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CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




3 1924 079 747 485 







Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tliis book is in 
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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924079747485 



LATIN FOR BEGINNERS 



BY 

.BENJAMIN L. D'OOGE, Ph.D. 

PROFESSOR IN THE MICHIGAN STATE NORMAL COLLEGE 



GINN AND COMPANY 

BOSTON • NEW YORK • CHICAGO • LONDON 



COPYRIGHT, 1909, 1911, BY BENJAMIN L. d'OOGE 

ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



GINN AND COMPANY • PRO- 
PRIETORS • BOSTON • U.S.A. 



FILIOLO • MEO 

QUI • ME • NON • SOLUM • DICENDA 

SED • ETIAM ■ TACENDA ■ DOCUIT 

HOC • OPUSCULUM • EST 

DEDICATUM 



PREFACE 

To make the course preparatory to Caesar at the same time sys- 
tematic, thorough, clear, and interesting is the purpose of this series 
of lessons. 

The first pages are devoted to a brief discussion of the Latin lan- 
guage, its history, and its educational value. The body of the book, 
consisting of seventy-nine lessons, is divided into three parts. 

Part I is devoted to pronunciation, quantity, accent, and kindred 
introductory essentials. 

Part II carries the work through the first sixty lessons, and is 
devoted to the study of forms and vocabulary, together with some 
elementary constructions, a knowledge of which is necessary for the 
translation of the exercises and reading matter. The first few lessons 
have been made unusually simple, to meet the wants of pupils not 
well grounded in English grammar. 

Part III contains nineteen lessons, and is concerned primarily with 
the study of syntax and of subjunctive and irregular verb forms. The 
last three of these lessons constitute a review of all the constructions 
presented in the book. There is abundant easy reading matter ; and, 
in order to secure proper concentration of effort upon syntax and 
translation, no new vocabularies are introduced, but the vocabularies 
in Part II are reviewed. 

It is hoped that the following features will commend themselves to 
teachers : 

The forms are presented in their natural sequence, and are given, 
for the most part, in the body of the book as well as in a grammatical 
appendix. The work on the verb is intensive in character, work in 
other directions being reduced to a minimum while this is going on. 
The forms of the subjunctive are studied in correlation with the 
subjunctive constructions. 

V 



vi PREFACE 

The vocabulary has been selected with the greatest care, using 
Lodge's " Dictionary of Secondary Latin " and Browne's " Latin 
Word List " as a basis. There are about six hundred words, exclu- 
sive of proper names, in the special vocabularies, and these are 
among the simplest and commonest words in the language. More 
than ninety-five per cent of those chosen are Caesarian, and of these 
more than ninety per cent are used in Csesar five or more times.. 
The few words not Caesarian are of such frequent occurrence in 
Cicero, Vergil, and other authors as to justify their appearance here. 
But teachers desiring to confine word study to Caesar can easily do so, 
as the Caesarian words are printed in the vocabularies in distinctive 
type. Concrete nouns have been preferred to abstract, root words to 
compounds and derivatives, even when the latter were of more frequent 
occurrence in Cassar. To assist the memory, related English words 
are added in each vocabulary. To insure more careful preparation, 
the special vocabularies have been removed from their- respective 
lessons and placed by themselves. The general vocabulary contains 
about twelve hundred words, and of these above eighty-five per cent 
are found in Caesar. 

The syntax has been limited to those essentials which recent investi- 
gations, such as those of Dr. Lee Byrne and his collaborators, have 
shown to belong properly to the work of the first year. The construc- 
tions are presented, as far as possible, from the standpomt of English, 
the English usage being given first and the Latin compared or con- 
trasted with it. Special attention has been given to the constructions 
of participles, the gerund and gerundive, and the infinitive in indirect 
statements. Constructions having a logical connection are not sepa- 
rated but are treated together. 

Exercises for translation occur throughout, those for translation 
into Latin being, as a rule, only half as long as those for transla- 
tion into English. In Part III a few of the commoner idioms in 
Cassar are introduced and the sentences are drawn mainly from that 
author. From first to last a consistent effort is made to instill a 
proper regard for Latin word order, the first principles of which are 
laid down earl^ in the course. 



PREFACE vii 

Selections for reading are unusually abundant and are introduced 
from the earliest possible moment. These increase in number and 
length as the book progresses, and, for the most part, are made an 
integral part of the lessons instead of being massed at the end of the 
book. This arrangement insures a more constant and thorough drill in 
forms and vocabulary, promotes reading power, and affords a breathing 
spell between succeeding subjects. The material is drawn from his- 
torical and mythological sources, and the vocabulary employed includes 
but few words not already learned. The book closes with a continued 
story which recounts the chief incidents in the life of a Roman boy. The 
last chapters record his experiences in Caesar's army, and contain much 
information that will facilitate the interpretation of the Commentaries. 
The early emphasis placed on word order and sentence structure, the 
simplicity of the syntax, and the familiarity of the vocabulary, make 
the reading selections especially useful for work in sight translation. 

Reviews are called for at frequent intervals, and to facilitate this 
branch of the work an Appendix of Reviews has been prepared, cov- 
ering both the vocabulary and the grammar. 

The illustrations are numerous, and will, it is hoped, do much to 
stimulate interest in the ancient world and to create true and lasting 
impressions of Roman life and times. 

A consistent effort has been made to use simple language and clear 
explanation throughout. 

As an aid to teachers using this book, a " Teacher's Manual " has 
been prepared, which contains, in addition to general suggestions, 
notes on each lesson. 

The author wishes to express his gratitude to the numerous teachers 
who tested the advance pages in their classes, and, as a result of their 
experience, have given much valuable aid by criticism and suggestion. 
Particular acknowledgments are due to Miss A. Susan Jones of the 
Central High School, Grand Rapids, Michigan ; to Miss Clara Allison 
of the High School at Hastings, Michigan ; and to Miss Helen B. Muir 
and Mr. Orland O. Norris, teachers of Latin in this institution. 

BENJAMIN L. D'OOGE 
Michigan State Normal College 



CONTENTS 



LESSON PAGE 

To THE Student — By way of Introduction .... . 1-4 

PART I. THE PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN 

Alphabet, Sounds of the Letters, Syllables, Quantity, Accent, 

How TO Read Latin 5-11 

PART II. WORDS AND FORMS 

I- VI. First Principles — Subject and Predicate, Inflection, Num- 
ber, Nominative Subject, Possessive Genitive, Agreement of 
Verb, Direct Object, Indirect Object, etc. — Dialogue . 12-24 

VII-VIII. First or ^^^Declension — Gender, Agreement of Adjectives, 

Word Order 25-30 

IX-X. Second or 0-Declension — General Rules for De- 
clension — Predicate Noun, Apposition — Dialogue . . 31-35' 
XI. Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions . 36-37 
XII. Nouns in -ius and -ium — Germania 38-39 

XIII. Second Declension (Continued) — Nouns in -er and -ir — 

Italia — Dialogue . . . . 39-41 

XIV. Possessive Adjective Pronouns 42-43 

XV. Ablative denoting With — Cause, Means, Accompani- 
ment, Manner — The Romans Prepare for War . . 44-46 

XVI. The Nine Irregular Adjectives 46-47 

XVII. The Demonstrative is, ea, id — Dialogue 48-50 

XVIII. Conjugation — Present, Imperfect, and Future of sum — 

Dialogue . . 51-53 

XIX. Present Active Indicative of amo and moneo . . . 54-56 
XX. Imperfect Active Indicative of amo and moneo — 

Meaning of the Imperfect — ^ NiOBE AND her Children. 56-57 
XXI. Future Active Indicative of amo and moneo — Niobe 

AND her Children (Concluded) 58-59 

XXII. Review of Verbs — The Dative with Adjectives — Cornelia 

A1W5 HER Jewels 59-6i 

viii 



CONTENTS ix 

LESSON PAGE 

XXIII. Present Active Indicative of rego and audio — 

Cornelia and her Jewels {Concluded) .... 61-63 

XXIV. Imperfect Active Indicative of rego and audio — 

The Dative with Special Intransitive Verbs .... 63-65 
XXV. Future Active Indicative of rego and audio . . 65-66 
XXVI. Verbs in -io — Present, Imperfect, and Future Active 

Indicative of capio — The Imperative 66-68 

XXVII. Passive Voice — Present, Imperfect, and Future 
Indicative of amo and moneo — Perseus and An- 
dromeda 68-72 

XXVIII. Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative Pas- 
sive OF rego AND audio — Perseus and Andro- 
meda (Continued) .... T^-Ti 

XXIX. Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative 
Passive of -IB Verbs — Present Passive Infini- 
tive AND Imperative 73-75 

XXX. Synopses in the Four Conjugations — The Abla- 
tive denoting Trom, Place from Which, Separation, 

Personal Agent 75—78 

XXXI. Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect of 

sum — Dialogue 79-81 

XXXII. Perfect Active Indicative of the Four Regular 
Conjugations — Meanings of the Perfect — Per- 
seus and Andromeda {Continued) . . . 81-83 

XXXIII. Pluperfect and; Future Perfect Active Indica- 

tive — Perfect Active Infinitive 84-85 

XXXIV. Review of the Active Voice — Perseus and 

Andromeda {Concluded) 86-87 

XXXV. Passive Perfects of the Indicative — Perfect 

Passive and Future Active Infinitive . . . 88-90 
XXXVI. Review of Principal Parts — Prepositions, Yes-or- 

No Questions . . 90-93 

XXXVII. Conjugation of possum — The Infinitive used as in 
English — Accusative Subject of an Infinitive — 

The Faithless Tarpeia 93-96 

XXXVIII. The Relative Pronoun and the Interrogative 
Pronoun — Agreement of the Relative — The Faith- 
less Tarpeia {Concluded) 97-101 

XXXIX-XLI. The Third Declension — Consonant Stems . . . 101-106 

XLII. Review Lesson — Terror Cimbricus 107 

XLIII. Third Declension — /-Stems 108-110 



X CONTENTS 

LESSON PAGE 

XLIV. Irregular Nouns of the Third Declension — Gender 
IN the Third Declension — The First Bridge over 
THE Rhine . . . .... 111-112 

XLV. Adjectives of the Third Declension — The Romans 

Invade the Enemy's Country . . . ... 113-115 

XLVI. The Fourth OR ^/-Declension 116-117 

XLVII. Expressions of Place — Place to Which, Place from Which, 
Plcu:e at or in Which, the Locative — Declension of domus 

— D^DALUs AND Icarus 117-121 

XLVIII. The Fifth or .S-Declension — Ablative of Time — 

D^DALUS AND ICARUS [Continued) 121-123 

XLIX. Pronouns — Personal and Reflexive Pronouns — D.«da- 

Lus AND Icarus (Concluded) 123-126 

L. The Intensive Pronoun ipse and the Demonstrative 

idem — How Horatius Held the Bridge . . 126-127 

LI. The Demonstratives hie, iste, ille — A German Chief- 
tain Addresses his Followers — How Horatius 
Held the Bridge (Continued) . . . 128-130 

LII. The Indefinite Pronouns — How Horatius Held the 

Bridge (Concluded) ... 130-132 

LIII. Regular Comparison of Adjectives 133-135 

LIV. Irregular Comparison of Adjectives — Ablative tvith 

Comparatives . . ... I3S~I36 

LV. Irregular Comparison of Adjectives (Continued) — 

Declension of pliis ... .' . . .... 137-138 

LVI. Irregular Comparison of Adjectives (Concluded) — 

Ablative of the Measure of Difference 138-139 

LVII. Formation and Comparison of Adverbs . . 140-142 

LVIII. Numerals — Partitive Genitive .... . . . 142-144 

LIX. Numerals (C(;»<;'««^^) — Accusative of Extent — C/ESAR IN 

Gaul .... . . .... 144-146 

LX. Deponent Veres — Prepositions with the Accusative . . 146—147 

PART III. CONSTRUCTIONS 

LXI. The Subjunctive Mood — Inflection of the Present — 

Indicative and Subjunctive Compared . . . . . . 148-151 

LXII. The Subjunctive OF Purpose 1 51-153 

LXIII. Inflection of the Imperfect Subjunctive — Sequence 

of Tenses .... ... . '53-155 

LXIV. Inflection of the Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunc- 
tive — Substantive Clauses of Purpose ... . 156-159 



CONTENTS XI 

LESSON PAGE 

LXV. Subjunctive OF possum — Verbs of Fearing . . . 160-161 

LXVI. The Participles — Tenses and Declension .... 161-164 
LXVII. The Irregular Verbs volo, nolo, malo — Ablative 

Absolute ... . . 164-166 

LXVIII. The Irregular Verb fio — Subjunctive of Result . . . 167-168 
LXIX. Subjunctive of Characteristic — Predicate Accusative 169-171 
• LXX. Constructions vifiTH cum — Ablative of Specification 1 71-173 
./JyXXI. Vocabulary Review — Gerund and Gerundive — Predi- 
cate Genitive 173-177 

LXXII. The Irregular Verb eo — Indirect Statements . ■ 177-180 

LXXIII. Vocabulary Review — The Irregular Verb fero — 

Dative with Compounds . 181— 183 

LXXIV. Vocabulary Review — Subjunctive in Indirect Questions 183-185 
LXXV. Vocabulary Review — Dative of Purpose or End for 

Which . 185-186 

LXXVI. Vocabulary Review — Genitive and Ablative of Quality 

or Description . . .... . . 186-188 

LXXVII. Review of Agreement — Review of the Genitive, Dative, 

and Accusative . 189-190 

LXXVIII. Review of the Ablative . . ... 191-192 

LXXIX. Review of the Syntax of Verbs . . . 192-193 

""reading matter 

Introductory Suggestions . . . 194-195 

The Labors of Hercules ... 196-203 

P. Cornelius Lentulus : The Story of a Roman Boy . 204-225 

APPENDIXES AND VOCABULARIES 

Appendix I. Tables of Declensions, Conjugations, 

Numerals, etc. ... . 226-260 

Appendix II. Rules of Syntax . .... 261-264 

Appendix III. Reviews .... . . ... 265-282 

Special Vocabularies 283-298 

Latin-English Vocabulary . . 299-331 

English-Latin Vocabulary 332-343 

INDEX 344-348 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN COLOR 



Plate I page 

"LENTULUS AD VILLAM SUAM MATURAVIT" . . . Frontispiece 
By E. Forti, Rome. From a facsimile colored under the 
direction of the artist. 

Plate II 

"STABIANA PORTA URBEM INGRESSI SUNT" 53 

By E. Forti, Rome. From a facsimile colored under the 
direction of the artist. 

Plate III 

CAPTIVI INTERROGANTUR . . . 1 49 

By Edmund H. Garrett, Boston. From an original painting 
in oil. 

Plate IV 

"ECCE CAESAR NUNC TRIUMPHAT" . . 213 

By Edmund H. Garrett, Boston. From an original painting 
in oil. 



Map 

ITALIA ANTIQUA j 



LATIN FOR BEGINNERS 



TO THE STUDENT — BY WAY OF 
INTRODUCTION 

What is Latin ? If you will look at the map of Italy on the oppo- 
site page, you will find near the middle of the peninsula and facing the 
west coast a district called Latium,-' and Rome its capital. The Latin 
language, meaning the language of Latium, was spoken by the ancient 
Romans and other inhabitants of Latium, and Latin was the name 
applied to it after the armies of Rome had carried the knowledge of 
her language far beyond its original boundaries. As the English of 
to-day is not quite the same as that spoken two or three hundred 
years ago, so Latin was not always the same at all times, but changed 
more or less in the course of centuries. The sort of Latin you are 
going to learn was in use about two thousand years ago. And that 
period has been selected because the language was then at its best 
and the greatest works of Roman literature were being produced. 
This period, because of its supreme excellence, is called the Golden 
Age of Roman letters. 

The Spread of Latin. For some centuries after Rome was founded, 
the Romans were a feeble and insignificant people, their territory was 
limited to Latium, and their existence constantly threatened by warlike 
neighbors. But after the third century before Christ, Rome's power 
grew rapidly. She conquered all Italy, then reached out for the lands 
across the sea and beyond the Alps, and finally ruled over the whole 
ancient world. The empire thus established lasted for more than four 

1 Pronounce La' shi-H-m. 
I 



2 TO THE STUDENT 

hundred years. The importance of Latin increased with the growth of 
Roman power, and what had been a dialect spoken by a single tribe 
became the universal language. Gradually the language changed 
somewhat, developing differently in different countries. In Italy it has 
become Italian, in Spain Spanish, and in France French. All these 
nations, therefore, are speaking a modernized form of Latin. 

The Romans and the Greeks. In their career of conquest the 
Romans came into conflict with the Greeks. The Greeks were in- 
ferior to the Romans in military power, but far superior to them in 
culture. They excelled in art, literature, music, science, and philosophy. 
Of all these pursuits the Romans were ignorant until contact with 
Greece revealed to them the value of education and filled them with 
the thirst for knowledge. And so it came about that while Rome 
conquered Greece by force of arms, Greece conquered Rome by force 
of her intellectual superiority and became her schoolmaster. It was 
soon the established custom for young Romans to go to Athens 
and to other centers of Greek learning to finish their training, and the 
knowledge of the Greek language among the educated classes became 
universal. At the same time many cultured Greeks — poets, artists, 
orators, and philosophers — flocked to Rome, opened schools, and 
taught their arts. Indeed, the preeminence of Greek culture became 
so great that Rome almost lost her ambition to be original, and her 
writers vied with each other in their efforts to reproduce in Latin 
what was choicest in Greek literature. As a consequence of all this, 
the civilization and national life of Rome became largely Grecian, and 
to Greece she owed her literature and her art. 

Rome and the Modern World. After conquering the world, Rome 
impressed her language, laws, customs of living, and modes of 
thinking upon the subject nations, and they became Roman ; and 
the world has remained largely Roman ever since. Latin continued 
to live, and the knowledge of Latin was the only light of learning that 
burned steadily through the dark ages that followed the downfall of 
the Roman Empire. Latin was the common language of scholars and 
remained so eyen down to the days of Shakespeare. Even yet it is 



TO THE STUDENT « 3 

more nearly than any other tongue the universal language of the 
learned. The lijfe of to-day is much nearer the life of ancient Rome 
than the lapse of centuries would lead one to suppose. You and I are 
Romans still in many ways, and if Ceesar and Cicero should appear 
among us, we should not find them, except for dress and language, 
much unlike men of to-day. 

Latin and English. Do you know that more than half of the words 
in the English dictionary are Latin, and that you are speaking more 
or less Latin every day ? How has this come about ? In the year 
1066 William the Conqueror invaded England with an army of Nor- 
mans. The Normans spoke French — which, you remember, is 
descended from Latin — ■ and spread their language to a considerable 
extent over England, and so Norman-French played an important 
part in the formation of English and forms a large proportion of our 
vocabulary. Furthermore, great numbers of almost pure Latin words 
have been brought into English through the writings of scholars, and 
every new scientific discovery is marked by the addition of new terms 
of Latin derivation. Hence, while the simpler and commoner words 
of our mother tongue are Anglo-Saxon, and Anglo-Saxon forms the 
staple of our colloquial language, yet in the realms of literature, and 
especially in poetry, words of Latin derivation are very abundant. 
Also in the learned professions, as in law, medicine, and engineering, 
a knowledge of Latin is necessary for the successful interpretation of 
technical and scientific terms. 

Why study Latin ? The foregoing paragraphs make it clear why 
Latin forms so important a part of modern education. We have seen 
that our civilization rests upon that of Greece and Rome, and that 
we must look to the past if we would understand the present. It is 
obvious, too, that the knowledge of Latin not only leads to a more 
exact and effective use of our own language, but that it is of vital 
importance and of great practical value to any one preparing for a 
literary or professional career. To this it may be added that the 
study of Latin throws a flood of light upon the structure of language 
in general and lays an excellent foundation for all grammatical study. 



4 ' TO THE STUDENT 

Finally, it has been abundantly proved that there is no more effective 
means of strengthening the mind than by the earnest pursuit of this 
branch of learning. 

Review Questions. Whence does Latin get its name ? Where is Latium ? 
Where is Rome ? Was Latin always the same .? What sort of Latin are we 
to study ? Describe the growth of Rome's power and the spread of Latin. 
What can you say of the origin of Italian, French, and Spanish ? How did 
the ancient Greeks and Romans compare .'' How did Greece influence Rome? 
How did Rome influence the world? In what sense are we Romans still? 
What did Latin have to do with the formation of English ? What propor- 
tion of English words are of Latin origin, and what kind of words are they ? 
Why should we study Latin ? 



PART I 
THE PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN 



THE ALPHABET 

1. The Latin alphabet contains the same letters as the English 
except that it has no w and no /. 

2. The vowels, as in English, are a, e, i, o, u, y. The other letters 
are consonants. 

3. / is used both as a vowel and as a consonant. Before a vowel 
in the same syllable it has the value of a consonant and is called / 
consonant. 

Thus in lu-li-us the first i is a consonant, the second a vowel. 

SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS i 

4. Latin was not pronounced like English. The Romans at the 
beginning of the Christian era pronounced their language substantially 
as described below. 

5. The vowels have the following sounds : 

Vowels ■■= Latin Examples 
a as va. father hac, stas 

a like the first a in aha', never as in hat a'-mat, ca'-nas 

§ as in they te'-la, me'-tS 

6 as in met te'-nSt, mer'-ces 

i as in machine ser'-ti, pra'-ti 

: 1 N.B. The sounds of the letters are best learned by hearing them correctly 
pronounced. The matter in this section is, therefore, intended for reference 
rather than for assignment as a lesson. As a first step it is suggested that the 
teacher pronounce the examples in class, the pupils following. 
2 Long vowels are marked - , short ones ^ . 

5 



6 PRONUNCIATION 

Vowels Latin Examples 

i as in bit si'-tis, bi'-bi 

as in holy Ro'-ma, 5'-ris 

8 as in wholly, never as in hot m8'-d8, b8'-nos 

ii as in rude, or as oo in boot u'-m8r, tu'-ber 

ti as mfull, or as oo in foot ut, tu'-tus 

Note. It is to be observed that there is a decided difference in sound, 
except in the case of a, between the long and the short vowels. It is not 
merely a matter of qiiantity but also of quality. 

6. In diphthongs (two-vowel sounds) both vowels are heard in a 
single syllable. 

Diphthongs Latin Examples 

ae as ai in aisle tae'-dae 

au as ou in out gau'-det 

ei as ei in eight dein'-de 
eu as e'So (a short e followed by a short u 

in one syllable) seu 

06 like oi in toil foe'-dus 
ui like ob't (a short ti followed by a short z 

in one syllable. Cf. English we) cut, huic 

Note. Give all the vowels and diphthongs their proper sounds and do not 
slur over them in unaccented syllables, as is done in English. 

7. Consonants are pronounced as in English, except that 

Consonants Latin Examples 
c is always like c in cat, never as in cent ca'-do, ci'-biis, ce'-nS 
g is always like g in get, never as in gem ge'-mo, gig'-no 
i consonant is always like y in yes iSm, ifi'-ciis 
n before c, qu, or^ is like ng in sing (com- 
pare the sound of n in anchor) an'-c6-ra (ang'-ko-ra) 
qu, gu, and sometimes su before a vowel 
have the sound of qw, gw, and sw. 

Here u has the value of consonant v in'-quit, qui, lin'-guS, 

and is not counted a vowel ' sSn'-guis, sua'-dS-o 

s is like j in sea, never as in ease r8'-sa, is 
t is always like t in native, never as in 

, rS'-ti-o, na'-ti-o 



SYLLABLES 7 

Consonants Latin Examples 

V is like w in wine, never as in vine vi'-num, vir 

X has tlie value of two consonants (« or _ifj) 

and is like x in extract, not as in exact ex'-tra, 6x-ac'-tfis 
bs is like ps and bt like pt firbs, 8b-ti'-n6-6 

ch, ph, and th are like c, p, i piil'-cher, Plioe'-be,the-a'-tnim 

a. In combinations of consonants give each its distinct sound. Doubled 
consonants should be pronounced with a slight pause between the two 
sounds. Thus pronounce // as in rat-trap, not as in rattle; pp as in 
hop-pole, not as in upper. Examples, mit'-to, Ap'pi-iis, b61'-lfim. 

SYLLABLES 

8. A Latin word has as many syllables as it has vowels and diph- 
thongs. Thus ae-sta'-t6 has three syllables, au-di-gn'-diis has four. 

a. Two vowels with a consonant between them never make one syllable, 
as is so often the case in English. Compare English inside with Latin 
in-si'-de. 

9. Words are divided into syllables as follows : 

1. A single consonant between two vowels goes with the sfecond. 
Thus a-ma'-bi-lis, mS-mfi'-ri-a, in-t§'-rg-a, S'-bgst, pg-re'-git.^ 

2. Combinations of two or more consonants : 

■^^ a. A consonant followed by /or r goes with the /or r. Thus pii'-bli-cus, 
a'-gri. 

Exception. Prepositional compounds of this nature, as also // and rr, 
follow rule b. Thus ab'-lii-6, ab-rttm'-po, il'-le, fer'-rtim. 

b. In all other combinations of consonants the first consonant goes with 
the preceding vowel.^ Thus mag'-nus, e-g6s'-tas, vic-to'-ri-a, hSs'-pes, 
Sn'-nfis, stt-bac'-tiis. 

3. The last syllable of a word is called the ul'-ti-ma; the one next 
to the last, the. pe-nult' ; the one before the penult, the an' -te-pe-nuW . 

1 In writing and printing it is customary to divide the parts of a compound, 
as inter-ea, ab-est, sub-actus, per-egit, contrary to the correct phonetic rule. 
^jjl- ''' The combination net is divided nc-t, as func-tiSs, sanc-tus. 



8 QUANTITY 

10. EXERCISE 

Divide the words in the following passage into syllables and pronounce 
them, placing the accent as indicated : 

Vade ad formicam, O piger, et considera vias eius et disce sapien- 
tiam : quae ciim non habeat diicem nee praeceptorem nee principem, 
parat in aestate album sibi et congregat m messe quod comedat. 

[Go to the ant, thou sluggard ; consider her ways, and be wise : 
which, having no guide, overseer, or ruler, provideth her meat in the 
summer and gathereth her food in the harvest.] 

QUANTITY 

11. The quantity of a vowel or a syllable is the time it takes to 
pronounce it. Correct pronunciation and accent depend upon the 
proper- observance of quantity. 

12. Quantity of Vowels. Vowels are either long (-) or short {y). 
In this book the long vowels are marked. Unmarked vowels are to 
be considered short. 

1. A vowel is short before another vowel or h ; as p8-e'-ta, trfi'-ho. 

2. A vowel is short before nt and nd, before final m or /, and, 
except in words of one syllable, before final / or r. Thus a'-mSnt, 
a-mSn'-dus, a-ma'-bSm, a-ma'-bSt, a'-ni-mai, a'-mbr. 

3. A vowel is long before nf, ns, nx, and net Thus in'-fe-ro, 
re'-gens, san'-xi, sanc'-tus. 

4. Diphthongs are always long, and are not marked. 

13. Quantity of Syllables. Syllables are either long or short, and 
their quantity must be carefully distinguished from that of vowels. 

I. A syllable is short, 

a. If it ends in a short vowel; as S'-mo, pi'-gri. 

Note. In final syllables the short vowel may be followed by a final conso- 
nant. Thus the word mS-mS'-ri-Sm contains four short syllables. In the first 
three a shor| vowel ends the syllable, in the last the short vowel is followed 
by a final consonant. - . . _ 



ACCENT 9 

2. A syllable is long, 

a. If it contains a long vowel or a diphthong, as cu'-ro, poe'-nae, 
ae-sta'-te. 

b. If it ends in a consonant which is followed by another consonant, 
as cor'-pus, mag'-nus. 

Note. The vowel in a long syllable may be either long or short, and should 
be pronounced accordingly. Thus in ter'-ra, in'-ter, the first syllable is long, 
but the vowel in each case is short and should be giveh the short sound. In 
words like saxum the first syllable is long because x has the value of two 
consonants [cs ox gs). 

3. In determining quantity h is not counted a consonant. 

Note. Give about twice as much time to the long syllables as to the short 
ones. It takes about as long to pronounce a short vowel plus a consonant as 
it does to pronounce a long vowel or a diphthong, and so these quantities are 
considered equally long. For example, it takes about as long to say cflr'-ro as 
it does cu'-ro, and so each of these first syllables is long. Compare mSl'-lis and 
mo'-lis, a-mis'-si and a-mi'-si. 

ACCENT 

14. Words of two syllables are accented on the first, as men -sa, 
Cae'-sar. 

15.. Words of more than two syllables are accented on the penult 
if the penult is long. If the penult is short, accent the antepenult.. 
Thus mo-ne'-mus, re'-gi-tur, a-gri'-co-la, a-man'-dus. 

Note. Observe that the position of the accent is determined by the length 
of the syllable and not by the length of the vowel in the syllable. (Cf. § 13. 2, 
Note.) 

16. Certain little words called endit'ics}- which have no separate 
existence, are added to and pronounced with a preceding word. The 
most common are -que, and ; -ve, or ; and -ne, the question sign. 
The syllable before an enclitic ~ takes the accent, regardless of its 
quantity. Thus populus'que, dea'que, regna've, audit'ne. 

1 Enclitic means leaning back, and that is, as you see, just what these little 
words do. They cannot stand alone and so they lean back for support upon 
the preceding word. 



lO 



EXERCISE IN PRONUNCIATION 



HOW TO READ LATIN 

17. To read Latin well is not so difficult, if you begin right. Cor- 
rect habits of reading should be formed now. Notice the quantities 
carefully, especially the quantity of the penult, to insure your getting 
the accent on the right syllable. (Cf. § 15-) Give every vowel its 
proper sound and every syllable its proper length. Then bear in 
mind that we should read Latin as we read English, in phrases rather 
than in separate words. Group together words that are closely con- 
nected in thought. No good reader halts at the end of each word. 

18. Read the stanzas of the following poem by Longfellow, one at a 
time, first the English and then the Latin version. The syllables inclosed 
in parentheses are to be slurred or omitted to secure smoothness of meter. 



EXCELSIOR [HIGHER] ! 1 



The shades of night were falling fast. 
As through an Alpine village passed 
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice, 
A banner with the strange device. 
Excelsior ! 



Cadebant noctis umbrae, dum 
I bat per vicum Alpicum 
Gelu nivequ(e) adolescens, 
Vexillum cum signo ferens, 
Excelsior ! 



His brow was sad ; his eye beneath. 
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath. 
And like a silver clarion rung 
The accents of that unknown tongue. 
Excelsior ! 



Frons tristis, micat oculus 
Velut e vagina gladius ; 
Sonantque similes tubae 
Accentus lingu(ae) incognitae, 
Excelsior ! 



In happy homes he saw the light 
Of household fires gleam warm and bright ; 
Above, the spectral glaciers shone, 
And from his lips escaped a groan. 
Excelsior ! 



In domibus videt claras 
Focorum luces calidas ; 
Relucet glacies acris, 
Et rumpit gemitus labrls. 
Excelsior ! 



" Try not the Pass 1 " the old man said ; 
" Dark lowers the tempest overhead. 



DIcit senex, " Ne transeas ! 
Supra nigrescit tempestas ; 



1 Translafion by C. W. Goodchild in Praeco Latiniis, October, 



EXERCISE IN PRONUNCIATION 



II 



The roaring torrent is deep and wide ! " 
And loud that clarion voice replied, 
Excelsior ! 

At break of day, as heavenward 
The pious monks of Saint Bernard 
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer, 
A voice cried through the startled air, 
Excelsior ! 



Latus et altus est torrens." 
Clara venit vox respondens. 
Excelsior ! 



lam lucescebat, et fratres 
Sancti Bernard! vigiles 
Orabant preces solitas. 
Cum vox clamavit per auras. 
Excelsior ! 



A traveler, by the faithful hound. 
Half-buried in the snow was found, 
Still grasping in his hand of ice 
That banner with the strange device. 
Excelsior ! 



Semi-sepultus viator 
Can(e) a fido reperitur, 
Comprendens pugno gelido 
lUud vexillum cum signo. 
Excelsior ! 



There in the twilight cold and gray. 
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay, 
And from the sky, serene and far, 
A voice fell, like a falling star, 
Excelsior ! 



lacet corpus exanimum 
Sed liice frigida pulchrum ; 
Et caelo procul exiens 
Cadit vox, ut stella cadens. 
Excelsior ! 



PART II 
WORDS AND FORMS 

LESSON I 

FIRST PRINCIPLES 

19. Subject and Predicate, i. Latin, like English, expresses thoughts 
by means of sentences. A sentence is a combination of words that 
expresses a thought, and in its simplest form is the statement of a 
single fact. Thus, 

Galba is a farmer The sailor fights 

Galba est agricola Nauta pugnat 



In each of these sentences there are two parts : 



Subject 



' Galba 

Galba 

Predicate 

The sailor 
Nauta 



'is a farmer 
est agricola 

fights 
. pugnat 



2. The subject is that person, place, or thing about which some- 
thing is said, and is therefore a noun or some word which can serve 
the same purpose. 

a. Pronouns, as their name implies {pro, " instead of," and noun\ often 
take the place of nouns, usually to save repeating the same noun, as, 
Galba is a farmer j he is a sturdy fellow. 

3. The predicate is that which is said about the subject, and con- 
sists of a verb with or without modifiers. 

a. A verbis a word which asserts something (usually an act) concerning 
a person, place, or thing. 

12 



FIRST PRINCIPLES 13 

20. The Object. In the two sentences, The boy hit the ball and 
The ball hit the boy, the same words are used, but the meaning is 
different, and depends upon the order of the words. The doer of the 
act, that about which something is said, is, as we have seen above, 
the subject. That to which something is done is the direct object of 
the verb. The boy hit the ball is therefore analyzed as follows : 

Subject Pkedicate 

, ^ > 

The boy hit the ball 

(verb) (direct object) 

a. A verb whose action passes over to the object directly, as in the sen- 
tence above, is called a transitive verb. A verb which does not admit of a 
direct object is called intransitive, as, / walk, he comes. 

21. The Copula. The verb to be in its different forms — are, is, 
was, etc. — does not tell us anything about the subject ; neither -does 
it govern an object. It simply connects the subject with the word or 
words in the predicate that possess a distinct meaning. Hence it is 
called the copula, that is, \he. joiner or link. 

22. In the following sentences pronounce the Latin and name the 
nouns, verbs, subjects, objects, predicates, copulas : 

I. America est patria mea 2. Agricola filiam amat 

America is fatherland my (The) farmer (his) daughter loves 

3. Filia est lulia 4. lulia et agricola sunt in insula 

(His) daughter is Julia Julia and(the)farm.er are on (the) island 

5. Klia aquam portat 6. Rosam in comis habet 

Julia water carries (A) rose in (her) hair (she) has 

7. Klia est puella pulchra 8. Domina filiam pulchram habet 

Julia is (a) girl pretty (The) lady (a) daiighter beautiful has 

a. The sentences above show that Latin does not express some words 
which are necessary in English. First of all, Latin has no article the or a; 
thus agricola may mean the farmer, u farmer, or sivtvpiy farmer. Then, too, 
the personal pronouns, /, you, he, she, etc., and the possessive pronouns, 
my, your, his, her, etc., are not expressed if the meaning of the sentence 
is clear without them. 



14 FIRST PRINCIPLES 

LESSON II 
FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued) 

23. Inflection. Words may change their forms to indicate some 
change in sense or use, as, is, are; was, were; who, whose, whom , 
farmer, farmer's ; woman, women. This is called inflection. The in- 
flection of a noun, adjective, or pronoun is called its declension, that 
of a verb its conjugation. 

24. Number. Latin, like English, has two numbers, singular and 
plural. In English we "usually form the plural by adding -s or -es to 
the singular. So Latin changes the singular to the plural by changing 
the ending of the word. Compare 

Naut-a pugnat The sailor fights 

Naut-ae pugnant The sailors fight 

25. Rule. Nouns that end in -a in the singular end in -ae 
in the plural. 

26. Learn the following nouns so that you can give the English for the 
Latin or the Latin for the English. Write the plural of each. 

agri'cola, farm,er (agriculture) ^ f uga, flight (fugitive) 

aqua, wa^^r (aquarium) iniu'ria, wrong, injury 

causa, cause, reason luna, moon (lunar) 

do'mina, lady of the house, nauta, jazyo?" (nautical) 

mistress (dominate) puel'la, girl 

filia, daughter {^\2!i) silva,yor£j^ (silvan) 

fortv.'na., fortune terra, land (terrace) 

27. Compare again the sentences 

Nauta pugna-t The sailor fights 

Nautae pugna-nt The sailors fight 

In the first sentence the verb pugna-t is in the third person singular, in 
the second sentence pugna-nt is in the third person plural. 

^ The words in parentheses are English words related to the Latin. When 
the words are practically identical, as causa, cause, no comparison is needed. 



FIRST PRINCIPLES 1 5 

28. Rule. Agreement of Verb. A finite verb must always be 
in the same person and number as its subject. 

29. Rule. In the conjugation of the Latin verb the third per- 
son singular active ends in -t, the third person plural in -nt. 
The endings which show the person and num.ber of the verb 
are called personal endings. 

30. Learn the following verbs and write the plural of each. The per- 
sonal pronouns he, she, it, etc., which are necessary in the inflection of the 
English verb, are not needed in the Latin, because the personal endings 
take their place. Of course, if the verb's subject is expressed we do not 
translate the personal ending by a pronoun ; thus nauta pugnat is translated 
the sailor fights, not the sailor he fights. 

ama-t he (she, it) loves, is loving, does love (amity, amiable) 
labo'ra-t " " " labors, is laboring, does labor 
nuntia-t^" " " announces, is announcing, does announce 
porta-t " " " carries, is carrying, does carry (porter) 
pugna-t " " " fights, is fighting, does fight (pugnacious) 

31. EXERCISES 

I. 1. The daughter loves, the daughters love. 2. The sailor is 
carrying, the sailors carry. 3. The farmer does labor, the farmers 
labor. 4. The girl is announcing, the girls do announce. 5. The 
ladies are carrying, the lady carries. 

II. I. Nauta pugnat, nautae pugnant. 2. Puella amat, puellae 
amant. 3. Agricola portat, agricolae portant. 4. Filia laborat, filiae 
laborant. 5. Nauta nuntiat, nautae nuntiant. 6. Dominae amant, 
domina amat. 

^ The u in nuntio is long by exception. (Cf. § 12. 2.) 




1 6 FIRST PRINCIPLES 

LESSON III 
FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued) 

32. Declension of Nouns. We learned above (§§ 19, 20) the differ- 
ence between the subject and object, and that in English they may 
be distinguished by the order of the words. Sometimes, however, the 
order is such that we are left in doubt. For example, the sentence 
TAe lady her daughter loves might mean either that the lady loves her 
daughter, or that the daughter loves the lady. 

I . If the sentence were in Latin, no doubt could arise, because the 
subject and the object are distinguished, not by the order of the words, 
but by the endings of the words themselves. Compare the following 
sentences : 



Domina filiam amat 
Filiam domina amat 
Amat filiam domina 
Domina amat filiam 

Filia dominam amat 
Dominam fnia amat 
Amat dominam filia 
Filia amat dominam 



The lady loves her daughter 



The daughter loves the lady 



a. Observe that in each case the subject of the sentence ends in -a 
and the object in -am. T\i&form of the noun shows how it is used in 
the sentence, and the order of the words has no effect on the essential 
meaning. 

2. As stated above (§ 23), this change of ending is called declen- 
sion, and each different ending produces what is called a case. When 
we decline a noun, we give all its different cases, or changes of endings. 
In English we have three cases, — nominative, possessive, and objec- 
tive ; but, in nouns, the nominative and objective have the same form, 
and only the possessive case shows a change of ending, by adding 's 
or the apostrophe. The interrogative pronoun, however, has the fuller 
declension, who 1 whose 1 whom ? 



FIRST PRINCIPLES 



-17 



33. The following table shows a comparison between English and 
Latin declension forms, and should be thoroughly memorized : 



English Cases 


Latin Cases 


Declension 


Name of case and use 


Declension of domina 
and translation 


Name of case and use 


a 
c 


Who? 

Whose? 

Whom? 


Nominative — ■ 
case of the 
subject 

Possessive — 
case of the 
possessor 

Objective — 
case of the 
object 


do'min-a 

the lady 

domin-ae 

the lady's 
of the lady 
domin-am 
the lady 


Nominative — 
case of the 
subject 

Genitive — 
case of the 
possessor 

Accusative — ■ 
case of the 
direct object 


Who? 

Whose? 

Whom? 


Nominative — 
case of the 
subject 

Possessive — 
case of the 
possessor 

Objective — 
case of the 
object 


domin-ae 

the ladies 

domin-a^rum 

the ladies' 
of the ladies 
domin-as 
the ladies 


Nominative — 
case of the 
subject 

Genitive — 
case of the 
possessor 

Accusative — 
case of the 
direct object 





When the nominative singular of a noun ends in -a, observe that 

a. The nominative plural ends in -ae. ■ 

b. The genitive singular ends in -ae and the genitive plural in -arum. 

c. The accusative singular ends in -am and the accusative plural in -as. 

d. The genitive singular and the nominative plural have the same ending. 

34. EXERaSE 

Pronounce the following words and give their general meaning. Then 
give the number and case, and the use of each form. Where the same 
form stands for more than one case, give all the possible cases and uses. 

I. Silva, silvas, silvam. 2. Fugam, fugae, fuga. 3. Terrarum, 
terrae, terras. 4. Aquas, causam, lunas. 5. Filiae, fortunae, lunae. 
6. Iniurias, agricolarum, aquarum. 7. Iniuriarum,' agricolae, pueUas. 
8. Nautam, agricolas, nautas. 9. Agricolam, puellam, silvarum. 



1 8 FIRST PRINCIPLES 

LESSON IV 
FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued) 

35. We learned from the table (§ 33) that the Latin nominative, 
genitive, and accusative correspond, in general, to the nominative, pos- 
sessive, and objective in English, and that they are used in the same 
way. This will be made even clearer by the following sentence : 

Filia agricolae nautam amat, iAe farmer'' s daughter (or the 
daughter of the farmer) loves the sailor 

What is the subject? the direct object? What case is used for the sub- 
ject? for the direct object? What word denotes the possessor? In what 
case is it? 

36. Rule. Nominative Subject. The subject of a finite verb is 
in the Nominative and answers the question Who ? or What ? 

37. Rule. Accusative Object. The direct object of a transitive 
verb is in the Accusative and answers the question Whom ? 
or What? 

38. Rule. Genitive of the Possessor. The word de^toting the 
owner or possessor of something is in the Genitive and answers 
the question Whose ? 




DIANA SAGITTAS PORTAT ET FERAS NECAT 



FIRST PRINCIPLES 19 

39. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283. 

I. I. Diana est dea. 2. Latona est dea. 3. Diana et Latona sunt 
deae. 4. Diana est dea lunae. 5. Diana est filia Latonae. 6. Latona 
Dianam amat. 7. Diana est dea silvarum. 8. Diana silvam amat. 
9. Diana sa|;ittas portat. 10. Diana feras silvae necat. 11. Ferae 
terrarum pugnant. 

For the order of words imitate the Latin above. 

II. I. The daughter of Latona does love the forests. 2. Latona's 
daughter carries arrows. 3. The farmers' daughters do labor. 4. The 
farmer's daughter loves the waters of the forest. 5. The sailor is 
announcing the girls' flight. 6. The girls announce the sailors' wrongs. 
7. The farmer's daughter labors. 8. Diana's arrows are killing the 
wild beasts of the land. 

40. CONVERSATION 

Translate the questions and answer them in Latin. The answers may be 
found in the exercises preceding. 

1 . Quis est Diana ? 4. Quis silvam amat ? 

2. Cuius filia est Diana? 5. Quis sagittas portat? 

3. Quis Dianam amat ? 6. Cuius filiae laborant ? 

» 

LESSON V 
FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued) 

41. The Dative Case. In addition to the relationships between 
words expressed by the nominative, genitive (possessive), and accusa- 
tive (objective) cases, there are other relationships, to express which 
in English we use such words s&from, with, by, to, for, in, at} 

Latin, too, makes frequent use of such prepositions ; but often it 
expresses these relations without them by means of case forms which 

^ Words like to, for, by, from, in, etc., which define the relationship between 
words, are called prepositions. 



20 FIRST PRINCIPLES 

English does not possess. One of the cases found in the Latin declen- 
sion and lacking in English is called the dative. 

42. When the nominative singular ends in -a, the dative singular 
ends in -ae and the dative plural in -is. 

Note. Observe that the genitive singular, the dative singular, and the 
nominative plural all have the same ending, -ae ; but the usej of the three 
cases are entirely different. The general meaning of the sentence usually 
makes clear which case is intended. 

a. Form the dative singular and plural of the following nouns: fuga, 
causa, fortuna, terra, aqua, puella, agricola, nauta, domina. 

43. The Dative Relation. The dative case is used to express the 
relations, conveyed in English by the prepositions ^(7, towards, for. 

These prepositions are often used in English in expressions of motion, 
such as She went to town, He ran towards the horse, Columbus sailed for 
America. In such cases the dative is not used in Latin, as motion through 
space is foreign to the dative relation. But the dative is used to denote 
that to or towards wJiich a benefit, injury, purpose, feeling, or quality is 
directed, or XhsVfor which something serves or exists. 

a. What dative relations do you discover in the foUoviring ? 

The teacher gave a prize to John because he replied so promptly to all 
her questions — a good example for the rest of us. It is a pleasure to us to 
hear him recite. Latin is easy for him, but it is very hard for me. Some 
are fitted for one thing and others for another. 

44. The Indirect Object. Examine the sentence 

Nauta fugam niintiat, the sailor announces the flight 

Here the verb, nuntiat, governs the direct object, fugam, in the 
accusative case. If, however, we wish to mention the persons to whom 
the sailor announces the flight, as, The sailor announces the flight to 
the farmers, the verb will have two objects : 

1. Its direct ohiect, fight (fugam) 

2. Its indirect ohiect, farmers 

According to the preceding section, to the farmers is a relation cov- 
ered by the dative case, and we are prepared for the following rule : 



FIRST PRINCIPLES 21 

45. Rule. Dative Indirect Object. The indirect object of a 
verb is in the Dative. 

a. The indirect object usually stands before the direct object. 

46. We may now complete the translation of the sentence The 
sailor announces the flight to the farmers, and we have 

Nauta agricolis fugatn nuntiat 

47. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283. 

Point out the direct and indirect objects and the genitive of the 
possessor. 

7- • - 

I. 'i. Quis nautis pecuniam dat? 2. Filiae agricolae nautis pecu- 

niam dant. 3. Quis fortunam pugnae nuntiat? 4. Galba agricolis 
fortunam pugnae nuntiat. 5. Cui domina'%bulam narrat? 6. Filiae 
agricolae domina fabulam narrat. 7. Quis Dianae coronam dat ? 
8. Puella Dianae coronam dat quia Dianam amat. 9. Dea lunae 
sagittas portat et feras silvarum necat. \ko. Cuius victoriam Galba 
nijntiat 1 11. Nautae victoriam Galba nuntiat. 

Imitate the word order of the preceding exercise. 

II. I. To whom do the girls give a wreath? 2. The girls give a 
wreath to Julia, because Julia loves wreaths. 3. The sailors tell the 
ladies^ a story, because the ladies love stories. 4. The farmer gives 
his (§ 22. a) daughter water. 5. Galba announces the cause of the 
battle to the sailor. 6. The goddess of the moon loves the waters of 
the forest. 7. Whose wreath is Latona carrying? Diana's. 

1 Observe that in English the indirect object often stands without a prepo- 
sition to to mark it, especially when it precedes the direct object. 



2 2 FIRST PRINCIPLES 

LESSON VI 
FIRST PRINCIPLES {Continued) 

48. The Ablative Case. Another case, lacking in English but found 
in the fuller Latin declension, is the ab'la-tive. 

49. When the nominative singular ends in -a, the ablative singular 
ends in -a and the ablative plural in -is. 

a. Observe that the final -a of the nominative is short, while the final -a 
of the ablative is long, as, 

Nom. fnia Abl. filia 

b. Observe that the ablative plural is like the dative plural. 

c. Form the ablative singular and plural of the following nouns : fuga, 
causa, fortuna, terra, aqua, puella, agricola, nauta, domina. 

50. The Ablative Relation. The ablative case is used to express 
the relations conveyed in English by the prepositions yh^w, with, by, 
at, in. It denotes 

1. That from which something is separated, from which it starts, 
or of which it is deprived — generally translated hy from. 

2. That with which something is associated or by means of which 
it is done — translated by with or by. 

3. The place where or the time when something happens — trans- 
lated by in or at. 

a. What ablative relations do you discover in the following ? 

In our class there are twenty boys and girls. Daily at eight o'clock they 
come from home with their books, and while they are at school they study 
Latin with great zeal. In a short time they will be able to read with ease 
the books written by the Romans. By patience and perseverance all things 
in this world can be overcome. • 

51. Prepositions. While, as stated above (§ 41), many relations 
expressed in English by prepositions are in Latin expressed by case 
forms, still prepositions are of frequent occurrence, but only with the 
accusative or ablative. 



FIRST PRINCIPLES 23 

52. Rule. Object of a Preposition. A noun governed by a 
preposition must be in the Accusative or Ablative case. 

53. Prepositions denoting the ablative rehtions from, with, in, on, 
are naturally followed by the ablative case. Among these are 

a.1 or ab, from, away from cum, with 

Sie,from, down from in, in, on 

e -^ or ex, from, out from., out of 

I. Translate into Latin, using prepositions. In the water, on the 
land, down from the forest, with the fortune, out of the forests, from 
the victory, out of the waters, with the sailors, down from the moon. 

54. Adjectives. Examine the sentence 

Puella parva bonam deam amat, the little girl loves the good goddess 

In this sentence parva (little) and bonam {good) are not nouns, but 
are descriptive, words expressing quality. Such words are called adjec- 
tives,^ and they are said to belong to the noun which they describe. 

You can tell by its ending to which noun an adjective belongs. The 
ending of parva shows that it belongs to puella, and the ending of bonam 
that it belongs to deam. Words that belong together are said to agree, and 
the belonging-together is called agreement. Observe that the adjective and 
its noun agree in number and case. 

55. Examine the sentences 

Puella est parva, the girl is little 

Puella parva bonam deam amat, the little girl loves the good goddess 

In the first sentence the adjective parva is separated from its noun 
by the verb and stands in the predicate. It is therefore called a 
predicate adjective. In the second sentence the adjectives parva and 

^ a and e are used only before words beginning with a consonant ; ab and ex 
are used before either vowels or consonants. 

2 Pick out the adjectives in the following : " When I was a little boy, I 
remember that one cold winter's morning I was accosted by a smiUng man 
with an ax on his shoulder.' ' My pretty boy,' said he, " has your father a 
grindstone?' — 'Yes, sir,' said I. — 'You are a fine little fellow,' said he. 
" Will you let me grind my ax on it ? ' " 



24 FIRST PRINCIPLES 

bonam are closely attached to the nouns puella and deam respectively, 
and are called attributive adjectives. 

a. Pick out the attributive and the predicate adjectives in the following : 

Do you think Latin is hard? Hard studies make strong brains. Lazy 
students dislike hard studies. We are not lazy. 

56. DIALOGUE 

Julia and Galea 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283. 

I. Quis, Galba, est Diana ? 

G. Diana, iQlia, est pulchra dea liinae et silvarum. 

I. Cuius filia, Galba, est Diana ? 

G. Latonae filia, lulia, est Diana. 

I. Quid Diana portat ? 

G. Sagittas Diana portat. 

I. Ciir Diana sagittas portat ? 

G. Diana sagittas portat, lulia, quod malas f eras silvae magnae necat. 

I. Amatne Latona filiam ? 

G. Amat, et filia Latonam amat. 

I. Quid filia tua parva portat ? 

G. Coronas pulchras filia mea parva portat. 

I. Cui filia tua coronas pulchras dat ? 

G. Dianae coronas dat. 

I. Quis est cum filia tua ? Estne sola ? 

G. Sola non est ; filia mea parva est cum ancilla mea. 

a. When a person is called or addressed, the case used is called the 
voc'ative (Latin vocdre, " to call "). In form the vocative is regularly like 
the nominative. In English the name of the person addressed usually 
stands first in the sentence. The Latin vocative rarely stands first. Point 
out five examples of the vocative in this dialogue. 

b. Observe that questions answered by yes or no in English are answered 
in Latin by repeating the verb. Thus, if you wished to answer in Latin 
the question Is the sailor fighting ? Pugnatne nauta ? you would say Pug- 
nat, he is fighting, or Non pugnat, he is not fighting. 



THE FIRST DECLENSION 



25 



LESSON VII 



THE FIRST OR A-DECLENSION 

57. In the preceding lessons we have now gone over all the cases, 
singular and plural, of nouns whose nominative singular ends in -a. 
All Latin nouns whose nominative singular ends in -a belong to the 
First Declension. It is also called the ^-Declension because of the 
prominent part which the vowel a plays in the formation of the cases. 
We have also learned what relations are expressed by each case. 
These results are summarized in the following table : 



Case 


Noun 


Translation 


Use and General Meaning of 
Each Case 






Singular 




Nom. 
Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 
Abl. 


do'min-a 
domin-ae 

domin-ae 

domin-am 
domin-a 


the lady 

of the lady, or the 

lady's 
to or for the lady 

the lady 

from, with, by, in, 
the lady 


The subject 

The possessor of something 

Expressing the relation to or for, 
especially the indirect object 

The direct object 

Separation {from], association or 
means [with, by), place where 
or time when {in, at) 






Plural 




Nom. 
Gen. 

Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 


domin-ae 
domin-a'rum 

domin-is 
domin-as 
domin-is 


the ladies 

of the ladies, ox the 

ladies' 
to ox for the ladies 
the ladies 
from, with, by, in, 

the ladies 


The same as the 
singular 



58. The Base. That part of a word which remains unchanged in 
inflection and to which the terminations are added is called the base. 

Thus, in the declension above, domin- is the base and -a is the termination 
of the nominative singular. 



26 GENDER' 

59. Write the declension of the following nouns, separating the 
base from the termination by a hyphen. Also give them orally. 

pugna, terra, luna, ancil'la, coro'na, in'sula, silya 

60. Gender. In English, names of living beings are either masculine 
or feminine, and names of things without life are neuter. This is called 
natural gender. Yet in English there are some names of things to 
which we refer as if they were feminine ; as, " Have you seen my 
yacht ? She is a beauty." And there are some names of living beings 
to which we refer as if they were neuter ; as, " Is the baby here ? No, 
the nurse has taken it home." Some words, then, have a gender quite 
apart from sex or real gender, and this is called grammatical gender. 

Latin, like English, has three genders. Names of males are usually 
masculine and of females feminine, but names of things have gram- 
matical gender and fnay be either masculine^ fem.inine, or neuter. Thus 
we have in Latin the three words, lapis, a stone ; rupes, a cliff; and 
saxum, a rock. Lapis is masculine, rupes feminine, and saxum neuter. 
The gender can usually be determined by the ending of the word, and 
must always be learned, for without knowing the gender it is impos- 
sible to write correct Latin. 

61. Gender of First-Declension Nouns. Nouns of the first declen- 
sion are feminine unless they denote males. Thus silva is feminine, 
but nauta, sailor, and agricola, farmer, are masculine. 

62. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 284. 

I. I. Agricola cum filia in casa habitat. 2. Bona fllia agricolae 
cenam parat. 3. Cena est grata agricolae^ et agricola bonam filiam 
laudat. 4. Deinde filia agricolae gallinas ad cenam vocat. 5. Gallinae 
filiam agricolae amant. 6. Make flliae bonas cenas non parant. 
7. Filia agricolae est grata dominae. 8. Domina in insula magna 
habitat. 9. Domina bonae puellae parvae pecuniam dat. 

1 Note that the relation expressed by the dative case covers that to which a 
feeling is dfrected, (Cf. § 43.) 



EXERCISES 



27 



II. I. Where does the farmer live? 2. The farmer lives in the 
small cottage. 3. Who lives with the farmer ? 4. (His) little daughter 
lives with the farmer. 5. (His) daughter is getting (parat) a good 
dinner for the farmer. 6. The farmer praises the good dinner. 
7. The daughter's good dinner is pleasing to the farmer. 




What Latin words are suggested by this picture ? 



63. COWVERSATIOW 

Answer the questions in Latin. 

1 . Quis cum agricola in casa habitat ? 

2. Quid bona filia agricolae parat ? 

3. Quem agricola laudat ? 

4. Vocatne fIlia agricolae gallinas ad cenam ? 

5 . Cuius filia est grata dominae ? 

6. Cui domina pecuniam dat ? 



28 



NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES 



LESSON VIII 
FIRST DECLENSION (Continued) 

64. We have for some time now been using adjectives and nouns 
together, and you have noticed an agreement between them in case 
and in number (§ 54). They agree also in gender. In the phrase 
silva magna, we have a feminine adjective in -a agreeing with a fem- 
inine noun in -a. 

65. Rule. Agreement of Adjectives. Adjectives agree with 
their nouns in gender, number, and case. 

66. Feminine adjectives in -a are declined like feminine nouns in 
-a, and you should learn to decline them together as follows : 





Noun 




Adjective 


domina (b 


ase domin-), 


f., lady 


bona (base 


: bon-), good 






Singular 


TERMINATIONS 


Noin. 


do'mina 




bona 


-a 


Gen. 


dominae 




bonae 


-ae 


Dat. 


dominae 




bonae 


-ae 


Ace. 


dominam 




bonam 


-am 


AM. 


domina 


Plural 


bona 


-a 


Norn. 


dominae 




bonae 


-ae 


Gen. 


domina'rum 


bona'rum 


-arum 


Dat. 


dominis 




bonis 


-is 


Ace. 


dominas 




bonas 


-as 


Abl. 


dominis 




bonis 


-is 



«. In the same way decline together puella mala, the bad girlj ancilla 
parva, the little maidj fortu'na magna, great fortune. 

67. The words dea, goddess, and filia, daughter, take the ending 
-abus instead of -is in the dative and ablative plural. Note the dative 
and ablati'Se plural in the following declension : 



ORDER OF WORDS IN LATIN 29 

dea bona (bases de- bon-) 
Singular Plural 

Norn, dea bona deae bonae 

Gen. deae bonae dea'rum bona'nim 

Dat. deae bonae dea'bus bonis 

Ace. deam bonam deas bonas 

Abl. dea bona dea'bus bonis 

a. In the same way decline together filia parva. 

68. Latin Word Order. The order of words in English and in Latin 
sentences is not the same. 

In English we arrange words in a fairly fixed order. Thus, in the 
sentence My daughter is getting dinner for the farmers, we cannot 
alter the order of the words without spoiling the sentence. We can, 
however, throw emphasis on different words by speaking them with 
more force. Try the effect of reading the sentence by putting special 
force on my, daughter, dinner, farmers. 

In Latin, where the office of the word in the sentence is shown by 
its ending (cf. § 32. i), and not by its position, the order of words is 
more free, and position is used to secure the same effect that in 
English is secured by emphasis of voice. To a limited extent we 
can alter the order of words in English, too, for the same purpose. 
Compare the sentences 

/ saw a game of football at Chicago last November (normal order) 
hast November I saw a game of football at Chicago 
At Chicago, last November, I saw a game of footbaVL 

I. In a Latin sentence the most emphatic place is the^fn-^y next in 
importance is the lastj the weakest point is the middle. Generally the 
subject is the most important word, and is placed yfrj^y usually the verb is 
the next in importance, and is placed last. ' The other words of the sentence 
stand between these two in the order of their importance. HSnce the 
normal order of words — that is, where no unusual emphasis is expressed 
— is as follows : 

subject — modifiers of the subject — indirect object — direct object — adverb — verb 

Changes from the normal order are frequent, and are due to the desire for 
throwing emphasis upon some word or phrase. Notice the order of the 



30 ORDER OF WORDS IN LATIN 

Ijitin words when you are translating, and imitate it when you are 
turning English into Latin. 

2. Possessive pronouns and modifying genitives normally stand after 
their nouns. When placed before their nouns they are emphatic, as filia 
mea, my daughter; mea filia, my daughter; casa Galbae, Galba^s cottage ; 
Galbae casa, Galba's cottage. 

Notice the variety of emphasis produced by writing the following 
sentence in different ways : 

Filia mea agricolis cenam parat (normal order) 

Mea filia agricolis parat cenam (mea and cenam emphatic) 

Agricolis filia mea cenam parat (agricolis emphatic) 

3. An adjective placed before its noun is more emphatic than when it 
follows. When great emphasis is desired, the adjective is separated from 
its noun by other words. 

Filia mea casam parvam non amat (parvam not emphatic) 
Filia mea parvam casam non amat (parvam more emphatic) 
Parvam filia mea casam non amat (parvaiji very emphatic) 

4. Interrogative words usually stand first, the same as in English. 

5. The copula (as est, sunt) is of so little importance that it frequently 
does not stand last, but may be placed wherever it sounds well. 



69. EXERCISE 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 284. 

Note the order of the words in these sentences and pick out those that 
are emphatic. 

I. Longae non sunt tuae viae. 2. Suntne tubae novae in mea 
casa? Non sunt. 3. Quia lata in silva habitat? Diana, liinae clarae 
pulchra dea, lata in silva habitat. 4. Boni nautae altas amant aquas. 
5. Quidl ancilla tua portat? Ancilla mea tubam novam portat. 6. Ubi 
sunt Lesbia et lulia ? In tua casa est Lesbia et Itilia est in mea. 
7. Estne Italia lata terra? Longa est Italia, non lata. 8. Cui Galba 
agricola fabulam novam narrat ? Filiabus dominae clarae fabulam 
novam narrat. 9. Clara est insula Sicilia. 10. Quern laudat Latona? 
Latona filiam laudat. 



THE SECOND DECLENSION 



31 



First Review of Vocabulary and Grammar, §§ 502-505 



LESSON .IX 

THE SECOND OR 0-DECLENSION 

70. Latin nouns are divided into five declensions. 

The declension to which a noun belongs is shown by the ending of the 
genitive singular. This should .always be learned along with the nominative 
and the gender. 

71. The nominative singular of nouns of the Second or C-Declen- 
sion ends in -us, -er, -ir, or -um. The genitive singular ends in -i. 

72. Gender. Nouns in -um are neuter. The others are regularly 
masculine. 

73. Declension of nouns in -us and -um. Masculines in -us and 
neuters in -um are decKned as foUovirs : 

dominus (base domin-), m., master pilum (base pil-), n., spear 







Singular 










TERMINATIONS 




TERMINATIONS 


Nom. 


do'minus ^ 


-us 


pilum 


-um 


Gen. 


domini 


-i 


pili 


-i 


Dat. 


domino 


-5 


pilo 


-6 


Ace. 


dominum 


-um 


pilum 


-um 


AM. 


domino 


-0 


pil5 


-0 


Voc. 


domine 


-e 

Plural 


pilum 


-um 


Nom. 


domini 


-i 


pila 


-a 


Gen. 


domino'rum 


-orum 


pilo'rum 


-orum 


Dat. 


dominis 


-is 


pilis 


-is 


Ace. 


dominos 


-OS 


pila 


-a 


AM. 


dominis 


-is 


pilis 


-is 



1 Compare the declension of aomina and of dominus. 



32 THE PREDICATE NOUN 

a. Observe that the masculines and the neuters have the same termina- 
tions excepting in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusa- 
tive plural. 

b. The vocative singular of words of the second declension in -us ends 
in -S, as domine, O masters serve, O slave. This is the single exception 
to the rule in § 56. a. 

74. Write side by side the declension of domina, dominus, and 
pilum. A comparison of the forms will lead to the following 
rules, which are of great importance because they apply to all five 
declensions : 

a. The vocative, with a single exception (see § 73. b), is like the nomi- 
native. That is, the vocative singular is like the nominative singular, and 
the vocative plural is like the nominative plural. 

b. The nominative, accusative, and vocative of neuter nouns are alike, 
and in the plural end in -a. 

c. The accusative singular of masculines and feminines ends in -m and 
the accusative plural in -s. 

d. The dative and ablative plural are always alike. 

e. Final -i and -0 are always long; final -a is short, except in the abla- 
tive singular of the first declension. 

75. Observe the sentences 

Lesbia est bona, Lesbia is good 

Lesbia est ancilla, Lesbia is a maidservant 

We have learned (§ 55) that bona, when used, as here, in the predi- 
cate to describe the subject, is called 3. predicate adjective. Similarly a 
nou?i, as ancilla, used in the predicate to define the subject is called 
a predicate noun. 

76. Rule. Predicate Noun. A predicate noun agrees in case 
with the subject of the verb. 



-*=- 



THE SECOND DECLENSION 



33 



77. 



dialogue 
Galea and Marcus 



First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285. 

G. Quis, Marce, est 
legatus cum pilo et tuba ? 

M. Legatus, Galba, 
est Sextus. 

G. Ubi Sextus habi- 
tat ?i 

M. In oppido Sextus 
cum filiabus habitat. 

G. Amantne oppidani 
Sextum ? 

M. Amant oppidani 
Sextum et laudant, quod 
magna cum constantia 
pugnat. 

G. Ubi, Marce, est 
anciUa tua? Cur non 
cenam parat ? 

M. Ancillamea, Galba, 
equo legati aquam et 
frumentum dat. 

G. Cur non servus Sexti equum domini curat ? 

M. Sextus et servus ad murum oppidi maturant. Oppidani beUum 
parant.^ 

^ habitat is here translated does live. Note the three possible translations 
of the Latin present tense : 

r he lives 
habitat \ he is living 
I he does live 

Always choose the translation which makes the best sense. 

2 Observe that the verb paro means not only to prepare but also to prepare 
for, and governs the accusative case. 




LEGATUS CUM PILO ET TUBA 



34 



NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES 



78. CONVERSATION 

Translate the questions and answer them in Latin. 

1. Ubi flliae Sexti habitant? 4. Cuius equum ancilla curat? 

2. Quem oppidani amant et lau- 

dant? 

3. Quid ancilla equo legatl dat ? 



5. Quis ad murum cum Sexto 
mattirat ? 

6. Quid oppidani parant ? 



LESSON X 

SECOND DECLENSION (Continued) 

79. We have been freely using feminine adjectives, like bona, in 
agreement with feminine nouns of the first declension and declined 
like them. Masculine adjectives of this class are declined like dominus, 
and neuters like pUum. The adjective and noun, masculine and neuter, 
are therefore declined as follows : 



Masculine Noun and Adjective 

dominus bonus, the good master 

Bases domin- bon- 



Neuter Noun and Adjective 

pilum bonum, the good spear 

Bases pil- bon- 







Singular 










TERMINATIONS 




TERMINATIONS 


Nom. 


do'minus bonus 


-us 


pilum bonum 


-um 


Gen. 


domini boni 


-i 


pili boni 


-i 


Dat. 


domino bono 


-0 


pllo bono 


-0 


Ace. 


dominum bonum 


-um 


pilum bonum 


-um 


Abl. 


domino bono 


-0 


pilo bono 


-0 


Voc. 


domine bone 


Plural 


pilum bonum 


-um 


Nom. 


domini boni 


-i 


pila bona 


-a 


Gen. 


domino'rum bono 


'rum -orum 


pilo'rum bono' 


rum -orum 


Dat. 


dominis bonis 


-is 


pilis bonis 


-is 


Ace. 


dominos bonos 


-OS 


pila bona 


-a 


Abl. 


dominis bonis 


-is 


pilis bonis 


-is 



APPOSITION 35 

Decline together bellum longum, equus parvus, servus malus, murus 
altus, frumentum novum. 

80. Observe the sentences 

Lesbia ancilla est bona, Lesbia, the maidservant, is good 
Filia Lesbiae ancillae est bona, the daughter of Lesbia, the maid- 
servant, is good 
Servus Lesbiam ancillam amat, the slave loves Lesbia, the maid- 
servant 

In these sentences ancilla, ancillae, and ancillam denote the class of 
persons to which Lesbia belongs and explain who she is. Nouns so related 
that the second is only another name for the first and explains it are said 
to be in apposition, and are always in the same case. 

81. Rule. Apposition. An appositive agrees in case with the 
noun which it explains. 

82. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285. 

I. I. Patria servl boni, vicus servorum bonorum, bone popule. 

2. Populus oppidl magni, in oppido magno, in oppidis magnis. 

3. Cum pilTs longis, ad pila longa, ad muros latos. 4. Legate male, 
amici legati mali, cena grata domino bono. 5. Frflmentum equorum 
parvorum, domine bone, ad legates claros. 6. Rhenus est in Ger- 
mania, patria mea. 7. Sextus legatus pilum longum portat. 8. Oppi- 
dan! boni Sexto legato claro pecuniam dant. 9. Mali servl equum 
bonum Marci domini necant 10. Galba agricola et lulia filia bona 
laborant. 1 1 . Marcus nauta in insula Sicilia habitat. 

II. I . Wicked slave, who is your friend .' Why does he not praise 
Galba, your master ? 2. My friend is from (ex) a village of Germany, 
my fatherland. 3. My friend does not love the people of Italy. 

4. Who is caring for ^ the good horse of Galba, the farmer ? 5. Mark, 
where is Lesbia, the maidservant ? 6. She is hastening '■ to the little 
cottage ^ of Julia, the farmer's daughter. 

1 See footnote i, p. 33. Remember that curat is transitive and governs a 
direct object. ^ Not the dative. (Cf. § 43.) 



36 



ADJECTIVES 



LESSON XI 

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS 

83. Adjectives of the first and second declensions are declined in 
the three genders as follows : 







Singular 






MASCULINE 


FEMININE 


NEUTER 


Norn. 


bonus 


bona 


bonum 


Gen. 


boni 


bonae 


boni 


Dat. 


bono 


bonae 


bono 


Ace. 


bonum 


bonam 


bonum 


AM. 


bono 


bona 


bono 


Voc. 


bone 


bona 
Plural 


bonum 


Nom. 


boni 


bonae 


bona 


Gen. 


bonSrum 


bonarum 


bonorum 


Dai. 


bonis 


bonis 


bonis 


Ace. 


bonos 


bonas 


bona 


AM. 


bonis 


bonis 


bonis 



a. Write the declension and give it orally across the page, thus giving 
the three genders for each case. 

b. Decline gratus, -a, -um; malus, -a, -um; altus, -a, -um; parvus, -a, 
-um. 

84. Thus far the adjectives have had the same terminations as the 
nouns. However, the agreement between the adjective and its noun 
does not mean that they must have the same termination. If the 
adjective and the noun belong to different declensions, the terminations 
will, in many cases, not be the same. For example, nauta, sailor, is 
masculine and belongs to the first declension. The masculine form of 
the adjective bonus is of the second declension. Consequently, a good 
sailor is nauta bonus. So, the wicked farmer is agricola malus. Learn 
the f oUd^ing declensions : 



EXERCISES 



2,7 





nauta bonus 


1 (bases naut- 


bon-), ra.. 


, the good sailor 




Singular 




Plukal 


Nom. 


. nauta 


bonus 




nautae 


boni 


Gen. 


nautae 


boni 




nautarum 


bonorum 


Dat. 


nautae 


bono 




nautis 


bonis 


Ace. 


nautam 


bonum 




nautas 


bonos 


AM. 


nauta 


bono 




nautis 


bonis 


Voc. 


nauta 


bone 




nautae 


boni 



86. 



EXERCISES 



First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285. 

I. I. Est^ in vico nauta bonus. 2. Sextus est amicus nautae boni. 

3. Sextus nautae bono galeam dat. 4. Populus Romanus nautam 
bonum laudat. 5. Sextus cum nauta bono praedam portat. 6. Ubi, 
nauta bone,. sunt arma et tela legati Roman!? 7. Nautae boni ad bel- 
lum maturant. 8. Fama nautarum bonorum est clara. g. Pugnaesunt 
gratae nautis bonis. 10. Oppidani nautas bonos curant. 11. Cur, 
nautae boni, mail agricolae ad Rhenum maturant? 12. Mali agricolae 
cum bonis nautis pugnant. 

II. I. The wicked farmer is hastening to the village with (his)' 
booty. 2. The reputation of the wicked farmer is not good. 3. Why 
does Galba's daughter give arms and weapons to the wicked fanner ? 

4. Lesbia invites the good sailor to dinner. 5. Why is Lesbia with 
the good sailor hastening from the cottage ? 6. Sextus, where is my 
helmet ? 7 . The good sailors are hastening to the toilsome battle. 
8. The horses of , the wicked farmers are small. 9. The Roman people 
give money to the good sailors. 10. Friends care for the good sailors. 
1 1 . Whose friends are fighting with the wicked farmers ? 

1 Est, beginning a declarative sentence, there is. 




38 NOUNS IN -lUS AND -lUM 

LESSON XII 
NOUNS IN -laS AND -lUM 

87. Nouns of the second declension in -ius and -ium end in -i in 
the genitive singular, not in -ii, and the accent rests on the penult ; 
as, fill from filius {son), praesi'di from praesi'dium {garrison). 

88. Proper names of persons in -ius, and filius, end in -i in the 
vocative singular, not in -6, and the accent rests on the penult; as, 
Vergi'li, O Vergil ; fill, O son. 

a. Observe that in these words the vocative and the genitive are alike. 

89. praesidium (base praesidi-), n., garrison filius (base fili-), m., son 

Singular 



Norn. 


praesidium 


filius 


Gen. 


praesi'di 


fm 


Dat. 


praesidio 


filio 


Ace. 


praesidium 


filium 


Abl. 


praesidio 


filio 


Voc. 


praesidium 


fili 



The plural is regular. Note that the -i- of the base is lost only 
in the genitive singular, and in the vocative of words like filius. 

Decline together praesidium parvum ; filius bonus ; fluvius longus, the 
long river J proelium clarum, the famous battle. • 

90. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285. 

I. I. Frumentum bonae terrae, gladi mall, belli longi. 2. Constantia 
magna, praesidia magna, clare Vergi'li. 3. Male serve, O clarum 
oppidum, male fill, filii mali, fili mali. 4. Fluvi longi, fluvii longi, fluvi- 
oruni longorum, fama praesi'di magni. 5. Cum gladiis parvis, cum 
deabus claris, ad nautas claros. 6. Multorum proeliorum, praedae 
magnae, ad proelia dQra. 



NOUNS IN -ER AND -IR 



39 



Germania 

II. Germania, patria Germanorum, est clara terra. In Germania 
sunt fluvii multi. Rhenus magnus et latus fluvius Germaniae est. In 
silvis latis Germaniae sunt ferae multae. Multi German! in oppidis 
magnis et in vicis parvis habitant et multi sunt agricolae bonl. Bella 
Germanorum sunt magna et clara. Populus Germaniae bellum et 5 
proelia amat et saepe cum finitimis pugnat. Fluvius Rhenus est 
finitimus oppidis^ multis et claris. 



LESSON XIII 
SECOND DECLENSION (Continued) 

91. Declension of Nouns in -er and -ir. In early Latin all the 
masculine nouns of the second declension ended in -os. This -os later 
became -us in words like serms, and was dropped entirely in words 
with bases ending in -r, like puer, ioy ; ager, Jield; and vir, man. 
These words are therefore declined as follows : 

92. puer, m., 6oy ager, m.., field vir, m., man 
Base puer- Base agr- Base vir- 







Singular 




TERMINATIONS 


Nom. 


puer 


ager 


vir 




Gen. 


pueri 


agri 


viri 


-i 


Dat. 


puero 


agro 


viro 


-0 


Ace. 


puerum 


agnim 


virum 


-um 


Abl. 


puero 


agro 
Plural 


viro 


-« 


Nom. 


pueri 


agri 


viri 


-i 


Gen. 


pueronim 


agronim 


virorum 


-orum 


Dat. 


pueris 


agris 


viris 


-is 


Ace. 


pueros 


agros 


viros 


-OS 


Abl. 


pueris 


agris 


viris 


-is 



1 Dative with finitimus. (See § 43.) 



40 ADJECTIVES IN -ER 

a. The vocative case of these words is like the nominative, following the 
general rule (§ 74. a). 

b. The declension differs from that of servus only in the nominative and 
vocative singular. 

c. Note that in puer the e remains all the way through, while in ager it is 
present only in the nominative. In puer the e belongs to the base, but in 
ager (base agr-) it does not, and was inserted in the nominative to make it" 
easier to pronounce. Most words in -er are declined like ager. The genitive 
shows whether you are to follow puer or ager. 

93. Masculine adjectives in -er of the second declension are de- 
clined like nouns in -er. A few of them are declined like puer, but 
most of them like ager. The feminine and neuter nominatives show 
which form to follow, thus, 



Masc. 


Fem. 


Neut. 






liber 


libera 


liberum 


[free) 


is like puer 


pulcher 


pulchra 


pulchruin 


^pretty) 


is like ager 



For the full declension in the three genders, see § 469. b. c. 

94. Decline together the words vir liber, terra libera, frumentum liberum, 
puer pulcher, puella pulchra, oppidum pulchrum. 



95. Italia ^ 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286. 

Magna est Italiae fama, patriae Romanorum, et clara est Roma, 
domina orbis terrarum.^ Tiberim,* fluvium Romanum, quis non laudat 
et pulchros fluvio finitimos agros ? Altos muros, longa et dura bella, 
Claras victorias quis non laudat? Pulchra est terra Italia. Agri boni 
agricolis praemia dant magna, et equi agricolarum copiam frumenti 
ad oppida et vicos portant. In agris populi RomanI laborant multi 
servl. Viae Italiae sunt longae et latae. Finitima Italiae est insula 
Sicilia. 

1 In this selection note especially the emphasis as shown by the order of 
the words. ^ or\i%&tettai:xsa., of the ■world. * Tiberim, i^« Tiie?-, accusative 
case. • 



ADJECTIVES IN -ER 



41 



96. 



dialogue 

Marcus and Cornelius 



C. Ubi est, Marce, filius tuus ? Estne in pulchra terra Italia ? 

M. Non est, Cornell, in Italia. Ad fluvium Rhenum maturat cum 
copiis Romanis quia est' fama 
novi belli cum Germanis. Liber 
Germaniae populus Romanos 
non amat. 

C. Estne filius tuus copiarum 
Romanarum legatus ? 

M. Legatus non est, sed est 
apud legionarios. 

C. Quae ^ arma portat ° ? 

M. Scutum magnum et lori- 
cam duram et galeam pulchram 
portat. 

C. Quae tela portat ? 

M. Gladium et pilum longum 
portat. 

C. Amatne legatus filium 
tuum? 

M. Amat, et saepe filio meo 
praemia pulchra et praedam 
multam dat. 

C. Ubi est terra Germanorum ? 

M. Terra Germanorum, Cornell, est finitima Rheno, fluvio magno 
et alto. 

1 est, before its subject, there is ; so sunt, there are. ^ Quae, what kind of, 
an interrogative adjective pronoun. ^ What are the three possible trans- 
lations of the present tense ? ■ 




LEGIONARIUS 



42 POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS 

LESSON XIV 
THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS 

97. Observe the sentences 

This is my shield 
This shield is m.ine 

In the first sentence my is a possessive adjective ; in the second mine 
is a possessive pronoun, for it takes the place of a noun, this shield is 
mine being equivalent to this shield is my shield. Similarly, in Latin the 
possessives are sometimes adjectives and sometimes pronouns. 

98. The possessives my, mine, your, yours, etc. are declined like 
adjectives of the first and second declensions. 

Singular 
1st Pers. meus, mea, meum my, mine 

2d Pers. tuus, tua, tuum your, yours 

3d Pers. suus, sua, suum his (own), her (own), its (own) 

Plural 
1st Pers. noster, nostra, nostrum our, ours 
2d Pers. vester, vestra, vestrum your, yours 

3d Pers. suus, sua, suum their (own), theirs 

Note. Meus has the irregular vocative singular masculine ml, as mi fill, 
O viy son. 

a. The possessives agree with the name of the thing possessed in gender, 
number, and case. Compare the English and Latin in 

Sextus is callins: his boy Sextus "I 
r ,. • ,,. . , ,-,■ ^ suum puerum vocat 

Julia IS calling her boy lulia J 



Observe that suum agrees with puerum, and is unaffected by the gender 
of Sextus or Julia. 

b. When your, yours, refers to one person, use tuus ; when to more 
than one, Tester ; as, 

Lesbia, your wreaths are pretty Coronae tuae, Lesbia, sunt pulchrae 
Girls, your wreaths are pretty Coronae yestrae, puellae, sunt pulchrae 



EXERCISES 43 

c. Suus is a reflexive possessive, that is, it always refers back to the 
subject. Thus, Vir suos servos vocat means The man calls his (own) 
slaves. Here his (suos) refers to man (vir), and could not refer to any 
one else. 

d. Possessives are used much less frequently than in English, being 
omitted whenever the meaning is clear without them. (Cf. § 22. a.) This 
is especially true of suus, -a, -um, which, when inserted, is more or less 
emphatic, like our his own, her own, etc. 

99. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286. 

I. 1. Marcus amico Sexto consilium suum nuntiat. 2. Est copia 
friimenti in agrls nostris. 3. Amici mei bonam cenam ancillae vestrae 
laudant. 4. Tua lorica, mi fill, est dura. 5. Scuta nostra et tela, mi 
amice, in castrls Romanis sunt. 6. Suntne viri patriae tuae llberi ? 
Sunt. 7. Ubi, Cornell, est tua galea pulchra? 8. Mea galea, Sexte, 
est in casa mea. 9. Pilum longum est tuum, sed gladius est meus. 

10. iQlia galllnas suas pulchras amat et galllnae dominam suam amant. 

1 1 . Nostra castra sunt vestra. 1 2 . Est copia praedae in castris vestrls. 
13. Amid tui miseris et aegris cibum et peciiniam saepe dant. 

II. I. Our teacher praises Mark's industry. 2. My son Sextus is 
carrying his booty to the Roman camp.^ 3. Your good girls are giving 
aid to the sick and wretched.^ 4. There are ' frequent battles in our 
villages. 5. My son, where is the lieutenant's food? 6. The camp is 
mine, but the -weapons are yours. 

^ Not the dative. Why ? ^ Here the adjectives sick and wretched are used 
like nouns. ^ Where should sunt stand ? Cf. I. 2 above. 



AGRICOLA ARAT 



44 THE ABLATIVE DENOTING WITH 



LESSON XV 
THE ABLATIVE DENOTING WITH 

100. Of the various relations denoted by the ablative case (§ 50) 
there is none more important than that expressed in English by the 
preposition with. This little word is not so simple as it looks. It does 
not always convey the same meaning, nor is it always to be translated 
by cum. This will become clear from the following sentences : 

a. Mark is feeble with {for or because of) want of food 

b. Diana kills the beasts with (or by) her arrows 

c. Julia is with Sextus 

d. The men fight with great steadiness 

a. In sentence a, with want {of food) gives the cause of Mark's feeble- 
ness. This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative without a preposition, 
and the construction is called the ablative of cause : 

Marcus est inflrmus inopia cibi 

b. In sentence b, with (or by) her arrows tells by means of what Diana 
kills the beasts. This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative without a 
preposition, and the construction is called the ablative of means : 

Diana sagittis suis feras necat 

c. In sentence c we are told that Julia is not alone, but in company with 
Sextus. This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative with the preposi- 
tion cum, and the construction is called the ablative of accompaniment : ' 

lulia est cum Sexto 

d. In sentence d we are told how the men fight. The idea is one of 
manner. This is expressed in Latin by the ablative with cum, unless there 
is a modifying adjective present, in which case cum may be omitted. This 
construction is called the ablative of manner : 

Viri (cum) constantia magna pugnant 

101. You are now able to form four important rules for the ablative 
denoting iSith . 



THE ABLATIVE DENOTING WITH 45 

102. Rule. Ablative of Cause. Cause is denoted by the abla- 
tive without a preposition. This anszvers the question Because 
of what ? 

103. Rule. Ablative of Means. Means is denoted by the abla- 
tive without a preposition. This answers the question By means 
of what f With zvhat ? 

N.B. Cum must never be used with the ablative expressing cause or 
means. < 

104. Rule. Ablative of Accompaniment. Accompaniment is 
denoted by the ablative with cum. This answers the question 
With whom ? 

105. Rule. Ablative of Manner. The ablative with cum is used 
to denote the manner of an action. Cum may be omitted, if an 
adjective is used with the ablative. This answers the question 
How f In what m,anner ? 

106. What uses of the ablative do you discover in the following 
passage, and what question does each answer ? 

The soldiers marched to the fort with great speed and broke down the 
gate with blows of their muskets. The inhabitants, terrified by the din, 
attempted to cross the river with their wives and children, but the stream 
was swollen with [or by) the rain. Because of this many were swept away 
by the waters and only a few, almost overcome with fatigue, with great 
difficulty succeeded in gaining the farther shore. 

107. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286. 

I. The Romans prepare for War. Romani, clarus Italiae populus, 
bellum parant. Ex agrls suis, vicis, oppidisque magno studio viri valid! 
ad arma maturant. lam legati cum . legionariis ex Italia ad Rhenum, 
fluvium Germaniae altum et latum, properant, et servi equis et earns 
cibum frumentumque ad castra Romana portant. Inopia bonorum 5 
telorum infirmi sunt German!, sed Roman! armat! galeis, loricis, 
scutis, gladiis, pilisque sunt valid!. 



46 



THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES 



II. I. The sturdy farmers of Italy labor in the fields with great 
diligence. 2. Sextus, the lieutenant, and (his) son Mark are fighting 
with the Germans. 3. The Roman legionaries are armed with long 
spears. 4. Where is Lesbia, your maid, Sextus ? Lesbia is with my 
friends in Galba's cottage. 5. Many are sick because of bad water 
and for lack of food. 6. The Germans, with (their) sons and daughters, 
are hastening to the river Rhine. 



LESSON XVI 

THE NINE IKREGULAR ADJECTIVES 

108. There are nine irregular adjectives of the first and second 
declensions which have a peculiar termination in the genitive and 
dative singular of all genders : 

Masc. Fem. Neut. 



Gen. -ius 
Dat. -i 



-lUS 

-i 



-lUS 

-i 



Otherwise they are declined like bonus, -a, -um. Learn the list 
and the meaning of each : 



alius, alia, aliud, 


other, another (of 


niillus, 


, -a, -um, none, no 




several) 






solus, 


-a, -um, alone 




alter, altera, alterum, the 


one, the 


totus. 


-a, -um, all, whole. 


entire 


other (of two) 






uter, utra, utrum, which 


? 


unus, -a, -um, one, alone j 


(in the 


(of two) 




plural) only 






neuter, 


, neutra, neutrum. 


neither 


ullus, -a, -um, any 




(of two) 




109. 




PARADIGMS 

Singular 






MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 




MASC. FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nam. nuUus 


nulla 


nullum 




alius alia 


aliud 


Gen. nulli'us 


nulli'us 


nulli'us 




ali'us ali'us 


ali'us 


Dat. nullT 


nulli 


nulli 




alii alii 


alii 


Ace. nullum 


nullam 


nullum 




alium aliam 


aliud 


Abl. nullo 


nulla 


nuUo 




alio alia 


alio 



The Plural is Regular 



THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES 47 

a. Note the peculiar neuter singular ending in -d of alias. The genitive 
alius is rare. Instead of it use alterius, the genitive of alter. 

b. These peculiar case endings are found also in the declension of pro- 
nouns (see § 114). For this reason these adjectives are sometimes called 
the pronominal adjectives. 

110. Learn the following idioms : 

alter, -era, -erum . . . alter, -era, -erum, M« (7«£ . . . the of her {oi tvio) 
alius, -a, -ud . . . alius, -a, -ud, one . . . another (of any number) 
alii, -ae, -a . . . "alii, -ae, -a, some . . . others 

EXAMPLES 

1. Alterum oppldum est magnum, alterum parvimi, the one town is 
large, the other small (of two towns). 

2. Aliud oppidum est validum, aliud infirmum, one town is strong, 
another weak (of towns in general). 

3. Alii gladios, alii scuta portant, some carry swords, others shields. 

111. EXERCISES 

I. I. In utra casa est liilia? iQlia est in neutra casa. 2. Null! 
malo puero praemium dat magister. 3. Alter puer est nauta, alter 
agricola. 4. Alii viri aquam, alii terram amant. 5. Galba'iinus {or 
solus) cum studio laborat. 6. Estne uUus carrus in agro meo ? 
7. Lesbia est ancilla alterius domini, Tullia alterius. 8. Lesbia sola 
cenam parat. 9. Cena nuUius alterius ancillae est bona. 10. Lesbia 
nuUl alii viro cenam dat. 

Note. The pronominal adjectives, as you observe, regularly stand before 
and not after their nouns. 

II. I. The men of all Germany are preparing for war. 2. Some 
towns are great and others are small. 3. One boy likes chickens, 
another horses. 4. Already the booty of one town is in our fort. 

