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Full text of "Eucalyptographia. A descriptive atlas of the eucalypts of Australia and the adjoining islands;"

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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924074094446 



CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 



3 1924 074 094 446 



EUCALYPTOGRAPHIA. 



A DESCBIPTIVE ATLAS 



EUCALTPTS OF AUSTEALIA 



ADJOINING ISLANDS; 



BAEON FEED. YON MUELLEE, K.C.M.(}., M. & PH.D., E.E.S., 

GOVEENMENT BOTAJSTIST FOE THE COLONY OF VICTOEIA. 



* NON SUCCTDES AREORES, NEC SECUHrBUS DEBES VASTAEE EABUM REGION! M."—Ziber DeuterOIWmiv' XS. 19. 



DECADES I X. 



MELB0UK3SrE ; FEINTED AND PrBLISHED BY JOHN FEEEES, GOVEENMENTHPEINTEB. 
LONDON : TKUBNEE AND CO., 67 AND 69 LTJDGATE HILL. 

1879 - 1884. 



TO 
HIS EOYAL HIGHNESS 

ALBERT EI3"W^A.Rr), 

§xma 0f Males, 

K.G., K.T., K.P., 
THE EXALTED PATEON OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS, 

%hxB Moxk 

ON A GENUS OF TIMBER-TREES, 

MOST EXTENSIVE IN SPECIES, 

PRE-EMINENT IN TECHNIC IMPORTANCE 

AND FOREMOST IN COMPRISING THE LOFTIEST OF TREES 
WITHIN THE VAST BRITISH EMPIRE, 

IN HUMBLEST REVERENCE. 



INTRODFCTION. 



The issue of this Atlas has been for a long time under contemplation. Indeed material 
for it accumulated here since 1847, when the author commenced also in reference 
to the Eucalypts his local Australian studies, ever since carried on as opportunities 
occurred. But the subject is so large and surrounded by so many perplexities, that 
even now he can offer his observations only fragmentary. It is acknowledged, that 
of aU generic groups of Austrahan plants that of Eucalyptus is the most difficult 
for elaboration. This arises not only from the very large number of species, — Euca- 
lyptus being in this respect solely surpassed by Acacia, — but also because the habitual 
resemblance of many specific forms is very deceptive ; again, because fruits and 
especially flowers of tFese trees are not within easy reach of travelling collectors at 
all seasons ; also further, in consequence of several species differing in regard to the 
persistence or secession of their bark according to geologic influences ; and lastly, 
because the species are distributed over the whole Australian continent and Tasmania, 
some even extending to the Indian islands, though none occurring in New Zealand. 
Yet to assign to each species its proper systematic place involves the study of all 
allied congeners, and these are often not to be found in natural proximity, but only 
dispersed at wide distances in Austraha. Great obstacles arose also in identifying the 
earlier discovered species, their first description being generally of extreme briefness 
and imperfection, so much so that it was only in a few of the principal Museum- 
collections of Europe, where from comparison of autographically named original 
specimens many of our Eucalypts could be unmistakably recognized. Still already 
in 1855 and 1856, during Aug. Gregory's expedition, the author endeavoured to shed 
fuUer light on the tropical Eucalypts by close observations instituted in their natural 
haunts, the results being rendered known in the journal of proceedings of the Linnean 
Society in 1858, p. 81-101. Similar and still ampler notes were extended connectedly 
to the extra-tropical species, both eastern and western, in 1860 (Fragm. Phytogr. 
Austr. ii., 32-71). In these writings many of the characteristics, on which dependence 
can be placed for specific discrimination in this singular genus, were first drawn into 



* INTBODIICTION. 

diagnostic use. These researclies formed to a large measure the basis, on wMch the 
venerahle Mr. Bentham, with access to all the resources then available, and gradually 
accumulated since the time of Cook's first voyage, biult up a complete descrlptlTe 
system of the species of Eucalyptus in 1866 (Flora Australien^is iii., 185-261). 

The primary characteristic for grouping the specific forms (about 140 then 
being known), which received preference by Mr. Bentham, was derived from the 
stamens and particularly the anthers ; the systematic arrangement thus devised has 
also since proved the most convenient for easy working ^\ith Museum-material, so 
long as it was the main object to ascertain the name of any species. But the method 
of grouping adopted by him brings also into close contact most of the Eucalypts, 
which are bound together by natural affinity. Trifling alterations have however 
suggested themselves during the actual use of this arrangement ; for instance, from 
the series of "Normales" should be dismembered the subseries of "Comutae," to 
which, as forming really a distinct ftdl series, the appellation " Orthostemones " might 
most expressively be apphed ; some further separations from the Normales might 
aptly be effected still, and perhaps some re-arrangements also, in order to bring all 
the sections of the genus more into values of equality. It might have been advisable 
to have adopted this method of arrangement for the Atlas also, and to have numbered 
the plates accordingly ; but on full consideration it was deemed best, to leave the 
lithograms purposely unnumbered, as then the author could move more freely in his 
choice of the species for successive illustration ; moreover, then any one, who had 
occasion to utilize the Atlas, might unrestrictedly arrange the plates either in 
accordance with the method derived fr'om the stamens, or according to the cortical 
system, or at aU events merely alphabetically. The issue of the lithograms, thus 
independent of each other, necessitated also the printing of the text on separate 
pages for each species, the whole to be bound up on the completion of the work, 
when the needful indices could be published also. Several additional well-marked 
species of Eucalyptus have only been discovered during the last few years, whereas 
other are hkely yet to be added from still unexplored tracts of Austraha and perhaps 
the adjoining islands. Any such additional kinds can be inserted at theii* right places 
into the work, if we remain free from numeric sequence. As however a series of 
years must necessarily elapse, before the needful funds for the completion of so large a 
work can gradually be secured, and as moreover plates and text will likely be quoted 
successively in other publications, it became necessary to adopt at once some form 
of periodic issue, for which that in decades seemed the most ehgible. Meanwhile the 
enlightened Government of West Australia is issuing already two decades, pertainine 
to the leading timber-trees of the great western colony ; and perhaps some of the 
other colonial Governments may follow this example, to expedite the work, and to 
relieve our own colony of a portion of the cost of a publication, in which all Austraha 



INTEODITCTION. 5 

is not only scientifically but also teclinologically interested. The limits to be assigned 
to a work such as an Eucalyptograpby, supposed to serve industrial and forestral as 
well as scientific purposes, have been the subject of much meditation of the author. 
Practically there is no limit to a work of this kind, particularly when it is remembered, 
that t he Eu calypts form the principal timber-vegetation nearly all over the wide 
Australian continent, and that for all ages the inhabitants of this portion of the globe 
will have to rely largely if not mainly on Eucalypts for wood-supply, not to speak of 
what other nations are doing and likely to do with our trees elsewhere. In adopting 
for the gradual appearance of this work an unconstrained issue, it becomes possible, to 
add to the text of any species, whenever in the progress of discoveries or of experi- 
ments new data may require to be recorded, by merely inserting additional independent 
pages or even plates. Through these remarks it may at once be explained, why in 
some instances fuller details on particular utilitarian qualities, possessed by some of 
the leading Eucalypts, are even reserved for a future period. To render records on 
the industrial value of any woods really reliable for timber-merchants or artisans or 
industrial exhibitors, any single experiments are of little avail ; only from numerous 
tests even of the same kind of wood, obtained at diff"erent seasons and from distinct 
localities, can general conclusions be drawn as regards the specific properties of one 
sort of timber in comparison to the greater or lesser merits of others. For resuming 
such tests on an extensive scale, it is hoped, renewed facilities wUl early arise by the 
restoration of the laboratory-accommodation and requisite apparatus, all completely 
withdrawn from the Government Botanist's department, with many other indispensable 
auxiliaries, some years ago. The needful provision, established by the writer in 
former years, enabled him then also to commence to place the potash, oils, tars, acids, 
dyes, tans and other products and educts from Eucalypts before the industrial world 
at the universal exhibitions. For ascertaining the relative ratio of growth of the 
Eucalyptus-trees, their dependence on particular soils, their adaptability to various 
technologic purposes and many other objects of general interest, connected with this 
remarkable kind of vegetation, a scientific observer should also not be left aidless in 
withholding from his control an extensive collection of growing trees, such as the 
writer during twenty years had brought gradually together for his continual observa- 
tions from almost all parts of Australia. Observant rm-al colonists as well as travellers 
in any portion of Australia could much advance a thorough knowledge of the 
Eucalypts by securing for the writer of these pages some leafy branchlets with 
flowerbuds, expanded flowers and ripe fruits of any species of Eucalyptus within their 
range of observation, accompanied whenever it can be done by notes on the geologic 
formation of the places of growth, the aboriginal vernacular, the height of the tree, 
the peculiarities of the bark and timber of each species, the time of flowering and 
such other data as may seem of interest. 



INTRODUCTION. 



In submitting now the first portion of this monography to the public, the author 
ventures to express a hope, that the importance of the Eucalypts, whether viewed in 
their often unparalleled celerity of growth among hardwood-trees, or estimated in 
their manifold apphcabihties to the purposes of industrial life, or contemplated as 
representing among them in aQ-overtowering height the loftiest trees in Her Majesty's 
dominions, will be still more deservedly recognized by the perusal of these unpre- 
tensive pages both here and elsewhere. 

Melbourne, Easter 1879. 



BEIEF REMARKS AT THE CONCLUSION OF THE MAIN- WORK WITH ITS 

TENTH DECADE. 

Although at least two more decades are needed, to complete mainly the specific records of 
all existing Eucalypts, it is deemed best by the author of this work, to provide indices and a 
synopsis of the characteristics of the species now already. The reasons are obvious ; among the 
20-30 kind s of Encalypts, yet to be illustrated, none seems to hold out a promise of becoming of 
superior technic importance; their specific demarcation moreover can in most cases not yet be 
drawn with completeness and accuracy for want either of sufiicient museum-material, or of 
opportunities to study their characteristics further in culture or in free nature. Moreover the ' 
Eucalypts, which remain yet to be dealt with, are mostly restricted to widely distant and as yet 
hardly accessible localities, and may even not become all well elucidated during the remaining 
years of this century. But by the time, at which the specific records as a mere basis or frame- 
work for industrial researches shall have been completed, vast access also will have been gained 
through trial - cultures, therapeutic application, laboratory - analyses, engineering tests and 
handicraft-exertions to those data, which the author has endeavoured, concerning the great genus 
Eucalyptus, to collect into the present ten decades ; hence ample additional material, the 
acquirement of which may indeed extend, to an almost indefinite period, is sure to accumulate for 
supplemental pages and plates, or perhaps for recasting the whole monography. A hope is 
however entertained, that by issuing some new portion of this work ere long, various important 
supplemental notes may at no distant day be connectedly gathered on species, which appeared in 
the earlier decades. Thus already the large treatise by Prof. Charles Naudin on the very 
numerous kinds of Eucalypts, raised by that highly scientific ruralist in the famous garden of the 
Ville Thuret near Antibes and traced there from the embryonic state to the fuU development of 
each specific form, will afford important data, as rendered known in the Annales des Sciences 
naturelles of this year. The medical periodicals of all civilized nations bring also more and 
more therapeutic notices on the various Eucalypts, which information needs to be connectedly 
utilized for fature pages of this or any other Monography of the genus ; and in accomplishing 
this, we will be again reminded by an enlightened and venerable American of the scriptural words : 
" The leaves of the tree shall be for the healing of the nations" (Revelat. xxii. 5). Extensive 
plantations, assuming in many a country both of the northern and southern hemisphere now 
already forestral dimensions, give rise likewise to more varied application of Eucalyptus-wood in 
technology for perhaps early record. A recently commenced splendid issue, " The Forest-Flora 
of South Australia," by the zealous conservator and generator of woods in a sister-colony, con- 
tinues to bring new notations before us, none of which appeared in time to be utilized for the 
Bucalyptography hitherto here. Mr. Hutchins's elaborate comparative measurements of Eucalyp- 
tus-growth in the Nilgeris, where forest-culture of Eucalypts received, like in many other places 
abroad, early support from the writer, need corresponding observations in other zones and under 
different circumstances here and elsewhere. May these brief indications now also show, that the 
author cannot hope during the remaining probably brief period of his life-time, to complete the 
present work with some approach to exhaustiveness of the subject, and that it was therefore best 
to bring it to a temporary conclusion now ; he at the same time well foreseeing, that the Eucalypts 
are destined, to play a prominent part for all times to come in the silvan culture of vast tracts of 
the globe, and that for hardwood-supplies, for sanitary measures and for beneficient climatic 
changes all countries within the warmer zones will with appreciable extensiveness have to rely 
on our Eucalypts during an as yet uncountable future ! 



EUCALYPTUS. 

L'Heritier; sertum Anglioum 18, t. 20 (1788). 

Systematic Position. — Order Myrtaceaa ; tribe Leptospermese. 

Chakacteeistics of the Genus. — Calyx of firm consistence, by transverse fissure or more 
rarely by across-rupture separated into a lower persistent more or less tubular or semiovate or 
hemispheric portion and into a deciduous lid. Petals none, unless represented in some few species 
by an inner separate or separable opercular membrane. Stamens very numerous, inserted close to 
the edge of the calyx-tube in several rows, all fertile or some of the outer by absence of anthers 
sterile, all free or rarely united at the base into four bundles, always finally deciduous ; filaments 
thread-like, pointed, all inflexed while in bud or rarely the outer or very seldom all filaments 
straight before expansion ; anthers dorsifixed, their two cells parallel or divergent, each opening 
by a marginal or anterior slit or less commonly by a pore ; poUengrains tetrahedrons, smooth, 
with longitudinal apertures. Style filiform ; stigma convex or almost flat, undivided, seldom much 
dilated beyond the summit of the style. Ovary 3-6-celled, very rarely or quite exceptionally two- 
celled ; its lower portion adnate, its upper portion more or less free. Ovules in each cell numerous, 
spreading from an axile elongated narrow placenta in two or more rows, the greatest majority 
remaining unfertilized. Fruit consisting of the variously enlarged indurated and truncated or 
rarely four-toothed calyx-tube and an hardened inferiorly adnate capsule ; the latter with 3-5 
rarely 2 or 6 wholly or partially exserted or entirely enclosed valves and with a thick central 
somewhat columnar or rarely pyramidal axis. Seeds numerous, but comparatively few fertile ; 
testa of these thin, generally without any appendage, or that of some species expanded into a 
membranous large terminal appendage, or that of other species forming narrow membranes along 
the angles of the seeds. Hilum ventral or basal. Embryo of amygdaline consistence. Cotyledones 
broad, much compressed, somewhat folded, undivided or bibbed, curved around the cylindrical 
straight erect radicle. 

Evergreen trees, sporadic as well as gregarious, sometimes of enormous height, or tall or 
rarely dwarfed shrubs, copiously present in all parts of Australia even in intratropic low lands or iu 
arid desert-sands or on alpine elevations, more scantily occurring in New Guinea, in Timor and very 
rarely in the Moluccas, mostly of rapid growth, flowering occasionally at a very early age ; stem 
not rarely kinofluous ; bark either completely persistent or its outer layers variously seceding ; 
matured wood always particularly hard ; main branches usually distant ; foliage often not densely 
shady; branchlets frequently pendent, quite glabrous or sometimes those of juvenile plants 
rough-hairy or rarely so also those of advanced plants ; leaves of aged plants nearly always 
glabrous and thick_in„ texture, never soft-hairy, often scattered and conspicuously stalked or in 
some species opposite and then generally sessile or very rarely in pairs connate ; those of very 
young states of the plant frequently difi'erent in texture, position and shape to those of the more 
aged plants ; these latter prevailingly approaching in form to lanceolar-sickleshaped, often of equal 
color as well as stomatiferous on both sides and turning one edge towards the zenith and the 
other towards the ground ; much less frequently considerably darker above, and then often 
stomatiferous only on the lower side and spreading horizontally ; oil-dots pellucid or concealed ; 
peculiarly and strongly odorous ; primary veins often copious and much spreading ; insertion on 
the leaf-stalk in very few species and particularly in their very juvenile state suprabasal; 
inflorescence either axillary or terminal or more rarely both modes united or partially lateral ; 
flowers in single or paniculated umbels or much less commonly two only together or quite solitary ; 



EUCALYPTUS. 

umbel-stalks and flower-stalklets much loftener present than absent, the former sometimes much 
dilated ; umbels by the final fall of any sustending leaf ceasing to be axillary, not rarely capitate, 
while Tery young enclosed -within a pair of fugacious and sometimes diminutive bracts ; calyces of 
different species very variable in size; lid not rarely provided with a minute early dropping 
accessory outer layer ; filaments generally pale with a slightly yellowish tinge, more rarely bright- 
yellow or orange-colored or crimson; inner filaments gradually shorter; connective of anthers 
usually raised at the summit or dorsally towards the top into a callous gland ; slits of anthers 
sometimes confluent ; style seldom very short ; discal lining generally much extended beyond the 
ovary ; fruits for a long while persistent, &om very small in some species to remarkably large in 
others, oftener smooth than streaked or ridged ; discal space intervening between the edge of the 
calyx and the base of the valves from narrow to very broad in different species and not seldom 
protruding ; capsular portion of the fruit largely adnate to the calyx-tube, only exceptionally much 
seceding ; valves always glabrous, very rarely by the persistent base of the style permanently 
connected ; seeds long retained in the fixed fruit, soon shedding on detachment of the latter ; 
fertile seeds usually outside dark-brown; sterile seeds mostly pale-brown and smaller than the 
others. — Natural cross-fertilisation of flowers only exceptional and then partial ; artificial hybrid- 
isation easy. 

The genus Angophora differs from Eucalyptus, to which it is closely allied, in the calycine 
lid of the latter being replaced by distinct somewhat petaloid quite overlapping calyx-lobes ; the 
bristly hairiness of Angophora occurs also in some species of Eucalyptus, while likewise the 
denticulations of the calyx-tube of Angophora become developed in the section Eudesmia. 
The absence of normal petals and the complete conversion of the calyx-limb into a lid form the 
chief distinctions, by which Eucalyptus is separated from Metrosideros ; a coalescence of lobes 
(to the number of four) into an operculum is however indicated by the few eudesmoid species ; 
the segregation of the filaments of the latter into four sets affords some approach to the genus 
Tristania, although the filaments become not connate into any linear homogeneous membrane, 
but arise from four protrusions of the discal lining of the calyx. Acicalyptus (Piliocarpus, 
Brongniart and Gris) and Calyptranthes are more widely distant from Eucalyptus in the not 
capsular structure of the fruit. 



TIE SPECIES OP THE GENUS EUCALYPTUS SYSTEIATICALLY AEEANGED 
AND THEIE LEADING CHAEACTEEISTICS DEFINED. 



I— RENANTHERE^. 

Anthers mostly broader than long, nsnally kidney-shaped, opening anteriorily by divergent, 
upwards confluent slits. (Umbels generally solitary. FertUe and sterile seeds mostly 
conformous.) 

E. PAUCiFLOEA. — Leaves elongated, thick, shining, equally green, veined longitudinally; umbels 
solitary, lid hemispheric ; fruits truncate-OYate, border of orifice depressed, valves enclosed. 
(Leiophloia3.) 

E. STBLLULATA. — Leaves small, thick, equally green, veined longitudinally; umbels solitary, 
flowers very small, numerous, lid semiovate-conical ; fruits truncate-globular, border depressed, 
valves enclosed. (RhytiphloiEe.) 

E. AMYGDALiNA.— Leaves thin, equally green, veins not much spreading, oil-dots copious, trans- 
parent; umbels solitary, flowers small, lid almost hemispheric; fruits truncate-ovate, border 
depressed, valves enclosed. (Inophloiee — Leiophloiffi.) 

E. EUGENioiDES. — Leaves equally dark-green, shining, very inequilateral at the base, much trans- 
parently dotted; umbels mostly solitary, lid semiovate; fruits truncate-globular, border 
depressed, valves barely enclosed. (Inophloiee.) 

E. PIPERITA. — Leaves less shining beneath, much transparently dotted; umbels solitary, lid 
semiovate-conical ; fruits truncate-ovate, border compressed, valves enclosed. (Inophloise.) 

E. piLULAEis. — Leaves rather less shining beneath; umbels mostly axillary, their stalks compressed, 
lid semiovate-conical ; fruits truncate-ovate, border depressed, valves enclosed. (Rhytiphloiee 
— Inophloife.) 

E. ACMENOiDES. — Lcavcs paler beneath; umbels mostly axillary, their stalks slender, lid hemi- 
spheric, pointed ; fruits truncate-ovate, border compressed, valves barely enclosed. (Inophloise.) 

-E. OBLiQUA. — Leaves equally green, shining, very inequilateral at the base; umbels solitary, 
calyces granular-rough, lid hemispheric; fruits truncate-ovate, border compressed, valves 
enclosed. (Inophloise.) 

E. STEICTA. — Dwarf; leaves thick, mostly nxirrow, equally green, shining; umbels solitary, calyces 
granular-rough ; fruits truncate-ovate, border compressed, valves enclosed. 

E. ANGUSTissiMA. — Dwarf; leaves very narrow; flowers small; tube of the calyx broader than the 
semiovate lid; fruits semiglobular, with attenuated base, border depressed, valves barely enclosed. 



E, Oldfieldii.— Dwarf ; leaves equally green, thick ; umbels solitary, stalks short, stalklets very 
short, Ud semiovate-hemispheric ; miter stamens straight in bud, anthers roundish-cordate ; fruits 
rather large, below hemispheric, border of orifice broad convex, em,ersed, valves exserted. 

E. SAOTALIFOLIA.— Dwarf; leaves thick, rather narrow, equally green, shining; umbels solitary, 
stalklets almost none, lid semiovate-conical ; outer stamens straight in bud, anthers roundish- 
cordate ; fruits hemispheric below, border broad, convex, emersed, valves very short, exserted. 

E. CAPiTELLATA. — Leaves thick, elongated, rather less shining beneath, very inequilateral at the 
base ; umbels axillary, stalklets none, lid hemispheric ; fruits semiovate below, border broad, 
convex, emersed, valves much exserted. (Inophloise.) 

E. MACKOESHTisrcHA. — Lcavcs elongated, equally green ; umbels solitary ; calyx-lid concavely 
attenuated, sharply pointed; fruits below hemispheric, border convex, emersed, valves much 
exserted. (Inophloise.) 

E. H^MASTOMA. — Leaves equally green, very shining ; umbels solitary, stalks somewhat com- 
pressed; outer stamens sterile; fruits semiovate, border depressed, valves very short, barely 
enclosed. (Leiophloiffi.) 

E. SiEBEKiANA. — Lcavcs elongated, thick, pale, equally green, shining ; veins thin, not much 
spreading ; umbels solitary, their stalks compressed, lid hemispheric ; outer stamens sterile; 
fruits truncate-ovate, border depressed, valves very short, barely enclosed. (SchizophloiaB.) 

E. MiCEOCOKTS. — Leaves thin, much paler beneath, much transparently dotted, veins spreading ; 
umbels partly paniculated, stalklets elongated, lid very small, hemispheric; outer stamens 
sterile; fruits hemieUipsoid, border compressed, valves minute, barely enclosed. (Inophloi^.) 

E. MAEGiNATA. — Leaves paler beneath, veins spreading; umbels solitary, lid conical; outer stamens 
straight in hid; fruits globular-ovate, truncate, border compressed, valves very short, barely 
enclosed. (Inophloiae.) 

E. Bailey ANA. — Leaves thin, equally green, much transparently dotted; umbels mostly solitary ; 
lid hemispheric ; fruits globular-urnshaped, border compressed, valves barely enclosed. (Ino- 
phloise.) 

E. ToDTiANA. — Leaves thick, shining, almost equally green; umbels solitary, stalklets none, lid 
hemispheric; anthers cordate; fruits rather large, truncate-globular, valves enclosed; fertile 
seeds membranously margined. 

E. CAESiA. — Leaves thick, equally dull-green, veins not much spreading ; umbels solitary, stalklets 
elongated, bent downward; fruits rather large, truncate-ovate, somewhat urnshaped, streaked, 
border compressed, valves barely enclosed. 

E. BTJPEESTIUM. — Lcavcs rather small, equally green ; umbels mostly solitary ; flowers small, M 
hemispheric ; fruits large, truncate-globular, greyish, border compressed, valves enclosed ; fertile 
seeds membranously margined. 

E. SEPULCKALis. — Leavcs narrow, equally green; umbels solitary, stalks elongated; Ud hemi- 
spheric, filaments yellow, anthers roundish ; fruits large, ovate-urnshaped, narrowed upwards 
valves deeply enclosed. (Leiophloise.) 



II.-PORANTHERE^. 

Anthers not or hardly broader than long, usually roundish, opening by pores (always minute). 

E. PANICTJLATA. — Leaves rather thin, paler beneath, umbels mostly paniculated ; lid thin, conical- 
semiovate ; outer stamens sterile; anthers truncated, opening at the summit; stigma much 
dilated; fruit semiovate, border of orifice compressed, valves enclosed. (Schizophloise — 
Leiophloiee.) 

E. Lettcoxylon. — Leaves equally dull-green; umbels solitary, mostly three-lowered, stalklets 
elongated, lid semiovate, pointed; outer stamens sterile, anthers truncated, opening at the 
summit; stigma much dilated ; fruits semiovate, border compressed, valves enclosed. (Schizo- 
phloise — LeiophloisB.) 

- E. MELLiODOEA. — Leavcs equally dull-green; umbels solitary; flowers small; lid conic-hemi- 
spherical ; outer stamens sterile; anthers truncated, opening at the summit; stigma much dilated; 
fruits truncate-ovate ; border compressed, valves enclosed. (Rhytiphloiae.) 

E. POLTAiTTHEMA. — Lcavcs bjoad, equally dull-green; umbels paniculated ; lid almost hemispheric ; 
outer staTfiens sterile; anthers truncated, opening at the summit; fruit truncate-ovate, border 
compressed, valves enclosed. (Rhytiphloise.) 

E. OCHEOPHLOIA. — Lcaves elongated, equally green, shining, veins not much spreading ; umbels 
partly paniculated ; calyces angular ; lid semiovate-conical, pointed ; outer stamens sterile ; 
fi'uit hemiellipsoid ; border compressed, valves deeply enclosed. (Leiophloiee.) 

E. GEACiLis. — Dwarf ; leaves narrow, equally green, shining ; umbels solitary ; calyces angular; 
lid almost hemispheric ; outer stamens sterile ; fruits hemiellipsoid, border compressed, valves 
enclosed. 

E. UNcmATA. — Dwarf ; leaves narrow, equally green ; umbels solitary ; flowers small ; lid semi- 
ovate ; stamens sharply infracted before expansion; fruits semiovate, border depressed, valves 
pointed, barely enclosed. 

E. ODOEATA. — Leaves rather narrow, equally green ; oil-dots numerous ; umbels mostly solitary ; 
lid hemispheric-conical ; anthers truncated; stigma somewhat dilated ; fruits hemiellipsoid, 
border compressed, annular at the edge, valves deeply enclosed. (Ehytiphloias.) 

E. LAEGiFLOEENS. — Lcavcs thin, equally dull-green ; umbels paniculated ; lid double, the inner 
hemispheric, less wide than the calyx-tube ; outer stamens sometimes sterile; fruit small, trun- 
cate-ovate, border compressed, valves enclosed. (Rhytiphloise.) 

E. HEMiPHLOiA. — Leaves thick, elongated, equally green ; umbels paniculated ; calyces somewhat 
angular; lid semiovate-conical ; fruit hemiellipsoid, border compressed, valves deeply enclosed. 
(Rhytiphloia3.) 

E. Beheiana. — Leaves thick, broadish, shining, equally green ; umbels paniculated ; flowers small; 
lid hemispheric ; fruit truncate-ovate, border rather depressed, valves enclosed. (Leiophloiae.) 

E. POPULiFOLiA. — Leaves broad, equally green, shining, long-stalked, much transparently dotted ; 
stalklets very short ; umbels paniculated ; lid hemispheric ; fruit small, semiovate, border 
rather depressed, valves close to the summit, barely enclosed. (Ehytiphloiee.) 



in— STEONGYLANTHERE^. 

Anthers not or scarcely longer than broad, usually roundish, opening by longitudinal slits. 
(Transits from RenanthercEe : E. santalifolia, E. Oldfieldii, E. Todtiana, E. sepulcralis, E. alpina.) 

E. ALBA. — Leaves hroadish, equally dull-green or ashy-grey; umbels solitary; lid semiglobular, 
short-pointed ; fruit topshaped-hemispheric, border depressed, valves exserted. 

E. PLATTPHTLLA. — Leaves often large, cordate or ovate-roundish, long-stalked, equally dull-green ; 
umbels solitary ; stalks short, stalklets almost none ; lid blunt ; fruits small, semiovate, border 
depressed, valves exserted. (Leiophloiae.) 

E. DoKATOXYLOif. — Leaves opposite, stalked, narrow, acute ; umbels solitary, bent downward ; lid 
much pointed ; fruit ovate-globular, orifice small, border compressed, valves enclosed. (Leio- 
phloise.) 

E. GAMOPHYLLA. — Dwarf ; leaves mostly opposite, connate, broad, equally dull-green or ash-grey ; 
umbels partly paniculated ; lid patellar ; fr-uits truncate-ellipsoid, border compressed ; fertile 
seeds membranous-margined. 

E. PEumosA. — Leaves opposite, sessile, broad, blunt, equally ash-grey ; umbels terminal, panicu- 
lated ; lid hemispheric, pointed ; slits of anthers short; fruits hemiellipsoid, border compressed, 
valves barely enclosed. (RhytiphloiEe.) 

E. MELANOPHLOiA. — Lcaves opposite, sessile, broad, equally ash-grey ; umbels partly paniculated ; 
lid semiovate-conical ; fruits small, semiovate, somewhat angular, border compressed, valves 
barely enclosed. (Schizophloiee.) 

E. DKEPANOPHYLLA. — Leavcs elongated, equally dull-green ; umbels mostly paniculated ; lid semi- 
ovate, blunt ; fruits semiovate, angular, border compressed, valves barely enclosed. (Schizo- 
phloife — Ehytiphloise.) 

E. CEEBEA. — Leaves narrow, thin, equally dull-green, veins spreading ; umbels mostly paniculated ; 
flowers small ; lid semiovate-conical ; stigma dilated ; fruits small, semiovate, border com- 
pressed, valves short, somewhat exserted. (Schizophloiae.) 

E. BEACHYAiTOEA. — Dwarf ; leaves hroadish, blunt ; umbels paniculated ; flowers very small ; 
stamens extremely short; fruits minute, bellshaped-semiovate, border compressed, valves 
enclosed. 

E. Glo'eziask.— Leaves thin, much paler beneath ; oil-dots pellucid ; umbels paniculated ; stalklets 
short ; lid hemispheric ; fruit topshaped^semiovate. (Schizophloiae.) 

E. HowiTTiAifA. — Leaves much paler beneath ; umbels paniculated ; stalklets none ; flowers very 
small ; lid conical, acute, pale ; fruits minute, truncate-globular, border compressed valves 
enclosed. (RhytiphloiEe.) 

E. Eaveeetiana. — Leaves thin, somewhat paler beneath; oil-dots pellucid ; umbels paniculated • 
lid conical, acute ; fruits minute, semiglobular beneath, border compressed, valves much exserted. 
(Ehytiphloife.) 



E. MICEOTHECA. — Leaves equally dull- and pale-green ; umbels panicnlated ; lid semiovate ; fruits 
small, semiglobular beneath, border compressed, valves much exserted. (Ehytiphloise.) 

E. siDEROPHLOiA. — Leaves elongated, equally green ; umbels partly paniculated ; lid conical, very 
acute; outer stamens straight in bud ; fruits semiovate, border compressed, valves somewbat 
exserted. (Schizopbloife.) 

E. Planchgnlajsta. — Leaves elongated, shining, slightly paler beneath ; umbels solitary ; stalks 
broadly compressed, stalklets short ; lid broadish-conical, acute ; outer stamens straight in bud ; 
fruits rather large, semiovate, streaked, border compressed, valves enclosed. (Inophloiae.) 

E. mcEASSATA. — Dwarf ; leaves thick, equally light-green, shining ; umbels solitary ; stalks 
broadly compressed, stalklets almost none ; lid nearly hemispheric, pointed or blunt ; fruits 
truncate-ovate, streaked, border compressed, valves acute, enclosed. 

E. OLEOSA. — Dwarf; leaves equally light-green ; umbels solitary; stalks slender, stalklets very 
short ; lid semiovate-conical, pointed ; fruits truncate-ovate, neither large nor streaked, border 
compressed, valves long-pointed, half-exserted. 

E. CNEOEiFOLiA. — Lcavcs very narrow, thick, equally green ; umbels solitary ; stalks short, stalklets 
none ; lid semiovate ; fruits small, semiovate, border depressed, valves slightly exserted. 

E. SALMONOPHLOiA. — Leaves equally green, shining; oil-dots copious; umbels solitary; stalks 
slender, stalklets short ; lid semiovate-conical ; outer stamens straight in bud; fruit small, semi- 
ovate, border compressed, valves long-pointed, much exserted. (Leiophloiee.) 

E. DECiPiENS. — Leaves equally dull-green ; umbels axillary ; stalklets none ; lid broad-conical ; 
fruit semiglobular, border depressed, broadish, valves long-pointed, much exserted. (Ehyti- 
phloi^.) 

E. PATENS. — Leaves thin, elongated, almost equally dull-green ; umbels mostly axillary ; lid nearly 
hemispheric; fruits truncate-ovate, somewhat streaked, border compressed, valves enclosed. 
(Ehytiphloife.) 

E. DivEESicoLOE. — Lcavcs elongated, much paler beneath; umbels solitary ; lid nearly hemispheric ; 
fruits truncate-ovate, attenuated at the base, border compressed, valves enclosed. (Leiophloise.) 

E. PHCENiCEA. — Leaves thin, dull-green ; umbels solitary, manyflowered ; lid nearly hemispheric ; 
filaments scarlet; ovary two-celled ; fruits urnshaped-ellipsoid, border compressed, valves deeply 
enclosed. (Lepidophloiee.) 



IV.— OETHANTHERILE. 

Anthers distinctly longer than broad, from ovate to narrow-oblong, opening by almost parallel slits 

E. MmiATA. — Leaves dull-green, slightly paler beneath; veins feathery-spreading ; umbels usually 
solitary; stalMets almost none; lid conic-hemispheric ; ^fomew^s crimson; fruits very large, 
urnshaped-ovate, bluntly ridged, border compressed, valves enclosed. (Lepidophloise.) 

E. PTTCHOCAEPA. — Leaves large, broadish, acute, much paler beneath ; veins f eathery-spreading ; 
umbels paniculated, stalHets elongated ; lid hemispheric ; filaments crimson ; fruits very large, 
truncate-ellipsoid, prominently ridged, border compressed, valves enclosed ; fertile seeds termi- 
nating in a long membrane. (PachyphloiEe.) 

- E. FicrFOLiA. — Leaves broadish, much paler beneath ; veins feathery-spreading ; umbels panicu- 
lated ; stalMets elongated ; lid patellar, less wide than the calyx-tube, tearing off along an 
irregular suture ; filaments crimson ; fruits large, smooth, urnshaped-ovate, border compressed, 
valves enclosed ; fertile seeds pale, terminating in a long membrane. (Schizophloise.) 

E. CAiOPHTLLA. — Lcavcs broad, acute, much paler beneath ; veins feathery-spreading ; umbels 
paniculated; stalMets elongated; lid patellar, less roide than the calyx-tube, tearing off along an 
irregular suture; fruits large, smooth, ovate-urnshaped, border compressed, valves enclosed ; 
fertile seeds very large, dark, devoid of any terminating membrane. (SchizopMoife.) 

E. Abeegiana. — Leaves thick, broadish, acute, much paler beneath; veins feathery-spreading; 
umbels paniculated ; stalMets almost none ; lid hemispheric, tearing of along an irregular suture; 
fruits large, smooth, ovate-urnshaped, border compressed, valves enclosed ; fertile seeds termi- 
nating in a large membrane. (Rhytiphloi£e.) 

E. FoELSCHEANA. — Dwarf ; leaves large, very broad, thick, greyish-green, hardly paler beneath ; 
flowers paniculated ; stalMets upward thickened ; lid patellar, tearing off along an irregular 
suture, not so wide as the tube of the calyx; fruits large, smooth, ovate-urnshaped, border 
compressed, valves enclosed ; fertile seeds large, terminating in a long memhrane. 

E. LATiroLiA. — Leaves long-stalked, broad, equally green ; umbels paniculated ; stalMets slender; 
fruit rather small, semiovate, somewhat bellshaped, border compressed, valves enclosed ; fertile 
seeds terminating in a membrane. (LeiopUoiae.) 

E. TEKMiNALis. — Lcavcs thick, dull-green, hardly paler beneath; umbels paniculated; stalMets 
elongated ; lid tearing off along an irregular suture; fruits somewhat large, smooth, urnshaped- 
ovate, border compressed, valves enclosed; fertile seeds terminating in a long membrane. 
(RhytipMoiae.) 

E. coETMBOSA. — Lcavcs much paler beneath; veins feathery-spreading ; umbels paniculated; 
stalMets elongated ; lid short, tearing of along an irregular suture ; fruits rather large, smooth 
ovate-shaped, border compressed, valves enclosed; fertile seeds terminating in a very short 
membrane. (Ehytiphloise.)] 



E. TRACHYPHLOiA. — Leaves rather narrow, elongated, slightly paler beneath ; nmbels paniculated ; 
lid very small, patellar, tearing off along an irregular suture ; fruits rather small, urnshaped- 
ovate, border compressed, valves enclosed. (Rhytiphloi*.) 

E. CLAVIGEKA. — BranchUts hairy-rough; leaves partly opposite, broad, equally greyish-green; 
umbels paniculated ; stalklets thin, much elongated; lid patellar, shining ; fruits hemiellipsoid- 
urnshaped, border compressed, valves enclosed. (Leiophloi^.) 

E. TESSELLAEis. — Leaves narrow, elongated, equally green ; umbels mostly paniculated ; stalklets 
very short ; lid patellar, shining ; fruits truncate-ovate, slightly urceolar, border compressed, 
valves enclosed ; fertile seeds almost flat, membranous-margined. (Rhytiphloige — Leiophloise.) 

E. COEYNOCALYX. — Leaves shining, somewhat paler beneath ; umbels mostly solitary ; lid almost 
hemispheric, slightly overreaching the orifice of the calyx ; fruits urnshaped-ellipsoid, streaked, 
border compressed, valves enclosed. (Leiophloise.) 

- E. MACXJLATA. — Leaves elongated, equally green ; veins feathery-spreading; umbels paniculated ; 
stalklets short ; lid double, hemispheric, the inner thin, shining ; fruit truncate-ovate, somewhat 
urnshaped, border compressed, valves enclosed. (Leiophloise.) 

E. EXiMiA. — Leaves thick, elongated, equally green ; umbels paniculated ; stalklets none ; lid thin, 
hemispheric, shining, imperfectly double ; fruit rather for^e, truncate-ovate, somewhat urnshaped, 
border compressed, valves enclosed ; fertile seeds large. (Ehytiphloiae.) 

E. Watsoniana. — Leaves broadish, equally green; umbels paniculated; lid thick, depressed- 
hemispheric, wider than the calyx-tube, shining ; fruits large, urnshaped-semiovate, border 
broad, descendingly depressed, raised above the calyx-tube, valves enclosed ; fertile seeds large. 
(Rhytiphloiae.) 

E. PELTATA. — Branchlets hairy-rough ; leaves broadish, mostly inserted above their base, equally 
pale-green ; umbels paniculated ; stalklets very short ; lid double, almost hemispheric, the inner 
shining ; fruits rather small, truncate-ovate, somewhat urnshaped, border compressed, valves 
enclosed. (Lepidophloise.) 

E. ToEEiLiANA. — Branchlets hairy-rough ; leaves broadish, paler beneath ; umbels paniculated ; 
stalks thick ; stalklets almost none ; lid nearly hemispheric, shining. (Leiophloiae.) 

^ E. SBTOSA. — Leaves opposite, broad, sessile, equally dull- and pale-green ; umhels mostly panicu- 
lated, as well as the branchlets bristly-rough; stalklets elongated; lid tearing off along an 
irregular suture, not so wide as the calyx-tube; fruits large, truncate-ovate, somewhat urn- 
shaped, smooth, border compressed, valves enclosed ; fertile seeds terminating in a long memr- 
brane. (Rhytiphloise.) 

"^ E. CORDATA. — Leaves opposite, sessile, mostly cordate, crenulated, equally dull-green ; oil-glands 
pelluciH"; umbels solitary; stalklets none; fruits semiovate, border compressed, at the edge 
annular, valves barely enclosed. (Leiophloiae.) 



E. URNiGERA. — Leaves scattered, long-stalked, almost lanceolar, crenulated, equally dark-green ; 
oirgTands pellucid ; umbels solitary ; stalks elongated, stalklets rather short ; fruits ellipsoid- 
urnshaped, border compressed, at the edge annular, valves deeply enclosed. (Leiophloife.)j::^&'-^«' 

E. PTiLVERULENTA. — LeavBS Opposite, sessile, mostly cordate, equally whitish-grey ; oil-glands pel- 
lucid ; umbels solitary, three- or few-flowered ; stalklets almost none ; fruits small, semiovate- 
topshaped ; border narrow, depressed, valves small, exserted. (Inophloi^.) 

— E. Stuaetiajsta. — Leaves scattered, stalked, equally dark-green, shining ; umbels solitary, few- 
flowered ; stalklets almost none ; lid nearly hemispheric ; fruits small, semiovate-topshaped, 
border narrow, rather convex, valves very small, exserted. . (Inophloise.) 

B. viMiNALis. — Leaves scattered, stalked, falcate-lanceolar, equally green ; umbels solitary, mostly 
three-jflowered ; stalklets almost none or very short ; lid semiovate, mostly short-pointed ; fruit 
semiovate, border somewhat convex, valves exserted. (Leiophloiae — Rhytiphloite.) 5'«^«*4-wiL • 

E. EOSTEATA. — Lcavcs scattered, stalked, falcate-lanceolar, equally green ; umbels solitary, with 
several flowers ; stalks rather elongated, stalklets conspicuous ; lid from an hemispheric base 
sharp-pointed; fruit below semiglobular, border convex, valves exserted. (Leiophloiee.) 

— E. TBRETicoENis. — Leavcs scattered, stalked, falcate-lanceolar, equally green; umbels solitary, 
with several flowers ; stalks rather elongated, stalklets conspicuous ; lid mostly elongate-conical; 
outer stamens straight in bud; fruits below semiglobular, border convex, valves exserted. 
(Leiophloiae.) 

^ — E. GuNNii. — Leaves scattered, stalked, thick, broadish-lanceolar, equally dark-green, shining; 
umbels solitary, with several flowers ; stalklets very short; lid shining, hemispheric, short- 
pointed; fruits topshaped-semiovate, border depressed, valves small, slightly exserted. (Leio- 
phloisB.) 

• E. VERK^OSA. — Dwarf ; leaves often very small, mostly ovate, equally dark-green, very shining ; 
flowers 1 to 3; stalks and stalklets very short ; lid shining, short-pointed ; fruits semiovate, 
border depressed, valves exserted. £(,d\^t^ 

E. RUDis. — Leaves thin, falcate-lanceolar, equally dull-green ; oil-dots pellucid ; umbels solitary ; 
stalklets short; lid broad-conical, transverse edge of the calyx prominent in bud; fruits semi- 
globnlar-topshaped, border rather convex, valves exserted. (Rhytiphloise.) 

E. EEDUNOA. — Leaves equally green; umbels solitary; stalks broadly compressed; lid conical, 
acute; fruit hemiellipsoid, border compressed, valves barely enclosed. (Leiophloiee.) 

E. FOBCTOTDA. — Leaves narrow, equally green ; umbels mostly solitary ; stalks slender ; lid hemi- 
spheric ; fruit hemiellipsoid, border compressed, valves deeply enclosed. (Rhytiphloife.) 

E. SALDBEis. — Leaves thin, equally dark-green ; oil-dots copious, pellucid; umbels solitary , stalks 
compressed; lid hemiellipsoid; fruits semiovate, border depressed, very narrow, valves small 
exserted. (Leiophloiee.) 



-^ E. SALiGNA. — Leaves much paler beneath ; veins f eathery-spreading ; umbels solitary; stalk com- 
pressed, stalklets very short ; lid hemispheric, short-pointed ; fruit semiovate, border depressed, 
very narrow, valves small, exserted. (Leiophloife.) 

— - E. EESINIFERA. — Leaves much paler beneath; veins very spreading; umbels solitary; stalk com- 
pressed; lid conical, acute; fruit semiovate, border depressed, narrow, valves exserted, pointed. 
(Rhytiphloiffi.) 

E. PUNCTATA. — Leaves paler beneath; veins very spreading, oil-dots pellucid; umbels partly 
paniculated ; stalks broadly compressed ; lid semiovate-conical ; fruit semiovate, border 
depressed, valves small, barely exserted. (Leiophloite.) 

> B. BOTRTOiDES. — Leaves much paler beneath; veins feathery-spreading; umbels solitary; stalk 
broadly compressed, stalklets almost none ; lid hemispheric ; fruit hemiellipsoid, border com- 
pressed, valves barely enclosed. (Rhytiphloise.) 

E. GONiooALTX. — Lcavcs equally green ; umbels solitary, stalk compressed, stalklets very short ; 
lid pyramidal-hemispheric; fruit truncate-ovate, angular, border narrow, depressed, valves 
barely enclosed. (Rhytiphloi^ — Leiophloiae.) 

E. EOBUSTA. — Leaves thick, broadish, somewhat paler beneath ; umbels solitary, stalk broadly 
compressed; calyces pale, lid semiglobular-conical, broader than the calyx-tube; fruit truncate- 
ovate, border compressed, valves coherent, barely enclosed. (Rhytiphloise.) 

— E. COENUTA. — Leaves equally green ; umbels solitary ; stalklets almost none, lid very long, 
upwards cylindrical; filaments yellow, long, straight in bud; fruit bellshaped-semiovate, border 
depressed, valves very long, awlshaped, coherent. (Rhytiphloise.) 

E. occiDENTALis. — Leaves thick, equally green ; umbels solitary ; stalks broadly compressed, 
stalklets short ; lid cylindric-conical ; stamens straight in bud; fruits bellshaped-semiovate, 
border depressed, valves exserted, pointed. (Rhytiphloise — Leiophloise.) 

E. OBCOEDAIA. — Leaves thick, broad, blunt, shining ; umbels solitary; stalk very broadly compressed, 
bent downwards, stalklets none ; lid cylindric-conical, narrower than the tube of the calyx; 
stamens straight in bud; fruit truncate-ovate, very angular, border compressed, valves slightly 
exserted. (Leiophloiffi.) 

E. PACHYPODA. — Dwarf; leaves thick, equally green ; umbels solitary ; stalks thick, very short, 
stalklets none; lid semiovate ; fruit hemiellipsoid, somewhat angular, border compressed, valves 
enclosed. 

E. EETTHEONEMA. — Lcaves uarrow, equally green; oil-dots pellucid ; umbels solitary; stalklets much 
elongated; lid conical, filaments red; fruit topshaped, border depressed, valves slightly exserted. 

E. LONGiFOLiA. — Lcavcs elongated, equally green ; umbels solitary ; stalklets elongated; calyces 
pale; lid broad-conical, acute ; fruit rather large, bellshaped-semiovate, angular, border ascendant, 
valves enclosed. (Rhytiphloise.) 



■--^E. COSMOPHTLLA. — Dwarf ; leaves tJdck, equally dull-green; umbels solitary; stalk very short, 
stalklets almost none ; lid semiglobular, sliort-pointed ; fruits semiovate, border depressed, 
valves exserted. 

E. MEGACAEPA. — Leaves equally green ; umbels solitary ; stalk broadly compressed, stalklets none ; 
lid semiglobular, short-pointed ; fruit large, almost hemispheric, border broad, depressed, valves 
exserted, blunt, convergent. (Leiophloi^.) 

'E. GLOBULUS. — Leaves thick, elongated, equally green; flowers mostly solitary, stalks and 
stalklets almost none ; lid double, the inner crorcnshaped ; fruit large, hemispheric, warty-rough, 
angular, border broad, depressed, valves exserted, convergent. (Leiophloiae.) 

E. ALPiNA. — Leaves very thick, broad, blunt, equally green, shining ; umbels solitary or flowers 
smgle; stalks and stalklets none; lid crorcnshaped, anthers cordate ; fruit hemispheric, border 
depressed, valves exserted. '^t.+L<^.^A . 

E. GOMPHOCEPHALA. — Lcavcs thick, shining, slightly paler beneath ; umbels solitary; stalk broadly 
compressed, stalklets none ; lid broader than the tube of the calyx, almost hemispheric; fruit 
large, topshaped, border broad, convex, valves exserted, convergent. (Rhytiphloife.) 

- E. Peeissiaija. — Dwarf; leaves very thick, broadish, blunt, equally green, often opposite; umbels 
solitary ; stalk broadly compressed, stalklets none ; lid nearly hemispheric, filaments yellow; 
fruit large, topshaped-semiovate, border very broad, depressed, valves enclosed, blunt, convergent. 

E. PACHYPHYLLA. — Dwarf ; leaves very thick, broadish, acute, equally green ; umbels solitary ; stalk 
and stalklets very short or none; lid semiovate-pyramidal, pointed; filaments yellow; fruit 
topshaped-hemispheric below, very angular, border broad, ascending, valves slightly exserted ; 
fertile seeds membranously margined. 

E. PYEiFORMis. — Dwarf; leaves thick, equally green, umbels so^iiwj ; flowers very large, calyces 
wrinkled, lid hemispheric, pointed; filaments red or yellow; fruit very large, topshaped- 
hemispheric, angular, border very broad, ascending, valves slightly exserted ; fertile seeds 
membranously margined. 

' E. MACROCAEPA. — Dwarf ; leaves opposite, sessile, ovate-cordate, equally whitish-grey; flowers 
solitary, very large; stalk and stalklets almost none ; lid semiovate-conical ; filaments red; 
fruit very large, topshaped-hemispheric; border broad, convex; valves exserted; fertile seeds 
membranously margined. 

E. TETEAPTEEA. — Dwarf; leaves very thick, equally green, shining ; j^owers solitary, stalk broadly 
compressed, bent downward; stalklets none; calyx-tube quadrangular, slightly 4-toothed, 
broader than the pyramidal lid ; filaments red, anthers purplish ; fruit very large, bellshaped- 
quadrangular, border depressed, valves enclosed. 

■ - E. TETEODONTA. — LcavBS oppositc, elongated, equally dull-green ; umbels solitary, stalklets very 
short ; calyx-tube conspicuously 4r-toothed, lid hemispheric, discal expansion raised; fruit bell- 
shaped-semiovate, angular, border compressed, valves enclosed. (Inophloi*.) 



B. ODONTOCAEPA — Dwarf ; leaves mostly opposite, very narrow, equally green ; umbels solitary ; 
staMets very short ; calyx-tube 4-toothed, lid patellar ; fruit small, hemiellipsoid, border 
compressed, valves enclosed. 

B. E0DESMIOIDBS. — Dwarf ; leaves opposite or scattered, rather narrow, equally green ; umbels 
solitary ; stalk slender, stalklets very short ; calyx-tube almost toothless ; lid patellar ; stamens 
forming four bundles ; fruit truncate-ovate, border compressed, valves enclosed ; seeds membra- 
nously margined. 

E. TETRAGONA. — Dwarf ; leaves thick, opposite, broad, equally whitish-grey; umbels solitary; 
stalk compressed ; calyx-tube slightly 4-toothed ; lid patellar ; stamens forming four bundles ; 
fruit rather large, truncate-ovate, -angular, border compressed, valves enclosed ; seeds much 
membranously margined. 

E. EBYTHBOCOEYS. — Dwarf ; leaves thick, elongated, mostly opposite, equally gveen ; umbels Soli- 
tary or flowers single ; stalk compressed, stalklets none ; calyx-tube quadrangular, slightly 
4-toothed ; lid depressed, red; stamens forming four bundles, filaments yellow; fruit very large, 
bellshaped-hemispheric, border very broad, somewhat ascendant, valves barely enclosed. 



The characteristics of aberrant forms of any species are not covered by this synopsis. 



■ — . 


S.A. 


T. 


W.A. 


S.A. 




W.A. 


S.A. 
S.A. 




— 


S.A. 


— 


— 


— 


T. 


— 


S.A. 


T. 



V. 
V. 


N.S.W. 

N.S.W. 


— 


V. 


N.S.W. 


— 


V. 


N.S.W. 


— 


V. 


N.S.W. 


Q. 


V. 


N.S.W. 


Q. 


— 


N.S.W. 


Q. 


— 


N.S.W. 




V. 


N.S.W. 


— 


V. 


Z 





V. 


N.S.W. 


Q. 


V. 


N.S.W. 




V. 


N.S.W. 


Q. 


V. 


N.S.W. 




— 


N.S.W. 


Q. 



GEOGRAPHIC SCHEDULE. 



I.— BEITAITTKEBi:^:. 

- Eucalyptus pauciflora ... ... ... — S.A. T. 

E. stellulata ... ... ... ... — — — 

- E. amygdalina... ... ... ... — S.A. T. 

E. eugenioides ... ... ... ... — — — 

~E. piperita ... ... ... ... — — — 

E. pilularis ... ... ... ... — — — 

E. acmenoides ... ... ... ... — — — 

E. stricta ... ... ... ... — — — 

E. angustissima ... ... ... W.A. 

— E. obliqua 

E. Oldfieldii ,. 

E. samtalifolia ... 
E. capitellata ... 
E. maororrhyncha 
E. haamastoma 

' E. Sieberiana ... 

E. miorocorys ... ... ... ... — 

E. margiriata ... ... ... ... W.A. 

E. Baileyana ... 
E. Todtiana 

E. buprestium ... 

E. sepulcralis ... 

Eucalyptus paniculata ... 
E. Leucoxylou ... 

— E. melliodora ... 
E. polyanthema 
E. ochropMoia 
E. gracilis 

•. E. uncinata 
» E. odorata 

E. largiflorens ... 

E. hemiphloia ... 

E. Behriana 

E. populifolia — — — — N.S.W. Q. N.A. 

iii.-stboit(tYi.aitthebi:2:. 

Eucalyptus alba ... ... ... — — 

E. platyphylla ... ... ... ... — — 

E. Doratoxylon ... ... ... W.A. — 

~ E. gamophylla ... ... ... — S.A. 

E. pruinosa ... ... ... ... — — 

E. melanopMoia ... ... ... — — 

E. drepanophylla ... ... ... — — 

E. crebra ... ... ... ... — — 

E. brachyandra ... ... ... — — 

E. Cloeziana ... ... ... ... — — 

E. Howittiana ... ... ... ... — — 

E. Raveretiana ... ... ... — "^ 

E. microtheca ... ... ... ■•. — S-.'^- 

E. siderophloia ... ... ... — — 

E. Planchoniana 

E. inorassata ... 

E. oleosa 

E. cneorifolia ... 

E. salmonophloia 

E. decipiens 

E. patens 

E. diversicolor . . 

E. phcenicea ... ... ... ... — — — — — — N.A. 



W.A. 


— 


W.A. 


— 


W.A. 


— 


II.— PO 


RANT] 





S.A. 


— 


S.A. 


— 


S.A. 


W.A. 


S.A. 


W.A. 


S.A. 


— 


S.A. 


— 


S.A. 


— 


S.A. 


— 


S.A. 



V. 


N.S.W. 


Q. 


V. 


N.S.W. 


Q- 


V. 


N.S.W. 




V. 


N.S.W. 





— 


N.S.W. 


Q. 


V. 


N.S.W. 




V. 


N.S.W. 


— 


V. 


N.S.W. 


Q. 


V. 


N.S.W. 


Q. 


V. 


— 





W.A. 


S.A. 


W.A. 


S.A. 


— 


S.A. 


W.A. 


— 


W.A. 


— 


W.A. 


— 


W.A. 


— 



— 


— 


Q. 


N.A. 


— 


- 


Q. 


N.A. 











N.A. 


— 


— 


Q. 


N.A. 


— 


N.S.W. 


Q. 


— 


— 


— 


Q. 


— 


— 


N.S.W. 


Q- 


N.A. 


— 


— 




N.A. 


— 


— 


Q. 


— 


— 


— 


Q. 


— 


— 


— 


Q. 


— 


— 


N.S.W. 


Q. 


N.A. 


— 


N.S.W. 


Q- 




— 


N.S.W. 


Q- 





V. 


N.S.W. 







V. 


N.S.W. 









IV.— OETHAKTHEEEa:. 



Eucalyptus miniata 
E. ptychocarpa 
"^E. ficitolia 

— E. calophylla ... 
E. Abergiana ... 
E. Foelscheana 
E. tenninalis ... 
E. corymbosa ... 
E. aspera 

E. trachyphloia 

E. tessellaris ... 

E. clavigera 

E. latifolia 

E. corynocalyx 
' E. macnlata 

E. Watsoniana 

E. eximia 

E. peltata 

E. Torelliana ... 

E. setosa 
~E. cordata 
~"E. umigera 

E. pulverulenta 
' E. Stuartiana ... 
■> E. viminalis 
• E. rostrata 
~ E. tereticomis ... 
■^"E. Gimnii 

E. vemicosa 

E. nidis 

E. redunca 

E. foecunda 

E. salubris 

E. saligna 
■" E. resinifera 

E. punctata 

E. botryoides ... 

E. goniocalys ... 

— E. robusta 
~ E. comuta 

E. occidentalis . . 

E. obcordata 

E. caesia 
» E. eiythronema 

E. longifolia 

E. pachypoda ... 
~E. cosmophylla 

E. megacarpa ... 
-r- E. globulus 
•» E. alpina 

E. gomphocephala 

E. Preissiana ... 

E. pachyphyUa 

E. pyriformis ... 

E. macrocarpa . . . 

E. tetraptera ... 

E. tetrodonta ... 

E. odontocarpa 

E. eudesmioides 

E. tetragona 

E. erythrocorys 



W.A. 
W.A. 



"W.A. 



W.A. 
W.A. 
W.A. 
W.A. 
W.A. 

W.A. 

W.A. 



S.A. 

S.A. 
S.A. 









T. 


— 


— 


T. 


z 


S.A. 


T. 





S.A. 


T. 


W.A. 


S.A. 


— 




S.A. 


T. 





— 


T. 


W.A. 


— 


— 


W.A. 


— 


— 


W.A. 


— 


— 


W.A. 


— 


— 








Q. 


N.A 





— 




N.A 





— 


— 


— 








— 


— 


. 





Q. 


— 










N.A 








Q- 


N.A 





N.S.W. 


Q. 


N.A 









N.A. 





— 


Q. 


— 





N.S.W. 


Q. 


N.A. 








Q- 


N.A. 








Q. 


N.A. 


V. 


— 




— 





N-.S.W. 


Q. 


— 





— 


Q. 


— 





N.S.W. 




— 





— 


Q. 


— 





— 


Q- 


— 


— 


— 


Q. 


N.A. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


V. 


x.s.w. 








V. 


N.S.W. 


— 


— 


V. 


K.S.W. 


— 


— 


V. 


N.S.W. 


Q- 


N.A. 


V. 


N.S.W. 


Q. 


— 


V. 


N.S.W. 




— 



S.A. 






N.S.W. 


Q. 


— 


N.S.W. 


Q- 


— 


N.S.W. 




V. 


N.S.W. 


Q^ 


V. 


N.S.W. 




— 


N.S.W. 


Q- 



S.A. 



Y. 



V. 
V. 



W.A. 


— 


W.A. 


— 


— 


S.A 


W.A. 


S.A 


W.A. 


— 


W.A. 


— 


W.A. 


— 


W.A. 


, — 


W.A. 


— 



N.S.W. — 



N.S.W. 



N.A. 



N.A. 
N.A. 



INDEX OF VBRNACULAE NAMES. 



Applescented Gum-tree 


.. Eucalyptus Stuartiana. 


Kino-Eucalypt 


>r E. resitiifera, E. siderophloia. 


Ash, Moreton Bay... 


.. E. tessellaris. 




Leather Jacket ... 


.. E. punctata. 


,, Mountain 


."^ E. amygdalina, E 


. goniocalyx, E. 


Lemonscented Gum-tree 


..VE. maculata. 




Sieberiana. 




MaaioE TT "... 


.. E. obcordata. 


Bangalay 


.. E. botryoides. 




Mahogany 


.. E. ihargtaata. 


Bembil 


.. E. populifolia. 




, , Bastard 


.. E. botryoides. 


Biall 


> E. rostrata. 




,, Forest ... 


.. E. microcorys, E^ resinif era. 


Binnak 


.. E. botryoides. 




Red ... 


..VE. resinifera. 


Blaokbutt-tree 


. . E. hEemastoma, E 


patens, E. pilu- 


,, Swamp 


.■\E. robusta. 




laris. 




White... 


.. E. acmenoides. 


Black Sallee 


.. E. stellulata. 




Mallee 


.. E. gracilis, E. incrassata, E. 


Bloodwood-tree 


.. E. eorymbosa, E. 


trachyphloia. 




oleosa, E. uncinata. 


„ Mountain 


.. E. eximia. 




Manna-Gum-tree ... 


.S E. viminalis. 


Blue Gum-tree 


.. E. globuhis, E. 


goniocalyx, E. 


Messmate- tree 


^E. amygdalina, E.^obliqua. 




haBmastoma, E 


megacarpa, E. 


Muzzlewood-tree ... 


.. E. stellulata. 




rudis, E. saligna. 


Narulgun 


.. E. hemiphloia. 


Box-tree 


. . E. hemiphloia, E. 


largiflorens, E. 


Goragmandee 


.. E. foecunda. 




microtheca, E. 


odorata. 


Peppermint-tree . . . 


X E. amygdalina, E. odorata, 


,, Bastard ... 


.. E. goniocalyx, 'E. polyanthema, 


E. piperita. 




>v E. tereticornis. 




"^ Red Gum-tree 


.. E. calophylla, E!> rostrata, E. 


„ Grey ... 


.. E. goniocalyx, E. 


polyanthema. 




^ tereticornis. 


,, Poplar 


.. E. populifolia. 




Salmonbarked Gum-tree 


.. E. sabnonophloia. 


Red 


.. E. polyanthema. 




Scarlet-flowered Gum-tree. E. miniata, E. phoenicea. 


„ Shining ... 


.. E. populifolia. 




Spearwood-tree .... 


.. E. doratoxylon. 


White ... 


.. E. hemiphloia. 




Spotted Gum-tree... 


.. E. goniocalyx, E. hsemastoma. 


- „ Yellow ... 


>. E. melliodora. 






^ E. maculata. 


But But 


.SB. Stuartiana. 




Stringybark-tree ... 


.. E. capitellata, B. macrorrhyn 


Gallaille 


.. E. microtheca. 






cha, B.'^obliqua, E> piperita, 


Cider Gum-tree 


.. E. Gunuii. 






E. tetrodonta. 


Coolybah 


.. B. microtheca. 




,, Silverleaved. E. pulverulenta. 


Corang 


.. E. tessellaris. 




White 


.. E. eugenioides, E. piperita. 


Crimsonflowered Gum-tree.^E. ficifolia. 




Sugary Eucalypt . . . 


.. B. corynocalyx. 


Dadangba 


.-, E. robusta. 




^^ Swamp Gum-tree ... 


r>E. amygdalma, B^Gunnii, E. 


Dargan 


.i-E. melliodora. 






rudis. 


Den-tree 


.. E. polyanthema. 




Tangoon 


.. E. microtheca. 


Flooded Gum-tree . . . 


.. E. decipiens, E. rudis^ E. saligna, 


Tee 


.. B. microcorys. 




- B. tereticornis. 




Touart 


.. E. gomphocephala. 


Fluted Gum-tree . . . 


.. E. salubris.' 




Turpentine-Eucalypt 


.. E. pulverulenta. 


Giant Gum-tree 


.. E. amygdalina. 




Wandoo 


.. E. redunca. 


Gimlet Gum-tree . . . 


.. E. salubris. "" 




Wangara 


^■E. amygdalina. 


Greenbarked Gum-tree 


.. E. stellulata. 




Wangee 


.. E. microcorys. 


Grey Gum-tree 


.. E. crebra, E. Raveretiana, E. 


White Gum-tree ... 


\ E. amygdalina, E. goniocalyx. 




saligna, ]j> tereticornis. 




E. hsemastoma, E. Leucox- 


Gumtop-tree 


.. E. Sieberiana. 






ylon, E. paniculata, E. 


Gunnung 


.^E. robusta. 






pauciflora, E. redunca, E. 
" saligna, E. viminalis. 


Hickory 


.. E. punctata. 






Honeyscented Eucalypt 


.sE. melliodora. 




WooUybutt-tree . . . 


.. B. longifolia. 


Ilumba 


.. E. tessellaris. 




Yandee 


.. E. foecunda. 


Ironbark-tree 


.. E. crebra, E. Leucoxylon, E. 


Yangoora 


.. E. macrorrhyncha, E. piperita. 




paniculata, E 


siderophloia. 


Yate 


."! E. cornuta. 




E. Sieberiana. 




,, Flat-topped ... ' 


.. E. occideutalis. 


Red ... 


.. E. paniculata. 




Yathoo 


.. B. microtheca. 


„ Redflowered 


.. E. Leucoxylon. 




Yellow Jacket 


.. E. ochrophloia, E. peltata. 


„ Silverleaved 


.. E. pruinosa. 




Yerriok 


.. E. Leucoxylon. 


Iron-Gum-tree 


.. E, Raveretiana. 




York Gum-tree ... 


. . E. foecunda (E. loxophleba). 


Jarrah 


.. E. marginata. 




Yowut 


.. E. Sieberiana. 


Karri 


.. E. diversicolor. 









INDEX OF CONTENTS OF DECADES I— X. 



r)BCAr)E I. 



Eucalyptus Abergiana, F. v. M. 
erythrocorys, F. v. M. 
goniooalyx, F. v. M. 
Leuooxylon, F. v. M. 
macrorrhynoha, F. v. M. (with anatomic plate). 



Eucalyptus pachyphylla, F. v. M. 
phcEnioea, F. v. M. 
Raveretiana, F. v. M. 

resinifera, Smith. 

tetrodonta, F. v. M. 



r)ECj^X)E II. 



Eucalyptus alpina, Lihclley. 
corynocalyx, F. v. M. 
haemastoma, Smith, 
longifolia, Link, 
melliodora, Cunningham. 



Eucalyptus microcorys, F. v. M. 
>«. odorata, Behr. 
- saligna, Smith. 
Sieberiana, F. v. M. 
tetraptera, Turczaninow (with plate of anther-sections). 



1DJSCA.1D1S III. 



Eucalyptus Baileyana, F. v. M. 

capitellata, Smith. 

gracilis, F. v. M. 

maculata, Hooker. 

.^ obliqua, I'Heritier. 



Eucalyptus pauciflora, Sieber, 
pilularis, Smith. 
— piperita. Smith. 

polyanthema, Schauer. 

populifolia, Hooker (with plate of anther-sections). 



r)EC^DB IV. 



Eucalyptus alba, Eeinwardt. 
botryoides. Smith, 
clavigera, Cunningham. 
Doratoxylon, P. v. M. 
__ Gunnii, J. Hooker. 



Eucalyptus Planchoniana, F. v. M. 
— rostrata, Schlechtendal (with anatomic plate). 

siderophloia, Bentham. 
» Stuartiana, F. v. M. 
^ uncinata, Turczaninow. 



DECADE V. 



Eucalyptus amygdalina, Labillardifere. 
corymbosa. Smith, 
crebra, F. v. M. 
diversicolor, F. v. M. 
hemiphloia, F. v. M. 



Eucalyptus incrassata, Labillardiiire. 
largiflorens, F. v. M. 
paniculata, Smith. 

ptychocarpa, F. V. M. (with anatomic plate), y)^^. / l 
trachyphloia, F. v. M. 



DEC-A.de VI. 



Eucalyptus buprestium, F. v. M. 
•-». globulus, Labillardifere (with anatomic plate), 
megacarpa, F. v. M. 
miniata, Cunningham, 
ocoidentalis, Endlioher. 



Eucalyptus peltata, Bentham. 
punctata, Candolle. 
setosa, Schauer. 
stellulata, Sieber. 
tetragona, F. v. M. 



r>ECA.x)ic VII. 



Eucalyptus Behriana, F. v. M. (with anatomic plate). 
~— cosmophyUa, F. v. M. 
— ficitolia, F. v. M. 

gomphocephala, CandoUe. 
marginata, Smith. 



Eucalyptus obcordata, Turozaninow 
Oldeeldii, F. v. M. 
oleosa, F. v. M. 
—• robusta, Smith. 

Watsoniana, F. v. M. 



DECIDE "VIII. 



Eucalyptus cordata, Labillardifere. 
erythronema, Turczaninow. 
gamophylla, F. v. M. 
■~^ maorocarpa, Hooker. 

Preissiana, Schauer (with sections of fruits). 



Eucalyptus pruinosa, Schauer. 
— ♦-. pulverulenta, Sims. 

pyriformis, Turczaninow. 
santalifolia, F. v. M. 
sepulcralis, F. v. M. 



DBCA-DE IX. 



^Eucalyptus comuta, Labillardifere (with plate of seedlings). 
eximia, Schauer. 
Foelscheana, F. v. M. 
Howittiana, F. v. M. 
patens, Bentham. 



Eucalyptus salmonophloia, F. v. M. 
salubris, F. v. M. 
— teretioornis, Smith, 
tessellaris, F. v. M. 
Todtiana, F. v. M. 



r)Ec^r)E X. 



Eucalyptus acmenoides, Schauer. 
— calophylla, R. Brown, 
decipiens, Endlicher. 
eugenioides, Sieber. 
foecunda, Schauer. 



Eucalyptus microtheca, F. v. M. (with anatomic plate), 
redunca, Schauer. 
rudis, Endlicher. 
stricta, Sieber. 
-~- viminalis, Labillardiere. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX TO DECADES I— X. 






Ik 



A-. 



;. Eucalyptus Abergiana 
X u J- , 'f(^ acmenoides 

alba . . , 't-fs^fl. . 
I{ alpina ft>^,i\ ■_;.:. 
- amygdaliua 

Baileyana "^ ... 

Beliriana 

botryoides 

buprestium 

calophylla 

capltellata 

clavigera _ . . . . 
^ cordata 

cornuta 

corymbosa 

corynocalyx 

cosmophylla 

crebra ... 

deoipiens 

dlversiooloi/ ,• . . . 

Doratoxylon -■ ' . . . 

ery tlirooorys 

erythronema 

eueenioides 



A 



n.r 



l^ 



/< 






A 



M 



6( 

2./ • 

^' 
6 s ' 

lea 
4-3 

J is 
S^ . 

43 • 

1' ■ 

V ■ 

'J 

i sy 

27 3 

/ e>f 
I 6o 
I II 

^ - 

^1 ■ 

97 ■ 

to I 

?• 

""? 

3/ 
IX 



I 






U 



01 



eximia .. 
fioifolla.. 
foecunda 



Foelscheanay l^i^.'.. 



7 



gamophylla , 
» globulus 
gomphocephala 
goniocalyx 
gracilis ... 
Gunnii ... 
haemastoma 
hemiphloia 
Howittiana , 
iuorassata »■ *- '^: 
largiflorens 
Leucoxylon 
longifolia 'e^^tt . 
macrocarpa 
maororrhyncha . 
maculata 
marginata 
megacarpa 
melliodora „ . 
microcorys 
microtheca 
miniata 



7 



f 



..w>-c 



Decade. 

1 

10 

.,:>" 5' 



7 
4 
6 

10 
3 
4 
8 
9 
5 
2 
7 
5 

10 
5 
4 

' 1 
8 

10 
9 
7 

10 
9 
8 
6 
7 
1 
3 
4 
2 
5 
9 
5 
5 
1 
2 



/ 



v^vi t 



Wi 



tL 1 
3 
7 
6 
2 
2 
10 
6 



/ ^^Eucalyptus obcordata :'■ ' 
■^ y5, obHqua 



.J 



4; 

! / . 

) ^3 
$1 .A- 
; 3 / 

; 3 . 

S3 

ros - 

1 33. 

',V. 

7.1 y.^ 

lb/ 
;3 - 

2.2/ 
3^ , 
l<ji 

'ill 

I 3 6- 

7? • 
2.0'/ 

7. 

■ S 

< d 






13' 

/" 

1 
/ 

i 
/ 



occidentalis 

odorata 

Oldfieldii 

oleosa . . . 

pachyphylla 

paniculata 

patens ... 
^ pauciflora 

peltata . . . >„ 

phoenicea 

pilularis 

piperita 

Planchoniana 

polyanthema 

populifolia 
-• Preissiana 

pruinosa 

ptychocarpa 

pulverulenta - 

punctata 

pyriformis 

Kaveretiana 

redunca 

resiaif era ■ 

robusta ar^^c 
■- rostrata 

rudis ... 

saligna ... 

salmonophloia ... 

salubris 

santalif olia 

sepulcralis , ... 

setosa ... 1 1^ .... 

siderophloia 

Sieberiana ... 

stellulata 
- stricta ... 

Stuartiaua 

tereticornis 

tessellaris y 

tetragona krt»T ... J.' 

tetraptera 

tetrodonta /<r. , ., . .i, ,. , 

Todtiana 

trachyphloia 

uncinata 

viminalis y_(. • ..c L 

Watsoniana 



,.r\ Ca ...' /tm^ I'.i.l- 



- V 



^.;. 






■a 



.^ 



Decade. 

7 
3 

6 

2 
7 
7 
1 
5 
9 

3 /? Cx- - 1 
' <.' 6 «^«r4. * ? 

1 

6 

3/ 

4 

3 

3 

8 

5 

it .8 

6 
., 8 

1 
10 

1 

7 

4 
10 

2 

g 
9 






ftjuif:. 



IL 



,;■/.. ft ,ti,^. 



'^' 



ir^<-v^p( 



6 
4 
2 
6 

10 
4 
9 
9 
6 
2 
1 
9 
5 
4 

10 
7 



IrL,.^ ., 



■tlVrtl^l. ,- 



EUCALYPTOGEAPHIA. 



A DESCEIPTIVE ATLAS 



EUCALYPTS OF AUSTEALIA 



ADJOINING ISLANDS; 



BAEON FEED. YOI MUELLEE, K.C.M.(}., 1. & PH.D., E.E.S., 

GOVEENMENT BOTANIST EOE THE COLONY OF VICTOELl. 



* NON SUC0IDE3 AKB0RE9, NEO SECfURIBUS DEBE3 VASTAIIE KABtTM REGIONEM."— ZJ&er DeutCrOJlOmU XI. 19. 



FIRST DECIDE. 



MELBOUENE : 

JOHSr FEKEBS, GOVEEITMENT PEISTTEE. 
PITBLISHBD ALSO BY GEOEGE EOBEETSOir, LITTLE COLLINS STEEET. 

LONDON : 

TETJENEE AUD CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILL ; AOT) GEOEGE EOBEETSON, 17 WAEWICK SQXTAEE. 

M DCCC LXXIX. 




'•■I 






X ^/ 






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<.'"?. 



■^ 
















^1 £^5 






I 



8 






\ ■< f \ 



Ted. 



',\p\ b. C- Lith 



F. v.M Qirexit 



Steam LitKo Gov. Prmtm? Office Welb. 



mm.i, m%m 



FvM 



EUCALYPTUS ABEEGIANA. 

F. V. M., fragmenta phytographise Australiee xi. 142 (1878). 

Finally very tall ; leavesjGai.tteTed, of thick consistence, oval- or elongated-lanceolar, hardly 
inequilateral, shining above, opaque beneath ; the lateral veins copious subtle and very spreading, 
the longitudinal vein almost contiguous to the margin of the leaves or but slightly removed from 
the edge ; panicles terminal ; flowerstalks thick, almost cylindrical, the ultimates bearing 2-6 
flowers on exceedingly short or without stalklets ; calyces pale, their tube truncate-ovate nearly 
twice as long as the almost hemispheric lid, not angular ; stamens all or nearly all fertile, 
inflexed before expansion ; anthers oval, with nearly longitudinal dehiscence ; stigma very slightly 
dilated ; fruits large, oval-urnshaped, smooth, with a thin margin and with four enclosed at first 
horizontal valves ; fertile seeds expanding from their summit into a long membrane, much longer 
than the slender sterile seeds. 

On the mountains near Eockingham-Bay ; Dallachy. 

A lofty tree, with persistent bark and very expanding_toanches. Heart-wood very hard, 
reddish . Branchlets in some instances slender and somewhat angular, in other cases thick and 
cylindrical. Leafstalks f-l^ inches long. Leaves measuring 2^4 inches in length or occasionally 
longer, rarely shortened to an almost oval form, 1-2 inches broad, often very^gradually narrowed 
upwards, blunt at the base. Panicle almost corymbous ; its ultimate flowerstalks generally about 
1 inch long, as well as the branchlets pale, not shining. The unopened calyces eggshaped, their 
very blunt and rather thick lid rather separating by a horizontal rupture than by a well defined 
suture of circumcision ; the tube in flowering state about ^ an inch long, sometimes subsequently 
slightly turbinate. A few of the outer stamens occasionally devoid of anthers ; filaments according 
to the note of the collector whitish in a fresh state, but reddish-yellow when dry ; the longer 
filaments 4-5 lines long. Anthers hardly ^ a line long ; their cells separated by a broad 
connective. Style half included within the calyx, exceeded by the stamens. Fruit 1 inch long or 
somewhat longer, not angular ; the valves deltoid-shaped, hardly ^ inch long. FertUe seeds very 
compressed, terminated by a semioval membrane, giving a length of about ^ inch for the whole 
seed including the appendage. 

This stately species is dedicated to a Swedish physician, Ernest Aberg, M.D., Ch.M., who 
subjected in the La Plata States many Eucalypts to test-culture, and published a meritorious 
w^ork on the importance of these trees for wood-supply in the Argentine Kepublic " Irrigacion y 
Eucalyptus," Buenos-Aires, 1874. 

E. Abergiana approaches in its affinity to E. ptychocarpa (F. M., in the Journal of the 
Proceedings of the Linnean Society iii. 90), with which it agrees in the size and shape of its fruit, 
but the latter is in no way lined with prominent longitudinal ridges, nor are the fiowers provided 
with conspicuous stalklets. — ^E. miniata diff'ers in narrower leaves opaque on both sides, axillary 
solitary flowerstalks, longitudinally angular calyces, longer anthers, larger fruits and seeds 
without any appendage. — E. Watsoniana (F. M., fragm. phytogr. Austr. x. 98) again recedes in 
narrower leaves equally colored on either side, calyces with a varnish-lustre and fixed to distinct 
stalklets, a widely dilated lid, which overreaches the orifice of the calyx-tube, longer stamens, 
fraits wider at the summit with a farrowed broader rim and unappendiculated seeds. — E. corym- 
bosa, which likewise occurs as far north as Kockingham-Bay, is separated by its narrower leaves 
acute at the base, angular and more slender flowerstalks, smaller calyces provided with stalklets 
and not pale-colored, a thinner and not obtuse lid, which separates by a distinct suture of the 



EUCALYPTUS A-BBRGIANA. 

calyx, smaller fruits more contracted upwards and the lesser appendage of the seeds. — E. termi- 
nalis (F. M., in Journ. of Proceed, of the Linnean Society iii. 89) is distiuguished in a similar 
manner from E. Abergiana as E. corymhosa, except the seeds, but besides in the paler foliage, 
the leaves being of equal color on both sides, necessitating stomata on each and not merely on the 
underside as ia E. Abergiana ; thus also the latter, like all the species with only hypogenous 
stomata, forms a more shady tree, its leaves expanding more horizontally, whereas E. terminalis 
like the majority of its congeners turns its leaves more vertically. 

ExPLANATioir OF ANALYTIC DETAILS. — 1, longitudinal section of unexpanded flower ; 2, back-, front- and 
side-view of a stamen ; 3, style and stigma ; 4 and 5, transverse and longitudinal section of fruit ; 6 and 7, fertile 
and sterile seeds ; 8, portion of a leaf; all moderately but variously magnified. 




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EUCALYPTUS EEYTHEOCOEYS. 

F. V. M., fragmenta pliytographise Australiae ii. 33 (1860) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 258. 

Shrubby or finally arborescent ; branchlets robust, angular ; leaves opposite or some scattered, 
elongate-lanceolar, slightly curved, their lateral vein moderately spreading, copious and prominent, 
the intramarginal vein slightly removed from the edge ; stalks axillary, thick, compressed- 
angular, bearing one to three flowers ; stalklets hardly any ; calyces large, their tube obverse- 
pyramidal and quadrangular as well as marked with prominent irregular longitudinal liaes or 
farrows, produced into four blunt teeth ; lid red, very depressed, lined by four prominent ridges 
in the form of a cross, wrinkled, considerably shorter than the tube of the calyx and often slightly 
broader ; stamens yellow, forming four parcels ; anthers cordate-oval, opening by longitudinal 
slits ; stigma hardly broader than the style ; fruit very large, bellshaped-hemispherical, 4-celled, 
at the margined summit first ascending then flat and at the deltoid red valves impressed ; placental 
axis about twice as long as broad ; sterUe seeds partly narrow ; fertile seeds without any mem- 
branous appendage. 

In stony undulating bushy country between the Irwin-Eiver and Shark-Bay, rather rare. 

Quite an ornamental bush, bearing as even remarkable to the aborigines the name " Illyarie." 
Leaves shining , equally green on both pages, 3^-7 inches long, in their widest portion |— 1 inch 
broad, very gradually narrowed into the acute apex. Flowerstalks attaining seldom above one 
inch in length, sometimes shorter. Whole calyx nearly an inch in length ; lid almost twice as 
broad as high, sometimes raised into a short knob at the centre. Bundles of stamens emerging 
from four protruding lobes of the disk. Filaments sometimes purplish. Fruit measuring from 
nearly 1^ to 2 inches, with 12 longitudinal angular elevations, these ternately convergent at the 
summit ; valves rather shorter than the convex interstice between them and the margin of the 
calyx. Fertile seeds much broader than most of the sterile seeds. Flowers and fruits occur of 
greater size than those delineated on this occasion. 

This species, on account of the stamens united into four bundles alternating with the four 
teeth of the calyx, belongs to the section Eudesmia, which E. Brown regarded as a distinct genus. 

It difi'ers widely from the few other species of that section in the large size of its flowers and 
fruits, in the shape and coloration of the lid as well as in the very broad expansion of the summit 
of its fruit, irrespective of some less conspicuous differences. 

Specific name from the red tinge of the operculum. 

ExpiANAXioN OF ANALYTIC DETAILS, — 1, longitudinal section of imexpanded flower ; 2, expanded flowers seen 
from above ; 3 and 4, front- and back -view of anther ; 5, style with stigma ; 6, longitudinal section of fruit ; 7, 
transverse section of fruit ; 8, sterile seeds ; 9, fertile seeds ; 10, embryo. 

It may be of some interest to observe, that though the pollen-grains of all Eucalypts hitherto 
thus far examined are when moistened uniformly tetrahedral and smooth, they differ considerably 
as regards size in various species. The annexed series of measurements, elaborated under my 
direction by Mr. Rummel, proves already, that the pollen-grains of some Eucalypts may exceed 
those of others nearly thrice in diametric width, and still greater discrepancies may exist within 
the genus ; such may perhaps aid occasionally in the discrimination of different species. How far 
such measurements may fluctuate in the same species needs yet farther to be traced out, but it is 
not likely to vary much in each particular kind of Eucalypt. 



EUCALYPTUS ERYTHROCORYS. 



Measurement of Pollen-grains of Eucaxtpts, 



Ehicalyptus calophylla = 
ficifolia 
Doratoxylon 
erythrocorys 
Preissiana = 

Watsoniana = 
miniata = 

macrocarpa = 
conoidea = 

perfoliata = 

salubris = 

tetraptera 
concolor 
Lehmanni 
comuta = 

occidenialis = 
grossa = 

pachyloma = 
rudis 

pyriformls = 
longifolia 
diversicolor 
botryoides = 

gomphocephala ■ 



-00130 inch = -0330 millimeter 
: -00130 inch 

■■ -00115 inch = -0292 millimeter 
' -00115 inch 

■■ -00105 inch = -0268 millimeter 
- -00105 inch 
■■ -00105 inch 

•00105 inch 

■00105 inch 

•00105 inch 

•00105 inch 
: •OOIOS inch 

•00105 inch 
■■ ^00105 inch 
■ ^00105 inch 

: -00100 inch = -0254 millimeter 
= -00100 inch 

= -00090 inch = -0229 millimeter 
■■ ^00090 inch 
= ^00090 inch 
= •OOOgO inch 
: -00090 inch 
= -00090 inch 
= •OOOgO inch 



Eucalyptus micranthera = 
goniantha 
dumosa 
decurva 

buprestium = 

marginata 
macrandra = 

robusta 
pelUta 
resinifera 
redunca = 

incrassata = 

decipiens 
tetragona 
saligna = 

goniocalyx = 

uncinata 
loxophleba 
salmonophloia = 
foecunda = 

patens = 

Drummondi 
Cloeziana 
endesmiodes 



= ^00090 inch 

= •OOOgo inch 

= •OOOgo inch 

= -00090 inch 

= •OOOSO inch = ^0203 millimeter 

: •OOOSO inch 

= •OOOSO inch 

■- •OOOSO inch 

= -OOOSO inch 

' •OOOSO inch 

■■ •OOOSO inch 

= •OOOSO inch 

: -OOOSO inch 

■■ •OOOTO inch = •0178 millimeter 

= •OOOTO inch 

= -00070 inch 

= -00070 inch 

-- -00070 inch 

= -00070 inch 

= -00070 inch 

= -00070 inch 

= -00070 inch 

= -00060 inch = -0152 millimeter 

= -00050 inch = -0128 millimeter 




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EUCALYPTUS GONIOCALYX. J\ 

F. T. M., in ITederlandisk Kruitkundig Archiev iv. 134 (1859) ; Fragmenta pliytographise Australise ii. 48 ; 
Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 229 j E. elsBophora, F. v. M. 1. c. iv. 52. 

The Spotted Grum-tree of Victoria. Finally very tall ; leaves scattered, elongate- or sickle- 
shaped-lanceolar, rarely verging into a more oval form, of equal color on both sides, rather 
opaque or not strongly shining ; oil-pores much concealed or transparent ; veins thin, moderately 
spreading, the intramarginal vein somewhat removed from the edge ; fiowerstalks broadly 
compressed, axillary, solitary, exceptionally panicled, bearing 4—7 seldom fewer flowers ; calyces 
without or on very short stalklets, conspicuously angular; lid pyramidal- or conical-hemispheric, 
about half as long as the obconical- or oval-cylindrical tube, or rarely the lid fully as long as the 
tube or occasionally even three times shorter ; stamens all fertile, inflexed while unexpanded ; 
anthers almost oval, upwards slightly dilated and at the summit truncated, opening with longi- 
tudinal slits ; stigma not broader than the apex of the style ; fruits truncate- or semi-ovate, 3- or 
less frequently A-celled, lined by 2-4 more or less prominent angles ; valves deltoid, inserted very 
near the narrow margin of the orifice, enclosed or less often semi-exserted ; seeds without any 
appendage, the sterile mostly narrower than the fertile seeds. 

In low or hilly woodlands up to about 3,000 feet, intermixed with other Eucalypts, scattered 
from the vicinity of Portland-Bay and from the Wimmera, Pyrenees, the Upper Avoca and 
Loddon eastward, extending thus to the Gellibrand- Ovens- and Hume-Eivers, advancing south 
to Cape Otway and Wilson's Promontory, through Grippsland to Twofold Bay and also into New 
South "Wales as far as Braidwood, in the latter locality noted by Mr. Wilkinson, and there in 
granite-country. 

This tree attains in rich forest-valleys a height of 300 feet (Falck, Walter), with a stem- 
diameter not altogether rarely up to 6 feet, exceptionally even of 10 feet (Boyle) ; but where it is 
of much lower growth the stem (according to Mr. G. W. Eobinson) may branch out from 
comparatively near the ground. As regards the nature of the bark it fluctuates between 
Hemiphloise and Leiophloise ; in the latter case the tree passes among the woodmen as Blue and 
White Gum-tree, in the other case as Grey or Bastard Box. Local colonists have bestowed many 
other perplexing vernacular names on this species of tree, and thus in East Gippsland it is the 
Mountain-Ash. The bark where persistent on the stem is thick, but not fibrous. The above 
quoted synonym pertains to the variety with more persistent bark. 

The wood is hard and tough, usually free from kino-veins, varies from a pale-yellowish to a 
brownish color, is exceedingly durable and also lasting long underground, not warping and on 
account of the interwoven woody fibres almost as difficult to split as that of E. rostrata. It is 
much esteemed by wheelwrights, particularly for spokes (Falck), in ship- and boat-building, for 
railway-ties ; when not eligible for better purposes it is sought for good fael. According to 
Mr. Boyle the rough-barked variety from low dry and stony ranges supplies a timber, which 
wheelwrights consider equal to Ironbark, with the advantage of its not being so weighty ; the 
taller mountain-variety with smoother bark is more used for planks, piles and general building 
purposes, the timber also in this instance being more durable, than that from wet forest-valleys, 
such as the Musk-tree gullies of Gippsland, to which this species descends, also attaining there a 
height of 300 feet on the testimony of Mr. Howitt. The average width of the vascular tubes is 
0-12 mm. ; their walls are thin, and parenchyma-cells often approach them ; the woody fibres are 
somewhat flattened, moderately thickened and up to 0-02 mm. broad. The medullary rays are 



EUCALYPTUS GONIOCALTX. 

very numerous, consisting of one or two rows of short cells. I find this in accordance with 
observations by Dr. Josef Moeller. 

The leaves on young plants and on adventitious shoots exceed sometimes a foot in length. 
Young seedlings have heartshajed- or oval-roundish opposite sessile leaves, often much paler 
beneath than above, but their stem is not quadrangular. In rare instances the stalklets of the 
flowers become somewhat elongated. I found the lid sometimes double, the outer one being 
fiigacious. The fruit occurs not rarely of double the size of that delineated on the plate. A pair 
of connate bracts covers cap-like the very young flower-cluster. The specific name was derived 
from the particularly angular calyx. 

E. goniocalyx differs from E. albens (Miquel, in Nederl. Kruitk. Archiev iv. 138) in less 
persistent darker more deeply wrinkled or fissurated bark, the not usually pale hue of the foliage, 
mostly narrower leaves with thinner and less spreading veins, very compressed fiowerstalks, umbels 
only exceptionally not all solitary, shorter and rather less pointed lid, somewhat larger and not 
almost globular anthers with longer slits, more angular fruit not almost always 4-celled, nor the 
valves so deeply inserted. 

It is separated from E. viminaUs in the veins of the leaves less crowded and less divergent, in 
strongly compressed stalks with usually more than three flowers, in the angular calyx with upwards 
more gradually attenuated lid, longer tube of the calyx, the more elongated fruit not extended into 
an emerging broad rim, valves not usually four in number nor as a rule fully exserted. 

From E. capiteUata it recedes in its bark not being very fibrous, in usually less shining foliage, 
leaves with finer veins, distinctly angular calyx, anthers rather obverse- than renate-heartshaped, 
thus upwards but not downwards dilated, fruit-calyx more elongated and usually narrower with a 
neither protruding nor convex rim, so that the valves cannot rise from the vertex. 

From E. botryoides it is discernible by its less extensively persistent bark, by leaves not 
darker green above than beneath, with less numerous and less transverse veins and with a different 
distribution of the stomata and by a more gradually acute lid, but it bears close resemblance to 
E. botryoides in its head-like umbels on flat two-edged stalks and likewise much in the form as 
weU as in the structure of the fruit, though the valves are not so often four and perhaps never five 
in number and generally nearer the summit. 

This is one of the most deserving of Eucalypts for forest-culture. 

ExPLAUATiON OF ANALYTIC DETAILS. — 1, unexpanded calyx in two fonns, outer lid of one detached ; 2, longi- 
tudinal section of flowerbud ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of a stamen ; 5, style with stigma ; 6, longitudinal 
section of fruit ; 7 and 9, transverse section of yonug and old fruit ; 8, young fruit seen from above ; 10, seeds ; 
11, embryo; 12 and 13, transverse section of wood; the two latter respectively 60 and 220 times magnified; the 
other figures very moderately but variously enlarged. 




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EUCALYPTUS LEUCOXYLOK 

p. V. M., in the Transactions of the Victorian Institute i. 33 (1854) ; Miquel, in JSTederlandisk Kruitkundig 
Ai'chiev iv. 126 (1859) ; P. v. M., fragmenta phytographise Australise ii. 60 (1860) ; Bentham, flora Australienais 
iii. 210 (1866). 

The Victorian Ironbark-tree. Finally tall ; leaves scattered, narrow-lanceolar and somewhat 
sickleshaped, rarely oblong-lanceolar, of equal either greyish- or dull-green on both sides, not 
usually shining, on moderately long or rather short stalks, their veins neither very spreading nor 
very numerous, the marginal vein distinctly removed from the edge ; pellucid oil-dots rather 
copious ; flowers on each axillary or lateral stalk usiwdly three or sometimes 4-5, rarely 6-11, the 
umbels occasionally slightly paniculate ; calyx on a slender stalklet, wrinkled by exsiccation, its 
tube semiovate or broadly obverse-conical, about as long as the gradually short-pointed lid; outer 
stamens destitute of anthers ; filaments pale-yellow, rarely pink, rather thick and somewhat 
glandular ; anthers very minute, nearly as broad as long, upwards dilated, opening towards the 
summit with short slits ; style comparatively long ; stigma dilated; fruit semiovate, 4— 7-celled, 
not or very rarely angular ; rim strongly compressed or seldom slightly flat ; valves short, quite 
enclosed ; fertile seeds finely net-veined, as well as the much narrower sterile seeds usually very 
small and without any expanding membrane. 

Dispersed from South-Queensland through New South Wales to many parts of our colony and 
thence westward to Spencer's Gulf. 

This is the Ironbark-tree of Victoria and many districts of New South Wales, but also the 
White Gum-tree of South Australia, where already in 1847 I bestowed the specific name on this 
Eucalypt in contradistinction to the Red Gum-tree, with which it is associated on the alluvial 
plains around Adelaide. IVo forms of this species bear marked outward differences, arising from 
geologic circumstances. The variety designated White Gum-tree, has the greater portion of the 
stem pale and smooth through the outer layers of the bark seceding. The variety, known as our 
Ironbark-tree and mostly occurring on stony ridges or mountains of the lower silurian sandstone- 
and slate-formation, retains the whole bark on the stem, it thus becoming deeply fissured and 
furrowed, very hard and dark-colored. 

The manuscript name E. Sideroxylon, given by Allan Cunningham to this species, is merely 
incidentally and without description mentioned in Sir Thomas Mitchell's " Tropical Australia," 
' p. 339 (1848), and would imply, that the vernacular name of this tree was Ironwood, an appellation 
nowhere in use. The flowers and fruits are sometimes considerably larger than those delineated 
on the present illustration, but occasionally even smaller. The tree attains usually only a 
moderate size, but occasionally advances to a height of 200 feet. I have however seen this 
species flowering already in a shrubby state, even when the leaves were still opposite. 

Its nearest affinity is to Eucalyptus melliodora, of which some illustrations can be compared 
in my works on the " Plants Indigenous to the Colony of Victoria," suppl. pi. xvii., and " Intro- 
duction to Botanic Teachings at the Schools of Victoria," fig. vii. The flowers of E. melliodora are 
however often somewhat paniculate and are as weU as the leaves and fruits evidently smaller, and 
the lid is less pointed, while the bark never secedes so much as to leave the stem smooth and pale. 

The leaves of the young seedlings of E. Leucoxylon are cordate- or lanceolar-ovate, opposite, 
sessile and smooth. 

It is one of the best among Eucalypts for a moist tropical clime. Here in our colony the 
rugged-barked variety is often indicative of a gold-bearing country. Mr. A. W. Hewitt has 



EUCALYFTUS LEUCOXTLO^^ 

ascertained, that the Ironhark-tree bears among the Grippsland aboriginal tribes the name of 
" Yerrick." The nectar-juice of the flowers very much attracts bees. 

The vascular tubes of the wood are irregularly dispersed and contain some cellular substances ; 
their waUs are dotted. The parenchymatous cells are scanty and near the tubes ; the woody fibres 
are also dotted and in transverse section circular with an exceedingly narrowed hollowness ; the 
medullary rays are disposed in simple or double or rarely triple rows of elongated cells with 
extremely thin walls. This accords with observations first instituted by Dr. J. M5Uer. The 
timber is of great hardness, durability and extraordinary strength, not usually fissUe ; it varies 
in color from a pale hue to light shades of reddish-brown. It is used for wheel-work, particularly 
cogs, also shafts, poles, railway-sleepers, the stocks of rudders, treenails and topsides in ship- 
building, also extensively for lining the shafts of mines, further for various implements, which 
need a tough wood, such as axe-handles, &c. The specific gravity of air-dried wood varies from 
1-140 to 1-024, equal to from 71-63^ lbs. of weight for a cubic foot, but still more variable 
according to the age and the situation of the tree yieldiag the timber, yet always heavier than 
water. Builders call it close- and straight-grained and slightly greasy. In my laboratory the 
wood yielded 28 per cent, of superior charcoal, 45 per cent, of crude wood-vinegar and 6 per cent, 
of tar, which products are of course also obtainable from every other kind of Eucalyptus, as well 
as from any other timber, though in somewhat variable quantity and quality. I have long since 
shown that packing-paper can be prepared from the inner layers of the bark, like from all 
congeners. The yield of volatile oil from the leaves exceeds as a rule slightly 1 per cent. Our 
Ironbark-tree is comparatively rich in Kino, valuable as a therapeutic astringent, as much as 22 
per cent, having been obtained from fresh bark in my laboratory ; the tannic acid of Eucalyptus 
Kino is however not equal to that of the Oak and Acacia- Wattles in tan-power, but can be used 
as subsidiary in tanning process, when light-colored leather is not an object. This Kino from our 
Ironbark-tree is easily soluble in water, of slightly acid reaction, becomes turbid but clear again 
on heating. 

Some of the above notes on the timber are taken from the jurors' reports of our Industrial 
Exhibition of 1862, which recently have also been utilized again for a publication of the Technologic 
Museum of Melbourne. 

Explanation or Analytic Details. — 1, various sizes of tmexpanded calyces ; 2, longitudinal section of ' 
flowerbud ; 3, sterile and fertile stamens ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of fertUe stamens ; 6, a sterile stamen ; 
7, style and stigma ; 8, fruits of various size ; 9, longitudinal section of fruit ; 10, transverse section of fruit ; 11, 
sterile seeds ; 12, fertile seeds ; 13, embryo ; 14, transverse section of wood ; 15, a separate vascular tube and next 
to it an isolated woody fibre; 16, parencbymatous particles. 1 and 8 natural size; 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10 somewhat 
enlarged ; 4. o, 11, 12, 13 much enlarged ; 14 to 17 magnified 220 times diametrically. 






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EUCALYPTUS MACEOERHYNCHA. ?: 

F. V. M., First General Eeport, p. 12 (1853) ; Bentliam flora Australiensis iii. 207 (1866) ; F. v. M., fragmenta 

phytographise Australiae xi. 45 (1878). 

The ordinary Stringybark-tree of Victoria. 

Finally tall ; leaves scattered, elongate- or sickleshaped-lanceolar, rarely verging into an 
almost oval form, equally green on both sides, with very subtle much concealed oil-dots ; their 
lateral veins moderately spreading, the intramarginal vein distinctly removed from the edge ; 
umbels solitary or slightly paniculate, on cylindrical on somewhat angular stalks, bearing from 4-9 
flowers ; tube of the calyx tapering into a conspicuous stalklet, ohconic-hemispherical ; lid from a 
dilated base sharply and concavely attenuated into a sJwrt awlshaped often curved apex or some- 
times almost conical towards the summit, about as long as or somewhat longer than the tube, 
neither of them longitudinally angular, but at their junction mostly forming a prominent trans- 
verse sutural line ; stamens all fertile, inflexed while unespanded ; anthers cor date-kidney shap ed ; 
stigma not broader than the apex of the style ; fruit-calyx almost hemispherical, not much longer 
than the amply protruding very convex vertex; valves wliolly exserted, 3 or less frequently 4 in 
number, shorter than the broad rim ; the sterile seeds not very narrow, all without appendage. 

On comparatively sterile ridges and ranges, chiefly of the silurian-formation, widely and 
often gregariously distributed through much of the wooded country of Victoria, for instances 
towards the Upper Yarra and in the Dandenong-Eanges ; thence to the mountains of Gippsland 
easterly, to the Mitta-Mitta and Hume-River northerly, the Avoca and the Pyrenees westerly 
and towards Cape Otway southerly in our colony, but reaching also the western slopes of the 
main coast-ranges of New South Wales. 

