Skip to main content

Full text of "The growth of a century: as illustrated in the history of Jefferson county, New York, from 1793-1894 .."

See other formats


Cornell University 

The original of this bool< is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

All books are subject to recall after two weeks 
Olln/Kroch Library 







' d2. 



History of Jefferson County, 


KROM 1793 TO 1894. 

"The war-worn lived content upon his unmenaced pension, with no anxious 
thought as to penury or the poor-house. And when his worlc was done it was 
left to the historian to write that in material prosperity, in moral force, in the 
power which comes from the respect of other nations, the United States held a 
position never before attained." — [i88o-g2.] 

Daniel Webster once wrote: "There maybe, indeed, a respect for ancestry 
which nourishes only a weak pride. But there is also a moral and philosophical 
respect for ancestors which elevates the character and improves the heart — a 
respect which is laudably manifested by perpetuating their lineaments and de- 
scribing their virtues." 








Upon the Peristj'le at the Chicago World's Fair, of 1893, were inscribed the words printed 
below — the author being President Charles W. Eliot of Harvard University. They are 
inserted here as strikingly appropriate for our purpose : 



















The desire to write a History of my native county first formulated itself in my 
mind in 1892, largely developed through the advice of Dr. A. R. Thomas, now 
Dean of the great Haiineman College and Hospital in the city of Philadelphia, who 
was once a Watertown boy, born upon Beebe's Island about the same year as my- 
self (in 1823). His advice was gratefully received, for he has had much to do with 
books, as student, reader, teacher and publisher. I hesitated long before under- 
taking such a task, but gradually the thought became one of simple " duty," and I 
was led to my final decision in a way which a judicious friend advises me it would 
not be proper to speak of in public, for fear that some hypercritical person might 
say I was " poseing for effect." Suffice it to say that when my decision was reached 
my desire to take up the work became altogether predominant. It was like a con- 
suming fire. I knew that the times were hard. Nevertheless I persevered, and 
have worked for about fourteen months continuously and conscientiously, early and 
late, with the result which is before the reader. 

I am painfully conscious that the work has many imperfections. There are 
some errors that ought to have been avoided, and a few articles that might have 
been omitted. I have at the last been much puzzled as to what to leave out, for not 
half the material I have prepared has obtained a place. My promise was to make a 
book of 480 pages. This volume contains over 950. 

My labors have been materially aided (and at a trying crisis) by Gov. Flower 
and his two noble brothers, John D. and Anson R., and by his nephew, Fred., son 
of Col. G. W. Flower; by Mrs. C. H. McCormick, and by Dr. A. R. Thomas, of 
Philadelphia city. To Mr. J. W. Brockway, of Watertown, a gentleman who knows 
full well the trials of publishing, I have been indebted for material aid, as well as 
for sound counsel, and for kindest words of encouragement. No man's friendship 
has pleased me more than his. Indeed the press of the country has given my work 
ample and hearty endorsement, while the great mass of the people have treated me 
fully as well as I deserved. 

For assistance in editing and preparing matter for the History, I am under 
obligation to Hon. L. Ingalls, Col. A. D. Shaw, Gen. Bradley Winslow, Col. D. M. 
Evans, now of Minneapolis, Minn.; to Mr. Geo. Allen, of Pierrepont Manor; to 
Mrs. E. J. Clark; to Mr. Joseph Fayel and his talented brother William, now of 
St. Louis; to Mr. L. G. Peck, of Carthage; to General Bradley Winslow; to Mr. 
Theodore Butterfield, of Syracuse; to Lieut. Don M. Watson, of Redwood, and 
to my early friend, Mr. Andrew J. Fairbanks, one of the oldest Watertown-born 
citizens now upon the stage; and last, not least, to Miss Florence Ida Bickford, my 
indefatigable assistant. 

We beg indulgence from the reader if he perceives trivial errors. The page of 
" Errata " is referred to for a settlement of some crooked lapses, and the reader will 
perhaps be more charitable when he considers how many names and dates are 
herein recorded. 

We are aware that in each town some deserving people have not been men- 
tioned, and possibly that some are noticed who might well have been omitted. The 
public should remember that the history of a county is not a census report, nor yet 
would it be a history if none were named especially. Men and families are what 
make history, so far as personalities are concerned, and these, after all, make up 
the greater part of what we call "life," and the delineation of "life" is history; 
add to this the indifference manifested by the average American citizen as to his 
own or parents' genealogy, and the reader will appreciate why some people are 
omitted who think they ought to have been mentioned. 

Now that the work is done, we become more and more conscious of its de- 
merits. Another may come who will be glad to read what we have written and 
compiled, and if he be chastened by experience, to him the author willingly leaves 
his fate, and we shall perhaps rest easier if by chance he may say a word in praise. 

Jno. A. Haddock. 


Colonel Shaw, in his excellent "Founder's Day Oration," delivered at Cornell 
University in 1892, quoted Horatio Seymour as declaring that " History was 
robbed of its most useful details through the omission of little things, which are 
the real basis of character, and enable us to become acquainted with the associa- 
tions and conditions which have much to do with moulding the lives of past 
generations." Harriet Beecher Stowe, in her admirable "Old Town Folks," 
says there is so much that is human in every man that the life of a single individual, 
if really and vividly portrayed, in all its aspirations, struggles, failures, and suc- 
cesses, would command the interest of all. 

Beyond this, however, it should be considered that every individual is part and 
parcel of a great picture of that society in which he lives and acts, and his life 
cannot be depicted without reproducing the picture of the world he lives in. It 
has appeared to me that by introducing many biographies and vivid descriptions 
of transactions which may be strictly classed as "personal," I shall be able to 
present to the reader the image of a period in Jefferson county's growth most 
peculiar and interesting, the impress of which has almost faded away. I mean 
those ante-railroad and telegraph times, the period when our isolated position made 
us a self-contained, ultra-democratic collection of farmers and denizens of small 
villages, shut out from the older portions of the State — and separated by a pathless 
ocean from the Old World, whose refinement and civilizing influences were almost 
forgotten — and yet, under all these depressing conditions, there burned, like a live 
coal, individual characteristics and personal yearnings which could only be satisfied 
by experiences (sometimes fruitless for good) with the great world which was 
beyond our limited horizon. 

Before Macauley began his History of England, none but educated Englishmen 
were familiar with the early history of their native land — for the men who had up 
to that time written English history were learned pedants, with minds full of dates 
and naked facts, but lacking in a single spark of imaginative power, and their books 
were not read by the common people because uninteresting. When Macauley's 
book began to be known, however, the printing presses had to be forced to extra 
speed to supply the enormous demand ; for he introduced his own inimitable 
powers of description into every chapter, and the reader saw real men and women 
parade before him upon the stage of what seemed to be real life. He neglected no 
fact or date or person, but he wove them all together in such a way that his His- 
tory read like an attractive essay. When this distinguished author passed away 
with only a part of his great work completed, even the common people mourned 
his loss, and it was felt by all that a great light had gone out in England. No one 
has yet taken up the work he left unfinished. 

If, then, in these pages the reader shall find considerable personality — in 
biographies, in political delineations and in the chronicling of leading incidents in 
certain prominent men's lives — let him not pass them over as unbecoming a 
"history;" but regard such efforts, rather, as really the best way of impressing 
history upon the human mind. Nor will these pages fail in trustworthy data in 


Statistics, or facts, with such other details (often dry as dust) as are demanded in 
a faithful portraiture of that condition to which we apply the generic term "life." 

It should not be forgotten that the need for publishing personal biographies is 
much greater in this democratic government than in one where royalty rules, and 
by its titled court gives tone to society, to literature, even to morals. Royalty 
beholds its own greatness reflected in its nobles, and their individual history is 
well looked after, published at public expense, and religiously preserved among 
the archives of that nation; and in America there are many ancient families who 
can any day appeal to these records, printed and written, and trace their lineage 
back for a thousand years. But in our own Republic there is no public method of 
preserving a record of those (perhaps more truly noble), who, from generation to 
generation, perpetuate patriotism and love of goodness and respect for learning. 
For a record of such lives we must depend upon private publication and upon 
such histories as local pride or the hope of gain may bring forth from one era to 

Emerson, in his admirable lectures upon " Representative Men," strikes the 
true note as regards greatness and our present duty to perpetuate its memory ; not 
as slavish idol-worshippers, but as men who, by their common humanity, are in 
some sense allied to a higher life, and may perhaps in their own breasts feel the 
latent yearnings of a sentiment which those we call "great " can deliver to our 
listening ears or to our ready understanding with such facility. Nature, he says, 
seems to exist for the excellent. The world is upheld by the veracity of good 
men (and he might have said of good women, too, for he doubtless meant it); they 
make the earth wholesome, and those ,who live with them find life glad and nutri- 
tious. They grow to be good in an atmosphere of goodness, and such noble ones 
we immortalize by calling our children and our towns after them. Their very 
names are wrought into the verbs of languages ; their effigies are in our homes, 
and each day we recall them by some apt remembrance. The knowledge that 
from Watertown emanated the cunning device (long sought and needed in every 
household) by which any oil can be burned without a chimney; and that in that 
town was born the inventive mind that produced a railway car in which the sick, 
the wounded, the aged or the weary may be borne in a decent bed from ocean to 
ocean; or that, soaring above pure mechanism into the realms of deductive phi- 
losophy, a Jefferson county man discovered, by analytical chemistry, that God- 
sent anaesthetic which gives painless forgetfulness under the surgeon's cruel knife 
— we say that such a knowledge raises the credit of all that county's citizens, and 
loosens a thousand streams of ambitious emulation, and may quicken the womb 
of all futurity. 

The great moral of biography is that it brings us in touch with the good who 
have preceded us, or (better still) are yet spared to our daily observation. Every 
ship that comes to America got its chart from Columbus ; every novel-writer (not 
excepting our beloved Wm. Dean Howells, the printing-office graduate), is a 
debtor to Homer and to Shakespeare. Every carpenter who shaves with a fore- 
plane is in debt to some former inventor. We may justly be said to be as great 
gainers by finding a new property in the old earth as if we had discovered a new 


Men are helpful to one another, too, through the affections and the finer sensi- 
bilities. One cannot read Plutarch in his delineations of the characters of great 
warriors or rulers without a tingling of the blood. One obscure sage may be the 
instructor of an hundred ages. Plato, through the mechanism of the printed page, 
speaks to a thousand millions, while in his own day he ranked as only the teacher 
of a village. How long ago Confucius lived no archfeologist can tell, but his 
influence is the one grand gift of the oldest people to all later mankind. 

Human society has been compared to a Pestalozzian school, where all are teach- 
ers and pupils in turn. We are equally served while receiving or imparting. Men 
who know the same things are not the best company for each other. But bring to 
each an intelligent person of an another experience, and it is as if you let off water 
from a lake by cutting another basin. It seems a great mechanical advantage, 
and becomes a decided benefit to each speaker, because each supplements the other; 
and so when we read of genius or exceptional moral worth or proud achievements, 
we desire that our inward aspirations may conform to what we read. Who will 
deny that we are in some indefinable way linked for good to those we admire ? For 
we know that every possibility must have for its germ a resolution to achieve. 

The genius of humanity is the right point of view of history. The endearing 
and desirable qualities abide — the men who exhibit them serve their purpose and 
pass away, but their qualities are preserved, and adorn some other life. The ves- 
sels upon which the beholder reads sacred emblems, turn out to be common pot- 
tery, but the sense of the picture is sacred, and may (by the printed page) be 
transferred to the whole world. At last we shall doubtless cease to look to even 
the best men for completeness, and content ourselves with their social or delegated 
qualities. In all things there are some imperfections.- Even the finest marble 
reveals some coarser specks. And it is well that such should be the fact; else 
man, conscious in his inner soul of many imperfections, would cease to press 
upward and onward, discouraged by the perfection around him. But he struggles 
forward, approaching completeness as closely as his limitations will permit; and, 
with such thoughts in his mind, the writer begins the work upon this History. 



As THIS is an "alleged" History, and is 
expected to be read 50, 60, perhaps 100 
years hence, it may be appropriate, in its 
first pages, to concentrate a few thoughts 
connecting the year 1893 — which has just 
closed as we begin the preparation of this 
work — with that '93 of a century ago. 

These '93's seem to be phenomenally un- 
propitious years. In 1793 terror reigned in 
France, then just past its zenith as the first 
political power in Europe. The infuriated 
people took their poor fat king, who did not 
know enough to act as conductor upon a 
city trolley car, and with no more harm in 
him than there is in a watermelon, and 
barbarously guillotined him. And his wife, 
the beloved Marie Antoinette, a peerless, 
charitable, eminently religious Catholic 
lady, they took her from her miserable 
prison one morning and chopped oli her 
head, in the name of " liberty, equality and 
fraternity " — and this, after the mob had 
led before her grated window her poor, de- 
luded little son, the legitimate heir to the 
throne of France, and made him shout, for 
her to hear, " Vive la Commune ! " After 
that inhuman cruelty, death must have been 
a glad release. 

The '93 of the last century was a dreadful 
year — none darker in all the centuries. 
France was literally crazy, and the insanity 
spread even to surrounding countries. 
Would you believe it ? — in the grand old 
Quaker city of Philadelphia, American 
patriots in various conditions from grog, 
danced the can-can and sang disreputable 
communist songs. Then try to realize the 
contagious panic which swept over sedate 
England, when Burke, one of the greatest 
statesmen that or any other country ever 
produced, even with his sovereign reason 
and capacity for thought, dashed a dagger 
down upon the iloor of the House of Com- 
mons, to emphasize his hatred of the 
French, an animosity which seems to have 
taken possession of every Englishman. 
And then the Germans— who have about as 
much business in France as we would have 
in Brazil — must needs invade France and 
be shrivelled up at Valmy and Jemappez. 
And Napoleon, that Corsioan scourge, just 
beginning his fateful career, that was to end 
with the allies in his capital, and he a caged 
prisoner in St. Helena. 

Passing to our own '93 — the rounded cen- 
tury in the development of that once wildei'- 
ness Black River country, now " blossoming 
as the rose," and literally "abounding with 
fatness," and again concentrating our 
thoughts upon France, we see, not heads 
chopped off — but what a chopping of credit, 
of public reputations, of national self- 
respect ! — the culmination of the Panama 
business developing a state of morals that 

found but poor vindication in sending the 
principal promoters to prison ; the most dis- 
tinguished engineer of his time dragged 
down to the level of a common swindler. 
The head-chopping of 1793 could hardly 
have been worse, and may possibly be ex- 
cused on the plea of " general insanity" — 
but the France of 1893 made public that 
dry-rot which had eaten away the vital 
honesty of so many of her high officials. 

And has the '93 of our day been much 
kinder to Germany ? Take her young, am- 
bitious, restless, meddling, fussy emperor — 
can you imagine any thing more trying to 
the nerves than to live under such a ruler, 
when any midnight whistle of the wind 
may suggest a summons to mobilize that 
vast human machine, his army, and start it 
any day on the familiar road to Paris, via 
Sedan and Strasburg. 

And Italy, that land of the she-wolf's 
suckled infants — the home of modern art 
and artists — so rich in storied memories, 
sun-kissed, and environed with purpling 
vineyards — she is bankrupt, almost beyond 
any fate short of repudiation. And then 
Austria, with her antagonistic nationalities, 
tlireatened by destruction between the 
South and that ponderous Russia, halting 
between barbarism, anarchy, or war. 

And then England— the country from 
which we so largely sprung ; which has 
amiably sought, by two wars, to bring us 
back to her motherly protection and her 
peculiar love, but failing in her benevolent 
and unselfish designs, becoming our clamor- 
ous competitor in the markets of the world; 
and then, in our hour of sorest need, turn- 
ing loose upon us armed cruisers, to burn 
our unarmed merchant-ships, and drive our 
flag from the ocean. And then, when the 
gallant Winslow had brought one of these 
English-built-and-manned pirate ships to 
bay, and had left her decks level with the 
sea, just then a watchful British ship inter- 
feres, and rescues from capture the pirate's 
captain, bearing hinr away to a reception in 
England's capital. This is that friendly 
England which is even now attempting, in 
many ways, to shape to her own selfisli ends 
the tariff laws of the country her great 
Gladstone sought to dismember. Think of 
the losses brought upon her by her over- 
reaching greed; the fall of her greatest 
banking-house, and the later disclosures of 
mal-administration in the Bank of England 
itself. Staggering under these and kindred 
disadvantages, her heavily taxed people are 
asked to add new war-ships, to cost $125,- 
000,000, to her already enormous navy, be- 
cause her supremacy in the Mediterranean 
is threatened by Russia and France. 

And the United States — possessing the 
bravest, freest, most enlightened people 



under the sun (if we are not greatly mis- 
taken)— even we are finding this fateful '93 
the worst year of the century: surpassing 
even '57 or '7iJ — all springing from a sense- 
less newspaper and monometallist crusade 
against silver, thus weakening public con- 
fidence, and resulting in a far-reaching 
panic that has stopped mills and foundries 
all over the land, and thrown nearly half of 
the railroad mileage of the country into the 
hands of an unprecedented body of men 
known as ' ' receivers," responsible to no 
body on earth save the judges who appoint 
them. All this has come about by a wicked 
and senseless attempt to destroy silver as a 
circulating medium, when the whole land 
is filled with plenty; with storehouses burst- 
ing with every earthly product that contri- 
butes to man's comfort or happiness ; with 
good flour at $3.50 a barrel, wheat 70 cents 
a bushel, and other grains in proportion. 
The strongest moneyed institutions have 
trembled to their foundations, and feebler 
ones have fallen in every direction. It has 
indeed been a year of gloom and of pro- 
found sorrow to men as well as nations. 
But it has passed, and the worst has been 
endured. We are already emerging from 
the dark cloud that so suddenly darkened 
the whole mercantile world, and we shall 
go forward with loftier ideas of human 
brotherhood, and will press on to new 
achievements and a more advanced civiliza- 

We add the two following articles, as 
they throw some additional light upon the 
year 1893: 

From the Philadelphia Times (Democratic), Dec. 
31, '93. 

The End op 1893. — The year will be re- 
membered all over the world as the year of 
' ' hard times. " It has not been every where 
or in the same degree a panic year, but it 
has been everywhere, from Hindostan to 
Oregon, one of commercial and industrial 
depression. We have not yet got quite free 
from the habit of our forefathers of regard- 
ing every nation as separate from and an- 
tagonistic to all other nations. This medias- 
val conception still maintains on the 
continent of Europe, to the great cost of 
the people — but every year demonstrates 
more plainly that the real relations between 
nations are those of trade, commerce and 
finance, and that the railway, the steamship 
and the telegraph have knit them together 
so closely that the conditions which affect 
one affect all. While the universality of 
the depression of 1893 shows this, it also 
shows how closely the extent and effect of 
such periods of depression are connected in 
every country with either particular mis- 
fortunes or with particular mistakes. In 
Germany we see this very plainly. That 
great empire is oppressed by the diversion 
of the best enei'gies of a large part of its 
population to the unproductive pursuit of 
war. The cost of the imperial army is not 

only in direct taxation, but in its bad effect 
upon the industrial development of the 
country. The effort to overcome this result 
of militarism by an unreasonably high pro- 
tective tariff, enhancing prices without 
thereby establishing sound industrial con- 
ditions, has simply aggravated the disease, 
and has brought Germany to a condition of 
"hard times" which even the general re- 
covery expected during the new year will 
not do much to relieve without a decided 
change of imperial policy. 

Italy affords an even more conspicuous 
example of the results of excessive taxation. 
The existing poverty in that country is 
probably greater than in any other part of 
Europe, both because the military burden 
of Italy is relatively the greatest, and be- 
cause the administrative machinery of the 
country is very inefiicient, and the taxes 
imposed upon the people are out of all pro- 
portion to any benefits received from them. 
France feels the military burden less because 
the French people are more industrious and 
thrifty, and because the political adminis- 
tration of the country, under whatever form 
of government, is well organized, efficient 
and economical . But France also has been 
dabbling in economic quack remedies, pro- 
tective tariffs and the like, that have dis- 
turbed her commercial system more than it 
has been disturbed for many years past, 
while the wild speculations in canals, in cop- 
per, in all sorts of securities and insecurities 
indulged in during the past decade, have 
brought about the inevitable reaction, and 
France has been suffering with the rest of 
us, the complaint of " hard times." 

In Austria the conditions have been ag- 
gravated by an unsound financial system 
and by an effort to reform it, undertaken at 
an unfortunate time, and not as yet entirely 
successful. Tlie connection of Russia with 
tlie rest of Europe is less intimate, and 
Russia might, perhaps, have profited some- 
what by the misfortunes of her neighbors at 
this time had she been in a condition to do 
so. But the disastrous failures of the crops 
in the preceding year, the resulting famine 
and the following pestilence, the burden of 
her own great military establishment, and 
various arbitrary regulations that have 
hampered her commercial enterprise, have 
made Russia also a great sufl:erer from 
•' hard times." Further off still, in British 
India, an artificial stimulation of industrial 
enterprise, arrested by the collapse of a. de- 
based monetary system, has plunged the 
people of that land into unusual distress. 

Under such conditions England, the cen- 
tral clearing house of the world's business, 
could not escape the universal depression. 
Investments have failed in the East and in 
the West ; the wrecks left by the bursting of 
the South American bubble have not yet 
been clearerl away ; trade has everywhere 
been lessened by the poverty of England's 
best customers, and the long strike of the 
coal miners paralyzed every branch of in- 


dustry, and left nothing but poverty in its 
train. Alarmed by threatened naval su- 
premacy in the Mediterranean, England sees 
that her influence there can only be contin- 
ued by enormous expenditures for new 

The United States, closely united with 
England in finance and commerce, must 
under any circumstences have shared in the 
general depression of 1893. But with us 
there were special causes which converted 
mere " hard times " into what may be de- 
noQiinated a panic. The artificial stimula- 
tion of our industries prepared the way for 
the collapse that came with the farcical fail- 
ure of confidence in our national currency. 
In this country, more than in any other, the 
government has practically assumed not 
only the regulation of commerce, but a 
monopoly of the most important functions 
of banking, so that our commercial credit is 
more than elsewhere dependent upon the 
condition of the public treasury. The result 
of a gradual substitution of silver for gold 
as a basis of the national currency had long 
been foreseen, but the critical point was 
reached just when the general conditions 
throughout the world presented the most 
imminent danger, and at the time when the 
turning point was reached there ensued a 
needless panic more severe and far reaching 
than any which this generation at least has 
known, and from whose effects the country 
is just beginning to emerge. 

Such is the record of 1893. Happily it is.a 
record that we may now regard as closed, 
not merely because we shall write a new 
date in our books, but because the signs of 
revival are everywhere apparent. Here and 
there the silent factories are starting up 
again, not a few of them with the confes- 
sion that they are behind with their orders 
and must work hard to make up for lost 
time. The integrity of our currency is 
absolutely assured (indeed it should not have 
been questioned); the economic policy of the 
government is virtually decided — a policy 
that will stimulate industry and make pos- 
sible the wide extension of our commerce. 
There are difficulties remaining as the fruit 
of past mistakes, but they are not beyond the 
power of Congress and the people to correct 
with reasonable certainty and promptness. 

The one thing needed in closing the ac- 
count of 1893 is that all true Americans 
should with it close the prejudices and par- 
tisan animosities that have contributed so 
much to increase the sufferings of the people, 
and come together with the new year in 
true devotion to our common national honor 
and prosperity. The country needs at such 
a time the honest help of every honest man, 
not so much to promote his private interests 
or personal views, but to build up mutual 
trust and a feeling of restful security. 
"Hard times" were never yet cured by 
bickering and scolding. If we but drop our 
minor differences and go for ward, with a 
genuine spirit of American loyalty and 

courage, the gloomy record of 1893 will soon 
be forgotten. 

London, Jan. 3, 1894. — In a review of 
English trade in 1893, the ' ' Times " asserts 
that the year has been a more trying one 
than any in the decade. It recalls the lock- 
out of the Lancashire districts, the strike of 
the dock laborers at Hull, the lock-out on 
the Midland coal-fields and the attendant 
strikes in the coal-fields of South Wales and 
Scotland. All these dislocated trade, which 
was further disturbed by the long series of 
bank failures in Australia and the depression 
in American railway stocks, and by home- 
investment troubles. These depleted in- 
comes and forced economy upon a large 
number of English people. In addition, 
manufacturers and traders had to meet in- 
creasing foreign competition. The Kidder- 
minster carpet trade and the screw-making 
industry at Birmingham, as well as the 
Leicester shoe trade, have felt the effects of 
American competition, while the lace- 
makers at Nottingham have felt the com- 
petition of the continent. Sheffield has had 
to endure German competition in cutlery, 
the Yorkshire woolen trade felt the effects 
of the American financial crisis as well as 
the wide-spread industrial depression at 
home, and English steel-makers have suf- 
fered from the effects of over-production. 

Since the lock-out terminated, in the 
spring, the Lancashire cotton trade has 
been benefited by cheap supplies of raw 
material and b3' a good and steady demand 
from India. The lock-out and the silver 
troubles have, however, absorbed the ad- 
vantages enjoyed during the latter part of 
1893 by the cotton trade. On the other 
hand, the building and engineering trades 
have been in a generally satisfactory condi- 
tion, and the silverware industry at Shef- 
field has i-eceived a fillip by the fall in the 
price of silver. 

The inherent conditions of trade have 
been generally sound, and remain so. What 
is now lacking is confidence and stability of 
affairs abroad. In America, affairs are 
clearing, and there is likely to be a revival 
of trade. If uncertainty in Brazil and Ar- 
gentina were removed, the deferred ship- 
ments to those countries would stimulate 
industry in England. The Indian financial 
situation may be the retarding element, and 
remain so until the price of silver becomes 
more specific. With abundant supplies of 
raw materials at almost bottom prices, and 
a steadily enlarging demand, the prospect 
for 1894 is more promising than was the 
prospect for 1893. The cycle of depression 
which followed the Baring collapse in 1890, 
is now showing signs of exhaustion. 

With these articles before him, the his- 
torical student of the next hundred years 
will be able to get a fair idea of the condi- 
tion of the commercial and financial world 
on the 1st of January, 1894, when our record 
ends. J. A. H. 





Commencing on the north side of the 
county, the Indian river first attaots the ob- 
server's attention. Rising in Lewis county, 
easterly of Natural Bridge in Wilna, it 
enters Jefferson county at the Bridge, cross- 
ing a corner of the town, and again enters 
Lewis county for a distance of 10 or 12 
miles, and re-enters Jefferson in tire town 
of Wilna near the Antwerp line — thvougli 
which town it runs in a very crooked man- 
ner, making several large bends — as if 
heading for the St. Lawrence; but, correct- 
ing itself, concludes to water more country 
by turning westward for a distance, then 
southward — making an immense bow. 
Entering the town of Philadelphia on its 
northern border, it crosses the town south- 
westerly, enters the town of LeRay in the 
same direction, evidently inclining towards 
the valley of Black river, but again cliang- 
ing its purpose when within a mile of Evans 
Mills, it turns abruptly on its heel and re- 
traces its course northward, entering the 
town of Theresa on a northward by western 
trend, serving as outlet for several small 
lakes in its course — finally emptying its 
darkish waters into the Oswegatchie. The 
color of the waters of all these rivers that 
rise in the Adirondack region, is of a brown- 
ish cast, but soft, and classed by chemists as 
among the very best. The junction of the 
Indian and the Oswegatchie is not far from 
where they find their final resting place in 
the mighty St Lawrence. 

The Indian river has a good fall at Natural 
Bridge, a nioderate one at Sterlingbush, one 
at Antwerp village, also one at Pl^iladelphia, 
another two miles above Theresa, and two 
more (one of them of over 50 feet) at Theresa 
village — affording good mill privileges at 
all these points. But in dry summers and 
in long, severe winters, the water supply is 
not adequate to the demands upon it for 
continuous work. Below Theresa village 
the river is navigable for steamers of light 
draught, and such are used there for busi- 
ness as well as pleasure. Maskolunge are 
caught in the river and lakes below the high 
falls, and mullet and suckers at the time of 
spring fresliets. Bullheads and suckers are 
abundant above the high falls. The river 
has several tributaries, but they are scarcely 
entitled to historical mention, except as 
they serve the important uses of agriculture. 
Black River. — This is the most important 
stream of the county, and gave its generic 
name to this region of the country. It rises 
in the Adirondacks, northeast of Boonville, 
and after reaching Jefferson county runs 
i-ather directly and centrally through it 
from east to west, though the territory of 
the county is larger north of the river than 
soutli of it. 

Between Cartha,§e, just above which im- 
portant village this river enters the county, 
and Dexter, below which it enters the ex- 
treme northeastern end of Lake Ontario, 
Black river falls 480 feet, and is an almost 
continuous series of rapids, with several 
precipitous falls, varying from 3 to 15 feet 
in height, affording about 25 miles of con- 
tinuous water power of rare excellence and 
usefulness. The bed and banks of the river 
are of limestone, affording firm foundations 
for dams and manufactories. 

Black River Bay, into which the river 
discharges its waters, is accounted the finest 
and safest harbor on Lake Ontario, not sur- 
passed by any on the entire chain of water, 
ways between Sackets Harbor and Duluth 
on Lake Superior. The harbor is absolutely 
safe from heavy winds, being completely 
landlocked, and covers an area of 60 square 
miles, with a depth of water sufficient to 
float large steamers or sailing craft. It was 
this depth of water that led the government 
to build (at Sackets Harbor) the llO-gun 
frigate, the " New Orleans," near the close 
of tlie war of 1812 with England. This ship 
was never launched, but would have been 
had the war continued another year. 

The waters of Black river ax-e dark and 
soft. Its principal tributaries are the Bea- 
ver, Moose and Deer rivers, receiving, of 
course, many lesser streams on its way to 
the lake. Many of the lakes of the Adiron- 
dack region find outlets into the head waters 
of Black river or some of its main tribu- 
taries. It is not a stream in which fish are 
plentiful — even the proverbial " oldest in- 
habitant" can scarcely recall ilie daj' on 
which he saw anybody' fishing in its waters. 
But it is said there are more fish in it now 
than formerly. Black River Bay, however, 
at certain seasons of the year, furnishes 
ample supplies of pike and pickerel. 

Black River Floods. —Like most large 
streams this river is more or less subject to 
floods. It usually has two stages of high 
water in the spring — the first occurring 
when the early spring tliaw dissolves the 
snows on the low lands and the cleared fields 
in its valley; and the second flood is due 
two to three weeks later, when still warmer 
weather melts the deep snows on the higher 
wooded ranges of the Adirondacks. where 
the river and its main tributaries have their 
rise. Out of one of these floods grew a 
memorable law suit between the mill and 
factory owners on Black river and the State 
of New York. 

The Great Flood op 1869. —This was an 
occurrence of more than passing interest, 
happening on the lower part of tlie river on 
the morning of April 32, 1869. It was oc- 
casioned by the breaking away of the For- 



estport dam, built by the State in creating 
a great reservoir to supply the lack of water 
in a dry time; but more especially to make 
np for the water diverted by the State from 
Black river to supply the canal of that name 
and feed the 60-mile level on the Erie canal 
from the " Feeder," which enters that canal 
at Rome. This greatest of floods ever 
known here, damaged to a greater or less 
degree nearly every mill owner on the 
stream from Forestport to Dexter, of whom 
there were over 300 in number. The cir- 
cumstances were peculiar; there was the 
usual spring flood prevailing at the time, 
which had reached its climax on the 31st of 
April, and had begun to recede, when sud- 
denly (in the night of the 31st, at Lyons 
Falls, and in the early morning at Water- 
town), the water rose prodigiously and with 
great rapidity. The water was high from 
the natural causes when the Forestport dam 
gave way. between 4 and 5 P. M. on the 31st, 
and that fact gave occasion for the State to 
excuse itself from paying damage, on the 
plea that it was providential; holding tena- 
ciously to the questionable allegation that 
the mischief could not have been due to the 
water from the reservoir, for after the dam 
gave way there was not time enough for 
that deluge to have reached Carthage, Great 
Bend, Felts Mills. Black River, Watertown, 
Brownville and Dexter, soon enough to in- 
flict the damage at the several hours and 
places it was claimed to have been done. 
This point proved to be the cliief contention 
in the numerous suits brought against the 
State for dauiages. The plea of the State 
was that it was not possible for the waters 
of the reservoir to pass down the rapids 
above Lyons Falls, then through the 37-mile 
level to "Carthage, and thence on to Water- 
town, in 13 or 14 hours — between 4 to 5 P. M. 
of April 31st, at the Forestport dam, and 5 
to 8 o'clock the next morning at Water- 
town. This was at flrst rather a stunning 
plea to the complainants. But where else 
could the water have come from ? The nor- 
mal flood had readied its climax and began 
to recede, when suddenly there came a rise 
of 8 to 10 feet in the briefest period, like a 
tidal wave, and with herculean force. 

The books upon hydraulics and liydrosta- 
tics were appealed to, and they solved the 
conundrum readily. Expert testimony was 
then introduced to show that the rise of 
water at Carthage (the lower end of the 37- 
mile level) was much quicker than if it had 
traversed that distance in the usual way — 
establishing the fact that the rise at Car- 
thage was by what they denominated a 
" wave of translation," which would inevi- 
tably soon occur on there falling into the 
upper end of the level 12,000,000 tons of 
water. It was estimated that 600,000,000 
cubic feet of water poured over Lyons Falls 
into the upper end of that long level within 
the space of two hours This enormous 
weight must mechanically make room for 
itself somewhere, and it could only do that 

by pressing the whole unbroken body of 
water below it (in the channel of the river) 
further down stream, as that was the direc- 
tion of least resistance— very much as if the 
river bed were a huge pipe thirty seven miles 
long. The river, again, was likened to an 
open trough filled with water; pouring 
water into it at one end would raise it at the 
other end instantly without the added water 
flowing through the mass. Witnesses vari- 
ously described it as a " wave of transla- 
tion" and as an " impulse," something like 
a passage of slow electricity. One witness 
testified that the pouring in of such a body 
of water at the upper end of the level in so 
brief a time would cause the water to level 
up at the lower end long before the added 
water could flow to that point. This extra 
water would make a river twenty-five miles 
long, 500 feet wide, and six feet deep, hav- 
ing a weight of 12,000,000 tons. The ex- 
perience of eminent enginee'rs and the dicta 
of the text- books successfully established the 
genuineness of the theory that the volume 
of water pouring into the upper end of the 
level was a force of herculean energy con- 
tinuously applied, and when the pulsation 
or " wave of translation," reached the end 
of the level at Carthage, it would be kept 
up as long as the force was applied , which 
would be until the reservoir had emptied 

Some Strange Decisions. — The taking 
of testimony in these important cases, and 
the interesting incidents at the trial, ran 
through two years. Elijah Brooks, Beman 
Brock way and William Wasson were the 
canal appraisers, who rendered a decision 
only the day before some of their terms ex- 
pired. This gave occasion for the State to 
ask for a new trial before new appraisers, 
which request the Legislature granted, and 
so the cases were tried before a, new board. 
Their decision demonstrated to the public, 
"the glorious uncertainties of law" — for 
some of the sufferers, with mills on opposite 
sides of the same flume, and the damage 
done in the same hour, were denied the 
right to recover, while neighbors on the 
other side of the flume, were awarded dam- 
ages. This was the case as between Knowl- 
ton Bros, and Gilderoy Lord, located oppo- 
site each other (at Watertown) — the former 
recovering, while the latter got nothing. 
At Brownville, three men owned each a 
part of the same continuous flume. It was 
carried away bodily. One of these men re- 
ceived damages, but the other two were 

In justification of such apjjarent incon- 
sistencies, the appraisers are said to have 
found that the normal flood, just passhig 
its climax, tore away the end of the Cobuim 
dam at Carthage, setting free the waters of 
the level above, and that those waters did 
the earlier damage below Carthage; while 
the breaking of the Forestport dam and the 
rush of the reservoir waters did not reach 



the lower part of the river until an hour or 
two later — holding that the State was not 
liable for damage done by the flood which 
followed the breaking of the Carthage dam, 
but might be for that caused by the burst- 
ing of the Forestport dara. This is given 
by them as an explanation of the very 
strange and apparently inconsistent decis- 
ions they made. But the " vulgar " public 
is prone to believe that these commissioners 
were not above Lord Bacon in resisting 
temptation, and that peculiar influences 
modified their decision. 

The amount of damages claimed by more 
than 300 suitors, aggregated nearly $800,000 
and the amount awarded was not far from 
$450,000, scattered from Forestport to Dex- 
ter. It must have cost the State not far 
from $600,000 for having a political super- 
intendent, who resided twenty-five miles 
away from his post of duty — for if he had 
resided near the Forestport dam and hoisted 
the waste-gates in season, no damage would 
have resulted. 

It appears to the editor of this History 
that if the counsel for the complainants had 
also alluded to the incompressibility of 
water, they could have made their conten- 
tion more readily compi-ehended. This me- 
chanical quality of water is none too well 
understood. You can compress (make 
smaller) iron or any other metal in a nor- 
mal condition, but water, a fluid, limpid, 
simple substance, declines to shrink in size 
in the least degree under the heaviest pres- 

In this connection we may mention that 
a serious earthquaking disturbance under 
the sea near Callao, in Chili, produced a 
tidal wave that was observed at San Fran- 
cisco (over 3,500 miles distant) within three 

A Sublime Sight. — This great flood will 
long be remembered by the inhabitants of 
the river regions. Thousands of people 
flocked to the banks of Black river on the 
' forenoon of April 23d, to gaze upon the sub- 
lime spectacle. One of the most imposing 
sights of the many presented by that raging 
flood was to be seen between the Knowl- 
tons' paper-mill and Lord's factory, where 
a volume of water like an improvised Niag- 
ara poured through, half as high as the 
buildings. It was curious how it walled it- 
self up in such a way, explainable only by 
the velocity of the current and the tremen- 
dous force behind it. It was an inspiring 
and a thrilling sight, not soon efl'aced from 
the beholder's memory. But Black river, 
when left unvexed by abnormal interfer- 
ence, has ever been a blessing to the people 
of its vicinage, and in spite of the State's 
deliberate robbery of its water, still brings 
healthful prosperity to the central part of 
the county, where her power has been har- 
nessed to the varied machines that lighten 
yet greatly magnify man's intelligent labors 

and so developed industries, thrift and 
wealth among an intelligent and prosperous 
people, who surely join us in the wish that 
her volume may never be less. 

Sandy Creek. — The next important 
stream, as we pass southward, is Sandy 
Creek, sometimes called the Big Sandy, 
though it is not very large in a dry time. 
The bed of the stream is broad enough for 
a much larger volume of water. This 
creek rises in'the south part of the town of 
Champion, two brooks uniting there to 
form the Sandy. Its first waterfall is at 
Tyler ville (or South Eutland, as the post- 
office there is named). A grist-mill and 
saw-mill were erected here in the early 
davs, and are yet used to do the work of 
that vicinity. Thence this stream flows 
southwesterly through Rodman, Adams 
and Ellisburgh, emptying into Lake Ontario 
at Woodville. Its utilized falls are at Tyler- 
ville, Whitesville (otherwise known as East 
' Rodman), at Zoar (or Unionville), at Rod- 
man village, Adams, Belleville and Wood- 
ville — making a serviceable stream for the 
people of its neighborhood, especially in the 
spring and fall, when an abundant supply 
of water for milling purpose courses down 
its rocky bed. The land bordering on 
Sandy creek is very fertile and productive, 
constituting some of the best farm lands in 
Jefferson county. The people along its 
banks are prosperous much above the 

South Sandy Cheek. — This is the princi- 
pal water course in the extreme south part 
of the county, passing through the towns of 
Worth, Lorraine, and centrally through the 
large and wealthy town of Elisburgh, and 
empties into Lake Ontario, and into the same 
bay as Sandy Creek — hence it is sometimes 
called the South Branch of Sandy Creek, 
though both streams are of nearly the same 

Tills stream has some romantic gorges. It 
has cut its channel through the soft slate 
rock of its upper region, from 100 to 200 feet 
in depth, with a valley from 4 to 10 rods 
wide. The bottom lands, and sometimes the 
adjacent sides of the bluffs, are grown up to 
timber, or have been cleared and sown to 
grass for pasturage or culture. Across these 
ibottom lands the stream has cut a zig-zag 
channel from bluff to bluff, causing a per- 
pendicular cliff of quite imposing grandeur 
where it strikes the banks — illustrating, in 
a smaller way, that erosive action of water 
ways so magnificently manifest in tlie cafions 
of the Yellowstone in the great National 
Park of Colorado. 

The South Sandy rises in the wooded 
region easterly from the town of Worth, re- 
ceiving several tributaries in its descent to 
the lake. It has but few mill privileges, for 
in the summer and winter seasons the creek 
maintains only a small flow. 

Other streams in Jefferson county are 
Chaumont river, Perch river, both slow 



streams or estuaries : Stony creek in Hen- 
derson, and Mill creek in Houndsfield. The 
"Gulf Stream" in Rodman (a tributary to 
Sandy creek), celebrated for its deep gorges, 
has cut through the shale rock from 50 to 
300 feet in depth. Jefferson county abounds 
in small streams, some of them containing 
trout (notably Cold creek in Watertown), 
and as many springs, which have proved 
very serviceable to farmers in <vatering 
stock and for dairying purposes, and have 
been an important factor in maintaining the 
superior reputation of the butter and cheese 
marketed from Jefferson. 

One spring, in particular, is worthy of 
mention. Bursting from a hillside on the 
Cooper farm, in Le Ray, it discharges at 
least 1,000 gallons of the clearest cold water 
each hour, summer and winter, and un- 
doubtedly much enhances the value of the 
farm on which it is developed. 

So far as the writer is informed, the 
largest medicinal spring in the county is 
the sulphur spring in the town of Hounds- 
field, 5 miles east of Sackets Harbor. The 
water is beautifully clear, and strongly 
inpregnated with sulphur, proving a great 
regulator to the secretions of the sys- 
tem. It is peculiar in this : when boiled, 
the sulphur taste and odor entirely disap- 

pear. The Haddock family, on whose sandy 
farm this spring was located, used the water 
for many years in cooking. 

There existed, for a long time, at Factory 
Square, in Watertown, a flowing stream of 
the purest water, containing slight traces of 
iron and magnesia. A few public-spirited citi- 
zens had drilled out the rock ana tubed the 
spring, and erected a watering place for 
horses, cattle and dogs. This beautiful spring 
was a great comfort to the people at that end 
of the town, and was very much patronized 
by teamsters and farmers. At a later day, per- 
haps early in the '50s, John Smith, an ex- 
perienced mechanic, concluded that the 
flowing stream at Factory Square indicated 
a subterranean flow of water beneath the 
limestone rock. The Knowlton Brothers or 
their predecessors had long desired a flow of 
clear water for their paper mill. They put 
Smith at work, upon their premises, where 
once had flowed the south branch of Black 
river, and when that worthy had drilled a 
6 inch hole through the rock, up gushed a 
delightful stream of water, and the theory 
of a flowing subterranean stream was de- 
monstrated — for thenceforth the spontan- 
eous flow at Factory Square ceased, resort 
being had to a pump in coaxing the water to 
the surface. 

A. R. THOMAS, M. D. 

Historic and beautiful Watertown has 
contributed much more than her relative 
quota to the list of bright and able men 
who have hitherto filled, with only two or 
three exceptions, the whole catalogue of 
official positions in the United States. It is 
true that she has not yet furnished a Presi- 
dent, Vice-President, nor a member of the 
TJ. S. Supreme Court — though one of her 
most popular citizens has at this date (1894) 
apparently the best coming chance for the 
Presidential succession. Watertown has 
supplied at least three governors to West- 
ern States, many representatives and sev- 
eral senators in Congress, while no branch 
of the learned professions, and but few 
courts of justice can be named in which 
some of her sons has not added lustre to his 
position. I do not think any other town in 
the State can show so long a record of citi- 
zens who have achieved distinction — and 
even upon the roll of martyrs, the name of 
one of her sons is indelibly inscribed. 

In one of the humblest dwellings on Bee- 
bee's Island, just east of Wflliam Smith's 
machine shop, on the 3d of October, 1836, 
was born Amos Russell Thomas, whose 
faithful likeness appears on next page. He 
was the son of Col. Azariah Thomas (who 
commanded a company in the war of 1812), 
and of Sarah Avery, a descendant of the 
distinguished family of that name who 
came first to America in 1640, settling at 
Gloucester, Mass. Col. Thomas had been a 

farmer at Perch River (owning the well- 
known Richard Buckminster place), but 
having unwisely endorsed for a friend, was 
forced to sell that fine farm, removing to 
Watertown in 1821. There he resided until 
he died in 1831, leaving the subject of this 
sketch and his elder brother, ..4.very, as the 
main dependence of this widowed mother. 
Avery Thomas was favorably known to 
Watertown's older residents as the appren- 
tice and skilled journeyman of Dyer Hunt- 
ington, whom he succeeded in business. 
He is somewhat known to the present gen- 
eration by his interesting historical sketches 
lately published in one of the city papers 

Thrown upon his own resources at this 
early age, our embryo Doctor acquired his 
education, both literary and professional, 
without outside aid. His life was passed in 
the country until nearly twenty years of 
age, and by manual labor upon a farm he ac- 
quired a robust and vigorous physical con- 
dition. His early love for books led him to 
devote his evenings and other intervals of 
leisure to study, and in that way he quali- 
fied himself to teach school. This was his 
business in 1846 in Western New York. 

Four years afterwards he engaged in mer- 
chandize at Ogdensburg, N. Y., but find- 
ing this occupation uncongenial, he again 
turned to his books, firmly resolved to de- 
vote his future to a profession. Getting 
possession of an old Indian skull, which had 
been exhumed in digging a cellar near his 



place of business in Ogdensburg, and bor- 
i-owing a work on anatomy for the purpose 
of studying the skull, he became so deeply 
interested as to engage at once in the study 
of medicine. He became a student in the 
Syracuse Medical College in 1853. devoting 
himself assiduously to the study of his 
chosen profession, graduating in February, 
1854. Thence he repaired to Philadelphia, 

his permanent home. In 1856 he was ap- 
pointed to the Chair of Anatomy, holding 
the position 10 years. In the same year he 
was also appointed Professor of Anatomy in 
the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, 
where he delivered annual courses of lec- 
tures to artists and students for 15 year's- 
These lectures were the first of the kind 
ever given to art students in America. In 


the recognized seat of Homoeopathic learn- 
ing and education in the United States, 
where he attended a prescribed course of 
lectures, graduating from the Penn Medical 
University. His abilities now began to be 
recognized, and immediately upon gradua- 
tion he was offered the position of Demon- 
strator of Anatomy by this Medical School, 
which he accepted, and made Philadelphia 

1863 he was appointed Lecturer on the same 
subject in the School of Design for "Women, 
which position he held for 10 years. After 
Second Bull Run he volunteered his services 
as surgeon, and was assigned to duty in 
Armory Square Hospital, Washington, 
where he remained in charge of one of the 
wards until the wounded from that disas- 
trous battle were provided for. He then 



returned to Philadelphia and resumed his 
practice, which has ahva.ys been lucrative 
and select. 

Becoming interested in an examination of 
the merits of Homceopathy soon after set- 
tling in Philadelphia, he was finally led to 
adopt that system of practice. In 1867 he 
was called to the chair of Anatomy in the 
Hahnemann Medical College of Philadel- 
phia, and in 1874 was elected Dean, the po- 
sition he now holds. 

As a lecturer on anatomy. Dr. Thomas 
has acquired a reputation for clearness and 
accuracy, and for an impressiveness of man- 
ner which readily attracts and retains the 
student's attention. The institution at 
whose head he presides is the strongest and 
holds the highest rank among the Homoeo- 
pathic medical colleges in the world. Dur- 
ing his administration as Dean, largely 
through his personal influence, the college 
has advanced its curriculum of study, ele- 
vated its standards, secured its new build- 
ings (which are in all respects equal to the 
best in the country), and entered upon a ca- 
reer of success never before attained. 

In addition to the demands of a large 
practice, Dr. Thomas has contributed a 
number of important papers to various 
medical journals, besides writing a work on 
" Post Mortem Examinations and Morbid 
Anatomy," which has been highly com- 
mended by medical journals. For 5 years 
he has acted as general editor of the 
"American Journal of Homoeopathic Mate- 
ria Medica. " 

Dr. Thomas married Elizabeth M. Bacon, 
daughter of the late Deacon Bacon, of 
Watertown, and they have had two chil- 
dren — a son. Dr. Chas. M. Thomas, also a 
distinguished physician of Philadelphia, and 
a daughter, who died in 1880, wife of Dr. 
J. N. Mitchell. 

Besides the County and State Medical So- 
cieties, of which he has been President, Dr. 
Thomas is a member of the American Insti- 

tute of Homceopathy, of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, of the Fairmount Park 
Art Association of the Pennsylvania Horti- 
cultural Society, of the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania, and of the Genealogical 
Society of Pennsylvania. 

A man who can show so fine a record for 
ability, and has left so marked an impres- 
sion upon the young men of his college, 
usually traces to heredity the source of at 
least a part of his success. Dr. Thomas' 
father was but one of that grand procession 
of New England's sons which moved west- 
ward, in the beginning of this century, from 
the cold winters and peculiar hardships of 
the land of their birth, to find a more con- 
genial environment. The " Black River 
country" seems to have been for them a 
favorite tarrying place ; and though many 
who at first settled in Jefferson county, at a 
later day emigrated further westward, they 
left behind them the schools and the churches 
which were the characteristic evidences of 
their presence. The Doctor's ancestors were 
among those who landed as Pilgrims in 
New England. Their direct line has pro- 
duced a long list of names distinguished in 
literature, arms, law, and medicine. Like 
so many of his people, he is of stalwart 
build, big bi'ained, deep chested, bearing his 
67 years like a man of .50. The graduates 
of his college, now numbering thousands, 
idolize him ; his medical brethren (of both 
schools) hold him in the highest esteem, for 
wherever he has been placed, and whatever 
called upon to do, he has filled the position 
or done the work like a master. Of the 
medical professors occupying positions in 
the five medical colleges in Philadelphia 
when Dr. Thomas began his career as a 
teacher, but two are now living besides him- 
self, and they have been retired for several 
years. Since the death of the lamented 
Leidy, Dr. Thomas is the senior medical 
professor in the city of Philadelphia. 

J. A. H. 



COMPAKED with humanity's countless 
thousands, the men who have proved them, 
selves worthy to die for a great cause are 
but few. Lovejoy, John Brown and Abra- 
ham Lincoln, three names that have been 
heard at every fireside in America and in 
the homes of the whole English-speaking 
race, met untimely deaths because they had 
perceptions clear enough and hearts large 
enough to advocate the cause of the en- 
slaved. They might have lived out common 
lives, and sunk at last into common graves, 
and the world would not long remember 
what they had said or done; but they seem 
to have been "chosen" by some invisible 
agency to fill peculiar positions, then to 

perish by violence, and finally to have tlieir 
names inscribed upon the roll of immor- 
tality — as if to show to those who come 
after them that the Ci'eator's work moves 
steadily forward though the chosen work- 
men perish. Of these three men it is now 
sadly remembered that they seemed to have 
dim perceptions of their fate, and to com- 
prehend, in moments of introspection, that 
their lot was not just like that of their 
fellows. They had a definite work to do, 
and could have no peace of mind until they 
took up that work and followed it out. 
Thus they had but scant time for trivial 
affairs. Lincoln's early life appears to have 
been inexpressibly sad. John Brown prob- 



ably never had three days' pleasuring in all 
his hard-worked life; and Lovejoy, when 
he became a printer and then an editor, 
knew that he bade adieu to ease, perhaps to 
happiness. These were earnest, thoughtful 
men — springing from the common walks of 
life; and their lonely and preoccupied habits 

he disliked associates, but they appeared 
uncongenial. Silent and reserved he grew 
up, and none but his mother discerned in 
his childhood any promise of that bright 
capacity he was destined to attain. But the 
time arrived when all bis reserve power de- 
veloped itself, and he came to the front as 


in youth but too truly shadowed forth the 
fate they were to meet. 

The subject of this biography was largely 
of such a nature. His brothers and sisters 
well remember that he never enjoyed child- 
ish sports like the other children, but seemed 
most happy when alone, communing with 
his own thoughts. Bright, handsome, sensi- 
tive, full of intelligence, he was never a 
companion for those around him — not that 

the ablest, the most determined and un- 
faltering advocate of Prohibition that had 
until then appeared. 

In writing of such a man, a wise dis- 
crimination is demanded. Measured by 
conservative, common standards he would 
perhaps be classed as impetuous, unbal- 
anced, too far in advance of his day — but 
regarded as a reformer, as a standard-bearer 
in the grand march of human progress, he 



seems worthy to be classed as a martyr in 
the cause for which he perished. 

George Channing Haddock (youngest 
child of Samuel and Sabrina) was born, 
Jan. 23, 1832, near the Sulphur Springs, in 
Houndsfield, 6 miles from Watertown, 5 
miles from Sackets Harbor. In his early 
childhood his parents i-emoved to Water- 
town, and there, hand in hand with his 
labors in the printing office of his brother, 
he completed his education at the Black 
River Literary and Religious Institute, in 
that early and prosperous period of its his- 
tory, wlien Rev. James R. Boyd was the 
principal, and Messrs. Covert, Whitford and 
Ramsey the leading professors. He gradu- 
ated as the brightest scholar in his class. 
Marrying early, he accepted Horace Gree- 
ley's advice and went West. It had been 
the hope of his deeply religious mother that 
George should become a preacher — an idea, 
however, which he had never seriously 
entertained. While on a visit to his grand- 
pax-ents at Columbus, O., he attended a 
series of revival meetings, and was con- 
strained to embrace the religion his parents 
had so long professed. Seeking member- 
ship in the Methodist E. Church, he was 
soon given " local work " by the presiding 
elder of that district. In that work he 
began to develop the pulpit and platform 
ability vv'hioh afterwards made him so 
prominent. Having removed (in his 26th 
year) to Milwaukee, Wis. , he was assigned 
to ministerial work on trial, and in 1862 
joined the Wisconsin Conference as an 
ordained traveling minister. His first loca- 
tion was at Port Washington, a town on the 
northern shore of Lake Michigan. Thence, 
year by year, growing more and more in 
the favor of the people, he was rapidly pro- 
moted. Perhaps his political sermons were 
among his best, though as a preacher of the 
gospel, pure and simple, he had no superior 
in the West, that land so prolific of able 
ministers. But in his sermons upon the 
stirring subjects which from 1861 to '65 
agitated the public mind, he reached the 
sublimest heights of eloquence and his best 
command of rhetoric. He did much to elicit 
loyal sentiment, and though he did not him- 
self go to the front, as his father and brothers 
had done, he was none the less a support to 
the Union cause in his own way. When 
General John A.. Logan chanced to hear 
him speak at a great Union rally, he ex- 
claimed, " Why, this is one of the brightest 
men I ever heard. He ought to be in the 
United States Senate." 

Gradually he became more widely known 
for his eloquence and pulpit ability, and 
soon the largest charges in the Wisconsin 
Conference asked for him as their pastor. 
Clinton Junction and Waukesha, unim- 
portant stations, were served after leaving 
Port Washington, and then he was called to 
Oshkosh, where he spent three very labori- 
ous but happy years. The ever-moving tide 
of the Methodist itinerancy transferred him 

to Ripon in 1867. This place was the seat 
of a Congregational college, and he was in 
his element when his pastoral labors led him 
among the young. Under the educating 
and elevating influences which the pro- 
gressive Christian minister must ever feel 
and recognize as dominating his life, Dr. 
Haddock " grew," at Ripon, into the logical, 
rhetorical speaker, whose charm of utter- 
ance drew large audiences wherever he was 
announced to speak. He now began to 
make a special effort in behalf of temper- 
ance, for he was brought daily in contact 
with the evils which strong drink engenders 
in every community. 

In October, 1869, he was transferred to 
Appleton, a vigorous town on the Fox river, 
containing 10,000 inhabitants. In 1871 he 
was at Fond du Lac, and in 1878 was made 
presiding elder of the Fond du Lac district. 
He was a preacher who attracted not only 
by his pulpit ability, but he charmed all 
who met him socially. His democratic 
manner, his undying sympathy with the 
young, and his quick appreciation of the 
common people, from whose ranks he was 
ever p^ oud to say he had come — made him 
welcome everywhere in his district. In 1880 
he was appointed to Milwaukee, the largest 
and most important city in Wisconsin. 
While here he took distinct and definite 
stand as an out-and-out Prohibitionist, and 
thenceforth his name became inseparably 
identified with that cause in the West. 

At the Conference session of 1881, he 
preached for the presiding bishop. This 
was his farewell sermon, for he asked for 
and was granted a transfer to the Iowa 
Conference — an unwise step, and soon to 
be fraught with fatal consequences. He 
had labored successfully in the Wisconsin 
Conference — his early friendships were 
among that people ; there he had achieved 
his reputation as the chief preacher of his 
denomination in that State. But he felt 
that the cause of Prohibition bad peculiar 
claims upon him ; and so, impelled by that 
invisible yet potent force which so often 
shapes such lives, he deliberately went where 
the fight was the fiercest, and the wants of 
the cause most imperative. When Dr. War- 
ren, Boston's most popular physician, vol- 
unteered to fight at Bunker Hill, he was 
asked to what dutj' or to what part of the 
field he desired to be sent. " To the breach, 
to the breach ! " he cried; and there he fell, 
with an empty musket in his hand. 

His first charge in Iowa was at Fort Dodge. 
He soon discovered that, although the State 
had voted for Prohibition, the lawful action 
of its legislature was to be opposed by the 
worst element found in every community — 
those who countenance or favor the sale of 
rum. During his two years' pastorate at 
Fort Dodge he held a somewhat critical and 
independent congregation together by the 
sheer force of personal ability. The lowans 
began to admire his broad-gauge, big- 
hearted, brainy sermons, the candor of his 



utterances, and his earnestness in all he un- 
dertook; and though some differed with 
him as to his premises and conclusions, all 
were ready to praise his ability and fair- 

In 1886 he was sent by his bishop to Sioux 
City. The power that assigned him to that 
place could not have properly appreciated 
the situation, or, if so, its decision must 
have resulted from a conviction that an ex- 
traordinary man was needed in that peculiar 
place. Dr. Haddock himself did not see 
what good he could accomplish as a pastor 
among a people almost unanimously opposed 
to Prohibition, restless under lawful re- 
straint, case-hardened against appeals, and 
steeped in all the iniquities which grow up 
around grog-shops. But he writes: "We 
will work the year through, and do our 

The town was a mixture of nationalities, 
promiscuous in all respects. Sioux City is 
far to the west, at the junction of the Big 
Sioux with the Missouri river, and in 188t) 
was of the true frontier type. It contained 
30,000 people, more than half of them for- 
eign born. It was a receiving and distribut- 
ing point for a large area of country, a cen- 
ter for adventurers of lionest intent, and a 
harvest-field for thousands who found its 
atmosphere congenial to crime. Its fifteen 
churches were offset by 100 saloons and a 
proportionate number of brothels. Every 
saloon was in full blast, and rum selling was 
as open as if no law existed prohibiting it. 
Rum drinking, prostitution and their in- 
separable evils had gained control of a sen- 
timent that dominated prosecuting officers 
and juries, corrupting the press, the poli- 
tics, the business and a large part of society, 
and mocked at and defied everything which 
savored of legal or moral restraint. Even 
the religious sentiment was apathetic or dis- 
cordant. With a mayor, a council, and the 
whole machinery of the municipality in its 
power, the rum interest ran riot, and teri-or- 
ized the community into acquiescence or 

Thus matters stood, when one of the 
judges of the Superior Court openly de- 
clared that the temperance people of Sioux 
City werea " cowardly and a ci'aven set," for 
the conditions of public morality would 
never have sunk so low if they had at the 
first made a judicious stand against crime. 
This rebuke stung Dr. Haddock as though 
it were a personal charge, for he recognized 
its justice. Just then, too, he learned that 
women were signing the complaint papers 
required by the law in punishing its violat- 
ors. He now felt that he had ignored his 
duties as a citizen until further forbearance 
would be a sin, and he deteriliined to step 
into tlie gap which no other man in Sioux 
City dared to fill. When admonishe<l that 
his life would be in danger if he proceeded 
legally against the rum sellers and brothel 
keepers, he laconically replied, " So be it — 
I sliall do my dutv as a citizen as I under- 

stand it." With him the Rubicon was 
crossed — there could be no turning back. 

His purpose and spirit are indicated in a 
letter sent out with one of his circulars: 
" We are engaged in a desperate encounter 
here. It is dangerous for a man to take an 
honest stand for Prohibition. It is currently 
reported (and believed) that 100 men are 
under oath to burn the churches if the sa- 
loons are closed by law. I have signed 
twenty-five complaints, and am satisfied that 
I took mv life in mv hand by so doing. But 
somebody had to do it." The saloon men 
and their adherents now began to "spot" 
the man to whom they attributed the re- 
sponsibility for the State having gone Pro- 
hibition. The corrupt press of the city held 
liim up to execration by jeering paragraphs 
and willful misstatements. The Daily Tvi- 
bune was particularly malignant. 

On the evening of August 3, 1886, he pro- 
cured a conveyance, and (accompanied by a 
brother in the church) drove to a small town 
near Sioux City for the purpose of procuring 
evidence to be" used in the pending prosecu- 
tions. At ten o'clock they returned, the 
Methodist brother having left the carriage 
at his home. The doctor drove the horse to 
his stable, and started to cross the street, 
when he was set upon by a dozen men — 
some one of them fired a pistol, and the vic- 
tim of their cowardly attack sank down in 
his very tracks, dying in a minute, while his 
cowardly assassins skulked away to their 
dens, scared at what they had done. The 
doctor's body was taken to his home.twhere 
it was tenderly cared for by sympathizing 
friends. The bitterness of such a calamity 
to his own family and to his brother and 
sisters can be imagined better than de- 

If every cause must have its martyrs, as 
history seems to teach and example prove, 
what shall we say of that Satanic spirit 
which rises insatiate in Christian communi- 
ties, lacking only the opjiortunity to crimson 
its horrid front with human blood. 

The cause of Temperance and Prohibition 
in the north-west looked upon him as its 
special champiwi. That cause trembled 
when its ablest exponent fell. In a single 
man it lost a host. He had helped to shape 
a cause, and had fought its battles, but its 
ultimate triumph he was not permitted to 

His death, however, revolutionized Sioux 
Cit}'. For a day the Christiap sense of the 
city appeared paralyzed; then rose the cry. 
" 'f he saloons must go!" Outraged law 
and order began their suspended functions, 
and in less than a month every saloon was 

The funeral services were unusually im- 
pressive. The better element in Sioux City 
felt, at last, that their indifference might, 
perhaps, have contributed to the calamity 
which had disgraced their town, and were 
ready to do anything in their power to make 
up for their delinquency. They realized 



that they had lost a personal friend. Even 
the wives of some of the saloon keepers came 
to the funeral to mingle their tears with the 
mourners. His own church could not liold 
the people, and the Presbyterian church was 
opened for additional services. 

It is a fact that the man who shot Dr. 
Haddock was never punished. His name 
was Arensdorf, a German brewer. After a 
pi-otracted trial before a jury packed to ac- 

quit, eleven of them declared him innocent, 
but one refused to acquit, declaring that he 
had been offered money if he would agree 
with the eleven. Such a result is not to be 
wondered at when we consider that a single 
check for $25,000 was sent by an association 
in the east to defend the prisoners, and 
135,000 will accomplish a great deal in a 
place like Sioux City. Dr. Haddock's ex- 
ample is not likely soon to be followed. 



Some really intelligent men may think 
that matters of a political character should 
be excluded from a local history. But in a 
Republic all questions relating to the public 
well-being must enter into more or less ac- 
tive consideration by the people, and affect 
their lives — for they are the only source of 
political power, and merely delegate to their 
servants (the office-holders) the functions of 
government. A complete history of Jeffer- 
son county would surel3' be inadequate if it 
failed to afford a place for the politics of the 
era covered by its pages. 

The first settlers of Jefferson county (1791 
to 1820) came mainly from western Massa- 
chusetts and Vermont, with quite a Con- 
necticut contingent. If you draw a line 
east by north through those States you will 
touch nearly every county that sent its sons 
and daughters into Northern New York — 
for it is a curious and instructive fact that 
nearly all considerable migrations have been 
from east to west, upon nearly the same 
parallels. Through western Massachusetts 
into north-eastern New York poured in a 
steady stream those sturdy emigrants who 
settled the lands they tarried in, from the 
Hudson to the Mississippi in the north; while 
in the south we ob-serve tlie same curious 
force impelling these living currents to 
move upon the same isothermal lines — the 
Virginians from the James and the Rappa- 
hannock peopling first Kentucky and South- 
ern Ohio and Indiana and Illinois, then Mis- 
souri and Arkansas, and so on to Southern 
California — transplanting to that distant 
region those characteristics that made 
Stockton and its homicidal Judge Terry 
eventual i^jossibilities. 

"The Southron to his wai-mer clime. 
The Nortlmian to his ice and snow." 

These New Englanders became, by the 
mere force of personal ability, the dominat- 
ing influence in the Black River country. 
The town meeting (as it had been that of 
their ancestors) became their method of de- 
ciding what should be done in all matters 
pertaining to the public welfare. They were 
men of enlightened ideas, profoundly re- 
specting that independence which their 
fathers, and not a few among themselves, 

had helped to wrest from England by a long 
and peculiarly trying war. No man should 
call himself their master. They were a 
sturdy and an assertive race, entirely com- 
petent to govern themselves in their own 
independent fashion. Such a creature as an 
office-seeker could not be found among them, 
for to have it known that one of their num- 
ber desired or sought an office would have 
been fatal to his success. Each man soberly 
considered himself competent to fill any of- 
fice his fellow citizens might impose upon 
him, but felt it as a burthen patiently to be 
borne, yet never sought. Public office was 
then indeed a " public trust," never a source 
of gain. 

As early as 1791-92 settlers began to pene- 
trate the v^'ilderness now known as Jeffer- 
son county, though it was not until 1805 
that the county was definitely set off from 
Oneida. But as an indication of what at 
that early day (1805-6) had been accom- 
plished, we note that the taxable values of 
the lauded and personal property in Jeffer- 
son county had reach nearly a million of 
dollars — fully equal to double that sum in 
our day. In 1805 preparations had been 
made to build a court-house. The specific 
details of such historical facts will be duly 
chronicled in their appropriate place in this 
History, and are alluded to here merely as 
indications of the primal conditions which 
preceded movements generally classified as 
"political." But the partizan spirit became 
for the first time manifest in 1807, when 
Daniel D. Tompkins received 765 votes as 
against 615 for Morgan Lewis for govenor, 
Lewis being elected. Yet it was not until 
1820 that one of Jefferson's own citizens 
(Hon. Micah Sterling) went into the National 
Congress, the district then being the 18th in 
the State, comprising the counties of Jeffer- 
son, Lewis and St. Lawrence. 

Gradually, as in the case of Sterling, able 
and ambitious men were coming into promi- 
nence, and questions that concerned the 
State and the whole Nation began to become 
intermingled with local considerations — and 
then was developed the county convention, 
made up of delegates from the towns. As 
there must ever be, in a Republic, two 
political parties — the one in power and the 



other ti-ying to get in — so there naturally 
came to be two county conventions, each 
reflecting the views and roaking the nomi- 
nations of its party — a plan found so ac- 
ceptable as to have been continued for three- 
quarters of a century, essentially unmodi- 

The name ' ' Democrat '' — the most im- 
portant and dominant party name the 
county or the Nation at large has ever 
known — dates almost from the birth of the 
Eepublic : and we introduce the name thus 
early so that we may explain its origin, and 
that, when used in this chapter hereafter, 
the reader may catch our meaning. There 
was, at the end of the 17th century, an 
earnest sympathy in these United States 
with France during her revolutionary crisis. 
and that sympathy continued unabated until 
the French Directory nearly precipitated a 
war upon us. The French Revolution, 
revolting as it must ever stand in history, 
was regarded as a democratic uprising (and 
therefore justifiable), especially when our 
people saw that the Ijeloved Lafayette was 
at the head of the National Guard, which 
had sided against their king. The victory 
of France against the Germans at Jemappez 
was celebrated in the United States with 
joyful and noisy demonstrations, and was 
soon followed by the arrival in this country 
of Citizen Genet as the French minister, 
whose efforts seem to have been artfully 
directed toward embroiling the United 
States in a war with England. Under his 
guidance and patronage a Democratic 
Society was organized in Philadelphia, with 
Duponceau as secretary ; and its cunning 
method was to denounce all who oj)posed 
them as aristocrats. This society spread 
rapidly, its first definite aim being to gain 
enough ascendency in Pennsylvania to re- 
elect Gov. Mifflin. The elfort was success- 
ful, and the Keystone State was rated as 
Democratic. In our own day it is not pos- 
sible to realize how strong an influence 
European politics exerted in America. Ob- 
viously the country's interests lay in friendly 
intercourse with England, and the Federal- 
ists, bent on neutrality as to any of the wars 
of Europe, were accused of British procliv- 
ities, while the Democrats favored France. 
Democratic clubs multiplied, French cock- 
ades were worn in the streets, and French 
songs sung at the theatres. It is well estab- 
lished that the doctrine of government "by 
the people" was widely disseminated by 
these organizations. The name of "Demo- 
crat" was used opprobiously by the Federal- 
ists to designate their opponents, much in 
the sense in which we in our day use the 
term "anarchist." 

Another factor in the rise and increasing 
popularity of the Democratic party had its 
growth in our own State, then the most 
plutocratic in the Union, where grants of 
immense tracts of land by the State had 
been the means of creating powerful fami- 
lies, whose political influence had proved 

almost irresistible. This power they had 
kept up by imposing a property qualifica- 
tion for voting, thus actually disfranchising 
a large body of the people. " But during our 
Revolutionary struggle many of these 
wealthy families were on the Tory side, and 
at the conclusion of peace they found them- 
selves disfranchised. The political control 
then passed into the hands of the Whigs, 
who in tarn were dominated by the Sons of 
Liberty, under the leadership (in New York) 
of Hamilton, who had married a Schuyler. 

When the Tammanv Society was started 
(being a popular counterpart to the suspected 
Society of the Cincinnati), Aaron Burr was 
believed to control its policy, and he used 
that organization to undermine the in- 
fluence of Hamilton, whom he regarded as 
a formidable rival. So long as Burr was in 
public life Tammany supported him, achiev- 
ing his election to the United States Senate, 
and an even division between him and 
Jefferson of the electoral vote in 1800. But 
the House of Representatives elected Jeffer- 
son. Burr having made himself odious by 
killing Hamilton in a duel, Jefferson com- 
pleted his ruin in 1806 by denouncing his 
treasonable plots in the West, and thus Jef- 
ferson was rid of two formidable rivals, and 
became heir to the Democratic sentiment in 
the North, and his name was indissolubly 
blended with that party, which he founded 
and may be said to have named. 

The Federalists, who were the only nation- 
ally organized opponents to the Democracy, 
from 1810 to 1833, were never popular in 
Jefferson county nor in the State at large. 
Those early settlers, as we have already 
shown, were essentially "democratic" both 
by education and occupation, and felt not 
the slightest affiliation with an organization 
which bore the merited designation of the 
"silk-stocking party. " And, much as it has 
been denied, it is historically true, that from 
the disintegrated elements of the early 
Federal party was formed the later Whig 
organization, which, eminently patriotic 
and popular under the leadership of Henry 
Clay in the South and Daniel Webster in the 
North, was unable, with a single exception, 
to secure the electoral vote of New York — 
for it could not escape from the aristocratic 
reputation that clung to it — until at last (in 
1854) it became merged in the Republican 
organization, which was destined (1861) to 
become the grandly victorious Northern 
patriotic force that took up the gage of bat- 
tle the crazy South, under its desperate 
Democratic leadership, had so vauntingly 
thrown down in Charleston harbor. Hav- 
ing, under the wise leadership of Lincoln, 
brought the great civil war to its only 
rational conclusion by freeing the slaves, 
that party had in the meantime established 
a National system of banking and finance, 
and instituted other reforms in the govern- 
ment, that have proved of inestimable value 
to the country. 

This somewhat lengthy yet purposely 



abridged explanation has appeared neces- 
sary in order to givedeflnite names to(as well 
as trace the origin of) the two great political 
parties that now, in this centennial year of 
Jefferson county's history, are struggling for 
supremacy — with Grover Cleveland in the 
presidential chair (since March 4th, 1893), 
and Roswell Pettibone Flower (since Janu- 
ary 1, 189i), in the Gubernatorial chair of 
the great State of New York, both of them 
elected by the Democratic party and counted 
among its foremost advocates — a party, 
as described in one of our ablest Encyclo- 
paedias, that has " always maintained its 
cohesion, sometimes thi-ough difficulties and 
disasters which would have irretrievably de- 
stroyed any political organization with less 
discipline and partizan fealty. In its curi- 
ous history, while reverting to certain origi- 
nal principles with tolerable persistency, it 
has in its exigencies advocated in turn 
neai-ly every doctrine of its adversaries, and 
voted at one time in favor of what it de- 
nounced at another. It is in these respects 
to the United Stateg what the Tory party is 
to England, and it illustrates the value of 
organization in prolonging party vitality." 
Keturning to our own local liistory, we 
find the Whigs and Democrats keeping up 
their political antagonism in Jefferson 
county until about 1842, with varying suc- 
cess, but generally with results favoring the 
Democracy, though Thomas C. Chittenden, 
a Whig, had been elected to Congress in 
1840, a phenomenal year in politics. From 
1815 to 1834. the year of his death, Perley 
Gr. Keyes (a contemporary of Jason Fair- 
banks, Joseph Sheldon, Hale Coffeen, Norris 
M. Woodruff, Hart Massey, and the other 
worthies of that time\ had been the unchal- 
lenged "boss" in the county, and his behests 
were law to his subservient followers. At 
his death his abler lieutenant, Orville Hun- 
gerford, caught his mantle as it fell, and in 
1843 was elected to Congress. Fronr that 
time the county became more intimately 
and generally associated with National poli- 
tics — for in Mr. Hungerford a man had come 
to the front whose personal popularity and 
conceded ability proclaimed liim a natural 
leader of men. He was born in Farming- 
ton, Conn., in 1790, and came to Watertown 
with his father in 1804. On reaching his 
majority he entered upon mercantile life, in 
which he rapidly broadened until he was 
favorably known to almost every voter in 
the county, being a second time sent to Con- 
gress. In his flx-st term at Washington he 
was made chairman of the then important 
Committee of Accounts and Revolutionary 
Pensions, and displayed so much ability and 
integrity that at the beginning of his second 
term he was appointed chairman of the 
Committee of Ways and Means, the most 
important committee of the House. He 
was the author of the protective tariff of 
that Congress, under which the country 
was remarkably prospei-ous and its indus- 
tries rapidly developed. The South was 

then, and continued so until the war, op- 
posed to the principle of protection and in 
favor of free trade — for, as she was the 
great producer of our leading exports (cot- 
ton and tobacco) she naturally preferred to 
buy her goods from those who purchased 
those great staples, and bring in such goods 
free from taxation. Though Mr. Hunger- 
ford felt that he had alienated the personal 
regard of many admirers in the South by 
his course in strenuously advocating the 
system of protection, he never lost their re- 
spect for him as a man. 

At home, however, he was destined to 
encounter serious opposition, and from a 
variety of sources. In the first place, he 
had been so long successful as a merchant 
and leading citizen, and as a member of 
Congress for two terms, that there had 
sjjrung up around him a sort of "junta," 
who assumed (in his absence) to speak for 
him politically, and they looked upon it as a 
sort of sacrilege if any man aspired to an 
office who had not sprung from their ranks 
or was favored by them. This had been 
going on for quite a number of years almost 
unchallenged, and, as had been and is yet 
the case with many other able men, Mr. 
Hungerford had at times felt constrained to 
use his influence, or it had been used in his 
absence, to put in office men who had no 
just claim to popular favor, but who had 
managed to get through the polls success- 
fully, impelled bj' the power of the "junta." 
In the second place, there was another, 
and a more potent influence which was des- 
tined to work disastrouly upon Mr. Hunger- 
ford's political influence in the county and 
congressional district where he had so long 
and ably held sway. As early as 184G there 
began to be heard the mutterings of that 
dreadful storm of fratricidal strife that was 
not to be stilled until half the families in the 
land were mourning for some kindred slain 
or maimed in tlie momentous struggle to 
maintain the national government and the 
incidental freeing of the slaves. Mr. Hun- 
gerford, however, was spared any feeling 
of humiliation over what may be called the 
"displacement" of himself and friends from 
local political power — for he died in 1851, 
universally regretted as one of the county's 
most respected, able and successful men. 

The natural and increasing growth of the 
sentiment for universal freedom in the 
United States found quick acceptance in 
Northern New York, a section settled by 
freemen; and it brought into immediate 
prominence, under the aggresive name of 
" Barn -burners," a troop of able young men 
who did not hesitate to make war upon the 
" Hunkers," that astute and venerable po- 
litical faction who affiliated with their al- 
lies in the South, and had long held the 
leading offices in the Northern States. Fore- 
most among these younger inen, and perhaps 
the ablest and least selfish politician the 
county ever produced, was Charles Brooks 
Hoard, a citizen of Antwerp, in which town 



he had held several important offices, [See 
his biography.] While not an orator, Mr. 
Hoard was an able organizer, and the in- 
herent honesty of his purpose, joined to his 
■powers of persuasion, made him especially 
acceptable to his political associates. These 
active " Barn-burners" of New York State 
helped to form, and in their localities be- 
came leaders in, the national organization 
known as "Republican," which continues 
to this time as the pei-sistent antagonist of 
the Democracy and its dictatorial adjunct, 
Tammany HaU. The influence of these 
younger men, impelled as they were by the 
constraining force of a popular demand for 
freedom in the territories (now free States), 
soon proved too much for the "Hunkers" 
in Jefferson county and the State, as well as 
throughout the Northern States, and in 1856 
the National House of Representatives be- 
came Republican, Charles B. Hoard having 
been elected the member from the Jeffer- 
son and Lewis district. He succeeded Caleb 
Lyon, after an interval of one term, filled 
by W. A. Gilbert. Lyon was elected (in 
1852) as an independent candidate in oppo- 
sition to the Democratic nominee. 



Perhaps nothing can more clearly illus- 
trate the general political discontent in Jef- 
ferson count}' with the protracted dictation 
of •' Hunkerism," as managed by the 
"junta" who had acquired their influence 
through Mr. Hungerford — than the remark- 
able manner in which the mass of the people 
supported Caleb Lyon when he ran for Con- 
gress. The tremendous political cyclone 
which had burst upon the Democratic party 

in 1840, and placed Gen. Harrison in the 
Presidential chair — memorable as the "log 
cabin and hard-cider " campaign — had 
elected Thos. C. Chittenden the Member of 
Congress, in liis time the only Whig parti- 
zan who had held that important office. 
Caleb Lyon was also a pronounced Whig, 
but his father had been in his day an active 
supporter of his personal friend, Wm. L. 
Marcy, a distinguished and uncompromising 
Democrat. The elder Lyon had secured 
from the Frencli (Chassanis) Company a 
large tract of pine land about the High Falls 
on Black river, and to these falls his name 
has been given. One day his horse came 
home without a rider, and an immediate 
search revealed his dead body by the road- 
side, where he had dismounted and died 
from heart-failure. His youngest son, 
Caleb, i-eceived a good classical education, 
and had also an excellent tutor in an elder 
sister, who was well educated, and much 
devoted to her brother. He went to Cali- 
fornia in 1849, having sailed from New 
York witli Bayard Taylor on the " Taro- 
linta." which had among her passengers 
and crew many bright fellows, 

" Who went, with hearts elate. 
To fouud another empire, to rear another State." 

Lyon recei%'ed from the California Consti- 
tutional Convention $1,000 in gold for de- 
signing the seal of that State, and this was 
a triumph over numerous and able competi- 
tors. Returning to his home near Lyons 
Falls, he made the tour of Europe and the 
Holy Land. These incidents in his life (at 
this day regarded as but slim foundation 
for a political career) gave him a certain 
cliaracter, and he courted notoriety by al- 
ways appearing with a flaming neck-tie and 
curiously grotesque clothes. These, combined 
witli his long hair (reaching to his should- 
ers) made him a striking feature in modern 

His first attempt to run for office was in 
'48 when he appealed to the citizens of 
Le"-is county to elect him to the Legisla- 
ture, mainly bacause he was, as he expressed 
it, "a poor Black River boy." He was 
elected, and while serving his term in the 
Assembly, there occurred that unique man- 
ceuvre which induced certain members of 
the State Senate to resign, and seek a re- 
election from their constituents as a vindica- 
tion of their votes upon some party question 
affecting the canals; a proceeding paralled, 
long afterwards, in the National Senate, 
wlien the dictatorial Conkling and his col- 
league "Me-too" Piatt, flouted out of that 
body in a ' ' huff " because President Garfield 
had nominated a customs collector for the 
port of New York who was not a follower 
of those gentlemen, who called upon the 
Legislature (then in session) to condemn an 
independent and honorable President byre- 
electing them to the positions they had va- 
cated in anger. Like tliese two worthies, 
these State Senators having " shunted " 



themselves fvoni the main line on to a side- 
track, were allowed by the people to stay 
"shunted "for life. The seceding Senator 
from the Jefferson and Lewis district was 
Alanson Skinner, of Brownville, a some- 
what phlegmatic, but really a very respect- 
able man. lyon immediately proclaimed 
himself as a candidate for the vacant seat. 
He was elected — thus, with only a brief in- 
terval, becoming a member of both divi- 
sions of the Legislature. While the restrict- 
ing limitations of his capacity must ever 
have precluded him from acceptably filling 
any position that called for industry and a 
thorough knowledge of public affairs or a 
proper understanding of the people's wants, 
he yet had a persuasive and a flattering 
tongue wliich at times served him in the ab- 
sence of sincerity and ability. 

His term as State Senator having expired, 
he announced himself as an independent 
candidate for Congress. Fortunately for 
him, the Hunker Democrats put in nomina- 
tion Mr. Peai-son Mundy. an estimable gen- 
tleman, supported by the powerful and 
wealthy Woodruff family. But he had 
been nearly all his business life a wholesale 
grocer. The temperance vote was then (as 
now) an important factor in Jefferson county 
politics. Mr. Slundy had also been an ac- 
tive member of the Hungerford "junta," 
and that operated against him. Lyon began 
his canvass a month before Mundy was 
nominated. He spoke in school-houses and 
at cross-roads, and at some villages in the 
churches, calling his talks at such times 
"Lectures on the Holy Land." In many 
ways he worked himself into the favor of 
the religious and temperance people. The 
" Barn-burner " contingent among the 
Democrats looked on smilingly, for they 
soon saw that Lyon was gaining ground so 
rapidly that Mundy's defeat would be ac- 
complished without their being called upon 
to lift a finger to effect that (to them) de- 
sired end. 

Lyon had no newspaper organ, and per- 
haps one would have been an incumbrance, 
for his promises to the people were so va- 
ried, and at times so grotesque that to have 
printed them from cold type might have 
proved embarrassing. He was greatly aided 
and admirably coached, however, by an 
able voung newspaper man whose sincere 
friendship he had secured, and this friend's 
disinterested, counsel materially aided 
Lvon's prospects. Gradually, from one 
school district to another, he drew nearer 
to the geographical and business centre of 
the county. The "grape-vine" telegraph 
had been active, and public curiosity was 
by this time wonderfully wrought up— so 
that wlien he finally burst upon Watertown 
on the Saturday evening previous to the 
election, the largest hall could not hold the 
people, the assemblage adjourning to Pad- 
dock's arcade, whei-e Lyon spoke from one 
of the balconies. He pathetically reminded 
the vast audience thai he was still the 

"poor Black River boy," who had all the 
newspapers against him because he was not 
rich enough to buy the editors ; that he vi'as 
then, as he had ever been, the poor man's 
friend, etc., etc. A sort of frenzy seemed 
to possess that audience: after the speech 
they swarmed out of the arcade, shouting 
" Lyon ! " " Lyon ! " Such another sight 
was never seen thei'e before nor since. 'The 
few politicians at the meeting who retained 
their senses saw that the Democratic day 
was lost. Lyon won by a decided majority, 
and that ended any future attempt to elect 
to an important office in Jefferson county 
any man who had been a prominent 
" Hunker " Democrat. 

Lyon was so well satisfied with the posi- 
tion of Representative in Congress that he 
made an attempt (in 1856) at re-election as 
an independent candidate. The " poor- 
Black-River-bo3' " and the "Holy-Land" 
methods were destined, however, to be far 
less advantageous than when he ran against 
Mr. Mund}'. His competitor was now 
Charles B. Hoard, an able, wealthy and en- 
getic man, who had filled several import- 
ant offices, and shown himself exceptionally 
capable in all of them. This time the 
" Hunkers " were in a position to enjoy the 
fun. The Democrats made no nomination, 
merely observing the contest, and throwing 
their infiuence (such as it was) on the side 
of Ijyon. But in the intervening years be- 
tween 185(3 and his previous candidacy a 
party had arisen who "knew not Caleb," 
and, struggle and squirm as he might, his 
candidacy steadily diminished in popu- 

While skirmishing about the country he 
had met Gerrit Smith, who was running for 
Governor on the abolition ticket, and Gerrit 
advised him to invite the people (as Gerrit 
was doing in his own meetings), to pro- 
pound questions as to his political viesvs — 
to the end that thei'e might be no doubt as 
to his position. Lyon thought this a cun- 
ning idea, and attempted to carry it out at 
the next meeting, which happened to be in 
the important and highly intelligent village 
of Carthage. When the meeting was duly 
organized, and Lyon had spoken, he asked 
for questions. These rained down upon 
him in such .a fiood, and some of them were 
so insidiously and embarrassingly worded, 
that Lyon's limited stock of patience was 
soon exhausted, and the meeting broke up 
amidst great excitement. This was Lyon's 
first and last attempt to answer questions 
fired at him in public, the scheme proving 
not less disastrous to him than to Smith, its 
Quixotic originator. 

There was another reason why Lyon was 
running behind his previous record. He 
had lost the friendship and support of that 
young newspaper man who had aided him 
so much when he was first a candidate for 
Congress. His second canvass was poorly 
managed, and notwithstanding his support 
by the Democrats and old-line Whigs, he 



was defeated by nearly 3.600 votes — though 
his Watertown meeting, held just before 
the election, was enthusiastic and largely 

Mr. Lyon was upon friendly terms with 
President Lincoln, who often sent hini to 
various points to secure special information. 
He was eventually sent out to Idaho as its 
territorial Governor, but the frontier life 
of that remote region, and his constitutional 
inability to discharge administrative du- 
ties, made a staj- in Idaho irksome and dis- 
tasteful; he resigned in 1866, returning to 
his home on Staten Island, where he died 
soon after. He had relinquished his Lewis 
county home many years previous. 


The mention of Gei-rit Smith in this Caleb 
Lyon political episode, makes tliis stage of 
our political history perhaps as opportune 
as any in which to introduce that highly in- 
telligent and moral, but utterly impracti- 
cable organization, designated as "Aboli- 
tionists," who had, from 1838, for nearly 
twenty years, maintained an independent 
status upon the basis of opposition to 
slavery, and an uncompromising demand 
for its abolition by Congress. Dating from 
about 1840, which was the year of phenome- 
nal political disturbance, resulting in a dis- 
tinct Whig administration of the general 
government, these abolitionists increased 
rapidly in numbers and in the bitterness of 
their denunciations of the two older politi- 
cal parties for their acquiescence in the per- 
sistent demands of the South, which then, as 
it had long before, boldly claimed that they 
could carry their negro slaves into any free, 
territory of the United States, and be pro- 
tected there under their normal rights as 
citizens. In addition to these demands, 
which in our day seem altogether untenable, 
the free North had witnessed the arrest, by 
marshals of the United States, of black men 
in many localities north of Mason and 
Dixon's line, who were claimed as slaves, 
and carried away, on ex-parte testimony, 
into darkest slavery. In one extraordinary 
brutal instance, a poor escaping slave had 
been arrested in the city of Boston by a 
regular U. S. marshal; and though many 
offers were made to bu5' the slave at any 
price his alleged owner might demand — and 
thus that high-toned and historic free city be 
spared the unutterable shame of seeing a 
black man, in chains, marched down to 
slavery through the sorrowing and sympa- 
thetic crowd that lined those streets, up 
which, less than an hundred years before, 
the minute men from all New England had 
gladly marched to fight for freedom at 
Bunker Hill. Yet that was exactly what 
was witnessed there; and, as if that were 
not enough, a beloved and patriotic citizen 
of Boston who was bold enough to denounce 
such a proceeding as having brought dis- 

grace upon his native city, was promptly 
arrested by one of these marshals, without 
any process, and locked up as a resistant to 
the execution of a law of Congress! 

Such soul-stirring scenes as this (repeated 
but too often in the free North) gained for 
the Abolitionists many adherents, and really 
threatened the stability of the government 
— for thinking men began to ai-gue that if 
the laws of the United States virtually 
made every Northern man a slave-catcher 
if so selected by a government marshal, 
then a time had come for such a law to be 
changed. Some of the Abolitionists stig- 
matized the National Constitution as a 
" league with hell," and bitterly denounced 
all laws which reclaimed slaves escaping 
into free territory. Independent men, 
meanwhile, were not unmindful of such 
demonstrations as we have named; and if 
the Abolitionists were able to do nothing 
more, they helped to educate the North up to 
a more complete understanding of the slave- 
holder's designs. But, as an independent 
organization, the Abolitionists could not 
have accomplished freedom for the slaves. 
They were composed largely from the dis- 
contented of the older parties, and had 
gathered into their fold the long-haired 
cranks of varied aims who are always found 
intermingled with American political life. 
It is true that so able a statesman as Charles 
Sumner, United States Senator from Massa- 
chusetts, was almost as bitter in his de- 
nunciations of slavery as were the out-and- 
out Abolitionists themselves; but his astute 
mind clearly saw it was apolitical question, 
which could only be settled, if it were done 
peacefully, by some understanding which 
should be acceptable to both the North and 
the South. If it had not been that the 
country was destined to witness a startling 
illustration of the saying that " whom the 
Gods wish to destroy they first make mad," 
as was demonstrated in the insane attack 
upon Sumter, even before this year 1894 we 
might by statesmanlike compromises, have 
beheld slavery abolished, and the slave- 
owners paid a just compensation for their 
loss. When the South deliberately resolved 
to secede, the Abolition party ceased to ex- 
ist, for the first gun fired at Sumter made 
certain that the slaves were free — though 
President Lincoln's promulgation of that 
stupendous fact was delayed until 1863. 
And thus the Abolitionists' work was ac- 
complished — not, however, by their own 
efforts, or by the adoption of any of their 
favorite plans; but by the insane conduct 
of the oppressors themselves — as, in all 
history, we behold the hand of evil stayed 
by the retributive action of its own despo- 

But, stepping beyond the limitations of 
parties, their remains the very elevated con- 
sideration that the well-being of no race is 
perfect while another race is degraded. It 
is a doctrine of the oldest as well as the 
newest philosophy, that the human race is 



one — a unit— so far as natural rights are 
concerned. Tiie genius of the Saxon race, 
friendly to liberty, the enterprise, the very 
muscular vigor of the nation were averse 
to slavery. The Infinite, looking through 
history from the beginning onward and out- 
ward, beheld this blot upon our escutcheon, 
and it disappeared. The sentiment of Bight 
pronounces for freedom. The Power that 
has built up all these human fabrics affirms 
it in the heart, and in Lincoln's Emancipa- 
tion Proclamation that power made a sign 
of His will through all ages yet to come. 

strategy, worthy of Von Moltkeor Sherman, 
and was applauded, for the mass of man- 
kind admire success, even if won by methods 
that are a little shady. 


This brings ovir political history down to 
1858, two years before the civil War; and as 
we aim to introduce illustrative incidents in 
nearly the order of their chronological occur- 
rence, right at this point is a good place to tell 
of some of the " smart " political moves of 
the Free-soilers : 

In one of the "regular" Democi-atic 
nominating conventions, held early in the 
'50s, the Free-soilers had grown strong 
enough to outvote the Hunkers, and the re- 
sult was the nomination of a clean Free-soil 
Democratic ticket for sheriff, county clerk 
and the minor offices. The defeated Hunkers 
comforted themselves bj' a determination 
to defeat the ticket by staying away from 
the polls, and giving the Whigs a " walk- 
over." 'The Free-soilers became possessed 
of this information late on Saturday night 
previous to the election, which was to occur 
on the following Tuesday. They im- 
mediately prepared a printed circular, to 
which was appended (in type) the names of 
the leading disgruntled Hunkers, declaring 
that " a full vote should be polled in the in- 
terest of Democratic harmony, and to per- 
petuate the party's ascendency." Rufus 
Herrick, a very discreet and able man, and 
an active Free-soiler, was then sheriff, and 
late on Sunday night he had all his deputies 
warned to hold themselves in readiness on 
the following day, with the fleetest horses 
and the trustiest messengers, for an im- 
portant service, as to which they would be 
notified later on. Late on Monday he 
caused to be put into the hands of these 
men sealed en velopes directed to one or more 
leading Hunkers at each polling place in 
the county, and these sealed letters were 
every one delivered before daylight Tuesday 
morning. When these Hunkers read their 
"orders," duly authenticated (as they be- 
lieved) they went to work with a will, and 
the ticket was triumphantly elected. 

The Hunker Democrats whose names 
were appended to the circular were very 
angry, and talked about a prosecution for 
forgery; but as no names could be shown 
as forged, and as none of these leaders de- 
sired to publicly appear as bolting a nomina- 
tion regularly made, thejmatter was quietly 
allowed to drop . It was a successful piece of 

We venture to offer another illustration 
of the workings of political conventions in 
those days " before the war," when the Re- 
publican party had become so popular that 
its nomination was equivalent to an elec- 
tion. The year was 1858, and a very bitter 
and acrimonious contest had sprung up 
over a nominee for sheriff. Lotus Ingalls 
and John A. Haddock were at that time 
editors of the " Reformer," then the leading 
Republican newspaper of the county, and 
John W. Ingalls of Clayton (a cousin of 
editor Ingalls) was put forward as a candi- 
date for sheriff, while Hon. Byron B. Tag- 
gart, of LeRay, and Jessie E. Willis, of Ant- 
werp, were also prominently named, and 
each had warm supporters, for they were 
all of them able and deserving. John W. 
Ingalls could have been readily nominated 
but for a foolish blunder of his own. Had- 
dock had been one of the clerks of the 
Assembly the previous winter, and Ingalls 
had gone out of his way to make some un- 
called for criticisims, which Haddock heard 
of, and took to heart. He heartily espoused 
the candidacy of Taggart, for they had long 
been intimate friends. Taggart, as it finally 
transpired, had made an unwise agreement 
with Willis, that whichever polled the 
highest vote on the first ballot should re- 
ceive the other's support and withdraw 
from the contest — the design being to defeat 
Ingalls in any event. When the conven- 
tion began to ballot Willis showed more 
votes than Taggart, and Ingalls more votes 
than either, but not enough to nominate. 
When the next ballot was taken there was 
a tie between Ingalls and Willis. Some 
fifteen or twenty ballots followed in quick 
succession, but with the same result — a tie. 
On, perhaps, the sixteenth ballot, Willis 
had one majority, but the venerable cliair- 
man, Hon. Levi Miller, of Antwerp (a 
neighbor of Willis), hesitated to declare the 
result for fear he might be accused of 
favoritism. This occasioned considerable 
delay and confusion, and in the meantime 
the Ingalls men had labored with a weak- 
kneed Willis man, and vociferously de- 
manded another ballot. The chairman so 
ordered, expecting that Willis would be 
nominated beyond dispute, but the result 
was a tie — thus proving the correctness of 
the preceding count. 'Then both sides were 
angry, and the utmost confusion reigned. 
As it was growing late, the convention hav- 
ing balloted over six hours, an adjournment 
for supper was agreed to — to meet again in 
an hour, but in a larger hall, with fewer 
siderooms and less opportunities for cau- 



On coming to order in Washington Hall, 
several more ballots were taken, but each 
was a tie. When it was near midnight the 
contest had become so hopelessly bitter that 
a delegate arose and proposed a new name, 
that of Frank Cross, of Cape Vincent. He 
was immediately nominated, making an 
excellent, efficient officer. Thus so trivial a 
matter as an unfair but perhaps thoughtless 
criticism, unapologized for, defeated a re- 
putable man for an honorable office. 

Having brought this political resume 
down to 1860, when the Republican party 
had elected Lincoln to the Presidency, and 
when the South, ill-advised by poorl}' bal- 
anced pro-slavery leaders, had resolved upon 
secession, vyhich involved the destruction of 
that Union of the States under wliicli the 
whole country has been so prosperous, and 
had risen in population since 1766 to over 
sixty-five millions, the best manner in which 
to acceptably and yet clearly describe to the 
reader of this history the momentous events, 
and their political significance, then trans- 
piring, becomes a matter of some difficulty, 
for there are yet living in every community 
hosts of men who mingled with tlie events 
of 1860 to 1865, and some of tliese men bore 
an important part in those events and have 
a natural right to fi'eely criticise whatever 
may be said that has a bearing upon the 
civil war, either in its beginning, its con- 
duct or its ending. For full particulars, so 
far as now obtainable, relating to that war 
and the soldierly part borne in it by citizens 
of Jefferson county, we refer to the lengthy 
and important chapter upon that subject. 
We again venture to repeat that in this 
chaiJter we shall treat only of the politics 
and the legislation of that momentous era — 
the most critical that any community or 
government could have safely endured, and 
under which every power of man, wliether 
it relates to property, or personal service, or 
to the workings of the human mind during 
great emergencies, seems to have been 
strained almost to the verge of breaking. 
The South was literally " worn out" in the 
struggle, and the North was so nearly so that 
three million paper dollars per day, seven 
days in the week, barely paid its current ex- 
penses during the last year. In 1863 the 
writer of this chapter exchanged $100 in 
gold for $380 in currency. The reader can 
himself figure out how much of the yellow 
metal was actually represented by the $3,- 
000,000 per day of currency expended, and 
in that way will be able to understand how 
the gold barons of Europe and their repre- 
sentatives on this side of the ocean grew so 
suddenly and mj'steriously rich, and how, 
even to this day, the laboring man finds his 
burthens so heavy in paving off the national 

Many Democratic leaders in the North 
were somewhat slow in responding to the 
popular enthusiasm which swept over that 

whole region when Sumter was fired upon, 
but the rank and file — to their eternal 
honor be it said — responded quite as readily 
as the Republicans to the call for troops. 
One company from Watertown (E) had but 
two Republicans among its members. The 
ancient alfiliation of Nortliern Democrats 
with pro-slavery legislation, and its conse- 
quent relation to treason, had been so well 
discussed bv Lincoln and Douglas upon the 
platform in Illinois, and the whole question 
of permitting slavery to be engrafted upon 
the political existence of those territories 
which had but lately been asking for admis- 
sion, and which are now rich and prosperous 
Western States, had been so ably discussed 
in the Northern newspapers, that it only 
needed the warlike demonstration made by 
i-ebels upon a National fort and the disloyal 
turning back of the steamer which President 
liincoln liad sent to provision the beleaguered 
soldiers there, to tell the common mind that 
its paramount duty was to support the gov- 
ernment. It is true that sporadic and un- 
popular efforts were made l)y certain men 
— always Democrats — to embarras recruit- 
ing for the Union army in Jefferson county, 
but they were secret in their work, and if 
one of them were now to be charged with 
tliis then unpatriotic course his cheek "would 
mantle with shame, and he would make 
quick denial of the charge. 

From 1860 to 1893 the political questions 
presented and the patriotic action of the 
people of Jefferson county under them were 
so intimately associated with the country at 
large that we shall be pai'doned if we make 
our description more general for those years 
at least, and confine our remarks generally 
to the history of the Democratic and Repub- 
lican parties, since they were during that 
time the leading organizations. In passing, 
however, we will say here that all through 
the war and during the period of recon- 
struction in the Southern States, popular 
opinion in Jefferson county stood "like a 
stone wall," solid in sustaining Lincoln and 
Grant and the Republican administration in 
all their general plans and declarations. It 
was not until 1891 that the Republican 
majorities thei-e were ever below 1,800. But 
in that year her most dearly loved and in- 
tensely popular native citizen, Roswell Petti- 
bone Flower, was the Democratic nominee 
for Governor, and after nearly forty years of 
straight Republican victories, by majorities 
varying from 3,000 to 3,000, Gov. Flower 
came within 339 votes of carrying the 
county over Fassett, who was also a popular 

But to return to 1860. Let us try to get a 
clear understanding of the actual attitude 
of the two political parties as they then 

In anticipation of Lincoln's election, 
Howell Cobb so managed the treasury that 
government credit had sank to the point of 



paying 12 per cent, for loans ; Floyd trans- 
ferred the war munitions in the government 
arsenals to the South, and Toucey dispersed 
the nav}- to points beyond tlie reach of a 
ready recall by a new administration. Presi- 
dent Buchanan was compliant in all these 
movements, and when actual secession took 
place, declared himself without constitu- 
tional power to take any steps to tliwart the 
schemes of the conspirators. Yet many 
prominent adherents of tl\e party became 
War Democrats, of whom Mr, Lincoln had 
four in his cabinet. Still the Democrats 
kept up their organization, through which 
they contented themselves with obstructing 
the government. Fernando Wood, mayor 
of New York, who had recently been suc- 
ceeded in the control of Tammany Hall by 
Wm. M. Tweed (who was to die in prison as 
a felon), proposed to separate that city from 
the Union, and make it a "free cit}'." 
Peace meetings and lodges of the Knights of 
the Golden Circle were organized, esisecially 
in Maryland and the Ohio valley, and wore 
so treasonable an aspect that tlie writ of 
habeas corpus was suspended, first in and 
about Washington, but finally, in 1868, over 
the whole country by Act of Congress. In 
1862 the influence of Tammany Hall made 
Horatio Seymour Governor of New York, 
and he took up the burthens of office re- 
solved to "maintain the sovereignity and 
.iurisdiction of the State." He applied 
himself to the postponement of the draft, 
whicli he claimed bore unjustly upon 
tlie City of New York. The draft riots 
ensued. In 1863 the Ohio Democracy 
nominated Vallandigham for Governor. 
A stout opposer of the war and a contume- 
lious defamer of the government, lie had 
been arrested by Gen Burnside, and the 
President had sent him within the Confed- 
erate lines. He escaped to Canada. His ar- 
rest was bitterly assailed by Governor Sey- 
mour and the peace party, whose often pro- 
posed plan, in Congress and out of it, was 
to cease hostilities and call a convention of 
the States and make peace. This would 
have sounded like a reasonable proposition 
(as we now look back over the whole field), 
if it had come from Jefferson Davis, as the 
head of the Confederate States, but was 
purely impracticable as coming from any 
adherent of the Northern cause, wliich was 
committed to the plan of breaking down and 
destroying any and all armed attempts to 
subvert the government, and to eventually 
restore all the States to their normal condi- 
tion under the Constitution. Vallandigliam 
was defeated for Governor of Ohio by the 
extraordinary majority of over 100,000 votes, 
and throughout the North Republicans 
triumphed in the fall elections. The draft 
riots, the secret conspiracy societies, the cop- 
per-headed emblems unblushingly worn in 
Indiana, Ohio and Illinois, the intemper- 
ance of the peace advocates, but above all, 
the victories of Gettysburg and Vicksburg, 
had turned the tide of sentiment strongly 

and unchangeably towards Lincoln. Itmay 
be said, to quote again from an Encyclo- 
pgedia, to be " one of tlie marvels of history 
that the Democratic party did not then sink 
from view, as for a far less treason the Fed- 
eralists had done 50 years before, and its 
persistence shows how much more organi- 
zation and party discipline will avail tlian 
sentiment and opinion." 

In passing upon the action of Governor 
Seymour, as alluded to above, it seems 
strange that so pure, well-developed and 
able a man and politician, reared in Oneida 
county, in the midst of a patriotic and re- 
fined people, should liave been for a single 
moment lacking iji any attribute of higliest 
citizensliip or of official integrity. The 
action of such a man at sucli a time will 
probably invite inquiry by the student of 
history in the future, as to wliether the 
many constitutional questions involved in 
the civil war were really so self -evidently all 
upon one side, and whether there was not in- 
deed much to be said to justify Governor Sey- 
mour's somewhat reluctant exhibition of 
patriotism, especially wlien liis official posi- 
tion as Governor enabled him to understand 
how solidly founded in personal gain or 
grovelling ambition were the so-called 
"patriotic" acts of many ^vho shouted 
" Down with the South " with their lips, but 
had both hands clutching at the national 
treasury. One thing is certain : all of Gov- 
ernor Seymour's military appointments 
were of a superior order : he was prompt 
in his attention to all his duties as Governor 
whenever such duties affected the soldiers 
at the front, who had borne a pi'ominent 
pai't — though evidentl.v with many men- 
tal reservations — in the efforts' the great 
State of New York so grandly made to 
preserve the Union. 

In 1864 General McClelland's name be- 
came the rallying word for the Democratic 
party, mainly to please the soldiers, but 
perhaps partly because he cherished griev- 
ances against Secretary Stanton and Presi- 
dent Lincoln, under the cover of which 
alleged grievances McClellan's friends at- 
tempted to excuse his palpable failures in 
the peninsula campaign against Richmond. 
The National Democratic Convention met 
late in August in Chicago, and the fugitive 
Vallandigham was permitted to write the 
material part of its platform, declaring the 
war " a failure to restore the Union, and 
that during its four years of continuance the 
Constitution had been in every part disre- 
garded, and public liberty and private right 
alike been trampled down." McClellan 
was nominated, but in his letter of accept- 
ance he repudiated the platform, hoping 
thereby to preserve his consistency as a sol- 
dier, while running aS the peace-at-any- 
price candidate. He was so badly beaten 
that he carried but three States, which held 
only one-eleventh of the electoral college. 
There were many failures during the war, 
but viewed in all the lights that have been 



turned upon his career, McClellan now ap- 
pears to have been the most complete and 

To Andrew Johnson the Democratic party 
may besaid to be indebted, at least partially, 
for its rehabilitation. He had been very 
active in Congress in demanding that treason 
should be punished, and when he became 
President, through the assassination of Lin- 
coln, the question he had to meet was how 
to reconstruct the States lately in rebellion. 
Slavery was forever put out of the way by 
the thirteenth article of the amended Con- 
stitution, and having freed the slaves the 
Republican party stood morally pledged to 
protect them in their rights. This was done 
by adopting what is known as the fourteenth 
araendnient to the Constitution, which gave 
them all the rights of citizensliip, and be- 
came the basis of reorganization of the 
States which had joined in the rebellion. 

Pi-esideut Johnson had given these amend- 
ments liis full support while in Congress, 
and it was naturally supposed that he would 
faithfully carry them out when he became 
the chief executive officer of the restore<l 
government. But soon after he was sworn 
into office his attitude underwent a marked 
change, perhaps influenced by promises of 
high social position in the South as the price 
of his treachery, that section having always 
denied hijn any other status than that which 
belonged to an average "poor white" who 
had come to the front in defiance of their 
ancient traditions. He appointed provisional 
governors for the secession States, who sum- 
moned conventions to draft constitutions 
for reorganizing those States. Thus recon- 
structed, with the political condition of the 
freedmen wholly ignored, except that in 
some he was excluded altogether from vot- 
ing, these States chose representatives in 
Congress ; but as there was not the least 
authority for Johnson's attempt to thus re- 
organize State governments in the South, 
the whole scheme was rejected by Congress, 
and the representatives thus chosen were 
not recognized. An attempt to impeach 
Johnson soon followed, but it was not suc- 

We will follow a little further the record 
made by the Democracy, mainly for the 
benefit of those who shall peruse this history 
in the years which are to come. The Na- 
tional Democratic Convention which met in 
New York on the 4th of July, 1868, placed 
Horatio Seymour in nomination for the 
Presidency, upon a platform denouncing the 
military usurpations of the Republicans in 
the South, hostility to the enfranchisement 
of the freedmen, and a declaration that the 
Ijonds which had been issued during the 
war, when not actually naming " gold " as 
the coin demanded in their redemption, 
, should be paid in " lawful money," which, 
of course, meant greenbacks or any paper 
obligations of the government that the 
exigencies of the war had made a legal 
tender in payment of all debts, public or 

private. Thus the Democrats abandoned 
their ancient "hard-money" principles, so 
ablv advocated by Andrew Jackson and 
Thomas Hart Benton. General Grant de- 
feated Seymour, carrying twenty-six of the 
States, witli 212 electoral votes. 

In this contest Tammany Hall carried the 
State of New York for Seymour. Only 
three of the seceded States were excluded 
from a share in the election, and the recon- 
struction era was practically ended, at least 
so far as the national government made any 
attempt in that direction, and all the seceded 
States were soon back in the Union, with 
the same general rights as were enjoyed by 
those which had remained loyal. 

In 1873, what were designated as the 
" Liberal Republicans," put Horace Greeley 
in nomination for the Presidency in opposi- 
tion to Grant. He had been the most con- 
spicuous antagonist tlie Democratic party 
had ever encountered, yet he received their 
support in the North, such was their party 
fealty and the coherence of their organiza- 
tion ; but their support was unavailing, that 
veteran Whig and celebrated newspaper 
editor and political writer was badly beaten, 
carrying but sixty-six of the electoral votes. 
He died before those votes were cast. 

The country was now confronted with a 
"solid South," and it was Democratic, 
needing but New York and one or two 
minor States in the North to give that party 
the control of the government. More than 
ever this condition forced the Democracy to 
become a party of expedients, in one part 
of the country advocating certain doctrines 
that were repudiated in another portion. 
Yet in the fall of 1874 they had gained con- 
trol of the National House of Representa- 
tives, and, with the exception of two Con- 
gresses, have held it continuously since, and 
from 1879 to 1881 it had a narrow majority 
in the Senate. 