5. Our whole village is suffering for (i.e. weak because of) lack of food. 

6. The people are already hastening to the other town. 7. Among 
the Romans (there) is no lack of grain. 



48 



THE DEMONSTRATIVE IS, EA, ID 



LESSON XVII 
THE DEMONSTRATIVE IS, EA, W 

112. A demonstrative is a word that points out an object definitely, 
as this, that, these, those. Sometimes these words are pronouns, as, 
Do you hear these ? and sometimes adjectives, as. Do you hear these 
meni In the former case they are called demonstrative pronouns, 
in the latter demonstrative adjectives. 

113. Demonstratives are similarly used in Latin both as pronouns 
and as adjectives. The one used most is 

is, masculine ; ea, feminine ; id, neuter 

f" this „ . _ r these 



Singular 



\ that 



Plural \ 

l_ those 



114. Is is declined as follows. Compare its declension with that 
of alius, § log. 

Base e- 







Singular 






Plural 






MASC. 


FEM. . 


NEUT. 


MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nam. 


is 


ea 


id 


ei (or ii) 


eae 


ea 


Gen. 


eius 


eius 


eius 


eorum 


earura 


eorum 


Dat. 


ei 


el 


ei 


eis {or ils) 


eis {or iis) 


els {or iis) 


Ace. 


eum 


earn 


id 


eos 


eas 


ea 


Abl. 


eo 


ea 


eo 


els {or iis) 


els {or iis) 


els {or iis) 



Note that the base e- changes to i- in a few cases. The genitive singular 
eius is pronounced eh'yus. In the plural the forms with two i's are preferred 
and the two i's are pronounced as one. Hence, pronounce ii as i and iis 
as is. 

115. Besides being used as dernonstrative pronouns and adjectives 
the Latin demonstratives are regularly used for the personal pronoun 
he, she, it. As a personal pronoun, then, is would have the following 
meanings : 



Sing. 



Plur. - 



COMPARISON BETWEEN SUUS AND IS 49 

' Nom. is, he J ea, she; id, it 
Gen. eius, of him or his j eius, of her., her, or ^^rj/ eius, of it 

or z'/j 
/Pa/. ei, /(? or for him y ei, /o or for her y ei, /o or for it 
Ace. .eum, ^z'wzy earn, ^^ry id, zV 
^(5/. eo, wzM, from, etc., ^z»zy ea, wzM, yr<7»z, etc., her; eo, 

with, from, etc., zV 

' yV(7/«. ei or ii, eae, ea, they 

Gen. eorum, earum, eorum, of them, their 

Dat. eis or iis, eis or iis, eis or iis, to or for them 

Ace. eos, eas, ea, them 

Abl. eis or iis, eis or iis, eis or iis, with, from, etc., them 

116. Comparison between suus and is. We learned above (§ 98. c) 
that suus is a reflexive possessive. When his, her (poss.), its, their, do 
not refer to the subject of the sentence, we express his, her, its by 
eius, the genitive singular of is, ea, id ; and their by the genitive 
plural, using eorum to refer to a masculine or neuter antecedent noun 
and earum to refer to a feminine one. 

EXAMPLES 

Galba calls his (own) son, Galba suum f ilium vocat 

Galba calls his son (not his own, but another's), Galba eius filium vocat 

Julia calls her (own) children, Mlia suos itberos vocat 

Julia calls her children (not her own, but another's), lulia eius liberos 

vocat 
The men praise their (own) boys, virl suos pueros laudant 
The men praise their boys (not their own, but Others'), viri eorum pueros 

laudant 

117. EXERCISES 
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287. 

I. He praises her, him, it, them. 2. This cart, that report, these 
teachers, thpse women, that abode, these abodes. 3. That strong 
garrison, among those weak and sick women, that want of firmness, 
those frequent plans. 

4. The other woman is calling her chickens (her own). 5. Another 
woman is calling her chickens (not her own). 6. The Gaul praises 



50 EXERCISES 

his arms {his. own). 7. The Gaul praises his arms (not his own). 
8. This farmer often plows their fields. 9. Those wretched slaves 
long for their master (their own). 10. Those wretched slaves long 
for their master (not their own). 11. Free men love their own father- 
land. 12. They love its villages and towns. 

118. dialogue 1 

Cornelius and Marcus 

M. Quis est vir, Cornell, cum puero parvo ? Estne Romanus et liber ? 

C. Romanus non est, Marce. Is vir est servus et eius domicilium 
est in silvls Galliae. 

M. Estne puer Alius eius servi an alterius ? 

C. Neutrlus filius est puer. Is est Alius legatl Sexti. 

M. Quo puer cum eo servo -properat ? 

C. Is cum servo properat ad latos Sexti agros.^ Totum frumentum 
est iam maturum et magnus servorum numerus in Italiae ^ agrls laborat. 

M. Agricolaene sunt Galli et patriae suae agros arant ? 

C. Non agricolae sunt. Bellum amant Galli, non agri culturam. 
Apud eos viri pugnant et feminae auxilio liberorum agros arant 
parantque cibum. 

M. Magister noster pueris puellisque gratas Gallorum fabulas saepe 
narrat et laudat eos saepe. 

C. Mala est fortuna eorum et saepe miseri servi multls cum lacri- 
mis patriam suam desiderant. 

1 There are a number of departures from the normal order in this dialogue. 
Find them, and give the reason. ^ When a noun is modified by both a 
genitive and an adjective, a favorite order of words is adjective, crenitive, noun, 
3 A modifying genitive often stands between a preposition and its object. 



Second Review, Lessons IX-XVII, §§ 506-509 



CONJUGATION 5 1 

LESSON XVIII 
CONJUGATION 

THE PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE TENSES OF SUM 

119. The inflection of a verb is called its conjugation (cf. § 23). In 
English the verb has but few changes in form, the different meanings 
being expressed by the use of personal pronouns and auxiliaries, as, 
I am carried, we have carried, they shall have carried, etc. In Latin, 
on the other hand, instead of using personal pronouns and auxiliary 
verbs, the form changes with the meaning. In this way the Romans 
expressed differences in te7ise, mood, voice, person, and number. 

120. The Tenses. The different forms of a verb referring to differ- 
ent times are called its tenses. The chief distinctions of time are 
present, past, and future : 

1. The present, that is, what is happening "1 

now, or what usually happens, is ex- I the Present Tense 
pressed by J 

2. The past, that is, what was happening, l 

used to happen, happened, has happened, I ™^ Imperfect, Perfect, 
-^-^ ; j-^ jrjr ^jjjj Pluperfect Tenses 

or had happened, is expressed by J 

3. The future, that is, what is going to hap- \ the Future and Future 

pen, is expressed by J Perfect Tenses 

121. The Moods. Verbs have inflection of mood to indicate the 
manner in which they express action. The moods of the Latin verb 
are the indicative, subjunctive, imperative, and injinitive. 

a. A verb is in the indicative mood when it makes a statement or asks 
a question about something assumed as a fact. All the verbs we have used 
thus far are in the present indicative. 

122. The Persons. There are three persons, as in English. The 
first person is the person speaking (/ sing) ; the second person the 
person spoken to (^you sing) ; the third person the person spoken of 



52 CONJUGATION 

{he sings). Instead of using personal pronouns for the different per- 
sons in the two numbers, singular and plural, the Latin verb uses the 
personal endings (cf. § 22 a ; 29). We have already learned that -t is 
the ending of the third person singular in the active voice and -nt of 
the third person plural. The complete hst of personal endings of the 
active voice is as follows : 

Singular Plural 

1st Pers. I -m or -o we -mus 

2d Pers. thou or you -s you -tis 

J d Pers. he, she, it -t they -nt 

123. Most verbs form their moods and tenses after a regular plan 
and are called regular verbs. Verbs that depart- from this plan are 
called irregular. The verb to be is irregular in Latin as in English. 
The present, imperfect, and future tenses of the indicative are 
inflected as follows : 





Present Indicative 






SINGULAR 


PLURAL 


1st Pers. 


su-m, / am 


su-mus, we are 


2d Pers. 


e-s, you^ are 


es-tis, you ^ are 


3d Pers. 


es-t, he, she, or it is 


su-nt, they are 



Imperfect Indicative 

1st Pers. er-a-m, / was er-a'-mus, we were 

2d Pers. er-a-s, you were er-a'-tis, you were 

jd Pers. er-a-t, he, she, or it was er-a-nt, they were 

Future Indicative 

1st Pers. er-o, I shall be er'-i-mus, we shall be 

2d Pers. er-i-s, you will be er'-i-tis, you will be 

3d Pers. er-i-t, he will be er-u-nl, they will be 

a. Be careful about vowel quantity and accent in these forms, and con- 
sult §§ 12.2; 14; 15. 

1 Observe that in English you are, you were, etc. may be either singular or 
plural. In tatin the singular and plural forms are never the same. 



EXERCISES 53 

124. DIALOGUE 

The Boys Sextus and Marcus 
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287. 

S. Ubi es, Marce ? Ubi est Qumtus ? Ubi estis, amici ? 

M. Cum Quinto, Sexte, in silva sum. Non soli sumus ; sunt in 
silva multl alii puerl. 

S. Nunc laetus es, sed nuper non laetus eras. Cur miser eras ? 

M. Miser eram quia amici mei erant in alio vico et eram solus. 
Nunc sum apud socios meos. Nunc laeti sumus et erimus. 

S. Eratisne in liido hodie ? 

M. Hodie non eramus in liido, quod magister erat aeger. 

S. Eritisne mox in lUdo ? 

M. Amici mei ibi erunt, sed ego (/) non ero. 

5. CQr non ibi eris ? Magister, saepe iratus, inopiam tuam studi 
diligentiaeque non laudat. 

M. NiJper aeger eram et nunc infirmus sum. 

125. EXERCISE 

I. You are, you were, you will be, {sing, and J>lur.). 2. I am, I 
was, I shall be. 3. He is, he was, he will be. 4. We are, we were, 
we shall be. 5. They are, they were, they will be. 

6. Why were you not in school to-day? I was sick. 7. Lately he 
was a sailor, now he is a farmer, soon he will be a teacher. 8. To-day 
I am happy, but lately I was wretched. 9. The teachers were happy 
because of the boys' industry. 





PUERI ROMANI IN LUDO 



54 PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE 



LESSON XIX 

THE FOUR REGULAR CONJUGATIONS ■ PRESENT ACTIVE 
INDICATIVE OF AMO AND MONEO 

126. There are four conjugations of the regular verbs. These con- 
jugations are distinguished from each other by the final vowel of the 
present conjugation-stem.^ This vowel is called the distinguishing 
vowel, and is best seen in the present infinitive. 

Below is given the prese?it infinitive of a verb of each conjugation, 

the present stem, and the distinguishing vowel. 

„ t. t t> c distinguishing 

Conjugation Pres. Infin. Pres. Stem vowel 

I. ama're, to love ama- a 

II. mone're, to advise mone- e 

III. re'gere, to rule rege- e 

IV. audi're, to hear audi- i 

a. Note that the present stem of each conjugation is found by dropping 
-re, the ending of the present infinitive. 

Note. The present infinitive of sum is esse, and es- is the present stem. 

127. From the present stem are formed the present, imperfect, and 
future tenses. 

128. The inflection of the Present Active Indicative of the first 
and of the second conjugation is as follows : 

a'mo, ama're {love) mo'neo, mone're (advise) 

Pres. Stem ama- Pres. Stem mone- ^endings^ 

II. 3.'mo, I love mo'-ato, I advise -o 

2. a'mas, you love mo'nes, you advise -s 
3- a'mat, he {she, it) loves mo'net, he {she, it) advises -t 

ii. ama'mus, we love mone'mus, we advise -mus 

2. ama'tis, you love mone'tis, you advise -tis 

3. a'mant, they love mo'nent, they advise -nt 

1 The stem is the body of a word to which the terminations are attached. 
It is often identical with the base (cf. § 58). If, however, the stem ends in a 
vowel, the latter does not appear in the base, but is variously combined with 
the inflectiontl terminations. This point is further explained in § 230. 



PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE 



55 



1. The present tense is inflected by adding the personal endings to the 
present stem, and its first person uses -o and not -m. The form amo is for 
ama-6, the two vowels a-6 contracting to o. In moneo there is no contraction. 
Nearly all regular verbs ending in -ea belong to the second conjugation. 

2. Note that the long final vowel of the stem is shortened before another 
vowel (mone-o = mo'n6o), and before final -t (amat, monet) and -nt 
(amSnt, monent). Compare § 12. 2. 

129. Like amS and moneo inflect the present active indicative of the 
following verbs ^ : 



Indicative Present 

a'ro, I plow 

cii'ro, I care for 
*ae1eo, / destroy 

desi'dero, I long for 
t do,2 1 give 
*ha'beo, / have 

ha'bito, / live, I dwell 
*iu'beo, / order 

labo'ro, I labor 

lau'do, I praise 

matii'ro, / hasten 
*mo'Yeo, / move 

nar'ro, / tell 

ne'co, / kill 

nun'tio, / announce 

pa'ro, I prepare 

por'to, I carry 

pro'pero, / hasten 

pug'no, I fight 
*vi'deo, I see 

vo'co, I call 



Infinitive Present 
ara're, to plow 
ciira're, to care for 
dele're, to destroy 
desidera're, to long for 
da 're, to give 
habe're, to have 
habita're, to live, to dwell 
iube're, to order 
labora're, to labor 
lauda're, to praise 
matiira're, to hasten 
move're, to move 
narra're, to tell 
neca're, to kill 
nuntia're, to announce 
para're, to prepare 
porta're, to carry 
propera're, to hasten 
pugna're, to fight 
vide're, to see 
voca're, to call 



130. The Translation of the Present. In English there are three 
ways of expressing present action. We may say, for example, I live, 
I am living, or I do live. In Latin the one expression habito covers 
all three of these expressions. 

1 The only new verbs in this list are the five of the second conjugation 
which are starred. Learn their meanings. ^ Observe that in do, dSre, the a 
is short, and that the present stem is dS- and not da-. The only forms of do 
that have a long are das (pres. indie.), da (pres. imv.), and dans (pres. part.). 



56 IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE 

131. EXERCISES 

Give the voice, mood, tense, person, and number of each form. 

I. I. Vocamus, properatis, iubent. 2 . Movetis, laudas, vides. 3. De- 
letis, habetis, dant. 4. Maturas, desiderat, videmus. 5. lubet, mo- 
vent, necat. 6. Narramus, moves, vident. 7. Laboratis, properant, 
portas, parant. 8. Delet, habetis, iubemus, das. 

N.B. Observe that the personal ending is of prime importance in trans- 
lating a Latin verb form. Give that your first attention. 

II. I. We plow, we are plowing, we do plow. 2. They care for, 
they are caring for, they do care for. 3. You give, you are having, 
you do have (sing?). 4. We destroy, I do long for, they are .living. 
5. He calls, they see, we are telling. 6. We do fight, we order, he 
is moving, he prepares. 7. They are laboring, we kill, you announce. 

LESSON XX 
IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF AMO AND MONEO 

132. Tense Signs. Instead of using auxiliary verbs to express 
differences in tense, like was, shall, will, etc., Latin adds to the 
verb stem certain elements that have the force of auxiliary verbs. 
These are called tense signs. 

133. Formation and Inflection of the Imperfect. The tense sign 
of the imperfect is -ba-, which is added to the present stem. The 
imperfect consists, therefore, of three parts : 

Present Stem Tense Sign personal ending 

ama- ba- m 

loving was I 

The inflection is as follows : 

Conjugation I Conjugation II 

PERSONAL 
SINGULAR ENDINGS 

1. ama'ba.m, / Tvas loving mone'ha.m, I was advising -in. 

2. ama'bas, you were loving mone'bas, you were advising -s 

3. ama'bat, %e was loving mone'bat, he was advising -t 



IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE 57 



PERSONAL 
ENDINGS 



PLURAL 

1. amaba'mus, we were loving moneba'mus, we were advising -mus 

2. amaba'tis, you were loving moneba'tis, you were advising -tis 

3. ama'bant, they were loving mone'bant, they were advising -nt 

a. Note that the a of the tense sign -ba- is shortened before -nt, and 
before m and t when final. (Cf. § 12. 2.) 

In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in § 129. 

134. Meaning of the Imperfect. The Latin imperfect describes 
an act as going on or progressing in past time, like the English past- 
progressive tense (as, / was walking^. It is the regular tense used 
to describe a past situation or condition of affairs. 

135. EXERCISES 

I. I. Videbamus, desiderabat, maturabas. 2. Dabant', vocabatis, 
delebamus. 3. Pugnant, laudabas, movebatis. 4. lubebant, propera- 
batis, portabamus. 5. Dabas, narrabant, laborabatis. 6. Videbant, 
movebas, nuntiabamus. , 7. Necabat, movebam, habebat, parabatis. 

II. I. You were having {sing, and plur.), we were killing, they 
were laboring. 2. He was moving, we were ordering, we were fight- 
ing. 3. We were telling, they were seeing, he was calling. 4. They 
were living, I was longing for, we were destroying. 5. You were 
giving, you were moving, you were announcing, (sing, and plur.y 
6. They were caring for, he was plowing, we were praising. 

136. Nl'OBE AND HER CHILDREN 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287. 

Niobe, reglna Thebanorum, erat pulchra femina sed superba. 

Erat superba non solum forma-' sua marltique potentia-' sed etiam 

magno liberorum numero."^ Nam habebat^ septem filios et septem 

filias. Sed ea superbia erat reginae ' causa magnae tristitiae et liberis ' 

causa durae poenae. 

Note. The words Niobe, Thebanorum, and mariti will be found in the general 
vocabulary. Translate the selection without looking up any other words. 

1 Ablative of cause. ^ Translate had; it denotes a past situation. (See 
§ 134.) 8 Dative, cf. § 43. 



58 FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE 

LESSON XXI 
FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF AMO AND MONEO 

137. The tense sign of the Future Indicative in the first and second 
conjugations is -bi-. This is joined to the present stem of the verb 
and followed by the personal ending, as follows : 

Present Stem Tense Sign personal ending 

ama- bi- s 

love will you 

138. The Future Active Indicative is inflected as follows : 
Conjugation I Conjugation II 

SINGULAR 

1 . ama'bo, / shall love mone'bo, / shall advise 

2. ama'bis, you will love mone'bis, you will advise 

3. ama'bit, he will love mone'bit, he will advise 

PLURAL 

1 . ama'bimus, we shall love mone'bimus, we shall advise 

2. ^m^'\i\\x&, you will love raont''bi\.is, you will advise 

3. ama'bunt, ihey will love mone'bunt, they will advise 

a. The personal endings are as in the present. The ending -bo in the 
first person singular is contracted from -bi-o. The -bi- appears as -bu- in 
the third person plural. Note that the inflection is like that of ero, the 
future of sum. Pay especial attention to the accent. 

In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in § 129. 

139. EXERCISES 

I. I. Movebitis, laudabis, arabo. 2. Delebitis, vocabitis, dabunt. 
3. Maturabis, deslderabit, videbimus. 4. Habebit, movebunt, necabit. 
5. Narrabimus, monebis, videbunt. 6. Laborabitis, curabunt, dabis. 
7. Habitabimus, properabitis, iubebunt, parabit. 8. Nuntiabo, porta- 
bimus, iubebo. 

II. I. We shall announce, we shall see, I shall hasten. 2. I shall 
carry, he wiil plow, they will care for. 3. You will announce, you will 



THE DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES 59 

move, you will give, {sing, and plur.). 4. We shall fight, we shall 
destroy, I shall long for. 5. He will call, they will see, you will tell 
{flur^. 6. They will dwell, we shall order, he will praise. 7. They 
will labor, we shall kill, you will have {sing, and plur?)^ he will destroy. 

140. Ni'oBE AND HER CHILDREN {Concluded') 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288. 

Apollo et Diana erant liberi Latonae. lis Thebani sacra crebra 
parabant.^ Oppidani amabant Latonam et liberos eius. Id superbae 
reginae erat molestum. " Cur,'' inquit, " Latonae et liberis sacra 
paratis ? Duos liberos habet Latona ; quattuordecim habeo ego. 
Ubi sunt mea sacra ? " Latona lis verbis ^ irata liberos suos vocat. 5 
Ad earn volant Apollo Dianaque et sagittis ' suis miseros liberos 
reginae superbae delent. Niobe, nuper laeta, nunc misera, sedet 
apud liberos interfectos et cum perpetuis lacrimis^ eos desiderat. 

Note. Consult the general vocabulary for Apollo, inquit, duos, and quattuor- 
decim. Try to remember the meaning of all the other words. 



LESSON XXII 
REVIEW OF VERBS • THE DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES 

141. Review the present, imperfect, and future active indicative, 
both orally and in writing, of sum and the verbs in § 129. 

142. We learned in § 43 for what sort of expressions we may 
expect the dative, and in § 44 that one of its commonest uses is with 
verbs to express the indirect object. It is also very common with 
adjectives to express the object toward which the quality denoted by 
the adjective is directed. We have already had a number of cases 

1 Observe the force of the imperfect here, used to frepare, were in the habit 
of preparing; so amabant denotes a past situation of affairs. (See § 134.) ^ Abla- 
tive of cause. ^ Ablative of means. ^ This may be either manner or ac- 
companiment. It is often impossible to draw a sharp line between means, 
manner, and accompaniment. The Romans themselves drew no sharp distinc- 
tion. It was enough for them if the general idea demanded the ablative case. 



6o THE DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES 

where gratus, agreeable to, was so followed by a dative ; and in the 
last lesson we had molestus, annoying to, followed by that case. The 
usage may be more explicitly stated by the following rule : 

143. Rule. Dative with Adjectives. The dative is used with 
adjectives to denote the object toward which the given quality 
is directed. Such are, especially, those ineaning near, also fit, 
friendly, pleasing, like, and their opposites. 

144. Among such adjectives memorize the following : 

idoneus, -a, -Mm., fit, suitable (for) molestus, -a, -um, annoying (to), 

amicus, -a, -mvo., friendly (to) troublesome (to) 

inimicus, -a, -um, hostile (to) finitimus, -a, -um, neighboring {Xa) 

gratus, -a, -um, pleasing (to), agree- proximus, -a, -um, nearest, next 

able (to) (to) 

145. EXERCISES 

I. I. Roman! terram idoneam agri culturae habent. 2. Galli copiis 
Romanis inimici erant. 3. Cui dea Latona arnica non erat? 4. Dea 
Latona superbae reginae arnica non erat. 5. Cibus noster, Marce, erit 
armatis viris gratus. 6. Quid erat molestum populis Italiae ? 7. Bella 
longa cum Gallis erant molesta populis Italiae. 8. Agri Germanorum 
fluvio Rheno finitimi erant. 9. Roman! ad silvam oppido proximam 
castra movebant. 10. Non solum forma sed etiam superbia reginae 
erat magna. 11. Mox regina pulchra erit aegra tristitia. 12. Ciir 
erat Niobe, regina Thebanorum, laeta ? Laeta erat Niobe multis filiis 
et filiabus. 

II. I . The sacrifices of the people will be annoying to the haughty 
queen. 2. The sacrifices were pleasing not only to Latona but also 
to Diana. 3. Diana will destroy those hostile to Latona. 4. The 
punishment of the haughty queen was pleasing to the goddess Diana. 
5. The Romans will move their forces to a large field ^ suitable for a 
camp. 6. Some of the allies were friendly to the Romans, others to 
the Gauls. , 

1 Why not tlie dative ? 



PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE 6 1 

146. Cornelia and her Jewels 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288. 

Apud antlquas dominas, Cornelia, Africani filia, erat ' maxime clara. 
Filii eius erant Tiberius Gracchus et Gaius Gracchus. Ii pueri cum 
Cornelia in oppido Roma, claro Italiae oppido, habitabant. Ibi eos 
curabat Cornelia et ibi magno cum studio eos docebat. Bona femina 
erat Cornelia et bonam disciplinam maxime amabat. 

Note. Can you translate the paragraph above ? There are no new words. 



LESSON XXIII 

PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF REGO AND AUDIO 

147. As we learned in §126, the present stem of the third con- 
jugation ends in -6, and of the fourth in -i. The inflection of the 
Present Indicative is as follows : 

Conjugation III Conjugation IV 

re'go, re'gere [rule) au'dio, audi're (hear) 

Pres. Stem reg6- Pres. Stem audi- 

SINGULAR 

1. re'go, / rule au'dio, / hear 

2. re'gis, you rule au'dis, you hear 

3. re'git, he (she, it) rules au'dit, he (she, if) hears 

PLURAL 

1 . re'gimus, we rule audl'mus, we hear 

2. re'gitis, you rule audi'tis, you hear 

3. re'gunt, they rule au'diunt, they hear 

1 . The personal endings are the same as before. 

2. The final short -e- of the stem rege- combines with the -0 in the first 
person, becomes -u- in the third person plural, and becomes -i- elsewhere. 
The inflection is like that of ero, the future of sum. 

1 Observe that all the imperfects denote continued or progressive action, 
or describe a jStatfiaOLa^i^- (Cf- § 134-) 



62 PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE 

3. In audio the personal endings are added regularly to the stem audi-. 
In the third person plural -u- is inserted between the stem and the personal 
ending, as audi-u-nt. Note that the long vowel of the stem is shortened 
before final -t just as in amo and moneo. (Cf. §12. 2.) 

Note that -i- is always short in the third conjugation and long in the 
fourth, excepting where long vowels are regularly shortened. (Cf. § 12. 1,2.) 

148. Like rego and audio infiect the present active indicative of 
the following verbs : 

Ini>icative Present ■ Infinitive Present 

ago, / drive agere, to drive 

dico, / say dicere, to say 

diico, / lead ducere, to lead 

mitto, / send mittere, to send 

miiiiio, I fortify munire, to fortify 

reperio, I find reperire, to find 

venio, / come venire, to come 

149. EXERCISES 

I. I. Quis agit? Ctir venit? Quern mittit? Quern duels.' 2. Quid 
mittunt ? Ad quem veniunt ? Cuius castra muniunt ? 3. Quem agunt ? 
Venlmus. Quid puer reperit ? 4. Quem mittimus ? Cuius equum du- 
citis? Quid dicunt? 5. Munimus, venitis, dicit. 6. Agimus, reperitis, 
munis. 7. Reperls, ducitis, dicis. 8. Agitis, audimus, regimus. 

II. I. What do they find? Whom do they hear? Why does he 
come? 2. Whose camp are we fortifying? To whom does he say? 
What are we saying? 3. I am driving, you are leading, they are hear- 
ing. 4. You send, he says, you fortify {sing, and plur.). 5. I am 
coming, we find, they send. 6. They lead, you drive, he does fortify. 
7. You lead, you find, you rule, (all plur.). 

150. Cornelia and her Jewels (Concluded) 

Proximum domicilio Corneliae erat pulchrae Campanae domicilium. 
Campana erat superba non solum forma sua sed maxime ornamentis 
suTs. Eai laudabat semper. "' Habesne tu uUa ornamenta, Cornelia ? " 

' ea, accusative plural neuter. 



IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE 



63 



inquit. " Ubi sunt tua ornamenta ? " Deinde Cornelia filios suos 
Tiberium et Gaium vocat. " Pueri mei," inquit, " sunt mea ornamenta. 
Nam boni liberi sunt semper bonae feminae ornamenta maxime clara." 

Note. The only new words here are Campana, semper, and tu. 




" PUERI MEI SUNT MEA ORNAMENTA" 



LESSON XXIV 

IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF REGO AND AUDIO ■ THE 
DATIVE WITH SPECIAL INTRANSITIVE VERBS 

151. * PARADIGMS 

Conjugation III Conjugation IV 

SINGULAR 

1 . rege'bam, / was ruling audie'bam, / was hearing 

2. rege'bas, you were ruling audie'bas, you were hearing 

3. rege'bat, he was ruling audie'bat, he was hearing 

PLURAL 

1. regeba'mus, we were ruling audieba'mus, we were hearing 

2. regehSi't^, you were ruling aMdieha'tis, you were hearing 

3. rege'bant, ihey were ruling audie'bant, they were hearing 



64 DATIVE WITH SPECIAL VERBS 

1. The tense sign is -ba-, as in the first two conjugations. 

2. Observe that the final -e- of the stem is lengthened before the tense 
sign -ba-. This _ makes the imperfect of th e thir d conju g ation just like th e 
irgperfect of the sec ond_{cf . monebam and regebam). 

3. In the fourth conjugation -e- is Inserted between the stem and the 
tense sign -ba- (audi-e-ba-m). 

4. In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in § 148. 

152. EXERCISES 

I. I. Agebat, veniebat, mittebat, ducebant. 2. Agebant, mittebant, 
dQcebas, muniebant. 3. Mittebamus, diicebatis, dicebant. 4. Munie- 
bamus, veniebatis, dicebas. 5. Mittebas, veniebamus, reperiebat. 
6. Reperiebas, veniebas, audiebatis. 7. Agebamus, reperiebatis, muni- 
ebat. 8. Agebatis, dicebam, muniebam. 

II. I. They were leading, you were driving {sing, and plur.), he 
was fortifying. 2. They were sending, we were finding, I was com- 
ing. 3. You were sending, you were fortifying, (sing, and plur!), he 
was saying. 4. They were hearing, you were leading (sing, and plur.), 
I was driving. 5. We were saying, he was sending, I was fortifying. 
6. They were coming, he was hearing, I was finding. 7. You were 
ruling (sing, and plur.), we were coming, they were ruling. 

153. The Dative with Special Intransitive Verbs. We learned 
above (§ 20. a) that a verb which does not admit of a direct object 
is called an intransitive verb. Many such verbs, however, are of 
such meaning that they can govern an indirect object, which will, 
of course, be in the dative case (§ 45). Learn the following list of 
intransitive verbs with their meanings. In each case the dative 
indirect object is the person to whom a benefit, injury, or feeling 
is directed. (Cf. § 43.) 

credo, credere, believe (give belief to) 

faveo, favere, favor (show favor to) 

noceo, nocere, injure (do harm to) 

pareo, parere, obey (give obedience to) 

persuadeo, persuadere, persuade (offer persuasion to) 

resists, resistere, resist (offer resistance to) 

studeo, studere, be eager for (give attention to) 




FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE 65 

154. Rule. Dative with Intransitive Verbs. The dative of the 
indirect object is used with the intransitive verbs credo, faveo, 
noceo, pared, persuaded, resisto, studeo, and others of like meaning. 

155. EXERCISE 

I . Credisne verbis sociorum ? Multi verbis eorum non credunt. 
2. Mei finitimi consilio tuo non favebunt, quod bello student. 3. Tibe- 
rius et Gaius disciplinae durae non resistebant et Corneliae parebant. 
4. Dea erat inimica septem filiabus reglnae. 5. Dura poena et per- 
petua tristitia reginae non persuadebunt. 6. Nuper ea resistebat et 
nunc resistit potentiae Latonae. 7. Mox sagittae volabunt et llberis 
miseris nocebunt. 

LESSON XXV 
FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF SEGO AND AUDIO 

156. In the future tense of the third and fourth conjugations we 
meet with a new tense sign. Instead of using -bi-, as in the first and 
second conjugations, we use -a-^ in the first person singular and -e- 
in the rest of the tense. In the third conjugation the final -6- of the 
stem is dropped before this tense sign ; in the fourth conjugation the 
final -i- of the stem is retained.^ 

157. PARADIGMS 

Conjugation III Conjugation IV 

SINGULAR 

1 . re'gam, / shall rule au'diam, / shall hear 

2. re'ges, you will rule au'dies, you will hear 

3. re'get, he will rule au'diet, he will hear 

PLURAL 

1 . rege'mus, we shall rule audie'mus, we shall hear 

2. rege'tis, you will rule audie'tis, you will hear 

3. re'gent, they will rule au'dient, they will hear 

1 The -a- is shortened before -m final, and -e- before -t final and before -nt. 
(Cf. § 12. 2.) 2 xhe -5- is, of course, shortened, being before another vowel, 
(Of. §12. I.) 



66 VERBS IN -10 OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION 

1 . Observe that the future of the third conjugation is like the present of 
the second, excepting in the first person singular. 

2. In the same manner inflect the verbs given in § 148. 

158. EXERCISES 

I. I. Dicet, ducetis, muniemus. 2. Dicent, dicetis, mittemus. 
3. Munient, venient, mittent, agent. 4. Ducet, mittes, veniet, aget. 
5. Muniet, reperietis, agemus. 6. Mittam, veniemus, regent. 7. Au- 
dietis, venies, reperies. 8. Reperiet, agam, dOcemus, mittet. 9. Vide- 
bitis, sedebo, vocabimus. 

II. I.I shall find, he will hear, they will come. 2. I shall fortify, 
he will send, we shall say. 3. I shall drive, you will lead, they will 
hear. 4. You will send, you win fortify, {sing, and plur.), he will say. 
5. I shall come, we shall find, they will send. 

6. Who ^ will believe the story ? I ^ shall believe the story. 7. Whose 
friends do you favor? We favor our friends. 8. Who will resist our 
weapons? Sextus will resist your weapons. 9. Who will persuade him? 
They will persuade him. 10. Why were you injuring my horse? I 
was not injuring your horse. 11. Whom does a good slave obey? 
A good slave obeys his master. 12. Our men were eager for another 
battle. 

LESSON XXVI 

VERBS IN -70 OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION ■ THE IMPERA- 
TIVE MOOD 

159. There are a few common verbs ending in -io which do not 
belong to the fourth conjugation, as you might infer, but to the third. 
The fact that they belong to the third conjugation is shown by the 
ending of the infinitive. (Cf. §126.) Compare 

audio, audi're {hear), fourth conjugation 
capio, ca'pere {take), third conjugation 

1 Rememl}pr that quis, who, is singular in number. ^ Express by ego, 
because it is emphatic. 



PRESENT ACTIVE IMPERATIVE 67 

160. The present, imperfect, and future active indicative of capio 
are inflected as follows : 

capio, capere, take 
Pres. Stem cape- 

Imperfect 



Present 



Future 







SINGULAR 




I. 


ca'pio 


capie'bam 


ca'piam 


2. 


ca'pis 


capie'bas 


ca'pies 


3- 


ca'pit 


capie'bat 

PLURAL 


ca'piet 


I. 


ca'pimus 


capieba'mus 


capie'mns 


2. 


ca'pitis 


capieba'tis 


capie'tis 


3- 


ca'piunt 


capie'bant 


ca'pient 



1. Observe that capio and the other -io verbs follow the fourth conju- 
gation wherever in the fourth conjugation two vowels occur in succession. 
(Cf. capio, audio ; capiunt, audiunt; and all the imperfect and future.) All 
other forms are like the third conjugation. (Cf . capis, regis ; capit, regit ; etc.) 

2. Like capio, inflect 



facio, facere, make., do 
fugio, fugere, flee 



iacio, iacere, hurl 
rapio, rapere, seize 



161. The Imperative Mood. The imperative mood expresses a 
command; as, come! send I The present tense of the imperative is 
used only in the second person, singular and plural. The singular in 
the active voice is regularly the same in form as the present stem. The 
plural is formed by adding -te to the singular. 



Conjugation 


Singular 


Plural 


I. 


ama, love thou 


ama'te, love ye 


II. 


mone, advise thou 


mone'te, advise ye 


III. 


(a) rege, rule thou 


re'gite, rule ye 




ib) cape, take thou 


ca'pite, take ye 


IV. 


audi, hear thou 


audi'te, hear ye 


sum. (irregular) es, be thou 


este, be ye 



I. In the third conjugation the final -e- of the stem becomes -i- in the 
plural. 



68 THE PASSIVE VOICE 

2. The verbs dico, say j duco, leadj and facio, make, have the irregular 
forms die, due, and fae in the singular. 

3- Give the present active imperative, singular and plural, of venio, 
diieo, yoeo, doceo, laudo, dico, sedeo, ago, faeio, miinio, mitto, rapio. 

162. EXERCISES 

I. I. Fugient, faciunt, iaciebat. 2. Dele, niintiate, fugiunt. 3. Ve- 
nite, die, facietis. 4. Dflcite, iaciam, fugiebant. 5. Fac, iaciebamus, 
fugimus, rapite. 6. Sedete, reperl, docete. 7. Fugiemus, iacient, rapies. 
8. Reperient, rapiebatis, nocent. 9. Favete, resiste, parebitis. 

10. Vola ad multas terras et da auxilium. 11. Ego tela mea capiam 
et multas feras delebo. 12. Quis fabulae tuae credet? 13. Esteboni, 
puerl, et audita verba grata magistri. 

II. I. The goddess will seize her arms and will hurl her weapons. 
2. With her weapons she will destroy many beasts. 3. She will give 
aid to the weak.^ 4. She will fly to many lands and the beasts will 
flee. 5. Romans, telP the famous story to your children. 



Third Review, Lessons XVIII-XXVI, §§ 510-512 



LESSON XXVII 

THE PASSIVE VOICE • PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE 
INDICATIVE OF AMO AND MONEO 

163. The Voices. Thus far the verb forms have been in the active 
voice ; that is, they have represented the subject as performing an 
action; as, The lion— ^ /&z7/^rf-^ the hunter 

A verb is said to be in the passive voice when it represents its sub- 
ject as receiving an action ; as. 

The lion -e — was killed -c — by the hunter 
Note the direction of the arrows. 

1 Plural. An adjective used as a noun. (Cf. §99. II. 3.) 2 Imperative. 
The imperaliive generally stands first, as in English. 



PASSIVE INDICATIVE OF AMO AND MONEO 69 

164. Passive Personal Endings. In the passive voice we use a 
different set of personal endings. They are as follows : 



Sing. 



1. -r, / 

2. -ris, -re, you 

3. -tur, he, she, it 



I I. -mur, we 
Plur. a 2. -mini, you 
[ 3. -ntur, they 

a. Observe that the letter -r appears somewhere in all but one of the 
endings. This is sometimes called the passive sign. 



165. PARADIGMS 

amo, amare moneo, monere 

Pres. Stem ama- Pres. Stem mone- 

Present Indicative 
a'mor, I am loved 
ama'ris or ama're, you are 
loved 
, ama'tur, he is loved 



PERSONAL 

ENDINGS 



Sing. 



Plur. 



ama'mur, we are loved 
ama'mini, you are loved 
aman'tur, they are loved 



Tno'nsor, I am advised -or^ 

mone'risormone're,_)'(?« -ris or -re 
are advised 

mone'tur, he is advised 

mone'mur, we are ad- 
vised 

mone'mini, you are ad- 
vised 

monen'tur, they are ad- 
vised 



Sing. 



Plur. 



Imperfect Indicative (Tense Sign -ba-) 
ama'bar, / was being loved mone'bar, / was 



amaba'ris or amaba're, you 
were being loved 

amaba'tur, he was being 
loved 
' amaba'mur, we were being 
loved 

amaba'mini, you were be- 
ing loved 

amaban'tur, they were be- 
ing loved 



-tur 
-mur 

-mini 

-ntur 



advised 
moneba'ris or mone- 

ba're, you were being -ris or -re 

advised 
moneba'tur, he was be- -tur 

ing advised 

moneba'mur, we were -mur 

being advised 
moneba'mini, you were -mini 

being advised 
moneban'tur, they were -ntur 

being advised 



1 In the present the personal ending of the first person singular is -or. 



7° 



EXERCISES 



Sing. 



Plur. 



PERSONAL 
ENDINGS 



Future (Tense Sign -bi-) 

ama'bor, / shall be loved mone'bor, / shall be ad- -r 

vised 
ama'beris or ama'bere, you mone'beris or mone'- 

will be loved bere, you will be ad- -ris or -re 

vised 
ama'bitur, he will be loved mone'bitur, he will be -tur 

advised 

' ama'bimur, we shall be mone'hitnMr, we shall be -mur 

loved advised 

amabi'mini, you will be monebi'mini, you will -mini 

loved be advised 

amabun'tur, they will be monebun'tur, they will -ntur 

loved be advised 



1 . The tense sign and the personal endings are added as in the active. 

2. In the future the tense sign -bi- appears as -bo- in the first person, 
-be- in the second, singular number, and as -bu- in the third person plural. 

3. Inflect laudo, neco, porto, moveo, deleo, iubeo, in the present, imperfect, 
and future indicative, active and passive. 

166. Intransitive verbs, such as matiiro, I hasten; habito, I dwell, 
do not have a passive voice with a personal subject. 



167. 



EXERCISES 



I. I. Laudaris <7r laudare, laudas, datur, dat. 2. Dabitur, dabit, vide- 
mini, videtis. 3. Vocabat, vocabatur, delebitis, delebimini. 4. Para- 
batur, parabat, curas, curaris or curare. 5. Portabantur, portabant, 
videbimur, videbimus. 6. luberis or iubere, iubes, laudabaris or lauda- 
bare, laudabas. 7 . Moveberis or movebere, movebis, dabantur, dabant. 
8. Delentur, delent, parabamur, parabamus. 

II. I. We prepare, we are prepared, I shall be called, I shall call, 
you were carrying, you were being carried. 2. I see, I am seen, it 
was being announced, he was announcing, they will order, they will 
be ordered. 3. You will be killed, you will kill, you move, you are 
moved, we^re praising, we are being praised. 4. I am called, I call. 



EXERCISES 



71 



you will have, you are cared for. 5 . They are seen, they see, we were 
teaching, we were being taught, they will move, they will be moved. 




PERSEUS ANDROMEDAM SERVAT 



168. Per'seus and Androm'eda 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288. 

Perseus Alius erat lovis,^ maximi ^ deorum. De eo multas fabulas 
narrant poetae. Ei favent dei, ei magica arma et alas dant. Eis telis 
armatus et alls fretus ad multas terras volabat et monstra saeva dele- 
bat et miseris infirmisque auxilium dabat. 

1 lovis, the genitive of luppiter. ^ Used substantively, the greatest. So 
below, 1. 4, miseris and infirmis are used substantively. 



72 PASSIVE INDICATIVE OF REGO AND AUDIO 

Aethiopia est terra Africae. Earn terram Cepheus^ regebat. Ei^ 
Neptunus, maximus aquarum deus, erat iratus et mittit^ monstrum 
saevum ad Aethiopiam. Ibi monstrum non solum latls pulchrisque 
Aethiopiae agris nocebat sed etiam domicilia agricolarum delebat, et 
5 multos viros, fgminas, liberosque necabat. Populus ex agrls fugiebat 
et oppida muris validis muniebat. Turn Cepheus magna tristitia com- 
motus ad lovis oraculum maturat et ita dicit : "Amici mei necantur ; 
agri mei vastantur. Audi verba mea, luppiter. Da miseris auxi- 
lium. Age monstrum saevum ex patria." 



LESSON XXVIII 

PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE 
PASSIVE OF BEGO AND AUDIO 

169. Review the present, imperfect, and future indicative active of 
rego and audio, and learn the passive of the same tenses (§§ 490, 491). 

a. Observe that the tense signs of the imperfect and future are the same 
as in the active voice, and that the passive personal endings (§ 164) are 
added instead of the active ones. 

b. Note the slight irregularity in the second person singular present of 
the third conjugation. There the final -e- of the stem is not changed to -i-, as 
it is in the active. We therefore have re'geris or re'gere, not re'giris, re'gire. 

c. Inflect ago, dico, duco, munio, reperio, in the present, imperfect, and 
future indicative, active and passive". 

170. EXERCISES 

I. I. Agebat, agebatur, mittebat, mittebatur, ducebat. 2. Agunt, 
aguntur, mittuntur, mittunt, muniunt. 3. Mittor, mittar, mittam, du- 
cere, ducere. 4. Dicemur, dicimus, dicemus, dicimur, muniebamini. 
5. Ducitur, ducimini, reperimur, reperiar, agitur. 6. Agebamus, 
agebamur, reperlris, reperiemini. 7. Muniminl, veniebam, ducebar, 

1 Pronounce in two syllables, Cepheus. 2 gi, at him, dative with iratus. 
8 The present is often used, as in English, in speaking of a past action, in 
order to make the story more vivid and exciting. 



PASSIVE INDICATIVE OF CAPIO J 7) 

dicetur. 8. MittiminI, mittitis, mittens, mitteris, agebamini. 9. Dicitur, 
dicit, muniuntur, reperient, audientur. 

II. I.I was being driven, I was driving, we were leading, we were 
being led, he says, it is said. 2. I shall send, I shall be sent, you will 
find, you will be found, they lead, they are led. 3. I am found, we 
are led, they are driven, you were being led {sing, and plur.). 4. We 
shall drive, we shall be driven, he leads, he is being led, they will come, 
they will be fortified. 5. They were ruling, they were being ruled; 
you will send, you will be sent, you are sent, (sing, and plur.y 6. He 
was being led, he will come, you are said (sing, and plur.). 

171. Perseus and Andromeda (Continued) 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288. 

Tum oraculum ita respondet : " Mala est fortuna tua. Neptunus, 
magnus aquarum deus, terrae Aethiopiae inimicus, eas poenas mittit. 
Sed para irato deo sacrum idoneum et monstrum saevum ex patria 
tua agetur. Andromeda filia tua est monstro grata. Da eam monstro. 
Serva caram patriam et vitam populi tui." Andromeda autem erat 5 
puella pulchra. Eam amabat Cepheus maxime. 

LESSON XXIX 

PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE PASSIVE OF 
-16 VERBS ■ PRESENT PASSIVE INFINITIVE AND IMPERATIVE 

172. Review the active voice of capio, present, imperfect, and 
future, and learn the passive of the same tenses (§ 492). 

a. The present forms capior and capiuntur are like audior, audiuntur, 
and the rest of the tense is like regor. 

b. In like manner inflect the passive of iacio and tapio. 

173. The Infinitive. The infinitive mood gives the general mean- 
ing of the verb without person or number ; as, amare, to love. Infinitive 
means unlimited. The forms of the other moods, being limited by 
person and number, are called th&Jinite, or limited, verb forms. 



74 



THE INFINITIVE AND IMPERATIVE 



174. The forms of the Present Infinitive, active and passive, are 
as follows : 



CoNj. Pres. Stem 



I. 
II. 
III. 

IV. 



ama- 

mone- 

rege- 

cape- 

audi- 



Pres. Infinitive 
Active 

ama're, to love 
mone're, to advise 
re'gere, to rule 
ca'pere, to take 
audi're, to hear 



Pres. Infinitive 
Passive 

ama'ri, to be loved 
mone'ri, to be advised 
re'gi, to be ruled 
ca'pi, to be taken 
audi'ri, to be heard 



1. Observe that to form the present active infinitive we add -re to the 
present stem. 

u. The present infinitive of sum is esse. There is no passive. 

2. Observe that the present passive infinitive is formed from the active 
by changing final -e to -i, except in the third conjugation, which changes final 
-ere to -i. 

3. Give the active and passive present infinitives of doceo, sedeo, volo, 
euro, mitto, duc5, munio, reperio, iacio, rapio. 

175. The forms of the Present Imperative, active and passive, are 
as follows : 



Active 1 
conj. sing. plur. 
I. a'ma ama'te 
II. mo'ne mone'te 

III. re'ge re'gite 
ca'pe ca'pite 

IV. au'di audi'te 



Passive 
sing. plur. 

ama're, be thou loved ' ama'mini, be ye loved 
mone're, be thou advised mone'mini, be ye advised 
re'gere, be thou ruled regi'mini, be ye ruled 
ca'pere, be thou taken capi'mini, be ye taken 
audi're, be thou heard audi'mini, be ye heard 



1. Observe that the second person singular of the present passive im- 
perative is like the present active infinitive, and that both singular and 
plural are like the second person singular ^ and plural, respectively, of the 
present passive indicative. 

2. Give the present imperative, both active and passive, of the verbs in 
§i74-3- 

1 For the sake of comparison the active is repeated from § i6i. ^ That 
is, using the personal ending -re. A form like amare may be either indicative, 
infinitive, or operative. 



THE ABLATIVE DENOTING FROM 



75 



176. 



EXERCISES 



First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289. 

I. I. Turn Perseus alis ad terras multas volabit. 2. Monstrum sae- 
vum per aquas properat et mox agros nostros vastabit. 3. Si autem 
Cepheus ad oraculum maturabit, oraculum ita respondebit. 4. Quis 
telis Persei superabitur? Multa monstra telis eius superabuntur. 
5. Cum cOris magnis et lacrimis multis agricolae ex domiciliis carTs 
aguntur. 6. Multa loca vastabantur et multa oppida delebantur. 
7. Monstrum est validum, tamen superabitur. 8. Credesne semper 
verbis oraculi? Ego lis non semper credam. g.'Parebitne Cepheus 
oraculo ? Verba oraculi ei persuadebunt. 10. Si non fugiemus, oppi- 
dum capietur et oppidani necabuntur. 11. Vocate pueros et narrate 
fabulam claram de monstro saevo. 

II. I. Fly thou, to be cared for, be ye sent, lead thou. 2. To lead, 
to be led, be ye seized, fortify thou. 3. To be hurled, to fly, send thou, 
to be found. 4. To be sent, be ye led, to hurl, to be taken. 5. Find 
thou, hear ye, be ye ruled, to be fortified. 



LESSON XXX 

SYNOPSES IN THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS • THE ABLATIVE 
DENOTING FROM 

177. You should learn to give rapidly synopses of the verbs you 
have had, as follows : ^ 



Conjugation I 

ACTIVE PASSIVE 

Pres. a'mo a'mor 

Imperf. ama'bam ama'bar 
Fut. ama'bo ama'bor 



Conjugation II 



Indicative 



ACTIVE 

mo'neo 

mone'bam 

mone'bo 



PASSIVE 

mo'neor 

mone'bar 

mone'bor 



1 Synopses should be given not only in the first person, but in other per- 
sons as well, particularly in the third singular and plural. 



76 



SYNOPSES OF VERBS 





Conjugation I 

Imperative 


CONJUG 


(ATION 1 1 




ACTIVE 


PASSIVE 


ACTIVE 


PASSIVE 


Pres. 


a'ma 


ama're 

Infinitive 


mo'ne 


mone're 


Pres. 


ama're 


ama'ri 


mone're 


mone'ri 




Conjugation III 

Indicative 


Conjugation III 
(-io verbs) 




ACTIVE 


PASSIVE 


ACTIVE 


PASSIVE 


Pres. 
Imperf. 


re'go 
rege'bam 


re'gor 
rege'bar 


ca'pio 
capie'bam 


ca'pior 
capie'bar 


Put. 


re'gam 


re'gar 

Imperative 


ca'piam 


ca'piar 


Pres. 


re'ge 


re'gere 

Infinitive 


ca'pe 


ca'pere 


Pres. 


re'gere 


re'gi 

Conjugation IV 
Indicative 

ACTIVE 


ca'pere 

PASSIVE 


ca'pi 




Pres. 


au'dio 


au'dior 






Imperf. 
Put. 


audie'bam 
au'diam 

Imperative 


audie'bar 
au'diar 






Pres. 


au'dl 

Infinitive 


audl're 





Pres. 



audl're 



audl'ri 



I. Give the synopsis of rapio, munio, reperio, doceo, video, dico, ago, 
laudo, porto, and vary the person and number. 

178. We learned in §'50 that one of the three relations covered 
by the ablative case is expressed in English by the preposition from. 
This is sometimes called the separative ablative, and it has a number 
of special uses. You have already grown familiar with the first 
mentioned below. 



THE ABLATIVE DENOTING FROM 'j'j 

179. Rule. Ablative of the Place From. The place from which 
is expressed by the ablative with the prepositions a or ab, de, 
e or ex. 

Agricolae ex agris veniunt, the farmers come from the fields 

a. a or ab denotes yrow near a place ; § or ex, out from it ; and de, down 
from it. This may be represented graphically as follows : 



a or ab 
< 



Place 



e or ex 
^> 



de 

V 

180. Rule. Ablative of Separation. Words expressing sepa- 
ration or deprivation require an ablative to complete their 
me ailing. 

a. If the separation is actual and literal of one material thing from 
another, the preposition a or ab, e or ex, or de is generally used. If no 
actual motion takes place of one thing from another, no preposition is 
necessary. 

(a) Perseus terram a monstrfe liberat 

Perseus frees the land from, monsters (literal, separation 
— - actual motion is expressed) 
{b) Perseus terram tristitia liberat 

Perseus frees the land from j^J^roze/ (figurative separation 
— no actual motion is expressed) 

181. Rule. Ablative of the Personal Agent. The word express- 
ing the person from whom an action starts, when not the subject, 
is put in the ablative with the preposition a or ab. 

a. In this construction the English translation of a, ab is iy rather than 
from. This ablative is regularly used with passive verbs to indicate the 
person by whom the act was performed. 

Monstrum a Perse5 necatiir, the monster is being slain 
by Qitfrom) Perseus 



78 EXERCISES 

b. Note that the active form of the above sentence would be Perseus 
monstrum necat, Perseus is slaying the monster. In the passive the object 
of the active verb becomes the subject, and the subject of the active verb 
becomes the ablative of the personal agent, with a or ab. 

c. Distinguish carefully between the ablative of means and the ablative 
of the personal agent. Both are often translated into English by the prepo- 
sition by. (Cf. § 100. b) Means is a thing; the agent or actor is a person. 
The ablative of means has no preposition. The ablative of the personal 
agent has a or ab. Compare 

Fera sagitta necatur, the wild beast is killed by an arrow 
Fera a Diana necatur, the wild beast is killed by Diana 

Sagitta, in the first sentence, is the ablative of means; a Diana, in the 
second, is the ablative of the personal agent. , 

182. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289. 

I. I. Viri inopia cibi defessi ab eo loco discedent. 2. Germani 
castris Romanis adpropinquabant, tamen legatus copias a proelio 
continebat. 3. Multa Gallorum oppida ab Romanis capientur. 4. Tum 
Romani totum populum eorum oppidorum gladiis pilisque interficient 

5. Oppidani Romanis resistent, sed defessi longo proelio fugient. 

6. Multl ex Gallia fugiebant et in Germanorum vicis habitabant. 

7. Miseri nautae vulnerantur ab inimicis ^ saevis et cibo egent. 8. Dis- 
cedite et date viris frumentum et copiam vini. 9. Copiae nostrae a 
proelio continebantur ab Sexto legato. 10. Id oppidum ab provincia 
Romana longe aberat. 

II. I. The weary sailors were approaching a place dear to the god- 
dess Diana. 2. They were without food and without wine. 3. Then 
Galba and seven other men are sent to the ancient island by Sextus. 
4. Already they are not far away from the land, and they see armed 
men on a high place. 5. They are kept from the land by the men 
with spears and arrows. 6. The men kept hurling their weapons 
down from the high place with great eagerness. 

1 inimicis, here used as a noun. See vocabulary. 



PERFECT TENSES OF SUM 79 

LESSON XXXI 
PERFECT, PLUPERFECT, AND FUTURE PERFECT OF SUM. 

183. Principal Parts. There are certain parts of the verb that 
are of so much consequence in tense formation that we call them the 
principal parts. 

In English the principal parts are the present, the past, and the 
past participle ; as, go, went, gone ; see, saw, seen, etc. 

The principal parts of the Latin verb are the first person singular 
of the present indicative, ihi present infinitive, th& first person singular 
of the perfect indicative, and \!ix. perfect passive participle. 

184. Conjugation Stems. From the principal parts we get three 
conjugation stems, from which are formed the entire conjugation. 
We have already learned about the present stem, which is found from 
the present infinitive (cf. §126. «). The other two stems are the 
perfect stem and the participial stem. 

185. The Perfect Stem. The perfect stem of the verb is formed 
in various ways, but may always he found by dropping -I from the 
first person singular of the perfect, the third of the principal parts. 
From the perfect stem are formed the following tenses : 

The Perfect Active Indicative 

The Pluperfect Active Indicative (English Past Perfect) 

The Future Perfect Active Indicative 

All these tenses express completed action in present, past, or 
future time respectively. 

186. The Endings of the Perfect. The perfect active indicative is 
inflected by adding the endings of the perfect to the perfect stem. 
These endings are different from those found in any other tense, and 
are as follows : 

r I. -i, / C I. -imus, ive 

Sing. \ 2. -isti, you Plur. ■< 2. -istis, you 

\ 3. -it, he, she, it [ 3. -erunt or -ere, they 



8o PERFECT TENSES OF SUM 

187. Inflection of sum in the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect 
indicative : 

Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indic. 

Prin. Parts sum esse fui 

Perfect Stem fu- 
siNGULAR Perfect plural 

fu'i, / have been^ I was fu'imus, we have been, we were 

fuis'ti, you have been, you were fuis'tis, you have been, you were 

fu'it, he has been, he was fue'runt or fue're, they have been, 

they were 

Pluperfect (Tense Sign -era-) 
fu'eram, / had been fue'ramus, we had been 

fu'eras, you had been fuera'tis, you had been 

fu'erat, he had been fu'erant, they had been 

Future Perfect (Tense Sign -eri-) 
fu'ero, / shall have been fue'rimus, we shall have been 

fu'eris, you will have been fue'ritis, you will have been 

fu'erit, he will have been fu'erint, they will have been 

1 . Note carefully the changing accent in the perfect. 

2. Observe that the pluperfect may be formed by adding eram, the im- 
perfect of sum, to the perfect stem. The tense sign is -era-. 

3. Observe that the future perfect may be formed by adding ero, the 
future of sum, to the perfect stem. But the third person plural ends in 
-erint, not in -erunt. The tense sign is -eri-. 

4. All active perfects, pluperfects, and future perfects are formed on 
the perfect stem and inflected in the same way. 

188. dialogue 

The Boys Titus, Marcus, and Quintus 
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289. 

M. Ubi fuistis, Tite et Quinte ? 

T. Ego in meo ludo fui et Quintus in suo ludo fuit. Boni pueri 
fuimus. Fuitne Sextus in vico hodie ? 

M. Fuit. Nuper per agros proximos fluvio maturabat. Ibi is et 
Cornelius halbent navigium. 



THE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE 8 1 

T. Navigium dicis ? Alii ^ narra earn f abulam I 

M. Vero ( Yes, truly), pulchrum et novum navigium I 

Q. Cuius pecunia ^ Sextus et Cornelius id navigium parant ? Quis 
iis pecuniam dat ? 

M. Amici Cornell multum habent aurum et puer pecunia non eget. 

T. Quo pueri navigabunt ? Navigabuntne longe a terra ? 

M. Dubia sunt consilia eorum. Sed hodie, credo, si ventus erit ido- 
neus, ad maximam insulam navigabunt. lam antea ibi fuerunt. Turn 
autem ventus erat perfidus et pueri magno in periculo erant. 

Q. Aqua vento commota est inimica nautis semper, et saepe per- 
fidus ventus navigia rapit, agit, deletque. li pueri, si non fuerint maxime 
attenti, irata aqua et valido vento superabuntur et ita interficientur. 

189. EXERCISE 

I. Where had the boys been before? They had been in school. 

2. Where had Sextus been ? He had been in a field next to the river. 

3. Who has been with Sextus to-day ? Cornelius has been with him. 

4. Who says so ? Marcus. 5. If the wind has been suitable, the boys 
have been in the toat. 6. Soon we shall sail with the boys. 7. There ° 
will be no danger, if we are (shall have been) careful.* 



LESSON XXXII 

THE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF THE FOUR REGULAR 
CONJUGATIONS 

190. Meanings of the Perfect. The perfect tense has two distinct 
meanings. The first of these is equivalent to the English present 
perfect, or perfect with have, and denotes that the action of the verb 
is complete at the time of speaking ; as, / have finished my work. 
As this denotes completed action at a definite time, it is called the 
perfect definite. 

1 Dative case. (Cf. § log.) ^ Ablative of means. ^ Tiie expletive there 
is not expressed, but the verb will precede tlie subject, as in English. ^ This 
predicate adjective must be nominative plural to agree with we. 



82 



THE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE 



The perfect is also used to denote an action that happened some- 
time in the past ; as, I finished my work. As no definite time is speci- 
fied, this is called the perfect indefinite. It corresponds to the ordinary 
use of the English past tense. 

a. Note carefully the difference between the following tenses : 

, r -was finishing "1 , ,. ^ „ > 

^t used to finish ) '"•^ ^'"'^ (imperfect, § .34) 
I finished my work (perfect indefinite) 
/ have finished my work (perfect definite) 

When telling a story the Latin uses the perfect indefinite to mark the 
different forward steps of the narrative, and the imperfect to describe 
situations and circumstances that attend these steps. If the following 
sentences were Latin, what tenses would be used? 

" Last week I went to Boston. I was trying to find an old friend of 
mine, but he was out of the city. Yesterday I returned home." 

191. Inflection of the Perfect. We learned in § 186 that any per- 
fect is inflected by adding the endings of the perfect to the perfect 
stem. The inflection in the four regular conjugations is then as follows : 

CONJ. I CONJ. II CONJ. Ill CONJ. IV 

amavi monui rexi cepi audlvi 

/ haue loved T have advised I have ruled I have taken I have heard 

I loved or I advised or / ruled or / took or I heard or 

did love did advise did rule did take did hear 







Perfect Stems 








amav- 


monu- 


rex- 

SlNGULAR 


cep- 


audiv- 


I. 


ama'vi 


mo'nui 


re'xi 


ce'pi 


audi'vi 


2. 


amavis'ti 


monuis'ti 


rexis'ti 


cepis'ti 


audlvis'ti 


3- 


ama'vit 


mo'nuit 


re'xit 
Plural 


ce'pit 


audi'vit 


I. 


ama'vimus 


monu'imus 


re'ximus 


ce'pimus 


audi'vimus 


2. 


amavis'tis 


monuis'tis 


rexis'tis 


cepis'tis 


audivis'tis 


3- 


amave'runt 


monue'runt 


rexe'runt 


cepe'runt 


audive'runt 




or amave^re 


or monue're 


or rexe're 


or cepe're 


or audive're 



THE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE 



83 



' 1 . The first person of the perfect is always given as the third of the 
principal parts. From this we get the perfect stem. This shows the 
absolute necessity of learning the principal parts thoroughly. 

2. Nearly all perfects of the first conjugation are formed by adding -vi 
to the present stem. Like amayl inflect paravi, vocavi, curavi, laudavi. 

3. Note carefully the changing accent in the perfect. Drill on it. 

192. Learn the principal parts and inflect the perfects : 
Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indic. 



do 


dare 


dedi 


give 


deleo 


delere 


delevi 


destroy 


habeo 


habere 


habui 


have 


moveo 


movere 


movi 


move 


pareo 


parere 


parui 


obey 


prohibeo 


prohibere 


prohibui 


restrain, keep from 


video 


videre 


vidi 


see 


dico 


dicere 


dixi 


say 


discedo 


discedere 


discessi 


depart 


duco 


ducere 


duxi 


lead 


facio 


facere 


feci 


make, do 


mitto 


mittere 


misi 


send 


munio 


miinire 


miinivi 


fortify 


venio 


venire 


veni 


come 



193. Perseus and Andromeda {Continued') 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290. 

Cepheus, adversa fortuna maxime commotus, discessit et multls 
cum lacrimis populo Aethiopiae verba oraculi narravit. Fata Andro- 
medae, puellae pulchrae, a toto populo deplorabantur, tamen nullum 
erat auxilium. Deinde Cepheus cum pleno tristitiae animo caram 
suam filiam ex oppidi porta ad aquam duxit et bracchia eius ad saxa 5 
dura revinxit. Tum amici puellae miserae longe discesserunt et diu 
monstrum saevum exspectaverunt. 

Tum forte Perseus, alis fretus, super Aethiopiam volabat. Vidit 
populum, Andromedam, lacrimas, et, magnopere attonitus, ad terram 
descendit. Tum Cepheus el totas curas narravit et ita dixit : " Parebo 10 
verbis oraculi, et pro patria filiam meam dabo ; sed si id monstrum 
interficies et Andromedam servabis, tibi (to you) eam dabo." 



84 PLUPERFECT, FUTURE PERFECT, INDICATIVE 



LESSON XXXIII 

PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE - 
PERFECT ACTIVE INFINITIVE 



;. CONJ. I 


CONJ. II 


CONJ. Ill 


CONJ. IV 


amo 


jnoneo 


reg5 c'apio 


audio 


;t Stems amav- 


monu- 


rex- cep- 


audiv- 



Pluperfect Indicative Active 

Tense Sign -era- 

SINGULAR 





/ had loved 


/ had advised 


T had ruled 


/ had taken 


/ had heard 


I. 


ama'veram 


monu'eram 


re'xeram 


ce'peram 


audi'veram 


2. 


ama'veras 


monu'eras 


re'xeras 


ce'peras 


audi'veraS 


3- 


ama'verat 


monu'erat 


re'xerat 

PLURAL 


ce'perat 


audi'verat 


I. 


amavera'mus 


monuera'mus 


rexera'mus 


cepera'mus 


audlvera'mus 


2. 


amavera'tis 


monuera'tis 


rexera'tis 


cepera'tis 


audivera'tis 


3- 


ama'verant 


monu'erant 


re'xerant 


ce'perant 


audi'verant 



Future Perfect Indicative Active 
Tense Sign -eri- 









SINGULAR 








/ shall have 


I shall have 


/ shall have 


/ shall have 


/ shall have 




loved 


advised 


ruled 


taken 


heard 


I. 


ama'vero 


monu'ero 


re'xero 


ce'pero 


audl'vero 


2. 


arna'veris 


monu'eris 


re'xeris 


ce'peris 


audl'veris 


3- 


ama'verit 


monu'erit 


re'xerit 

PLURAL 


ce'perit 


audi'verit 


I. 


amave'rimus 


monue'rimus 


rexe'rimus 


cepe'rimus 


audive'rimus 


2. 


amave'ritis 


monue'ritis 


rexe'ritis 


cepe'ritis 


audive'ritis 


3- 


ama'verint 


monu'erint 


re'xerint 


ce'perint 


audl'verint 



1. Observe that these are all inflected alike and the rules for formation 
given in § 187. 2-4 hold good here. 

2. In like manner inflect the pluperfect and future perfect indicative active 
of do, porto, Ideleo, moveo, habeo, dico, discedo, facio, veniS, miiiuO. 



PERFECT ACTIVE INFINITIVE 85 

195. The Perfect Active Infinitive. The perfect active infinitive is 
formed by adding -isse to the perfect stem. 



CONJ. 


Perfect Stem 


Perfect Infinitive 


I. 


aitiav- 


amavis'se, to have loved 


II. 


monu- 


monuis'se, to have advised 


III. 


(a) rex- 


rexis'se, to have ruled 




{b) cep- 


cepis'se, to have taken 


IV. 


audiv- 


audivis'se, to have heard 


sum 


fu- 


fuls'se, to have been 



I. In like manner give the perfect infinitive active of do, porto, deleo, 
moveo, habeo, dico, discedo, facio, venio, munio. 

196. EXERCISES 

I. I. Habuisti, moverunt, miserant. 2. Vidit, dixeris, dQxisse. 
3. Misistis, paruerunt, discesseramus. 4. Munivit, dederam, misero. 
5. Habuerimus, delevi, paruit, fuisse. 6. Dederas, muniveritis, v6nera- 
tis, misisse. 7. Veneras, fecisse, dederatis, portaveris. 

8. Quern verba oraculi moverant? Populum verba oraculi move- 
rant 9. Cui Cepheus verba oraculi narraverit ? Perseo Cepheus 
verba oraculi 'narraverit. 10. Amici ab Andromeda discesserint 
II. Monstrum saevum domicilia multa deleverat. 12. Ubi monstrum 
vidistis ? Id in aqua vidimus. 13. Quid monstrum faciet ? Monstrum 
Andromedam interficiet. 

II. I. They have obeyed, we have destroyed, I shall have had. 
2. We shall have sent, I had come, they have fortified. 3. I had de- 
parted, he has obeyed, you have sent {sing, and plur.). 4. To have 
destroyed, to have seen, he will have given, they have carried. 5. He 
had destroyed, he has moved, you have had (sing, and plur^. 6. I 
have given, you had moved {sing, and plur.), we had said. 7. You 
will have made {sing, and plur^, they will have led, to have given. 

8. Who had seen the monster ? Andromeda had seen it. 9. Why 
had the men departed from * the towns ? They had departed because 
the monster had come. 10. Did Cepheus obey ^ the oracle * ? He did. 

1 ex. What would ab mean ? ^ j)iii . . . gi,ey, perfect tense. ' What 
case ? 



86 REVIEW OF THE ACTIVE VOICE 

LESSON XXXIV 
REVIEW OF THE ACTIVE VOICE 

197. A review of the tenses of the indicative active shows the 
following formation : 

Present = First of the principal parts 
Imperfect = Present stem + -ba-m 

f -bo, Coni. I and II 

'"TmirTivr i ^"^"''^ " "''"' '"" ^ ^-^-'"' Co"J. Ill and IV 
Perfect = Third of the principal parts 
Pluperfect = Perfect stem + -era-m 
Future Perfect = Perfect stem + -ero 

198. The synopsis of the active voice of amo, as far as we have 
learned the conjugation, is as follows : 

Principal Parts amo, amare, amavi 
Pres. Stem ama- Perf. Stem amav- 

r Pres. amo - I" Perf. amavi 



Indic. -! Imperf. amabam Indic. \ Pluperf. amaveram 
[^ Fut. amabo [^ Fut. perf. amavero 

Pres. Imv. ama 
Pres. Infin. amare Perf. Infin. amavisse 

I . Learn to write in the same form and to give rapidly the principal parts 
and synopsis of paro, do, laudo, deleo, habeo, moved, pared, video, dico, 
discedo, diic5, mitto, capio, munio, venio.^ 

199. Learn the following principal parts : ^ 



Irregular 
Verbs 



1 Learn to give synopses rapidly, and not only in the first person singular 
but in any person of either number. 2 These are all verbs that you have 
had before, «nd the perfect is the only new form to be learned. 



Pres. Indic. 


Pres. Infin. 


Perf. Indic. 




' sum 


esse 


fui 


be 


. ab'sum 


abes'se 


a'ful 


be away 


do 


dare 


dedi 


give 



REVIEW OF THE ACTIVE VOICE 



87 



Conjugation 
II 



contineS 

doceo 

egeS 

faveo 

iube5 

noceo 

persuadeo 

respondeo 

sedeo 

studeo 



continere 

docere 

egere 

favere 

iubere 

nocere 

persuadere 

respondere 

sedere 

studere 



Conjugation 
III 



Conjugation ( , — 

IV I "^^P^ "" 



ago 


agere 


credo 


credere 


fugio 


fugere 


iacio 


iacere 


interficio 


interflcere 


rapio 


rapere 


resis'to 


resis'tere 



reperi re 



continui 

docui 

egul 

favi 

iussi 

nocui 

persuasi 

respond! 

sedi 

studui 

egi 

credidi 

fugi 

ieci 

interfeci 

rapui 

re'stiti 

rep'peri 



holdin,keep 

teach 

need 

favor 

order 

injure 

persuade 

reply 

sit 

be eager 

drive 

believe 

flee 

hurl 

kill 

seize 

resist 

find 



200. Perseus and Andromeda {Concluded') 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290. Read the whole story. 

Perseus semper proelio studebat^ et respondit,"^ "Verba tua sunt 
maxime grata," et laetus arma sua magica paravit.' Subito monstrum 
videtur; celeriter per aquam properat et Andromedae adpropinquat. 
Eius amici longe absunt et misera puella est sola. Perseus autem 
sine mora super aquam volavit."^ Subito descendit^ et duro gladio s 
saevum monstrum graviter vulneravit.^ Diu pugnatur,^ diu proelium 
est dubium. Denique autem Perseus monstrum interfecit -^ et victoriam 
reportavit.-"- Tum ad saxum venit ^ et Andromedam liberavit '- et earn ad 
Cepheum duxit.'^ Is, nuper miser, nunc laetus, ita dixit -^ • " Tuo auxilio, 
mi amice, cara filia mea est libera ; tua est Andromeda." Diu Perseus 10 
cum Andromeda ibi habitabat ^ et magnopere a toto populo amabatur.^ 

1 See if you can explain the use of the perfects and imperfects in this 
passage. ^ The verb pugnatur means, literally, it is fought ; translate freely, 
the battle is fought, or the contest rages. The verb pugno in Latin is intransitive, 
and so does not have a personal subject in the passive. A verb with an inde- 
terminate subject, designated in English by it, is called impersonal. 



88 THE PASSIVE PERFECTS 



LESSON XXXV 

THE PASSIVE PERFECTS OF THE INDICATIVE • THE PERFECT 
PASSIVE AND FUTURE ACTIVE INFINITIVE 

201. The fourth and last of the principal parts (§ 183) is the perfect 
passive participle. From it we get the participial stem on which are 
formed theficture active infinitive and all the passive perfects. 

1 . Learn the following principal parts, which are for the first time given 
in full : 

CoNj. Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indic. Perf. Pass. Part. 

I. amo ama'-re ama'v-i ama't-us 

This is the model for all regular verbs of the first conjugation. 

II. mo'neo mone'-re mo'nu-i mo'nit-us 

III. rego re'ge-re rex-i rect-us 
ca'pio ca'pe-re cep-i , capt-us 

IV. au'dio audi'-re audi'v-i audi't-us 

2. The base of the participial stem is found by dropping -us from the 
perfect passive participle. 

202. In English the perfect, past perfect, and future perfect tenses 
of the indicative passive are made up of forms of the auxihary verb 
to be and the past participle ; as, I have been loved, I had been loved, 
I shall have been loved. 

Very similarly, in Latin, the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect 
passive tenses use respectively the present, imperfect, and future of 
sum as an auxiliary verb with the perfect passive participle, as 

Perfect passive, ama'tus sum, / have been or was loved 
Pluperfect passive, ama'tus eram, / had been loved 
Future perfect passive, ama'tus ero, / shall have beeti loved 

I. In the same way give the synopsis of the corresponding tenses of 
moneo, rego, capio, and audio, and give the English meanings. 

203. Nature of the Participle. A participle is partly verb and partly 
adjective. At a verb it possesses tense and voice. As an adjective it 



THE FUTURE ACTIVE INFINITIVE 89 

is declined and agrees with the word it modifies in gender, number, 
and case. 

204. The perfect passive participle is declined like bonus, bona, 
bonum, and in the compound tenses (§ 202) it agrees as a predicate 
adjective with the subject of the verb. 

' Vir laudatus est, the man was praised, or has been praised 

KxAMPLES IN J Puella laudata est, the girl was praised, or has been praised 

Singular | Consilium laudatum est, the plan was praised, or has been 



Viri laudati sunt, the men were praised, or have been praised 

Puellae laudatae sunt, the girls were praised, or have been 
Examples in j. ■ j 

Plural 1 praised 

Consilia laudata sunt, the plans were praised, or have been 

praised 

I. Inflect the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative passive of 
amo, moneo, rego, capio, and audio (§§ 488-492). 

205. The perfect passive infinitive is formed by adding esse, the 
present infinitive of sum, to the perfect passive participle ; as, ama't-us 
(-a, -urn) esse, to have been loved; mo'nit-us (-a, -um) esse, to have 
been advised. 

I . Form the perfect passive infinitive of rego, capio, audio, and give the 
English meanings. 

206. The future active infinitive is formed by adding esse, the 
present infinitive of sum, to the future active participle. This parti- 
ciple is made by adding -iirus, -a, -um to the base of the participial 
stem. Thus the future active infinitive of amo is amat-u'rus (-a, -um) 
esse, to be about to love. 

a. Note that in forming the three tenses of the active infinitive we use 
all three conjugation stems: 

Present, amare (present stem), to love 

Perfect, amavisse (perfect stem), to have loved 

Future, amaturus esse (participial stem), to be about to love 

I. Give the three tenses of the active infinitive of laudo, moneo, rego, 
capio, audio, with the English meanings. 



go REVIEW OF PRINCIPAL PARTS 

207. EXERCISES 

I. I. Fabula Andromedae narrata est. 2. Multae fabulae a magis- 
tro narratae sunt. 3. Ager ab agricola valido aratus erat. 4. Agri 
ab agricolis validis arati erant. 5. Aurum a servo perfido ad domi- 
cilium suum portatum erit. 6. Nostra arma a legato laudata sunt. 
Quis vestra arma laudavit ? 7 . Ab ancilla tua ad cenara vocatae 
sumus. 8. Andromeda monstro non data est, quia monstrum a 
Perseo necatum erat. 

II. I. The provinces were laid waste, the field had been laid waste, 
the towns will have been laid waste. 2. The oracles were heard, the 
oracle was heard, the oracles had been heard. 3. The oracle will have 
been heard, the province had been captured, the boats have been 
captured. 4. The fields were laid waste, the man was advised, the 
girls will have been advised. 5. The towns had been ruled, we shall 
have been captured, you will have been heard. 

LESSON XXXVI 

REVIEW OF PRINCIPAL PARTS • PREPOSITIONS 
YES-OR-NO QUESTIONS 

208. The following list shows the principal parts of all the verbs you 
have had excepting those used in the paradigms. The parts you have had 
before are given for review, and the perfect participle is the only new 
form for you to learn. Sometimes one or more of the principal parts are 
lacking, which means that the verb has no forms based on that stem. A 
few verbs lack the perfect passive participle but have the future active 
participle in -urus, which appears in the principal parts instead. 

Irregular Verbs 



sum 


esse 


fui 


futurus 


6e 


absum 


abesse 


afui 


afuturus 


be away 


do^ 


dare 


dedl 


datus 


give 



1 do is best classed with the irregular verbs because of the short a in the 
present and pprticipial stems. 



REVIEW OF PRINCIPAL PARTS 



91 







Conjugation I 




porto 


portare 


porta vi 


portatus 


carry 




So for all verbs of this conjugation thus far used. 






Conjugation II 




contineo 


continere 


continui 


contentus 


hold in, keep 


deleo 


delere 


delevi 


deletus 


destroy 


doceo 


docere 


docui 


doctus 


teach 


egeo 


egere 


egui 




lack 


faveo 


favere 


favi 


fautiirus 


favor 


iubeo 


iubere 


iussi 


iussus 


order 


moveo 


movers 


movi 


motus 


move 


noceo 


nocere 


nocui 




injure 


pare5 


parere 


panii 




obey 


persuadeo 


persuadere 


persuasi 


persuasus 


persuade [/ 


prohibeo 


prohibere 


prohibui 


prohibitus 


restrain, keej. 


respondeo 


respondere 


respond! 


responsus 


reply 


sede5 


sedere 


sedi 


-sessus 


sit 


studeo 


studere 


studui 




be eager 


video 


videre 


vidi 


visus 


see 






Conjugation III 




ag5 


agere 


egi 


actus 


drive 


credo 


credere 


credidi 


creditus 


believe 


dico 


dicere 


dm 


dictus 


say 


discedo 


discedere 


discessi 


discessus 


depart 


duco 


ducere 


duxi 


ductus 


lead 


faciei 


facere 


feci 


factus 


make 


fugio 


fugere 


fugi 


fugiturus 


flee 


iacio 


iacere 


ieci 


iactus 


hurl 


interficio 


interficere 


interfeci 


interfectus 


kill 


mitto 


mittere 


misi 


missus 


send 


rapio 


rapere 


rapui 


raptus 


seize 


resists 


resistere 


restiti 




resist 






Conjugation IV 




munio 


munire 


munivi 


munitus 


fortify 


reperio 


reperire 


rep'peri 


repertus 


find 


venio 


venire 


veni 


ventus 


coTne 



1 facio has an irregular passive which will be presented later. 



92 PREPOSITIONS ■ YES-O^-NO QUESTIONS 

209. Prepositions, i. We learned in §§ 52, 53 that only the accu- 
sative and the ablative are used with prepositions, and that preposi- 
tions expressing ablative relations govern the ablative case.' Those 
we have had are here summarized. The table foUowing should be 
learned. 

a or ah, from, by e or ex, out from, out of 

cum, with pro, before, in front of; for, in behalf of 

de, down from, concerning sine, without 

2. Prepositions not expressing ablative relations must govern the 
accusative (§ 52). Of these we have had the following: 

ad, to J apud, among j per, through 

There are many others which you will meet as we proceed. 

3. The preposition in when meaning in or on governs the ablative; 
when meaning to, into, against (relations foreign to the ablative) in 
governs the accusative. 

210. Yes-or-No Questions. Questions not introduced by some in- 
terrogative word like who, why, when, etc., but expecting the answer 
yes or no, may take one of three forms : 

1. Is he com,ingf (Asking for information. Implying nothing as to 

the answer expected.) 

2. Is he not coming? (Expecting the answer ^^j.) 

3. He isnH coming, is he? (Expecting the answer»(7.) 

These three forms are rendered in Latin as follows : 

1 . Venitne ? is he coming ? 

2. Wonne venit? is he not coming ? 

3. Num venit? he isn't coming, is he? 

a. -ne, the question sign, is usually added to the verb, which then 
stands first. 

b. We learned in § 56. b that yes-or-no questions are usually answered 
by repeating the verb, with or without a negative. Instead of this, ita, 
vero, certe, etc, (so, truly, certainly, etc.) may be used for yes, and non, 
minime, etc. for no if the denial is emphatic, as, by no means, not at all. 



CONJUGATION OF POSSUM 93 

211. EXERCISES 

First learn the spedal vocabulary, p. 290. 

I. I. Nonne habebat Cornelia ornamenta aun? Habebat. 2. Num 
Sextus legatus scutum in dextro bracchio gerebat ? Non in dextro, 
sed sinistro in bracchio Sextus scutum gerebat. 3. Frustra bella multa 
ab Gallis gesta erant. 4. Ubi oppidum a perfido Sexto occupatum 
est, oppidani miseri gladio interfecti sunt. 5. Id oppidum erat ple- 
num frumenti. 6. Nonne Sextus ab oppidanis frumentum postulavit ? 
Vero, sed ii recusaverunt frumentum dare. 7. Cur oppidum ab Sexto 
deletum est? Quia frumentum recusatum est. 8. Ea victoria non 
dubia erat. 9. Oppidani erant defessi et armis egebant. 10. Num 
fugam temptaverunt ? Minime. 

II. I. Where was Julia standing ? She was standing where you had 
ordered. 2. Was Julia wearing any ornaments ? She had many orna- 
ments of gold. 3 . Did she not attempt flight when she saw the danger ? 
She did. 4. Who captured her? Galba captured her without delay 
and held her by the left arm. 5. She didn't have the lady's gold, did 
she ? No, the gold had been taken by a faithless maid and has been 
brought back. 

Fourth Review, Lessons XXVn-XXXVI, §§513-516 



LESSON XXXVII 

CONJUGATION OF POSSUM • THE INFINITIVE USED 
AS IN ENGLISH 

212. Learn the principal parts of possum, lam able, I can, and its 
inflection in the indicative and infinitive. (Cf. §495-) 

a. Possum, / can, is a compound of potis, able, and sum, / am. 

213. The Infinitive with Subject Accusative. The infinitive (cf. 
§ 173) is a verbal noun. Used as a noun, it has the constructions of 
a noui). As a verb it can govern a case and be modified by an adverb. 
The uses of the infinitive are much the same in Latin as in English. 



94 THE INFINITIVE USED AS IN ENGLISH 

1. In English certain verbs of wishing, commanding, forbidding, 
and the like are used with an object clause consisting of a substantive 
in the objective case and an infinitive, as, he commanded the men to 
flee. Such object clauses are called infinitive clauses, and the sub- 
stantive is said to be the subject of the infinitive. 

Similarly in Latin, some verbs of wishing, commanding, forbidding, 
and the like are used with an object clause consisting of an infinitive 
with a subject in the accusative case, as. Is viros fugere iussit, he 
commanded the men to flee. 

214. Rule. Subject of the Infinitive. The subject of the infini- 
tive is in the accusative . 

215. The Complementary Infinitive. In English a verb is often 
followed by an infinitive to complete its meaning, as, the Romans are 
able to conquer the Gauls. This is called the complementary infinitive, 
as the predicate is not complete without the added infinitive. 

Similarly in Latin, verbs of incomplete predication are completed 
by the infinitive. Among such verbs are possum, / am able, I can ; 
propero, maturo, I hasten ; tempto, I attempt; as 

Somani GallSs superare possunt, the Romans are able to 

(or can) conquer the Gauls 
Bellum gerere temptant, they attempt to wage war 

a. A predicate adjective completing a complementary infinitive agrees 
in gender, number, and case with the subject of the main verb. 

Mall pueri esse boni non possunt, bad boys are not able 
to (or cannot) be good 

Observe that boni agrees with pueri. 

216. The Infinitive used as a Noun. In English the infinitive is 
often used as a pure noun, as the subject of a sentence, or as a predi- 
cate nominative. For example, To conquer (= conquering) is pleas- 
ing; To see (= seeing) is to believe (= believing). The same use of 
the infinitive is found in Latin, especially with est, as 

Superare est gratum, to conquer is pleasing 
• Videre est credere, to see is to believe 



EXERCISES 95 

a. In the construction above, the infinitive often has a subject, which 
must then be in the accusative case, as 

Galbam superare inimicos est gratum multis,y»r Galba 
to conquer his enemies is pleasing to many 

b. An infinitive used as a noun is neuter singular. Thus, in the sen- 
tence superare est gratum, the predicate adjective gratum is in the neuter 
nominative singular to agree with superare the subject. 

217. EXERCISES 
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291. 

I. I. Magister ludi liberos cum diligentia laborare iussit. 2. Egere 
cibo et vino est viris molestum. 3. Viri armati vetuerunt Gallos castra 
ibi ponere. 4. Estne legatus in castello an in mOro ? Is est pro porta. 

5. Ubi nostri^ fugere inceperunt, legatus ab vestris' captus est. 

6. Galli castellum ibi oppugnaverant ubi praesidium erat infirm um. 

7. Alii pugnare temptabant, alii portas petebant. 8. Feminae pro 
domiciliis sedebant neque resistere validis Gallis poterant. 9. Bellum 
est saevum, nee Infirmis nee miseris favet. 10. Sed viri arma postu- 
labant et studebant Gallos de muris agere. n. Id castellum ab Gallis 
occupari Romanis non gratum erit. 12. Galll ubi a Romanis victi 
sunt, esse liberi^ cessaverunt. 13. Diii sine aqua vivere non potestis. 

II. I. The girl began daily to carry water from the river to the 
gates. 2. The Gauls had pitched their camp in a place suitable for 
a battle. 3. For a long time they tried in vain to seize the redoubt. 
4. Neither did they cease to hurl weapons against ° the walls. 5 . But 
they were not able to (could not) take the town. 

218. The Faithless Tarpe'ia 

Sabinl olim cum Romanis bellum gerebant et multas victorias re- 
portaverant. lam agros proximos miiris vastabant, iam oppido adpro- 
pinquabant. Roman! autem in Capitolium fugerant et longe periculo 

1 Supply men. nostri, vestri, and sui are often used as nouns in this way. 
2 Not children. The Romans used liberi either as an adjective, meaning^r^^, 
or as a noun, meaning the free, thereby signifying their free-bom children. 
The word was never applied to children of slaves. ^ in with the accusative. 



96 EXERCISES 

aberant. Muris validis et saxis altis credebant. Frustra Sabini tela 
iaciebant, frustra portas dQras petebant; castellum occupare non 
poterant. Deinde novum consilium ceperunt.^ 

Tarpeia erat puella Romana pulchra et superba. Cotidie aquam 
S copiTs Romanis in Capitolium portabat. Ei^ non nocebant Sabini, 





'/'^)ir^L.j-~. 






/ 


1 




EUG 




ma 


III J 




HI ^m 




1 






0.. 


. '^^^^-~/__^ 


-Tf 



TARPEIA PUELLA PERFIDA 

quod ea sine armis erat neque Sabini bellum cum feminis liberisque 
gerebant. Tarpeia autem maxime amabat ornamenta auri. Cotidie 
Sabinorum ornamenta videbat et mox ea desiderare incipiebat. Ei 
unus ex ' Sabinis dixit, " Due copias Sabinas intra portas, Tarpeia, 
10 et maxima erunt praemia tua." 



^ consilium capere, to make a flan. Why is the perfect tense used here and 
the imperfect in the preceding sentences ? Explain the use of tenses in the 
next paragraph. ^ Dative with nocebant. (Cf. § 154.) ' ex, out of, i.e. 

from the number of; best translated of. 



THE RELATIVE PRONOUN 97 

LESSON XXXVIII 
THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN 

219. Sentences are simple, compound, or complex. 

a. A simple sentence is a sentence containing but one statement, that is, 
one subject and one predicate : The Romans approached the town. 

b. A compound sentence is a sentence containing two or more independ- 
ent statements : The Romans approached the town | and | the enemy fled. 

Note. An independent statement is one that can stand alone ; it does not 
depend upon another statement. 

c. A complex sentence is a sentence containing one independent state- 
ment and one or more dependent statements : When the Romans 
approached the town \ the enemy fled. 

Note. A dependent or subordinate statement is one that depends on 
or quahfies another statement ; thus the enemy fled is independent, and when 
the Romans approached the town is dependent or subordinate. 

d. The separate statements in a compound or complex sentence are 
called clauses. In a complex sentence the independent statement is called 
the main clause and the dependent statement the subordinate clause. 