Both this species and E. capitellata pass as " Yangoora " among the aborigines of Gippsland, 
according to Mr. Hewitt's annotation. 

This Stringybark-tree cannot rival in height with E. obliqua (our Messmate-tree and the 
ordinary Stringybark-tree of South Australia and Tasmania), nor does it generally ascend the 
mountains to the high elevations reached by E. obliqua, although both species occur often inter- 
mingled. The wood is hard and mostly tinged with a deeper red-brownish coloration, but occurs 
also pale-colored ; it is durable and easily flssile into fence-rails, shingles, palings and very useful 
for all purposes, for which rough split timber is required above ground ; it is also sawn into weather- 
boards and scantling and famishes as well a fair fuel. The thick fibrous bark, which is persistent 
as well on the branches as on the stem, when removed in large sheets and levelled and dried under 
some pressure, is extensively used for roofing primitive huts, sheds and stables in districts where 
the tree occurs ; for this purpose it will last about twenty years. The bark outside is of a squalid 
or dark-grey color, deeply fissured by longitudinal or somewhat oblique furrows, reminding of that 
of the Ironbark-tree ; the inner layers are so tough as to become available for rough tying ; it is 
less fibrous and fragile, but more solid and more deeply furrowed, than that of E. obliqua. 

The specific gravity of the seasoned wood is about 1-020 or 63^ lbs. for the cubic foot. The 
stems of the seedlings have a peculiar roughness from warty glands beset with minute tufts of 
hair, not observable in the generality of the Victorian Eucalypts except E. capitellata ; but for 
extensive observations on these characteristics I have since years not enjoyed any facilities in 
cultural ground and appliances ; the leaves of young seedlings are opposite or soon some scattered, 
short-stalked or sessile, from cordate-ovate to finally lanceolar. A variety occurs with fruits on 
very short or even without stalklets and of lesser size than those delineated. 



EUCALYPTUS MACEOEEHYNCHA. 

In specific botanical affinity E. macrorrliyncha stands nearest to E. capitellata ; leaves and 
finiits of both are the same ; but tbe flowers of the latter are always sessile or nearly so and thus 
crowded into heads as the species-name signifies, besides being usually smaller ; the lid of E. 
capitellata is hemispheric, without any prominent poiat and shorter in proportion to the tube, the 
latter being also more angular and downward less attenuated. 

E. santalifolia (F. v. M., in the Transactions of the Victorian Institute i. 35) from the 
Hmestone-ridges of Guichen-Bay and thence westward to Venus-Bay beyond Spencer's Gulf, 
differs in smaller and less oblique leaves with more concealed veins and anthers rather cordate 
than kidneyshaped, but the fruits are again the same, unless the valves are smaller. Possibly it 
may prove a variety ; it flowers already in a shrubby state. I have not seen the lid of its calyx. 

The variety brachycorys, mentioned by Bentham, seems transferable to E. capitellata, unless 
indeed it should prove distinct from both, when as a species it could be kept apart under the 
above designation. 

Explanation of Anaittic Details. — 1, summit of calyx, the lid detached ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of an anther; 5, three stamens in situ, all fertile; 6, style 
with its stigma ; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse section of fruit ; 9 and 10, sterile and fertile seeds ; 11, 
epidermis, showing its cells and stomata, diametrically 125 times magnified ; 12, portion of a leaf to exhibit the 
venation and oil-glands ; all figures except 11, only moderately magnified, the ratio of augmentation easily perceived 
by comparison of the main figure, which in all plates of this Atlas represents natural size. 

Anatomic Plate. — 1, cellular cuticle of the leaf, showing also the breathing pores or stomates ; 2, transverse 
section of aged wood, the large openings representing the vascular tubes ; the rows of elongated cells constitute the 
medullary rays ; the scattered cells and those near the vascular tubes are parenchyma ; the rest show the transverse 
form of the numerous woody fibres, all closely set and in diameter smaller than the parenchyme-oells ; 3, tangential 
section of aged wood ; wide and dotted vascular tubes, rows of cells of the medullary rays cut transversely, 
sparingly dotted woody fibres, parenchymatous ampler interstices ; 4, radial section of aged wood, wide dotted 
vascular tubes, rows of cells of the medullary rays cut vertically, sparingly dotted woody fibres, parenchymatous 
ampler interstices ; all magnified 214 times diametrically. 








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EUCALYPTUS PACHYPHYLLA. 



F. T. M., in the Journal of the Linnean Society 1859, pp. 83, 98 and 101 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 237 (1866) ; 
P. V. M., fragmenta phytographisa Anstralise x. 5 (1876). 

Shrutby ; branchlets robust, not very angular ; leaves scattered, on long stalks, of thick 
leathery consistence, ovate- or broad-lanceolar, hardly unequal-sided, very finely veined, not 
conspicuously dotted, the marginal vein distinctly removed from the edge ; stalk very short, bearing 
several flowers either sessile or on short stalklets ; calyx with 4-7 longitudinal angles ; the lid 
semiovate and acuminate, twice as long as the tube ; stamens yellow, inflected before expansion, 
with almost ovate anthers, their cells opening with longitudinal slits ; style elongated ; stigma not 
dilated ; fruit depressed-hemispherical, usually taith 4 prominent angles, with a broad ascending 
rim and 4 or 5 rarely 3 slightly exserted valves ; placental axis nearly as broad as long ; sterile 
seeds slender ; fertile seeds surrounded by a narrow membrane. 

In the deserts of Central Australia, known from Sturt's and Hooker's Creek to Lake Amadeus 
and MacDonnell's Eange (F. M. ; B. Giles). 

The peculiar shape of the fruit distinguishes this species already from any other. The plant 
has merits for decorative culture in shrubberies and will bear the hottest drought7""H.e heat, which 
this and other Central-Australian plants will endure, may exceptionally rise in the shade to 122° F., 
and in the sun to 164° F., or even as observed by McKinlay to 168° F. in the sun, and as noted 
by Sturt to 132° F. ia the shade. This extraordinary endurance of heat, shown by some Eucalypts, 
finds to some extent its explanation in the great power of exhalation possessed by these plants. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, longitudinal section of an unexpanded flower ; 2, front-view of an 
anther with the upper part of its filament ; 3, back-view of the same ; 4, pistil ; 5, transverse section of young fruit ; 
6, longitudinal section of fruit ; 7, sterile seeds ; 8, fertile seeds ; 9, poUen-graina, these diametrically 300 times 
magnified. The augmentation of the other details readily rated by comparison of the main figure, which ia of 
natural size. 

The Stomata or breathing-pores of the epidermis of leaves occur in about equal number on 
both pages in E. pachyphylla as in the majority of cases in Eucalypts, numbering in this instance 
about 40,000 to each square inch. This seems an apt opportunity to adduce the results, which by 
microscopic observations and micrometric measurements have been obtained concerning the 
number and distribution of the stomata in different species of this very large genus. As in 
Proteaceffi so in Bucalyptese the occurrence of the stomata, whether on the underside of the leaves 
alone, or on both pages in unequal or in equal numbers, indicates three series, according to which 
the species have been tabulated below. In the time-absorbing elaboration of these details I have 
been aided by Mr. L. Eummel. 

Table of Approximate Number of Stomata per Squabe Inch of Eucalyptus Leaves. 
I. — Stomata hypogenous = on the underside only. 



Eucalyptus Ahergiana 


180,000-228,000 


Eucalyptus ficifolia ... 


140,000-161,000 


acmenoides ... 


149,000-210,000 


microcorys ... 


210,000-211,000 


botryoides 


105,000-116,000 


pellita 


150,000-155,000 


brachyandra ... 


224,000 


ptychocarpa ... 


240,000 


calophyUa 


207,000-230,000 


resinifera 


139,000-160,000 


Cloeziana 


310,000-311,000 


robusta 


155,000-195,000 


corymbosa ... 


100,000-157,000 


Eaveretlana ... 


220,000-248,000 


Decaisueana ... 


207,000 


saligna 


155,000-217,000 


diversicolor ... 


170,000-228,000 


trachyphloia ... 


124,000 



EtrCALYPTUS PACHTPHTLLA. 
rr. — Stomata heterogenous = on both sides, but less above tban below. 



Eucalyptus aJpina 
Baileyana 
capitellata 
citriodora 

decipiens 

globulus (leares of aged 
plants) 

globulus (leaves 

gomphocepbala 

grossa 

macrandra 

miniata 



( 45,000 

( 60,000 

/ 68,000 

(104,000 

f 20,000-45,000 

( 50,000-62,000 

j 99,000-116,000 

( 132,000-145,000 

(50,000-52,000 

( 90,000-97,000 

(35,000-39,000 
(45,000-56,000 

Of young plant) [f^'^ 

{ 89,000-99,000 

(178,000-199,000 

(23,000-39,000 

(37,000-60,000 

( 99,000-104,000 

(155,000-157,000 

(37,000-45,000 

(60,000-77,000 



Eucalyptus obliqua 
patens 
pilularis 
piperita 
pyrophora 
rigida 
rudis 

siderophloia 
tesselaris 
Torelliana 
vemicosa 



(50,000-56,000 

( 68,000-87,000 

( 54,000-60,000 

( 120,000-124,000 

\ 25,000-41,000 

( 100,000-153,000 

] 45,000-91,000 

( 110,000-197,000 

( 75,000-106,000 

( 99,000-139,000 

(25,000-43,000 

( 45,000-60,000 

( 77,000-112,000 

(153,000-157,000 

1 70,000-99,000 

I 116,000-186,000 

j 116,000-145,000 

(153,000-166,000 

] 46,000-110,000 

[ 300,000-331,000 

(23,000-25,000 

[46,000-55,000 



[For the continuation of this table see E. phoenicea.] 



These data are in nearly all cases the results only of two experiments, on which other observers 
may enlarge by carrying on such researches. 

In several instances exceptions seem to occur regardiag this classification of the Eucalypts 
according to the distribution of their stomata ; these apparent anomalies, concerning B. amygdalina, 
E. marginata, E. paniculata, E. terminalis and a few others, wUl become the subject of future 
elucidations. 




RAiTstsn del. C.Ti-cedei 8, C» IM. 



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EUCALYPTUS PHCENICEA. 

F. V. M., in the Journal of the Prooeedinga of the Linnean Society iii. 91 (1859) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 251. 

Not very tall ; branchlets slender ; leaves scattered, often on rather short stalks, narrow- or 
sickleshaped-lanceolar, of thin consistence, opaque ; lateral veins moderately spreading, only 
slightly prominent, the intramarginal vein almost contiguous to the edge ; oil-dots scanty or 
concealed ; umbels many -flowered, axillary and lateral, on a conspicuous almost cylindrical stalk, 
solitary or sometimes two together ; calyces longer than the slender stalklets, their tube obverse- 
conical, at first slightly constricted towards the middle and at last below the orifice, faintly 
farrowed and streaked, about twice as long as the semiovate or nearly hemispheric lid ; stamens 
all fertUe, inflexed before expansion ; filaments scarlet or light orange-colored ; anthers roundish- 
or blunt-oval, opening with longitudinal slits ; ovary 2-celled ; fruit urnshaped-ellipsoid, rather 
long, hardly woody, not prominently angular ; valves deeply enclosed. 

On the sandstone-tableland and also on sandy ridges from the Victoria-River and its vicinity 
to Carpentaria, far eastward around the Gulf, often accompanied by E. miniata. 

A small or middle-sized tree, highly deserving of a place in ornamental arboreta here and in 
any other countries free of frost. Flowers in the umbels counted to 28. Style hooked in the 
flowerbud. Eipe seeds not yet seen, but probably not provided with any appendage. 

In ornamental splendor this tree among its congeners vies with E. ficifolia (P. M. fragm. 
phytogr. Austr. ii. 85 ; vi. 25) and with E. miniata (A. Cunningham, in Walper's repertorium 
botanices systematica ii. 925). Its flowers share the fiery brilliancy of the last-mentioned species, 
to which it is also closely allied in its cortical characters, E. phcenicea and E. miniata standing 
in this respect quite apart from any other Eucalypt (unless E. melissiodora), constituting in the 
cortical system of the genus a peculiar section, that of Lepidophloiee. The bark of both is very 
lamellar and friable, outside of a yellowish- or greyish-brown, on fracture partly glittering, and 
somewhat resembling mica-schist. In E. phcenicea the bark covers the lower branches as well as 
the stem persistently, but it is easily pulled ofi', and is less interwoven with fibres than in 
E. miniata, whereas also in the latter the bark persists on the stem only. Bentham's particular 
systematic arrangement of the genus necessitated the removal of both species far from each other ; 
the main-differences consist in E. miniata having an almost chalky whiteness about its branchlets 
and inflorescence, thicker and somewhat broader leaves, heterogenous not isogenous stomata, a 
lesser number of flowers in the umbels, no well developed stalklets to the calyces, an angularity 
and greater width of the tube of the latter, more deeply orange-colored filaments, larger and 
woody fruits (more like those of E. ptychocarpa) with a thicker rim, longitudinal angles and 3-4 
valves ; it is moreover usually a larger tree than E. phcenicea. The latter differs from all its very 
numerous congeners in the 2-celled ovary, as first observed by Mr. Bentham and subsequently 
confirmed by numerous observations of my own. 

Species-name from the cinnabar-color or granateflower-red ((j>oiviiceoc) of the filaments, in 
allusion to the fiery-crimson plumage of the mythical bird Phoenix. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, longitudinal section of unexpanded flower ; 2 and 3, front- and 
back-view of a stamen ; 4, style with stigma ; 5 and 6, transverse and longitudinal section of fruit ; 7, piece of a 
leaf I all but variously magnified. 

In B. phcenicea, as in the preponderance of species of this genus, the stomata occur in about 
equal number on both pages of the leaves, varying (so far as hitherto ascertained) from 65,000 to 



EUCALYPTUS PHCENICEA. 

128,000 per square inch. The continuation of a preliminary table of stomata, given under 
E. pachyphyUa, is now offered. I wish it however at the very outset of these observations to he 
understood, that no undue stress should be laid on the absolute firmness of these interesting 
physiologic characteristics, as geologic and climatic influences and not less so the age of the tree 
and other circumstances are likely to render the approximate numbers here noted subject to many 
changes. 



ITT. — Stomata i 


sogenous = on both sides and of approximately equal number. 


Eucalyptus alba 


149,000 


Eucalyptus macrocarpa ... 75,000-97,000 


albens 


40,000-52,000 


macrorrhyncha 


45,000-50,000 


angustissima ... 


50,000 


maculata 


95,000-114,000 


annulata 


95,000-114,000 


megacarpa 


79,000-85,000 


Behriana 


60,000-70,000 


melanophloia.. 


108,000-120,000 


BowmaDui ... 


58,000-60,000 


melliodora 


68,000-90,000 


buprestium ... 


54,000-60,000 


micranthera .. 


66,000-83,000 


csesia 


62,000 


microtheca .. 


75,000-100,000 


ciuerea 


70,000-118,000 


occidentalis .. 


95,000-170,000 


clavigera 


290,000-360,000 


odontocarpa .. 


81,000 


cneorifolia 


46,000-65,000 


odorata 


72,000 


coccifera „. 


50,000-58,000 


Oldfieldi 


85,000 


concolor 


45,000-52,000 


oleosa 


60,000 


conoidea 


64,000-70,000 


pachyphylla .. 


40,000 


coriacea 


62,000-120,000 


pallidifolia .. 


60,000-66,000 


cornuta 


100,000-145,000 


peltata 


275,000 


crebra 


75,000-85,000 


phoenicea 


65,000-128,000 


cosmophylla ... 


90,000-95,000 


platyphylla .. 


116,000-130,000 


dealbata 


55,000-66,000 


platypus 


79,000-100,000 


dichromophloia 


112,000-220,000 


polyanthema 


80,000-118,000 


doratoxylon ... 


52,000-95,000 


Fieissiana 


35,000 


drepanophylla 


72,000-100,000 


» •• 


40,000-46,000 


dumosa 


45,000-54,000 


pruinosa 


90,000-124,000 


endesmioides ... 


45,000-68,000 


pulyerulenta .. 


115,000-124,000 


erythrocorys ... 


60,000-89,000 


pyriformis 


48,000-50,000 


eximia 


95,000-110,000 


redunca 


81,000 


falcata 


50,000-60,000 


Eisdoni 


48,000-58,000 


foecunda 


108,000-130,000 


salmonophloia 


46,000-80,000 


gamophylla ... 


70,000-77,000 


salubris 


70,000-95,000 


goniantha 


60,000-66,000 


santallEoIia .. 


65,000-72,000 


goniocalyx ... 


52,000-60,000 


setosa 


75,000-91,000 


gracilis 


75,000 


spathulata .. 


99,000-108,000 


grandifolia ... 


282,000-320,000 


Btellulata 


58,000-70,000 


Gunnii 


135,000-153,000 


Stuartiana 


95,000-155,000 


haemastoina ... 


64,000-85,000 


tereticomis .. 


85,000-87,000 


hemiphloia ... 


80,000-89,000 


tetragona 


72,000-85,000 


incrassata 


50,000-64,000 


tetraptera 


46,000-67,000 


largiflorens ... 


70,000-81,000 


tetrodouta 


155,000-207,000 


latifolia 


87,000-115,000 


umigera 


56,000-75,000 


Leucoxylon ... 


95,000-161,000 


Timinalis 


75,000-85,000 


longifolia 


118,000-160,000 


WatBoniana .. 


114,000-145,000 


loxophleba ... 


110,000-182,000 


TouBgiana .. 


20,000-43,000 


Luelima.TiTiiana 


66,000 








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EUCALYPTUS EAVERETIANA. 

F. T. M., fragmenta phytographisB Australise x. 99 (1877). 

Very tall; brancUets tMn, angular; leaves scattered, of thin consistence, oval- or offcener 
elongate-lanceolar, almost equal-sided or but slightly sickleshaped, opaque, copiously dotted by 
pellucid oil-glands, paler beneath ; veins very fine, slightly distant, the marginal vein veiy near 
to the edge ; flowers exceedingly small, few or several in each umbel, paniculated ; calyces on very 
short stalklets, the acutely conical lid twice or thrice as long as the hemispheric calyx-tube; stamens 
all fertile ; anthers renate-cordate, opening by longitudinal slits ; style comparatively long ; stigma 
slightly dilatated ; fruits extremely small, 3- or rarely 4-celled, their valves half exserted, forming 
an almost hemispheric summit of the fruit ; placental axis about twice as long as broad ; seeds 
without any membranous appendage. 

In wet forest-valleys and along shady streams, also on the immediate margins of rivers and 
swamps of East Australia, particularly in the capricornic regions ; thus near Rockhampton 
(Thozet and O'Shanesy) ; at the Dawson- and Nercool-River (Bowman) ; near Port Denison 
(Fitzalan). 

This well-marked and stately species received its specific name in honor of Dr. M. 0. Eaveret- 
Wattel, of Paris, who as principal secretary of the great French Acclimation-Society identified 
himself also much with the extensive culture of our Eucalypts in the countries around the 
Mediterranean Sea, much induces by Mons. Prosp. Eamel and myself, and who published an 
important essay on this subject ; I'Eucalyptus, son introduction, sa culture, ses propri6t6s et 
usages. 

A tree, attaining a gigantic size, even up to 300 feet at full age. Vernacularly it passes in 
the districts of its growth as " Grey Gum-tree " and " Iron Gum-tree." Bark shedding its outer 
layers, at least of the upper branches, by which process they are rendered smooth and grey, but 
often persistent on the stem, the latter, according to a meritorious observer of Queensland plants, 
the late Mons. Thozet, finally fully 10 feet in diameter. Foliage periodically almost completely 
dropping ; leaves usually between 3 and 5 inches long, f-l;^ inch broad, interspersed with some 
of smaller size, not very narrowly acuminated ; the principal lateral veins spreading in a mode- 
rately acute angle. Panicles axillary and terminal, varying usually in length between 1 and 3 
inches. Flower-stalklets 1-3 liues long. Filaments almost white. Lid membranous ; though 
so considerably exceeding the tube of the calyx in length, yet measuring only about ^th of an 
inch ; neither the stamens longer. Fruit-calyx little broader than one line ; its surrounding 
margin very thin. Sterile seeds narrower, but hardly shorter, than the fertile seeds. 

The nearest affinity of this species is to E. microtheca, but the leaves are not of equal green 
on both sides, also mostly broader, with more concealed veins ; the calyces are stUl smaller, and 
there is a greater disparity between the length of their lid and tube ; the anthers are more kidney- 
shaped than globular, while the fruits are smaller than those of any other species, excepting 
the rare l^orth-West Australian E. brachyandra (F. v. M., in Journ of Proceed, of the Linn. Soc. 
iii. 97) which however in other respects is very different. 

From cuts into the stem an acidulous almost colorless liquid issues in considerable quantity, 
according to Messrs. Bowman and O'Shanesy, in which respect this species resembles E. Gunni. 
The foliage is rich in volatile oil. The wood is durable, dark-colored, very hard and valuable for 
underground-pUes and railway-sleepers, irrespective of many other purposes ; it will resist the 
heaviest blow (Bowman and Thozet). This species flowers already when only about 10 feet high. 



EUCAITPTUS RAVBRETIANA. 

It is well deserving of trial-culture for industrial purposes, especially as it is also so ricli in 
volatile oil, the particular qualities of wMcli in this instance have never yet been tested. 

In all likelihood this will prove one of the most eligible of Eucalypts in wet tropical countries 
for comparatively quick production of a superior hardwood-timber, and likewise also for hygienic 
purposes, the evolution of one of the most powerfiil of all antiseptics, the double oxyd of hydrogen, 
standing in proportion to the copiousness of essential oil in the foliage of these kinds of trees. 

I am stOl unacquainted with the form of the young seedlings, which in many iastances 
present characteristics peculiar to particular species. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1 and 2, calyx, the M removed ; 3, loDgitndinal section of an nnex- 
panded flower ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of a stamen ; 6, style with stigma ; 7, longitudinal section of fruit ; 
8, transverse section of fruit; 9, fruit before opening; 10, ripe fruit; 11, fertile seeds ; 12, sterile seeds; variously 
magnified. 














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EUCALYPTUS EESINIFEEA. 



'!■:' 



Smith, in White's Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales, 231 (1790) ; in Transactions of the Linnean Society of 
London iii. 284 (1797); Exotic Botany, t. 84 (1805); Andrews, Botanist's Eepository vi. t. 400; Hayne, 
Arznei-Gewachse x. t. 5 (with exclusion of the fruit) ; T. Nees von Esenbeck, Sammlung officineUer Pflanzen, 
Supplement-Heffce, t. 11 ; Kippist, in P. M. fragmenta phytographiae Australiee ii. 172 ; Bentham, flora 
Australiensis iii. 245. 

Finally tall ; branchlets angular ; leaves scattered, elongate- or narrow-lanceolar, somewhat 
or but slightly curved, paler and opaque beneath; the lateral veins quite numerous, subtle and 
almost transversely spreading, the two longitudinal veins only very slightly removed from the 
edge ; pellucid oil-dots more or less obliterated ; umbels axillary, on a compressed stalk, bearing 
usually 6-11 or sometimes 3-5 flowers ; tube of the calyx almost semiovate, merging gradually 
into a stalHet of lesser or occasionally equal or even greater length ; lid conical, usually twice or 
thrice as long as the tube and upwards either gradually or more or less suddenly attenuated ; 
stamens all fertile, inflexed while in bud ; anthers oblong- or wedgeshaped-oval, with a broad 
connective and longitudinal slits ; stigma not broader than the summit of the elongated style ; 
fruit bellshaped-semiovate or verging towards an hemispheric form, 3- or oftener 4— 5-celled, not 
or rarely angular ; rim raised, almost annular ; valves conspicuously protruding, deltoid-semi- 
lanceolar ; placental column at least twice as long as broad ; seeds without any expanding 
membrane, the fertile much broader than the sterile seeds and very angular. 

In K' ew South Wales and Queensland, but not extending far into the inland districts, traced 
northward hitherto to the vicinity of Eockingham-Bay (Dallachy) and the Daintree-Eiver (Fitzalan) . 
The precise southern limits as yet unknown. 

A moderate-siz ed or lofty tree. Bark rough, persistent on the stem, in a greater or lesser 
degree deciduous on the branches, by which characteristic this species is with ease habitually 
distinguished from E. saligna, the latter belonging to the Leiophloiae in the cortical system, while 
E. resinifera belongs to the Hemiphloise. It bears the colonial name of Eed or Forest-Mahogany, 
which appellations are very inaptly given, inasmuch as the wood bears no real similarity to that of 
the true West Indian Mahogany ; according to the Eevd. Dr. Woolls the tree passes under several 
other popular and confusing designations, which very properly might be consigned to oblivion. 
Should it be deemed desirable to construct a new vernacular name, that of the New South Wales 
Kino-Eucalypt might be found the most appropriate, as it was this species, which brought the 
Australian Kino first into medical notice. Indeed Dr. White already during the earliest phase of 
the Botany-Bay-settlement used it against diarrhoea with excellent results, and recorded simul- 
taneously, that the Kino of this tree dissolves completely in spirits of wine, but only one-sisth 
part of it in water. Hot water, according to Hayne, dissolves rather more than half, and alcohol 
rather more than two-thirds, ether about one-twentieth. Incisions into the bark expedite and 
increase the flow of the Kino-sap. 

E. resinifera presents considerable variations of form, which is not surprising, when we 
consider, through what a wide extent of geographic latitude this species ranges. Thus in the wet 
and hot regions of Eockingham-Bay the leaves assume a broad almost oval form of nearly equal 
color on both sides and of thicker consistence, while" the lid of the calyx becomes suddenly 
contracted from a semiglobular base ; this variety was described as E. spectabilis (F. M., fragm. 
V. 45) ; another variety with more elongated leaves, partially paniculated flowers and larger fruits 
was rendered known as E. pellitaT (F. M^Tfagm. iv. 159 ; Benth. fl. Austr. iii. 246) ; but 
augmented material, since accumulated, has proved also this as a tropical luxuriant form referable 



EUCALYPTtrS RESINIFERA. 

to E. resinifera. Thus leaves occur twice as broad as those of the lithogram, whereas flowers are 
also found of double the size of those illustrated. In a stunted state this tree, when growing 
among granite-rocks in New England, may have its flowerstalks much shortened, the staMets 
vanishing and the lid abbreviated to a pyramidal-hemispheric form. 

The timber is pronounced by the Eevd. Dr. WooUs " splendid and as durable as that of the 
Ironbark-trees " of New South Wales, though the tree itself in outer appearance resembles more 
the Stringybark-Eucalypts. It ought to be for timber-culture, along with E. rostrata and E. cor- 
nuta, one of the most valuable in wet tropical countries ; nevertheless in its merits for sanitary 
purposes it cannot rival with any of the Eucalypts richest in Cajuput-like oil. 

Explanation or Ajialttic Details. — 1, part of flowerbud, the lid separated; 2, longitudinal section of 
flowerbud ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of anther ; 5, pistil ; 6, outer stamens ; 7, longitudinal section of a fruit ; 
8, transverse section of a fruit ; 9, sterUe seeds ; 10, fertile seeds ; 11, portion of a leaf ; variously magnified. 

In the niawarra-district occurs a tree, which attracted great attention in India, not only because 
of its rapid growth, but also as it proved the best species there to cope with the moist tropical 
heat. This tree has been cultivated at Lucknow by Dr. Bonavia, who recorded, that it attained in 
the best soil 12 feet in two years ; it was there considered to belong to E. resinifera. It differs 
however from that species in having the leaves of equal color on both sides with more prominent 
veins, the intramarginal veins more distant from the edge ; thus in venation as also in odor of 
foliage and fruit the tree in question approaches E. robusta, but its fruit is certainly similar to that 
of E. resinifera, wanting however the broadish outer ring around its orifice, characteristic of the 
typical E. resinifera, while the lateral veins of the leaves are not quite so transversely spreading 
as in either. If really specifically distinct, the tree might be named E. Kirtoniana in honor of its 
discoverer. 

Eucalyptus punctata (Candolle, prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabUis iii. 217) is 
evidently very closely related to E. resinifera, though Bentham took for it a variety of E. tereti- 
cornis with broader and shorter leaves, thicker flowerstalk and very blunt operculum. Dr. WooUs 
acknowledges perhaps correctly E. punctata, the " Leather-Jacket " of the colonists, as a separate 
species and places it into the section of Hemiphloiee. His Parramatta specimens agree precisely 
with Heyland's drawing in De Candolle's m^moire sur la famille des myrtac^es, pi. 4. The main 
differences, by which E. punctata can be held separate from E. resinifera, are the thinness of its 
leaves, its general tendency to a paniculate inflorescence, the abbreviated lid of the calyx, the more 
depressed rim of the ripe fruit and the extremely short in no way or but very slightly protruding 
valves of the latter ; it is brought into closer contact with E. saligna by the size of its flowers and 
fruits, the shortness of the lid and of the fruit-valves, differing however in the total persistency of 
the stem-bark, the longer staMets and the less pointed lid. The reverend gentleman observes, 
that E. punctata passes among artisans also as " Hickory," that it has a tough and thick bark 
that the wood is useful for fencing and other rough purposes, and that the tree attains a height of 
70 feet. I find the leaves copiously pellucid-dotted, as the name would imply. 








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EUCALYPTUS TETEODONTA. 

F. V. M., in the Journal of the Linnean Society iii. 97 (1858) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 260. 

Arboreous ; branchlets angular ; leaves opposite, lanceolar-sickleshaped, opaque, their lateral 
veins moderately spreading, the intramarginal vein close to the edge ; umbels axillary and solitary 
or sometimes 2 or 3 jointly terminal, each with 3 or seldom 4-5 flowers ; flowerstalks hardly 
shorter than the calyx ; stalklets extremely short but angular ; bracts 2, opposite, rather large, 
slowly deciduous ; tube of the calyx conical-bellshaped, provided slightly below the margin with four 
deltoid teeth ; lid hemispherical, smooth ; stamens inflexed before expansion ; anthers oval-oblong, 
opening with longitudinal slits ; stigma hardly broader than the style ; fruit angular, mostly 
3-celled, the discal expansion forming a narrow rim beyond the calyx-teeth ; placental axis ia age 
twice as long as broad ; valves enclosed ; sterile seeds not much narrower than the fertile seeds, 
all without any membranous appendage. 

On the bushy sandstone-tableland of Ainhem's Land (F. v. M.) ; near Port Essiagton 
(Leichhardt) ; Port Darwin (Schultz) ; Maria-Island and Liverpool-Eiver (Gulliver) ; Escape- 
Cliffs (Hulls). 

A kind of Stringybark-tree, but not tall. Stem rather slender. Bark pale, fibrous, coating 
the branches as well as the stem persistently. Leaves 3-8 inches long, ^1 J inches broad ; the 
uppermost sometimes alternate. Bracts at the summit of the flowerstalk boatshaped-lanceolar, 
about I inch long. Calyx measuring when in flower about J an inch, when in fruit up to f of an 
inch in length, so far as hitherto observed. Sterile seeds often narrow-pyramidal and truncated ; 
fertile seeds mostly oblique-oval. 

This species is highly remarkable and instructive, inasmuch as the strongly toothed calyx 
demonstrates some transit towards Angophora, although the lid is noways dissolved into petals 
as in that genus, nor can the operculum be rightly regarded as petaloid, it being quite of the 
texture and structure normal in most Eucalypts, indeed in this respect not different from the lid 
of E. Preissii, E. terminalis, E. Abergiana and a few other species, in which the calyx is rather 
irregularly ruptured than circumcised by a clearly defined sutural line ; at best only the inner 
layer of the lid could be assumed to be coroUaceous, but it is closely connate with the outer 
stratum as usual in the genus. 

E. tetrodonta has no immediate close affinity to any of its congeners, except to E. odontocarpa 
(F. V. M., in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, iii. 98) from the North- 
Western regions of Central Australia ; this however I found only of shrubby growth, its leaves 
much narrower, the calyces very considerably smaller on shorter and thinner stalklets, the fruit 
also of much less size, its minute teeth protruding beyond the outward not decurrent rim. 

Explanation of the Analytic Details.— 1, longitudinal section of unexpanded flower ; 2 and 3, front- and 
back-view of a stamen j 4, style ; 5, longitudinal section of a fruit ; 6, sterile seeds ; 7, fertUe seeds ; variously 
magnified. 

I may perhaps avail myself at this early opportunity, while issuing the first plates of the 
Atlas, to point out, that in any arrangement of the species of Eucalyptus according to the cortical 
system E. tetrodonta would probably merge into the division of Pachyphloise, which comprises all 
the Stringybark-trees. When in 1858 a descriptive essay on those Eucalypts, which from 1855 to 
1856 I had personally observed in tropical and eastern subtropical Australia, was off'ered by me to 
the Linnean Society, and published in its journal of proceedings iii. 81-101, I explained how by a 
few simple easily observable characteristics of the bark all Eucalypts could be classified according 



EUCALYPTUS TETRODONTA. 

to tlie teclmic requirements of woodmen, wlio could not be expected to enter on a discrimination of 
the various species from sucli purely scientific differences, on which descriptive botany would rely. 
Subsequent discoveries of species have not suggested the adoption of any material changes in this 
first rough grouping according to cortical characteristics for the general guidance of colonists, but 
the systematic term Pachyphloise, adopted collectively for all the Stringybark-trees, might perhaps 
give way to the still more expressive designation Inophloice, all Stringybark-trees, as the name 
implies, producing a very fibrous bark, in which respect they differ materially from the groups of 
Ehytiphloise (comprisiag many of the so -called "Box-trees") and that of the Schizophloiffi 
(including the Ironbark-trees), both these groups having a much more solid bark. As however 
might be imagined, these distinctions are not absolute ; and when the persistence of the cortical 
layers on the main branches of any Stringybark-trees becomes imperfect, we get a transit to the 
group of Hemiphloise, in the leading species of which the branches become smooth from the 
shedding of the outer and older cortical layers, whUe the stem remains coated with the complete 
and gradually very thickened bark. 



EUCALYPTOGRAPHIA 



A DESCEIPTIYE ATLAS 



EUCALTPTS OF AUSTEALIA 



ADJOINING ISLANDS 



BAEON FEED. YOl MUELLEE, K.C.M.(}., I. & PH.D., F.E.S., 

GOVEENMENT BOTANIST FOE THE COLONY OF VICTOEIA. 



' NoN succuDES ABBOitia, NEC aKCUHiBus DBBES VASTAEB EABUM beqionilm."— JSttfir DeutevononiU XX. 19. 



SECOND DEC^DH:. 



MELBOUENE : 

JOTTSr FERBES, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 
PUBLISHED ALSO BY GEORGE EOBEBTSON, LITTLE COLLINS STREET. 

LONDON : 

TItUBNBE AND CO. 57 AND 69 LUDGATE HILL ; AND GEORGE ROBERTSON, 17 WARWICK SQUARE. 

31 DCCC LXXIX. M' 



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EUCALYPTUS ALPINA. 

Lindley, in Mitchell's three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia ii. 175 (1838) ; Brogniart et 
Guillemin, Annales des sciences naturalles, seconde serie, xvii. 57 ; Walpers, repertorium botanices systematiose 
ii. 925 ; P. M., fragmenta phytographias AustraKse ii. 68 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 225. 

Shrubby ; branchlets stout, almost cylindrical ; leaves scattered, on thick stalks, from broad- 
oblong and oval to roundish, of thick consistence, of equal color and shining on both pages, with 
moderately spreading faint and not crowded veins, the intramarginal vein distinctly removed from 
the edge ; the oil-dots concealed or scantily developed ; flowers sessile in the axils, solitary or 
oftener from 2 to 4 or rarely 5 together, some not rarely lateral ; calyx more or less warty-rough ; 
the lid irregularly semiovate or semiglobular ; the tube nearly hemispherical, about as long as the 
lid or slightly longer ; stamens incurved while in bud, all fertile ; anthers ovate-cordate, opening 
with longitudinal slits ; fruits almost hemispherical, not angular, of rather considerable size, its 
vertical margin broad, slightly protruding and ascending, finally convex ; valves 4-6, half- 
exserted, deltashaped ; seeds without any appendage, the sterile seeds mostly not very narrow. 

On the summit of Mount William, at an elevation of over 4,000 feet. 

This in many respects remarkable species was discovered by Colonel Sir Thomas Mitchell, 
when that eminent geographer explored a vast extent of Victoria, discovered also the Grampians 
and ascended (in July 1836) the mountain, to the top of which this Eucalypt is absolutely 
restricted ; for it does not even extend to any other summits in the chain, of which Mount 
William is the culminating point, seeking unlike most of its congeners a subalpine zone for its 
habitation (with us always first indicated by the presence of Celmisia longifolia), though I have 
sought for the same species in vain anywhere in the Australian Alps. But it is not the only one, 
which endures quite a frigid clime, inasmuch as in the snowy mountains of Victoria and New 
South Wales the timber-vegetation terminates also with species of Eucalyptus, thus E. Gunnii 
and E.pauciflora in a dwarfed state ascending to heights of over 5,000 feet in the Australian Alps, 
while in Tasmania E. vernicosa, E. coccifera and E. urnigera (also with E. Gunnii and E. pauciflora) 
penetrate likewise to alpine elevations, and brave the keen frosts and snow-storms, which in the 
uppermost Eucalyptus-region occur for several months in the year. 

It will be interesting for the geography of plants to ascertain, whether the Eucalyptus- 
vegetation of New Guinea advances there also to the as yet unexplored alpine regions. 

E. alpina is remarkable also for being restricted to a small area of one single mountain, just 
as is the case with a few of its companions or neighbors there, for instance Pultentea rosea, 
Calycothrix Sullivani, Bauera sessiliflora, Stylidium soboliferum ; and similar isolations are shown 
by Wittsteinia vacciniacea, which is confined to the highest regions of Mount Baw-Baw exclusively, 
whUe Goodenia Macmillani occupies a short distance of one single slate-valley on the MacAUister- 
River, not to allude to some similar instances even within our colony. Here however a hope may 
be expressed, that plants of such extreme rarity should not be allowed as in St. Helena (and as 
unfortunately also in many other parts of the globe) to be swept away and even utterly annihilated, 
when intelligent foresight might protect them ungrudgingly and unmolested in their place of 
creation, from which they could not wander away. By some slight circumspect exertions we 
might preserve for the contemplation and delight also of future generations these extremely local 
forms of the existing creation, whose very representative existence in their almost solitary spots, 
is so much endangered, aware that divine wisdom called forth even the most scantily distributed 
oyganic beings in nature by unalterable laws for designed purposes. Hence no efforts of any 



EUCALYPTUS ALPmA. 

evolution- or transmutation-experiments, by which these theories might be brought to a crucial 
test, will ever give us back again even one single real species, whether the Moa or Dodo or even 
the humblest plant, when in its struggle for existence it became finally lost. 

The danger of E. alpina becoming extinct is lessened by its being brought into culture in our 
Botanic Garden, where I reared it from seeds gathered by myself in 1853. But since that distant 
time the plant in not altogether unfertile^bil ?eniamed as dwarf and bushy as in its place of 
creation, having in a quarter of a century hardly attained a height over about a dozen feet and 
shown no tendency to form a distinct stem. Therefore E. alpina is probably the slowest in growth 
of al l jucalypts, and in this respect its contrast to E. globulus is all the more marked and 
singular, inasmuch as it stands to that species of unparalleled celerity of growth among hardwood- 
trees in nearest systematic affinity, though specifically quite distinct. E. globulus however, 
irrespective of its gigantic stature, difi'ers in much longer and narrower leaves, sickleshaped- 
attenuated and of lesser thickness with usually less immersed veins, in longer leaf-stalks, flowers 
probably never more than 3 together and always of larger si^e, in a comparatively more depressed 
lid, in the anthers longer and not almost cordate with a more prominent dorsal gland, in the fruit 
being mostly very angular from longitudinal prominent verrucular lines, in the generally more 
depressed rim separated by a deeper channel from the tube of the calyx, in often rather larger valves 
of not lesser width than the rim ; further the oil-dots of the foliage are mostly unconcealed, and 
the seedlings are totally different. In the fragmenta phytographi^ Australise vii. pp. 42-44, 
notes on the seedlings of many Eucalypts were offered, and those of E. alpina mentioned as rough, 
with cylindrical stem, opposite oval nearly sessile leaves, dark-green above, hardly 2 inches long. 
In stature it resembles E. pachyphylla and some few others of the desert-species. Systematically 
it approaches also in some respects E. cosmophylla and E. Preissiana, but the differences between 
these are so great, as to need no special exposition. 

ExpiANATiON or AifALTTic Detaiis. — 1, longitudinal section of an unexpanded flower ; 2 and 3, front- and 
back-view of a stamen ; 4, pistU ; 5 and 6, longitudinal and transverse section of fruit ; 7 and 8, sterile and fertile 
seeds ; all magnified, but in various degrees. 




Rj^usler. d«l. C Troeaa (x C- LilK. 



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steam LiXtio Gov. Pririlmg Office Meli. 



EUCALYPTUS CORYNOCALYX. 

r. V. M., fragmenta pliytographiaj Australiffi ii. 43 (1860) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 218 ; E. cladooalyx, 
F. M., in Sohlechtendal's Linnsea xxv. 388 (1852) ; Miquel, in Nederlandisk Eruidkundig Archiev iv. 135 ; C. 
Mueller, in Walpers annales botanices systematicse iv. 825. 

The Sugary Eucalypt. 

Leaves scattered, broad- or oftener elongate-lanceolar, slightly curved, upwards very gradually 
narrowed, scantily or not perforated by oil-dots, with an oily lustre on both sides, somewhat paler 
beneath; veins numerous, moderately spreading, the two longitudinal veins often distinctly 
removed from the edge ; umbels lateral or axillary, frequently crowded below the leaves, on 
almost cylindric stalks, bearing from 4 to 16 flowers ; stalklets shorter than the calyx ; lid 
hemispheric, quite blunt or slightly pointed, much shorter than the bellshaped cylindric tube of 
the calyx; stamens all fertile, acutely inflexed in bud; anthers almost oval, opening with 
longitudinal slits ; style very short ; stigma not dilated ; fruit urnshaped-ellipsoid, longitudinally 
streaked; attenuated into a conspicuous stalklet, 3-celled ; its rim narrow-compressed; valves 
short, deeply enclosed ; placental axis about three times as long as wide ; seeds without any 
membranous appendage, the sterile seeds mostly rather broad. 

Along Spencer's Gulf in many places ; thence dispersed westward at least as far as Streaky 
Bay (Colonel Warburton) ; on the stony declivities of Mount Remarkable and at Wirrabara, 
ascending to considerable elevations (J. B. Brown) ; about the lower "Wimmera (J. Allen) ; 
probably to be found yet in many interjacent localities. 

This tree, according to annotations from the Inspector-General of South-Australian forests, 
reaches a height of 120 feet, the trunk attaining a final diameter of 5 or even 6 feet at about 5 feet 
from the ground ; length of bole for timber up to 60 feet. Bark smooth (Leiophloice). The wood 
has come into use for fence-posts and railway-sleepers ; its durability is attested by the fact, that 
posts fifteen years old showed no signs of decay. The sweetish foliage attracts cattle and sheep, 
which browse on the lower branches, saplings and seedlings, unlike what occurs with almost any 
other kind of Eucalypt (J. B. Brown), unless E. Gunnii. 

The specific name is derived from the calyx, somewhat clubshaped while in its unexpanded 
state. The nearest afiinity of Eucalyptus corynocalyx is with E. urnigera (J. Hooker, in the 
London Journal of Botany vi. 477 ; Flora Tasmanica i. 134, t. Ivi.), which species is however 
strictly confined to the alpine regions of Tasmania, and probably never attains a height over 50 
feet ; moreover the leaves of the latter are of equal green on both sides and copiously beset with 
pellucid oil-glands ; nor is the tube of the calyx wrinkled or streaked. The shape of the unopened 
calyx distinguishes E. corynocalyx from any other species hitherto known. The growth of this 
tree is not of particular celerity, as noticed by me, while watching it under culture for very many 
years. Mr. Brown remarked, that the base of the stem enlarges into a wide expansion, forming 
almost a row of ascending little tiers. 

For a desert-country this is one of the most eligible among Timber-Bucalypts ; on such 
account I selected this species also, to introduce it into the more arid back-country of Algeria 
along with many other congeners, first transferred by me early to that part of the globe. It seems 
to have been this species, which attracted my attention as a valuable timber-tree, when I hurriedly 
crossed the Flinders-Ranges as far back as 1851. Among the Timber-Bucalypts, capable of 
bearing the often protracted droughts and also the extreme heat of desert-regions, may be noted 
as deserving primary consideration for quick wood-culture : B. polyanthema, E. bicolor, E. salubris, 



EUCALTPTTJS CORYNOCALYX. 

E. ockrophloia, E. salmonophloia and perhaps E. terminalis. Although E. rostrata is also able 
to bear the extremes of dry heat, and is for the bulk of its most durable timber far superior 
to any of the above named other deseri>trees, yet it wiU not thrive away from places, where ia 
clayey subsoil always some humidity exists ; hence it occurs only in oases or lines watercourses, 
though their beds may remain exsiccated for lengthened periods. 

Among the Eucalypts of the iuterior of Northern Australia may be some, also fit to cope 
with dry excessive heat of any desert-clime ; but most of them are not attaining tall stems, and 
we remained also hitherto almost unacquainted with the particularities of their timber in reference 
to technic applications ; but for fuel every one of them would be useful. 

Explanation or Analytic Details. — 1, unexpanded flowers of natural size ; 2, one of the same cut longi- 
tudinally ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of an anther with filament ; 5, style and stigma ; 6, longitudinal section of 
a fruit ; 7, transverse section of the same ; 8 and 9, sterUe and fertile seeds ; 10, embryo j 11, the same, unfolded ; 
12, section of leaf ; 2-12 variously magnified. 



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EUCALYPTUS H^MASTOMA. 

Smith, in the Transactions of the Linnean Society iii. 285 (1797) ; CandoUe, prodronms systematis naturalis regni 
vegetahilis iii. 219 ; !P. M., fragmenta phytographite Australise ii. 51 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 212; 
E. micrantha, Oandolle, prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetahilis iii. 217 ; memoire sur la famille des 
Myrtaclea planche 5 ; E. signata, F. M., in the Journal of Proceedings of the Linnean Society iii. 85. 

Finally tall ; leaves scattered, sickleshaped-lanceolar, occasionally much narrower or excep- 
tionally also verging to a somewhat oval form, shining and of equal green on both sides ; their 
lateral veins more longitudinal than transverse, the intramarginal vein somewhat removed from 
the edge ; umbels mostly solitary, axillary or lateral or some paniculate, on angular and often 
somewhat compressed stalks, with from 5 to 10 or rarely more flowers on each ; tube of calyx 
broadly obconical, about twice as long as the hemispheric depressed or slightly pointed small 
lid, not angular, attenuated into a stalklet of the same or somewhat greater length ; stamens 
short, inflected before expansion ; outer filaments sterile ; anthers of the fertile stamens cordate- 
kidney shaped ; style very short; stigma not dilated; fruit semiovate, 4- or less frequently 
S-celled ; its rim depressed or quite flat ; valves very short, deltoid, convergent, usually affixed 
very close to the summit of the fruit ; placental axis about twice as long as broad ; seeds 
without any appendage, the sterile seeds rather short and often comparatively broad. 

Known from lUawarra (Cunningham) to the vicinity of Wide Bay (Moore), ascending into 
the elevated country of New England. 

Bark frequently quite smooth or less usually persistent on the stem, but the branches then 
to a great extent smooth, the tree thus fluctuating between Leiophloise and Hemiphloiae. The 
variety micrantha with smaller flowers and fruits passes as White Gum-tree, Spotted Gum-tree or 
even Blue Gum-tree ; the ordinary form in its semipersistent state of bark as Blackbutt-tree and 
indeed under several other and misleading colonial vernaculars. 

The rim of the fruit is brownish-red, from which note the species derives its systematic name. 

E. hsemastoma approaches in affinity very closely E. Sieberiana ; but its bark is not so deeply 
furrowed in its persistent portion on the stem ; it is further distinguished by somewhat broader 
leaves with more spreading and more prominent veins, by the usually greater number of sterile 
stamens and by the frequently shorter fruit, which thus verges more into an hemispheric form. 
Both E. haemastoma and E. Sieberiana belong to the series of Heterostemones, notwithstanding 
Mr. Bentham placing the latter into that of the Eenantherae. 

Although the leaves of full-grown trees are like those of E. piperita, yet the seedlings are 
quite different, being perfectly smooth with their leaves opposite short-stalked and lanceolar, not 
rough broad and scattered as in E. piperita ; it differs also from that species in the often smooth 
bark, shorter calyx-lid, sterile stamens and the more truncate fruit with less contracted and 
broader rim. 

E. hsemastoma occurs however also occasionally with bark persisting up to the last branches, 
according to Mr. Wilkinson, and would then come under the category of the Stringybarks ; in 
such a state for instance it is known from the Dromedary-Eange up to 1,500 feet above sea-level, 
in the silurian formation. Mr. 0. Walter also notes what appears to be this species as a 
Stringybark-tree towards the Upper Yarra, though the operculum of the flowerbuds is more 
conical. 

The wood is not of any great value for timber-purposes and is apt soon to decay, but furnishes 
a fair sort of fuel and material for rough carpentry. 



EUCALYPTUS H^MASTOMA. 

ExpiANATioN OF ANALYTIC DETAILS. — 1, Upper portion of calyx, the lid detached ; 2, longitudinal section of 
nnexpanded flower ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of anther ; 5, sterile and fertile stamens in situ ; 6, style and 
etigma ; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse section of fruit ; 9 and 10, sterile and fertile seeds ; 11, portion of 
leaf ; all magnified. 

E. h^mastoina is one of the few species, published already in the last century. As it is of 
some interest to note, how in a long series of years the members of this great genus became 
successively known, I append here a chronologic index of those, which hitherto have been recorded 
as well established species, though their validity has not yet in all instances been absolutely 
confirmed. 

1788 : Eucalyptus obliqua L'Herit. ; 1790 : capitellata, resinifera, piperita Smith ; 1793 : 
tereticornis, robusta,- corymbosa Smith ; 1797 : botryoides, saligna, hsemastoma, paniculata, pilu- 
laris Smith ; 1799 : cornuta, globulus Labill. ; 1802 : marginata Smith ; 1806 : viminalis, cor- 
data, amygdalina, incrassata Labill. ; 1819 : pulverulenta Sims ; 1822 : longifolia Link ; 1826 : 
alba Eeinw. ; 1827 : eugenioides, pauciflora, stricta Sieb. ; 1828 : obtusiflora, cneorifolia, gom- 
phocephala, punctata Cand., stellulata Sieb. : 1830 : calophyUaE. Br. ; 1832 : Moluccana, Roxb. ; 
1837 : occidentalis, rudis, decipiens Endl. ; 1838 : alpina Lindl. ; 1842 : macrocarpa. Hook. ; 
1843 : miniata, melliodora, clavigera, dumosa, dealbata Cunn., polyanthema, pruinosa, setosa, 
acmenoides, oligantha, eximia, ferruginea Schauer ; 1844 : concolor, Preissiana, foecunda, redunca 
Schauer, spathulata, maculata Hook., Gunnii J. Hook., Lehmanni Preiss ; 1847 : vernicosa, Ris- 
doni, coccifera, urnigera J. Hook., falcata, goniantha Turcz., odorata Behr, rostrata Schlcht. ; 
1848 : citriodora, populifolia Hook. ; 1849 : uncinata, pyriformis, tetraptera Turcz., Decaisneana 
Bl. ; 1852 : erythronema, obcordata Turcz. ; 1863 : macrorrhyncha F. v. M. ; 1854 : Behriana, 
cosmophylla, gracilis, largiflorens, Leucoxylon, santalifolia F. v. M. ; 1858 : aspera, brachyandra, 
crebra, dichromophloia, exserta, hemilampra, latifolia, leptophleba, melanophloia, microtheca, 
odontocarpa, pachyphylla, patellaris, phoenicea, platyphylla, ptychocarpa, terminalis, tesselaris, 
tetrodonta, trachyphloia F. v. M. ; 1859 : albens Miq., goniocalyx, Stuartiana F. v. M. ; 1860 : 
corynocalyx, doratoxylon, erythrocorys, eudesmioides, ficifolia, hemiphloia, megacarpa, micro- 
corys, oleosa, F. v. M. ; 1862 : buprestium F. v. M. ; 1863 : angustissima, decurva, diversicolor, 
pallidifolia F. v. M. ; 1864 : tetragona F. v. M. ; 1865 : orbifolia F. v. M. ; 1866 : grandifolia, 
perfoliata R. Br., annulata, csesia, Drummondi, leptopoda, loxophleba, pachyloma, patens, peltata, 
siderophloia Benth., Bowmani, cinerea, drepanophylla, grossa, macrandra, micranthera F. v. M. ; 
1869 : pachypoda F. v. M. ; 1875 : Papuana F. v. M. ; 1876 : Rameliana, salubris, Youngiana 
F. V. M. ; 1877 : Eaveretiana, Torelliana, Watsoniana, F. v. M. ; 1878 : Abergiana, Baileyana, 
Clceziana, gamophylla, Luehmanniana, ochrophloia, Planchoniana, salmonophloia F. v. M. ; 1879 : 
Sieberiana, Kirtoniana F. v. M., Cooperiana F. v. M. inedit. 




P.AoshnM :Tro6de]8rC? 



F. V M direxil 



Sluam Lith.: Gov.Pnnhng Office, Melb. 



31(@ll!if; 



©igiMk, Lmh&Otto. 



EUCALYPTUS LONGIFOLIA. , 

Link, enumeratio plantarum horti regii botanici Berolinensis ii. 29 (1822) ; Link et Otto, ioones plantarum selectarum 
liorti regii botanioi Berolinensis 97, t. 45 (1826) ; CandoUe, prodromua systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis 
iii. 216 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 237 ; E. WooUsii ; F. v. M., fragmenta pliytographise Australia ii. 50. 

The " Woolly Butt." 

Finally tall ; leave s scattered, elongate-lanceolar or more or less sickleshaped, of equal green 
on both sides, not shining ; lateral veins subtle, very spreading and rather close to each other, 
the circumferential vein only slightly distant from the margin of the leaves ; flowerstalks slender, 
often curved, of conspicuous length, with from tmo to four flowers ; stalklets as long as the calyx 
or variously shorter ; lid conical, as well as the tube of the calyx pale, the latter broadly obconical, 
hardly as long as the former ; stamens all fertile, inflexed while unexpanded ; anthers cuneate- or 
oblong-oval, their cells parallel and slit longitudinally ; stigma not dilated ; fruitsjrather large, 
semiovate-hellshaped, the rim ascendant or channelled, the vertex very convex ; valves 4, rarely 5 or 
3, enclosed ; seeds without any appendage, the sterile seeds mostly narrow. 

In forest-land from the lower Genoa-River to the neighborhood of Port Jackson, scattered 
along the coast-country, thence extending to the base of the Blue Mountains. 

A tree, known to attain under favorable circumstances a height of 150 feet. Bark persistent, 
grey, rough or wrinkled, somewhat fibrous. ^Wood in request for fuel, less for timber, as it is 
often traversed by Kino-sediments. When sound, the wood is sought for wheelwrights' work, 
according to Sir William Macarthur ; other authorities have established its durability for fences. 
Leaves exceptionally nearly 1 foot long ; their oil-dots usually somewhat concealed, though 
copious. Flowers seldom solitary, not rarely larger than illustrated ; tube of the calyx with 
two to four or without any angles ; lid sometimes protracted into a beak-like apex ; rim of the 
fruit-calyx variable in width, but never narrow. Connective of the anthers conspicuously callous- 
glandular. Seedlings smooth, their leaves narrow, paler beneath ; some of their earlier leaves 
opposite, the rest soon scattered. 

Without access to the illustration, issued from the Berlin Botanic Garden, I failed originally 
to identify this species, although alluding then already to its apparent affinity. 

E. longifolia is not easily mistaken for any other of its congeners ; it has however some 
external resemblance in its floral organs and in its fruit to B. Leucoxylon and E. c»sia ; but the 
former of these belongs to the Heterostemones, and both diifer in having the rim of the fruit 
internally descendent, not externally ascendant ; irrespective of this they are both separated by 
other differences. The resemblance to E. erythronema and E. cosmophylla is still less marked. 

Dr. Josef Moeller has given a histologic account of the bark of this tree (in der Zeitschrift des 
allgemeinen oesterreichischen Apotheker-Vereins 1875, n. 15), to which essay I shall refer fully 
in connection with the histology of other Eucalyptus-barks on some future occasion. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, upper part of calyx, the lid lifted; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3, stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, 
longitudinal and transverse section of a fruit; 9 and 10, sterile and fertile seeds ; 11, portion of a leaf; 1 and 3, 
natural size ; 2 and 4 to 11, more or less magnified. 

The bark of E. longifolia can be converted into packing-paper, as shown already during the 
International Exhibition of 1867, when also Kino-tannic acid was prepared in my laboratory from 
the bark of this tree, the yield proving 8-3 per cent. The percentage of Kino-tannic acid in the 



^ 



EUCALYPTUS LONGITOLIA. 



bark of different Encalypts is very variable, as may be noted from experiments, instituted under 
my directions by Mr. L. Eummel, fresh bark beiag used for tbe purpose, the tannic principle 
loosing its solubility and also its efficiency to some extent by exsiccation and chemical decom- 
position. 



In 100 parts of fresh Bark. 


Kino-tannic 
Acid. 


Water, 


Eucalyptus Leucoxylon (rough-barked) 


21-94 


61-13 


globulus 


4-84 


51 


54 


rostrata 


8-22 


51 


16 


Gunnii 


3-44 


54 


09 


polyantbema ... 


3-97 


46 


66 


melliodora 


4-03 


54 


94 


obliqua 


2-50 


36 


81 


obliqua 


4-19 


51 


59 


atuygdalma (rough-barked) 


3-40 


43 


25 


amygdalina (rough-barked) 


3-22 


39 


63 


goniocalyx 


4-62 


51 


00 


gonlocalyx 


4-12 


45 


50 


macrorrhyncha 


11-12 


35 


91 


macrorrhyncha 


13-41 


39 


56 


■viminalis (smooth-bark) 


4-88 


52 


88 


■viminalis (rough-bark) 


5-03 


54 


10 


viminalis (young-tree) ... 


5-97 


55-03 




R^iEtm dd. ei: Iiih 



Y-v\L direxit- 



otei~ i.i*iio. <.-ov : r_L'.mc" Jicje • cl' 



lEKgnl^tlis iii(EllM®i®ra . CunningMm 



EUCALYPTUS MELLIODOEA. 

Allan Cunningham, in Walpers repertorium botanices systematicse ii. 924 (1843) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis 
iii. 210 ; F. v. M., Introduction to Botanic TeaoHngs, 15, fig. vii. 

The honey-scented Eucalypt or Yellow Box-tree. 

Leaves scattered, narrow lanceolar or somewhat sickleshaped, sometimes verging into an 
oblong or oval form, not very long, mostly of a dull-green on both pages, seldom shining ; their 
lateral veins neither very spreading nor very numerous nor usually prominent, the marginal vein 
distinctly removed from the edge ; oil-dots rather copious, but many concealed ; umbels axillary 
or lateral and solitary or terminal and often partly paniculate, on short slender stalks, usually 
with from 4 to 7, seldom 3 or 8, small flowers ; calyx on a thin stalklet ; its tube semiovate or 
broadly obverse-conical, nearly as long as or sometimes distinctly longer than the semiglobular- 
conical blunt or somewhat acute lid; outer stamens destitute of anthers ; filaments pale; anthers 
very minute, nearly as broad as long, upwards dilated, opening near the summit with pores or 
short slits ; stigma much dilated ; fruit truncate-semiovate, small, not angular, 5- to 6- or sometimes 
4-celled ; rim not strongly compressed, comparatively broad or ascendant ; placental axis hardly 
twice as long as broad ; valves very short, quite enclosed ; seeds very small, without any expanding 
membrane. 

Chiefly on ridges, from the Pyrenees and Loddon extending widely south- and eastward 
through the colony of Victoria and far into New South Wales, reaching New England and the 
upper tributaries of the Darling-Eiver northward, with us chiefly occurring in the Silurian 
formation, but also descending into valleys of the pleistocene age and even to the coastlands, but 
according to Mr. "Wilkinson occurring also in the granitic and Devonian formation, never 
ascending to high elevations. 

The " Dargan " of the Gippsland aboriginal tribes. 

A middle-sized tree, but exceptionally attaining a height of about 250 feet (Howitt, Faick) 
and a basal stem-diameter of 8 feet (Eobinson). Bark outside brownish-grey, inside yellowish or 
sometimes almost gamboge-color when first removed (Wilkinson), more or less persistent on the 
stem, the persistent portion^Eick and slightly fibrous, often contorted and turned about zig-zag 
in all manners of ways (Eobinson). Branches often to a large extent or entirely smooth. Timber 
of a yellowish color and when dry extremely hard, very durable and heavy, also of remarkable 
toughness, but difficult to work and as a rule not fissile ; in texture much like that of E. rostrata ; 
much utilized for spokes, rollers, heavy framework and for the best of naves, cogs and treenails, 
also for rougher kinds of work such as telegraph- and fence-posts, rails and slabs. It cannot well 
be sawn into planks on account of the frequent occurrence of broad perpendicular slits or cracks 
intervening between the layers, thus apt also to shell concentrically. In splitting, to use 
Mr. Hewitt's words, it is necessary to back it ofi', as it will not quarter. Excellent for fuel. The 
specific gravity of fully seasoned wood varies from about 0-966 to 1-125, or 60 to 70 lbs. per cubic 
foot. Branches often pendulous, the branchlets mostly very slender. Stalklets of flowers and 
fruits not seldom longer than exhibited in the illustration. 

The tree will live on poor soil, but it is not of particularly quick growth. It bore since very 
many years the name of " Yellow Box," under which appellation it was noted already in 
Dr. Leichhardt's collection in 1843. Long ago in my official report to the Victorian Parliament, 
submitted in 1869, I pointed out, that a ton of fresh branches and leaves of E. meUiodora would 



EirCALTPTtrS MELLIODORA. 

fiimisli about 2 lbs. 12 ozs. of pure potash, but nmcli more crude pearlasb, according to an 
experiment instituted in my laboratory. 

The medullary rays are very distinct, occurring in four or less rows of elongated cells 
longitudinally conjoint ; the vascular tubes show a diameter of only about 0-09 mm. or often less 
width, with comparatively thick and copiously dotted walls. Dr. Josef Moeller first observed, 
that the Parenchyma is more extensively developed in the wood of this species than ia that of 
many other Eucalypts, contrasting well by its delicate ceU-walls and irregular contour with the 
less wide and roundish transverse section of the wood-fibres, the diameter of the latter being only 
about 0'012 mm. 

E. meUiodora differs as a species from E. Leucoxylon irrespective of the differences of the 
wood, in the less deeply fiirrowed persistent portion of the bark and ia the yellowish tinge of its 
inner layers, in usually smaller leaves, flowers and firuits, shorter flowerstalks and mostly also 
less elongated stalklets, farther in more numerous flowers of the umbels with a tendency to a 
partially paniculate disposition, often ia a less poiated lid and ia the fimit generally more 
contracted at the orifice. 

The leaves of seedliags are scattered, often oval or oblong and slightly stalked, while ia 
E. Leucoxylon they are as a rule opposite, sessile and broader towards the base ; but these 
discriminations need to be stiU farther followed up. 

Explanation of Analttic Details. — 1, siuninit of calyx, lid detached ; 2, longitudinal section of nnerpanded 
flower ; 3, some sterile and fertile stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-Tiew of anther ; 6, style and stigma ; 
7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse section of fruit ; 9, seeds ; 10, portion of a leaf; all variously magnified. 



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SligiilyptU^ 2QieTDgc)py^. FyM. 



EUCALYPTUS MICEOCOEYS. 

F. v. M., fragmenta phytograpliise Australise ii. 50 (1860) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 212. 

The " Wangee." Finally very tall ; leaves scattered, narrow- or oftener broad-lanceolar and 
somewliat sictleshaped, of thin almost papery consistence, most copiously porous or dotted with 
oil-glands, paler and opaque beneath ; their veins very fine, numerous and very much spreading, 
the longitudinal veins mostly near to the edge ; the terminal umbels paniculate, the axillary 
umbels solitary, each bearing four to nine flowers ; general flowerstalks compressed, but not 
broadly dilated ; flowerbuds passing rather gradually into their stalklet and with them assuming 
a clubshaped form ; lid minute, membranous, depressed-hemispherical, hardly pointed, considerably 
shorter than the tube of the calyx ; stamens inflexed in bud ; outer filaments with imperfect or 
mostly without anthers, often thictened towards the summit ; anthers of the perfect stamens very 
minute, almost heartshaped, opening by slits ; style very short and thin ; stigma not dilated ; fruit 
small, truncate-ovate, 3— 4-celled, with a narrow rim ; placental axis more than twice as long as 
broad ; valves deltoid, reaching to near the summit of the fruit or slightly beyond it ; fertile seeds 
broader and less angular than the sterile seeds, without any membranous appendage. 

Dispersed from the vicinity of Cleveland-Bay (W. Hill) to the Hastings-Eiver (H. Beckler) 
in forest-country or on arid or even sandy hills along the coast-side of the ranges, descending to 
their base. 

A tree, attaining very considerable height, although flowering already in a dwarf state, called 
" Wangee " by the natives of the Eichmond-River, but Forest-Mahogany by the local colonists 
according to Mr. Fawcett, and " Tee " by the tribes on the Brisbane-Eiver according to Mr. Bailey. 
Bark persistent to the utmost branches, lamellar and fazzy &om interwoven and wavy fibres, 
wrinkled, not much crackling ia fire, soft to the touch. Wood very durable, also underground, 
locally much drawn into use for naves, felloes and spokes, adapted also for lasting railway 
cross-ties. The foliage is evidently rich in volatile oil, and the chemical and technical properties 
of this oil should be tested. The general figure of the illustration fairly represents the average 
dimensions of the leaves, flowers and fruits. 

This species pertains to the section of Ehytiphloise of the cortical system, unless the bark 
should prove so fibrous, as to indicate a transfer of this tree to the Pachyphloi^. Its nearest 
aflinity among the Heterostemones is with E. hsemastoma, with the small variety of which, namely 
E. micrantha (CandoUe prodrom. syst. nat. regn. veg. iii. 217 ; m^moire des myrtac^es t. 6) it 
shares the minuteness of the calyx-lid, from which the specific appellation of E. microcorys was 
derived ; the bark however is not smooth even on the branches, the leaves are not of equal color 
on both sides nor shining underneath, besides they are of thinner consistence, while the veins are 
more spreading and less prominent ; indeed, as pointed out by me nearly twenty years ago, the 
leaves of E. microcorys resemble much those of the West Australian E. marginata, a species in 
other respects very different. The fruit of E. microcorys is longer and particularly narrower than 
that of E. haemastoma var. micrantha, and its terminal border is neither broad nor depressed. In 
E. paniculata, which in some respects also approaches E. microcorys, the bark is deeply furrowed 
and not unfrequently (particularly in trees from the desert) much seceding, the leaves are nearly 
of equal color on both sides, not very shining above and not or less copiously perforated by oil- 
pores, the stomata are not confined to the lower page although those of the surface are about sis 
times less in number than those beneath, the flowerbuds are thicker, the lid is much more convex 
and substantial or even gradually pointed, the anthers are dilated upwards and not broader than 



EUCALYPTUS MICEOCORYS. 

long, thus not approaching those of the section Eenantherte, the stigma is distinctly dilated, the 
fruit is broader, also in proportion to its width shorter and rather suddenly not gradually contracted 
into the stalklet. 

Mr, Fawcett reports, that this is the tallest Eucalyptus-tree of the Eichmond-EiTer District, 
rising to 300 feet height ; thus this species, considering also the excellent quality of its timber, 
ought to attract attention for wood-culture in humid tracts of countries as well in Australia as 
abroad. No data are hitherto extant, to rate the celerity of growth of the Wangee. 

ExPLANAnoif OF AjfALYTic DETAILS. — 1, longitudiaal section of an unexpanded flower ; 2, some sterile and 
fertile stamens in situ ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of a fertile stamen ; 5, style and stigma ; 6, longitudinal 
section of a fruit ; 7, transverse section of the same ; 8 and 9, sterile and fertile seeds ; 10, portion of a leaf ; all 
magnified, but in various degrees. 







U 



10 



ILA-jjte:, del e: I'i. 



F.tM. c_r»;.:.-. 



Imsulljipte^ DlDfata . Belir 



Suam Litho GoT.-Prmlmf OfficE Mfli. 



^^N^^^V, 



Jpnifics 




'-Aii.'-ji del. eLl]t}i 



T IT Ml cbxexLt . 



Steajn litlio Gov, TrirLUng* Offici MA'u 



m(^dm)lM^ MA(Bwmm^. FvM. 



EUCALYPTUS SIEBEEIANA. 

E. virgata, Sieber, in Sprengel systema vegetabiliuin, curse poateriores 195 (1827); Candolle, prodromus systematis 
naturalis regni vegetabilis iii. 217 (1828) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 202 ; Spioer, Handbook of the 
Plants of Tasmania, 149 (1878). 

The " Yowut." Finally tall ; leaves^ scattered, sicHeshaped-lanceolar, shining and nearly of 
equal color on both sides, more or less transparently dotted ; their lateral veins more longitudinal 
than transverse and faint, the intramarginal vein somewhat removed from the edge or evanescent ; 
nmhels mostly solitary with 10-4 flowers, rarely still fewer ; flower stalk usually strongly com- 
pressed; lid of the calyx hemispheric, quite blunt or oftener slightly pointed ; tube of the calyx 
short, almost semiglobular, but attenuated into a rather thick short or not much elongated 
stalklet, slightly or doubly longer than the lid ; stamens inflexed while unexpanded ; outer 
stamens sterile, with imperfect or without anthers ; fertile anthers almost Mdneyshaped, pale ; 
stigma not dilated ; fruit semiovate and somewhat pearshaped, 3- or sometimes 4- rarely 6-celled, 
its rim depressed or quite flat, seldom through descent narrowed ; valves deltoid, very short, 
convergent, usually affixed very close to the summit of the fruit ; seeds without any appendage, 
the sterile rather short, but often comparatively broad. 

In the forests towards the Upper Yarra-waters and of Gippsland, ascending to 4,000 feet 
elevation, extending along the Genoa up to the White Eock Mountains (F. M.), scattered along 
the coast-regions of New South Wales (Kirton), passing on to the Blue Mountains, ascending in 
the Silurian formation the Dromedary-Eanges to 1,500 feet (Wilkinson), occurring also on low 
moist sandy tracts between the Glenelg-Eiver and Mount Gambler and Lake Bonney (Dr. Wehl)^ 
reappearing in Tasmania, frequent there on granitic coast-ridges and in valleys of rather sandy 
or stony soil as well as on slate-hills, from Falmouth to George's Bay, occurring also on hills of 
the sandstone-formation north of St. Mary (Bissill, Simson) and on East Mount Field at elevations 
of from 1,000 to 1,500 feet (F. v. M.). 

A lofty tree (height 150 feet or even more), with a straight stem, which attains 5 feet in 
diameter, but in the cripply Stringybark-forests near Lake Bonney dwarfed to 10 or 12 feet, 
though amply flowering. The trunk, to use Mr. Wilkinson's words, covered with deeply furrowed 
bark of dark-brown color, resembling that of Ironbark, but not so hard, nor so solid, nor so 
fibrous as that of the typical Stringybark. Branches smooth and pale. Mr. Simson calls the 
bark of the stem very thick and very rough, scored down with seams, not to be pulled oiF like 
Stringybark. On account of its much farrowed stem-bark the tree is_called jn Tasmania " Iron- 
bark-tree," or on account of the smooth limbs " Gumtop " Eucalyptus, by which name it is also 
known at Wilson's Promontory. At Twofold Bay and Berrima (WooUs) it passes as " Mountain 
Ash " and in some other places still more perplexing names are bestowed on this tree. Hence it 
seems best to adopt the name of " Yowut " for it, by which, according to Mr. Howitt, it is known 
among the Gippsland-tribes. The specific appellation now offered is also a new one, inasmuch 
as the original adjective "virgata" is very misleading, because only under very exceptional 
circumstances is this usually tall timber-tree reduced to a virgate or twiggy state ; neither is 
there anything streaked or striped about the stem to justify the designation virgate in an other 
sense of the word. Moreover De Candolle and Sprengel attribute to Sieber's plant a conical lid 
of the length of the calyx-tube, and such more frequently was also seen by Bentham, but this is 
not in consonance with the ordinary state of E. Sieberiana as now here defined, and may apply to 
a different species. 



EUCALYPTUS SIEBEEIANA. 

The trunk is sawn into good timber, and it is also used for posts and rails ; wood among other 
purposes recommended for shafts ; it resembles much more that of our Blue Gum-tree, than that 
of our Stringybark-trees ; it is hard and when seasoned difficult to cut, but burns well even when 
fresh. Mr. A. W. Howitt finds the wood of superior quality, light, tough and elastic, used for 
swingle-trees of buggies, ploughs &c., but it wiU not endure underground. Mr. Simson further 
observes, that this species is more branching than any other Tasmanian Eucalypt, very often going 
off into several large limbs at 20 feet or even less. 

The nearest affinity of E. Sieberiana rests clearly with E. hEemastoma, but the stem-bark of the 
former is far more ridged than that of the latter ; the veins of the leaves are less spreading and 
also less prominent, while the fruit is usually longer, more exactly semiovate and never verging 
towards an hemispheric form ; the red rim of the fruit, significant of the name of E. h^mastoma, 
can also often be observed ia E. Sieberiana. The width of the flowerstalk is evidently variable, 
indeed occasionally it is hardly compressed. E. Sieberiana differs from E. paucifiora, Sieb. (E. 
coriacea, Cunn.), in the persistency of the stem-bark, in the leaves hardly so shining and not 
quite so thick, the veins less prominent and also less longitudinal, and not several veins starting 
together from the base of the leaves, in the flowerstalks nearly always compressed, in the stamens 
not being all or nearly all fertile, in rather smaller anthers, smaller fruits often conspicuously 
longer than broad on generally more extended stalklets. 

The differences, by which E. Sieberiana is distinguished from E. obliqua, are obvious, 
consisting in the less fibrous and more rugged bark, not coating branches as well as stem as in 
the latter species, in the less fissile wood, the rather finer veins of its leaves, usually more 
dilated flowerstalks, the stamens only partially fertile, the fruits upwards less contracted, with 
a much broader rim, usually less suddenly tapering into the stalklets and valves not so deeply 
inserted. 

The Eev. "W. W. Spicer, M.A., in his meritorious " Handbook of the Plants of Tasmania," 
published last year, refers at page 149 first to this Eucalypt as Tasmanian. 

The traveller Franz Wilhelm Sieber of 'Prague" secured for botanical science this Eucalypt 
with many other plants of New South Wales in 1823, while collecting for several months in that 
colony. 

EsPiAiTATioif OF Analytic Details. — 1, upper portion of calyx, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of a 
flovrerbud ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of an anther ; 5, sterile and fertile stamens in situ ; 6, style with 
stigma ; 7, longitudinal section of fruit ; 8, transverse section of fruit ; 9 and 10, sterile and fertile seeds ; 11, 
embryo uncoiled ; 12, embryo in its natural position ; 13, portion of a leaf ; 14, pellice with stomates, the latter 
very much magnified ; the other figures moderately but variously enlarged. 




Tod ie: C Trseie! i C° Lilh 



F •/ 'I jireyit. 



Sle 



am Larir, 



nffice.-Meib. 



li'^nJ^'hi^ ^litfiflim, Turczanmow. 



EUCALYPTUS TETKAPTERA. 

Turczaninow, in Bulletin de la SociiSti? des naturalistes de Moscou, 1849, part ii. 22 ; F. v. M., fragmenta phyto- 
graphiEB Australiae ii. 34 ; Bentham, flora AustraKensis, iii. 228 ; E. acutangula, Turczaninow, in Bulletin de 
racademie des sciences de Petersbourg 1852, p. 418. 

Shrubby, branchlets Tery robust ; leaves scattered, of exceedingly tbick consistence, oblong- 
or sicklesbaped-lanceolar or less commonly oval, sbining on both sides ; veins very subtle, the 
peripheric vein slightly distant from the margin ; flowers very large, axillary, solitary, on a 
recurved flat and very broad stalk ; tube of the calyx almost obverse-pyramidal, sharply quadran- 
gular, broader than the pyramidal-conical lid and considerably longer, each of the angles of the 
tube produced at the apex into a short tooth ; stamens red, inflected in the bud ; anthers oval, 
terminated by a black-purple gland, opening with longitudinal slits ; stigma hardly broader than 
the style ; fruit bellshaped-quadrangular or sometimes only with two angular ridges ; placental 
axis about twice as long as broad ; valves four, deltoid, well enclosed ; seeds without any broad 
membranous appendage. 

From the Fitzgerald-Eiver dispersed to near Cape Le Grand and Mount Eugged, particularly 
on granitic hills (Drummond and Maxwell). 

A shrub, seldom exceeding 10 feet in height. Branchlets either almost cylindrical or promi- 
nently quadrangular. Leaves usually 3-5 inches long, attaining however exceptionally a length 
of nearly a foot, very rigid, hence the oil-glands buried and concealed ; the lateral veins copious 
and parallel. Flowers almost pendent ; their stalk shorter than the tube of the calyx, attaining 
occasionally a breadth of nearly | inch ; stalklet none. Tube of the calyx about 1^ inch long, 
smooth, not rarely assuming a reddish hue ; lid somewhat wrinkled, scarcely exceeding ^ an inch in 
length, quadrangular. Anthers purplish ; pollen very pale, not yellow. Style exceeded in length 
by the stamens. Fruits attaining up to 3 inches in length, very woody ; their rim concave. 
Sterile seeds variable in width, but usually much more slender than the fertile seeds. 

This singular species, one of the most ornamental of the genus, was introduced by me into 
the Melbourne Botanic Garden about twenty years ago, and from thence abroad. It remained 
during lengthened culture of shrubby size. 

This affords an apt opportunity of alluding to the other species with remarkably large fruits, 
although E. tetraptera is not closely akin to any of them in its characteristics. They are E. miniata 
and E. ptychocarpa from Carpentaria and Arnhem's Land ; E. Watsoniana and E. Abergiana 
from Eastern Queensland ; E. Preissiana, E. pyriformis, E. erythrocorys, E. macrocarpa, E. fici- 
folia, E. calophylla and E. Youngiana from South- West Australia, where evidently the kinds with 
fruits of very conspicuous size are more extensively represented than elsewhere. E. megacarpa 
and E. buprestium offer also rather large-sized fruits, surpassing not rarely those of E. globulus. 

For ornamentation in shrubberies E. tetraptera is perhaps still more eligible than E. pyri- 
formis, E. Preissiana, E. erythrocorys and E. macrocarpa, though these shrubs only in their floral 
beauty can rival with E. miniata, E. phoenicea and B. flcifolia, but not in the tall grandeur of the 
three last-mentioned species. The purple-flowered variety of E. Leucoxylon ranks also quite as 
ornamental and so E. cornuta and especially the closely allied E. Lehmanni. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, unexpanded flower, lid separated ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
advanced flowerbud ; 3, back- and front-view of a stamen ; 4, longitudinal section of a young fruit ; 5, longitudinal 
section of a half-ripe fruit ; 6, flowers of a large variety ; 7 and 8, sterile and fertile seeds ; 9, portion of a leaf; 
1, 2, 4, 5 and 6, natural size ; 3, 7, 8 and 9, variously magnified. 



EUCALYPTUS TETEAPTEEA. 

The bye-following lithograpliic plate presents transverse anther-sections of many Eucalypts, 
pertaining to Bentham's series "Normales" (Parallelantherse), to which also E. tetraptera 
belongs. These lithograms give readily an idea of the relative width, the distances of the 
dehiscence-Mnes and the curvature of the valves, peculiar to the anthers of the respective species ; 
and thus also at a glance the size and form of the connective may be contrasted. In a similar 
manner hereafter sections of the Eenantherse, Heterostemones, PorantherEe and Micrantherse will 
be provided, to be followed by full drawings of the anthers of many different species of all the 
series, side by side. 



Teansverse Sections of Anthers of various Euoaltpts. 
(Series : Nonnales ; diametric augmentation 28 times.) 



1. Eucalyptus Abergiana, E. t. M. 

2. aspera, E. v. M. 

3. botryoides, Sm. 

4. calophylla, R. Br. 

5. concolor, Schauer. 

6. conoidea, Benth. 

7. cornuta, Lab. 

8. corymbosa, Sm. 

9. cosmophylla, E. v. M. 

10. dealbata, Cunu. 

11. decurva, E. v. M. 

12. diversicolor, E. v. M. 

13. Doratoxylon, F. t. M. 

14. Drummondi, Benth. 

15. dumosa, Cunu. 

16. erythrocorys, E. v. M. 

17. eudesmioides, F. v. M. 

18. falcata, Turcz. 

19. ficifolia, E. t. M. 

20. fcecunda, Schauer. 

21. globulus, Lab. 

22. gomphocephala, Cand. 

23. goniantha, Turcz. 

24. goniocalyx, E. v. M. 

25. grossa, E. t. M. 

26. Guunii, J. Hook. 

27. incrassata. Lab. 

28. latifolia, E. t. M. 

29. Lehmanni, Preiss. 



30. 


Eucalyptus longlfolia, Link 


31. 


loxophleba, Benth. 


32. 


macrandra, E. v. M. 


33. 


macTocarpa, Hook. 


34. 


maculata, Hook. 


35. 


miniata, Cunn. 


36. 


occidentalis, Endl. 


37. 


pachyloma, Benth. 


38. 


patens, Benth. 


39. 


Preissiana, Schauer. 


40. 


ptychooarpa, F. v. M. 


41. 


pulverulenta, Sims. 


42. 


pyriformis, Turcz. 


43. 


redunca, Schauer. 


44. 


resinifera, Sm. 


45. 


robusta, Sm. 


46. 


rostrata, Schlecht. 


47. 


rudis, Endl. 


48. 


saligna, Sm. 


49. 


setosa, Schauer. 


50. 


Stuartiana, E. v. M. 


51. 


tereticornis, Sm. 


52. 


terminalis, F. v. M. 


53. 


tetragona, E. t. M. 


54. 


tetraptera, Turcz. 


65. 


Yernicosa, J. Hook. 


56. 


Timinalis, Lab. 


57. 


Watsoniaua, E. v. M. 


58. 


Youngiana, E. v. M. 





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EUCALYPTOGRAPHIA. 



A DESCEIPTIVE ATLAS 



EUCALYPTS OF AUSTEALIi 



ADJOINING ISLANDS; 



BAEOI FEM YON lUELLEE, KC.I.O., I. & PH.D., E.E.S., 

GOVEENMENT BOTANIST FOE. THE COLONY OP VICTOEIA. 



' NON SUCCIDES AE.BOE.es, NEC SECURIEUS DEEES VASTAKE EAEUM REQIOSBM."— Liter DcuteronomU XX. 19. 



THIRD DECADE. 



MELBOUBNE : 

JOHN FEKBBS, GOVERNMENT PEINTBE. 
PUBLISHED ALSO BY GEOIIGE EOBBETSON, LITTLE COLLINS STREET. 

LONDON : 

TROBNBE AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILL; AND GEORGE ROBERTSON, 17 WARWICK SQUARE. 

M DCCC LXXIS. 



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EUCALYPTUS BAILEYANA. 

p. V. M., fragmenta phytographias AustralisB xi. 37 (1878). 

Finally tall ; brancUets angular towards the summit ; leaves scattered, of thin consistence, 
sickleshaped-lanceolar, somewhat shining, of equal green on both sides, copiously dotted ; their 
veins moderately spreading, very thin, the circumferential vein somewhat removed from the edge ; 
umbels lateral and axillary, solitary or some short-paniculate and terminal, with 5-10 or rarely 
3-4 flowers ; stalks slightly angular ; stalklets short and thick ; tube of the calyx almost semi- 
ovate, not angular, not much longer than the nearly hemispheric lid, both not shining ; stamens 
all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers broadly cordate, opening by divergent slits ; stigma 
not dilated ; fruits rather large, globular-urnshaped, 2>-celled ; margin of the orifice thinly com- 
pressed ; valves deltoid, slightly exserted or hardly extending beyond the orifice ; seeds without 
any appendage. 

On poor somewhat sandy ridges near Moreton-Bay with E. Planchoniana ; Bailey. 

A tree attaining fully 150 feet in height, the stem rising up to 50 feet, with a diameter 
seldom exceeding 4 feet. Bark fibrous, persistent as well on the branches as on the stem, the 
inner portion tough and yellowish. "Wood also of a yellow tinge, according to the discoverer, 
Mr. F. M. Bailey, through whose active zeal and gift for observing discrimination we are made 
acquainted during later years with so many additional data concerning the rich vegetation of 
Queensland. Mass of foliage dense and shady. 

From the above note it will be observed, that this is one of the Stringybark-trees, though 
very distinct from any others of that group, namely E. acmenoides, E. capitellata, E. marginata, 
E. macrorrhyncha, B. obliqua, E. piperita, E. Stuartiana, E. tetrodonta, to which may be added 
the typical E. amygdalina with persistent bark, irrespective of some smaller species, which cannot 
properly be counted among timber-trees. The wood is tough and durable and sought for various 
implements, such as tool-handles, also for posts and rails. 

E. Baileyana differs from E. Bowmanii in the following respects : the leaves are more 
shining, of a darker green, of a thinner consistence, more distinctly and less divergently veined, 
while the copious oil-dots are very visible ; the flowers are smaller and distinctly provided with 
stalklets, whereas the stalks of the umbels are not broadly compressed ; the lid is much shorter 
and not semiovate-conical ; the anthers are broader, indicating an approach to the Eenantherae, 
thus the slits of their cells are evidently divergent and not almost parallel, while the terminal 
gland of the anthers is more obvious ; further the style is thinner and the stigma smaller. The 
comparison of these two species cannot be extended to its carpologic characteristics, the fruit of 
E. Bowmanii still remaining unknown, the latter species not yet having been refound anywhere 
in Queensland since the death of the lamented finder. The tree from Port Denison, alluded to 
under E. Bowmanii by Bentham (flora Australiensis iii. 220) belongs to E. drepanophylla. 
The last-mentioned species (F. M., in Bentham's flora Australiensis iii. 221) when compared with 
E. Baileyana has narrower leaves of a paler hue, with more numerous and also more spreading 
veins, without easily discerned pellucid oil-dots ; the stalklets are thinner ; the anthers are 
roundish, with nearly parallel cells like those of E. Bowmanii, while the fruit is totally different, 
being small, semiovate, with half-emerging valves. 

The only other species, with which E. Baileyana could perhaps be confused, is E. trachyphloia 
(F. M., in the Journal of the Linnean Society iii. 221 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 221 ; F. M., 
fragmenta phytographi^ Australise xi. 43) ; its leaves are paler beneath and their veins very 



ETJCALTPTUS BAtLETANA. 

divergent and copious ; the stalklets are ttia ; the lid is much smaller and exceeded in width and 
stiU more so in length by the tube of the calyx, separating moreover by an irregular rupture and 
not a clearly defined circumcision ; the anthers are ovate, whereas the fruit is much smaller, nearly 
twice as long as broad with deeply enclosed valves. Finally it may be observed, that E. Baileyana 
exhibits great resemblance to E. eugenioides both in leaves and flowers, although the fruits are so 
very decidedly different and resemble those of E. dichromophloia. 
The Kino of this species contains about 35 per cent. gum. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of a stamen ; 5, style and stigma ; 6 and 7, longitudinal and 
transverse section of a fruit ; 8, seeds ; 9, portion of a leaf ; all magnified, but in various degrees. 



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EUCALYPTUS CAPITELLATA. 

Smith, in White's Journal of a Voyage to New South "Wales, 216 (1790) ; Smith, a Specimen of the Botany of New 
Holland 42 (1793) ; Transactions of the Linnean Society iii. 285 (1797) ; Wendland, collectio plantarum, t. 36 ; 
De Candolle, prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis iii. 218 ; Eippist, in F. M. fragmenta phytographiee 
Australiee ii. 173 ; E. piperita, Eeiohenbach, Magazin der sesthetischen Botanik, t. 42, according to Bentham. 

Head-flowered Stringybark-tree. Finally tall ; leaves scattered, elongate- or sickleshaped- 
lanceolar, of comparatively thick consistence, shining on both sides and often more intensely so 
on the upper page, dark-green, usually very inequilateral towards the base ; oil-dots copious, 
mostly concealed ; the lateral veins moderately spreading, the intramarginal vein distinctly 
removed from the edge ; umbels capitate, lateral or axillary, solitary or some paniculate, on 
angular or almost cylindrical stalks, bearing from 4 to 16 flowers not of large size ; stalklets none 
or exceedingly short ; tube of the calyx semiovate-obconical, angular, from hardly longer to about 
twice as long as the hemispheric or convex-conical lid, not very much attenuated at the base ; 
stamens all fertile, inflexed while unexpanded ; anthers broadly cordate or somewhat kidney- 
shaped ; stigma not broader than the apex of the style ; fruit-calyx almost hemispherical, with an 
amply protruding convex vertex ; valves wholly exserted, 4 or sometimes 3 or 5, deltoid, hardly as 
long as or shorter than the width of the rim, the latter rarely flat ; the sterile seeds mostly not 
veiy narrow, all without any appendage. 

From the southern parts of New South Wales to Gippsland, as well in the shore-regions as 
in mountain-elevations, occurring westward at least as far as Lake Bonney. 

From a flowering branchlet, destitute of fruit, sent by Dallachy, it would appear that E. capi- 
tellata extends northward to Rockingham's Bay. Bark stringy, outside greyish, persistent, reaching 
far up the branches, the branchlets alone smooth. The tree attains a maximum-height of about 
200 feet, but as a rule is less tall. Near the south-eastern borders of South Australia it occiirs, 
as first observed by Dr. Wehl, often in a cripply state, forming dwarf forests on moist sandy 
ridges or occurring even in the wet Melaleuca-flats or so-called Teatree-swamps. It furnishes a 
good timber for splitting and all such other purposes, for which Stringybark-wood is drawn into 
use. 

E. capitellata may occur still further westward, but the distinction of the closely allied 
E. santalifolia from the vicinity of St. Vincent's Gulf, Spencer's Gulf and even the eastern 
country of the Great Bight, is as yet not clearly established. 

The young seedlings are rough from glands beset with minute tufts of hair ; the leaves then 
are at first opposite, but soon scattered, seated on very short stalks ; they are of a narrow oblong- 
lanceolar form and darker above, thus indicating their horizontal expansion in the early youth of 
the plant. The number of stomata on the pages of the leaves in upgrown trees is not about equal, 
as in E. macrorrhyncha, there being often considerably more on the underside than on the 
surface. From the last-mentioned species, to which it is closely allied, it differs further in mostly 
smaller flowers, in the blunt or less pointed and generally shorter lid of the calyx, and in the tube 
of the calyx being visibly angular and not narrowly attenuated into a stalk! et. The extending 
"convex vertex of the fruit separates E. capitellata and E. macrorrhyncha from all other tall 
Stringybark-trees. E. eugenioides approaches also closely to E. capitellata, differing chiefly in 
somewhat narrower leaves of less rigidity, equally shining on both sides, with the oil-dots often 
more perspicuous, in the calyces being often rather distinctly attenuated into a short stalklet, in 
the lid usually more pointed and in proportion to the calyx tube also more elongated, in the fruits 



EXTCAXTPTUS CAPITELLATA. 

generally smaller, more truncated and with narrower rim ; when the latter occnrs broader, then 
the similarity of the fruit-calyx to that of E. hsemastoma becomes more obvious. On the whole 
E. eugenioides seems as much allied to E. capitellata as to B. piperita ; and although the latter 
species is more similar in leaves and flowers, it appears to be always quite diflerent in fruit, 
reminding in the narrowness of the rim as well as in the enclosed fruit-valves rather of E. obliqua. 
The variety brachycorys, doubtfully referred by Bentham to E. macrorrhyncha, from New England 
(near Timbarra) at elevations of about 2,000 feet, may possibly be a form of E. capitellata, with 
which it shares the blunt lid, though the calyces are attenuated into distinct and slender 
stalklets ; but the bark of this tree, though stringy, is said to be separating in patches, and 
curiously enough the tree is locally called Spotted Grum-tree. The fruits are rather more 
depressed. Expanded flowers remained unknown. 

This species might with advantage be reared in wet sand-lands. 

Although the recognition of the Eucalypts, as among the most important of trees for 
Hardwood-culture, belongs only to the researches of the second half of the present secular period, 
still nearly all the most celebrated species of this genus, though the most extensive of that of 
timber-trees in the whole British Empire, became descriptively known in phytographic science 
already at the end of the last and at the beginning of the present century ! So it was with the 
species here now anew defined and with E. obliqua, on which the genus was established, among 
leading Stringybark-trees ;^so with E. tereticornis, which includes as a variety our famous Red 
Gum-tree, — so with E. marginata, yielding the almost imperishable Yarrah-timber, — so with 
E. globulus, our Blue Gum-tree of unparalleled celerity of growth among Hardwood-trees, — so 
with E. amygdalina, which (with E. diversicolor) ranks as probably the loftiest of all trees of the 
globe ! The long neglect of trees of such marvellous value, must now-ar-days appear to us almost 
unaccountable and enigmatical. 

Explanation of Aitalttic Details. — 1, summit of calyx, lid detached ; 2, longitudinal section of a flowerbud ; 
3 and 4, front- and back-view of anther ; 5, style ; 6, longitudinal section of fruit ; 7, transverse section of fruit ; 
8 and 9, sterile and fertile seeds; 10, embryo; 11, the same uncoiled; 12, portion of a leaf; aU but variously 
magnified. 




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EUCALYPTUS GRACILIS. 

F. V. M., in the Transaotiona of the Victorian Institute i. 35 (1854) ; Miquel in Nederlandisk Kruitkundig Archiev 
iy. 124 ; P. M., fragmenta phy tographiae Australias ii. 55 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 211 ; E. calycogona 
et E. celastroides, Turczaninow in Melanges biologiques tires du Bulletin physico-matMmatique de I'acadlmie 
imperiale des sciences de St. Petersbourg, tome i. 417. 

Shrubby or somewhat arborescent ; leaves scattered, on rather short stalks, narrow- or almost 
linear-lanceolar, not very long nor very inequilateral, slightly curved, of equal color and shining 
on both sides, their veins extremely subtle or hardly visible, not very spreading, the circumferential 
vein somewhat removed from the margin of the leaf ; oil-dots often dark and their transparency 
concealed ; umbels axillary and solitary or some few terminal and almost paniculated, on thin and 
rather short stalks, with usually 4—8 comparatively small flowers ; tube of the calyx obconical, lined 
with 3—5 longitudinal angles, attenuated into a usually very short stalklet, considerably longer 
than the hemispherical or pyramidal-conical lid ; outer stamens sterile, all the filaments crisped 
and strongly inflexed before expansion ; anthers very minute, roundish or verging into a kidneyshaped 
form, opening with lateral pores ; stigma hardly dilated ; fruit rather small, semiellipsoid or 
somewhat obconical or slightly urnshaped, faintly angular, 3- or oftener 4-celled ; rim thin ; 
valves deltoid, enclosed; seeds without appendage, the sterile much smaller than the fertile seeds. 

From the Mallee-country on the Eivers Murray and Darling and their lower tributaries to 
South-West Australia, particularly in sandy but also in clayey and calcareous soil. Several stems 
usually from one root, flowering occasionally at a height of about 6 feet, but in the course of years 
rising finally to 25 feet. Bark from the secession of the outside layers smooth and almost 
silvery-grey or whitish. Leaves, like those of most Eucalypts, terminated gradually into a narrow 
pointed apex. Calyces shining. Sterile filaments much exceeding the length of most of the 
fertile stamens. Style short. Fruits occasionally semiovate ; their valvular summit always flat. 
Sterile seeds extremely minute. 

The exact northern limits of this species have as yet nowhere been ascertained. It forms 
with E. incrassata, E. dumosa, E. uncinata, E. oleosa and E. paniculata the extensive " Mallee- 
scrubs " of the extratropical and perhaps Central Australian desert-country, reaching in South- 
and also West-Australia close to the coast, where however some additional congeners enter into 
the constitution of the Mallee-vegetation, while in South-East Australia E. Behriana, E. largi- 
florens and E. corynocalyx may become interspersed. 

Either as a variety or perhaps even as a species can be distinguished from E. gracilis an 
Eucalyptus gathered by the lamented late Monsieur A. Thozet in his last botanical journey to 
Expedition-Eange, during which' he became a victim of the paludal fever, to which this excellent 
man so sadly succumbed. This Eucalyptus, which should bear his name, can be distinguished by 
its longer leaves, narrow-ellipsoid flowerbuds, smaller, not or less conspicuously angular calyces 
and also smaller and particularly narrower fruit, irrespective of the size of the tree, which rises to 
a height of 60 feet, according to Mr. E. Bowman and Mr. P. O'Shanesy, who noticed it near the 
Mackenzie- and Comet-Eiver. 

E. ochrophloia (F. v. M., fragmenta phytographise Australiae ix. 36) is removed from E. gracilis 
on account of its larger leaves with rather prominent veins and less conspicuous oil-dots, its larger 
flowers, more pointed lid, fruits of larger size and more tapering into an elongated stalklet, also 
its outside yellowish bark, which gave rise to its odd vernacular appellation " Yellow-Jacket," by 
which it is known from the Darling- and Lachlan-Eivers to the Paroo and Warrego. 



ETTCALYPTUS GEACttlS. 

E. gracilis differs from E. largiflorens in shining leaves not of a greyish hue, more numerous 
and still finer veins and more perceptible oil-dots, in the numerous sterile stamens, anthers 
opening laterally, less towards the summit, flowers generally larger, less copiously paniculated, 
more angular calyx, the lid not rarely pointed, often somewhat larger fruit with not distinctly 
contracted summit, and also in not extensively persistent bark; but seemingly a variety of 
E. largiflorens from Northern Queensland exhibits also shining leaves of vivid green. E. paniculata, 
particularly in its variety fasciculosa, coincides also in many of its characteristics with E. gracilis, 
with which it is intermingled in the Mallee-scrub ; but the leaves are larger, less shining, slightly 
paler beneath than above, not distinctly dotted, with several times less stomata above than 
beneath and have the margin slightly recurved as is customary in the species with heterogenous 
and hypogenous stomata ; the circumferential vein is rather nearer to the margin of the leaf, 
while the lateral veins are more spreading and prominent, the flowers are on the whole larger and 
mostly paniculated, the anthers truncated and open with terminal pores. 

E. uncinata, another of the Mallee-species, is best separated from E. gracilis by its often 
narrower leaves with more spreading veins, usually still more abbreviated stalklets, not at all 
angular calyces, less inequality in the length of their tube and lid, not flexuous filaments but all 
fertile, anthers opening by terminal pores, proportionately longer style, upwards very narrow 
acutely pointed and partially emersed capsular valves and thicker rim of the fruit, which as a 
rule is smaller and more roundish. 

E. oleosa recedes from E. gracilis in having the veins of the leaves rather more transverse, 
the marginal vein closer to the edge, the calyces never angular, the lid very seldom shorter than 
the tube of the calyx, the latter often more suddenly contracted into the stalklet, the stamens all 
fertile, the anthers opening rather by slits than pores though amply so, the style longer, the fmit 
more contracted at the orifice with pointed and partly protruding valves, the latter forming a 
conical summit before expansion and the rim thicker ; moreover the bark of E. oleosa remains 
persistent on aged stems and becomes finally rough. 

E. decurva (fragm. phytogr. Austral, iii. 130) is recognized already by its elongated anthers 
which are very evidently longer than broad opening with parallel narrow slits, quite agreeing with 
those of genuine species of the series Parallelantherse ; but Bentham's description of E. decurva 
in the flora Australiensis iii. 249 refers extensively to such varieties of E. oleosa, as verge to 
E. falcata and E. goniantha, all of which with E. concolor should in the anthereal system be placed 
close to E. decipiens among the Micrantherffi. 

E. dumosa in comparison to E. gracilis can mainly be recognized by the absence or extreme 
shortness of its stalklets, the calyces not or less angular, the stamens all fertUe, larger anthers 
opening by ample slits and mostly larger fruits. Nearly the same characteristics remove 
E. incrassata, but that species is besides larger in aU its parts, its leaves are broader, the flower- 
stalks very much flattened, the calyces often fnrrowed-streaked ; both form the transit from the 
Parallelantherffi to the Micrantherae. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, unexpanded flower, lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal sections of unexpanded 
flowers ; 3, sterile and fertUe stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, back- and front-view of anthers with filaments ; 6, style and 
stigma ; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse sections of fruits ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile seeds ; 11, portion of a 
leaf ; all magnified, but to various extent. 



