 
acres are patented or in process of being patented. 

The National Park Service Act constitutes the organic law of 
the park system. The policy of the National Park Service 
operating under it was set forth on May 13, 19 18, by the 
late Secretary Lane in a letter to Director Mather, in which he 
said: 



HISTORY IS 

The National Park Service has been established as a bureau 
of this Department just one year. During this period our 
efforts have been chiefly directed toward the building of an 
effective organization while engaged in the performance of 
duties relating to the administration, protection, and improve- 
ment of the national parks and monuments, as required by 
law. This constructive work is now completed. The new 
Service is fully organized; its personnel has been carefully 
chosen; it has been conveniently and comfortably situated 
in the new Interior Department Building; and it has been 
splendidly equipped for the quick and effective transaction of 
its business. 

For the information of the public, an outline of the ad- 
ministrative policy to which the new Service will adhere 
may now be announced. This policy is based on three broad 
principles: First, that the national parks must be maintained 
in absolutely unimpaired form for the use of future genera- 
tions as well as those of our own time ; second, that they are 
set apart for the use, observation, health, and pleasure of the 
people; and third, that the national interest must dictate all 
decisions affecting public or private enterprise in the parks. 

Every activity of the Service is subordinate to the duties 
imposed upon it to faithfully preserve .the parks for posterity 
in essentially their natural state. The commercial use of 
these reservations, except as specially authorized by law, or 
such as may be incidental to the accommodation and enter- 
tainment of visitors, will not be permitted under any cir- 
cumstances. 

In all of the national parks except Yellowstone you may 
permit the grazing of cattle Jn isolated regions not, fre- 
quented by visitors, and where no injury to the natural fea- 
tures of the parks may result from such use. The grazing of 
sheep, however, must not be permitted in any national park. 

In leasing lands for the operation of hotels, camps, trans- 
portation facilities, or other public service under strict Gov^ 
ernment control, concessioners should be confined to tracts 
no larger than absolutely necessary for the purposes of their 
business enterprises. 

You should not permit the leasing of park lands for sum- 
mer homes. It is conceivable, and even exceedingly prob- 
able, that within a few years under a policy of permitting the 
establishment of summer homes in national parks, these res- 



1 6 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

ervations might become so generally settled as to exclude 
the public from convenient access to their streams, lakes, and 
other natural features, and thus destroy the very basis upon 
which this national playground system is being constructed. 

You should not permit the cutting of trees except where 
timber is needed in the construction of buildings or other 
improvements within the park and can be removed without 
injury to the forests or disfigurement of the landscape, where 
the thinning of forests or cutting of vistas will improve the 
scenic features of the parks, or where their destruction is 
necessary to eliminate insect infestations or diseases common 
to forests and shrubs. 

In the construction of roads, trails, buildings, and other 
improvements, particular attention must be devoted always 
to the harmonizing of these improvements with the landscape. 
This is a most important item in our program of develop- 
ment and requires the employment of trained engineers who 
either possess a knowledge of landscape architecture or have 
a proper appreciation of the aesthetic value of park lands. 
All improvements will be carried out in accordance with a 
preconceived plan developed with special reference to the 
preservation of the landscape, and comprehensive plans for 
future development of the national parks on an adequate 
scale will be prepared as funds are available for this purpose. 

Whenever the Federal Government has exclusive jurisdic- 
tion over national parks, it is clear that more effective meas- 
ures for the protection of the parks can be taken. The Fed- 
eral Government has exclusive jurisdiction over the national 
parks in the States of Arkansas, Oklahoma, Wyoming, Mon- 
tana, Washington, and Oregon, and also in the territories 
of Hawaii and Alaska. We should urge the cession of ex- 
clusive jurisdiction over the parks in the other States, and par- 
ticularly in California * and Colorado. 

There are many private holdings in the national parks, and 
many of these seriously hamper the administration of these 
reservations. All of them should be eliminated as far as it 
is practicable to accomplish this purpose in the course of 
time, either through Congressional appropriation or by ac- 
ceptance of donations of these lands. Isolated tracts in im- 
portant scenic areas should be given first consideration, of 
course, in the purchase of private property. 

" See act of June 2, 1920, p. 104 infra. 



HISTORY 17 

Eve ry opportunity sh ould be a fforded the pu blic, wherever 
n Qs"sihle~'l.() erijMy The lULlunal uaiktj lii [fie niJilluei LluL be st 
sat isfies the individual tas te. Automobiles and motortj^les 
will be permitted in all of the national parks; in fact, the 
parks will be kep t accessible bv any means practicable. 

' All outdoor sports w hich may be maintained consistently 
with the observation of the safeguards thrown around the 
national parks by law will be heartily endorsed and aided 
wherever possible. Mountain climbing, horse-back riding, 
walking, motoring, swimming, boating, and fishing will ever 
be the favorite sports. Winter sports will be developed in the 
parks that are accessible throughout the year. Hunting 
will not be permitted in any national park. * 
^ The educational, as well as the recreational , use of the 
national parks should be en couraged in every practicable way . 
University and high school classes in science will find special 
facilities for their vacation period studies. Museums con- 
taining specimens of wild flowers, shrubs, and trees, and 
mounted animals, birds, and fish native to the parks, and other 
exhibits of this character, will be established as authorized. 

"3 Low-priced c amps operated by concessioners should be 
maintained, as well as comfortable and even luxurious hotels 
wherever the volume of travel warrants the establishment of 
these classes of accommodations. In each reservation, as 
funds are available, a system of free camp sites will be cleared, 
and these grounds will be equipped with adequate water and 
sanitation facilities. 

</ Ac ^pnrpggi'r.rn^ in the national parks represent in most in- 
stances a large investment, and as the obligation to render 
service satisfactory to the Department at carefully regulated 
rates is imposed, these enterprises must be given a large 
measure of protection, and generally speaking competitive busi- 
ness should not be authorized where a concession is meeting 
our requirements, which, of course, will as nearly as possible 
coincide with the needs of the traveling public. 

'T All concessions should yield revenue to the Federal Govern- 
ment, but the development of the revenues of the parks should 
not impose a burden upon the visitor. 

C. Automobil e fees in the parks should be reduced as the v ol- 
jime of motor travel incre ases! 

For assistance in the solution of administrative problems in 

« But see p. S3, infra. 



i8 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

the parks relating both to their protection and use, the scien- 
tific bureaus of the Government offer faciUties of the highest 
worth and authority. In the protection of the pubHc health, 
for instance, the destruction of insect pests in the forests, the 
care of wild animals, and the propagation and distribution of 
fish, you should utilize their hearty cooperation to the utmost. 

You should utilize to the fullest extent' the opportunity af- 
forded by the Railroad A ,(^m'm\Rtrat\nr\ in appointing a com- 
mittee of western railroads to intoflti the traveling public 
how to comfortably reach the national parks ; you should dil- 
igently extend and use the splendid cooperation developed dur- 
ing the last three years among chambers of commerce, tourist 
bureaus, and automobile highway associations fca" the purpose 
of spreading information about our national parks and facili- 
tating their use and enjoyment ; you should keep informed of 
park movements and park progress, municipal, county, and 
State, both at home and abroad, for the purpose of adapting, 
whenever practicable, the world's best thought to the needs of 
the national parks. You should encourage all movements 
looking to outdoor living. In particular you should maintain 
close working relationship with the Dominion Parks Branch of 
the Canadian Department of the Interior, and assist in the 
solution of park problems of an international character. 

The Department is often requested for reports on pending 
legislation proposing the establishment of new national parks 
or the addition of lands to existing parks. Complete data on 
such parks projects should be obtained by the National Park 
Service and submitted to the Department in tentative form of 
report to Congress. 

In studying new park projects, you should gppW tn finH crpn- 
ery of supreme and distinctive quality or some natural feature 
so extraoramary or unique as to De of national interest and im- 
portance. You should seek distin^nishpd pvatr^plpg of typical 
forms of world architecture ; such, for instance, as the Grand 
Canyon, as exemplifying the highest accomplishment of stream 
erosion, and the high, rugged portion of Mount Desert Island 
as exemplifying the oldest rock forms in America and the lux- 
uriance of deciduous forests. 

The national park system as now constituted should not be 
lowered in standard, dignity, and prestige by the inclusion of 
areas which express in less than the highest terms the partic- 
ular class or kind of exhibit which they represent. 



HISTORY 19 

It is not necessary that, a national park should have a large 
area. The element of size is of no importance as long as the 
park is susceptible of efifective administration and control. 

You should study existing national parks with the idea of 
improving them by the addition of adjacent areas which will 
complete their scenic purposes or facilitate administration. 
The addition of the Teton Mountains to the Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park, for instance, will supply Yellowstone's greatest 
need, which is an uplift of glacier-bearing peaks; and the ad- 
dition to the Sequoia National Park of the Sierra summits and 
slopes to the north and east, as contemplated by pending legis- 
lation, will create a reservation unique in the world, because 
of its combination of gigantic trees, extraordina^ canyons, 
and mountain masses. 

In considering projects involving the establishment of new 
national parks or the extension of existing park areas by de- 
limination of national forests, you should observe what effect 
such delimination would have on the administration of adjacent 
forest lands, and wherever practicable you should engage in an 
investigation of such park projects jointly with officers of the 
Forest Service, in order that questions of national park and 
national forest policy as they affect the lands involved may be 
thoroughly understood. 

The fundamental purpose of the park system is stated in the 
National Park Service Act to be the conservation of the 
scenery and natural and historic objects and wild life of the 
parks in such manner as will leave them unimparied for the 
enjoyment of future generations. This thought was empha- 
sized by Secretary Lane in his statement of policy quoted 
above. It is the gist of the national park idea. 

Particular attention is drawn to this matter here because 
in the few years since the Service has been established events 
have occurred which indicate that it will be the center about 
which will be refought, on a much larger scale, the struggle 
which occurred over the Hetch Hetchy, referred to in the pre- 
ceding section. Proponents of power, irrigation, and water 
supply projects want to get in the parks, claiming that local 
needs along these lines should outweigh other considerations. 



20 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

In his most recent report Director Mather draws attention 
to the fact that no less than five extensive irrigation power 
projects proposing to utilize the waters of Yellowstone lakes 
and rivers by impounding them within the park itself have been 
vigorously furthered by Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming in- 
terests since 1919, and that one of them had got before Con- 
gress and secured a favorable vote in the Senate. It is the opin- 
ion of the Director, after careful investigations, that any one of 
these projects, if completed, would seriously mar the beauty 
of the park. 

A. still more serious menace to the National Park Idea was 
contained in the Federal Water Power Act, signed by Presi- 
dent Wilson on June 10, 1920 (41 Stat. L., 1063). This act, 
when submitted to the National Park Service in tentative 
form, safeguarded the parks and monuments from commer- 
cial invasion for water power or irrigation purposes; but as 
finally passed by Congress it contained a provision specifically 
opening up all the parks and monuments for water power devel- 
opment. Upon protest being made, the bill was signed with 
the understanding that amendatory legislation would be pre- 
sented and passed at the next session of Congress excluding 
the parks and monuments from the scope of the act. This 
action was taken, and an act repealing so much of the Federal 
Water Power Act as authorized the use of existing parks and 
monuments for power projects was signed on March 3, 192 1 
(41 Stat. L., 1353). The parks were further safeguarded 
from the operation of the act by the inclusion of a clause in 
the sundry civil act of March 4, 1921 (41 Stat. L., 1380), 
providing that no part of the appropriation for the Federal 
Power Commission should be used for any expense connected 
with the leasing of water power facilities in any national park 
or monument. 

Between the passage of the Water Power Act and its amend- 
ment several applications were made to the Federal Power 
Commission for licenses for water power rights in the Sequoia, 
Yosemite, and Grand Canyon parks. The commission, how- 



HISTORY 21 

ever, at the solicitation of the Secretary of the Interior, agreed 
not to consider apphcations for Hcenses within the parks until 
Congress had an opportixnity to enact the promised amen- 
datory legislation. 

The successors of the late Secretary Lane have taken a like 
stand with regard to park exploitation. One of the last ut- 
terances of Judge John Barton Payne before relinquishing the 
Secretaryship of the Interior was the following: 

In my view the greatest assets, stated with reasonable lim- 
itations, of the country are such national monuments and parks 
as the Yellowstone, the Grand Canyon and other national 
parks which the Congress from time to time has set aside. If 
those parks may be encroached upon for a commercial pur- 
pose, sooner or later they will be destroyed, in my view. It 
ought not to be a question of utility. Congress presumably 
considered that when it set a park aside. No one feels more 
keenly than I the wisdom of conserving water for reclamation 
and power purposes, but that should not be done at the cost of 
any of our national parks or monuments. And where the 
question is one even for debate, every doubt should be resolved 
in favor of the integrity of the national parks. 

The water never remains in the park, and in the final analy- 
sis it is a question of expense, because without exception, so 
far as I know, there is always opportunity of using the water 
after it leaves the park. 

Now, on the Yellowstone project, I gave a hearing to gentle- 
men when I was in the Yellowstone last July, and we had a 
perfectly frank dicussion of the subject, and it finally came to 
the proposition that the project could not afford the cost un- 
less the free lands in the park could be used for that purpose; 
that to buy the land for a storage reservoir, and pay the dam- 
ages incident thereto, would make a burden on the reclamation 
project which it could ill afford to bear. I said that that 
should not be a question for debate. If the project cannot 
afford to bear the expense of acquiring new lands and pay 
the damages, then the project should be abandoned, if the con- 
verse of the proposition was the possible injury and destruc- 
tion of a national park. 

The Yellowstone is worth more to this country, it is worth 
more to Montana and Idaho and Wyoming than any utilitar- 



22 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

ian use to which it may be applied. It is not only an asset for 
those adjacent states but for the whole country, and will attract 
people to that section always, and Congress and the people in 
the country should do everything in their power to preserve 
it in the best possible state as a national asset. 

And what I feel about Yellowstone is my view about all 
these parks. 

Secretary Fall on June i, 1921, wrote as follows to the 
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Irrigation and Re- 
clamation : 

I am in receipt of your request for report upon S. 274 and 
27s, proposing to authorize the State of Montana, or irriga- 
tion districts authorized by the State, to build a dam across 
Yellowstone River at a point not more than three miles below 
the outlet of Lake Yellowstone, for the regulation of the waters 
of the Lake for irrigation purposes. This construction would 
be within the limits of the Yellowstone National Park. 

I can not favor the enactment of the measure. I do not 
believe it would be advisable for Congress to permit private 
interests to develop irrigation or power sites within the limits 
of existing national parks. These parks were created by Con- 
gress for the preservation of the scenery, forests, and other ob- 
jects of beauty and interest in their natural condition, and they 
are created and maintained for general and national purposes 
as contradistinguished from local development. 

If cases be found where it is necessary and advisable in the 
public interest to develop power and irrigation possibilities in 
national parks, and it can be done without interference with 
the purposes of their creation, I am of the opinion that it 
should only be permitted to be done, whether through the use 
of private or public funds, on specific authorization by Con- 
gress, the works to be constructed and controlled by the Fed- 
eral Government. 

Local feeling on this question is illustrated by the action 
taken by the Idaho legislature at its 1921 session.^ For many 
years the park officers both in Washington and at the several 
parks, have urged state legislation creating large game pre- 

^ Idaho Senate Bill 173, approved March i, 1921. 



HISTORY 23 

serves immediately adjoining several of the parks, which from 
their size and location, are especially important wild-life re- 
fuges. This applied with especial force to the Yellowstone. 
The desirability of such legislation is apparent. Certain 
protected animals, especially the elk and buffalo herds of the 
Yellowstone, are prone to wander at certain seasons beyond 
the park botmdaries, seeking fresh grazing grounds, and fre- 
quently they have been met by hunters and indiscriminately 
slaughtered. Serious depletion of the park's herds has resulted. 

At the last session of the Idaho legislature a game preserve 
was created approximately seven miles wide, and running 
from nearly opposite the southwest corner of the park north- 
ward to the Continental Divide and the Idaho-Montana line. 
The act, however, contains the proviso that the preserve shall 
not be closed to hunting and actually made a sanctuary until 
the National Government certifies that the southwest corner of 
the park is made available for irrigation reservoirs, or until the 
boundaries of the park are so revised as to eliminate the south- 
west comer and thus make it available for irrigation projects. 

The other states bordering on the Yellowstone, Wyoming, 
and Montana, also passed game preserve legislation at their 
192 1 legislative sessions. In both states new ifish and game 
commissions were created with broad powers, including the 
authority to establish game preserves in any parts of their re- 
spective states, whenever, in their judgment, such action is 
advisable. The Montana law, however, is practically nulli- 
fied by the provision that the commission cannot establish a 
game preserve unless the same is petitioned for by 75 per 
cent of the actual property owners of the district proposed to 
be set aside as a preserve. 

A large game preserve was created by the State of Colorado 
in 1919, enclosing the Rocky Mountain Park on three sides, 
the fourth being closed by the Continental Divide. 

The State of Washington has passed a law somewhat sim- 
ilar to the Montana and Wyoming laws. Under its provisions 
county game commissioners can set aside as game preserves 



24 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

any state, school, or granted lands, certain designated waters, 
private lands (with the consent of the owners), and national 
forest areas (with the consent of the Chief Forester of the 
United States). 

An important bit of park legislation was enacted June 5, 
1920 (41 Stat. L., 917) in the shape of a general authoriza- 
tion to the Secretary of the Interior to accept for the National 
Government, in his discretion, gifts of patented lands or other 
lands, buildings or other properties within the various national 
parks and monuments, and moneys which may be donated 
for the purposes of the national park and monument system. 
This provision supersedes several clauses in the sundry civil 
act of June 12, 1917 (40 Stat. L., 152), authorizing accep- 
tances by the Secretary of gifts in Glacier, Mt. Rainier, Mesa 
Verde, Rocky Mountain, and Crater Lake, as well as gifts of 
lands etc., including the upper slopes of Grandfather Moun- 
tain, near the Boone National Forest in Western North Car- 
olina, a region which after having been under consideration for 
park purposes for several years has been rejected as unsuitable 
after a careful examination by the National 'Park Service. 

Under this authorization a number of giftsi have been made 
to the nation within the past year, the latest being a square 
mile of forest land in the Sequoia Park, the last redwood 
stand there which had been privately owned. This was se- 
cured and handed over to the National Park Service at a cost 
of $S5>ooo through the instrumentality of the National Geo- 
graphic Society. 

Another important event having^to do with privately-owned 
land within park boundaries "was the termination, in the Gov- 
ernment's favor, of long-drawn-out litigation over some min- 
ing claims in the Grand Canyon. The decision of the United 
States Supreme Court in this case ^ established the proposition 
that the Government can, in the public interest, examine min- 
ing claims in the national parks and monuments with a view 
to determining their validity, and, in the event of their prov- 

1 Cameron et al vs, United States; 252 U. S., 450 



HISTORY 25 

ing to be non-mineral, declare them invalid, thus preventing the 
"holding o{ lands within a park on the pretext that they are 
mineral-bearing. 

By act approved June 2, 1920 (41 Stat. L., 731), Congress 
accepted the cession by the State of California of exclusive 
jurisdiction of the territory within Yosemite, Sequoia, and 
General Grant Parks. The state act was passed April 15, 
191 9. This was an important step toward complete national 
jurisdiction in all the national parks, which consummation will 
alone create a satisfactory situation throughout the park sys- 
tem with regard to the enforcement of the regulations. In the 
parks over which the laws of the state in which they are lo- 
cated obtain, great difficulties in administration are at times 
encountered, owing to the fact that the department has no 
jurisdiction to punish offenses in violation of the regulations 
relating thereto, and particularly in the matter of preventing 
depredations on the game. Exclusive national jurisdiction 
now exists in nine parks Yellowstone, Yosemite, Sequoia, 
General Grant, Piatt, Glacier, Mount Rainier, Crater Lake, 
and Hot Springs. Penalties for the violation of the laws 
and regulations have been prescribed for all these parks, and 
commissioners appointed for the trial of offenders in each 
one of them except Piatt. 

The period since the creation of the National Park Service 
is also notable for the assumption by the Department of the 
Interior of complete control of all activities connected with 
the park system. This was brought about by the final re- 
linquishment by the War Department of police duties which 
it had performed for a considerable period in the California 
parks and in the Yellowstone, and by the withdrawal of the 
Corps of Engineers from all connection with park road and 
trail construction. The last detachment of soldiers to gar- 
rison Fort Yellowstone was withdrawn from the park on 
October 31, 19 18, and the Corps of Engineers was relieved of 
further duty in connection with the road work on July ist of 
the same year. On July 19th of the following year the en- 



26 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

gineers were withdrawn from Crater Lake, and the control of 
the park service was at last complete throughout the entire 
system. These changes were effected by transference of ap- 
propriations in the sundry civil acts of 1918 and 1919 (40 
Stat. L., 634, and 41 Stat. L, 163). This finally ended what 
had always been an anomalous situation, involving a duplica- 
tion and even a triplication of control. For example, in the 
Yellowstone the Superintendent reported to the National Park 
Service and had no control over the commandant of the troops 
engaged in patrol work or the engineer officer in charge of 
road construction. The commandant reported to the Western 
Military Department at San Francisco, and the engineer officer 
to the Chief of Engineers of the Army. It was thus neces- 
sary to maintain at the park three distinct offices, three office 
forces, and separate warehouses for equipment and sup- 
plies. 

A word is in order here as to how this cumbersome .system 
grew up. The organic acts creating the Yellowstone Park 
and the three parks in California (17 Stat. L., 32; 26 Stat. 
L., 478, 650) gave the Secretary of the Interior power to 
make rules and regulations, but no means of enforcing them. 
Considerable disorder and license resulted, and Congress met 
the situation by including in the act of March 3, 1883 (22 
Stat. L., 626) a clause authorizing the Secretary of the In- 
terior to call upon the Secretary of War for details of troops 
for protection of the Yellowstone. A similar dause was in- 
corporated in the act of June 6, 1900 (31 Stat. L, 618) with 
regard to the Sequoia, General Grant, and Yosemite parks in 
California. The same act (31 Stat. L, 625) in making ap- 
propriations for the Yellowstone Park under the War De- 
partment provided that thereafter road extensions and im- 
provements in the park should be made under, and in har- 
mony with, a plan to be approved by the Chief of Engineers. 
Engineer troops and officers came to be employed in some of 
the other parks, notably Crater Lake and Mount Rainier, 
gimply by the making of appropriations for ro^d construction 



HISTORY 27 

work under the War Department instead of the Interior De- 
partment. 

This system was probably unavoidable in the early days 
of the parks, and probably saved the Yellowstone from injury. 
But as time went on it became more and more apparent that 
a system of civilian control was to be preferred. Then, too, 
it was most unjust to the Army. Vast appropriations charged 
to the War Department were really expended for the benefit 
of the Department of the Interior. Secretary Garrison on 
May I, 1914, called this to the attention of Secretary Lane in 
a letter reviewing the matter, and suggested that the 
time had come for the Department of the Interior to take over 
the complete handling of the parks. 

The military forces were withdrawn from the Yellowstone 
in October, 1916, and a special ranger force created to take 
over the work. A year later, however, Congress concluded 
that the park should be guarded by soldiers, and by making 
Interior Department funds non-available for protective pur- 
poses through legislation in the act of June 12, 191 7 (40 Stat. 
L., 151) made necessary the recall of the cavalry to the park. 
The troops were withdrawn definitely from the California 
parks in 1913. With the final withdrawal from the Yellow- 
stone in 191 8 all military control ceased, and all the parks 
are now protected by civilian rangers. The system of ranger 
control is described in the chapter on Organization. 

Other events of importance in recent park history have been 
an inspection trip of a number of members of the House Com- 
mittee on Appropriations to six of the leading northern 
parks in the summer of 1920, and the formal establishment 
and designation of a great connected highway between the 
major parks of the Far West to be known as the National 
Park-to-Park Highway. 

Mention of this highway leads naturally to mention of 
the automobile, the basic motive for the creation of the road 
being the desire for the establishment of a trunk line for motor 
vehicles that will take the auto tourists to every one of the 



28 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

greater parks of the Far West. The proposal has the approval 
of the American Automobile Association and the support of 
the National Park Service. 

There was much argument, pro and con, before the automo- 
bile was permitted to enter the parks in the early years of 
Secretary Lane's incumbency. Those opposed to its admis- 
sion held that to do so would be a violation of the National 
Park Idea in that it would be an essential ignoring of that 
part of the "Idea" which contemplated the retention of the 
parks in their original condition. It was argued on the other 
hand, that the admission of the auto would render the parks 
more accessible to the people and thus make of them to a 
much fuller extent "public parks and pleasuring-grounds." 
There seems to be no question that a great and ever-increas- 
ing number of people are visiting the parks in this manner, as 
an examination of the statistics in the appendix will disclose. 
Moreover, the automobile has been a most important revenue- 
producer. Director Mather stated at the sundry civil hearings 
of December i6, 1920, that about 60 per cent of the revenue 
collected in the parks during the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1920, came from this source. 

In the construction of this highway it is proposed that the 
eleven states concerned build those sections passing through 
well-settled portions of their respective territories, and that 
the National Government assist in constructing those sections 
traversing thinly populated regions. 

The sundry civil act of June 12, 1917 (40 Stat. L., 153) 
provided that after July i, 1918, all revenues from national 
parks except those from Hot Springs should be covered into 
the Treasury to the credit of miscellaneous receipts. Previous 
to that time the revenues had been expended in the parks in 
which earned. The relation of these revenues to the amounts 
granted by Congress forms an interesting study. The total 
appropriations for 1920 totalled $907,070.76 and the revenues 
for the same period totalled $316,877.96, or approximately 
35 per cent of the cost of maintenance. The total appropria- 



Fold out 



HISTORY 



o o< t^ eo M )-> 

o o o o " ^ 
■i '-I 1 C 

B a 3 ^ g ^ 

9 ^ u 



3 « » C3S^n.B3'ffi 



O 3 • ft> S. 

a ;;r* 3 - 






n H: 



■ a 



g 
Wo 



3 



CO k! w 

S " £ 

So 
2. < 



en 



-^ 3 



S 2 « 



2; 2i <? 



s 3 

3 " 

S3 



n c S S ^ ^ 

2 2 3 » 3 re 

? !T Om S: !3 

E. E. SLEi re 3 







2 " 


<• 






y-f?^ = 


!it. 






.?3: 


S : 


S-o: 




S3: 


RS 



> > 



P!>3 n 



S ^ S 
&» a a 



E.: 3 




O VO V O to to *o 
-K ■-. O « 1- ►- o , 



^^ 


s'fr 












"•"■ 


ff^ 


M 


« u 


o*< 




- ° 


§•■3 








00 00 


to 00 


o> 








M 


w N 








ppppt_p,_, p ppf-,p|-.: 






s 



0\0\*0'*«* COM "SI 00 
O ooOoutCACn - 



M M O\O0J^ 






N OS. 
00* • ' 



" 0\0 



>o O^OOVi 
\0 (A u O Ot 

. . . . o 



-.>* M HI 

i*^ 0001 



P"" 



p5? 



* 00 3J ^ 



^ s: 



^ 



9 M 1^ 



■*»^ w 00 

Ov«0 M CO 



00 *o O O OV 



w o 



3 M caS 



fcJ J- O 0\ 

lb o ot ui o 

tn O O O >0 

Wi O W 00 w 



5; :z! fe:« 



«5: 12! 

00 o 

*■ 3 a 

on a 



0\ M <»' M*- 



M 








^4 


o\« 







4.0. 










Wtn 





COM 






< 
Ss. 

02 



29 



> 
H 

M 
O 

Z 
> 



30 



THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



3 
O 
JS 

u 

c 



ill 

"is 

*^^ ?? 

p 



•d 

B 



■a 



J " 

.s.sj. 

t!||i 
■S S 









0-3 is 

(fl d (0 

a u 

bow 
c ^ - 

.S Q V 

a Sdp. 
o o 



I o+i w I 
ft rt Si- 



S.S E<o>o 

.- *•-• ti I 
h u o 3 ^ 
«« o « 

■2§^T-S 
JJ**- 1= « 

O £ (o_ in 

«■> IK " 

iUC-( 

- - r- t! 



•s, s 

J= c 
■S '.3 



^ eg 



0) n 



uM-i E 



I." 



H- ° 



St) « 

"IS 

IH Im = 

V V H 

•a o 



(0^^ u 



g S^ 

?T1-C S 

•o «i « o 



3 .S-Sg 

U if .t? o 

M ^ ™ 

° fi"" 

" S o 5 

O - o 

u mo u 

V (<«•-< 

** ^ >. 

u 3 2 



00 J3 

u o 
■o a 
.SS=5 
u.S s 
I f^ 5 

He 
■§sg 



s 



•a 



"■- U- ° 



ioRf, 



"JS-O -B| 5-0* 

^ t*^^ V* -LJ ftp I w 

M^ O 



o *u 

> s 



* ss 



* 2g 



isiii : 



.Cb^"*" 
'- u v o 



"gS .2g,Lio ESl g 



U Ml h Cl I 



'«E 
i -§ 



"3 ^J2-*« 



i.s.B 




S5 CSV 'I' -13 ^S^S 



— PH-O *•£ C 3 en « 

B «„>.c(2-^j;S 

S cS — B « u 

*^ . j; - M ftj rt cvu C 

tot, - >..= "-^^ T 1 Si 






, rt n u o 
<o 5 b 0>e 



. o goo "87^ -oS' 



t 



"OS IS O-" ., .._ w Ai « ">**; O"-; u 

.Safeg«-3Sg'Ssfe, 8*2|.S 

wi o So w fi *■■- ? S' o o ♦* BE 

O.S £.*-'«.Se_i-...i:p y o « S 5 




'.Ji Sra hrt m| 






■2 9 * 5** 



=3„g2,5^S:3?-£S°°«E 
^a|USg^l33"SgA<»a^«S 



Sals" § -=&; 

o h-t; rt s« o « ^ «_ > O i ££ CUfi g 

oCrtsuE^ffiVtrg'S u^u'StC V u fie 






B 
n 



s 



•S B 



w >> 



.-Eb 

P" d ** ' • *Ji'"fii 
,1; .2 j< « . — "pJ! 
U n n > •n: h 60 

, « -1 a :W>" 

g I C I I3S8 



^ 1 



.a & - 

^ U SB 

> a tSs- 

= = §1-2 



2 o P* 

.3 a (S: 



HISTORY 31 

tions for 1921 were $1,058,969.16, with a corresponding rev- 
enue of $396,928.27. 

The sources of park revenue are four in number: taxes oh 
concessions; public utilities, such as water, telephone, or 
power systems; natural resources, i.e., sales of dead timber, 
stone, hides of predatory animals, etc.; and automobile and 
motorcycle permits. The system of taxing concessions varies 
in the different parks. 

Tables of statistics showing appropriations for the several 
parks and monuments are given in the Appendix. 

The Several Parks. In the pages that follow individual 
sketches of the parks in the national system are given in some 
detail. 

Yellowstone. The creation of the Yellowstone National 
Park and the legislation authorizing the same have already 
been referred to. For more than a decade after its creation 
little was done for its protection or development. The ap- 
propriations were not large, and the lack of support made it 
impossible for the early superintendents to accomplish much 
that was genuinely constructive. The first superintendent was 
the Hon. N. P. Langford, who, as mentioned above, had been 
a member of the Washburn-Doane expedition. He received 
no salary, and his hands were so securely tied by lack of funds 
and lack of means for enforcement of the regulations that he 
was practically powerless. He was nevertheless severely criti- 
cised for his administration. 

Civilian administration during these early years proving 
unsatisfactory, the act of March 3, 1883 (22 Stat. L., 626) 
made some radical changes. It provided for a civilian superin- 
tendent and ten assistants, but the protection of the park was 
entrusted to a detail of troops which the Secretary of the In- 
terior was authorized to request of the Secretary of War, 
and the development of roads and bridges was entrusted to 
the Corps of Engineers of the Army. 

The act of August 4, 1886 (24 Stat. L., 240), by making no 



32 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

provision for a superintendent or assistant, threw the entire 
administration and protection of the parks into the hands of 
the military, there being nothing for the Secretary of the In- 
terior to do but call on the Secretary of War for a detail of 
troops. This practice was thereupon continued from year to. 
year, and the commanding officer of Fort Yellowstone was des- 
ignated as acting superintendent reporting to the Secretary of 
the Interior. The soldiers, thereafter, were used not merely 
for purposes of protection but for general administrative pur- 
poses, serving practically as rangers. 

After 1888, up to and including 1901, the park appropria- 
tions were made directly through the War Department, but 
expenditures from the park revenues were made by the Secre- 
tary of the Interior. After the act of March 2, 1895 (28 
Stat. L., 945), under which the War Department appropria- 
tions covered protection as well as improvement, expenditures 
from the revenues could be made for managerial purposes only. 
Beginning with the act of March 3, 1901 (31 Stat. L., 1169), 
small appropriations were again made through the Interior 
Department for administration and protection, out of which 
clerical help was furnished to the acting superintendent and a 
few scouts and other additional employees paid. 

But the great landmark in Yellowstone legislation, second 
only to the organic act, was the act of May 7, 1894 (28 Stat. 
L., 73) which put teeth into the earlier law and enabled the 
park authorities to enforce the regulations and give the park, 
and its wild life a protection never enjoyed before. The pas- 
sage of this act was brought about by the capture of a poacher 
who slaughtered several buffaloes, well knowing that if caught, 
removal from the park would be the extent of his punishment. 
This resulted in immediate action by Congress, which passed 
a law that provided, among other things, for the appointment 
of a resident United States Commissioner with power to try 
for misdemeanors, and to issue process and commit in the case 
of felonies; for summary arrest in case of open violation of 
the regulations ; for the erection of a jail; and for the appoint- 



HISTORY 33 

ment of a resident deputy United States marshal. This 
act was amended and made more practicable by the act of June 
28, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 238), which, by modifying the punish- 
ments prescribed, made it possible to treat violations as mis- 
demeanors and thus do away with the necessity of formal in- 
dictment. 