220. Examine the complex sentence 

The Romans killed the men who were taken 
Here are two clauses : 

a. The main clause. The Romans killed the men 

b. The subordinate clause, who were taken 

The word who is a pronoun, for it takes the place of the noun 
men. It also connects the subordinate clause who were taken with the 
noun men. Hence the clause is axi adjective clause. A pronoun that 
connects an adjective clause with a substantive is called a relative pro- 
noun, and the substantive for which the relative pronoun stands is 
called its antecedent. The relative pronouns in English are who, whose, 
whom, which, what, that. 



98 



THE RELATIVE PRONOUN 



221. The relative pronoun in Latin is qui, quae, quod, and it is 

declined as follows : 







Singular 






Plural 






MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. 


qui 


quae 


quod 


qui 


quae 


quae 


Gen. 


cuius 


cuius 


cuius 


quorum 


quarum 


quorum 


Dat. 


cui 


cui 


cui 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 


Ace. 


quern 


quam 


quod 


quos 


quas 


quae 


AM. 


quo 


qua 


quo 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 



I. Review the declension of is, § 114, and note the similarity in the 
endings. The forms qui, quae, and quibus are the only forms showing 
new endings. 

Note. The genitive cuius and the dative cui are pronounced cooi'yoos (two 
syllables) and cooi (one syllable). 

222. The Relative Pronoun is translated as follows : ' 





Masc. and Fem. 


Neut. 


Nom. 


who, that 


which, what, that 


Gen. 


of whom, whose 


of which, of what, whose 


Dat. 


to ox for whom 


to ox for which, to ox for what 


Ace. 


whom, that 


which, what, that 


Abl. 


from, etc., whom 


from, etc., which or what 



a. We see from the table above that qui, when it refers to a person, is 
translated by some form of who or b"y that; and that when it refers to 
anything else it is translated by which, what, or that. 

223. Note the following sentences : 



The Rom.ans killed the men who were taken 
The Romans killed the woman who was taken 
Romani interfecerunt viros qui capti sunt 
■ Romani interfecerunt feminam quae capta est 

In the first sentence who (qui) refers to the antecedent men (viros), and 
is masculine plural. In the second, who (quae) refers to woman (feminam), 
and \s feminine singular. From this we learn that the relative must agree 

1 This table of meanings need not be memorized. It is inserted for refer- 
ence when translating. 



THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN 99 

with its antecedent in gender and number. In neither of the sentences 
are the antecedents and relatives in the same case. Viros and feminam are 
accusatives, and qui and quae are nominatives, being the subjects of the 
subordinate clauses. Hence 

224. Rule. Agreement of the Relative. A relative pronoun 
must agree with its antecedent in gender and number ; but 
its case is determined by the way it is used in its own clause. 

225. Interrogative Pronouns. An interrogative pronoun is a pro- 
noun that asks a iquestion. In English the interrogatives are who i 
which ? what ? In Latin they are quis ? quid ? (pronoun) and qui ? 
quae? quod? (adjective). 

226. Examine the sentences 

a.. Who is the man ? Quis est vir ? 

b. What man is leading them ? Qui vir eos diicit ? 

In a, who is an interrogative /r(7«(7««. In b, what is an interrogative 
adjective. Observe that in Latin quis, quid is the pronoun and qui, 
quae, quod is the adjective. 

227. I. The interrogative adjective qui, quae, quod is declined just 
like the relative pronoun. (See § 221.) 

2. The interrogative pronoun quis, quid is declined like qui, quae, 
quod in the plural. In the singular it is declined as follows : 
Masc. and Fem. Neut. 

Nam. quis, who ? quid, what ?' which ? 

Gen. cuius, whose f cuius, whose f 

Dat. cui, to or for whom f cui, to ox for what or which ? 
Ace. quern, whom f quid, what f which ? 

Abl. qwo, from, eXjz., whom? <^o, from, etc., which ox what f 

Note. Observe that the masculine and feminine are alike and that all the 
forms are like the corresponding forms of the relative, excepting quis and quid. 

228. EXERCISES 

I. I. Quis est aeger? Servus quern amo est aeger. 2. Cuius scii- 
tum babes ? Scutum habeo quod legatus ad castellum misit. 3 . Cui 
legatus suum scutum dabit ? Filio meo scutum dabit. 4. Ubi Germani 



lOO 



EXERCISES 



antiqui vivebant ? In terra quae est proxima Rheno Germanl vive- 
bant. 5- Quibuscum^ Germani bellum gerebant ? Cum Romanis, qui 
eos superare studebant, Germanl bellum gerebant. 6. Qui viri castra 

ponunt? li sunt viri quorum 
armis Germani victi sunt. 

7. Quibus telis copiae nos- 
trae eguerunt ? Gladiis et 
telis nostrae copiae eguerunt 

8. A quibus porta sinistra 
tenebatur? A sociis porta 
sinistra tenebatur. 9. Quae 
provinciae a Romanis occu- 
patae sunt? Multae pro- 
vinciae a Romanis occu- 
patae sunt. 10. Quibus viris 
dei f avebunt ? Bonis viris 
dei favebunt. 

II. I. What victory will 

you announce? 2. I will 

announce to the people the 

victory which the sailors 

have won. 3. The men who 

were pitching camp were 

eager for battle. 4. Nevertheless they were soon conquered by the 

troops which Sextus had sent. 5. They could not resist our forces, 

but fled from that place without delay. 




GEKMANI ANTIQUI 



229. 



The Faithless Tarpeia (Concluded) '' 



Tarpeia, commota ornamentis Sabinorum pulchris, diu resistere non 
potuit et respondit : " Date mihi ^ ornamenta quae in sinistris brac- 
chiis geritis, et celeriter copias vestras in Capitolium ducam." Nee 

I cum is added to the ablative of relative, interrogative, and personal pro- 
nouns instead of being placed before them. ''■ Explain the use of the tenses 
in this selectioft. ° to me. 



THE THIRD DECLENSION • CONSONANT STEMS loi 

Sablnl rectisaverunt, sed per duras magnasque castelli portas pro- 
peraverunt quo^ Tarpeia duxit et mox intra validos et altos muros 
stabant. Turn sine mora in " Tarpeiam scuta graviter iecerunt ; nam 
scuta quoque in sinistris bracchiis gerebant. Ita perfida pueUa Tar- 
peia interfecta est ; ita Sablnl Capitolium occupaverunt. 5 



LESSON XXXIX 
THE THIRD DECLENSIOW • CONSONANT STEMS 

230. Bases and Stems. In learning the first and second declen- 
sions we saw that the different cases were formed by adding the case 
terminations to the part of the word that did not change, which we 
called the base. If to the base we add -a in the first declension, 
and -0 in the second, we get what is called the stem. Thus porta has 
the base port- and the stem porta- ; servus has the base serv- and the 
stem servo-. 

These stem vowels, -a- and -o-, play so important a part in the 
formation of the case terminations that these declensions are named 
from them respectively the A- and <9-Declensions. 

231. Nouns of the Third Declension. The third declension is called 
the Consonant or T^Declension, and its nouns are classified according 
to the way the sfem ends. If the last lettet of the stepi is a consonant, 
the word is said to have a consonant stem ; if the stem ends in -i-, the 
word is said to have an i-stem. In consonant stems the stem is the same 
as the base. In i-stems the stem is formed by adding -i- to the base. 
The presence of the i makes a difference in certain of the cases, so , 
the distinction is a very important one. 

232. Consonant stems are divided into two classes : 

I. Stems that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular. 
II. Stems that add no termination in the nominative singular. 

1 quo = whither, to the place where. Here quo is the relative adverb. We 
have had it used before as the interrogative adverb, whither? to what place? 
^ upon. 



I02 THE THIRD DECLENSION • CONSONANT STEMS 

CLASS I 

233. Stems that add -s to the base in the nominative singular are 
either masculine or feminine and are declined as follows : 



Bases 


princeps, m., cAz^/ m<L\%s,xn..,soldtet 


■ \3.-^\%,xa.,, stq 


'ne 


OR 

Stems 


■ princip- 


milit- 

SlNGULAR 


lapid- 


TERMINATIONS 
M. AND P. 


Nom. 


princeps 


miles 


lapis 


-s 


Gen. 


prin'cipis 


militis 


lapidis 


-is 


Dat. 


prm'cipi 


militi 


lapidi 


-i 


Ace. 


prm'cipem 


militem 


lapidem 


-em 


AM. 


prm'cipe 


milite 

Plural 


lapide 


-e 


Nom. 


prin'cipes 


milites 


lapides 


-es 


Gen. 


prin'cipum 


mllitum 


lapidum 


-um 


Dat. 


princi'pibus 


militibus 


lapidibus 


-ibus 


Ace. 


prin'cipes 


milites 


lapides 


-es 


Abl. 


princi'pibus 


militibus 


lapidibus 


-ibus 


Bases 


rex, m., king 


iudex, xa., judge 


virtus, f., manliness 


OR 

Stems 


■reg- 


iudic- 

SlNGULAR 


virtut- 


TERMINATIONS 
M. AND F. 


Nom. 


rex 


iiidex 


virtus 


-s 


Gen. 


regis 


iiidicis 


virtu'tis 


-is 


Dat. 


regi 


iudici 


virtu'ti 


-i 


Ace. 


regem 


iudicem 


virtii'tem 


-em 


Abl. 


rege 


iudice 

Plural 


virtu'te 


-e 


Nom. 


reges 


indices 


virtu'tes 


-es 


Gen. 


regum 


iudicum 


virtu'tum 


-um 


Dat. 


regibus 


iudicibus 


virtu'tibus 


-ibus 


Aee. 


reges 


indices 


virtu'tes 


-es 


Abl. 


regibus 


iudicibus 


virtu'tibus 


-ibus 



1 . The base or stem is found by dropping -is in the genitive singula?-. 

2. Most nouns of two syllables, like princeps (princip-), miles (milit-), 
iudex (iudic-)) have i in the base, but e in the nominative. 



EXERCISES 103 

a. lapis is an exception to this rule. 

3. Observe the consonant changes of the base or stem in the nominative: 

a. A final -t or -d is dropped before -s; thus miles for milets, lapis 
for lapids, virtus for virtuts. 

i. A final -c or -g unites with -s and forms -x ; thus iudec + s = iiidex, 
reg + s = rex. 

4. Review § 74"and apply the rules to this declension. 

In like manner decline dux, ducis, m., leader; eques, equitis, m., horse- 
man; pedes, peditis, xa., foot soldier; pes, pedis, m.,fo'of. 

234. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291. 

I. I. Neque pedites neque equites occupare castellum Romanum 
poterant. 2. Summavirtutemurosaltos cotidieoppugnabant. 3. Pedes 
militum lapidibus qui de miiro iaciebantur saepe vulnerabantur. 
4. Quod novum consilium dux cepit ? 5. Is perfidam puellam pulchris 
ornamentis temptavit. 6. Quid puella fecit.? 7. Puella commota auro 
milites per portas duxit. 8. Tamen praemia quae summo studio peti- 
verat non reportavit g. Apud Romanos antiques Tarpeia non est 
laudata. 

II. I . What ship is that which I see ? That (illud ) ship is the 
Victory. It is sailing now with a favorable wind and will soon 
approach Italy. 2. The judges commanded the savages to be seized 
and to be killed. 3. The chiefs of the savages suddenly began to 
flee, but were quickly captured by the horsemen. 4. The king led 
the foot soldiers to the wall from which the townsmen were hurling 
stones with the greatest zeal. 




NAVIGIUM 



I04 THE THIRD DECLENSION • CONSONANT STEMS 



LESSON XL 



THE THIRD DECLENSION • CONSONANT STEMS (Continued) 

CLASS 11 

235. Consonant stems that add no termination in the nominative 
are declined in the other cases exactly like those that add -s. They 
may be masculine, feminine, or neuter. 



236. 



PARADIGMS 

Masculines and Feminines 



consul, m., 


legio, f., 


ordo, m., 


pater, m., 




consul 
Bases"! 
OR kSnsul- 

StemsJ 


legion 
legion- 


row 
5rdin- 

SlNGULAR 


father 
patr- 


TERMINATIONS 
M. AND F. 


Nom. consul 


legio 


ordo 


pater 





Gen. consulis 


legionis 


ordinis 


patris 


-is 


Dai. consul! 


legioni 


5rdini 


patri 


-i 


Ace. consulem 


legionem 


ordinem 


patrem 


-em 


Abl. consule 


legione 


ordine 
Plural 


patre 


-e 


Nom. consules 


legiones 


ordines 


patres 


-€S 


Gen. consulum 


legionum 


ordinum 


patrum 


-um 


Dat. consulibus 


legionibus 


ordinibus 


patribus 


-ibus 


Ace. consules 


legiones 


ordines 


patres 


-es 


Abl. consulibus 


legionibus 


ordinibus 


patribus 


-ibus 



1. With the exception of the nominative, the terminations are exactly 
the same as in Class I, and the base or stem is found in the same way. 

2. Masculines and feminines with bases or stems in -in- and -on- drop 
-n- and end in -6 in the nominative, as legio (base or stem legion-), ordo 
(base or stem ordin-). 

3. Bases or stems in -tr- have -ter in the nominative, as pater (base or 
stem patr-). 

4. Note how the genitive singular gives the clue to the whole declension. 
Always learmthis with the nominative. 



THE THIRD DECLENSION • CONSONANT STEMS 



105 



237. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291. 

I. I. Audisne tubas, Marce ? Non solum tubas audio sed etiam 
ordines militum et carros impedlmentorum plenos videre possum. 

2. Quas legiones videmus? Eae legiones nuper ex Gallia venerunt. 

3. Quid ibi fecerunt? Studebantne pugnare an sine virtute erant? 

4. Multa proelia fecerunt ''■ et magnas victorias et multos captives re- 
portaverunt. 5. Quis est imperator earum legionum ? Caesar, summus 
Romanorum imperator. 6. Quis est eques qui pulchram coronam gerit ? 
Is eques est frater meus. Ei corona a consule data est quia summa 
virtute pugnaverat et a barbaris patriam servaverat. 

II. I. Who has seen my father to-day? 2. I saw him just now 
(nuper). He was hastening to your dwelling with your mother and 
sister. 3. When men are far from the fatherland and lack food, they 
cannot be restrained ^ from wrong.* 4. The safety of the soldiers is 
dear to Caesar, the general. 5. The chiefs were eager to storm a 
town full of grain which was held by the consul. 6. The king 
forbade the baggage of the captives to be destroyed. 

LESSON XLI 



THE THIRD DECLENSION • CONSONANT STEMS (Concluded) 

238. Neuter consonant stems add no termination in the nominative 
and are declined as follows : 





flumen, n.. 


tempus, n., 


opus, n., 


caput, n. 




Bases " 

OR 

Stems. 


river 
-flumin- 


time -work 
tempor- oper- 

SlNGULAR 


head 
capit- 


TERMINATIONS 


Norn. 


flumen 


tempus 


opus 


caput 





Gen. 


fluminis 


temporis 


operis 


capitis 


-is 


Dat. 


flumini 


tempoii 


operi 


capiti 


-i 


Ace. 


flumen 


tempus 


opus 


caput 


— 


Abl. 


flumine 


tempore 


opere 


capite 


-e 


1 pr( 


)ellum f acere = 


= to fight a battle. 


2 contineo. 


Cf. § 180. 


8 Abl. iniuria. 



io6 



EXERCISES 







JTL 


UliAl-j 


TERMINATIONS 


Norn. 


flumina 


tempora 


opera 


capita 


-a 


Gen. 


fluminum 


temporum 


operum 


capitum 


-um 


Dat. 


fluminibus 


temporibus 


operibus 


capitibus 


-ibus 


Ace. 


flumina 


tempora 


opera 


capita 


-a 


Abl. 


fluminibus 


temporibus 


operibus 


capitibus 


-ibus 



1 . Review § 74 and apply the rules to this declension. 

2. Bases or stems in -in- have -e- instead of -i- in the nominative, as 
flumen, base or stem flumin-. 

3. Most bases or stems in -er- and -or- have -us in the nominative, as 
opus, base or stem oper-; tempus, base or stem tempor-. 

239. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292. 

I. I. Barbari ubi Romam ceperunt, maxima regum opera dele- 
verunt. 2. Romani multas calamitates a barbaris acceperunt. 3. Ubi 
erat summus terror apud oppidanos, animi dubii eorum ab oratore claro 
CQnfirmati sunt. 4. Roma est in ripis fltiminis magni. 5. Ubi Caesar 
imperator milites suos arma capere iussit, ii a proelio contineri non 
potuerunt. 6. Ubi proelium factum est, imperator reperiri non potuit. 

7. Imperator sagitta in capite vulneratus erat et stare non poterat. 

8. Eum magno labore pedes ex proelio portavit. 9. Is bracchiis suTs 
imperatorem tenuit et eum ex periculis summis servavit. 10. Virtute 
sua bonus miles ab imperatore coronam accepit. 

II. I. The consul placed a crown on the head of the victor. 2. Be- 
fore the gates he was received by the townsmen. 3. A famous orator 
praised him and said, " By your labors you have saved the father- 
land from disaster." 4. The words of the orator were pleasing to 
the victor. 5. To save the fatherland was a great task. 




REVIEW OF CONSONANT STEMS 107 

LESSON XLII 

REVIEW LESSON 

240. Review the paradigms in §§233, 236, 238; and decline all 
nouns of the third declension in this selection. 

Terror CimbricuS''^ 

Olim Cimbri et Teutones, populi Germaniae, cum feminis liberisque 
Italiae adpropinquaverant et copias Romanas maximo proelio vicerant. 
Ubi f uga legionum nuntiata est, summus erat terror totlus Romae, et Ro- 
man!, graviter commoti, sacra crebra dels faciebant et salutem petebant. 

Tum Manlius orator animos populi ita confirmavit : — " Magnam 5 
calamitatem accepimus. Oppida nostra a Cimbrls Teutonibusque 
capiuntur, agricolae interficiuntur, agri vastantur, copiae barbarorum 
Romae adpropinquant. Itaque, nisi novis animis proelium novum 
faciemus et Germanos ex patria nostra sine mora agemus, erit nulla 
salijs feminis nostrls liberisque. Servate liberos ! Servate patriam I 10 
Antea superati sumus quia imperatores nostri fuerunt infirmi. Nunc 
Marius, clarus imperator, qui iam multas alias victorias reportavit, 
legiones diicet et animos nostros terrore Cimbrico liberabit." 

Marius tum in Africa bellum gerebat. Sine mora ex Africa in 
Italiam vocatus est. Copias novas non solum toti Italiae sed etiam 15 
provinciis sociorum imperavit.^ Disciplina autem dura laboribusque 
perpetuis milites exercuit. Tum cum peditibus equitibusque, qui iam 
proelio studebant, ad Germanorum castra celeriter maturavit. Diii et 
acriter pugnatum est.' Denique barbari fugerunt et multi in fuga ab 
equitibus sunt interfecti. Marius pater patriae vocatus est. 20 

' About the year 100 e.c. the Romans were greatly alarmed by an invasion 
of barbarians from the north known as Cimbri and Teutons. They were travel- 
ing with wives and children, and had an army of 300,000 fighting men. Several 
Roman armies met defeat, and the city was in a panic. Then the Senate called 
upon Marius, their greatest general, to save the country. First he defeated the 
Teutons in Gaul. Next, returning to Italy, he met the Cimbri. A terrible battle 
ensued, in which the Cimbri were utterly destroyed ; but the tefTor Cimbricus 
continued to haunt the Romans for many a year thereafter. 2 jje made a 
levy (of troops) upon, imperavit with the a'cc. and the dat. ' Cf. § 200. n. 2. 



io8 



THE THIRD DECLENSION • /-STEMS 



LESSON XLIII 
THE THIRD DECLENSION • /-STEMS 

241. To decline a noun of the third declension correctly we must 
know whether or not it is an i-stem. Nouns with i-stems are 

1. Masculines and f eminines : 

a. Nouns in -es and -is with the same number of syllables in the genitive 
as in the nominative. Thus caedes, caedis, is an i-stem, but miles, militis, 
is a consonant stem. 

b. Nouns in -ns and -rs. 

c. Nouns of one syllable in -s or -x preceded by a consonant. 

2. Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar. 

242. The declension of i-stems is nearly the same as that of con- 
sonant stems. Note the following differences : 

a. Masculines and feminines have -ium in the genitive plural and -is or 
-es in the accusative plural. 

b. Neuters have - i in the ablative singu lar, and an -i- in every form of 
tfefefilural. "^ " ~ 

243. Masculine and Feminine /-Stems. Masculine and feminine i- 
stems are declined as follows : 





caedes, f.. 


hostis, m. 


, urbs, f.. 


cliens, m., 






slaughter 


enemy 


city 


retainer 




Stems 


caedi- 


hosti- 


urbi- 


clienti- 




Bases 


caed- 


Iiost- 


urb- 

SlNGULAR 


client- 


TERMINATIONS 
M. AND F. 


Norn. 


caedes 


hostis 


urbs 


cliens ^ 


-s, -is, or-^% 


Gen. 


caedis 


hostis 


urbis 


clientis 


-is 


Dat. 


caedi 


hosti 


urbi 


client! 


-i 


Ace. 


caedem 


hostem 


urbem 


clientem 


-em (-im) 


Abl. 


caede 


hoste 


urbe 


cliente 


-e(-i) 



1 Observe that the vowel before -ns is long, but that it is shortened before 
-nt. Cf. § 12. 2, J. 



THE THIRD DECLENSION • /-STEMS 



109 









Plural 




TERMINATIONS 
M. AND F. 


Nom. 


caedes 


hostSs 


urbes 


clientes 


-es 


Gen. 


caedium 


hostium 


urbium 


clientium 


-ium 


Dat. 


caedibus 


hostibus 


urbibus 


clientibus 


-ibus 


Ace. 


caedis, -es 


hostis, -es 


urbis, -es 


clientis, -es 


-is, -es 


AM. 


caedibus 


hostibus 


urbibus 


clientibus 


-ibus 



1. avis, civis, finis, ignis, navis have the ablative singular in -i or -e. 

2. turris has accusative turrim and ablative turri or turre. 



244 


. Neuter /-Stems. 


Neuter i-stems 


are declined as follows : 




insigne, n., 


animal, n., 


calcar, n., 






decoration 


animal 


spur 




Stems 


insigni- 


animali- 


calcari- 




Bases 


insign- 


animal- 

SlNGULAR 


calcar- 


TERMINATIONS 


Nom. 


insigne 


animal 


calcar 


-e or — 


Gen. 


Tnsignis 


animalis 


calcaris 


-is 


Dat. 


insigni 


animali 


calcari 


-i 


Ace. 


Insigne 


animal 


calcar 


-e or — 


Abl. 


insigni 


animali 

Plural 


calcari 


-i 


Nom. 


insignia 


animalia 


calcaria 


-ia 


Gen. 


insignium 


animalium 


calcarium 


-ium 


Dat. 


Insignibus 


animalibus 


calcaribus 


-ibus 


Ace. 


insignia 


animalia 


calcaria 


-ia 


Abl. 


insignibus 


animalibus 


calcaribus 


-ibus 



1. Review § 74 and see how it applies to this declension. 

2. The final -i- of the stem is usually dropped in the nominative, 
dropped, it is changed to -e-. 

3. A long vowel is shortened before final -1 or -r. (Cf. § 12. 2.) 



If not 



245. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292. 

I. I. Quam urbem videmus ? Urbs quam videtis est Roma. 2. Gives 
Romani urbem suam turribus altis et murls longis muniverant. 

3. Venti navis longas prohibebant finibus hostium adpropinquare. 

4. Imperator a clientibus suis calcaria auri et alia insignia accepit. 

5. Milites Romani cum hostibus bella saeva gesserunt et eos caede 



no EXERCISES 

magna superaverunt. 6. Alia animalia terrain, alia mare amant. 
7. Naves longae quae auxilium ad imperatorem portabant igni ab 
hostibus deletae sunt. 8. In eo man avis multas vidimus quae longe 
a terra volaverant. 9. Nonne vidistis navis longas hostium et ignis 
quibus urbs nostra vastabatur? Certe, sed nee eaedem civium nee 




NAVES LONGAE 

fugam clientium vidimus. 10. Aves et alia animalia, ubi ignem vide- 
runt, salutem fuga petere celeriter inceperunt. 11. Num iudex in 
peditum ordinibus stabat ? Minime, iudex erat apud equites et equus 
eius insigne pulchrum gerebat. 

II. I . Because of the lack of grain the animals of the village were 
not able to live. 2. When the general^ heard the rumor, he quickly 
sent a horseman to the village. 3. The horseman had a beautiful 
horse and wore spurs of gold. 4. He said to the citizens, " Send 
your retainers with horses and wagons to our camp, and you will 
receive an abundance of grain." 5. With happy hearts they obeyed 
his words " without delay. .^ 

1 Place first. ^ Not the accusative. Why ? 



IRREGULAR NOUNS • GENDER 



III 



LESSON XLIV 

IRREGULAR NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION • GENDER IN 
THE THIRD DECLENSION 

246. 





vis, i., force 




iter, n., march 


Bases 


vi- and yir- 


Singular 


iter- and itiner- 


Nom. 


vis 




iter 


Gen. 


vis (rare) 




itineris 


Dat. 


VI (rare) 




itineri 


Ace. 


vim 




iter 


AM. 


vi 


Plural 


itinere 


Nom. 


vires 




itinera 


Gen. 


virium 




itinerum 


Dat. 


viribus 




itineribus 


Ace. 


vMs, or -es 




itinera 


AM. 


viribus 




itineribus 



247. There are no rules for gender in the third declension that do 
not present numerous exceptions.* The following rules, however, are 
of great service, and should be thoroughly mastered : 

1. Masculine are nouns in -or, -6s, -er, -6s (gen. -itis). 
a. arbor, tree, is feminine ; and iter, march, is neuter. 

2. Feminine are nouns in -5, -is, -x, and in -s preceded by a con- 
sonant or by any long vowel but o. 

a. Masculine are collis (hill), lapis, m.lns\s {month), ordo, pes, and nouns 
in -nis and -guis — as ignis, sanguis {blood) — and the four rponosyllables 

dens, a tooth j mons, a mountain 
pons, a bridge; fons, a fountain 

3. Neuters are nouns in -e, -al, -ar, -n, -ur, -fis, and caput. 

' Review § 60. Words denoting males are, of course, masculine, and those 
denoting females, feminine. 



1 1 2 EXERCISES 

248. Give the gender of the following nouns and the rule by which 
it is determined : 



animal 


calamitas 


flumen 


lapis 


navis 


avis 


caput 


ignis 


legio 


opus 


caedes 


eques 


insigne 


mare 


salus 


calcar 


finis 


labor 


miles 


urbs 



249. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292. 

I. The First Bridge over the Rhine. Salus sociorum erat semper cara 
Romanis. Olim Galli, amici Romanorum, multas iniurias ab Germanis 
qui trans flumen Rhenum vivebant acceperant. Ubi legati ab iis ad 
Caesarem imperatorem Romanum venerunt et auxilium postulaverunt, 

5 Roman! magnis itineribus ad hostium finis maturaverunt. Mox ad 
ripas magni fluminis venerunt. Imperator studebat copias suas trans 
fiuvium ducere, sed nuUa via ^ poterat. NuUas navis habebat. Alta 
erat aqua. Imperator autem, vir clarus, numquam adversa fortuna 
commotus, novum consilium cepit. lussit suos^ in' lato flumine facere 
10 pontem. Numquam antea pons in Rheno visus erat. Hostes ubi pon- 
tem quem Roman! fecerant viderunt, summo terrore commoti, sine 
mora fugam parare inceperunt. 

II. I. The enemy had taken (possession of) the top of the moun- 
tain. 2. There were many trees on the opposite hills. 3. We pitched 
our camp near (ad) a beautiful spring. 4. A march through the ene- 
mies' country is never without danger. 5. The time of the month 
was suitable for the march. 6. The teeth of the monster were long. 
7. When the foot soldiers* saw the blood of the captives, they began 
to assail the fortifications with the greatest violence.-' 

^ Abl. of manner. ^ guos, used as a noun, his men. ' We say build 
a bridge over; the Romans, make a bridge on. * Place first. 



Fifth Review, Lessons XXXVU-XLIV, §§ 517-520 



ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION 1 1 3 

LESSON XLV 
ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION /-STEMS 

250. Adjectives are either of the first and second declensions (like 
bonus, aeger, or liber), or they are of the third declension. 

251. Nearly all adjectives of the third declension have i-stems, and 
they are declined almost like nouns with i-stems. 

252. Adjectives learned thus far have had a different form in the 
nominative for each gender, as, bonus, m. ; bona, f. ; bonum, n. Such 
an adjective is called an adjective of three endings. Adjectives of the 
third declension are of the following classes : 

I. Adjectives of three endings - — 

a different form in the nominative for each gender. 
II. Adjectives of two endings — 

masculine and feminine nominative alike, the neuter different. 
III. Adjectives of one ending — 

masculine, feminine, and neuter nominative aU alike. 

253. Adjectives of the third declension in -er have three endings ; 
those in -is have two endings ; the others have one ending. 

CLASS I 

254. Adjectives of Three Endings are declined as follows : 







acer. 


, acris, acre, 


keen., eager 










Stem acri- 


Base acr- 










SlNGULAR 






Plural 






MASC 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. 


acer 


acris 


acre 


acres 


acres 


acria 


Gen. 


acris 


acris 


acris 


acrium 


acrium 


acrium 


Dat. 


acri 


acri 


acri 


acribus 


acribus 


acribus 


Ace. 


acrem 


acrem 


acre 


acris, -es 


acris, -es 


acria 


Abl. 


acri 


acri 


acri 


acribus 


acribus 


acribus 



114 ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION 



CLASS 11 



255. Adjectives of Two Endings are declined as follows : 

omnis, omne, every, aW^ 
Stem omni- Base omn- 





Singular 








Plur-a 


lL 


MASC. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 






MASC. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. 


oranis 


omne 






omnes 


omnia 


Gen. 


omnis 


omnis 






omnium 


omnium 


Dat. 


omni 


omni 






omnibus 


omnibus 


Ace. 


omnem 


omne 






omnis, -es 


omnia 


Abl. 


omni 


omni 


CLASS 


III 


omnibus 


omnibus 



256. Adjectives of One Ending are declined as follows : 

par, equal 
Stem pari- Base par- 



Singular 




Plural 




MASC. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. par 


par 


pares 


paria 


Gen. paris 


paris 


parium 


parium 


Dat. pari 


pari 


paribus 


paribus 


Ace. parem 


par 


paris, -es 


paria 


Abl. pari 


pari 


paribus 


paribus 



1. All i-stem adjectives have -i in the ablative singular. 

2. Observe that the several cases of adjectives of one ending have the 
same form for all genders excepting in the accusative singular and in the 
nominative and accusative plural. 

3- Decline vir acer, legio acris, animal acre, ager omnis, scutum omne, 
proelium par. 

257. There are a few adjectives of one ending that have consonant 
stems. They are declined exactly like nouns with consonant stems. 

1 omnis is tisually translated eveiy in the singular and all in the plural. 



EXERCISES 115 

258. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293. 

I. The Romans invade the Enemy's Country. Olim pedites Romani 
cum equitibus velocibus in hostium urbem iter faciebant. Ubi non 
longe afuerunt, rapuerunt agricolam, qui eis viam brevem et facilem 
demonstravit. lam' Romani moenia alta, turns validas aliaque opera 
urbis videre poterant. In moenibus stabant multi principes. Principes 
ubi Viderunt Romanes, iusserunt civis lapides aliaque tela de muris 
iacere. Turn milites fortes contineri a proelio non poterant et acer 
imperator signum tuba dari iussit. Summa vi omnes maturaverunt. 
Imperator Sexto legato impedimenta omnia mandavit. Sextus impe- 
dimenta in summo coUe conlocavit. Grave et acre erat proelium, sed 
hostes non pares Romanis erant. Alii interfecti, alii capti sunt. Apud 
captivos erant mater sororque regis. Pauci Romanorum ab hostibus 
vulnerati sunt. Secundum proelium Romanis erat gratum. Fortiina 
fortibus semper favet. 

II. 1. Some months are short, others are long. 2. To seize the 
top of the mountain was difficult. 3. Among the hills of Italy are 
many beautiful springs. 4. The soldiers were sitting where the bag- 
gage had been placed because their feet were weary. 5. The city 
which the soldiers were eager to storm had been fortified by strong 
walls and high towers. 6. Did not the king intrust a heavy crown 
of gold and all his money to a faithless slave? Yes, but the slave 
had never before been faithless. 




AQUILA LEGIONIS 



Ii6 



THE FOURTH OR £A-DECLENSION 



LESSON XLVI 
THE FOURTH OR lA-DECLENSION 

259. Nouns of the fourth declension are either masculine or neuter. 

260. Masculine nouns end in -us, neuters in -u. The genitive ends 
in -us. 

a. Feminine by exception are domus, house j- manus, hand; and a 
few others. 

PARADIGMS 

adventus, m., arrival cornu, n., horn 

Bases advent- corn- 

TERMINATIONS 







Singular 


MASC. 


NEUT. 


Nom. 


adventus 


cornu 


-us 


-u 


Gen. 


adventus 


cornus 


-us 


-us 


Dat. 


adventui (ii) 


cornu 


-ui (ti) 


-u 


f Ace. 


adventum 


cornu 


-um 


-u 


AM. 


adventu 


cornu 
Plural 


-ii 


-u 


Nom. 


adventus 


cornua 


-lis 


-ua 


Gen. 


adventuum 


cornuum 


-uum 


-uum 


Dat. 


adventibus 


cornibus 


-ibus 


-ibus 


Ace. 


adventus 


cornua 


-lis 


-ua 


AM. 


adventibus 


cornibus 


-ibus 


-ibus 



1. Observe that the base is found, as in other declensions, by dropping 
the ending of the genitive singular. 

2. lacus, lake, has the ending -ubus in the dative and ablative plural ; 
portus, harbor, has either -ubus or -ibus. 

3. cornu is the only neuter that is in common use. 

261. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293. 

I. I. Ante adventum Caesaris veloces hostium equites acrem 
impetum in castra fecerunt. 2. Continere exercitum a proelio non 
facile erat. 3. Post adventum suum Caesar iussit legiones ex castris 



EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE II7 

duci. 4. Pro castris cum hostium equitatu pugnatum est. 5. Post 
tempus breve equitatus trans flumen fugit ubi castra hostium posita 
erant. 6. Turn victor imperator agros vastavit et vicos hostium cre- 
mavit. 7. Castra autem non oppugnavit quia milites erant defessi 
et locus difficilis. 8. Hostes non cessaverunt iacere tela, quae paucis 
nocuerunt. 9. Post adversum proelium principes Gallorum legatos ad 
Caesarem mittere studebant, sed populo persuadere non poterant. 

II. I. Did you see the man-of-war on the lake? 2. I did not see 
it (Jem^ on the lake, but I saw it in the harbor. 3. Because of 
the strong wind the sailor forbade his brother to sail. 4. Cassar 
didn't make an attack on the cavalry on the right wing, did he? 
5. No, he made an attack on the left wing. 6. Who taught your 
swift horse to obey? 7. I trained my horse with my (own) hands, 
nor was the task difficult. 8. He is a beautiful animal and has great 
strength. 

LESSON XLVII 
EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE • THE DECLENSION OF DOMUS 

262. We have become thoroughly familiar with expressions like the 

followmg : Qgj^j^ ^^ ^Qj. jjj^ oppidum maturat 

Galba ab (de or ex) oppido maturat 
Galba in oppido habitat 

From these expressions we may deduce the following rules : 

263. Rule. Accusative of the Place to. The place to which is 
expressed by ad or in with the accusative. This answers the 
question Whither f 

264. Rule. Ablative of the Place from. The place from which is 
expressed by a or alf, de, e or ex, with the separative ablative. 
This answers the question Whence ? (Cf . Rule, § 1 79.) 

265. Rule. Ablative of the Place at or in. The place at or in 
which is expressed by the ablative with in. This answers the 
question Where? " 



Il8 EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE 

a. The ablative denoting the flace where is called the locative ablative 
(cf. locus, //fl«). 

266. Exceptions. Names of towns, small islands,^ domus, home, 
riis, country, and a few other words in common use omit the prepo- 
sitions in expressions of place, as, 

Galba Athenas maturat, Galba hastens to Athens 
Galba Athenis maturat, Galba hastens from Athens 
Galba Athenis habitat, Galba lives at (or in) Athens 
Galba domum maturat, Galba hastens home 
Galba rfis matiirat, Galba hastens to the country 
Galba domo matiirat, Galba hastens from home 
Galba rure matiirat, Galba hastens from the country 
Galba rflri (less commonly rure) habitat, Galba lives in 
the country 

a. Names of countries, like Germania, Italia, etc., do not come under 
these exceptions. With thein prepositions must not be omitted. 

267. The Locative Case. We saw above that the place-relation ex- 
pressed hf at or in is regularly covered by the locative ablative. How- 
ever, Latin originally expressed this relation by a separate form known 
as the locative case. This case has been everywhere merged in the abla- 
tive excepting in the singular number of the first and second declen- 
sions. The form of the locative in these declensions is like the genitive 
singular, and its use is limited to names of towns and small islands, 
domi, at home, and a few other words. 

268. Rule. Locative and Locative Ablative. To express the place 
in which with names of towns mid small islands, if they are sin- 
gular and of the first or second declension, use the locative; otherwise 
use the locative ablative without a preposition ; as, 

Galba Romae habitat, Galba lives at Rome 
Galba Corinthi habitat, Galba lives at Corinth 
Galba domi habitat, Galba lives at home 

1 Small islands are classed with towns because they generally, have but one 
town, and»thef name of the town is the same as the name of the island. 



DOMUS 119 

Here Romae, Corinthi, and domi are locatives, being singular and of the 
first and second declensions respectively. But in 

Galba Athenis habitat, Ga/6a lives at Athens, 
Galba Pompeiis habitat, Galba lives at Pompeii 

Athenis and Pompeiis are locative ablatives. These words can have no 
locative case, as the nominatives Athenae and Pompeii zxe. plural and there 
is no plural locative case form. 

269. The word domus, home, house, has forms of both the second 
and the fourth declension. Learn its declension (§ 468). 

270. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293. 

I. I. Corinthi omnia Insignia aurl a ducibus victoribus rapta erant. 
2. Caesar Genavam exercitum magnis itineribus diixit. 3. Quem pon- 
tem hostes cremaverant .? Pontem in Rheno hostes cremaverant. 
4. Pompeiis multas Romanorum domos videre poteritis. 5. Roma 
consul equo veloci rus properavit. 6. Domi consulis homines multi 
sedebant. 7 . Imperator iusserat legatum Athenas cum multis navibus 
longis navigare. 8. Ante moenia urbis sunt ordines arborum altarum. 

9. Propter arbores altas nee lacum nee portum reperire potuimus. 

10. Proeliis crebris Caesar legiones suas quae erant in Gallia ex- 
ercebat. 11. Cotidie in loco idoneo castra ponebat et mijniebat. 

II. I. Cassar, the famous general, when he had departed from 
Rome, hastened to the Roman province on a swift horse.^ 2. He had 
heard a rumor concerning the allies at Geneva. 3. After his arrival 
Caesar called the soldiers together and commanded them to join battle. 
4. The enemy retreated, some because ^ they were afraid, others 
because '' of wounds. 5 . Recently I was at Athens and saw the place 
where the judges used to sit.' 6. Marcus and Sextus are my brothers ; 
the one lives at Rome, the other in the country. 

1 Latin says " by a swift horse.'' What construction ? ^ Distinguish be- 
tween the English conjunction because (quia or quod) and the preposition 
because of (propter). * used to sit, express by the imperfect. 




DAEDALUS ET ICARUS 



THE FIFTH OR ^-DECLENSION 121 

271. Daed'alus and Ic'arus' 

Creta est Insula antlqua quae aqua alta magni maris pulsatur. Ibi 
olim Minos erat rex. Ad eum venit Daedalus qui ex Graecia patria 
fugiebat. Eum Minos rex benignis verbis accepit et ei domicilium in 
Creta dedit. ^ Quo in loco Daedalus sine cura vivebat et regi multa 
et clara opera faciebat. Post tempus longum autem Daedalus patriam 5 
caram desiderare incepit. Domum maturare studebat, sed regi per- 
suadere non potuit et mare saevum fugam vetabat. 

LESSON XLVIII 
THE FIFTH OR E-DECLENSION • THE ABLATIVE OF TIME 

272. Gender. Nouns of the fifth declension are feminine except 
dies, day, and meridies, midday, which are usually masculine. 

273. 







PARADIGMS 






dies, m.. 


, day res, f., thing 




Bases 


di- 


r- 








SlNGULAR 


TERMINATIONS 


Nom. 


dies 


res 


-es 


Gen. 


diei 


rei 


-li 


Dat. 


di§I 


rei 


-ei 


Ace. 


diem 


rem 


-em 


Abl. 


die 


re 

Plural 


-e 


Nom. 


dies 


res 


-es 


Gen. 


dierum 


rerum 


-erum 


Dat. 


diebus 


rebus 


-ebus 


Ace. 


dies 


res 


-es 


Abl. 


diebus 


rebus 


-ebus 



1 And in this place ; quo does not here introduce a subordinate relative 
clause, but establishes the connection with the preceding sentence. Such a 
relative is called a connecting relative, and is translated by and and a demon- 
strative or personal pronoun. 



122 ABLATIVE OF TIME 

1. The vowel e which appears in every form is regularly long. It is 
shortened in the ending -ei after a consonant, as in r-ei ; and before -m 
in the accusative singular, as in di-em. (Cf. §12. 2.) 

2. Only dies and res are complete in the plural. Most other nouns of 
this declension lack the plural. Acies, line of battle, and spes, hope, have 
the nominative and accusative plural. 

274. The ablative relation (§ 50) which is expressed by the prep- 
ositions at, in, or on may refer not only to place, but also to time, 
as at noon, in summer, on the first day. The ablative which is used 
to express this relation is called the ablative of time. 

275. Rule. The Ablative of Time. The time when or within 
which anything happens is expressed by the ablative without a 
preposition. 

a. Occasionally the preposition in is found. Compare the English Next 
day we started and On the next day we started. 

276. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 294. 

I. Galba the Farmer. Galba agricola run vivit. Cotidie piirna luce 
laborare incipit, nee ante noctem in studio suo cessat. Meridie lulia 
fiha eum ad cenam vocat. Nocte pedes defessqs domum vertit. 
Aestate filii agricolae auxilium patri dant. Hieme agricola eos in 

5 lOdum mittit. Ibi magister pueris multas fabulas de rebus gestis 
Caesaris narrat. Aestate filii agricolae perpetuis laboribus exercentur 
nee grave agri opus est its molestum. Galba sine uUa ciira vivit nee 
res adversas timet. 

II. 1. In that month there were many battles in Gaul. 2. The cav- 
alry of the enemy made an attack upon Caesar's line of battle. 3. In 
the first hour of the night the ship was overcome by the billows. 4. On 
the second day the savages were eager to come under Caesar's pro- 
tection. 5. The king had joined battle, moved by the hope of victory. 
6. That year a fire destroyed many birds and other animals. 7. We 
saw blood ort the wild beast's teeth. 



PRONOUNS CLASSIFIED 1 23 

277. JDaed'alus and Ic'arus {Continued') 

Turn Daedalus gravibus cQris commotus filio suo Icaro ita dixit : 
" Animus meus, Icare, est plenus tristitiae nee oculi lacrimls egent. 
Discedere ex Creta, Athenas maturare, maxime studeo ; sed rex re- 
cusat audire verba mea et omnem reditus spem eripit. Sed numquam 
rebus adversis vincar. Terra et mare sunt inimica, sed aliam fugae 5 
viam reperiam." Turn in artis ignotas animum dimittit et mirum 
capit consilium. Nam pennas in ordine ponit et veras alas facit. 

LESSON XLIX 

PRONOUNS CLASSIFIED • PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE 
PRONOUNS 

278. We have the same kinds of pronouns in Latin as in English. 
They are divided into the following eight classes : 

1 . Personal pronouns, which show the person speaking, spoken- to, 
or spoken of; as, ego, /; iXi., you ; is, he. (Cf. § 279, etc.) 

2. Possessive pronouns, which denote possession; as, meus, tuus, 
suus, etc. (Cf. § 98.) 

3. Reflexive pronouns, used in the predicate to refer back to the 
subject; as, he saw himself. (Cf. § 281.) 

4. Intensive pronouns, used to emphasize a noun or pronoun ; as, 
I myself saw it. (Cf. § 285.) 

5. Demonstrative pronouns, which point out persons or things; as, 
is, this, that. (Cf. § 112.) 

6. Relative pronouns, which connect a subordinate adjective clause 
with an antecedent; as, qui, who. (Cf. § 220.) 

7. Interrogative pronouns, which ask a question; as, quis, whol 
(Cf. § 225.) 

8. Indefinite pronouns, which point out indefinitely; as, some one, 
any one, some, certain ones, etc. (Cf. § 296.) 

279. The demonstrative pronoun is, ea, id, as we learned in § 115, 
is regularly used as the personal pronoun of the third person {he, she, 
it, they, etc.). 



124 PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 

280. The personal pronouns of the first person are ego, I; nos, we; 
of the second person, tu, thou or you; vos, ye or you. They are 
declined as follows : 





Singular 


FIRST PERSON 


SECOND PERSON 


Nam. 


ego,/ 


tu, you 


Gen. 


mei, of me 


tul, of you 


Dat. 


mihi, to ox for me 


tibi, ;<? ox for you 


Ace. 


me, me 


te, jcoM 


AM. 


me, with, from, etc., me 

Plural 


te, with, from, &ic.,you 


Norn. 


nos, we 


vos, _)'oa 


Gen. 


nostrum or nostri, of us 


vestrum or vestri, of you 


Dat. 


nobis, to ox for us 


vobis, to ox for you 


Ace. 


nos, us 


vos, JJ/OM 


AM. 


nobis, with, from, etc., «j 


vobis, with, from, etc., y 



1. The personal pronouns are not used in the nominative excepting for 
emphasis or contrast. 

281. The Reflexive Pronouns, i. The personal pronouns ego and 
tii may be used in the predicate as reflexives ; as, 

video me, / see myself videmus nos, we see ourselves 

vides te, you see yourself videtis vos, you see yourselves 

2. The reflexive pronoun of the third person (himself, herself, itself, 
themselves) has a special form, used only in these senses, and declined 
alike in the singular and plural. 

Singular and Plural 
Gen. sui Ace. se 

Dat. sibi Abl. se 



Examples - 



Puer se videt, the boy sees himself 
Puella se videt, the girl sees herself 
Animal se videt, the animal sees itself 
li se vident, they see themselves 



a. The form se is sometimes doubled, sese, for emphasis. 



CUMV^YVn PRONOUNS 1 25 

3. Give the Latin for 

/■ teach myself We teach ourselves 

You teach yourself You teach yourselves 

He teaches himself They teach themselves 

282. The preposition cum, when used with the ablative of ego, tu, 
or sui, is appended to the form, as, mecum, with me; tScum, with you ; 
nobiscum, with us ; etc. 

283. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 294. 

I. I. Mea mater est cara mihi et tua mater est cara tibi. 2. Vestrae 
litterae erant gratae nobis et nostrae litterae erant gratae vobis. 
3. Nuntius regis qui nobiscum est nihil respondebit. 4. Nuntii pacem 
amicitiamque sibi et suis sociis postulaverunt. 5. Si tii arma sumes, 
ego regnum occupabo. 6. Uter vestrum est civis Romanus ? Neuter 
nostrum. 7. Eo tempore multi supplicium dederunt quia regnum 
petierant. 8. Siime supplicium, Caesar, de hostibus patriae acribus. 
9. Prima luce alii metu commoti sese fugae mandaverunt ; alii 
autem magna virtute impetum exercitus nostri sustinuerunt. 10. Soror 
regis, ubi de adverse proelio audivit, sese Pompeiis interfecit. 

II. I. Whom do you teach? I teach myself. 2. The soldier 
wounded himself with his sword. 3. The master praises us, but you 
he does not praise. 4. Therefore he will inflict punishment on you, but 
we shall not suffer punishment. 5 . Who will march (i.e. make a march) 
with me to Rome ? 6. I will march with you to the gates of the city. 
7. Who will show us ' the way ? The gods will show you •' the way. 

Daed'alus and Ic'arus {Concluded') 

284. Puer Icarus iina ^ stabat et mirum patris opus videbat. Post- 
quam manus ultima* alis imposita est, Daedalus eas temptavit et similis 
avi in auras volavit. Tum alas umeris fill adligavit et docuit eum volare 
et dixit, " Te veto, mi fili, adpropinquare aut soli aut mari. Si fluctibus 
adpropinquaveris,* aqua alis tuis nocebit, et si soli adpropinquaveris,* S 

1 Not accusative. ^ Adverb, see vocabulary. ' manus ultima, the 

finishing touch. What literally ? * Future perfect. Translate by the present. 



126 



THE PRONOUNS IPSE AND IDEM 



ignis eas cremabit." Turn pater et Alius iter difficile incipiunt. Alas 
movent et aurae sese committunt. Sed stultus puer verbis patris non 
paret. Soli adpropinquat. Alae cremantur et Icarus in mare decidit 
et vitam amittit. Daedalus autem sine lillo periculo trans fluctus ad 
5 insulam Siciliam volavit. 

LESSON L 

THE INTENSIVE PRONOUN IPSE AND THE DEMON- 
STRATIVE IDEM 

285. Ipse means -self (himself, herself etc.) or is translated by 
even or very. It is used to emphasize a noun or pronoun, expressed 
or understood, with vifhich it agrees like an adjective. 

a. Ipse must be carefully distinguished from the reflexive sui. The 
latter is always used as a pronoun, while ipse is regularly adjective. Compare 

Homo se videt, the man sees himself (re^exive) 

Homo ipse periculum videt, ihe man himself (intexisvfe) sees the danger 

Homo ipsum periculum videt, the man sees the danger itself {intensiye) ' 

286. Except for the one form ipse, the intensive pronoun is de- 
chned exactly like the nine irregular adjectives (cf. §§ io8, log). 
Learn the declension (§ 481). 

' 287. The demonstrative idem, meaning the same, is a compound 
of is. It is declined as follows : 



Singular 

FEM. 



NEUT. 



N'om. idem e'adem idem 

Gen. eius'dem eius'dem eius'dem 

ei'dem ei'dem ei'dem 

eun'dem ean'dem idem 

eo'dem ea'dem eo'dem 



£>at. 
Ace. 
Abl. 





Plural 




MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


' ii'dem 
ei'dem 


eae'dem 


e'adem 


eorun'dem 


earun'dem 


eorun'dem 


' iis'dem 
, eis'dem 


iis'dem 


iis'dem 


eis'dem 


eis'dem 


eos'dem 


eas'dem 


e'adem 


r iis'dem 
1^ eis'dem 


iis'dem 


iis'dem 


eis'dem 


eis'dem 



a. From forms like eundem (eum + -dem), eorundem (eorum + -dem), 
we learn the rule that m before d is changed to u. 

b. The formes iidem, iisdem are often spelled and pronounced with one i. 



- . . , EXERCISES 127 

288. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 295. 

I. I. Ego et tu ^ in eadem urbe vivimus. 2. Iter ipsum non timemus 
sed feras saevas quae in silva densa esse dicuntur. 3. Olim nos ipsi 
idem iter fecimus. 4. Eo tempore multas feras vidimus. 5. Sed nobis 
non nocuerunt. 6. Caesar ipse scutum de manibus militis eripuit et 
in ipsam aciem maturavit. 7 . Itaque milites summa virtute tela in hos- 
tium corpora iecerunt. 8. Romani quoque gravia vulnera acceperunt. 

9. Denique hostes terga verterunt et omnis in partis ^ fugerunt. 

10. Eadem hora litterae Romam ab imperatore ipso missae sunt. 

11. Eodem mense captivi quoque in Italiam missi sunt. 12. Sed 
multi propter vulnera iter difficile trans mentis facere recusabant et 
Genavae esse dicebantur. 

II. I. At Pompeii there is a wonderful mountain. 2. When I was 
in that place, I myself saw that mountain. 3. On the same- day many 
cities were destroyed by fire and stones from that very mountain. 

4. You have not heard the true story of that calamity, have you ? ' 

5. On that day the very sun could not give light to men. 6. You 
yourself ought to tell (to) us that story. 

289. How HoRATius held the Bridge* 

Tarquinius Superbus, Septimus et ultimus rex Romanorum, ubi in 
exsilium ab iratis Romanis eiectus est, a Porseng, rege Etruscorum, 
auxilium petiit. Mox Porsena magnis cum copiis Romam venit, et 
ipsa urbs summo in periculo erat. Omnibus in partibus exercitus 
Romanus victus erat. lam rex montem laniculum " occupaverat. 
Numquam antea Romani tanto metii tenebantur. Ex agris in urbem 
maturabant et summo studio urbem ipsam muniebant. 

1 Observe that in Latin we say I and you, not you and I. 2 fifot parts, 
but directions. ^ Cf. §2io. * The story of Horatius has been made 
familiar by Macaulay's well-known poem " Horatius " in his Lays of Ancient 
Rome. Read the poem in connection with this selection. ^ The Janiculum 
is a high hill across the Tiber from Rome. . 



128 THE DEMONSTRATIVES HIC, ISTE, ILLE 



LESSON LI 

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS BIC, ISTE, JLLE 

290. We have already learned the declension of the demonstrative 
pronoun is and its use. (Cf. Lesson XVII.) That pronoun refers to 
persons or things either far or near, and makes no definite reference 
to place or time. If we wish to point out an object definitely in place 
or time, we must use hie, iste, or ille. These demonstratives, like 
is, are used both as pronouns and as adjectives, and their relation to 
the speaker may be represented graphically thus : 



hie 



iste 



ille 



Speaker 



this, he (near) ; that, he (remote) ; that, he (more remote) 



a. In dialogue hie refers to a person or thing near the speaker ; iste, to 
a person or thing near the person addressed ; ille, to a person or thing 
remote from both. These distinctions are illustrated in the model sentences, 
§ 293, which should be carefully studied and imitated. 



291. Hie 


is declined 
Singular 


as follows : 




Plural 




MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. 


FEM." 


NEUT. 


Nom. hie 


haec 


hoc 


hi 


hae 


haec 


Gen. huius 


huius 


huius 


honim 


harum 


horum 


Dat. huic 


huic 


huic 


his 


his 


his 


Ace. hunc 


hanc 


hoc 


hos 


has 


haee 


Abl. hoe 


hac 


hoc 


his 


his 


Ms 



a. Huius is pronounced hoo'yoos, and huic is pronounced hdoic (one 
syllable). 



292. The demonstrative pronouns iste, ista, istud, and ille, ilia, 
illud, except for the nominative and accusative singular neuter 
forms istud and illud, are declined exactly like ipse, ipsa, ipsum. 
(See § 481.) • 



THE DEMONSTRATIVES HIC, ISTE, ILLE 129 

293. MODEL SENTENCES 

Is this horse (of mine) strong? Estne hie equus validus ? 

That horse (of yours) is strong, but that "1 Iste equus est valiflus, sed 
one (yonder) is weak ] ille est infirmus 

Are these (men by me) your friends ? Suntne hi amlcl tui ? 

Those (men by you) are my friends, but ") Isti sunt amici mei, sed 
those (men yonder) are enemies J illi sunt inimici 

294. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 295. 

I. A German Chieftain addresses his Followers. Ille fortis Ger- 
manorum dux suos convocavit et hoc modo animos eorum confir- 
mavit. " Vos, qui in his finibus vivitis, in hunc locum convocavi^ quia 
mecum debetis istos agros et istas domos ab iniuriis Romanorum 
liberate. Hoc nobis non difficile erit, quod illi hostes has silvas 5 
densas, feras saevas quarum vestigia vident, montes altos timent. Si 
fortes erimus, del ipsi nobis viam saliitis demonstrabunt. Ille sol, 
isti oculi nostras calamitates viderunt.^ Itaque nomen illius rei pQ- 
blicae Romanae non solum nobis, sed etiam omnibus hominibus qui 
libertatem amant, est invisum. Ad arma vos voco. Exercete istam 10 
pristinam virtQtem et vincetis." 

II. I. Does that bird (of yours) ^ sing.? 2. This bird (of mine) ^ 
sings both" in summer and in winter and has a beautiful voice. 

3. Those birds (yonder)^ in the country don't sing in winter. 

4. Snatch a spear from the hands of that soldier (near you)^ and 
come home with me. 5. With those very eyes (of yours) ^ you will see 
the tracks of the hateful enemy who burned my dwelling and made an 
attack on my brother. 6. For (propter) these deeds (res) we ought to 
inflict punishment on him without delay. 7. The enemies of the repub- 
lic do not always suffer punishment. 

^ The perfect definite. (Cf. § 190.) ^ English words in parentheses are 
not to be translated. They are inserted to show what demonstratives should 
be used. (Cf. § 290.) ' both . . . and, et . . . et. 



I30 



INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 




HOK.ATIUS PONTEM DEFENDIT 

295. How HoRATius held the Bridge {Continued) 
Altera urbis pars mOris, altera flumine satis muniri videbatur. Sed 
erat pons in flumine qui hostibus iter paene dedit. Turn Horatius 
Codes, fortis vir, magna voce dixit, " Rescindite pontem, Roman! ! 
BrevI tempore Porsena in urbem copias suas traducet." lam hostes 
5 in ponte erant, sed Horatius cum duobus (cf. § 479) comitibus ad 
extremam pontis partem properavit, et hi soli aciem hostium sustinue- 
runt. Tum vero elves RomanI pontem a tergo rescindere incipiunt, 
et hostes frustra Horatium superare temptarit. 



LESSON LII 

THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 

296. The indefinite pronouns are used to refer to some person or 
some thing, without indicating which particular one is meant. The 
pronouns quis and qui, which we have learned in their interrogative 
and relative uses, may also be indefinite ; and ne arly all the other ^in- 
definite pronouns are compounds of quis or qui and declined almost 
like them. Review the declension of these words, §§ 221, 227. 



0,/nJU 



INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 131 

297. Learn the declension and meaning of the following indefinites : 

Masc. Fem. Neut. 

quis quid, some one, any one (substantive) 

qui qua or quae quod, some, any (adjective), § 483 

aliquis aliquid, some one,- any one (substan- 

tive), § 487 
aliqui aliqua aliquod, some, any (adjective), § 487 

quidam quaedam quoddam, quiddam, a certain, a certain 

one, § 485 
quisquam quicquam or quidqiuim (no plural), any 

one (at all) (substantive), § 486 
quisque quidque, each one, every one (substan- 

tive), § 484 
quisque quaeque quodque, each, every (adjective), § 484 

Note. The meanings of the neuters, something, etc., are easily inferred 
from the masculine and feminine. 

a. In the masculine and neuter singular of the indefinites, quis-forms 
and q uid-forms are mQ athmsed-.as--Sli bstantive s, q ui-forms and.giibd-forms 
as adjectives . 

b. The indefinites quis and qui never stand first in a clause, and are 
rare ^ excepting after si, nisi, ne, n'um (as, si quis, if any one; si quid, if 
anything; nisi quis, unless some one). Generally aliquis and aliqui are 
used instead. 

c. The forms qua and aliqua are both feminine nominative singular 
and neuter nominative plural' of the indefinite adjectives qui and aliqui 
respectiH'ely. How do these differ from the corresponding forms of the 
relative qui? 

d. Observe that quidam (qui -t- -dam) is declined like qui, except that in 
the accusative singular and genitive plural m of_ qui become s, n (ci. § 287. a) : 
quendam, quandam, quorundam, quarundam ; also that the neuter has quid- 
dam (substantive) and quoddam (adjective) in the nominative and accusative 
singular. Quidam is the least indefinite of the indefinite' pronouns, and 
implies that you could name the person or thing referred to if you eared 
to do so. 

e. Quisquam and quisque (substantive) are declined Uke quis. 

f. Quisquam, any one (quicquam or quidquam, anything), is always 
used substantively and chiefly in negative sentences. The corresponding 
adjective anySs, ullus, -a, -um (§ 108). 



132 EXERCISES 

298. EXERCISES • 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 295. 

I. I. Aliquis de ponte in flumen decidit sed sine uUo periculo ser- 
vatus est. 2. Est vero in vita cuiusque hominis aliqua bona fortuna. 
3. Ne militum quidem^ quisquam in castris mansit. 4.Siquem meae 
domi vides, iube cum discedere. 5. Si quis pontem tenet, ne tantus 
quidem exercitus capere urbem potest. 6. Urbs non satis mfinlta erat 
et meridie rex quidam paene copias suas trans pontem tradtixerat. 
7. Denique miles quidam armatus in fluctQs desiluit et incolumis ad 
alteram ripam oculos vertit. 8. Quisque illi forti militl aliquid dare 
debet. 9. Tanta vero virttis Romanis semper placuit. 10. Olim Co- 
rinthus erat urbs satis magna et paene par Romae ipsi ; nunc 
vero moenia deciderunt et pauca vestigia urbis illius reperiri possunt. 
1 1. Quisque libertatem amat, et aliquibus vero nomen regis est invisum. 

II. I. If you see a certain Cornelius at Corinth, send him to me. 
2. Almost all the soldiers who fell down into the waves were un- 
harmed. 3. Not even at Pompeii did I see so great a fire. 4. I 
myself was eager to tell something to some one. 5. Each one was 
praising his own work. 6. Did you see some one in the country? 
I did not see any one. 7. Unless some one will remain on the bridge 
with Horatius, the commonwealth will be in the greatest danger. 

299. How Horatius held the Bridge {Concluded) 

Mox, ubi parva pars pontis mansit, Horatius iussit comites disce- 
dere et solus mira constantia impetum illius totius exercitiis sustinebat. 
Denique magno fragore pons in fliimen decidit. Tum vero Horatius 
tergum vertit et armatus in aquas desUuit. In eum hostes multa tela 
5 iecerunt ; incolumis autem per fluctus ad alteram ripam tranavit. Ei 
propter tantas res gestas populus Romanus non solum alia magna 
praemia dedit sed etiam statuam Horati in loco pQblico posuit. 

Sixth Review, Lessons XLV-LII, §§ 521-523 

^Observe that quidam and quidem are different words. 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 



133 



LESSON LIU 
REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 

300. The quality denoted by an adjective may exist in either a higher or 
a lower degree, and this is expressed by a form of inflection called compari- 
son. The mere presence of the quality is expressed by the positive degree, 
its presence in a higher or lower degree by the comparative, and in the 
highest or lowest of all by the superlative. In English the usual way of 
comparing an adjective is by using the suffix -er for the comparative and 
-est for the superlative; as, positive high, comparative higher, superlative 
highest. Less frequently we use the adverbs more and most; as, positive 
beautiful, comparative more beautiful, superlative most beautiful. 

In Latin, as in English, adjectives are compared by adding suffixes 
or by using adverbs. 

301. Adjectives are compared by using suffixes as follovirs : 



Positive 
clams, -a, -um {bright) 

(Base clar-) 
brevis, breve {short) 

(Base brev-) 
velox {swift) 

(Base veloc-) 



Superlative 
clarissimus, -a, -um 

{brightest) 
brevissimus, -a, -um 

{shortest) 
velocissimus, -a, -um 

{swiftest) 



Comparative 
clarior, clarius 

{brighter) 
brevior, brevius 

{shorter) 
velocior, velocius 

{swifter) 

a. The comparative is formed from the base of the positive by adding 
-ior masc. and fem., and -ius neut. ; the superlative by adding -issimus, 
-issima, -issimum. 

302. Less frequently adjectives are compared by using the adverbs 
magis, more; maxime, most; as, idoneus, suitable; magis idoneus, 
more suitable ; maxime idoneus, most suitable. 

303. Declension of the Comparative. Adjectives of the comparative 
degree are declined as follows : 



Singular 


Plural 


MASC. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. clarior 


clarius 


clariSres 


clariora 


Gen. clarioris 


clarioris 


clariorum 


clariorum 


Dat. clariori 


clariori 


clarioribus 


clarioribus 


Ace. clariorem 


clarius 


clariores 


clariora 


Abl. clariore 


clariore 


clarioribus 


clarioribus 



134 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 

a. Observe that the endings are those of the consonant stems of the 
third declension. 

b. Compare longus, long; fortis, brave; recens (base, recent-), recent; 
and decline the comparative of each. 

304. Adjectives in -er form the comparative regularly, but the super- 
lative is formed by adding -rimus, -a, -um to the nominative masculine 
of the positive ; as, 

Positive Comparative Superlative 

acer, acris, acre acrior, acrius acerrimus, -a, -um 

(Base acr-) 
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum pulchrior, pulchrius pulcherrimus, -a, -um 

(Base pulchr-) 
liber, libera, liberum liberior, liberius liberrimus, -a, -um 

(Base liber-) 

'a. In a similar manner compare miser, aeger, creber. 

305. The comparative is often translated by quite, too, or somewhat, 
and the superlative by very; as, altior, quite (too, somewhat') high; altis- 
simus, very high. 

306. EXERCISES 
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296. 

I. 1. Quid exploratores quaerebant? Exploratores tempus oppor- 
tunissimum itineri quaerebant. 2. Media in silva ignis quam creber- 
rimos fecimus, quod feras tam audacis numquam antea videramus. 
3. Antiquis temporibus German! erant fortiores quam Galll. 4. Caesar 
erat clarior quam inimici^ qui eum necaverunt. 5. Quisque sciitum 
ingens et pilum longius gerebat. 6. Apud barbaros German! erant 
audacissimi et fortissimi. 7. Mens hominum est celerior quam corpus. 
8. Viri aliquarum terrarum sunt miserrimi. 9. Corpora Germanorum 
erant ingentiora quam Romanorum. 10. Acerrimi Gallorum principes 
sine ulla mora trans fiumen quoddam equos velocissimos traduxerunt. 
II. Aestate dies sunt longiores quam hieme. 12. Imperator quidam 
ab exploratoribus de recent! adventu navium longarum quaesivit. 

II. I. Of all birds the eagle is the svsriftest. 2. Certain animals 
are swifter than the swiftest horse. 3. The Roman name was most 

• ' Why is this word used instead of hostes ? 



IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 135 

hateful to the enemies of the commonwealth. 4. The Romans always 
inflicted the severest-' punishment on faithless allies. 5. I was quite 
ill, and so I hastened from the city to the country. 6. Marcus had 
some friends dearer than Caesar.^ 7. Did you not seek a more recent 
report concerning the battle ? 8. Not even after a victory so opportune 
did he seek the general's friendship. 

N.B. Beginning at this point, the selections for reading will be found 
near the end of the volume. (See p. 197.) 



LESSON LIV 

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES ■ THE ABLATIVE 
WITH COMPARATIVES WITHOUT QUAM 

307. The following six adjectives in -lis form the comparative 
regularly ; but the superlative is formed by adding -limus to the base 
of the positive. Learn the meanings and comparison. 

Positive Comparative Superlative 

facilis, -6, easy facilior, -ius facillimus, -a, -um 

difflcilis, -e, hard difflcilior, -ius difflcillimus, -a, -um 

similis, -e, like similior, -ius simillimus, -a, -um 

dissimilis, -e, unlike dissimilior, -ius dissimillimus, -a, -um 

gracilis, -e, slender gracilior, -ius gracillimus, -a, -um 

humilis, -e, low humilior, -ius humilllmus, -a, -um 

308. From the knowledge gained in the preceding lesson we 
should translate the sentence Nothing is brighter than the sun 

Nihil est clarius quam sol 

But the Romans, especially in negative sentences, often expressed 
the comparison in this way. 

Nihil est clarius sole 

which, literally translated, is Nothing is brighter away from the sun ; 
that is, starting from the sun as a standard, nothing is brighter. This 
relation is expressed by the separative ablative sole. Hence the rule 

1 Use the superlative of gravis. 2 Accusative. In a comparison the noun 
after quam is in the same case as the one before it. 



136 



ABLATIVE WITH COMPARATIVES 



309. Rule. Ablative with Comparatives. The comparative de- 
gree, if quam is omitted, is followed by the separative ablative. 



310. 



EXERCISES 



First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296. 

I. 1. Nemo milites alacriores Romanis vidit. 2. Statim imperator 
iussit nuntios quam celerrimos litteras Romam portare. 3. Multa 
flumina sunt leniora Rheno. 4. Apud Romanes quis erat clarior 
Caesare? 5. Nihil pulchrius urbe Roma vidi. 6. Subito multitude 
audacissima magno clamore proelium acrius commisit. 7. Num est 
equus tuus tardus ? Non vero tardus, sed celerior aquila. 8. Ubi 
Romae fui, nemo erat mihi amicior Sexto. 9. Quaedam mulieres 
cibum militibus dare cupiverunt. 10. Rex vetuit civis ex urbe noctu 
discedere. 11. lUe puer est gracilior hac muliere. 12. Explorator 
duas {two) vias, alteram facilem, alteram difficiliorem, demonstravit. 

II. I . What city have you seen more beautiful than Rome ? 2. The 
Gauls were not more eager than the Germans. 3. The eagle is not 
slower than the horse. 4. The spirited woman did not fear to make 
the journey by night. 5. The mind of the multitude was quite gentle 
and friendly. 6. But the king's mind was very different. 7. The king 
was not like (similar to) his noble father. 8. These hills are lower 
than the huge mountains of our territory. 




ARMA ROMANA 



IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 137 



LESSON LV 

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (Continued) 

311. Some adjectives in English have irregular comparison, as gooi^, 
better, best; many, more, most. So Latin comparison presents some 
irregularities. Among the adjectives that are compared irregularly are 



Positive 
bonus, -a, -um, good 
magnus, -a, -um, great 
malus, -a, -um, bad 
multus, -a, -um, jnuch 
multi, -ae, -a, many 
parvus, -a, -um, small 



Comparative 
melior, melius 
maior, maius 
peior, peius 

, plus 

plures, plura 
minor, minus 



Superlative 
optimus, -a, -um 
maximus, -a, -um 
pessimus, -a, -um 
pliirimus, -a, -um 
pliirimi, -ae, -a 
minimus, -a, -um 



312. The following four adjectives have two superlatives. Unusual 
forms are placed in parentheses. 



exterus, -a, -um, 

outward 
inferus, -a, -um, 

low 
posterns, -a, -um, 

next 
superus, -a, -um, 

above 



(exterior, -ius, 

outer) 
inferior, -ius, 

lower 
(posterior, -ius, 

later) 
superior, -ius, 

higher 



f extremus, -a, -um 1 outermost, 
\(extimus, -a, -um) / last 

infimus, -a, -um 1 

imus, -a, -um J 

postremus, -a, -um '1 

(postumus, -a, -um) J 
(supremus,-a,-um| 
|_ summus, -a, -van. J " 



lowest 
last 



313. Pliis, more (plural more, many, several), is declined as follows : 
Singular 



MAsc. and fem. 

Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Abl. 



NEUT. 

plus 
pluris 



plus 
plure 



Plural 




MASC. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


plures 


plura 


plurium 


plurium 


pluribus 


pliiribus 


pluris, -es 


plura 


pluribus 


pluribus 



a. In the singular pliis is used only as a neuter substantive. 



138 IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 

314. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296. 

I. I. Reliqui hostes, qui a dextro cornu proelium commlserant, de 
superiore loco fugerunt et sese in silvam maximam receperunt. 2. In 
extrema parte silvae castra hostium posita erant. 3. Plurimi captivl ab 
equitibus ad Caesarem ducti sunt. 4. Caesar vero iussit eos in servi- 
tutem tradi. 5. Postero die magna multitiido mulierum ab Romanis 
in valle ima reperta est. 6. Hae mulieres maxime perterritae adventu 
Caesaris sese occldere studebant. 7. Eae quoque pluris fabulas de exer- 
citus Romani sceleribus audiverant. 8. Fama illorum militum optima 
non erat. 9. In barbarorum aedificils maior copia frumenti reperta 
est. 10. Nemo crebrls proelils contendere sine'aliquo periculo potest. 

II. I. The remaining women fled from their dwellings and hid 
themselves. 2. They were terrified and did not wish to be captured 
and given over into slavery. 3. Nothing can be worse than slavery. 
4. Slavery is worse than death. 5 . In the Roman empire a great many 
were killed because they refused to be slaves. 6. To surrender the 
fatherland is the worst crime. 

LESSON LVI 

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (Concluded) ■ ABLATIVE 
OF THE MEASURE OF DIFFERENCE 

315. The following adjectives are irregular in the formation of the 
superlative and have no positive. Forms rarely used are in paren- 
theses. 

Comparative Superlative 

citerior, AMer (citimus, hithermost) 

interior, inner (intimus, inmost) 

T^xiox, former primus, yfrj^ 

propior, nearer proximus, next, nearest 

ulterior, further ultimus, furthest 

316. In the sentence Galba is a head taller than Sextus, the phrase 
a head taller 'txpiesses the measure of difference in height between 



Examples - 



ABLATIVE OF THE MEASURE OF DIFFERENCE 139 

Galba and Sextus. The Latin form of expression would be Galba is 
taller than Sextus by a head. This is clearly an ablative relation, and 
the construction is called the ablative of the measure of difference. 
' Galba est altior capite quam Sextus 
Galba is a head taller (taller by a head) than Sextus. 
lUud iter ad Italiam est multo brevius 
That route to Italy is much shorter (shorter by much) 

317. Rule. Ablative of the Measure of Difference. With com- 
paratives and words implying comparison the ablative is used 
to denote the measure of difference. 

a. Especially common in this construction are the neuter ablatives 
eo, by this, by that nihilo,'^ by nothing 

hoc, by this paulo, by a little 

multo, by 7nuch 

318. EXERCISES 
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297. 

I. I. Barbari proelium committere statuerunt eo magis quod Ro- 
manl infirmi esse videbantur. 2. Meum consilium est multo melius 
quam tuum quia multo facilius est. 3. Haec via est multo latior quam 
ilia. 4. Barbari erant nihilo tardiores quam Romanl. 5. Tuus equus 
est paulo celerior quam mens. 6. li qui paulo fortiores erant pro- 
hibuerunt reliquos aditum relinquere. 7 . Inter Ulas civitates Germania 
milites habet optimos. 8. Propior via quae per banc vallem ducit est 
inter portum et lacum. 9. Servi, qui agros citeriores incolebant, priores 
dominos relinquere non cupiverunt, quod eos amabant. 10. Ultimae 
Germaniae partes numquam in fidem Romanorum venerunt. 1 1 . Nam 
trans Rhenum aditus erat multo difficilior exercitui Romano. 

II. I. Another way much more difficult (more difficult by much) 
was left through hither Gaul. 2. In ancient times no state was 
stronger than the Roman empire. 3. The states of further Gaul did 
not wish to give hostages to Caesar. 4. Slavery is no better (better by 
nothing) than death. 5. The best citizens are not loved by the worst. 
6. The active enemy immediately withdrew into the nearest forest, 
for they were terrified by Csesar's recent victories. 

1 nihil was originally nihUum and declined like pilum. There is no plural. 



140 



FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 



LESSON LVII 
FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 

319. Adverbs are generally derived from adjectives, as in English 
(e.g. adj. sweet, adv. sweetly). Like adjectives, they can be compared; 
but they have no declension. 

320. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the first and second de- 
clensions are formed and compared as follows : 





Positive 


Comparative 


Superlative 


Adj. 


carus, dear 


carior 


carissimus 


Adv. 


care, dearly 


carius 


carissime 


Adj. 


pulcher, beautiful 


pulchrior 


pulcherrimus 


Adv. 


pulchre, beautifully 


pulchrius 


pulcherrime 


Adj. 


liber, free 


liberior 


liberrimus 


Adv. 


libere, freely 


liberius 


liberrime 



a. The positive of the adverb is formed by adding -e to the base of the 
positive of the adjective. The superlative of the adverb is formed from the 
superlative of the adjective in the same way. 

b. The comparative of any adverb is the neuter accusative singular of 
the comparative of the adjective. 

321. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the third declension are 
formed like those described above in the comparative and superlative. 
The positive is usually formed by adding -iter to the base of adjectives 
of three endings or of two endings, and -ter to the base of those of 
one ending ; -^ as. 





Positive 


Comparative 


Superlative 


Adj. 


fortis, brave 


fortior 


fortissimus 


Adv. 


fortiter, bravely 


fortius 


fortissime 


Adj. 


audax, bold 


audacior 


audacissitnus 


Adv. 


audacter, boldly 


audacius 


audacissime 



1 This is a^ood working rule, though there are some exceptions to it. 



FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 141 

322. Case Forms as Adverbs. As we learned above, the neuter 
accusative of comparatives is used adverbially. So in the positive or 
superlative some adjectives, instead of following the usual formation, 
use the accusative or the ablative singular neuter adverbially ; as. 



Adj. facilis, easy 
Adv. facile (ace), easily 




■primvis, frst 
primum (ace), frst 
primo (abl.), at first 


Adj. multus, many 
Adv. multum (ace), much 
multo (abl.), by much 


! 


plurimus, most 
plurimum (ace), m-ost 


23. Learn the following irregular comparisons : 


bene, well melius, 
diu, long (time) diutius, 
magnopere, greatly magis, : 
parum, little minus, 


better 
longer 

more 

less 


optime, best 
diutissime, longest 
maxime, most 
minime, least 


prope, nearly, near propius 
saepe, often saepius, 


, nearer 
, oftener 


proxime, nearest 
saepissime, oftenest 



324. Form adverbs from the following adjectives, using the regular 
rules, and compare them : laetus, superbus, molestus, amicus, acer, 
brevis, gravis, recens. 

325. Rule. Adverbs. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and 
other adverbs. 

326. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297. 

I. I. Nulla res melius gesta est quam proelium illud^ ubi Marius 
multo minore exercitu multo maiores copias Germanorum in fugam 
dedit. 2. Audacter in Romanorum cohortis hostes impetus fecerunt. 
3. Marius autem omnes hos fortissime sustinuit. 4. Barbarl nihilo 
fortiores erant quam Roman!. 5. Primo barbari esse superiores 
videbantur, tum Romani acrius contenderunt. 6. Denique, ubi iam 
diutissime paene aequo proelio pugnaturn est, barbari fugam petierunt. 
7. Quaedam Germanorum gentes, simul atque rumorem iUius calami- 
tatis audlverunt, sese in ultimis regionibus finium suorum abdiderunt. 
1 iUe standing after its noun means that well-known, that famous. 



142 



NUMERALS 



8. Romanl saepius quam hostes vicerunt, quod meliora arma habebant. 

9. Inter omnis gentis Romani plurimum valebant. 10. Hae cohortes 
simul atque in aequiorem regionem se receperunt, castra sine tilla 
difficultate posuerunt. 

II. I. Some nations are easily overcome by their enemies. 2. Ger- 
many is much larger than Gaul. 3. Were not the Romans the most 
powerful among the tribes of Italy ? 4. On account of (his) wounds 
the soldier dragged his body from the ditch with the greatest difficulty. 
5. He was able neither to run nor to fight. 6. Who saved him? A 
certain horseman boldly undertook the matter. 7. The rumors con- 
cerning the soldier's death were not true. 



LESSON LVIII 
NUMERALS • THE PARTITIVE GENITIVE 

327. The Latin numeral adjectives may be classified as follows : 

1. Cardinal Numerals, answering the question how many ? as, unus, 
one; duo, two ; etc. 

2. Ordinal Numerals, derived in most cases from the cardinals and 
answering the question in what order 2 as, \ix\m\\&, first ; secundus, 
second; etc. 

3. Distributive Numerals, answering the question how many at a 
time 1 as, singuli, one at a time. 

328. The Cardinal Numerals. The first twenty of the cardinals are 
as follows : 



I, unus 


6, sex 


1 1 , undecim 


16, sedecim 


2, duo 


7, septem 


12, duodecim 


17, septendecim 


3, tres 


8, octo 


13, tredecim 


18, duodeviginti 


4, quattuor 


9, novem 


14, quattuordecim 


19, undeviginti 


5, quinque 


10, decern 


15, quindecim 


20, viginti 



a. Learn also centum = 100, ducenti = 200, mille = 1000. 

329. Declension of the Cardinals. Of the cardinals only unus, duo, 
tres, the hundreds above one hundred, and mille used as a noun, are 
declinable. • 



THE PARTITIVE GENITIVE 143 

a. unus is one of the nine irregular adjectives, and is declined like nullus 
(of. §§ 109, 470). The plural of unus is used to agree with a plural noun of 
a singular meaning, as, iina castra, one campj and with other nouns in the 
sense of only, as, Galli uni, only the Gauls. 

b. Learn the declension of duo, two ; tres, three j and mille, a thousand. 

(§479-) 

c. The hundreds above one hundred are declined like the plural of 
bonus ; as, 

ducenti, -ae, -a 
ducentorum, -arum, -orum 
etc. etc. etc. 

330. We have already become familiar with sentences like the 

following : 

Omnium avium aquila est velocissima 

Of all birds the eagle is the swiftest 
Hoc oraculum erat omnium clarissimum 

This oracle was the most famous of all 

In such sentences the genitive denotes the whole, and the word it 
modifies denotes a part of that whole. Such a genitive, denoting the whole 
of which a part is taken, is called a partitive genitive. 

331. Rule. Partitive Genitive. Words denoting a part are 
often used with the genitive of the whole, known as the partitive 
genitive. 

a. Words denoting a part are especially pronouns, numerals, and other 
adjectives. But cardinal numbers excepting mille regularly take the abla- 
tive with ex or de instead of the partitive genitive. 

b. Mille, a thousand, in the singular is usually an indeclinable adjective 
(as, mille milites, a thousand soldiers), but in the plural it is a declinable 
noun and takes the partitive genitive (as, decem milia militum, ten thousand 
soldiers). 



Examples : 



Fortissimi horum sunt Germani 

The bravest of these are the Germans 

Decem milia hostium interfecta sunt 

Ten thousand (lit. thousands) of the enemy were slain 

Una ex captivis erat soror regis 

One of the captives was the king's sister 



144 THE ACCUSATIVE OF EXTENT 

332. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297. 

I. I . Caesar maximam partem aedificiorum incendit. 2. Magna pars 
munitionis agua fluminis deleta est. 3. Galli huius regionis quinque 
milia hominum coegerant. 4. Duo ex meis fratribus eundem rumorem 
audlverunt. 5. Quis Romanorum erat clarior Caesare ? 6. Quinque 
cohortes ex ilia legione castra quam fortissime defendebant. 7. Hie 
locus aberat aequo spatio ^ ab castris Caesaris et castris Germanoruni. 

8. Caesar simul atque pervenit, plus commeatus ab sociis postulavit. 

9. Nonne mercatores magnitudiriem insulae cognoverant ? Longitudi- 
nem sed non latitudinem cognoverant. 10. Pauci hostium obtinebant 
collem quern exploratores nostri viderunt. 

II. I . I have two brothers, and one of them lives at Rome. 2. Cassar 
stormed that very town with three legions. 3. In one hour he de- 
stroyed a great part of the fortification. 4. When the enemy could 
no longer ^ defend the gates, they retreated to a hill which was not 
far distant.' 5. There three thousand of them bravely resisted the 
Romans.* 

LESSON LIX 
NUMERALS (Continued) ■ THE ACCUSATIVE OF EXTENT 

333. Learn the first twenty of the ordinal numerals (§ 478). 
The ordinals are all declined like bonus. 

334. The distributive numerals are declined like the plural of bonus. 
The first three are 

singuli, -ae, -a, one eacA, one by one 
bini, -ae, -a, two each, two by two 
terni, -ae, -a, three each, three by three 

335. We have learned that, besides its use as object, the accusative 
is used to express space relations not covered by the ablative. We 
have had such expressions as per plurimos annos, for a great many 

1 Ablative of the measure of difference. 2 jsjgt lougius. Why? ^ Latin, 
ivas distant by a smatt space. * Not the accusative. 



THE ACCUSATIVE OF EXTENT 145 

years; per totum diem, for a whole day. Here the space felation is 
one of extent of time. We could also say per decern pedes, _/iir ten feet, 
where the space relation is one of extent of space. While this is correct 
Latin, the usual form is to use the accusative with no preposition, as, 

Vir totum diem cucurrit, the man ran for a whole day 

Caesar munim decem pedes movit, Ccssar moved the wall ten feet 

336. Rule. Accusative of Extent. Duration of time and ex- 
tent of space are expressed by the accusative. 

a. This accusative answers the questions how long? how far f 

b. Distinguish carefully between the accusative of time how long and 
the ablative of time when, or within which. 

Select the accusatives of time and space and the ablatives of time 
in the following : 

When did the general arrive ? He arrived at two o'clock. How long had 
he been marching? For four days. How far did he march? He marched 
sixty-five miles. Where has he pitched his camp? Three miles from the 
river, and he will remain there several days. The wall around the camp is 
ten feet high. When did the war begin ? In the first year after the king's 
death. 

337. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 298. 

I. CcBsar in Gaul. Caesar helium in Gallia septem annos gessit. 

Primo anno Helvetios vicit, et eodem anno multae Germanorum 

gentes ei sese dediderunt. Multos iam annos German! Gallos vexa- 

bant ^ et duces German! copias suas trans Rhenum saepe tradiicebant.^ ' 

Non singuli veniebant, sed multa milia hominum in Galliam contende- 5 

bant. Qua de causa principes Galliae concilium convocaverunt atque 

statuerunt legates ad Caesarem mittere. Caesar, simul atque hunc 

rumorem audlvit, copias suas sine mora coegit. Prima luce fortiter 

cum Germanis proelium commTsit. Totum diem acriter pugnatum 

est. Caesar ipse a dextro cornu aciem duxit. Magna pars exercitus 10 

German! cecidit. Post magnam caedem pauc! multa milia passuum 

ad flumen fugerunt. 

1 Translate as if pluperfect 



146 DEPONENT VERBS 

II. I. Caesar. pitched camp two miles from the river. 2. He forti- 
fied the camp with a ditch fifteen feet wide and a rampart nine feet 
high. 3. The camp of the enemy was a great way off (was distant by a 
great space). 4. On the next day he marched ten miles in three hours. 
5. Suddenly the enemy with all their forces made an attack upon (in 
with aa.) the rear. 6. For two hours the Romans were hard pressed 
by the barbarians. 7. In three hours the barbarians were fleeing. 

LESSON LX 
DEPONENT VERBS 

338. A number of verbs are passive in form but active in meaning; 
as, hortor, / encourage ; vereor, I fear. Such verbs are called deponent 
because they have laid aside (de-ponere, to lay aside) the active forms. 

a. Besides having all the forms of the passive, deponent verbs have also 
the future active infinitive and a few other active forms which will be noted 
later. (See §§ 375, 403. b) 

339. The principal parts of deponents are of course passive in 
form, as, 

Conj. I hortor, hortari, hortatus sum, encourage 

Conj. II vereor, vereri, veritus sum., fear 
Conj. Ill {a) sequor, sequi, secutus sum., follow 

(i) patior, pati, passus sum, suffer, allow 
Conj. IV partior, partiri, partitus sum, share, divide 

Learn the synopses of these verbs. (See § 493.) Patior is conjugated like 
the passive of capio (§ 492). 

340. ^PREPOSITIONS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE 

The prepositions with the accusative that occur most frequently are 

ante, before intra, withiti 

apud, among ob, on account of (quam ob rem, 

circum, around wherefore, therefore) 

contra, against, contrary to per, through, by means of 

extra, outside of post, after, behind 

in, into, in, against, upon propter, on account of, because of 

inter, between, among trans, across, over 

a. Most of these you have had before. Review the old ones and learn 
the new ones. Review the list of prepositions governing the ablative, § 209. 



EXERCISES 147 

341. EXERCISES 

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 298. 

I. I. Tres ex legatis, contra Caesaris opinionem, iter facere per 
hostium finis verebantur. 2. Quis eos hortatus est ? Imperator eos 
hortatus est et iis persuadere conatus est, sed non potuit. 3. Quid 
legates perterruit ? Aut timor hostium, qui undique premebant, aut 
longitudo viae eos perterruit. 4. Tamen omnes fere Caesarem multo 
magis quam hostis veriti sunt. 5. Fortissimae gentes Galliae ex Ger- 
manis oriebantur. 6. Quam ob rem tam fortes erant ? Quia nee 
vinum nee alia quae virtutem delent ad se portari patiebantur. 
7. Caesar ex mercatoribus de insula Britannia quaeslvit, sed nihil 
cognoscere potuit. 8. Itaque ipse statuit banc terram petere, et fere 
media aestate cum multis navibus longis profectus est. g. Magna 
celeritate iter confecit et in opportunissimo loco egressus est. 10. Bar- 
bari summis viribus eum ab insula prohibere conati sunt. 1 1 . Ille 
autem barbaros multa milia passuum insecutus est ; tamen sine 
equitatii eos consequi non potuit. 