In 187G the nomination of the veteran 
Democrat, Samuel J. Tilden, came very near, 
through its affiliation with the "solid South," 
restoring that party to a full control of the 
government. Hayes was the Republican 
nominee, and if the disputed States of South 
Carolina, Florida and Louisana were covinted 
for him he would have a majority of one in 
'the Electoral College. Tilden's friends 
claimed, and it is now generally conceded 
that they were right in so claiming, that 
the popular votes in those States were in 
Tilden's favor, and should have been counted 
for him. After a winter of anxiety, wlien 
a resort to an armed collision of the oppos- 
ing jjarties was much discussed, the matter 
was settled by an electoral commission, 
which seated Hayes. Thus, after sixteen 
years of exclusion from the White House, 
Tilden had led his party back to its old tra- 
ditions, and on the popular vote he had 
157,037 majority over all his competitors 
combined. His efforts in New York in 
driving from power the infamous Tweed 
ring had much to do with his popularity, 



and though defeated for the Presidency, 
Governor Tilden had the satisfaction in 1878 
of seeing both houses of Congress Demo- 
cratic. His life- long labors in his native 
State had this satisfactory result — it restored 
the Democratic party to a position of re- 
spectability, and rescued it from the fate it 
had invited by its stolid opposition to the 
attempts of patriots in trying to suppress the 

We come now to a date when even the 
young men of the country can trace in their 
recollection the issues betvceen the Republi- 
can and Democratic organizations. There 
was but little actual antagonism between 
them, when, in 1880, the Democrats put 
General Hancock in nomination for the 
Presidency. Although he carried nineteen 
States, their united votes were but 155, and 
Garfield, his competitor, was triumphantly 
elected. Hancock's defeat could be traced 
directly to the tariff, the same issue that 
now in 1894 is the main contention between 
the two leading parties in the country. 

The Stalwarts. 

Under the Hayes administration there 
arose the " stalwart " faction in the Republi- 
can party, under the domination of Roscoe 
Conkling of New York, who, with his fellow 
senator, Thomas H. Piatt, had resigned his 
seat in Congress in umbrage because the 
President had appointed an opponent of 
Conkling to the position of collector of the 
port of New York, the attaches of which 
office had for over ten years been Conkling's 
chief dependence in maintaining his hold 
upon the Republican "machine" in that 
great State. These men appealed to the 
New York legislature for re-election, which 
would be looked upon as a vindication of 
their course and a sort of expression of re- 
newed confidence in Conkling as the party 
leader. But in this they were sadly disap- 
pointed, and the well-laid plan of Conkling, 
by which he had hoped to weaken Garfield's 
influence with his party by his own vindica- 
tion in New York, proved a boomerang for 
that once powerful leader whose popularity 
had been wholly based upon his ability to 
keep his henchmen in salaried positions 
under the government. When these were 
withdrawn his political prestige came ab- 
I'uptly to an end ; thencefoward he was of 
no account as a party leader. Indeed, he 
had never been a safe councellor for any 
party, his egoism and aggressive person- 
ality unfitting him for high rank as a states- 

The defeat of Folger (who had been put 
forward as the stalwart candidate for Gov- 
ernor in New York, by the enormous ma- 
jority of nearly 200,000 votes, utterly 
squelched the Conkling stalwarts and 
brought into prominence the successful 
candidate against Folger, Grover Cleveland, 
who was thenceforward to become the 
Democratic leader of the party, whicli had, 

after many vicissitudes and several deliber- 
ate attempts at suicide, survived through 
war and peace, and at last was again domi- 

But the stalwarts, as a fitting testimonial 
of their desperation and general lack of 
principal in politics, deliberately defeated 
Blaine (as was evidenced in the vote of 
Oneida county, the home of Conkling), when 
he ran against Cleveland in 1884, and lost 
New York and the Presidency by less than 
1,200 votes — giving the Democrats entire 
control of all the national offices. 

' ' Lawful Money. " 

For several years there was much discus- 
sion as to the policy of paying all the bonds 
of the government in gold coin, many of 
these bonds reading upon their face that 
they were to be paid in "lawful money," 
which included silver as well as greenbacks. 
The bankers and bondholders throughout 
the country insisted that gold coin was the 
" lawful money " they ought to receive, and 
the masses of the people felt th^t " green- 
backs," being also " lawful money," were 
good enough to pay off the bonds with, 
■rhis discussion brought into existence what 
was called the " Greenback " party, whicli, 
affiliating with the various labor unions 
throughout the North, at one time had quite 
a following. But as the several classes of 
bonds fell due, or were extended at a much 
lower rate of interest, and as the banks 
themselves were obliged to hold large blocks 
of these bonds as security for their circula- 
tion, the actual question as to what kind of 
money should be used in paying them off 
was never definitely passed upon. By 1888 
the Greenback party had no standing in the 
country, save as it was manipulated by cer- 
tain politicians to further some individual 
end at the time of an election. The rise and 
decline of this organization are noted here 
more as a matter of perfecting our political 
record, than because the party was ever a 
national one. But the questions they 
brought forward for discussion are import- 
ant and remain unsettled, and will probably 
remain so, since the United States govern- 
ment has never yet — 1st January, 1895 — 
failed to pay off any of its bonds, issued to 
put down the rebellion in gold, when the 
yellow metal was demanded. 

We have digressed a little, and again take 
up the main thread of our sketch. 

The Tariff. 

In the various mutations of its career the 
Democracy had been upon both sides of the 
tariff question. The high protective tariff 
of 1844 was the work of Mr. Hungerford, 
from Jefferson county, and it stood for 
many years as the policy of the Democratic 
party; but different views began to be enter- 
tained by many Democratic leaders, among 



them Mr. Cleveland, until the party drift 
appeared to tend towards an entire abandon- 
ment of a protective system, as one which 
taxed the people without equally replenish- 
ing the public treasury, and enriched manu- 
facturers and fostered monopolies b}- an un- 
justifiable tax on the consumer. The 
National Convention of that party in 1892 
finally threw down the gauntlet by declar- 
ing " protection to be robbery of the many 
for the benefit of the few," and demanded 
that " taxes be limited to the necessities of 
the government when honestly and eco- 
nomically administered." That is the posi- 
tion of the party to-day ; but, true to its 
traditions, it is " snlid " on both sides of this 
important question, according to the varied 
interests of its adherents in diifei-ent locali- 

The Silver Question. 

Another question became prominent. In 
] S73 the coinage of the silver dollar was dis- 
continued by Act of Congress. Its value 
relative to gold had begun to decline, a 
process which had gone continuously on 
with the opening of new mines, its elimina- 
tion in Europe from international ex- 
change, and the imjarovement of pro- 
cesses for reducing the ore. In 1878 Mr. 
Bland brought forward a bill in Congress to 
restore this coinage on the old ratio of silver 
to gold, and to make it a legal tender for all 
debts. The bill was passed over the veto of 
President Hayes. Provision was made for 
the purchase and coinage by the treasury of 
$2,000,000 per montli, with discretion 
granted to the Secretaiy of the Treasury to 
increase the amount to |4, 000, 000, or in fact 
to make the government the buyer of nearly 
all the average annual silver production of 
the country. Against this coinage the 
treasury was instructed to issue silver certi- 
ficates, or current notes payable in silver 
coin, and in fifteen years the government 
had accumulated in such coin and in silver 
bullion over |300,000,000, and the fund was 
constantly increasing. The seigniorage 
went to increase the public revenue. 

Perhaps no two questions have ever been 
presented to the people that admitted of 
such earnest discussion and such diversity 
of views as the tariff and the silver questions. 
Neither of them ought to be looked upon as 
partizan questions, for they are both practi- 
cal matters and should have been kept out- 
side of politics. But they were both un- 
settled in June, 18S8. when Cleveland was 
nominated at St. Louis, and the Republicans 
(ipposeil him with Benjamin Harrison, of 
Indiana, who was elected, having a majority 
of sixty-five in tlie electoral college. The 
defeatof Cleveland was generally attributed 
to David Bennett Hill, then Governor of 
New York, who controlled Tammany Hall, 
which was said to be solidly opposed to 
Cleveland. In the 51st Congress the Repub- 
licans had a fair working majority-, and 
they passed the revenue measure known as 

the McKinley bill, which was moderately 

In June, 1892, the National Conventions 
of the two parties were held, and Cleveland 
and Harrison were again nominated. In 
the Republican convention there was 
evinced much personal feeling between de- 
legates who favored Harrison or Blaine. 
Harrison secured the nomination, but was 
defeated by Cleveland at the polls. 

The condition of business having very 
rapidly deteriorated early in 1898, or almost 
as soon as Cleveland was inaugurated, he 
called Congress together in extra session. 
After nearly three months spent in discus- 
sion that hody repealed what was known as 
the purchasing clause of the "Sherman 
Silver Bill," and the monthly purchase of 
silver immediately ceased, but the Secretary 
of the Treasury was empowered to coin the 
silver on hand into silver dollars at his dis- 

Having brought this political record down 
to 1894, and having shown, as we think, 
whence the two leading parties. Republican 
and Democratic, have sprung, as well as 
chronicled their varying fortunes, each hav- 
ing intelligently borne rule for many years, 
and each having been represented by the 
ablest men the country has produced, we 
may now pau.'-e and leave for those who 
follow us to complete the further record. 
It may be that our delineation of the work- 
ings of the Democratic party will be con- 
sideied by some as partizan or unfair. The 
writer of this chapter is a Dejuocrat who 
voted for Cleveland and while he has tried 
to be entirely impartial he has been every- 
where confronted by the record Democracy 
has left behind it, and those records, from 
1859 to 1865, prove that party to have been 
lacking in theiDatriotism and dignified states- 
manship which its earlier and later record 
seemed to demand. 

It will be observed that this chapter has 
made no allusion to the position of the two 
parties upon the subject of pensioning 
wortliy soldiers who went to the front and 
fought for the Union. After careful search 
the writer has been unable to discover any 
essential difference between the two leading 
parties upon this questien, though it has 
jbeen charged that President Cleveland has 
not favored the later pension legislation. 
But Congress makes the laws; the Presi- 
dent's duty is merely to see that they are 
faithfully executed . 

Getting Near Together. 

After nearly half a century of strife be- 
tween the Rejiublicans and Deniociata there 
is, in the beginning of the year 1895 — the 
one hundrdth since the Black River country 
began to be settled — actually only one di- 
vergent question which keeps these two 
great parties separate, that of the tariff — 
whether the government expenses shall be 



collected mainly through a tariff upon im- 
ports high enough to really amount to pro- 
tection for the American manufacturer — 
and this is the Republican contention — or 
whether, as is desired by the Democrats, a 
lighter tariflf shall be imposed upon imports 
and the balance needed to carry on the 
government be raised by a slight tax upon 
incomes above |4,000 a year, and perhaps 
an increased tax upon some article of 
domestic production, say whisky or tobacco, 
or both. 

And since so slight a difference separates 
these two veteran organizations, it is not 
improbable that the future will develop new 
questions of a more engrossing character, 
and then we shall perhaps see both of these 
parties disintegrate, and become merged 
into new organizations, whose rallying cries 
are yet unspoken, and springing "from exi- 
gencies and needs as yet undeveloped. 

The Populists. 

In this chapter I have made no direct allu- 
sion to the Populists, who have had an 
organization in a part of the West, particu- 
larly in Kansas and the Dakotas, and now 
count at least two Senators and two or 
three Representatives in Congress. As an 
organization, the Populists appear to have 
been unfortunate in their selection of the 
few officers whom they have pushed to pro- 
minence, for from none of these has there 
ever come an intelligent setting forth of the 
principles or the demands of that organiza- 
tion. They have limited their efforts to a 
mere obstruction of most of the legislation 
proposed by either of the older parties. It 
is true that Senator Peffer, of Kansas, 
solemnly proposed that the government 
should issue $300,000,000 of lawful money 
and loan it to farmers in the West at 2 per 
cent interest, and another of these office- 
holding Populists advocated the establish- 
ment of depots by the government into 
which the farmers would be allowed to 
empty their wheat and receive ready cash 
for it at an established rate. But these pro- 
positions, and others which might be named, 
appear so childish as not to demand serious 
consideration from any one. That organi- 
zation is not likely to send any further re: 
presentatives to Congress. 

Jefferson County's Local Politics. 

The strictly local political history of 
Jefferson county for the years between 1860 
and 1894 may be divided into three general 
periods: the war period; the reconstruction 
epoch, embracing the modifications of the 
constitutions of the returned seceding States 
so as to adapt them to the abolition of 
slavery; the amendments to the United 
States Constitution and their ratification by 
the requisite number of States. Then fol- 
lowed twenty or more years of great pros- 
perity and continued growth of the country 
under the system of protection to American 

industries. In all this period Jefferson 
county was in full accord with the East and 
North, and bore an heroic part in all the 
great crises of that eventful period. She 
sent her full quote of volunteers to the de- 
fense of the Union, and for the whole of the 
politically tumultuous period of actual con- 
flict and reconstruction, sent clear-headed 
and patriotic representatives to Congress, 
whose voices and votes were uniformly on 
the side of the largest liberty, the cleanest 
politics and the greatest reasonable economy . 

From the time of the organization of the 
Republican party in 18.56, beginning with 
the Fremont campaign, Jefferson county 
has not failed to sustain the Republican 
candidates for President ar.d Governor and 
Members of Congress. During that long 
and very prosperous period she once elected 
a Democratic sheriff, and on another 
occasion a Democratic county judge. These 
occasions were wholly due to internal strife 
between local Republican leaders. In 1878 
Leonard Seaton, the Democratic nominee, 
was elected sheriff over Dewitt C. Wheeler, 
by 642 plurality; and in 1889 a similar event 
occurred in the election of a county judge, 
when John C. McCartin, Democrat, was 
elected to that office over Elon R. Brown, 
Republican, by 176 plurality. These events, 
however, were only temporary eddies in tlie 
steady current of Republicanism in the 

During the War of the Rebellion, from 
the time Fort Sumter was fired upon and 
the first call for 75,000 men till the sur- 
render of General Lee at Appomattox, the 
thought and heart of the great body of the 
people were with President Lincoln, and 
heartily aiding the Union cause. After it 
became fully evident that a prolonged war 
was inevitable, most of the Democrats in 
the county called themselves War Demo- 
crats, and eminent men of that party spoke 
side by side with Republicans at recruiting 
meetings, but their distinct party oi'gaii- 
ization was kept up. and in the campaign 
of 1864 they generally voted for General 
McClelland, though their platform declared 
the war to be a failure. The oi'ganization 
of the Democratic party was kept up with 
the prophetic belief that it would most 
likely be needed some day. Then, as now, 
War Democrats and Anti-war Demcjcrats 
voted together the same as Protection Demo- 
crats and Free Trade Democrats now vote 
together, without rhyme or reason. The 
era of reconstruction brought no marked 
changes in the strength and membership of 
the Republican party in Jefferson county. 
Its majorities maj' h^ve diminished some- 
what owing to a lack of that all absorbing 
interest felt during the war period. 

Passing from the reconstruction epoch to 
the quieter period of the past twenty years, 
the questions of temperance and protection 
to American industries have taken the place 
of the slaver}' question, war and reconstruc- 
tion, the Republican organization appearing 



to manifest more interest in tlie progress of 
temperance and industrial protection tlian 
the Democratic. This has served to keep 
up party divisions about where they were 
during the slavery agitation. At this writ- 
ing the threatening effort to repeal the pro- 
tective principle has undoubtedly given the 
' ' bulge " to the Republican side of politics. 

For nearly twenty years there has existed 
in Jefferson county, as elsewhere, a Prohi- 
bition party, which has cast from 500 to 
1,000 votes. It reached its highest vote six 
years ago, since when it has declined to 
about 600, where it has remained rather 
stationary for some years past. 

We append a tabulated statement show- 
ing the pluralities given for Representatives 
in Congress from 1820 to 1893, and with this 
table and the lengthy note relating to Silas 
Wright we close this political chapter in 
wiiich we have steadfastly striven to be im- 
partial, confining ourselves to relating facts 
and incidents, but seldom venturing any 
opinion of our own; but when that has 
occurred, we have only drifted with the 
current of political events, never antagon- 
izing or indulging in argument or special 
pleading. Parties must be prepared to go 
into history like individuals, upon their un- 
disputed record and the general trend of 
their influence. 



Repeesentatives in Congress. 1820-94. 


Micah Sterling, D. 

Ela Collins, D. . 

Egbert Ten Eyck, 

Silas Wright, *D. 



•The fact, that (iu 1886) the distineuished Silas 
Wright rej)reseiited the' Jefferson, St. Lawrence and 
Lewis district in Congress, is now recalled by but very- 
few of our people. He was without question the 
ablest statesman the northern part of the State has 
ever produced. 

Mr. Wright came of humble parentage, but rose by 
uninterrupted growth to become a member of the 
State Legislature, member of Congress, and then a U. 
S. Senator from the great State of New York. While 
Senator he became the popular Governor of his State, 
and refused the nomination to the Vice- Presidency at 
a time when it was considered the almost sure step- 
ping-stone to the Presidency itself — a position he 
could certainly have reached, for he was the idol of 
his party in the free States, and that party {the Demo- 
cratic) had for many years ruled the country, for its 
doctrines appealed to the judgment of the common 

He was of sturdy build, above medium height, of a 
serious deportment, easily approached by plain peo- 
ple (for he came of such), and maintained a quiet 
dignity that seemed exactly to fit him. I first heard 
him in a political speech at Watertown, during the 



Joseph Hawkins, D. 
Daniel Wardwell, D. . 
Isaac H. Bronson, D. 
Thomas C. Chittenden, W 
Orville Hungerford, D. . 
Joseph Mulliu, W. . . 
Charles E. Clarke, W. . 
Willardlves. Ind. D. . 
Caleb Lyon, Ind. ... 
William A. Gilbert, R. . 
Charles B. Hoard, R. . 
Ambrose W. Clark, E. . 
Addison H. Laflin, R. . 
Clinton L. Merriam, R. . 
George A. Bagley, R. . 
Warner Miller, R. . . 
Charles R. Skinner, R. . 
Abraham X. Parker, R. 
Fred Lansing, R. . . . 
Leslie W. Russeil, R. . . 
Newton M. Curtis, R. (to fill 


Charles A. Chickering, R. . 
























These figures relate only to the vote 
in Jefferson county, not to the whole dis- 
trict. At first the Congx-essional district 
comprised Jefferson, St. Lawrence and 
Lewis; then Jefferson county alone; then 
Jefferson and Lewis; then Jefferson, Lewis 
and Herkimer; then Jefferson, St. Law- 
rence and Lewis. The district is now the 
34th, comprising the counties of Jeffei'son, 
Oswego and Lewis, having 170,495 popu- 
lation. J. A. H. 

Polk campaign of 1844. His audience was composed 
largely of farmers and other toilers— just the kind of 
people he loved to address. He spoke for nearly two 
hours, but not a man left while he was speaking. His 
mind was judicial in its character, his diction pure 
and spontaneous, never halting for a word, and never 
repeating. He addressed the understanding, and 
would have been embarrassed if any one had laughed 
or applauded what he said. Pure in life, a poor man 
when he might have made himself rich in office, it is 
not strange that he was held in such high esteem by 
his party and the people. It was justly said of him 
that he spent as much time in declining office as others 
did in seeking it. His manner, his language, his every 
public action, indicated the sincere, earnest, able 
man. Had he been willing to pledge to the Southern 
Democrats what Mr. Polk had been constrained to 
promise as the price of their favor, Mr. Wright could 
have been nominated and elected instead of Polk— but 
Silas Wright was not a man to tie his hands by any 
such agreement, for he doubtless apprehended the 
speedy coming of a time when of necessity the coun- 
try would become all slave or all f ree— andf he wanted 
it free . He was fortunate in passing on to join the 
" silent majority " before the civil war— and his loving 
neighbors in Canton, St. Lawrence county, so long his 
honored home, have placed a modest memorial stone 
over his early grave, where rests all that was mortal 
of one who was surely the foremost of his time. 




Inventor of the sleeping car, was born, 
April 8, 1811, in Watertown, N. Y. He 
came from New England stock, his parents 
(Simeon and Rosanna) having removed to 
Watertown from Litchfield Conn., in 1800, 
there being then less than 100 families in the 
entire county. Tlieodore was brought up 
on his fathers farm, attending the district 
school in winter, until his 16th year, when 
he was apprenticed to the Col wells, on Fac- 
tory street, to learn wagon-making. In his 
18th year his inventive faculties began tlieir 
development, evidenced by his building the 
model of a mowing-machine, adopting the 
same shear-bladed device in use at the pres- 
ent day, and from patents on which have 
sprung half-a-dozen large fortunes. The 
skilled machinist to whom the model was 

shown, while admiring the ingenuity of the 
invention, declared it of no practical utility! 
Young Woodrutf was discouraged by this 
verdict of what he considered a superior 
mind, and dropped the matter from his 
thoughts. He finished his apprenticeship 
at cari'iage building, and then became the 
expert pattern maker in the Geo. Goulding 
(now Bagley & Sewall) machine works. 
While employed there the idea of a railroad 
sleej)ing-car came into his mind. It was 
not, however, until several years afterwards, 
and when he had removed to Alton, 111., 
that his ideas took definite form. There he 
made his model, and from that city he for- 
warded his formal application for a patent, 
which was issued in due time. 
Unique as was the design, however, and 



wholly unprecedented the invention, as soon 
as its intrinsic value had been demonstrated 
there were not wanting certain unprincipled 
railroad officials who attempted to defraud 
him of the benefits of his invention, claim- 
ing it not a novelty, but as something used 
and discarded years before. Like many 
other inventors, Mr. Woodruff was obliged 
to defend his patents in the courts at heavy 
expense before his priority of invention was 
fully established. He had a car built at one 
of the railroad shops in Massachusetts, and 
thenceforth he became a sort of " citizen at 
large," Jefferson county being no longer his 
home — entering upon an enlarged experi- 
ence that involved daily (sometimes un- 
pleasant) contact with leading railroad men, 
■which soon made his name prominent 
throughout the United States as an inventor, 
and later as a civil engineer. 

Having procured a car, he succeeded (after 
much persuasion, and perhaps as the readiest 
way to get rid of his importunities), in ob- 
taining Mr. Coming's consent to attaching 
his car to the night express between New 
York and Buffalo on the N. Y. Central. Mr. 
Woodruff personally managed the car, 
charging fifty cents extra for its use, and 
was delighted when a dozen passengers took 
lodging with him for the trip. Gradually 
his car became talked about among trav- 
ellers, and it was not long before so bene- 
ficent an invention began to take position 
as a factor not to be overlooked in the econo- 
mies of life's pilgrimage. Surprising as it 
may now appear, the railroad people were 
among the very last to appreciate this in- 
vention, now so popular on all the railways 
of the civilized world. It may be truthfully 
said that the sleeping car was actually forced 
upon the railroads by the persistent demands 
of their patrons. This will be perhaps better 
understood when the fact is recalled that 
the N. Y. Central actually charged Woodruff 
full fare while he was conducting and work- 
ing his car, and trying to introduce its merits 
to public attention. A vigorous appeal to 
Mr. Corning finally resulted in a free pass, 
and he was thus relieved from handing over 
to the road about seventy per cent, of the 
earnings of his car. 

The cheese-paring parsimony of the N. Y. 
Central at last wore out Mr. Woodruff's 
patience, and he resolved to try some other 
company. Having heard a great deal about 
the superior management of the Pennsylva- 
nia Railroad, he concluded to try what could 
be done with its officials. He transferred 
his car to Pittsburg, and had it open for in- 
spection. It attracted the favorable notice 
of Thomas A, Scott, the superintendent, and 
Edgar Thompson, the president of that great 
road. These two men have passed into his- 
tory as the ablest railroad men of their day, 
and their intelligent minds immediately 
grasped the importance of this new develop- 
ment in railroading, and thus the Woodruff 
sleeping car was at last appreciated by the 
right men. 

Several of the leading officials of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad became interested in the 
matter, and a strong organization (known 
as the Central Transportation Company) was 
soon formed, and the manufacture of cars 
began. This Transportation Company is still 
in existence, and has been for many years 
carrying on a law-suit against the Pullman 
Company for nearly a million dollars' worth 
of property sold to the Pullman Company, 
and alleged not to have been paid for. 

Thenceforward Mr. Woodruff's life and 
name were for nearly ten years connected 
with the sleeping car. He called to his as- 
sistance his son George, now a railroad man 
in California, and his brother Jonah, the 
artist, who is buried at South Vineland, N. 
J. Success attended all his efforts, and after 
several years of decided and well-earned 
prosperity he sold all his patents to his asso- 
ciates in the Transportation Company (they 
afterwards selling to Pullman), and removed 
to Mansfield, Ohio, where he built and occu- 
pied for many years the fine mansion now 
owned by Hon. John Sherman, and used as 
his homestead. At Mansfield he was con- 
nected with a bank, and honored as an in- 
fluential citizen. 

He had now reached nearly his 60th year, 
an age when most men would have been 
content to give up business and take their 
ease. But idleness was to him intolerable, 
a wicked waste of time, and he resolved to 
return to Philadelphia, where opportunities 
for engaging in business would be more fre- 
quent, and where he had left many friends. 
He established himself in handsome quarters 
on Broad street, the finest thoroughfare in 
the city, and began to look around for an 
investment of his means. He had |120,000 
in government bonds, the income from 
which would be an ample support, for his 
personal habits were inexpensive. But he 
craved an active business that would give 
employment to his means and afford con- 
genial occupatioB for his mind. Against 
the advice of his friends he finally bought 
the Norris Machine Works, at Norristown, 
Pa., sixteen miles from Philadelphia. The 
plant vsas an old one, which had been for a 
time prosperous as a locomotive manufac- 
tory, but its fame had departed. The ven- 
ture was a losing one from the start, and in 
five years Mr. Woodruff had sunk his entire 
capital, and was not worth a dollar. Re- 
linquishing his home, everything, to his 
creditors, he returned to Philadelphia, mak- 
ing his home with his daughter, Mrs. 

For a time his financial ruin bore heavily 
upon him, for he was near seventy, but he 
gradually recovered his tone of niind, and 
went resolutely to work to earn a living for 
himself and his aged partner, who died in 
1888, and her remains were brought to Wa- 
tertown and buried in Brookside. He was 
yet erect and straight as an arrow, bearing 
his years as if he were only fifty. He was 
a gentleman always, firm yet mild in speech 



and had more tlie appearance of a retired 
banker or merchant than of an inventor. 

After his losses in business he procured 
several valuable patents, among the most 
noted being- his steam plow (a wonderful 
piece of mechanism); an impoi-tant addition 
to the surveyor's compass; a method of ap- 
plying propulsive power to vessels bj' screws 
at the side instead of the stern; a metallic 
self-folding bedstead, and several other in- 
ventions of 'less importance but of great 
utility. His mind was eminently mechani- 
cal; he possessed the rare faculty of con- 
structive ingenuity, and his place in history 
should be with Goodyear, and Howe, and 
Bobert Hitchcock — men who grasped the 

needs which life's experiences daily demon- 
strated, and wrought out in their minds and 
by their own hands those mechanical appli- 
ances which have made life easier for all 
mankind. Few men have been more suc- 
cessful than Mr. Woodruff in that work to 
which he gave the very flower of his life; 
and his loss of wealth in his old age, joined 
to the awful tragedy of his death, fills the 
heart with inexpressible sadness. 

He was struck by an express train at 
Gloucester, N. J. (opposite Philadelphia), 
where he had gone on business connected 
with his propeller, and instantly killed, in 
May, 1892, in his eighty-first year. H6, 
also, is buried at Brookside. J. a. h. 



The achievements of one generation can- 
not be properly valued by another, for the 
conditions and circumstances attending the 
work of the earlier generation cannot be 
thoroughly apprehended. However gener- 
ous be the disposition of the historian to ac- 
cord full measure to the labor done, many 
important elements, contributing to results, 
elude his most careful scrutiny, so that, at 
best, he can convey only a vague impression 
of what has been inost gloriously achieved. 
Though every generation esteems itself su- 
perior to its predecessor, this is a very super- 
ficial estimate. There has been progress, of 
course. While supplied with the accumu- 
lated advantages of ages, and armed with 
the improved implements of science and 
skill, things impossible before may be done 
with ease, it does not follow that the gene- 
ration is more deserving. Energy, industry, 
and perseverance, and the virtues of honesty, 
truthfulness, purity, patriotism, and fidelity, 
the substrata of all manly character, cannot 
be truly measured by the comparison Of 
mere material achievements. 

The pioneers of Jefferson county entered 
upon the task of subduing the wilderness 
under circumstances testing their self-reli- 
ance, courage, sagacity and fertility of re- 
sources to the degree of heroism. Their 
success in producing a civilization surpassed 
in no part of the world, and in developing 
manhood and womanhood of the most noble 
type under unfriendly environments, stamps 
them as men and women worthy of the 
highest honor, morally, intellectually and 
physically. Macaulay expressed the idea 
that men who do not hold in grateful re- 
membrance the noble achievements of their 
ancestors, will themselves not do anything 
worthy of being remembered by their own 
posterity. Though this be true, there is no 
danger that such a reproach will rest upon 
the sons and daughters of Jefferson coutity, 
for the influences of their ancestors are so 
palpably interwoven in the texture of their 

lives that no obliteration is remotely possible. 
A survey of the early conditions of victory 
cannot fail to constantly brighten its lustre 
and rekindle continually any waning of re- 


gard and esteem. What were these con- 
ditions ? What progress has been made in 
the century past ? 

The treatv of peace concluded at Paris, 
September 3, 1778, between Great Britain 
and the Colonies, represented by John 
Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, 
Henry Lawrence and Thomas Jefferson 
(who did not serve), secured independence. 
The country was dormant, or rather, slowly 



• recuperating from the long struggle of the 
war, during the following ten years. Wash- 
ington, Franklin, Jefferson and their com- 
peers who piloted the people through the 
grand ordeal were consolidating them into 
a nation. The fierce conflict of opinions on 
political affairs left but little time for plans 
for developing the material restources of the 
young nation. The settlements still hugged 
the seaboard and navigable rivers. But 
after the adoption of the Federal Constitu- 
tion in 1788, the inauguration of Washing- 
ton as President at New York in April, 1789, 
and the meeting of the first Congress at the 
same place, and which passed as its second 
Act a measure for the encouragement and 
protection of home indvistries, the people 
seemed to take a long breath, as if a great 
work had been accomplished, and gird them- 
selves for the laborious undertaking of sub- 
duing the interior wilderness of our vast 
domain. The lake region of northwestern 
New York was the iirst to feel the throb- 
bing impulse of this progress and to receive 
the embrace of the most enterprising and 
self-reliant of the pioneers who blazed their 
pathless way to Jefferson county. This was 
not a speculative immigration, bent on 
making fortunes to be spent elsewhere in 
ease and luxury, but it was a pilgrimage of 
families— home makers, imbued with a de- 
termination to win for themselves the com- 
forts of civilization and a heritage for their 
children, worthy of the sons and daughters 
of freemen. How grandly successful they 
were, will appear as the story unfolds. The 
English would not treat the independent 
colonies as a nation, and held much of the 
country in the west until after the adoption 
of the Constitution. The forts were not 
given up until 1796. This thi-eatening aspect 
retarded somewhat the movement for new 

The question of transportation, however, 
was the great impediment. There were, of 
course, no railroads, nor canals, nor many 
common roads. The invention of the steam 
engine gave the first glimmer of light on 
this subject. Although Thomas Newcomet 
invented a steam cylinder and piston by 
wliich he was able to pump water from a 
mine and which was patented in 1705 in 
England, James Watt,' a Scotchman, im- 
proved the engine so much and patented 
his invention in 1709 — extended by Parlia- 
ment to 1800 — that he is regarded as the 
practical inventor of the modern steam en- 
gine, with the governor, throttle valve and 
barometer, which he afterwards added. 
This wonderful invention soon found its 
way to the United States, and it has been 
perhaps the most important factor in the 
developing the country, notwithstanding 
the abundance of water-power. 

A great stride forward was made when 
coal began to be used for fuel. Coal is sim- 
ply the heat of the sun absorbed by plants, 
which under pressure and heat are trans- 
formed into coal. Over 180,000,000 tons are 

now mined annually in the United States 
and 180,000,000 tons in Great Britain. En- 
gineers and other scientists, comparing the 
energy produced by the Steam emanating 
from the combustion of 300 pounds of coal, 
and taking a man's yearly labor as a factor, 
announce the following as the result of 
their investigations, which we give for 
what it is worth: 

Estimating the annual production of coal 
in the United States to be onW 150,000,000 
tons of 2,000 lbs., we have 300,000,000.000 
pounds. Suppose only one-fifth of this be 
applied to the production of power, and 
that the remaining four-fifths will pay for 
mining the whole output, then it will be 
seen that the amount of coal applied for 
motive jiower, is equal to the yearly labor 
of 200,000,000 men, working without pay 
and requiring no food nor clotliing. This 
is an annual contribution to the weath of 
the nation. The total production of coal 
during the century in the United States 
alone, has been upwards of 2,000,000,000 
tons; in Great Britain about 0,000,000,000, 
and in the princi])al countries of the world 
nearly 13,000,000,000 tons. 

Coal was discovered in the United States, 
first in Rhode Island and Pennsylvania in 
1768. Mining was commenced in Pittsburg 
in 1784 and in Rhode Island in 1808. The 
people did not know how to burn it. Even 
in England, where it is said the ancient 
Britons used coal, and where certainly it 
was burned before IHOO, for Henry III. 
granted a license to dig coal in 1272, it was 
not in common use until 1600, for it was 
deemed prejudicial to human health. It 
was declared a " public nuisance," and Par- 
liament petitioned the King to prohibit its 
use. The United States has about 200,000 
square miles of coal area, and Great Britain 
5,400 square miles of coal field. The total 
in the world is estimated to be 471.800 
square miles, capable of producing 303,000,- 
000,000 tons, sufficient to last the world 
1,000 years. 

After coal luining was commenced in the 
United States the output increased at a 
rapid rate, as may be seen from the progress 
in one State— Pennsylvania. The output in 
1820 was only 865 tons; in 1840, 1,300,000 
tons; in 1850 there were 7 canals and 27 
railroads constructed expressly to carry 
coal, and in 1893, the production was 99,- 
036,000 tons. The production in the whole 
United States in 18b8 bv the census of 1890 
was 183,423,710 tons. 

A century ago all transportation of pas- 
sengers and merchandise was by animal 
power. As all new roads are bad, the diffi- 
culties of exchange and intercourse were 
very great. At times the roads were en- 
tirely impassible for loaded teams. Costly 
transportation means low prices to the far- 
mer and manufacturer and high prices for 
the consumer. It cuts both ways and be- 
comes the very greatest impediment progress 
meets. The water ways were the earliest 



thoroughfai'es for communication and for 
transportation where the streams were suit- 
able. They were so popular that the send- 
ing off of goods by any conveyance has 
come to be called a " shiiiment." Goods are 
■ " shipped " no matter whether sent by land 
or water. Where no streams were avail- 
able "turnpikes" were constructed and 
canals dug. The stage coach and packet 
for the conveyance of passengers made in- 
tercourse easier and mails more frequent 
and regular. But it was not until steam 
was liarnessed for these purposes that any 
great progress was made. Ingenious men 
in all parts of the civilized world seemed to 
be at work at the same time on the problem 
of steam navigation first, and then steam 
vehicles for land purposes. The travel by 
water was first settled. 

As earh' as 1763 William Henry, of Penn- 
sylvania, made a steamboat and success- 
fully ran it on the Conestoga River. John 
Fitch invented a steamboat driven by pad- 
dles or oars, and made successful trips on 
the Delaware River in 1786. An English 
firm. Miller, Taylor & Symington, in 1788, 
constructed a steam tug capable of hauling 
a boat at the rate of five miles an hour, but 
it washed the banks so badly that the enter- 
prise was abandoned. Similar partially 
successful experiments were made in France. 
Robert Fulton, of New York, procured a 
steam engine of the most approved pattern 
from Messrs. Watt & Boulton, England, 
the inventors and greatest manufacturers 
of steam engines, and proceeded to build a 
boat to be driven by it. Robert J. Living- 
ston, of New York, advanced the funds for 
the project. On August 7-9, 1807, Fulton's 
steamboat, called the "Clermont,'" made a 
trip from New York to Albany and return, 
at the average rat© of 5 miles an hour. In 
view of this success, Fulton and Livingston 
were granted a monojjoly of sailing steam- 
boats on the Hudson, and that metliod of 
navigation became assured. But Fulton 
narrowly escaped the honor attached to his 
name, for John Stevens, of New York, was 
at work on a similar boat, and finished it 
only a few days after the successful trip of 
the " Clermont." Finding that he could 
not sail his boat on the Hudson by reason of 
the monopoly already gi-anted, Stevens took 
his boat by sea to the Delaware river, thus 
demonstrating that sucli boats could sail in 
rough water when every one believed that 
they were not serviceable at sea. This was 
a revelation. In 1812 a small steamer called 
the "Comet" was built in England and 
made successful trips. In 1819 the little 
steamer "Savannah" sailed from Savan- 
nah, Ga., to England and thence to Russia, 
the pioneer of the vast army of steam ves- 
sels of every nation which now plow the 
waters of all oceans. The exported mer- 
chandise of the United States in 1893 
amounted to $1,015, 789, 607, and the imports, 
$837,391,284. About seven-eighths of this 
vast aggregate was carried in steam vessels. 

. The development of land transportatiou 
was more tardy. It involved a more diffi- 
cult problem. The vehicle must not only be 
propelled, but a roadway must be devised for 
it to travel on. Railroads, with timber rails, 
on which i-an heavy carriages drawn by 
horses, were used in and about Newcastle, 
England, for hauling coal from the mines 
as early as 1602. At Whitehaven, England, 
a short iron road was laid in 1738. A simi- 
lar one, near Sheffield, was constructed in 
1776, but was destroyed by the colliers. A 
road with iron rails was built at Colebrook 
Dale, of considerable extent, in 1786. A 
patent for a high pressure locomotive vt-as 
issued in England, to Trevethick and Viv- 
ian, in 1803. William Hedley, of Wylam 
colliery, England, is said to have been the 
first to use a steam engine for animal power 
in a coal mine, in 1813. Geoi-ge Stephenson 
built his first locomotive for the Killings- 
worth (Eng.) colliery, in 1814. This had a 
flue boiler, and it is regarded as the parent 
of the modern locomotive. It could not 
make steam enough to run more than three 
miles an hour. To avoid the noise of the 
escaping steam, about which a complaint 
had been made, Stephenson turned the 
steam into the smoke-stack, with a view of 
smothering the noise. This increased the 
draft of the furnace, and doubled the speed 
of the engine. The Stockton and Darling- 
ton road (Eng.), 37 miles in length, was 
opened for general traffic in 1835. For the 
new road between Manchester and Liver- 
pool, the directors offered a reward equiva- 
lent to $3,500 for a locomotive which could 
haul three times its own weight on a level 
road at a speed of 10 miles an hour. Rob- 
ert Stephenson, Jr., nephew of George Ste- 
phenson, the engineer of the road, won the 
prize, producing an engine called the "Roc- 
ket," in October, 1839, weighing 7J tons, 
which drew 44 tons at the speed of 14 miles 
an hour. 

The first railroad in the United States was 
built from Quincy to Boston, in 1826-7, to 
furnish granite for the patriotic purpose of 
erecting the Banker Hill monument. The 
second road, completed in May, 1837, only a 
month or two later than that of the Quincy 
quarries, was one of nine miles in length, 
from the coal mines of Mauch Chunk, Pa., 
to the Lehigh Rivei'. This ran the loaded 
cars down by gravity, the empty cars being 
hauled up the incline by mules. In 1838, 
the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company 
built a i-oad from Honesdale, Pa., to their 
canal. In 1830, the Baltimore and Ohio 
road and five other roads were commenced. 
In the spring of 1839, before the great tri- 
umph of Mr. Stephenson's engine, "Roc- 
ket," in England, an English-built engine, 
procured by the Delaware and Hudson 
Canal Company, made the first trip ever 
made by a steam locomotive on this conti- 
nent'. Horatio Allen was the engineer, and 
the route was over 16 miles of the Hones- 
dale, Pa., road. It is worthy of note, also. 



that on the recommendation of Mr. Allen, 
who was chief engineer of the South Caro- 
lina road then being constructed, the board 
of directors, January 14, 1830, selected the 
locomotive engine as the motive power, this 
being the first action by any corporate body 
in the world adopting the locomotive on a 
road for general passenger and freight trans- 
port. A contract was made with the West 
Point (N. Y.) Foundry Co., to build a loco- 
motive for the road. This was put in ser- 
vice November 3, 1830, and whs the first 
built in the United States for railroad ser- 
vice. The first railroad in New York was 
that between Albany and Schenectady, 
opened for general traffic in 1833. From 
this time on the development was very 
rapid. The mileage in the United States in 
1891, was 170,601 miles. The great trans- 
continental lines, now five in number, are 
the marvel of the world. 

Although cotton had been known from time 
immemorial, in the eastern hemisphere, and 
had been woven into fabrics of great beauty 
by rude appliances, its culture in the United 
States was of slow growth, and the present 
century is entitled to the credit of the won- 
derful development of the cotton-manufac- 
turing industry of the world. Some cotton 
was found in 1536, in Texas. It is also 
known to have been grown in Maryland in 
1736, and one bag of cotton is said to have 
been exported from Savannah, Ga., in 1737. 
An American ship was seized in 1784, be- 
cause it had on board eight bags of cotton, 
a quantity greater than it was thought pos- 
sible could have been raised in the United 
States. The short staple began to be culti- 
vated in a regular way in 1785, and in 1795 
1,000,000 pounds were exported from 
Charleston, S. C. In 1860, the product was 
4,675,000 bales. 

The seed of the cotton boll was at first 
cleaned by hand, or by a rude sort of rake. 
The process was slow, and left the fibre in 
a twisted and tangled condition, so that it 
was impossible to make a smooth, strong 
thread of it. The yarn was spun one thread 
at a time, like wool on the old-fashioned 
spinning-wheel. The cotton yarn thus spun 
could be used only as " filling " for wool 

Eli Whitney, of Massachusetts, a veritable 
"Yankee schoolmaster," saw the clumsy 
operation of cleaning off the seed, and, in 
1793, invented a practical machine, called a 
" cotton-gin," for doing this work. This in- 
vention revolutionized cotton culture. 
Whereas the industry had been so little 
profitable that there was a sti-ong tendency 
towards the emancipation of slaves as un- 
profitable laborers, and public steps had 
Ijeen taken towards this end in some com- 
munities, notably in Virginia, the introduc- 
tion of Whitney's machine made slave labor 
desirable, and therefore put a stop to anti- 
slavery agitation in the South. What has 
been the effect on the nation, and even on 
Great Britain, which prepared to use the 

greatly-increased product, would be aji m- 
teresting study. When it is remembered 
that the cotton-gin of Whitney and the 
steam-engine of AVatt, nearly coincident in- 
ventions, were supplements to the " spin- 
ning-mule " and power loom inventions, 
barelv completed in England, the wonderful 
advance in the manufacture of textile fab- 
rics is fully explained. 

James Hargreave, of England, invented a 
carding machine in 1760, and in 1767 pro- 
duced a spinning machine which made eight 
threads at a time. This seemed to be neces- 
sary to use up the product of his " carder," 
and it was thought to be a marvellous 
achievement. In 1769 Richard Arkwright 
patented his ' ' throttle " frame, a machine 
drawing out the fibre by means of rollers. 
This made a firm, even thread, and almost 
any number of them at a time. In 1779, 
Samuel Crompton produced a machine, 
combining Hargreave's ' ' jenny " with Ark- 
wright's "throttle," and called it the 
' ' mule " jenny. This is practically the mod- 
ern cotton-spinning machine. The most im- 
proved machinery from England soon found 
its way into the United States, and as soon 
as peace was declared, in 1783, attempts 
were made to start cotton mills at Beverley 
and Bridge water, Mass., and at Philadel- 
phia, Pa., but with little success. In 1790, 
Samuel Slater, an Englishman, established 
at Pawtucket, Rhode Island, a mill which 
was the first successful cotton mill in the 
United States. There were in operation, in 
1890, 904 mills, which produced fabrics of 
the value of $267,981,724. The number of 
mills decreased in the last ten years, because 
of consolidation and the building of large 
establishments. Though the number in 
1880 was 1,005, the production was only 
$210,950,383. It is estimated that the annual 
production equals the capital invested, and 
that the wages paid annually is about one- 
fifth of the capital invested in the plants. 

Great Britain before our revolution, did 
everything possible to repress the growth of 
manufactures in the colonies, passing acts 
of Parliament to prevent them, and making 
the importation of some machinery a penal 
offense. Notwithstanding this prohibition, 
the manufacture of coarse woollens grew to 
considerable proportions at an early day, by 
being established as a household industry. 
A society to promote this manufacture was 
organized in New York in 1774. It discour- 
aged the importation of woollen goods and 
the slaughtering of sheep for food. This had 
great influence. The first mill is said to 
have been built in Hartford, Conn., about 
1791, to which Alexander Hamilton referred 
in one of his able state papers. In 1810 the 
manufactures of woollen is given as $25,608,- 
788 in the census, but no mention is made 
of mills. In 1802 the first merino sheep 
were imported; and in 1809 another impor- 
tation of 4,000 sheej) was made. Spinning- 
wheels became staple household equipments 
in the farm houses, and looms almost as 



plenty, while carding mills were found on 
hundreds of streams, and thousands of 
weavers and woolen workers came from 
Europe in 1774 and subsequent .years. Now 
woolen fabrics are the most important item 
in textile manufacture, the amount in 1890 
being $337, 768, 534, including the finest cloths 
and worsteds known in tlie market. 

The cultivation of silk received considera- 
ble attention in this country at a very early 
day. The cultivation of the mulberry as 
food for the silk-worm became almost a 
mania, even in Jefferson county, like that 
of the tulip ci'aze in Holland In 1840, 61,- 
552 pounds of silk was raised, but the cul- 
ture soon declined to a merely nominal 
amount. The manufacture, however, con- 
tinued to flourish until at present it is a very 
important industry. The very best grade of 
all kinds of silks and ribbons are now made, 
and find a market in all parts of the world, 
competing successfully with the best foreign 
grades. The number of mills, by the census 
of 1890, was 472, and the annual production 
of silk valued at 187,298,454. The total an- 
nual production of our textile fabrics 
amounts to $693,048,703. 

The perfection of the power-loom, which 
is one of the most wonderful triumphs of 
man's ingenuity, has contributed largely to 
the great increase in the manufacture of 
textile fabrics. While the loom was limited 
at first to plain goods, except when made by 
hand, and it needed very close attention 
from the ojDerator, its production was re- 
stricted. The greatest improvement in the 
loom was that of Joseph Marie Jacquard in 
1800, by which unlimited fancy patterns can 
be woven. When, however, a thread of the 
warp or filling broke, it made imperfections. 
In 1838 Erastus B. Bigelow made the auto- 
matic stop motion. It would stop when a 
thread broke. He perfected his device in 
1848, so as to apply it to the Jacquard loom, 
increasing its production from 4 yai-ds a day 
at 30 cents a yard for a man's work, to 30 
yards a day at 4 cents a yard, and needing 
only a girl for an operator. 

Iron is so important to civilized man that 
it is not strange that the colonists very early 
sought to produce it for themselves. The 
first settlers in Virginia made iron in 1623 ; 
also at Lynn, Mass. , in 1 631 , The first works 
were erected in New York, at Sterling, in 
1751. This establishment made the great 
lS6-ton chain to bar the Hudson at West 
Point in 1778. George Washington and 
otiiers erected charcoal blast furnaces in 
Virginia in 1724. Iron manufacture in- 
creased so rapidly that the English Parlia- 
ment, in 1750, prohibited its manfacture in 
the colonies. It has now become so import- 
ant that the industry is said to be the bar- 
ometer of the country's prosperity. When 
iron languishes all industries are dull. 
When the iron industry is flourishing, all 
business is said to prosper. The improve- 
ments in its manufacture have been almost 
marvellous. The details would till volumes. 

What may be termed the epochs of the de- 
velopment only can be mentioned. The in- 
vention of puddling in 1784, by Henry Gort, 
of Great Britain, was of fundamental im- 
portance. Pie also invented the process of 
using iron rollers to shape the blooms into 
bars, rods and rails. The methods of mak- 
ing iron from the ore by the direct and in- 
direct process ai'e numerous. The more 
recent are those of Siemens, of England ; 
Tho,s. Blair, of Pittsburg, Pa. ; Chas. M. Du- 
Puy of Philadelphia, and Edward Peckham, 
of Plattsburg, N. Y., known as the direct 
process, because wrouglit-iron is produced 
from the ore direct, and without being first 
cast into ' ' pigs. " A large number of special 
furnaces have also been devised. Perhaps 
the most important are the Siemens "re- 
generative" furnace, and the "continuous 
regenerator" of William and George H. Sel- 
lers, of Philadelphia. The United States 
and Great Britain fairly divide the honors for 
inventions to facilitate the manufacture of 
ii-on and of iron-working machines, which 
have been brought to great perfection. 

The invention of the hot-blast furnace, 
attributed to James B. Neilson, of Glasgow, 
in 1838, was a great stride forward. Daniel 
Thomas, of Pennsylvania, is said to have 
been the first person who realized the value 
of powerful engines for use in blast furnaces. 
He also was the first to make the manufac- 
ture of anthracite pig-iron commercially 
successful, although Frederick Gersheimer 
obtained a patent for the process in 1833. 
The United States is now the leading iron- 
producing country of the world, the pro- 
duct being nearly 7,157,000 tons in 1893. 
Iron-making establishments are also very 
numerous, of high character, and very ex- 
tensive. When it is remembered that the 
first foundry was not established until that 
of Joseph Jenks, at Lynn, Mass., in 1763, the 
progress and growth of the iron-working 
industry can be appreciated. 

The manufacture of steel in the United 
States began in 1803, when the production is 
put down at 900 tons. In 1860 it was only 
12,000 tons. The new process of making 
steel, popularly ascribed to Henry Bessemer, 
revolutionize the manufacture. Mr. Bes- 
semer, who published his process in 1856, 
has a rival for the honor of the invention. 
There is good reason for believing that Wil- 
liam Kelly, of Pittsburg, one of the firm of 
William Kelly & Bro., iron masters, who 
had iron works in Eddy ville, Kentucky, was 
the prior inventor. Mr. Kelly was well 
known among the iron masters in Great 
Britain as well as in the United States. He 
was a well-informed, thoughtful experi- 
menter, and hit ujion the discovery, claim- 
ing it as his own. His right was purchased, 
or rather his claim was surrendered, on the 
payment of a large sum of money, and Mr. 
Bessemer will go down in history credited 
with the discovery. Already he has been 
knighted, and has received millions of dol- 
lars in- royalties. The process is simply that 



of forcing aiv through the melted iron until 
all the carbon in it has been consumed, to- 
gether with other impurities, and then add- 
ing to the iron thus purified a sufficient 
quantity of carbon, in the form of speige- 
leisen, or its equivalent to make steel. The 
percentage of carbon necessary is very small 
— from 3 to Z\ per cent. The expense is 
comparatively slight. Twenty tons of iron 
can be made into steel in about as many 
minutes. When it is considered that a gteel 
ship will carry 35 per cent, more tonnage 
than an iron vessel of the same size, and 
that while an iron rail will last only 16 
years, a steel rail will wear 40, the immense 
utility of the so-called Bessemer process ran 
be somewhat appreciated. Works formerly 
constructed of iron — bridges, buildings, 
machinery and domestic utensils — are now 
made of steel. Numerous improvements 
have been made in steel by various alloys. 
These compositions take their names from 
the patentees or from metals composing 
the alloys. These are used for armor plates, 
guns and numerous other purposes requir- 
ing extra strength or other special qualities. 

Many new metals have been discovered 
within the century, and new applications of 
old ones have been made. Perhaps the 
most imijortant progress has been the pro- 
duction and application of aluminum, The 
existence of this metal has been well known 
for a long time. It is as widespread as clay, 
but owing to the difficulty of extracting the 
metal, but little progress was made in its 
production until the application of electri- 
city for the purpose. The price of aluminum 
has been reduced until it can be used for a 
wide range of articles, and the prospect is 
that it may become as cheap as steel. It is 
nearly as light as wood, and of great 
strength and practically non-corrosive. 

At the beginning of the period under re- 
view, but few metals were known. These 
were gold, silver, iron, copper, mercury and 
tin. Now, there are fifty, counting tellur- 
ium, which is sometimes regarded as a 
metalloid. Sir Humphrey Davy discovered 
potassium in 1807. This led to the discovery 
of sodium and lithium. In 1828 Wohler 
produced aluminum. The spectroscope has 
revealed a large nuuiber of aietals — rubid- 
ium, csBsium, thalium, and others, the last 
being iridium. Magnesium was discovered 
in 1849, and gallinum in ia7.5. While 
many of these are yet only the curious pro- 
ducts of the laboratory, the possibilities of 
their usefulness are beyond estimate. Al- 
ready it is proposed to use selenium to 
transmit pictures by telegraph, because of 
its variation of conductivity in light. 

It will not do to pass over the discovery of 
gold and silver in California and the West- 
ern States, and the discovery of gold in 
Australia. The story of gold discovery on 
the Suter estate on the Sacremeuto by con- 
tractor Marshal in 1847, has often been told, 
but its immense importance in the develop- 
ment of the Pacific coast is rarely appre- 

ciated. To say that it raised the population 
of San Francisco from a village of 200 in- 
habitants to a city of 40,000 in three or four 
years, gives but a faint idea of the human 
swarms which settled on that coast. 
The production of gold reached as high 
as $65,000,000 in one year in California 
alone. It is estimated that $1,500,000,000 
of gold have been produced in that region 
since then, and perhaps even more value in 
silver in that State and those adjacent. The 
influence of such vast wealth has been im- 
measurable, not only on the Pacific coast, 
but over the whole country, and even the 
world. The gold fields of Australia were 
discovered in 1851, and the fields \\ere de- 
veloped until they produced $50,000,000 a 
year, and great empires have grown up as 
the direct result of the immigration to those 
far-off islands. It may be worthy of re- 
mark, that one nugget of gold found at 
Ballarat, Australia, weighed 3,166 ounces, 
valued at $41 ,880. Models of this and other 
similar nuggets have been exhibited in 
Europe and America. 

The modern wonder, however, is electri- 
city. Frictional electricity, or static, as 
sometimes called, was discovered 500 years 
before the Christian era, by the Grecian 
philosophei-, Thales, who noticed the attrac- 
tion of amber when rubbed. This has given 
us the name, from "electron," the Greek 
for amber. From this small beginning has 
arisen this modern giant. In 1752, Franklin 
proved the idenfity of electricity and light- 
ning. In 1786, Luiga Galvani, a lecturer 
on anatomy at Bologna, accidentally touched 
the leg of a frog and provoked a muscu- 
lar contraction with his scalpel. This led to 
investigation; and in 171)3, Alesandro Volta, 
a professor of natural philosophy at Pavia, 
announced to the Royal Societv at London 
the theory of this electricity, which was the 
contact of dissimilar substances. The first 
Voltaic battery was set up in 1800. This 
gave the necessary foundation for the tele- 
graph, the ocean cables and the telephone, 
now considered indispensable to civilized 
life. It also brought into use electric sig- 
nals of great variety in connection with 
many pursuits; but the limit of usefulness 
is far from being reached, as new appli- 
ances of the electric battery are announced 
almost daily. Professor Elisha Gray has 
recently brought out a device for transmit- 
ting pictures by telegraph. It is called the 
" Telautograph," and the time seems not 
far distant when, with this invention, and 
the long-distance tele|)hone, friends may 
talk face to face, however far apart. 

The triumphs of the telegraph and tele- 
phone, as marvellous as they are, and as 
great as their influence has been on social 
and commercial affairs, promise to be eclip- 
sed by the dynamo. This modern machine, 
which produces what might be called me- 
clianical electricity, is the newest engine of 
force ; and although already Titanic in power, 
is yet in its infancy. Electric railways 



are multiplying with great rapidity; giving 
promise that villages and farms will soon 
be connected with the trolley or its equiva- 
lent, and the mails delivered hourly in 
places now deemed out of the way. Niag- 
ara Falls has been harnessed to this modern 
giant for the transmission of power, and the 
limits of this application are not yet (Janu- 
ary, 1894) fully known. It may bring power 
to every house, as it will certainly make' 
it available for 50 or 100 miles around. The 
Canadian side of the Falls is also to be used 
for the same purpose. Steps have already 
been taken to this end by a company, of 
which Col. A. D. Shaw, a distinguished citi- 
zen of Jefferson county, is president. 

The experiments of Nickola Tesla, before 
the Royal Institute, of London, and subse- 
quently before the Fi-anklin Institute, of 
Philadeljjhia. have astounded the most pro- 
found scientists, and revealed possibilities 
almost miraculous. Mr. Tesla put a sheet 
of tin-foil on the ceiling of a room and a 
sheet on the floor, and connected them with 
the poles of a generator. The space between 
the sheets of foil became so electrified that 
a glass tube from which the air had been ex- 
pelled, placed in the space, without attach- 
ment of the wires of the generator, "glowed 
like a flaming sword." He showed that a 
room could be made so electric that a 
vacuum-bulb placed anywhere in it, with- 
out any connection with wires, would per- 
fectly illuminate the room without heat or 
any inconvenience to the occupants. The 
film of an incandescent-light bulb, placed in 
the space, glowed as if connected with 
electric wires. A stone wall is transparent 
to electrical waves a foot or two in length. 
He showed, for the first time, great light 
without heat, and indicated how telegraph- 
ing might be done without posts or wires. 
He demonstrated the harmlessness of his 
high potentials by taking hold of the termi- 
nal wire and permitting a current of 50,000 
volts to pass through his body without 

Illuminating gas is one of the convenien- 
ces, due to the progress of the century, 
which has added much to the comfort of 
life, and greatly assisted the workman in his 
labors. As early as 1739, John Clayton, of 
England, discovered that he could make 
illuminating gas from coal, but the fact was 
put to no practical use until William Mur- 
dock applied the gas to light his house and 
office at Redruth, Cornwall, in 1793. His 
success led to a contract to light with gas, in 
1798, the celebrated foundry of Watt & Boul- 
ton, the great manufacturers of the Watt 
steam engine, at Birmingham.' The Lyceum 
theatre, of London, was lighted with gas in 
1803 : and the great cotton mill of Phillips 
& Lee, at Manchester, using 1,000 gas jets, 
in 1805. Dublin introduced gas in 1818. 
The new system of lighting made its way 
slowlv in London, but became general in 
1820. " Gas light was first tried in the United 
States at Baltimore, in 1821. Boston in 

1822 ; and New York in 1827. Some of the 
most eminent scientists of the day ridiculed 
the idea, and among them was Sir Hum- 
phrey Davy, who sarcastically said that 
they would use the dome of St. Paul's cathe- 
dal as a gas holder. But the new light won 
its way, as did ocean steamers, in spite of 
the frowns of scientists. 

Household illumination for the common 
people made but little progress until the 
discovery of petroleum in commercial quan- 
tities on Oil creek, Venango county, Penna., 
in 1858. Previous to this, petroleum had 
been collected in small quantities in many 
places from very early times. There is evi- 
dence that the aboriginies in this country 
collected it 500 years ago. It was also 
manufactured from coal. Selligue, in 
France, was the first to manufacture petro- 
leum on a large scale. Between 1838 and 
1843 he made and sold 15,000 barrels. Abra- 
ham Gesner, in Prince Edwards Island, 
made oil from coal in 1846, and obtained 
patents in the United States, which were 
sold to the Kerosene Company, of New 
York. The first oil factory in the United 
States was established by the Kerosene Oil 
Company, at Newtown, in 1854. In 1860 
there were 40 coal-oil factories on the Atlan- 
tic coast, making 200.000 barrels a year, and 
25 oil factories in Ohio of corresponding 
production. But Pennsylvania petroleum 
soon put a stop to this increasing industry. 
In 1858 Colonel G. L. Drake, superintendent 
of the Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company, 
which had been collecting oil at Oil Creek, 
Penna., by saturating blankets in the oil 
floating in ditches, and then squeezing it 
out into tubs with but little profit, began to 
bore for oil, greatly to the amusement of his 
friends, who ridiculed the idea, and re-" 
garded the project as absurd. He, hovrever, 
persevered, and struck oil at the dei^th of 
71 feet, Aug. 29, 1859. He obtained 400 
gallons a day, which he sold at 55 cents a 
gallon. To say that a very great excite- 
ment was created, gives little idea of the 
craze which set in. There was a great rush 
for the oil-fields, and a forest of drilling 
derricks soon grew up. Fortunes were 
made with amazing rapidity. Farms almost 
worthless before were sold for thousands of 
dollars per acre. Royalties from wells on 
farms reached very high figures— $3,000 a 
day. Some wells yielded 2,000 barrels a day 
without pumping. The business soon set- 
tled down to a steady basis, and new wells 
were put down in West Virginia, Ohio, and 
other places, until to-day the petroleum in- 
dustry is of very large proportions. It 
gives to the home, with the-Hitchcock lamp, 
almost an ideal light. The production is 
100,000,000 gallons a year in the United 
States, or since 1859 about 20,000,000,000 
gallons have been mined. 

People were without matches at the be- 
ginning of the century, and there are men 
and women now witli us who can tell inter- 
esting stories of the care and trouble in- 



curred to save the household spark of fire. 
The flint and steel must be in order, and the 
tinder just right. In 1805, Chancel, of 
Paris, put asbestos, saturated with sulphuric 
acid, in a bottle. Splints coated with sul- 
phur, and a mixture of chlorate of potash 
and sugar, thrust into this would ignite. 
John Walker, a druggist of England, made 
the first friction matches in 1827. The 
present phosphorus friction matches seemed 
to appear almost simultaneously in differ- 
ent countries about the year 1833. They are 
now made by ingenious machinery in amaz- 
ing quantities. 

Photography seems at first thought to be 
of but little practical utility. But it is be- 
coming constantly more indispensable, and 
it may be justly regarded as one of the 
wonders of the century. Like many other 
discoveries and inventions, photography has 
numerous claimants, but it is generally con- 
ceded that M. Niepce, of France, afterwards 
partner of M. Daguerre, who was discovered 
to be working on the same line, made the 
first permanent sunlight picture in 1814. 
Befoi-e the process was perfected Niepce 
died, and his son took the father's place in 
the firm. It was 1839 before the process was 
published with Daguerre's name attached 
to it. It has been so improved in details 
that the originators of the art would hardly 
recognize their offspring. The taking of 
portraits is now cue of its minor uses. The 
astronomer finds it his most valuable assist- 
ant. Stars, invisible by the largest teles- 
cope, are now faithfully reported by the 
camera. An astronomer had worked thir- 
teen years to make a map of one of the con- 
stellations, but when photography was 
brought to bear on the same space, it made 
a far better map in a few hours. The art is 
now the adjunct of every observatory, and 
is applied to all celestial phenomena, giving 
results far more satisfactory than ever be- 
fore obtained. 

Photography is also the basis of the best 
modern system of engraving. At first the 
photo-engraving processes were etchings or 
electrotypes. But in 1865, Walter B. Wood- 
bury, of England, invented a process by 
mechanical pressure. This has been so im- 
proved that the finest pictures j^rinted are 
made with the aid of photography. Even 
the wood engraver resorts to this art for the 
basis of his work. By the aid of photogra- 
phy, what is now known as the "Ives" 
precess is so manipulated by Crosscup & 
West, of Philadelpliia, as to produce, for 
the common printing press, the beautiful 
half-tone pictures shown in this History. 

The spectroscope is another marvellous 
instrument of great utility. It was in- 
vented in 1859 by Kirchhoff, of Germany, 
and has been improved by Rutherford, of 
New York; Cooper, of Cambridge; Lock- 
yer, of London; Crrubb, of Dublin; and 
Stokes, of England. It is used in the manu- 
facture of steel, to show the moment of the 
disappearance of carbon, which is indicated 

by the change in the spectrum. It tells us 
of the composition of stars, comets and 
nebulas. With it the motion and direction 
of travel of stars are discovered, so remote 
as to seem immovable by the most delicate 
tests which could be applied before the spec- 
troscope was invented. The rays of the 
prism have revealed to us substances hitherto 
unsuspected. It is used to detect traces 
of blood on garments, and poisons and adul- 
terations of dyes, drugs and liquors. In 
medicine, astronomy mechanic arts, and in 
chemistry the spectroscope is invaluable. 

The progress in medicine and surgical 
science during the century, has kept abreast 
of the advancement in other lines of activ- 
ity. Dr. Edward Jenner, of London, after 
a series of experiments covering many 
years, announced his discovery of vaccina- 
tion in 179-". He was led to his research by 
the remark of a milk maid, who, when 
cautioned in regard to the small-pox then 
prevalent, said that she could not take the 
disease as she had had the cow-pox. Jen- 
ner then began to examine the subject, and 
finally made his culminating experiment on 
one James Phillips, in 1796. He then waited 
two years before making the public an- 
nouncement. It met with great opposition, 
but 70 of the most eminent physicians and 
surgeons of London soon gave it their en- 
dorsemeot, and it became a recognized pre- 
ventive of the smallpox scourge. 

The relief from pain in dental and surgi- 
cal operations has been a valuable boon to 
the human race. Although it is said that 
the Chinese and other eastern nations ad- 
ministered Indian hemp and some other 
drugs to produce unconsciousness, the appli- 
cation of anaesthetics to prevent pain is of 
recent date in Europe and America. Sir 
Humphrey Davy suggested the use of ni- 
trous oxide for this purpose in 1800. This 
was first used by Dr. Horace Wells, a den- 
tist of Hartford, Conn., in 1844. Dr. W. 
Gr. T. Morton of Boston, used sulphuric ether 
to perform a surgical operation on Dr. War- 
ren at the Massachusetts Hospital, Boston, 
in 1846. Dr. Guthrie of Sackets Harbor, 
N. Y., is credited with the discovery of 
chloroform in 1831, but he seems to have 
known but little of its anaesthetic proper 
ties. Sir J. Y. Simpson of London an- 
nounced its discovery in November, 1847. 
In that same year Flourins, of Paris, ex- 
perimented and published observations on 
the anaesthetic properties of chloroform, 
and it soon came into general use. Its dis- 
covery should undoubtedly be credited to 
our own Jefferson county's Dr. Guthrie, in 
1831. It has saved many lives and pre- 
vented an incalculable amount of distress, 
besides making feasible many svirgical ope- 
rations previously impossible. 

In this field the most important advance 
is the result of the discovery avid investiga- 
tions of Dr. Samuel Hahnemann of Ger- 
many. In 1790 when translating from 
English into German CuUen's " Materia 



Medica," it occurred to him that the given 
explanation of the cure of ague by the use 
of cinchona bark was insufficient. He took 
a large dose himself to trj' the effect of the 
bark on a healthy body. In a few days he 
experienced the symptoms of the ague, and 
the thought came to hioi that perhaps the 
reason that cinchona cured ague was be- 
cause it had the power of producing the 
symptoms of ague in a person in health. 
He then began the investigation of well- 
authenticated cures effected by single reme- 
dies, and found that the remedies would 
produce symptoms of the diseases cured by 
them. In 1797 he suggested in a medical 
journal that tlie new principle be applied to 
the discovery of a remedy for every disease. 
He cured scarlet fever with belladonna, but 
iiTiding that common doses aggravated the 
disease at first, he was led to give small 
doses, and finally adopted the theory of 
diluted potencies. In 1810 he published his 
" Organon of Medicine," and thus launched 
a new practice of medicine. The practice 
was prohibited by law in Austria, but dur- 
ing the cholera in Vienna in 1831, the sys- 
tem was practiced with marvellous success 
in a hospital in charge of the Sisters of 
Mercy, and again in 1836. Dr. Quinn, the 
physician of the Belgian King, introduced 
it in England in 1837, and it soon found its 
way to America. It is now known as Hom- 
oeopathy, and has become widely popular. 
Numerous medical colleges for teaching the 
practice have been founded, and the system 
has secured a recognized standing in all 
civilized countries. One of the oldest and 
most successful of these colleges is the cele- 
brated Hahnemann Medical College of Phil- 
adelphia, whose diplomas are recognized 
throughout the world as evidence of thor- 
ough training in all that pertains to surgery 
and medicine. This has been largely due 
to the management of one of Jefferson 
county's most distinguished sons, Dr. A. R. 
Thomas, whose portrait and biography are 
given in this volume. 

The sewing machine has wrought as great 
a change in the household as any one inven- 
tion of the country. In 1846 Elias Howe 
obtained a patent for a sewing machine 
having a needle with the " eye near the 
point." This little difference between 
Howe's needle and that in common use for 
hand-sewing, was the fundamental device 
of the modern sewing machine. Mr. Howe 
failed to attract attention to his machine in 
the United States and he determined to go 
to England with it. He was not any more 
successful there. He stayed in London, 
living in great destitution until 1849. 
On his return to the United States he 
found sewing machines in practical 
use. They embodied his patent and 
were therefore an infringement. He began 
suit to defend his claims, and established 
the validity of his patent in the highest 
courts after a severe struggle in which he 
was assisted by generous friends. He then 

engaged in the manufacture of his sewing 
machines, which had by that time been 
thoroughly advertised, and he soon became 
prosperous and very wealthy. During the 
war of the rebellion he equipped a regiment 
at his own expense and served in it 
as a private soldier so long as his health 
permitted. He was held in great esteem 
by those who knew him, and was 
worthy of the immortality which he 
achieved by his invention. As might be 
expected numerous improvements on 
Howe's machine have been made. Perhaps 
the most notable are those adapting it to the 
shoe manufacturing business. The pro- 
ducts excel in beauty. 

What Howe did for indoor work the reap- 
ing machine and mower did for farm work. 
The ci'adle and the scythe taxed the powers 
of the husbandman more than did any 
other labor. The time of the harvest is al- 
ways limited and demands the most exact- 
ing attention. In 1834 Cyrus H. McCormick 
patented his first reaper, but a Jefferson 
county boy, T. T. Woodruff, in his 18th year, 
had made practically the same device. It 
was a clumsy affair in appearance, and gave 
but little evidence of its power. It was, 
however, successful in cutting grain. Obed 
Hussey had invented the linger-bar cutters 
in 1833. After demonstrating the practica- 
bility of his machines, Mr. McCormick took 
one to the World's Fair in England. The 
London "Times" sneered at it, and is re- 
ported as saying that the machine was a 
cross between an ''Astley chariot and a 
flying machine." Mr. McCormick had with 
him men thoroughly familiar with the 
machine, and knew perfectly how to man- 
age it. Crowds were present on the day of 
the trial in the open field. The reporters 
were ready for the fun. But the machine 
started and continued to go around the field 
turn after turn, cutting the grain in the 
most perfect manner The spectators were 
astounded. The "Yankee invention " was 
no longer a joke. 

In 1849 Purviance made the platform re- 
movable, and thus changed the reaper into 
a mower. In 1855 William N. Whiteley in- 
vented a, self-raker and speed gears which 
added greatly to the efficiency of the reaper. 
C. W. & W. W. Marsh, in 1858, invented the 
harvester called by their name. It is a de- 
vice for pushing the cutting apparatus in 
front of the team and loading the grain into 
wagons which travel alongside. The final 
improvement was added by J. F. Appleby 
in 1869 in the form of a self-binder. The 
importance of the reaper is indicated by the 
5,000 patents issued for improvements on 
the machine in the United States. Without 
the self-binding reaper, it is difficult to see 
how the vast grain-fields of the west could 
be cultivated. After the successful trial of 
the McCormick machine in England, the 
London "Times" was enthusiastic in its 
praise, and pronounced it the greatest boon 
which could be conferred on the farmers of 



England, because it rendered their grain 
harvest practically secure, where hitherto 
it had always been precarious because of the 
frequent rains. The Ameiican reaper has 
found its way into all parts of the Avorld, 
and has built up a manufacturing industry 
of very great importance to the nation. 

From the introduction of movable types a 
flat bed and platen press had been the 
machine used to make the impression until 
the introduction of the cylinder press. In 
1790 Mr. Nicholson, editor of the "Philo- 
sophical Journal," of London, patented a 
cylinder press with inking rollers, but the 
invention lay dormant. Mr. Koning, a 
German, went to London soon after this and 
began to experiment with printing presses. 
He devised one embodying the ideas of Mr. 
Nicholson. He put it into the London 
" Times" establishment, November 28, 1814, 
and that journal appeared, stating that the 
issue was the first every printed by steam. 
Richard M. Hoe, of New York, greatly im- 
proved the cylinder press and brought out 
his machines in 1848, having as many 
cylinders as might be necessary, and print- 
ing from stereotype plates. For many years 
these were the styles of the best presses for 
rapid printing. William Bullock, of Phila- 
delphia, finally gave the rapid printing press 
its present form, which printed from a con- 
tinuous roll of paper, and is the method now 
adopted in all the fast presses of Hoe and 
others. Its capacity is 25,000 8-page news- 
papers per hour, folded ready for the car- 
riers. In no branch of mechanical progress 
has there been a more wonderful develop- 
ment than is manifested by one of these 
marvellous presses. A press to print pam- 
phlets with great rapidity was the invention 
of Mr. H. P. Feister, of Philadelphia, Pa., 
perfected and in successful operation in that 
city for a number of years, and is a marvel 
of speed, adapted as yet only to cheaper 

Machines to set type have been numerous, 
but none have been successful until recently. 
The hum-drum of type setting by hand is 
tedious beyond description, and necessaril}' 
slow. The new machines now made practi- 
cal are rapidly coming into use. They are 
of several styles. Some set and distribute 
common type. They are necessarily very 
complicated, but seem to do good "work. 
The other styles cast either single letters ancl 
set them in their places, a letter at a time, or 
cast whole lines at once. The latest and 
most marvellous of type-setting machines 
is the invention of George A. Goodson of 
Minneapolis, Minnesota. He has simply ap- 
plied the principle of the Ja.quard loom to 
type setting. A type-writer is connected 
electrically with a small machine which 
makes a pattern on a strip of "ticker" 
paper, about one inch wide. This winds on 
a reel as it is made, and it is then put into a 
machine, small enough to stand on a sew- 
ing machine table, and which follows the 
pattern automatically, casting the tvpes, ad- 

justing them into lines, and placing them on 
a galley as fast as eight or ten compositors 
could set the type. One man can tend ten 
such machines. It is possible for a tele- 
graph operator in New York to make the pat- 
tern in San Francisco. The patterns can be 
cut into pieces and run through as many 
different machines asmay be necessary, set- 
ting a dozen galleys in a half an hour. The 
matter in the galleys can be corrected like 
any ordinary type matter. The type-writer 
which is used to make the patterns, writes 
at the same time a copy from which to read 
to correct proof. It seems to be a wonder- 
ful advance on any type setting machine in 
use. The editor writes his copy on the type- 
writer and unconsciously makes the pattern 
for the type-casting and setting machine 
at the same time. There is no " intelligent 
compositor " to intervene between him and 
his proof. The machine faithfully sets it up 
exactly as the editor wrote it. "Whatever 
corrections it is desired to make are made 
the same as usual in ordinary type set by 
hand. At this date (January 1, 1895), what 
is known as the Mergenthaler solid-line 
machine is being generally adopted by 
leading daily papers in large cities. 

The knitting machine is another astonish- 
ing triumph of mechanical skill. Hand- 
knitting itself is not a very old art. The 
first allusion to it in history is in 148f . when 
a King of England had a knit cap. Stock- 
ings are not spoken of until 1553. Rev. 
William Lee, an English clergyman, in- 
vented a stocking-frame in 158i). This had 
a capacity of making about 1,200 loops a 
minute. In IT.jS, Jedediah Strutt, a Derby- 
shire farmer, adapted this to ribbed work. 
Sir Marc J. Brunei, in 1816, patented a ma- 
chine for knitting seamless garments, but 
it was not used until 1845 at Birmingham. 
The invention of the " tumbler" needle by 
M. Townsend completed the modern ma- 
chine. When it is remembered that a hand- 
knitter can only make about 100 loops a 
minute, and that a modern machine makes 
250,000 loops of the finest texture in a min- 
ute, the advance of the century can be ap. 
predated. It is no wonder that hand-knit- 
ting, once a universal home industry, has 
gone out of vogue. 

Chemistry took its first solid step in the 
century under revie\v, when Wenzel, 1740- 
9H, established the true idea of definite 
chemical combination. Bichter followed 
the clue given, and drew up the first table 
of equivalents. He died in 1807, having 
established the law of definite proportions. 
Inl804Dalton discovered the law of mul- 
tiple proportions. That is, if one body 
unites with another in more than one pro- 
portion, the second and subsequent cases 
are multiples of the first. He devised the 
atomic theory, because he thought the defi- 
nite weights with which bodies enter into 
combination, represented definite quantities 
of matter indivisible by chemical means. 
Gay Lussac and Humboldt, in 1805, proved 



that water was two volumes of hydrogen 
and one of oxygen. Chemistry reckons B3 
simple substances. It has liquefied gases, 
discovered new metals and the wonderful 
properties of coal-tar. W. H. Perkin, in 
1856, laid the foundation of the vast indus- 
try of coal-tar dyes, which are superseding 
all animal and vegetable colors. 

Astronomy also has made prodigious pro- 
gress, which would take volumes to record. 
The discovery of Neptune is justly regarded 
as a magnificent demonstration of the cor- 
rectness of our astronomical science. The 
perturbations of the planet Uranus led to 
the belief that there was some large body 
yet undiscovered which affected the planet. 
\n 1845 John C. Adams, of Cambridge, com- 
pleted a calculation which indicated the 
orbit of the disturbing body. He commu- 
nicated his conclusions to an astronomer, 
but he thought so little of the matter that 
no search was made. Leverrier, of France, 
made a similar calculation, and in 1846, re- 
quested the observer at Halle to search for 
the new body, and it was found within a 
degree of the spot pointed out. It was 
named Neptune. Previous to this, the 
planet Uranus, discovered by Herschel in 
1781, was the outermost planet of our solar 
system. The satellite of Neptune was dis- 
covered in 1847 by Lassele, of Liverpool. 

Many asteroids have been discovered, 
sometimes at the rate of 5 or 10 a year. 
There are now 321 of these little orbs 
known. By means of the spots on the sun 
its rotation has been determined, and be- 
cause at its equator it revolves in 25 days, 
and at a point near its poles revolves in 26 
days, it is concluded that the sun is gaseous 
or liquid. The character of the sun has 
been also determined. The spectroscope has 
revealed many of its constituents. By 
means of the camera, astronomers are mak- 
ing an almost perfect celestial map. Great 
expectations are raised from the progress 
already made. 

This rapid review gives only a feeble im- 
pression of the situation which confronted 
the people of Jefferson county as they went 
into the wilderness to establisli their homes. 
It is to their credit that they contributeil 
their full share to the great progress of the 
century while they were pioneers. The part 
they have taken may be seen in some de- 
gree from the sketches of the men and 
women in these pages, and it is believed 
that their achievements warrant the highest 
encomiums possible to bestow upon them. 



The Deluge 2348 

Babylon built 2247 

Birth of Abraham 1993 

Death of Joseph 1635 

Moses born 1571 

Athens founded 1559 

The Pyramids built 1250 

Solomon's Temple finished 1004 

Rome founded 753 

Jerusalem destroyed ,587 

Babvlon talien bv Jews 538 

Death of Socrates 400 

Paper invented in China 170 

Carthage destroyed 146 

Caesar landed in Britain 55 

Ccesar killed 44 

Birth of Christ 


Death of Augustus Caesar 14 

Pilate, governor of Judea 27 

Jesus Christ crucified 33 

Claudius visited Britain 43 

Paul put to death 67 

Death of Josephus 93 

Jerusalem rebuilt 131 

The Bible in Gothic 373 

Horseshoes made of iron 481 

Latin tongue ceased to be spoken. ... 5yO 

Pens made of quills 635 

Organs used , 660 

Glass in England 663 

Bank of Venice established 1157 

Glass windows first used for light 1180 

Mariner's compass used 1300 

Coal dug for fuel 1234 

Chimneys first put to houses 1236 

Spectacles invented by an Italian .... 1340 

First English House of Commons 1358 

Tallow candles for lights 1390 

Paper made from linen. 1303 

Gunpowder invented 1340 

Woolen cloth made in England 1341 

Piinting invented 1436 

The first almanac 1470 

America discovered 1492 

First book printed in England 1507 

Luther began to preach 1517 

Telescopes invented 1549 

Clocks first made in England 1568 

Shakespeare died 1616 

Circulation of the blood discovered . . 1619 

Barometer invented 1623 

First newspaper 1 629 

Death of Galileo 1643 

Steam engine invented 1649 

Cotton planted in the United States. . . 1759 
Commencement of American Revolu- 
tion 1775 

Recognition of American Independence 1782 

Napoleon I. crowned Emperor 1804 

Telegraph invented bv Morse 1832 

Dr. Guthrie's discover^' of chloroform 1832 

First daguerreotype in France 1839 

Beginning of American Civil War. . . . 1861 

End of American Civil War 1865 

Great fire in Chicago 1871 

Lincoln assassinated April 14, 1865 

Garfield assassinated July 12, 1881 

Bullock, inventor of printing from con- 
tinuous roll of paper, died 1867 

Mergenthaler solid-line typesetting 

machine introduced 1893 

Thorn typesetting machine from mova- 
ble type introduced 1892 



International bi-metal money con- 
ference 1893 

Behring sea arbitration with England 
concluded 1893 

Electricity applied to propulsion of 

street cars 1891 

And in general use 1893 

Twin propeller screws used on ocean 
steamers 1898 


Was born at Springfield, Vt., Jan. 28, 1805. 
Upon the title page of this History can be 
read what Daniel "Webster said about an- 
cestry. Mr. Hoard was fortunate in this 
respect, for the family in America descend 
in an unbroken line from an English an- 
cestry, mentioned as a wealthy London 
banker who came to Boston with his wife 
and children about 1635, but died soon after. 
The widow and children settled at Braintree 
(now Quincy), Massachusetts, where she 
died Dec. 21, 1661. The family monuments 
and inscriptions were still standing and 
legible a few years ago. In England the 
family descend from Normans who accom- 
panied William the Conqueror to that 
country in tho 11th century, and acquired 
considerable estates in England, Wales and 
Ireland early in the 12th century. This is 
not a matter of guess-work, and forcibly 
illustrates the value of historical records, a 
matter much neglected in the United States. 
In 1821, at the age of 16 years, young Hoard 
went to Antwerp, where his older brothers, 
Daniel, Silvius. Samuel and George had pre- 
ceded him and were engaged in business. 
Having acted as clerk for Daniel and Samuel 
when they went to Fort Covington, N. Y., 
to engage in trade, as well as receiving, at 
a later day, instruction under Daniel at Mr. 
Parish's land office in Parishville, young 
Hoard again returned to Antwerp, and 
began, with a Mr. Stevens, to learn watch 
repairing. This business he mastered, and 
then accepted a position in Mr. Parish's 
Antwerp land office, under Wm. McAllister. 
In 1828 he married Miss Susan Heald, daugh- 
ter of Daniel and Anna Heald. While with 
Mr. Parish he was elected Justice of the 
Peace, and was re elected for several years 
after he was out of the land office. He also 
held the office of Postmaster at Antwerp 
under both Jackson and Van Buren. In 
1837 he was elected a member of the As- 
sembly from Jefferson county, and during 
that session (1837-38) the legislature passed 
the celebrated Safety-fund Banking Law, 
which proved of inestimable value to the 
people of New York, not a dollar ever having 
been lost by the holder of a New York 
safety-fund bank bill, they being always at 
an eighth to half per cent premium over 
any other paper money then in use, and at 
times the premium was as high as five and 
six per cent, over well established New 
England banks. The security for issuing 
bills under that law was based upon mort- 
gages of unincumbered improved farming 

land at one-half its assessed value. This 
part of the enactment was due to the ability 
and foresight of Mr. Hoard who was the 
author of the mortgage feature in the bill, 
and its operation in Jefferson county was 
peculiarly beneficial to such farmers as pos- 
sessed good unmortgaged farms, but needed 
ready cash for improvements or to purchase 
lands for their sons. This evidence of Mr. 
Hoard's legislative ability was reuiembered 
by the people. 

In 1843 he was elected county clerk of 
Jefferson county, and moved his family to 
Watertown in 1844. Thenceforward he 
became a leading personality in all the 
affairs of the county (see the chapter upon 
"Political History"). He discharged the 
duties of county clerk with entire accep- 
tabilitj', introducing many needed reforms, 
which gave great satisfaction to members of 
the bar, and all who had business with the 

After the expiration of his term as county 
clerk he made a conditional arrangement 
with Mr. George Goulding (the originator of 
the machine and agricultural implement 
manufactory, so extensively improved by 
Messrs. Bagley and Sewell), to purchase an 
interest in that business if he elected so to 
do at the end of a year. At the expiration 
of the time he concluded not to purchase, 
and soon after engaged with Mr. Gilbert 
Bradford, a practical machinist, in the manu- 
facture of a portable steam engine. For 
many years Mr. Hoard had revolved such 
an enterprise in his mind, for his own ex- 
perience and observation had taught him the 
urgent need of a portable machine that could 
drive printing presses, lathes, or any light 
mechanism. Even while at Ant\%erp he 
had made some experiments with such a 
machine, and all the attention he had then 
given the matter became of value in the new 
enterprise upon which the firm of Hoard & 
Bradford embarked. As in all new applica- 
tions of machinery (as was strikingly illus- 
trated in another instance when 'Theodore 
Woodruff, a Watertown mechanic, invented 
the sleeping-car, and carried around his 
model wrapped up in a red silk handker- 
chief), there were many who prophesied fail- 
ure and loss. But Mr. Hoard was not of the 
"failing" kind. The acquaintance which he 
had formed with Horace Greeley in the legis- 
lature of 1837, made them friends, and when 
Mr. Greeley chanced to visit Watertown he 
called at the printing office of John A. 
Haddock, in the Hayes block ; and there 

Born at Springfield, Vermont, June 28, 1805. Died at Ceredo, West Virginia, November 20, 1886. 

By unclean pelf his heart and hand unstained, 
Strong; for the right, and turning not aside 
Whene'er the public weal was in debate, 
He justified the honors he had gained. 



examined the first engine that had ever left 
Hoard & Bradford's shop. It was a hand- 
some machine, of two-horse power, and 
when Greeley came in the proprietor was 
himself feeding his cylinder press, throwing 
off 1,300 sheets an hour. Greeley was de- 
lighted, and in a letter written for the 
"Tribune," he gave the new invention a lirst- 
class notice. That was the beginning of a 
business which proved eventually the most 
remunerative of any that had ever been 
started in that part of the State. A larger 
machine having been exhibited at the next 
State Fair, it elicited much commendation 
from the Fair officials as well as from the 
journal of the society, and orders began to 
pile in upon tlie firm as unexpected as they 
were gratefully received. So great was the 
demand for tlie Hoard & Bradford engine 
that they were six months behind in their 
orders within a year after starting, and were 
never able to catch up until 1860-61. After 
four years of harmonious partnership with 
Mr. Bradford, Mr. Hoard purchased his in- 
terest for $26,000 — a sum which made Mr. 
B. an independent man, and he congratu- 
lated himself often and in public that he had 
withdrawn from the business, as he really 
believed it had reached its "high noon." 
He doubtless thought otherwise when Mr. 
Hoard took his two sons, who were then of 
age, into the business, and the new firm of 
Hoard & Sons began to make larger and 
better engines than ever before, selling them 
in every State of the Union, particularly in 
the south and south-west. It was while 
this business was at its height that Mr. 
Hoard was nominated and was elected as 
the Representative of the 23d (Jefferson and 
Lewis) District in the 35th Congress. He 
was so acceptable to the people that he was 
re-elected by an increased majority. When 
he first i-an for Congress he was opposed by 
Caleb Lyon, who was so popular that he had 
been a member of the Assembly, State 
Senator, and Member of Congress all within 
three years ; and we again refer to the 
chapter upon " Political History " for more 
extended particulars than are called for 

We close our notice of Mr. Hoard's con- 
nection with the portable engine business 
with mentioning these few points: his shop 
was the pioneer in the building of strictly 
' ' portable " engines, a business that has 
now become so extensive as to be conducted 
more or less in nearly every State, and at 
several different localities in some of the 
States. Mr. Hoard's works at one time 
employed 140 men, principally skilled 
mechanics, besides a corps of clerks and 
accountants. But the Civil War greatly 
reduced the number of orders — the south 
and the valley of the Mississippi liaving 
from the start been the best sections for 
sales As the business promised to be much 
less remunerative so long as the war lasted, 
and perhaps for several years after its close, 
Mr. Hoard turned his attention to some 

other article which would give employment 
to his skilled mechanics, and keep in opera- 
tion his large works, which had now spread 
over several acres, full of the best machin- 
ery money could buy. As a temporary 
matter, and principally to aid a brother who 
had been unfortunate in business, he under- 
took a gun contract (in 186'3) with the Gov- 
ernment, agreeing to manufacture 50,000 
Springfield rifles at $30 each, making a total 
of $1,000,000. This contract was made un- 
der Secretary of War Cameron, when guns 
were greatly needed; but its execution was 
under Secretary Stanton. The delays in- 
evitable in getting, such a contract under 
way, threw his first delivery well along into 
1864, when the Government had bought 
many guns abroad as well as greatly en- 
larged its own immense works at Spring- 
field, Mass. Taking advantage of this con- 
dition of affairs. Secretary Stanton sought, 
by one pretext and another, to evade a fair 
fulfillment of the Government's part of the 
contract. He appointed unfriendly inspec- 
tors, who several times inspected each sepa- 
rate piece during the process of making, 
after which certain parts, as the barrels, 
locks, guards, etc., were "assembled," or 
put together, and again inspected. Accept- 
able parts were then put together as com- 
pleted guns, and again inspected. So criti- 
cal and apparently unjust did the inspection 
appear to Mr. Hoard,' that he quietly took 
to pieces the model gun furnished him by 
the Government as a standard, and placed 
such of its parts as could not be detected 
with similar parts of his own make, which 
were submitted in the usual way for inspec- 
tion, with the result that about half of the 
parts submitted of the model gun were re- 
turned "condemned." These and other 
unfavorable acts, and the failure to obtain 
any satisfaction from Stanton, made the 
gun contract extremely disastrous finan- 
cially, and Mr. Hoard ceased to manufac- 
ture. He sold off his splendid machinery 
at any price obtainable, but at such a loss 
as to use up nearly his entii-e fortune, which 
had been estimated at half a million when 
he took the contract. The Turkish govern- 
ment bought most of the machinery, and it 
is still in use. Having discharged every 
financial claim upon him, and without a 
single law suit, Mr. Hoard began to look 
ai-ound for some other business in which to 
repair his losses. But before f ojjowing him 
to Missouri and Ceredo, we desire to speak 
more extendedly of his 

Personal Characteeistios and his Con- 
nection WITH Politics. 
He was slightly over six feet in height; 
his countenance had usually a thoughtful 
and, at times, a serious expression; his man- 
ners were courtly, his speech engaging, im- 
pressing the listener as though in the pres- 
ence of an earnest man, too busy to trifle 
upon any subject. It was easy to see that 
he was a natural leader of men, and when 



the long-postponed but inevitable rupture 
took place in the old Democratic partj' over 
the question of admitting slavery into the 
territories, Mr. Hoard came quickly into 
prominence as the most popular and saga- 
cious among the " Free Soilers " in Jefferson" 
county. It was natural that the ' ' Hunkers," 
who had long held continuous political svvaj' 
from the times of Perley G. Keyes to 
Orville Hungerford (1815 to 1851), should 
resent any attemjit to ^yrest this control 
from their hands. They held the offices and 
meant to keep them. They felt an especial 
bitterness towards Mr. Hoard, for they 
counted him as the most to be dreaded 
among their opponents. His natural inde- 
pendence of character, and his habit of 
doing his own thinking, made him especi- 
ally unwilling to "take orders" from any 
one. At the time he was elected county 
clerk he was comparatively unknown per- 
sonally to the masses of the people, but the 
foolish attacks upon him by the editor of 
the old-line Democratic newspaper had 
made his name familial' to all who could 
read, and thus the very means adopted to 
subdue his rising importance only contribu- 
ted to further his ijolitical interests in the 
county at large. When he was later elected 
to Congress he was equally as prominent in 
that body as he had been in the State As- 
sembly, and soon attracted the attention of 
such able men as the Blairs, father and son. 
He spent many Sundays at the elder Blair's 
country seat, " Silver Springs," beyond the 
Soldiers' Home, just north of the District of 
Columbia boundary line. This noble man- 
sion was made memorable at a later day 
from being the dwelling occupied by Early 
and his staff when they made the raid in 
1863 upon the suburbs of Washington. 
They were said to have imbibed so freely of 
Blair's fine liquors that they became unable 
to carry out their proposed attack, giving 
time for the Sixth Corps to come up the 
river and just " shoo " them off. While on 
a visit there young Blair remarked to Mr. 
Hoard that Secretarj' Chase had asked him 
to look up a man for Treasurer of the Uni- 
ted States — one who had experience as a 
banker, of unquestioned integrity and able 
to furnish the legal bond. " Do you know 
such a man !" Mr. Blair asked. Mr. Hoard 
at once named Francis E. Spinner, whose 
term in Congress had just expired. Both 
Blairs at once exclaimed, " The very man 
the Secretary wants." What followed we 
will leave Mr. Spinner himself to relate.* 

» Pablo Beach, Florida, Dec. 3, 1896. 

My Dear Sir.— Vour very kind and to me interest- 
ing letter of theastti ultimo, and tlie "(Jeredo Ad- 
vance" containing the obituary of the good man, 
your father, liave both been received. 

It was very Iiind in you to send them to me. I was 
ever so anxious to l£now all the pai-ticulars, for there 
IS not a man living whom I held in such high esteem 
as I held him. A good man has gone to his reward. 
Would that there were more like him. 

Your good father has left you the large inheritance 
of a good name, for if ever there was a strictly hon- 

Mr. Hoard gave President lincoln's ad- 
ministration his earnest support, and he 
retired from the position of Kepresentative 
in Congress, March 4, 1861, with every honor 
that could befall a conscientious man, who 
had done his whole duty while in office. 

His Efforts to Help Young Men. 

Mr. Hoard was a very generous man, 
though his strict business education and at- 
tention to the minutest details sometimes 
led the observer to regard him as exacting. 
A bit of personal experience will illustrate 
his prompt and generous way of doing a 
kindness to any one he thought deserving. 
At the time of the great Watertown fire, 
May 13, 1849, the writer was proprietor of a 
newspaper office in successful operation, 
but that fire swept it away like chaff, he 
being able only to rescue his hand-press, 
which stood in such a position as to be 
i-eadily tumbled out of a large window, and 
was afterwards repaired. The little safe, 
which contained the ready cash of the 
office, after the fire showed only a mass of 
molten silver and copper, the bills being 
wholly consumed. The office was insured 
for $1,000, but there was a technical point 
in the transfer that, under a rigid legal rul- 
ing, might vitiate the policy. While half 
crazy at his the young editor went 
home, it being Sunday. Mr, Hoard sought 
him out while the fire was yet smoking, and 
desired to know what he intended to do. 
Quite naturally he expressed a desire to get 
hold of a new plant, but had not the requi- 
site money. " How much will you need ?" 
was asked. He thought $750 would buy 
enough type to make a start with. " Oh, 
that would not be enough. Better sav 
$1,000, and I will loan it to you. When will 
you be ready to start for new material ?" 
"Right off, if I had the money." Mr. 
Hoard routed up his banker, got the money, 
handed it to his young friend, not even 
taking a note or receipt, and tliat night he 
went east to buy material. That old and 
reliable company, the ^tna, of Hartford, 
Conn., would not c^bntest the insurance pol- 
icy over a mere quibble, and in about ten 
days paid the |1,000, enabling the young 
printer to repay his benefactor much sooner 
than either had expected. This is but one 
illustration, and there were many such, of 
the workings of Mr. Hoard's philanthropic 

est man, he was that man. For four years, while we 
were colleagues in the 3.5th and 36th Congresses, he 
was my most intimate and trusted friend. On all 
matters of importance we thought and acted alike. 

It was by his kind advice maiuly, and by his good 
offices as well, that I became the Treasurer of the 
United States. Bail became necessary, and I ob- 
.iected to asking any one to become surety for me . 
That objection he removed by volunteering to become 
bound for me, and he went furthi^r— he procured 
others to join him. But for his action I would most 
probably have been in the army, and then what ? 

That he is blessed there is no donbt, and that all 
whom he loved may be blessed is the hope and prayer 
of your friend, F. E. SPINNEK. 

S. Floyd Hoard, Esq., CereJo, W'est Va. 



heart. Many a poor woman in Jefferson 
county could tell of his timely aid to pre- 
vent a mortgage foreclosure, but one never 
learned of these transactions from him nor 
from any member of his family. 

It is not a matter of surprise that such a 
man, so noble and so good, should have 
many friends, and, inevitably, now and 
then, an envious enemy. When he left 
Jefferson county his departure vpas greatly 
regretted. But he thought it best to spend 
a year in looking after his landed interests 
in the West and South before settling upon 
any plan for the future. He never again 
returned to Jefferson county. 

His Life at Ceredo, West Va. 

After a winter spent in Missouri he went 
to Ceredo, West Va., in 1868, at that time a 
smalltown of about 125 people, on the south 
shore of the Ohio river, where Eli Thayer 
had planted (in 1857-58) a small colony of 
New Englanders in carrying out his coloni- 
zation scheme, which had a conspicuous place 
in the political history of the country just 
before the Civil War. Thayer and his asso- 
ciates had borrowed a considerable amount 
from Mr. Hoai-d, and mortgaged their town 
site and adjoining lands for security. The 
war practically obliterated it as a coloniza- 
tion scheme, It was looked vipon as a 
"Yankee town," and was frequently raided. 
The government organized and for a while 
kept a regiment there to protect it, and some 
traces of their earthworks can still be found. 
The New England people returned east, 
with but few exceptions. Almost the en- 
tire male population remaining joined one 
of the two armies in the war, and frequently 
since, one could hear during the "Sunday 
afternoon reminiscences of the war " inter- 
esting incidents of skirmishes and battles, 
when the parties would discover and laugh 
over the fact that they had been shooting at 
each other, and how one or the other com- 
mand had to " hustle'' out of this or that 
place. Thayer and his associates having 
abandoned the effort to build a town, thus 
left Mr. Hoard to realize whatever he could 
out of his securities. 

After investigating the location, and the 
mineral and timber resources naturally 
tributary to the Ohio river in that section, 
he decided to remain and bend his efforts to 
building up the town and his depleted for- 
tunes. At that time the town was mainly 
dependent upon the timber business of get- 
ting out logs in the mountains, floating them 
down the Twelve-Pole river to Ceredo, 
where it was rafted and sold to dealers for 
consumption in the cities along the Ohio 
river. His first effort was to induce Penn- 
sylvania parties to locate a saw and planing 

mill at this point. This proved successful, 
and has steadily increased its business, giv- 
ing employment to some 150 hands and re- 
quiring 3,000 to 3,000 logs a month. Other 
industries followed. When he went to 
Ceredo the nearest railroad in the State was 
nearly 200 miles distant, and he prophesied 
that within a few years citizens then living 
in Ceredo would see fifty trains a day pass- 
ing between the hills on the Ohio side of the 
river and those on the West Virginia side, 
about a mile back from the river. Though 
he lived to see only one road completed (the 
Chesapeake and Ohio), with some fifteen to 
twenty trains a day, at the jiresent time 
(1895) there are over fifty daily trains on 
three railroads, all on the south side of the 
river, and all located on his property within 
the corporate limits of Ceredo, which has 
increased its business and population until 
it has between 1,200 and 1,500 citizens. 

Mr. Hoard made two efforts, in connection 
with parties in West Virginia and outside 
of the State, to build a 50-mile railroad from 
the river at Ceredo back to the coal deposits, 
some 35 miles distant, and extending to the 
Virginia State line. Several thousand dol 
lars were expended, and a few miles of 
grading done, but both efforts were unfor- 
tunate in being so timed as to encounter 
financial panics — the first in 1873, and the 
second in 1882-83. A leading idea in these 
efforts was that it would be an inducement 
for some x-ailroad from the south seeking the 
Ohio river to- join it, and thus be advan- 
tageous to Ceredo. This route is now occu- 
pied by a trunk-line road, and the Ohio river 
crossed by a bridge costing over $750,000. 

At Ceredo Mr. Hoard was less active in 
business than at Watertown, but he was in- 
evitably thrown more or less among the 
leading men of that part of West Virginia 
and of southern Ohio and eastern Kentucky. 
He was recognized there as a man of ad- 
vanced ideas and of large experience, and 
no one was more generally respected by all 
conditions of the inhabitants. No purchaser 
of land has ever been dispossessed, and the 
same friendly interest and leniency shown 
that was manifested by Mr. James D. Le- 
Ray in dealing with his debtors in the early 
days in Jefferson county. His long and use- 
ful life closed on the 20th of November, 
1886, in his 82d year. 

Viewed in all its lights, and especially in 
the later years of his life, when he had 
shown his ability to surmount business re- 
verses without being soured or discouraged , 
Mr. Hoard's personal history has proved the 
most instructive and interesting of any 
man's who has ever lived in Jefferson 
county. To the young men the example of 
such a life is like a "liberal education." 

J. A. H. 





Newton Martin Curtis was born in the 
town of DePeyster, St. Lawrence county, 
N. Y., May 21, '1835, from New England an- 
cestry, tracing his genealogy to William 
Curtis, who landed in Boston from the ship 
"Mary Lion," October, 1633. The wife of 
William Curtis vras Sarah Eliot, sister of 
John Eliot, the Indian apostle. The subject 
of this sketch was the son of a farmer, and 
received the usual advantages of the com- 
mon schools. Later he was an attendant at 
the Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary, pre- 
paring for the junior year in college; but 
being prevented by ill health from entering 
college, after two years spent in recovering 
his health he began the study of law in the 

general N. martin CURTIS. 

office of Brown & Spencer at Ogdensburgh. 
But his health again failed , and he then re- 
turned to his home and engaged in farming 
until the surrender of Fort Sumter. The 
following day he began the organization of 
a company of volunteers, which were re- 
cruited in his and adjoining towns; he left 
with the company for Albany on the last 
day of April, having been elected captain. 
The organization papers had been prepared 
by the major-general commanding the mili- 
tia division in that district, and were pro- 
nounced informal by the adjutant-general 
of the State, and an order was subsequently 
issued for the organization of the company 
at Albany on the 7th day of May. It was 

mustered into the 16th New York Infantry 
as Company G, and m June left for Wash- 
ino-ton. He was on duty with his regiment 
un°til the battle of West Point, Va., May 7, 
1863, where he was seriously wounded. He 
rejoined his company at Harrison's Landing 
July 5th, and was soon afterwards attacked 
with typhoid fever and went into general 
hospital at Point Lookout. He returned to 
his company during the battle of Crampton's 
Pass, Md., September 14th; remained with 
it through Antietam, and a month later was 
promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy of the 
142d regiment, which he joined in camp 
near Munson's Hill, Va., the last of Octo- 
ber. On the 23d of January he was pro- 
moted to the colonelcy of his regiment, and 
in April his regiment was transferred to 
Suffolk, Va., and took part in the operations 
at that point, and in the movement up the. 
Peninsula with the army of General Dix. 
On the 5th of July marched down the Pe- 
ninsula from the point nearest Richmond 
occupied by the troops of that army. Was 
then sent to the Army of the Potomac, join- 
ing it near Bei'lin, Md., crossing into Vir- 
ginia, and marching to Wari'enton. In 
August, 1863, the regiment, with others, 
was transferred to the Department of the 
South, and was on duty on Morris, Folly and 
Kiawah islands, taking part in the opera- 
tions conducted by the Federal troops in the 
vicinity of Charleston. In April, 1864. he 
was transferred, with the 10th corps, to the 
Department of Virginia, at which time the 
10th and 18th corps were organized into 
the Army of the James. He was in the 
movements conducted from Bermuda Hun- 
dred until the last of May, when he went 
with others of the Army of the James via 
White House to Coal Harbor. At this place 
he was assigned to the command of the sec- 
ond brigade, second division, 10th army 
corps. Was soon after transferred to City 
Point, and took part in the advance on 
Petersburg, on the 15th of June, under 
General Brooks, and established the line 
that was maintained during the remainder 
of the campaign against Petersburg. His 
brigade was stationed at the Hare House, 
and constructed the small earthwork after- 
ward known as Fort Stedman, named after 
a gallant oflBcer commanding a Connecticut 
regiment who was killed there soon after 
relieving Curtis' brigade. Curtis' brigade 
was among the troops of the Army of the 
James that joined with the Army of the 
Potomac in tlie engagement known as the 
Mine Explosion, July 30th, and in all the op- 
erations conducted by the troops of the 
Army of the James north of the James river. 
In December his brigade went in the expe- 
dition to Fort Fisher, where he landed with 
a portion of his command on Christmas, and 

Governor of the State of New York. 



remained upon tlie shore until the evening 
of the 37th of December, having failed to 
return from the front of Fort Fisher to the 
point of embarkation in violation of the or- 
ders of General Butler in time to be em- 
barked that night. The discussion growing 
out of his disobedience of orders, and his 
statement that Fort Fisher could have been 
captured had the attempt been made, led to 
his being sent for by General Grant, to whom 
he detailed his views respecting the construc- 
tion of the works and the strength of the gar- 
rison, which was further specially inquired 
into by General Weitzel under orders of 
General Grant. These views, it is said, in- 
fluenced General Grant to send the second 
expedition under General Terr}'. Reference 
is made to this matter in General Grant's 
autobiography. General Curtis' command 
led the assault on the 15th of January, 1865. 
He took an active part in capturing the 
traverses on the land face until sundown, 
when he was seriously wounded, losing his 
left eye. He rejoined the army at Rich- 
mond five days after its occupation in April, 
1865, and was detailed as chief of staff to 
General Ord, commanding the Army of the 
James and the Department of Virginia and 
North Carolina, which position he occupied, 
under Generals Ord and Terry, until the 1st 
of July, when he was assigned to the com- 
mand of south-western Virginia, with head- 
quarters at Lynchburg, where he remained 
on duty until January 15, 1866, when he was 
honorably mustered out of service. He was 
promoted to be brigadier-general by brevet, 
October 28, 1864, for meritorious conduct; 
brigadier-general, January 15th, 1865, for 
distinguished services at Fort Fisher, and 
later major-general by brevet for conspicu- 
ous gallantry in the capture of Fort Fisher. 
In civil life he has been collector of cus- 
toms at Ogdensburg, N. Y., special agent 
of the Treasury Department, member of the 
New York Legislature from 1884 to 1890, in- 
clusive; member of the 52d Congress, and is 
now a member of the 53d Congress from 

the 23d District of New York. He has been 
interested in agricultural matters, and for 
several years was president of the St. Law- 
rence County Agricultural Society, for many 
years a member of the board of directors of 
the State Agricultural Society, and in 1880 
its president. From its organization, for a 
period of ten years, he was secretaiy or 
president of the board of control of the New 
York Agricultural Experiment Station at 
Geneva. He was the author of the bill lo- 
cating the St. Lawrence State Hospital, and 
of the bill changing the names of the vari- 
ous asylums for the insane to State Hos- 
pitals. He was the first to introduce what 
was known as the " State Care Act," to 
place the insane under the care of the State, 
and gave it his support during the three 
sessions it was before the Legislature. In 
his legislative work he has been actively en- 
gaged in legislation for the insane and crim- 
inal classes. During each year of his mem- 
bership in the Legislature he introduced 
bills for the abolition ot punishment by 
death, and in 1890 passed such a bill through 
the Assembly. On entering Congress he 
introduced a bill abolishing the death pen- 
alty under the Federal laws, and has given 
such attention to the subject of crimes and 
punishments that his speeches and articles 
are quoted as authority upon the question. 
But it is as a soldier that he meets with 
the most admiration and commendation. 
He stands 6 feet 3 inches in his stockings, 
has broad shoulders, a large head, and 
commands attention wherever seen. In 
manners most agreeable and courteous, he 
never loses a friend he has made. His il- 
lustrious career in the army, in which he 
received two very serious wounds, was not 
won by favoritism or good luck. He fought 
his way through all the grades from captain 
to major-general, leaving an army record 
for distinguished heroism and faithful ser- 
vice not surpassed by any of his contempo- 
raries. He is known among soldiers as the 
" Hero of Fort Fisher." j. a. h. 



RoswELL Pbttibone Flowbr was born 
August 7, 1835, at Theresa, Jefferson 
County, N. Y. His father, Nathan Monroe 
Flower, whose ancestors came to Connec- 
ticut in 1696 and settled in New Hartford, 
was born at Oak Hill, Greene County, in 
this State. Nathan Flower learned the 
wool-carding and cloth-dressing trade in 
his father's mill at Oak Hill, and when 
he became of age established business for 
himself in Cooperstown, Otsego county. 
At Cherry Valley, in the same county, he 
married Mary Ann Boyle, and soon after 
moved to the northern wilderness and es- 
tablished a wool-carding and cloth-making 

business at Theresa. Nine children were 
born to him, seven sons and two daughters, 
of whom Roswell Pettibone Flower was the 
fourth son and sixth child. Their father 
died when Roswell was only 8 years old. 
Their mother conducted the business for a 
couple of years, and young Roswell was put 
to work picking wool eight hours off and 
eight hours on daily, during the summer 
season, for a couple of months, and the rest 
of the time he was sent to school. The 
family had a farm of 30 acres near the vil- 
lage and another one of some 200 acres eight 
miles out. The children worked on these 
farms, chopping wood for the house in the 



village and raising hay and oats, wheat and 
potatoes. There was nothing on the farm 
that young Roswell could not do. Until he 
was 14 years of age he was occupied at 
school, and night and morning did what 
work he could to help support the family. 
His brothers being older than he, it was not 
Roswell's luck to have a new suit of clothes 
until he was able to earn the money him- 
self. His mother would cut down the 
clothes of the older boys to fit him, and 
stories are told, even in these days, at 
Theresa, of the anguish of mind which 
young Flower suffered over this matter of 
hand-me-downs. His sister Caroline mar- 
ried Silas L. George, a merchant of Theresa, 
and Roswell %vas employed by him for $5 a 
month and board. In the winter he at- 
tended the Theresa High School and worked 
for his board imtil he was 16 years of age, 
when he was graduated. To get his spend- 
ing money Roswell did odd jobs of sawing 
wood and carrying it upstairs for the law- 
yers of the village. Twenty-five cents was 
a good deal of money in those days, and 
rather than ask his mother for the money, 
he preferred to saw half a cord of wood and 
carry it upstairs. Farm hands were scarce 
in haying time, and being a strong and 
active young man, he could command good 
wages, and frequently left the little country 
store for two or three weeks to help out 
some farmer who was anxious to get his 
ci'ops in. He also worked in a brick yard, 
d]-iving a yoke of stags around the vat to 
tread out the clay, for which he received 
the munificent sum of .?1.50 a week. 


After he was graduated from the High 
School he found an opportunity to teach in 
a little school a mile from town. The 
scholars in those days must first have a bout 
with their master before they would become 
tractable. Mr. Flower taught out the bal- 
ance of the term in the red school house be- 
low the village and "boarded around" 
among the parents of his scholars a week or 
less in a place, in the regular old New Eng- 
land fashion, which still obtains in the way- 
back districts of New England. 