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EUCALYPTUS MACULATA. - 

Hooker, ioones plantarum t. 619 (1844); F. v. M., fragmenta pliytographise Australise ii. 47; Bentbam, flora 
Australiensis iii. 258 ; WooUs, contributions to the Flora of Australia 231 ; E. oitriodora, Hooker, in Mitchell's 
Journal of an Expedition into the Interior of Tropical Australia 235 (1848) ; F. v. M., fragmenta pliytographiaj 
A-ustralise ii. 47 & 174 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 257 ; E. melissiodora, Lindley, in Mitchell's Journal 
of an Expedition into the Interior of Tropical Australia 235 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii, 254 ; E. variegata, 
F. V. M., in the Journal of the Linneaa Society iii. 88 ; E. peltata, Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 254. 

Finally tall ; branchlets slightly angular ; leaves scattered, elongated- or narrow-lanceolar, 
often somewhat sicHeshaped, seldom more oval, of equal green on either side ; their lateral veins 
crowded, pinnate-spreading, p)rominent, the circumferential vein very close or almost contiguous to 
the edge ; oil-dots more or less concealed ; flowers in usually short panicles, 3 or 2 together or some 
solitary, rarely 4 or more ; stalklets shorter than the calyces, somewhat angular ; tube of the 
calyx almost semiovate or slightly bellshaped ; lid double, the outer hemispherical and pointed, 
the inner depressed-semiglobular, transparent, shining, almost or quite blunt, both slightly or 
somewhat shorter than the tube ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers oval- 
clubshaped, bursting by parallel slits ; stigma not broader than the style ; fruits globular- or oval- 
urnshaped ; rim narrow, valves 3, rarely 2 or 4, deeply enclosed, very short and quite retracted ; 
fertile much larger than the sterile seeds, all without appendage. 

From the vicinity of Port Jackson (Newcastle, Leichhardt) known northward to Balmy Creek 
(Sir Thomas Mitchell), the Burnett-Eiver (F. v. M.), Springsure and Gainsford (Dr. Wuth) ; at 
Dunjog in the Devonian formation (Wilkinson), generally on rising ground or tops and sides of 
hills. 

A handsome tree. Stem straight, with a length up to 90 feet till branched, and a diameter of 
3 feet. Bark smooth, somewhat shining, whitish or sometimes reddish-grey, mottled by bluis h- 
white or brown-reddish spots indicating the places or rudiments of patches of older bark ; 
hence the vernacular name. Leaves more or less shining, sometimes but slightly so. Two umbels 
occasionally arising from one point, appearing like one with 6 or 7 flowers, unless indeed they 
should be regarded as such. Stalklets exceptionally equalling the calyx in length. Unopened 
calyx often somewhat pearshaped. Outer operculum corresponding to the ordinary lid of 
congeners ; inner lid forming a seceding integument to the cavity of the outer operculum. 
Connective of the anthers broader than the very narrow valvular portion. Fruits varying from 
^ to f of an inch in length, slightly rough or even when dry faintly wrinkled, at all events not very 
smooth. Fertile seeds black and somewhat shining, about \ of an inch long, almost dimidiate- 
ovate, the often acute edge turned inward. The^_seedlings^ are rough from short red-brownish 
hair ; their leaves scattered, stalked, oval- or oblong-lanceolar, inserted to the stalk above their 
roundish undivided base, reminding thus of the seedlings of the West-Australian Eucalyptus 
calophylla. 

The wood, as stated by the Eev. Dr. WooUs, is used in ship-building, for wheelwrights' and 
coopers' work, but seems to vary in its qualities according to differences of localities, on which the 
trees arose. 

E. citriodora can only be considered a variety of E. maculata, differing merely in the 
exquisite lemon-scent of its leaves, and holding as a variety precisely the same position to 
E. maculata, as Boronia citriodora to B. pinnata or Thymus citriodorus to T. Serpyllum. Mr. 
Bailey, who had opportunities to compare the two trees promiscuously growing, confirms their 
specific identity ; he moreover discovered at Trinity-Bay a variety of E. crebra or of an allied 



EUCALYPTUS MACULATA. 

species also lemon-scented, the perfiime and flavor of the leaves being so excellent as to serve for 
table-condiment. The citron-fragrance however is hereditary, and seems only developed within 
the subtropical regions of the range of the species. The leaves of E. citriodora are frequently 
finer veined. Mr. F. Kilner found the tree flowering in the month of July, when hardly any other 
kind of Eucalyptus was in bloom at Eockhampton. He mentions, that there the hardwood of 
E. citriodora is used for studs, which after twenty years show no decay ; it is furthermore liked 
for fences, as it splits well, also for shafts of drays, as it is more pliable than most other 
Eucalyptus-timber, bending readily, and it is also used as material for wheels. Dr. Wuth sent 
leaves from an adventitious shoot 3 inches broad, and observes, that shoots will spring from 
stumps or after the destruction of the stem by fire from the root, such shoots representing 
E. melissiodora. I found the tree of moderate celerity of growth ; and clearly it is highly eligible 
in its lemon-scented variety for arboreta and the distillation of perfumery. Its essential oil was 
provided already for the Exhibition of 1867. 

In its systematic affinity E. maculata approaches nearest to E. eximia (Schauer, in Walpers 
repertorium botanices systematicse ii. 925) and E. Watsoniana (F. v. M., fragm. phytogr. Austral, 
xi. 98) ; the former differs in the complete persistence of its bark, rendering it thick, rough and 
wrinkled, in the more subtle venation of its leaves, in fiowers sessile on the ultimate usually also 
longer stalks, not unfrequently more than 3 (4-6) together and in considerably longer more 
ellipsoid fruits. E. Watsoniana is distinguished also by persistent bark, finer veins of the leaves, 
farther by larger flowers, lid simple and in width exceeding the tube of the calyx, still more 
numerous and also longer stamens, fruits of much larger size with not suddenly descending and 
sharp but broad slightly decurrent rim and a very distinct outer annular channelled margin. 

The Kino of E. maculata according to Dr. Julius Wiesner (Zeitschrift des oesterreichischen 
Apotheker-Vereines 1871, p. 500) dissolves easily in hot water, furnishing a slightly acid solution 
of winy odor and yellowish color and getting turbid when cold. 

General Sir E. W. Ward, R.E., K.C.M.G., found the specific gravity of the wood to be at an 
average in four experiments 0-942, and he records also the strength of this timber to bear a 
transverse strain and its degree of elasticity, in which respect it ranks high in value, thought not 
equalling the best Ironbark-trees. Sir E. W. Ward's elaborate tables will be reproduced in these 
pages at a subsequent occasion. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, calyx with unexpanded stamens, the inner and outer lids lifted; 
2, longitudinal section of unexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, back- and front- view of a stamen ; 
6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile seeds ; 
11, portion of a leaf; all magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS OBLIQUA. 

L'H6ritier, sertum Anglicum 18, t. 20 (1788) ; Alton, liortus Kewensis ii. 157 (1789) ; Smitli, Botany of New Holland 
43 ; Transactions of the Linnean Society iii. 287 ; Lamarck, tableau encyclopedique et methodique des trois 
rfegnes de la nature, Botanique t. 422 ; Salisbury, Paradisus Londinensis, t. 15 ; W. T. Alton, liortus Eewensis, 
second edition iii. 193 ; ,F. M.,, fragmenta phytograpbise Australiae ii. 45 et 172 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis 
iii. 204; E. gigantea, J. Hooker, in London Journal of Botany vi. 479; flora Tasmanica i. 136, t. xxviii. ; 
E. fabrorum, "ScEleehtendal, I/innsea xx. 656 ; E. nervosa et partim E. faloifolia, Miquel, in Nederlandisk 
Eruidkundig Archief iv. 136 et 139. 

Finally very tall ; leaves scattered, sickleshaped- or sometimes oval-lanceolar, equally green 
and shining on both sides ; their lateral veins not very spreading, rather prominent, the circum- 
ferential vein somewhat removed from the edge ; oil-dots concealed ; umbels with 4 to several or 
less frequently 3 or many flowers, lateral and axillary ; stalk rather slender, slightly compressed ; 
calyces somewhat glandular-rough, not angular ; lid hemispherical, depressed or scarcely pointed ; 
tube conspicuously longer than the lid, obconical, gradually attenuated into an usually short 
stalklet ; stamens comparatively short, all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers hidney shaped ; 
fruit truncate-ovate, somewhat contracted at the orifice, rim outwards narrow ; valves enclosed, oftener 
4 than 3, rarely 5, short ; sterile seeds mostly not much narrower than the fertile seeds, all 
without appendage. 

On mountain-ranges as well of the silurian as granitic formation, also occasionally on sandy 
heathy ridges, from St. Vincent's Gulf to Gippsland, scarcely passing into the territory of New 
South Wales, constituting vast forests, frequent also in Tasmania, ascending to high but not to 
alpine elevations. 

The " Stringybark-tree " of South Australia and Tasmania, but in Victoria more generally 
called the " Messmate-tree," on account of its resemblance to E. macrorrhyncha, which in our 
colony passes mostly as Stringybark-tree. 

A straight-stemmed tree of rapid growth, attaining a maximum-height of about 300 feet and 
almost always lofty, though occasionally flowering already in an almost shrubby state. Bark 
persistent on stem and branches, very fibrous, easily igniting, not tough but rather soft and fragile, 
outside somewhat greyish, not so deeply furrowed as that of E. macrorrhyncha. Stem pro- 
portionately tall. Leaves of young saplings broad, verging somewhat into a cordate form. 
Ordinary leaves rather stiff, very unequal-sided towards the base, hence the specific name, which 
however applies to the majority of congeners ; veins diverging at a very acute angle. Umbels 
containing sometimes as many as 20 flowers. Flowerbuds together with their stalklets clubshaped. 
Stigma not dilated beyond the width of the style. 

E. obliqua was the species, first of all rendered known, and on which I'H^ritier founded the 
genus, so named in allusion to the flowers, well covered by a cap or lid, although Dr. Wm. 
Anderson, the surgeon of Capt. Cook's second and third expeditions, had bestowed not inaptly the 
name of Aromadendrum on the genus already, when visiting with Capt. Furneaux the bay, on 
which Hobarton has since arisen. In the Catalogue of the Banksian Library ii. 32 and iii. 184 
(according to Eobert Brown) the appellation given by Surgeon Anderson was early recorded. As 
surmised by me (in the fragmenta ii. 45) it is this very species, which was collected during 
Furneaux's voyage at Adventure-Bay, and this was proved subsequently by Mr. Eich. Kippist, 
who at my request compared the original specimen in the Banksian collection. I had no access in 
1860 to the second edition of the Hortus Kewensis, where al ready in 1811 Tasmania was m entioned 
as the native land of E. obliqua, the erroneous statement in the Transactions of the Linnean 



EUCALTPTtrS OBLIQUA. 

Society, that it was from the " warmer parts of New Holland " having misled long afterwards, and 
hindered the recognition of this species till recent times. 

E. cneorifolia, as drawn by Heyland for De Candolle's memoire sur la famille des Myrtacees 
pi. 9, differs from E. obliqua only in shrubby habit, very narrow leaves with thinner veins and 
fniit-valves sometimes less enclosed ; it is evidently dwarfed by cold in the high elevations of its 
growth at about 4,000 feet in the Blue Mountains. But in De CandoUe's prodromus iii. 220 and 
in Bentham's flora Australiensis iii. 217 this high-land species is confased with one of low arid 
country in Kangaroo-Island, which belongs to E. oleosa. What precise relation E. stricta (Sieber, 
in Sprengel curae posteriores 195) and E. obtusiflora bear to E. cneorifolia, which as here defined 
belongs certainly to the Eenantherae, remains to be ascertained. 

E. obliqua can be distinguished readily enough from E. piperita by its thicker and usually 
larger leaves with more prominent and less divergent veins, the under-page of the leaves neither 
evidently paler nor less shining than the upper side (hence the stomata are in almost equal 
number on either side of the leaves), in less crowded umbels, in calyces less smooth, with shorter 
and blunter lid, the greater elongation of the calyx-tube into the stalklet and also the rather 
larger fruit with comparatively less constricted orifice. The two are the only species among 
closely allied kinds, which have the summit of the fruit very considerably contracted, hence no 
difficulty can arise for recognizing E. obliqua. T he veins of th e leaves are occasionally so much 
longitudinal as to bring E. obliqua thus far into close approach to E. pauciflora, which species is 
allied also in many other respects, but has a smooth whitish bark, the outer stamens not all 
fertile, the fruit hardly contracted at the summit, the rim not so narrow and the valves nearer to 
the orifice ; the wood of the two is also different. The calyx however is likewise somewhat rough 
in E. pauciflora. — E. Sieberiana in comparison to E. obliqua can be easily recognized by its more 
rugged and solid bark, which partially secedes, by its less fissile wood, the less pr.ominent veins of 
its leaves, generally broader and more compressed flowerstalks, outer stamens sterile, fruit less 
contracted at the orifice with flatter rim and with valves near the summit. 

E. obliqua is one of the most important of all our trees i n regard of its vast abundance (being 
t he most gregarious of any of our forest-trees) and on account of the ease with which the wood is 
worked. It supplies a large portion of the ordinary sawn hardwood-timber for rough buQding 
purposes ; being very fissile it is also extensively split into fence-rails, palings and shingles ; it is 
however subject to early decay when used underground. It is light colored. The specific gravity 
of the wood varies from 0-809 to 0-990, or from 50 to 60-^ lbs. per cubic foot. Mr. F. Campbell 
found the tensile strength per square inch equal to a pressure of 8,200 to 8,500 lbs. 

The bark of E. obliqua is extensively used for roofing primitive rural buildings ; it is also 
suitable, as first shown by the writer, for the manufacture of paper, not only for packing but also 
for printing and even writing, further for mill- and paste-boards. The pulp bleaches rapidly. 
The bark contains only from 2-50 to 4-19 per cent, of Kino-tannin, in which respect it contrasts 
unfavorably with that of E. macrorrhyncha, which provides from 11-12 to 13-41 Kino-tannic acid. 
The best Kino of E. obliqua dissolves completely in boiling water, yielding a neutral deep-reddish 
solution, which remains clear and is free of Gum, as long ago shown by Dr. "Wiesner. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, upper portion of unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal 
section of an unexpanded flower ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of an anther with filament ; 5, style and stigma ; 
6 and 7, transverse and longitudinal section of a fruit ; 8 and 9, sterile and fertile seeds ; 10, embryo ; 11, the same 
partly uncoUed ; 12, portion of a leaf; aU figures more or less magnified. 



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EUCALYPTUS PAUCIFLOEA. 

V 

Sieber, in Sprengel curse posteriores 195 (1827) ; E. coriacea, Cunningliam, in Walpers repertorium botanioes 
systematiose ii. 925 (1843) ; J. Hooter, flora Tasmanica i. 136 ; P. M., fragmenta pliytographise Australia; ii. 
52 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 201; E-lJiper ita, yarietaa pauciflor a, De Candolle, prodromus systematis 
naturalis regni vegetabilia iii. 119 ; E. phlebophylla, F. v. M. et Miquel, in Nederlandisk Eruitkundig Archiev 
lY. 140 ; B. Bubmultiplinervis, Miquel, as quoted, 138. 

Finally tall ; leaves scattered, elongated-lanceolar, sometimes verging into a lanceolar-oval 
form, but slightly curved or somewhat sicMeshaped, of equal color and shining on both sides, of 
thick consistence ; veins almost longitudinal, several arising nearly together from the acute base of 
the leaf, the intramarginal vein slightly removed from the edge and all main-veins often prominent ; 
umbels axillary, solitary or sometimes forming a short racemous panicle, varying with from few 
to many flowers in each, on almost cylindrical or somewhat angular but never dilated-compressed 
and seldom much elongated flowerstalks ; flowers rather small, on very short stalklets ; tube of 
the calyx semiovate-obconical, not strongly angular ; lid hemispheric, twice or thrice shorter than 
the tube, quite blunt or occasionally somewhat acute or much depressed ; stamens generally all 
fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers almost kidneyshaped, opening by very divergent slits ; 
stigma not broader than the summit of the style ; fruits semi-ovate or truncate-ovate, slightly or 
hardly contracted at the summit, 3- more rarely 4- to 5-celled, their rim more or less flat ; valves 
very short, convergent from near the summit of the orifice, not or but slightly exserted, almost 
deltoid ; seeds without any appendage, the sterile mostly not much narrower than the fertile seeds. 

From the lowest hills Jo the highest mountains, as well in the granite- as in slate-formations, 
from the Glenelg-Eiver (F. v. M.) dispersed through the southern districts of the colony of 
Victoria and the coast-countries of New South Wales, there known westward to Mittagong 
(Moore) and Braidwood (Wilkinson), extending to New England (Leichhardt), reaching in a 
dwarfed state to nearly the snow-line in the Australian Alps, frequent through the ridgy lowlands 
and also the uplands of Tasmania. 

A medium-sized tree, but occasionally fully 100 feet high, of stately and even handsome 
appearance, the stem reaching a diameter of 4 feet ; the main branches often very spreading ; the 
branchlets slender and more or less pendulous. The bark is smooth, not very thick and outside 
whitish-grey as in other trees of the section Leiophloise, and hence it is also one of the White 
Crum-trees of the colonists. The branchlets and inflorescence, particularly in the alpine variety, 
are sometimes covered with a bluish-white bloom. The oil-dots are copiously visible only in the 
young and then still membranous leaves, but become concealed or obliterated, when the foliage 
attains its almost leathery thickness ; the veins are not rarely, particularly in colder regions, 
tinged conspicuously red, in which coloration the branchlets also often participate. Leaves occur 
occasionally on young trees or on adventitious shoots lengthened to nearly one foot and widened 
to a breadth of overjialf ajfoot, thus presenting almost an oval form, as shown in the background 
of the lithogram. In the alpine variety the leaves are often shorter and proportionately broader 
and the fruits smaller. A pair of lanceolar bracts enclose the umbel in its earliest stage. Sir 
Joseph Hooker counted up to forty flowers in an umbel ; I found sometimes as few as three only. 
Opossums have a predilection for the young foliage, so much so, that in localities, where these 
creatures are long out of reach of the aboriginal or colonial hunters, E. pauciflora often dies 
through being deprived of its respiratory organs for the continuance of the functions of its life. 
Even cattle and sheep browse in seasons of drought on the foliage (WooUs). 



ETJCALYPTTJS PATJCIFLORA. 

3Ir. G. W. Eobinson observes, that the timber is comparatively soft, thus easy to cut, and of a 
lighter color than that of most EucaJypts, also that it splits fairly, but cannot readily be obtained 
in great lengths ; it is rather brittle, short in grain and cannot be used underground, but is 
excellent for ftiel ; it is in use also for log-fences. 

The principal interest of this species concentrates in its quality to cope with rather severe 
frosts ; indeed together with E. Gunnii it constitutes miniature-forests up Jo 5,500 feet in our 
Alps, growing close to glaciers, which on the shade-sides of glens do not wholly melt in our 
latitudes, whenever situated over 6,000 feet high, though in the cooler latitudes of Tasmania the 
limit of eternal snow descends about 1,000 feet lower, it being understood only in the wide 
crevices or chasms of rocks or in other places, where the sun cannot exercise any direct effect. 
Thus the bare crests of our Alps may be free of snow in the height of summer even at nearly 
7,000 feet, and we have therefore nowhere in Australia an absolute permanent snow-line in the 
strict sense of the word. 

In nature E. pauciflora is easily recognized by the smooth whiteness of its stem to near the 
ground, combined with the characteristic of its almost parallel-veined leaves and the size and 
shape of its flowers. Among the Eenantherae only E. stellulata exhibits the peculiar venation of 
the leaves of E. pauciflora, several of the veins arising together from the base ; it is however a 
much smaller tree, which does not ascend fully so high into alpine regions, and which moreover is 
readily recognized by its mostly shorter leaves, the smallness of its flowers, slender calyces with 
conical lids and smaller fruits ; moreover its bark is semipersistent. Some resemblance to 
E. Sieberiana is also obvious, but that species belongs really to the Heterostemones (or Hemian- 
therse), shows no perfect decortication of the upper layers of the bark, has the stomata not 
absolutely isogenous, the leaf-veins evidently more spreading and less prominent and not several 
basal veins confluent. In their fruits however E. pauciflora and E. Sieberiana are much alike. 

Although the name of E. coriacea, bestowed on this species by Allan Cunningham, was 
perhaps given soon after his arrival in i\ew South Wales (1816), yet Sieber, who gathered this 
species in 1823, must also have named it then already or soon subsequently, for it appeared on his 
authority in Sprengel's curse posteriores already as E. pauciflora in 1S27, therefore sixteen years 
before the name given by Cunningham became established ; thus Sieber's appellation clearly takes 
precedence under the rules of priority. Though the designation of E. pauciflora does not apply so 
well to the generality of the forms of this species as the name of E. coriacea, yet in comparison to 
paniculate species it is applicable enough. E. procera (Dehnhardt, Rivista Xapolitana, i. 174), 
according to the published diagnosis in Walpers repertorium botanices systematicte ii. 164, can 
only be referred to E. pauciflora. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, longitudinal section of an unexpanded flower ; 2 and 3, front- and 
back-view of an anther with part of the filament ; 4, stamens in situ ; 5, pistil ; 6 and 7, longitudinal and transTerse 
section of fruit ; 8 and 9, sterile and fertile seeds ; 10, portion of a leaf; all magnified, but to a various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS PILULAEIS. 

Smith, in the Transactions of the Linnean Society iii. 284 (1797), according to Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 208 ; 
Eippist, in F. M. fragmenta phytographiEe Au3trali89 ii. 172; E. persioifolia, OandoUe, prodromus systematis 
naturalis regni vegetabilis iii. 217, partim; E. semicorticata, F. M., in the Journal of the Proceedings of the 
Linnean Society iii. 86. 

The " BlackbutUree." 

Finally tall ; branchlets conspicuously angular ; leaves scattered, narrow- or sickleshaped- 
lanceolar, rather more shining above than below ; their lateral veins very subtle and numerous, 
moderately spreading, the circumferential vein somewhat removed from the margin of the leaf ; 
oil-dots concealed ; umbels mostly axillary and solitary or a few terminal and aggregated, bearing 
from 4 to 16 flowers ; stalk strongly compressed; stalklets rather thick, angular, nearly as long as 
the calyx or variously shorter ; lid below hemispherical or broadly conical, attenuated into an acute 
summit, slightly longer or almost shorter than the semiovate tube of the calyx, the latter not 
angular ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers kidneyshaped, opening by diver- 
gent slits ; stigma not dilated ; fruit semiovate or almost truncate-ovate, 3- or oftener 4- rarely 
6-celled ; valves deltoid, inserted slightly below the broadish somewhat flat or inward descending 
rim ; sterile seeds mostly not much narrower than the fertile seeds, all without appendage. 

In wooded country from Eastern Gippsland to Southern Queensland, advancing into mountain- 
regions, but confined to the littoral slopes. 

A tree, attaining under favorable circumstances a height of 300 feet and a stem-circumference 
of 45 feet (Camara, Kirton), but as a rule of much less dimension. Eough bark covering the 
lower part of the stem and sometimes persisting even to the branches, blackish-grey outside, 
somewhat fibrous and brownish inside, traversed according to Dr. Beckler by cross-fibres ; bark 
of the branches and also sometimes of the upper portion of the stem smooth, grey or whitish. 
Timber excellent for general purposes, used largely for building, furnishing material for flooring- 
boards and superior shingles, also utilized for telegraph-poles and railway-sleepers (WooUs, Kirton). 

The systematic name for this species is not happily chosen, and seems to have been intended 
originally by Sir James Smith for that species, which Mr. Kippist and Mr. Bentham from 
inspection of Smith's collections consider to be E. piperita ; but the fruit-bunches depicted under 
that name by Surgeon-General John White in his " Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales " 
belong, I should think, to the species now adopted as E. pilularis, although the fruits of the latter 
never approach to a pilular form like those of the modern B. piperita ; Smith therefore quotes in 
the Transactions of the Linnean Society from White's figure cautiously the leaves only for 
E. piperita ; to the confusion about the last mentioned species is added from the commencement 
by Dr. White, attributing at page 226 to his E. piperita a bark " very smooth like that of a 
poplar." The compressed flowerstalks, mentioned particularly in the description of E. piperita 
(in the Linnean Transactions iii. p. 286, and for which further should be referred to Smith's 
Botany of New Holland, p. 42) would also indicate E. pilularis as now perhaps wrongly defined, 
whereas the globular fruit of E. pilularis, as aptly described in the Linnean Transactions of 1797, 
would apply not to that species as now understood, but to the E. piperita of the present day. I 
was tempted to transpose the names of the two species, though sanctioned by high authority (as 
Du Eoi did under similar circumstances with Pinus picea and P. Abies), so that the species 
with the pillshaped fruits might at once be remembered by its adjective name ; but I have left the 
nomenclature for the present as it is, more especially as the now acknpwledged E. pilularis is not 



EUCAITPTUS PILULARIS. 

a species particularly ricli in volatile oil, so that White in all likelihood had the oil, to which he 
refers, distilled from another species and probably one with smooth bark. 

Dr. Leichhardt records the native name of E. pilularis as " Benaroon." 

The nearest ally to this tree is E. acmenoides (Schauer, in Walpers repertorium botanices 
systematicse ii. 924), of which I compared an original specimen gathered in January 1817 by Allan 
Cunningham near Port Jackson and communicated by the late Mr. Heward ; either as a variety 
or as a species it differs from E. pilularis, as here assumed, in more fibrous outside paler and still 
more extensively persistent bark (being placed by the Eev. Dr. WooUs among the Khytiphloiffi, 
not as E. pilularis among the Hemiphloise), further in leaves of smaller size, thinner consistence 
and beneath paler hue with only hypogenous stomata and more visible oil-dots, in smaller flowers 
on thinner stalklets and less compressed stalks, smaller fruits with a narrower rim and often 
rather more enclosed valves. The small bunch of fruit, shown separately on the lithogram of 
E. pilularis, belongs to E. acmenoides ; and if this really should indicate a mere variety, the 
specific appellation pilularis would become more justifiable. It is possible, that a histologic 
examination of the bark in the native places of E. acmenoides would reveal further differences. 
Dr. WooUs, Mr. Fawcett and Mr. Wilkinson call it White Mahogany, whereas Mr. Th. Wentworth 
Watson, Mr. Bailey and others designate it as a Stringybark-tree. The name employed for it by 
the natives of the Eichmond-River is " Jundera." It ranges over a wider geographic area than 
the typical E. pilularis, extending far into the tropical regions of Eastern Australia. The wood is 
fissile, thus splits well into slabs and palings ; it is regarded of superior quality. Mr. Wilkinson 
saw the stems attain in the Devonian formation a diameter of 4 feet. 

The young seedlings of E. pilularis are smooth, their leaves oblong- or narrow-lanceolar, 
sessile, grey beneath, perceptibly dotted with pellucid oil-glands. The illustration now offered 
does not represent sufficiently a tendency to a partially terminal inflorescence nor the flatness of 
the flowerstalks. 

E. siderophloia is easily distinguished from E. pilularis by its entirely persistent and deeply 
furrowed bark, the texture of its wood, often broader leaves, always paniculated flowers of less 
number in the umbels, not distinctly compressed flowerstalks, the calyx-tube more gradually 
attenuated into the stalklet, roundish anthers with parallel slits, dilated stigma, almost pearshaped- 
obconical fruits with emersed rim and exserted valves, the latter not forming a flat but very 
convex summit. 

General Sir E. Ward found the deflection of the fresh timber to be 1"35 inch, the material 
used being 4 feet long by 2 inches square, loaded in the middle, bearing weight to 980 lbs. while 
the elasticity remained unimpaired and breaking under a weight of 1,232 lbs. Specific gravity 
about 0-897. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, portion of unexpanded flower, the lid lifted; 2, longitudinal section 
of an nnexpanded flower ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of an anther with part of filament ; 5, stamens in situ, their 
anthers presented at a side-view ; 6, style and stigma ; 7, longitudinal section of an abnormal fruit, the valves sunk 
exceptionally deep ; 8, longitudinal section of an ordinary fruit ; 9, transverse section of fruit ; 10 and 11, fertile 
and sterile seeds ; 12, portion of a leaf ; all magnified, but to various extent. 



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EUCALYPTUS PIPEEITA. 

Smith, in White's Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales 226, partly (1790) ; Botany of New Holland 42 ; 
Transactions of the Linnean Society iii. 286 ; Kippist, in F. M. fragmenta phytographisa Australiee ii. 173 ; 
Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 207 ; E. acervula, Sieber, in De CandoUe prodromus systematis naturalis regni 
vegetabilis iii. 217 ; F. M., fragmenta phytographise Australiae ii. 64. 

Finally talj i ; brancUets slender ; leaves scattered, sickleshaped-lanceolar, not very long, 
rather more shining above than below ; their lateral veins very subtle and numerous, usually more 
erect than transverse, the circumferential vein somewhat removed from the margin of the leaf ; 
oil-dots copious, more or less pellucid ; umbels axillary or mostly lateral, bearing from 5 to 15, 
rarely 3 to 4 flowers ; stalk slender, slightly compressed ; stalklets considerably shorter than the 
calyx ; lid broad-conical, acute, about as long as the semiovate tube of the calyx, the latter not 
angular ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers kidney/shaped, opening by 
divergent slits ; style capillary ; stigma not dilated ; fruits usually small, truncate- or globular- 
ovate, contracted at the narrow-edged orifice ; valves perfectly enclosed, 3 or much oftener 4, 
deltoid ,• sterile seeds mostly not much narrower than the fertile seeds, all without appendage. 

On less fertile ground, from the coast to mountain-regions, occurring even on sand-lands, in 
Gippsland and New South "Wales. 

The White Stringybark of the colonists, called by the G-ippsland natives, with E. macrorr- 
hyncha and E. capitellata, " Yangoora." 

Trunk to as much as 4 feet in diameter. Stem and branches covered with fibrous outside 
grey and rough bark. Seedlings smooth, with oval- or oblong-lanceolar or broad-oval leaves, the 
lower of these opposite, the upper ones scattered. Leaves of the advanced tree dark-green, usually 
of rather thin consistence. Umbels often crowded, never terminating the branchlets, now and 
then paniculated, but in such a case still lateral. Fruits occasionally larger and less roundish 
than illustrated in the lithogram, with their edge sharp, which is not well shown in the litho- 
graphic drawing. 

B. piperita differs from E. pilularis chiefly in its rough bark extending to the branches 
(Pachyphloise), more slender and less angular branchlets, more distinctly developed oil-glands of 
the foliage, not so much compressed flowerstalks, smaller flowers with hardly any tendency to 
aggregation into terminal panicles, fruits mostly smaller and at the orifice contracted with an 
acute rim and evidently sunk valves. 

E. eugenioides (Sieber, in Sprengel curse posteriores 195), which extends from near Port 
Phillip to South-Queensland and ascends the higher Alps in a dwarfed state, shares in some of 
the characteristics of E. piperita and in others of E. pilularis ; but its seedlings are hairy-rough, 
and the edge of the fruit is blunt, with the valves situated near it, reminding more of the fruits of 
E. hsemastoma. The scabrous seedlings depicted in the background of the lithogram of E. piperita 
belongs to E. eugenioides, which is considered by Bentham a variety of that species. 

E. obliqua is distinguishable from E. piperita by its larger and thicker leaves of equal 
shining color on both sides, with more prominent and less divergent veins and with stomata rather 
more equal in number on either page, by its umbels never so much crowded, by the shorter and 
rounded-blunt lid, the longer and conically attenuated tube of the calyx, the somewhat longer 
fruits and perhaps by anatomic, histologic and chemical .peculiarities of the bark and wood, which 
characteristics remain yet more comprehensively to be studied. 



EUCALYPTUS PIPEEITA. 

The Eucalyptus-oil, so largely exported particularly by Mr. Joseph Bosisto since many years, 
is not derived from this species, but from E. amygdalina. The vernacular name " Peppermint- 
tree " arose from this Eucalyptus, being bestowed on it already in the first year of the colonisation 
of New South Wales by Dr. White, because the scent of the foliage resembling that of the 
Peppermint-Herb ; but this colonial appellation has become since extended to many other 
congeners in various parts of Australia. This fancied resemblance of Eucalyptus-oil to that of 
Peppermint is explanatory also of the specific name adopted for this particular tree in science. 
Though timber of very large dimension is obtainable from E. piperita, yet according to the Rev. 
Dr. Woolls the wood is inferior to that of some other kinds of Stringybark-trees. 

As stated under E. pilularis the fruit, depicted by White as that of his E. piperita, belongs 
to the former not the latter, as now understood, although it is not pilular. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, upper portion of an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitu- 
dinal section of an unexpanded flower ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of an anther with portion of the filament ; 
5, some stamens in situ, the anthers seen from the side ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse 
section of fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile seeds ; 11, portion of a leaf ; all magnified, but in various degrees. 







Todtdfl CTroed£l6C?lilh. 



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EUCALYPTUS POLYANTHEMA. 

E. polyanthemos, Schauer, in Walpers repertorium botanices systematicse ii. 924 (1843) ; BentBam, flora Australiensis 
iii. 214 ; WooUs, contribution to the flora of Australia 236. 

The " Den-tree." 

Branchlets very slender ; leaves scattered, on rather long stalks, orbicular- or broad-ovate or 
roundish, of an almost ashy-hue or dull-greenish, occasionally verging into an oval-lanceolar form ; 
primary veins considerably spreading, the circumferential veins distinctly removed from the edge ; 
umbels paniculate and mostly terminal ; flowers in each umbel very few, usually of rather small 
size and on very short stalklets ; tube of the calyx truncate-ovate, doubly or thrice longer and 
also broader than the depressed- or pyramidal-hemispherical faintly pointed lid ; stamens much 
inflexed while unexpanded ; outer stamens sterile ; fertile anthers truncated, opening hy terminal 
•pores ; stigma somewhat dilated ; fruits rather small, semiovate, with a narrow compressed fragile 
occasionally somewhat indented margin, 3- or 4-celled or rarely 5-celled ; valves enclosed, very 
short ; seeds without any appendage. 

On dry ridges and hills or undulatory country from the vicinity of Port Phillip north-westward 
to the Pyrenees, eastward to the Gippsland-Lakes and the Genoa (F. v. M.) ; northward to the 
tributaries of the Darling-Eiver, advancing thence to the coast-districts of New South Wales, thus 
occurring also near Port Jackson (at Liverpool, WooUs). 

A middle-sized tree ; exceptionally about 250 feet high (in the Ovens-Eanges, Falck), called 
" Den " by the Gippsland-natives (Howitt), but Eed Box-tree by our colonists, on account of the 
reddish tinge of its wood, occasionally also passing among the woodmen as Grey or Bastard- 
Box-tree. Bark persistent as well on the branches as on the stem (unless the upper ramifications 
or rarely also the lower are smooth from outer decortication), slightly furrowed, grey outside. 
Wood close-grained and twisted, very tough and so hard, as to have given rise to the name of 
Lignum Vitee for it in some regions of New South Wales (Woolls). Leaves sometimes acuminated, 
but generally those of the young saplings and of the aged tree not very different in shape. Yeins 
not very crowded, nor as a rule very prominent. Oil-glands copiously visible in young leaves, 
becoming much concealed or evanescent at last. Inflorescence also not rarely participating in 
the grey bloom of the foliage. Lid double in early stage, the outer minute and fugacious. 

The specific name is derived from the comparative copiousness of the flowers. 

Great lastingness is attributed to the wood, though the stems become often hollow in age, 
and thus aff'ord not readily timber of large dimensions. The wood is much sought for cogs, naves 
and felloes ; it is also much in demand for props of shafts in mines ; for fuel it is unsurpassed. 
According to Mr. J. Smith it is this species, which braved the severest winters at Kew-Garden near 
London, sheltered merely by a wall. 

As regards its specific affinities E. polyanthema comes v ery near to E. melliodora, with which 
it agrees in the remarkable dehiscence of the anthers by terminal pores ; but it recedes in the 
bark not being yellowish inside, but softer, more fibrous and outside rather more grey, in the 
reddish color of the wood, in the broader and more generally greyish leaves, in rather shorter 
stalklets of the flowers, smaller lids of the calyx, more paniculated flowers, less dilated stigma, 
fruits less distinctly contracted at the orifice, with a narrower less firm and less distinctly annular 
rim and generally lesser number of valves and cells. Both occur in some places promiscuously 
and seem to preserve under the same circumstances of soil and climate each their distinctive 



EUCAITPTUS POLYANTHEMA. 

characteristics ; still on tlie whole E. polyanthema prefers more the top of rises, while E. mel- 
liodora descends rather to the richer soil of the valleys. Its distinctness from E. populifolia seems 
indisputable, as the foliage is not shining, the flowers are of larger size and on more conspicuous 
stalklets, many of the outer stamens devoid of anthers, the latter opening terminally, the filaments 
not being dark-colored and the fruits larger ; the geographic range of both is also different. 

E. Behriana shows usually lesser height, more rigid narrower and somewhat shining leaves, 
stouter panicles, lesser development of the stalklets of the flowers, all stamens fertile, anthers 
with lateral pores, often smaller fruits, always with firmer rim. 

Bentham (flora Australiensis iii. 214) unites with this E. Baueriana (Schauer, in Walpers 
repertorium ii. 924), the diagnosis of which agrees sufficiently and proves it to be different from 
E. populifolia. Bauer most probably obtained his specimens from the vicinity of Sydney and not 
from the tropical regions of Australia. 

E. oligantha (Schauer, in Walpers repertorium iii. 924) from Copeland-Island, of which 
species I have not yet seen authentic material, seems according to description very closely allied 
to E. polyanthema, differing chiefly in stiffer leaves, somewhat larger flowers, conical lid and 
perhaps the (as yet unknown) fruit. 

Explanation op Analttio Details. — 1, longitudinal section of an unexpanded flower ; 2 and 3, front- and 
back -view of a stamen ; 4, style and stigma; 5, a portion of the calyx with fertile and sterile stamens ; 6 and 7, 
longitudinal section of a fruit ; 8 and 9, sterile and fertile seeds ; all more or less enlarged. 



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EUCALYPTUS POPULIFOLIA. 

Hooker, ioones plantarum 879 (1852). 

Branchlets slender ; leaves scattered, on rather long stalks, orUcular-ovate or roundish, very 
shining and intensely green on both sides, occasionally verging into an oval-lanceolar form ; veins 
very spreading, but not crowded ; the circumferential vein distinctly removed from the edge ; the 
oil-dots copious and mostly transparent ; umbels paniculate and mostly terminal or some singly 
axillary ; flowers in each umbel from very few to 14, of very small size, on extremely short 
stalklets ; tube of the calyx almost semiovate, slightly longer than the nearly hemispherical lid ; 
stamens much inflexed while unexpanded, all fertUe ; anthers roundish-ovate, opening below the 
summit by pores or abbreviated slits ; style very short ; stigma somewhat dilated ; fruits very 
small, semiovate, 4-celled or sometimes 3- or 5-celled ; valves very short, situated close beneath 
the rim ; seeds minute, without any appendage. 

In open forest-country from the southern as well as northern tributaries of the Darling- 
Eiver, advancing eastward to the coast^country and northward to the Upper Burdekin-Eiver, 
southward to the Murrumbidgee. 

A middle-sized or small tree, with wrinkled and somewhat fissurated bark, which persists as 
well on the branches as on the stem. The colonial designations of this tree are Shining or Poplar- 
Box-tree ; the natives of eastern subtropical Australia call it " Bembil " according to Mr. Edward 
Bowman, who also remarks, that the wood proved durable for posts ; but of the particular quality 
of the timber no records seem existent. Leaves occur sometimes 4 inches wide. 

With Sir William Hooker I regarded this as a species, distinct from B. polyanthema, when 
defining it anew in 1858 (Journal of Proceedings of the Linnean Society iii. 93), after having 
watched it for months in 1866 through its natural range. It replaces in the warmer latitudes of 
the more interior regions of East-Australia the more southern E. polyanthema. In the journal 
above quoted I had changed the name of this species to E. populnea, as Desfontaines had 
mentioned (Catal. hort. Paris 1829, p. 408) already an Eucalyptus under precisely the same name, 
employed by Hooker. The differences set forth in the description as distinguishing E. populifolia 
from E. polyanthema, I believe to be specific ; they consist in leaves of lustrous green, often less 
compound inflorescence, smaller and more crowded flowers on shorter or hardly any stalklets, 
proportionately larger lid, stamens all fertile, anthers with more lateral openings, filaments of 
darker color and smaller fruits. 

E. hemiphloia could hardly ever be confounded with B. populifolia, although it belongs also 
to the section of Porantheree, its leaves are less shining and never broad, the flowers conspicuously 
larger on longer and thicker stalklets, the lid gradually pointed, the fruits longer, the valves not 
approaching to the orifice, while as indicated by the specific name the bark is not persistent on 
the branches and often neither on the upper portion of the stem ; this species does not extend to 
Spencer's Gulf, being known only from New South Wales and Southern Queensland and there 
confined to the coast-districts or near to them. The South Australian tree, mentioned under this 
name by Bentham, is E. Behriana, as proved by some differences iu the leaves, the suppression of 
the stalklets and shortness of the lid as well as of the stamens. Again, the variety parviflora of 
E. bicolor, mentioned in the flora Australiensis iii. 215, belongs also to E. populifolia. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, unexpanded flower, the lid lifted; 2, longitudinal section of 
unexpanded flower ; 3, stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, back- and front-view of a stamen ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, 
transverse and longitudinal section of fruit j 9 and 10, sterile and fertile seeds; 11, portion of a leaf; all more or 
less enlarged. 



EUCAXYPTUS POPUIIFOLIA. 



The Lye-following lithographic plate presents diagrams of anthers (after dehiscence) of many 
Eucalypts, pertaining to Bentham's series : Eenantherse, Heterostemones (Hemiantherse), Po- 
rantherae and Micranther^, ia continuation of the transverse anther-sections (solely of the Paral- 
lelantheree) given with E. tetraptera in the second decade. 



Diametric augmentation 28 times. 



59. Eucalyptus acmenoides, Schauer. 

60. albens, Miquel. 

61. amygdalina, Labillardi^re. 

62. Baileyana, F. v. M. 

63. Eehriana, F. v. M. 

64. Bowmanii, P. v. M. 

65. buprestium, E. v. M. 

66. capitellata, Smith. 

67. Cloeziana, P. t. M. 

68. coccifera, J. Hooker. 

69. crebra, P. v. M. 

70. Decaisneana, Blume. 

71. drepanophylla, P. t. M. 

72. eugenioides, Sieber. 

73. gracilis, F. t. M. 

74. hsemastoma. Smith. 

75. hemiphloia, P. v. M. 

76. largifloreDS, P. v. M. 

77. Leucoxylon, P. v. M. 

78. Luehmanniana, P. t. M. 

79. macrorrhyncha, P. v. M. 

80. marginata, Smith. 

81. melanophloia, P. v. M. 

82. melliodora, Cmmiugham. 



83. Eucalyptus microcorys, P. t. M. 

84. obliqua, I'Heritier. 

85. ochrophloia, P. v. M. 

86. odorata, Behr. 

87. paniculata, Smith. 

88. pauciflora, Sieber. 

89. pUularis, Smith. 

90. piperita. Smith. 

91. Planchoniana, P. T. M. 

92. polyanthema, Schauer. 

93. populifolia. Hooker. 

94. pruinosa, Schauer. 

95. EaTeretiana, P. T. M. 

96. rigida, Sieber. 

97. Eisdoni, J. Hooker. 

98. salmonophloia, P. v. M. 

99. salubris, P. v. il. 

100. santaUiolia, P. t. M. 

101. siderophloia, Bentham. 

102. Sieberiana, P. v. M. 

103. stellulata, Sieber. 

104. trachyphloia, P. v. M. 

105. uncinata, Turczaninow. 



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EUCALYPTOGRAPHIA 



A DESCEIPTIVE ATLAS 



EUCALTPTS OF AUSTRALIA 



ADJOINING ISLANDS 



BARON FEED. YON MUELLER, KC.I.O., M. & PH.D., F.R.S., 

GOVEENMENT BOTAJSTIST FOE THE COLONY OF VICTOEIA. 



' K"OK STJCCIDI3 ARBOKES, NEO SECTDIIIETTS DEBES VASTARE EAUDM REQIONiM." — Liher DeuteronomU XX. 19. 



FOURTH DECA.de. 



MELBOUENE : 

JOHN FEREBS, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 
PUBLISHED AiSO BY GEORGE ROBERTSON, LITTLE COLLINS STREET. 

LONDON : 

TEUBNER AND CO., 67 AND 69 LUDGATE HILL ; AND GEORGE EOBEETSON, 17 ■VVAR-WIOK SQUAEK 

M DCCC LXXIX. 






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EUCALYPTUS ALBA. 

Reinwardt, in Blume's Bijdragen tot de Flora van Nederlandsoh Indie 1101 (1826) ; Deeaisne, in NouTeaux annales 
du museum d'liistoire naturelle iii. 454 ; Spanoghe, in Sohlechtendal's Linnsea xv. 203 ; Walpers, Eepertorium 
botanices systematicse ii., aupplementum i. 927 ; Blume, Museum botanicum Lugduno-Batavum i. 83 ; Miquel, 
flora IndisB Batavse i. 398. 

Tall ; leaves scattered, on long stalks, lanceolar- or rhomhoid^oval, gradually much elongated 
into the narrow apex, equally pale-green on both sides, not shining ; oil-dots much concealed ; 
lateral veins rather numerous, very spreading, circumferential vein more or less distant from the 
edge ; umbels axillary or lateral, on a comparatively short somewhat angular stalk, with seven or 
fewer flowers ; stalklets about as long as the calyx or somewhat shorter ; tube of the calyx 
semiovate-hemispherical, Iiardly as long as the semiglobular short-pointed smooth lid ; stamens all 
fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers cuneate- or oval-oblong, opening by parallel slits ; 
stigma not dilated ; fruits topshaped-hemispherical, rather small, 3-4-celled, slightly or not angular ; 
rim flat ; valves exserted ; placental axis not twice as long as broad, deltoid; seeds without 
appendage. 

In Timor. 

According to Blume's description some leaves occur occasionally blunt and the lid conical. 
As in Malayan language it is along with Melaleuca Leucadendron called Cajuputi, it may perhaps 
furnish a portion of the medicinal oil of that name. The leaves of specimens, gathered by the 
meritorious Mr. Teysmann of the Botanic Garden of Buitenzorg and kindly communicated by 
Dr. Scheffer, are of a thickly chartaceous but not leathery consistence and attain a breadth of 3 
inches. The umbels, while in a very young state, are enveloped in a conical bract. Neither 
expanded flowers, nor matured seeds of Timor-specimens, were available for examination at this 
opportunity. From the material before me, it remains doubtful, whether really E. tectifica can 
be identified with this Timor-species ; the bark of the Carpentaria-tree being persistent and rough 
as well on the branches as on the stem, though it is certainly also pale outside and is used by the 
Aborigines there for constructing the rude roofs of their sleeping places ; the leaf-stalks are 
shorter, the leaves generally narrower, the umbels sometimes short-paniculate and terminal. 

B. platyphylla (F. v. M., in the Journal of Proceedings of the Linnean Society iii. 93) 
approaches closely to E. alba ; the leaves are mostly broader, the lid is generally shorter and 
blunt and the valves less exserted ; its foliage sheds for short periods almost entirely. The range 
of variability of these trees remains yet to be further ascertained by extended field-researches. 

The number of Extra- Australian species of Eucalyptus is extremely limited, so far as hitherto 
known, although additional congeners may perhaps yet be obtained from New Guinea, and even 
there possibly from alpine regions. With certainty we know from localities beyond Australia 
hitherto only E. alba, E. Moluccana (Eoxburgh fiora Indica ii. 498), E. Decaisneana (Blume, 
Museum botanicum Lugduno-Batavum i. 83), also from Timor, and E. Papuana (F. v. M., De- 
scriptive Notes on Papuan Plants i. 8), which bears close affinity to E. clavigera. The existence 
of at least one more species in South-Eastern New Guinea has been placed beyond doubt ; but of 
that the foliage has only yet been seen, in which respect it seems not to diifer from E. alba. 
Indeed also E. Decaisneana, if rightly recognized, may prove only a variety of E. alba. E. Leu- 
cadendron (Eeinwardt in De Vriese plantse Reinwardtianee p. 63) is according to Miquel 1. c. 1085 
synonymous with E. alba. Dr. Schefi"er, informs me, that it has a white blurring bark, much 
resembling that of Melaleuca Leucadendron, and that the Timor name therefore is Kajoe-poetih 



EUCALYPTUS ALBA. 

(or White-tree), and that the tree can be grown on the plains of Java, where most other Eucalypts 
will not succeed. It is never a very tall tree and begins to flower already in the third year of 
growth. It may be added, that the bark of E. tectifica and allied Australian species is not 
lamellar like that of Melaleuca Leucadendron. The absence of Eucalypts in the native vegetation 
of New Zealand is under these circumstances all the more remarkable, though certainly a vast 
proportion of the flora of those islands is endemic. But an Eucalyptus-like tree has recently been 
recorded from New Ireland by the Rev. Mr. Brown as forming forests in that island. 

This, like all other Eucalypts, passes in vernacular language as a " Gum-tree," an 
objectionable appellation, which should be banished and superseded by that of " Eucalypts," as 
first insisted on by the writer. The name " Gum-trees " would indeed be far better applicable to 
our native Acacias, which exude real gum as understood in chemical science and is quite 
identical with Gum Arabic, whereas the exudations of Eucalypts must be classed with the various 
kinds of Kino. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3 and 4, back- and front-view of a stamen ; 5, style and stigma ; 6 and 7, transverse and longi- 
tudinal section of fruit ; 8 and 9, fertile and sterile seeds ; 10, portion of a leaf; all more or less magnified. 



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EUCALYPTUS BOTEYOIDES. 

Smith, in the TraEsactions of the Linnean Society of London iii. 286 (1796) ; De Candolle, prodromus systematis 
naturalis regni vegetabilis iii. 219 ; F. M., fragmenta phytographise Australise ii. 48 & 175 ; Bentham flora 
Australiensis iii. 229 ; E. platypodos, Cavanilles, icones et desoriptiones plantarum iv. 23, t. 341 (1797). 

Finally tall ; branchlets angular ; leaves scattered, elongate- or sicklesliaped-lanceolar, rarely 
verging towards an oval form, above darker green and shining, beneath paler and dull-greenish, 
lateral veins almost transversely spreading, close, subtle, the circumferential vein near to the edge 
of the leaf ; oil-dots much concealed or soon obliterated ; floroerstalks broadly compresssed, axillary 
and solitary, sometimes crowded, seldom somewhat paniculated, bearing usually 4-9 flco'ers ; 
calyces almost or entirely devoid of stalklets, not or somewhat ang-ular ; lid almost hemispherical, 
quite blunt or slightly pointed, about half as long as the almost obconic tube or rarely nearly as 
long ; stamens all fertile ; anthers nearly oval, opening by longitudinal slits ; stigma hardly 
broader than the comparatively short style ; fruits semiovate or hemiellipsoid, 3-6-celled, lined 
by slight angles or not angular ; rim narrow ; valves short, inserted close beneath the orifice, not 
emerging ; seeds all without appendage, the sterile much narrower than the fertile seeds. 

From Lake Tyers and the lower Snowy River through Bast-(jrippsland to the southern portion 
of New South Wales, there westwards not crossing the Dividing Range, following mostly river- 
courses, but occurring also in moist sandy localities close to the seacoast. Probably it does not 
extend into Queensland, as the Blue Gum-tree mentioned from thence is referable to a species of 
the series of Leiophloise, probably E. saligna. 

The shady and horizontal dark-green foliage of this beautiful tree give it among Victorian 
species quite a peculiar and imposing aspect, reminding rather of an Eugenia than an Eucalyptus. 
Stems will occasionally attain a height of 80 feet without a branch and a diameter of 8 feet. It 
is one of the few among its congeners, which with advantage can be utilized for wood-culture on 
coast-sands. Bark persistent on the stem and main branches, outside dark, wrinkled and some- 
what furrowed. "Wood light-brown. When the tree has arisen on rich soil along running streams 
its wood is regarded as one of the best among those of Eucalypts, and is then utilized for the 
manufacture of waggons, trucks, all the heavier kinds of wheelwrights' work, particularly felloes ; 
it is also very eligible for shingles as water does not become discolored by them ; when the tree 
grows on coast-sands its wood is still useful for sawing and fencing, though the stems occur 
there often gnarled (Kirton) ; sought also for knees of vessels or boats (Woolls) ; the timber 
is usually sound to the centre. The various accounts given of its durability under ground are 
contradictory. 

It is rather unfortunate, that so unmeaning a name as " Bastard Mahogany " has found its 
way extensively into colonial language for the tree ; the natives of East-Gippsland call it 
" Binnak," those near Port Jackson " Bangalay." The specific names given by Sir James Smith 
and the Abb6 Cavanilles to this tree are nearly contemporaneous, that of the former — supposed 
to allude to the umbels sometimes (but indeed not frequently) grape-like crowded into bunches — 
being less expressive of the characteristics of this species, than the appellation given by the 
Spanish phytographer in allusion to the flatness of the flowerstalks. 

It differs from E. goniocalyx in still more persistent bark, in the almost horizontal not nearly 
vertical turn of the leaves (resulting in a saturated green of their upper surface and in a paleness 
of the lower page as well as in hypogenous stomata only), further in their more numerous almost 
transversely spreading veins, somewhat blunter lid and generally rather less valves of the fruit ; 



EUCALYPTUS BOTRYOIDES. 

but it resembles that species in its head-like umbels, the broad compressed two-edged flowerstalks 
and the form as well as structure of the fruit. 

E. resinifera, compared to E. botryoides, shows the leaves rather narrower, the flowerstalks 
not quite so broad, the calyces provided with distinct stalklets, the lid conical and more elongated, 
the fruits comparatively shorter with their valves exserted. 

E. saligna is in nature easily enough distinguished by the smoothness of its bark, which 
secedes in its outer layers successively ; otherwise the differences are slight, consisting in the 
often somewhat longer lid and in fruits with half exserted valves. 

E. robusta is known as distinct from E. botryoides by the larger size of the flowers and fruits 
and often also the leaves, by the more extended flowerstalks and particularly by the longer- 
pointed pale never shining lid, which at the base is broader than the calyx-tube, and by the longer 
fruits with comparatively narrow and almost permanently coherent valves. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, upper portion of unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal 
section of an unexpanded flower ; 3, stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther with portion of 
filament; 6, pistil; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse section of frait; 9 and 10, sterile and fertile seeds; 11, 
portion of a leaf; all magnified, but in various degrees. 




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EUCALYPTUS CLAVIGERA. 

Allan Cunningham, in Walpers repertorium botanices systematicse ii. 926 (1843) ; F. M., in the Journal of the 
Proceedings of the Linnean Society iii. 98 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 250. 

Arborescent, not tal l ; \joung branchlets often hairy-rough ; leaves partly opposite and sessile, 
partly scattered and short-stalked, either from a cordate or roundish base orbicular- or lanceolar- 
oval or from a short attenuated base oblong- or elongate-lanceolar, not shining ; lateral veins 
prominent, very spreading, rather distant, the circumferential vein removed from the edge or 
partly confluent with it ; umbels crowded into mostly compound and lateral corymbs ; stalks short ; 
stalklets very slender, usually longer than the flowers ; unopened calyces pearshaped ; lid depressed- 
hemispherical, shining, much shorter than the tube of the calyx ; stamens all fertile, deeply 
inflexed while in bud ; anthers oblong-oval, opening by longitudinal slits ; stigma not dilated ; 
fruits hemiellipsoid, slightly urnshaped, generally 3-celled, not angular ; rim very narrow, valves 
deeply enclosed; seeds without any appendage. 

From the most northern regions of "Western Australia along some of the coast-tracts of 
Arnhem's Land to Carpentaria, in sterile country. 

A sm all tree (so far as known), flowering already whUe yet a shrub. Leaves somewhat wavy 
flexed, of a dull greyish hue ; their lateral veins ascendingly curved, passing successively into 
the edge of the leaf and constituting an interrupted intramarginal vein ; the veinlets closely 
reticular, the ultimate areoles between them exceedingly small and somewhat pellucid from 
elongated pores but not well defined oil-dots. It is left to future labors to elucidate fully the 
microscopic anatomy of Eucalyptus-leaves in mutual contrast of various species, by which 
researches some of the specific forms of the genus are likely to ' become still better defined. 
Stomata isogenous. Ultimate umbels containing six or fewer rarely more flowers ; tube of the. 
calyx not angular, rather suddenly dilated upwards ; lid very smooth, almost membranous, quite 
blunt, or raised at its centre into a minute point, not rarely shortened to a patellar form. 

Name of the species from the somewhat club-like form of the united flowerbud and its stalklet. 

Bentham very properly places E. clavigera next to E. grandifolia and E. tesselaris. In the 
botanic collections, formed by Mr. Schultz at Port Darwin, specimens of E. grandifolia occur, 
which show the leaves more generally opposite, all conspicuously stalked and all broad, the flowers 
larger on still longer and also stronger stalklets, the lid broader, not shining, somewhat wrinkled, 
more convex and prominently pointed ; fruit is not available for comparison. E. tesselaris differs 
in all the branches being smooth, the leaves all scattered and narrow with closer veins, the 
flowers smaller on short stalklets and also generally fewer in each individual umbel and perhaps 
in its tesselar semipersistent bark. E. Papuana may not really be distinct as a species from 
E. clavigera, as pointed out formerly (F. v. M., Descriptive Notes on Papuan Plants i. 8), but the 
tree from New Guinea is as yet imperfectly known, and we here are quite unacquainted with the 
characteristics of its bark, on which for due discrimination of Eucalypts so very much depends. 
Should E. Papuana prove identical with B. clavigera, we might then assume, that the Extra- 
Australian species had all emigrated perhaps through the agency of migratory birds, as even 
E. Decaisneana (if correctly here identified) may be only an extreme variety of E. alba, and as 
moreover the few phyllodinous Acacias known from New Guinea and the adjoining islands 
represent not endemic types but merely reappearing identical Australian forms. 

An opportunity is offered to refer here generally to the Eucalypts of Northern Australia, so 
far as they are hitherto known. The shrubby desert-species are as yet not much gathered in the 



EUCALYPTUS CLAVIGERA. 

few geographic journeys through the sandy and waterless regions, in which they often constitute a 
considerable proportion of the vegetation, and where their general monotony of forms is apt to 
conceal the variety of their specific types to hurriedly passing and perhaps harassed travellers. 
It is fair to assume, that some of these dwarf Eucalypts are likely to prove identical with extra- 
tropical congeners, inasmuch as already in 1856 I traced a considerable number of the desert-shrubs 
of the regions, pertaining to the Murray-Eiver and its tributaries, as far as 20° north latitude. 

Among the timber-trees of North-Australia E. rostrata is one of the tallest and the most 
valuable ; but none of the species reach there the gigantic dimensions of several of their southern 
congeners, unless E. Abergiana, E. Torelliana and possibly a few others on the literal slopes 
of the Dividing Eange in North-Queensland, where the jungles have as yet been but very 
imperfectly traversed. The fqllowingare th e species, which hitherto became known from North^ 
Australia : — Eucalyptus Abergiana, E. alba, E. aspera, E. brachyandra, E. clavigera, E. Cloeziana, 
E. crebra, E. dichromophloia, E. exserta, E. ferruginea, E. grandifolia, E. latifolia, E. leptophleba, 
E. maculata, E. melanophloia, E. microtheca, E. miniata, E. odontocarpa, E. oligantha, E. pachy- 
phylla, E. pallidifolia, E. patellaris, E. perfoliata, E. phoenicea, E. platyphylla, E. populifolia, 
E. pruinosa, E. ptychocarpa, E. resinifera, E. rostrata, E. setosa, E. tereticornis, E. terminalis, 
E. tesselaris, E. tetrodonta, E. Torelliana. The sections Renantherae and Hemiantherse are, as 
far as hitherto known, not represented in North-Australia. 

ExpiANATiON OF ANALYTIC DETAILS. — 1, unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3, stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther with part of filament ; 6, style 
and stigma ; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile seeds ; 11, portion 
of a leaf ; all more or less magnified. 




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EUCALYPTUS DOEATOXYLON. 

F. V. Mueller, fragmenta phytographise Australia ii. 55 (1860) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 249 ; F. v. M., 
select plants for industrial culture and naturalization p. 78; Indian Edition p. 111. 

Shrubby, finally arbgrescent ; leaves small, opposite, linear- or narrow- laneeolar, on very short 
stalks, sligbtly or hardly curved, equally green on~both sides, not conspicuously dotted ; lateral 
veins faint, rather close, moderately or much spreading, the circumferential vein evidently removed 
from the margin of the leaf ; umbels bent downward, on recurved slender compressed stalks, solitary, 
axillary or soon lateral, with 4 to 8 flowers ; stalklets thin, angular, usually about as long as the 
tube of the flowering calyx, but shorter than the fruit ; lid smooth, below semiovate-hemispherical, 
conspicuously terminated into a beak-like point, rather longer than the obverse-conical or hemi- 
ellipsoid not angular tube ; stamens inflexed before expansion ; outer filaments without anthers ; 
fertile filaments very short ; anthers very minute, nearly oval, opening by longitudinal slits : 
width of the stigma hardly exceeding that of the style ; fruits small, broadly truncate-ovate or 
verging towards a spherical form, slightly wrinkled, 3- rarely 4-celled ; their rim narrow ; valves 
enclosed, but reaching nearly or fully to the rim, very short ; seeds extremely small, all without 
appendage, the sterile seeds not very narrow. 

From Lucky Bay (E. Brown), Cape Arid and Russell's Range (Maxwell) to Stirling's Range 
(F. V. M.) and Mount Lindsay extending to the most south-eastern sources of Swan-River (Muir), 
mostly in rich soil along brooks, reaching the summits of mountains up to 3,000 feet elevation. 

A tree, with a smooth stem, which attains 3 feet in diameter (Th. Muir), and with a com- 
parative small crown of foliage, not dissimilar in habit to E. salubris and E. salmonophloia 
(concerning which two species may be referred to my " Report on the Forest-resources of Western 
Australia," pages 13-14, pi. 14 and 15), friiiting sometimes already as a shrub of 6 feet ; growth 
not of celerity, about 40 feet in 20 years. Bark greenish-white. Leaves not much shining, as in 
very many congeners terminated by a curved narrow acumen ; occasionally some of the leaves 
displaced and not paired ; reticular veinlets rather conspicuous and very close. Buds of the 
umbels enclosed in two connate bracts. Umbels when in fruit usually less turned downwards 
than when in flower. Valves inserted not distant from the orifice. 

The Aborigines of Western Australia wander for long distances to obtain saplings of 
this species for their spears, on account of the straightness of the stem and the hardness and 
elasticity of the wood ; hence the specific name and the vernacular " Spear wood-Eucalypt." 

E. Doratoxylon approaches in systematic affinity to E. decurva, as pointed out by Bentham, 
who also justly observes, that both come near the Micrantherae, to which along with E. oleosa and 
its allies they might be readily referred, though placed by that illustrious phytographer into the 
series Normales (Parallelanther^). The differences between E. Doratoxylon and E. decurva 
consist in the mostly scattered and also broader leaves of the latter, the longer leafstalks, the 
larger umbels with longer stalklets, the depressed lids, the filaments more sharply refracted while 
in bud, the longer anthers and somewhat larger fruits. 

This pretty tree was introduced into the Melbourne botanic garden very many years ago. 

Explanation of Anaittic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4, 5 and 6, side-, front- and back-view of an anther, with portion of 
filament ; 7, style and stigma ; 8 and 9, transverse and longitudinal section of a fruit ; 10 and 11, fertile and sterile 
seeds ; all magnified, but in various degrees. 



EUCALYPTUS DOKATOXYION. 



The chemical analysis of the leaves (by Mr. Eummel under the author's direction) gave the 
foUowing results : — 

I. From lead-precipitate, insoluble in diluted acetic acid, 

Eucalypto-tannic acid, not soluble in ether. 
II. From lead-precipitate, soluble in diluted acetic acid, 
Bucalyptoic acid, soluble in ether, 
Fruitsugar, soluble in alcohol but not in ether, 
Gum, soluble in water, but neither in alcohol nor ether. 
III. From aqueous solution, not precipitable by subacetate of lead, 
Eucalyptin, soluble in ether, 
Fruitsugar, 
Gum. 
The percentage of these substances in dried leaves proved to be as follows : — 
Eucalypto-tannic acid ... ... ... 7*01 

Eucalyptoic acid 



Eucalyptin ... 
Fruitsugar ... 
Gum 



•20 
•22 
5-41 

7-64 



It will thus be observed, that unlike in leaves of E. rostrata, gallic .acid is absent in those of 
E. Doratoxylon, that the percentage of Eucalypto-tannin and gum is greater, but that of fruitsugar 
less. 



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EUCALYPTUS GUNNII. . 

J. Hooker, in the London .Tournal of Botany iii. 499 (1844) ; flora Tasmanica i. 134, t. 27 ; F. v. M., fragmenta 
phytographisB Australite ii. 62 ; Bentham, flora Australiensia iii. 246; E. acervula, J. Hooker, flora Tasmanica 
i. 135. 

The Swamp- Gum- tree or Cider-Eucalypt. 

Leaves scattered, oval- or oblong- or elongate-] an ceolar or almost oval, acute at the base and 
apex, not very inequilateral, rigid, shining and of equal and saturated green on both sides, their 
oil-dots concealed or hardly developed, their lateral veins slightly prominent, somewhat distant 
and moderately spreading, the circumferential vein distinctly removed from the edge of the leaf ; 
umbels solitary, axillary and lateral, 3-10-flowered ; stalklets usually short or even hardly any, 
seldom much elongated ; tube of the calyx obconical-semiovate or faintly bellshaped, from slightly 
to doubly exceeding the length of the mostly hemispheric and short-pointed lid ; stamens all 
fertile, inflected before expansion -, anthers almost oval, bursting by longitudinal parallel slits ; 
style short ; stigma depressed ; fruits topshaped-semiovate, seldom slightly bellshaped, not angular, 
3-4- or rarely 5-celled ; rim rather narrow ; valves very short, deltoid, fixed close to the orifice, 
almost enclosed ; seeds all without appendages. 

From the vicinity of Guichen-Bay and Lake Bonney eastward to Gippsland, on alluvial, flats 
particularly in swampy places, but also on the sides of moist forest-hills and silvan mountains, 
ascending in a dwarf state our alpine regions up to 5,500 feet height , extending at least as far as 
Berrima into New South Wales (WooUs), frequent in Tasmania. 

A tree, rising under most favorable circumstances to a height of 250 feet, but usually not tall, 
often of crooked growth, sometimes also dwarfed and exceptionally even somewhat procumbent on 
coast-ridges, passing not unfrequently as a White Gum-tree, also occasionally under the designation 
Yellow Gum-tree. Bark constantly under the process of separation (Howitt), rough and dark- or 
£Teyish-brown at the butt or also on a portion of the stem or even sometimes up to some of the 
main limbs, or in many cases smooth on the stem as well as on the branches, then greyish or 
verging into a yellowish or brownish coloration. Hence the tree fluctuates in its cortical charac- 
teristics between Leiophloiae and Hemiphloiaa. Wood hard, very good for many purposes of 
artisans, if straight stems are obtainable, as a rule not splitting well, but fair for fuel. Bran ches 
very spreading. Mass of the foliage more dark, dense and shady than in many other Eucalypts. 
Leaves shorter and comparatively broader and also stiffer in the alpine state of the species, often 
somewhat undulated in the large lowland-form, occasionally and more particularly towards the 
margin assuming a reddish tinge. Stalks usually shorter than the umbels, more or less angular, 
but not dilated, sometimes almost obliterated, bearing in the alpine variety occasionally merely 
two or one flower, only in abnormal rare instances a few umbels crowded into panicles. Lid 
occasionally very depressed and almost blunt, in other exceptional cases upwards nearly conical. 
The calyces and young branches of plants of the coldest regions not rarely covered with a whitish 
bloom. Leaves of young seedlings opposit e, roundish, powdery-whitish or in the tall variety not 
pruinous. In the Alps this species flowers already at a height of several feet, forming there, 
associated with dwarfed E. pauciflora, mainly the miniature-forests ; a shrubby state producing 
flowers may now and then also be met on coast-borders. The foliage has not decidedly the 
penetrating strong Cajuput-odor of most congeners ; hence cattle and sheep readily browse on it, 
a"circumstance very'unusual among Eucalypts, though noticed also in the case of E. coryno- 
calyx. 



EUCALTPTTJS GUNNII. 

The sap of at least the alpine variety has a not unpleasant taste, and bush-people have 
converted it occasionally into a kind of cider. 

Our Swamp-Gum-tree has been confined on this occasion within the same specific limits, 
assigned to it (fragmenta phytographise Australise ii. 62) in 1860, although Bentham restricted 
E. Gunnii to the highland-form, and kept apart from it the tall lowland-state of the species with 
larger and particularly more elongated leaves, with generally more flowers in each umbel on longer 
stalks and stalklets, and with rather more topshaped not somewhat bellshaped and usually also 
smaller fruits. Middle forms can however be traced through the different regions of altitude, 
inhabited by this species. These observations were confirmed in Tasmania by Mr. F. Abbott, who 
noted, that E. Gunnii descends there to about one thousand feet of the sea-level and forms then trees 
u ^to 150 and even 200 feet higlir But in the Flora~Auitraliensrs~irrr2-l:3 the lowland-variety 
o{ E. Giinnii was united with E. Stuartiana as now understood ; the discrepancies between the 
two are set forth in the text of the last mentioned species. In their native haunts these two 
kinds of trees can be much more easily distinguished, than is possible from branchlets in 
Museum-collections. A confusion with E. viminalis, contrasted on the same occasion, is much 
less likely. 

Mii^uel (Nederlandisk Kruitkundig Archiev iv. 1859) referred states of E. Gunnii doubtfully 
to E. ligustrina of Candolle, E. Baueriana of Schauer and E. persicifolia of Loddiges. 

A solitary experiment gave the percentage of Kino-tannin in the bark of E. Gunnii as 3'44 : 
hence the yield is not likely under any circumstances rich. The following are results in this 
respect obtained from other congeners : E. amygdalina 3-22-3-40 ; E. globulus 4-84 ; E. gonio- 
calyx 4-r2-4-62 ; E. Leucoxylon 21-94 ; E. macrorrhyncha 11-12-13-41 ; E. melliodora 4-03 ; 
E. obliqua 2-50^-19 ; E. polyanthema 3-97 ; E. rostrata 8-22 ; E. viminalis 4-88-5-97. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, its lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of the 
same ; 3, some stamens in situ; 4, 5 and 6, back-, side- and front-view of an anther, with portion of its filament ; 
7. style with stigma ; 8, longitudinal sections of fruit ; 9, transverse sections of fruit ; 10 and 11, fertile and sterile 
seeds; 12, portion of a leaf; all magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS PLANCHONIANA. 

F. V. M., fragmenta phytographise Australise xi. 43 (1878). 

Branchlets very angular ; leaves scattered, sickleshaped-lanceolar, prolonged into a narrow- 
apex, slightly less sbining beneath, not pellucid-dotted, with subtle much spreading not crowded 
veins, the circumferential vein somewhat removed from the edge ; flowers 3-7 together on solitary 
axillary broadly compressed stalks ; stalklets thick, very short or hardly any ; tube of the calyx 
cylindrical-semiovate, furrowed ; lid from a semiovate base narrow-conical, about as long as the tube, 
both longitudinally streaked ; stamens all fertile ; anthers ovate- or roundish-cordate, opening with 
longitudinal slits ; style rather long ; stigma not dilated ; fruit comparatively large, globose-ovate, 
truncated, 3-4-celled, streaked by angular lines ; their margin narrow, vertically descending; 
valves short, deltoid, rather deeply enclosed ; seeds without any appendage, the sterile not much 
smaller than the fertile seeds. 

On arid somewhat sandy or more particularly rocky ridges near Moreton-Bay (Bailey). 

Height of tree up to about 100 feet ; diameter of stem to 3 feet. Timber sound, heavy, hard 
and durable, well adapted for sawing, but not easy to split. The foliage is massive and hence the 
tree more shady than many other Eucalypts. (Bailey.) 

This species bears similarity chiefly to E. rigida var. Luehmanniana ; the latter differs 
however in the whitish bloom of its branchlets, flowerstalks and calyces, in leaves of thicker 
consistence with less divergent and more prominent veins, in the presence of stomata in about 
equal number on both pages of the leaves (E. Planchoniana having them only on the underpage 
and there more copiously too, about 165,000 to a square inch), in the rather shorter and still 
broader flowerstalks, in somewhat shorter calyces with more pointed lids, in broader anthers with 
more divergent slits and a smaller gland, in fruits of less size, not at all contracted at the summit, 
with more numerous cells and a broad convex rim, in valves not deeply enclosed, but originating 
at the orifice, and in the seeds being smaller. The affinity of E. incrassata is more remote. In 
some respects E. Planchoniana reminds of E. pilularis, notwithstanding the much larger flowers 
and fruits, the almost total absence of stalklets, the heartshaped anthers and the more prominent 
rim of the fruit-calyx. 

The dedication of this stately sjDecies is to Dr. J. E. Planchon, Member of the Institute of 
France, Director of the Botanic Garden of Montpellier, famed not only for his researches on the 
Phylloxera, but also for his extensive phytologic writings, who was one of the first to cultivate 
Eucalyptus globulus and other important congeners on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, and 
who wrote an important article on Eucalyptus-culture in the Revue des Deux-Mondes, Janvier 
1875. 

With the quality of the wood of E. Planchoniana we remained hitherto unacquainted, but 
doubtless it server for many of those technic purposes, for which the ordinary Australian Hard- 
woods are applicable. In a Eeport on the Vegetable Products of the Intercolonial Exhibition of 
1866-1867 I already recorded, that wood-vinegar, alcohol, and tar, are obtainable from all kinds 
of Eucalyptus-wood (and indeed from any kind of wood) through dry distillation, hence also from 
E. Planchoniana, though its timber may prove too valuable to be sacrificed for such purposes. 
The percentage of these educts from Eucalypts is rather uniform, provided the temperature, at 
which the decomposition of the wood is effected, remains at an uniform standard. It is therefore 
not merely from E. rostrata, E. Leucoxylon and E. obliqua that tar is obtained, although these 
species were among those, which I singled out for the experiments (conducted by Mr. C. Hoffmann 



EUCALYPTUS PLANCHONIANA. 

under my directions), simply because their wood is very extensiYcly available in Victoria, and largely 
went to waste ; whereas a document, presented not very long ago to Parliament in a neighboring 
colony and reproduced in the Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, vol. xiii. pag. 
Ixv.— Lxvi., and in some other journals, would lead to the impression, that only the three above-named 
Eucalypts farnish wood-vinegar (and therefore acetic acid) and tar (and therefore also pitch and 
empyreumatic oils). In the same manner all Eucalypts are pervaded to a greater or lesser extent 
by Cajuput-like oil, but E. viminalis is particularly among the poorest in yield of this oil, as 
proved in the Victorian experiments made by Mr. Osborne, Mr. Bosisto and Mr. W. Johnson 
on the writer's suggestions for former exhibitions. Again I caused paper to be prepared in 
my laboratory from the bark of the above noticed species of Eucalyptus, not because that they 
alone farnish the raw material, but because they were simply for us most handy at the time for at 
random demonstrating by a few examples of what indeed holds good for a great genus of trees 
with numerous species. Extra^samples of these preparations were freely distributed to museums 
of vegetable products also in the adjoining colonies. 

The Kino of E. Planchoniana is one of very great astringency and therefore particularly 
valuable for therapeutic purposes ; after adherent impurities are removed by alcohol, it is found 
to be composed mainly of Kino-tannic acid, the percentage being 93-S8 of that acid, the rest 
(6'12) consisting simply of real gum and seems quite free of gallic acid. Kino-tannic acid differs 
from the allied Eucalypto-tannic acid (occurring in the leaves of Eucalypts) by producing a dark- 
blue (instead of a green) precipitate with chlorid of iron. 

The aged wood of E. Planchoniana contains, — as far as a solitary experiment has shown, — 
6,900 vascular tubes and 270 medullary rays within a square inch ; the largest diameter of the 
prosenchyma cells proved 00094, — the thickness of their cell-walls 00050 inch. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, upper portion of an unexpanded flower, the lid separated ; 2, longi- 
tudinal section of an unexpanded flower ; 3, stamens in sitn ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther with 
portion of the filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudinal section of fruit ; 9 and 10, 
sterile and fertile seeds ; all more or less magnified, but in various degrees. 




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EUCALYPTUS EOSTEATA. 

Schleohtendal, Linnsea xx. 655 (1847) ; F. v. M., in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society iii. 83 ; 
Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 240; F. v. M., forest-resources of Western Australia p. 9 (1879);' E. 
acuminata, Hooker, in Mitchell's Journal of an Expedition into Tropical Australia 390 (1848) ; E. brachypoda, 
Turczaninow, in Bulletin de la Societ6 Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou 1849 iii. 21, not of Bentham. 

finally tall ; branchlets slender ; leaves scattered, lanceolar-sickleshaped, of equal color on 
both sides ; lateral veins rather subtle, crowded, pinnate-spreading ; the circumferential vein 
somewhat removed from the edge ; oil-dots scanty or obscured ; umbels axillary or lateral, 
solitary, on slender stalks, usually with from 4 to 14 flowers ; stalklets thin, variously shorter 
than the calyx or sometimes nearly as long ; lid longer than the semiglobular tube of the calyx, 
from an almost hemispheric base gradually or suddenly sharp-pointed or rarely almost blunt ; 
stamens all fertile ; anthers nearly ovate, bursting with longitudinal slits ; stigma not dilated ; 
fruit roundish in outline from the hemispheric calyx-tube, the broad protruding convex rim and the 
3 or oftener 4, rarely 5 high-exserted deltoid valves, not large ; seeds small, all without any 
appendage, the sterile seeds very narrow. 

Along river-banks or in alluvial valleys throughout nearly the whole Australian continent, > 
but absent from some of the coast-country, from the extreme of South-West Australia and 
altogether from Tasmania, nowhere ascending high mountain altitudes, nor occurring away from | 
moist oases in any desert-regions, reaching the coast-borders in Victoria, South-Australia and also 
at least occasionally in South-Queensland, traced by me likewise to literal tracts on the lower 
Victoria-Eiver in Arnhem's Land and in West Australia south to the Murchison-River. 

This species, our famous " Eed Gum-tree," is perhaps the most important of the whole genus ; 
although surpassed in celerity of growth by E. globulus, it is of higher value for the extraordinary 
durability of its timber, having in this respect perhaps a rival only in E. marginata of South- 
West Australia, but excelling that celebrated tree in increased rapidity of growth and in the 
greater ease, with which it can be reared even in grounds with stagnant humidity. It never 
becomes so tall as the surpassingly gigantic states of E. amygdalina, E. diversicolor or E. obliqua ; 
but often attains a height of over 100 feet, and is said to have reached under particularly favorable 
circumstances even more than double that height, 250 feet according to Mr. Falck. The stem is 
proportionately stout, yielding a great bulk of timber, a diameter of 14 feet being on record. 
The bark is smooth, ashey-grey or whitish, or occasionally in part slightly brownish, from early 
decortication of its darker outer layers, unless it should remain persistently rough on the base of 
the stem, or should in trees growing exceptionally on dry ridges be more persistent and less 
smooth. The tree will live even in permanent shallow swamps. 

As this tree on account of its incomparably valuable timber will be made the subject of many 
cultural eiforts and experimental tests here and abroad, many additional observations concerning 
this species will likely be instituted for many years to come, which can in time also be collected 
in supplementary pages for these Eucalyptus decades. Even in California, where the indigenous 
forests supply the most magnificent timber-pines of the globe, it is found far more advantageous 
to rear Eucalyptus-wood for fuel and for many other purposes, for which it is adapted, than to grow 
fir-wood. E. rostrata carries with it the recommendation of being one of the best of its congeners 
to resist wet tropical heat. Thus in Mauritius it grew 50 feet in sixteen years. The vernacular 
name of " Eed Gum-tree " is derived from the dark reddish-brown color of the wood, the specific 
appellation from the beak-like pointed lid of the calyx. The natives of the lower Murrumbidgee 
call it " Biall." The leaves verge exceptionaffy into an oblong- or oval-lanceolar form ; they are 



EUCALYPTUS EOSTEATA. 

neither very shining, nor of very dark-green, indeed not rare]y of a dull and pale hue, particularly 
in arid regions of the interior. The umbels are sometimes crowded, but never strictly paniculated. 
A narrow and elongated outer quickly deciduous operculum covers not rarely the normal lid. 

The writer gave to this tree already in 1847 the name of E. longirostris, before that bestowed 
by Schlechtendal was published ; and as the now generally adopted designation had been anticipated 
by the Abbe Cavanilles (for the previously established E. robusta), the name E. longirostris 
found its way into several publications, for instance the Xederlandisk Kruitkundig Archief of 1859, 
p. 125. On the whole this is one of the most easily recognized of all species ; still instances 
occur, when it merges almost into E. viminalis and completely into E. tereticomis ; indeed from 
a strictly phytographic view it should be considered merely a variety of that species, but for 
convenience sake and practical purposes the specific name may well be retained for so important a 
tree as this. It is also almost linked by exceptional transit-forms with E. rudis, which takes its 
place in literal South-West Australia, while E. tereticornis replaces it in many coast-tracts of 
Queensland, Xew South Wales and Gippsland. The only differences of E. tereticornis consist in 
the generally more elongated and often blunter lid of the calyx, very gradually tapering upwards, 
constituting a narrow cone, and in the perhaps rather more protruding summit of the fruit ; the 
filaments are also often straight while in bud, as in E. cornuta and its allies, through not being 
fiirced to inflexion within the long cavity of the lid. In respect to the fruit E. exserta approaches 
closer to E. tereticornis than to E. rostrata, differing from both in the persistency of its outside 
wrinkled and rough, inside somewhat fibrous bark ; both E. tereticornis and E. exserta have the 
stalklets often thicker and shorter than E. rostrata. E. exserta, the "Bendo" of the Aborigines 
(O'Shanesy), is now known to range from the Burnett- to the Gilbert-River, but does not extend to 
"West Australia. The main distinctions of E. viminalis consist in its having typically only three 
flowers to each stalk, in the generally shorter stalklets, in the lid being never contracted into a 
long beak-like acumen and in the valves not being so much elevated above the margin of the fruit- 
calyx by the intervening rim. In E. rudis the hark is extensively persistent and rough, the leaves 
are often broader, hardly so regularly and distinctly feather-veined, the flowers are fewer in the 
umbels and mostly larger, the calyces are often dark-colored, the lid is almost conical, the half- 
ripe fruit somewhat bell shaped on account of its prominent narrow slightly expanding margin, 
the ovary is then more sunk, the ripe fruit is usually larger, less or not rounded at the summit, 
but rather semiovate, not very convex, nor very wide at the rim, by which means the exserted 
portion is more evidently shorter than the tube of the fruit-calyx, or the valves may remain even 
half enclosed ; to these distinctions may be added, that the leaves of young seedlings are roundish 
and almost sessile, not narrow-lanceolar as in E. rostrata. The distinction of E. patellaris is still 
more evident. 

E. rostrata supplies our well known Red Gum-timber, which is so highly prized for its 
unsurpassed durability, especially under ground ; it is very dense and in its grain flexuons but 
comparatively short, bearing an enormous downward pressure and is but slightly subject to 
longitudinal shrinking ; it remains for very loug periods indestructible in fresh or salt water or in 
wet ground. Its principal uses are for railway-sleepers, telegraph poles, fence- and other posts, 
piles, bridge-planks, culverts, wheelwrights' work (especially felloes), engine-buffers ; shipbuilders 
employ it extensively for main-stem, stern-post, inner post, deadwood, floor-timbers, futtocks, 
transoms, knighthead, hawse-pieces, cant-, stern-, quarter- and fashion-timber, bottom planks, 
breasthooks and riders, windlass, bowrails &c. ; it should be steamed before it is worked for 



;■ 



EUCALYPTUS EOSTRATA. 

curving. Next to the Jarrah from West Australia it is the best to resist the attacks of the Teredo 
and Chelura and Termites. It takes a good polish and may thus be used for furniture, though it 
is rather heavy and difficult to work on account of its great hardness. The specific gravity of Red 
Gum-wood ranges from 0-858 to 1-005, or from 53^ to 62^ lbs. per cubic foot. Mr. F. Campbell 
found the tensile strength to be equal to a pressure of 14,000 to 21,500 lbs. per square inch. 
A ton of dry wood has yielded as much as 4 lbs. of pearlash or 2^ lbs. of pure potash. For 
further details see the reports of the jurors of the successive great Melbourne Exhibitions, from 
which part of the above notes was obtained. 

Dr. H. Nordlinger of Hohenheim has given in the sixth part of his " Querschnitte von 
Holzarten" (1874, p. 19) a short anatomic description of the wood of E. rostrata. 

Dr. Josef Moeller of Marienburg has subjected this wood to a fuller anatomic examination. 
We all find the medullary rays flexuous, very numerous and fine, formed by one, two or three 
rows of cells, which are thin-walled, considerably longer than broad, and where they approach the 
vascular tubes dotted by pores ; the concentric rings are indicated by the alternating greater and 
lesser number of the vascular tubes or their absence ; the latter isolated, on transverse sections 
their walls are circular or elliptical, with an average diameter of 0-15 millimeter ; they are also 
copiously dotted, comparatively not thick, and contain often thin-walled cells with red-brown 
particles, which are soluble in a solution of caustic potash ; these are contained also in the other 
elements of the wood ; the parenchyma-cells are rather scantily dispersed but increased in number 
around the vascular tubes, without however completely surrounding them, not much thicker than 
the wood-fibres, but somewhat porous and with ampler cavity ; wood-fibres of an average width of 
0-015 millimeter, thick-walled and dotted, mostly attenuated into a fine extremity, often curved 
and occasionally ramified, some forming a solitary line between any double row of medullary rays. 

The fresh bark contains from 7 to 8 per cent. Kino, which for therapeutic purposes is regarded 
as one of the most efficient of its kind. The air-dried wood of E. rostrata contained according to 
one experiment 4-38 per cent, of Kino-tannin and 16-62 per cent, of Kino-red ; the latter (allied 
to Phlobaphen) is soluble in alcohol but not in water ; the large percentage of these two 
substances in our Eed Gum-wood is only rivalled, as far as known, by that of the hardest kind of 
Jarrah-wood (from E. marginata), and we have thus a clue to the extraordinary power of these 
two kinds of wood to resist decay in water and under ground and to be impervious to boring 
insects or Crustacea. The fresh leaves, chemically analysed for their organic constituents by Mr. 
L. Rummel under my direction, contain : Eucalypto-gallic acid -88, eucalypto-tannic acid 4-68, 
eucalyptoic acid -16, gum 2-50, eucalyptin -72, fruitsugar 10-42. The mode of operation for the 
chemical analysis of eucalyptus leaves, adopted on this occasion, was the following : The fresh 
leaves were exhausted with boiling water, the clear liquid evaporated to honey-consistence, and 
this extract mixed with about three times its volume of alcohol. The sediment thus obtained, 
consisting mainly of gum-like substance, was separated from the liquid, and the latter evaporated 
for driving off the alcohol. Renewed treatment of the remaining extract with cold water removed 
indiiferent chiefly resinous substances. The clear liquid was precipitated with subacetate of lead 
(applied slightly in excess) and the precipitate A separated from the liquid B by filtration. 

A. The precipitate was treated with diluted acetic acid and the insoluble portion (a) removed 
from the remaining solution (b) by means of filtering. 

(a). The lead-compound, insoluble in acetic acid, was mixed with alcohol and decomposed 
by sulphuret of hydrogen. The filtered solution yielded after evaporation 1, Eucalypto- 



EUCALYPTUS ROSTRATA. 

tannic acid, which remains when the aqueous solution is shaken with ether, in which it 
dissolves only to a small extent ; it is amorphous, of brownish color, of astringent taste, 
precipitates glue as well as tartrated antimony and chloride of iron, the latter with dark- 
green color ; is itself precipitated from a strong solution by concentrated sulphuric acid 
and is not decomposed by boiling with diluted sulphuric acid. 2, Eucalypto-gallic acid 
(H. Weber's eucalyptic acid) ; it dissolves in 34 parts of cold water, easily in hot water as 
weU as in alcohol and ether ; it forms whitish or yellowish long rectangular prisms or 
needles of acid astringent taste ; its solutions turn yellow with alkalies, does not precipitate 
glue (whereby it is separable from traces of tannic acid), yields a dark-blue solution with 
chloride of iron, which on addition of ammonia acquires a rich deep purple tinge, afterwards 
changing to claret-color, produces on careful heating pyro-gallic acid as a white lamellar 
sublimate of bitter taste and of the characteristic reactions towards nitrate of silver, lime- 
water, sesquichloride of iron and also sulphate of iron. 

{b). The solution of the lead-compound in acetic acid was acted on with sulphuret of 

hydrogen to eliminate the lead, and the liquid filtered off and then reduced to concentration ; 

on shaking with ether it yielded to the latter : Eucalyptoic acid; this is also soluble in 

alcohol and in water ; it forms a yellowish substance, interspersed with star-like arranged 

hexagonal crystals and tablets, has a bitter taste, and is decomposed on boiling with diluted 

sulphuric acid into fruitsugar and another (as yet unexamined) substance. Fruitsugar, 

which reduces alkaline tartrate of copper, remained in the solution after the elimination 

of eucalyptoic acid. 

B. The proportion of the aqueous extract, not precipitable by subacetate of lead, was freed 

by sulphuret of hydrogen from the lead. The concentrated filtered liquid, on shaking with ether, 

yielded to the latter : Eiccalyptin, which is amorphous (crystallisable according to H. AVeber), of 

brownish-yellow color, of soft consistence, without odor, of very bitter taste, of neutral reaction, 

soluble in about 75 parts of cold water, in less of boiling water and in still less of alcohol and 

ether ; its aqueous solution, when boiled with diluted sulphuric acid, evolves a peculiar odor, 

precipitates a yellow resinous substance, and reduces alkaline tartrate of copper ; it is not 

precipitable by tannic acid or any other reagents, indicative of alkaloids, nor sensibly affected by 

cold diluted acids nor by alkalies. Fruitsugar remained in the solution, from which the eucalyptin 

was withdrawn. It is left to be ascertained whether the febrifugal property, attributed to 

Eucalyptus-leaves, depends on the bitter glucosid, namely Eucalyptin, as seems probable, although 

the volatile Cujuput-lLke oil of the foliage possesses also undoubtedly powerful therapeutic efficacy. 

Gallic acid and its educt pyro-gallic acid is turned to account in photography, in dye-processes 

and for other requirements of technology. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, longitudinal section of unexpanded flower ; 2. side-, back- and front- 
view of stamens ; 3, style and stigma ; 4, 5 and 6, longitudinal section of fruit in its various stao;e3 ; 7, transverse 
section of fruit ; 8 and 9, sterile and fertile seeds ; 10 and 11, transverse section of wood ; 12 and 13, longitudinal 
section of wood ; 1-9, moderately enlarged ; 10-13, magnified 200-220 times. 

Anatomic Plate — 1, cellular cuticle of leaf, showing also the breathing pores ; 2, transverse section of aged 
wood, with large openings of the vascular tubes, with rows of elongated cells, constituting the medullary rays, with 
parenchyma-cells scattered and more copious near the vascular tubes, and with transverse sections of closely aggre- 
gated woody fibres ; 3, tangential section of aged wood with wide and dotted vascular tubes, with transversely cut 
cell-rows of medullary rays, with sparingly dotted woody fibres and with parenchymatous ampler interstices ; 4, 
radial section of aged wood, with wide vascular tubes, with cell-rows of medullary rays cut vertically, with sparingly 
dotted woody fibres aad with parenchymatous ampler interstices ^ all magnified 214 times diametrically . 



















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EUCALYPTUS SIDEROPHLOIA. 

Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 220 ; E. persicifolia, Candolle, prodromus systematia naturalis regni vegetabilis iii. 

217, partim. 

Finally tall ; leaves elongate- or narrow-lanceolar, moderately or not much curved, often not 
very inequilateral, of almost equal color on both sides ; primary veins numerous subtle and very 
spreading, the circumferential vein near to the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots much concealed ; umbels 
axillary, solitary or oftener many paniculated, with about a dozen or usually less flowers or some 
of the flowers only in pairs ; stalks and stalklets angular, not broadly dilated ; lid from a broad- 
conical base attenuated into a usually narrow summit ; tube obconical-semiovate, somewhat angular, 
gradually attenuated into the short stalklet, shorter than the lid ; stamens all fertile, outer fila- 
ments not inflexed before expansion ; anthers very minute, roundish, opening by broadish parallel 
slits or apertures ; stigma not or hardly broader than the style ; fruit almost semiovate, tapering 
at the base, faintly angular ; rim rather narrow in age ; valves 4 or sometimes 5, inserted near the 
orifice, at a level with the rim or half emerging ; seeds all without appendage, the sterile seeds not 
very narrow. 

From the south-eastern districts of Queensland to the vicinity of Port Jackson. 

This is the principal Ironbark-tree of New South Wales, furnishing the main-mass of timber 
of " Ironbark " there for the lumber-trade, four other species yielding additionally that class of 
wood in the sister-colony, namely E. crebra, E. melanophloia, E. paniculata and E. Leucoxylon, of 
all of which the latter species only extends to Victoria ; but Sydney Ironbark-timber, chiefly from 
E. siderophloia, used to be imported into our market also, being of particular value. Maximum 
height of the tree, according to Mr. Ch. Moore, 1 50 feet ; diameter of its stem to 4 feet. Bark 
totally persistent, deeply and somewhat anastomosingiy furrowed ; the furrows yellowish- or dark- 
brown, without cross-fibres, the ridges yielding to pressure and fissurated (Dr. Beckler). Leaves 
not very shining, rarely verging into an oval form, more so in young trees, turning also sometimes 
sickleshaped ; stomata on both pages, but nearly twice as many below than above. Panicles 
short, axillary and terminal. Umbels not rarely compound. Stamens almost straight in bud, 
only slightly flexuose, thus imitating those of E. cornuta and its allies ; hence the anthers not 
concealed before the expansion of the flower by the inflection of the filaments. Rim of the young 
fruit encircled inside by a flat annular membrane. 

In the anthereal system of Bentham E. siderophloia belongs to the Micrantheree ; among the 
species of this series it is near to E. crebra, differing in broader and stiffer leaves with less 
isogenous stomata, thicker flowerstalks, larger flowers with a longer lid and also larger fruits, 
which are comparatively not so turgid. Moreover Mr. Walter Hill found on Darling's Downs the 
bark of E. crebra decorticating as well as persistent, a variability as yet not noticed in E. sidero- 
phloia. This tendency of the bark of E. crebra to secede at least from a portion of the branches 
was noticed also by the late Edw. Bowman on the Suttor-Eiver. 

E. drepanophylla, which may be perhaps a mere variety of the imperfectly known E. lepto- 
phleba, is still nearer to E. siderophloia than E. crebra ; it is generally of more stunted growth ; 
its leaves are narrower, of a paler hue, more opaque, usually also more curved and provided with 
stomata of almost equal number on either page ; the flowerstalks are less angular and rather 
thinner ; the lid is blunter and only of about the same length as that of the calyx-tube ; the 
filaments show a somewhat inflected curvature while in bud; the style is shorter and bears a 
slightly broader stigma. 



EUCALYPTUS SIDEROPHLOIA. 

E. Bowmanii is chiefly different from E. siderophloia in less shining leaves with ahout equal 
numbers of stomata on each side, mostly solitary umbels on a broadly compressed stalk, absence 
of stalklets, the lid not long-pointed, the filaments while in bud more twisted and possibly also in 
bark and fruit. The tree from Mount EUiott, referred to by Bentham under E. Bowmanii, belongs 
to E. drepanophylla. 

E. trachyphloia, placed by Bentham between E. siderophloia and E. crebra, is much nearer 
allied to E. terminalis and E. dichromophloia (as shown in the fragm. phytogr. Austr. xi. 43-44), 
along which species it was placed already iu the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society 
iii. 90. E. pilularis is distiuguished from E. siderophloia already by the sectional characteristic 
of Eenantherre. 

E. fibrosa (F. v. M., in the Journal of the Linnean Society iii. 87) seems to be a variety of 
E. siderophloia with longer lid, which resembles that of E. tereticornis. Although it was 
published already in 1858, but only from specimens in flowerbud, its specific designation must 
give way to one so well chosen as that of E. siderophloia, especially as the bark now proves far 
less fibrous than that of the real Stringybark-trees. 

The Eev. Dr. "WooUs observes, that the Botany-Bay Kino is more extensively obtained from 
E. siderophloia than from E. resinifera, which (as the specific name implies) is generally regarded 
as the main or even sole source of that drug. Indeed Allan Cunningham and some other observers 
gave to E. siderophloia the name of E. resinifera. Mr. C. Moore (Eeports of the Intercolonial 
Exhibition of 1870 at Sydney, p. 655) remarks, that the timber is of the highest reputation for 
strength and durability, and much used for large beams, dray-poles, railway sleepers and other 
purposes, where great strength is required ; but its extreme hardness renders this wood difficult 
to work ; it is light-colored and heavy ; for spokes preference is here given to this over almost 
any other kind of wood, but the natural supply of it has become much exhausted. 

ExpLAXATiON OF AjTALTTic DETAILS. — 1, Upper part of an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, flowerbud, 
showing the almost straight stamens with many of the anthers unconcealed ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- 
aud back-Tiew of an anther, with part of the filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7, longitudinal section of fruit ; 8 and 9, 
transverse sections of fruit ; 10 and 11, fertile and sterile seeds ; 12, a panicle of smaller fruits ; 13, portion of a leaf; 
all magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS STUAETIANA. 

F. v. M., in Bentham's flora Australiensis iii. 243 (partly). 

t 

The " But-But" or Apple-scented Eucalypt. 

Finally tall ; Igave s sca ttered, lanceolar-sickleshaped, shining and equally dark-green on 
both sides, copiously dotted, but the oil-glands often partly concealed ; lateral veins very thin, 
considerably spreading, but neither crowded nor almost transverse, the circumferential vein 
distinctly removed from the edge ; umbels axillary or lateral, with usually more than three flowers, 
on a slender stalk and with short stalklets ; lid hemispherical, slightly pointed, shining, not much 
shorter than the semiovate smooth tube of the calyx ; stamens all fertile and inflexed while in 
bud ; anthers nearly oval, opening by longitudinal slits ; style very short ; stigma slightly dilated ; 
fruit quite small, semiovate or topshaped, not angular, with deltoid exserted valves, oftener 3- than 
4-celled ; rim convex, comparatively broad ; seeds small, all without any appendage. 

On rather sandy and moist tracts of country, occupying often low ridges, not rarely in 
Grasstree (Xanthorrhcea) -country, from the Barwan and Curdie's Inlet towards Cape Otway, 
from the middle regions adjacent to the Yarra extending to the Dandenong-Eanges and lower 
Gippsland, occurring also near Mudgee (Woolls), Camden and Yass (0. Moore), on the Upper 
Lachlan-Eiver (Icely), at Berrima (Calvert), in the silurian formation of Adelong (Wilkinson), 
on the upper Clarence-Eiver (Beckler), seemingly also extending to New England and the 
Condamine-Eiver ; in Tasmania near Swanport (Story). 

When well developed a middle-sized tree, seldom attaining over 100 feet in height, unless 
occasionally on river-flats according to Mr. Howitt growing to larger size, of comparatively quick 
growth, the stem according to Mr. Boyle attaining a diameter of 15 inches in ten years. The 
main-branches are often widely spreading and less distant and more numerous than in many 
other Eucalypts, by which means the mass of foliage is rendered rather dense and shady ; the 
branchlets are slender and drooping. The wrinkled brownish bark persists not only on the stem, 
but also on the primary branches ; it is outside rather scaly than rugged, inside fibrous, whereby 
a position among the Pachyphloiee (or Inophloi*) is established for this species ; but the smaller 
branches are smooth. Stem oftener twisted and gnarled than straight. Wood hard, but splits 
not well ; it is used for fence-posts of fair durability where the timber of E. rostrata is 
unobtainable, sometimes employed for rough sorts of furniture, as it takes polish well ; it affords 
also fair fuel. The flowers and fruits are not produced by this tree in so early a stage as those of 
many other species ; the stalk of the umbels only slightly or not compressed and not much 
elongated ; the -stalklets sometimes almost obliterated. The lid of the calyx is generally mam- 
millar in shape, but the apex sometimes also attenuated conically. Stamens almost white. Fruits 
may be seen in rare cases 6-celled. It is possible, that in this species a smooth-barked variety 
occurs, as would appear exceptionally to be case, according to the notes of several collectors. 