II. I. Contrary to our expectation, the enemy fled and the cavalry 
followed close after them. 2. From all parts of the multitude the 
shouts arose of those who were being wounded. 3. Caesar did not 
allow the cavalry to pursue too far.^ 4. The cavalry set out at the 
first hour and was returning '■' to camp at the fourth hour. 5 . Around 
the Roman camp was a rampart twelve feet high. 6. Cassar will 
delay three days because of the grain supply. 7. Nearly all the lieu- 
tenants feared the enemy and attempted to delay the march. 

'■ Comparative of longe. ^ Will tliis be a deponent or an active form ? 

Seventh Review, Lessons LIII-LX, §§ 524-526 




PART III 



CONSTRUCTIONS 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 



The preceding part of this book has been concerned chiefly with forms and 
vocabulary. There remain still to be learned the forms of the Subjunctive 
Mood, the Participles, and the Gerund of the regular verb, and the conjugation 
of the commoner irregular verbs. These will be taken up in connection with 
the study of constructions, which will be the chief subject of our future work. 
The special vocabularies of the preceding lessons contain, exclusive of proper 
names, about six hundred words. As these are among the commonest words 
in the language, they must be mastered. They properly form the basis of the 
study of words, and will be reviewed and used with but few additions in the 
remaining lessons. 

For practice in reading and to illustrate the constructions presented, a con- 
tinued story has been prepared and may be begun at this point (see p. 204). 
It has been divided into chapters of convenient length to accompany progress 
through the lessons, but may be read with equal profit after the lessons are 
finished. The story gives an account of the life and adventures of Publius 
Cornelius Lentulus, a Roman boy, who fought in Cassar's campaigns and 
shared in his triumph. The colored plates illustrating the story are faithful 
representations of ancient life and are deserving of careful study. 

148 



Plate III 




CAPTIVI INTERROGAN^TUR 
(See page 221) 



THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 



149 



LESSON LXI 

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 

342. In addition to the indicative, imperative, and infinitive moods, 
which you have learned, Latin has a fourth mood called the subjunc- 
tive. The tenses of the subjunctive are 



Present 
Imperfect 
Perfect 
Pluperfect 



Active and Passive 



343. The tenses of the subjunctive have the same' time values as 
the corresponding tenses of the indicative, and, in addition, each of 
them, may refer to future time. No meanings of the tenses will be given 
in the paradigms, as the translation varies with the construction used. 

344. The present subjunctive is inflected as follows : 





CONJ. I 


CONJ. II 


. CONJ. 

Active Voice 
singular 


III 


CONJ. I 


I. 


a'mem 


mo'neam 


re'gam 


ca'piam 


au'diam 


2. 


a'mes 


mo'neas 


re'gas 


ca'pias 


au'dias 


3- 


a'met 


mo'neat 


re'gat 

PLURAL 


ca'piat 


au'diat 


I. 


ame'mus 


raonea'mus 


rega'mus 


capia'mus 


audia'mu 


2. 


ame'tis 


monea'tis 


rega'tis 


capia'tis 


audia'tis 


3- 


a'ment 


mo'neant 


re'gant 

Passive Voice 


ca'piant 


au'diant 



1. a'mer mo near 

2. ame'ris (-re) monea'ris (-re) 

3. ame'tur monea'tur 



SINGULAR 

re'gar ca'piar au'diar 

rega'ris (-re) capia'ris (-re) audia'ris (-re) 

rega'tur capia'tur audia'tur 



150 



THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 



1. ame mur 

2. ame'mini 

3. araen'tur 



monea mur 
monea'mini 
monean'tur 



PLURAL 

rega'mur 
rega'mini 
regan'tur 



capia mur 
capia'mini 
capian'tur 



audia'mur 
audia'mmi 
audian'tur 



a. The present subjunctive is formed from the present stem. 

b. The mood sign of the present subjunctive is -e- in the first conjuga- 
tion and -a- in the others. It is shortened in the usual places (cf. § 12), and 
takes the place of the final vowel of the stem in the first and third conjuga- 
tions, but not in the second and fourth. 

c. The personal endings are the same as in the indicative. 

d. In a similar way inflect the present subjunctive of ciiro, iubeo, sumo, 
iacio, miinio. 

345. The present subjunctive of the irregular verb sum is 
inflected as follows : 



Sing. 



1. sun 

2. sis 

3. sit 



Plur. 




346. The Indicative and Subjunctive Compared, i. The two most 
important of the finite moods are the indicative and the subjunctive. 
The indicative deals with facts either real or assumed. If, then, we 
wish to assert something as a fact or to inquire after a fact, we use 
the indicative. 

2. On the other hand, if we wish to express a desire or wish, a 
purpose, a possibility, an expectation, or some such notion, we must 
use the subjunctive. The following sentences illustrate the difference 
between the indicative and the subjunctive ideas. 



Indicative Ideas 

1. He is brave 
Fortis est 

2. We set out at once 
Statim proflciscimur 

3. You hear him every day 
Cotidie eum audls 



Subjunctive Ideas 

1. May he be brave 

Fortis sit (idea of wishing) 

2. Let us set out at once 

Statim proficiscamur (idea of will- 
ing) 

3. You can hear him every day . 
Cotidie eum audias (idea of possi- 
bility) 



INDICATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE COMPARED 1 5 1 

Indicative Ideas Subjunctive Ideas 

4. He remained until the skip 4. He waited until the ship should 

arrived arrive 

Mansit dum navis pervenit Exspectavit dum navis perreni- 

ret '^ (idea of expectation) 

5. Ccesar sends men who find the 5. Ccesar sends men who are to 

bridge find {fix to find) the bridge 

Caesar mittit homines qui pontem Caesar hotnises mittit qui pontem 

reperiunt reperiant (idea of purpose) 

Note. From the sentences above we observe that the subjunctive may be 
used in either independent or dependent clauses ; but it is far more common 
in the latter than in the former. 

347. EXERCISE 

Which verbs in the following paragraph would be in the indicative and 
which in the subjunctive in a Latin translation ? 

There have been times in the history of our country when you might 
be proud of being an American citizen. Do you remember the day 
when Dewey sailed into Manila Bay to capture or destroy the enemy's 
fleet ? You might have seen the admiral standing on the bridge calmly 
giving his orders. He did not even wait until the mines should be 
removed from the harbor's mouth, but sailed in at once. Let us not 
despair of our country while such valor exists, and may the future add 
new glories to the past. 

LESSON LXII 
THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE 

348. Observe the sentence 

Caesar homines mittit qui pontem reperiant, Casar sends m.en 
to find the bridge 

The verb reperiant in the dependent clause is in the subjunctive 
because it tells us what Caesar wants the men to do ; in other words, 
it expresses his will and the purpose in his mind. Such a use of the 
subjunctive is called the subjunctive of purpose. 

1 perveniret, imperfect subjunctive. 



152 THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE 

349. Rule. Subjunctive of Purpose. The subjunctive is used 
in a dependent clause to express the purpose of the action in the 
principal clause. 

350. A clause of purpose is introduced as follows : 

I. If something is wanted, by 

qui, the relative pronoun (as above) 

ut, conj., in order that, that 

quo (abl. of qui, by which), in order that, that, used when 
the purpose clause contains a comparative. The ablative 
quo expresses the measure of difference. (Cf. § 317.) 

II. If something is not wanted, by 

ne, conj., in order that not, that not, lest 

351. EXAMPLES 

1. Caesar copias cogit quibus hostis insequatur 

CcEsar cottects troops -with which to pursue the foe 

2. Pacem petunt ut domum revertantur 

They ask for peace in order tliat they may return home 

3. Pontem faciunt quo facilius oppidum capiant 

They build a bridge that they may take the town more 
easily (lit. by which the more easity) 

4. Fugiunt ne vulnerentur 

They flee that they may not (or lest they) be wounded 

352. Expression of Purpose in English. In English, purpose clauses 
are sometimes introduced by that or in order that, but much more 
frequently purpose is expressed in English by the infinitive, as We 
eat to live, She stoops to conquer. In Latin prose, on the other hand, 
purpose is never expressed by the infinitive. Be on your guard and 
do not let the English idiom betray you into this error. 

353. EXERCISES 

I. 

^^ . rducant, mittant, videant, audiant, 

1. Veniunt ut -^ ,_ . ., ' . 

Lducantur, mittantur, videantur, audiantur. 

„ . _ f capiamur, tradamur, videamus, 

2. Fugimus ne -^ _ ._ . _ 

• Lnecemur, rapiamur, resistamus. 



THE IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE 



153 



3. Mittit nuntios rdicant, audiant, veniant, 

qui Inarrent, audiantur, in concilio sedeant. 

4. Castra muniunt rsese defendant, impetum sustineant, * 

quo facilius Ihostis vincant, salutem petant. 

II. I. The Helvetii send ambassadors to seek ^ peace. 2. They are 
setting out at daybreak in order that they may make a longer march 
before night. 3. They will hide the women in the forest {ace. with in) 
that they may not be captured. 4. The Gauls wage many wars to 
free^ their fatherland from slavery. 5. They will resist the Romans^ 
bravely lest they be destroyed. 



LESSON LXIII 

INFLECTION OF THE IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE 
THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES 

354. The imperfect subjunctive may be formed by adding the 
personal endings to the present active infinitive. 



CONJ. I 

1. ama'rem 

2. ama'res 

3. ama'ret 

1. amare'mus 

2. amare'tis 

3. ama'rent 



CoNj. II 

mone'rem 

mone'res 

mone'ret 

monere'mus 

monere'tis 

mone'rent 



CONJ. Ill 
ACTIVE 

re'gerem 

re'geres 

re'geret 

regere'mus 

regere'tis 

re'gerent 



caperem 

ca'peres 

ca'peret 

capere'mus 

capere'tis 

ca'perent 



CoNj. IV 

audi'rem 

audi'res 

audi'ret 

audire'mus 

audlre'tis 

audi'rent 



PASSIVE 

I. ama'rer mone'rer re'gerer ca'perer audj'rer 

•2. amare'ris(-re) inonere'ris(-re) regere'ris(-re) capere'ris(-re) audTre'ris(-re) 
3. amare'tur monere'tur regere'tur capere'tur audire'tur 

1. amare'mur monere'mur regere'mur capere'mur audire'mur 

2. amare'mini monere'inini regere'mini capere'mini audire'mini 

3. amaren'tur moneren'tur regeren'tur caperen'tur audlren'tur 

a. In a similar way inflect the imperfect subjunctive, active and passive, 
of euro, iubeo, sumo, iacio, munio. 

1 Not infinitive. ^ Not accusative. 



154 



SEQUENCE OF TENSES 



355. The imperfect subjunctive of the irregular verb sum is in- 
fiected as follows : 



Sing. 




Plur.- 



T. esse mus 

2. esse'tis 

3. es'sent 



356. The three great distinctions of time are present, past, and future. 
All tenses referring to present or future time are called primary tenses, and 
those referring to past time are called secondary tenses. Now it is a very 
common law of language that in a complex sentence the tense in the de- 
pendent clause should be of the same kind as the tense in the principal 
clause. In the sentence He says that he is coming, the principal verb, says, 
is present, that is, is in a primary tense ; and is coming, in the dependent 
clause, is naturally also primary. If I change he says to he said, — in other 
words, if I make the principal verb secondary in character, — ■ I feel it 
natural to change the verb in the dependent clause also, and I say, He said 
that he was coming. This following of a tense by another of the same kind 
is called tense sequence, from sequi, " to follow." 

In Latin the law of tense sequence is obeyed with considerable 
regularity, especially when an indicative in the principal clause is 
followed by a subjunctive in the dependent clause. Then a primary 
tense of the indicative is followed by a primary tense of the subjunc- 
tive, and a secondary tense of the indicative is followed by a second- 
ary tense of the subjunctive. Learn the following table : 



357. 



Table for Sequence of Tenses 



I 

i 


Principal Verb in the 
Indicative 


Dependent Verbs in the Subjunctive 


IncoTnplete or Con- 
tinuing Action 


Completed Action 


Present 

Future 

Future perfect 


Present 


Perfect 


Imperfect 
Perfect 

Pluperfect 

• 


Imperfect 


Pluperfect 



SEQUENCE-OF TENSES 155 

358. Rule. Sequence of Tenses. Primary tenses are followed 
by primary tenses and secondary by secondary. 

359. EXAMPLES 

I. Primary tenses in principal and dependent clauses : 

Mittit I 

Mittet f- homines ut agros vastent 

Miserit J 
r sends T f that they may 1 

He J. 'will send \men\ in order to \lay waste the fields 

\will have sent \ \to J 

II. Secondary tenses in principal and dependent clauses : 

Mittebatl 

Misit I homines ut agros vastarent 

Miserat J 

i was sending "1 ^ that they might~\ 

sent or has sent Imen-l in order to \lay waste the fields 

had sent \ \to J 

360. EXERCISES 

^^_ rducerent, mitterent, viderent, audirent, 

1. Venerant ut-^ ,_ 

Lducerentur, mitterentur, viderentur, audirentur. 

^ . , _ rcaperetur, traderetur, videretur, 

2. Fueiebat ne-^ _ _ 

Inecaretur, raperetur, resisteret. 

,,_ . ._ fdlcerent, audirent, venirent, 

■X. Mlsit nuntios qui { _ _ , . .,._ ,_ 

Lnarrarent, audirentur, m conciho sederent. 

4. Castra mtanlverunt f sese defenderent, impetum sustinerent, 

quo facilius Ihostis vincerent, salutem peterent. 

II. I . Caesar encouraged the soldiers in order that they might fight 
more bravely. 2. The Helvetii left their homes to wage war. 3. The 
scouts set out at once lest they should be captured by the Germans. 
4. Caesar inflicted punishment on them in order that the others might 
be more terrified. 5. He sent messengers to Rome to announce the 
victory. 



156 PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE 



LESSON LXIV 

THE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE 
SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES OF PURPOSE 

361. The perfect and the pluperfect subjunctive active are inflected 
as follows : 



CONJ. I CONJ. II CONJ. Ill 

Perfect Subjunctive Active 



CONJ. IV 









SINGULAR 






I. 


ama'verim 


monu'erim 


re'xerim 


ce'perim 


audrverim 


2. 


ama'veris 


monu'eris 


re'xeris 


ce'peris 


audi'veris 


3- 


ama'verit 


monu'erit 


re'xerit 

PLURAL 


ce'perit 


audi'verit 


I. 


amave'rimus 


monue'rimus 


rexe'rimus 


cepe'rimus 


audive'rimus 


2. 


amave'ritis 


monue'ritis 


rexe'ritis 


cepe'ritis 


audive'ritis 


3- 


ama'verint 


monu'erint 


re'xerint 


ce'perint 


audi'verint 






Pluperfect Subjunctive 


Active 










SINGULAR 






I. 


amavis'sem 


monuis'sem 


rexis'sem 


cepis'sem 


audivis'sem 


2. 


amavis'ses 


monuis'ses 


rexis'ses 


cepis'ses 


audivis'ses 


3- 


amavis'set 


monuis'set 


rexis'set 


cepis'set 


audivis'set 



PLURAL 

1. amavisse'mus monuisse'mus rexisse'mus cepisse'mus audlvisse'mus 

2. amavisse'tis monuisse'tis rexisse'tis cepisse'tis audivisse'tis 

3. amavis'sent monuis'sent rexis'sent cepis'sent audivis'sent 

a. Observe that these two tenses, like the corresponding ones in the 
indicative, are formed from the perfect stem. 

b. Observe that the perfect subjunctive active is like the future perfect 
indicative active, excepting that the first person singular ends in -m and 
not in -0. 

c. Observe that the pluperfect subjunctive active may be formed by 
adding -issem, -isses, etc. to the perfect stem. 

d. In a similar way inflect the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive active 
of euro, iubeq, sumo, iacio, munio. 



PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE 157 

362. The passive of the perfect subjunctive is formed by combining 
the perfect passive participle with sim, the present subjunctive of sum. 



CONJ. I 



1. amatus sim 

2. ama'tus sis 

3. ama'tus sit 

1 . ama'ti simus 

2. ama'ti sitis 

3. ama'ti sint 



CONJ. II CONJ. Ill 

Perfect Subjunctive Passive 



mo nitus Sim 
mo'nitus sis 
mo'nitus sit 



moniti simus 
mo'niti sitis 
mo'niti sint 



SINGULAR 

rec'tus sim 
rec'tus sis 
rec'tus sit 

PLURAI, 

rec'ti simus 
rec'ti sitis 
rec'ti sint 



cap'tus sim 
cap'tus sis 
cap'tus sit 

cap'ti simus 
cap'ti sitis 
cap'ti sint 



CONJ. IV 



audi'tus sim 
audl'tus sis 
audi'tus sit 

audl'ti simus 
audi'ti sitis 
audl'ti sint 



363. The passive of the pluperfect subjunctive is formed by com- 
bining the perfect passive participle with essem, the imperfect sub- 
junctive of sum. 

CONJ. I CONJ. II CONJ. Ill CONJ. IV 

Pluperfect Subjunctive Passive 
singular 

1. amatus essem monitus essem rectus essem captus essem auditus essem 

2. amatus esses monitus esses rectus esses captus esses auditus esses 

3. amatus esset monitus esset rectus esset captus esset auditus esset 

PLURAL 

1 . amata essemus moniti essemus recti essemus capti essemus auditi essemus 

2. amatiessetis moniti essetis recti essetis capti essetis auditi essetis 

3. amatiessent moniti essent recti essent capti essent auditi essent 

a. In a similar way inflect the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive passive 
of ciiro, iubeo, siimo, iacio, munio. 

364. The perfect and pluperfect subjunctive of the irregular verb 
sum are inflected as follows : 



Eerfect 
fu'erim fue'rimus 

fu'eris fue'ritis 

fu'erit fu'erint 



Pluperfect 
fuis'sem fuisse'mus 

fuis'ses fuisse'tis 

fuis'set fuis'sent 



158 SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES OF PURPOSE 

365. A substantive clause is a clause used like a noun, as, 

That the Tnen are afraid is clear enough (clause as subject) 
He ordered them to call on him (clause as object) 

We have already had many instances of infinitive clauses used in this 
way (cf. § 213), and have noted the similarity between Latin and English 
usage in this respect. But the Latin often uses the subjunctive in sub- 
stantive clauses, and this marks an important difference between the two 
languages. 

366. Rule. Substantive Clauses of Purpose. A substantive 
clause of purpose with the subjunctive is used as the object of 
verbs of commanding, urging, asking, persuading, or advising, where 
in English we should usually have the ittfinitive. 

EXAMPLES 

1 . The general ordered the soldiers Imperator militibus imperavit ut 

to run currerent 

2. He urged thejn to resist bravely Hortatus est ut fortiter resisterent 

3. He asked them to give the chil- Petivit ut liberis cibum darent 

dren food 

4. He will persuade us not to set Nobis persuadebit ne proficiscamur 

out 

5. He advises us to remain at home Monet ut dotni maneamus 

a. The object clauses following these verbs all express the purpose or 
will of the principal subject that something be done or not done. (Cf. § 348.) 

367. The following verbs are used with object clauses of purpose. 
Learn the list and the principal parts of the new ones. 

hortor, urge peto, quaero, rogo, ask, seek 

impero, order (with the dative of the persuadeo, persuade (with the same 
person ordered and a subjunctive construction as impero) 

clause of the thing ordered done) postulo, demand, require 

moneo, advise suadeo, advise (cf . persuadeo) 

N.B Remember that iubeo, order, takes the infinitive aS in English. 
(Cf. §213.1.) Compare the sentences 

Iubeo eum venire, I order him to come 

In^ero ei ut veniat, I give orders to him that he is to come 



SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES OF PURPOSE 



159 



We ordinarily translate both of these sentences like the first, but the differ- 
ence in meaning between iubeo and impero in the Latin requires the infinitive 
in the one case and the subjunctive in the other. 

368. EXERCISES 

I. I. Petit atque hortatur ut ipse dicat. 2. Caesar Helvetiis impe- 
ravit ne per provinciam iter facerent. 3. Caesar non iussit Helvetios 
per provinciam iter facere. 4. lUe civibus persuasit ut de finibus suis 
discederent. 5. Caesar principes monebit ne proelium committant. 

6. Postulavit ne cum Helvetiis aut cum eorum sociis bellum gererent. 

7. Ab ils quaesivi ne proficiscerentur. 8. lis persuadere non potui ut 
domi manerent. 

II. I. Who ordered Caesar to make the march ? ( Write this^entence 
both with impero and with iubeo.) 2. The faithless scouts persuaded 
him to set out at daybreak. 3. They wiU ask him not to inflict punish- 
ment. 4. He demanded that they come to the camp. 5. He advised 
them to tell everything (omnia). 

Note. Do not forget that the English infinitive expressing purpose must 
be rendered by a Latin subjunctive. Review § 352. 




LEGIO ITER FACIT 



l6o SUBJUNCTIVE AFTER VERBS OF FEARING 

LESSON LXV 
THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF POSSUM ■ VERBS OF FEARING 

369. Learn the subjunctive of possum (§495), and note especially 
the position of the accent. 

370. Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing. We have learned that 
what we want done or not done is expressed in Latin by a sub- 
junctive clause of purpose. In this class belong also clauses after 
verbs of fearing, for we fear either that something will happen or that 
it will not, and we either want it to happen or we do not. If we want 
a thing to happen and fear that it will not, the purpose clause is in- 
troduced by ut. If we do not want it to happen and fear that it 
will, ne is used. Owing to a difference between the English and Latin 
idiom we translate ut after a verb of fearing by that not, and ne by 
that or lest. 

371. EXAMPLES 

timeo 1 r veniat 
timebo l-utJ 
timuero J [venerit 

T fear, shall fear, shall have feared, that he will not come, 
has not come 

timebam "1 fveniret 
timu! lutJ 
timueramj [venisset 

/ was fearing, feared, had feared, that he would not come, 
had not come 

The same examples with ne instead of ut would be translated I fear 
that or lest he will come, has come, etc. 

372. Rule. Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing. Verbs of fear- 
ing are followed by a substantive clause of purpose introduced 
by ut {that nOt) or ne {that or lest). 



THE PARTICIPLES 



l6l 



373. 



EXERCISES 



I. I. Caesar verebatur ut supplicium captlvorum Gallis placeret. 
2 . Romani ■ ipsi magnopere verebantur ne Helvetii iter per provin- 
ciam facerent. 3. Timebant ut satis rei frQmentariae mitti posset. 
4. Vereor ut hostium impetum sustinere possim. 5. Timuit ne impe- 
dimenta ab hostibus capta essent. 6. Caesar numquam timuit ne 
legiones vincerentur. 7. Legiones pugnare non timuerunt.^ 

II. I. We fear that they are not coming. 2. We fear lest they are 
coming. 3. We feared that they had come. 4. We feared that they 
had not come. 5. They feared greatly that the camp could not be 
defended. 6. Almost all feared ^ to leave the camp. 



LESSON LXVI 



THE PARTICIPLES 



374. The Latin verb has the following Participles : ^ 



CONJ. I 



CONJ. II 



CoNj. Ill 



CoNj. IV 







ACTIVE 






Present 


■ amans 
loving 


monens 
advising 


regens 
ruling 


capiens 
taking 


audiens 
hearing 




' amaturus 


moniturus 


Tectiirus 


capturus 


auditurus 


Future 


about to 


about to 


about to 


about to 


about to 




love 


advise 


rule 


take 


hear 






PASSIVE 








' amatus 


monitus 


rectus 


captus 


audltus 


Perfect 


loved, hav- 


advised, hav- 


ruled, hav- 


taken, hav- 


heard, hav- 


ing been 


ing been 


ing been 


ing been 


ing been 




loved 


advised 


ruled 


taken 


heard 




' amandus 


monendus 


regendus 


capiendus 


audiendus 


Future s ■ 


to be 


to be 


to be 


to be 


to be 




loved 


advised 


ruled 


taken 


heard 



1 Distinguish between what one is afraid to do (complementary infinitive 
as here) and what one is afraid will take place or has taken place (substantive 
clause with the subjunctive). ^ Review § 203. ^ The future passive par- 
ticiple is often called the gerundive. 



l62 



THE PARTICIPLES 



a. The present active and future passive participles are formed from the 
present stem, and the future active and perfect passive participles are 
formed from the participial stem. 

b. The present active participle is formed by adding -ns to the present 
stem. In -io verbs of the third conjugation, and in the fourth conjugation, 
the stem is modified by the addition of -e-, as capi-e-ns, audi-e-ns. It is 
declined like an adjective of one ending of the third declension. (Cf. § 256.) 

amans, loving 
Base amant- Stem amanti- 

SiNGULAR Plural 



MASC. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. amans 


amans 


amantes 


amantia 


Gen. amantis 


amantis 


amantium 


amantium 


Dat. amanti 


amanti 


amantibus 


amantibus 


Ace. amantem 


amans 


amantis or -es 


amantia 


Abl. amanti or -e 


amanti or -e 


amantibus 


amantibus 



(i) When used as an adjective the ablative singular ends in -i ; when used 
as a participle or as a substantive, in -e. 

(2) In a similar way decline monens, regens, capiens, audiens. 

c. The future active participle is formed by adding -urns to the base of 
the participial stem. We have already met this form combined with esse 
to produce the future active infinitive. (Cf. § 206.) 

d. For the perfect passive participle see § 201. The future passive 
participle or gerundive is formed by adding -ndus to the present stem. 

e. All participles in -us are dechned like bonus. 

f. Participles agree with nouns or pronouns like adjectives. 

g. Give all the participles of the following verbs : euro, iubeo, siimo, iacio, 
munio. 

375. Participles of Deponent Verbs. Deponent verbs have the 
participles of the active voice as well as of the passive; consequently 
every deponent verb has four participles, as, 

Pres. Act. hortans, urging 

Fut. Act. hortatiirus, about to urge 

Perf. Pass, (in form) hortatus, having urged 

Fut, fiass. (Gerundive) hortandus, to be urged 



THE PARTICIPLES 1 63 

a. Observe that the perfect participle of deponent verbs is passive in 
form but active in meaning. No other verbs have a perfect active par- 
ticiple. On the other hand, the future passive participle of deponent verbs 
is passive in meaning as in other verbs. 

b. Give the participles of conor, vereor, sequor, patior, partior. 

376. Tenses of the Participle. The tenses express time as follows: 

1 . The present active participle corresponds to the English present 
active participle in -ing, but can be used only of an action occurring 
at the same time as the action of the main verb ; as, milites insequentes 
ceperunt multos, the soldiers, while pursuing, captured many. Here 
the pursuing and the capturing are going on together. 

2. The perfect participle (excepting of deponents) is regularly pas- 
sive and corresponds to the English past participle with or without 
the auxiliary having been ; as, auditus, heard or having been heard. 

3. The future active participle, translated about to, etc., denotes 
time after the action of the main verb. 

377. Review §§ 203, 204, and note the following model sentences: 

1. Milites currentes erant defessi, the soldiers who were running (lit. 
running) were weary. 

2. Caesar profecturus Romam non exspectavit, CcEsar, when about to set 
out (lit. about to set out) for Rome, did not wait. 

3. Oppidum captum vidimus, we saw the town which had been cap- 
tured {^xt. captured town). 

4. Imperator triduum moratus profectus est, the general, since {when, or 
after) he had delayed (lit. the general, having delayed) three days, set out. 

5. Milites victi terga non verterunt, the soldiers, though they were 
conquered (lit. the soldiers conquered), did not retreat. 

In each of these sentences the literal translation of the participle is given 
in parentheses. We note, however, that its proper translation usually re- 
quires a clause beginning with some conjunction (when, since, after, though, 
etc.), or a relative clause. Consider, in each case, what translation will 
best bring out the thought, and do not, as a rule, translate the participle 
literally. 



1 64 THE IRREGULAR VERBS VOLO, NOLO, MALO 

378. EXERCISES 

I. I. Puer timens ne capiatur fugit. 2. Aquila Ira commota avis 
reliquas interficere conata erat. 3. Mllites ab hostibus press! tela iacere 
non potuerunt. 4. Caesar decimam legionem laudaturus ad primum 
agmen progressus est. 5. Imperator hortatus equites ut fortiter pug- 
narent signum proelio dedit. 6. Milites hostis octo milia passuum Inse- 
cuti multis cum captivis ad castra reverterunt. 7. Sol oriens multos 
interfectos vidit. 8. Romani consilium audax suspicati barbaris sese 
non commlserunt. 9. Navis e portu egressa nuUo in perlculo erat. 

II.''- I. The army was in very great danger while marching through' 
the enemy's country. 2. Frightened by the length of the way, they 
longed for home. 3. When the scouts were about to set out, they 
heard the shouts of victory. 4. When we had delayed many days, we 
set fire to the buildings and departed. 5. While living at Rome I 
heard orators much better than these. 6. The soldiers who are fight- 
ing across the river are no braver than we. 



LESSON LXVII 

THE IRREGULAR VERBS VOLO, NOLO, MALO ■ THE ABLATIVE 
WITH A PARTICIPLE, OR ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE 

379. Learn the principal parts and conjugation of volo, wish; nolo 
(ne + volo), be unwilling; malo (magis + volo), he more willing, prefer 
(§ 497). Note the irregularities in the present indicative, subjunctive, 
and infinitive, and in the imperfect subjunctive. (Cf. § 354.) 

a. These verbs are usually followed by the infinitive with or without a 
subject accusative ; as, volunt venire, they wish to comej volunt amicos 
venire, they wish their friends to come. The English usage is the same.^ 

380. Observe the following sentences : 

I. Magistro laudante omnes pueri diligenter laborant, with the teacher 
praising, or since the teacher praises, or the teacher praising, all the boys 
labor diligently. 

^ In this exercise use participles for the subordinate clauses. ^ Sometimes 
the subjunctive of purpose is used after these verbs. (See § 366.) 



THE ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE 165 

2. Caesare ducente nemo progredi timet, "with Casar leadings or when 
CcEsar leads, or if Ccesar leads, or Ccssar leading, no one fears to advance. 

3. His rebus cognitis milites fiigenint, when this was known, or since 
this was known, or these things having been learned, the soldiers fled. 

4. Proelio commisso multi vulnerati sunt, after the battle had begun, or 
when the battle had begun, or the battle having been joined, many were 
wounded. 

a. One of the fundamental ablative relations is expressed in English by 
the preposition with (cf. § 50). In each of the sentences above we have a 
noun and a participle in agreement in the ablative, and the translation shows 
that in each instance the ablative expresses attendant circumstance. For 
example, in the first sentence the circumstance attending or accompanying 
the diligent labor of the boys is the praise of the teacher. This is clearly a 
with relation, and the ablative is the case to use. 

b. We observe, further, that the ablative and its participle are absolutely 
independent grammatically of the rest of the sentence. If we were to ex- 
press the thought in English in a similar way, we should use the nominative 
independent or absolute. In Latin the construction is called the Ablative 
Absolute, or the Ablative with a Participle. This form of expression is ex- 
ceedingly common in Latin, but rather rare in English, so we must not, as a 
rule, employ the English absolute construction to translate the ablative abso- 
lute. The attendant circumstance may be one of time (when or after), or one 
of cause (since), or one of concession (though), or one of condition (if). In 
each case try to discover the precise relation, and translate the ablative and 
its participle by a clause which will best express the thought. 

381. Rule. Ablative Absolute. The ablative of a noun or pro- 
noun with a present or perfect participle in agreement is used 
to express attendant circumstance. 

Note i. The verb sum has no present participle. In consequence we often 
find two nouns or a noun and an adjective in the ablative absolute with no 
participle expressed ; as, te duce, you (being) leader, with you as leader; patre 
infirmo, my father (being) weak. 

Note 2. Be very careful not to put in the ablative absolute a noun and 
participle that form the subject or object of a sentence. Compare 

a. The Gauls, having been conquered by Ccesar, returned home 

b. The Gauls having been conquered by Ccesar, the army returned hom-e 

In a the subject is The Gauls havingbeen conquered by Casar, and we translate, 
Gain a Caesare victi domum reverteiunt 



1 66 EXERCISES 

In b the subject is the army. The Gauls having been conquered by C(Esar 
is nominative absolute in English, which requires the ablative absolute in 
Latin, and we translate, 

Gallis a Caesaxe victis exercitus domum revertit 

Note 3. The fact that only deponent verbs have a perfect active participle 
(cf. § 375. a) often compels a change of voice when translating from one lan- 
guage to the other. For example, we can translate Ccesar having encouraged 
the legions just as it stands, because hortor is a deponent verb. But if we wish 
to say Cmsar having conqiured the Gauls, we have to change the voice of the 
participle to the passive because vlnco is not deponent, and say, the Gauls 
having been conquered by Ccesar (see translation above). 

382. EXERCISES 

I. I. Mavis, non vis, vultis, nolumus. 2. Ut nolit, ut vellemus, ut 
malit. 3. Noli, velle, noluisse, malle. 4. Vult, mavultis, ut noUet, 
nolite. 5. Sole oriente, aves cantare inceperunt. 6. Clamoribus audl- 
tis, barbarl progredi recusabant. 7. Caesare legiones hortato, milites 
paulo fortius pugnaverunt. 8. His rebus cognitis, Helvetii finitimis 
persuaserunt ut secum iter facerent. g. Laboribus confectis, milites 
a Caesare quaerebant ut sibi praemia daret. 10. Concilio convocato, 
principes ita responderunt. 11. Dux pluris dies in Helvetiorum finibus 
morans multos vicos incendit. 12. Magnitudine Germanorum cognita, 
quidam ex Romanis timebant. 13. Mercatoribus rogatis, Caesar nihilo 
plus reperire potuit. 

II. I . He was unwilling, lest they prefer, they have wished. 2. You 
prefer, that they might be unwilling, they wish. 3. We wish, they 
had preferred, that he may prefer. 4. Caesar, when he heard the rumor 
(the rumor having been heard), commanded (imperare) the legions to 
advance more quickly. 5. Since Caesar was leader, the men were 
wiUing to make the journey. 6. A few, terrified ^ by the reports which 
they had heard, preferred to remain at home. 7 . After these had been 
left behind, the rest hastened as quickly as possible. 8. After Caesar 
had undertaken the business (Ccesar, the business having been under- 
taken), he was unwilling to delay longer." 

1 Would the ablative absolute be correct here ? 2 Not longius. Why ? 



THE IRREGULAR VERB FIO 1 67 

LESSON LXVIII 
THE IRREGULAR VERB FIO ■ THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF RESULT 

383. The verb fiS, 6e made, happen, serves as the passive of facio, 
make, in the present system. The rest of the verb is formed regu- 
larly from facio. Learn the principal parts and conjugation (§ 500). 
Observe that the i is long except before -er and in fit. 

a. The compounds of facio with prepositions usually form the passive 
regularly, as, 

Active conficio, conficere, confeci, confectus 
Passive conficior, confici, confectus sum 

384. Observe the following sentences : 

1 . Terror erat tantus ut omnes fugerent, the terror was so great that 
all fled. 

2. Terror erat tantus ut non facile milites sese reciperent, the terror 
was so great that the soldiers did not easily recover themselves. 

3. Terror fecit ut omnes fugerent, terror caused all to flee (lit. made 
that all fled). 

a. Each of these sentences is complex, containing a principal clause and 
a subordinate clause. 

b. The principal clause names a cause and the subordinate clause states 
the consequence or result of this cause. 

c. The subordinate clause has its verb in the subjunctive, though it is 
translated like an indicative. The construction is called the subjunctive of 
consequence or result, and the clause is called a consecutive or result clause. 

d. In the last example the clause of result is the object of the verb fecit. 

e. The conjunction introducing the consecutive or result clause is ut = 
so that; negative, ut non = so that not. 

385. Rule. Subjunctive of Result. Consecutive clauses of re- 
sult are introduced by ut or ut non and have the verb in the 
subjunctive. 

386. Rule. Object clauses of result with ut or ut non are 
found after verbs of effecting or bringing about. 

387. Purpose and Result Clauses Compared. There is great simi- 
larity in the expression of purpose and of result in Latin. If 



1 68 THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF RESULT 

the sentence is affirmative, both purpose and result clauses may be 
introduced by ut ; but if the sentence is negative, the purpose clause 
has ne and the result clause ut non. Result clauses are often preceded 
in the main clause by such words as tarn, ita, sic (so), and these 
serve to point them out. Compare 

a. Tain graviter vulneratus est /le was so severely wounded that he 

ut caperetur was captured 

b. Graviter vulneratus est ut He was severely wounded in order 

caperetur that he might be captured 

Which sentence contains a result clause, and how is it pointed out ? 

388. EXERCISES 

I. I. Fit, fiet, ut fiat, fiebamus. 2. Fio, fies, ut fierent, fieri, fiunt. 
3. Fietis, ut fiamus, fis, fiemus. 4. Mllites erant tam tardi ut ante 
noctem in castra non pervenirent. 5 . Sol f acit ut omnia sint pulchra. 
6. Eius modi perlcula erant ut nemo proficisci vellet. 7. Equites hos- 
tium cum equitatu nostro in itinere contenderunt, ita tamen ^ ut nostri 
omnibus in partibus superiores essent. 8. Virtus mllitum nostrorum 
fecit ut hostes ne unum quidem ^ impetum sustinerent. 9. Homines 
erant tam audaces ut nuUo modo continerl possent. 10. Spatium erat 
tam parvum ut mllites tela iacere non facile possent. 1 1 . Hoc proelio 
facto barbari ita perterriti sunt ut ab ultimis gentibus legatl ad 
Caesarem mitterentur. 12. Hoc proelium factum est ne legatl ad 
Caesarem mitterentur. 

H. I. It will happen, they were being made, that it may happen. 
2. It happens, he will be made, to happen. 3. They are made, we were 
being made, lest it happen. 4. The soldiers are so brave that they 
conquer. 5. The soldiers are brave in order that they may conquer. 

6. The fortification was made so strong that it could not be taken. 

7. The fortification was made strong in order that it might not be 
taken. 8. After the town was taken,* the townsmen feared that they 
would be made slaves. 9. What state is so weak that it is unwilling 
to defend itself ? 

1 ita tamen, with such a result however. ^ ne . . . quidem, not even. The 
emphatic word is placed between. ^ Ablative absolute. 



THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF CHARACTERISTIC 169 



LESSON LXIX 

THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF CHARACTERISTIC OR DESCRIPTION 
THE PREDICATE ACCUSATIVE 

389. Akin to the subjunctive of consequence or result is the use 
of the subjunctive in clauses of characteristic or description. 

This construction is illustrated in the following sentences : 

1 . Quis est qui suam domum non amet ? who is there -who does not love 
his own home ? 

2. Erant qui hoc facere noUent, there were (some) who were unwilling 
to do this. 

3. Tu non is es qui amicos tradas, you are not such a one as to, ox you 
are not the man to, betray your friends. 

4. Nihil video quod timeam, / see nothing to fear (nothing of such a 
character as to fear it). 

a. Each of these examples contains a descriptive relative clause which 
tells what kind of a person or thing the antecedent is. To express this 
thought the subjunctive is used. A relative clause that merely states a fact 
and does not describe the antecedent uses the indicative. Compare the 
sentences 

Ccesar is the man who is leading us, Caesar est is qui nos ducit 
(mere statement of fact, no description, with the indicative) 

Ccesar is the m.an to lead us, Caesar est is qui nos ducat (descrip- 
tive relative clause with the subjunctive) 

b. Observe that in this construction a demonstrative pronoun and a 
relative, as is qui, are translated such a one as to, the m.an to. 

c. In which of the following sentences would you use the indicative and 
in which the subjunctive 'i 

These are not the m.en who did this 
These are not the men to do this 

390. Rule. Subjunctive of Characteristic. A relative clause 
with the subjunctive is often used to describe an antecedent. 
This is called the subjunctive of characteristic or description. 



I/O THE PREDICATE ACCUSATIVE 

391. Observe the sentences 

1 . RSrnani Caesarem consulem f ecerunt, the Romans inade Casar consul. 

2. Caesar consul a Romanis factus est, Casar was made consul by the 
Romans. 

a. Observe in I that the transitive verb fecerunt, made, has two objects : 
(i) the direct object, Caesarem; (2) a second object, consulem, referring 
to the same person as the direct object and completing the predicate. The 
second accusative is called a Predicate Accusative. 

b. Observe in 2 that when the verb is changed to the passive both of 
the accusatives become nominatives, the direct object becoming the subject 
and \h^ predicate accusative ihe predicate nominative. 

392. Rule. Two Accusatives. Verbs of making, choosing, calling, 
showing, and the like, may take a predicate accusative along 
with the direct object. With the passive voice the two accusa- 
tives become nominatives. 

393. The verbs commonly found with two accusatives are 

creo, creare, creavi, creatus, choose 
appello, appellate, appellavi, appellatus'1 
nomino, nominare, nominavi, nominatus Vcall 
voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatus J 

facio, facere, feci, factus, make 

394. EXERCISES 

I. I. In Germaniae silvls sunt ^ multa genera ferarum quae reliquls 
in locis non visa sint. 2. Erant^ itinera duo quibus HelvetiT domo dis- 
cedere possent. 3. Erat-' manus nulla, nullum oppidum, nflUum prae- 
sidium quod se armis defenderet. 4. Toto frumento rapto, domi nihil 
erat quo mortem prohibere possent. 5. Romani Galbam ducem cre- 
averunt et summa celeritate profecti sunt. 6. Neque erat-' tantae 
multitudinis quisquam qui morari vellet. 7. Germani non ii sunt qui 
adventum Caesaris vereantur. 8. Consulibus occisis erant qui ^ vellent 

1 Remember that when the verb sum precedes its subject it is translated 
there is, there are, there were, etc. 2 erant qui, there were (some) who. A 
wholly indefinite antecedent of qui does not need to be expressed. 



CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE CONJUNCTION CUM 171 

eum regem creare. g. Pace facta erat nemo qui arma tradere noUet 
10. Inter Helvetios quis erat qui nobilior illo asset ? 

II. I. The Romans called the city Rome. 2. The city was called 
Rome by the Romans. 3. The better citizens wished to choose him 
king. 4. The brave soldier was not the man to run. 5. There was 
no one ■'to call me friend. 6. They are not the men to^ betray their 
friends. 7. There were (some) who called him the bravest of all. 

Eighth Review, Lessons LXI-LXIX, §§ 527-528 



LESSON LXX 

THE CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE CONJUNCTION CUM 
THE ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION 

395. The conjunction cum has the following meanings and con- 
structions : 

cum TEMPORAL = when, followed by the indicative or the 

subjunctive 
cum CAUSAL = since, followed by the subjunctive 
cum CONCESSIVE = although, followed by the subjunctive 

As you observe, the mood after cum is sometimes indicative and 
sometimes subjunctive. The reason for this will be made clear by a 
study of the following sentences : 

1. Caesarem vidi tum cum in Gallia eram, T saw Ccesar at the time 
when J was in Gaul. 

2. Caesar in eos impetum fecit cum pacem peterent, Ccesar made an 
attack upon them 'when they were seeking peace. 

3. Hoc erat difiScile cum pauci sine vulneribus essent, this was difficult, 
since only a few were w.ithout wounds. 

4. Cum primi ordines fugissent, tamen reliqui fortiter consistebant, 
though the front ranks had fled, yet the rest bravely stood their ground. 

a. The underlying principle is one already familiar to you (cf. § 389. a). 
When the cum clause states a fact and wca^j fixes the tiine at which the 
main action took place, the indicative mood is used. So, in the first example, 
cum in Gallia eram fixes the time when I saw Caesar. 

1 A relative clause of characteristic or description. ^ See § 389. b. 



172 THE ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION 

b. On the other hand, when the cum clause describes the circumstances 
under which the main act took place, the subjunctive mood is used. So, in 
the second example, the principal clause states that Csesar made an attack, 
and the cum clause describes the circumstances under which this act occurred. 
The idea of time is also present, but it is subordinate to the idea of descrip- 
tion. Sometimes the descriptive clause is one of cause and we translate cum 
by since; sometimes it denotes concession and cum is translated although, 

396. Rule. Constructions with Cum. The conjunction cum me mis 
when, since, 07' although. It is followed by the subjunctive unless 
it means when and its clause fixes the time at which the m.ain 
action took place. 

Note. Cum in clauses of description with the subjunctive is much more 
common than its use with the indicative. 

397. Note the following sentences : 

1. Oppidum erat parvum magnitudine sed magnum multitudine homi- 
num, the town was small in size but great in population. 

2. Homo erat corpore infirmus sed validus animo, the man was weak 
in body but strong in courage. 

a. Observe that magnitudine, multitudine, corpore, and anim5 tell in 
what respect something is true. The relation is one covered by the 
ablative case, and the construction is called the ablative of specification. 

398. Rule. Ablative of Specification. The ablative is used to 
denote in what respect something is true. 

399. IDIOMS 

aliquem certiorem facere, to infonn some one (lit. to make 

some one more certain') 
certior fieri, to be informed (lit. to be made m.ore certain) 
iter dare, to give a right of way, allow to pass 
obsides inter se dare, to give hostages to each other 

400. EXERCISES 

I. I. Helvetii cum patrum nostrorum tempore domo profecti 
essent, consulis exercitum in fugam dederant. 2. Cum Caesar in 
Galliam venit, Helvetii alios agros petebant. 3. Caesar cum in 
citeriore G^lia esset, tamen de Helvetiorum consilils certior fiebat. 



THE GERUND AND GERUNDIVE 173 

4. Cum Helvetii bello clarissimi essent, Caesar iter per provinciam 
dare recusavit. 5. Legatus cum haec audivisset, Caesarem certio- 
rem fecit. 6. Cum principes inter se obsides darent, RomanI helium 
paraverunt. 7. Caesar, cum id nuntiatum esset, maturat ab urbe pro- 
ficiscl. 8. Ne virtu te quidem Galli erant pares Germanis. 9. Caesar 
neque corpore neque animo infirmus erat. 10. lUud bellum tum 
incepit cum Caesar fuit consul. 

Observe in each case what mood follows cum, and try to give the reasons 
for its use. In the third sentence the cum clause is concessive, in the fourth 
and sixth causal. 

II. I. That battle was fought at the time when (tum cum) I was 
at Rome. 2 . Though the horsemen were few in number, nevertheless 
they did not retreat. 3. When the camp had been sufficiently forti- 
fied, the enemy returned home. 4. Since the tribes are giving hostages 
to each other, we shall inform Cassar. 5 . The Gauls and the Germans 
are very unlike in language and laws. 



LESSON LXXI 

VOCABULARY REVIEW THE GERUND AWD GERUNDIVE 
THE PREDICATE GENITIVE 

401 . Review the word lists in §§510, 511. 

402. The Gerund. Suppose we had to translate the sentence 

By overcoming the Gauls Casar won great glory 

We can see that overcoming here is a verbal noun corresponding to 
the English infinitive in -ing, and that the thought calls for the abla- 
tive of means. To translate this by the Latin infinitive would be 
impossible, because the infinitive is indeclinable and therefore has no 
ablative case form. Latin, however, has another verbal noun of cor- 
responding meaning, called the gerund, declined as a neuter of the 
second declension in ^e genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular, 
and thus supplying the cases that the infinitive lacks.* Hence, to 
1 Sometimes, however, the infinitive is used as an accusative. 



174 



THE GERUND AND GERUNDIVE 



decline in Latin the verbal noun overcoming, we should use the infinitive 
for the nominative and the gerund for the other cases, as follows : 



_ f overcoming \ 



Nom. superare-i " J- 

yto overcome ) 

Gen. superandi, of overcoming 

Dat. superando, for overcoming 

Ace. superandum, overcoming 

Abl. superandS, by overcoming 



NFINITIVE 



Gerund 



Like the infinitive, the gerund governs the same case as the verb from 
which it is derived. So the sentence given above becomes in Latin 

Superando Gallos Caesar magnam gloriam reportavit 

403. The gerund ^ is formed by adding -ndi, -ndo, -ndum, -nd5, to 

the present stem, which is shortened or otherwise changed, as shown 

below : 

Paradigm of the Gerund 



CONJ. I 


CONJ. II 


CONJ. 


in 


CONJ. IV 


Gen. amandi 


monendi 


regendi 


capiendi 


audiendi 


Dat. amando 


raonend5 


regendo 


capiendo 


audiendo 


Ace. amandum 


monendum 


regendum 


capiendum 


audiendum 


A bl. amando 


monendo 


regendo 


capiendo 


audiendo 



a. Give the gerund of euro, deleo, sumo, iacio, venio. 

b. Deponent verbs have the gerund of the active voice (see § 493). Give 
the gerund of Conor, vereor, sequor, patior, partior. 

404. The Gerundive. The gerundive is the name given to the future 
passive participle (§ 3 7 4. a?) when the participle approaches the mean- 
ing of a verbal noun and is translated like a gerund. It is the adjective 
corresponding to the gerund. For example, to translate the plan of 
waging war, we may use the gerund with its direct object and say 
consilium gerendi bellum ; or we may use the gerundive and say con- 
silium belli gerendi, which means, literally, the plan of the war to be 
waged, but which came to have the same force as the gerund with 
its object, and was even preferred to it. 

^ The gerund is the neuter singular of the future passive participle used 
as a noun, and has the same formation. {Cf. § 374. d.) 



THE GERUND AND GERUNDIVE 175 

405. Compare the following parallel uses of the gerund and ge- 
rundive : 

Gerund Gerundive 

Gen. Spes faciendi pacem Spes faciendae pads 

The hope of making peace The hope of making peace 

Dat. locus idoneus pugnando Locus idoneus castris ponendis 

A place suitable for fighting A place suitable for pitching camp 

Ace. Misit equites ad insequendum Misit equites ad insequendos hostis 

He sent horsemen to pursue He sent horsemen to pursue the 

enemy 

Abl. Narrand5 fabulas maglster Narrandis fabulis magister pueris 

pueris placuit placuit 

The teacher pleased the boys The teacher pleased the boys by 

by telling stories telling stories 

a. We observe 

(i) That the gerund is a noun and the gerundive an adjective. 

(2) That the gerund, being a noun, may stand alone or with an object. 

(3) That the gerundive, being an adjective, is used only in agreement 
with a noun. 

406. Rule. Gerund and Gerundive. I . The Gerund is a verbal 
noun and is used only in the genitive, dative, accusative, and 
ablative singular. The constructions of these cases are iti general 
the same as those of other nouns. 

2. The Gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used 
instead of gerund + object excepting in the genitive and in the 
ablative without a preposition. Even in these instances the 
gerundive construction is m-ore usual. 

407. Rule. Gerund or Gerundive of Purpose. The accusative 
of the gerund or gerundive with ad, or the genitive with causa ^ 
i=for the sake of), is used to express purpose. 

Gerund Gerundive 

Ad audiendum venerunt or Ad urbem videndam venerunt or 

Audiendi causa venerunt Urbis videndae causa venerunt 

They cam.e to hear They came to see the city 

1 causa always follows the genitive. 



176 THE PREDICATE GENITIVE 

Note. These sentences might, of course, be written with the subjunctive 
of purpose, — venerunt ut audirent ; venerunt ut urbem viderent. In short expres- 
sions, however, the gerund and gerundive of purpose are rather more common. 

408. We have learned that the word denoting the owner or pos- 
sessor of something is in the genitive, as, equus Galbae, Galba's horse. 
If, now, we wish to express the idea the horse is Galba's, Galba 
remains the possessor, and hence in the genitive as before, but now 
stands in the predicate, as, equus est Galbae. Hence this is called the 
predicate genitive. 

409. Rule. Predicate Genitive. The possessive genitive often 
stands in the predicate, especially after the forms of sum, and 
is then called the predicate genitive. 

410. IDIOMS 

alicui negotium dare, to employ some 07ie (lit. to give 

business to some one) 
novis rebus studere, to be eager for a revolution (lit. to be 

eager for new things') 
rei militaris peritissimus, very skillful in the art of war 
se suaque omnia, themselves and all their possessions 

411. EXERCISES 

I. 1. Caesar cum in Gallia bellum gereret, militibus decimae 
legionis maxime favit quia rei militaris peritissimi erant. 2. Sociis 
negotium dedit rei friimentariae ctirandae. 3. Legati non solum 
audiendi causa sed etiam dicendi causa venerunt. 4. Imperator iussit 
exploratores locum idoneum muniendo reperire. 5. Nuper hae gentes 
novis rebus studebant ; mox iis persuadebo ut Caesari se suaque omnia 
dedant. 6. Inhere est reginae-* et parere est multitiidinis.^ 7. Hoc 
proelio facto quidam ex hostibus ad pacem petendam venerunt. 
8. Erant qui arma tradere nollent. 9. Hostes tam celeriter progress! 
sunt ut spatium pila in hostis iaciendi non daretur. 10. Spatium neque 
arma capiendi^ neque auxili petendi ^ datum est. 

1 Predicate genitive. ^ Which of these expressions is gerund and which 
gerundive ? • 



THE IRREGULAR VERB EO i-jj 

II. I. These ornaments ■'belong to Cornelia. 2. Men very skillful 
in the art of war were sent ^to capture the town. 3. The scouts 
found a hill suitable for fortifying very near to the river. 4. Soon the 
cavalry will come 'to seek supplies. 5. The mind of the Gauls is eager 
for revolution and for undertaking wars. 6. To lead the line of battle 
* belongs to the general. 7. ^Whom shall we employ to look after the 
grain supply? 

LESSON LXXII 
THE lEREGULAE VERB EO • INDIRECT STATEMENTS 

412. Learn the principal parts and the conjugation of to, go (§ 499). 

a. Notice that i-, the root of eo, is changed to e- before a vowel, except- 
ing in iens, the nominative of the present participle. In the perfect system 
-V- is regularly dropped. 

413. Learn the meaning and principal parts of the following 
compounds of eo with prepositions : 

ad'eo, adi're, ad'ii, ad'itus, go to, visit, with the accusative 
ex'eo, exi're, ex'ii, ex'itas, go forth, with ex or de and the abla- 
tive of the place from which 
in'eo, ini're, in'ii, in'itus, begin, enter upon, with the accusative 
red'eo, redi're, red'ii, red'itus, return, with ad or in and the accu- 
sative of the place to which 
trans'eo, transi're, trans'ii, trans'itus, cross, with the accusative 

414. Indirect Statements in English. Direct statements are those 
which the speaker or writer makes himself or which are quoted in 
his exact language. Indirect statements are those reported in a 
different form of words from that used by the speaker or writer. 
Compare the following direct and indirect statements : 

ii. The Gauls are brave 
2. The Gauls were brave 
3. The Gauls will be brave 

1 belong to = are of. ^ Use the gerundive with ad. ^ Use the genitive 

with causa. Where should causa stand? ^ Compare the first sentence. 
6 Compare the second sentence in the Latin above. 



178 INDIRECT STATEMENTS 

Indirect statements f i . He says that the Gauls are brave 
after a verb in "^ 2. He says that the Gauls were brave 
the present tense [3. He says that the Gauls -will be brave 

Indirect statements f I. He said that the Gauls were brave 
after a verb in-{ 2. He said that the Gauls had been brave 
a past tense [3. He said that the Gauls would be brave 

We see that in English 

a. The indirect statement forms a clause introduced by the conjunc- 
tion that. 

b. The verb is finite (cf. § 1 73) and its subject is in the nominative. 

c. The tenses of the verbs originally used are changed after the past 
tense, He said. 

415. Indirect Statements in Latin. In Latin the direct and indirect 
statements above would be as follows : 

ii. Galli sunt fortes 
2. Gallierant fortes 
3. Galli erunt fortes 

. Dicit or Dixit Gallos esse fortis {He says or He said the 
Gauls to be brave) ^ 
Indirect •'• Dicit or Dixit Gallos fuisse fortis (He says or He said 
Statements 1 the Gauls to have been brave) ^ 

3. Dicit or Dixit GallSs futiiros esse fortis (He says or He 
said the Gauls to be about to be brave) ^ 

Comparing these Latin indirect statements with the English in the 
preceding section, we observe three marked differences : 

a. There is no conjunction corresponding to that. 

b. The verb is in the infinitive and its subject is in the accusative. 

c. The tenses of the infinitive are not changed after a past tense of the 
principal verb. 

416. Rule. Indirect Statements. When a direct statement be- 
comes indirect, the principal verb is changed to the infinitive 
and its subject nominative becom.es subject accusative of the 
infinitive. 

1 These parenthetical renderings are not inserted as translations, but merely 
to show the Bteral meaning of the Latin- 



INDIRECT STATEMENTS 179 

417. Tenses of the Infinitive. When the sentences in § 415 were 
changed from the direct to the indirect form of statement, sunt 
became esse, erant became fuisse, and erunt became futures esse. 

418. Rule. Infinitive Tenses in Indirect Statements. A present 
indicative of a direct statement becomes present infinitive of the 
indirect, a past indicative becomes perfect infinitive, and a 
future indicative becom,es futiire infinitive. 

_NoTE. When translating into Latin an English indirect statement, first de- 
cide what tense of the indicative would have been used in the direct form. That 
will show you what tense of the infinitive to use in the indirect. 

419. Rule. Verbs followed by Indirect Statements. The accusa- 
tive-with-infinitive construction in indirect statements is found 
after verbs of saying, telling, knowing, thinking, and perceiving. 

420. Verbs regularly followed by indirect statements are : 

a. Verbs of saying and telling : 

dico, dicere, dixi, dictus, say 
nego, negare, negavi, negatus, deny, say not 
niintio, niintiare, nuntiavi, nuntiatus, announce 
respondeo, respondere, respond!, responsus, reply 

b. Verbs of knowing : 

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognitus, learn, (in the perf.) know 
scio, scire, scivi, scitus, know 

c. Verbs of thinking : 

arbitror, arbitrari, arbitratus sum, think, consider 
existimo, existimare, existimavi, existimatus, think, believe 
iudico, iudicare, iudicavi, iudicataa, Judge, decide 
puto, putare, putavi, putatus, reckon, think 
spero, sperare, speravi, speratus, hope 

d. Verbs of perceiving : 

audio, audire, audivi, auditus, hear 

sentio, sentire, sensi, senaxia, feel, perceive 

video, videre, vidi, visus, see 

intellego, intellegere, intellexi, intellectus, understand, perceive 

Learn such of these verbs as are new to you. 



l8o EXERCISES 

421. IDIOMS 

postridie eius diei, on the next day (lit. on the next day of that day) 

inita aestate, at the beginning of summer 

memoria tenere, to remember (lit. to hold by memory') 

per exploratores cognoscere, to learn through scouts 

422. EXERCISES 

I. I. It, imus, ite, Tre. 2. Eunti, iisse or isse, ibunt, eunt. 3. Eundi, 
ut eant, ibitis, is. 4. N,e irent, i, ibant, ierat. 5. Caesar per explora- 
tores cognovit Gallos fliimen transisse. 6. RomanI audiverunt Helve- 
tios inita aestate de f inibus suls exitflros esse. 7 . Legati responderunt 
neminem ante Caesarem illam insulam adisse. 8. Principes Gallorum 
dicunt se niiUum consilium contra Caesaris imperium inituros esse. 
9. Arbitramur potentiam reglnae esse maiorem quam civium. 10. Ro- 
mani negant se llbertatem Gallis erepturos esse. 11. His rebus cog- 
nitis sensimus legates non venisse ad pacem petendam. 12. Helvetii 
sciunt Romanes priores_ victorias memoria tenere. 13. Socil cum in- 
tellegerent multos vulnerarl, statuerunt in suos finis redire. 14. Aliquis 
niintiavit Marcum consulem creatum esse. 

II. I. The boy is slow. He says that the boy is, was, (and) will be 
slow. 2. The horse is, has been, (and) will be strong. He judged that 
the horse was, had been, (and) would be strong. 3. We think that the 
army will go forth from the camp at the beginning of summer. 4. The 
next day we learned through scouts that the enemy's town was ten 
miles off.^ 5. The king replied that the ornaments belonged to^ 
the queen. • 

1 to be off, to be distant, abesse. ^ Latin, were of (§ 409). 




THE IRREGULAR VERB FERO l8l 



LESSON LXXIII 

VOCABULARY REVIEW • THE IRREGULAR VERB FERO 
THE DATIVE WITH COMPOUNDS 

423. Review the word lists in §§513, 514. 

424. Learn the principal parts and conjugation of the verb fero, 
bear (§ 498). 

I. Learn the principal parts and meanings of the following com- 
pounds of fero, bear : 

ad 'fero, adfer're, at'tuli, adla'tus, bring to ; report 
con'fero, c5nfer're, con'tuli, conla'tus, bring together, collect 
de'fero, defer're, de'tuli, dela'tus, bring to; report j grant, confer 
in'fero, infer're, in'tuli, inla'tus, bring in, bring against 
re 'fero, refer're, ret'tuli, rela'tus, bear back; report 

425. The dative is the case of the indirect object. Many intransi- 
tive verbs take an indirect object and are therefore used with the 
dative (cf. § 153). Transitive verbs take a direct object in the ac- 
cusative'; but sometimes they have an indirect object or dative as well. 
The whole question, then, as to whether or not a verb takes the dative, 
depends upon its capacity for governing an indirect object. A number 
of verbs, some transitive and some intransitive, which in their simple 
form would not take an indirect object, when compounded with certain 
prepositions, have a meaning which calls for an indirect object. Ob- 
serve the following sentences r 

1. Haec res exercitui magnam calamitatem attulit, this circumstance 
brought great disaster to the army. 

2. Germani Gallis bellum inferunt, the Germans make war upon the 
Gauls. 

3. Hae copiae proelio non intererant, these troops did not take part in 
the battle. 

4. Equites fugientibus hostibus occurrunt, the horsemen meet the flee- 
ing enemy. 

5. Galba c5pils filium praefecit, Galba put his son in command of the 
troops. 



1 82 THE DATIVE WrfH COMPOUNDS 

In each sentence there is a dative, and in each a verb combined with a 
preposition. In no case would the simple verb take the dative. 

426. Rule. Dative with Compounds. Some verbs compoimded 
with ad, ante, con, de, in, inter, ob, post, prae, pro, sub, super, admit 
the dative of the indirect object. Transitive compounds may 
take both an accusative and a dative. 

Note i. Among such verbs are ' 

ad'fero, adfer're, at'tuli, adla'tus, bring to ; report 
ad'sum, ades'se, ad'fui, adfutu'rus, assist; be present 
de'fero, difer're, de'tuli, dela'tus, report ; grant, confer 

de'sum, dees'se, de'fui, , be wanting, be lacking 

in'fero, infer're, in'tuU, inla'tus, bring against, bring upon 
inter'sum, interes'se, inter'fui, interfutu'rus, take part in 
occur'ro, occur'rere, occur'ri, occur'sus, run against, meet 
praefl'cio, praefi'cere, praefe'ci, praefec'tus, appoint over, place 

in command of 
prae'sum, praees'se, prae'fui, , be over, be in command 

427. IDIOMS 

graviter or moleste ferre, to be annoyed at, to be indignant 

at, followed by the accusative and infinitive 
se conferre ad or in, with the accusative, to betake one's self to 
alicui helium inferre, to make war upon some one 
pedem referre, to retreat (lit. to bear back the foot) 

428. EXERCISES 

I. I . Fer, f erent, ut f erant, f erunt 2 . Ferte, ut f errent, tulisse, tule- 
rant. 3. Tulimus, ferens, latus esse, ferre. 4. Cum navigia insulae adpro- 
pinquarent, barbari terrore commoti pedem referre conati sunt. 5. Galli 
moleste ferebant Romanos agros vastare. 6. Caesar sociis imperavit 
ne finitimis suTs bellum inf errent. 7. Exploratores, qui Caesari occur- 
rerunt, dixerunt exercitum hostium vulneribus defessum sese in alium 
locum contulisse. 8. Hostes sciebant Romanos frumento egere et 
banc rem Caesari summum periculum adlaturam esse. 9. Impedi- 
mentis in tinum locum conlatis, aliqui mllitum fiumen quod non longe 

1 But the accusative with ad or in is used with some of these, when the 
idea of motilfn to or against is strong. 



THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS 183 

aberat transierunt. 10. Hos rex hortatus est ut oraculum adirent et 
res auditas ad se ref errent. 1 1 . Quern imperator ill! legioni praefecit ? 
Publius illi legioni praeerat. 12. Curn esset Caesar in citeriore Gallia, 
crebri ad eum^ rumores adferebantur litterlsque quoque certior flebat 
Gallos obsides inter se dare. 

II. I. The Gauls will make war upon Caesar's allies. 2. We heard 
that the Gauls would make war upon Cassar's allies. 3. Publius did 
not take part in that battle. 4. We have been informed that Publius 
did not take part in that battle. 5 . The man who was in command of 
the cavalry was wounded and began to retreat. 6. Caesar did not 
place you in command of the cohort to bring ^ disaster upon the army. 

LESSON LXXIV 

VOCABULARY REVIEW • THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDIRECT. 
QUESTIONS 

429. Review the word lists in §§517, 518. 

430. When we report a statement instead of giving it directly, we 
have an indirect statement. (Cf. § 414.) So, if we report a question 
instead of asking it directly, we have an indirect question. 

Direct Question Indirect Question 

Who conquered the Gauls ? He asked who conquered the Gauls 

a. An indirect question depends, usually as object, upon a verb of ask- 
ing (as peto, postulo, quaero, rogo) or upon some verb or expression of saying 
or mental action. (Cf. § 420.) 

431. Compare the following direct and indirect questions: 

Direct Indirect 

. Rogat quis Gallos vincat 
He asks who is conquering the 

Gauls 
Rogavit quis Gallos vlnceret 
He asked who was conquering 
the Gauls 

1 Observe that when adfero denotes motion to, it is not followed by the 
dative; cf. footnote, p. 182. ' Not the infinitive. (Cf. §352.) 



Quis Gallos vincit? 

Who is conquering the Gauls? 



1 84 THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS 



Ubi est Roma? 

Where is Rome? 



Caesarne Gallos vicit? 

Did Ccssar conquer the Gauls? 



a. Rogat ubi sit Roma 

He asks where Rome is 

b. Rogavit ubi esset Roma 
He asked where Rome was 

a. Rogat num Caesar Gallos vicerit 

He asks whether Ccesar conquered 
the Gauls 

b. Rogavit num Caesar Gallos vicisset 
He asked whether Ccesar had con- 
quered the Gauls 

a. The verb in a direct question is in the indicative mood, but the 
mood is subjunctive in an indirect question. 

b. The tense of the subjunctive follows the rules for tense sequence. 

c. Indirect questions are introduced by the same interrogative words as 
introduce direct questions, excepting tha.tyes-or-no direct questions (cf. § 210) 
on becoming indirect are usually introduced by num, whether. 

432. Rule. Indirect Questions. In an indirect question the 
verb is in the subjunctive and its tense is determined by the 
law for tense sequence. 

433. IDIOMS 

de tertia vigilia, about the third watch 
iniflrias alicui inferre, to hiflict injuries upon some one 
facere verba pro, with the ablative, to speak in behalf of 
in reliquum tempus,yor the future 



434. 



EXERCISES 



I. I. Rex rogavit quid legati postularent et cur ad se venissent. 
2. Quaesivit quoque num nee recentis iniurias nee dubiam Romano- 
rum amicitiam memoria tenerent. 3. Videtisne quae oppida hostes 
oppugnaverint ? 4. Nonne scitis cur Galli sub montem sese contu- 
lerint? 5. Audivimus quas iniflrias tibi German! intulissent. 6. De 
tertia vigilia imperator misit homines qui cognoscerent quae esset 
natura montis. 7. Pro his orator verba fecit et rogavit cur consules 
navis ad plenum summi periculi locum mittere vellent. 8. Legatis 
convocatis demonstravit quid fieri vellet. 9. Nuntius referebat quid 



DATIVE OF PURPOSE, OR END FOR WHICH 185 

in Gallorum concilio de armis tradendis dictum esset. 10. Moneo ne 
in reliquum tempus pedites et equites trans flumen ducas. 

II. I . What hill did they seize ? I see what hill they seized. 2. Who 
has inflicted these injuries upon our dependents ? 3. They asked who 
had inflicted those injuries upon their dependents. 4. Whither did you 
go about the third watch ? You know whither I went. 5 . At what 
time did the boys return home ? I will ask at what time the boys 
returned home. 

LESSON LXXV 

VOCABULARY REVIEW • THE DATIVE OF PURPOSE, OR END 
FOR WHICH 

435. Review the word lists in §§ 521, 522. 

436. Observe the following sentences: 

1. Exploratores locum castris delegerunt, the scouts chose a place for 
a camp. 

2. Hoc erat magno impedimento Gallis, this was (for) a great hindrance 
to the Gauls. 

3. Duas legiones praesidio castris reliquit, he left two legions as (lit. for) 
a guard to the camp. 

In each of these sentences we find a dative expressing the purpose or end 
for which something is intended or for which it serves. These datives are 
castris, impedimento, and praesidio. In the second and third sentences we 
find a second dative expressing the person or thing affected (Gallis and 
castris). As you notice, these are true datives, covering the relations of 
for which and to which. (Cf. § 43.) 

437. Rule. Dative of Purpose or End. The dative is used to 
denote the purpose or end for which, often with another dative 
denoting the person or thing affected. 

438. IDIOMS 

consilium omittere, to give up a plan 
locum castris deligere, to choose a place for a c^np 
alicui magn5 usui esse, to be of great advantage to some 
one (^it. for great advantage to some one) 



1 86 GENITIVE AND ABLATIVE OF QUALITY 

439. EXERCISES 

I. I. Rogavit cur illae copiae relictae essent. Responderunt illas 
copias esse praesidio castris. 2. Caesar misit exploratores ad locum 
deligendum castris. 3. Quisque existimavit ipsum nomen Caesaris 
magno terror! barbaris futurum esse. 4. Prima luce idem exercitus 
proelium acre commisit, sed gravia suorum vulnera magnae curae im- 
peratori erant. 5. Rex respondit amicitiam populi Roman! sibi orna- 
mento et praesidio debere esse. 6. Quis praeerat equitatui quern auxilio 
Caesari socii miserant ? 7. Aliquibus res secundae sunt summae cala- 
mitati et res adversae sunt miro ijsui. 8. Gallis magno ad pugnam 
erat impediments quod equitatus a dextro cornii premebat. 9. Me- 
moria pristinae virtutis non minus quam metus hostium erat nostris 
magno usui. 10. Tam densa erat silva ut progredi non possent. 

II. I.I advise you ^to give up the plan ^of making war upon the 
brave Gauls. 2. Do you know ^ where the cavalry has chosen a place 
for a camp ? 3. The fear of the enemy will be of great advantage to 
you. 4. Caesar left three cohorts as (for) a guard to the baggage. 
5. In winter the waves of the lake are so great *that they are (for) a 
great hindrance to ships. 6. Cassar inflicted severe^ punishment on 
those who burned the public buildings. 



LESSON LXXVI 

VOCABULARY REVIEW • THE GENITIVE AND ABLATIVE OF 
QUALITY OR DESCRIPTION 

440. Review the word lists in §§ 524, 525. 

441. Observe the English sentences 

(l) A man of great courage, or (2) A man with great courage 
(3) A forest of tall trees, or (4) A forest with tall trees 

Each of these sentences contains a phrase of quality or description. In 
the first two a man is described ; in the last two a forest. The descriptive 

phrases are introduced by the prepositions o/"and with. 

* 

1 Subjunctive of purpose. (Cf. § 366.) ^ Express by the genitive of the 
gerundive. ^ Indirect question. * A clause of result. ^ gravis, -e. 



GENITIVE AND ABLATIVE OF QUALITY 187 

In Latin the expression of quality or description is very similar. 

The prepositions of and with suggest the genitive and the ablative 

respectively, and we translate the sentences above 

(i) Vir magnae virtutis, or (2) Vir magna virtute 

(3) Silva altarum arbonim, or (4) Silva altis arboribus 

There is, however, one important difference between the Latin and 
the English. In English we may say, for example, a man of courage, 
using the descriptive phrase without an adjective modifier. In Latin, 
however, an adjective modifier must always be used, as above. 

a. Latin makes a distinction between the use of the two cases in that 
numerical descriptions of measure are in the genitive and descriptions of 
physical characteristics are in the ablative. Other descriptive phrases may 
be in either case. 

442. EXAMPLES 

1. Fossa duodecim tiedum, a ditch of twelve feet. 

2. Homo magnis pedibus et parvo capite, a man with big feet and a 
small head. 

3. Rex erat vir summa audacia or rex erat vir summae audaciae, the king 
was a man of the greatest boldness. 

443. Rule. Genitive of Description. Numerical descriptions 
of measure are expressed by the genitive with a modifying 
adjective. 

444. Rule. Ablative of Description. Descriptions of physical 
characteristics are expressed by the ablative with a modifying 
adjective. 

445. Rule. Genitive or Ablative of Description. Descriptions 
involving neither numerical statements nor physical character- 
istics may be expressed by either the genitive or the ablative 
with a m.odifying adjective. 

446. IDIOMS 

Helvetiis in animo est, the Helvetii intend (lit. it is in mind to 

the Helvetians) 
in matrimonium dare, to give in marriage 
nihil posse, to have no power 
fossam perducere, to construct a ditch (lit. to lead a ditch through) 



1 88 EXERCISES 

447. EXERCISES 

I. I. Milites fossam decern pedum per eorum finis perduxerunt. 
2. Princeps Helvetiorum, vir summae audaciae, principibus gentium 
finitimarum sorores in matrimonium dedit. 3. Eorum amicitiam con- 
flrmare voluit quo facilius Romanis bellum inferret. 4. Germani at 
Galli non erant eiusdem gentis. 5. Omnes fere Germani erant 
magnis corporum viribus.^ 6. Galli qui oppidum fortiter defendebant 
saxa ingentis magnitiidinis de muro iaciebant. 7. Cum Caesar ab 
exploratoribus quaereret qui illud oppidum incolerent, exploratores 
responderunt cos esse homines summa virtute et magno consilio. 
8. Moenia viginti pedum a sinistra parte, et a dextra parte fliimen 
magnae altitudinis oppidum defendebant. 9. Cum Caesar in Galliam 
pervenisset, erat riimor Helvetiis in animo esse iter per provinciam 
Romanam facere. 10. Caesar, ut eos ab finibus Romanis prohiberet, 
miinitionem '^multa milia passuum longam fecit. 

II. I. Cffisar was a general of much wisdom and great boldness, 
and very skillful in the art of war. 2. The Germans were of great 
size, and thought that the Romans had no power. 3. Men of the 
highest courage were left in the camp as (for) a guard to the bag- 
gage. 4. The king's daughter, who was given in marriage to the chief 
of a neighboring state, was a woman of very beautiful appearance. 

5. The soldiers will construct a ditch of nine feet around the camp. 

6. A river of great width was between us and the enemy. 

1 From vis. (Cf. § 468.) ^ Genitives and ablatives of description are 

adjective phrases. When we use an adverbial phrase to tell how long or how 
high or how deep anything is, we must use the accusative of extent. (Cf. § 336.) 
For example, in the sentence above multa milia passuum is an adverbial phrase 
(accusative of extent) modifying longam. If we should omit longam and say 
a fortification of many miles, the genitive of description (an adjective phrase) 
modifying miinitionem would be used, as munitionem multorum milium passuum. 




REVIEW OF AGREEMENT 189 



LESSON LXXVII 

REVIEW OF AGREEMENT, AND OF THE GENITIVE, DATIVE, 
AND ACCUSATIVE 

448. There are four agreements: 

1 . That of the predicate noun or of the appositive with the noun to 
which it belongs (§§ 76, 81). 

2. That of the adjective, adjective pronoun, or participle with its 
noun (§ 65). 

3. That of a verb with its subject (§ 28). 

4. That of a relative pronoun with its antecedent (§ 224). 

449. The relation expressed by the genitive is, in general, denoted 
in English by the preposition of. It is used to express 

[a. As attributive (§ 38). 
I . Possession 



(a. As 
^\b. Ini 



the predicate (§ 409). 

2. The whole of which a part is taken (partitive genitive) (§331). 

3. Quality or description (§§ 443, 445). 

450. The relation expressed by the dative is, in general, denoted 
in English by the prepositions to or for when they do not imply 
motion through space. It is used to express 

f a. With intransitive verbs and with transitive 
verbs in connection with a direct object 
in the accusative (§ 45). 

b. With special intransitive verbs (§ 154). 

c. With verbs compounded with ad, ante, 
con, de, in, inter, ob, post, prae, pro, 
sub, super (§ 426). 



I. The indirect object 



2. The object to which the quality of an adjective is directed (§ 143). 

3. The purpose, or end for which, often with a second dative 
denoting the person or thing affected (§ 437). 



I go GENITIVE, DATIVE, ACCUSATIVE 

451. The accusative case corresponds, in general, to the English 
objective. It is used to express 

1. The direct object of a transitive verb (§ 37). 

2. The predicate accusative together with the direct object after 
verbs of making, choosing, calling, showing, and the like (§ 392). 

3. The subject of the infinitive (§ 214). 

4. The object of prepositions that do not govern the ablative 

(§ 34°)- ' 

5. The duration of time and the extent of space (§ 336). • 

6. The place to which (§§ 263, 266). 

452. EXERCISES 

I. I. Milites quos vidimus dixerunt imperium belli esse Caesaris 
imperatoris. 2. Helvetii statuerunt quam^ maximum numerum equo- 
rum et carrorum cogere. 3. Totius Galliae Helvetii plurimum value- 
runt. 4. Multas horas acriter pugnatum est neque quisquam poterat 
videre hostem fugientem. 5. Viri summae virtutis hostis decem milia 
passuum insecuti sunt. 6. Caesar populo Romano persuasit ut se 
consulem crearet. 7. Victoria exercitus erat semper imperatori gra- 
tissima. 8. Triduum iter fecerunt et Genavam, in oppidum^ hostium, 
pervenerunt. 9. Caesar audlvit Germanos bellum Gallis intulisse. 
10. Magno usui militibus Caesaris erat quod prioribus proeliis sese 
exercuerant. 

II. I. One^ of the king's sons and many of his men were cap- 
tured. 2. There was no one who wished* to appoint her queen. 
3. The grain supply was always a care (for a care) to Caesar, the 
general. 4. I think that the camp is ten miles distant. 5. We 
marched for three hours through a very dense forest. 6. The plan 
'of making war upon the allies was not pleasing to the king. 7. When 
he came to the hill he fortified it °by a twelve-foot wall. 

1 What is the force of quam with superlatives ? 2 u^bs or oppidum, appos- 
itive to a name of a town, takes a preposition. ' What construction is 
used with numerals in preference to the partitive genitive.' * What mood? 
(Cf.§390.) * ^ Use the gerund or gerundive. ^ 'Latin, by a wall of twelve feet. 



REVIEW OF THE ABLATIVE 191 

LESSON LXXVIII 
REVIEW OF THE ABLATIVE 

453. The relations of the ablative are, in general, expressed in Eng- 
lish by the prepositions with (or by), from (or by), and in (or at). The 
constructions growing out of these meanings are 

I. Ablative rendered with (or hy)'. 

1. Cause (§ 102) 

2. Means (§ 103) 

3. Accompaniment (§ 104) 

4. Manner (§ 105) 

5. Measure of difference (§ 317) 

6. With a participle (ablative absolute) (§ 381) 

7. Description or quality (§§ 444, 445) 

8. Specification (§ 398) 

II. Ablative rendered /rom (or hy)\ 

1. Place from which (§§ 179, 264) 

2. Ablative of separation (§180) 

3. Personal agent with a passive verb (§181) 

4. Comparison without quam (§ 309) 

III. Ablative rendered in (or at): 

1. Place at or in which (§§ 265, 266) 

2. Time when or within which (§ 275) 

454. EXERCISES 

I. I. Galli locis superioribus occupatis itinere exercitum prohibere 
conantur. 2. Omnes oppidani ex oppido egressi salutem fuga petere 
inceperunt. 3. Caesar dpcet se mllitum vitam sua salute habere multo 
cariorem. 4. Cum celerius omnium opinione pervenisset, hostes ad 
eum obsides miserunt. 5. Vicus in valle positus montibus altissimis 
undique continetur. 6. Plurimum inter Gallos haec gens et virtute et 
hominum numero valebat. 7. Secunda vigilia nuUo certo ordine neque 
imperio e castris egressi sunt. 8. Duabus legionibus Genavae relictis, 



192 GERUND, INFINITIVE, SUBJUNCTIVE 

proximo die cum reliquls domum profectus est. 9. Erant itinera duo 
quibus itineribus Helvetii domo exire possent. 10. Rex erat summa 
audacia et magna apud populum potentia. 11. Galli timore servitutis 
commoti bellum parabant. 12. Caesar monet legates ut contineant 
milites, ne studio pugnandi aut spe praedae longius ^ progrediantur. 
13. Bellum acerrimum a Caesare in Gallos gestum est. 

II. I. The lieutenant after having seized the mountain restrained 
his (men) from battle. 2. All the Gauls differ from each other in laws. 
3. This tribe is much braver than the rest. 4. This road is ^ten miles 
shorter than that. 5. In summer Cassar carried on war in Gaul, in 
winter he returned to Italy. 6. At midnight the general set out from 
the camp with three legions. 7. I fear that you cannot protect ' your- 
self from these enemies. 8. * After this battle was finished peace was 
made by all the Gauls. 

LESSON LXXIX 

REVIEW OF THE GERUND AND GERUNDIVE, THE INFINI- 
TIVE, AND THE SUBJUNCTIVE 

455. The gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive, 
dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these 
cases are in general the same as those of other nouns (§§ 402, 406. i). 

456. The gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead 
of gerund + object, excepting in the genitive and in the ablative 
without a preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive con- 
struction is more usual (§ 406. 2). 

457. The infinitive is used : 
I. As in English. 

a. As subject or predicate nominative (§ 216). 

6. To complete the predicate with verbs of incomplete predication 
(complementary infinitive) (§ 215). 

c. As object with subject accusative after verbs of wishing, commanding, 
forbidding, and the like (§ 213). 

^ longiijp, too far. (Cf. § 305.) ^ Latin, by ten thousands of paces. 

' defendere. * Ablative absolute. 



GERUND, INFINITIVE, SUBJUNCTIVE 193 

II. In the principal sentence of an indirect statement after verbs 
of saying and mental action. The subject is in the accusative (§§416, 
418, 419). 

458. The subjunctive is used : 

1. To denote purpose (§§ 349, 366, 372). 

2. To denote consequence or result (§§ 385, 386). 

3. In relative clauses of characteristic or description (§ 390). 

4. In cum clauses of time, cause, and concession (§ 396). 

5. In indirect questions (§ 432). 

459. EXERCISES 

I. I. Caesar, cum pervenisset, milites hortabatur ne consilium oppidi 
capiendi omitterent. 2. Rex, castris prope oppidum positis, misit ex- 
ploratores qui cognoscerent ubi exercitus Romanus esset. 3. Nemo 
relinquebatur qui arma ferre posset. 4. Nuntii viderunt ingentem 
armorum multitudinem de mtiro in fossam lactam esse. S' Dux suos 
transire flumen iussit. Transire autem hoc flumen erat difficillimum. 
6. Romani cum banc calamitatem moleste ferrent, tamen terga vertere 
recusaverunt. 7. Hoc rumore audito, tantus terror omnium animos 
occupavit ut ne fortissimi quidem proelium committere vellent. 
S.-Erant qui putarent tempus anni idoneum non esse itineri faciendo. 
9. Tarn acriter ab utraque parte pugnabatur ut multa milia hominum 
occlderentur. 10. Quid times ? Timeo ne Romanis in animo sit totam 
Galliam superare et nobis iniurias inferre. 

II. I. Do you not see who is standing on the wall? 2. We hear 
that the plan of taking the town has been given up. 3. Since the 
Germans thought that the Romans could not cross the Rhine, Caesar 
ordered a bridge to be made. 4. When the bridge was finished, the 
savages were so terrified that they hid themselves. 5. They feared 
that Caesar would pursue them. 6. Caesar 'asked the trader's what the 
size of the island was. 7. The traders advised him not ^to cross the 
sea. 8. He sent scouts ^to choose a place for a camp. 

1 quaerere ab. ^ jg-gt infinitive, 8 Use the gerundive with ad. 



READING MATTER 



INTRODUCTORY SUGGESTIONS 

How to Translate. You have already had considerable practice in 
translating simple Latin, and have learned that the guide to the mean- 
ing lies in the endings of the words. If these are neglected, no skill 
can make sense of the Latin. If they are carefully noted and accu- 
rately translated, not many difficulties remain. Observe the following 
suggestions : 

1. Read the Latin sentence through to the end, noting endings of 
nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc. 

2. Read it again and see if any of the words you know are 
nominatives or accusatives. This will often give you what may be 
called the backbone of the sentence; that is, subject, verb, and 
object. 

3. Look up the words you do not know, and determine their use 
in the sentence from their endings. 

4. If you cannot yet translate .the sentence, put down the Eng- 
lish meanings of all the words in the same order as the Latin words. 
You will then generally see through the meaning of the sentence. 

5. Be careful to 

a. Translate adjectives with the nouns to which they belong. 

b. Translate together prepositions and the nouns which they govern. 

c. Translate adverbs with the words that they modify. 

d. Make sense. If you do not make sense, you have made a mistake. 
One mistake will spoil a whole sentence. 

6. When the sentence is correctly translated, read the Latin over 
again, and try to understand it as Latin, without thinking of the 
English translation. 

194 



THE PARTS OF A SENTENCE 



195 



The Parts of a Sentence. You wUl now meet somewhat longer 
sentences than you have had before. To assist in translating them, 
remember, first of all, that every sentence conveys a meaning and 
either tells us something, asks a question, or gives a command. Every 
sentence must have a subject and a verb, and the verb may always 
have an adverb, and, if transitive, will have a direct object. 

However long a sentence is, you will usually be able to recognize 
its subject, verb, and object or predicate complement without any 
difficulty. These will give you the leading thought, and they must 
never be lost sight of while making out the rest of the sentence. The 
chief difficulty in translating arises from the fact that instead of a 
single adjective, adverb, or noun, we often have a phrase or a clause 
taking the place of one of these ; for Latin, like English, has adjective, 
adverbial, and substantive clauses and phrases. For example, in the 
sentence The idle boy does not study, the word idle is an adjective. 
In The boy wasting his time does not study, the words wasting his time 
form an adjective phrase modifying boy. In the sentence The boy who 
wastes his time does not study, the words who wastes his time form an 
adjective clause modifying boy, and the sentence is complex. These 
sentences would show the same structure in Latin. 

In translating, it is important to keep the parts of a phrase and the 
parts of a clause together and not let them become confused with the 
principal sentence. To distinguish between the subordinate clauses 
and the principal sentence is of the first importance, and is not diffi- 
cult if you remember that a clause regularly contains a word that 
marks it as a clause and that this word usually stands first. These 
words join clauses to the words they depend on, and are called subor- 
dinate conjunctions.. They are not very numerous, and you will soon 
learn to recognize them. In Latin they are the equivalents for such 
words as when, while, since, because, if, before, after, though, in order 
that, that, etc. Form the habit of memorizing the Latin subordinate 
conjunctions as you meet them, and of noting carefully the mood of 
the verb in the clauses which they introduce. 




- — "'" ■'""'<'i w "r;,ui n, i im , )uiyj„ i ]j ,^W 

HERCULES 



196 



HERCULES AND THE SERPENTS 



197 



THE LABORS OF HERCULES 

Hercules, a Greek hero celebrated for his great strength, was pursued 
throughout his life by the hatred of Juno. While yet an' infant he strangled 
some serpents sent by the goddess to destroy him. During his boyhood and 
youth he performed various marvelous 
feats of strength, and on reaching man- 
hood he succeeded in delivering the 
Thebans from the oppression of the 
Minyae. In a fit of madness, sent upon 
him by Juno, he slew his own children; 
and, on consulting the Delphic oracle 
as to how he should cleanse himself 
from this crime, he was ordered to sub- 
mit himself for twelve years to Eurys- 
theus, king of Tiryns, and to perform 
whatever tasks were appointed him. 
Hercules obeyed the oracle, and during 
the twelve years of his servitude ac- 
complished twelve extraordinary feats 
known as the Labors of Hercules. His 
death was caused, unintentionally, by 
his wife Deiani'ra. Hercules had shot 
with his poisoned arrows a centaur 
named Nessus, who had insulted Deia- 
nira. Nessus, before he died, gave some 
of his blood to Deianira, and told her 
it would act as a charm to secure her 
husband's love. Some time after, Deianira, wishing to try the charni, soaked 
one of her husband's garments in the blood, not knowing that it was poisoned. 
Hercules put on the robe, and, after suffering terrible torments, died, or was 
carried off by his father Jupiter. 