A fact not generally known is that the entire Yellowstone 
area is not under National jurisdiction. The act of July 10, 
1890 (26 Stat. L., 222), admitting Wyoming into the Union 
retained national jurisdiction over the park area. This law 
does not apply to the strips of the park located in Montana 
and Idaho. These strips, however, are of very slight extent, 
being only a few miles wide. The greater part of the park, 
fully 95 per cent of the total area, is in Wyoming. , The situa- 
tion, however, is one which contains many possibilities for con- 
flict, especially in regard to game protection, attention to which 
was called by the Chief Forester in his 1916 report. In the 
Yellowstone region, comprising the park and adjacent national 
forests, the game in the park, i. e., in the Wyoming portion 
of it, is under national jurisdiction, while the game in the 
forests and in the Idaho and Montana park strips is under 
state jurisdiction, there being three states with differing laws 
to reckon with. 

That provision of the organic act creating the National 
Park Service which gives the Secretary of the Interior author- 
ity to permit grazing at his discretion in the parks and monu- 
ments does not apply to the Yellowstone. No grazing is per- 
mitted there. 

As has been stated above, the military were finally with- 
drawn from the Yellowstone in 1918, and entire control since 
that time has been in the hands of the National Park Service. 

Yosemite. Yosemite's history as a park dates back to be- 
fore the days of the Yellowstone, the valley proper and the 
Mariposa Big Tree Grove having been granted to the State 
of California for use as a state park by the act of June 30, 
1864 (13 Stat. L., 325). The whole of this park area was 



34 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

surrounded by, but not included in, the area set apart by the 
act of October i, 1890 (26 Stat. L., 650) for a national park 
under the Secretary of the Interior. 

The act of April 28, 1904 (33 Stat. L., 478) directed the 
Secretary of the Interior to ascertain what part of thg area 
set aside by the act of 1890 was not necessary for park pur- 
poses and could be returned to the public domain. In the fol- 
lowing year, accordingly, certain lands were excluded from 
the area originally set aside, and the remaining reservation 
was named the Yosemite National Park (act of February 7, 
1905; 33 Stat. L., 702). It was provided, however, that 
revenues accruing from the lands excluded should go to the 
park. With the formal acceptance by the United States 
(Joint resolution of June 11, 1906; 34 Stat. L., 831) of the 
recession by California of the lands given for a state park 
in 1864 (California Session Law, March 3, 1905) the crea- 
tion of the Yosemite as a national park was complete, the 
lands receded being included in the national park created in 
1890. 

Beginning with the season of 1891 troops were detailed to 
guard the park, and this system continued except for short 
intervals until 19 14, when they were withdrawn by agreement. 
The act of June 6, 1900 (31 Stat. L., 618) directed the Sec- 
retary of War to make troop details on request of the Secre- 
tary of the Interior. As in the case of the Yellowstone, the 
commander of the troops was acting superintendent. The 
troops did not remain in the park during the winter, however, 
and no permanent post was established. 

The act of December 19, 1913 (38 Stat. L., 242) granted 
the city and county of San Francisco the right to create a 
reservoir in the Hetch Hetchy Valley in the Yosemite Park 
for the purpose of supplying the city with water. 

The act of June 2, 1920 (41 Stat. L., 731) accepted, on the 
part of the United States, exclusive jurisdiction in the Yosem- 
ite, Sequoia, and General Grant Parks. 

Sequoia and General Grant. The acts of September 25, 



HISTORY 35 

and October i, 1890 (26 Stat. L., 478 and 650) set aside, 
with the usual conditions as to control by the Secretary of the 
Interior, the making by him of rules and regulations, and the 
granting of leases, etc., two park areas in California which 
received the names, respectively of Sequoia and General Grant. 
The history of these two parks between 1891 and 19 14 cor- 
responds exactly to that of the Yosemite during the same pe- 
riod. 

By the act of July i, 19 16 (39 Stat. L., 308) there was ap- 
propriated the sum of $50,000, which was added to $20,000 
contributed by the National Geographic Society, and the whole 
used to purchase some private holdings in Sequoia Park, which 
included parts of the Giant Forest. Since then other gifts 
by the National Geographic Society and certain citizens, to- 
talling over $80,000, have resulted in over a thousand acres 
of privately owned land in this park being returned to public 
possession. 

As these parks are only a short distance apart, and as the 
General Grant Park is very small, being only four square miles 
in extent, they are administered together under one superin- 
tendent. 

Mount Rainier. This park, which includes within its bound- 
aries the mountain after which it was named and the adjacent 
territory, was created by the act of March 2, 1899 (30 Stat. 
L., 993) which differs from the ordinary park-creating act 
in that it provides for the extension of the mineral land laws 
to the territory set aside. This provision was nullified, how- 
ever, by the act of May 27, 1908 (35 Stat. L., 365) which 
prohibited the location of further claims. 

A concession for transportation was allowed in 1902, and 
the park placed under the supervision of the Forest Supervisor 
of the State of Washington. Protection has been provided 
by means of civilian rangers from the first opening of the park, 
although much of the original road construction was per- 
formed by army engineers. 

Cession by the State of Washington of exclusive jurisdic- 



36 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

tion was accepted by the act of June 30, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 

24.3)- 

Crater Lake. Crater Lake National Park, comprising about 
250 square miles in Southwestern Oregon, surrounding the 
lake of the same name, was created by the act of May 22, 1902 
(32 Stat. L., 202). This act corresponds in general to the 
other park acts, but makes no provision for use of park 
revenues in the development of the park, as do the acts creating 
the parks heretofore noticed. Administration and protection 
have always been performed by civilians, but until 1919 road 
building was in charge of Army engineers. 

Cession of exclusive jurisdiction by Oregon was accepted 
by the United States by the act of August 21, 191 6 (39 Stat. 
L., 512). 

Wind Cave. This park, which includes some 10,000 acres 
in Southwestern South Dakota, was created by the act of Jan- 
uary 9, 1903 (32 Stat. L., 765). By the act of August 12, 
1912 (37 Stat. L., 293) part of the park area was constituted 
a game preserve, and the Secretary of Agriculture was author- 
ized to purchase necessary adjoining lands and enclose and 
protect the preserve. Several tracts of privately owned land 
which were inside the park boundaries at the time the park 
was created have since been acquired by the National Govern- 
ment. 

The game preserve is in charge of the Bureau of Biological 
Survey and includes some 4000 acres, well fenced, on which 
are maintained herds of buffalo, elk, antelope, and deer. 

An Executive Order of July 14, 1920, temporarily with- 
drew 2% sections of public land adjoining the park to con- 
serve a water supply for the animal herds. 

Piatt. This park, known as Sulphur Springs Reservation 
until the name was changed by joint resolution of June 29, 
1906 (34 Stat. L., 837), was created by the act of July i. 
1892 (32 Stat. L., 641, 655). This act confirmed an agree- 
ment made with the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians, and by 
its provisions a tract of land, to be designated by the Secretary 



HISTORY 37 

of the Interior, was relinquished to the United States. By act 
of April 21, 1904 (33 Stat. L., 220), additions were made to 
the park, which now comprises approximately 850 acres just 
outside the town of Sulphur, Oklahoma. The park contains 
several unique mineral springs and is of considerable natural 
beauty. It also has a well-fenced game preserve containing 
several buffaloes and elk. The Enabling Act of June 16, 1906 
(34 Stat. L., 267) and the Oklahoma Constitution adopted 
July 16, 1907 provided for the retention of National jurisdic- 
tion over the park area. 

Sidlys Hill. In the Presidential Proclamation of June 2, 
1904 (33 Stat. L., 2368), under the act of April 24, 1904 
(33 Stat. L., 319), throwing open the Devils Lake Indian 
.Reservation to settlement, there is incorporated a clause ex- 
cepting some 780 acres on the south shore of Devils Lake 
"for public use as a park to be known as Sullys Hill Park." 
No provision was made for administration, and except for one 
small appropriation — $500 — ^to determine its mineral or non- 
mineral qualities, no appropriations have been made for the 
park through the Department of the Interior. It has become 
an important game preserve of the Bureau of Biological Sur- 
vey, however, and has received fairly liberal appropriations 
for that purpose. Its park uses are mostly in the nature of a 
local picnic ground. 

Mesa Verde. Mesa Verde Park, notable for its prehistoric 
ruins, was created by the act of June 29, 1906 (34 Stat. L., 
616) which, though similar in general form to the average 
park-creating law, contains a provision authorizing the Secre- 
tary of the Interior to grant permits for excavation. In 1909 
an attempt was made to amend this act so that the leases and 
permits granted by the Secretary of the Interior in the park 
should be restricted to coal mining for local use in Montezuma 
county, Colorado, the revenue derived therefrom to be covered 
into the Treasury without right on the part of the Secretary 
to use it for park development. This act was vetoed by 
President Taft on April 28, 1910. The park's area was en- 



38 THE NATIONAL PARK, SERVICE 

larged by the act of June 30, 1913 (38 Stat. L., 82). 

Considerable archaeological research has been done in the 
park by the Smithsonian Institution, and the establishment of 
a school of archaeology has been proposed. There is a museum 
in the park for the display o^ pottery and other relics of the 
region. 

Glacier. Glacier Park comprises about 1500 square miles 
in northwestern Montana adjoining the Canadian boundary, 
and contains within its borders probably the finest Alpine 
scenery to be found in the United States outside of Alaska. 
It was created by the act of May 11, 1910 (36 Stat. L., 354). 
It directly adjoins the Waterton Lakes Park of the Canadian 
park system, on the north. 

Appropriations for this park have been regular and fairly 
liberal from the date of its foundation, and it has been de- 
veloped into one of the most important and popular parks of 
the entire system. Much credit for the development and ad- 
vertising of the park is due the Great Northern Railway, which 
has expended between two and three million dollars in the 
creation of a system of hotels and chalets. 

All park activities have been in civilian hands from the first, 
the military arm never having been called upon for either pro- 
tection or road construction. 

Acceptance from Montana of exclusive jurisdiction was 
efifected by the act of August 22, 1914 (38 Stat. L., 699), and, 
as in the case of all the other parks, save Piatt, in which juris- 
diction has been ceded, penalties for violations of the laws and 
regulations were prescribed, and provision made for a United 
States Commissioner with jurisdiction over offenses committed 
within the park. 

The act of July 3, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 342) provided that cer- 
tain homesteaders who had entered upon lands in the park 
area before the park was created should be protected in their 
rights, but that in the event of the non-perfecting of the en- 
tries the lands covered thereby should revert to the park. 

By the act of March 3, 1917 (39 Stat. L, 1122) the Secre- 



HISTORY 39 

tary of the Interior was authorized to exchange for private 
lands held within the park, matured timber of an equal value 
located either on Government land in the park or in the ad- 
jacent national forest in Montana. 

Rocky Mountain. Rocky Mountain Park was created by 
the act of June 26, 19 15 (38 Stat. L., 798), the law being sim- 
ilar to the standard park-creating law save for an inhibition 
upon appropriations of more than $10,000 in any one year ex- 
cept by special Congressional authorization. This proviso 
was repealed by the act of March i, 19 19 (40 Stat. L., 1271). 
The park's boundaries were enlarged by the act of February 
14, 1917 (39 Stat. L., 916), giving it a total area of about 
400 square miles. It is located in north central Colorado. 

Hawaii. Hawaii Park is unique for several reasons, one 
being that it was created on the initiative of Congress by the 
act of August I, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 432), the act varying from 
the standard park law only in that it provided that no appro- 
priation should be made until proper conveyance had been 
made to the United States of rights of way over private lands 
to secure access to the park. By the act of February 27, 
1920 (41 Stat. L., 452) the Governor of Hawaii was author- 
ized to acquire, at Hawaii's expense, all private lands lying in 
the park boundaries and all necessary rights of way, etc., there- 
over. Provision was therefore made by an appropriation of 
$10,000 in the act of March 4, 1921 (41 Stat. L., 1407) for 
the necessary administration and protection, which can be ef- 
fected with a superintendent, clerk, and two rangers. It is the 
expectation of the National Park Service that this park 
will speedily become very popular and a good producer of 
revenue. 

Lassen. This park, located in northeastern California, 
comprises the territory surrounding Mount Lassen, the only 
active volcano within the limits of the continental United 
States. It was created by the act of August 9, 1916 (39 Stat. 
L., 442) which contains an inhibition on appropriations of 
more than $5,000 without express authorization. Two appro- 



40 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

priations have been made, one of $2,500 by the act of June 
S, 1920 (41 Stat. L., 918) ; the other, of $3,000 by the act of 
March 4, 1921 (41 Stat. L., 1407), arrangements for the ex- 
penditure of which sum in the construction of roads and trails 
have been made with the Forest Service. Forest Service 
employees of the neighboring Lassen National Forest are giv- 
ing the park what protection they can. A movement insti- 
tuted in 19 19 to have the park abolished and restored to the 
forest reserve proved abortive. 

Mount McKinley. Mount McKinley Park was created by 
the act of February 26, 1917 (39 Stat. L., 938). The act 
does not differ from the other park acts save in that it specif- 
ically continues in force the mineral land laws as regards the 
park area and limits appropriations to $10,000 per annum. No 
appropriations were made nor anything done to protect the 
park until March 4, 1921 (41 Stat. 11, 1407), when $8,000 
was appropriated for its protection. A ranger with one assis- 
tant was sent into the park in the Spring of 1921, and a start 
has thus been made toward protection of the great game herds, 
which in recent years have been seriously harried by poachers. 
It is believed that this territory will become as great a game 
preserve as the Yellowstone. 

Grand Canyon. The act of February 26, 1919 (40 Stat. 
L., 1 175) created the Grand Canyon National Park out of a 
portion of Grand Canyon National Monument in northern 
Arizona, which had in turn been created by the Presidential 
Proclamation of June 11, 1908 (35 Stat. L., 2175). The act 
creating the park is, in general, of the usual form, but con- 
tains two unusual provisions: one authorizing the Secretary 
of the Interior to conduct negotiations with the authorities 
of Coconino county, Arizona, with a view to the purchase of 
the Bright Angd Trail, a toll road in the park owned and main- 
tained by the county ; the other providing that all concessions, 
leases, privileges, etc., granted in the park shall be sold at 
public auction to the highest bidder. It also provides that 
prospecting is to be allowed in the park at the Secretary's 



HISTORY 41 

discretion when not calculated to interfere with the park's 
primary purpose. 

Since the park's establishment, appropriations have been 
made as follows: July 19, 1919 (41 Stat. L., 204), $40,000; 
June 5, 1920 (41 Stat. L., 918) $60,000; and March 4, 1921 
(41 Stat. L., 1407), $100,000. A clause in the 1920 and 
1 92 1 acts provides that no parts of the respective appropria- 
tions are to be used for the improvement of any toll road or 
toll trail, a provision undoubtedly aimed at the Bright Angel 
Trail. All three appropriations are for "administration, pro- 
tection, maintenance and improvement" and the first one is for 
"development" as well. The second, in addition to the ob- 
jects mentioned, is also for "acquisition of road and trail 
rights." 

Negotiations held so far with Coconino County have come to 
nothing. The county charges one dollar per person for the 
use of the trail, and claims that its value based on its earning 
power is $100,000. The National Park Service, on the other 
hand, has ascertained that a new trail can be built for $30,000. 

Lafayette. This park, comprising some 5000 acres in Mt. 
Desert Island, off the Maine coast, is notable in being the first 
park to be established on the Atlantic seaboard. It was first 
set aside as the Sieur de Monts National Monument by the 
Proclamation of July 8, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 1785), and later 
obtained park status by the act of February 26, 1919 (40 
Stat. L., 1 1 78), the act being very brief and merely stating 
that the park was created and was to be administered by the 
National Park Service. The acts of July 19, 1919 and June 
5, 1920 (41 Stat. L., 204 and 918) carried appropriations for 
Lafayette Park of $10,000 and $20,000, respectively, both 
for "administration, maintenance, protection and improve- 
ment." 

Zion. The area included in Zion Park in southwestern Utah 
was originally set apart as Mukuntuweap National Monument 
by Proclamation of July 31, 1909 (36 Stat. L., 2498). The 
Proclamation of March 18, 1918 (40 Stat. L., 1760) enlarged 



42 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

this monument and changed its name to Zion 'National Mon- 
ument, which, in the following year, by act of November 19, 
1919 (41 Stat. L., 356) became Zion National Park. The act 
provided that the park should be administered by. the National 
Park Service and maintained by an allotment of funds from 
the appropriations for the monuments until an independent 
appropriation should be made. Two appropriations have been 
made by the acts of June 5, 1920 and March 4, 1921 (41 Stat. 
L., 919 and 1408), in the respective amounts of $7,500 and 
$10,000 for "administration, protection, maintenance and im- 
provement." 

Hot Springs. Hot Springs Park is unique not only as the 
"Great American Spa" but as being at once the oldest and 
the youngest member of the park system. It was reserved 
many years before any other member of the park system, 
April 20, 1832 (4 Stat. L., 505), but did not finally receive 
the name of park until March 4, 192 1 (41 Stat. L., 1407). 
Because of its nature its history has been different from that 
of every other member of the system. It is a health resort 
rather than a "pleasure ground." It is only fair to add, how- 
ever, that the development of Hot Springs in recent years, its 
equable climate, and the beauty of the surrounding region com- 
bine to make it a far from unattractive place to visit. 

The act of June 11, 1870 (16 Stat. L., 149) authorized suit 
in the Court of Claims by any one claiming title to any land 
in the reservation, and for a receiver to take charge of the 
lands in case of decision in favor of the United States. Final 
decision was so rendered by the Supreme Court in October, 
1875.1 By the act of March 3, 1877 (19 Stat. L., 377) a 
commission was created to lay off the reservation into lots and 
streets, to set apart Hot Springs Mountain as a permanent res- 
ervation and to condemn the buildings thereon, to determine 
upon the rights of claimants to take lots at appraised values, 
and to sell the lots not so taken. Hot Springs Mountain was 
placed in charge of a superintendent to be appointed by the 
1 "Hot Springs Cases," 2 Otto. 6g8. 



HISTORY 43 

Secretary of the Interior. Proceeds from the sale of lots and 
receipts from water rents were to be devoted to the reservation. 
The act of December i6, 1878 (20 Stat. L., 258) authorized 
the Secretary of the Interior to execute leases on the perman- 
ent reservation, and directed the superintendent, out of the 
rentals, to provide free baths for the indigent. The act of 
June 16, 1880 (21 Stat. L., 288) added the other undivided 
mountainous districts to the permanent reservation, and ceded 
the streets and thoroughfares not in the permanent reservation 
to the town of Hot Springs, a municipal corporation of the 
State of Arkansas. 

The Government Free Bath House was authorized in 1878, 
and has been enlarged from time to time. In 1920 construc- 
tion of a new free bath house was begun. Besides the free 
bath house, there are nineteen pay bath houses in Hot Springs 
receiving hot water from the park, the rates charged for baths 
being fixed in each instance by the Secretary of the Interior. 
Under governmental authority a free clinic was organized in 
April 1916 in connection with the free bath house. 

The act of June 30, 1882 (22 Stat. L., 121) appropriated 
$100,000 for an Army and Navy Hospital to be erected on 
the reservation and to be subject to such rules, regulations, 
and restrictions as might be provided by the President of the 
United States. 

Acceptance was made by act of April 20, 1904 (30 Stat. 
L., 187) of cession.by the State of Arkansas of exclusive juris- 
diction over a portion of the permanent reservation on the 
Hot Springs Mountain. This act was amended by the acts of 
March 2, 1907 (34 Stat. L., 1218) and March 3, 191 1 (36 
Stat. L., 1086) so as to make more definite the provision re- 
garding a United States Commissioner. 

The National Moniunents. Individual sketches of the na- 
tional monuments would be superfluous. They received no 
appropriations prior to 1917. Since then, appropriations 
general and special have totalled $75,500. They were placed 



44 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

in charge of officers of the Department of the Interior in the 
vicinity — General Land Office employees, etc. In a few cases 
custodians have been employed at nominal salaries, and in the 
case of Muir Woods custodian service has been paid out of the 
appropriation for protecting public lands. Many of the monu- 
ments — for example, The Devils Tower in eastern Wyoming — 
will need no custodians, being practically injury proof. In 
the case of monuments like the Southwestern Ruins and the 
Petrified Forest, which are vulnerable to the vandal and de- 
spoiler, it is the policy to provide protection. A ranger has 
recently been placed in the Petrified Forest. 

The principal facts relating to the individual monuments 
are set forth on pages 45 and 46 : 

Parks and Moniunents not Administered by the National 
Park Service. Although this monograph is concerned pri- 
marily with the National Park Service and the parks and 
monuments under its jurisdiction, brief mention should be 
made of a number of national parks and monuments under 
other control. A complete list of them is contained in the 
tables on pages 47 and 48 : 

In addition to the parks listed in these tables, there was for- 
merly another national park under the War Department. A 
portion of Mackinac Island, Michigan, possessed that status 
from 1875 to 1895, when it was turned over to Michigan for 
use as a state park. 

Of the monuments in these tables, those under the Agricul- 
ture Department are all located within the bounds of forest re- 
serves, that being the determining factor which placed them 
under the Agriculture Department instead of the Interior De- 
partment at the time of their creation. A monument may be 
transferred from the Agriculture Department to the Interior 
Department at any time by simply revoking the forest reserva- 
tion covering its area. The military monuments, by the same 
token, are located on military reservations. 

Growth of Popular Interest in the Park System. In 1908 



O 

t-t 

M 

M 

K 
H 

Ik 
O 

H ' 

, I 

b) ' 
U I 

hH I 

H < 

<n ; 

g . 
P I 






a 

H 

m 00 

Q 

u> 
Pi 

H 

^ s 
< «- 

tn B 
H S 

w S, 

o 

1^ 

< 
o 



5 



HISTORY 



45 



'5b 



1-3 5"f5 11 -S-Sllssl 



O .-§ * " w » ^.a 
Vitj. rt ff C »« o 

.a 4,0 3s ° 




i; u * o m B S-2 a 

c-53 „ocxia-c--S 



■£siSM_ccais^c 



S UK's! So" 

girS.s--SoS 

|S „§■«*'£ 
ui< S wt; BO 

y BO (n:-r? c 
d ns yT,J3 B 



v u 3 » 
a-" a-" 

M- *" — h 
^>o ;? Si 



JiS'o 
bCJ! 



I§* 






S t! »" 

""oo 

^^ « K 
(n »n 

y N w *^ 

50 " « 

B ., 

o y •- 

CT3 u O 
aotj "T, y 



« y 



Jib 
Bin 
^^ 
£•£ 

Ok 



.S O 



"*y 

>S5 



U^M 



CEJ Oh U 



U O oJuj > o "> 

.E i J g g-s S2I 
Z o S 



;^" "- 



■^^^ 

B-°g 

©•a V 
'« 4J a : 
"2 !? 
55 « 

u c 

-^■m «; C ** 3 

c +1 oJ2 « y^ 
O B'u rt S e 

(3 Bi tn O ^ ^ 

B d.S.S.E y M 
= y+jjS 2 y rt 



s s 



s 

in 



as 



000 00 
« ^* vovo 



o o 



« E - 






ij J 



JiJ jj ^4 jj 



tjjj ^jj i4 



i^hI 1-3 



42 rt 






O Hl 



0.2 



s cfS i 



Wen 1/1 


52 
wua 


5 


C/3C/) 


CO 


(n\0 O) 

n (*) po 




Wl 


^S; 


^ 

r^ 




00 H 


00 



9. 




0* 


"SSS 


w\0 


\rt 


o4 


c« 


i^ 


li 


i 

tn 


as 


& 



^ < 



•a 



o S 



(K § 



At U 



IS 

E 



o : .„ 






§"" 






■d 

B 

J" 5-" 



oge 
s ° « 



46 



THE NATIONAL PARX SERVICE 



oS 



O (S O S tn O O 



tn CD 00 



O O • o 
in O -VD 
« I. . N 






> *■ Si 




o 


00 






HI 




a»oco 00 

www 




tSi 


J 


i 


J 


J 


i 


iJ 


^ JJ i 


J 


J 


s 


5 




i 


rt 


i 




en 




« 


In 


00 






o 


mXD O O 


w 






o 


9i 


in 


t-i 


rv 

a 


A O^OO 00 

00 *^ " M 


w 





S s A o < 




■- P 



^ in 

i?: < 



5 S < D 



V- o 




So 



3 < 



HISTORY 



47 



H 
Z 
U 

S 

H 

< 

u 

Q ■ 

ei 



ffi ft 

> g 

« g 

w S 

s i 

o * 
5S 

en u 

M - 

IB < 

ft » 

O « 

Q S 

is . 

<S 

S "^ 
< 

iz: 
» 





a 




■§ 


a 




e and sur- 
Civil War. 
arm where 

■eat battles 






1 =- 
o II 




:S v.'So 


o 
*0 ^ 


S?«^ 5 


m 


IllgJ 






ti 

CO 


fill 
(3.2-= o M 








C3 en 


15 « 


muz; 




t^ o 


« "I 


«o - m 




•* »n 


■* in 


(s • « 






to * 


CO • ft 


rt « 




* 




S V 


VO 


n <>) 


M * 


<1 


























n 










*n 




t>. IH 


M m ^0 


t^ 


n 


O 


0\ vi 


■* 00 Ov 


V 




^ 


ui so 


00 «*> o» . 


«lj 


U 






? " ? 


3 g 


J 


i J 


J J J 


*i 




*s ^ 


*s ^ *: 


5 id 


s s 


« « 42 




C/3 cn 

CO 00 


w w en 
o tt a 




N N 


N W 


m « fo 




o o 


■<*■ »n 


Ot w t^ 




Ot Oi 


Ot 0( 


o\ « M 


A 


m 00 


00 00 


00 o\ o^ 


« 


M r* 


IH M 


M M M 


S| 


Ch O 


tC w 


►; »C N 


-•=! 


M n 


PI M 


N HI 


£.2 










^ ^ 


8 ■§ 


•8 3 1 

to I-. S 


■5 -< 


p t 




•o • 


• 


: : ;S 




§„ 


rt 


e 


4} 




.^ ' o 




.2S -g 


s S 


a 1 a 




1 S 

h" 1 


1 1 5 




O S 


S ^ ^. 




•o 


•o 










1H 




s 


■oi 










11 


1 


3 M U 

si "^ 

"1 i 
■-S -a 


S 


£ 

1 


1 


i 

1 

IS 


|1 
ll 

.S 3 




U 


<; 


tr 


t: 




> 


►J C3 






Pi < 

Q e 



I 

B 

2 Q 

: s 
: H 

o. Sz; tu 
•S s .. 
s B " 

o <; « 
Ji m < 

3 g S 

I is 

o S 

IZiS 

M 

a 











3J3-0 •'^^ 




< c 0):= a 








-■oil, b"" 




cd.ti N >2 tt 


_o 


» C «J (n OC/1 


to 


'pzss.^^ 


■fe 
t; 


* u i-i o.S o - 


J3 
U 






n) 


rt U O «J3 "^ 


u 

0) 

o. 
en 






^S^^^St^^ 










•^■"-•BSSg-s 








" f. rt t,^^ii.o (fl 




in O 




tn M 


^.^ 




rt to 




u u 




^* h 




^ u 




w 






• m 


V Q 


















u n 




J 


^''tJ 






3 








3 
to 


55° 




00 


_ 


O rj 


c4 




u 


o> o> 


l-> 


M M 


O 




^^ 


w -^ 


0.2 


N Ht 


■«-> 




s 


V 


ca 


tS tt 


Q 


3 Ji 

H-. CJ 


e 




: 


.2 


rt 




rt 'S 


a 


e S! 


3 




o "a 




a (3 




u . 












>o 






^>t 




« 




V 


ji 


ici) 




"o w 


a 


HH M 




2 = 








.»! 1 




PC 




n 1 

u 1 



48 



THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



« 

y s 

u S 

< s 
ft s 

M u 
O a 

Si 

5 « 
a^ 

!= 2 
!5 S 
O " 

So 

gs 

o a 

<:£ 

w 












^.2 






sal 

O o fl J 



SB 



•8 Ji5 

•" .Si 



s • B.S o ! 






^1 Is 

so 



•S s"g fie 



So §45 



** ^ C tZ. O Ifl B >*4 Cd"*^ 

J5 " 8 K „ 5 "5 « S £ m .« 

-•■ ugogo.SoS"''' 



a o 



e 



3" 



■ Bj3». 



l=a 



■" s 

S.2 



>.t! » « b73 Sr& WB «+j. 
o B d n rt.S;S " B B 5-- 



^ B 

■t3 n 



"':'^|^»g.s«^ 



SSi.SigE.S 



to w 

■S B 

.S P V 



3«« 



J o 






S ft) 
'So 

"a! 



»■§ «SB'a.2-3ST3a2a"'3 5'"«B„s„_ 

il EB!ia|l§|l|g|BS||||g:i 
*- - " '^ - L> > <; 



o o 

■*00 



o o o o 
^ao tsoa 

^ *M ■* 

0000 A 
O O Ot 






h4 Ji^ 1-3 tJ^jH^i-i iJ »-i )-] 



43 2^2 4S 



cQ cd rt rt Rt 



4i -ti ** 

CO V3 W 



In. 00 
O O 
OtOi 






M t>.« « * 






jg n. 



:3 

. O 

•iS 

B - 
O.B 

•Kg 



fe .g 



h u 



JC 

a 



« . ^ 



6 fS^ g 



o u 



h 



a (5 p 



3 1-2 



HISTORY 49 

visitors to the parks numbered 69,018, as against 919,504 in 
1920. Twelve of the national monuments were visited by 
54,27(7 persons ii^ 1919; by 138,951 the ifoUowing year. 
These figures illustrate very graphically the steady increase in 
popular interest in the nation's playgrounds. A number of 
factors have contributed to this. A combination of the "See 
America First" movement and conditions of European travel 
brought about by the World War has caused more people to 
consider native resorts, in the planning of their vacations. 
The development of good roads and the automobile have 
played a part, as well as the great increase in recent years in 
the outdoor cult. Finally, the parks are better advertised 
than they used to be, not only by the Government but by pri- 
vate agencies which have discovered that advertising the parks 
in connection with their own business is not only good adver- 
tising from the standpoint of attractiveness but from that of 
increased returns as well. In addition to this, articles about 
the parks and their wonders have of late enjoyed a tremen- 
dous vogue in the popular magazines. The result of all this 
has been that hundreds of people are familiar with the parks 
to-day as compared with scores a few years ago. There is 
every reason to believe that this interest now solidly estab- 
lished will increase rather than diminish, that the parks will 
be visited by increasing throngs year by year; and that the 
visitors will be not alone from America but from other parts 
of the world as well, as a knowledge of what these priceless 
reservations contain becomes more widespread. 



CHAPTER II 

ACTIVITIES 

In the preceding chapter the functions of the National 
Park Service — ^the supervision, management, and control of 
the various parks and monuments — have been pointed out ; and 
some indication has necessarily been given of the activities 
of the Service in the performance of those functions. In 
considering the activities in detail it will simplify matters to go 
back for a moment to what may be termed the first principles 
of the Service, and note once more that the "National Park 
Idea," as expressed in the organic laws of the Service, the 
Yellowstone and the National Park Service acts, emphasizes 
two things: the retention of the parks, their scenery, natural 
wonders, forests, waters, etc., in their original state; and, 
the public enjoyment of the things and places thus conserved. 
The work of the National Park Service consists in the further- 
ance of these two objects, and all of its activities are con- 
cerned with either the conservation of the parks and monu- 
ments or the promotion of their use and enjoyment by the 
people. In discussing the Service's activities, therefore, at- 
tention will be given, first to conservational activities, and, 
then, to promotive activities. 

Conservation of Physical Features. Conservational activ- 
ities of the National Park Service are concerned with two 
kinds of conservation. First, there is the preservation in 
their natural states of the actual, physical parks themselves, 
their formations, their forests, and their waters. Then there 
is the protection of the wild life in the parks to the end that it 
may be preserved from extermination and given a chance to 
increase freely and develop in natural surroundings. 

.so 



ACTIVITIES SI 

Natural Wonders. The formations about the Yellowstone 
geysers and hot springs and rock and other formations in all 
the parks and monuments possess special attractions for the 
initial-cutting vandal and the souvenir-hunter. During the 
tourist season an important part of the work of the rangers 
consists in preventing depredations of this sort. Warning 
signs and printed regulations are also used. At the more im- 
portant monuments, custodians are on duty, with a ranger or 
two in some instances to assist them in the summer months. 

Ruins and Historic Structures. Before coming under Gov- 
ernment protection many of the prehistoric cliff dwellings of 
the Southwest were being seriously injured by depredations 
of pottery and relic hunters and persons who, from sheer 
wantonness, injured and defaced the ruins. The ravages of 
time and the elements were also making inroads, and an 
unchecked deterioration was setting in. Most of these ruins 
and structures are located in monuments, though one import- 
ant park. Mesa Verde, is chiefly notable because of the ruins 
it contains. The Service not only protects these places with 
resident custodians, printed warnings, and where possible, 
ranger patrol, but, as far as its funds will permit, performs 
considerable work of restoration. The Tumacacori Mission, 
for instance, a fine example of the Early Spanish mission 
architecture, is gradually being restored to its original con- 
dition. A rather novel expedient was adopted in the matter 
of the protection of Inscription Rock, in the El Morro Monu- 
ment. This rock, which bears engraved upon its face many 
inscriptions of historic value, placed there by the early Span- 
ish explorers, was becoming a target for the initial-carver, 
until a thick plantation of the spiny southwestern cactus and 
kindred plants was established around its base, creating an 
effectual chevaux de frise which renders the rock inaccessible 
without in any way interfering with its legitimate examina- 
tion. An attempt is also being made, with the cooperation 
of the Bureau of Standards of the Department of Commerce, 
to cover the face of the rock with some transparent substance 



52 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

that will withstand the wear and tear of the elements. 

The Service, with the cooperation of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution, also regulates the excavating and study of the ruins 
by legitimately interested persons and institutions. It also 
is gradually performing considerable work in excavation of 
the ruins along its own lines. 