A difficulty has arisen in giving a systematic designation to this species, inasmuch as in the 
Nederlandisk Kruidkundig Archiev iv. 131 and partly also in the flora Australiensis iii. 241-242 
the name and description as well as the notes of localities apply to E. Gunnii ; in the last- 
mentioned work even a portion of E. Stuartiana as circumscribed there belongs to E. viminalis. 
But as in the "Educational Collections of Australian Plants" issued in 1876 the specimens are 
distributed already in the limitation of the species as now here adopted, and as also in Mr. Mclvor's 
meritorious recent work on the "Chemistry of Agriculture" E. Stuartiana in a chapter on 
" maintenance, creation and enrichment of forests " is defined according to the views now 



EUCALYPTUS STUARTIANA. 

promulgated here from ampler material and farther field-studies, it seems better to maintain 
the name E. Stuartiana for the present species, than to give it a new specific appellation. 

The differences, which separate E. Stuartiana from E. viminalis, are as follow : the tree is 
more umbrageous by virtue of its comparatively spreading and dense branches and foliage, hence 
in this respect more like E. Gunnii ; the bark is extensively persistent, of softer structure and 
more fibrous, so much so indeed as to allow this species to pass almost as a Stringybark-tree ; 
the leaves unlike those of E. viminalis aiford no manna-like saccharine excretions, they are also of 
a more pleasant scent reminding slightly of the odor of apples, while their veins are not quite so 
spreading and the oil-dots generally more copious and transparent ; the stem of the seedlings is 
more quadrangular, their leaves are roundish or broad-ovate or even cordate, faintly tinged with 
whitish bloom, not very narrow nor bright-green as in E. viminalis, though at first likewise 
opposite and sessile ; the wood is darker, when dry and aged very much so, as observed by 
Mr. Boyle, who confirms also most of the other characteristics here given, and states that this 
Eucalypt is often accompanied by a stunted state of E. obliqua, but keeps away from any richer 
adjoining ground of alluvial valleys, studded over by E. Gunnii and E. viminalis, contrasting with 
both species at the first glance in its bark ; the foliage is of a more saturated and more shining 
green, the lateral veins of the leaves are rather more distant, not quite so spreading and hardly so 
distinctly visible ; the fiowers in each umbel are as a rule 5-8, although sometimes they may also 
be reduced to 3 and very exceptionally even to 2 or 1 ; the lid of the calyx is usually shorter, if 
even only slightly so ; the fruits are prevailingly 3-celled, not as in E. viminalis predominently 
4-celled and often somewhat smaller. 

The disparities, by which E. Stuartiana (as here adopted) can be distinguished from E. Gunnii, 
the real Swamp-Gum-tree, consist in its bark never decorticating to a perfect smoothness unless 
on the branches and upper part of the stem, in generally longer much narrower more curved and 
not almost equilateral leaves mostly of thinner consistence, with less prominent veins and more 
numerous pellucid oil-pores, in often smaller fruits with more protruding rim and valves, in which 
latter respects as well as in its leaves B. Stuartiana approaches more closely to E. viminalis than 
to E. Gunnii. It moreover reaches never any very high mountain-elevations, whereas the latter 
ascends actually up to alpine regions. 

The variety longifolia of E. Stuartiana, recorded by Bentham, belongs to E. punctata (Cand. 
Prodr. iii. 217 ; mem. des Myrtac^es t. 4) the "Leather-Jacket" of the colonists of New South 
Wales, which differs specifically in more solid and smoother bark, stouter very angular branchlets, 
leaves opaque and paler beneath, the lateral veins more spreading and finer still, the peripheric 
vein almost contiguous to the edge, nearly obliterated oil-dots, at least partially paniculated 
flowers, stronger more compressed and often longer fiowerstalks, also usually thicker and more 
elongated stalklets, the lids longer and more gradually pointed, the stamens more elongated with 
seemingly darker filaments, the border of the ripe fruit less convex or even flat. 

E. Stuartiana bears the name of an assiduous collector of Tasmanian plants, who subsequently 
also largely contributed to our knowledge of the vegetation of New England through museum- 
material. The aboriginal appellation " But-But " arose with the natives of Gippsland according 
to information from Mr. W. Howitt. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an un- 
expanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of anther with portion of filament ; 6, stigma 
and portion of style ; 7, longitudinal section of young fruit ; 8 and 9, transverse section of fruit ; 10, longitudinal 
section of fruit; 11 and 12, fertile and sterile seeds ; 13, portion of a leaf; all magnified, but to various extent. 




Tod>deL :-'r--i>;&r-0£i^K. 



F vM Qireacit. 



StearaLillo Gov Frmtmg Off ice Melb. 



iKgnllf g)ifig iimnii^, Turczaninow 



EUCALYPTUS UNCINATA. 

Turczaninow, in Bulletin de la Societe des Naturalistes a Moscou 1849, ii. 23 ; Benthatn, flora AustralieEsis iii. 216 ; 
E. leptophylla, Miquel, in Nederlandisk Kruidkundig Archief iv. 123. 

Shrubby ; leaves scattered, on short stalks, usually narroTc-lanceolar, copiously dark-dotted, of 
equal green on both sides, never much elongated, their lateral veins exceedingly fine, rather close 
and considerably spreading, nowhere prominent, the circumferential vein very close to the edge of 
the leaf or almost contiguous with it ; umbels axHlary and solitary or occasionally some arranged 
into terminal racemous short panicles ; flowerstalks rather short, not or slightly compressed or 
seldom sharply biangular, each with 3 to 9 flowers ; tube of the calyx almost semiovate, provided 
with a very short or no stalklet, not or sometimes faintly angular ; lid quite semiovate or 
occasionally upwards narrow-conically attenuated, from nearly twice as long as the calyx-tube to 
hardly equalling the latter in length ; stamens all fertile ; filaments suddenly and sharply infracted 
before expansion but Tiot flexuous; anthers very minute, almost globular, opening towards the 
summit with lateral pores ; style of bristly thinness ; stigma exceedingly minute ; fruits small, 
semiovate, mostly 3- or less frequently 4-celled, the rim broadish and flat or internally descending, 
the valves inserted not much beneath the orifice, quite enclosed or with their pointed summits 
slightly exserted ; seeds minute without any appendage. 

In the sandy or calcareous desert-country from the Murray-Eiver and its lower tributaries to 
the west coast, there known to extend northward at least as far as the Murchison-Eiver. 

This species constitutes a considerable portion of the " Mallee-Scrub," chiefly along with 
E. oleosa and E. gracilis. It always remains of shrubby growth, with several thin stems branched 
from near the base. The bark is smooth and greyish or may assume a reddish tint, gradually 
peeling off in fragments of layers, preventing it becoming rough and furrowed by age. Branches 
erect, never drooping. Leaves of firm c onsistence, of very light green , somewhat shining, 
occasionally broad-lanceolar, sometimes lanceolate-linear, generally terminated (as in many other 
Eucalypts) by a short narrow hooked apex, from which the specific name in this instance is 
derived. Their oil-dots not translucent or only exceptionally so. The leafstalks sometimes almost 
absent. Bentham noted opposite leaves in young plants ; I find them in rare instances so even on 
fruitbearing branches, and I have also from Lake Muir specimens, seemingly of E. uncinata, in 
which the leaves become broader than long and perfectly connate into pairs, the leafy mass of each 
pair surrounding undivided the branches (as in the upper leaves of the British honeysuckle). 
Umbels in age lateral. Lid sometimes assuming a red hue. The filaments, though thin-capillary, 
appear somewhat rigid through being not flexuous in bud, their straightness (except the single 
infraction) giving to the mass of stamens when viewed as a whole an almost silky lustr e. Anthers 
with no glandular turgidity, occasionally somewhat truncated or approaching an obcordate form. 
Style extended beyond the stamens in bud. The valves of the fruit may occur sometimes more 
elongated and fine-pointed from the persistent basal remnants of the style. The sterile seeds are 
partly narrow, but aU very short ; the fertile seeds are almost oval and rather plan-convex. 

E. uncinata is easily recognized by jts_Yer^jfiiie filament s not being flexuous, but remaining 
mostly bent inward about their middle at nearly right angles, even when already expanded ; in 
this respect E. corynocalyx and E. decurva approach it, as mentioned by Bentham, but the former 
diff'ers in its finally tall stature, broader not dark-dotted leaves, longer stalklets of the flowers, 
proportionately short lid, elongated anthers opening by slits, thicker style, longer also streaked 
and at the orifice more contracted fruits with narrower rim and deeper enclosed valves ; indeed it 



EUCALYPTUS UNCINATA. 

belongs to the section Parallelantherse, not Micrantherse. The differences of E. micranthera are 
less obvious, consisting in somewhat larger undotted leaves with the circumferential vein distant 
from the edge, lid shorter than the tube of the calyx, which latter is also proportionately broader, 
in thicker filaments, the openings of the anthers extending further downward, stout style and 
somewhat larger fruit ; the filaments are in a similar way very straight except the single curvature 
about their middle. E. decurva attains a greater height, has the leaves longer stalked, darker 
green and not conspicuously dotted, nor the circumferential vein so near to the margin of the leaf, 
but the closely reticular veinlets very visible, longer more slender and mostly decurved flower- 
stalks, the lid much shorter than the tube of the calyx, the filaments not so fine, anthers evidently 
longer than broad opening by longitudinal fissures, the fruits more contracted at the mouth and 
the valves deeper sunk. 

In regard to technical importance of E. uncinata it may be mentioned, that the volatile 
Mallee-oil, usually ascribed to E. oleosa, is in aU probability partly derived from E. uncinata. 

Explanation op Analytic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4, 5 and 6, back-, front- and side-riew of an anther with portion of 
its filament ; 7, style with stigma ; 8 and 9, transverse and longitudinal section of fruit ; 10 and 11, sterile and 
fertile seeds ; 12, portion of a leaf; all magnified but to various extent. 



EUCALYPTOGRAPHIA. 



A DESCEIPTIVE ATLAS 



EUCALTPTS OF AUSTEALIA 



ADJOINING ISLANDS; 



EAEON nm. YOl MUELLEE, K.C.I.(}., I. & PH.D., E.E.S., 

GOVEENMENT BOTANIST FOE THE COLONY OF VICTOEIA. 



** Won SUCCIDES AitBOHES, NEC SECUKIBirs DEBES VASTAHE EAB.UM REGIONEM."— Xifter DeuterOnOmii IX. 19, 



FIFTH DECIDE. 



MBLBOUENE : 

JOHN FEEKES, GOVEENMENT PEINTEE. 
PXJBLISHBD Also BY GEOKGB EOBEETSON, LITTLE COLLINS STEBET. 

LONDON : 
TEtJBNEE AND CO., 57 AND 69 LTTDGATE HILL ; AND GEOEGE EOBEETSON, 17 WAEWICK SQTJAEE. 

M DCCC LIXX. 




rd- i»'; C7rc5a»l(<-C-' 



Til aiT-cl 



Steeoi Lilho Gov Praibue ' 



li'giilj])lii§ mf gMmn » Labilbrdm. 



EUCALYPTUS AMYGDALINA. ' 

Labillardiere, Novae Hollandise plantarum specimen ii. 14, t. 154 (1806) ; CandoUe, prodromus systematis naturalis 
regni vegetabilis iii. 219 ; Hooker, Botanical Magazine t. 3260 ; J. Hooker, flora Tasmanica, i. 35 ; F. v. M., 
fragmenta phytographiae Australise ii. 53 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 202 ; E. radiata, Sieber, in Candolle 
prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis iii. 218 ; Candolle, m6moire sur la famille des myrtao^es, t. 7 ; 
J. Hooker, flora Tasmanica i. 137 ; E. elata, Dehnhardt, catalogus plantarum horti Camaldulensis p. 26 (1829) ; 
E. tenuiramis, Miquel, in Nederlandisk Eruidkundig Archief iv. 128 ; E. nitida, J. Hooker, flora Tasmanica, 
i. 137, t. xxix. 

The " (jri ant-Eucalypt " or " "Wangara." Finally very tall ; branchlets slender ; leaves on ' 
rather short stalks, scattered or rarely opposite, narrow- or sickleshaped-lanceolar or very narrow, 
usually attenuated into an acute but oblique base, generally not of thick consistence, mostly of a 
saturated green and somewhat shining on both sides ; lateral veins very thin, not much spreading, 
nor closely approximated, the circumferential vein remote from the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots very 
copious, transparent ; umbels with few or oftener several or many flowers, solitary, axillary, on 
slender almost cylindrical or slightly angular sometimes very short stalks ; calyces small, attenuated 
into a short thin stalklet, not angular ; tube obconical, upwards dilated, usually twice as long 
as the hemispheric blunt or short-pointed lid ; stamens very short, all fertile, inflexed before 
expansion ; anthers very small, nearly kidneyshaped, opening with divergent slits ; stigma hardly 
broader than the style ; ripe fruits small, semiovate or sometimes verging towards a truncate- 
globular form, 3- to 4- or rarely 5-celled, the rim finally flat and usually rather broad ; valves 
tender, convergent, deltoid, close to the orifice, slightly or not exserted ; fertile as well as sterile 
seeds quite small, all without appendage. 

From the southern and the whole eastern humid districts of the colony of Victoria extending 
to the base of the Alps, to the Blue Mountains and the literal slopes of New South Wales, not 
far advancing on the western fall of the country, frequent in Tasmania, ascending to about 4,000 
feet elevation. ~ 

This Eucalyptus is one of the most remarkable and important of all plants in the whole 
creation ! Viewed in its marvellous height when standing forth in its fullest development on the 
slopes or within glens of mountain-forests, it represents probably the tallest of all trees of the 
globe ; considered as a hardwood-tree of celerity in growtE it ranks among t he very foremost ; 
regarded in reference to its timber the tall variety can fairly be classed with the superior kinds of 
Eucalypts, and contemplated in respect to the yield of volatile oil from its copious foliage it is 
unsurpassed and perhaps not equalle d by any other t ree i n th e whole wo rld ! These various 
signal qualities of E. amygdalina having become gradually known, much through the exertions of 
the writer, this tree has found already a wide appreciation abroad, in countries neither subject to 
severe frosts nor to intense moist heat. It assumes under different climatic and geologic conditions 
various forms ; thus in the irrigated ravines of cooler ranges the tree attains the most towering 
heio-ht combined with a perFect^raightness of^stem,^wEneTEe outer layers of its bark decorticate 
so completely as to render the huge stems quite smooth and almost white, the habit then being 
that of its only rival in loftiness among congeners, namely E. diversicolor (the Karri of West 
Australia). This lofty state of the tree passes as one of the White Gum-trees (and even also as 
Mountain-Ash in the Dandenong-Ranges), while phytographically it has been distinguished as 
''reo'nans." According to Mr. F. Abbott it is this form, which constitutes the "Swamp Gum-^ 
tree" in Tasmania, where already Sir William Denison placed early its huge dimensions on record. 
In more~open and in merely ridgy country E. amygdalina remains much lower in stature, even 



EUCALYPTUS AMTGDALINA. 

often a comparatively dwarf tree, with outside rough, inside tough somewhat fibrous bark, which 
remains more or less persistent on the stem and even lower branches ; under such conditions the 
species is called a " Peppermint-tree " in Victoria and Tasmania and a " Messmate-tree " in some 
tracts of New South Wales. (Vide WooUs, Lectures on the Vegetable Kingdom, p. 121.) 

The bark, when it persists, is however much more solid than that of E. macrorrhyncha and 
E. obliqua, offering a transit of the Pachyphloiee to Rhytiphloise. On account of the toughness 
of the inner bark the natives of G-ippsland have given to this tree the name of " Wangara," 
meaning literally translated "Bark strong" (Howitt). The stems of young seedlings or of 
sprouts from stumps are thin, somewhat warty- or glandular-rough, not angular : their leaves are 
opposite, sessile, narrow oblong- or oval-lanceolar, rounded or cordate at the base or even connate 
as in E. uncinata, paler beneath and sometimes covered with whitish bloom. The leaves of the 
aged tree from cold exposed localities are thicker (as is the case also with E. Gunnii), and then the 
oil-glands are much obscured. Flowering and fruiting branches present only under exceptional 
circumstances opposite leaves. As many as 43 flowers have been counted by me in one umbel. 
Instances occur, in which the lid is acutely pointed. The fruit is occasionally shortened to an 
almost hemispheric form and its valves may occur increased even to six ; the rim sometimes 
descends rather abruptly to the valves, rendering then the edge of the orifice narrow. 

The systematic name, given by Mons. Labillardifere to this tree, is not happily chosen, as it 
neither in habit nor in foliage nor in any other way bears resemblance to the Almond-tree. His 
work illustrates the narrow-leaved variety. To the synonyms are added by Bentham E. longifolia 
(Lindley, Botanical Register 947) and hence B. Lindleyana (CandoUe, prodromus iii. 219), 
although the drawing affords no positive evidence of the species intended. Bentham refers here 
doubtfully also E. ambigua (Candolle, prodromus iii. 219), which however may be a West 
Australian species, the somewhat leathery leaves, the compressed flowerstalks and the almost 
globular fruit not really pointing to E. amygdalina ; but E. linearis (Dehnhardt, Eivista Napoli- 
tana i. 3, p. 173 anno 1839) seems merely to indicate a variety, remarkable for the extraordinary 
narrowness of its leaves, but neither flowers nor fruits occur in the authentic specimen, preserved 
in the collection of Baron Cesati, who kindly placed samples of Dehnhardt's original plants at my 
disposal. 

Eucalyptus Risdoni (J. Hooker, in the London Journal of Botany vi. 477 ; flora Tasmanica 
i. 133, t. 24 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 203) seems an aberrant form only of E. amygdalina, 
as pointed out by me already in 1860 ; and the same may be said of E. dives (Schauer, in Walpers 
repertorium botanices sytematicse ii. 926 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 205) ; but the local 
circumstances, under which these seemingly aberrative states arose, remain hitherto uninvestigated. 
E. Risdoni is as yet only known from Southern Tasmania ; it is a small tree ; the leaves of the 
upper branches are mostly, like those of the variety nitida (E. nitida, J. Hooker), thick and rio-id, 
comparatively short and almost equilateral, while the leaves of the lower branches are, like those 
of seedlings and sprouts, opposite, sessile, broad, often connate and as well as the branchlets and 
umbels chalky-whitish, moreover the fruits are generally larger ; but these characteristics are of 
degree only and none positively specific ; it would seem also as if analogous cases were presented 
by E. Stuartiana and E. crebra, inasmuch as E. cinerea and E. melanophloia appear to hold the 
same position to E. Stuartiana and E. crebra as E. Risdoni to E. amygdalina. The distinctions of 
E. dives are equally weak, being reduced to the suppression or extreme shortness of the leafstalks, 
and to opposite thick ovate- or broad-lanceolar leaves, but it is wanting altogether in the chalky 



EUCALYPTUS AMYGDALINA. 

but also variable coloration of E. Eisdoni ; it is now also known from the sources of the Loddon 
and Shoalhaven-River. The unreliability of the cortical characteristics of E. amygdalina render 
it sometimes difficult to distinguish this species from B. Sieberiana, especially in the absence of 
flowers ; but that portion of the bark, which long persists, is not deeply furrowed, the wood is 
more fissile, the leaves are more copiously dotted, the flowerstalks are not strongly compressed, 
none of the stamens are sterile, and the fruit is less elongated. It differs from B. hsemastoma in 
the veins of the leaves less spreading and less prominent, in thinner almost cylindric flowerstalks 
and all the filaments provided with anthers, also in comparatively shorter fruit. The thick-leaved 
varieties of E. amygdalina approach in many respects B. coccifera, but the lid of the calyx is not 
remarkably depressed even in the Eisdonian variety, with which this shares the chalky bloom, the 
tube of the calyx of the genuine E. amygdalina is never so long and not angular, the flowerstalks 
are not so stout nor so flattened and the stalklets more slender. That form of E. amygdalina, 
which produces fruits more contracted at the orifice, bears so far much resemblance to E. piperita, 
but the bark is less persistent and less stringy, the veins of the leaves are not so spreading, the 
lid is never conical, the stalklets are generally longer and the fruits as a rule smaller. All the 
other species of the section Eenantherse are more distinct. 

The number and distribution of the stomata are in this species subject to unusual variability, 
explainable by the age of the tree and the open or shady position of its growth. 

This tree has a preference for the silurian formation and particularly for metamorphic schist, 
as first traced by Mr. Howitt, at least in our uplands. 

E. amygdalina is one of the hardier of its congeners, and if E. coccifera constitutes an alpine 
state of it, then it has in that remarkable form braved even unusually cold winters of Britain. 
For instance at Powderham-Castle, the seat of the Earl of Devon, it passed unscathed through an 
ordeal of + 9° of Fahrenheit's scale while B. globulus was destroyed already at + 20° F. The 
above noted severe cold caused to E. coccifera no injury whatever, so that perhaps that tree will 
withstand a still somewhat lower temperature ; it produced in the subsequent summer thousands 
of sprays of blossoms. Its height at Powderham-Castle was 58 feet, the stem measuring at 3^ 
feet from the ground 7^ feet in circumference ; it grows there on sandy loam of rising ground. 
(Powell, i n the Gardener's Chronicle 18 79, p. 113, with xylographic illustration.) 

It is the intention to give on a future occasion a schedule of exact measurements, clinome- 
trically obtained, of the tallest individual trees anywhere to be found ; but it may for the present 
suffice to observe, that approximate heights for this tree of 400 feet have been obtained by the 
writer at the Black Spur and elsewhere on the Upper Yarra and Upper Goulburn-Eiver. Mr. D. 
Boyle first of all ascertained the length of a fallen tree of this species, found by him in the 
Uandenong-Eanges, at 420 feet ; t he length of th e stem up to the first branch being 295 feet, the 
diameter of the stem at the commencement of the ramification proved 4 feet, 70 feet higher up the 
diameter was still 3 feet, the top-portion was wanting. A still thicker tree ther e mea sured at 3 
feet from the ground 53 feet in circumference. Mr. Boyle found another tree with a stem 25 feet 
in diameter at the base, yet the bark quite thin. Mr. Howitt obtained in Gippsland also measure- 
ments up to 410 feel;. The Eev. Th. Ewing (as stated in Henfrey's Botanic Gazette) measured a 
prostrate tree on a rill of the North-West Bay Eiver at the rear of Mount Wellington already 
thirty years ago and recorded the height up to t he first b ranch 220 feet, from thence to where the 
top was broken off 64 feet more ; t he basal d iameter proved to be 30 feet, the stem-diameter at 
220 feet was still 12 feet ! and to that distance it would turn out already more timber than three 



EUCALYPTtrS AMTGDALINA. 

of the largest oaks taken together with their branches. A standing tree at the same place 
measured 3 feet from the ground 102 feet in circumference, but close to t he ground even 130 feet ! 
The rev. gentleman observed within a square mile at least 100 trees, none less than 40 feet in 
circumference at the base (Dr. Masters). Mr. G. Robinson noticed in the back-ranges of Berwick 
the circumference of a stem to be even 81 feet at a distance of 4 feet from the ground. {See 
EUwood Cooper's edition of some of my lectures and essays, p. 161). The same gentleman, 
whose professicioal judgment as a surveyor would give every guarantee for accuracy, obtained at the 
foot of Mount Baw Ba\\' the measurement of an exceptionally large tree, which was 471 feet high. 
From the Cape Ot way-Ranges a tree is also on record by Mr. Walter, with a height of 415 feet 
and a basal diameter of 15 feet, although the loftiest trees have not always the most colossal 
stems. But though this Eucalypt of ours will probably maintain the actual supremacy in height 
among trees of the globe, it must cede the palm of superiority perhaps to the Wellingtonia- Sequoia 
and the only other congener of the Mammoth-tree of California in respect to height combined with 
massive ramification and a crown of foliage dense to the summit in Sequoias — because the final 
extraordinary height of E. amygdalina is often attained only by a solitary straggling branch, 
pushing singly towards the sky. It is a grand picture to see a mass of enormously tall trees of 
this kind with stems of mast-like straightness and clear whiteness so close together in the forest 
as to allow them space only towards tlieir summit to send their scanty branches and sparse foliage 
to the free light. 

The timber is useful for many kinds of carpenters' work ; in drying it does not twist ; when 
straight stems are produced in forest-valleys the wood splits better into palings than even that of 
our Stringybark-tree, and this with such facility, that in some particular instance a laborer has 
split 620 palings of 5 feet length in one day ; the timber is comparatively not heavy, as it floats 
in water, unlike that of many other Bucalypts ; it is particularly well adapted for shingles, 
palings and rails and also drawn into use for shipbuilding, especially kelsons and planking {see 
F. V. M., Select Plants, Indian edition p. 107), but it has not been found very lasting underground 
and does not afi'ord a superior fuel ; indeed the stems, when fallen, perish more quickly than those 
of many other Bucalypts, and thus the records of individual trees of marvellous height, when 
measured lying on the ground, are often early lost. 

The utmost praise is due to Joseph Bosisto, Esq., M.L.A., J.F., for his lengthened and 
extensive researches on the oil of this and other congeners, to the technical production, local 
utilisation and mercantile export of which he has given large dimensions by his enterprise and 
perseverance, it having fallen to the writer's share to draw in first instance attention to the 
enormous yield of oil from the foliage of E. amygdalina. Mr. Bosisto sums up his experience 
with the Eucalyptus-oils, as regards the percentage of the yield of the various species, on which he 
experimented, in the followinu schedule : — 

From 1,000 lbs. of fresh leaves with their stalklets and branchlets — 



Eucalyptus viminalis yields ... 


7 ounces 


Eucalyptus goniocalyx yields ... 


150 ounces 


melliodora yields 


7 „ 


Leucoxylon yields 


160 „ 


rostrata yields 


15 „ 


oleosa (mixed with other species 




obliqua yields 


80 „ 


of the MaUee-scrub) yields ... 


200 „ 


globulus yields 


120 „ 


amygdalina yields 


500 „ 



But this average-yield, thus demonstrated by Mr. Bosisto to rise to more than 3 per cent, in 
E. amygdalina, fluctuates during the various seasons, it being during the cool months of the year 



EUCALYPTUS AMYGDALINA. 

appreciably less than during the summer. The distilled oil from the foliage of E. amygdalina is 
pale-yellow, thin, of rather pungent Cajuput-like odor, of cooling afterwards bitter taste, of 0-881 
specific gravity, boils at from 329 to 370° F., deposits stearopten at low temperatures. Mr. J. W. 
Osborne, who at the instance of the author subjected various Eucalyptus-oils to extensive tests for 
the second London Exhibition, found the diminishing degree of solubility of the following substances 
to be in the subsequent order : Camphor, Pine-resins, Mastic, Sandarac, Blemi, Kauri, Asphalt, 
Xanthorrhoea^resin, Benzoe, Copal, Amber, Anime, Shellac, Caoutchouc, Beeswax. {See Jurors' 
Eeport of the Exhibition of 1863.) Eucalyptus-oil dissolves also Grutta-Percha readily, and can 
be used in lamps like Petroleum, with this important advantage, that it has greater illuminating 
power, has a rather pleasant odor and is not liable to cause explosions, though it remains a 
much more costly article. Eucalyptus-leaves found however during the earlier period of our 
colony for years use in one of our towns for the production of light-gas. Mr. Bosisto obtained 
id per cent, of pearlash from the ashes of the foliage of E. amygdalina. 

Eucalyptol, first obtained by Cloez in Paris, through repeated fractional distillation, presents 
according to him the chemical formula C^* H^o 0'^ ; it is a very mobile colorless liquid, boiling at 
347° F., of 0-905 specific gravity. It rotates polarized light to the right, remains liquid at low 
temperatures, is little soluble in water, completely in alcoliol, the solution being of somewhat rosy 
odor when much diluted ; Eucalyptol forms when distilled with anhydrous phosphoric acid 
Eucalypten = C^* H^s, a liquid boiling at 329° F. and of 0-836 specific gravity. (Compt. Rend. 
Ixx. 678.) But Eucalyptol, according to Drs. Homeyer and A. Faust, is composed of a terpene 
and cymene (both hydrocarbons) and eucalyptol ; the proportions of these in various Eucalyptus- 
oils is not the same. 

The capacity of the stills in Mr. Bosisto's factory in Western Gippsland amounts at present 
approximately to 2,000 gallons, the produce of oil being about 12,000 lbs. annually now ; as much 
as 6 tons of leaves are operated on daily. These extensive operations have reduced the product 
to a remarkable cheapness, so much so that the wholesale-price in Victoria has sunk to 2s. 6d. 
per lb., while in the English market it is only 3s. Eucalyptus-oil, irrespective of its great 
therapeutic value, is much used for additions to perfumery (dilution of the oils of roses, orange- 
flowers &c.) and for select varnishes and various other technic applications. Several other 
species yield volatile oil also very copiously, for instance E. salubris, E. salmonophloia, E. longi- 
cornis, E. microcorys {see F. v. M., Eeport on the Forest-Resources of Western Australia, pp_ 
12—15, pi. xii., xiii., xiv.), but most of them being smaller trees, would not afford an equal bulk 
of foliage. When the stems of the dwarf variety are cut, new shoots spring from the root, thus a 
fresh crop of foliage is furnished in a few years. Sir William Denison, G-.C.M.G., Sir Robert 
Officer and Dr. Motherwell instituted in Tasmania about thirty years ago some experiments for 
the distillation of Eucalyptus-oil; but these observations were not followed up there by any 
practical applications in factories ; but in that island pyrolignous acid was produced from 
Eucalyptus wood on a large scale for some years, but this operation was discontinued, perhaps 
because the other products of dry distillation such as tar, pitch and wood-alcohol could not be 
sufficiently utilized at the time. 

The hygienic properties of Eucalypts, largely dependent on the volatile oil of their foliage, 
have been discussed in many essays, one on this subject by our fellow-colonist Mr. Bosisto being 
among the foremost. {See Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, August 1874). 



EUCALYPTUS AMYGDALINA. 

Mons. P. Ramel, Mons. A. Thozet, the writer and many others have early drawn public 
attention to the importance of these trees for subduing malaria, after incidentally the febrifagal 
properties of the Eucalypts had been discovered first by Spanish physicians in 1866 and been 
confirmed soon subsequently by medical men in France and Italy, to whom the opportunities for 
hygienic researches of this kind much more readily arose than to us here, in places where 
periodically or even continuously malarian fevers were raging, and where these, so soon as 
Eucalyptus-vegetation copiously arose (and this often through the instrumentality of the writer) 
the disease was suddenly or gradually checked, mostly even without recurrence. The powerful 
disinfecting action of the oily volatile emanations of the Eucalypts are mainly due to the evolution 
of Ozone and double oxyd of Hydrogen, as shown by experiments of Dr. Andrews and Dr. G. Day. 
But irrespective of this the power of also this Eucalypt to absorb moisture from the ground is 
enormous and of vast hygienic significance, and stands in proportion to the intensity of the 
aqueous exhalation, in which latter respect many Eucalypts vastly surpass Elms, Oaks, Poplars 
and many other trees. {See my lecture on " Forest-cultiire in relation to Industrial Pursuits " &c., 
EUwood Cooper's edition p. 99.) The gradually dropping foliage, unlike that of most other trees, 
acts also deodorizing on the soil. Sir Will. Macarthur alluded likewise early to the healthiness 
of Eucalyptus-regions. 

Again quite recently Prince Pierre Troubetzkoy once more insisted, as was done by us here 
many years ago, that to E. amygdalina preference should be given over any other congener for 
plantations in any paludal fever-regions, wherever climatic circumstances would allow it to 
prosper, although this species grows not with quite the rapidity of E. globulus, nor accommodates 
itself with the same facility to a great diversity of soils. At Lago Maggiore, where Prince 
Troubetzkoy instituted his observations, E. amygdalina grew 60 feet in nine years, and endured 
a temperature sinking occasionally as low as 18° F., proving hardier than E. globulus and 
E. rostrata. See Bulletin de la Soci6t6 d'Acclimatation, Paris, 1879, pp. 338-342, in which 
important journal the culture of Eucalyptus has been strenuously advocated by M. Ramel and 
numerous other writers ever since 1858. See also Count Luigi ToreUi's Memoir " I'Eucalyptus e 
Roma" 1879, pp. 48-49. 

Dr. Josef Moeller of Vienna describes the wood of E. amygdalina anatomically in nearly the 
following words (translated) : — The vascular tubes are always isolated and irregularly scattered in 
scanty number ; their lumen exceeds rarely 0"06 mm. ; their walls are but slightly thickened and 
are seriated-dotted ; parenchyma is only scantily developed ; the woody fibres are also dotted, at 
an average 0-012 mm. broad, of which two-thirds pertain to the lumen ; their contours are uneven ; 
the medullary rays consist of one or two rows of cells, not rarely cubical and rather broad about 
0-024 mm. 

The form of the expanded cotyledonar leaves is characteristic to some extent for various 
Eucalypts ; in E. amygdalina they are ovate-kidneyshaped and tapering into short stalklets, 
whereas some other species, for instance E. cornuta, have them deeply cleft into two narrow 
divergent lobes. 

ExpLAifATioN OF ANALYTIC Detaiis. — 1, Tmexpanded flower, the lid partly lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of 
an unexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4-5, back- and front-view of a stamen with part of its filament ; 
6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudinal section of fruits ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile seeds ; 
11, portion of a leaf; 12, vascular, prosenchymatous and parenchynjatouB elements of wood ; all magnified to various 
extent, fig. 12 as much aa 220 times diametrically. 



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EUCALYPTUS CORYMBOSA. 

Smith, a specimen of the Botany of New Holland 43 (1793) ; Transactions of the Linnean Society iii. 287 ; Cavanilles, 
icones et descriptiones plantarum t. 340 ; De Candolle, prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis iii. 
220 ; F. T. M., fragmenta phytographise Australise ii. 46 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 256 ; Metrosideros 
gummifera, Solander, in Gsertner de fruotibus et seminibus i. 170, tab. 34, fig. 1. 

The ordinary Bloodwood-tree. 

Finally tall ; leaves scattered, of firm consistence, ovate- or elongate-lanceolar, slightly curved 
or somewhat sickleshaped, paler beneath, the lateral veins very numerous, subtle, almost transversely 
spreading, the circumferential vein nearly contiguous to the edge ; the oil-dots generally concealed 
or obliterated ; umbels paniculated, mostly terminal, rarely solitary and axillary, on slender 
slightly compressed or angular stalks, bearing from 3 to 9 rather large flowers ; stalklets from 
somewhat shorter to considerably longer than the calyx, angular, rather slender ; lid depressed- 
hemispherical, short-pointed, tearing off along a rather irregular transverse line, exceeded in width 
and much in length by the obconic-bellshaped tube of the calyx ; stamens all fertile, inflexed 
before expansion ; filaments yellowish-white ; anthers oblong-oval, blunt, opening by longitudinal 
parallel slits ; ovary flat-topped ; stigma hardly broader than the summit of the style ; fruit 
large, oval-urnshaped, not angular, 3- or oftener 4-celled ; rim narrow ; valves deeply enclosed, 
deltoid ; fertile seeds large, provided with a narrow or short appendicular membrane, sterile seeds 
much smaller. 

From the vicinity of the Genoa-Eiver to near Eockingham-Bay on dry ridges and hills or in 
open forest-ground, ascending to considerable mountain-elevations in New England. 

A tree, attaining a maximum-height of 150 feet, but often of much lower and sometimes 
stunted growth, fruiting already when hardly advanced beyond its early shrubby state. Bark 
persistent, outside rough, wrinkled, grey and turning somewhat black, inside yellowish- or reddish- 
brown ; that of the upper branches smooth and often reddish ; but in New England it seems to be 
noticed, that the bark also becomes smooth and whitish from shelving off in flakes. Branchlets 
not very angular. Panicles more or less ample, of pleasant scent. Calyces generally dark- 
colored ; the rim of their tube soon after flowering somewhat revolute. Lid not dehiscent along 
a sharply defined suture, often continuing to adhere to the rim unilaterally for some time. 
Filaments not so fine-capillary as in many other species. Anthers dorsifixed. Fruits not gene- 
rally polished-smooth, but of a dull color outside ; the valves sometimes remaining coherent and 
then seceding as a circular disk. Seeds rather few in each cell. 

The wood is easily enough worked when fresh, but becomes very hard when dry ; it is long- 
lasting underground and according to Mr. S. Johnson it is as resistent to the Termites as the 
wood of several Ironbark-trees, but it is intersected by concentric fissures, filled with fluid or 
indurated Kino-secretions, whence the popular name of this tree is derived ; but for the same 
reason the timber is not available for sawing purposes, and it does not turn out a good fuel, as it 
is diflicult to burn. The Kino-sap indurates soon on its own accord, as in all congeners, and is 
gathered for therapeutic or industrial purposes as exuded spontaneously from the stem and bark, 
in its dry state without any preparation, liquid Kino becoming merely exceptionally mercantile 
and then also only as a crude product. This seems not generally known abroad, nor the fact, that 
the mere general name " Gum-tree " for Bucalypts does not indicate even the least supply of Kino 
for commercial purposes. {See Wiesner, die Eohstoffe des Pflanzenreiches p. 188.) 

The species, as far as here noticed, is restricted to the ordinary state, in which it appears 
through the more literal regions of New South Wales and Southern Queensland. But the greatest 



EUCAXTPTUS COETMBOSA. 

embarrassment has arisen in specifying the limits, by which E. terminalis (E. pyrophora, Bentham, 
flora Australiensis iii. 257) may constantly be separated ; thus Bentham already was inclined to 
consider both as forms only of E. corymbosa, a view which the accumulation of much additional 
material has almost confirmed. In the wide tracts of intratropical Australia E. terminalis with 
its varieties occurs even far inland, thus at the Barcoo (Dr. Wuth) and at Lady Charlotte's Water 
(E. GUes) in such hot and arid regions, as are climatically vastly different from the cool- forest- 
ravines of the south-east coast ; hence gradually the leaves become paler, nearly or fully as much 
on the upper surface as beneath, their position gets more vertical and therewith stomata occur also 
on the upper page, the panicles also assume often a paler hue, the flowers and fruits generally are 
smaller, the latter become less woody and somewhat more slender, and often lose the outward 
curvature towards the rim ; but the fertile seeds of E. terminalis are as a rule provided with a 
terminal membranous appendage of about the length of the kernel, a characteristic hardly ever 
occurring in the typical E. corymbosa. An extraordinary variability is also evinced by E. termi- 
nalis as regards not only the size of its calyx, but also the manner of its dehiscence, a regular 
sutural line being sometimes not traceable, necessitating an irregular defractiou of the opercular 
summit ; the lid moreover verges sometimes to a flattened form with an almost obliterated apex, 
or the lid may be quite turgid and its apex very prominent. 

E. dichromophloia has the fruits considerably smaller, about the size of those of E. trachy- 
phloia and E. latifolia, besides the bark seems always different, as the specific name implies, from 
that of E. corymbosa and E. terminalis, its upper thin smooth and pale stratum separating from 
the brownish-red thick layers below. E. latifolia has very broad even roundish leaves, and belongs 
on account of its smooth bark to the section Leiophloiae, unless this be subject to exceptions. 
E. Abergiana can be separated from E. calophylla and E. terminalis by the want of stalklets of its 
calyces and from the latter besides by the broader and above dark-green leaves. E. calophylla 
may be said to replace E. corymbosa in West-Australia, though E. terminalis advances to Nichol- 
Bay on the west-coast and perhaps still farther southward. E. calophylla is however specifically 
different in several important respects. {See F. v. M., report on the Forest-resources of Western 
Australia p. 4, pi. 2.) The young seedlings of all allied species require yet further comparison. 

E. urnigera, which bears in its fruit considerable resemblance to E. corymbosa, differs 
essentially in having the leaves dark-green and somewhat shining on both sides, the latter 
moreover are provided with less spreading rather irregular and more distant lateral veins, a 
removed marginal vein and isogenous stomata, many of the flowerstalks are axillary and bear 
mostly 3 or occasionally only 2 flowers, the tube of the calyx is more cylindrical turgid below the 
middle and strongly constricted towards the rim, the lid is ampler than the oriflce and seceding 
by a clear circumcision, the fruit is generally smaller, with more spreading rim, and the seeds are 
devoid of any appendage. It is moreover never a large tree and restricted to the subalpine zone 
of Southern Tasmania. 

The Very Eev. Canon King noticed Melitose-Manna to a small extent on the leaves of 
E. corymbosa, when pierced by a phyllophagous Beetle (Anoplognathus cereus). 

Explanation op Anaittic Details. — 1, upper part of an tinexpanded flower, tlie lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal 
section of an unexpanded flower ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of an anther with portion of its filament ; 5, style and 
stigma ; 6, stamens in situ ; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, sterile and fertile 
seeds, one of the latter cut transversely ; 11, portion of a leaf; all magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS CREBEA. 

F. V. M., in the Journal of the Linnean Society iii. 87 (1858) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 221. 

Finally tall ; leaves scattered, on rather short stalks, elongate- or falcate-lanceolar, sometimes 
very narrow, of somewhat thin consistence, of equal and dull green on both sides ; lateral veins 
subtle, rather numerous, almost parallel and moderately spreading, the circumferential vein very 
near to the edge ; oil-dots much concealed ; umbels paniculated or some axillary and solitary, on 
slender stalks, with usually from 3 to 7 small flowers on rather short and thin stalklets ; tube of 
the calyx nearly semiovate, about twice as long as the pyramidal- or hemispheric-conical lid or 
sometimes not much longer ; stamens all fertile, inflexed in bud ; anthers very minute, roundish, 
opening by ample longitudinal slits ; stigma broader than the short style ; fruits very small, semi- 
ovate, 4- less often 3-celled, their rim rather narrow, the valves deltoid, affixed close below the 
summit, quite enclosed or provided with slightly exserted points ; seeds all without any appendage, 
the sterile considerably smaller than the fertile seeds and mostly broadish. 

From near the southern shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria (F. v. M.) through the more litoral 
and hilly tracts of Eastern Australia to New England and further southward to the vicinity of 
Port Jackson and the Blue Mountains, westward to Darling-Downs (W. Hill), chiefly on scrubby 
ridges and ranges. 

A tree, attaining a height of about 100 feet, with a stem-diameter of 3 feet, content with poor 
soil, known as red or narrow-leaved Ironbark-tree through the wide tracts of its occurrence. Bark 
dark, persistent on stem and branches, almost blackish, ridged and deeply furrowed, solid ; but in 
exceptional geologic situations or perhaps under unusual climatic circumstances the bark occurs 
also smooth and whitish from decortication in laminar outer strips ; still it is far less variable in 
this respect than E. Leucoxylon ; however Mr. "Walter Hill sends branchlets of a " Grey Gum- 
tree " with a note of its being smooth-barked throughout, which cannot be distinguished otherwise 
from E. crebra. Trunk branching far down or in other cases only ramified towards the summit of 
the tree. Timber reddish, regarded of superior value, all kinds of Ironbark-trees furnishing tough, 
elastic, hard and durable wood, locally much in use for fence-posts, railway-crossties, bridge- 
material, piles, for waggon-building and numerous other technic purposes. Major-General Sir 
E. Ward, K.C.M.G., found the specific gravity of this wood to be ri9, and that a piece of 4 feet 
length and of 2 inches square breadth, when supported on its ends, would bear a weight of 1,792 
lbs. before breaking. Mr. F. Byerley found the transverse strain to be able to sustain 710 lbs. 
when applied to the middle of a quartering of 1 inch thickness and of 1 foot length ; thus the 
wood would not be as strong as that of E. siderophloia and E. maculata. 

B. crebra is often gregarious, even so much so in some localities as to constitute the main- 
bulk of the forests, as is the case in Victoria, Tasmania and South-Australia chiefly with E. obliqua 
and in West Australia with E. marginata and E. calophylla. The copious occurrence of this tree 
through a large extent of East-Australia suggested the specific name. 

Branchlets very slender and drooping. Oil-pores, particularly in young leaves, occasionally 
very pellucid. Filaments almost white, their lower portion very flexuous in bud. Fruit slightly 
attenuated at the base or gradually. The flowering time of this tree is known to fluctuate 
from March till October according to the geographic latitude of its range and to peculiarities of 
the climatic regions and seasons. Fruitbearing twigs of an Ironbark-tree with lemon-scented 
foliage were obtained by Mr. Bailey on the Palmer-Eiver ; these seem referable to E. crebra also, 
although the leaves are shorter and blunter and the peripheric vein is slightly removed from the 



EUCALYPTUS CEEBKA. 

edge ; the fragrance of this supposed variety, which might be called citrata, is so exquisite, that 
the leaves can be used as a culinary condiment. 

E. crebra might be mistaken for E. largiflorens, not easily in nature, but readily when dried 
sprigs with imperfect flowers or fruits are to be named ; the latter species recedes by its paler, 
less farrowed bark, the leaves more conspicuously and darker dotted, the lateral veins less copious, 
the circumferential vein much more removed from the edge, the anther-cells opening through a 
pore-like aperture and the lid perhaps generally shorter and blunter. 

In rare instances some of the leaves may widen to a broadish form and become opposite, 
whereby a transit is established to E. melanophloia (the Silverleaved Ironbark-tree), unless indeed 
the latter is assumed to be the opposite- and sessile-leaved state of E. crebra, analogous to the 
position held by E. amygdalina and E. Stuartiana to E. Risdoni and E. cinerea. E. melanophloia 
again is very closely related to E. pruinosa, though differing already in blackish bark ; from 
E. crebra it is generally differing irrespective of its foliage in longer lid, in fruits somewhat 
larger and contracted at the orifice and always in the opposite stalks of the umbels in the panicles. 
It is traced to New England and the Upper Barcoo. 

E. drepanophylla, which was advanced with much hesitation as a species (flora Australiensis 
iii. 221), seems mainly to differ in more stunted habit, larger and stiffer leaves of a paler hue, 
larger flowers and fruits and perhaps different bark. This species or variety, for the elucidation 
of which farther field-studies are needed, extends northward to the Palmer- River (Th. Gulliver), 
Cape Sidmouth (C. Moore) and Trinity Bay (Walter Hill) and on the authority of Bentham even 
to the north-west coast of Australia (Cunningham). 

E. leptophleba has the bark more greyish, less furrowed and rather wrinkled, breaking up 
into numerous small angular pieces in the manner of E. tesselaris ; hence it belongs to the Rhy- 
tiphloiae not Schizophloiae ; its flowers remained unknown, but its lid is double in an early state 
of growth. To E. leptophleba seems also to belong a tree, observed by Mr. P. O'Shanesy on the 
Comet-River, which sheds the outer layers of its bark from the branches and upper part of the 
stem ; the persistent portion of the bark resembles that of E. tesselaris, but the leaves are more 
prominently veined and the fruit is often 5-valved and occasionally even 6-valved. 

E. angustifolia (Woolls, Lectures on the Vegetable Kingdom with special reference to 
Australia, p. 123) is a form of E. crebra. 

It seems not likely, that E. paniculata will ever be taken for E. crebra, as the leaves of the 
latter are never much unlike in the color of their two pages, as all the stamens are fertile, the 
anthers opening in their whole length and the fruits usually smaller and less angular. 

Bentham quotes Metrosideros salicifolia (Solander, in Gsertner de fructibus et seminibus i. 
171, t. xxxiv. 5.) as belonging to this species ; the rather slender fruit as illustrated renders the 
identification disputable. Gtertner described the embryo well. The figure a remains still more 
obscure ; it may belong to E. crebra, E. htemastoma or E. amygdalina. 

Explanation of Analttic Details. — 1, unexpanded flowers of different forms, the lid of one lifted ; 2, longi- 
tudinal section of an unexpanded flower ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of an anther with the upper portion of its 
filament ; 5, style and stigma ; 6, various fruits ; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse section of a fruit ; 9, seeds ; 
10, embryo ; all more or less magnified. 




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EUCALYPTUS DIVERSICOLOK. 

F. V. M., fragmenta phytographiae Australise iii. 131 (1863) ; Bentham, flora Australienais iii. 251 ; P. v. M., Eeport 

on the Forest-resources of Western Australia, p. 6, t. 4. 

The " Karri." 

Finally extremely tall ; leaves scattered, broad- or elongated-lanceolar, not very inequilateral, 
slightly curved, evidently paler beneath; veins very numerous, subtle, pennately spreading, the 
circumferential vein somewhat removed from the edge ; oil-dots irregular and much concealed ; 
umbels axillary and soon lateral, solitary, their stalks rather long and slender, slightly or not 
angular, with 3 to 9 flowers ; calyces not shining, their tube gradually attenuated into a generally 
shorter stalklet, somewhat longer or nearly twice as long as the almost hemispheric or semiovate 
lid, not or slightly angular ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers almost heart- 
shaped, bursting with longitudinal slits, enlarged by a conspicuous dorsal-terminal gland : style 
shorter than the stamens ; stigma not dilated ; fruits truncate-ovate, 3- or rarely 4-celled ; rim 
flat, but rather narrow ; valves enclosed, cohering before maturation into a pyramidal cone ; seeds 
without appendage. 

In the moist hilly or mountainous country at and near the Frankland- and Walpole-Rivers, 
the Shannon, Warren- and DunoUy-Eivers, more particularly towards the coast, extending about 
thirty miles or less inland, reaching the country near the entrance of the Blackwood-River 
(J. Forrest), constituting the Karri-forests, occurring sparingly also at the Porongerup and 
Torbay (F. v. M.) and around Mount Manypeak (Maxwell). 

Otoej)£the_graiidest_trees_of the globe and one of the greatest wonders in the whole creation of 
plants ! Astounding records of the height of this giant-tree have been given. Messrs. Muir saw 
trees with stems about 300 feet long up to the first branch, and I myself noticed many trees, 
which approached to 400 feet in their total height. When closely growing, the young trees may 
have a comparatively slender trunk, so much so, that a tree 180 feet high may show a stem hardly 
over a foot in diameter ; in such a case the foliage, for want of space, is also only scantily 
developed, and the ramifications are but short in proportion to the tallness of the stems. In the 
mast-like straightness of the trunk and the smooth whiteness of its bark this superb tree imitates 
completely the variety regnans of E. amygdalina of South-East Australia, with which also, and 
perhaps solely, it enters into rivalry as the^ talles^Jreej)/ the globej Even the loftiest trees may 
not yet have been found out in the secluded humid forest-valleys, in which E. diversicolor like 
E. amygdalina rejoices most and luxuriates to the greatest extent. But possibly in the 200 miles 
of uninterrupted length of Sequoia-forests, a few years ago rendered known to exist in Southern 
California, Mammoth-trees of either Sequoia Wellingtonia or S. sempervirens may occur, which 
possibly excel in stupendous height even the famous individual trees of the Calaveras-Grove. But 
whatever species of tree in the championship of the world may gain the final victory for height, no 
Eucalyptus can con^ipare in the massiveness of its trunk with the Wellingtonia Sequoia, of which 
one on the Tule-River showed a basal trunk-diameter of 35 feet, while at a height of 240 feet the 
stem-diameter was still 12 feet with two succeeding limbs respectively 10 and 9 feet across. 
Still on the authority of Captain Walcott also Karri-stems have been observed with a basal 
diameter of 20 feet. Into this final competition for height may perhaps also enter some of the 
true Pines of North- West America (Pinus Douglasii, P. Lambertiana, P. Menziesii, P. grandis) 
and even the North-Bast American Pinus Strobus, though its most majestic specimen-trees were 
long ago swept ruthlessly away from the face of the globe, a fate not unlikely to be shared by its 



ETJCALTPTUS DIVEESICOLOE. 



compeers elsewhere. Wiatiis of timber of as much as 12 feet can be obtained from E. diversicolor. 
The wood is lighi^colored, bends freely, is of straight grain and tough, but not so easily wrought 
as that of E. marginata ; it is particularly in request for large planks and sought also for shafts, 
spokes, felloes and rails ; it has also come into use for shipbuilding — for planks, rudders and 
even masts. According to a note in the "West-Australian Catalogue of the Paris Exhibition of 
1878 a baulk, which at Cape Leeuwin had been exposed to the wash of the tides since twenty-six 
years, continued still sound. The durability of the timber, when for lengthened periods under- 
ground, has as yet not been proved. 

Mr. Th. Laslett (Timber and Timber-Trees, p. 198) states the results of his experiments on 
the strength of Karri-wood to be as follows. The pieces experimented on for deflection measured 
7 feet in length by 2 inches square, six different trials being made : — 

Deflection. 





TJnder a Pressure of 
390 lbs. 


After the Weight was 
removed. 


At the moment of 
breaking. 


Total Weight required 
to break each piece. 


Maximum 
Minimum 
Mean 


Inches. 

1-35 
0-75 
1-01 


Inches. 

0-10 
0-0 

0-4 


Inches. 

7-50 
4-60 
6-06 


lbs. 

955 
725 
862i 



English Oak of the same dimensions supported a weight of 806^ lbs. (average of twelve trials). 

Mr. Laslett's experiments on the tensile strength of Karri-timber gave the following results, 
the pieces being 30 inches long by 2 inches square : Maximum weight borne, 31,360 lbs. ; minimum, 
22,120 lbs. ; average of six experiments, 28,280 lbs. 

Cubes of 6 inches bore a crushing strain of from 175 to 195 tons, average 185 tons, or per 
square inch 5-14 tons. The specific gravity of the wood was found to be from 0-885 to 1-023, 
average 0-981. 

The first records given by collectors of the bark and other characteristics of this species did 
not lead to the identification of the huge trees of the Karri-dales ; this circumstance and some 
disparities of characteristics led to the belief, that the gigantic Karri was specifically different, 
and hence it became temporarily distinguished as E. colossea, under which very impressive 
designation it chiefly still passes in the countries around the Mediterranean Sea, where this noble 
Eucalypt, with numerous other species, was first introduced by the writer. The specific name, 
which by priority has claim on permanency, was derived from the color of the leaves, difierent on 
both sides. The growth of the tree is comparatively quick ; in poor sandy soil near Melbourne 
about 23 feet in nine years. The leaves of very young trees assume a broader more oval form, as 
is the case with many other congeners ; in small seedlings the leaves are already conspicuously 
stalked. Young branchlets compressed-quadrangular. Bruised foliage of Cajuput-odor. Leaves 
more or less shining above. Unexpanded calyx clubshaped-ellipsoid. Lid rarely broad-conical. 
Filaments whitish. Anthers dorsifixed. Fruits attaining a length of fully half an inch, moderately 
contracted towards the orifice. Valves sometimes much narrowed upwards. Fertile seeds dull- 
black, almost ovate, plan-convex ; sterile seeds much more numerous, considerably smaller, light- 
brown, irregular iu form, many very narrow. 



EUCALYPTUS DIVEESICOLOR. 

Drummond's collections contain this species under Nos. 39 and 59. 

B. diversicolor among West Australian species bears some similarity to B. marginata, but the 
leaves are still paler beneath, the lid is almost constantly shorter, particularly so in proportion to 
the tube of the calyx, the anthers are not broader than long and their glandular protuberance is 
much larger, the fruit is longer in comparison to its width, the valves are also longer and the 
seeds very much smaller ; besides bark and wood are totally different. 

The Karri-tree cannot in nature be confused with E. patens, the Blackbutt-tree of West- 
Australia, on account of the greatly persistent and rough bark of the latter, which has besides 
more curved leaves of almost equal coloration on both sides, the anther-gland very faint, the fruit- 
rim narrower, the valvular portion of the fruit at first flat and consisting usually of four rarely 
Ave pieces, the seeds larger. 

What as E. goniantha is mentioned by Bentham from the Frankland-Eiver belongs to 
B. diversicolor. 

The diametric measurement of the woody fibre, and the proportionate number of the me- 
dullary rays and vascular tubes, as contrasted with their copiousness in some other kinds of 
Eucalyptus-woods, is set forth in the following columns, whereby some idea of the relative density 
of the timber and the closeness of the woody texture may be obtained. 



Measurement of Transverse Sections of the Cells of Woody Fibre (Prosenchyma). 



1. Largest Diameter of Cell. 



Eucalyptus marginata (hard) ... 
marginata (light, dense) ... 
marginata (ordinary, soft) 
diversicolor 
longicornis 
calophylla 
loxophleba 
salubria 
comuta 
rostrata 
globulus 
Stuartiana 
Baileyana 
Doratoxylon (young) 



■00082 inch 


•00082 „ 


■00082 „ 


■00129 „ 


■00070 „ 


■00101 „ 


■00063 „ 


■00055 „ 


■00082 „ 


■00082 „ 


■00082 „ 


■00082 „ 


•00105 „ 


■00072 ,, 



2. Thickness of Cellwall. 

Eucalyptus marginata (hard) ... 
marginata (Ught, dense) ... 
marginata (ordinary, soft) 
diversicolor 
longicornis 
calophylla 
loxophleba 
salubris 
cornuta 
rostrata 
globulus 
Stuartiana 
Baileyana 
Doratoxylon (young) 



Number of Medullary Rays within the space of 1 inch in- 



Eucalyptus marginata (dark hard variety) ... 390 

marginata (light dense variety) ... 260 

marginata (soft variety) ... ... 330 

diversicolor ... ... ... 170 

longicornis ... ... ... 290 

calophyUa 180 

Baileyana ... ... ... 315 



Eucalyptus loxophleba 
salubris ... 
cornuta ... 
rostrata ... 
globulus ... 
Stuartiana 
Doratoxylon (young) 



Number of Vascular Tubes within 1 square inch in the Wood of — 



Eucalyptus marginata (dark hard variety) 
marginata (light dense variety) 
marginata (soft variety) 
diversicolor 
longicornis 
calophylla 
Baileyana 



3,500 
2,700 
5,100 
4,900 
9,300 
3,300 
10,000 



Eucalyptus loxophleba . 
salubris 
cornuta 
rostrata 
globulus 
Stuartiana 
Doratoxylon (young) 



•00019 inch 


•00024 


)» 


•00030 


J) 


■00038 


» 


•00029 


» 


•00033 


3f 


■00023 


n 


■00023 


39 


■00037 


n 


■00020 


» 


■00020 


if 


■00015 


?> 


■00025 


„ 


■00022 


« 


330 




470 




670 




390 




310 




180 




330 




25,000 




42,000 




10,000 




5,700 




3,600 




6,300 




32,000 





EUCALYPTtrS DIVBESICOLOR. 

These proportions will be subject to some variation, according to the age of the trees. These 
measurements were made under the author's direction by Mr. L. Eummel. 

E. diversicolor seems as hardy as E. globulus, though it may prove less so than E. amyg- 
dalina, B. Gunnii, E. pauciflora, E. viminalis and even E. obliqua, E. Sieberiana and E. gonio- 
calyx, among the larger kinds of timber-trees of this genus. Dr. Aberg finds, that on the entrance 
of the La Plata-Kiver E. diversicolor turns out one of the fastest in growth, and if the species was 
rightly determined E. corymbosa carried there besides E. globulus the palm, E. obliqua and 
E. siderophloia coming next in this respect. On the rich alluvial soil there grew also compara- 
tively fast : E. Gunnii, B. Leucoxylon, E. hsemastoma, E. largiflorens, E. longifolia, E. goniocalyx, 
E. cornuta, E. rostrata, E. tereticornis and E. maculata, but the latter with E. marginata and 
E. calophylla suffered there from frost. Many grew in that region from two to even iive inches 
daily during the most favorable time of the season ! 

When gradually through the progress of settlement the harbors between King George's Sound 
and Cape Leeuwin will be opened up for trade. Karri-timber will become extensively available for 
export also. 

Explanation op Analytic Details. — 1, unexpanded flowers of two forms ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of an antker with portion of its filament ; 5, pollen-grains ; 
6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, lateral and vertical view of a fruit j 9 and 10, longitudinal and transverse section of a 
fruit ; 11 and 12, sterile and fertile seeds ; 13, embryo ; 14, cotyledons unfolded, to exhibit the radicle ; 1, 7 and 8, 
natural size ; 2, 3, 4, 6, 9-14, moderately magnified ; 5, enlarged 250 times diametrically. 



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EUCALYPTUS HEMIPHLOIA. 

F. V. M., fragmenta phytographise Australiee ii. 62 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 216 ; E. albens, Miquel, in 
Nederlandisk Kruidkundig Arohief iv. 138 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 219. 

Finally tall ; leaves scattered, elongate- or oval-lanceolar, of firm consistence, of equal color 
on both sides, only slightly or sometimes moderately curved, not very shining, the lateral veins 
diverging at a very acute angle, the circumferential vein very evidently removed from the edge of 
the leaf ; oil-dots usually obliterated or much concealed ; umbels in lateral or terminal short 
panicles or some solitary, on angular stalks, with from 4 to 10 flowers ; calyces somewhat angular ; 
stalklets comparatively thick, of the length of the tube or shorter ; lid broadish-conical, rather 
acute or even pointed, seldom semiovate, about as long as the tube or somewhat shorter ; stamens 
all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers very minute, globular, opening laterally by pore-like 
apertures ; stigma slightly or not broader than the style ; fruits truncated-ovate or hemiellipsoid, 
3-5-celled, the rim narrow-compressed, prominent, valves quite enclosed, short ; seeds without any 
appendage, the fertile much larger than the short sterile seeds. 

Dispersed from Port Jackson (WooUs) to New England (C. Stuart), Glendon (Leichhardt), 
Toowoomba (Hartmann) and the western districts of New South Wales (C. Moore), Gainsford 
and Herbert's Creek (Bowman), the Dawson- and Burnett-Rivers (F. v. M.), Mackenzie-River 
(O'Shanesy), occurring farther on the Tambo-River (Howitt) and Snowy- River, also from the 
Broughton- and Broken-Rivers to Mount Remarkable (F. v. M.), on the Flinders-Ranges up to 
2,000 feet elevation (J. E. Brown). It grows on flats, often forming the "box-forests," but prin- 
cipally on rough and dry ridges or hills, yet indicating according to the Revd. Dr. WooUs, often 
good grazing country. 

In the more humid literal tracts of east- and south-coast Australia this species attains a 
height of about 150 feet, with a stem of as much as 3 feet thickness (Thozet) ; in the drier 
regions of northern Victoria and further westward it is oftener a dwarf tree. The bark of the 
stem persists, is solid, outside greyish and somewhat wrinkled, but never dark nor deeply 
furrowed, the outer layers of the bark gradually peel ofi' from most portions of the branches in 
flakes or long strips. The timber is pale, strong, hard, of close and interlocked grain and not 
fissile ; it furnishes material for lasting fence-posts and various building purposes and wheel- 
wrights' work, also for such sundry utensils as need toughness of wood for their manufacture, as 
mauls and handles. Posts of this wood after sixteen years were found almost perfectly sound in 
the ground, but the best timber (as in all other cases of Eucalypts) comes from hilly country. 
Stems are apt to become hollow in age (J. E. Brown). 

Foliage comparatively dense ; upper portion of branchlets angular ; leaves stiff, conspicuously 
stalked, often pale-green, but in the eastern coast-districts also dark-green, their veins sometimes 
prominent, sometimes faint. The tube of the calyx often merging gradually into the stalklet ; 
lid in some instances double, the outer one seceding earlier. Filaments pale or rarely of a deep 
purplish color, exceptionally \ inch long ; some of the anthers occasionally dilated. Summits of 
the valves often long cohering and breaking off connectedly. Fruit variable in size, but never 
large. Dr. Leichhardt found the tree flowering in March, Dr. WooUs in June, particular seasons 
and localities exercising their effect in this respect. The natives of subtropical Eastern Australia 
call this tree "Narulgun," according to Mr. O'Shanesy. 

E. albens, which occurs near Mount Remarkable and in some other localities not far from 
the apex of Spencer's Gulf, also in the vicinity of the Avoca, Loddon, Campaspe, Broken, Ovens 
and Snowy Rivers (F. v. M.), along the whole valley of the Tambo (Howitt), on the Upper 



EUCALYPTUS HEMIPKLOIA. 

Mnrrumbidgee in Silurian shales and sandstone, also more or less on all geologic formations on the 
western slope of the Main Dividing Eange of New South Wales down to the tertiary plains (Wil- 
kinson) verging northward to New England (C. Stuart), can be distinguished from the typical E. 
hemiphloia only in perhaps more extensively persistent bark, in paler dull foliage and chalky-white 
bloom on the panicles and in calyces somewhat larger and tapering more gradually into a thicker 
stalklet. The name of E. albens only arose from a misprint of E. pallens and was first promul- 
gated without any diagnosis, and this specific designation is apt to mislead, as the whitish hue, 
significant of E. albens, and for which it is called "White Box-tree" occurs only in a particular 
variety chiefly of the western interior, where even this characteristic is often not more remarkable 
than in several other congeners. 

E. hemiphloia is nearest allied to E. populifolia, E. Behriana and E. odorata ; from the first 
it differs in the laminar secession of the bark from the branches, in longer, narrower and less 
shining leaves, in larger flowers on more elongated stalklets, longer more pointed lid, apertures of 
the anthers not so close to the summit, and larger and especially more elongated fruits with 
valves somewhat removed from the orifice. — From E. Behriana, which stands in close relationship 
to E. largtflorens, it is less easily distinguished in all cases, but it is often of taller stature, not 
so often remaining shrubby, the bark is lighter in color and not smooth by secession of outer 
rather dark-brownish layers ; the leaves are longer and in proportion to their length usually 
narrower, also mostly of lighter color, the panicles ampler (those of E. Behriana being compara- 
tively narrow), the flowers and fruits are larger and provided almost as a rule with distinct 
stalklets, the tube of the calyx is somewhat angular, and the lid is never hemispherical ; 
E. hemiphloia recedes from E. odorata in the external paleness of the persistent portion of its 
bark, in the more extensive secession of the bark from the branches, in the broader leaves of 
thicker consistence with less spreading and less copious veins and less distinguishable oil-dots, in 
not usually solitary axillary umbels, often more acute lid and more deeply inserted valves of the 
fruit. The reliability of these distinctions should be further traced in South Australia, wherever 
the two species grow promiscuously. E. hemiphloia seems readily separable from E. Bowmanii 
by the less spreading veins of the leaves, more paniculate umbels on less flattened stalks, upwards 
more attenuated lid, stamens much more inflexed while in bud, the openings of the anthers less 
wide, and the flat top of the ovary, which has a semiglobular-conical summit in E. Bowmanii ; the 
fruit of the latter is not yet available for comparison. 

E. drepanophylla, which comes very near to E. leptophleba and E. crebra, belongs to the 
series of Ironbark-trees (with therefore furrowed and dark-colored bark), has usually narrower 
leaves of less straightness and of lighter green, with very subtle much diverging and also more 
copious veins, a shorter lid, anther-cells slit in their whole length and proportionately shorter 
fruits. To B. drepanophylla verges Bentham's variety parviflora (flora Australiensis iii. 217) 
mentioned doubtfully under E. hemiphloia ; it is according to Fitzalan's note on Ironbark-tree, the 
anthers however seem not to open with regular slits. The often angular fruit of E. hemiphloia 
reminds of that of E. goniocalyx, which species however does not pertain to the section Micran- 
therfe and is moreover recognized already by the flatness of its flowerstalks. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, calyx, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an unexpanded 
flower ; 3, stamens in situ ; 4, and 5, front- and back-view of an anther with portion of filament ; 6, style and 
stigma ; 7, longitudinal section of fruit ; 8, transverse section of fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile seeds ; 11, portion 
of leaf ; all (but varioosly) magnified. 




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EUCALYPTUS INCEASSATA. 

Labillardiere, plantarum Novae HoUandise specimen ii. 12, 1. 150 (1806) ; De Candolle, prodromus systematis naturalis 
regni vegetabilis iii. 217 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 231 ; E. dumosa, Cunningham in Walpers reper- 
torium botanioes systemalioaj ii. 925; F. v. M., fragmenta phytographise Australise ii. 59; Bentham, flora 
Australiensis iii. 230 ; E. angulosa, Schauer, in Walpers repertorium ii. 925 ; E. cuspidata, Turczaninow, in 
Bulletin de la Soci6t6 des Naturalistes de Moscou 1849, ii. 21 ; E. costata, Behr & Mueller, in the Transactions 
of the Victorian Institute i. 33 ; E. santalifolia, E. lamprocarpa et E. Muelleri, Miquel, in Nederlandisk Kruid- 
kundig Archief ir. 129, 130 and 133 ; E. fruticetorum, P. v. M., fragmenta phytographise Australise ii. 57. 

Shrubby or hardly arborescent ; leaves scattered, ovate- or narrow-lanceolar, sometimes broad- 
ovate, of thick consistence, of equal and light color as well as shining on both sides ; the lateral 
veins somewhat close, spreading at a rather acute angle and together with the oil-dots much 
concealed, the circumferential vein visibly distant from the edge ; umbels solitary, axillary or 
subsequently lateral, their stalks thick, compressed, upwards much dilated or sometimes more 
cylindrical, bearing usually from 3 to 8 flowers ; stalklets very short or almost or quite unde- 
veloped ; calyces shining, generally streaked with longitudinal prominent lines, the tube semiovate 
or somewhat bellshaped ; lid about as long as the tube or somewhat longer or conspicuously 
shorter, turgid towards the base, often rather suddenly protracted into a short or elongated and 
then slender apex ; stamens all fertile and inflexed before expansion ; anthers from roundish-oval 
to almost oblong, opening by ample longitudinal slits ; style rather thick ; stigma not dilated ; 
fruit semiovate or truncate-ovate, imperfectly or deeply furrowed and streaked, 3-4- rarely 5-celled, 
the rim oftener narrow than conspicuously broad, seldom flat ; valves quite enclosed or their 
fragile and pointed ends only exserted ; sterile seeds usually much narrower than the fertile seeds, 
all without appendage. 

From the Murray- and Darling-Eivers and their lower tributaries through the desert-tracts 
to the Great Bight, to Cape Leeuwin and to the vicinity of Shark-Bay, chiefly on sand-ridges, but 
also on tertiary limestone, extending in some places to the brink of the ocean. 

A shrub usually of tall growth, with several stems from the same root, exceptionally rising to 
a tree up to 30 feet, but fruiting already at a height of 4 feet. Bark smooth, outside of a whitish 
or reddish color, shedding its outer layers successively. Branchlets rather thick, angular and 
rigid, not pendent. Leaves hardly inequilateral, often terminated by a narrow and curved 
acumen. Leafstalks of conspicuous length, exceptionally very short. Umbel-stalks sometimes 
almost wedgeshaped, seldom bearing only two flowers, not rarely curved downward. Lid sometimes 
slightly wider than the tube of the calyx, occasionally broad-conical or even pyramidal-hemispher- 
ical, the end (when beak-like extended) sometimes longer than the turgid basal portion of the lid. 
Filaments in bud simply inflected, but not flexuous, nor sharply doubled back, comparatively 
rigid. Some of the anthers occasionally verging to a globular-cordate form ; the connective 
conspicuously glandular-turgid at the back. Style exserted beyond the stamens while they are 
bent inward before expansion. Fruit-calyx attaining in some cases a length of nearly 1 inch, but 
that of the small-flowered variety often only i to ^ inch long, exceptionally quite hemispherical. 

Among the species, constituting the Mallee-scrub on an extensive scale, only E. oleosa belongs 
also to the Parallel antherae, from which E. incrassata can be distinguished by its often broad and 
flat flowerstalks, furrowed or streaked and mostly larger shining calyces, with a lid more depressed 
towards the base, generally more elongated anthers, as also shorter and therefore less exserted 
fruit-valves. B. goniantha comes still nearer to E. incrassata, but the leaves are somewhat more 
distincly sickleshaped, not so shining nor of such even smoothness, but slightly reticulated on 
their surfaces, the tube of the calyx is comparatively still more deeply furrowed, the attenuated 



EUCALYPTUS INCEASSATA. 

upper portion of the lid broader and more blunt, while the anthers seem invariably heartshaped- 
globular, so far as this plant, of which we have as yet no ripe fruit, is known. 

B. micranthera, which is closely connected with the arboreous and soft-barbed E. decipiens, 
differs from the genuine E. incrassata particularly in its very short and almost heartshaped 
anthers, but in other respects comes near to the variety so long separated as E. dumosa. 

E. grossa (from which E. pachypoda, F. v. M., fragmenta phytographias Australise vii. 41 
anno 1869, is only separable as a variety) can best be distinguished from E. incrassata by its not 
distinctly compressed though stout umbel-stalks, by the slightly angular but not furrowed tube of 
the calyx, by the semiellipsoid eveu lid, by the filaments inflexed near or towards the summit 
only, and by its not angular fruit with no narrow apex of the valves. 

The specific name, adopted by the French naturalist, seems to refer to the leathery thickness 
of the leaves, which however is observable in many other species. E. dumosa represents the 
small-flowered state with generally narrower leaves, only faintly furrowed and ridged calyces, 
shori>-pointed lid and scarcely dilated umbel-stalks. 

Poiteau's drawing of E. incrassata for Labillardifere's work can only with difficulty be 
reconciled to the species here under consideration, as the lateral veins of the leaves are shown too 
spreading and too prominent and the calyces quite devoid of furrows and streaks, to which 
Labillardifere neither alludes in his description, although some specimens, which I gathered at 
King George's Sound, but which are aberrant from the common form of E. incrassata, accord 
sufficiently with the figure authoritative for this species. To this smooth-fruited variety approaches 
very closely B. cosmophylla, from the Stringybarktree-forests of the mountains on St. Vincent 
Gulf, which species shows however more pointed generally broader and less shining leaves with 
more visible veins, the flowers less in number and on a shorter common stalk and rather an 
increase in the number of fruit-valves. 

E. Planchoniana approaches in some of its characteristics E. incrassata, but irrespective of 
its not belonging to the desert-country, it is a comparatively tall tree, the leaves are longer, not so 
shining, have more spreading, more distant and more prominent veins and their stomata only on 
the lower page, the tube of the calyx is less turgid, the lid more gradually attenuated upwards, 
the anthers are never elongated to an oblong form, the outer stamens are not bent downward 
while in bud, but are somewhat flexuous, the valves of the fruit are not narrowly attenuated at 
their apex, and the fertile seeds are more angular. 

E. incrassata is one of the prevailing species among those, which widely constitute the dense 
" Mallee-scrub," and plays thus an important part in the natural economy of the desert, aiding to 
mitigate the excessive heat and the effect of Sirocco-like blasts of widely arid regions by its 
enormous power of evaporation, in which respect Eucalypts generally far surpass most other 
kinds of trees, the power of their roots for drawing up and absorbing humidity from the soil being 
also very great. It is well known that E. incrassata, E. microtheca and E. oleosa will yield water 
to a parched traveller from their roots. 

Explanation op Analytic Details. — 1, unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of unex- 
panded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back -view of an anther, with portion of its filament ; 
6, style and stigma ; 7, longitudinal section of a fruit ; 8 and 9, transverse section of fruits ; 10 and 11, fertile and 
sterile seeds ; 12, portion of a leaf ; all magnified, but to various extent. 



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EUCALYPTUS LAKGIFLORENS. 

F. V. M., in the Transactions of the Victorian Institute i. 34 (1854) ; fragmenta phytographiae Australiae ii. 58 ; 
E. pendula, A. Cunningham, in Steudel's nomenclator botanicus p. 600 (1840) ; E. bicolor, A. Cunningham, in 
Mitchell's Tropical Australia 390 (1848) ; F. v. M., in the Journal of the Linnean Society iii. 90 ; Bentham, 
flora Australiensis iii. 214. 

Branchlets slender ; leaves scattered, elongated- or very narrow-lanceolar, rather straight or 
slightly sickleshaped, of thin consistence, gradually narrowed into a comparatively short stalk, 
generally pale and dull-green on both sides ; la.teral veins extremely Jine, diverging at a very acute 
angle or not very spreading nor quite close, the circumferential vein somewhat removed from the 
edge ; oil-glands numerous, often transparent ; umbels in lateral or terminal short panicles, with 
3-8 flowers in each ; calyces small, on stalklets of usually less length ; lid double, the inner one 
hemispherical or slightly pyramidal, hardly half as long as the almost obcouical-semiovate scarcely 
angular tube, the outer lid when present much smaller and slightly elevated ; stamens all fertile, 
unless some of the outer imperfect, inflexed before expansion ; anthers globular, opening by lateral 
pores ; style very short ; stigma hardly dilated ; fruit very small, truncate-ovate or slightly bell- 
shaped, 3- or oftener 4-celled ; the rim rather narrow, the valves very short, convergent and quite 
enclosed, but not distant from the rim ; seeds minute, without appendages. 

From St. Vincent's Gulf and the Murray- River and its lower tributaries through Eastern 
Australia and particularly its inland-tracts to Carpentaria, at least as far as the Flinders- and 
Gilbert-Rivers, but reaching also in some places the coast-tracts. 

A tree, attaining in desert-regions only a height of about 30 feet or remaining more or less 
shrubby, but in literal regions rising to about 90 feet, passing as one of the " Box-trees," occupying 
either moist places or banks of watercourses or depressions in the Mallee-scrub. Bark persistent 
in the ordinary state of this species on the branches as well as on the stem, blackish-grey, rough 
and hard. Branches more or less drooping, sometimes as much so as those of the Weeping Willow. 
Leaves occasionally a span long, but usually rather short, — in trees from the east-coast, which 
seem as a variety to belong to this species, also vivid-green and somewhat shining. Stalks of the 
umbels neither elongated nor dilatated. Stalklets sometimes extremely short. Outer lid not 
always independently developed or very fugacious or consolidated with the inner one. Filaments 
in bud, irrespective of their sudden infraction, also flexuous, cream-colored as in most congeners 
or occasionally crimson ; the anthers of the outer filaments sometimes diminutive or almost 
obliterated, or rarely a few of them enlarged and deformed. Valves exceptionally 5. 

This is not the only instance of tall eastern species extending far into the western interior 
and there becoming dwarfed in growth, E. paniculata and E. hemiphloia being other examples in 
this respect. 

The supposed tall variety from the Queensland coast-districts, with longer leaves of more 
saturated and rather shining green, sheds the outer layers of its bark completely, according to a 
note of Mr. Dallachy, bdt seems not specifically different. Similar instances are well known in 
regard to the coloration of the foliage of Tecoma australis, Carissa Brownii, Geijera salicifolia and 
Jasminum simplicifolium, which produce dark-green shining leaves in humid forest-regions, but 
assume gradually a pale and dull hue as these plants advance towards the arid interior. The 
lamellar secession of the bark in trees of this species in coast-forest and its persistence in dry open 
regions finds a repetition under similar circumstances in E. amygdalina and several other 
congeners. The stalklets in this variety from the tropical coast are rather longer and the lid 



EUCALTPrrrs laegifloeens. 

more pyramidal. Mr. O'Shanesy records from the Dawson-River and Nagoa trees with barb 
black on the stem and grey and smooth on the limbs. 

Preference is here given, in accordance with De Candolle's code, to the name under which 
this species was first defined, and chosen as expressive of the exuberance of its flowers. Of neither 
of the names, bestowed by Allan Cunningham on this species, timely description was given ; the 
pendulous branches suggesting the one name and perhaps the sometimes red but often pale color 
of the filaments giving rise to the other, unless it was derived from the coloration of the bark. 
Crimson filaments seem however not to occur frequently, though the writer has seen flowers of 
such mixed with others of pale-colored stamens in the same panicle. Flowers with red filaments 
are less rare in E. Leucoxylon, occur also in E. Behriana, according to Mr. T. Shepherd rarely in 
E. hemiphloia and seemingly likewise in E. siderophloia. They are perhaps always red in 
E. erythronema (Tarczaninow, in Bulletin de I'Acad^mie des Sciences de St. Petersbourg 1852 
p. 415 ; E. conoidea, Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 227). 

The resemblance of E. Behriana to E. largiflorens is very great, but the former has more erect 
branchlets, also stiffer, broader and more shining leaves, the flowers almost unprovided with 
stalklets, besides often longer fruits. 

E. odorata again is distinguished by the generally broader leaves, simple axillary umbels, 
more elongated calyces tapering rather more gradually into the stalklets, by longer lids, larger 
anthers and longer fruits not contracted at the orifice. 

E. microtheca shows more numerous and very spreading veins of the leaves, the circum- 
ferential vein almost contiguous to the edge, anthers opening by slits not pores, fruits remarkably 
distended at the orifice with protruding valves. 

B. crebra may be distinguished easily by its dark rugged bark — belonging to the series of 
the Ironbarks — further by the fine close and very spreading veins of the leaves and by the anthers 
opening by fissures. 

Bentham's var. parviflora of E. largiflorens belongs to E. populifolia. 

Explanation op Anaittic Details. — 1, nnexpanded flower with a double lid ; 2, unexpanded flower, the 
lid lifted ; 3, longitudinal section of an unexpanded flower ; 4 and 5, stamens in situ, either all fertile or some sterile ; 
6, 7 and 8, back-, side- and front-view of an anther with portion of its filament ; 9, style with stigma; 10 and 11, 
transverse and longitudinal section of fruit ; 12 and 13, fertile and sterile seeds ; 14, portion of a leaf ; all 
magnified, but in various degrees. 



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EUCALYPTUS PANICULATA. 

Smith, in the Transactions of the Linnean Society iii. 287 (1797) ; De Candolle, prodromus systematis naturalis 
regni vegetabilis iii. 220 j Elippist, in F. v. M. fragmenta phytographi* Australise ii. 174 ; Bentham, flora 
Australiensis iii. 211 ; E. faaciculosa, P. v. M., in the Transactions of the Victorian Institute i. p. 34 ; Miquel, 
in Nederlandisk Kruitkundig Arohief iv. 138. 

Finally tall ; leaves scattered, of rather thin consistence, narrow- or elongate- or sonaetimes 
broad-lanceolar, slightly curved or somewhat sickleshaped, paler and dull-colored beneath, hardly 
shining above, their lateral veins very spreading, subtle and numerous, the marginal vein almost 
contiguous to the edge of the leaf ; oil-pores irregular, mostly angular, soon concealed ; umbels 
paniculated or a few axillary and solitary, on slender angular stalks, each with from 3 to 8 
flowers ; tube of the calyx broad-©bconical, gradually becoming angular, attenuated into a stalklet 
of generally lesser length, longer and broader than the pyramidal- or hemispheric-conical almost 
membraneous lid or sometimes the latter almost as long as the tube ; outer stamens sterile ; 
filaments all infracted before expansion ; anthers minute, quadrangular-roundish, opening with 
pores at the truncated summit ; stigma dilated, evidently broader than the summit of the style -, 
fruit truncate-ovate, attenuated at the base or verging into a truncate-pearshaped form, slightly 
contracted at the summit, 3—4- or rarely 5-celled, lined with 2 to 4 angular streaks, never 
large, their rim narrowly compressed ; valves almost deltoid, quite enclosed ; seeds all without 
appendage, the sterile seeds exceedingly short, angular and comparatively broadish ; testa of 
fertile seeds reticulated. 

In New South Wales from the coast to the Blue Mountains and New England (Leichhardt)^ 
extending there southward at least as far as Illawarra (Kirton) ; the variety fasciculosa on dry 
particularly sandy ridges and also on stony ranges near the Murray-Eiver and St. Vincent's Gulf 
(F. V. M.), at Lacepede-Bay (Babbage) and some intermediate places, also in Kangaroo-Island 
(Waterhouse). 

This species passes at or near the east-coast as the " Eed Ironbark-tree," according to the 

Revd. Dr. Woolls, on account of its persistent hard rough bark and reddish dark timber. In 

South-Australia it is a White Gum-tree, seldom rising there above 30 feet, even often of less 

height, with the outer layers of bark deciduous, leaving the stem grey and white-mottled and 

smooth (McEwin). It flowers in a shrubby state already. These two races of E. paniculata difPer 

furthermore in their foliage and in some other respects. Thus the leaves of the typical E. paniculata 

of Eastern Australia have their upper page much darker than the lower one and the stomata are 

hypogenotis only, varying as far as observed from 137,000 to 186,000 on the square inch, whereas 

the dilBference in the coloration of both sides of the leaves is not striking, indeed pale also above in 

, , . , . ^- 1 i. 1? 20,000 , 21.000 

E. fasciculosa, the stomata bemg amphigenous, countmg about trom yaoQQO 132000" J^^o^eover 

the flowers of the variety fasciculosa are smaller, the lid is proportionately shorter and stiU more 
thinly membraneous ; but the foliage and inflorescence of E. paniculata assumes in New England 
also exceptionally a glaucous hue. 

From E. melliodora the species here under consideration can be distinguished by mostly 
longer leaves with finer and more spreading veins and with the intramarginal vein nearer to the 
edge, further by more decidedly paniculate flowers, the somewhat angular calyx, which is more 
gradually attenuated into its stalklet, by the rather longer fruit-calyx with the rim inside long- 
descending but outside neither emerging nor annular. 



EUCALYPTUS PANICULATA. 

The differences of E. paniculata from E. largiflorens consist in the contrasting paleness of the 
lower page of the leaves and in their more copious and more divergent but less prominent veins, 
in the close approach of the circumferential vein to the margin of the leaf, in the pointed lid, in 
the deprivation of many of the outer stamens of their anthers and in the narrower rim of the 
fruit-calyx. It is also generally a taller tree, rising to 150 feet. 

From E. gracilis it differs again in the inequality of the color of the upper and the lower side 
of the leaves, which are moreover of larger size, in the paniculated inflorescence, more angular 
anthers not opening at a distance from the summit, and dilated stigma. 

E. crebra and E. microcorys are also not dissimilar to E. paniculata, and mere fruiting sprigs 
of these three might easily be referred to the wrong species, but in a flowering state the mode 
of dehiscence of the anthers distinguish them easily from each Qther, irrespective of several other 
characteristics. 

From the principal Ironbark-tree of New South Wales, namely E. siderophloia, we can best 
distinguish E. paniculata by the less deeply furrowed bark, by the frequent difference in the 
coloration of the leaf-pages, by the shorter calyx-lids, the sterility of the outer stamens, the 
infraction of all filaments while in bud, the terminal openings of the anthers, the dilated stigma 
and perfectly enclosed fruit-valves. 

The twigs of E. paniculata are very lax and slender in either variety. The wood is very 
durable and extensively used by coachbuilders and wheelwrights ; it is often darker than other 
kinds of Ironbark-timber, but not so tough as that of E. siderophloia. The calyces are generally 
of pale color. The filaments are almost white, finely capillary, and while in bud slightly 
flexuous, irrespective of being doubled back. The period of flowering seems a long one, at least 
that of the variety occurring in South Australia, where blooming panicles have been gathered 
from December till May ; they are not much scented. The terminal pores of the anthers this 
species has in common with E. Leucoxylon, E. melliodora and E. polyanthema. The stigma is 
dilated, sometimes as much as that of E. Leucoxylon. The angularity of the calyx is hardly 
noticeable in the fresh flowers, but becomes obvious in dried specimens. By an oversight an 
error of the draftsman has been passed, who delineated the anthers as opening with longitudinal 
slits instead of terminal pores. 

The Rev. Dr. WooUs found this Eucalypt flowering more regularly than many other 
congeners, and noted also, that it produced Kino in considerable quantity and that the bark is not 
so rugged as that of E. Leucoxylon var. Sideroxylon, but that the wood is easier worked than that 
of the latter. 

Explanation op Analytic Details. — 1, upper portion of an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longi- 
tudinal section of an unexpanded flower ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of an anther with portion of its filament • 
5, style and stigma ; 6, some stamens in situ ; 7 and 8, longitudinal sections of two fruits ; 9, transverse section of 
a fruit ; 10 and 11, sterile and fertile seeds ; all magnified, but to various extent. 




T-.-.-dtl 



"jteara LlVVri Gov Pniibng Office Melb. 



Sii'giilg^i^ii ]|)4fg3i(D(§iiFj)ii, FyM. 



EUCALYPTUS PTYCHOCARPA. 

F. V. M., in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society iii. 90 (1858) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis 

iii. 255. 

Finally rather tall ; leaves large, scattered, from broad-oval verging into an elongate- 
lanceolar form, straight or somewhat sickleshaped, paler and dull-colored beneath ; lateral veins 
subtle, numerous, almost transversely spreading, the circumferential vein nearly contiguous to the 
margin of the leaf ; oil-dots concealed or obliterated ; umbels terminal, paniculated, with S^tcr 7 
large flowers ; stalks almost cylindrical ; stalklets angular ; calyces ridged by about 8 longitudinal 
prominent lines, the tube almost bellshaped or topshaped, twice or thrice as long as the nearly 
hemispheric lid ; stamens all fertile, filaments scarlet, inflexed before expansion ; anthers oval, 
bursting with longitudinal slits ; style rather thick ; fruits large, truncate-ellipsoid and slightly 
urnshaped or bellshaped, 4-celled, longitudinally lined by about 8 ridges, the vertical margin not 
very broad, but suddenly and amply descending to the orifice ; valves deeply enclosed; the fertile 
seeds produced into a rather large terminal appendage, the sterile seeds much narrower. 

Along rocky rivulets and also on the margins of exsiccating watercourses towards the sources 
of the Wentworth-, Wickham- and Limen Bight-Eivers (F. v. M.) ; on Melville-Island (Fraser) ; 
near Port Essington (Gilbert) ; at the mouth of the Liverpool-Eiver (B. Gulliver). 

A middle-sized or rather large tree, with a greyish wrinkled everywhere persistent somewhat 
fibrous b ark, thus fluctuating between the Stringybark- and the so-called Box-trees, though in 
cortical characters perhaps nearest to B. hemiphloia and B. albens ; but the accurate histologic 
examination of these and numerous other species in reference to their bark remains hitherto 
incomplete, though such would reveal in all probability important characteristics not only for 
specific discrimination, but also perhaps for industrial applications. Leaves conspicuous ly 
stalked, not rarely a span long, occasionally exceeding even a foot in length ; their margin 
narrowly recurved as in all species with only hypogenous stomata. Flowerstalks from ^ to 2 
inches long, the stalklets still more variable in length, as well as the calyces often covered with 
a whitish in age evanescent bloom. Anthers dorsifixed. Fruits lignous, 1 to 2 inches long. 
Valves horizontal, deltoid. Fertile seeds about 2 lines long, with an almost oval appendage 
extending additionally to 3 lines ; the appendage of the sterile seeds very narrow. 

The description could only be prepared from scanty material. Mr. B. Gulliver, who saw the 
tree during Captain Cadell's discovery-voyage to the coasts of Arnhem's Land, states the flowe rs 
(fllaments) to be scarlet. If really they participate in the bright color of B. miniata and E. phce- 
nicea, we should have an additional highly ornamental species to select for our arboreta even here 
far south, as the intratropical Eucalypts proved in my exper ience quite hardy, wherever the 
thermometer does not sink below zero longer than a few hours at a time. It is~mainly for this 
reason, that attention is drawn to this species now, although it may perhaps also prove a quick 
growing timber-tree of value for moist tropical climes, in places where many of the extratropical 
Eucalypts do not prosper. 

Its affinity is with E. Abergiana and E. miniata ; from the former it can be distinguished by 
its longer leaves with a still paler lower page, by its also still larger flowers, which are provided 
with usually long stalklets (although Bentham describes the latter as occasionally also very short), 
and most particularly by the fruit longitudinally traversed by about eight narrow ridges. 

From E. miniata it is far more distinct in its not scaly-friable bark, which does not separate 
from the main branches, in the leaves being not of a pale and dull-green on both sides, besides 



\/ 



EUCALTPTTJS PTYCHOCAEPA. 

of thicker consistence, much larger and proportionately also broader, without any translucent oil- 
dots, in the absence of stomata on the upper page of the leaves ; farther in the umbels not solitary 
nor lateral nor axillary, in larger flowers and conspicuous development of flower-stalklets, in fruits 
often smaller (although similarly shaped and ridged) and in the seeds provided with a long 
appendage (those of E. miniata being quite exappendiculate). 

The alliance of B. ptychocarpa to E. Watsoniana is so much more remote, as to render a 
detailed exposition of their specific diiferences unnecessary. The leaves of E. ptychocarpa show 
on transverse section their chlorophyllous parenchyma-cells mostly in seven rows. The same 
numbers of series occur in E. calophylla, E. corynocalyx, E. diversicolor and E. viminalis, but in 
E. globulus these cells are stratified in eleven layers. Extended observations may however prove 
the numbers of the series, as above given, subject to some variation, but they may within certain 
limits be of diagnostic value. In the leaves of young seedlings of E. viminalis the number of 
cell-strata was found the same as in the leaves of aged trees, but the cells are smaller. 

Explanation oe Analytic Details. — 1, unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4,, 5 and 6, back-, front- and side-view of an anther with portion 
of its filament ; 7, style and stigma ; 8 and 9, transverse and longitudinal section of a fruit ; 10 and 11, fertile and 
sterile seeds ; 12, portion of a leaf ; 1-7 and 10-12, variously magnified ; 8 and 9, natural size. 

Explanation of Lithogbam of EtrcALYPTtrs Leaves, the sections vertical. — 1, Eucalyptus 'ptychocarpa : 
e, cuticle ; b, epidermal cells ; c, parenchyma-cells in 5-7 rows, 7 prevailing, with chlorophyll ; d, grit-cells (scle- 
renchyma) ; e, breathing pores (stomata) on the lower side only. — 2, Eucalyptus calophylla : a, cuticle ; b, epider- 
mal cells ; 0, parenchyma-ceUs in 6-7 rows, 7 prevailing, with chlorophyll ; d, grit-cells ; e, breathing pores on the 
lower side ouly ; f, oil-gland ; ff, oleo-resin. — 3, Eucalyptus globulus : a, cuticle, b, epidermal cells ; c, parenchyma- 
cells with chlorophyll in about 11 rows ; e, breathing pores (occurring on both sides, but the upper portion of the 
section omitted on account of the thickness of the leaf) ; y and g, oil-gland, containing oleo-resin. — 1, Eucalyptus 
viminalis : a, cuticle ; b, epidermal cells ; o, parenchyma-cells, in 5-7 rows, 7 prevailing, with chlorophyll ; d, grit- 
«eUs ; d, breathing pores on both sides. — Augmentation in all these instances 214 times, diametrically measured. 



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EUCALYPTUS TRACHYPHLOIA. 

F. V. M., in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society iii. 90 (1858) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 
221 ; F. V. M., fragmenta phytographiaa Australise xi. 43. 

Finally tall ; leaves scattered, narrow- or elongate-lanceolar, slightly or sickleshaped-curved, 
rather paler and not shining beneath, their lateral veins very subtle and numerous, feathery 
spreading, the circumferential vein almost contiguous to the slightly recurved edge of the leaf, 
the oil-dots copious and translucent, sometimes much concealed ; umbels paniculated, on slender 
stalks, with 8 or less very small flowers, the latter provided with thin stalklets of nearly the same 
or less length ; calyces ovate-pearshaped before expansion, tardily ruptured along the transverse 
somewhat irregular sutural line ; the lid depressed-hemispherical, not so broad as the tube and 
several times shorter ; stamens all fertile ; anthers ovate, somewhat truncated, bursting with 
parallel fissures ; style very short ; stigma but slightly dUated ; fruits rather small, urnshaped- 
ovate, slender-stalked, smooth, 3- rarely 2-celled ; their rim very narrow ; valves deltashaped, 
deeply enclosed ; seeds without any appendage, the sterile much smaller than the fertile seeds. 

In poor hilly country, hitherto traced from Moreton-Bay (Bailey) to the Burnett-B,iver 
(F. V. M.) and the MacKenzie-Eiver (Bowman, O'Shanesy), chiefly in the sandstone-formation. 

A tree, passing in colonial language as one of the Bloodwood-trees, attaining a height of 80 
feet with a stem-diameter of 2 feet, but in exposed situations on the tops of hills dwarfed in growth 
and fruiting already in a shrubby state. Timber pale, flexuous in fibre. Bark persistent on the 
branches as well as on the stem, outside greyish-brown, irregularly fissurated and frustular, 
inside far more woody than fibrous, but not ponderous, pale-brownish. Leaves somewhat shining 
and darker above ; stomata hypogenous only. Panicles terminal. Lid separating from the tube 
of the calyx not so much by a clear circumcision as by a fracture, thus often adhering on one 
point to the tube while the stamens are fully expanded, occasionally of only half the width of the 
tube, rarely somewhat pyramidal. Filaments white. Anthers dorsifixed. Fruit-calyces some- 
times less contracted and then truncate-ovate. Seeds not very numerous, the fertile seeds in 
proportion to the capsular part of the fruit rather large, about 1 line long, ovate, plan-convex, 
fixed at the centre. 

In this as in some other instances the definition of the species was elaborated from a very 
limited number of specimens ; to give descriptions their fullest scope they should rest on 
examinations of trees instituted in the forests of many localities, for which purpose, as a rule, the 
opportunities arise only in the course of lengthened periods. Thus we are also unacquainted yet 
with the form of the seedling of this species. 

The specific name of this tree was suggested by the roughness of the bark, conspicuous not 
less on the branches than on the stem. The timber seems not of leading value, but the tree is 
eligible, as mentioned by Mr. Bailey, for its shade in dry hot localities. More important in 
reference to its Kino, this species is pressed on our attention. The analysis of one sample gave us 
here as much as 73 per cent, of Kino-tannic acid (soluble in water and alcohol and precipitable 
by acetate of lead out of an acidified solution) ; 18^ per cent. Kino-red or allied substance 
(insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol) ; 8^ per cent, gum and pigment (soluble in water and 
partly in alcohol, but not precipitable by acetate of lead). 

The systematic position of the species is in the series of the Bloodwood-trees, to which 
E. corymbosa, E. terminalis, E. Abergiana and their allies belong, notwithstanding the smallness 
of its flowers, although in this and some other respects E. trachyphloia approaches E. crebra and 



EUCALYPTUS TEACHTPHXCIA. 

some cognate Ironbark-trees, all of which however have the stomata isogenous and show a clear 
line of dehiscence, by which the lid is separated, while ihe difference of the anthers separate them 
even sectionaUy according to Bentham's system. Besides in E. crebra the lid is not depressed, 
the fruit is not or less contracted at the summit, and the valves are almost terminal. Its real 
systematic place should be next to E. dichromophloia, from which it can be distinguished in 
rougher bark, in thinner less elongated leaves of a darker green above and dull paleness beneath 
(therefore not of equal color on both sides) with recurved edge, in the want of stomata on the 
upper page of the leaves, in the calyces of less polished smoothness, in smaller fruits with 
perhaps never or only rarely four valves, and in the absence of any appendage to the fertile seeds. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, unexpanded flower, the lid partly detached ; 2, longitudinal section 
of an unexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4, 5 and 6, front-, side- and back-yiew of an anther with portion 
of its filament ; 7, style with stigma ; 8, longitudinal section of a fruit ; 9, transverse section of two fruits ; 10 and 11, 
fertile and sterile seeds ; 12, portion of a leaf ; all magnified, but to various extent. 



EUCALYPTOGRAPHIA. 



A DESCEIPTIVB ATLAS 



EUCALTPTS OF AUSTEALIA 



ADJOINING ISLANDS; 



BAEOK mm. YON MUELLER, K.C.I.(}., 1. & PH.D., F.E.S., 

GOVEENMENT BOTANIST FOE THE COLONY OF VICTOEIA. 



" K ON snooiDXS ABBORES, KBO SEOuitiBus DBBE3 YASTABS KABTTM BBOioNSM."— Xi&er Deuterojiomii XX, 19. 



SIXTH DEO^IDE. 



MELBOTJENE : 

JOHN FERKES, GOVEENMENT PRINTEE. 
PTTBLISHED ALSO BY GEORGE EOBBETSON, LITTLE COLLINS STEKET. * 

LONDON : 
TEUBNKE AND CO., 57 AND B9 LtTDGATB HILL ; AND GEORGE ROBERTSON, 17 WARWICK SQUAEE, 

M race Lxxx. 




Toit del. C-Tr;e deli ■■-■'> Litf.. 



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EUCALYPTUS BUPEESTIUM. 

¥. y. M., fragmenta phytographiBB Australise iii. 57 (1862) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 205. 

Shrubby or somewhat arborescent ; leaves small, scattered, on rather short stalks, narrow- or 
sicMeshaped-lanceolar, of equal color and slightly or hardly shining on both sides ; their lateral 
veins rather thin, moderately spreading, not of very close approach, the circumferential vein 
slightly removed from the edge ; oil-dots much concealed or obliterated ; umbels axillary or 
lateral and solitary or a few crowded on short lateral branchlets, their stalks slender, bearing 4-10 
or rarely only 3 flowers ; calyces small, almost pearshaped, not angular, longer than their thin 
stalklets ; tube of the calyx nearly twice as long as the hemispheric lid ; stamens all fertile, 
inflexed before expansion ; anthers cordate-kidney shaped, the outer ones opening by divergent 
short slits, the inner ones by more roundish large pores ; stigma not broader than the style ; 
fruits large, nearly globular, pale-greyish, on very short or hardly any stalklets, 3- to 4- rarely 
5-celled, not angular, the orifice of from twice to four times less width than the breadth of the 
middle portion of the fruit ; rim prominently edged ; valves quite enclosed, deltoid ; fertile seeds 
very angular, not much differing in size from the rather large and broad sterile seeds, but edged 
by a rather conspicuous membrane. 