His flrat day in school, during the noon 
intermission, the biggest boy came to him 
for a " sijuare-hold " wrestle. Mr. Flower 
accepted the challenge and easily threw the 
lad. After he had thrown all the larger 
boys he found tliem all, with one exception, 
ready to recognize his authority. One day 
in the spelling class this boy, who was about 
21 years old, declined to pronounce his 
syllables, but after a tussle Roswell suc- 
ceeded in making him pronounce them cor- 
rectly. He then gave notice that he would 
hold a spelling school that evening, and 
stated that be desired only those of the 
scholars to come who would be willing to 
do their best. During the intermission this 
young man said he was coining to school 
that evening, but that he would not spell. 

Roswell was boarding at the time with the 
family of Edward Cooper, with whom lived 
a young man of 23 named James Casey. 
The young teacher talked over the expected 
trouble and arranged that Casey should 
choose for one side of the school and if this 
obstreperous young fellow should make his 
appearance Casey should elect him to his 
side, and if he made any fuss in spelling, 
the two should join forces and put him out. 
The evening school had not been opened 
more than 10 minutes before this young 
man came in and sat down behind one of 
the old-fashioned desks. He was immedi- 
ately chosen, but said he would not spell. 
Then young Flower told him that he must 
spell or leave the school. He replied that 

he would be if he would spell, and that 

he would be if he would leave the 

school. Mr. Flower insisted, which only 
called forth a repetition of the offensive re- 
mark. The schoolmaster then called upon 
anj-body who desired to resent the insult to 
the school and the teacher to assist him in 
putting the offender out of doors ; where- 
upon young Casey rose up, and Roswell, 
grabbing the young man by his shoulder 
and his assistant by the feet, he was speedily 
ejected. But he was not conquered. He 
went over to the hotel a few rods distant 
and persuaded one of the trustees and a big 
chap by the name of William Wafful to 
come over and whip the teacher. Nothing 
daunted Roswell stated the case to his belli- 
gerent visitors and then said to the young 
man: "Now, sir, you must either spell or 
leave this scliool again." This conquered 
the youthful Samson and he spelled without 
further trouble. After school was out the 
colossal Mr. Wafful remarked that if this 
young man had not spelled then he would 
have whipped him himself. 

When he was in his eighteenth year Mr. 
Flower had an ofl'er to go to Philadelphia 
(Jefferson Co.) as a clerk in a general 
merchandise store. His employer was a 
Mr. Woodward, who failed two months 
afterward, and the young man, thrown out 
of employment, was forced to return to 
Theresa. That spring and summer he did 
work on his mother's farm, and earned a 
ton of hay by working nine days and a half 
in the field, mowing grass and " keeping up 
his end " with 11 men in mowing. 

During his boyhood he always went bare- 
foot in the summer months, and he once re- 
marked in a speech, while running against 
William Waldorf Astor for Congress, that 
until he was 15 years old he did not feel at 
home in the summertime unless he had a 
stone bruise or two on his feet, and that he 
had warmed his feet many a morning in the 
crisp autumn weather on a spot where a 
cow had lain the night before. 


In August, 1853, Mr. Flower had an offer 
to go into the hardware store of Howell 
Cooper & Co., at Watertown. After re- 



maining there about a month he had another 
offer which was more to his liking and 
which he accepted. It was to become 
deputy postmaster at Watertown at $50 a 
month, and board. He occupied this posi- 
tion under Postmaster William H. Sigour- 
ney for 6 years. The first |50 he saved he 
invested in a gold watch, which he sold a 
few months later to a young physician for 
|53, and took his note for it. Mr. Flower 
still has that note. Mr. Flower managed to 
save some money out of his wages, and at 
the end of his term in office had accumu- 
lated about |1,000, with which he purchased 
the interest of Mr. Sigourney in a jewelry 
business, the firm name being Hitchcock & 
Flower, at 1 Court street, Watertown. His 
aptitude for business enabled him to ad- 
vance the interests of the firm, and in a 
couple of years he bought out his partner 
and continued alone in the business until 

Mr. Flower was married on December 26, 
1859, to Sarah M. Woodruff, a daughter of 
Norris M. Woodruff, of Watertown. Three 
children were born to them, of whom only 
one is living, Emma Gertrude. She was 
married to John B. Ta3'lor, of Watertown, 
January 2, 1890. While in the Watertown 
post-office Mr. Flower's spare time was 
taken up, not in social entertainments, be- 
cause he had no money to enter such society, 
but in reading whatever he thought might 
be useful to him in the future. He made 
himself thoroughly familiar with the 
" Federalist " and kindred works, and hav- 
ing an idea of some day becoming a lawyer, 
he got a little knowleilge of Blackstone and 
Kent; but his natural bent was for business, 
and he never attempted the law. 


In 1869 Henry Keep, the well-known 
capitalist, who had married Miss Emma 
Woodruff, a sister of Mrs. Flower, was on 
his deathbed. Two or three weeks before 
he died he sent for Mr. Flower to come to 
New York, and during his sickness gave 
him a pretty good idea of the character of 
the men with whom he had been surrounded 
in the business world. Mr. Keep had been 
president of the New York Central and 
treasurer of the Michigan Central and Lake 
Shore, and was president at the time of the 
Chicago and Northwestern Railroad. He 
knew it would take a man of good common 
sense and quick perception to aid his wife 
in the management of his large property 
after his death, and in Mr. Flowor he 
thought he recognized those qualities. In 
answer to a question by Mr. Flower, in 
order to get his opinion of Daniel Drew, as 
to whether Drew was an honest man, Mr. 
Keep, who was very reticent, did not reply 
for some ten minutes, and then said: "He 
is as honest a man as there is in the State 
of New York, but for fear that somebody 
else will cheat, he will always begin first," 
Immediately after Mr. Keep's death Mr. 

Flower removed to New York and took 
charge of his late brother-in-law's estate, 
the value of which has more than doubled 
under his management. It was then worth 
11,000,000, and now under Mr. Flower's 
management it has expanded to $4,000,000. 
The properties in which the estate was in- 
vested cause Mr. Flower to be a fi-equent 
visitor to the West, and since 1870 he has 
made extended trips all over the United 
States, and has a personal knowledge of the 
possibilities and natural I'esources of almost 
every section of the country. Governor 
Flower's fortune, which is estimated in the 
millions, has not been made by speculation 
in Wall street, but by shrewd purchasing of 
properties, which, by careful and prudent 
management, have developed and proved 
valuable investments. 


In 1872 Mr. Flower was at death's door for 
several weeks, but after four or five months' 
sickness he finally recovered. His physi- 
cians then advised him to take all the out- 
door exercise possible. At this time the 
brokerage and banking firm of Benedict, 
Flower & Co. was dissolved, and Mr. Flower 
gave his entire attention to the manage- 
ment of his sister-in-law's estate and other 
estates which had been placed' in his care. 
He found a New York office necessary, and 
so established himself at 84 Broadway. 
His younger brother, Anson R. Flower, was 
brought to New York from Watertown in 
order to become acquainted with the busi- 
ness, that he might take charge of it in Mr. 
Flower's absence; but, strange to say. the 
more the latter tried to get out of business 
the more he got into it, and the firm of R. P. 
Flower & Co. found itself doing a large com- 
mission trade without any attempt having 
been made to push it — so large, in fact, 
that another brother, John D. Flower, and 
a nephew, Frederick S. Flower, were taken 
into the firm, and not until 1890 did Mr. 
Flower relinquish his interest in the concern 
and become a special partner. But in the 
meantime he had managed to get the out- 
of-door exercise which the doctors had sug- 
gested, through the State sportsman's club. 
In 1877 Mr. Flower attended the convention 
of these clubs at Syi'acuse and won a prize, 
consisting of a corduroy hunting suit, over 
a field of 113 entries. Thirty-two of them 
had tied at 21 yards' rise, and they had to 
go back to the 25 yard score. Then all that 
were left had to go back to 31 yards and 
shoot until somebody dropped out. Mr. 
Flower and ex-Attorney-General Tabor 
were the last competitors in the contest, and 
Mr. Flovi'er finally won the clothes and still 
wears theui on the hunting expeditions 
which he frequently takes after woodcock, 
duck and partridge. 


In politics Mr. Flower has always been a 
Democrat. He cast his first vote for Buch- 



anan, and has been a constant and active 
worker for his party. He was chairman of 
the county committee for several years and 
helped to start the nucleus of an oi'ganiza- 
which has been known throughout the 
State as one of the best equipped folitical 
organizations within its borders. Mr. 
Flower was an active Mason in his younger 
days, being at one time high prievSt of the 
Watertown chapter. One day, going down 
to the grand chapter, at Albany, he met on 
the cars Samuel J. Tilden and his seci-etary, 
John D. Van Buren. Mr. Tilden asked him 
what he thought about the State, and Mr. 
Flower replied that he did not believe Mr. 
Tilden would the next year be chairman of 
the State committee for the reason that he 
did not seem to recognize the fact that a 
man under .50 years of age has any influence 
in politics. He told Mr. Tilden that it was 
the young men who would control the party, 
and that he must extend his acquaintance 
among them or be prepared to step out. 
Mr. Tilden replied that lie would like to 
have the j'oung men with him, but that 
he had no opportunity of coming in touch 
with them; that his friends didn't seem to 
think it was worth while. Mr. Flower then 
told Mr. Tilden that Jefferson County had 
sent to Colonel Van Buren the 3 ear before 
the best scheme for organization of a party 
that had up to that time made its appear- 
ance, and that if he would organize the 
party throughout the State on the basis of 
recognizing the merit of j-oung and active 
workers instead of the "lias beens," he 
would be sure to carry the State at all 
times, and might continue at the head of 
the organization as long as he saw fit. Van 
Buren confirmed this opinion. About a 
month later Hon. Allen C. Beach, of Water- 
town, received a telegram from Mr. Tilden, 
asking him to come to his home and spend 
two or three weeks, as he wanted to extend 
the suggested organization throughout the 
State. It was thus that the famous ' ' Til- 
den machine " was started. It was Flower's 
suggestion to organize it and Tilden's per- 
severance which extended it. In 1877 Flower 
was chairman of the Democratic Executive 
Committee when the party won the cam- 
paign, though tliere was a bolt against the 


After his son's death, in 1881, Mr. Flower 
was induced to run for Congress in the 
Eleventh Congressional district against 
William Waldorf Astor. The representa- 
tive of this district had been Levi P. Mor- 
ton until he resigned to take the position of 
Minister to France. Mr. Morton had been 
elected by over 4,000 majority. In that 
campaign, after Orlando b! Potter had de- 
clined the Democratic nomination, Mr. 
Flower accepted it on the platform that he 
would not purchase a vote to secure the 
election, and on that he made the issue and 
was elected by 3,100 majority. In the 

Forty-seventh Congress he was appointed a 
member of the Committee on Banking, and 
almost immediately took a prominent part 
in the discussion of financial questions. Mr. 
Flower recently said to the writer : " When 
I was elected to Congress, although I was 
pretty thoroughly conversant with jjractical 
banking methods, I knew nothing of the 
theories of finance, but I soon learned that 
if I was to be of any use in Congress I must 
do a little reading, and with the aid of 
books from the Congressional Library, I 
soon pretty thoroughly mastered the sub- 
ject. I found it much the most interesting 
that I had ever studied. It is better reading 
than the best novel that ever was written." 
During his first term in Congress he also 
made speeches on the Chinese question, on 
the River and Harbor bill, and a notable one 
on the reduction of taxes. 


Mr. Flower would hardly be called a 
good speaker, but he was called on fre- 
quently in his county to talk from the plat- 
form, pai'ticularly during the Seymour and 
Blair campaign of 1868. Endeavoring to 
fill that want of many public speakers — 
the possession of the cojjy of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States in convenient size 
to caiTy in his pocket — he searched the 
book stores of Watertown but was unable to 
find one. Happening into a little corner 
shoe-store he saw tacked to the bench of a 
grizzled old cobbler a little primer contain- 
ing inside the Constitution and outside the 
advertisement of a fire insurance company. 
James Muldoon, the shoemaker, gave Mr. 
Flower the book, and he has it yet, always 
carrying it in his pocket for easy reference. 
In 1876, when visiting Cliicago, Mr. Flower 
had his memorandufu book stolen, which 
contained the present of the cobbler. While 
in Europe some months later he received a 
note from the proprietor of the Grand 
Pacific Hotel saying that his book had been 
found in a lumber yard, and would be re- 
turned to him. The Constitution turned up 
inside in perfect order, and in 1883, when 
making a speech in Congress on giving 
power to the President to veto separate 
items in the Appropriation bill, Mr. Flower 
produced the cobbler's copy of the Consvitu- 
tion, and, considering its adventures and the 
value a pamphlet copy would be to many 
persons, as it had been to him, he asked that 
it, together with the substantial amend- 
ments, be printed in the Record to accom- 
pany his remarks, that with them, it might 
be distributed to the people. Over 500,000 
copies of this somewhat unique document 
were circulated by himself and other mem- 
bers of Congress. 


In 1882 there was a general demand 
throughout the State for his nomination to 



the office of Gorei-uor. In the Democratic 
convention, Mr. Flower received 134 votes 
against the same number for Gen. Slocum, 
and 61 for Grover Cleveland, of Buffalo. 
The strife between Tammany and the 
County Democracy was so great at that 
time that it was thought better politics to 
nominate a man outside the City of New 
York. Consequently Mr. Flower made way 
for Cleveland, who was declared the choice 
of the convention. In this same year, 1882, 
Mr. Flower refused a renomination for Con- 
gress, having stated in liis first canvass that 
he would not accept a second nomination 
and that he would leave the district in such 
a condition after one term that any good 
Democrat, no matter how shallow his 
pocket, might be nominated and elected in 
it. He was at this time offered the unani- 
mous nomination of both factions of his 
party, and was assured that the Republicans 
would make no nomination if he would con- 
sent to run, but he preferred to carry out 
his pledge to the people when he ran against 
Ml'. Astor. Orlando B. Potter was nomin- 
ated and elected in his place, Mr, Flower 
taking the stump for him. Mr. Flower has 
been a member of the State Executive Com- 
mittee every year since that time, and has 
given valuable aid to the Democratic party 
managers. In 1885 he attended the Demo- 
cratic State Convention as a looker-on ; not 
as a candidate for office. The convention 
nominated David B. Hill for Governor. 
Several delegates had asked Mr. Flower to 
accept the nomination for Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, but he refused. He left Saratoga the 
morning before the convention adjourned, 
but when he arrived at his country home in 
Watertown he found that he had been 
unanimously nominated for Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, He immediately declined the honor, 
stating his reasons for doing so. The State 
Committee was called together, and nomin- 
ated in his place Colonel Jones, of Bingham- 
ton, " him who pays the freight." 

Mr. Flovs er, in 1882, was made chairman 
of the Democratic Congressional Committee, 
and ran the campaign that year that resulted 
in a majority in the House of .50 for his 
party. In the Presidential campaign of 
1888, Mr. Flower was selected as one of the 
four delegates-at-large to the National 
Democratic Convention, at St. Louis, which 
nominated Mr. Cleveland for President, and 
was chosen chairman of the delegation. In 
the same year, when it seemed probable 
that the two Democratic factions in the 
Twelfth district might each run a candidate 
for Congress, they united on Mr. Flower 
and asked hini to accept the nomination. 
This he did, with some hesitation, and only 
in order to help the election of the Presiden- 
tial and Gubernatorial nominees. 


In the Fifty-first Congress Flower was ap- 
pointed a member of the House Committee 
on Ways and Means, and also a member of 

the Committee on the "World's Fair, His 
efforts toward securing the location of the 
Fair in New York have been recognized by 
the City and State, and his speech on that 
subject contained about all the points in 
favor of New York that could be put into 
30 minutes. 

Mr. Flower once remarked to the writer 
that his success in Congress was chiefly due 
to the fact that on whatever committee he 
was placed he tried to learn as much about 
his work if not more than any other mem- 
ber of the committee. On the Ways and 
Means Committee in the Fifty-first Con- 
gress, b}' the questions he asked at the hear- 
ing held before that committee, he showed 
his familiarity with many subjects, and 
with distant sections of the country and 
their industries. There was no just claim 
before Congress for the pension of a Union 
soldier that he did not champion, believing 
that if a soldier received a pension to which 
he was not entitled the Government was to 
blame and not the soldier, for there are in 
each Congressional district three surgeons 
by whom the soldier is examined before he 
is allowed a pension. Mr. Flower also made 
a strong speech in the Fifty-first Con- 
gress in favor of the election of post- 
masters by the people, and offered an 
amendment to the Constitution to that 
effect. Because of his thorough knowledge 
of the West and its needs he was enabled 
to make in Congress a speech on the irriga- 
tion question, which attracted a great deal 
of attention, and which was made the basis 
of the Senate Committee's report on that 


Mr. Flower was chairman of the Demo- 
cratic Congressional Campaign Committee 
in 1890. The committee had very small 
means, but his organizing powers were 
brought into play with great success. The 
campaign was quietly but systematically 
conducted. Campaign docnuients were 
circulated in large numbers, and the result 
was the largest Democratic Congressional 
majority ever obtained in an election in the 
United States. Mr. Flower created the im- 
pression that he was doing nothing, even 
counseling some of the leading newspapers of 
his party to pitch into and accuse him of in- 
action, in order to arouse the Democratic 
rank and file to the necessity for active 
effort on their part. He believed that a full 
vote of his party meant a great Democratic 
triumph, and the outcome justified his 

Mr. Flower was nominated for Governor 
at the Democratic State Convention of 1891, 
and was elected by a plurality of 47,9:57 over 
Jacob Sloat Fassett. 


Mr. Flower has never turned his back on 
any charitable institution that he could con- 
sistently befriend, as the people of the north- 
ern portion of the State can testify. He has 



always made it a rule to give away in char- 
ity a certain portion of his income — for 
many years all that he did not need for his 
own living expenses — believing that when 
a man had wealth he should distribute it 
while he is alive, in order that there may be 
no contest over it when he dies. 

Mr. Flower's parents were Presbyterians, 
and on a visit to Theresa a number of years 
ago he found that the church which he had 
attended as a small boy had run down, and 
that the building itself was in a dilajDidated 
condition. At considerable expense he had 
the church rebuilt, and it is now a beautiful 
little structure — a fitting memorial to Mr. 
Flower's parents. On the death of his son, 
Henry Keep Flower, in 1881, Mr. and Mrs. 
Flower gave St. Thomas' Church, in New 
York city, of which Mr. Flower is a vestry- 
man, $50,000 to erect on Fifty-ninth and 
Sixtieth streets and Second avenue a four- 
story building, to be known as St. Thomas' 
house, to be used for parish work. The 
structure has rooms occupied by an Ameri- 
can Sunday school of 500 children, a German 
Sunday school and a Chinese Sunday school. 
On the lower floor is a diet kitchen, and on 
the second floor an institution to teach 
young girls how to sew and mend. The next 
floor is a club-room, where the boys play 
checkers and backgammon, and on the up- 
per floor is found a library for a club of 
young men. All these institutions are car- 
ried on by the charitably disposed in St. 
Thomas's Church. On the inside of the 
building, on the wall, is a marble slab.uj)on 
which is inscribed: " Erected to God by 
Roswell P. Flower and Sarah M. Flower, in 
memory of their son, Henry Keep Flower." 

Mr. Flower's brother, Anson, is a vestry- 
man in Trinity Church, in Watertown, and 
Mr. Flower joined him in building a $100,- 
000 home for that parish. The homoeopathic 
school of physicians in New York city were 
erecting, a few years ago, a college, but had 
no hospital in which to teach young students 
anatomy and the use of the knife in practi- 
cal surgery. Mr. Flower erected for them, 
at the corner of Avenue A and Sixty-third 
street, the Flower Hospital, which supplies 
this need. But this by no means completes 
the list of beneficiaries of the family. Henry 
Keep's widow has erected, at a cost of $100,- 
000, in the suburbs of Watertovcn, a home 
for old men and women, called " the Henry 
Keep Home." As Mr. Flower truly says: 
"what better use could be made of the 
mone}' of Henry Keep, whose father died in 
the poor-house, than to erect, with some of 
it, a home for aged men and women ? " Mr. 
Keep's widow has also given $100,000 for 
the Ophthalmic Hosi^itaJ at Twenty-third 
street and Fourth avenue. New York. 

The writer has known Governor Flower 
from his earliest infancy, having at one time 
been a law student in the office of the Gov- 
ernor's father, and upon terms of daily in- 
timacy with that estimable family of chil- 
dren, all of whom have grown up into use- 

ful and honored members of society. The 
Governor's most pronounced trait of characy 
ter is his ability to level up to the demands 
of everv situation in which he has been 
placed. When a boy, he could do more work 
than any other boy of his age in his native 
town, and Theresa was full of smart, ath- 
lethic young fellows. Roswell was in 
"dead earnest" all the time, thorough in 
whatever he undertook, of a pushing, vigor- 
ous manner, ever on the alert, and putting 
the best foot forward every time. He was 
always hard at work, but when he had made 
half-a-dollar by industry he was liberal with 
it — ready to divide with his brothers or with 
the neighbors' boys. He was always a 
" trusty " boy — his word would go as far 
when 15 years of age as any full-grown man 
in Theresa. He had a self-possessed and 
honest way that gave him standing. It is not 
remarkable that a boy with such traits has 
made a successful, trusty , honest man. I have 
read his speeches in Congress and his state 
papers since he became Governor. Their 
erudition and ability, and their matter-of- 
fact way of dealing with public affairs have 
not surprised nie, for I knew the boy and the 
quality of the stock from which he sprang. 
His father was a nobleman if ever there was 
one in Northern New York, and his mother 
was one of the most faithful, industrious 
and home-making women of lier day. 

It is easy to say, and easier yet, perhaps, 
to suspect that what Ave print here may be 
largel3' due to the desire men usually feel 
to compliment and, perhaps, flatter men 
who have reached high positions or acquired 
great wealth. Governor Flower is too well 
known in his native country to need aught 
but honest praise from any source. Though 
a tireless partisan and an uncompromising 
Democrat, he has never lost a friend from 
any political divergence of view. Honest in 
his own opinions, he does not hesitate to ac- 
cord those who differ with him the same 
honesty of purpose. Springing from the 
middle walks of life, neither poor nor rich, 
nor yet a college graduate, but graduated 
from that wonderful developer of practical 
common sense, every-day, human expe- 
rience, he possesses the robustness and men- 
tal health which such an origin might be 
expected to transmit. His face is all ex- 
pression, showing an exquisitely penetrat- 
ing and mobile intellect, easily stirred to 
noble emotions and brimming over with 
goodness. He is a delightful companion, 
welcome in every circle, but shines bright- 
est and most hopefully to those who share 
his daily life and " know him best of all." 
His life has been a blessing to so many, here 
and elsewhere, that his personal popularity 
is not so remarkable when we consider the 
foundation upon which it is built — an un- 
selfish desire to do good. 


Although Mr. Flower lias for some 20 
years had a winter home in Fifth avenue, 



New York, he still spends his summers in 
Watertown, where, upon Arsenal street, he 
occupies a cozy, pretty house. There are 
fifty dwellings in Watertown surpassing it in 
splendor of appearance, more modern, with 
a greater evidence of the luxuries of life, 
but none having more the look of a real 
home. The house was built over fifty years 
ago, by Norris M. "Woodruff, Mrs. Flower's 
father, and has the rambling, comfortable 
look of that period in architecture. It is a 
wooden building painted white — a cleanly, 
daazling white, which fieems to have been 
so attractive in the eyes of the last genera- 
tion — and it has the usual accompaniment 
of bright green blinds. The house stands a 
little back from the street, having sufficient 
space for some handsome beds of flowers 
and a perfectly trimmed green lawn, while 
back of the house one sees a fine garden and 
clumps of handsome trees. Mr. Flower has 
gathered in his Watertown library the many 
valuable documents that he collected while 
in Congress He has, among other things, 
every message that has been sent by a Presi 
dent to Congress since Washington's day, 
and there are very few of them with which 
he is unfamiliar. 


Since its occupancy by the Governor and 
Mrs. Flower, the Executive Mansion has un- 

dergone a complete transformation. Both 
Cleveland and Hill were bachelor Governors, 
so that there has been no woman at the head 
of the establishment since the Cornell ad- 
ministration. Mrs. Flower has brought her 
own pictures, added materially to the other 
furnishings, and has given to the big house 
an attractive, homelike air, which it has 
never known until now. The Governor stays 
at home until office hours, when he goes to 
the Executive Chamber, never, by the way, 
using the Governor's private staircase, but 
going up one of the elevators like any ordi-- 
nary citizen. His business affairs are at- 
tended to in New York, where he has able 
assistance, and they do not take up much of 
his time here in Albany. The callers whom 
he sees are comparatively very few, as they 
are carefully sifted before they are admit- 
ted to him. Tliose whom he does see are 
men of importance, who attend to their 
business promptly. The office hours are 
only five, and one of them he takes to go to 
the Executive Mansion for luncheon. Like 
the good business man that he is, he neither 
smokes himself nor permits smoking about 
him during office hours. He is thoroughly 
democratic in all his ways, and is more easily 
approached than any other Governor the 
State has ever had. His democracy is in- 
gi-ained, not grafted, his manner really 
friendly, not assumed. J. A. H. 



We feel sure that every reader of this His- 
tory will welcome to its pages a truthful 
sketch of one of the most deserving and 
modest public men of Jefferson county, as 
he appeared in the important era from 1840 
to 1892 — the years which embrace the dis- 
covery of the electric telegraph and its utili- 
zation as the most important factor in the 
dissemination of news; the application of 
steam to so many uses before that era un- 
known, and the beginning of what may be 
designated the wonderful " development " of 
the American newspaper. 

Mr. Ingalls was born in Rodman, January 
12, 1818, and passed his early life in that 
town and Wilna; after the age of 10 living 
in Wilna winters and as a farm hand in 
Rodman summers. Though in stature below 
what may be called a stalwart size, his early 
life of out-door labor gave him hardy devel- 
opment, and when 16 years of age he did a 
man's full work in nearly every branch of 
farm labor. His earnest attention to his 
studies at the district school marked him as 
one deserving further encouragement in 
pursuit of learning, and in the spring of 
1839, just as he had reached his majority, at 
the suggestion and aid of his uncle, 
Ora Cooley, he made his appearance at the 
Black River Institute, to begin a classical 




course, among that body of resolute young 
men wlio have since, in many ciinies on 
land and sea, in highest ofifice not less than 
as missionaries to spread to heathen lands 
the tidings of our blessed Lord, as well as 
in humbler walks, in work shops and in 
great factories — have everywhere shadowed 
forth the character that was within them, 
and have manifested by their useful lives 
the thoroughness and inestimable value of 
the training that noble school imparted. 
To pay his way young Ingalls taught school 
in winters — first at Perch Lake, then at 
Natural Bridge in Wilna, and in Rutland — 
then, after leaving the Institute, he taught 
the large and important Factory street 
school, where his efforts met with signal 
success, leaving a memory there that has 
been most grateful and is yet well pre- 
served. In 1845 he entered the law office 
of Lansing & Sherman, as a student, and 
from that ofKce he graduated as a member 
of the bar — having, while pursuing his law 
studies, held the position of town super- 
intendent of schools for two years. 

Having now become a full-fledged lawyer, 
the demands of that profession seemed 
hardly suited to his tastes. He saw among 
his fellow-members of the bar some who 
had been lawyers for scores of years, and 
yet had not materially advanced in social 
position or in worldly goods. He saw that 
the best practice was naturally given to the 
older men of the profession, and among 
these were several of marked ability and 
established fame. Besides all this, he dis- 
covered that his voice was too feminine and 
nasal for him to be ever counted an inipres- 
sive advocate before a jury, where distinc- 
tion as a lawer at that time was chiefly 
earned. To pass a whole life waiting for 
the professional standing which only came 
with age w as not a prospect that appeared 
very inviting to our young aspirant for 
prominence. Just at that time (1S49-50) 
the temperance question had become the 
most important and engrossing political 
question of the day, the Legislature having 
granted each town the right to vote 
"license" or " no license." The liquor in- 
terest had established the " Democratic 
Union,'" quite a readable newspaper, under 
the editorial management of Hon. Lysander 
H. Brown, whose reputation as a public 
speaker and writer of unusual ability was 
well established. To counteract this move 
on the part of the liquor interest, which was 
an important and aggressive factor m the 
politics of those days, and as it is yet, the 
temperance people advised the starting of 
another paper, and Jlr. Ingalls ^\as sug- 
gested and urged to liecome its editor. As 
is u.sual among these temperance politicians, 
they had plenty of advice to give, but did 
not manifest much liberality with their 
money, and the financial responsibility for 
the scheme they were prolific in extolling 
was left to him. who, though of excellent 
character and social standing, for every 

one admired his industry and integrity, had 
in possession at that time only about |200, 
saved from teaching, that might be called 
his own after paying his current expenses. 
On applying to Loveland Paddock, the rich 
banker, but with much internal doubt as to 
the success of his interview, young Ingalls 
was agreeably surprissed to find that capi- 
talist willing to discount his note for |500 
without an indorser: and with that meagre 
capital he started his "Reformer." He 
knew nothing about the details of a print- 
ing office, but this want he supplied by 
taking L. M. Stowell, a practical printer, as 
partner. U'hen the new temperance paper 
appeared it was found to be full of snap 
and ability. It literally "filled a long-felt 
want," for it had the newsy, fresh and inde- 
pendent way which in these later years has 
become more general. It said things, al- 
ways in a respectable way, that the older, 
plodding political organs did not care to 
meddle with. It was a paper that appealed 
to the better class of readers, who had be- 
come weary with editors that looked at all 
questions through the colored spectacles of 
party policy. The paper found its warmest 
welcome at the fireside, and was a success 
from the start. And so our ^oung disciple 
at the Institute, fresh from the farm, who 
was to become the industrious and conscien- 
tious teacher, then the successful graduate 
from a law office, at last found himself a 
newspaper editor, without ever intending 
to become such permanently: for he ex- 
pected after helping to get the reform papej- 
well a-going to part with his interest and 
return to his profession. But as we have 
heard him say, ' ' he never saw the oppor- 
tunity of getting his money back, and had 
to stay with it to save it." As he had mar- 
ried, in 1847, Miss ilarinda E. Murray, he 
could justly reflect that every step he had 
thus far taken from the Rodman farm 
experience to the graduation from a law 
office had been the very steps that would 
best evolve the mental discipline and hardy 
constitution that qualified him for the la- 
borious life of a country editor. Thus good 
men's lives are shaped almost without their 
understanding just how or when it was 

The two great reforms earnestly espoused 
by the "Reformer" were the temperance 
cause and a reform in the assessment laws. 
It was due to his advocacy and efforts that 
a Board of State Assessors was created. He 
had noticed that the county of Jefferson 
was assessed higher than the larger and 
wealthier county of Oneida. He "pointed 
out these and other discrepancies. He 
made out a, strong case and held it before 
the public mind till the Legislature saw it 
and applied the remedy he suggested, viz.: 
a Board of State Assessors. 

The circulation of his paper increased 
rapidly through these years, making it im- 
possible to print the edition on a hand press, 
and more money had to be put into the 



works for a power press and steam engine, 
so that by 185S the circulation of the "Re- 
former " had reached over 5,000 copies 
weekly. This was unprecedented in that 
localit}'. By this time excitement was run- 
ning iiigh on the slavery question, the 
" Reformer" taking the anti-slavery side, 
opposing the extension of slavery into the 
free territories of the Union. It became 
the main reliance for the vigorous promul- 
gation of that sentiment in Northern New 
York. Great events were at hand. The 
election of Lincoln, the secession of the 
South and the war of the rebellion followed 
in rapid succession. It was apparent that 
a daily paper was needed in this locality, 
and so the " Daily Times " was started, and 
has run a successful career to this day. 

We shall not laboriously follow Mr. In- 
galls through all the details of his news- 
paper life, which was eminently successful, 
and raised him year by year higher and yet 
higher in the confidence of his fellow- 
citizens, nor enlarge upon his public spirit, 
as manifested in the numerous fine dwell- 
ings he built in Watertown, nor his early 
connection witli and untiring labors for the 
promotion of the Carthage and Sacket's 
Harbor Railroad, now part of the great 
Vanderbilt system. His whole life has been 
one of activity, and thus far of deserved 
success. But there came a time when his 
generous attempts to aid an enterprising 
friend and patron of his job oSice had in- 
volved him in great pecuniary trouble. It 
is not our purpose to dwell upon the details 
of that part of his hopeful life; the end of 
it all was bankruptcy and the surrendering 
to the creditors of his friend all he had ac- 
cumulated by painstaking frugality and 
patient labor. He was even forced out of 
the newspaper which he had established 
and raised to an institution of great value 
for that locality, and in which he was for 
24 years the controlling influence and mo- 
tive power. Of the means by which he 
was thus deprived of that into which he had 
put his very soul and the maximum of his 
personal energy, it is not needful to speak 
here. None but those who have passed 
through such trials can understand how 
they sadden, and yet, in a certain way, 
strengthen a man's character, ilr. Ingalls 
was stricken a hard blow, but he had a re- 
cuperative force within him which pre- 
vented the blow from proving fatal. Shut 
out from his first-born, he purchased the 
Watertovs'n "Post," a weekly journal of a 
miscellaneous character, but he raised it, 
by his perseverance, industry and tact to 
become a fine property. Its influence, like 
that of his " Reformer," was a fireside and 
a home influence — one that made better 
men and women of the children wlio read 
it. Gradually he began to accumulate 
means again, and after some 18 years of 
renewed toil and saving he sold the 
"Post "to Mr. Chase, retiring from active 
newspaper work after he had been 43 years 

in the business, and had passed his 75th 
year, with means enough to keep the wolf 
from the door. 

To go back a few years to pick up a drop- 
ped stitch that ought not to be omitted, it 
is but just to say that while Mr. Ingalls 
never sought office, he was nominated and 
elected to the Assembly in 1875, taking his 
seat in that bodj' in 1876. While he had 
very important economic reforms in his 
mind, he saw in talking with his associates 
in that body, controlled by Husted and 
Fish, that there was no hope of any signifi- 
cant economic reforms at that session, but 
being chairman of the State Printing Com- 
mittee, he saved the State many thousands 
of dollars by applying the pruning knife to 
the extravagant requests of members and 

In the course of his 42 years of editorial 
life, Mr. Ingalls made three noteworthy 
journeys. He was chosen a delegate to 
visit the army in 1864 to gather the votes of 
the volunteers from Jefferson county at the 
Presidential election of that year. At 
which .time he visited Washington, went 
down the Potomac, to Fortress Monroe, up 
the James River to City Point, the Dutch 
Gap Canal, Hatches' Run, and the Shenan- 
doah Valley, the next day after Sheridan's 
heroic work there. Being recognized by 
many soldiers from this section, and pay 
day having just transpired, the boys in 
blue sent home by him several thousand 
dollars to their loved ones. 

In 1870 he visited California with Mrs. 
Ingalls, being absent from Watertown two 
months, taking in the famous Yosemite Val- 
ley, and other celebrated scenery of the 
Pacific coast. In all these journeys he 
wrote daily letters to his paper, which were 
very entertaining and instructive, and gave 
a marked impulse to its circulation. After 
this long journey he resumed his editorial 
work, materially refreshed and invigorated. 

I have presented this " object lesson " be- 
cause it is an important and an educating 
one. In it we see wliat modest talent, even 
without political influence, or the encourage- 
ment of wealth, can bring about when per- 
severance and correct living are added. 
One such example is v\'orth 20 volumes of 
theories. It is a living, und3-ing, impres- 
sive lesson that maj' be read by all. 

It may be thought by some that Mr. 
Ingalls possessed a passive rather than a 
positive character. That would be a great 
mistake; under his passive persuasive, calm 
manner he holds a world of positiveness 
and moral power. That has been the secret 
of his success, for by nature he had but few 
of the endowments that command the 
hearts of men. He had none of the advant- 
ages of birth, descent or fortune. It was 
not appointed that he should go to and be- 
come distinguished in the great war. As 
an orator he had but few accomplishments, 
and it was not his lot to have to do with 
those vast enterprises which, witliin the 



past 50 years, liave transformed the forces 
of nature itself. He could scarcely be 
called a "man of letters," nor had he ever 
been swayed from his path of duty by any 
thirst for adventure, nor was he ever a 
slave to any party's lash. And yet, in his 
own modest way, doing his life-work out- 

side of the accepted paths of power ot fame, 
he had been for 43 years one of Jefferson s 
most strenuous and powerful men, and 
has wrought his individual life into the 
very fibre of that county's history as no 
other editor has done. His example is an 
illustrious one, a good one to follow. 

J. A. H. 


-Ts- ^ 

In writing of the services of the 35th regi- 
ment I am conscious that I shall be charged 
with favoritism, for it was my own regi- 
ment, and I knew it as a man knows the 
members of his family — loving all of them, 
yet having his own idea as to which are the 
most promising. It should never be forgot- 
ten of this first regiment to go from the 
county, that it preceded the days of boun- 
ties; that the purest patriotism inspired the 
most of its members ; that some of the young 
men who went into the ranks as private sol- 
diers left fine positions and promising sur- 
roundings to become food for powder at |8 
per month. I have no doubt that many fair 
lives were blighted by the service these men 
patriotically gave to their country. Many 
sleep in that Southern land — ■ some in un- 
marked graves; some died in hospitals, and 
some returned with broken constitutions, to 
die years before their time. Probably not a 
man who served with that regiment, and 
who is living to-day, but can trace his rheu- 
matism or liver complaint or other ailment 

to marches in cold rains, sleeping on the wet 
ground after the fatigue of a full day's 
travel with gun and heavy knapsack. And 
yet there are men to be found in the North 
who think too much consideration is felt for 
the old soldiers! I would have every one of 
those go down into the South and see how 
the Confederate soldiers are revered in every 
hamlet, and welcomed at every fireside, and 
then compare vSouthern gratitude (which 
will often burst into tears when the hard- 
ships of their braves are spoken of) with the 
indifference the Union soldiers too often ex- 
perience from the public of to-day. 

I do not forget that there were other pa- 
triotic and able organizations that went into 
the field from Jefferson county, and all of 
them I honor and love, as every soldier hon- 
ors and loves bravery and estimable service, 
but it ought to be remembered that the 35th 
did its whole duty. It did not do all the 
fighting, nor does it claim all the honors of 
victory. But its early devotion, the high 
character of its rank and file, and its long 

service with small pay, must always be re- 
membered to its enduring credit. 

Feeling thus, I have made repeated efforts 
to proi;ure a historian from some one of the 
talented young men who served straight 
through with the 85th — commencing in the 
ranks as privates, and rising by soldierly 
ability to higher but not more honorable po- 
sitions. I have not been able to enlist such 
an one for this duty, and am constrained to 



take up the subject myself. I do this the 
more reluctantly because I was upon de- 
tailed duty for several months, and for that 
reason some of the movements of the regi- 
ment are known to me only from the de- 
scriptions of my comrades. Perhaps I can- 
not do better than give extracts from Col. 
Shaw's sketch of the services of the 35th, 
given at the first re union at Watertown, 
December 13, 1887, and interpolate such re- 
marks as I may think called for. 

[The muster-out roll of the regiment will 
be found at the end of this article, and it is 
believed to be correct.] 


I was among the first to enlist — ay outh 
in years — in Company " A " in Watertown, 
and tlie first to volunteer from the town of 
Cape Vincent, early in May, 1861. I had 
never seen an American soldier in uniform 
before I enlisted, and was not of age when 
our period of two j'ears' service expired. I 
carried a gun through every engagement 
the 35th participated in, and Company "A " 
never stacked arms without my rifle was 
among the number. 1 appear before you, 
therefore, as one of the " 35th boys," proud 
of the honor you have done nie in naming 
me as your president, and happy to look 
again into the faces of so many of our 
country's heroes in that life and death strug- 
gle for an undivided Union. 

I shall endeavor to sketch some of the 
more important incidents which marked our 
record as a regiment. 

First of all. we have the distinction of 
having been among the first to volunteer in 
our country's defense. The call of duty met 
a ready response, and the companies were 
quickly filled. The rendezvous at Elmira 
we all remember — the barracks, the com- 
pany drills, the company elections, the first 
great battle of " soup and beans," when our 
charge on the eating-rooms gave promise of 
what was to follow vi'hen we charged the 
rebels "way down south in Dixie." The 
weeks we spent in Elmira passed rapidly 
away, and when we embarked, a well-or- 
ganized regiment, for Washington, we were 
as happy a body of men as ever kept step to 
a soldierly drum-beat. One incident of 
that journey brings up grateful recollec- 
tions — the cordial greeting and abundant 
hospitality of the good people of Williams- 
port. What an enthusiatic outpouring of 
the patriotic citizens of that goodly town it 
was. that so bountifully supplied our hun- 
gry boys with refreshments, cheered us to 
the echo when we came and when we left, 
and kissed some of us to boot! What a ride, 
too, that was through the Keystone State! 
The burned bridges and wrecked cars we 
passed on nearing Baltimore were remind- 
ers of what we were soon to become famil- 
iar with, the waste and ruin of war. I 
never pass through Baltimore without viv- 
idly recollecting our march across that city 
from one railroad to the other. The 35th 

never looked better or marched with more 
precision than it did on that memorable day, 
Shaw, Evans, Enos, M. Converse, 1st file. 
The vindictive crowd that lined the streets 
along our course felt that to attack such a 
force would be madness. We marched over 
pavements that had been wet only a few 
days before with the blood of M.assachusetts 
heroes, and the spirit of revenge — so hu- 
man and so justifiable — burned in our 
hearts. With faces square to the front; and 
with perfect step, our regiment marched 
through that guilty city, clearing the path- 
way to the national capital of the last ves- 
tige of obstruction. 

The first night we spent in Washington, 
after marching past the capitol to sleep in 
a crowded hall beneath its very shadows, is 
no doubt well remembered. Then our camp 
on Meridian Hill, with its heat and dust and 
sanitary abominations, who does not recall 
it all? Aye, even to the old blackberry 
woman, whose quaint cry of "Same old 
blackberry woman — same old blackberi-ies 
— one cent cheaper," I feel confident has 
not entirely faded out of your memories. 

But freshest of all the recollections of our 
stay in Washington will be that of the day 
when we listened to the sounds of cannon 
at Bull Run. What anxious hours those 
were! It was a day of deep suspense and 
was followed by a still deeper gloom when 
we came to know that a great disaster had 
checked the advance and beaten back our 
army. We were momentarily expecting to 
be sent forward to the fray. Indeed, some 
of the ofiicers went on their own responsi- 
bility. But it seems that we were held in 
reserve. A wise precaution, as it after- 
wards proved. 

The good President Lincoln passed across 
the avenue near where some of us stood, on 
his way to the War Department, with weary 
step and bowed head, the picture of mental 
agony. Washington was in a panic, and 
for a few hours it lay stunned and paralyzed 
with the blow our defeat had brought. The 
returning stragglers, knee-high with reddish 
mud, without arms and utterly demoralized, 
added a disheartening touch to that picture 
of defeat. The wounded, following later, 
filled in the sad background, and the flag of 
our Union seemed for the moment to be 
drooping in peril. 

Comrades, it was your privilege and mine, 
in that dark period, to be ready to march to 
the front to defend our imperiled capital, 
and to stand across the pathway of treason. 
If we were not at the first gi-eat battle of 
the war, we were the first, after that battle 
to march southward over the Long Bridge 
to help restore order and insure safety to 
McDowell's demoralized army. We were 
encamped at Arlington Heights when a re- 
port came that the rebel ' ' Black Horse "' 
cavalry would attack us that night. The 
situation was deemed very critical, and vol- 
unteers for picket duty were called for. 
Privates Caleb Slocum and D. M. Evans 



stepped forward for the perilous duty. They 
were posted at a cross roads about a mile 
from camp and were not relieved till morn- 
ing. This was the first picket of the 35th on 
rebel ground. 

The forts about Arlington Heights knew 
us well. It was here that, on a bright 
morning, the welcome cry of " Sharpe's 
rifles" echoed through the camp. The 
longed-for new rifles had come, it was said, 
and a wild rush was made for the approach- 
ing teams. Alas! the Sharpe's rifles turned 
out to be not very "sharp "axes, and we 
found the grip and exercise with an axe on 
a hot day not at all essential to comfort or 
happiness. But the 3oth men were equal to 
every duty, and the trees quickly fell be- 
neath their sturdy blows. 

The winter at Taylor's Tavern, near Falls 
Church, Va., wore'rapidly away in a mix- 
ture of mud and snow that made it unneces- 
sary to black our shoes, or even go very far 
away from our tents to answer i-oU call. With 
dry roads in the spring of 1862, our march- 
ing days began again. That long and tr^'- 
ing march and counter-march ending in the 
Rapahannook Station engagement will not 
be forgotten. 

Our visit to Virginia's famous White Sul- 
phur Springs, afforded us a view of the place 
and a drink of the waters, but our reception 
was rendered very lively from the rebel ar- 
tillery on the heights beyond. I left the 
chief spring under the inspiring music of 
those shells, and have never seen it since, 
nor made better "quick time" from that 
daj' to this. Groveton came next, with that 
dreadful trap into which so many of our 
troops marched, and which we barely es- 

■the following night found us, as the sun 
went down, tired and foot-sore, about to 
break ranks for the day. "Attention ! " rang 
out on the keen night air like a bugle-blast. 
It is Colonel Lord's command. "Fix bay- 
onets ! " and a thrill runs through the alert 
regiment. "Charge bayonets! Charge!" 
followed in tones that stirred our blood, and 
the 35th with a cheer swept into that corn- 
field just in the nick of time to thwart a 
well-planned night attack on our unsuspi- 
cious artillery headquarters, and to save the 
line unbroken for the coming conflict. This 
charge was considered a brilliant military 
movement, and deserves a lasting place in 
the history of the hotly-contested battles of 
the second Bull Run. No regiment on that 
bloody field was steadier, or did nobler ser- 
vice. It marched in order from that hot- 
bed of hell, in the woods where the shells 
from friend and foe burst all about us; while 
other regiments wavered and lost their 
formations, ours was as perfect in its move- 
ments as when on drill. It was one of very 
few regiments that came in solid ranks from 
the front, while wildly-rusliing teamsters 
were working pell-mell to the rear. The 
long night marches as we slowly fell back 
towards Washington, in mud and rain, and 

with a broken army surging around us, are 
an ever-living memory. And the heavy 
rain and heavier firing at bloody Chantilly, 
where we just escaped the swath of death 
reaped from the edge of the thick woods to 
our left and rear, will also recall a stirring 
afternoon's duty. Then came the long 
march back over the Chain Bridge, past the 
White House and up Pennsylvania avenue, 
past the capital, round through Maryland, 
amid heat and dust, on through the peerless 
valley where Frederick nestles like a jewel 
set in beauty until the rugged steeps of 
South Mountain, bristling with rebel bay- 
onets, challenged our advance. 

Comrades, that sweep we made up South 
Mountain as skirmishers to develop the 
position of our foe, was a grand sight. The 
sputter of rifles, the gloom of the forest 
about us as we drew the enemy's fire, made 
up a picture no one present will ever forget. 
The 35th passed to the extreme right of the 
line, under a fire which filled the air with 
shot and shell, and fairly shook the earth 
beneath our feet. You will readily recall 
the night watch, as we held the right flank 
of McClellan's army, and then followed the 
great battle of Antietam on the 17th of Sep- 
tember. The first great northward march 
of the rebel army was this day to end right 
there, and in this sanguinary conflict the 
35th never wavered, but held to the line of 
duty, on the field receiving the enthiisiastic 
congratulations of General Sumner for our 
service. Our brigade saved the right wing 
of that army from being turned, and our 
regiment did its full share in the day's 
achievement. Disaster to our right wing 
would have opened a pathway for the rebels 
to roll our main force back in confusion, 
and a stampede might have brought a crush- 
ing disaster. When, in later years, I have 
studied the part our regiment played at this 
point, I can understand with what joy Gen- 
eral Patrick received Sumner's words of 
praise, for it was the turning point in this 
sanguinary battle. General Longstreet af- 
terwards told me that "had Sedgwick's 
routed lines carried the second line with it, 
Antietam would have been won and not lost 
to the Confederates." 

Upon this field the brave Capt. Harnett 
gave his young life to his countrj-, and here 
our ranks were thinned by death. But our 
year's work was not yet finished. The great 
conflict at Fredericksburg was yet to come, 
for the 35th also helped to write history in 
their blood upon that field. Hurrying across 
the river in time to hear the first rebel shell 
explode near us, the great scene of battle 
was begun. Again our record shines bright 
in the memory of a well-acted part in this 
unfortunate battle. We held our left flank 
while the main battle surged to the right, 
but the terrible cannonade we were so long 
exposed to with such perfect discipline 
taught our foe that we were not the men to 
hazard an infantry attack upon, and so we 
suffered mainly by the havoc of shells. 



Again we pass an idle winter, and when 
spring time came and the Hooker campaign 
opened, our place, owing to the near ap- 
proacli of the end of our term of service, 
was guarding our line of communication 
with our base of supplies. But this, too, 
was a post of honor and responsibility. 
Chancellorsville ended this campaign in de- 
feat, and late in May our good regiment 
took up its line of march homeward. We 
had won a right to feel happy at the hope 
of seeing our loved ones, and resting beyond 
the fire and the fever of battle. (See article 
upon Chancellorsville.) 

The few days spent at the old rendezvous 
at Elmira were frolicsome ones — a shuffling 
off of a soldier's uniform for citizens' cloth- 
ing. Our work was ended. The 35th had 
made its record. Its deeds were a notable 
part of the history of the first two years of 
the great rebellion. At sunset on the 5th 
day of June, 1863, it lived only in history. 
Officers and privates stood upon one plane 
— equal as citizens of a common heritage; 
worthy veterans in the noblest cause for 
which men ever took up arms. 

Col. Sliaw closed his remarks by reading 
these golden words of the great President 
Lincoln; "Our popular government has 
often been called an experiment. Two 
points in it the people have settled— the 
successful administration of it. One still 
remains — its successful maintenance against 
a formidable attempt to overthrow it. It is 
now for them to demonstrate to the world 
that those who can fairly carry an election 
can also suppress a x'ebellioii; that ballots 
are the rightful successors of bullets, and 
that when ballots have fairly and constitu- 
tionally decided, there can be no successful 
appeal back to bullets; that there can be no 
successful appeal except to ballots them- 
selves at a succeeding election. Such will 
be a great lesson of peace, teaching men 
that what they cannot take by an election 
neither can they take by war; teaching all 
the folly of being the beginners of war." 


Among the 100 companies rendezvoused 
at Elmira in the spring of 1861. were 10 
from various parts of the State which were 
organized into a regiment on the 24th day 
of May, and designated as the Thirty-fifth 
regiment of New York Volunteers. They 
included six companies from Jefferson 
county — Companies A, C, E, G, I and K; 
one from Lewis county — Company B; one 
from Erie county — Company D; one from 
Steuben county — Company F, and one from 
Madison county — Company H. Tlie field 
officers upon the organization, were Wm. 
C. Brown, of Watertown, colonel; Stephen 
L. Potter, lieutenant colonel, and Newton B. 
Lord, major. The regiment was mustered 
into the U. S. service about a month after 
its M'ganization and was sent directly to the 
front — wliere it was almost uninterruptedly 

kept, as was indeed the case with many of 
the two-year regiments — it appearing to be 
the policy of the government to use these 
organizations for the most serious work — a 
part they cheerfully and constantly bore. 
There were several two-j-ear New York 
regiments in the front rank of the last as- 
sault upon Marye's Heights at Fredericks- 
burg whose term of service had expired 
more than a month before that bloody en- 
counter, and I name the 16th New York in 
particular as one of these, it having lost 
many men in that battle. 

The 35th was composed of an exception- 
ally fine body of young men. It had in the 
ranks men who had been prominent as edi- 
tors, lawyers, school teachers, artisans, me- 
chanics and manufacturers. Among such 
a collection it was natural that there should 
have been some wire-pulling and a spirited 
rivalry for the offices. At first there were 
several incompetent men put in command 
of companies by the votes of the privates, 
but after a fair trial those wlio proved in- 
competent were displaced by abler oificers 
— nearly all the changes in company com- 
manders, after the first weeding out, having 
been by seniority. There were many 
changes, however, among the field and 
staff, which were not made by this usual 
method of rotation, as was illustrated in the 
case of Col. David M. Evans, who enlisted 
as private in Co. A, was promoted to orderly 
sergeant in Co. I, afterwards made adju- 
tant with rank of 1st lieutenant, then major, 
then lieutenant-colonel. When mustered 
out of the 35th he accepted the position of 
adjutant — the only officer put in commission 
before a regiment is made up — for the pur- 
pose of organizing the 20th N. Y. Cavalry. 
By a compact made with Col. Lord on his 
resignation from the 35th, the latter was to 
be colonel of the new regiment, while Col. 
Evans accepted the place of lieutenant-col- 
onel, and afterwards became colonel. With 
this rank he led the 20th Cavalry into Rich- 
mond and placed the first Union fiag on the 
rebel capitol with his own hands. He was 
appointed provost marshal of the city with 
his office in the Confederate senate chamber. 
His signature is scattered all over the south 
on paroles and oaths of allegiance. This is 
mentioned here merely to show the quality 
of the men who were in the ranks of those 
first organizations. 

William C. Brown, the first colonel, had 
been an officer in the old army and came 
home invalided from the Florida war. But, 
though he was a worthy gentleman, and 
held a good social position in Watertown, 
he was not a natural leader of men, and 
stood but a poor chance of becoming a suc- 
cessful commander. Some of the pusliing 
and energetic men in the regiment wanted 
his place, and when stationed at Arlington 
Heights, Lieutenant-colonel Newton B. Lord 
was made colonel, Bradley Winslow, lieu- 
tenant colonel, and John G. Todd, major. 
Colonel Lord proved much more acceptable 



than his predecessor, but he had some oppo- 
sition to wrestle with. A regiment may be 
compared (as stated at the beginning) to a 
large family of boys — among them will 
generally be found one who is superior to 
the others, and when all the other brothers 
turn in and try to " boost " this favored one, 
his rise will be quite certain, for other fami- 
lies will notice this marked preference, and 
will be likely to add their own support; and 
so, when the time comes for any under- 
taking demanding superior attainments, 
there is usually a call for this son who se- 
cured his own family's support to begin 

Colonel Lord, I regret to say, did not ap- 
pear to enjoy this perfect confidence in his 
large regimental family, nor of his superior 
officers, and that was bad for the organiza- 
tion, for if he had been more highly es- 
teemed by his superiors his command would 
have been more frequently singled out (as 
its valor and high abilities were well known), 
for important work when such work was to 
be done. He was unfortunate, too, before 
the regiment had been in a serious engage- 
ment, in having declined to obey an order 
from the patient and beloved Wadsworth, 
our brigadier. While he was undoubtedly 
defiirous of doing all in his power for his 
men as a military officer, his manner with 
strangers was at times unpleasant, and his 
regiment, which he loved and was anxious 
to serve, and they loved him, suffered for 
it. Influences, too, were at work similar to 
those in his own opposition to Col. Brown, 
and this became so pronounced that Col. 
Lord resigned in 1863. He afterwards 
helped to organize the 20th cavalry, but 
was succeeded in that command by Col. 

When Col. Lord resigned, the marching 
and fighting days of the 35th regiment were 
over. Thenceforth it was a part of Gen. 
Patrick's provost guard — its main duties 
being to patrol the railroad which extended 
from Falmouth to Aquia Creek and running 
the trains upon that important road, which 
furnished the supplies to all the troops in 
and around Fredericksburg. 

Our first brigade commander was that 
distinguished officer and enthusiastically 
adored gentleman, Gen. James S. Wads- 
worth. [See a remai-kable instance of his 
bravery m the article upon " Chancellors- 
ville."] Every soldier in his brigade knew 
him, and it is not too much to say that every 
man among them would have died in the 
line of duty to save Gen. Wadsworth 's life. 
His popularity was something wonderful, 
reminding one of the ardent love grand- 
children sometimes bestow upon favored 
and affectionate grandparents.* 

* The following incident will illustrate how kind and 
noblehearted General Wadsworth was: During the 
winter of 1863, the 36th N. Y. Vols, were in quarters 
at Taylor's Tavern, near Falls Church, Va. The 
men made themselves as comfortable as possible by 
providing such winter quarters as their skill and re- 
sources admitted. Four boys in Co. "A" got together 

Gen. Massena R. Patrick was our next 
brigadier — a man as different from Gen. 
Wadsworth as daj'light differs from dark- 
ness. He seemed to move among his com- 
mand as if he had no feeling of human 
sympathy, nor cared for its existence in any 
one else. He was a soldier and an able disci- 
plinarian, and that was all that could be 
said in his favor. His origin was very hum- 
ble — he having been in his youth a " back 
piecer" in the old Jeffersoi; Cotton Mill at 
Watertown when it first started. He was a 
graduate from West Point, and was with 
Gen. Scott in Mexico, being the first and 
only provost marshal of the Mexican capi- 
tal. I doubt if there was a single private 
soldier in his brigade who cared for him 
save as one to be avoided, or if encountered, 
to be got away froru as soon as possible. 
Gruff and grudging, he passed along through 

boards enough to make a base for their small A tents 
to cover, and so providing a very compact little 
house — 7 by 6 in size. General Wadsworth came on a 
tour of inspection one day and halting his horse be- 
fore this comfortable composite tent, called the 
attention of his staff to the comfort of the place. To 
oneof the occupants who stood beside it, the General 
asked: " Do you need anything more to make you 
perfectly happy?" "Yes," was the reply, "nails 
and a furlough home." "Well." said the General, 
with a laugh, "come to headquarters fur nails, but 
you will have to trust in providence to get a fur- 

The next day the one addressed by the General pre- 
sented himself at headquarters on Upton's Hill, and 
made inquiries for the commanding officer " What 
do you want? " was the greeting from the aid-de- 
camp. "Somenails," was theanswer. "Oh,uails," 
said the aide, while several officers ranged about the 
room looked up — " Well you can find them in Alex- 
andria or Washington, I think. You had better go 
and find them at one of those places." The private 
informed the officer that he wished to see General 
Wadsworth, and that he did not come to be made tun 
of— and at that moment, while the officers were mak- 
ing merry over the request, the General walked into 
the room. Seeing that something was going on, he 
asked. "What do you want?" "Nails," was the re- 
ply. " Oh, yes," said the General. "I remember see- 
ing you yesterday at the fine tent you have fitted up 
in the 35th. Come with ine and we will find some 
nails." Private and General went out together, to 
the great surprise of the young bloods who had at- 
tempted to "guy" the inquirer, and calling his son 
Craig, after a long search the nails were found and 
given to the private soldier. That private was Albert 
D. Shaw, since widely liuown in public life. 

Before the 8.5th had encountered the enemy in 
force, many unimportant but stirring episodes occur- 
red, and relieved the tedium of drill and routine 

In October, 1868, while they were encamped near 
Falls Church, Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel Winslow, 
in command of a scouting- party, which had pene- 
trated to the rear of the rebel outposts, surprised a 
reserved picket-post, and captured, up a tree. Lieu- 
tenant H. J. Siegel, of Stuart's cavalry. This inci- 
dent was commemorated in Frank Leslie's Illustrated 
newspaper, under date of October 36, 1861. A few 
weeks later, while in command of another scouting- 
party. General Winslow surprised another picket-post 
near the same place. A rebel horseman, disobeying 
the order to surrender, was wounded, and his horse 
killed. So near did the party penetrate to Fairfax 
that they distinctly heard the "long roll" beaten at 
that place, where a large force was stationed. These 
incidents of the soldier's life have been alluded to be- 
cause in the breasts of the battle-scarred veterans who 
still survive, and who once in a while meet in civil 
life to talk over the martial exploits in which they 
participated, they will revive pleasant memories of 
those heroic days. 



the war, unpopular with his superiors, loved 
by no one, and mourned but by few at his 
death. He was an extraordinary exception 
to the regular army officers I encountered 
during the war. Indeed, excepting him, I 
cannot recall a single West Point graduate 
whom I met in the Union army who was 
not a sincere and courteous gentleman, full 
of sympathy for the private soldiers, and 
untiring in efforts for their benefit. It is a 
pleasure to recall their names and memories, 
for they left an impi-ession that remains 
sweet and grateful. 

As I have said, at the time when Col. 
Lord left us, the fighting and marching 
were over for the 35th. It remained a part 
of the provost guard of the Army of the 
Potomac until its time came for muster-out. 
When we marched through Washington on 
our way to take the cars for home, we were 
a magnificent regiment, both in size and 
discipline — larger, indeed, than some of the 
regiments that were headed the other way, 
for the 35th had been constantly recruited, 
and as men w^ere killed or disabled, or went 
into hospitals, they were replaced by new 
. men, and the ranks kept full. Capt. Had- 
dock alone recruited over 300 men for the 
35th. It was a glorious regiment, full of 
intelligence and ability — a fighting regi- 
ment, ready always to do its work. 

J. A. H. 


John G. Todd, colonel: David M. Evans, It. colonel; 
Sidney J. Mendell, major; DeWitt Van Slyke, sur- 
geon; Benj. F. Goodrich, aast. sur.; Samuel L. Mer- 
rill, chaplain; Henry P. Taylor, adjutant; Alexander 
Hull, Q. iM.; William H. Gaige, sergt. maj. ; William 
F. Ryther, Q. M. serp:t.; George C. Smithe, com. 
sergt.; Lorenzo B. Lawrence, hosp. atew 

Discharged— William 0. Brown, colonel ; Newton 

B. Lord, colonel ; Stephen L Potter, It. colonel; 
Bradley Winslow, It. colonel ; James B. Carpenter, 
asst surg.; James B. Wells, sergt. major. 

Transferred— LaFayette Lyttle, Adjutant; Seth 
French, asst. surg. ; William W. Beckwith, sergt. 
maj ; Nathan N. Lord, cora. sergt ; Dempster Doane, 
com. sergt. ; George W. Wright, Q. M. Sergt. 

Co. A. 

Bradley Winslow, captain ; Henry C. Chittenden, 
captain; Jesse T. Reynolds. 1st lieut.; Lathario D. 
Morgan, 2d lieut.; Seth A. Coolidge. 3d lieut; Enos, 
William W., 1st sergt.; Wait, Eben L., 2d sergt.; 
Van Vleck, George, 3d sergt.; McOmber, George. 4th 
sergt.; Greenleaf, Louis C, 5th sergt.; Smith, William 
S., 1st corporal; Converse, Milton, 2d corporal; Shaw, 
Albert D., .Sd corporal; Ward, John, 4th corporal; 
Hamlin, James M., 5th corporal; Christian. Henry 
L., 6th corporal; McOmber, Frederick, 7th corporal; 
Warham, Kichard L., 8th corporal; Woodford, Chas. 
W., musician; Allen, Ethan, Allen, Charles F., Auburn, 
Dahley H., Arnold. Robert. Avery, Lewis H.. Bock- 
meyer, Henry, Baker, Seymour Z.. Baker, Benoni, 
Betts, William H . Clark, Frank W., froan. Warren, 
Clarence, Alfred S., Churchill. John A., Churchill, 
Cyrus, Cady, Aaron C , Comaford, Patrick!)., Dodge, 
Webster, Dresser, Geoi-ge F,, Forbes, Nathaniel W., 
Gardner, Sherman, Gardner. Schuyler, Hart, Row- 
land G., Hamilton, Robert, Henry, Lorenzo D., Hol- 
kias, William, Lawton, George, Madden, James, 
Mellott, George, Mundie, Frederick, McOmber, Theo- 
dore, Matthews, James B., Matthews, Eugene, 
Magan, Samuel, Moutney. Charles, Martin, John, 
Nolan, Thomas Z., Peck, Horace W., Plumb, Hiram 

C, Smith, William N., Sellick, Henry. Steadman, 
John D., Tucker, Arthur H., Tucker. Alfred, Thomp- 
son, GustavusS., Vallet, Edward, VanAmber, Isaac 

B, Ward, Edwin T., Wilson, James E., Wiswa, 
Henry, Winchester, Merrit, Winchester, George, 
Wait, Alexander. 

DisHAROED— Curamlngs, Patrick, Classen, Charles, 
Potter, Cleaveland H., Mohan, Phillip. Churchill, 
Hiram. Ballard, Samuel, Poor, Asa C, Sperry, Mer- 
rit, Richardson, James H., Mix, Lyman, Parker, 
John, Myers, John A., Putnam, Christopher, King, 
Charles E., Fisher, Hiram, Hall, James W., Brown, 
Clinton F., Middleton, William H.. Clark, George P., 
Babcock, Haulsey, Scott, Daniel H., Marsh, Geo. P. 

Transferred -Evans, David M., VamAmber, 
Frederick, Phelps, William E., Wells, James B., 
Gaige, William A., Slocum, Caleb. Parks, William B., 
Babcock, Charles C, Boyden, Samuel, Denham, Al- 
vin, Hanlin, Dewitt C. , Mix, bimonC., Taylor, Alfred 
Z., Taylor, Albert P 

Died— Stetson, Nathan W., Bates, Henry C. , Spicer, 
George, Lowe, Stephen, Cutler, Francis B., Flemmg, 

Co. B. 

William N. Angle, captain; Charles F. Smith, cap- 
tain; John O'Hara, 1st lieut.; Michael Kirby, 2d lieut.; 
Charles S. Hunger, 2d lieut. ; Joseph C. Otis, 2d lieut. ; 
Lewis F. Weaver, 1st sergt. ; Joseph D. Bunce, ser- 
geant; David M, Mount, sergeant; Roland Hough- 
ton, Jr., sergeant; John D. Thompson, sergeant; 
Thomas J. Markey, corporal; Joel H. Church, cor- 
poral; Julius Gates, corporal ; Oscar D. Miller, cor- 
poral; George P. Chamberlain, corporal; Charles E. 
Clark, corporal; George R. Wetmore, corporal; James 
Bowdridge, corporal; Francis L.Ramsdell, musician; 
Austin, Leonard, Arnold, James, Allen, Henry, Al- 
len, Harvey, Barker, Edwin C, Buchanan, James, 
Buchanan, Alexander, Billings, Franklin M., Barnes, 
F.» Cameron, Thomas P , Casey, Henry, Coon, AL 
mar G , Duff, Charles C, Dunaway, Elbridge R., 
Draper, Charles, Foley, William H., Foster, Andrew 
G.. Florida, Milton, Gregg, Daniel, Hill, Sheldon W,, 
Hovey, Levi, Hart, Peter, Haberer, Henry, Has- 
kins, Henry A., Hunt, Horace S., Hubbard, Levi C, 
Ingalls, Richard, Kinsley, James, Lane, Edwin D., 
Lane, Francis, Lampman, Thomas N., LaDue, Alex- 
ander, Lawrence, Judah M., Matthews, Pitt, Mc- 
Sorley, James, McLaughlin, William Moore, John, 
H., Osborne, Andrew J., Post, Jacob A., Potter, 
Emory, Rape, Anthony, Ryder, Dallas, Smith, 
Newell, Searles, Duane, Spires, Thomas, Simons, 
Henry, Segovis, George, Vaughn, Maurice, White, 
John, West. Matthew E , Willis, Edgar, Willard, 
William B., AVeaver, Lawrence 'J\ 

Discharged — Alger, Isaac, Bossout, Peter R , 
Buchanan, John, Bushnell, WiUiam, Barker, John 
W., Cottrell, William H . Chipman. Oscar, Camp- 
bell, Christopher, Coon, William H , Enos. James H., 
Farr, Vincent L.. Fell, Luman H., Gabrian, Isaac, 
Gordon, James W., Hunt, Dewitt C, Knowles, 
Hiram, McNally, James J., Mallory, Franklin B., 
Mount, Wilson. Raymond, John H., Robertson, 
Charles C, Smith, George W., Stanton, George D., 
Thompson, Chester, Wallace, Ralph, Weeks, Oscar, 
Wheeler, Edward, Peck, George J , Potter, Wil- 
liam H. 

Transferred— Josiah Hoover. Silas C. Carpenter, 
George D. Stanton, George W. Duyke, James W. 
Beecher, Daniel Meader, Edward W. Rounds, John 
J. Noteman. 

Died— John M. Lawrence, William LaDen, AVilliam 
G. Austin, Thomas AVenban, Richard W. Billings, 
Orsamus Ponto, Nathan Klock. 

Dropped— James Copsleman. 

Co. C. 

George W Flower, captain; Albert A. Pitcher, cap- 
tain ; John Cudworth, 1st lieut.; George AA'. Wright, 
2d lieut.; Ira J. Folts, 1st sergt.; Delos Staplin, 
sergeant; Frederick Slicker, sergeant ; John Robb, 
(1st) sergeant; George Monroe, sergeant; Hollan N. 
D. Parker, corporal; John Robb. f2d) corporal; Al- 
bert Jackson, corporal; Josiah H. Albertson, cor- 
poral; August Myers, corporal; Charles Dougherty, 
corporal; John B. McDonald, corporal; Austin, Ed- 
ward, Barbury, Peter, Brittan, Harlan P., Brown, 
Matthew W., Canfield, Harrison, Cummings, Richard 
L., Christman, George, Cuppernall, Martin L., Cline, 
James, Call. Franklin, Calhoun, John C., Doolittle, 
Jasper, Denar, Robert, Elliott, Edwin, Fairbanks, 
George, Hogan, William, Hampson, Henry, Hath- 
away, Jesse B., Jacobs, Orrin, Johns, James. Knaws- 
man, Charles, Kooder, John G., Luther, John C, 



Laguire, Peter. Lang, Roger, McAllister, Oliver E , 
Monier, John, Moore, William J., Peterson, William, 
Phillips, James, Pierce, Joseph, Pierce, Ephraim, 
Putnam, George L., Richards, Mahlan F., Robinson, 
John, Skeggs, Thomas W , Smith, Franklin, Staplin, 
Wilson D., Simmonds. Lafayette M., Simonds, James, 
Shaw, Thomas, Sprague, John, Swan, Franklin, 
Tovey, David. Tooley, Lewis R., Tascott, Henry, 
Van Dusen, William H. , Welch. George H. , Waters, 
Elon, Woodward, .JamesD., Willard, Martin L. 

Discharged— Allinger, Frederick, Bedell, Benson, 
Beardsley, John, Ballard, Lyman, Bailey, George, 
Chaumont, George, Cuppernall, John, Clark, James, 
Davis. James, Fairbanks, Jatnes, Finney, Lewis, 
Frayell, Alpheus, Hall, John, Hioks, William, Hicks, 
Ezra, Howard, John, Hindy, John, Neil, George, 
Norton, John, Peck, George, Patton, James, Pierce, 
Henry B., Ripley, Daniel A., Eagan, James, Randall, 
Nelson, Simons, Duane, Stewart. Abner C, Trade, 
Solomon. Trumbull, Charles, .McMuUin, Richard K., 
Van Auden, George. 

Transferred— Balf, Thomas, Colton, Enoch, Cran- 
ker, John P., Cheney, David, Fisher, Stephen, Moran, 
Minor, Norfolk. Samuel, Ryther, William F., Rey- 
nolds, John, Williams, Reuben, Waite, Jefferson, 
Greene, Ransom H. 

Died — Austin, David, Austin, Horace, Bacon, 
Stephen, Barcus, George, Barnett, Andrew, Cecle- 
lotte, Peter, Green, Alonzo, Herrick, Reuben, Jolly, 
John, Kenyon, Benjamin, Lane, Wellington, Neif, 
William, Randall, John, Randall, Artemus, Seeber, 
George S , Spaulding, Levi S., Springer, Charles, 
Torley, Alvah. 

Co. D. 

0. E. Zimmerman, captain; John E. Pollard, 1st 
lieut. ; Dempster Doane, 2d lieut. ; Linus Z. Mills, 
Istsergt.; John Powers, 2d sergt.; Robert Leighton, 
3d sergt.; Ebenezer W. Greatsinger, 4th sergt.; 
John W. Burton, 6th sergt. ; Thomas Scales, corporal; 
Nathaniel G. Searles, corporal; Orson F. Riley, cor- 
poral; Charles Lacken, corporal; Charles Taylor, 
musician, Warren Taylor, musician; Asworth, John, 
Beaver, William, Bathgate, Milliam, Bowers, George, 
Beale, John, Benjamin, John H., Butterfield, JuUus 
F., Chadwick, John, Cassidy, John E., Diton, James 
A., Dillaine, Henry, Dennison, Theodore, Eselstine, 
Benjamin C, Fenner, Andrew J., Fisher, Ezekiel, 
Gorsline, Gilbert O.. Henry, William, Keel, William, 
Latour, Edmund, Lawton, Dorr, Lamphier, John, 
Miller, William, Morrow, John, Morse, Gfeorge, 
Mahany, Jerry, O'Brien, John, O'Donald, Sandy, 
Pflum, Gustave, Provost, James P., Jr., Ramp, John, 
Rosenblatt, Joseph D., Rankins, Joseph, Reese, 
Samuel W., Russell, John Scales, Joseph, Schutz, 
Herman, Smith, William, Shoemaker, Abram, Sisson, 
John O , Stiles, George, Steeiison, John, Sherman, 
John M., Trainer, Patrick, Thoman, Alexander, 
Toner, James, Taylor, George R., Vosburgh, Stephen 
H , Van Allen, John, Walthea, George, Warren, 

Resigned— Alex. Warren Smith, captain; JohnR. 
Prince, 1st lieut. : James G. Howell, 2d lieut. 

Discharged— Bradley, Mark E., Baker, Joseph E., 
Colton, James T , Clark, Louis, Coon, John, Ebner, 
John. Ebner, August, Carter, Hubbard E., Parrell, 
Michael, Jolly, Enoch. Linn, John, Miher, Dennis W., 
Osborn, Nathan, Phillips, William, Reynolds, Mart, 
Smith, Silas J., Walter, John C. , Wheeler, Addison, 
Measury, Joel. 

Tbanspbrbed— Boxer, Jacob, Hughes, Charles E 

Promoted— Taylor, H. P., Pollard, John E., Doane, 

Died— Negus, George E., Geirer, Fred, Merritt, 
Richard, Greenwood, W. T., Bann, Charles. 

Co. E. 

John A. Haddock, captain ; John Budlong, 1st lieut ■ 
James H. Crammer, 3d lieut.; Samuel Haddock' 
armorer; Miner Moran, 1st sergt.; Henry Baird ad 
sergt.; Gustave Porst, 8d sergt.; James Cannon '4th 
sergt.; Thomas Farrell, 5th sergt.; William Lane, 1st 
corporal; Benjamin LaRocque, ad corporal; George 
Doty, 3d corporal; Edward Mair, 4th corporal- George 
Gardner, 6tn corporal; Bliss, John, Bowman Wil- 
liam, Bowman, Joseph, Burnett, Joseph, Browne 
John, Balf, Thomas, Barron, Dennis, Corr, John' 
Cushman, Adolphus, Cannon, Henry, Connelly Patl 
rick, Cauineld, Patrick, Danahay. Daniel, Deno, An- 
drew, Flynn, Patrick, Flynn, John, Flynn, Michael, 

Griffin, Edward, Gale, Henry, Gardner, Isaac, Gea- 
ron, Daniel, Hughes, John, Jrvin, William, Kelly, 
Patrick, Lennox-, Edwai-d, LaHin, Edmund G., Mc- 
Dowell, William, Marks, Frank, Mullin, Charles, Mar- 
tin, Francis, Marion, Lewis, Neville. Henry, Priddell, 
Stephen, Reed, Thomas, Shaw, William, Shen, Wil- 
liam, Weeks, James, Anthony, James, Joseph Allen, 
Vincent Barber, Burnett B. Bagle.y, George Boudiett, 
Ezra Cornwell, Norman Cramer, William Carpenter, 
Alexander McNaughton, Charles Boyne . 

Discharged— John Lacey, captain; Henry D. Rich, 
captain; Edwin Bingham, 1st Lieut.; George T. 
Morej', 1st Lieut.; Calvin Barber, Alfred G. Broome, 
Alexander Arthur, John K. Ellis, Agan, Patrick, 
Blair, Joseph, Barclay, Eobei-t, Boudiett, Samuel, 
Burns, James, Finch, Samuel. Johnston, William, 
Moore, William A,. Murphy, William, Newman, John, 
Neville, George W. , Pearson, William, Reed, John, 
Roach, Peter, Ryan, Thomas, Simmons, William, 
Smith, Richard, Smith, James, Williams, Benjamin. 

Transferred — Kendrick, Albert, Elder, Robert, 
Marshall, Lewis, McBride, Henry, Rice, John, Tur- 
ner, Joseph, Cassidy, John. Cotton, William. 

Died — Boylan, Anthony, Christman, Silas, Coen, 
Martin, Davenport, William, Gleason, Thomas, Hes- 
lop, Cuthbert. Hazer, Frederick, Lynch, Alexander, 
Meyer, WiUiam, Miller, Frank, Pratt, Gustavus, 
Reed, Duane, Tifft, Linus. 

Co. F. 

L. B. Shattuck, captain; N. N. Lord, 1st lieut.; 
Albert Kendrick, 2d lieut.: Merrett, James C, 1st 
sergt.; St. John, William H., 2d sergt.; McDowell, 
William H., 3d sergt.;- Garrison, Reuben M., 4th 
sergt.; Wilcox, Charles, 5th sergt.; Walder, John, 1st 
corporal; Morey, Victor, 2d corporal; Everett, James 
H., 3d corporal; Lovell, Carlton H., 4th corporal; 
Curtiss, Guy W., 5th corporal; Greaves, John, 6th 
corporal; Spike, Oliver P., 7th corporal; Hill, Moses 
B., 8th corporal; Ames, Phineas, Babcock, John H., 
Bailey, John M., Brown, John, Beebe, Giles R., 
Burmster, Gotfried, Brownell, George E., Brooks 
John, Burrows, Charles H.. Rriggs, Martin, Briggs, 
Joseph F., Cunningham, George, Cook, Jonathan, 
Cole, Martin, Colton, Enoch. Colton, Harvey V 
Cobb, James E., Cranker, John P., Chapman. Henry, 
Draper, Frank M., Eply, Franklin, Foley, Peter J. 
Field, Joel A., Frazier, Geoge, Gill. John, George 
Irving, Graves, Dexter, Hirr, Benjamin, Hughes, 
Charles E., Hastings, Nelson, Lane, James, Mclntyre, 
Newton, Morse. Joseph, Miller, George, Morehouse, 
Ira H., Parker. John O., Ryan, John, Robinson, 
Ebenezer M., Rice, Peter, Stevens, Ira, Snyder, 
John, Stanton, Beverly, M., Sherman, Benjamin 
Tompkins. John W., Truax, Albert, Taylor, Ebene- 
zer O., Uphass, John, Van Dusen, Charles H 
Wright, Amos. 

Resigned— G«orge W. El well, captain; L. A. Davis. 
2d lieut. ' 

MusTBRED-ODT — Richard R. McMullin, 1st lieut.; 
Timothy Eagen, 2d lieut. 
Teansfeerbd— Caleb Slocum, 2d lieut 
DiscHARGED-Brown, Gaylord, Geer, James, Gas- 
by, Oswold, Snell, John G., Casey, James. Williams, 
Reuben S., Mclntyre, Daniel, Smith, James E., 
Cheney, David Tompkins, Nathaniel, Pike, Lemue 
W. Lucus, William B., Blaokman, Samuel H., Dunn, 
Daniel, Beebe, Albert E., Saulsbury, Alexander Bur-^ 
gis, Hiram. ' 

TKANSFKEEED-Prioe, James B., Franegell, Alpheus, 
Calgreghan, John. = . r , 

.*!?''^?r^'"?<*°'P''' George, Fisher, James L., Field. 
w!l^-w'''i^'+.'^°^J ^ Knapp, Myron, Wheeler 
Hiram, Ward, Dennis. Welden, Charles L.. Laidlow 
James, Carmer, William L. 

Co. G. 

r.^'u'i?^''^''' captain; Sidney J. Mendell, captain; 
Caleb Slocum 1st heut.; Graham Dukehart, 2(i 
heut. ; John Budlong, ad lieut.; Cary. William W., 
i»vJf' :^n' ^,°'^?.' J''™'^^. ?d sergt. ; Ripley, Josiah, 3d 
sergt.; Banks, George, 4th sergt.; Parham, John J., 
6th sergt.; Harrington, Myron J., 1st corporal; Hall 
inn-' -d corporal; Thayer, Walter P., 3d corpo- 
ral; Collins, John B., 4th corporal; Algate, John, 
B., Banks^ Lewis D., Baldwin, James A., Bauder, 
George, Barber George, Cummings, Allen, Carter, 
James, Cooper, James A , Cummings, Alonzo, Dixon 
John, Davenport, Edwin, Erskin. William, Earl' 
Alonzo, Eighmay, George H., Fisher, Robert, Fluro' 



David H., Goddard, Josiah L., Green, John H., Gilsoni 
Alden, Harrington, Brainard B., Horr, Otis L., Ham- 
mond, Alverso, Hyde, Edwin, Hodge, Dempster G., 
Hodge, James H., Hart. Judson C, Jones, William 
C, Kelley, William, Kellogp;, Harvey A , Kenyon, 
Thomas M., Kellogg, Eli, Lovebt, Thomas, Lilven, 
Patrick, Ladd, Byron P., Lair, Jerome B., Loomis, 
George, Myers, John, Miner, James, Horr, Dudley 
G., Norton, George, Nutting, Milo A., Nutting, Albert 
C., Price, Austin H., Price. James M., Palmer, Chil- 
lingsworth, Rogers, Alfred. Randall, William, Robin- 
son, Josiah N., Rogers, Niles V., Salisbury, Willard 
B., Storrs, George, Tubtle, Charles, Van Buren, Joha 
A , Wilcox, Miles S., Wright, Harvey C, Wheeler, 
Allen A.. Williams, Stephen, Wilson, James, Wil- 
liams, George W., Waldron, Joseph, Wakefield, Wm. 

Promoted— Sidney J. Meudell, captain; John Bud. 
long, 2d lieut. 

Discharged — Budlong, Caleb, Freeman, Joseph 
Inglehart, Byron, Draper, LeCompton, Robinson, 
Peter, Ripley, Horr Z , Reynolds, George, Lane, 
Horace S.. North, Edwin. Staplin, Andrew J., Liskun, 
Willaby Faulkner, John E., Price, Abram, Nuttiug, 
Edwin. Looker, John R.. Hubbard, George C, Hub- 
bard. Ezra H.. Brown, George. M. D., Burdick, Elias 
J., Bissell, William B,, Yockel, Adam, Nichols, War- 
ren, Stewart, John A., North, Edgar. 

Transferred — Keats, John H., Spaulsbury, Alexan- 
der, Spiers, William C. W,, Arnold, Ethan A., 
Graves, Samuel, Graves, William T.. Gibbons, An- 
drew J., Loucks. David, Nichols, William, Pierce, 
Ansel S. VanDuzer, Legrand. 

Died— Whitney, Erastus, Barrell, Frank, Babcock, 
Matthew G., Staplin, Oscar. L., Mcllvan, William, 
Banks, John W., Parham, George R., Derosia, 

Co. H. 

John G. Todd, captain; James R, Barnett, captain 
William W. Beck,with, captain ; Edwin D. Messinger, 
1st lieut ; George C. Brown, 2d lieut.; Edwin G. 
Fink, 2d lieut.; Edward H. Cumraings, 1st sergt. ; 
John Lacy, sergeant; John H. Currier, sergeant; 
George E. Davis, sergeant; Walter C. Aiusworth, 
sergeant; Samuel T Jackson, corporal; Sylvester 
Haseltine, corporal; Jacob M. Bowen, corporal: Peter 
Rice, J'r., corporal; Samuel J. Hopkins, corporal; 
Henry M. Stafford, corporal; Barber, Frederick, 
Bulkley. Schuyler, Bishop, Daniel K., Browning, 
John, Bodine, Charles B., Brusel. Asa , Barrett , 
Charles W., Cranson, George W. , Carpenter, Orlando 
H , Chapin, Francis W., De Clercy. Alexander, De 
Clercy, Austin S., Devern, William W., Elmer, Har- 
vey R. , Fleming, James, Fitzpatrick. John, Freeborn, 
Palmer H.. Hopkins, Charles W., Hinckley, John R , 
Hicks. John S., Jackson, Charles, Marvin, Wheeler 
W., Medbury, Lucius, Mott, James, Moochler, John, 
Meeker, George L., Morrison, Joel W., Nellis, Clark 
S., O'Brien, Nicholas, Pangborn. John W., Pierce, 
Edwin O., Phillips, Henry C., Phinney, Andrew J., 
Roberts. Evan W. , Robinson, Arnold, Steedman, 
Horace.' Sheppard. Wm. Giles, Short, Patrick, 
Sephens Stephen J., Shaw, Wesley H., Trogood, 
Henry G., Tarble, Samuel A., Torrey, Robert E., 
Wagner, Harrison W., Way, A. B. Freeman, Warner, 
Calvin P , Wilson, Hugh, West, Joseph. 

DiscHARGED-Rlchardson, Willard, Hatch, Erastus 
H., Patterson, Jesse E., Hitchcock, Samuel B., Alien, 
Mnrell B., Beirs, Nelson A., Bump, William H., 
Brown, David. Clark, William, Cleaveland, Alanson, 
Devern, Henry, Devern, Truman, Forbes, Isaiah, 
Holmes, SylvanusS., Holmes, William S., Josselyn, 
George H., Johnson, Lemuel T-, Pierson, William A., 
Pierce, William S., Pay son, Edward, Rogers, Isaiah, 
Ramsdell. Charles, Thompson, Joseph, Woodworth, 
Damon, Shaffer, William J. 

Transferred— Ralph Wallace, Henry O. Jewell, 
George C. Smith. 

Died— Seth M. Ackley, Charles Elphick, George W. 
Smith, Boliver W. Strong. 

Transferred— Card, Clark N., Carr, Thomas, Kee- 
gan, Charles, White, Michael. 

Co. I. 

Edgar Spalsbury, captain; Lafayette Little, cap- 
tain; Joseph H. Simpson, 1st lieut.; Edwin R. 
Butterfield, 3d lieut.; John H. Keats, 2d Heut.; 
Adam J. Cratsenburgh, 1st sergt.; Nelson Hough, 
sergeant; Oilman Evans, sergeant; John B. George, 
sergeant; Levi Annable, sergeant; Edwin J. Pauling, 

corporal ; Joseph A. Lewis, corporal; Calvin J. Ripley, 
corporal; Germon Reed, corporal; Mark Agur, cor- 
poral; Kendrick Brown, corporal ; Joseph Turner, 
corporal ; Albert Baird, corporal; Frederick Van 
Amburg, musician ; Alexander, Edward, Arnold, 
James, Allen, Lucien F., Austin, Charles C, Bray, 
James. Brooks, William H., Bartlett, Alonzo, Caswell, 
Abial, Colton, William H., Crabb, Alonzo, Davids, 
James. Dingmond, Robert, Duclon, William, Dawson, 
Robert, Eddy, George A,, Flanagan, John, Forrest, 
Joseph E , Forbes, William, Gartland, James, Green, 
Peter, Gardiner, Ebenezer, Knights, WiUiam M., 
Kenyon, James, McAllona, Robert. McCollops, David, 
McBride, Ai, McBride, Henry, McNett, Nelson, Mc- 
Nett, Duane N., McNett, Dewitt C, Noyes, Frederick, 
Otis, Helon A., Otis, Henry, Padget, Alonzo, Peck, 
John, Palmer, George, Rexford, Andrew, Rachford, 
James, Robertson, James, Robinson, Thomas H. 
Ray, Robert, Russel, Lemuel, Simpson, William K., 
Scott, James, Steele, Edgar B., Smith, Darius B., 
Wright, James, AViser, Hiram. 

Discharged — Gilmaa Knoulton, John Higson, 
Charles A. Thompson, Bray, Henry A., Burnside, 
Nelson, Bassetfc, John, Bowhall, Nathan, Croisant, 
Lewis, Campbell, Allen, Ford, Peter R., Fisher, 
Stephen R., Hager, John B , Howard, Daniel, Robin- 
son, Henry, Fitzsimmons, John, Spaulding, Charles 
N., Simpson, Silas, Thompson, William H., Thornton, 
Arthur, Winters, Andrew, Wilcox, EHas. 

Transferred — Pangborn, John M., Albertson, 
Josiah H., Price, James B , Choate, George R., 
Gleason, William N., Toy, David, Lane, Zabina, 
Leasure, Emery, Fitzgerald, Joha. Smith, Wells B., 
Sawyer, Charles, McOmber, Frederick, Bradley, 
Mark, Lord, Nathan N. 

Died— Sprague, George H., Leasure- Sylvanus, 
Locie, William, Ray, William B., Johnson, Francis, 
Morgan, Joseph J. E., Lawrence, Edward. 

Dropped— Caswell, Thomas, Dyke, George W., 
Eddy. Jenks, Garrison. Cornelius, Marshall, Louis E., 
Venier, John, Jr., Youngs, Julius. 

Transferred— Barr, Wolcott S., Flanders, Sguire, 
Keysor, Nathaniel G., Lacey, Martin, Parkinson, 
WilhamH., Post, David E., Scott, Emerson, Strong, 
Stephen, Thompson, William. 

Co. K, 

Erskine'M. Camp, captain; Chai'les E. Zimmer- 
man, 1st lieut.; Jay D. McWayne, 1st lieut.; John 
O'Hara, 2d lieut. ; Asahel B. Westcott, 2d lieut. ; Pat- 
rick Fitzpatrick. 1st sergt. ; Henry Malone, 2d sergt. ; 
William Lee, 3d sergt.; William T. Clark, 4th sergt.; 
John Keenan, 5th sergt. ; Albert Foster, 1st corporal; 
Valentine Warr, 2d corporal; Daniel Van Allen, 3d 
corporal; William Bunker, 4th corporal; Ozumber W. 
Douglas, 5th corporal; Henry C Cook; 6th corporal; 
Augustus Van Allen, 7th corporal; Benjamin Worth- 
ingham; 8th corporal; Dermott McNeil, musician; 
Auldrick, Hiram W., Alexander, Sherman. Allen, 
George W., Ault, David, Bowers, Charles B., Browne, 
Benjamin, Brennan, William. BaUinger, Wallace, 
Baldwin, Sidney D., Conden, James, Conden, Oscar, 
Countryman, John. Cook, Miueris F., Cominold, 
Ezra, Dextei-, Foster W., Derby, Henry, > Duke, 
James. Foster, Charles. Fredenberg, John, Freden- 
berg, David, Fuller, George, Graves, John, Gardiner, 
Edward, Hart, William, Hare. Thomas O. , Happ, 
John, Hunter, Franklin, Hoover, Josiah, Hungerford, 
Elbert V , Hare, Daniel, Johnson, John, Jackson, 
WilHam W., Kelley. John, Keenan , William, Long. 
Robert J., Lizil, William, Lonetol, Alphonso, Mobbs, 
George, McDonald, Frank, Miller, ^be, Phelps, Rob- 
ert B., Potter, Newman H, Potter, John S., Rus- 
sell, Edward, Rafter, Edward, Robbins, Maitland S., 
Robbins, John L., See, Byron, Savage, Thomas, 
Smitn, Martin, Switzer, Charles, Stokes, Joseph, 
Tomlinson, Richard, Wright, Henry J., Wait, John. 

Discharged— Ault, Hiram, Dolan. Patrick, Fish, 
Charles C., House, George, Harlow, Charles, Jeffrey, 
Thomas, Lago. Benjamin, Muldoon, Franklin, Marks, 
Joseph, Patrick, Jiicob, Patrick, Marcus, Powers, 
Thomas, Robbins. Isaac, Stanton, George D., Sam- 
pier, WiUiam. Tripp, William C, Weller, Elazell, 
Wiley, Mark, Wright, Chester, Wright, Henry, Van 
Allen, John, Alexander, Wilbert. 

Transferred— Barnes, Friend, Demarsh, Francis, 
Pill, John. Latimore, William. 

Died— Broadbent, Julius, Carpenter, Orville, Har- 
rison, William H., Lowe, Stephen W., Sheely, Wil- 
liam, Stevens, Ohver B., White, George. 



When Fort Sumter was fired upon I was 
running the old Jefferson Cotton Mill on 
Factory Square in Watertown, having pur- 
chased it and put in about $5,000 worth of 
new machinery, and had got it in shape to 
spin No. 16 yarn, and weave it into common 
unbleached sheeting. All I had saved in my 
newspaper experience during ten years of 
earnest effort was put into that factory — but 
my dwelling was clear of debt. The war 
affected me in many ways. I only hesitated 
as to how I could be of the most service to 
my country, for my business was tempo- 
rarily ruined, and I had ample time in 
which to discharge my duties as a citizen. 
It seemed clear to me that I must go into 
some infantry regiment, perhaps as a 
private soldier, but having decided to go, I 
was naturally inclined towards the 35th, 
which had taken with it to Elmira many 
acquaintances, and two valued friends, 
General Bradley Winslovv and Captain 
George W. Flower. As to slavery and its 
relation to the struggle which was now be- 
gun, I had been little disturbed. It was a 
gangrene sure to die of its own accui'sed- 
ness. But the thought of a dismembei'ed 
country, and what was especially exasper- 
ating, the insults at Sumter, settled for 
me (as it did for so many thousands) what 
I ought to do. I sold the cloth I had on 
hand to Norris Winslow at a low figure, 
paid my debts and started for the front. I 
took time to look over the field at Washing- 
ton, but did not join the 3.5th Regiment 
until it was encamped beyond the Potomac. 
Col. Lord offered me the position of 1st lieu- 
tenant. On presenting my detail for recruit- 
ing duty (duly made out by the Colonel), at 
the adjutant-general's office in Washington. 
I was in citizen's clothing, but there being a 
friend in the office who identified me as 
the man named in the detail. Col. Samuel 
Breck (just now retired from the army for 
age) duly authenticated my papers, and I 
proceeded at once to Watertown to recruit 
for the 35th. Probably I was the greenest 
1st lieutenant in the world at that time, but 
I thought I knew what I was to do. At 
iUbany I got my commission and an army 
uniform, and in its disguise approached my 
home on High street. My wife burst into 
tears when she saw my blue coat and 
shoulder straps, and throwing her apron 
over her head, refused to be comforted. 
"Why, my dear," said I, " I felt it my duty 
to do something in this emergency. If not 
now, when would j-ou be willing to have me 
join the army?" Turning her tear-stained 
face towards Rutland Hill, she said : "I 
would be willing you should go when the 
Rebels come marching over that hill," and 
it was so with many others — they wanted 
the war kept as far from their own fireside 
as possible. 
I was possessed of considerable energy but 

not overbalanced with judgment, and soon 
found that my efl'orts to secure men for my 
regiment were to meet with more or less 
opposition from the few "copperhead" 
Democrats— though the local leaders of that 
party were almost, without exception, 
favorable to a vigorous prosecution of the 
war. James F. Starbuck. an able lawyer, 
and a life-long Democrat, took an active 
part in recnaiting, while Governor Beach 
and Levi H. Brown gave liberally to aid the 
Union cause, as did also Governor Flower ; 
and Lysander H. Brown made patriotic 
speeches whenever asked to do so, in aid of 
recruiting. The opposition I was to encoun- 
ter was of a peculiarly mean character, as 
this incident will illustrate : When I had 
raised about 40 men and my son had drilled 
them a few days, I sent word to the U. S. 
mustering officer at Syracuse, to come on 
and muster them into the service — a duty 
not then relegated to any volunteer oflScer 
of low rank. When he came on, and before 
he had met me, he called at a store in the 
Arcade and was told that I hud no commis- 
sion or military status, but was enlisting 
men upon my own authority. When he 
came to my office, in the Hayes block, he 
frankly told me what he had heard. I 
immediately produced my commission and 
the detail from the adjutant-general's ofiSce 
at Washington . His ajjologies were profuse, 
and he gave expression to pretty strong 
language in denouncing the man who had 
volunteered to post him up. He mustered 
the men, and they were immediately for- 
warded to the front. 

I will I'elate another incident to show the 
characteristic " back fires " which were 
being set by a few unpatriotic men in their 
efforts to suppress enlistments. I had en- 
listed a young man from Ellisburgh, but his 
family overpersuaded him, and he kept away 
when the detachment to which he belonged 
was ready to go to the front. I promptly 
arrested him ; but his counsel, an Ellisburgh 
lawyer, who has lately died, sued out a 
writ of habeas corpus, and a trial came on. 
Some one was found ready to swear that I 
had no authority to enlist men, and that this 
recruit was unlawfully held. The judge 
took a few days to adjust his thinking 
apparatus, in the meanwhile, instead of 
having the recruit locked up, committed 
him to the care of his counsel. When the 
judge at last decided that the enlistment 
was binding, and that the man must be 
given into my custody, the recruit had gone 
to Canada, and his counsel said he was 
"real sorry" at not being able to produce 
his client ! This was in the early days of 
the war, when tlie newspapers ' had" not 
taken that higher patriotic ground which 
they afterwards attained, and neither of 
the Republican newspapers in Watertown 
made any allusion to this outrageous legal 


farce, but the Democratic organ thought it 
a good joke. 

Here is another instance, but in this were 
involved higher and better nien than those 
who aided in trying the habeas corpus 
dodge. I had enlisted a peaceable young 
Dutchman from the town of Pamelia, but 
his grandfather, a life-long Democrat and 
party pillar in the Dutch settlement where 
he lived, bittei-ly opposed all enlistments, 
and brought strong arguments to bear upon 
his grandson to induce him to run away. 
The young fellow, however, was not willing 
to go. At last his grandfather came to 
Watertown, and sought counsel, as had been 
his custom, of a leading and conspicuous 
Democrat. What was then advised I 
learned afterwards from the recruit himself. 
It was for the old man to send his grandson 
away to Canada. Yielding at last to his 
grandfather's importunities, the young 
fellow disappeared. The second day after 
that I resolved to follow up a clue which 
involved a similar case on the border of St. 
Lawi'ence county, and set off at dark with 
a horse and buggy. About midnight I had 
reached a point beyond King's tavern in the 
town of Hammond, where I overtook a 
fellow on foot, and asked him to ride, as I 
was lonesome and sleepy and desired com- 
pany. Would you believe it ! — this was my 
young Dutch recruit. The recognition was 
mutual. He was glad to see me, for he was 
tired, and made confession that he was on 
his way to cross into Canada from Morris- 
town. Gradually I drew out all the facts 
in his case, which seriously implicated the 
Democrat hinted at above. But he was a 
personal friend and I did not take any steps 
to make him trouble ; but the language I 
used when I told him what I could prove, 
induced him to desist from further opposi- 

This continual flight to Canada by recruits 
who changed their minds after being en- 
listed, had gathered near the Canada 
border, but safe within that country, many 
of these "deserters," The most conspicuous 
camp was upon a large Canadian island 
quite near the American shore, near Clay- 
ton. Here they had adopted a code of 
signals which told those fleeing to their 
camp from tlie United States when it was 
safe to cross over, and when to keep off. 
Their frequent raids across the narrow 
channel of the river in pursuit of young pigs 
and cliickens, and the threats they had 
made against American citizens who op- 
posed their forays, at last attracted public 
attention, and I was appealed to, as an army 
officer, to break up the nest if possible. 
Remembering the attack made at Schlosser, 
on the Niagara river, under an English 
officer during the so-called "Patriot" war, 
where he had cut out an American steamboat 
and set her on flre over Niagara Falls ; and 
that the British government had approved 
of the act and knighted its officer for his 
bravery, I concluded tliat it would be 

meritorious (and I still think so) to break up 
the nest of deserters who had so audaciously 
made their headquarters within speaking 
distance of our shore. I organized a small 
but lesolute partj' and crossed the channel 
one night, broke up the nest, bringing away 
one man who had deserted from the 94th 
regiment, and quietly returned to Water- 
town. Some months after this I was called 
upon (when in the field) by the War Depart- 
ment for a statement of the facts in the 
case. This I forwarded, and in due time 
was dismissed from the volunteer service 
for " having crossed into the territory of a 
friendly power and made an arrest there." 
This dismissal was upon the demand of the 
British minister, though in a much more 
flagrant instance his government had ap- 
plauded its officer's act and promoted him. 
Possibly the matter would have a different 
turn if such an occui'rence were now to 
transpire. At that time Mr. Seward greatly 
feared English influence against the Union 
cause, and as only one man would suffer by 
my dismissal, he complied with the British 

There were many other discouragements 
in that recruiting business. Notably when 
1 was attacked by an Irish mob, while 
arresting a deserting Irishman, a worthless 
fellow, but defiant— in which I was struck 
by a stone on the head, causing a permanent 
thickening of a skull already thick enough. 
In this episode I was patrioticallv aided by 
Calvin Decker, Hon. Geo. A. Bagley and a 
Colonel Martin, son of the Martinburgh 
banker of that name, and by several other 
good friends, who kept back the attacking 
force until I was able to collect my senses 
and get my enlisted man behind the bars at 
the jail. In this connection I will also 
mention the threatened raid upon my home 
on High street during the New York draft 
riots, which would have met a peculiarly 
warm reception had it been made 

As I look back upon these occurences, I 
am filled with wonder at the manner in 
which certain Democratic citizens opposed 
recruiting. They seemed possessed of a 
kind of madness, and under its influence 
forgot the needs of the country and their 
own duty as citizens. The name of Lincoln 
was like shaking a red rag before a mad 
bull. I remember that a quarrel was 
forced upon a party of soldiers who were 
armed and in uniform at the Woodruff 
House, where they were waiting for a 
delayed train. A blatant copperhead who 
chanced to be there sneei'ingly denounced 
them as "Abe Lincoln's hirelings," which 
wound up by his being sbot to death — a 
disaster he had brought upon himself by 
attempting to disarm one of the soldiers his 
libelous tounge had abused. A Democratic 
clothing merchant when the murdered body 
of the great and patient Lincoln was being 
taken through the North on its way to 
Springfield (after Lee had surrendered and 
the war was at an end), unfolding a morn- 



ing newspapei' in front of his store, one 
morning, made a remark peculiarly and 
disgustingly offensive. 

Yes, in loyal and beautiful Watertown 
just sucli scenes occurred It was hard 
work to enlist -men under such discourage- 
ments. Yet I enlisted over 300 recruits for 
my regiment — some of whom were doomed 
to perish in the great struggle, leaving 
memories and names that are proudly 
cherished. Many of theui returned, and 
some are yet alive, drawing, I hope, suitable 
pensions for their services. 

The i-eflecting mind sees in those incidents, 
imperfectly described, how a few misguided 
men may retard and embarrass a good and 
a popular cause, though they may not be 
able to overthrow it or long delay its victori- 
ous course. Myself a Democrat, I can but 
regret that that party, now over an hundred 
years old, should have had its proud 
escutcheon smirched by those who with- 
held their hearty support of a cause which 
saved the Union from tlireateued disinte- 
gration. The just historian, however, will 
-not fail to record that there were many 
distinguised and able members of that party 
in Jefferson county who sought, by in- 
creased activity and greater self-denial, to 
make amends for what their laggard party 
friends failed to perform. 

Having mentioned Col. Martin as aiding 
me when attacked upon the streets by a 
mob of Irislimen, I will tell of an effort to 
aid him in return for his kindness. 

The Colonel was a true patriot, an earnest 
and wholesom* man in all respects, and 
came from the distinguished family that 
had given to Martinburgh, N. Y., its name. 
One day Colonel Martin came to me where 
I was on duty in one of the bureaus of the 
War Department, at Washington, and told 
me he was in trouble. I had not forgotten 
the Watertown episode and desired to aid 
him. He told me he had been on duty with 
hisregiment under Butler in Virginia, and 
the General had peremptorily dismissed him 
upon a false charge of drunkenness while 
on duty. Of course every one knew that an 
officer could not be dismissed in such a way 
as that, and I suggested an appeal to the 
President. Through my superior officer I 
was able to procure an audience with Presi- 
dent Lincoln, who was evidently impressed 
with Martin's story, and wrote a note to 
Secretary Stanton, who issued an order to 

Butler to reinstate Colonel Martin in his 
command or file proper charges against 
him. This ple.ased us mucli, as we thought 
the Colonel was soon to be all right. But 
inside of a week he was back again in 
Washington, declaring that Butler had 
refused to obey the order, and, after abusing 
him afresh, had torn the paper up and 
stamped it under his feet. 

Now the matter had become- serious, and 
my chief and myself felt sure the President 
would do something " awful" to Butler for 
his insubordination. On the following day 
President Lincoln gave us another interview, 
and after hearing Colonel Martin's story 
appeared somewhat annoyed. Finally he 
himself wrote an order in his own hand and 
over his own signature directing General 
Butler to reinstate Colonel Martin in his 
command upon receiving the jjaper. Now, 
surely, the matter was settled all right, and 
we felt happy. Ten days afterwards Colonel 
Martin came back and reported that Butler 
had flatly refused to reinstate him, declaring 
that he knew the facts in the case better 
than the President did, and that he would 
not obey the order, as he had already put 
another officer in command of the regi- 
ment. When this was reported to the 
President he smiled a little, and at last 
spoke: "Now, Colonel, you see yourself 
how I am placed. Of course, I could de- 
prive Butler of his command, but would 
that be the best thing for the country? 
Under all the circumstances, I feel like 
letting the matter drop : but I will gi^e you 
another place, that will perhaps suit you as 
well. " The President kept his promise and 
Colonel Martin did not leave the service 
under a cloud. 

Those who delight to hear how a head- 
strong and unreasonable man may at times 
be brought to taste of some of his own ill- 
manners, will be pleased to learn that in 
General Joseph Hawley, the distinguished 
Senator from Connecticut, General Butler 
found a man his equal in forcible language 
as well as ingenuity in expedients. At the 
time Butler was digging his canal in Vir- 
ginia, Hawley was under his command, and 
one day received from Butler an order to do 
something distasteful. Turning to the aide 
who brought the order, he remarked: ' ' You 
tell General Butler that I shan't obey his or- 
der. He is a d — d old fool, and if he wants 
this thing done he had better come and do 
it himself." The aide departed and that 
was the last of it. J. A. H. 


It is fortunate for our history that we 
ai'e able to present, from living participants, 
vivid descriptions of the service of their 
commands in the field. The 186th N Y. 
Vol. Infantry was an exceedingly gallant 

regiment, and we can do no better than 
trace its history as related by General Brad- 
ley Winslovv, who fell, shot through the 
body, while gallantly leading his comrades 
to the assault upon Fort Mahone, one of 



the largest Confederate strongholds about 
Petersburg, Va. 

On the occasion of a re-union of the vet- 
erans of that regiment, some 125 in num- 
ber, in Music Hall, Watertown, April 2, 1888, 
Genex-al Winslow spoke as follows: 

Comrades of the 186th Regiment, ladies 
and gentlemen: — Heartily we greet each 
other, comrades, after a separation as 
to the greater number, of twenty-three 
years. Mutual congratulations are offered 
that our lives have been prolonged and that 
we are able to meet to renew acquaintances 
and friendships that were formed when 
we were environed by the perils of war. 
The occasion to us is one of reminiscence 
and of hallowed memories. In thought we 
go back through the intervening years to 
tlie time when we abandoned the callings 
in which we were respectively engaged to 
become soldiers to fight for the preservation 
of the Union which was then- the only ex- 
isting government based upon the broad 
principle of the equality of political rights. 
The most of us were young men then, filled 
with the ardor of youth and burning with 
righteous indignation that armed rebellion, 
which was without justification or pallia- 
tion in the sight of humanity or justice, 
should seek to destroy that national unity 
which was the heritage of all the peojjle of 
this land, and which had showered upon us 
blessings without number. 

It was in the summer of 1864 that we left 
the peaceful walks of civil life and enrolled 
ourselves as volunteer soldiers in response 
to the call of President Lincoln for "five 
hundred thousand more." 

The losses attending the campaigns of the 
army of the Potomac and the forces in the 
west under Gen. W. T. Sherman during the 
spring and summer of that year, had been 
very great, and the terms of enlistment of 
many thousands of Union soldiers were 
about expiring. Formidable Rebel armies 
were still in the field, but the sentiment to 
continue the war until the authority of the 
Union should be fully restored was still 
strong and dominant in all the loyal States. 
That sentiment President Lincoln voiced in 
making the call I have referred to for five 
hundred thousand volunteers for the mili- 
tary service. A certain period of time was 
given in the call in which volunteers could 
be enrolled. If in that interval a sufficient 
number were not obtained, then a resort 
was to be had to a draft. The quota for 
each of the States was agreed upon, and 
then again api^ortioned to the several coun- 
ties, towns and districts. 

In the early part of August, 1864, a meet- 
ing was held in Watertown of citizens who 
were earnestly devoted to filling the quota 
of the county and of the several towns with 
volunteers, and thereby avoid the irritation 
probable to result from an enforced draft. 
At that meeting a committee was appointed 
to aid in the procuring of volunteers and in 
their organization. The committee con- 

sisted of such well-known citizens as James 
F. Starbuck, W. V. V. Rosa, E. B. Wynn, 
A. M. Farwell, L. J. Bigelow, and E. S. 
Lansing. Under date of August 17, 1864, 
one month after the call of the President 
had been made, this committee entered 
upon the work of organizing a Jefferson 
county regimsnt. Dr. E. S. Lansing went 
to Albany and obtained from Governor 
Horatio Seymour, authorizations to recruit 
the companies that were to compose the 
proposed regiment. Such authoritv was 
issued to E. J. Marsh, H. J. Welch, Lan- 
sing Snell, J. D. McWayne, A. D. .Stern- 
berg, Richard McMullen, and D. B. Rood, 
and perhaps others. Such was the zeal with 
which these gentlemen entered upon the 
work of recruiting, and such the enthusiasm 
of the people, tliat in about two weeks' 
time a sufficient number of volunteers had 
been enrolled to organize eight companies. 
Two additional companies only were re- 
quired. These were soon found: one headed 
by Capt. Squires, recruited in Lewis county, 
and another headed by Capt. Wallace, re- 
cruited in Herkimer county. 