Forests and Plants. Protection of the forests and of the 
plant life of the parks constitutes one of the largest problems 
of the National Park Service, and a large part of the work 
of the ranger forces, especially during the dry months, which 
coincide with the tourist season and consequently with the 
season of camp fires, is directed toward this end. Fire is the 
greatest menace. It is guarded against by a strict supervi- 
sion of camp fires, constant patrolling, frequently along strate- 
gically constructed fire trails, and observation from elevated 
stations connected by telephone with headquarters and with 
ranger stations. Close cooperation is maintained with the 
Forest Service in this connection, national forests adjoining 
most of the larger parks. The Service has long urged the 
appropriation of a large fund for use in fire emergencies, 
$100,000 being suggested to the Appropriations Committee 
by the Director at the 1920 hearings. In the act of March 
4, 1921 (41 Stat. L., 1406) $25,000 was appropriated for that 
purpose, with the proviso that it be not used precautionarily 
and only after the expenditure has actually been incurred. 

Live stock is a lesser menace to the forest and plant life, but 
the ranger forces exercise a strict supervision over the grazing 
of such herds as are permitted to enter any of the parks. All 
grazing is forbidden in the Yellowstone. Cattle, but not 
sheep, are allowed to graze in the other parks upon special 
permit from the Secretary of the Interior. Once in the parks 
they are kept by the ranger forces in certain designated areas. 
Constant watchfulness is also maintained by the ranger and 
scientific forces to detect trees which have become infected with 
insect parasites, thus constituting a menace to the surrounding 
timber. The general policy is to remove no timber, but some- 



ACTIVITIES S3 

times protection against the spread of parasitic infection ren- 
ders such a course imperative. When this is done it must be 
in accordance with plans of the Landscape Engineer of the 
Service. Timber removed for use in the parks or because of 
maturity is removed under the same restrictions. Cooperation 
with the Bureau of Entomology of the Department of Agri- 
culture is maintained in connection with protection against 
insect parasites. 

Little difficulty is experienced in connection with wood steal- 
ing by campers and others. The practice, as well as the taking 
of wild flowers, is prohibited, and the regulation is enforced 
by the rangers. 

Lakes and Streams. About the only direct activity of the 
Service in lake and stream conservation consists in the guard- 
ing against pollution of the waters. Water power in the 
parks is not utilized by private individuals, although the Serv- 
ice, in a number of instances, notably in the Yosemite, has 
erected power plants for the creation of light and power for its 
own use, and the use of some of its concessionaires. In coop- 
eration with the Geological Survey some stream gaging is done, 
readings being taken by the park rangers. 

Conservation of Wild Life. Hunting is not allowed in 
any of the parks,^ and rigid restrictions are placed about the 
possession of fire-arms. The park rangers are continually on 
the lookout for poachers. Predatory animals, such as wolves, 
coyotes, and mountain lions are also hunted by the rangers, 
and efforts looking to their extermination are constantly going 
on. Many are trapped and sent away to zoos and menageries. 
Hard winters are the greatest menace to the game herds, how- 
ever, especially in the Yellowstone, the country's greatest 
game preserve. In severe winters feeding of the elk, buffalo, 
and antelope becomes necessary. Hay is grown and cured 

1 Mount McKinley is an exception to the g^eneral rule. There, 
miners and prospectors are allowed to kill game to supply them- 
selves with food. See Section 8 of act of February 26, 1917; 39 
Stat. L., 938. 



54 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

in the Yellowstone for winter feeding, the work being done 
on contract. Efforts are also made to keep the animals free 
from disease, cooperation being had with the Bureau of Ani- 
mal Industry of the Agricultural Department for this purpose. 
An expert of this bureau vaccinates the tame buffalo herd of 
the Yellowstone each year. Close cooperation in the matter 
of game protection is maintained with the Bureau of Biologi- 
cal Survey, which maintains game preserves in Wind Cave and 
SuUys Hill parks, as well as in the Jacksons Hole country 
south of the Yellowstone. By virtue of an appropriation in 
the act of March 4, 1921 (41 Stat. L., 1407), the Service's 
ajjtivities in game^protection have been extended to Mt. Mc- 
Kinley Park in Alaska. A minor activity of the Service in 
connection with wild life conservation is the distribution each 
year, particularly from the Yellowstone, of surplus animals 
from the elk, buffalo, and antelope herds. These animals are 
distributed either to other parks and monuments or to states 
and municipaUties for placing in the local parks and zoological 
gardens. 

All of the parks are bird refuges, and birds are protected 
from hunters and predatory animals while in the parks just 
as are the game herds. Many migratory birds find the parks 
safe stopping places each year on their passages back and forth 
between their breeding places in the north and their winter 
homes in the south. 

Fishing with hook and line is permitted in the parks under 
regulations enforced by the park authorities, which regula- 
tions may be suspended by the Superintendent at any time 
and fishing absolutely prohibited in certain waters if in his 
judgment such action is advisable. The daily catch is lim- 
ited, and a limit is also placed on the smallness of the fish 
to be taken. Cooperation is maintained with the Bureau of 
Fisheries, which maintains three hatcheries in Yellowstone 
Park and one in Glacier. There is also a state fish hatchery 
in Rocky Mountain Park; and a state hatchery which Cali- 
fornia has hitherto maintained in the Yosemite may be taken 



ACTIVITIES 55 

over by the Bureau of Fisheries. During the 1920 season 
2,000,000 trout and grayling fry from the Yellowstone hatch- 
eries were planted in the park waters. The Glacier hatchery 
planted 1,500,000 in Glacier Park. 

Improvement. The Civil Engineering Section of the Serv- 
ice is charged with the planning of all road and trail extensions 
in the parks, as well as with the formulation of plans for all 
general engineering projects. Under the general supervision 
and control of this department the work of extending the 
roads and trails in the several parks is constantly going for- 
ward, depending upon the funds available for construction 
purposes. 

The construction of bridges and culverts is also handled 
by this section, as are the preparation, and the equipment with 
conveniences, of camping and automobile parking sites. Other 
important activities of this section are the preparation of 
standard designs for such things as log bridges, timber and 
corrugated metal culverts of various sizes, and concrete arch 
culverts of standard widths. Standard specifications are also 
prepared for the purchasing of all Sorts of construction equip- 
ment and miscellaneous supplies and tools. Drawings are 
prepared for standard ranger cabins and administrative build- 
ings ; plans and estimates of proposed work in different parks 
are reviewed, and engineering studies are made of the prob- 
lems confronting the several parks in improvement matters. 

In the prosecution of all its improvement activities the Serv- 
ice endeavors, through its Section of Landscape Engineering, 
to make each improvement undertaken blend harmoniously into 
a carefully considered scheme, in order to secure a maximum 
of beauty and convenience with a minimum of interference 
with natural conditions. This scheme is had in mind in the 
planning of vista cuttings, the removal of dead and down 
timber, the location of trails, roads, and bridges, and the lo- 
cation and construction of buildings for the administrative 
and cooperative units of the parks. It is an invariable rule 



56 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

that no structure of importance, whether for the Service or the 
public operators, can be erected until the approval of the Land- 
scape Engineer has been secured, both as to location and de- 
sign. The Landscape Engineering Section also devotes con- 
siderable attention to the removal of snags and dead timber 
from lakes and streams. 

In a number of the parks the Service has established light 
and power plants, to supply both its own needs and those of 
the concessionaires, to whom light and power are sold at fixed 
rates. The most important of these plants was completed in 
the Yosemite in 19 17 at a cost of $150,000. Water supply- 
systems are also maintained by the Service at the principal 
parks, the water being piped to the free camping sites as well 
as to the buildings of the Service and the hotels of the public 
operators. 

Sewer systems and sanitary control schemes are also main- 
tained by the Service with the cooperation of the United States 
Pubhc Health Service, which details experts to study the prob- 
lems involved and to make recommendations. 

The activities mentioned above are all direct activities. A 
large amount of improvement work has also been done in the 
parks indirectly, through the medium of public operators or 
concessionaires. The system of hotels established in Glacier 
Park by the Great Northern .Railway has already been men- 
tioned. The Yosemite National Park Company, composed of 
citizens of Los Angeles and San Francisco, is performing 
a similar work in the Yosemite. A Seattle-Tacoma syndi- 
cate is spending large sums in the creation of a hotel system 
in the Mt. Rainier Park. The policy of the Service with re- 
gard to concessions is to grant a monoply of all principal serv- 
ice requirements, such as hotel service and transportation, to 
one responsible concern, retaining the right to supervise the 
rates charged. It has been found that the elimination of com- 
petition has given the public a better grade of service. 

Rate supervision extends also to the regulation of charges 
for gasoline, groceries, oil, etc. The superintendents fre- 



ACTIVITIES 57 

quently check up the prices charged, and it is the behef of the 
Service that rates are reasonable, considering the distance of 
the parks from the regular centers of distribution. 

In the Yosemite a system of parcel post delivery of grocer- 
ies, etc., in the trucks of the Post Office Department, has been 
started, deliveries being made to campers every day. The plan 
has worked well, and it is proposed to extend it to other parks 
at an early date. 

Maintenance. Service activities along the lines of mainten- 
ance involve such operations as the resurfacing of roads, the 
repairing of bridges and culverts, the painting and general 
repair of buildings, the keeping clean of trails, the overhaul- 
ing and repair of equipment — in short, the maintaining of that 
constant vigilance against deterioration without which no en- 
terprise can hope to remain "fit." A large part of the annual 
appropriations for the parks are on account of maintenance. 

Protection Service. There is Httle disorder in the parks to- 
day, particularly in those in which national jurisdiction is 
complete. Persons rendering themselves obnoxious are 
warned, and removed from the park in which they happen to 
be if the warning does not suffice. If the offense is more 
serious they are arrested and brought before the United States 
Commissioner for trial or commitment. Every effort is made 
by the ranger forces to protect the law-abiding tourist from the 
carelessness or wantonness of the law-breaking element. For 
a camp fire left burning or garbage undisposed of, a party is 
liable to be brought back a distance of several miles to per- 
form the unfulfilled duty. Traffic regulations are also en- 
forced by the rangers in order to lessen the liability of ac- 
cident by collision or otherwise. Sanitary regulations are 
enforced as a precaution against disease. Protection of 
tourists against exploitation through overcharging has already 
been mentioned. 

An important indirect protective activity is the furnishing 
of medical service and hospital facilities to park vistors, park 



58 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

employees and their families, and concessionaires and their 
employees. There is no standardized plan with regard to the 
supplying of this service; but in general it may be said that, 
the park surgeons are themselves concessionaires, giving a stip- 
ulated service in return for agreed-upon privileges. Thus, 
in the Yellowstone and Grand Canyon an arrangement has 
been made in cooperation with the U. S. Public Health Serv- 
ice, which pays the surgeon a fixed salary as its local repre- 
sentative. In addition the surgeon is allowed to practice in the 
park and to charge for his services according to a scale of 
prices fixed by the National Park Service. In the Yosemite, 
a surgeon is employed on a contract which calls for the supply- 
ing, by the surgeon, of medical services within certain pre- 
scribed limits to employees, concessionaires, etc. In return 
the surgeon is allowed to sell his services to tourists at a fixed 
rate, and, in addition, is paid a lump sum by the Service, the 
agreed amount being provided by deducting from the monthly 



ACTIVITIES 59 

ments, thus complementing its activity of bringing the people 
to the parks by means of its informative literature. The 
Service's supply of such material is about worn out, and no 
provision is being made for its renewal. Further applications, 
therefore, are not being encouraged. Funds were provided 
originally through private donation. 



CHAPTER III 

ORGANIZATION 

The organization of the National Park Service comprises 
five principal sections as follows : 

(a) Administration 

(b) The Field Service 

(c) The Editorial Section 

(d) The Law Section 

(e) The Publications Section 

With the exception of the Field Service the above sections 
of the central organization are located in Washington, in the 
Interior Department Building, on the block bounded by E 
and F, i8th and 19th Streets, N.W. 

Administration. The Director is responsible under the Na- 
tional Park Service act for the supervision, management, and 
control of the parks and monuments, subject to the general 
direction of the Secretary of the Interior. The office of the 
Director, therefore, is the apex of the Service's administra- 
tion, exercising a general supervision over it and deciding all 
questions of policy arising which cannot be delegated and which 
are not of sufficient importance to be submitted to the Secre- 
tary of the Interior. 

Two other offices are connected with the work of the admin- 
istration, — ^the office of the Assistant Director and the office 
of the Chief Clerk. 

The functions of the Assistant Director in matters of ad- 
ministration are twofold: to relieve the Director of matters 
of general administrative detail; and to act in the Director's 
stead during his absences in the field. 

60 



ORGANIZATION 6i 

Direct responsibility for routine matters of administration 
is centered in the office of the Chief Clerk. This office con- 
tains the followng units: Accounts, Stenographic, Person- 
nel, Files, Messenger Service. 

The Accounts Unit has charge of bookkeeping, property 
accountability, etc.; primarily with respect to the Service as 
a whole; secondarily as regards supervision of the accounts 
of the several parks and monuments. 

The Personnel Unit deals with appointments, records of em- 
ployees, etc. The duties of the other units are sufficiently de- 
scribed by their titles. 

Field Service. The Field Service includes all of the 
National Park Service not permanently employed in the na- 
tional capital. From this has developed the frequently em- 
ployed arrangement of classifying the Park Service into two 
principal branches — the Service in the District of Columbia, 
and the Field Service. The latter comprises all those park 
superintendents, monument custodians, engineers, rangers and 
subordinate employees whose work lies away from Washing- 
ton and directly in and with the parks and monuments them- 
selves. In other words, they constitute the line of the Na- 
tional Park Service; the Washington organization, the stafif. 
The organization of the Field Service in general is gone into 
in some detail in the paragraph below entitled "Individual Park 
Organization," and additional comment upon it is unnecessary, 
save in one particular. This has to do with the Civil Engi- 
neering and Landscape Engineering Sections, commonly re- 
ferred to collectively as the Field Service At Large. 

This most important part of the Field Service is referred 
to as "At Large" partly because its work lies everywhere 
throughout the system, not being confined to any park or sec- 
tion of the country; partly, and primarily, because of the 
method of its creation. No direct appropriations have ever 
been made for its personnel, and the fund for salaries is ob- 
tained by deducting a percentage from the various park appro- 



62 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

priations for improvement and maintenance. This system 
was adopted in 19 14 by the late Secretary Lane after securing 
a favorable opinion as to its legality from the Comptroller of 
the Treasury.-^ 

Under the general supervision of the Director and Assist- 
ant Director the Field Service At Large is engaged in the va- 
rious engineering activities carried on in the parks and monu- 
ments, which activities have been sufficiently described in the 
preceding chapter. As a general rule both the Civil and the 
Landscape Engineers make their headquarters in the parks 
wherein, for the time being, they are actively engaged. It 
sometimes happens, however, that one of them may be super- 
vising projects in several parks at the same time; in which 
case a temporary headquarters may be established at some 
central point, equally convenient to all the places where work 
is going on. Thus, when one of them has work going on 
simultaneously in the California Parks, Crater Lake, Rainier 
and Yellowstone, he establishes an office in Portland, Oregon, 
and from there directs the work, going out to the several op- 
erations from time to time. 

Editorial Section. The preparation of all Service publica- 
tions, such as the annual reports, books of rules and regula- 
tions of the various parks and monuments, special bulletins, 
etc., is entrusted to the Editorial Section, subject to the 
general direction of the Director and Assistant Director. 
In addition to preparing the text of all publications, this sec- 
tion also prepares, through its drafting force, all maps, graphic 
charts, etc., to accompany publications and all blue prints, 
charts, etc., required by the Director for the general use of the 
Service. The section also edits all park publications, such as 
scientific monographs, etc., prepared elsewhere. 

Law Section, The work of the Law Section of the Service 
covers a wide range. All legal questions arising within the 
organization are referred to it, as are similar questions pro- 
1 H. doc. 515 64 Cong., I sess., pp. 18-19. 



ORGANIZATION 63 

pounded to the Service by the park superintendents and field 
men. It prepares leases and contracts in connection with the 
working of the concessionaire system in the parks and passes 
upon similar documents submitted to the department. All 
of the title work in connection with lands presented to or pur- 
chased by the Government for park uses is likewise done by the 
Law Section. Besides the work mentioned above there are 
contracts for the construction of buildings and bridges to be 
drawn and let, all legal correspondence of a general nature to 
be handled, and advice to be given concessionaires as to what 
they can legally do in varying situations and states of fact. In 
addition this section keeps informed regarding all legislation 
affecting the parks and advises the Director in regard thereto. 

Publications Section. As soon as a Service publication 
has been prepared for the printer the responsibility of 
the Editorial Section in connection with it ceases, and it passes 
into the jurisdiction of the Publications Section. This sec- 
tion has full charge of the distribution of the Service publica- 
tions, answering all inquiries in regard thereto, keeping the 
mailing lists of the Service up to date, and, in general, per- 
forming all work pertaining to the Service's publications 
not of a preparatory or editorial nature. 

Individual Park Organization — the Yellowstone. No 
standardized system of internal organization for the individual 
parks has ais yetbeen adopted. In general features, however, 
park organization is similar to the general service organization. 
This is especially true of the larger ((arks, the most important 
of which, the Yellowstone, is organized under a superintend- 
ent and an assistant superintendent into ten sections which 
may be described as the sections of Administration, Informa- 
tion, Protection, Transportation, Light and Power, Communi- 
cation, Sanitation, Painting, Machinery, and Engineering. 
T^his '.^cha^cterization is necessarily rough and does not in 
every case fully describe the work of the unit. 



64 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Administration. The general office management detail is 
about evenly divided between the Assistant Superintendent, 
who is in general charge, and the Chief Clerk. The former 
handles monthly and special reports, the collecting and record- 
ing of revenue, appointments, leaves of absence, and em- 
ployees' compensation; he also has general supervision of the 
officers' mess and the headquarters labor mess, the telephone 
and telegraph office, the park files and records, the upkeep of 
offices and grounds, and the force of night watchmen and 
janitors, j 

The "Chief Clerk has direct charge of the disbursement of 
funds, the recording of allotments, the purchase of supplies, 
the preparation of vouchers, cost accounting, and the prepara- 
tion of inventories, pay rolls, and financial statements for the 
Superintendent. He also has charge of the collection and dis- 
tribution of all park mail and receives all time reports and 
reports regarding material or supplies used and applied to 
specific work. 

Information. The Park Naturalist is in charge of this sec- 
tion, and his duties, in addition to supervising the information 
service and museum, include the gathering of park specimens 
and data, the editing of park publications, the scientific in- 
spection of forests for tree parasites and diseases, the super- 
vision of wood cutting, the designation of trees to be cut for 
building purposes, the care of the park library and photo- 
graphic files, and the handling of special assignments.j 

Protection. The Chief Ranger is the protector in chief of 
the park, and is charged with its general policing, all fire 
prevention and control, the protection of wild life, the destruc- 
tion of predatory animals, the winter feeding of animals, the 
operation of buffalo and hay ranches, the control of grazing 
of milch cows and horses of concessionaires, the planting of 
fish, the keeping of records for the Weather Bureau, and 
the gaging of streams for the Geological Survey. He also 
has full control of all automobile traffic, including the regis- 
tration of cars and the collection of fees. 



ORGANIZATION 65 

Transportation. The Steward and Master of Transporta- 
tion is in charge of this unit, which has the custody and 
control of all motor equipment, except passenger cars assigned 
to park officers by the Superintendent; and all horses, horse 
equipment, forage, and suppliesTj All automobile and motor 
truck drivers and freighting teamsters are under this unit. 
Other duties with which it is charged include the care of all 
park property, except equipment, stationery, and supplies in the 
Superintendent's office; the operation and maintenance of the 
commissary and storehouse, and the control of the distribu- 
tion in the park of all equipment and supplies. 

Light and Power. This section, in charge of the Chief 
Electrician, maintains and operates power houses and power 
lines, looks after the lighting of buildings, and has control of 
all electrical equipment except telephone equipment and sup- 
plies. 

Communication. The telephone and telegraph systems of 
the park are maintained and operated by this section under the 
supervision of the Chief Lineman. The Chief Lineman also 
inspects and reports upon the telephone and telegraph lines of 
public utilities and has custody of all telephone and telegraph 
equipment. 

Sanitation. The Master Plumber is charged with all work 
in connection with sanitation and water supply. This in- 
cludes the inspection of all sewer and water systems of hotels, 
camps and stores as well as the provision of sanitary and 
water supply systems for public automobile camps. The sec- 
tion is also charged with the custody and maintenance of 
fire-fighting equipment, sprinkling tank fixtures, and all 
plumbing and store supplies. 

Painting. All painting of buildings, signs, automobiles, 
and equipment is done by this section under the Master 
Painter. The section also inspects the paint work of con- 
cessionaires and has custody of all park paint and glazing 
stores. 

Machinery. The Master Mechanic, at the head of this sec- 



66 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

tion, has charge of all shops and machinery therein, and cus- 
tody of all shop parts and supplies. General blacksmithing 
and horseshoeing and the upkeep and repair of automobiles, 
motorcycles, road machines, and fire-fighting equipment are 
in charge of this unit. 

Engineering. The Park Engineer has charge of the con- 
struction, improvement, maintenance, and repair of all roads, 
bridges, and trails, and of all buildings, fences, formation 
walks, steps, and platforms except the fences of the buffalo 
and other ranches. He inspects contract work and the build- 
ing operations of concessionaires. He gives technical advice 
to other park departments and makes technical investigations 
of park shops. He also has the custody and is charged with 
the upkeep of the park's files of plans, maps, charts and 
engineering data, and the surveying, drawing, and other en- 
gineering instruments. 



APPENDIX I 

OUTLINE OF ORGANIZATION 
Explanatory Note 

The Outlines of Organization have for their purpose to 
make known in detail the organization and personnel possessed 
by the several services of the national government to which 
they relate. They have been prepared in accordance with the 
plan followed by the President's Commission on Economy 
and Efficiency in the preparation of its outlines of the organi- 
zation of the United States Government.^ They differ from 
those outlines, however, in that whereas the Commission's 
report showed only organization units, the presentation 
herein has been carried far enough to show the personnel 
embraced in each organization unit. 

These outlines are of value not merely as an effective means 
of making known the organization of the several services. 
If kept revised to date by the services, they constitute ex- 
ceedingly important tools of administration. They permit 
the directing personnel to see at a glance the organization and 
personnel at their disposition. They establish definitely the 
line of administrative authority and enable each employee to 
know his place in the system. They furnish the essential basis 
for making plans for determining costs by organization divi- 
sion and subdivision. They afford the data for a considera- 
tion of the problem of classifying and standardizing personnel 
and compensation. Collectively, they make it possible to de- 
termine the number and location of organization divisions of 
any particular kind, as, for example, laboratories, libraries, 

^ House Doc. 458, 62d. Congress, 2nd Session, 1912, 2 vols. 

67 



68 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

blue-print rooms, or any other kind of plant possessed by the 
national government, to what services they are attached and 
where they are located, or to determine what services are main- 
taining stations at any city or point in the United States. 
The Institute hopes that upon the completion of the present 
series, it will be able to prepare a complete classified state- 
ment of the technical and other facilities at the disposal of 
the government. The present monographs will then furnish 
the details regarding the organization, equipment, and work 
of the institutions so listed and classified. 



OUTLINE OF ORGANIZATION 
THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 



July 29, 1921 
Orgamzation Units; 


Number 


Annual 


Classes of Employees 




Salary Rate '■ 


I. Washington Office 






I. Office of the Director 






Director 
Clerk 




$4,500 
1,800 


2. Office of the Assistant Director 






I. Office Proper of the Assistant 






Director 






Assistant Director 




2,500 


Clerk 




1,800 


2. Legal Section: 






Law Clerk 




2,000 


3. Editorial Section: 






Editor 




2,000 


Draftsman 




1,800 


4. Publication Section: 






Clerk 




1,400 


3. Office of the Chief Clerk 






I. Office Proper of the Chief Clerk 






Chief Clerk 




2,000 


Clerk 




1,200 

1,020 

900 


Messenger 




600 


2. Personnel Section: 






Clerk 




1,600 


3. Accounts Section: 






Accountant 




1,800 


Clerk 




1,600 


4. Files Section: 






Clerk 


I 


1,600 


1 Net. or without the temporary "bonus" or 


additional c 


ompensation of 



60 per cent on classes below $400, of $240 on classes of $400 to $2500, 
and of an amount necessary to make the total compensation $2746 on 
classes of $2500 to $2740. This is subject to minor exceptions in special 
cases. 

69 



^o 



THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



3- 



Field Service 
Chief Civil Enginee" 
Landscape Engineer 
Assistant Landscape Engineer 
Assistant Engineer 



Office Engineer 
General Foreman 
Clerk-Stenographer 

Parks and Monuments 
I. General Grant National Park, 
Kavireah, Calif.i 

Acting Superintehdent 

Chief Park 

Park Ranger 



900 



Ranger 



Glacier National Park, Belton, 
Montana 
Superintendent 

Clerk and Assistant Superintendent 
Assistant Engineer 
Clerk 

Stenographer and Typist 
Clerk-Stenographer 
General and Mill Foreman 
Teamster 

Carpenter and Park Ranger 
Chief Park Ranger 
First Assistant Chief Park Ranger 
Assistant Chief Park Ranger 
Park Ranger 



Grand Canyon National Park, Grand 
Canyon, Ariz. 
Superintendent 

General Construction Foreman 
Chief Park Ranger 
Park Ranger 
Stenographer and Typist 
Park Ranger 



Stenographer and Typist 

"Quarters furnished. 

^ Temporary 

'When actually employed. 









4,000 








2,400" 








2,000 " 








2,100 




(per month) 


200* 




(per 


month) 


175" 




(per 


month) 


175" 




(per 


month) 


150 
1,920 
1,400 


J 






1400° 


I 






1,500 


I 


(per 


month) 


8s" 


I 


(per 


month) 


85-= 


I 






3,000 » 


I 






2,000 » 


I 






2,400" 


I 






1,400" 


I 






1,200 


3 


(per 


month) 


100' 


I 






1,400 


I 






1,080 


I 


(per month) 


105° 


I 






1,500" 


I 






1,440 


2 






1,300 


6 






1,200 


4 


(per 


month) 


100" 


2 


(per 


month) 


100" 


I 


(per diem) 


1 


I 






3,000 


I 






1,800 


I 






1,500 


I 






1,200 


I 






1,600" 


6 


(per 


month) 


100 


I 






1,200 ^ 


I 






1,020" 



OUTLINE OF ORGANIZATION 



71 



4- 



Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas 
Superintendent 
Chief Clerk and Assistant to 



9- 



3,600 



Superintendent 


I 


1,600 


Clerk-Stenographer 


I 


1,200 


Consulting Engineer 


I 


12 


Policeman 


2 


1,300 




4 


1,000 


Foreman 


I 


1,500 


Manager Free Bath house 


1 


1,300 


Head Male Attendant 


I 


1,000 


Attendant 


4 


720 




2 


600 


Laborer 


10 


840 


Lafayette National Park, Bar Harbor, 


3 


720 


Maine 






Superintendent 


I 


1,000 


Clerk-Typist 


I 


1,200 


Stenographer and Typist 


I 


1,200 


Ornithologist 


I 


I 


Chief Park Ranger 


1 


1,320 


Park Ranger 


2 


1,200 


Botanist 


I 


I 


Mesa Verde National Park, Mancos, 






Colorado 






Superintendent 


I 


2,400 


Park Ranger 


2 


1,320 




I (per 


month) 75 


Rocky Mountain National Park, 






Estes Park, Colorado 






Superintendent 


I 


3,000 


Clerk- Stenographer 


I 


i.Soo 


Clerk 


I 


1,200 


Park Ranger 


2 


1,200 




I 


960 




10 (per 


month) 80 " 




I 


1,200 " 



Sullys Hill National Park, Ft. 
Totten, N. D. 
Acting Superintendent^ 
Piatt National Park, Sulphur, 
Oklahoma 
Superintendent 
Clerk 
Laborer 



i.Soo 

1,200" 

780 

720 

480 



a Quarters furnished. 

2 Supervised by the principal of the Indian School at Fort Totten, 
N. Dak., who serves without salary. 



72 



THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



Park Ranger 

10. Crater Lake National Park, Medford, 

Oregon 
Superintendent 
Clerk-Typist 
Park Ranger 

11. Yosemite National Park, Yosemite, 

Calif. 
Superintendent 
Assistant Superintendent 
Park Supervisor 
Assistant Park Supervisor 
Engineer 
Clerk 

Storekeeper and Property Clerk 
Stenographer and Typist 
Qerk-Stenographer and Tjrpist 
Clerk 

Clerk-Stenographer 
Stenographer and Typist 
Forester 

Master Mechanic 
Power Station Operator 



Assistant Mechanic 
General Blacksmith 
General Painter 
General Plumber 
Chief Electrician 
Electrician 
Line Foreman 
General Carpenter 
Carpenter 
Head Teamster 
Skilled Laborer 
Telephone Operator 



Telegraph Operator 

Naturalist 

Chief Park Ranger 

Park Ranger 



» Quarters furnished. 

'' Temporary 

"When actually employed. 



6 (per month) 



66o 



2,000 

1,320 

90" 



I 3.600 

I 2,220 » 

I 2,040 » <= 

I 1,680 « 

I 2,400 » 

I 1,500 » 

I 1,200 

I 1,200 * 

I 1,200 » 

I 1,080 = 

I 1,080 

I (per month) 75 
I 1,800 

I 1,800 •= 

I 1,200 

I 1,200 " 

100 » 
1,360 
1,200 
1,200 
1,320 "= 
1,800 
1,320 
1,200 " 
1,320 

1,200"= 

1,200 

1,140 

720 

60" 



1 (per month) 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
2 

2 (per month) 
I 

2 (per diem) 

3 (per month) 
I 

I 
I 
I 
I 

4 

2 (per month) 



720'' 
240* 
100 •• 
1,500 
1,800 
1,200 

I.3S0 

1,200 

1,200'' 

100* 



APPENDICES 



73 



12. Wind Cave National Park, Hot 

Springs, S. D. 
Superintendent 
Park Ranger 

13. Zion National Park, Springdale, 

Utah 
C!hief Park Ranger and Acting 

Superintendent 
Park Ranger 

14. Mount Rainier National Park, Ashford, 

Washington 
Superintendent 
Clerk 

Warehouse Clerk 
Clerk-Telephone Operator 
Stenographer 
Chief Park Ranger 
Park Ranger 



IS- 



16. 



Sequoia National Park, Kaweah, 
Calif. 
Superintendent 
Clerk 
Assistant Chief Park Ranger 

Chief Park Ranger 
Park Ranger 



Yellowstone National Park, Yellowstone, 
Wyoming 
Superintendent 
Assistant Superintendent 
Assistant Engineer 
Surveyor 



» Quarters furnished. 

*> Temporary 

<= When actually employed. 



I (per 1 


month) 


90" 


7 (per 1 


month) 


75" 


I (per month) 


75° 


I 


1,200 "= 


I 


I 


,800 » 


I 




1.080 


2 (per 1 


month) 


100 ^ 


I 




1,300 


I 




960 


I (per : 


month) 


75" 


I 




3,000 


I 




1,500 


I (per 


month) 


90" 


2 (per 


month) 


70" 


I (per 


month) 


90" 


I 




1,500 


I 




1,200 


I (per 


month) 


90 


II (per 


month) 


90" 


I 




2,400 » 


I 




1,400 » 


I 




1,500 


I 




1,350 


I 




1,500 


I 




1,100 "= 


I 




480 


I (per 


month) 


85" 


2 




900° 


3 (per 
I (per 


months 
month) 


75" 


8gbo 


I (per 


month) 


75"'= 


I 




4,000 


I 




2,500 


I 




2,400 » 


I (per 


month) 


ISO 


8 


1,200 » "= 


5 




1,200*= 



74 



THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



Purchasing Clerk 
Clerk 



Stenographer and Typist 

Stenographer 

Park Naturalist 

Steward and Master of Transportation 

Master Mechanic 

Auto Mechanic 

Carpenter 

Electrician 

Assistant Electrician 

Chief Lineman 

Watchman 

Blacksmith 

Master Painter 

Master Plumber 

Foreman 



Telegraph Operator 

Telephone Switchboard Operator 

Chief Buffalo Keeper 
Assistant Chief Buffalo Keeper 

Buffalo Herder 

Handyman 

Laborer 

Chief Ranger 

First Assistant Chief Park Ranger 

Assistant Chief Park Ranger 

Park Ranger 



17. Casa Grande National Monument, 
Blackwater, Ariz. 
Custodian 

"Quarters furnished. 

•• Temporary. 

"When actually employed. 



(per 
2 (per month) 

(per month) 



(per 



month) 
month) 



(per hour) 



4 

6 

8 

S 

3 

I 

12 (per 
26 (per 



month) 
month) 



2,100 

1,440 

1,320 

no 

1,320 » 

1,200" 

100" 

1,500 ^ 
1,680" 
1,680=' 

120* 

1,320 » 

1,200 * 

1,200 

1,500 

QO'' 

1,320 » 

1,500 » 

1,500 * 

1,800 » 

1,680 = 

1,560" 

1,320" 

1,200 

■35 "" 

900 

1,500 " 

1,200 

1,200" 

75'"' 
1,200" 
1,080" 

1,620 
1,500 * 

1,440 
1,320" 
1,200" 

1,200 

,200" = 
1,200° 
1,320" 
,320"" 
100"" 
80" 



1,320 



12 

12 

12 

12 

12 
12 

12 



OUTLINE OF ORGANIZATION 75 

18. Montezuma Castle National Monument, 

Camp Verde, Ariz. 
Custodian j 

19. Navajo National Monument, Kayenta, 

Ariz. 
Custodian i 

20. Papago Saguaro National Monument, 

Tempe, Ariz. 
Custodian i 

21. Petrified Forest National Monument, 

Adamana, Ariz. 
Custodian i 

22. Tumacacori National Monument, 

Blackwater, Ariz. 
Custodian i 

23. Muir Woods National Monument, Calif. 

Custodian i 

24. Colorado National Monument, Grand 

Junction, Colo. 
Custodian i 

25. Sitka National Monument, Alaska 

Custodian i 12 

26. Scotts Bluff National Monument, 

Gering, Nebraska 
Custodian i 12 

^r/. Capulin Mountain National Monument, 
Folsom, N. Mex. 
Custodian \ 12 

28. El Morro National Monument, Ramah, 

N. Mex. 
Custodian 1 12 

29. Verendrye National Monument, Sanish, 

N. Dak. 
Custodian i 

30. Devils Tower National Monument, 

Hulett, Wyoming 
Custodian i 12 

"Quarters iumished. 