In Western Australia on sandy plains and ridges near Kojoneerup, also near the Palinup- 
and Salt-Rivers (Maxwell) ; on shrubby undulations north of Stirling's Eange and thence 
extending, though not continuously, to the sand-scrubs near the Arrowsmith-River (F. v. M.). 

A shrub, noticed to attain generally only a height of about 10 feet, but occasionally advancing 
to the size of a small tree, as seen by me towards the sources of the G-reenough- and Irwin-Eivers. 
Branchlets mostly somewhat angular. Leaves seldom over 3 inches long, often shorter, some of them 
occasionally only 1 inch in length, somewhat rigid. Umbel-stalks slightly angular, ^ to | inch 
long ; lower portion of the filaments not flexuous in bud. Anthers centrally dorsifixed, oscillating, 
the outer ones slightly larger and comparatively rather broader, very pale everywhere except their 
minute terminal brownish gland. Style shorter than the stamens. Fruit sometimes attaining 
folly to 1 inch dimension, but producing ripe seeds also at half that size. Orifice variable in 
width, but always of much less diameter than that of the middle portion of the fruit ; the rim in 
some instances abruptly descending, rendering the edge very narrow, in other cases the rim 
remaining more horizontal, thus forming a broadish margin around the orifice. Seeds in generally 
two rows closely packed in each cell, shining, very few fertile, and these from a convex summit 
angularly attenuated to the basal hilum. 

A remarkable feature in this species is the size of the fruit, very large in proportion to that 
of the flowers, the disproportion in this instance being greater than in any other congener hitherto 
known. 

In Bentham's system this species takes its place among the comparatively small series of 
those of the Eenantherae ; this alone renders its recognition quite easy, as that series comprises 
only one other West-Australian species, namely E. marginata, and seemingly also only one other 
constantly shrubby or scarcely arborescent species, viz. E. stricta. 

Eucalyptus-vegetation generally is favorable to the production of honey, and to this rule 
E. buprestium offers no exception ; indeed the sweet nectar-fluid of the flowers of this Eucalypt 
seems particularly rich, so much so, that some of the beautiful Buprestis-beetles are particularly 
attracted by it ; hence the specific name. Perhaps the only utilitarian value, which this species 



ETJCALTPTUS BUPRESTrUM. 

could claim, would be its adaptability to grow on mere sand, which it would help to solidify, to 
cover with shelter and shade where needed, and to convert finally into pasture-land. 

Mr. Otto Tepper confirms indirectly my supposition, that it is the nectar-fluid of the flowers, 
which attracts some buprestideous beetle to this species ; inasmuch as he observed, that about the 
month of February in Yorke's Peninsula large numbers of gigantic and beautiful Stigmodera- 
beetles of four species take possession of Eucalyptus unciaata, which at the time is in full 
bloom. In the afternoon and evening they were found almost exclusively among the flowers and 
engaged in imbibing the nectar, which with perhaps delicate portions of the flowers seems to form 
the nourishment of these buprestidae. Mr. Tepper never saw them feed on the leaves of Eucalypts, 
as is the case with some other beetles. The females of these Stigmoderas deposit their eggs under 
the loose dry bark of the branches ; the larvae feed at first under the bark, then through the sap- 
wood into the centre of the stem, always downward, until they reach the bottom of the tree, where 
they form tortuous oval galleries. These particular Stigmoderas, according to information gained 
by Mr. Tepper from the settlers, do not occur every year ; but one distinct species frequents 
E. oleosa, but never numerously, although annually. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, its lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
tinexpanded flower ; 3, front-view of two stamens ; 4, back-view of a stamen ; 5, style and stigma ; 6 and 7, longi- 
tudinal and transverse section of fruit ; 8 and 9, fertile and sterile seeds ; 10, embryo in situ ; 11, cotyledons slightly 
unfolded, laying free part of the radicle ; 12, transverse section of embryo ; 13, portion of a leaf ; all magnified, but 
to various extent. 




Ttd'c -A. C7r-fie:>^ C'L:i}. 



Sl;eam Litki Got P^mtag Office Meli) 



3^(g|]3:y|tei §3.(s)!£)iIli^o /^ 



EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. ■ 

Labillardifere, relation du voyage a la reclierche de La P^ronse i. 153, t. 13 (1799), English translation by 
Stookdale 111-112, pi. 13 (1800) ; plantanim Nova; HoUatidise specimen ii. 121 ; Sprengel, systema vegeta- 
bilium ii. 500; De Candolle, prodromus systematis regni vegetabilis iii. 220; G. Don, general system of 
dicblamydeous plants ii. 820 ; D. Dietrich, synopsis plantarum iii. 122 ; Lindley and Paxton, the Flower- 
Garden of new and remarkable plants, li. 38, fig. 153 (1852) ; .1. Hooker, flora Tasmanica i. 133 ; P. v. M. in 
Nederlandisk Eruidkundig Archief iv. 140; fragraenta phytographise Austral ise ii. 68; plants indigenous to 
the Colony of Victoria supplemental plate 16 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 225 ; Stewart and Brand!?, 
Forest-Flora of North-West and Central India 231 ; Bentley and Trimen, medicinal plants, part 15, t. 109 
(1876); F. V. M., introduction to botanic teachings p. 7, figs, i.-vi. 

The ordinary " Blue Gum-tree " of Victoria and Tasmania. 

Finally very tall ; branchlets robust, quadrangular ; leaves scattered, mostly large, lanceolav- 
sickleshaped, of thick consistence, of equal color and somewhat shining on both sides, the lateral 
veins moderately spreading and slightly prominent, but not crowded, the circumferential vein 
rather distant fr om the edge of the leaf ; oildots mostly concealed ; flowers generally large, axillary, 
solitary, less frequently two or three together, sessile, or their common stalk very short broad and 
compressed ; stalklets none ; calyx tinged with a bluish-white bloom ; lid depressed-hemispherical, 
rcarty-glandular , suddenly raised from the centre to a thick point, nearly as long as the almost 
obverse-pyramidal angular warty-glandular tube ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; 
anthers oblong-oval, opening by parallel longitudinal slits ; stigma not or hardly broader than 
the style ; fruit rather large, verging to a hemispheric or obverse-pyramidal form, longitudinally 
angular, 3- to 6- rarely 6-celled ; its rim broad, depressed or convex, at the edge separated from 
the calyx-tube by an ample furrow ; valves emergent or convergent, deltoid ; seeds all without 
any appendage, the sterile much narrower than the fertile seeds. 

In valleys as well as on ridges and mountain-slopes, chiefly in hu mid regions of the southern 
and eastern portions of our colony, from the vicinity of Cape Otway to Wilson's Promontory, 
northward to the Hume- and Tumut-Rivers in the southern part of New South Wales, occurring 
also between Braidwood and Araluen, according to the Eev. Eob. Collie, mostly dispersed, but 
sometimes gregarious, noticed also on the islands of Bass' Straits and frequent in many but 
particularly the southern parts of Tasmania, not ascending to alpine elevations. 

The bark is smooth and greyish- or bluish-white, unless where it may persist at the base of 
the bole and thus becomes thickened, dark and rough. The general flowerstalks, though usually 
suppressed, are occasionally extended to \ inch length. The bracts are connate and fugacious. 
The anthers are dorsally fixed, turn in a horizontal direction and are somewhat tapering towards 
the lower extremity. The central point of the lid is conical or blunt. Fruits occur exceptionally 
of reduced size, and their surrounding furrow is then almost obliterated. 

E. cordata, E. diversifolia and perhaps also E. heterophylla of Miquel, as mentioned in the 
fourth volume of the Kruidkundig Archief, belong to E. globulus. 

E. globulus is at once distinguished from all its numerous congeners — except E. alpina — ^by 
the warty-glandular calyces, covered by a crovmshaped lid ; besides the shape of its almost or 
quite sessile fruit is exclusively peculiar and bears resemblance only to that of E. megacarpa and 
E. Preissiana. The seedlings are of a waxy-powdery somewhat bluish whiteness, have sharply 
quadrangular stems and sessile heartshaped or cordate-ovat e leases. These characteristics, taken 
unitedly, offer already marks of discrimination in comparison to E. alpina. The latter is moreover 
of very slow growth, remains always a shrub, has thicker more shining almost oval or even 
roundish leaves, smaller flowers, nearly heartshaped anthers, less angular fruits with more 



EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 

depressed rim ; besides the seeds of the two are visibly different, those of E. alpina being sharply 
angular, more shining and perceptibly wrinkled-streaked, while most of the sterile seeds are far 
less narrow ; thus fertile seeds can be easily sifted from sterile seeds of E. globulus, whereas the 
separation of them in E. alpina would by the sifting process be as difficult as in E. obliqua, 
E. macrorrhyncha and many other species ; furthermore it will endure such severe frosts, as at 
once would prove detrimental to E. globulus. The seedlings (and indeed also the yoimg shoots 
from stumps of stems or their charred remnants) find in form and coloration a repetition in 
E. tetragona, the whole foliage of which resembles greatly that of the seedlings or young adven- 
titious shoots of E. globulus. 

Scarcely any doubt exists, that E. glauca (De Candolle, prodromus iii. 221), to which on 
De Candolle's authority also E. pulverulenta (Link, enumeratio plantarum horti botanici Bero- 
linensis ii. 31) and E. perfoliata (Noisette in Steudel's nomenclator botanicus, editio prima, 1821) 
belong, represents the young state of E. globulus, as under the above name plants were cultivated 
on the continent of Europe many years ago, which, though they had not flowered then, accorded 
in every respect with the early state of E. globulus, when covered all over with a bluish-white 
powdery film, the latter occurring likewise on the branchlets and calyces of the advanced tree and 
giving rise to the somewhat remarkable vernacular name. The author saw such seedlings in the 
conservatories of the botanic garden of Kiel in 1846, and his university-friend, the Hon. F. 
Krichauff of Adelaide, who generously presented his whole large collection of dried plants to the 
writer, preserved in 1847 also in the botanic garden of Berlin specimens of E. glauca, which in 
no respect can be separated from the seedling-state of E. globulus, and bear besides resemblance 
only, as above remarked, to the then far less accessible Eucalyjptus (Eudesmia) tetragona. But 
the continued marvellous rapidity of growth of E. globulus, its sanitary importance and the value 
oT"its hardwood^imber^wereThen in Middle^ European conservatories not at all recognized, and it 
was only in 1852, when I passed through forests of Eucalyptus globulus in Victoria, that I became 
fully aware of the unparalleled forestral importance of the Blue Gum-tree, and obtained full 
information on its great utilitarian value, although I received in Adelaide flowering and fruiting 
branches as early as 1848 from Tasmania. 

In the early part of 1853 the author of this work gathered seeds of E. globulus on the base 
of Mount BuUer, where the tree is frequent ; seeds from this locality were transmitted as important 
to European botanic gardens in the course of that year, and probably from these sendings the 
first plants arose in Algeria, where now E. globulus is by far the predominant tree. Professor 
Planchon, who wrote a most able memoir on this tree (in the Revue Deux-mondes 1875) assures 
us, that E. globulus was raised already during 1854 in Algeria from seeds obtained from the 
Jardin des Plantes of Paris, and the Montpellier Savant saw flowers in Algeria during his visit 
in 1863 on trees imder the care of Mons. Hardy. Some seeds may have found their way to 
Europe already much earlier from Hobarton. 

Monsieur Prosper Eamel had the fortunate opportunity, to witness the quick growth of this 
Eucalyptus in the Melbourne botanic garden from 1855 to 1857, though the occasion did never 
arise to this high-minded gentleman, to notice the tree in its forest-haunts ; only thus he became 
aware of its quite incalculable value for " reboisement " in countries around the Mediterranean 
Sea, and to him the merit is due of having, constantly encouraged and advised by myself, on his 
return to France in 1858 pushed enthusiastically and perseveringly the culture of Eucalyptus 
globulus on a forestral scale, for which purpose the seeds were largely supplied by myself ; for 
although the species was cultivated in a few places of South-Europe and perhaps even in Algeria 



EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 

for mere garden- or park-purposes long before, yet its enormous superiority over nearly or 
actually all other species of Eucalyptus and indeed any other kinds of hardwood-trees in celerity 
of growth and general ease of rearing was then not at all appreciated, notwithstanding that 
Dehnhardt already had raised this Eucalyptus for open-air culture in the earlier part of the 
century (at least as early as 1829), as proved by an authentic specimen in his collection of dried 
plants, kindly placed at my disposal for identification of the species by Baron Vincent Cesati, the 
Director of the botanic g arden of Naples* ; the tree was named by him E. gigantea, thus must 
have attained already a large size under his care. It may be incidentally remarked, that two of 
the most imp ortant of al l other E ucalypts for cultural purposes, namely B. rostrata and E. amyg- 
dalina, were also already in an up-growing state at Dehnhardt's time in the Eoyal botanic garden 
of Naples. 

It was through His Grace, Dr. J. A. Goold, R. 0. Archbishop of Melbourne, that plantations 
of E. globulus were first established for subduing the miasmatic exhalations of the Pontinian 
swamps, as mentioned in a letter of this highly distinguished prelate to the author of this work 
under date of 17th December 1879 : " The Eucalyptus globulus was first raised in the Campagna 
from seeds, kindly presented to me by you on my visit to Eome in 1869, to attend the Vatican 
General Council. I handed the seeds to the Superior of the Trappist-Monks, who then occupied 
the monastery and grounds of the Tre Fontane, a most fever-stricken locality. On my next visit 
to Rome, made a few years later, I had the pleasure to see the good results of your kind and 
thoughtful presentation in the vigorous growth of many Gum-trees, acting most wholesomely on 
poisonous air of that part of the Campagna. The religious able clever men, chiefly French, were 
most grateful for the gracious gift." Thus through the enlightened circumspectness of our 
dignified chief of an ancient church the sanitary improvements on the fever-swamps were initiated 
with prospects of that permanency, for which the plans and works of drainage since the time of 
Appius Claudius (long before the Christian era) had vainly striven, and in the prosecution of 
which the overpowering force of nature had baffled the exertions of Julius Caesar, Trajanus and 
many of the subsequent rulers of Rome up to recent history. 

The degree of resistance of E. globulus against frost depends to some extent, as in the case of 
many other kinds of trees, on the age of the individual plant, on the moister or drier situation of 
its growth and also on the greater or lesser shelter against wind. Thus up-grown trees of 
E. globulus did not suffer at all during the extraordinarily c old winter of 1879 -80 at Antibes, 
when once in December the temperature sunk even as low as 15° F., the trees standing probably 
in a sheltered position, when E. melliodora and some other congeners lost part of their foliage. 
Prince Troubetzkoy observed at Lago Maggiore, that E. globulus stood there a cold of 21° F. 
Drs. Fedeli and Lanzi stated that a temperature of 21° F. only injured the young shoots, 
and the monks of Tre Fontane, after repeated observation, maintain, that the tree will bear a 
temperature of 17° F. ; all this is in fair consonance with our local experiences here. In the cool 
elevated but sheltered region, surrounding the alpine height of Mount BuUer, I observed snow 
in large masses to lodge sometimes for protracted periods on the branches of Euc. globulus, 
eventually injuring even strong limbs, but the stem and main branches remaining unhurt and 
pushing sprigs and foliage anew in the spring. In the singularly mild clime of the island of Arran, 
though nearly 56° north, B. globulus survived unscathed the excessively severe winter of 1878- 
1879, with Acacia decurrens, Dicksonia antarctica, D. squarrosa, Cyathea medullaris, Cordyline 

* See JSTuoTO Giornale Botanico Italiano xii. 47. 



EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 

Australis, C. iadivisa, Casuarina quadrivalvis and some other conspicuous plants of Australia and 
New Zealand, as observed by the Rev. D. Landsborough. Nevertheless E. globulus among tall 
congeners cannot rival E. pauciflora, E. amygdalina and E. Gunnii in hardiness. Dr. Aberg 
if he acciirately identified the species, found at the mouth of the La Plata-River the following 
Eucalypts nearly or fully as hardy as E. globulus, and all these also of comparatively rapid 
growth : E. obliqua, E. Leucoxylon, E. hsemastoma, E. largiflorens, E. longifolia, E. cornuta, 
E. saligna, E. resinifera, E. corymbosa, E. diversicolor, E. tereticornis and E. rostrata, while 
E. calophylla, E. margin ata, E.maculata and E. macrocarpa perished there from frost ; in celerity 
of growth E. globulus and E. corymbosa carried there the palm, E. diversicolor and E. obliqua 
coming next. Prof. Goeppert, ^TTf. Raveret-Wattei and others observed, that E. globulus will 
bear a severe degree of cold transiently (about 20° F.), if it lasted not sufficiently long to 
congeal the sap to any great extent, and provided also, that the new wood was well matured and 
the spot of growth a dry one. 

This species produces flowers during our cool season. 

The middle-bark of E. globulus is without reservoirs of oleo-resin and Kino ; the stone-cells 
are comparatively few, larger than the surrounding parenchyma ; small interspersed bast-bundles 
occur and occasionally cork-cells. The inner-bark has the cells of parenchyma very small ; the 
bast-rays are irregular and very narrow ; the stone-cells are not observable, but numerous cork- 
cells occur. Accurate histologic researches on Eucalyptus-barks, commenced on material furnished 
by me to a leading Austrian Phyto-Anatomist, Dr. Josef Moeller, and now extended here, need 
yet to be much further continued, before the particular development of the cortical layers, so 
characteristic for many species, will be fully understood as well in its normal as aberrant phases. 

The main anatomic characteristics of the wood are as follows : The vascular tubes on longi- 
tudinal sections become apparent as short dark lines or pores, often somewhat twisted ; they are 
isolated, but particularly numerous where the annual layers meet ; their lumen is at an average 
0*015 m.m. and they are generally filled with cellular substance ; their dots are similar to those 
of many other Eucalypts ; the medullary rays are very numerous, consisting of one, two or three 
rows formed of comparatively ample cells, each filled with a brownish mass ; medullary spots 
none ; the parenchyma cells are not numerous, and their walls thin ; the wood-fibres are usually 
curved, their apex is frequently forked, which is one of the causes that the wood is not very fissile ; 
their middle measures about 0*02 m.m. in breadth and their walls are strongly thickened. 

The timber of E. globulus is of a rather pale color, hard, heavy, strong and durable, more 
twisted than that of E. obliqua, E. amygdalina and many other fissile kinds, but not so inter- 
locked as that of E. rostrata, E. melliodora and most of the species termed here Box-trees. Its 
specific gravity varies from -698 to 1-108. In transverse strain its strength is about equal to 
English oak. ]ji durability it occupies a medium position among that of its congeners, being 
more lasting than that of most so-called White Gum-trees and all Stringybark-trees, but inferior 
to that of the Red Gum-tree, Ironbark-tree and Box Eucalypts, especially when in contact with the 
soil or with water. In house-building it is one of our best timbers for joists, studs, rafters or any other 
heavy scantlings, and is very largely used for this purpose. The Australian Lloyds place the wood 
of the Blue Gum-tree in the second class of colonial timber, E. rostrata, E. Leucoxylon and E. 
marginata ranking first. If the different parts of a vessel are constructed of any of the three 
latter species, it is classed A for twelve years ; the following is the number of years assigned to 
sound wood of E. globulus : for floors of ships, first and second futtocks, main- and rider-keelson, 
beams and hooks, 10 years ; for third futtocks and top-timbers, stem- and stern-posts, transoms, 



EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 

knightheads, hawse-timbers, apron, deadwood, knees, rudder, windlass, timber- and bilge-strakes 
and ceiling between, clamps, stringers, shelf-pieces and lower deck-waterways, 9 years ; for light 
watermark to wales, topsides, sheer-strakes, upper deck-waterways, spirkiting and plank-sheers, 8 
years ; keel to first futtock-heads, thence to light watermark, 12 years. The wood of the Blue 
Gum-tree is also very extensively used by carriage-builders and manufacturers of implements ; for 
instance, for poles and shafts of light as well as heavy vehicles, for under-carriage work, swivel- 
trees, spokes and rims, axle-beds, plough-bars, handles of axes, picks, shovels, forks, hoes and 
hammers and all similar purposes. It is further used for telegraph-poles and for planking for 
bridges and jetties ; for structures in water and for railway-sleepers it was formerly largely 
employed, but during the latter years it has given place to the wood of E. rostrata for these 
purposes. Rural settlers use the Blue Gum wood for fencing, especially for rails, when readily 
attainable. The Marquis Chateauvieux and Sir George Bowen mentioned to the author, that E. 
rostrata is reared in such places of Bourbon and Mauritius as are exposed occasionally to violent 
storms, where E. globulus, though not really fragile, is more apt to break than E. rostrata. 



Eesults of Experiments on the strength of Blue-Gum Timber instituted by Mr. James Mitchell, 
pieces subjected to test were 7 feet long by 2 inches square. 



The 





Deflection. 




Total Weight 
required to 

breali 
each piece. 


Value 
of Strength 
Iw 


Direct 

cohesion 

(Tensile 

strength) per 

square inch. 






Weight and Deflection while 
the Elasticity remained perfect. 


Deflection at 

the crisis 
of breaking. 


Siieciflc 
Gravity. 












Weight in— 


Deflection in— 














lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 


lbs. 




lbs. 




No. 4, seasoned 8 months ... 


294 


1-5 


7-5 


819 


2,149 


... 


1-076 


No. 5, seasoned 8 months ... 


503 


1-375 


5- 


867 


2,276 




1-034 


No. 6, seasoned 2 to 3 years 


472 


1-375 


6-5 


1,029 


2,701 


28,784 


1-054 


No. 7, seasoned 4 to 5 years 


413 


1-375 


6- 


1,043 


2,737 


27,440 


1-078 


No. 8, seasoned 2 to 3 years 


567 


1-75 


7-5 


1,113 


2,921 


22,064 


-987 


No. 9, seasoned 4 to 5 years 


434 


1-375 


6- 


1,113 


2,921 


27,472 


1-071 


No. 10, seasoned 3 years ... 


496 


1-625 


5-25 


1,122 


2,945 


31,088 


-942 


No. 15, seasoned 20 years* ... 


518 


1-626 


4- 


1,330 


3,491 


28,336 


1-089 



* Part of an old door-post. 



Results of Experiments instituted by Mr. Laslett on the strength of Blue-Gum Timber. The pieces 

subjected to trial were 7 feet long by 2 inches square. The weight was suspended in the middle, 

both ends free. 

Experiments on Transverse Strength. 







Deflections. 
















Total Weight required to 
break each piece. 




Specimen. 


With the Apparatus 
weighing 390 lbs. 


After the Weight was 
removed. 


At the crisis of 
breaking. 


Specific Gravity. 




inches. 


inches. 


inches. 


lbs. 




1 


1-25 


-15 


4-50 


767 


1-079 


2 


1-75 


•20 


3-75 


602 


•997 


3 


1-35 


•10 


5-75 


710 


1-037 


4 


1-00 


•00 


3-75 


767 


1-108 


5 


1-25 


•15 


3-50 


684 


1-026 


6 


1-00 


•00 


4-00 


741 


•924 


Average 


1-26 


•10 


4-21 


712 


1-029 



Each piece broke with a short fracture. 
S = 1,869. 



EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 



EXPEEIMENTS ON TeNSILE StEENGTH. 



Knmbcr of the Specimen. 


Dimensions ot each piece. 


Specific Gravity. 


"Weight each piece broke with. 


Direct cohesion on 1 square inch. 


7 

8 

9 

10 

11 


inches. 
> 2 X 2 X 30 < 


•997 
1-079 
1-037 
1-108 
1-026 


lbs. 
14,560 
26,600 
24,360 
26,600 
28,840 


lbs. 
3,640 
6,650 
6,090 
6,650 
7,210 


Average 





1-049 


24,192 


6,048 



Vertical oe Ceitshing Strain on Cubes of 2 inches. 



No. 12. 


No. 13. 


No. 14. 


No. 15. No. 16. 

1 


No. 17. Average. 


Average on 1 square inch. 


tons. 
12-875 


tons. 
13-000 


tons. 
12-750 


tons. i tons. 
11-125 10-500 


tons. 
13-625 


tons. 
12-312 


tons. 
3-078 



The tensile strength as given by Jas. Mitchell is greatly in excess of that recorded by Laslett, 
but is fairly in accord with some recent observations by Mr. F. C. Campbell of Geelong. {See 
Proceedings of the Eoyal Society of Victoria 1879.) 



Results of Experiments on the transverse strength of Wood of Eucalyptus globulus, instituted by Baron 
von Mueller and J. G. Luebmann. The pieces were 2 inches square, 2 feet long between the 
supports, the weight suspended in the middle, both ends free. The timber was seasoned for nine 
months. 







Deflection. 




Total Weight 

required to break 

each piece. 


«=f^ 






With the Apparatus 
weighing 780 lbs, 


After the Weight 
was removed. 


At the crisis of 
breaking. 


c Gravity. 




inches. 


inches. 


inches. 


lbs. 






1 


•12 


-04 


•75 


2,444 


1,833 


938 


2 


•08 


nil 


•62 


3,224 


2,418 


992 


3 


•16 


-04 


-58 


2,256 


1,692 


913 


4 


-12 


-04 


-75 


2,661 


1,996 


942 


5 


-10 


•02 


-75 


2,740 


2,055 


946 


6 


-12 


•03 


-55 


2,288 


1,716 


927 


7 


•12 


•02 


-75 


2,409 


1,807 


924 


8 


•12 


-04 


-58 


2,280 


1,710 


S4S 


9 


•16 


-04 


-62 


2,252 


1,689 


852. 


10 


-05 


ml 


•58 


3,752 


2,814 1 


094 


11 


•OS 


nil 


•65 


3,024 


2,268 1 


096 



S (strength) = -^ (length) x TT (weight) 

4x6 (breadth) x d' (depth multiplied by itself) 



EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 



Eesults of Experiments on the transverse strength of the Wood of various Eucalypts, by Baron von Mueller 
and J. G-. Luehmann. Specimens 2 feet long, 2 inches square. 





Deflection. 






Specific Gravity. 








Total Weitrht 


Value of Strength 












required to brealc 










With tlie 


At the 


each piece. 


Absolutely 




Apparatus 


crisis of 






Air-dried. dried. 




weighing 780 lbs. 


brealsing. 












inclies. 


inches. 


pounds. 








Eucalyptus Leucoxylon — Victorian ( 




03 




63 


4,192 


3,144 


1-028 


908 


Ironbark-tree ... ... 1 




03 




60 


3,977 


2,983 


1-061 


913 


siderophloia — Sydney Ironbark- 




02 




63 


3,873 


2,905 


1-075 


936 


tree... 




02 




56 


3,752 


2,814 


1-129 


953 


polyanthema — Red Box... ... \ 




10 

08 




56 
58 


3,215 
3,145 


2,411 
2,359 


1-248 1 
1-214 1 


031 
010 


melliodora — Yellow Box ... . . . ■ 




06 
08 




58 
63 


2,903 
2,781 


2,177 
2,086 


1-112 

1-040 


947 
876 


rostrata — Pale Eed Gum-tree ... ■ 




08 
07 




52 
48 


2,781 
2,712 


2,086 
2,034 


1-008 
•940 


843 
790 


rostrata— Dark Bed Gum-tree ... ] 




10 
09 




65 
68 


2,539 
2,417 


1,904 
1,813 


1-045 
-984 


874 
809 


macrorrhyncha— Stringybark-tree ] 




17 
17 




62 
60 


2,412 
2,384 


1,809 
1,788 


-952 
1-060 


809 
901 


Gunnii Tar. — Swamp Gum-tree ... \ 




12 

14 




75 

75 


2,327 
2,268 


1,745 
1,701 


•950 
1-021 


802 
842 


Stuartiana — Apple -scented Gum- ( 




12 




54 


2,425 


1,819 


1-010 


850 


tree ... ... ... ... ( 




14 




56 


2,170 


1,627 


1-001 


834 


viminalis — White Gum-tree ... \ 




12 
12 




65 

70 


2,384 
2,195 


1,788 
1,646 


-954 
-916 


797 
761 


goniocalyx— Bastard Box ... \ 




16 
20 




50 

58 


2,209 
2,050 


1,658 
1,537 


-948 
•937 


807 
798 


amygdalina— Peppermint-tree ... \ 




12 
12 




65 
70 


2,195 
2,132 


1,646 
1,599 


1-045 
1-076 


878 
908 


obliqua — Messmate ... ... | 




12 
14 




50 
48 


2,053 
1,776 


1,540 
1,332 


1-045 
-935 


867 
783 



Results of Experiments on the transverse strength of Timber other than Eucalyptus, by Baron von Mueller 
and J. G. Luehmann. Specimens 2 feet long, 2 inches square. 







Deflection. 




Total Weight 
I'equired to break 


Value of Strength 
LW 


Specific Gravity. 
















With the i 


Ltthe 


each piece. 




Absolutely 






Apparatus cr 


sis of 






Air-dried. 


dried. 






weighing 780 lbs. br 


alting. 














inches. ir 


ches. 


pounds. 










1 




04 


60 


3,579 


2,684 


-785 


•665 


Carya species — Hickory 




05 


56 


3,388 


2,541 


-808 


-688 


Praxinus Americana — American Wliitc 


1 




12 


54 


2,504 


1,878 


-800 


-696 


Ash 




12 


54 


2,640 


1,980 


-604 


-525 


Quercus alba — American "White Oak .. 


■ 




10 
12 


62 
65 


2,781 
2,192 


2,086 
1,644 


•716 
•669 


-612 

•582 


Acacia Melanoxylon — Blackwood 


\ 




08 
08 


50 
64 


2,296 
2,261 


1,722 
1,696 


-616 
•625 


■529 
-536 


Dammara australis — Kauri ... 


( 




08 
08 


42 
42 


2,053 
1,967 


1,540 
1,475 


-600 
•■613 


-518 
-531 


Pinus silTcstris — Baltic Deal... 






17 
21 


70 
48' 


1,811 
1,398 


1,358 
1,048 


-541 
-399 


-458 
-346 



Mr. Laslett obtained for English Oak S = 2,117. 

In Chambers Mathematics the following quotations are given for S : — Ash 2,030 ; Beech 1,560 ; 
Birch 1,900 ; Elm 1,030 ; Fir 1,100 to 1,140 ; Larch 1,120 ; English Oak 1,200 to 2,260 ; Canadian 
Oak 1,760 ; Red Pine 1,340 ; Poon 2,200 ; Teak 2,460. 



ETJCALTPTUS GLOBULUS. 

The statements in reference to the specific gravity hitherto given fluctuate between 
(Osborne) and 1"108 (Laslett). This great disparity finds its explanation in the different degrees 
of dryness (natural or artificial) and also in the age and quality of the timber from different 
localities. To render records of this kind most reliable, the mean of a multitude of observations 
should be ascertained, and the samples be reduced to an uniform complete dryness. Our experi- 
ments here on ordinary samples from timber yards ranged in their results from -845 to 1"096. 

Perhaps not even to the Royal Oak of England has such an extensive literature been devoted at 
any particular period as to our Blue Gum-tree within the last twenty years. Indeed, if even only the 
main substance of the writings on this now famous tree, such as appeared during the comparatively 
short space of time since it came into notice, were to be collected, we should have material enough 
to fill a large volume. But as the main object of the present work consists in an endeavour to 
set clearly forth the systematic characteristics of the various Eucalypts, with a view of facilitating 
the discrimination of the species, it will not be necessary on the present occasion to excerpt 
extensively from the writings of other observers ; but it may prove of utility to quote the list of 
publications on Eucalyptus (and chiefiy on E. globulus) inserted into the " Bulletin mensuel de la 
Soci^t6 d'Acclimatation de Paris," as far as they appeared in that important periodical, an index 
of which up to 1877 was given already by Dr. Jules Grisard. {See Bullet, troisifeme serie, tome 
iii. 59-62.) To this list are here now added notes on some more publications, quoted in Bentley's 
and Trimen's " Medicinal Plants " (Part 15) and many in addition, to which I had access also ; 
though this index is far from claiming completeness, the scattered literature even of Eucalypts 
being only very partially to us accessible here. 

Aherg, E. Irrigacion y Eucalyptus, Buenos Aires, 1874. 

Akhbar (Journal), Culture de I'Eucalyptus en Algeria, 1 870. 

American Pharmaceutical Association (Proceedings), 1875. 

Andre, E. Euc. globulus, 1863. 

Bentley, On the Characters, Properties and Uses of Euc. globulus ; Abstract in Year-book of 

Pharmacy for 1874. 
Bentley and Trimen, Medicinal Plants ; Euc. globulus, 1876. 

Bertherand, Dr. E. L. L'Eucalyptus an point de vue de I'hygiene en Algerie, 1876. 
Bosisto, Jos., in Australian Medical Journal, 1872. 

In Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 1874 (reprinted in Report of Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, 1877). 

In Pharmaceutical Journal, third series, vol. v., London. 
Brown, J. E. Progress Report on Forest-reserves of South Australia, 1879. 
Brown, Rob. General Remarks on the Botany of terra australis, 1814. 
Brunei, Dr. A. Observations cliniques sur I'Euc. globulus, 1872. 
Huton, Gio. I'Eucalitto, Bologna, 1875. 

Californ^an Horticulturist (Journal) ; Miscellaneous Notes on Eucalyptus. 
Californian Academy (Proceedings) ; Miscellaneous Notes on Eucalyptus. 
Carlotii, Dr. R. De la culture de I'Eucalyptus en Corse, 1866. 

Sur Taction therapeutique et la composition elementaire de I'ecorce et de la feuille de TEuc. 
globulus, 1869. 

Du mauvais air en Corse ; assainissement par I'Eucalyptus, 1869. 

L'Enc. globulus, son rang parmi les agents de la Matiere M6dicale, 1872. 

Assainissement des regions chaudes insalubres par I'Eucalyptus, 1875. 

L'Eucalyptus en Corse, 1877. 



EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 

Cloex, Examen chimique des feuilles d'Euc. globulus, 1869. 

Etude chimique de I'EucalyptoI, 1870. 
Cooper, Ellwood, Forest-Culture aad Eucalyptus-trees, 1876 (collection of lectures and essays by 

Baron von Mueller). 
Cordier, Renseignements sur la rapidity de la croissance des Eucalyptus, 1873. 

Etude forestiere des Eucalyptus, 1874. 

L'Eucalyptus en Algeria, 1876. 
Cosson, E. Note sur I'aeclimatation de I'Euc. globulus, 1875. 
Curnow, On Eucalyptus, in the " Lancet," 1876. 

Department of Agriculture, Washington. Annual Reports ; Numerous occasional notes. 
Faust and Homeyer, On Eucalyptus, in Year-book of Pharmacy, 1874 and 1875. 
Fedeli, Gregorio, SuUe propriety bonificanti et terapeutiche deU' Euc. globulus, 1876. 

In Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. vi., 3rd series. 
FlUekiger and Hanhury, Pharmacographia, 1874. 
Gastinel-Bey, Professor, Memoire sur I'Euc. globulus, 1870. 
Oildas, Frere, L'Eucalyptus dans la campagne de Rome, 1875. 
Gimbert, Dr. L'Euc. globulus, son importance en agriculture, en hygifene et en m^decine, 1870. 

Etude sur I'influence des plantations d'Euc. globulus, 1873. 

Etude des applications th^rapeutiques de I'Eucalyptus globulus (Archives gen6rale de mddecine), 
1875. 
Glover, in Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. vi., 3rd series. 

Grisard, Dr. Jules, Noms vulgaires des diverses especes d'Eucalyptus, 1876. 
Gutter, Professor, Sur I'Eucalyptus et son emploi therapeutique, 1871. 
Hamm, Dr. W. von, Der Fieber-Heilbaum oder Blaugummi-Baum, 1878. 
Hardy, Lettre sur I'Eucalyptus, 1864. 

Henry, R. Note sur une formule pratique pour le cubage des Eucalyptus, 1876. 
Homeyer, in Journal of the Chemical Society, 1876. 

In Garr. Materia Medica. 
Hough, Franhl. B. Report upon Forestry, Washington, 1878. 
Journal of Applied Science. Chemical products of the Eucalyptus, 1876. 
Kellogg, Dr. A., in the proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 1875. 
Lambert, E. Eucalyptus, culture, exploitation et production ; son role en Algerie, 1872. 
Laslett, Thos. Timber and Timber-trees, 1875. 
Leingre, Notice sur I'Euc. globulus, 1875. 

Lorinser, Dr. In Wiener medicinischen Wochenschrift, vols. xix. and xx. (1869-1870). 
Maclean, Dr. In "Practitioner," 1871. 

Maillard de Marafy, Comte, L'Eucalyptus, nouvel emploi industriel, 1 870. 
Maisck, in American Journal of Pharmacy, 1876. 
Mares, Dr. P. Note sur I'Eucalyptus, 1870. 

Meehan, Professor Th. Different notes in " Gardeners' Monthly," Philadelpbia, 1870-1880. 
Merice, E. Progres et developpement de la culture de I'Eucalyptus, 1874. 
Ministere de la marine et des colonies, Paris, Des plantations d'Eucalyptus dans les colonies 

franjaises, 1873. 
Mitchell, J. On the strength, durability and value of the timber of the Blue Gum-tree of Tasmania 

(papers of the Roy. Soc), 1851. 
Moore, Ch. On the woods of New South Wales, in Report on the Intercolonial Exhibition of 
Sydney, 1870. 



EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 

Mouchalait, De I'Eucalyptus, 1867. 

Mueller, Baron Ferd. von. Reports to the Victorian Parliament, 1853-1874. 

On a general introduction of useful plants into Victoria (Transact. Phil. Inst. Vict., vol. ii., 1857). 

Report on the resources of Victoria (Transact. Roy. Soc. Vict. 1860). 

Victorian, (second London) Exhibition ; indigenous vegetable substances, 1862-1863. 

Report on the vegetable products of the Intercolonial Exhibition of 1866-67. 

Australian vegetation, indigenous or introduced, 1866. 

Select Plants, readily available for industrial culture, 1876 ; Indian enlarged edition, 1880. 

In Bulletin de la Societe d' Agriculture d' Alger, 1868. 

Forest-Culture in relation to industrial pursuits, 1871. 

On Euc. globulus ; in the Journal of the Agricultural Society of Calcutta, 1874. 

In Mclvor's Chemistry of Agriculture, 1879. 
Nardy, Les Eucalyptus sur le littoral de la Mediterranee, 1875. 
Naudin, Ch. In Revue horticole, 1861. 
Pasquier, A. De I'Eucalyptus, 1873. 

Pharmaceutical Journal, The hygienic influences of the Pine and the Eucalyptus, 1876. 
Philippe, Sur I'Euc. globulus, 1 862. 

Sur I'Euc. globulus et I'Hovenia dulcis, 1864. 
Pietra-Santa, Dr. Influence de I'Eucalyptus en Alg6rie et en Corse (in La Nature), 1877. 
Planchon, Professor J. E. L'Euc. globulus au point de vue botanique, economique et medical, 
1875 (Revue des deux mondes). Translated into English by the Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, 1875. 
Samel, Prosper, Sur les Eucalyptus oleosa et globulus, 1861. 

L'Euc. globulus (Revue maritime et coloniale), 1862. 

Des Eucalyptus, envisage au point de vue de la production du miel et de la cire, 1864. 

Many Notes since 1861, all in the Bulletin de la Soc. d'AccIim. de Paris. 
Raveret- Wattel, Dr. L'Eucalyptus, Rapport sur son introduction, sa culture, ses proprietes, usages, 

etc., 1871. 
Revue maritime et coloniale (Journal), L'Eucalyptus globulus de Tasmanie, 1861. 
Saint- Hilaire, Geoffroy de. Notes sur le jardin d'acclunatation d'Hyferes, 1876. 
Salvy, L. Note sur I'Eucalyptus et sur la fabrication de la liqueur faite avec les feuiUes de cet 

arbre, 1871. 
Sicard, Dr. A. Sur I'introduction de I'Eucalyptus globulus dans le Department des Bouches du 

Rhone, 1868. 
Simmonds, P. L. Journal of applied Science, 1875-1880, several notices. 
Smith, A. In Lindley's and Moore's Treasury of Botany, 1866, 1873 and 1876. 
Societe d'Acclimatation de Paris, Very numerous notes in the Procfesverbaux from 1861-1880, 

irrespective of the memoirs separately quoted. 
Taylor, Th. On the Chemical Composition of Eucalyptus-leaves, in the Report of the Department 

of Agriculture of Washington, 1876. 
Tenison- Woods, Rev. Jul. E. Tasmanian Forests, their Botany and economical value ; in Journal 

of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 1879. 
Torelli, Comte, L'Eucalyptus e Roma, 1879. 
Trottier, Boisement dans le desert et colonisation au moyen de I'Eucalyptus, 1869. 

De I'accroissement et de la valeur progressive de I'Eucalyptus, 1871. 

R61e de I'Eucalyptus en Algerie, 1876. 

Arbres de I'Australie. 



EUCALTPTUS GLOBULUS. 

Trottier, Note sur I'Eucalyptus. 

Turrel, Dr. Notes sur I'acclimatation de quelques veg^taux, 1866. 

Ward, General Sir E. M. Timber of New South Wales, its elasticity and strength, 1861. 
Woolls, Rev. Dr. TV. A Contribution to the Flora of Australia ; the genus Eucalyptus, 1867. 
Lectures on the Vegetable Kingdom, 1879. 

The following are the results of experiments on Blue Gum wood as regards its yield of 
potash : — One ton of green timber from the trunk stripped of the bark yielded 1 lb. 5 oz. of pure 
potash or 2 lbs. 3 oz. of soluble salts, which might be regarded as equal to pearlash ; one ton 
of dry trunkwood yielded 2 lbs. 11 oz. of pure potash or 4 lbs. 8 oz. soluble salts ; one ton of 
branches with leaves as lopped off the tree yielded 4 lbs. 12 oz. of pure potash or 8 lbs. 5 oz. of 
soluble salts. Difference of soil, in which the tree grows, will alter to some extent these propor- 
tions. 

In the notes on E. megacarpa will be seen, how very different Eucalyptus-seeds of various 
species turn out in comparative size, and accordingly their weight as a merchandise is also much 
diversified ; thus one ounce of sifted seeds of E. globulus contains about 10,000 fertile grains. 
Seeds of thi s tree keptjtheir vitality atjeast^ four years, according to our tests, so far instituted, 
but perhaps they will keep much longer ; the more minute seed-grains of E. amygdalina germi- 
nated here still after six years, whereas the comparatively large seeds of E. miniata proved in our 
experiments to have retained their power of germination fully thirteen years. 

For mitigating the heat of arid tree-less regions, subject to high summer temperature, E. 
globulus plays a most important part also. But the culture of the tree should be millionfold, 
as effected already by wise statesmanship and enlightened private enterprise in Algeria, Upper 
India and some of the western states of the North American Union. The rearing of forests of 
our Blue Gum-tree can be accomplished more cheaply and more easily than that of almost any other 
tree, while the return is twice or three times earlier than that of the most productive Pine- or Oak- 
forests ; and this raising of Eucalyptus-forests can be extended to regions, in which most Pines 
and all Oaks would cope in vain with an almost rainless clime, though Eucalyptus-culture can 
never advance to cold zones. In a few months seedlings can be raised of sufficient strength, to 
be set out at the beginning of the cool season, and these wUl live already through the next 
summer without bestowal of any particular care. Sterile land, unless it be absolute sand, will 
soon be transformed into a verdant and salubrious grove, more particularly so if the substrata 
do not consist of impenetrable layers or outcrops of rocks. While quietly the forest advances, 
almost without expenditure and care, its wood-treasures increase from year to year without taxing 
the patience of generations, and within less than half the lifetime of man, timber of conspicuous 
dimensions can be removed, after fuel had been provided annually long before, while the unpropi- 
tious original surface-soil will have been converted into a stratum of fertility for agricultural or 
pastoral returns from successive storage of mineral aliments brought by the roots of the trees 
from far beneath, and accumulating through the decay of the dropping foliage. Colonel Playfair, 
British Consul- General in Algeria, informs me that there on extensive arable lands of his estate, 
where scarcely the seed-grain of wheat could be reaped in years of drought, the very young 
Eucalypt suffered in no way. It is not too much to assert, that among rather more than one 
thousand different species of trees, indigenous in Australia, E. globulus takes the first posItloiT 
in importance, and among its own kindTIt is the Prince of Eucalypts. 



EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 

The first positive experiments upon the febrifugal virtue s of leaves of E. globulu s were made 
in Spain by Dr. Tristany, whose observations were published in the Compilador medico, 1865 ; these 
confirmed the already popular reputation gained by the new remedy in the maritime provinces of 
that kingdom, where the opportunities for testing the therapeutic value of the leaves most readily 
arose in cases of ague, from which the native country of E. globulus is so singularly exempt. Dr. 
Tristany's observations were unexpected, all the more so as the common Cajuput-tree of India 
(Melaleuca Leucadendron, which not only in natural affinities is closely allied to the Eucalypts, 
but also yields a medicinal oil of much resemblance to Eucalyptus-oil) was never credited with any 
anti-pyretic power either by the ancient Indian population or by any of the European physicians, 
who had there to deal with fever-cases of the worst type during the successive last centuries. The 
assurances of the Spanish physician incited the late Dr. Adolph Brunei of Toulon, to make E. 
globulus the subject of grave clinical experiments, which gave affirmative results. Meanwhile 
and subsequently the researches of Dr. Grimbert of Cannes, Drs. Carlotti and Tedeschi of Corsica, 
Drs. Marfes, Bertherand and Miergnes of Algeria, Professor Gubler, Dr. Leuglet and Dr. Pepin of 
Paris, Dr. Maclean of Netley, Professor Lorinser of Vienna, Dr. Castan of Montpellier, Dr. Sac- 
chero of Sicily and several other medical practitioners (some early also in the La Plata States) 
placed the anti-febrile properties of the new medicament beyond a doubt. In the universal 
exhibitions of Philadelphia, Vienna, the last one of Paris and in that of Sydney, numerous 
medicinal preparations emana ting f rom Eucatypts have been brought before the world, our fellow- 
citizen, Mr. Jos. Bosisto, being foremost among those, who have greatly and successfully striven 
to bring these Eucalyptus-medicines under notice. In the comparatively limited ague-regions of 
North-East Australia, where Eucalyptus-vegetation is very largely replaced by ordinary jungle- 
trees of Indian type, travellers and settlers have also found in Eucalyptus-preparations an effectual 
remedy against the fever. The idea of converting Eucaljrptus-leaves into cigarettes arose with 
Mons. Prosper Ramel, who also turned it first into practice, indeed many years ago. 

We have as yet no accurate pathologic data on the effect of the exhalation of Eucalyptus- 
forests on phthisic patients ; but I anticipate, that in the same manner as the air of dense woods 
of Pines is apt to stay the inflammatory processes in diseases of the respiratory organs, so the 
vapors of our Eucalyptus-forests, the odor of which we so readily perceive and recognize, wiU 
likewise arrest the progress of these sad diseases, more particularly in their earlier stages, 
and probably more so than sea-air, notwithstanding its pureness, the atoms of bromine and iodine 
carried with it and the increased ozone, which it evolves. Indeed I should assume, that sanitarian 
dweUings could nowhere on the whole earth be provided for phthisic patients more auspiciously 
and more hopefully, than in mountains clothed with Eucalyptus-forests in extrar-tropical Australia 
and at elevations (varying according to latitude from 1,000 to 3,000 feet), where the slightly 
rarified air of a very moderate humidity pervaded by Eucalyptus vapor together with the 
comparative equability of the temperature would ease the respiration greatly. This assumption is 
largely based on the facts, that no other gregarious trees in the world evolve essential oil so largely 
as our Eucalypts, unless perhaps some of the most terebinthine Pines of colder climes, and that 
thus is afforded most copiously an oUy volatUe emanation, befitted to absorb and condense oxygen 
into ozone, the most powerfully vitalizing, oxydizing and therefore also chemically and therapeu- 
tically disinfecting element in nature's whole range over the globe. 

Our Blue Gum-tree has on the whole exercised already on regions of the warm temperate 
zone a greater influence, scenic, industrial and hygienic, than any other single species of 



EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 

arboreous vegetation ever reared anywhere, even Pines or Oaks or other classes of leading trees 
not excepted. Thus it has transformed the features of wide formerly tree-less landscapes, has 
already afforded in many places timber and fuel for rapidly increasing settlements, and rendered 
also many a miasmatic locality permanently habitable. The sanitary influence of Eucalyptus- 
vegetation was surmised by more than one of the early Australian settlers, who however were 
reluctant to place their conjectures on public record without positive investigations and final proof. 
Mons. Ramel touched with a few words on this subject (Revue maritime at coloniale) in 1861, 
but Sir William Macarthur was perhaps the first to argue, very many years ago, that our freedom 
from ague here was mainly due to our extensive myrtaceous vegetation, in which the Eucalypts 
are prominent, although species of Melaleuca, Leptospermum, Baeckea and some allied genera are 
also gregarious in many parts of Australia. The incontestable sanitary effect of these prevailing 
Myrtacese throughout Australia, except in some of the tropical coast-tracts, must be ascribed to a 
complex of causes : 1st, the ready and copious absorption of humidity from the soil by Eucalypts 
and closely allied trees ; 2ndly, their corresponding power of exhalation, much greater than that 
of many other kinds of trees ; Srdly, especially the evolution of peculiar highly antiseptic volatile 
oil ; 4thly, the disinfecting action of the dropping foliage on decaying organic matter in the soil, 
Eucalyptus-leaves themselves not causing any noxious eflSuvia through their own decomposition. 
Thus during maceration, for artistic skeletonizing, Eucalyptus-leaves, unlike almost all other kinds 
of foliage, give off no disagreeable odor, as first observed here by Mrs. Dr. Lewellin. The disin- 
fecting and deodorizing virtue of the tree being unquestionable, it has even been placed in the 
wards of continental hospitals, a measure initiated by Drs. Mosler and Groeze of Greifswald 
and here insisted on by Dr. Alexander Buettner. The fresh bruised leaves can with advantage be 
employed for the dressing of wounds to prevent or subdue septic inflammation, especially when no 
other remedies are at hand. Possibly the Blue Gum-tree is even a better scavenger of back-yards 
than a weeping willow, and in so far safer as it does not intrude into the foundations of buildings 
and leaves no putrefying foliage. Indeed the sewage-question of cities in the warm temperate 
zone would become very much simplified, if e ach house h ad at its rear the evergreen Eucalyptus 
tree. Mr. Th. Taylor found that albuminous compounds could be preserved in water, which by 
mere maceration of leaves of E. globulus had absorbed some of their oil and perhaps other 
preservative particles, a few drops of oil added to water serving the same purpose. Other kinds 
of volatile oils act very variously in this respect. To Bacteria and other micro-organisms 
Eucalyptus-oil proves as fatal as Phenic Acid ; hence also, as Taylor observed, it may be injected 
into the veins and arteries of cadavers for purposes of preservation. Flesh of any kind is as well 
preserved by Eucalyptus-oil as by Creosote, while beef sprinkled with it will dry hard without 
putrefaction. This writer is inclined to attribute the hygienic action of the oils of Eucalyptus and 
Pines simply to t heir high oxydizing power e xemplified in the decomposition of miasmata. He 
recommends Eucalyptus-oil to be applied as an admixture to dressings in Gangrene. {See Report 
of the Department of Agriculture, Washington, 1876, pp. 82-86.) 

Senateur Comte Torelli, who has been commissioned to initiate the extensive culture of E. 
globulus on the malarian swamps near Rome, informs us, that at Gaeta a specimen of this tree 
among those, planted by Royal order in 1854, was about 10 feet high in 1878, showing a basal 
circumference of eleven feet. But Dr. W. von Hamm of Vienna, who purposely visited Italy in 
the interest of Eucalyptus-culture, saw still larger trees at Lago Maggiore, one of which in 1878 
was fully 120 feet high, and was supposed to be 28 years old. At Hy^res a tree, raised from seed 



EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 

in 1857, according to Dr. Eaveret-Wattel had attained in 1875 a height of 67 feet, with a circum- 
ference of seven feet towards the base of the stem. As far north as Nizza a sinair~see3Iing 
planted in 1869 had risen in 1874 to a tree of about 50 feet height, with a circumference of three 
feet of the basal portion of the stem. At Malaga, according to Dr. Planchon, a specimen attained 
in six years 65 feet. Still greater celerity of growth is shown by E. globulus in temperate regions 
of tropical mountains, where equality of temperature is combined with moderate continuous 
humidity. Thus Mr. Brace wrote to me from the Neilgherri-Hills of the Madras Presidency, that 
his Eucalypts had attained an average height of 20 to 25 feet 18 months after th e seed s were 
sown ! Nearly the same wonderfully quick development was noticed in E^union. Many other 
instances of the marvellous quickness of growth could be adduced, if it were necessary, as we 
have witnessed such ourselves as near as the banks of the Yarra of our own city. But the extra- 
ordinary rate of growth becomes soon retarded, if the subsoil is not deep and friable ; still if such 
is the case, then the tree will succeed surprisingly even in poor soil, particularly if such is not 
altogether too dry. Naturally the species is almost restricted to humid valleys o f mountainous 
country or to lower slopes of forest-ranges, though in culture it accommodates itself to most sorts 
of soil with singular readiness. On the storm-beaten rocks of Wilson's Promontory I have seen 
it profusely in flower and fruit, though dwarfed by exposure to the size of a mere shrub, when 
almost within the reach of oceanic spray. The tree is however quite adverse to saline ground, 
and seems to avoid also soil containing much lime, as noticed likewise by Mons. Lambert in the 
forest-department of Algeria. As regards the greatest height, which under most favorable 
circumstances it will attain, it does not fully come up to the stupendous loftiness of B. amygdalina 
and B. diversicolor, but is one of the very few ranking in this respect next to them in the genus, 
while under ordinary circumstances it surpasses them all in the early and easy yield of copious 
fuel and subsequent timber, B. rostrata (with E. tereticornis), B. marginata and perhaps B. 
siderophloia standing foremost in the lastingness of their wood, E. amygdalina again in hardiness 
and in the yield of essential oil, E. calophylla with a few other Bloodwood-trees in the flow of 
Kino-sap, E. microcorys in the copious pervasion of a viscin-like oily fluid throughout its wood, 
E. rostrata again with E. Gunnii in their fitness for swampy ground, E. haemastoma for its 
adaptability for sand-lands. Thus, though nature distributed also in this instance her gifts 
variously, it placed for the general requirements of mankind B. globulus in the most favored 
position among this race of highly valuable trees. As regards quick rate of growth it may still 
be added, that the variety regnans of E. amygdalina surpasses even E. globulus, but only when 
occurring (as Swamp Gum-tree) in springy forest-glens with deep rich soil. General Sir William 
Denison seems to have arrived at the conclusion, from observations at Hobarton, that E. globulus 
will continue its upward growth in deep nutritive soil for about 80 years, after which space of time 
the tree will only enlarge in the girth of its stem and branches. It is evidently a species of 
longevity, but the age of 2,300 years allotted as possible for B.£lobulus_(Langethal, Kalender der 
Pflanzen, pp. 103-104) is evidently vastly overrated, because the less regular intermediate rings 
between the annual layers of wood, apt to be formed in trees of the zone of evergreen vegetation, 
are easily mistaken for the results of a year's growth, and the circumference of a stem-base o f 
130 feet, on which Professor Langethal based his calculation, is so startling, that it cannot be 
taken as that of a solid stem-barrel, but must have included basal buttresses, however gigantic 
dimensions the tree is known to attain in deep sheltered and irrigated recesses of forests. Eob. 
Brown, already at the commencement of this century, saw on D'Entrecasteaux's channel some 



EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 

stems, which exhibited a girth of 40 feet towards their base. Baron von Humboldt stated the 
height of E. globulus as 230 feet as extraordinary among the records of tall trees known at 
his time. The Eevd. Th. Swing actually measured a tree showing a hei ght of 280 feet, and 
the Eevd. James Backhouse, whose accuracy can also be implicitly relied upon, gives in the work 
on his missionary travels the height of the tallest tree seen by him in Ta smania as even 330 feet. /y, 

Mr. James Dickinson informs me that at South-Port he noticed a tree of E. globulus far exceeding 
in girth even the mightiest of E. amygdalina ; of this particular tree, a local shipwright declared 
that it contained as much timber as would fully suffice to build a ninety tons schooner solely from 
it. The stem of this venerable patriarch of the forests measured about 150 feet to the first limb. 
Whether in the comparisons of the tallest trees of the globe we perhaps have lost sight of 
a fact, that a fallen tree of Sequoia (or WeUingtonia or Athrotaxis gigantea) is said to have 
shown an approximate length of 450 feet, can now after 30 years perhaps no longer be affirmed, 
unless similar astounding results are again attained in the vast extent of Sequoia- or Athrotaxis- 
forests only recently rendered accessible in Southern California. 

The aboriginal appellation of E. globulus among the Gippsland-tribes is " Ballook," according 
to Mr. A. W. Howitt. 

A chemical analysis of the wood of E. globulus, instituted under the author's direction by 
Mr. L. Eummel, gave the following results. Air-dried wood contained (irrespective of alkalies, 
alkaline earths and the ordinary constitutents of the cell-walls) : 

Hygroscopic water ... ... ... ... ... ... 12'00 per cent. 

Matter soluble in boiling water (of which again 74 per cent, were pre- 
cipitable by neutral acetate of lead, and 38 per cent, by ammoniacal 
acetate of lead) ... ... ... ... ... ... 3"77 per cent. 

Matter soluble in boiling diluted hydrochloric acid ... ... 3'30 per cent. 

Matter soluble in boiling diluted soda-ley ... ... ... 3-20 per cent. 

The precipitate obtained by the neutral acetate of lead from the simply aqueous solution gave 
as soluble in ether : 

1, Eucalyptus-red, forming a reddish, tasteless and inodorous powder, scarcely soluble 
in water, easily in alcohol and ether with yellow, in ammonia-liquid with orange color (the 
latter solution becoming soon decomposed). 

2, Peculiar ocylo-gallic acid, resembling Eucalypto- Gallic acid, but producing with 
chloride of iron a greenish tinge, which becomes brown on addition of ammonia. 

As not soluble in ether were obtained : 

1, Peculiar xylo-tannic acid, unless identical with Kino-tannic acid, forming a brown 
amorphous powder of pure astringent taste ; it loses part of its solubility in water after 
evaporation to dryness ; it precipitates glue, the chlorides of tin and iron, the latter with 
blue color ; dissolves in alcohol. 

2, Eucalyptic acid, being light-brown, amorphous, deliquescent, of a strong and pure 
acid taste ; precipitates chloride of tin, but not glue ; produces with chloride of iron a 
purplish-blue color, which on addition of ammonia changes to red-brown ; soluble in alcohol. 

The precipitate obtained by the ammoniacal acetate of lead from the simply aqueous solution 
gave : 

1, as soluble in water : Melitose-like substance, reducing alkaline tartarate of copper 
incompletely before, but much better after boiling with diluted sulphuric acid. 



EtJCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 

2, as soluble in ammonia-liquid : Eucalyptus-red in a state of decomposition or some 
allied substance. 

3, as insoluble after drying in water, in ammonia liquid and in acids : Silica. 

The simply aqueous solution farther contained as not precipitable by lead-salts : Eucalyptin, 
soluble in ether ; but it showed no saccharine contents nor alkaloids. 

The matter soluble in boiling diluted hydrochloric acid consisted of lime-salts, while that 
soluble in boiling dUuted soda-ley proved to be : 

1, Silica, as insoluble in alcohol ; 

2, EiicalyptCM'etic acid, soluble in alcohol and ether, but not in ammoniar-liquid ; fusible 
at about 352° F. ; resinous in appearance, without very perceptible odor or taste. Besides 
as soluble in weak alcohol a brown indifferent substance, possibly a decomposition-product, 
was obtained. 

Our phytochemical qualitative analysis of the leaves of E. globulus gave as results : 

Eucalypto-gallic add, differing from gallic acid already by its easier solubility in cold 
water (in 34 instead of 100 parts) ; changed by sublimation into pyro-gallic acid. 

Eucalypto-tannic acid, being brown, amorphous, of styptic taste, precipitates glue, is 
precipitated by the tartrate of antimony and potash and by chloride of iron with dark-green 
color and by concentrated sulphuric acid, not decomposed on boiling with diluted sulphuric 
acid. 

Eucalyptoic acid, bitter yellowish substance, intermixed with spherical or hexagonal 
crystals and tablets ; turns yellow with ammonia, light-pink with lime-water ; reduces 
alkaline tartrate of copper after boiling with diluted sulphuric acid. 

Eucalyptin, light-brown amorphous substance, soft, very bitter, inodorous, soluble in 
77 parts of cold water, to a greater extent in hot water, in still greater quantity in alcohol, 
not precipitable by tannic acid or other re-agents for alkaloids ; does not reduce alkaline 
tartrate of copper on boiling ; not affected by cold diluted sulphuric acid or other acids, 
but evolves on boiling with sulphuric acid a peculiar odor and then the solution becomes 
turbid. 

Gum and Saccharine substance, the latter allied to laeva-glucose and melitose. 

Inorganic Salts. 

The volatile oU, which occurs in the leaves of E. globulus, (not fully one per cent.) is 
here left out of consideration. 

Notes on the microscopic anatomy of the leaves, accompanied by a drawing, are given already 
along with those on E. ptychocarpa in this work. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, outer lid ; 2, unexpanded flower, the inner lid lifted ; 3, longitudinal 
section of unexpanded flower ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of anthers with part of their filament ; 6, style with 
stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudinal section of fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile seeds ; 11, embryo in 
situ ; 12, embryo uncoUed ; 13, transverse section of embryo ; all magnified, but to various extent. 

Anatomic Plate. — 1, tangential section of portion of middle-bark (A) and inner-bark (B) ; 2, radial section of 
a portion of middle-bark (A) and inner-bark (B) ; 3, transverse section of a portion of inner-bark ; 4, transverse 
section of a portion of middle-bark ;— 6, bast-fibre ; c, cork-cells ; n, crystal-cells j m, medullary rays ; p, bast- 
parenchyma ; s, stone-ceUs ; — diametric augmentation 214 times. 



1 



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EUCALYPTUS MEGACAEPA. 

F. V. M., fragmenta phytographife Australise ii. 70 (1860) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 232 ; F. v. M., Eeport on 

the Forest-resources of Western Australia p. 14. 

Finally rather tall ; branchlets very angular ; leaves scattered, narrow-lanceolar, rarely 
oval-lanceolar, slightly curved or almost sickleshaped, of equal color and somewhat shining on both 
sides ; veins very fine, moderately spreading, the circumferential vein somewhat removed from the 
edge of the leaf ; oil-pores irregular and rather angular ; powers axillary or lateral, solitary or 
oftener two or three together, on a conspicuous broadly compressed stalk ; stalklets none ; tube of 
the flowering calyx broadly obconical or topshaped, not much longer than the hemispheric short- 
pointed lid, both slightly rough ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers oval- 
oblong, opening with parallel slits ; stigma not dilated ; fruits large, the calycine portion hemi- 
spheric, slightly streaked-angular or almost smooth, the summit turgid, less frequently flat, with 5 
or sometimes 4 or Q thick emersed convergent valves ; rim broad ; placental axis wide ; seeds very 
angular, the fertile of nearly the same size as the sterile seeds, all without appendage. 

Around Wilson's Inlet and on Mount Blphinstone (Maxwell), thence westward to Cape 
Leeuwin (Gilbert), also on the granitic summit of Mount Burrabunup and on the crest and 
declivities of the Stirling's Range (F. v. M.). 

A middle-sized or occasionally a small tree, discovered already by Robert Brown in 1802 
during Flinders's expedition, about half a century afterwards refound by Drummond and later 
also by Oldfield, taking in South-Western Australia the name of " Blue Gum-tree." Bark from 
successive shedding of its thin outer layers smooth, greyish-white or according to Maxwell also 
salmon-colored. Odor of foliage as well as of fruits pleasant, reminding of that of E. Stuartiana. 
Leaves mostly not very elongated, rather dark-green ; the oil-pores in young leaves pellucid, 
in older leaves much concealed. Flowers variable in size ; their stalk sharply two-edged and 
upwards dilated. Filaments pale ; anthers dorsifixed, oscillating, with a large turgid dorsal 
gland towards the summit. Fruite measuring not rarely nearly an inch in diameter, hence the 
specific name. Of the precise value of the timber and any of its peculiarities we have hitherto no 
record. I saw trees with stems 3 feet in diameter on the Gordon-River and in various places near 
to that stream. 

This species bears in some respects alliance to E. globulus, but it is never of gigantic size, 
seldom reaching 100 feet in height ; the leaves are smaller, of thinner consistence and of a different 
and more agreeable scent, with more subtle veins ; those of young seedlings are stalked also and 
simply opaque, but not like those of E. globulus powdery bluish-white from waxy exudations, nor 
does this whiteness occur on the branchlets and calyces of the advanced tree ; the flowerstalk is 
not reduced to extreme shortness or altogether absent, the calyces are neither angular-ridged nor 
warty-rough, the main-lid is less depressed, the outer lid seems never obvious, the fruits are 
channelled beneath the rim by a less conspicuous furrow and altogether more smooth though 
similar in form, but the valves are longer, while the fertile and sterile seeds do not show the 
inequality of those of E. globulus and are also more angular and shining. 

The differences between B. megacarpa and E. Preissiana are still greater ; the last-mentioned 
species is only of shrubby growth, the branchlets are stouter, the leaves are mostly opposite, often 
approaching to an oval form, of very thick texture and paler hue, with thicker veins, the flowers 
are not rarely provided with short stalklets, the lid separates from the tube of the calyx by a less 



EUCALYPTUS MEGACAEPA. 

regnlar or even imperfect dehiscence and is often more blunt, the filaments are yellow, the fruits 
are semiovate with descending rim and short almost deltoid enclosed valves. 

The affinity of E. megacarpa to E. cosmophylla is less close. 

Oil from the fruits proves almost colorless, of odor similar to that of Cajuput-oil, but more 
agreeable, of 0"872 specific gravity at 75° F., and deflects the plane of polarized light about 10° 
left. The oil of the foliage is likely to be similar. 

The proportionate as well as absolute size of the fertile and sterile seeds is at an average so 
dififerent in many Eucalypts, as to afford often important marks of specific distinctions. The 
subjoined notes of measurements may thus aid not only in recognizing species scientifically, but 
also in controlling to some extent the purchase of seeds of particular kinds in the trade. 

Eucalyptus rostrata : fertile seeds | to ^ line long, about f line broad, sterile seeds i to | 
line long, about \ line broad ; — E. polyanthema, E. melliodora, B. paniculata, E. hemiphloia : 
fertile seeds -^ to | line long, about ^ line broad, sterile seeds about ^ line long, f to ^ line broad ; — 
E. goniocalyx, E. cornuta, E. Guanii, E. Stuartiana, E. tereticornis, E. botryoides, E. siderophloia, 
E. cinerea, E. Leucoxylon : fertile seeds | to 1 line long, J to | line broad, sterile seeds i to | 
line long, about ^ line broad ; — E. amygdalina : fertile seeds f to 1 line long, ^ to f line broad, 
sterile seeds i to | line long, f to ^ line broad ; — E. haemastoma : fertile seeds | to 1 line long, 
about I ILae broad, sterUe seeds about | line long, ^ line broad ; — E. obliqua, E. macrorrhyncha, 
E. pauciflora, E. Sieberiana : fertile seeds 1 to 1^ lines long, | to 1 line broad, sterile seeds | to 1 
line long, i to | line broad ; — E. cosmophylla : fertile seeds | to 1 line long, about | line broad, 
sterile seeds | to 1| lines long, ^ line broad ; — E. gomphocephala : fertile seeds 1 to 1| lines long, 
J to 1 line broad, sterile seeds 1 to 1^ lines long, ^ to | line broad ; — E. globulus : fertile seeds 1 
to 1^ lines long, | to 1 line broad, sterile seeds 1 to 1^ lines long, about ^ line broad ; — E. mega^ 
carpa : fertile seeds 1 to 1^ lines long, | to 1 line broad, sterile seeds 1 to 1^ lines long, ^ to | 
lines broad ; — E. marginata, E. buprestium : fertile seeds 2 to 3 lines long, 1 to 2 lines broad, 
sterile seeds 1^ to 2 lines long, | to 1| lines broad ; — E. Abergiana : fertile seeds with their 
membraneous appendage 3^ to 5 lines long, 1^ to 2 lines broad, sterile seeds 1-^ to 3 lines long, 
^ to f line broad ; — E. calophylla : fertUe seeds 6 to 9 lines long, 3 to 4 lines broad, sterile seeds 
2| to 4 lines long, 1 to 1^ lines broad. 

These measurements were instituted at my request by Mr. Q. Luehmann, who ably aided me 
in many of the preliminaries for the elaboration of this Eucalyptography, so especially in the 
arrangement of the vast additional museum-material of this genus, accumulated since the third 
volume of the Flora Australiensis appeared, fully fourteen years ago. 

Explanation oe Analytic Details. — 1, a small-flowered umbel ; 2, an unexpanded flower, with its lid 
lifted ; 3, longitudinal section of an unexpanded flower ; 4, some outer stamens in situ ; 5 and 6, front- and back- 
view of an anther, with part of its filament ; 7, style and stigma ; 8 and 9, transverse and longitudinal section of a 
fruit ; 10 and 11, sterile and fertile seeds ; 12, embryo in situ ; 13, cotyledons partly spread out, to exhibit the 
radicle ; 14, transverse section of embryo ; — 1, natural size ; 2-14, variously magnified. 




t Liho 'rn. Pimtml Offict.M*- 



Ig-a^siii^'ks mMiijiii. Cunninghdm. 



EUCALYPTUS MINIATA. 

Cunningham, in Walpers repertorium botanicea systematicae ii. 925 (1843) ; F. v. M., fragmenta phytographia 
Australia xi. 42; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 228; E. aurantiaca, F. v. M. in the Journal of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Linnean Society iii. 91. 

Finally tall ; branchlets with flower stalks and calyces often covered with a whitish bloom ; 
leaves scattered, of rather thin consistence, oblique-lanceolar or somewhat sicbleshaped, rarely 
almost oval, not shining on either side, slightly paler beneath ; their lateral veins very subtle, 
pennately spreading and rather copious, the circumferential vein slightly or hardly removed from 
the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots numerous, but very minute and much concealed ; umbels axillary 
or lateral, solitary, on thick cylindrical or somewhat compressed stalks, bearing 5 to 7 flowers ; 
stalklets none or exceedingly short ; calyx furrowed or streaked with several longitudinal promi- 
nent angles, the tube topshaped or obconical and upwards dilated, slightly or doubly longer than 
the pyramidal- or blunt-hemispheric lid ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion, _^^a»ze?2fe 
orange-colored, anthers ellipsoid-oval with dorsally broadish connective, opening with parallel 
slits ; style nearly as long as the stamens ; stigma not dilated ; fruit very large, oval-urnshaped, 
ridged by 8 to 10 priinary prominent angles, 3- to 4-celled ; valves short, deeply enclosed ; fertile 
seeds large, without any appendicular membrane ; sterile seeds comparatively small and partly 
very narrow. 

From the Palmer-River (T. Gulliver) and Lynd-River (Leichhardt) around the Gulf of 
Carpentaria to Arnhem's Land, reaching the Victoria-River (F. v. M.) and Port Darwin (Schultz), 
extending westward to York-Sound (Cunningham), occurring on somewhat sandy scrub-lands and 
also on stony ridges and table-lands. 

A tree, attaining a height of 70 feet and perhaps more ; stem-diameter known to reach 2 feet. 
Persistent portion of the bark lamellar, brittle, partly glittering, interwoven with woody ramifi- 
cations, grey-brownish or yellowish outside, covering the stem but not the branches, the bark of 
the latter being outside smooth and whitish. Branchlets not manifestly angular and rather thin. 
Leaves varying in length from 2 to 5 inches and in breadth from -J to 1^ inches. Flowerstalks 
stout, I to 1^ inches long. Calyces measuring from 5 to 10 lines in length, when ready to burst 
into flower. Fruits attaining a length of 2 inches, more or less wrinkled between the primary 
angles. Fertile seeds 2^ to 4 lines long, angular and often truncated, convex on ,the outer face, 
edged around the large circular hilum, thence radiating-streaked to the acute margin of the seed ; 
testa neither much shining nor distinctly reticulated ; sterile seeds 1 to 1 ^ lines long, mostly only 
between ^ and f line broad. 

In habit E. miniata approaches nearest to E. phoenicea, whose companion it is in Arnhem's 
Land and around the Gulf of Carpentaria, agreeing with it much in its laminated, friable, easily 
separable bark, which is however not persistent on the main branches, also more grey and less 
brown-yellowish outside ; it accords furthermore with E. phoenicea in jhejjriniancy of its flowers, 
thus forming quite an ornament in the landscape, the name of the species being derived from the 
color of th e fllaments like that of red lead. The bark contains more woody ramifications than 
that of E. phoenicea, but likewise reminds in external appearance and in fracture much of mica- 
schist, thus indicating for both these trees in the cortical system a peculiar section, that of the 
Lepidophloiae, to which also E. peltata belongs. E. miniata differs from E. phoenicea in taller 
stature, in its branchlets, flowerstalks and calyces being tinged with a whitish bloom, in generally 
broader leaves with less stomata above than below, in umbels with less flowers, in the absence of 



EUCALYPTUS MINIATA. 

distinct stalklets, in very angular and broader calyces, proportionately longer lid, in more saturated 
orange-colored filaments, longer anthers, larger very woody fruits, which latter are lined with 
prominent ridges and open with 3 or 4 valves ; the fertile seeds are also larger. 

In its fruit E. miniata resembles B. ptychocarpa very much, but the bark of the latter is 
more stringy, more solid and on the main-branches persistent, its leaves are of darker color above, 
of larger size and thicker substance, still less perceptibly dotted by oil-pores, more copiously and 
more prominently veined and devoid of stomata on the upper surface ; the umbels are somewhat 
paniculated and terminal, the calyces are provided with stalklets ; the fruits are not quite so 
large, while the fertile seeds are terminated by a conspicuous membrane. 

E. miniata ought to be introduced along with E. ficifolia, E. phoenicea and E. ptychocarpa into 
ornamental arboreta, and may even prove useful as a timber-tree. In all likelihood it could be 
grown anywhere in regions free of frost, though situated far extratropical. Schauer's description 
of E. miniata was so brief, that it led me formerly to seek Cunningham's species in E. phoenicea. 
I am aware, that E. miniata produces its blossoms from the month of May to August, and perhaps 
its flowering time lasts still longer, in which respects this species as well as E. phoenicea has so 
far the advantage over the gorgeous E. ficifolia, the flowering period of which is limited to very 
few weeks. 

Mr. William Elliott, one of our most experienced and accomplished horticulturists, has very 
recently raised this Eucalyptus from seeds, taken from specimens in my museum, gathered thirteen 
years ago. By this experiment it has now been proved, that seeds of Eucalypts will retain their 
power of germination for a very lengthened period, provided they are stored in a dry and cool 
locality. This fact adds now another instance to the many recorded in reference to the value of 
the great genus Eucalyptus, which in its extent and in its importance vies even with such large 
genera of leading timber-trees as those of Pinus and Quercus, while it surpasses both in tracta- 
bility imder growth as well as in early return of timber, and certainly stands foremost as a genus 
of forest-trees in the rich complex of its specific forms and in their extensive utilitarian appli- 
cation anywhere among indigenous trees within the whole British dominions ! 

Explanation of Anaittic Details. — 1, unexpanded flower, with the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of 
an unexpanded flower ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of an anther with portion of the filament ; 5, style and 
stigma ; 6, two ripe fruits ; 7, transverse section of a fruit ; 8, fertile seeds ; 9, sterile seeds ; 10, embryo in situ ; 
11, side-view of cotyledons ; 12, transverse section of embryo ; all except figs. 6 and 7 magnified, but to various 
extent. 




r, iel: 



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7-^r M. iirexib. 



SUam LitRo Sot Pr,r,HT,4 nffifo.M^lb. 



i^m(g^%35)te (D(g(gM(BiMa^o EndliGher. 



EUCALYPTUS OCCIDENTALIS. 

Endlioher, in Huegel enumeratio plantarum Noveb Hollandise austro-occidentalis 49 (1837) ; Schauer, in Lehmann 
plantae Preissianse i. 128 ; F. v. M., fragmenta phytographias Australise ii. 39 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 
235. 

The flat-topped " Yate." 

Finally tall ; leaves scattered, oval- or oftener sicldeshaped-lanceolar, of thick consistence 
and of equal color on both sides ; their lateral veins neither prominent nor crowded, moderately 
spreading, the circumferential vein somewhat distant from the edge ; oil-dots much concealed ; 
umbel-stalks compressed, sometimes dilated, axillary or lateral, solitary, rarely a few terminally 
joined, bearing from 3 to 12 flowers ; stalklets angular, about as long as the calyx-tube or 
variously shorter ; lid cylindric-conical, about twice as long as the obconic-bellshaped tube of the 
calyx ; stamens all fertile ; filaments yellowish, straight while in bud, rather rigid ; anthers 
ellipsoid, opening in longitudinal slits ; style about as long as the stamens ; stigma slightly 
dilated ; fruits obovate-bellshaped or truncate-pearshaped, 4-, rarely 3- or 5-celled, not conspi- 
cuously angular, but somewhat streaked ; their rim ratlier narrow, finally prominent ; valves about 
half-exserted, awlshaped-pointed, free ; seeds without appendage, the sterile seeds numerous, very 
small, but comparatively not very narrow. 

From the Tone-River to regions inland near Cape Le Grand and the Broken Ranges near 
Orleans-Bay (Maxwell), forming part of the scrubs, known to extend about 40 miles northward 
of Bdicup (Muir) and to ascend high up to the Stirling's Range (F. v. M.), occurring on clayey 
as well as on sandy soil, also occupying wet places. 

In the shrubby state several stems originate from one root, but they may attain 20 feet in 
height ; in favorable localities, such as sheltered valleys with better soU and on banks of streams, 
a tree rising to 120 feet, and (according to my observations in the Melbourne botanic garden) of 
rapid growth. Stem of aged trees to a considerable extent smooth, the outer rough more corky 
and somewhat fibrous portion delapsing in thin hard pieces partially. Limbs smooth and whitish, 
more erect than spreading, giving a compact head of foliage to the tree, the branches terminating 
at not very unequal height, by which means the tree assumes a flat-topped appearance and gets 
an almost fannelshaped outline. Bark of twigs reddish-brown. Heart-wood dark, the other 
portion of the wood pale. Branchlets slightly or strongly angular. Leaves sometimes almost 
equilateral, more or less shining on both pages, rarely only about 1^ inches long, the veins in the 
broader forms of leaves more spreading. Umbel-stalks often recurved, particularly so in age, 
attaining sometimes a length of fully 1 inch, but usually shorter, though never very short. Lid 
with the exception of the base mostly narrower than the tube of the calyx. Stamens often less 
numerous than those of many other species ; filaments also thicker than those of very many other 
congeners, rather bristly than capillary, from i to | inch long, angular, dotted with oil-glands, 
suddenly terminated in a pointed apex, sometimes seemingly almost orange-colored. Anthers 
fixed above their base ; connective dorsally rather broad, glandular-turgid towards the summit 
beneath. Style slender. Capsular vertex of the fruit pyramidal-hemispherical ; valves sometimes 
abbreviated. Fertile seeds few, about f line long ; testa from fine streaks and minute dots 
densely reticulated. 

The timber is hard and strong, thus sought by wheelwrights (Th. Muir), and probably as 
valuable as that of E. cornuta (the ordinary " Yate "). Oldfield records this species as flowering 
already when only 3-4 feet high on sand-ridges, but where probably the bushes were previously 



EUCALYPTUS OCCIDENTALIS. 

burnt to the root. It is in blossom during many months, if not perhaps at all seasons ; in our 
collections we have flowering specimens gathered from June to February. Small seedlings have 
a smooth stem, scattered oval or somewhat rhomboid leaves on short stalks and measuring 1 to 1^ 
inches in length. ( Vide F. v. M. fragmenta vii. 43.) 

Extended observations on increased material seem to teach us now, that E. spathulata 
(Hooker, icones plantarum t. 611) and E. macrandra (F. v. M., in Bentham's flora Australiensis 
iii. 235) are extreme forms of B occidentalis, the former being distinguished chiefly by small 
flowers and short and extremely narrow leaves ; the other exhibits elongated calyces on hardly 
any stalklets with very long stamens, generally smaller fruits with very short frait-valves. More 
important are the distinctions of E. cornuta and E. obcordata, which with E. occidentalis seem to 
be the only three entitled to specific rank in the series of CornutEe or Orthostemoneas, and even 
the lines of demarcation between these three are not always very clear ; still E. cornuta (lately 
illustrated in my Report on the Forest-resources of Western Australia pi. 7, and including as 
varieties E. Lehmanni and E. annulata) difi'ers in the fruits, which without intervention of 
stalklets are sessile on the common stalk, further in the coherent and exceedingly long fruit-valves, 
which form thus an awlshaped beak ; E. obcordata is distinguished from E. occidentalis by its 
roundish somewhat crenulated leaves, by the still broader and often longer general flowerstalks, 
also by the absence of stalklets, by the angular calyx-tube, the often dark-red filaments and fruits 
with deltoid only short-acuminated valves. E. occidentalis bears likewise some resemblance to 
E. redunca, notwithstanding the sectionally different position of the two species in the anthereal 
system ; but the bark of E. redunca is altogether smooth and imparts on friction of its surface a 
white coloration, the flowers are smaller and seated on shorter stalklets, the lid is acutely pointed, 
proportionately shorter and contracted gradually from a not dilated base, the filaments are thinner, 
shorter, less angular, more whitish and inflexed while in bud ; the fruits are smaller and slightly 
contracted at the orifice, while their valves are more enclosed, the fertile seeds are smaller and their 
testa of lighter color and smooth. E. grossa is removed from E. occidentalis by generally broader 
and thicker leaves, shorter and stouter flowerstalks, absence of stalklets, proportionate shortness 
of the calyx-lid, fllaments inflexed in their earliest state and of less rigidity, and entirely enclosed 
fruit-valves. It may however here be observed, that the inflexion of the filaments is not an 
absolute specific character, as they accommodate themselves in E. tereticornis according to the 
length of the operculum, being quite straight in bud when the lid is so much elongated as to 
afl'ord them full space. Some shrubby specimens of E. occidentalis, verging to E. obcordata but 
being narrow-leaved, were placed by Bentham doubtfully with E. grossa. All these Eucalypts 
belong to the same geographic range. 

E. occidentalis, in its scope as here considered, seems so variable, as to change much of former 
ideas as regards the precincts of Eucalyptus-species, a similar playfulness of forms having been 
observed by me in E. stricta and E. incrassata, the characters of shrubby Eucalypts provino- 
generally less constant, than those of the tall timber-trees of this genus. 

Explanation of Analttic Details.— 1, an unexpanded flower, its lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal Bection of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3-4, front- and back-view of a stamen ; 5, style and stigma ; 6 and 7, longitudinal and transverse 
section of fruits ; 8 and 9, fertile and sterile seeds ; all magnified, but to various extent. 




T^it i?r G.Troedel & 0° Lith. 



P.v.M. direxit. 



Steam Litto Gov.PmtiiiS Offioe, M«lb, 



feiil^te^ 



Bent ham. 



EUCALYPTUS PELTATA. 

Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 254 (18fi6). 

Arboreous ; branchlets and leafstalks rough from very minute partly bristly projections ; leaves 
mostly inserted above their rounded base, scattered, of firm consistence, lanceolar- or round ish-oval, 
of equal and rather pale color on both sides, not or hardly shining ; their lateral veins prominent, 
pennately spreading, but not of close approach, the circumferential vein somewhat removed from 
the margin ; oil-dots copious, but subtle and much concealed ; panicles terminal and axillary ; 
umbels generally 5-7-flowered, on rather slender and somewhat angular stalks ; stalklets very 
short or none; lid double, pyramidal-hemispheric, about as long as the semi-ovate or truncate- 
ovate faintly angular tube of the calyx or to doubly shorter, the inner lid shining, the outer hardly 
or slowly separating ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers oblong-oval, opening 
by parallel slits ; stigma not dilated ; fruits rather small, semiovate, slightly constricted below 
the summit, mostly 3-celled ; rim narrow, prominent ; valves deltoid, quite enclosed ; seeds 
without any appendage. 

On porphyritic mountains at the sources of the Burdekin-, Lynd- and Gilbert -Rivers 
(F. V. M.) ; on granite-hills near Charters-Towers in the auriferous formation (Revd. Jul. Tenison- 
Woods) ; at Ravenswood near the Burdekin-River (S. Johnson). 

A small or middle-sized tree, with a straight trunk seldom above 1 5 feet long or more than 
18 inches in diameter, with a spreading rather dense top (Johnson) ; foliage drooping, the greatest 
height of the whole tree about 30 feet (Tenison-Woods). Bark everywhere persistent, lamellar, 
very brittle, somewhat shining and brownish- or pale-yellowish, the color of the bark having 
originated the curious vernacular of " Yellow-jacket " for this tree. Wood valued by artisans for 
various purposes, but seemingly nowhere extensively available. Leaves of also the aged tree fixed 
above their base (in the manner of the leaves of seedlings or young saplings of E. calophylla and 
E. citriodora), though on specimens of our collections occasionally a leaf occurs with basal 
insertion ; their length and still more so their width variable ; when dry they are not very 
odorous ; their midrib and some of the lateral nerves more or less rough. General flowerstalks 
often rough, but the umbels and their ultimate stalks smooth. Flowers comparatively small. 
Tube of the calyces as well as the umbel-stalks not rarely covered with a whitish bloom. Lids 
always brown, shining, smooth. Fruits verging somewhat to a bellshaped form. Angles of the 
placentas prominent. Ripe fertile seeds have not yet come under observation. 

In many of its characteristics, especially the form of its fruits, B. peltata approaches to 
E. latifolia, but the latter is smooth-barked, its leaves are partly almost opposite and always 
attenuated with an acute base into their stalk, the lateral veins less prominent, the reticulations 
of the veinlets also less visible, while the marginal vein is almost confluent with the edge of the 
leaves, the stalklets of the flowers are of conspicuous length, the lid is single and separates by a 
less regularly marked dehiscence, and the brownish roughness of the branchlets and foliage is 
absent, in which latter respects an approach of E. peltata to E. ferruginea, E. aspera, E. setosa and 
E. clavigera is established. 

Perhaps E. peltata will require to be placed nearest to B. Torelliana, although the latter 
stands on record as one of the tallest forest-trees near Rockingham-Bay, with a " bark smooth 
as glass " ; moreover the hairiness of its branchlets and leaf-stalks is more conspicuous, all its 
leaves are of completely basal insertion and evidently paler beneath, therefore their stomata are 
not isogenous, but — as tabulated before — heterogenous ; the flowers and fruits may also prove 



EUCALYPTUS PELTATA. 

different, the former being only as yet known in an unexpanded state and the latter having never 
yet been collected at all. 

The very short descriptive phrase, given from mere leaves, of E. meKssiodora in Mitchell's 
Tropical Australia, p. 235, led me at first to assume (Journal of the Linnean Society iii. 95), that 
it was the species here now more fiilly described, which Liadley had before him ; but a comparison 
of the specimen, imperfect as it is, in Sir Thomas Mitchell's collection, suggested to Mr. Bentham, 
that E. melissiodora might merely constitute the young state of E. citriodora, and this has since 
been confirmed through local observation by Dr. E. Wuth, whose attention I directed to this 
subject. In dealing with E. maculata in this work and then reducing, in concurrence with 
Mr. Bailey, both E. citriodora and melissiodora to that species as varieties, also E. peltata was by 
a writing error added to the synonyms. It is however well marked, as noticed by myself already 
in 1856 on the sources of the south-eastern rivers of Carpentaria, by the remarkable texture and 
structure of the bark, ia which respect it bears resemblance only to E. phcenicea and E. miniata, 
constituting with them the section of Lepidophloiae in the cortical system. (See Journal of the 
Linnean Society iu. 101.) 

E. peltata seems to be the only species of this extensive genus, which in an adult state has 
leaves with suprabasal insertion^ The appellation " Yellow Jacket " is not solely applied to this 
species, but also to E. ochrophloia. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1,-- unexpanded flower, outer and inner lid lifted; 2, longitudinal 
section of an unexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther, with portion 
of its filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudinal section of a fruit ; 9, sterile seeds ; all 
magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS PUNCTATA. 

De CandoUe, prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis iii. 217 (1828) ; M6moire sur la famille des myrta- 
cees t. 4; E. Stuartiana, var. longifolia, Bentham, flora Australienais iii. 244 partly. 

Finally tall ; branchlets robust and very angular ; leaves scattered, elongate- or sickleshaped- 
lanceolar, of thin consistence, beneath slightly paler and there not shining ; the lateral veins 
numerous, very subtle and much spreading, the circumferential vein close to the edge ; oil-dots 
numerous, imperfectly transparent ; umbels axillary and solitary or at the summit of the 
branchlets paniculated ; their stalks broad and strongly compressed, bearing generally from 3 to 
10 flowers ; tube of the calyx almost semiovate or nearly hemispherical, merging gradually into an 
angular rather thick stalklet of about the same or greater or lesser length ; lid semiovate-conical, 
as long as the tube or somewhat longer ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers 
almost oblong, but upwards broader, opening with longitudinal parallel slits ; stigma not or 
hardly broader than the style ; fruit nearly semiovate, 3- or oftener 4- rarely 5-celled, not large 
nor angular, rim finally rather broadish, flat or convex ; valves short, deltoid, at last exserted or 
convergent from the rim ; seeds all without appendage, the sterile seeds much smaller, but mostly 
not very narrow. 

Known from the vicinity of Port Jackson to the lower portion of the Blue Mountains and to 
Berrima (WooUs), thence to the McLeay-River ; but the precise southern and northern range of 
this species as yet unascertained. 

A tree w ith the spreading habit of E. teretic ornis, growing mostly in dry and rocky places, 
attaining a height of 100 feet or even more, called "Leather-jacket" by the colonists and also 
" Hickory-Bucalypt." The aged bark becomes rough and dark, but most of the outer bark is not 
persistent, hence the Eevd. Dr. WooUs places this species now in the series of Leiophloiae 
(Lectures on the Vegetable Kingdom 118), but kept it formerly among the Hemiphloiee. The 
wood is tough, pale reddish-brown, extremely durable, hard, close-grained, difficult to split, and 
in use for fence-posts, railway-sleepers, wheelwrights' work and many rough building-purposes 
even in naval architecture ; it is durable under ground, though not equal in value to the wood of 
L-onbark-trees ; it affords also superior fuel. 

Leaves exceptionally verging into an oval form, their upper page of a slightly oily lustre. 
Flowers occasionally only two together. Umbel stalks 3-10 lines long. Lid generally shining and 
smooth. Lower portion of filaments flexuous before expansion. Anthers versatile, dorsifixed. 
Style flexuous. Fruits exceptionally devoid of stalklets ; rim of the young fruit narrow. Seed- 
lings, according to Dr. Woolls, smooth with slender stems, mostly scattered leaves, the latter 
elongate- or narrow-lanceolar, paler beneath, their stalks short but distinctly developed. 

This tree exudes a reddish Kino. It flowers from March till June. The foliage produces 
occasionally Melitose-Manna. The " Leather-jacket," included by Bentham in E. resinifera, is 
E. punctata ; it diifers from the former in its extensively smooth not fibrous bark, less deep- 
colored wood, rather thinner leaves, more visible oil-dots, partially paniculated flowers, shorter 
and less attenuated lid, more depressed fruit-rim and shorter and less pointed valves. E. punctata 
verges also very close to E. saligna, from which it is best kept apart by its darker colored bark of 
less smoothness and more leathery texture, its greater tendency to a paniculate inflorescence, 
larger stalklets, more elongated lid and broader fruit-rim. From E. Stuartiana it is widely 
distant already in its leaves not of equal color on both sides with a different venation, besides in 



EUCALYPTUS PUNCTATA. 

its thick and angular branchlets, paniculated upper umbels, broad umbel-stalks, usually longer 
stalklets, longer lids and also the nature of the bark. 

The transparent dots of the leaves, from which the specific appellation was derived, come 
only well into view after the drying of the foliage. 

The curious vernacular name arose from the tough leathery bark, usually darker than that of 
E. tereticornis and E. rostrata and other species with almost whitish bark. Dr. Woolls believes, 
that the Brown-barked Gum-tree of New England, mentioned by Mr. Christie, belongs to 
E. punctata. The foliage ought to yield a fair quantity of volatile oil, which may prove peculiar. 
The stomata occur only on the lower page of the leaves and number about 140,000 on a square 
inch. 

The coast-variety of E. punctata produces thicker and larger leaves and also larger flowers 
and fruits. 

The rate of growth, on which so very much depends for judging of the comparative value of 
Eucalypts for timber-plantations, shows itself from trees, raised by me many years ago on dry 
ridges near Melbourne, sufficiently fast advancing, to permit of this species being included among 
those recommendable for practical forestry. We are mainly indebted to Dr. Woolls, who instituted 
since the last quarter of a century observations on the Eucalypts of the Blue Mountains and the 
vicinity of Sydney, for the restoration of E. punctata to specific rank. 

The wood of E. punctata, as well as that of E. rostrata, E. marginata and E. Sieberiana 
(among species examined microscopically on this occasion) exhibits the parenchyma and medullary 
rays tinged with a decidedly red-brown color, indicative of preservative deposits in the cells. 
This tinge, when viewed under the microscope, is much paler in E. obliqua, E. globulus, E. 
amygdalina, E. Stuartiana, E. goniocalyx, E. Gunnii, E. viminalis, E. hemiphloia, E. Behriana, 
E. melliodora, E. botryoides and E. macrorrhyncha ; in E. polyanthema the medullary rays of 
microscopic objects are deeply colored, but the parenchyma shows hardly any tinge. The wood- 
sections had previously all been subjected to the action of water, alcohol and glycerine. In 
accordance with the above observations E. punctata will probably rank high in its resistance to 
decay underground and in any waterworks. 

Perhaps here it may be aptly remarked, that the question has repeatedly arisen, how the 
injury, caused to heavy logs of timber through the tremendous shock sustained by falling on hard 
bare and particularly rocky ground, could to some extent be obviated, the timber in its fall being 
severely shaken,— although (as Mr. George Simpson observes in regard to the Jarrah) this may 
not be discernible until some time after it is sawn. I would advise, that in a regular system of 
Australian Forestery the Tanners' Wattles (particularly Acacia decurrens) should be sown on any 
bare places around huge Eucalyptus-trees some years prior to the intended utilisation and removal 
of the latter, as a dense underwood of wattles would materially break the force of the fall of any 
heavy timber-trees. 

ExpLAUATioif OF ANALYTIC DETAILS. — 1, unexpanded flower, the lid lifted; 2, longitudinal section of an 
nnexpanded flower ; 3, stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of a stamen ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, 
longitudinal and transverse section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile seeds ; 11, portion of a leaf ; all 
magnified, but to various extent. 



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EUCALYPTUS SETOSA. 

Schauer, in Walpers repertorium botanices aystematicae ii. 926 (1843) ; F. v. M., fragmenta phytographise 
Australia iii. 132 ; Beutham, flora Australiensis iii. 254. 

Arborescent ; leaves opposite, ovate- or roundish-cordate, sessile, somewhat rough, of pale a nd 
dull color on both sides and of rather thin consistence ; their primary lateral veins somewhat 
distant, very spreading and but slightly prominent, the circumferential vein irregular and not 
much removed from the edge ; oil-dots obliterated ; panicles terminal, as well as the branchlets 
beset with bristly brownish hairs and also glandular-rough; umbels with very few or several 
flowers ; stalklets slender, mostly longer than the almost pearshaped calyx ; lid depressed- 
hemispherical, slightly or conically pointed, seceding by an irregular transverse line, much shorter 
and less wide than the tube ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers oblong-oval, 
opening by longitudinal parallel slits ; style short ; stigma not dilated ; fruits large, globular- 
ovate and truncated, somewhat urnshaped, not angular, 3- to 4-celled ; rim descending ; valves 
deeply enclosed, deltoid; fertile seeds provided with a large terminal membranous appendage, 
sterile seeds much smaller and narrow. 

On the islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria (R. Brown, Henne), also on the mainland around 
the Gulf (F. V. M.), extending south-eastward at least as far as Mount Elliot (Fitzalan). 

A low spreading tree, generally occurring on fertile soil. Bark, according to a note of 
Mr. Fitzalan, stringy, thus persistent as in other Bloodwood-trees, to which series this species 
belongs. Some few of the leaves occasionally scattered. Transparent ducts only visible in the young 
leaves and then only as very minute irregular pores and not as roundish oil-dots ; hence the foliage 
(at least when dry) inodorous. Stalklets of the umbels chiefly opposite. Lid rather tearing off' 
irregularly and tardily, than dropping suddenly and completely by a clear sutural dehiscence, 
remaining often for a while attached during the expansion of the flowers to one side of the orifice 
of the calyx-tube, as in other Bloodwood-trees. Fruits on quite slender stalklets, pale and not 
shining outside, very blunt at the base ; placentas prominent, near the summit of the septa. Fertile 
seeds rather large, black-brown and shining, their appendage pale- or dark-brown. Characteristics 
of the seedlings as yet unobserved. R. Brown noted a smooth ash-grey bark ; unless his note 
applies to E. aspera, which is known to possess such a bark, it would appear, that the cortical 
characters of B. setosa are variable, though in a hurried collecting excursion the two trees may 
possibly not have been recognized in their distinctness by the illustrious naturalist of Flinders's 
expedition. 

B. aspera approaches this species in the roughness of the branchlets and much in foliage, 
though its leaves are generally not so large and comparatively not so broad ; but the smooth calyces 
with polished lid, the small fruits with sharp edge and the seeds not provided with appendages 
bring that species into much closer contact with E. clavigera and also with E. ferruginea, except 
in the size of the fruit. 

The resemblance of E. setosa to species of the genus Angophora is most striking, especially 
on account of the reddish- or dark-brown stiff' short hairs, which are most copiously developed on 
the branchlets and inflorescence ; this renders their similarity in habit complete. Indeed, as 
pointed out in the article on the E. tetragona, the only difference between the genera Eucalyptus 
and Angophora consists in the calycine lid of the former being replaced by the true petals of 
the latter. 



EUCALYPTUS SETOSA. 

Amongst its own congeners E. setosa must find a systematic place near E. corymbosa, 
E. terminalis, E. dichromophloia, E. tracLyphloia and their allies, which all exhibit a similar 
imperfectly defined dehiscence of the calyx. 

Of the technic valne of the tree now under consideration nothing is known ; it is probably 
not of suflScient dimensions to serve for timber, but yields in all probability Kino like several 
allied species. In organographic respect it is of great interest. In a recently received note 
Mr. Fitzalan describes the bark as brown or blackish, hard and ridged as in the case of the 
Ironbark-trees, and he notes, that he found the tree to reach the summits of mountains. The 
number of stomata seems variable, as in one case they amounted to 149,000 on the lower page of 
the leaves, but only to 108,000 on their upper side ; such leaves were likely from very young 
trees or grown under shade. 

In our efforts to introduce or dififuse any Eucalypts into culture on a large scale, we enjoy 
singular facility, inasmuch as the seeds are so easily gathered and as their transmission on 
account of their smallness can be so readily effected ; moreover they will maintain their germi- 
nation-power for some time (several years at least in some cases), provided they are stored in dry 
and cool places. Indeed it seems marvellous to contemplate, that trees, known to be among the 
largest of the world, arise from seed-grains so minute. Thus Eucalypts are transferred to distant 
lands far more easily than Oaks, Walnut-trees, Hickories, Teak, Sal Sissoo and perhaps any other 
important kind of hardwood-trees, though their constitution limits them mostly to frostless zones 
and within the tropics to dry or higher mountainous regions, and though their wood cannot 
always replace that of many other kinds of select timber-trees. A very extensive trade in 
Eucalyptus-seeds arose already many years ago, to the initiation of which the author of this work 
can lay largely claim. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, unexpanded flower, the lid lifted; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of anthers ; 5, style and stigma ; 6 and 7, transverse and longi- 
tudinal section of a fruit ; 8 and 9, fertile and sterile seeds ; 10, portion of a leaf; all magnified, but to various 
extent. 