In perfecting the regimental organization 
E. J. Marsh was appointed lieutenant -col- 
onel, A. D. Sternberg, major, and your 
humble speaker colonel. Madison Barracks 
at Sackets Harbor was designated as the 
rendezvous while the enrollment and or- 
ganization were being perfected. That ac- 
complished, but little time was given for 
preparatory drilling. The order to move 
soon came. On the 23d day of September, 
1864, the 186th regiment, about 900 strong, 
left Madison Barracks for the seat of war. 
The route was by way of this city, tlien by 
rail to Albany, thence to New York by the 
steamer "St. John" of the People's line, 
landing at Castle Garden. In barracks near 
Castle Garden the regiment remained two 
days, and then embarked on a large trans- 
port for City Point, Va. The passage took 
four days, and was without incident except 
experiencing a storm that disquieted the 
stomachs of some of the boys. City Point 
reached, the life of a soldier in the tented 
field began. There were many of us in 
the regiment who had seen service before; 
some who had been in regiments that were 
first raised and had served a term of enlist- 
ment. To such, of course, the new life was 
without novelty. But to most of the rank 
and file, and to some of the officers as well, 
the duties entered upon were new. The 
regiment became temporarily a part of the 
command of Gen. Benham of the engineer 
corps. Large details were at once ordered 
daily, and indeed for fully two weeks the 
effective force of the regiment was devoted 
to the building of fortifications. The work 
was hard to perform, and some who were 
unaccustomed to severe manual labor were 
reported on the sick list and wei'e sent to 
the hospital. Some three weeks were thus 
employed, when the regiment was sent to 
the immediate front and assigned to the 



second brigade, second division of the ninth 
army corps. Its first camp after leaving 
City Point, was in the vicinity of Poplar 
Grove church, to the south of Petersburg a 
nuinber of miles. Here was the regiment's 
first experience in the presence of the 
enemy, and its daily details for outpost duty 
put tile boys in the position for the first 
time of looking into the faces of their foes. 
Outpost duty, guard mount, camp duty, 
squad drill and battalion drill were among 
the daily duties. 'J'here were no idle hours, 
and those who were inclined to shirk were 
made very uncomfortable. In this way the 
days passed until the 27th of October came, 
when a movement of a portion of the Army 
of the Potomac, including the ninth corps, 
was undertaken for the purpose of further 
extending the left and to strike, if possible, 
the South Side Railroad, which was an im- 
portant channel of supply for General Lee, 
The movement substantially failed, the 5th 
corps doing the most of the fighting on the 
Union side and getting pretty roughly han- 
dled. Beyond a little skirmish firing and 
taking a defensive position near the enemy, 
the l»6th regiment had no part. When it 
marched from camp in the early morning 
of the 27tli of October, it was generally be- 
lieved that in a short time the regiment 
would be in action, and that hurtling shot 
and shell would soon be thinning its ranks. 
The prevalence of this belief brought the 
few who were cov^ards prominently to no- 
tice. These, on one pretense or another, 
absented themselves from the ranks. One 
scalded his foot with hot coflee and could 
not march; another had a box of hard-tack 
fall on his feet in some mysterious way, and 
then there were cases of severe attacks of 
diarrhoea. There were only a few of these 
untimely accidents, as there were only a few 
cowards. One little incident occurred at 
the expense of the colonel, which may be 
related. While the regiment was occupying 
the defensive position referred to there were 
occasional shots from some concealed foe, 
possibly fired by sharp shooters. One came 
rather close to the colonel's head as he sat 
quietly on his horse, awaiting developments. 
Now, when the ping of a riiJe ball is heard 
very near one's head, to duck the head is an 
instinct, and the strongest and bravest will 
do it. The colonel at this time was probably 
no exception, and his head dropped a little. 
Thinking that the mounted officers might 
be rather conspicuous marks for sharp 
shooters, he gave the order for them to dis- 
mount, which was obeyed with alacrity. 
Whereupon officers and men who were ly- 
ing along the ground in comparative safety 
indulged in a little laugh. As the second 
day from leaving camp wore away, and the 
evening shadows lengthened, we marched 
back to camp. As we came near it a fur- 
ther incident occurred which many will re- 
call when mention is made of it. If there 
is one thing that is apparently disagreeable 
to a soldier, it is to unload his gun by draw- 

ing the charge. He wants to do it in an 
easier way, namely, by firing it. Just as 
we had reached camp, as stated, it occurred 
to some one that his gun must be unloaded, 
and forthwith he filed in the air. This was 
contagious, and immediately a fusilade be- 
gan that took some minutes to arrest. The 
firing was a gioss breach of orders and dis- 
cipline. We were not only near the enemy, 
but camps and troops were near by, and 
there was imminent danger that the balls 
fired in the air, in their descent would kill 
or wound men or animals. Such a gross 
breach of discipline could not be overlooked. 
The company officers were directed to ex- 
amine every musket, and report every man 
whose piece was found empty. The result 
was that about 1.10 men were immediately 
marched to brigade headquarters and their 
offense reported. What the punishment 
was, not having witnessed it, I shall not 
now relate. Those who suffered it will no 
doubt remember, and they are not called 
upon to say anj'thing about it. 

Outpost duty and constant drill filled up 
the autumn days until the 29th of November, 
when the regiment was ordered to a new 
position. This was in front of Petersburg, 
slightly to the left and a little in the rear of 
Fort Davis, and about a half mile to the left 
and in the rear of Fort Sedgwick. Fort 
Sedgwick was a large, strongly constructed 
fort, on wliich were mounted a large number 
of heavy guns, and which also had a mortar 
battei'y. This fort was confronted by one 
perhaps equally strong, built by the enemy, 
called Fort Mahone. Between these hostile 
works there was almost a daily exchange of 
shots. So constant was the firing, and so 
dense oftentimes became the sulphurous 
clouds of smoke caused by the frequent dis- 
charges of the great guns and mortars, that 
the forts received nick-names from the 
soldiers. Our fort (Sedgwick) was called 
" Fort Hell," while the confederate was 
called " Fort Damnation." At this point the 
out-posts of the hostile armies (protected by 
an embankment and ditch, called a rifle pit), 
were not over twenty rods apart. During 
the daytime the sentinels on one side rarely 
fired at those of the other, but when night 
came, in order to guard against a surprise 
and to keep the pickets on the alert, con- 
stant firing was maintained. In our camp 
it was nothing unusal to hear tlie whistle of 
hostile bullets passing overhead, one occa- 
sionally striking in the camp. One astonished 
the sutler one day by passing through his 
tent. I may remark here, as illustrative of 
the dangerous character of the service the 
regiment performed, that from the date in 
October of making our camp near Poplar 
Grove church, until the evacuation of Peters- 
burg, April 2 thereafter, the regiment was, 
except when away from camp on battalion 
drill or engaged in some movement, within 
rifle range of the enemy's picket line. The 
service under such circumstances was most 
arduous. Alarms and sudden turnouts to 



resist expected attacks were frequent. In 
uiiclwinter, about Dec. 10, I think, the regi- 
ment, with other troops, made a forced 
march to Nottoway river, twenty-five miles 
distant, which, witli the return march, made 
a distance of fifty miles, in thirty-six hours. 
On the outward march the weather was 
moderate, with rain and mud. On the re- 
turn we faced a piercing wind , with the tem - 
perature low enougli to freeze tlie mud and 
cover the wayside pools with thick ice. No 
member of the regiment, who participated, 
will ever forget the discomfort and fatigue 
of the march to Nottoway river and return. 

With constant daily duties, such as I have 
mentioned, the winter of 1864-5 wore away. 
In the early part of the winter, the area of 
country included between our camp and the 
outposts was covered to some extent with a 
forest, which obstructed the view to both 
sides of the camps and works of the other, 
but the timber was gradually used for fuel, 
and as spring approached the face of the 
land had been denuded of trees. And this 
reminds me of another incident. The regi- 
ment was out for battalion drill one day, not 
far from camp and near brigade headquar- 
ters. The drill closed with a movement in 
line of battle at a charge bayonet and double 
quick time, accompanied with aterrfic yell, 
in imitation of the well-known " rebel yell." 
It attracted the enemy's attention, and 
several VVhitworth shells were fired at us, 
which came dangerously near. One passed 
between the right of the regiment and drum 
corps as both were marching away from the 
field. The drum corps was not more than 
ten or twelve paces from the right of the 
regiment. The time of the marching step 
was being beaten on the large bass drum. 
The shells made double quick time for the 
drum (!orps,and the frantic efforts of the man 
with the big drum to climb over it were quite 
ludicrous. It was an occasion well calculated 
to try the nerves and test the steadiness of 
the regiment. This shot proved that the bat- 
tery from which it was fired had the proper 
range and we had good reason to expect that 
another shot would follow and very likely 
crash through the moving ranks. Looking 
back from my position at the head of the 
marching column, I noted that every man 
was in his place. There was no panic, no 
excitement, the same measured step was 
maintained. Fortunatel}', no more shells 
were thrown. From that moment my con- 
victions were confirmed that in the worst of 
positions the men of the 186th regiment could 
be relied on to bear themselves with the cool- 
ness of veterans. And not long afterwards 
was the ordeal presented that proved their 
heroism, and which entitles them to the 
honor and respect that just men ever award 
to the brave who peril their lives in their 
country's service. 

At the date of which I am speaking, the 
tireless brain of Gen. Grant was forming plans 
and putting them in force which were soon 
to culminate at Appomatox, the crowning 

victory of the war, the surrender of the army 
of Northern Virginia. Not until then could 
it be clearly foreseen that the " last ditch " 
for the rebellion had been -nearly reached. 
The gallant Sheridan, with his victorious 
army fresh from the conquest of Early in the 
Shenandoah, had come to the assistance of 
the army of the Potomac. For- three days 
his. conquering legions had been passing 
some distance in our rear. They were mov- 
ing to join the left of General Meade's army 
with the object of making a strong effort 
against tlie right flank of General Lee's army. 
This formidable array it did not seem possi- 
ble for General Lee to successfully cope with, 
and the sequel proved that he was unequal 
to the task. In his efforts to meet the crisis 
it is presumed that he had drawn from the 
defenses of Petersburg and Richmond such 
numbers as he thought could be spared and 
not impei'il the safety of those points. The 
defensive works were strong — believed to be 
too strong to be carried by assault. Evi- 
dently the Union commanders had a different 
opinion or else they deemed it %vise to make 
a demonstration against them to prevent the 
withdrawal of more troops to fight against 
Sheridan. On the evening of the 30th of 
March, the regiment was ordered to report 
at 3 o'clock the next morning to the com- 
mander of the first brigade of our division 
in rear of Fort Sedgwick. The purpose of 
the movement was not explained. On 
reaching the point designated, however, it 
was apparent. It was to make an assault 
upon the enemy's line in our front. Perfect 
quiet was observed, the necessary orders 
were given in a low voice. The order to at- 
tack was momentarily expected. All knew 
that a simple movement of a few rods to the 
left, passing a projecting angle of the fort 
and making a sharp wheel to the right, would 
bring the attacking force within easy and 
direct range of hostile batteries and of a 
musketry fire that would sweep every foot 
of the ground. Of course the hope was that 
the intervening space between where the 
movement was to begin and the objective 
point would nearly or quite be covered be- 
fore the enemy should be aware of our ap- 
proach. What if he should be fully in- 
formed? What if some spy had given a 
warning signal and every gun be shotted and 
every man at his post to aid the work of de- 
stroying the assailants? These thoughts 
were doubtless in the minds of all who, in 
that still morning hour, awaited the order to 
attack. But it came not. After an hour of 
suspense we were ordered back to camp. 
But the expected fearful struggle was not 
long delayed. About nine o'clock in the 
evening oif the 1st of March, the regimental 
commanders were summoned to brigade 
headquarters. When we had assembled, the 
General said that it had been determined 
that we should attack the enemy's works the 
next morning at three o'clock; that we 
would see that our regiments were promptly 
turned out at that hour, and that everything 



should be in readiness. He spoke encourag- 
ingly as to probable success, but little con- 
versation was indulged in. All seemed im- 
pressed with the gravity of tlie situation. As 
we rose to leave, with much feeling visible 
in his expressive face, he took each by the 
hand and good-byes were exchanged. Re- 
turning to camp, the order to be in readiness 
to turn out at the hour named was given to 
the company commanders through the ad- 
jutant. Midnight came, and at that hour 
swift, galloping feet were heard, and in a 
moment stopped at the colonel's tent. 
Quickly the order was delivered: " The Gen- 
eral directs that you turn out your regiment 
at once and march to the picket line." The 
unfinished letter was quickly locked in a 
valise, and in a very few minutes the regi- 
ment formed and we marched to the picket 
line and halted, and were ordered to lie 
down. We then learned that the 179th regi- 
ment had charged the enemy's picket line 
in our front and taken a number of prison- 
ers. What induced this movement at an 
earlier hour than had previously been named 
was not explained. Apparently, besides the 
capture of a few prisoners, it had the effect 
to alarm the enemiy, for very soon his bat- 
teries began a terrible fire that brought a 
prompt response from our own, and opened 
a scene which I could wish some more com- 
petent witness than I would accuratelj' and 
eloquently describe. But first it is proper 
to observe that the lines of the opposing 
armies were many miles in extent, nearly 
parallel to each other, and at intervals of 
about a third of a mile were forts and re- 
doubts on either side, connected by other 
strong defenses. And these works were so 
constructed that if any one of them should 
be taken it would be commanded by others 
comprising the series of defenses on the 
same side. Cannon seemingly without num- 
ber were mounted thereon. And now, in 
that calm, still night, with darkness only 
relieved by the light of peaceful shining 
stars in the vaulted heavens above, these 
fiei-ce engines of war opened their brazen 
throats; sulphurous smoke and fire issuing 
therefrom in visible form, which seemed to 
freight the impalable air with noisome odors. 
Screaming, hissing shot and shell, inter- 
spersed with the sharp whiz and ping of 
leaden bullets, seemed passing everywhere 
above our heads. Crash after crash in quick 
succession, and then, as if to swell the roar, 
hundreds of simultaneous discharges of 
great guns were heard and felt, the con- 
cussion causing the earth to tremble. As 
far as the vision could extend to the right 
and left, the burning fuses of bombs and 
shells in graceful curvatures could be seen, 
all making a pyrotechnic display wholly 
unrivalled in the experience of all who «it- 
nessed it. Not all the enginery of the great 
Jove himself could equal this warlike dis- 
play of puny man. 

While our men were lying along the 
ground to escape as much as possible these 

hurtling missiles; a shell struck the earth 
and ploughed under a file of men, killing 
one of them and wounding three others. 
Another shell exploded in the ground near 
one of the companies, doing no further 
harm than to cover the men with earth. 
For more than two hours the terrific storm 
of war continued, and then there seemed a 
little lull, during which the regiment moved 
by the right flank until its right rested on 
the so-called Jerusalem plank road. Faced 
to the front, the order to lie down was again 
given. Here we had not long to wait. Our 
regiment now composed part of a column 
of assault. In a recent communication, 
addressed by General Griffin to your hum- 
ble speaker, he says : 

" Concerning the formation of my brig- 
ade for that final assault on the 2d of April, 
I formed in column of regiments, each regi- 
ment in line of battle, six regiments deep, 
with one in reserve, the whole preceded by 
a company of pioneers to clear away the 
abatis. Two regiments, the 7th and 11th 
N. Y., were left to hold our main line in 
case of repulse. I made the formation thus 
because I knew the head of the column 
would be swept away by the enemy's terrific 
fire, and I must have lines enough till one 
complete in its formation could reach and 
pass the enemy's lines and hold them. My 
records are still at Keene, and I can only 
give you the relative positions of the regi- 
ments in the column from memory, which 
may not be wholly accurate. My recollec- 
tion is that they stood thus: The 31st Maine, 
179th New York, 17th Vermont, 2d Indiana, 
186th New York, 6th New Hampshire, with 
the 56th Massachusetts in reserve. The 
column was not repulsed or driven back at 
all, although a great many were panic 
stricken, and fled to the rear.'' 

The column was not moved as a unit. The 
regiments in column preceding the 186th 
were first ordered forward, but they never 
reached the enemy's works. In relation to 
them it should be said that the 31st Maine, 
the 17th Vermont, and the 2d Maryland 
were mere skeletons of regiments, their 
numbers having been wasted by long and 
arduous service. The 179th had fuller 
ranks, having been more recently recruited. 
That it suffered seriously is well known. 
Its gallant Lieut. -Col. Daily was mortally 
wounded, and its C'ol. Gregg received a 
severe wound in the head. 'These ti-oops, 
panic stricken, rushed back, trampling upon 
our boys as they were quietly resting on the 
ground. But the panic was not contagious 
enough to extend to them. And now came 
the decisive moment. A staff officer from 
the brigade staff, Capt. Goodwin, if I re- 
member his name correctly, a brave and 
faithful officer, whom we all remember 
from the sobriquet given him of "Old 
Corduroy " because he wore corduroy pants, 
came to me and said: "The General directs 
you now to advance," and as the last word 
fell from his lips, he extended his hand, and 



with evident emotion said: "It will be 
hot. God bless you ! " Turning then to 
the duty in hand, the order -was given: 
"Attention, battalion!" Instantly the 
men were in place. Then followed: "Shoul- 
der arms ! For\i ard, guide centre. March !" 
And forward it was. First our own rifle-pit 
was reached, and behind the embankment, 
crouched and cowed, were a large number 
of our own troops. Steadily, and in as 
good order as possible, the line went over 
the embankment, and then across the inter- 
val of 20 rods between outposts, then over 
the rebel rifle pits. Meantime the Are from 
Fort Sedgewick was redoubled, the hissing 
shot and shell passing above so as to strike 
the works of the enemy, doubtless to lessen 
the fire of his batteries and drive his infantry 
fi-om the top of tlie works, and so prevent 
their fire. Nevertheless, we had to face a 
Ifeaden storm. Here and there along the 
line some noble fellow dropped from his 
place, and here and there the cry of anguish 
could be heard from the brave fellows who 
had been wounded. The abatis is reached . 
The brave pioneers, who, under cover of the 
darkness, had sought to remove it, had only 
made an opening wide enough to admit the 
passage of a company front. The right 
company passed through the opening and 
perhaps the second right company. The 
advance of the right was cliecked to give 
the remainder a little time to surmount the 
obstruction. This was quickly accomplished ; 
then the order was given : " Charge bayo- 
nets! Double quick time, march!" and with 
a rush accompanied by a wild yell, our men 
soon reached the enemy's works. There 
was no resistance to the onslaught. As we 
approched the foot of the parapet the enemy, 
in a crowd, rushed out towards us, calling 
out: " We surrender! We surrender ! " 

And now an incident occurred tbat is 
worthy of mention. Among the enemy was 
a large, bushj'-headed man, with long, 
heavy whiskers. He seemed to tower above 
his comrades, and as he rushed down the 
parapet towards us, he threw up his arms, 
and in a loud, hypocritical voice, exclaimed: 
" I thank God I am once more under the 
stars and stripes." His hypocrisy was ap- 
parent, so it seemed to the brave Capt. J. P. 
Legg, who instantly responded in language 
more emphatic than graceful, and seizing 
the man by the shoulder he gave him a 
kick that greatly accelerated his passage to 
the rear. Standing for a moment upon the 
high parapet, and looking down into the 
fort, the scene was most impressive. The 
blue-coated boys were swarming in. There 
were the great guns, and a little distance 
from each a charcoal fire, where had been 
heated the iron rods that were applied to the 
priming powder when the guns were dis- 
charged. While thus standing, looking 
upon this scene, a large shell dropped down 
within the fort, and sinking into tlie eartli, 
exploded. Uprose a great column of smoke, 
dust and earth, and when it had reached a 

certain height it spread over like an um- 
brella, the debris covering everything about. 
It looked like the pictures we often see of a 
volcano in a state of eruption. Fortunately, 
no one v^as hurt. The capture of the fort 
was a great victory, which our gallant 
fellows appreciated, and made their joy 
manifest in ringing cheers. 

But remembering that the order was to 
advance, the regiment was quickly re- 
formed in rear of the captured fort, and 
commenced marching towards the city of 
Petersburg, which seemed some little dis- 
tance away across a comparatively level 
space. Its steeples and roofs were plainly 
visible. Directly an oi-der was received to 
change direction to the left and halt — witli 
the information that we were in danger of 
being flanked. After the changed direction 
the fire in our front was giving us trouble, 
and to avoid its effect a lie-down was again 
ordered, and even while in this position men 
were killed and wounded. Again, we were 
ordered forward, but had proceeded only a 
little distance when we found a strong work, 
which the enemy still occupied. At the 
point of approach was a deej) ditch, filled 
with water, too wide to be crossed witliout 
scaling-ladders, or other appliances that we 
did not possess. Passing a little to the right, 
in search of some opening to enable us to 
eff'ect an entrance, my own active career 
with you, comrades, in the field, suddenly 
terminated. What I may further say as to 
your subsequent doings will be from hear- 

Much has been said of the achievements 
of the second brigade on this memorable 2d 
of April. Great praise of its gallant conduct 
has been awarded in the public prints and 
in army recoi-ds, but it has seemed to me 
that the credit to which the respective 
organizations composing the brigade are 
entitled has been quite lost sight of. 
Readily will it occur to you, my comrades, 
that if the 186th regiment had not been there 
but little would have been accomplished. 
Indeed, but for it, at the point of attack, 
the enemy's line would have remained un- 
broken. So far as to results accomplished, 
the ISfith regiment was the second brigade. 
Considering tlie actual and reported strength 
of Fort Mahone. the perils and difficulties 
to be encountered, its assault and capture 
by the 186th regiment was a magnificent 
success. Tennyson has immortalized the 
charge of the Light Brigade at Balaklava 
upon a Russian battery : 

" Cannon to right of them. 
Cannon to left of them. 

Volleyed and thundered; 
Into the jawR o( death, 
Into the mouth of hell. 

Rode the six hundred," 

On the occasion of which I speak you had 
cannon in front of you, cannon to the right 
of you and cannon to the left of you, that 
volleyed and thundered. A military critic 
who knew of the blunder that was made 



when the charge of the Liglit Brigade was 
ordered, and who witnessed the heroic sacri- 
fices, said of the charge: " It is magnificent, 
but it is not war." No less praise is due for 
your conduct in the charge you made, with 
this distinction: It was magnificent, and it 
was war — the object being one of possible 
attainment, and the resulting victory was 
the test. 

During the night succeeding the battle of 
Petersburg, its remaining defenses, which 
so long kept the Union troops at bay. were 
evacuated, and the second brigade, with 
other troops, when morning came entered 
the city. You continued the pursuit of the 
retreating enemy as far as Burkesville, some 
sixty miles. But Appomattox, near by, was 
the closing scene of the bloody drama in 
which the Army of the Potomac and that of 
Northern Virginia had played leading parts. 
After a brief period you marched back to 

Petersburg, thence to City Point, thence by 
transport to Alexandria. Here you rested for 
a few days, when the order for your muster- 
out was received and your discharges made 
June 2, 1865. You marched in the grand re- 
view with the victorious troops cf Meade's 
army and of the army of General Sherman. 
Thence jou came by rail to New York, 
thence by steamer to Albany and by rail to 
Watertown. Your proud record and heroic 
deeds had preceded you. On your arrival 
the citizens came out to welcome you: 
speeches of welcome by our leading citizens 
were made; a bountiful banquet was spread 
in Washington Hall. Continuing on to 
Madison Barracks, after a few days, your 
honorable discharges were delivered, and 
the 186th regiment became history, and you 
who comprised it were once more citizens 
in the land your patriotism and valor had 
done much to save and redeem. 


The oi'ganization of the artillery of an 
army, and especially in the old arraj- of the 
United States, has been almost invariably 
by independent batteries. Such form of 
organization has always proved the most 
effective, because, being a small force, with 
four to six guns, and perhaps 100 men, it 
could be quickly moved, easily handled, and 
so small as to be readily governed and 
trained to quick movements — often by a 
hasty concentration at a given point, 
changing the fate of battle. It was the 
artillery that saved the day at Gettysburg 
by nearly decimating Pickett's division 
before it had reached the first Union line, 
over which it might have poured but for the 
heroic work done by the artillery. In each " 
division and corps there are chiefs of artil- 
lery, who have control of these separate 
batteries,, which they can concentrate, as at 
Gettysburg, upon a definite line, giving 
confidence to the infantry with wliom the^- 

This much is necessary to explain what 
follows. There had been sent out from this 
county, in the spring of 1863, two such bat- 
teries as we have above described, known as 
batteries " C " and " H," tlie former com- 
manded by Capt. Joseph Spratt, a vi'ell- 
known Watertown boy, and the latter by 
Captain Barnes. These batteries proved 
efficient, serving in the Peninsula under 
McClellan, where Captain Spratt was 
seriously wounded. They formed a part of 
what was known as Bailey's 1st regiment 
New York artillery. These batteries had 
done so well that a movement was made to 
raise in Jefferson county, ten or more com- 
panies, or independent batteries, which 
should be concentrated and operated as one 
regiment. Enlistments were made with 
that understanding, the men believing that 

their duty would be confined to guarding 
the many forts which environed Washing- 
ton on the south, east and west. Officers 
from batteries '-C" and " H," which had 
done good work before Richmond, were 
designated to fill the important positions 
in the new organization at IMadison Bar- 

It ought to be stated that before many 
enlistments had been made for the purpose 
described above, Capt. E. P. Webb had en- 
listed some 50 men for an independent 
battery, and was directed to bring his men 
to Sackets Harbor, and himself to instruct 
and send out recruiting parties. This was 
done, and his small detachment formed the 
nucleus around which there soon congre- 
gated 16 companies, aggregating nearly 
2,300 men. Thus originated what was 
known afterwards as the famous 10th N. Y. 
Heavy Artillery. 

It was natural to expect tliat so large a 
force, devoted to a single arm of the service, 
became an embarrassment to the officials at 
Washington, who wanted batteries, not 
regiments of artillery. To make a long 
story short, while tlie regimental officers 
wanted to retain their regimental organiza- 
tion as lieavy artillery, for which thev had 
been enlisted, the government finally con- 
sented to their remainino enrolled as such, 
but required them to serve as infantry, in 
which capacity they behaved nobly. 

We can only give a brief sketch of the 
company histories : 

Capt. Edward P. Webb's Co. " A." This 
company was recruited at Watertown, N. 
Y., early in July, 1862, composed of men 
from that place, Lewis and Oneida counties. 
The company rapidly filled to the maximum. 



many being transferred to other companies 
of the regiment. About fifty men were en- 
listed for this company when they were 
transferred to Madison Barracks, Sackets 
Harbor, and were mustered with tlieir 
original battalion into the Uniced States 
service, September 11, 1863; on September 
18 the company advanced with the bat- 
talions 1 and 3, as then numbered, to New 
York city, Capt. Webb in command of the 
battalions; here the battalions were equipped 
for the field. Leaving New York, it arrived 
with the battalions at Camp Barry, in the 
department of Washington, D. C, on the 
23d of September, 1863, laying in camp 
until September 39th, when, with the bat- 
talions, it was transferred to the fortifica- 
tions near the city, remaining there until 
the regiment was ordered on active duty, 
March 27, 1864, in command of Lieut. E. H. 
Toby. The company was never commanded 
by Capt. Webb, he being in command of the 
battalions, headquarters at Fort Baker, 
until May 15. 1863. 

Edward P. Webb, captain, Watertown; 
Elijah H. Toby, 1st lieutenant, Watertown; 
Leeman A. Rising, 1st lieutenant. Water- 
town: Morris A. Reed, 3nd lieutenant, 
Watertown; Addison W. Wheelock, 2nd 
lieutenant, Watertown. 


Capt Giles F. Kitts' Co. " B." This com- 
pany was recruited from Adams, Rodman, 
and Lorraine, rendezvoused with the bat- 
talion at Madison Barracks, and mustered 
with them into U. S. service on the 11th of 
September, 1863. This company is entitled 
to, and claims the banner, being the only 
company mustering its complement of men, 
all being present. The company was origi- 
nally " I " of 1st Battalion, subsequently 
becoming "B" of 10th regiment, served 
with that regiment in the army of the 
Potomac until mustered out, June 33d, 

Giles F. Kitts, captain, Rodman ; F. O. 
Sherman, 1st lieutenant, Adams: E. H. 
Smith, 1st lieutenant, Adams; Chas. B. 
Spear, 3d lieutenant, Rodman; Daniel Ran- 
ney, 3d lieutenant, Adams. 


Capt. C. C. Abell's Co, " C." This com- 
pany was recruited principally from the 
towns of Antwerp, Philadelpliia and LeRay. 
It was mustered in at Sackets Harbor, Sept. 
11, 1862, as company " C " of the 2d bat- 
talion, Black River Artillery, subsequently 
becoming "C" company of the 10th regi- 
ment. It marched with its battalion from 
Sackets Harbor, Sept. 18, and occupied the 
fortifications in the department of Wash- 
ington until the regiment was ordered into 
active service, March 37, 1864, and subse- 
quently was in the engagements in front of 
Petersburg and Bermuda. It was mustered 
out June 33, 1865, with the regiment. 

C. C. Abell, captain, Antwerp; Alexander 
Kennedy, 1st lieutenant, Evans Mills; Tim- 
othy A. Ackerman, 1st lieutenant, Philadel- 
phia; Wm. M. Comstock, 3d lieutenant, 
Evans Mills; Eugene Miller, 3d lieutenant, 

Col. Charles C. Abell went out as captain 
of Co. C, 10th N. Y. heavy artillery. 
Served with his company and regiment 
until June 1864, when he was detailed as 
inspector of artillery for the 18th corps, 
commanded by the distinguished " Baldy " 
Smith. Aftei- serving as inspector for four 
months, he was promoted to be chief of 
artillery for the same corps. The 18th corps 
and the 10th each had colored troops and 
white troops intermingled. By putting all 
the colored troops of each corps under one 
command, they became the 2.5th corps, and 
the white troops were designated as the 
34th — and Col. Abell remained with the 
24th as chief of artillery. He served 
through with that corps until Appo- 
mattox, and was honorably mustered out 
witli his regiment in September, 1865, after 
being relieved from duty with the 24th 

Col. Abell soon made Chicago his home, 
where he remained eighteen years, then he 
was two years in Mexico, and since then he 
has resided in Denver and Omaha, cashier 
of the Omaha Packing Company, an hon- 
ored citizen, one whom it is great pleasure 
to meet and "fight one's battles o'er again." 


Capt. S. R. Cowles' Co. " D." Originally 
mustered as " B," 1st battalion, at Sackets 
Harbor, Sept. 11, 1863, was recruited in 
Champion, Croghan, Diana, Rutland and 
Wilna, subsequently being numbered with 
4th battalion; served with the regiment in 
the campaign of the James, with distinction, 
Captain Cowles being commanding officer 
of the battalion in its charge on the rebel 
works on April 8, 1865. The comnany dur- 
ing the siege of Petersburg-, met with con- 
siderable loss. Mustered out with regiment 
June 23, 1865. 

Seneca R. Cowles, Captain; Lucian E. 
Carter, 1st lieutenant; George D. Salter, 1st 
lieutenant; Walter A. Horr, 2d lieutenant ; 
James S. Ward, 2d lieutenant. 


Capt. A. Cleghorn's Co. "E." This com- 
pany was originally mustered as " A," 1st 
battalion, subsequently becoming " A " 4th 
battalion, was recruited from Ellisburgh and 
Henderson; mustered with the battalion 
Sept. 11, 1863, at Madison Barracks; ad- 
vanced with the battalion, Sept. 18th, to the 
department of New York harbor; served 
with the regiment in its movements in 
front of Petersburg, Bermuda Hundred, 
and in the Shenandoah Valley; subse- 
quently mustered out with the regiment 
June 33d, 1865. 



Adams Cleghorn, captain; Elman Tyler; 
1st lieutenant; A. A. Wheeler, 1st lieuten- 
ant; Russell M. Jones, 3d lieutenant; M. G. 
Cook, 2d lieutenant. 


Capt. J. F. Vandenberg's Co. "F" was 
recruited principally f-rom the towns of 
Alexandria and Theresa, originally lettered 
" D." of the 8d battalion, subsequently 
"F" of the 5th battalion, mustered with 
the battalions Sept. 11, 1863, at Sackets 
Harbor; moved with the battalions to the 
defense of Washington, and with the regi- 
ment when ordered inactive service; served 
in the siege of Petersburg and the opera- 
tions at Bermuda Hundred, and mustered 
out with the regiment June 23, 186.5. 

John S. Vandenberg, Captain; I. L. Hun- 
tington, 1st lieutenant; Elias Getman, 1st 
lieutenant; Robert McNight, 2d lieutenant; 
Levi A. Butterfield, 2d lieutenant. 


Capt. R. B. Biddlecombe's Co. " G." This 
company, originally mustered as " B " 2d 
battalion, subsequently as "G" 5th bat- 
talion; was recruited from Clayton and 
Orleans: mustered at Madison Barracks; 
Sept. 11, 1862; advanced with the battalion 
Sept. 18, 1862; served at Fort Mahan, de- 
partment of Washington, until the advance 
of the regiment, March 1, 1864; served in 
the army of the James, sufiEering consider- 
able loss at the siege of Petersburg; was 
subsequently mustered out with the regi- 
ment and discharged at its original muster- 
ing place, Madison Barracks, Sackets Har- 
bor, in June, 1865. 

R. B. Biddlecorae, captain; G. H. Mar- 
shall, 1st lieutenant; E. A. Chapman, 1st 
lieutenant; V. B. Rottiers, 3d lieutenant; 
W. J. Hart, 3d lieutenant. 


Capt. Samuel Middleton's Co. "H"was 
recruited at Brownville and Houndsfield ; 
mustered in at Sackets Harbor on the 13th 
day of September, 1863; left the barracks 
for Washington on the 20th day of Septem- 
ber, joining the preceding battalions in the 
defenses of Washington. At the siege of 
Petersburg and battle of Bermuda Hud- 
dred the company took an active part, be- 
ing commanded by Captain Parker. Sub- 
sequently mustered out with the regiment, 
June 33, 1865. 

Samuel Middleton, captain; Stephen W. 
Fowler, 1st lieutenant; John N. Parker, 
1st lieutenant; J. Randolph Knight, 3d 

Capt. H. O. Gillmore's Co. " I " was orig- 
inally mustered as " B " of the 3d battalion. 
Black River Artillery, and was recruited in 
Brownville, Houndsfield, Watertown and 
Worth. Date of muster, September 13, 1862, 
by W. G Edgerton, 11th Infantry, U. S. 

army. This company rendered service in 
the department of Washington, advancing 
to the front with its regiment, March, 1864 ; 
was engaged in the siege of Petersburg and 
battle of Bermuda Hundred, retiring from 
the service with a record second to none; 
mustering out with the regiment, June 23, 
1865, and discharged at Sackets Harbor, N. 
Y. At Cold Harbor the captain narrowly 
escaped. The enemy charged on our lines, 
and one of the men in his fright ,held his 
thumb over the muzzle of his piece, stooped 
down and with the other hand fired his gun. 
Either the thumb or the ball passed through 
the captain's hat. sadly marring that 

H. O. Gilmore, captain ; R. R. Bell, 1st 
lieutenant; P. B. Grant, 3d lieutenant. 


Capt. B. B. Taggart's Co. "K" was re- 
cruited in Adams, Antwerp. Brownville, 
Osceola, LeRay, Houndsfield, Watertown, 
Worth, Clayton, Rutland and Orleans; 
originally mustered as Co. "C,"8d battal- 
ion, subsequently mustered as 7th; served 
in Ne^w York harbor; joined the regi- 
ment in the department of Washington 
in the winter of 1863, and served with the 
regiment in defenses of Washington until 
the advance in 1864; served in front of 
Petersburg and Bermuda Hundred, and in 
the Shenandoah Valley; mustered out with 
regiment in June. 1865; suffering its full 
share in loss of killed and wounded. 

B. B. Taggart, captain; Fred Lansing, 1st 


Capt. Jas. E. Green's Co. " L," Tenth N- 
Y. Heavy Artillery, was raised mostly in 
Ellisburgh, Henderson and Lyme. James 
E. Green, M. A. Hackley and C. E. Seaton 
were the parties who were the most effec- 
tive in getting the enlistments of men. 
Capt. Gould had some men whom had en- 
listed in the northern part of the county, 
mostly from Lyme. The command gath- 
ered at Sackets Harbor about the middle 
of September, 1863, which place they left 
about the 19th of September, and arrived 
in New York on the 30th. Under the com- 
mand of Captain Gould; after one night 
spent at Park Barracks, they were sent to 
Camp Arthur, Staten Island. Up to this 
time none of the men had been mustered 
into the U. S. service. About this time dif- 
ferences of opinion arose between Gould, 
Green and otliers, as to who should be the 
company's officers, the finale of which was 
that Capt. Gould was ordered to turn his 
men over to J. E. Green. The men were 
nearly mutinous, and refused to be mus- 
tered, but they were ordered in line at the 
camp, and marched on board a steamer, and 
conveyed to Fort Schuyler, where they 
were mustered. 

James E. Green, captain; O. Williams, 
Ist lieutenant; C. E. Seaton, 3d lieutenant. 




Capt. J. B. Campbell's company was 
originally mustered as " C," of 3(1 battalion; 
were enlisted at EUisburgh. Henderson, 
Adams, Watertown, Lyme, Cape Vincent 
and Houndsfleld ; was mustered September 
11, 1862, by W. D. Edgerton, lltli U. S. In- 
fantry; served in the department of Wash- 
ington: advanced with their regiment in 
1864, took part in the siege of Petersburg 
and the battle of Bermuda Hundred; was 
then commanded by J. C. Armstrong, cap- 
tain; was mustered out with the regiment 
June 23, 1865. Losing heavily in the cam- 
paign of the James and Shenandoah Valley, 
its ranks were badly depleted on its final 
discharge at Sackets Harbor. 

J. B. Campbell, captain; J. C. Armstrong, 
1st lieutenant ; R. B. Brown, 1st lieutenant; 
John M. Wilcox, 3d lieutenant; Philip 
Riley, 2d lieutenant. 

This regiment saw important service, and 
made an honorable record, as did all the 
Jefferson county troops. We have not space 
to follow in detail its many movements and 
engagements. It performed, with credit, 
every duty imposed upon it, its ranks were 
filled with a fine body of men, and its ser- 
vices appreciated by the people. 

Of the 10th Heavy Artillery roster we can 
only give the names of the officers: 

Spratt, Joseph, lieut.-ool. Spear, Chas. B., Istlieut. 

Campbell, Jas. B., maj . Reed, Morris A-. 1st lieut. 

Osborne, Thos. W., maj. Parker, H. A., 1st lieut. 

Abell, Charles C. , maj. Eottiers, V. B., 1st lieut. 

Cowles, Seneca R. , maj Eeeiian. P. H., 1st lieut. 

Wheelock, Ad'n W., adjt. Kennedy, Alex., 1st lieut. 

Flower, Stephen W., q. m. Frame, S. W. 1st lieut. 

Copeland. Oliver S., surg. Seaton, A. B., 1st lieut. 

Goodale, A.W., asst.-surg. Ackerman, T. B., 1st lieut. 

Hubbard, G.N. , aast.-surg. GrifBn', Morrison, 1st lieut. 

Hobbs, Benj., asst.surg. Westcott, J. H ,1st lieut. 

Pope, B. F., asst.-surg. Burdick, D. W., 1st lieut. 

Wilson, Moses B., chap. Bell, Robert R , 1st lieut. 

Cleghom, Adams , capt. Hill, Wallace R., 1st lieut. 

Huntington, I. L., capt. Lansing, Fred., 1st lieut. 

Carter, Lucien E . capt. Riley, Philip, 1st heut. 

Armstrong, Jno. C, capt. Andrews, Mark, 1st lieut. 

Kltts, Giles F., capt. McKnight, E. 1st lieut. 

Sherman, Frnk'n O . ,capt. Williams, O., 1st lieut. 

Webb, Edward P., capt. Ranney, Daniel, 1st lieut. 

Chapman, Bug'e A., capt. Allen, M. J., 1st lieut. 

Hart, William J., capt. Seaton, C. E., 1st lieut. 

Biddlecome, R. B., cnpt. Flint, Wm. H., 2d lieut 

Marshall, Guvera H.,capt. Cooper, D. W . , 2d lieut. 

Tobey, Elisha H., capt. Wilkinson, J. L., 2dlieut. 

Getman, Elias, capt. Marshall, T. B., 2d lieut. 

Vanderburgh, J. S., capt. Horr, W. A., 2d lieut 

Middleton Sam. (2d), capt. Rouse. Gaylor, 2d lieut. 

Parker. John H., capt Cowan, E. R , 2d lieut. 

Taggart. Byron B., capt. Kellogg, E. H , 2d lieut. 

Grant, Philander B., capt Morris, Jas. H., 8d lieut. 

Rising, Leman A., capt. Farnham, P. F., 2d lieut. 

Green, James B., capt, Wilhams, W. A,, 2d lieut. 

Smith, Edward H. , capt. Spalsbury, H. E,, 2d heut. 

Tyler, Elman, 1st lieut, Watson, D. A,. 2d lieut. 

Miontague, H., 1st lieut, Gunn, Chas, L , 2d lieut. 

Freeman, W. P., 1st Iieut. Wood, Geo, W,, 2d lieut, 

Wheeler, A. A., 1st lieut. MoKee, R, J,, 2d lieut, 

Jones, R. M,, 1st lieut. Comstock, W. M,, 2d lieut. 

Cadwell, O, B , 1st lieut. Hall, Alonzo P,, 2d lieut. 

Salter, Geo B,, 1st lieut Miller, Eugene, 2d lieut 

Johnson, F, B,, 1st lieut. Gorse, John W., 2d lieut. 

Jaylor, J. A,, 1st lieut, Payne, H. D., 2d lieut. 

Cook, Mal'm G., 1st lieut. Butterfleld, L, A, ,3d lieut. 

Brown, B, B,, 1st lieut. Dwyer, Jas, A,, 2d lieut. 

Wilcox, J M,, 1st lieut. Knight, J H , 2d lieut. 

Ward, Jas. S , 1st lieut. Smith, G. St, Clair,2d lieut. 

Welch, J, S , 2d lieut. Hoyle, Jos, T,, 2d lieut. 

Evans, John F,, 2d lieut, Seaton, L,, Jr., Sd lieut. 

Swan, Martin D,, 2d lieut. Hurd, DeWitt C, 2d lieut. 

Richards, A, D, 2d lieut. Porter, G.. Jr.. (died) 2d It. 

Thurber, C, K , 2d lieut. Webster, F. F., 2d lieut. 

Cross, Isaac T., 2d lieut. Bell, Robt. R , 2d lieut. 

In March, 1864, when the regiment was 
ordered into active service, the regimental 
officers were as follows: Alexander Piper, 
colonel; Joseph Spratt, lieutenant-colonel; 
George D. Arden, major; James B. Camp- 
bell, major; C. C. Abell, major; L. R. 
Cowles major: A. W. Wheelock, adjutant; 
Stephen R. Flower, quartermaster; Dr. O. 
S. Copeland, surgeon; A. W. Goodale, 
assistant surgeon; Rev. M. Wilson, chap- 

Twenty-fourth Infantry. 

Company K of this regiment was organ- 
ized at EUisburgh, by Andrew J. Barney, 
who became its captain. The regiment was 
organized by the State Military Board May 
16, 1861, and on July 2 it was mustered into 
the service of the United States, leaving 
Elmira the same day. fully armed and 
equipped, and proceeding via Harrisburg 
and Baltimore to Washington, where it 
arrived July 3, and camped on Meridian 
Hill until July 21, at which date it received 
long Enfield rifled muskets in exchange for 
the percussion muskets with which it had 
left New York State. During the winter of 
1861-2 the regiment was enca,mped on 
Upton's Hill. After being brigaded differ- 
ently several times it was, in March, 1862, 
assigned to the 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 
1st Corps, and in September, 1862, the 
brigade was known as the Iron Brigade, 
commanded by General Hatch and Colonel 
Sullivan. Col. Phelps, of the 22d regiment, 
took command of the brigade September 14 
and continued in that position until its dis- 
solution by reason of the expiration of the 
terms of service of the 22d, 24th and 30th 

After various minor engagements a sharp 
skirmish was had in May, 1862, called the 
battle of Falmouth. August 10th they left 
Falmouth for Cedar Mountain, where they 
stayed four days under artillery fire, the 
regiment losing one man killed in company 
D. On August 28th they were under fire at 
Groveton, but were not engaged. On the 
30th they were sharply engaged at Bull Run 
for about an hour and twenty minutes, 
losing several men. Between four and five 
o'clock on Sunday evening, September 14, 
1862, they went into the fight at South 
Mountain, Md., to which point they had 
been moved via Washington, Rockville, 
New Market and Frederick City. After 
several times changing position, and con- 
stantly skirmishing, they forded Antietam 
creek on the morning of the 16th and moved 
to the right, abreast of the celebrated corn- 
field. On the morning of the 17th they be- 
came hotly engaged and lost several men, 
among them Capt. J. D. O'Brien, of com- 
pany A, and Ensign John S. McNair. The 



regiment next participated in General Burn- 
side's unfortunate Fredericksburg battle, 
December 13, 1863. In the battle of Chan- 
cellorsville they were also engaged, and 
about the middle of May, succeeding that 
engagement, they were ordered home and 
mustered out at Oswego at the expiration 
of their term of service — two years. 
Major Barney was killed in one of the 

One Hundred and Ninety-third Inf. 

This regiment was raised at Auburn, N. 
Y., to serve for one, two and three years. 
Jefferson county furnished a considerable 
number of men for it. although it was filled 
up with men from the counties of Cayuga, 
Oswego, Onondaga, Oneida, St. Lawrence 
and Franklin, besides. It was mustered 
into the service of the United States in the 
spring of 1865 and mustered out of service 
January 18, 1866, in accordance with orders 
fi'om the War Dopartment. 

Sixth Cavalry — "Second Ira Harris 

Jefferson county furnished a number of 
men for this regiment, which was mustered 
into the service of the United States from 
September 13 to December 19, 1861. The 
original members were mustered out on the 
expiration of their term of service, and the 
organization, composed of veterans and 
recruits retained in service, and on the 
17th of June, 1865, consolidated with the 
15th N. Y. Volunteer Cavalry, the consoli- 
dated force being known as the 3d N. Y. 
Provisional Cavalry. Its list of engage- 
ments embrace the following: South Moun- 
tain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Spottsyl- 
vania, Chancellorsville, Beverley Ford, 
Middleburg.Upperville, Gettysburg, Brandy 
Station, Rappahannock Station, Mine Run, 
MechanicsviUe, Wilderness, Todd's Tavern, 
Hawe's Shop, Cold Harbor, Deep Bottom, 
Opequon, Fisher's Hill, Cedar Creek, Appo- 
mattox Station, Siege of Richmond. 

Thirteenth Cavalry. 

This regiment was organized in New 
York city to serve three years, and a de- 
tachment of men from Jefferson county 
joined it. It was mustered into the United 
States service from February, 1863, to March, 
1864. On the 33d of June, 1865, the regi- 
ment was consolidated with the 16th N. Y. 
Cavalry, and the consolidated force known 
as the 3d N. Y. Provisional Cavalry. Its 
principal engagements were at Aldie, Fair- 
fax Station, Centerville, Culpepper and 
Piedmont, and its loss was comparatively 
slight. The men from Jefferson county be- 
longed in four companies of the regiment. 

Eighteenth Cavalry. 

This regiment was organized in New York 
city to serve three years. The companies of 
which it was composed were raised in the 
counties of New York, Albany, Jefferson, 
Lewis, Fi-anklin, Herkimer and Erie. It 
was mustered into the service of the United 
States from July 13, 1863, to February 3, 
1864. On June 13, 1865, it was consolidated 
with the 14th N. Y. Cavalry, the consoli- 
dated force retaining the name — 18th N. Y. 
Cavalry. This force remained in service 
until May 31, 1865, when it was mustered 
out in accordance with orders from the War 

The following were officers in the 18th: 

Smith, Warren S., capt. Bell, John A. , 1st lieut. 

Enos, William W., caot. McNeil, Floyd, 8d lieut. 

Gaige, William H., uapt. Davenport, E., 3d lieut. 

Simpson, Jos. H ., capt. Clark, G. P , 2d lieut. 

Montenay, Charles, capt. Smith, John M., 2d lieut. 

Cummings. A., 1st lieut. Keenan, John, 2d lieut. 

Hall, Ira, Jr., 1st lieut. Cady, Aaron C, 2d lieut. 
Folts, Ira I., 1st lieut. 

Twentieth Cavalry. 

The 30th Cavalry was organized at 
Saokets Harbor, N. Y., to serve three 
years. Its men were principally from Jef- 
ferson county, although the counties of 
Lewis, St. Lawrence, Oswego, Onondaga 
and Albany were also represented. The 
regiment was mustered into the United 
States service from September 3 to Septem- 
ber 30th, 1863, and after a varied experience 
was mustered out July 31 , 1865, in accord- 
ance with orders from the War Department. 
It was known as the McClellan Cavalry; 
went out with 13 companies, and was a fine 
body of men. 

Lord, Newton B., col. Hubbard, Wm., 1st lieut. 

Evans, David M,, col. Croissant, L, 1st lieut. 

Gates, Jabob S., lieut.-col. Hodge, DC, 1st lieut. 

Cudworth, John G., maj. Randall, W. H., 1st lieut. 

O'Hara, John, maj. Goddard, E. P. , 1st lieut. 

Fitzpatrick, Patrick, maj. Lee, Luther, Jr., 1st lieut. 

Horn, Albert V., adjt. Wilcox, Sam. B., 1st lieut. 

Zimmerman. C. E., q. ni. Cook, H. C, 1st lieut. i 

Pollard, E. D. C, qr. mr. Choatc, Geo. R , 1st lieut. 

Carter, N. M., asst.-surg. Dillenbeck; J. S., 1st lieut. 

Catlin, Chas., asst.-surg. Watson, L. C, 2d lieut. 

W'inslow, Jedediah, chap. Budd, Jos. P., Sd lieut. 

Ford, Wayland F., capt. SaJEord, Wm. H., 2d lieut. 

Budd, Benj. C, capt. Joy, S. H., 2d lieut. 

Reynolds, Wm., capt. Robb, Walter, 8d lieut. 

Eyther, Wm. F.,capt Bodge, E C, 2d lieut. 

Chittenden, H. C, capt. Johns, James, 2d lieut. 

Butler, Thos. H.. capt. Betts, Wm. H., 2d lieut. 

Spencer, James, Jr., capt. Wood, Greo. W., 2d lieut. 

Lee, John D., capt. Malone, Henry, 2d lieut. 

Carse, Alfred J, capt. Thompson.C E.,2dlieut. 

Betts, Wm. E., 1st lieut. Town, Charles, 2d lieut. 

MoNally, J. J., 1st lieut. Trout, Wm., 2d lieut. 

Twenty-fourth Cavalry. 

This regiment was oi-ganized at Auburn, 
N. Y., to serve three years, and contained a 
number of men from Jefferson county. It 
was mustered into the service in January, 
1864, and on the 17th of June, 1865, was 
consolidated with the 10th N. Y. Cavalry, 
the united force being called the First New 
York Provisional Cavalry. Its principal 



engagements were the battles of the Wil- 
derness, Spottsj'lvania, Guinea Station, 
North Anna Tolopotoniy, Bethesda Church, 
Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Cemetery Hill, 
Weldon Railroad, Reams's Station. Peeble's 
Farm, Vaughan Road and Bellefleld; and 
in these the regiment lost to a considerable 
extent. A number of its officers were 
killed in action and others died of wounds, 
while tlie loss among the men was propor- 

r Twenty-sixth (Frontier) Cavalry. 

This regiment was organized in the States 
of New York, Massachusetts and Vermont, 
under special authority from the Secretary 
of War, to serve on the frontier for one 
year. It was principally engaged in protect- 
ing the northern frontier and looking after 
suspicious characters, " bounty jumpers," 
rebel sympathizers, etc., one detachment 
being stationed at Saokets Harbor. Five 
companies were organized in this State, 
composed of men from the counties of St. 
Lawrence, Jefferson. Lewis, Franklin, Clin- 
ton, Essex and Erie. The regiment was 
mustered in from December 29, 1864, to 
February 28. 1865, and was mustered out by 
companies from June 29, 1865. to July 7, 
1865, in accordance with orders from the 
War Department. 

First Regiment "Veteran" Cavalry. 
This was organized at Geneva, N. Y., to 
serve three years, and mustered into the 
U. S. service from July 25th to November 
19, 1863. The 17th N. Y. Cavalry was con- 
solidated with it Sept. 17, 1863, and the 
new organization contained a considerable 
number of men from Jefferson county. 
The regiment was mustered out July 20, 
1865, in accordance with orders from the 
War Department. 

First New York Light Artillery. 

Company C, Capt. John W. Tamblin, was 
organized in Jefferson county, and mustered 
in from September 6 to October 24, 1861. 
It participated in the battles of Fredericks- 
burg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Rappa- 
hannock Station, Mine Run, Spottsylvania, 
North Anna, Tolopotomy, Bethesda Church, 
Petersburg and Weldon Railroad, and was 
mustered out, in accordance with orders 
from the War Department, June 17, 1865, 
after nearly four years of active service. 

Company D, Capt. Thomas W. Osborn, 
was in part from Jefferson county, and was 
mustered in from September 6 to October 
25, 186i. Its list of important engagements 
is a long one, and tells a truthful tale of 
bravery and hard service. It took active 
part in the battles of Yorktown, Williams- 
burg, Seven Pines, Battle of June 25, 1862, 
Peach Orchard, Savage Station, White Oak 
Swamp, Glendale, Malvern Hill, Fredericks- 
burg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Rappa- 

hannock Station, Mine Run, Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania, North Anna, Tolopotomy, 
Bethesda Church, Petersburg, Weldon Rail- 
road and Chapel House. The battery was 
mustered out of service June 15, 1865. 
Major Osborn was afterward U. S. Senator 
from Florida. 

Company H. Capt. Joseph Spratt, was 
raised principally in Jefferson county, and 
mustered into the service of the United 
States from the 10th to the 28th of October, 
1861. It was engaged at Yorktown, Fair 
Oaks, White Oak Swamp, Malvern Hill, 
Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North 
Anna, Tolopotomy, Bethesda Church, 
Petersburg, Weldon Kailroad, Peeble's Farm 
and Hatcher's Run, and was mustered out 
of service June 19, 1865. 

First Regiment (Gov. Morgan's) U. S. 
Light Artillery. 
Company H, of this regiment, Capt. Chas. 
L. Smith, was raised at Watertown and 
Carthage, for the term of three years, and 
mustered in July 24, 1861. This organiza- 
tion became a part of the 2d N. Y. Light 
Artillery On the expiration of its term of 
service the original members were mustered 
out, and the regiment, composed of vet- 
erans and recruits, retained in service. It 
was consolidated into eight companies, and 
four companies of the 9th N. Y. Artillery 
transferred to it June 27, 1865. The regi- 
ment was mustered out Sept. 29. 1865, in 
accordance with orders from the War De- 
partment. Its battles were ; Second Bull 
Run, North Anna, Spottsylvania, Tolo- 
potomy, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Straw- 
berry Plains, Deep Bottom, New Market 
Road, Charles City Cross-Roads and Reams's 
Station. The 2d Regiment lost 841 men in 
killed, wounded and missing. 

Fifth Artillery. 
The third batallion of the " Black River 
Artillery," assigned to this regiment, con- 
sisted of several companies raised in the 
counties of Jefferson and Lewis, mustered 
into the U. S. service in September, 1862. 
They were attached to the 5th Regiment, 
forming batteries I, K, L and M, to serve 
three years. On the expiration of its term 
of service, the original members of the regi- 
ment (except veterans) were mustered out, 
and the organization composed of veterans 
and recruits retained in service until July 
19, 1865, when it was mustered out in accord- 
ance with orders from the War Department. 
The principal engagements in which the 
regiment participated were at Point of 
Rocks, Berlin, Sandy Hook and Harper's 

Thirteenth Artillery. 
Jefferson county furnished a number of 
men for this regiment, which was organized 
in the city of New York, and composed of 


men from various parts of tlie State. It 
was mustered in from August, 1863, to Sep- 
tember, 1864. On the 27th of June. 1865, 
the organization was consolidated into a 
battalion of five companies, and transferred 
to the 6th N. Y. Artillery. 

Fourteenth Artillery. 
This regiment was organized at Rochester, 
to serve three years. Jefferson county fur- 
nished a considerable number of men. The 
regiment was mustered in from August 29 
to December 17, 1863, and after participa- 
ting in the battles of Spottsylvania, Peters- 
burg, Weldon Railroad, Poplar Spring 
Chui-ch, Cold Harbor and Hatcher's Run, 
was mustered out, in accordance with 
orders from the War Department, August 
26, 1865. 

Hnntington.G. B.,2d lieut. Van lirakle, C. H., adjt. 

Hunt, Wm. W., 2d lieut. Proctor, Jerome B, capt. 

Cuppernell, B., 2d lieut. Cooper, Jerome, capt. 

Curtis, Kelsey, 2d lieut. Gardner, S. , 1st lieut. 

Corbin, Daniel, Sd lieut. Warring, Wm.. 1st lieut. 
Thompson, F. M.,lst lieut. 

Sixteenth Artillery. 
This regiment was mustered into the U. S- 
service from Septeaiber 28, 1863, to January 
28, 1864, and contained a small detachment 
of men from Jefferson county. It was 
mustered out of service August 21, 1865. 

Independent ■ Batteries Nos. 20 and 28. 
Each contained men from Jefferson 
county, the latter having quite a detach- 
ment. The 20th Battery was mustex-ed in 
December 27, 1862, and mustered out July 

31, 1865. The 28th Battery was mustered 
in and out at the same dates as the 20th. 

Other Regiments. 

Aside from those already mentioned, the 
following regiments contained men from 
Jefferson county: 

Infantry — The 3d, 53d, 57th. 59th (U. S. 
Van-Guard), 81st, 93d, 97th, 102d and 106th. 

Cavalry — 1st, 11th (Scott's 900), and 25th; 
and possibly the county was also repre- 
sented in other regiments, of which we 
find no account. Numerous individuals en- 
listed and were mustered into the service 
from other States. 

Officers of the 186th. 
The following roster of officers of the 
186th New York should have appeared on 

p. 72: 

Winslow, Bradley, col. 
Marsh E.Jay, lieut. -col. 
Sternberg, A . D . , maj . 
Field, Andrew J., adJt. 
Marsh, Luther M, adjt. 
Timmerman,Calvin,q. m. 
Bailey. William C , surg. 
Carlisle, E. S , asst.-surg. 
Coleman, J. C., asst.-surg. 
Shaw, Jas H., asst.-surg. 
Burnett, John H. , chap. 
Snell, Lansing, capt. 
Mc Wayne. Jay D , capt. 
Legg, Judson P., capt. 
Swan, Edwin, capt. 
Yates, Heniy, capt. 
McMuUen, R. R., capt. 
Squires. Charles D., capt. 
Ferris, George E., capt. 
Wallace, Wm. R., capt. 
Hood, Daniel B., capt. 
Brown, K. W , capt. 
Reynolds, John M., capt. 

Bates,. Huxham P , capt. 
Gleason, W. W., 1st lieut 
Edwards, C. J., 1st lieut. 
Brown, B. B., 1st lieut. 
Phillips, A. S., 1st lieut. 
Phelps, C. N., 1st. lieut. 
Peck, Wm. K., 1st lieut. 
Taylor, Jas A., 1st. lieut. 
Morse, Amos, 1st lieut. 
Jones, Ed. E., 1st lieut. 
Matthews. Jas., 1st lieut. 
Herring, W. P., 1st lieut. 
Marsh. Walter P., 2d lieut. 
Failing, Walsteen, 2d It. 
MoComber, E., 2d lieut. 
Staplin , Delos, 2d lieut 
Grunett, H. C, 2d lieut. 
Ladd, Alex., 2d lieut. 
Robertson, C. C, 2d lieut. 
Brown, H. W., 2d lieut. 
Cutler, O. L. 2d lieut. 
nartlett, J. W,, 2d lieut. 
Horr, Jas. G, 2d lieut. 


We have said hitherto that we are fortu- 
nate, nearly thirty years after the Civil War 
closed, to be able to record, from the obser- 
vations of living participants, an account 
of the brave men who went to the front in 
response to President Lincoln's call for 
troops. Capt. Charles W. Sloat, well known 
in our city and county, has prepared some 
data relating to the 94th, and we insert it 
with pleasure, for it helps to make history of 
one of the most gallant regiments that went 
from old Jefferson. No braver or more 
loyal officer than the writer of tliis history 
of the 94th, served during our war. He 
was ever true to duty, fearless in action and 
efficient always. Beloved by his men, a 
model in personal character, he was a fine 
type of the resolute and patriotic American 
volunteer. The captain says: 

The 94th Regiment N. Y. Vols, was 
among the first of the 3-years' troops. It 
came upon the scene of war after it had be- 
come certain that the rebellion was not the 
60-day affair of the early summer of 1861; 

yet not so late that the burning heat of 
patriotism had lost any of its fervor. Its 
ranks were composed mainly of the youth of 
Jefferson county, whose hearts thrilled with 
a love of country. No thought of gain, and 
nothing of personal ambition for office had 
place in the hearts of those early volunteers. 
The 94th in its inception was" a Jefferson 
county regiment, but the fortunes of war 
afterwards made it a composite affair — it 
being largely recruited from Buffalo just 
before the Second Bull Run battle, and in 
the winter of 1862-3 was consolidated with 
the 105th New York. The original organ- 
ization was mustered into service at Sackets 
Harbor, Dec. 9, 1861. The rank and file 
soon understood that politics as well as 
patriotism were among the motives which 
moved men, and that they must go into war, 
not with the acquaintances and friends of 
their lives, but with strangers as officers. 
Yet all would have been well if the colonel 
who shortly took command had been as 
sober and reliable as he was gallant and 



soldierly in appearance. He was a gentle- 
man, and but for the one too common fault, 
would no doubt have been a credit to the 
regiment. Col. Viele had next under him 
Col. Calvin Littlefield, and for adjutant, 
brought with him, from Buffalo, J. Fred 

The regiment marched to Watertown, 
over the still remaining snow banks, and 
took the cars at the lower depot. It was 
nearly up to the maximum in numbers, and 
was greeted by a large crowd of friends and 
well-wishers, who sent it on its way with 
many a. glistening eye and " God speed." 
It seemed destined from the start to be a 
regiment of more than ordinary adventure. 
Its first experience was a plunge into the 
Hudson river at Tivoli, through an accident 
to the train. Here several of the officers' 
horses were drowned. There were a num- 
ber of narrow escapes. Quartermaster D. 
O. DeWolf , of Sackets Harbor, took a bath 
in the icy river, which nearly proved fatal 
to him. He afterward did good service in 
his department. The regiment stayed in 
New York city a couple of days, living in 
the barracks, then occupying the City Hall 
park. From there it passed through Phila- 
delphia and partook of the hospitality of 
the famous" Soldier's Rest," thence through 
the streets of Baltimore and Washington — 
at the latter city going into barracks at 
Meridian Hill. Here a cold and continuous 
rain, combined with the dirtiest of quarters, 
caused many a boy to think of his mother's 
comfortable home; making him, if not 
exactly homesick, something very like it. 
Next we were called to Alexandria, Va., 
doing guard duty for the town, then, after 
about a month, we occupied Fort Lyon, 
south of the city. Here Colonel Adrian R. 
Root, of Buffalo, took command. 

Colonel Root was a man of fine appear- 
ance, then about 30 years of age, of good 
executive ability, and proved a very useful 
officer. Straight as an arrow, six feet or 
more in height, with a pronounced military 
bearing, he made his regiment proud of him. 
Discipline and good order prevailed, owing, 
in a great measure, to the influence of Col. 
Root. After about a month at Fort Lyon, 
the spring campaign of 1862 began. The 
regiment's first move was down the Poto- 
mac to Acquia Creek, and then marched to 
the Rappahannock, at Fredericksburg. 
We lay there but a day or two, when, with 
the rest of the division, under General Ord, 
we were put upon a forced march to the 
Valley of the Shenadoah to intercept Jack- 
son, who was just then making his famous 
record as a marcher. Stopping a week in 
the vicinity of Front Royal, the regiment 
then retraced its steps to Manassas, and 

About this time General Pope was put in 
command of all the forces in front of Wash- 
ington, and the campaign with "headquar- 
ters in the saddle " was begun. On the 4th 
of July, 1863, our march was again resumed. 

which brought us during the next day under 
fire at Cedar Mountain. The regiment was 
not called upon for any real fighting, but the 
sight of wounded going to the rear, the 
shriek of shot and shell, continuing longinto 
the night, made a picture well calculated to 
try their mettle. During the night the 
rebels retired, and we followed towards the 
Rapidan. A short stay there and again a 
' ' skedaddle " to Rappahannock Station, with 
the enemy in hot pursuit. Here, under a 
furious cannonade from across the stream, 
we again marched away toward the gaps in 
the mountains, and to the line which finally 
brought us up to Second Bull Run. This 
regiment, then in the division of General 
Ricketts, was ordered to intercept Long- 
street at Thoroughfare Gap. We were 
partly successful — delaying his march, 
though finally brushed away by superior 
numbers. During the 29th of August, 
marching and countermarching, Rickett's 
division was finally posted on the east side 
of the Sudley Road, near the Warrenton 

On the afternoon of the 30th, when the 
last grand struggle of the battle was at its 
height, the regiment with the rest of Tower's 
brigade of Rickett's division was pushed 
forward to the assistance of the Union left, 
where Gen. R. C. Shenck had been wounded, 
with a somewhat demoralizing effect upon 
his men. Genera) Pope, in his report, said 
of this movement: "Towers' brigade of 
Rickett's division, was pushed forward to 
Schenok's suppoi't, and the brigade was led 
by General Tower in person, with con- 
spicuous gallantry. The conduct of these 
two brigades and their commanders, in 
plain view of our whole left, was especially 
distinguished, and called forth hearty and 
enthusiastic cheers. Their example was of 
great service, and seemed to infuse new 
spirit into the troops who witnessed their 
intrepid conduct." 

Whatever may have combined to defeat 
the Union forces at Second Bull Run, cer- 
tainly one of them was not the failure of 
Tower's brigade to perform its duty there. 
A word of praise is due the memory of the 
300 or more killed and wounded in the 30- 
minutes' exposure to the fire of overwhelm- 
ing numbers upon that barren knoll. There 
are several brave men now walking the 
streets of Watertown whose bodies bear the 
scars of that day. Lieut. George Macomber 
there received a bullet through his shoulder, 
which disabled him for futui'e service. 
Lieut. W. J. M. Woodward, of Co. K, was 
so severely wounded that death followed . 
His body was sent home to Adams Centre 
and buried in the family lot. Private John 
Scott was borne down, and before he could 
be removed received as many as eight dif- 
ferent wounds. Sergt. Bi-ayton C Bailey, 
of H. Co., carried a buck shot in his skull 
for years. Col. Adrian R. Root gallantly 
exposed himself in front of his troops while 
in the most critical period of the fight, and 



was Slightly wounded. All the sacrifice 
was of no avail, and a general i-etreat, not 
to say rout, followed. 

At Centerville that night a wonderful 
picture was presented. For miles on the 
plains could be seen the camp-fires, where 
were bivouacked the bulk of General Pope's 
army. About those fires were groups of 
three to five soldiers — and in most cases 
strangers to each other. A 94th man going 
toward Centerville that evening was hailed 
by a group at one of these fires — "Hallo, 
comrade, where are you going : stop here 
and cook your coffee. That fellow belongs 
to a Massachusetts regiment, tliis one to a 
Pennsylvania, and another to the 1st Vir- 
ginia, so you, being a New York man, will 
be entirely ' at liome ' here." 

Following the action at Second Bull Run, 
in common with the rest of the army, the 
94th took up its march for South Jlountain 
and Antietam, doing its share of the fight- 
ing at both places. Then came Dec. 13, 

1862, and the Fiedericksburg engagement. 
Here Lieutenant Levi Carpenter was ruined 
for life by a wound in the head, whicli 
finally resulted in brain trouble and death 
long years after. Alfred Turcott, a brave 
and good soldier, lost a leg. The regiment 
here was under command of JVajor Kress, a 
gallant fellow from the regular army. 
Charles E. Scoville, its adjutant, was par- 
ticularly conspicuous for gallant bearing 
and encouragement to the men during a 
charge. After Fredericksburg we went 
into camp at Belle Plain, where in March, 

1863, we were consolidated with the lOoth. 
The men of both organizations were dis- 
posed to resent this consolidation, but many 
good officers and men were thus brought 
together and soon the best of feeling ex- 

The campaign called ' ■ Burnside's Mud 
March,"' took place long before good weather 
could be expected, and the fruitless Mine 
Run was the result. Then came Chancel- 
lorsville under Hooker. Then a long period 
of camp life, followed by Lee's invasion of 
Pennsylvania and the battle of Gettysburg. 
Here the 94th was in the 1st corps, Rickett's 
division, with General Paul commanding 
our brigade. He was wounded, and the 
command of that brigade devolved upon 
Colonel Root. It was the misfortune of the 
1st and 11th corps to meet here on the first 
day nearly the combined rebel force. The 
94th occupied ground adjoining the 11th 
corps, whieli was on their right, facing 
nearly north and about a mile outside of 
Gettysburg. The 11th corps gave way al- 
most bodily, as did the left of the 1st, leav- 
ing the troops near the 94th, which were in 
the woods, in advance of both wings, so 
that when they began also to give way, they 
found the roads so obstructed that escape 
for many was impossible. About one-half 
of the 94th was captured at this time, and 
corralled with about 5,000 other prisoners 
that night. They accepted parole on the 

field, and were soon returned to their com- 
rades at the front. 

During the following winter we were or- 
dered to guard Camp Parole at Annapolis. 
Stayed liere till Grant's camijaign of the 
next year was well under way, and joined 
the army at Cold Harbor. From thence 
to the close of the war were identified with 
the Army of the Potomac, and were in most 
of its battles. At Petersburg, on the 18th 
of June, 1864, it charged the fort, which 
was afterwards mined and blown up, caus- 
ing such destruction to Burnside's colored 
division. In this chai-ge Comrade Levi Rel- 
yea was so badly wounded that he died — a 
record of his devotion to his countrj' and 
sacrifice for it, is worthy a place in the his- 
tory of his county. 

During the summer of 1864 the duties of 
the regiment were both arduous and dan- 
gerous. In constant exposure from the 
enemy, with many long marches and much 
building of earthworks, the tedious days 
were passed. In August occurred the affair 
at the Weldon Railroad, in which another 
large detachment of the regiment fell into 
the hands of the enemy ; most of them not 
returning until the close of the war, when 
Andersonville gave up its almost dead. 
Among these was William Loan, an honored 
name both in the army, and afterward as a 
citizen of Watertown. 

Its battle record is nearly that of the 
Army of the Potomac. The last campaign, 
which was ended at Appomattox, closed the 
story of one of the best regiments in the 
service. Among a noble band of recruits, 
which joined the regiment just before the 
second Bull Run, was a young man from 
Buffalo, N. Y., about 20 yeai-s of age, named 
Henry H. Fish. He had joined the army 
actuated by patriotic motives, and from the 
first was anxious to know and do his duty. 
Of a prominent family, his influence enabled 
him soon to get a commission as 1st lieuten- 
ant, and then as captain, followed by that 
of major, which, by the absence of (Jolonel 
Moffett, a prisoner of war, made him com- 
mander of the regiment. His gallant dis- 
position was manifested in this last cam- 
paign, and when lie might, without re- 
proach, have sought safety by being less 
conspicuous as a mark for the enemy by 
going into action dismounted, he insisted 
on leading his regiment on horseback. He 
was wounded early in the action, though 
not seriously. After a hasty visit to hos- 
pital, with bandaged head he again ap- 
peared, to encourage his men, and while 
cheering them on to the last final effort, he 
received his death wound. It is recorded 
upon an historical monument in Groton, 
Conn., of an uncle of Henry H. F'ish's 
mother: "Left his plow standing in the 
furrow to take part in defense of Fort Gris- 
wold, near here, during the Revolution, and 
next day his remains were brought home on 
an ox cart." The bodv of Major Henrv H. 
Fish was carried from the field of battle 









across the hoi-se of his chaplain, Rev. P. G. 
Cook, of Buffalo. Who shall say that the 
blood of that patriot of '76, flowing through 
this lad in '65, was not again performing 
service for its country ? Major Fish's body 
has honored rest in the family lot at Forest 
Lawn Cemetery, Buffalo. 

In the winter of 1864-65, many of the 
three-years men who had not enlisted were 
discharged; and when the victory was won 
and the regiment disbanded, so few from 
Jefferson county were left, that the return 
was only of a few individual members. Of 
a regiment whose rolls had contained, by 
consolidation and recruiting, nearly 3,000 
names, it may be said that not a ripple of 
excitement was made by its absorption into 
the citizenship of its native county. Ex- 
cept among the few survivors, its name is 
scarcely heard, but is surely entitled to the 
few lines recorded here. To most of its 
membership the hope that they did not 
march, fight or die in vain, is all the reward 
they desire. 

The names of many brave men must 
necessarily be omitted from a record like 
this. When the final roll is called, the 
names of Moffett, and Hulbert, and Leonard , 
and French, and Chester ; of White, Par- 
sons, Demarse, Chaplain Cook, Drs. Cham- 
berlain and Derby— and hundreds more will 
not fail to receive the " Well Done " which 
is the reward of those who perform their 
duty and their whole duty. 

Major D. W. C. Tomlinson, lately de- 
ceased, was a special favorite in the 94th. 
He was a man who could never have ex- 
celled as a tactician or in the formation of 
an army — but as a " good plain fighter " he 
had no superior. His true place would have 
been in the quartermaster's department, for 
his early knowledge of the means of trans- 
portation, often demanding the best skill of 
an army officer, would have enabled him to 
get out of the teamsters all that was in 
them. Every soldier knows the importance 
of the vpagon train of an armj-, but it is a 
curious fact that the teams were usually an 
hour or two behind the infantry regiments 
at the end of a day's march, and the tents 
could not be erected until the wagons 
caught up. 

In closing the record of this gallant regi- 
ment it should not be forgotten that its 
early organization and care at Madison Bar- 
racks were constantly looked after by Col. 
Walter B. Camp, who was directed by Gov. 
Morgan to perform that dutj' — and he dis- 
charged it in a manner that met the ap- 
proval not only of the Governor, but of all 
the men. who were well fed, well housed, 
and well protected. Ttiis mucli is due to 
Col. Camp, as part of the history of those 
times so full of excitement, and which have 
passed into history, to be looked upon in 
the future as we older ones regarded Lex- 
ington, and Bunker Hill, and Yorktown, 
or as the Revolutionary heroes looked back 
even to Thermopylae. 

Officers of the 94th. 

Viele, Heniy K.,col. 

Root, Adrain R., col. 

Littlefleld, C. . lieut.-eol. 

Kress, John A., lieut.-coI. 

Moffatt, S. A., lieut.-col. 

Hanford, Wm. R., maj. 

Tomlinson, D. C, maj. 

McMahon, John, maj. 

Fish, H. P. (killed in ac- 
tion), maj. 

Parson, Byron, maj. 

Erust, J. F., Jr., adjt. 

Scoville, Chas. E., adjt. 

Hulbert, Clias. E., adjt. 

Sprague, Chas. H., adjt. 

De Wolf. D. O., qr. mr. 

Shedd, Jerome I., qr. mr. 

Reed, J. S., qr. mr. 

Goodale, Cliarles, surg. 

Smith, A. H., surg. 

Avery, George W., surg. 

ChamlJerlaiD, D. C., surg. 

Seymour, E. G., asst.-surg. 

Brown. J. T., asst.-sui'g. 

Reynolds, J. D., asst.-surg. 

Derby, E. G., asst.-surg. 

Fuller, W. S., asst.-surg. 

Reynolds, Porter L. F., 
asst. -sui'g. 

Nichole, Wm. A., chap. 

Cook, Philos G.. chap. 

Beebe, Isaac M , capt. 

White, Horace G., capt. 

Mason, Orlo J., capt. 

Snell, Lansing, capt. 

Gates, Jacob S., capt. 

Lyttle, LafayettR F., capt. 

Chester, Waiter T. , capt. 

Emerson, James, capt. 

Searle, B. D., capt. 

Sears, T>exLer C., capt. 

Comee, Chris. C, capt. 

Oolton, H. S., capt. 

Hawkins, Oscar F., capt. 

Kilborn, C. W., capt. 

Place, Samuel, Jr., capt. 

Joy, Royal N., capt. 

Crawford, A. McL., capt. 

Mesler, Charles V., capt. 

Bibbins, Harri.son, capt. 

Nichols, Duane M., capt. 

Dayton, Ed. A., capt. 

Horr, Austin, capt. 

I.acy, John, capr. 

Doolittle, Isaac, capt. 

French G. (killed in ac- 
tion), capt. 

Leonard, Michael, capt. 

Briggs, I. E., capt. 

Carpenter, Levi, capt, 

Whiteside. John C, capt. 

Mallison, Joseph, capt. 

Nutting, Abel M., capt 

Tyler, Wallace W., capt. 

Rodgers, Chas. F., capt. 

Parker, Edward C, capt. 

Cooley, A. E., capt. 

Field, Augustus, capt. 

Moore, Abraham, capt. 

Benham, Willis, capt. 

Currie, James, Istlleut. 

Thomas, Jas. P., 1st lieuli. 

Johnson, A. A., Istlieut. 

Phillips, Jas. 0., 1st lieut. 

Philes, H. H., Istlieut. 

Moore, John D., 1st lieut. 

Colton, H. S., Istlieut. 

Hatch, Junius H., 1st lieut. 

Strong, Hayden, 1st lieut. 

Timraerman, C., 1st lieut. 

Mather, George, 1st lieut. 

Osham, Geo. H., 1st lieut. 

Swan, Henry, 1st lieut. 

De Marse, S., 1st lieut. 

Mayhew, E. V., 1st lieut. 

Cole, John B., 1st lieut. 

McComber, G., 1st lieut. 

Whiteside, B , 1st lieut. 

HoUey, Jas. D., Istlieut. 

Mansfield. J. M., 1st lieut. 

Coltier, Robert, Istlieut. 

Massey, F. J., Ist lieut. 

Merriam, R. B., 1st lieut. 

Woodward, W. J. M. 
(died of wounds), 1st It. 

Wodell, Isaac P.. 1st lieut. 

De Graff, John, 1st lieut. 

Crawfoi'd, P. (killed m ac- 
tion), Istlieut. 

Hendricks, Jas., 1st lieut. 

Ludlow, M. H., 1st lieut. 

Knowles, Wm., 1st lieut. 

Brainard, O. H., 2d lieut. 

De Forest, C. L , 2d lieut. 

Rundell, C. R., 2d lieut. 

Cook, Horace S., 2d lieut. 

Ford, Wayland, 2d lieut. ; 

Locklin, A. W., 2d lieut. 

Burns, E. M., 2d lieut. 

Washburne, Levi, 2d lieut. 

Swan, Henry, 2d lieut. 

Roseboom, H., 2d lieut. 

Smith, Warren S., 2d lieut. 

Burrows, Thos., 2d lieut. 

Merrill, E. M., 2d lieut. 

Smith, Frank, 2d lieut. 

Shuttis, S. G., 2d lieut. 

Ryan, P. R. , 2d lieut. 

Sloat, Chas. W., 2d Kent. 

Young. Richard, 2d lieut. 

Ludlow, M. H., 2d lieut. 

Mercer, D. D., 2d lieut. 

Flattery, John, 2d lieut. 

Quildthrite, W. W., 2d It. 

Williams. W. H., 2d lieut. 

Crane. W. E., 2d lieut. 

Hay, Alexandei', 2d lieut. 

Patterson, A . , 2d lieut. 

Smith, John R., 2d lieut. 

Wilder, G. D , 2d lieut. 

Brewer, Allen, 2d lieut. 

Hafie, Jonas, 2d lieut. 

AVhalon, Daniel, 2d lieut. 

Longmire, G , 2d lieut. 


The likenessess which appear on the pre- 
ceding pages are fair representations of the 
type of volunteei' citizen soldiers who com- 
prised the famous 35th Regiment. Tliese 
illustrations are here made use of as being 
a fair group of those veterans who have 
added to their military honors by success in 
civil life after passing into the history of the 
War of the Great Rebellion with a record as 
brave private soldiers or as distinguished 
officers. Several of these men were severely 
wounded — notably George F. Dressor, who 
lost a leg at Fredericks'ourg, and General 
Bradley Winslow, who was shot through 



the body while gallantly leading his men at 
the successful assault on Fort Mahone be- 
fore Petersburg. 

General Bradley "Winslow. 

The subject of this sketch comes from 
good New England stock, who were promi- 
nent pioneers in settling Northern New 
York. He is a direct descendant in the 
seventh generation of Knelm Winslow, a 
brother of Edward Winslow of Mayflower 
fame. Bradley Winslow was born August 
1, 1831, at the home of his father, the late 
Hon. John Winslow, on the Winslow home- 
stead, 2J miles from the city of Watertown. 
He was educated in the common scliools 
near his home, until, in his 16th year, he 
went to Cazenovia Seminary. Here he 
enjoyed the advantages of an excellent 
faculty, and made good progress in all his 
studies. In the winter of 1850-51 he at- 
tended school at Falley Seminary, in the 
village of Fulton, Oswego county. In 1852 
he entered as a student at Wyoming Semi- 
nary at Kingston, Pa., where he spent a 
year. This covered his school life, and he 
laid the foundation of an excellent educa- 
tion, and was famous in his accomplish- 
ments as a forcible and polished writer and 
effective orator. He began the study of law 
in the office of Hon, James F. Starbuck, in 
the fall of 1853, at the age of 23. Here he 
continued till the fall of 1854, when he en- 
tered the Poughkeepsie Law School, where 
he remained until the following spring. He 
was admitted to practice in all the courts in 
the State in 1855. He remained with Mr. 
Starbuck until Jan. 1, 1856. Mr. Winslow 
was married Nov. 15, 1855, to Miss Geraldine 
M. Cooper, daughter of John C. Cooper, of 
Adams. One son and two daughters were 
the offspring of this union. The son, John 
Cooper Winslow, graduated from Dart- 
mouth College, and after a promising career 
in the law, died of consumption in Pa,s- 
adena, California, in 1890, whither he had 
removed on account of failing health. 
January 1, 1856, Mr. Winslow opened a law 
office in Watertown. In the same year he 
associated with L. J. Bigelow in law prac- 
tice under the firm name of Winslow & 
Bigelow. In the fall of 1859 he was elected 
district attorney, and entered on its duties 
January 1, 1860. He at once came to the 
front as an able official, and proved his 
eminent litness for his high position by 
several important cases which were de- 
fended by the first talent of the bar — 
notably the Sprague trial. The opening of 
the evei-memorable Civil War in 1861, 
found Mr. Winslow a first lieutenant of the 
Black River Corps, a military organization 
of the village of Watertown. Shortly after 
the news came of the firing upon Fort 
Sumter, Mr. Winslow met John A. Had- 
dock in the Paddock Arcade, who, with 
some asperity of tone, asked " what the 
Black River Corps intended to do in the 

emergency? " and remarked that the organi- 
zation was in the way of other people's go- 
ing to help the government. Young Wins- 
low keenly felt the sting which this ques- 
tion carried with it, and the full responsi- 
bility of the situation burst upon him. He 
at once sought Captain Potter, who was in 
command of the Corps, who, after much 
earnest persuasion, consented to calling a 
meeting to see if the organization was will- 
ing to offer its services for the war. The 
result was that a company was organized, 
made up largely of the Corps; Captain Pot- 
ter was made captain and Mr. Winslow 
first lieutenant. The company proceeded 
to Elmira, one of the depots for assembling 
troops, where a regiment was organized, 
mostly of Jefferson county troops. Wil- 
liam C. Browne became colonel of tlis 35th 
N. Y. Volunteers, and Captain Potter lieu- 
tenant colonel. On the promotion of Cap- 
tain Potter, Lieutenant Winslow was com- 
missioned captain. In July the regiment 
passed through Baltimore on its way to the 
capital at Washington. Only a few days 
before, Massachusetts troops had been 
cowardly shot down in the streets of Balti- 
more, while on their way to Washington, 
and great excitement prevailed when the 
splendidly-equipped and gallantly-marching 
35th regiment passed through that disloyal 
and decidedly pugnacious city. The first 
file of Co. A on that day was composed of 
D. M. Evans, W. W. Enos, A. D. Shaw and 
Milton Converse. On the resignation of 
Lieut. Col. Potter, in August, 1861, Captain 
Winslow was promoted to the vacancy. 
Col. Winslow was a daring, energetic and 
brave officer, and kept the rebels on the 
alert in front of his command. He partici- 
pated in all the marches of the regiment to 
relieve General Banks at Cedar Mountain, 
and his command effectively covered the 
retreat. During these experiences he con- 
tracted typhoid fever, and his health became 
so impaired that he was forced to resign, in 
December, 1862, receiving an honorable dis- 
charge. Rest and care brought back good 
health, and when the call for 500,000 men 
was issued in 1864, he helped raise the 168th 
regiment N, Y. Volunteer Infantry, and in 
September of that year was commissioned 
and mustered into service again as its 
colonel. The regiment, soon after its 
organization, joined the army of General 
Meade, then making its last great campaign 
against the rebel army under Gen. Lee, and 
was assigned to the second brigade, second 
division, ninth corps. During the re- 
mainder of the campaign the regiment was 
actively engaged in the trenches or in picket 
duty in the lines before Petersburg ; took 
part in the affair of the 31st of October, in 
the attempt to force the Weldon railroad. 
On the morning of the 3d of April, Col. 
Winslow's regiment led the attack upon the 
fortification known as Fort Mahone, in 
front of Petersburg, and by a gallant charge 
captured the work. In an attempt to get 



possession of still another fortification to 
the left, and in the same line with the one 
already taken, Colonel Winslow fell, shot 
through the body — a minnie ball entering 
between the lower ribs on the right side, 
and coming out to the left of and near the 
spine. The following letter will speak for 
itself, from the commander of the second 
division. It imperishably fixes General 
"Winslow's name on the great records of the 
war. It was an unsought and unsolicited 
tribute to as brave an officer as ever faced a 
foe on any battlefield of history. 

Headquarters Second Division, 

Ninth Army Corps, 
Alexandria, Va., June 13, 1865. 

My dear Colonel: — It is with sincere pleas- 
ure I inform you that I have recommended 
your promotion to the rank of Brigadier- 
General by brevet, for bravery and gallant 
conduct on the field at the assault on the 
enemy's lines in front of Petersburg, April 

2, 1865 I am very happy, Colonel, 

to make this acknowledgment of your 
meritorious services as commander of your 
regiment, and of the gallant and judicious 
manner in which you handled you regiment 
in my presence, during the engagement of 
the 3d of April; an engagement that will be 
forever memorable in our nation's history. 

With sincere esteem, I have the honor to 
be, yours, etc., 

S. G. Griffin, 

Brigadier-General Commanding. 

Col. Bradley Winslow, 186th N. Y. Volunteers, Water- 
town, N. Y. 

His wound compelled his retirement from 
the army, and he returned to his home, 
where he slowly recovered from his almost 
fatal injury. Unsought by him, he was 
appointed a lieutenant in the regular army, 
in the 22d regiment of U. S. Infantry. This 
rare appointment he declined, preferring 
civil to military life in time of peace. In 
1868, Gov. R. E. Fenton commissioned him 
Brigadier- General in the National Guard, 
and appointed him to the command of the 
16th Brigade— a position he admirably filled. 
He was elected district attorney for the 
second time in 1865, and served the term of 
three years with distinguished ability. As 
a lawyer. General Winslow has won a high 
position at the bar of Jeff ei-son county. He 
was admitted to practice in the District 
Court of the United States for the Northern 
District of New York, December 10, 1869. 
In politics General Winslow is a Republican. 
In 1856, in his early manhood, he espoused 
the cause of that party, and has ever since 
been a staln'art supporter of its principles. 
He has long sinte been a favorite campaign 
speaker over a wide range of this State. In 
December, 1875 he was elected mayor of 
the city of Watertown, which office he filled 
to the general satisfaction of all the people. 
He was elected State Senator in 1879, and 
served two years, winning the confidence 

of his colleagues, and the high esteem of all, 
for his integrity, dignity and usefulness as 
a legislator. 

General Winslow has always been con- 
spicuous for his high ideals of public duty. 
No man ever questioned his business integ- 
rity, his perfect uprightness in every trust 
committed to his hands by his clients, and 
his unfailing loyalty in his profession. As 
a soldier and in his professional life, he has 
won enduring fame in the circle of his life- 

[Albert Duane Shaw. 

The limits of local history, not wholly bio- 
graphical, will not permit so complete a 
sketch of the life and achievements of Col. 
Albert Duane Shaw, as a man and citizen 
would justify. His career has been so 
closely identified with current events for 
the last thirty years in this section of our 
State, that its history would be incomplete 
without copious mention of the honorable 
and distinguished part he has borne in that 

He comes from patriotic stock; his great- 
grandfather, on his mother's side, was a 
major in the Revolutionary War, and his 
grandfather, on his father's side, although 
he was but a lad, also saw service under 
Washington. His mother, Sally Ann Gard- 
ner, was the daughter of Mr. Samuel Gard- 
ner, and his father was Henry Shaw, son of 
Thomas Shaw, descendent of the Shaws of 
New Jersey. Albert Duane was born in the 
town of Lyme, Jefferson county, N. Y., De- 
cember 27, 1841, and was educated in the 
conimon schools, at Belleville Union Acad- 
emy, and at St. Lawrence University, at 
Canton, N. Y. 

The son of a farmer, and in youth himself 
a toiler on the farm, produced in him ready 
sympathy with the efforts of the farming 
class for improvement and the advancement 
of agriculture. His active interest in this 
behalf has won for him the highest esteem 
of the farmers. When farmers gather in 
the interest of their calling, on public occa- 
sions, the eloquent and instructive speech of 
Col. Shaw, always demanded, is an inspira- 
tion, and makes the future brighter and 
more hopeful to all who experience the 
charm of his eloquence. 

In youth, in his eighteenth year, the slave- 
holders' rebellion, formidable in dimensions, 
its promoters maddened by the poison of 
chattel slavery, threatened the destruction 
of both liberty and the Union. This his 
patriotic soul would not brook, and so, with 
no thought of gain or fame, but of sacrifice 
for his imperiled country, in June, 1861, he 
enlisted at Watertown as a volunteer soldier 
to serve jn Co. "A," 35th regiment of New 
York volunteers, being the first volunteer 
from the town of Cape Vincent. With his 
regiment at Elmira. N. Y., he was nmstered 
into the service of the United States in July, 
1861, to serve two years. His career as a 



soldier is a part of that of the noble 35th, 
elsewhere chronicled in this history. Dur- 
ing the term of service of his regiment he 
was never for a day absent from the ranks 
of his company (except for a couple of 
months in the winter of 1863, when on de- 
tail in recruiting service, while his regiment 
was in winter quarters at Taylor's Tavern, 
Va.), and he never failed while on a march, 
to be present with his comrades when they 
stacked arms, except on two occasions, 
when, owing to the severity of the march, 
only two were present, himself and another, 
and so they reversed arms and stuck their 
bayonets into the gi-ound. 

In 1863 he was appointed special agent of 
the provost marshal's office in Watertown, 
under Capt. Fred Emerson, and was dis- 
charged at the close of the war, in 1865, re- 
ceiving the warm thanks of the command- 
ing officer for his "able and faithful 
performance of every duty.'' In 1866 he 
was elected member of Assembly from the 
Second district of Jefferson county, and 
served one year with credit to himself and 
the district. During his brief legislative 
career, the writer well remembers a notable 
speech upon the tariff question, made by 
Col. Shaw, which was an earnest promise of 
his subsequent fame as an orator. 

In 1868 he was appointed U. S. consul at 
Toronto, Canada, and his consular service 
at that point was made conspicuous by his 
consular reports, which Hamilton Fish, Sec- 
retary of State, declared were " tlie very best 
of any consular officer in the service."' 

In 1878 he was appointed to the important 
consulate at Manchester, England. Just 
before his departure for England, the citi- 
zens of Toronto tendered him a public dinner 
at the Queen's Hotel. The Prime Minister 
of the Dominion, the Honorable Alexander 
Mackenzie, sent a laudatory letter from Ot- 
tawa, complimenting him for his ability and 
impartiality in the discharge of his official 
duties. Hon. Oliver Mowat, Premier of On- 
tario, was present, as was the Hon. George 
Brown and Mayor Morrison, who presided, 
and many other leading citizens of Canada, 
and of the United States. An address was 
presented to Col. Shaw, couched in warm 
terms of approval, for his services as an offi- 
cial, and his good qualities as a man. 

In 1885, owing to a change of administra- 
tion at Washington, he was superseded by 
an appointee of President Cleveland. Upon 
his retirement from Manchester, a public 
ineeting was held in the town hall of that 
city, at which the citizens presented him 
with a silver casket and an illuminated ad- 
dress, both of great intrinsic value and 
beauty. The speeches on that occasion were 
freighted with good words, and some eigh- 
teen hundred of the leading citizens were 

In 1880 he was elected a member of tha 
famous Manchester Arts Club, and from 
time to time delivered addresses before it. 
This Club represents the highest type of 

English art and literature. To be elected a 
member of it is an honor awarded to but few 
foreigners, and Englishmen only of social 
distinction and culture are admitted. 

At the Saint Andrew's Society dinner in 
Manchester in 1882, he presided in the ab- 
sence of the Earl of Aberdeen, the first time 
an American ever took the chair at a dinner 
of that society. The Colonel made two 
speeches, which were highly complimented. 
Soon after the death of General Philip Sheri- 
dan, a memorial meeting was held in Lon- 
don, England, in his honor, by members of 
the United States army, past and present, 
temporarily sojourning in England. Colo- 
nel Shaw made the principal address, and it 
was eminently worthy of the occasion and 
of the memory of the distinguished soldier 
in whose honor the memorial meeting was 

In 1867, Governor Reuben E. Fenton ap- 
pointed Col. Shaw to be colonel of the 36th 
regiment of the N. Y. S. N. G. 

In 1872 he married Mai-y Sherwood Keith, 
daughter of Charles W. Keith, Esq., of Chi- 
cago, 111. His was tlie first marriage after 
the great fire in that city. Three children 
have blessed this happy union — Henry L. 
Keith Shaw, Mabel Keith Shaw and Minnie 
Scott Shaw. 

Since his retirement from the consulate at 
Manchester, Col. Shaw has resided in this 
city, but since coming to Watertown to re- 
side, he has made several trips to Europe. 
In the intervals he made several addresses 
on Grand Army occasions, which were char- 
acterized by graceful thought and fervid 
eloquence, among which was an address on 
the laying of the corner stone of the monu- 
ment to the soldiers and sailors of Jefferson 
county, and which now decorates the public 
square of our city. His address upon tliis 
occasion was replete with earnest thought 
expressed in cultured and eloquentlanguage; 
its delivery enchaining tlie attention and 
charmed all who heard it. [See that ad- 
dress in full.] 

In several presidential campaigns he has 
been in demand as a Republican orator, and 
under tlie direction of the National Repub- 
lican Committee has addressed the people 
in various parts of the country in a convinc- 
ing and effective manner. 

In January, 1893, he was unanimously se- 
lected by the board of trustees of Cornell 
University, to deliver the Founder's Day 
oration. On that eventful occasion he was 
surrounded by men of culture and of high 
literary attainments, but he was fully equal 
to the occasion, and his effort won the en- 
comiums of all who heard it. That Foun- 
der's Day oration will always be cherished 
by the friends of Cornell University, and 
will rank with the masterpieces of oratory. 

Col. Shaw has been three times elected 
President of the Young Men's Cliristian As- 
sociation, and in 1893 was elected President 
of the Chamber of Commerce, Watertown. 

Thus do we record on the printed page of 



our History a brief summary of a most bril- 
liant career, fully believing that the record 
thereof will carry with it an influence that 
will be lasting for good, and especially will 
it stimulate youthful minds to higher en- 
deavor, and illustrate what success and 
noble achievements are possible, yea prob- 
able to him who industriously labors with 
an honest, intelligent purpose, to do the best 
he can in his day and generation. 

Col. Shaw is now in the prime of life, in 
the full enjoyment of mental and physical 
vigor, which indicates that his distinguished 
career of usefulness will be greatly pro- 
longed, and we are confident that the future 
will bring to him greater preferment and 
honor than have yet crowned his brow with 
the laurel of victory. j. A. H. 

Lieut. Lothario D. Moegan. 
Chauncey D. Morgan came to Watertown 
about 1825, and settled upon a large farm 
near the centre of the town. He was for a 
time in the employ of the K. ,W. & O. Railroad , 
but he is best remembered as a progressive 
farmer, a man of enlarged intelligence and 
one who kept up with the times. He raised 
two sons, Homer Bartlett and Lothario Don- 
aldson. He died in 1872, and his beloved 
wife (Almena Bartlett) in 1877. Homer 
graduated from Hamilton College, and be- 
came a Christian missionary to Turkey, dy- 
ing at Smyrna in 1865. Lothario D. was 
born in 1829, and came to man's estate upon 
his father's farm. He married Evalina M. 
Manning. In 1861 Lothario enlisted in the 
35th New York, was made lieutenant in 
Company A, and served nearly through the 
regiment's term of two yeai-s, resigning af- 
ter Antietam, from impaired health. Return- 
ing to Watertown, he engaged in business, 
and lived respected by all. He died in 1884, 
leaving his widow with one daughter. They 
reside at 27 Ten Eyck street, Watertown. 
Lieut. Morgan is remembered by his com- 
rades as one of the most courageous, ami- 
able and democratic officers of that brave 
regiment, which went at the first call, with- 
out bounties, and gladly went, to aid the 
Union cause. 

Colonel William Wallace Enos 

Was born in Depauville, Jefferson county, 
in 1835. He was the son of Gaylord and 
Minerva Enos, who were among the early 
settlers of this region. Gaylord Enos was a 
man of strong character, striking individu- 
ality and superior ability. He was long 
prominent in the life of the section, and his 
wife was a beautiful woman, eminently en- 
dowed with all the home virtues that make 
married life sweet and tender. As a neigh- 
bor, she was loved for her interest in the sick, 
and her ever faithful friendship; as a wife 
and mother, she gave her life to her family, 
and was the ever dear center of her home. 
William W. Enos was reared at his father's 

home in Depauville, until his 16th year. He 
was educated in the common school and at 
the academy in Lafargeville. He was a good 
student, and early developed a fondness for 
commercial life. In 1852 he accepted a posi- 
tion as clerk in a country store at Chaumont, 
N. Y., with Mr. Ira Inman, in whose employ 
he passed two years. At the age of 20, in 
1855, he became the junior partner with 
Messrs. Ira Inman and George W. Smith, of 
Chaumont, and continued with this prosper- 
ous firm until the breaking out of the great 
rebellion in 1861. The wave of patriotic 
fervor which throbbed through the whole 
North when Sumter was fired upon, stirred 
young Enos like a bugle call, and he left his 
business and enlisted in defense of the Union. 
He was the first to respond from the town 
of Lyme, for two years' service — under 
President Lincoln's first call for 75,000 vol- 
unteers. In April, 1861, he joined Co. "A," 
35th N.Y. Vols., and served two years faith- 
fully, until mustered out at the expiration 
of the term of service of this famous regi- 
ment. Owing to causes resulting from jeal- 
ousies and combinations, common in the 
first two years of the war, Mr. Enos did not 
receive the promotion so plainly his due — 
and he was mustered out as sergeant. Brave, 
loyal and faithful, his service was a proud 
part of the gallant record of the 35th, which 
was made up of some of the best material of 
any regiment in the Union service. In the 
fall of 1863 — having been mustered out of 
service in June — he entered Co. " K," 18th 
N. Y. Cavalry, as lieutenant, and served in 
the Department of the Gulf until the close 
of the war. He passed through the famous 
Red River campaign under General Banks, 
and was promoted to a captaincy for meri- 
torious services in the field. In June, 1865, 
after the last rebel had surrendered, he re- 
signed , and returned to his home and friends 
in Jefferson county. This covers, very 
briefly, a record of faithful service unsur- 
passed for pure patriotism and unselfish de- 
votion to principle and duty. Young Enos 
left a very promising commercial business, 
■which would undoubtedly have made his 
fortune. He was a business man — full of 
enterprise — and the war period was a rare 
one for accumulating wealth. As it was, he 
came home to re-enter business just as prices 
began to decline, and he found it hard work 
to get a foothold on a paying basis. How- 
ever, by the exercise of great caution, he 
gradually won his way to fair success. His 
subsequent business career in Cliaumont, 
N. Y. , has been most creditable, and fairly 
prosperous. He has dealt in dry goods, 
grain, real estate and other commercial 
lines. Since his return from the army he 
has been prominent in the public life of his 
town and count}'. He has been justice of 
the peace, postmaster, supervisor and mem- 
ber of Assembly. In 1867 Mr. Enos was 
commissioned lieutenant colonel of the 36th 
Regiment, N. G. State of New York, by 
Governor R. E. Fenton. Mr. Enos was mar- 



ried to Miss Emma Dayan in 1872. Foui- 
children have blessed that union. Miss 
Clara was educated at Albany, N. Y., and 
his sons George and Copley are at Cornell 
University; Julia, the youngest, is now at- 
tending school at home. 

The above brief record gives an outline 
picture of one of that grand army of volun- 
teers who periled all for the defense of their 
native land, and without bounties. Col. 
Enos was a type of citizen to which our 
present civilization owes a debt of gratitude 
that can never be repaid. His highest am- 
bition was to see the laws of his country en- 
forced, and freedom become the heritage of 
all our people, black as well as white. He 
passed safely through the four terrible years 
of the war, and at the age of 59, in fairly 
good health, with an interesting family 
about him, a competency sufficient to secure 
him all his needed comforts, he looks back 
upon a useful life-work with no regret over 
the part he played in the wonderful events 
which secured a new birth of freedom to this 
country and its people. 

Colonel Enos is a man of peculiar force of 
character, but of a high standard of citizen- 
ship. His word is always regarded as good 
as his bond. He is frank and outspoken 
almost to a fault, but his heart is in the 
right place and his impulses broad and gen- 
erous. He is a man of large intelligence, 
loyal friendship, and ranks among the best 
citizens our county has ever produced, for 
integrity of character, patriotic services and 
usefulness in all relations of life. a. d. s. 

The author of this history is glad to bear 
honest testimony to all our beloved comrade, 
Col. Shaw, has said above. Young Enos I 
first knew in the field, a soldierly, enterpris- 
ing, resolute and sham-hating man. The 
wet, cold ground was only too often his rest- 
ing place after a weary day's travel. I well 
remember when vi'e were stalled near Cat- 
lett's, in Virginia, by an unprecedented 
snow storm, with no shelter save the light 
summer tents, which were so short at both 
ends that if your head was protected your 
legs from the knees down were " out in the 
rain," and by frequent changes in the night, 
at morning both legs and head and should- 
ers would be soaked through. And how well 
I remember that Enos and some dozen of 
those Co. A. boys had got on the lee side of 
a hay rack, built for feeding cattle, and 
were bragging how comfortable they were! 
Think of it; such a party of tenderly-raised 
young men only too glad to lie down in a 
place built for cattle. The very next night 
after we left Catlett's, under a forced order 
to relieve troops at Fredericksburg, Col. 
Lord, at dark, was holding regimental head- 
quarters in an abandoned hog-pen, and was 
thankful to get enough clean straw to drop 
down upon, fatigued almost to insensibility. 
These are episodes which endear men to 
each other. J. a. h. 

Geokge F. Deessor, whose scholarly face 
is shown on tlie composite picture of ofHcers 
and men of the 35th Regiment, was born in 
Houndsfield. in 1841, was one of the first to 
enlist, and was assigned to Co. A, <i5th N. Y. 
Infantry. He was a meritorious and exem- 
plary soldier, participating in all the 
marches and skirmishes of that regiment 
until the battle of Fredericksbui-g, Va., Dec. 
13, 1862, when his left leg was shot away by 
a cannon ball, the regiment being for a time 
exposed to a severe artillery fire at compar- 
atively short range for over two hours while 
in position upon the left of Burnside's com- 
mand. Of course his fighting days were 
then over, and as soon as he could be re- 
moved from the hospital he returned to his 
home in Watertown, which city has since 
been his i-esidence. Mr. Dressor enjoys the 
respect and regard of all who know him, 
and his acquaintances are by no means lim- 
ited. He married Helen L. Wilson, July 26, 
1868, daughter of Samuel and Lucy Wilson, 
and they have one son, Walter William. 

George Dressor's father was that Chaun- 
cey Dressor whose life for many years ran 
parallel with the history of Watertown. He 
was born at Tunnbridge, Vt., in 1800, and 
in 1804 his father (Alanson) removed to Wa- 
tertown, and helped to strike the first pio- 
neer blows with such contemporaries as the 
Masseys, Keyes and Coflfeen — when Can- 
field was the only shoemaker and DooUttle 
the only blacksmith in town. The farm 
owned by Judge Keyes was the original 
purchase of Alanson Dressor. Chauncey 
was left penniless at an early age by the 
death of his father, but he acquired 
enough education to enable him to teach 
school. In 1838 he married Lydia S., 
daughter of Farmington Styles, of Evans 
Mills, and in 1850 had accumulated enough 
means to purchase a farm of 100 acres at 
Huntingtonville, to which he made addi- 
tions until he possessed 200 acres. Upon that 
farm the soldier son George grew up, and 
from it he enlisted when Capt. Haddock 
opened a recruiting office in Watertown for 
the 35th. The father of George died July 21, 
1876, respected as a just and intelligent man, 
leaving a son who inherited all his father's 
patriotism and intelligence. 

Captain Jay Deforest Mc Wayne. 

Among the citizen-soldiers from Jefferson 
county. Jay DeForest McWayne vpas a fine 
type of the resolute young men who left the 
school, the farm and the forge to battle for 
a common country. Mr. McWayne was 
born at Sackets Harbor, June 21, 1834. He 
grew up under conditions rendering it nec- 
essary for him to early help himself, and at 
the breaking out of the rebellion in 1861 he 
was engaged in business as a blacksmith. 
He had come from New England stock, and 
his patriotic ardor early showed itself in an 
offer he made to pay $300 to the support of 
volunteers from his town who would 



enlist to sustain the old flag. But when the 
stars and stripes were fired upon at Fort 
Sumter, and the call for 75,000 volunteers 
came, he patriotically refused to make a 
breastwork of his business between himself 
and the field of war — and he was the first 
in his town to enlist as a private to go and 
protect " Old Glory." He aided in recruit- 
ing Co. K of the 35th N. Y. Vols., and was 
first sergeant, and when the regiment was 
fully organized was promoted to second 
lieutenant. He was a faithful ofiicer, and 
won high praise from all by his energj', 
bravery and strict attention to every duty. 
During the winter of 1861-2 he was sta- 
tioned at Falls Church, Va., a small town, 
and was made first lieutenant while there. 
In the spring and summer of 1862 he com- 
manded the provost guard at General Pat- 
rick's headquarters, and had charge of the 
court-house and jail at Fredericksburg, Va. 
This was a position demanding good judg- 
ment and executive ability, and he filled it 
with satisfaction to his superior officers. At 
his urgent request he was relieved of pro- 
vost duty on September 14, 1863, so as to go 
back to his company. The captain and sec- 
ond lieutenant being sick in hospital. Lieu- 
tenant McWayne had charge of his com- 
pany during the eventful campaign which 
followed. Through all the battles the 35tli 
were engaged in Lieutenant McWayne did 
his part nobly — ever first to the front and 
last to leave a post of danger. He was dis- 
charged at Elmira in June, 1863. On his 
return home he at once commenced recruit- 
ing for the 18th N. Y. Cavalry, but owing to 
the unfortunate lack of honor on the part of 
the officer having the oi-ganization in hand, 
he did not finally enter this regiment. But 
he could not keep out of the great confiict, 
and took a prominent part in organizing 
the 186th N. Y. Vols. , and he was mustered 
in as captain at Madison Barracks, Sept. 5, 
1 864, the first company to do so. The regi- 
ment was ordered to City Point, Va., before 
it was fairly organized, where they arrived 
seasick and homesick, and disgusted with 
being put to work on fortifications. Many 
were sick, and the dissatisfaction became so 
great about fighting with shovels and picks 
as sappers and miners that the regiment was 
ordered before Petersburg. Here there was 
activity enough, and the sound of the rebel 
bugle calls could be distinctly heard the 
first day the regiment got into position. In 
a short time excellent drill and discipline 
followed careful attention to details, and it 
was surprising to see men just from civil 
life so soon become well-trained soldiers. 
The 18(ith regiment participated in the ever- 
memorable assaults on the rebel works 
about Petersburg, and won high praise for 
its valor, as the rebels again and again gave 
way before this splendid regiment's charges. 
With the close of the war Captain McWayne 
was mustered out of a service he greatly 
honored, and in which he won great distinc- 
tion as a model American volunteer soldier. 

At this, writing he is living on a farm, in a 
happy and pleasant home, near the village 
in which he was born. His later ambition 
is to further improve the American trotting 
horse, of which he is an excellent judge. 
A. D. s. 

Since the biographical sketch of Captain 
J. D. McWayne was prepared, the follow- 
ing facts have come to tlie knowledge of the 
author, and which relate both to Captain 
McWayne and to the 186th Kegiment, in 
which he served as captain : On the morn- 
ing of the 3d of April, 1865, succeeding the 
engagement of the previous day, in which 
the regiment had participated, Captain Mc- 
Wayne, because of the disability or absence 
of the field officers of the regiment, was the 
senior captain present, and commanded the 
regiment. On that morning he received an 
order to report, with the regiment, at the 
headquarters of the M brigade of the 2d 
division, 9th army corps, to which the 
186th belonged. At the moment when he 
had completed the formation of said 
regiment. General S. G. Griffin, then in 
command of the 2d division, and who 
was present on the field of battle the 
day previous, rode up with his staff and 
addressed the regiment. In his speech he 
complimented the regiment for its bravery 
and heroism in the late battle, expressing at 
the same time his sorrow for the wounded 
and the absent colonel, and his sincere wish 
and also his sincere sorrow for all those who 
had been killed and disabled. In further 
addressing the regiment he said: "Soldiers 
of the 186th Regiment, you have crowned 
yourselves with glory. Your country can 
never pay you for your services. You have 
taken the impregnable Fort Mahone, and 
have largely contributed to the crushing of 
the rebellion. In future you will be held 
in reserve, and when we want good men we 
will call on you." 

For this report of General Griffin's words, 
the author of this history is indebted to Mr. 
John G. Wood, of Pillar Point, a member 
of the 186tli Regiment, and who was pres- 
ent and distinctly remembers the words 
uttered by General Griffin. 

Louis C. Greenleaf, whose well-known 
likeness is shown on our composite soldier- 
page, is a descendant of that John D. Green- 
leaf, born in Veimont in 1803, coming, 
when a mere child, with his father to 
Smithville, N. Y., and a few years later set- 
tled in LaFargeville. When twenty years 
of age Mr. Greenleaf removed to Clayton, 
and for a short time was a clerk in the 
store of General W. H. Angel. He then 
engaged with Merick & Smith, as clerk, 
and had charge of their lumber business in 
Quebec, being employed by them for nearly 
twenty years. He then returned to La- 
Fargeville, and there remained until 1857, 
when he located in Seneca, Ontario county. 