HERCULES ET SEKPENTES 



LIII.i THE INFANT HERCULES AND THE SERPENTS 

Di^ grave supplicium sumunt de malis, sed il qui legibus' deorum 
parent, etiam post mortem curantur. Ilia vita dls^ erat gratissima quae 
hominibus miseris utilissima fuerat. Omnium autem praemiorum 
summum erat immortalitas. lUud praemium Herculi datum est. 

Herculis pater fuit luppiter, mater Alcmena, et omnium hominum 5 
validissimus fuisse dicitur. Sed luno, regina deorum, eum, adhuc 

1 This number refers to the lesson after which the selection may be read. 
2 Di and dis are from deus. Cf. § 468. ' legibus, § 501. 14. 



198 HERCULES CONQUERS THE MINY^ 

infantem, interficere studebat; nam ei^ et^ Hercules et Alcmena erant 
invisl. Itaque misit duas serpentis, utramque saevissimam, quae media 
nocte domum^ Alcmenae venerunt Ibi Hercules, cum fratre suo, 
non in lectulo sed in scuto ingenti dormiebat. lam audaces serpentes 
5 adpropinquaverant, iam scutum movebant. Turn frater, terrore com- 
motus, magna voce matrem vocavit, sed Hercules ipse, fortior quam 
frater, statim ingentis serpentis manibus suis rapuit et interfecit. 

LIV. HERCULES CONQUERS THE MINY.E 

Hercules a puero* corpus suum gravissimis et difficillimis labori- 
bus exercebat et hoc modo vires^ suas conflrmavit. Iam adulescens 

10 Thebis' habitabat. Ibi Creon quidam erat rex. Minyae, gens vali- 
dissima, erant finitimi Thebanis, et, quia olim Thebanos vicerant, 
quotannis legates mittebant et vectigal postulabant. Hercules autem 
constituit civis suos hoc vectigali liberare et dixit fegl, "Da mihi 
exercitum tuum et ego hos superbos hostis superabo." Hanc con- 

1 5 dicionem rex non reciisavit, et Hercules niintios in omnis partis dimisit 
et copias coegit.' Tum tempore opportunissimo proehum cum Minyis 
commisit. Diu pugnatum est, sed denique illi impetum Thebanorum 
sustinere non potuerunt et terga verterunt fugamque ceperunt. 

HE COMMITS A CRIME AND GOES TO THE DELPHIAN 
ORACLE TO SEEK EXPIATION 

Post hoc proelium Creon rex, tanta victoria laetus, filiam suam 
20 Herculi in matrimonium dedit. Thebis Hercules cum uxore sua diu 
vivebat et ab omnibus magnopere amabatur ; sed post multos annos 
subito ^in furorem incidit et ipse sua manu liberos suos interfecit. 
Post breve tempus 'ad sanitatem reductus tantum scelus expiare 
cupiebat et constituit ad oraculum Delphicum iter facere. Hoc autem 
25 oraculum erat omnium clarissimum. Ibi sedebat femina quaedam quae 
Pythia appellabatur. Ea consilium dabat iis qui ad oraculum veniebant. 

^ ei, to her, referring to Juno. ^ et . . . et, both . . . and. " domum, 
§501.20. ^a.-fM&tb, from boyhood. ^ vires, from vis. Cf. §468. ^Thebis, 
§ 501. 36. 1. ' coegit, from cogo. * in furorem incidit, went mad. ' ad 
sanitatem reductus, lit. led back to sanity. What in good English.' 



HERCULES STRANGLES THE NEMEAN LION 199 

LV. HERCULES BECOMES SUBJECT TO EURYSTHEUS 1 
HE STRANGLES THE NEME'AN LION 

Itaque Hercules Pythiae totam rem demonstravit nee scelus suum 
abdidit. Ubi iam Hercules finem fecit, Pythia iussit eum ad urbem 
Tiryntha'' discedere et ibi regi Eurystheo sese committere. Quae' ubi 
audivit, Hercules ad illam urbem statim contendit et Eurystheo se in 
servitutem tradidit et dixit, "Quid primum, O rex, me facere iubes ?" 5 




HERCULES LEONEM SUPERAT 



Eurystheus, qui perterrebatur vi et corpore ingenti Herculis et eum 
occidi* studebat, ita respondit: "Audi, Hercules ! Multa mira^ narrantur 
de leone saevissimo qui hoc tempore in valle Nemaea omnia vastat 
lubeo te, virorum omnium fortissimum, illo monstro homines libe- 
rare." Haec verba Herculi maxime placuerunt. " Properabo," inquit, 10 

1 Eu-rys'theus (pronounced U-ris'thus) was king of Ti'ryns, a Grecian city, 
whose foundation goes back to prehistoric times. ^ Xiryntha, the ace. case 
of Tiryns, a Greek noun. ' Quae, obj. of audivit. It is placed first to make 
a close connection with the preceding sentence. This is called a connecting 
relative. ^ occidi; pres. pass, infin. ' mira, marvelous thiftgs, the adj. 
being used as a noun. Cf. omnia, in the next line. 



200 SLAYING THE LERNEAN HYDRA 

"et parebo imperio^ tuo." Turn in silvas in quibus leo habitabat 
statim iter fecit. Mox feram vidit et pluris impetus fecit ; frustra 
tamen, quod neque sagittis neque tillo alio telo monstrum vulnerare' 
potuit. Denique Hercules saevum leonem suls ingentibus bracchils 
5 rapuit et faucis eius omnibus viribus compressit. Hoc modo brevi 
tempore eum interfecit. Turn corpus leonis ad oppidum in umeris 
reportavit et pellem postea pro^ veste gerebat. Omnes autem qui eam 
regionem incolebant, ubi famam de morte leonis ingentis acceperunt, 
erant laetissimi et Herculem laudabant verbis amplissimis. 

LVI. SLAYING THE LERNE'AN HYDRA 

lo Deinde Hercules ab Eurystheo iussus est Hydram occldere. Itaque 

cum amico lolao* contendit ad paludem Lernaeam ubi Hydra incole- 

bat. Hoc autem monstrum erat serpens ingens quae novem capita 

. habebat. Mox is monstrum repperit et summo* cum penculo coUum 

eius sinistra manu rapuit et tenuit. Tum dextra manu capita novem 

15 abscidere incepit, sed frustra laborabat, quod quotiens hoc fecerat 
totiens alia nova capita videbat. Quod^ ubi vidit, statuit capita igni 
cremare. Hoc modo octo capita delevit, sed extremum caput vulnerari 
non potuit, quod erat immortale. Itaque illud sub ingenti saxo Her- 
cules posuit et ita victoriam reportavit. 

LVII. THE ARCADIAN STAG AND THE ERYMANTHIAN BOAR 

20 Postquam Eurystheo mors Hydrae nQntiata est, summus terror ani- 
mum eius occupavit. Itaque iussit Herculem capere et ad se reportare 
cervum quendam ; nam minime cupivit tantum virum in regno suo 
tenere. Hie autem cervus dicebatur aurea cornua et pedes multo" 
celeriores vento' habere. Primum Hercules vestigia animalis petivit, 

25 deinde, ubi cervum ipsum vidit, omnibus viribus currere incepit. Per 
plurimos dies contendit nee noctu cessavit. Denique postquam per 

' imperio, § 501. 14. ^ p^g^ y-^^. instead of. ^ lolao, abl. o£ I-o-ld'tis, the 
hero's best friend. * Note the emphatic position of this adjective. ^ Quod 
ubi, when he saw this, another instance of the connecting relative. Cf. p. 199, 1. 3. 
^ multo, § 501*27. ' vent5, § 501. 34. 



CLEANING THE AUGEAN STABLES 201 

totum annum cucurrerat — ita dicitur — ^cervum iam defessum cepit 
et ad Eurystheum portavit. 

Turn vero iussus est Hercules aprum quendam capere qui illo tem- 
pore agros Erymanthios vastabat et homines illius loci magnopere per- 
terrebat. Hercules laete negotium suscepit et in Arcadiam celeriter se 
recepit. Ibi mox aprum repperit. Ille autem, simul atque Herculem 
vidit, statim quam' celerrime fiigit et metti perterritus in fossam altam 
sese abdidit. Hercules tamen summa cum difficultate eum extraxit, 
nee aper tillo modo sese liberare potuit, et vivus ad Eurystheum 
portatus est. 



LVIII. HERCULES CLEANS THE AUGE'AN STABLES AND 
KILLS THE STYMPHALIAN BIRDS 

Deinde Eurystheus Herculi hunc laborem multo graviorem imperavit. 
Augeas^ quidam, qui illo tempore regnum Elidis' obtinebat, tria milia 
boum* habebat. Hi ''ingenti stabulo continebantur. Hoc stabulum, 
quod per triginta annos non purgatum erat, Hercules intra spatium 
ijnius diei purgare iussus est. lUe negotium alacriter suscepit, et pri- 15 
mum labore gravissimo maximam fossam fodit per quam flilminis 
aquam de montibus ad murum stabuli dilxit. Tum partem parvam 
miiri delevit et aquam in stabulum immlsit. Hoc modo finem operis 
fecit uno die facillime. 

Post paucos dies Hercules ad oppidum Stymphalum iter fecit ; nam 20 
Eurystheus iusserat eum avis Stymphalides occidere. Hae aves rostra 
ferrea habebant et homines miseros devorabant. Ille, postquam ad 
locum pervenit, lacum vidit in quo aves incolebant. Niillo tamen modo 
Hercules avibus adpropinquare potuit ; lacus enim non ex aqua sed 
e limo constitit.^ Denique autem aves 'de aliqua causa perterritae in 25 
auras volaverunt et magna pars earum sagittis Herculis occisa est 

^ quam. What is the force of quam with a superlative? ''Augeas, pro- 
nounced in English Aw-je'as. ' Elidis, gen. case of Elis, a district of Greece. 
* boum, gen. plur. of bos. For construction see § 501. 11. ^ ingenti stabul5, 
abl. of means, but in our idiom we should say in a huge stable. ^ constitit, 
from consto. ' de aliqua causa perterritae, frightened for some reason. 



202 CAPTURING THE CRETAN BULL 

LIX. HERCULES CAPTURES THE CRETAN BULL AND 
CARRIES HIM LIVING TO EURYSTHEUS 

Turn Eurystheus iussit Herculem portare vivum ex insula Creta 
taurum quendam saevissimum. lUe igitur navem conscendit — nam 
ventus erat idoneus — atque statim solvit. Postquam triduum navi- 
gavit, incolumis insulae adpropinquavit. Deinde, postquam omnia 
5 parata sunt, contendit ad eam regionem quam taurus vexabat. Mox 
taurum vidit ac sine uUo metii cornua eius corripuit. Tum ingenti 
labore monstrum ad navem traxit atque cum hac praeda ex insula 
discessit. 




HERCULES ET TAURUS 

THE FLESH-EATING HORSES OF DIOME'DES 

Postquam ex insula Creta domum pervenit, Hercules ab Eurystheo 
JO in Thraciam missus est. Ibi Diomedes quidam, vir saevissimus, reg- 
num obtinebat et omnis a finibus suis prohibebat. Hercules iussus 
erat equos Diomedis rapere et ad Eurystheum ducere. Hi autem equi 
homines miserrimos devorabant de quibus rex supplicium samere 
cupiebat. Hercules ubi pervenit, primum equos a rege postulavit, sed 
IS rex eos dedere recusavit. Deinde ille ira commotus regem occidit et 
corpus eius equis tradidit. Itaque is qui antea multos necaverat, ipse 
eodem supplicio necatus est. Et equi, nuper saevissima animalia, 
postquam d»mini sui corpus devoraverunt, mansueti erant. 



THE BELT OF HIPPOLYTE 



203- 



LX. THE BELT OF HIPPOL'YTE, QUEEN OF THE AMAZONS 
Gens Amazonum^ dicitur ^omnino ex mulieribus fuisse. Hae cum 
viris proelium committere non verebantur. Hippolyte, Amazonum 
re^na, balteum habuit pulcherrimum. Hunc balteum possidere filia 
Eurysthei vehementer cupiebat. Itaque Eurystheus iussit Herculem 
impetum in Amazones facere. lUe multis cum copiis navem con- 
scendit et paucis diebus in Amazonum fmis pervenit, ac balteum 
postulavit. Eum tradere ipsa Hippolyte quidem cupivit ; reliquis ta- 
men Amazonibus' persuadere non potuit. Postridie Hercules proelium 
commisit. Multas horas utrimque quam fortissime pugnatum est. 
Denique tamen mulieres terga verterunt et fuga salutem petierunt. 
Multae autem captae sunt, in quo numero erat ipsa Hippolyte. Her- 
cules postquam balteum accepit, omnibus captlvls libertatem dedit. 

THE DESCENT TO HADES AND THE DOG CER'BERUS 
lamque unus modo e duodecim laboribus relinquebatur sed inter 

omnis hie erat difficillimus. lussus est enim canem Cerberum* ex 

Oreo in lucem trahere. Ex Oreo 

autem nemo antea reverterat. Prae- 

terea Cerberus erat monstrum max- 

ime horribile et tria capita habebat. 

Hercules postquam imperia Eurys- 
thei accepit, statim profectus est et in 

Orcum descendit. Ibi vero non sine 

summo periculo Cerberum manibus 

rapuit et ingenti cum labore ex Oreo 

in lucem et ad urbem Eurysthei traxit. 
Sic duodecim labores illi^ intra 

duodecim annos confecti sunt. De- 
mum post longam vitam Hercules 

a deis receptus est et luppiter filio 

suo dedit immortalitatem. 

1 A fabled tribe of warlike women living in Asia Minor. ^ omnino, etc., to 
have consisted entirely of women. ' Amazonibus, § 501. 14. * The dog Cer- 
berus guarded the gate of Orcus, the abode of the dead. ^ illi, those famous. 




HERCULES ET CERBERUS 



204 



THE STORY OF A ROMAN BOY 



P. CORNELIUS LENTULUS : THE STORY OF A 
ROMAN BOYi 

LXI. PUBLIUS IS BORN NEAR POMPE'II 

P. Cornelius Lentulus,^ adulescens Romanus, amplissima familia' 
natus est ; nam pater eius, Marcus, erat dux peritissimus, cuius virtute* 
et consilio multae victoriae reportatae erant; atque mater eius, lulia, a 
clarissimis maioribus orta est. Non vero in urbe sed ruri' Publius 
5 natus est, et cum matre habitabat in villa quae in maris litore et sub 
radicibus magni mentis sita erat. Mons autem erat Vesuvius et parva 




PUERI ROMANI 

urbs Pompeii octo milia* passuum' aberat. In Italia antiqua erant 
plurimae quidem villae et pulchrae, sed inter has omnis ntilla erat pul- 
chrior quam villa Marci liiliaeque. Frons villae muro a maris fluctibus 
lo miiniebatur. Hinc mare et litora et insulae longe lateque conspici' 
ac saepe naves longae et onerariae poterant. A tergo et ab utroque 
latere agri feracissimi patebant. Undique erat magna variorum florum 
copia et multa ingentium arborum genera quae aestate' umbram 

^ This story is fiction witli certain liistoricai facts in Caesar's career as a 
setting. However, tlie events chronicled might have happened, and no doubt 
did happen to rfiany a Roman youth. ^ A Roman had three names, as, 

Publius (given name), Cornelius (name of the gens or clan), Lentulus (family 
name). ' AM. of source, which is akin to the abl. of separation (§ 501. 32). 
^virtiite, § 501. 24. ^ ruri, § 501. 36. i. ^milia, § 501. 21. '' passuum, 
§ 501. II. ^ conspici, infin. with poterant, § 215. Consult the map of Italy for_ 
the approximate location of the villa. ' aestate, § 501. 35. 



HIS LIFE ON THE FARM 



205 



defessis agricolls gratissimam adferebant. Praeterea erant' in agris 
stabulisque multa animalium genera, non solum equi et boves sed 
etiam rarae aves. Etiam erat^ magna piscina plena piscium ; nam 
Romam piscis diligenter colebant. 



CASA ROMANA 



15 



LXII. HIS LIFE ON THE FARM 

Huius vlllae Davus, servus Marcl, est vilicus " et cum Lesbia uxore 5 
omnia curat. Vilicus et uxor in casa humili, medils in agris sita, habi- 
tant. A prima liice usque ad vesperum se^ gravibus laboribus exercent 
ut omnis res bene gerant.' Pliirima enim sunt officia Davi et Lesbiae. 
Vilicus servos regit ne tardi sint* ; mittit alios qui agros arent,^ alios 
qui hortos inrigent,* et opera in^ totum k 

diem imponit. Lesbia autem omnibus 
vestimenta parat, cibum coquit, panem 
facit. 

Non longe ab horum casa et in 
summo coUe situm surgebat domici- 
lium ipsius domini dominaeque am- 
plissimum. Ibi pluris annos* Piiblius 
cum matre vitam f elicem agebat ; nam 
pater eius, Marcus, in terris longinquis 
gravia rei publicae bella gerebat nee 
domum'' reverti poterat. Neque puero quidem molestum est run* 
vivere. Eum multae res delectant. Magnopere amat silvas, agros, 
equos, boves, gallinas, avis, reliquaque animalia. Saepe pluris horas' 
ad mare sedet quo^° melius fluctus et navis spectet. Nee omnino 
sine comitibus erat, quod Lydia, Davi filia, quae erat eiusdem aetatis, 25 
cum eo adhuc infante ludebat, inter quos cum annis amicitia crescebat. 
Lydia nullum alium ducem deligebat et Publius ab puellae latere raro 

^ How are the forms of sum translated when they precede the subject? 
2 The vQicus was a slave who acted as overseer of a farm. He directed the 
farming operations and the sale of the produce. ^ se, reflexive pron., object 
of exercent. * For the construction, see § 501. 40. " in, for. "> annos, 
§ 501. 21. ' domum, § 501. 20. * ruri, § 501. 36. i. ^ horas, cf. ann5s, 
line 17. ^^ quo . . . spectet, §§349, 350. 




2o6 MARCUS LENTULUS IS SHIPWRECKED 

discedebat. Itaque sub claro Italiae sole Publius et Lydia, amici fide- 
lissimi, per campos collisque cotidie vagabantur. Modo in silva finitima 
ludebant ubi Publius sagittis-' celeribus avis deiciebat et Lydia coronis 
variorum florum comas suas omabat; modo aquam et cibum portabant 
5 ad Davum servosque defessos qui agros colebant; modo in casa parva 
aut horas laetas in ludo consumebant aut auxilium dabant Lesbiae, 
quae" cibum viro et servis parabat vel alias res domesticas agebat. 



LXIII. MARCUS LENTULUS, THE FATHER OF PUBLIUS, 

IS SHIPWRECKED • JULIA RECEIVES A 

LETTER FROM HIM 

lam Publius ^decem annos habebat cum Cornelius Lentulus, pater 
eius, qui quinque annos' grave bellum in Asia gerebat, non sine gloria 

10 domum*revertebatur. Namque multa secunda proelia fecerat, maximas 
hostium copias deleverat,multasurbis populo^ Romano inimlcas ceperat. 
Primum ntintius pervenit qui a Lentulo^ missus erat 'ut profectionem 
suam nuntiaret. Deinde pluris dies' reditum virl optimi mater filiusque 
exspectabant et animis^ soUicitls deos immortalls frustra colebant. Tum 

1 5 demum has litteras summo cum gaudio acceperunt : 

^° " Marcus luliae suae salutem dicit. Si vales, bene est; ego valeo. 
Ex Graecia, quo''^ praeter spem et opinionem hodie perveni, has litteras 
ad te scribo. Namque navis nostra fracta est; nos autem — ^^dis est 
gratia — incolumes sumus. Ex Asiae-"' portu navem leni vento solvi- 

2o mus. Postquam "altum mare tenuimus ^^nec iam ullae terrae apparu- 
erunt, caelum undique et undique fluctus, subito magna tempestas 
coorta est et navem vehementissime adflixit. Ventis fluctibusque 

^sagittis, § 501. 24. ^ was ten years old. ''annos, § 501. 21. * domum, 
§ 501. 20. ^ populo, dat. with inimicas, cf. § 501. 16. ^ Lentulo, § 501. 33. 
' ut . . . nuntiaret, § 501 . 40. ' dies, cf . annos, 1. 9. ° animis, abl. of manner. 
Do you see one in line 15 ? 1° This is the usual form for the beginning of a 
Latin letter. First we have the greeting, and then the expression Si vales, etc. 
The date of the letter is usually given at the end, and also the place of writing, 
if not previously mentioned in the letter. ^^ quo, where. ^^ dis est gratia, 
thank God, in our idiom. ^^ Asia refers to the Roman province of that name 
in Asia Minor. 1* altum mare tenuimus, we were well out to sea. ^^ nee 
iam, and no longer. 



LENTULUS REACHES HOME 207 

adfllctati ^ nee solem discernere nee eursum tenere poteramus et 
omnia praesentem mortem intentabant. Tris dies^ et tris noctis'' 
sine remis velisque agimur. Quarto die' primum terra visa est et 
violenter in saxa, quae non longe a litore aberant, deiecti sumus. Turn 
vero maiora perieula timebamus ; sed nauta quidam, vir fortissimus, 5 
ex nave in flucttls iratos desiluit *ut funem ad litus portaret ; quam 
rem summo labore vix effecit. Ita omnes servati sumus. Gratias 
igitur et honorem Neptuno debemus, qui deus nos e perieulo eripuit. 
Nune Athenis^ sum, quo confugi ut milii paucas boras ad quietem 
darem.* Quam primum autem aliam navem condueam ut iter ad 10 
Italiam reliquum eonficiam et domum' ad meos carps revertar. Saluta 
nostrum Publium amicissime et valetudinem tuam ciira diligenter. 
^Kalendis Martiis." 

LXIV. LENTULUS REACHES HOME ■ PUBLIUS VISITS POMPEII 
WITH HIS FATHER 

Post paucos dies navis M. Cornell Lentull portum Mlseni^ petiit, 
qui portus non longe a Pompeils situs est ; quo in portu classis Romana 1 5 
ponebatur et ad pugnas navalls ornabatur. Ibi naves omnium generum 
conspiel poterant. lamque incredibill celeritate navis longa qua Len- 
tulus vehebatur lltori adpropinqiiavit ; nam non solum vento sed etiam 
remIs impellebatur. In alta puppe stabat gubernator et non procul 
aliqul mllites Roman! cum armis splendidls, inter quos clarissimus erat 20 
Lentulus. Deinde servl remIs contendere cessaverunt ^° ; nautae velum 
contraxerunt et aneoras iecerunt. Lentulus statim e navl egressus est 
et ^^ad villam suam maturavit. Eum lulia, Publius, totaque familia 
exceperunt. ^^Qui complexus, quanta gaudia fuerunt! 

Postrldie eius diel Lentulus filio suo dixit, " Venl, ml Publi, meeum. 25 

'■ adflictati, perf . passive part, tossed about. ^ What construction ? 'die, 
§ SOI- 35. ^ ut . . . portaret, § 501. 40. ^ Athenis, § 501. 36. i. ^ darem, 
cf. portaret, 1. 6. ' Why not ad domum? ^ Kalendis Martiis, the Calends 
ox first of March ; abl. of time, giving the date of the letter. ^ Misenum had 
an excellent harbor, and under the emperor Augustus became the chief naval 
station of the Roman fleet. See map of Italy. '^o Why is the infinitive used 
vjrith cessaverunt? '^^ See Plate I, Frontispiece. ^^ Observe that these 
words are exclamatory. 



2o8 A DAY AT POMPEII 

Pompeios iter hodie faciam. Mater tua suadet-"- ut fructus et ciba- 
ria emam. Namque pluris amicos ad cenam vocavimus et multls 
rebus '^ egemus. Ea hortatur ut quam primum proficiscamur. " " Li- 
benter, mi pater," inquit Publius. " Tecum esse mihi semper est gra- 
5 tum ; nee Pompeios umquam vidi. Sine mora proficisci paratus sum." 
Tum celeriter currum conscenderunt et ad urbis muros vecti sunt. 
Stabiana porta ^ urbem ingress! sunt. Publius stratas vias miratur et 
saxa altiora quae in medio disposita erant et altas orbitas quas rotae 
inter haec saxa fecerant. Etiam strepitum miratur, multitudinem, car- 
lo ros, fontis, domos, tabernas, forum* cum statuis, templis, reliquisque 
aedificiis publicis. 

LXV. A DAY AT POMPEII 

Apud forum a curru descenderunt et Lentulus dixit, "Hie sunt 
multa tabernarum genera, mi Publi. Ecce, trans viam est popina! 
^Hoc genus tabernarum cibaria vendit. Fructus quoque ante ianuam 

15 stant. Ibi cibaria mea emam." "Optime," respondit Piiblius. "At 
ubi, mi pater, crustula emere possumus ? Namque mater nobis impe- 
ravit ^ut haec quoque pararemus. Timeo ut' ista popina vendat crQs- 
tula." "Bene dicis," inquit Lentulus. "At nonne vides ilium fontem 
a dextra ubi aqua per leonis caput fluit? In illo ipso loco est taberna 

20 pistoris qui sine dubio vendit criistula." 

Brevi tempore' omnia erant parata, iamque 'quinta hora erat. 
Deinde Lentulus et filius ad cauponam maturaverunt, quod fame ^° et 

^ What construction follows suadeo? §501.41. ^ rebus, § 501. 32. ^ This 
is the abl. of the way by which motion takes place, sometimes called the 
abl. of route. The construction comes under the general head of the abl. of 
means. For the scene here described, see Plate II, p. 53, and notice espe- 
cially the stepping-stones for crossing the street (saxa quae in medio disposita 
erant). * The forum of Pompeii was surrounded by temples, public halls, 
and markets of various sorts. Locate Pompeii on the map. ' We say, this 
kind of shop; Latin, this kind of shops. " ut . . . pararemus, § 501. 41. ' How 
is ut translated after a verb of fearing? How ne? Cf. § 501. 42. ' tempore, 
§ 501. 35. ' quinta hora. The Romans numbered the hours of the day con- 
secutively from sunrise to sunset, dividing the day, whether long or short, 
into twelve equal parts. ^^ fame shows a slight irregularity in that the abl. 
ending -e is long. 



LENTULUS ENGAGES A TUTOR FOR HIS SON 209 

siti'^ urgebantur. Ibi sub arboris umbra sederunt et puero impera- 
verunt ut sibi^ cibum et vinum daret. Huic imperio^ puer celeriter 
paruit. Turn laeti se* ex labore refecerunt. 

Post prandium profecti sunt ut alia urbis spectacula viderent. Illo 
tempore fuerunt Pompeiis^ multa templa, duo theatra, thermae mag- 5 
numque amphitheatrum, quae omnia post paucos annos flammis atque 
incendiis Vesuvi et terrae motu deleta sunt. Ante hanc calamitatem 
autem homines ^ nihil de monte veriti sunt. In amphitheatre quidem 
Publius morari cupivit ut spectacula gladiatoria videret, quae in' ilium 
ipsum diem proscripta erant et iam ^re vera inceperant. Sed'Lentu- 10 
lus dixit, "Morari, Publi, "vereor ut possimus. Iam decima hora est 
et via est longa. Tempus suadet ut quam primum domum reverta- 
mur." Itaque servo imperavit ut equos iungeret, et solis occasu" 
ad villam pervenerunt. 



LXVI. LENTULUS ENGAGES A TUTOR FOR HIS SON 

A primis annis quidem lulia ipsa filium suum docuerat, et Publius 15 
non solum ^^pure et Latine loqui poterat sed etiam commode legebat 
et scribebat. Iam Ennium^^ aliosque poetas legerat. Nunc vero 
Publius ■''duodecim annos habebat; itaque ei pater bonum magistrum, 
■"^virum omnI doctrina et virtute ornatissimum, paravit, ■'^qui Graeca, 
musicam, aliasque artis doceret. ■'^Namque illis temporibus omnes fere 20 
gentes Graece loquebantur. Cum Public alii pueri, Lentuli amicorum 

'■ sitis, thirst, has -im in the ace. sing., -i in the abl. sing., and no plural. 
^ Observe that the reflexive pronoun sibi does not here refer to the subject of 
the subordinate clause in which it stands, but to the subject of the main clause. 
This so-called indirect use of the reflexive is often found in object clauses 
of purpose. ^ What case? Cf. § 501. 14. * se, cf. p. 205, 1. 7, and note. 
^ Pompeiis, § 501. 36. i. " nihil . . . veriti sunt, had no fears of the mountain. 
' va., for. * re vera, in fact. ' vereor ut, § 501. 42. ^^ occasQ, § 501. 35. 
^^ piire . . . poterat, freely, could speak Latin well. What is the literal trans- 
lation ? 12 Ennium, the father of Latin poetry. l^ (Juodecim . . . habebat, 
cf. p. 206, 1. 8, and note. ^* virum, etc., a very well-educated and worthy 

man. Observe the Latin equivalent. ^' qui . . . doceret, a relative clause of 
purpose. Cf. §§ 349, 350. ^^ In Cassar's time Greek was spoken more widely 
in the Roman world than any other language. 



2IO 



SCENE IN SCHOOL 




filil,^ discebant. Nam saepe apud Romanos mos erat '^non in Itidum 
filios mittere sed domi per magistrum docere. Cotidie discipull cum 
magistro in peristyle ' Marci domOs sedebant. Omnes puerl bullam 
auream, originis honestae signum, in collo gerebant, et omnes toga 
5 praetexta amicti erant, ^quod nondum sedecim annos^ nati sunt. 

SCENE IN SCHOOL • AN EXERCISE IN COMPOSITION 

DisciPULi. Salve, magister. 

Magister. Vos quoque omnes, 
salvete. °Tabulasne portavistis et 
stilos ? 
10 D. Portavimus. 

M. lam fabulam Aesopi' dis- 

cemus. Ego legam, vos in tabu- 

lis scribite. Et tu, Piibll, da mihi 

e capsa' Aesopi volumen.^ lam 

15 audite omnes: Vulpes et Uva. 

Vulpes olim fame coacta uvam 
dependentem vidit. Ad uvam salie- 
bat, sumere conans. Frustra diu conata, tandem irata erat et salire 
cessans dixit: "Ilia ilva est acerba; acerbam uvam ■"'nihil moror." 
20 Omnia'ne scripsistis, pueri ? 

D. Omnia, magister. 

^ filii, in apposition witii pueri. ^ non . . . mittere. Tiiis infinitive clause 
is tlie subject of erat. Cf. § 216. Tlie same construction is repeated in the 
next clause, domi . . . docere. The object of docere is filios understood. 
^ The peristyle was an open court surrounded by a colonnade. * At the 
age of sixteen a boy laid aside the bulla and the toga praetexta and assumed 
the toga vinlis or manly gown. ^ annos, § 501. 21. The expression nondum 
sedecim annos nati sunt means literally, tkey were bom not yet sixteen years. 
This is the usual expression for age. What is the English equivalent? 
^ Tablets were thin boards of wood smeared with wax. The writing was done 
with a stylus, a pointed instrument like a pencil, made of bone or metal, with 
a knob at the other end. The knob was used to smooth over the wax in 
making erasures and corrections. ' Aesopi, the famous Greek to whom are 
ascribed most of the fables current in the ancient world. ^ ^ cylindrical 
box for holding books and papers, shaped like a hatbox. ^ Ancient books 
were writteR on rolls made of papy'rus. i" nihil moror, I care nothing for. 



TABULA ET STILUS 



PUBLIUS GOES TO ROME 211 

LXVII. PUBLIUS GOES TO ROME TO FINISH HIS EDUCATION 

lamque Publius, ^qulndecim annos natus, ^primis litterarum ele- 
mentls confectis, Romam petere voluit ut scholas grammaticorum 
et philosophorum frequentaret. Et facillime patri' suo, qui ipse 
philosophiae studio tenebatur, persuasit. Itaque * omnibus rebus ad 
profectionem comparatis, pater filiusque equis animosis vecti* ad 5 
magnam urbem profecti sunt. Eos proficiscentis lulia totaque familia 
votis precibusque prosecutae sunt. Turn per loca" plana et coUis 
silvis vestitos viam ingressi sunt ad Nolam, quod oppidum eos hos- 
pitio modico excepit. Nolae' duas horas morati sunt, quod sol merl- 
dianus ardebat. Turn recta via* circiter viginti milia^ passuum" 10 
Capuam,^ ad insignem Campaniae urbem, contenderunt. Eo'^" multa 
nocte defessi pervenerunt. •'^Postridie eius diei, somno et cibo re- 
creatl, Capua discesserunt et ^^viam »Appiam ingressi, quae Capuam 
tangit et usque ad urbem Romam dticit, ante meridiem Sinuessam per- 
venerunt, quod oppidum tangit mare. Inde prima luce proficiscentes 15 
Formias^^ mattiraverunt, ubi Cicero, orator clarissimus, qui forte apud 
villam suam erat, eos benigne excepit. Hinc ^*itinere viginti quinque 
milium passuum facto, Tarracinam, oppidum in saxis altissimis situm, 
viderunt. lamque non longe aberant paludes magnae, quae multa milia 
passuum undique patent. Per eas pedestris via est gravis et in nave 20 
viatores vehuntur. Itaque ^^equls relictis Lentulus et Publius navem 
conscenderunt, et, una nocte in transitu consumpta, Forum Appi vene- 
runt. Tum brevi tempore Arlcia eos excepit. Hoc oppidum, in coUe 

1 quindecim, etc., cf. p. 210, I. 5, and note. ^ piimis . . . confectis, abl. 
abs. Cf. §501.28. * patri, dat. with persuasit. ^ omnibus ... comparatis, 
cf. note 2. ^ vecti, perf. pass. part, of veho. * What is there peculiar 
about the gender of this word.' ' Nolae, locative case, §501.36.:!. 

'via, cf. porta, p. 208, 1. 7, and note. ^ What construction? i" Eo, 

adv. there. ^^ Postridie eins diel, on the next day. ^^ viam Appiam, the 
most famous of all Roman roads, the great highway from Rome to Tarentum 
and Brundisium, with numerous branches. Locate on the map the various 
towns that are mentioned in the lines that follow. '* Formias, Formice, 
one of the most beautiful spots on this coast, and a favorite site for the villas 
of rich Romans. ^* itinere . . . facto, abl. abs. The gen. milium modifies 
itinere. 1^ equis relictis. What construction? Point out a similar one in 
the next line. 



212 



PUBLIUS PUTS ON THE TOGA VIRILIS 



situm, ab urbe Roma sedecim milia passuum abest. Inde declivis via 
usque ad latum campum ducit ubi Roma stat. Quem ad locum ubi 
Publius venit et Romam adhuc remotam, maximam totlus orbis terra- 
rum urbem, conspexit, summa admiratione et gaudio adfectus est. 
5 Sine mora descenderunt, et, medio intervallo quam celerrime superato, 
urbem porta Capena ingress! sunt. 



LXVIII. PUBLIUS PUTS ON THE TOGA VIRILIS 

Publius iam totum annum Romae morabatur^ multaque urbis 

spectacula viderat et multos sibi^ amicos paraverat. Ei^ omnes 

favebant ; ''de eo omnes bene sperare poterant. Cotidie Publius 
10 scholas philosophorum et grammaticorum tan to 

studio frequentabat ^ut aliis clarum exemplum 

praeberet. Saepe erat cum patrq in curia ^; quae 

res effecit 'ut summos rei ptiblicae viros et audi- 

ret et videret. Ubi "sedecim annos natus' est, 
15 bullam' auream et togam praetextam more 

Romano deposuit atque virilem togam sumpsit. 

Virilis autem toga erat omnlno alba, sed praetexta 

clavum purpureum in margine habebat. ■'"Depo- 

nere togam praetextam et sumere togam virilem 
2o erat res gratissima puero Romano, quod postea bulla 

vir et civis Romanus habebatur. 

'■^His rebus gestis Lentulus ad uxorem suam has litteras scripsit: 
^"Marcus luliae suae salutem dicit. Si vales, bene est ; ego valeo. 

AccepI tuas litteras. Has nunc Roma per servum fidelissimum mitto 
25 ut de Public nostro quam celerrime scias. Nam hodie ei togam virilem 

dedl. Ante lucem surrexi^' et primum buUam auream de coUo eius 

^ morabatur, translate as if pluperfect. ^ sMai, for himself. ^ Ei, why dat. ? 
* de . . . poterant, in English, all regarded him as a very promising youth ; but what 
does the Latin say? ^ ut . . . praeberet, § 501. 43. * curia, a famous, building 
near the Roman Forum. ' ut . . . audiret et videret, § 501. 44. ' sedecim, 
etc., cf. p. 210, 1. 5, and note. ^ bullam, cf. p. 210, 1. 3, and note 4. i" These 
infinitive clauses are the subject of erat.- Cf. § 216. ^^ His rebus gestis, i.e. 
the assumption of the toga virilis and attendant ceremonies. ^^ Compare 
the beginfling of this letter with the one on page 206. 1* surrexi, from surgo. 




Plate IV 




'ECCE CAESAR NUNC TRIUMPHAT ' 
(See page 224) 



PUBLIUS JOINS CESAR'S ARMY IN GAUL 2 1 3 

removi. Hac Laribus'^ consecrata et sacrls factis, eum toga virili 
vestivi. Interim plures amlci cum multitudine optimorum civium et 
honestorum clientium pervenerant ^qui Publium domo in forum de- 
ducerent. Ibi in civitatem receptus est et nomen, Publius Cornelius 
Lentulus, apud civis Romanes ascrlptum est. Omnes ei amicissimi 5 
fuerunt et magna ^ de eo praedlcunt. Sapientior enim aequalibus'' 
est et magnum ingenium habet. ^Ciira ut valeas." 

LXIX. PUBLIUS JOINS CESAR'S ARMY IN GAUL 

Publius iam adulescens postquam togam virilem sumpsit, aliis rebus 
studere incepit et praesertim usu" armorum se' diligenter exercuit. 
Magis magisque amavit illas artis quae mllitarem animum delectant. 10 
lamque erant ^qul ei cursum militarem praedicerent. Nee sine causa, 
quod certe patris Insigne exemplum °ita multum trahebat. •"'Paucis 
ante annis C. lulius Caesar, ducum Romanorum maximus, consul 
creatus erat et hoc tempore in Gallia bellum grave gerebat. Atque in 
exercitu eius plures adulescentes militabant, apud quos erat amicus 15 
quidam Publi. Ille Publium crebrTs litteris vehementer hortabatur ■'^ut 
iter in Galliam faceret. Neque Publius recusavit, et, multis amicis ad 
portam urbis prosequentibus, ad Caesaris castra profectus est. Quarto 
die postquam iter ingressus est, ad Alpis, montls altissimos, pervenit. 
His summa diificultate superatis, tandem Gallorum in finibus erat. 20 
Primo autem veritus est ut^ castris Romanis adpropinquare posset, 
quod Galli, maximis copiis coactis, Romanes obsidebant et vias omnis 
iam clauserant. His rebus commotus Publius vestem Gallicam induit 
ne a Gallis caperetur, et ita per hostium copias incolumis ad castra 

1 The Lares were the spirits of the ancestors, and were worshiped as house- 
hold gods. All that the house contained was confided to their care, and sacri- 
fices were made to them daily. ^ quj . . . deducerent, §350. ^ magna, 
great things, a neuter adj. used as a noun. * aequalibus, § 501. 34. ^ Cura 
ut valeas, take good care of your health. How does the Latin express this idea? 
* Abl. of means. ' se, reflexive object of exercuit. ^ qui . . . praedicerent, 
§ 501. 45. ' ita multum trahebat, had a great influence in that direction. 
'^ Paucis ante annis, a few years before; in Latin, before by a few years, ante being 
an adverb and annis abl. of degree of difference. ^^ ut . . . faceret, § 501. 41. 
^^ ut, how translated here? See § 501. 42. 



214 HOW THE ROMANS MARCHED AND CAMPED 

pervenlre potuit. Intra munltiones acceptus, a Caesare benigne excep- 
tus est. Imperator fortem adulescentem amplissimis verbis laudavit 
et eum ^tribunum mllitum creavit. 

HOW THE ROMANS MARCHED AND CAMPED 

Exercitus qui in hostium finibus bellum gerit multis periculis cir- 
5 cumdatus est. ^Quae pericula ut vitarent, Romani summam ciiram 




IMPEDIMENTA 



adhibere solebant. Adpropinquantes copiis hostium agmen ita dis- 
ponebant "ut imperator ipse cum pluribus legionibus expeditis* pri- 
mum agmen duceret. Post eas copias impedimenta^ totius exercitus 

^ The military tribune was a commissioned officer nearly corresponding to 
our rank of colonel. The tribunes were often inexperienced men, so Cjesar 
did not allow them much responsibility. ^ Quae pericula, object of vitarent. 
It is placed first to make a proper connection with the preceding sentence. 
' ut . . . duceret, § 501. 43. * expeditis, i.e. without baggage and ready for 
action. ^ impedimenta. Much of the baggage was carried in carts and on 
beasts of burden, as is shown above; but, besides this, each soldier (unless 
expeditus) carried a heavy pack. See also picture, p. 159. 



THE RIVAL CENTURIONS 215 

conlocabant. 'Turn legiones quae proxime conscriptae erant totum 
agmen claudebant. Equites quoque in omnls partis dlmittebantur qui 
loca explorarent ; et centuriones praemittebantur ut locum castrls 
idoneum deligerent. Locus habebatur idoneus castris ^qul facile 
defendl posset et prope aquam esset. Qua de causa castra^ in coUe s 
ab utraque parte arduo, a fronte leniter decllvi saepe ponebantur; 
vel locus paludibus cinctus vel in fluminis ripis situs deligebatur. Ad 
locum postquam exercitus pervenit, alii militum *in armis erant, alii 
castra munire incipiebant. Nam ^quo tutiores ab hostibus mllites 
essent, neve incauti et imparati opprimerentur, castra fossa lata et 10 
vallo alto muniebant. In castrls portae quattuor erant ut eruptio 
militum omnls in partis fieri posset. In angulls castrorum erant turres 
de quibus tela in hostis coniciebantur. ^Talibus in castrls quaUa 
descripsimus Publius a Caesare exceptus est. 

LXX. THE RIVAL CENTURIONS 

nils in castris erant duo centuriones,'' fortissimi viri, T. PuUo et 15 

L. Vorenus, quorum neuter alter! virtute^ cedere volebat. Inter eos 

iam multos annos infensum certamen gerebatur. Turn demum finis 

controversiae hoc modo^ f actus est. Die tertio postquam Publius 

pervenit, hostes, maioribus copils coactis, acerrimum impetum in 

castra fecerunt. Tum Pullo, ^"cum RomanI tardiores^'- viderentur, 20 

"Cur dubitas," inquit, "Vorene? Quam commodiorem occasionem 

exspectas ? Hie dies de virtute nostra iudicabit." Haec^^ cum dixisset, 

1 The newest legions were placed in the rear, because they were the least 
reliable. ^ qui . . . posset . . . esset, § 501. 45. ' castra, subject of pone- 
bantur. * in armis erant, stood under arms. ^ quo . . . essent. When is 
quo used to introduce a purpose clause.' See § 350. 1. _ " Talibus in castris 
qualia, in such a camp as. It is important to remember the correlatives talis . . . 
qualis, such . . . as. 'A centurion commanded a company of about sixty 
men. He was a common soldier who had been promoted from the ranks for 
his courage and fighting qualities. The centurions were the real leaders of the 
men in battle. There were sixty of them in a legion. The centurion in the 
picture (p. 2i6) has in his hand a staff with a crook at one end, the symbol of his 
authority. 'virtute, § 501. 30. ' Abl. of manner. ^'' cum ... viderentur, 
§ 501. 46. ^^ tardiores, too slow, a not infrequent translation of the compara- 
tive degree. ^^ Haec, obj. of dixisset. It is placed before cum to make a close 
connection with the preceding sentence. What is the construction of dixisset? 



2l6 



THE ENEMY ARE REPULSED 



extra munitiones processit et in earn hostium partem quae confertis- 

sima ■'videbatur inrupit. Neque Vorenus quidem turn vallo ^ sese 

continet, sad Pullonem subsequitur. Turn 

PuUo pilum in hostis immittit atque unum 
5 ex multitudine procurrentem traicit. Hunc 

percussum et exanimatum hostes scutis 

protegunt et in Pullonem omnes tela coni- 

ciunt. Eius scutum transfigitur et telum 

in balteo defigitur. Hie casus vaginam 
lo avertit et dextram manum eius gladium 

educere conantis' moratur. Eum ita im- 

peditum hostes circumsistunt. 

Tum vero *ei laboranti Vorenus, cum 

sit inimicus, tamen auxilium dat. Ad hunc 
15 confestim ^a PuUone omnis multitude se 

convertit. Gladio comminus pugnat Vore- 
nus, atque, uno interfecto, reliquos paulum 

propellit. Sed Instans cupidius^ infelix, 

^pede se fallente, concidit. 
20 Huic rursus circumvents auxilium dat 

PuUo, atque ambo incolumes, pluribus 

. _ CENTURIO 

mterfectis, summa cum laude mtra 

munitiones se recipiunt. Sic inimicorum alter alteri auxilium dedit 

nee de eorum virtute quisquam iudicare potuit. 




LXXI. THE ENEMY BESIEGING THE CAMP ARE REPULSED 

25 Cum iam sex horas pugnatum esset^ ac non solum vires sed etiam tela 
Romanes deficerent,* atque hostes acrius instarent,' et vallum scindere 
fossamque complere incepissent,^ Caesar, vir rei militaris peritissimus, 

^ videbatur, inrupit. Why is the imperfect used in one case and the perfect 
in the other? Cf. § 190. ^ vallo, abl. of means, but in English we should say 
within the rampaii. Cf. ingenti stabulo, p. 201, 1. 13, and note. ^ conantis, 
pres. part, agreeing with eius. * ei laboranti, indir. obj. of dat. * a PuUone, 
from PuUo, abl. of separation. ^ cupidius, too eagerly. ' pede se fallente, lit. 
the foot deceiving itself; in our idiom, his foot slipping. ** pugnatum esset, defice- 
rent, instafent, incepissent. These are all subjunctives with cum. Cf. § 501. 46. 



PUBLIUS GOES TO GERMANY 217 

suis imperavit ut proelium paulisper intermitterent,^ et, signo dato, ex 
castris erumperent.' ^Quod iussi sunt faciunt, et subito ex omnibus 
portis erumpunt. Atque tam celeriter milites concurrerunt et tarn pro- 
pinqul erant hostes^ut spatium pila coniciendi* non daretur. Itaque 
reiectis pilis ^comminus gladiis pugnatum est. Diu et audacter hostes 5 
restiterunt et in extrema spe salutis tantam virtutem praestiterunt ut 
a dextro cornu vehementer ^multitudine suorum aciem Romanam pre- 
merent. 'Id imperator cum animadvertisset, Publium adulescentem 
cum equitatu misit qui laborantibus ^ auxilium daret. Eius impetum 
sustinere non potuerunt hostes^ et omnes terga verterunt. Eos in 10 
fugam datos Publius subsecutus est usque ad flumen Rhenum, quod 
ab eo loco quinque milia passuum aberat. Ibi pauci salutem sibi 
reppererunt. Omnibus reliquis interfectis, Publius et equites in castra 
sese receperunt. De hac calamitate finitimae gentes cum certiores factae 
assent, ad Caesarem legates miserunt et se suaque omnia dediderunt. 1 5 

LXXII. PUBLIUS GOES TO GERMANY ITS GREAT FORESTS 
AND STRANGE ANIMALS 

Inita aestate Caesar litteris certior fiebat et per exploratores cognos- 
cebat plurls civitates Galliae novis rebus studere/" et contra populum 
Romanum coniurare^" obsidesque ^^ inter se dare," atque cum his 
Germanos quosdam quoque sese coniuncturos esse.^" His litteris nun- 
tiisque commotus Caesar constituit quam celerrime in Gallos proficisci,^^ 20 
ut cos inopinantis opprimeret, et Labienum legatum cum duabus 
legionibus peditum et duobus milibus equitum in Germanos mittere.^^ 

1 intennitterent, erumperent. What use of the subjunctive ? ^ Quod, etc., 
they do as ordered. The antecedent of quod is id understood, which would be the 
object of faciunt. ^ ut . . . daretur. Is this a clause of purpose or of result? 
* coniciendi, § 402. ^ conuninus gladiis pugnatum est, a hand-to-hand conflict 
was waged with swords. * multitudine suorum, by their numbers, suorum is 
used as a noun. What is the literal translation of this expression? ' Id im- 
perator. Id is the obj. and imperator the subj. of animadvertisset. ^ labo- 
rantibus. This participle agrees with iis understood, the indir. obj. of daret; 
qui . . . daret is a purpose clause, § 501. 40. ^ hostes, subj. of potuerunt. 
1° Observe that all these infinitives are in indirect statements after certior fiebat, 
he was informed, and cognoscebat, he learned. Of. § 501 . 48, 49. ^^ inter se, to 
each other. ^"■^ proficisci, mittere. These infinitives depend upon constituit. 



2i8 THE STORMING OF A CITY 

'^Itaque re frumentaria comparata castra movit. Ab utroque^ res 
bene gesta est ; nam Caesar tarn celeriter in hostium finis pervenit ut 
spatium "copias cogendi non daretur*; et Labienus de Germanis tam 
grave supplicium sumpsit ut nemo ex ea gente in reliquum tempus 
5 Gallis auxilium dare auderet.* 

Hoc iter in Germaniam Publius quoque fecit et, ^cum ibi moraretur, 
multa mirabilia vidit. Praesertim vero ingentem silvam mirabatur, 
quae tantae magnittadinis esse dicebatur ^ut nemo eam transire posset, 
nee quisquam sciret-aut initium aut finem. Qua de re plura cogno- 

10 verat a milite quodam qui olim captus a Germanis multos annos ibi 
incoluit. lUe' de silva dicens, " Infinitae magnitildinis est haec silva," 
inquit; "nee quisquam est ^huius Germaniae ^qui initium eius sciat 
aut ad finem adierit. Nascuntur illic multa talia animalium genera 
qualia reliquis in locis non inveniuntur. Sunt boves qui Tanum^" cornu 

1 5 habent ; sunt etiam animalia quae appellantur alces. Hae nullos cru- 
rum"^^ articulos habent. Itaque, si forte conciderunt, sese erigere nullo 
modo possunt. Arbores habent pro ^^ cubilibus ; ad eas se applicant 
atque ita reclinatae quietem capiunt. Tertium est genus eorum qui 
uri appellantur. Hi sunt paulo minores elephantis.^' Magna vis eorum 

2o est et magna velocitas. Neque homini neque ferae parcunt.''* " 

LXXIII. THE STORMING OF A CITY 

Publius pluris dies in Germania moratus ^^ in Galliam rediit, et ad 
Caesaris castra se contulit. Ille quia moleste ferebat Gallos** eius 
regionis obsides dare recQsavisse et exercitui frumentum praebere 

1 Before beginning a campaign, food had to be provided. Every fifteen 
days grain was distributed. Each soldier received about two pecks. This he 
carried in his pack, and this constituted his food, varied occasionally by what 
he could find by foraging. ^^bl. of personal agent, § 501. 33. ^ copias 
cogendi, § 501. 37. i. * daretur, audiret, § 501. 43. auderet is not from audio. 
5 cum . . . moraretur, § 501. 46. " ut . . . posset, . . . sciret, § 501. 43. ' nie, 
subj. of inquit. ^ huius Germaniae, of this part of Germany. ^ qui . . . 
sciat . . . adierit, § 501. 45. i" iinum, only one. n crurum, from crus. 
^^ pro, for, in place of. i^ elephantis, § 501. 34. 1* parcunt. What case is 
used with this verb ? i^ moratus. Is this part, active or passive in meaning? 
^^ Gallos, subj. ace. of the infins. recusavisse and noluisse. The indirect state- 
ment depAds upon moleste ferebat. 



THE STORMING OF A CITY 



219 




noluisse, constituit eis '■ bellum inferre. Agris vastatis, vicis incensTs, 
pervenit ad oppidum validissimum quod et natura et arte munltum 
erat. Cingebatur muro vlginti quinque pedes'^ alto. A lateribus duo- 
bus marl muniebatur; a tertio latere coUis, in quo oppidum erat 
situm, praerupto fastigio ad 
planitiem vergebat; a quarto 
tantum ° latere aditus erat f acilis. 
Hoc oppidum oppugnare, ^ cum 
opus esset difficillimum, tamen 
constituit Caesar. Et castris 
munltis Public negotium dedit 
ut res ^ad oppugnandum neces- 
sarias pararet. 

Romanorum autem oppug- 

^f^ ° VINEA 

natio est haec.° Primum turres 15 

aedificantur quibus milites in summum murum evadere possint'; 
vineae' fiunt quibus tecti milites ad murum succedant ; plutei^ paran- 
tur post quos milites tormenta^" administrent ; suntquoque arietes 
qui murum et portas discutiant. His omnibus rebus comparatis, 
deinde "agger ab ea parte ubi aditus est facillimus exstruitur et cum 20 

^ eis, § 501. 15. 2 pedes, § 501. 21. ^ tantum, adv. onfy. * cum . . . 
esset, a clause of concession, § 501. 46. ^ ad oppugnandum, a gerund express- 
ing purpose. * haec, as follows. ' possint, subjv. of purpose. Three similar 
constructions follow. ^ vineae. These vineae were wooden sheds, open in 
front and rear, used to protect men who were working to take a fortification. 
They were about eight feet high, of like width, and double that length, covered 
with raw hides to protect them from being set on fire, and moved on wheels or 
rollers. ' plutei, large screens or shields with small wheels attached to them. 
These were used to protect besiegers while moving up to a city or while serving 
the engines of war. i" tormenta. The engines of war were chiefly the cata- 
pult for shooting great arrows, and the ballista, for hurling large stones. They 
had a range of about two thousand feet and were very effective. ^l The agger, 
or mound, was of chief importance in a siege. It was begun just out of reach of 
the missiles of the enemy, and then gradually extended towards the point to be 
attacked. At the same time its height gradually increased until on a level with 
the top of the wall, or even higher. It was made of earth and timber, and had 
covered galleries running through it for the use of the besiegers. Over or 
beside the agger a tower was moved up to the wall, often with a battering-ram 
(aries) in the lowest story. (See picture, p. 221.) 



220 



THE CITY IS TAKEN 



vineis ad ipsum oppidum agitur. Turn turris in aggere promovetur ; 
arietibus qui sub vineis conlocati erant murus et portae discutiuntur; 
ballistis, catapultis, reliquisque tormentis lapides et tela in oppidum 
coniciuntur. Postremo cum iam turris et agger altitudinem muri 
5 adaequant et arietes moenia perfregerunt/ signo dato milites inruunt 
et oppidum expugnant. 



LXXIV. THE CITY IS TAKEN • THE CAPTIVES ARE 
QUESTIONED 

Omnibus rebus necessariis ad oppugnandum a Public comparatis, 
deliberatur in concilio quod consilium ^oppidi expugnandi ineant.^ 
Tum unus* ex centurionibus, 

10 vir rei militaris peritissimus, 
" Ego suadeo," inquit, " ut ab 
ea parte, ubi aditus sit^ facilli- 
mus, aggerem exstruamus^ et 
turrim promoveamus " atque 

IS ariete admoto simul murum 
discutere conemur.^ " ' Hoc 
consilium cum omnibus place- 
ret, Caesar concilium dimisit. 
Deinde milites hortatus ut pri- 

20 ores victorias memoria* tene- 

rent, iussit aggerem exstrui, ballista 

turrim et arietem admoveri. Neque oppidanis' consilium defuit. Alii 
ignem et omne genus telorum de muro in turrim coniecerunt, alii in- 
gentia saxa in vineas et arietem devolverunt. Diii utrimque acerrime 

'■ perfregerunt, from perfringo. =" oppidi expugnandi. Is this a gerund or 
a gerundive construction ? Cf. §501.37. ^ ineant, § 501. 50. * unus, subj. 
of inquit. ^ sit. Tliis is a so-called subjunctive by attraction, which means 
that the clause beginning with ubi stands in such close connection with the 
subjv. clause beginning with ut, that its verb is attracted into the same mood. 
" All these verbs are in the same construction. ' Hoc consilium, subj. of 
placeret. For the order cf. Haec cum, etc., p. 215, 1. 22, and note; Id imperator 
cum, p. 2i7f 1. 8. 8 memoria, abl. of means. ^ oppidanis, § 501. 15. 




THE CAPTIVES ARE QUESTIONED 



221 




TURRES, ARIETES, VINEA 



15 



pugnatum est. Ne vulnerati quidem pedem rettulerunt. Tandem, 
^de tertia vigilia, Publius, quem Caesar illi operi^ praefecerat, nflntiavit 
partem^ muri ictibus _ 

arietis labefactam con- 
cidisse. Qua re au- 
dita Caesar signum 
dat; milites inruunt et 
magna cum caede hos- 
tium oppidum capiunt. 

Postrldie eius die!, 
hocoppido expugnato, 
*captivorum qui no- 
bilissimi sunt ad im- 
peratorem ante prae- 
torium^ adducuntur. 
Ipse, lorica aurata et 
paludamento purpureo insignis, captivos per ■ interpretem in hunc 
modum interrogat:* Vos qui estis'? 

Interpres. Rogat imperator qui sitis. 

Captivi. Filii regis sumus. 20 

Interpres. Dicunt se filios esse regis. 

Imperator. CQr mihi tantas initirias intulistis ? 

Interpres. Rogat cur sibi tantas iniurias intuleritis. 

Captivi. Initirias ei non intulimus sed pro patria bellum gessimus. 
Semper voluimus Romanis esse amici, sed Romani sine causa nos 25 
domo patriaque expellere conati sunt. 

Interpres. ' Negant se initirias tibi intulisse, sed pro patria bellum 
gessisse. ^Semper se voluisse amicos Romanis esse, sed Romanes 
sine causa se domo patriaque expeUere conatos esse. 

^ Between twelve and three o'clock in the morning. The night was divided 
into four watches. ^ operi, § 501. 15. ^ partem, subj. ace. of concidisse. 
^ captivorum . . . sunt, the noblest of the captives. ^ The general's headquarters. 
° Study carefully these direct questions, indirect questions, and indirect state- 
ments. ' See Plate III, p. 117. ^'S&%a.iA,e.tc.,they say that they have not, ^tz. 
Negant is equivalent to dicunt non, and the negative modifies intulisse, but not the 
remainder of the indirect statement. ' Semper, etc., that they have always, etc. 



2 22 CIVIL WAR BREAKS OUT 

Imperator. '^ Manebitisne in reliquum tempus in fide, hac rebellione 
condonata ? 

Turn vero captivi multls cum lacrimis iuraverunt se in fide manstiros 
esse, et Caesar eos incolumis domum dimlsit. 

LXXV. CIVIL WAR BREAKS OUT BETWEEN C^SAR AND 
POMPEY • THE BATTLE OF PHARSALIA 

5 Ne confecto^ quidem hello Gallico, "bellum civile inter Caesarem 
et Pompeium exortum est. Nam Pompeius, qui summum imperium 
petebat, senatui persuaserat ut Caesarem rei pUblicae hostem* iudicaret 
et exercitum eius dimitti iuberet. Quibus cognitis rebus Caesar exer- 
citum suum dimittere recusavit, atque, hortatus milites ut ducem totiens 

10 victorem ab inimicorum iniQriis defenderent, imperavit ut se Romam 
sequerentur. Summa cum alacritate milites paruerunt, et transito 
Rubicone^ initium belli civilis factum est. 

Italiae urbes quidem omnes fere ^ rebus Caesaris favebant et eum 
benigne exceperunt. Qua re commotus Pompeius ante Caesaris adven- 

15 tum Roma excessit et Brundisium^ pervenit, inde ^panels post diebus 
cum omnibus copiis ad Epirum mare transiit. Eum Caesar cum septem 
legionibus et quingentis equitibus secutus est, et insignis inter Caesaris 
comitatum erat Publius. 

Pluribus levioribus proelils factis, tandem copiae adversae ad Phar- 

20 salum^ in Thessalia sitam castra posuerunt. Cum Pompei exercitus 

1 Manebitisne in fide, will you remain loyal? ^ With ne . . . quidem the 
emphatic word stands between the two. ^ The Civil War was caused by the 
jealousy and rivalry between Caesar and Pompey. It resulted in the defeat 
and subsequent death of Pompey and the elevation of Caesar to the lordship 
of the Roman world. ^ hostem, predicate accusative, § 501. 22. ^ The 
Rubicon was a small stream in northern Italy that marked the boundary of 
Caesar's province. By crossing it with an armed force Cassar declared war 
upon Pompey and the existing government. Caesar crossed the Rubicon early 
in the year 49 B.C. ^ rebus Caesaris favebant, favored Ccesar's side. In what 
case is rebus? ' Brundisium, a famous port in southern Italy whence ships 
sailed for Greece and the East. See map. * paucis post diebus, a few days 
later; literally, afterwards by a few days. Cf. paucis ante annis, p. 213, 1. 12, and 
note. ^ The battle of Pharsalia was fought on August 9, 48 B.C. In impor- 
tance it ran^s as one of the great battles of the world. 



THE BATTLE OF PHARSALIA 223 

esset bis tantus quantxis Caesaris, tamen erant multi qui veteranas 
legiones quae Gallos et Germanos superaverant vehementer timebant. 
Quos^ ^ante proelium commissum Labienus^ legatus, qui ab Caesare 
nuper defecerat, ita adlocutus est : " *Nolite existimare hunc esse 
exercitum veteranorum militum. Omnibus interful proelils* neque 5 
temere incognitam rem pronuntio. Perexigua pars illius exercitus 
qui Gallos superavit adhuc superest. Magna pars occisa est, multi 
domum discesserunt, multi sunt relicti in Italia. Hae copiae quas 
videtis in ^citeriore Gallia nuper conscriptae sunt." Haec^ cum dix- 
isset, iuravit se nisi victorem in castra non reversurum esse. 'Hoc 10 
idem Pompeius et omnes reliqui iuraverunt, et magna spe et laetitia, 
sicut certam ad victoriam, copiae e castrls exierunt. 

Item Caesar, anim6° ad dimicandum paratus, exercitum suum 
ediixit et septem cohortibus ^"praesidio castris relictis copias triplici 
acie instruxit. Turn, militibus studio pugnae ardentibus, tuba signum 15 
dedit. Milites procurrerunt et pllis missis gladios strinxerunt. Neque 
vero virtQs hostibus defuit. Nam et tela missa sustinuerunt et impetum 
gladiorum exceperunt et ordines conservaverunt. Utrimque diu et 
acriter- pugnatum est nee quisquam pedem rettulit. Turn equites 
Pompei aciem Caesaris circumire conati sunt. Quod" ubi Caesar 20 
animadvertit, tertiam aciem,-"^ quae ad id tempus quieta fuerat, procur- 
rere iussit. Tum vero integrorum impetum ^^ defessi hostes sustinere 
non potuerunt et omnes terga verterunt. Sed Pompeius de fortilnis 
suis desperans se in castra equo contulit, inde mox cum paucis 
equitibus effugit. 25 

^ Quos, obj. of adlocutus est. ^ ante proelium commissum, before the begin- 
ning of the battle. ' Labienus, Caesar's most faithful and skillful lieutenant 
in the Gallic War. On the outbreak of the Civil War, in 49 B.C., he deserted 
Caesar and joined Pompey. His defection caused the greatest joy among the 
Pompeian party; but he disappointed the expectations of his new friends, 
and never accomplished anything of importance. He fought against his old 
commander in several battles and was slain at the battle of Munda in Spain, 
45 B.C. ^ Nolite existimare, rfowV Mz«/J. ^ proeliis, § 501. 15. ^ citeriore 
Gallia. This name is applied to Cisalpine Gaul, or Gaul south of the Alps. 
' Haec, obj. of dixisset. ^ Hoc idem, obj. of iuraverunt. ^ animo, § 501. 30. 
1° praesidio castris, § 501. 17. " Quod, obj. of animadvertit. ^^ aciem, subj. 
of procunere. *' impetum, obj. of sustinere. 



224 



THE TRIUMPH OF CvESAR 



LXXVI. THE TRIUMPH OF CAESAR 

Pompeio amicisque eius superatis atque omnibus hostibus ubique 

victis, Caesar imperator Romam rediit et ^ extra moenia urbis in campo 
Martio castra posuit. Turn vero amplissimis 
honoribus adfectus est. Dictator creatus est, 
et ei triumphus a senatu est decretus. ^Quo 
die de Gallis triumphum egit, tanta multitude 
hominum in urbem undique confluxit ^ut omnia 
loca essent conferta. Templa patebant, arae 
f umabant, columnae sertis ornatae erant. * Cum 
vero pompa urbem intraret, quantus hominum 
fremitus ortus est ! Primum per portam in- 
gress! sunt senatus et magistratus. Secuti 
sunt tiblcines, signiferi, pedites laurea coronati 
canentes : " Ecce Caesar nunc triumphat, qui 
subegit Galliam," et "MiUe, mille, mille, mlUe 
Gallos trucidavimus." Multi praedam capta- 
rum urbium portabant, arma, omnia belli in- 
striimenta. Secuti sunt equites, animosis atque 
splendidissime omatis equis vecti, inter quos 
Publius adulescens fortissimus habebatur. Ad- 
dtjcebantur tauri, arietes, ^qui dis immortalibus 

immolarentur. Ita longo agmine progrediens exercitus " sacra via per 

forum in Capitolium perrexit. 

Cum imperator ipse urbem intraret, undique laeto clamore multi- 
25 tudinis saliitatus est. Stabat in curru aureo quem quattuor albl equi 

vehebant. Indutus ''toga picta, altera manu habenas et lauream 

1 A victorious general with his army was not allowed to enter the city until 
the day of his triumph. A triumph was the greatest of all military honors. 

2 Quo die, on the day that, abl. of time. ^ ut essent, § 50 1 . 43. * Cum . . . 

intraret, § 501. 46. ^ qui . . . inunolarentur, § 501. 40. « The Sacred Way 
was a noted street running along one side of the Forum to the base of the 
Capitoline Hill, on whose summit stood the magnificent temple of Jupiter 
Capitolinus. This route was always followed by triumphal processions. ' The 
toga picta worn by a general in his triumph was a splendid robe of Tyrian 
purple cove?ed with golden stars. See Plate IV, p. 213. 




SIGNIFER 



THE TRIUMPH OF C^SAR 



225 



tenebat, altera eburneum sceptrum. Post eum servus in curru stans 
auream coronam super caput eius tenebat. Ante currum miserrimi 
captivi, reges principesque su- 
peratarum gentium, catenis 
vincti, progrediebantur; et vi- 
ginti quattuor lictores^ laurea- 
tes fascis ferentes et signiferi 
currum Caesaris comitabantur. 
Concludit agmen multitude 
captlvorum, qui, in servitutem 
redact!, '^demisso vultu, vinctis* 
bracchils, sequuntur; quibus- 
cum veniunt longissimo ordine 
mllites, etiam hi praedam vel 

insignia militaria ferentes. i|?*^3(27 "IsiBA ^if/ A '?/ '/ 'fTl t*^(f?3 '5 

Caesar cum Capitolium as- 
cendisset, in templo lovi Ca- 
pitolino sacra fecit. ^Simul 
captivorum qui nobilissimi 

, J ,- . 5 LICTORES CUM FASCIBUS 

erant, abducti m carcerem," 20 

interfecti sunt. Sacris factis Caesar de Capitolio descendit et in foro 
militibus suis honores militaris dedit eisque pecuniam ex belli praeda 
distribuit. 

His omnibus rebus confectis, Piiblius Caesarem ^valere iussit et 
quam celerrime ad villam contendit ut patrem matremque salutaret. 25 

'De rebus gestis P. Corneli Lentuli hactenus. 

1 The lictors were a guard of honor that attended the higher magistrates and 
made a way for them through the streets. On their shoulders they carried the 
fasces, a bundle of rods with an ax in the middle, symbolizing the power of 
the law. ^ demisso vultu, with downcast countenance. ^ vinctis, from vincio. 
* Simul, etc., At the sa?ne time those of the captives who were the noblest, ^ The 
prison was a gloomy dungeon on the lower slopes of the Capitoline Hill. 
^ valere iussit, bade farewell to. ' This sentence marks the end of the story. 




APPENDIX I 

DECLENSIONS, CONJUGATIONS, 
NUMERALS, ETC. 

NOUNS 

460. Nouns are inflected in five declensions, distinguished by the 
final letter of the stem and by the termination of the genitive singular. 

First Declension — A-stems, Gen. Sing, -ae 

Second Declension — 0-stems, Gen. Sing, -i 

Third Declension — Consonant stems and I-stems, Gen. Sing, -is 

Fourth Declension — U-stems, Gen. Sing, -us 

Fifth Declension — E-stems, Gen. Sing, -li 



461. 



FIRST DECLEWSION. jI-STEMS 





domina, 


lady 


Stem 


domina- 


Base domin- 






Singular 






Plural 








TERMINATIONS 


terminations 


Nom. 


domina 




-a 




dominae 


-ae 


Gen. 


dominae 




-ae 




dominarum 


-arum 


Dat. 


dominae 




-ae 




dominis 


-is 


Ace. 


dominam 




-am 




dominas 


-as 


AM. 


domina 




-a 




dominis 


-is 



a. . Dea ^nd filia have the termination -abus in the dative and ablative 
plural. 

226 



SECOND DECLENSION 227 

462. SECOND DECLENSION. O-STEMS 

a. Masculines in -us 
dominus, master Stem domino- Base domin- 
SiNGULAR Plural 

TERMINATIONS 

domini -i 

dominorum -orum 

dominis -is 

dominos -os 

dominis -is 

1 . Nouns in -us of the second declension have the tennination -e in the 
vocative singular, as domine. 

2. Proper names in -ius, and filius, end in -i in the vocative singular, 
and the accent rests on the penult, as Vergi'li, fill. 

b. Neuters in -um 
pilum, spear Stem pilo- Base pil- 
SiNGULAR Plural 







terminations 


Nom. 


dominus 


-us 


Gen. 


domini 


-i 


Dat. 


domino 


-0 


Ace. 


dominum 


-um 


Abl. 


dominS 


-6 







terminations 




terminations 


Nom. 


pilum 


-um 


pila 


-a 


Gen. 


pili 


-i 


pilorum 


-orum 


Dat. 


pflo 


-0 


pilis 


-is 


Ace. 


pilum 


-um 


pila 


-a 


Abl. 


pilo 


-0 


pilis 


-is 



I . Masculines in -ius and neuters in -ium end in -i in the genitive singular, 
not in -ii, and the accent rests on the penult. 

c. Masculines in -er and -ir 



puer, 


boy 


Siget, field 


vir, 


man 


Stems puero- 


agro- 




viro- 


Bases puer- 




agr- 

SlNGULAR 




vir- 


terminations 


Nom. puer 




ager 


vir 






Gen. pueri 




agri 


viri 




-i 


Dat. puero 




agro 


viro 




-6 


Ace. puerum 




agrum 


virum 




-um 


Abl. puero 




agro 


viro 




-5 



228 







APPENDIX 


I 








Plural 




TERMINATIONS 


Nom. 


pueri 


agri 


viri 


-i 


Gen. 


puerorum 


agrorum 


virorum 


-orum 


Dai. 


pueris 


agris 


viris 


-is 


Ace. 


pueros 


agr5s 


viros 


-OS 


AM. 


pueris 


agrls 


viris 


-is 



463. 



CLASSIFI- 
CATION 



Consonant 
Stems 



Lll. /-Stems 



THIRD DECLENSION 

1 . Stems that add -s to the base to form the 
nominative singular: masculines and 
ferainines only. 

2. Stems that add no termination in the 
nominative singular: a. masculines and 
feminines; b. neuters. 

Masculines, feminines, and neuters. 



464. 



I. CONSONANT STEMS 



I. Nouns that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular : 
masculines and feminines only 



princeps. 

Bases ^ 
OR \ princip- 

Stems J 



m., chief 



Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Abl. 



princeps 

principis 

principi 

principem 

principe 



miles, m. 
milit- 



, soldier 



Singular 

miles 

mllitis 

mlliti 

militem 

milite 



lapis 

lapidis 

lapidi 

lapidem 

lapide 



lapis, m., stone 
lapid- 

terminations 
-s 
-is 
-i 

-em 
-e 



Nom. principes 

Gen. principum 

Dat. prmcipibus 

Aec. principes 



Plural 

mllites 
mllitum 
mllitibus 
milites 



Abl. * prTncipibus mllitibus 



lapides 

lapidum 

lapidibus 

lapides 

lapidibus 



-es 

-um 

-ibus 

-es 

-ibus 



THIRD DECLENSION 
xeTi,m.,king iMex, m., judge yirtaa, i., viriue 



229 



Bases - 










OR 


reg- 


iudic- 


virtiit- 




Stems , 




SlNGULAR 




TERMINATIONS 


Nom. 


rex 


iudex 


virtus 


-s 


Gen. 


regis 


iudicis 


virtu tis 


-is 


Dat. 


regi 


iudici 


virtu ti 


-i 


Ace. 


regem 


iudicem 


virtutem 


-em 


Abl. 


rege 


iudice 

Plural 


virtu te 


-e 


Nom. 


reges 


iudices 


virtu tes 


-es 


Gen. 


regum 


iudicum 


virtutum 


-um 


Dat. 


regibus 


iudicibus 


virtutibus 


-ibus 


Ace. 


reges 


iudices 


virtiites 


-es 


Abl. 


regibus 


iudicibus 


virtutibus • 


-ibus 



Note. For consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. § 233. 3. 



2. Nouns that have no termination in the nominative singular 

a. Masculines and Feminines 
consul, m., legio, f., 5rdo, m., pater, m., 



consul 



father 



Bases 

OR 

Stems 


■ consul- 


legion- 


ordin- 

Singulae 


patr- 


TERMINATIONS 


Nom. 


consul 


legio 


ordo 


pater 




Gen. 


consulis 


legionis 


ordinis 


■ patris 


-is 


Dat. 


consul! 


legioni 


ordini 


patri 


-i 


Aec. 


consulem 


legionem 


ordinem 


patrem 


-em 


Abl. 


consule 


legione 


ordine 
Plural 


patre 


-e 


Nom. 


consules 


legiones 


ordines 


patres 


-es 


Gen. 


consulum 


legionum 


ordinum 


patrum 


-um 


Dat. 


c5nsulibus 


legionibus 


ordinibus 


patribus 


-ibus 


Ace. 


consules 


legiones 


ordines 


patres 


-es 


Abl. 


consulibus 


legionibus 


ordinibus 


patribus 


-ibus 



Note. For vowel and consonant changes in the nominative singular, 
cf. § 236. 1-3. 



230 APPENDIX I 

b. Neuters 
flumen, n., river tempus, n., time opus, n., work caput, n., head 



Bases 


Iflumin- 










OR 


tempor- 


oper- 


capit- 


Stems 














SlNGULAR 




TERMINATIONS 


Nom. 


flumen 


tempus 


opus 


caput 




Gen. 


fluminis 


temporis 


operis 


capitis 


-is 


Dat. 


flumini 


tempori 


operi 


capiti 


-i 


Ace. 


flumen 


tempus 


opus 


caput 




Abl. 


flumine 


tempore 


opere 

Plural 


capite 


-e 


Nom. 


flumina 


tempora 


opera 


capita 


-a 


Gen. 


fluminum 


temporum 


operum 


capitum 


-um 


Dat. 


fluminibus 


terriporibus 


operibus 


capitibus 


-ibus 


Ace. 


flumina • 


tempora 


opera 


capita 


-a 


Abl. 


fluminibus 


temporibus 


operibus 


capitibus 


-ibus 



Note. For vowel and consonant changes in the nominative singular, 
cf. § 238. z, 3. 

465. II. /-STEMS 

a. Masculines and Feminines 
caedes, f., slaughter hostis, m., enemy urbs, f., city cliens, m., retainer 
Stems caedi- hosti- urbi- clienti- 

Bases caed- host- urb- client- 









Singular 




terminations 


Nom. 


caedes 


hostis 


urbs 


cliens 


-s, -is, or -es 


Gen. 


caedis 


hostis 


urbis 


, chentis 


-is 


Dat. 


caedi 


hosti 


urbi 


client! 


-i 


Ace. 


caedem 


hostem 


urbem 


clientem 


-em (-im) 


Abl. 


caede 


hoste 


urbe 
Plural 


cliente 


-e(-i) 


Nom. 


caedes 


hostes 


urbes 


clientes 


-es 


Gen. 


caedium 


hostium 


urbium 


clientium 


-ium 


Dat. 


caedibus 


hostibus 


urbibus 


clientibus 


-ibus 


Ace. 


caedis, -es 


hostis, -es 


urbis, -es 


clientis, -es 


-is, -es 


Abl. 


caedibus 


hostibus 


urbibus 


clientibus 


-ibus 



1. Avis, civis, finis, ignis, navis, have the abl. sing, in -i or -e. 

2. Turisis has accusative turrim and ablative turri or turre. 



FOURTH DECLENSION 



231 



b. Neuters 

insigne, n., decoration animal, n., animal calcar, n., spur 

calcari- 
calcar- 

TERMINATIONS 

-e or — 

-is 

-i 

-6 or — 

-i 



-ia 

-ium 

-ibus 

-ia 

-ibus 



Stems 


insigni- 


animali- 




Bases 


insign- 


animal- 








SlNGULAR 


Nom. 


insigne 


animal 


calcar 


Gen. 


insignis 


animalis 


calcaris 


Dat. 


Insigni 


animali 


calcari 


Ace. 


insigne 


animal 


calcar 


Abl. 


insigni 


animali 

Plural 


calcari 


Nom. 


insignia 


animalia 


calcaria 


Gen. 


Insignium 


animalium 


calcarium 


Dat. 


insignibus 


animalibus 


calcaribus 


Ace. 


insignia 


animalia 


calcaria 


Abl. 


insignibus 


animalibus 


calcaribus 



466. 



THE FOURTH DECLENSION. fZ-STEMS 



adyentus, m., arrival 
Stem adventu- Base advent- 



cornu, n., horn 
Stem cornu- Base corn- 







Singular 


terminations 

MASC. NEUT 


Nom. 


adventus 


cornu 


-us 


-u 


Gen. 


adventus 


cornus 


-us 


-lis 


Dat. 


adventui (u) 


cornii 


-ui (u) 


-ii 


Aec. 


adventum 


cornu 


-um 


-ii 


Abl. 


adventii 


cornii 


-u 


-u 



Plural 



Nom. adventus 

Gen. adventuum 

Dat. adventibus 

Ace. adventus 

Abl. adventibus 



cornua 


-lis 


-ua 


cornuum 


-uum 


-uum 


cornibus 


-ibus 


-ibus 


cornua 


-us 


-ua 


cornibus 


-ibus 


-ibus 



232 



APPENDIX I 



467. 



THE FIFTH DECLENSION. £-STEMS 



dies, m., day res, f., thing 

Stem die- Base di- Stem re- Base r- 







Singular 


TERMINATIONS 


Nom. 


dies 


res 


-es 


Gen. 


diei 


rei 


-li 


Dat. 


diei 


rei 


4i 


Ace. 


diem 


rem 


-em 


Abl. 


die 


re 
Plural 


-e 


Nom. 


dies 


res 


-es 


Gen. 


dieruta 


rerum 


-erum 


Dat. 


diebus 


rebus 


-ebus 


Ace. 


dies 


res 


-es 


Abl. 


diebus 


rebus 


-ebus 



468. 



SPECIAL PARADIGMS 





deus, m., 


god 


aomus, f., house vis 


,u 


, strength 


iter, 


n., way 


Stems 


deo- 




domu- vi- 


and viri- 


iter- 


and itiner- 


Bases 


de- 




dom- T- 


and vir- 


iter- 


and itiner- 








SlNGULAR 










Nom. 


deus 




domus 




vis 




iter 


Gen. 


dei 




domiis 




vis (rare) 




itineris 


Dat. 


deo 




domui, -6 




vi (rare) 




itineri 


Ace. 


deum 




domum 




vim 




iter 


Abl. 


deo 




dome, -u 

Plural 




vi 




itinere 


Nom. 


dei, dl 




domiis 




vires 




itinera 


Gen. 


deorum. 


deum 


domuum, -orum 




virium 




itinerum 


Dat. 


dais, dls 




domibus 




viribus 




itineribus 


Ace. 


deos 




domes, -us 




viris, -es 




itinera 


Abl. 


deis, dis 




domibus 




viribus 




itineribus 



a. The vocative singular of deus is like the nominative. 

b. The locative of domus is domi. 



DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES 



233 



ADJECTIVES 

469. FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. 0- AND ^-STEMS 



a. Adjectives in -us 
bonus, good Stems bono- m. and n., bona- f. 







Singular 




MASC. 


FEM. 


Nom. 


bonus 


bona 


Gen. 


boni 


bonae 


Dat. 


bono 


bonae 


Ace. 


bonum 


bonam 


AM. 


bono 


bona 
Plural 


Nom. 


boni 


bonae 


Gen. 


bonorum 


bonarum 


Dat. 


bonis 


bonis 


Ace. 


bonos 


bonas 


AM. 


bonis 


bonis 



Base bon- 



bonum 

boni 

bono 

bonum 

bono 

bona 

bonoram 

bonis 

bona 

bonis 



b. Adjectives in -er 
VHa&Cjfree . Stems libero- m. and n., libera- f. Base liber- 







Singular 




MASC 




FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nam. 


liber 


libera 


liberum 


Gen. 


liberi 


liberae 


liberi 


Dat. 


libero 


liberae 


libero 


Ace. 


liberum 


liberam 


liberum 


AM. 


libero 


libera 
Plural 


libero 


Nom. 


liberi 


liberae 


libera 


Gen. 


liberorum 


liberarum 


liberorum 


Dat. 


liberis 


liberis 


liberis 


Ace. 


llberos 


liberas 


libera 


AM. 


liberis 


liberis 


liberis 



2 34 APPENDIX I 

f uichei, preUy Stems pulchro- m. and n., pulchra- f. Base pulchr- 







Singular 






MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


Norn. 


pulcher 


pulchra 


pulchrum 


Gen. 


pulchri 


pulchrae 


pulchri 


Dat. 


pulchro 


pulchrae 


pulchro 


Ace. 


pulchrum 


pulchram 


pulchrum 


Abl. 


pulchro 


pulchra 
Plural 


pulchro 


Nom. 


pulchri 


pulchrae 


pulchra 


Gen. 


pulchrorum 


pulchrarum 


pulchrorum 


Dat. 


pulchrls 


pulchris 


pulchris 


Ace. 


pulchros 


pulchras 


pulchra 


Abl. 


pulchris 


pulchris 


pulchris 



470. 



THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES 



alius, another Stems alio- m. and n., alia- f. Base ali- 

SiNGULAR Plural 





MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. 


alius 


alia 


aliud 


alii 


aliae 


alia 


Gen. 


alius 


alius 


alius 


aliorum 


aliarum 


ali5rum 


Dat. 


alii 


alii 


alii 


aliis 


aliis 


aliis 


Ace. 


alium 


aliam 


aliud 


alios 


alias 


alia 


Abl. 


alio 


alia 


alio 


aliis 


aliis 


aliis 


unus, one.1 


only 


Stems iino- m. 


and n., una- 


f. Base 


iin- 




MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. 


Onus 


una 


unum 


uni 


unae 


Ona 


Gen. 


iinius 


unius 


iinius 


unorum 


iinarum 


unonim 


Dat. 


uni 


iini 


ijni 


iinis 


iinis 


Qnis 


Ace. 


unum 


unam 


unum 


unos 


Unas 


una 


Abl. 


uno 


una 


uno 


iinis 


unis 


iinis 



a. For the complete list see § io8. 



DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES 235 

471. ADJECTIVES OP THE THIRD DECLENSION. /-STEMS 

I. THREE ENDINGS 

acer, acris, acre, keen, eager 

Singular 

masc. fem. neut. 

Nom. acer acris acre 

Gen. acris acris acris 

Dat. acri acri acri 

Ace. acrem acrem acre 

Abl. acri acri acri 



Stem acri- 


Base acr 
Plural 




MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


acres 


acres 


acria 


acrium 


acrium 


acrium 


acribus 


acribus 


acribus 


acris, -es 


acris, -es 


acria 


acribus 


acribus 


acribus 



II. TWO ENDINGS 

omnis, omne, every, all Stem omni- Base omn- 
SiNGULAR Plural 



MASC 


. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. 


omnis 


omne 


Gen. 


omnis 


omnis 


Dat. 


omni 


omni 


Ace. 


omnem 


omne 


Abl. 


omni 


omni 



3C. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


omnes 


omnia 


omnium 


omnium 


omnibus 


omnibus 


omnis, -es 


omnia 


omnibus 


omnibus 



III. ONE ENDING 







par, equ 




Singular 




MASC 


:. AND FEM. 




NEUT 


Nom. 


par 




par 


Gen. 


paris 




paris 


Dat. 


pari 




pari 


Ace. 


parem 




par 


Abl. 


pari 




pari 



Stem pari- Base par- 





Plural 


30. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


pares 




paria 


parium 




parium 


paribus 




paribus 


paris, -es 
paribus 




paria 
paribus 



I. Observe that all i-stem adjectives have -i in the ablative singular. 



236 



APPENDIX I 



472. PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLES 

amans, loving Stem amanti- Base amant- 
SiNGULAR Plural 



MASC. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. 


amans 


amans 


amantes 


amantia 


Gen. 


amantis 


amantis 


amantium 


amantium 


Dat.. 


amanti 


amanti 


amantibus 


amantibus 


Ace. 


amantem 


amans 


amantis, -es 


amantia 


AM. 


amante, -1 


amante, -i 


amantibus 


amantibus 




iens, going Stem ienti-, 


eunti- Base ient-, eunt- 




Nom. 


iens 


iens 


euntes 


euntia 


Gen. 


euntis 


euntis 


euntium 


euntium 


Dat. 


eunti 


eunti 


euntibus 


euntibus 


Ace. 


euntem 


iens 


euntis, -es 


euntia 


AM. 


eunte, -i 


eunte, -i 


euntibus 


euntibus 



473. 



REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 



Positive 


Comparative 


Superlative 


MASC. 


MASC. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. 


FEM. NEUT. 


altus (alto-) 


altior 


altius 


altissimus 


-a -urn 


liber (llbero-) 


liberior 


liberius 


liberrimus 


-a -um 


pulcher (pulchro-) 


pulchrior 


pulchrius 


pulcherrimus 


-a -um 


audax (audaci-) 


audacior 


audacius 


audacissimus 


-a -um 


brevis (brevi-) 


brevior 


brevius 


brevissimus 


-a -um 


acer (acri-) 


acrior 


acrius 


acerrimus 


-a -um 



474. 



DECLENSION OF COMPARATIVES 





altior. 


higher 








Singular 






Plural 




MASC. and FEM. 


NEUT. 




MASC. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. altior 


altius 




altiores 




altiora 


Gen. altioris 


altioris 




altiorum 




altiorum 


Dat. altiori 


altiori 




altioribus 




altioribus 


Ace. altiorem 


altius 




altiores 




altiora 


AM. aMore 


altiore 




altioribus 




altioribus 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 
plus, more 



Notn. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

AM. 



plus 
pluris 

plus 
plure 



plures 
plurium 
pluribus 
pluris (-es) 
pluribus 



plura 

plurium 

pluribus 

plura 

pluribus 



475. IRREGULAR COMPARISON OP 

Positive 
bonus, -a, -um, good 



malus, -a, -um, bad 

magnus, -a, -um, great 

multus, -a, -um, much 
parvus, -a, -um, small 

senex, senis, old 
iuvenis, -e, young 
vetus, veteris, old 
facilis, -e, easy 
difficilis, -€, difficult 
similis, -e, similar 
dissimilis, -e, dissimilar 
humilis, -e, low 
gracilis, -e, slender 
exterus, outward 

Inferus, below 

posterns, following 

superus, above 

[cis, citra, on this side'] 
[in, intra, in, within'] 
[prae, pro, before] 
[prope, near] 
[ultra, beyond] 



Comparative 
melior, melius, 

better 
peior, peius, 

worse 
maior, maius, 

greater 

, plus, more 

minor, minus, 

smaller 
senior 
iiinior 

vetustior, -ius 
facilior, -ius 
difficilior, -ius 
similior, -ius 
dissimilior, -ius 
humilior, -ius 
gracilior, -ius 
exterior, outer, 

exterior 
inferior, lower 

posterior, later 

superior, higher 

citerior, hither 
interior, inner 
Tprior, former 
propior, nearer 
ulterior, further 



ADJECTIVES 

Superlative 
optimus, -a, -um, best 

pessimus, -a, -um, worst 

maximus, -a, -um, greatest 

plurimus, -a, -um, most 
minimus, -a, -um, smallest 

maximus natu 

minimus natu 

veterrimus, -a, -um 

facillimus, -a, -um 

difficillim^^^ -a, -um 

simillimus, -a, -um 

dissimillimus, -a, -um 

humillimus, -a, -um 

gracillimus, -a, -um 

extremus ~l outermost, 

extimus J last 

infimusT , 

> lowest 
imus J 

postremusj^^^^ 

postumus J 

supremus~l , . , ^ 
^ > highest 

summus J 

citimus, hithermost 

intimus, inmost 

primus, yfrj/ 

proximus, next 

ultimvs, furthest 



238 



APPENDIX I 



476. 