1 



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EUCALYPTUS STELLULATA. 

Sieber, in De Candolle prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilia iii. 217 (1828) ; De CandoUe, m6raoire snr 
la famille dea myrtacees, planche 6 (1842) ; F. v. M., fragraenta phytographiae Australise ii. 45 ; Bentham, flora 
Australiensis iii. 200. 

Leaves scattered, on rather short stalks, from oval- to narrow-lanceolar or rarely linear- 
lanceolar, of firm consistence, hardly inequilateral, not much elongated, shining and of equal color 
on both sides ; primary veins almost longitudinal, mostly prominent, three of them arising almost 
jointly from near the acute base of the leaf, the circumferential vein removed from the edge ; 
oil-dots much concealed or quite obliterated ; general flowerstalks short, cylindrical, expanded at 
the summit, solitary, axillary or lateral ; flowers minute, rather numerous, crowded into head-like 
umbels ; lid semiovate-conical, acute, smooth, very shining, about as long as the tube of the calyx ; 
stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers cordate-kidney shaped, opening by much 
diverging slits ; stigma not dilated ; fruits very smnll, semiovate or truncate-globular, not 
angular, mostly 3-celled, rim comparatively broad, valves short, enclosed ; seeds without any 
appendage, the sterile seeds usually not narrow. 

Along elevated river-valleys or flats and in cooler mountain-regions up to the subalpine zone ; 
thus on the upper Hume-Eiver (Findlay), on the Mitta-Mitta, around the Barkly-Range, towards 
Lake Omeo and on the Upper Genoa (F. v. M.), in the counties of Camden and Argyle (Mrs. 
Calvert), ascending to the summits of the Blue Mountains (Rev. Dr. Woolls), extending to 
Mudgee and Braidwood (Wilkinson), Bathurst (Cunningham), Mittagong (Rev. James Hassell), 
New England (Leichhardt), descending in. Gippsland to Dargo-flat (Howitt), mostly in basaltic 
areas, but also in the granite-formation, not rarely following the courses of mountain-streams. 

A tree, attaining a height of 50 feet, but seldom a stem-diameter of over 10 inches, remaining 
in cold elevations at about 4,000 feet of shrubby growth, known as the " Black Bailee " or 
" Muzzlewood" (Howitt), but more frequently as the " Green-barked Gum-tree." Bark of the trunk 
rough, dark and somewhat scaly and fibrous, persistent at least on the lower part of the stem, but 
smooth on the branches and sometimes also (from decortication) on the upper part of the stem 
and there greenish or green-brownish or of a bronze-hue. In its shrubby stemless state already 
flowering and fruiting copiously. Leaves often only 2 to 3 inches long, attaining however 
sometimes a length of 5 inches. Flowers in the umbels from 15 to 6, rarely fewer still. Stamens 
2—3 lines long ; filaments finely capillary. Style comparatively elongated. The specific name 
alludes to the clustered flowers, arranged somewhat star-like, in the manner of the fruits of Carex 
stellulata (of Goodenough, C. echinata of Murray), with which sedge Sieber was well acquainted. 
The Revd. James Hassell, the Revd. Rob. Collie and the Revd. Dr. Woolls found the stems often so 
smooth that the latter places E. stellulata even among the Leiophloise (Lectures on the Vegetable 
Kingdom, p. 117), whereas I found cause from observations over rather extensive areas to assign 
to this tree a place among the Ehytiphloise. The foliage is rather dense and shady. The timber 
is not of much avail, either in quality or dimensions, but it affords a good fuel, burning well. 
Practically the tree is of most importance on account of its hardiness, and it would be sure to 
live in Britain on the Channel-islands, where extensive tests on the endurance of cold might well 
be instituted with many other Eucalypts. E. stellulata exudes Kino in considerable quantity. 
As a species it is well marked, because in the longitudinal course of the lateral nerves of the 
leaves it has only an imitator in E. pauciflora, but the last mentioned congener attains greater 
dimensions, has always wholly smooth bark, larger leaves, umbels usually on longer stalks and 
always with larger flowers, the lid considerably shorter than the tube of the calyx and less acute 
or quite blunt, and the fruit also conspicuously larger. 



EUCALYPTUS STELLULATA. 

The shrubby highland-state of E. stellulata is in general aspect so similar to E. stricta, that 
Allan Cunningham did not draw any distinctions between the two, and published them as one 
under the name of E. microphylla (in Field's Geographical Memoirs on New South Wales 350, 
anno 1825). G. Don, who changed the name to E. Cunninghami (General System of Dichla- 
mydeous Plants ii. 821) simply followed in this view of their identity. Both kinds grow inter- 
mixed on the summits of the Blue Mountains, in both the venation is often reduced to extreme 
fineness. The differences of E. stricta consist in the aged bark not being stringy, diverging 
veins of the leaves, fewer flowers in the umbels on longer stalklets and of larger size, granular- 
rough calyces larger usually 4-celled fruits with a prominent edge around the orifice. 

It may here however be observed cursorily, that I comprehend as E. stricta a plant of the 
series Eenantherae, precisely agreeing, so far as fruit-specimens are concerned, with original 
specimens of Sieber's collection (No. 472), obtained from Dr. Sender of Hamburg, although 
Bentham, perhaps solely from examination of undeveloped flowerbuds, places E. stricta among 
the Micrantheree. It is confined to New South Wales and delights in the higher, cool and 
moist regions of mountains, braving some frost, and as may be imagined from its frequent 
exposure to boisterous weather, it is startlingly playful in its variability. Tlius it includes 
E. cneorifolia of De CandoUe's m6moire sur la famille des myrtac6es, pi. 9, but only the eastern 
plant so named in De CandoUe's prodromus iii. 220, and not the one from the arid dry ridges 
of I'ile Decr^s or Kangaroo-Island, which seems referable to E. oleosa among Parallelantherse. 
To E. stricta belongs furthermore E. rigida of Sieber's collections. No. 473, although united by 
Bentham with E. obtusiflora, but the latter according to leaves from the original specimen kept at 
Geneva and forwarded to me by Monsieur Alphonse De Candolle proves it completely distinct 
from E. rigida. E. stricta is so variable, that Sieber distributed a variety of it under a third 
name, viz., E. virgata, as is now found from inspection of an authentic specimen (though in bud 
only) sent recently to me by Dr. Henri van Heurck of Antwerp. Bentham united this with 
the tall species, to which I have given the appellation of E. Sieberiana, whereas the genuine E. 
virgata was most likely gathered with the other varieties of E. stricta on the summit of the Blue 
Mountains, where with a dwarf state of E. stellulata it forms thickets of rigid strict-branched 
virgate bushes. At a first glance any collector would deem E. virgata very distinct, more par- 
ticularly on account of the much compressed and two-edged stalks of the umbels, as already 
noticed in Sprengel's curse posteriores 195 ; but a still more remarkable form, widely aberrant 
from the original type, was discovered by Mr. Kirton on the crests of high barren ranges towards 
Bulli, which variety seemed so very distinct, that it was actually described as a new species 
under the name of E. Luehmanniana (fragmenta phytographise Australise xi. 38) with not 
the slightest anticipation at the time, that any additional material would establish a transit to 
E. stricta, as has been the case since ; the leaves of the variety Luehmanniana are long and 
comparatively broad, the imibel-stalks are wedgeshaped-dilated and as well as the branchlets and 
calyces tinged with a bluish-white bloom, the flowers and fruits are much larger, the lids are 
gradually long-pointed and the number of valves is often increased to 5 or 6. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, unexpanded flower, the lid lifted; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower; 3, some stamens in situ; 4 and 5, front- and back -view of an anther with part of its 
filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudinal sections of a fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile 
seeds ; 11, portion of a leaf; all magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS TETRAGONA. 

F. V. M., fragmenta phytographise AustralisB iv. 51 (1864) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis, iii. 259 ; E. pleurocarpa, 
Schauer, in Lehmann plantse Preissianse i. 132 ; Eudesmia tetragona, E. Brown, in Plinders's voyage to terra 
Australia ii. 599, t. 3 ; Sweet, flora Australasioa t. 21. 

Shrubby or somewhat arborescen t ; branchlets stout, prominently quadrangular, tinged by a 
chalky-white bloom ; leaves opposite, rarely some scattered, of thick consistence, from ovate- 
lanceolar to ovate or rarely orbicular, nearly equilateral, on flat and rather long stalks, of equal 
color on both sides ; their lateral veins numerous, pennately spreading, rather prominent, the 
drcu mferential vein removed^ from th e_edge ; the oil-dots much concealed ; flowerstalks axillary, 
.aolita:^ compressed, sharply biangular, with 3 or seldom 4 or 5 or 1 or 2 flowers ; stalklets 
compressed, as long as the calyx or often shorter ; tube of the calyx truncate-ovate, faintly 
4-toothed, considerably longer than the depressed hemispheric lid ; stamens forming four distinct 
bundles, inflexed before expansion ; anthers minute, oval-globular, opening with longitudinal 
slits ; style short ; stigma not dilated ; fruits rather large, truncate-ovate or sometimes verging 
towards a globular form, angular from 2 or oftener 4 longitudinal lines, 4- or rarely 5-celled ; rim 
descending, not flat ; valves enclosed near the orifice, very short ; fertile seeds surrounded by a 
narrow tender membrane, very angular, much larger than the sterile seeds. 

From Cape Arid (Maxwell) to Lucky Bay (R. Brown), Cape Riche (Preiss), South-West 
Bay (Oldfield), the vicinity of Stirling's Range (F. v. M.) and thence northward at least as far as 
the remotest sources of Swan-River (Th. Muir). 

A tall s hrub, rising fina lly to a tree of 25 fee t, though fruiting already when only a few feet 
high, apt to be kept dwarfed by being consumed down to the root by the periodical bushfires, 
which are originated by the nomadic inhabitants of the native grounds of this species, the whole 
plant being very combustible from the pervading oil of the foliage. This bush reminds of the 
young state of E. globulus, with its op posite l eaves and the sharply quadrangular branchlets, 
white (as well as the inflorescence) from its waxy-powdery exudation. 

The differences between E. tetragona and E. eudesmioides, whether indicative of the value of 
species or only varieties, consist in the much narrower leaves of E. eudesmioides, the absence of 
the waxy-powdery whiteness, less or not compressed flowerstalks, smaller flowers and fruits, 
prevailing ternary number of fruit-valves. E. eudesmioides has been traced by the writer in 1877 
from the Arrowsmith-Eiver to near Shark-Bay over sand- and limestone-ground. A large-fruited 
form of this plant from Esperance-Bay, referred to E. tetragona in the flora Australiensis, seems 
to mediate the transit from one to the other ; it is without whitish bloom and may exhibit the 
aged state of the species. E. tetragona is through E. eudesmioides also cognate to E. odontocarpa, 
of which well-developed flowers remained as yet unknown ; the differences of the latter consist in 
still narrower and somewTiat curved leaves with more spreading veins, in the smallness of its 
flowers with proportionately more developed calyx-teeth, and the not membranously margined 
seeds ; very possibly its anthers will bring it nearer to E. tetrodonta. 

Its mainly shrubby growth gives E. tetragona probably no claim to the practical attention of 
any artisans ; but a plate has been devoted here to its elucidation, as this species is of particular 
structural interest in regard to its flowers. It shares with E. erythrocorys the remarkable 
characteristic of having its stamens united into bundles, which alternate with the teeth of the 
calyx, though the fllaments do not actually unite, but are inserted on semiorbicular lobes, different 
in color and consistence. On this distinction rests R. Brown's genus Eudesmia (Appendix to 



EUCALYPTUS TETRAGONA. 

Flinders's voyage ii. 599, t. 3), which to some extent holds the same position towards Eucalyptus 
as Melaleuca towards Callistemon and as Tristania towards Metrosideros ; the coalescence of the 
filaments of Melaleuca is one of degree only and even in the typical Melaleuca Leucadendron 
afi^ects merely the very base of the staminal bundles. But as in all three hitherto known 
Eudesmias hardly any concrescence of the filaments themselves is traceable, I deemed it best to 
include them in the genus Eucalyptus, especially as calyx-teeth are still more strongly developed 
in E. odontocarpa and E. tetrodonta. The denticulated calyx of these Bucalypts ofi'ers an approach 
to the genus Angophora, which indeed can only be kept strictly separated by the development of 
distinct petals, the operculum of Eucalyptus being truly calycine, unless a tender membraneous 
free inner lid of rare occurrence should be regarded as a transit to some petaloid structure. The 
genus Eucalyptus — well marked as it is — shows further some affinity to a genus of the Pacific 
Islands, namely Acicalyptus (A. Gray in "Wilkes' United States Exploring Expedition 651, t. 67), 
in which however the petals are developed, though sometimes irregularly so, and in which the. 
fruit becomes succulent in its outer portion, maturing only one or two large seeds with thick 
cotyledons, so far as this could hitherto be demonstrated from a congener restricted to Lord Howe's 
Island (F. v. M., fragmenta phytographias Australiee viii. 16) ; the two-celled ovary, characteristic 
for Acicalyptus, is also typical for Eucalyptus phcenicea and occurs though very exceptionally in 
at least one other species (E. traohyphloia). The so-called Eucalyptus-forests of New Ireland, 
mentioned by the Reverend George Brown, are possibly formed by a species of Acicalyptus. The 
affinity of Calyptranthes, a genus widely spread over tropical and subtropical America, is more 
remote, though its petals are generally only rudimentary, or as in Eucalyptus also quite absent. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, unexpanded flower, its lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3, longitudinal section of an expanded flower ; 4, some stamens in situ ; 5 and 6, front- and 
back-view of an anther, with a portion of its filament ; 7, style and stigma ; 8 and 9, longitudinal and transverse 
section of fruit ; 10 and 11, fertile and sterile seeds ; all magnified, but to various extent. 



EUCALYPTOGRAPHIA. 



A DESCEIPTIVE ATLAS 



EUCALTPTS or AUSTRALIA 



ADJOINING ISLANDS; 



BAEON EEED. YOI MUELLEE, K.C.I.G., 1. & PH.D., P.E.S., 

GOVEENMENT BOTANIST FOE THE COLONY OF VICTOEIA. 



* NON BUCCIOXS AKB0B.1S, NEC SECUBIB1T8 DEBES VA8TAKB EABUH BEOIONEU.*'— Xt&er DeuterOnOmii XX. 19. 



SEVENTH DECIDE. 



MELBOURNE : 

JOHN FEKEBS, GOVEENMENT PRINTER. 
PUBLISHED ALSO BY GEORGE ROBERTSON, LITTLE COLLINS STREET. 

LONDON : 

TRUBNER AND CO., 57 AND 69 LUDGATE HILL ; AND GEORGE ROBERTSON, 17 WARWICK SQUARE. 

Lt 

M race Lxxx. 




Toa>-:e: CTroedeliC^Lili. 



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EUCALYPTUS BEHEIANA. 

F. V. M., in the transactions of the Victorian Institute 1854, p. 34 ; Miquel, in Nederlandisk Kruidkundig Archief 

It. 139 (1859) ; Eentham, flora Australiensis iii. 214. 

Shrubby, becoming arboreous ; leaves broadish- or oval-lanceolar, almost equilateral, of thick 
consistence, of equal color and shining on both sides, not or only slightly curved ; their lateral 
veins somewhat prominent, rather distant, not very spreading, the circumferential vein con- 
spicuously removed from the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots much concealed or obliterated ; umbels in 
mostly terminal not very spreading panicles, with seven or fewer small flowers in each; stalklets 
very short ; the tube of the calyx truncate- or semi-ovate, about twice as long as the almost 
hemispheric lid, not angular ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers very minute, 
nearly globular, opening laterally by pore-like apertures ; stigma not broader than the short style ; 
fruits small, truncate- or topshaped-ovate, 3- or oftener 4-celled ; their rim narrow ; valves 
enclosed, very short ; seeds without any appendage, the fertile considerably larger than the sterile 
seeds. 

Near the sources of the Werribee-Eiver, on stony hills, extending thence to the Avoca 
(F. V. M.) ; in the scrubs of Sandarac-Cypresses near the Gawler-Eiver (Dr. Behr) ; in the hilly 
forest-region of Wirrabara near Crystal-Brook and Mount Remarkable on deep marly clay-soil 
(J. E. Brown) and probably in many interjacent places. 

A tall shrub or small and perhaps never a tall tree. Outer bark in large brownish or dark 
flakes deciduous, leaving the surface of the stem and main-branches smooth and greenish. 
Foliage rather massive ; leaves scattered, occasionally tinged with whitish bloom. Calyces 
shining ; their tube gradually tapering into the stalklet. Valves not rarely inserted very near 
the summit of the orifice of the fruit, but sometimes more deeply seated. 

Mr. J. E. Brown, the Forest-Inspector of South-Australia, found E. Behriana always on soil, 
richer than that occupied by E. odorata and E. hemiphloia. He notes the height 16 to 20 feet, 
but the foliage spreading out diametrically to 20 to 25 feet. 

The YSbTietj purpurascens, recorded in the flora Australiensis from the western side of Spencer's 
Gulf, may be referable to E. hemiphloia and requires further examination in the native spots of 
Its growth. 

In its relationship E. Behriana approaches closely to E. hemiphloia, from which it mainly 
differs in never attaining the stately dimensions of that species, in the bark remaining smooth 
from secession of the outer layers ; besides the leaves are as a rule (subject however to exceptions) 
shorter and broader, the panicles are less ample, by which means the umbels are not rarely 
arranged in a racemous manner ; the flowers and fruits are smaller, their stalklets are more 
abbreviated, the lid is shorter and blunter and the fruit-valves are less deeply enclosed. 
E. Behriana claims also near afiinity with E. largiflorens, but the bark of the latter persists, the 
leaves are conspicuously narrower, of thinner consistence, of duller hue, flner veined and better 
provided with oil-dots, its panicles are more spreading, the lids are (at least often) double and the 
stamens not constantly all fertile ; thus the resemblance of E. Behriana in foliage is closer to 
E. hemiphloia, but in flowers and fruits nearer to E. largiflorens, while in bark it differs from both. 
No other species could easily be mistaken for E. Behriana, as E. odorata, which comes also near 
to it ia affinity, is discriminable by the mainly axillary inflorescence and persistent bark. The 
technical quality of the wood of E. Behriana remained hitherto untested. 



EUCAIiYPTTTS BEHEIANA. 

The stomata of the leaves are not always isogenons, as recorded before, but have been found to 
be also 91,000 on a square inch of the upper page and 104,000 on the lower page ; this diversity 
arises probably from the age of the plant. 

This species was named by me already in 1849 after Dr. Herman Behr, by whom it was then 
discovered in South Australia, and where already by his prior travels he had shed much light on 
the Flora and Fauna ; this ardour for scientific research was displayed by him unabated for the 
last thirty years in California, where he more particularly has contributed to the entomologic 
elucidation of that country. 

Explanation of Anaittic Details. — 1, an nnexpanded flower, its lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
nnexpanded flower; 3, some stamens in situ; 4 and 5, back- and front-view of an anther with portion of its 
filament; 6, style and stigma; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse section of a finiit; 9 and 10, fertile and 
sterile seeds ; 11, portion of a leaf ; all magnified, but to various extent. 

Explanation op Anatomic Platb. — Transverse sections of the wood of Eucalyptus amygdalina, E. Behriana, 
E. botryoides, E. globulus, E. goniocalyx, E. Gunnii, E. hemiphloia, E. macrorrhyncha, E. meUiodora, E. obliqua, 
E. polyanthema, E. punctata, E. rostrata, E. Sieberiana, E. Stuartiana, and E. viminalis. The large openings 
represent the vascular tubes ; the rows of elongated cells constitute the medullary rays ; the scattered cells and 
those near the vascular openings exhibit parenchyma ; the multitudes of smallest apertures indicate the closely set 
wood-fibres. Augmentation 80 times. (These microscopic sections are given to aid in the discrimination of mer- 
cantile Eucalyptus-timber of doubtful origin, such as sometimes occurs in the trade.) 




E. AMYGDALINA. 



E. BEHRIANA 




.•.',\" •■.•:•. "■u°-- ^ll.-\i}i-'0- : 

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':'»0;-,i-s^;'-..:l.\„.., 




E.GUNNU. 



E.GONIOCALYX. 



E. HEMIPHLOIA. 



E. MACRORRHYNCHA, 




E. MELLIODORA, 



E. OBLIOUA. 



E. PUNCTATA. 



E. POLYANTHEMA 





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E. ROSTRATA. 



E.STUARTIANA. 



E.SIEBERIANA 



E, VIMINALIS. 






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EUCALYPTUS COSMOPHYLLA. 

F. V. M., in the transactions of the Victorian Institute 1854, p. 32 ; Miqiael, in Nederlandisk Kruidkundig Archief 

iv. 134 (1859) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 225. 

Always shrubby ; leaves of thick consistence, scattered, ovate-lanceolar or sometimes broadly 
ovate, nearly straight or slightly curved, rarely almost sickleshaped, equally greyish- or pale-green 
on both sides, not shining ; the lateral veins thin, moderately spreading, not closely approximated, 
the circumferential vein at some distance from the edge of the leaf; oil-dots much concealed or 
almost obliterated ; Jlomers rather larg e, axillary, one to jive together on a very short stalk and 
provided with hardly any or very abbreviated stalklets ; lid almost hemispherical, slightly or 
sometimes conspicuously pointed, not quite so long as the semiovate faintly angular tube of the 
calyx ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers almost ovate, opening with longi- 
tudinal slits ; stigma not broader than the style ; fruit semiovate or almost hemispherical, 4- to 
6-celled ; rim broad ; valves short, convergent, affixed not far below the orifice, enclosed or slightly 
exserted ; seeds without appendage, the fertile broader than most of the sterile seeds, but not 
longer and very angular. 

On Mount Lofty and on the surrounding mountains, also on the Bugle-Eanges, occupying 
dry stony places and forming occasionally the underwood in the forests of E. obliqua (F. v. M.) ; 
on hills near Encounter-Bay (Whittaker) ; on bushy ridges of Kangaroo-Island (Waterhouse). 

A rather tall shrub, seldom somewhat arborescent^^ flowering already at the height of 
5 feet. Bark smooth, greyish. Branchlets robust, towards the summit angular. Leaves con- 
spicuously stalked, attaining a length of 5 inches, and a breadth of 2 inches ; some of their veins 
rather prominent. Flowerstalks up to | inch long, often variously shorter, angular, but not 
flattened ; occasionally two flowerstalks from the same axil. Stalklets hardly ever attaining \ of 
an inch in length and not rarely quite deficient. Calyces slightly shining and not quite smooth ; 
the angular lines of its tube (if present) 2 to 3, more prominent towards the base ; lid not angular, 
not rarely terminating in a short acute pyramidal-conical apex. Anthers dorsifixed, attenuated 
downward. Style angular. Fruit usually ^ to f of an inch but occasionally only ^ inch wide ; 
rim at last convex from the protrusion of the discal lining beyond the margin of the calyx-tube. 
Disc between the stamens and style during the time of flowering intensely yellow, almost orange, 
becoming black-brown afterwards. Fertile seeds black, slightly rough, hardly or not fully one 
line long. 

I recorded the seedlings (fragmenta phytographise Australise vii. 43) as smooth, with not 
angular stem and small mostly opposite oblong leaves on short stalks. 

This Eucalyptus derived its specific name from its handsome foliage, the boughs with leathery- 
rigid not quickly fading leaves serving for rustic decorative purposes, as noticed by me already in 
1848. 

Bentham placed it near E. alpina, from which the more pointed generally elongated and not 
shining leaves, the presence of flowerstalks, the larger flowers, smooth calyces with thinner lids, 
the oval anthers and the less hemispheric fruits readily distinguish it. E. cosmophylla might be 
likened also to the still more ornamental E. Preissiana, but that species has often partially 
opposite or nearly opposite mostly quite blunt and still thicker leaves of more vivid and somewhat 
shining verdure, its flowerstalks are generally longer and always broadly compressed and at flrst 
turned downward, the flowers and fruits are in most instances larger, sometimes much so, the 



EUCALYPTUS COSMOPHTLLA. 

filaments are bright-yellow, the rim of the fruit is more descending, the valves generally somewhat 
deeper enclosed an3~outward tumid, and the seeds larger as well as more uniformly broad. E. 
cosmophylla verges in its affinity also somewhat to E. megacarpa, although that species forms a 
good-sized tree, has narrower thinner and darker leaves, broader and flat flowerstalks, larger at 
the base rather less turgid fruits with finally convex emersed summit and very thick valves, 
larger and also broader sterile seeds. 

This Eucalyptus has but slight claims on the industrial attention of artisans, but for com- 
pletion's sake it could not welTbe passed in this work, espe'cially'as The flowers, which expand 
in autumn, ofi'er by their sweet exudations also food for bees at a season, when it is particularly 
welcome to them. 

The ordinarily dry leaves gave 13^ per cent, of tannin (according to a solitary experiment 
instituted by Mr. Rummel in my laboratory), equal to nearly 15 per cent, in absolutely dried 
leaves ; they are therefore richer in tan-principle than even those of E. Leucoxylon, although not 
to the same vast extent obtainable for tanneries. The medullary rays in the wood of E. cosmophylla 
are more copious than in most other Eucalyptus-woods (380 per square inch, against 220 in real 
boxwood, which furnishes the best standard for comparisons of wood-elements) ; the vascular 
tubes are also more numerous than in many other species (11,000 per square inch, against 165,000 
in Buxus sempervirens). 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
nnexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther, with portion of the 
filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7, longitudinal section of a fruit ; 8, transverse section of three difierent fruits ; 
9 and 10, sterile and fertile seeds ; 11, embryo in its natural position ; 12, transverse section of an embryo ; 13, 
embryo with cotyledons unfolded ; all magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS FICIFOLIA. , 

E. V. M., fragmenta phytographiae Australia ii. 85 (1860) ; vi. 25 (1867) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 256 (1866) ; 
F. V. M., Eeport on the Forest-resources of Western Australia p. 5, pi. 3 (1879). 

Tall ; leaves scattered or some almost opposite, broad- or ovate-lanceolar, or some nearly 
ovateTut always acute, rigid, almost equilateral, dark-green above, much paler and not shining 
beneath; veins subtle, almost transversely spreading, closely parallel, the circumferential vem 
nearly contiguous to the slightly recurved edge of the leaf ; oil-dots concealed or obliterated ; 
umbels usually 4- to 6-flowered, terminal, mostly paniculated ; their stalks conspicuous, nearly 
cylindrical ; calyces large, pearshaped, on slender stalklets of about equal length, not angular ; 
lid thin, very depressed, many times shorter than the tube of the calyx and only about half as broad; 
filaments crimson, all fertile, inflexed and dependent while in bud ; anthers ovate-ellipsoid, opening 
with longitudinal slits ; stigma not dilated ; fruits large, urnshaped-ovate, 3- to 4-celled ; rim 
narrow ; valves deeply enclosed, deltoid ; fertile seeds pale-brown, terminated by a long membranous 
appendage, much larger than the mostly narrow sterile seeds. 

From the western side of Irwin's Inlet to the entrance of the Shannon, constituting a distinct 
forest-belt in the coast-region, though not actually approaching the sea-shore, v * f Ai^Y tU^ . 

An umbrageous tree, seldom exceeding a height of 50 feet. Bark persistent, furrowed. 
Branchlets rather stout. Leaves provided with conspicuous stalks, somewhat of leathery thick- 
ness, turning more the surface than the edge to the zenith, seldom narrow-lanceolar, occasionally 
more shortened, always somewhat decurrent into the stalk, pointed at the apex and sometimes 
narrowly so. Calyces slightly tinged with red ; the transverse line of dehiscence at first not very 
distinct ; lid of very thin consistence, |-^ inch broad, adhering often for some time after the 
expansion of the stamens to the tube of the calyx. Filaments beautifully cinnabar-red, occa- 
sionally verging to a lighter coloration, but never very pale. Anthers notTaJFgelBr the size of 
the flowers ; filaments not very thin. Style long and slender. Fruit 1 to 1^ inches long, faintly 
streaked ; its orifice downward not contracted ; valves at first flatly converging, at last quite 
descending. Appendage of the seeds about as long as the nucleus or even longer, decurrent 
along the back of the kernel, transparent, of a slightly brown tinge. 

The specific name of this gorgeous tree was chosen before the brilliancy of its fiowers was 
known, and alludes to the similarity of the leaves to those of Fig-trees of the series of Ficus 
elastica, the principal Caoutchouc-tree of India. 

E. calophylla is the only species, to which E. ficifolia bears very close alliance, and both 
might on account of their bark be placed in the series of Bloodwood-trees, among which E. corym- 
bosa and E. Abergiana show moreover resemblance as regards leaves, disposition of flowers and 
structure of fruits. The characteristics, by which E. ficifolia can be distinguished from E. calo- 
phylla, are as follow : The tree is of less height, the bark is somewhat more deeply furrowed, the 
leaves are proportionately not quite so broad but longer, the fiowers are mostly larger, the 
calyces assume a reddish hue, the filaments are of a splendid crimson, the fruits less turgid, 
while the seeds are much paler in color, have a smaller kernel and are provided with a conspicuous 
appendicular membrane. Irrespective of this a very marked difi'erence in the seedlings i-s 
observable, as those of E. ficifolia show only slightly or not at all the bristly roughness of 
E. calophylla, nor are the seedling-leaves inserted above their base to the stalk as in that species. 

If it were necessary to point out any diff'erences of E. corymbosa and B. Abergiana, we need 
only aUude again to the color of the stamens ; — besides E. corymbosa has its fiowers and fruits 



EUCALYPTUS FICIFOLIA. 

smaller, the seeds wholly or nearly destitute of any appendage and the seedlings purplish-hispid 
with short-stalked elliptic opposite leaves ; while E. Abergiana is stUl farther removed by the 
want of stalklets of its flowers and by the larger and wider lid, although the seeds are here again 
conspicuously appendiculated. 

This Eucalyptus is one of the most splendid of recent acquisitions to horticulture, and was 
introduced by the writer of this work into the Botanic Garden of Melbourne in 1860, where it 
flowered already a few years afterwards, while yet only in a bushy state. Soon subsequently he 
commenced to introduce it abroad. " Hardly anything more gorgeous can be imagined, than the 
forests of E. ficifolia about the end of January or commencement of February, when the brilliant 
trusses of flowers diffuse a rich red over the dark-green foliage of the whole landscape occupied by 
this tree." It should have a place in every select ornamental arboretum in zones free of frost and 
excessive heat. 

Whether the timber of E. ficifolia has any particular qualities to recommend it to artisans, 
remains as yet unknown. The Eano of the wood and bark has, like similar exudations of other 
Eucalypts, value in medicine and for tan- and dye-purposes. The trade in seeds of this species 
has proved already to vendors remarkably profitable, and is likely to be carried on by the seeds- 
men for lengthened periods. Parrots and many other kinds of birds visit the tree, to pick the 
sweetish fiowers and the seeds. 

Explanation of Anaxttic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted; 2, longitudinal section of 
an nnexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther, with portion of its 
filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudinal section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile 
seeds ; 11, embryo in situ ; 12, embryo uncoiled ; 13, transverse section of embryo ; all the figures except 7 and 8 
magnified, but to various extent. 










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77 



EUCALYPTUS GOMPHOCEPHALA. 

De Candolle, prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis iii. 220 (1828) ; m^moire sur la famille des myrtac^es, 
planche 11 ; E. v. M., fragmenta phytographise Auatralise ii. 36 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 231 ; F. v. M., 
Forest-resources of Western Australia 9, plate 8. 

Tall ; leaves scattered, lanceolar-sickleshaped, on rather long stalks, shining, but slightly 
paler beneath, their veins very thin, rather close, only moderately spreading, the circumferential 
vein very close to the edge ; oil-dots concealed or obliterated ; umbel-stalks broad, much com- 
pressed, axillary, solitary, bearing from 2 to 6 flowers ; stalklets none or exceedingly short ; lid 
hemispherical, thick, rough, somewhat streaked, considerably broader than the tube of the calyx and 
only slightly shorter ; the latter broadly obverse- or semiovate-conical at first, widening after- 
wards ; outer stamens almost straight in bud, inner stamens more or less inflexed before expansion, 
all fertile ; anthers oblong, opening lengthwise by parallel slits ; style somewhat shorter than the 
stamens ; stigma not dilated ; fruits topshaped- or bellshaped-semiovate, 4-celled, rim of the ripe 
fruit exserted, broad, somewhat turgid; valves deltoid ; seeds without any appendage, the sterile 
not much or hardly smaller than the fertile seeds and few of them narrow. 

In the coast-tract from the Moore-Eiver to Geographe-Bay in West Australia, seemingly 
always in the limestone-formation. 

The " Touart " or " Tooart." 

A good-sized, rather shady tree, as noticed by myself near Bunbury, with finally stout stem, 
the whole height of the tree reaching to 120 feet with a clear trunk sometimes up to 50 feet. Bark 
persistent, rough and rather dark but not stringy on aged stems, greyish and smooth on younger 
trees and branches. Branchlets somewhat robust. Leaves of rather thick consistence ; their veins 
not prominent ; stomates about twice as many beneath as above. CaTyces"lieitEer smooth nor 
shining ; lid hard, of remarkably thick structure. Filaments pale-colored ; dorsal gland of anthers 
conspicuous. Fruit-valves depressed, finally pyramidally erect. 

E. gomphocephala is phytographically one of the most marked of all species of the extensive 
genus, although habitually not altogether dissimilar to E. marginata ; the lid broadly protruding 
beyond the calyx-tube separates the species already from all congeners, except E. Watsoniana and 
E. robusta, but in neither of these two is the turgescence and disproportionate width of the lid 
(which induced De Candolle to construct the specific name of the Tooart) equally remarkable, the 
two last mentioned species being besides very different in other respects. The slight expansion 
of the lid beyond the calyx-tube, as shown by E. corynocalyx and E. urnigera, can here not come 
into consideration. E. gomphocephala might systematically be compared to E. megacarpa, if the 
broadness and bluntness of the lid were kept out of view ; still the roughness of the bark, the 
thicker consistence of the leaves, the heterogenous stomates, the stamens mostly straight in bud, 
the narrow anthers, the fruits longer than broad with perhaps never more than four valves already 
offer marks for easy distinction. 

I have given the geographic limitations of this species as recorded on the forest-map of West 
Australia recently issued by the Survey-Department of Perth (Swan-Eiver) ; but Mr. Oldfield 
noted in his collection a sprig as gathered north of the Arrowsmith-Eiver. Mr. A. C. Gregory, 
C.M.G., the renowned geographic explorer, observed that this tree is restricted to a calcareous 
sandstone formed by the wind-drifts of^sear^sand of later tertiary date ; the tree thus occurs only 
in the vicinity of the ocean. 



EUCALYPTUS GOMPHOCEPHALA. 

The wood of the Tooart is of a pale-yeUowish color, remarkable for hardness and strength, 
very heavy, of a close and twisted or even curled grain, rendering it very difiS.cult to cleave it, and 
(what in Eucalyptus-timber must particularly be regarded as a valuable quality) showing no 
aptness to rend. Mr. Laslett, timber-inspector to the British Admiralty, speaks in terms of the 
highest praise of this wood. According to his authority it is a very sound timber, possessing few 
or no defects ; it shrinks very little in seasoning, will bear exposure to all the vicissitudes of 
weather for a long time without being affected by it ; after being exposed for fully ten years it 
was found to open out with all the freshness of newly-felled timber. It is sought for in shipbuilding 
for beams, keelsons, sternposts, engine-bearers, and for other works below the line of floatation, 
wherever great strength is required and a weighty material is not objectionable. Laslett thinks 
that it would also make good piles for piers and supports in bridges, and likely be useful in 
the framing of dock-gates. Its toughness befits this wood specially for wheelwrights' work. 
Experiments on its strength gave the following results : Average of six tests for transverse strain 
S = 2,701, compared with 2,117 for British Oak; direct cohesion (tensile strength) per square inch 
10,284 lbs. against 7,571 for Oak ; vertical or crushing strength per square inch 4-174 tons 
agamst 2"194 tons for Oak. The specific gravity of Tooarf^wood was found to be in average 1,169 
(Laslett, Timber and Timber-trees pp. 188-189). Logs 45 feet long and 28 inches square have 
been obtained. 

Wherever in mild climes limestone-country near the sea-shore is to be clothed with forest- 
vegetation, the Tooart would claim indeed high consideration among hardwood-trees ; it was first 
brought under culture in the Melbourne Botanic Garden now many years ago. 

The tree is in flower from January tUl June. 

Explanation ov Analytic Dbtails. — 1, unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of the 
same ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back -view of an anther with portion of its filament ; 
6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudinal section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile seeds ; 
11, portion of a leaf ; all magnified, but variously. 




TodTidel. CTrsead. S^C'^LiWi 



F.tK iirexit 



S^aamliao eo7Pr:r.hnS l-'fiiC!:. Weis 



!i(@ii]l|]ptei smfiiiiiiiii, Smith. 



EUCALYPTUS MAEGINATA. 

Smith, in the transactions of the Linnean Society of London vi. 302 (1802) ; W. T. Aiton, hortus Eewensis, second 
edition, iii. 192 (1811) ; Sprengel, systema vegetabilium ii. 500 ; De CandoUe, prodromus systematis naturalis 
regni vegetabilis iii. 217 ; Gr. Don, dichlamydeoua plants ii. 818 ; D. Dietrich, synopsis plantarum iii. 121 ; 
Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. ; F. v. M., Report on the Forest-resources of Western Australia p. 3-4, pi. i. 
xviii. fig. 1-3, xix. fig. 1 and 2; E. floribunda, Huegel, enumeratio plantarum Novse HoUandiss austro- 
occidentalis 49; Schauer, in Lehmann plantse Preissianse i. 128; F. v. M., fragmenta phytographise Australiae 
ii. 40 ; E. hypoleuca, Schauer, in Lehmann plantse Preissianse i. 131 ; E. Mahagoni, F. v. M., fragmenta 
phytographise Australiae ii. 41. 

Finally tall ; leaves scattered, from oval- to narrow-lanceolar, slightly or distinctly curved, 
somewhat paler and not shining underneath; their lateral veins subtle, numerous, pennately 
spreading, the circumferential vein at a slight distance from the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots copious, 
transparent or more or less concealed ; umbels axillary and solitary, on conspicuous slender 
sometimes compressed stalks, with 3-12 flowers ; tube of the calyx semiovate or somewhat top- 
shaped, gradually attenuated into a rather short or moderately elongated stalklet, not angular, 
hardly half as long as the conical or rarely hemiellipsoid lid ; stamens all fertile, not bent back 
while in bud; anthers cor date-kidney shaped, opening by longitudinal slits ; style elongated ; 
stigma not expanded ; fruits ovate-globular, truncated, the margin of the summit rather narrow, 
but finally flat ; valves three, short, enclosed or but slightly exserted ; seeds all very angular and 
without any appendage, the sterile mostly not narrow, but smaller than the rather large fertile 
seeds. 

From King George's Sound to Cape Leeuwin and to the Moore-Eiver, forming the principal 
forests in South- Western Australia and occupying a region not far removed from the coast. 

This tree, the famous " Jarrah " of South-Western Australia, there passing also as Mahogany- 
tree, rises exceptionally to a height of about 150 feet, good-sized trees averaging 100 feet. Stems 
have been measured 80 feet to the first branch and exceptionally 35 feet in circumference at 5 feet 
from the ground, and even instances are on record of the stem having attained a girth of 60 feet 
at 6 fee t from the ground through the formation of buttresses. The bark is persistent and some- 
what fibrous, wherefore the East-Australian term of Stringybark-tree might be applied to this 
species also. Branchlets rather slender, angular. Leaves on conspicuous more or less compressed 
stalks, sometimes of a more papery, sometimes of a more leathery thickness, variable in length 
and also in comparative width, occasionally only about 2 inches long and more ovate, often 
terminating in a narrow acumen. A few of the umbels in exceptional cases forming a small 
terminal panicle. Stalklets usually of about the same length as the calyx-tube, but sometimes 
twice as long. Lid occasionally thrice as long as the calyx-tube, long-pointed and somewhat 
curved. Stamens attaining a length of 6 lines, but in a small-flowered variety only half as long ; 
filaments finely capillary, cream-colored, rarely yellow ; anthers pale, their slits divergent and at 
the summit confluent ; gland of the connective extremely minute. Style thin, as long as the 
stamens. Ripe fruit from hardly J inch to fully f inch long, neither shining, nor dark-colored. 
Valves broader than long, inserted not far below the orifice. Seeds forming two rows in each cell, 
the fertile grains 1^ to 2^ lines long, black, somewhat shining, much fewer than the sterile seeds, 
which are pale-brownish and 1 to 1^ lines long and nearly as broad. 

This tree received several specific names ; the difficulty of recognizing it commenced soon 
after James Donn (in his hortus Cantabrigiensis, sec. edit. p. 101 in 1800) had established the 
name, but perhaps not for this species ; because Sir James Smith, when in 1801 giving a very 



EUCALYPTUS lIAEGKrATA. 

short diagnostic phrase and quoting doubtfdlly Bonn's notation, gave for his E. marginata 
distinctly Fort Jackson as the native locality ; he received in 1798 his cultivated specimen from 
Mr. W. T. Aiton, the Director of the Eoyal Grarden of Kew, who in the second edition of the 
hortus Kewensis gives no clue to the native place of growth of this species heyond asserting, that 
the seeds came from Archibald Menzies, the companion of Captain Vancouver in the naval 
expedition, during which in 1791 King George's Sound was discovered. Menzies had only at 
that place an opportunity to gather Australian plants and seeds, as Vancouver landed on no 
other port of our southern continent ; hence the native locality of the Kew plant, if the seeds 
really came from Menzies, is placed beyond doubt. Nevertheless Sir James Smith's definition 
■would not lead to the recognition of that species, because he compares the leaves to those of 
E. robusta, but they are not so broad, nor their stalks short, while the covers (as Smith calls the 
lid) of the calyces are said to be not longer than the tube ; all this is at variance with E. margi- 
nata, as now understood, while the last-mentioned characteristic given by Smith would well 
compare "with E. pilularis, from which however he distinguished it by the oval leaves, a 
characteristic not generally applicable to E. marginata. Again De CandoUe did not indicate (as 
in the case of E. cornuta), that E. marginata came from the south-western coast, nor did any of 
the earlier writers refer to the form of the anthers, first made use of for diagnostic purposes by 
myself, which note at once would have led to the recognition of E. marginata among western 
species. Mr. Eichard Kippist, the librarian of the Linnean Society, when kindly inspecting for 
me the typical specimens of Eucalypts in Sir James Smith's collection, supposed also, that this 
like nearly all others of the early described congeners came from the environs of Sydney {vide 
fragm. phyt. Austr. ii. 174). That the tree received several specific names arose also partly from 
the circumstance, that the bark was variously described by collectors ; hence E. floribunda was 
regarded as distinct on account of its smooth bark (belonging to the Leiophloia3) ; but we are 
now aware, that this observation of several collectors referred only to the young state of the tree, 
before the cortical layers could sufficiently accumulate to assume the thickness and roughness 
shown by that of any species of the Pachyphloias (or perhaps Ehytiphloiae), to which E. marginata 
really pertains. Again E. hypoleuca bore a misleading name, not applicable to any but very 
exceptional forms of the Jarrah. The original specific appellation also gave no clue, as the 
margin of the leaves of E. marginata is not more thickened than in many other species, 
particularly those with rather horizontal than vertical leaves, in all of which the edge rolls 
slightly back. 

E. marginata is the only tall West-Australian species belonging to the Eenantherae, but 
E. buprestium and E. santalifolia (E. pachyloma, Benth.) are also there referable to that section 
of the genus, although the anthers of the last mentioned are rather more heartshaped ; it agrees 
also with most congeners of that series in having the seeds mostly of uniform shape, though not 
of equal size. 

In comparing the diagnostic marks with those of other species, it may be observed, that 
E. buprestium is only a small tree with bark more like that of E. patens (the West-Australian 
Blackbutt-tree), moreover its leaves are narrower, more prominently veined, of equal lio-ht-green 
color and producing stomata in equal numbers on both sides, the lid is hemispheric and thus 
shorter than the calyx-tube, the stamens are, on account of the shortness of the lid, while in bud, 
quite turned downward, the fruits are larger, not rarely 4-celled and provided with only very short 
or hardly any stalklets, their rim is descending and the orifice proportionately stUl more contracted. 



EUCALYPTUS MAEGINATA. 

E. santalifolia is distinguished by its shrubby growth, has leaves much like those of 
E. buprestium, the leaf-stalks short, the flower-stalklets thick and very abbreviated, the lid 
broader, the anther-cells rather less divergent and fruits like E. capitellata and B. macrorrhyncha. 

The Jarrah in its humid native region seems more indifferent to soil and situations than 
most other Eucalypts, but it avoids hot and dry tracts of country. I saw it descend on sandy 
ridges and calcareous declivities close to the sea-shores, traced it as a shrub to the rocky summits 
of the Stirling's Range (nearly 3,000 feet high) and noticed it to come down even to wet flats. 
But its development for extensive timber-forests takes place on the ranges of older rocks, still 
within the influence of the sea-air, as shown on the forest-map issued by the Hon. Malcolm Eraser, 
the Minister of the Lands Department of West Australia ; — thus it extends seldom beyond fifty 
miles from the coast, and where it stretches farther inland, as towards the sources of the Blackwood- 
River, the Jarrah-forests meet in a comparatively moist region the cooling influence both of 
westerly and southerly breezes from two difi'erent shores ; but the mountainous nature of the 
country in that direction and possibly its geologic configuration may also be the cause of the tree 
there trending more inland. Jarrah-trees do not enter to any extent the forests of the Karri 
(E. diversicolor) or of the Western White Gum (E. redunca) or of the York Gum-tree (E. loxo- 
phleba), the first replacing E. marginata in a broad littoral belt between Cape Leeuwin and the 
lower Gordon-River (and being again fronted by E. ficifolia), while E. redunca constitutes 
prevailingly the forests of the drier eastern portions of the coast-ranges, E. loxophleba occupying 
a strip of country along the middle of the E. redunca-region, thus dividing the latter into two 
parts ; this distribution is ruled perhaps more by climatic than by geologic agencies. Throughout 
nearly the whole region of its range the Jarrah is largely mixed with E. calophylla J^the South- 
West Australian Red Gum-tree or Bloodwood-tree), which there next to E. marginata is the most 
frequent of the gregarious forest-trees, being interspersed as well among E. redunca as among 
E. loxophleba, where they predominate. Isolated patches of straggling Jarrah-trees occur in 
some places beyond the main-area here indicated as occupied by this species. 

E. marginta is not a tree of rapid growth and therefore not one of early regeneration either, 
a fact which in the disposal of its pristine forests should thoughtfully be borne in mind. It 
flowers from October to December. The stomata of the leaves were found by us here either 
wholly hypogenous from 110,000 to 200,000 on a square inch, or heterogenous, varying from 
50,000 to 70,000. 

Mr. Aug. Gregory informs ns, that some of the aboriginal tribes used to call the tree 
" Jerrile," that it grows principally on a concretionary ironstone, which he considers oolithic. He 
noticed it also on deep sands resting on ironstone-formation, but timber obtained from sand is not 
equal in value to that from the Ranges, and his thirty years' experience as a traveller in West 
Australia led him to observe, that E. marginata is confined to areas, which are within the 
influence of the prevailing moist south-western summer-winds. 

In referring to the almost unrivalled superiority of the Jarrah-timber as well nigh inde- 
structible and yet easily worked, we may quote here the high authority'or'a professional judge, 
Mr. H. E. Victor, C.E., Swan River, who after a long local experience reported on this wood 
substantially as follows for the Paris Exhibition of 1878 : " Open to air and weather, on wind- 
and water-line, under the soil or submerged, it is not materially affected, remaining intact after 
nearly fifty years' trial. The choicest timber is obtained from the summit of the granite- and 
ironstone-ranges ; trees grown on sandy plains near the sea yield a timber of inferior quality. 



EUCALYPTUS MAEGINATA. 

twisted, also shorter in the grain and much less durable. The forests are of considerable extent, 
covering an area of approximately 14,000 square miles, full of noble trees, springing from among 
rocky boulders to a height, clear of branches, of from 60 to 60 feet, straight as a mast, and 
attaining a maximum girth of 20 feet. The committee of Lloyds, on Governor Sir F. Weld's 
representation, informed Earl Kimberleyj that this timber ranks with those named in line No. 3, 
table A, attached to the rules for the classification of ships. According to this estimate it was for 
shipbuilding second only to English Oak and to American Live Oak, standing before Sal (Shorea 
robusta) and Teak (Tectona grandis), the two highest class timbers of India, and also before the 
celebrated Greenheart (Nectandra Eodiaei) of Guiana." 

The Imperial Government Clerk of Public Works of West Australia, speaking from more 
that twenty years' experience and use of considerable quantities of this timber, states : "It is 
remarkably free from the action of nearly all the ordinary forms of decay incidental to woods in 
contact with or buried underground, under water, at mortices and joints, in piles, in sea-jetties 
and in planking of sea-going vessels. Without sheathing or other protection, it has proved 
sound and enduring to an extent which appears to denote exemption from decay, so far as evidence 
can be derived from observation of timber exposed for upwards of thirty years. I have recently 
taken up piles, which were driven for a whaling jetty in the year 1834 or 1835 ; the timber is 
small but perfectly free from boring marine moUusca, although the place is swarming with 
Teredo. In the old jetty-work at the port of Fremantle, piles which had been driven for thirty 
years and others only about one year could scarcely be distinguished, both being equally sound ; 
large iron-bolts through them have entirely corroded away, leaving the holes clean and sound. 
Round piles, with only their bark peeled ofi', driven before seasoning, appear to stand as well as 
those which were squared and seasoned. Young as well as matured wood had effectually resisted 
the attack of boring sea-worms and Crustacea. A cargo-boat, upwards of twenty years old, 
exposed all the time and as often high and dry as afloat, is as sound as when it was launched. 
Coasting craft, which had been more than ten years afloat without copper-sheathing, are perfectly 
seaworthy, not a plank perforated nor a butt-end rotten. A sapling pole, which had been set up 
to mark a shoal near Fremantle, sheathed with copper and guyed with iron-chains, was found on 
inspection to be uninjured after twenty years' exposure ; a chip of it was taken from the waterline 
with a pocket-knife and looked like Cedar, but the copper-sheathing and iron-chains had both 
perished. Land-boundary posts, put in forty years since, show neither weathering, nor rot, nor 
injury from Termites ; letters cut on them are still clean and sharp. This is the case also with 
slabs in the cemetery at Perth, bearing inscriptions dating as far back as 1834. Flooring of 
cottages, wet and dry according to the season, laid on the ground without joists, after twenty-five 
years show no signs of decay on either side. As Jarrah has been the timber, used throughout the 
colony of Western Australia since its foundation in 1829, there are numerous examples to refer 
to, proving its durability. Properly cut and properly dried, the material would prove in practice 
as durable as iron, and under some circumstances would outlive it. The time occupied in dryinf 
ought to be one month for every inch in thickness, if timber is sawn or hewn ; but if round it 
requires only to be banded at the ends to prevent splitting. In the forests any number of trees 
can be selected, to suit particular purposes, for which the timber may be required, either for round 
piles, or for squared logs, so also for railway-sleepers, while for furniture special selections would 
be necessary ; in the latter case splendid specimens may be obtained, exhibiting a play of light 
across the grain with a variety of mottles and lines when polished highly to give a very pleasing 



EUCALYPTUS MARGINATA. 

effect, though the wood is too heavy for any but massive designs. Some of the protuberances 
from the trunks and branches are of an immense size and furnish slabs rivalling in beauty the 
finest specimens of Walnut or Pollard-Oak; they require however a great deal of time in 
seasoning before they can be made up, after being cut into slabs ; it is not unusual to find such 
protuberances from 6 to 10 feet in diameter. 

" I have drawn attention more particularly to timber intended for heavy works, such as sea- 
facing, dock-lining, foundations and bed-blocks for machinery. It is however equally suitable for 
all building purposes, framing, quartering, weather-boarding, planking, floorings, ceilings, 
ballusters, railings and fencing ; it forms also durable cross-cut blocks for roadways and paths, 
easily laid and bedded in common sand. Sawn into shingles this wood makes a good, cool, light 
roof-covering, weighing about 450 lbs. per 100 square feet ; these shingles set on sawn battens 
with wire-nails stand the roughest weather without stripping. There are many roofs in the colony 
of West-Australia covered with them, and in the course of more than twenty years they have 
required little or no repair ; while white ants, so destructive to most kinds of timber, will not 
touch it, and the astringent principle in it is sufficiently strong to destroy even mice that gnaw 
it. It is one of the least inflammable of woods, a quality of great importance for wooden 
buildings in hot climes. The specific gravity of the timber averages about 1"12 ; if well dried, 
small scantlings will float in the sea, but when saturated will sink. Specimens direct from the 
mill will weigh from 71 to 76 lbs. per cubic foot." 

Mr. Thomas Laslett gives the specific gravity as TOIG ; in transverse strain he found that a 
piece 7 feet long and 2 inches square, with the weight suspended in the middle, broke under a 
load of 586f lbs., with a deflection of 4"71 inches at the crisis of breaking (average of six trials) ; 

/L X W\ 

this would give for S I ^.^^ I 1,800. In vertical or crushing strain it supported a weight of 

7,164 lbs. per square inch (average of six experiments), English Oak bearing from 4,480 lbs. to 
7,978 lbs. 

Mr. James Manning, Clerk of Works at Fremantle, found the transverse strength to be from 
S 927 (average of eight trials) to S 1,140 (average of eight more trials). — Perth Inquirer, 1854. 

My own experiments on the strength of difl'erent Eucalyptus-woods gave results varying from 
S 1,332 for E. obliqua to S 3,144 for the best B. Leucoxylon. The specific gravity of Jarrah-wood 
I found to be in average 64 lbs. per cubic foot of well-seasoned timber. Some other trials 
instituted by us here on thoroughly air-dried wood gave "970 for the hard variety and '820 for the 
soft variety of the wood of E. marginata. 

The above observations will serve to show, that Jarrah-timber is unsurpassed as regards 
durability, t hat it is- worked with greater ease than most other Eucalyptus-woods, but that it does 
not equal the timber of many congeners in strength ; our own Bed Gu m-wood (of E. rostrata), 
which is nearly or perhaps quite as lasting as Jarrah, surpasses it considerably in endurance of 
transverse strain, and the also very durable Ironbark-wood (of E. Leucoxylon) is more than twice 
as strong on an average {vide tables under E. globulus), so far as we have observed here in local 
experiments. 

In my " Report on the Forest-resources of Western Australia," furnished after a tour for 
special research, it is stated already, that *the timber of E. marginata, when judiciously selected 
from hilly localities, when cut while the circulation of the sap (during the autumn) is least active, 
and when dried with proper care, proves impervious to the borings of the marine crustaceous 



EUCALYPTUS MARGINATA. 

Chelura and Limnoria, also the Teredo sea-mollusk and likewise the Termites, having in this 
respect perhaps no other Australian competitor than E. rostrata, so that Jarrah-wood is in 
extensive demand for jetties, piles, railway-crossties, fence-posts, telegraph-poles, all kinds of 
underground structures, the planking of ships beneath the line of floatation and also for flooring. 
It was further noticed that the timber from hills is darker, tougher and heavier than that from 
plains. The more deeply saturated color of the wood depends on the greater quantity of a phloba- 
phenic substance, chemically distinguished as Kino-red, which pervades the cavities of the 
vascular and cellular tissue of the wood ; it is readily revealed by the microscope. Attention was 
drawn to this preservative substance, which remains unchanged by water and dissolves only in 
alkaline fluids, already in the Jurors' Report for the Victorian Exhibition of 1862, more 
particularly through Dr. J. Coates. To this antiseptic principle Jarrah-wood owes seemingly 
its extraordinary durability, it being developed (so far as our observations went) to the extent of 
16 to 17 per cent, (in air-dried wood), the percentage being as much as that in E. rostrata and 
from twice to five times as much as in the other West-Australian timbers hitherto examined. It 
is also a significant fact, that the Kino-red is most richly stored in the harder and darker sorts of 
Jarrah-timber, which^s known to be the most perfect in its resistance to decay. In my work on 
"Select Plants for Industrial Culture and Naturalisation" (see Indian edition, p. 114) it is also 
already mentioned, that Jarrah-wood furnishes one of the best materials for charcoal. 

In correct appreciation of E. marginata for forest-culture it should however be mentioned, 
that this species, which I first of all brought under culture here and caused to be reared also to 
some extent in many places abroad, has not shown at Melbourne that celerity of growth, which 
many other Eucalypts exhibit ; still its development may be more rapid in wooded mountainous 
tracts of cbunF^ 

The vastness of its treasure in this timber for Western Australia may be estimated when we 
reflect that E. marginata stretches uninterruptedly through a length of 350 miles parallel to the 
coast, and that a multitude of sEppiiig*^aces at no^greairdlstance from the forests give ready 
access to the traffic in this most valuable timber. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, an imexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back -view of an anther with portion of its 
filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudinal section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile 
seeds ; 11, embryo in situ ; 12, embryo uncoiled ; 13, portion of a leaf ; all the figures magnified, but to various 
extent. 




odliilCTroeael&CLith. 



F.vMdireiat- 



S>eaiRlfdio GovPimdug Office Well) 



Swgnlf'ip^ili ®lb(g(|)2^liL\iii» Turczdnmow 



EUCALYPTUS OBCOEDATA. 

Turczaninow, in Bulletin de I'Acad^mie de St. Petersbourg, 1852, p. 416 ; E. platypus, Hooker, icones plantarum 
849 (1852) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 234; E. nutans, F. v. M., frag^nenta phytographisB Australise iii. 
152. 

Shrubby or arborescent ; branchlets robust, not angular ; leaves scattered, short, ohcordate- or 
oval-roundish or broad-ova l, of very thick consistence, equally green and shining on both sides, 
often somewhat wavy and slightly crenulated at the margin, their lateral veins only moderately 
spreading, neither prominent nor crowded, the circumferential vein at some distance from the edge 
of the leaves ; oil-dots copious and rather transparent ; umbel-stalks hng, axillary, solitary, broadly 
flattened, mostly much recurved, bearing generally from 5 to 7 or sometimes less and occasionally 
only 2 flowers ; stalklets none or very short ; tube of the calyx prominently angular, considerably 
broader than the conic-cylindrical lid and about as long or very considerably shorter ; stamens all 
fertile, filaments dark-red or pale, straight while in bud, anthers oblong, opening by parallel slits 
longitudinally ; style about as long as the stamens ; stigma somewhat dilated ; fruits rather large, 
almost semiovate or truncate-ovate, attenuated at the base, lined with usually four sometimes keel- 
like angles, 4- to 5- rarely 6-celled, rim narrowly prominent ; valves slightly sunk, deltoid and 
short-acuminate ; seeds all without any appendage, the fertile seeds blunt-angled, dotted-streaked, 
the sterile seeds mostly shorter and always narrower. 

From the northern extremity of Stirling's Eange extending to Phillips's Range and to near 
Bremer's Inlet, forming in many places almost impenetrable thickets ; Maxwell. 

A tall shrub or small tree, rising finally to 30 feet or perhaps even higher. Bark smooth, 
greyish. Leaves c onspicuously stalked, leathery-thick, 1 to 2^ inches long, verging occasionally 
into a rhomboidal form, s omewhat oblique especially at the generally blunt and sometimes 
truncated or even retracted summit, often considerably broader than shown in the drawing, thus 
even of greater width than length. Flowerstalks from 1 to nearly 2 inches long, from a third to 
fully half an inch broad, flatly compressed, but slightly concave above and convex beneath, more 
or less deflexed and thus often quite arched, in an early stage provided with two opposite bracts 
of navicular-oblong form and of about ^ inch length. Flower-stalklets, when present, sharply 
angular. Lid suddenly expanded at the base, nowhere angular ; two of the angles of the calyx 
frequently more strongly prominent. Filament s either of a saturated but rather dull-red or 
y ellowish-whi te. Anthers centrally fixed, pale-yellowish. Style slender. Ripe fruits J to | inch 
long, only slightly contracted at the orifice ; their rim narrowly protruding beyond the summit- 
line of the calyx-tube. Apex of the valves passing into the base of the style and thus the terminal 
portion short-exserted. FertUe seeds not fully a line long ; some of the sterile seeds considerably 
longer than the rest. 

This is the " Maalok" of the Aborigines, who must have bestowed that particular designation 
on this Bucalypt for some obvious reason, be it for its odd appearance or the obstruction offered 
by its thickets or the utility of its wood ; I am not acquainted with the meaning or derivation of 
this aboriginal word. The foliage of this species, which is sure to yield oil copiously, reminds of 
that of E. alpina, a species in other respects very different. The specific designations given 
respectively by Sir William Hooker and by Turczaninow arose simultaneously, specimens having 
become accessible to both from Drummond's fifth collection, to which this plant was supplied by 
the late Mr. G-eorge Maxwell, whose worldly career came lately at a very venerable age suddenly 
to its close, while he moved about to the last with an ardent and unchanged interest among the 



EUCALYPTUS OBCOEBATA. 

rich vegetation around him. I have preferred Turczaninow's appellation, as Hooker's clashed to 
some extent with that of E. platypodos of Cavanilles and is applicable to many species, although 
the specific name adapted by the Moscow phytographer does not apply to all the forms of this 
rather variable plant, but it is very expressive of the unusual shape of the leaves. Hooke r 
described the filaments as sulphur-yellow, and this discrepancy from the plant, defined by me in 
1863 aslETnutans^togetherwiSb some other slight differences) led me to regard E. nutans then 
as a distinct species. 

In the small section of Orthostemonese, to which E. obcordata belongs, it is readily enough 
distinguished by the form of its leaves, although we may not be fully aware of the variability 
displayed by them. From E. cornuta it differs chiefly besides in foliage also in lesser height, in 
the broader and longer flowerstalks, generally shorter lids, color of filaments, very angular fruits 
and short valves ; but a variety is depictured on the plate of E. obcordata, which approaches in 
the form of the calyces rather closely E. cornuta. The differences, by which this species is 
separated from E. occidentalis, consists again in the broadness of the leaves and very angular 
fruit-calyces, further in the absence of well-developed stalklets of the flowers, larger and particu- 
larly wider fruits on stiU longer and broader stalks. 

Thg red -flowered va riety of E. obcordata has some claims for admission into ornamental 
shrubberies on account of the coloration of its filament s. It would form also excellent shelter- 
copses and could be grown on poor soil and in an arid clime. Bentham records having seen in 
E. Brown's collection an Eucalyptus in very young bud and fruit from Goose-Island-Bay, seem- 
ingly referable to E. obcordata, though the leaves were ovate-lanceolar. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, unexpanded flower, the lid lifted j 2, longitudinal section of an 
nnexpanded flower ; 3 and 4, front- and back-riew of an anther, with portion of its filament ; 5, style and stigma ; 
6, longitudinal section of a fruit ; 7, transverse section of two fruits ; 8 and 9, fertile and sterile seeds ; 10, portion 
of a leaf; all magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS OLDFIELDII. 

F. V. M., fragmenta phytographise Australiae ii. 37 (1860) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 237. 

Shrubby ; leaves scattered, on rather long stalks, ovate- or narrow-lanceolar, hardly or 
slightly curved, of thick consistence and of equal color on both sides ; their veins very subtle, 
rather close, moderately spreading, the circumferential vein slightly removed from the edge of the 
leaf ; oil-dots concealed or obliterated ; flowers 3 or sometimes 2 together on axillary solitary 
mostly short stalks and provided with only exceedingly short or no stalklets ; lid hemispherical, 
shortly protracted at the summit, of thick consistence, hardly longer than the semiglobular 
not angular tube of the calyx ; outer stamens not injlexed before expansion, inner stamens 
only slightly bent inward while in bud, all fertile ; anthers globular-cordate, opening by wide 
longitudinal slits ; stigma not expanded ; lower half of the ripe fruit depressed-hemispherical, 
upper half consisting of the very broad convex rim and the three to four deltoid-pointed perfectly 
exserted valves; the fertile seeds imperfectly and quite narrowly membraneous at the margin, 
larger than the partly narrow sterile seeds. 

From Champion-Bay (Walcott) to the Murchison-Eiver (Oldfield). 

A shrub, attaining (so far as we know) about 10 feet in height. Young branchlets angular. 
Leaves from 2^ to 6 inches long, about the middle J to 1^ inches broad, smooth and somewhat 
shining, pale-green. Flowerstalks |- to 5 inch long, not flattened. Stalklets ^ inch or less long 
or quite obliterated. Lid somewhat woody, very thick for its size. Filaments, as far as seen, only 
about 1^ to 3 lines long, seemingly of a yellowish or reddish color. Anther-cells separated by the 
narrow but distinct connective. Young fruit rather sharply edged, the discal rim of it then 
somewhat concave and rising into a ring around the pyramidally connivent valves ; ripe fruit from 
scarcely \ inch to over f of an inch in diameter, smooth below, the rim next to the valves narrowly 
depressed ; valves pointed or simply acute. Eipe fertile seeds black, scarcely above 1 line long ; 
sterile seeds unequal in size. 

The form of the fruit already characterises well this Bucalypt. The leaves and anthers bring 
it into the vicinity of B. oleosa and E. pachyphylla, while the stamens as regards their early 
position indicate an affinity to E. gomphocephala and also E. pachyloma. Bentham placed it 
next the last-mentioned species, from which it is decisively distinguished by longer leafstalks, by 
broader leaves with more divergent veins, shorter stamens, anthers of different structure, somewhat 
larger more depressed fruits with prominent margin, longer valves protruding pyramidally from 
a central groove of the vertex and also narrower sterile seeds, the anthers and fruits (with their 
seeds) of E. pachyloma resembling much more those of E. macrorrhyncha and E. capitellata. 
For although Bentham puts his E. pachyloma in the series of Normales (Parallelantherse), 
it belongs in reality to the Eenantheras, notwithstanding the lesser divergence of the anther-cells, 
because the anthers are heartshaped, not at all ovate, their slits are convergent and fully joined 
at the summit, the connective is obliterated in front, so as to render the anther-cells there 
completely contiguous, and the seeds are nearly uniform in size, which all is quite characteristic 
of Eenantherse. Lideed E. pachyloma seems reducible to the true shrubby B. santalifolia, 
having precisely the same anthers also, and it would therefore be one of those species of the desert 
(E. incrassata, E. oleosa, E. uncinata, E. gracilis), which verge from the depressed arid inland- 
regions of South-Bastern Australia quite to the south-western coast. In the shape of its anthers 
E. Oldfieldii agrees almost with that variety of E. incrassata, in which they are shortened to a 



EUCALYPTUS OLDFIELDII. 

nearly roundish form ; bnt still both these species are very different from the Kenantherge, although 
they offer an approach to the Micrantherae. 

The close affinity of E. Oldfieldii to E. Drummondi remains "to be noted. So far as I can 
judge from Drummond's specimen No. 86, no other discrepancies of the latter exist than the 
smaller size of the leaves, flowers and young fruits, and the comparatively greater length of the 
flowerstalks and stalklets ; but such differences are not in every other case of specific value, and 
as the bud and ripe fruit remained hitherto unknown, the final settling of this question is not yet 
possible. If E. Drummondi should prove a mere variety, as seems likely, then the geographic 
range of E. Oldfieldii will have to be recorded as much further southward, than we hitherto were 
aware. 

This Eucalypt was named in honor of Mr. Augustus Oldfield, who as an emissary of the 
Melbourne botanic department obtained this with numerous other then undescribed plants in 
West-Australia, and who had previously distinguished himself by several collecting journeys in 
Tasmania also, where he was the first discoverer of some of the rarest alpine plants. 

ExpiiANATioN OP AiTALTTio DETAILS. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unezpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther, with portion of its filament; 
6, style and stigma ; 7, longitudinal section of a fruit ; 8, transverse section of two fruits ; 9 and 10, fertile and 
Btenle seeds ; 11, portion of a leaf ; all magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS OLEOSA. 

F. v. M., in Nederlandisk Kruidkundig Arehief iv. 127 (1859) ; fragmenta phytographise Australise ii. 56 (1860) ; 
Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 248 ; P. v. M., Report on the Forest-resources of Western Australia 11, pi. 12 ; 
E. socialis, F. v. M., in Nederlandisk Kruidkundig Arehief ir. 132; B. turbinata, Behr, in Nederlandisk 
Kruidkundig Arehief iv. 137. 

Shrubby or somewhat arborescent ; leaves scattered, narrow- or oblong-lanceolar, pointed, 
slightly curved, of equal color on both sides and often pale- or grey-green ; lateral veins much 
spreading, very subtle and rather close, the circumferential vein at some distance from the edge ; 
oil-dots innumerable, often concealed ; umbels solitary axillary and lateral, on slightly compressed 
and not very elongated or on even short stalks, bearing from 4 to 11 flowers ; stalklets usually 
much shorter than the calyx ; lid hemispherical in its lower pari, thence contracted into a broad- or 
narron-conical summit ; tube of the calyx semi-ovate, hardly as long as the lid and generally not 
angular ; stamens all fertile, before expansion flexuous and inflexed ; anthers roundish-ovate or 
almost globular, opening by broad slits in their whole length ; style slender ; fruit small, truncate- 
ovate or almost truncate-globular, oftener three- than four-celled ; valves at the base broad, thence 
awlshaped, exserted ; rim flat, but narrow ; seeds without any appendage, the fertile broader than 
the sterile seeds. 

In the desert-country from near the Murray -River and its lower tributaries (F. v. M.) 
extending to Central-Australia (at least to the Finke-River, Revd. H. Kempe) and to the coast of 
South- and West-Australia. 

It is this species, which forms a large ingredient of the " Mallee-scrub," constituting tall 
bushes branched from the root and covering (more or less intermixed with E. uncinata, E. gracilis 
and E. incrassata) wide particularly sandy tracts of arid inland-depressions of extratropic 
Australia. In the ordinary bushy state E. oleosa exceeds seldom 15 feet in height. The bark of 
aged plants gets corky, but comes off in patches (Tepper), while in younger plants the bark is 
smooth and pale. The leaves are sometimes very shining, sometimes almost opaque ; their very 
thin veins become often quite concealed by the cuticle ; the oil-glands are dark, very minute and 
only in young foliage pellucid through the leaf. The leafstalks are of moderate length or in a 
narrow-leaved variety (resembling E. angustissima) very short. The calyces are frequently pale- 
colored, but sometimes brownish, particularly the tube ; the lid is never angular. The anthers 
occur sometimes cordate or even broader than long, still never reniform, nor are their slits confluent 
at the summit. The stigma is usually not dilated. The valves of the fruits are fragUe, some- 
what variable in length, but always narrow-pointed and for a long while or even permanently 
coherent at the summit. 

In its ordinary state E. oleosa is easUy enough distinguished from allied species, but some 
aberrant forms occur, of some of which it is as yet difficult to say, whether they are entitled to 
specific rank. This accounts for the synonymy of this Eucalypt. It includes also E. cneorifolia 
of De CandoUe's prodromus iii. 220 and likewise of Bentham's flora Australiensis, so far as the 
plant from the arid scrubby ridges of Kangaroo-Island (lie Decrfes) is concerned, but not the . 
plant with rough calyx and kidneyshaped anthers from the mountains of New South "Wales, united 
with it by De CandoUe, and of which he gave a figure in his M^moire sur la famiUe des Myrtac6es, 
pi. 9, which species is identical with B. stricta, as mentioned already under E. stellulata. 
E. uncinata in comparison can at once be distinguished by the filaments sharply infracted before 
expansion and not flexuous, by the anthers opening by almost terminal pores and by the shorter 



EUCALYPTUS OLEOSA. 

fruit-valves ; specimens out of flower are however not easily referred to either species, although 
the leaves of B. uncinata are usually narrower and the lids shorter. E. gracilis is in a similar 
manner separable from E. oleosa hy its anthers, which open by lateral pores ; besides its outer 
stamens are sterile, the tube of the calyx is generally angular, the lid is much shorter and the 
fruit-valves are quite enclosed. 

E. incrassata in its large form cannot be mistaken for E. oleosa, but its smaller variety, 
formerly separated as E. dumosa, is not so readily distinguished ; still its flowerstalts are 
generally much dilated, the calyces including the lid are streaked, the anthers are mostly longer 
in proportion to their width, and the fruit-valves are terminated only in short points. 

In Western Australia occur several kinds of trees, the precise relation of which to E. oleosa 
is not yet clearly understood ; they are the Morrell : E. longicornis, — the Salmon-barked Eucalypt : 
E. salmonophloia, — the Gimlet-wood or Fluted Eucalypt : E. salubris, besides E. leptopoda and 
E. decipiens ; — of all of these except E. leptopoda I have given plates in the Eeport on the Forest- 
resources of Western Australia, pi. 10, 12, 13 and 14. All attain a height of about 100 feet, and 
E. longicornis may only be the favorably developed arboreous state of E. oleosa ; its bark is 
totally persistent, the foliage is like that of E. salmonophloia, the lids are horn-like elongated, 
which characteristic suggested the name, and the outer stamens are straight in bud. E. salmon- 
ophloia has the bark smooth and of an oily and somewhat purplish lustre (hence the name), the 
leaves dark-green, very shining, and the outer stamens not bent inward before expansion, though 
the lid is not elongated. E. salubris is also smooth-barked, has the leaves dark-green, very 
shining and dotted with a multitude of pellucid oil-glands, the umbel-stalks compressed, the lid 
hemiellipsoid and therefore blunt, the anthers oval-oblong, and basifixed with broad connective 
and very short fruit-valves. E. leptopoda is best discerned by the many-flowered umbels on 
slender stalks and with exceedingly thin stalklets, nearly hemispheric fruits with broadish rim 
and deltoid exserted but not long-pointed valves. 

Technologically E. oleosa is of some importance on account of the oil obtainable from its 
foliage. In kind response to a request of mine the oH of E. oleosa as well as that of E. gracilis, 
E. uncinata, E. incrassata and E. odorata was distilled by Mr. W. Nitschke (for the International 
Exhibition in Melbourne) from fresh twigs procured by Mr. 0. Tepper ; the following are the 
results (leaves constituting about half the weight of the material, the branchlets another half) : 
1,000 lbs. of foliage of E. oleosa yield 62^ oz. of oil (of -911 spec. grav. at 70° F., boiling at 
341° F., of rather pleasant odor and yellowish color) ; 1,000 lbs. of foliage of E. gracilis = 54^ oz. ; 
of E. uncinata = 69 oz. ; of E. incrassata = 140 oz. ; of E. odorata = 112^ oz. To many of the 
nomadic tribes, which inhabit the desert-regions, this Eucalypt is of incalculable value, as 
affording from the porous horizontal roots, when broken into pieces, a supply of almost pure water, 
by which means the natives can pass on their hunting excursions widely into the waterless tracts 
of the MaUee-scrub. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, xmexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
nnexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther, with a portion of its 
filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile 
seeds ; 11, portion of a leaf ; all magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS EOBUSTA. , 

Smith, specimen of the Botany of New Holland 40, 1. 13 (1793) ; transactions of the Linnean Society iii. 283 (1796) ; 
De Candolle, prodromua systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis iii. 216 ; F. v. M., fragmenta phytographiie 
Australise ii. 43 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 228 ; E, rostrata, Cavanilles, icones et descriptiones plantarum 
iv. 23, t. 342 (1797). 

Fmallytall ; branchlets stout, angular ; leaves large, scattered, oval-lanceolar, pointed, of 
thick consistence, shining, joa^er heneath, hardly or slightly inequilateral; veins copious, prominent, 
very spreading, the circumferential vein rather close to the slightly recurved margin of the leaf ; 
oil-dots much concealed or obliterated ; umbels solitary, axillary, soon lateral or a few singly 
terminal, with 4 to 12 or exceptionally 3 or 2 flowers ; their stalk broad, strongly compressed ; 
calyces rather large, pale, their lid hemispherical or semiovate below, cylindric- conical-pointed 
towards the summit, somewhat broader than the obconical-bellshaped tube of the calyx and nearly 
as long or slightly longer ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers oblong-oval, 
opening by longitudinal slits ; stigma not broader than the style ; fruits truncated-ovate, not or 
but little angular, oftener 3- than 4-celled ; their rim narrow ; valves enclosed, permanently or long 
coherent, rather narrow ; seeds small, all without appendage, the fertile much broader than most 
of the sterile seeds. 

From the vicinity of Twofold-Bay (near Merimbula) to the Richmond-River, occupying w et 
localities, reaching possibly the most eastern regions of Gippsland. 

A very large tree, passing as the principal " Swamp-JiMiogany " with the colonial settlers 
(E. botryoides sharing in some places the same appellation), a name very inappropriate, even if 
the wording of "Mahagoni" was not preferable, as the classic term of the West-Indian tree 
(Swietenia Mahagoni, L., allied to our " Red Cedar "), which yields the unique furniture-wood of 
that name. E. robusta attains a height of fully 100 feet, with a stem of sometimes 50 feet length 
and a girth of 12 feet (W. Kirton). Limbs "massive and spreading." Bark persistent, "brittle, 
shelly," outside greyish, wrinkled and somewhat furrowed, " turning sometimes to a rusty color " 
(Fawcett). Foliage "nobly grand" (Kirton). Leaves scattered, attaining sometimes a length 
of 7 inches and a width of 2\ inches, some occasionally of narrow-lanceolar form. Umbel-stalks 
I to 1^ inches long. Stalklets stout, merging gradually into the calyx, seldom more than half as 
long as the fruit, usually much shorter. Flowers rather variable in dimensions, but never very 
small. Style elongated. Fruit occasionally almost urnshaped, always longer than broad and often 
considerably so, in rare instances almost sessile on the stalk ; summit of the fruit forming a very 
narrow ring above the calyx-tube. Valves frequently reaching to near the summit or sometimes 
slightly beyond it. Ripe seeds brown, hardly one line or even less long. 

Dr. Leichhardt in 1843 recorded the native name as "Dadangba." In the Richmond-River 
district it is called " Gunnung" according to Mr. Fawcett. 

B. robusta resembles in some respects E. resinifera, but the leaves are generally broader, of a 
lighter color above and more shining beneath, their veins are more prominent, not almost hori- 
zontally spreading, nor is the intra-marginal vein nearly contiguous with the edge ; theflowers 
are larger, the tube of the flowering calyx is longer and more bellshaped, the lid more turgid 
beneath, "the fruit considerably longer, the valves are enclosed, convergent and remaining often 
connected at their summit, while the fruit-rim is thinner and surrounded by a narrower ring. 
However the variety pellita o f E. resinifera has the large flowers and broad leaves of E. robusta, 
but the proportionately short fruit with exserted and mostly free, erect and acute valves of the 



EtrCALTPTUS EOBUSTA. 

former. From E. saligna, which comes in most of its characteristics nearer to E. botryoides and 
E. resinifera, we can distinguish E. robusta already by the persistency of the bark of the latter. 

As a tree for the production of fuel and of such timber, as needs not great strength, E. robusta 
is evidently more important than hitherto supposed, especially when we consider its adaptabilit y 
to stagnant swamp y or marshy localities — such as are fit only for a very limited kind of woody 
vegetation ; but the tree seems to require for its best development access to the sea^air. Mr. 
Kirton writes from Bulli : " In low, sour, swampy ground near the sea-coast, where other Eucalypts 
look sickly, E. robusta is the picture of perfect health." The wood is reddish, difficult to split, 
rather brittle, but according to WooUs and Fawcett enduring well in damp places ; used much 
for round and square posts, joists and sleepers, remarkable for its freedom from destructive 
insects, ascribable to the presence of Kino-red. Two pieces of timber subjected by xis here to 

tests as regards transverse strain gave for S I . pj^^ I 1,664 in average ; this places the wood only 

at a par with E. amygdalina and E. obliqua in reference to strength ; the specific gravity of air- 
dried wood was found to be "930, absolutely dry -756. Another specimen, air-dried, weighed 
1"098, absolutely dry -889. The analysis gave : 19 per cent, water, 4| per cent, tannic acid, 19 
per cent. Kino-red and 67^ per cent, woody substance. This is the largest percentage of Kino-red 
hitherto observed in any wood, E. rostrata and E. marginata ranking next with from 16 to 17 
per cent. How far the presence of a greater or lesser quantity of this substance in Eucalyptus- 
timber affects its durability will have to be yet further proved ; certainly its predominance in our 
most lasting woods appears to point it out as the main-factor in this respect. Far more favorable 
accounts as regards the toughness and bearing power of the wood are extant, but whether they 
refer to any habitually similar species (perhaps E. resinifera) or whether the timber varies much 
in tenacity according to its growth in low and wet or more elevated and dry ground, requires yet 
to be locally further investigated. The odor of the foliage is somewhat peculiar and more pleasant 
than that of many other Eucalypts. The tree flowers, so far as noticed, from June till December. 
Young seedlings, sent by the Eev. Dr. Woolls, have the stem slender and angular with leaves 
oblong- or narrow-lanceolar and soon scattered. 

A quick-growing tree, rare in the Illawarra district, which at Lucknow attained a height of 
45 feet in 10 years, and which as a species or variety I distinguished as E. Kirtoniana, is in flowers 
and fruit nearer to E. resinifera than to E. robusta, but has the leaves of almost equal color on 
both sides, thus far and also in shape more resembling those of B. tereticornis, while the bark, 
unlike that of E. saligna, is persistent. The stomates of E. Kirtoniana vary on the upper side of 
the leaf between 33,000 and 43,000 and on the lower page from 95,000 to 166,000 on a square 
inch, this great fluctuation being attributable probably to the age of the tree. It is particularly 
noticeable on account of its adaptability to a warm wet clime, and grew under Dr. Bonavia's care 
better than any other species in Oude ; the technic value of its timber remained unascertained. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of the 
same ; 3 and 4, front- and back-view of an anther with portion of its filament ; 5, style and stigma ; 6 and 7, longi- 
tudinal and transyerse section of fruit ; 8 and 9, sterile and fertile seeds ; 10, portion of a leaf; all magnified, but 
to rarious extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS WATSONIANA. 

F. V. M., fragmenta phytographise Australise x. 98 (1877). 

Tall ; leaves scattered, from ovate- to narrow-lanceolar, slightly or hardly curved, of equal 
color on both sides, not shining ; their lateral veins very spreading, fine and copious, the circum- 
ferential vein close to the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots concealed or obliterated ; umbels 2- to 
4-flowered, in terminal panicles, not numerous ; flowers large ; lid depressed-hemispherical, very 
thick, short-pointed, polished-smooth, broader than the bellshaped- or topshaped-semiovate tube of the 
calyx, the latter slightly longer than its angular stalklet ; stamens all fertile, inflexed in bud ; 
filaments yellowish ; anthers narrow-oblong, opening by longitudinal slits ; stigma not broader 
than the style ; fruit large, bellshaped- or urnshaped-semiovate, not angular, rim very broad, 
descending, separated by a conspicuous furrow from the edge of the calyx-tube ; valves 3-4, 
quite enclosed, deltoid ; fertile seeds large, sterile seeds much smaller, all without any appendage. 

Near Wigton on a tributary of the Boyne-River in the Burnett-District ; Thomas Wentworth 
Watson. 

A tree rising to a final height of 60 feet, so far as hitherto known. Bark persistent, wrinkled 
and somewhat scaly, outside brownish. Leaves scattered, of firm consistence, on rather long 
stalks, when well developed 4 to 5 inches long and 1 to 1| inches broad . Umbel-stalks about one 
inch long. Tube of the calyx slightly warty ; lid always but sometimes very much depressed, the 
central apex never long. Stamens exceeding the style in length. Fruit about an inch long or 
slightly longer, the deflexed disc around the orifice protruding very evidently beyond the calyx- 
tube ; summit of the capsular portion of the fruit before the expansion of the valves flat. Seeds 
brown, shining ; the fertile seeds considerably compressed, 2 to 3 lines long, sharply angular. 

This seems a very rare species, as it is only as yet on record from the one locality, where the 
late Mr. Watson discovered it, who at once very kindly sent dried sprigs and also notes on this 
tree, as well as a colored sketch of a branchlet to the writer of this work. The finder saw the tree 
accompanied by B. maculata and E. melanophloia, according to his notes. Locally it passes as a 
" Bloodwood-tree " ; hence it is unquestionably a rich yielder of Kino, and thus its bark may come 
into tanners' use. It may incidentally here be noted, that not only the bark but also the leaves of 
Eucalyptus-trees contain a peculiar variety of tannin, difi'erent in its action on the salts of iron 
and antimony, when compared to the tannic acid of our Wattle-Acacias and many other sorts of 
tannin, but valuable still at least as an adjunct to other tanning-materials. Comte Maillard de 
Marafy pointed out already several years ago, that the leaves of E. globulus could be utilized as a 
substitute for Sumach, although we here find them of far less tan-strength, while the leaves of 
E. Leucoxylon have yielded us here from dry material 9^ per cent, of Eucalypto-tannin, whereas 
the dry foliage of Acacia pycnantha furnished as much as 15-16 per cent, of Mimosa-tannic acid, 
and therefore still more approaches in its richdom of tan-principle to the genuine Sumach-leaves 
of Rhus coriaria. Our experiments here showed, that about four weeks were required to effect 
the tanning of cow-hides (which were used on this occasion) by simple immersion in the tan-liquor 
as obtained by decoction without any additions of other substances, whether leaves or bark were 
employed, except in the case of E. Gunnii, the tanning process with that species bemg completed 
in two weeks and with E. goniocalyx in three weeks. The leather obtained from leaves of 
E. Leucoxylon was grey-brown, hard and tough ; that from the bark of E. Gunnii light-brown 
and rather flexible ; that from bark of E. viminalis, E. goniocalyx, and E. ahaygdalina reddish- 



EUCALYPTUS WATSONIANA. 

brown and tough ; that from the bark of E. macrorrhyncha and E. melliodora darker still than 
that of the preceding three ; that from the bark of E. obliqna red-brown in color. 

Quality of timber as yet unascertained. 

The relationship of t his tree is with E. maculata (which species has latterly been traced to the 
neighborhood of the Genoa-Eiver by Mr. Eeader), but the bark is totally persistent, the leaves are 
frequently a great deal broader, while their veins are finer and not quite so close, the flowers are 
often fewer and always conspicuously larger, the lid is ampler than the summit of the calyx-tube 
and seems to be simple from the commencement, although it exhibits considerable thickness ; the 
fiTiits are of much larger size, rather expanded than contracted at the summit, with a flatter not 
suddenly quite descending rim, which latter is separated by a conspicuous circular channel from 
the tube of the fruit^calyx, while the seeds are larger and the fertile of these more angular. 

Nearer stiU is the affinity to E. eximia, which has Ukewise persistent and structurally similar 
bark, also a subtle venation of the leaves and comparatively large fruits ; but the leaves show the 
narrowness of those of E. maculata ; so also the calyces have much the structure of the latter 
species, although they are deprived of staEdets, whereas the fruit bears close resemblance to that 
of E. corymbosa, a species otherwise very different, belonging to the series with hypogenous 
stomata and haviog smaller flowers with neither dilated nor polished lid. E. Abergiana might in 
these comparisons be left out of consideration, as it has stomata only on the lower page of the 
leaves, no flower-stalklets and the lid separating from the tube of the calyx by irregular rupture, 
a narrower fruit-rim and appendiculated seeds. 

ExpiANATiON OF ANALYTIC DETAILS. — 1, an tmexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther with portion of its 
filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transTerse section of fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile 
seeds ; 11, embryo in situ; 12, transverse section of the same ; 13, embryo unfolded, to show the cotyledons and 
radicle ; 14, portion of a leaf; aU magnified, but to various extent. 



EUCALYPTOGRAPHIA. 



A DESCEIPTIVE ATLAS 



EIJCALTPTS OP AUSTEALIA 



ADJOINING ISLANDS; 



BAEON FEED. YOI lUELLEE, KC.I.(}., M. & PH.D., E.E.S., 

GOVEENMENT BOTANIST FOE THE COLONY OP VICTOEIA. 



"NON BnCOTDES ARBOBIS, NEC aKOUBIBUS DXBES VASTAKB EARtTM BEOIONEM."— £i!ier DeUterOUOmii XX. 19. 



EIGHTH r)ECi^J3E. 



MELBOURNE : 

JOHN FEEEES, GOTEENMENT PEINTEE. 
PUBLISHED AMO BY GEOEGE ROBEETSOIT, UTILE COLLINS STREET. 

LONDON : 
TEUBNEE AND CO., 67 AND 69 LUDGATE HILL ; AND GEOEGE EOBEETSON, 17 WAEWIOK SQUAEB. 

M DCCC LXXXII. 




Zjil disl CTrcede. & C°li;?. 



F.vM direr it. 



Sleam Lill-io Got Pri!.'::!^- Offici :,;elb. 



ii(g|%]pte (g®2#ite , ZdMlldrdiere. 



EUCALYPTUS CORDATA. J^i 

Labillardiere, Novae Hollandiae plantarum specimen ii. 13, t. 152 (1806) ; Sprengel, systema vegetabilium ii. 501 ; 
De Candolle, prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis iii. 221 ; Gr. Don, general system of dichlamy- 
deons plants ii. 821 ; D. Dietrich, synopsis plantarum iii. 123 ; J. Hooker, flora Tasmanica i. 132 ; Bentham, 
flora Australiensie iii. 224. 

Arborescent ; branchlets mostly sharp-quadrangular ; leaves all sessile and opposite, orbicular- 
cordate or sometimes broad-ovate, always clasping at the base, slightly crenulated, dull-green 
on both sides ; the lateral veins very spreading, rather distant, somewhat prominent, the 
circumferential vein irregularly remote from the edge of the leaf ; oil-glands copious, unequal, 
transparent ; Jlowers axillary, seldom also terminal, three or sometimes two rarely four together ; 
calyces as well as flowerstalks and branchlets and sometimes also the leaves more or less tinged 
b y a greyish- or bluish-whit e bloom ; stalks not or somewhat angular, about as long as the 
flowers or shorter or wanting; stalklets 'none; tube of the calyx mostly semiovate, somewhat or 
, doubly longer than the depressed-hemispherical short-pointed lid, not angular ; stamens all 
fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers nearly ovate, bursting by longitudinal slits ; stigma 
not dilated ; fruits semiovate or verging into a hemispheric form, 3- or 4- or rarely 6-celled, not 
angular ; rim narrow, slightly annular ; valves deltoid, affixed not far below the orifice, but 
quite enclosed or only their apex exserted ; placental column about twice as long as broad ; 
sterile seeds much narrower than the fertile seeds, partly elongated, all without any appendage. 

In the south-eastern literal region of Tasmania, thus on D'Entrecasteaux's Channel, on the 
lower Huon-Eiver and towards the mouth of the Derwent, ascending to elevations of 1,600 feet 
above the sea level, occurring chiefly in poor s haley ground . 

The original discoverer of this species found it near Eecherche-Bay, and it was noticed 
subsequently in the same region by Dr. R. Brown, Sir Joseph Hooker, Mr. E. Gunn, Mr. T. 
Stephens and Mr. F. Abbott. To the two last-mentioned gentlemen I am indebted for material, 
enabling me to describe and illustrate this species. It may have been more frequent before 
Hobart was built, but it still occurs, though sparingly, within two miles of the city. Perhaps 
it extends to Port Davey, the interjacent coast-region being botanically almost unexplored. 

It seems often to remain of shrubby growth ; rooted specimens^re before me barely 3 feet 
high, yet bearing flowers and fruits already. In that state it is the dwarfest of all Eucalypts, 
except E. verrucosa, although the latter may constitute merely a glacial-grown pygmy-form of E. 
Gunnii. Nevertheless E. cordata rises often to 30 feet he ight, as noticed by Mr. Abbott ; — and inas- 
much as trees 50 feet high were seen by Mr. Coombs on the Sandfly-Eivulet, showing a stem- 
diameter of 18 inches, it seems quite likely, that Labillardi&re, while wandering through the 
grand and then undisturbed forests along d'Entrecasteaux-Channel, noticed still higher trees of E. 
cordata, justifying to some extent the designation " arbor procera," bestowed by him on this species. 

Branches usually not numerous. Bark of stem comparatively thin, solid, outside but very 
slightly wrinkled, dark-colored and marked with w hitish blo tches. Sap sweet (Abbott). The 
pairs of leaves stand crosswise above each other as in all other Eucalypts with opposite 
leaves ; they are seldom so pointed and perhaps never so strongly crenulated as from Eedout^'s 
delineation they would appear, an observation recorded already in 1819 by E. Brown in the 
Botanical Magazine 2087 ; and certainly the lateral veins of the leaves are too strongly marked 
in the plate of Labillardi^re's work. Greatest length of leave s 4 inches ; the summit rounded- 
blunt or sometimes terminated by a short narrow point ; crenulations sometimes obliterated ; 
pellucid glandular dots in the leaves angular; reticular veinlets very subtle. Occasionally a 



EUCALYPTUS COEDATA. 

second stalk, bearing however but one flowerj from tbe same axis. Lid nearly half as long 
as the tube of the calyx or variously shorter. Filaments pale ; anthers dorsifixed, gradually 
attenuated at the lower end, the dorsal gland under the summit conspicuous. Style not 
equalling the length of the stamens. Fruit from | to fully ^ inch in diameter, sometimes slightly 
contracted at the summit, not rarely a little constricted beneath the ring-like margin ; capsular 
vertex slightly convex. Sterile seeds partly very short, partly slender, and rather above a line 
long ; fertile seeds obtusangular, measuring ^ to nearly one line. 

The shrub or tree flowers during July and August. It seems not to descend to the coast. 

As remarked by Bentham, ^T^cordata stands in relation near to E. cosmophylla and 
particularly to E. pulverulenta, indeed the latter being illustrated as E. cordata by Loddiges. 
E. cosmophylla however has elongated stalked and scattered leaves, the rim of the fruit broad 
and the seeds more angular. E. pulverulenta has the branchlets generally more slender and not 
acute-angular, the leaves not crenulated, but dotted with roundish almost uniform oil-pores, 
the flowers generally smaller, the tube of the flowering calyx downward obconically attenuated, 
while the lid is less depressed ; the fruit is smaller, more topshaped and has a comparatively 
broader rim, the convergent free part of the valves emanates almost at a level with the calyx- 
edge and arises not distinctly beneath the rim ; the furrow between the discal lining and the 
calyx-tube is running just beneath the edge of the fruit, not forming a faint vertical channel 
around the rim. Crenulated leaves occur also in E. urnigera, and, strange as it may appear, it is 
to this species, that E. cordata bears the closest alliance ; for although the aged state of E. 
urnigera has scattered long-stalked dark-green and lanceolar-sickleshaped leaves, more slender 
elongated and downward more attenuated calyces on conspicuous stalklets with ampler lid and 
urnshaped fruits with deeply enclosed valves, yet trees are now known (through Mr. Stephens 
from " Old Man's Head," a subalpine mountain near Lake Crescent), which to all appearance form 
a complete transit from E. urnigera to E. cordata. Moreover Mr. Aug. Oldfield sent many years 
ago from the middle-regions of Mount Wellington sterile saplings as the young state of E. urnigera, 
the adventitious lower shoots of which can in no way be distinguished ia foliage from E. cordata, 
and which are also partly pruinous. On the summit of Mount Wellington I collected a state of 
E. urnigera with all leaves nearly oval and with simply truncate-ovate fruits. Hybridism does not 
seem to explain the origin of these aberrant forms in a genus, where against cross-fertilisation 
is guarded by a calycine lid ; though — as pointed out by Mr. W. Sh. McLeay — the possibility of 
such a process is thereby not absolutely excluded, as Parrots, Kakatoos and some other birds, 
while feeding on young Eucalyptus flowers, may carry the pollen of one species to the stigma of 
another. 

ExptANATioir OP Analytic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther, with part of its filament ; 
6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse sections of fruit ; 9, longitudinal section of a fruit ; 10 and 11, sterile 
and fertile seeds ; 12, portion of a leaf ; all more or less magnified. 




:i"t Je: ; Trtf^ifl JC^Lit- 






Sleam LiHio Go v Prmbng Office •■i-- 



^^nrf/ri 



I'gDjte^ilg ^igyitljvf (c))^^)yo\gi, lurczaiuiiow: 



EUCALYPTUS EEYTHEONEMA. 

Turczaninow, in Bulletin de TAoaddmie des sciences de St. Petersbourg 1852, p. 415 ; E. conoidea, Bentham, ffora 

Australiensis iii. 227. 

Branchlets almost cylindrical ; leaves comparatively small, scattered, short-stalked, generally 
narrow-lanceolar, nearly straight or somewhat curved, of equal color and rather shining on both 
sides ; lateral veins subtle, some not much spreading, none crowded, the circumferential vein 
distinctly removed from the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots very copious, transparent ; umbels recurved, 
axUlary and lateral, solitary, 3-6-flowered ; stalks cylindrical, shorter than the stalklets or hardly 
as long ; tube of the calyx almost topshaped, very gradually attenuated at the base, somewhat 
streaked, usually about half as long as the conical lid \ stamens all fertile, sharply inflexed before 
expansion ; filaments red, rather thick and angular ; anthers pale, oblong, nearly basifixed, 
opening in their whole length by almost marginal slits ; their gland not tumid ; style longer than 
the stamens, thickened at the summit ; fruit broadly topshaped, surrounded beneath the broad and 
Jlat rim by an annular impression, the tube not angular ; valves 4-5, short, deltoid, affixed to the 
summit of the orifice ; fertile seeds considerably larger than the sterile seeds, all without any 
appendage. 

Towards the remotest eastern sources of Swan-Eiver and also near Mount Lindsay ; Th. Muir. 

Height of this Eucalypt unrecorded, not likely considerable. Most leaves between 1^ and 
24 inches long, and between \ and f inch broad, some occasionally oblong. Umbels sometimes 
crowded on the branchlets. Umbel-stalks usually from ^ to f inch long, downward or spreadingly 
bent, a characteristic not expressed in Mr. Todt's drawing, in which also the flowerstalklets of 
two of the umbels became too much abbreviated. Stalklets not angular. Tube of the flowering 
calyx hardly \ inch long, but soon enlarging, and then not rarely the edge turning outward \ lid 
when well developed about \ an inch long, and its summit conspicuously attenuated, but excep- 
tionally much shortened and assuming a hemiellipsoid form. Stigma depressed-hemispheroid, 
not dilated beyond the style-summit. Eipe fruit attaining a length of \ an inch, shining, not 
angular, the annular farrow at first vertical and then the disk convex, the latter occupying rather 
an ample space between the valves and the edge of the fruit ; valves convergent and thus 
scarcely emereed, though terminal. 

This species of Eucalyptus was first described from the collections of Mr. James Drummond, 
who however attached to none of the very numerous specimens of West-Australian plants, 
gathered by hifn through 40 years, any notes on localities and habit. The leaves remind of those 
of E. amygdalina, though they are smaller ; the lid is much like that of E. tereticornis ; the fruit 
is not very simlar to that of any other congener. 

As regards utility E. erythronema has evidently value for oil-distillation, while the rich color 
of its filaments, from which the specific name was derived, give it some claim for a place in 
ornamental shrubberies. 

This is one of the enormous numbers of endemic plants, for which the vegetation of extra- 
tropical Western Australia is so remarkable, the genus Eucalyptus forming there no exception to 
that rule, inasmuch as out of 36 well-marked extratropical species, known from there, 29 are not 
occurring in any other portion of Australia ! The list of these peculiar western Eucalypts is here 
adduced : — 

E. marginata, E. buprestium, E. sepulcralis, E. decipiens, E. macrocarpa, E. Preissiana, 
E. megacarpa, E. erythronema, E. cresia, E. tetraptera, E. salmonophloia, E. leptopoda, E. salu- 



ETJCAITPTUS EETTHRONEMA. 

bris, E. doratoxyla, E. gomphocephala, E. Oldfieldii, E. diversicolor, E. patens, E. rudis, E. 
foecnnda, E. redunca, E. pachypoda, E. cornuta, E. otcordata, E. occidentalis, E. calophylla- 
B. ficifolia, B. erythrocorys, E. tetragona. The following are the seven Western species, which 
extend to the eastern portions of Australia : E. santalifolia, E. gracilis, E. uncinata, E. pyiiformis, 
E. incrassata, E. oleosa, E. rostrata, the last mentioned being the only one among these not strictly 
belonging to the scrub-regions of the desert-country. 

It must however be observed, that the limits of the extra- and intratropical vegetation there 
do not coincide with the line of Capricorn, as towards the coast — at all events — the last of the 
southern endemic forms of vegetation cease already in the vicinity of the Gascoyne-Kiver (in about 
25° southern latitude). Future researches may add also to the above list of Eucalypts, especially 
as a large extent of the vast Western Australian territory is explored as yet not even 
geographically. 