" Temporary. 

Note. — No showing is made above for Lassen, Hawaii, or Mt. McKinley 
National Parks, the reason being that lack of appropriations has until 
recently made it impracticable for the Service to employ a regular 
staff for the guardianship of these areas. Under the 1922 appropriations, 
however, it will be possible to take this step in the cases of Hawaii 
and Mt McKinley. The former will be looked after by a superintendent, 
a clerical assistant, and two rangers. A ranger and an assistant will 
take care of Mt McKinley. Lassen, as heretofore, will be guarded by 
the forest rangers from the neighboring Lassen National Forest 



12 



APPENDIX 2 

CLASSIFICATION OF ACTIVITIES 

Explanatory Note 

The classifications of activities have for their purpose to 
list and classify in all practicable detail the specific activities 
engaged in by the several services of the national government. 
Such statements are of value from a number of standpoints. 
They furnish, in the first place, the most effective showing 
that can be made in brief compass of the character of work 
performed by the service to which they relate. Secondly, 
they lay the basis for a system of accounting and reporting that 
will permit the showing of total expenditures classified accord- 
ing to activities. Finally, taken collectively, they make pos- 
sible the preparation of a general or consolidated statement of 
the activities of the government as a whole. Such a statement 
will reveal in detail, not only what the government is doing, 
but the services in which the work is being performed. For 
example, one class of activities that would probably appear in 
such a classification is that of "scientific research." A sub- 
head under this class would be "chemical research." Under 
this head would appear the specific lines of investigation under 
way and the services in which they were being prosecuted. 
It is hardly necessary to point out the value of such infor- 
mation in planning for future work and in considering the 
problem of the better distribution and coordination of the 
work of the government. The Institute contemplates attempt- 
ing such a general listing and classification of the activities of 
the government upon the completion of the present series. 

76 



CLASSIFICATION OF ACTIVITIES tj 

Classification Of Activities 

1. Conservation 

1. Natural Wonders 

2. Prehistoric Structures 

3. Historic Ruins and Structures 

4. Forests and Plant Life 

5. Lakes and Streams 

6. Scenic Effects 

7. Animals 

8. Birds 

9. Fish 

2. Construction and Maintenance 

1. Roads, 

2. Trails 

3. Bridges 

4. Vistas 

5. Camping Grounds 

6. Administrative Buildings 

3. Protection 

1. Sanitation 

2. Policing 

3. Accident Prevention 

4. Compilation of Statistics 

1. Stream Flow 

2. Weather .Records 

3. Use of Parks 

4. Animal Increase 

5. Scientific Research 

1. Tree Inspection 

2. Specimen Collecting 

3. Animal and Bird Study 

4. Archaeology 



APPENDIX 3 
PUBLICATIONS 

The National Park Service publishes, ( i ) historic and scien- 
tific pamphlets; (2) rules and regulations; (3) maps and man- 
uals; (4) panoramic views; (5) reports and proceedings. A 
complete list of these publications, together with all necessary 
information as to how they may be procured, may be found 
in the annual report of the Director. 

Historic and Scientific Pamphlets. These publications, of 
which there are twenty-six in all published, range in size from 
twelve to 260 pages. Three of them are free. The others 
cost from five cents to one dollar, depending upon the size 
and elaborateness of the publication. 

Rules and Regulations. These booklets, attractively pre- 
pared, with illustrations and maps, have been published for 
fourteen of the parks, including all of the most important 
ones. For three of the remaining parks they have been got 
out in mimeographed form without illustration. Besides the 
rules and regulations, they contain a great deal of valuable 
information regarding hotels, points of interest, etc. These 
publications are all free. 

Maps and Manuals. Besides a general map showing all 
the parks and monuments administered by the Service, auto- 
mobile road and trail maps are published for the eight most 
important parks. A handy manual for motorists, in small 
pamphlet form, is also published containing the most impor- 
tant features of the .Rules and Regulations and special in- 
formation and advice for motorists. The maps and manuals 
are free. 

Panoramic Views. These have been prepared for seven 

78 



PUBLICATIONS 79 

of the parks and are sold at twenty-five cents a copy. They 
are based on accurate surveys and average in size about 
18 X 20 inches, the scale being from one to three miles to the 
inch. They are printed in four colors. 

Reports and Proceedings. The annual report of the Di- 
rector does not differ essentially from that of the ordinary 
executive. It is a complete summary of the work of the Serv- 
ice during the fiscal year. It is free. At present the reports 
for 1918, 1919, 1920, and 1921 are available for distribution. 
The Proceedings of the four 'National Park Conferences are 
on sale at from fifteen cents to twenty-five cents a volume. 



APPENDIX 4 

LAWS 

(A) Index to Laws 

Iministration, etc. 

Of monuments, appropriations for 41 Stat. L., 1406 

Of parks, appropriations for 41 Stat. L., 1406 

nerican Antiquities 

Punishment for destruction of 34 Stat. L., 225 

limals 

Vlay be destroyed when 39 Stat. L., 535 

jpropriations 

Administration, protection, maintenance, and im- 
provement of parks 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Administration, protection, maintenance, preser- 
vation, and improvement of monuments 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Blackfeet Reservation Road, repairs to 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Bridges and Culverts, Yellowstone 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Buffalo in Yellowstone, care of 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Community Centers, Yellowstone 41 Stat. L., 1406 
El Portal Road, construction of 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Federal Power Commission, limitations on use of 41 Stat. L., 1380 
Fighting Forest Fires 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Fire Lookout Station, Yellowstone 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Forest fires — not to be used precautionarily 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Forest fires — ^to be allotted by Secretary of the 

Interior 41 Stat. L., 1406 

Motor-driven vehicles — maintenance, etc., of 41 Stat. L., 1406 
National Park Service in the District of Colum- 
bia 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Ranger Stations, Yellowstone and Rainier 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Replacement of Burned Buildings 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Rest House, Yellowstone 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Rights of Way in Grand Canyon — acquisition of 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Roads in Glacier 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Roads in Yellowstone 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Roads in Yosemite 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Salaries of Oflficers 39 Stat. L., 535 

40 Stat. L., 20 

41 Stat. L., 1406 

' This index refers to the general laws— Special acts affecting individual 
rks are referred to in the general index to this volume. 

80 



LAWS 8i 

Shelter Cabin, Rainier 41 Stat. L., 1406 

Snow Removal in Yellowstone, limitation on ex- 
penditure for 41 Stat. L., 1406 

Toll Roads in Grand Canyon, expenditures for 

forbidden 41 Stat. L., 1406 

Arrest 

Authority of Officer to 33 Stat. L., 700 

Without Process — when permissible 33 Stat. L., 700 

Blackfeet Indian Reservation, appropriation for 

road repair in 41 Stat. L., 1406 

Bridges and Culverts 

In Yellowstone, appropriation for 41 Stat. L., 1406 

Buffaloes 

In Yellowstone, appropriation for care of 41 Stat. L., 1406 

Buildings 

Replacement of burned 41 Stat. L., 1406 

Limitation on cost of 37 Stat. L., 460 

Limitation on cost increased 40 Stat. L., 677 

Cooperation 

With Secretary of Agriculture 39 Stat. L., 535 

Creation 

National Park Service established 39 Stat. L., 535 

Community Centers 

In Yellowstone, appropriation for 41 Stat. L., 1406 

Donations 

Of lands, etc., — Secretary of the Interior may 
accept 41 Stat. L., 917 

Forest Fires 

Appropriation for lookout stations in Yellowstone 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Appropriations for, not to be used precautionarily 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Appropriations for, to be allotted by Secretary of 

the Interior 41 Stat. L., 1406 

Penalties for setting, etc., provided 35 Stat. L., 1098 

Secretary of the Interior to submit report on 41 Stat. L., 1406 
Federal Power Commission 

May not license power development in parks 41 Stat. L., 1353 

Limitation on use of appropriation 41 Stat. L., 1380 

Laws 

Codification of penal 35 Stat. L., 1098 

Violations of relating to parks, arrests for 33 Stat. L., 700 

Live Stock 

May not be grazed in Yellowstone 39 Stat. L., 535 

Miners and Homesteaders 

Wood rights on public lands reserved 35 Stat. L., 1098 

Monuments 

Contiguous to national forests, supervision of 39 Stat. L., 535 

Creation of 34 Stat. L., 225 

Excavation, etc., on, permits for 34 Stat. L., 225 

Secretaries of Agriculture, Interior, and War to 
make rules to govern 34 Stat. L.. 225 



82 



THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



Motor Vehicles 

Limitations on expenditures for 
Natural Curiosities 

Free access to not to be interfered with 
Personnel 
Authority of, to arrest 
Duties of — in general 
Director 
How appointed 
Duties of 
Salary of 

Assistant Director 
How appointed 
Salary of 



Accountant — salary of 
Chief Clerk 

How appointed 

Salary of 



41 Stat. L., 1406 

39 Stat. L., 53S 

33 Stat. L., 700 

39 Stat. L., 535 

39 Stat. L., 535 

39 Stat. L., 535 

39 Stat. L., 535 

40 Stat. L., 20 

41 Stat. L., 1406 

39 Stat. L., 535 

39 Stat. L., 535 

40 Stat. L., 20 

41 Stat. L., 1406 
41 Stat. L., 1406 



Clerks — salaries of 
Draftsman — salary of 

Editor — salary of 

Employees appointed by Secretary of the In- 
terior 
Experts, etc., — limitation on employment of 
Law Clerk — salary of 
Messenger 

How appointed 

Salary of 

Superintendent of National Parks 
Authorization for employment of 
Appropriation for salary of 
Plant Life 

May be destroyed, when 
President of the United States may reserve monu 

ments by proclamation 
Privileges 
In Grand Canyon to highest bidder 
Limitations upon granting of 
Secretary of the Interior may grant discretion 
arily 



39 Stat. 

39 Stat. 

40 Stat. 

41 Stat. 

40 Stat. 

41 Stat. 

39 Stat. 

40 Stat 

41 Stat. 
41 Stat. 

•39 Stat 



L., 535 

L., 535 

L., 20 

L., 1406 

L., 20 

L., 1406 

L., 535 

L., 20 

L., 1406 

L., 1406 

L-, 535 



39 Stat. L., 535 
41 Stat. L., 1406 

39 Stat. L., 535 

39 Stat. L., 535 

40 Stat. L., 20 

41 Stat. L., 1406 

39 Stat. L., 309 

39 Stat. L., 23 

40 Stat. L., 20 

39 Stat. L., 535 

34 Stat. L., 225 

40 Stat. L., ri77 
39 Stat. L., 535 

39 Stat. L., 533 



41 


Stat. 


L., 


1406 


41 
41 
41 


Stat. 
Stat. 
Stat. 


L., 
L., 
L., 


1406 
1406 
1406 


33 
39 


Stat. 
Stat. 


L., 
L. 


, 700 

, 535 


34 


Stat. 


L., 


22.C 


34 


Stat. 


L-, 


, 221, 



LAWS 83 

Ranger Stations 

Appropriations for 41 Stat. L., 1406 

Receipts and Expenditures 

Secretary of the Interior to submit statement of 36 Stat. L., 1421 
Rest House 

Appropriation for 41 Stat. L., 1406 

Revenues 

To be covered into Treasury 40 Stat. L., 153 

Rights of Way 

Act relating to through parks, etc., not to be 

affected 39 Stat. L., 535 

Acquisition of for roads and trails in Grand Can- 
yon 
Roads 

In Glacier — appropriation for 

In Yellowstone — appropriation for 

In Yosemite — appropriation for 
Rules and Regulations 

Arrest for violation of 

Punishment for violation of 

Secretaries of Agriculture, Interior, and War to 
make 
Secretary of Agriculture 

May permit excavation, etc., of antiquities 

Shall cooperate in making rules and regulations 

for monuments 34 Stat. L., 225 

Shall cooperate with National Park Service, when 39 Stat. L., 535 
Secretary of the Interior 

May accept donations for park purposes 41 Stat. L., 917 

May accept relinquishments of monument tracts 34 Stat. L., 225 

May destroy animals and plant life, when 39 Stat. L., 535 

May grant grazing permits 39 Stat. L., 535 

May grant privileges, leases, and permits _ 39 Stat. L., 535 

May permit excavation, etc., of antiquities 34 Stat. L., 225 

May sell timber, when 39 Stat. L., 535 

Shall allot forest fire funds _ 41 Stat. L., 1406 

Shall cooperate in making rules and regulations 
for monuments 34 Stat. L., 225 

Shall direct expenditures of Yellowstone appro- 
priation 41 Stat. L., 1406 

Shall make rules and regulations 39 Stat. L., 535 

Shall submit estimates 4° Stat. L., 153 

Shall submit reports on forest fires 41 Stat. L., 1406 

Secretary of War 

May permit excavations, etc., of antiquities 34 Stat. L., 225 

Shall cooperate in making rules and regulations 

for monuments 34 Stat. L., 225 

Shelter Cabins 

Appropriation for 4i Stat. L., 1406 

Snow 

In Yellowstone — removal of 41 Stat. L., 1406 



84 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Toll Roads 

Expenditures on forbidden 41 Stat. L., 1406 

United States Commissioners 

Shall issue process, when 33 Stat. L., 700 

Water Power 

Development of in parks and monuments forbid- 
den 41 Stat. L., 1353 
Yellowstone 

Grazing forbidden in 39 Stat. L., 535 

(B) Compilation Of Laws 

General 

1905 — Act of February 6, 1905 (33 Stat. L., 700) — An Act 

For the protection of the public forest reserves and 

national parks of the United States. 

That all persons employed in the forest-reserve and national- 
park service of the United States shall have authority to make arrests 
for the violation of the laws and regulations relating to the forest 
reserves and national parks, and any person so arrested shall be 
taken before the nearest United States Commissioner, within whose 
jurisdiction the reservation or national park is located, for trial ; and 
upon sworn information by any competent person any United States 
Commissioner in the proper jurisdiction shall issue process for the 
arrest of any person charged with the violation of said laws and 
regulations; but nothing herein contained shall be construed as pre- 
venting the arrest by any oflficer of the United States, without pro- 
cess, of any person taken in the act of violating said laws and 
regulations. 

1906 — Act of June 8, 1906 (34 Stat. L., 225) — An Act For 
the preservation of American antiquities. 

[Sec. i]. That any person who shall appropriate, excavate, in- 
jure, or destroy any historic or prehistoric ruin or monument, or 
any object of antiquity, situated on lands owned or controlled by the 
Government of the United States, without the permission of the 
Secretary of the department of the Government having jurisdiction 
over the lands on which said antiquities are situated, shall, upon 
conviction, be fined in a sum of not more than $500 or be imprisoned 
for a period of not more than ninety days, or shall suffer both fine 
and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. 

Sec 2. That the President of the United States is hereby author- 
ized, in his discretion, to declare by public proclamation historic 
landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of 
historic or scientific interest that are situated upon the lands owned 
or controlled by the Government of the United States to be national 
monuments, and may reserve as a part thereof parcels of land, the 



LAWS 8s 

limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area 
compatible with the proper care and management of the objects 
to be protected: Provided, That when such objects are situated upon 
a tract covered by a bona fide unperfected claim or held in private 
ownership, the tract, or so much thereof as may be necessary for 
the proper care and management of the object, may be relinquished 
to the Government, and the Secretary of the Interior is hereby 
authorized to accept the relinquishment of such tracts in behalf of 
the Government of the United States. 

Sec. 3. That permits for the examination of ruins, the excavation 
of archaeological sites, and the gathering of objects of antiquity upon 
the lands under their respective jurisdictions may be granted by the 
Secretaries of the Interior, Agriculture, and War to institutions 
which they may deem properly qualified to conduct such examination, 
excavation, or gathering, subject to such rules and regulations as 
they may prescribe: Provided, That the examinations, excavations, 
and gatherings are undertaken for the benefit of reputable museums, 
universities, colleges, or other recognized scientific or educational 
institutions, with a view to increasing the knowledge of such ob- 
jects, and that the gatherings shall be made for permanent preserva- 
tion in public museums. 

Sec. 4. That the Secretaries of the departments aforesaid shall 
make and publish from time to time uniform rules and regulations 
for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this act.^ 

1909 — ^Act of March 4, 1909 (35 Stat. L., 1088, 1098) — An 
Act To codify, revise, and amend the penal laws of 
the United States. 

Sections 49-53 inclusive, and 56, 57, and 60, provide penalties for 
timber depredations on public lands, reservations or Indian lands, 
reserving the usual wood rights of mining men and homesteaders; 
also for boxing trees for turpentine on public lands, or setting fires, 
failing to extinguish fires, breaking fences, driving cattle, and injur- 
ing survey marks and telegraph lines thereon. 

191 1— Act of March 4, 191 1 (36 Stat. L., 1363, 1421)— An 
Act Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses 
of the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and twelve, and for other 

purposes. 

* * * * 

Hereafter the Secretary of the Interior shall submit in the annual 

1 Under authority of the foregoing act the various proclamations have 
been made establishing the national monuments. A list of these proc- 
lamations will be found under the section entitled "The National Monu- 
ments," Chapter i, supra. 



86 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Book of Estimates, following the estimates for each of the national 
parks, a classified statement of the receipts and expenditures for 
the complete fiscal year next preceding the fiscal year for which esti- 
mates of appropriations are submitted. 

1912 — Act of August 24, 1912 (37 Stat. L., 417, 460) — An 
Act Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses 
of the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and thirteen, and for other 
purposes. 

4" * * * 

No expenditure for construction of administration or other build- 
ings cost in case of any building exceeding one thousand dollars 
shall hereafter be made in any national park except under express 
authority of Congress: Provided, That this shall not apply to build- 
ings now in the process of actual construction. 

1916 — Act of February 28, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 14, 23) — ^An 
Act Making appropriations to supply further urgent 
deficiencies in appropriations for the fiscal year end- 
ing June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and sixteen, 
and prior years, and for other purposes. 

♦ * * * 

There is appropriated, for the remainder of the fiscal year nine- 
teen hundred and sixteen, from the several appropriations for pro- 
tection, improvement, and management, and so forth, of the various 
national parks, including the Hot Springs Reservation, as well as 
from the revenues from privileges, and so forth, in the national 
parks and the Hot Springs Reservation, such sum or sums as the 
Secretary of the Interior in his judgment may deem necessary, to 
be expended in employment of the superintendent of national parks 
in the District of Columbia and in the field, and other necessary ex- 
penses in connection with the administration of the national parks 
and the Hot Springs Reservation; a detailed statement of such ex- 
penditures to be submitted to Congress. 

1916— Act of July I, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 262, 309)— An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and seventeen, and for 

other purposes. 

* * * * 



LAWS 



87 



The Secretary of the Interior is authorized to employ in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia and elsewhere, and pay, during the fiscal year 
nmeteen hundred and seventeen, out of the several appropriations for 
protection, improvement and management of the various national 
parks including the Hot Springs Reservation and out of the revenues 
from rentals and privileges derived therefrom, a superintendent of 
national parks and to assist him such clerical or other services, not 
exceeding four persons, as the Secretary shall determine, and also 
to pay from said funds all necessary expenses of subsistence and 
travel of said superintendent when absent on duty outside of the 
District of Columbia. A detailed statement of all expenditures here- 
under shall be made to Congress at its next session. 

1916— Act of August 25, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 535)— An Act 
To establish a National Park So-vice and for other 
purposes (as amended by act of June 2, 1920; 41 
Stat. L., 732 — An Act To Accept the cession by 
the State of California of exclusive jurisdiction of 
the lands embraced within the Yosemite National 
Park, Sequoia National Park, and General Grant 
National Park, respectively and for other purposes) 

[Sec i]. That there is hereby created in the Department of the 
Interior a service to be called the National Park Service, which shall 
be under the charge of a director, who shall be appointed by the 
Secretary and who shall receive a salary of $4,500 per annum. There 
shall also be appointed by the Secretary the following assistants and 
other employees at the salaries designated: One assistant director, 
at $2,500 per annum ; one chief clerk, at $2,000 per annum ; one 
draftsman, at $1,800 per annum; one messenger, at $600 per annum; 
and, in addition thereto, such other employees as the Secretary of 
the Interior shall deem necessary : Provided, That not more than 
$8,100 annually shall be expended for salaries of experts, assistants, 
and employees within the District of Columbia not herein specifically 
enumerated unless previously authorized by law. The service thus 
established shall promote and regulate the use of the Federal areas 
known as national parks, monuments, and reservations hereinafter 
specified by such means and measures as conform to the fundamental 
purposes of the said parks, monuments, and reservations, which pur- 
pose is to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects 
and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the 
same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unim- 
paired for the enjoyment of future generations. 

Sec. 2. That the director shall, under the direction of the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, have the supervision, management, and control 
of the several national parks and national monuments which are 
now under the jurisdiction of the Department of the Interior, and of 
the Hot Springs Reservation in the State of Arkansas, and of such 



88 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

other national parks and reservations of like character as may be 
hereafter created by Congress: Provided, That in the supervision, 
management, and control of national monuments contiguous to 
national forests the Secretary of Agriculture may cooperate virith 
said National Park Service to such extent as may be requested by 
the Secretary of the Interior. 

Sec. 3. That the Secretary of the Interior shall make and publish 
such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary or proper for 
the use and management of the parks, monuments, and reservations 
under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service, and any viola- 
tions of any of the rules and regulations authorised by this act shall 
be punished by a fine of not more than $500, or imprisonment for 
not exceeding six months, or both, and be adjudged to pay all cost 
of the proceedings.^ He may also, upon terms and conditions to be 
fixed by him, sell or dispose of timber in those cases where in his 
judgment the cutting of such timber is required in order to control 
the attacks of insects or diseases or otherw^ise conserve the scenery 
or the natural or historic objects in any such park, monument, or 
reservation He may also provide in his discretion for the destruc- 
tion of Juch animals and of such plant life as may be detrimental 
to the use of any of said parks, monuments, or reservations. He 
may also grant privileges, leases, and permits for the use of land 
for the accommodation of visitors in the various parks, monuments, or 
other reservations herein provided for, but for periods not exceed- 
ing twenty years ;^ and no natural curiosities, wonders, or objects 
of interest shall be leased, rented, or granted to any one on such 
terms as to interfere with free access to them by the public; Pro- 
vided, however. That the Secretary of the Interior may, under such 
rules and regulations and on such terms as he may prescribe, grant 
the privilege to graze live stock within any national park, monument, 
or reservation herein referred to when in his judgment such use is 
not detrimental to the primary purpose for which such park, monu- 
ment, or reservation was created, except that this provision shall 
not apply to the Yellowstone National Park. 

Sec. 4. That nothing in this Act contained shall affect or modify 
the provisions of the act approved February fifteenth, nineteen 
hundred and one, entitled "An Act relating to rights of way through 
certain parks, reservations, and other public lands." 

1917— Act of April 17, 1917 (40 Stat. L., 2, 20)— An Act 
Making appropriations to supply deficiencies in ap- 
propriations for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, 
nineteen hundred and seventeen and prior fiscal years, 

and for other purposes. 

* * * * 

For employees from April fifteenth to June thirtieth, nineteen 
1 As_ amended. 

=iThis clause does not fully apply to Grand Canyon Park. See proviso 
m Act of February 26, 1919; 40 Stat. L., 1177. 



LAWS 89 

hundred and seventeen, inclusive, at annual rates of compensation 
as follows: Director, $4,500; assistant director, $2,500; chief clerk, 
$2,000; draftsman, $1,800; clerks— one of class three, two of class 
two, two at $900 each; messenger, $600; in all, for park service in 
the District of Columbia, $3,666.67, or so much thereof as may be 
necessary, to be in lieu of salaries, during such period, of the 
Superintendent of National Parks and four other persons authorized 
to be employed in the District of Columbia during the fiscal year 
nineteen hundred and seventeen by the sundry civil appropriation 
act approved July first, nineteen hundred and sixteen. 

1917 — Act of June 12, 1917 (40 Stat. L., 105, 153) — An 
Act Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses 
of the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and eighteen, and for 
other purposes. 



From and after July first, nineteen hundred and eighteen, all 
revenues of the national parks, except Hot Springs Reservation, 
Arkansas, shall be covered into the Treasury to the credit of mis- 
cellaneous receipts; and the Secretary of the Interior is directed to 
submit, for the fiscal year nineteen hundred and nineteen and an- 
nually thereafter, estimates of the amounts required for the care, 
maintenance, and development of the said parks. 

1918 — Act of July I, 1918 (40 Stat. L., 634, 677) — An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and nineteen, and for 
other purposes. 



The limitation of cost upon the construction of any administration 
or other building in any national park without express authority of 
Congress, contained in the sundry civil appropriation Act approved 
August twenty-fourth, nineteen hundred and twelve, is increased 
from $1,000 to $1,500. 

1920 — Act of June 5, 1920 (41 Stat. L., 874, 917)— An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses cf 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and twenty-one, and for 

other purposes. 

* * * * 



90 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Hereafter the Secretary of the Interior in his administration of 
the National Park Service is authorized, in his discretion, to accept 
patented lands, rights of way over patented lands or other lands, 
buildings, or other property within the various national parks and 
national monuments, and moneys which may be donated for the 
purposes of the national park and monument system. 

1921 — Act of March 3, 1921 (41 Stat. L., 1353) — An Act 
To amend an act entitled "An Act To create a Fed- 
eral Power Commission ; to provide for the improv- 
ment of navigation; the development of water power; 
the use of the public lands in relation thereto ; and 
to repeal section 18 of the River and Harbor Ap- 
propriation Act, approved August 8, 19 17, and for 
other purposes," approved June 10, 1920. 

That hereafter no permit, license, lease, or authorization for dams, 
conduits, reservoirs, power houses, transmfssion lines, or other 
works for storage or carriage of water, or for the development, 
transmission, or utilization of power, within the limits as now con- 
stituted of any national park or national monument shall be granted 
or made without specific authority of Congress, and so much of the 
act of Congress approved June 10, 1920, entitled "An Act to create 
a Federal Power Commission; to provide for the improvement of 
navigation; the development of water power; the use of the public 
lands in relation thereto; and to repeal section 18 of the River and 
Harbor Appropriation Act, approved August 8, 1917, and for other 
purposes," approved June 10, 1920, as authorizes licensing such 
uses of existing national parks and national monuments by the Fed- 
eral Power Commission is hereby repealed. 

1921— Act of March 4, 1921 (41 Stat. L., 1367, 1380, 
1406) — An Act Making appropriations for sundry 
civil expenses of the Government for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1922, and for other purposes. 

* * * * 

That no portion of this appropriation [For ... the Federal Power 
Commission . . . $100,000] shall be available for any expense con- 
nected with the leasing of any water-power facilities in any national 
park and national monument. 

* * * * 

National Park Service: Director, $4,500; assistant director, $2,500; 
chief clerk, $2,000; law clerk $2,000; editor, $2,000; draftsman 
$1,800; accountant, $1,800; clerks— two of class four, three of class 
three (one transferred from Secretary's office), one of class two one 



LAWS 91 

of class one, one $1,020, two at $900 each; messenger, $600; in all, 
for park service in the District of Columbia, $31,020. 

Fighting forest fires in national parks: For fighting forest fires 
in national parks, or other areas administered by the National Park 
Service, or fires that endanger such areas, and for replacing build- 
ings or other physical improvements that have been destroyed by 
forest fires within such areas, $25,000: Provided, That these funds 
shall not be used for any precautionary fire protection or patrol work 
prior to actual occurrence of the fire: And provided further, That 
the allotment of these funds to the various national parks, or areas 
administered by the National Park Service, for fire fighting purposes, 
shall be made by the Secretary of the Interior, and then only after 
the obligation for the expenditure has been incurred, and the Secre- 
tary of the Interior shall submit with his annual estimate of ex- 
penditures a report showing the location, size, and description of 
each forest fire, together with the number of men, their classifica- 
tion and rate of pay and actual time employed, and a statement of 
expenditures showing the cost for labor, supplies, special services, 
and other expenses covered by the expenditures made from these 
funds. 

Crater Lake National Park, Oregon: For administration, protec- 
tion, maintenance, and improvement, including not exceeding $600 
for the maintenance, operation, and repair of a motor-driven pas- 
senger-carrying vehicle for the use of the superintendent and em- 
ployees in connection with general park work, $25,300. 

General Grant National Park, California: For adminstration, pro- 
tection, maintenance, and improvement, $6,000. 

Glacier National Park, Montana: For administration, protection, 
maintenance, and improvement, including necessary repairs to the 
roads from Glacier Park Station through the Blackfeet Indian 
Reservation to various points in the boundary line of the Glacier 
National Park and to the International Boundary, including not 
exceeding $2,400 for the maintenance, repair, and operation of 
motor-driven and horse-dravra passenger-carrying vehicles for the 
use of the superintendent and employees in connection with general 
park work, and not exceeding $100,000 for the partial construction 
of a trans-mountain road connecting the east and west sides of the 
park, $195,000, of which amount $25,000 shall be immediately avail- 
able. . _ ... 

Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona: For admmistration, pro- 
tection, maintenance, improvement, and the acquisition of lands for 
road and trail rights of way within the park, including not ex- 
ceeding $2,000 for the purchase, maintenance, operation, and re- 
pair of motor-driven passenger-carrying vehicles for the use of 
the superintendent and employees in connection with general 
park work, $100,000: Provided, That no expenditure shall be made 
in the maintenance or improvement of any toll road or toll 

"^ Hawaii National Park: For administration, protection, mainten- 
ance and improvement, including not exceeding $1,800 for the 
purchase, maintenance, operation, and repair of a motor-driven pas- 



92 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

senger-carrying vehicle for use of the superintendent and park em- 
ployees in connection with general park work, $10,000. 

* * * * 

Lafayette National Park, Maine: for administration, maintenance, 
protection, and improvement, including not exceeding $600 for main- 
tenance, operation, and repair of a motor-driven passenger-carry- 
ing vehicle for use in administration of the park, $25,000. 

Lassen Volcanic National Park, California: For protection and 
improvement, $3,000. 

Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado: For administration, pro- 
tection, maintenance, and improvement, including not exceeding $800 
for maintenance, operation, and repair of horse-drawn and motor- 
driven passenger-carrying vehicles for use of the superintendent and 
employees, $16,400. 

Mount McKinley National Park, Alaska: For protection and im- 
provement, $8,000. 

Mount Rainier National Park, Washington: For administration, 
protection, maintenance, and improvement, including not exceeding 
$1,800 for the purchase, maintenance, operation, and repair of motor- 
driven passenger-carrying vehicles for use of the superintendent and 
park employees in connection with general park work, not exceed- 
ing $2,500 for a ranger station at Paradise Valley; not exceed- 
ing $2,500 for a shelter cabin at Camp Muir; $150,000, of which 
amount $25,000 shall be immediately available. 

National Monuments : For the administration, protection, main- 
tenance, preservation, and improvement of the national monuments, 
to be expended under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, 
$12,500. 

Piatt National Park, Oklahoma: For administration, protection, 
maintenance, and improvement, $7,500. 

Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado: For administration, 
protection, maintenance, and improvement, including not exceeding 
$1,500 for the purchase, maintenance, operation, and repair of 
motor-driven passenger-carrying vehicles for use of the super- 
intendent and employees in connection with general park work, 
$65,000. 

Sequoia National Park, California: For administration, protec- 
tion, maintenance, and improvement, including not exceeding $2,000 
to be available immediately, for the purchase, maintenance, opera- 
tion, and repair of a motor-driven passenger-carrying vehicle for 
the use of the superintendent and employees in connection with 
general park work, $86,000. 

Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota : For administration, pro- 
tection, maintenance, and improvement, $7,500. 

Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: For administration, pro- 
tection, maintenance, and improvement, including not to exceed 
$8,400 for maintenance of the road in the forest reserve leading 
out of the park from the east boundary, not to exceed $i 1,000 for 
purchase and installation of new bridges and culverts for said east 
forest road, not to exceed $7,500 for maintenance of the road in 
the forest reserve leading out of the park from the south boundary, 
not to exceed $16,000 for two combined ranger stations and com- 



APPENDICES 93 

munity centers for campers at Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone 
Lake, and Grand Canyon, not to exceed $2,500 for fire lookout and 
rest house on Mount Washburn, not to exceed $7,600 for the pur- 
chase, operation, maintenance, and repair of motor-propelled pas- 
senger-carrying vehicles, and including feed for buffalo and other 
animals and salaries of buffalo keepers, $350,000, of which amount 
$25,000 shall be immediately available, to be expended by and under 
the direction of the Secretary of the Interior: Provided, That not 
exceeding $2,000 may be expended for the removal of snow from 
any of the roads for the purpose of opening them in advance of 
the tourist season. 

Yosemite National Park, California: For administration, pro- 
tection, maintenance, and improvement, including not exceeding 
$3,000 for purchase, maintenance, operation, and repair of horse- 
drawn and motor-driven passenger-carrying vehicles for use of 
the superintendent and employees in connection with general park 
work, and not exceeding $15,000 for the completion of grading in 
width not exceeding twenty feet the El Portal-Yosemite road, 
$300,000. 

Zion National Park, Utah: for administration, protection, main- 
tenance, and improvement, $10,000. 

Yellowstone 

1872 — Act of March i, 1872 (17 Stat. L., 32)— An Act To 
set aside a certain tract of land lying near the head- 
waters of the Yellowstone River as a public park. 

[Sec. i]. The tract of land in the Territories of Montana and 
Wyoming, lying near the head-waters of the Yellowstone River and 
described as follows, to wit, commencing at the junction of 
Gardiner's River, with the Yellowstone River, and running east 
to the meridian passing ten miles to the eastward of the most eastern 
point of Yellowstone Lake; thence south along said meridian to 
the parallel of latitude passing ten miles south of the most southern 
point of Yellowstone Lake; thence west along said parallel to the 
meridian passing fifteen miles west of the most western pomt of 
Madison Lake; thence north along said meridian to the latitude of 
the junction of the Yellowstone and Gardiner's Rivers; thence east 
to the place of beginning, is reserved and withdrawn from settle- 
ment, occupancy, or sale under the laws of the United States, and 
dedicated and set apart as a public park or pleasurmg-ground for 
the benefit and enjoyment of the people; and all persons who locate, 
or settle upon, or occupy any part of the land thus set apart as a pub- 
lic park, except as provided in the following section, shall be con- 
sidered 'trespassers and removed therefrom. 