He married Julia Truesdell, of Quebec, and 
they had seven children, only one of whom, 
Louis C, resides in this county. Louis C. 
Greenleaf was born in LaFargeville, No- 
vember 33. 1840, whence he removed to On- 
tario county, and in 1860 located in Water- 
town, where he was engaged in the county 
clerk's office for one year. He enlisted in 
Co. A. 35th N. Y. Vols., and was with the 
first company that left Watertown for the 
battlefields in the South. He served two 
years, and then entered the provost-mar- 
shal's office in this city, where he remained 
until the close of the war. He married 
Lorra Cornelia Shaffer, and they have two 
children, Josephine A. and Lydia C. After 
the disoontinuaace of the office of provost- 
marshal, Mr. Greenleaf was discount clerk 
in the Jefferson County Bank for two years, 
when he entered the Merchants' Bank as 
teller and assistant cashier, which position 
he ably filled for four years. In March, 
1872. in company with C. W. Sloat, under 
the firm name of Sloat & Greenleaf, he en- 
gaged in the lumber business, and the firm 
is now one of the most extensive in this 
part of the State. Mr. Greenleaf has al- 
ways been prominently identified with the 
interests of Watertown. He was the first 
city treasurer, which office he held two 
years, was county treasurer two terms, 
supervisor of the second ward several years, 
and is now a member of the board of edu- 
cation. He was captain of the State mili- 
tia, and was mustered out as major. 

James Dolan, sergeant Co. G., whose face 
is upon our composite plate, enlisted at 
Adams, May 3, 1861; discharged at Elmira, 
June 5,1863; born in Ireland, (" Ballysha- 
non,") Jul}' 15, 1840; re-enlisted at Den- 
mark, Lewis county, December 24, 1863; 
mustered into United States service, Janu- 
ary 4, 1864; discharged July 18, 1865, at JSlor- 
folk, Va., as Q. M. sergeant, Co. H., 13th 
regiment, N. Y. H. Art. Was absent from 
company as guide on Gen. French's staff at 
battle of Fredericksburg, Va., from Decem- 
ber 13, 1863, till December 16, 1863; was 
never absent at any other time for any pur- 
pose from either company during his two 
terms; was never wounded; participated in 
every action and skirmish in which either 
company was engaged; elected president of 
35th N. Y. Vol. Veteran Association, De- 
cember 13, 1887; Post Commander, Joe 
Spratt Post, No. 333, at its organization; 
served two terms as A. D. C. on staff of 
commander-in-chief, G. A. K. , and is re- 
membered by the old soldiers as one of their 
best friends in procuring recognition from 
the government for their arduous services. 
Captain Dolan is a living and charming per- 
sonality, a fair representative of the intelli- 
gence, the ardor and the patriotism of the 
men who fii-st went into the Union army, 
not seduced by bounties, but actuated by 
the purest and noblest patriotism. They 

will live in history as a noble example of 
manly devotion to the great cause. Captain 
Dolan is in the prime of life, with the prom- 
ise of a bright future yet before him. 

Caleb Slocum, whose face is shown on one 
of the composite plates of the 35th regi- 
ment, is a LeRaysville boy, son of Samuel 
G. Slocum, who came into LeEay about 
1814, from Dartmouth. Mass. The elder 
Slocum was a miller and clothier, and at an 
early date he built a grist mill and cloth- 
dressing works on Pleasant Creek and what 
has long been known as Slocum's Mills. 
This family is directly related to General 
Henry W. Slocum, lately deceased, loved 
and honored by his countrymen. Samuel 
G. Slocum was a member of the Society of 
Friends, and Caleb was reared in that faith, 
educated in the common schools, helping 
his father until he reached his majority. 
About that time Fort Sumter was fired 
upon, and Caleb was one of the very first to 
enlist, joining Co. A as a private soldier, 
but afterwards promoted to a lieutenancy 
for bravery in battle. As we have said, he 
was a member of the Society of Friends by 
what they designate a "birthright," and 
when it was known that he had enlisted, one 
of the most faithful and revered of that body 
(Daniel Childs) started on foot for Water- 
town to try and dissuade Caleb from any re- 
sort to warfare. He walked the streets of 
Watertown all night, and finding Caleb in 
the morning, used all the argument in his 
power to induce him to remain steadfast in 
the Friends' faith, that is, opposed to war. 
Caleb was stubborn, however, and patriot- 
ism prevailed over faith — so the Friends 
quietly dropped Caleb from their fellow- 
ship, and this incipient soldier went with 
his company to fight his way upward into 
prominence. Probably no man in the 35th 
had more friends than young Slocum, for 
he early showed great courage, judgment 
and fearlessness He always had a smile 
for a friend, and his wholesome, persistent, 
good nature was worth more than medicine 
to keep the boys' spirits amidst dismal sur- 
roundings. His memory is enshrined in the 
hearts of Co. A. as one of its noblest 
braves, an honor to the company and to the 
regiment. He is yet in the prime of life, 
and holds a position under the State in car- 
ing for two of the great dams that store up 
the waters of Black river in the Western 

George Van Vleck, another of the mem- 
bers of Co. A. 35th regiment, shown on the 
preceding composite plate, was born in the 
town of Antwerp in 1835, the son of a 
farmer, receiving his education in the com- 
mon schools of his native town. He left 
the farm and came to Theresa to learn mar- 
ble cutting from E. S. Stockwell. He re- 
moved to Watertown in 1858, and from 




there he enlisted into the 35th regiment, Co. 
A — being one of the very first to go into 
the ranks of that celebrated company. He 
shared in all the battles and skirmishes and 
marches of his company, and was mustered 
out with the regiment at Elmira, having 
served two years. He returned to Water- 

town and resumed work at his trade with 
Foster M. Ferrin. In 1873 he went into 
business for himself, and has followed his 
avocation successfully. He is married and 
has one child; he is hale and hearty, and 
may be seen daily at work in his marble 
yard at 68 Court street, Watertown. 


Hox. WiLLARD Ives, whose connection 
with the religious, educational, political 
and philanthropic institutions of Jefferson 
county has made his name familiar through- 
out Northern Nevs' York.was born in the town 
of Watertown in 1806, His ancestry came 
from New England; his father, Dr.Titus, and 
his mother, Mary (Phelps) Ives, were both 
natives of Connecticut, and came to Jeffer- 
son county in 1801. A brother, Jotham 
Ives, had previous!}', in the fall, located 
here, and a few years subsequently tlie two 
brothers were joined by a third, Erastus, 
They located large tracts of land in the 
southwestern part of Watertown, and ad- 
joining in Houndsfleld, where they resided 
until their deaths. Dr. Titus Ives was a 
graduate of medicine, but did not continue 
the practice to any extent after coming to 
Jefferson county. He was quite prominent 
in local town affairs, and represented his 
district in the State Legislature in 1829-30. 

Willard was an only child, receiving a 
good education for pioneer days, and has 
always taken a deep interest in religious 
and educational affairs. He has always 
followed the avocation of a farmer; and has 
done much to elevate the standard of agri- 
cultural pursuits. He has resided upon his 
farm (now in the city limits) since 1850, and 
has witnessed the change of his neighbor- 
hood from pioneer days to its present ad- 
vanced position in the progress of the age. 
In 1840 he became a director in the Bank of 
Watertown, and subsequently became its 
president. He has also been connected 
with other banks, and served as president 
of the Merchants' Bank. In religious affairs 
he has always been an earnest and efficient 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and in 1846 was appointed by Conference to 
represent them at the World's Convention 
in London, after which he passed some 
months in observation on the continent. 
While on his return from his mission to the 
World's Convention, the steamer Great Brit- 
ain, upon which he took passage, ran hard 


ashore on the Irish coast, necessitating her 
abandonment by her passengers, who came 
home by other conveyances. 

In 1848 he was a candidate for Congress, 
and, notwithstanding the demoralization of 
his party during that eventful year, came 
within 300 votes of an election. In 1853 he 
was elected and served one terra. 

Mr. Ives is still in good health and enjoy- 
ing the evening of his life from the results 
of his own industry and sagacity. He 
owns 100 acres of suijerior farming land, 
all of which now lies within the city limits 
of Watertown. Although over eighty- 
seven years of age, he still conducts his 
many kinds of business and benevolent 
affairs. He is president of the Ives Semi- 
nary at .-Antwerp, which he endowed, and 
has always contributed largely to its sup- 
port. He is also president of the Jefferson 
County Orphan Asylum, of which institu- 
tion he was one of the originators and most 
earnest advocate. He has always been a 
prominent and earnest worker in the Arse- 
nal Street Methodist Episcopal Church and 
Sunday school, and was one of the organiz- 
ers of the Syracuse University, and was 
also one of the incorporators of the Thou- 
sand Island Camp Meeting Association. 

Mr. Ives, among all the descendants of 
the early families, has had the most consis- 
tent and continued church relation. An 
earnest Methodist, he has been always a 
strong man among them, and has never de- 
clined aid to any enterprise relating to that 
church, nor to society at large. His family 
name is an honored one in this county, 
where he has ever been foremost in aid of 
religion and literature 

Mr. Ives has been twice married. His 
first wife, whose maiden name was Char- 
lotte Winslow, sister of Hon. John Wins- 
low, died in 1861. His second wife is a na- 
tive of Oswego county, and her maiden 
name was Lucina M. Eddy. Her parents 
were old and respected residents of the town 
of Philadelphia 




Livy, the historian, in eulogizing the reign 
of one of the Caesars, says that " he found 
Rome brick, but he left it marble." Not in 
these words, but in the broad sense that the 
quotation suggests, we write of one who 
found the present beautiful city of Water- 
town a mere hamlet — a crossroads, with 
the usual blacksmith shop, the tavern and 
the country store, but who helped far more 
than any man before or since his time to 
make it the most desirable village of that 
great State so justly celebrated for its charm- 
ing towns. 

If the curious reader will take a look at 
that valuable collection of portraits of 
Watertown's leading citizens, painted by 
the late Jonah Woodruff, and preserved 
from f orgetf ulness by that patriotic and dis- 

tinguished citizen, Mr. George W. Wiggins, 
he will find among them the likeness of an 
austere looking gentleman, and will be told 
(if under m years of age, and, therefore, 
never having seen the original) that the 
painting ]-epresents Norris M. Woodruff, as 
he moved and lived among his contempo- 
raries from 1817 to 1807. From that portrait 
our present picture came. The austerity of 
his face, liowever, was not a reflection of 
his inner self, for he was a generous and 
high-toned man, an indulgent father and an 
estimable citizen, but the facial expression 
was doubtless the outgrowth of a business 
struggle in those early times in Northern 
New York, when every man was taxed to 
the utmost to succeed; for the times were 
hard, the markets difficult to be reached no 



railroad nearer than Rome or Syracuse, all 
freight moved by the circaiitous route of 
canal to Oswego, thence by steamer to Sack- 
ets Harbor, and by wagon to Watertown. 
The crops at times were scanty or uncertain; 
but little money was in active circulation; 
■valuable timber almost unsaleable, wood 
from $1.25 to $1.75 a cord; wheat 60 cents, 
oats 25 cents a bushel, butter 10 to 13 cents, 
and cheese 5 to 6 cents a pound. Is it any 
wonder, then, that the men vrho were the 
leaders in business in those times wore stern 
and determined faces, or that the intensity 
of their struggle for supremacy stamped it- 
self upon their features? Nay, the only 
wonder is that their hearts, too. did not be- 
come hard and calloused — but they did not, 
for they are well remembered as men of 
generous impulses and active sympathies. 

Mr. Woodruif was born in the town of 
Hartford. Conn., September 7, 1792. His 
father was an industrious farmer in easy 
circumstances, but desiring a wider field and 
cheaper land for his rising family, about 
1803 he sought a new home in the almost 
unknown "Black River country," locating 
in the town of LeRay, Jefferson county, at 
what was known as Jewett's (now Sanford's) 
Corners, where he was for years a success- 
ful farmer. When Norris M. attained his 
majority he was possessed of about $100 in 
cash, acquired principally in teaching school. 
He desired to go out into the world and 
make a future for himself, but his father 
objected, as the son was considered scarcely 
up to the average in physique, and not quite 
able to compete with others in the 
for success incident to a new country. But 
the young man showed his determined char- 
acter, and resolved to venture into new 
fields. "Norris," said his father, "when 
you have spent your capital, come back 
home, where you will ever be welcome." 
"Father," he replied, "you will live to be 
proud of your son " — a prophecy most abund- 
antly fulfilled. 

Deciding upon Watertown as his choice 
for location, he purchased a horse and cart, 
and was soon selling tinware about the 
county, receiving in pay (not refusing 
money) such paper rags, peltry and other 
merchantable commodities as the settlers 
had to spare, and these he stored until in 
Buflficient bulk to ship away to manufactur- 
ers of paper and other purchasers. This 
new life rapidly improved his physical con- 
dition, and the peculiar exactions of his 
business gave force to his natural persistency 
and self-reliance. After a year or two of 
this Ufe he established a tinware manufac- 
tory and hardware store near the site now 
occupied by the Woodruff House. His fa- 
miliar acquaintance with the people with 
whom he had dealt in his journeyings about 
the county brought him many customers, 
and his fair dealings and business integrity 
inspired a confidence which lasted all 
through his life. He judiciously managed 
the prosperity which flowed in upon him. 

and gradually extended his business. Step by 
step he rose in the confidence of the people. 
He was for many years a director, and for a 
long time president of the Jefferson County 
Bank, an institution which survived many 
panics and financial disasters, but has never 
closed its doors during a single day since it 
came to Watertown. He was one of the 
most active promoters of the Watertown 
and Rome Railroad, an enterprise entered 
upon by the people of Jefferson county with 
much reluctance, and after great labor by 
its originators; and he was also active in 
organizing the company which built the 
road north to Potsdam, to connect with the 
roads to New England. 

Mr. Woodruff was never a money-getter 
for the mere pleasure of accumulation. His 
mind was far-reaching, and his greatest 
ambition was bound up in the well-being of 
his beloved Watertown. In its progressive 
life he was ever prominent; its best inter- 
ests were near his heart, and his helping 
hand was always ready to do even more 
than his legitimate share in bearing her bur- 
dens. He was not a politician, and never 
sought public office, nor placed any value 
upon such honors, which, had he sought 
them, would be at his command. His fa- 
vors were bestowed, not for gratitude or 
praise, but because it was his nature to help 
individuals or towns that were earnestly 
trying to help themselves. Columns of 
truthful laudation might be written in de- 
scribing liis character, his dealings with his 
fellow-citizens, his labors for his village. 
We know that those things are not forgot- 
ten by the older citizens of Jefferson county. 

Previous to 1850 he gradually withdrew 
from the more exacting demands of his 
large business, and turned over the hard- 
ware branch to his son, Horace W., and his 
son-in-law, Mr. Howell Cooper. After 
Horace moved to St. Louis, this extensive 
business was carried on by Mr. Cooper, and 
he is remembered as one of Watertown's 
most successful merchants. But while Mr. 
Woodruff withdrew from such business as 
he could readily delegate to others, be main- 
tained his official relations with the railroad 
and the bank, and had more time to devote 
to his building enterprises, some of which 
yet remain as mementoes of his ability and 
intelligence. In the midst of these active 
labors he was stricken down by disease, and 
in his 64th year, on January 16, 1857, he 
passed away, lamented by a sorrowing com- 
munity, and deeply mourned by his large 


Mr. Woodruff was tall and broad-shoul- 
dered, witliout being bulky, and when at 
all excited was of commanding presence. 
Though above the average height, he never 
appeared uncouth or embarrassed. On the 
contrary, he bore the easy, nonchalant air 
of one who knew the world, and felt con- 
scious that he was at least the peer of the 



foremost in any gathering where he hap- 
pened to be. Indeed, it is my own opinion 
that he was never in the slightest degree, 
even in early life, awed by the presence of 
any one. He possessed a consciousness of 
his own strength and capacity for leader- 
ship, and went straight forward with his 
plans of building and bushiess, seeking ad- 
vice from no one outside of his own family, 
but successful every time. I would not 
have the reader infer that there was the 
slightest appearance of vanity or self-lauda- 
tion in his bearing or his language, but 
rather the self-pose and calm reliance upon 
his ovi'n inborn self which ever mark the 
strong character when brought face to face 
with danger or opposition. And he en- 
countered opposition and often unjust criti- 
cism and the jealousies that are the inher- 
itance of small communities, and was often 
called to deal with men as determined and 
ambitious as himself. Jason Fairbanks, 
Perley Keyes, Orville Hungerford, William 
H. Angel, Adriel Ely and Eli Farwell were 
men not easily thrust aside or intimidated; 
but amidst these worthy contemporaries he 
took the lead in every great improvement, 
and pressed steadily forward, with a breadth 
of view and an irrepressible industry that 
would not be denied. 

As I was an eager, observing boy at the 
time that Mr. Woodruff was at the zenith 
of his business career, his impression upon 
my mind was deep and lasting. Not that I 
saw him oftener than I did his contempora- 
ries, for I served all of them with our news- 
paper, "The Eagle and Standard," but 
there was an individuality abovit this man 
that was more pronounced than in any 
other citizen. On horseback he rode like a 
general at the head of his troops; calm, re- 
liant, self-poised. On foot he was a walk- 
ing force, equally self sustained, absorbing, 
turning neither to the right nor left. To 
have slapped him on the back or set up a 
joke at his expense would have been like 
tempting any familiarity with the great 
Washington himself. 

Like all positive men, he had his enemies, 
but now that the asperities and petty busi- 
ness jealousies of that day have been for- 
gotten, it is due to history to pass upon all 
such leaders in our early settlement the in- 
dulgent opinion of a grateful posterity, who 
share in the successes and the glory of those 
who preceded them, and made smooth the 
pathway for those who were to follow. If 
these early pioneers had faults, for surely 
they did have them, their memory is swal- 
lowed up by the beneficence of their achieve- 
ments, or in the acts of their children. Be- 
ing dead, they yet speak to the young men 
of to-day, and bid them form high stand- 
ards of excellence in all their thougiits of 
the future, and strive to come as near 
them as is possible in lives that are so 
short as ours. ' 


In 1847 Mr. Woodruff had married Miss 
Roxana P. Bush, a most estimable lady, in 
every respect a helpmate and advisor 
thi-ough all his business life. She survived 
him many years. They raised a family of 
nine children, three sons and six daughters. 

If any further evidence were needed to 
convince tlie present people of Watertown 
of the excellence of this Woodruff stock, it 
can be found in the exalted character of 
such of these children as have survived 
their parents, and by their public benefits 
and private charities have illustrated in a 
marked degree the enlarged benevolence 
which distinguished their ancestry. When 
the observer sees children .honoring the 
memories of their parents by dispensing 
wealth for the benefit of those in humble 
life, or tor those who have somehow hon- 
estly failed in acquiring enough money to 
make old age comfortable, the mind is filled 
with wonder that more rich people are not 
prompted to follow such examples, so that 
posterity may look back and revere their 

Three of the daughters of Mr. Woodruff 
are yet living. But Mrs. Mundy, Mrs. 
Beach and Mrs. Cadwell, so well known and 
deservedly loved in Watertown, have joined 
their parents "beyond the river." Mi'S. 
Cooper has long sui-vived her husband, and 
after having reared six children is enjoying 
the sweet reflections of well-spent years 
amidst the associations where her whole life 
has been so honorably passed, and where 
every street and almost every building must 
recall memories of her parents and of her 
own youth. Mrs. Flower, beloved and 
honored by all who are privileged to know 
her, adorns the executive mansion at Al- 
bany, and helps her most jjopular and ex- 
cellent husband in dispensing the hospitali- 
ties incumbent upon the governor of a great 
State. It has been the good fortune of 
Mrs. Keep-Schley, however, to confer upon 
Watertown what may be regarded as its 
crowning beneficence and its lasting glory. 
Left great wealth by her husband, the poor 
orphan boy who rose to rank among the 
first millionaires of a great city, she has 
done his memory great credit and lierself 
distinguished honor by endowing the Henry 
Keep Home with funds ample enough to 
carry on its grand work through all time. 
To speak of such a noble gift, so unostenta- 
tiously carried out and made so perfect in 
its work, suggests food for the most pleas- 
ant thoughts. 

Mr. Woodruff's influence upon his con- 
temporaries was marked and lasting. While 
he was a ricli man, his wealth acquired 
from honest labor, not from speculation, he 
was ever mindful of the deserving poor. 
No applicant for food was ever turned away 
unfilled from his hospitable door. 

J. A. H. 




Mr. Cooper was born in Trenton, N. Y. , 
in the year 1815, and was 55 years of age at 
his decease. When he was three years of 
age, his father removed with his family to 
Ox Bow, Jefferson county, and from 1834 
to 1839 he was engaged in business with his 
father in Utica, and had a branch store in 
Hammond, St. Lawrence county. During 
these years, being frequently at Water- 
town, he made the acquaintance of Miss 
Lois P. Woodruff, daughter of the late 
Norris M. Woodruff, to whom he was mar- 
ried September 21, 1839. 

This union was most fortunate and happy, 
and was blessed by sevei-al children who 
now occupy enviable positions in society. 

Immediately after marriage he intended 
to remove to Utica, but was induced to 
form a copartnership with Mr. Horace 
Woodruff, in the hardware business, and to 

remain m Watertown. This brought him 
in connection, and he identified himself 
with Norris M. Woodruff in nearly all the 
enterprises that have contributed so largely 
toward making Watertown the beautiful 
city that it is to-day. 

The Iron Block, rebuilt within ninety 
days from its burning, and the Woodruff 
House, stand now as monuments to the en- 
terprise of Jlr. Woodruff, and the energy 
and executive ability of Mr. Cooper. After 
the death of Mr. Woodruff, Mr. Cooper con- 
tinued in the hardware business. Not am- 
bitious of official honors, he pursued with 
indomitable will that branch of trade which 
he had chosen, and, from a small begin- 
ning, attained affluence and high position 
among business men. 

Receiving as a partner his brother, Elias 
F., the firm name of H, & E. F. Cooper was 



honored in Jefferson county for nearly a 
quarter of a century. 

Mr. Cooper was one who never ate the 
bread of idleness: his life was one of unceas- 
ing labor. He possessed elements of char- 
acter that made him an honored citizen, 
and was public spirited to a fault. To his 
serious detriment, pecuniarily, he was one 
of the main promoters of the Potsdam and 
Watertown Railroad; afterwards one of the 
prime movers and incorporators of the 
Watertown Water Works, and latterly, be- 
sides adding largely to the success of the 
Carthage Railroad by his influence and sanc- 
tion, he was one of the commissioners ap- 
pointed to subscribe to the stock by the town. 
In his domestic relations he was affection- 
ate and pleasant. Wife and children wel- 
comed his coming when the toils of the day 
were over, with fondly beating-hearts; and 
a hearthstone, happy with him, was made 
desolate without him. But those who were 
near and dear to him have the cheering 
consolation that he was true to the kindred 
points of morality and Christianity, and has 
passed to his reward. 

He was an uncommonly able man of 
affairs. He made himself thoroughly fa- 
miliar with the details of his business, and 
was quick to solve whatever perplexing 
questions came up in connection with it. 
When he had decided he acted without 
delay. It was his custom to dispatch his 
business as it came up, postponing nothing. 
To this habit his success was no doubt 
largely due. He connected action with 
thought his whole life through. He was 
severely, almost brusquely, practical. He 
had no patience with theories. No man 
had a more hearty hatred of nonsense, 
humbug and falsehood. It was his nature 
also to despise a blunderer, for he rarely 
blundered himself. But he did not turn 
away from new things. He has been in- 
strumental in introducing several new in- 
ventions among farmers and diarymen. 
His patent cheese-vat and heater became 
very popular with dairymen, especially in 
Northern and Eastern New York and the 
Eastern States. He commenced its manu- 
facture and sale about I860. In 18(54: he 

commenced manufacturing the Buckeye 
Mower and for several years turned out 
and sold 400 a year. He made a spe- 
cialty of dairymen's furnishing goods, and 
this class of producers were long in the 
habit of going to his establishment for their 
complete outfits. Farmers' seeds was another 
of his specialties, of which he bought and 
sold large quantities each year. Such fea- 
tures of his business and their success, 
illustrate the foresight and practical wis- 
dom of the man. In public enterprises he 
did not lag, but did his share towards 
originating and pushing them forward. 
His friendships were few, but warm. He 
was too much absorbed in business and his 
mind too positive to attract strongly. But 
his family, and others who knew him well 
in social life, can testify to a tenderness and 
gentleness behind his stern exterior which 
few susiDected, but which they all the more 
appreciated and enjoyed. 

Sunday morning, July a4th, 1870, at fif- 
teen minutes after three o'clock, Mr. Cooper 
died. He had been confined to his house 
but a few days, and to most of his neigh- 
bors his death was unexpected. It deprived 
the city and county of one of its most ener- 
getic, able and successful business men. 
. His sudden and unexpected death shrouded 
Watertown in mourning, and carried poig- 
nant grief to the hearts of those who knew 
him best. Watertown owed much to 
Howell Cooper, and while it has an exist- 
ence will not fail to do honor to his memory. 

This was spontaneously evidenced by the 
appropriate resolutions passed by the several 
civic organizations in Watertown. The busi- 
ness men led off with a large meeting at the 
rooms of the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation; then the merchants of the city held 
a meeting, followed by the Common Coun- 
cil, the directors of the Jefferson County 
National Bank, the trustees of the Jefferson 
County Savings Bank, and last, but not 
least, at the annual meeting of the Young 
Men's Christian Association, a feeling tribute 
was paid to Mr. Cooper's memory. In life 
he was respected — in death his neighbors 
and the citizens of Watertown honored 
themselves by honoring him. 


Whose likeness and biographical sketch 
will be found on page 13 of this History, 
since the publication of that number has 
been remembered in an unusual manner by 
the Alumni of Hahnemann College, of 
which celebrated institution he has been 
the honoi'ed Dean for 40 years — a thing un- 
precedented in this country, perhaps in the 
world. Dr.W. W. Van Baun, Secretary of the 
Alumni Association of Hahnemann, in lately 
sending out his annual invitations for the 
usual yearly gathering, proposed that $5,000 
should be raised as a fund for the perpetual 
maintenance of a free bed in Hahnemann 
Hospital, to be named the Amos Russell 

Thomas Free Bed, and the cash was quickly 

The address on the occasion of the formal 
presentation of the fund for the permanent 
bed, was made at the close of the Alumni 
meeting at the Academy of Music, in Phila- 
delphia, May 8, 1894, when Dr. Thomas 
made a feeling and eloquent acknowledge- 
ment of the great honor done him. 

The eminent success of this Watertown 
boy will remain through coming years as an 
incentive to any other humble youth who is 
willing to be studious and deserving in 
order to reach prominence, which comes to 
no man unearned. 




In men who are now prominent, but who 
sprang from moderate surroundings, so far 
as wealth and influence are concerned, 
Jefferson county appears to be quite prolific. 
There is scarcely a public man, now or in 
the past, who has held an important office 
in the county of Jefferson, who has not 
sprung from the common walks of life — 
even as Lincoln and Jackson and Silas 
Wright sprang, strengthened by early les- 
sons of thrift and self-denial— emerging at 
last from obscurity and unfavorable en- 
vironment, into broad and often eventful 

Governor Beach must be classed with 
such, for his origin was remote, his early 
life full of hardships, his final status among 
men prominent and irreproachable. He 
was born in Fairfield, Herlfimer county, 
October 9, 1828, of parents who were able 

to give him only a common-school educa- 
tion. At the age of 13 he left home, and 
ever after that took upon himself the entire 
burthen of his own support and education, 
He longed for an education, and, where 
many others fail, he was willing to pay the 
price of such a desirable possession by un- 
tiring industry, patient study, and in- 
domitable resolution. He must have been a 
strong, rugged boy— for in his 13th year he 
would rise in the cold winter mornings at 4 
o'clock, fodder 600 sheep, care for 3 horses, 
and other farm animals, besides milking 4 
cows, eat his breakfast, and trudge off two 
miles to school, which began promptly at 9 
o'clock. When 15 years of age he began 
attending Jordan (Onondaga county) Acad- 
emy. This continued for two years, when 
he went to the Mexico (Oswego county) 
Academy steadily, except in winter, when 



he taught school 3 months to earn money 
enough to pay his expenses at the Academy. 
During the time he was at the Mexico 
Academy he kept up with his classes all the 
while he was teaching, and was prepared to 
enter Union College with the rest of his 
classmates. In 1848 he was examined at 
Union in the Freshman, Sophomore and 
Junior classes, passing them all readily, 
and entering as a Senior. After one year's 
study he graduated with honor in 1849, at 
the age of ;M. 

Thus far he had earned by his own efforts 
the money needed for his support during 
these educating years. After graduation he 
was again constrained to begin to labor for 
his own support. He came to Waterlown 
in 1849 and accepted a professorship in the 
Black River Literary and Religious Insti- 
tute. He remained there nearly a year, and 
then entered the office of Joshua Moore, Jr., 
as a student at law. During the fii'st year 
of his law study he taught a private school 
in the Hayes block in a room in the rear of 
Mr. Moore's office, pursuing his law studies 
at night and early in the morning. This 
continued for two years, when he was ad- 
mitted to the bar. 

In the fall of 1853 the trustees of the La- 
fargeville Academy persuaded Mr. Beach 
to take charge of their school. When he 
began there the previous term had closed 
with less than a dozen scholars, and at 
the end of his first term he had over 100 

In the fall of 1853 he began to practice 
law, and in 1853 he formed a law partner- 
ship with Levi H. Brown. This partnership 
continued 15 years, until 1869. This firm 
conducted as large, if not the largest and 
most successful law business in the county. 

In the spring of 1853 Mr. Beach married 
Miss Abbie A. Woodruff, the fourth daughter 
of Norris M. Woodruff. This estimable lady 
died in September, 1856. 

In the fall of 1860 Mr. Beach was a dele- 
gate to the National Democratic Convention 
at Charleston, S. C, and to the adjourned 
convention held later at Baltimore, Md. He 
was chairman of the Democratic county 
committee from 1860 to 1870, and perfected 
a plan of part}' organization which resulted 
in a Democratic gain in Jefferson county of 
over 1,700 in a single year. This plan was 
so successful as to have attracted the atten- 
tion of Mr. Tilden, chairman State commit- 
tee, who sent for Mr. Beach, and together 
they perfected and applied the plan to the 
whole State with gratifying results. In the 
fall of 1868 Mr. Beach was elected lieuten- 
ant-go fernor on the ticket with Governor 
John T. Hoffman, though in the nominatiog 
convention Mr. Beach had been opposed by 
Tammany. He received a larger vote than 
Governor Hoffman. After serving two 
years, he was unanimously re-nominated 
and elected to the office of lieutenant- 
governor, running ahead of the ticket as 

At the end of his term of service, Gover- 
nor Beach returned to Watertown and re- 
sumed the practice of his profession. In 
1877 he was nominated and elected Secre- 
tar3'of State, which office he held from 1878 
to 1880, when he was again re-norainated, 
but defeated at the polls by less than 1,400 
votes, owing to a division in the Democratic 
party. In 1868 and 1872, and again in 1876 
he was a delegate to the Democratic Na- 
tional Convention. 

Mr. Beach married in the spring of 1863, 
Miss Olivia Pickering, daughter of Capt. 
Augustus Pickering, of Sackets Harbor. 
She died in 1893, leaving one daughter. 

About 1880 Mr. Beach retired from the 
active practice of his profession, devoting 
such time as was necessary to the manage- 
ment of his own private business, and to the 
oversight of the Henry Keep Home, founded 
by Mrs. Keep-Schley, in memory of her de- 
ceased husband. He has managed the in- 
come secured to the Keep Home in a most 
satisfactory manner, the Home being free 
from debt, with quite a snug sum saved 
from the incomes and safely invested. He 
is treasurer and vice-president of that noble 
institution; a director and member of the 
executive committee of the Watertown 
Spring Wagon Co.; a director in the Water- 
town Savings Bank, and executor of several 

He was chairman of the State executive 
committee from 1868 to 1872, taking charge 
of the campaign work, with headquarters in 
New York. In 1873 he was acting chairman 
of the State Democratic committee, by rea- 
son of Jlr. Tilden's absence in Europe. In 
1874 he was elected and served as chairman 
of that committee during the campaign 
which resulted in the election of Gov. Til- 
den by over 50,000 ma,jority. In 1873 he 
presided over the Court of Impeachment, 
sitting for the trial of Judge Barnard. 
None of Gov. Beach's decisions in that 
celebrated trial were ever overruled. At 
the close of that trial the members of the 
Senate unanimously passed the following 

Resolved, That it is the sentiment of the 
Senate that the ability, dignity and impar- 
tiality wliich have distinguished Lieut.-Gov. 
Allen C. Beach in the discharge of his re- 
sponsible duties as presiding officer of the 
Senate, not only during its legislative ses- 
sion, but also in the protracted trials which 
have taken place before it, and in the trial 
by the Court of Impeachment, justly entitle 
him to the confidence and approbation of 
the people. 

Resolved, That he is entitled to the grate- 
ful remembrance of the members of this 
body, for the courtesy and kindness which 
have uniformly characterized his official 
acts, and his social intercourse with them all. 

Resolved, That these resolutions, after 
being appropriately engrossed and signed 
by the president pro tem. and clerk, be pre- 
sented to liim as an expression of our high 



appreciation of his ability and honesty, as a 
presiding oflficer, and as a tribute to his 
social worth. 

These resolutions were laboriously and 
elegantly engrossed and framed at a cost of 
$1,500, and the Governor treasures them 

among the precious heirlooms of his home. 
The Governor has held naany local offices 
in Watertown, among the rest superinten- 
dent of schools, in 1852-53, and member of 
the board of education for several years, 
ending in 1869. j. a. h. 


The historian finds nothing so agreeable 
as to speak of men of humble origin and 
unprotected in their youth wlio have man- 
aged by natural capacity to overcome their 
untoward environment, and have risen to 
positions of more or less prominence, and 
dying, have left names sweet to be remem- 
bered. A mile and a half south of the vil- 
lage of Geneva in Ontario county, N. Y., 

there once stood upon the shore of tlie lake 
a. couple of primitive glass manufactories, 
which have now wholly disappeared, though 
the place around them once had a popula- 
tion of 500 souls. It was to this locality 
that the parents of James R. Sweeney re- 
moved from Baltimore, Md., when the in- 
fant James was barely two months old. 
His father died before he was six years of 



age, leaving the widow with a large family 
of little children to care for, with nothing 
to aid her save her own two loving motherly 
hands and her natural wit. She was a noble 
woman, with a strong physical organiza- 
tion, and by unaided exertion was able to 
keep her young family together, vibrating 
between her residence and Geneva, then 
only an unpretentious hamlet. Here young 
Sweeney remained until 16 years of age, 
obtaining such education as the opportuni- 
ties of those early days afforded to poor 
men's sons. His elder brother had, how- 
ever, reached his majority and had become 
of considerable assistance in supporting the 
family. In 1832 this elder brother removed 
the widow and her younger brood from 
the neighborhood of Geneva to Phila- 
delphia, Pa., and soon after to Jackson, 
N. J., where they remained several years. 

This elder brother having lost his health, 
they were reduced to the very depths of 
poverty, and so the family returned to Phila- 
delphia. But in that city their hardships 
found only slight amelioration. At 19 years 
of age James was turned out into the world 
alone and friendless. Removing to Wins- 
low, N. J. , he obtained employment as a 
teacher, and remained nearly two years. 
Hero he saved a small sum of money and 
removed to Baltimore, his native city, where 
he remained about a year engaged in teach- 
ing and at the same time attending a higher 
grade of school as opportunity would per- 
mit. In the spring of 1837 he returned to 
Philadelphia, where he was employed as 
assistant in a school at a low salai-y, but in 
the bargain he was to be given opportuni- 
ties for study and improvement. His next 
operation was a grocery store among the 
common people and in a poor neighborhood. 
But his venture was a success financially, 
though his capital was necessarily small. 
Previous, however, to starting into this gro- 
cery business he had opened a private school, 
■which was well patronized. 

The health of his elder brother having 
been established, he, in company with James 
and another practical glass-blower, was in- 
duced, after being promised financial aid by 
a gentleman who was to contribute as part- 
ner a definite amount of capital for conduct- 
ing the business, to enter into the manufac- 
ture of window glass at Redwood, in Jeffer- 
son county. To this place the whole family, 
mother, sons and daughters (in all a dozen 
souls), removed in 1840, James having pre- 
ceded the others two or three months so as 
to make needed arrangements for house- 
keeping. Here, among strangers, with capi- 
tal entirely inadequate to conduct an ex- 
tended business, Mr.. Sweeney began to 
manufacture glass. The party who had 
promised capital utterly failed to carry out 
his agreement, and the business was aban- 
doned after nearly two years' hopeless strug- 
gle witli adversity. Then the whole family 
were once more left without a dollar, their 
means of subsistence taken away, and their 

condition deplorable in the extreme. It re- 
sulted in a separation of the family, and they 
were never again united. The business fail- 
ure was followed by many annoyances, some 
law suits, and much condemnation. Mr. 
Sweeney left Redwood with his scanty ward- 
robe tied in a handkerchief, his good mother 
having just then accepted a situation as 
housekeeper, and her two young girls ac- 
companied her to her new home. Not hav- 
ing money enough to pay his fare in the 
stage ($1.35), young Sweeney walked to 
Watertown, reaching there foot-sore and 
weary. In that whole town he new but 
three persons, and to neither of these would 
he apply for aid. Rising early in the morn- 
ing he sallied out looking for something to 
do. Meeting the kind-hearted P. S. Stew- 
art, of Carthage (with whom he had had 
business relations), he was offered $10 in 
cash as a loan, and a three months' guar- 
anty for his board. Thus equipped he felt 
like a new man, and resolved to attend the 
Black River Literary and Religious Institute 
to improve his education, boarding with Mr. 
A. Whitford, one of the professors in that 
school, through whom he afterwards ob- 
tained a situation in the clerk's office under 
Mr. C. B. Hoard, then county clerk. Mr. 
Sweeney found in Mr. Hoard an unchang- 
ing friend, one who did all in his power 
to advance the interests of his young pro- 
tege, and though Sweeney was a Whig, he 
was kept at work in the clerk's office in 
spite of the repeated efforts made to oust 
him. His industry and ability made him 
too valuable a man to be spared. During 
his three years' continuance in the clerk's 
office, Sweeney paid off his Redwood debts, 
and walked out of that office a free man on 
the expiration of Mr. Hoard's term of ser- 

During his visits at Mr. Whitford's on 
Mechanic street, Mr. Sweeney formed the 
acquaintance of Miss Mary Stimson, of Ant- 
werp, who had come to Watertown to live 
with an aunt, Mrs. Job Sawyer. This timely 
acquaintance ripened into love and marriage 
three years afterwards, a union that has 
been exceptionally happy, for this young 
lady possessed qualities which have made 
her beloved by all w-ho have had the pleas- 
ure of her acquaintance. She was her hus- 
band's companion and wise assistant while 
they resided at Watertown, Clayton, and 
twice at Washington, in New York, and in 
the city of Philadelphia. 

After leaving the county clerk's office Mr. 
Sweeney was bookkeeper in a machine- 
shop, where his neatness and industry were 
well appreciated. He also held a clerkship 
with Merrick & Fowler, at Clayton, and re- 
ceived the unqualified approval of his em- 

He was in Washington from 1849 to 1857, 
as clerk in the pension bureau. In 1858 he 
became a partner with Mr. Hoard in the 
agricultural works, near the engine factory 
in North Watertown for a number of vears, 





and brought that business to a successful 
conclusion at the time Mr. Hoard removed 
from Watertown. Following the winding 
up of the agricultural works, he was in 
Philadelphia from 1873 to 1876, as treasurer 
of the Woodruif Sleeping-car Company, in- 
stituting many reforms in the management 
of that concern, which became prosperous. 
From Philadelphia he removed to New York 
city, accepting a position in the New York 
custom house, where he held a responsible 
place, being promoted for his ability from 
one grade to another. Here he remained a 
number of years, but finally received a per- 
manent injury to his eyes from being obliged 
to write by gas-light, while his division in 
the building was being repaired. His rap- 
idly-failing eye-sight induced him to return 
permanently to Watertown in 1883, and 
after several years of patient suffering from 
poor eye-sight and the usual deterioration 
of the system, lie died in the Woodruff 
House, where he had boarded for many 
years, on May 17, 1889, in the 7oth year of 
his age. 

Mr. Sweeney always proved equal to any 
position or emergency in which he was 

placed. He was not a collegiate, but came, 
from a poor family, with only the very 
slightest advantages in his youth Yet he 
was a ready writer, a frequent contributor 
to newspapers, a man of logical mind and 
unusually clear perceptions. His fidelity to 
his friends was a prominent trait, and any 
one who ever did him a favor found him 
eager to make more than a fair return for 
it. In all the positions he held — some of 
them confidential and important — and often 
in positions where money had to be han- 
dled, there never was a complaint of any 
dereliction of duty or any betrayal of trust. 
His address was finished, his manner gentle, 
his speech and bearing invited confidence. 
He was a man with great reserve force, and 
lie proved equal to any task he was called 
upon to perform. 

Such characters are hard to duplicate, 
While only his intimate friends knew his 
full capacity, he impressed the observer as 
an earnest, energetic, honorable man, who 
shrank from no responsibility and swerved 
neither to the right nor left — but went 
straight on in the path of his duty. 

J. A. H.- 


The subject of this brief biographical 
sketch was born in the town of LeEay, Jef- 
ferson county, N. Y., on the 28th of April, 
1831. The Taggart family, from whom he 
descended, ranks among the old settlers of 
this section of the State. His father, Henry 
Taggart, was born in LeRay, and his uiother, 
Julia Deighton, in Pamelia. They lived and 
died in their native county, and the old 
homestead is still owned by their descend- 
ants. His great-grandfather, Joseph Tag- 
gart, resided in Newport, R. I., where he 
carried on a shipping trade, frequently 
crossing to Europe in sailing vessels in the 
line of his business. He emigrated to the 
United States from the Isle of Man. 

Mr. Taggart's immediate family consisted 
of six brothers and two sisters, viz. : Demp- 
ster, who died in childhood, Joseph B. , Wil- 
liam W., Watson Henry, Demptster D. 
(named after his deceased brother), and the 
sisters, Mary and Orea Of the brothers, 
Watson H. died in Terra Haute. Ind., in 
1853, and Dempster D. in Watertown, in 
October, 1889. The sister Mary died in 1871. 
With the single exception of the eldest child 
the whole family grew up to manhood and 
womanhood, and married. Theirs was a 
family possessing unusual force of charac- 
ter, and if their individual history could be 
fully written out. it would furnish a valua- 
ble picture of the trials, successes and per- 
severance of a large family of children born 
in humble life, and who largely had to make 
their own way in the world. 

The products of a farm in this region fifty 
years ago were barely sufficient to provide 
for the necessities of a large family of chil- 

dren, and to do even this called for a self- 
sacrificing toil on the part of paients and 
elder childien, at once noble and beautiful 
That the members of this family came of 
good and thrifty stock is abundantly proved 
by the useful and successful career of each. 
In the battle of life they have all won hon- 
orable positions in the circle in which their 
lot was oast. 

Byron B. worked on the home farm until 
lie was eighteen years of age — working sum- 
mers and latterly teaching school during 
the winter term. The experience gained 
while "boarding round," and in the man- 
agement of country schools, gave him an 
excellent insight into character, which 
greatly aided him in later years. He at- 
tended the State Normal School at Albany, 
for one year, and afterward ' went West, 
where he spent three years. In the spring 
of 1856 he returned to his native county, 
and on tlie 28th day of May of that year, he 
married Miss Frances L. IBrown of Water- 
town, daughter of Jabez and Lefa Brown. 
This choice of a wife proved a very happy 
one, and two daughters and two sons blessed 
the union. Mrs. Taggart has been a loving 
wife and devoted mother, and still lives to 
grace and bless a home her presence and help 
have done so much to brighten and secure. 

The patriotic fervor of the period of the 
great Rebellion in 1861 found full recogni- 
tion in the heart of Mr. Taggart. In 1862, 
after the conflict had deepened into a gigan- 
tic civil war, he raised a company of volun- 
teers for 10th N. Y. Artillery, and was com- 
missioned a captain in November. 1862. He 
had command of Fort Ricketts, comijrising 



a part of the important defenses of Wash- 
ington, where he remained up to November 
23, 1863, when family responsibilities and 
ill-health led him to resign his commis- 
sion. He was a capable and efficient offi- 
cer, and merited and received the full con- 
fidence of his men and of his superior offi- 
cers. The service he rendered in the army 
made a heavy drain upon his health, and 
ever since he has at times been a great 
sufferer from disabilities contracted while 
in the line of duty. On the 14th of May, 
1878. Gov. Robinson appointed him a trus- 
tee for the " completion, management and 
control of the Soldiers' Home" at Bath, 
N. Y., and he was re-appointed to this trust 
by Gov. Cornell on the 4th of May, 1881. 
In 1879 he was elected mayor of Watertown, 
and re elected in the following year. His 
administration of the affairs of the city 
were marked b}' a careful discharge of the 
delicate and somewhat onerous duties per- 
taining to the trying position. He brought 
a business man's experience to the service 
of the city, and left the position with an ex- 
cellent record. 

He was one of the orignators and is presi- 
dent of the Taggart Bros. Company, of 
Watertown, and the Taggert Paper Com- 
pany, of Felts Mills. He is vice-president 
and one of the promoters of the Watertown 
Thermometer Works, a company providing 
employment to between 40 and 50 workers. 
He was also one of the organizers of the 
Watertown National Bank, and is a director 
in this institution. He is a stockholder in 
the Watertown Spring Wagon Company 

and in the Watertown Carriage and Gear 
Company. He is president of the Central 
Park Association which occupies one of the 
finest sites on the St. Lawrence rive:-, and 
is president of the Alexandria Steamboat 
Company. He is also interested in the 
Hotel Eastman, at Hot Springs, Ark., built 
to accommodate 850 guests. 

This record of industrial interests which 
his enterprise and means have helped to 
develop, amply prove that he is a citizen 
who fully meets the best requirements for 
furnishing employment to the people, and 
adding to that circulation which creates 
wealth in his own liome section of the State. 
As a business man Mr. Taggart is well and 
widely known, and is I'espected for his 
sterling integrity, thrift, enterprise and pub- 
lic spirit. His career lias been a successful 
one, — both in the days of war and in the times 
of peace, — and he is yet in the prime of life. 

As a type of a farmer's son. winning his 
own way to a position of influence and use- 
fulness among the business men of his day, 
and acijuiring a competency through his 
own efforts, besides commanding the confi- 
dence of both political parties.' — as his offi- 
cial trusts continued through two adminis- 
trations abundantly prove, — he is one of our 
self-made men, worthy as few are, and 
whose achievements are a valuable part of 
the history of our country. His life is 
proof of how grandly the American Volun- 
teer ^transformed into an American busi- 
ness man — adapts himself to every duty, and 
so stands forth as one of the best products 
of our cosmopolitan civilization. 



Following our personal histories of the 
various organizations which went into the 
great Union Army from Jefferson county 
during the Civil War, it may be proper also 
to introduce some personal experiences con- 
nected with at least one of the leading bat- 
tles, as well as some minor details, which 
may in the future shed some light upon the 
events of that trying time when the South- 
ern States attempted to secede, and fought 
until completely exhausted in order to give 
permanent shape to one of the greatest 
political heresies the world has ever wit- 

Major General Joseph Hooker, who com- 
manded the Union forces in what is known 
as Chancellorsville campaign, was almost a 
resident of Watertown, for he came there 
often to visit his sisters, Mrs. Brainerd and 
Mrs. Wood, and the Watertown people were 
always glad to see him, for he was in all 
respects a most genial gentleman, welcome 
in any circle, I have thought that a sketch 
of that part of his operations in the Chan- 
cellorsville battle, which came under my 
own personal observation, and in a small 
part of which I had the honor to share, 
would be intei-esting 20 years from now, 



when half a century shall have elapsed 
since that battle was fought, and when all 
who were there present will prohably have 
passed away. Excepting the defeat of the 
Union forces at the first Bull liun, perhaps 
no more disappointing aflfair occurretl dur- 
ing the whole rebellion than the repulse of 
the army of the Potomac at Chancellors- 
ville. General Hooker, by command of 
President Lincoln, had succeeded Burnside, 
and was fortunate in having made a favor- 
able impression upon that courageous army 
which had lain in winter quarters around 
Falmouth, opposite Fredericksburg. Under 
Hooker's supervision the almost impassable 
Virginia roads near our cantonments had 
been vastly improved, better discipline and 
greater confidence jirevailed among the 
men, and, what went to the very hearts of 
the rank and file, freshly baked bread and 
several vegetables were a part of the daily 
ration. When the time came for Hooker to 
cross the Rappahannock he was in command 
of a superb body of confident troops, with 
every warlike convenience at his call. It is 
true that there were not lacking among his 
subordinates some who were prompted by a 
selfish ambition to freely criticise their new 
commander, as they would have criticised 
any officer who might have been placed over 
them, and as Hooker in his turn had criti- 
cised others — for those were the days which 
" made ambition virtue," when captains of 
a year before had been made colonels and 
brigadiers, and were commanding brigades 
and even divisions. I remember that a 
staff officer of General Patrick told me be- 
fore a gun had been fired at Chancellors- 
ville that Hooker would be defeated. Per- 
haps the wish was father to the prophecy, 
and I pondered at the time whether that 
officer did not reflect the views of his chief, 
who was originally from Jefferson county, 
and had been a major in the old army when 
Hooker was only a captain. 

It is not my purpose to describe in detail 
the Chancellorsville fight. Those who wish 
to fully understand it will find all the moves 
ably described in the Comte de Paris' 
" Civil War in America," as well as in the 
admirable articles published during 1890 and 
'91 in the Century Magazine. Two general 
impressions, however, were left upon my 
mind by what I saw and understood at the 
time. One was that our serious misfor- 
tunes began when Hooker himself was 
stunned by an exploding shell almost at the 
beginning of the confiict ; and, what was al- 
most as fatal, the widely extended line of 
the Union forces — nearly 7 miles in length 
— gave Lee an opportunity to break through 
at an 5' weak point, and this all the more 
readily as Hooker appeared unable, after his 
mishap, to give intelligent oversight to the 
carrying out of hia general plan. The indi- 
vidual corps commanders did not act in 
concert ^ indeed, so dense were the woods 
and so intricate the roads that it was difficult 
to manoeuver large bodies of troops. True, 

this was as much of an impediment to the 
Confederate as to the Union forces, but the 
Confederates had a better knowledge of the 
country, a fact which gave them an advan- 
tage then, as well as afterwards, when 
Grant himself was entangled in that same 
Wilderness country, which really begins at 

It is now plainly comprehended that 
Hooker was too slow in attacking, foi- if he 
had made a rigorous onslaught upon Lee's 
army the next day after he crossed the 
Rappahannock, he could have cut Lee's 
command into two sections and defeated 
each of them at his convenience, for Lee's 
left wing would have been "bottled up" in 
Fredericksburg, where it would not be pos- 
sible to handle a large force. 

While it is not my purpose to describe the 
general engagement, there were many less 
important matters which became fixed in- 
delibly upon my recollection. It is well to 
remark that no one person ever sees the 
whole of a great battle. The observer is 
necessarily limited in his opportunities for 
observation. But if each observer truth- 
fully and intelligently writes of what he 
saw and participated in, the historian, by 
collation and comparison, 'is enabled to form 
a reasonable conception of everv detail. 

The 3oth New York Infantry, in which I 
commanded a company, did not participate 
in the advance to Chancellorsville. Its 
duties at that time consisted in guarding 
and patroling the 14 miles of railroad from 
Aquia Creek to Falmouth, and in running 
the trains upon that road. We had there- 
fore good opportunities for observing what- 
ever transpired around Falmouth, which 
was the central point of Hooker's advance, 
though his main crossing of the river was at 
Banks', Kelly's and the United States fords, 
4, 6 and 10 miles above. When, on the 37th 
of April, 1863, Hooker had crossed at these 
fords with his whole army, excepting Sedg- 
wick and Reynolds' corps. Fredericksburg, 
right in front of his winter headquarters, 
and plainly in sight, was still held by Lee. 
To drive him out and follow up that episode 
by an attack upon the Confederate right 
flank, was delegated to these two corps, con- 
sidered the best in the army, and never, up 
to that time, seriously defeated. Reynolds 
having been ordered to join the main force 
on the 38th, the carrying out of his work 
was left to the sixth corps alone, compris- 
ing nearly 33,000 men. When the order 
came on the 39th of April for this gallant 
corps to advance to its appointed task, the 
men eagerly obeyed, crossing the Rappa- 
hannock on two pontof)n bridges, I and 4 
miles below the city. I witnessed the pre- 
paratory work which was necessary before 
floating the pontoons, serving as temporary 
aid upon the staff of General Benham, the 
chief of engineei'S, The movement was at 
night, and expected to be conducted in 
strict silence, for a formidable resistance 
was expected on attempting to land upon 



the south bank of the river. The heavy pon- 
toons were carried for miles by relays of men, 
brought down the steep banks of the river, 
where they were quietly launched and 
silently filled with a quota of the troops. 
While being paddled slowly across, and 
when in mid stream a volley of musketry 
was fii-ed upon them which opened a wall of 
fire that could only be likened to a " street 
in hell," and seemed to tear up the ground 
from under the very feet of those who were 
upon the north shore. Luckily the storm of 
lead hurtled over the heads of the men in 
the boats, but inflicted considerable loss 
upon their comrades who were waiting to 
cross over. The resolute fellows in their 
boats kept right on with their paddling, 
however, aiid soon made a landing, driving 
back the Confederates at that point, and 
thus opening the way for building the 
bridge of boats. The artillery was moving 
over that bridge before 8 o'clock the next 

Some two miles further down the stream 
another crossing was attempted, but drag- 
ged along until the early hour of the next 
morning, April 30. It was there I noticed 
the most conspicuous act of daring on the 
part of a general officer that ever came 
under my personal observation. Ne iv York's 
beloved General James S. Wadsworth (des- 
tined like Sedgwick, to lose his life the 
next year in the Wilderness campaign), was, 
in command of the sixth corps, ordered to 
cross at that point. There had been more or 
less/iring across the river, and a little after 
sunrise the movement appeared to halt. 
We had lost quite a number of men in 
the desultory conflict, without making 
any apparent progress. Impatient at 
tlie delay, and at a moment when there 
were only a few loaded pontoons afloat. 
Wadsworth accompanied by his son and 
faithful aide, Craig, sprang into one of the 
boats; two orderlies led their horses 
into the water; Craig seized their bridles 
and constrained the animals to swim at the 
stern of the boat as it was pushed away 
from the shore. The men bent to their pad- 
dles, while the gray-haired General stood 
straight up in the open boat, a fair mark 
for any Confederate bullet. Thus they 
crossed. Reaching the south shore the sev- 
eral boats that were ahead of and following 
these heroes quickly vomited out their 
cheering loads; the General and Craig man- 
aged some way to get their horses up the 
bank, and instantly forming the men, they 
rushed upon the demoralized Confederates, 
who were soon upon the run, and then the 
way was open for laying tlie other bridge. 
Tliere were many dead soldiers lying there 
when I got over, some of the Confederates 
falling right in their rifle pits, where a few 
shovelsful of the ejected earth buried them 
from the sight of those who, in faraway 
Southern homes, would mourn for their 

Both of the bridges being laid, on the 

30th the sixth corps moved cautiously up 
the valley toward Fredericksburg with no 
very serious opposition, though they sup- 
posed themselves confronted by the greater 
part of Lee's army. But Lee by this time 
had heard of Hooker's attempt to get between 
him and Richmond, and he slipped away 
up the plank road to confront the Union 
forces, leaving only about 10,000 men, under 
Early, to hold the town. It was not until 
the evening of May 2nd, however, that 
Sedgwick received his order from Hooker 
to make his attack, and to follow up his vic- 
tory, if possible, by a movement upon Lee's 
right wing. The morning of the 3rd (Sun- 
day) found Sedgwick in complete possession 
of the lower city, and in the rear of its 


abandoned streets his men tightened their 
belts for that desperate encounter which 
was to pass into history as the " Second Bat- 
tle of Fredericksburg." \'\'ith the veteran 
two year men in front, at 11 o'clock of a 
beautiful Sabbath morning, in light march- 
ing order, without firing a gun, the assault- 
ing force advanced at double quick. The 
enemy kept up a continual artiller}' fire, 
and the Union siege guns upon Falmouth 
Heights were by no means idle, doing great 
damage to tlie Confederate artillery, which 
held conspicuous positions. Their infantry, 
behind the famous stone wall, reserved 
their fire until our men were within easy 
range. The noise was deafening, the fire 
incessant, the loss becoming serious, but the 
veteran Union men were not to be stayed. 
The hitherto invincible stone wall was 
gained; our men were soon over it and at 



work with their bayonets. Perhaps all this 
had taken place within ten minutes, but it 
seemed hours to those who were observing 
the fight. Immediately after the Heights 
were carried, the Confederates became 
panic stricken, and throwing away their 
guns and knapsacks, sought safety in 
flight. Sedgwick captured a thousand pris- 
oners, nearly the whole of the survivors of 
Barksdale's Mississippi Brigade. 

As officer of the day upon the Falmouth 
side, I had unchallenged passage over the 
pontoon bridge which had been laid oppo- 
site the center of the town. Crossing over 
as soon as the Heights were carried, I was 
surprised to meet my old friend. Captain 
George Parker, quartermaster in the sixth 
corps, a great favorite with Gen. Sedgwick. 
He was a Watertown boy, son of Alexander 
Parker, that sturdy old Democrat, so well 
remembered as a successful farmer and 
father of a nvimerous and most worthy 
family. The captain was in tears. I de- 
manded the cause of his emotion. "Oh, 
captain," he bui-st out, "they put my old 
regiment right in front, and my poor men 
lay scattered all up through ' Sandy Bot- 
tom,' when their full two years' service was 
uj} six weeks ago, and they ought to have 
been mustered out and at home to-day, in- 
stead of lying up there dead. " The cap- 
tain would not be comforted. I pi-essed on 
and soon found ample veriticatiou of what 
he had said. The ambulance corps were 
gathering the dead into hideous "wind- 
rows " for burial in pits, while the wounded 
were being carried away into hospitals. 

The loss had been heavy upon both sides 
(especially among the two-year veteran regi- 
ments), but much less than when the previ- 
ous assault had failed under Burnside. The 
officers, in particular, had suffered. The 
field officers of the 6th Maine were all dead, 
and several companies of that gallant regi- 
ment had gone on tvith Sedgwick, com- 
manded by sergeants. 

Leaving its dead and wounded to the 
care of its ambulance attendants, the sixth 
corps halted for only half an hour, and then 
reformed its column, and pressed resolutely 
forward to join Hooker. I do not know 
what Sedgwick anticipated, but the fact 
was that Lee had got Hooker into such a 
position on the previous day that he felt 
able to send four fresh brigades to assail 
Sedgwick, and these with the six or seven 
thousand men who had fled from Freder- 
icksburg, concentrated and made a stand at 
the little Salem church, and were in readi- 
ness for battle when the sixth corps came 
up. A severe struggle at once began, and 
when darkness came on Sedgwick had not 
only failed to open his way to his chief, but 
was obliged to take steps to witlistand an 
attack from the whole Confederate army if 
perchance they were let loose upon him. 
His losses were heavy, and again the two- 
year regiments had suffered severely. That 
night his men slept on their arms, and in 

the early morning began to entrench. All 
that day (May 4th) they plied the spade, and 
at night felt safe. Before morning Sedg- 
wick was directed by a staff officer from 
General Hooker to take care of himself as 
best he could, and advised him to recross 
the river at Banks' ford. I ought here to 
state that when Sedgwick was fighting at 
Salem church a brigade of Confederates 
swept down the plank road, and before sun- 
down had again taken possession of Freder- 
icksbui'g, capturing whatever was left 
there, and threatening our stores and 
camps at Falmouth. 

It will readily be believed that all day 
of the 4th of May we were nervous and 
extremely anxious upon the Falmouth side. 
"We feared that Lee would crush the sixth 
corps; and he might have done so had he 
not spent nearly all of the 4th in enti-ench- 
ing at Salem church instead of attacking. 
The knowledge he had of Sedgwick, as a 
most resolute and determined fighter, may 
also have induced Lee to be very careful 
how he attacked such a commander, for it 
was not his first acquaintance with this 
sixth corps, and he had known Sedgwick in 
the old army. As night drew on and no 
further orders were being received, I laid 
down and tried to sleep, but in the early 
morning I was up and intent upon getting 
the latest news. About the first thing I ob- 
served thi-ough the low'-lying mist that 
hung over the river, was that a signal offi- 
cer, located in a high building within Sedg- 
wick's lines, was frantically waiving a white 
flag right and left. This I knew meant a 
call for " talk." A thick wood intervening 
made him invisible to our signal station at 
the Phillips house on Falmouth heights; so 
I sent Sergeant Cannon on a dead run for 
the station. In a few minutes, and almost 
before I thought my man could have got 
there, a signal officer with flag in hand, and 
his pony on a keen gallop, came in sight. 
In a minute he was whirling his flag in re- 
ply and receiving a message to General Ben- 
ham, requesting an extra bridge to be 
immediately put down at Banks' ford. And 
then I knew that it was a general defeat, 
for Sedgwick was not a man to be ordering 
bridges to be built in his rear if there was 
any fighting to be done in front. 

As is usual after a gi'eat battle, a heavy 
rain soon came on, and the wounded had to 
be cared for in a cold storm. The disabled 
men from the eleventh corps began to arrive 
at Falmouth, to be sent north by rail. The 
long line of ambulances bore evidence of 
the severity of the engagement. We were 
holding some empty box cars at the station, 
but they were without seats, and to pile 
poor wounded soldiers into them seemed 
almost barbarous. These sufferers had been 
on the road several hours, were wet and 
cold, some of them speechless. They had 
no surplus blankets, and to lay them upon 
the car floor where horses and cattle had 
been carried, seemed an indignity and a 



cruelty. But go by rail they must. There 
was at the station a tent full of new blank- 
ets. The quartermaster declined to issue 
them upon his own authority, but would 
readily do so if I would sign a requisition. 
This seemed to be the only way to get the 
blankets; so we covered the car floors with 
them and began to tenderly lift the poor fel- 
lows out of the ambulances. I remember 
one affecting scene. There came a colonel 
who had lost his right arm at the shoulder, 
besides having to or three ribs crushed in. 
Him we removed in a blanket. " Colonel," 
I said, "do you suffer much?" "No,"' he 
replied, " not much now. I wish you 
would be careful with our major in that 
next ambulance — he's hurt pretty bad." 
It seemed sad, indeed, that tlie body which 
held so noble a soul should be so cruelly 
battered. I learned afterwards that lie 
died the next day. 

There have been some unfavorable criti- 
cisms upon General Hooker's management 
of the Chanoellorsville campaign. On the 
whole I do not see how any other officer, 
then available, could have done mucii 
better. It is now clear that he was out- 
generaled. There was a time when, by a 
rapid march upon Fredericksburg from the 

southwest, he could easily have cut Lee's 
armj' in two: but he found, when too late, 
that such were the very tactics Lee was 
working upon him. At the close of the 
fight, Lee was in front of Sedgwick, in- 
stead of paying any attention to Hooker. 
He had got between the stubborn sixth 
corjDS and the main army, and there was 
then only one thing for Hooker to do. 

As we now look back upon that conflict 
it is easy to be seen that the ' ' very stars in 
their courses" fought against the Union 
cause at Chancellorsville — which is anotlier 
way of saying that an overruling Provi- 
dence foresaw that the time for a decisive 
victory had not yet come. Had we been 
victorious there, and Lee's army been driven 
'oack to Eichmond, and that capital taken, 
and a peace thus secured, it would not have 
been a lasting peace, such as the country 
has enjoyed so long. The Confederates had 
not then suffered enough to convince them 
that further struggle was a useless waste of 
blood. A man was yet to "come out of the 
west " who was to give them battle to their 
heart's content, and then broken, in spirit 
and with depleted numbers, they were 
ready to lay down tlieir arms, and to say, 
with Grant, "let us have peace." j. A. H. 


At Watertown, through the commend- 
able generosity and devoted patriotism of 
Mr. and Mrs. George Cook, of that city, a 
beautiful and artistic granite monument 
has been erected upon the public square in 
loving commemoration of the soldiers and 
sailors from Jefferson county who fought 
or fell in the Union service. The corner 
stone was laid on Memorial Day, 1890, with 
appropriate and impressive ceremonies, 
participated in by the various G. A. K. 
organizations and citizens generally. 

(Inscription) East Front. 
' ' This monument to witness tliat these 
dead have not died in vain, and that, 
through them, under God, this Nation has 
a new birth of freedom." 

West Front. 
"Mr. and Mrs. George Cook's memorial, 
in grateful memory of the soldiers and 
sailors of Jefferson county who fought or 
fell in defense of the Union and the Free- 
dom of Man." 

On the occasion of laying the corner 
stone. Gen. Slocum, now dead, delivered a 
fine address, and was followed by our native 
orator. Col. A. D. Shaw, whose patriotic re- 
marks we have fortunately obtained, and 
from which we are permitted to make ex- 
tracts. He said: 

Mr. Mayor, Comrades, Ladies and Gentle- 
men: — In compliance with a custom that is 

almost immemorial, we assemble this day 
to lay the corner stone of a monument a 
generous philanthropy will provide in honor 
of the heroic soldiers and sailors of our 
county. This sacred Memorial Day is a 
fitting time for such a service. When the 
graves of our citizen soldiers are rich with 
the sweet flowers of spring it is indeed in- 
spiring to take part in such a ceremony as 
this at this place, whfere a more enduring . 
sign of a free people's love and affection 
will greet generations to come. 

All through the ages of the past, the 
deeds of warriors have inspired poets, his- 
torians and statesmen to commemorate on 
monuments and in undying numbers the 
lofty and worthy achievements of patriots 
who were ready to die rather than see their 
liberties destroyed. 

The proudest age of Athens was marked 
by the tenderest regard for the bones of her 
heroes who fell in her defense. Pericles 
epitomized the noblest sentiment that can 
stir the human heart when, on an occasion 
similar to this, he said: 

' ' I would have you day by day fls j-our eyes upon 
the greatness of Athens, until you become filled with 
the love of her; and when you are impressed by that 
spectacle of glory, reflect that this empire has been 
acquired by men who knew their duty and had the 
courage to do it, who in the hour of conflict had the 
fear of dishonor always present to them, and who, if 
they ever failed in an enterprise, would not allow 
their virtues to be lost to their country, but freely 
gave their lives to her as the fairest offering which 
they could present at her feast." 



The American Revolution was an age of 
national formation, and our last great 
struggle marked a second and even more 
perilous age of national preservation. In 
both eras, volunteers were the heroes of the 
hour. The volunteers of the Revolution 
was anew type of patriot in our new world. 
The pent-up love of liberty that led our 
puritan forefathers to seek a new home on 
the far away shores of an unknown conti- 
nent, furnished inspirations to duty and 
sacrifices as noble as they were manly and 
lofty. The sentiment of duty that finally 
made the Revolution a success, proved that 
the moral forces of our ancestors were pure 
and strong, and that the blood of ages of 
manly hopes and deeds had found a home 
on our soil. The second age of our national 
preservation brought out in large measure 
the commanding; wealth of our national 
patriotism. Again the American volunteer 
hastened to the front to protect and defend 
the great inheritance that had come down 
to him, hallowed by so many holy memo- 
ries, and consecrated by the blood of im- 
mortal patriots. In both periods of supreme 
trial the American volunteer faced the bat- 
tle line with a courage as undaunted, a 
spirit as heroic, and a patriotism as pure as 
ever filled the breasts of Hampden or of 
Richard of the Lion Heart in the old world. 

The heritage of ages of unselfish sacrifices 
in resisting the tyranny of the privileged few, 
transplanted to our shores, produced a race 
of men whose deeds have become famous 
wherever valor is known and true manhood 
is honored, in the wide sweep of the globe. 
The study of the moral forces that evolved 
such a new power in the government of a 
great people is at once fascinating and pro- 
found. A careful review of the causes that 
produced the American volunteer leads 
back through many generations, and finds 
expression in Magna Charta and in the 
spirit that caused the head of Cliarles the I. 
to fall from the block. In our Union, from 
the first, in periods of peace our standing 
army has been a mere police force. The 
spirt of war is foreign to our tastes and 
aspirations. Not one in a thousand of our 
more than a million of volunteers had ever 
seen a soldier in uniform before the war 
began. Our paths are the paths of peace 
and industrial development — unrivalled in 
any age of the world. 

For a little more than a hundred years 
our fiag has had a place among national 
emblems. The age of Washington was an 
epoch in our history that will stand out for- 
ever on the records of time as one in which 
the real reign of the common people began, 
and where manhood won its own. With 
the age of Lincoln came tlie life and death 
struggle for the preservation of the " more 
perfect Union" our Revolutionary heroes 
handed down to us. In this era our fortu- 
nate lot has been cast, and the touching 
ceremonies of this day center round the 
great events of this period. 

The volunteers we are met to honor, went 
forth from our country at the call of the 
President, between 1861-65, to uphold his 
authority and help execute the laws of the 
land. Remonstrances and appeals, almost 
pathetic, failed to restrain the mad frenzy 
of our countrymen in the Southern States. 
War came because they defied the power 
of the executive, and fired upon the flag of 
the Union. 

The long and fierce conflict that followed, 
rooked the nation in the billows of a bloody 
civil war. For years our splendid national 



inheritance trembled between the balance 
of slavery and freedom. The bayonets of 
our volunteers guarded our Temple of Lib- 
erty in a shining line of steel, as fixed and 
certain as the north star. Year followed 
year, as thousands marched to their doom 
on the battlefields of the war, or died in 
hospitals, or fell helpless in the line of duty. 
The sacrifices made during these terrible 
years — years big with mighty events — no 
tongue can tell, and yet the spirit of victory 
was never stronger in the hearts of the 
North than it was when the rebel flag was 
furled at Appomattox, and the rebellion re- 
ceived its death blow under Sheridan and 
Grant and their victorious volunteers. 

History will make clear the fact that the 
volunteers under Washington founded our 
nation, and that the volunteers under Lin- 
coln gloriously preserved and perpetuated it. 

In this connection two facts worthy of 
mention stand out clearly on the record of 
our national life. Our Eevolutionary strug- 
gle was one in which divided judgments 
raised conflicting views at home and grave 
doubts abroad as to whether the independ- 
ence of the colonies would result in good to 
our people and humanity at lai-ge. The ex- 
periment first shocked the old world, but 
fifty years later, doubts had largely changed 
to praise, and our place in the famih' of 
nations was secure and high. Again, in 
1861, there was conflicting and bewildering 
judgments among ourselves in almost every 
community all over the North, as well as 
among ^foreign states, as to whether our 
wiir was just and necessary. Who does 
not recall the pain of those honest but dis- 
tressing doubts. But in the end, when 
peace came, and with it a clear title to free- 
dom to every man on our soil, together 
with the wiping out of sectional dangers, 
the universal acclaim of mankind was, 
" behold the greatness and glory of the 
American nation." 

Our two great wars were waged solely in 
behalf of self-government and freedom, and 
" by the people, for the people." Blending 
in one purpose, our earlier and our later 
conflicts for equal rights before the law 
have won for humanity one of the proudest 
victories in the world's history. Every 
government pays generous tribute to our 
matchless civilization; people from all lands 
seek homes on our soil, because they be- 
lieve it to be best suited to their success and 
happiness. And more: so just and perfect 
has been the settlement of our domestic 
struggles that those who fought us as 
worthy foes, were our Union now to be as- 
sailed from without, would rush to its 
defense with equal valor with the victors in 
that war. 

I need not here and now recall the details 
of a war without a parallel in human an- 
nals, but this is true — that the suppression 
of the rebellion and the- freedom of the 
slaves secured for us, as a free people, a 
new and higher plane of development. 

Slavery has passed away and the threat- 
ened dangers of sectional lines have been 
largely removed. True, the problem of the 
future of the colored race with us has yet 
to be solved. It is one profoundly perplex- 
ing, and to the good genius of patient 
American statesmenship, always trusting 
in the Providential inspiration of our civil- 
ization, we must leave it for future wise 
settlement. A noble destiny, without ques- 
tion, is now opening out before us. The 
rivalries of industrial pursuits are fill- 
ing the places once occupied by our con- 
tending armies. Peace and concord rule in 
all our borders. We have won a proud po- 
sition among the great nations of our time, 
and while young in years, we are great in 
our achievements in the arts of peace and 
in the development of wealth. The old 
world viewed our last great trial with dark 
forbodings of disaster to our armies, and 
the tearing asunder of our union was almost 
universally predicted. 

I have placed our volunteers, both of the 
Revolution and of the rebellion, first in the 
honor line, as is right and just, but back of 
both periods stood the loyal masses of our 
countrymen and our countrywomen an im- 
pregnable reserve, doing the no less useful 
and equally as important duty of sustaining 
the armies in the field and the families at 
home, with a devotion that stamps them as 
worthy co-patriots in the best work of the 
ages. The home heroes and heroines were 
found in the mansion, on the farm, by 
humble firesides and in all the ranks and 
activities of life. Their patriotism was 
proof that faith in God and love of justice 
and liberty had raised up a people with 
high aspirations and clear views of duty, 
and a sterling character that knew the right 
and dared to maintain it, both in peace and 
in war. Self-government with equal politi- 
cal privileges and an equal interest in public 
affairs, lay at the basis of this precious safe 

The monuments we raise to our Union 
heroes are not memorials of conquest, but 
signify the nation's appreciation of the vic- 
tors who saved it in the supreme crisis of 
its fate. Those who matched our valor on 
every battle-field of the war did so with a 
courage as true and a heroism as pure as 
our own. They faced death for a cause 
they held dear, and died like brave men in 
the defence of what they believed to be their 
precious rights. That they were sadly 
wrong is the world's judgment, but at the 
same time, as soldiers they won the admi- 
ration of friend and foe. We are all Ameri- 
can citizens now, and juster judgments 
have followed the lapse of years. We have 
come to realize that those who struck at the 
life of our Union, did so through passion 
and the teachings of a wrong public senti- 
ment — fruits of a false theory of freedom 
that deluged our land in blood, and left us 
a nation of mourners. 

I do not know how we can better honor 



the heroes we have assembled to commemo- 
rate, than by resolving to strive for a pure 
and safe civilization. If their deaths on 
fields of honor for our country lead to 
higher aims, juster estimates of duties and 
claims of citizenship, a nearer approach to 
the noblest ideals' of a Christian walk and 
life, and so add to the happiness and great- 
ness of the United States of America, for 
which they yielded up their precious life, 
then, truly, will their deeds 

" Down the steady breeze of honor sail," 

as among the greatest benefactors of their 
kindred and country. The family circle is 
what parents make it — by example, by cul- 
ture, by love and by Christian teachings. 
The county is what the towns make it, and 
the State is measured by the strength of the 
counties. The nation's roots strike back to 
the homes, and units of wisdom and man- 
hood there never fail to make their com- 
manding influence the controlling forces of 
the nation. We should bear in mind the 
great truth that righteousness exalteth a 
nation, and that the sentiment of honor 
ennobles the citizen. Material wealth often 
weakens the resolute character of a people, 
while thi-ift and toil develop the highest 
type of manhood. Hence it is that our 
ceremonial this day is in harmony with the 
best ideals of four races. We are paying 
merited honor to patriots who are sleeping 
in their " windowless palace of rest;" to 
comrades who are doomed to a life of pain : 
to all who helped to save the Union and free 
the slave. No loftier purpose can call the 
people of a free county together. We must 
ever remember that our hero-dead are voice- 
less, and that their example gloriously adds 
to the moral forces whose ceaseless currents 
purify the world. A nation is not worth 
saving that does not hold sacred the sacri- 
fices made by its willing defenders. But 
Americans will never, cease to fittingly 
honor their immortal volunteers. This spot 
will hereafter be a place dedicated forever 
to freedom and free men. Round it chil- 
dren and youth, beauty and manhood will 
yearly gather, and their loyal hands will 
lovingly decorate it with flowers on each 
retm-ning memorial day. This foundation 
will soon be crowned by an emblem as 
sacred, and in honor of a service as glori- 
ous as any that ever commemorated the 
brave deeds of patriots in the history of 
mankind. One by one the heroes of the 
war pass to the realms of rest, and very 
soon the last veteran will live only in his- 
tory. We do well to honor the dead and 
the living in the matchless generation that 
beheld the wonders wrought by their sacri- 
fices and sanctified by their blood, and this 
memorial will stand for ages as a tribute to 
the American volunteer — that rich product 
of our American civilization. As the eye 
falls upon it in its beauty, in a land of peace 
and joy, there will spring from its associa- 
tions the inspiring assurance that we as a 

nation are ' ' equal to the present, reaching 
forward to the future." 

A vivid picture rises before me, comrades, 
sharply outlined in memory's mirror. I see 
great masses of armed men marching to 
their place in the battle line. Batteries of 
artillery take up their positions of advan- 
tage, and are made ready for action. 
Squadrons of cavalry form in easy reach, 
and await coming events. The rapid dis- 
positions of a great army are made with 
skill and courage. The hour for bloody 
work has come. The silence is broken by 
the signal guns ordering the battle to begin, 
and death and carnage sweep over the beau- 
tiful plain. Through cruel days the conflict 
rages. The harvest of death is large; the 
wounded crowd our hospitals; the brutal 
havoc of war goes on with un abated fury. 
The best blood of Jefferson county mingles 
with the dust on this memorable field. 

Mangled heroes are about me now who 
fell before the hot fire from the hills above 
the plains of Fredericksburg. The deadly 
charge, the fearful slaughter, the hopeless 
repulse and the retreat are facts of history. 
This is one of many pictures that have a 
place in the historic gallery of our nation, 
in which the volunteers of Jefferson county 
acted a noble part. To-day, eight and 
twenty years after that bloody battle, some 
of the soldiers who stood there in serried 
ranks in battle array, meet around this spot 
to take part in the historic ceremonies of 
the hour. This picture of peace where 
chivalry is honored, and great deeds and 
great men are commemorated, stirs the 
blood of every veteran and citizen in our 

The gift of this monument is a deed in 
keeping with the spirit of those it will com- 
memorate. It is one thing to be able to do 
such a thing, and quite another to have the 
patriotism and desire to do it. Our neigh- 
bors who have so honored our county and 
themselves, are with us now, and nearing 
the sunset of good lives. Let us hope that 
it may be their lot to live to see this monu- 
ment unveiled, and afterwards to long en- 
joy the respect and love of all among whom 
their closing days are to be spent. 

Fellow citizens, a new morning has 
dawned upon our nation. The spirit of 
concord holds sway over all our broad land. 
The pursuits of peace engross the energies 
and inspire the hearts of our people. A 
vast future opens before us. We sow the 
seeds of a higher civilization when we raise 
monuments in honor of past sacrifices in 
behalf of patriots whose services saved the 
Republic. Let us unite in the wise spirit 
of progress, and so act in our homes, in our 
public duties, and in all the broad circle of 
our citizenship, as to prove worthy the 
civilization our soldiers and sailors have 
preserved to us. 

Col. Shaw's eloquent address was listened 
to with bi-eathless attention, and at the end 
was greeted with great applause. 




J. Mortimer Ckawe, M. D., son of Ithe- 
mer B. Crawe, M. D. , was born in Water- 
town, May 23, 1831. He was educated at 
private schools and the JefEerson County 
Literary and Religious Institute; studied 
medicine with Dr. H. G. P. Spencer, and 
attended lectures at JefEerson Medical Col- 
lege, Philadelphia, sessions of 1856, '57, '58 
and '59. He first settled in Hamilton, Mad- 
ison county, N. Y., in September, 1859. 
His health failing, it was thought a change 
would benefit him, and he moved to Cham- 
pion, Jefferson county, the following May, 
and in July, 1861, he returned to Madison 
county on a visit. There were a number of 
cases of diphtheria in the village, and being 
solicited by some of his old patients, whose 
families were afflicted, he consented to take 
charge of them, and finally concluded to 
remain permanently. In September, 1862, 
he went to the front as assistant surgeon of 
the 157th Regiment N. Y. Vol. Inf., raised 
in Cortland and Madison counties. When 
tlie army advanced that fall on Thorough- 
fare Gap, he was placed in charge of one of 
the reserve hospitals at Fairfax Court House. 
Here he remained until March, when, his 
health having failed, he was ordered to 
Washington, where he was directed to re- 
port to Dr. Climer, in charge of sick and 
disabled officers, and by him was sent home 
on sick leave. He remained at home two 
months, and rejoined his regiment at Aquia 
Creek, below Washington, on the eve of the 
march for Chancellorsville. Here, with his 
vrounded, he was made a prisoner, remain- 
ing with them on the field for three weeks, 
when, an exchange being effected, he re- 
turned to his regiment. His health having 
been affected by the anxiety and exposure 
he had endured, he was sent home on sick 
leave. After a short time, learning that 
the army was about to move, he rejoined 
his regiment, and with them participated in 
the march to and in the battle of Gettys- 
burg. Having, by order of the medical 
director, been detailed both at Chancellors- 
Tille and Gettysburg, as an operating sur- 
geon, he was detained there in charge of 
the sick, and as recording officer of the 11th 
corps hospital for about a month, when he 
was ordered to report to Gen. Halleck at 
Washington. He found that his regiment 
had proceeded to Charleston, S. C. He 
served in that department until February, 
1864, when he was promoted to the full rank 
of surgeon, and sent to the 128th Regt. N. 
Y. Vol. Inf., in General Sherman's com- 
mand at Savannah. Dr. Crawe served with 
his regiment as medical inspector and brig- 
ade surgeon until August, 1865, when they 
were mustered out of the service at Al- 
bany, N. Y. 

° For a lengthy historical account of Dr. Crawe's 
distinguished father, see chapter upon the town of 

He was one of the founders of the re- 
organized Jefferson County Medical Society; 
was elected in 1868, and served as censor 
from its organization to 1872, and from 1880 
to 1886; was treasurer in 1873, vice-president 
in 1874, president in 1885, and was delegate 
to the State Medical Society from 1886 to 
1890. Dr. Crawe was made permanent 
member of the State Medical Society in 
1879, and was one of its delegates to the 
American Medical Association in 1878, of 
which he was made a member. In 1884, 
becoming disgusted and dissatisfied with 
the action of the State Society in regard to 
its Code of Ethics, he, with Dr. C. M. John- 
son, of Watertown, then delegate from 
Jefferson county, and the lamented Dr. Ira 
H. Abell, of Antwerp, ex-delegate, in con- 
nection with many others, withdrew from 
the State Society and founded the New York 
State Medical Association. Dr Crawe was 
its first vice-president. He was appointed 
pension surgeon in 1869, served some years 
and resigned. When boards for the exami- 
nation of pensioners were formed in 1881, 
he was solicited and accepted an appoint- 
ment on the board for Jefferson county, and 
was its president for four years. He still 
continues in a large and active practice in 
partnership with his son, Dr. J. M. Crawe, 

Upon his mother's side. Dr. J. Mortimer 
Crawe is descended from distinguished an- 
cestry. Early in the 17th century, one of 
the best known esquires of England was 
Humphrey Mortimer, a man of great wealth 
— gained principally in manufacturing 
cloth. He had 20 sons, and they were all 
reared in habits of usefulness, and brought 
into the business of their father, either as 
factors in his cloth houses in London, Mar- 
seilles, Cadiz and Brussels, or in preparing 
the secret dyes that had proved the founda- 
tion of his great success. He sent his cloth 
to his wholesale houses in his own ships, 
and the cloths were sold at auction on the 
docks, the ships in turn i-eceiving cargoes 
destined for London, and these cargoes also 
sold at auction on arrival. His family re- 
ceived their education in the best English 
schools, and later in France received that 
peculiar polish and suavity which in the last 
century, and even now, characterize the 
French gentleman or lady. That great 
revolution in France, the hoiTors of which 
are so forcibly described by Dickens in his 
■" Tale of Two Cities." drove the Mortimers 
out of France, for though they were not 
nobles, their society and friendships were 
with those whom the Reds opprobriously 
termed " Aristocrats," and they were glad 
to flee from threatened death. Mrs. 
Ithemer B. Crawe's mother, Mrs. John 
Mortimer, escaped from Paris disguised as 
a waiting-maid in the suite of the Dutch 
ambassador. The friends known in those 

^y/7(^^^^Mj ^^cu^^/^^ 



dreadful days were ever welcome by Mrs. 
Crawe and her distinguished father, when- 
ever they ventured into the wilderness of 
Northern New York — for many noblemen 
and women of Bourbon faith came into this 
then remote region, seeking sympathy and 
aid from Mr. LeRay, who had early estab- 
lished himself at LeRaysville, and lived as 
comported with his ancient lineage and 
wealth. Among others came that Madame 
de Ferret, once a maid of honor to Marie 
Antoinette, the gracious lady and unfortu- 
nate queen. Such exiles found ready wel- 
come from the Mortimers, and from their 
daughter, Mrs. Crawe. 
! ; Having often seen Mrs. Ithemer B. Crawe 

in her earlier married life, when I carried 
the village paper, she always impressed me 
as of French extraction, for she had the 
thousand graces and marked characteristics 
of the educated French lady. But she was 
of English birth, though educated in France, 
and was a most interesting personality — 
one of those who made Watertown, even in 
its earlier day^, distinguished for the culture 
and mental ability of many of its early 
settlers. The memory of such has left a 
sweet and lasting impression, and after 
seeing the great world in all its phases, the 
observer recalls the face and manner of 
some of these earlier ones, who would have 
graced the highest society in any land. 


We regret our inability to present a 
picture of this gentleman, so long and 
prominently indentified with the business 
and social interests of Jefferson county. 
He is remembered with pleasure by the 
older citizens, for he was a man of great 
business capacity and force. Many build- 
ings in Watertown are still witnesses of his 
manner of construction — notably the 
Taggart Bros', mill at the lower falls, and 
the water reservoir, now over 40 years in 
use. He was born in Burlington, Otsego 
county, N. Y., in 1797, one of a family of 
ten children. When only ten years of age 
he left home, and thenceforward earned not 
only his own living, but helped to care for 
the less able members of the family. At 14 
he gave his father $200 for his " time" — 
that is, for the time he would be a minor, 
and therefore his father would be legally 
entitled to his earnings. The General came 
into Jefferson county about 1 815. He first 
located at Smithville, where he went into 
business with Gerret and Jesse Smith. 
When less than 20 years of age he bought 
over $5,000 worth of goods, and from Smith- 
ville went to Clayton. Several years later 
(about 1834) he was at Sackets Harbor. In 
1824 he had married Miss Harriet Warner. 
Seven children were born to this union, 
four of whom are still living. While at 
Sackets Harbor the General became asso- 
ciated in the management of the Sackets 
Harbor Bank, which was later merged into 
the Bank of Watertown, of which, about 
1843, General Angell became sole owner. 
In 1858 his beloved wife died — a lady well 
remembered in Watertown for her devotion 
to charity and Christian works. The de- 
serving poor never had a better friend, for 
what she gave vvas given with a grace and 
gentleness that made the action doubly en- 

In 1860, General Angell married Miss M. 
Louise Judson, cousin of the late Gen. R. W. 
Judson, of Ogdensburg. She was an ac- 

complished lady, the pattern for a kind, 
dutiful wife. In 1861, at the beginning of 
the civil war, the General removed to New 
York, where he became interested in several 
city contracts, and in 1862 he removed his 
family to that city, which was thenceforth 
his home. By nature he was too active to 
relish a life of idleness, and he took up 
several means of acquiring wealth, among 
others extending the circulation of his bank 
from 139,000 to $80,000. He was also largely 
interested in the Continental Steel Works 
at Maspeth, Long Island. In 1863 the im- 
position of a tax of 10 per cent, upon the 
circulation of State banks, drove them out 
of business. In 1871 General Angel had 
accumulated enough means to make home 
comfortable, and in that year he removed 
to Geneseo, expecting to spend there several 
years in the enjoj'ment of needed rest and 
a release from the cares of business. But 
his hopes were to be disappointed. On the 
1st of July, 1872, he was taken ill, and after 
great suffering, died at Geneseo on No- 
vember 26, 1872. 

Viewed in the light of his varied and 
eventful career, General Angell was a char- 
acter difficult to reproduce. He had a noble 
soul, which scorned little things. He was 
undoubtedly superior to the average able 
business men of his day — and had he made 
New York city his home early in life, in- 
stead of Watertown, he would have taken 
rank with George Law and the elder Van- 
derbilt, for he was their superior in shrewd- 
ness of management, in perspicuity, in 
ability to predict the rise or fall of cereals 
or articles of general consumption. He was 
a firm friend, and he had many friends, for 
he was a friendlj' man, democratic in his 
ways, easily approached, never elated by 
success, nor intimidated by adversity. 
From 1820 to 1861 he was a conspicuous 
figure in Jefferson county, and his removal 
was a source of sincere regret. 

J. A. H. 




In the olden times Northern New York 
was disputed ground. The Iroquois claimed 
it, and appear to have had the best right 
(for they were of Central New York). It 
was also claimed by the Algonquins of 
Canada; by the French Colonists of the 
Lower St. Lawrence, and by the earliest 
Dutch and English settlers of the Hudson. 
It was surrounded by the war-trails of the 
Indians, and by the war-paths of the armies 
of Colonial times. Hence, from its first 
discovery and exploration by Samuel de 
Champlain in the summer of 1669 to the 
close of the war of 1812 with Great Britain, 
it was the theatre of continued strife be- 
tween contending powers. Of the history 
of this long period much has been written, 
but much more of it is yet buried in our 
colonial archives. 

There ai-e probably few who have not 
dwelt with peculiar interest upon the 
glimpses we catch through the mists of the 
past, of whole tribes of men who have van- 
ished from the earth, leaving no heirs or 
representatives to inherit the richer blessings 
of our age; of nations whose part in the 
great drama of life must always be the 
theme of conjecture; whose sages are for- 
gotten, and whose warriors sleep unhonored 
in the obscurity of oblivion. Few are the 
monuments we may interrogate, and doubt- 
ful the interpretation of the enigmas which 
the scattered traces of their existence offer, 
nor can these furnish the basis of a well- 
founded conjecture of the people, or the 
period, or in some instances of the objects 
with which they were related. At most we 
can but offer a few facts, and leave the 
field of conjecture open to those who may 
have more ample means of compai'ison. and 
the leisure and talent to devote to this in- 
teresting field of inquiry. The general in- 
ference which has been reached by those 
whose researches have been especially de- 
voted to this study, is that none of the re- 
mains of art in this section of the State can 
pretend to the antiquity that belongs to the 
mound builders of the Ohio valley;- that 
they indicate at most but a slight attain- 
ment in civilization; that they denote no 
further object than self-defense, or simple 
sustenance; and that they evince no general 
plans, no organized system, beyond what 
the necessities of the moment suggested. 
Further than this we know nothing. The 
enclosures hereafter described exhibit that 
similarity which leads us to believe them 
the work of the same race, for a common 
object — protection against a contemporary 
foe; thus showing that wars are coeval with 
the first dawnings of civilization. 

In the town of LeRay, a short distance 
below the village of Black River, and on the 
road to Watertown, was formerly the trace 
of a trench enclosure. The work was 
irregularly semi-circular, inclosing about 

one and a quarter acres of ground, and a 
shoi-t distance from the bank of Black river, 
the side towards which was open, the ends 
of the embankment extending a short dis- 
tance down the slope, and curving inward 
as if to prevent the flank from being turned 
by an enemy. A portion of the bank and 
ditch outside may still be traced in the road, 
but as early as 1854 the greater part lias 
long been leveled by cultivation. In the 
fields adjacent were the traces of hearths, 
numerous fragments of rude pottery, bones 
of animals, and stone chisels. Human 
bones have also been found in the vicinity. 
About a mile north of this, is another and 
larger enclosure, which, like the first, con- 
tains in and around it the usual Indian 
relics. It occupies a plain but little elevated 
above a flat that was once flowed by a beaver 
dam, making a shallow pond several acres 
in extent. The remains of the dam were 
traceable on West Creek, which has its 
source not far distant. 

Two trench enclosui'es formerly existed 
near Sanford's Corners in LeRay, but no 
trace of the original works remain. When 
first seen, the bank, measured from the bot- 
tom of the ditch, was six feet high. An 
unusual amount of relics have been afforded 
by the adjacent fields, and several human 
skeletons, all buried in sitting posture, have 
been exhumed. Like most others, they 
were built near the banks of a stream of 
water, and had at irregular intervals, gate- 
ways or passages. The ground within and 
around was formerly a pine forest which 
extended many miles in the direction of 

D. S. Marvin, Esq., read before the His- 
torical Society, March 15, 1887, a paper re- 
lating more especially to the Perch River 
mounds. He said : Perch lake is a small 
lake situated in the northwestern portion 
of the county, connected with Ontario by its 
outlet. Perch river, which is about six miles 

The basin of the lake was probably at one 
time an arm of Lake Ontario itself, and 
since isolated by elevation. 

It seems to have been in past times a 
favorite winter station of the aborigines. 
The scenery is picturesque, some of the 
shores wooded and somewhat bold. But 
the objects that arrest our attention and 
interest us the most, are the so-called Indian 
mounds, observed along botli shores of the 
lake, and more or less down the outlet. 
They are situated upon the bluffs overlook- 
ing the water, and reach back from the 
lake sometimes a hundred rods : they num- 
ber some two hundred in all. " These 
mounds are all round, usually from 50 to 90 
feet in circumference ; some of them double, 
and so near together that their edges 
coalesce. They are elevated or raised above 
the summits of the hills they occupy from 



two to four feet. Where the land has not 
been cleared, ordinary forest trees of all 
ages are seen growing upon the mounds, 
ranging from yearling growths to trees 
several hundred years old. The debris 
usually observed about old Indian villages 
is found buried in the soil, old bones and 
broken pottery. 

The broken pottery observed was of the 
usual patterns, but it is only sparingly ob- 
served, for around some of the mounds 
none could be found. A few of the small 
mounds were flat-topped, but the usual 
shape and appearance is a ring of earth, 
with a depressed or basin-shaped center. 

In opening cross sections, or digging 
trenches from the outside to the center of 
the circles, as the centers are approached, 
remains of fires, charcoal, ashes, etc., were 
observed, sparingly though, in the case of 
the largest mound. There was observed no 
disturbance of the soil below the level of the 
natural surface. The dirt of which the 
mounds had been constructed is tlie com- 
mon country soil, none of it seemingly 
brought from a distance, similar in charac- 
ter and composition to the soil of the adja- 
cent land, made up of clay, sand and small 
fragments of the underlying limestone, 
belonging to the Trenton group, as near as I 
could determine from a cursory examina- 
tion of the contained fossils, with here and 
there an occasional transported or drift 
pebble. The only observable difference was 
a darker color, caused by an increase of 
decayed organic matter and burned earth. 
No graves or human bones were observed. 
No lines of entrenchments were to be seen. 
Nor have there been anj' metal objects or 
utensils found. 

The explanation of the phenomena ob- 
served here, that has seemingly puzzled 
several generations of white men, seems to 
be plain and simple. There is no necessity 
for bringing far-fetched theories to explain 
the observed facts. 

Whoever has been to California and noted 
the appearance of the singular rings of 
earth, with their basin-shaped centers, that 
are known to be the remains of the old 
rancheras of the Digger Indians, can readily 
see here, in the close resemblances, the 
original forms of Indian houses belonging 
to the lower stages of barbarism, and prob- 
ably a more or less universal style of house 
belonging to this stage of advancement, 
usually occupied only during the winter 
months, or generally deserted for nomad life 
during the warmer summer months. 

This style of house was constructed with a 
fram.e work of poles set upon end, inclining 
and meeting at the top and covered with 
dirt, leaving an uncovered space at the top, 
to serve for the .exit of smoke. And very 
probably the original form of the later 
buffalo-hide lodge subsequently evolved 
from circumstances and conditions not 
present here. And it is to be remarked 
that this style of house really afforded better 

protection in winter than the later long- 
house of the Iroquois, observed by white 
men upon the first settlement of the State. 
The writer once visited one of these dirt 
houses in California, large enough to hold 
several hundred people, but perhaps not 
larger than the remains of one of those 
observed at Perch lake. 

Prof. Thomas has described the remains 
of similarly constructed houses in Missis- 
sippi, Alabama and Georgia, but his descrip- 
tion did not meet my eye until after I had 
explained to my own satisfaction the facts 
here observed ; but they tally exactly with 
my own views here given, except that this 
style of house must have been superseded 
here earlier than in the Southern States. I 
have also observed near Burrville, within a 
strongly fortified enclosure, circles of toad 
stools, that had grown up from organic 
matters, old bones, etc., buried in the soil, 
showing that similar round houses once 
existed within fortified enclosures, but un- 
fortunately both ditches and circles are now 
leveled by the plow. 

The observed facts and the evidences 
suggest that here was, in reality upon our 
own soil, an older form of house than the 
long house used by the Iroquois, as seen 
later by the white men. There was observed 
no evidence of the remains of so-called 
mounds, as seen in Ohio and the Western 
States. The fact that these basin-shaped 
remains are now found here in such abun- 
dance, and at the same time so well defined 
and fully preserved, is of itself interesting, 
and adds much to the accumulating evi- 
dence that this style of house was at one 
stage of human progress more or less uni- 
versal in what is now the territory of the 
United States, but such remains have been 
destroyed more or less by the plow. The 
long house was a result of development, 
growing out of changes from the lowest to 
a higher stage of barbarism. Circumstances 
the world over have ever changed the 
habits of man. We may see this illustrated 
in the case of the introduction of the Spanish 
barb among the Indians upon the plains. It 
was undoubtedly the possession of the horse 
that wrought this change in a few genera- 
tions. Almost in our own day the normal 
village Indian was made over into a com 
plete nomad, possessing most of the charac- 
teristics of the Bedouin, a case, too, where 
history repeats itself, for the Indian pony is 
of the same breed of horses that the Bedouins 
now possess ; brought first to Barbary, then 
to Spain, then to Mexico, and there turned 
loose and allowed to multiply themselves 
upon the savannas of the South. 

In Houndsfield, on the shore of Black 
River Bay, between Maskclunge creek and 
Storrs' Harbor, is said to have existed 
formerly a trench enclosure of the ordinary 
form. We have not learned whether it is 
wholly or in part preserved, nor is its extent 



known. Some of the largest trees of the 
forest grew upon and within the bank. In 
Watertown, on Lot No. 39, about two and a 
half miles southwest from the village, could 
once be seen in an open wood, and in a ilne 
state of preservation, the outline of a work 
consisting of a bank thrown up from a 
surrounding ditch, and evidently intended 
as a defensive work. It is on the summit of 
a gradually sloping terrace of Ti-enton lime- 
stone, and commands a delightful prospect. 
Elms, three feet in diameter, were found 
upon the bank, and the decaying remains of 
others still larger, within and upon it, carry 
back the date of its construction to an ante- 
Columbian period. In the same range and 
lot, on premises owned by Anson Hunger- 
ford, Esq., and about forty rods east, there 
was formerly another enclosure, with gate- 
ways, the position and extent of which can- 
not now be ascertained, as the bank has long 
since been leveled by cultivation. The one 
first mentined is semi-circular, the open 
side facing upon the bank. Half a mile east 
of Burrville, on lot No. 31, was formerly 
a defensive work, consisting of a mound 
and ditch, running across a point between 
two streams near their junction, and form- 
ing by the aid of the natural banks a trian- 
gular enclosure. The plow has long ago 
filled the ditch and leveled the bank, leaving 
no trace of the work. The soil has afforded 
a great abundance and variety of relics, and 
the vicinity indicates that it had been 
occupied as an Indian village. Within the 
enclosure is a boulder of gneiss, worn 
smooth and concave in places by the grind- 
ing of stone implements. On a point of 
land opposite. Hough found an iron ball 
weighing eight ounces, and others have 
been picked up in the vicinity, indicating 
that the place must have been passed, at 
least, by those who knew the use of 
small ordnance, probably the French, on 
some of their expeditions against the 
Iroquois. Mr. Squier, in his work on the 
ancient monuments of New Yoi-k, mentions 
the trace of an Indian village a mile north- 
east of this. 

Near Appling post-office, on the land of 
D. Talcott, in Adams, near the line of 
Watertown, could once be seen the trace of 
a work of great extent and interest. It is 
on the brow of the upper terrace of Trenton 
limestone, overlooking a vast extent of 
country to the west and north. The bank 
has an average height of three, and base of 
ten feet, with an external ditch of corres- 
ponding dimensions, and there were about 
seven gateways or interruptions in the 
work, which had an elliptical form, one side 
bordering upon a beaver pond, and bounded 
by an abrupt bank, about tliirty feet high. 
Upon and within the work, trees of an 
enormous size were growing in 1854, and 
the decaying fragments of others carry 
back the origin of the work several hundred 
years. A great number of small pits or 
caches occur where provisions were stored 

for concealment ; as shown by quantities 
of parched corn. Several skeletons have 
been exhumed here, which were buried 
in a sitting posture, and its relics are the 
same as those above mentined. 

Near the northwest corner of Rodman, on 
lot number two, on the farm of Jared Free- 
man, was formerly an interesting work, of 
which no trace remains, except a boulder 
of gneiss, worn smooth b3' grinding. 
Before the place had been cultivated, it is 
said to have shown an oval double bank, 
with an intervening crescent-shaped space ; 
and a short bank running down a gentle 
slope to a small stream, one of the sources 
of Stony Creek, that flows near. Sevei'al 
hundred bushels of burnt corn were turned 
out over an area one rod by eight, showing 
that this must have been an immense maga- 
zine of food. On the farm of Jacob Heath, 
on lot No. 25, near the west line of Rodman, 
and on the north bank of Sandy Creek.a short 
distance above the confluence of the two 
main branches of that stream, there form- 
erl3' existed an enclosure of the same class. 
It included about three acres, was over- 
grown with heavy timber, and furnished 
within and without, when plowed, a great 
quantity and variety of terra cotta, in frag- 
ments, but no metallic relics. Under the 
roots of a large maple was dug up the bones 
of a man of large statue, and furnished with 
entire rows of double teeth. 

On the farm of Wells Benton, half a mile 
from Adams village, was an enclosure simi- 
lar to the others, and afforded the usual 
variety of relics ; and another trace of an 
ancient worli of a similar character is men- 
tioned in Adams, two miles north of the 
village. On the farm of Peter Durfey, 
near Belleville, in Ellisburgh, was still an- 
other, which, from the description given by 
those who have examined it, does not differ 
in age or general appeai-ance from others, 
having gateways at irregular intervals, and 
being guarded on one side by a natural 

The present cemetery, a little above Ellis 
village, presents the trace of a work that was 
crescent shaped, and by the aid of the natu- 
ral bank on which it was built, formed an 
irregular enclosure of about two acres. On 
the south bank of South Sandy Creek, three 
miles from its mouth, was a similar work, 
defended on one side by an abrupt bank, 
and now entirely leveled by tillage. A con- 
siderable number of places occur in Ellis- 
burgh, which must have been inhabited by 
the aboriginies. The fertility of the soil, 
excellence of water, and vicinity to valuable 
salmon fisheries, and extensive hunting 
grounds, must have afforded many attrac- 
tions to the savages. Probably several 
traces of ancient works in this section of the 
country may have been leveled by tillage, 
without exciting suspicion of their nature. 
Besides these, one, is mentioned as having 
occurred near Tylerville, and another in 
Houndsfield, two miles from Brownville. 



One of the most conclusive evidences of 
ancient military occupation and conflict, 
occurs in Rutland, near the residence of 
Abner Tamblin, one mile from the western 
line of the town, and two miles from the 
river. It is on the summit of the Trenton 
limestone terrace, which forms a bold es- 
carpment, extending down the river, and 
passing across the southern part of Water- 
town. There here occurred a slight em- 
bankment and ditch irregularly oval, with 
several gateways; and along the ditoh, in 
several places, have been found great num- 
bers of skeletons, almost entirely of males, 
and lying in great confusion, as if they had 
been slain while defending it. There is said 
to have been found at this place fire-places, 
with bones of animals, broken pottery, and 
implements of stone, at two different levels, 
seperated by an accumulation of earth and 
vegetable mould from one to two feet thick, 
as if the place had been twice occupied. So 
great has been the length of time since these 
bones have been covered, that they fall to 
pieces very soon after being exposed to the 
air. Charred corn, bones and relics, occur 
at both levels, but more abundantly at the 
lower. At numerous places, not exhibiting 
traces of fortification, are found fire places, 
accumulations of chips or flint and broken 
pottery, as if these points had been occupied 
as dwellings. In several places bone-pits 
have been found, where human remains in 
great numbers have been accumulated. One 
is mentioned as occuring near Brownville 
village, where in a space of ten or twelve 
feet square and four feet deep, a great num- 
ber of skeletons were thrown. Another de- 
posit of bones occurs in EUisburgh, nearly 
opposite an ancient work, on South Sandy 
Creek, near a liouse once occupied by J. W. 
Ellis ; where, in digging a cellar in 1818, 
many bones were dug up. In 1842 there 
was found in Rutland, three miles from 
Watertown, under a pile of stones, about 
three feet high, which rested on a circular 
flat stone, a pit four feet square and two 
deep, filled with the bones of men and 
animals, thrown together in great confusion. 
These exhibit marks of teeth, as if they had 
been gnawed by animals. This, with the 
charcoal and charred corn in the vicinity, 
has been thought to indicate ancient massa- 
cre and pillage, in which an Indian village 
was destroyed and the bones of the slain 
afterwards collected and buried by friends. 
It was estimated that thirty or forty skele- 
tons were buried here, besides parts of 
animals, that may have been killed for food. 
A custom is said to have prevailed among 
some Indian tribes, of collecting and bury- 
ing at stated intervals, the bones of their 
dead, and some of these depositories may 
have thus originated. The pottery, found 
around these localities, was of the coarsest 
and rudest character ; externally smooth, 
except where marked by lines and dots, in 
fantastic and every-varying combinations 
of figui-es, and internally rough from the 

admixture of coarse sand and gravel. 
There was no glazing known to these primi- 
tive potters, who possessed, nevertheless, a 
certain degree of taste and skill; and some- 
times attempted on their pipes and jars an 
imitation of the human face and fantastic 
images of serpents and wild animals. Rarely, 
metallic relics of undoubted antiquity are 
found. A fragment of a sword blade, 
around which the wood of a tree had grown, 
was found by the first settlers of Ellisburgh. 
Muskets, balls, hatchets, knives and other 
implements of metal have been at various 
times turned out by the plow; but none of 
the articles of undoubted European origin 
can claim an antiquity prior to the French 
and Indian wars. 

There was found many years since in the 
sand at a deep cutting of the railroad, near 
the Poor House, an oval ball, about three 
inches long, which for some time was used 
by children as a plaything. From its light- 
ness and hardness it excited curiosity, and 
it was cut open, when it was found to con- 
tain a strip of parchment and another ball ; 
this latter also contained another ball and 
strip of parchment; in all three. One of 
these is preserved, and is J by 11| inches, 
containing written on one side four lines of 
Hebrew characters, without vowel points, 
quoting from Deuteronomy xi, 13 to 21 in- 
clusive. The case containing these was ap- 
parently made of hide, and it had been 
doubtless used as an amulet by some travel- 
ling Jew, or had been procured by the 
Indians as a charm, at a period not prior to 
the French era of our history. This section 
of the State, at tlie earliest period of au- 
thentic history, was occupied by the 
Oneidas and Onondagas as a hunting 
ground, and one or two trails were per- 
ceptible when surveyed in 1796. Occasion- 
ally the St. Regis Indians would find their 
way into our territory, but oftener the 
Massasaugas from the north shore of the 
lake. The Oneidas considered them as in- 
truders, and the latter seldom allowed them- 
selves to fall in their way, from which 
reason the visits of the natives were stealthy 
and unfrequent, and nothing would fill the 
foreign Indians with apprehensions sooner 
than being told that the Oneidas were in the 
neighborhood. After the war nothing was 
seen or heard from them. 

Although our territory was not actually 
inhabited at the time it first became known 
to Europeans, it is not without incident con- 
nected with the wars between the French in 
Canada and the Iroquois of New York, who 
from an early period had been under the in- 
fluence of the English. Within a very few 
years from the time of first occupation, the 
French had penetrated far into the interior, 
explored the great lakes, discovered the 
Mississippi near its soiu'ce, and established 
small forts for the double purpose of secur- 
ing the fur trade, and converting to their 
religion the natives. The Dutch had con- 
ciliated the Iroquois, and their influence 



had been transferred to the English; who 
succeeded them, which led to a hostile in- 
cursion by De Courcelles and De Tracy, 
against the Mohawks in 1665-6, resulting in 
nothing but the murder of a few aged 
warriors, who preferred death to the aban- 
donment of their homes, and in exciting to 
a greater degree of insolence the Indians, 
who, some time after, fell upon a party of 
French hunters, killed several and can-ied 
others away prisoners. Peace was subse- 
quently gained, during which the French 
got the permission of the natives to erect a 
fort at Cataraqui (Kingston), ostensibly to 
protect the traders and their merchandise. 
The Jesuits, meanwhile, availing themselves 
of the peace, penetrated the settlements of 
the Five Nations, and acquired to some de- 
gree an influence with the Onondagas. The 
Senecas and Cayugas were still jealous of 
the French, and continued to annoy tneir 
trade, which led to a complaint from De la 
Barre, governor of Canada, to Governor 
Dongan, of New York, that these savages 
had plundered seven canoes, and detained 
fourteen French ti'aders; to which the 
principal Seneca sachem returned a spirited 
reply, and Dongan requested the French to 
keep their own side of the lake. 

The Marquis De Nouville succeeded De la 
Barre in 16ti5, and brought from France 
forces thought sufficient for the reduction 
of the Senecas, which was undertaken two 
years after, with a great force, but without 
success, further than ravaging their country 
with fire and destroying a few aged and de- 
fenceless men and women. On the 36th of 
July, 1688, the Iroquois, to the number of 
1,200, invaded the island of Montreal, with- 
out notice, and destroyed more than a thou- 
sand French, besides carrying away great 
numbers of prisoners for torture. In these 
and other expeditions, our territory must 
have been the scene of many events of 
tragic interest, but the history of the details 
has not come down to us. 

During the French and English war, 
which in 1760 resulted in the complete sub- 
jection of the former, our frontier again be- 
came alive with military operations, and the 
principal route between Canada and the Mo- 
hawk settlements, passed through this 
county. On a peninsula, called Six Town 
Point, a few miles from Sackets Harbor, is 
the trace of a slight work, in a square form 
with bastions at each angle, and apparently a 
small stockade, erected during this period. 
Between the bastions the sides were but 48 
feet, and the whole affair was of a slight 
and transient character. The only trace 
left is a slight ditch along the sides, ap- 
parently formed by the decay of the wood 
that formed the defence. On one side is a 
row of mounds, five in number, probably 
for the mounting of cannon. The locality 
is about one mile and a quarter from the 
end of the point on the inside, and but a 
few yards from the water's edge. The 
place is partly covered by a thin growth of 

hickory and oak, and the quiet scenery of 
the spot is delightful. 