REGULAR COMPARISON OP ADVERBS 



Positive 


Comparative 


Superlative 


care (carus), dearly 


carius 


carissime 


mi sere (miser), wretchedly 


miserius 


miserrime 


acriter (acer), sharply 


acrius 


acerrime 


facile (facilis), easily 


facilius 


facillime 



477. 



IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 



Positive 
diu, long, a long time 
bene (bonus), well 
male (malus), ill 
magnopere, greatly 
multum (multus), viuch 
parum, little 
saepe, often 



Comparative 
diutius 

melius, better 
peius, worse 
magis, more 
plus, more 
minus, less 
saepius 



Superlative 
diutissime 
optime, best 
pessime, worst 
maxime, most 
plurimum, m.ost 
minime, least 
saepissime 



478. 



NUMERALS 



The cardinal numerals are indeclinable excepting iinus, duo, tres, the 
hundreds above one hundred, and mille used as a noun. The ordinals are 
declined like bonus, -a, -um. 



Cardinals 




Ordinals 




(^How many) 




{In what order') 


I, iinus, -a, -um 


one 


primus, -a, -um 


first 


2, duo, duae, duo 


two 


secundus (or alter) 


second 


3, tres, tria 


three. 


tertius 


third, 


4, quattuor 


etc. 


quartus 


etc. 


5, quinque 




quintus 




6, sex 




sextus 




7, septem 




Septimus 




8, octo 




octavus 




9, novem 




nonus 




10, decem 




decimus 




1 1 , iindecim 




iandecimus 




12, duodecim 




duodecimus 




13, tredecim (decem 


. (et) tres) 


tertius decimus 




1 4,*quattuordecim 




quartus decimus 





NUMERALS 



239 



Cardinals 

15, quindecim 

16, sedecim 

17, septendecim 

18, duodeviginti (octodecim) 

19, undevlginti(novendecim) 

20, ylginti 
Jviginti unus or 

'\unus et vigintr, etc. 
30, triginta 
40, quadraginta 
50, quinquaginta 
60, sexaginta 
70, septuaginta 
80, octoginta 
90, nonaginta 

100, centum 

10 1, centum (et) unus, etc. 

1 20, centum (et) viginti 

121, centum (et) viginti Onus, etc. 
200, ducenti, -ae, -a 

300, trecenti 
400, quadringenti 
500, quingenti 
600, sescenti 
700, septingenti 
800, octingentl 
900, nongenti 
1000, miUe 



Ordinals 
quTntus decimus 
sextus decimus 
Septimus decimus 
duodevlcensimus 
undevicensimus 
vicensimus 

fvlcensimus primus or 
l_unus et vicensimus, etc. 
tricensimus 
quadrage nsimus 
quinquagensimus 
sexagensimus 
septuagensimus 
octogensimus 
nonagensimus 
centensimus 

centensimus (et) primus, etc. 
centensimus vicensimus 
centensimus (et) vicensimus primus 
ducentensimus 
trecentensimus 
quadringentensimus 
quingente nsimus 
sescentensimus 
septingentensimus 
octingentensimus 
nongentensimus 
millensimus 



479. Declension of duo, two, tres, three, and mille, a thousand. 



Masc. 
N. duo 
duoruin 
du5bus 



G. 
D. 
A. 
A. 



Fem. Neut. 

duae duo 

duarum duorum 

duabus duobus 



M. AND F. 

tres 

trium 

tribus 



Neut. 
tria 
trium 
tribus 



duos or duo duas duo 
duobus duabus duobus 



tris or tres tria 
tribus tribus 



Sing. Plur. 
mille milia 
miUe milium 
mille milibus 
mille milia 
miUe milibus 



Note. BEIle is used in the plural as a noun with a modifying genitive, and 
is occasionally so used in the nominative and accusative singular. For the 
declension of iinus of. § 470. 



240 



APPENDIX I 



480. 





ego,/ 




Sing. Plur. 


Nom. 


ego nos 


Gen. 


mei nostrum, 


Dat. 


mihi nobis 


Ace. 


me nos 


Abl. 


me nobis 



-tri 



PRONOUNS 

PERSONAL 

tu, you 

Sing, 
tu 
tui 
tibi 
te 
te 



Plur. 
vos 

vestrum, 
vobTs 
vos 
vobis 



sul, of himself , etc. 
Sing. ' Plur. 

-tri sul sui 

sibi sibi 

se, sese se, sese 

se, sese se, sese 



Note that sui is always reflexive. 



481. 



DEMONSTRATIVE 



Demonstratives belong to the first and second declensions, but have the 
pronominal endings -lus and -i in the gen. and dat. sing. 

ipse, self 







Singular 




Plural 






MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. 


ipse 


ipsa 


ipsum 


ipsi 


ipsae 


ipsa 


Gen. 


ipsi'us 


ipsi'us 


ipsi'us 


ipsorum 


ipsarum 


ipsorum 


Dat. 


ipsi 


ipsi 


ipsi 


ipsis 


ipsis 


ipsis 


Ace. 


ipsum 


ipsara 


ipsum 


ipsos 


ipsas 


ipsa 


Abl. 


ipso 


ipsa 


ipso 
hie, this 


ipsis 
(here), he 


ipsis 


ipsis 


Nom. 


hie 


haec 


hoc 


hi 


hae 


haec 


Gen. 


huius 


huius 


huius 


horum 


harum 


horum 


Dat. 


huic 


huic 


huic 


his 


his 


his 


Ace. 


hunc 


banc 


hoc 


hos 


has 


haec 


Abl. 


hoc 


hac 


hoc 


his 


his 


his 






iste 


i, this^ that (of yours), he 






Nom. 


iste 


ista 


istud 


isti 


istae 


ista 


Gen. 


isti'us 


isti'us 


isti'us 


istorum 


istarum 


istorum 


Dat. 


isti 


isti 


isti 


istis 


istis 


istis 


Ace. 


i^tum 


istara 


istud 


istos 


istas 


ista 


Abl. 


isto 


ista 


isto 


istis 


istis 


istis 



RELATIVE PRONOUN 



241 



ille, that (yonder), he 







Singular 






MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. 


ille 


ilia 


illud 


Gen. 


ilirus 


illi'us 


illi'us 


Dat. 


illl 


illi 


illl 


Ace. 


ilium 


illam 


illud 


Abl. 


illo 


ilia 


illo 
is, t 


Nom. 


is 


ea 


id 


Gen. 


eius 


eius 


eius 


Dat. 


ei 


ei 


ei 


Ace. 


eum 


earn 


id 


Abl. 


60 


ea 


eo 



Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Abl. 



is, this, that, he 



idem, the sam,e 



idem e'adem idem 
eius'dem eius'dera eius'dem 
ei'dem ei'dem ei'dem 
eun'dem ean'dem idem 
eo'dem ea'dem eo'dem 



Lei 



'dem 
'dem 



Plural 



MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


illl 


iUae 


ilia 


illorum 


illarum 


illorum 


illis 


illis 


illis 


illos 


illas 


ilia 


illis 


illis 


illis 


he 
ir, ei 


eae 


ea 


eorum 


earum 


eorum 


iis, eis 


iis, eis 


iis, eis 


eos 


eas 


ea 


iis, eis 


iis, eis 


iis, eis 



eae'dem e'adem 



eorun'dem earun'dem eorun'dem 



iis'dem 
els'dem 
eos'dem 
'dem 
'dem 



fiis'i 
Leis' 



iis'dem 

eis'dem 

eas'dem 

iis'dem 

eis'dem 



iis'dem 
eis'dem 
e'adem 
iis'dem 
eis'dem 



Note. In the plural of is and idem the forms with two i's are preferred, 
the two i's being pronounced as one. 



482. 



RELATIVE 
qui, who, which, that 







Singular 






Plural 






MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. 


qui 


quae 


quod 


qui 


quae 


quae 


Gen. 


cuius 


cuius 


cuius 


quorum 


quarum 


quorum 


Dat. 


cui 


cui 


cui 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 


Ace. 


quem 


quam 


quod 


quos 


quas 


quae 


Abl. 


quo 


qua 


quo 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 



242 






APPENDIX I 








483 






INTERROGATIVE 












quis, 


substantive, who, what 








Singular 






Plural 




MASC 


. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. 




FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. 


quis 


quid 


qui 




quae 


quae 


Gen. 


cuius 


cuius 


quorum 




quarum 


quorum 


Dat. 


cui 


cui 


quibus 




quibus 


quibus 


Ace. 


quem 


quid 


quos 




quas 


quae 


Abl. 


quo 


quo 


quibus 




quibus 


quibus 


The 


interrogative adjective qui, quae, quod, is 


declined like the relative. 


484. 






INDEFINITES 









quis and qui, as declined above,^ are used also as indefinites (some, 
any). The other indefinites are compounds of quis and qui. 







quisque 


each 






Substantive 






Adjective 




MASC. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 




MASC 


' ' FEM. j 


NEUT. 


Nom. quisque 


quidque 




quisque 


1 

quaeque j 


quodque 


Gen. cuius'que 


cuius'que 


- 


cuius'que 


cuius'que 


cuius'que 


Dat. cuique 


cuique 




cuique ' 


cuique 


cuique 


Ace. quemque 


quidque 




quemque j 


quamque ; 


quodque 


A bl. quoque 


quoque 




quoque ! 


quaque__^ 


quoque 



485. 



quidam, a certain one, a certain 



Observe that in the neuter singular the adjective has quoddam and the 
substantive quiddam. 

Singular 



Nom. quidam 



quaedam 



NEUT. 

f quoddam 
i quiddam (subst.) 
cuius'dam 
cuidam 
r quoddam 
\ quiddam (subst.) 
quo dam 

1 qua is generally used instead of quae in the feminine nominative singular 
and in the neuter nominative and accusative plural. 



Gen. 


cuius'dam 


cuius'dam 


Dat. 


cuidam 


cuidam 


Ace. 


quendam 


quandam 


Abl. 


quodam 


quadam 



INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 



243 







Plural 




Norn- 


quldam 


quaedam 


quaedam 


Gen. 


quorun'dam 


quarun'dam 


quorun'dam 


Dat. 


quibus'dam 


quibus'dam 


quibus'dam 


Ace. 


quosdam 


quasdam 


quaedam 


Abl. 


quibus'dam 


quibus'dam 


quibus'dam 



486. quisquam, substantive, any one (at all) 

MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. 



Nom. quisquam 

Gen. cuius'quam 

Dat. cuiquam 

Ace. quemquam 

Abl. quoquam 



quicquam (quidquara) 

cuius'quam 

cuiquam 

quicquam (quidquam) 

quoquam 



487. aliquis, substantive, some one. aliqui, adjective, sojne 



Substantive 


Singular 


ADJECTIVE 




MASC. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. 


SfemT"} 


NEUT. 


Nom. aliquis 
Gen. alicu'ius 


aliquid 
alicu'ius 


aliqui 
alicu'ius 


! aliqua 
ialicu'iu > 


aliquod 
alicu'ius 


Dat. alicui 


alicui 


alicui 


jalicui 


alicui 


Ace. aliquem 
Abl. aliquo 


aliquid 
aliqu5 


aliquem 
aliquo 


jaliquan 
jaligua 


aliquod 
aliquo 



Plural for both Substantive and Adjective 
masc. fem. neut. 



Nom. 


aliqui 


aliquae 


aliqua 


Gen. 


aliquo'rum 


aliqua'rum 


aliquo'rum 


Dat. 


ali'quibus 


ali'quibus 


ali'quibus 


Ace. 


aliquos 


aliquas 


aliqua 


Abl. 


ali'quibus 


ali'quibus 


ali'quibus 



a. quis (qui), any one, any, is the least definite (§ 297. b). aliquis (aliqui), 
some one, some, is more definite than quis. quisquam, any one (at all), and 
its adjective iillus, any, occur mostly vnth a negative, expressed or implied, 
and in clauses of comparison. 



244 APPENDIX I 

REGULAR VERBS 

488. FIRST CONJUGATION. .4-VERBS. AMO 

Principal Parts amo, amare, amavj, amatus 
Pres. Stem ama- Perf. Stem amay- Part. Stem amat- 





ACTIVE 


INDICATIVE 

PRESENT 


PASSIVE 


/ love, 


am loving, do love. 


etc. 


/ am loved, etc. 


amo 


amamus 


amor 


amamur 


amas 


amatis 


amaris, 


-re amamini 


amat 


amant 


amatur 


araantur 



IMPERFECT 

/ lotted, was loving, did love, etc. / was loved, etc. 



amabam amabamus 
amabas amabatis 
amabat amabant 


amabar amabamur 
amabaris, -re amabamini 
amabatur amabantur 


I shall love, etc. 


FUTURE 

/ shall be loved, etc. 


amabo amabimus 
amabis amabitis 
amabit amabunt 


amabor amabimur 
amaberis, -re amabimini 
amabitur amabuntur 



perfect 
/ have loved, loved, did love, etc. / have been (was) loved, etc. 

amavi amavimus _ f sum _ . fsumus 

amavisti- amavistis ^'"^'^^'J es ^">^'''J estis 

amavit amaverunt, -re -a, -um y^^^ -ae,-a |^g„„t 

PLUPERFECT 

I had loved, etc. / had been loved, etc. 

amaveram amaveramus _ feram _ . Teramus 

amaveras amaveratis amatus,! ^^.-^ amati, J ^^.-y^ 

amaverat amaverant -a,-um ^^^.^^ -ae,-a j^g^^^^. 

FUTURE PERFECT 

/ shall have loved, etc. T shall have been loved, etc. 

amavero amaverimus _ Tero _ . feriraus 

amaveris amaveritis amatus, _| ^^.j^ amati,] ^^.^^j^ 

amaverit amaverint '^> '"^ [erit "*®''* [_erunt 



FIRST CONJUGATION 



245 







SUBJUflCTIVE 








PRESENT 




amem 


amemus 


amer 


amemur 


ames 


ametis 


ameris, -re 


amemini 


amet 


ament 


ametur 

IMPERFECT 


amentur 


amarem 


amaremus 


amarer 


amaremur 


amares 


amaretis 


amareris, -re 


amaremini 


amaret 


amarent 


amaretur 

PERFECT 


amarentur 


amaverim 

amaveris 


amaverimus 
araaveritis 


fsim 
amatus,! ^j^ 


.^. fsimus 


amaverit 


amaverint 


PLUPERFECT 


-^^'-^[sint 


amavissem 
amavisses 


amavissemus 
amavissetis 


f essem 
™^'"«' esses 


. . f essemus 
^""^"'J essetis 


amavisset 


amavissent 


-^'-"■"lesset 
IMPERATIVE 

PRESENT 


-^^' -^ [essent 


ama, love thou 




amare, be thou loved 


amate, love ye 




amamini, be ye loved 



amato, thou shall love 
amato, he shall love 
amatote, you shall love 
amanto, they shall love 



FUTURE 

amator, thoii shall be loved 
amator, he shall be loved 



Pres. 
Perf. 
Fui. 



Pres. 

Fut. 

Perf. 



amare, to love 
amavisse, to have loved 
amatiirus, -a, -um esse, to be 

about to love loved 

PARTICIPLES 



amantor, they shall be loved 
INFINITIVE 

amari, to be loved \loved 

amatus, -a, -um esse, 
[amatum iri], to bi 



to have been 
about to be 



amans, -antis, loving 
amatiirus, -a, -um, about to 
love 



Pres. 

Gerundive^ amandus, -a, -um, to 

be loved 
Perf. amatus, -a, -um, 

loved, loved 



GERUND 



Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Abl. 



Ace. 
Abl. 



amandi, of loving 
amando, for loving 
amandum, loving 
amando, by loving 

1 Sometimes called the future passive participle 



SUPINE (Active Voice) 
[amatum], to love 
[amatii], to love, in the loving 



246 APPENDIX I 

489. SECOND CONJUGATION. £-VERBS. MONEO 

Principal Parts moneo, monere, monui, monitus 
Fres. Stem mone- Perf. Stem monu- Part. Stem monit- 



ACTIVE 



I advise, etc. 



moneo 
mones 
monet 



monemus 

monetis 

monent 



INDICATIVE 

PRESENT 



PASSIVE 



r am advised, etc. 



moneor 
moneris, -re 
monetur 



monemur 
monemini 
monentur 



/ was advising, etc. 



monebam 

monebas 

monebat 



monebamus 

raonebatis 

monebant 



IMPERFECT 



/ was advised, etc. 
monebar monebamur 



monebaris, -re 
monebatur 



monebamini 
monebantur 



I shall advise, etc. 

monebo monebimus 

monebis monebitis 

monebit monebunt 



I shall be advised, etc. 



monebor 
moneberis, -re 
monebitur 



monebimur 
monebimini 
monebuntur 



PERFECT 

/ have advised, I advised, etc. / have been {was) advised, etc 

monui monuimus fsum 

monitus, J 

-^'-'"" lest -"='-" [sunt 

PLUPERFECT 



monuisti 
monuit 



monuistis 
monuerunt, -re 



. . f sumus 

™°""''J estis 
-ae, -a 



I had advised, etc. 



monueram 

monueras 

monuerat 



monueramus 

monueratis 

monuerant 



T had been advised, etc. 

feram . . f eramus 
momtus, I ^^-^ moniti, I ^^-^.^ 

■^'-"■^ lerat "^^'"^ [erant 



FUTURE PERFECT 

/ shall have advised, etc. / shall have been advised, etc. 



monuero 
monueris 
monuerit 



monuerimus 

monueritis 

monuerint 



fero . . ferimus 

monitus, I g^j3 moniti, I ^^.^.^ 

-*'-"'" [erit -*«>-^ lerunt 



SECOND CONJUGATION 



247 





SUBJUNCTIVE 








PRESENT 




moneam 


moneamus 


monear 


moneamur 


moneas 


moneatis 


monearis, -re 


moneamini 


moneat 


moneant 


moneatur 

IMPERFECT 


moneantur 


monerem 


moneremus 


monerer 


moneremur 


moneres 


moneretis 


monereris, -re 


moneremini 


moneret 


monerent 


moneretur 

PERFECT 


monerentur 


monuerim 
monueris 


monuerimus 
monueritis 


fsim 
monitusJ gj^ 


.. fsimus 


monuerit 


monuerint 


-a,-um l^it 

PLUPERFECT 


-^^'-^Isint 


monuissem 
monuisses 


monuissemus f essem 
monuissetis ™°"""^'-! esses 


. . f essemu 
'"°"''''J essetis 


monuisset 


monuissent 


-^'-""^ [esset 
IMPERATIVE 
PRESENT 


"^*' "* essent 


mone, advise thou 


monere, be thou advised 


monete, advise ye 


monemini, be ye 


advised 



moneto, thou shalt advise 
moneto, he shall advise 
monetote, you shall advise 
monento, they shall advise 



FUTURE 

monetor, thou shalt be advised 
monetor, he shall be advised 



Pres. monere, to advise 

Perf. monuisse, to have advised 



Fut. 



moniturus, -a, -um esse, to be 
about to advise 



monentor, they shall be advised 
INFINITIVE 

moneri, to be advised 

monitus, -a, -um esse, to have been 

advised 
[monitum iri], to be about to be 

advised 



PARTICIPLES 

Pres. monens, -entis, advising Pres. 

Fut. moniturus, -a, -um, about to Ger. 

advise 



-um, to be 



Perf. 



Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Abl. 



GERUND 



monendi, of advising 
monendo,y»r advising 
monendum, advising 
monendo, by advising 



Perf. 



Ace. 
Abl. 



monendus, -a, 

advised 
monitus, -a, -um, having been 

advised., advised 

SUPINE (Active Voice) 
[monitum], to advise 
[monitii], to advise, in the 

advising 



248 APPENDIX I ■ 

490. THIRD COWJUGATIOW. £-VERBS. REGO 

Principal Pasts rego, regere, rexi, rectus 
Pres. Stem rege- Perf. Stem rex- Part. Stem rect- 



rego 
regis 
regit 



ACTIVE 



/ rule, etc. 



PASSIVE 



regimus 

regitis 

regunt 



/ was ruling, etc. 

regebam regebamus 
regebas regebatis 

regebat regebant 



INDICATIVE 
PRESENT 



regor 

re'geris, -re 
re'gitur 



I am ruled, etc. 

re'gimur 
regi'minl 
regun'tur 



IMPERFECT 

/ was ruled, etc. 

rege'bar regeba'mur 

regeba'ris, -re regeba'mini 

regeba'tur regeban'tur 



regam 

reges 

reget 



/ shall rule, etc. 

regemus 

regetis 

regent 



/ shall be ruled, etc. 



re gar 

rege'ris, -re 
rege'tur 



rege mur 
rege'mini 
regen'tur 



/ have ruled, etc. 



rexi 


reximus 


rexistJ 


rexistis 


rexit 


rexerunt, -re 



I had ruled, etc. 

rexeram rexeramus 
rexeras rexeratis 

rexerat rexerant 



T shall have ruled, etc. 

rexero rexerimus 

rexeris rexeritis 

rexerit • rexerint 



rectus, 
-a, -um 



/ have beeit ruled, etc. 

f sumus 



sum 

es 

est 



recti, 
-ae, -a 



\ estis 
[sunt 



PLUPERFECT 



/ had been ruled, etc. 



rectus, f®'^?"' recti, f^""^"^"^ 
-a,-umj«'^«f -ae,-a «'^^tis 

l^erat ' [erant 

FUTURE PERFECT 

T shall have been ruled, etc. 

f erimus 



rectus, 
-a, -um 



fero 
\\ eri 



ero 

eris 
[erit 



recti, 
-ae, -a 



< eritis 
[enint 



THIRD CONJUGATION 



249 







SUBJUNCTIVE 








PRESENT 




regam 

regas 

regat 


regamus 

regatis 

regant 


regar 

regaris, -re 
regatur 

IMPERFECT 


regamur 
regamini 
regantur 


regerem 

regeres 

regeret 


regeremus 

regeretis 

regerent 


regerer 
regereris, -re 
regeretur 

PERFECT 


regeremur 
regeremim 
regerentur 


rexerim 

rexeris 

rexerit 


rexerimus 

rexeritis 

rexerint 


rectus, f ^l"" 
-! SIS 
-a, -um 1 . . 
' [sit 

PLUPERFECT 


recti, f^'i^"^ 
-ae,-ai^?t'/ 


rexissem 

rexisses 

rexisset 


rexissemus 

rexissetis 

rexissent 


- . . f essem 
rectus, 

„ ,™ i esses 
-a, -um 

' [ esset 

IMPERATIVE 
PRESENT 


recti, fessemus 

-ae,-a '^''*l' 
[essent 


rege, rule thou 
regite, rule ye 


regere, be thou ruled 
regimini, be ye ruled 



regito, thou shall rule 
regito, he shall rule 
regitote, ye shall rule 
regunto, they shall rule 



FUTURE 

regitor, thou shall be ruled 
regitor, he shall be ruled 



Pres. 
Per/. 

Fut. 



regere, to rule 
rexisse, to have ruled 



reguntor, they shall be ruled 
INFINITIVE 

regi, to be ruled 

rectus, -a, -um esse, to have been 
rtiled 
recturus, -a, -um esse, to be [rectum iri], to be about to be ruled 

about to rule 

PARTICIPLES 

Pres. 

Ger. 



Pres. regens, -entis, ruling 

Fut. rectiirus, -a, -um, about to 

rule 
Perf. 



GERUND 

Nom. 

Gen. regendi, of ruling 
Dat. regendo, for ruling 
Ace. regendum, ruling 
Abl. regendo, by ruling 



regendus, -a, -um, to be 

ruled 
Perf. rectus, -a, -um, having been 
ruled, ruled 



SUPINE (Active Voice) 
Ace. [rectum], to rule 
Abl. [rectii], to rule, in the ruling 



250 APPENDIX I 

491. FOURTH COIfJUGATIOW. /-VERBS. AUDIO 

Principal Parts audio, audire, audivi, auditus 



Pres. Stem audi- 



Perf. Stem audiv- 



Part. Stem audit- 



ACTIVE 



PASSIVE 



INDICATIVE 



/ hear, etc. 



audio 
audis 
audit 



audlmus 

auditis 

audiunt 



r am heard, etc. 



au'dior 
audi'ris, -re 
audi'tur 



audi'mur 
audi'mini 
audiun'tur 



IMPERFECT 



/ was hearing, etc. 



audiebatn 

audiebas 

audiebat 



audiebamus 

audiebatis 

audiebant 



/ was heard, etc. 

audie'bar audieba'mur 

audieba'ris, -re audieba'mini 
audieba'tur audieban'tur 



I shall hear, etc. 

audiam audiemus 

audies audietis 

audiet audient 



FUTURE 

/ shall be heard, etc. 

au'diar audie'mur 

audie'ris, -re audie'mini 

audie'tur audien'tur 



/ have heard, etc. 

audivi audivimus 

audivisti audivistis 

audivit audlverunt, -re 

/ had heard, etc. 

audlveram audiveramus 

audiveras audiveratis 

audlverat audiverant 



I have been heard, etc. 
auditus, I ^''^ auditi. 



es 
est 



< estis 
' [sunt 



PLUPERFECT 

auditus, 
-a, -um 



I had been heard, etc. 



eram 

eras 

erat 



auditi, f^"^!,^"^ 
_1\ eratis 

[erant 



-ae. 



FUTURE PERFECT 

/ shall have heard, etc. I shall have been heard, etc. 



audivero 
audiveris 
audiveri? 



audiverimus 

audlveritis 

audlverint 



auditus, 
-a, -um 



fero 
■{ eris 
[erit 



auditi, f^"""^ 

-ae, -A ^"ti«^ 
|_ erunt 



FOURTH CONJUGATION 



251 







SUBJUNCTIVE 








PRESENT 




audiam 


audiamus 


audiar 


audiamur 


audias 


audiatis 


audiaris, -re 


audiamini 


audiat 


audiant 


audiatur 

IMPERFECT 


audiantur 


audirem 


audiremus 


audJrer 


audiremur 


audires 


audlretis 


audireris, -re 


audiremini 


audiret 


audirent 


audlretur 

PERFECT 


audirentur 


audlverim 


audiverimus 


audltus,r™ 


j.^. f simus 
auditi.J gj^jg 


audiveris 


audiveritis 


audiverit 


audiverint 


-a, -urn l^j^ 

PLUPERFECT 


-^^'-^[sint 


audlvissem 


audlvissemus 


j.^ f essem 


j.^. f essemus 
^"'^''^■J essetis 


audlvisses 


audivissetis 


audlvisset 


audlvissent 


-^'-""^[esset 
IMPERATIVE 
PRESENT 


-««'-* lessent 


audi, hear thou 


audire, be thou heard 


audite, hear ye 


audimini, be ye 


heard 






FUTURE 




audits, thou shalt hear 


auditor, thou shalt be heard 


audlto, he shall hear 


auditor, he shall be heard 


auditote, ye shall hear 
audiunto, they shall hear 






audiuntor, they shall be heard 



Pres. 
Perf. 

Fut. 



Pres. 

Fut. 

Perf. 



Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Abl. 



audire, to hear 



audivisse, to have heard 

auditurus, -a, -um esse, to be 
about to hear 



INFINITIVE 

audiri, to be heard 



to haiie been 



auditus, -a, -um esse, 

heard 
[auditum iri], to be about to be 

heard 



audiens, -entis, hearing 
auditiinis, -a, -um, about to 
hear 



PARTICIPLES 
Pres. 
Ger. 



Perf. 



audiendus, -a, -um, to be 

heard 
auditus, -a, -um, having been 
heard, heard 



GERUND 



audiendi, of hearing 
audiendo, for hearing 
audiendum, hearing 
audiendo, by hearing 



SUPINE (Active Voice) 

Acc. [auditum], to hear 

Abl. [auditii], to hear, in the hear- 



252 APPENDIX I 

492. THIRD CONJUGATION. VERBS IN -70. CAPI6 

Principal Parts capio, capere, cepi, captus 
Pres. Stem Cape- Perf. Stem cep- Part. Stem capt- 



ACTIVE PASSIVE 

INDICATIVE 

PRESENT 

capio capimus ca'pior 

capis capitis ca'peris, -re 

capit capiunt ca'pitur 

IMPERFECT 

capiebam capiebamus capie'bar 

capiebas capiebatis 

capiebat capiebant 

FUTURE 

capiam capiemus ca'piar 

capies capietis capie'ris, -re 

capiet capient capie'tur 

PERFECT 

cepi, cepisti, cepit, etc. captus, -a, -um sum, es, est, etc, 



capimur 
capi'mini 
capiun'tur 

capieba'mur 
capieba'ris, -re capieba'min? 

capieba'tur capieban'tur 

capie'mur 
capie'mini 
capien'tur 



PLUPERFECT 

ceperam, ceperas, ceperat, etc. captus, -a, -um eram, eras, erat, etc 

FUTURE PERFECT 

cepero, ceperis, ceperit, etc. captus, -a, -um ero, eris, erit, etc. 

SUBJUNCTIVE 
PRESENT 

capiam, capias, capiat, etc. capiar, -iaris, -re, -iatur, etc. 

IMPERFECT 

caperem, caperes, caperet, etc. caperer, -ereris, -re, -eretur, etc. 

PERFECT 

ceperim, ceperis, ceperit, etc. captus, -a, -um sim, sis, sit, etc. 

PLUPERFECT 

cepissem, cepisses, cepisset, etc. captus, -a,-um essem, esses, esset, etc. 

IMPERATIVE 
PRESENT 



2d PS-s. cape capite 



capere 



capimini 



DEPONENT VERBS 



253 



2d Pers. capito 
3d Pers. capito 



capitote 
capiunto 



capitor 
capitor 



capiuntor 



INFINITIVE 
Pres. capere 

Perf. cepisse 

Fut. capturus, -a, -um esse 



Pres. capiens, -ientis 
Fut. capturus, -a, -um 
Perf. 

GERUND 
Gen. capiendi 
etc. 



PARTICIPLES 



capi 

captus, -a, -um esse 

[captum iri] 



Pres. 

Ger. capiendus, -a, -um 
Perf. captus, -a, -um 

SUPINE (Active Voice) . 
Ace. [captum] 
Abl. [captu] 



493. 



Principal 
Parts 



DEPONENT VERBS 



f I. hortor, hortari, hortatus sum, urge 

II. vereor, vereri, veritus sum, y«i3f/- 

III. sequor, sequi, secutus sxaa., follow 

IV. partior, partiri, partitus sum, share, divide 



Note. In addition to the passive conjugation, deponent verbs use certain 
forms from the active. These are marked with a star. Deponent -io verbs of 
the third conjugation are inflected like the passive of capio. 







Indicative 




Pres. 


hortor 


vereor 


sequor 


partior 




hortaris, -re 


vereris, -re 


sequeris, -re 


partiris, -re 




hortatur 


veretiir 


sequitur 


partltur 




hortamur 


veremur 


sequimur 


partimur 




hortaminl 


veremini 


sequimini 


partimini 




hortantur 


verentur 


sequuntur 


partiuntur 


Impf 


hortabar 


verebar 


sequebar 


partiebar 


Fut. 


hortabor 


verebor 


sequar 


partiar 


Perf. 


hortatus sum 


veritus sum 


seciitus sum 


partitus sum 


Plup. 


hortatus erann 


veritus eram 


secutus eram 


partitus eram 


P.P. 


hortatus ero 


veritus ero 


seciitus ero 


partitus ero 



254 



APPENDIX I 



Subjunctive 



I'res. horter 


verear sequar 


partiar 


Impf. hortarer 


vererer sequerer 


partlrer 


Perf. hortatus sim 


veritus sim secutus sim 


partitus sim 


Plup. hortatus essem 


veritus essem secutus essem 
Imperative 


partitus essem 


Pres. hortare 


verere sequere 


partire 


Fut. hortator 


veretor sequitor 

/ 

Infinitive 


partitor 


Pres. hortari 


vererl sequi 


partlrl 


Perf. hortatus esse 


veritus esse secutus esse 


partitus esse 


Fut. *hortaturus esse 


*veritiirus esse *secuturus esse 

Participles 


*partiturus esse 


Pres. *hortans 


*verens *sequens 


*partiens 


Fut. *horta.turus 


*veriturus *secutunis 


*partiturus 


Perf. hortatus 


veritus secutus 


partitus 


Ger. hortandus 


verendus sequendus 
Gerund 


partiendus 


*hortandi, etc. 


*verendi, etc. *sequendi, etc. 
Supine 


*partiendi, etc. 


*[hortatum, -tu] 


*[veritum, -tu] *[secutuin, -tu] 
IRREGULAR VERBS 


*[partitum, -tu] 


494. 


sum, am, be 





Principal Parts sum, esse, fuJ, futiirus 
Pres. Stem es- Perf. Stem fu- Part. Stem fut- 



SINGULAR 

sum, / am 

es, thou art 
est, he (she, it) is 

eram, / was 
eras, thou wast 
?rat, he was 



Indicative 
Present 



Imperfect 



plural 
sumus, we are 
estis, you are 
sunt, they are 

eramus, we were 
eratis, you were 
erant, they were 



IRREGULAR VERBS 



255 



ero, / shall be 
eris, thou wilt be 
erit, he will be 



' have been, were 



Future 

erimus, we shall be 

eritis, you will be 

enint, they will be 

Perfect ' 

fui, / haTje been, was fuimus, we have been, were 

fuisti, thou hast been, wast fuistis, you have been, were 

fuit, he has been, was fuerunt, 1 

, . \they , 

mere, J -^ 

Pluperfect 
fueram, / had been fueramus, we had been 

fueras, thou hadst been fueratis, you had been 

f uerat, he had been fuerant, they had been 

Future Perfect 
fuero, / shall have been fuerimus, we shall have been 

fueris, thou wilt have been fueritis, you wilt have been 

fuerit, he will have been fuerint, they will have been 



Present 


Subjunctive 




Imperfect 


SINGULAR PLURAL 


SINGULAR 


PLURAL 


sim simus 




essem 


essemus 


sis sitis 




esses 


essetis 


sit sint 




esset 


essent 


Perfect 






Pluperfect 


fuerim fuerimus 




fuissem 


fuissemus 


fueris fueritis 




fuisses 


fuissetis 


fuerit fuerint 


Imperative 


fuisset 


fuissent 



present 
2d Pers. Sing, es, be thou 
2d Pers. Plur. este, be ye 



Infinitive 
Pres. esse, to be 
Per/, fuisse, to have been 
Put. futflrus, -a, -um esse or fore, 
to be about to be 



FUTURE 

2d Pers. Sing, esto, thou shall be 
jd Pers. Sing, esto, he shall be 
2d Pers. Plur. estote, ye shall be 
jd Pers. Plur. sunto, they shall be 

Participle 



futurus, -a, -um, about to be 



256 




APPENDIX 


I 






495. 


possum, 


be able, 


can 






Principal Parts possum, posse. 


, potui, 






Indicative 






SUBJl 


JNCTIVE 




SINGULAR 


PLUKAL 






SINGULAR 


PLURAL 


Pres. 
Imp/. 


possum 

potes 

potest 

poteram 

potero 

potui 

potueram 

potuero 


pos'sumus 

potes'tis 

possunt 

poteramus 

poterimus 

potuimus 

potueramus 

potuerimus 






possim 
possis 
possit 
possem 


possi'mus 
possi'tis 
possint 
posse'mus 


Per/. 
Plup. 
P.P. 


potuerim 
potuissem 


potuerimus 
potuissemus 










Infinitive 









Pres. 



posse 



Perf. potuisse 



Participle 
Pres. potens, gen. -entis, (adjective) powerful 



496. 



prosum, 

Principal Parts prosum, prodesse, pr5fui, profuturus 
Pres. Stem prodes- Perf. Stem profu- Part. Stem profut- 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 




singular 


PLURAL 


singular 


plural 


Pres. 


prosum 


pro'sumus 


prosim 


prosl'mus 




prodes 


prodes'tis 


prosis 


prosl'tis 




prodest 


prosunt 


prosit 


prosint 


Impf. 


proderam 


proderamus 


prodessem 


prodesse'mus 


Put. 


prodero 


proderimus 












Perf. 


profui 


profuimus 


profuerim ' 


profuerimus 


Plup. 


prSfueram 


profueramus 


profuissem 


profuissemus 


P.P. 


prSfuero 


profuerimus 







Imperative 
Pres. 2d Pers. prodes, prodeste Put. 2d Pers. prodesto, prodestote 

Infinitive 
Pres. prodesse Perf. profuisse Put. profutiirus, -a, -um esse 

Future Participle profutiirus, -a, -um 



497. 



Principal 
Parts 



IRREGULAR VERBS 



fvolo, velle, volul, 



257 



-, be willing^ will, wish 

'■I nolo, nolle, nolui, , be unwilling, will not 

y malo, malle, malui, , be more willing, prefer 

Nolo and malo are compounds of volo. Nolo is for ne (not) + volo, and 
malo for ma (from magis, more) + volo. The second person vis is from a 
different root. 

Indicative 







SINGULAR 




Pres. 


volo 


nolo 


malo 




vis 


non VIS 


mavis 




vult 


non vult 

PLURAL 


mavult 




volumus 


nolumus 


malumus 




vultis 


non vultis 


mavul'tis 




volunt 


nolunt 


malunt 


Jmpf. 


volebam 


nolebam 


malebam 


Put. 


volam, voles, etc. 


nolam, noles, etc. 


malam, males, etc. 


Perf. 


volui 


nolui 


malui 


Plup. 


volueram 


nolueram 


malueram 


P.P. 


voluero 


noluero 

Subjunctive 
singular 


maluero 


Pres. 


velim 


nolim 


malim 




veils 


noils 


mails 




velit 


nolit 

PLURAL 


malit 




veli'mus 


noli'mus 


mall'mus 




veli'tis 


noli'tis 


mali'tis 




velint 


nolint 


malint 


Impf. 


vellem 


noUem 


mallem 


Perf. 


voluerim 


noluerim 


maluerim 


Plup. 


voluissem 


noluissem 
Imperative 


maluissem 


Pres. 




noli 
nolite 








Put. 




nolito, etc. 





258 



APPENDIX I 



Pres. velle 
Perf. voluisse 

Pres. volens, -entis 



Infinitive 
nolle 
noluisse 

Participle 
nolens, -entis 



malle 
maluisse 



498. fero, bear, carry, endure 

Principal Parts fero, ferre, tuli, latus 
Pres. Stem fer- Perf. Stem tul- Part. Stem lat- 









Indicative 






active 






PASSIVE 


Pres. 


fero 


ferimus 


feror ferimur 




fers 


fertis 




ferris, -re ferimini 




fert 


ferunt 




fertur feruntur 


Impf. 


ferebam 






ferebar 


Fut. 


feram, feres, 


etc. 




ferar, fereris, etc. 


Perf. 


tull 






latus, -a, -um sum 


Plup. 


tuleram 






latus," -a, -um eram 


F. P. 


tulero 




Subjunctive 


latus, -a, -um ero 


Pres. 


feram, feras. 


etc. 




ferar, feraris, etc. 


Impf. 


ferrem 






ferrer 


Perf 


tulerim 






latus, -a, -um sim 


Plup. 


tulissem 




Imperative 


latus, -a, -um essem 


Pres. 1 


id Pers. fer 




ferte 


ferre ferimini 


Fut. zd Pers. ferto 




fertote 


fertor 


3d Pers. ferto 




ferunto 


fertor feruntor 








Infinitive 




Pres. 


ferre 






ferri 


Perf 


tulisse 






latus, -a, -um esse 


Fut. 


laturus, -a, -um esse 












Participles 




Pres. 


ferens, -entis 




Pres. 




Fut. 


latiirus, -a, -um 


Ger. 


ferendus, -a, -um 


Perf. 


« 




Perf 


latus, -a, -um 







IRREGULAR VERBS 


259 


Gen. 
Dat. 


ferendl 
ferendo 


Gerund 

Ace. ferendum 
Abl. ferendo 


Supine (Active Voice) 
Ace. [latum] 
Abl. [latu] 



499. e5, go 

Principal Parts eo, ire, ii (ivi), itum (n. perf. part.) 
Pres. Stem i- Perf. stem i- or iv- Part. Stem it- 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


iMPERATiyE 








SING. 


PLUR. 


Pres. 


eo imus 
IS Itis 
it eunt 


earn 


2d Pers. i 


ite 


Impf. 

Fut. 

Perf. 


ibam 
ibo 

ii (ivi) 


irem 

ierim (Iverim) 


' 2d Pers. ito 
^jd Pers. ltd 


itote 
eunto 


Plup. 


ieram (Iveram) 


issem (Ivissem) 






F.P. 


iero (ivero) 
Infinitive 




Participles 




Pres. 


ire 


Pres. 


iens, gen. euntis 


(§472) 


Perf. 


isse (ivisse) 


Fut. 


iturus, -a, -um 




Fut. 


itiirus, -a, -um esse 


Ger. 


eundum 





Gerund 
Gen. eundi Ace. eundum 

Dat. eundo Abl. eundo 



Supine 
Ace. [itum] 
Abl. [itu] 



a. The verb eo is used impersonally in the third person singular of the 
passive, as itur, itum est, etc. 

b. \t\ the perfect system the forms with v are very rare. 

500. fio, passive of facio ; be made, become, happen 

Principal Parts fio, fieri, factus sum 



Indicative 

Pres. fio 

fis 

fit fiunt 

Impf. fiebam 
Fut. fiam 



Subjunctive 
fiam 



fierem 



Imperative 
2d Pers. fi fite 



26o 



APPENDIX I 



Indicative 
Perf. f actus, -a, -um sum 
Phip. factus, -a, -um eram 
F. P. factus, -a, -um ero 

Infinitive 
Pres. fieri 

Perf. factus,, -a, -um esse 
i^ut. [factum In] 



Subjunctive 
factus, -a, -um sim 
factus, -a, -um essem 



Participles 
Perf. factus, -a, -um 
Ger. faciendus, -a, -um 




castra muro fossaque muniuntur 



APPENDIX II 



501. RULES OF SYNTAX 

Note. The rules of syntax are here classified and numbered consecutively. 
The number of the text section in which the rule appears is given at the end 
of each. 

Nominatbie Case 

1. The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative and ansvifers the 
question Who ? or What? § 36. 

Agreement 

2. A finite verb must always be in the same person and number as 
its subject. § 28. 

3. A predicate noun agrees in case with the subject of the verb. § 76. 

4. An appositive agrees in case with the noun which it explains. § 81. 

5. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case. § 65. 

6. A predicate adjective completing a complementary infinitive agrees 
in gender, number, and case with the subject of the main verb. § 215. a. 

7. A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender and 
number ; but its case is determined by the way it is used in its own clause. 
§224. 

Prepositions 

8. A noun governed by a preposition must be in the accusative or 
ablative case. § 52. 

Genitive Case 

9. The word denoting the owner or possessor of something is in the 
genitive and answers the question Whose ? § 38. 

10. The possessive genitive often stands in the predicate, especially after 
the forms of sum, and is then called the predicate genitive. § 409. 

11. Words denoting a part are often used with the genitive of the whole, 
known as ^^ partitive genitive. § 331. 

12. Numerical descriptions of measure are expressed by the genitive 
with a modifying adjective. § 443. 

261 



262 APPENDIX II 

Dative Case 

13. The indirect object of a verb is in the dative. § 45. 

14. The dative of the indirect object is used with the intransitive verbs 
credo, faveo, noceo, pareo, persuadeo, resists, studeo, and others of like 
meaning. § 154. 

15. Some verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, de, in, inter, ob, post, 
prae, pro, sub, super, admit the dative of the indirect object. Transitive 
compounds may talce both an accusative and a dative. § 426. 

16. The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward which 
the given quality is directed. Such are, especially, those meaning near, also 
fit, friendly, pleasing, like, and their opposites. § 143. 

17. The dative is used to denote the purpose or end for which j often 
with another dative denoting the person or thing affected. § 437. 

Accusative Case 

18. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the accusative and 
answers the question Whom? or What? § 37. 

19. The subject of the infinitive is in the accusative. § 214. 

20. The place to which is expressed by ad or in with the accusative. 
Before names of towns, small islands, domus, and rus the preposition is 
omitted. §§ 263, 266. 

21. Duration of time and extent of space are expressed by the 
accusative. § 336. 

22. Verbs of making, choosing, calling, showing, and the like, may take 
2^ predicate accusative along with the direct object. With the passive voice 
the two accusatives become nominatives. § 392. 

Ablative Case 

23. Gzaj« is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers 
the question Because of what? § 102. 

24. Means is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers 
the question By means of what? or With what? § 103. 

25. Accompaniment is denoted by the ablative with cum. This answers 
the question With whom ? § 1 04. 

26. The ablative with cum is used to denote the manner of an action. 
Cum may be omitted, if an adjective is used with the ablative. This answers 
the question How? or In what manner? § 105. 

27. With comparatives and words implying comparison the ablative is 
used to«denote the measure of difference. § 317. 



RULES OF SYNTAX 263 

28. The ablative of a noun or pronoun with a present or perfect parti- 
ciple in agreement is used to express attendant circumstance. This is called 
the ablative absolute, § 381. 

29. I. Descriptions of physical characteristics are expressed by the 
ablative with a modifying adjective. § 444. 

2. Descriptions involving neither numerical statements nor physical char- 
acteristics may be expressed by either the genitive or the ablative with a 
modifying adjective. § 445. 

30. The ablative is used to denote in what respect something is true. 

§398- 

31. The place from which is expressed by a or ab, de, e or ex with 
the separative ablative. This answers the question Whence? Before 
names of towns, small islands, flomus, and rus the preposition is omitted. 
§§ 264, 266. 

32. Words expressing separation or deprivation require an ablative to 
complete their meaning. This is called the ablative of separation. § 1 80. 

33. The word expressing the person from whom an action starts, when 
not the subject, is put in the ablative with the preposition a or ab. This is 
called the ablative of the personal agent. § 181. 

34. The comparative degree, if quam is omitted, is followed by the. 
separative ablative. § 309. 

35. The time when or within which anything happens is expressed by 
the ablative without a preposition. § 275. 

36. I. Tas. place at or in which is expressed by the ablative with in. 
This answers the question Where ? Before names of towns, small islands, 
and riis the preposition is omitted. §§ 265, 266. 

2. Names of towns and small islands, if singular and of the first or 
second declension, and the word domus express the place in which by the 
locative. § 268. 

Gerund and Gerundive 

37. I. The gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive, 
dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these cases 
are in general the same as those of other nouns. § 406. i. 

2. The gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of 
gerund -|- object, excepting in the genitive and in the ablative without a 
preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive construction is more 
usual. § 406. 2. 

38. The accusative of the gerund or gerundive with ad, or the genitive 
with causa, is used to express purpose. § 407. 



264 APPENDIX II 

Moods and Tenses of Verbs 

39. Primary tenses are followed by primary tenses, and secondary by 
secondary. § 358. 

40. The subjunctive is used in a dependent clause to express the pur- 
pose of the action in the" principal clause. § 349. 

41. A substantive clause of purpose with the subjunctive is used as 
object with verbs of commanding, urging, asking, persuading, or advising, 
where in English we should usually have the infinitive. § 366. 

42. Verbs of fearing are followed by a substantive clause of purpose 
introduced by ut ifhat not) or ne {that or lest). § 372. 

43. Consecutive clauses oj result are introduced by ut or ut non, and 
have the verb in the subjunctive. § 385. 

44. Object clauses of result with ut or ut non are found after verbs of 
effecting or bringing about. § 386. 

45. A relative clause with the subjunctive is often used to describe an 
antecedent. This is called the subjunctive of characteristic or description. 

§ 39°- 

46. The conjunction cum means when, since, or although. It is followed 
by the subjunctive unless it means when and its clause fixes the time at 
which the main action took place. § 396. 

47. When a direct statement becomes indirect, the principal verb is 
changed to the infinitive, and its subject nominative becomes subject 
accusative of the infinitive. § 416. 

48. The accusative-with-infinitive construction in indirect statements is 
found after verbs of saying, telling, knowing, thinking, and perceiving. 

§419- 

49. A present indicative of a direct statement becomes present infinitive 
of the indirect, a past indicative becomes perfect infinitive, and a future 
indicative becomes future infinitive. § 418. 

50. In an i}idirect question the verb is in the subjunctive and its tense 
is determined by the law for tense sequence. § 432. 




DOMINA 



APPENDIX III 



REVIEWS' 



I. REVIEW OF VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR 
THROUGH LESSON VIII 

502. Give the English of the following words : ^ 

Nouns 





agricola 




dea 




gallina 


pugna 




ancilla 




domina 




iniuria 


sagitta 




aqua 




fabula 




insula 


silva 




casa 




fera 




luna 


terra 




causa 




filia 




nauta 


tuba 




cena 




fort una 




pecunia 


via 




corona 




fuga 




puella 


victoria 








Adjectives 




alta 


Clara 




lata 


magna nova 


pulchra 


bona 


grata 




longa 


mala parva 


sola 










Verbs 






amat 


est 


laborat 


narrat 


niintiat 


portat sunt 


dat 


habitat 


laudat 


necat 


parat 


pugnat vocat 


Prepositions Pronouns 


Adverbs Conjunction 


Interrogative 
^ Particle 


a or ab 


mea 




cur 


et 


-ne 


ad 




tua 




deinde 


quia 




cum 


quis 




non 


quod 




de 




cuius 




ubi 


• 




e or ex 


cui 










in 




quern 












quid 











^ It is suggested that each of these reviews be assigned for a written test. 
^ Proper nouns and proper adjectives are not repeated in the reviews. Words 
used in Caesar's " Gallic War " are in heavy type. 

265 



266 



APPENDIX III 



503. Give the Latin of the following words ; 



Underline the words you do not 
word till you have gone through the 
you have underlined. 



remember. Do not look up a single 
entire list. Then drill on the words 



flight 


tells 


goddess 


what 


story 


money 


wild beast 


way 


new 


calls 


praises (verb) 


bad 


lives (verb) 


with 


alone 


loves 


away from 


your 


pleasing 


pretty 


who 


then, in the 


prepares 


water 


why 


next place 


are 


great 


forest 


daughter 


to 


is 


wreath 


to whom 


because 


announces 


deep, high 


fortune 


arrow 


injury, wrong 


dinner 


famous 


cottage 


battle (noun) 


out from 


labors (verb) 


gives 


small 


my 


kills 


girl 


fights (verb) 


where 


not 


good 


maid 


trumpet 


in 


carries 


down from 


lady, mistress 


and 


chicken 


long 


whom 


sailor 


victory 


cause 


island 


farmer 


land 


whose 


wide 









504* Review Questions. How many syllables has a Latin word? How 
are words divided into syllables? What is the ultima? the penult? the 
antepenult ? When is a syllable short ? When is a syllable long ? What is 
the law of Latin accent? Define the subject of a sentence; the predicate; 
the object; the copula. What is inflection? declension? conjugation? 
What is the ending of the verb in the third person singular, and what in 
the plural ? What does the form of a noun show ? Name the Latin cases. 
What case is used for the subject? the direct object? the possessor ? What 
relation is expressed by the dative case? Give the rule for the indirect 
object. How are questions answered in Latin ? What is a predicate adjec- 
tive? an attributive adjective? What is meant by agreement? Give the 
rule for the agreement of the adjective. What are the three relations ex- 
pressed by the ablative? What can you say of the position of the pos- 
sessive pronoun? the modifying genitive? the adjective? What is the 
base ? What is grammatical gender ? What is the rule for gender in the 
first declension ? What are the general principles of Latin word order ? 
• 

1 The translations of words used in Csesar are in italics. 



REVIEWS 267 

505. Fill out the following summary of the iirst declension : 



The First or A-Declension - 



' I . Ending in the nominative singular 

2. Rule for gender 

3. Case terminations J ' °^ 
, . , 1^. Plural 

4. Irregular nouns 



II. REVIEW OF LESSONS IX-XVII 
506. Give the English of the following words : 

Nouns of the First Declension 



agri cultura copia 


fama 


galea lacrima 


patria 


constantia diligentia 


femina 


inopia lorica 


praeda 


Nouns of 


the Second 


Declension 




ager cibus 


frumentum oppidanus 


scutum 


amicus consilium 


gladius 


oppidum 


servus 


arma (plural) domicilium 


legatus 


pilum 


studium 


aiuilium dominus 


liberi 


populus 


telum 


bellum equus 


magister 


praemium 


•vicus 


carrus fnius 


mums 


proelium 


vir 


castrum fluvius 


numerus 


puer 




Adjectives of the 


First and 


Second Declensions 




aeger, aegra, aegrum 




neuter, neutra, neutrum 


alius, alia, aliud 




noster, nostra, nostrum 


alter, altera, alterum 




nullus, -a, -um 




armatus, -a, -um 




pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum 


creber, crebra, crebrum 




solus, -a, -um 




durus, -a, -um 




suus, -a, -um 




finitimus, -a, -um 




totus, -a, -um 




infirmus, -a, -um 




tuus, -a, -um 




legionarius, -a, -um 




uUus, -a, -um 




liber, libera, liberum 




unus, -a, -um 




meus, -a, -um 




uter, utra, utrum 




maturus, -a, -um 




validus, -a, -um 




miser, misera, miserum 


vester, vestra, vestrum 


multus, -a, -um 









268 



APPENDIX III 



Verbs 


Demonstrative Pronoun 


Adverbs 


arat 


is 


1, ea, id 


iam 


ciiiat 






quo 


desideral 


; Conjunctions 


saepe 


maturat 




an 




properat 




-que 


Preposition 






sed 


apud 


507. Give the Latin of the following words : 




sword 


war 


shield (noun) 


plan (noun) 


corselet 


number 


whole 


people 


jnan 


my 


it 


beautiful 


your (plural) 


free (adj.) 


aid (noun) 


no (adj.) 


hasten- 


children 


legionary 


our 


but 


wall 


weak 


battle 


among 


grain 


arms 


spear 


tear (noun) 


weapon 


master (of school) 


food 


village 


one 


friend 


steadiness 


strong 


plow (verb) 


neighboring 


fatherland 


long for 


this or that 


sick 


town 


and (enclitic) 


already 


lieutenant 


fort 


often 


helmet 


field 


camp 


want (noun) 


river 


report, rumor 


neither (of two) 


which (of two) 


zeal 


abode 


much 


care for 


any 


boy 


agriculture 


or (in a ques- 


he 


his own 


other 


tion) 


son 


alone 


the other (of 


whither 


slave 


prize (noun) 


two) 


■wagon 


your (singular) 


master (owner) 


hard 


townsman 


she 


carefulness 


booty 


wretched 


wom.an 


plenty 


frequent 


ripe 


horse 


troops 


armed 



508. Review Questions. How many declensions are there ? What three 
things must be known about a noun before it can be declined ? What three 
cases of neuter nouns are always alike, and in what do they end in .the plural ? 
What two plural cases are always alike ? When is the vocative singular not 
like the nominative ? What is a predicate noun ? With what does it agree ? 
What is an appositive ? Give the rule for the agreement of an appositive. 
How can we tell whether a noun in -er is declined like puer or like ager? 



REVIEWS 



269 



Decline bonus, liber, pulcher. How can we tell whether an adjective in -er 
is declined like liber or hke pulcher ? Why must we say nauta bonus and 
not nauta bona ? Name the Latin possessive pronouns. How are they 
declined ? With what does the possessive pronoun agree ? When do we use 
tuus and when vester ? Why is suus called a reflexive possessive ? What is 
the non-reflexive possessive of the third person? When are possessives 
omitted ? What four uses of the ablative case are covered by the relations 
expressed in English by with ? Give an illustration in Latin of the ablative 
of manner J of the ablative of cause; of the ablative of means j of the 
ablative of accompaniment. What ablative regularly has cum ? What 
ablative sometimes has cum ? What uses of the ablative never have cum ? 
Name the nine pronominal adjectives, with their meanings. Decline alius, 
nuUus. Decline is. What does is mean as a demonstrative adjective or 
pronoun ? What other important use has it ? 

509. Fill out the following summary of the second declension : 

' I. Endings in the nominative 

2. Rule for gender 

3. Case terminations of nouns f a. Singular 
in -us \ b. Plural 
a. The vocative singular of nouns in -us 

4. Case terminations of nouns f a. Singular 
in -um L b. Plural 

5. Peculiarities of nouns in -er and -ir 

6. Peculiarities of nouns in -ius and -ium 



The Second or 
0-Declension 



III. REVIEW OF LESSONS XVIII-XXVI 
510. Give the English of the following words : 

Nouns of the First Declension 



disciplina 
forma 



poena 
potentia 



regma 
superbia 



tristitia 



ICdus 



Nouns of the Second Declension 
ornamentum sacrum socius 



verbum 



Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions 
amicus gratus interfectus molestus septem 

antiquus idoneus iratus perpetuus superbus 

finitimus inimicus laetus proximus 



270 



APPENDIX III 



Adverbs 


Conjunctions Personal Pronoun 


hodie 


mox 


etiam 




ego 


ibi 


nunc 


non solum . . . sed etiam 




maxime 


nuper 


Verbs 






CONJ. 


I 


CONJ. II 


CONJ. Ill 


CONJ. IV 


V0I6, - 


are 


deleo, -ere 


ago, -ere 


audio, -ire 






doceo, -ere 


capio, -ere 


miini5, -ire 






faveo, -ere 


credo, -ere 


reperio, -ire 






habeo, -ere 


dico, -ere 


venio, -ire 






iubeo, -ere 


duco, -ere 




IRREGULAR VERB 

sum, esse 


moneo, -ere 
moveo, -ere 
noceo, -ere 


faci5, -ere 
fugio, -ere 
iaci5, -ere 








pareo, -ere 


mitto, -ere 








persuadeo, -ere 


rapio, -ere 








sedeo, -ere 


rego, -ere 








studeo, -ere 


resisto, -ere 








video, -ere 






511. Give the Latin of the following 


words. In the 1 


case of verbs 


always give the first form and the present infinitive. 




ancient 


not only . 


. . nearest 


move 


training 


come 


but also 


sacred rite 


soon 


take 


resist 


seven 


queen 


glad 


have 


see 


ally, coTnp 


anion flee 


punishment 


to-day 


be 


pride 


obey 


believe 


mifi'iendly 


fly 


fortify 


lately 


advise 


drive 


/ 


send 


constant 


especially, 


favor (verb) 


proud 


sit 


ornament 


most of all 


suitable 


word 


also 


power 


angry 


pleasing 


sadness 


school 


make, do 


beauty 


teach 


find 


hear 


injure 


say 


neighboring 


rule (verb) 


1 hurl 


now 


command (verb) 


destroy 


be eager 


persuade 


annoying 


there 


friendly 


for 


only 


lead 


slain 


seize 



51g. Review Questions. What is conjugation? Name two important 
differences between conjugation in Latin and in English. What is tense? 



REVIEWS 



271 



What is mood ? What are the Latin moods ? When do we use the indica- 
tive mood? Name the six tenses of the indicative. What are personal 
Sndings? Name those you have had. Inflect sum in the three tenses you 
have learned. How many regular conjugations are there? How are they 
distinguished? How is the present stem found? What tenses are formed 
from the present stem? What is the tense sign of the imperfect? What 
is the meaning of the imperfect? What is the tense sign of the future in 
the first two conjugations ? in the last two ? Before what letters is a final 
long vowel of the stem shortened ? What are the three possible translations 
of a present, as of pugno? Inflect aro, sedeo, mitto, faci5, and venio, in the 
present, imperfect, and future active. What forms of -io verbs of the third 
conjugation are like audio? what like rego? Give the rule for the dative 
with adjectives. Name the special intransitive verbs that govern the dative. 
What does the imperative mood express? How is the present active im- 
perative formed in the singular ? in the plural ? What three verbs have a 
shortened present active imperative ? Give the present active imperative of 
porto, deleo, ago, facio, munio. 



IV. REVIEW OF LESSONS XXVII-XXXVI 
513. Give the English of the following words : 

Nouns of the First Declension 



ala 



:a mora porta provincia 

Nouns of the Second Declension 



vita 



animus bracchium 


locus navigium 


periculum vinum 


aurum deus 


monstrum oraculum 


ventus 


Adjectives 


OF the First and Second Declensions 


adversus 


commotus dubius 


plenus 


attentus 


defessus maximus 


saevus 


cams 


dexter perfidus 
Adverbs 


sinister 


antea 


diu ita 


subito 


celeriter 


friistra longe 


tamen 


denique 


graviter semper 

Conjunctions 
autem si ubi 


turn 



272 



APPENDIX III 





Prepositions 






de 


per 

CON J. I 


sine 

Verbs 


pro 


CONJ. II 


adpropinquo 


recuso 


supero 




contineo 


navigo 


reporto 


tempts 




egeo 


occupo 


servo 


vasto 




prohibeo 


postul5 


sto 


vulnero 




respondeo 
teneo 




CONJ. Ill 




IRREGULAR VERB 


discedo 


gero 


interficio 




absum 



514. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the 
gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs. 



be away 


moreover 


boat, ship 


without 


before, 


wind 


greatest 


sail (verb) 


hold 


previously 


through 


oracle 


life 


suddenly 


depart. 


if 


danger 


save 


dear 


go away 


savage 


lay waste 


full 


always 


province 


wound (verb) 


gate 


refuse 


god 


care, trouble 


wine 


doubtful 


heavily 


hold in. 


kill 


delay 


opposite, 


monster 


keep 


reply 


faithless 


adverse 


approach 


afar 


(verb) 


right 


demand 


nevertheless 


thus, so. 


wing 


seize 


finally 


place 


asfollows 


mind. 


quickly 


attentive 


be without. 


arm (noun) 


heart 


before, in 


then, at 


lack 


when 


left (adj.) 


behalf of 


that time 


moved 


in vain 


bear,carry on 


battle 


weary 


gold 


stand 


try 


down from or 


overcom.e, 


restrain. 


bring back. 


for a long 


concerning 


cot?quer 


keep from 


win 


time 


515. Give the principal parts and meaning of the following verbs : 


sum 


moveo 


moneo 


pareo 


venio 


do 


credo 


capio 


duco 


iacio 


teneo 


rapio 


doceo 


facio 


video 


iubeo 


reperio 


rego 


persuadeo 


absum 


ago 


deleo 


fave5 


sedeo 


egeo 


mitto , 


resists 


noceo 


studeo 


gero 


munio 


audio 


dico 


fugio 


sto 



REVIEWS 



273 



516. Review Questions. What are the personal endings in the passive 
voice ? What is the letter -r sometimes called ? What are the distinguishing 
vowels of the four conjugations ? What forms constitute the principal parts ? 
What are the three different conjugation stems ? How may they be found ? 
What are the tenses of the indicative ? of the infinitive ? What tense of 
the imperative have you learned? What forms are built on the present 
stem ? on the perfect stem ? on the participial stem ? What are the endings 
of the perfect active indicative ? What is the tense sign of the pluperfect 
active? of the future perfect active? How is the present active infinitive 
formed? the present passive infinitive? How is the present active impera- 
tive formed? the present passive imperative? How is the perfect active 
infinitive formed ? the perfect passive infinitive ? How is the future active 
infinitive formed? What is a participle? How are participles in -us de- 
clined? Give the rule for the agreement of the participle. How are the 
perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect passive indicative formed ? Conjugate 
the verb sum in all moods and tenses as far as you have learned it (§ 494)- 
What is meant by the separative ablative ? How is the place from which 
expressed in Latin ? Give the rule for the ablative of separation ; for the 
ablative of the personal agent. How can we distinguish between the abla- 
tive of means and the ablative of the personal agent? What is the perfect 
definite ? the perfect indefinite ? What is the difference in meaning between 
the perfect indefinite and the imperfect ? What two cases in Latin may be 
governed by a preposition ? Name the prepositions that govern the abla- 
tive. What does the preposition in mean when it governs the ablative ? the 
accusative ? What are the three interrogatives used to introduce yes-m\dL.-no 
questions ? Explain the force of each. What words are sometimes used for 
yes and no ? What are the different meanings and uses of ubi ? 

V. REVIEW OF LESSONS XXXVII-XLIV 

517. Give the English of the following words : 

Nouns 



FIRST DECLENSION 




second 


DECLENSION 






rlpa 




barbari 


castellum 










captivus 


impedimentum 






THIRD 


DECLENSION 






animal 


calamitas 


cliens 


dux 


fons 


ignis 


arbor 


calcar 


collis 


eques 


frater 


imperator 


avis 


caput 


consul 


finis 


homo 


insigne 


caedes 


civls 


dens 


flumen 


hostis 


iter 



2 74 



APPENDIX III 



iudex mater 


opus 


pes 


sanguis urbs 


labor mensis orator 


pons 


soror victor 


lapis miles 


ordo 


princeps 


tempus virtus 


legio mons 


pater 


rex 


terror vis 


mare navis 


pedes 


saliis 


turris 


Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions 


barbarus dexter 


sinister 


summus 


Prepositions 


Adverbs 


Conjunctions 


in with the abl. 


cotldie 


nee, neque 




in with the ace. 


numquam 


nee . . . nee 


, or neque . . . neque 


trans 




Verbs 




conj. 


I 




conj. Ill 


cesso 


postulo 


accipio 


i pono 


confirms 


recuse 


gero 


vinco 


occupo 


veto 


incipio 


1 vivo 


oppugno 




peto 




518. Translate 


the following 


words. Give the 


genitive and the 


gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs : 


forbid 


defeat, dis- 


consul 


sea 


rank, row 


aster 


mother 


tower 


brother 


fire 


retainer 


refuse 


force 


carry on. 


citizen 


drill (verb) 


across 


wear 


head 


legion 


savages 


tree 


safety 


terror 


horseman 


foot soldier 


assail, 


into, to 


never 


receive 


storm 


right (adj.) 


mountain 


general 


begin 


demand 


manliness, 


highest 


march 


in 


courage 


fountain 


decoration 


stone 


leader 


orator 


bridge 


blood 


put, place 


neither . . . nor 


bird 


labor (noun) 


time 


and not 


cease 


king 


savage, barba- 


left 


man 


seize 


rous 


tooth 


river 


spur 


sister 


soldier 


work 


chief 


seek 


month 


(noun) 


slaughter 


captive 


city 


and 


strengthen 


hindrance, 


victor 


ship 


foot 


baggage 


daily 


bank 


enemy 


man-of-war 


live (verb) 


redoubt. 


animal 


judge • 


conquer 


fort 


father 



REVIEWS 



275 



519. Review Questions. Give the conjugation of possum. What is an 
infinitive ? What three uses has the Latin infinitive that are like the Eng- 
lish ? What is the case of the subject of the infinitive ? What is meant by 
a complementary infinitive ? In the sentence The bad boy cannot be happy, 
what is the case of happy ? Give the rule. Decline qui. Give the rule for 
the agreement of the relative. What are the two uses of the interrogative ? 
Decline quis. What is the base of a noun ? How is the stem formed from 
the base? Are the stem and the base ever the same? How many declen- 
sions of nouns are there ? Name them. What are the two chief divisions 
of the third declension ? How are the consonant stems classified ? Explain 
the formation of lapis from the stem lapid-, miles from milit-, rex from reg-. 
What nouns have i-stems ? What peculiarities of form do i-stems have, — 
masc, fem., and neut. ? Name the five nouns that have -i and -e in the abl. 
Decline turris. Give the rules for gender in the third declension. Decline 
miles, lapis, rex, virtus, consul, legio, homo, pater, fliimen, opus, tempus, 
caput, caedes, urbs, hostis, mare, animal, vis, iter. 



520. Fill out the following scheme : 

r Masculine 
■j Feminine 
[ Neuter 



The Third 
Declension 



Gender 
Endings 



Case 
Terminations 



I. Consonant / a. Masc. and fem. 
Stems \b_ Neuters 



II. /-Stems 
.Irregular No0ns 



a. Masc. and fem. 

b. Neuters 



VI. REVIEW OF LESSONS XLV-LII 

521. Give the English of the following words : 

Nouns 
first declension ' second declension 

amicitla annus regnum tergum, 

hora modus signum tergum vertere 

littera nuntius supplicium, vestigium 

oculus supplicium dare 

supplicium sumere de 



276 



APPENDIX III 



THIRD DECLENSION 



FOURTH DECLENSION 



aestas 


nox 


adventus 




impetus 


corpus 


pars 


cornu 




lacus 


hiems 


pax 


domus 




manus 


libertas 


riis 


equitatus 




metus 


lux, 


sol 


exercitus 




portus 


prima lux vox 


fluctus 






nomen 


vulnus 








FIFTH DECLENSION 




indeclinable noun 


acies 


res, 


spes 




nihil 


dies 


res gestae 






fides, 


res adversae 






in fidem venire res secundae 








res piibl: 


ica 

Adjectives 






FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS THIRD DECLENSION 


densus 


pristinus 


acer, acris, acre 


gravis, grave 


invisus 


publicus 


brevis, breve 


incolumis, incolume 


minis 


secundus 


difficilis, difficile 


omnis, omne 


pauci 


tantus 


fortis, forte 


par. 


par 


primus 


verus 


facilis, facile 


vel5x, velox 






Pronouns 






PERSONAL 


DEMONSTRATIVE INTENSIVE INDEFINITE 


ego 


hie 


ipse aliquis, i 


iliqui 


nos 


idem 


quidam 




sui 


ille 


quis 


1, qui 


i 


tu 


iste 


quisquam 


vos 




quisque 




Adverbs 


Conjunctions 


Prepositions 


ne . . . quidem 


paene 


satis itaque 




ante 


olim 


quoque 


vero nisi 

Verbs 




post 
propter 


CONJ. I 


CONJ. II 


CONJ. Ill 




CONJ. IV 


conloco 


debeo 


committo. 




desilio 


convoco 


exerceo 


committere proelium 




cremo 


maneo 


decido 






demonstro 


placeo 


eripio 






mando 


sustineo 


sumo. 










sumere supplicium de 








tradiic5 






• 




verto 







REVIEWS 



277 



522. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the 
gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs. 



if not, Unless 


adversity 


burn 


peace 


on account of 


former, old- 


that (of yours) 


back 


unharmed 


time 


before 


turn the back. 


public 


all, every 


you (plur.) 


retreat 


commonwealth 


any one (at all) 


light 


night 


leap down, dis- 


this (of mine) 


daybreak 


hand, force 


mount 


heavy, serious 


winter 


lake 


lead across 


hateful, detested 


attack 


day 


remain 


true 


line of battle 


commit, intrust 


call together 


burn 


army 


a few only 


friendship 


snatch from 


drill, traiii 


sharp, eager 


footprint, trace 


letter 


join battle 


we 


each 


punishment 


house, home 


turn 


fear (noun) 


i?tflict punish- 


midday 


you (sing.) 


hope 


jnent on 


wonderful 


r 


therefore 


suffer punish- 


brave 


signal 


behind, after 


ment 


almost 


summer 


so great 


liberty 


the same 


cavalry 


equal 


sun 


some, any 


wound 


in truth, indeed 


sustain 


if any one 


horn, wing 


that (yonder) 


take up, assume 


self, veiy 


country 


a certain 


hour 


not even 


second, favor- 


fall down 


reign, realm 


easy 


able 


■ owe, ought 


messenger 


dense 


short 


measure, mode 


part, directiofi 


point out, ex- 


voice 


eye 


body 


plain 


formerly, once 


name 


harbor 


difficult 


arrival 


wave, billow 


faith, protection 


first 


come under the 


thing, matter 


of himself 


arrange, station 


protection of 


exploits 


also, too 


please 


swift 


republic 


sufficiently 


year 


nothing 


prosperity 








523. Review Questions. By what declensions are Latin adjectives de- 


clined? What can you say about 


the stem of adjectives of the third 


declension ? Into what classes are these adjectives divided ? How can you 


tell to which of the classes an adjective belongs? Decline acer, omnis, 


par. What are the nominative endings and genders of nouns of the fourth 



278 



APPENDIX III 



or u-declension ? What nouns are feminine by exception ? Decline adven- 
tus, lacus, cornii, domus. Give the rules for the ordinary expression of 
the place to which, the place from which, the place in which. What 
special rules apply to names of towns, small islands, and riis ? What 
is the locative case? What words have a locative case? What is the 
form of the locative case ? Translate Galba lives at home, Galba lives at 
Rome, Galba lives at Pompeii. What is the rule for gender in the fifth 
or e-declension ? Decline dies, res. When is the long e shortened ? What 
can you say about the plural of the fifth declension ? Decline tuba, servus, 
pilum, ager, puer, miles, consul, flumen, caedes, animal. How is the time 
when expressed? Name the classes of pronouns and define each class. 
Decline ego, tu, is. What are the reflexives of the first and second per- 
sons ? What is the reflexive of the third person ? Decline it. Translate 
/ see myself, he sees himself, he sees him. Decline ipse. How is ipse 
used? Decline idem. Decline hie, iste, ille. Explain the use of these 
words. Name and translate the commoner indefinite pronouns. Decline 
aliquis, quisquam, quidam, quisque. 



VII. REVIEW OF LESSONS LIII-LX 
524. Give the English of the following words : 

Nouns 



FIRST DECLENSION 

aquila fossa 



SECOND DECLENSION 

aedificium imperium 

captivus negotium 

concilium 



spatium 
vallum 





THIRD ] 


DECLENSION 




agmen 


gens 


mors 


regio 


celeritas 


latitudo 


mulier 


rumor 


civitas 


longitiido 


multitudo 


scelus 


clamor 


magnitude 


munitio 


servitus 


cohors 


mens 


nemo 


timor 


difficultas 


mercator 


obses 


valles 


explorator 


mille 


opinio 





FOURTH DECLENSION 

aditus passus 

commeatus 



FIFTH DECLENSION 

res frumentaria 



REVIEWS 



279 



Adjectives 
first and second declensions 



aequus 


maximus 


plurimus 


singuli 


blni 


medius 


posterus 


superus 


ducenti 


minimus 


primus 


tardus 


duo 


opportiinus 


reliquus 


terni 


extents 


optimus 


secundus 


iinus 


Inferus 


pessimus 








THIRD DECLENSION 




alacer, alacris, alacre 


humilis, humile 


peior, peius 


audax, audax 


ingenS; 


, ingens 


, pliis 


celer, celeris, celere 


interior, interius 


prior, prius 


citerior, citerius 


lenis, lene 


recens, recens 


difficilis, difficile 


maior, 


maius 


similis, simile 


dissimilis, dissimile 


melior, 


, melius 


tres, tria 


facilis, facile 


minor, 


minus 


ulterior, ulterius 


gracilis, gracile 


nobilis 


, nobile 






Adverbs 




acriter 


magis 


optime 


proxime 


audactel 


magnopere 


parum 


quam 


bene 


maxime 


paulo 


statim 


facile 


melius 


pliirimum 


tam 


fere 


minime 


prope 


undique 


fortiter 


multum 


propius 




Conjunctions 




Prepositions 


atque, ac 


qua de causa 


circum 


aut 


quam ob 


rem 


contra 


aut . . . aut 


simul atque or 


inter 


et . . . et 


simul 


ac 


ob 


nam 






trans 




Verbs 




CONJ. I 






CONJ. II 


Conor moror 


obtineo 


valeo 


hortor vexo 


perterreo vereor 




CONJ. 


III 




abdo 


dedo 


patior 


revertor 


cado 


defendo 


premo 


sequor 


cognosce 


egredior 


proflciscor 


statuo 


consequor 


incendo 


progredior 


subsequor 


contend© 


incolo 


quaero 


suscipiS 


cupio 


insequor 


recipio 


trado 


curro 


occid5 


relinquo 


traho 




CONJ. 


IV 






orior 


pervenio 





28o 



APPENDIX III 



525. Translate, the following words. Give the genitive and the 
gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs : 



on account of 

nearly 

keenly^ sharply 

thousand 

two 

opportune 

remaining 

above (adj.) 

next 

grain supply 

pace 

shout (noun) 

from all sides 

against 

around 

three 

further 

line of m,arch 

rumor 

region 

fortification 



almost 

boldly 

bravely 

across 

between 

hither (adj .) 

so 

less 

jnore 

most 

worst 

difficulty 



width 

scout 

cohort 

tribe, nation 

business 

by u little 

somewhat 

crime 

difficult 

equal 

move forward, 
advance 

multitude 

woman 

desire (verb) 

give over, sur- 
render 

kill 

overtake 

hasten, strive ' 

hide 

one 

first 

second, favorable 

two hundred 

former 

inner 



death 

command, power 

captive 

or 

and 

arrive 

attem.p)^, try 

length 



low 

outward 

three by three 

provisions 

speed 

ditch 

wherefore or 
therefore 

for this reason 

fear (noun) 

return 

inquire 

set out 

m.ove out, dis- 
embark 



fear (verb) 

worse 

greater, larger 

two by two 

least (adv.) 

opinion, expec- 
tation 

approach, en- 
trance 

trader 

magnitude, size 

council, assembly 

space, room 

either . . . or 

rise, arise 

suffer, allow 

press hard 

fall 

surrender 

set fire to 

defend 

possess, hold 

delay (verb) 

nearest (adv.) 

nearer (adv.) 

better {2.6^)^ 

well known, 
noble 

mild, gentle 

swift 



low (adj.) 

slender 

one by one 

no one 

least (adv.) 

little (adv.) 

learn, know 

drag 

undertake 

run 

fix, decide 



leave 

abandon 

be strong 

receive, recover 

terrify, frighten 

dwell 

state, citizen- 
ship 

valley 

slavery 

greatly 

best of all (adv.) 

better (adv.) 

well (adv.) 

very much 

much 

unlike 

like (adj.) 

slow 

very greatly, 
exceedingly 



m.ind (noun) 

easily 

easy 

recent 

huge, great 

bold 



as soon as 
for 



best (adj.) 

greatest 

follow close 

encourage 

annoy, ravage 

hide 

follow 

pursue 

both . . . and 

rampart 



REVIEWS 281 

526. Review Questions. What is meant by comparison ? In what two 
ways may adjectives be compared ? Compare clarus, brevis, velox, and 
explain the formation of the comparative and the superlative. What are 
the adverbs used in comparison.'' Compare brevis by adverbs. Decline 
the comparative of velox. How are adjectives in -er compared.? Compare 
acer, pulcher, liber. What are possible translations for the comparative 
and superlative? Name the six adjectives that form the superlative in 
-limns. Translate in two ways Nothing is brighter than, the sun. Give 
the rule for the ablative with comparatives. Compare bonus, magnus, 
malus, multus, parvus, exterus, inferus, posterns, supems. Decline plus. 
Compare citerior, interior, propior, ulterior. Translate That route to Italy 
is much shorter. Give the rule for the expression of measure of difference. 
Name five words that are especially common in this construction. How 
are adverbs usually formed from adjectives of the first and second declen- 
sions ? from adjectives of the third declension .'' Compare the adverbs care, 
libere, fortiter, audacter. What cases of adjectives are sometimes used as 
adverbs? What are the adverbs frorri facilis? multus? primus? pluri- 
mus? bonus? magnus? parvus? Compare prope, saepe, magnopere. How 
are numerals classified? Give the first twenty cardinals. Decline unus, duo, 
tres, mille. How are the hundreds declined ? What is meant by the parti- 
tive genitive ? Give the rule for the partitive genitive. What sort of words 
are commonly used with this construction ? What construction is used with 
quidam and cardinal numbers excepting mille ? Give the first twenty ordi- 
nals. How are they declined ? How are the distributives declined ? Give 
the rule for the expression of duration of time and extent of space. What 
is the difference between the ablative of time and the accusative of time? 
What is a deponent verb ? Give the synopsis of one. What form always 
has a passive meaning ? Conjugate amo, moneo, rego, capio, audio, in the 
active and passive. 



VIII. REVIEW OF LESSONS LXI-LXIX 

527. Review the vocabularies of the first seventeen lessons. See 
§§502, S°3. 5°6, 507. 

528. Review Questions. Name the tenses of the subjunctive. What 
time is denoted by these tenses ? What are the mood signs of the present 
subjunctive? How may the imperfect subjunctive be formed? How do 
the perfect subjunctive and the future perfect indicative acdve differ in 
form ? How is the pluperfect subjunctive active formed ? Inflect the sub- 
junctive active and passive of ciiro, deleo, vinco, rapio, munio. Inflect the 



282 



APPENDIX III 



subjunctive tenses of sum; of possum. What are the tenses of the parti- 
ciples in the active? What in the passive? Give the active and passive 
participles of amo, moneo, rego, capio, audio. Decline regens. What par- 
ticiples do deponent verbs have ? What is the difference in meaning" be- 
tween the perfect participle of a deponent verb and of one not deponent? 
Give the participles of vereor. How should participles usually be translated ? 
Conjugate volo, nolo, malo, fio. 

What is the difference between the indicative and subjunctive in their 
fundamental ideas ? How is purpose usually expressed in Enghsh ? How 
is it expressed in Latin ? By what words is a Latin purpose clause intro- 
duced ? When should quo be used ? What is meant by sequence of tenses ? 
Name the primary tenses of the indicative and of the subjunctive; the 
secondary tenses. What Latin verbs are regularly followed by substantive 
clauses of purpose ? What construction follows iube5 ? What construction 
follows verbs oi fearing? How is consequence or result expressed in Latin? 
How is a result clause introduced? What words are often found in the 
principal clause foreshadowing the coming of a result clause? How may 
negative purpose be distinguished from negative result? What is meant 
by the subjunctive of characteristic or description ? How are such clauses 
introduced? Explain the ablative absolute. Why is the ablative absolute 
of such frequent occurrence in Latin? Explain the predicate accusative. 
After what verbs are two accusatives commonly found? What do these 
accusatives become when the verb is passive ? 




IMPERATOR MILITES HORTATUK 



SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 

The words in heavy type are used in Caesar's " Gallic War." 

LESSON IV, § 39 

Nouns Verbs 

dea, goddess (deity) est, he {she, it) is j sunt, they are 

Dia'na, Diana necat, he [she, it) kills, is killing, 

fera, a wild beast (fierce) does kill 

Lato'na, Latotia „ , 

, ' Conjunction i 

%^V\.\A, arrow ^^^ ^^^ 

Pronouns 
quis, interrog. pronoun, nom. sing., who ? cuius (pronounced cdbi'ydos, 
two syllables), interrog. pronoun, gen. sing., whose f 

LESSON V, §47 

Nouns Verbs 

coro'na, wreath, garland, crown flat, he {she, if) gives 

fa'bula, story (fable) narrat, he {she, it) tells (narrate) 
pecu'nia, money (pecuniary) 

pugna, battle (pugnacious) Conjunction i 

victo'ria, victory quia or quod, because 

cui (pronounced cdbi, one syllable), interrog. pronoun, dat. sing., to whom ? 
for whom, f 

LESSON VI, §56 

Adjectives 
bona, good parva, small, little 

gtata., pleasing pulchra, beautiful, pretty 

magna, large, great sola, alone 

mala, bad, wicked 

1 A conjunction is a word which connects words, parts of sentences, or 
sentences. 

283 



284 



SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 



Nouns 
ancil'la, maidservant 
lulia, Julia 

Adverbs '■ 
cur, why J non, jiot 



Pronouns 
mea, iny ; tua, /y%y, jcoz^r (possessives) 
quid, interrog. pronoun, nom. and ace. 
sing., what? 



-ne, the question sign, an enclitic (§ 16) added to the first word, which, 
in a question, is usually the verb, as amat, he loves, but amat'ne ? does he 
love ? est, he isj estne ? is he ? Of course -ne is not used when the 
sentence contains quis, cur, or some other interrogative word. 



LESSON 
Nouns 
casa, -ae, f., cottage 
cena, -ae, f., dinner 
galli'na, -ae, f., hen, chicken 
in'sula, -ae, f., zj/aw^ (pen-insula) 

Adverbs 
de-in'de, then, in the next place 
ubi, where 

Preposition 
ad, to, with ace. to express motion 
toward 



VII, § 62 

Verbs 

ha'bitat, he {she, it) lives, is living, 
does live (inhabit) 

laudat, he {she, it) praises, is prais- 
ing, does praise (laud) 

parat, he {she, it) prepares, is pre- 
paring, does prepare 

vocat, he {she, it) calls, is calling, 
does call J invites, is inviting, 
does invite (vocation) 



Pronoun 
quern, interrog. pronoun, ace. sing., whom ? 



LESSON VIII, § 69 



Nouns 
Italia, -ae, f., Italy 
Sicilia, -ae, f., Sicily 
tuba, -ae, f., trumpet (tube) 
via, -ae, f., way, road, street 
(viaduct) 



Adjectives 
alta, high, deep (altitude) 
clara, clear, bright ; fam.ovs 
lata, wide (latitude) 
longa, long (longitude) 
nova, new (novelty) 



1 An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another 
adverb ; as. She sings sweetly ; she is very talented ; she began to sing very 
early. 



SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 285 

LESSON IX, § 77 
Nouns 

bellum, -i, n., war (re-hel) murus, -i, m., wa// (mural) 

constantia, -ae, f., firmness, con- oppidanus, -i, m., townsman 

stancy, steadiness oppidum, -i, n., town 

dominus, -1, m., master, tord (dom- pilum, -i, n., spear {pile driver) 

inate). servus, -i, m., s/ave, servant 

equus, -i, m., horse (equine) Sextus, -1, m., Sextus 
friimentum, -1, n., grain 
legatus, -i, m., lieutenant, atnbas- 

sador ( legate) '"'^*' ^' ^'^'^ '^^ cares for, with ace. 

Marcus, -i, m., Marcus, Mark °'^*"'^^' ^' ^'^'^ '^^ ^'''^"'' 

LESSON X, § 82 
Nouns 
amicus, -i, m.,y^z£«(/ (amicable) populus, -i, m., people 

Germania, -ae, f., Germany Rhenus, -i, m., the Rhine 

patria, -ae, i., fatherland vicus, -I, m., village 

LESSON XI, § 86 
Nouns 
arma, armorum, n,, plur., arms, es- galea, -ae, f., helm.et 

pecially defensive weapons praeda, -ae, f., booty, spoils (preda- 

fatoa, -ae, f., rumor; reputation, tory) 

fame telum, -i, n., weapon of offense, spear 

Adjectives 
diirus, -a, -um, hard, rough; un- Romanus, -a, -um, Roman. As a 
feeling, cruel; severe, toilsome noun, R5manus, -I, m., a Roman 

(durable) 

LESSON XII, § 90 
Nouns Adjectives 

filius, fill, m., son (filial) finitimus, -a, -um, bordering upon, 
fluvius, fluvT, m., river {Ruent) neighboring, near to. As a noun, 

gladius, gladi, m., jK/on^ (gladiator) fmitimi,-6rum,m.,plur.,«^z^,4iJcrj 

praesidium, praesi'di, n., garrison, Germanus, -a, -um, Germ,an. As a 
'guard, protection noun, Germanus, -1, m., a German 

proelium, proeli, n., battle multus, -a, -um, much; plur., many 

Adverb 
saepe, often 



286 SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 

LESSON XIII, §95 
Nouns 
ager, agri, xa.^ field (acre) praemium, praemi, n., reward^prize 

copia, -ae, f., plenty, abundance (co- (premium) 

pious); plur., troops, forces puer, pueri, m., i5oy (puerile) 

Cornelius, Cornell, m., Cornelius Roma, -ae, f., Rome 

lori'ca, -ae, f., coat of mail, coiselet sciitum, -i, n., shield (escutcheon) 

vir, viri, m., man, hero (virile) 

Adjectives 
legionarius, -a, -um,^ legionary, be- pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, pretty, 



Preposition 



longing to the legion. As a noun, 
legiSnarii, -orum, m., plur., legion- 
ary soldiers 

... ... ,^ ,. ,,., . , apud, among, vjfith ace. 

liber, libera, liberum,/«£ (liberty). ' ^ ° 

As a noun, llberi, -drum, m., plur.. Conjunction 

children (lit. the freeborn) sed, but 

LESSON XIV, § 99 

Nouns 

amicus, -i, m., friend (amicable) consilium, consili, n., plan (counsel) 

auxilium, auxili, n., help, aid (aux- diligentia, -ae, f., diligence, industry 

iliary) magister, magistrl, m., master, 

castrum, -i, xi., fort (castle); plur., teacher''' 

camp (lit. forts) 
cibus, -i, m.,food 

Adjectives 
aeger, aegra, aegrum, sick miser, misera, miserum, wretched, 

creber, crebra, cxi\svi.m., frequent unfortunate (miser) 

LESSON XV, § 107 
Nouns Adjectives 

carrus, -i, m., cart, wagon armatus, -a, -um, armed 

inopia, -ae, f., want, lack; the oppo- infirmus,-a,-um,w£a,^,7%«i5/£(infirm) 

site of copia validus, -a, -um, strong, sturdy 

studium, studi, n., zeal, eagerness 
(study) 

1 The genitive singular masculine of adjectives in -ius ends in -ii and the 
vocative in -ie ; not in -i, as in nouns. ^ Observe that dominus, as distin- 
guished from magister, means master in the sense of owner. 



SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 287 

Verb Adverb 

properat, he {she, if) hastens. Cf. iam, already, now 

maturat 

-que, conjunction, and; an enclitic (cf. § 16) and always added to the 
second of two words to be connected, as arma tela'que, arms and weapons. 

LESSON XVII, § 117 
Nouns 
agri cultura, -ae, f., agriculture Gallia, -ae, f., Gaul 

domicilium, domici'li, n., abode, Gallus, -i, m., a Gaul 

dwelling place (domicile) lacrima, -ae, f., tear 

femina, -ae, f., woman (female) numerus, -i, m., ««»2^£r (numeral) 

Adjective Adverb 

maturus, -a, -um, ripe, mature quo, whither 

Verbs Conjunction 

arat, he {she, it) plows (arable) . an, or, introducing the second half 

desiderat, he (she, it) misses, longs of a double question, as Is he a 

_/^r (desire), with ace. Roman or a (Ja2</, EstneRomanus 

an Gallus ? 

LESSON XVIII, § 124 

Nouns Adjectives 

liidus, -1, m., school Iratus, -a, -um, angry , furious (irate) 

socius, soci, m., companion, ally laetus, -a, -um, happy, glad 

(social) 

Adverbs 

hodie, to-day nunc, now, the present moinent 

ibi, there, in that place nuper, lately, recently, of the imme- 

raox, presently, soon, of the imme- diate past 
diate future 

LESSON XX, § 136 
Nouns 

forma, -ae, i.,form, beauty regina, -ae, f., queen (regal) 

■SOtna.,-ai&,i., punishment, penalty superbia, -ae, f., pride, haughtiness 

potentia, -ae, f., power (potent) tristitia, -ae, f., sadness, sorrow 

Adjectives Conjunctions 

septem, indeclinable, seven non solum . . . sed etiam, not only 

superbus, -a, -um, proud, haughty . . . but also 
(superb) 



288 SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 

LESSON XXI, § 140 

Nouns Adjectives 

sacrum, -i, n., sacrifice, offering, 7-ite interfectus, -a, -um, slain 

verbum, -i, n., word (verb) molestus, -a, -um, troublesome, an- 

Verbs noying {mo\e.%i) 

J _ _ •, , J- ts perpetuus, -a, -um, -ber-betual, con- 

sedeo, -ere, sit (sediment) . ^ r r i 

volo, -are,^?^ (volatile) 

ego, personal pronoun, / (egotism). Always emphatic in the nominative. 

LESSON XXII, §146 

Nouns 

disciplina, -ae, f., training, culture, Gaius, Gai, m., Caius, a Roman first 

discipline name 

aiv&m.e.TAVi'sa.,-^,Ti., ornament, jewel Tiberius, Tibe'ri, m., Tiberius, a 

Roman first name 
Verb Adverb 

doceo, -ere, teach (doctrine) maxime, most of all, especially 

Adjective 
antiquus, -qua, -quum, old, ancient (antique) 

LESSON XXVII, § 168 

Nouns Adjectives 

ala, -ae, f., wing commotus, -a, -um, moved, excited 

deus, -i, m.,^0^ (deity) 1 maximus, -a, -um, greatest (maxi- 

monstrum, -i, n., oinen, prodigy j mum) 

monster saevus, -a, -M-nx, fierce, savage 

oraculum, -i, n., oracle Adverbs 

Verb ita, thus, in this way, as follows 

vasto, -are, lay waste, devastate tum, then, at that time 

LESSON XXVIII, § 171 

Verbs Conjunction 

respondeo, -ere, respond, reply autem, but, moreover, now. Usu- 

servo, -are, save, preserve ally stands second, never first 

Adjective Noun 

carus, -a, -um, dear (cherish) vita, -ae, f., life (vital) 
• For the declension of deus, see § 468 



Verb 

supero, -are, conquer^ overcome (in- 
superable) 

Nouns 

cura, -ae, f., care, trouble. 

locus, -i, m., place, spot (location). 
Locus is neuter in the plural and 
is declined loca, -orum, etc. 

periculum, -i, n., danger, peril 



SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 
LESSON XXIX, § 176 



289 



Adverbs 
semper, always 
tamen, yet, nevertheless 

Prepositions 
de, with abl., down fromj con- 
cerning 
per, with ace, through 

Conjunction 
si, if 



LESSON XXX, § 182 
Verbs 



absum, abesse, irreg., be away, be 
absent, be distant, with separa- 
tive abl. 

adpropinquo, -are, draw near, ap- 
proach (propinquity), with dative ^ 

contineo, -ere, hold together, hem in, 
keep (contain) 

Nouns 
provincia, -ae, f., province 
vinum, -i, n., wine 



discedo, -ere, depart, go away, leave, 

with separative abl. 
egeo, -ere, lack, need, be without, 

with separative abl. 
interficio, -ere, kill 
prohibeo, ere, restrain, keep from 

(prohibit) 
vulnero, -are, wound (vulnerable) 

Adjective 
defessus, -a, -um, weary, worn out 

Adverb 
longe, far, by far, far away 



Nouns 
aurum, -1, n., gold (oriole) 
mora, -ae, f., delay 
navigium, navi'gi, n., boat, ship 
ventus, -i, m., wind (ventilate) 

Verb 
navigo, -are, sail (navigate) 



LESSON XXXI, § 188 

Adjectives 
attentus, -a, -um, attentive, careful 
dubius, -a, -um, doubtful (dubious) 
perfidus, -a, -nva, faithless, treacher- 
ous (perfidy) 

Adverb 
antea, before, previously 



Preposition 
sine, with abl., without 

1 This verb governs the dative because the idea of nearness to is stronger 
than that of motion to. If the latter idea were the stronger, the word would 
be used with ad and the accusative. 



290 



SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 



LESSON XXXII, § 193 
Nouns Adjectives 

animus, -i, m., mind, heart; spirit, adversus, -a, -um, opposite; adverse, 

feeling (animate) contrary 

bracchium, bracchi, r\.,forearm, arm plenus, -a, -um, full (plenty) 
porta, -ae, i.,gate (portal) 

Preposition Adverb 

pro, with abl., before; in behalf of ;> diii, for a long time, long 
instead of 

LESSON XXXIV, § 200 
Adverbs 
celeriter, quickly (celerity) graviter, heavily, severely (gravity) 

denique, finally subito, suddenly 

Verb 
reporto, -are, -avi, bring back, restore; win, gain (report) 

LESSON XXXVI, § 211 

dexter, dextra, dextrum, right (dex- sinister, sinistra, sinistrum, left 
trous) friistra, adv., in vain (frustrate) 

gero, gerere, gessi, gestus, bear, carry on; wear; bellum gerere, to wage war 

occupo, occupare, occupavi, occupatus, seize, take possession <?/" (occupy) 

postulo, postulare, postulavi, postulatus, demand (ex-postulate) 

recuso, recusare, recusavi, reciisatus, refuse 

sto, stare, steti, status, stand 

tempto, temptare, temptavi, temptatus, try, tempt, test; attempt 

teneo, tenere, tenui, , keep, hold (tenacious) 

The word ubi, which we have used so much in the sense of where in 
asking a question, has two other uses equally important : 

1. v!o\^^when, as a relative conjunction denoting time; as, 

Ubi monstrum audiverunt, fugerunt, when they heard 
the monster, they fled 

2. ubi = where, as a relative conjunction denoting place; as, 

Video oppidum ubi Galba habitat, / see the town where 
Galba lives 

Ubi is called a relative conjunction because it is equivalent to a relative 
pronoun. When in the first sentence is equivalent to at the time at which; 
and in the second, where is equivalent to the place in which. 



SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 291 

LESSON XXXVII, § 217 

neque or nee, conj., neither, nor, ca.ate}him.,-l,Ti.,reiiouit,/i>rt (castle) 
and . . . not J neque . . . neque, cotidie, adv., daily 
neither . . . nor 

cesso, cessare, cessavi, cessatus, cease, with the infin. 

incipio, incipere, incepi, inceptus, begin (incipient), with the infin. 

oppugno, oppugnare, oppugnavi, oppugnatus, storm, assail 

peto, petere, petivi or petii, petitus, aim at, assail, storm, attack; seek, 

ask (petition) 
pono, ponere, posui, positus, place, put (position) ; castra ponere, to pitch 

camp 

possum, posse, potui, , be able, can (potent), with the infin. 

veto, vetare, vetui, Yetitus,yi)ri5/fl?(veto), with the infin. ; opposite of iubeo, 

command 
vinco, vincere, vici, victus, conquer (in-vincible) 
vivo, vivere, vixi, , live, be alive (re-vive) 

LESSON XXXIX, §234 

barbanis, -a, -um, strange, foreign, pedes, peditis, m., foot soldier (pe- 

barbarous. As a noun, barbari, destrian) 

-orum, m., plur., savages, barba- pes, pedis,^ m.,foot (pedal) 

rians princeps, principis, m., chief {pnn- 

dux, ducis, m., leader (duke). Cf. cipal) 

the verb duco rex, regis, m., king (regal) 

eques, equitis, m., horseman, cav- summus, -a, -um, highest, greatest 

alryman (equestrian) (summit) 

iudex, iudicis, m.., judge virtus, virtutis, f., manliness, cour- 

lapis, lapidis, m., stone (lapidary) age (virtue) 

miles, militis, m., soldier (militia.) 

LESSON XL, § 237 

Caesar, -aris, m., Ccesar impedimentum, -i, n., hindrance 

captivus, -i, m., captive, prisoner (impediment); plur. impedimenta, 

consul, -is, m., consul -orum, baggage 

frater, fratris, m., brother (frater- imperator, imperatoris, m., com- 

nity) mander in chief general (em- 
homo, hominis, m., man, hum-an peror) 

being 
1 Observe that e is long in the nom. sing, and short in the other cases. 



292 



SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 



legio, legionis, f., legion 

mater, matris, f., mother ixn.2.texrv^ 

ordo, ordinis, rn., row, rank (order) 



pater, patris, m.,ya^/^«r (paternal) 
salus, salutis, f., safety (salutary) 
soror, sororis, f ., sister (sorority) 



LESSON XLI, §239 



calamitas, calamitatis, f., loss, dis- 
aster, defeat (calamity) 
caput, capitis, n., /z^a</ (capital) 
flumen, fliiminis, n., river (iiume) 
labor, laboris, m., labor, toil 
opus, operis, n., -work, task 



orator, oratoris, m., orator 
ripa, -ae, f., bank (of a stream) 
tempus, temporis, n., time (tem- 
poral) 
terror, terroris, m., ter)-or,fear 
victor, victoris, m., victor 



accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptus, receive, accept 

confirmo, confirmare, confirmavi, confirmatus, strengthen, establish, en- 
courage (confirm) 

LESSON XLIII, §245 



animal, animalis (-ium^), n., animal 
avis, avis (-ium), f., i5z'n^ (aviation) 
caedes, caedis (-ium), f., slaughter 
calcar, calcaris (-ium), n., spur 
civis, civis (-ium), m. and f., citizen 

(civic) 
cliens, clieutis (-ium), m., retainer, 

dependent (client) 
finis, finis (-ium), m., end, limit 

(final); plur., country, territory 
hostis, hostis (-ium), m. and f ., enemy 

in war (hostile). Distinguish from 



inimicus, which means 2^ personal 
enemy 
ignis, ignis (-ium), m.,Jire (ignite) 
insigne, insignis (-ium), n., decora- 
tion, badge (ensign) 
mare, maris (-ium^), n., sea (marine) 
navis, navis (-ium), f., ship (naval); 

navis longa, man-of-war 
turris, turris (-ium), f., tower (twxxf^'C) 
urbs, urbis (-ium), f., city (suburb). 
An urbs is larger than an oppi- 
dum 



LESSON XLIV, §249 



arbor, arboris, f., tree (arbor) 
coUis, collis (-ium), m., hill 
dens, dentis (-ium), m., tooth (dentist) 
fons, fontis (-ium), m.. fountain, 

spring ; source 
iter, itineris, n., march, 

route (itinerary) 



mensis, mensis (-ium), m., 7nonth 
moenia, -ium, n., plur., walls,fortifi- 

cations. Cf. murus 
mons, montis (-ium), m., mountain; 

summus To.msjtopof the mountain 
numquam, adv., never 
pons, pontis, m., bridge (pontoon) 



^ jrhe genitive plural ending -ium is written to mark the i-stems. 
genitive plural of mare is not in use. 



2 The 



SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 



293 



sanguis, sanguinis, m., blood (san- 
guinary) 

summus, -a, -um, highest, greatest 
(summit) 



trans, prep, with ace., across (trans- 
atlantic) 

vis(vis),gen. plur.virium,f.,j/r««g-/.4, 
force, violence (vim) 



LESSON XLV, § 258 



acer, acris, acre, sharp, keen, eager 

(acrid) 
brevis, breve, short, brief 
difflcilis, difficile, difficult 
facilis, ia^cile, facile, easy 
fortis, forte, brave (fortitude) 
gravis, grave, heavy, severe, serious 

(grave) 



omnis, omne, every, all (omnibus) 

par, gen. paris, equal (par) 

pauci, -ae, -a, few, only a few 

(paucity) 
secundus, -a, -um, second; favorable, 

opposite of adversus 
signum, -i, n., signal, sign, standard 
velox, gen. velocis, swift (velocity) 



conloco, conlocare, conlocavi, conlocatus, arrange, station, place (collocation) 
demonstro, demonstrare, demonstravi, demonstratus, point out, explain 

(demonstrate) 
mando, mandare, mandavi, mandatus, commit, intrust (mandate) 

LESSON XLVI, § 261 



adventus, -iis, m., approach, arrival 
(advent) 

ante, prep, with ace, before (ante- 
date) ' 

cornii, -iis, n., horn, wingoi an army 
(cornucopia); a dextro cornu, 071 
the right wing; a sinistro cornu, 
on the left wing 

equitatus, -iis, m., cavalry 



impetus, -iis, m., attack (impetus); 

impetum facere in, with ace, to 

make an attack on 
lacus, -iis, dat. and abl. plur. lacu- 

bus, m., lake 
manus, -iis, f., hand; band, force 

(manual) 
portus, -us, m., harbor (port) 
post, prep, with ace, behind, after 

(post-mortem) 



ezercitus, -lis, m., army 

cremo, cremare, cremavi, crematus, burn (cremate) 

ezerceo, exercere, exercui, exercitus, practice, drill, train (exercise] 

LESSON XLVII, §270 



Athenae, -arum, f., plur., Athens 
Corinthus, -1, f., Corinth 
domus, -iis, locative domi, f., house, 
home (dome). Cf. domicilium 



Genava, -ae, f., Geneva 
Pompeii, -orum, m., plur., Pompeii, 
a city in Campania. See map 



294 



SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 



propter, prep, with ace, on account tergum, tergi, n., back; a tergo, be- 
of, because of hind^ in the rear 

rus, ruris, in the plur. only nom. and vulnus, vulneris, n., wound (vul- 
acc. rura, n., country (rustic) nerable) 

committo, committere, commisi, commissus, intrust, commit; proelium 

committere, join battle 
convoco, convocare, convocavi, convocatus, call together, summon (convoke) 

timeo, timere, timui, , fear; be afraid (timid) 

vert5, vertere, verti, versus, turn, change (convert) ; terga vertere, to turn 

the backs, hence to retreat 



LESSON XLVIII, § 276 



acies, -ei, f., line of battle 

aestas, aestatis, f., summer 

annus, -i, ra., year (annual) 

dies, diei, m., day (diary) 

fides, fidei, no plur., i., faith, trust; 
promise, word; protection ; in 
fidem venire, to come under the 
protection 

fluctus, -us, m., wave, billow (fluc- 
tuate) 

hiems, hiemis, f., winter 

hora, -ae, f., hour 



lux, liicis, f., light (lucid); prima 
lux, daybreak 

meridies, ace. -em, abl. -e, no plur., 
m., m.idday (meridian) 

nox, noctis (-ium), f., night (noc- 
turnal) 

primus, -a, -um, first (prime) 

res, rei, f., thing, m.atter (real); res 
gestae, deeds, exploits (lit. things 
performed) ; res adversae, adver- 
sity ; res secundae, prosperity 

spes, spei, f., hope 



LESSON XLIX, § 283 



amicitia, -ae, f., friendship (ami- 
cable) 

itaque, conj., and so, therefore, ac- 
cordingly 

littera, -ae,f., a letter of the alpha- 
bet; ^\ax., a letter, an epistle 

metus, metus, ra.,fear 

nihil, indeclinable, n., nothing 
(nihilist) 



niintius, niinti, m., messeiiger. Cf. 
nuntio 

pax, pacis, f., peace (pacify) 

regnum, -i, n., reign, sovereignty, 
kingdom 

supplicium, suppli'ci, n., pimish- 
ment; supplicium sumere de, 
with abl., inflict punishment on; 
supplicium dare, suffer punish- 
ment. Cf. poena 

placeo, placere, placui, placitus, be pleasing to, please, with dative. Cf. § 1 54 
siimo, sumere, sumpsi, siimptus, take up, assume 
sustineo, sustinere, sustinui, sustentus, sustain 



SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 



295 



LESSON L, §288 



corpus, corporis, n., body (corporal) 

densus, -a, -um, dense 

idem, e'adem, idem, demonstrative 
pronoun, the same (identity) 

ipse, ipsa, ipsum, intensive pronoun, 
self J- even, very 

minis, -a, -um, wonderful, marvel- 
ous (miracle) 



olim, adv., formerly, once upon a 

time 
. pars, partis (-ium), f., part, region, 

direction 
quoque, adv., also. Stands after the 

word which it emphasizes 
sol, solis, m., sun (solar) 
verus, -a, -um, true, real (verity) 



debeo, debere, debui, debitus, owe, ought (debt) 
eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptus, snatch from 



LESSON LI, § 294 



hie, haec, hoc, demonstrative pro- 
noun, this (of mine); he, she, it 

ille, ilia, illud, demonstrative pro- 
noun, that (yonder); he, she, it 

invisus, -a, -um, hateful, detested, 
with dative Cf. § 143 

iste, ista, istud, demonstrative pro- 
noun, that (of yours) ; he, she, it 

libertas, -atis, f., liberty 

modus, -i, m., measure; manner, 
way, mode 



nomen, nominis, n., name (nomi- 
nate) 

oculus, -i, m., eye (oculist) 

pristinus, -a, -um, former, old-time 
(pristine) 

publicus, -a, -vaa, public, belonging 
to ihe state; res publica, rei pii- 
blicae, f., the commonwealth, the 
state, the republic 

vestigium, vesti'gi, n., footprint, 
track; trace, vestige 

vox, vocis, f., voice 



LESSON LII, §298 



incolumis, -e, unharmed 

ne . . . quidem, adv., not even. The 

emphatic word stands between ne 

and quidem 
nisi, conj., unless, if . . . not 
paene, adv., almost (pen-insula) 



satis, adv., enough, sufficiently (satis- 
faction) 

tantus, -a, -um, so great 

vero, adv., truly, indeed, in fact. 
PiS, a conj. but, however, usually 
stands second, never first. 



decido, decidere, decidi, , fall down (deciduous) 

desilio, desilire, desilui, desultus, leap down, dismount 
maneo, manere, mansi, mansiirus, remain 
tradiico, traducere, tradiixi, traductus, lead across 



296 



SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 



LESSON LIII, § 306 



aquila, -ae, f., eagle (aquiline) 
audax, gen. audacis, adj., bold, 

audacious 
celer, celeris, celere, swift, quick 

(celerity). Cf. velox 
erplorator, -oris, m., scout, spy 

(explorer) 
ingens, gen. ingentis, adj., huge, 

vast 
medius, -a, -um, middle, middle part 

<7/^ (medium) 

quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitus, 



mens, mentis (-ium), f., mind (men- 
tal). Cf. animus 
opportunus, -a, -um, opportune 
quam, adv., than. With the super- 
lative quam gives the force of as 
possible, as quam audacissimi 
viri, m.en as bold as possible 
recens, gen. recentis, adj., recent 
tam, adv., so. Always with an ad- 
jective or adverb, while ita is 
generally used with a verb 

ask, inquire, seek (question). Cf. peto 



LESSON LIV, § 310 



alacer, alacris, alacre, eager, spirited, 

excited (alacrity) 
celeritas, -atis, f., j/^^i^ (celerity) 
clamor, clamoris, m., shout, clamor 
lenis, lene, mild, gentle (lenient) 
mulier, muli'eris, f., woman 
multitude, multitiidinis, f., multi- 
tude 
nemo, dat. nemini, ace. neminem 



(gen. niillius, abl. niillo, from nul- 
lus), no plur., m. and f., no one 
nobilis, nobile, well known, noble 
noctu, adv. (an old abl.), by night 

(nocturnal) 
statim, adv., immediately, at once 
subito, adv., suddenly 
tardus, -a, -um, slow (tardy) 



cupio, cupere, cupivi, cupitus, desire, wish (cupidity) 



LESSON LV, § 314 



aedificium, aedifi'ci, n., btiilding, 

dwelling (edifice) 
imperium, impe'ri, n., command, 

chief power ; empire 
reliquus, -a, -um, rem.aining, rest of 



As a noun, m. and n. plur., the 

rest (relic) 
scelus, sceleris, n., crime 
servitus, -utis, f., slavery (servitude) 
valles, vallis (-ium), f., valley 



abdo, abdere, abdidi, abditus, hide 

contends, contendere, contend!, contentus, strain, struggle; hasten (contend) 

occido, occidere, occidi, occisus, cut down, kill. Cf. neco, interficio 

perter^eo, perterrere, perterrui, perterritus, terrify, frighten 

trado, tradere, tradidi, traditus, give over, surrender, deliver (traitor) 



SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 



297 



LESSON LVI, §318 

aditus, -us, m., approach, access j mors, mortis (-ium), f., ^«a/'/% (mortal) 

entrance nam, conj.,/or 

civitas, civitatis, f., citizenship j obses, obsidis, m. and f., hostage 

body of citizens, state (city) paulo, adv. (abl. n. of paulus), by a 

inter, prep, with ace, between; little, somewhat 

among (interstate commerce) 

incolo, incolere, incolui, , transitive, inhabit; intransitive, dwell. Cf. 

habito, vivo 
recipio, recipere, recepi, receptus, receive, recover; se recipere, betake one^s 

self, withdraw, retreat 
relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictus, leave, abandon (relinquisli) 
statuo, statuere, statui, statiitus, fix, decide (statute), usually with infin. 

LESSON LVII, §326 

aequus, -a, -um, even, level; equal gens, gentis (-ium), f., race, tribe, 

cohors, cohortis (-ium), f., cohort, a nation (Gentile) 

tenth part of a legion, about 360 negotium, negoti, n., business, affair, 

men matter (negotiate) 

curro, currere, cucurrl, cursus, run regio, -onis, f., region, district 

(course) riimor, rumoris, m., rumor, report. 

difficultas, -atis, f., difficulty Cf. fama 

fossa, -ae, f., ditch (fosse) simul atque, conj., as soon as 

suscipio, suscipere, suscepi, susceptus, undertake 
traho, trahere, traxi, tractus, drag, draw (ex-tract) 

valeo, valere, valui, valiturus, be strong; plurimum valere, to be powerful, 
have great influence (value). Cf . validus 

LESSON LVIII, § 332 

commeatus, -iis, m., provisions mercator, mercatoris, m., trader, 

latitudo, -inis, f., width (latitude) merchant 

longitiido, -inis, f., length (longi- miinitio, -onis, f., fortification (mu- 

tude) nition) 

magnitudo, -inis, f., size, fnagni- spatium, spati, n., room, space, dis- 

tude tance; time 

cognosce, cognoscere, cognovi, cognitus, learn; in the perfect tenses, know 

(re-cognize) 
cogo, cogere, coegi, coactus, collect; compel (cogent) 
defendo, defendere, defend!, defensus, defend 



298 SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 

incendo, incendere, incendi, incensus, set fire to, burn (incendiary). . Cf. cremo 
obtineo, obtinere, obtinui, obtentus, possess, occupy, hold (obtain) 
pervenio, pervenire, perveni, perventus, come through, arrive 

LESSON LIX, § 337 

agmen, agminis, n., line of march, Helvetii, -drum, m., the Helvetii, a 

column; primum agmen, /^i? vanj Gallic tribe 

novissimum agmen, ^^£ r^ar passus, passiis, m., a pace, five 

atque, ac, conj., a»fl?j- atque is used Roman feet; mille passuum, a 

before vowels and consonants, ac thousand {of) paces, a Roman 

before consonants only. Cf. et and mile 

-que qua de causa, for this I'eason, for 

concilium, concili, n., council, as- what reason 

sembly vallum, -i, n., earthworks, rampart 

cado, cadere, cecidi, casiirus, fall (decadence) 

dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditus, surrender, give upj with a reflexive pronoun, 

surrender ojie^s self, submit, with the dative of the indirect object 
premo, premere, pressi, pressus, press hard, harass 
vexo, vexare, vexavi, vexatus, annoy, ravage (vex) 

LESSON LX, § 341 

aut, conj., orj aut . . . aut, either opinio, -onis, f., opinion, supposi- 

. . . or Hon, expectation 

causa, abl. of causa,^^^ the sake of, res friimentaria, rei frumentariae, f. 

because of Always stands after (K\\.. the grain affair), grain supply 

the gen. which modifies it timor, -oris, m.,fear. Cf. timeo 

fere, adv., nearly, almost undique, aAv.,fro7n all sides 

Conor, conari, conatus sum, attempt, try 

egredior, egredi, egressus sum, move out, disembark ; progredior, move 
forward, advance (egress, progress) 

moror, morari, moratus sum, delay 

orior, oriri, ortus sum, arise, spring; begin; be born {from) (origin) 

proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum, set out 

reverter, reverti, reversus sum, return (revert). The forms of this verb are 
usually active, and not deponent, in the perfect system. Perf. act., reverti 

sequor, sequi, seciitus sum, follow (sequence). Note the following com- 
pounds of sequor and the force of the different prefixes : consequor {follow 
with), overtake; insequor {follow against), pursue; subsequor {follow 
uneBr), follow close after 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



Translations inclosed within parentheses are not to be used as such ; they are inserted 
to show etymological meanings. 



a or ab, prep, with abl. /rem, by, off. 

Translated on in a dextro comu, on- 

the right wing ; a fronte, on the front 

or in front ; a dextra, on the right; 

a latere, on the side ; etc. 
ab-do, -ere, -didi, -ditus, hide, conceal 
ab-duc6, -ere, -duxi, -ductus, lead off, 

lead away 
abs-cido, -ere, -cidi, -cisus [ab(s), off, + 

caedo, cu{\, cut off 
ab-sum, -esse, afui, afuturus, be away, 

be absent, be distant, be off; with a 

or ab and abl., § 501. 32 

ac, conj., see atque 

ac-cipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus [ad, to, + 
capio, take^, receive, accept 

acer, acris, acre, adj. sharp ; figura- 
tively, keen, active, eager (§ 47 1 ) 

acerbus, -a, -um, adj. bitter, sour 

acies, -ei, f. [acer, sharpy, edge ; line of 
battle 

acriter, adv. [acer, sharp'\, compared 
acrius, acerrime, sharply, fiercely 

ad, prep, with ace. to, towards, near. 
With the gerund or gerundive, to, for 

ad-aequo, -are, -avi, -atus, make equal, 

make level with 
ad-diico, -ere, -diixi, -ductus, lead to ; 

Tnove, induce 
ad-eo, -ire, -ii, -itus, go to, approach, 

draw near, visit, with ace. (§ 413) 



ad-fero, ad-ferre, at-tuli, ad-latus, 

bring, convey; report, announce; 

render, give (§ 426) 
ad-ficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus [ad, to, + 

facio, do\, affect, visit 
adflictatus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of 

adflicto, shatter], shattered 
ad-fligo, -ere, -flixi, -flictus, dash upon, 

strike upon; harass, distress 
ad-hibeo, -ere, -ui, -itus [ad, to, -t- 

habeo, hold\, apply, employ, use 
ad-hiic, adv. hiiherio, as yet, thus far 
aditus, -lis, m. [adeo, approach"], 

approach, access ; entrance. Cf. 

adventus 
ad-ligo, -are, -avi, -atus, bind to, fasten 
ad-loquor, -Icqui, -locutus sum, dep. 

verb [ad, to, -)- loquor, speak], speak 

to, address, with ace. 
ad-ministro, -are, -avi, -atus, manage, 

direct 
admiratio, -onis, f. [admiror, wonder 

at], admiration, astonishment 
ad-moveo, -ere, -movl, -motus, move 

to ; apply, employ 
ad-propinquo, -are, -avi, -atus, come 

near, approach, with dat. 
ad-sum, -esse, -fui, -futiirus, be pres- 
ent ; assist ; with dat., § 426 
adulescens, -entis, m. and f. [part, of 

adolescd, grow], a yotiih, young man, 

young person 



299 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



300 

adventus 
adventus, -us, m. [ad, to, + venio, 

come], approach, arrival (§ 466) 
ad versus, -a, -urn, adj. [part, of adverto, 

ttirn to], turned towards, facing; 

contrary, adverse, res adversae, ad- 
versity 
aedificium, aedifi'ci,n. [aedifico, build], 

building, edifice 
aedifico, -are, -avi, -atus [aedes, house, 

+ faciS, make], build 
aeger, aegra, aegrum, adj. sick, feeble 
aequalis, -e, adj. equal, like. As a 

noun, aequalis, -is, m. or f. one of 

the same age 
aequus, -a, -um, adj. even, level; equal 
Aesopus, -I, m. .Msop, a writer of 

fables 
aestas, -atis, f . summer, inita aestate, 

at the beginning of sum.m.er 
aetas, -atis, f. age 
Aethiopia, -ae, f. Ethiopia, a country 

in Africa 
Africa, -ae, f. Africa 
Africanus, -a, -um, adj. of Africa. 

A name given to Sciplo for his 

victories in Africa 
agar, agri, m.field,farm, land (^462. c) 
agger, -eris, m. mound 
agmen, -inis, n. [ago, drive], an army 

on the march, column, primum 

agmen, the van 
ago, -ere, egi, actus, drive, lead; do, 

perform, vitam ageie, pass life 
agricola, -ae, m. [ager, field, + colo, 

cu Itivate] , farmer 
agri cultura, -ae, f: agriculture 
ala, -ae, f. wing 
alacer, -cris, -ere, adj. active, eager. 

Cf. acer 
alacrilias, -atis, f. [alacer, active], 

eagerness, alacrity 



ancilla 
alacriter, adv. [alacer, active'\, comp. 

alacrius, alacerrime, actively, eagerly 
albus, -a, -um, adj., white 
alces, -is, f. elk 
Alcmena, -ae, f. Alcm/na, the mother 

of Hercules 
aliquis (-qui), -qua, -quid (-quod), 

indef. pron. some one, some (§ 487) 
alius, -a, -ud (gen. -lus, dat. -i), adj. 

another, other, alius . . . alius, one 

. . . another, alii . . . alii, some . . . 

others (§ 1 10) 
Alpes, -ium, f. plur. the Alps 
alter, -era, -erum (gen. -ius, dat. -i), adj. 

the one, the other (of two), alter . . . 

alter, the one . . . the other (§ 1 10) 
altitudo, -inis, f. [altus, high], height 
altus, -a, -um, adj. high, tall, deep 
Amazones, -um, f. plur. Amazons, a 

fabled tribe of warlike women 
ambo, -ae, -0, adj. (decl. like duo), both 
amice, adv. [amicus, /n>«<^/}/], superl. 

amiclssime, in a friendly manner 
amicio, -ire, , -ictus [am-, about, 

-|- iacio, throw], throw around, wrap 

about, clothe 
amicitia, -ae, f. [amicus, friend], 

friendship 
amicus, -a, -um, adj. [amo, love], 

friendly. As a noun, amicus, -i, m. 

friend 
a-mitto, -ere, -misi, -missus, send 

away; lose 
amo, -are, -avi, -atus, love, like, be 

fond of (§ 488) 
amphitheatrum, -i, n. amphitheater 
amplus, -a, -um, adj. large, ample; 

honorable, noble 
an, conj. or, introducing the second 

part of a double question 
ancilla, -ae, f. maidservant 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



301 



ancora 
ancora, -ae, f. anchor 
Andromeda, -ae, f. Androm'eda, 

daughter of Cepheus and wife of 

Perseus 
angulus, -i, m. angle, corner 
anim-adverto, -ere, -tl, -sus [animus, 

mind, + adverto, turn to], turn the 

mind to, notice 
animal, -alls, n. \3xamaL,breaih'\,animal 

(§465-*) 
animosus, -a, -um, adj. spirited 
animus, -i, m. [anima, breath], mind, 

heart ; spirit, courage, feeling, in this 

sense often plural 
annus, -i, ra.year 
ante, prep, with ace. before 
antea, adv. [ante], before, formerly 
antlquus, -a, -um, adj. [ante, before], 

former, ancient, old 
aper, apri, m. wild boar 
Apollo, -inis, m. Apollo, son of Jupiter 

and Latona, brother of Diana 
ap-pareo, -ere, -ui, [ad + pareo, 

appear], appear 
ap-pell6, -are, -avi, -atus, call by name, 

name. Cf. nomino, voco 
Appius, -a, -um, adj . Appian 
ap-plic6, -are, -avi, -atus, apply, direct, 

turn 
apud, prep, with ace. among; at, at 

the house of 
aqua, -ae, f. water 
aquila, -ae, f. eagle 
ara, -ae, f. altar 

arbitror, -ari, -atus sum, think, sup- 
pose (§ 420. c). Cf. existimo, puto 
arbor, -oris, f. tree (§ 247. 1. a] 
Arcadia, -ae, f. Arcadia, a district in 

southern Greece 
ardeo, -ere, arsi, arsnrus, be on fire, 

blaze, bum 



auratus 
arduus, -a, -um, adj. steep 
Aricia, -ae, f. Aricia, a town on the 

Appian Way, near Rome 
aries, -etis, m. battering-ram (p. 221) 
arma, -orum, n. plur. arms, weapons. 

Cf. telum 
armatus, -a, -um, adj. [armo, arm], 

armed, equipped 
aro, -are, -avi, -atus, plow, till 
ars, artis, f. art, skill 
articulus, -i, ra. joint 
ascribo, -ere, -scripsi, -scriptus [ad, in 

addition, + scribo, larite], enroll, 

enlist 
Asia, -ae, f. Asia, i.e. Asia Minor 
at, conj. but. Cf. autem, sed 
Athenae, -arum, f. plur. Athens 
Atlas, -antis, m. Atlas, a Titan who 

was said to hold up the sky 
at-que, ac, conj. and, and also, and 

what is THore. atque may be used 

before either vowels or consonants, 

ac before consonants only 
attentus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of at- 
tends, direct (the mind) toward], 

attentive, intent on, careful 
at-tonitus, -a, -um, adj. thunderstruck, 

astounded 
audacia, -ae, f. [andax, bold], boldness, 

audacity 
audacter, adv. [audax, bold], compared 

audacius, audaclssime, boldly 
audax, -acis, adj. bold, daring 
audeo, -ere, ausus sum, daj-e 
audio, -ire, -iv5 or -u, -itus, hear, listen 

to (§§420.<^, 491) 
Augeas, -ae, m. Auge'as, a king whose 

stables Hercules cleaned 
aura, -ae, f. air, breeze 
auratus, -a, -um, adj. [aurum, gold], 

adorned with gold 



302 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



aureus, -a, -um, adj. [aurum, gold], 
golden 

aurum, -i, .1. gold 

aut, conj. or. aut . . . aut, either . . .or 

autem, conj., usually second, never 
first, in the clause, but, moreover, 
however, now. Cf. at, sed 

auxilium, auxili, n. help, aid, assist- 
ance ; plur. auxiliaries 

a-verto, -ere, -ti, -sus, turn away, turn 
aside 

avis, -is, f. bird (§ 243. i) 

B 

ballista, -ae, f. ballista, an engine for 
hurling missiles {p. 220) 

balteus, -i, m. belt, sword belt 

barbarus, -i, m. barbarian, savage 

bellutn, -i, n. war. bellum inferre, with 
dat. viake war upon 

bene, adv. [for bone, from bonus], com- 
pared melius, optime, well 

benigne, adv. [benignus, kind], com- 
paredbenignius,benignissime,/5;«fl?/)' 

benignus, -a, -um, a.A). good-natured, 
kind, often used with dat. 

bini, -ae, -a, distributive numeral adj. 
two each, two at a time (§ 334) 

bis, adv. twice 

bonus, -a, -um, adj. compared melior, 
optimus, good, kind (§ 469. a) 

bos, bovis (gen. plur. boum or bovum, 
dat. and abl. plur. bobi^Tor biibus), 
m. and f. ox, cow 

bracchium, braccM, n. arm 

brevis, -e, adj. short 

Brundisium, -i, ii. BrundisiuTn, a sea- 
port in southern Italy. See map 

bulla, -ae, f. bulla, a locket made of 
small concave plates of gold fas- 
tened by a spring (p. 212) 



casa 
C 

C. abbreviation for Gaius, Eng. Caius 
cado, -ere, ce'cidi, casiirus, fall 
caedes, -is, f. [caedo, cut], [a cutting 

down), slaughter, carnage (§ 465. a) 
caelum, -i, n. sky, heavens 
Caesar, -aris, m. Ccesar, the famous 

general, statesman, and writer 
calamitas, -atis, f. loss, cala-mity, defeat, 

disaster 
calcar, -aris, n. sfttr (§ 465. b) 
Campania, -ae, f. Campania, a dis- 
trict of central Italy. See map 
Campanus, -a, -um, adj. of Campania 
campus, -i, m. plain, field, esp. the 
Campus Martius, along the Tiber 
just outside the walls of Rome 
canis, -is, m. and f. dog 

cano, -ere, ce'cini, , sing 

canto, -are, -avi, -atus [cano, sing], 

sing 
Capenus, -a, -um, adj. of Capena, esp. 
the Po7ia Cape'na, the gate at Rome 
leading to the Appian Way 
capio, -ere, cepi, captus, take, seize, 

capture (§ 492) 
Capitolinus, -a, -um, adj. belonging 

to the Capitol, Capitoline 
Capitolium, Capito'li, n. [caput, 
head], the Capitol, the hill at Rome 
on which stood the temple of 
Jupiter Capitolinus and the citadel 
capsa, -ae, f. box for books 
captivus, -i, m. [capio, take], captive 
Capua, -ae, f. Capua, a large city of 

Campania. See map 
caput, -itis, n. head (§ 464. 2. b) 
career, -eris, m.. prison, jail 
carrus, -i, m. cart, wagon 
earns, -a, -um, adj. dear, precious 
casa, -ae, f. hut, cottage 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



castellum 
castellum, -I, n. [dim. of castrum, 

fori], redoubt, fort 
castrum, -i, n. fort. Usually in the 

plural, castra, -orum, a military 

camp, castra p5nere, to pitch camp 
casus, -us, m. [cado, falll, chance ; 

misfortune, loss 
catapulta, -ae, f. catapult, an engine 

for hurling stones 
catena, -ae, f. chain 
caupona, -ae, f. inn 
causa, -ae, f. cause, reason, qua de 

ca.usSi, for this reason 
cedo, -ere, cessi, cessflrus, give way, 

retire 
celer, -eris, -ere, adj. swift, fleet 
celeritas, -atis, f. [celer, swift\ swift- 
ness, speed 
celeriter, adv. [celer, swift], compared 

celerius, celerrime, swiftly 
cena, -ae, f. dinner 
centum, indecl. numeral adj. hundred 
centurio, -onis, m. centurion, captain 
Cepheus (dissyl.), -ei (ace. Cephea), 

m. Cepheus, a king of Ethiopia and 

father of Andromeda 
Cerberus, -i, m. Cerberus, the fabled 

three-headed "dog that guarded the 

entrance to Hades 
certamen, -inis, u. [certo, struggle], 

struggle, contest, rivalry 
certe, adv. [certus, sure], compared 

certius, ceitissime, surely, certainly 
certus, -a, -um, adj. fixed, certain, 

sure, aliquem certiorem facere (to 

make some one more certain), to 

inform some one 
cervus, -5, m. stag, deer 
cesso, -are, -avi, -atus, delay, cease 
cibaria, -arum, n. ^\wr.food, provisions 
cibus, -1, ra.food, victuals 



collum 
Cimbri, -orum, m. plur. the Cimbri 
Cimbricus, -a, -um, adj. Cimbrian 
cinctus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of cingS, 

suiTOund~] , girt, surrounded 
cingo, -ere, cinxi, cinctus, gird, sur- 



circiter, adv. about 

circum, prep, with ace. around 

circum'-do, -dare, -dedi, -datus, plcu:e 

around, surroujid, inclose 
circum'-eo, -ire, -ii, -itus, go around 
circum-sisto, -ere, circum'steti, , 

stand around, surround 
circum-venio, -ire, -vini, -ventus [come 

arottnd), s^trround 
citerior, -ius, adj. in comp., superl. 

citimus, hither, nearer (§475) 
civilis, -e, adj. [civis], civil 
civis, -is, m. and f. citizen (§ 243. i) 
civitas, -atis, f. [civis, citizen], (body 

of citizens'), state; citizenship 
clamor, -oris, m. shout, cry 
clarus, -a, -um, adj. clear; famous, 

renowned ; bright, shining 
classis, -is, i. fleet 
claudo, -ere, -si, -sus, shut, close 
clavus, -i, m. stripe 
cliens, -entis, m. dependent, retainer, 

client (§ 465. a) 
Codes, -itis, m. (blind in one eye). 

Codes, the surname of Horatius 
co-gnosc6, -ere, -gnovi, -gnitus, learn, 

know, understand. Ci. scio (§ 420. b) 
COgO, -ere, coegi, coactus [co(m)-, to- 
gether, -\- ago, drive], (drive together), 

collect; compel, drive 
cohors, cohortis, f. cohort, the tenth 

part of a legion, about 360 men 
collis, -is, m. hill, iu summo coUe, on 

top of the hill (§ 247. 2. a) 
collum, -i, n. neck 



304 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



colo 



colo, -ere, colui, cultus, cultivate, till; 
honor, worship; devote one^s self to 

columna, -ae, f. column, pillar 

com- (col-, con-, cor-, co-), a prefix, 
together, with, or intensifying the 
meaning of the root word 

coma, -ae, f. hair 

comes, -itis, m. and f. [com-, together, 
+ eo, go^ companion, comrade 

comitatus, -us, m. [comitor, accom- 
pany], escort, company 

comitor, -ari, -atus sum, dep. verb 
[comes, companion], accompany 

com-meatus, -us, m. supplies 

com-minus, adv. [com-, together, -1- 
manus, hand], hand to hand 

com-mitto, -ere, -misi, -missus, join to- 
gether; commit, intrust, proelium 
committere, join battle, se commit- 
tere with dat., trust one's self to 

commode, adv. [commodus, fit], com- 
pared commodius, commodissime, con- 
veniently, fitly 

commodus, -a, -um, adj. suitable, fit 

com-m5tus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of com- 
moveo, move], aroused, moved 

com-paro, -are, -avi, -atus [com-, in- 
tensive, -f paro, prepare], prepare; 
provide, get 

com-pleo, -ere, -plevi, -pletus [com-, 
intensive, -1- ■s\eo, fill], fill up 

COmplexus, -us, m. embrace 

com-primo, -ere, -pressi, -pressus 
[com-, together, -f- premo, press], 
press together, grasp, seize 

con-cido, -ere, -cidi, [com-, inten- 
sive, -)- caio, fall], fall down 

concilium, conci'li, n. meeting, council 

con-cliido, -ere, -clusi, -clusus [com-, 
intensive, -|- claudo, close], shut up, 
close; end, finish 



con-scendo 

con-curro, -ere, -curri, -cursus [com-, 
together, -y curro, run], run together; 
rally, gather 

condicio, -onis, f. [com-, together, -f 
dico, talli], agreement, condition, 
terms 

con-dono, -are, -avi, -atus, pardon 

con-duco, -ere, -duxl, -ductus, hire 

con-fero, -ferre, -tuli, -latus, bring 
together, se conferre, betake one's 
self 

con-fertus, -a, -um, adj. crowded, thick 

confestim, adv. immediately 

c5n-ficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus [com-, com- 
pletely, -f facio, do], make, complete, 
accomplish , fin ish 

con-firmo, -are, -avi, -atus, make firm, 
establish, strengthen, afiirm, assert 

con-fluo, -ere, -fliixi, ,fiow together 

con-fugio, -ere, -fugi, -fugiturus, fiee 
for refuge, fiee 

con-icio, -ere, -iici, -iectus [com-, in- 
tensive, -|- iacio, throw], hurl 

con-iungo, -ere, -iunxi, -iunctus [com-, 
together, -f- vx^t^^, join], join together, 
unite 

con-iiiro, -are, -avi, -atus [com-, together, 
•\- iuro, swear], unite by oath, con- 
spire 

con-loco, -are, -avi, -atus [com-, to- 
gether, -1- loco, place], arrange, place, 
station 

conloquium, conlo'qui, n. [com-, to- 
gether, -j- loquor, speak], conversation, 
conference 

Conor, -ari, -atus sum, dep. verb, en- 
deavor, attempt, try 

con-scendo, -ere, -scendi, -scensus 
[com-, intensive, -1- scando, climb], 
climb up, ascend, navem conscen- 
dere, embark, go on board 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



305 



con-scribo 
• con-scribo, -ere, -scripsi, -scriptus 
[com-, together, + scrlbo, write\, 
(write together), enroll, enlist 

con-secro, -are, -avi, -atus [com-, inten- 
sive, + sacro, consecrate^ consecrate, 
devote 

con-sequor, -sequi, -seciitus sum, dep. 
verb [com-, intensive, + sequor,y<;/- 
low], pursue ; overtake; win 

con-servo, -are, -avi, -atus [com-, in- 
tensive, -t- servo, save'],preserve, save 

consilium, consili, u. plan, purpose, 
design ; wisdom 

con-sisto, -ere, -stiti, -stitus [com-, 
intensive, -|- sisto, cause to stand'\, 
stand firmly, halt, take one's stand 

con-spicio, -ere, -spexi, -spectus [com-, 
intensive, -|- spicio, spy\, look at at- 
tentively, perceive, see 

constantia, -ae, i. firmness, steadiness, 
perseverance 

con-stituo, -ere, -ui, -utus [com-, in- 
tensive, -|- statuo, set^ establish, de- 
termine, resolve 

con-sto, -are, -stiti, -staturus [com-, 
together, ■\- sto, standi agree; be 
certain ; consist of 

consul, -ulis, m. consul (§ 464. 2. a) 

con-sumo, -ere, -sumpsi, -sumptus 
[com-, intensive, -)- sumo, take^, con- 
sume, use up 

con-tendo, -ere, -di, -tus, strain ; has- 
ten ; fight, contend, struggle 

con-tineo, -ere, -ui, -tentus [com-, to- 
gether, -|- teneo, hold'\, hold together, 
hem in, contain; restrain 

contra, prep, with ace. against, con- 
trary to 

con-traho, -ere, -traxi, -tractus [com-, 
together, •\- traho, draw\, draw to- 
gether; of sails, shorten, furl 



cresco 

controversia, -ae, f. dispute, quarrel 

con-venio, -ire, -veni, -ventus [com-, 
together, -f venio, come^, come to- 
gether, meet, assemble 

con-verto, -ere, -verti, -versus [com-, 
intensive, -|- verto, tum'\, tu>-n 

con-voco, -are, -avi, -atus [com-, to- 
gether, \ voco, cfl//], call together 

CO-orior, -iri, -ortus sum, dep. verb 
[com-, intensive, -f- orior, rise\, rise, 
break forth 

copia, -ae, f. [com-, intensive, -f ops, 
wealth~\, abundance, wealth, plenty. 
Plur. copiae, -arum, troops 

coquo, -ere, coxi, coctus, cook 

Cprinthus, -i, f. Corinth, the famous 
city on the Isthmus of Corinth 

Cornelia, -ae, f. Cornelia, daughter of 
Scipio and mother of the Gracchi 

Cornelius, Come'li, m. Cornelius, a 
Roman name 

cornii, -us, n.kom; wing of an army, a 
dextro comu, on the right wing(% 466) 

corona, -ae, f . garland, wi '.ath ; crown 

coronatus, -a, -um, adj. crowned 

corpus, -oris, n. body 

cor-ripio, -ere, -ui, -reptus [com-, in- 
tensive, -f rapio, seized seize, grasp 

cotidianus, -a, -um, adj. daily 

cotidie, adv. daily 

creber, -bra, -brum, adj. thick, crowded, 
numerous, frequffnt 

credo, -ere, -didi, -ditus, trust, believe, 
with dat. (§ 501. 14) 

cremo, -are, -avi, -atus, bui-n 

creo, -are, -avi, -atus, make; elect, 
appoint 

Creon, -ontis, m. Creon, a Icing of 
Corinth 

cresco, -ere, crevi, cretus, rise, grow, 
increase 



3o6 LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Creta 
Creta, -ae, f. Crete, a large island in 



the Mediterranean 
Cretaeus, -a, -um, adj. Cretan 
criis, cruris, n. leg 
criistulum, -5, n.pastiy, cake 
cubile, -is, n. bed 
cultiira, -ae, f. culture-, cultivation 
cum, conj. with the indie, or subjv. 

when; since; altho^tgh {§ 501. 46) 
cum, prep, with abl. -with (§ 209) 
cupide, adv. [cupldus, desirous], com- 
pared cupidius, cupidissime, eagerly 
cupiditas, -atis, f. [cupidus, desirous], 

desire, longing 
cupio, -ere, -ivi or -ii, -itus, desire, 

wish. Cf. V0I6 
ciir, adv. why, wherefore 
cura, -ae, f. care, paijis ; anxiety 
ciiria, -ae, f. senate house 
euro, -are, -avi, -atus [ciira, care], care 

for, attend to, look after 
curro, -ere, cucurri, cursus, run 
currus, -ijs, m. chariot 
cursus, -lis, m. course 
custodio, -Ire, -ivi, -itus [cust6s,^«<7«/], 

guard, watch 



Daedalus, -i, m. Dced'alus, the sup- 
posed inventor of the first flying 
machine 

Davus, -i, m. Davus, name of a slave 

de, prep, with abl. down from, from ; 
concerning, about, for (§ 2og). qua 
de causa, for this reason, wherefore 

dea, -ae, f. goddess (§ 461. a) 

debeo, -ere, -ui, -itus [de, from, -f 
habeo, hold], owe, ought, should 

decem, indecl. numeral adj. ten 

de-cerii5, -ere, -crevi, -cretus [ie,from, 
-f cern5, separate], decide, decree 



densus 
de-cido, -ere, -cidi, [de, down, -H 

zaAo, fall], fall down 
decimus, -a, -um, numeral adj. tenth 
declivis, -e, adj. sloping downward 
de-do, -ere, -didi, -ditus, give up, sztrren- 

der. se dedere, surrender one's self 
de-duco, -ere, -duxi, -ductus [de, down, 

■^ duco, lead], lead down, escort 
de-fendo, -ere, -di, -fensus, ward off, 

repel, defend 
de-fero, -ferre, -tuli, -latus [de, down, 

■\- fero, bring], bring down ; report, 

announce (§ 426) 
de-fessus, -a, -um, adj. tired out, weary 
de-ficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus [de, from, 

■\- facio, make], fail, be wanting; 

revolt from, 
de-flgo, -ere, -fixi, -fixus [de, down, -|- 

i\^, fasten] , fasten, fix 
de-icio, -ere, -ieci, -iectus [de, down, 

-)- iacio, hurl], hurl down ; bring 

down, kill 
de-inde, adv. (from thence), then, in 

the next place 
delects, -are, -avi, -atus, delight 
deleo, -ere, -evi, -etus, blot out, destroy 
deliberS, -are, -avi, -atus, weigh, delib- 
erate, ponder 
de-ligo, -ere, -legi, -Iectus [de, from, 

■V lego, gather], choose, select 
Delphicus, -a, -um, adj. Delphic 
demissus, -a, -um [part, of demitto, 

send down], downcast, humble 
de-monstro, -are, -avi, -atus [de, out, 

-I- r^'as.txa, point], point out, show 
demum, adv. at last, not till then, tum 

demum, then at last 
denique, adv. at last, finally. Cf. 

postremd 
dens, dentis, m. tooth {§ 247. 2. a) 
densus, -a, -um, adj. dense, thick 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



307 



de-pendeo 
de-pendeo, -ere, , [de, down, 

+ pendeo, hang\, hang from, hang 

down 
de-ploro, -are, -avi, -atus [de, inten- 
sive, + ploro, wail\, bewail, deplore 
de-pono, -ere, -posui, -positus [de, down, 

\ ^rxi, pu{\, put down 
de-scendo, -ere, -di, -scensus [de, down, 

+ scando, climb\,climb down, descend 
de-scribo, -ere, -scrips!, -scriptus [de, 

down, -f scribo, write^ write down 
desidero, -are, -avi, -atus, long for 
de-silio, -ire, -ui^ -sultus [de, down, + 

salio, leap\, leap down 
de-spero, -are, -avi, -atus [de, away 

from, ■\- spero, hope\, despair 
de-spicio, -ere, -spexi, -spectus [de, 

down], look down upon, despise 
de-sum, -esse, -fui, -futurus [de, away 

from, -)- sum, be], be wanting, lack, 

with dat. (§ 426) 
deus, -i, m. god (§ 468) 
de-volvo, -ere, -volvi, -volutus [de, 

down, -y volvo, roll], roll down 
de-voro, -are, -avi, -atus [de, down, 

■\- voro, swallow], devoitr 
dexter, -tra, -trum (-tera, -terum), adj. 

to the right, right, a dextro cornii, 

on the right wing 
Diana, -ae, f. Diana, goddess of the 

moon and twin sister of Apollo 
dico, -ere, dixi, dictus (imv. die), 

say, speak, tell. Usually introduces 

indirect discourse (§ 420. a] 
dictator, -oris, m. [dicto, .dictate], 

dictator, a chief magistrate with 

unlimited power 
dies, -ei or die, m., sometimes f. in 

sing., day (§467) 
dif-fero, -ferre, distuli, dilatus [dis-, 

apart, ■\- fero, carry], carry apart; 



dis-tribuo 
differ, differre inter se, differ from 
each other 

dif-ficilis, -e, adj. [dis-, not, + faci- 
lis, easy], hard, difficult (§307) 

difacultas, -atis, f. [difficilis, hard], 
difficulty 

diligenter, adv. [diligens, careful], 
compared diligentius, diligentissime, 
industriously, diligently 

diligentia, -ae, f. [diligens, careful], 
industjy, diligence 

di-mico, -are, -avi, ^^tViS, fight, struggle 

di-mitto, -ere, -misi, -missus [di-, off, 
+ mitto, send], send away, dismiss, 
disband, dimittere animum in, direct 
one's mind to, apply one's self to 

Diomedes, -is, m. Di-o-me'des, a name 

dis-, di-, a prefix expressing separa- 
tion, off, apart, in different directions. 
Often negatives the meaning 

dis-cedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessiirus [dis-, 
apart, -|- ceio,go], depart from, leave, 
withdraw, go away 

dis-cerno, -ere, -crevi, -cretus [dis-, 
fl/3;-^, -f cemo, sift], separate; dis- 
tinguish 

disciplina, -ae, f. instruction, train- 
ing, discipline 

discipulus, -i, m. [disco, learn], pupil, 
disciple 

disco, -ere, didici, , learn 

dis-cutio, -ere, -cussi, -cussus [dis-, 
apart, \ quatio, shake], shatter, dash 
to pieces 

dis-pono, -ere, -posui, -positus [dis-, 
apart, -f- pono, put], put here and 
there, arrange, station 

dis-similis, -e, adj. [dis-, apart, \ si- 
milis, like], unlike, dissimilar (§ 307) 

dis-tribuo, -ere, -ui, -utus, divide, 
distribute 



3o8 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



diu 



diu, adv., compared diutius, diutis- 

simef /or a long tiine, long (§ 477) 
do, dare, dedi, datus, give, in fugam 

dare, put to flight, alicui negotium 

dare, employ some one 
doceo, -ere, -ui, -tus, teach, show 
doctrina, -ae, f. [doctor, teacher\, 

teaching, learning, wisdom 
dolor, -oris, m. pain, sorrow 
domesticus, -a, -um, adj. [domus, 

hoitse\, of the house, dom-estic 
domicilium, domici'li, n. dwelling, 

house, abode. Cf. domus 
domina, -ae, f. mistress (of the house), 

lady (§461) 
dominus, -i, m. master (of the house), 

owner, ruler (§ 462) 
domus, -us, f. house, home, domi, loca- 
tive, at home (§ 468) 
dormi5, -ire, -ivi, -itus, sleep 
draco, -onis, m. serpent, dragon 
dubito, -are, -avi, -atus, hesitate 
dubius, -a, -um, adj. [duo, two'], [mov-- 

ing two ways), doubtful, dubious 
du-centi, -ae, -a, numeral adj. two 

hundred 
diico, -ere, duxi, ductus (imv. &.xic],lead, 

conduct 
dum, conj. while, as long as 
duo, duae, duo, numeral adj. two 

(§ 479) 
duo-decim, indecl. numeral adj. twelve 
diirus, -a, -um, adj. hard, tough ; harsh, 

pitiless, bitter 
dux, ducis, m. and f. [cf. duco, lead], 

leader, commander 

E 

e or ex, prep, with abl. out of, from, 

off,o^(%2oo,) 
eburneus, -a, -um, adj. of ivory 



eruptio 

ecce, adv. seel behold! there! here! 

e-diic6, -ere, -dujfl, -ductus [e, otit, -|- 
duco, lead], lead out, draw out 

ef-ficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus [ex, thor- 
oughly, -I- facio, do], work out ; make, 
cause 

ef-fugio, -ere, -fiigi, -fugiturus [ex, 
from, -I- fugio, ^^^], escape 

ege5, -ere, -ui, , be in need of, lack, 

with abl. (§ 501. 32) 

ego, pers. pron. /; plur. nos, we (§ 480) 

e-gredior, -i, egressus sum, dep. verb 
[e, out of, + gradior, go], go out, go 
forth. § navi egredi, disembark 

e-icio, -ere, -ieci, -iectus [e, forth, + 
iacio, hurl], hurl forth, expel 

elementum, -i, n., in plur. first prin- 
ciples, rudiments 

elephantus, -i, m. elephant 

£lis, Elidis, f. E'lis, a district of south- 
ern Greece 

emo, -ere, emi, emptus, buy, purchase 

enim, conj., never standing first, for, 
in fact, indeed. Cf. nam 

Ennius, Enui, m. Ennius, the father of 
Roman poetry, born 239 B.C. 

eo, ire, ii (ivi), iturus, go (§ 499) 

eo, adv. to that place, thither 

Epirus, -i, f. Epi'rus, a district in the 
north of Greece 

eques, -itis, m. [equus, horse], horse- 
man, cavalryman 

equitatus, -us, m. [equito, ride],cavahy 

equus, -i, m. horse 

e-rig5, -ere, -rexi, -rectus [e, out, -)- 
rego, make straight], raise up 

e-ripio, -ere, -ui, -reptus [e, out of, -\- 
rapid, seize], seize; rescue 

e-rumpo, -ere, -rupi, -ruptus [e, forth, 
H- rumpo, break], burst forth 

eruptio, -onis, f. sally 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



Erymanthius 
Erymanthius, -a, -um, adj. Eryman- 

thian, of Erymanthus, a district in 

southern Greece 
et, conj. and, also, et . . . et, ioi& . . . 

and. Cf. atque, ac, -que 
etiam, adv. (rarely conj.) [et, also, + 

iam, now], yet, still; also, besides. Cf. 

quoque. non solum . . . sed etiam, not 

only . . . but also 
Etrusci, -orum, m. the Etruscans, the 

people of Etruria. See map of Italy 
Europa, -ae, f. Europe 
Eurystheus, -i, m. Eurys'theus, a king 

of Tiryns, a city in southern Greece 
e-vado, -ere, -vasl, -vasus [e, out, + 

vado, gol, go forth, escape 
ex, see e 
exanimatus, -a, -um [part, of ezanimo, 

put out of breath (anima)], adj. out 

of breath, tired ; lifeless 
ex-cipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus [ex, out, 

-|- capio, take'\, welcome, receive 
exemplum, -i, n. example, model 
ex-eo,-ire,-ii,-iturus [ex, out, ■{■ eo,go'\, 

go out, go forth (§413) 
ex-erceo, -ere, -ui, -itus [ex, out, + 

arcQO, shuti, {shitt out), e7nploy, train, 

exercise, use 
exercitus, -us, m. [exerceo, train'], 

army 
ex-istimo, -are, -avi, -atus [ex, out, + 

aestimo, reckon], estimate; think, 

judge {^ 420. c) . Cf. arbitror, puto 

ex-orior, -iri, -ortus sum, dep. verb [ex, 

forth, + orior, rise], come forth, rise 

expeditu8,-a,-um, adj. without baggage 

ex-pello, -ere, -puli, -pulsus [ex, out, 

+ pello, drive], drive out 
ex-pio, -are, -avi, -atus [ex, intensive, 

+ pio, atone for], make amends for, 

atone for 



fama 

explorator, -oris, m. [explore, investi- 
gate], spy, scout 

exploro, -are, -avi, -atus, examine, ex- 
plore 

ex-pugno, -are, -avi, -atus [ex, out, -|- 
pugno,_/?^/i?], take by storm, capture 

exsilium, exsi'li, n. [exsul, exile], ban- 
ishment, exile 

ex-specto, -are, -avi, -atus [ex, out, + 
specto, look], expect, wait 

ex-struo, -ere, -struxi, -structus [ex, 
out, + struo, build], build up, erect 

exterus, -a, -um, adj., compared ex- 
terior, extremus or extimus, outside, 
outer (§ 312) 

extra, prep, with ace. beyond, outside of 

ex-traho, -ere, -traxi, -tractus [ex, out, 
+ trziho, drag], drag out, pull forth 

extremus, -a, -um, adj., superl. of ex- 
terus, utmost, farthest (§ 312) 

F 

fabula, -ae, f. story, tale, fable 

facile, adv. [facilis, easy], compared 
facilius, facillimS, easily (§ 322) 

facilis, -e, adj. [cf. facio, make], easy, 
without difficulty (§ 307) 

facio, -ere, feci, f actus {imv. fac), 
make, do ; cause, bring about, impe- 
tum facere in, make an attack upon. 
proelium facere, fight u battle, iter 
facere, m-ake a march or journey. 
aliquem certiorem facere, inform 
some one. facere verba pro, speak in 
behalf of. Passive fio, fieri, factus 
sum, be done, happen, certior fieri, 
be inform.ed 

fallo, -ere, fefelli, falsus, trip, betray, 
deceive 

fama, -ae, f. report, rumor; renown, 
fame, reputation 



3IO 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



fames 



fames, -is (abl. fame), f. hunger 
familia, -ae, f. servants ^ slaves ; house- 
hold, family 
fasces, -ium (plur. of fascis), i. fasces 

(p. 225) 
fastigium, fasti'gi, n. top; slope, 

descent 
fatum, -i, n.fate, destiny 
fauces, -ium, f. plur.yaicj, throat 
faveo, -ere, favi, fauturus, be favorable 

to, favor, with dat. (§ 501. 14) 
fellX, -icis, adj. happy, lucky 
femina, -ae, f. woman. Cf. mulier 
fera, -ae, f. [ferus, wild], wild beast 
ferax, -acis, adj. fertile 
fere, adv. about, nearly, almost 
fer5, ferre, tuli, latus, bear, graviter 
or moleste ferre, be annoyed 

(§498) 
ferreus, -a, -um, adj. [ferrum, iron], 

Tnade of iron 
fidelis, -e, adj. [fides, trust], faithful, 

true 
fides, fidei tJrfide, trust, faith ; promise, 

word; protection, in fidem venire, 

come under the protection, in fide 

manere, remain loyal 
filia, -ae (dat. and abl. plur. filiabus), 

f. daughter (§ 461. a) 
fnius, fill (voc. sing, fill), m. son 
finis, -is, m. boundary, limit, end ; in 

plur. territory, country {§ 243. i) 
finitimus, -a, -um, adj. [finis, bound- 
ary], adjoining, neighboring. Plur. 

finitimi, -drum, m. neighbors 
fio, fieri, factus sum, used as passive 

of facio. See facio (§ 500) 
flamma, -ae, i. fire, flame 
flos, floris, -m. flower 
fluctug, -us, m. [cf. Uno, flow], flood, 

wave, billow 



fuga 
llumen, -inis, n. [cf. &a.o, flow], river 

(§464.2.^) 
fluo, -ere, fluxi, fluxus,7f»ra 
fluvius, fluvi, m. [cf. fLuo,flow], river 
fodio, -ere, fodi, fossus, dig 
fons, fontis, m. fountain (§ 247. z.a) 
forma, -ae, i.form, shape, appearance ; 

beauty 
Formiae, -arum, f. Formiae, a town of 

LatiumontheAppianWay. See map 
forte, adv. [abl. of fors, chance], by 

chance 
fortis, -e, adj. strong ; fearless, brave 
fortiter, adv. [fortis, strong], com- 
pared fortius, fortissime, strongly; 

bravely 
fortiina, -ae, f. [fors, chance], chance, 

fate, fortune 
forum, -i, n. market place, esp. the 

Forum Romanum, where the life of 

Rome centered 
Forum Appi, Fontm of Appius, a town 

in Latium on the Appian Way 
fossa, -ae, f. [cf. fodio, dig], ditch 
fragor, -oris, m. [cf. frango, break], 

crash, noise 
frango, -ere, fregi, fractus, break 
frater, -tris, m. brother 
fremitus, -iis, m. lotid noise 
frequents, -are, -avi, -atus, attend 
f retus, -a, -um, adj . supported, trusting. 

Usually with abl. of means 
f rons, frontis, i. front, a fronte, in front 
friictus, -lis, m. fruit 
frumentarius, -a, -um, aAy. pertai7iing 

to grain, res friimentaria, grain 

supplies 
frumentum, -i, n. grain 
frustra, adv. in vain, vainly 
fuga, -ae, f. [cf. fugio, flee], flight. 

in fugam &3.re,pui to flight 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



311 



fugio 
fugio, -ere, fugi, fugiturus, ^f^^, run; 

avoids shztn 

fump, -are, , , smoke 

funis, -is, m. rope 

furor, -oris, m. [fnro, rage\, madness. 

in furorem incidere, go mad 



Gaius, Gai, m. Gaius, a Roman name, 
abbreviated C, English form Caius 

Galba, -ae, m. Calba, a Roman name 

galea, -ae, f. helmet 

Gallia, -ae, f. Gaul, the country com- 
prising what is now Holland, Bel- 
gium, Switzerland, and France 

Gallicus, -a, -um, adj. Gallic 

gallina, -ae, f. hen, chicken 

Callus, -i, m. a Gaul 

gaudium, gaudi, Tx.joy 

Genaya, -ae, f. Geneva, a city in 
Switzerland 

gens, gentis, f. [cf. gigno, bege(\, race, 
family ; people, nation, tribe 

genus, -eiis, n. kind, variety 

Germania, -ae, f. .Germany 

Germanus, -i, m. u. German 

gero, -ere, gessi, gestus, carry, wear; 
wage, bellum gerere, wage war. res 
gestae, exploits, bene gerere, carry 
on successfully 

gladiatorius, -a, -um, adj. gladiatorial 

gladius, gladi, m. sword 

gloria, -ae, i. gloiy,fame 

Gracchus, -i, ra. Gracchus, name of a 
famous Roman family 

gracilis, -e, adj. slender (§ 307) 

Graeca, -orum, n. plur. Greek writ- 
ings, Greek literature 
Graece, adv. in Greek 
Graecia, -ae, f. Greece 
grammaticus, -i, m. grammarian 



honestus 
gratia, -ae, f. thanks, gratitude 
gratus, -a, -um, adj. acceptable, pleas- 
ing. Often with dat. (§ 501. 16) 
gravis, -e, adj. heavy; disagreeable; 
serious, dangerous ; earnest, weighty 
graviter, adv. [gravis, heavy^ com- 
pared gravius, gravissime, heavily ; 
greatly, seriously, graviter ferre, 
bear ill, take to heart 
gubernator, -oris, m. [guberno, pilot], 
pilot 



habeo, -ere, -ui, -itus, have, hold; 

regard, consider, deem 
habito, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. liabeo, 

have], dwell, abide, inhabit. Cf. 

incolo, vivo 
hac-tenus, adv. thus far 
Helvetii, -orum, m. the Helvetii, a 

Gallic tribe 
Hercules, -is, m. Hercules, son of 

Jupiter and Alcmena, and god of 

strength 
Hesperides, -um, f. the Hesperides, 

daughters of Hesperus, who kept 

the garden of the golden apples 
hie, haec, hoc, demonstrative adj. 

and pron. this (of mine) ; as pers. 

pron. he, she, it (§481) 
hie, adv. here 
hiems, -emis, f. winter 
hinc, adv. [hie, here], from here, hence 
Hippolyte, -es, f. Hippolyte, queen of 

the Amazons 
ho-die, adv. [modified form of hoc die, 

on this day], to-day 
homo, -inis, m. and f. (human being), 

man, person 
honestus, -a, -um, adv. [honor, honor], 

respected, honorable 



312 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



honor 
honor, -oris, m. honor 
hora, -ae, f. hour 
Horatius, Hora'ti, m. Horatius, a 

Roman name 
horribilis, -e, adj. terrible., horrible 
hortor, -ari, -atus sum, dep. verb, 

urge, incite, exhort, encourage 

(§493) 
hortus, -i, m. garden 
hospitium, hospi'ti, n. [hospes, .4oj^], 

hospitality 
hostis, -is, m. and f. enemy, foe 

(§465.0) 
humilis, -e, adj. low, htimble (§ 307) 
Hydra, -ae, f. the Hydra, a. mythical 

water snake slain by Hercules 



iacio, -ere, ieci, iactus, throw, hurl 
iam, adv. now, already, nee iam, and 

no longer 
laniculum, -i, n. the Janiculum, one 

of the hills of Rome 
ianua, -ae, f. door 
ibi, adv. there, in that place 
Icarus, -i, m. Ic'arus, the son of 

Daedalus 
ictus, -lis, m. [cf. ico, strike^, blow 
idem, e'adem, idem, demonstrative 

pron. [is + dem], same {§481) 
idoneus, -a, -um, adj. suitable, fit 
igitur, conj., seldom the first word, 

therefore, then. Cf. itaque 
ignis, -is, VD-.fire (§§ 243. I ; 247. 2. a ; 

465. I) 
ignotus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, 4- 

(g)notus, known^, unknown, strange 
ille, ilia, illud, demonstrative adj. and 

pron. that (yonder); as pers. pron. 

he, sbe, «? (§481) 
illic, adv. [cf. m^^ yonder, there 



in-cautus 

im-mitto, -ere, -misi, -missus [in, 
against, 4- mitto, send'X, send against ; 
let in 

immolo, -are, -avi, -atus [in, upon, 4- 
mola, ?neal'\, sprinkle with sacrificial 
meal ; offer, sacrifice 

im-mortalis, -e, adj. [in-, not, 4- mor- 
talis, mortal^, immortal 

im-mortalitas, -atis, f. [immortalis, 
immortal^, immortality 

im-paratus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, 4- 
■^SJikcas, prepared'\, unprepared 

impedimentum, -i, n. [impedio, hin- 
der'], hindrance; in plur. baggage 

impeditus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of im- 
pedio, hinder], hindered, burdened 

im-pello, -ere, -puli, -pulsus [in, 
against, 4- pello, strike], strike 
against ; impel, drive, propel 

imperator, -oris, m. [impero, com- 
jnand], general 

imperium, impe'ri, n. [impero, com- 
mand], coTnmand, order ; realm, CTn- 
pire ; power, authority 

impero, -are, -avi, -atus, command, 
order. Usually with dat. and an ob- 
ject clause of purpose (§501.41). 
With ace. -object, levy, impose 

impetus, -us, m. attack, impetum 
facere in, m,ake an attack upon 

im-pono, -ere, -posui, -positus [in, upon, 
4- pono, place], place upon ; impose, 
assign 

in, prep, with ace. into, to, against, at, 
upon, towards; with abl. in, on. in 
reliquum tempus,/or the future 

in-, inseparable prefix. With nouns 
and adjectives often with a negative 
force, like English un-, in- 

in-cautus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, 4- 
cautus, careful], off one' s guard 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



incendium 
incendium, incendi, xv. flame, fire. Cf. 

ignis, flanima 
in-cendo, -ere, -di, -census, set fire to, 

burn 
in-cido, -ere, -cidi, [in, in, on, + 

caAo, /all'\, fall in, fall on ; happen. 

in furorem incidere, go mad 
in-cipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus [in, on, 

+ capio, take'l, begin 
in-cognitus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, -1- 

cognitus, known'], unknown 
in-COlo, -ere, -ui, [in, in, -f- colo, 

dwell], inhabit; live 
incolumis, -e, adj. sound, safe, un- 
injured, unhaiyned 
in-credibilis, -e, adj. [in-, not, -|- 

credibilis, to be believed], incredible 
inde, from that place, thence 
induo, -ere, -ui, -fltus, put on 
indiitus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of indu5, 

put on], clothed 
in-eo, -ire, -ii, -itus [in, into, + eo, go], 
go into ; enter upon, begin, with ace. 

(§413) 
in-fans, -fantis, adj. [in-, not, + * fans, 

speaking], not speaking. As a noun, 

m. and f. infant 
in-felix, -icis, adj. [in-, not, -|- felix, 

happy], unhappy, unlucky 
infensus, -a, -um, adj. hostile 
in'-fero, infer're, in'tull, inla'tus [in, 

against, + fero, bear], bring against 

or upon, inflict, with ace. and dat. 

(§ 501. 1 5). bellum inferre, with dat., 

make war upon 
inferus, -a, -um, adj. low, below 

(§312) 
in-finitus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + 

finitus, bounded], boundless, endless 
in-firmus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + 

firmus, strong], weak, infirm 



in-struo 
ingenium, inge'ni, u. talent, ability 
ingens, -entis, adj. vast, huge, enor- 
mous, large. Cf. magnus 
in-gredior, -gredi, -gressus sum [in, in, 

■\- gradior, walk], advance, enter 
inimicus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not, + 

anacas, friendly], hostile. As a noun, 

V!yasa.ax&,-\,Ta.enemy,foe. Cf. hostis 
initium, ini'ti, entrance, beginning 
initus, -a, -um, part, of ineo. inita 

aestate, at the beginning of summer 
iniiiria, -ae, f. [in, against, + iiis, law], 

injustice, wrong, injury, alicui in- 

iurias inferre, infiict wrongs upon 

some one 
inopia, -ae, f. [inops, needy], want, 

need, lack 
in-oplnans, -antis, adj. [in-, not, + 

opinans, thinking], not expecting, 

taken by surprise 
inquit, said he, said she. Regularly 

inserted in a direct quotation , 
in-rigo, -are, -avi, -atus, irrigate, water 
in-rumpo, -ere, -rupi, -ruptus [in, into, 

■\- rumpo, break], burst in, break in 
in-ruo, -ere, -rui, [in, in, -|- ruo, 

rush], rush in 
in-sequor, -sequi, -secutus sum, dep. 

verb [in, on, -|- sequor, follow], fol- 
low on, purszce 
in-signe, -is, n. badge, decoration 

(§465-^) 
insignis, -e, adj. rem,arkable, noted 
instans, -antis, adj. [part, of insto, be 

at hand], present, iniTnediate 
in-st5, -are, -stiti, -staturus [in, upon, 

-f- sto, stand], stand ttpon ; be at 

hand ; pursue, press on 
instrumentum, -i, n. instrument 
in-struo, -ere, -struxi, -strflctus [in, on, 

\ struo, btcild], draw up 



314 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



Insula 
insula, -ae, f. island 
integer, -gra, -grura, untouched, whole; 

fresh, new 
intellego, -ere, -lexi, -lictus [inter, ^s- 

iween,-\-\e^,choose\, perceive, under- 
stand (§ 420. (/) 
intents, -are, -avi, -atus, aim ; threaten 
inter, prep, with ace. between, among; 

during, while (§340) 
interfectus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of inter- 

ficio, kill^, slain, dead 
inter-ficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus [inter, 

between, + facio, make\, put out of 

the way, kill. Cf . neco, occido, trucido 
interim, adv. meanwhile 
interior, -ius, adj . interior, inner (^ ;^i ^) 
inter-mitto, -ere, -misi, -missus, leave 

off, suspend 
interpres, -etis, m. and f. interpreter 
inter-rogo, -are, -avi, -atus, question 
inter-sum, -esse, -fui, -futiirus [inter, 

between, -i- sum, be\, be present, take 

part in, with dat. (§ 501. 15) 
inter-vallum, -i, n. interval, distance 
intra, adv. and prep, with ace. within, 

in 
intro, -are, -avi, -atus, go into, enter 
in-venio, -ire, -veni, -ventus [in, upon, 

+ venio, cornel, find 
invisus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of invideo, 

ejivyl, hated, detested 
lolaus, -i, m. I-o-ld'us, a friend of 

Hercules 
ipse, -a, -um, intensive pron. that vety, 

this very ; self, himself, herself, itself, 

(§481) 
ira, -ae, f. turath, anger 
iratus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of irascor, 

be angry], angered, enraged 
is, ea, ^, demonstrative adj. and pron. 

this, that; he, she, it (§481) 



lacus 

iste, -a, -ud, demonstrative adj. and 
pron. that (of yours), he, she, it 
(§481) 

ita, adv. so, thus. Cf. sic and tam 

Italia, -ae, f. Italy 

ita-que, eonj. and so, therefore 

item, adv. also 

iter, itineris, n. journey, march, route ; 
way, passage (§§ 247. i. a; 468). iter 
daxe,givea right of 'way, allowtopass. 
iter facere, march (see p. 1 59)* 

iubeo, -ere, iussi, iussus, order, com- 
mand. Usually with the infin. and 
subj. ace. (§ 213) 

iiidex, -icis, m. and f. judge (§ 464. i) 

iudico, -are, -avi, -atus \^vAex., judge], 
jicdge, decide (§ 420. c) 

liilia, -ae, fulia, a Roman name 

lulius, lull, m. fuliics, a Roman name 

iungo, -ere, iunxi, mnttxis, join ; yoke, 
harness 

luno, -onis, f. Juno, the queen of the 
gods and wife of Jupiter 

luppiter, lovis, m. Jupiter, the su- 
preme god 

iuro, -are, -avi, -a^\x^, swear, take an oath 

iussus, -a, -um, part, of iubeo, ordered 



L., abbreviation for Liicius 

labefactus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of labe- 
facio, cause to shake], shaken, weak- 
ened, ready to fall 

Labienus, -i, m. La-bi-e'nus, one of 
Caesar's lieutenants 

labor, -oris, m. labor, toil 

laboro, -are, -avi, -atus [labor, labor], 
labor; suffer, be hard pressed 

lacrima, -ae, f. tear 

lacus, -us (dat. and abl. plur. lacubus), 
m. lake 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



315 



laete 
laete, adv. [laetus, glad^ compared 

laetius, laetissime, gladly 
laetitia, -ae, f. [laetus, ^/aaf],y£?y 
laetus, -a, -um, adj. glad, joyful 
lapis, -idis, m. stone (%% 247. 2. a \ ifis,. i ) 
Lar, Laris, m. ; plur. Lares, -um (rarely 

-ium), the Lares or household gods 
late, adv. [latus, wide'], compared 

latius, latissime, widely 
Latine, adv. in Latin. Latine loqui, 

to speak Latin 
latitude, -inis, f. [latus, wide], width 
Latona, -ae, f. Latona, mother of 

Apollo and Diana 
latus, -a, -um, adj. wide 
latus, -eris, n. side, flank, ab utroque 

latere, on each side 
laudo, -are, -avi, -atus [lans, praise], 

praise 
laurea, -ae, f. laurel 
laureatus, -a, -um, adj. crowned with 

laurel 
laus, laudis, f. praise 
lectulus, -I, m. couch, bed 
legatus, -i, m. ambassador; lieutenant 
legio, -onis, f. [cf. lego, gather], (body 

of soldiers], legion, about 3600 men 

(§ 464. 2. a) 
legionarius, -a, -um, adj. legionary. 

Plur. legionarii, -orum, m. the soldiers 

of the legion 
lego, -ere, legi, lectus, read 
lenis, -e, 2i^\. gentle, smooth, mild 
leniter, adv. [lenis, gentle], compared 

lenius, lenissime, gently 
Lentulus, -i, m. Lentulus, a Roman 

family name 
leo, -onis, m. lion 
Lernaeus, -a, -um, adj. Lemman, of 

Lerna, in southern Greece 
Lesbia, -ae, f. Lesbia, a girl's name 



magis 

levis, -e, adj. light 

lex, legis, f. Tneasure, law 

libenter, adv. [libens, willing], com- 
pared libentius, libentissime, will- 
ingly, gladly 

liber, -era, -erum, aii.free (§ 469. b) 

liberi, -orum, m. [liber, free], children 

libero, -are, -avi, -atus [liber, /r««], set 
free, release, liberate 

libertas, -atis, f. \^n, free], freedom, 
liberty 

lictor, -6ris,''m. lictor (p. 225) 

limus, -1, m. mud 

littera, -ae, f. a letter of the alphabet ; 
in plur. a letter, epistle 

litus, -oris, n. seashore, beach 

locus, -i, m. (plur. loci and loca, m. 
and Ti.), place, spot 

longe, adv. [longus, long], compared 
longius, longissime, u long way off; 
by far 

longinquus, -a, -um, adj. [longuc, long], 
distant, remote 

longitiido, -inis, f . [longus, long] , length 

longus, -a, -um, adj. long 

loquor, loqui, locutus sum, dep. verb, 
talk, speak 

lorica, -ae, f. [lorum, thong], coat of 
mail, corselet 

liido, -ere, lusi, lusus, play 

liidus, -i, m. play ; school, the ele- 
mentary grades. Cf. schola 

liina, -ae, f. moon 

liix, lucis, f. (no gen. plur.), light. 
prima lux, daybreak 

Lydia, -ae, f. Lydia, a girl's name 

M 
magicus, -a, -um, adj., magic 
magis, adv. in comp. degree [magnus, 
great], more, in a higher degree (^yi) 



3i6 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



magister 
magister, -tri, m. master, commander; 

teacher 
magistratus, -us, m. [magister, mas- 

ter'], magistracy ; Ttiagistrate 
magnitudo, -inis, f. [magnus, great\, 

greatness, size 
magnopere, adv. [abl. of magnum 

opus], compared magis, meixime, 

greatly, exceedingly (§ 323) 
magnus, -a, -um, adj., compared maior, 

maximus, great, large ; strong, lotid 

(§3") 
maior, maius, -oris, adj., comp. of 

magnus, greater, larger (§311) 
maiores, -um, m. plur. of maior, an- 
cestors 
malo, malle, malui, [magis, m.ore, 

+ void, wish^ , wish more, prefer (§497) 
malus, -a, -um, adj., compared peior, 

pessimus, bad, evil (§ 311) 
mando, -are, -avi, -atus [manus, hand, 

■\- do, Jitit], {fut in hand], intrust; 

order, command 
maneS, -ere, mansi, mansurus, stay, 

remain, abide 
Manlius, Manli, m. Manlius, a Roman 

name 
mansuetus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of 

mausuesc5, ta7ne\, tamed 
manus, -iis, f. hand ; force, band 
Marcus, -i, m. Marcus, Mark, a Roman 

first name 
mare, -is, n. (no gen. plur.), sea. mare 

tenire, be out to sea 
margo, -inis, m. edge, border 
maritus, -i, m. husband 
Marius, Mari, m. Marius, a Roman 

name, esp. C. Marius, the general 
Martius, -a, -um, adj. of MUrs, esp. 

the Qampus Martius 
mater, -tris, f. mother 



mmime 

matrimonium, matrimo'ni, n. mar- 
riage, in matrimonium ducere, many 

mature, -are, -avi, -atus, hasten. Cf. 
contendo, propero 

matrirus, -a, -um, adj. ripe, mature 

maxime, adv. in superl. degree [maxi- 
mns, greatest], compared magnopere, 
magis, maxime, especially, very much 

(§323) 

maximus, -a, -um, adj., superl. of mag- 
nus, greatest, extreme (§311) 

medius, -a, -um, adj. m.iddle part; 
middle, intervening 

melior, -ins, -oris, adj., comp. of bonus, 
better (§311) 

melius, adv. in comp. degree, com- 
pared bene, melius, optime, better 

(§323) 

memoria, -ae, f. [memor, mindful], 
memory, memoria tenere, remember 

mens, mentis, f. mind. Cf. animus 

mensis, ^is, m. month (§ 247. 2. a) 

mercator, -oris, m. [mercor, trade], 
trader, merchant 

merldianus, -a, -um, adj. [meridies, 
noon], of midday 

meridies, (ace. -em, abl. -e), m. 

[medius, mid, -f- dies, day], noon 

metus, -us, ra. fear, dread 

meus, -a, -um, possessive adj. and 
pron. m-y, mine (§ 98) 

miles, -itis, m. soldier (§ 464. i) 

militaris, -e, adj. [miles, soldier], mili- 
tary, res militaris, science of "war 

militS, -are, -avi, -atus [miles, soldier], 
serve as a soldier 

mille, plur. milia, -ium, numeral adj. 
and subst. thousand (§ 479) 

minime, adv. in superl. degree, com- 
pared parum, minus, minime, least, 
very little; by no means (§323) 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

nauta 



317 



minimus 

minimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. 
degree, compared parvus, minor, 
minimus, least, smallest (§311) 

minor, minus, -oris, adj. in comp. 
degree, compared parvus, minor, 
minimus, smaller, less (§311) 

Minos, -ois, m. Minos, a king of Crete 

minus, adv. in comp. degree, com- 
pared parum, minus, minime, less 

(§323) 

Minyae, -arum, m. the Minyae, a 
people of Greece 

mirabilis, -e, adj. [miror, wonder at], 
wonderful, marvelous 

miror, -arl, -atus sum, dep. verb 
[mirus, wonderful], wonder, marvel, 
admire 

mirus, -a, -um, adj. wonderful 

Misenum, -i, Mise'num, a promon- 
tory and harbor on the coast of 
Campania. See map 

miser, -era, -erum, adj. wretched, un- 
happy, miserable 

missus, -a, -um, part, of mitto, sent 

mitto, -ere, misi, missus, send 

modicus, -a, -um [modus, measure], 
modest, ordinary 

modo, adv. [abl. of modus, measure, 
with shortened 0], only, merely, pist 
now. modo . . . modo, now . . . now, 
sometim.es . . . sometimes 

modus, -i, m. measure ; manner, way ; 
kind 

moenia, -ium, n. plur. [cf. munio, for- 
tify], walls, ram-parts ' 

molests, adv. [molestus, trotiblesome], 
compared molestius, molestissime, 
annoyingly. moleste ferre, to be 
annoyed 

molestus, -a, -um, troublesome, annoy- 
ing, unpleasant (§ 501. i5) 



moneo, -ere, -ui, -itus, remind, advise, 

warn (§ 489) 
mons, montis, m. mountain{% 247. z.<z) 
monstrum, -i, n. monster 
mora, -ae, f. delay 
moror, -ari, -atus sum, dep. verb 

[mora, delay], delay, linger; impede 
mors, mortis, f. [cf. morior, die], death 
mos, moris, m. custom, habit 
motus, -us, m. [cf. moveo, move], 

motion, movement, terrae motus, 

earthquake 
moveo, -ere, movi, motus, move 
mox, adv. soon, presently 
mulier, -eris, f. woman 
multitiido, -inis, f. [multus, much], 

multitude 
multum (multo), adv. [multus, much], 

compared plus, plurimum, much 

(§477) 

multus, -a, -um, adj., compared pliis, 
plurimns, much ; plur. many (§311) 

miinio, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itus, fortify, 
defend 

miinitio, -onis, f. \js!a.Taa, fortify], de- 
fense, fortification 

miirus, -i, m. wall. Cf. moenia 

musica, -ae, f. music 

N 

nam, con], for. Cf. enim 

nam-que, conj., a strengthened nam, 
introducing a reason or explana- 
tion, _/i?r, and in fact ; seeing that 

narro, -are, -avi, -atus, tell, relate 

nascor, nasci, natus sum, dep. verb, 
be bom, spring from 

natiira, -ae, f. natu7-e 

natus, part, of nascor 

nauta, -ae, m. [for navita, from navis, 
ship], sailor 



3l8 LATIN-ENGLISH 

navalis 

navalis, -e, adj. [navis, ship], naval 

navigium, navi'gi, n. ship, boat 

navigo, -are, -avi, -atus [navis, ship, 
+ ago, drive], sail, cruise 

navis, -is (abl. -i or -e), f. ship 
(§ 243. i). navem conscendere, em- 
bark, go on board, navem solvere, 
set sail, navis longa, man-of-^war 

ne, conj. and adv. in order that not, 
that (with verbs of fearing), lest; 
not. ne . . . quidem, not even 

-ne, interrog. adv., enclitic (see§§i6, 
210). Cf. nonne and num 

nee or neque, conj. [ne, not, \ que, 
anc[\, and not, nor. nee . . . nee or 
neque . . . neque, neither . . . nor 

necessarius, -a, -um, adj. needful, 
necessary 

nec5, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. nex, death], 
kill. Cf. interficio, occido, trucido 

nego, -are, -avi, -atus, deny, say not 

(§ 420- fl) 
negotium, nego'ti, n. [nee, not, + otium, 

ease], business, affair, Tnatter. alicui 

negotium dare, to employ some one 
Nemaeus, -a, -um, adj. Neme'an, of 

Neme'a, in southern Greece 
nemo, dat. nemini (gen. nflUius, abl. 

nullo, supplied from niillus), m. and 

f. [ne, not, + hom5, man], [not u. 

man), no one, nobody 
Neptiinus, -i, m. Neptune, god of the 

sea, brother of Jupiter 
neque, see nee 
neuter, -tra, -trum (gen. -trius, dat. 