Sec 2 Such public park shall be under the exclusive control 
of the Secretary of the Interior, whose duty it shall be, as soon 
as practicable, to make and publish such regulations as he may 
deem necessary or proper for the care and management of the same. 



94 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Such regulations shall provide for the preservation, from injury 
or spoliation, of all timber, mineral deposits, natural curiosities, 
or wonders, within the park, and their retention in their natural 
condition. The Secretary may, in his discretion, grant leases for 
building purposes, for terms not exceeding ten years, of small par- 
cels of ground, at such places in the park as may require the 
erection of buildings for the accommodation of visitors ; all of the 
proceeds of such leases, and all other revenues that may be derived 
from any source connected with the park, to be expended under 
his direction in the management of the same, and the construction 
of roads and bridle paths therein. He shall provide against the 
wanton destruction of the fish and game found within the park, and 
against their capture or destruction for the purposes of merchan- 
dise or profit. He shall also cause all persons trespassing upon the 
same to be removed therefrom, and generally is authorized to take 
all such measures as may be necessary or proper to fully carry out 
the objects and purposes of this section. 

1883— Act of March 3, 1883 (22 Stat. L., 626) — An Act 
Making appropriation for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, eighteen hundred and eighty-four, and for 
other purposes. 

Provides for a superintendent and ten assistants to be appointed 
by the Secretary of the Interior and prescribes their duties; for 
the construction of roads and bridges under the direction of an 
engineer officer of the War Department; for the detailing of troops 
for protection by the Secretary of War at the request of the Secre- 
tary of the Interior; and for the leasing, by the Secretary, under 
definite restrictions, of small tracts for hotel purposes, etc. 

1890— Act of July 10, 1890 (26 Stat. L., 222)— An Act To 
provide for the admission of the State of Wyoming 
into the union, and for other purposes. 

Provides that nothing contained in the act shall be construed as 
terminating complete federal control and jurisdiction over the park. 

1894— Act of May 7, 1894 (28 Stat. L., 73)— An Act To 
protect the birds and animals in Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park, and to punish crimes in said park 
and for other purposes. 

The act provides for the exclusive jurisdiction of the federal 
government in the park and that all laws applicable to places under 



LAWS 95 

exclusive federal jurisdiction shall be in effect there. It consti- 
tutes the park a part of the federal district of Wyoming and pro- 
vides for the appointment of a Commissioner to reside in the park 
and try cases therein, and of deputy marshals for the service of 
process, etc. It also provides for the erection of a building to con- 
tain a jail and courtroom. It forbids hunting and fishing, or the 
killing of any animal except to preserve human life or prevent 
injury; authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to make rules and 
regulations for the protection of the game, etc., and prescribes 
penalties for violation of the act and rules made under it. 

1894 — Act of August 3, 1894 (28 Stat. L., 222) — An Act 
Concerning leases in the Yellowstone National Park. 

Secretary of the Interior given discretionary authority to make 
leases in the Park under certain definite restrictions safeguarding 
the natural wonders from being made the subjects of exclusive 
privilege. So much of the act of March 3, 1883 as conflicts vi^ith 
the present act is repealed. 

1899 — Act of March i, 1899 (30 Stat. L., 918) — An Act To 
provide compensation for a bridge and for buildings 
and other improvements constructed by certain per- 
sons upon public lands afterwards set apart and re- 
served as the Yellowstone National Park. 

1900 — Act of June 6, 1900 (31 Stat. L., 588, 625) — An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and one, and for other 
purposes. 

That road extensions and improvements shall hereafter be made 
in said park under and in harmony with a general plan of roads 
and improvements to be approved by the Chief of Engineers of the 
Army. 

1902 — Act of May 27, 1902 (32 Stat. L., 236) — An Act for 
the allowance of certain claims for stores and sup- 
plies reported by the Court of Claims under the 
provisions of the act approved March 3, 1883, and 
commonly known as the Bowman Act, and for 
other purposes. 



96 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Provides for the payment to the State of Wyoming of amounts 
paid out by the State for the policing of the park during 1884, 1885 
and 1886. 

1903 — Act of March 3, 1903 (32 Stat. L., 1130) — An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and four, and for other 
purposes. 

Conditions prescribed under which private parties or corpora- 
tions doing business in Yellowstone Park may obtain electric light 
and power from the government plant. 

1906 — ^Act of June 4, 1906 (34 Stat. L., 207) — An Act To 
amend an act approved August 3, 1894, entitled 
"An Act concerning leases in the Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park." 

Increases the amount of land which may be leased to any one 
person or company from a possible twenty acres to a possible 200 
acres; and permits the mortgaging by any lessee of his rights, prop- 
erties and franchises, including his contract with the Secretary 
of the Interior provided the approval of the Secretary be first 
secured. 

1907— Act of March 2, 1907 (34 Stat. L., 1219) — An Act 
To amend an act entitled "An Act to amend an act ap- 
proved August 3, 1894, entitled 'An Act concerning 
leases in the Yellowstone Niational Park,' " ap- 
proved June 4, 1906. 

Increases leasing period from ten to twenty years. 

191 1— Act of March 3, 191 1 (36 Stat. L., 1087, 1094, 
1 130) — An Act To codify, revise and amend the 
laws relating to the judiciary. 

Sections 26 and 115 provide for jurisdiction of the federal court 
for the district of Wyoming over the park; define the district; and 
provide for terms of cqurt and appointment of deputy marshals. 

1916— Act of June 28, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 238)— An Act To 



LAWS ^7 

amend "An Act to protect the birds and animals 
in Yellowstone National Park and to punish crimes 
in said park and for other purposes" approved May 
7, eighteen hundred and ninety-four. 

Under the old act the penalties for violations of the act or regu- 
lations made under it were a fine of not more than $i,ooo or im- 
prisonment not exceeding two years, or both, together with all costs, 
thus classifying all offenses as felonies and necessitating trial of 
all offenders by indictment in the regular way. 

The amendment changed these to $500 or six months, or both, 
plus costs; thus obviating the necessity for commitments for trial 
and enabling the park authorities to dispose of cases as they arose 
by immediate trial before the park commissioner. 

1917 — Executive Order of April 16, 19 17 (No. 2599). 

Temporarily withdraws certain lands in Montana north of the 
park in aid of legislation to secure the lands as a game preserve. 

1918— Act of July I, 1918 (40 Stat. L., 634, 678)— An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and nineteen, and for 
other purposes. 

Hereafter road extensions and improvements shall be made in 
said park under and in harmony with the general plan of roads 
and improvements to be approved by the Secretary of the Interior. 

1919 — ^Act of January 25, 1919 (40 Stat. L., 1152) — An Act 
To authorize the sale of certain lands at or near 
Yellowstone, Mont., for hotel and other purposes. 

Authorizes the sale of eighty-eight acres of land in Madison 
National Forest to Oregon Short Line Railroad at not less than 
$25 per acre for use for hotel purposes, provided any hotel 
erected on tract sold be operated under rules prescribed for opera- 
tion of hotels in Yellowstone Park. 

1919 — Executive Order of February 28, 1919 (No. 3053). 

Withdraws temporarily the Teton- Jackson's Hole Area south of 
the Yellowstone in aid of legislation looking to the creation of 
the proposed greater Yellowstone. 



98 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

1921 — Executive Order of Jan. 28, 1921 (No. 3394). 

"Under authority of the act of Congress approved June 25, 1910 
(36 Stat. L., 847) as amended by the act of August 24, 1912 (37 
Stat. L., 497) the following described lands in the State of Wy- 
oming are hereby temporarily withdrawn, subject to the conditions, 
provisions and limitations of said acts for the purpose of classify- 
ing said lands, and pending enactment of appropriate legislation for 
their proper disposition." 

This order covers the same "Greater Yellowstone" area covered 
by Executive Order No. 3653, supra; but because it is not made 
dependent upon any specific legislation its effect is to withdraw 
the territory indefinitely. 

Yosemite 

1864 — Act of June 30, 1864 (13 Stat. L., 325) — An Act 
Authorizing a grant to the State of CaUfomia of the 
"Yo-Semite Valley" and of the land embracing the 
"Mariposa Big Tree Grove." 

[Sec. i]. That there ... is hereby granted to the State of 
California the "cleft" or "gorge" . . . known as the Yo-Semite 
Valley . . . with the stipulation, nevertheless, . . . that the prem- 
ises shall be held for public use, resort and recreation. . . . 

Sec. 2. That there shall likewise be, and there is hereby, granted 
to the said State of California the tracts embracing what is known 
as the "Mariposa Big Tree Grove" . . . with the like stipulation 
as expressed in the first section of this act. . . . 

1890 — Act of October i, 1890 (36 Stat. L., 650) — ^An Act 
To set apart certain tracts of land in the State of 
California as forest reservations. 

[Sec I]. That the tracts of land^ in the State of California 
. . . are hereby ... set apart as reserved forest lands. . . . Pro- 
vided, however. That nothing in this act shall be construed as in 
anywise affecting the grant of lands made to the State of Califor- 
nia by virtue of the act entitled "an act authorizing a grant to the 
state of California of the 'Yo-Semite Valley' and of the land em- 
bracing the 'Mariposa Big Tree Grove.' "... 

Sec. 2. That said reservation shall be under the exclusive con- 
trol of the Secretary of the Interior, whose duty it shall be ... to 
make . . . rules and regulations . . . proper for the care and man- 
agement of the same. Such regulations shall provide for the 
preservation of all timber, mineral deposits, natural curiosities or 

1 The lands included in this grant completely surrounded the "cleft" 
or "gorge" referred to in the Act of June 30, 1864. 



L^WS 99 

wonders within said reservation, and their retention in their natural 
fu" c r?"' • ■ • He shall provide 'against the wanton destruction of 
the tish and game ... and against their capture or destruction for 
purposes of merchandise or profit. . . 

1892— Act of July 19, 1892 (27 Stat. L., 235)— An Act 
Granting to the county of Mariposa, in the State of 
California, the right of way for a free wagon road 
or turnpike across the Yosemite National Park, in 
said State. 

Land to revert to the United States if road be abandoned or cease 
to be free of toll. 

1900— Act of June 6, 1900 (31 Stat. L., 588, 618)— An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and one, and for other 
purposes. 

Authorizes Secretary of War upon request of Secretary of the 
Interior to detail troops to protect the Sequoia, Yosemite, and 
General Grant Parks. 

1901 — Act of February 15, 1901 (31 Stat. L., 790) — An Act 
Relating to rights of way through certain parks, 
reservations, and other public lands. ^' 

Secretary of the Interior authorized to permit and regulate use 
of rights of way over public lands, forests, and other reservations 
of the United States, and the Yosemite, Sequoia, and General 
Grant National Parks for power, telephone, telegraph, irrigation and 
water supply lines and systems. Grants to be subject to certain 
provisions and to be revocable at discretion of Secretary. 

1904 — ^Act of April 28, 1904 (33 Stat. L., 457, 487) — An 
Act Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses 
of the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and five, and for other 
purposes. 

1 Regulations relating to grants hereunder and under 28 Stat. L., 63S1 
and Sec. i of 30 Stat L., 404 were promulgated by Department of the 
Interior July 8, 1901. 



lOo THE NATIONAL £ARK SERVICE 



r 



Directs Secretary of the Interior to ascertain what portions of 
Yosemite are not necessary for park purposes and to select location 
for a road. 

1905 — ^Act of February 7, 1905 (33 Stat. L., 702) — An Act 
To exclude from the Yosemite National Park, Cal- 
ifornia, certain lands therein described, and to at- 
tach and include the said lands in the Sierra Forest 
.Reserve. 

That the tracts of land in the State of California . . . are 
hereby ... set apart as reserved forest lands. . . . Provided that the 
Secretary of the Interior may require the payment of such price 
as he may deem proper for privileges on the land herein segregated 
from the Yosemite National Park; . . . and the moneys received 
from the privileges accorded . . . shall be paid into the Treasury 
... to be expended, under the direction of the Secretary, in the 
management, improvement and protection of the forest lands herein 
set aside . . . which shall hereafter be known as the "Yosemite 
National Park." 

1905 — Act of March 3, 1905, of the California Legislature. 

Receded the Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Big Tree Grove to 
the United States; recession to take effect from and after accept- 
ance by the United States. 

1905 — Act of March 3, 1905 (33 Stat. L., 1286) — ^Joint 
Resolution Accepting the recession by the State of 
CaUfornia of the Yosemite Valley Grant and the 
Mariposa Big Tree Grove in the Yosemite National 
Park. 

Despite the wording of the above title, the bill as passed merely 
carried an appropriation for the management, etc., of the Yosemite 
National Park and said nothing about acceptance of a recession. 

1906 — ^Joint Resolution of June 11, 1906 (34 Stat. L., 831) — 
Joint Resolution accepting the recession by the State of 
California of the Yosemite Valley Grant and the 
Mariposa Big Tree Grove, and including the same, 
together with fractional sections 5 and 6, township 
S south, range 22 east, Mount Diablo meridian, Cal- 
ifornia, within the metes and bounds of the Yosemite 



LAWS loi 

National Park, and changing the boundaries thereof. 

[Sec. r^. That the recession ... is hereby ratified and accepted, 
and the tracts ... are set apart as reserved forest lands . . . and 
shall hereafter form a part of the Yosemite National Park. . . . 
* * ♦ * 

Sec. 3. That all revenues . . . shall be paid into the Treasury 
... to be expended ... in the management, protection, and im- 
provement of the Yosemite National Park. 

1910 — Act of June 25, 1910 (36 Stat. L., 703, 745) — An 
Act Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses 
of the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and eleven, and for other 
purposes. 

$12,000 appropriated to enable Secretary of the Interior to ex- 
amine data to be submitted by San Francisco in support of a re- 
quest for a water supply from within Yosemite Park and to collect 
data independently. 

191 1 — ^Act of March 4, 191 1 (36 Stat. L., 1363, 1420) — An 
Act Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses 
of the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and twelve, and for other 
purposes. 

Reappropriates any unexpended balance of appropriation made 
under Act of June 25, 1910, to enable Secretary to continue the 
work during fiscal year ending 1912. 

1912— Act of April 9, 1912 (37 Stat. L., 80)— An Act To 
authorize the Secretary of the Interior to secure for 
the United States title to patented lands in the Yosem- 
ite National Park, and for other purposes. 

Authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to exchange matured 
timber in the park for patented lands in park boundaries, prescribes 
determination of values of lands and timber, and makes regulations 
for timber cutting and removal. The sale outright of matured tim- 
ber is also permitted. 

1912— Act of August 24, 1912 (37 Stat. L., 417, 460)— An 



I02 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Act Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses 
of the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and thirteen, and for 
other purposes. 

Reappropriates any unexpended balance of reappropriation made 
under act of March 4, 191 1 to carry work down to June 30, 1913. 

1913— Act of June 23, 1913 (38 Stat. L., 41, 49)— An Act 
Making appropriation for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and fourteen. 

Authorizes grant of lease by Secretary of Interior for construc- 
tion, etc., of an hotel and other buildings in accordance with pro- 
visions of the act of June 4, 1906, as amended by the act of March 
2, 1907. Repeals any part of Sec. 2 of the act of October i, 1890 
concerning the Yosemite in conflict with grant. 

1913 — Act of December 19, 1913 (38 Stat. L., 242) — An 
Act Granting to the City and County of San Fran- 
cisco certain rights of way in, over and through cer- 
tain public lands, the Yosemite National Park, and 
Stanislaus National Forest, and certain lands in the 
Yosemite National Park, the Stanislaus National 
Forest, and the public lands in the State of Califor- 
nia, and for other purposes. 

Grants all necessary rights of way in, over and through the 
Yosemite National Park; together with such lands in the Hetch 
Hetchy Valley and Lake Eleanor Basin within the Yosemite 
National Park as Secretary of the Interior may deem to be neces- 
sary for reservoirs, such lands as he may deem necessary for power 
houses, etc., and the right to remove stone, gravel, etc., from the 
park necessary in the construction of water power and electric 
plants, etc. 

1914 — Act of April 16, 1 9 14 (38 Stat. L., 345) — ^An Act To 
amend section one of an act of Congress approved 
April ninth, nineteen hundred and twelve (thirty- 
seventh statutes, page eighty) entitled "An Act To 



LAWS 103 

authorize the Secretary of the Interior to secure for 
the United States title to patented lands in the Yosem- 
ite National Park, and for other purposes." 

Empowers the Secretaries of the Interior and of Agriculture 
to obtain for the United States title to patented lands within the 
park by exchanging therefor timber or timber and lands within 
the park and within the adjoining Sierra and Stanislaus National 
Forests; also to obtain title in similar manner to patented lands 
not exceeding 640 acres, in said forests, which lands when so ac- 
quired shall become part of the Yosemite National Park and be 
subject to provisions of act of October i, 1890 (26 Stat. L., 650). 

1914 — Act of May 13, 1914 (38 Stat. L., 376) — An Act To 
consolidate certain forest lands in the Sierra National 
Forest and Yosemite National Park, California. 

The Secretary of the Interior is authorized to exchange lands 
lying in the Sierra National Forest for privately owned lands lying 
in the Forest and in the Park; lands thus acquired lying in the 
Forest to go to the Forest and those lying in the Park to go to the 
Park. 

1914— Act of July 23, 1914 (38 Stat. L., 554)— An Act To 
amend an act approved October i, 1890, entitled 
"An Act to set apart certain tracts of land in the 
State of California as forest reservations." 

For hotel purposes, etc., the Secretary of the Interior is author- 
ized to grant leases for not to exceed twenty years on tracts not 
to exceed twenty acres in extent, not more than ten such tracts to 
be leased to any one person or corporation. Provision is also 
made for appraisement at termination of lease and for mortgag- 
ing of lessee's rights if desired. 

1916— Act of July I, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 262, 308)— An Act 
Making appropriation for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and seventeen, and for 
other purposes. 

Authorization to Secretary of the Interior to accept patented lands 
and rights of way over same or over other lands m Yosemite Park 
donated for park purposes. 



I04 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

1918 — Executive Order of July 8, 1918 (No. 2906). 

Withdraws temporarily the area adjacent to Yosemite Park in 
aid of pending legislation proposing the creation of a greater park 
to be called Roosevelt Park. 

1920 — Act of June 2, 1920 (41 Stat. L., 731) — An Act To 
accept the cession by the State of California of ex- 
clusive jurisdiction of the lands embraced within the 
Yosemite National Park, Sequoia National Park, 
and General Grant National Park, respectively, and 
for other purposes. 

Accepts cession of California's Legislature (Act of April 15, 
1919). Taxing and process rights reserved to State. Assigns 
Yosemite to northern California federal judicial district; Sequoia 
and General Grant to southern. Provides that offenses not pro- 
hibited by federal laws be punished by state laws. Prohibits hunt- 
ing, fishing, spoliation and vandalism and provides penalties. Regu- 
lations to be prescribed by Secretary of Interior. Provides for 
commissioners, defines their powers and outlines procedure. This 
act is noteworthy in that it amends the National Park Service Act 
(39 Stat. L., 535) by changing, in Section 3 of said act, the punish- 
ment for violations of rules and regulations. 

1921 — Executive Order of Jan. 28, 1921 (No. 3395). 

See Executive Order No. 3394, under the Yellowstone Park, supra. 
No. 3395 makes what amounts to an indefinite withdrawal of the 
greater Yosemite or Roosevelt area (See Executive Order No. 
2906) in the same terms employed in No. 3394. 

Sequoia 

1890 — Act of September 25, 1890 (26 Stat. L., 478) — An 
Act To set apart a certain tract of land in the State 
of California as a public park. 

[Sec. i]. That the tract ^ of land in the State of California 
... is hereby ... set apart as a public park, or pleasure ground, 
for the benefit and enjoyment of the people. . . . 

Sec. 2. That said public park shall be under the exclusive con- 
trol of the Secretary of the Interior, whose duty it shall be . . . 
to make rules and regulations ... for the care and management 
of the same. Such regulations shall provide for the preservation 

^ This act covers part of Sequoia : the remainder is reserved by Section 
3 of the Act of October i, 1890 (26 Stat. L., 650). 



LAWS 105 

from injury of all timber, mineral deposits, natural curiosities or 
wonders within said park, and their retention in their natural con- 
dition. ... He shall provide against the wanton destruction of fish 
and game and against their capture or destruction for purposes of 
merchandise or profit. . . . 

1890 — Act of October i, 1890 (26 Stat. L., 650) — An Act 
To set apart certain tracts of land in the State of 
California as forest reservations. 

See this same act under Yosemite, to which park the first two 
sections thereof relate. The third section sets aside as part of 
Sequoia Park the following: Twps. 15 and 16 S., Rs 29 and 30 E., 
Mount Diablo base and meridian, and all of Twp. 17 S., R. 30 E., 
with the exception of Sects. 31 to 34 inclusive, the lands forming 
the remainder of the park being reserved by the act of September 
25, 1890 (26 Stat. L., 478) supra, which see. 

1900 — Act of June 6, 1900 (31 Stat. L., 618) — An Act Mak- 
ing appropriation for sundry civil expenses of the 
Government for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, 
nineteen hundred and one, and for other purposes. 

See same act under Yosemite. 

1901 — ^Act of February 15, 1901 (31 Stat. L., 790) — An Act 
Relating to rights of way through certain parks, 
reservations and other public lands. 

See same act under Yosemite. 

1914— Act of August I, 1914 (38 Stat. L., 609, 649)— An 
Act Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and fifteen, and for 
other purposes. 

Authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to accept rights of way 
over patented lands within Sequoia Park. 

1916— Act of July I, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 262, 308)— An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 



io6 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

thirtieth, nineteen hundred and seventeen, and for 
other purposes. 

Authorization to accept gifts of patented lands or rights of way 
over same or over other lands in Sequoia Park given to Secre- 
tary of the Interior. 

1920 — Act of June 2, 1920 (41 Stat. L., 731) — An Act To 
accept the cession by the State of Cahfornia of ex- 
clusive jurisdiction of the lands embraced within the 
Yosemite National Park, Sequoia National Park and 
General Grant National Park, respectively, and for 
other purposes. 

See same act under Yosemite. 

General Grant 

1890 — Act of October i, 1890 (26 Stat. L., 650) — ^An Act To 
set apart certain tracts of land in the State of Cal- 
ifornia as forest reservations. 

See this same act under Yosemite, to which park the first two 
sections of the act relate. The third section sets aside a portion 
of Sequoia Park and the following tracts for General Grant Park: 
Sects. 5 and 6, Twp. 14 S., R. 28 E., and Sects. 31 and 32, Twp. 
13 S., R. 28 E., Mount Diablo base and meridian. The reserva- 
tion is made under the same limitations, restrictions and provisions 
that apply to Sequoia and Yosemite. 

1900 — Act of June 6, 1900 (31 Stat. L., 588, 618) — ^An Act 
Making appropriation for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and one, and for other 
purposes. 

See same act under Yosemite. 

1901— Act of February 15, 1901 (31 Stat. L., 790)— An Act 
Relating to rights of way through certain parks, 
reservations and other public lands. 

See same act under Yosemite. 



LAWS 107 

1920— Act of June 2, 1920 (41 Stat. L., 731)— An Act To 
accept the cession by the State of CaHfornia of ex- 
clusive jurisdiction of the lands embraced within the 
Yosemite National Park, Sequoia National Park, 
and General Grant National Park, respectively, and 
for other purposes. 
See same act under Yosemite. 

Mount Rainier 

1899— Act of March 2, 1899 (30 Stat. L., 993)— An Act To 
set aside a portion of certain lands in the State of 
Washington now known as the "Pacific Forest Re- 
serve," as a public park, to be known as the "Mount 
.Rainier National Park." 

[Sec. i]. That all those certain tracts ... in the State of Wash- 
ington . . . are hereby ... set aside as a public park to be known 
and designated as the "Mount Rainier National Park." 

Sec. 2. That said public park shall be under the exclusive con- 
trol of the Secretary of the Interior, whose duty it shall be to make 
and publish, as soon as practicable, such rules and regulations as he 
may deem necessary or proper for the care and management of 
the same. Such regulations shall provide for the preservation from 
injury or spoliation of all timber, mineral deposits, natural curiosi- 
ties, or wonders within said park and their retention in their 
natural condition. . . . He shall provide against the wanton de- 
struction of the fish and game found within said park, and against 
their capture or destruction for purposes of merchandise or profit. 
* * * * 

Sec. 5. That the mineral land laws of the United States are 
hereby extended to the lands lying within the said reserve and said 
park. ^ 

The act also provides for the granting of leases, etc., by the 
Secretary of the Interior, and stipulates that all revenue derived 
from the park shall be expended on its improvement. It also 
authorizes the Secretary to grant rights of way at his discretion. 

Settlers in the park and railroads owning lands therein are given 
lieu land selection privileges. 

190&— Act of May 27, 1908 (35 Stat. L., 365)— An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for thq fiscal year ending June 

1 Further location prohibited by Act of May 27, 1908 (35 Stat. L., 365), 



io8 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

thirtieth, nineteen hundred and nine, and for other 
purposes. 

Prohibits location of further mining claims in Mt. Rainier Park, 
but provides that claims theretofore acquired in good faith under 
mineral laws shall not be affected. 

19 16 — Act of June 30, 19 16 (39 Stat. L., 243) — ^An Act To 
accept the cession by the State of Washington of ex- 
clusive jurisdiction over the lands embraced within 
the Mount Rainier National Park, and for other 
purposes. 

Accepts, cession in usual terms (Act of Washington Legislature 
March 16, 1901) reserving process and taxing rights to State. 
Placed in western Washington federal judicial district. Washing- 
ton laws to control where there is no federal prohibition of an 
offense. Prohibition of hunting, fishing, spoliation and vandalism, 
and penalties prescribed. Secretary of the Interior to make Regu- 
lations. Commissioner provided for and powers defined. Proced- 
ure outlined. 

1917 — Act of June 12, 1917 (40 Stat. L., 105, 152) — An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and eighteen, and for 
other purposes. 

Authorizes acceptance by Secretary of the Interior of patented 
lands or rights of way over same in Mount Rainier Park donated for 
park purposes. Similar authorization in same act covering Rocky 
Mountain, Mesa Verde, and Crater Lake Parks. 

Crater Lake 

1902 — ^Act of May 22, 1902 (32 Stat. L., 202) — An Act 
Reserving from the public lands in the State of 
Oregon, as a public park for the benefit of the people 
of the United States, and for the protection and 
preservation of the game, fish, timber, and all other 
natural objects therein, a tract of land herein de- 
scribed, and so forth. 



LAWS 109 

[Sec. i]. That the tract of land ... in the State of Oregon, and 
including Crater Lake is hereby ... set apart forever as a public 
park or pleasure ground for the benefit of the people of the United 
States, to be known as "Crater Lake National Park." 

Sec. 2. That the reservation established by this act shall be 
under the control and custody of the Secretary of the Interior, whose 
duty it shall be to establish rules and regulations and cause ade- 
quate measures to be taken for the preservation of the natural ob- 
jects within said park, and also for the protection of the timber 
from wanton depredation, the preservation of all kinds of game and 
fish, the punishment of trespassers, the removal of unlawful oc- 
'cupants and intruders, and the prevention and extinguishment of 
forest fires. 

The act further forbids all residence and settlement and the en- 
gaging in business or speculative enterprises; with the proviso that 
the park shall be open to "scientists, excursionists and pleasure 
seekers," and to the locating and working of mining claims; and 
with the further proviso that restaurant and hotel keepers may 
operate in the park at the discretion of the Secretary of the Interior. 
The act also prescribes penalties for its violation or the violation of 
rules made under it. 

1916— Act of August 21, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 521)— An Act 
To accept the cession by the State of Oregon of ex- 
clusive jurisdiction over the lands embraced within 
the Crater Lake National Park, and for other pur- 
poses. 

Accepts cession of sole jurisdiction to the United States (reserv- 
ing process and taxing rights to State). Places park in the Oregon 
federal judicial district. Prohibits hunting, fishmg, spoliation and 
vandalism and provides penalties for violations of regulations. Pro- 
vides for appointment of a United States Commissioner, defines his 
powers, and outlines procedure. 

1917— Act of June 12, 1917 (40 Stat. L., 105, 152)— An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and eighteen, and for 
other purposes. 

See same act under Mount Rainier. 

Wind Cave 

1903— Act of January 9, 1903 (32 Stat. L., 765)— An Act 
To set apart certain lands in the State of South 



no THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Dakota as a public park to be known as the "Wind 
Cave National Park." 



Sec. 2. That said park shall be known as the "Wind Cave Na- 
tional Park" and shall be under the exclusive control of the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, whose duty it shall be to prescribe such rules 
and regulations and establish such service as he may deem necessary 
for the care and management of the same. 

The act also authorizes the granting of leases by the Secretary, 
prescribes punishment for offenses, provides for the protection of 
preexisting land rights and stipulates that all funds derived from 
rentals, etc., shall be used in the care of the park. 

1912 — Act of August 10, 1912 (37 Stat. L., 269, 293) — ^An 
Act Making appropriations for the Department of 
Agriculture for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, 
nineteen hundred and thirteen, and for other pur- 
poses. 

* * * * 

For the establishment of a national game preserve . . . within 
the . . . Wind Cave National Park . . . etc.; $26,000. 

1920 — Executive Order of July 14, 1920 (No. 3308). 

Makes temporary withdrawal under authority of the Act of June 
25; 1910, as amended by the Act of August 24, 1912, in order to pro- 
tect water supply of Wind Cave Park and the bison range therein. 

Piatt 

1902 — ^Act of July I, 1902 (32 Stat. L., 641, 655) — An Act 
To ratify and confirm an agreement with the Choc- 
taw and Chickasaw tribes of Indians, and for other 
purposes. 

By a clause in the agreement the two tribes ceded to the United 
States the tract near the village of Sulphur, in the Chickasaw Nation 
containing the mineral springs, the whole aggregating in area about 
640 acres. The act charges the Secretary of the Interior with the 
making of rules for the regulation and control of the use of the 
waters. 

1904 — Act of April 21, 1904 (33 Stat. L., 189, 220) — An 
Act Making appropriations for the current and con- 



LAWS III 

tingent expenses of the Indian Department and for 
fulfilling treaty stipulations with various Indian 
tribes for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, nine- 
teen hundred and five, and for other purposes. 

Authorization to Secretary of the Interior to add to the original 
Piatt reservation Act of July i, 1902, some two hundred acres lying 
adjacent thereto; and to place a representative on the land to enforce 
rules and regulations for the control and use thereof and of the waters 
of the springs and creeks. 

1906— Act of June 16, 1906 (34 Stat. L., 267)— An Act To 
enable the people of Oklahoma and of the Indian 
Territory to form a Constitution and State gov- 
ernment, etc. 

Retains (Sects. 3, 7 and 13), national jurisdiction over the Sulphur 
Springs Reservation reserving to the state thereafter to be created 
the right of process. 

1906 — ^Joint Resolution of June 29, 1906 (34 Stat. L., 837) — 
Joint Resolution directing that the Sulphur Springs 
Reservation be named and hereafter called the "Piatt 
National Park." 

Secretary of the Interior authorized to make the change in name 
in honor of Orville Hitchcock Piatt, for many years a member of 
the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs. 

Sullys Hill 

1904 — Act of April 27, 1904 (33 Stat. L., 323) — An Act To 
modify and amend an agreement with the Indians 
of the Devil's Lake Reservation, in North Dakota, 
to accept and ratify the same as amended, and mak- 
ing appropriation and provision to carry the same 
into efifect. 

The President is also authorized to reserve a tract embracing 
Sullys Hill, in the northeastern portion of the abandoned military 
reservation, about nine hundred and sixty acres, as a public 
park. 



112 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

1904 — Presidential Proclamation of June 2, 1904. No. 32 
(33 Stat. L., 2370). 

The proclamation, in pursuance of the authority granted in the 
Act of April 27, 1904, throws open the Devils Lake Indian Reserva- 
tion to settlement, reserving certain lands for various purposes, 
among them the following: 
"Lots 4, 5, 6 and 7 of Sect. 10, the NWj4, the Wj4 of the SWj4, 
and lots 5 and 6 of Sect. 15, lots i and 2 of Sect. 9, the E>4 of the 
NEJ4, the SEJ4 of the SEJ4 and lots 3, 4 and 5 of Sect. 16, T 152 
N., R 65 W., of the fifth principal meridian, which are hereby re- 
served for public use as a park to be known as SuUys Hill Park." 

1914 — ^Act of June 30, 1914 (38 Stat. L., 415, 434) — ^An 
Act Making appropriations for the Department of 
Agriculture for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, 
nineteen hundred and fifteen. 

Authorizes establishment of a game preserve in Sujlys Hill Park. 

Mesa Verde 

1906 — Act of June 29, 1906 (34 Stat. L., 616) — An Act 
Creating the Mesa Verde National Park. 

[Sec. i]. That there is hereby ... set aside as a public reserva- 
tion all those certain tracts ... in the State of Colorado. . . . 

Sec. 2. That said public park shall be known as the Mesa Verde 
National Park, and shall be under the exclusive control of the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, whose duty it shall be to prescribe such rules 
and regulations and establish such service as he may deem necessary 
for the care and management of the same. Such regulations shall 
provide specifically for the preservation from injury or spoliation of 
the ruins and other works and relics of prehistoric or primitive man 
within said park. 

The act further provides that the Secretary may permit excavat- 
ing, etc., by properly qualified persons for the benefit of some reput- 
able museum or educational institution with a view to promoting 
archaeological science. 

The act also provides for the punishment of persons destroying or 
molesting the ruins; and stipulates that all ruins situated within five 
miles of the park boundaries, unless on land regularly alienated, shall 
be under the jurisdiction of the superintendent. This last provision 
was repealed by the act of June 30, 1913 (38 Stat. L., 84). 