In the broad channel of the St. Lawrence, 
as its waters leave Lake Ontario and run 
between Kingston on the Canadian and 
Cape Vincent on the American shore, are 
several islands. One of the most noted of 
these is Carleton Island, which is situate in 
the American channel, four or five miles 
northerly of Cape Vincent. Carleton Is- 
land was known to the old French explorers 
as the Isle aux Chevreuils, or Isle of Roe 
Bucks. It lay in the line of the old Indian 
trail, which ran from the Canadian shore of 
Lake Ontario to the Iroquois cantons on its 
southern box'der, which trail avoided by its 
coast line the rough and dangerous waves 
of the open lake, and it lay also in the line of 
the great western trail. There being at the 
head of this island what Father Charlevoix 
(who visited it in 1730), calls " a pretty port 
that can receive large barques," it was a 
favorite stopping place and camping ground 
in all the long colonial period. 

But what renders this little island of more 
historical interest than the many other 
islands of the group, ai-e the remains of a 
strong nailitary work, which was con- 
sti'ucted upon it in the latter part of the 
last century, crowning the brink of the 
bluff at the head of the island, overlooking 
the "pretty port" and commanding the 
American channel of the great river. This 
fortification is now known as Fort Carleton, 
but in regard to its origin and the date of 
its construction, there has been a great deal 
of conjecture and not a little controversy 
among historical students. 

Until within the past ten or fifteen years, it 
had been supposed by many historians that 
this fortification was built by the French be- 
tween 1758 and 1760. But by a compara- 
tively late discovery of undoubtedly genu- 
ine documents relative to the building of 
this fort, there is no longer any doubt that 
it was built by the English in 1778-79, and 
heavily equipped with cannon and warlike 
munitions, largely supplied from Kingston. 
It was held as a British post until 1813, 
when it was captured by a small American 
force. Upon the conclusion of peace. Carle- 
ton Island was conceded to the United 
States, and the fort was soon after dis- 
mantled of whatever arms then remaining. 

The work on Carleton Island is a bastioned 
half-front of a hexagonal fort of some 800 
feet diameter, open at the rear toward the 
bi'ink of the bluff overlooking the cove. 
The ditch, 22 feet wide and 4 feet deep, is 
excavated in the solid rock. The covered 
way- was 24 feet: wide, and the parapet 4 
feet high. The front of the fort commands 
the approach from the island, while a heavy 
sea-wall, 40 feet in height, is built along the 
bluff that borders the cove. Several chim- 
neys are still standing within the fort and 



near it, built of stone in a permanent and 
massive manner, while thei-emains of guard 
houses, rifle pits and wells are still plainly 
visible. Not far from the fort is an old 
burying-ground, in which many graves 
were found, and on the south side of the 
island was a large clearing of some thirty 
acres, called the King's Garden. Along the 
western shore of the little cove are still to 
be seen the remains of a sunken dock. 
Many relics have from time to time been 
found near the fort, all bearing marks of 
British origin. 

_^In 1796 the surveyors of McComb's pur- 
chase found a British corporal and thi-ee 
men in charge of Carleton Island, and four 
long twelve and two six-pound cannon 
mounted on the works. 

After the war the right to Carleton Island 
became the subject of much diplomatic cor- 
respondence between the two governments. 
This controversy was carried on during the 
presidency of Mr. Monroe by John Q. 
Adams, Secretary of State, on our part. It 
resulted in the boundary line being drawn 
to the north of the island, leaving it in 
American waters. 

And now this little island, so fraught with 
historic memories, is the summer resort of 

the Carleton Island Club, an association of 
gentlemen wlao have built their summer cot- 
tage and pitched their tents on the meadow 
that borders the banks of the " pretty port " 
of the old chronicler, and in sight of the 
decaying walls of the old fort. Here in this 
enchanting spot, among the Thousand Isles, 
made classic in American story by the pres- 
ence long ago of a Champlain, a LaHontan, 
a La Salle, a Courcelle, a Frontenac, a De 
La Barre, a Charlevoix, they take a yearly 
respite from busy toil, and while away the 
fleeting hours of the short Canadian sum- 
mer in earless repose, dispensing a right 
royal hospitality. 

For this description of Carleton Island, as 
well as for many suggestions as to Castor- 
land and descriptions of some of the 
waterways of the great Adii'ondack Wilder- 
ness, the author of this history is under 
great obligation to Mr. N. B. Sylvester, of 
the Troy bar, whose "Historical Sketches 
of Northern New York " evince not only the 
fine spirit of inquiry which should animate 
the true historian, but a facility of descrip- 
tion and an acquaintance with literature 
that entitle his productions to take the high- 
est rank among our American historical 
publications. j. a. h. 




[Enlarged one-half, from an original now In possession of the Jefferson County Historical Soeiety.l 

To THE excellent article by Hon. Mr. In- 
galls, upon the "Waterways of Jefferson 
County " (see pages 9-13), we wish to add a 
few general remarks. It is a peculiar char- 
acteristic marking all the rivers that flow 
in and around Northern New York, that, 
excepting only the Mohawk, all of them 
flow from and through larger or smaller 
chains of lakes. The noble St. Lawrence it- 
self, which forms the natural and intensely 

picturesque northwestern boundary of Jef- 
ferson county, seems to be the vast proto- 
type and pattern for all the others, as it 
flows from its own great continental system 
of lakes. The Hudson, flowing eastward 
like the Mohawk, is fed by a system of for- 
est branches which spread over the entire 
mountain belt of the Adirondack wilder- 
ness, tlie head waters of some of its tribu- 
taries being over 5,000 feet above the level 



of the sea. But, however interesting it may 
be to follow out this train of thought, our 
history's space constrains us to confine our 
remarks to the streams which flow into and 
through Jefferson county, or relate to 
waterways touching that county. Their 
influence upon the early settlements of the 
northern wilderness of 1793, in drawing to 
the Black River country those in pursuit of 
water power to drive factories, can never 
be prized too highly, nor too patiently de- 
scribed. These waters attracted to this lo- 
cality those whose minds were profoundly 
stirred by that intense activity which al- 
ways precedes great discoveries and great 
movements in populations. 

The Black river bounds the Great Wilder- 
ness plateau of Laurentian i-ocks, on the 
west, and its valley bounds the Lesser Wil- 
derness on the south-east. 

As related in Mr. Ingalls' article, the prin- 
ciple confluents that enter the Black river 
from the Great Wildei-ness. are the Moose, 
Otter creek, the Independence, and the 

The Moose river rises near the Raquette 
lake in the center of the wilderness, and 
winds through and forms the celebrated 
Eight Lakes of the Fulton, chain. The 
Moose passes in its course the hunting sta- 
tion known to all frquenters of the woods 
as Arnold's, or the Old Forge, on Brown's 
Tract. This secluded spot has long been 
famous in forest story as the scene of John 
Brown's fruitless attempt at settlement, of 
the failure and tragic death of his son-in- 
law Herreshoff, of the exploits of the hunter 
Foster and his victim the Indian Drid, and 
of the life-long home of Otis Arnold, the 
hunter and guide. 

The Independence river rises near the 
Eight Lakes of the Fulton chain and runs 
into Black river in ths town of Watson, 
Lewis county, between the Moose river and 
the Beaver river. In its course, this river 
crosses the tract of wild land known to land 
speculators as Watson's West Triangle. 
The Independence river was so named in 
honor of our national holiday by Pierre 
Pharoux, the engineer and surveyor of 
Castorland. Near the south bank of the In- 
dependence, not far from the old Watson 
house, is Chase's lake. This lake has long 
been a favorite resort, and is one of the 
most accessible in the Wilderness for the in- 
valid or pleasure seeker. The Beaver river 
rises in the heart of the wilderness to the 
north of Raquette lake, and running in its 
course through Smith's lake, Albany lake 
and Beaver lake, waters the territory of 
ancient Castorland, the seat of French in- 
fluence on the Black river. Beaver lake, an 
expansion of this river at Number l''our, a 
famous summer resort, is one of the most 
charming lakes in the wilderness. 

Among the problematical places of the 
olden times in Noi-thern New York, whose 
names were once familiar in European 
circles but are seldom heard in modern 

story, no one was more famous than La 

Two hundred years ago, La Famine was 
a well-known stopping-place upon the east- 
ern shore of Lake Ontario for the weary 
hunter and the bold explorer, and the spot 
where even armies encamped, and the am- 
bassadors of hostile nations met in solemn 
council. To-day its name can only be 
found on the historic page and in the old 
maps and musty records, while its locality 
is often a matter of controversy. The an- 
cient Indian landing-place and camping- 
ground known to the French as La Famine, 
was situated on the shore of Famine bay, 
now called Mexico bay, in the southeast 
corner of Lake Ontario, at the mouth of La 
Famine river, now known as Salmon i-iver. 

The Salmon river, the ancient French 
La Famine, rises in the central part of the 
plateau of the Lesser Wilderness in the 
southwest corner of Lewis county, and runs 
westerly through the northern part of Os- 
wego county into Lake Ontario. The 
Lesser Wilderness was one of the beaver- 
hunting countries of the Iroquois. The key 
to this hunting grovmd of the Lesser Wil- 
derness from the west was the Salmon river. 
On their way to the hunting ground through 
Lake Ontario, the western Indians landed 
at the mouth of this river, and their trail 
then led up its banks. 

La Famine then was the ancient seaport of 
this famous hunting ground of the Lesser 
Wilderness, and was situated near what is 
now the village of Mexico, Oswego county. 
Hence we find on a map of New Fi-ance, 
published by Marco Vincenzo Coronelli, in 
1688, this place put down at the mouth of 
what is now known as the Salmon river, 
but in his map it is called La Famine river. 
It bears the following inscription: "La 
Famine, liu ou la plus part des Iroquois des 
barquet pour aller in traitte du Castor," 
which may be translated thus: ' ' La Famine, 
the place where the greater part of the Iro- 
quois embarked to go upon the trail of the 

The Lesser Wilderness of Northern New 
York is situated upon the long narrow 
plateau which stretches first westerly and 
then northerlj' from the Upper Mohawk 
valley and the Oneida lake almost to the 
village of Carthage. The rocky ground- 
work of this plateau is composed of level 
strata of limestone and slate, which rise in 
a series of terraces of a mile or two in width 
from its borders into a high level table land, 
which has an elevation of nearly 2.000 feet 
above the level of the sea. Upon the cen- 
tral part of this table land are situated the 
forests, swamps, marshes and wild meadows 
of the Lesser Wilderness. 

Down the more regular terraces of its 
western slope, locally called Tug Hill, the 
streams which rise in the swamps of the 
Lesser Wilderness hurry in a series of falls 
and cascades into the Black river, wearing 
deep chasms in the yielding rocks along 



their courses. Among these streams are 
the Deer river, the Silvermine, the Martin, 
the Whetstone and other creeks. 

This Lesser Wilderness was one of the 
most faaious hunting grounds of the Indian. 
Its woods were literally filled with game, 
and its streams with fiSh. La Houtan says 
that there were so many salmon in La 
Famine river that they often brought up a 
hundred at one cast of the net. 

The deer came across the valley of the 
Black river from the Great Wilderness every 
spring in droves, to feed upon the luxuriant 
summer herbage, and returned every au- 
tumn to escape the deep snows of the Lesser 
Wilderness. Their runways were along the 
■valleys of the Deer river, the Sugar river 
and other streams, which, as before stated, 
run down the eastern slope of the Lesser 
Wilderness into the Black river. The deer 
were caught in great numbers by the early 
settlers of the Black river valley during this 
half-yearly migration. 

The forests of the Lesser Wilderness have 
always been favorite nesting places for wild 
pigeons. But lately these birds built their 
nests in these woods, in countless myriads, 
over miles in extant. The Lesser Wilder- 
ness has always been celebrated for its deep 
snows. The snow in March and April is 
sometimes over a foot deep. In 1876, the 
snow was three feet in depth over the Lesser 
Wilderness on the first day of May. 


The summer tourist, on his way from 
Trenton Falls to the Thousand Islands, may 
pass through the beautiful and flourishing 
valley of the Black river, over the Utica and 
Black River railroad. As the train draws 
near to the first station north of the village 
of Lowville, he will hear the sharp voice of 
the brakeman crying out " Cas- tor-land. " 
He will look out of the car window and see 
a wide level clearing of pasture-land and 
meadow, skirted by forests, one side of 
which is bounded by the river. In the mid- 
dle of this clearing he will see only the small 
station house, and three or four scattered 
buildings surrounding it, and will doubtless 
wonder whence comes the high-sounding 
name for such meagre surroundings. 

The story of Castorland is the often re- 
peated tale of frustrated settlements in the 
old wilderness — the story of an attempt of 
the exiled nobility and clei-gy of the old 
regime in France to found a settlement in 
the wilds of the New World, where they 
could find a secure retreat from the horrors 
of the Revolution in the Old. 

This attempt was made at the close of the 
last century in the valley of the Black river, 
on the western slope of the Great Wilder- 
ness. But, like the settleuient of the first 
Catholics on the Patuxent, the Jacobites 
with Flora McDonald at Cape Fear, the 
Huguenots with Jean Ribault at Port Royal; 

like New Amsterdam on the Hudson. New 
Sweden on the Delaware; like Acadie in 
Nova Scotia, — Castorland on the Black river 
lives now only in j)oetry and history. Its 
story is one of brilliant promises all unful- 
filled, of hopes deferred, of man's tireless 
but fruitless endeavor, of woman's tears. 

To rescue this name so fraught with his- 
torical associations from oblivion, it was 
applied to the railroad station which is near- 
est to the site of the largest projected city 
of ancient Castorland. That city was laid 
out on the Beaver river, which flows into 
the Black river from the wilderness nearly 
opposite this station. 

For the purpose of effecting the settle- 
ment of Castorland a company was formed 
in Paris, under the laws of France, in the 
month of August, 1793, and styled La Cam- 
pagnie de New York. On the 31st day of 
the same month the company, by its agent, 
Pierre Chassanis, bought a large tract of 
land lying in the valley of the Black river, 
of William Constable, who was the owner 
of Macomb's purchase. This tract lay 
along both sides of the Black river below 
the High Falls, and extended westerly 
through the counties of Lewis and Jeffer- 
son to Lake Ontario, and easterly into the 
heart of the Great Wilderness. The Castor- 
land purchase at first comprised the whole 
of great lot No. 5 of Macomb's purchase, and 
contained 610,000 acres. But subsequently 
all south and west of the Black river, being 
the part which now constitutes the richest 
towns of Lewis and Jefferson counties, was 
given up, and only that lying to the noi'th 
and east of the river retained. The portion 
so retained contained only 210,000 acres. 
This was the Castorland of the olden times. 

The name Castorland, that is to say, the 
Land of Beavers, is doubtless a literal trans- 
lation of the old Indian word, which means 
the " Beaver Hunting Country," Castorland 
being taken out of the western half of this 
old Indian hunting ground. 

During the negotiations between Consta- 
ble and Chassanis for this tract, the Revolu- 
tion, that had been so long smouldering, 
burst forth in all its savage fury, and the 
streets of Paris were slippery with human 
gore. Constable locked the door of the 
apartment in which they met, with the re- 
mark that, " if they parted before the pur- 
chase was completed, they might never 
meet again." The palace of the Tuilleries 
was already surrounded by the bloodthirsty 
mob. The attendants of the royal family 
were butchered, and the feeble king cast 
into a dungeon. In comparison with such 
awful scenes as these in the very heai't of 
the highest civilization the world' had ever 
seen, the savage wildness of the old Ameri- 
can forests was a scene of peaceful rest. To 
the fugitive noblesse of France, the former 
possessors o^ great titles, rank, wealth and 
culture, the quiet shades of Castorland af- 
forded a secure asylum from the horrors of 
the Reign of Terror. 



Scheme of Settlement. 

A romantic scheme was at once conceived 
and perfected by the company in Paris for 
tlie settlement of Castorland. In pursuance 
of this scheme a pamphlet was printed in 
Paris and issued by the company, containing 
a program of colonization under its aus- 
pices. This pamphlet was entitled "Associa- 
tion for the purchase and settlement of six 
hundred thousand acres of land, granted by 
the State of New York, and situated within 
that State, between the 43d and 44th de- 
grees of latitude, upon Lake Ontario, and 
thirty-five leagues from the city and port of 
Albany, where vessels land from Europe." 
It set forth, among other things, in glowing 
colors, the wealth of agriculture presented 
by its fertile soil, the fine distribution of its 
waters, its facilities for an extended com- 
merce on account of its location in the vi- 
cinity of a dense population, and above all 
the security afforded to its inhabitants by 
the laws of a people who were independent 
and rich with their own capital, thus ex- 
tending to the immigrant all the benefits of 
liberty with none of its drawbacks. It was 
stated that the object of the proprietors was 
to form of the colony a sort of family, in 
some way united by common interests and 
common wants, and that to maintain this 
union of interests a plan had been devised 
that rendered each member directly inter- 
ested in the whole property. It was to be 
done by and in the nam.eof Sieur Chassanis, 
in whose name they had purchased the es- 
tate, and who alone had power to issue cer- 
tificates of ownership. 

There were 6,000 certificates to be issued, 
each entitling the holder thereof to owner- 
ship in manner following: The whole tract 
at that time consisted of 630,000 acres. Of 
this, 600,000 were divided into 13,000 lots of 
50 acres each, and the price of each share 
fixed at 800 livres (1152.38). In the begin- 
ning, 6,000 lots were set apart for individual 
properties, and the other 6,000 lots were to 
belong to a common stock which was to be 
divided at some future time, after improve- 
ments had been made thereon by the com- 
pany. Each holder of a certificate was to 
receive at once a deed for a separate lot of 
50 acres, to be drawn by lot, and also a lot 
of 50 acres in the common undivided stock. 

Of the 30,000 remaining acres, 3,000 were 
set apart for a city to be formed on the great 
river in the interior, and 2,000 more for 
another city on Lake Ontario, at the mouth 
of the Black river, which was to form a port 
and entrepot of commerce. Among artizans 
6,000 acres were to be divided and rented to 
them at 13 sous per acre. The proceeds of 
the 20,000 acres remaining were to be ex- 
pended by the company in the construction 
of roads, bridges and other improvements. 

The two cities were divided into 14,000 lots 
each. Of these lots, 3,000 wei'e set apart for 
churches, schools, markets, etc. The re- 
maining 13,000 lots were to be divided 
among the 6,000 holders of certificates in 

the same manner as the large tract,— each 
holding one separate lot and one in common. 

The affairs of the company were to be 
managed by five trustees, three to remain 
in Paris and two upon the tract. 

Such was the scheme matured in the sa- 
lons of Paris for the settlement of Castor- 
land. Beautiful and promising beyond 
measure upon paper, as an ideal, but utterly 
impracticable and bitterly disappointing as 
a reality. Yet many shares were eagerly 
j._ Organization. 

On the 28th of June, 1793, it being the 
second year of the French Eepublic, the ac- 
tual holders of certificates convertible into 
shares of La Compagnie de New York met 
in the rooms of Citizen Chassanis, in Paris, 
to organize their society upon the basis al- 
ready established, and to regulate the di- 
vision, survey and settlement of their lands. 
There were present at that meeting 41 share- 
holders in all, who represented 1,880 shares. 
They perfected and completed their organi- 
zation: they adopted a long and elaborate 
constitution; they chose a seal for their cor- 
poration, and appointed five commissaries 
to manage its affairs, three for Paris and 
two for Castorland. In the meantime the 
tract had been reconveyed, and the large 
part lying west and south of the Black river 
given up, the part retained being that lying 
east and north of the river, and containing 
only 210,000 acres. To accord with this fact 
the number of shares was reduced from 
6,000 to 2,000. It was at this meeting that 
a silver piece was ordered to be struck, 
termed a "Jetton de presence," one of 
which was to be given at every meeting to 
each commissary as an attendance fee.* 

The commissaries appointed for America 
were Simon Desjardines and Pierre Phar- 
oux, who lost no time in proceeding to 
America to execute their important trust. 
Desjardines had been Chamberlain of Louis 
XVI. He was of middle age, an accom- 
plished scholar and gentleman, but knew 
not a word of English when he arrived. He 
had with him his wife and three children, 
and his younger brother, Geoffry Desjard- 
ines, who shared his labors and trials. He 
also brought with him his library of 2,000 
volumes. Pierre Pharoux, the surveyor, 

* These pieces occur in coin cabinets, and have been 
erroneously called " Castorland half dollars." A jet- 
ton is a piece of metal struck with a device, and dis- 
tributed to be kept in commemoration of some event, 
or to be used as a counter in games of chance. The 
one here noticed was termed a "jetton de presence," 
or piece '* given in certain societies or companies to 
each of the members at a session or meeting." It 
was engraved by one of the Duvivier brothers, eminent 
coin and metal artists of Paris. The design repre- 
sents on the obverse the head of Cybele, who personi- 
fied the earth as inhabited or cultivated, while on the 
reverse Ceres has just tapped a maple tree, in which 
will be observed a spout provided with a stop to 
withhold the sweet sap when it flowed too fast ! 

The Latin legend on the reverse is a quotation from 
Yirgil, which, with its context, reads: 

"Safce magna parens fngum, Saturnia telius 
magna viram.''* 



who was aftei'wards drowned, was a dis- 
tinguished yoUng architect and engineer of 
Paris, of liigh scientific attainments and 
marked ability. He was earnestly and 
faithfully devoted to his duties; and his 
love of science, his honesty, his good sense, 
and genial and ardent friendship were mani- 
fested in all his doings. He left behind him 
in France an aged father to mourn his un- 
timely death. 

They sailed from Havre on the 4th day of 
July, 1793, in the American ship Liberty, 
but did not arrive in New York until tVie 7th 
of September following. There came over 
in the same vessel with them a young 
French refugee named Mark Isambert 
Brunei, who afterward filled the world with 
his fame as an engineer in England. Brunei 
had been in the French navy, and was 
driven from home on account of his royal- 
istic proclivities. He went with them in all 
their journeys through the wilderness, and 
shared in all their hardships during the first 
year, but does not seem to have been em- 
ployed by them in Castorland. 

Their First Exploration. 

Soon after their arrival in this country, 
Desjardines and Pharoux, with their friend 
Brunei, set out on a voyage of exploration 
to their "promised land " in the wild valley 
of the Black river. To realize the difficul- 
ties of the undertaking, the reader must 
bear in mind that the country they were in 
quest of lay far from Albany in the depths 
of a howling wilderness, which had then 
never been visited by white men, except 
around its border, or when carried across 
it as prisoners in savage hands; that the 
only route to it was up the Mohawk, in 
batteaux, to Fort Stanwix, now the city of 
Eome; thence by the way of Wood creek, 
the Oneida lake, and the Oswego river to 
Lake Ontario, and from Lake Ontario up 
the unexplored route of the Black river. It 
was over the old Indian trail, the savage 
warpath of the French and Indian and of 
the Revolutionary wars, and even then 
there was threatened a general Indian war 
by all the tribes around our borders. But 
in the face of all these difficulties our ex- 
plorers, in the autumn of 1793, set out for 

In describing their passage over the carry- 
ing place from Fort Stanwix to Wood 
creek, near where the four busy tracks of 
the New York Central Kailroad now run, 
they write in their journal, under date of 
October 10th: "Upon taking a walk into 
the woods a short distance we saw on every 
hand it was a fearful solitude. You are 
stopped sometimes by impassable swamps, 
and at other times by heaps of trees that 
have fallen from age or have been over- 
thrown by storms, and among which an in- 
finite number of insects and many squirrels 
find a retreat. On every hanjj we see the 
skeletons of trees overgrown with moss and 
in every stage of decay. The capillaire and 

other plants and shrubs spring out of these 
trunks, presenting at once the images of 
life and death." 

The fort at Oswego was still held by a 
British garrison. Jealous of Frenchmen, 
the commander at first refused to allow 
them to pass into Lake Ontario, but it was 
finally arranged that Brunei should remain 
as a hostage for the good conduct and safe 
return of the others. Brunei, however, was 
i-efused access to the fort, and was ordered 
to encamp alone in the woods on tlie 
opposite side of the river. Considering that 
such treatment invalidated his parole, he 
escaped from Oswego disguised as a com- 
mon sailor, and proceeded with his friends 
on their expedition. They proceeded 
cautiously along the shore of the lake over 
the route that had become historic by the 
presence of M. de la Barre and hia army in 
their visit to La Famine in 1684, and of 
Father Charlevoix in 1730, and which had 
so often been traversed by their countrymen 
in the palmy days of the old French occu- 
pancy, until their arrival at Niaoure bay, 
now called Black River bay. Here after a 
long search they discovered the mouth of 
the Black river, the great river that watered 
Castorland. But it was already so late in 
the season that they only exploi-ed the river 
up to the point some five or six miles above 
the falls at Watertown, and then returned 
to Albany to complete their preparations for 
the next year's journey. 

In the autumn of 1855, the Hon. Amelia 
M. Murray, maid of honor to Queen Vic- 
toria, nlade a tour of the United States and 
Canada, through the lake belt of the Wilder- 
ness, over the route now so much traveled. 
Her companions were Gov. Horatio Sey- 
mour, the Governor's niece and other 
friends. On their way they stopped, of 
course, at Arnold's. But I will let the Lady 
Amelia tell the story in her own words, as 
written in her diary, under date of Septem- 
ber 30, 1855: "Mr. Seymour remained to 
make arrangements with the guides, while 
his niece and I walked on to Arnold's 
farm. There we found Mrs. Arnold and 
six daughters. These girls, aged from 12 
to 20, were placed in a row against one wall 
of the shanty, with looks so expressive of 
astonishment, that I felt puzzled to account 
for their manner, till their mother informed 
us they had never before seen any other 
woman than herself! I could not elicit a 
word from them, but, at last, when I 
begged for a little milk, the eldest went and 
brought me a glass (tin cup). Then I re- 
membered that we had met a single hunter 
rowing himself on the Moose river, who 
called out, ' Where on 'arth do them women 
come from?' And our after experience 
fully explained why ladies are such rare 
birds in that locality." 

The Settlement op Castorland. 
The next spring, being in the year 1794, 
the Desjardines brothers and Pharoux, with 



a large company of men, witli their sur- 
veyors and assistants, took up their toilsome 
journey from Schenectady to their .forest 
possessions, being this time fully equipped 
to begin their settlement. Their route this 
year was up the Mohawk in batteaux to 
Fort Schuyler, now Utica, thence overland 
across the Deerfield hills 16 miles, to the log 
house of Baron Steuben, who had then just 
commenced his improvements upon his 
tract of 16.000 acres granted him by the 
State. From Steuben's it was 24 miles 
further through the trackless forest to the 
High Falls on the Black river in Castorland. 

The difficulties of the journey then still 
before them can scarcely be imagined by 
the reader of to-day. At length they 
reached their tract on the welcome banks 
of the Black river, and began their labors. 
But there is no space in these pages to fol- 
low them in their operations, in their sore 
trials and their bitter disappointments, their 
final discomfiture and utter failure. 

Suffice it to say that they began a little 
settlement on the banks of the Black river, 
at the place now called Lyons Falls. That 
they surveyed their lands and laid out one 
of their cities, Castorville, on the Beaver 
river, at a place now called Beaverton, 
opposite the little station now called Castor- 
land, in memory of their enterprise. That 
they laid out their other city, the lake port, 
which they named " City of Basle," at what 
is now Dexter, below Watertown, and in 
1795 they founded the present village of 
Carthage. That Pharoux was accidentally 
drowned in the river at Watei'town in the 
fall of 1795. That Desjardines gave up the 
agency in despair in 1797, and was succeeded 
by Rudolphe Tillier, "Member of the 
Sovereign Council of Berne," who in turn 
gave place to Gouverneur Morris in ItJOO, 
and that the lands finally became the prop- 
erty of James Donatien Le Ray de Chau- 
mont, his associates and grantees. 

' ' After toil and many troubles, selt-exiled for many 

Long delays and sad misfortunes, man*s regrets and 

woman's tears : 
Unfulfilled the brilliant outset, broken as a chain of 

Were the golden expectations by Grand Rapides' 

promised land . 

Death op Pierre Pharoux. 
One of the saddest incidents in the story 
of Castorland is the death of Pharoux, at 

the falls of Watertown, in 1795. In Sep- 
tember of that year, after the river had 
been swollen by heavy rains, Pharoux set 
out with Broadhead, Tassart and others, all 
surveyors, on a journey to Kingston. In 
passing down the river on a raft, they were 
drawn over the falls. Mr. Broadhead and 
three men were saved, but Pharoux was 
drowned. The survivors made unremitting 
search for Pharoux's body, but it was not 
found until the following spring. It was 
washed ashore upon an island at the mouth 
of the Black river, where it was found by 
Benjamin Wright, the surveyor, and by him 
decently buried there. M. LeRay de Chau- 
mont many years afterwards caused a mar- 
ble tablet to be set in the rock near his 
gr.ive, bearing this inscription : 

TO THE memory op 

This Island is Consecrated. 

The reader will remember that the year 
before his death, Pharoux had discovered 
and named the river Independence, in Cas- 
torland, and had selected a beautif uj spot at 
its mouth on the Black river, near a large 
flat granite rock, for his residence. This 
spot, called by the Desjardines brothers In- 
dependence Rock, was ever afterwards re- 
garded by them with melancholy interest. 
They could not pass it without shedding 
tears to the memory of their long-tried and 
trusted friend. Under date May 28, 1796, 
Simon Desjardines, the elder brother, re- 
corded in his journal: "Landed at half- 
past two at Independence Rock, and visited 
once more this charming spot which had 
been so beautifully chosen by our friend 
Pharoux as the site for his house. The 
azaleas in full bloom loaded the air with 
their perfume, and the wild birds sang 
sweetly around their nests, but nature has 
no longer any pleasant sights, nor fragrance, 
nor music, for me." 

Castorland, Adieu ! 

And now ancient Castorland may be 
added to the long list of names once famous 
in the cities of Eui'ope, and long celebrated 
in the forest annals of Northern New York, 
but now forgotten, and found only in his- 
tory and song — feebly commemorated by 
the name of an insignificant railway station. 



Gentlemen of the Jefferson County His- 
. torical Society : I could not do less than re- 
turn to you my sincere thanks for selecting 
me to preside over your deliberations. I do 
do not ajjprehend that the labor of doing it 

will be arduous, but such as it may be, I 
promise to perform it as well as I may be 

As one grows old he loses his ambition, 
likewise his interest in the petty squabbles 



that so disturb the public tranquility ; and 
he is prone to dwell much upon the past. 
Young men make history ; those ot mature 
years write it. The work in which we have 
enlisted ought to have been performed by 
others, and a good deal of it a long while 
ago. But the men who settled Jefferson 
county had enough to do without compiling 
history. They furnished valuable materials 
and left their successors to collect them and 
put them in shape. The Masseys, the Hun- 
gerfords, the Paddocks, the "Woodruffs, the 
Bronsons, Coft'eens and Butterflelds, were 
too busy in their several callings, to keep 
record of their operations The men who 
erected the first building in Watertown 
were so engrossed in their work that they 
found little time to jot down their doings 
for the enlightenment of the present genera- 
tion. And the same is true of the merchants, 
the doctors and lawyers and clergymen, who 
flourished in this community, who walked 
our streets, serving their clients and — them- 
selves, who visited the sick and buried the 
dead, and administered consolation to the 
afflicted, who waited upon customers ; who, 
In a word, transacted the business of Water- 
town fifty and seventy five years ago. What 
did they do in the way of writing history '! 
They had no history to write ; at least none 
that would have possessed any general 
interest to their contemporaries. They left 
that duty to us. bidding us to look at their 
work; to scan their lives and see if we could 
find aught therein worthy of note. I do 
not suppose that the men to whom I refer, 
Wm. Smith. Jason Fairbanks. Marinus W. 
Gilbert, Judge Foster, Micah Sterling, Eg- 
bert Ten Eyck, Perley Keyes, and scores of 
others I might name who lived when they 
did, were aware that they were doing any- 
thing that any one coming after them 
would consider worthy of mention. They 
were all very modest — as are those of our 
day — intent on doing what they conceived to 
be their duty, and allowing those who were 
to follow them to make such notice of their 
deeds as should be due them. 

And that is what I believe this Society 
proposes to do. We will turn back the 
pages of history so far as it may relate to 
Jefferson county, see what has been going 
on in it during the past eighty years or 
more, see who have been the prominent 
men in it, and what has made them promi- 
nent, while taking cognizance of such other 
facts and occurrences connected with this 
particular locality as may be deemed 
worthy of lasting remembrance. 

History is valuable in so far as it affords 
instruction — in so far as it lifts the present 
race of men to a higher plane than the one 
upon which their predecessors stood. For I 
take it the civilized world is advancing in 
knowledge and wisdom — growing. It cer- 
tainly should be, for its opportunities are 
greater. Tliere are those who are inclined 
to underrate the present; to consider the 
world upon the down grade. So they go 

to the past for wisdom and instruction. If 
they are right, if we are really retrograd- 
ing, we had better abandon our systems of 
education and the instrumentalities by 
which we are endeavoring to advance ci- 
vilization, and go back to barbarism. But 
I do not subscribe to the sentiment at all. 
I believe the present age is a good way in 
advance of any previous one, that we have 
quite as able men, quite as profound, wise 
and. virtuous ones as have existed at any 
former jjeriod, and a great many more of 
them. Of course I have no objection to 
paying homage to the men who founded 
our institutions: I have great respect for 
Washington and Franklin and Jefferson 
and Adams and the rest; but I have the 
impression that we have to-day just as 
great men, and just as upi-ight men, 
as they were, and those of even broader 
minds. I have due reverence for the past, 
but I never could see any sense in the adu- 
lation that is bestowed upon it. I don't 
understand why we should be all the while 
traveling into the misty past for heroes and 
patriots and other model men — why we 
should have to go back thousands of years 
to meet with righteous men and saints. On 
the contrary. I believe we have just as ex- 
cellent men in our day as have ever existed; 
and I expect and rather hope that when we 
shall have been off the stage as long as 
" the good men of old," there will be those 
among us who will be remembered for some 
virtuous deed and good action. I expect 
that those who are to come after us will do 
justice to us, even if we fail to do justice 
to ourselves. 

For this reason we should aim to do some- 
thing worthy of remembrance. We have 
been slow in commencing the work in 
which we have now embarked; but we 
were waiting for others to act in this mat- 
ter, and had other duties to perform. How- 
ever, there is still time enough to accom- 
plish much, if we make this Society what 
it should be, and what it should be our am- 
bition to make it, a live one. We have 
abundant materials to make this organiza- 
tion one of the most useful and best of its 
kind. I am sorry that so little has been 
done in the way of preserving newspaper 
files. Had we at hand copies of every 
newspaper that has been issued in the 
county, how our labors would be lightened! 
Any fairly conducted public journal con- 
tains the most reliable history of the time 
in which it is published, to be obtained; 
and if the Legislature of the State had en- 
acted a law a hundred years ago or more, 
requiring every person proposing to engage 
in the publication of a newspaper, to pre- 
serve files of the same and cause it to be 
bound and placed in the office of the clerk 
of tlie county, or in some other secure 
place, either at his own or the county's ex- 
pense, and make this a condition of its pub- 
lication, it would have rendered a more valu- 
able service in the way of securing a correct 



history of the State than it could have per- 
formed in any other manner. But we 
must do the best we can with the materials 
we have as they exist. We expect to find 
them a good deal scattered, and many 
things are buried beneath vast amounts of 
dust and rubbish. We must, however, try 
to rescue the more important of them, 
write up such facts in the lives of the de- 
parted as have never been recorded, and be 
careful and make an excellent record of 
events in this county from this time 

The Jefferson County Historical Society 
was organized May 10, 1886, at the lecture- 
room of the Young Men's Christian Associ- 
ation by the election of officers. A prelimi- 
nary meeting had been held at the law 
oflSce of Frank H. Peck, in the City Opera 
House building, on April 6, 1886, pursuant 
to a call issued through the press of the 
city and county. The Hon. Charles R. 
Skinner, Colonel W. B. Camp, Daniel S. 
Marvin. Rev. Dr. R. Fisk and Col. A. D. 
Shaw had been specially instrumental in 
causing the call to be made and in preparing 
the way to success. The following named 
gentlemen were present at the preliminary 
meeting : W. B. Camp, of Sackets Harbor; 
Dr. A. T. Jacobs, of Ellisburg; Justus Eddy, 
of Adams; Philo M. Brown, of Lorraine; 
J. A. Parker, of the town of Watertown; 
and Rev. J. Winslow, R. A. Oakes, Moses 
Fames, A. D. Shaw, Rev. R. Fisk, Sidney 
Cooper. E. M. Gates, E. J. Clark, B. Brock- 
way and F. D. Rodgers. Mr. Brockway 
was made chairman, and R. Fisk, secretary. 
Communications were read from the Hoii. 
Charles R. Skinner, Marcellus Massey and 
James Mix. Mr. Skinner accompanied his 
encouraging communication with a draft of 
a constitution and by-laws. It was voted 
that a committee of five be appointed by 
the chair to report on May 10, 1886, a plan 
of organization, to whom the draft of con- 
stitution and by-laws submitted by Mr. 
Skinner, was referred. The following named 
gentlemen were made such committee : Al- 
bert D. Shaw. P. M. Brown, R. A. Oakes, 
W. B. Camp and Sidney Cooper. On the re- 
port of this committee, on May 10, 1886, the 
organization was perfected. Monthly meet- 
ings have been regularly held since, except- 

ing in the summer months. Papers have 
been prepared for the Society by the follow- 
ing named persons and others: At the June 
meeting by Moses Fames, on the ' ' Early 
History of Rutland; "at the July meeting 
by D. S. Marvin, on the ' ' Glacial History 
of Rutland Hollow; " at the October meet- 
ing, a stenographer's report of a visit by 
Col. Shaw to I. T. Atwood, on the " Early 
History of Depauville! " at the same meet- 
ing, by the Rev. W. M. Beauchamp, of 
Baldwinsville, Onondaga county, on the 
"Aborigines of Jefferson County; " at the 
November meeting, by R. A. Oakes, on the 
"Gods of the Iroquois;" at the December 
meeting, held in Carthage, by Prof. W. K. 
Wickes, on "History, Its Claims and 
Charms;" at the January meeting, by Wm. 
Fayel, of St. Louis, read by Col. Shaw, on 
' ' Historical Reminiscences of Jefferson 
County; " at the Februai-y meeting, by Miss 
Parneile F. Hubbard, read by Col. Shaw, 
on "Historical Incidents of Champion; " at 
the March meeting, by D. S. Marvin, on 
"Mounds at Perch Lake;" also at same 
meeting, by E. S. Sill, read by Colonel 
Shaw, on " Reminiscences of Watertown;" 
at the April meeting, by Mrs. John A. Sher- 
man, on " Early Cheese Makers and Mak- 
ing," read by E." J. Clark; also a paper by 
Marcellus Massey, on the "Early Settle- 
ment and Industries of Watertown," read 
by Col. Shaw. Many other papers have 
been prepared and read before the Society 
by different authors, among whom were 
the Hon. L. Ingalls, on the "Press of Jef- 
ferson County ; " by Mr. Darling, of Utica, 
a poem; by Prof. Hill, on the " Province of 
Historical Societies; " by T. B. Townsend, 
on "Early Watertown;" by Prof. Mace 
and others, on various topics in the line of 
local historical events. 

The present officers of the Society are Col. 
Walter B. Camp, of Sackets Harbor, Presi- 
dent; E. J. Clark, 1st vice-president; John 
C. Sterling, 2d vice-president; L. Ingalls, 
secretary; N. P. Wardwell, treasurer; D. S. 
Marvin, librarian. 

Much consideration has been given to 
raising funds for fire-proof historical rooms 
and Col. O. G. Staples recently subscribed 
$500 for that purpose, but the work has not 
yet been accomplished, though it is a very 
desirable object. 


The history of this company has been so 
fully identified with the history of Jefferson 
county that we depart from our custom and 
give it, in connection with its most distin- 
guished president. Dr. Isaac Munson, a. 
chapter by itself. Strange as it may seem, 
and little as it may have been commented 
upon, this company has more generally ad- 
vertised Watertown than any or perhaps 

all the other industries or companies or in- 
stitutions originated in this citv. Its poli- 
cies have gone into nearly all" the States, 
particularly into the central and western 
portions of the Union, and its integrity in 
management, the high character of the 
men who have been and are now (1895) at 
its head, have wade its name a synonym of 
strength and responsibility. And the town 




to-day, is remembered moi-e through this 
insurance company tlian through any otlier 

In August, 1851, a meeting of farmers of 
Jefferson and Lewis counties was held at 
the village of Evans Mills, for the purpose 
of organizing an insurance company to take 
risks exclusively upon farm property. At 
that meeting the following gentlemen were 
named as a board of corporators, viz.: 
Alden Adams, Ira A. Smith, Harrison 
Blodgett, John C. Cooper, Gideon S. Saoket, 
Isaac Munson, Evelyn F. Carter, Joseph 
Fayel, Loveland Paddock, Wolcott Steel, 
Wm. P. Babcock, Ashley Davenport. Ira 
Beaman, Hiram Dewey and Levi Miller. 
At a subsequent meeting Alden Adams was 
elected president; Isaac Munson, vice-presi- 
dent: U. A. Wright, secretary; and E. B. 
Fowler, general agent. 

There was considerable delay in perfect- 
ing its organization, which was finally com- 
pleted mainly through the persistent energy 
of E. B. Fowler, who appears to have been 
the real working force of the Mutual Com- 
pany, in March, 1853. From this time until 
May, 1855, the company issued only about 
1,500 policies. In January, 1855, John C. 
Cooper was elected president, in place of 
Alden Adams, and by special act of the 
Legislature the office was changed from the 
village of Evans Mills to the village of 
Watertown; and on May 3, of that year, 
Isaac Munson was elected secretary in place 
of U. A. Wright. After the removal of the 
office to Watertown the business began 
gradually to increase, and the company to 
prosper, perhaps beyond any other mutual 
insurance company in the State, and con- 
tinued to do so until 1862, when, in conse- 



quence of the failure of the greater num- 
ber of the mutual companies of this State, 
and the closing up of their business by col- 
lecting and prosecuting their premium- 
notes, it became extremely difficult, where 
a company was not well known, to obtain 
premium notes sufficient to keep the capi- 
tal of the company intact. At a meeting 
of the directors a proposition was made to 
change from a mutual to a stock company. 
This requiring the consent of two-thirds of 
its policy-holders, it was deemed best to 
defer the change for one year. In the mean 
time the required number of policy holders 
having signed a petition, the cliange was 
effected January 9, 1863. 

During its existence as a mutual, the 
Agricultural paid all its losses promptly, 
never taxed its premium notes, and accumu- 
lated in ten years a surplus to the amount of 

This company has now been in existence 
in its present plan over forty-one years, has 
during that time always met its losses 
promptly, and has accumulated cash assets 
to the amount of above $3,312,000. 

Its offices are in one of the most central 
and attractive portions of the city. It has 
enjoyed a season of prolonged and uninter- 
rupted prosperity —due mainly to the effi- 
ciency of its management and the liberality 
of its policies. It has been wise, too, in dis- 
tributing its risks over large areas, and in 
coniining them to the range of least liability 
— contenting itself with a large, safe busi- 
ness, at a small profit, rather than incurring 
hazardous risks at higher premiums. The 
policy of the company has been to pursue 
this safer line, and it has manifested its wis- 
dom in so doing, for while many good com- 
panies have gone into honorable liquidation, 
the Agricultural has kept straight along, 
sharing in the business depression that has 
been so prevalent, but never failing to earn 
something for its stockholders. 

The 4!st annual statement of the Agricul- 
tural shows the following results: Capital, 
$500,000.00; Net assets (to protect policy- 
holders,) $3,160,857.07; Net surplus to policy- 
holders, $761,199.83; Net surplus to stock- 
holders, $261,199.83. 


'• Real Estate owned by the company, $294,- 
801.33; Loans on Bonds and Mortgages (1st 
lien,) $1,133,391.63: Municipal Bonds, and 
other Stocks, $399,227.87; Loans on Collater- 
als, $70,870.64: Interest due and accrued, 
$54,413.73; Cash in company's office, $6,304,- 
97; Cash in Banks, $193,426.54; Uncollected 
Premiums, $147,474.60; Premium Notes, 
$11,036.41: Miscellaneous, $2,828.49. Total 
Assets, $2,812,676.19. 


Unpaid Losses, $117,731.52; Unearned 
Premiums,$l,399,657.24; Unpaid Dividends, 
$55.00; Coms. and Exps. on Uncol. Pre- 
miums, $34,032.60. $1,551 .476.36; Total $761,- 
199.36; Capital Stock, $500,000.00. Net Sur- 
plus, $361,199.83. 


JeanR. Stebbins, President; A. H, Sawyer, 
Vice President; C. Patterson, 2d "Vice Presi- 
dent- A. E. Dewey, General Agent; H. Bar- 
num, Supt. of Agencies; H. M. Stevens, 
Secretary; W. H. Stevens, Assistant Secre- 
tary; Sidney Cooper, Treasurer; L. F. 
Phillips, Cashier. 


Hon. Willard Ives, Jean R. Stebbins, H. 
M. Stevens, A. E. Dewey, C. Patterson, R. 
S. "Whitman, Hon. Titus Sheard, Sidney 
Cooper, John O. "Wheeler, A. H. Sawyer, F. 
H. Munson, P. C. "Williams, H. F. Inglehart, 
J. Q. Adams, "Wm. H. Stevens. 


The history of the Agricultural Insurance 
Company would appear lo me incomplete 
without at least a slight recognition, upon 
the printed page, of the ability and persever- 
ance of one of its earliest and ablest Presi- 
dents, intimately and engrossingly con- 
nected with its affairs for many years. Dr. 
Isaac Munson was born at Salisbury, Herki- 
mer county, N. Y., in March, 1812. His 
father was a well-to-do farmer. He re- 
mained at home, working upon the farm 
during his school vacations and sometimes 
most of the summer, until he was seventeen 
years of age, when he left honae to attend 
the Fairfield Academy, and in a few years 
entered the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons of "Western New York, located at 
Fairfield, and at that time the most noted 

medical college north of Philadelphia. He 
remained at this place until January, 1834, 
when the college conferred upon him the 
degree of Doctor of Medicine. Soon after, 
he left his native county and located in the 
Black River country, forming a co-partner- 
ship with tlie late Dr. Ira A. Smith, of Evans 
Mills. This business connection lasted for 
three years. Having in the meantime formed 
a more intimate partnership with Miss Cor- 
nelia Stebbins, of Rutland, which occurred 
May 34, 1836, he was, at the solicitation of 
relatives and friends, induced to locate in 
that town, where he remained practicing his 
profession for thirteen years, until the fall 
of 1849. Dr. Munson moved right along in 
his practice, for he had patience and faith, 
and eminent skill, and to have called him 



once in sickness Qiade liim an esteemed 
friend of the family. Year by year he grew 
into the regard and estimation of tlie county 
at large, until he was perhaps the widest 
known and most successful among the able 
physicians of Jefferson county. 

He was a Democrat from principle, be- 
cause he thought that party came nearest 
to being the true friend of the common 
people. His merited popularity as a man 
and a physician, and his long adhesion to 
the Democratic faith, caused him to be 
nominated and elected County Clerk in 1849, 
and that same j'ear he removed to Water- 
town, entering upon his official duties Janu- 
ary 1, 1850. 

He served one term as County Clerk, and 
again took up his practice, the duties of 
which he had never been able entirely to 
escape from, and while in active practice 
as a physician he was prevailed to accept 
the position of Secretary of the Agricul- 
tural Insurance Company in 1855, remain- 
ing in that relation to the company until 
elected its President, which office tie held 
until his death in 1886. 

Dr. Munson was a man of many excellent 
parts. He was a distinguished and success- 
ful physician, a politician of large ability, 
a " man of atfairs " in the best sense of that 
term, and the executive officer of a large 
and successful insurance company. The 
highest compliment that can be paid to his 
character is to say that in every department 
he filled, he came fully up to its require- 
ments, and was never found derelict in any 
duty or in any capacity, either profession- 
ally, politically or morally. 

He was especially the friend and able 
adviser of young men, particularly of poor 
and struggling young men. Such never 
were turned away, whether they came for 
assistance or for advice. I think no man in 
this city stood so high in this respect or 
accomplished so much good as Dr. Munson. 
Eminently democratic, easily approached, 
ever denying self in order to aid a friend 
by counsel or by means, he "passed on to 
join the great majority," universally re- 
spected, and loved best by those who knew 
him best. 

His varied intercourse with his fellows 
had made him an excellent judge of men. 
His early habits had made him a close 
student, both of books and of character, 
something of great service to him in his 
varied career. Undoubtedlv the most 

eventful acts of his life are his almost 
unparalleled success as the executive offi- 
cer in the management of the Agricultural 
Company, which success has laid the 
foundation for the large insurance interests 
of the city of Watertown. He was the 
moving spirit in February, 1855, that made 
those radical changes in the company which 
saved the farmers from being taxed upon 
their premium notes to pay losses, which 
would have resulted in winding up its busi- 
ness and disbanding the company. In May 
of the same year he was elected secretary 
of tlie company, and for ten years, so to 
speak, carried the institution in his pocket; 
and in that ten years the company accumu- 
lated a surplus of over $100,000, on a busi- 
ness for the first eight years confined to 
only a few counties. In 1863 an effort was 
made to largely increase the business of the 
company, and at this time the Doctor gave 
evidence of the energy and executive ability 
he possessed. From one of the least com- 
panies of the State it became one of the 
nine of the 104 doing the largest business, 
and but two outside the city of New York. 
This credit to Dr. Munson is not given in 
disparagement of the efforts of his co- 
laborers, who have so e.ssentially aided in 
the prosperity of the company; but in its 
early history and until it was a success, he 
had comparatively little help in ics execu- 
tive management. 

His presence was benignant, his counte- 
nance invited confidence, and he made 
friends by being himself friendly. There 
was a magnetism in his smile that made a 
stranger instantly at ease in his presence. 
Viewed in all his characteristics as a private 
citizen, as a member of the laborious and 
exacting profession of medicine, as a public 
official in a place of high responsibility, or 
as presiding officer of a rich and influential 
corporation. Dr. Munson was just and kind 
and able in them all. But as a husband 
and a parent he was the peer of any man 
on earth. The sunlight of his countenance 
made home happy, and what higher praise 
could he received than that ? Surely such a 
character has nothing to fear as he enters 
heaven's Valhalla, and comes into the pres- 
ence of the great and good who there hold 
council together. The Doctor left a widow 
to mourn for a good and noble husband. 
They had two children, Henry S. and Frank 
H., both living, and energetically engaged in 
the business of insurance. 


No other citizen of Jefferson county has 
ever done more to merit the good opinion 
and earnest regard of young men than 
John A. Sherman. Beginning life as a poor 
boy, with but few advantages, he worked 
his way to prominence and the highest 

respectability by a life of industry and in- 
tegrity, and, dying, left to the Young Men's 
Christian Association the most conspicuous 
property in the city as their heritage for- 
ever — a haven where any poor boy may 
come and study for improvement, and be- 



come a sharer in benefits Mr. Sherman's 
industry and perseverance confer upon those 
who come after him, and who will surely 
i-ise up and call him " blessed." 

He was born in the town of Rutland, 
June 13, 1809, and died inWatertown, Mai-ch 
35, 1883. He was the oldest son of Alfred 
Sherman, and a grandson of Dr. Abel Sher- 
man, a native of Massachusetts, whose 
ancestors were among the early settlers of 
New England and of English descent. 
Susan Hull, his mother, was an adopted 
daughter of Roswell Woodruff, vho was 
one of the pioneers of Jefferson county. His 
grandfather, Dr. Abel Sherman, was a 
physician, and came from Massachusetts to 
Oneida county in this State. His residence 
in Oneida county was brief, and in 1803 he 
removed to this county, settling in Rutland, 
upon 330 acres of timber land, which in 
time he cleared and made tillable. He was 
the first sheriff of the county. Alfred Sher- 
man, father of John A., after his father's 
death, having inhei-ited the farm, actively 
engaged in agricultural pursuits and at- 
tained a comfortable fortune. During the 
war of 1813, however, as contractor of the 
army, he lost the larger portion of his prop- 
ertyj and, crippled for want of means, he 
was pi'evented from giving his children any 
better educational advantages than those 
afforded by the common schools. He died 
in 1837, leaving John A., then only seven- 
teen years of age, to take charge of the 
farm and support the family, which con- 
sisted of his mother, two sisters and three 
brothers and himself. Five years after his 
father's death he wedded Miss Julia Ann 
Larned, of Rutland, who survives him, at 
the advanced age of eighty-seven years. 
Two years later, in 1884, he purchased a 
dairy of twenty cows, and thus opened the 
cheese business in the county. At the close 
of that year he sent his cheese to New 
York, packed in salt barrels, the shipment 
of which, by canal, occupied twenty-one 
days. He received six cents per pound for 
the cheese, and considered it a very good 
price at that time. His was the first dairy 
of cheese manufactured in this county, and 
had much to do in hastening the growth of 
the dairy industry, which is now the most 
important business among us. 

As soon as this interest grew to sufficient 
proportion to warrant it, he engaged in the 
purchase of butter and cheese for the New 
York market, continuing in this trade for 
mahy years. In 1839, in partnership with 
Henry Hopkins, of Rutland, he bought 
largely of cheese during the early fall of 
that year. With the then facilities for 
transportation in Jefferson county, cheese 
could not well be shipped until late in the 
fall, when the weather was cool. At the 
proper time he visited the city for the pur- 
pose of making sale of his cheese, but found 
the market so depressed that it was impossi- 
ble to make any sales except at a great 
sacrifice, which resulted in the financial 

ruin of many dealers. Mr. Sherman asked 
his creditors for a little time to make sale of 
his cheese, assuring them that he would 
carry them through safely. They, having 
confidence in his wisdom and honesty, 
granted him the leniency he asked, and he 
at once shipped his cheese on a vessel to New 
Orleans, taking passage thereon himself. 
After a stormy voyage he arrived at his des- 
tination with his cargo in good order, 
which he disposed of to advantage, receiv- 
ing payment in silver. This he packed in 
kegs, and on his return voyage deposited it 
in his state-room, where he was obliged to 
closely guard it, with the assistance of a 
trusted friend, as the conduct of the cap- 
tain and crew was not such as to Jinspire 
confidence. He arrived in New York 
during the financial troubles of 1839-40, 
when the banks had suspended specie pay- 
ment, sold his silver for a large premium, 
and was enabled to pay his creditors hon- 
orably, dollar for dollar, and had quite a 
little profit for himself and partner. We 
mention this little episode as characteristic 
of his whole life, and as demonstrating his 
indomitable industry and perseverance — 
always cautious, full of reseurces, never 
getting into business enterprises or entangle- 
ments from which he could not see his way 
out. He continued his produce business in 
New York, purchasing mostly from dairies 
and factories in Jefferson, St. Lawrence and 
Lewis counties, in connection with his 
farming interests at home, until about 1851, 
paying for his paternal estate, which was 
left him badly incumbered, and adding 
farm to farm until 1856, when he retired 
from farming and removed to Watertown 
city. He was a progressive farmer, with 
practical ideas, and often introduced new 
farm implements, which tended to speed on 
the enlightenment and prosperity of his 
neighbors and the section in which he 
lived. His popularity among the farmers 
was such that he was almost unanimously 
elected to the presidency of the Jefferson 
County Agricultural Society about 1853. 

Mr. Sherman was a great but unostenta- 
tious philanthropist. He was always opposed 
to having any of his beneficent gifts made 
known to the public, and endeavored to 
make such gifts appear like business trans- 
actions, of which he was to reap a pecuni- 
ary benefit. His liberality to the Young 
Men's Christian Association, which hasoccu- 
pied the greater portion of the second floor 
of Washington Hall block since the society 
_was formed in 1869, at a nominal and some- 
times free rental, is a fair example of his 
munificence. A short time before his death 
Mr. Sherman donated to the Association 
this valuable property, with the provision 
that they pay a rent to Mrs. Sherman during 
her life, and to his daughter, should she 
survive her mother, during her life. 

At the time of his death Mr. Sherman 
owned valuable property in Jefferson 
county, and was President of the Agricul- 



tural Insurance Company, one of the largest 
and most successful business corporations 
in the State, the success of which was 
largely promoted by his wise counsels and 
sound advice. He was a director in two 
banks and two insurance companies in 
Watertown, and always a sound, practical 

Mr. Sherman had four brothers, namely: 
Eli, who died in early childhood, and 
Hampton, William, and Eli, 2d, who died 
in early manhood. A sister, Sylvia Orinda, 
died young. His nearest relatives now living 
are his wife, his daughter, Mrs. D. S. Mar- 
vin, and his two sisters, Mary Sherman 
and Mrs. Orinda Lewis, of Adrian, Mich. 

The mother of Mr. Sherman was a noble 
woman, one of those who " in solitude, 
amid strange dangers and heavy toil, reared 

families and made homes.'' Her name 
was Susan Hull, born near New Haven, 
Conn., and adopted into the family of Mr. 
Rosvvell Woodruff; coming with him and 
his family into the Black JJiver country 
among the earliest settlers in LeRay. There 
she formed the acquantance of Alfred Sher- 
man, and married him when of mature age, 
rearing a large family. To illustrate the 
utter wildness of the town of LeRay at 
that time it is related of Susan that she, 
with the other children, was picking wild 
berries in the woods near home one day and 
saw what they thought to be a black sheep. 
Trying to catch this supposed sheep they 
were astonished to see it climb a tree. Then 
they knew it was a bear. They gave up 
the pursuit and fled for home. 


Is ONE of the most interesting personages in his native State. He became a clerk in 
in Watertown, and has so slight an appro- the dry goods establishment of Peck & 
ciatiou of his own success as a business Welch, then leading merchants. He re- 
man, and is so indifferent to the approval mained in that store until 1847, when he 
which should follow good actions and a, went into partnership with Mr. Peter Horr, 

J J ' /'■/'/ 

■ /irr// //// ■ /''//r/Yv r/y/,v.j f^//rr/' 


■y// / f/ / /f //ryy//// // //U.J/ /r/f njti/ ji'////.^///yu r / ///ri/l'j r//a/.J. 


'?^CfUA^ y^/diJ^yJCM/ KhT^X^Mu-CL^ 


well-.spent life, as to be an enigma to the 
historian. But he is one of the author's 
oldest and best friends, and he ventures to 
trespass a little upon that intimacy which 
has outlived years and trials, to be renewed, 
we hope, in a land where we shall know 
even as we are known. 

Mr. Wiggins, so long known in connection 
with the clothing trade of northern New 
York, was born in Montpelier, Vt. , in 1822, 
and came to Watertown in 1843, after serv- 
ing an apprenticeship in a dry goods store 

and thus continued until his departure for 
Potsdam, St. Lawrence county, where he 
remained two years, returning in 1851 to 
Watertown, and accepted a proposal from 
Mr. J. M. Clark to go into partnership. In 
1854 the firm of Horr, Fisk & Co., of 
Chicago, was organized for manufacturing 
wholesale clothing on an extended scale, 
and Mr. Wiggins was a partner in that 
house, which manufactured its clothing 
largely in Watertown, giving steady em- 
ployment to over 600 people. 



In lti57 Mr. Wiggins returned to Water- 
town, and tlie firm of Wiggins & Johnson 
was organized, and extensively patronized. 
During the extraordinary small money 
stringency in 1859-60, this firm issued about 
$50,000 of fractional paper money, which 
had an extended and wide circulation in 
Northern New York, passing current at 
banks, and in all the avenues of trade, serv- 
ing a very useful purpose, and doubtless 
considerably enlarging the knowledge of 
the firm name among the people. 

This fractional currency was all redeemed 
except about $33, a great part of which was 
held as keepsakes and mementoes. 

In 1871 Mr. Johnson retired from the firm 
to accept a position with the Davis Sewing 
Machine Company, and is still its manager, 
though the establishment has been removed 
to Dayton, O. Mr. Wiggins thenceforward 
continued the Great Wardrobe clothing 
house alone until its sale to Mr. Goodale. 

Since then he has given a great deal of his 
time to the management of Brookside Ceme- 

ter3', which he has raised from a condition 
of mediocrity bv one imiirovement after 
another until it is now one of the most 
beautiful cemeteries in the country. 

After Mr. and Mrs. Cook had erected the 
Soldiers' Monument upon the Public Square, 
the grounds were left in an unsatisfactory 
condition. Mr. Wiggins took up the work 
of their reconstruction, and the ellipsis upon 
which the monument stands now fittingly 
supplements the monument itself. 

Mr. Wiggins was married early in life to 
Miss Delia Brown, whose father wiis one of 
that band of devoted Methodist ministers 
who preached without pay in that early 
period, when the country was poor and 
sparsely settled, but when the loneliness of 
the settlers' lives made them particularly 
anxious to hear the gospel from the lips of 
one whom they knew and trusted. Mr. 
Wiggins' life has been an exceptionally 
happy one, and the wife of his youth is yet 
a sharer in his joys and sorrows. 


Unfortunately for this history the au- 
thor has not been able to procure a portrait 
of Mr. Remington, and in so doing be able to 
show to posterity the very lineaments of 
one of Watertown's most respected and 
high minded citizens, who began his busi- 
ness here and has steadily risen to the 
highest po.sition in the regard of the people 
of Watertown. 

In many particulars Mr. Remington and 
Mr. George W. Wiggins resemble each other, 
especially in their hatred of shams and pre- 
tences, their unostentatious habits of life, in 
the democracy of their personal intercourse 
with men, and in their unhesitating declara- 
tion of an opinion upon any subject with 
which they are at all familiar. Though both 
modest and unassuming, they are men of the 
strongest feelings, capable of a great demon- 
stration or a timely rebuke if such were 
needed, but both declined to put their faces 
in this History. 

It is a curious fact, well remembered by 
the writer, that Mr. Remington began busi- 
ness in Watertown as a Jiat merchant, a 
striking illustration of the way men are 
sometimes impelled, perhaps by their own 
impatience, into selecting a business or en- 
tering upon a career wholly unsuited to 
their natural capacity. Mr, Remington's 
head itself shows what he was made for — 
to design, and plan, and organize — really 
the highest talent a man can have. The 
province of such men is to tell others what 
to do, and their contenipoi'aries usually ac- 
quiesce, for they note the master mind, the 
moving force. 

In 1853, Mr. Remington's father, one of 
the pioneer paper-makers of Onondaga 
county. N. Y., caine td Watertown, at his 

son's invitation, to take a look at the won- 
derful water-power of Black river, where 
was located one of the oldest paper mills in 
Northei-n New York, but it was not able to 
grapple with the mighty demands then and 
soon after made upon that important indus- 
try, by the giant claims of the cylinder 
press, for even then capable mechanics had 
heard of Samuel Haddock's conception of 
printing from a continuous and uncut roll 
of paper, afterwards developed in this 
counti-y by William Bullock, the York State 
boy who lost his life in the city of Philadel- 
phia in the very week when his grand in- 
vention proved a complete success. 

Mr. A. D. Remington, more progressive 
than his father, saw that the future was to 
make demands upon the paper men that 
would be hard to meet, and he proposed a 
new mill upon the north branch of Black 
river, opposite Sewall's island. His father 
was at last persuaded to make the venture, 
and his son then commenced his career in 
a business in which he has shown such 
marked ability. He is to-daj' regarded by 
paper men as one of the master spirits 
among them, for he has proven himself a 
man of many resources, fearlessly grappling 
with problems that might have intimidated 
less courageous men. 

In the article which we have prepared 
upon the pulp industries, and printed as a 
part of the chapter upon the city of Water- 
town, the reader will be able to gain a fair 
understanding of Mr. Remington's present 
position in these enterprises upon Black 
river, which have become so remarkable as 
to attract extended comment. His journey 
to distant Sweden in order to get at the 
" true inwardness " of the sulphite process. 



is a striking but not unusual circumstance 
in his life, for he has a way of getting at the 
real foundation of anj'thing he undertakes, 
and is so ready at any time to accept sug- 
gestions from others (digesting in his own 
mind their value, or otherwise, as related to 
any plan he has in mind) that any subject 
he examines is pretty sure to be well sifted 
when he is through with it. For tliat 
reason, fellows with wildcat schemes shun 
him now, for they readily perceive the bent 
of his mind, and the resolution he evinces 
to know all there is to be found out. He 
does not skim, he goes down to the bottom 
of whatever he investigates. 

Mr. Remington had the advantages of the 
good schools of Onondaga county in his 
youth, and a thorough business education 
before be began to make paper. His mod- 
esty at first was something of a bar to his 
advancement, but he is a close student in 
all that pertains to his affairs, and his inven- 
tive mind and his power of organization 
have stood him in good stead during the 
years when the paper business was being 
developed to its present propoi-tions. With 
his employees he is and always has been 
popular. They have implicit faith in his 
integrity, his devotion to their welfare, and 
every one of them understands that any 

just complaint will receive careful atten- 
tion. Taking into consi'leration the length 
of time they have been in business and the 
extent of their operations, Mr. Remington 
and his associates have probably paid out 
more money for labor than any firm ever 
doing business in Jefferson county. For 
many years his brother, Charles R. , has 
been his able associate, looking after matters 
at home wlien the elder brother might be 
absent upon his long journeys. They are 
both comparatively young men. with many 
years of work and capacity in them. Their 
name stands first among the paper produc- 
ers upon Black river, and among the first 
in the whole country. 

It is a source of considerable regret that 
men like Mr. Wiggins and Mr. Remington 
peremptorily decline to permit their photo- 
graphs to appear in this work, for they have 
been good friends of the writer for many 
years, and it would have been a great 
pleasure to him to have transmitted their 
lineaments to posterity. Such modesty ap- 
pears to me to be unreasonable; but it is an 
honest feeling, and must therefore be re- 
spected. But the writer does not regard it 
as a fair discharge of the debt all good men 
owe to posterity, nor as rounding out the 
full measure of citizenship. 


As THE lands of Jefferson county have 
been the principal factor in its growth and 
later wealth, it is proper that we begin an 
important part of our History by describing 
their chain of title through some of the con- 
veyances which comprised the larger tracts. 
And to avoid any confusion of names in 
what follows, we insert here the original 
names by wliicli the territory now called 
Jefferson county was designated before be- 
ing set off from Oneida. The process of 
evolution is this : Albany county, formed 
Nov. 1, 1683: Lyon, formed from Albany, 
March 12. 1772; Montgomery (changed from 
Lyon), April 3, 1784; Herkimer set off from 
Montgomery, Jan. 16, 1791; Oneida, set off 
from Herkimer, March 15, 1798, and Jeffer- 
son, formed jrom Oneida, March 28, 1805. 
This statement must be borne in mind as 
the historical student investigates these 
land titles. 

Our main dependence in getting at these 
varied chains of title wiU be Dr. Hough, 
whose history, pi'inted in 1854, evidenced 
an extended examination of the land rec- 
ords of Oneida county as well as the miscel- 
laneous conveyances of an older date on file 
in the departments at Albany. At best, 
the attempt to describe lands by the survey- 
or's formula of so many chains, at such a 
distance from a fixed object, bearing so 
many degrees north or soutli, east or west, 
must ever create an unsatisfactory con- 
fusion in the reader's mind: but that ap- 

pears to have been the plan adopted at an 
early day, and must necessarily be followed 
in all future descriptions of these lands. 

In the first place the title to all the lands 
in this northern part of the State of New 
York became vested in the State by various 
treaties with the Indian tribes, that from 
time to time ceded all their rights of owner- 
ship to the lands over which they roamed 
or had acquired by conquest from vreaker 
tribes. None of these conveyance from the 
Indians come within 150 years of our own 
time (1894), and this general statement ap- 
pears to us fully as satisfactory to the gen- 
eral reader as to wade through the rigma- 
role of smoking pipes of peace and handing 
over belts of vs^mpum, so laboriously gone 
through- with by those Indians when they 
signed a treaty. 

The office of Land Commissioner was 
created in New York State in 1786, and 
they were clothed with discretionary powers 
in selling any unappropriated lands of the 
State. The manner in which they exercised 
the trust reposed in them was made a sub- 
ject of grave censure, because they sold 
State lands at eight pence an acre, for which 
the actual settler, seeking a home in the 
wilderness, within two or three years was 
charged $3.75 to $8.00 per acre. On the 33d 
of June, 1791, Alexander Macomb, of the 
city of New York, acting as the agent of a 
company said to consist of himself, Daniel 
MoCormick, and Wm. Constable, all of New 



York, applied for the purchase of a tract of 
land since known as Macomb's purchase; 
embracing the greater part of Franklin, the 
whole of St. Lawrence, excepting the "ten 
towns" and Massena, the whole of Jefferson 
(excepting Penet's square and Tibbet's 
Point), the whole of Lewis, and a part of 
Oswego counties. This proposition includes 
the islands in Lake Ontario and the St. 
Lawrence, fronting the tract, and excepted 
five per cent for roads, and all lakes of 
greater area than 1,000 acres. The proposed 
price was eight pence per acre. One-sixth 
part was payable in one year, and the resi- 
due in five equal annual instalments. If 
one-sixth were secured by satisfactory 
bonds, and paid, and another sixth in like 
manner secured, Macomb was to receive a 
patent for a sixth part, in a square, in one 
of the corners of the tract, and the same 
rule was to be observed throughout until 
the whole was paid. Carlton, or Buck's 
Island, and the Long Sault Island, were ex- 
pressly reserved to the State. This pi-oposi- 
tion was accepted, and the surveyor- 
general was directed to survey the tract at 
the expense of Macomb. On the 10th of 
January, 1792, he reported that the condi- 
tions had been complied with, and on that 
day a patent was issued to Macomb, for 
1,920,000 acres, reserving 800 acres to be 
located by the surveyor-general. This in- 
cluded the whole of the tract not in the pre- 
sent counties of Franklin and St. Lawrence. 
An uncertainty existing in relation to the 
islands in the St. Lawrence, these were pat- 
ented after the national boundary had been 
determined, and to other parties. The reser- 
vation stipulated to Penet, was confirmed 
b}' the following proceedings of the land 
commissioners : 

At a meeting of the Commissioners of the Land 
Office of the State of New York, held at the secretary's 
office in the city of New York on Saturday the 8th 
day of August. 1789. Present, His Exeellencv, George 
Clinton, esquire. Governor. Lewis A. Scott^ Esquire, 
Secretary, Richard Variclt, Esquire, Attorney General, 
and Gerardu.'s Bancker, Treasurer. 

Resolved, That the surveyor-general be directed to 
lay out for Peter Penet, and at bis expense, the lands 
ceded by the Oneida Nation to the people of this 
State, by their deed of cession dated the 22d day of 
September last, lying to the northward of Oneida 
Lake, a tract of ten miles square, wherever he shall 
select the same; and further, that he lay out for.Tohn 
Francis Pearche. and at his expense, a tract of land 
stipulated by the said deed of cession to be granted 
to him " &c., referring tb a tract two miles square in 
Oneida county.— Land Office Minutes, Vol. 2, p 56. 

On the 19th of Nov., 1789, the following action was 
taken: "The Surveyor-General, agreeable to an 
order of this Board, of the 8th of August last, having 
made a return of survey for Peter Penet, of a tract of 
ten miles square, as elected by John Duncan, his 
agent (of the lands ceded by the Oneida Nation of 
Indians to the people of this State, by their deed of 
cession, dated the 22d day of Sept., 1788), lying to the 
northward of Oneida Lake, as by the said return of 
survey filed in the secretary's office, will more fully 
appear. And the said John Duncan, having as agent 
as aforesaid , made application to the Board for letters 
patent for the same, Resolved, therefore, that the 
Secretary do prepare letters patent to the said Peter 
Penet. for the said tract of ten miles square, accord- 
ingly, and lay them before the Board for their ap- 
probation. -Land Office Minutes, vol. 3, p. 80. 

Peter Penet, by an instrument dated Jan. 

23, 1729, made John Duncan his attorney, 
and the latter received, Nov. 19, 17tf9, a pat- 
ent for a tract ten miles square, which, on 
the 13th of July, 1790, he conveyed for the 
nominal sum of five shillings, to James 
Watson and James Greenleaf of New York. 
February 26, 1795, Watson released to 
Greenleaf his half of the tract for £1,000; 
the latter having, Sept. 4, 1797, conveyed 
by deed tlie 64.000 acres to Simon Desjar- 
dines, for£19,400. Desjardines conveyed to 
Nicholas Olive, of New York, January 29, 
1796, and the latter to Herman LeRoy, Wil- 
liam Bayard and Jas. McEvers, 44.000 acres 
of this tract, in trust as joint tenants for 
certain heirs, of whom Mallett Prevost was 
entitled to 8,000 acres; John Lewis Grenus 
to 12,000 acres; Henry Finguerlin, Gr., 
8,000 acres. At the time of this conveyance 
Olive held these lands in trust, and 16,000 
acres in his own right. A deed of partition 
between the proprietors was executed May 
17, 1802, according to a division by ballot, 
as follows : N. Olive, 16,000; J. L. Grenus, 
1,200; H. Finguerlin, Gr., 8,000; \. M. Pre- 
vost, 8,000 acres; making 44,000 acres, 
which, with 8,000 to Louis LeGuen, and 
12,000 to John Wilkes, jjreviously conveyed 
by Olive, made 64,000 acres on the whole 
tract. After the deed of partition, and on 
the 11th of June, 180'3, the proprietors re- 
leased to one another, the quantity allotted 
to each, as follows ; John Wilkes and 
Louis LeGuen, to LeRoy, Bayard and Mc- 
Evers, of 44,000 acres; L., B. and M., and 
Louis LeGuen. to John Wilkes, of 12,000; 
and L., B. & M., and J. Wilkes to L. Le- 
Guen, of 8,000 acres. 

Nicholas Olive, in his will, made his wife 
and Henry Chei-iot his executors, and his 
widow afterwards married Simon Louis 
Pierre, Marquis de Cubieres of Paris, who, 
with his wife. May 9, 1818, appointed LeRoy, 
Bayard and McEvers to convey to Provost 
Grenus and Finguerlin, their several shares. 
The latter, May 20, 1817, directed LeRoy, 
Bayard and McEvers to convey to Joseph 
Russell and John LaFarge. LeRoy and 
Bayard deeded to John, Henry and Edmund 
Wilkes, 16,000 acres, September 23, 1818, 
and the latter to John LaFarge, April 14, 
1823, having received, May 9, 1818, from the 
Marquis de Cubieres and wife, a power of 
attorney for the purpose. LeRoy and Bay- 
ard conveved 12,000 acres, November 23,' 
1818, and to Russell and LaFarge, 8,000 
acres, September 28, 1818. Joseph Russell 
released his half of these 8,000 acres, De- 
cember 12, 1818, John Wilkes to Charles 
Wilkes, Jan. 1, 1818, sold 8,000 acres, and 
the latter the same to LaFarge, June 3, 1825. 
By these conveyances Mr. LaFarge became 
the owner of the greater part of Penet 
Square; but he allowed the lands to be sold 
for taxes, and his claims were subsequently 
confirmed bv a comptroller's deed from 
William L. Marcy, May 13, 1828. 

On the 23d of November, 1819, Francis 
Depeau bought 15 lots (21 to 25, 41 to 45, 56 



to 60) for $13,000, excepting parts sold to 
Samuel Ruggles. 

Returning to the facts concerning Ma- 
comb's purchase, the lands contracted to 
him was estimated to contain, after deduct- 
ing five per cent., 3,670,715 acres, and was 
divided into five tracts. Tract No. I. con- 
tained 831,819 acres, and is wholly in 
Franklin county. No. II embraced 553,- 
030 acres, or the present towns of Parisli- 
ville, Colton, Hopkinton, Lawrence, Brasher, 
and a small part of Massena, in St. Law- 
rence county. No. Ill, the remainder of 
St. Lawrence county, south and west of the 
ten towns, or 4o8,25i3 acres. No. IV con- 
tained 450,950 acres in Jefferson county, it 
being, with the exception of Penet's Square 
and Tibbet's Point, all of that county north 
of a line drawn from the south-west corner 
of St. Lawrence county, nortli 87° west, to 
Lake Ontario. No. V (36,850 acres) and 
No. VI (74,000), formed the rest of the pur- 
chase; the division line between which 
numbers was never surveyed. Soon after 
perfecting his title to a portion of his tract, 
Macomb employed William Constable (who 
is said to have been with Daniel McCormick, 
the principal proprietor), as his agent to 
sell lands in Europe; and, on the 6th of 
June, 1793, he released, and October 3, 
1793, conveyed to him the whole of tracts 
IV, V and VI for £50,000. Macomb had 
become involved in speculations, by which 
he lost his property, and was lodged in jail; 
and his name does not subsequently appear 
in the transfers of land. He had been a fur 
trader in Detroit, afterwards became a mer- 
chant and capitalist in New York, and was 
the father of the late General Macomb, of 
the war of 1813. 

FiEST Attempts at Settlement. 

The first direct measure taken for the ac- 
tual settlement of the section of the State, 
embraced in Jefferson county, was in 1793. 
On the 31st of August, William Constable, 
then in Europe, executed a deed to Peter 
Chassanis, of Paris, for 630,000 acres south 
of Great Lot No. IV, which now constitutes 
a part of Jefferson and Lewis counties. A 
tract in Leyden, previously conveyed to 
Patrick Colquhoun and William Inman, 
was excepted. Chassanis acted as the 
"agent for the associated purchasers of 
lands in Montgomery county," and the 
lands were to be by him held in trust for 
the use of the said William Constable, and 
disposed of by sections of 100 acres each, at 
the rate of $1.50 per acre; in which said 
conveyance it is declared that the said 
Chassanis should account for the proceeds 
of the sales to Constable, according to the 
terras of an agreement between them, ex- 
cepting one-tenth thereof. The State reser- 
vations for roads, etc , were stipulated. A 
deed for 625,000 acres having been made 
from Constable to Chassanis, and delivered 
as an escrow to Rene Lambot, to take effect 
on the payment of £53,000, it was agreed 

that the price for this land should be one 
shilling per acj-e. Constable bound himself 
to procure a perfect title, to be authenti- 
cated and deposited with the Consul Gen- 
eral of France in Philadelphia; and Chas- 
sanis agreed that the moneys received by 
Lambot should be remitted to Ransom, 
Moi-eland & Hammersley, in London, as 
received, subject to Constable's order, on 
presenting the certificate of Charles Texier, 
consul, of his having procured a clear title. 
If the sales shall not have amounted to 
£63,750, the balance should be paid in six, 
nine and twelve months, in bills, upon Lon- 
don. Constable granted for one month, 
the right of pre-emption to Tract No. IV. 
at the rate of one shilling sterling, payable 
in three, six and nine months from the 
date of the deed, as above. 

The agreement of Constable and Chas- 
sanis, of August 30, 1793, was canceled, and 
the tract reconveyed March 25, 1793, in con- 
sequence of the amount falling short, upon 
survey, far beyond the expectation of all 
parties. On the 13th of April, 1793, Con- 
stable conveyed 310,000 acres, by deed, for 
£35,000, to Chassanis, since known as the 
Chassanis Tract, Castorland, or The French 
Company's Land, bounded north by No. IV 
of Macomb's Purchase, south and west by 
Black river, and east by a line running 
north nine miles from a point near the 
High Falls and thence northeasterly on 
such course as might include 210,000 acres. 

On the 11th of April, 1797, Chassanis ap- 
pointed Rodolph TiUier, " Member of the 
Sovereign Council of Berne," his attorney, 
' ' to direct and administer the properties and 
affairs concerning Castorland, to follow all 
which relates to the surveying and subdi- 
viding of this domain, as well as to its im- 
provement, clearing and amelioration; to 
make the useful establishments; make all 
bargains with settlers, artists and workmen; 
make all payments and receipts, give and 
take receipts; pass all title of property, to 
the profit of those who will have acquired 
lands forming part of Castorland ; to put or 
have thena put in possession of the saiil lands; 
sell of these lands to the amount of 10,000 
acres, either paid down for or on credit, but 
in small parcels of a hundred or two hun- 
dred acres at most. " In case of death, Nicho- 
las Olive was to succeed him. On the 18th 
of February, 1797, a new agreement was 
made between Constable and 'Tillier, convey- 
ing the Castorland tract to Chassanis, after 
the survey of William Cockburn & Son, of 
Poughkeepsie, in 1799, and giving witli 
greater detail the bounds of the tract. The 
former conveyances made the north and 
east bank of the river the boundary, but in 
this the center of the channel was agreed 
upon. On the 6th of March, 1800, Constable 
deeded to Chassanis, for one dollar, a tract 
of 30,000 acres in the eastern corner of Tract 
No. IV, %vhich was afterward subdivided 
into 37 lots, and conveyed to James LeRay. 
Cockburn's survey divided the purchase into 



six very unequal tracts, formed by the in- 
tersection of the principal lines and the river. 
The tract was subdivided by Charles C. 
Brodhead and assistants. John Cantine, 
Philip R. Freys, Peter Pharoux and Benoni 
Newman, were among his surveyors. In 
dividing the tract, the line running north 
from the High Falls was assumed as the 
cardinal line, from which ranges were 
counted east and west. An east and west 
line crossing the other nine miles from the 
Falls, was fixed as a second cardinal, from 
which ranges were reckoned north and 
south. The ranges extended to 19 east, 51 
west, 27 north, and about 9 south; and the 
lots mcluded 450 acies each, except those on 
the margin. These were again subdivided 
into 9 square lots, of 50 acres each, which 
were numbered from 1 to 4,828. This sys- 
tem of numbering has since been observed 
in designating the location of lands. 

Mr. Brodhead was a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, and had held the rank of captain in 
the Revolution. He was employed by Til- 
lier, through the influence of Edward Liv- 
ingston and Dr. Oliver, and while perform- 
ing the survey, encountered many hardships. 
An obituary notice published soon after his 
death, which occurred in 1853, at Utica, con- 
tains the following: 

" In runniD^ the great lines of division, his party 
had crossed the Black river several times, the men 
and instruments being: ferried across. On one occas- 
ion when they had approached the river, havinj? journ- 
eyed through the woods irithOut noting their route by 
the compass, they arrived at a part of the bank which 
they recognized, and knew to be a safe place of pass- 
ing. Maliing- a raft of logs, they started from the 
bank, and began to pole across. When in the midst 
of the current their _poles failed to reach the bottom, 
and simultaneous with this discovery, the noise of the 
waters below them revealed the horrid fact that they 
had mistaken their ferrying place, and were at the 
head and rapidly approaching the Great Falls of the 
river, the passage of which threatened all but certain 
death. Instantly Mr. Brodhead ordered every man 
who could swim to make for the shore, and he pre- 
pared to swim for his own life. But the piteous ap- 
peals of Mr. Pharoux, a young Frenchman, of the 
party, who could not swim, arrested him, and he de- 
termined to remain with him to assist him, it possible, 
in the awful passage of the falls. Hastily directing 
his men to grasp firmly to the logs of the raft, giving 
similar directions to Mr. Pharoux, he then laid him- 
self down by the side of his friend. The raft passed 
the dreadful falls and was dashed to pieces. Mr. 
Pharoux, with several of the whites and Indians, were 
drowned, and Mr. Brodhead himself thrown Into an 
eddy near the shore, whence he was drawn senseless 
by an Indian of the party." 

The surveyors were in tlieir instructions 
directed to note "all kinds of timber, wild 
meadows, useful plants, wild fruit trees, 
hills, swamps, creeks and objects of interest 
generally." The south line of Tract No. IV 
was run by John Campbell and others, in 
August, 1794. At a very early period, a 
settlement was begun by Tillier and others 
near the High Falls, east of the river, and 
several families were settled. Several ex- 
tensive sales were made by Chassanis and 
Tillier to Frenchmen of the better class, who 
had held property and titles in France be- 
fore the revolution. Desjardines & Co. 
bought 3,002 acres on Point Peninsula; Odier 

& Bousquet, 1,500 acres on Pillar Point; 
Nicholas Oliver (Dec. 17, 1807) a tract of 
about 4,050 acres north of Black river and 
bay; Henry Boutin, 1,000 acres around the 
present village of Carthage; C. C. Brod- 
head, 400 acres in the present town of Wilna, 
and others. Among these was a conveyance 
dated March 31, 1801, of 1,817 lialf acres in 
scattered lots to twenty or thirty French 
people, many of them widows of persons 
who had acquired an interest in the New 
York Company. On the 1st of May, 1798, 
James LeRay purchased 10,000 acres in Cas- 
torland, and Feb. 15, 1801, all his lands not 
previously sold. Chassanis in his early sales 
had reserved about 600 acres (R. 26 W. 24 
and 25 N.), between the present villages of 
Brownville and Dexter, for the City of 

On the 27th of March, 1800, Tillier was 
succeeded in the agency by Gouverneur 
Morris, who appointed Richard Coxe, Nov. 
i:ith.]801, his attorney. On the 5th of Feb., 
1802, Chassanis executed a trust conveyance 
for $1 to James D. LeRay of 220,500 acres 
assurveyed by Wm. Cockburn and Son, and 
by other instruments for nominal sums. 
The lands were mostly sold to actual set- 
tlers by Mr. LeRay as agent or principal. 
Chassanis died in Paris, Nov. 28, 1803. Da- 
vid B. Ogden, G. Morris and many others 
were at an early period concerned in these 

Macomb's Tract No. IV was surveyed by 
C. C. Brodhead in 1796, assisted by Jonas 
Smith, Timothy Wheeler, Joshua Northrop, 
Elias Marvin, John Youngs. Isaac LeFever, 
Jacob Chambers, Elijah Blake, Samuel Tup- 
per, Eliakim Hammond and Abraham B. 
Smede, each with a few men as assistants, 
and the whole having a general camp or 
rendezvous at Hungry Bay, on the north 
side of Pillar Point at a place called Peck's 
Cove, near where the Chassanis line crosses 
the bay. The early settlers here found huts 
standing, and the remains of an old oven 
were visible in 1854. The journals of these 
surveyors show that they suffered much 
from sickness. Some of their supplies were 
derived from Canada, but the most from 
the Mohawk settlements. A few troops 
were stationed on Carleton Island, and 
thither some of their sick were sent. This 
tract, excepting the east corner, was divi- 
ded into 1,000 lots of 440 acres each (except- 
ing those around the border), which were 
numbered continuously. Evert Van Allen 
had been employed in 1795, in surveying the 
boundaries of tract No. IV. 

A proposition was entertained from Lord 
Poultney, in 1792, for the purchase of a mil- 
lion of acres of Black River land, at a quar- 
ter of a dollar per acre, of which £5,000 were 
to be paid down, £20,000 in one, and the same 
in two years, and the remainder as soon as 
the surveys were made. Constable was to 
guaranty against claims from the native In- 
dians and all other parties, and to give im- 
mediate possession. The location was to be 



determined by Col. Wm. Stephens Smith of 
New York. This bargain failed, and Poult- 
ney afterwards became largely concerned 
in lands in the Genesee country. On the 3d 
of October, 1793, Jane, the wife of A. Ma- 
comb, released her right to the lands pre- 
viously conveyed. On the 13th of April, 
1793, Constable sold in London, with the 
consent of Chassanis, who had previously 
held a pre-emption claim, to Charles Michael 
DeWolf of the city of Antwerp, tract No. 
IV, for 300,000 florins, money of exchange, 
and in June following, of the same year, 
DeWolf succeeded in negotiating his pur- 
chase at a great advance, viz: for 680,000 
florins, to a company of large and small capi- 
talists of the city of Antwerp, who sub- 
scribed to the stock in shares of 1,000 florins 
each, and organized under the name of the 
Antwerp Company. The stock was divided 
into 680 shares Like most other operations 
of foreigners in a distant country, this coiu- 
pany eventually proved unsuccessful, and a 
loss to the stockholders. Gouverneur Moi'- 
ris became their first agent in America, and 
on the 3d of January, 1800, a deed of half 
the tract, or 320,000 acres, passed to him 
from Constable on account of the company, 
for $48,889, and on the day following the 
other half, of equal extent, for $46,315.12 to 
James Donatianus LeRay de Chaumont. 
Tract No. IV was found by Van Allen's sur- 
vey, to contain 450,000 acres, including the 
state reservations. A former deed from 
Constable to DeWolf, was canceled upon the 
new one's being made. The division line 
between Morris's and LeRay's conveyances 
commenced at the N. E. corner of Penet 
Square, and run on a line parallel with the 
county line, to the south line of No. IV. 
Morris took all N. E. of this, and LeRay the 
remainder. August 15th, 1802, a new di- 
vision line was agreed upon, commencing 
near the S. E. corner of Penet Square, run- 
ning thence to the S. corner of lot 512, thence 
to the W. corner of the present town of Ant- 
w-erp, and along the S. W. line of that town 
to the S. corner of lot 337, and thence to the 
S. line of No. IV. A tract of 30,000 acres in 
the E. corner of No. IV was not included in 
these conveyances, having been previously 
sold to Chassanis. In 1809, Morris retired 
from the business, his expenses and com- 
missions absorbing 20,840 acres of land. On 
the 33d of December, 1804, he had sold for 
$63,000 to Lewis R Morris, 49,380 acres in 
the present town of Antwerp. Mr. Morris 
subsequently conveyed 41 lots to Silvius 
Hoard in the western part of Antwerp, ad- 
joining Theresa, and since known as the 
Cooper tract. Abraham Cooper, from Tren- 
ton, N. Y., became interested in this tract 
in 1817. The remainder of Antwerp, ex- 
cepting three ranges of lots on the S. E. side, 
was purchased of Morris, by David Parish, 
in 1808. The tract amounted to 29,033 acres, 
and has been settled under agents of the 
Parish estate. Moss Kent succeeded as 
agent of the Antwerp Company, and June 

15th, 1809, the remainder of their unsold 
lands, 143,400 acres, was conveyed to him. 
He was soon succeeded by Mr. LeRay, and 
September 17th, 1810, the company sold to 
him for 145,000 florins, money of exchange, 
all their interests in lands in America. The 
lands with Moss Kent were reoonveyed to 
LeRay, June 34, 1817, except 3,350 acres sold 
to Wm. H. Harrison and T. L. Ogden in 
Lewis county, December 16th, 1811. 

Mr. LeRay is said to have been the owner 
of 136 shares in the Antwerp Company, and 
G. Morris of 26. The former having ac- 
quired a title to No. IV and the Chassanis 
tract, removed to LeRaysville, where he 
opened a land office and proceeded to sell 
land to actual settlers, to a ver^ large ex- 
tent. He also effected with several Euro- 
peans, sales of considerable tracts, among 
whom were to Louis Augustin De Caulin- 
court, due de Vincence, October 8th, 1805, a 
ti'act of 4,840 acres near Milieu's Bay, being 
11 lots which were conveyed January 28th, 
1825, to Peter Francis Real, known as Count 
Real, chief of police under Napoleon; to 
Emanuel Count De Grouchy, to General 
Desfurneaux and to others, considerable 
tracts. Several citizens of New York be- 
came afterwards concerned in these tracts, 
on their own account or as agents, and ex- 
tensive conveyances were made; but as 
many of these were trusis not expressed, 
and referred to considerations not explained 
in the instruments of conveyance, or on rec- 
ord, an intelligent history of them cannot be 
at this time obtained. Among the lands con- 
veyed were the following: 

To William and Gei-ardus Post, June 3, 
1825, for $17,000, 11,880 acres (with 3,503 
acres excepted), in the present towns of 
Wilnaand Diana; 6,500 acres were conveyed 
by one, and the executors of the other of 
these, to T. S. Hammond, of Carthage, Oc- 
tober 3, 1837, by two deeds for $18,000. To 
Herman LeRoy and Wm. Bayard, for $50,- 
000, Feb. 9, 1820, the interest of J. LeRay, 
in numerous contracts to settlers on Great 
Tract No. IV. 

To Francis Depau, for $23,280 and $15,000, 
by two conveyances, a large tract in Alex- 
andria, adjoining St. Lawrence county, once 
held by L. J. Goodale, of Carthage. To 
Cornelia Juhel, October 9, 1821, numerous 

In 1818, Joseph Bonaparte, who, in the 
United States, assumed the title of Count 
de Survilliers, was induced to enter into a 
a bargain with LeRay, by which he agreed 
to receive in trust, with a wari-anty, the 
conveyance of 150,000 acres of land, in- 
cluding 64,624 acres of the Antwerp Com- 
pany lands, to be taken in the most remote 
and unsettled portions, and at the same time 
Mr. LeRay received certain diamonds and 
real estate, the whole rated at $130,000, and 
to oe refunded in 1830. unless he should 
agree to accept before that time the title 
of a part of these lands. A trust deed, 
with covenant and warranty, was accord- 



ingly passed, December 31, 1818, to Peter 
S. Duponceau, the confidential agent of the 
Count, for 150,360 acres, with the excep- 
tion of such tracts not exceeding 32,360 
acres as might have been conveyed or con- 
tracted to actual settlers. This deed in- 
cluded the greater part of Diana, two tiers 
of lots from the southeast side of Antwerp, 
the whole of Wilna and Philadelphia, a 
small piece south of Black river, where it 
makes a node across the Chassanis line into 
No. IV, a tract of four lots wide and seven 
long from LeRay, and nine lots from the 
easterly range in Theresa. It was recorded 
with a defeasance appended, in which it is 
declared a security for |130,000 as above 
stated, and it provided for an auction 
sale of lands to meet this obligation. Dia- 
monds having fallen to half their former 
price, the fact was made a subject of com- 
plaint; and in 1820 the Count agreed to 
accept 36,840 acres for the nominal sum of 
$40,260. These lands lay in the most remote 
portion of No. IV, and Mr. LeRay, in a let- 
ter to one of the Antwerp Company, dated 
April 9, 1821, complimented the Count upon 
his taste in selecting a "tract abounding 
with picturesque landscapes, whose remote 
and extensive forests affording retreat to 
game, would enable him to establish a 
great hunting ground; qualities of soil, and 
fitness for settlers, were only secondary 
considerations. * * He regrets, notwith- 
standing, that thus far he has been unable 
to find among the 36,000 acres, a plateau of 
300 acres of land to build his house upon, 
but he intends keeping up his researches 
this summer." The Count subsequently 
commenced an establishment near the pres- 
ent village of Alpina, in Diana, where a 
small clearing was made, but this was soon 

On the 39th of October, 1823, LeRay con- 
veyed to Wm. H. Harrison, in trust for the 
Antwerp Company, for $.50,000, in two 
ranges of lots in Antwerp, next to Lewis 
county (subject to the mortgage to Dupon- 
ceau), with a large amount of lands in 
Lewis county. Meanwhile an act was pro- 
cured, November 37, 1824, allowing Charles 
Joseph Xavier Knyff , Charles Joseph Geel- 
hand Delafollie, Jean Joseph Reiner Osj', 
Pierre Joseph De Caters and Jean Joseph 
Pinson, as trustees of the Antwerp Com- 
pany, to take and hold lands, and to them 
Harrison conveyed the above tracts. Du- 
ponceau and Bonaparte subsequently 
released a large tract, and took a title to 
81,180 acres. The history of these transac- 
tions may be traced in the recorded convey- 
ances. James LeRay, on the 21st of 
December, 1823. conveyed to his son Vin- 
cent, all his lands in Jefferson county, and 
by a similar conveyance, his lands in Lewis 
county, for the benefit of his creditors. 

Duponceau executed, July 16, 1825, to 
Joseph Bonaparte (who, by an act of March 
31, 1835, had been empowered to hold lands), 
a deed of all the rights he had acquired in 

the above conveyances. Bonaparte, by an 
instrument dated July 14, 1833, made Joseph 
Raphineau his attorney, to deed lands con- 
tracted by Joseph Boyer, his land agent. 
In June, 1835, he sold to John LaFarge, for 
$80,000. all the interest of Count Survillers, 
in lands in this and Lewis counties, 

It has been said with much probability, 
that Count Survillers hastened to dispose of 
this estate that he might be the better pre- 
pared to take advantage of any fortune 
which the revolutions of Europe might de- 
velop, and the political aspect of the conti- 
nent at that time apparently favored the 
hopes of the Bonaparte family, who had 
but recently regained the sceptre of France. 
The Count first urged the sale upon Judge 
Boyer, his agent, and came within a few 
thousand dollars of closing a bargain. Mr. 
LaFarge is said to have cleared a large 
profit in this purchase. 

In October, 1834, the Antwerp Company 
appointed J. N. Rottiers their agent, to re- 
ceive and convey lands, and he was directed 
by parties interested in claims to commence 
a prosecution against LeRay, which was 
done. The extreme depression in the price 
of land and total stop of sales which fol- 
lowed the completion of the Erie canal and 
the opening of the Western States to emi- 
gration, operated disastrously to all parties 
who had based their plans upcm expectation 
of receipts from land sales; and notwith- 
standing the estates of Mr. LeRay were 
both extensive and valuable, he could not 
at that time encounter the combination of 
circumstances which bore so heavily upon 
all landholders throughout the northern 
counties, and he found himself compelled 
to apply for the benefit of the insolvent act, 
and to surrender his estates to his son, in 
trust for his creditors. As a justification of 
his course, he published for distribution 
among his foreign creditors, a scatement, in 
which he vindicated in a satisfactory man- 
ner the course he had adopted, and set 
forth the kind and quantity of property at 
his disposal, to meet his liabilities. He had 
at that time the following lands in this 
State : 

In Franklin countv, 30,758 acres, valued 
at $22,500. 

In St. Lawrence county, 73,947 acres, val- 
ued at $106,000. 

In Jefferson county, 143,500 acres, valued 
at $574,000. 

In Lewis county, 100,000 acres, valued at 

Of his Jefferson lands, one-eighth were 
subject to contracts of settlers, upon which 
were three grist mills, three saw mills, and 
various clearings, with buildings. At Le- 
Raj'sville were a grist mill, store houses, 
etc., valued at $26,000, and in Pennsylvania, 
Otsego county, and in Fi'ance, other prop- 
erties of large amount. In closing up this 
business, a large amount of land was con- 
firmed to Vincent LeRay, and the settle- 
ment of the affairs was so managed as to 



satisfy in full the claims of American 

A considerable amount of the Antwerp 
Company's lands, remaining in scattered 
parcels, was sold in 1828, by the agents to 
John LaFarge, but this sale was subse- 
quently set aside by the court of chancery, 
and February 15, 1836, 24,230 acres, being 
most of the remaining lands of the com- 
pany, and situated in Theresa, Antwei'p, 
Alexandria and Orleans, were sold to Sam- 
uel Stocking, of Utica, and Norris M. 
Woodruff, of Watertown. for %\ per acre. 
Wm. H. Harrison acted in the latter sale as 
the agent of the company, and the tract 
was all sold off by the late Jason Clark, of 
Plessis, agent of the proprietors. 

Mr. LaFarge, on the 28th of July, 1846, 
sold to Chas. L. Fa verger, for |48,513, a 
tract embracing the two eastern ranges of 
lots in Antwerp, and 122 lots in Diana, ex- 
cepting parts previously conveyed, amount- 
ing to 48,513 acres, and a great portion has 
since been .sold in large and small tracts to 
settlers. There is at this time no part of 
Great Tract No. IV, in this county, not 
under cultivation, and held as freeholds by 
the occupants. The late Dr. John Binsse, 
of Pamelia, was the last agent in complet- 
ing the sale of the LaFarge lands. 

Wm. Constable, on the 18th of December, 
1792, conveyed to Samuel Ward for 
£100,000, 1,280,000 acres, it being the whole 
of Macomb's Purchase, in Nos. V and VI, 
out of which was excepted 25,000 acres sold 
to Wm. Inman. Samuel Ward. December 
20, 1792, conveyed to Thomas Boylston (of 
Boston), for £20,000, a tract, commencing 
at the extreme southern angle of Lewis 
county as now bounded; running thence to 
the mouth of Salmon river, and along the 
lake to Black river, and up that stream to 
the north bounds of the present town of 
Leyden, and thence to the place of begin- 
ning. The course of Black river was then 
supposed to be nearly direct from the High 
Falls to the lake, and this tract was believed 
to contain about 400,000 acres, but when 
surveyed around bj' Wm. Cockburn& Son, 
1794, it was found to include 817,155 acres. 
Ward also sold 210,000 acres to John Julius 
Angerstein, a wealthy merchant of London, 
which the latter afterwards sold to Gov. 
John Brown, of Providence, R. I., and 
which has since been commonly called 
Brown's Tract, now known as part of the 
Adirondack region, but is yet largely a 
wilderness. He also sold 50,000 and 25,000 
acres to Wm. Inman, who afterwards fig- 
ured largely in the titles of Lewis county; 
with the exception of the 685,000 acres thus 
conveyed, to Boylston, Angerstein and 
Inman, he reconveyed February 27, 1793, 
the remainder to Constable. 

On the 21st of May, 1794, Boylston gave 
a deed of trust of eleven townships to 
George Lee, George Irving and Thomas 
Latham, assignees of the firm of Lane, 
Son & Fraser, of London, and they con- 

veyed them to John Johnson Phyn, of that 
place (June 2, 1794), in whom, by sundry 
conveyances and assurances in the law, the 
title became vested. On the 10th of April 

1795, Phyn appointed Wm. Constable his 
attorney, to sell and convey any or all of 
the Boylston tract, who accordingly sold, 
July 15,1795 (at $1 per acre, one-quarter down 
and the balance in five installments, with 
mortgage), to Nicholas Low, Wm. Hender- 
son, Richard Harrison, and Josiah Ogden 
Hoffman, a tract of 300,000 acres, since 
known as the "Black River Tract." This 
purchase comprised Houndsfield, Water- 
town, Rutland, Champion, Denmark, Hen- 
derson, Adams, Rodman, Pinckney, Harris- 
burg, and Lowville. On the 1st of April, 

1796, Phyn confirmed this title. The tract 
was found by measurement to contain 
290,376 acres, to make up which deficiency. 
Constable, in 1796, conveyed town No. 3 
(Worth), excepting 948 acres in the south- 
east corner, which he reserved to himself. 
On the last-mentioned date, Phyn conveyed 
to Constable 401,000 acres, being the re- 
mainder of the Boylston Tract. The 
present town of Lorraine is in this convey- 

Wm. Constable gave to his brother James 
a power of attorney to sell lands, March 16, 
1798, and, to secure the confidence of 
Europeans and others in the validity of his 
title, he procured from Alexander Hamil- 
ton, Richard Harrison, J. O. Hoffman (at- 
torney-general of the State), Daniel McKin- 
nen, and other eminent lawyers, a 
certificate, that they had examined his 
conveyances, and believed them perfect. 

On the 22d of March, 1797, Constable con- 
veyed to Marvel Ellis of Ti'oy, the town of 
Ellisburg, in accordance with an agreement 
dated April 11, 1796, except 3,000 acres, con- 
veyed March 18. 1797, to Robert Brown and 
Thomas Eddy, in the southwest corner of 
the town. This tract was long with- 
out a resident agent. In June, 1804, 
Brown and Eddy sold half of the tract 
to George Scriba, and the latter to Wm. 
Bell. The remainder was exchangeJ for a 
farm in New Jersey, by Lord Bolingbroke. 
Ellis's Purchase, according to Meded 
Mitchell's survey of August, 1795, was 
51,840 acres, but by a subsequent survey of 
B. Wright, it covered 52,834 acres. A 
part of No. 10 (Sandy Creek), was con- 
veyed November 16, 1796, to Mrs. H. M. 
Colden, for the Earl of Selkirk. Ellis, on 
the day of his purchase, mortgaged it for 
the payment, and in 1801, he became in- 
solvent. In January, 1802, Constable filed 
a bill in chancery, against Ellis, and his 
creditors, to foreclose for equity of re- 
demption. On the 22d of May, 1803, 
Wm. Constable died, and his executors, 
James Constable, John McVickar and 
Hezekiah B. Pierrepont, weie advised that 
the title was perfected by the answer to 
the bill in chancery, but, to put all ques- 
tions forever at rest, they deemed it ad- 



visable to proceed to foreclose. It was ac- 
cordingly advertised, and sold, under the 
direction of Thomas Cooper, master in 
Chancery, at the Tontine Coffee House, N. 
y., March 1, 1804, to Daniel MoCormick. 
On the 2d of March, the executors of Con- 
stable conveyed the town to McCormick, 
and on the 3d the latter reconveyed to the 
executors. On the 26th of April. 1819, a 
deed of release from the heirs of Wm. Con- 
stable, was executed to H. B. Pierrepont, 
from whom the title of the unsold por- 
tions passed to his son, Wm. C. Pierrepont, 
who in like manner acquired the title of 
Lorraine from Constable. 

The eleven towns were divided by ballot 
between the company, August o, 1796, Har- 
rison and Hoffman receiving numbers 1, 4, 
5, 8 and 10, or, Houndsfleld, Champion, 
Denmark, Rodman and Harrisburg, and 
1,283 acres of Constable's No. 2 (Worth), 
which had been added to make up the 
amount purchased, and was used in " mak- 
ing change." Low received 2, 7 and 11, or, 
Watertown, Adams and Lpwville, with 
1,576 acres of the present town of Worth; 
and Henderson, 3, 6 and 9, or, Eutlaiid, 
Henderson and Pickney, with 649 acres in 

These proprietors disposed of their towns 
as follows: No. 1 was sold, the north half to 
Henry Champion and Lemuel Storrs, June 
30, 1797, and the south part. (15,913 acres), 
to Peter Kemble and Ezra Houndsfleld, for 
$4,000, March 10, 1801, who sold to actual 
settlers through the agency of E. Camp. 
Nos. 2, 7 and 11 were sold by S. Stow, M. S. 
Miller and I. W. Bostwick, of Lowville, 
agents for Low. No. 3 was first pai-tly con- 
veyed to actual settlers by Asher Miller and 
Abel French; when the remaining interest 
of Henderson was conveyed to Dr. Isaac 
Bronson, of Greenfield. Ct., who gave its 
agency to his brother. Ethel Bronson. with 
whom it continued till death, when it was 
transferred to George White, who completed 
the settlements with settlers. No. 4 was 
sold to Champion and Storrs (with the north 
half, of No. 1), and by N. Hubbard and A. 
Lathrop, agents, it was sold to settlers. No. 
6 began to settle under the same agents as 3. 
In 1806, Jesse Hopkins was appointed agent, 
and continued about fifteen years. Certain 
lots, amounting to 5,716 acres, were sold to 
Isaac Bronson, June 10, 1807, for |10,003.44, 
and settled by the agents of the latter. No. 
8 was settled for the proprietors by I. W. 
Bostwick, agent at Lowville. Harrison and 
Hoffman continued tenants in common of 
5, 8 and 10. until May 1, 1805. In July, 
1809, an instrument was executed, secur- 
ing certain interests of Hoffman, to Thomas 
L. Ogden and Abijah Hammond, and on 
the oth of January, 1810, Hoffman con- 
veyed to Harrison his interest in these 

The greater part of township 2 (Worth) 
fell to the share of Harrison and Hoffman. 
It was laid out by Medad Mitchell in 1795; 

and, December 23, 1797, these pi-oprietors 
made a partition, and Harrison conveyed the 
north half to Hoffman, who, July 16, 1798, 
made a conveyance to Daniel McCormick 
and Charles Smith, in trust, to sell and con- 
vey, and to keep the money until certain 
debts were paid. Several subsequent trans- 
fers were made, which we have not deemed 
of sufficient public interest to trace. The 
title to the south part remained • with Har- 
rison many years, and was in 1848-52 opened 
for settlement. 

The islands in the St. Lawrence and lake 
were included in the original contract of 
Macomb, with the State, of June 32, 1791, 
but, from the uncertainty about the boun- 
dary, they were not patented till long after. 
The claim of Macomb passed to Daniel Mc- 
Cormick, and was recognized by the Com- 
missioners of the Land Office. Jan. 38, 1814, 
when they directed the surveyor-general to 
survey such islands as were clearly within 
the limits of the State at the expense of the 
owner, and a release of damage was to be 
granted, should the lands so laid out here- 
after be included in Canada, upon the run- 
ning of the boundary. McCormick sold his 
interest to D. A. and T. L. Ogden, which 
was also sanctioned by the commissioners. 
May 14, 1817, for running the boundary 
agreed upon by the treaty of Ghent. General 
Peter B. Porter was appointed commissioner, 
and Samuel Hawkins, agent, for the United 
States, and John Ogilvie, commissioner on 
the part o\ Great Britain, who met at Regis, 
and after Carefully ascertaining the line of 
45" north lat., by a series of astronomical 
observations, proceeded theace in two par- 
ties, one on Lake Champlain, and the other 
up the river. In 181 8. the latter had reached 
Ogden's Island, and in 1819 their labor was 
completed. Patents were issued for the 
islands, as follows : 

All the islands in the State, between a line 
drawn at right angles to the river, from the 
village of Morristown, and a meridian 
drawn through the western point of Grind- 
stone Island were sold to Elisha Camp, 
February 15, 1823. These islands contained 
15,402.9 acres; Grindstone Island contained 
5,391. Well's Island 8,068, and Indian Hut 
Island 369 acres, with several smaller ones 
without names. Patents were also issued to 
Camp on the same date to Stony Island, 
1.536 acres : Calf Island 34.8 acres ; Little 
Galloo Island 48.8 acres ; the most of Galloo 
Island 3,216.3 acres; and Willow Island 
i acre. A patent to the United States for 
30.75 and 5 acres on Galloo Island, was is- 
sued Dec. 11, 1819, and to Melancton L. 
Woolsey, Nov. 3, 1823, for Gull's Island 6.5 
acres, and Snake Island 1.4 acres. Cherry 
Island, in Chaumont Bay, 108.4 acres ; 
Grenadier Island 1,290 acres, and Fox Island 
237.5 acres were patented to Hezekiah B. 
Pierrepont, and others, Oct. 1, 1834. 500 
acres on the western part of Carleton Island 
were patented to Charles Smyth, Oct. 2, 
1828. A partition deed was executed be- 



tween Pierrepont, and Joshua Waddington 
and Thomas L. Ogden, Nov. 10, 1834, by 
which the former received Grenadier and 
Cherry Islands. They were sold, Feb. 19, 
1835, for 17,000, to Wm. and Gerardus Post 
of New York ; these islands have been oc- 
cupied many years by squatters, who with 
great reluctance yielded possession. 