ExpiiANATiOH OF AsAtTTic Detaiis. — 1, an tinexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
tinexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther, with portion of the fliament ; 
6, style and stigma j 7, longitudinal section of a fruit ; 8, transverse sections of two fruits ; 9 and 10, fertile and 
sterile seeds ; 11, portion of a leaf ; all magnified, but to a varied extent. 




T.ii\ deJ C Tr;:iel &. C? Lilh 



F. vM. direxit - 



Sleam liOio Sov Pnnbng Office Melb 



lirfjjpiiig luiBjpll'lk, FfM 



EUCALYPTUS GAMOPHYLLA. 

R V. M., fragmenta pliytoKrapliise Australise xi. 40 (1878); Forrest's plants of North-Western Australia, p. 9 ; Tate, 
in the transactions of the Philosophical Society of Adelaide 1880, p. 21. 

Shrubby ; branchlets slender, not angular ; leaves all opposite and broadly connate, equi- 
lateral, from lanceolar- semielliptical to half-ovate or occa^onally almost cordate, of equal 
whitish-grey or dull greenish color on both sides ; their primary veins very spreading and as 
well as the veinlets rather prominent, the circumferential vein irregularly remote from the 
margin ; oil-dots concealed or obliterated ; flowers in short panicles axillary and terminal or in 
some of the axils only from few to two together, their stalks never much elongated, as well as the 
usually very short stalklets thin and not conspicuously angular ; tube of the calyx from bell- 
shaped- to cylindrical- semiovate, about three times as long as the depressed-hemispheric lid ; 
stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers very minute, cordate- or ovate-roundish, 
opening by longitudinal slits ; style very short ; stigma not dilated ; fruits truncate- or 
cylindrical-ovate, not angular, the thin edge around the orifice turned slightly inward ; valves 
3, less frequently 4, very short, inserted not far below the orifice, quite enclosed ; fertile seeds 
along their three sharp longitudinal angles lined with a narrow membrane, very much larger than 
the sterile seeds. 

On the Hammersley-Eange, ascending on Mount Pyrten to a height of 2,500 feet, J. Forrest ; 
in the Glen of Palms, E. GUes ; between the Alice-Spring and Lady Charlotte's Water, C. Giles ; 
on sand-hills near the Upper Finke-River and some of its tributaries, particularly Goyder's Creek, 
Rev. H. Kempe. 

This remarkable species of Eucalyptus remains always shrubby in its growth. The foliage 
and the fioral portion of the plant assume sometimes a chalky coloration, especially so the 
branchlets, flowerstalks, stalklets and calyces ; sometimes however the whitish bloom is almost 
entirely wanting, though neither leaves nor panicles become ever shining;. According to a note of 
the Rev. H. Kempe the leaves also in aged plants are always connate into pairs ; but I observe 
them in transmitted specimens occasionally severed to near their base, though on one side only. 
Occasionally leaves occur twice as large as any illustrated in our lithographic plate. Flowers and 
fruits are variable in size, but never large ; thus the calyces inclusive of their lid may be only 
\ inch long when ready to burst into bloom, whereas the fruit-calyces may become elongated to 
nearly f inch length ; their stalklets are from one to two lines long, rarely longer ; the filaments 
are comparatively short and of the usual yellowish-white color of most congeners ; the fertile seeds 
are rather dark-grey-brownish, twice or thrice as long as broad, measuring about 2 lines in 
length, and are very much less in number and very remarkably larger than the always very 
short light-brown sterile seeds. 

It is unnecessary to enter into a lengthy disposition of the differences, which mark E. 
gamophylla in comparison to other species. The concrescence of the leaves by pairs in all 
stages of growth occurs, so far as known, only in E. perfoliata, if even in that rare and little 
known congener this coalescence should prove also unexceptional ; nevertheless it must be kept 
in mind, that the Risdonian variety of E. amygdalina, and also E. uncinata or a closely allied 
species, when in their stage of opposite leaves, occur also with some of them occasionally quite 
grown together into one. Another remarkable distinctive character of E. gamophylla rests in the 
extreme difference of the fertile and sterile seeds, and this finds to some extent its repetition only 
in E. tetragona, which species shows also a form and structure of the fertile seeds similar to those 



EUCALYPTUS GAMOPHYLLA. 

of E. gamophylla. The not analogous disparity of fertile and sterile seeds of species, belonging 
to the series of Corymbosse, is not accompanied by other characteristics, to bring those Eucalypts 
near to the one here under consideration. In the systematic arrangement it might find its place 
near E. pruinosa and E. melanophloia, from both of which, irrespective of its stunted habit, it 
differs already in the above given notes of the union of the leaf-pairs and the size and shape 
of the embryonat« seeds, and besides in the longitudinal dehiscence of the anthers. The best 
position for E. gamophylla would probably be near E. tetragona, although the stamens are not 
eudesmoid. 

The missionaries in Central-Australia employ the wood of E. gamophylla for various utensils, 
it being easUy worked, though widths above 8 inches are not obtainable, only few kinds of timber 
being within their reach, and as regards Eucalypts merely E. rostrata, E. terminalis, E. t«sselaris, 
E. microtheca, E. oleosa, E. pachyphylla and E. gamophylla occurring in the vicinity of the 
Mission-Station. Flowering specimens and ripe seeds were only got from Mr. Kempe ; but there 
probability seems to be no difference between the West- and Central-Australian plants, and in all 
the same species will yet be noticed by future travellers or settlers in intermediate places. The 
resistance to extreme dry heat may render E. gamophylla of value for dispersion in other hot 
and arid regions. 

The specific name is expressive of the leaves of each pair being connate. 

Explanation op Analytic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
nnexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther, with portion of filament ; 
6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse sections of fruits ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile seeds ; 
11, embryo in situ ; 12, embryo uncoiled ; 13, transverse section of an embryo ; 14, portion of a leaf ; aU figures more 
or less magnified. 




Toatiel CTToeael&C:lfi. 



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Sleam Li'tho GoT.Pruihitg OificeMelft 



li(g|%g)te iiiii(giP(s)^aiF]p§i.»^//^^^'9^ 



EUCALYPTUS MACROCAEPA. 

Hooker, ieones plaatarum 405-407 (1842) ; Botanical Magazine t. 4333 ; Schauer, in Lehmann plantse Preissianse 
i. 132 ; Walpers, repertorium botanices sygtematicae ii. 164 ; Paxton, Magazine of Botany xv. 29, with 
illustrative figure ; F. v. M., fragmenta phytographise Australiss ii. 41 ; Bentham, flora Auetraliensis iii. 224 ; 
A. Smith, in Lindley's and Th. Moore's Treasury of Botany, with woodcut, 1866, 1873 and 1876. 

Shrubby, all over mealy with a whitish bloom; leaves all opposite, sessile, ovate- or roundish- 
heartshaped, short-pointed, clasping with bilobed base ; veins rather close, much spreading, the 
circumferential vein at some distance f romTtTie" edge of the leaf; oil-dots numerous, mostly 
concealed ; Jlo wers v ery large, nearly sessile, s olitary, axillary ; tube of the calyx depressed- 
turbinate, not quite so long as the hard pyramidal-semiglobular short-pointed lid, not con- 
spicuously angular ; stamens all fertile, the inner much inflexed before expansion, the outer only 
incurved at the apex ; filaments orange-colored or crimson, seldom pale ; anthers almost oval, 
opening with marginal slits ; stigma not broader than the summit of the style ; fruit very large, 
its calycine portion depressed turbinate, not angular, the discal portion very broad, ascending ; 
valves exserted, 4-5 or rarely 6, large, nearly deltoid ; fertile seeds much larger than the partly 
very narrow sterile seeds and edged by a broadish marginal membrane. 

From Dungin-Peak eastward through the Guangan-Desert (J. Drummond) ; in the scrub- 
country near the south-eastern sources of Swan-Eiver (Oliver Jones) ; in the arid somewhat 
elevated and undulated tracts between the Irwin- and Greenough-River as well in sandy as in 
gravelly soil (F. v. M.) ; near the north-eastern sources of the Blackwood-River (Th. Muir). 

Tall and ample as a shrub, but never, so far as known, of truly arborescent growth. 
Branchlets stout, at first angular, but generally soon cylindrical. Leaves rather crowded on the 
branchlets, of stiff consistence, occasionally as much as 5 inches long and 3J inches broad, the 
greyish or bluish-white bloom finally much evanescent ; oiHots transparent only in young leaves. 
Lid almost woody, attaining a height of nearly \\ inches, slightly streaked, sharp at the edge. 
Filaments angular, those of the outer stamens reaching a length of fully an inch. Anthers 
yellow, fixed near or above the base, sometimes verging almost into a cordate form, those of the 
outer stamens not concealed by the slight infraction of their filaments. Style rather long. 
Fruit 1^2 J inches broad, surrounded by an annular somewhat sharp margin, from which the 
broad discal portion of the vertex concavely ascends, which latter however may at advanced age 
become somewhat convex. Valves finally erect. Placental column at last semiovate-pyramidal, 
the cavity of the cells penetrating beneath the placentas. Fruitstalk sometimes \ inch long. 
Fertile seeds radiating-angular from the hilum to the membranous margin, the whole measuring 
2-3 lines ; some of the sterile seeds quite as long or even longer, but remarkably slender. 

There is only one other species of Eucalyptus, to which E. macrocarpa stands really in near 
affinity, namely, E. pyriformis ; for notwithstanding the great disresemblance arising from the 
not general glaucous hue, from the stalked as well as scattered and narrower leaves, and from 
the generally three-flowered umbels of the latter, it must be conceded that flowers and fruits are 
constructed upon the same type ; indeed in Drummond's collection occur specimens of E. 
pyriformis with opposite and already broader leaves though stalked and green ; the mealy 
w hiteness how evCT'of E. pyriformisls" conlned to the young calyces chiefly or solely, the flower- 
stalks are never wanting, the tube of the calyx is often contracted into a distinct stalklet, the 
disk of the fruit-summit is more elevated, ascends above the base of the valves and may even 
overreach them, while the calycine portion of the fruit is usually distinctly marked with radiating 
narrow ridges, a characteristic in which the lid also mostly participates. But in the variety 



EUCALYPTUS MACEOCAEPA. 

YoTingiana of E. pyriformis the staltlets are almost wanting, though fmitstalks are always 
developed. This is one of the largest-fruited of all Eucalypts, thus the specific name is well 
chosen. ' 

The first notice of this remarkable species occurs in Sir William Hooter's Journal of Botany, 
1840, p. 360, from a letter of Mr. James Drummond, who discovered the plaint in the previous 
year. It has claims for ornamental culture, especially when scenic effect is desired, as the flowers 
are so large and hands ome, while the ashy grey of the foliage contrasts remarkably with the 
ordinary green of shrubberies. As this bush is only sparsely distributed in its own region, it is 
to be feared, that in course of time, by the methodic "burning off," to which the "scrub-lands" 
are subjected by the settlers, it will pass altogether out of natural existence like so many other 
local plants of Australia, to make space for the upgrowth of pastoral vegetation. Hence the 
desirability of giving this Eucalypt a permanent footing in horticulture abroad. While travelling 
through regions of its growth, I found that this species most readily ignites. The accomplished 
Miss North prepared, during her recent stay in West-Australia, among the oil-paintings illustra- 
tive of indigenous vegetation, also a picture of this Eucalypt for the art-gallery, which she 
generously provides for the large museum of the Royal Botanic Garden of Kew, under Sir 
Joseph Hooker. 

Already in 1849, while illustrating this species. Sir Joseph Paxton observed, that this and 
other Eucalypts " may be easily propagated by cuttings of the half-ripened wood, planted in sand 
under a hand-glass." This process may readily be resorted to, when especially in conservatory- 
culture any Eucalyptus should fail to mature seeds. 

ExPLANATioif OP Analytic Details. — 1, longitudinal section of an unexpanded flower; 2 and 3, front- and 
back -view of an anther, with portion of its fflament ; 4, style and stigma ; 5. transverse section of two fruits ; 6, 
IcHtgitudinal section of a fruit ; 7 and 8, fertile and sterile seeds ; 9, portion of a leaf; 1, 5 and 6 of natural size ; 
2, 3, 4, 7, 8 and 9, magmfied. 




ro-ll. isl CT'v"Le]&G°LlU 



Sbam Lilho Ooir PrinUn^ Office Melb. 



Ii^lfiiig IPiF@aggkiii, ScMuer. 




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EUCALYPTUS PEEISSIANA. 

Schauer, in Lehmann plantse Preissian«B i. 131 (1844) ; Hooker, Botanical Magazine, t. 4266 ; F. v. M., fragmenta 
phytographige AustralisD ii. 38 ; iv. 52 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii, 232 ; E. plurilooularis, F. v. M., 
fragmenta phytographise Australire ii. 70. 

Shrubby ; branchlets stout, compressed-quadrangular ; leaves lanceolar- or oblong- or broad- 
ovate, opposite or some alternate and then generally approximated in pairs, always conspicuously 
■ stalked, o f very thick consistence, of equal coloration on both sides ; their lateral veins much 
spreading and rather rem6te,~ the "circumferentia l one distant from the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots 
■copious, much concealed ; flowers large, axillary, two or oftener three together on broad compressed 
stalks, but hardly provided with any or but short and thick stalklets ; tube of the calyx semi- 
ovate, gradually contracted at the base, not angular ; lid semiovate- or depressed-hemispherical, 
slightly shorter than the tube of the calyx or sometimes only half as long ; stamens all fertile, 
inflexed before expansion ; filaments pure-yellow ; anthers from cordate- to nearly oblong-ovate, 
short-lobed at the base, opening by longitudinal slits ; style rather long ; stigma not dilated ; 
fruits large, turbinate-semiovate, smooth ; space of the discal vertex from the edge to the valves 
nearly or fully as broad as the orifice, slightly convex or oftener descending, severed from the 
calyx-tube by a narrow furrow ; valves 5-6, rarely 4, short, deltoid, permanently connivent, not 
protruding, surrounded by as many or twice as many depressed protuberances ; most sterile seeds 
attaining nearly the size of the fertile seeds, all without any appendage. 

Eestricted to South-Western Australia, occurring in the vicinity of King George's Sound and 
at Cape Riche, thence extending at least as far as Stokes's Inlet (Maxwell) and Stirling's Eange 
(F. V. M.), occupying generally stony localities, showing a predilection for the limestone- 
formation. 

A shrub, rising to a tallness of 15 feet, but flowering already when only a few feet high. 
Branches of aged plants drooping. Leafstalks compressed, more or less twisted. Leaves 
exceptionally narrow oblong-lanceolar or even somewhat sickleshaped, oftener of a shining 
green than greyish-green ; the oil-dots of aged leaves usually quite obliterated. Flowerstalks 
sometimes very much shortened, some finally by the lapse of leaves lateral. Calyx-tube when 
young mostly obconical ; lid roundish-blunt or slightly and very seldom also sharply pointed. 
Subterminal gland of the anthers conspicuous ; slits almost joining at the summit, or — when the 
gland is less developed — quite confluent. Fruit assuming sometimes almost the shape of that of 
E. cosmophylla, being less turbinate and more turgid at the base than usual, exhibiting a semi- 
ellipsoid form, being also of smaller size, more generally 4-celled, and having the verrucular 
prominences almost undeveloped ; in rare instances the fruit becomes quite bellshaped. Fruit- 
vertex more or less descending. Wart-like elevations opposite to the dissepiments larger than 
those opposite to the seed-bearing cells. Placental column conical- or oval-cylindrical, almost 
twice as long as broad. Majority of seeds from nearly 1 to 1^ lines long, none very narrow. The 
mutual similarity or even conformity of the fertile and sterile seeds place E. Preissiana so far near 
the Renantherse, the broad sterile seeds occurring in but very few species outside of that group. 

This species remains always of bushy habit, and thus keeps manageable for glasshouse- 
culture in colder countries, t^ jyi5£®_^nd particularly the bright-yellow filaments rendering it 
well worthy of a place in ornamental collections. 

E. Preissiana is easily enough recognized among its congeners. In 1860 I alluded already 
to its position near E. megacarpa ; and in the present work I have fully pointed out the marks of 



EUCALYPTUS PREISSIANA. 

distinction in the text of that species. The next, to which E. Preissiana bears alliance, is B. 
cosmophylla, but the leaves of the latter are more scattered (though not figured so), generally 
narrower and more acute, the flowerstalks are shorter and not much dilated, the flowers not so 
large, the filaments of paler color, the fruits smaller with less descending rim and never top- 
shaped, but always devoid of any prominences encircling the valves, whUe the sterile seeds are 
much more slender. E. Oldfieldi and E. alpina are still further removed. The frequent confluence 
of the longitudinal slits of the anthers in an arched terminal curvature reminds of the dehiscence 
of the Eenantherae. 

Among other Eucalypts with opposite leaves none have leafstalks except the very dissimilar 
E. tetrodonta, E. erythrocorys, E. tetragona, E. grandifolia and E. doratoxylon (the outer 
stamens of the latter having been illustrated as anantherous erroneously). 

Bentham united with E. Preissiana also E. pachypoda, which is however identical with the 
almost simultaneously described E. grossa. 

I have in the description laid some stress on the shape of the placental column in describing 
this and several other species of Eucalyptus. An apt opportunity is afforded now, to contrast the 
main-differences, shown by that organ in a number of Eucalypts through a special illustrated 
plate, hereto appended. 

The specimens, from which this Eucalypt was first described, were got by Dr. Ludwig 
Preiss, who from 1839 to 1841 instituted extensive searches after objects of natural history in 
South-Western Australia, and then brought together also large collections of Museum-plants from 
regions then teeming with novelties ; among several new species of Eucalyptus, contained in his 
collections, the present one was chosen by Dr. J. 0. Schauer to commemorate this meritorious 
collector's name. 

Explanation op Analttic Details. — 1, an nnexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitadinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther with portion of filament ; 
6, style and stigma ; 7, a separate fruit ; 8, transverse section of two fruits ; 9, longitudinal section of a fruit ; 10 
and 11, sterile and fertile seeds ; 12, portion of leaf ; fig. 1-6 and 10-12 variously magnified, 7-9 of natural size. 

Explanation op Anatomic Plate. — ^Longitudinal sections of various Euoalyptus-fmits, natural size : 1, E. 
erythrocorys ; 2, E. calophylla, the horizontal valve, adnate to the broad dissepiment, at the back of the cavity 
removed ; 3, E. megacarpa, in some fruits the longitudinal section shows the channel more distinctly between the 
valves and the ring of the disk, the prominence of the annular protrusion being then also more conspicuous ; 4, E. 
obcordata ; 5, E. buprestium ; the sterile seeds are sometimes broader ; 6, E. setosa ; 7, E. longifolia, the placentas 
are occasionally broader ; 8, E. csesia ; 9, E. Planchoniana, the sterile seeds occur sometimes broader ; 10, E. 
miniata; 11, E. tetragona; 12, E. megacarpa, the placentas are sometimes slightly larger ; 13, E. Oldfieldi ; 14, E. 
Watsoniana ; 15, E. Abergiana ; 16, E. gomphocephala ; 17, E. Preissiana ; 18, E. pyriformis ; 19, E. ficifolia. 




Mcie:. CTioeiHWlJa: 



F.vM. direxil. 



S^eam litho Gov PnnTin^ Office Melb, 



SiKgnIlyjpte ipsnii®^, Schauer 



EUCALYPTUS PKUINOSA. 

Schauer, in Walpers repertorium botaniees systematicae ii. 926 (1843) ; F. v. M., fragmenta phytograpnise Australia 
iii. 132 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 213 (not of Turczaninow) ; E. apodophylla, P. v. M., fragmenta 
phytographiae Australise ii. 71. 

Glabrous ; leaves all opposite, sessile, roundish- or oftener oval-cordate, as well as the 
branchlets and inflorescence generally tinged with a whitish-grey somewhat evanescent bloom ; 
primary veins of the leaves mostly subtle, rather distant, very spreading, the circumferential vein 
irregularly remote from the margin; oil-dots obliterated; umbels in short terminal panicles ; 
flowers in each umbel 7 or fewer ; stalklets thin, about as long as the tube of the calyx or variously 
shorter ; lid conic-hemispherical, slightly acute or short-pointed, from about half as long to fully 
as long as the obconic-semiovate tube of the calyx ; stamens short, all fertile, inflexed before 
expansion ; anthers minute, almost globular, opening by lateral pore-like slits ; style short ; 
stigma not dilated ; fruit semiovate, somewhat attenuated at the base ; valves 4 rarely 3 or 
5, short, reaching to the narrow rim or slightly protruding beyond it ; fertile seeds without any 
appendage, their testa net-veined ; sterile seed smaller, the majority broad and short, some 
narrow and more elongated. 

Eather frequent in arid country around the Gulf of Carpentaria and in Arnhem's Land, 
especially on the sandstone-tablelands, extending southward at least to the sources of the 
Victoria-Eiver, the commencement of Sturt's Creek (F. v. M.) and of Ord-Eiver (Al. Forrest), 
occurring also on the islands of Carpentaria (E. Brown, Bauer, Henne). 

A small or middle-sized tree ; bark persistent, rough, wrinkled, greyish outside. 
Branchlets sometimes sharply sometimes hardly angular. Leaves equilateral, horizontally 
spreading, quite or nearly sessile. One or few of the umbels occasionally axillary, their 
stalks never much elongated. Neither lid nor tube of the calyx angular. Anthers of some 
of the outer stamens broader than long and verging even into a renate form. Style rather 
thick, only about ^th inch long. Ovules extending quite around the summit of the placental 
column. Fruits sometimes barely half the length and width of those illustrated in the 
lithographic plate, and the valves occasionally more terminal. 

It is only E. melanophloia, with which our present species could be confounded ; indeed the 
general resemblance of the two is so great, that Dr. Leichhardt mentions them in the journal of his 
famous " Overland Expedition from Moreton Bay to Port Essington " indiscriminately as the 
" Silver-leaved Ironbark-tree." In traversing North- Australia about a quarter of a century ago I 
noticed however, that K pruinosa has the bark outside greyish and not so deeply fissured as that 
of E. melanophloia, which — as the name implies — has the bark blackish outside ; moreover the 
last-mentioned species seems restricted to extra- and sub-tropical Australia, advancing south as 
far as the Namoi and often indicating an auriferous country. This difi'erent regional range, 
in which numerous other plants participate, was mentioned already in the Journal of the 
Proceedings of the Linnean Society 1859, p. 94. Furthermore the deeply furrowed bark brings 
E. melanophloia into the series of Schizophloise, while B. pruinosa would by Southern Colonists 
be classed with the so-called " Box-trees " (Ehytiphloiae). Irrespective of these differences the 
anthers of E. melanophloia have generally longer openings than those of E. pruinosa ; and 
although this characteristic is a trifling one, yet so much value was attached to it by Bentham, 
that he actually placed the two species into two different sections of his system of Eucalypts, 
notwithstanding their close affinity to each other in every respect. Besides the stigma of E. 



EUCALYPTUS PRUINOSA. 

melanopHoia dilates slightly over the width of the style, and the fruit (so far as I have become 
aware) gets never so large as that of E. pruinosa, it being especially shorter and also distinctly 
contracted at the edge. 

Among trees with roundish sessile greyish opposite leaves only to E. pnlverulenta need be 
aUuded here in reference to their distinguishing marks ; but it has its umbels solitary and axillary, 
its anthers elongated and opening with longer slits and its fruits flat- or convex-rimmed. 

The connate leaves, smaller flowers, shorter lid, longer anther-slits and most particularly the 
sharply triangular seeds, surrounded by a diaphanous membrane, distinguish E. gamophylla 
readily from E. pruinosa. 

The very pale bloom of the foliage, which suggested the specific name, is chemically of waxy 
nature.^ 

E. pruinosa might prove a good tree for fuel and perhaps also for technical purposes in 
any tropical country : it would at all events be as adapted to an equinoctial clime as E. 
tereticornis, E. resinifera, E. acmenoides and E. Baileyana have shown themselves suited to as 
well sandy as swampy grounds in Guinea, as observed by Dr. J. W. Rowland. The frequency 
of this tree in its wide natural region indicates the facility of its dissemination also. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, an nnexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of 
an unexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther, with portion of ita 
filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse section of fruit ; 9 and 10, sterile and fertile 
seeds ; 11, portion of a leaf; all figures more or less magnified. 







Tod>. dei. C.Troedel gcCLilK. 



P.vM. iiTexit. 



Sleam Lilho Go^; PrmHug Office Melb. 



jirffjpte jpilwiMlkiik , Sims. 



EUCALYPTUS PULVEEULENTA. v 

Sims's Botanical Magazine, 2087 (1819) ; CoUa, illustrationes et icones rariorum stirpium t. 1 ; Sprengel, eystema 
Tegetabilium ii. 501 ; De CandoUe, prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabUia iii. 221 ; G-. Don, general 
system of dichlamydeous plants ii. 821 ; D. Dietrich, synopsis plantarum iii. 123 ; F. v. M., fragmenta phyto- 
graphiae Australise ii. 70 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 224 ; E. cordata, Loddiges, Botanical Cabinet t. 328 ; 
Payer Organogenic t. 98 ; E. pulyerigera, Cunningham, in Field's geographic memoirs on New South Wales 
350 ; E. cinerea, F. v. M., in Bentham's flora Australiensis iii. 239. 

Branchlets thin, nearly cylindrical ; leaves all sessile and opposite, from, cordate-orbicular ta 
ovate, occasionally some rhomlDoid or lanceolar, clasping at~tEe Base, as well as the branchlets,, 
flowerstalks and calyces tinged by a whitish bloom; lateral veins of the leaves very spreading, not 
or slightly prominent, the circumferential vein irregularly remote from the edge ; oil-dots copious,, 
mostly transparent ; flowers axillary, only ^cepiionaIIy~aIso terminal, almost always three 
together ; stalks generally shorter than the calyces or sometimes of fully their length, rarely 
longer, occasionally very much abbreviated, usually thin, not angular ; stalklets none or extremely 
short; tube of the calyx semiovate-obconical; lid hemispherical and short-pointed or sometimes 
broad-conical, half or nearly as long as the tube ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; 
anthers nearly ovate, bursting by longitudinal slits; style short ; stigma not dilated ; fruits small, 
semiovate-topshaped, 3-4 or rarely 5-celled ; rim rather broad, somewhat convex ; valves affixed 
almost at the orifice, very small, deltoid, convergent ; sterile seeds numerous, much narrower and 
mostly shorter than the fertile seeds, the latter not sharply angular, all without any appendage. 

In the vicinity of the Upper Lachlan- and of Cox's Eiver (Cunningham) ; from Marulan to 
Yass (Moore, Wilkinson) ; near Berrima, Lake George and the Castlereagh-River (WooUs) ; 
near Lake Omeo (F. v. M.) ; near the Buchan-Eiver, between the Avon- and Mitchell-River, as 
also towards Walhalla (Howitt), preferential in the sandstone- and granite-formation. 

A " scraggy" tree, attaining a height of 60 feet, exceptionally with a stem-diameter of 3 feet, 
but flowering already m a shrubby state. SFem comparatively short, branches arising already at a 
height of 10-15 feet from the ground, even in aged trees; wood brittle and twisted; bark fibrous, 
light-brown inside with a reddish tinge, shedding from the upper branches only or chiefly, outside 
wrinkled and becoming grey, thinner and of closer texture than that of B. obliqua. Foliage 
generally scanty, its whitish or ashy bloom variable as regards extent and intensiveness. Leaves 
sometimes very slightly crenulated, as noted already by Loddiges, but never so conspicuously as 
those of E. cordata. Umbels through the lapse of leaves finally often lateral ; number of flowers 
sometimes increased to 4-5, rarely to 6-7, or very seldom reduced to two or only one ; flowers of 
spontaneously grown trees never as large as those delineated by Curtis from a luxuriant con- 
servatory plant; but the differences thus far are even greater in native trees of E. globulus, 
E. Leucoxylon and several other species. The tree passes under several vernacular names, that 
of the " Silver-leaved Stringybark-tree " being the most appropriate. E. rigida of Count 
Hoff'mannsegg's Verzeichniss der Pflanzen-Kulturen 114 (1826) is probably referable to E. 
pulverulenta. 

'^ In the systematic deflnition and ia the illustration I have not included an Eucalypt, the 
leaves of which in aged trees become elongated-lanceolar, much narrowed upwards and even 
somewhat sickleshaped, though their base remains rounded and their stalk very short ; moreover 
in the above-mentioned state some of the upper leaves become alternate or scattered. This 
particular Eucalypt was noticed in Upper Gippsland by Mr. A. W. Howitt, and near the Ovens- 
Kiver by Mr. C. Falck. There is every reason to assume, that it is merely a state of E. pulveru- 



EUCALYPTUS PULVERULENTA, 

lenta, mediating a transit to E. Stuartiana. Indeed it was with some reluctance, that E. pnlvera- 
lenta became at all accepted into the present work, from which all dubious species for distinct 
iHustration have been and are to be rigorously excluded. As however , E. pulYerulenta i s the 
only species with opposite leaves, indigenous to the colony of "Victoria, it was deemed desirable to 
accord fdll elucidation to it. This finally narrow-leaved form of E. pulverulenta, when yet in its 
young bushy state, ha s the leaves all broad and opposite; but they do not continue in that form, 
eontrarily to what is noted elsewhere. Mr. Falck observed, that the bark of this Eucalypt is 
pervaded by a peculiar somewhat terebmthiae odor, so much so as to have given rise to the local 
name "Turpentine-tree" for this species. It flowers from October to December; the blo ssoms 
are odorous. 

As remarked already, E. pulverulenta is distinguishable fro m E. Stuartiana only in its 
foliage, holding the same relation to the last-mentioned congener as E. Eisdoni to E. amygdalina, 
as E. melanophloia to E. crebra, and as E. dealbata to E. viminalis. What physical causes are 
operating, to bring about these striking local aberrations, has as yet not been ascertained. 

The bark of E. Stuartiana and of E. pulverulenta are very much alike. 

It is unnecessary to adduce differential characters in contrast to other species, there being 
none very close akin, unless E. vimiualis in its state E. dealbata, and this again bears only 
resemblance to the variety with elongated narrow leaves of E. pulverulenta ; the former has 
however all its leaves scattered and always attenuated into very conspicuous stalks, shows more 
prominent and still more spreading and crowded veins, has the flowerstalklets more developed, 
.the fruit-calyces more rounded at their base, and the valves longer and more pointed. 
Specific name from the powdery greyness of the foliage. 

Explanation of AkaiiTTic Details. — 1, an nnexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitadinal section of an 
tmexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in expanded position ; 4-5, front- and back-view of an anther with portion of 
its filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7-8, transverse and longitudinal section of a fi:ait ; 9-10, fertile and sterile seeds ; 
— all magnified, but to various extent. 




Un del C Trrede: ScC" LSi-. 



E.yMdJTexil 



STream Li^ho 5oy Prmliog Office Malb. 



3i(giilf]!)te ]f^i?il)i?ak, Turczdnmow 



EUCALYPTUS PYEIFOEMIS. 

Turczaninow, in Bulletin de la sooi^t^ imperiale des naturalistes de Moscouxxii. part. ii. 23 (1849); Walpers, Annales 
botanices systematica ii. 620 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 226 ; P. r. M., Eeport on the forest-resources 
of "Western Australia 15, pi. 17 ; E. pruinosa, Turczaninow, in Bulletin de la society imperiale des naturalistes 
de Moscou xxii. part. ii. 23 ; Walpers, Annales botanices systematica ii. 620 ; E. macrocalyx, Turczaninow, in 
Mflanges biologiques de I'AcadSmie de St. Petersbourg 1852, p. 418 ; E. erythrocalyx, Oldfield, in F. v. M.., 
fragmenta phytographise Australiae ii. 32 ; E. Youngiana, F. v. M., fragmenta phytographiK Australise x. 5. 

Shmbby or scar cely arborescent ; branchlets stout ; leaves scattered or rarely opposite, 
conspicuously stalked, from lanceolar-ovate to narrow-lanceolar, of equal green on both pages and 
of firm consistence ; veins subtle, moderately spreading, the circumferential vein distinctly 
removed from the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots concealed ; powers very large, usually three or 
sometimes two together on conspicuous mostly cylindrical and deflexed stalks, rarely solitary ; 
stalklets robust, fully as long as the calyx-tube or variously shorter or undeveloped ; calyces 
marked by longitudinal lines or ridges, the tube obconic- or depressed-hemispherical, about as 
long as the hard semiglobular conically attenuated or suddenly short-pointed lid or not so long ; 
stamens all fertile, the inner much inflexed before expansion, the outer only incurved at the apex ; 
^laments crimson or y ellow ; anthers almost oval, opening with marginal slits ; stigma not broader 
than the summit of the style ; fruit very large, its calycine almost hemispherical portion traversed 
by longitudinal ridges, the discal portion very broad, much ascending and upwards contracted; 
valves 4-5 rarely 6, nearly deltoid, their upper part exserted or almost quite enclosed ; fertile 
seeds much larger than the partly very narrow sterile seeds and edged by a broadish marginal 
membrane. 

In sandy scrub-regions between Port Gregory and the Murchison-River (Drummond, Old- 
field) ; in the eastern interior of West-Australia (Eev. J. S. Price) ; near the Victoria-Spring 
(Tietkens) ; at Oldea, north of Fowler's Bay (Young) ; near WUgerra-Hill (Giles) and near the 
North-side of Lake Gairdner (Mosley). 

A tall shrub, flo wering already at a height of 4 feet, but as a small tree attaining a height 
of 20 feet ; stem slender, but often crooked ; bark smooth. Branchlets nearly cylindrical. 
Leaves light-green, not shining, usually straight and equilateral, but occasionally somewhat 
sickleshaped, or some almost ovate and then attaining a width of two inches, the narrowest leaves 
contrarily merely ^ inch broad, any of them only abnormally devoid of stalks. Oil-glands 
crowded and large, but concealed by the cuticle of the leaves. Flowerstalks thick, occasionally 
somewhat compressed and biangular, at an average about one inch long, sometimes crowded on 
portions of the branchlets, so as to give the inflorescence an appearance as if compound. Flowers 
often bent downward. Calyces remarkably variable in form, more so than indicated in Mr. Todt's 
excellent plate, either gradually attenuated into a conspicuous stalklet, which may attain a length 
of fully 1| inches, or suddenly contracted at the base, the very short stalklet then forming almost 
the basal portion of the calyx ; the lid either only faintly and irregularly streaked or traversed 
by numerous remarkably prominent longitudinal ridges, which are however not continuous with 
the many still more developed longitudinal prominences of the tube of the calyx, thus a folded 
appearance, more striking than in the calyx of any other congener, being produced. Sutural 
contraction between the tube and the lid of the calyx considerable. Outer stamens attaining 
.one inch in length. Filaments all angular ; anthers yellow, fixed above the base, assuming 
occasionally a roundish-cordate form, the dorsal gland never very promiuent ; the two cells 
contiguous, not separated by any conspicuous connective, but widely bivalvular. Style slender, 



EUCALYPTUS PYEIFOEMIS. 

■^-^ incli long. Stigma depressed. Fruits probably heavier than those of any other species, 
attaining a weight, when dry, of rather above two ounces ; the discal orifice only half the width 
of the diameter of the whole fruit, which attains two inches ; length (height) of the calycine 
portion of the fruit not more than that of the discal portion or not even quite as much. Placental 
column pyramidal-semiovate. Fertile seeds generally I3— If lines long, with radiating angles 
from the hilum ; sterile seeds very much narrower, though many of them not shorter. 

This Eucalyptus was described under three names by Turczaninow, it presenting such 
differences of forms as to induce him to regard them of specific value, and I was myself misled 
by aberrative states of this species to assume them to be distinct, E. erythrocalyx moreover being 
described before I had access to Drummond's specimens, from the comparison of which the brief 
definitions, given by the Moscow botanist, could only be understood with certainty. E. Youngiana 
represents the variety with flowers devoid of stalHets and with very strongly ridged and short- 
tubed calyces ; E. pruinosa of Turczaninow (not of Schauer) exhibits a variety, bearing smaller 
flowers with obverse pyramidal sharply few-angled calyx-tube. Drummond's collection contains 
unnumbered another state of this species, with broader short-stalked opposite leaves and solitary 
flowers, which latter however are placed quite normally on a well developed stalk. 

The name, retained by Bentham and here now also for this species iu its full scope, alludes 
to the somewhat pear-like shape of the calyx. 

E. pyriformis is closely akin to E. macrocarpa, but any whitish bloom on it is confined to the 
calyces and their stalks, the leaves are always narrower and gradually attenuated at the base, 
only exc eptionally opposite and even then obviously stalked, the flowers stand seldom singly and 
are never absolutely sessile, the calyx has not an even surface, the upper portion of the fruit from 
the edge of the calyx-tube to the rim of the disk is more elevated and at the summit more 
contracted, reaching beyond the base of the valves. E. pachyphylla approaches the variety 
pruinosa of E. pyriformis, but its flowers and fruits are much smaller, almost devoid of a general 
flowerstalk and crowded to the number of about 7 together. The affinity to E. erythronema is 
more remote. 

E. pyriformis has claims for ornamental culture, especially where in an arid clime garden- 
copses are required. 

Explanation of Analytic Details.^1, an tmexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3, some of the outer stamens in expanded position ; 4, front- and back-view of anthers with 
portion of their filament ; 5, style and stigma ; 6, a calyx of the variety Youngiana ; 7 and 8, transverse and 
longitudinal section of a fruit ; 9, a fully matured fruit ; 10 and 11, fertile and sterile seeds ; 12, portion of a leaf j 
1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8 and 9, natural size ; 4, 5, 10, 11 and 12, magnified. 




-i;if: :ztAC&.c'1i 



T. _.1. ji-irejcr 



Steam LilKo Gov Prmbng 0:nc? M 



Igi(gM||)te gaaMMDllk, />y^ 



EUCALYPTUS SANTALIFOLIA. 

I". V. M., in the transactions of the Yictorian Institute i. 35 (1854) ; Miquel, in Nederlandisk Kruid-Kundig 
Archief iv. 133 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis, iii. 206 ; E. pachyloma, Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 237; 
E. diversifolia, Bonpland, description des plantes rares cultiv6es a Malmaison et a NaTarre 35 1. 13 ; De CandoUe, 
prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis iii. 220. 

Shrutby ; braDchlets firm, angular ; leaves scattered, of thick consistence, narroTV- or rarely 
broad-lanceolar, almost straight or somewhat curved, of equal color and shining on both sides, 
moderately or short stalked ; their veins very faint, almost obliterated, neither crowded nor very 
spreading, the circumferential vein distant from the edge of the leaf; oil-dots exceedingly 
numerous, but concealed ; umbels solitary and axillary, but soon lateral, containing 3-5 or rarely 
6—8 flowers ; stalks scarcely or somewhat angular, not much longer than the calyces ; stalklets 
extremely short or almost none ; tube of the calyx nearly hemispherical, somewhat shorter than 
the semiovate-conical lid ; stamens all fertile ; filaments ascendent, not inflexed before expansion; 
anthers roundish-cordate, opening in front with longitudinal at the summit convergent slits*; 
stigma not broader than the style ; fruit depressed-globular, discal summit very convex and finally 
far-protruding or sometimes rather depressed, always occupying a broad space between the valves 
and the margin of the calyx-tube ; valves 3-4 or occasionally 5, exserted, short, mostly deltoid ; 
sterile seeds broad, nearly as large as the fertile seeds, the latter few, sharply angular and very 
slightly membranous at their edges. 

In sandy desert-country as also in scrubby valleys or on arid ridges near King George's 
Sound (Drummond), on the Williams-Eiver (Webb), near the Kalgan-Eiver (Oldfield), at the 
base of the Stirling-Eanges (F. v. M.), at Venus-Bay (Clode), in various localities near Spencer's 
Gulf (Wilhelmi), in the vicinity of Lake Albert (Irvine), on Kangaroo-Island (Waterhouse), 
occupying there calcareous ridges (Tate). 

A tall shrub, fruiting however already at 5 feet, restricted to regions near the coast. The 
large and crowded oil-pores of the leaves well visible only after the removal of the cuticle. 
Flower-stalks and -stalklets variable in thickness, but never very slender, the former exceptionally 
somewhat compressed. Filaments whitish. Aged fruit not shining, slightly rough, the protruding 
summit sometimes forming fully half the fruit. Valves shorter than the space intervening 
between them and the edge of the calyx-tube, often very considerably so. 

The approximate conformity of the fertile and sterile seeds is that of the Renantherse or 
generality of Stringybark-trees, notwithstanding the cordate anthers, a remark applying also to 
E. Preissiana. The size and structure of the fruit bring E. santalifolia only near E. macrorr- 
hyncha and E. capitellata, that of E. Oldfieldii being larger and also less similar on account of 
its prominent edge. 

E. santalifolia and E. pachyloma, though placed widely apart and into diiferent sections of 
his anthereal system by Bentham, are, so far as I can judge, quite identical. 

The name of E. diversifolia, given by Bonpland, had to be discarded, although he described 
the species already in 1813, and had it illustrated by Bessa simultaneously; — ^because the plant 
as defined by him represents that very young state in which, as in most species of Eucalyptus, 
the leaves pass from the broad form of juvenile plants into the narrow shape of the leaves, normal 
for adult trees. The illustration indicates well, that the leaves of the young seedlings are opposite 
sessile and oval, a sort of characteristic, which is particularly applicable for the discrimination of 
specific forms also in this genus. 



EUCALYPTUS SANTALITOLIA. 

E. santalifolia agrees with E. capitellata in the almost total absence of flowerstalklets, but 
it attains not the size of a large tree, the leaves are smaller, more rigid, of a lighter green, less 
conspicuously veined and not remarkably inequilateral, the flowers are generally less numerous 
on each stalk, the calyces are larger with wider tube and longer lid, the stamens not inflexed before 
expansion, the anthers more cordate than renate and the fruits usually smaller, not to speak of 
the seedlings of the two species, those of E. capitellata, according to specimens transmitted by 
the Rev. Dr. WooUs, being star-hairy and producing leaves narrow-lanceolar, though rounded at 
the base also. 

The drawing in Bonpland's work represents the anthers erroneously as ovate and the fruit in 
that flat-topped state, in which it more particularly occurs before perfect maturity. The oval 
shape of the opposite leaves of young plants, well illustrated in the plate, suffices already to 
distinguish E. diversifolia from E. vimiualis, which has narrow seedling-leaves. Moreover 
E. viminalis attains the height of a moderate and even tall tree, its ultimate branchlets are more 
slender, the close and more spreading venation of the leaves is nearly that of E. tereticornis, the 
flowerstalks are usually shorter and thinner, the calyces are not so large, the anthers oval, the 
valves in proportion to the rim larger though the fruit as a whole is smaller, the sterile seeds are 
much narrower than the fertile seeds and the latter obtusangular. The cardinal characteristic of 
E. santalifolia rests in the position of the stamens before their expansion ; then through a simple 
turn the lower portion of the filaments remains decumbent, whereas the upper part becomes erect, 
but in no way the filaments are reduplicated. Such peculiar curvature of the stamens, whUe in 
bud, is not known to exist in any other species of Eucalyptus, although an approach to such a 
staminal asstivation is offered by E. Planchoniana. All other species, iu which the stamens are 
not distinctly doubled back in their early state, namely E. gomphocephala, E. Oldfieldii, E. 
siderophloia, E. tereticornis, E. salmonophloia as well as E. comuta and its allies, have the 
filaments in bud either straight or turned differently to those of E. santalifolia. 

The specific name of this species was devised by some resemblance of the leaves to those of 
Santalum acuminatum and S. persicarium. Prof. Ealph Tate noticed, that E. santalifolia, together 
with a particular congener, which De Candolle (prodr. iii. 220) wrongly united with the East- 
Australian E. cneorifolia (E. stricta Sieb.), constitutes the predominant scrubs of Kangaroo- 
Island, that the bark is smooth and separates in long and thin shreds, that the species is found 
chiefiy on ancient shell-beaches with fresh water below, and that it does not attain a height above 
20 feet ; nevertheless with a fruiting specimen, obtained from Guichen-Bay, and to aU. appearance 
belonging to E. santalifolia, a note is given, that there the tree rises to 60 feet, such tallness 
being probably of exceptional occurrence. Bonpland mentions, that this or a closely allied 
Eucalypt bore fruit as far back as 1813, in the Botanic Garden of Toulon, and he significantly 
then already added, that the Eucalypts promised to become a new source of richdom to the South 
of France. 

ExPLiNATiOH OP Analytic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in situ ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther, with portion of its 
filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7, transverse section of two fruits ; 8, longitudinal section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, 
fertile and sterile seeds ; 11, portion of a leaf; all magnified, but to varied extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS SEPULCKALIS. 

Arborescent ; leaves rather small, scattered, on slender stalks, narrow-lanceolar, slightly 
curved, of equal color and somewhat shining on both sides ; their lateral veins very subtle, 
moderately spreading, almost concealed, the circumferential vein but slightly removed from the 
edge of the leaf ; oil-pores angular, much obliterated ; umbels 3-5-flowered, solitary, axillary, 
soon lateral ; umbel-stalks long and slender, but much compressed; tube of the flowering calyx 
slightly bulging towards the base, thence much widening upwards, about as long as its stalklet, 
of about twice the length of the pyramidal-hemispherical lid, not prominently angular, but as 
well as the lid wrinkled ; stamens all fertile, and all inflexed before expansion ; filaments yellow; 
anthers ovate- or roundish-cordate, bursting in front with upward confluent slits ; style elongated ; 
stigma not dilated ; fruit large, urceolar-ovate, wrinkled and streaked, somewhat contracted at the 
margin; orifice cylindrical; edge of the summit narrom ; valves 4 rarely 5, very short, deeply 
enclosed; fertile and sterile seeds of nearly the same size, very angular, without any membranous 
appendage. 

Near the Thomas-River in South- Western Australia ; Campbell Taylor, Esq. 

" Strange-looking trees, with their branches hanging down all round to the ground, like those 
of a weeping willow," according to Mr. Taylor, through whose circumspectness and exertions 
branchlets of this new Eucalypt became accessible to me from a desolate place far inland. Bark 
of the stem smooth and whitish. Branchlets slender, angular toward their summit and tinged 
with a bluish-white bloom, soon becoming cylindrical and assuming a dark-bluish somewhat 
black hue. Leaves vividly green ; the majority from 2 to 3^ inches long, and from ^ to f of an 
inch broad, almost equilateral, terminating into a narrow apex, narrowed into a stalk of from 
i to I inch length. Umbel-stalks 1-1 J inches long, two-edged, gradually somewhat dilated 
upwards ; two narrow deciduous at first connate bracts enclosing the umbel in its earliest stage. 
Stalklets . wrinkled and angular, but not much compressed or dilated. Tube of the flowering 
calyx from ^ to nearly \ an inch long, conspicuously corrugated, as well as the lid ; between the 
latter and former a conspicuous transverse sutural furrow. Longest stamens hardly above ^ inch 
long ; filaments not angular, dotted with a few oil-glands, their lower portion not flexuous in bud ; 
anthers whitish, inserted below the middle ; dorsal gland small, seated near the summit ; in dry 
anthers the slits wide and separated downward only by an exceedingly narrow intervening mem- 
brane ; in fresh or macerated anthers the slits very narrow, conspicuously distant downward, 
though not marginal, confluent in an arched curvature on the summit. Style yellowish, some- 
what twisted. Ovary only occupying the basal portion of the calyx-tube, very much overreached 
by the comparatively narrow walls of the latter. Fruits about one inch long, seated on stalklets 
of about half that length, greyish and not shining outside, longitudinally traversed by raised 
and somewhat undulated streaks, the upper fourth rather suddenly ennarrowed and straight, 
except at the incurved summit, but this infraterminal constriction sometimes so faint as to render 
the fruit simply truncate-ovate. Placental column comparatively short. Valves deltoid. Seeds 
not numerous in each cell, mostly from 1 J to 2 lines in length, a few scarcely 1 line long ; the 
fertUe seeds outside black, shining and marked with exceedingly subtle reticulation, the promi- 
nent angles ascending and diverging from the hilum, the summit convex and broad ; sterile 
seeds brown, narrower, but never veiy slender. 

The specific name was chosen, because this Eucalypt will be destined to add another emblem 
of sadness to the tree-vegetation of cemeteries in climes similar to ours. It finds its systematic 



EtrCALYPTUS SEPULCEALIS. 

place in the series of Parallelantherje rather than Eenantherae, though it bears great affinity to 
E. huprestium, from which species it differs in the following particulars : — The leafstalks are 
longer, the veins of the leaves fainter, the flowers larger but fewer in number, the flowerstalks 
elongated and flattened, the stalklets much longer, the anthers somewhat longer than broad with 
more extended but less divergent slits, the fruits almost suddenly contracted below the summit 
and thus rather urceolar than globular, their orifice stretching much deeper downward, by which 
means the valves are much farther removed from the summit of the fruit. Size and shape of 
fruit afford an approach to E. setosa ; their position, long stalklets and streaky exterior remind 
of E. caesia ; the anthers resemble those of E. santalifolia, with which it also accords in the near 
conformity of fertile and sterUe seeds. 

The importance of the form and structure of the anthers for diagnostic purposes was first 
recognized in the fragm. phytogr. Austral, ii. 32-70, and these characteristics have been well 
employed by Bentham for the primary systematic grouping of the Eucalypts. But for methods of 
arrangement also a carpologic system could readily be elaborated, with this advantage, that any 
species might thus be defined from fruiting specimens alone, which latter through the long 
persistence of the fruit are always obtainable in collecting-journeys, whereas flowering specimens 
can be got only at some period of the year, subject even to fluctuations and uncertainties. 
E. sepulcralis furnishes a good instance of the advantage of a system based primarily on fruit- 
characters. That species in a carpologic arrangement would thus be placed with those which have 
large and somewhat urceolar fruits with enclosed valves, namely : E. miniata, E. perfoliata, E. 
calophylla, E. ficifolia, E. ptychocarpa, E. Abergiana, E. Watsoniana, E. sestoa, and E. corymbosa. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3, some stamens in expanded poaition ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther with part of 
its filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudinal section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, sterile and fertile 
seeds ; 11, portion of a leaf ; 12, young seedlings with cotyledonar leaves ; — 1-11, magnified, but to various extent ; 
12, natural size. 



EUCALYPTOGRAPHIA. 



A DESCRIPTIVE ATLAS 



EUCALYPTS OF AUSTEALIA 



ADJOINING ISLANDS 



BAEOli FEED. YON MUELLEE, KCLO., M. & PH.D., E.E.S., 

GOyEE]S"MENT BOTAJSTIST FOE THE COLONY OF VICTORIA. 



NON SUCCIDES ABBORFS, NEC SECDBIBUS DEBES VASTAHE EAitUM REGION EM. "—Xi&fr DeuterOllOmit XX. 19. 



nSTINTH DECADE. 



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EUCALYPTUS COENUTA. 

La Billardifere, Relation du voyage k la recherche de La P&ouse, i. 403, t. 20 (1799) ; English translation by Stockdale, 
263-264, pi. 20 (1800) ; Novae Hollandise plantarum specimen ii. 121 (1806) ; CandoUe, prodromus systematis 
naturalis regni vegetabilis iii. 216; Sohauer in Lehmann plantse Preissianse i. 127; F. v. M., fragmenta phyto- 
graphise Australiae ii. 39; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 234 ; F. v. M., select plants, 77 (1876) ; Indian edition 
110 (1880) ; New South Wales edition 117 (1881) ; German edition, translated by Goeze, 139 (1883) ; American 
edition (1883) ; Report on the Forest-Resources of Western Australia, 8, pi. 7. 

Finally tall ; leaves scattered, generally narrow-lanceolar, slightly curved or sometimes almost 
sicMeshaped, of rather thi ck consistence and of nearly equal color on both sides ; their lateral 
veins moderately spreading, not very prominent or quite faint, the circumferential vein somewhat 
distant from the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots much concealed ; stalks of the inflorescence valid, 
usually lateral, solitary or rarely two or few united, various in length but seldom very short, 
cylindrical or considerably compressed, bearing from three to numerous flowers ; stalklets none or 
very short; lid from a dilated base cylindric-hornskaped, several times longer than the semiovate or 
somewhat bellshaped tube of the calyx; stamens not inflexed before expansion, filaments ye llow, as 
well as the style very long ; anthers narrow-ellipsoid, opening by longitudinal slits ; stigma hardly 
broader than the summit of the style ; fruits closely crowded, free or slightly coherent at the base, 
semiovate-bellshaped, oftener three- than four-celled ; rim narrow ; valves quite exserted, much 
elongated, from a broad turgid base very narrowly attenuated, towards the summit coherent; seeds 
without any appendage ; the sterile seeds not very narrow. 

From the vicinity of Geographe-Bay eastward at least to the neighbourhood of Cape Arid, 
extending inland to the Stirling's Range. 

The " Yate," a tree of moderate size, when aged rising exceptionally to 100 feet, adapted for 
poor soil, but p referri ng humid localities, occurring also on limestone-ground, tFriving even in 
moist tropical climes, and being so rapid in its development as to have made exceptionally as 
much as 10 feet growth in one year. This tre e is fit even for g reatly exposed situations. The 
bark of the upper part of the stem is often smooth and pale from lamellar secedence, but on the 
lower portion of the stem or occasionally even highly upwards it is dark and rugged from complete 
persistency, becoming sometimes as rough as that of the Ironbark-trees. 

Leaves on stalks of moderate or inconsiderable length, somewhat shining, occasionally verging 
into an oval or oblong or linear-lanceolate form ; stomata sometimes reduced to 83,000 on the 
upper and 120,000 on the lower side. General flowerstalks reaching exceptionally the length of 
three inches. Lid attaining now and then a length of IJ inch, as shown on the illustrative plate 
in a separate cluster of unopened flowers at natural size. Stamens of large flowers to IJ inch long, 
always quite straight in bud except slight flexuosities, as noted by the author in 1865. Anthers 
|-1| line long, fixed above the base. Fruits variable in size, not conspicuously angular in their 
lower portion ; valves towards the summit far united and passing into the remnant of the style, 
externally streaked particularly when aged, points of the valves wearing away finally, leaving the 
summit of old fruits quite blunt. Fertile seeds only about one line long. The relation of 
B. cornuta to its nearest allies has been discussed already in the article on E. occidentaHs ; but 
here should be added, that Eucalyptus Lehmanni (Preiss in Lehmann plantse Preissianse i. 127 ; 
E. macrocera, Turczaninow in Bulletin de la Soci^t^ des naturalistes de Moscou 1849, part ii. 20 ; 
Symphyomyrtus Lehmanni, Schauer in Lehmann plant. Preiss. i. 127) is specifically inseparable 
from E. cornuta, although the description, as here offered for the latter, excludes the former. 
Sir Joseph Hooker has given of this remarkable variety a splendid illustration in the bot. 
magazine, 6140. The only characteristic, which distances E. Lehmanni from E. cornuta, 



EUCALYPTUS COENUTA. 

consists in tlie concrescence of tlie calyx-tubes ; but tMs coalescence is as much one of degrees in 
this case, as in several instances similarly occurring in the genus Melaleuca ; and even in quite 
normal forms of E. cornuta among the disunited friuts in the same cluster some may be noticed 
connate. The fruit clusters of E. Lehmanni attain exceptionally four inches in diameter. 

E. annulata (Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 284) must be regarded as another aberrant form 
of E. cornuta without claims for genuine specific limitation ; the flower-stalks are however 
remarkably abbreviated, the calyces and therefore also the stamens are considerably reduced in 
length, the filaments are paler, and the staminiferous disk is singularly raised ; the last-mentioned 
note proves however not to be of specific avail for several other Eucalypts. 

The hard and elastic wood of the " Yate " is sought particularly for cart-shafts, agricultural 
implements and boat-ribs, being for these purposes as eligible as that of E. loxophleba, and 
approaching in value to that of the English Ash. It is a heavy wood, sinking even when well 
dried in water, being the heaviest of all West-Australian kinds of timber, air-dried weighing, so 
far as ascertained, fully 1-235 ; this is perhaps largely to be attributed to the thickness of the walls 
of its woody fibres and the narrowness of their cavities. Already one year after Capt. Vancouver's 
discovery of King George's Sound the Eucalyptus cornuta was noticed near Cape Leeuwin by 
Mons. La Billardi^re in 1792 during d'Entrecasteaux's search after La P6rouse; but even now the 
great value of this tree for timber seems to be little appreciated. It is already flower- and fruit- 
be aring while yet in a bushy juvenile state. Opossums get fat on the somewhat mellaginous 
flowers. The leaves of very young plants are alternate, ovate and stalked. 

Specific name from the long hornlike lids of the calyces. 

The study of Eucalypts in their earliest stages of growth for aiding in their specific 
discrimination is important, as shown in text and lithograms of several species in the present 
work. Great specific diversities are thus apparent already in the cotyledonar leaves, -the size and 
shape of which stands in relation to the dimension and form of the cotyledons. As recorded 
already by Bentham, the cotyledons of E. cornuta are deeply lobed. On the accompanying 
supplemental plate this is exemplified by figure 6 ; some other species, for instance E. macrocarpa, 
having the cotyledonar leaves also much incised. In reference to size the contrast of the 
cotyledonar leaves of E. calophylla, reaching in length and width fally one inch, is most striking, 
when the smallness of these organs in a multitude of other congeners is taken into consideration. 
Minute seedlings of all kinds of accurately named plants should be obtained in any botanic 
gardens, as occasions arise, to augment museum-material extensively for comparative enquiries 
into the developments and specific demarcation of various plants, and particularly so of all 
Eucalypts. The seedlings, illustrated on the supplemental plate, were raised for the author 
by Wniiam Elliott, Esq. 

Explanation of AxAiYnc Details.— 1, an vmexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an unex- 
panded flower ; 3 and 4, back- and front-view of an anther, with part of its filament ; 5, style and stigma ; 6 and 7, trans- 
verse and longitudinal section of a fruit ; 8 and 9, fertile and sterile seeds ; all figures magnified, but to various extent. 

Explanation or Sitpplemental Plate.— Young seedlings of Eucalypts, to exhibit mainly the cotyledonar leaves : 
1, E. diversicolor ; 2, E. leucoxylon ; 3, E. rostrata ; 4, E. botryoides ; 5, E. crebra ; 6, E. cornuta ; 7, E^Gunnu ; 
8, E. corymbosa ; 9, E. margiuata ; 10, E. obliqua ; 11, E. gamophyUa ; 12, E. pEularis ; 13, E. saUgna ; 14, E. siderophloia ; 
15, E. goniocalyx ; 16, E. calophylla; 17, E. melliodora; 18, E. alpina; 19, E. piperita; 20, E. amygdalina; 21, E. macro- 
carpa; 22, E. Stuartiana; 23, E. Sieberiana; 24, E. hemiphloia; 25, E. globulus; 26, E. striota; 27, E. cosmophylla; aU 
figures of natural size. 




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EUCALYPTUS EXIMIA. 

Sohauer in Walpers' repertorium botanioes systematicse ii. 925 (1843); Bentham, flora Australienais iii. 258; WooUs in 
the proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 467 (1881). 

Finally tall ; branchlets robust, angular ; leaves scattered, on conspicuous stalks, of thick 
consistence, lanceolar-sickleshaped, of nearly equal color on both sides, subtle and closely 
pennate-veined, the circumferential vein close to the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots concealed ; panicles 
axillary and chiefly terminal ; stalks rather thick, angular or somewhat compressed, bearing 2-6 
flowers ; stalklets none; calyces shining ; lid thin, imperfectly double, almost hemispherical, 
slightly pointed, about half as long as the conic-semiovate tube of the calyx ; inner lid tender- 
membranous; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers oval, opening by longitudinal 
slits ; stigma not broader than the summit of the style ; fruits rather large, oval-urnshaped, 
slightly angular ; rim narrow-edged, descending ; valves 3 rarely 4, enclosed ; fertile seeds much 
larger than the sterile seeds, all without any appendage. 

On the slopes of the Blue Mountains, descending to the banks of the Grose- and Hawkesbury- 
Kiver, also on the Eanges near Bent's Basin ; Eev. Dr. WooUs. 

The Mountain Bloodwood-tree or yellow- or smooth-barked Bloodwood-tree, attaining a 
maximum height of 80 feet. Aged bark of the thickness of one inch or more, rather scaly or flaky 
than fibrous, of a somewhat yellowish color verging into a brownish or particularly grey tinge, 
persistent, only the smaller branches smooth. Leaves attaining sometimes 8 inches in length, 
not shining when exsiccated. Ultimate flowerstalks from f-1^ inch long. Calyx-tube somewhat 
angular from corrugation ; outer hd smooth, the inner lid radiating-veined. Filaments cream- 
colored. Fruits shining, from f to nearly 1 inch long. Seeds all brown ; the fertile seeds 2-3 
lines long and somewhat angular, the hilum at the middle of the concave side ; many of the sterile 
seeds only about half-a^line long, some however measuring to rather more than one line. 

Imperfect specimens, collected by Dr. Leichhardt on Dogwood-creek in Queensland and 
designated " Rusty Gum-tree " seem referable to E. eximia. 

This tree affords no durable timber, but good fuel ; the wood is soft and light-colored. Kino 
issues from the concentric circles of the wood, but in less quantity than from E. corymbosa. 
It is a stately species of Eucalyptus, the abundant bunches of flowers being handsomely 
conspicuous among the dark foliage, when in about October the tree bursts into blooming. For 
the elucidation of this Eucalyptus we are mainly indebted to the Eev. Dr. WooUs, who for a long 
series of years devoted particularly close attention to the various Eucalypts, while investigating in 
all its details the rich vegetation from Port Jackson to beyond the Blue Mountains. His 
observations on the often perplexing members of this great genus are not confined to the treatise 
above quoted, inasmuch as already in 1867 he devoted to the Eucalypts two chapters (p. 212—246) 
of his work " Contributions to the Flora of Australia ; " these to a large extent became also 
translated into French by Dr. Eaveret^Wattel for the " Bulletin de la Soci^tS d'Acclimatation," 
troisifeme s6rie, tome iii. p. 17-40 (1877). 

Eucalyptus eximia is closely related to B. Watsoniana, differing mainly in narrower leaves, in 
the smaller flowers without any stalklets, in the lid not exceeding the width of the calyx-tube, and 
in smaller fruits with not emerging or protruding disk. In its panicles it resembles E. Abergiana, 
but the leaves are almost sickle-shaped and not conspicuously darker above, the lid and calyx- 
tube are separated by a clear sutural line, and the seeds are not provided with a terminating 
membrane. E. eximia claims particularly close relationship to E. maculata ; but its distinctness 
is vindicated by the persistency and peculiarity of the bark, by the still finer venation of the 
leaves, by the flowers being of larger size and devoid of stalklets, by the less ready separation of 
the outer and inner lid from each other, by the petaloid whitish not shining inner but smoother 



EUCALYPTUS EXIMIA. 

and more lustrous outer lid, and by the larger fruits ; the seedling state may also he different. 
Although called a Bloodwood-tree it differs widely from E. corymbosa, not only in some of the 
characteristics of its flowers and fruits, but also in foliage and bark, the latter being of more scaly 
texture and also smoother outside. 

The lid of E. eximia affords excellent material for tracing the metamorphosis of a calyx into 
a corolla, and gives in this genus additional evidence for estimating the nature of the opercular 
organ ; it shows that the ordinary lid of Eucalyptus-flowers must be regarded as calycine, though 
it may consist of two layers, the outer of which, when it occurs, being sometimes fugacious and 
occasionally minute. The homogeny of the opercular with the tubular portion of the calyx is 
clearly evidenced by the species of Eucalypts pertaining to the series of E. corymbosa, as pointed 
out previously in these pages ; because both lid and tube are homogeneously confluent while in 
bud, and when their severance takes place by force of extrusion of the stamens we find the 
transverse line of separation not one of clear dehiscence, but one of more or less irregular tearing ; 
nor does this rupture lead always to a shedding of the lid, it being often retained during the whole 
time of flowering, and thrown simply back from the remaining place of alligation. Nevertheless 
the lid of Eucalyptus may in some instances be regarded as externally calycine and internally 
petaline ; this view obtains complete confirmation by the species now before us and by a few other 
congeners. When the lid of E. eximia has been well macerated, a tender petaloid inner membrane 
may readily be drawn off from the thinly cartilagineous calycine portion of the lid ; this inner 
stratum, which in nature seems often to be set spontaneously free at last, as I found this to be the 
case with a few other congeners, produces from its centre a short descending tube, which encloses 
the summit of the style and the stigma before the flower expands. Such tubule descending from 
the inner lid is not to be found on the operculum of the closely allied E. maculata, in which species 
the two opercular strata are also far less dissimilar than in E. eximia, thus more conformous to the 
occasional two of E. rostrata and the regular two of E. peltata, not to speak of some others ; yet 
the inner may be regarded as petaline also in E. peltata ; and we would perhaps be justified in 
assuming that the lid of Eucalyptus calyces is formed generally by the permanent confluence of an 
inner petaloid and outer calycoid layer. Additional light is shed on the structure of the lid of 
Eucalyptus and some other myrtaceous genera by Pleurocalyptus (Brogniart et Grris in nouvelles 
archives du mus6um iv. 20-21, pi. 5), in which the operculum is retained on one side after the 
irregular transverse bursting of the calyx, similarly to what occurs in Eucalyptus corymbosa and 
its allies ; petals are however conspicuously developed. But in Acicalyptus and Piliocalyx the 
petals, although distinctly formed, are of irregular and diminutive size and even somewhat coherent 
or concrescent, whereby some transit to the petaloid inner lid of some Eucalypts is established, 
just as in a similar manner the petals of several species of Eugenia, belonging to the section 
Acmene or Syzygium, become very much reduced iu dimensions and also sometimes connate. It 
is different with Angophora, which genus finds habitual repetitions in some Eucalypts, for instance 
E. setosa and E. aspera ; here the calycine lobes assume the appearance of petals ; but they are 
sessUe with broad base, and only petaloid towards the margin, as to some extent in Leptospermum, 
Eugenia and many other myrtaceous genera ; while the five alternating points, continuous to the 
main ridges of the calyx-tube, are equivalent to the calyx-teeths, developed in E. tetraptera and 
more distinctly still in E. odontocalyx and E. tetrodonta, the lid of aU being calycine also. 

Explanation or Anaittic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an unex- 
panded flower ; 3, some of the outer stamens expanded ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther with part of its 
filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudinal section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, fertUe and sterile seeds ; 
11, portion of a leaf ; all figures magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS FOELSCHEANA. 

p. V. M. in the Melbourne Chemist and Druggist, November 1882. 

Not tall or only of shrubby growth ;, branchlets robust, not angular ; leaves scattered or 
exceptionally opposite, on ratheFTbng stalks, ovate or verging into a roundish form, sometimes 
very large, always of firm consistence, blunt or slightly pointed, greyish-green on both sides, not 
much paler beneath; their primary veins very divergent or almost horizontally spreading, 
numerous and thus closely approximated, rather subtle ; the circumferential vein almost contiguous 
to the margin of the leaf; oil-dots concealed or obliterated; umbels 4-6-flowered or rarely 
3-flowered, forming a terminal panicle; calyces on longish or rarely short stalklets, faintly 
angular, not shining, while unopened almost pear-shaped ; lid not so broad as the tube of the calyx, 
very depressed or sometimes conspicuously raised towards the centre, tearing off in an irregular 
transverse line, long retained at the last point of adherence and from thence reflexed ; stamens 
all fertile, bent inward before expansion; filaments yellowish-white; anthers almost cuneate- 
ovate or the inner more oblong and the outer slightly cordate, bursting anteriorly by longitudinal 
slits; stigma not dilated; fruit large, urnshaped, not angular; valves generally four, nearly 
deltoid, inserted much below the narrow edge of the fruit ; fertile seeds large, terminated by a 
conspicuous membrane; sterile seeds very slender. 

In the vicinity of Port Darwin on sandy soil (Foelsche) ; near Bridge-Creek (Burkitt) ; also 
in some other places of Northern Arnhem's Land (McKinlay). 

A shrub, sometimes flowering already at the height of hardly two feet, in that respect only 
comparable to E. vernicosa, E. cordata and perhaps E. Preissiana ; the greatest height attained 
about 20 feet. Stem diameter only to 12 inches as a maximum. Bark dark-grey, rough. Leaf- 
stalks f-l^ inch long. Leaves measuring often 4-5 inches in length and 2-4 inches in width, but 
exceptionally in young plants extending to 9 inches in length and 6 inches in breadth. Oil-pores 
angular, densely crowded, but very minute and readily visible only after the removal of the 
cuticle. Flower-stalklets generally longer than the calyces ; tube of the calyx about three times 
as long as the lid, at the time of flowering mostly |- inch long. Some of the outer filaments 
dilated at the base. Anther-connective reddish, with a slight dorsal turgidity towards the summit. 
Style much surpassed in length by the stamens. Fruits nearly an inch long, not angular ; valves 
at last deeply enclosed. Sterile seeds 1^-2^ lines long. Nucleus of the fertile seeds about 
i inch long. 

E. Foelscheana belongs to the series exemplified by E. terminalis. In some respects it is 
allied to E. latifolia ; the leaves however are generally larger and not decurrent at the base ; their 
stalks are proportionately shorter and as well as the branchlets less slender ; the flowerstalks and 
stalklets are thicker and less angular ; the calyces are of greater size, not roundish-blunt at the 
base, and therefore do not pass suddenly into a stalklet of upwards unincreased thickness ; the 
fruit is much larger, at least twice as long as broad and conspicuously contracted towards the 
summit, therefore not almost semiovate or somewhat bellshaped ; as the flowers of E. latifolia 
remained hitherto unknown, it is left to fature researches to trace out any differences between 
them and those of E. Foelscheana. A few adherent anthers of E. latifolia do however exhibit the 
same form. These two species hold almost the same relation to each other as E. urnigera to 
E. cordata. 

Some specimens without fruit, brought by Robert Brown already during Capt. Flinders' 
Expedition from Carpentaria and presented to the Melbourne botanic Museum by Sir Joseph 



EUCALYPTUS FOELSCHEANA. 

Hooker from the great Kew collections, may belong to an extreme form of E. Foelscheana, 
although the leaves pass into a lanceolar form, and the flower-stalklets are of lesser length. If it 
was not for the great diversity of habit E. Foelscheana might be approximated very closely to 
E. terminalis. 

Also in the particular series of Eucalyptus-species, to which E. Foelscheana belongs, some 
forms occur, the origin of which may possibly be traceable to hybridism, notwithstanding that in 
this genus the contact of the anthers with the stigma commences already, while stamens and 
pistils are still covered by the lid. The illustrious Professor Charles Naudin has not long ago 
positively observed, that cross-fertilisation does occur also among Eucalypts, — indeed the distin- 
guished zoologist, William Sh. McLeay, expressed an opinion already many years ago, that 
parrots, cockatoos and some other birds, while feeding on the buds of Eucalypts, might be 
instrumental in carrying the pollen of one species of these trees to the stigma of another. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an unex- 
panded flower ; 3, some stamens, the outer filaments expanded ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther, with portion of 
the filament; 6, style and stigma; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse section of a fruit; 9 and 10, sterile and fertile 
seeds ; all figures enlarged, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS HOWITTIANA. 

F. V. M, in Wing's Southern Science Record ii. 171 (1882). 

Finally tall ; branchlets angular ; leaves on stalks of moderate length, scattered, ovate- or 
oftener elongate-lanceolar, dark-green above, much paler beneath ; their lateral veins numerous, 
pinnately spreading, very subtle, the circumferential vein at a slight distance from the edge ; oU- 
pores much concealed or obliterated ; panicles axillary and particularly terminal ; their ultimate 
branchlets short, angular, bearing generally from three to six flowers without any separate 
stalklets ; calyces very small; their tube semiovate or semielliptical, not quite so long or only half 
as long as the pale conical acute lid; stamens all fertile ; filaments before expansion flexuous and 
towards the summit bent inward ; anthers minute, cordate- or renate-globular, opening by longitu- 
dinal slits ; stigma not broader than the summit of the style ; fruits very small, ovate-globular, 
truncated, narrow at the margin ; valves 3-4 minute, almost deltoid, inserted near the orifice ; 
sterile seeds extremely short ; fertile seeds very small, almost ovate, neither considerably angular 
nor provided with any membranous appendage. 

Near Rockingham's Bay at Lake Lucy, Dallachy ; thence to the falls of the Herbert-River 
and also at Glendhu, but nowhere gregarious ; B. R. Stafi'ord. 

A tree, attaining a height of about 100 feet, and at the basal butt a girth of 12 feet. Bark 
less fissured than that of the so-called Box-Eucalypts, more resembling that of the Stringybark- 
trees. Wood however much like that of the former, but its fibres not quite so interwoven, 
hence easier to split. Foliage throwing great shade. (Inspector Stafi'ord.) Leaves 2-5 inches 
long, |-1 J inches broad, gradually pointed, usually not much curved, with an oily lustre on the 
surface, not shining underneath ; their reticular veinlets very subtle ; their stomata developed on 
the underside only. Panicles not very ample, from 1^ to 6 inches long. Tube of the calyx 
slightly angular; lid almost membranous, smooth, only about \ of an inch long. Filaments 
nearly white ; anthers very pale ; their gland inconspicuous ; their cells ellipsoid, parallel, slit 
marginally. Style exceedingly thin, considerably extended beyond the calyx-tube. Fruits 
smooth, shining, of hardly more than \ inch measurement, not angular. 

This species bears the name of A. W. Howitt, Esq., F.L.S., F.G-.S., a worthy heir of parental 
literary fame, who, as an assiduous investigator of the geology and oryctognosy of Gippsland, 
also shed much light on the regional distribution and the specific characteristics of the Eucalypts 
of that district. 

E. Howittiana comes in some respects near E. Raveretiana, sharing in the remarkable 
smallness and also much in the form of the fiowers ; but it differs significantly in more rigid and 
often broader leaves with darker and shining upper page, and with hardly perceptible oil-glands ; 
furthermore flower-stalklets are not developed or only to a trifiing extent, the calyx-tube is not 
so short, nor are the fruit-valves extruded. With no other species is it closely connected, though 
the shape of the calyx reminds of that of E. stellulata. The foliage resembles that of E. Cloeziana, 
but is much wanting in oil-dots; the lid is however very different, and the fruits are much 
contracted towards the summit. 

Flowering time, so far as recorded, March and April. 

This is one of the limited number of Eucalyptus-species, available for shade trees ; and 
although it is naturally an intratropic one, doubtless like other congeners from the hottest parts 
of Australia, this species also could be reared in far extratropic latitudes. Here it may be aptly 
remarked, that the process of raising Eucalypts is one of extreme simplicity. Well-ripened seeds, 



EUCALTPTUS HOWITTIANA. 

shallowly sown (on open nursery-ground, or should the species be a rare or select one in wood 
boxes or seed-pans) germinate quickly ; when about hand-high the seedlings should be trans- 
planted in the nursery, to check the downward growth of the roots and to promote the formation 
of lateral rootlets, fit to retain some soU while moving such seedlings to places of permanency. 
The operation of transplanting should be carried out in the cool season, best under a cloudy sky, 
and the seedlings ought not to get dried up in any way during the process of removal, regular 
daUy watering for some time afterwards beiag requisite. Heyer's bore-spade is an apt 
implement for lifting the young plants from the seed-beds with some soil for final transplanting. 
If growing Eucalyptus-seedlings are to be conveyed far away, it can be effected for distances 
reached within a few days by mere packing in closed cases without much soil ; for longer 
distances they must be transmitted well established in pots or bamboo-pieces. Thus far the 
Eucaljrpts hold the same position as most pines or other coniferous trees, and stand at much 
disadvantage — so far as transit is concerned — ^to deciduous trees, being not transferable in a 
somewhat upgrown state ; nor can Eucalypts in considerably advanced growth be lifted readily 
for translocation anywhere even with a solid mass of soil. But the distribution of Eucalypts by 
means of seeds is the most easy imaginable, not only on account of the ready conservancy of the 
latter, but also because of their minuteness ; thus much greater facilities exist for creating 
Eucalyptus vegetation in far distant lands with an apt clime, than for rearing almost any other 
kinds of huge hardwood-trees. 

ExPLA>-ATiON OP A^AlTTic DETAILS. — 1, lid ; 2, an unexpanded flower, the lid remored ; 3, an nnexpanded flower, 
dissected longitudinally ; 4, some outer stamens expanded ; 5 and 6, front- and back-view of an anther, with portion of 
filament ; 7, style and stigma ; 8 and 9, longitudinal and transTerse section of fruit ; 10 and 11, sterile and fertile seeds ; 
12, portion of a leaf ; aU figures magnified, but to various extent. 







yi'iiei C-rTjediLiC^' Ii>Jh 



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EUCALYPTUS PATENS. 

Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 247 (1866). 

Tall ; branclilets slender, upwards angular ; leaves scattered, chartaceous, lanceolar-sickle- 
shaped, not shining, scarcely or slightly paler beneath; their lateral veins subtle, moderately 
spreading, the circumferential vein somewhat distant from the edge of the leaf; oil-pores soon 
concealed, not crowded ; umbel-stalks axillary, finally lateral, solitary or the uppermost panicu- 
lated, slender, not much angular, bearing from 3 to 7 flowers ; calyces almost semiovate, 
attenuated into short stalklets, not much longer than the almost hemispherical short-apiculated 
lid, not angular; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion; anthers ovate-cordate, opening 
anteriorly with longitudinal almost parallel at the summit confluent slits ; stigma not broader 
than the summit of the style ; fruits not large, truncate-ovate, narrowly edged at the summit, 4-5- 
or rarely 3-celled, somewhat streaked ; valves enclosed, very short, almost deltoid ; fertile and 
sterile seeds of the same form and size, all compressed, mostly not much longer than broad, none 
provided with a marginal membrane. 

In damp vallies of the Upper Swan-Eiver and on slopes of fertile ridges on the Blackwood- 
Eiver (F. v. M.) ; near the Harvey-Eiver (Oldfield) ; on ranges near the Tone-River (Maxwell) 
and in many interjacent places. 

The Blackbutt of South-Western Australia. 

A tree attaining a height of 120 feet, as observed by myself, the clear stem reaching some- 
times fully 60 feet, and getting a diameter of 6 feet in its lower portion, and even of 10 feet near 
the base. Bark persistent, rather deeply flssured, much like that of E. calophylla in texture, not 
readily separable as that of E. marginata, nor much stringy, neither dark, also not exuding kino. 
Leafstalks from J to 1 inch long. Leaves from 3 to 6 inches long, usually from J to 1 inch 
broad, or some widened to 1^ inch or narrowed to ^ inch, a slight recurvature perceptible at the 
extreme margin; dots well visible only in very young leaves. Flowerstalks \-\ inch long. 
Stalklets occasionally lengthened to \ inch. Tube of the calyx |-J inch long. Filaments 
yellowish-white. Anthers very pale, some broad- cordate. Fruits \,-\ inch long. Seeds 
measuring about one line in length. 

The stomata occur in about equal number on both pages of the leaves, approximately 
60,000 to a square inch. 

In flower about February. 

The characteristics of the bark bring this species into the series of Ehytiphloiae. In the 
anthereal system it forms with E. Todtiana, E. decipiens and E. concolor a transit from 
Eenantherse to the ParaUelantherse, but is best retained among the latter. The differences 
between E. patens and E. Todtiana are explained under the last-mentioned species. 

The branches of E. patens are not more spreading than in the majority of Eucalypts ; but 
Mr. Bentham derived possibly the specific name from the considerably spreading veins of the 
leaves. 

The timber of E. patens is considered a durable kind in South- Western Australia ; it is 
tough, hence used for wheelwright's work ; it does not yield to ordinary splitting processes. 

Species of Eucalyptus, like the present, not particularly valuable for their timber, would 
still afford (irrespective of fuel) ready material for dry distillation. The tar, vinegar and spirits, 
thus obtainable, find frequent use in technic operations. The percentage of tar, of acetic acid 
and xylo-alcohol, resulting from heating Eucalyptus-wood under exclusion of air, bears fair 



EUCALYPTUS PATENS. 

comparison to the yield from other kinds of woods in different parts of the globe, as shown 
already in the author's laboratory so long ago as 1866, when, under his direction, some 
experiments were conducted by Mr. Chr. Hoffmann in this respect. The wood employed was 
air-dried ; but in noting here the average of yield from the wood of four of the more frequent 
kinds of Victorian Eucalypts, it should be borne in mind, that the degree and acceleration of heat, 
to which the wood becomes subjected, exercises a modifying influence on the products ; the 
following percentage may however be regarded as approximative : — 



Crude wood-vinegar 

Tar 

Unoondensible gases 

Charcoal 



Total 



44 

6 

21 

29 

100 



The contents of xylo-alcohol in crude wood-vinegar fluctuate between 4 and 5 per cent. From 
100 lbs. of air-dried woods would be obtained nearly two gallons of vinegar of proof-strength, 
affording by simple chemic processes pure acetic acid, or fit for entering into various dyes, or 
eligible for combination with many chemical bases, or answering after purification for preserving 
culinary fruits. The wood-spirit (not exactly alcoholic in the chemical sense) can be employed 
as a solvent of various resins for varnishes, and also for some other technic preparations. Wood- 
tar is excellent for protecting iron, timber and other substances against the influence of the air, 
the application of such tar being more lasting and less costly than that of oil-paint. Should 
merely crude tar be the main-article to be obtained by secluded combustion of wood, then the 
common primitive methods, which involve little more trouble than burning wood for coal, might 
be adopted. 

Explanation oe AjfAiTTic Details.— 1, an unexpanded flower, the Kd lifted; 2, an unexpanded flower dissected 
longitudinally; 3, some outer stamens in their expanded position; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther with part of 
its filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse section of two fruits ; 8, longitudinal section of fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile 
and sterile seeds; 11, portion of a leaf; all figures magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS SALMONOPHLOIA. 

F. V. M., fragmenta phytographiee Australia xi. 11 (1878) ; Forest-Resouroes of Western Australia 13, pi. xiv. (1879) ; 
Select plants for industrial culture and naturalization, New South Wales edition 128 (1881) ; German edition 
(Auswahl ausser-tropischer Pflanzen) by Goeze, 154 (1883). 

Finally tall ; branchlets thin, slightly angular ; leaves scattered, of rather thin consistence, 
sickleshaped- or narrow-lanceolar, shining and of equal color on both sides ; their lateral veins 
spreading at an acute angle, very much concealed, the circumferential vein but slightly removed 
from the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots copious ; umbels solitary, axillary or soon lateral, containing 
ten or fewer rather small flowers ; stalks thin, nearly cylindrical ; stalklets about as long or 
somewhat shorter than the semiovate tube of the calyx; lid conical-semiovate, slightly longer than 
the tube ; stamens all fertile, the outer before expansion not indexed; anthers roundish, opening 
by longitudinal slits ; stigma not broader than the summit of the style ; fruits small, nearly 
semir-ovate, three- or rarely four-celled ; valves exserted, almost awlshaped-pointed ; fertile seeds 
very small, not prominently angular, nor provided with any appendage ; sterile seeds very minute. 

From the upper eastern part of Swan-Eiver and its affluents (F. v. M.) extending to Victoria- 
Spring through the arid interior region but not continuously (E. Giles). 

A tree, when aged, attaining to fully 100 feet height, known vernacularly as the " Salmon- 
colored Gumtree," in allusion to the smooth grey and somewhat purplish bark of an oily lustre. 
Leaves on stalks of moderate or not very great length, generally between 3 and 5 inches long, and 
between ^ and | of an inch broad, occasionally however broader, pointed at the summit, gradually 
narrowed at the base, not very inequilateral, though curved. Umbel-stalks ^ to f of an inch long. 
Lid about ^ of an inch high. Filaments yellowish-white. Fruits ^^ of an inch broad. Fertile 
seeds mostly ellipsoid, only about | a line long, slightly concave on the inner side. 

The nearest affinity of this species is to E. leptopoda ; the leaves however are shorter, 
smoother, shining and more visibly perforated by oil-dots, the flowers are fewer in the umbels, 
their stalklets shorter and their lid blunter ; the outer filaments are not all bent inward while in 
bud ; the fruits are smaller and particularly less broad, while the valves are narrower and longer ; 
besides the flowers of E. leptopoda in an expanded state and its ripe seeds require yet to be 
compared. Drummond's plants 151 and 188, referred by Bentham to E. leptopoda, represent 
E. salmonophloia. E. salmonophloia has also some characteristics in common with E. oleosa ; 
but it is taller, the bark is very different, the leaves are thinner in consistence and darker in color, 
the flowers are smaller, the lid is shorter and blunter, and the fruits are also of lesser size. 

As this is one of the oil-yielding Eucalypts, it will be opportune to add to the notes on the 
medical properties of Eucalyptus-oil, which were partly given in the article on E. salubris, although 
the hitherto recorded experiences are from the oil of E. globulus, or oftener still from that of 
E. amygdalina. The physiologic influence of the oil on blood is specially alluded to in Professor 
Hugo Schulz's essay, already quoted. He noticed, that blood coming in contact even with very 
small quantities of Eucalyptus-oil gets quite dark and coagulates. Also Dr. Schlaeger already in 
1874 recorded, that blood of animals treated with this oil shows hardly any difference in color, 
whether venous or arterial, the red corpuscles becoming deprived of the means to absorb oxygen. 
Drs. Mees and Binz ten years ago also observed, that the mere addition of one part of ordinary 
Eucalyptus-oil to 1500 parts of blood destroys in flfteen minutes the contractibility of the white 
corpuscles. 

In pathologic studies it was found, as first recorded by Professor Mosler in 1872, that the 
administration of Eucalyptus-oil reduced the volumen of the spleen. From Dr. Schlaeger's 



EUCALYPTUS SALMONOPHLOIA. 

nnmerous experiments in 1874 we know, how far the oil is exercising a retarding influence on the 
action of the heart and the circulation. Similarly the oil produces a reduced vitality of the spinal 
column, and the brain is brought by it into a less active state. Small animals become paralyzed 
from merely inhaling Eucalyptus-oil, as we learnt already from Gimbert. To demonstrate, to what 
extent the reflex-irritability can be reduced by Eucalyptus-oil, Dr. Grisar in 1873 was able to 
counteract with it completely the effect of brucin. 

Very long ago Professor Eudolphi spoke of the anthelmintic value of Oajuput-oil ; similarly 
Professors Siegen and Vidan found Eacalyptus-oil to possess vermifagal properties ; and this has 
been confirmed by independent observations of Professor Schulz ; but the efforts to annihilate 
Trichina spiralis in rabbits by this oil proved fiitile. Crawfishes placed in water, containing only 
^ per cent, of Eucalyptus-oil, succumbed in five hours as noticed by Dr. Hugo Schulz, who also 
found that cockroaches, bees and many other insects perished from slight inhalation of this oil in 
a short time. Carps placed in water, mixed with only | per cent, of Eucalyptus-oil, died in five 
minutes. 

Explanation or Analytic Details. — 1, an vmexpanded flower, the lid lifted j 2, longitudinal section of an unex- 
panded flower ; 3, some outer stamens, expanded ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther, with part of its filament ; 
6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudinal section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, sterile and fertile seeds ; 11, portion 
of a leaf ; aU figures magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS SALUBEIS. 

F. V. M., fragmenta phytographiEe Australise x. 54 (1876) ; in Trimen's Journal of Botany vi. 281 (1877) ; fragmenta phyto- 
graphise Australiae xi. 12 (1878) ; Report on the Forest-resources of Western Australia, p. 13, pi. xv. (1879) ; Select 
extratropic plants, New South Wales edition 129 (1881) ; German translation (Auswahl ausser-tropischer Pflanzen) 
by Goeze, 154 (1883). 

Finally tall ; young branchlets thin, somewhat angular ; leaves of thin consistence, scattered, 
sickleshaped- or linear-lanceolar, shining and dark-green on both sides ; their veins subtle, 
ascending in a very acute angle, the circumferential vein but little removed from the edge of the 
leaf ; oil-dots very copious, translucent ; umbels few-flowered, solitary, axillary or later lateral ; 
umbel-stalks linear-wedgeshaped, much compressed ; stalklets rather thick, angular, from shorter 
than the tube of the calyx to twice as long ; lid semielliptical, blunt, of about double the length 
of the semi-ovate calyx-tube ; stamens all fertile, before expansion rather sharply bent inward ; 
anthers oval-oblong, almost basifixed, bursting by marginal dehiscence ; connective comparatively 
broad, distinctly prominent through nearly the whole length of the anther ; stigma not broader 
than the summit of the style ; fruits small, semi-ovate, three- or rarely four-celled ; their margin 
narrow ; valves short, nearly deltoid, emersed; fertile seeds very small, not very angular, without 
any appendage ; sterile seeds extremely minute. 

From the eastern bases of the Darling's Ranges (F. v. M.) towards the more arid inland- 
tracts, at least as far as Yurindin (Forrest), Ularing and Victoria-Spring (Giles), forming with 
E. salmonophloia small open forests. 

This is the " Fluted G umtree " and also '^Gimlet Gumtree " of the West-Australian colonists, 
so called on account of the broad longitudinal often twisted impressions or wide blunt longitudinal 
ridges of the stem, a characteristic quite unique. At fall age the tree attains not rarely a height 
of 120 or occas ionally even of 150 feet ; the stem is tall in comparison to the few and scattered 
main-branches of the tree. Bark smooth, greyish, shining, to some extent brownish and greenish 
tinged. Branchlets sometimes with a white bloom. Well-developed leaves from 3 to 6 inches 
long, and ^f inch broad, gradually narrowed into a stalk of moderate length. Flower-stalks 
^1 inch long, upwards conspicuously widened. Flowers in each umbel 7 or fewer. Tube of the 
calyx about 2 lines long. Lid smooth, shining, yellowish or pale-brown. Filaments pale- 
brownis h when dry. Style shorter than the stamens. Fruits about \ inch long and broad. 
Fertile seeds hardly above half a line long ; the sterile seeds stUl shorter. 

Specific name from the sanitary importance of this tree. 

In the article on E. oleosa some of the affinities are discussed already of E. salubris to that 
species, and thus also to E. leptopoda, E. salmonophloia, E. longicornis and E. decipiens. The 
umbel-stalks and fruits are not dissimilar to those of E. redunca ; the lid resembles that of 
E. spathulata. Most of these congeners are rich yielders of volatile oil from their foliage, hence 
important in hygienic respects as well as in therapy and technology. The wood of E. salubris is 
tough yet easily to work, and serves for poles, shafts, and a variety of implements, also for rough 
wood engraving ; it is harder and paler than that of E. longicornis. But it is the extraordinary 
abundance of oil in the foliage, which renders this Eucalyptus significant, and the oil from this 
and allied species is doubtless destined to become an article of export from Western Australia. 
It may therefore here be the proper place for alluding in some respects to the importance, which 
Eucalyptus-oil has assumed gradually also in medicine, although the kinds hitherto drawn into 
use were chiefly from E. globulus and particularly from E. amygdalina. Of the efiicacy of this 
oil as an internal remedy, by powerfully and quickly pervading the whole system, there can be no 
doubt ; and likewise it has obtained already a wide scope in surgical practice. To results bearing 



ETTCALYPTUS SALUBEIS. 

on these subjects and to the power of this oil as an originator of bioxyde of hydrogen and as a 
carrier of ozone shall be alluded on the present occasion ; and still fiirther when a few other 
Encalypts, largely yielding essential oil, are coming in these pages under review. 

Dr. Hugo Schulz, University - Professor in Greifswald, has in a recent work "Das 
Eucalyptus-01, pharmacologisch und Minisch dargestellt," brought largely together what was 
known tiU 1881 of the medicinal value of the oil of Eucalyptus, and enriched his treatise also with 
numerous original observations. The whole medical history of this oil extends over less than 
twenty years, although the very similar Oil of Cajupat from Melaleuca Leucodendron has been 
used as a domestic remedy in India for some centuries, and has as a professional therapeutic been 
recognized since the earlier part of the present secular epoch in Europe as well as elsewhere. 

Professor Oloez of the Paris University, nearly twenty years ago, from material famished 
him specially by the writer of this work, produced Eucalyptol, the chemical formula of which he 
fixed as C^^H^^O ; he also isolated Eucalypten C^^Hi^, the former of which particularly eligible for 
distinct medicinal use. Professor Schulz's experiments were instituted with the oil of Eucalyptus 
globulus ; but that of E. amygdalina is the one, which hitherto alone is extensive in commerce, 
being as the least expensive so very largely exported since fully a dozen years from Mr. Joseph 
Bosisto's factory, although that gentleman operates now also to a commercial extent on the oils 
of the various Mallee-Eucalypts. Dr. Hugo Schulz for his experiments freed the oil from 
irritating acid and other extraneous products of distillation by shaking it with a diluted solution 
of soda ; he furthermore exposes the oil to the influence of light and atmospheric air, effecting 
thereby its being laden with oxygen. Of the comparative harmlessness of the oil, when thus 
purified and somewhat oxydized, notwithstanding its powerful antiseptic effect, proof has been 
given by Professor Schulz, who increased single doses to a quarter of an ounce (in dilution) 
without thereby causing ill effects, though considerable depression. 

Professor Grimbert of the Paris University proved already in 1870 the antiseptic power of 
Eucalyptus-oil by injecting it into the veins of rabbits, preventing thereby putrid decomposition, 
and mummifying the cadaver. Dr. Siegea in 1873 showed, that water containing merely one part 
of oil in 3800 parts would retard the decay of albuminous substances, thus proving this oil so far 
more powerful even than quinin ; he also demonstrated, that one half per cent, of oil in water 
would preserve raw meat from decay. Professor Bucholtz found, that 1^ parts of Eucalyptus-oil 
in 1000 parts of fluids prevent the development of bacteria, a proportion less than that of quinin 
or of carbolic acid requisite for this purpose. Professor Schulz asserts, that even one part of his 
refined oil in 10,000 parts of water obviates the appearance of bacteria in fibrin for ten days, and 
that a one per cent, liquid had this effect for at least a year, if not perhaps for an indefinite period. 
Also both Dr. Siegen and Dr. Mees required less of Eucalyptus-oil than of quinin for arresting 
alcoholic fermentation. We have therefore in the Eucalyptus-oil a remedy calculated to act in a 
high degree as an antiseptic and antizymotic. Indeed stagnant water into which many 
Eucalyptus leaves have dropped seems to prevent origination of fever even in malarian regions. 
More extensive information on the subjects here alluded to is afforded by the writer of this work 
in the Sydney " Medical Gazette," October, November and December, 1883. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, transverse section of an unex- 
panded flower ; 3, some outer stamens, expanded ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther, with portion of its filament ; 
6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudinal section of fruit ; 9 and 10, sterile and fertUe seeds ; 11, portion 
of a leaf ; all figures magnified, but to various extent. 




: odl ks'. - : Trceiil g, C° Lie. 



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EUCALYPTUS TERETICORNIS. 

Smith, a specimen of the botany of New Holland, 41 (1793) ; Transactions of the Linnean Society iii. 284 ; CandoUe, pro- 
dromus systematia naturalis regni vegetabilis iii. 216; F. v. M., in the journal of the Linnean Society iii. 83 j 
fragmenta phytographiae Australiae ii. 65; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 242; E. subulata, Cunningham, in 
Walper's repertorium botanices systematica ii. 924 ; Leptospermum umbellatum, Gaertner de fructibus et seminibus 
i. 174 t. 35. 

Finally t all ; branchlets slender ; leaves scattered, lanceolar-sickleshaped, exceptionally 
verging into an oblong form, of equal color and generally somewhat shining on both sides ; their 
lateral veins rather prominent, crowded, pinnately spreading, the circumferential vein somewhat 
removed from the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots generally much concealed ; umbels axillary or lateral, 
solitary, on slender stalks, usually bearing from 4 to 8 flowers ; stalklets thin, much shorter than 
the whole calyx ; lid variously longer than the semiovate or hemispheric tube of the calyx, often 
much elongated, varying from subulate-conical to semielliptical ; stamens all fertile ; filaments not 
distinctly inflexed before expansion ; anthers nearly oval, bursting with longitudinal slits ; stigma 
not dilated ; fruit somewhat roundish in outline, not large ; rim broad, protruding, convex ; valves 
high-exserted ; the latter four, rarely three or five, almost deltoid or semilanceolar ; seeds small, 
all without any appendage, the sterile seeds very narrow. 

From the Gilbert- and Burdekin-River to Gippsland (F. v. M.), ascending to New England, 
advancing inland to the Gwydir and some other western streams of New South Wales, but never 
very far removed from literal regions, traced already by R. Brown northward to the Northumber- 
land-Islands, occupying generally humid flats or growing around swamps and lakes or along 
watercourses, never on saline ground or saltwater-streams. A good-sized tree when well 
developed, but seldom exceeding 100 feet in height, and generally not so tall, although heights of 
160 feet are on record ; becoming stunted when occasionally growing in rocky exposed localities. 
Bark smooth, whitish or greyish ; but when especially towards the bottom of the stem the outer 
layers remain persistent, they form somewhat scaly or thinly laminar flakes. Leaves of some 
trees in general hardly exceeding half an inch at their broadest part, but otherwise gaining not 
rarely a length to 8 inches or even more ; oil-dots sometimes copiously visible and transparent. 
Umbels towards the end of the branchlets occasionally leafless, then constituting short panicles, 
containing exceptionally as many as 18 flowers. Stalklets reaching a length of \ inch. Calyx- 
tube not seldom shorter than any of those indicated in the illustrative plate. Lid sometimes 
rather suddenly contracted above the base, often slightly curved ; rarely the lid almost semiovate 
and but little longer than broad. Filaments whitish, hardly or slightly flexuous in bud. Style 
elongated, thickened towards the summit. Totaf length "ofTruit 4-5 lines. 

Small seedlings have opposite almost oval leaves, on very short stalks ; but soon the leaves 
become scattered, longCT^aJke^ahSTmorelanceolar (see fragm. phytogr.^ustr. vii. 44). 

Sir James Smith chose the specific name in allusion to the generally cylindric-pointed lid of 
the calyx. 

Although in many localities designed " Eedgum-tree," this Eucalyptus passes also as 
"Flooded Gumtree " and under the quite misleading names "Grey Gumtree" and "Bastard-Box- 
tree." Its close affinity to E. rostrata was discussed, when that species was treated in this work ; 
indeed, as then remarked, both might be regarded as forms of one species, and one illustration 
would only have been given for both, did not E. tereticornis claim a special place as one of the 
earliest of congeners described, and did not E. rostrata on account of its leading technologic value 
need prominent consideration ; otherwise each of the illustrated plates is assumed to represent 



EUCAIiYPTUS TEEETICOENTS. 

a well-marked species in these pages, so far as in our present state of phytography specific 
demarcations can be drawn. 

The timber of E. tereticornis is pronounced excellent, and seems to participate in the 
durability and general qualities of that of TTfostrata; where not required for the more important 
purposes of building material, naval structures, railway ties, cartwrights' work, implements or 
telegraph poles, the wood of this tree comes largely into consumption for fencing and superior fael. 

E. tereticornis as well as E. rostrata and perhaps some other species become sometimes 
destroyed over extensive areas by a Phasmatideous insect, which, when occasionally developing in 
vast numbers, devours the foliage of these trees so completely as to cause them to die off. The 
honorable W. McLeay has ia the proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales in 1881 
referred this insect to Podocanthus, and described this destructive creature as P. Wilkinsoni, it 
having been brought first under scientific knowledge by C. S. Wilkinson, the Government 
Geologist of New South Wales. By lighting smoky fires under the infested trees, perhaps the 
Podocanthus may become timely destroyed, especially in the pupa-state. Mr. Wilkinson (ia a 
letter to the author) states, that the Podocanthus attacked various Eucalypts indiscriminately, 
Mr. A. W. Howitt found in Gippsland E. tereticornis and E. rostrata also sometimes succumbing 
by loss of leaves through insects, but in these instances it was the caterpillar of an arctiidous moth, 
which caused the mischief, the insect (in the opinion of Mr. McLeay, who however only saw the 
larva) being allied to Orgyia. The name given by the aborigines in the northern part of New 
South Wales to E. tereticornis is " Mungurra," according to Mr. Ch. Fawcett, while the natives 
in the middle regions of Queensland call it " ArangnuUa " according to Mr. P. O'Shanesy. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, imexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an unex- 
panded flower ; 3, some stamens expanded ; 4 and 5, front- and back- view of an anther with part of the filament ; 6, style 
and stigma ; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile seeds ; 11, portion of a 
leaf ; all figures magnified, but to various extent. 




eae. S J i^itn 



F.icM- direxi: 



Slream Litho S-jv pTiriling Office Uei'o 



rate tegdlMlfig Ff:M. 




EUCALYPTUS TESSELLARIS. 