1910 — Act of June 25, 1910 (36 Stat. L., 774, 796) — ^An 
Act Making appropriations to supply deficiencies in 



LAWS 113 

appropriations for the fiscal year 19 10, and for other 
purposes. 

Permits the Secretary of the Interior to grant leases, etc., in Mesa 
Verde Park, provided land including ruins be not leased and public 
not denied free access thereto. 

1913— Act of June 30, 1913 (38 Stat. L., yy, 82)— An Act 
Making appropriations for the current and contin- 
gent expenses of the Bureau of Indian Affairs for ful- 
filling treaty stipulations with various Indian tribes 
and for other purposes, for the fiscal year ending 
June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and fourteen. 

An agreement of May 10, 191 1 made at Navajo Springs agency, 
Colorado, with a portion of the Ute Indian tribe amended and con- 
firmed. It provided for an exchange of Indian lands for certain lands 
within the park — the Indian lands to become park lands and the 
park lands to become part of the Indians' reservation. So much of 
the Act of June 29, 1906 (34 Stat. L., 617) as extends jurisdiction of 
Secretary of Interior five miles from park borders repealed. 

1917 — ^Act of June 12, 1917 (40 Stat. L., 105, 152) — An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and eighteen, and for 
other purposes. 

See same act under Mount Rainier. 

Glacier 

1910— Act of May 11, 1910 (36 Stat. L., 354)— An Act To 
establish "The Glacier National Park" in the Rocky 
Mountains South of the International Boundary 
Line, in the State of Montana, and for other pur- 
poses. 

FSec i]. That the tract of land in the State of Montana ... is 
hereby set apart as a public park or pleasure ground for . . . 

the people of the United States under the name of "The Glacier 
National Park." 



114 T^HE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Sec. 2. That said park shall be under the executive control of the 
Secretary of the Interior, whose duty it shall be, as soon as prac- 
ticable, to make and publish such rules and regulations not incon- 
sistent with the laws of the United States as he may deem neces- 
sary or proper for the care, protection, management, and improve- 
ment of the same, which regulations shall provide for the preserva- 
tion of the park in a state of nature so far as is consistent with the 
purposes of this act, and for the care and protection of the fish and 
game within the boundaries thereof. 

Further, the act safeguards preexisting land rights; permits the 
acquisition of rights of way and the utilization of park areas by the 
United States Reclamation Service ; authorizes the Secretary to make 
leases and sell matured timber; and denies to railroads or other cor- 
porations owning land within the park the right to use such owner- 
ship as a basis for indemnity selection in any State or Territory. 

191 1 — Act of March 4, 191 1 (36 Stat. L., 1363, 1421) — An 
Act Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses 
of the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and twelve, and for other 
purposes. 

Permits expenditure of park revenues for park administration and 
improvement. 

1912 — Act of February 10, 1912 (37 Stat. L., 64) — An Act 
To authorize the sale of land within or near the town 
of Midvale, Montana, for hotel purposes. 

Authorizes sale of not to exceed 160 acres at not less than $25 
per acre, any hotel erected thereon to be operated under rules pre- 
scribed by Secretary of Interior for operation of hotels in Glacier 
Park. Withdrawal of not to exceed five acres in town of Midvale for 
use in administrative purposes of Glacier National Park also author- 
ized. 

1914— Act of August I, 1914 (38 Stat. L., 609, 649)— An 
Act Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses 
of the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and fifteen, and for other 
purposes. 

Authorization for acceptance of rights of way over patented lands 
m Glacier Park. This authorization is repeated in 38 Stat. L 863 
the Sundry Civil Act of March 3, 1915 for fiscal year ending'june 
30, 1916. 



LAWS 115 

1914— Act of August 22, 1914 (38 Stat. L., 699)— An Act 
To accept the cession by the State of Montana of 
exclusive jurisdiction over the lands embraced within 
the Glacier National Park, and for other purposes. 

The act accepts jurisdiction, reserving to the State rights of pro- 
cess and taxation, and placing the park in the federal district for 
Montana. It makes prohibitions regarding hunting, fishing, spolia- 
tion, etc., and prescribes penalties. Provision is made for the appoint- 
ment of a Commissioner, and his povirers, etc., are outlined. 

1915— Act of February 2y, 1915 (38 Stat. L., 814)— An Act 
To authorize the Great Northern Railway Company 
to revise the location of its right of way, and for 
other purposes. 

Grant made subject to limitations contained in act of March 3, 
1875 (18 Stat. L., 482) as amended by act of March 3, 1899 (30 Stat. 
L., 1233). 

19 16 — ^Act of July I, 19 16 (39 Stat. L., 262, 308) — An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thhtieth, nineteen hundred and seventeen, and for 
other purposes. 

Authorization to Secretary of Interior to accept patented lands or 
rights over same located in Glacier Park that may be donated for 
park purposes. 

1916 — ^Act of July 3, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 342) — An Act For 
the relief of certain homestead entrymen for land 
within the limits of the Glacier National Park. 

Entries of certain homesteaders excepted from force of act creating 
park, with proviso for reversion to park in case of non-perfection. 

1917 — Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. L., 916) — An Act To 
authorize the sale of certain lands at or near Belton, 
Montana, for hotel purposes. 

Sale of portion of a half of a quarter section at not less than $25 



ii6 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

per acre to Glacier Park Hotel Co. authorized, provided any hotel 
erected on land sold be operated under rules prescribed for hotels 
within Glacier Park. 

19 1 7 — ^Act of March 3, 19 17 (39 Stat. L., 11 22) — ^An Act 
To authorize an exchange of lands with owners of 
private holdings within the Glacier National Park. 

Authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to exchange for privately 
held lands within the park boundaries matured timber of an equal 
value on park lands, that can be removed without injury to the park ; 
or, with the assent of the Secretary of Agriculture, timber from 
the adjoining national forest. 

1917 — Act of June 12, 1917 (40 Stat. L., 105, 151) — An 
Act Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses 
of the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and eighteen, and for 
other purposes. 

Authorizes acceptance by the Secretary of the Interior of donations 
for park purposes of "buildings, money and other property which 
may be useful in the betterment of the administration and affairs 
of the Glacier National Park under his supervision." 

Rocky Mountain 

1915— Act of January 26, 1915 (38 Stat. L., 798)— An Act 
To establish the Rocky Mountain National Park in 
the State of Colorado, and for other purposes. 

[Sec. I]. That the tract of land in the State of Colorado ... is 
hereby reserved and withdrawn from settlement, occupancy, or dis- 
posal under the laws of the United States, and said tract is dedicated 
and set apart as a public park for the benefit and enjoyment of the 
people of the United States, under the name of the Rocky Mountain 
National Park: Provided, That the United States Reclamation Service 
may enter upon and utilize for flowage or other purposes any area 
within said park which may be necessary for the development and 
maintenance of a Government reclamation project. 
* * * * 

Sec. 4. That the said park shall be under the executive control 
of the Secretary of the Interior, and it shall be the duty of the said 
executive authority, as soon as practicable, to make and publish such 
reasonable rules and regulations, not inconsistent with the laws of 



LAWS 117 

the United States, as the said authority may deem necessary or 
proper for the care, protection, management, and improvement of 
the same, the said regulations being primarily aimed at the freest 
use of the said park for recreation purposes by the public and the 
preservation of the natural conditions and scenic beauties thereof. 
The said authority may, in his discretion, execute leases to parcels 
of ground not exceeding twenty acres in extent in any one place 
to any person or company for not to exceed twenty years whenever 
such ground is necessary for the erection of establishments for the 
accommodation of visitors, may grant such other necessary privileges 
and concessions as he deems wise for the accommodation of visitors, 
and may likewise arrange for the removal of such mature or dead 
or down timber as he may deem necessary and advisable for the 
protection and improvement of the park. The regulations govern- 
ing the park shall include provisions for the use of automobiles 
therein : Provided, That no appropriation for the maintenance, super- 
vision or improvement of said park in excess of $10,000 annually shall 
be made unless the same shall have first been expressly authorized 
by law.^ 

The act also provided for the non-impairment of theretofore exist- 
ing land entries; and the granting of rights of way for transporta- 
tion lines across the park by the Secretary of the Interior at his 
discretion. It also provides that privately held lands within the park 
shall not be affected by the law, and that when not inconsistent with 
primary purposes of the park the law regarding irrigational rights 
of way the act of Feb. 15, 1901 (31 Stat. L., 790) shall be applicable 
to the park. 

1917 — Act of February 14, 1917 (39 Stat. L., 916) — An Act 
To add certain lands to Rocky Mountain National 
Park, Colorado. 

1917 — Act of June 12, 1917 (40 Stat. L., 105, 152) — An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government fbr the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and eighteen, and for 
other purposes. 

See same act under Mount Rainier. 

1919— Act of March i, 1919 (40 Stat. L., 1270)— An Act 
To repeal the last proviso of Section 4 of an Act to 
establish the Rocky Mountain National Park, in the 
State of Colorado, and for other purposes, approved 
January twenty-sixth, nineteen hundred and fifteen. 
1 Proviso repealed by Act of March i, 1919 (40 Stat. L., 1271). 



ii8 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Removes $10,000 limitation on appropriations. 

Hawaii 

1916 — Act of August I, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 432) — An Ac 
To establish a national park in the Territory o 
Hawaii. 

Sets aside tracts on islands of Hawaii and Maui as a "public park c 
pleasure ground," etc., "to be known as Hawaii National Park." Pre 
vides for administration under the Secretary of the Interior, gram 
ing of leases, disposition of revenues, etc. Limits appropriatior 
to $10,000 unless express authorization be had, also provides that n 
appropriation shall be made until such perpetual easements and right 
of way over privately owned lands in the park shall be transferre 
to the United States as shall make the park reasonably accessible. 

1920 — Act of February 20, 1920 (41 Stat. L., 452) — ^An Ac 
To authorize the governor of the Territory 
Hawaii to acquire privately owned lands and right 
of way within the boundaries of the Hawaii Nations 
Park. 

Acquisition to be at the expense of Territory of Hawaii, by ex 
change or otherwise; and provisions of Section 73 of the act 
April 30, 1900, as amended by the act of May 27, 1910, regardin 
exchange of public lands, not to apply. 

Lassen Volcanic 

1916 — Act of August 9, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 442) — An Ac 
To establish the Lassen Volcanic National Park ii 
the Sierra Nevada Mountains in the State of Cal 
ifomia, and for other purposes. 

[Sec. i]. . . , That all those certain tracts ... of land . . . ar 
set aside as a public park or pleasuring-ground for the people of th 
United States. . . . 

Sec. 2. That said park shall be under the exclusive control of th 
Secretary of the Interior, whose duty it shall be, as soon as prac 
ticable, to make and publish such rules and regulations not incon 
sistent with the laws of the United States as he may deem necessar 
or proper for the care, protection, management, and improvemen 
of the same. Such regulations being primarily aimed at tiie frees 



LAWS 119 

use of said park for recreation purposes by the public and for the 
preservation from injury or spoliation of all timber, mineral deposits, 
and natural curiosities or wonders within said park and their retention 
in their natural condition as far as practicable and for the preserva- 
tion of the park in a state of nature so far as is consistent with the 
purposes of this Act. He shall provide against the wanton destruction 
of the fish and game found within said park and against their capture 
or destruction for purposes of merchandise or profit, and generally 
shall be authorized to take all such measures as shall be necessary 
to fully carry out the objects and purposes of this Act. . . . 

The act also provides against appropriations of more than $5,000 
annually unless expressly authorized. It also authorizes the Secre- 
tary of the Interior to grant leases for the accommodation of visitors 
and to exact charges for same and to sell dead, matured, and down 
timber. Trespassing is forbidden. Provisos are inserted safeguard- 
ing privately owned lands and valid preexisting entries. Reclama- 
tion Service use is permitted and provision is made for the acquisition 
of rights of way by railways, for automobile roads, etc. Lands in 
the park not to be used as a basis for claims of indemnity selection 
by corporations. 

Mount McKMey 

1917— Act of February 26, 1917 (39 Stat. L., 938)— An Act 
To establish the Mount McKinley National Park in 
the Territory of Alaska. 

Sec. I. . . . and said tract is dedicated and set apart as a public 
park for the benefit and enjoyment of the people, under the name of 
the Mount McKinley National Park. 

* * * * 

Sec. 5. That the said park shall be under the executive control 
of the Secretary of the Interior, and it shall be the duty of the said 
executive authority, as soon as practicable, to make and publish such 
rules and regulations not inconsistent with the laws of the United 
States as the said authority may deem necessary or proper for the 
care, protection, management, and improvement of the same, the said 
regulations being primarily aimed at the freest use of the said park 
for recreation purposes by the public and for the preservation of 
animals, birds, and fish and for the preservation of the natural curiosi- 
ties and scenic beauties thereof. 

* * * * 

Sec 8. That any person found guilty of violating any of the pro- 
visions of this Act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall 
be subjected to a fine of not more than $500 or imprisonment not ex- 
ceeding six months, or both, and be adjudged to pay all costs of 

the proceedings. . •• • .• 1 j 

The act also provides against the impairment of preexistmg land en- 



I20 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

tries, states that the mineral land laws shall remain in force as regards 
the park ; permits locations of rights of way under the act of February 
IS, 1901 (31 Stat. L., 790) ; establishes park as a game refuge, with 
the proviso that killing for actual food necessities is permitted; pro- 
vides for the execution of leases of not to exceed twenty acres for 
not to exceed twenty years ; and limits maintenance appropriations to 
$10,000 annually unless previously authorized by law. 

Grand Canyon 

1919 — ^Act of February 26, 1919 (40 Stat. L., 1175) — ^An Act 
To establish the Grand Canyon National Park in the 
State of Arizona. 

* * * * 

Sec. 2. That the administration, protection, and promotion of said 
Grand Canyon National Park shall be exercised, under the direction 
of the Secretary of the Interior, by the National Park Service, sub- 
ject to the provisions of the act of August twenty-fifth, nineteen 
hundred and sixteen, entitled "An Act to establish a National Park 
Service, and for other purposes" : Provided, That all concessions for 
hotels, camps, transportation, and other privileges of every kind and 
nature for the accommodation or entertainment of visitors shall be 
let at public bidding to the best and most responsible bidder.^ 

* * * * 

Sec. 4. That nothing herein contained shall affect any valid ex- 
isting claim, location, or entry under the land laws of the United 
States, whether for homestead, mineral, right of way, or any other 
purposes whatsoever, or shall affect the rights of any such claimant, 
locator, or entryman to the full use and enjoyment of his land and 
nothing herein contained shall affect, diminish, or impair the right 
and authority of the county of Coconino, in the State of Arizona, to 
levy and collect tolls for the passage of live stock over and upon the 
Bright Angel Toll Road and Trail, and the Secretary of the Interior 
is hereby authorized to negotiate with the said County of Coconino 
for the purchase of said Bright Angel Toll Road and Trail and all 
rights therein, and report to Congress at as early a date as possible 
the terms upon which the property can be procured. 

* * * * 

Sec. 6. That whenever consistent with the primary purposes of 
said park, the Secretary of the Interior is authorized, under general 
regulations to be prescribed by him, to permit the prospecting, de- 
velopment, and utilization of the mineral resources of said park upon 
such terms and for specified periods, or otherwise, as he may deem 
to be for the best interests of the United States. 

Sec. 7. That, whenever consistent with the primary purposes of 
said park, the Secretary of the Interior is authorized to permit the 

1 See Sect. 3 of Act of August 25, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 535) the National 
Park Service Act. 



LAWS 121 

utilization of areas therein which may be necessary for the develop- 
ment and maintenance of a Government reclamation project. 

The act also provides for the granting of rights of way for rail- 
roads across the park at the discretion of the Secretary of the In- 
terior ; the continuation of the existing rights of the Havasupai In- 
dians ; the revoking of the executive order creating the Grand Canyon 
National Monument ; and the exclusion of all parts of the park from 
the Grand Canyon Game Preserve. 

Lafayette 

1919 — Act of February 26, 1919 (40 Stat. L., 1178) — An Act 
To establish the Lafayette National Park in the 
State of Maine. 

Declares Sieur de Monts National Monument to be a national park 
under name of Lafayette National Park and provides for its adminis- 
tration by the National Park Service. Also authorizes the Secretary 
of the Interior to accept donations for the extension or improvement 
of the park. 

Zion 

1919 — Act of November 19, 1919 (41 Stat. L., 356) — An 
Act To establish the Zion National Park in the State 
of Utah. 

[Sec. i]. That the Zion National Monument, in the county of 
Washington, State of Utah, established and designated as a national 
monument under the act of June 8, 1906, entitled "An Act for the 
preservation of American antiquities," by presidential proclamations 
of July 31, 1909, and March 18, 1918, is hereby declared to be a 
national park and dedicated as such for the benefit and enjoyment of 
the people under the name of the Zion National Park, under which 
name the aforesaid national park shall be maintained by allotment of 
funds heretofore or hereafter appropriated for the national monu- 
ments, until such time as an independent appropriation is made there- 
for by Congress. 

Sec. 2. That the administration, protection, and promotion of 
said Zion National Park shall be exercised under the direction of 
the Secretary of the Interior by the National Park Service, subject 
to the provision of the Act of August 25, 1916, entitled "An Act to 
establish a National Park Service and for other purposes," and acts 
additional thereto or amendatory thereof. 

Hot Springs 

1832— Act of April 20, 1832 (4 Stat. L., 505)— An Act 



122 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

authorizing the governor of the Territory of Ar- 
kansas to lease the salt springs, in said territory, and 
for other purposes. 

Sec. 3. That the hot springs, in said territory, together with four 
sections of land including said springs, as near the center thereof as 
may be, shall be reserved for the future disposal of the United States, 
and shall not be entered, located, or appropriated, for any purpose 
whatever. 

1870 — Act of June 11, 1870 (16 Stat. L., 149) — An Act In 
relation to the Hot Springs Reservation in Arkansas. 

Provides for the prosecution in the Court of Claims of suits against 
the United States by persons claiming title to land in the Hot Springs 
Reservation. 

1877 — Act of March 3, 1877 (19 Stat. L., 377) — ^An Act In 
relation to the Hot Springs Reservation in the State 
of Arkansas. 

Provides for the appointment of three Commissioners to dispose of 
— by sale after appraisement — all of Hot Springs Reservation ex- 
cept an area including all the hot springs; said area to be reserved 
from sale and to remain in charge of a superintendent to be appointed 
by the Secretary of the Interior. 

The act also grants a right of way to the Hot Springs Railroad 
Company, and sets aside not to exceed five acres — from the land to be 
sold — for the use of Garland County, Arkansas, as a site for a public 
building. 

1878— Act of December 16, 1878 (20 Stat. L., 258)— An Act 
To correct an error of enrollment in bill making ap- 
propriations for sundry civil expenses of the Gov- 
ernment for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth 1879, 
and for other purposes. 

Revives and continues in force act of March 3, 1877, provides for 
the appointment of three commissioners, and prescribes rules for the 
leasing of hot water privileges. 

1880— Act of June 16, 1880 (21 Stat. L., 288)— An Act 



LAWS . 123 

For the establishment of titles in Hot Springs, and 

for other purposes. 

* * * * 

Sec. 3. That those divisions of the Hot Springs Reservation, 
known as the mountainous districts, not divided by streets on the 
maps made by the commissioners, but known and defined on the map 
and in the report of the Commissioners as North Mountain, West 
Mountain, and Sugar Loaf Mountain, be, and the same are hereby 
forever reserved from sale, and dedicated to public use as parks, to 
be known, with Hot Springs Mountain, as the permanent reservation. 

1881 — ^Act of March 3, 1881 (26 Stat. L., 842) — An Act 
To regulate the granting of leases at Hot Springs, 
Arkansas, and for other purposes. 

Grants full powers to the Secretary of the Interior in connection 
with the leasing of hot water rights, sale of lots, etc. 

1882 — Act of June 30, 1882 (22 Stat. L., 121)— An Act 
Making appropriations for the support of the Army 
for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, eighteen hun- 
dred and eighty-three, and for other purposes. 

Provides for the erection of an Army and Navy Hospital on the 
reservation at Hot Springs. 

1882— Act of July 8, 1882 (22 Stat. L., 155)— An Act To 
authorize the sale of certain lots in the city of Hot 
Springs, Arkansas, to the Women's Christian Na- 
tional Library Association. 

1887— Joint Resolution of March 3, 1887 (24 Stat. L., 
647) — ^Joint Resolution To authorize the use of hot 
water off the Government Reservation at Hot 
Springs, Arkansas. 

Authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to continue to supply hot 
water to bath houses located ofif the permanent reservation. 

1888 ^Joint Resolution of March 26, 1888 (25 Stat. L., 

6ig) — ^Joint Resolution To enable the Secretary of 



124 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

the Interior to utilize the hot water now running to 
waste on the permanent reservation at Hot Springs, 
Arkansas, and for other purposes. 

1888— Act of October 19, 1888 (25 Stat. L., 609)— An Act 
Granting the right of way for the construction of a 
railroad through the Hot Springs Reservation, State 
of Arkansas. 

Leave granted the Mountain View Railway Co., of Hot Springs, to 
build line of railway across reservation. Conditions prescribed. 
Reservation by government of right to amend, add to, alter or re- 
peal. 

1892 — Act of June 22, 1892 {2^ Stat. L., 58) — An Act To 
include lot numbered 53 in block 89, at Hot Springs, 
Arkansas, in the public reservation at that place. 

1892 — Act of July 14, 1892 (27 Stat. L., 174) — ^An Act To 
grant lot numbered' one in block numbered 72 of the 
Hot Springs Reservation to the school district of 
the city of Hot Springs for school purposes. 

1892 — Act of August 5, 1892 (27 Stat. L., 373) — ^An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Ciovernment for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, eighteen hundred and ninety-three, and for 
other purposes. 

Provision made for improvement of reservation and to make same 
available as a reservoir to retain flood waters of Hot Springs Creek. 

1893 — Act of December 21, 1893 (28 Stat. L., 21) — An Act 
Granting the right of way for the construction of a 
railroad and other improvements over and on the 
West Mountain of the Hot Springs Reservation, 
Hot Springs, Arkansas. 

Grants right of way to George W. Baxter et al as well as hotel 
privilege and use of five acres on reservation for a park. Rental 



LAWS 125 

of two per cent on gross earnings per annum to be paid to Secretary 
ot Interior, who has supervision over rates to be charged. Right 
to alter, amend, etc., reserved by Congress. 

1894— Act of June 21, 1894 (28 Stat. L., 95)— An Act 
Granting the use of certain lands in the Hot Springs 
Reservation, in the State of Arkansas, to the Barry 
Hospital. 

Use only granted. Fee retained by the Government and right to 
resume possession. 

1894— Act of August 7, 1894 (28 Stat. L., 263)— An Act 
Authorizing the Secretary of the Interior to grant 
leases for sites on the Hot Springs Reservation, 
Arkansas, for cold water reservoirs. 

Lease to Hot Springs Water Co., or any other person or corpora- 
tion authorized for not to exceed twenty years. Renewal for like 
period allowed. 

1894— Act of August 9, 1894 (28 Stat. L., 274)— An Act To 
authorize sale of lot eight, block ninety-three, city 
of Hot Springs, by school directors thereof, and use 
of proceeds for school purposes. 

1894 — Act of August II, 1894 (28 Stat. L., 1004) — An Act 
For the relief of Henry James residing in the orig- 
inal Hot Springs Reservation, in the State of Ar- 
kansas. 

Right granted to purchase improved lot. 

1896 — Act of February 15, 1896 (29 Stat. L., 7) — An Act 
To extend the time for the completion of the incline 
railway on West Mountain, Hot Springs Reserva- 
tion. 

Three years extension of time granted. Act of December 21, 1893 
continued in full force and effect. 

1898 — Act of March 19, 1898 (30 Stat. L., 329) — An Act Re- 



126 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

lating to leases on the Hot Springs Reservation, and 
for other purposes. 

Secretary of the Interior granted discretionary power for granting 
of leases and privileges. 

1898— Act of May 9, 1898 (30 Stat. L., 403)— An Act 
Authorizing the Supreme Lodge of the Knights of 
Pythias to erect and maintain a sanitarium and bath- 
house on the Government reservation, at the city of 
Hot Springs, Arkansas. 

Rights granted to continue for not to exceed ninety-nine years sub- 
ject to certain conditions, non-fulfillment of which cause forfeiture to 
the Government. 

1900 — Act of February 10, 1900 (31 Stat. L., 28) — An Act 
To amend section 4 of the Act of Congress ap- 
proved June 16, 1880, granting to the city of Hot 
Springs, Arkansas, certain lands as a city park, and 
for other purposes. 

Original grant made more liberal provided municipality relin- 
quishes title to a lot desired by Government for administrative pur- 
poses. 

igoo — Act of March 26, 1900 (31 Stat. L., 51) — ^An Act To> 
extend the time for the completion of the incline 
railway on West Mountain, Hot Springs Reserva- 
tion. 

A further extension of three years granted. 

1901 — Act of March 3, 1901 (31 Stat. L., 1133, 1188) — ^An 
Act Making appropriations ior .sundry civil ex- 
penses of the Government for the fiscal year ending 
June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and two, and for 
other purposes. 

Payment of certain claims for value of condemned houses on reser- 
vation after investigation made authorized. 



LAWS 127 

1903— Act of January 30, 1903 (32 Stat. L., 788)— An Act 
To extend the time for the completion on the incline 
railway on West Mountain, Hot Springs, .Reserva- 
tion. 

Extension of one year granted. 

1904— Act of April 12, 1904 (33 Stat. L., 173)— An Act 
To amend an act approved December 16, 1878, and 
to authorize the Secretary of the Interior to grant 
additional water rights to hotels and bathhouses 
at Hot Springs, Arkansas, and for other purposes. 

Restriction to specified number of tubs as provided by previous 
act done away with and authority given Secretary of the Interior 
to grant privileges for as many tubs as he deems proper and hot 
water will justify. 

1904 — ^Act of April 20, 1904 (33 Stat. L., 187) — An Act 
Conferring jurisdiction upon United States Com- 
missioners over offenses committed in a portion of 
the permanent Hot Springs Mountain Reservation, 
Arkansas. 

Acceptance of jurisdiction conferred by Arkansas legislature by the 
act -of February 21, 1903, reserving taxing and process rights to 
State. The act further places the reservation within the federal 
district for Eastern Arkansas; prescribes punishments for offenses, 
including the illegal prescribing and using of the waters ; defines the 
powers of United States commissioners ; and provides rules regarding 
issue of process by commissioners, etc. 

1906 — Act of May 23, 1906 (34 Stat. L., 198) — ^An Act To 
change the line of the reservation at Hot Springs, 
Arkansas, and of Reserve Avenue. 

1907 — Act of March 2, 1907 (34 Stat. L., 1218) — An Act 
To amend an Act entitled "An Act conferring juris- 
diction upon United States commissioners over of- 
fenses committed in a portion of the permanent Hot 
Springs Mountain Reservation, Arkansas," approved 
April 20, 1904. 



128 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Clarifies the phraseology of the act of April 20, 1904. 

1908 — Act of April 30, 1908 (35 Stat. L., 98) — An Act To 
confer title in fee and to authorize the disposition 
of certain lots now situate on Hot Springs Reserva- 
tion, in the State of Arkansas, and for other pur- 
poses. 

Grants certain lots on Hot Springs Reservation to school district 
of Hot Springs and repeals all laws or parts of laws in conflict there- 
with. 

1910 — Act of March 12, 1910 (36 Stat. L., 235) — An Act 
Granting unto the Hot Springs Street Railway Com- 
pany, its successors and assigns, the right to main- 
tain and operate its electric railway along the North- 
em border of that portion of the Hot Springs Res- 
ervation, in the State of Arkansas, known as the 
Whittington Lake Reserve Park. 

Grants right of way during existence of franchise granted by city 
of Hot Springs, and reserves right to alter, amend, or repeal. 

1910 — Act of June 25, 1910 (36 Stat. L., 844) — ^An Act 
Granting to the city of Hot Springs, Arkansas, land 
for street purposes. 

191 1 — ^Act of Feb. 15, 191 1 (36 Stat. L., 906) — ^An Act Au- 
thorizing the Hot Springs Lodge, numbered sixty- 
two, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, under the 
jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Arkansas, to oc- 
cupy and construct buildings for the use of the or- 
ganization on lots numbered i and 2, in block num- 
bered 114, in the city of Hot Springs, Arkansas. 

Lots granted for the erection of a Masonic home, to be completed 
in five years. Lots to revert to Government if home not built in 
five years or if any other use ever made o£ premises than one 
originally contemplated. 

191 1— Act of March 2, 191 1 (36 Stat. L., 1015)— An Act 



LAWS 129 

Limiting the privileges of the Government free bath- 
house on the public reservation at Hot Springs, Ar- 
kansas, to persons who are without and unable to 
obtain the means to pay for baths. 

Requires an oath as to indigency and provides penalty for false 
swearing. 

191 1— Act of March 3, 191 1 (36 Stat. L., 1086)— An Act 
To amend section one of the act approved March 2, 
1907, being an act to amend an Act entitled "An 
Act Conferring jurisdiction upon United States Com- 
missioners over offenses committed on a portion of 
the permanent Hot Springs Mountain Reservation, 
Arkansas." 

Amends Sec. 1 of the Act of March 2, 1907 to read as follows: 
That any United States Commissioner duly appointed by the United 
States district court for the eastern district of Arkansas, and residing 
in said district, shall have power and jurisdiction to hear and act 
upon all complaints made of any and all violations of said Act of 
Congress approved April twentieth, nineteen hundred and four. 

1912 — ^Act of June 3, 1912 (37 Stat. L., 121) — ^An Act Au- 
thorizing the Leo N. Levi Memorial Hospital As- 
sociation to occupy and construct buildings for the 
use of the corporation in lots numbered 3 and 4, 
block numbered 114, in the city of Hot Springs, 
Arkansas. 

Similar to Masonic grant, supra. 

1912 — ^Act of August 21, 1912 (37 Stat. L., 322) — An Act 
Authorizing the city of Hot Springs, Arkansas, to 
occupy and construct buildings for the use of the 
fire department of said city on lot numbered 3, block 
numbered 115, in the city of Hot Springs, Arkansas. 

Similar to Masonic grant, supra. 

1912— Act of August 24, 1912 {Z7 Stat. L., 457)— An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses 



I30 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

of the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and thirteen, and for 
other purposes. 

Authorizes and directs Secretary of the Interior to make a sur- 
vey of the sewer system of the city of Hot Springs abutting the 
Hot Springs Reservation, Arkansas. 

Authorizes Secretary of Interior to lease Arlington Hotel property 
in Hot Springs for not to exceed twenty years, and makes provision 
as to valuation of improvements made by lessee under expiring lease. 

1916 — ^Act of July 8, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 351) — ^An Act Au- 
thorizing the Secretary of the Interior to furnish 
hot water from the hot springs on the Hot Springs 
Reservation for drinking and bathing purposes free 
of cost to the Leo N. Levi Memorial Hospital Asso- 
ciation. 

Authorization made subject to proviso that hospital accept and 
treat emergency patients free of charge. 

1920 — Act of June 5, 1920 (41 Stat. L., 918) — ^An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and twenty-one, and for 
other purposes. 

Unexpended balance of appropriation for fiscal year 1919 reappro- 
priated and made available for fiscal year 1921 ; and Secretary of the 
Interior authorized to expend same for buildings and to accept sites 
which may be donated for same in city of Hot Springs. The Secre- 
tary also authorized to charge physicians, masseurs and bath at- 
tendants prescribing or using waters from the reservation fees for 
the exercise of those privileges. 

192 1— Act of March 4, 192 1 (41 Stat. L., 1407) — ^An Act 
Making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and twenty-one, and for 
other purposes. 



Hereafter the Hot Springs Reservation shall be known as the Hot 
Springs National Park. 



APPENDIX s 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 
Explanatory Note 

Statements showing appropriations, receipts, expenditures 
and other financial data for a series of years constitute the 
most effective single means of exhibiting the growth and 
development of a service. Due to the fact that Congress 
has adopted no uniform plan of appropriation for the several 
services and the latter employ no uniform plan in respect 
to the recording and reporting of their receipts and expendi- 
tures, it is impossible to present data of this character accord- 
ing to any standard scheme of presentation. In the case of 
some services the administrative reports contain tables show- 
ing financial conditions and operations of the service in con- 
siderable detail; in others financial data are almost wholly 
lacking. Careful study has in all cases been made of such 
data as are available, and the effort has been made to present 
the results in such a form as will exhibit the financial opera- 
tions of the services in the most effective way that circum- 
stances permit. 

Under the organic act establishing most of the parks the 
Department of the Interior had authority to expend the rev- 
enues of these parks in the discretion of the Secretary or his 
duly authorized representative. Since 1918 the revenues of 
all the parks, with the exception of Hot Springs have been 
covered into the Treasury, and no expenditures of these 
amounts have been made without the authorization of Con- 
gress. Up to and including 19 18 the appropriations to the 
parks were made under the Department of the Interior and 

131 



132 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

the War Department. Since that date all appropriations have 
been made under the Department of the Interior with the ex- 
ception of SuIIys Hill Park which receives appropriations 
under the Department of Agriculture. In addition the Na- 
tional Park Service benefits from the appropriation to the De- 
partment of the Interior for "contingent expenses" of the de- 
partment. 

In the table immediately following the "appropriations to 
the national parks" include only the regular appropriations 
made by Congress, but do not include the revenues of the 
parks. No account is taken of certified claims which are gen- 
erally small. In the statement showing expenditures the items 
are figured on the accrual basis, with the exception of 1920 
which is figured on the cash basis, and include the amounts 
spent out of the revenues and out of the regular appropriations 
of the parks. The item "additional compensation" includes 
the bonus received by the National Park Service in Washing- 
ton and in the field. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



133 



a 

•3 

5 



(d! 

^* 
o 

<!: 
g 








Oi 


♦ 




















* 


o* 


« 


Is 


IT? 


* 

s 


10 

0. 