The jurisdiction of a part of Galloo Island 
was ceded by the legislature to the United 
States for a lighthouse, by an act of April 
31, 1818 ; that of Tibbets Point (about three 
acres) Jan. 35, 1837 ; that of Horse Island 
April 26, 1831, and a part of Carlton Island 
June 81, 1853. In these cessions the State 
retains concurrent civil and criminal juris- 

The details of these many conveyances. 

some of them covering and re-covering the 
same lands, have been most tedious and un- 
interesting, but are demanded at the hands of 
a faithful historian. These lands, once an 
unbroken wilderness, are now farms, vil- 
lages, and a city. The titles by which they 
have been transferred from one to another, 
are dry details, but really the most import- 
ant records of the county, and upon their 
accurac}' and unassailable genuineness rest 
to-day values which would be hard to esti- 
mate. And any question of their faithful- 
ness would agitate society worse than an 
epidemic of disease. We inake these re- 
marks to justify in the eyes of the student 
of histoi'y, our devoting so large a space to 
a subject so uninteresting to the general 



The current of immigration and settle- 
ment having been directed into the Black 
River valley, near the close of the last cen- 
tury, the country filled up in the space of a 
few years with a rapidity that has been 
seldom equalled, and it soon became difficult 
to meet the demands of justice, without the 
erection of new counties. 

Such had been the rapidity of settlement 
within five or six years from its opening, 
that the necessity of a division of Oneida 
became apparent, and local interests began 
to operate to secure the advantages expected 
from the location of the public buildings. 
Each section had its advocates. Nathan 
Sage, in Redfield, Walter Martin, in Mar- 
tinsburg, Silas Stovv, and others, in Low- 
ville. Moss, Kent, Noadiah Hubbard and 
others in Champion, Henry Cofleen in Water- 
town, and Jacob Brown in Brownville, were 
each intent upon the project of a county 
seat. Many were for having but one new 
county, in which case Champion had the 
fairest prospects of success, and indeed, such 
had been the chances, in the opinion of 
several prominent citizens, that they had 
located there. Among these were Moss 
Kent, a brother of Judge James Kent, 
Egbert Ten Eyck and others. To obtain an 
expression of public opinion on this subject, 
three delegates, chosen at town meetings, 
from each town interested in the question, 
met at the house of Freedom Wright, in 
Harrisburgh (Denmark), November 20, 1804. 
Many went with the intention of voting for 
one new county only, but strong local inter- 
ests led to the attendance of those who so 
influenced the voice of the delegation that, 
with but one exception, they decided for 
two new counties, and the convention 
united upon recommending the names of 
the executive officers of the State and Fed- 
eral governments then in office, whence 
came the names of Jefl'erson and Lewis, 

from Tliomas Jefferson and Morgan LewiSj 
both men of national celebrity. 

Application was accordingly made to the 
legislature, and on the 4th of March, 1805, 
Mr. Wright, in the Assembly, from the com- 
mittee to whom was referred the petitions 
and remonstrances from the inhabitants of 
the county of Oneida, relative to a division 
thereof, reported, " that they had examined 
the facts stated, as to population and extent 
of territory in said county, and the incon- 
venience of attending county concerns, and 
find the same to be true." A division was 
deemed necessary, and leave was granted 
to bring in a bill, which was twice read the 
same day, and passed through the Legisla- 
ture without opposition, being as follows: 

Act erecting Lewis and Jefferson counties, 
passed March 38, 1805. 

1. Be it enacted by the?peop]e of the State of New 
York, represented in Senate and Assembly, That all 
that part of the county of Oneida, contained within 
the following bounds, to wit : Beginning at the south- 
west corner of the town of Ellisburgh, on the easterly 
shore of Lake Ontario, and running along the south- 
erly line of said town; thence along the easterly line 
thereof to the southwest corner of the town of Malta; 
thence along the southerly line of the said town of 
Malta, and continuing the same course to the corner 
of townships No. ;i, 5, 7 and 8 ; thence north along the 
east line of the town of Malta aforesaid, to t?ie north- 
east corner thereof; thence in a direct line to the cor- 
ner of the towns of Rutland and Champion; thence 
along the line between the said town of Champion 
and the town of Harrisburgh, to Black river; thence in 
a direct line to the bounds of the county of St. Law- 
rence, to intersect the same at the corner of town- 
ships Nos. 7 and 11, in Great Tract No. 3, of Ma- 
comb's Purchase; thence along the westerly bounds 
of the said county of St. Lawrence to the north bounds 
of this State; thence westerly and southerly along 
said bounds, including ail the islands in the River St. 
Lawrence, Lake Ontario, and in front thereof, and 
within this State to the place of beginning, shall be, 
and hereby is, erected into a separate county, and 
shall be called and known by the name of Jefferson. 

3. And be it further enacted, that all that part of 
the said county of Oneida, contained within Llie fol- 
lowing bounds, to wit ; Begiiming at the southeast 
corner of the county of Jefferson aforesaid, thence 
southerly along the westerly line of the town of Turin 



to the southwest corner thereof; thence easterly 
along the south line of said town to the southeast 
corner thereof ; thence north, sixty-two degrees east 
along the southerly line of the tract of land, known 
by the name of Macomb's Purchase, to the line of the 
county of Herkimer; thence north along the said iHSt 
mentioned line to the bounds of the county of St. 
Lawrence; thence along the southwesterly line of the 
said last mentioned county to the line of the county 
of Jefferson ; and thence along the southerly and 
easterly bounds thei-eof , to the place of beginning, 
shall be and hereby is erected into a separate county, 
by the name of Lewis. 

3. And be it further enacted, that all that part of 
township No. 9, which is comprised within the bounds 
of the said county of Jefferson, shall be annexed to 
and become a part of the town of Harrison, in said 
county, and that all that part of the said township 
No. 9, comprised within the bounds of the said county 
of Lewis, shall be annexed to nnd become a part of 
the town of Harrisburgh, in said county. 

4. And be it further enacted, That there shall be 
held in and for the said counties of Jefferson and 
Lewis, respectively, a court of common pleas, and 
general sessions of the peace, and that there shall be 
two terms of the said courts in each of the said 
counties respectively, in every year, to commence 
and end as follows that is to say : The first term of 
the said court in the said county of Jefferson, 
shall begin on the second Tuesday of June in every 
year, and may continue to be held until the Saturday 
following, inclusive, and the second term of the said 
court in the said county of Jefferson, shall begin on 
the second Tuesday of December, of every year, and 
may continue to be held until the Saturday following, 
inclusive. And that the first term of the said court 
in the county of Lewis shall begin on the said first 
Tuesday of June, in every year, and may continue to 
be held until the Saturday following, inclusive, and 
the second term of the said court in the said county 
of liCwis shall begin on the first Tuesday of Decem- 
ber, and may continue to be held until the Saturday 
foUowiQg, inclusive; and the said courts of common 
pleas and general sessions of the peace, shall have 
the same jurisdiction, powers, and authorities in the 
same counties respectively, as the court of common 
pleas and general sessions of the peace, in the other 
counties of the State have in their respective coun- 
ties; Provided always. That nothina: in this act con- 
tained shall be construed to affect any suit or action 
already commenced, or that shall be commenced, be- 
fore the first terms to be held in the respective coun- 
ties of Jefferson and Lewis, so as to work a wrong or 
prejudice to any of the i)arties therein, or to affect 
any criminal or other proceedings on the part of the 
people of this State, but all such civil and criminal 
proceedings shall, and may be prosecuted to trial, 
judgment and execution, as if this act had not been 
passed; and further provided, that the first of the 
said courts in each of the said counties, held 
on the second Tuesday of December next. 

5. And be it further enacted. That three commis- 
sioners shall be appointed by the council of appoint- 
ment, who shall not be resident within the Western 
district of this State, or interested in either of the 
said counties of Jefferson or Lewis, for the purpose 
of designating the sites for the court houses and 
gaols of the said counties respectively, and to that 
end the said commissioners shall as soon as may be 
previous to the first day of October next, repair to 
the said counties respectively, and after exploring 
the same, ascertain and designate a fit and proper 
place in each of the said counties for erecting the 
said buildings, and that until such building shall be 
erected, and further legislative provisions be made 
in the premises, the said courts of common pleas and 
general sessions of the peace, shall be held at such 
place in each of the said counties, nearest and most 
contiguous to the places designated as the sites for 
said buildings, as the said commissioners, or any two 
of them, shall determine and fix upon; and the said 
commissioners, or any two of ihem, are hereby re- 
quired as soon as they have designated the places for 
erecting the said buildings, and determined upon the 
places for holding the said courts, to make out and 
sign a certificate, certifying the place designated for 
erecting the said buildings and places fixed on for 
holding courts, in each of the said counties, and to 
transmit one of the said certificates to each of the 
clerks of the respective counties, who are required to 
receive and file the same in their respective offices, 

and that the said commissioners shall be entitled to 
receive each, the sum of four dollars per day, for the 
time they may be necessarily employed in executing 
the truste reposed in thenn by this act, the one moiety 
thereof to be paid by each of the said counties. 

fi. And be it further enacted, That the freeholders 
and inhabitants of the said counties respectively, 
shall have and enjoy, within the same all and every 
the same rights, powers and privileges as the free- 
holders and inhabitants of any other county in this 
State are by law entitled to have and enjoy. 

7. And be it further enacted, That it shall and may 
be lawful for all courts, and officers of the said comi- 
ties of Jefferson and Lewis respectively,. in all cases, 
civil and criminal, to confine their prisoners in the 
gaol or gaols of the county of Oneida, until gaols 
shall be provided In the same counties respectively, 
and the said counties paying each the charges of 
their own prisoners. 

8. And be it further enacted. That in the distribu- 
tion of representation in the Assembly of this State, 
there shall be three members in the county of Oneida 
and one in the counties of Jefferson. Lewis and St. 
Lawrence, any law to the contrary notwithstanding, 

9. And be it further enacted, That no circuit court, 
or courts of oyer and terminer, and general goal de- 
livery, shall be held in either of the said counties of 
Jefferson and Lewis, until the same shall in the 
opinion of the justices of the supreme court become 

10. And be it further enacted. That the said counties 
of Jefferson and Lewis, shall be considered as part of 
the western district of this State and also a.s part of the 
fifteenth congressional district, and that as respects 
all proceedings under the act, entitled "an act rela- 
tive to district attornies,'" and said counties shall be 
annexed to and become a part of the disirict now com- 
posed of the counties of Herkimer, Otsego, Oneida, 
and Chenango. 

11. And be it further enacted, That as soon as may 
be, after the first Monday in April, in the year 1806, 
the supervisors of the said counties of Oneida, Jeffer- 
son and Lewis, on notice being first given by the 
supervisors of the said counties of Jefferson and 
Lewis, or of either of them, for that purpose shall 
meet together by themselves, or by committees ap- 
pointed by their respective boards, and divide the 
money unappropriated, belonging to the said county 
of Oneida, previous to the division thereof, agreeable 
to the last county tax list. 

12. And be it further enacted, That the votes, taken 
at the election in the said counties of Jefferson, 
Lewis and St. Lawrence shall be returned to the 
clerk of the county of Oneida, to be by him estimated 
and disposed of, as is directed by the statute regulat- 
ing elections. 

13. And be it further enacted, That all that part of 
the town of Leyden, remaining in the county of 
Oneida, shall be and remain a separate town, by the 
name of BoonsviUe, and the first town meeting shall 
be held at the house of Joseph Denning, and all the 
remaining part of the town of Leyden, which is com- 
prised within the bounds of the county of Lewis, 
shall be and remain a town by the name of Leyden, 
and the first town meeting shall he held at the dwell- 
ing house of Hezekiab Talcott 

14. And be it further enacted. That as soon as may 
be, after the first town meeting each of said towns,the 
supervisors, and overseei's of the poor, of said towns 
of Leyden and BoonsviUe, shall by notice to be given 
for that purpose, by the supervisors thereof, meet 
together, and apportion the money and poor of said 
town of Leyden, previous to the division thereof, 
according to the last tax list, and that each of said 
towns shall thereafter respectively maintain their 
own poor. 

The relative limits of Jefferson and Lewis 
counties have been thi'ee times changed. It 
will be noticed by reference, that the pres- 
ent tovpn of Pinckney was then divided by 
a line that was a continuation of the west 
lines of towns 8 and 3, of Boylston's Tract; 
and, that from the line between Champion 
and Denmark, on Black river, the division 
ran straight to St. Lawrence county, where 
the line of townships 7 and 11 of tract III 
touched the county line. On the 12th of 


February, 1808, the whole of No. 9 (Pinck- 
ney) was included in Lewis county. On the 
5th of April, 1810. the line east of the river, 
beginning as before at the east corner of 
Cliampion, ran thence to southwest corner 
of a lot in 11th west and 21st north ranges, 
subdivisions of No. 5; thence east between 
20 and 21. northern ranges, to southwest 
corner of lot in 10 west, 21 north range; 
thence north between 10 and 11, to south 
line of lot No, 4; thence east to 808-9; thence 
along 808-9, to lot 857; thence to southeast 
corner of 857 and 809, to northeast corner 
of 851; then west on the line of lots 851 and 
850, to southwest corner of 850; thence 
northeast along the line of lots to St. Law- 
rence county. On the 2d of April, 1813, 
the present line between the two counties 
was established, by which this county re- 
ceived considerable accessions from Lewis, 
in the town of Wilna. By an act of March 
17, 1815, the several islands within the limits 
of this State, in the St. Lawrence and Lake 
Ontario, lying in front of this county, were 
attached to it. By several acts, the sover- 
eignty of small tracts on Stony Point, 
Horse Island, Galloo Island, Tibbet's Point 
and Carleton Island has been ceded to the 
United States, for the purpose of erecting 
light houses, the State retaining concurrent 
civil and criminal jurisdiction therein. 

Erection of Public Buildings. 
The Governor, and council of appoint- 
ment accordingly designated Matthew Dorr, 
David Rodgers and John Van Bentheusen, 
comurissionex's to locate the site of the court 
house and jail: and a section in an act 
passed April 7, 1806, provided that their ex- 
penses should be audited by the comptroller, 
and paid by tax upon the counties. The 
portion paid by this county was $205. How 
faithfully their trust was executed it may 
not be our duty to inquire; but in Lewis 
county they were openly charged with 
having come predetermined in their choice, 
and an affidavit was procured from one who 
had overheard their conversation, in which 
this fact was distinctly indicated. As mat- 
ters have since settled down, their decision 
here has doubtless been productive of the 
greatest benefit to the county, although the 
precise locality was for years somewhat 
inconvenient on account of its distance from 
the business part of the village. This ques- 
tion of location was not settled without the 
most active eiforts being made by Brown- 
ville to secure the site; but the balance of 
settlement was tlien south of Black river, 
and the level lands in the north part of the 
county were represented to the commission- 
ers as swampy and incapable of settlement. 
Jacob Brown, finding it impossible to secure 
this advantage to his place, next endeavored 
to retain it at least north of Black River, 
and offered an eligible site in the present 
town of Pamelia; but in this he also failed. 
The influence of Henry Coffeen is said to 
have been especially strong with the com- 

missioners, although he was seconded, by 
others of much ability. It is said that the 
site was marked at some distance below the 
business part of the village of Watertown. to 
conciliate those who had been disappointed 
in its location. A deed of the premises 
was presented by Henry and Amos Coffeen, 
which was. it is said, intended to include 
the triangular lot since sold to private indi- 

The first meeting of the board of supervis- 
ors was held in the school house on the site 
of the Universalist Church, in Watertown, 
October 1, 1805, and the following persons 
constituted the first board: Noadiah Hub- 
bard, Champion; Cliff French, Rutland; 
Corlis Hinds, Watertown; John W. Collins, 
Brownville; Nicholas Salisbury, Adams; 
Thomas White, Harrison; Lyman Ellis, 
Ellisburgh; Asa Brown, Malta. N. Hub- 
bard was chosen president, and Zelotus 
Harvey, clerk. The meeting was adjourned 
to the house of Abijah Putnam. Cliff 
French, Thomas White and Corlis Hinds 
were appointed a committee to procurs a 
conveyance of the land on which the court 
house and jail were to be erected. The 
following was the aggregate of the real and 
personal estate in the several towns : Ellis- 
burg, $80,109; Watertown, $69,986,50; 
Adams, $33,606; Brownville, $447,240; Har- 
rison, $43,395; Malta, $49,248; Rutland, 
$44,829; Champion, $42,578.50; total, $805,- 
992. Henrv Coffeen presented a bill of 
$85.86, and Jacob Brown of $100, for attend- 
ance at Albany, in procuring the division 
of Oneida county, which were rejected. 
The latter had been appointed by the con- 
vention at Denmark, for that purpose. 
Hart Massey was appointed sealer of 
weights and measures, and $45, and the 
next year $30 were voted to purchase a set 
of standards of specified materials. 

In 1806 the board consisted of Jacob 
Brown, Corlis Hinds, Perley Keyes, Noa- 
diah Hubbard, Jonathan Davis, Augustus 
Sacket, Ethni Evans, Jesse Hopkins, Asa 
Brown and Nicholas Salisbury. J. Brown 
and A. Sacket were appointed to settle all 
accounts pending with Oneida and Lewis 
counties, by meeting at Whitestown, with 
committees to be chosen by them for the 
purpose. At a subsequent meeting they 
reported $328.61 due to Jefferson; $293.54 
to Lewis, and $1,670.73 to Oneida counties, 
from the funds on hand at the time of 
division. Messrs. Hinds, Salisbury and J. 
Brown, were appointed to report the expe- 
diency and probable cost of a jail, and the 
most advisable course to be pursued. The 
expense of sending prisoners to Whitestown 
was found heavy, and it was apprehended 
that public officers would reluctantly spend 
their time in going to and from thence. 
" Hence many criminals might escape a 
just punishment, and the county might be 
infested with criminals, to the great danger 
and injury of its inhabitants." The com- 
mittee reported that two-thirds of all county 



charges were paid by non-resident taxes, 
and a prospect then existed that this law 
would be i-epealed. They, therefore, ad- 
vised the immediate erection of a jail, and 
it was estimated it could be built for $4,500; 
that $2,500 would provide one better for the 
interests of the county tlian the existing 
system. J. Brown and A. Sacket were 
appointed to draft a petition to the Legis- 
lature, which procured on the 20th of Feb- 
ruary, a law authorizing a tax of $2,500 for 
erecting a court house and jail, and Feb- 
ruary 19, 1808, a further tax of $3,500 was 
applied for. In 1867. Noadiah Hubbard 
and Zelotus Harvey were appointed a com- 
mittee to meet a similar one from Lewis 
county, to ascertain the boundary of the 
two counties. William Smith, Gershem 
Tuttle and N. Hubbard were appointed to 
build a jail after a plan to be approved 
by the boai-d. It was to be 40 by 60 
feet, built of wood, and fronting eastward, 
and was built in 1807-8, by Wm. Rice and 
Joel Mix, after the plans of Wm. Smith. It 
contained a jail in the first story, and stood 
a little south of the present jail. On the 
30th of January, 1808, the superintendents 
were empowered "to build a sufficient 
tower and cupola on the center of said build- 
ing, and cover the dome of said cupola with 
tin and so construct the said tower and cupola 
that it shall be sufficiently strong and conven- 
ient so as to hang a bell, and to erect a spire 
and vane, and also a suitable rod to conduct 
the lightning from said building." On the 
5th of October, 1808, tlie accounts of the 
court house audited, including extra work 
and services of committee, amounted to 
$4,997.58. Wm. Smith, was directed to 
purchase the neoe.ssary fixtures for the court 
house and jail, at an estimated cost of 

In 1807 (Aug. 13), the jail liberties were 
first established, and deserve mention from 
the singular manner in which they were 
laid out. They covered a small space around 
the Court House, and a part of the Public 
Square, and included most of the houses in 
the villages, while between these localities, 
along the sides of the roads, and sometimes 
in the center, were paths, from four to eight 
feet wide, with occasionally crossings, so 
that by careful observing this route, turn- 
ing right angles, and keeping himself 
in the strict ranges which the court had es- 
tablished, a man might visit nearly every 
building in the village ; but if the route was 
by an accident obstructed by a pile of lum- 
ber, a pool of mud, or a loaded wagon, he 
must pass over, or through, or under, or 
else expose himself to the peril of losing 
this precarious freedom, by close imprison- 
ment, and subjecting his bail to prosecution 
for the violation of his trust. In several in- 
stances persons were thus dealt with, where 
they had inadvertently turned aside from 
the straight and narrow path, to whicli the 
statutes of that pei-iod allowed the creditor 
to consign his unfortunate debtor. A map 

of these limits, prepared by Jonas Smith, 
who for several years had made these de- 
tails a subject of daily observation from 
necessity, was prepared in July, 1811, and 
deposited in the clerk's office It is interest- 
ing from its containing the names of those 
who then owned houses in the village, of 
whom they were about fifty. These liuiits 
were maintained till Feb. 23, 1821, when an 
act was passed defining a rectangular area 
around the village as the jail limits. A cur- 
ious feature of the "jail limits " jurispi-u- 
deuce was that if a debtor went beyond the 
limits after 12 p. m. Saturday night and re- 
turned before 12 p. m. Sunday night, he 
could not be arrested nor his bail prosecuted, 
for the reason that those hours constituting 
a dies non, no precept could therein issue, 
and consequently no breaking of the law 
could be alleged. By this interpretation 
many a poor debtor was able to go to his 
home and visit his family for a few hours, 
and yet return in time to escape any 
penaltv. Viewed from our later stand- 
point it seems to have been a cruel 
law. In 1808 a series of maps was 
directed to be px-epared by Jonas Smith, for 
the comptroller's office, at a cost of $100, 
and at the same session Messrs. Richardson, 
Hubbard and Hopkins were appointed to 
petition the Legislature for a law to provide 
for the destruction of Canada thistles. On 
the 9th of October, 1815, the supervisors 
voted a petition for a tax of $1,000 to build 
a fire-proof clerk's office, and April 5, 1816, 
an act was passed accordingly, allowing a 
tax not exceeding $1,500 for this purpose, 
and Ebenezer Wood, Ethel Bronson and 
Egbert Ten Eyck were named as commis- 
sioners to build the same. The conduct of 
a certain senator, in substituting the name of 
another man for that of Judge Brown on the 
committee, was most strongly condemned 
by a subsequent vote of the supervisors. A 
clerk's office was according built between 
the old Episcopal Church and the Public 
Square, and was occupied until a better 
one was erected in 1831, in accordance with 
an act of Jan. 26, 1831. The supervisors in 
1829 had appoined a committee to investi- 
gate the matter, and in 1880 had petitioned 
for the act, which named Daniel Wardwell, 
Eli West and Stephen D. Sloan, commis- 
sioners for this purpose, who were em- 
powered to borrow on the credit of the 
county $1,000 for the purpose, and to sell 
the former office and lot. 

In December, 1817, the Court House was 
injured by fire, which occasioned a meeting 
of the board, and $500 were voted for re- 
pairs. On the 9th of Feb. 1821, the Court 
Hou^e and jail were burned, and on the 12th 
the supervisors met to take into considera- 
tion the measures necessary for the occa- 
sion. A petition was forwarded for a law 
authorizing a tax of $8,000 to rebuild the 
county buildings, and a loan of $6,000 for the 
same purpose. It was resolved to Ijuild the 
jail separate fi'om the court house, and both 



buildings were to be of stone. Elisha 
Camp, Nathan Strong and John Brown 
were appointed commissioners to superin- 
tend the building. Premiums of $10 for a 
plan of a court house, and $15 for one of a 
jail, were offered. An act was accordingly 
passed, March 13, 1821, for the separate 
erection of these buildings, at a cost not 
exceeding $8,000, under the direction of 
Eliphalet Edmonds, Henry H. Coffeen and 
Jabez Foster. The courts meanwhile were 
to be held at the brick academy, and crimi- 
nals were to be sent to the Lewis county 
jail. A loan not exceeding $6,000 was au- 
thorized from the State. On the 28th of 
March the board met. and the plan for a 
jail offered by Wm. Smith, was adopted, 
and a resolution was passed providing for 
solitary cells. The court house was agreed 
to be 45 by 48 feet, after a plan- by J. H. 
Bishop. This necessity of an outlay for new 
buildings revived the question of a new site, 
and among others, the citizens of Sackets 
Harbor made diligent efforts, by petition, 
to secure their location, but without success; 
and in the same season a court house and 
a jail were erected, which continued to be 
occupied until 1848. when the Hon J. M. 
Comstock, one of the inspectors of county 
and State prisons, reported to the Hon. 
Robert Lansing, judge of the county, the 
entire failure of the county jail to meet the 
requirements of the statute in relation to 
the safety, health and proper classification 
of prisoners, and expressed his belief that 
the arrangements required by law could not 
be attained without the construction of a 
new prison building. This report, approved 
by the judge, and certified by the clerk of 
the board, was laid before the supervisors, 
a committee appointed, who visited the jail 
and confirmed the report, but after repeated 
efforts the board failed to agree upon a reso- 
lution providing for the necessary rebuild- 
ing of the county prison. This led to the 
issue of a writ of mandamus by the Supreme 
Court, in December, on the motion of G. C. 
Sherman, requiring the board of supervisors 
to proceed without delay to the erection of 
a new jail, or the repair of the one then 
existing. This necessity for a new prison 
suggested the project of the division of the 
county into two jury districts, and the erec- 
tion of two sets of buildings, at other places 
than Watertown, and the question became, 
for a short time, one of considerable discus- 
sion in vayious sections of the county. The 
question was settled by the erection of an 
extensive addition to the jail, two stories 
high, and considered adequate for the wants 
of the county for some time to come, at 
least if the course adopted was that recom- 
mended by the board of supervisors, Octo- 
ber 20, 1820, as set forth in the following 
resolution : 

" Whereas, the maintenance of prisoners, 
committed to the county jail for small 
offenses, in the manner that they have been 
usuallv sentenced, has been attended with 

great expense to the people of this county, 
and in many instances has operated to 
punish the county with taxes more than the 
criminals for offenses; and, whereas, some 
courts of special sessions have sentenced 
them to imprisonment upon bread and 
water, which lessens the expense to this 
county, and the same operates as a punish- 
ment more effectually than longer terms 
of imprisonment would in the ordinary 
way ; the board of supervisors therefore 
recommend generally to magistrates and 
courts of sessions in mittimuses, upon con- 
viction of petty crimes, to make the length 
of confinement less, and direct the jailor to 
keep the offenders upon bread and water 
during the time of their imprisonment. 
Tlie board would recommend in such cases 
that the prisoners be not sentenced to be 
kept longer than thirty days in any case, as 
it may endanger the health of the convicts. 

" Resolved, that the jailor for the future 
be directed not to procure anything more 
expensive for criminals than moccasins, at 
50 cents a pair, instead of shoes, nor pro- 
cure any hats, and to purchase as little 
clothing as possible, and that of the poorest 
and least expensive kind." 

In 1857, a resolution looking to the erection 
of a new court house was passed at the annual 
session of the board of supervisors. A motion 
at the annual meeting in 1858, to proceed at 
once to the erection of the court house, was 
tabled, and then taken up again, and amended 
by changing the place of location, so as to 
leave it to the discretion of future boards to 
locate the same at Watertown or elsewhere 
in the county, and the amended resolution 
was laid on the table. The grand jury, in 
1858, indicted the court house as a nuisance, 
and as unfit and insufficient to hold court 
in. In 1859, a motion to rent Washington 
Hall, in Watertown, for holding the courts 
until the court house could be repaired, at a 
rent of $350 per annum, was lost, fifteen 
members voting in the negative ; where- 
upon, on motion of Supervisor Ingalls, the 
majority voting against the j)roposition 
were appointed a committee to report a 
plan for repairing or rebuilding the court 
house. This committee reported a resolu- 
tion to appoint a committee to repair the 
court house and rent Washington Hall, and 
receive plans and proposals, to build a new 
court house on the old site. On December 
10, 1860, the committee assembled and i-e- 
ceived plans and specifications, and ap- 
pointed a sub-committee to visit several 
court houses in the State, or as many as they 
deemed necessary, and examine the same, 
and confer with W. N. White, an architect 
at Syracuse. The sub-committee procured 
plans and drafts from Mr. White, and re- 
ported at a special meeting of the board, 
January 7, 1861, recommending the adop- 
tion of White's plans, which placed the cost 
of the new building, erected in accordance 
therewith, at the sum of $25,000. The re- 
port of the committee was adopted by the 



boai'd, and after a brisk and animated 
struggle, the pi'esent site, corner of Arsenal 
and Benedict streets, in Watertown, was 
selected, the isame being donated by the 
citizens of the city. A loan of $25,000 was 
authorized and made from the State at 7 
per cent., and a contract made with John 
Hose and Joseph Davis to erect the building 
for $24,000, and W. H. White appointed 
supervising ai-chitect, and the following 
named supervisors a building committee : 
Joseph Atwell, A. W. Clark, A. C. Middle- 
ton, C. A. Benjamin, John H. Conklin, 
Henry Spicer and Jacob Putmaii. At the 
annual meeting of the board in October, 
186J , this committee was discharged as be- 
ing too expensive on account of size, and a 
new committee appointed, consisting of J. 
H. Conklin, D. W. Baldwin, and Octave 
Blanc. The building was completed in 
1861, at a cost of $25,488.89, furnished. The 
roof over certain portions of the building 
was imperfect, and considerable sums of 
money were expended to repair and com- 
plete it. The basement was ill-drained, and 
until the sewerage of the city was completed 
along Arsenal street, it was in a foul and un- 
healthy condition : but drains connecting 
with the main sewer soon obviated that 
difficulty, though at considerable expense. 
The entire expense of the court house as it 
now stands is not far from $35,000. It is 
built of brick with stone trimmings and 
portico, and has an area of about 70 feet front 
on Arsenal street by 120 feet on Benedict 
street. It has two stories. In its rear is 
the fire-proof clerk's office. The court 
house proper is surmounted with a tower 
of good proportionate dimensions to the 
balance of the edifice, and with a well- 
kept lawn is an ornament to the city and a 
credit to the county. 

In 1892 the board of supervisors autlior- 
ized a complete overhauling and almost 
entire rebuilding of the jail, which is still re- 
tained upon the same site as that first se- 
lected. The full amount expended in this 
rebuilding is not yet fully known. 

Previous to the adoption of the poor house 
system, each town supported its own poor, 
and the records of the board show annual 
appropriations in many of the towns for 
that purpose, of from $50 to $800. In 1817, 
$50 vvas voted to build a town poor-house 
in LeRay, and in 1822 the supervisors recom- 
mended to the several towns to take into 
consideration at their next annual meetings 
the propriety of building a poor house and 
house of industry for the county, as advised 
by an act of March 3, 1820. In April, 1825, 
a meeting of the board was called, and a 
committee, consisting of Messrs. Hubbard, 
Hart and Stewart, was appointed to ascer- 
tain the most suitable site for erecting a 
poor house, and the price for which a farm 
could be purchased, within five miles of the 
court house. The cost of buildings was lim- 
ited to $2,000. They were directed to adver- 
tise for proposals for purchasing a farm, if 

they should think proper. On the 7th of 
June an adjourned meeting of the super- 
visors met to hear the above report. After 
visiting the premises in a body, it was re- 
solved to purchase the Dudley farm in Le- 
Ray, five miles from Watertown, containing 
150 acres, at $10 per aci-e. Committees were 
appointed to procure titles, and fit up the 
premises, which continued to be occupied 
for that purpose until November, 1832, when 
the supervisors voted a petition for power 
to sell the property and borrow |4,000 on 
the credit of the county, for building a new 
one on a new site, if the interests of the 
county required it. They procured an act, 
January 35, 1833, granting this power, and 
providing for the execution of this trust, by 
three commissioners to be appointed by the 
supervisors. At their following session, the 
board, after much discussion, finally agreed 
to erect a new poor house on a farm of 100 
acres, purchased of J. Foster, for $1,500, 
about a mile below Watertown, north of the 
river, and Orville Hungerford, Joseph 
Graves and Bernard Bagley were appointed 
to cai-ry the resolution into effect. 

The distinction between town and county 
poor was abolished by a vote of the super- 
visors in November, 1884, and this has been 
since several times changed. In 1833, the 
experiment of picking oakum was tried with 
a profit of $154 the first year. The culture 
of the mulberry has also been attempted, 
but with small success. The first superin- 
tendents of the poor house, appointed in 
1826, were Orville Hungerford, Wm. S. Ely, 
Peter Yandes, John Hoover, and Asher Wil- 
mot, and an equal number was annually 
appointed until the adoption of the present 
Constitution. The persons elected under 
the general law were David Montague, 
Charles F. Symonds and Phineas Hardy, in 
1848: Martin J. Hutchins, 1849 ; Peter S. 
Houck, 1850; Austin Everitt. 1851. It being 
thought by certain ones that the general 
law was not the best that could be devised 
for the county, an effort was made in 1853, 
which procured on the 12th of April an act 
which directed but one overseer of the poor 
to be hereafter elected in each town in this 
county, and the duties of overseers of the 
poor were conferred upon the supervisor 
and such overseer in the several towns, who 
were to be associated together in affording 
relief to the indigent within certain limits, 
to be prescribed by the board of supervisors 
for each town. No superintendents of the 
poor were to be thereafter elected, but one 
is to be appointed by tlie board of super- 
visors, to hold his office during their 
pleasure. He was to reside at the poor 
house, and be the keeper thereof. In case of 
vacancy, the county judge, clerk and treas- 
urer, or any two of them, are to fill the 
vacancy by temporary appointment until 
another is chosen. In the fall of 1854, and 
annually afterwards, two visitors are to be 
appointed by the board of supervisors, to 
visit the poor house every two months, and 


examine its books and management. Con- 
tracts for medicines and medical attendance 
are to be made by the supervisors, individ- 
ually, in the several towns, and as a board 
for the poor house. They have also the 
power of directing the manner in which 
supplies for the poor house shall be pur- 
chased, which directions the superintendent 
is obliged to follow. The provisions of this 
act apply to no other county than this. 
The board of supervisors in accordance with 
powers thus conferred, appointed Alpheus 
Parker, superintendent, who entered upon 
his duties Jan. 1, 1853. His salary was 
fixed at |600, by a resolution of the board, 
passed November, 1852. 

Mr. Parker served as superintendent from 
1853 to 1858, and was succeeded in the latter 
year by Nathaniel Havens, Jr., who held 
the position until 1860, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Colonel Heman Strong, who con- 
tinued to receive the appointment annually 
until his death, which occurred in April, 
1876. From the commendatory reports of 
the inspectors and committees appointed to 
visit the poor house and report thereon, we 
gather that Colonel Strong was peculiarly 
fitted for the delicate and arduous task of 
oaring for the unfortunate class committed 
to his charge. Colonel Strong was suc- 
ceeded by A. W. Wheelock. John R. 
Washburn, of Rodman, followed Mr. Whee- 
lock, and has proved an able and con- 
scientious official, with high intelligence. 
He is the present incumbent of this highly 
responsible position. 

Besides the care given to the poor in the 
county institution, a greater amount of re- 
lief is afforded in the towns outside, in the 
support, of partial relief, of tlie town poor, 
the distinction between county and town 
charges being now (1894) maintained. 


The late Mrs. Robert Lansing was the one 
who originated and brought to a successful 
organization the 

Jefferson County Orphan Asylum. 

She was a lady of much refinement and 
benevolence, and her Christian character 
greatly aided in giving confidence to the 
effort. But with her usual modesty she 
gave another person, her earnest assistant, 
the greater meed of praise. She wrote, in 

"The Watertown Asylum for Orphan and 
Destitute Children was opened March 1,1859, 
and without a day's preparation, that a 
home might be made for the reception of 
two orphans, whose mother had been acci- 
dentally killed the night previous. Miss 
Frazier, from the highlands of Scotland, a 
woman of devoted piety, manifested in 
gathering the little waifs of our coQimunity 
into a Sunday-school and most persistently 
caring for them, had been asked if an 

exigency like this should occur, would she 
at once take charge of a ' Home ' as matron? 
Without hesitation she assented. A small 
tenement-house in the suburbs of the town 
was rented, needful furniture from several 
homes sent in, wood supplied, a fire kindled, 
which has burned brightly now these eigh- 
teen years, and the Watertown Home was 
fairly begun. Many years before this a char- 
ter for a similar institution had been granted 
by the Legislature, but the business men of 
the town advised postponement of proceed- 
ings under the same from year to year, as 
' this year was financially hard; ' that many 
whose hearts were in sympathy with the 
project could not now co-operate in it, but 
that ' the next year would be more favor- 
able ; ' so expired the charter. An im- 
promptu effort suggested itself, was triecj, 
and succeeded. From this beginning came 
the ' Jefferson County Orphan Asylum; ' the 
name being changed when the board of 
supervisors of the county resolved to send 
to it as boarders the pauper children of the 
county in 1863. From the commencement 
of the ' Home ' tlie number of children 
multiplied so rapidly that several removals 
of location were necessary, and then was 
agitated the feasibility of a permanent 
home. Already the benefit from the insti- 
tution had exceeded expectation. Two 
years found thirty children crowded into 
the small home, while quite a number had 
homes found for them elsewhere. Now 
there was an imperative necessity for an 
appeal to the benevolent. It was made, 
and five thousand dollars resulted there- 
from, and which exhausted our liberality 
for a short time only. One year passed, 
and then a petition sent to Albany gave us, 
through the Legislature, another five thou- 
sand, which enabled us to build the large, 
convenient three-story brick building, with 
a plentiful supply of good water, well 
ventilated, warmed, and drained, built in 
the midst of a grove, and which is now 
emphatically an Orphan's Home. It was 
finished, furnished, and occupied April 80, 
18li4. Fifty children came in from the old 
home. The institution had no endowment, 
and had been sustained these five years by 
personal effort. Each month, as it came, all 
bills were paid. The sole management, dis- 
ciplinary, educational, and moral, vpith dis- 
bursements of funds, devolved upon a board 
of directresses, the president and triistees 
being advisory and fiscal managers. The 
Divine blessing has been given tliem, mak- 
ing their intercourse a joy and refreshment 
instead of laborious duty, — not a discord 
marring the harmony of eigliteen years' as- 
sociation. More than 500 children have 
gone out from this institution, and more 
than half of this number into homes by 

Appropriations have been received from 
the State from time to time in years past, 
wliich, being judiciously invested, yield an 
income which, added to the receipts from 



the county charges, and some others who 
are able to pay a portion of the expense of 
then- board, suffices to pay the expenses of 
the institution. A school is taught in the 
asylum throughout the year. It afifords, 
too, a home for the children of working 
women at a small expense, when they can 
pay at all, and gratuitously when they can- 
not. It is also a temporary refuge for moth- 
ers and their children, while the former are 
seeking employment, — nine mothers having 
been so accommodated the past year. The 
committees of the board of supervisors ap- 
pointed from year to year to visit and in- 
spect the asylum speak invariably, in their 
reports, in terms of high commendation of 
the humanity and watchful care displayed 
in the management of the institution." 

The asylum is very ably conducted, has a 
fine building, and is one of the most deserv- 
ing and popular charities of WatertDwn. 

Referring finally to the subject of chari- 

ties, as developed in one way and another 
in Jefferson county, but more particularly 
in the present city of Watertown, it may be 
said that the work had never been judi- 
ciously conducted until Mrs. Lansing began 
to systematize efforts in bringing to public 
notice the claims of the Orphan Asylum. 
Such work had, from the earliest settle- 
ments, been given over largely to the 
churches and to the sporadic efforts of char- 
itable individuals. In that way much real 
strength was wasted, because there was no 
concentration of effort. It was like treating 
a disease by several mild yet inefficient pal- 
liatives, instead of a skillful effort to affect 
the malady itself. While the Orplian Asy- 
lum reaches only one class of the poor, it 
takes hold of the very young and therefore 
helpless waifs of the community, and car- 
ries them along those early years when there 
is tlie greatest possibilit}' of forming correct 
ideas of life. 


Jefferson county once formed part of the 
original county of Albany, the line of evolu- 
tion from the latter being as follows : 
Albany county, formed November 1, 1683; 
Tryon, formed from Albany, March 12, 1772; 
Montgomery, changed from Tryon, April 2, 
1784; Herkimer, formed from Montgomery, 
January 16, 1792; Oneida, formed from 
Herkimer, March 15, 1798; Jefferson, formed 
from Oneida, March 28, 1805. 

This county is situated in the northern 
part of the State of New York, in an angle 
formed by the St. Lawrence river and 
Lake Ontario, the superficial area, accord- 
ing to the latest statistics, being 733,585 
acres, equivalent to 1,146 square miles. It 
is bounded on the noi-thwest by the St. 
Lawrence river, on the northeast by St. 
Lawrence count3', on the west by Lake 
Ontario, on the south by Oswego county, 
and on the east by Lewis county. The 
southwest part is marshy, but at a short dis- 
tance from the lake the land rises in gentle 
undulations, and, farther inland, by abrupt 
terraces to the highest point, 1.200 feet 
above the lake, in the town of Worth. A 
plateau, about 1,000 feet above the lake, 
spreads out from the summit, and extends 
into Oswego and Lewis counties. An ancient 
lake beach, 390 feet above the present level 
of the lake, may be traced through Ellis- 
burgh, Adams, Watertown and Rutland. 
North of Black river the surface is generally 
flat or slightly undulating; in the extreme 
northeast corner it is broken by low ridges 
parallel to the St. Lawrence. With the ex- 
ception of a few isolated hills, no part of 
the region is as high as the ancient lake 
ridge mentioned. An isolated hill in 

Pamelia formerly bore a crop of red cedar; 
and as this timber is now only found upon 
the islands in the lake and in the St. Law- 
rence, it is supposed that the hill was an 
island at a time when at least three-fourths 
of the country was covered by water. 

The main water features of the county 
ai-e Ontario lake and St. Lawrence river. 
The main indentations of the lake are Black 
River bay, Chaumont bay, Henderson bay 
and Griffin's bay. Black River bay is 
accounted the finest harbor on Lake Ontario. 
The largest islands attached to Jefferson 
county are Wells, Grindstone and Carleton, 
in the St. Lawrence, and Grenadier, Galloe 
and Stony islands in the lake. Besides 
these there are innumerable smaller ones, 
including several in tire mouth of Black 
river, a number in Black River and Chau- 
mont bays, and a portion of the archipelago 
known asthe "Thousand Islands." Among 
the most prominent headlands and capes are 
Stony Point and Six Town Point, in the 
town of Henderson; Pillar Point, in Brown- 
ville; Point Peninsula and Point Salubrious, 
in Lyme, and Tibbett's Point, in Cape Tin- 

There are about twenty small lakes in 
the county, of which ten are in Theresa 
and Alexandria, two in Henderson, four in 
Ellisburgh, two in Antwerp, and one eacli 
in Orleans and Pamelia, Champion and Rut- 
land. The lai-gest of these is Butterfield 
lake, lying between Theresa and Alexandria, 
which is about four miles in length. The 
other more important ones are Perch lake, 
lying between Orleans and Pamelia, nearly 
three miles in length, and Pleasant lake, in 
Champion, about two miles long. 





A KNOWLEDGE of geology lies at the base 
of physical geography, and is essential 
to the skillful prosecution of mining and 
other useful arts. The geological his- 
tory of the earth is ascertained by a study 
of the successive beds of rock which 
have been deposited on its surface, 
and of the masses which have been 
forced up in a liquid state from within 
its crust, together with the fossil remains of 
animals and plants, which certain of the beds 
contain. As thus established, it is usually 
divided into four great periods, the names of 
which ai'e taken from the progress of animal 
life, as this at present affords one of the best 
criteria for geological classification. They 
are: I., the Eozaic, or "period of the dawn 
of life; " II., the Paleozoic, or " period of 
ancient life;" III., the Mesozoic, or " middle 
period of life;" and IV., the Neozoic, or 
" recent period of life." 

Each of these admits of subdivisions, 
which may stand as follows beginning with 
the oldest: Eozoic — Laur^ntian and Huron- 
ian ; Palezoic — Cambrian or Primorial, Si- 
luro Cambrian, Silurian, Devonian, Car- 
boniferous, and Permian ; Mesozoic — Trias- 
sic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous ; Neozoic — 
Eocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Post- pliocene, 
and Recent. 

In the oldest condit-on of the earth, shown 
by the most ancient of the rock formations 
above referred to, its surface was covered 
with water more generally than at present, 
and sediments were then, as now, being de- 
posited in the waters. The earth must, 
however, have an earlier history than this, 
though not represented by distinct geologi- 
cal monuments. This primitive condition 
of the earth is a subject of inference and 
speculation rather than of actual knowledge; 
still, we maj' begin with a consideration of 
a fact bearing upon questions which have 
long excited public attention. It is the ob- 
served increase of temperature in descend- 
into deep mines and in the water of deep 
artesian wells — an increase which may be 
stated in round numbers at one degree of 
heat of the centrigrade scale to everj' 100 
feet of depth from the surface. These ob- 
servations apply, of course, to a very con- 
siderable depth, and we have no certainty 
that this rate continues for any great dis- 
tance toward the centre of the earth. If, 
however, we regard it as indicating the ac- 
tual law of increase of temperature, it would 
result that the whole crust of the earth is a 
mere shell covering a molton mass of rocky 
matter. Thus a very slight e.xercise of 
imagination would carry us back to a time 
when this slender crust had not yet been 
formed, and the earth rolled through space 
an incandescent globe, with all its water and 
other vaporizable matter in a gaseous state. 

Astronomical calculation has, however, 
shown that the eai-th, in its relation to 
other heavenly bodies, obeys the laws of a 
rigid ball, and not of a fluid globe. Hence 
it has been inferred that its actual crust is 
very thick, perhaps not less than 2,500 miles, 
and that its fluid portion must therefore be 
of smaller dimensions than has been inferred 
from the observed increase of temperature. 
Further, it seems to have been rendered 
pi'obable, from the density of rock matter 
in the solid and liquid states, that a molton 
globe would solidify at the center as well as 
at the surface, and consequently that the 
earth must not only have a solid crust of 
great thickness, but also a solid nucleus, 
and that any liquid portions must be a sheet 
of detached masses intervening between 
these. Still this would merely go to show 
that the earth has advanced far toward the 
entire loss of its original Iieat. Other con- 
siderations, based on the form of the earth 
and the distribution of variances, lead to 
similar conclusions. It must be observed, 
however, that there are good reasons for the 
belief that the products of volcanoes arise 
chiefly from the fusion of portions of the 
stratified crusts. Such considerations, how- 
ever, lead to the conclusion that the former 
watery condition of our planet was not its 
first state, and that we must trace it back 
to a jjrevious reign of fire. The reasons 
which can be adduced in support of this, are 
no doubt somewhat vague, and may, in 
their details, be variously interpreted, but 
at present we have no other interpretation 
to give of that chaos, formless and void, 
that state in which " nor aught nor aught 
existed," which the sacred writings and the 
traditions of ancient nations concur with 
modern science in indicating as the primi- 
tive state of the earth. 

In the Eozoic time we have actual monu- 
ments to study. The Laurentian rocks, 
more especially, occupy a very wide space 
in the northern part of America. These 
rocks stretch along the north side of the St. 
Lawrence river from Labrador to Lake Su- 
perior, and thence northwardly to an un- 
known distance. In the Old World the 
rocks of tliis age do not appear so exten- 
sively, although they have been recognized 
in Norway and Sweden, in the Hebrides, 
and in Bohemia. Geologists long looked in 
vain for evidences of life in the Laurentian 
period, but its probable existence was in- 
ferred from such considerations as the 
abundance of carbon, limestone, iron, etc. 
— materials known to be accumulated in 
the newer formations by the agency of life. 
In addition to the inferental evidence, how- 
ever, one well marked animal fossil has 
been found in the Laurentian of Canada — 
Eozeon Canadense, a gigantic representa- 



tion of one of the lowest forms of animal 
life, that of the Protozoa, and a type still 
extant in the ocean, and remarkable for its 
power of collecting and secreting calcareous 

Geologists divide rocks into two great 
classes, primary and sedimentary or second- 
ary ; the first, from their crystalline charac- 
ter and mode of occurrence, often exhibit 
evidences of having been subjected to the 
agency of heat, while the latter appear 
made up of materials derived from the 
former, broken up and deposited in water, 
and usually contain fossil remains ol ani- 
mals and plants that lived at the period of 
their foundation. Both primaiw and sec- 
ondary rocks occur in Jefferson county ; the 
former of which, with the dividing line be- 
tween them, affords only rational prospects 
of valuable metallic veins and deposits, as 
well as most of the crystaline minerals. Of 
the latter we are not without localities that 
vie with the most noted, and the primitive 
region of the county will abundantly repay 
the labor of mineral collection. The rock 
constituting the primary is mainly composed 
of gneiss; a mixture of quartz, feldspar and 
mica, which are regarded as elementary or 
simple minerals, and make up by far the 
largest part of what is known of the earth's 
surface. In gneiss these usually occur in 
irregular stata, often contorted, never hori- 
zontal, and seldom continuing of uniform 
thickness more than a few feet. It forms 
by far the largest part of the surface rock 
tliroughout the great northern forest of New 
York, embracing nearly the whole of Ham- 
ilton, and a part of Lewis, Heikimer. Ful- 
ton, Saratoga, Warren, Essex, Clinton, 
Franklin and St. Lawrence counties, and 
in Jeffei'son this rock constitutes the greater 
part of the islands in the St. Lawrence, be- 
tween French creek and Morristown, and 
appears in Clayton, Orleans and Alexandria 
on the river bank; in the latter town it ex- 
tends back a mile or two from the shore. 
It forms a strip extending up both sides of 
Indian river to Theresa village, and the 
shores and islands of most of the lakes of 
that town and Antwerp, and much of the 
country within the node of Indian river, 
toward the village of Philadelphia, where it 
forms the surface rock and extends to Ant- 
werp, the greater part of which it under- 
lies. From this town it extends along In- 
dian river to to the village of Natural Bridge, 
and thence to Carthage, where it forms the 
islands among the rapids of the Long Falls, 
and thence follows up the river, keeping a 
little west of itschannel, through Lewis and 
Oneida counties. In this area there are occa- 
sional ledges of white or primary limestone, 
especially in Antwerp, with limited quanti- 
ties of serpentine, and superficial patches of 

Lying next above the primitive, and form- 
ing a considerable amount of surface rock, 
in Alexandria, Theresa, Clayton, Orleans, 
and Antwerp, is the Potsdam sandstone, so 

named from the fine manner in which it is 
developed in that town. It is the oldest 
of sedimentary rocks, and contains (but 
rarely) the forms of organic bodies that 
were cieated at the dawn of the vital prin- 
ciple. Two genera, one a plant, the other a 
shell, have been found in this rock, but so 
rarely that it may be almost said to be with- 
out fossils. Its principal constituent is 
silex, in the form of sand, firmly consoli- 
dated, and forming, where it can be cleaved 
into blocks of regular shape and uniform 
size, a most elegant and durable building 

In the vicinity of Theresa, Redwood, etc., 
there occurs in numerous places in this 
rock the cylindrical structure, common at 
many localities in St. Lawrence county, 
and apparently produced by eddies acting 
upon the sands at the bottom of shallow 
water. This formation is generally in thick 
masses, often disturbed by upheavals, al- 
most invai'iably inclined from the horizontal, 
and seldom in this county so evenh* strati- 
fled as to admit of that uniformity of frac- 
ture that gives value to it as a building 
material at Potsdam, Malone, etc. It is, 
however, extensively used for this purpose, 
and forms a cheap and durable, but uot 
elegant wall. Tliis rock has two appli- 
cations in the useful arts, of great im- 
portance — the lining of blast furnaces, 
and the manufacture of glass. The quarry 
that has been most used for lining stone, 
is in Antwerp, where the rock occurs 
highly inclined, but capable of being di- 
vided into blocks of uniform texture and 
any desirable size. The edges of the 
stone, when laid in the furnace, are ex- 
posed to the fire, and become slightly used, 
forming a glazing to the surface. For 
the manufacture of glass, the stone is cal- 
cined in kilns, and crushed and sifted, when 
it affords a sand of much whiteness, and 
eminently suitable for the purpose. 

This rock is generally overlaid by a fertile 
soil, but this is more due to the accidental 
deposition of drift than the disintegration 
of the rock itself, for such is its permanence 
that it can scarcely be found to have yielded 
to the destructive agencies that have cov.: 
ered may other rocks with soil. The pol- 
ished and scratclied surfaces given by 
diluvial attrition, are almost uniformly 
preserved, and wherever this formation ap- 
pears at the surface it presents a hardness 
and sharpness of outline strongly indicative 
of its capacity to resist decay . A very pe- 
culiar feature is presented by the mai-gin of 
this rock, which, by the practiced eye, may 
be detected at a distance, and which strongly 
distinguishes it from all others. The out- 
line is generally an abrupt escarpment, 
sometimes extending with much regularity 
for miles, occasionally broken by broad, 
ragged ravines, or existing as outstanding 
insular masses, and always presenting, along 
the foot of the precipice, huge masses of 
rock that have fallen from above. The 



most remarkable terrace of this kind begins 
on the north shore of Black lake, in Mor- 
ristown, and extends through Hammond 
into Alexandria, much of the distance near 
the line of tlie Military road : other in- 
stances are common throughout the region 
underlaid by this rock. 

Next in the ascending series is a rock 
which, in this part of the State, constitutes 
a thin but level formation, and from its be- 
ing a sandy limestone, has been named a 
calciferous sandstone. This rock appears as 
the surface rock between Antwerp and 
Carthage ; between the Checkered House, 
in Wilna, and Natural Bridge, between 
Antwerp and Stirlingville ; and in Theresa, 
Alexandria, Orleans and Clayton. In many 
places it is filled with fossils, and is value- 
less as a building material. 

Next above this rock is the chazy lime- 
stone, which occurs highly developed, and 
abounding in organic remains, but, accord- 
ing to Professor Emmons, does not appear 
in the Black River valley. The next rock 
there is the Birds-Eye limestone, whicli in- 
cluded the close-grained, hard and thick- 
bedded strata, in which the layers of water 
limestone occur in LeRay, Pamelia, Orleans, 
Brown ville and Clayton. Its color is usually 
bluish and light gray, weathering to an 
ashen gray ; its fracture is more or less 
flinty, witli many crystalline points ; and 
its fossils few and seldom obtained except 
on the weathered surface. Its characteris- 
tic fossil, in the manner in which its verticle 
stems divide and interlace with each other 
presents features totally distinct from any 
known analogy, either in marine plants, or 
the zoophites. These stems are filled with 
crystalline matter and often make up a 
great part of its mass. When polished, this 
rock presents an appearance which has given 
it the name, and in quarrying it readily 
breaks into regular masses. This forms the 
surface rock over a considerable extent of 
Cape Vincent, Lyme, Brownville, Pamelia, 
LeRay and Wilna. The part that overlies 
the yellowish water-lime strata, abounds in 
nodules of flint that everywhere stand in re- 
lief upon the weathered surface. These are 
thought to be the fossil remains of sponges, 
or other form of animal life analogous. 
These masses of flint often contain shells, 
corals, crinoidea and obscure traces of other 
organic bodies. 

The Black River limestone, in the classifi- 
cation of Professor Hall (the Isle LaMotte 
marble of Professor Emmons) is interposed 
between the rock last named and the Tren- 
ton limestone. It is a well-defined mass of 
grayi«h blue limestone, in this county not 
exceeding ten feet in thickness, but in its 
fossils clearly distinct from the strata above 
and below it. Five genera and 'six species 
of corals, and five genera and ten species 
of cephalopoda, are described in the State 
Paleontology, as occuring in this rock. It 
is the formation that contains the caverns 
of Watertown, Pamelia and Brownville. 

It is to be observed of the strata that 
intervene between the water-lime and the 
Trenton limestone, that from their soluble 
nature the natural seams have generally 
been widened into open chasms, and that 
from this cause streams of water often find 
their way under ground in dry seasons. 
Although generally horizontal, the strata 
are occasionally disturbed by upheavals, as 
is seen at several places along the line of the 
railroad between Chaumont and Cape Vin- 

The next rock above those described, is 
named the Trenton limestone, which mostly 
constitutes the rock underlying the soil in 
Champion, Rutland, Watertown, Hounds- 
field, Ellisburg, Adams, and a part of Rod- 
man and Brownville. In extent, thickness, 
number of fossil remains, and economical 
importance, it far surpasses the others. It 
underlies extensive districts in the Western 
States, where it is recognized by its charac- 
teristic fossils. Its color is usually gray, 
and its fracture more or less crystalline, oc- 
curing usually in strata nearly or quite 
horizontal, and often separated by thin 
layers of shale. Many of its fossils are 
common with the slates above. 

Fossil plants of the lower orders are some- 
what common, but are limited to a few- 
species. Of corals the number is greater: 
twenty dilTerent species of zoophites are 
found in this rock. Of that singular class 
of animals called trilobites, of which there 
are at present but few living analogies, the 
Trenton limestone furnishes several species. 
Of shells this rook affords a very great 
variety. Its stratification is generally nearly 
horizontal, and disturbances, when they oc- 
cur, are usually quite limited. In some 
places it contains veins of calcite, and of 
heavy spar, the latter, in Adams, being asso- 
ciated with fluor-spar. 

Resting upon the Trenton limestone, with 
which, in the bed of Sandy creek, in Rod- 
man, it is seen in contact, is a soft, black 
slate, readily crumbling to fragments under 
the action of frost, and divided by vetical 
parallel seams into regular masses. From 
its appearance in the hills north of Utica, it 
has been called Utica slate. It has not been 
found applicable to any useful purpose, al- 
though experiments have been made to test 
its value as a lithic paint. Where sulphuret 
of iron could be procured, the manufacture 
of alum might be attempted with prospect 
of success. Fossils are common, but less 
numerous in this rock than those below it. 
Several of these are common in the rocks 
above and below this. Only one species of 
trilobite is found, though they occur both 
above and below it. 

Sulphur springs ai-e of frequent occur- 
rence in this rock,' and native sulphur is 
sometimes noticed incrusting the surfaces 
in ravines, where waters, charged with 
sulphuretted hydrogen, have been exposed 
to vegetable action. 

Covering this formation, and constituting 



the superficial rock of Lorraine, Worth and 
a part of Rodman, is a series consisting of 
alternating layers of shale and slate, some of 
which are highly fossiliferous and others 
entirely destitute of organic remains. From 
the remarkable developments of this rock 
in Lorraine, it has received the name of 
Lorraine shales. For a similar reason it is 
known elsewhere as the Hudson River 
group, from its forming the highly inclined 
shales that occur, of enormous thickness, 
in the valley of the Hudson. This rook is 
nearly worthless for any useful purpose, 
although at Pulaski and elsewhere, layers 
are found that are adapted for building. 
The mineral springs of Saratoga arise from 
this rock. Having thus briefly enumerated 
the leading geological features of the 
county, some generalizations of the several 
rooky formations may be made. 

Topography and soil. 

To one accustomed tocai-eful observation, 
the features of a country and the contour of 
its hills afford a reliable means of opinion 
on the character of the adjacent rock. 
There pertains to each of these in this 
county a peculiarity of i^rotile. when ex- 
posed on the brow of hills, that is as con- 
stant and as unmistakable as any class of 
phenomena offered to the observation of 
geologists ; and these distinctive features 
arise from the greater or less facility with 
which the sevei-al rocks yield to disintegrat- 
ing forces. The shales and slates being 
easih" decomposed, and offering little le- 
sistance to the action of running water, pre- 
sent a rounded oucline ; running streams 
have here worn deep winding gulfs, through 
which the channels meander, washing al- 
ternately the right bank and the left, afford- 
ing a succession of crumbling precipices, 
often of romantic beauty, and spreading 
over the plains, where they issue from the 
hills, the broken materials brought down 
from the ravines. The rock is everywhere 
covered with soil, derived from its own dis- 
integration, and is inclined to clay, from 
which cause, when level, there is a tendency 
to the formation of swamps, from the im- 
permeable character of this material. The 
soil is generally fertile, and especially 
adapted to grazing. Wherever diluvial 
action has existed it has worn, with little 
difficulty, broad valleys, and removed im- 
mense ciuantities of the detritus to other 

These shales form a ridge of highlands, 
extending from the county through Os- 
wego, Lewis. Oneida and Herkimer coun- 
ties, being known in Lewis as Tug Hill. 
The margin of this elevated tract is worn 
into deep ravines, but when the head of 
these is reached, the country becomes level 
and sometimes swampy. 

The limestone occurs in terraces, with 
steep but not precipitous margins, the whole 
of which is covered with a soil derived from 
its own decomposition, where not pro- 

tected by drift. The soil is inclined to 
be thin, and consequently liable to be 
affected with drought, but is extremely 
fertile and alike adapted to grass and grain. 
The richest and best portions of Jefferson 
county, if not in the State, are underlaid by 
this rock. Running streams, when small, 
do not wear ravines, but fall down the slope 
of the terraces in pretty cascades, broken 
into foam, and noisy from the numerous 
points of resistance which they meet. The 
BurrvUle cascades, in the southwest border 
of the town of Rutland, are among the 
most romantic and picturesque which the 
county affords. 

The calciferous sandstone presents a flat 
country, with few valleys, and those but a 
few feet below the level of the adjacent 
plains. The rock is covered with a very 
thin soil, derived from its own decomposi- 
tion, but one of much richness, from the 
presence of lime. It seldom descends by a 
gentle slope into the valleys, but presents a 
shelving ledge, very peculiar to this rock in 
this section of the State. 

The Potsdam sandstone generally presents 
a level surface, but more liable to upheavals, 
and is covered with soil entirely brought 
from other formations, and varies in quality 
with the sources from which it has been 
derived. This rock never presents a fertile 
slope into the valleys, but is bordered with 
abrupt precipices, at the foot of which are 
piled huge masses that have tumbled from 
the face of the ledge. 

The primitive rocks of the county present 
a constant succession of abrupt, rounded 
edges, scantily covered in a state of nature 
with timber, and, when cleared, with a thin 
soil, with intervening valleys of consider- 
able fertility, that have received their soil 
from the wash of the hills. The nature and 
amount of soil varies with the rock, and is 
abundant and fertile where limestone and 
feldspar abound as its constituents, but 
much less so where the chief element is 
quartz. The fact is observable that the 
south slope of the hills is more abrupt than 
the north, as if they had been more up- 

Drift deposits [occur promiscuously over 
rocks of every age, and when occurring in 
hills, present that rounded and conical out- 
line often seen in snowdrifts. These de- 
posits may be distinguished from soil un- 
derlaid by rock, by the endless variety of 
rounded outline which they present, and are 
invariably covered by vegetation. Several 
remarkable valleys occur in the county, 
that must be attributed to causes that have 
long since ceased to operate. That of Rut- 
land Hollow, parallel with Black river, 
continues across the towns of Watertown, 
Houndsfield and Henderson, by way of 
Smithville, to the lake, having both its 
sides covered with Trenton limestone. It 
is considered by some authorities to be one 
of the abandoned beds of Black river. 
Evidences of the drift period are prominent 



in this valley, the surface of the rock often 
presenting a polished and grooved appear- 
ance, and at no locality is this more won- 
derfully shown than at the railroad bi-idge 
below Watertown village. The grooves are 
here widened and deepened into troughs, 
that obliquely cross the bed of the river, 
having their surfaces polished and scratched, 
showing that the rock was then as firm and 
unyielding as now. 

Mineral Localities. 
Anthracite has been observed in minute 
quantities in the Trenton limestone at 
Watertown, and also in the Utica slate in 
the southwestern border of the county. 
Apatite (phosphate lime) is found in small 
crystals near Ox Bow in massive form on 
Butterfield lake, and near Grass lake, in 
Theresa. Azurite (blue carb. copper) is 
found on an island in Maskollonge lake, 
in Theresa. Calcite (carbonate of liniel, oc- 
curs at Ox Bow and on the banks of Vroo- 
man lake. Tufa is found in a few lime- 
stone springs, and agaric mineral abounds 
in the caves on the north side of the river 
in Watertown. Marl occurs in Pleasant 
lake, and satin-spar near Ox Bow, not far 
from Pulpit Rock. Celestine (sulphate of 
strontia) is said to occur in Trenton lime- 
stone. Chalcodite, a very rare mineral, is 
frequently obtained at the Sterling iron 
mine in Antwerp. Chondrodite has also 
been observed in Antwerp. Chlorite has 
been detected in bowlders, but is not com- 
mon. Copper pyrites has been found in 
Antwerp, adjacent to Vrooman lake and 
near the Ox Bow, and also about three 
miles from Natural Bridge, in Wilna. 
Dolomite occurs in white limestone. Pearl- 
spar is found at Ox Bow. coating crystals 
of calcite. Epidote is of frequent occurence 
in bowlders of greenstone. It has not been 
found in its original situation in this county. 
Feldspar (orthoclase), besides forming a 
common ingredient in gneiss, often occurs, 
highly crystallized, in Antwerp and Theresa, 
near Grass lake, etc. Fluor spar occurs on 
the east bank of Maskollonge lake, in 
Theresa, and is one of the most remarkable 
localities of this mineral in the State. 
Graphite (black lead) occurs in minute 
scales, to a small extent, in the white lime- 
stone of Antwerp. Heavy-spar is found on 
Pillar Point, in Brownville, on the shore 
facing ChauiDont Bay and Cherry Island, in 
a vein of Trenton limestone, and in Antwerp, 
about a mile east of the Ox Bow, in a vein of 
white limestone. It also occurs in Theresa, 
on the banks of Maskollonge lake, and in 
Adams. Hornblende, of the tremolite varie- 
ty, is found in bowlders of white limestone, 
and occcasionally in small quantities in Ant- 
werp and in Wilna, near Natural Bridge. 
Amphibole (basaltic hornblende) is found 
in bowlders in crystals, firmly imbedded in 
trap and greenstone. Dillage is rarely 
found in bowlders of chloritic slate. Par- 
gasite, in beautiful green crystals, occurs in 

white limestone at numerous localities near 
Ox Bow, and in a neighborhood known as 
New Connecticut, in Antwerp. Amianthos 
and asbestos are found in minute quantities 
in bowlders of serpentine. The latter also 
occurs near Theresa village. Idocrase, in 
small brown crystals, occurs occasionally on 
the banks of Vrooman lake, near Ox Bow. 
It has been found in larger crystals in 
bowlders in Antwerp. Iron pyrites (sul- 
phuret of iron) occur in Antwerp, Wilna, 
Theresa and Alexandria. Labradorite 
(opalescent feldspar) is occasionally found 
in bowlders. Limonite, or bogiron, is com- 
mon in the swamps of Wilna. Ochre occurs 
in Champion and other towns in small quan- 
tities. Magnetite, or magnetic iron ore, has 
been found in Alexandria. Malachite 
(green carbonate of copper) is found invest- 
ing other minerals at Maskallonge lake, 
Theresa. Millerite (sulphuret of nickel) 
occurs at the Sterling iron mine, in Ant- 
werp, in delicate needle-shaped prisms, in 
cavities of iron ore, associated with sisathio 
iron, chalcodite, and iron pyrites. Musco- 
vite (mica) occurs rarely in bowlders of 

Phlogopite. — This mica occurs frequently 
in the white limestone, but not in sufficient 
quantity or in plaits of a size that give it 
value. It is found on an island in Mill 
Seat lake in small quantities, and at a few 
localities near Ox Bow. At Vrooman lake 
a highly crystallized variety occurs, in which 
sharply -defined prisms and groups of crys 
tals are found in great abundance. Py- 
roxene is common in our primitive rocks. 
On Grass lake in Theresa, it is found 
white and crystallized, in groups. Near Ox 
Bow it lias been found in small quantities, 
and near Natural Bridge in large black 
crystals, with sphene, etc. Cocolite occurs 
in the same vicinity. Quartz, while form- 
ing the greater portion of primary rock, and 
almost the sole material of sandstone, is 
rarely found crystallized. On Butterfield 
lake, and at several localities in Antwerp, 
it is found in crystals. At Natural Bridge, 
chalcedony ocpurs in nodules in white lime- 
stone. Flint is a common associate of the 
Black River limestone. Agate in small 
quantities is found in Wilna, near Natural 
Bridge. Jasper and basanite are very rarely 
found as pebbles in the drift formations. 
Scapolite in detached crystals is rarely found 
imbedded in white limestone, in Antwerp. 
Adjacent to, and perhaps within, the town 
of Wilna, near Natural Bridge, the variety 
Nuttallite, in fused crystals of a pearl gray 
color, occurs with pyroxene and sphene. It 
is sometimes massive, and admits of cleavage. 
Sei-pentine is of frequent occurrence in no- 
dules, in white limestone, in Antwerp, but 
it is far less abundant than in St. Lawrence 
county. It is various shades of green and 
its weathered surface becomes white. A 
mineral allied to this, and named by Prof. 
Emmons, Rensselaerite, but by other authois 
Steatitic Pseudomorph, occurs in great 



abundance in Antwerp and Theresa, -svhere 
it assumes various colors, varying from 
white, through gray, to black, and a texture 
from finely granular to coarsely crystalline, 
and cleavable. An extensive locality of the 
the jet-black vaiiety occurs on Butterfield 

The red oxide constitutes the principal 
specular ore of iron in Antwerp, Phila- 
delphia and Theresa, and may be said to 
be the principal ore of northern New 
York. It is invariably associated with 
brittle, variegated mineral; which has been 
named Pysyntribite, but which recent 
analyses indicate to lie a rock of indefinite 
composition, closely related to Agalmoto- 
lite. and varying much in its proportions of 
alumina, magnesia, lime and the alkalies. 
In some form or other this mineral is asso- 
ciated with the ore in every locality where 
the latter has been noticed in this county, 
as if it were a necessary associate. Besides 
this nondescript mineral, specular ore is 
associated with Calcite. Spathic iron, Chal- 
codite. Quartz, Millerite, and, more rarely. 
Heavy-spar. In Theresa, this ore was pro- 
cured during the working of the furnace 
near Redwood, and has been found on an 
island in Maskollonge lake. In the edge of 
Philadelphia, adjoining Theresa, there 
occurs a body of specular iron ore between 
the gneiss and Potsdam sandstone. When 
wrought alone it makes an iron known to 
founders as "cold short,'" and from its mix- 
ture with lime is found to be very useful as a 
flux in assisting in the reduction of other 
ores. The mines which have been wrought 
with most profit in northern New York 
are those in the southwest corner of Gouver- 
neur, and adjacent in Rossie. In this same 
range, in Antwerp, a deposit of iron ore was 
discovered in 1837, and was developed and 
wrought by Geoige Parish. Adjacent to, 
and forming a part of this, is the Thompson 
mine. Sterling mine, in Antwerp, was dis- 
covered in 1836, its location being in the 
same range and geological relation as the 
last. There are seven or eight mines in a 
range, including those in Philadelphia, ap- 
pai-ently coeval in age, and produced by a 
common cause. About two miles from Ox 
Bow, in Antwerp, occurs the Weeks ore 
bed, once owned by George Parish. 

Sphene (scilecio-calcareous oxide of tita- 
nium) is found in white limestone with 
pargasite, in Antwerp, near Ox Bow, and 
near Natural Bridge. Spinel, of a pale 
red color, has been observed in crystals at 
Vrooman lake, near Ox Bow, and four miles 
from that place towards Theresa. Talc 
occurs in small quantities in bowlders. 
Tourmaline is occasionally found in gneiss 
in Antwerp and Theresa. Wad (earthy 
manganese) has been noticed in swamps in 
Watertown and elsewhere. Wollastonite 
(tabular spar) occurs with Augite and Coc- 
colite at Natural Bridge. Delicate, fibrous 
varieties have been found in bowlders in 

The Ice Aoe. 

There are little or no evidences of intense 
glaciation previous to the tertiary period; it 
was not until the quartanary was ushered in 
that glaciation assumed its grand propor- 
tions here. The fact that gneissoidal and 
granitic rocks are the surface rocks in the 
northern portions of the county, is evidence 
that tlie territory was among the earliest 
portions of the earth to rise above the 
waters of the primeval ocean, without sub- 
sequent prolonged subsidence. There are 
many theories concerning the causes that 
have produced and ushered in the glacial 
period, among them the most plausible, 
changes of level of land surface. Visitors 
to all mountain lands observe snow and ice 
upon each considerable elevation, and per- 
haps it is sufficient in this connection to 
cite the fact that glaciation seems to have 
been one of the finishing processes of world- 
making: fitting the surface and soil condi- 
tions for their capabilities, to maintain and 
sustain the higher and more important 
forms of animal existence. The countries 
that are the most thickly inhabited are the 
ones that have been submitted to the most 
intense glaciation. The scenery of lake and 
forest, the formation of hills and valleys, 
have in most instances been sculptured and 
shaped by glaciation. 

Professor Agassiz was the first to study 
the glaciation of the Alps; that of Greenland, 
Alaska and other countries has since been 
studied by others. It has been found that ex- 
actly a similar wearing away and scoring of 
the rocks, the transportation of detritus, and 
other forms of ice action may be observed 
all over the north part of the continent, 
and this is now the accepted explanation of 
the same phenomena and couditions here. 
They can be accounted for in no other 
rational manner. It has been thought that 
there has been more than one period of gla- 
ciation, but a study of the local conditions 
seem to reveal but one peiiod here. This 
section seems to have been in the center 
and track of the most intense denudation. 
The movement of the ice lobe seems to have 
begun upon the shores of the Atlantic, per- 
haps as far north as Greenland, and slowly 
crept southward year by year, always most 
intense upon and near the ocean, or other 
large bodies of water, and to have extended 
as far south as central New Jersey, then 
foUovv-ing an irregular line northwestward 
to near the east end of Lake Erie, thence 
southwestward to Cincinnati, Ohio, thence 
northwestward to central Iowa, and con- 
tinuing via Bismarck, Dakota, to an un- 
known distance over the Saskatchewan. 
There was at the same time another lobe 
moving from Alaska, on the Pacific, extend- 
ing as far south as northern California, and 
another extending from north to central 
Europe, upon the eastern continent. Ice 
seems a solid and rigid body, but is really a 
solid vrith some of the characteristics of a 



These serai-solid movements have been 
most carefully studied and measured in 
Greenland. It has been found that ice 
moves over that continent wherever there 
is a slope of forty feet to the mile; 
and in the Alps over a like slope, the 
distance of 70 feet a day where there was 
an ice front of not more than a half a mile. 
On steeper slopes and wider fronts, the 
movement is several hundred feet a day. 
The power of ice to tear away and transport 
rock masses from one place to another, 
seems to lie in the fact of oongealation at 
night, and thawing during the day time. 
Ice expands in freezing. This is the force 
that loosens and rends the solid mountains. 
These detached masses, falling upon the ice, 
are carried to lower levels, or frozen fast to 
the bottom ice, and carried onward with the 
mass, scoring and grinding the rocks, over 
which they move with prodigious energy. 

Glacial Streams. 

It was not until the closing scenes of the 
glacial period, wlien these great masses of 
ice were thawing and wasting away, the 
slow accumulations of many thousands of 
years, that the systems of glacial rivers, 
seen all over the county, were formed. The 
more prominent ones came down from the 
direction of Cartage, trending southwest- 
ward, and emptying into Lake Ontario. 
What is known as Rutland Hollow, and the 
swamp in the towns of Rutland, Watertown 
and Houndsfleld, was one of these old glacial 
river beds, dividing just east of the city of 
Watertown. One branch flowed along its 
bed through the Cemetery, the other 
through the Fair ground, thus making the 
site of Watertown an island at that time. 
Where it crosses the present river, near the 
new engine works, deep strise may be seen 
in the heavy bedded birdseye limestone. 
Later on, and nearer the close of glaciation, 
this channel in Rutland was filled or 
dammed with ice, and a lower one, the same 
as the one now occupied by the present 
river, formed. The old geologists, before 
glaciation was much studied, believed that 
the present river channel from Watertown 
to Dexter, is later and denuded by causes 
now in action ; but the better explanation 
seems to be that the present river-bed is the 
old channel of preglacial erosion, tempo- 
rarily dammed with ice durmg the glacial 
period, and that, upon the ice thawing, the 
present channel was again re-occupied. It 
is readily observed and apparent that 
while the ice-sheet overlaid the whole coun- 
try, all previously existing streams became 
filled and dammed with ice, and new ones 
established, flowing southward, or, as in the 
case here, more to the westward. 

The St. Lawrence was turned back upon 
itself ; the waters of Lake Ontario forced to 
find an outlet into the Hudson, through the 
channel of the Mohawk ; then the channel 
of the Mohawk was dammed with ice, and 
the whole watershed reversed and turned 

westward into the Ohio and the Wabash. The 
old shores of Lake Ontario, 300 feet above 
their present level, may be seen in many 
places and upon different levels, as tlie suc- 
cessive channels were closed and opened. The 
theory of a molten condition of the earth's 
center, obtains some confirmation from these 
old lake shores occupying elevations. Thej' 
suggest that the vast masses of ice tempo- 
rarily depressed the portions of the earth 
that they covered. 

Local conditions, to some extent, deter- 
mined the directions of the streams and 
rivers. Tlie Adirondack mountains, being 
a center of local glaciation, forced all out- 
flows of water and ice in a southwesterly 
direction. The glacial scratches, the sculp- 
turing of the hills, and the direction of the 
valleys show this. 

The Potsdam sandstone, the strata of the 
birds-eye limestone, and that of the Hudson 
river group, probaby extended further north 
than at present ; but over all the northern 
and western portions of the county, the 
edges hsive been denuded and carried away. 
An examination of the sands that now lie 
upon the western slopes of the mountains, 
shows them to have been made up from the 
calciferous and Potsdam sandstone mainly. 
These same red sands now fill the bottoms 
of the channels of the old glacial streams, 
and they overlie considerable stretches of 
the surface of the county. The " pine 
plains,'' above Great Bend, once densely 
covered with pine forest, are made up of 
this sand, so little intermixed with sedi- 
ment and glacial clays, common over most 
other portions of the territory, that there is 
no fertility in the soil, it being almost pure 

The southeastern portions of the county 
seem not to have been so much disturbed by 
glaciation. The streams are usually old 
channels of erosion, and the general face of 
the country, though deeply scored in places, 
appears more like unglaciated regions. 
There was undoubtedly the same covering 
of ice there, but the land being higher, and 
a little outside of the center of glacial ac- 
tivities, the ice melted more slowly. There 
is a fine natural exposure of the edge of the 
Utica slate, where it thins out in the bed of 
Sandy creek, a short distance from Whites- 
ville, perhaps the only natural thinning-out 
exposure left in the county, readily found. 
It was this natural thinning out of tlie strata 
that presented the opportunity for the great 
displays of local dynamic energy ; the ice, 
following the harder gneiss and granite, 
easily displaced the edges of the stratilied 
rocks, until it met the heavy bedded birds- 
eye limestone in the central portions of the 
county. Genuine " hogs backs " are seen at 
Carthage, upon the carved and worn beds 
of gneiss that form the country rock 

Perch lake, and nearly all the other small 
lakes in the county, are what are termed by 
glacialists, kettle holes. They were formed 



by glacial detritus, being dropped at the 
lower ends of depressions, and there has not 
yet time intervened for their filling up, or 
the wearing down of their outlets. It is in 
these respects that the county has been 
benefited by glaoiation : but taking the 
county as a whole, there may be doubts of 
any benefits arising out of former glaoia- 
tion. In too many places the fine preglacial 
soils have either been covered up or re- 
moved to Central and Southern New York, 
Pennsylvania and Ohio, too little time since 
intervening for the reformation of fertile 
soils by natural causes. Judging by the 
data we have in the wearing away of 
streams, it is scarcely ten thousand years 
since glaciers were floating to Lake Ontario 

from the Adirondack region, past the site 
of the city of Watertown. 

The heavy-bedded clays in the central and 
western part of the county, underlaid by 
gravel and bowlders, are true glacial clays, 
deposited while the lake was at a higher 
level. In some beds there are intermixtures 
of blue clay. These have been derived from 
the denuded Utica slate and Lorraine shale. 

Bowlders of gneiss, hornblende, granite, 
Labradorite, marble, mica schist and other 
minerals from the Lauren tian rocks of 
Canada, and the highlands of the Adiron- 
dack, some of them weighing an hundred 
tons, are common and indiscriminately dis- 
tributed ujjon and below the surface in 
nearly all parts of the county. 


This distinguished citizen, so well remem- 
bered by the earlier settlers of Watertown. 
was born in Farmington, Conn., in 1790, and 
came into this town in 1804 with his father, 
vi'ho was one of those hardy settlers that 
came into the Black River country to find a 
home. Young Orville was regarded like the 
other boys of those early days, for though 
his parents were never designated as "poor," 
yet all the children of that era were taught 
habits of self-reliance, and they looked upon 
honest labor as the only true means by 
which respectability, wealth, and even 
honor were to be attained. To be an idler 
in those days would have been a synonym 
for "loafer"' or "tramp" as we now use 
those terms. Young Orville early mani- 
fested an inclination towards mercantile 
life, and when quite young he became a 
clerk in the store of Jabez Foster, then 
located at Burrville. but removed to Water- 
town in 1808. In that store he began as 
sweeper, duster, office-boy and care-taker, 
for boys in those days cheerfully took 
liumble positions where a chance to work 
upward was appai-ent. Long before he was 
31, Mr. Hungerford began to display the 
abilities which were to make him so con- 
spciuous in mercantile and political life, and 
as soon as he was of age he became a part- 
ner in the business, the firm being Foster & 
Hungerford. The war of 1813 enabled this 
firm, the most i^rominent in the county, to 
enter upon an extended trade in supplying 
the troops at Saokets with needed provis- 
ions and other supplies . They were success- 
ful, and respected in all their dealings with 
the government. In 1815 Mr. Hungerford, 
then in his 35th year, began mercantile 
business for himself, and so continued until 
1843. His success was assured from the 
stai't, for his integrity, his business capacity 
and his breadth of character had made him 
the best known and perhaps the most re- 
spected man in Jefferson county. 
His Business Career. 
In the promotion of the railroad from 
Rome to Cape Vincent, Mr. Hungerford en- 

gaged with great ardor, laboring with zeal 
and energy that knew no weariness or dis- 
couragement, and the citizens of Jefferson 
county will have reason to be grateful 
to his memory for the efficiency of his 
efforts. He held the first office of presi- 
dent of the company at the time of his 

Mr. Hungerford was for many years a di- 
rector and at his death was president 
of the Jefferson County Bank, where 
his integrity and promptness in busi- 
ness had perhaps a wider field than in his 
mercantile pursuits. But whereever placed , 
and however surrounded, he proved himself 
equal to any emergency and fully "justified 
the honors he had gained." 

As a man of business he was prompt, de- 
cided, active and correct. His judgment 
was clear and sound, and he possessed the 
faculty of obtaining for his plans the entire 
confidence of his business associates. If in 
his private affairs he was exact, he was also 
rigidly honest. No deceit or guile ever 
found utterance, but manful uprightness 
characterized all ])is transactions. As a 
politician he was a conservative, a man of 
but few words, but many thoughts. The 
Democratic party achieved jnany victories 
under his leadership and were beaten but 
seldom. His plans were carefully laid and 
vigorously executed, his influence was exer- 
cised with ease, and he controled without 
an effort. In his private character he was 
exemplary, generous, and friendly. In his 
public bestow ments, munificent. Institu- 
tions of learning received liberal endow- 
ments from his generosity. 

As Politician and Statesman. 

During the few weeks he has been en- 
gaged at Watertown in preparing some of 
the details of this History, the writer heard 
a remark made by a very clear-headed and 
observing gentleman of mature age, in 
which he declared that Jefferson county had 
developed several able ■' politicians," but 
not one " statesman." He was certainly in 
error in the last portion of his remark, for 



in Mr. Hungerford were cooibined all 
those excellencitis which made Silas Wright 
and William L. Marcy and Thomas A. 
Benton so conspicuous in their day, 
and have caused their memories to be so 
well perpetuated in history. In suav- 
ity, commanding presence, a know- 

was not a collegiate, nor were they, but 
whatever he had acquired from books had 
been accomplished by a thorough know- 
ledge of every branch of learning presented 
to his mind, and his natural aptitude en- 
abled him to recall at any moment any in- 
formation he had stored away ready for 

ledge of parliamentary law, in ardent 
sympathy with the toilers of the country, 
in which his democi'atic ways and easiness 
of approach, in natural gifts, in a solid and 
enduring education in all the essentials for 
business or statesmanship, and in legislative 
experience. Mr. Hungerford was the equal 
of either of the men we have named. He 

use. He was not a waveriug or quibbling 
politician, so common in these days, but a 
man whose convictions were honest and 
honestly maintained on all occasions. He 
was firm as a rock when he felt that he was 
right, as was strikingly illustrated when 
he introduced into Congress, as chairman of 
the Committee of Ways and Means, the dis- 



tinctly protective tariff of 1846. Up to that 
tiuie there had been no general or substan- 
tial opposition to the doctrine of protection 
to those American industries which were 
then just emerging from their infancy, and 
in the Northern states there was but little 
criticism of such a policy. But the South- 
ern leaders, desiring to market their great 
cotton product abroad, and to bring back 
free of duty the goods which they consumed, 
(which they were then obliged to buy in 
New York and Boston after having paid a 
duty, and thus they had become enhanced 
in price by the profits of several middle- 
men), had determined to break away from 
the protective plan for collecting the money 
to carry on the government. Mr. Hunger- 
ford had been made chairman of the im- 
portant committee which had charge of the 
duty of reporting a tariff, at a time when 
the question of protection was not particu- 
larly prominent, and the Southernei's in- 
dulged the hope, when their time for oppos- 
ing protection had come, to be able to con- 
trol him, as they had previously controlled 
many Northern representatives. They 
brought to bear upon Iiim all the blandish- 
ments in their power, but his mind was 
made up, and he could not be moved. He 
was even offered the nomination to the 
Vice-Pi-esidency, aftewards tendered to 
Silas Wright, if he would modify his tariff 
bill to suit the views of the Southern lead- 
er's — but their promises and their efforts 
were in vain, and his bill was passed almost 
exactly as reported. The Southern leaders, 
finding they had encountered a man not so 
easily turned aside from his duty to his con- 
stituency, were afterwards less courteous to 
Mr. Hungerford, and, as has been their 
method always, they ultimately withdrew 
their confidence from the man they could 
not control or coerce. 

Mr. Hungerford's natural modesty pre- 
vented him from resenting this attempt to 
control his action as a representative of the 
labor and manufacturing interests of his 
section, as a more pugnacious man would 
have done, but the treatment he received 
from leading Southerners at that time, 
doubtless had much to do with his subse- 
quent indifference for public honors. He 
seemed to feel a disregard for public life, 

and clung all the more tenaciously to his 
home and to liis early friends. Certain it is 
that if he had desired the place, and would 
have worked for it, he could have been 
made Governor or a Senator in Congress. 
When at the very zenith of his fame and 
popularity, and only in his 61st year he passed 
on to join the great majority lamented by all, 
idolized by his family, and mourned for as a 
brother by those who knew him intimately. 

The writer has often reflected what would 
have been the course of Mr. Hungerford had 
he lived to enter upon the great Civil War. 
His natural patriotism, the insight he had 
obtained into the workings of Southern 
politicians, and the promptings of his own 
independent character, all teach us that he 
would have been prominent in support of 
the Union cause, and would have given it, 
not a lukewarm support, as many Demo- 
crats did, but unhesitating and substantial 
sympathy and service. 

He was a natural-born gentleman. To 
know him was to respect him. His manners 
invited confidence but not familiarity, and 
though eminently democratic and easily ap- 
proached, he always impressed you as one 
of superior ability, as an able counselor, a 
man of many excellencies in mind, in at- 
tainment, and in person, for he was of com- 
manding presence, with a face that invited 
confidence. In any body of men, in any 
land, he would have been marked as one 
worthy of prominence. 

He "died April 6, 1851, after a short but 
severe illness of 12 days. His death was felt 
for many years as a great public calamity, 
for there were times soon after when his 
statesmanlike ability would have been avail- 
able, as indeed it would be acceptable now, 
nearly forty years after he had passed away. 

He married, Oct. 31, 1813, Betsey P., 
daughter of George and Hannah (Porter) 
Stanley. She was born at Wethersfield, 
Conn., Mar. 37, 1786 ; died Sept. 17, 1861, 
in the 76th year of her age. 

Their first residence as housekeepers was 
in the house now (1894) owned by E. L. 
Paddock, on the corner of Washington and 
Clinton streets. He removed to the large 
stone house that he built on Washington 
street in 1835, which is still occupied by a 
portion of his family. j. a. h. 









Solid Trains with Elefrant Sleeping Cars leave Niagara Falls daily 8.10 p. m. for Thousand Islands. maMng immediate connections at Clayton withont transfer, 
with powerful steamers of Kichelien & Ontario Navigation Co. for Alexandria Bay, Montreal, Quebec and the Elver Saguenay, passing all the Thousand Inlands 
and running all the Bapids of the Biver St. Lawrence by dayllRht, the most attractive trip in the world. 

White Mountains and Portland Express leaves Niagara Falls daily except Saturday at 8.10 p. m. with through Sleeping Cars Niagara Falls to Portland.maSing 
connections at Norwood for Massena Springs ; at Moira for Paul Smith's and Adirondack resorts, and running through the heart of the Mountains via Fabyan's 
^nd famous Crawford Notch to Portland, with immediate connections for Bar Harbor, Old Orchard, Kennebunkport and all Sea Coast resorts of Maine. This 
-.^s^feain stops at all principal resorts in the White Mountains. 

Sleeping Cars on Night Trains and Drawing-Eoom Cars on Day Trains from Niagara Falls, Bocbester, Syracuse and Utica to Clayton [Thousand Islands], vrhg 
connection is made by all trains with Palace Steamer "St. Lawrence" for all Thousand Island Besorta. 



Cape Vincent to Alexandria Bay. 

" " " Kingston 10 

*• " ** Gananoqne 16 

Alexandria Bay to Westminster 

Park 1 

Rockport 8 

Central Park... » 

Names of Points indicated by Figures in Red. 

1. Carlton Island 

2. Governor's Island Ex-Lieut.-Gov. T. O. Alvord. 

3. Calumet Island Mr. Chas. G. Emery, New York. 

4. Eock Island Light-Honse, head of American Channel. 

I Occident and Orient E. K. Washburn, New York. 

( Isle of Pines Mrs. K. N. Eobiuson, New Tork. 

~ ' .C. L. Fredericks, Carthage, N.Y. 

Rev. Goodrich, Lafargeville, N. Y, 

I Arthur Hughes, Stone Mills, N. Y. 

I Frederick Smith, Watertown, N. Y. 

. S. Ainsworth, Watertown, N. Y. 

8. Waving Branches 

9. Jolly Oaks. ^y„,-^-g,-; 

Prof. A. H. Brown, Carthage, N. Y. 
" D. Ferguson, 


( Hon. W. W. Batterfleld, Redwood, N. Y. 

Names of Points indicated by Figures in Red. 

10. Island Royal ISoyal E. Deane, New York. 

11. Seveulsles Bradley Winslow, Watertown, N. Y. 

11. Point Vivian; Beisot Tozer, J. J. Kinney, Dr. Jones, 

Geo. Jones, William Cooper, and others. Stone Mills, 
New York. 

13. Bella Vista Lodge F. J. Bosworth, Newport, R. I. 

14. Comfort Island A. E. Clark, Chicago. 

15. Warner Island H. H. Warner, Rochester, N. Y. 

6. Cherry Island | ^: I. S'aiX'' *-"" '^°- 

17. WauWinet 0. B. Hill, Chicago. 

18. Nobby Island H. R. Heath, New York. 

19. Welcome Island S. G. Pope, Ogdensbuii 

20. Linlithgow Islanu E. A. Livingston, New Yorl 

21. Bonnie Castle Holland Estate, 

22. Isle Imperial Mrs. H. Q. Le Conte, Philadelphia. 

23. Point Marguerite £. Anthony, New York. 

24. Sport Island Packer Estate. 

|g" j-Snmmerland Qronp. 
27. Manhattan Group, 


'HE importance of these islands, which form the northwest- 
ern boundary of Jefferson county, demands historical 
consideration distinct and separate from the towns in 
which they are situated. Cape Vincent, Clayton, Or- 
leans and Alexandria each claim a part of the islands, 
since they are mapped and described as belonging to the towns which front 
upon the river opposite. The islands proper really begin at Cape Vincent, 
and extend to Morristown and Brockville, about thirty-eight miles below, 
and are about 1 , 500 in number. 

The author has been sometimes puzzled what to believe as he listens to 
diverse statements of the same general facts as related by diflFerent individuals. 
To understand the errors of many such statements at once demonstrates the un- 
reliability of oral testimony, and the importance of serious investigation before making a 
record for the printed page. It was once believed by many that Wells Island was for a time 
held half-and-half by both Canada and the Unitad States. The inconsistency of such a 
location of the dividing line between two governments will be apparent to the most casual 
observer. But under such misinformation there were numerous settlements by Canadians 
upon that important island, claiming that they were within the limits of their own country. 
The truth is that in the treaty division of these islands there was no attempt to divide any 
island. The treaty called for a line running up the " main channel of the St. Lawrence," 
but when the commissioners came on to locate the line, they found two main chan- 
nels, both navigable, though the southeast (the American) channel was by far the straightest, 
and is undoubtedly the main channel of the river at that point ; and so the commissioners 
"gave and took" islands under the treaty. Wells Island falling to the United States be- 
cause so near its main, shore, and Wolf Island going to the Canadians for a similar reason. 

The place which this beautiful region holds in American history is second only to that 
occupied by New England and Plymouth Rock, while the memories and traditions which 
cluster around it are as thrilling and romantic as are to be found in the new world. Wars, 
piracy, tragedy and mystery have contributed to its lore. 

The St. Lawrence was discovered by Jacques Cartier, the French explorer, in 1535, but 
he did not proceed further up the stream than to explore the St. Louis rapids above Mont- 
real. There is much uncertainty as to the identity of the white man who first gazed upon 
the beautiful scene presented by the Thousand Islands. The early discoverers were less in- 
terested in scenery than in the practical things which pertained to navigation, trade and 
travel, and the spreading of Christianity. Champlain, in 1615, beginning at the western 
end of Lake Ontario, explored that lake and the St. Lawrence to Sorel river, thus passing 
through this region. 



View in The Lake of The Isles. 

How or when or by whom the world's attention was first called to this archipelago is a 
matter of doubt, but certainly at an early date it had impressed itself upon the lover of the 
grand and beautiful, for at least two centuries ago the French christened it " Les Mille 
Isles" — The Thousand Isles. The later and more completely descriptive English name for 
it is " The Lake of a Thousand Islands. ' ' The St. Lawrence has marked the line of separa- 

^^^^^H ^^^^^^^H tion, and the 

^^B^^ ^^ii— ^^^"^""^^^^^^^"^.^ ^^ ^^^Tl Thousand Isl- 

^^^^ _^<S'i ;•■'■■. ^^^^'*i«».. ands have been 

f ^^^^ ""^'^^ *^^ scene of 

-^^ ^^^ sorhe of the im- 

portant cam- 
paigns in four 
great conflicts 
between nations. 
The first was the 
Indian war be- 
tween the Al- 
gonquin and the 
Iroqouis, which 
continued many 
years, with oc- 
casional inter- 
missions. The 
second struggle 
was between the 
French and En- 
glish, and many 
of its hostile 
meetings and 
victories and defeats took place among the islands and on the neighboring shores. In the 
American revolutionary war with England, and that between the same forces in 1812, 
the defense of this locality was of decided importance ; therefore it witnessed much 
activity, and some memorable engagements were fought within sight and sound of this 
spot now devoted to pleasure, with no warring or warlike nations to trouble the calm of 
perpetual peace. 

Some of the most exciting incidents of that disastrous military adventure,' known as the 
Patriot war, with its intermittent outbreaks from 1837 to 1839, took 
place on this part of the river, notably the capture of the British steamer 
Sir Robert Peel, near Wells Island, on the night of May 29, 1838, and | 
the battle of the Windmill, near Prescott, Ont., November ]3, of the 
same year. 

The development and wonderful increase in the value of these 
islands have been more especially due to influences which have origi- 
nated at Alexandria Bay. The islands were transferred to the State of 
New York through the several treaties with the aborigines, following the 
same chain of title by which the main shore, from the Hudson to the St. 
Lawrence, came under the proprietary and governing control of the 
State. The dividing line between the United States and Canada passes 
somewhat arbitrarily among the islands, really some ] , 500 in number, 
and varying in size from a small pile of rocks covered by a few stunted 
trees, to others quite large — one of them (Wells Island) 
containing nearly 10,000 acres of arable land, This^^^j^M* jy 

valuable island was conceded to the United States , *" ^" 

under the treaty with England, negotiated at the \ 
close of our war for independence. The State of New j 



York, by patent under its great seal, conveyed the islands to Colonel Elisha Camp, a dis- 
tinguished citizen of Sackets Harbor. In 1845 Azariah Walton and Chesterfield Parsons 
purchased (not from Col. Camp, but from Yates & Mclntyre, of lottery fame, whose title 
came from Camp), the northwest half of Wells Island and ' ' all the islands in the American 
waters of the river St. Lawrence from the foot of Round Island (near Clayton) to Morris- 
town," a distance of some thirty-five miles. The consideration was $3,000. Eventually 
the Parsons interest was purchased by Walton, who became sole owner, and continued as 
such until the firm of Cornwall & Walton was established in 1853, when they purchased 
nearly the whole of the remaining half of Wells Island, and then that firm became sole 
owner of all these islands, having vested in them all the rights and title originally granted 
Colonel Camp by the State of New York. 

The value of the islands was quite nominal until they fell under the new firm's control, 
and even for several years afterwards. Eventually there grew up a demand for them, and 
they were sold low, but with a clause in the conveyance requiring a cottage to be erected 
within three years. Col. Staples obtained as a free gift the grounds upon which he erected 
the Thousand Island House. As an indication of the present value of at least one of these 
islands, it is now made public that f 10, 000 was offered and refused for an island sold by 
Cornwall & Walton for jflOO. This is undoubtedly an exceptional instance, but all the islands 
are held at figures now regarded as high, but which will be thought very cheap years 
hence, as real estate on the islands and along the shore of that river is constantly increasing 
in price. The Canadian islands are yet unsold. 

Faintly as tolls the evening chime 
Our voices keep tune, and our oars keep time : 
Soon as the vpoods on shore look dim, 
"We'll .sing at St. Ann's our parting hymn. 
Row, brothers, row, the stream runs fast, 
The rapids are near and the day-light's past ! 

"Why should we yet our sail unfurl ? 
There is not a breath the blue wave to curl ! 
But, when the wind blows off the shore. 
Oh ! sweetly we'll rest on our weary oar. 
Blow, breezes, blow, the stream runs fast. 
The rapids are near and the day-light's past ! 

Ottawa's tide ! this trembling moon. 
Shall see us float over thy surges soon : 
Saint of this green isle ! hear our prayers. 
Oh ! grant us cool havens and favoring airs. 
Blow, breezes, blow, the stream runs fast. 
The rapids are near and the day-light's past ! 



I ver 

HE present surroundings at Alexandria Bay are 
very picturesque and attractive. Let us suppose 
some traveler from Europe who had seen all lands 
but our own, to be on one of the many steamers that land at 
lAlexandria Bay, and as the boat glides into the swift and 
narrow channel above the town, and her bow is turned so as 
bring into sudden view the beautiful hotels and picturesque 
^cottages, each perched upon its pedestal of primeval rock, 
what would be his surprise and awakening interest. Before 
him would be the grand river, the beautiful islands, the build- 
ings which adorn what nature has made so grand and in- 
viting. Suppose yet further that on the very evening of his arrival there would occur 
one of those not infrequent river carnivals, when all the receding shore, the hundreds 
of gaily-adorned boats, the moving throng of spectators would be bathed in the soft 
light thrown from a thousand flaming lanterns, and then this whole scene of beauty 
should be enlivened by thrilling music under a starlit sky, would not our much-trav- 
eled visitor be constrained to cry out, " Why, this is even beyond Venice !" 

He would be only one of many visitors at Alexandria Bay and the Thousand Islands 
who cannot understand how so much could have been accomplished in a quarter of a cen- 
tury. Such observers should, however, remember that man has made but few improve- 
ments, compared with the work of the Almighty Biiilder, whose admirable handiwork was 
known and appreciated many years ago by some of the most prominent men in the country. 

Indeed, if a list had been 
kept of the names of 
visitors, it would ,have 
embraced nearly all of 
the prominent statesmen 
during the administra- 
tions of Jackson, Van 
Buren, Polk and Bu- 

This popular summer 
resort would have been 
brought much sooner in- 
to public notice but for 
the want of more ex- 
tended hotel accommo- 
dations. Charles Cross- 
mon began a hotel there 
early in 1848, and he 
proved a most acceptable 
and popular landlord, 
enlarging his modest 
building each year, un- 
til the present Crossmon 
House is one of the finest 
summer hotels in the 

The time soon came, 
however, when one 
hotel could not accom- 
modate all the people, 
and in 1873, Col. O. G. Staples, now proprietor of "Willard's," Washington, D. C, com- 
pleted the Thousand Island House, and these two leading hotels have been very successful. 

The Crossmon in 















The Late Charles Crossmon. 

Charles Crossmon came to Alexandria Bay in 1846, and no one of the energetic 
men who have become so prominent in that locality has done more (and very few as much) 
to bring into prominence that most deserving and popular summer resort than Mr. Cross- 
mon. Without any special influence to aid him, and without any capital save his own right 
hand and the clear head to govern it, aided by one of the most capable and industrious 
wives the country has ever produced, he grew into a great success as a hotel-keeper, and left 
an indelible impress upon the Bay that will not be soon forgotten and can never be alto- 
gether effaced. He was born in Watertown, N. Y., and had but few advantages in his 
youth, his education having been confined to the common-school grades of instruction. 
Unluckily for him, and certainly an unpromising beginning of a business life which has 
proven so successful, he was one of the youngsters who were seduced into that " Patriot " 
army that ■ undertook in 1837 to invade Canada and redress the "wrongs" which a few 
Canadian malcontents had glowingly depicted in " Hunter " lodges and elsewhere. Cross- 
mon was one of those who were "cooped up" in the old windmill below Prescott, and 
who courageously refused to desert Von Schoultz, their leader, when Preston King came at 
night with the "Paul Pry" and offered to carry them away to the American shore. He 



was about twenty years of age at that time, and on account of his youth was finally par- 
doned by the British authorities, and released after an anxious and somewhat protracted im- 
prisonment in Fort Henry at Kingston, from which several of these "patriots" were marched 
to a felon's death upon the scaffold. [See article on the " Patriot War."] 

He commenced hotel keeping in an humble way at the Bay in 1848, succeeding his 
father-in-law in a small country tavern adapted to the wants of that early day. There were, 
however, even then some visitors to the islands and river in pursuit of fish and rest. Among 
the distinguished men who made the old "Crossmon" famous were William H. Seward, 
William 1,. Marcy, Martin Van Buren and his son John, Silas Wright, Frank Blair, Preston 
King, Rev. Dr. Bethune, General Dick Taylor, the Breckinridges, and many others equally 

As the tide of pleasure travel set in toward the St. Lawrence and its islands. The 
Crossmon was from time to time enlarged, and finally the present magnificent hotel was 
built on the site of its earliest predecessor. In the new structure everything that is desirable 
in a first-class hotel has been provided for, and in its management every facility is furnished, 
and the fullest attention given to the wishes and requirements of its guests. Its rooms are 
all pleasantly situated, affording charming views of the neighboring scenery. There are 
suites for families, with private bath-rooms and all conveniences, besides single and connect- 
ing rooms in every part of the house, all handsomely furnished. The elevator is in opera- 
tion constantly, and the stairwa3's are broad and easy. There are spacious and elegantly 
furnished drawing-rooms, wide corridors and broad verandas, and, from the latter, one of the 
most delightful views to be found in this entire region may be had. The main dining- 
room is on the river side of the house. Its tables are furnished with costly china, silver and 
cut glass and the finest linen, and suppUed with the rarest fruits and delicacies. Its service 
is unexcelled. A pleasant dining-room is provided for children in charge of nurses. The 
importance of providing special comforts and amusements for the children is recognized in 
and about this establishment. There are accommodations for nurses in their care of the 
little ones, and opportunities for wholesome sports are at hand. 

The Crossmon's surroundings are attractive. Every crevice of the immense rock upon 
which its river side rests is adorned with a bed of flowers or a small shrub. On the street 
side are graveled walks and drives, and a circular plat for out-door games, with easy benches 
protected by a canopy. Stretching eastward from the hotel is Crossmon's Point, with its 
broad, level lawn, bordered by the docks and landings for steamboats and skifife. 




T night the Crossmon, in-doors and out, presents a scene of 
^brilliancy. Rows of colored lights illumine the verandas, 
and shine from its many towers, shedding a wealth of 
color upon the water. The drawing-rooms are filled with guests 
engaged in social pastimes, and all about the place there is light 
and life and gayety. The arrival of the steamers at evening is 
celebrated by a display of fireworks in front of the hotel and on 
the neighboring islands, making a picture indescribably beautiful. 
In speaking thus extendedly of "The Crossmon," we have 
really been illustrating the successful efforts of Mr. Crossmon him- 
^»«k^self, for his hotel was his life, and upon it he lavished all his 
^^'energy, and it rewarded his honest faith. No trouble was too 
^ great for a guest ; the sick had all the care possible if by chance 
they fell ill there, and the result was that every guest became a 
'"" '" personal friend. In that way "The Crossmon" has enjoyed a 

steady return of its old patrons year by year. Indeed one patron has spent thirty-eight con- 
secutively recurring summers there. 

Personally Mr. Crossmon was unassuming, earnest in his friendships, steadfast in his 
purposes, and loyal to all those that aided to develop Alexandria Bay. In the midst of his 
complete success he was called awa)' to another country, leaving a name unblemished, and 
a memory sweet and grateful. 

The elder Crossmon having died in 1892, Mr. Charles W. Crossmon succeeds the firm 
of Crossmon & Son, whose management bas made this hotel noted throughout the world, 
and the favorite headquarters in later days of such men as President Arthur, Gen. Sheridan, 
Cardinal McClosky, Herbert Spencer, Charles Dudley Warner, B. F. Reinhart, Will Carleton, 
and other notables, whose spoken and written praises have added greatly to the popularity 
of the islands and the Crossmon. 


By ]V. A. Croffut. in "The Continent." 

My wandering soul is satisfied ; 
I rest where blooming islands ride 
At anchor on the tranquil tid^. 

The sky of summer shines serene, 
And sapphire rivers flow between 
The thousand bosky shields of green. 

And so I drift in silence where 
Young Kcho, from her granite chair. 
Flings music on the mellow air, 

O'er rock and rush, o'er wave and brake, 
Until her phantom carols wake 
The voices of the Island Lake. 

Beneath ray skiif the long grass slides ; 

The mascoloiige in covert hides, 

And pickerel nash their gleaming sides. 

And purple vines the naiads wore, 
A-tip-toe on the liquid floor, 
Nod welcome to my pulsing oar. 

The shadoTv of the waves I see, 
Whose silver meshes seem to be 
The love-web of Penelope. 

It shimmers on the yellow sands, 

Aud while, beneath the weaver's hands 

It creeps abroad in throbbing strands. 

The braided sunbeams softlj' shift, 
And unseen fingers, flashing swift. 
Unravel all]the golden weft. 

So, day byMay.'I.drift'and dream 
Among the Thousand Isles, that seem 
The crown and glory of the stream. 

Castle Rest." 



T OOKING northeast from the Crossmon, the traveller beholds Bonnie Castle, one of the 
I most picturesque spots upon tbe river — preceding by many years some more pretentious 
-^^■^^ residences, but none more elegant. Here the distinguished Dr. J. G. Holland 
founded his summer home, and adorned it with his best treasures. Hither he came gladly 
year after year, but leaving the place reluctantly. His was a nature that could drink in and 
appreciate such a spot, its picturesque and restful beauty, its flow of waters, its genial sum- 
mer visitors. But there came a spring when he came no more, for he had gone upon a long 
journey, preceding by a few years the great throng whom he will welcome when they in 
turn journey to his new-found land. 

Bonnie Castle. 


Is the name given to a cluster of seven islands and islets, contiguous but separated only so 
slightly by the waters of the river as to be readily connected by light rustic bridges. They 
are in the direct American channel, about a mile and a half above Alexandria Bay, which is 
the central point for pleasure and cottage residence upon this noble river. These islands 
are so situated that, with proper wharfage, the largest vessels could readily land and depart, 
without any material change in their direct course. They are only partially improved, are 
exquisitely picturesque and in keeping with the natural beauty and seclusion so observable 
upon the St. Lawrence, and afford by all odds the most desirable location for a hotel or 
place of public resort. 



A Rainy Day at the Islands. 

SUNSHINE and daylight are at their best among these islands. 
But even a rainy day has its compensations. Then the men stay 
around the hotels, and devote themselves to the ladies, who are not so 
much given to fishing as are their escorts. The book that was but lately 
cast aside for something promising greater zest, is now resumed at the 
turned-down page, and the promised letter is thought of and leisurely 
written. The ladies gather upon the wide verandas of the Cross- 
MON, and with crocheting and talk and exchange of experiences, pass 
away the time. Many predictions are made as to the duration of 
the rain, and with friendly chat, not disguising an occasional yawn, 
the hour for an early dinner soon arrives, and after that comes the 
afternoon nap, the early tea and then the pleasures of the evening. 
Some dance, the young brides and the other bright ones who are very 
willing to becomes brides and share in the happiness they watch so 
intently, these steal away to the darker corners of the verandas, where 
confidences and an occasional pressure of the hand (possibly a kiss) 
may be indulged in without too much publicity. So, almost unlag- 
gingly, the day passes away, and John, the oarsman, promising fair 
weather to-morrow, stillness and sleep creep over the happy company, 
who are willing to declare that even a rainy day is enjoyable among 
the Thousand Islands, where the soft outlines of the ever-varying 
shore are half-hidden, half-revealed through the rainy mist, as if wait- 
ing for the sun's enchanting power to develop their hidden mysteries 
and reveal their entrancing, restful beauties. This is indeed that "Port 
of Peace," into which, when once you have sailed your boat, you are 
glad to stay, and you leave the spot with sad regrets, to be remembered 
always as the place where the soul is lifted up to God in glad thank- 
fulness that He ever made such a resting spot for His weary children, 
who, through many pilgrimages in many lands, at last find here a 
spot that fills the hungry soul with satisfaction. 

Now, as to health. All who have ever remained here for a week 
after the third or fourth day there is a peculiar change in the system, 
troubled with insomnia, it begins to leave you, and natural, restful sleep asserts its sway. 
You like to sit and rest, your legs become lazy, and you are not at all anxious for long 
walks. The Crossmon's shady settees have become matters for consideration; you conclude, 
after much argument, which is the easiest one, and best protected from the sun. You 
yawn often, and wonder what has come over you. You can lay down and take a nap at al- 
most any hour after 10 a. m. You languidly push aside the newspaper whose leaders only 
last week were read with the most intense interest. The spirit of Rest creeps upon you al- 
most unawares, for your system is being fed upon the ozone of this health-giving spot. The 
very air becomes an active ally in behalf of your overworked nerves, and before you are 
aware of it, you begin to fill up with reserve force, that shall stand you in good stead in the 
city's heat and push. 