F. V. M. in the journal of the Linnean Society iii. 88 (1858) ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 251 ; F. v. M., select plants 
for industrial culture, Indian edition 120 (1880) ; New South Wales edition 130 (1881) ; German translation 
(Auswahl ausser-tropisoher Pflanzen) by Goeze 155 (1883) ; Bailey, synopsis of the Queensland flora 180 (1883) ; 
E. vimmalis. Hooker in Mitchell's tropical Australia 157 (1848) ; E. Hookeri, F. v. M. in the journal of the Linnean 
Society iii. 90 (1858). 

Finally tall; branchlets slender, glabrous, towards the summit angular; leaves scattered 
elongate- and narrow-lanceolar, slightly sickleshaped, of equal color on both sides, narrowed into 
a rather short stalk, finely pennate-veined, the circumferential vein rather close to the edge of the 
leaf; oil-dots concealed or evanescent ; umbels terminal and chiefly axillary, two or more together 
in short panicles or rarely solitary, usually 2-4-flowered ; primary and secondary stalks thin, 
somewhat angular, all short ; stalklets variously shorter than the calyx ; lid patellar or depressed- 
hemispherical, as broad as but three or several times shorter than the almost semiovate or some- 
what bellshaped-conical tube of the calyx ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers 
oblong-oval, opening by longitudinal slits ; stigma not broader than the summit of the style ; 
fruits hemiellipsoid or truncate-ovate or slightly bellshaped, three- rarely four-celled, not angular ; 
rim thin, extending considerably beyond the very short valves; fertile seeds almost flat, grey-brown, 
margined by a narrow membrane, very much larger than the sterile seeds. 

From near the south-eastern shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria (F. v. M.) to the vicinity of 
Moreton-Bay (Dr. Leichhardt), extending to some of the central regions of Australia, thus 
occurring near the Finke-Eiver (Rev. H. Kempe), traced north-eastward to Fitzroy-Tsland 
(C. Moore). 

A tree, generally of middle size, but also tall in many places. Bark totally persistent on the 
lower part of the stem only, there dark-colored and by longitudinal and transverse fissures broke 
up into small angular masses ; hence the specific name ; the rest of the stem and the branches 
ashy-grey and smooth, rarely the whole stem so to the base. Foliage comparatively dense ; the 
ultimate branches drooping. Leaves of rather thin sometimes almost chartaceous consistence, 
attaining a length of 7 inches and perhaps more, varying in breadth from f to 1^ inches, light 
green, not much shining, exceptionally broad-lanceolate, not rarely somewhat undulated, veinlets 
closely reticulated ; umbels containing sometimes as many as six flowers. Umbel-stalks 
occasionally very much abbreviated. Stalklets rarely as long as the calyx. Flower-buds not 
seldom verging into a pearshaped form. Calyces shining. Lid sometimes slightly umbonate. 
Sutural line between lid and calyx-tube early defined. Fruit not so hard as that of most species. 
Seeds more quickly shedding than those of many other Eucalypts. Fertile seed 1^2^ lines long, 
oval-roundish ; sterile seeds mostly ^-f line long, but nearly as broad. 

Colonists design this tree as the " Moreton-Bay Ash," and under that name it is repeatedly 
mentioned already by Dr. Leichhardt in the diary of his first memorable expedition. Sir Thomas 
Mitchell, while observing this tree on Fitzroy-Downs in 1846, took also notice of the peculiar 
fissuration of the lower bark. The aborigines on the ISTogoa call it " Corang," those near 
McDonnell-Range " Rumba." The specific name is derived from the peculiar manner, in which 
the persistent portion of the bark breaks up into small often almost quadrangular pieces. 

This species shares in some of the characteristics of E. trachyphloia, but irrespective of the 
discrepancies of the bark differs already in the uniform coloration of the leaves, which latter are 
also generally longer, are less pointed and show more distinctly the venation ; moreover the 
inflorescence is less expanded ; the lid is larger and separates by a more sharply defined sutural 
line from the other portion of the calyx ; the fruits are also of greater size, though less hard ; the 



EUCALYPTUS TESSELLARIS. 

fertile seeds are much larger, comparatively more compressed and distinctly margined ; but the 
last-mentioned characteristic is not well expressed in the lithographic illustration of E. tesseUaris 
now offered, figure 9 having been drawn from unripe seeds. Again the plate of E. trachyphloia 
gives the venation of the leaves of that species too prominent, and would be apt in comparison 
with the lithogram of E. tesseUaris to mislead. In reality our present plant is more nearly akin 
to E. clavigera, differing principally in the smoothness of the branchlets and young foliage, in the 
narrowness and always scattered position of the leaves and in the lesser number and shortness of 
its flower-stalklets. E. clavigera has recently been brought from the Mitchell- and GUbert-Eiver 
by Mr. Edw. Palmer, who observed that also on old trees of 40 feet height the leaves were mostly 
opposite, that the bark is rough and light-brown towards the base of the stem, but otherwise 
smooth and whitish. 

E. tesseUaris extends to New Guinea, specimens folly responding to Australian ones having 
been received more lately from the devoted missionary the Eev. T. Chalmers ; by these samples 
the transit seems established to E. Papuana (F. v. M., Papuan plants 8), which was described 
1875 from scanty material of an aberrant form with broader leaves and longer flower-stalklets. 
The bark and ripe seeds of E. Papuana remain stiU unknown. 

E. tesseUaris must be regarded as a species of considerable importance. It is not only 

content with dry locaUties, whether ridges or flats, but braves even the long-contiaued hot winds 

of the midsummers in Central Australia on places, where the thermometer will rise on unshaded 

spots to 154° F. Even contending with such cUmatic adversities this tree wUl gain a height up 

to 150 feet and a stem-diameter of 3 feet, according to observations of the Eev. H. Kempe 

on the Mission-Station at the Finke-Eiver. The climatic effect is however shown there by the 

foUage assuming a paler color than in the eastern districts. The elasticity of the wood suggested 

to the early settlers the vernacular name, under which this tree is now widely known. In an 

annexed note, kindly supplied from his own professional experiments by Mr. Byerley, the merits 

of this wood in comparison to some others wUl be recognized ; but the timber of this tree 

seems not so durable as that of many other Eucalypts, when exposed to weather; the wood 

however has the advantage on account of lesser hardness to be easier worked by artisans than 

timber of numerous other congeners ; it serves for a variety of implements well, also for staves 

and flooring. Kino is exuded by this tree in not unconsiderable quantity periodically. 

Kecokds concerning the transverse strength of some Queensland Eucalyptus-wood, giving the mean-results of 
numerous experiments instituted by Fred. Byerley, Esq., C.E., on seasoned specimens of one inch square, weights being 
applied to the middle of the rods, between supports one foot apart, the ends being free : — 
Eucalyptus maculata 



x^xoiv/ wxa Lev ... 

melanophloia . . . 


1134 


tesseUaris 


997 


crebra 


970 


tereticomis 


799 


platj'phyUa ... 


793 


terminalis 


606 


Raveretiana ... 


574 



Sir. Byerley referred to the transverse breaking strain, which various Eucalyptus-woods wUl 
bear, also in the Australian Engineermg and Building News, November 1879. 



Ex PT. AN -ATioy OF ANALYTIC DETAILS.— 1, an uncxpanded flower, the lid lifted; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unespanded flower ; 3, some outer stamens expanded ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther with part of filament ; 
6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse section of fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile seeds ; 11, part of a 
leaf ; aU figures magnified, but to various extent. 







Toa.del.Cftoedel 



FvM.direxil. 



Steaim. Lltho Gov Pr!p':>.50 ^'-►'"-et 



li©%]pte MiaiML. /M/^ 



EUCALYPTUS TODTIANA. 

F. V. M. in Wing's Southern Science Eecord ii., August (1882), 

Arborescent, but not tall; leaves scattered, rather small, rigid, narrow-lanceolar, slightly 
curved, almost equilateral, shining on both sides, scarcely paler beneath ; their veins pinnately 
spreading, much immersed, the circumferential vein only slightly removed from the edge ; oil- 
pores concealed ; flower-stalks axillary, rather long, not much compressed, bearing generally from 
4 to 7 flowers ; stalklets none or exceedingly short; calyces longitudinally streaked, their tube 
semiovate, attenuated at the base, not much longer than the hemispheric lid ; stamens all fertile, 
with exception of some of the outermost inflexed before expansion ; anthers nearly heartshaped, 
anteriorly dehiscent by longitudinal upwards confluent slits ; stigma not dilated ; fruits rather 
large, nearly globular or truncate-ovate, their margin thin; valves three, enclosed, very short; 
sterile seeds mostly broad; fertile seeds expanding laterally into a hroadish transparent 
membrane. 

Near the Greenough- and Arrowsmith-Eiver on sandy Kidges (F. v. M.) ; in the vicinity of 
the Moore-Eiver (J. Forrest). 

A small tree, with a bark not dissimilar to that of E. patens. Branchlets slightly angular. 
Leaves mostly 2-3^ inches long, 5-9 lines broad, gradually narrowed into a rather short stalk, 
thinly short-pointed. Flowerstalks |-1 inch long, not recurved. Stalklets when present com- 
paratively thick. Tube of the flowering calyx hardly \ inch long. Filaments yellowish-white. 
Anthers whitish, blunt or retuse. Style much exceeded in length by the stamens. Fruits -J-f of 
an inch long, streaked, outside not shining, of rather greyish color, conspicuously contracted or 
sometimes more widened at the orifice, the lining disk there towards the margin ascending but 
towards the opening horizontal ; placental column twice or thrice as long as broad. Sterile seeds 
rather large, not very numerous, generally not much longer than broad, brown or blackish, 
angular, often compressed, 1-1^ line long ; fertile seeds very few, pale-brown, measuring with 
addition of the membranous expansion 2-2^ lines, the surrounding membrane on the summit of 
the nucleus very short or there not developed. 

This Eucalyptus approaches systematically to E. buprestium, from which it chiefly differs in 
thicker and smaller leaves with the peripheric vein nearer to the margin, in thicker flowerstalks, 
in fewer flowers together but of larger size and not placed on thin stalklets, in proportionately 
longer lid, in anthers not broader than long with more extended but far less divergent slits, 
in the ampler orifice of the frait with thinner edge and higher inserted as also broader valves, and 
in the fertile seeds expanding into a broader and paler membrane. The differences of E. patens 
consist in that species having thinner leaves, shorter flowerstalks, narrower anthers and smaller 
fruits ; besides it attains as a tree to much greater dimensions. 

This species bears the name of Mr. Emil Todt, whose artistic talent became devoted only to 
illustrating plants at a venerable age, when most of those, engaged in such pursuits, have ceased 
to work professionally. Therefore all the more praise is due to this gentleman for the youthful 
ardour, which he still brought to bear on the extensive furtherance of the present publication. 

This species, like many others of small size, is perhaps not of any technic importance, but 
would yield fuel in localities too arid for numerous other kinds of Eucalypts. The relative value 
of the wood of various Eucalyptus-species for charcoal has not yet been ascertained with 
exactitude. Among West Australian woods the comparatively light one of E. marginata is 
regarded as the best for coal. Although no kind of Eucalyptus-wood can rival with the woods of 



EUCALYPTUS TODTIANA. 

Alders, Willows and Poplars as coal-material for the best of gunpowder, yet diverse sorts of 
Eucalyptus are in Australia employed for furnisMng the coal-ingredient of blasting powder. The 
less heavy kinds would prove doubtless the most eligible in each instance. As yet also more 
extensive data are wanting to judge of the superiority of particular kinds of Eucalypts for potash, 
although the writer of this work caused the percentage of this alkali to be determined in reference 
to the foliage, the bark and the wood of five of the more widely distributed Victorian Eucalypts, 
and gave the results of these experiments, carried out in his laboratory, as an appendix to his 
report on the Melbourne Botanic Garden in 1869. It must however be understood, that the 
yield of potash from trees of the same species is subject to some variation, according to soil ; 
nevertheless certain sorts of trees have a greater predilection for absorbing potassa-salts than 
others. At the whole these initiatory researches gave encouraging results, and proved the 
Eucalypts (as far as subjected to test) richer in potash than those few species of Melaleuca, 
Casuarina and Banksia tried in comparison. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted; 2, an vmexpanded flower, dissected 
longitudinally; 3, some outer stamens, expanded; 4 and 5, front- and back- view of anthers, with portion of their filaments 
6, style and stigma; 7, longitudinal section of a fruit; 8, transverse section of a fruit; 9, fertile seeds; 10, sterile seeds 
11, portion of a leaf; all figures magnified, but in various degrees. 



EUCALYPTOGRAPHIA. 



A DESCEIPTIVB ATLAS 



EUCALYPTS OF AUSTEALIA 



ADJOINING ISLANDS; 



EAEON FEED. \0^ MUELLEE, K.C.I.(}., 1. & PH.D., E.E.S., 

GOVEENMENT BOTAJSTIST FOE THE COLONY OF VICTOEIA. 



' NON SUCCTD^ ABBORES, ITEC SECUKIBTJS DEBE3 VASTABE EAKTJM KEGI0NEM.''~ia6er DeuterOnOmil XX. 19. 



TENTH DECADE. 



"^ 



MELBOURNE : 

JOHN FEREES, GOVEENMENT PEINTEE. 
PUBLISHED ALSO BY GBOEGE KOBEETSON, LITTLE COLLINS STEEET. 

LONDON : 
TEUBNEE AND CO., 57 AND 59 LXIDGATE HILL ; AND GEOEGE KOBEETSON, 17 WAEWICK SQUAEE. 

M DCCC LXXXIV. *• ( 




T:dt ie 



FvK l;re:ci^- 



S^eair. VAl'ii Cor FrinVnii Office Kelp 



5i(M'^te ^©mtBiflKDMdg » Schduer 



EUCALYPTUS ACMENOIDES. 

J. C. Sohauer in Walpers repertorium botanioea systematicse ii. 924 (1843) ; WooUs, contributions to the Flora of Australia 
236 (1867) ; Bailey, synopsis of the Queensland-Flora 174 (1883). 

Finally tall ; branchlets angular ; leaves scattered, of rather thin consistence, lanceolar, 
not much elongated, gradually pointed, not often curved, dark-green and shining above, paler 
beneath; their lateral veins subtle, moderately spreading, the circumferential vein somewhat 
removed from the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots numerous, largely concealed ; umbels mostly axillary 
and solitary, bearing from 4 to 13 rather small flowers ; stalks moderately or not much compressed ; 
stalklets rather thin, angular, as long as the calyx-tube or shorter or occasionally longer ; lid 
hemispherical, pointed at the summit, about as long as the semiovate at the base attenuated tube 
of the calyx ; stamens all fertile, except some of the outermost inflexed before expansion ; anthers 
hidneysha'ped, opening anteriorly by divergent slits ; stigma not dilated ; fruits semiovate, not 
large nor angular, four-celled or rarely 3- or 5-celled ; valves deltoid, inserted not much below the 
rather narrow or inward descending rim, convergent, slightly or not emersed; sterile seeds mostly 
not much narrower than the fertile seeds, all without any appendage. 

From lUawarra and the Blue Mountains through literal eastern tropical Australia at least as 
far as Eockingham-Bay. 

The " White Mahogany-Eucalypt " of New South Wales. 

This Eucalyptus has been restored to specific rank on the repeated representation of the 
Rev. Dr. WooUs, whose unrivalled knowledge of the Eucalypts of New South Wales renders his 
judgment concerning them one of authority. He points out, that the bark is more extensively 
persistent and more fibrous than that of E. pilularis, though not so much so a§ that of any genuine 
stringybark-tree and is outside greyish, that the wood is of a lighter color, of a satiny lustre when 
planed and sometimes prettily waved ; he moreover adds, that the " White Mahogany " is more a 
regular inmate of forests than the "Blackbutt," but not attaining the same height, though 
Mr. C. S. Wilkinson noted stem-diameters of 4 feet and Mr. Wentw. Watson trees of 80 feet 
height. The other differences between E. acmenoides and E. pilularis are set forth already in 
the text of the latter. The seedlings may also show differences in their young state. The timber 
is useful for building purposes, flooring boards, slabs, rails and palings ; it is readily fissile like 
that of the stringybark-trees, but heavier and more durable (WooUs). Mr. Ch. Fawcett mentions 
it as lasting and as of a ^lightly oily nature. The saplings like those of many other Eucalypts 
serve for hop-poles. In the latter editions of the "select plants for industrial culture and 
naturalisation" and also in the "systematic Census of Australia*! plants" the E. a;cmenoides has 
been called E. trianthos, as from inspection of a flowering specimen of« Link's collection, com- 
municEited by Prof. Eichler, the species described by Prof. Link already in 1822 (enumeratio 
plantarum horti regii botanici Berolinensis ii. 20) is identical with B. acmenoides ; it will however 
be better, to retain the latter appellation, as the umbels are only exceptionally three-flowered. 
Dr. Schauer chose the specific name in allusion to. the resemblance of this Eucalyptus to some 
species of Eugenia of the section Acmene. Occasionally a few umbels may be crowded on and 
near the summit of branchlets unaccompanied by leaves, thus constituting a short panicle. 
Mr. Wilkinson, the able Governriient Geologist of New South Wales, found this Eucalyptus to 
abound in the Devonian formation, for instance near the Barrington goldfields. It bears flowers 
already in a bushy young state. Acumen of the leaves not rarely narrowly elongated. Calyx-tube 
dark-colored and shining ; lid rather thin. Filaments whitish. Border of fruit sometimes in age 
by horizontal expansion of the lining disk broadish. 



EUCALYPTUS ACjMENOIDES. 

As the species here under consideration is eminently an oil-yielding one, some farther 
observations, beyond those offered in the text of E. salubris and E. salmonophloia, may be 
adduced from Prof. Hugo Schnlz's special work, the details of which are more extensively 
translated in the Australian Medical Gazette 22-23, 45-49 and 66-73 (1883). Prof. Gimbert 
was the first, who experimented on the physiologic effect of Eucalyptus-oil (that of E. globulus). 
One drachm of the re-distilled oil, divided into two doses, produced heat of the fauces, warmth 
in the stomachic region, also eructation, cephalagia and then calm sleep. Prof. Siegen, in 
administering one drachm of the oil within five hours, found drowsiness induced by it, with 
tremulancy and considerable depression of the system ; in the cutaneous exhalations and also in 
the diuresis the odor of the oil was perceptible for many hours afterwards. Single doses, so large 
as two drachms of the purified and oxygenized oil, taken by Prof. Schulz, did not affect hurtfolly 
the digestion, caused however a feeling of lassitude and some nausea. The much more irritating 
raw oil, when externally applied under exclusion of the atmospheric air, produced a sensation 
much like that from a sinapism ; the skin became diffusely reddened and pustulated. These 
appearances wore away slowly, and even for two weeks subsequently traces of the application were 
observable in cutaneous defoliations. The effect of external application of the purified and 
oxygenized oil was much milder, but miliary pustules sudamen-like appeared also. About two 
weeks after the experiment a reddish exanthema arose on the chest, and developed copious 
pustules comparable to those of Acne ; this eruption lasted for nearly a month, terminating in 
decrease of rubescence, exsiccation of the pustules and desquamation of the cutis. 

Eucalyptus-oil is able for some time to remain undecomposed in the human system, and in 
the expiratory air its presence can be perceived for two or three days after taking a large dose of 
the oil. No irritation is produced by Eucalyptus-oil on the organs of digestion, a fact in most 
favorable contrast to the effect of oil of turpentine and other volatile vegetable oils ; nor are the 
kidneys injuriously irritated by this oil. Gimbert and Siegen observed already, that the internal 
use of the oil of Eucalypts or its hypodermic injection decreases the body-temperatare of the 
human constitution readily by 2° F. The discovery of the antipyretic value of Eucalyptus-foliage 
arose with Drs. Tristany and Trixidor as early as 1865. Prof. Schulz, after experimentally 
bringing rabbits into a fever-state by injecting putrid liquids from meat or decaying hay, was 
able through counter-injection of Eucalyptus-oil to reduce the body-temperature of the animals 
thereby to the extent of 4° F. in three hours. Prof. Schulz points out, as indeed shown manifold 
before, that all terpens and analogous chemical compositions possess in a high degree the ability 
to attract oxygen and to form ozone, which latter is readily passed on again to matter, fit to 
undergo a higher stage of oxydation ; thus any living cells on contact with the ozonigerous oil 
become more speedily and more strongly oxygenated ; the oil however takes up again a new 
supply of oxygen from its surroundings, not however for an indefinite period, as the oxydation- 
process changes it gradually into a resinous substance. The oil circulates through the organism 
in the minutest atoms, its physiologic action being therefore rapid and extensive. The effect of 
the oil on the reflex-action is powerful ; circumscribed neuralgias can often be subdued by merely 
applying this remedy to the epidermis, it being so well able to penetrate the cutaneous layers. 

Explanation oe Asalytlc Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted; 2, longitadinal section of an 
unexpended flower ; 3, some of the outer stamens detached ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther with part of 
filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, longitudinal and transverse section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, sterile and fertile seeds ; 
11, portion of a leaf ; all figures magnified, but to various extent. 




F vK direxit 



';. Ldrio GovPrrabng Office Melt 



ii(gdlf)pte (gAfSijIlIko Brown. 



EUCALYPTUS CALOPHYLLA. - 

R. Brown in the journal of the Eoyal Geographic Society i. 19 (1830) ; Lindley, botanic Register xxvii., app. 157 (1841), 
Schauer in Lehmann's plants Preissianre i. 131 (1844) ; F. v. M., fragmenta phytographise Australia ii. 35 et 171 ; 
Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 255 ; F. v. M., forest-resources of Western Australia 4-5, pi. 2 ; E. splachnocarpa ; 
Hooker, botanic magazine t. 4036. 

Finally tall ; leaves scattered, conspicuously stalked, broad- or lanceolar-ovate, acute, almost 
equilateral, of firm and rather thick texture, dark-green above, muck paler and not shining 
underneath; their veins subtle, closely parallel, very spreading, the circumferential vein almost 
contiguous to the thickened margin of the leaf ; oil-dots copious, pellucid ; umbels containing 
usually 4-6 flowers and forming terminal panicles, or some few axillary and solitary ; stalklets 
angular, about as long as the umbel-stalks or somewhat shorter ; calyces pearshaped, not angular; 
lid thin, patellar, not so broad as the tube of the calyx and many times shorter, tearing off some- 
what irregularly and sometimes remaining adherent ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion ; 
anthers cuneate- or oblong-oval, opening with parallel longitudinal slits ; stigma hardly broader 
than the summit of the style ; fruits large, ovate-urnshaped, occasionally somewhat bellshaped, 
three- or four-ceUed, not angular ; rim narrow ; valves almost deltoid, deeply enclosed ; fertile 
seeds very large, black, at the dorsal edge acute, not produced into a membranous appendage ; 
sterile seeds very much smaller, narrow. 

Interspersed accompanying the Jarrah-Euealypt through nearly the whole area of that 
species, but less gregarious, reaching its northern boundary about the HiU-Eiver and its southern 
at King George's Sound, mixed also into the forests of E. loxophleba, but not into those of 
E. diversicolor, preferring a richer and deeper soil than E. marginata. A middle-sized or rather 
tall tree, exceptionally reaching a height of 150 feet, rapid in growth, umbrageous through its 
ample as well as compact ramifications and spreading foliage. Bark persistent, dark, deeply 
furrowed as in the Ironbark-trees of East-Australia ; but in its general characters the tree pertains 
to the eastern Bloodwood-trees. Leaves turning the surface more than the edge to the zenith, a 
characteristic it shares with those congeners, which have the upper page of the leaves much 
darker-colored than the lower, while they produce stomata only on the underside. The foliage of 
plants in the seedling state or of young offshoots from the base of the stem is bes et with short 
bristly hairs, while the leaves are inserted above their base to the leafstalk, as shown in the TmcE^ 
ground of the lithographic illustration. Stems have occasionally been observed with a maximum 
diameter of 10 feet towards the base. Margin of leaves slightly recurved; their punctation very 
regular. Filaments pale-yellowish, very rarely pink (Muir, Webb), but never crimson as in 
E. ficifolia. Anthers dorsifixedl Fruit hard, not shilling, somewhat uneven or slightly wrinkled 
outside. Fertile seeds the largest of the genus, often half an inch long, although some may be 
reduced to half that size, always shining, not rarely somewhat boatshaped, excavated at the hilum. 
The cotyledonar leaves necessarily correspond in largeness to the seeds ; indeed they are generally 
of 1-1 §■ inch measurement and of a renate-roundish form (see fig. 16 of the supplemental plate, 
issued -with E. cornuta in the 9th Decade). The xylogram fig. 73a, given by Mr. "W. B. Hemsley, 
as doubtfully illustrating E. calophylla, in the Gardener's Chronicle 1883 p. 465, does really belong 
to this species, which has occasionally the fruit much widened at the orifice. 

The tree, though in its natural area fer extratropical, has succeeded fairly well in some 
a lmost eq uatorial countries ; thus it thrives at Zanzibar, as observed by the meritorious 
Sir John Kirk, M.D.,"KiC^H7G., Her Majesty's Consul-General there. Fo r frost y regions this 
Bgecies is not adapted, as even at Melbourne the foliage suffers from night-frosts. E. calophylla 



EUCALYPTITS CALOPHYLLA. 

naturally grows through regions with a mUd and equable clime, and the W.A. Forest-Eeport 
significantly says "to live in a Red Grum-tree-Forest is to be healthy!" 

The wood of E. calophylla is tough and therefore drawn into use for naves, spokes, harrows, 
ploughs, shafts, handles ; it is also available for frames, rails and various building operations, 
but cannot be utilized for underground work, being subject to gradual decay when so placed. It 
is generally more free from Kino-substance when grown on alluvial soil ; its bearing strength is 
not equal to that of E. loxophleba. 

E. calophylla has only one near ally, namely E. ficifolia ; the distinctions are set forth in the 
text of the latter species. 

Dr. Robert Brown, when as companion of Captain Flinders he visited in 1802 the S. 
coast of Australia, bestowed the specific name on this tree seemingly for a double reason, because 
the foliage is more beautiftil than that of many other Eucalypts, and also because the venation of 
the leaves reminds of that of the tropical genus Calophyllum in the plants-order of Guttiferse. 

Kino-liquid, of treacle-consistence, is obtained in considerable quantity by tapping the tree ; 
it is caught in casks as material for tanning and dyeing purposes, and fetches from £20 to £25 
per ton in the London-Market. This liquid indurates, and can like the dry Kino of this and other 
Eucalypts be used also medicinally ; thus a gargle of this Kino affords quick relief in some throat- 
affections ; it acts beneficially also in diarrhoea ; powdered Eucalyptus-Kino, used for dressing 
ulcers and sloughing wounds, produces no pain, but induces a rapid healing process. 

Only quite recently it came under the author's cognizance, that Dr. Andrew Ross of Molong 
was foremost to draw attention to the healing value of Eucalyptus-foliage, he having as far back 
as Dec. 1864 in a case of an Aboriginal observed the marvellous success following the treatment of 
a gaping abdominal spear-wound, from which the bowels protruded, ichorous serum oozed out and 
much swelling arose, by the mere application of the young foliage of Eucalyptus rostrata and 
B. melliodora ; the conjux of the native steeped for this purpose the leaves in hot water, the 
' application being frequently renewed ; under this sole treatment the wound closed in six days. 
This remarkable case was brought by Dr. Ross under notice through the daily press at the time, 
and reported by him in the Medical Gazette of Sydney in 1870. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, an imexpanded flower, the lid lifted; 2, longitudinal section of an unex- 
panded flower ; 3, some of the outer stamens detached ; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther with portion of its 
filament; 6, style and stigma; 7, longitudinal section of a fruit; 8, two transverse sections of a fruit; 9 and 10, fertile and 
sterile seeds ; 11, embryo ; 12, cotyledons unfolded ; 13, transverse section of an embryo ; 14, portion of a leaf. Fig. 1-6 
and 11-14, variously magnified ; 7-10, natural size. 




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EUCALYPTUS DECIPIENS. 

Elndlioher in Huegel enumeratio plantarum Novae HoUandiEB austro-oocidentalis 49 (1837) ; Schauer in Lehraann plantse 
Preissianse i. 129 ; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 218 ; F. v. M., Report on the forest-resources of Western 
Australia 11, pi. 10. 

Finally tall ; leaves scattered, from broad- to narrow-lanceolar, or sometimes verging into an 
oval form, dull-green on both sides ; their lateral veins subtle, considerably divergent, not very 
close, the circumferential vein somewhat distant from the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots mostly con- 
cealed ; flowers axillary^ from jive to fifteen crowded on a short stalk without separate stalklets ; 
tube of the calyx almost hemispheric or semiovate, not angular, as long as or shorter than the 
broad-conical lid ; stamens all fertile and inflexed before expansion ; anthers roundish or somewhat 
renate, opening by short broad marginal slits ; stigma not broader than the summit of the style ; 
fruits small, semiovate or hemispheric or truncate-globular, their rim depressed and comparatively 
broad ; valves three or four, emersed, upwards awlshaped ; fertile seeds much larger than the 
sterile narrow seeds, all without any appendage. 

From the vicinity of Swan-Eiver to near Cape Riche so far as known, particularly along 
water-courses and on river-flats, but occasionally also on calcareous ridges. 

One of the " Flooded Gum-trees " of West-Australia. 

A tree attaining a height of 70 feet, in unsheltered localities of dwarf growth, flowering 
already in a shrubby state. Bark persistent, rough, fragile, rather soft. Leaves not very long. 
Filaments cream-colored. Anthers of some of the outer stamens occasionally broad-kidneyshaped. 

The timber of this Eucalyptus is very little known, and seemingly not of any leading value. 

The species approaches E. oleosa ; but the flowers are crowded without stalklets on the 
common stalks, the anthers are broader and open with more porelike slits, and the fruii^valves 
are totally emersed, arising from a broader rim ; moreover this species is often much taller. 

Although E. decipiens may not be a species prominently eligible for forest-culture, yet to offer 
some notes on the rearing of other congeners may here not be out of place. The experiences in 
raising Eucalypts on a very extensive scale for forestry-purposes have been larger in South- 
Australia than in any other portion of this part of the world ; accordingly the able and zealous 
conservator of the forests in that colony, J. E. Brown, Esq., has issued in 1881 a " practical 
treatise on tree-culture," in which important publication his modes of raising Eucalypts are 
particularly detailed. Here it may also be incidentally remarked, that the credit of establishing 
by special acts of Parliament the first fully organized Foresi^Department in Australia is due to 
Honorable Fred. Krichauff of Adelaide, an University-friend of the author of the present work, 
on whose first urging in 1871 Mr. Krichauff initiated legislative measures, primarily to encourage 
tree-culture and subsequently to elaborate his effectual forest-bill, based largely on a Eeport by 
the Hon. the Commissioner of Crown Lands of South Australia, G. M. Goyder, by which means 
now already under Mr. Brown's far-reaching administration remunerative results are obtained. 
The importance of forestry for Australia was pointed out also in various writings of the 
Government Botanist of Victoria for more than twenty years, notably and extensively in his essay 
" Fores1>Culture in relation to industrial pursuits" 1871. To pave practically the way for 
forestry, he distributed also from 1858 to 1873 several hundred thousands of various kinds of 
trees, including many species of Eucalypts, throughout the settlements of Victoria, in specimens 
reared by himself, not rarely the first of their kinds ever raised in Australia. As regards rearing 
Eucalypts for large forest-plantations, three or four modes can be adopted, concerning each of 
which Mr. Brown gives his experiences, to which the author's own are added : — 



EUCALYPTUS DECIPIENS. 

1. The system of raising Eucalypts in open Bamboo-tubes, according to the Indian method. — la 
Australia, where Bamboos are as yet not extensively available, tubes of good-sized stems of the 
tall South European Reed (Arundo Donax) are substituted ; they are placed vertically closely 
together, and are filled with soil for the reception of seeds ; thousands of seedlings can be reared 
in this way within the space of a few square yards, one to be left in each tube ; the latter require 
to be mollified by incipient decay through about a year's storage, so that the bursting 
subsequently in the soil may be facilitated. Seedlings in such tubes can be sent to very far 
distances quite safely, and their cost would not be more than half a penny each, according to 
Mr. Brown's calculation. They can thus be planted out in any weather during the cool season. 

2. The system of raising Eucalypts in open nursery-ground and transplanting therefrom. — 
Seedlings thus raised should be transplanted from the seedbed to a nurserybed, when about a 
hand high ; this is to be done in the cool season and on a cloudy day, with a view of allotting fair 
space to the further growth of every individual seedling, and with the object of checking the 
downward growth of the root and inducing increased formation of lateral rootlets. The best size 
of transplanting Eucalyptus-seedlings for placing them into permanent positions is a height not 
much above one foot. So soon as they are lifted, the roots should be dipped into a puddle of 
earth and water, to protect the tender rootlets against any exsiccation. This final transplanting 
process should also be undertaken only in still damp weather, while the sky is cloudy, and not too 
late in the cool season, and in accordance to this the time of the original sowing and first 
transplanting should be regulated. E. globulus is now only by this system grown for the 
South-Australian forests, and the translocation has been carried out with perfect success, even 
when the plants were already 3 feet high. To prepare the ground for the reception of the seedlings, 
ploughing and subsoiling is best resorted to. Mr. Brown plants in rows 8 feet apart, and to obtain 
finally straight and long timber, the young tree-plants are placed by him as near as from 5 to 8 feet. 

3. The system of sowing Eucalypts on ground for permanency. — The soil having been turned 
over by a subsoil-plough, spaces 4 or 5 feet apart should be prepared for the reception of a few 
grains of the seeds at each spot, and the seeds be covered up only slightly ; such sowing should 
be efiected as soon as the cool season has set in. 

Captain Campbell- Walker in his treatise " State-Forestry, its aim and object," written some 
years ago, whUe this officer was initiating a methodic system of forest-conservancy and forest- 
rearing in New Zealand, advocates even for Eucalyptus-culture at a forestral scope the system of 
broadcast-sowing, after the land has been well ploughed and harrowed, the harrow to pass over 
the ground again after the seeds are sown. Through this ordinary process of sowing, well 
adapted for larger seeds, necessarily a great proportion of Eucalyptus-seeds must get wasted on 
account of their minuteness, while on the other hand considerable labor is thus saved otherwise 
needful for methodic transplanting from nursery-ground ; although even when plants are raised 
from broadcast-sowing much subsequent attention is stUl required, to regulate the mutual 
distances of the plants to some extent by removing seedlings, where they arose too close, and 
transferring them to patches of ground left too bare. This safe transfer would be facilitated by 
the use of Heyer's borespade. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3, some of the outer stamens detached ; 4 and 5, front- and back- view of an anther with portion of the 
filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudinal section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile seeds ; 
11, portion of a leaf ; all figures magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS EUGENIOIDES. 

Sieber in Sprengel systema vegetabilium, curse posteriorea 195 (1827) ; De Candolle, prodromus systematis naturalis regni 
vegetabilis iii. 218 ; F. v. M., select plants for industrial culture, N.S.W. edit. 119. 

Finally tall ; leaves scattered, sickleshaped-lanceolar or sometimes verging into an ovate form, 
usually not much elongated, on both sides dark-green and shining, towards the base very 
inequilateral; their lateral veins subtle, moderately spreading, the circumferential vein somewhat 
removed from the margin of the leaf ; oil-dots copious and mostly pellucid; umbels 4-20-flowered, 
axillary and solitary or some few occasionally paniculated ; stalk rather slender, somewhat 
angular ; stalhlets about as long as the calyx-tube or shorter ; lid broad- or hemispheric-conical, 
acute, almost smooth, about as long as the obconic-semiovate tube of the calyx ; stamens all fertile, 
inflexed before expansion ; anthers kidneyshaped or verging to a cordate form, opening anteriorly 
by divergent slits ; stigma not broader than the summit of the style ; fruits rather small, truncate- 
globular, not quite narrow at the edge, not angular, 3-4- or rarely 5-celled ; valved deltoid, affixed 
near the orifice of the fruit, enclosed or slightly exserted ; sterile seeds mostly not much narrower 
than the fertile seeds, all without any appendage. 

From the Dandenong-Ranges and their vicinity to various hilly or mountainous places in 
Gippsland and to Twofold-Bay (F. v. M., Boyle, Howitt), extending widely over the table-lands 
towards BuUi (Kirton), thence to near Port Jackson (Sieber, Woolls), to the neighborhood of 
Mittagong and Yass (Wilkinson), advancing to New England and Moreton-Bay (Leichhardt, 
Bailey), and to the Condamine-Eiver (Hartmann). 

One of the stringybark-trees of Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland, where it is 
sometimes called the " White Stringybark-tree." 

A tree attaining a height of about 200 feet, occurring mostly in elevated poor grounds, but 
descending also into sandy low lands. Stem straight, covered as well as the branches with a thick 
fibrous outside fissurated bark, which serves for rough roofing, but the inner tougher portion also 
for tying and even for the manufacture of mats, and it can also be converted into packing paper. 
The wood is pale-colored, splits well into shingles, palings, rails and slabs, and can also be sawn 
into flooring boards, but is of very inferior value for fuel ; it is stated to be somewhat less fissile 
than that of some of the other stringybark-trees, and that it is also more lasting. The youn g 
seed lings have sc attered narrow lanceolar leaves and are tufty-hairy on the stems and leaf-stalks ; 
hence the E. scabra (Dumont de Courset, le Botanist-cultivateur vii. 280 (1814) is probably 
referable to this species, as indicated by De Candolle. The fruits sometimes are almost as closely 
crowded as those of B. capitellata. Specimens distributed by Sieber under 469 seem referable to 
E. eugenioides, and would therefore add as a synonym E. acervula (Sieber in De Cand. prodr. iii. 
217), but those available here are in bud only. 

This Eucalyptus has here been distinctly described and illustrated, particularly on the 
recommendation of the Rev. Dr. Woolls, in order that so important a timber-tree, which ranges 
so gregariously over wide areas of country, should have a duly prominent place in this work. 
Nevertheless the distinctions between E. piperita and E. eugenioides are not yet clearly made out, 
and perhaps Bentham's views, that both should be regarded as forms of one species, may finally 
have to be adopted. Indeed in the course of years, from extended observations and augmented 
museum-material, the diagnostics of many of the Eucalypts will have to be more firmly fixed yet, 
and especially those of all the Stringybark-Eucalypts. The bark of E. eugenioides does not 
secede from the branches as is the case with that of E. pilularis. Sieber selected the specific 



EUCALYPTUS EUGENIOIDES. 

name from the saturated green and dense foliage which gives to this tree the aspect of an 
Eugenia, in contrast to many Eucalypts with light-green and scanty foliage. 

The remarks on the therapeutic value of Eucalyptus-oil, which liquid can also be remilnera- 
tively distilled from the species here alluded to, are continued from the article under E. acmenoides. 
Prof. Gimbert already in 1870 demonstrated clinically the eligibility of Eucalyptus-oil in surgical 
treatment. He bandaged contused wounds simply with fresh crushed Eucalyptus-leaves, and 
even in oedematous or incipient gangrenous complications the effect was remarkable ; gunshot 
wounds, even after long unsuccessfdl treatment by other applications, yielded to the Eucalyptus 
treatment ; the pus in these cases becomes soon inodorous, and healthy granulation is induced. 
Dr. FouquS found, that in defects of the cutis after smallpox, rapid cicatrisation was brought about 
by the application of contused Eucalyptus-leaves. Prof Gubler in 1871 recommended the use of 
Eucalyptol against phagedjenic and also gangrenous ulcers, to initiate a healthy granulation. 
Dr. Cochet was the first, to apply either the alcoholic tincture of Eucalyptus-leaves or their 
aqueous distillate for dressings in so formidable cases as necrosis and carcinoma ; the general 
results were, according to the particularity of the instances, either healthy granulation or in 
incurable cases at least cessation of fetidity. Drs. Marcano, Labb^e and Aquilar early corroborated 
the experiences of their clinical predecessors in this direction, these surgeons using however 
Eucalyptus-tincture, or a diluted alcoholic solution of the oil, or an infusion, or the dry powder 
of Eucalyptus-leaves. The particulars of the results, obtained early by these circumspect 
practitioners, are detailed in Prof. Hugo Schulz's treatise, as well as many of the subsequent 
observations, briefly alluded to on the present occasion. Prof Siegen used gauze-bandage 
saturated with a solution of Eucalyptus-oil after operations on caseous lymphatic glands, on genu 
valgum, lipoma, caries, phlegmone, hygroma, periarticular abscess of the knee, after elbow- 
resection, also extensive scalds ; the lotion consisted of 1 part Euc-oU dissolved in 5 parts alcohol, 
and subsequent dilution with 40 parts water ; a dressing of that strength requires removal after 
three days ; one with 5 per cent, oil can be left unchanged for four or five days. Eczema, apt to 
arise from thymol-dressings, does not occur under Euc. bandage. Professor Siegen also found the 
pus in similar cases scanty and odorless, and noticed the healing process to be one of comparative 
rapidity. Prof Busch employed also in his clinic the Eucalyptus-oil as an antiseptic ; but he 
found, that acclusive bandage, sprinkled with pure oil, produced irritating effects. He however 
applied the undiluted oil by a brush with excellent results in the following cases : — Excision of 
keloid, tubercular infiammation of tendon-sheet, periproctic and other abscesses, various ulcera- 
tions, in cancer after operation. What adds to the value of this oil in surgery is the fact, that its 
application is always painless. For rinsing not only accidental wounds but also those after 
operations Prof Busch uses an aqueous lotion of Eucalyptus-oil of 2-3 per cent, strength, when 
the effect proved to be quite as good as with any other antiseptic. 

ExPLAiJATiON or Analytic Details.— 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3, some of the outer stamens detached ; 4 and 5, back- and front-view of an anther, with portion of 
filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudinal section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile seeds ; 
11, portion of a leaf ; all figures magnified, but to various extent. 







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EUCALYPTUS FOECUNDA. 

J. C. Schauer in Lehmann's plantse Preissianse i. 130 (1844) ; Bentham, flora Auatraliensis iii. 252 (1866). 

Branchlets slender ; leaves scattered, narrow-lanceolar, generally not much elongated, almost 
straight or slightly curved, narrowed into a rather short stalk, shining and equally green on both 
sides ; their lateral veins subtle and moderately spreading, the circumferential vein rather close to 
the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots numerous but concealed ; umbels axillary and solitary or at the end 
of the branchlets sometimes forming short panicles, 4-12-flowered ; umbel-stalks rather short and 
slender ; stalklets almost wanting or very short; calyx-tube hemiellipsoid, twice or thrice as long as 
the almost hemispheric lid; stamens aU fertile, inflexed before expansion ; anthers nearly ovate, 
opening by parallel slits ; stigma not broader than the summit of the style ; fruits small, truncate- 
ovate or hemiellipsoid, slightly angular, 3- or 4-celled ; fruit-border narrow, extending considerably 
beyond the valves; fertile seeds conspicuously larger than the sterile seeds, all without any 
appendage. 

From the vicinity of the Salt-Eiver to Swan-Eiver and thence northward to Shark-Bay, 
particularly on limestone-rises, but also on sandy plains with calcareous substratum. 

The " Ooragmandee" of the Aborigines of the Murchison-Hiver, according to Capt. Pemberton 
Walcott, who also notes, that the nomades locally use the wood of this species on account of its 
hardness and elasticity for spears. 

A shrub or small tree, dwarfed on exposed and very dry places to a few feet, flowering already 
at 4 feet or even less. Bark darkish, smooth, shedding superficially in cartilagineous lamellae, 
but becoming rough and somewhat fibrous on the stems of aged plants. Leaves dark-green, 
occasionally in some individual plants only \ inch broad ; their veins sometimes prominent, the 
circumferential one not always close to the edge of the leaf. Oil-dots dark as in E. gracilis. 
Filaments pale, but becoming yellow-brownish in exsiccation. Fruits shining. 

Dr. Schauer, when defining descriptively this species from material brought about forty years 
ago from near the entrance of Swan-Eiver, chose the not very characteristic specific name from 
the large number of flowers and fruits, with which the branchlets are loaded. E. foecunda might 
from great external resemblance be confounded with E. gracilis ; but the latter has the outer 
stamens sterile, the anthers roundish and opening by pores, and the fruits shorter as well as 
comparatively broader. But the real affinity of the species here under consideration is with 
E. loxophleba ; indeed it remains unascertained, whether that tree is or is not the arboreously 
developed state of E. foecunda, arisen in humid mountain-regions and in a deeply pervious soil ; 
it differs irrespective of its tall growth (to about 100 feet, with a stem-diameter to 4 feet) in gene- 
rally longer leaves with rather more distant also often more prominent and less spreading veins, 
the iutramarginal one not close to the edge of the leaf, in the oil-glands being to a large extent 
pellucid and the anthers generally shorter ; but these particular characters are subject to some 
variations, and unless it can be shown, that E. foecunda in its youngest state has not the roundish- 
cordate leaves of E. loxophleba, we could not venture to keep the two specifically apart. Under 
these circumstances no distinct plate and description will be devoted to E. loxophleba in this 
work, but on the present occasion some references may aptly be given of that useful tree. 

E. loxophleba, Bentham's flora Australiensis iii. 252 (1866) ; F. v. M., Eeport on the Forest- 
Resources of "Western Australia 7, pi. 5 ; E. amygdalina, J. 0. Schauer in Lehmann's plantse 
Preissianse i. 130. — The York-Gum-tree. — On the eastern tiers of the Darling's Eanges a main- 
constituent of the forests, spreading sparsely eastward to Kojenup and southward to the vicinity 



EUCALYPTUS FOECUITOA. 

of King George's Sound. The abundance of the tree towards the town of York suggested its 
vernacular name ; the very ascendant veins of the leaves gave rise to the specific appellation. 
The stem is oftener crooked than straight. The bark is persistent and rough, peeling off only 
from the extremities of the branches. The wood is remarkably tough, hence preferentially drawn 
into use for wheelwrights' work ; even when dried it sinks in water. The foliage is comparatively 
rich in oil, and if we consider the extensive frequency of the tree, should afford the material for 
an important medicinal and technological article. In the recently issued West-Australian Forest 
Report by the Hon. Malcolm Fraser, C.M.Gr., E. loxophleba is calculated to occupy 2,400 square- 
miles as a timber-tree, while its shrubby state extends that area stUl farther. East and west of 
the broad silvan belt of E. loxophleba through the ranges occurs a forest girdle of E. redunca, the 
one species replacing the other. The " Yandee " of the country towards the Lower Murchison- 
Eiver seems a form of E. loxophleba, unless it should be counted to the normal E. foecunda. 

Mr. Duboulay ascertained, that a saccharine substance, similar to the MeUitose of E. viminalis, 
drops from the York-Gum-tree. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, an imexpamded flower, the lid lifted; 2, longitudinal section of an 
unexpanded flower ; 3, some of the outer stamens detached ; 4 and 5, back- and front-view of an anther with portion 
of its filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7, transverse section of two fruits ; 8, longitudinal section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile 
and sterile seeds ; 11, portion of a leaf ; all figures magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS MICEOTHECA. 

F. V. M. in the proceedings of the Liimean Society iii. 87 (1857) ; Papers relative to Gregory's Expedition in search of 
Leichhardtp. 7 (1859); fragmenta phytographias Australise xi. 14 (1878) ; Report on the Forest-Resources of Western 
Australia 11, pi. 11 (1879) ; E. brevifolia, F. v. M. in the proceedings of the Linnean Society iii. 84 ; E. brachypoda, 
Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 223, partly. 

Finally rather tall ; branclilets slender ; leaves scattered, on somewhat short stalks, narrow- 
lanceolar or occasionally becoming sickleshaped or broad-lanceolar, pale greyish-green and not 
shining on either side; their veins faint, close, pennately spreading, the circumferential vein 
generally rather near to the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots quite concealed ; umbels Z-S-^flomered, mostly 
forming terminal panicles ; umbel-stalks slender, of moderate length ; stalklets from very short to 
as long as the calyx-tube ; calyces small, their tube almost hemispheric, not quite so long as the 
semiovate-conical lid ; stamens very short, all except some of the outer inflexed before expansion ; 
anthers minute, roundish-ovate or almost globular, opening by longitudinal slits ; stigma not 
broader than the summit of the style ; fruits small, their border very narrow, valves 3-4, fully or 
sometimes half exserted, almost deltoid ; fertile seeds considerably larger than the sterile seeds, all 
without any appendage. 

From the vicinity of the Murchison-Eiver scattered northward as far as Cambridge-Gulf and 
the lower Victoria-River, widely though not gregariously distributed through the interior of 
Australia, reaching the Darling- and Lachlan-River southward and the Flinders-Eiver north- 
eastward (F. V. M.), occurring also on Dampier's Archipelagus ( G^a;2;e&-Expedition), occupying 
as well hQly as flat ground and even dry sandy places. 

The tree attains a height of 80 feet and a stem-diameter of 4 feet (K. H. Bennett) ; thus it is 
one of the largest in the desert-tracts ; its aboriginal name in Eiverina is " Tangoon," on the 
Murchison-Eiver "Callaille" and "Yathoo"; in Western Queensland the name, given by the 
autochthones to this tree, is " Coolybah." Bark rough, more or less dark- or ashy-grey outside, 
largely or even perfectly persistent, or its outer layer sometimes seceding, leaving the surface 
smooth and whitish ; the bark is therefore as variable as that of E. crebra, shedding generally 
more when the tree is growing in wet ground ; just as now also a smooth-barked form of 
E. marginata is recorded by Mr. G. Simpson as the Salmon-barked Jarrah. Wood red-brownish 
or reddish, remarkably hard, heavy and elastic (WooUs, O'Shanesy). Branchlets pensile. Leaves 
sometimes fally a span long, the circumferential vein occasionally at a considerable distance 
from the edge, but again particularly in narrow forms of the leaves almost contiguous with their 
margin. Flowers agreeably scented, some in the panicle of umbels binate or singly scattered. 
Tube of fruit-calyx almost hemispheric or nearly semiovate ; valves exceptionally five ; septa 
thin ; fruit-cells widely opening. In the variety brevifolia the leaves become reduced to \ inch 
width and the fruits to ^ or even ^ inch. 

E. microtheca is placed by Bentham judiciously next to E. crebra, from which it can best be 
distinguished by thicker and paler leaves, by mostly shorter stalklets, by a less dilated stigma 
and by the calyx-tube being broader and including generally only one-half of the capsular portion 
of the fruit. From E. rostrata, with which species it is occasionally consociated, it differs in the 
always pale and never shining leaves with very subtle veins, the circumferential less removed 
from the edge of the leaves, particularly in the paniculated flowers with shorter stalklets, in the 
blunt or less pointed lid, in the smaller almost roundish anthers, in the smaller fruits with very 
narrow borders and in the comparatively broader sterile seeds. Under E. Eaveretiana have been 
pointed out already the differences, which separate that species from E. microtheca. 



EUCALYPTUS IVHCROTHECA. 

E. micro theca is in flower from December to February ; but tbe anthesis may not be syn- 
chronous in all localities and in every year, as it may to some extent depend on tbe time of the 
principal rainfall. 

The specific name of E. microtheca was chosen in reference to the comparative smallness of 
the firait. 

Bentham (Flora Australiensis iii. 223) unites E. microtheca with E. brachypoda ; but as 
pointed out already in the fragmenta (xi. 14) Drummond's plant iv. 73 belongs to the southern 
regions of Western Australia, only his subsequent collections, particularly the sixth, bringing 
plants from the neighborhood of the Murchison-Eiver. His plant in the Melbourne collection is 
also not in fruit ; but the flowering specimen, to which Turczaninow's description is well 
applicable, agrees with E. rudis. Thus also the figure, named E. brachypoda, among a number of 
woodcuts, representative of various forms of Eucalyptus-fruits, as given by Mr. W. B. Hemsley 
in the Gardener's Chronicle for 1883 page 464, is referable to E. microtheca. Mr. K. H. Bennett 
notes E. microtheca and E. populifolia irrespective of E. oleosa as possessing water-yielding roots, 
but according to his observations E. microtheca yields most of the precious fluid. The lateral 
roots are lifted by the natives with sharp-pointed sticks or their spears to the surface from about 
a foot or less depth and to a distance of 15 or more feet from the tree, the overlying earth when 
necessary being removed by wooden shovels ; the root is then cut into pieces of about 18 inches 
length and the bark peeled off ; if the water, on placing these fragments vertically, does not at 
once commence to ooze out spontaneously, the process is expedited by blowing vigorously at one 
of the ends of the root-pieces ; roots of the size of a man's wrist are the best for this operation. 
Mr. Bennett obtained in most favorable cases by these means a quart-pot full of water in half an 
hour and found it beautifully clear, cool and free from any unpleasant taste. Mr. John Cairns (in 
the Transactions of the Philosophical Institute of Victoria 1859, iii. p. 32) refers also faUy to the 
water-yielding Eucalypts as " Weir-Mallees." The courageous explorer Edw. John Eyre gave 
likewise an account of this process for obtaining water (in the journal of his expeditions 
i. 349-351). Boots from depressions in the ground yield the fluid more copiously. Main-roots 
near the stem are not sufficiently porous for obtaining water therefrom. Messrs. Muir saw 
Desert-Eucalypts also used widely in South-Western Australia for obtaining drinking water from 
the roots, the Aborigines having entirely to depend on this source for water in many of their 
hunting excursions, the roots chosen being about one inch in thickness, the surrounding soil being 
often dusty dry. 

At some of the international exhibitions timber-specimens of Eucalyptus Baveretiana were 
shown as obtained from E. microtheca, but the color of the wood of the two is very different, as 
pointed out well by Mr. P. O'Shanesy, — that of E. Baveretiana being dark-brown and prettily marked, 
that of E. microtheca reddish. The same keen observer of the Flora of subtropical Eastern 
Australia noted also, that the natural location of these two kinds of trees in that region is sepa- 
rated by a very broad line ; inasmuch as E. Baveretiana is entirely confined to rich moist alluvial 
soil and banks of watercourses, while E. microtheca is only to be found there on poor particularly 
clayish soil, bordering on swamps especially in the " Brigalow-scrubs," it having a predilection for 
places subject to occasional inundations, its area commencing near Expedition-Bange, thence 
extending westward, — ^into which region E. Baveretiana never penetrates ; nor are the two species 
ever found in company. The wood of both is very difficult to split, but would be valuable for 
sawing. In the more central portions of Australia the timber of E. microtheca is of eminent 



ri / 



EUCALYPTUS MICEOTHECA. 

importance for building purposes, on account of the paucity of Eucalyptus-species of tall growth 
in those wide tracts of country ; and it is further of significance, that E. microtheca will brave 
a climatic temperature as torrid and as high as any on our planet, the thermometer rising in the 
shade, on places where this Eucalyptus grows, occasionally to 127° F. For the vigorous develop- 
ment of this tree, it seems however necessary, that some humidity should exist beneath the surface 
of its localities. This species has evidently not received the attention, which it merits, for 
acclimation or rather translocation ; in future forestral measures, likely to be adopted also for the 
great desert-regions of Africa, it is probably destined, to play an important part ; its ratio of 
growth seems not yet recorded anywhere. 

The leaf-stomata of Eucalyptus microtheca are amphigenous ; their number is nearly as 
large on the upper page of the leaves as on the lower ; hence they are called for this and for 
numerous other species similarly circumstanced isogenous in the present work ; this almost equal 
distribution of the stomata coincides with the similarity of the color of both sides of the leaves ; 
whereas the occurrence of stomata on the lower sides of the leaves only (hypogenous stomata) 
indicates a disparity also otherwise of the two leaf-pages, the upper being darker and often 
shining, the lower paler and frequently without lustre, while moreover in these latter cases the 
leaves are not by a twist of their stalks placed in so vertical a position as those with isogenous 
stomata, and are indeed generally turning more in a horizontal direction. Species of Eucalyptus 
with solely hypogenous leaf-stomata are considerably less numerous than those with amphigenous 
stomata, and they belong largely to cooler regions, while such Eucalypts as are bearing great heat 
and much dryness present leaves with isogenous stomata. Among the species with amphigenous 
leaf-stomata are however very many, which have on the upper side of the leaves a much lesser 
number of these breathing organs than on the lower side. This distribution has been 
characterized as heterogenous in this work, and pertains also to some species inhabiting regions 
with less heat and dryness. Nevertheless among the Eucalypts with isogenous stomata are 
comprised also several kinds, which do not advance into torrid climes naturally, though some 
power of adaptability to the influences of dry heat seems indicated by this location of the 
breathing pores irrespective of the structure of the latter. In some forms (not always specific) of 
the genera Geijera, Atalaya, Canthium, Carissa, Jasminum and Tecoma the writer of this work 
observed, that in cooler humid forest-tracts their leaves are dark-green on the upper side and much 
paler on the lower, while in arid shadeless regions the leaves show almost as pale a hue on the upper 
page as on the lower, comparable to the differences in this respect between E. corymbosa and 
E. terminalis. Considerable diversity is shown as regards the size of stomata by various 
Eucalypts ; thus E. clavigera, E. Cloeziana and E. setosa have them several times smaller than 
E. alpina, E. globulus and E. incrassata. Two years ago Dr. A. Tschirch in an able treatise on the 
development and structure of stomata (Garcke's Linnaea xlui. 139-252) alludes to a few Eucalypts 
also, and illustrates so far E. incrassata (figure 12) and E. obUqua (figure 14). Some references 
in this important essay to the climatic location of E. amygdalina were however recorded from 
erroneous information, that species in a marked manner belonging to humid forestral regions 
solely, never occurring in any open arid tracts, its stomata therefore indicating no particular 
adaptability of the foliage to resist great heat combined with much dryness. 

Eucalypts are prone to form offshoots from stumps, especially if the felled trees were not of 
very great age ; but this mode of renovation takes places in different kinds of Eucalyptus not 
with equal force or readiness. Comparative observations on this subject are not sufficiently 



EUCALYPTUS MICEOTHECA. 

extant. Among those, which sprout from the root, after the cutting of the stem or its destruction 
by fire or other agencies, are : E. globulus, E, viminalis, E. goniocalyx, E. amygdalina ; some 
other species show less or little inclination to form saplings from the root, among them 
E. rostrata ; but all kinds of Eucalypts become disseminated spontaneously more copiously and 
more readily than almost any other sorts of trees, the number of seeds, shed annually from any 
single Eucalyptus-tree, being enormous. Prof. Charles Naudin observes, that in the countries 
around the Mediterranean Sea Eucalyptus-growth has commenced to become spontaneous, so that 
many species, to use the term of Mr. H. C. Watson, have there become "colonized" already, the 
first introduction being in many cases due to the writer. If any Eucalypts are felled in the wet 
season, when the flow of sap is most copious and vigorous, quite a mass of off'shoots may emanate 
from the base of the stump, they may rise to a man's height in a year, and may afford in a few 
years quite a profitable return in fencing material or fuel, particularly by timely thinning out ; 
however to subdue them early, if that be required, may need several cuttings in the season. 
Where tree-extractors cannot be employed, to clear any land for culture or pasture from 
Eucalypts, the ringing process is frequently adopted, it being always understood, that trees of real 
timber-value should not be sacrificed by that destructive procedure. For "ringing" however it is 
needfal, to cut well around into the actual wood of the stem ; if this is done in the height of the 
summer, few or no offshoots will be formed, to encumber the ground anew ; the mere removal of 
a ring of bark will — as a rule — ^not suffice, to extinguish the life of an Eucalyptus-tree, the union 
between the severed portions of the bark being readUy re-established by the particularly vigorous 
vitality of the cambium in these kinds of trees. 

Explanation op Analttic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted; 2, longitudinal section of an 
nnexpanded flower; 3, some of the outer stamens detached; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther, with part of its 
filament; 6, style and stigma; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudinal section of a fruit; 9 and 10, fertile and sterile seeds; 
11, portion of a leaf; all figxu:es magnified, but to various extent. 

Supplemental Plate. — Cuticle of leaves of E. Abergiana, E. alpina, E. botryoides, E. buprestimn, E. clavigera, 
E. Cloeziana, E. globulus, E. gomphooephala, E. incrassata, E. largiflorens, E. raarginata, E. miorocorys, E. microtheoa, 
E. peltata, E. Raveretiana, E. resinifera, E. setosa, E. siderophloia, E. tetrodonta, E. Torelliana ; exhibiting cellules and 
stomata ; all figures diametrically 450 times magnified. 




E.ABERCIANA. 




E.GLAVICERA. 




E.MICROTHECA. 




E. SETOSA. 




E.A LP INA. 




E. CLOEZIANA. 




E.LARC1FL0RENS. 




E.PCLTATA. 




E.SIDEROPHLOIA. 







E.B0TRYO1DES. 




E.CLOBULUS. 




V/ 



^ 





t 



E.MARGINATA. 




E.RAVERETIANA. 




E.TETRODONTA. 




E.BUPRESTIUM. 




E.COMPHOCEPHALA. 




E. RESINIFERA. 




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EUCALYPTUS EEDUNCA. 

J. C. Schauer in Lehmaun's plants Preissianaj i. 127 (1844); Bentham, flora Aiistraliensis iii. 253; F. v. M., Report on 
the Forest-Resources of Western Australia 7, pi. 6 ; Fragmenta phytographifB Australije xi. 15 ; E. xanthonema, 
Turozaninow in Bulletin de la Sooi^t^ imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou xx. 163 (1847) ; Walpers, Annales 
botanices systematicEe i. 309. 

Finally tal l ; leaves scattered, lanceolar, sometimes verging into an almost ovate or linear 
or somewhat falcate form, of an equal and generally dull green on both sides ; the lateral veins 
subtle, much spreading, the circumferential vein somewhat distant from the edge of the leaf ; oil- 
dots mostly concealed ; umbels axillary, solitary, seldom paniculated, with usually from 5 to 14 
flowers on a more or less compressed stalk of moderate length ; tube of the calyx semiovate or 
hemiellipsoid, not angular, attenuated into a very short stalklet, half or less than half as long as 
the conical acute slightly curved smooth lid; stamens all fertile and except the outermost inflexed 
before expansion ; anthers oblong, opening by parallel slits ; style considerably elongated ; stigma 
not broader than the summit of the style ; fruits semielliptical or truncate-ovate, three- to four- 
celled ; its rim narrow ; valves reaching the summit of the fruit-tube or extending slightly 
beyond it, short-pointed ; fertile seeds broader but hardly longer than the sterile seeds. 

From the vicinity of Cape Riche and King G-eorge's Sound fully to the Murchison-River, 
the prevailing tree on the eastern tiers of the ranges and on the adjoining flats. 

The " "Wandoo " or principal " White Grum-tree " of West- Australia. 

In rich and deep soil attaining a height of 120 feet, as ascertained by the author, but in poor 
ground sometimes over not inconsiderable stretches of country remaining of shrubby growth, 
though flowering copiously ; estimated by the Lands Department of Western Australia to occupy 
naturally about 10,000 square-miles, being thus next to E. marginata the most widely distributed 
Eucalyptus in the south-western portion of our Continent, even the leading other timber-species 
there occupying very much less extent of country, though the less gregarious E. calophylla has 
also a wide range there. E. redunca is bounding east and west an extensive longitudinal belt of 
E. leptophleba, as shown in an excellent map, issued recently with an important document by the 
W. A. Forest-Board. Bark smooth and whitish, remarkable for the white coloration, which it 
gives off from its surface on friction ; thus this species in the cortical system belongs to the 
Leiophloiae. Leaves never much elongated, of firm texture, occasionally in the shrubby variety 
narrowed to \ inch width, seldom shining and only exceptionally veined prominently. Leaves of 
young plants or of offshoots from roots of older trees scattered, greyish, almost cordate, 
conspicuously stalked. Umbel-stalks usually dilated upwards considerably, bearing occasionally 
from 2-4 flowers only. Flowerbuds remarkably slender. Lids in rare instances really hooked, 
though the specific name would lead to suppose, that this was an ordinary characteristic. 
Filaments on exsiccation assuming a pale orange-color. On the summit of Mount Bakewell the 
author obtained what appears to be a large-flowered variety with blunt and proportionately 
short lid. 

The Wandoo is for its growth content with cold flats of comparatively poor soil, even where 
humidity stagnates in the wet season. It furnishes a pale, hard, particularly tough, heavy and 
durable timber, prized for building purposes, various implements and especially for wheelwrights' 
work, supplying thus the best of shafts, cogs, naves, spokes and felloes in Western Australia. 
The seasoned wood weighs about 70 lbs. per cubic foot. Large dimensions of timber are available 
from this tree, as stems do occasionally occur to a diametric breadth of 1 7 feet towards the base^ 
as observed by Corporal Oliver Jones. 



EUCALYPTUS EEDUNCA. 

As this species of Eucalyptus for ages to come wUl supply timber to local saw-mUls on an 
extensive scale, it may be here the proper place to offer some observations on the best mode of 
preparing EucaJyptus-timber as a superior article for the lumber-market. What in the Report, 
issued by the West-Australian Government on the " present condition of the forests and timber- 
trade " has been said, to secure Jarrah-timber of the best quality, applies as well to the generality 
of Eucalypts. On this subject Mr. George Simpson of Bunbury speaks from long experience 
with authority. He points out particularly in reference to the Jarrah, that Eucalyptus-timber 
on account of its density cannot be seasoned in the log ; timber 12 feet by 12 inches square, 
left where hewn for seven years, shrank when cut into boards nearly as much as newly felled 
timber ; indeed exposure of logs to drying influences will season only the outer part, and this 
to the injuiy of at least the circumferential portion. He therefore very properly insists on the 
desirability, that the stems after felling should be sawn up at once into the requisite sizes ; the 
sawn timber should forthwith be removed to the stacking shed, and to prevent fissuration and 
warping should be lightly covered with sawdust, the latter being the easiest obtainable and 
appliable material for preventing too rapid an evaporation of the natural moisture of the timber, 
sawdust being a slow conductor of temperatures. Eucalyptus-timber (at least that of Jarrah) 
requires for seasoning by this method about three months for widths of 3 x 2 inches, and about 
twelve months for widths of 12 x 12 inches. As regards the time of felling Mr. Simpson is in 
accord with all rational observers, urging that the trees should be felled, when the flow of the sap is 
least active, therefore towards the end of the summer-season, before heavy rains during the cooler 
months have set in, to start anew a vigorous circulation of the sap. This gentleman remarks 
further, that even the stumps of such Eucalyptus-trees, as were felled in the wet season, split 
much more than when the felling took place in the drier part of the year. Great care should also 
be taken to prevent too severe shaking of the stems in felling, otherwise the timber will show 
defects, though sometimes only after having been in use for awhile. Much crushing can often be 
obviated by directing the fall towards underwood and away from stony or rocky surfaces. To this 
mishap, trees to which "ringing" has been applied, are still more subject, irrespective of the 
injury to the outer portion of the stems through cracking in exsiccation, while standing lifeless 
exposed to the vicissitudes of weather, and irrespective of the difficulty of passing the saw 
through Eucalyptus-wood, hardened by drying. 

ExPLAjJATiON OF ANALYTIC DETAILS. — 1, an imexpaoided flower, the lid lifted; 2, longitudinal section of an unex- 
panded flower; 3, some of the outer stamens detached; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther with part of its 
filament ; 6, style and stigma ; 7, longitudiual section of a fruit ; 8, two transverse sections of fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and 
sterile seeds ; 11, portion of a leaf; all figures magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS KUDIS. 

Bndlicher in Huegel's envimeratio plantarum Novae HoUandi^ austro-ocoidentalis 49 (1837) ; Schauer in Lehmann plantse 
Preissianae i. 130; Bentham, flora Australiensis iii. 244; F. v. M., Beport on the Forest-Resources of Western 
Australia 10, pi. 9 ; fragmenta phytographias Australise xi. 14 ; E. brachypoda, Turczaninow ia Bulletin de la 
Soci^t^ Imp^riale des Naturalistes de Moscou xx. part, trois. 21 (1849). 

Finally tall ; leaves scattered, from broad- to narrow-lanceolar, more or less curved, gradually 
pointed, mostly of equal dull green on both sides ; their lateral veins subtle, very spreading, the 
circumferential vein somewhat removed from the margin of the leaf; oiUdots largely pellucid ; 
umbels axillary, solitary, on conspicuous slender stalks, three- to eight-flowered ; calyces on 
rather short stalklets, not angular ; their tube almost topshaped or somewhat bellshaped, nearly 
as long as the broad-conical lid or somewhat shorter ; stamens all fertile, inflexed before expansion 
except some of the outermost ; anthers ovate, with contracted base, opening by parallel slits ; 
stigma not broader than the style ; fruit turbinate-hemispherical, three- to five-celled ; its margin 
depressed, comparatively broad ; valves deltoid, quite exserted; fertile seeds broader but mostly 
not longer than the sterile seeds, all without any appendage. 

On river-banks and around swamps from the neighborhood of Swan-River to Cape Leeuwin 
and thence eastward at least as far as the Gardiner-Eiver. 

One of the " Flooded Gum-trees " of Western Australia, passing in some places also as a 
" Swamp Gum-tree " and " Blue Gum-tree." A tree, usually not of very tall growth, although 
sometimes rising to 80 feet. Bark rough, persistent. Leaves generally rather thin in structure, 
not rarely somewhat sickleshaped, only occasionally shining, like those of several other congeners 
often reddish at the margin. Umbel-stalks ^-1 inch long. Flowers not quite small. Stalklets 
sometimes rather longer than the calyx-tube. Commissural line between the lid and tube of the 
calyx rather prominent, by which characteristic this Eucalyptus can readily be distinguished from 
allied species. Lid rather shining, slightly concave between its base and summit. 

This species, so far as observed by the writer, expands its flowers from September tiU 
November. Mr. James Drummond numbered this also 10 in his collections. 

E. rudis is one of the species rich in volatile oil of its foliage ; this therefore is an apt 
opportunity to continue the medical notes on Eucalyptus-oils, as given partly already in the 
text of E. acmenoides and E. eugenioides of this decade and in some pages of the seventh decade. 
As important in internal therapy the Euc.-oil became first known when used against intermittent 
fever, although most medicinal preparations for this purpose contain also other active principles 
of the Eucalyptus-leaves, to which partially the antipyretic value seems due, as pointed out 
already in the article on E. globulus. Professors Lorinser and Keller used a tincture in their 
extensive experiments. The latter physician reports, that in 432 cases of ague, under his 
treatment, 310 became cured, and — what seems astounding — 202 after the first dose of the 
tincture, no relapse occurring ; but perhaps this seemingly splendid result may have been due 
partly to the changed location of the patients. Prof. Keller farther observes, that of 118 patients, 
who derived no benefit from quinine, 91 recovered after the use of the Eucalyptus-tincture. 
Many other similar results are mentioned in pathologic literature, although not so numerously 
illustrated. Prof Rosenstein saw good efi'ect from Eucalyptus in ague, when even arsenic failed ; 
the tincture used by him is from 1 part leaves and 8 parts spirits of wine, the daily dose being 
1-J ounce ; but he found, that in recent cases of ague the action of Eucalyptus is not equal to that 
of quinine. The antifermentive power of Eucalyptus must act very favorably irrespective of the 
lowering effect on the temperature of the body, as noticed not only in intermittent fever, but also 
in acute rheumatism, traumatic fever, typhus and typhoid fever, as first noticed by Drs. Mosengeil, 



EUCALYPTUS EUDIS. 

Zuntz, Dietsch and Dietrich. Furthermore Prof. Mosler saw advantages iu using inhalations of 
Eucalyptus-oU in diphtheria, and Dr. C. N. Palmer resorts to the tincture for topical application 
in that disease most successfally. Dr. A. B. Woodward was among the first to adopt Eucalyptus 
remedies with favorable results in scarlatina. One of the principal domains of Eucalyptus-oil in 
the field of therapeutics seems in diseases of the respiratory organs, explained by the antiseptic 
power of the oil and according to Drs. Mees and Binz' researches also to some extent by the action 
of this oil on the white blood corpuscles ; thus the oil is very powerful in catarrhal aff'ections from 
coryza to bronchitis. Prof. Gimbert already in his early experiments overcame whooping-cough 
by Eucalyptus-oil inhaled. Vapour-spray, containing a few per cent, of Eucalyptus-oil, alleviates 
coughs and restores inflamed mucous membranes of the respiratory organs generally to healthi- 
ness, if the application be persevered in and other surrounding circumstances are not altogether 
unfavorable. As an innocuous oil it is preferable to carbolic acid and perhaps some other 
antiseptics employed in inhalers or respirators used by phthisic patients. It is soothing also, 
as it diminishes the reflex-action. Eucalyptus-oil and in some measure also Euc. cigarettes 
(first mentioned by Mons. Prosper Eamel) are efficient in asthma. Indeed Prof. Euehle prefers 
Euc.-oil to carbolic acid, when treating incipient gangrene of the lungs, he administering daily 
40-60 drops of the oil internally, augmented still by inhalations, severe cases having yielded to 
this treatment. Prof. Mulheron praises the tincture in cystitis ; so Dr. H. A. Foster, Dr. A. Skene, 
Dr. "Wooster and other physicians. Where the leaves are used therapeutically also solid 
principles come into action irrespective of the oil, namely two peculiar acids, a resinous substance 
and Eucalyptine, defined by Dr. H. Weber, on which latter the febrifugal virtue of Eucalyptus- 
foliage may largely depend. These data refer however solely to the chemical principles of the 
leaves of Euc. globulus ; because the foliage of different species of Eucalyptus shows considerable 
diversity not only in the quality and quantity of its oil, but also in its solid constituents. 
Prof. Schulz sums up : Eucalyptus-oil unites with its antiseptic influence also a power to 
promote granulation, the latter eff'ect to be ascribed much to the mild stimulating action of the 
oil on wounds ; the formation of pus is greatly decreased or sometimes ceases altogether ; purified 
Eucalyptus-oil is not poisonous ; it can therefore be employed with impunity, when any risk is 
foreseen in the surgical use of carbolic acid, thus in the treatment of tender youthful individuals 
and exceedingly debilitated patients, also in cases when large spaces of wounds lead to great 
absorption from without. Indeed Sir Joseph Lister himself substitutes the Eucalyptus-oil for 
carbolic acid in his famous antiseptic treatments, whether for bandage or spray, when danger 
from carbolic acid is to be apprehended ; and many leading surgeons in Europe and North-America 
have already used the Eucalyptus-oil in the manner above indicated. Dr. Samuel Sloan has 
directed attention to the antiseptic value of Euc.-oil in obstetric practice, as it is not poisonous, 
is in proper dilution not irritating, causes no coagulation, and acts stimulating ; he also utUises 
the oil hypodermically injected against pyfemia. Dr. von Schleinitz shows, that neither dyspepsia 
nor albuminuria arise from the administration of Euc.-oil. For gauze-bandage he uses a 5 per 
cent, lotion. For fnrther details on the medical value of this drug see the Sydney Medical Gazette 
for Oct., Nov. and Dec. 1883. 

ExPLA>-ATioN OF A.'fAi.TTic DETAILS.— 1, an unexpanded flower, the Ud lifted; 2, longitudinal section of an un- 
expanded flower; 3, some of the outer stamens, detached; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an anther, with part of its 
filament; 6, style and stigma; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudinal section of a fruit; 9 and 10, fertUe and sterile seeds* 
11, portion of a leaf; all figures magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS STRICTA. 

Sieber in Sprengel, systema vegetabilium, curse posteriores 195 (1827) ; De CandoUe, prodromus systematis naturalis regni 
vegetabilis iii. 218 ; E. virgata, Sieber 1. u. 195 ; De CandoUe 1. i;. 217 ; B. cneorifolia, De Candolle, M^moire de la 
famille des Myrtac^es pi. 9 ; E. Luehmanniana, F. v. M., fragmenta phytographiae Australise xi. 38. 

Shrubby or somewhat arborescent ; leaves scattered, short-stalked, rigid, linear- or narrow- 
lanceolar and slightly curved or rarely broadish-lanceolar and sickleshaped-curved, always equally 
green and shining on both sides ; lateral veins of the leaves concealed, very moderately spreading, 
rarely becoming prominent, the circumferential vein somewhat removed from the edge of the leaf ; 
oil-dots rather large, much concealed ; umbels axillary, 3-9-flowered ; stalks angular or somewhat 
compressed or rarely much dilated ; stalklets rather thick, often very short ; lid of the calyx 
nearly hemispherical, granular-rough, about half as long as the obconical-semiovate tube of the 
calyx, quite blunt or apiculated or rarely long-pointed ; stamens all fertile, with the exception of 
some of the outer ones inflexed before expansion ; anthers kidneyshaped, bursting anteriorly with 
divergent slits ; stigma not broader than the summit of the style ; fruits truncate-ovate, not or 
rarely angular, 4- rarely 3- or 5- or 6-celled ; fruit-border sharply prominent externally ; valves 
inserted rather near the orifice, deltoid, enclosed ; sterile seeds mostly not much narrower than the 
fertile seeds or quite as broad, all without any appendage. 

On the elevated parts of the Blue Mountains, particularly at some of the summits, such as 
Black Heath, thus advancing to elevations of 3,600 feet (Rev. Dr. WooUs and Rev. R. Collie), also 
on the higher ranges near Bulli (Kirton) and at Berrima (Mrs. Calvert), occurring however also 
in the vicinity of Port Jackson. 

A shrub variable in height, flowering sometimes already when only 3 feet high, but rising 
occasionally to 20 feet ; habit that of the Mallee-Eucalypts, with many stems from one root. 
Bark smooth, brown. Wood pale. Leaves sometimes reduced to a width of 2 or 3 lines, 
exceptionally dilated to 1-| inch ; acumen of leaves not rarely quite thin and hooked. Stalklets 
occasionally fully as long as the calyx-tube. Young calyces, when confluent with the stalklets 
almost clubshaped. Fruit border often reddish-brown. Only a small portion of the sterile seeds 
narrow. 

Flowering during December and January in high mountain-regions. It is the only shrubby 
species occurring in the vicinity of Port Jackson, and does there not extend inland (WooUs). 

This Eucalyptus has a large and intricated synonymy, and it is a very instructive species for 
studying the variability of specific forms in this genus ; but in this respect E. incrassata shows 
nearly or quite as much diversity of forms. The variety with very narrow leaves was with a 
similarly narrow-leaved shrubby form of E. stellulata described by Allan Cunningham as 
E. microphylla and by George Don as E. Cunninghami, as found out by Mr. Bentham, and noted 
already under E. stellulata. De Candolle mixed in his prodromus E. stricta and an Eucalyptus 
from Kangaroo-Island, allied to E. oleosa and E. angustissima, under the name of E. cneorifolia, 
which latter appellation Professor Tate and the author of this work reserve for the South- 
Australian species. Sieber gave three names to the Eucalyptus here under consideration ; for he 
distributed it as E. stricta, E. virgata and E. rigida ; but the latter name seems never to have 
become diagnostically published ; the specimen 473 of his collection, authentical for E. rigida, 
accords completely with some forms of E. stricta ; he very likely may have gathered the one plant 
on the coast, the other high on the mountains, failing to recognize the specific identity. In our 
plate t he right-hand main-figure represen ts the typical E. stricta, the left one E. rigida. A 
specimen, numbered by Sieber 472 and communicated by Professor Engler of Kfel,^^agrees 



EUCALYPTUS STEICTA. 

completely witli the plant occurring at Black Heath, so far as leaves and ripe frnits are concerned. 
Bentham refers it to E. obtnsiflora ; but De CandoUe's description and delineation (prodr. iii. 220, 
and Memoir des Myrtac^es 1. 10) indicate a species of the series Parallelantherse, the leaves of 
which, according to an authentic specimen sent to the writer of these lines by Mens. Alphonse 
De Candolle, are not very shining, show no large oil-pores, and have a very visible close and much 
spreading venation, much like that of E. tereticornis. E. virgata, Sieber's No. 467, according to 
an original specimen from Prof. Heurck of Antwerp, is a form with larger and more curved 
leaves, with broader two-edged umbel-stalks, larger and more pointed calyces ; with this plant 
Mr. Bentham combined a tall arboreous species, to which the name E. Sieberiana was given in 
this work, although subsequently it became clear, that Sieber remained unacquainted with this 
particular species, which is closely allied to E. hsemastoma, and differs already from E. stricta in 
smooth calyces with a more turgid tube, antherless outer filaments and flat-topped fruits, 
irrespective of tall growth. But the real E. virgata does undergo a development in another 
direction, enlarging to that startling state, which was distinguished as E. Luehmanniana, under 
the impression at the time of discovery, that a remarkable new species was obtained, by which the 
name of an able assistant, Mr. George Luehmann, was to be honored, who zealously aided the 
author in many of the preliminaries for this monography. But subsequent sendings by Mr. Kirton 
from Bulli proved, that this extremely luxuriant form passes into the normal one, the latter indeed 
occurring at the same locality. The variety Luehmanniana is characterized by thick sharp-angled 
branchlets, which as well as the calyces and their stalks become bluish-white from waxy 
exudations, has leaves attaining to many inches length and 1^ inch width, has broad compressed 
almost wedge-shaped umbel-stalks, produces large longitudinally narrow-ridged calyces with lids 
tapering to a long point, and forms large 4-6-celled fruits, the discal border of which becomes 
much widened out between the calycine edge and orifice, so that the fruits attain a diameter of 
rather more than half an inch ; leaves from adventitious shoots will assume occasionally an oval- 
orbicular form. E. stricta in two of its cardinal characters approaches E. obliqua, sharing in the 
granular roughness of the calyces and showing also a similar shape of fruit. Mr. Bentham, in 
attributing very minute anthers to E. stricta, and placing it therefore in the series of Micrantherte, 
may have had for dissection very young flowers only. 

ExpLiN'ATlON OF ANALYTIC DETAILS. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2, longitudinal section of an unex- 
panded flower ; 3, some of the outer stamens detached ; 4 and 5, back- and front-view of an anther with filament ; 6, style 
and stigma ; 7 and 8, transverse and longitudiaal section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, sterile and fertile seeds ; 11, portion of a 
leaf ; all figures magnified, but to various extent. 




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EUCALYPTUS VIMINALIS. v 

Labillardifere, Novae HoUandise plantarum specimen ii. 12 1. 151 (1806); Sprengel, systema vegetabilium ii. 505 ; DeCandolle, 
prodromua systeraatis naturalis regni vegetabilis iii. 218 ; J. Hooker, flora Tasmanioa i. 134 ; Miquel m Nederlandisk 
Kruitkundig Archlev iv. 125 ; F. v. Mueller, fragmenta phytographise Australise ii. 64 ; Bentham, flora Australiensia 
iii. 240 ; E. mannifera, 6. Bennett, Wanderings in New South Wales 319 (1834). 

Finally tall ; branchlets slender ; leaves scattered, elongate- or falcate-lanceolar, of equal 
color on both sides ; lateral veins rather subtle, crowded, pinnately spreading, tlie circumferential 
vein somewhat removed from the edge of the leaf ; oil-dots mostly concealed ; umbels generally 
three-flowered, axillary, finally lateral, solitary, on slender not very long stalks ; calyces provided 
with very short stalklets, neither angular nor rough ; their tube semiovate or almost hemispherical, 
nearly as long as the semiovate slightly acute or short-pointed lid ; stamens all fertile, inflexed 
before expansion ; anthers almost ovate, bursting with longitudinal slits ; stigma slightly broader 
than the summit of the style ; fruits almost semiovate, three- or four-celled or rarely five-celled ; 
rim broad, convex, rising towards the orifice ; valves finally quite exserted, deltoid ; sterile seeds 
much narrower than the fertile seeds, all without any appendage. 

From Spencer's Gulf (E. Brown) to Gippsland (F. v. M.), thence through the less literal 
portion of New South Wales, ascending into New England (Leichhardt), extending westward to 
the Lachlan-Eiver (Cunningham), occurring also in Tasmania (Labillardifere) and in Kangaroo- 
Island (Tate). 

In open country a middle-sized or comparatively not a very tall tree, but in deep forest-glens, 
interspersed with other Eucalypts, rising to great height, Mr. D. Boyle having actually measured one 
in the Dandenong-Eanges, which was 320 feet high, and had a stem-base of 17 feet diameter. 
The author of this work has seen trees nearly as large on the Upper Yarra and on the Upper 
Goulburn-Eiver, where also exceptionally basal circumferences of 60 feet have been noted ; this 
species is however not generally an inmate of dense forests ; indeed it is mostly to be found in 
open land, accommodating itself to poor and even sandy soil. It flowers already in a dwarf or 
even a shrubby state, and has a preference for the silurian and metamorphic formations (Howitt). 
Bark much persistent on the stem and sometimes also on the main-branches, outside rather dark- 
colored, wrinkled and rough, comparatively solid in texture, though somewhat fragile ; through 
secession leaving the younger bark outside smooth and whitish-grey or almost white, giving oif 
externally, when rubbed, a fiour-like bloom, as does the bark of E. redunca. Professor Dr. Joseph 
MoeUer of Vienna, in a splendid work on the anatomy of barks of trees, published two years ago 
in Berlin, refers also specially to the bark of E. viminalis, his account being here given somewhat 
abridged in translation : " The periderm contains rows of almost cubic partially unilateral-sclerotic 
cork-cellules, and reaches quite to the bast ; the latter is scalariform-laminated through isolated or 
not far extending plates of fibre-bundles ; the fibres of the bast are about 0-03 mm. broad, and 
accompanied by chambered fibres (Kammer-Fasern), which contain prismatic crystals, similar to 
those occurring in the bast of elms, and such crystals are scattered also through the soft bast ; the 
latter consists of small cellules, is thin-walled and beset with roundish Kino-spots ; the sieve- 
tubules (Sieb-Eohren) have the narrow perforated plates numerously ladder-like arranged ; some 
parenchyma^cellules become isolated and enlarge to stone-cellules (Stein-Zellen) ; the medullary 
rays are one- or two-rowed, are never sclerotic, and contain no crystals." The same distinguished 
histoloo-ist gave already in 1875 an anatomic account of several kinds of Eucalyptus-bark in the 
"Zeitschrift des oesterreichischen Apotheker-Vereins " No. 15, that of E. viminalis included. The 



EtrCAIiYPTUS VIMINALIS. 

fresh bark contains about 5 per cent, of Kino-tannin, and Kino-sap exudes also spontaneously from 
the stem and soon indurates. Tbe timber varies from lighf^colored to dull brick-colored ; that 
from straight stems is employed for shingles, rails and also as rough building material ; it is not 
so durable as the wood of many other kinds of Eucalypts, but stronger than that of E. amygdalina 
and E. obliqua. Mr. Boyle found boards of ^ inch thickness, sawn from the tall-stemmed smooth- 
barked variety of moist forest-glens, to last twice as long as pine-boards of 1 inch thickness. The 
stems of this variety are of an almost uniform thickness up to a great height, and mastlike in 
straightness ; when so chosen the wood is pale and compact and does not warp ; it yields not a 
superior fuel. The lumen of the vascular tubes of the wood exceeds sometimes 0-15 mm., but it 
occurs also as narrow as 0*03 mm. ; their walls are moderately thickened and rather richly 
dotted ; the hbriform fibres measure about 0-015 mm. across ; the medullary rays occur in one or 
two rows. Branchlets drooping, hence the specific name. Leaves generally saturated green and 
somewhat shining on both sides. Flowers sometimes several in an umbel. Stalklets occasionally 
as long as the calyx-tube. Lid rarely quite blunt. Style rather short. Fruits measuring from 
2i to 5 lines. 

To E. viminalis were referred by Bentham E. granularis (Sieber), of which no description 
was ever published ; further E. persicifoUa, Loddiges's Botanic Cabinet t. 501 ; E. pUularis, 
De CandoUe, prodromus iii. 218 ; E. diversifoKa, Bonpland, plantes de Malmaison 35 t. 13, which 
however represents the young state of E. santahfolia ; and furthermore E. elata, Dehnhart, catalogus 
plantarum horti Camaldulensis 26, which is referable to E. amygdalina {see Nuovo Giornale 
Botanico Italiano xii. 46) according to a specimen, obtained from Baron Cesati. 

E. viminalis is closely allied as well to E. rostrata as to E. Stuartiana ; the differences were 
pointed outHlready in the text of these two species. E. dealbata (Cunningham in Walpers 
repert. ii. 924) seems merely an abnormal state of E. viminalis, standing to it in the same position 
as E. pulverulenta to E. Stuartiana, as E. Eisdoni to E. amygdalina, as E. melanophloia to 
E. crebra, and to some extent as J], cordata to E. urnigera. The leaves of young seedlings are 
narrow-lanceolar, with roundish base, sessile, opposite or exceptionally ternately verticiflar (an 
illustration of these is given on the left-hand side of the plate) ; leaves three in a whorl have been 
noticed also occasionally on seedling plants of E. goniocalyx ; stomata have been counted 75,000 
at the upper and 93,000 at the lower page of well-developed leaves on a square-inch. 

'In a document, issued some years ago from a pubKc institution of a neighboring colony, 
single species of Eucalyptus were mentioned as yielding respectively oU, tar, vinegar, spirits, 
potash and paper-material, leaving thus the impression as if only the species particularly noted 
should be used for each of the several articles mentioned, this misconception arising from my 
having made a donation of only solitary samples from a long series of Eucalyptus-educts, 
emanating from my laboratory. As this document became reproduced in various parts of Europe, 
I would in the interest of prospective Eucalyptus-industries point out, that all such educts can be 
obtained from any Eucalyptus, and indeed so far as tar, pitch, empyreumatic oil, wood-alcohol 
and acetic acid are concerned from any tree of the world by dry distillation, charcoal being also of 
course obtakiable from any kind of tree, and so likewise potash, although the yield of the latter 
may be very variable in different sorts of trees. In the instance above referred to, E. viminalis 
was solely mentioned as a yielder of essential oil from the foliage ; and yet long before it was 
shown by actual experiment, that just this very species is one of the poorest in this respect, 
therefore not available for remunerative oil-distillation. One ton of the fresh foliage (branchlets 



EUCALYPTUS VIMINALIS. 

and leaves) of E. viminalis yielded in one experiment performed in the author's laboratory 5 lbs. 
1 oz. crude potash, which after purification gave 2 lbs. 14 ozs. carbonate of potassium ; — one ton of 
dry stem-wood yielded 3 lbs. 2 ozs. crude potash, which after purification gave 1 lb. 13 ozs. 
carbonate of potassium. See Eeport of the Melbourne Botanic Garden 1869, p. 15. 

The real and special interest of Eucalyptus viminalis is concentrated in the fact, that it is 
this particular species, w hich mainly, if n ot almost solely, furnishes the Mellitose-Manna. That 
Cicadse are instrumental in the formation of Mellitose-Manna from Eucalyptus viminalis was 
noticed long ago by many an observant early colonist. Dr. George Bennett, F.R.O.S., F.L.S., 
C.M.Z.S., already in the meritorious volume on his " Wanderings in New South Wales," p. 321 
(1834), relates, th at the M anna exudes in minute drops from the bark of what he very significantly 
called Eucalyptus mannifera in a state of syrup-consistence and then concretes ; he adds, that it 
oozes out, forming thin flakes upon the trunk, and that when secreted from the branches it may 
fall upon the leaves beneath or upon the ground. Previous rains and subsequent heat, he says, 
promote the flow, the time of exudation being about midsummer. The great geographical explorer, 
Captain Sturt, also in one of his works spoke already of the occurrence of the Eucalyptus-Manna, 
where the large Oicadae abounded, on observation confirmed by many observers, and in Tasmania 
by Mr. S. H. Wintle, who remarks, that these insects have been most numerous, when the Manna 
has been most abundant. 

It is the great Cicada moerens (described by Germar), which has been identified by Professor 
McCoy, F.R.S., as connected with the Mellitose production (see McCoy's Natural History of 
Victoria, Decade v. 50). In a letter, written to me in September 1879, he traces the Mellitose-flow 
also to the action of Cyclocheila Australite, likewise fully described and brilliantly figured in the 
Decade quoted above and published in 1880. Dr. G. Bennett in his " Gatherings of a Naturalist 
in Australasia," p. 270-273, alludes also to these and allied Cicadce or Tettigonise. 

An experienced entomologic observer in Tasmania, Mr. Aug. Simson, wrote to the author in 
October 1879 and May 1880, that "he hadf seen near George's Bay trunks of E. viminalis with 
streams of so-called Manna adhering to them even to near the base ; it was exuding from perfora- 
tions of the bark, made by Cicada moerens ; hundreds of these insects were on the trunk, with their 
boring organ buried in the bark. This borer is about half an inch long, tubular and very slender, 
and terminates in a saw, with which they pierce the bark at right angle to their body, the whole 
length except the short broad base going into the bark ; through this apparatus they suck up 
the sap. They are easily caught when their boring organ is thus buried in the bark, as they 
cannot withdraw it rapidly. In its larval stage it lives underground, presumably on roots ; there 
also it becomes a pupa, much the same in form as the perfect insect minus the wings. When 
ready to emerge it comes out of the ground, nearly always in early morning, and ascends the first 
object it comes across. There it fixes itself by the claws of its frontlegs ; the case splits up along 
its back, and the insect escapes, withdrawing its limbs singly from the enveloping case. The wings 
in a very short time attain their full dimensions and become of proper consistency, though soft at first, 
and the insect flies away." All this is much in accord with many other insects. He saw " hundreds 
of these Cicadae come up, where the ground had been cleared of ferns and timber, and they had to 
climb stems of grasses or of small herbs in full sunshine, so that they got their wings or their case 
dried up, before they had quite escaped ; consequently could not liberate themselves, but became 
prisoners in their pupa-case, half in, half out, shortly afterwards to be attacked by ants and to be 
devoured." Eucalyptus-Manna occurs, however, also in the South of Tasmania, where the large 



EUCALYPTUS VIMINALIS. 

Cicadse, according to Mr. Simson, are unknown, bat where species of mnch smaller size are to be 
met with. Mr. E. P. Eamsay, the zealous Curator of the Sydney-Museum, is of opinion, that also 
boring coleopterous insects may be active in causing the extrusion of Mellitose. He saw it occa- 
sionally in large stained lumps, which would remind of the saccharine secretions on the stem of 
Myoporum platycarpum. Mr. H. Marshall, writing from Angaston to Mr. Otto Tepper, mentions 
also large flows of " Manna " occurring, when a black Cercopis with white transparent spots on the 
wings much covered Eucalyptus-stems or branches about BaldhiU, the saccharine mass partially 
encrusting the bark to a thickness of half an inch like white sugar, and it fell occasionally in such 
quantity, as to knock down in places the surrounding wheat. Furthermore the Eev. Dr. WooUs 
noticed, that occasionally also some Mellitose dropped from E. punctata ; while Mr. Duboulay 
saw it occur on E. loxophleba. Mr. Tepper himself, whose attention I had especially invited to 
this subject, writes in the journal of the Linnean Society of London, xvii. 109-111 (1883), that 
Mellitose occurs also on Eucalyptus oleosa and E. odorata. But the small scale-like masses of 
definite organic form, under which in these instances a psyUaceous larva is lodged, careftilly 
watched in its development by this enthusiastic naturalist, are different from the amorphous 
crumblike Mellitose-droppings yielded by E. viminahs, and represents the " Lerp," to which Dr. 
G. Bennett refers in his valuable volume " Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australia," p. 272 
(1860) ; and of a similar nature is the saccharine mass in minute shell-like particles, of which 
Mr. Thos. Dobson, B.A., gave an account in the Proceedings of the Eoyal Society of Van 
Diemen's Land, i. p. 235-241 (1851), he tracing then already this substance to a Psylla. 

The circumspect Mr. Tepper alludes moreover to a larger kind of " Lerp," to be found on 
Eucalyptus gracilis, E. uncinata and E. Leucoxylon ; and in a letter, dated Jan. 1882, he speaks 
also of a coccoid insect, a species of Lecanium, which is concomitant to the viscid sweet sap under 
the bark of branchlets of E. viminalis and E. rostrata, ants in quest of this sweetness following 
the mellaginous track. This Lecanium abounds also in many parts of the colony of Victoria. 
Mr. W. H. Wooster, of Bolwarrah, gave microscopic details concerning Lerp in the journal of the 
Microscopic Society of Victoria, i. 91, pi. vii. (1882). In bringing together such information, as we 
possess, on the saccharine secretions of Eucalypts, I should not pass the experiences of the very 
observant Mr. T. Stephens, M.A., Inspector of Schools of Tasmania, who wrote from Hobart in Feb. 
1881, that the " Manna " is to be regarded as a simple exudation from the bark of Euc. viminalis ; 
for although it is there brought out sometimes by the puncturing of the Eurymela Spectrum^i* 
comes often spontaneously from the twigs, where the bark is fissured and weak. A worthy old 
colonist, Mr. James Dawson, of Camperdown, found a considerable quantity of Manna adhering to 
leaves and twigs, which he had experimentally enclosed in a muslin-bag, though the exudation 
seemed to emanate from insect-punctures previously formed ; thus it was proved, that the Mellitose 
could not be secreted by the Cicades themselves, as erroneously stiU supposed by many colonists. 
He moreover found leaves with accidental holes, around which " Manna" was exuded on both sides. 
This saccharine substance is called by the Aborigines of Western Victoria "Buumbuul"; but they 
give the same name to the honeylike liquid, on which the smaller insects, already referred to, are 
located ; this fluid, as the blacks assert, occurring sometimes on the Eucalyptus-stems at river- 
banks in such quantity, that a bucketfnl could be scraped off" from one tree. That the sap even of 
the leaves of E. viminahs is rich in saccharine matter was proved by an analysis, under my 
direction made by Mr. L. Eummel. The percentage, as computed for dried leaves (rather more 
than half of the weight of fresh leaves being moisture), turned out as follows : — -43 Eucalypto- 



EUCALYPTUS VIMINALIS. 

gallic Acid, 3-47 Eucalypto-tannic Acid, -06 Eucalyptoic Acid, -24 Eucalyptin, 1-29 Gum, 13-22 
Sugar. 

In a solitary experiment with the leaves of E. Doratoxylon the percentage of sugar was found 
to be 5-41. 

In all probability the sugary substance in the sap of E. Gunnii and particularly in E. coryno- 
calyx would prove large also, though it seems not to become at any time concreted and exsiccated 
into firm masses. 

The "Mellitose" was already in 1843 chemically defined as very distinct from the true 
Ornus-Manna by Professor Johnston (Mem. of the Chem. Soc. i. 159), who gave it the formula 
Q12 jju Qu. ^^^^ g^gj^ many years before Prof. Th. Thomson had shown, that the so-called 
" Manna" from Euc. viminalis was a peculiar saccharine substance (Organic Chemistry, Vegetables 
642), and Prof. Virey alluded to this substance in the Journal de Pharmacie, sec. s6r. xviii, 705 
(1832) ; in 1856 it became further examined by Professor Berthelot (Compt. rend xli. 392 ; 
Annal. de Chim. et Physiq. trois sSr. xlvi. 66, 1856 ; Chimie organique, ii. 260, 1860). The latter 
gave to the Mellitose its name ; he found also, that it gives off two atoms of HO at 100° C, that 
the aqueous solution is detro-rotary, and that Mellitose, when heated with diluted sulphuric acid, 
is separated into a fermentable sugar and into a not fermentable substance, called by him 
Eucalin = C« Hi" O". (See Watts' Dictionary, ii. 601, iii. 869 ; Miller's Chemistry, iii. 95 and 111 ; 
Wittstein's Chemical Constituents of Plants, F. v. M.'s edition, p. 129.) This so-called Australian 
" Manna," when in white crumblike pieces scattered on the ground, affords a pleasant sweet 
picking for children and stray wanderers ; but it seems to be of no medicinal Value. A " Manna " 
is said to drop also from a species of Eucalyptus, occurring near Cape Leeuwin. (See Conditions 
of forests and timber-trade of Western Australia, 1883, p. 22.) Mr. Westgarth seems to have 
been the first, to give an account of the " Lerp," in his " Australia felix," p. 73, as pointed out by 
Dr. Th. Anderson, when giving a full record of this substance in the Edinburgh New Philosophic 
Journal, July 1849 ; he furnished then the following quantitative analysis : Sugar 49-06, Gum 5'77, 
Starch 4-29, Inulin 13-80, Cellulose 12-04, Water 15-01. Lerp used to be a delicacy of food to the 
Aborigines in the summer-season. 

In connection with the questions, here discussed, it may yet be mentioned, that the Eucalyptus- 
blossoms afford a sweet nectar or mellage to bees and numerous other insects, and especially also 
to honey-sucking birds. 

Explanation of Analytic Details. — 1, an unexpanded flower, the lid lifted ; 2,' longitudinal section of an unex- 
panded flower; 3, some of the outer stamens detached; 4 and 5, front- and back-view of an] anther with part of fila- 
ment ; 6, style and stigma ; 7, transverse sections of two fruits ; 8, longitudinal section of a fruit ; 9 and 10, fertile and 
sterile seeds ; 11, portion of a leaf; 12, transverse section of wood ; all figures magnified, but^to various extent. Fig. 12, 
enlarged diametrically 220 times. 




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