M 


i 




0.3 







-* 


M 







^ 


^" 


«■ 


« 


« 




v> 




Jl 























.a 






















c 


•-• 


















£.1 
















»tC 


4 


»n 






»o 


m 


>c 


0. 
< 


4» 




« 




<o 




« 






o o 
o o 
o tn 



o o 
O m 
o N. 



fOfO 



■tf- 0> \0 M 

*i »n di li 

« ■•t 00 00 

ko m 00 M 



r) 00 « 
%o rs o 
■n to ko 



OtOO 

dioo 



> 3 



E.g 



IN.O 

fn d 

\0 HI 

(S.O 














00 


00 










M 








»'> 










•: * 


« 









o « 
o -« 

\0 Tf 









M 




M 










M 
































Oi 


<n 


»o 


w 




o\ 


W 


c 


p) • 






• a 


Ci xb 




l« 


to . »n 


in 




d 




vd 


to 
























00 





VI 


n 




•n 




0>tO 


r 








.*£ 


c 






VI . t<k 


















m 


0»'* 


c 


o» . 


















































m 






c* 






«o 












M 




















ro 
















CO 




W*" 






«n 


















• 














* 


w- 






















































IT, 










vo 


* 


\D 


ts. 


00 


vt 


»o 






N • W 














, 




•« 






vi 














M * M 



























<4 


in 






(O 


MtO 
























«n 


n 


d 






»n 

• 


M 


U 




00 . , 








to 
en 




' 





































at 


^c 


























° 


c 




















1= 






: d 




























g 












c 




^ 








































y. 










CO 




» 







Ho 


c 














*C 








9 • Vi 







M 


V) 




00 


« 






■* 

























in 




><«> 




(O 


w> 


































































< 











































s 



5.2 B 

i1s° 






(O 



Cv ••= 



« :— r-a 



!3r> d^ 

S.2 g^'Eri 

cB»0 41'*' O*^ 

S5<>< >• 






:'a :j« :j< 

:-a :iS :£ 



a :S 



IS 
u 



OS 

s a 



e . 

U 

u a 



S!5 :» 



S (5 






I'm I JSs?^ '"rt • '."a 

.0 .g ;,o . ..o 

• ♦J • . . «< 'jfl *i 

•0- -.5 ••3.a 

• "i — — ■ 2 'e S 
••o O M— • B ■<= u- 



:g :z; 



■■e -e 

: g.2 :p3 _. : I 



illliligLi 

S u ij nS ;z: 



134 



THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 




!zi S ca 



osS. a ftoo 

E£ MB «j Eh nw. 
u n n C V)Xi u » V 

a|2 = B = |'^3§, 

mQ u u c Si K o g S' 



FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



135 



B U 

« b 
as 







It 




h 


6 : 
8. : 










< 






m 



0000 
0000 
ddoddododbdodddodo 
ooooooooooooo 00000 
oooooonin^u-iooo 00000 
O O Uivo vo o »o tC»0 ts 10 10 o row o *o o 

m O OnOO 10 M m t^VO M O C4 H 

to n M M M 



K* 

M 



otnooovoooooooooo 
o*o ooooooooooooo© 


• txO 

• 






■***iino inor>o«oooo_oo»o 
fC ih'vo n iCvo inoio»n"*0**nO « «" 
n moo to ■* « « ■* 


' d in d d 

: 000 
. ° ° "- 0. * 

• 000 «n« 
•VO « 00 






AAA 












m 



o 



>0 m O \0 N (^ OiVO (OOO Oi "tl- o ^ rt 
^tvtOOiMOOOO vitn ■*^0 O O «^- m 

^\d 00 n CAvd NOidvd dtdd '4'tC. 

VtOO COtN."***0(0 t^OO vnoQ O w ■* 

m ncx) Ox <ooo ot^M o\0>o>o Oit^ 



• o * -a • 
. o r* -^o ■ 

: d di : « ; 

O "- . N . 

.00; . O; . 

• o o> • ■^ • 



gm^owoooooooooo • 

r>.\o o>->oooooooooo • 

d\d^ddidddv)dodooo ' 

«00«O'*OOO«OOOOOiO , 

NtO»noC0OO»nNOOOOOts. . 

pf '*VO d"^ m^ N 00 -^ *^\o *n o - 
fi-^-Novon WN "^ '-' 
ton M 



o o 

O O 

o o 




CO 

a 



. i-> » 

01 O " J 

rt'g.rt UJ3 o 
o n *^«H u 

5* &■- „« !; 

4^**^ ^.rs o p 
S b5 ° S 



1.S '• Sli c 



„* « e s&o 

m o *^ o« o H 

So S£ d o a 
. o g-M S g p 

£ MIS tS ta m h 
«£J U U V V 41 g 

■gg "eg go 

^ M A V « « *« 



136 



THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



tvoo ini-)0\tnooooooo 
Ot^M M*OVC> OOtOO 00 

00 d n n dvod OModddodooooin^Mdoo 
^vno^M ^momoooooooooo ooo ^mooo 
n o tn\o 00 m o w ■* ■^vo m o "n 10 o o o 00 w -^ o o o 
^d" M cT t^ ■* Si^o ■* «o*o dl pTno" cT ion o moo « »^ w m o 
rs ■* &00 Oi »n *o ■^oo r«.i-iM)ioit o^ww-* mm 

ctoo M M '^ r^in M M r* M (^ 

^« M 



M 
U 

> 

en 

Ui 
PS 

O 



ovo 
o o 
o m 
00 



00 ^ ON n OvOO OtOOOOOOOOOOOUi^MOOO 
-ifviOtM-^ino^O OODOOO oooooo^mooo 
*n Oj mvo 00 '^ O. O; ^ ** in o in in o o o 00 W ^ o_ o O 

vd" dl pT « ■* wvd" n lC^d' dl 
rs, fs otOO Oi ui Ov t« in ts. M 

«VO M M ^ ^W MM 

M « M 



i 



■2 -a 



n n M ni 

.2„ <«J<^ a =— -. • 
P-^^ Sn" 0.2 S-a^ » 
,!! or-w 15 « 2 S ° h! 

is GrS rtS"^ c3'43 sPh « „^ 

l^«Z5«S5S„"g'^g-5 



IS 



''■a-i-g 



S o M s: 



V a 

^ is 
iiSaE^g 

I s cg-2' 






rt'^'S 0.2 a « a cSrt"* = S*3'S^ d S ft o 
.2 S n fli's f*** u «. F^'si d**— w^rS? e o d 



llilli|l||ifii 






3 
^ 



.2.2 u-o „ 

^<„ a 5 
■E^xaS 

2 Eft* 
Sals 

wa £^ ^ 

.3-3.2? * 

•o S h ^ 
a 0, o 

U N h nn 

.S3,|«" 

■o - " « ^ 

90S O 3 

OaooM-g 

*^ M M n 
III V s^ 

■a " B "», 



STATISTICS OF VISITORS 



137 



O O tstnviQOVO (^ O O NOD 
o m\o ^i^nooto o o^ 



10 ■* CO m «" M^O foine* «" 

rj W •-• *-t CO M 



O tNNoo ■rh'^'OOvO o fom 



C4 



o m iH covo o o oo o o o o 

O o iH to M <*3 moo O C<) (H o 

o to to d «" o ^ *o cTci ^ 
to« 



« 



ei 



N 



N 



O VI ts. OkOO o o t^ o O O 
OtvOHtN-OOOOOOtiO 

O »n •*\o H. o O «o O^ H N , 
d" d» pT to woo »o to>o« 



^ moo 0\v C<^ M o o\\o < 
^_^ moo w (^ Oj "^ N^ O iH M . 

t-> ti w m^ tomn 



n M o (o\o wi •-> o o o 
^mtnts.M »Nts.o moo 
m N 00 *^oo *i. »^ O *^ M 
< Oi w 00 M « m ro*^ « 



S 




138 



THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



^ 



Oj\o p) m fo *N.^ *^ ® *!. *^ ^ '^ t o ^00 o\ 
o^ M 00 ►; o »noo 00 o ov dv w wo o « cC ol cT 



<000 N 0( VQ uiM C4 V 



n dl woo" divo o tsoo d! « «i o * w« tCuTm 



o'-<*r>**^«««Mo\o«i^*« o mo 

OsVO ■^'O ts. rs ■* w O-M *"00 » O ^ O 
o pT d"oo tH inO'^ lO ^00 (<4 Oi* tl « rC -^ 



O <0 M tS.\D MMMO«iO«t^ O 

oi^.oo»ovOt*jmooooo»not o 
O •-^»'> fQwi Wro ^VO ^*M i-t « (>) 4 



ooooooomno k^ m»o o 

O O « M ft*0 tJ-^OoOONOO o 

o ■* «n »n <o tn\o ts^ o^ p) *^ P) « tn 
in inoo tF K in w "O »o cToo N tC«^{xr« 
cortMtowi*>>ii-in *^ ws^ \- 



00>o ooauioo oS^mo 
^■*oo m\ooo\o O O 0^0° o 
tsoo ^s (o PQ o; N^ o o Ji^oo (^ o^_^ 
oowotoinfoprdlo J"*^ M tMa tt 



o tnlst^ M^ M JS.O O >n»oo 
00*'*»OPlVOIs.M oo«« o 
ooo vo ■* »n w «oo o o w,'o o 
«w*sTod'inM'ci''d'tN"* »J 






n n I. 



■MM 

n ^M 



bS-j< 




STATISTICS OF VISITORS 



139 



ovoooooomooooo 
ooooooovoooooo 

ONioOOm-^ OlsOOO 
M\0 >fl K « ■^ »C fO t^^O vi m" 
A A .a A A °° A '^A A A 



000 •OO^s^OOOO 
O (4 O • O O tNVO O Ot O O 



A "a A ■ 



0*N.0-''O*'0'. 
OtNO.*'0*'0*» 
%n\0 O • • • N • • O • • 










> 

o 



3% 



APPENDIX 7 

BIBLIOGRAPHY ^ 
Explanatory Note 

The bibliographies appended to the several monographs aim 
to list only those works which deal directly with the services 
to which they relate, their history, activities, organization, 
methods of business, problems, etc. They are intended pri- 
marily to meet the needs of those persons who desire to make 
a further study of the services from an administrative stand- 
point. They thus do not include the titles of publications 
of the services themselves, except in so far as they treat of 
the services, their work and problems. Nor do they include 
books or articles dealing merely with technical features other 
than administrative of the work of the services. In a few 
cases explanatory notes have been appended where it was 
thought they would aid in making known the character or 
value of the publication to which they relate. 

After the completion of the series, the bibliographies 
may be assembled and separately published as a bibliography 
of the Administrative Branch of the National Govern- 
ment. 

Bibliographies 

U. S. Dept. of the interior. Government publications on 

. . . national parks [Washington, Govt, print, off., 19 16 — 

A two-page list of goverment publications has been 

1 Compiled by M. Alice Matthews. 

141 



142 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

issued (1916) for each of the following national parks: 
Crater Lake, Glacier, Mesa Verde, Mount .Rainier, Rocky 
Mountain, Sequoia and General Grant, Yellowstone and the 
Yosemite. These lists are issued primarily for distribution 
to tourists in the parks. 
List of national park publications. [Washing- 



ton, Govt, print, off., 1912] 27 p. incl. map. 

Bibliography of each park is in 3 sections: government 
publications ; books ; magazine articles. 

Magazine articles on national parks, reservations 

and monuments. [Washington, Govt, print, off., 191 1] 

IS P- 

National park publications. (In its Progress in 



the development of the national parks . . . Washington, 
Govt, print, off., 1916. p. 36-9) 

— National park service. Bibliography of books and mag- 
azine articles on national park subjects. (In its Report, 
1917, p. 231-49; 1918, p. 249-60; 1919, p. 335-47) 

National park pubhcations. (In its Report, 1920. 



pp. 394-99) 
Superintendent of documents. Geography and explor- 
ations, natural wonders, scenery and national parks: list 
of publications relating to above subjects for sale by Sup- 
erictendent of documents. Washington, Govt, print, off., 
1921. 19 p. (Price Hst 35, 6th ed.) 

Official Publications 

Uniform rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretaries 
of the interior, agriculture, and war to carry out the pro- 
visions of the "Act for the preservation of American an- 
tiquities," approved June 8, 1906. [Washington, Govt, 
print, off., 1906] 3 p. 

U. S. Biological survey. National reservation for the pro- 
tection of wild life. By T. S. Palmer. [Washington. 
Govt, print off., 1912] 32 p. (Its Circular no. 87) 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 143 

"Of the 16 national parks, 10 may properly be considered 
game refuges." 

Bibliography : National game preserves and other refuges ; 
National bird reservations, pp. 21-9. 

Report of the chief of the Bureau of biological 



survey, 1906— Washington, Govt, print, off., 1907- 



[Contains annual review of the progress of game protection in 
the national parks and elsewhere] 

Bureau of fisheries. Report of the commissioner. . . . 



Washington, Govt, print, off., 1873- 



The Bureau of fisheries cooperates in stocking the streams 
and lakes in the national parks. Fish hatcheries are main- 
tained in some of them. 
-Congress. House. Committee on appropriations. Sun- 



dry civil appropriation bill, 1922. Hearings . . . Wash- 
ington, Govt, print, off., 1920. 

"National park service," pp. 1928-2058. 

Committee on military affairs. Mammoth 



Cave national park. Hearing . . . on H. R. 1666, estab- 
lishing the Mammoth Cave national park [Feb. i, 1912] 
Washington, Govt, print, off., 1912. 26 p. 

Committee on public lands. [Hearings and re- 



ports, arranged chronologically] 

Hearings. . . . January 11, 1905, for pres- 



ervation of prehistoric ruins on the public lands. Creation 
of the Pajarito cliff dwellers national park in New Mexico 
and the Mesa Verde national park in Colorado, also full 
text of each bill as reported by the Committee, the same 
being S. 5603, H. R. 7269 and 5986. . . . Washington, 
Govt, print, off., 1905. 39 p. 

Prehistoric ruins on public lands. Report 



to accompany S. 5603 [for preservation of historic and pre- 
historic ruins, monuments, archaeological objects and other 
antiquities] Jan. 19, 1905. Washington, Govt, print, off., 



144 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

1905. 10 p. (58th Cong., 3d sess. House. Rept. 3704) 

Serial 4761 
To authorize Secretary of the interior to make temporary 
withdrawal of land containing such ruins . . . and to have 
care and custody of same. Bibliography: p. 8-10. 

Preservation of American antiquities. Re- 



port to accompany H. R. 11016. Mar. 12, 1906. [Wash- 
ington, Govt, print, oflf., 1906] 8 p. (59th Cong., ist 
sess. House. Rept. 2224) Serial 4906 

[Contains a list of ruins grouped in various districts, which were 
thought of sufficient historic and scientific interest and scenic 
beauty to warrant their organization into permanent national 
parks] 

. . . Glacier national park . . . Report 



[To accompany S. 5648] [Washington, Govt, print, off., 
1909] 6 p. (60th Cong., 2d sess. House. Rept. 2100) 

Serial 5384. 
San Francisco and Hetch Hetchy reservoir, 



hearings Jan. 9 — [21 J 1909, on H. J. R. 223 [to allow city 
and county of San Francisco to exchange lands for reservoir 
sites in Lake Eleanor and Hetch Hetchy valleys in Yosem- 
ite national park, etc.] Washington, Govt, print, off., 
1909. 426 p. 

. . . Glacier national park, Mont. . . . 

Report. [To accompany S. 2777] . . . [Washington, 
Govt, print, off., 1910] 6 p. (6ist Cong., 2d sess. House. 
Rept. 767) Serial 5592. 

. . . Glacier national park, Mont. . . . Re- 
port. [To accompany H. R. 1679] [Washington, Govt, 
print, off., 1912] II p. (62d Cong., 2d sess. House. Rept. 
812) Serial 6132. 

Establishment of a National park service. 

Hearing . . . on H. R. 22995, a bill to establish a national 
park service, and for other purposes, Wednesday, April 
24, 1912. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1912. 34 p. 

Tioga road in Yosemite national park. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 145 

Hearings before the subcommittee. . . . March 18, 1912, 
on H. R. 21718 and 21719. Statements by Hon. John B. 
Curtin . . . and Mr. Aldis B. Browne . . . Washington, 
Govt, print, off., 19 12. 19 p. 

Western boundary of Yosemite national 

park. Hearings . . . March 20, 1912 on H. ,R. 21954. 
Statement of Hon. John B. Curtin, of Sonora, Cal. Wash- 
ington, Govt, print, off., 1912. 13 p. 

Yosemite national park. Hearing on 21535 

. . . March 20, 1912. [Washington, Govt, print, off., 
1912] 6 p. 

-■ National park service. Hearing ... on 

H. R. 104, a bill to establish a National park service and for 
other purposes. April 29, 1914. Washington, Govt, print, 
off., 1914. 81 p. 

1 Rocky Mountain national park. Hear- 
ing ... on S. 6309, a bill to establish the Rocky Mountain 
national park in the State of Colorado, and for other pur- 
poses. Washington, Govt, print, off., 191 5. 75 p. 

. . . Rocky Mountain national park, Col- 
orado . . . Report. [To accompany S. 6309] [Wash- 
ington, Govt, print, off., 1915] 48 P- (63d Cong., 3d 
sess. House. Rept. 1275) Serial 6766 

. . . Lassen volcanic national park . . . 



Report. [To accompany H. R. 348] [Washington, Govt, 
print, off., 1916] 24 p. (64th Cong., ist sess. House. 
Rept. 749) Serial 6905 

National park in the territory of Hawaii. 

Hearing . . . on H. R. 9525 . . . Feb. 3, 1916. Wash- 
ington, Govt, print, off., 1916. 30 p. 

National park service. Hearing ... on 



H. R. 434 and H. R. 8668, bills to establish a national park 
service and for other purposes, April 5 and 6, 19 16. Wash- 
ington, Govt, print, off., 1916. 186 p. 

. . . National park service. . . . Report 

[To accompany H. R. 15522] [Washington, Govt, print. 



146 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

off., 1916] 7 p. (64th Cong., 1st sess. House. Rept. 700) 

Serial 6904 
Mt. Baker national park, Washington. Re- 



port to accompany H. R. 9805. [Washington, Govt, print, 
off., 1917] 8 p. (64th Cong., 2d sess. House. Rept. 
1372) Sericil 71 10 

Mt. McKinley national park, Alaska. Re- 
port to accompany S. 5716. [Washington, Govt, print, 
off., 1917] 2 p. (64th Cong., 2d sess. House. Rept. 1273). 

Serial 71 10 

Sawtooth national park, Idaho. Report to 



accompany H. R. 6799. Washington, Govt, print, off., 
1917. II p. plates. (64th Cong., 2d sess. House. Rept. 
1356) Serial 71 10 

Grand Canyon national park. Report to 



accompany S. 390, Oct. 18, 1918. Washington, Govt, print, 
off., 1918. ID p. (65th Cong., 2d sess. House. ,Rept 
832) Serial 7308 

Change name of Sequoia national park to 

Roosevelt national park. Report to accompany S. 2021. 
[Washington, Govt, print, off., 1919] 6, 7 p. (65th 
Cong., 3d sess. House. Rept. 1063) Serial 7455 

Lafayette national park. Report to accom- 



pany S. 4957. [Washington, Govt, print, off., 19 19] 5 p. 

(66th Cong., 3d sess. House. Rept. 932) Serial 7454 
Zion national park. Report to accompany 

S. 425. [Washington, Govt, print, off., 1919] 3 p. 

(66th Cong., 1st sess. House. .Rept. 262) Serial 7593 
National redwood park. Report to accom- 



pany H. Res. 159. [Washington, Govt, print, off., 1920] 
2 p. (66th Cong., 2d sess. House. Rept. 871) 

Serial 7656 
Senate. Committee on public lands. . . . Pres- 
ervation of historic and prehistoric ruins, etc. Hear- 
ings before the subcommittee of the Committee on public 
lands . . . consisting of Senators Fulton (chairman), 



BIBUOGRAPHY 147 

Bard, and Newlands, on the bill (S. 4127) ... and the 
bill (S. 5603) . . . April 28, 1904— Washington, Govt, 
print, off., 1904. 30 p. (58th Cong., 2d sess. Senate. Doc. 
no. 314) Serial 4592 

... To establish Glacier national park in 

Montana . . . Report. [To accompany S. 5648] [Wash- 
ington, Govt, print, off., 1908] 5 p. plates, fold. map. 
(60th Cong., 1st sess. Senate. Rept. 580) 

Serial 5219 

Hetch Hetchy reservoir site, Hearing [Feb. 

10, 12, 1909] on S. J. R. 123, to allow city and county of 
San Francisco to exchange lands for reservoir sites in Lake 
Eleanor and Hetch Hetchy valleys in Yosemite national 
park [etc.] Washington, Govt, print, off., 1909. 160 p. 

. . . Glacier national park in Montana . . . 

Report. [To accompany S. 2777] . . . [Washington, 
Govt, print, off., 1910] 5 p. 10 pi., fold, map. (6ist 
Cong., 2d sess. Senate. Rept. 106) Serial 5582 

Bureau of national parks. Hearing . . . 

on S. 3463, a bill to establish a bureau oi national parks 
and for other purposes. April 17, 1912. . . . Washington, 
Govt, print, off., 1912. 9 p. 

[Statement of Walter L. Fisher, Secretary of the Interior] 

Bureau of national parks. Report. To 



accompany S. 3463. [Washington, Govt, print, off., 1912] 

6 p. (62d Cong., 2d sess. Senate. .Rept. 676) 

Serial 6121 
. . . Lassen volcanic national park. . . . 

Report. [To accompany H. R. 348] [Washington, Govt. 

print, off., 1916] 23 p. (64th Cong., ist sess. Senate. 

Rq)t. 536) Serial 6899 

Appended is House report no. 749, 64th Cong., ist sess. 

Report to accompany H. R. 348. 
. . . National park service. . . . Report. 



148 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

[To accompany H. R. 15522] [Washington, Govt, print. 

ofif., 1916] 4 p. (64th Cong., 1st sess. Senate. Rept. 

662) Serial 6899 

Grand Canyon national park, Arizona. .Re- 



port to accompany S. 8250. [Washington, Govt, print, 
off., 1917] 3 p. (64th Cong., 2d sess. Senate. Rept. 
1082) Serial 7106 

Grand Canyon national park. Report to ac- 
company S. 390. . . . [Washington, Govt, print off., 1918] 
3 p. (65th Cong., 2d sess. Senate. Kept. 321) 

Serial 7304 

Lafayette national park. Report to accom- 



pany S. 4957. [Washington, Govt, print, off., 1918] i p. 

(65th Cong., 2d sess. Senate. Rept. 576) Serial 7304 
Mount Desert national park. Me. Report 

to accompany S. 4569. [Washington, Govt, print, off., 

19 18] 2 p. (65th Cong., 2d sess. Senate. Rept. 503) 

Serial 7304 
Sequoia national park. Report to accom- 



pany S. 2021. [Washington, Govt, print, off., 1919] 4 
p. (6sth Cong., 3d sess. Senate. Rept. 647) 

Serial 7452 
Zion national park, Utah. Report to ac- 
company S. 425. [Washington, Govt, print, off., 1919] 
2 p. (66th Cong., 1st sess. Senate. Rept. 22) 

Serial 7590 
Acceptance of cession of jurisdiction of 



Yosemite, Sequoia, and General Grant national parks, Calif. 

Report to accompany H. R. 12044. Washington, Govt. 

print, off., 1920. I p. (66th Cong., 2d sess. Senate. 

Rept. 590) Serial 7649 
Roosevelt national park. .Report to accom- 
pany S. 1 39 1. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1920. 4 p. 

(66th Cong., 2d sess. Senate. Rept. 452) Serial 7649 

— Dept. of the interior. [Publications relating to national 

parks in general] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 149 

Annual reports of the Department of the inte- 
rior . . . [with accompanying documents] Washington, 
Govt, print, off., [etc.] 1849-19 — ^plates, ports, maps (part 
fold.) fold, plans, fold, tables. 

Up to 1915 these reports included the annual reports of the 
superintendents of the various parks. In 1915 the report 
of the General superintendent and landscape engineer pre- 
ceded the reports of the superintendents. In 191 6, ex- 
cerpts from reports of supervisors of national parks were 
printed with the first annual report of the Superintendent 
of national parks. 

Annual report of the Superintendent of national 



parks to the Secretary of the interior for the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1916. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1916. 
89 p. 

[The Superintendent of national parks was the successor of the 
General superintendent and landscape engineer of national parks] 

Improvement and management of national parks. 



Letter from the Secretary of the treasury, transmitting a 
copy of a communication from the Secretary of the interior 
relating to the administration of the appropriations for the 
improvement and management of national parks, and sub- 
mitting an item of legislation relating thereto. [Wash- 
ington, Govt, print, off., 1916] 22 p. incl. tables. (64th 
Cong., I St sess. House. Doc. 515) Serial 7098 

National park conference, ist, Yellowstone national park, 
Sept. 11-12, 191 1. Proceedings of the first National park 
conference . . . Washington, Govt, print, off., 1912. 209 

P- 

[This conference was called by Walter L. Fisher, Secretary of the 
interior, and was made up of departmental officials, superin- 
tendents of parks, representatives of railroads, and others. Ways 
were sought of improving and popularizing the great playgrounds 
of America. As a result of the conference numerous illustrated 
pamphlets were published] 
National park conference, 2d, Yosemite national park, Oct. 
14-16, 1912. Proceedings of the second National park 



I50 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

conference . . . Washington, Govt, print, off., 1913. I44 

P- 

[Consists mainly of a discussion regarding the advisability of ad- 
mitting automobiles to the national parks] 

National park conference, 3d, Berkeley, Cal., Mar. 11-13, 1915. 
Proceedings of the third National park conference. . . . 
Washington, Govt, print, off., 1915. 166 p. 

Discussion of national park problems by officers of the gov- 
ernment and others. 

National park conference, 4th, Washington, D. C, Jan. 2-6, 
1917. Proceedings of the fourth National park confer- 
ence. . . . Washington, Govt, print, off., 1917. . 100 ( ?) 

P- 
National park pictures collected and exhibited by 

the Department of the interior. [Washington, Govt, print. 

off., 191 1] 15 p. 

"This collection of pictures has been assembled for free 

exhibition at public libraries and other institutions." cf. 

p. I. 

National park service in the District of Columbia 

. . . communication from the Secretary of the interior sub- 
mitting an estimate of appropriations for the administration 
in the District of Columbia of the National park service 
created by the act of Congress, approved Aug. 25, 1916. 
Washington, Govt, print, off., 1916. 2 p. (64th Cong., 
1st sess. House. Doc. no. 1349) Serial 7102 

National parks portfolio. Department of the in- 
terior. [New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1916] 9 p. 
nine illustrated pamphlets with 4 pages of introductory text, 
in portfolio, describing the various national parks. 

Procedure in matters relating to the national parks 

and the Hot Springs reservation. [Washington, Govt, 
print, off., 191 1 ] 3 p. 

Progress in the development of the national parks, 

by Stephen T. Mather, assistant to the Secretary of the in- 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 151 

terior. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1916. 39 p. incl. 
illus. (map) tables. 

Regulations governing rangers in the national 

park. Washington, Govt, print, off., 19 15. 3 p. 

Report of the general superintendent and land- 
scape engineer of national parks to the Secretary of the in- 
terior . . . 1915. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1915. 
31 P- 

Report of the Secretary of the interior . . . Wash- 
ington, Govt, print, off., 1849- 



Prior to 1907, these reports included information concern- 
ing minor parks and national monuments, and summaries 
of reports on the several parks. Beginning in 1907, only 
a general review of Park affairs has been included. 

Rules, regulations and instructions for the infor- 
mation and guidance of officers and enlisted men of the 
United States army, and of the scouts doing duty in the 
Yellowstone national park . . . Washington, Govt, print, 
off., 1907. 35 p. 

Use of automobiles in national parks. Letter 



from the acting secretary of the interior, transmitting in- 
formation in response to Senate resolution of March 9, 
1912. [Washington, 1912] 7 p. 

[Publications relating to individual parks] 

General information regarding Casa Grande ruin, 

Arizona . . . [Washington, Govt, print, off., 1913] 31 
p. incl. plans. 

"This circular is an abstract of a detailed report by J. W. 
Fewkes, published in the Twenty-eighth annual report of 
the Bureau of American ethnology." cf. p. [ij 

Proceedings before the secretary of the interior. 



In re applications of A. H. Ward and the Mariposa electrical 
power company of California for right of way under the 
regulations prescribed under the act of February 15, 1901 
(31 Stats., 790), over government lands in the Yosemite 



152 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

national park. In re James D. Phelan, applicant, for rights 
of way in Hetch Hetchy Valley and Lake Eleanor in 
the Yosemite national park. Petition for review by the city 
and county of San Francisco. Washington, Govt, print, 
off., 1903. 71 p. fold, diagr. 
Report on Sullys Hill park, Casa Grande ruin; 



the Muir woods, petrified forest, and other national monu- 
ments, including list of bird reserves. 191 5. Washington, 
Govt, print, off., 1915. 65 p. 

Report on Wind Cave, Crater Lake, Sullys Hill. 

Piatt, and Mesa Verde national parks and Casa Grande 
ruin. 1907. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1908. 12 p. 

Report on Wind Cave, Crater Lake, Sullys Hill, 



and Piatt national parks, Casa Grande ruin and Minnesota 
national forest reserve. 1908. Washington, Govt, print, 
off., 1909. 20 p. 2 pi. 

Rules and regulations for the government of all 

bath houses receiving hot water from the United States 
reservation at Hot Springs, Ark. . . . December 14, 1909. 
[Washington, Govt, print, off., 1909] 4 p. 

Engineer dept. Reports of the Chief of engineers, U. 



S. army . . . Washington, Govt, print, off., 19 — 

[These contain reports of oflScers in charge of road work in parks] 

— Forest service. Annual report of the Forester. Wash- 
ington, Govt, print, off., 1888 



Information concerning cooperation in park service. 

National forests and national parks. United 

States, Alaska, and Porto Rico, [map, with insets] 1907. 
17.5x28.5, 5x6.8, 2.1x4.7 in- 

General land ofUce. Report of the Commissioner, 



1848- Washington, Govt, print, off., 1849- 

[Includes information concerning surveys and disposition of public 
lands out of which national parks and monuments are reserved] 

— Geological survey. Folios of the geologic atlas of the 
United States. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 153 

Folios have been published of the Yellowstone national park, 
Lassen peak, and others. 

Water analyses from the laboratory of the United 



States Geological survey . . . Washington, Govt, print, 

off., 1914. 40 p. (Water supply paper 364) 

Published also as House document 1082, 63d Congress, 
2d session. 

[Gives analyses of waters of mineral springs in various parts 
of the country, including Yellowstone national park] 

Judge-advocate-general's dept. {Army) United States 



military reservations, national cemeteries, and military 
parks. Title, jurisdiction, etc. . . . Rev. ed. : 1916. 
Washington, Govt, print, off., 19 16. 544 p. (War dept. 
doc. no. 496) 

Laws, statutes, etc. [Laws and regulations] An act 



to establish a National park service, and for other purposes. 
Approved Aug. 25, 1916. (Stat. L. ch. 408, p. 535) 

Laws and regulations relating to the Crater Lake 



national park, Oregon . . . Washington, Govt, print, off., 
1908. 13 p. 

Laws, regulations, and general information re- 
lating to Glacier national park, Montana. 19 10. Wash- 
ington, Govt, print, off., 191 1. 10 p. map. 

Laws and regulations relating to the Hot Springs 



reservation. Hot Springs, Ark. Washington, Govt, print, 
off., 1908. 44 p. 

Laws and regulations relating to the Mesa Verde 

national park, Colorado . . . Washington, Govt, print, off., 
1908. 16 p. 

Laws and regulations relating to the Mount Rainier 



national park, Washington. . . Washington, Govt, print, 
off., 1908. 22 p. 

Laws and regulations relating to the Piatt national 

park, Oklahoma . . . Washington, Govt, print, off., 1908. 

15 P- 



154 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Laws and regulations relating to the Sequoia and 



General Grant national parks, California . . . Washington, 
Govt, print, off., 1908. 14 p. 

Laws and regulations relating to the Wind Cave 



national park. South Dakota . . . Washington, Govt, print, 
off., 1908. 14 p. 

Laws and regulations relating to the Yellowstone 

national park, Wyoming . . . Washington, Govt, print, 
off., 1908. 22 p. 

Laws and regulations relating to the Yosemite na- 



tional park, California. . . . Washington, Govt, print, off., 
1908. 23 p. 

National park service. Report of the director of the 

National park service to the Secretary of the interior, 1917- 
Washington, Govt, print, off., 191 7- 

General information regarding Casa Grande na- 



tional monument, Arizona. Washington, Govt, print, off., 
1919. 31 p. 

General information regarding Crater Lake na- 
tional park, season of 1912-1919. Washington, Govt, print, 
off., 1912-19. 8 V. 

Continued by Rules and regulations, Crater Lake national 
park, 1920- 

General information regarding Glacier national 



park. Season of 1912-1919. Washington, Govt, print. 

off., 1912-19. 8 V. 

Continued by Rules and regulations Glacier national park, 

1920- 
General information regarding the Hot Springs 

of Arkansas. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1919 14 p. 

Continued by Rules and regulations governing Hot Springs 

reservation, 1919- 
General information regarding Mesa Verde na- 



tional park, season of 1912-1919. Washington, Govt, print, 
off., 1912-19. 8 V. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 155 

Continued by Rules and regulations Mesa Verde national 
park, 1920- 

General information regarding Mount Rainier na- 
tional park. Season of 1912-1919. Washington, Govt, 
print, off., 1912-19. 8 v. 

Continued by Rules and regulations Mount Rainier national 
park, 1920- 

General information regarding Sequoia and Gen- 
eral Grant national parks. Season of 1912-1919. Wash- 
ington, Govt, print, off., 1912-19. 8 v. 
Continued by .Rules and regulations Sequoia and General 
Grant national parks, 1920- 

General information regarding Wind Cave na- 



tional park. Season of 1915-1919. Washington, Govt, 
print, off., 1915-19- 5 v. 

Continued by Rules and regulations, Wind Cave national 
park, 1920- 

General information regarding Yellowstone na- 



tional park. Season of 1912-1919. Washington, Govt. 

print, off., 1912-19. 8 v. 