These beneficial influences are within the reach of all. There are now hotels and 
boarding-houses at Alexandria Bay, the Thousand Island Park, at Clayton, and Cape Vin- 
cent, at Westminster Park, and at nearly all the other resorts, where the poor man can find 
entertainment within his means, and the rich man, too, much as he is criticised, may also 
find comforts adapted to his desires. In former times there were only the more expensive 
resorts, and that kept away the middle class of summer tourists. That is all changed now, 
and every condition except the chronically poor can find boarding houses within their 
means. It will not be long before this great national Vacation Park, 38 miles long, will be 
eagerly sought by all conditions of society, from the skilled mechanic to the millionaire. 

are conscious that 
If you have been 




' ANY people make the mistake of supposing that a summer vacation is not complete 
unless devoted to various sorts of physicial exercise. It seems to be taken for granted 
that the energies of body and mind cannot be recuperated except by trips and di- 
versions that call for muscular effort. Summer resorts that do not offer such opportunities are 
often thought to be wanting in proper attractions. There is another class of people, such as 
artists, teachers and clergymen, who seek places where they may pursue their usual work amid 
new surroundings. Under suitable restrictions perhaps no harm comes from this. Change of 
air and of diet are beneficial, and new faces and new scenery tend to break up the monotony 
of all toil and care. There are not enough people, however, who appreciate the value of a 
period of absolute rest, an entire cessation from activity. Just as land is better for being 
allowed to lie fallow, the physical and mental energies of man are better for being allowed 

to repose for a time. Nothing is lost by permitting mind 
and body each j'ear to indulge thus in a few days' slumber. 
A short season spent in lounging about the Thousand Islands, 
watching the shifting water, or in idling in the woods and 
fields, with their fresh odors and changing views of hill and 
dale, light and shade, island and shore, as they intermingle 
and then separate, will often fill the frame with new vigor 
and the mind with new impressions. Particularly is such a 
change beneficial when the thermometer is up among the 
nineties. Then, if ever, the energies should be carefully 
husbanded. The English philosopher who asserted that 
Americans work too hard and take too little leisure, stated a 
truth which intelligent foreign visitors have frequently 
noted. This warning has a special timeliness just at present, 
and the seeker after a spot where the very soul may rest will 
find his El Dorado among the Thousand Islands. 

Perhaps these islands should not be dismissed from consider- 
ation without more extended mention of the Mississagaus, last 
of the aborigines who inhabited the archipelago designated 
as the Thousand Islands. This harmless and friendly tribe 
inhabited, also, the islands in the Bay of Quinte, that beau- 
tiful land-locked sheet of water southwest of Kingston, 
Ontario. Johan George Kohl, a distinguished European 
traveler and author, in 1854 visited Northern New York, 
including these islands, and left upon record many interest- 
ing reminiscences of his visit. He is a genial, acute and 
observing writer, and we venture to spare a small space for 
him. He says: "It was the practice among the Missis- 
sagaus, at certain times of the year, to leave the islands to 
their young people, and make great hunting expeditions 
northward into the interior of Canada, and southward into 
New York. My informant had visited them once when he was 
a young man, and being hospitably received, had afterwards 

repeated his visits, made 
acquaintances and 
friends among them, 
lived with them for 
weeks, and shared the 
joys and sorrows of a 
hunter's life. Once, 
when he had been on a . 
journey to Niagara and 



the West, and had been a long time absent, he could not desist when he passed 
the Thousand Islands on his return to his native town, Brockville, from making 
a call by the way on his Mississagua friends. They recognized him immediately, 
gave him the warmest reception, and carried him on their shoulders to their Chief, 
who made a great feast in his honor, and canoes full of Indians came gliding in 
crowds from the islands to see and welcome him. He had to pass the night among 
them ; the squaws prepared his couch, and two of the Indians insisted on serving 
him as a guard of honor at his tent-door, where they camped out and kept the fire. 'I was 
almost moved to tears myself, sir, on seeing my half-savage friends again. Believe me, it is 
a race very susceptible to kindness, though at the same time certainly verj' revengeful for 
injuries. They never forget their friends, but are very terrible and even treacherous against 
their enemies. We call them poor and miserable, but they appear quite otherwise to them- 
selves. They are proud of their prowess and animal daring, and of the performances of 
their forefathers. In fact they think themselves the first race in creation. ' They have been 
scattered like the chaff ; their fisheries and their hunting became continually less productive; 
the villages and towns of the whites grew up around them ; they began to feel the pressure 
of want ; their race died away like the fish in their waters, and at last the few who remained 
accepted a proposal of the Government, that they shoiild exchange these islands for a more 
remote habitation — I do not myself know exactly where. ' ' 

Where people live with their families. When they ^et tired of one place they hire a tug and move on. 

The Foiger Steamers. 

The many residents as well as the travellers among the Thousand Islands are fortunate 
in the Steamboat service upon the upper river. It is perhaps not generally known that the 
Messrs. H. S. & B. W. Foiger, are Jefferson covmty men, their father having been a re.'iident 
of Cape Vincent in 1842-1'8. These young men]icommenced their business career in King- 
ston, Ont., many years ago, and are now the largest vessel owners on the upper river. 
Their commodious steamers, formerly known as the "White Squadron," consisting of the 
St. Lawrence, Empire State, Islander, Maynard and Jessie Bain, connect with all Rome, 
Watertown & Ogdensburg Railroad trains arriving at and departing from Clayton and Cape 
Vincent. Kn route between Clayton and Alexandria Bay they make stops at Round Island, 



Grenell Island Park, Thousand Island Park, Fine View Park, Jolly Oaks, St. Lawrence 
Park, Point Vivian and Edgewood Park. At each of these points tourists will find fair 
hotel accommodation. The large Hotel Frontenac, at Round Island, is one of the prom- 
inent objects down the river after the steamer leaves Clayton. Round Island, the first stop, 
is a fine summer resort, the Island being dotted by numerous pretty cottages. At the next 
landing, Grenell Island Park, the Pullman House is located. The new Columbian Hotel at 
Thousand Island Park, is built vipon modern plans, lighted throughout by electricity, and 
equipped with every convenience for the comfort of its guests. The Fine View House 
possesses a splendid location on Wellesley Island, five minutes' run below Thousand Island 
Park. The Grand View Park Hotel also occupies a prominent position at the head of 
Wells Island, and is reached by a small ferry steamer from Thousand Island Park. The 
Cottage Hotel, at St. Lawrence Park, is situated in a fine grove and attracts patrons. Edge- 
wood Park possesses a very comfortable hotel, and is a secluded, restful spot among the 
Islands, within a short distance of Alexandria Bay, which is the last stop. The Crossmon 
House, managed by Mr. Charles W. Crossmon, has a delightful location upon the river, 
undoubtedly the finest hotel in Northern New York, and secures each season a majority of 
the patronage at that point, its patrons returning year after year. 

The Westminister Park is about one miles from Alexandria Bay, and is reached by a 
ferry steamer making hourly trips in connection with that point. It is a picturesque spot. 
The steamers of the Thousand Island Steamboat Company also ply between Cape Vincent 
and Clayton, making two round trips daily, and calling at the romantic and historical Carle- 
ton Island — the location of several prominent clubs. This Island possesses one of the most 
interesting ruins, in the form of an ancient fortification. Carleton Island boasts of one of 
the finest fishing grounds upon the St. Lawrence River. 

Frontenac ; A Sketch, 


Read at the Camp-fire, Shady I,edge, August 6th, 1889. 
MODERN humorist has written of this region : 

" Here the red injuns once took their delights, 

Fisht, fit and bled ; 
But now the inhabitants is mostly whites. 
With nary a red." 

It is a peculiarity with the American people, that as a mass we care but little for history 
especially for that of the land in which we live. As boys and girls we imbibe a strong and 
lasting prejudice against it at school. As men and women our faces are ever turned toward 
the future. Let the dead past bury its legends and 
its musty tales of marches and counter-marches. 
We are busy making the history that will be 
studied b}' our children. Such is the spirit. 

And yet I have to deal with the past, and if 
you will bear with me for a few minutes, taking 
your medicine gracefully, I will give you a bit of 
history wherein I will try to answer the question so 
often propounded, ' ' Why was the hotel named 
Frontenac ?' ' 

Passing from comedy to tragedy, I may state, 
right here, that two hundred years ago to-night, a 
camp fire occurred upon the St. Lawrence. It was 
attended by a greater throng than that now encircl- ' 
ing this little camp. Men were there who had 
fought their way for months through dense forests 

THE CHIMNEYS— carleton island. 



for the occasion. Their faces were not the faces of kindly and indulgent friends and 
neighbors, but of demons. Their songs were not those of peaceful revelry, but were the 
fiendish death-chants of the implacable savage. 

Their fagots were human bodies and their feast the hearts of the unhappy Canadian 
frontiersmen. Two hundred years ago to-day, at four o'clock in the morning, an alarm-gun 

. - - , - • was fired from a little fort in 

the environs of Montreal. It 
aroused a small army of sev- 
eral hundreds of French sol- 
diers of the line, and volun- 
teers, who had slept the 
night through while the 
dreaded Iroquois were en- 
gaged in the slaughter of 
the helpless people of the vil- 
lage of Lachine. 

All of the day of August 
6th, 1689, both invaders and 
beseiged lay stupefied. The 
VIEW ON CARLTON ISLAND One partly from the vast 

quantity of rum captured in the village, the other from the almost untellable horror and 
panic caused by the scene that met them as they came upon the ruins of Lachine. That 
night the Iroquois army, carrying along one hundred and twenty captives, retired across 
Lake St. Louis, and at Chateaugay, within sight of the people of Montreal, burned the 
greater number at the stake, a few being thoughtfully saved to be sacrificed for the amuse- 
ment of the squaws left behind in the Indian villages of Central New York. This black 
event undoubtedly led to the re-instatement, by his royal master, Louis XIV, of Count 
Frontenac as the head of affairs in the struggling colony of Canada. 

After an absence of seven years he returned to find his work of former years undone. 
Those Indian tribes whose favor and good will he had so long won and held in behalf of 
the French, were either alienated or driven away from their old haunts. The powerful and 
cruel confederation of the Six Nations held mastery of the St. Lawrence, and dictated terms 
to the commandants of the remaining and feeble out-posts. The important fort and trading 
post at Frontenac (upon the site of Kingston) was destroyed. The navigation of the lakes 
was cut off' from the French traders. The wily Dutchmen of Albany and the progressive 
Englishmen further south kept the Iroquois well supplied with powder and ball and with 
gaudy trinkets. It was the same wave of selfishness, intrigue, cruelty and devastation that 
surges in every age over all lands where the European gains a foothold, and where new 
races contend for the heritage of old and less aggressive peoples. 

Count Frontenac is described by Parkman, the able historian of Canada, in the following 
terms : " Fontenac has been called a mere soldier. He 
was an excellent soldier and more besides. He was a 
man of vigorous and cultivated mind, penetrating ob- 
servation, and ample travel and experience." 

Withal, he is said to have been of imperious nature, 
his anger often bridling his better judgment. His bear- 
ing ;iiid features were strongly patrician. His moderate 
fortune was wasted in his earlier years in the lavish en- 
tertainment that obtained about the royal court of 
I'rancc in the palmy days of Louis XIV. 

His contentions with the Order of the Jesuits, then 
all powerful in Canadian affairs, form an interesting 
page in Canadian history. 

The region of the Thousand Islands was often a de- 
batable ground among the Hurons, the Iroquois, and 

their weaker red brethren of dependent tribes. It was the old windmill below prescott. 



in the highway of predatory travel and the favorite water-lane of native barter. Frontenac 
pushed his forces up from Montreal through the maze of islands upon errands of treaty and 
persuasion, just as he sent his soldiers and their red allies down Champlain to plague the 
people of Schenectady and Albany. He was untiring. 

Taking the field himself, he sometimes made arduous voyages up the rapids of the St. 
Lawrence, and at the camp-fires of great chiefs, lighted beneath the grand old pines that 
then bordered these myriad isles, made new treaties, joined in the red-man's rude amuse- 
ments, and laid deeper the foundations of the far-reaching inland commerce which then 
extended even to Mackinac, a valuable system of traffic which the French had not the wit 
to fully appreciate or the nerve to adequately protect. 

With all excuse of probability, we may well imagine the flotilla of the adventurous 
Frenchmen after toiling up yonder American channel, and encountering the baffling winds 
and rough waves of the open lake now gleaming in the moonlight before us, seeking gladly 
the shelter of this ever hospitable island, and by a moderate tension of fancy we may con- 
ceive the barbaric scene, the brilliant costumes and arms of the Europeans flashing in the 
light of the fire, the skin-clad, feather-bedecked braves, and the swarthy beauty of the 
squaws lurking upon the edges of the conference. 

Weighing all the testimony of credible historians, and there are many great and small ; 
sifting the comment /to and con, made upon the deeds of this aggressive leader, it appears 
that he was a man who was happily fitted to deal with the events of the unsettled times in 
which he lived, and that to him, more than to any other pioneer, the valley of the St. 
Lawrence has owed its rescue in behalf of civilization. 

As far as I have been able to discover, there is no stigma upon his name which should 
make us hesitate to bestow it upon our summer abiding place. Frank H. Taylor. 

Skiff Sailing and Building. 

By F. H. Taylor. 

" Why should we yet our sail unfurl? 
There is not a breath the blue waves to curl 
But when the wind blows off the shore, 
Oh ! sweetly we'll rest on our weary oar." 

VERY visitor to the Thousand Islands who is at all rt«y«zV in the matter of sailing 
must admire the grace, speed and capabilities of the St. Lawrence skiff, and no less the 
skill and daring with which it is handled upon the breezy and often tempestuous 
open waters between the islands. If the stranger is observant, he will notice these beautiful 
skiffs have no rudders. They are 
propelled by oars either way 
with equal facility, and when the 
boatman has his party, generally 
a lady and a gentleman, stowed 
away comfortably in the chairs, 
which are a proper and indispen- 
sible feature of every boat here- 
abouts, and his sail shaken ovit 
with "sprit" all fast, you will 
discover that the waterman is 
handling his boat entirely by the 
"sheet" or line holding the sail 
in leash. By this he will guide 
his obedient craft upon any wind, 
as surely and safely as a trainer 
upon the race-track controls a 
spirited steed. A longer acquaint- 




ance with the ways of the boatman develops the fact that when a flaw careens the 
craft, he not only loosens the sheet slightly but lays forward, and if his guests are 
both gentlemen, and he wants to go about in a stiff breeze, he does not hesitate to 
request them to "lay for'ard " also, thus depressing the bow of the boat and allowing 
the stern to swing free. 

Per contra, when the wind is astern, all hands may be snugly bunched aft, and in 
"falling away" to fill the sail, when she runs up into the wind, the boatman will lay well 
back, thus dragging the stern. 

These things charm and amaze the amateur, and by dint of close attention he soon 
masters the details of this peculiar method of sailing. He must, however, know not only 
how to do the right thing at the right moment, but just also how to do it in the shortest 
possible way. His action must become automatic, and his 63^6 trained to read every sign 
the winds write upon the impressible surface of the 
waters. Most of the professional boatmen who 
are to be found duringthe summer at Round Island, 
Alexandria Bay and the other resorts, ready to pilot 
excursionists to the best fishing places, are clever 
mechanics who build boats in the winter time and 
some of them have acquired wide reputation for 
the excellence of their handiwork. There is no 
place upon the list of touring points where the boats 
are so universally good as here. Such a thing as 
a snub-nosed, flat-bottomed " tub," or gaily painted 
but otherwise contemptible row-boat, which, in 
many places, is thought "good enough for summer 
tourists," is unknown here. 

The St. Lawrence skiff is built of perfect, knot- 
less pine, or Spanish cedar, a trifle more than one- 
quarter inch in thickness. It is well ribbed with 
white oak strips, placed about four inches apart. 
The ' ' shear " is a perfect curve and every line in 
sight harmonizes. A deck extends about thirty 
inches from its pointed ends, made up of pine and 
walnut stuff laid in strips, with a centre-piece on top 
to stiffen it. Length twenty-one and one-half feet ; 
beam, in the centre, outside measure, three feet 
and three inches ; depth, thirteen inches. Snug 
seats are placed fore and aft. These are detachable 
for sponging out. The stern seat is fitted with 
an arm chair, cane-seated and backed, without 
legs. Five feet forward of this is another seat 

with a similar chair, and upon the thwarts between them are catches to hold trawling 
rods and rings for the sheet line. The two chairs face, and behind the last named 
is the fish-box, which is exactly in the centre of the boat. The box serves as a seat for the 
rower when alone in the boat, in which case he rows stern forward. Ordinarily the rower 
sits upon a seat placed so that the fish-box serves as a foot-brace. Detachable out-riggers are 
used. The boat has no keel, but an elliptic bottom piece, perfectly flat, is used. This is 
about five inches wide at centre. Upon this the boat slides when being hauled up on the 
wharf A center-board occupies the space under the rower's seat. It folds up like a fan 
into a sheath, which is water-tight, being opened and closed by a lever carefully packed. 
The sail-brace and socket for base of mast are carefully fitted, and the mast and sail, when 
not in use, lie along the starboard side of the seats. A false bottom of movable stuff pro- 
tects the light frame, and this is covered by neatly-fitting canvas. Feathering oars are 
seldom used, the boatmen claiming that a well-balanced pin oar can be more easily dropped 
to haul in a fish. 




ments, and made it a comfortable residence, which he occupied each summer until he 
associated, as joint owners with himself, Mr. and Mrs. John L. Hasbrouck of New York 
city, and from that time there commenced a series of improvements under their personal 

supervision, that has resulted in its present condition. The 
piers and buildings, the lawns, trees, shrubbery and flowers, 
and general appearance, are complete and beautiful beyond 
description, and equal those of any other island property. 
Every year, for a period of three or four months, the pro- 
prietors and their families and guests come to Manhattan to 
enjoy its beauties and its restful comforts. 

One of them remarked to the writer: "The climate 
and the natural advantages, and the life we lead here, are 
most important from a sanitary point of view, preserving the 
health and vigor of its residents, and give them continuous 
and unalloyed rest, pleasure and happiness. We come here 
gladly, and leave with keen regret — anticipating our , return 
another season as a compensation for our temporary separa- 
tion from our Island Home that we love so much. ' ' 

Seth Green alwaj-s claimed that when he selected this 
island for his summer residence, he had his choice of all the 
islands in this vicinity, and the present proprietors have 
never doubted his judgment and taste in choosing this 
island as the "bonniest of them a'." The writer found 
every reason to reach the same conclusion, for the islands are 
faultless, the turf like that of England, the people them- 
selves refined and hospitable. 

Every island and Island Home in this wilderness of 
islands, from Sport Island and Summer Land (three miles 
below Alexandria Bay) to Calumet and Governor's Island 
and those islands above them ( near Clayton, ) have their 
own natural beauty and artistic improvements, and each one 
deserves most favorable comment and criticism, but Manhat- 
tan has a quiet beauty that just fills the artistic eye. It is a 
noteworthy fact that among the islanders and cottagers 
there is neither envy nor discontent, each one apparently entirely happy in his own pos- 
sessions. Each is supreme in his little kingdom, and they are all satisfied with their 
portion of the emerald gems of this unique river, and the islanders cordially admire and 
enjoy the possessions of their neighbors almost equally with their own, and take an interest 
in every improvement made in their locality. 

Those who attended the Centennial at Philadelphia in 1876, as well as those who 
revelled in the glories of the Chicago World's Fair of 1893, when asked to describe what 
they saw, are utterly unable to do so. So much bursts upon the recollection, that the tongue 
and mind are paralyzed, and the listener only hears partial descriptions of perhaps trivial 
things. So it is with the Thousand Islands, you are unable to describe them satisfactorily — 
you want the listener to. see them, then let hivi describe them. There is nothing in the 
world like them, &-ay world-wide traveller will tell you that. The Rhine has its islands, and 
castle towers, 

' ' And hills that promise corn and wine 
And scattered cities crowning these 
Whose far, white walls along them shine, ' ' — 

the beautiful lakes of Switzerland, the Riveria itself, Como and the Isles of Greece — all these 
are beautiful, and Venice is queenly — but the St. Lawrence and its emerald islands crowding 
each other for 30 miles, surpass them all, individually and tmited. It is a land too beautiful 
for words, where even the painter's hand trembles at its own weakness to depict all his eye 
sees, where God smiles all the while through the summer days, but makes the glorious 





season short, lest man, entranced by perennial rest and enjoyment, would find even 
nature's beauties at last "palling upon the satiated taste." It is aland of rest, of high 
ideals, of perfect natural beauty, where water, and sky, and land and wooded shores blend 
into something unknown elsewhere. An able writer says : 

" It is impossible, even for those whose habits and occupations naturally wean them 
from the pleasure derivable from such scenery, to avoid feelings akin to poetry while winding 
through the Thousand Islands. You feel, indeed, long after they had been passed, as if 
you had been awakened out of a blissful dream. Your memory brings up again and again 
the pictures of the clusters of the little islands raising out of the clear cold water. You 
think of the little bays and winding passages, embowered in trees ; and recurring to the 
din, and dust, and heat, and strife of the city you have left, or the city you are going to, 
you wish in yoiir heart that you could see more of nature, and less of business. 

' ' These may be but dreams — perhaps they are so — ^but they are good and they are useful 
dreams ; for they break in for a moment upon the dull monotony of our all-absorbing 
selfishness ; they let in a few rays of light upon the poetry and purity of sentiment, which 
seem likely to die of perpetual confinement in the dark prison-house of modern avarice." 

J. A. H. 

Thousand Island Park, 

T^HE Thousand Island Park seems to have been an outgrowth of that wave of religious 
sentiment which swept over the country about 1874 — the result, perhaps, of the reaction 
in men's minds which usually follows great financial depression. Its contemporary 
developments are visible at Ashbury Park and Ocean Grove, two grand summer resorts 
upon the seaboard of New Jersey, and the later manifestation of the same sentiment at 
Chautauqua, in Western New York. All of these movements towards summer residences 
bore a distinctly religious character, and were the outgrowth of a sincere desire to glorify 
God, and yet, in doing so, to make summer homes where families could receive the benefit 
of change of scene and of air and perhaps in their manner of living. 

The manifestation of this impulse at Thousand Island Park is due to the efforts of Rev. 
J. F. Dayan, a well known Methodist minister, now on the retired list. He conceived the 
idea that the Methodist denomination would gladly support such a resort, and he selected 
the southwesterly end of Wells Island as the most eligible spot. The selection was judicious, 
and his efforts were soon appreciated. The needed lands were mainly purchased (1,000 
acres) from Captain Throop, whose title was only the third remove from the State itself. 
Success crowned the Association's efforts, $22,000 worth of lots having been sold in one day. 
Men struggled to secure the most desirable sites. It was unfortunate for the young town, 
however, that the extreme religious element so far prevailed that illy-considered restrictions 
were imposed as to entrance fee, etc., but in time these peculiar views have given way to 
more liberal ideas. To this day, however, no steamer is allowed to land at their dock on the 
Sabbath, the present management adhering to the original plan that the Sabbath should be 
not only a day of rest but of religious observance. The Thousand Island Park is now, as 
it was at the beginning, a place where a man can leave his wife and children and feel sure 
that they will not be exposed to any harmful influences of any nature — a place where " the 
assassins of society" would have no inducement whatever to come. 

The situation of the Park is superior. Back from the river-front plateau rises a rocky 
mound, nearly 200 feet in height, which afforded a permanent and accessible locality for 
a water reservoir with pressure enough to flood the highest buildings. The soil is produc- 
tive, resting upon the moraine of this region, the result of glacial action. The second- 
growth of timber is mainly oak and elm, remarkably straight and vigorous, and the lot- 
owners are only called upon to decide what trees should be felled, and not what they should 
plant. It is difficult to conceive of a finer location. With man's intelligent supervision the 
place may be made the most delightful in America. Other resorts have the ocean, with its 
drifting sands, its fogs, its storms — this Park has the great St. Lawrence, whose waters come 
sweeping down from the far Northwest, pure as the melting snows can make them, fresh as 


the breath of spring, placid as Nature itself. To live in such a spot is a benediction for 
man ; there he forgets his cares, and grows into a life of content and thankfulness. 

At the Thousand Islands there is a perceptible odor of ozone in the atmosphere. By 
some it is called a " sulphurous," by others a fishy smell. But there is a difference. Ozone 
is of itself an energetic chemical agent. It is a preservative, not a putrifying influence. In 
this it differs widely from oxygen, the principle in the air which promotes decay. There 
seems to be a reason for the belief that the beneficial effects produced upon many invalids 
from a residence among the Thousand Islands or upon the sea-shore, is due largely to the 
ozone discernible in those localities. 

An indication of the progressive spirit of the Park is the Thousand Island Herald, a 
weekly newspaper published there, ably conducted, of which E. F. Otis is editor, and Rev. 
William Searle, manager. 

The original capital of the Association was fixed at $15,000, of which f7,100 was paid 
in cash. On January 11th, 1876, the indebtedness of the Association was |24., 647.81, and 
the assets |57,300.94. The capital was afterwards increased to |50.000. 

The original trustees were ; Chancellor E. D. Haven, D. D., President ; Williard Ives, 
Vice-President ; Col. Albert D. Shaw, John F. Moffett, J. F. Dayan, E. C. Curtis, E. Rem- 
ington, Hon. Jas. Johnson, M. D. Kinney. 

Mr. Dayan continued a member of the board and as secretary and general manager 
until 1881. Chancellor Haven resigned in 1881, having been made one of the Bishops of 
the church at the preceding general conference. He was succeeded by Rev. I. S. Bing- 
ham, D. D., who in 1883, gave place to Rev. M. D. Kinnej-, A. M., who had been a member of 
the board of trustees from the Under his energetic management rnany improve- 
ments were perfected, and there came a period of decided growth. He continued as Presi- 
dent for seven years, and the Park owes much to his management, and to the fact that he 
has been of financial aid at many times. 

The present trustees are : George P. Folts, President ; George C. Sawyer, Vice Presi- 
dent ; Dr. A. W. Goodale, Treasurer ; Walter Brown, Assistant Treasurer ; W. R. Fitch, 
Secretary. Trustees : George P. Folts, F. G. Weeks, Geo. C. Sawyer, W. R. Fitch, Walter 
Brown, Dr. A. W. Goodale, James P. Lewis, M. R. LeFevre, A. Gurnee. Rev. Wm. Searles, 
D. D., is the Director of the Tabernacle services. 

From the very first the design of the Association has been to secure the best native 
talent for religious services, and also bringing from abroad men of established reputation 
and ability. In this way the noble Tabernacle has had under its roof some of the most cele- 
brated preachers in the United States and Canada, and the reputation of the Park in this 
respect has been admirably sustained. Rev. Dr. J. E. C. Sawyer, editor of the Northern 
Christian Advocate, delivered two sermons there on July 22, 1894, that were the most 
finished and stirring the writer has ever listened to. The influences that have gone out 
from that Tabernacle have been peculiarly inspiring and noble, and its services have done 
much to popularize the Park. The auditorium has a natural slope, the acoustics are admirable, 
and the sight most unique and interesting when the vast place is filled with the sea of 
upturned faces confronting the speaker. Situated in a fine growth of oak, with great curtains 
at the sides, which can be raised or lowered as desired, the people are brought face to face 
with nature, whence they are inspired to look up to nature's God. 

It should not be forgotten that the Park as well as the Islands partake of an interna- 
tional character to a great extent, and the Union Jack floats in close proximity to our own 
beloved stars and stripes, and that prayers ascend for the noble Queen from the same desk 
as the petition for our honored President. 

The population of Thousand Island Park is somewhat of a floating one, as regards its 
permanence, but there can be no doubt as to its pre-eminent respectability. It numbers 
800 to 6,000 souls. Indeed the only occasion for fear in these established popular resorts 
is that they may become exclusively the summer abodes of the rich alone. At this place, 
however, there are ample accommodations for people of every class ' in point of material 
wealth, the hotel charges being JS.OO per day for the best, one dollar per day for a cheaper 
but really comfortable place, and board in private cottages at even less rates. It is pre- 



eminently a democratic place, and friendliness is cultivated as not an altogether obsolete senti- 
ment. The trustees and oflicers are capable men, composed of persons who have made their 
way from small beginnings and have always been in sympathy with plain and home-like 
methods. The cottages are numerous, all of them attractive, some beautiful. We give views of 
the new hotel which replaces the one burned in 1891, and some of the more elegant struc- 
tures. A traveller upon any of the steamers which tread their way among the islands will 
observe that more people get on and off at Thousand Island Park than all the other resorts 
put together. The plotted ground for cottages occupies about 100 acres. The Associa- 
tion has sold off 200 acres for farming ; and about 700 acres are left, devoted to dairying. 
The pumping engines of the Association, their system of sewerage, water supply and 
electric lights are superior and unexcelled. Their dynamo plant and the beautiful machinery 
there of the Watertown Steam Engine Company are models of mechanical skill, j. A. H. 

Some Biographical Sl<;etches. 


Financial Agent of the Thousand Island Park Association, 

Was the son of Ruggles and Betsey Wight Goodale, who settled at an early day in Fowler, 
St. Lawrence County, N. Y., where the subject of our sketch was born, August 17, 1831. 


His early education was in the common schools of that primitive period, until 1851. He 
afterwards attended the Gouverneur Wesley an Seminary for two years. In 1S55 he began 
to study medicine with Dr. Abell, at Antwerp, afterwards graduating at the Albany Medical 
College as an M. D. This was in 1858, and in that year he married Miss Helen Jane Fowler, 
daughter of Lester and DoUie Fowler, of Antwerp. In 1858, he began the practice of 
medicine in the town of Rutland, following those older men, Drs. Munson, Smith and 
Spencer. He was in practice there when the rebellion showed its horrid front, and when 
the 10th Heavy Artillery was recruited, he joined it as assistant surgeon. He served with 
that fine body of troops until their final muster-out in July, 1865, proving himself an able, 
industrious, and conscientious officer. [For muster-out rolls of the officers of this large 
and gallant regiment, see p. 75.] 

His protracted absence in the army had largely depleted his practice, and when he was 
mustered out he removed his family to Watertown, where he remained until 1867, and then 
accepted a position in the medical department of the Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance Co., 
at Hartford, Conn. The Doctor became a trusted aud important officer in that department, 
particularly in settling claims. This relation with that leading company continued until 
1885, when he returned to Watertown. He has since been engaged in banking in South 
Dakota, now being president of a bank there. He is a large land owner in the West and in 
Jefferson county. Though educated as a physician, he may appropriately be classed as a 
farmer. But the only thing the writer has ever heard him allude to in any spirit of pride or 
emulation, was in connection with his service as a school teacher, he having taught eight 
seasons, and there are hundreds of men and women now in active life who can look back 
to Dr. Goodale's advice and instruction for the starting point in their endeavors to live 
reputable and useful lives. 

In 1885, Dr. Goodale was elected one of the directors of the Thousand Island Park 
Association, and is now the treasurer and chief financial officer of that important 
organization, which is spoken of elsewhere in this History. [See p. 168c.] The exacting 
duties of this position, together with his own private business, now take up all his time, 
leaving him no leisure for the practice of his profession. 

The Doctor is a large man, nearly six feet tall, of pleasant face and agreeable speech — a 
companionable man, and a friendly one — inviting confidence by his open countenance and 
pleasant ways. Springing from " the plain people," he is pre-emineatly democratic, easily 
approached, an honored citizen, because an honorable one. He is yet in the prime of life, 
although he is one of those who passed through our great war after he had came fully to 
man's estate. His excellent wife shares his prosperity, and it is a pleasure to see them 

IN connection with the pictorial presentation of the Thousand Islands and our remarks 
upon their general beauty, history, and local importance, it is very proper to name some 
of the men who have greatly improved their possessions, and who have become benefac- 
tors by the extent and character of the eniblishments they have made in supplementing 
nature. Mr. George H. Pullman was one of the very first to show what wealth, judiciously 
expended, could do to make the Islands attractive. We show two pictures of " Castle 
Rest, ' ' the summer villa Mr. Pullman built for his aged mother. Hither he came during 
the great Chicago strike and riot of 1894. Another individual of this character is 


Ex-Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio. 

His delightful villa is on the east shore of the river, a mile and a half above Alex- 
andria Bay, and about three-fourths of a mile above Castle Rest. His improvements are 
upon a Hberal scale, and, like those at Manhattan, below the Bay, evince care and artistic 
taste in all that has been done. Mr. Rose has retired from active business, having passed an 


Ma^l..- pijblnitinESCnjrov.riE Uo NY. 


eventful life, beginning as a poor boy in Mercer county, Pa., where lie was born in 1829, 
one of eleven children, all of whom have reared families, and shown the quality of the 
Scotch-Irish blood which they were fortunate in inheriting. At 17 he was teaching school. 
At 23 he entered the law oiSce of Hon. William Stewart, at Mercer, Pa., and was admitted 
to practice in 1855. Like many other able young men, he leaned toward journalism, and 
in the Independent Democrat he gave voice to his hatred of slavery. Although his antece- 
dents were Democratic, he joined the Repubhcan party at its inception, and has steadfastly 
adhered to its principles from that day to this. He was elected a member of the Pennsyl- 
vania Legislature in 1857, and reelected in 1858— serving for two terms. In 1860 he was 
chosen a delegate to the National Convention at Chicago which nominated Abraham Lincoln 
as the candidate for President, but was unable to attend because of illness. He was twice 
presented by the Republican party of his county as a candidate for Congress, the last time in 
1864, the choice being made unanimously. In 1865 he removed to Cleveland, where he 
gave his attention to the purchase and sale of real estate, in which business he met with 
financial success. In 1877 he was elected Mayor of Cleveland, and his services to the city 
during his term of office were so satisfactory that in 1891 — fourteen years thereafter — he 
was reelected Mayor under the new charter, known as the "Federal plan." Under this 
charter there are but six city departments, each of which has a single head, who is appointed 
by the Mayor and confirmed by the council, after the manner of the President and his 
cabinet. So successfully was this plan of municipal government organized and administered 
by Mayor Rose that it has come to stay. In 1883 he was nominated by the Ohio Republi- 
can State Convention for Lieutentant Governor, and led his ticket all over the State, and in 
his own county by over three thousand votes. 


Kx- Judge New York City Superior Court, 

Is another of the men who have done much to embelish nature. An extended account of 
his lovely property, " Manhattan," may be found on page 168ff. He is a native of Fort 
Covington, Franklin county, N. Y. His father, the late Judge James B. Spencer, was one 
of the early settlers of Franklin county, and was a prominent and respected citizen and 
recognized political leader in the northern part of the State, having held many important 
positions, including that of Judge and Representative in the State and National Legisla- 
tures. He also distinguished himself in the war of 1812, participating actively in the im- 
portant engagements of that contest, including the battle of Plattsburgh. In politics he 
was a Democrat of the Jefferson, Madison, and Jackson school. He was the personal friend 
and colleague of Silas Wright, and was recognized and appreciated by that great man and 
other prominent Democrats of the State of New York, as an intelligent and reliable political 
coadjutor, in the struggles of more than a quarter of a century to secure and perpetuate 
Democratic ascendency in the State. He also enjoyed the confidence and esteem of all his 
fellow-citizens who knew him, without regard to political differences. He died in the year 
1848, at the age of 68. 

This branch of the Spencer family and that represented by the late Chief-Justice Am- 
brose Spencer, and his son. Honorable John C. Spencer, were kindred, and claim a common 
ancestry. The family emigrated to New York from Connecticut, their original place of 
settlement in the New World, springing from an English ancestor, William Spencer, who 
came to Cambridge, Mass., before or early in the year 1631. 

It appears that he returned to or visited England afterwards, for he married his wife, 
Alice, in that country about the year 1633. He was again a resident and a prominent man 
in Cambridge in 1634-5, and was afterwards one of the first settlers in Hartford, Conn. He 
was the eldest of three brothers, all of whom were among the early settlers of Hartford. 

The family of the present Judge Spencer, on the maternal side, were purely Irish. His 



grandfather emigrated to this country from Ireland prior to the American Revolution, and 
served his adopted country as a soldier during the War of Independence. 

Judge Spencer, before he had fully attained manhood, was thrown upon his own 
resources, and acquired his education and profession mainly by his own exertions. He 
commenced the practice of law in 1850, in his native county, and soon became popular and 
respected in his profession. 

In 1854, he removed to Ogdensburg, St. I,awrence county, and, with Judge William C. 
Brown, formed the legal firm of Brown & Spencer, which for many years enjoyed a success- 
ful and profitable practice in the courts of Northern New York. In 1857 he was appointed 
United States District Attorney for the Northern District of New York. 

The performance of the duties of that ofiSce extended his professional acquaintance into 
nearly every county of the State. After the expiration of his term of office, he removed to 
the city of New York, and entered upon the practice of his profession in that city. His 
energy and industry, added to his former professional reputation in the State, soon brought 
him clients and a very successful business. 

In 1867, he entered into partnership with Hon. Charles A. Rapallo and other legal 
gentlemen, under the firm name of Rapallo & Spencer, which became familiar to the public 
and in the courts as associated with some of the most important causes of the day, including 
the famous Erie controversy and other equally important litigations connected with rail- 
road and steamship companies. The existence of that firm terminated with the election of 
its senior members to the bench — Mr. Rapallo to the Court of Appeals, and Mr. Spencer to 
the Superior Court of New York. He was a candidate at a later day for reelection as Judge, 
but was defeated by a small majority. 

On his retirement from the bench and return to the active practice of his profession in 
New York city, the Judge was heartily welcomed, and his old clients renewed their allegi- 
ance. As years have worn away he has become more attached to his Manhattan Island (see 
description elsewhere,) and there he spends much of each summer, a practice dating back 
for twenty years. He has improved and beautified every thing he has touched, and is 
known as a liberal, progressive gentleman, taking a deep and healthy interest in all that 
relates to the St. Lawrence and the improvement of its Islands. Such men become, in a 
sense, public benefactors, and their memory should not die for want of proper recognition. 


One of the prettiest of the many charming summer homes at Round Island is that of 
Frank H. Taylor, of Philadelphia, Pa., an early resident here, and whose unremitting work 

both as a writer for many publications and an 
artist has done much to increase the fame of 
this beautiful region through the covmtry at 
large. Mr. Taylor, with his family, have resided 
here more than a dozen seasons, and participate 
actively in the social life of the river. The 
cosey little studio over the boat house at "Shady 
Ledge" is lined with studies of island scenes 
both in color and black and white, as well as 
many trophies gathered in years of travel. The 
historic article relating to Count Frontenac, from 
the pen of Mr. Taylor, which appears in this 
book, was originally prepared for reading at one 
of the annual series of "camp-fires,'' which, as 
every islander knows, are a feature of ' ' Shady 
Ledge " hospitality, and which led to the 
adoption of the name for the handsome Hotel 
Frontenac upon the same island. 


Brooklyn Heights, Round Island 

of 125 Montagu St., Brooklyn, N. Y., and 80 Broadway, New York. 

Boat House of John Cooper, Esq., 

of 315 E. 28th St., New York. 

r»t>t>r\CTTTr t? 

Summer Residence of John Cooper, Esq., 

of 315 E. 28th St., New York. 





Well known as a distinguished minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church, was born in 
the town of I^yme, Jefferson County, N. Y., January 23rd, 18] 9. His father was Dr. John 
Dayan, a distinguished physician, who came from I<owville, where he was educated and 
studied medicine with Dr. Perry, also a distinguished surgeon in his day. Soon after obtain- 
ing his degree, Dr. John Dayan married Polly Henry, of Lowville, N. Y., whose father was 
a captain in the Revolutionary army, and among the earliest settlers of Lewis county. 
The Doctor emigrated to the town of Lyme, where he commenced the practice of his 
profession, and continued it until his death by accidental drowning in July, 1835, in his 
42nd year. 

The Dayan family trace their descent from a prominent Austrian family, in which 
were three celebrated military generals, the last of whom was that field marshal who 
was commander-in-chief of all the armies under Maria Theresa, in her seven years' war 
against Frederick the Great. The family was originally of German origin — a town bearing 
the name of Daun, still existing in that country. About a hundred years ago the name 


was Americanized \iy changing the spelling from Daun to Dayan. On leaving college, the 
paternal grandfather of Mr. Dayan came to America during the Revolutionary war. He 
landed in New York in 1780 and died in Amsterdam, N. Y., in 1793. 

After the death of his father, the subject of this sketch went to live with his uncle. Judge 
Charles Dayan, of Lowville, N. Y. There he entered the I<owville Academy. After com- 
pleting his academic course, he studied law. Just previous to his being admitted to the bar, 
he became interested in the study of the Bible as a law book, which led to his conversion 
and connection with the Methodist Episcopal Church in the spring of 1842. Under the 
pastoral guidance of Rev. James Erwin, he united with the Black River Conference in 
1844, and entered upon the work of the ministry in which he continued until 1867, when 
his failing health necessitated his giving it up. 

In 1845 he was united in marriage to Miss Clarissa Julia Chase, eldest daughter of Rev. 
Squire Chase, one of the earliest missionaries to darkest Africa. The writer remembers him 
as a man of extraordinary force and capacity. He was one of the best organizers the Metho- 
dist hierarchy could command at that time. Of stalwart frame, his presence was com- 
manding. He possessed a voice of great volume, and it reached to the uttermost 
parts of the largest church. He was regarded as the ablest preacher in the old Black River 

Rev, Mr. Dayan served the following charges : LeRay, Adams, Clayton, Syracuse, 
Fairfield, Lowville, Theresa, Cape Vincent, Ilion, Carthage. 

At Theresa, the writer and his family sat under his preaching. His manner was pur- 
suasive, his diction classical, his sermons more than interesting — they touched the heart. 
The largest revival remembered in Theresa was during his pastorate, and when he left that 
charge he carried with him the affectionate remembrance of every member of the church 
and congregation. 

In 1866 he was made Presiding Elder of the Watertown District, a position calling for 
a robust constitution and endless industry. His labors in that position impaired his health, 
and he relinquished with many regrets his cherished life-work. 

Mr. Dayan was in every respect a progressive man, and in 1872-3 he had given much 
thought to the project of opening a Christian summer resort among the Thousand Islands. 
To him more than to any other one man, is due not only the inception of the plan but its 
reduction to a practical basis. Not that his plan met with disfavor or that some capitalist 
could not be found who would invest money enough to try the experiment. But the details 
were enormous ; the amount of tact required was surprising, for local jealousies had to be 
placated, the enthusiasm of the Methodists aroused, and the organization so poised as to be 
distinctly religious, yet not repelling those who were not church-members nor church-goers. 
In all these intricate manipulations Mr. Dayan showed himself an adept — manifesting a busi- 
ness capacity that surprised his friends. His plans found ample fruition, and the Thousand 
Island Park stands to-day his ablest advocate. (See the article upon the Park, p 168c, for 
a more complete description. ) For six years Mr. Dayan was the manager of that Associa- 
tion, and, up to the time he resigned from its board of control, it owed to his forethought, 
perseverance and zeal all that it was. 

Thenceforward his life has merged gradually into the ' ' sere and yellow leaf. ' ' With 
health much impaired he waits patiently for that passing hence which will reveal to him the 
blessedness of those who, through evil and good report, in hours of deepest despondency, 
even when tormented by doubts and uncertainties, have yet steadily stood for Christ and 
his glorious cause ; and who, having been faithful over a few things, shall surely be called 
to the command of higher things, and even reign with Him whose faithful servant he has 
been for nearly sixty years. 


Some Summer Resorts 

(Above Alexandria Bay.) 

Round Isi,and Park was incorporated in 1879 with a capital of |50,000, in shares of 
jflOO. The island contains about 175 acres, and has been laid out into 400 lots, besides 
avenues, ornamental parks, picnic grovmds, etc. It is one mile long and from 800 to 1,200 
feet wide, and lies about a quarter of a mile from the mainland, and a mile and a half from 
Clayton village. This park was originally under the patronage of the Baptists, but its man- 
agement is now non-sectarian. A dock 260 feet long and 14 feet in depth was built, and 
in 1880 an hotel 50 by 200 feet, four stories high, was erected. In 1889 the hotel was 
enlarged and improved, and will now accommodate 400 guests. 

CenTrai, Park is located upon the mainland, about midway between Alexandria Bay 
and Thousand Island Park. This park was incorporated about 1881, with a capital stock 
of $25,000. A commodious hotel and cottages have been erected, with sufficient dockage 
and other improvements, making about j(40,000 invested. 

Grand View Park was laid out as a public park in 1885, on the northwestern point of 
Wells Island, containing 25 acres. Hamilton Child, of Syracuse, in 1886 erected a cottage 
there, which is now used as a hotel. It has 228 building lots, and has hourly connection 
with Thousand Island Park. 

GrEnnei,!^ Island Park is named for its proprietor, who for 30 years has resided upon 
a small island near the point upon which the park is located, with which his island is con- 
nected by a bridge. The park was started in 1882. A hotel has been erected upon the 
smaller island, and several private cottages have been erected on the larger island. 

AT JOLI.Y Oaks, below The Thousand Island Park, Mr. J. L. Norton, of Carthage, has a 
fine cottage, and spends much of the hot weather there, amidst old friends, among whom 
are Hon. W. W. Butterfield, of Redwood, Dr. N. D. Ferguson, Mrs. H. G. Kellogg, O. P. 
Greene, of Carthage, and others, forming an agreeable company. 

Frederick Island, a short distance below Jolly Oaks, is another popular resort, the 
Summer home of Mr. C. L. Frederick, also of Carthage. He has three islands, two of them 
united by a neat bridge, the group forming a most attractive place. 

Prospect Park occupies a tract of 50 acres upon Bartlett Point, about one mile up 
stream from Clayton. The point commands a iine prospect and was the scene of an engage- 
ment in the war of 1812. 

EdGEwood Park is located upon the mainland, near Alexandria Bay. A fine club- 
house and several cottages have been erected, and the place has been incorporated as the 
Edgewood Park Association, comprising mostly people from Cleveland. 

Hancock or Murray Island is now known as Murray Hill Park. The island was 
purchased of Capt. J. A. Taylor by a syndicate. The island is well located, and will proba- 
bly become a popular resort. 

The Seven Isles, a place where, in 1895, it is proposed to start a place of popular resort, 
is already mentioned (on p. 160,) as well as herein shown in two interesting views. 


THE GROWTH' OF A CENTURY. Terrace, Thousand Island Park. 
Summer Residence of Byron A. Brooks, of Brooklyn, N. Y. 


Was born in Theresa, December 12, 1845, of most industrious and respectable parents. He 
displayed a nattirally imaginative temperament, inherited from his' mother, illy in accord 
with his rude surroundings, and with a mechanical and inventive taste derived from his 
father. He attended the village school summer and winter, but the best part of his educa- 
tion was acquired in the fields and waters and about the shops and factories of his native 
village, which seems to him now an almost ideal home for a boy, though its moral influences 
might have been better. He began to teach a country school in the town of Clayton before 
he was 16, and the next winter near Cape Vincent. He attended the Gouverneur Wesleyan 
Seminary, whence he graduated in 1866, and went to teach in the Antwerp L,iberal Literary 
Institute. He entered Wesleyan University at Middletown, Conn., in 1867, graduating in 
1871, among the "honor men," though he was out over half of the time teaching — one 
year as principal of Antwerp Seminary. After graduating he lived 10 years in New York 
city, engaging in teaching and literary work. 

In 1874, he became interested in the new type writer, and in 1875 invented the 
"Upper" and "Lower" case machine, afterwards known as the "Remington No. 2," 
which has made millions of money for its proprietors. He has ever since been connected 
with that business, taking out nearly thirty patents, including several in printing, telegraph 
and type- forming machines. He has also perfected and placed on the market the "Brooks 
Typewriter," which is superior to all. 

In 1S76, he published "King Saul, or A Tragedy." In 1882, "Those Children and 
Their Teachers ;" " Phil Vernon and His Schoohnasters." In 1893, "Earth Revisited," 
and is at present engaged upon a historical romance of the present century in Northern 
New York called, the ' ' American Spirit. " He expects to devote most of his time to literary 
persuits in future. 

His grandfather. Dr. James Brooks, was the first physician in the town of Theresa, and 
his father was well known as one of nature's nobleman, " an honest man." Byron A. illus- 
trates what common Schools and an academic ediication may do to bring out admirable 
traits in a young man, unsuspected before he began to "grow through books." 

. . . Solid Vestibule Trains to and from the Thousand Islands . . . 

Stopping Only at Principal Cities and making the following Very Fast Time: 

New York, 8 hours ; Albany, 5 hours ; Utica, 3 hours ; Niagara Falls, 8^ hours ; Buffalo, 8 hours ; Eochester, 6| hours ; Syracuse, 3| hours, connecting 
with fast Express and Limited trains to and from Chicago, St. Lotiis, Cincinnati, Detroit, Toledo, Pittsbur<';, Cleveland 

and the west ; also with Boston and New England points. 



The following lines, by Caleb Ivyon, of 
Lyonsdale, are very old, but will be read 
with interest : 

The Thousand Isles, the Thousand Isles, 
Dimpled, the wave around them, smiles. 
Kissed by a thousand red-lipped flowers, 
Gemmed by a thousand emerald bowers ; 
A thousand birds their praises wake, 
By rocky glade and plumy brake, 
A thousand cedurs' fragrant shade 
Fall where the Indians' children played ; 
And fancy's dream my heart beguiles, 
While singing thee, the Thousand Isles. 

No vestal virgin guards their groves, 
No Cupid breathes of Cyprian loves, 
No Satyr's form at eve is seen, 
No Dryad peeps the trees between, 
No Venus rises from their shore, 
No loved Adonis, red with gore. 
No pale Kndym.ion wooed to sleep, 
No brave I^ander breasts their deep. 
No Ganymede— no Pleiades — 
Theirs are a New World's memories. 



(In the "Continent.") 

Dreaming we sailed one summer's day, 

A day so long ago, 
Dreaming as only idlers may 

In summer noontide's glow. 
Dreaming as only light hearts can 

Before the weight of years 
Has fettered mirth with cruel ban 

And freighted life with tears. 

Sailing 'mid islands green and fair 

On broad St. Lawrence tide, 
Where worldly thought and worldly care 

All entrance are denied — 
Nothing but nature still and sweet, 

Nature beyond compare, 
The shining water 'ueath our feet, 

Around the summer air. 

There St. I^wreuce gentlest flows, 
There the south wind softest blows, 
There the lilies whitest bloom, 
There the birch hath leafiest gloom, 
There the red deer feed in spring, 
There doth glitter wood duck's wing, 
There leap the mascolonge at morn. 
There the loon's night song is borne. 
There is the'5 paradise, 
With trolling skiff at red sunrise. 

The Thousand Isles, the Thousand Isles, 
Their charm from every care beguiles ; 
Titian alone hath grace to paint 
The triumph of their patron saint, 
Whose waves return on memory's tide, 
La Salle and Piquet side by side. 
Proud Frontenac and bold Champlain 
There act their wanderings o'er again ; 
And while the golden sunlight smiles, 
Pilgrims shall greet thee, Thousand Isles. 


A Souvenir of the St . Lawrence. — From Geraldine. 

'Tis the river of dreams. 
You may float in your boat on the bloom-bordered 

Where its islands like emeralds Inatchless are set, 
And forget that you live, and as quickly forget 
That they die in that world you have left ; for the 

Of content is within you, the blessing of balm 
Is upon you forever. Mortality sleeps 
While you dream, an immortal : some mistiness creeps 
Like a veil of forgetfulness over your past. 
And it is not. Your day is eternal, to last 
Without darkness, or change, or the shadow of dread. 
Blessed isles, where to-day and to-morrow are wed 
In such fullness of bliss. Blessed river that smiles 
In such beauty and peace by the beautiful isles. 

White clouds move slowly o'er the blue, 

White shadows lie below ; 
They stir not at our gliding through, 

So lazily we go. 
The fisher's craft with sails unfurled 

Drift with us down the tide, 
While yachts from out the busy world 

Far in the ofl&ng ride. 

The Isles are green, so richly green 

With leaf of birch and pine. 
The lordly oak and forest queen 

Their graceful limbs entwine, 
The slender cattails, brown and tall, 

Nod us a welcome near ; 
No sound save gurgling ripples fall 

Upon the trancdd ear. 

The fisher's hut beside the shore 

Seems sleeping with the tide ; 
No shadows through the open door 

Across the threshold glide. 
With dreamy drift we slowly steal, 

Heedless of passing time ; 
We hear the ripples on our keel. 

Singing their low sweet rhyme. 

That low sweet music echoes yet, 

Those islands green and fair. 
That summer day we ne'er forget, 

Its balmy, blissful air. 
Relentless time has swept us down 

Life's ocean broad and deep, 
But later fortune's smile or frown 

Ne'er bids that memory sleep. 




It Is fortunate for our History that we are 
able to present to our readers from an en- 
tirely reliable source, a very circumstantial 
and accurate record of the life of one of 
Jefferson county's most widely known, dis- 
tinguished and able citizens, who rose from 
small beginnings to the very first rank in busi- 
ness and in citizenship. Indeed, the writer 
remembers no man in Jefferson county that 
was superior to Mr. Merick. There were two 
or three, Hon. Orville Hungerford, Hon. C. 
B. Hoard, and perhaps Gen. Wm. H. Angel, 
who stood as high in probity and faithfulness 
to friends and to society, and were as patri- 
otic and high minded as Mr. Merick, but he 
had no "superior" in his adopted county, 
nor in Northern New York. 

He was the fifth child in a family of nine 
cliildren, six boys and three girls, and was 
born March 6, 1803, in Colchester, Delaware 
county, N. Y., from which place he moved 
with the family to Sherburne, Chenango 
county, at the age of about four years. The 
section to which the family removed was 
almost an unbroken wilderness, with few in- 
habitants and no schools or opportunity for 
obtaining an education. The principal amuse- 
ment for a boy of his age, was picking up the 
brush and burning it, preparing the land for 
crops. The first school he attended was at 
the age of nine. The school held for only 
four months. At the end of the four months 
he was able to read a newspaper fairly well. 
He continued at home, himself and brother, 
carrying on the farm, until eleven, at which 
time he went to live with a man named Clark. 
That family had no children, and Eldridge 
was treated as their own child. Mr. Clark 
had a small farm on the Chenango river, 
which this boy carried on principally, with 
occasionally a little help from the owner. 
His business, after getting through with the 
work of the farm in the fall, was to chop and 
put up ten cords of wood before going to 
school the first year, increasing it five cords 
each year until he got 35 cords, which was 
all that was needed for the family. Eldridge 
attended the country school from three to 
four months each winter, until 17 years of 
age, and then he commenced teaching. When 
Mr. Clark went to St. Lawrence county in 
1830, young Merick went with him, remain- 
ing there until 21 years of age. 

Arriving at majority, the people with whom 
he lived not being in a situation to do any- 
thing for him, he found it necessary to shift 
for himself. His first effort was a contract 
for building a stone wall at Russell, St. Law- 

rence county, after which he went to Water- 
town, Jefferson county, working there for 
several months, and delivered the material 
for the old stone Presbyterian Church ; thence 
to Sackets Harbor to work for Festus Clark, 
a brother of his former employer, as clerk 
in a small store. Remaining there for a short 
time, he went to Depauville, in the same 
capacity, with Stephen Johnson, who had a 
country store, and was also engaged in the 
lumber business for the Quebec market. 

He remained with Mr. Johnson two years, 
superintending his lumber business largely, 
and while there became acquainted with Mr. 
Jesse Smith, who had been furnishing Mr. 
Johnson with means to carry on his lumber 
business. Mr. Johnson was unfortunate in 
business and failed at the end of two years, 
and was sold out by the sheriff, which sale 
was attended by Mr. Smith as a creditor, and 
knowing it threw young Merick out of em- 
ployment, he offered him a situation, which 
was gladly accepted. This was about 1836. 
Mr. Smith was doing a very large mercantile 
and manufacturing business for those times. 
After being with him for a little over a year, 
he sent Mr. Merick with a store of goods to 
Perch River, and the following summer sent 
him to Quebec to look after his lumbering 
interests, and in the fall of the same year 
offered him a partnership and an interest in 
the business, which was accepted, and so 
young Merick became the manager. The 
business developed into a pretty large one, de- 
voted principally to lumber designed for the 
Quebec market, and also the building and 
running of vessels. The timber and staves, 
which were the principal business, were ob- 
tained about the head of Lake Ontario and 
Lake Erie, extending into Lake Huron, and 
were transported by vessels across the lakes 
to Clayton, on the St. Lawrence, and there 
made into rafts for transportation to Quebec. 
Of these rafts there were several made up 
every year, amounting (according to their 
size) to $40,000 or $50,000 each. These rafts 
had to be made very strong to run the rapids 
of the river, seven or eight in number. Each 
stick of oak timber was tied up with large 
oak- wisps, forming what was called a dram ; 
and from 10 to 30 or 30 drams in a raft. 
The rafts were propelled by a number of 
small sails, but usually went but little faster 
than the current. At the rapids a pilot and 
extra men were taken to conduct the raft 
through the rapids; a pilot for each dram or 
section, the raft being divided into several 
sections for running the rapids. Sometimes a 






large raft required from 200 to 300 men. 
Frequently they would get broken up in the 
rapids and run ashore, attended with con- 
siderable loss and expense in saving the pieces. 
Arriving at Quebec, they were usually sold 
on from two to six months' time, but the per- 
centage of loss by bad debts was very small. 
Better facilities were needed for transporting 
this square oak timber, and a ship-yard was 
established at Clayton. After Mr. Smith re- 
moved to Ohio, Mr. Merick continued the 
timber trade, adding forwarding and grain 
business, associating with him Messrs. Fow- 
ler and Esselstyn. 

The business in the winter was arranging 
and superintending theshipments,selecting the 
timber in the country, and getting it for- 
warded for shipping, and in building vessels, 
of which the firm generally had one or more 
on the stocks. They built, with one or two 
exceptions, all the steamboats forming the 
justly celebrated line on Lake Ontario and 
the River St. Lawrence, on the American 

The " Reindeer " fleet, which at one time 
numbered 14 vessels, were built at his Clay- 
ton yard; also three steamers of the Ontario 
Navigation Company, all of them having his 
careful supervision. 

With D. N. Barney & Co., he built, about 
1844, the steamer Empire, to run between 
Buffalo and Chicago. Her increased tonnage 
and decks attracted much attention, with 
many prophecies of failure, but she proved a 
success and was the vanguard of the fine 
fleets of lake transports. 

When the Grand Trunk Railroad was built, 
however, following up the St. Lawrence and 
Lake Ontario, the competition ruined the 
business of these passenger steamers. The 
line ceased to be remunerative, and the boats 
were sold, some to go to Montreal; one went 
to Charleston, S. C, and afterwards was en- 
gaged in the rebel service in the war of the 

He had previously established a house in 
Cleveland, one in Oswego and one in Buffalo, 
the object being to furnish business for the 
vessels on the lakes. Each additional facility 
only showed the necessity of still further 
facilities. The firm decided to build a large 
flouring mill in Oswego, which had the 
largest capacity of any mill in the country 
at that time, turning out from 1,000 to 1,200 
barrels a day, and having 13 runs of stone. 

He was interested in railroad building in 
Ohio, but it was before the days of floating 
bonds and watering stocks, but not of incom- 
petent, reckless superintendents. The enter- 
prise was a failure. But through their rail- 
road enterprise the firm was enabled not only 
to control the wheat over the road and to 
market by vessels, but for the mill at Oswego. 
During the war, or at the close, the mill was 
making very large profits, from |1 to $2 a 
barrel, but unfortunately it took fire and 
burned down, with a large stock of grain and 
flour on hand. The loss was pretty well pro- 
tected by insurance, but the profit which they 
would have made if the mill had not burned 

down, could not have been provided for. 
The actual loss was nearly $150,000. 

Perhaps his first and greatest financial loss 
was through the failure of a large commission 
house (Suydam, Sage & Co.) in New York, in 
1850. But that loss brought generous and 
prompt proffers of aid from business men in 
Watertown, Kingston and Quebec, which 
were long after most gratefully remembered. 
The great financial disasters of 1857 and 1873 
also brought misfortune to him, as well as to 
many others. He was greatly helped in all 
these reverses by the confidence that his 
creditors had in his ability and strict integrity, 
steadily refusing compromises when offered. 
He paid dollar for dollar, though often at 
great sacrifice of property. For many years 
Mr. Merick was president of the Sackets Har- 
bor Bank, relinquishing the position on leav- 
ing Jefferson county. 

For many years he found Clayton was too 
much at one side for the prompt and success- 
ful management and oversight of his varied 
interests. He was strongly attached to the 
people of Jefferson county and the beautiful 
St. Lawrence, and it was with many regrets 
that he left his old friends and pleasant home, 
with all the associations of youth and man- 
hood, to make a home, in 1859, at the more 
central point, Detroit, Here he took an 
honored p ,)sition among the business men of 
the city, many of whom sought advice from 
him, glad to profit by his large experience. 
In addition to other business, he bought an 
interest in the Detroit Dry Dock Company 
for the firm of Merick, Esselstyn & Co. 
John Owen, Gordon Campbell and Merick, 
Fowler & Esselstyn each owned one-third of 
the Dry Dock stock — the total stock being 

Mr. John Fowler, a partner of the firm of 
jMerick, Fowler & Esselstyn, died in May, 
1879. The surviving partners purchased his 
interest in the business, and continued under 
the name of Merick, Esselstyn >.t Co. 

After the failure of 1873, Mr. Merick was 
too old a man to again do business with his 
old confidence and success. 

In 1839 Mr. Merick married Miss Jane C. 
Fowler. She died in 1881, leaving four sur- 
viving children — all of whom have proven 
useful and honored members of society. 

Mrs. Cyrus McCormick, who was Mr. M cr- 
ick's niece, was the daughter of Melzar Fow- 
ler, born at Brownville, N. T., and survives 
her distinguished husband, who was that C. 
H. McCormick, so long the leader in manu- 
facturing reapers for the harvest field, whose 
machines have gone into all lands. He was 
the one to introduce that inestimably valuable 
machine into England, as is so well spoken of 
on page 41 of this History. 

Mr. Merick was very early interested in the 
temperance movement. It had been the cus- 
tom to put whisky among the necessary 
stores for every raft and vessel. He very 
soon realized the injury it was doing, made 
liquor a contraband article, supplied tea and 
coffee instead, and made it his personal duty 
to visit cabin and forecastle, to confiscate and 



throw overboard any spirits smuggled on 

The sailors who manned his vessels came 
from the adjacent farms and villages. Young 
men, beginning as cabin boys, or before the 
mast, were frequently advanced as they 
proved worthy and capable to be mates, cap- 
tains and shareholders, and all looked up to 
him as to a personal friend and father. 

One who had sailed for him 35 years wrote : 
"The accounts for these years aggregated 
more than half a million of dollars, but never 
an error to the value of a cent in his books, 
never a sour look or unkind word. 1 was 
always treated more as an equal than as a ser- 
vant." Another who served him 40 years 
said: " I have received from him nothing 
but kindness . When in need of aid or coun- 
sel his generous heart always responded to my 
wants. In prosperity and adversity, sun- 
shine and storm, he was always true to prin- 
ciple, and true to himself as a man, ever fol- 
lowing the Golden Kule." 

Mr. Meriek had no political aspirations, be- 
yond wishing to do the best possible for his 
own township, of which he was several times 
supervison. He was a strong Whig, and 
gave money, time and influence to promote 
the interests of that party. Twice he was 
nominated to Congress, and ran ahead of his 
ticket; once both parties wished to unite 
upon him as their candidate, but his business 
interests would not permit him to accept the 
nomination. He was also one of the Electoral 
College, voting for President William H. 

The title of judge was given him when he 
was appointed associate judge of Jefferson 
county, but he felt that it rightfully belonged 
only to a man of legal training and ability. 

The Patriot War of 1837-38 caused much 
trouble and anxiety all along the border, and 
brought together many of the best men of 
Northern New York and Canada to council 
together and take such measures as would in- 
sure peace. 

One of the Canadian members of that com- 
mittee of arbitration wrote : ' ' How much 
the high character and the confidence inspired 
by your father in Canada, assisted in allaying 
the irritation which existed on both sides of 
the line. To him many misguided men owe 
their deliverance from extreme peril. I well 
remember the effect upon my own mind, not 
a little exasperated at the time, by his explan- 
ations as to the sincere, but mistaken views 
which induced many good and worthy people 
to engage in or extend aid to what they sup- 
posed to be a movement in assisting the 

Mr. Meriek, deploring his own inability to 
obtain a collegiate education, was ready to 
aid young men with such aspirations. The 
success of many business men was owing to 
the counsel and substantial aid he gave. 
Academies, colleges, churches, public and 
private charities were cheerfully aided by 
him as " the Lord prospered him." 

His noble, courtly bearing, his unassuming 
manner, his thoughtfulness, tenderness and 

benevolence, his faithfulness and integrity 
make a rich legacy to children and children's 

It had always been his thought that a busi- 
ness man should keep at work till the end of 
life. In the winter of 1887-88, realizing from 
his advanced years that his strength was fast 
failing, he decided to sell the remaining ves- 
sels of the fleet. Friday, February 10, 1888, 
the contract was made for selling the last one. 
Saturday, February 11, the papers were to be 
signed. He tarried a little in the morning, 
perhaps not quite as well as usual, after a 
somewhat restless night — his mind no doubt 
busy with reminiscences of the past, and sad- 
dened by the change of affairs. The mail 
brought news from absent loved one. While 
talking with his daughter, sitting beside him, 
of the good tidings received, his head drop- 
ped, one sigh was given, " the silver cord 
was loosed," '"the golden bowl was broken." 
— he had gone from his work to his rest and 
his reward. 

Thus passed away, after an honorable and 
a useful life, one of the most widely-known 
and justly-honored of our older citizens, who 
came to man's estate in Jefferson, and spent 
the flower of his life there. His death occur- 
red at Detroit, February 11, 1888, in his 86th 

Mr. Merrick and wife reared a family of 
four children. They were : 

Maria D., wife of Isaac L. Lyon, a native 
of Ogdensburg, N. Y. They reside at Red- 
lands, Cal. 

Ebmina G. Mekick, wife of E. J. Car- 
rington, of Fulton, N. Y. They reside at 
Detroit, Mich. 

Melzak F. Merick, died March 28, 1893. 
His wife was Mary Whittlesey, of Danbury, 

Jeannie C. , wife of G. N. Chaffee, of De- 
troit, Mich., which is their home. 

Mr. Merick was in many respects a pecu- 
liarly able man, and should be spoken of 
apart from his many business enterprises. 
Judgment was the leading quality of his 
mind. To strangers he appeared reserved, 
the result of his native modesty, and not the 
outgrowth of any feeling of superiority or of 
self -elation. His soul was too great and his 
judgment too solid for any such folly as that. 
He was eminently democratic, simple in his 
manners and his tastes, as have been all the 
really great men the writer has encountered. 
Mr. Merick was not a sharer in the command 
of armies, nor is it probable that he ever knew 
what it was to be thrilled by a, bugle call or 
beat of drum; yet he intensely appreciated 
the struggle endured by the Union armies, 
whose perils he would surely have shared had 
he been of suitable age. He was a patriot in 
the highest sense of that term. Amidst all 
the duties of his exacting business, he was a 
consistent Christian ; the travelling Methodist 
minister always found a welcome at his fire- 
side, both from him and his amiable wife, a 
fact the writer has heard the late Rev. Gard- 
ner Baker speak of with grateful tears. Mr. 


t'APTAIN OF Co. C, S.'iTH N. Y. YoL. iNrANTRY, 1861-1863. 



Meiick's unostentatious and democratic 
ways made him life-long friends, for his 
manner invited confidence, and confidence 
in him meant safety. Children and dogs 
never shunned his society, for they intui- 
tively perceived his gentleness under his 
greatness. Viewed in any light, as a man 
of affairs, the possessor and dispenser of 
large wealth, as the unostentatious but ever 
vigilant citizen of a free country, or as the 
sincere Christian, he possessed so many ex- 
cellencies that he fell but little short of 

earthly perfection. He left a memory in 
Jefferson county that remains peculiary 
sweet, and entirely untarnished. And it is 
fitting to hold up such character to the ad- 
miration of the youth who come after him. 
as an evidence that the age in which he 
lived was not altogether one of greed and 
money-getting, but was adorned now and 
then by souls as grand as can be found in 
the records of any people. And so Eldridge 
G. Merick passes into history as one of the 
very ablest and best of his time. 


Among all the bright and enthusiastic 
young men who were the first to enter the 
Union army from Jefferson county, not one 
had a more engaging individuality than Col. 
George W. Flower. Certainly no one left a 
more prosperous environment nor a more 
attractive home to peril life and every 
human ambition by becoming an active par- 
ticipant in a war that 'promised only death 
or decrepitude. Setting aside his business, 
his young wife and his little children, he 
went to work in raising a company from 
among his neighbors and the companions of 
his boyhood. These readily recognized his 
qualities for leadership, and no other name 
was ever mentioned save his to take the 
captaincy of that fine body of young fel- 
lows who afterwards became Company 
" C " of the 35th N. Y. Vol. Infantry. The 
history of that company is written in that 
of the regiment which it helped to consti- 
tute, and is fully set forth in the proper 
place in this history.' Col. Flower shared 
all its perils, its intervals of wearisome in- 
action at Falls Church and Falmouth; and 
such delays chafed and annoyed him more 
than serious service, for he was a man of 
active mind and body, and found in labor 
and activity the comfort that sluggards find 
in ease and personal comfort. 

At Antietam he received a blow from an 
exploding shell, which disabled him, and 
while home on leave he resolved to resign 
from his command in order to enter upon a 
more vigorous and engrossing pursuit of 
business. The reasons for this course were 
obvious to him, and well understood by his 
nearest friends. He had then served nearly 
two years. He began as a captain, and he 
was yet a captain. He had seen other men, 
his inferiors in ability, in moral worth, in 
previous business condition, and in social 
standing, rise above him in rank, and as his 
own regiment had accexjtable men in its field 
officers, promotion there was unlikely. His 
ambition was unsatisfied, for he had every 
quality that made the good soldier, the cour- 
ageous commander. He resigned his cap- 
taincy and left the regiment, beai'ing with 
him the sincere respect and affectionate re- 
gard of all his comrades. 

Before dismissing Colonel Flower from 

consideration as a military man, one of his 
most intimate daily companions in the field 
esteems it a great pleasure and a duty to bear 
testimony to his unfaltering courage, his 
fortitude under unexpected reverses and his 
unfailing regard for the well-being of his 
men. He had a feeling heart, a high sense 
of soldierly honor, and an undying faith that 
in the end all would come out right. 
Whether in the imminent turmoil and intense 
excitement of battle, under great personal 
danger, or borne down by long marches, 
sometimes in mud and rain amidst endless fa- 
tigue, he was always clear headed, patient, 
exemplary. We shared together, in many a 
bivouac, the same blankets, and divided often 
the last crust — but his hopeful soul ever 
overlooked the present discomfort to find 
pleasure in the hopeful future. Such a man 
in a regiment is a great comfort, for the 
fault-finder and the prophet of evil are ever 
present in an array, discouraging every one 
with their dreary pessimism. 

It is not necessary to allude to his business 
career from the time of his resignation up 
to the time when he came to Watertown to 
reside. He was measurably successful. 

In 1865, Captain Flower became a citizen 
of Watertown, and was so well known and 
so popular that he was elected the first 
mayor under the city charter. His demo- 
cratic ways made him popular with all 
classes, in that particular being much like 
his distinguished brother, the governor. 
His business interests after a while drew 
him much away from Watertown, though 
there was always his family home after his 
removal thither. He built railroads and 
works of internal improvement in several 
localities, being at one time contractor for 
building the great retaining dam which 
holds back the water supply of New York 

Mr. Flower's business career marked him 
as a very intelligent and able man. No en- 
terprise, however great, seemed to appall 
him, for he had a faith that may be called 
sublime. When absent on one of his ex- 
peditions, looking after his business, he 
contracted a serious cold, which developed 
into acute pneumonia, and he died at the 
Union Square Hotel in New York city. May 



4, 1881, lamented by all who were so fortu- 
nate as to know him. He left a widow, who 
has continued to reside in Watertown since 
his death, and a son, Fredk. S. Flower, of 
Flower & Co., 52 Broadway, New York 
city, and a daughter, May E., wife of J. S. 
Robinson, now residing in that city. 

By the death of Mrs. Cadwell, her two 
young daughters were left in charge of Col. 
Flower and his wife for rearing and educa- 
tion. They became conspictious members 
of society, and their gratitude to their friend 
is manifested in the beautiful memorial 
chapel at Brookside, erected to his memory 
a lasting memorial. 

In passing upon the life of such a man as 
Colonel Flower, the biographer only brings 
out the leading and dominating traits of his 
character. But he possessed other traits 
which showed the thoroughness of the early 
training he received at his mother's fireside. 

He was a lovable man, as shown in his re- 
spect and enduring affection for his parents; 
by his quick response in sympathy and ma- 
terial aid for any one in distress, especially 
for those whom he knew in his youth His 
affectionate attention to his wife and child- 
ren and to the young wards who were 
placed in his charge, marked him as a man 
of fine sensibilities, possessing a high sense 
of personal responsibility. Tiiough not one 
who Vaunted of his religious belief, all who 
knew him well understood that tlie pious 
teachings of his mother were not lost upon 
him, and his kindred feel no doubt as to his 
status in that world he has entered upon. 
In its shadowy Valhalla he will meet other 
heroes whom he knew beyond the Potomac, 
and with them he calmly awaits the coming 
of those other noble patriots wlio yet linger 
in their jjilgrimage, some of tliem impatient 
to depart. J. a. h. 


The following interesting paper was pre- 
pared by A. J. Fairbanks, Esq., and read 
before the Jefferson County Historical So- 

Prior to the construction of the Water- 
town arsenal the nearest depot available 
was at Utica. In 1808, Gov. Daniel D. 
Tompkins notified by letter Capt. Noadiah 
Hubbard, of Champion, that ,^00 stand of 
arms, 350 sets of accoutrements and 7,500 
rounds of ammunition, etc., had been for 
some time stored at Utica, awaiting some 
place of deposit, and their destination was, 
by an act of March 27, 1808, changed to 
Watertown. The selection and purchase of 
the site and the supervision of the building 
of the Watertown arsenal, wei-e entrusted 
to Mr. Hart Massey, who at that time held 
the position of collector of customs for the 
district of Sackets Harbor. A site wa.s se- 
lected on the south side of Columbia street 
(now Arsenal street), near its intersection 
with Madison street (now Massey street), in 
the present 3d ward. This portion of the 
town at that time was but recently cleared 
of the forest, and there were but few dwell- 
ings in the vicinity. The west line of Madi- 
son street bordered on a dense forest extend- 
ing to Black River bay, with but few clear- 
ings or roads. During the year 1809 the 
arsenal was erected and completed. The 
structure was of brick with cut stone trim- 
mings. Size 40x60 feet, two stories in 
height, with high attic. On the eastern 
slope of the roof was a platform on which 
was mounted two six-pounders, unlimbered, 
standing muzzle to muzzle. Strong iron 
bars protected the lower windows, and two 
tall masts supported lightning rods. In the 
rear was a one-story guard-house of wood. 
The whole premises were enclosed by a 
strong stockade, constructed of cedar posts 
set into the ground, with two sides hewed, 

to make the joints somewhat perfect, and 
the tops cut off about twelve feet from the 
ground, and sharpened. A gateway 
through the stockade on Columbia street, 
led to the rear and guard-house. A sentry- 
box stood just within the gateway. The 
cost of the arsenal was $1,940 99. On the 
completion of the arsenal, the arm sand am- 
munition, etc., heretofore stored at Utica, 
were brought from there, and additional 
supplies from Albany were added, together 
with a large quantity of cannon balls and 
shells from a foundry at Taberg, Oneida 
county. From this time forward and dur- 
ing the war of 1812-14, the supply was con- 
tinually added to and drawn from, accord- 
ing to the necessities of the times. 

The general appearance and arrangement 
of the arsenal, up to its sale and final aban- 
donment, may be described as follows: The 
ground floor of one room was heavily 
planked for the storage of a complete bat- 
tery of artillery and appendages. Along 
the eastern and southern sides on this floor 
were piled pyramids of cannon balls and 
shells. The walls above these were filled 
with hundreds of knapsacks and canteens, 
the former made of canvas painted lead 
color; on the outer flap was painted in white 
letters the legend in monogram, S. N. Y.; 
the canteens were of wood, cylindrical in 
form, composed of hoops and staves, with 
leather support-straps. On the western 
wall were suspended some four or five hun- 
dred pairs of snow shoes; these were dis- 
carded and left here by Gen. Pike's brigade, 
after the long and tedious march overland 
through the northern wilderness to join 
Dearborn's army at Sackets Harbor, prior 
to the descent on Little York (now Toronto), 
in the winter of 1812-13. The ravages of 
time and mice soon despoiled the snow 
shoes of the netting and thongs so that they 



became worthless, and so remained un- 
touched or undisturbed for thirty-seven 
years, or until 1850. On the second floor 
were stored the muskets; on the four walls 
and on racks extending from floor to ceil- 
ing on double hooks, two by two, with 
bayonets fixed, were ranged many hun- 
dreds of muskets, all of one pattern, smooth 
bore, flint locks of calibre 16 to 18 to the 
pound. Prominent in the assortment were 
many old brass mounted relics and trophies 
of Chippewa and Lundy's Lane; also a few 
old continentals. On the rafters in the at- 
tic were hung many sets of cross belts, 
cartridge boxes and bayonet scabbards; 
above these were a number of drums, the 
heads and strainers long since departed by 
age and neglect. On the drums were 
painted the State coat of arms and the num- 
ber of regiment. 

By the act of Legislature. April 9, 1850, 
the old arsenals of the State were ordered 
to be sold, the sites by private sale and the 
material by auction, except the artillery, 
which was sent to headquarters at Albany. 
Accordingly sales by auction were adver- 
tised and took place soon after. The arm.s 
were quickly sold and were mostly carried off 
by farmers and boys; the belts, etc., were 
sold in lump to a shoe dealer, who utilized 
the material in his business, but disposed of 
the old brass breast plates to a brass foun- 
dry. The site and building were purchased 
by Messrs. O. and E. L. Paddock, who 
leased the premises for a tobacco factory, 
for which purpose it was used for several 
years. Later it was sold to C. A. Holden, 
who made use of it for storage. Finally 
the structure alone was disposed of to W. 
G. WUliams, who demolished it for the ex- 
cellent material it contained, and which 
now forms a portion of a fine brick cottage 
on TenEyck street, owned by C. W. Simons. 
To-day not a stick or stone marks the old 
site. To those interested, we would say that 
the lawn on the western side of the prem- 
ises of Mrs. C. A. Holden, No. 49 Arsenal 
street, marks the spot, and the fine stable 
on the rear occupies the site of the old 


Requisitions for the loan of arms were made 
at various times. At the time of the execu- 
tion of Evans, for the murder of Rogers 
and Diamond in 1838, a company of militia 
was furnished with arms by request of the 
sheriff, and subsequently, in 1839, arms were 
loaned to the sheriff of Lewis county, at the 
execution of McCarthy for ithe murder of 
Alford, an attempted rescue being feared, 
as threats to this effect were freely made; 
but no outbreak occurred. During the sum- 
mer of 1832, the Asiatic cholera raged with 
fatal violence in Canada, and to prevent 
its importation into our boundaries, strong 
and rigorous quarantine regulations were 
established. Boards of health were organ- 
ized in every town and every port on Lake 

Ontario and the river St. Lawrence. The 
citizens of Sackets Harbor procured a bat- 
tery of artillery from Madison barracks, and 
all the shot and shell in the Watertown arse- 
nal were sent to the Harbor for the guns to 
enforce quarantine by force, if necessary, 
in preventing the entry of vessels or passen- 
gers during the prevalence of the disease. 
No occasion for the ammunition, however, 
was required, although the shot and shell 
were never returned. 

During the Patriot war. in 1888, intense 
excitement prevailed for many months, 
owing to the warlike operations on the 
border. Early in the morning of February 
19, 1838, it was discovered that the Water- 
town arsenal had been forcibly entered 
during the night and a large quantity of 
arms carried off. It was surmised at once 
the direction was toward Canada. The 
keeper, who also held the commission of 
deputy United States marshal, at once com- 
menced search with a posse of detectives, 
and also had handbills printed and spread in 
all directions, far and wide, 

The pursuit, though active, did not effect 
the capture of the arms at this time, owing 
to the celerity of the plunderers, for on the 
same day there arrived at French Creek 
(Clayton), on sleighs, a considerable amount 
of arms, munitions and provisions, also, in 
the collection, some 500 long-handled pikes, 
being the proceeds of the Watertown arse- 
nal, and from the arsenals of Batavia and 
Elizabethtown, which were plundered the 
same week. These arms were at once car- 
ried over the boundary to Hickory island, 
in British waters. Hardly had the patriots 
reached the island before a stampede took 
place, and all came back on the run, leaving 
their arms behind or throwing them away 
in the river. The arms that were brought 
back to the American shore were hidden at 
French Creek, and were afterward discov- 
ered and returned. No arrests were made. 
For f ui-ther interesting particulars relat- 
ing to that episode see article upon the 
Patriot war in this History. 

Many distinguished persons visited the old 
arsenal at various times. On the occasion 
of the first annual exhibition of the Jeffer- 
son County Agricultural Society, September 
29, 1818, many guests from abroad were 
present, viz.: Governor De Witt Clinton, 
General Stephen Van Rensselaer, J. Le Ray 
de Chaumont, Hon. George Parish, Col. 
Jenkins, Col Hugh Brady and staff of the 
2d Infantry, U. S. A., from Madison Bar- 
racks, accompanied by the military band of 
the regiment, and others. During the 
march of the procession a salute was fired 
by Major Masters at the arsenal. General 
Macomb, in 1888, and Generals Scott and 
Worth, in 1840, inspected the arms. The 
position of the keeper of the arsenal was a 
sinecure, and the first keepers were un- 
changed for many years, but later the place 
was filled by political preferment. During 
the war the charge was in the quartermas- 



ter's department. The names of some of 
the late keepers were Capt. Massey, Major 
Masters, and later on, Messrs. Fairbanks, 
Soper, Meigs and Shephard. After the rob- 
bery in February, '38, a detachment of 
U. S. regular troops guarded the premises for 
several months. During the war of 1812-14, 
for the protection of the arms, and to facili- 
tate the arming and disbanding of troops, 

a mUitaiy post was established, and bar- 
racks and stables were built opposite the 
arsenal, on the site on which now stands 
the fine brick residence of the late Beman 
Brockway, No. 56 Arsenal street. Mc- 
Knight's cavalry troops were on duty as 
military couriers, carrying dispatches, hunt- 
ing deserters, etc. This post was abandoned 
and demolished in 1815. a. j. f. 


Among the large class of modest, humble 
and refined yet energetic females, who came 
here to cheer and encourage the hearts of 
their husbands, and to divide with them the 
trials and responsibilities of their border 
life, was the one whose name I have placed 
at the heading of this article. Her maiden 
name was Lydia Smith, born in Dracut, 
Massachusetts, July 29, 1786. Her father, 
Samuel Smith, died when she was seven 
years of age, and she went to live with a 
maternal uncle, Ezekiel Hale, in Haverhill, 

While occupied in Mr. Hale's factory, at 
the age of 17, she had an introduction to 
Jonathan Ingalls. Mr. Ingalls wanted a 
wife, and without much ceremony solicited 
her hand. 

It was in the fall of 1803 when they mar- 
ried, and in February following they came 
on together to take possession of their new 

Mr. Ingalls had previously erected a log 
shanty on his land, and had kept bachelor's 
hall while he chopped and cleared a small 
piece of ground for wheat. 

In these early years she did what she 
could in the way of working flax and wool 
into clothes for herself and husband, and in 
enlarging her stock of beds and bedding. 

She took it upon herself to do much of 
the little occasional marketing of butter 
and eggs, and the procuring of such arti- 
cles of necessity as had to be purchased at 
the stores, either at Brownville or in Water- 
town; and although the roads were rough 
she was so accustomed to riding on horse- 
back that she had no difficulty in carrying 
a pail of butter or eggs over the roughest 
roads, in her lap, on horseback. 

Thus passed the short and happy period 
until the war of 1813, by which time they 
had got a large clearing, a good barn and 
the beginning of a comfortable frame house. 

Hitherto she had known only happiness. 
The scene was about to change, and her sun 
was about to set in gloom and darkness. 
The expedition which had resulted in the 
capture of Little Yoi-k, in Canada, provoked 
the enemy to attempt to retaliate by a sys- 
tematic attack upon Sacket's Harbor, in 
May, 1813. Mrs. Ingalls saw her husband 
and husband's brothers take their hasty 
leave of home, on horseback, with their 
implements of war — with a heavy heart 

and with a kind of melancholy presenti- 
ment of harm. 

After a while there were alarming reports 
from the scene of strife, that our forces had 
been defeated, that the town of Sackets 
Harbor was in the hands of the enemy, and 
that a portion of the victorious army, to- 
gether with the Indians, were in rapid 
march for Watertown, to destroy the 

Hastily catching up some things of most 
value, and turning the cows and cahes to- 
gether, she took her children and a supply 
of such things as would be most needed, in 
a- little bundle in her hand, and fell into the 
disordered ranks of the fugitive company. 

They had proceeded something like a 
mile and a half when Elder Libbeus Field 
overtook them, and having succeeded in 
allaying their fears by an assurance that 
the British had retreated, they all faced 
about and returned . 

It was dark that night before any con- 
firmation of the favorable termination of 
the battle was had by Mrs. Ingalls in her se- 
cluded neighborhood. At that time the bro- 
thers, James and David Ingalls, returned, 
and reported that they had run away from 
the battle before its close, and had, there- 
fore, not seen her husband. The neighbor- 
hood soon became a scene of excitement 
when it was ascertained that Mr. Abraham 
Graves, who was ensign in the company to 
which Mr. Ingalls belonged, together with 
Mr. John Ayers, were among the missing. 

Mrs. Ingalls proceeded at once to the Har- 
bor with her friends, and instituted a sys- 
tematic search over the field of battle, but 
all in vain, and she was persuaded to return 
to her desolate home, with a faint hope that 
he might after all be a prisoner, even in the 
hands of the dreaded Indians. 

It was the last of July before she got the 
intelligence by way of a letter from Mr. 
Graves to his family, that the five persons 
named, viz: Messrs. Linnell. Cook, Ayres, 
Ingalls and himself, were taken prisoners 
by the Indians and given up to the British, 
who had conveyed them to Quebec, where 
all but himself were confined on boai'd of a 
prison ship. He being an officer in the 
militia, was permitted to remain on shore. 
He also stated that the persons named were 
well when he last heard directly from 

Built in WfS by Remington, Gates & Co. Cost $75,000. 



In February following, Mrs. Graves got 
another letter from her husband which 
gave the intelligence of the death of Mr. 
Ingalls and Mr. Ayers, from disease induced 
by cruel suffering and confinement in the 
hold of a filthy prison ship, and by starva- 

In the meantime there was sickness and 
death in the family at home, and a neces- 
sity for the most active efforts on her part, 
in harvesting and securing the crops. 
David Ingalls was never v?ell a day after 
his return from the battle at Sackets Har- 
bor, but continued to decline until August, 
when he died. Mrs. Ingalls had a severe 
run of fever, such as was called the " epi- 

demic," which raged in all parts of the 
county. Others of her family were sick at 
nearly the same time, so that a younger 
brother of Mr. Ingalls, who had been sent 
for before David's death, thought it most 
prudent for him to escape the danger by 
I'eturning at once to his old home. New 

She made arrangements the next spring 
with Mr. Brintnall, who was then a young 
unmarried man, to rent the farm to him 
foi- three years. This arrangement proved 
perfectly satisfactory to both parties, and 
resulted in a very agreeable matrimonial 
connection, by which she became at the 
close of three vears, Mi-s. James Brintnal. 


Pbehaps this point in our History is as 
appropriate as any other in which to intro- 
duce the city of Watertown, as independent 
from the town proper. This manner of 
treating the subject may appear to give the 
city more prominence upon the printed 
page than is its due. But Watertown vil- 
lage, from the very first, was an important 
business center, geographically almost equi- 
distant from any of the lines fornaing the 
county's boundaries ; and notwithstanding 
the pretensions of surrounding villages, 
that frequently challenged Watertown's 
claims to supremacy — one move having 
gone so far as to propose two shire towns 
for holding courts (one at Adams and the 
other at Theresa) — yet the old town has 
gone right along increasing in wealth, social 
status, and in population, until now it is 
one of the most elegant and wealthy small 
cities of America. Viewed in any light — 
as the center of a prosperous county, the 
center of the wealth and industry of that 
county, or as the central influence whence 
have sprung much of the enter])rse and 
learning of the county at large, its histoxy 
and present status must ever be interesting, 
and perhaps instructive. It is the common 
ground on which tlie people of all the towns 
may meet upon democratic equality — the 
very Rialto of the commercial influences 
which have always centered here, and the 
Athens of a section which has needed no 
Acropolis, for the surrounding towns have 
pi'oduced local orators and soldiers whose 
names will sound in the remoter history as 
do to us, now upon the stage, the names of 
Webster and Choate, of Soult, and Murat, 
and McDonald. 

The city of Watertown is finely located on 
the Black river about seven miles from its 
junction with Lake Ontario. The river 
divides the city into two unequal portions, 
the bulk of the place being on the southern 
side of the stream. Two large islands. Bee- 
bee's and Sewall's, besides one smaller one, 
are encompassed by the various channels 
within the city limits. Of these Beebee's 

contains about five, and Sewall's fifteen acres 
of land, or rather land and rock, for under- 
neath the scanty covering of soil lies the for- 
mation known as the 'Trenton limestone, 
composed of three stratifications, individual- 
ly known as Trenton, Black River and Birds- 
eye, which comprise a large share of the sur- 
face or out-cropping strata of the county. 
The river is spanned by substantial bridges. 
One of these bridges, upon the suspension 
plan, was designed and constructed by a 
local mechanic. 

The islands and banks of the river are 
mostly occupied by the various manufac- 
tories for over a mile, nearly all of which 
are very conveniently connected with the 
tracks of the railway lines which center 
here. The njain body of the town is beau- 
tifully situated on a broad-spreading 
plateau, running back to the terraces of 
limestone which mark the ancient shores 
of Lake Ontario. The city is remarkably 
well built, nioie especially in the line of 
dwellings, which for number, elegance and 
comfort are not excelled by those of any 
city in the country. 

■The place has all the necessary and charac- 
teristic elements of a large city, including 
fine, broad streets, good hotels, extensive 
printing establishments, costly churches, 
good schools, gas and water-works, a well- 
ordered fire department, a competent police 
force, one great rural cemetery and several 
small ones, excellent bands, a fine opera- 
house, extensive and irpposing business 
blocks, and heavy manufactories. It is the 
center of a very extensive trade in nearly 
all descriptions of merchandise and manu- 
factured goods, and transacts a very 
large business in dairy and other agricul- 
tural productions, as well as in wood-pulp, 
the capacity of the river, from Carthage to 
Dexter being placed as high as 300 tons per 


1. Its unsurpassed and almost unlimited 
water-power, furnished by Black river. 



which falls nearly 113 feet within the city 

3. Its location in the most fertile and pro- 
ductive portion of Northern New York, and 
in one of the most thriving and prosperous 
agricultural counties in the State. 

3. It is the virtual center of a railroad 
system which has its outlets at favorable 
points in the interior of the State, and at the 
best ports on the "' great lakes of the north." 

4. It therefore possesses the advantages 
of railroad connections, the superintendents 
expressing and showing a liberal spirit 
towards all manufacturing enterprises. 

5. It is situated in the midst of vast and , 
valuable mineral deposits, chief among 
which are inexhaustible beds of the finest 
iron ore to be found in the United States, 
many of which are in full and successful 
operation . 

6. Within the limits of the city lie portions 
of a ridge of limestone miles in extent, 
which, it has been demonstrated, has no 
superior as a flux for use in the reduction of 
iron ore, 

7. It has direct railroad communication 
with the vast coal regions of Northern 
Pennsylvania, by two connecting railroad 

8. It has direct railroad communication 
with the lumbering interests of adjoining 
counties, with lake and river ports receiving 
lumber from the west, and with the great 
pine and spruce forests of Canada. 

9. It is within ten miles of one of the best 
harbors on the great lakes, with which it is 
connected by rail, thus affording direct 
comnaunication by water with the grain, 
lumber, and mineral industries of the north- 

10. It is situated in the midst of the most 
productive tanning interests of the State — 
Jefferson and adjoining counties being large 
producers of live stock, and the material 
for reducing hides to leather. 

11. The government of the city is based 
on strict ideas of economy consistent with 
safe and sure progress, and the spirit of the 
people is decidedly in favor of every measure 
intended to make the rate of taxation low. 
The officers of the city are pledged to carry 
out this idea. 

13. Statistics show that it is one of the 
healthiest cities in the Union, subject to no 
contagious diseases, and free from prevail- 
ing sickness. The rate of mortality for 1875 
was one in seventy. 

13. Its public school system has been 
placed upon a satisfactory foundation, and 
affords excellent educational facilities. 

14. The cost of living is below that in the 
large cities, estimated to be 25 percent, less. 

15. Its social advantages are numerous, 
the tone of society healthy, and the morals 
of the community beyond dispute. 

16. Its great wealth, which is generally 
seeking investments in desirable and well- 
conducted manufacturing pursuits. 

It is 250 miles nortliwest of New York 

city, 147 miles west-northwest of Albany, 72 
miles north of Rome, 90 miles northwest of 
Utica. 69 miles north of Syracuse, 60 miles 
northeast of Oswego, 76 miles south of Og- 
densburg, with all of which cities it has 
direct and unbroken railroad connection. 
It is also 10 miles east of Sackets Harbor, 
one of the finest harbors on Lake Ontario, 
and 35 miles southeast of Cape "Vincent, a 
fine port on the St. Lawrence river, opposite 
Kingston, Ontario, and one of the promi- 
nent outlets of a flourishing Canadian 
trade. With both the last-named points 
Watertown has direct railroad connection. 
It is also connected by rail with Clayton, a 
thriving village on the St. Lawrence river, 
opposite Gananoque, which is also an out- 
let of Canadian trade; and withMorristown, 
a prosperous village a few miles farther 
down the river, opposite Brockville, Ontario, 
Kingston, Brockville, and Gananoque, with 
Prescott, opposite Ogdensburg, are impor- 
tant points on the Grand Trunk Railroad of 
Canada. Kingston is the terminus of the 
Kingston and Pembroke Railroad, penetrat- 
ing a productive lumber country. Brock- 
ville is the terminus of the Brockville and 
Ottawa Railroad, and also of the Rideau 
Canal, botli passing though important lum- 
ber districts. Prescott is the terminus of 
the St. Lawrence and Ottawa Kailroad. 

The construction of the Carthage and 
Adirondack Railroad has placed Watertown 
in daily touch with the Western Adiron- 
dacks, with its immense lumber growth, as 
well as its well-known health resorts, while 
Walter Webb's railroad connecting Remsen 
with Malone, has opened up to the people 
of Jefferson county a northern entrance 
into the Eastern Adirondacks, with its great 
forests and beautiful lakes, and. indeed into 
that vast region of virgin forests extending 
eastward from No. 4 to Lakes Champiain 
and George. 

It will be seen that nothing can be more 
favorable than the geographical location of 
Watertown, commercially considered. This 
is an element of strength which cannot be 
overlooked by those who regard the question 
of location with commercial eyes. 

The city is situated in the very heart of 
one of the richest agricultural regions in 
the State, to which fact is largely due the 
substantial growth, thrift, enterprise and 
prosperity that have become a recognized 
features with those who know its liistory 
best. Its prosperity is second to no city of 
its size in the United States It is. in fact, 
the leading commercial city of Northern 
New York. 

In 1803, Jonathan Cowan began the erec- 
tion of a grist-mill at tlie bridge that crosses 
to Beebee's Island. The exti-aordinary water 
power which this place presented afforded 
ground for the expectation that it would 
become the center of a great amount of 
business. The first deeds were given 
August 20. 1802, to Elijah Allen, Jothnm 
Ives, David Bent. Ezra Parker, William 


No. 1. 

" 2. 

" 3. 

" 4. 

" 5. 

" 6. 

•' 7. 

•■ 10. 

Jonathan Cowan's saw mill. 

Cowan's log dwelling house. 

Judge Henry Coffeen's log dwelling. 

A frame roof, just covered, designed for a 

store by Amasa Fox. 
A small plank house, commenced by Thomas 

Walt, unfinished. 
Aaron Keyes' frame dwelling house. 
Aaron Keyes' cooper shop. 
Log house occupied by Medad CanBeld. 
Log house occupied by Joel (Joodale. 
Log house built by Zachariah Butterfleld, and 

occupied by Walt. 

No. 11. Frame erected by Aaron Bacon -rafters 
blown off. 

12. Doctor Isaiah Massey's tavern. 

13. A frame, rough-boarded — no tenant. 
" U and 15. Two barns. 

" 16. Dwelling house of Hart Massey. 

" 17. Wood house occupied by Nathaniel Haven. 

" 18. Mr. Massey's barn. 

" 19. Log house and hat shop of Paoli Wells. 

" 20. Isaac Cutler's distillery . 

21. Israel Thompson's log dwelling. 

28. Village spring. The clump of buildings very 
nearly represents the present Public Square. 

g H 



Parker, Joseph Tuttle, and Joseph Moore, 
but nearly all these settled outside the vil- 

We present, upon another page, a diagram 
showing the location of the buildings at 
Watertown, as they existed in 1804. 

During the first summer of the settlement, 
it being entirely impossible to procui-e 
grinding at any mills nearer than Canada, 
a stump standing on the public square, a 
few rods east of the American Hotel, had 
been formed into a mortar, and with a 
spring-pole and pestle attached, served the 
purpose of a grain-mill to the settlement. 
This primitive implement, suggestive of 
rustic life and the privations of a new 
colony, relieved the pioneers, in some de- 
gree, from a necessity of long journeys to 
mill, through a pathless forest. The hard- 
ships of this early period had a tendency to 
create a unity of feeling and sympathy 
from the strong sense of mutual dependence 
which it engendered, and which is recalled 
by the few survivors of the period with 
emotions of gratitude for the manifest mer- 
cies of Providence. Tliese hardy adven- 
turers were mostly poor. They possessed 
few of the comforts of life, yet they had 
few wants. The needful articles of the 
household were mostly made by their own 
hands, and artificial gi-ades of society were 

In 180a an inn was opened by Dr. Isaiah 
Massey , and settlers began to locate in every 
part of the town, which, in September of 
that year, numbered 70 or 80 families. A 
dam was built by Cowan in 1803, and in 
1803 he got in operation a small grist-mill. 
During two or three succeeding years, John 
Paddock, Chauncy Calhoun, Philo Johnson, , 
Jesse Doolittle, William Smith, Medad Can- 
field, Aaron Keyes, Wm. Huntingdon, John 
Hathaway, Seth Bailey, Gershom Tuttle, 
and others, several of whom were mechan- 
ics, joined the settlement, and at a very 
early day a schoolhouse was built on the 
site of the Universalist church, which 
served also as a place of religious meetings. 

In ISO.'), John Paddock and William 
Smith opened the firA store in the place, 
their goods being brought from Utica in 
wagons. An idea may be had of the hard- 
ships of that period, compared with modern 
facilities, from the fact that in March, 1807, 
seventeen sleighs, laden with goods for 
Smith and Paddock, were twenty -three days 
in getting from Oneida county to Water- 
town by way of Redfield. The snows were 
in some places seven feet deep; and the val- 
leys almost impassable from wild torrents 
resulting from the melting of snows. The 
winter had been remarkable for its severity, 
and the spring for destructive floods. 

In 1803 a bridge was built below the vil- 
lage, near the court house, by Henry Coffeen 
and Andrew Edmunds, over which "the State 
road afterwards passed, and in 1805 the dam 
was built below the bridge, at which, the 

same year, a saw-mill was built on the north 
side, and in 1806 a grist-mill by Seth Bailey 
and Gershom Tuttle. A saw-mill was built 
on the Watertown side by R. & T. Potter, a 
little below, and a saw and grist-mill soon 
after by H. H. Coffeen, since which time 
man3' large mills have been erected along 
the river. 

The first brick building erected in the 
county was built by William Smith, in the 
summer of 1806. It was two stories in 
height with a stone basement, Mr. Smith 
working upon it with his own hands. The 
bricks were manufactured by Eli Rogers, 
on the point of land between the mall and 
Franklin street. The site of this building 
is now occupied by Washington Hall. 

It is a singular fact that the village of 
Watertown, in common with the whole 
county of Jefferson, while it vies in wealth 
and enterprise with the most favored por- 
tions of the State, owes very little if any- 
thing to imported capital. In most in- 
stances the wealth now existing has been 
acquired on the spot, by those who at an 
early period were thrown upon their own 
immediate exertions for support; and from 
the ashes of the timber that covered the 
land, and the first crops which the virgin 
soil yielded in kind profusion, they received 
the first impulse, which, seconded by indus- 
try, prudence and sagacity has not failed 
to bring its reward. With a strong convic- 
tion that the place would at a future time 
become an important village, Jonathan 
Cowan, Henry Coffeen, Zachariah Butter- 
field, Jesse Doolittle, Medad Canfield, Aaron 
Keyes, Hai't Massey and Isaiah Massey, who 
owned property adjoining the present public 
square and Washington street in Watertown, 
held, early in 1805. an informal meeting, and 
agreed to give forever to the public for a pub- 
lic mall a piece of land twelve rods wide 
and twenty-eight feet long, and another 
running south at right angles to this, nine 
rods wide and about thirty-two long. They 
then directed to be made by John Simons, 
a surveyor, a map of the premises, which 
was done, and deposited in the town clerk's 
office, but this was afterwards lost. An at- 
tempt was subsequently made to resume 
the title and sell portions of the public 
square, but the question having been 
brought into the courts, was decided by 
Judge Nathan Williams in favor of the 
public, as Mr. Cowan, the claimant, al- 
though be had never deeded land on the 
public square, had acknowledged its exist- 
ence by his bounding certain conveyances 
upon it. In the same year the site of the 
court-house was determined by the commis- 
sioners appointed by the Governor for that 
purpose, not without the most active influ- 
ences being used at Brownville; and it is 
said to have been located upon the plot 
where the jail adjoined it, at some distance 
below the business portion of the village, by 
way of compi-omise. 




For the purpose of refreshing the uiemo- 
ries of our citizens on the subject, we pub- 
lish thestoi-y in full, as related in " Hough's 
History of Jefferson County." The public 
will probably be as much interested in read- 
ing it as in any thing we could publish: 

Samuel Whittlesey, originally from Tol- 
land, Ct. , had removed about, 1808, to 
Watertown, and engaged in business as a 
lawyer. On the 13th of February, 1811, he 
received the appointment of district attor- 
ney for the territory comprised in Lewis, 
Jefferson and St. Lawrence counties, and on 
the 6th day of February, 1813, he was 
superseded by the appointment of Amos 
Benedict, who had preceded him. Events 
connected with this led to some sympathy 
for him, and the office of brigade paymas- 
ter, which had been tendered to Mr. Jasan 
Fairbanks, was by him declined in favor of 
"Whittlesey, and he, with Perley Keyes, be- 
came security for the honest discharge of 
the duties of the office. At the close of the 
war a large amount of monev being due to 
the di-afted militia, for services on the fron- 
tier, "Whittlesey went to New "i'ork, accom- 
panied by his wife, to obtain the money, 
and received at the Merchants' Bank, in 
that city, $30,000, in one, two. three, five 
and ten dollar bills, with which he started 
to return. At Schenectady, as was after- 
wards learned, his wife reported themselves 
robbed of $8,700, an occurrence which 
greatly distressed and alarmed him, but she 
advised him not to make it public at that 
moment, as they might thereby better take 
steps that might lead to its recovery, and 
on the wa3' home she, in an artful and 
gradual manner, persuaded him that if they 
should report the robbery of a part of the 
money, no one would believe it, as a thief 
would take the whole, if any. In short (to 
use a homely proverb), she urged him that 
they might as well " die for an old sheep as 
a lamb." and keep the rest, as thej' would 
inevitably be accused of taking a part. Her 
artifice, enforced by the necessities of the 
case, took effect, and he suffered himself to 
become the diipe of his wife, who was, 
doubtless, the chief contriver of the move- 
ments which followed. Accordingly, on his 
return, he gave out word that his money 
had been ijrocured and would be paid 
over as soon as the necessary pajjers and 
pay-roll could be prepared. In a few 
days, having settled his arrangements, 
he started for Trenton, on horseback, 
with his portmanteau filled, stopping at 
various places on his way to announce 
that on a given day he would return to pay 
to those entitled, their dues, and in several 
instances evinced a carelessness about the 
custody of his baggage that excited remark 
from inn-keepers and others. On arriving 
at Billings' tavern at Trenton, he assembled 
several persons to whom money was due, 
and proceeded to pay them; but upon open- 

ing his portmanteau, he, to the dismay of 
himself and others, found that they had 
been ripped open and that the money was 
gone ! "With a pitiable lamentation and 
well-affected sorrow, he bewailed the rob- 
berv, instantlv dispatched messengers in 
quest of the thief, offered $2,000 reward for 
his apprehension, and advertised in staring 
handbills throughout the country, in hopes 
of gaining some clue that would enable him 
to recover his treasure. In this anxiety he 
was joined l)y hundreds of others who had 
been thus indefinitely delayed in the receipt 
of their needed and rightful dues; but 
although there was no lack of zeal in these 
efforts, yet nothing occurred upon which to 
settle susijiciou, and with a heavy heart and 
many a sigh and tear, he returned home 
and related to his family and friends his 
ruin. As a natural consequence the event 
became at once the absorbing theme of the 
country, for great numbers were affected 
in their pecuniary concerns by it. and none 
more than the two indorsers of the sureties 
of "Whittlesey. These gentlemen, who were 
shrewd, practical and very observing men, 
immediately began to interrogate him, 
singly and alone, into the circumstance of 
the journey and the robbery, and Fair- 
banks in particular, whose trade as a sad- 
dler led him to be minutely observant of 
the qualities and appearances of leather, 
made a careful examination of tlie incisions 
in the portmanteau, of which there were 
two, tracing upon paper their exact size and 
shape, and upon close examination noticed 
pin holes in the margin, as if they had been 
mended up. Upon comparing the accounts 
which each had separately obtained in a 
long and searching conversation, these men 
became convinced that the money had not 
been stolen in tlie manner alleged, but that 
it was still in the possession of "Whittlesey 
and his wife. To get possession it this 
money was iheir next care, and after long 
consultation, it was agreed that the only 
way to do this, was to gain the confidence 
of the family, and defend them manfully 
against the insinuations tliat came from all 
quarters that the money was still in town. 
In this they succeeded admirably, and from 
the declarations which they made in public 
and in private, which found their way 
directly back to tlie family, the latter were 
convinced that although the whole world 
were against them in their misfortunes, yet 
they had the satisfaction to know that the 
two men wlio were the most interested were 
still by their side. To gain some fact that 
would lead to a knowledge of the place of 
deposit, Messrs. Fairbanks and Keyes agreed 
to listen at tlie window of the sleeping room 
of those suspected, which was in a cham- 
ber and overlooked the I'oof of a piazza. 
Accordingly, after dark, one would call 
upon the family and detain them in con- 
versation, while the other mounted a ladder 
and placed himself where he could overhear 
what was said within, and although they 



thus became convinced that the money was 
still in their possession, no opinion could be 
formed about the hiding place. Security 
upon their real estate was demanded, and 
readily given. 

A son of the family held a commission in 
the navy, and was on the point of sailing 
for the Mediterranean, and it was suspected 
that the money might thus have been sent 
oflE: to ascertain which, Mr. Fairbanks, 
under pretext of taking a criminal to the 
State prison, went to New York, made in- 
quiries which satisfied him that the son was 
innocent of any knowledge of the affair, 
and ascertained at the bank the size of the 
packages taken. He had been told by 
Whittlesey that these had not been opened 
when stolen, and by making experiments 
with blocks of wood of the same dimen- 
sions, they readily ascertained that bundles 
of that size could not be got through an 
aperture of the size reported, and that in- 
stead of a seveu it required an eighteen inch 
slit in the leather to allow of their being 
extracted. Some facts were gleaned at 
Albany that shed further light — among 
which it was noticed that Mrs. Whittlesey 
at her late visit (although very penurious in 
her trade), had been very profuse in her ex- 
penses. After a ten daj's' absence Mr. Fair- 
banks returned: his partner having listened 
nights meanwhile, and the intelligence 
gained by eaves-dropping, although it failed 
to disclose the locality of the lost money, 
confirmed their suspicions. As goods were 
being boxed up at Whittlesey's house at a 
late hour in the night, and the daughters 
had already been sent on to Sackets Harbor, 
it was feared that the family would soon 
leave: decisive measures were resolved upon 
to recover the money, the ingenuity and 
boldness of which evince the sagacity and 
energy of the parties. Some method to 
decoy Whittlesey from home, and frighten 
him by threats, mutilation or torture, into 
a confession, was discussed, but as the lat- 
ter might cause an uncontrollable hemor- 
rhage, it was resolved to try the effect of 
drowning. Some experiments were made 
on their own persons, of the effect of sub- 
mersion of the head, and Dr. Sherwood, a 
physician of the village, was consulted on 
the time life would remain under water. 
Having agreed upon a plan, on the evening 
before its execution they repaired to a 
lonely place about a mile south of the vil- 
lage, screened from the sight of houses by 
a gentle rise of gi-ound, and where a spring 
issued from the bank and flowed through a 
miry slough, in which a little belovi', they 
built a dam of turf that formed a shallow 
pool. It was arranged that Mr. Fairbanks 
should call upon Whittlesey, to confer with 
hini on some means of removing the sus- 
picions which the public had settled upon 
him, by obtaining certificates of character 
from leading citizens and officers of the 
armyj and that the two \vere to repair to 
Mr. Keyes' house, which was not far from 

the spring. Mr. Keyes was to be absent re- 
pairing his fence, and to leave word with 
his wife that if any one inquired for him, 
to send them into the field where he was at 
work. Neither had made confidants in their 
suspicions or their plans, except that Mr. 
Keyes thought it necessary to reveal them 
to his son, P. Gardner Keyes, then 17 years 
of age, whose assistance he might need, in 
keeping up appearances, and in whose 
sagacity and fidelity in keeping a secret he 
could rely. 

Accordingly, on the morning of July 17th 
(1815), Mr. Keyes, telling his wife that the 
cattle had broken into his grain, shouldered 
his axe and went to repair the fence which 
was thrown down, and Mr. Fairbanks 
called upon Whittlesey, engaged him in 
conversation, as usual, and withou