-tri), adj. neither (of two) (§ 108) 
ne-ve, conj. adv. and not, and that not, 

and lest 
nihil, n. indecl, [ne, not, -|- hilum, a 

whU], nothing, nihil posse, to have 

no power 



VOCABULARY 

num 
nihilum, -i, n., see nihil 
Wiobe, -is, f. Ni'obe, the queen of 

Thebes whose children were de- 
stroyed by Apollo and Diana 
nisi, conj. [ne, not, -|- si, if], if not, 

unless, except 
nobilis, -e, adj. -well known ; noble 
noceo, -ere, -ui, -iturus [cf. neco, kill], 

hurt, injure, with dat. (§ 501. 14) 
noctii, abl. used as adv. [cf. nox, night], 

at night, by night 
Nola, -ae, f. Nola, a town in central 

Campania. See map 
nolo, nolle, nolui, [ne, not, + void, 

wish], not to wish , be unwilling^ § 497 ) 
nomen, -inis, n. [cf. nosc5, know], 

{means of knowing), name 
nomino, -are, -avi, -atus [nomen, name], 

name, call. Cf. appello, voco 
non, adv. [ne, not, ■\- iinum, one], not. 

non solum . . . sed etiam, not only 

. . . but also 
non-dum, adv. not yet 
non-ne, interrog. adv. suggesting an 

affirmative answer, not ? (§210). Cf. 

-ne and num 
nos, pers. pron. we (see ego) (§ 480) 
noster, -tra, -trum, possessive adj. 

and pron. our, ours. Plur. nostri, 

-orum, m. our men (§ 98) 
novem, indecl. numeral adj. nine 
nOYUS, -a, -um, adj. new. novae res, a 

revolution 
nox, noctis, f. night, multa nocte, late 

at night 
niillus, -a, -um (gen. -ius, dat. -i) adj. 

[ne, not, + iiUus, any] , tiot any, none, 

no (§ 108) 
num, interrog. adv. suggesting a neg- 
ative answer (§ 210). Cf. -ne and 

nonne. In indir. questions, whether 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



319 



numerus 
numenis, -i, m. number 
numquam, adv. [ne, not, + umquam, 

ever\, never 
nunc, adv. now. Cf. iam 
nuntio, -are, -avi, -atus [nuntius, mes- 

senger'l, report, announce (§420. a:) 
nuntius, nunti, m. messenger 
Duper, adv. recently, lately, just now 
nympha, -ae, f. nymph 



Ob, prep, with ace. on account of. In 

compounds it often means in front 

of, against, or is intensive, quam ob 

rem, for this reason (§ 340) 
obses, -idis, m. and f. hostage 
ob-side6,-ere,-sedi,-sessus[ob,af«z«rf, 

+ sedeo, sit], besiege 
obtineo, -ere, -ui, -tentus [ob, against, 

+ teneo, hold], possess, occupy, hold 
occasio, -onis, i. favorable opportunity, 

favorable moment 
OCcasus, -us, m. going down, setting 
occido, -ere, -cidi, -cisus [ob, down, + 

caedo, strike'], strike down ; cttt down, 

kill. Cf. interficio, neco 
occupo, -are, -avi, -atus [ob, completely, 

-I- capio, take], seize, take possession 

of, occupy. Cf. rapio 
oc-curro,-ere,-curri,-cursus[ob,ajB/»j;, 

+ curro, mn], run towards; meet, 

with dat. (§ 426) 
oceanus, -i, m. the ocean 
OCtO, indecl. numeral adj. eight 
Oculus, -i, m. eye 
officium, ota'ci, 11. duty 
olim, adv. formerly, once upon a time 
omen, -inis, n. sign, token, omen 
0-mitto, -ere, -misi, -missus [ob, over, 

past, + mitto, send], let go, omit. 

consilium omittere, give up a plan 



orior 

omnino, adv. [omnis, all], altogether, 
wholly, entirely 

omnis, -e, adj. all, every. Cf. totus 

oneraria, -ae, f. [onus, load], with 
navis expressed or understood, 
merchant vessel, transport 

onus, -eris, n. load, burden 

opinio, -onis, f. [opinor, suppose], 
opinion, supposition, expectation 

oppidanus, -i, m. [oppidum, town], 
townsman 

oppidum, -i, n. town, stronghold 

opportunus, -a, -um, adj. suitable, 
opportune, favorable 

op-primo, -ere, -pressi, -pressus [ob, 
against, -f premo, press], [press 
against^, crush ; surprise 

oppugnatio, -onis, f. storming, assault 

oppugno, -are, -avi, -atus [ob, against, 
+ ^u%,'c^,fight],fight against, assault, 
storm, assail 

optime, adv. in superl. degree, com- 
pared bene, melius, optime, very well, 
best of all (§ 323) 

optimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. de- 
gree, compared bonus, melior, opti- 
mus, best, most excellent (§311) 

opus, -eris, n. work, labor, task 

(§ 464- 2- l>) 

oraculum, -i, n. [oro, speak], oracle 
orator, -oris, m. [oro, speak], orator 
orbis, -is, m. ring, circle, orbis terra- 
rum, the earth, world 
orbita, -ae, f. [orbis, wheel], rut 
Orcus, -i, m. Orcus, the lower world 
ordo, -inis, m. row, order, rank 

(§247.2.0) 
origo, -inis, f. [orior, rise], source, 

origin 
orior, -iri, ortus sum, dep. verb, arise, 
rise ; begin ; spring, be born 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



320 

ornamentum 
ornamentum, -i, n. [orno, fit out}, 

ornament, jewel 
ornatus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of orno, 

fit out], fitted out ; adorned 
orno, -are, -avi, -atus,yf^ out, adorn 



P., abbreviation for Publius 
paene, adv. nearly, almost 
paliidamentum, -i, n. military cloak 
palus, -udis, f. swamp, marsh 
panis, -is, m. bread 
par, paris, adj. equal (§471. m) 
paratus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of paro, 

prepare^, prepared, ready 
parco, -ere, peper'ci (pjirsi), parsurus, 

spare, with dat. (§ 501. 14) 
pareo, -ere, -ui, , obey, with dat. 

(§501-14) 

paro, -are, -avi, -aXua, prepare for, pre- 
pare ; provide, procure 

pars, partis, f. part, share; side, 
direction 

parum, adv., compared minus, minime, 
too little, not enough (§ 323) 

parvus, -a, -um, adj., compared minor, 
minimus, small, little (§311) 

passus, -lis, m. step, pace, mille pas- 
suum, thousand paees , m-ile (331.^) 

pateo, -ere, patui, , lie open, be 

open ; stretch, extend 

pater, -tris, ra. father (§ 464. 2. a) 

patior, -i, passus sum, dep. verb, bear, 
sttffer, allow, permit 

patria, -ae, f. [of. ^^ater, fatherl, father- 
land, [one^s) country 

paucus, -a, -um, adj. (generally plur.), 
few, only a few 

paullsper, adv. /or « little while 

paulQ) adv. by a little, little 

paulum, adv. a little, somewhat 



per-suadeo 
pax, pacis, f. (no gen. -^Xxix.), peace 
peciinia, -ae, f. [pecus, cattle^, money 
pedes, -itis, m. ]$%&, foot'l, foot soldier 
pedester, -tris, -tre, adj. [pes,/w^], on 

foot; by land 
peior, peius, -5ris, adj. in comp. de- 
gree, compared malus, peior, pessi- 
mus, worse (§311) 
pellis, -is, f. skin, hide 
penna, -ae, i. feather 
per, prep, with ace. through, by 
means of on accoujtt of In com- 
position it often has the force of 
thoroughly, completely, very (§ 340) 
percussus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of per- 

cutio, strike throughl, pierced 

per-duco, -ere, -diixi, -ductus [per, 

through, + diico, lead'\, lead through. 

fossam perdiicere, to construct a ditch 

per-exiguus, -a, -um, adj. [per, very, -|- 

exiguus, j»«ffl//],werj' small, very short 

perfidus, -a, -um, z.&\. faithless, treach- 

emis, false 
per-fringo, -ere, -fregi, -fractus [per, 

through, -\- frango, break'], shatter 
pergo, -ere, perrexi, perrectus [per, 
through, -{■ rego, conduct], go on, 
proceed, hasten 
periculum, -i, n. trial, test; danger 
peristylum, -i, n. peristyle, an open 

court with columns around it 
peritus, -a, -um, adj. skillful 
perpetuus, -a, -um, 2.&\. perpetual 
Perseus, -ei, Perseus, a Greek hero, 

son of Jupiter and Danae 
persona, -ae, i. part, character, person 
per-suadeo, -ere, -suasi, -suasus [per, 
thoroughly, -f suade5, persuade], per- 
suadci advise, with dat. (§ 501. 14), 
often with an object clause of pur- 
pose (§501.41) 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



321 



per-terreo 

per-terreo, -ere, -ui, -Itus [per, thor- 
oughly, + terreo, frighten'], thor- 
oughly terrify, alarm 

per-venio, -ire, -veni, -ventus [per, 
through, + venio, cornel, arrive, reach, 
come to 

pes, pedis, ra.foot. pedem referre, re- 
treat (§ 247. z. fl) 

pessimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. de- 
gree, compared mains, peior, pessi- 
mus, worst (§311) 

peto, -ere, -ivi or -ii, -itus, strive for, 
seek, beg, ask ; make for, travel to. 
Cf. postulo, quaero, rogo 

Pharsalus, -i, f. Pharsa'lus or Pharsa'- 
lia, a town in Thessaly, near which 
Caesar defeated Pompey, 48 B.C. 

philosophia, -ae, i. philosophy 

philosophus, -i, m. philosopher 

pictus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of pingo, 
pain{\, colored, variegated 

pilutn, -i, n. spear, javelin (§ 462. b) 

piscina, -ae, f. \$\sas, fish], fish pond 

piscis, -is, ra.fish 

pistor, -oris, m. baker 

placeo, -ere, -ui, -itns, please, be pleas- 
ing, with dat. (§ 501. 14) 

planities, -ei, f. [planus, level], plain 

planus, -a, -um, adj. level, flat 

plenus, -a, -ma, full 

plurimum, adv. in superl. degree, 
compared multum, pliis, plurimum, 
very much . plurimum valere, be most 
influential (§ 322) 

plurimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. de- 
gree, compared multus, plus, pluri- 
mus, most, very many (§311) 

plus, pluris, adj. in comp. degree, 
compared multus, plus, plurimus ; 
sing. n. as substantive, more; plur. 
more, several (§311) 



potentia 
pluteus, -i, m. shield, parapet 
poena, -ae, i. punishment, penalty 
poeta, -ae, m. poet 
pompa, -ae, i. procession 
Pompeii, -orum, m. Pompeii, s. city of 

Campania. See map 
Pompeius, Pomps'!, m. Pompey, a 

Roman name 
pomum, -i, n. apple 
pono, -ere, posui, positus, put, place. 

castra ponere, pitch camp 
pons, pontis, m. bridge (§ 247. i.a) 
popina, -ae, f. restatirant 
populus, -i, m. people 
Porsena, -ae, m. Porsena, king of 

Etruria, a district of Italy. See map 
porta, -ae, f. gate, door 
porto, -are,'-avi, -atus, bear, carry 
portus, -lis, m. [cf. porta, ^afe], harbor 
possideo, -ere, -sedi, -sessus, have, 

own, possess 
possum, posse, potui, , irreg. verb 

[potis, able, -f sum, lam], be able, can 

(§ 495)- uihil posse, have no power 
post, prep, with ace. after, behind 

(§340) 
postea, adv. [post, after, -1- ea, this], 

afterwards 
(posterus), -a, -um, adj., compared 

posterior, postremus or postumus, 
following, next (§312) 
postquam, conj. after, as soon as 
postremo, adv. [abl. of postremus, 

last], at last, finally. Cf. demum, 

denique (§ 322) 
postridie, adv. [postero, next, -1- die, 

day], on the next day 
postulo, -are, -avi, -atus, ask, demand, 

require. Cf. peto, quaero, rogo 
potentia, -ae, f. [potens, able], might, 

power, force 



322 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



prae-beo 

prae-beo, -ere, -ui, -itus [prae, forth, 
+ habeo, hold'], offer, give 

praeda, -ae, f. booty, spoil, plunder 

prae-dico, -ere, -dixi, -dictus [prae, 
before, + died, /«//], foretell, predict 

prae-ficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus [prae, 
before, + facio, make'\, place in com- 
mand,yiith ace. and dat. (§ 501. 15) 

prae-mitto, -ere, -mlsl, -missus [prae, 
forward, -f- mitto, send], send for- 
ward 

praemium, praemi, n. reward, prize 

praeruptus, -a, -um [part, of prae- 
rumpo, break off'], broken off, steep 

praesens, -entis, aA.].present, immediate 

praesertim, adv. especially, chiefly 

praesidium, praesi'di, n. guard, gar- 
rison, protection 

prae-sto, -are, -stiti, -stitus [prae, be- 
fore, + sto, stand], {stand before), 
excel, surpass, with dat. (§ 501. 15) ; 
show, exhibit 

prae-sum, -esse, -fui, -futurus [prae, 
before,-\r ^Vi^ca., be], be over, be in com- 
mand of, with dat. (§ 501. 15) 

praeter, prep, with ace. beyond, con- 
trary to (§ 340) 

praeterea, adv. [praeter, besides, -Y ea, 
this], in addition, besides, moreover 

praetextus, -a, -um, ad]. bordered, edged 

praetorium, praeto'ri, n. prcetorium 

prandium, prandi, n. luncheon 

premo, -ere, press!, pressus, press 
hard, compress; crowd, drive, harass 

(prex, precis), i. prayer 

primo, adv. [primus, y??-i^], at first, in 
the beginning (§ 322) 

primum, adv. [primus, first], first. 
quam primum, as soon as possible 

primus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, 
compared prior, -pvcaas, first (§315) 



pro-pello 
princeps, -cipis, m. [primus, first, -\- 

capi5, take], {taking the first place), 

chief, leader (§ 464. i) 
prior, prius, -oris, adj. in comp. degree, 

superl. -plmus, former (§315) 
pristinus, -a, -um, adj. former, previ- 
ous 
pro, prep, with abl. before; for, for 

the sake of, in behalf of; instead of, 

as (§ 209). In composition, forth, 

forward 
pro-cedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessiirus [pro, 

forward, -|- cedo, go], go forward, 

proceed 
procul, adv. far, afar off 
pro-curro, -ere, -curri (-cucurri), -cur- 

sus \$ia, forward, + curro, run], run 

forward 
proelium, proeli, n. battU^ combat. 

proelium committere, join battle. 

proelium facere, fight a battle 
profectio, -onis, f. departure 
proficiscor, -i, -fectus sum, dep. verb, 

set out, march. Cf. egredior, exeo 
pro-gredior, -i, -gressus sum, dep. verb 

\Sx(i, forth, -\- graAiar, go], go forth, 

proceed, advance. Cf. pergo, prdcedo 
progressus, see progredior 
prohibeo, -ere, -ui, -itus [pro, forth, 

away from, -\- habeo, hold], keep away 

from, hinder, prevent 
pro-moveo, -ere, -movi, -motus [pro, 

forward, -f moveo, move], move for- 
ward, advance 
pro-nuntio, -are, -avi, -atus [pro, forth, 

■\-'a&Dt\o,announce],proclaim, declare 
prope, adv., compared propius, proxi- 

me, nearly. Prep, with ace. near 
pro-pello, -ere, -puli, -pulsus [pro, 

forth, -I- pello, drive], drive forth; 

move, impel 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



323 



propero 

propero, -are, -avi, -atus [properus, 
quick], go quickly, hasten. Cf. con- 
tends, mature 

propinquus, -a, -um, adj. [prope, near\, 
near, neighboring 

propior, -ius, -oris, adj. in comp. de- 
gree, superl. proximus, nearer 

(§315) 
propius, adv. in comp. degree, com- 
pared prope, propius, proxime, nearer 

(§323) 

propter, prep, with ace. on account 
of, because of (§ 340) 

pro-scribo, -ere, -scripsi, -scriptus [pro, 
forth, -|- scribo, write'], proclaim, pub- 
lish. Cf. pronuntio 

pro-sequor, -sequi, -secutus sum, dep. 
verb [pro, forth, -|- sequor, follow], 
escort, attend 

pro-sum, prodesse, profui, profuturus 
[pro, _/»?-, -1- sum, be], be useful, bene- 
fit, with dat. (§§ 496 ; 501. 15) 

pro-tego, -ere, -texi, -tectus [pro, in 
front, \ tego, cover], cover in front, 
protect 

provincia, -ae, f. territory, province 

proxime, adv. in superl. degree, com- 
pared prope, propius, proxime, near- 
est, next; last, most recently (§323) 

proximus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. de- 
gree, compared propior, proximus, 
nearest, next (§315) 

publicus, -a, -um, adj. [populus, /^o- 
ple], of the people, public, res pii- 
blica, the commonwealth 

puella, -ae, f. [diminutive of puer, 
boy], girl, maiden 

puer, -eri, m. boy ; slave (§ 462. c) 

pugna, -ae, i. fight, battle. Cf. proelium 

pugno, -are, -avi, -atus [pugna, battle], 
fight. Cf. contends, dimicS 



qui 



pulcher, -chra, -chrum, adj. beautiful, 

pretty (§§469. li; 304) 
PuUo, -Snis, m. Pullo, a centurion 
pulso, -are, -avi, -atus, strike, beat 
puppis, -is (ace. -im, abl. -i), f. stem 

of a ship, deck 
pure, adv. [puins, pure], comp. puiius, 

purely 
piirgo, -are, -avi, -atus, cleanse, clean 
purpureus, -a, -um, adj. purple, dark 

red 
put5, -are, -avi, -atus, reckon, think 

{§ 420, c). Cf. arbitror, existimo 
Pythia, -ae, f. Pythia, the inspired 

priestess of Apollo at Delphi 



qua de causa, for this reason, where- 
fore 

qua re, therefore, for this reason 

quaero, -ere, -sivi, -situs, seek, ask, 
inquire. Cf. peto, postulo, rogo 

quails, -e, interrog. pronom. adj. of 
what sort, what kind of. talis . . . 
qualis, siich . . . as 

quam, adv. how; after a compara- 
tive, than ; with a superlative, trans- 
lated as ... as possible, quam pri- 
mum, as soon as possible 

quantus, -a, -um, adj. [quam, how], 
how great, how mitch. tantus . . . 
quantus, as great as 

quartus, -a, -um, numeral adj. [quat- 
tnor, four], fourth 

quattuor, indecl. numeral ad], four 

quattuor-decim, indecl. numeral adj. 
fourteen 

-que, conj., enclitic, and (§16). Cf. 
ac, atque, et 

qui, quae, quod, rel. pron. and adj. 
who, which, what, that (§ 482) 



324 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



quia 
quia, conj. because. Cf. quod 
quidam, quaedam, quiddam (quoddam) , 
indef. pron. and adj. a certain one, 
a certain, a {§ 485) 
quidem, adv. to be sure, certainly, in- 
deed, ne . . . quidem, ?iot even 
quies, -etis, f. rest, repose 
quietus, -a, -um, adj. quiet, restful 
qumdecim, indecl. numeral &&\. fifteen 
qulngenti, -ae, -a, numeral adj. five 

hundred 
quinque, indecl. numeral 2.&].five 
quintus, -a, -um, numeral &&]. fifth 
quis (qui), quae, quid (quod), interrog. 
pron. and adj. who ? what ? which ? 

(§ 483) 
quis (qui), qua (quae), quid (quod), 

indef. pron. and adj., used after si, 

nisi, ne, num, any one, anything, some 

one, something, any, some (§ 484) 
quisquam, quicquam or quidquam (no 

fem. or plur.), indef. pron. any one 

(at all), anything (at all) (§ 486) 
quisque, quaeque, quidque (quodque), 

indef. pron. and adj. each, each one, 

every (§ 484) 
quo, interrog. and rel. adv. whither, 

where 
quo, conj. in order to, that, with comp. 

degree (§ 350) 
quod, conj. because, in that. Cf. quia 
quoque, conj., following an emphatic 

word, also, too. Cf. etiam 
quot-annis, adv. [quot, how many + 

annus, j/«ar], every year, yearly 
quotiens, interrog. and rel. adv. how 

often ? as often as 

R 
radix, -icis, f . root ; foot 
rapio, -ere, -ui, -tus, seize, snatch 



re-linquo 
raro, adv. [rarus, rarel, rarely 
rarus, -a, -um, adj. rare 
re- or red-, an inseparable prefix, 

again, back, anew, in retttrn 
rebellio, -onis, f. renewal of war, rebel- 
lion 
recens, -entis, adj. recent 
re-cipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus [re-, back, 

+ capio, takel, take back, receive, se 

recipere, withdraw, retreat 
re-clinatus, -a, -um, part, of reclino, 

leaning back 
re-creatus, -a, -um, part, of recreo, 

refreshed 
rectus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of rego, keep 

straight^, straight, direct 
re-cuso, -are, -avi, -atus, refuse 
red-actus, -a, -um, part, of redigo, re- 
duced, sitbdited 
red-eo, -ire, -ii, -itus [red-, back, -[- eo, 

go\goback,retum (§ 413). Cf.reverto 
reditus, -us, m. [cf. redeo, retumi, 

retu.m, going back 
re-duco, -ere, -duxi, -ductus [re-, back, 

■\- duco, lead'l, lead back 
re-fero, -ferre, rettuli, -latus [re-, back, 

-\-feTo,bear],bearback; report, pedem 

referre, withdraw, retreat 
re-ficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus [re-, again, 

4- facio, m.ake\, Tuake again, repair. 

se reflcere, refresh one's self 
regina, -ae, f. [rex, king\, queen 
regio, -onis, f. region, district 
regnum, -i, n. sovereignty ; kingdom, 
rego, -ere, rexi, rectus [cf. rex, king], 

govern, rule (§ 490) 
re-icio, -ere, -ieci, -iectus [re-, back, \ 

iacio, h%irl\, hurl back; throw away 
re-linquo, -ere, -liqui, -lictus [re-, be- 
hind, \ linquo, leave], leave behind, 

leave, abandon 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



325 



reliquus 

reliquus, -a, -um, adj. [cf. relinquo, 
leave], left over, remaining. As a 
noun, plur. the rest 

remotus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of re- 
moveo, remove], remote, distant 

re-moveo, -ere,-mov5, -motus [re-, back, 
+ moveo, move], remove 

lemus, -i, m. oar 

re-perio, -ire, repperi, refeitas,f net 

re-porto, -are, -avi, -atus [re-, iaci, 
+ porto, cany], carry back, bring 
back, win, gain 

res, rei, f. thing, business, matter, deed, 
event, circumstance (% ^6j). quamob 
rem, for this reason, res adversae, 
adversity, res frumentaria, grain 
supplies, res gestae, exploits, res 
mQltarls, science of war. res publica, 
the commonwealth, res secundae, 
prosperity 

re-scindo, -ere, -scidi, -scissus [re-, 
back, 4- scindo, cut], cut off, cut 
down 

re-sisto, -ere, -stiti, ■ [re-, bcu:k, 

+ sisto, cause to stand], oppose, re- 
sist, with dat. (§ 501. 14) 

re-spOndeo, -ere, -spondi, -sponsus 
[re-, in return, + s^ni.'^, promise], 
answer, reply (§ 420. a) 

re-verto, -ere, -I, , or dep. verb 

re-vertor, -i, -sus sum [re-, back, + 
verto, turn], turn back, return. Usu- 
ally active in the pert, system 

re-vincio, -ire, -vinxi, -vinctus [re-, 
back, ■\- vincio, bind], fasten 

rex, regis, m. [cf. rego, rule], king 

Rhenus, -i, m. the Rhine, a river of 
Germany 

ripa, -ae, f. bank 

Togo, -are, -avi, -atus, ask. Cf. peto, 
postulo, quaero 



sapiens 
Roma, -ae, f. Rome. See map 
Romanus, -a, -um, adj. [Roma, Rome], 

Roman, follows its noun. As a 

noun, m. and f. a Roman 
rosa, -ae, f. rose 
rostrum, -i, n. beak of a ship. In 

plur., the rostra, the speaker's stand 

in the Roman Forum 
rota, -ae, f. wheel 
Rubico, -onis, m. the Rubicon, a river 

in northern Italy. See map 
rumor, -oris, m. report, rumor 
rursus, adv. [for reversus, turned 

back], again 
TVS, ruris (locative abl. riiri, no gen., 

dat., or abl. plur.), n. the country 

(§ 501- 36. 1). Cf. ager, patria, terra 



Sabinus, -a, -um, adj. Sabine. As a 
noun, m. and f. it Sabine. The 
Sabines were an ancient people of 
central Italy. See map 

sacrum, -i, n. [sacer, consecrated], 
something consecrated, sacrifice ; usu- 
ally in plur., religious rites 

saepe, adv., compared saepius, sae- 
pissime, often, frequently 

saevus, -a, -um, adj. cruel, savage 

sagitta, -ae, f. arrow 

salio, -ire, -ui, s&\tas, jump 

saMs, -utis, f. safety; health, salu- 
tem dicere, send greetings 

saluto, -are, -avi, -atus [salus, health], 
greet, salute 

salve, imv. of salveo, hail, greetings 

sanguis, -inis, m. blood (§ 247. 2. a) 

sanitas, -atis, f. [sanus, sound], health, 
sanity 

sapiens, -entis, adj. [part, of sapio, 
be wise], wise, sensible 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



326 

satis 

satis, adv. and indecl. noun, enough, 
sufficient, sufficiently 

saxum, -i, n. rock, stone 

scelus, -eris, n. crime, sin 

sceptrum, -i, n. scepter 

schola, -ae, f. school, the higher 
grades. Cf. ludus 

scientia, -ae, f. [sciens, knowing], 
skill, knowledge, science 

scindo, -ere, scidi, scissus, cut, tear 

scio, -ire, -ivi, -itus, know {§420.^). 
Cf. cognosce 

scribo, -ere, scripsi, scriptus, write 

scutum, -i, n. shield, buckler 

se, see sui 

secum = se + cum 

secundus, -a, -um, adj. [sequor,yi7//i7ia], 
following, next, second; favorable, 
successfoil. res secundae, prosperity 

sed, conj. but, on the contrary, non 
solum . . . sed etiam, not only . . . 
but also 

sedecim, indecl. numeral adj. sixteen 

sedeo, -ere, sedi, sessus, sit 

semper, adv. always, forever 

senatus, -us, m. [cf. senex, old\, coun- 
cil of elders, senate 

sentio, -ire, sensi, sensus,/^^/, know, 
perceive (§ 420. d). Cf. intellego, video 

septem, indecl. numeral adj. seven 

Septimus, -a, -um, numeral adj. 
seventh 

sequor, -i, secutus sum, dep. verb, 
follow (§493) 

serpens, -entis, m. [serpo, crawl], 
serpent, snake 

sertae, -arum, f. plur. wreaths, gar- 
lands 

servitiis, -utis, f. [servus, slave], 
slaiMry, servitude 

servo, -are, -avi, -atus, save, rescue, keep 



solvo 
servus, -i, m. slave 
sese, emphatic for se 
sex, indecl. numeral adj. six 
Sextus, -i, m. Sextus, a Roman iirst 

name 
si, conj. if 

sic, adv. thus, in this way. Cf. ita, tam 
Sicilia, -ae, f. Sicily. See map 
sic-ut, just as, as if 
signifer, -eri, m. [signum, standard, + 

fero, bear], standard bearer (p. 224) 
Sjgnum, -i, n. ensign, standard ; signal 
silva, -ae, f. wood, forest 
similis, -e, adj., compared similior, 

simillimus, like, similar (§ 307) 
simul, adv. at the same time 
simul ac or simul atque, conj. as 

soon as 
sine, prep, with abl. without (§ 209) 
singuli, -ae, -a, distributive numeral 

adj. one at a time, single (§ 334) 
sinister, -tra, -trum, adj. left 
Sinuessa, -ae, f. Sinues'sa, a town in 

Campania. See map 
sitis, -is {ace. -im, abl. -i, no plur.), f. 

thirst 
situs, -a, -um, adj. [part, of sino, set], 

situated, placed, lying 
socius, soci, m. comrade, ally 
sol, solis (no gen. plur.), m. sun 
soleo, -ere, solitus sum, semi-dep. 

verb, be wont, be accustomed 
soUicitus, -a, -um, adj. disturbed, 

anxious 
solum, adv. [solus, alone], alone, only. 

non solum . . . sed etiam, not only 

. . . but also 
solus, -a, -um (gen. -ius, dat. -i), adj. 

alone, only (§ 108) 
solvo, -ere, solvi, solutus, loosen, un- 
bind, navem solvere, set sail 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



327 



somnus 

somnus, -i, m. sleep 

soror, -oris, f. sister 

spatium, spati, n. space, distance; 
time; opportunity 

spectaculum, -I, n. [specto, look at], 
show, spectacle 

specto, -are, -avi, -atus, look at, wit- 
ness 

spero, -are, -avi, -atus [spes, hope'], 
hope, expect {§ 420. c) 

spes, spel, f. hope (§ 273. 2) 

splendide, adv. [splendidus], com- 
pared splendidius, splendidissime, 
splendidly, handsomely 

splendidus, -a, -um, adj. brilliant, 
gorgeous, splendid 

Stabianus, -a, -um, Stabian 

stabulum, -i, n. [cf. sto, stand], stand- 
ing place, stable, stall 

statim, adv. [cf. sto, stand], on the 
spot, at once, instantly 

statua, -ae, f. [sisto, place, set], 
statue 

statuo, -ere, -u5, -utus [status, station], 
decide, determine 

stilus, -i, m. iron pencil, style (p. 210) 

sto, -are, steti, status, stand 

stratus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of sterno, 
spread], paved (of streets) 

strepitus, -us, m. [strepo, make a 
noise], noise, din 

strings, -ere, strinxi, strictus, bind 
tight; draw, unsheathe 

studeo, -ere, -ui, , ^ve attention 

to, be eager, with dat (§ 501. 14) 

studium, studi, u. [cf. studeo, be eager 
for], eagerness, desire, zeal, devotion 

stultus, -a, -um, aA]. foolish, stupid 

Stymphalis, -idis, adj. f. Stymphalian, 
of Stympha'lus, a lake in southern 
Greece 



super-sum 

Stymphalus, -\, m. Stymphaflus, a 
district of southern Greece with 
a town, mountain, and lake, all of 
the same name 

suadeo, -ere, -si, -sus, advise, recom- 
mend, with subjv. of purpose 

(§501-41) 
sub, prep, with ace. and abl. under, 

below, up to ; at or to the foot of 
sub-igo, -ere, -egi, -actus [sub, under, 

H- ago, drive], subdue, reduce 
subito, adv. [subitus, sudden],suddenly 
sub-sequor, -i, -secutus sum, dep. verb 

[sub, below, -\- sequor, follow], fol- 
low close after, follow up 
suc-cedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessus [sub, 

below, -|- <xiS), go], follow, succeed 
sui, reflexive ^ron. of himself {herself, 

itself themselves) (§ 480). secum = 

se + cum. sese, emphatic form of se 
sum, esse, fui, futurus, irreg. verb, be; 

exist (§ 494) 
summus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. 

degree, compared superus, superior, 

supremus or summus (%2i'^2), supreme, 

highest; best, greatest, in summo colle, 

on the top of the hill 
sumo, -ere, sumpsi, sumptus, take up ; 

assume, put on. sumere supplicium 

de, inflict punishment on 
super, prep, with ace. and abl. over, 

above 
superbia, -ae, f. [superbus, proud], 

pride, arrogance 
superbus, -a, -um, adj. proud, haughty 
superior, comp. of superus 
supero, -are, -avi, -atus [superus, 

above], go over; subdue, overcome; 

surpass, excel 
super-sum, -esse, -fui, , be over, 

survive, with dat. (§ 501.15) 



328 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



superus 
-um, adj., 



superus, -a, -um, adj., compared 
superior, supremus or summus, above, 
uffer (§312) 

supplicium, suppli'ci, n. [supplex, 
kneeling in entreaty], punishment, 
toHure. supplicium sumere de, in- 
flict punishment on. supplicium 
dare, suffer punishment 

surge, -ere, surrexi, [sub, from 

below, + rego, straighten], rise 

sus-cipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus [sub, 
under, + capio, take], undertake, as- 
sume, begin 

suspicor, -ari, -atus sum, dep. verb, 
suspect, sttrmise, suppose 

sus-tineo, -ere, -tinui, -tentus [sub, 
under, + teneo, hold], hold up, bear, 
sustain, withstand 

suus, -a, -um, reflexive possessive adj. 
and pron., his, her, hers, its, their, 
theirs (§ 98) 

T 

T., abbreviation of Titus 
taberna, -ae, f. shop, stall 
tabula, -ae, f. tablet for writing 
talis, -e, adj. such, talis . . . qualis, 

such . . . as 
tarn, adv. so, such. Cf. ita, sic 
tamen, adv. yet, however, nevertheless 
tandem, adv^ at length, finally 
tango, -ere, tetigi, tactus, totich 
tantum, adv. [tantus], only 
tantus, -a, -um, adj. so great, such. 

tantus . . . quantus, as large as 
tardus, -a, -um, adj. slow, late; lazy 
Tarpeia, -ae, f. Tarpeia (pronounced 

Tarpe'ya), the maiden who opened 

the citadel to the Sabines 
Tarquinius, Tarqui'ni, Tarquin, a 

Roijian king. With the surname 

Superbus, Tarquin the Proud 



timeo 
Tarracina, -ae, f. Tarraci'na, a town 

in Latium. See map 
taurus, -i, m. bull 
tectus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of tego, 

cover], covered, protected 
telum, -i, 11. weapon 
temere, adv. rashly, heedlessly 
tempestas, -atis, f. [tempus, time], 

storm, tempest 
templum, -i, n. temple, shrine 
tempto, -are, -avi, -atus, try, test; make 

trial of, attempt 
tempus, -oris, n. time {§464. z.b). in 

reliquum tempus, for the futtire 

teneo, -ere, tenui, , hold, keep 

tergum, -i, n. back, a tergo, on the 

rear, tergum vertere, retreat, flee 
terni, -ae, -a, distributive numeral adj. 

three each, by threes (§ 334) 
terra, -ae, f. earth, ground, land, orbis 

terrarum, the whole world 
terror, -oris, m. [cf. \RTCia, frighten], 

dread, alarm, terror 
tertius, -a, -um, numeral adj. third 
Teutones, -um, m. the Teutons 
theatrum, -i, n. theater 
Thebae, -arum, f. Thebes, a city of 

Greece 
Thebani, -orum, m. Thebans, the 

people of Thebes 
thermae, -arum, f. plur. baths 
Thessalia, -ae, f. Thessaly, a district 

of northern Greece 
Thracia, -ae, f. Thrace, a district 

north of Greece 
Tiberius, Tibe'ri, m. Tiberius, a 

Roman first name 
tibicen, -inis, m. [cf. \Sb\dL, pipe], piper, 



-,fear, be afraid of. 



timeo, -ere, -ui, ■ 
Cf. vereor 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



329 



timor 

timor, -oris, m. [cf. timeo, fear\,fear, 
dread, alarm. Cf. metus 

Tiryns, Tiiynthis, f. Ti'ryns, an an- 
cient town in southern Greece, 
where Hercules served Eurystheus 

toga, -ae, f. [cf. tego, cover\, toga 

tortnentum, -i, n. engine of war 

totiens, adv. so often, so many times 

totus, -a, -um (gen. -ius, dat. -i), adj. 
all, the whole, entire (§ 108) 

tra-do, -ere, -didi, -ditus [trans, across, 
+ do, deliver\, give up, hand over, 
surrender, betray 

tra-duco, -ere, -duxi, -ductus [trans, 
across, + duco, lead], lead across 

traho, -ere, traxi, tractus, draw, pull, 
drag, multnm ixzheie, protract, pro- 
long much 

tra-icio,-ere,-iec!,-iectus [trans, across, 
+ iacio, hurl], throw across ; transfix 

tra-no, -are, -avi, -atus [trans, across, 
+ no, swim], swim- across 

trans, prep, with ace. across, over 

_(§ 340) 
trans-eo, -ire, -ii, -itus [trans, across, 

+ eo, go], go across, cross (§ 413) 
trans-figo, TPre, -fixi, -fixus [trans, 

■through, + figo, drive], transfix 
transitus, (ace. -um, abl. -u), m. 

[cf. transeo, cross over], passage 

across 
tres, tria, numeral adj. three (§ 479) 
triduum, tridui, n. [tres, three, + dies, 

days], three days'' time, three days 
triginta, indecl. numeral adj. thirty 
triplex, -icis, adj. threefold, triple 
tristis, -e, adj. sad; severe, terrible 
tristltia, -ae, f. [tristis, sad], sadness, 

sorrow 
triumpho, -are, -avi, -atus [triumplius, 

triumph], celebrate a triumph 



triumphus, -i, m. triumphal proces- 
sion, triumph, triumphum agere, 
celebrate a triumph 

trucido, -are, -avi, -atus, cut to pieces, 
slaughter. Cf. interflcio, neco, occido 

tii, tui (plur. vos), pers. pron. thou, 
you (§480) 

tuba, -ae, f. trumpet 

TuUia, -ae, f. Tullia, a Roman name 

turn, adv. then, at that time 

turris, -is, f. tower (§ 465. 2) 

tutus, -a, -um, adj. safe 

tuus, -a, -um, possessive adj. and pron. 
your, yours (§98) 

U 

ubi, rel. and interrog. adv. where, when 

uUus, -a, -um (gen. -ius, dat. -i), adj. 
any (§ 108) 

ulterior, -ius, -oris, adj. in comp. de- 
gree, superl. ultimus, farther, more 
remote (§ 315) 

ultimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. de- 
gree (see iMjstSax), farthest (§315) 

umbra, -ae, f. shade 

umerus, -i, m. shoulder 

umquam, adv. ever, at any time 

una, adv. [unus, one], in the same place, 
at the same time 

undecimus,-a,-um, numeral adj. [iinus, 
one, -f decimus, tenth], eleventh 

undi(}ue, adv. from, every quarter, on 
all sides, everywhere 

iinus, -a, -um (gen. -ius, dat. -i), 
numeral adj. one; alone (§ 108) 

urbs, -is, f. city (§ 465. a) 

urgeo, -ere, ursi, , press upon, 

crowd, hem in 

vans, -i, m. wild ox, urus 

usque, adv. all the way, even 

usus, -us, m. use, advantage 



330 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



ut 



ut, conj. with the subjv. that, in 07-der 

that, that not (with verbs of fearing), 

so that, to (§ 350. 1) 
uter, -tra, -trum (gen. -ius, dat. -I), in- 

terrog. pron. which of two? which? 

(§ 108) 
uterque, utraque, utrumque, indef. 

pron. ecuh of two, each, both, ab 

utraque parte, on both sides 
utilis, -e, adj. [utor, use\, useful 
utrimque, adv. [uterque, each of two'], 

on each side, on either hand 
uva, -ae, f. grape, bunch of grapes 
uxor, -oris, f. wife 



vagina, -ae, sheath, scabbard 

vagor, -ari, -atus sum, dep. verb, 

wander 
valeo, -ere, -ui, -iturus, be powerful, be 

well; in the imperative as a greet- 
ing, ya^-^TOf//. plurimum valere, have 

the most power 
valetiido, -inis, f. [valeo, be well], 

health 
validus, -a, -um, adj. [cf. valeo, be 

strong], strong, able, well 
valles, -is, f. valley 
yallum, -i, n. rampart, earthworks 
varius, -a, -um, adj. bright-colored 
vasto, -are, -avi, -atus [vastus, empty], 

{make empty), devastate, lay waste 
vectigal, -alis, n. tax, tribute 
vehementer, adv. [vehemens, eager], 

compared vehementius, vehementls- 

sime, eagerly, vehemently 
veho, -ere, vexi, vectus, convey, cany. 

In the passive often in the sense of 

ride, sail 
vel, conj. or. vel . . . vel, either . . . or. 

Cf.'aut 



velocitas, -atis, f. [velox, swift], swift- 
ness 
velox, -ocis, adj. swift, fleet 
velum, -i, n. sail 
vendo, -ere, vendidi, venditus, sell 
venio, -ire, veni, ventus, come, go 
ventus, -i, m. wind 
verbum, -i, n. word, verba facere pro, 

speak in behalf of 
vereor, -eri, -itus sum, dep. verb, 

fear; reverence, respect {§ 493). Cf. 

timeo 
Vergilius, Vergili, m. Vergil, the poet 

vergo, -ere, , , turn, lie 

vero, adv. [verus, true], in truth, surely; 

conj. but, however, tum vero, then 

you may be sure, introducing the 

climax of a story 
verto, -ere, -ti, -sus, tum, change. 

tergum vertere, retreat, flee 
verus, -a, -um, true, actual 
vesper, -eri, m. evening 
vester, -tra, -trum, possessive adj. and 

pron. your, yours (§ 98) 
vestigium, vesti'gi, n. [cf. vestigo, 

track], footstep, track, trace 
vestimentum, -i, n. [vestis, clothing], 

garment 
vestio, -ire, -ivi, -itus [vestis, clothing], 

clothe, dress 
vestis, -is, f. clothing, attire, garment, 

robe 
vestitus, -a, -um, adj. [part, of vestio, 

clothe], clothed 
Vesuvius, Vesu'vi, m. Vesuvius, the 

volcano near Pompeii. See map 
veteranus, -a, -um, adj. old, veteran 
veto, -are, -ui, -itns, forbid, prohibit 
vexo, -are, -avi, -atus, trouble, annoy 
via, -ae, f. way, road, street; way, 

manner. Cf. iter 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



331 



viator 
viator, -oris, m. [via], traveler 
victor, -oris, m. [vinco, conquer}, con- 
queror, victor. In apposition, with 

adj. force, victorious 
victoria, -ae, f. [victor, victor\, victory 
vicus, -i, m. village 
video, -ere, vidi, visus, see, perceive. 

Pass, be seen ; seem (§ 420. d) 
vigilia, -ae, f. [vigil, awake'], watch, de 

tertia vigilia, about the third watch 
viginti, indecl. numeral adj. twenty 
vilicus, -i, m. [villa, farm], steward, 

overseer of a farm 
villa, -ae, i.farm, villa 
vincio, -ire, vinxi, vinctus, bind, tie, 

fetter 
vinco, -ere, vici, victus, conquer, 

defeat, overcome. Cf. subigo, supero 
vinea, -ae, f. shed (p. 219) 
vinum, -i, u. wine 
violenter, adv. [violentus, violent], 

compared violentius, violentissime, 

violently, furiously 
vir, viri, m. man, husband; hero 

(§ 462. c) 
virilis, -e, adj. [vir, man], manly 
virtiis, -utis, f. [vir, man], manliness ; 

courage, valor; virtue (§464. i) 



vulpes 

vis, (vis), f. strength, power, might 

_(§468) 
vita, -ae, f. [cf. vivo, live], life, vitam 

agere, spend or pass life 
vito, -are, -avi, -atus, shun, avoid 
vivo, -ere, vixi, , live. Cf. habito, 

incolo 
vivus, -a, -um, adj. [cf. vivo, live], alive, 

living 
vix, adv. scarcely, hardly 
VOCO, -are, -avi, -atus, call, su?nm-on, 

invite. Cf. appello, nominS 
volo, -are, -avi, -aturus,7?j' 
VOlo, velle, volui, ^ — , irreg. verb, will, 

be willing, wish (§497). Cf. cupio 
volumen, -inis, u. roll, book 
Vorenus, -i, m. Vore'nus, a centu- 
rion 
vos, pers. ^roa. you (see tu) (§480) 
votum, -i, n. [neut. part, of voveo, vow], 

vow, pledge, prayer 
VOX, vocis, f. [cf. voco, call], voice, cry ; 

word 
vulnero, -are, -avi, -atus [vulnus, 

wound], wound, hurt 
vulnus, -eris, n. wound, injury 
vulpes, -is, i.fox 




EQUES ROMANUS 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY 



This vocabulary contains only the words used in the English-Latin exercises. For 

details not given here, reference may be made to the Latin-English vocabulary. The 

figures I, 2, 3, 4, after verbs indicate the conjugation. 



a, an, commonly not translated 

able (be), possum, posse, potui, 

(§495) 
abode, domicilium, domici'li, n. 
about {adv.), circiter 
about (prep.), de, with abl. 
about to, expressed by fut. act. part. 
abundance, copia, -ae,/. 
across, trans, with ace. 
active, acer, acris, acre 
advance, progredior, 3 
advantage, iisus, -iis, m. 
advise, moneo, 2 
after (cf7«/.), postquam; often expressed 

by the perf. part. 
after (prep.), post, with ace. 
against, in, contra, with ace. 
aid, auxilium, auxi'li, n. 
all, omnis, -e ;• totus, -a, -um (§ 108) 
allow, patior, 3 
ally, socius, socJ, m. 
almost, paene ; fere 
alone, iinus, -a, -um ; solus, -a,-um ( § 1 08) 
already, iam 
also, quoque 
always, semper 
ambassador, legatus, -1, m. 
among, apud, with ace. 
ancient, antiquus, -a, -um 
and, at ; atque (ac) ; -que 



and so, itaque 

Andromeda, Andromeda, -ae,/. 

angry, Iratus, -a, -um 

animal, animal, -alis, n. 

announce, nuntio, i 

annoying, molestus, -a, -um 

another, alius, -a, -ud {§ 109) 

any, Gllus, -a, -um (§ 108) 

any one, anything, quisquam, quic- 

quam or quidquam (§ 486) 
appearance, forma, -ae,/. 
appoint, creo, i 

approach, adpropinquS, i, with dat. 
are, used as auxiliary, not translated ; 

as a copula, sum (§ 494) 
arise, orior, 4 

arm, bracchium, bracchi, n. 
armed, armatus, -a, -um 
arms, arma, -orum, n. plur. 
army, exercitus, -its, m. 
around, circum, with ace. 
arrival, adventus, -us, m. 
arrow, sagitta, -ae,/. 
art of war, res mllitaris 
as possible, expressed by quam and 

sitperl. 
ask, peto, 3 ; quaero, 3 ; rogo, i 
assail, oppugno, i 
at, in, with ace. or abl. ; with names of 

towns, locative case or abl. without a 

preposition (§ 268) ; time when, abl. 



332 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY 



333 



at once 
at once, statim 
at the beginning of summer, inita 

aestate 
Athens, Athenae, -arum,/; 
attack, impetus, -us, m. 
attempt, conor, i ; tempts, i 
away from, a or ab, with abl 

B 

bad, malus, -a, -um 

baggage, impedimenta, -orum, n.plur. 

bank, ripa, -ae,/. 

barbarians, barbarl, -orum, m.plur. 

battle, proelium,proeli,».;pugna,-ae,y. 

be, sum (§ 494) 

be absent, be far, absum (§ 494) 

be afraid, times, z ; vereor, 2 

be away, absum (§ 494) 

be in command of, praesum, with dat. 
(§§494,426) 

be informed, certior fio 

be off, be distant, absum (§ 494) 

be without, egeo, with abl. (§ 180) 

beast (wild), fera, -ae,/. 

beautiful, pulcher, -chra, -chrum 

because, quia; quod 

because of, propter, with ace. ; or abl. 
of cause 

before, heretofore (adv.), antea 

before (prep.), ante, with ace; pro, 
with abl. 

begin, incipio, 3 

believe, credo, 3, with dat. (% 1 53) 

belong to, expressed by predicate geni- 
tive (§ 409) 

best, optimus, superl. ^ bonus 

better, melior, comp. ^ bonus 

between, inter, with ace. 

billow, fluctus, -us, m. 

bird, avis, -is,/ (§243.1) 

blood, sanguis, -inis, m. 



carry 
body, corpus, -oris, n. 
bold, audax, -acis ; fortis, -e 
boldly, audacter; fortiter 
boldness, audacia, -ae,/! 
booty, praeda, -ae,/! 
both, each (of two), uterque, utraque, 

utrumque 
both . . . and, et . . . et 
boy, puer, -eri, m. 
brave, fortis, -e 
bravely, fortiter 
bridge, pons, pontis, m. 
bright, clarus, -a, -um 
bring back, reports, i 
bring upon, infers, -ferre, -tulT, -latus, 

with ace. and dat. (§ 426) 
brother, frater, -tris, m. 
building, aedificium, aedifi'ci, «. 
burn, cremS, i ; incendo, 3 
business, negotium, negS'ti, n. 
but, however, autem, se'd 
by, a, ab, with abl. ; denoting means, 

abl. alone; sometimes implied in a 

participle 
by night, noctii 



Caesar, Caesar, -aris, m. 

calamity, calamitas, -atis,/ 

call, voco, I ; appellS, i ; nomino, i 

call together, convocS, i 

camp, castra, -Srum, n. plur, 

can, could, possum, posse, potui, 

(§495) 

capture, capiS, 3 ; occupo, i 

care, cura, -ae,/! 

care for, euro, i 

careful, attentus, -a, -um 

carefulness, diligentia, -ae,/ 

carry, ferS, ferre, tuli, latus (§ 498) ; 

ports, I 



334 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY 



carry on 
carry on, gero, 3 
cart, carrus, -1, m. 
cause, causa, -ae,/ 
cavalry, equitatus, -us, m. 
cease, cesso, i 
Cepheus, Cepheus, -1, m. 
certain (a) , quidam, quaedam, quoddam 

(quiddam) (§ 485) 
chicken, gallina, -ae,/. 
chief, princeps, -cipis, m. 
children, liberi, -orum, m. flur. 
choose, deligo, 3 
choose, elect, creo, i 
citizen, civis, -is, m. and f. (§243. i) 
city, urbs, urbis,/". 
clear, clarus, -a, -um 
cohort, cohors, -rtis,/l 
come, venio, 4 
command, impero, 1, with dat. 

(§ 45) ; iubeo, 2 ; praesura, with 

dat. (§426) 
commit, committo, 3 
commonwealth, res publica, rel piibli- 

cae 
concerning, de, with ail. 
conquer, supero, i ; vinco, 3 
construct [a ditch], perduco, 3 
consul, consul, -ulis, m. 
contrary to, contra, with ace. 
Corinth, Corinthus, -T, / 
Cornelia, Cornelia, -ae,/. 
Cornelius, Cornelius, Corne'li, m. 
corselet, lorica, -ae,/. 
cottage, casa, -ae,/ 
country, as distinguished from the city, 

rus, ruris, n. ; as territory, fines,-ium, 

m., plur. (/finis 
courage, virtus, -utis,/ 
crime, scelus, -eris, n. 
cross, transeo, 4 (§ 499) 
crown, corona, -ae,/ 



dwelling 

D 

daily, cotldie 

danger, periculum, -1, n. 

daughter, filia, -ae,/ (§67) 

day, dies, -ei, m. 

daybreak, prima lux 

dear, carus, -a, -um 

death, mors, mortis,/ 

deed, res, rel,/ 

deep, altus, -a, -um 

defeat, calamitas, -atis,/ 

defend, defends, 3 

delay [noun], mora, -ae,/ 

delay [verb], moror, i 

demand, postulo, i 

dense, densus, -a, -um 

depart, discedo, 3 ; exeo, 4 ; profi- 
ciscor, 3 

dependent, cliens, -entis, m. 

design, c5nsilium, consi'li, n. 

desire, cupio, 3 

destroy, deleo, 2 

Diana, Diana, -ae,/ 

difier, differo, differre, distuli, dilatus 
(§498) 

different, dissimilis, -e 

difficult, difficilis, -e 

difficulty, difificultas, -atis,/ 

diligence, dlligentia, -ae,/ 

dinner, cena, -ae,/ 

disaster, calamitas, -atis,/ 

distant (be), absum, -esse, afui, afu- 
turus (§ 494) 

ditch, fossa, -ae,/ 

do, ago, 3 ; f acio, 3 ; when used as aux- 
iliary, not translated 

down from; de, with abl. 

drag, traho, 3 

drive, ago, 3 

dwell, habito, i ; incolo, 3 ; vivo, 3 

dwelling, aedificium, aedifi'ci, n. 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY 

each full 

find, reperio, 4 



335 



E 
each, quisque, quaeque, quidque (quod- 

que) (§484) 
each of two, uterque, utraque, utrum- 

que 
each other, inter with ace. of a reflexive 
eager, acer, acris, acre ; alacer, alacris, 

alacre 
eager (be), studeo, i 
eagerness, studium, studi, n. 
eagle, aquila, -ae,/. 
easily, facile 
easy, facilis, -e 
either . . . or, aut . . . aut 
empire, imperium, impe'ri, n. 
employ, negotium do 
encourage, hortor, i 
enemy, hostis, -is, m. and f.; inimi- 

cus, -1, m. 
enough, satis 

entire, totus, -a, -um (§ io8) 
expectation, opinio, -onis,/! 
eye, oculus, -I, m. 

F 
faithless, perfidus, -a, -um 
famous, clarus, -a, -um 
far, longe 

farmer, agricola, -ae, m. 
farther, ulterior, -ius 
father, pater, patris, m. 
fatherland, patria, -ae,/". 
favor, faveo, z 
favorable, idoneus, -a, -um ; secundus, 

-a, -um 
fear, metus, -iis, m.\ timor, -oris, m. 
fear, be afraid, timeo, 5 
few, pauci, -ae, -a 
field, ager, agri, m. 
fifteen, quindecim 
fight, contendo, 3 ; pugnS, i 



finish, cSnficio, 3 

fire, ignis, -is, m. (§243.1) 

firmness, constantia, -ae,y. 

first, primus, -a, -um 

flee, fugio, 3 

flight, fuga, -ae,/ 

fly, volo, I 

foe, see enemy 

follow close after, subsequor, 3 

food, cibus, -i, m. 

foot, pes, pedis, m. 

foot-soldier, pedes, -itis, m. 

for (conj.), enim, nam 

for (prep.), sign of dat.; de, pro, with 

abl.; to express purpose, ad, with 

gerundive; implied in ace. of time 

and of extent of space 
for a long time, diii 
forbid, veto, i 

forces, copiae, -3.x\xm.,f.,plur. <j/'c5pia 
forest, silva, -ae,/. 
fort, castellum, -1, n. ; castrum, -1, n. 
fortification, miinitio, -onis,/ 
fortify, munio, 4 
fortune, fortuna, -ae,/ 
fourth, quartus, -a, -um 
free, liber, -era, -erum 
free, liberate, liber5, i 
frequent, creber, -bra, -brum 
friend, amicus, -I, m. 
friendly [adj.], amicus, -a, -um 
friendly (adv.), amice 
friendship, amicitia, -ae,/ 
frighten, perterreo, 2 
from, a or ab, de, e, ex, with abl. Often 

expressed by the separative ablative 

without a prep. 
from each other, inter, with ace. of a 

reflexive pron. 
full, plenus, -a, -um 



336 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY 
Galba in 



G 
Galba, Galba, -ae, m. 
garland, corona, -ae,/. 
garrison, praesidium, praesi'di, n. 
gate, porta, -ae,/. 
Gaul, Gallia, -ae,/. 
Gaul (a), Gallus, -i, m. 
general, imperator, -oris, m. 
Geneva, Genava, -ae,/ 
gentle, lenis, -e 
German, Germanus, -a, -um 
Germans (the), Germani, -orum, m. 

plur. 
Germany, Germania, -ae,/ 
get (dinner], paro, ■ 
girl, puella, -ae,/. 
give, do, dare, dedi, datus 
give over, surrender, dedo, 3 ; trado, 3 
give up, omitto, 3 
go, eo, 4 (§ 499) 
go forth, progredior, 3 
god, deus, -i, m. {§ 468) 
goddess, dea, -ae,/. {§ 67) 
gold, aurura, -1, n. 
good, bonus, -a, -um 
grain, frumentum, -1, n. 
grain supply, res frumentaria 
great, ingens, -ends ; raagnus, -a, -um 
greatest, maximus, -a, -um ; summus, 

-a, -um 
guard, praesidium, praesi'di, n. 

IS. 
hand, manus, -lis,/ 
happy, laetus, -a, -um 
harbor, portus, -iis, m. 
hasten, contends, 3 ; maturS, i ; pro- 

pero, I 
hateful, invTsus, -a, -um 
haughty, superbus, -a, -um 
have, habeo, 2 



have no power, nihil possum 

he, is ; hie ; iste ; ille ; or not expressed 

head, caput, -itis, n. 

hear, audio, 4 

heart, animus, -1, m. 

heavy, gravis, -e 

Helvetii (the), Helvetil, -orum, m.plur. 

hem in, contineo, 2 

hen, gallina, -ae,/ 

her, eius ; huius ; istius ; illius ; reflex- 
ive, suus, -a, -um (§116) 

hide, abdo, 3 

high, altus, -a, -um 

highest, summus, -a, -um 

hill, coUis, -is, m. 

himself, sul. See self 

hindrance, impedimentum, -1, n. 

his, eius ; huius ; istius ; illius ; reflexive, 
suus, -a, -um (§116) 

hither, citerior, -ius (§ 315) 

hold, teneo, z 

home, domus, -us,/ (§468). at home, 
domi (§ 267) 

hope (noun), spes, spei,/ 

hope (verb), spero, i 

horse, equus, -I, m. 

horseman, eques, -itis, m. 

hostage, obses, -idis, m. and/. 

hostile, inimicus, -a, -um 

hour, hora, -ae,/ 

house, domicilium, domici'li, «.; 
domus, -us,/ (§ 468) 

hurl, iacio, 3 



I, ego (§ 280) ; or not expressed 
if, SI. if not, 'nisi 
ill, aeger, -gra," -grum 
immediately, statim 
in [of place), in, with abl.; (of time or 
of specification) abl. without prep. 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY 



in order that 

in order that^ ut, with subjv. ; in order 
that not, lest, ne, with subjv. 

in vain, frustra 

industry, dlligentia, -ae,/. 

inflict injuries upon, iniurias Tnfero 
■with dat.'(^ 426) 

inflict punishment on, supplicium 
sum^de 

inform some one, aliquem certiorem 
faci5 

injure, noceo, 2, with dat. (§ 153) 

injury, iniuria, -ae,/. 

into, in, with ace. 

intrust, committo, 3 ; mando, i 

invite, voco, i 

is, used as auxiliary, not translated ; 
as a copula, sum (§ 494) 

island, insula, -ae,y; 

it, is ; hie ; iste ; ille ; or not ex- 
pressed 

Italy, Italia, -ae,/ 

its, eius ; huius ; istius ; illius ; re- 
flexive, suus, -a, -um (§116) 

itsHf, sui. See self 



join battle, proelium committo 
journey, iter, itineris, «. (§ 468) 
judge (noun), iudex, -icis, m. 
judge (verb), iiidico, i 
Julia, Ifllia, -ae,/. 
just now, niiper 



keep, contineo, 2; prohibeo, 2; teneo, 2 
keep on doing something, expressed 

by the impf. indie. 
kill, interficio, 3 ; neco, i ; occido, 3 
king, rex, regis, m. 
kingdom, regnum, -1, n. 
know, cogn5sc6, 3, in perf. ; scio, 4 



337 

love 
L 

labor (noun), labor, -oris, m. 

labor (verb), lab5ro, i 

lack (noun), inopia, -ae,/ 

lack (verb), egeo, 2, with abl. (§ 180) 

lady, domina, -ae,/ 

lake, lacus, -iis, m. (§ 260. 2) 

land, terra, -ae,/ 

language, lingua, -ae,/ 

large, ingens, -entis ; magnus, -a, -um 

larger, maior, maius 

lately, nuper 

Latona, Latona, -ae,/ 

law, lex, legis,/ 

lay waste, vasto, i 

lead, diico, 3 

leader, dux, ducis, m. and/. 

learn, know, cognosco, 3 

leave, depart from, discedo, 3 

leave behind, abandon, relinquo, 3 

left, sinister, -tra, -trum 

legion, legis, -5nis,/. 

legionaries, legiSnaril, -orum, vi. 

plur. 
length, longitiidS, -inis,/ 
lest, ne, with subjv. 
letter (of the alphabet), littera, -ae, 

/ ; (an epistle) litterae, -arum, / 

plur. 
lieutenant, legatus, -1, m. 
light, liix, Wcis,/ 
like (adj.), sirailis, -e 
like, love, amo, i 
line of battle, acies, aciel,/ 
little, parvus, -a, -um 
live; habito, i ; incolo, 3 ; vivo, 3 
long, longus, -a, -um 
long, for a long time, diu 
long for, desTdero, i 
look after, euro, i 
love, amo, i 



338 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY 



maid 

M 

maid, maid servant, ancilla, -ae,/ 

make, facio, 3 

make war upon, bellum Infero -with 
dat. {§ 426) 

man, homo, -inis, m. and f.; vir, 
viri, m. 

man-of-war, navis longa 

many, multl, -ae, -a, plur. of multus 

march, iter, itineris, n. (§ 468) 

Mark, Marcus, -1, m. 

marriage, matrimonium, matri- 
m5'ni, n. 

master, dominus, -T, m.; magister, 
-trl, m. 

matter, negotium, nego'ti, n. ; res, 
re!,/.' 

means, by means of, the abl. 

messenger, nuntius, nunti, m. 

midnight, media nox 

mile, mille passuum (§ 331. b) 

miles, milia passuum 

mind, animus, -i, m.\ mens, mentis,/". 

mine, meus, -a, -um 

mistress, domina, -ae,y. 

money, pecunia, -ae,/ 

monster, monstrum, -i, n. 

month, mensis, -is, m. 

moon, liina, -ae,/. 

more, plus, pluris (§313); or a com- 
parative 

most, plilrimus, -a, -um; superl. de- 
gree. Adverb, maxime ; plurimum 

mother, mater, matris,/ 

mountain, mons, mentis, m. 

move, moves, 2 

moved, commotus, -a, -um 

much (by), multo 

multitude, multitude, -inis,/ 

my, meus, -a, -um 

myself, me, reflexive. See self 



once 
W 
name, nomen, -inis, n. 
nation, gens, gentis,/ 
near, propinquus, -a, -um 
nearest, proximus, -a, -um 
nearly, fere 

neighbor, finitimus, -i, m. 
neighboring, finitimus, -a, -unj 
neither, neque ornec; neither . . . nor, 

neque (nee) . . . neque (nee) 
never, numquam 
nevertheless, tamen 
new, nevus, -a, -um 
next day, pestridie eius diei 
next to, proximus, -a, -um 
night, nox, noctis,/ 
nine, novem 
no, minime; or repeat verb with a 

negative (§ 210) 
no, none, niillus, -a, -um (§ 109) 
no one, nemo, niillius 
nor, neque or nee 
not, non 

not even, ne . . . quidem « 

not only . . . but also, non sSlum 

. . . sed etiam 
nothing, nihil or nihilum, -i, n. 
now, nunc 
number, numerus, -1, m. 



obey, pareo, 2, with dat. (§ 153) 

of, sign of gen.; de, with abl.; out of, 

e or ex, with abl. 
often, saepe 
on (of place), in, with abl.; (of time) 

abl. without prep. / 

on account of, propter, with ace; or 

abl. of cause 
on all sides, undique 
once (upon a time), olim 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY 



339 



one 
one, unus, -a, -um (§ io8) 
one . . . another, alius . . . alius 

(§110) 
only [adv.), s51um; tantum 
opportune, opportunus, -a, -um 
opposite, adversus, -a, -um 
oracle, 5raculum, -i, «. 
orator, orator, -oris, m. 
order, impero, i ; iubeo, 2 
ornament, 5rnamentum, -1, n. 
other, alius, -a, -ud (§ 109) 
others (the), reliqul, -orum, m. plur. 
ought, debeo, 2 
our, noster, -tra, -trum 
ourselves, n5s, as reflexive object. See 

self 
overcome, supers, i ; vinco, 3 
own (his, her, its, their), suus, -a, -um 



part, pars, partis,/. 

peace, pax, pacis,_/! 

people, populus, -T, m. 

Perseus, Perseus, -1, m. 

persuade, persuadeo, 2, with dat. 

(§153) 
pitch camp, castra pono 
place {noun), locus, -1, m. 
place, arrange, conloco, i 
place, put, pon5, 3 
place in command, praeficio, 3, with 

ace. and dat. {§ 426) 
plan (a), consilium, consi'll, n. 
please, placeo, 2, with dat. (§154) 
pleasing, gratus, -a, -um 
plow, aro, I 

Pompeii, Pompeii, -orum, m. plur. 
possible (as), expressed by quam and 

superl. 
powerful (be), valeo, 2 
praise, laudo, i 



rest 



prefer, malo, malle, malui, (§ 497) 

prepare for, paro, i, with ace. 

press hard, premo, 3 

protection, fides, fidei, / 

province, provincia, -ae,y. 

public, piiblicus, -a, -um 

Publius, Pi5blius, Publl, m. 

punishment, poena, -ae, /.; suppli- 
cium, suppli'ci, n. 

purpose, for the purpose of, ut, qui, 
or quo, with subjv.; ad, with ger- 
und or gerundive; causa, following 
the genitive of a geru7id or gerun- 
dive 

pursue, Jnsequor, 3 



c[ueen, reglna, -ae,/ 

quickly, celeriter 

quite, expressed by the comp. degree 

R 

rampart, vallum, -1, n. 

rear, novissimum agmen 

reason, causa, -ae,/. 

receive, accipio, 3 ; excipio, 3 

recent, recens, -entis 

recently, nuper 

redoubt, castellum, -i, n. 

refuse, recuso, 1 

remain, maneo, 2 

remaining, reliquus, -a, -um 

reply, responded, 2 

report {noun), fama, -ae, /; riimor, 

-5ris, m. 
report {verb), adfero; defero; refero 

(§498) 
republic, res publica 
require, postulo, i 
resist, resisto, 3, with dat. (§ 154) 
rest (the), reliqul, -orum, m. plur. 



340 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY 
restrain 



restrain, contine5, 2 

retainer, cliens, -entis, m. 

retreat, pedem refero; terga verto 

return, redeo, 4; reverter, 3 

revolution, res novae 

Rhine, Rhenus, -!, m. 

right, dexter, -tra, -trum 

river, fiumen,-inis, n. ; fluvius, fluvl, m. 

road, via, -ae,y. 

Roman, Romanus, -a, -um 

Rome, Roma, -ae,/! 

row, ordo, -inis, m. 

rule, rego, 3 

rumor, fama, -ae,/. ; rumor, -oris, m. 

run, curro, 3 



sacrifice, sacrum, -1, n. 

safety, salus, -utis,_/; 

sail, navig5, i 

sailor, nauta, -ae, m. 

sake, for the sake of, causa, following 

a gen. 
same, idem, eadem, idem (§ 287) 
savages, barbari, -orum, m. phir. 
save, servo, i 
say, dico, 3 

school, ludus, -1, in.\ schola, -ae,y. 
scout, explo rater, -oris, m. 
sea, mare, -is, n. 
second, secundus, -a, -um 
see, video, z 
seek, peto, 3 

seem, videor, 2, passive of vide5 
seize, occupo, i ; rapid, 3 
self, ipse, -a, -um (§ 286); sui (§ 281) 
send, mitto, 3 
set fire to, incendS, 3 
set out, proficiscor, 3 
sev^n, septem 
Sextus, Sextus, -1, m. 



stand 
she, ea; haec; ista; ilia (§115); ornot 

expressed 
ship, navis, -is,y; (§ 243. i) 
short, brevis, -e 
shout, clamor, -oris, m. 
show, demonstro, i 
Sicily, Sicilia, -ae, / 
sick, aeger, -gra, -grum 
side, latus, -eris, n. 
siege, obsidiS, -onis,/. 
since, cum, with subjv. (§396); theabl, 

fl^^. (§381) 
sing, cano, 3; canto, i 
sister, soror, -Bris,/". 
sit, sedeo, 2 
size, magnitude, -inis,/". 
skillful, peritus, -a, -um 
slave, servus, -1, m. 
slavery, servitiis, -utis,/ 
slow, tardus, -a, -um 
small, parvus, -a, -um 
snatch, rapio, 3 
so, ita; sic; tam 
so great, tantus, -a, -um 
so that, ut ; so that not, ut non 
soldier, miles, -itis, m. 
some, often not expressed ; quis (qui), 

qua (quae), quid (qued); aliqui, ali- 

qua, aliqued 
some one, quis; aliquis (§ 487) 
some . . . others, alii . . . alii (§ no) 
something, quid; aliquid (§ 487) 
son, filius, fili, m. 
soon, mex 

space, spatium, spati, n. 
spear, pllum, -1, n. 
spirited, acer, acris, acre; alacer, 

alacris, alacre 
spring, fons, fontis, m. 
spur, calcar, -aris, n. 
stand, sto, i 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY 



341 



state 
state, civitas, -atis,/. 
station, conloco, i 
steadiness, constantia, -as,,/. 
stone, lapis, -idis, m. 
storm, oppugns, i 
story, fabula, -ae,/. 
street, via, -ae,/ 
strength, vis, (vis),/. 
strong, fortis, -e ; validus, -a, -um 
sturdy, validus, -a, -um 
such, talis, -e 
suddenly, subits 

suffer punishment, supplicium do 
sufBciently, satis 
suitable, idoneus, -a, -um 
summer, aestas, -atis,/. 
sun, sol, solis, m. 
supplies, commeatus, -us, m. 
surrender, trado, 3 
suspect, suspicor, i 
swift, celer, -eris, -ere ; velox, -5cis 
sword, gladius, gladi, m. 



take, capture, capio, 3 

take part in, intersum, -esse, -fui, 

-futurus, with dat. (§ 426) 
take possession of, occup5, 1 
tall, altus, -a, -um 
task, opus, operis, ». 
teach, doceo, 2 
teacher, magister, -tri, m. 
tear (noun), lacrima, -zs,f. 
tell, dico, 3 ; narro, i 
ten, decern 

terrified, perterritus, -a, -um 
terrify, perterreo, 2 
than, quam 
that {conj. after verbs of saying and the 

like), not expressed 
that (pron.), is; iste; ille 



tree 



that, in order that, in purpose clauses, 
ut; afterverbs of fearing, ne (§§ 349, 
366, 372) 

that not, lest, in purpose clauses, ne ; 
after verbs of fearing, ut (§§ 349, 
366, 372) 

the, not expressed 

VaxTiX, gen. plur. of \s\ reflexive, suus, 
-a, -um (§116) 

their own, suus, -a, -um (§116) 

then, at that time, turn 

then, in the next place, deinde, 
turn 

there, as expletive, not expressed 

there, in that place, ibi 

therefore, itaque 

they, ii ; hi ; isti ; illi ; or not expressed 

think, arbitror, i ; existimo, i ; puto, i 

third, tertius, -a, -um 

this, hie, haec, hoc; is, ea, id 

though, cum, with subjv. (§ 396) 

thousand, mille (§ 479) 

three, tres, tria (§ 479) 

through, per, with ace. 

thy, tuus, -a, -um 

time, tempus, -oris, n. 

to, sign of dat. ; ad, in, with ace. ; ex- 
pressing purpose, ut, qui, with subjv. ; 
ad, with gerund or gerundive 

to each other, inter, with ace. of a 
reflexive pron. 

to-day, hodie 

tooth, dens, dentis, m. 

top of, summus, -a, -um 

tower, turris, -is,/ (§ 243. 2) 

town, oppidum, -1, n. 

townsman, oppidanus, -I, m. 

trace, vestigium, vestl'gi, n. 

trader, mercator, -oris, m. 

train, exerceo, 2 

tree, arbor, -oris,/ 



342 



ENGLISH-LATIN 

tribe 
tribe, gens, gentis,/ 
troops, copiae, -sxvxa, f. plur. 
true, verus, -a, -um 
trumpet, tuba, -ae,/. 
try, Conor, i ; tempto, i 
twelve, duodecim 
two, duo, duae, duo (§ 479) 



under, sub, with ace. or abl. 
undertake, suscipi5, 3 
unharmed, incolumis, -e 
unless, nisi 
unlike, dissimilis, -e 
unwilling (be) , nolo, nolle, n51ul, 

(§ 497) 
up to, sub, tuith ace. 
US, n5s, aec.plur. of ego 



\exY , superl. degree; maxime; ipse, -a, 

-um (§285) 
victor, victor, -oris, m. 
victory, victoria, -ae,/ 
village, vicus, -1, m. 
violently, vehementer 
voice, vox, v5cis,yi 

W 

wage, ger5, 3 

wagon, carrus, -i, m. 

wall, mums, -1, m. 

want, inopia, -ae,/! 

war, bellum, -1, n. 

watch, vigilia, -ae,/. 

water, aqua, -ae,/ 

wave, fluctus, -us, m. 

way, iter, itineris, ». (§ 468) ; via, -ae,/ 

way, manner, modus, -T, m. 

we, nos, plur. of ego ; or not expressed 

wefe, infirmus, -a, -um 



VOCABULARY 

wonderful 
weapons, arma, -orum, n.plur.; tela, 

-5rum, n. plur. 
wear, gero, 3 
weary, defessus, -a, -um 
what, quis (qui), quae, quid (quod) 

(§ 483} 

when,ubi; cum (§ 396) ; often expressed 
by a participle 

where, ubi 

which, qui, quae, quod (§ 482); which 
of two, uter, utra, utrum (§ 108) 

while, expressed by a participle 

whither, quo 

who («/.), qui, quae (§ 482); (interrog.) 
quis (§ 483) 

whole, totus, -a, -um (§ 108) 

whose, cuius; quorum, quarum, quo- 
rum, gen. ofqal, quae, quod, rel.; or 
(/quis, quid, interrog. 

why, cur 

wicked, malus, -a, -um 

wide, latus, -a, -um 

width, latitiido, -inis,/ 

wild beast, fera, -ae,/ 

willing (be), volo, velle, volul, 

(§ 497) 
win (a victory), reporto, 1 
wind, ventus, -i, m. 
wine, vinum, -1, n. 
wing, cornu, -iis, n. 
winter, hiems, -emis,/ 
wisdom, consilium, consi'li, n. 
wish, cupio, 3 ; volo, velle, volui, 

(§ 497)) wish not, nol5, nolle, nolul, 

(§497) 

with, cum, with abl.; sometimes abl. 

alone 
withdraw, se recipere 
without, sine, with abl. 
woman, femina, -ae,/ ; mulier, -eris,/ 
wonderful, mirus, -a, -um 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY 



343 



word 
word, verbum, -i, «. 
work, labor, -oris, m. ; opus, -eris, «. 
worse, peior, peius, comp. of malus 
worst, pessimus, -a, -um, superl. of 

malus 
wound (noun), vulnus, -eris, n. 
wound [verb), vulnero, i 
wreath, cor5na, -ae,/. 
wretched, miser, -era, -erum 
wrong, iniiiria, -ae,/. 



your 

Y 

year, annus, -i, m. 

yes, certe ; ita ; vero ; or more usually 

repeat the verb (§ 210) 
yonder (that), ille, -a, -ud 
you, sing. tvi;plur. vos (§ 480) ; or not 

expressed 
your, sing, tuus, -a, -um ; plur. vester, 

-tra, -trum (§ 98. *) 



INDEX 



The numbers in all cases refer to sections. 



a-declension of nouns, 57, 461 
a-verbs, conjugation of, 488 
ablative case, 48, 50 

absolute, 381 

after a comparative, 309 

of accompaniment, 104 

of agent, 181 

of cause, 102 

of description, 444, 445 

of manner, 105 

of means or instrument, 103 

of measure of difference, 317 

of place from which, 179 

of place where, 265 

of separation, 180 

of specification, 398 

of time, 27 5 
accent, 14-16 

accompaniment, abl. of, 104 
accusative case, 33 

as subject of the infinitive, 214 

object, 37 

of duration and extent, 336 

of place to which, 263, 266 

predicate, 392 

with prepositions, 340 
adjectives, 54, 55 

agreement, 65 

comparison, regular, 301 ; by ad- 
verbs, 302; irregular, 307, 311, 

312,315 
declension of comparatives, 303 
of first and second declensions, 83, 

93. 469 
of third declension, 250-257, 471 
with the dative, 143 
adverbs, 319 

comparison, 320, 323 



formation, regular, 320, 321 ; irreg- 
ular, 322, 323 
agent, expressed by the abl. with S or 

ab, 181 
agreement 

of adjectives, 65, 215. « 

of appositives, 81 

of predicate nouns, 76 

of relative pronouns, 224 

of verbs, 28 
aliquis, 487 
alius, 108, no, 470 
alphabet, 1-3 
alter, 108, no 

antepenult, 9. 3 ; accent of, 1 5 
apposition, 80, 81 
article, not used in Latin, 22. a 

base, 58 

cardinal numerals, 327-329, 478 

case, 32. 2 

causal clauses with cum, 395, 396 

cause, expressed by the abl., 102 

characteristic, subjv. of, 389, 390 

compsirative, declension of, 303 

comparison 

abl. of, 309 

degrees of, 300 

of adjectives, 300-315; irregular, 

311-315. 473. 475 . 
of adverbs, regular, 320, 476 ; irreg- 

ular,-323, 477 
positive wanting, 315 
six adjectives in -lis, 307 
complementary infinitive, 215 
compound verbs, with the dative, 425, 
426 



344 



INDEX 



345 



concessive clauses with cum, 395, 

396 
conjugation stems, 184 
conjugations, the four regular, 126. 

488-491 ; irregular, 494-500 
consonants, 2 
copula, 21 

cum, conjunction, 395 
cum, preposition, 209 

dative case, 43 

of indirect object, 44, 45 

of purpose, or end for which, 437 

with adjectives, 143 

with compound verbs, 426 

with special verbs, 1 53 

dea, declension of, 67 

declension, 23, 32 

degree of difference, expressed by the 
abl., 317 

demonstrative adjectives and pronouns, 
112-115, 290-292, 481 

deponent verbs, 338, 339, 493 

descriptive ablative and genitive, 441- 

445 
descriptive relative clause, with the 

subjv., 389, 390 
deus, declension of, 468 
difference, measure of, 316, 317 
diphthongs, 6 
direct statements, 414 
distributive numerals, 327. 3, 334 
domi, locative, 267 
domus, declension of, 468 
duo, declension of, 479 
duration of time, expressed by the 

ace, 336 

e-declension of nouns, 272, 273, 467 
e-verbs, conjugation of, 489 
S-verbs, conjugation of, 490 
ego, declension of, 280, 480 
enclitics, 16 
eo, conjugation of, 499 
extent of space, expressed by the aec, 
336 



fearing, subjv. after verbs of, 370- 

372 
fero, conjugation of, 498 
fifth or e-declension, 272, 273, 467 
fnia, declension of, 67 
filius, declension of, 87-89 
finite verb, defined, 173 
fio, conjugation of, 500 
first conjugation, 488 
first or a-declension, 57, 461 
fourth conjugation, 491 
fourth or u-declension, 259, 260, 466 
from, how expressed, 178-181 
future participle, formation of, 374. c 
future perfect, formation of, active, 

187. 3 ; passive, 202 
future tense, formation of, 137, 156 

gender 

in English and in Latin, 6b 
in the first declension, 61 
in the second declension, 72 
in the third declension, 247 
in the fourth declension, 260 
in the fifth declension, 272 

general observations on declension, 74 

genitive case 

English equivalents of, 33 
of description, 443, 445 
of nouns in -ius and -ium, 87 
partitive, 331 
possessive, 38, 409 

gerund, a verbal noun, 402, 403 

gerundive, a verbal adjective, 404 ; 
with ad to express purpose, 407 

hie, declension and use of, 290, 291 
how to read Latin, 17 

i, consonant, 3 

i-stems of nouns, 231, 241-244 
i-verbs, conjugation of, 491 
idem, declension of, 287, 481 
iens, declension of, 472 
ille, declension and use of, 290-293, 
481 



346 



INDEX 



imperative, formation of i6i, 175; ir- 
regular, 161. 2 • in commands, i6i 
imperfect indicative, formation and use 

of, 133. 134, 165. I 
imperfect subjunctive, 354 
indefinite pronouns and adjectives, 296, 

297, 484-487 
independent clauses, 219 
indirect object, 44, 45 
indirect questions, 430-432 
indirect statements, 414-419 
infinitive 

as object, 213 
as subject, 216 
complementary, 215 
definition of, 173 
does not express purpose, 352 
formation of, 126, 174, 205, 206 
in indirect statements, 415-419 
used as in English, 213-216 
inflection, defined, 23 
instrument, abl. of, 100. b, 103 
intensive pronoun, ipse, declension and 

use of, 285, 286, 481 
interrogative pronouns and adjectives, 

225-227, 483 
intransitive verbs, defined, 20. a ; with 

the dative, 153 
io-verbs of the third conj., 492 
ipse, declension and use of, 285, 481 
irregular adjectives, 108 
irregular comparison, of adjectives, 307, 

311, 312 ; of adverbs, 323 
irregular nouns, 67, 246, 468 
irregular verbs, 494-500 
is, declension and use of, n 3-1 16 
iste, declension and use of, 290, 292, 

481 
iter, declension of, 468 

Latin word order, 68 
locative case, 267 

magis and maxime, comparison by, 302 
maid, conjugation of, 497 
mainer, abl. of, 105 



means, abl. of, 103 

measure of difference, abl. of,. 3 16, 317 

mille, declension of, 479 ; construction 

with, 331. li, ^ 
moods, defined, 121 

-ne, enclitic, in questions, 210 

ne, conj., that not, lest, with negative 
clauses of purpose, 350. II ; with 
verbs of fearing, 370 

nine irregular adjectives, 108-110 
■ nolo, conjugation of, 497 

nominative case, 35, 36 

nonne, in questions, 210 

nos, declension of, 280, 480 

nouns, 19. 2 

first declension, 57, 461 
second decIension,7 1-74, 87-92,462 
third declension, 230—247, 463-465 
fourth declension, 259, 260, 466 
fifth declension, 272, 273, 467 

num, in questions, 210 

number, 24 

numerals, 327-334, 478, 479 

o-declension of nouns, 71—74, 87-92, 

462 
object, 20 ; direct, 37 ; indirect, 44, 45 
order of words, 68 
ordinal numerals, 327. 2, 478 

participial stem, 201. 2 
participles, defined, 203 

agreement of, 204 

formation, of present, 374. b ; of 
perfect, 201 ; of future, 374. c, d 

of deponent verbs, 375 

tenses of, 376 

translated by a clause, 377 
partitive genitive, 330, 331 
passive voice, defined, 163 ; formation 

of, 164, 202 
penult, 9. 3 ; accent of, 1 5 
perfect indicative 

formation, in the active, 185, 186; 
in the passive, 20Z 



INDEX 



347 



meaning of, 190 

definite, 190 

indefinite, 190 

distinguished from the imperfect, 
190 
perfect infinitive, active, 195 ; passive, 

205 
perfect passive participle, 201 
perfect stem, 185 

perfect subjunctive, active, 361 ; pas- 
sive, 362 
person, 122 
personal endings, active, 122; passive, 

164 
personal pronouns, 280, 480 
place, where, whither, whence, 263-265; 
names of towns and donms and 
rus, 266-268 
pluperfect indicative, active, 187. 2 ; 

passive, 202 
pluperfect subjunctive, active, 361 ; 

passive, 363 
pliis, declension of, 313 
possessive pronouns, 97, 98 
possum, conjugation of, 495 
predicate, defined, 19 
predicate adjective, defined, 55 
predicate noun, 75, 76 
prepositions, with the abl., 209 ; with 

the ace, 340 
present indicative, 128, 130, 147 
present stem, 1 26. u 
present subjunctive, 344 
primary tenses, 356 
principal parts, 183 
pronouns 

classification of, 278 

defined, 19. 2. a 

demonstrative, 481 

indefinite, 297, 484-487 

intensive, 285, 286, 481 

interrogative, 483 

personal, 480 

possessive, 97, 98 

reflexive, 281 

relative, 220, 221 



pronunciation, 4-7 

prosum, conjugation of, 496 

purpose 

dative of, 436, 437 
expressed by the gerund or gerun- 
dive with ad, 407 
not expressed by the infinitive, 

352 
subjunctive of, 348-350, 365-367 

quality, gen. or abl. of, 441-445 

quam, with a comparative, 308 

quantity, 11-13 

questions, direct, 2 1 o ; indirect, 430—432 

qui, declension and use of, 220,221, 482 

quidam, declension of, 485 

quis, declension and use of, 225-227, 

483 
quisquam, declension of, 486 
quisque, declension of, 484 

reflexive pronouns, 281 

relative clauses of characteristic or 

description, 389, 390 
relative clauses of purpose, 348, 349 
relative pronouns, 220, 221 
result clauses, 384-387 
reviews, 502-528 
riis, constructions of, 266 

se, distinguished from ipse, 285. a 

second conjugation, 489 

second or o-declension, 71-93, 462 

sentences, simple, complex, compound, 
219 

separation, abl. of, 180 

separative ablative, 178-181 

sequence of tenses, 356-358 

space, extent of, expressed by the 
ace, 336 

specification, abl. of, 398 

stems, of nouns, 230; of verbs, 184 

subject, defined, 19. 2 ; of the infini- 
tive, 213, 214 

subjunctive, formation 
of the present, 344 



348 



INDEX 



of the imperfect, 354 
of the perfect, 361, 362 
of the pluperfect, 361. c, 363 
subjunctive constructions 

characteristic or description, 389, 

390 
indirect questions, 430-432 
purpose, 349, 366, 372 
result, 385, 386 
time, cause, or concession, with mm, 

395' 396 
subjunctive ideas, 346 
subjunctive tenses, 342, 343 
subordinate clauses, 219 
sui, declension of, 281, 480 
sum, conjugation of, 494 
suus, use of, 98. c, 116 
syllables, 8 ; division of, 9 ; quantity 

of, 13 
syntax, rules of, 501 

temporal clauses with cum, 395, 396 
tense, defined, 120 
tense signs 

imperfect, 133 

future, 137, 156 

pluperfect active, 187. 2 

future perfect active, 187. 3 
tenses, primary and secondary, 356; 

sequence of, 357, 358 
third conjugation, 490, 492 
third declension of nouns 

classes, 231, 463 

consonant stems, 232-238, 464 

gender, 247 



i-stems, 241-244, 465 

irregular nouns, 246 
time, abl. of, 275 
time, ace. of, 336 

towns, rules for names of, 266, 267, 268 
transitive verb, 20. a 
tres, declension of, 479 
tu, declension of, 280, 480 
tuus, compared with vester, 98. b 

u-declension of nouns, 259, 260, 466 
ultima, 9. 3 

verbs 

agreement of, 28 

conjugation of, 126, 488-491 

deponent, 338, 339, 493 

irregular, 494-500 

personal endings of, 122, 164 

principal parts of, 183 
vester, compared with tuus, 98. b 
vis, declension of, 468 
vocabularies 
- English-Latin, pp. 332-343 

Latin-English, pp. 299—331 

special, pp. 283-298 
vocative case, 56. a 

of nouns in -us of the second de- 
clension, 73. i . * 

of proper nouns in -ius and of 
filius, 88 
voice, defined, 163 
V0I6, conjugation of, 497 
vos, declension of, 280, 480 
vowels, sounds of, 5, 6 ; quantity of, 12