Continued by Rules and regulations Yellowstone national 

park, 1920- 
General information regarding Yosemite national 

paj-k. Season of 1912-1919. Washington, Govt, print. 

off., 1912-19. 8 V. 

Continued by Rules and regulations Yosemite national park, 

1920- 
General information regarding Rocky Mountain 



national park. Season of 1916-1919. Washington, Govt, 
print, off., 1916-19. 4 V. 

Continued by Rules and regulations. Rocky Mountain na- 
tional park, 1920- 

General information regarding the national monu- 



ments, set aside under the act of Congress approved 
June 8, 1906. Washington, Govt, print, off. 19 17. 
Sop. 



156 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 
The national parks portfolio. [3d ed.] Wash- 



ington, Govt, print, off., 192 1. 266 p. 

Report on the proposed Sand Dunes national park, 

Indiana. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1917. 113 p. 

[Appendices include hearings on the project held at Chicago, Oct. 
30, 1916, miscellaneous letters, resolutions and other documents] 

Report on Piatt and Wind Cave national parks, 



SuUys Hill park, Casa Grande ruin, Muir Woods, Petrified 
Forest, and other national monuments, including list of bird 
reserves. 191 1- . . . Washington, Govt, print, off., 1912- 

Rules and regulations, Grand Canyon national 

park, 1920- Washington, Govt, print, off., 1920- 

Rules and regulations, Lafayette national park. 



1921- Washington, Govt, print, off., 1921— 

Statement of appropriations 1879-1918, inclusive, 

for national parks and national monuments under the juris- 
diction of the Secretary of the interior. Comp ... by 
Mae A. Schnurr. Washington, Govt, print, off., 191 7. 20 p. 
Oihce of public roads. Report of the director. Wash- 



ington, Govt, print, off., 1897- 

[Information regarding road surveys in national parks] 

— Superintendent of Crater Lake national park. Report. 
1903-1906, 1910-1915. Washington, Govt, print off., 
1903-1915. ID v. 

Reports for 1907-1909 are included in the Report[s] on 
Wind Cave, Crater Lake, SuUys Hill, Piatt and Mesa Verde 
national parks . . . 1907-1909. 

[During 1916 the administration of the national parks was assigned 
to the Superintendent of national parks, who in his report to the 
Secretary of the Interior for 1916, included excerpts from the re- 
ports of officers in charge of national parks. In April, 1917, the 
United States national park service was organized and since 1917 
full reports of officers in charge of national parks will be found 
in the reports of the national park service] 

Superintendent of Glacier national park. Report . . . 

1911-1915. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1911-15. 5 v. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 157 

Superintendent of Hot Springs reservation. Report 

• • • 1877-1915. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1877-1915. 
26 V. 

Superintendent of Mesa Verde national park. Report. 

1908-1915. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1908-15. 8 v. 

Superintendent of Mount Rainier national park. Re- 
port. 1909/10-1915. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1910- 
15- 6 v. 

Superintendent of national parks. Annual report. 

See U. S. Dept. of the interior. Annual report of the 
Superintendent of national parks . . . 19 16. 

Superintendent of Piatt national park. Report. 1913- 

1915. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1914-15-3 v. 

Earlier reports concerning this park were made by the Dept. of 
the interior. (Before 1906 the park was called Sulphur Springs 
reservation) 

Superintendent of Sequoia and Gen. Grant national 

parks. Report . . . 1892-1915. Washington Govt, print, 
off., 1892-15. 

Superintendent of Wind Cave national park. Report. 

1913/14- Washington, Govt, print, off., 1914-15. 

Superintendent of Yellowstone national park. .Report. 

. . . 1872-1915. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1873-15. 
39 V. 

For reports of 1873-1874 see Annual report of Secretary of the 
interior. Apparently no reports were printed in 1875 and 1884. 

Superintendent of Yosemite national park. Report 

. . . 1891-1915. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1899-15. 
23 V. 

War dept. New roads in Yellowstone national park. 



Letter from the acting Secretary of war, transmitting infor- 
mation, in response to Senate resolution of April 2, 1912, 
relative to the cost of constructing new roads in the Yellow- 
stone national park. . . . Washington, Govt, print, off., 
1912. 2y p. 



iS8 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 
Regulations for the national military parks and 



the statutes under which they were organized and are ad- 
ministered. 1914. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1914. 
41 p. 

Stationing of troops of the regular army in na- 
tional parks. Letter transmitting copy of a letter from ex- 
secretary Garrison in regard to stationing troops of the 
regular army in national parks. June 4, 191 7. Washing- 
ton, Govt, print off., 1917. 5 p. (65th Cong., ist sess. 
House. Doc. 174) Serial 7300 
Yosemite park commission. Report of Yosemite park 



commission. Letter from the Secretary of the interior, 
transmitting the report of the Yosemite park commission 
appointed to ascertain what portions of said park are not 
necessary for park purposes, and also at what place a sub- 
stantial road can be built from the boundary of said park 
to the Yosemite Valley grant, together with maps, etc. . . . 
[Washington, Govt, print, off., 1904] 51 p. plates, fold, 
maps, fold. tab. (58th Cong., 3d sess. Senate. Doc. 34) 

Serial 4764 

Yard, Robert S. Glimpses of our national parks 3d ed. . . . 

Washington, Govt, print, off., 1920. 72 p. illus. (incl. map) 

Unofficial Publications : Books and Pamphlets 

Allen, Edward F. ed. A guide to the national parks of 
America . . . Rev. ed. New York, McBride, Nast & Com- 
pany, 1918. 338 p. 

American civic association. Dept. of national and state parks. 
National parks : President Taf t on a national parks bureau, 
address to the American civic association. National parks 
— the need of the future, address by Ambassador Bryce. 
The need for a bureau of national parks, addresses by Hon. 
Walter L. Fisher . . . Are national parks worth while? 
Address by Mr. J. Horace McFarland . . . Washington, 
D. C, Dept. of national and state parks, American civic 
association [1912] 30 [2] p. (American civic association. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 159 

[Pamphlets] series II, no. 6, Dec. 1912) 

Includes addresses on the subject delivered at the 191 1 and 

1912 conventions of the American civic association. 

Branson, Isaac R. Yosemite against corporation greed; shall 
half of Yosemite national park be destroyed by San Fran- 
cisco? A thesis against it, by I. R. Branson. Ex-Secre- 
tary of the interior Garfield's decision review . . . Aurora, 
Neb., I. R. Branson, 1909. [30] p. 

Bryce, James Bryce, viscount. National parks — the need of 
the future. (In his University and historical addresses). 
New York, 1913. p. 391-406. 

[Praises the national park system, advises against the use of 
automobiles in national parks, and recommends creation of ad- 
ditional parks] 

Chittenden, Hiram M. The Yellowstone national park, his- 
torical and descriptive. New enl. ed. Cincinnati, Stewart, 

1915- 350 P- 

[Contains chapters on discovery and later explorations, the na- 
tional park idea, administrative history of the park, etc.] 

Gauss, H. C. National parks. (In his American govern- 
ment. New York, 1908. p. 693-705) 

Gleason, H. W. National parks and monuments. Address 
. . . Jan. 3, 1917. Washington, Govt, print, off., 1917. 
II p. 

Hall, Ansel F. ed. Handbook of Yosemite national park. 
New York, Putnam, 192 1. 347 p. 

Mills, Enos A. Your national parks . . . with' information 
to tourists, by Laurence F. Schmeckebier. Boston, Hough- 
ton Mifflin company, 191 7. 53^ P- 

Muir, John. Our national parks. New and enl. ed., fully 
illustrated. Boston and New York, Houghton Mifflin com- 
pany, 1909. 382 p. 

Palmer, T. S. National monuments as wild-life sanctuaries. 
Address . . . Jan. 4, 1917. Washington, Govt, print, oiif., 
1917. 20 p. 



i6o THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Senn, Nicholas. Our national recreation parks . . . With 
fifty illustrations. Chicago, W. B. Conkey company, 1904. 
3 p. 1., II-I47P. 

Yard, Robert S. The book of the national parks. New 
York, Scribner, 19 13. 420 p. 



Periodical Articles 

Beauty of use: water power resources essential to Pacific 
states limited by proposed enlargement of national parks. 
Electrical world, Dec. 18, 1920, v. 76: 120 1-3. 

Bryce, James Bryce, viscount. National parks — the need of 
the future. Outlook, Dec. 14, 1912, v. 102: 811-5. 

[Commends the management of some of our national parks, and 
recommends creation of additional parks] 

Chamberlain, A. Scenery as a national asset. Outlook, May 
28, 1910, V. 95: 157-69. 

[Urges that the government use the national parks as a money- 
producing asset as Switzerland does] 

Claudy, C. H. Our national parks, playgrounds for the 
people unsurpassed in the world. Scientific American sup- 
plement, Nov. II, 1916, V. 82: 312-13. 

[Reports the passage of the National parks service bill and em- 
phasizes the need for such a service in caring for our parks. In- 
cludes tabular statements concerning the national parks and monu- 
ments, administered by the Interior, Agricultural and War de- 
partments] 

Controversy over use of water of national parks. Engineer- 
ing news, May 5, 192 1, v. 86: 777-8. 

Curtis, W. E. Our national parks and reservations. Ameri- 
can academy of political and social science. Annals, March, 
1910, V. 35 : 231-40. 

[Reserves described are of national forests, national parks, national 
game preserves, national monuments and small game preserves.] 



BIBUOGRAPHY . i6i 

Cutler, J. E. Nation's playgrounds. Suburban life, June, 
1913, V. 16: 445-6. 

[Descriptive article concerning the national parks] 

Dean, W. H. Advertising America. Outing, Aug., 1916, 
V. 68: 461-9. 

["Uncle Sam telling his people about their national parks in 
language they can understand." Account of the work of Stephen 
T. Mather, assistant secretary of the interior, in giving publicity 
to America's great playgrounds. Description of the descriptive 
booklets and portofolios of the national parks] 

Our national parks — a seven reel feature [photographs 

by Herford T. Cowling] Sunset, June, 1916, v. 36: 19-23, 
69-70. 

[How the photographs and moving picture films are secured by 
Mr. Cowling for use in the "See America first" campaign, in- 
augurated by Stephen T. Mather, assistant secretary of the in- 
terior] 

De Boer, S. R. Landscape architecture in our national forests 

and parks. American forestry, Nov. 1919, v. 25 : 1459- 

64. 
Debt to the people [need of larger appropriations for National 

park service] Saturday evening post, Jan. 31, 1920, v. 

192 : 28-29. 
Eldridge, M. O. Touring Yellowstone park on government 

highways. World to-day, Nov. 1910, v. 19: 1263-72. 

There are 416 miles of government roads in the Yellowstone Park 
and adjacent national forests; and 150 miles of horseback trails 
for use of tourists and for troops and scouts who patrol the park. 
How the roads are located and constructed. 

Fall, Albert B. Value of our national parks. American 
forestry, June, 192 1, v. 27: 359-70- 

Graves, H. S. Crisis in national recreation. American for- 
estry, July, 1920, V. 26: 391-400. 

Grinnell, J. and Storer, T. R. Animal life as an asset of na- 
tional parks. Science, Sept. 15, 1916, n. s. v. 44: 375-80. 



i62 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Johnson, R. U. Dismembering your national park. Outlook, 
Jan. 30, 1909, V. 91 : 252-3. 

[Protest against giving water privileges w^ithin the Yosemite to 
San Francisco] 

Koch, F. J. Protecting national parks against poachers. 
Overland monthly, Feb. 1915, n. s. v. 65: 117-22. 

[Descriptive of the work of Uncle Sam's poacher-catchers in 
the Yellowstone Park, a garrison of 400 men for service in sum- 
mer and winter] 

Lazenby, Mary E. Luring the people to their playgrounds; 
what the government is doing to introduce the glories of 
the national park system to its owners. The Nation's busi- 
ness, June, 1917, V. 5: 37-9. 

[The work of the National park service, and its superintendents, 
list of publications of the service, and prices of those for sale.] 

Lane, Franklin K. National parks as an asset. American 

forestry, Jan., 1916, v. 22 : 22-3. 
Lewis, H. H. Managing a national park. Outlook, Aug. 29, 

1903, v. 74: 1036-40. 

[Tells how the Yellowstone park is administered by the govern- 
ment] 

Lockwood, J. A. Uncle Sam's troopers in National parks of 
California. Overland monthly, April, 1889, 2d ser., v. 33 : 
356-68. 

[Objects in sending troops to the national parks are to preserve 
the timber and vegetation, and protect game and fish] 

Mather, S. T. Do you want to lose your parks? A message 
from the United States government to the American people. 
Independent, Nov. 13, 1920, v. 104: 220-21. 

National parks on a business basis. American Review 

of reviews, April, 1915, v. 51 : 429-31. 

[An instructive letter from the new Director of national parks 
regarding their management for the public welfare] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 163 

Mills, Enos A. Exploiting our national parks. New republic, 

Nov. 10, 1920, V. 24: 272. 
Muir, J. Endangering valleys: the Hetch Hetchy valley. 

Century, Jan., 1909, v. "jy : 464-9. 

[Editor believes that an unfortunate precedent has been estab- 
lished in the diversion of a large part of the Yosemite national 
park from the use of the whole public to the service of a city] 

National park amendments to water power bill introduced in 
Congress. Electrical world, Dec. 11, 1920, v. 76: 1181. 

National park improvements. Nation (N. Y.) Feb. i, 1919, 
V. 108: 157. 

National park service. Independent, May 29, 19 16, v. 86: 
321. 

National park service. Outlook, Feb. 3, 191 2, v. 100: 246. 

[Favors establishment of a National park service.] 

National parks: a conference. Outlook, Sept. 30, 191 1, v. 99: 
255-6. 

[Report of National park conference in the Yellowstone, at which 
the necessity for creation of a Federal park bureau was conceded] 

National parks of the United States. Bulletin of the Pan- 
American union, Sept., 1916, v. 43 : 372-86. 

[Description of the parks, well illustrated] 

National parks versus National forests. American forestry, 
Jan. 1917, v. 23: 48-49. 

New national parks and their administration. American for- 
estry, June, 1916, V. 22 : 366. 

Nolen, John. Parks and recreation facilities of the United 
States. American academy of political and social science. 
Annals, March, 1910, v. 35: 218-20. 

[Calls attention to the need for a better balanced system of 
national parks — for creation of parks in the East and other sections 
of the country as well as in the West] 

Our national parks in great danger [provision in water-power 



i64 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

bill ... to grant water-power concessions in national 

parks] Bird lore, Jan-Feb., 1921, v. 23: 64-65. 
Our new national parks. World's work, July, 1920, v. 40: 

281-88. 
Preparedness and the national park. Country life, June, 1916, 

V. 30:48-9. 

[A plea for the creation of a national park service to aid in 
meeting needs of tourists who will visit our national parks while 
the "War of the nations" makes European travel impossible] 

Protecting the tourists in the national parks. Outlook, June, 
28, 1916, V. 113: 450-1. 

[Reference to hold-ups in Yellowstone park and need of guarding 
tourists more efficiently. The government forbids tourists in 
national parks from carrying firearms for self protection] 

.Report on the national parks situation [as afifected by the 
Water power act] editorial. Bird lore, March, 192 1, v. 23 : 
111-13. 

Rhoda, Jean. Uncle Sam in the Yosemite. Overland, June, 
1913, n. s. V. 61 : 590-4. 

[During the months from May to November, two troops of U. S. 
cavalry protect the Yosemite from fires, and enforce restrictions 
regarding hunting and fishing, etc.] 

Saving the Yosemite park. Outlook, Jan. 30, 1909, v. 91 : 
234-6. 

[Protest against using the Hetch Hetchy valley by San Francisco] 

Schmeckebier, L. F. National parks from the scientific and 
educational side. Popular science monthly, June, 1912, v. 
80: 530-47. 

[Attention is called to publications and maps issued by the scien- 
tific bureaus of the government and various learned societies re- 
garding the parks. The contemplated issue by the Department of 
the interior of short publications describing the phenomena in the 
various parks and forces that have produced them. An instruc- 
tive, well illustrated article, in which a bureau of national parks 
is recommended] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY jg^ 

Our national parks. National geographic magazine, 

June, 1912, V. 23: 531-79. 

[A beautifully illustrated article on the different national parks] 

Smith, G. O. Nation's playgrounds. American review of 
reviews, July, 1909, v. 40: 44-8. 

The Director of the Geological survey urges creation of additional 
mountain parks, which John Muir has termed "fountains of life." 

Taylor, G. R. Washington at work : the nation's playgrounds, 
(illus.) Survey, Jan. i, 1916, v. 35: 390-3. 

[Some account of the national parks, their administration under 
the Department of the Interior and a plea for the creation of a 
national parks bureau] 

Trench, J. D. W. The forest and the army. Garden and 
forests, Feb. 22, 1893, v. 6: 95. 

[If the care of the forests in the national parks and reservations 
is to be assigned to a portion of the Army, the author believes 
the War department should include a study of forest conditions 
in its larger scope of instruction] 

United States will capitalize its scenery. Engineering record, 
Nov. 6, 191 5, V. 72: 568-70. 

["Newly adopted policy of opening up our national parks in the 
West should bring the country $50,000,000 annually."] 

Vestal, A. G. Recreation engineering in our national forests. 

Illustrated world, Sept., 1921, v. 36: 77-78. 
Wanted, a national park service. Outlook, Mar. i, 19 16, v. 

112: 491. 
Waugh, Frank A. Landscape architecture in the forests. 

American forestry, March, 192 1, v. 27: 142-6. 

A national park policy. Scientific monthly, April, 19 18, 

v. 6: 305-18. 

Technical problems in national park development. 



Scientific monthly, June, 1918, v. 6: 560-67. 
Yard, R. S. Director of the nation's playgrounds, what a 



i66 THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

practical enthusiast is doing to make our national parks 
known to the people. Sunset, Sept., 1916, v. 37:27. 

[The work of Stephen T. Mather, Secretary Lane's Assistant in 
executive charge of national parks] 

National parks peril. Nation (N. Y.) Aug. 21, 1920, 



V. Ill: 208-9. 



INDEX 



Accounts, 6i. 

Act for Preservation of Ameri- 
can Antiquities, movement for 
enactment of, 7; scope of, 
broadened, 7-8 ; gist of, 17 ; text 
of, 84. 

Activities of Service subordinate 
to park preservation, 15; as- 
sumption of complete control 
over, 25-26; descriptive sketch 
of, 50-59 classification of, 76- 

77- 

Act of Dedication of Yellow- 
stone, outstanding features, 4. 

Administration, an anomaly in, 
26; Park Service, 60 Yellow- 
stone,. 64. 

American Automobile Associa- 
tion, 28. 

American Civic Association, 
work of, II; bulletin, 12. 

Animal industry, Bureau of, co- 
operation with, 54. 

Antelope, in Wind Cave Park, 
36. 

Appropriations, for general su- 
perintendent, etc., 10; trans- 
ferance of, 26; War Depart- 
ment, for parks, 26-27, 32; 
committee on, visits parks, 27; 
Interior Dept., for Yellowstone, 
32; Agricultural Dept., for 
Sullys Hill, 37; for Hawaii, 
limitation on, 39; for Rocky 
Mountain, do, 39 ; limitation on 
expenditure of, in Grand Can- 
yon,, 41 ; for monuments, 43 ; 
for fire-fighting emergencies, 
52; for maintenance, 57; in- 
direct, for Service at Large, 



167 



61-62; for 1922, text of act, 

90-93- 
Archaeology, proposed school of, 

in Mesa Verde,, 38. 
Army, U. S., use of in parks, 

25-27. 31-32, 34- 
Army and Navy Hospital, Hot 

Springs, 43. 
Assistant Director, 60. 
Automobile, fees, 17; revenues 

from, 28; controversy, 28. 

Ballinger, Secretary, favors 
creation of park bureau, 11. 

Biological Survey, Bureau of, 
management of game preserves 

by, 36, 37, 54- 

Birds, protection of, 54. 

Boone National Forest, 24. 

Bright Angel Trail, 40-41. 

Bryce Canyon, Utah, proposed 
park in, 14. 

Buffalo, Yellowstone, 23, 32; 
Wind Cave, 36 ; Piatt, 37 ; win- 
ter feeding of, 53; vaccination 
of,, 54- 

California, cession of park juris- 
diction by, 13; use of army in 
parks of, 26-27; recession of 
Yosemite by, 34. 

Camps, concessioners', 17; free 
sites for, equipment of with 
sanitary facilities, etc., 17, 
55-56. 

"Canadian Argument," the, 11. 

Canadian Park Service, 18, 38. 

Casa Grande, change in status of, 
6 n., 13-14. 

Chickasaw Indians, 36. 



i68 



INDEX 



Chief Clerk, 60-61. 

Chief of Engineers, U. S. A., 
park road construction directed 
by, 26. 

Chittenden, General Hiram M., 
quoted, 4-5. 

Choctaw Indians, 36. 

Civil Engineering Section, work 
of, 55, 61. 

Cliff Dwellings, 7, 51. 

Coconino County, Arizona, toll 
negotiations with, 40-41. 

Colorado, creation of game pre- 
serve in, 23. 

Colter, John, discovers Yellow- 
stone, 2. 

Communication Section, Yellow- 
stone, 65. 

Concessions, must produce reve- 
nue, 17 ; highest bidder ob- 
tains, in Grand Canyon, 40; 
general policy regarding, 56. 

Congress, civilian control opposed 
by, 27 ; Hawaii Park created by, 

39- 

Conservation of wild life, 53-55. 

Cooperation, necessity for em- 
phasized, 18. 

Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., 
Yellowstone exploration of, 3; 
withdrawal from parks of, 25- 
26; in Yellowstone, 31; in 
Crater Lake, 36. 

Crater Lake National Park, his- 
tory, 36; laws, 108-109. 

Devils Lake, 37. 

Devils Tower, distinction of, as 
first monument, 8; invulner- 
ability of, 44. 

Director, functions of, 60. 

Division of Publications, telling 
work of, 12. 

Doane, Lieutenant G. C. See 
Washburn-Doane expedition. 

Editorial Section, 62. 



Education facilities, furtherance 
of, in parks, 17. 

Elk, various park herds of, 23, 
36, 37: Olympic variety of, 
48; winter feeding of, in Yel- 
lowstone, 53. 

Engineering Section, Yellow- 
stone, 66. 

Entomology, Bureau of, coopera- 
tion with, 53. 

Fall,, Secretary, letter of, 22. 

Federal Power Commission, re- 
striction on appropriation for, 
20; refusal of, to grant licenses 
in parks, 20-21. 

Federal Water Power Act, parks 
menaced by original, 20; par- 
tial repeal of, 20. 

Fisher, Secretary, advocates park 
bureau, 11. 

Fisheries, Bureau of, cooperation 
with, 54-55. 

Fishing, regulation of, 54. 

Field Service, 61. 

Field Service at Large, 61-62. 

Forester, Chief, 24, 33. 

Forests, protection of, 52-53. 

Forest Service, cooperation with, 
19. 40, 52. 

Folsom, David E., 2. 

Fort Yellowstone, 25, 32. 

Game preserves, need for, 22-23; 
recent legislation on 23-24, 36; 
in Piatt, Wind Cave, and 
Sully's Hill Parks, 36-37; 
Mount McKinley, 40; Yellow- 
stone, S3; Jacksons Hole, 54. 

Garrison, Secretary, letter of, 
27. 

General Grant National Park, his- 
tory, 34-35; laws, 106-107. 
See also Sequoia. 

General Superintendent and 
Landscape Engineer, 9-10. 

Geological Survey, Yellowstone 



INDEX 



169 



explorations of, 3; cooperation 
with, 53, 58, 64. 

Gifts to parks, general authoriza- 
tion for acceptance of, 24. 

Glacier National Park, home- 
steaders' rights in, 38; history, 
38-39; laws, 113-116. 

Government Free Bath House, 

43- 

Grand Canyon National Monu- 
ment, 40. 

Grand Canyon National Park, 
leases in, 12-13; history, 40; 
laws, 120-121. 

Grand Canyon Park Act, unusual 
provisions of, 40. 

Grandfather Mountain, 24. 

Grant, President, Act of Dedica- 
tion signed by, 4. 

Grazing, regulation of, 15, 33, 

52. 

"Great American Spa," the, 42. 

Great Northern Railway, activi- 
ties of, in Glacier Park. 38, 
56. 

Hawaii National Park, history, 
39; laws, 118. 

Hayden, Dr. F. V., urges crea- 
tion of Yellowstone, 4. 

Hedges, Cornelius, originator of 
"National Park Idea," 3. 

Hetch Hetchy Valley, 10, 19, 34- 

Hitchcock, Secretary, 7. 

Homesteaders, rights of, in parks, 

38. 

Hospital facilities, 57-58. 

"Hot Springs Cases," 42 n. 

Hot Springs Mountain, 42-43. 

Hot Springs National Park, crea- 
tion, 6; unique nature of, 42; 
history, 42-43; laws, 122-130. 

Hot Springs Reservation, setting 
aside of, 5; confusion regard- 
ing status of, 5-6 ; exception re- 
garding revenues, 28. 

Hunting, prohibition of, 17, 53; 



Mount McKinley an exception, 
53 n- 

Idaho, curious law enacted in, 
22-23. 

Information Section, Yellow- 
stone, 64. 

Inscription Rock, protection of, 

51. 
Irrigation and power projects, 

park land hunger of, 21-23. 
Irrigation and Reclamation, 

Senate committee on, 22. 

Jacksons Hole, 14, 54. 

Jurisdiction, federal, desirability 
of, 16; present extent of, 25; 
acquisition of, in California, 
25, 34; all of Yellowstone not 
under, 33; acquisition of in 
Oregon and Washington, 36 ; in 
Oklahoma, 37 ; in Montana, 38 ; 
in Arkansas, 43; makes for 
order, 57. 

Lafayette National Park, history, 
41 ; laws, 121. 

Landscape, improvements must 
harmonize with, 16. 

Landscape Engineer, 53, 56. 

Landscape Engineering Section, 
55-56, 61. 

Lane, Secretary, 9, 11, 27, 62. 

Langford Hon. N. P., 2-3, 31. 

Lassen Volcanic National Park, 
history, 39-40; laws, 118-119. 

Law Section, 62-63. 

Lewis and Clarke, skirting of 
Yellowstone region by, 2. 

Light and Power Section, Yel- 
lowstone, 65. 

Machinery Section, Yellowstone, 

65-66. 
Mackinac Island, former park on, 

44. 
Maintenance, 57. 



170 



INDEX 



Mammoth Cave, proposed park to 
include, 14. 

Mariposa Grove, 33. 

Medical Service, 57-58. 

Mesa Verde National Park, per- 
mits to excavate in, 37; his- 
tory, 37-38; ruins in, 51; laws, 
112-113. 

Mining claims, acquisition of in 
Greater Yellowstone area per- 
missible, 14; Supreme Court 
decision regarding, 24-25 ; 
further location forbidden in 
Mount Rainier, 35 ; discretion- 
ary allowance of in Grand Can- 
yon, 40; no restrictions on in 
Mount McKinley, 40. 

Montezuma County, Colorado, 

37- 

Motion pictures, 58-59. 

Motor vehicles, 17. 

Mount Desert Island, 41. 

Mount Lassen, 39. 

Mount McKinley National Park, 
history, 40; laws, 119-120. 

Mount Rainier National Park, U. 
S. Engineers in, 26, 35; his- 
tory, 35-36; hotel system in, 
56; laws, 107-108. 

Mount Whitney, Greater Sequoia 
area includes, 14. 

Muir, John, opposes Hetch 
Hetchy project, 10. 

Muir Woods, 44. 

Mukuntuweap National Monu- 
ment, 41. 

Museums, establishment of 
directed, 17; Mesa Verde, 38. 

National Geographic Society, 
gifts of, 24, 35. 

National Monuments, power of 
President to create, 7; distinc- 
tion between parks and, 8; 
factor determining administra- 
tion of, 44; under Dept. of 
Interior, 43-46; under War De- 



partment, 47; under Dept. of 

Agriculture, 48. 
National park, the first, 5-7. 
National park conferences, 9, 11. 
"National Park Idea," the, origin 

of, 2-3; gist, 19; menaced, 19- 

20; versus the automobile, 28; 

determines Service's activities, 

50. 

National Park Service Act, 
amendments to, 12-13; text of, 
87-88. 

National park system, beginning 
of, I, 4; oldest member of, 5; 
result of the "National Park 
Idea," 7; prior to 1916, 

'■ 8-9. 

National Park-to-Park-Highway, 
27-28. 

National parks, projects for ad- 
ditional, 14, 18-19, 24; list of, 
29-30; individual sketches of, 
31-43; growth of interest in, 

49- 
National parks portfolio, 12. 

Oklahoma, constitutional provi- 
sion of regarding federal juris- 
diction, 37. 

Painting Section, Yellowstone, 

65- 

Patents and Miscellaneous, Divi- 
sion, 9. 

Payne, Secretary, opposition of, 
to park exploitation, 21-22. 

Personnel, 61. 

Petrified Forest, 44. 

Piatt National Park, history, 36- 
37; laws, iio-iii. 

Poaching,, 32, 40, 53. 

Post Office Department, parcel 
post deliveries by, in Yosemite, 
57- 

President of the United States, 
the, discretionary power of, to 
create monuments, 7; rules for 



INDEX 



171 



Hot Springs hospital to be 
made by, 43. 

Private holdings, objections to, 
16; elimination of, in Sequoia, 
24, 35; in Wind Cave, 36; ex- 
change of timber authorized 
for, in Glacier, 39. 

Privileges, leasing of, 15. 

"Profitable Speculation," a, 3. 

Prospecting, Secretary may 
allow, in Grand Canyon, 40. 

Protection service, general, 57 ; 
Yellowstone, 64. 

Publications,. 62, 78-79. 

Publications Section, 63. 

Publicity, 58, 78-79. 

Public Health Service, 56, 58. 

Public lands committees, hear- 
ings before, 12. 

Railroad Administration, 18. 

Rangers,, civilian force of 
created, 27; soldiers used as, 
32; in Mount Rainier, 35. 

Recreation, encouragement of, in 
parks, 17. 

Revenues, expenditures from, 10; 
must not impose burden, 17; 
sources of, 31 ; comparison of, 
with appropriations, 28 ; change 
in disposition of, 28 ; provision 
regarding in Yosemite, 34. 

Roads and trails, work on, by U. 
S. Engineer Corps, 25-26; 
maintenance of, 57. 

Rocky Mountain National Park, 
history, 39; laws, 116-118. 

Roosevelt, President, 14. 

San Francisco, water supply for, 
10. 

Sand Dunes, Lake Michigan, pro- 
posed park including, 14. 

Sanitation, 57, 65. 

Scientific bureaus, cooperation 
with, enjoined, 17-18. 

Secretary of Agriculture, co- 



operation of, in making monu- 
ment rules and regulations, 7. 

Secretary of the Interior, to con- 
trol Yellowstone, 4; Hot 
Springs administered by, 5-6; 
monument regulations made by, 
7; office of, reorganized, 9; al- 
luded to, 13, 26, 32. 

Secretary of War, monument 
rules and regulations to be 
made by, 7; alluded to, 26, 32. 

Sequoia National Park, proposed 
enlargement of, 14, 19; elimi- 
nation of private holdings in, 
24, 35; history, 34-3S; laws, 
104-106. 

Sieur de Monts National Monu- 
ment, 41. 

Smithsonian Institution, archaeo- 
logical researches of, in Mesa 
Verde, 38; cooperation with, 

52. 

Standards, Bureau of coopera- 
tion with, 51. 

Sullys Hill National Park, his- 
tory, 37; laws, 111-112. 

Sulphur, Oklahoma, 37. 

Sulphur Springs Reservation, 
36. 

Taft, President, urges estab- 
lishment of parks bureau, 12; 
on Casa Grande, 13 n. ; vetoes 
Mesa Verde amendment, 37. 

Taft, Secretary, 7. 

Three Tetons, the, 14, 19. 

Timber, restrictions on cutting 
of, 16, 53; exchanges of, 
authorized, 39. 

Toll roads, 41. 

Transportation Section, Yellow- 
stone,, 65. 

Tumacacori Mission, restoration 
of, 51- 

United States Commissioners, 25, 
32, 38, 43. 57- 



172 



INDEX 



United States Marshals,, 33. 
Vandals, 44, 51. 

War Department, Washburn- 
Doane escort furnished by, 3; 
relinquishment of park protec- 
tion by, 25-26. 

Washburn, General Henry D. 
See Washburn-Doane Expedi- 
tion. 

Washburn-Doane Expedition, 3, 

4. 31- 

Water power, utilization of, in 
parks, S3, 56. 

Waterton Lakes Park, 38. 

Weather Bureau, cooperation 
with, 64. 

"Western Monthly," the, 2. 

Wilson, President, 13-14. 

Wilson, Secretary, 7. 

Wind Cave National Park, his- 
tory, 36; laws, 109-110. 

Yellowstone National Park, crea- 
tion of, I ; first superintendent 
of, 2; Act of Dedication of, 
4; distinction of, as first na- 
tional park, 4; proposed en- 



largement of, 14, 19; proposed 
construction of reservoir in, 
21-22; army activities in, 25- 
26; appropriations for, under 
War Dept., 26; withdrawal of 
troops from, 27, 33; civilian 
administration of, 31, army ad- 
ministration of, 32; history, 31- 
33 ; landmark in legislation for, 
32; grazing forbidden in, 33; 
organization, 63; laws, 93-98. 
Yellowstone Region, early ac- 
counts of derided, 1-2; first ex- 
pedition to, 2; Washburn- 
Doane Exploration of, 3; 
Geological Survey — Engineer 
Corps exploration of, 3; pro- 
ject for erection of into park, 

4- 

Yosemite National Park, con- 
struction of reservoir in, 10; 
history, 33-34; army activities 
in, 34; laws, 98-104. 

Yosemite National Park Com- 
pany, 56. 

Zion National Monument, 42. 
Zion National Park, history, 41- 
42; laws, 121. 



p 

i 

I 

■ 

I 

I 
i 

I 

I 

I 

I 



p